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FROM 1900 TO 1935 


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subject is to he fomid in the Index and Direq- 
TORY at the etid of the hook^ 

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''Since the publication of the Handbook to India, in four volumes, 
time and events have effected great changes, not only in the 
country itself, but also in the facilities for reaching it from all parts 
of the world, and for travelling throughout the peninsula. The 
public, moreover, are yearly becoming better aware of the glorious 
field which in India is opened up for the enjoyment of travel and 
sport, and of the inexhaustible opportunities afforded them for the 
study of an engrossing history, an interesting nationality, and an un- 
rivalled art, as displayed not only in architectural monuments, but 
also in native industries and handicrafts. On this account, and in 
consequence of the yearly increasing tide of travellers setting towards 
India, the publisher has found it necessary to arrange his guide in an 
entirely new form. It has been to a great extent rewritten, thoroughly 
revised, and condensed into one handy volume. . . . 

" The accounts of most places described in this book have been revise 
on the spot, and in this revision the publisher has received much kind 
assistance from civil servants and others resident in different parts of 
India. He takes this opportunity of tendering to them his grateful 
thanks, as also to the following persons who have assisted him in 
various parts of the book : Dr. Burgess, Dr. Bradshaw, LL.D., Mr. H. 
Beauchamp, Major F. Spratt, RJL, Mr. R. Clarke, B.C.S., Mr. J. 
Westlake, Mr. G. Marsden, Mr. E. A. Smith, Mr. OttewiU ; particularly 
to the Hon. Sir Arthur Gbrdon, G.C.M.G., who, with exception of the 
description of Colombo and the first route, has written the whole 
of the account of Ceylon from his own personal knowledge and wide 
experience of that country ; and finally to Professor Forrest, Keeper 
of the Records in Calcutta, through whose hands the whole of the 
proofe of * India ' have passed." 

Navemher 1892. 

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The pnblisher desires to express his sincere thanks to the following 
gentlemen, from whom he has received very valuable assistance in the 
preparation of this Edition : Mr. H. Beauchamp, Mr. B. E. Acklom, 
Mr. G. Marsden, Sui^. Lient.-Col. Jonbert^ Mr. Playford Reynolds, 
and Mr. Basil Lang ; to Lord Stanmore, who has revised his account 
of Ceylon ; and finally to Mr. Norwood Young for the trouble he has 
taken as Editor in the revision of the present Edition. 

Besides a thorough general revision, this Edition has much addi- 
tional information in the Introduction as to the people of India. 
Short accounts are given of the Mohammedan, Hindu, and Buddhist 
religions, supplemented hj illustrations of Buddha and the chief 
Hindu ^ods ; Indian architecture, arts, and irrigation are described ; 
and a snort precis given of the chief events of the Mutiny, with a 
map showing the (Sstribution of British and Native troops in May 
18a7. But tor the faulty situation of the British troops, tne Mutiny 
would never have become serious ; yet in no previous account has a 
map been issued to illustrate this vital point. The chronology has 
been entirely rewritten ; and maps of rainfall, temperature, and land 
products have been added. 

The spelling of Indian names is in a state of confusion which calls 
loudly for reform. The official spelling suggests a false pronuncia- 
tion, and has been rejected by the public. The railway companies, 
from whom much was hoped, refuse to accept each other's spellings, 
and do not adhere to one, two, or even three separate spelling of me 
names of their own stations. There are only three towns in India 
with a fixed spelling — Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. Oodeypore, 
officially Udaipur, has seventy-two variations. In this Handbook the 
most usual spelling is aimed at. 

The pubfisher, aware that it is impossible to ensure perfection in 
any guide-book, however carefully prepared, hopes that where in- 
accuracies are found the indulgent tourist will kindly point them out 
to him, with a view to their correction on the first opportunity. Any 
such acceptable communications may be addressed to Mr. Murray, 
50 Albemarle Street^ London, W. 


This Edition is practically a reprint of the third Edition, the only 
alterations being such corrections and additions as were necessary to 
bring it quite up to date. The publisher desires to thank Dr. James 
Burgess, of Edinburgh, for the valuable assistance he has given in this 

Jtmuary 1901. 

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List op Routes through India, Burma, and Ceylon . . viii-x 

List of Maps aio) Plans .... 


Some Circular Tours 


Introduotoey Inpormation— 

EnglislL Language 


Travelling Servants 


Railways . 


Season for Visit to India 


Expenses . 


Clothing . 


Bedding .... 


Hotels . 


Dak Bungalows (India) . 


Rest- Houses (Ceylon) 






Hints for Camping 




Preservation of Ancient Monuments 


Voyage from England to Bombay 


People of India — Mohammedans 






Sikhs .... 




Architecture ..... 


Arts ... 


Irrigation .... 


The Mutiny of 1857 


Remarkable Events connecting India with Euro 



Some Native Terms 


A few Hindu Words . . . 


Indian Coinage .... 


Abbreviations used in this book . 


Ikdkx and Directory 


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Tour H— BOMBA.V and back, 

via Caucxjt, Madura, 

Madras, etc. 

Bombay End of Rte. 1. 

Steamer to 

Calicut (Rail) . R 

tc. 28. 

Brode . . . 

, 30. 

Madura . . 

, 81. 


, 31. 


, 81. 

Chiugleput . 

. 81. 

Madras . . 

, 22. 

Poona . 

, 22. 





Tour I— Bombay and back, 


Benares, Delhi, Baroda, 

Bombay to Delhi, as in Tour A. 
Delhi to Bombay, „ „ E. 

29 days.l 

Tour K— Colombo to Bombay. 

Colombo Rte. 33. 

Steamer to 
Tuticorin (Rail) „ 28. 

Madura (Rte. 31) to Bombay, 

as in Tour H. 
Bombay to Calcutta and Delhi , 

as in Tour A. 
Delhi to Bombay, as in Tour B. 

45 days. I 


Tour L— CoxiOMao to Bombay, 
via Calicut, Madras, Cal- 


Colombo to Madura, as in 

Madura to Madras, as in Tour 

Madras to Calcutta (Daijeel- 

ing, Rte. 20), as in Tour E. 
Calcutta to Delhi,as in Tour E. 
Alwar . . Rte. 6. 

Agra to Bombay (reversed), as 

m Tour A. 

49 days.i 

Tour M— Colombo to Bom- 
bay, via Calicut, Madras, 
Bombay, Allahabad, Ben- 
ares, Delhi, Baroda. 

Colombo to Calicut, as in Tour 

Calicut to Bombay, as in Tour 

Bombay to Delhi, as in Tour 

Delhi to Bombay as in Tour 

48 days.! 

Tour N— Colombo to Bombay, 
via Calicut, Madras, Bom- 
bay, Karachi, Lahore. 
Calodti'a, Allahabad, and 

Colombo to Bombay, as in 
Tour H. 

Bombay to Karachi/ N ( 
Tour a. .•-vJi ^ 

Karachi to Calcutt»(rr-xiS- 
as in Tour A. 

Calcutta to Bombaj^ 
Tour A. 

58 days. 

Detour to Hyderabt ^ 

can), Rte. 25, can bei 

Tours C.D.B.P.H.F 
Detour to _ 

Mysore, Rte. 29,^^ 

joined to Tours CD! 

K.L.M.N. ^ 

Detour to the Nilgir . 

30, can be joined * 

Detour to Laliore, 

can be joined to 


Detour to Quetta (fie 

dahar), Rte. 15, can b 

to Tours A.B. G.N. 
Detour to Peshaww 

18, can be joined U 

Detour to Gkiya, Rta,A ^t o ;; 

be joined to Tours . 

E.I.K.L.M. I 

Detour to Gwallor, i | 

can be joined to Tott 

Detour to Bljapur, ^ ' 

can be joined to Tou I 

B.F.H.K.L.M.N. ^^ 
Detour to Assam an» 

mahputra River, Bit 

and 20b. 

^ These figures represent the shortest limit of days given by Messrs. T. Cook & i 
performing the journey 


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English Languagb 

A TRIP to India is no longer a formidable journey or one that 
requires very special preparation. English is spoken in all the hotels 
(but not in the dak bungalows) ; and European shops have good 
.utides for all ordinary requirements, with attendants who speak 

Travelling Servants 

A good travelling servant, a native who can speak English, is indis- 
pensable, but should on no account be engaged without a good personal 
character or the recommendation of a trustworthy agent. Such a 
servant is necessary not only to wait on his master at hotels, dak 
bungalows, and even in private houses, where without him he would 
be but poorly served ; but in a hundred different ways when travelling 
by rail or otherwise, and as an interpreter and go-between when dealing 
with natives. Having ascertained beforehand from his agent the fair 
wages which his servant ought to be paid, the master should take care 
to come to some definite arrangement with him before engaging him. 
It is advisable to have an agreement in writing. If the servant 
proves satisfactory, it is the custom to make him a small present before 
parting with him. The same remarks apply to a lady's ayah. Madras 
ayahs though expensive are considered the best II' the traveller has 
friends " up country," it is well to write beforehand and ask them to 
engage a servant for him, and to send him to meet his master at the 
port of arrival. " Up-country " servants are often cheaper and more 
reliable than those to be met with on the coast. 


In Bombay, the Indian A.B.G, Guide and the Indicm Railwa/y 
Travellers' Guide, and in Calcutta, Newman's Indicm BradshaWy give 
BiapB, the railway routes for all India, and steamer routea For rail- 
way purposes the hours are counted up to 24, as in Italy * thus 20.12 

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is 8.12 P.M., and so on. Eailway time tlirougliout India is Madras i 
time. The difference is as follows : — 

Karachi time is 52 min. behind railway time 


, 36 


1 23 ,, ,, 


1 13 M |« 


, 10 

, 7 min. before railway time. 


> 33 ,, „ 


» 46 „ „ 

At most of the larger towns there are several stations. The traveller 
should not, as a rule, book for the "city," but the "cantonment" 
station. Before booking he should note what station is mentioned in 
the Handbook. The Eailway Companies in India do much for the 
comfort of travellers. Every 1st and 2nd class compartment is pro- 
vided with a lavatory, and the seats, which are unusually deep, are so 
arranged as to form couches at night, but are not furnished with 
bedding or pillows. There are refreshment rooms at frequent 
intervals, and some of them are very well managed and supplied ; 
but when travellers intend to make use of them for dinner or 
otherwise they should signify their intention to the guard of the 
train beforehand and he will telegraph (free of charge) to have 
everything in readiness at the station indicated on the arrival 
of the train. The Station-masters are particularly civil and obliging, 
and, as a rule, are most useful to travellers in providing ponies, 
conveyances, or accommodation at out-of-the-way stations if notice 
is given them beforehand ; they will also receive letters addressed 
to their care, — this is often a convenience to travellers. One 
drawback to travelling in India is that baggage is occasionally 
transhipped from one train to another — e.g, at a junction or from an 
express to a slow train — in which case a traveller may arrive at his 
destination and find that his luggage wiU not reach him for some 
hours. Every inquiry, therefore, should be made beforehand as tc 
the stations where luggage is likely to be transhipped, and the 
traveller should make a point of ascertaining that it is deposited in 
the same train with him. At every station carriages of some sort 
await the arrival of the trains. 

Season for Visit to India 

The season for a pleasant visit to the plains of India lies between 
16th November and 10th March, but in the Punjab these dates may 
be slightly extended ; then, however, the heat will be found trying 
at the ports of arrival and departure. October and April are as trying 
months as any in the year, much more so than July, August, and 
September, when rain cools the atmosphere. 

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Intfod, IBXPSNSIBS — OLOTHma xvii 


Owing to the depreciation of the rupee, the traveller whose finances 
are npoii a gold basis will find India a cheap country. The hotels 
charge 5 to 7 rupees a day for board and lodging. As walking in 
the heat of the day is better avoided, even in the cold weather, 
carriages have to be used in order to visit the various objects of 
interest The charge for a day varies from 6 to 10 rupees according 
to the locality, and the number of horses required. In a hotel a 
small gratuity may be given to the water-carrier (" bhisti "). Guests 
at private houses generally fee the chief attendants. The railway 
changes are moderate. The traveller starting on a journey does well to 
provide himself with a sufficiency of small change. 


Not very long ago it was thought essential to have a special outfit 
prepared for a journey to India. This is scarcely the case now. 

For the Voyage a few warm clothes for the northern part 
and thin ones for the Eed Sea and Arabian Sea are required. As 
regards the lighter clothes, a man will find it convenient to have a 
very thin suit of cloth or grey flannel for day, and a thin black coat 
for dinner. It is not necessary to dress for dinner on board ship. 

A lady cannot do better than provide herself with thin skirts of 
tussore-silk or some such materisd, and thin flannel or silk shirts. 
Shoes with indisrrubber soles are the best for the deck, as they afford 
good foothold when the vessel is unsteady. 

On Baggage-days, which occur once a week, boxes marked wanted on 
voyage may be brought up from the hold, and suitable clothes taken 
out or stowed away according to the temperature and weather. 

For a winter tour in the plains of India, a traveller requires 
similar clothing to that which he would wear in the spring or autumn 
in England, but in addition he must take very warm winter wraps. 
A man should have a light overcoat in which he can ride, and a warm 
long ukter for night travelling or in the early morning. A lady, be- 
sides a jacket and shawl, should have a very thin dust-cloak, and a loose 
warm doak to wear in a long drive before the sun rises, or to sleep 
in at night when roughing it. Tourists should remember that the 
evening dews are so heavy as to absolutely wet the outer garment, the 
nights and mornings are quite cold, and yet the middle of the day is 
always warm, sometimes very hot, so that the secret of dressing is to 
begin the day in things that can be thrown off as the heat increasea 

In Bombay and Calcutta, and, in fact, all along the coast and 
ia the south of the peninsula, much thinner clothing is required. 
Cool linen suits for men, and very thin dresses for ladies, also Khakee 
riding and shooting-suits, can be got cheaper and better in India than 
iM. Ingland, and a native tailor will make a very satisfactory suit 


from an Englisli pattern. Linen and underclotliing for at leai^ 
weeks should be taken, — with less the traveller on arrival i 
inconvenienced, or even detained until his board -ship clotl 
washed, The Indian washermen, though not as bad as they ^ 
be, destroy things rather rapidly. Winter clothing will be ne 
if it is intended to visit the hill -stations. Flannel or -^ 
underclothing and sleeping garments and a flannel " Kumniurj 
(a strip of flannel 3 yds. long and 1 ft. wide worn round the A 
to be worn at any rate at night, are strongly reconmiended. ^ 

The hospitality of India involves a considerable amount of ? 
out, and therefore a lady, unless she intends to eschew society, ^: 
be provided with several evening dresses. Riding-breeches or t^ 
for men, and riding-habits for ladies should not be forgotten. 

A good sun-hat is an essential The Terai hat (two soft fel 
fitting one over the other) might suffice for the coolest mont^ 
even in cold weather the midday sun in India is dangerous, aif 
therefore advisable to wear a cork or pith helmet, which is lighd 
better ventilated, and affords better protection from the sun tl 
Terai, and is indispensable in real hot weather. Many London , 
have a large choice of sun-hats and helmets for ladies as well 
The Sola or pith hats are very light, but brittle and soon spoilt b^ 
they can be bought in India very cheaply. A thick white 
the umbrella is also a necessary, especially for a lady, and a str 
for the cool hours of the morning and evening will be found ; 

Travellers in Ceylon will seldom require any but the thin 
clothing, except in the mountains, where the temperature hLS. 
proportionately cooler as he ascends. At Kandy a light overcoi^ 
at Nuwara Eliya warm wraps and underclothing, are necessary. ^ 

Bedding i^| 

Every traveller who contemplates a tour must on arrival in ^^ 
provide himself with some bedding, which he should take wit||j 
everywhere, even when on a visit to friends, and should have ife|l| 
at hand on a railway journey. Except at the best hotels,^) 
is either no bedding at all or there is the chance of its V^ 
dirty. The minimum equipment is a pillow and two cotton i»^ J* 
quilts (Razais\ one to sleep on, the other as a coverlet ; or aL|^ 
rami and a couple of warm blankets. The ready-made oni^ 
usually very thin, but they can be got to order of any thid V 
To these should be added a pillow case, cheap calico sheets, $f\":^^ 
blanket A waterproof cover to wrap the bedding in muA 1 1 
be omitted, with a pocket to contain pyjamas, etc., or thf jN 
time the bedding is carried any distance by a cooly or packl ^ 
a pony it may be very much dirtied A waterproof sheet is ill 

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valuable addition to th(e bedding, but cannot be called an absolute 
necessity for a short tour. Without such a modest supply of covering 
as is here indicated, a traveller may at any time have to spend a night 
shiyering in the cold, which would probably result in an attack of 
ague. An india-rubber hot-water bottle takes up very little room, 
and will often be found very handy. Some persons carry their own 
camp-bed, which they can rely upon being always clean. 


He who expects to find good hotels in India, up to the European 
standard of excellence, will be disappointed. Owing to the fact that 
the nominal proprietor is often a tenant for a short term, the character 
of a hotel may change very suddenly. At all the chief towns large 
aiiy rooms can be procured, but the traveller will not be properly 
waited upon tmless he brings a servant of his own with him. He 
should give notice beforehand of his intended arrival, as the hotels 
are often crowded in the tourist season. Most of the clubs admit 
reconmiended visitors as honorary members. A club which has sleep- 
ing accommodation is far more comfortable than a hotel 

Dak Bungalows 

With regard to dak bungalows (travellers' rest-houses established 
by Qovemment), it is advisable to make some inquiries beforehand 
as to their accommodation. In some cases the keeper in chaige 
has facilities for procuring food, in others the traveller has to bring 
provisions with him, and in some D.Bs. there are neither servants 
nor provisions. The rooms have an adjoining bathroom, and are 
usually famished with bedstead, wash-stand, table and chairs, and 
crockery and lights are supplied. They cannot be retained beforehand 
— the first comer has the preference. After occupying a D.B. for 
twenty-four hours the traveller must give place, if necessary, to the 
next comer. 


The Rest-House of Ceylon is ni^re like an hotel than the Dak 
Bungalow in India, in that it is more frequently furnished with 
bed^g and linen, and food is generally provided. 


As a rule, the food in India is not good. The meat, with ex- 
ception of bullock hump, is lean and tough, and the fowls are 
skinny and smalL Bread is fairly good; but milk is dangerous. 
Aerated water should be preferred to plain water, unless the 
latter has passed through a filter of the best pattern, which has 
ten kept thoroughly dean. If this cannot be ensured the water 

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xi Bifota^ — kmrs v6ik oJdivis^s tniin 

should be boikd. Water £tom a public filter should not be touched. 
If the traveller leaves the beaten track he must have a Tiffin-basket, 
which should contain knives and forks and other simple fittings, and 
should always be kept furnished with potted meats, biscuits, some 
good spirit, and soda-water, which is good and cheap in India ; added 
to this an Etna will be found a great convenience. 


Although no regular attempt is here made to give advice to sports- 
men, a few sporting localities have been incidentally indicated in the 
routes. The equipment for these amusements varies from day to day, 
and each man must best know his own wants. Large-game shooting is 
very expensive and takes time ; moreover, it should not be attempted 
except in company with a good shikari and with the assistance of 
persons of local importance. Otherwise it would probably involve 
a mere waste of time and useless trial of patience. 

Small -game shooting, wild -fowl, etc., with an occasional shot at 
an antelope, is an easier matter, and will afford excellent sport It 
can be got from Nov. till Feb., often at very small cost, by spending a 
night or two at some wayside railway station or near some, remote 
ruined city. Near cantonments the ground is always too much shot 
over to afford good sport. Firearms are subject to a heavy duty when 
brought into the country. 

Hints for Camping 

Travellers who intend to leave the beaten track for the purpose 
of visiting remote or ruined cities, or with the intention of shooting, 
should take a small tent or two with them. A good servant will be 
able to help his master in many details of camp requirements. Trans- 
port, in the shape of camels, carts, baggage-ponies, or bearers, can be 
got in any station, and in the larger places riding ponies and carts for 
hire can be obtained. 

Simple requirements for camp consist in — Tent (Cabul tent, 80 lbs. 
complete) for self, and, if cold, tent for servants. Camp-bed with 
solid side poles {i.e. not in pieces as in the home-made camp-beds), 
table, and chair. Bath (india-rubber flat bath) and a board to stand 
on ; otherwise tubbing can be done by means of native pots of water 
poured over head. Fresh native pots can be obtained at any village ; 
the old ones left behind on moving camp. A tent (" kanaut '*) to use 
as a bath-room. A few iron tent-pegs (and wooden ones for soft 
ground), a mallet Carpet for tent. Washing basin (" chilumchee ") 
and stand. Hooks to strap on tent-pole to hang clothes on, etc 
Cooking-pots (" degchi '*) ; a fry-pan. A few knives, forks, and spoons, 
a few iron plates, cup and saucer, mustard, pepper, and salt pots, an 
iron dish or two. A second tent (small) is jdways useful to cook in, if 

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nining. Servants required in camp are — a boy to wait, a cook, a 
irater- carrier (" bliisti '*), grooms for horses, and camel or cart men. 
All food for self, except milk and fresh meat, must be taken from 
station. Food for servants, milk and meat (goat or sheep), can be got 
in any but the poorest villages. For clothes take blankets, sheets 
(luxury), etc. Aii Indian shooting suit. Rough boots and gaiters. 
Jerseys. A few shirts, pyjamas, handkerchiefs. A light flannel suit 
or two and slippers for camp. One good sun-hat for shooting in, a 
second sun-hat and a cap for camp wear. Take soap, towels, sponge, 
shaving-glass, mosquito-net and sticks for it, in case of mosquitoes 
giving much trouble at night (If ladies are in the party, more 
servants, tents, food, and luxuries will probably be required.) 

Kemember to have all boxes and carpet shifted every, morning if 
white ants are about 

For arms — rthe plainer the better — 1 central fire D.B. hammer 
12-bore gun; 1 C.F.IXB. express rifle, 500 bore ; 12 -bore cartridges, 
empty, Curtis and Harvey's No. 6 powder can be got in any ordinary 
station. Shot should be got at Bombay, as up-country it is generally 

For medicine, plenty of quinine in 2 or 4 grain " tabloids " or pills 
(to be taken before or after food whenever a chill is felt), 1 bottle 
chlorodyne, 2 boxes of Cockle's pills. If not used by oneself, they 
are useful to give to siervants or villagers. 


' I%e Rise and Expansion of the British Dominion in Indiay by Sir 
Alfred tiyall (John Murray), and A Brief History of the Indian Peoples, 
by Sir W. W. Hunter (Clarendon Press), are small, handy volumes 
whicli every traveller should possess. The following are also recom- 
mended : — The Indian Empire, by Sir W. W. Hunter (Triibner & Co.) ; 
History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, by James Fergusson (John 
Murray) ; A Glossary of Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, by Sir Henry 
Yule and Arthur C. BumeU (John Murray) ; The Coiwersion of India, 
by Dr. George Smith (John Murray) ; Asiatic Studies, by Sir Alfred 
LyaQ ; Industrial Art$ of India, by Sir George Birdwood (Chapman) ; 
A Start History of India, by Talboys Wheeler ; A History of the Indian 
Mniiny, by Holmes ; Ancient and Medicevcd India, by Mrs. Manning ; 
Indian Wisdom, by Sir Monier Williamfl ; Sdta, Tara, Tippoo Sultaun, 
Mid A J^ohle Qae&n, by Meadows Taylor; Bemier's Travels, 1656-1668 
(Constable's Oriental Miscellany, vol. i) ; and a simple guide to the 
hagoBgey How to Speak Hindustani, by £. Bogers, Is. (Allen & Co.) 

Modem writers on Cashmere are Walter Lawrence, Dr. W. T. 
ghmJift j Captain Bates, Dr. T. Ince, and Mr. Drew. Boute maps 
hsvo been published by Mr. John Collett and Captain Montgomerie. 

^i^Ti^^Tig visitors to Ceylon are strongly recommended to study 



the account of that island by Sir J. Emerson Tennent, K.C.S., ^O^lJ 
2 vols., 8vo (Longman), 1859. It has never yet been sup 7^^ 
Sir Monier Williams's Buddhism^ 1 voL, Bvo (Murray), 1889. |„J^ , 

Army and Civil Lists and a useful Postal guide are to be f 
all Clubs. For books on Burma, see p. 418. ?>^ 

The Pbesebvation of Ancient Monuments 

The striking architectural monuments of India — Hindu, 
and Mohammedan — ^must largely attract the attention of the 
and the means, or rather want of means, taken for their presi 
must be a subject of frequent remark. Partly under outside 
GU>vemment has made various attempts at conservation, bi 
carried out through the engineering staff of the Public Works 
ment, — ^the officers of which have not necessarily any intimate km 
of architecture, — their work has too frequently been seriously ii 
to the monuments to be repaired. Lamentable examples 
mischievous policy are numerous. What has been wantec 
guidance of the trained architect who would strictly confine 
the work of preservaHon and eschew everything of the nature ( 
ation, which some engineers have been too fond ot Were tl 
in connection with the Archaeological Survey, the monuments 
might be rationally conserved at a minimum of outlay. The 
ment of India carried on for many years an Archseological Sui 
gether dissociated from any conservation of the architectural moi 
with which it concerned itself little, if at all, but rather 
identification of ancient sites, coins, dates, and relics of long- 
times, interesting chiefly to the savant. A few years ago 
in this respect was attempted, and a careful survey of the mom 
remains at Jaunpur, Badaun, Fatehpur-Sikri, etc., was begun 
surveys were again reduced in 1889, and only one architecturq 
ant and a few native draughtsmen were retained in Upper Indi&j 
this department officered by competent architects in the Punjab, 
and Bajputana, who could authoritatively advise Qovemn 
questions of conservation, the safety of the monuments w 
insured, as well as the survey. In Southern and Western Ind| 
except Bijapur, which seems to have been wholly handed ovei 
P. W. engineer, the monuments have generally been treat« 
consideration, but many have been too much neglected. 

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The comfort of the voyage depends much on the choice of the ship, 
and the cabin. ^ The largest ships, as having less motion and more 
room on deck, are usually preferable to smaller ones. The cabin 
should be a3 near the centre of the ship as possible. In going through 
the Red Sea to India the cabins on the port side are the best, as they 
do not get heated by the afternoon sun. On the return voyage the 
cabins on the starboard side are better, but the difference is not material. 
On going on board it is well to secure a seat at table at once, as 
after the first day at sea, when seats have been arranged, it is difficult 
to make a change ; the seats are usually allotted by the chief steward. 

It is usual to give at least 10s. as a fee to the cabin steward, and 10s. 
to the one who waits on you at table. The doctor also is fee'd by those 
who put themselves under his care. Going by sea from England, through 
the Bay of Biscay, the saving in point of money, as compared with the 
expense of the overland route across the Continent of Europe, is about 
£l6. It involves much less trouble, and little or no risk of losing 
baggage. The first place sighted is generally Cape La Hague, or 
HofiTue, on the E. coast of Cotentin in France, off which, on the 19th 
of May 1692 Admiral Russell, afterwards Earl of Oxford, defeated De 
Tourville, and sunk or burned 16 French men-of-war. Then Cape 
Finisterre (finis terrce), a promontory on the W. coast of Galicia in 
Spain, and in N. lat. 42" 54', and W. long. 9** 20', will probably be 
seen, off which Anson defeated the French fleet in 1747. The next 
land sighted will be, perhaps, Cape Boo€^ near Lisbon, and then 
Cape St. Vincent in N. lat 37' 3', W. long. 8°59', at the S.W. comer 
of the Portuguese province Algarve, off which Sir G. Rodney, on the 
16th January 1780 defeated the Spanish fleet, and Sir J. Jervis won 
his earldom on the 14th of February 1797, and Nelson the Order 
of the Bath, after taking the S, Josef &nd the S. Nicholas of 112 guns 
each. This cape has a fort upon it, and the white cliffs, 150 feet 
high, are honeycombed by the waves, which break with great violence 
upon them. From the last three capes steamers are signalled to 
Lloyd's. Just before entering the Straits of Gibraltar, Cape Trafalfirar 
will also probably be seen in N. lat 36° 9', W. long. 6' 1', immortalised 
by Nelson's victory of the 21st of October 1 805. Ghibraltar comes next 
in sight. The following table of distances is taken from the pocket-book 
published by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. 
This little book, costing only 2s., can be highly recommended. 

* Apply to Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son, either at Ludgate Circus, Charing 
Qroga, or S5 Piccadilly. ^ t 

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Table of Distances between the various Ports according to the Routes taken by 
Steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Compant 

1 Calling at Madras. s Omitting Madras. 

QiBBALTAR. — As the steamers never stop for more than a few 
hours, passengers rarely find time for anything beyond a walk in the 
town and lower fortifications. This is a good place to buy tobacco^ 
as there is no duty and it is cheap. There are steamers from Gibraltar 
two or three times a week to Tangier. 

Gibraltar was reckoned as one of the Pillars of Hercules, the other 
being Abyla, now Apes' Hill. Gibraltar was taken from the Spaniards 
in 711 A.D. by Tarik ibn Zayad, from whom it was called Jabal al 
Tarik = Gibraltar ; and it was retaken 1309 ; and not finally wrested 
from the Moors till 1603. In 1704 it was taken by the English, and 
sustained many sieges by French and Spaniards between 1704 and 1779. 
In the latter year commenced the memorable siege which lasted 4 
years, and ended by the repulse of the combined fleets of France and 

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Spain by the garrison under General Elliott. Since that time it has 
remain^ an uncontested possession of the EnglisL 

The Rock of Qibraltar first comes in sight at the distance of about 
10 m. Bounding Point Camero, and breasting Europa Point, the 
spacious but exposed bay 6 m. wide and 10 m. deep is entered. The 
defensive strength of the place is not at once perceptible. Two tiers of 
batteries are concealed in galleries hewn out of the rock half-way up, 
or lie so near to the sea-line that they are hidden by the vessels moored 
around. Gibraltar is a vast rocky promontory, which on the N. side 
nses in a perpendicular precipice 1200 ft high, and ascends in the 
centre to 1408 ft It is 3 m. in length, and from ^ m. to ^ m. in breadth. 
It is joined to the mainland by a low sandy istlunus, l| m. in length. 
On all sides but the W. it is steep and rugged, but on that side there 
is a general slope from 200 to 300 ft from the rock down to the sea. 
On this side the eye catches three high points : N. is the Bock Q-un, 
or Wolf's Oracr, 1 337 ft ; in the centre the Upper Si^rnal Station, 
or SI Saoho, 1255 ft high ; and S. is O'Hara's Towar, 1408 ft 
Here the rock descends to Windmill Hill flats, a level plateau | 
m. long, which ends in a still lower plateau &om 100 to 50 ft above 
the sea, called Europa Flats. The new mole, landing-place, and dock- 
yard are on the W. of G'Hara's Tower. 

Passports are rigidly exacted on landing from all but British subjects, 
and sketching is, under all circumstances, strictly prohibited. The 
hours of gun-fire vary according to the time of year^ but are easily 
ascertained ; a few minutes later all gates are shut and not opened 
again till sunrise. 

Walk or drive up Main Street as far as the AJazneda, where the 
band plays ; it was the parade-ground until 1814, when Sir Qeorge Don 
made a garden of it, and it is now reaUy lovely. Notice a column 
brought from the ruins of Lepida, surmounted by a bust of the Duke of 
Wellington, also a bust of General EUiott^ the hero of the great siege. 
Half-way is the Exohcuiige, containing a commercial library, with the 
dub Souse to the W., and the King's Arms Hotel to the E. The 
Btigliftli Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, built in the Moorish 
style in 1832, stands near the centre of the town. Returning through 
the Soutli Fort Q-ate, look at the dockyard, and passing by the South 
Barracks, take the lower of two roads to Europa Point, N.E. of which 
is another range of barracks. Beyond these, on the E. shore, is the 
gammer residence of the Governors, called " The Cottage," built by 
General Fox. The Governor's official residence in South Port Street, 
which is: still caUed " The Convent," once belonged to Franciscan Mars. 
Those remaining several days will have time to explore the Heights 
aad fortifications, for which purpose an order from the. military secre- 
tnj ifi necessary. From the Rock Gun there is a.£nis view of the 
Boida Mountains and the Sierra Nevada ; the Moorish Oastle is on 

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zxvi MALTA India 

the way (746 ad.); under a massive tower, called the Torre de 
Omenaga, are some well-constructed tanks ; and beyond, the wonderful 
galleries excavated by convict labour. At the Sifirnal House refresh- 
ments can be obtained, and from it is a noble view, which includes the 
Atlas Mountains, Ceuta, and Barbaiy, ending with the Bay of Tangiers. 
Between Rock Gun and O'Hara's Tower live a few monkeys, which 
are jealously protected. S. of the Signal Station, and 1100 ft. above 
the sea, is the celebrated St Michael's Cave, open twice a week ; an 
entrance only 6 ft wide leads into a hall 200 ft. long and 60 ft high 
supported by stala?.tite pillars like Qothic arches. Beyond are smaller 
caves, which have been traversed to a distance of 288 ft In Windmill 
Hill are the four Gtenista caves, where many bones of men and animals 
have been discovered. 

Beyond the Land Port Gate is a causeway leading into Spain, with 
the sea on the left, and the " Inundation," a sheet of water so called, 
on the right. Beyond these is the North Front, where are the ceme- 
tery, the cricket-ground, and the race-course. The eastern beach, called 
" Ramsgate and Margate," is the general afternoon resort. Across the 
isthmus is a line of English sentries, then the Neutral Ground, and then 
the Spanish sentries. 6 m. &om Gibraltar is a small hill, on the top of 
which is the town of S. Roque, and 1 m. beyond the ruins of the 
ancient city of Carteia are passed. 4 m. from S. Roque is an inn, 
and then a ride through the cork woods of about 4 m. brings the 
visitor to the Convent of Almorainia and the Long Stables. 10 m. 
from Gibraltar by land, and beyond the rivers Guadarauque and 
Palmones, is the town of Algesiras, where there is good anchon^e, 
and steamers to various ports in Spain. 

Malta. — On the way from Gibraltar to Malta, Algiers may possibly 
be seen, its white buildings stretching like a triangle with its base on 
the sea, and the apex on higher ground. Oape Fez, and the promon- 
tory of the Seven Oapes, jagged, irregular headlands, are passed on the 
starboard side, also Oape Bon, the most northern point of Africa, and 
the Island of Pantellaria^ the ancient Cossyra, between Cape Bon and 
Sicily. It is 8 m. long, volcanic, and rises to a height of more than 
2000 ft There is a town of the same name near the sea-shore, on the 
western slope, where there is much cultivation. It is used by the 
Italians as a penal settlement^ and is rather smaller than €k>zo. The 
Maltese group of islands consists of Gk>zo, Ck>mino, and Malta, and 
stretches from N.W. to S.E., the total distance from San Dimitri, the 
most W. point of Gozo, to Ras Benhisa, the most S. part of Malta, 
being about 25 m. From the nearest point of Qozo to Sicily is 55 m.» 
and Africa is 187 m. distant from Malta. 

Malta Ues in N. lat 35" 63' 49", R long. 14** 30' 28". It is 17 
m. long and 8 broad. Its area, together with that of Gozo, is 116 
8c^. HL, and the population of the three isl^ds is about 160,000, It 

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Inifod. MALTA zsvii 

is a calcareous rock, the highest i)oint being 590 ft. above the sea-leveL 
Towards the S. it ends in precipitous cliflfs. It has a barren appear- 
ance^ but there are many fertile gardens and fields, enclosed in high 
walls, where fine oranges, grapes, and figs, and other crops, returning 
from thirty to sixty fold, are grown. The Maltese language is a mix- 
ture of Arabic and Italian, but most of the townspeople have sufficient 
knowledge of Italian to transact business in that tongue. The port of 
Malta is situated somewhat to the E. of the centre of the northern 
shore of the island. It consists of two fine harbours, separated by the 
narrow promontory called Mount Xiberraa, or Sciberras. The western 
or quarantine harbour, protected by Fort Tiffna on the W., is called 
Harsamuscatta ; the other is Valetta^ or the great harbour, — ^it is 
there that the men-of-war are moored. The entrance to the great 
harbour is protected on the W. by Fort St. Elmo at the end of 
Sciberras, and on the E. by Fort Bicasoli, both very formidable. At 
Fort St. Elmo is one of the finest lighthouses in the Mediterranean. 
The great harbour runs away into numerous creeks and inlets, in which 
are tiie dockyard, victualling-yard, and arsenal, all of which could be 
swept by the guns of St. Ansrelo, which is a fort behind St Elmo. 
The mail steamers are moored in the quarantine harbour, and the 
charge for landing is one shilling for a boat, which will carry four 
people. On landing, a long flight of steps is ascended to the Strada 
San Marco, which leads to the principal street, Strada Beale, 
\ m. long, in the town of Valetta, so-called from Jean de la Valette, 
Grand Master of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, who built it 
after the Turkish armament sent against Malta by Sultan Sulaiman II. 
had been repulsed. The foundation stone was laid on the 28th of 
March 1566, and the whole town, designed by one architect, Girolamo 
Cassar, was completed in May 1571. On the E. side of the great 
harbour is the town called Citta Vittoriosa. 

Left of the Strada Reale is St. John's Cathedral, a remarkable 
church, both historically and architecturally, designed by Cassar. 
The floor is paved with slabs bearing the arms of scores of knights 
who have been interred in this church. In the first chapel on the 
rights the altar-piece represents the beheading of John the Baptist, and 
is by M. Angelo Caravaggia In the next chapel, which belonged to 
the Portuguese, are the monuments of Manoel Pinto and Grand Master 
Manoel de Vilhena, which latter is of bronze. The third, or Spanish 
chapel, has the monuments of Grand Masters Perellos and N. Cotoner, 
and two othera The fourth chapel belonged to the Provencals. The 
£fth chapel is sacred to the Virgin, and here are kept the town keys 
taken from the Turks. On the left of the entrance is a bronze monu- 
amt of Grand Master Marc Antonio Sondadario. The first chapel on 
ike left is the sacristy. The second chapel belonged to the Austrians, 
^ i^ifdi fo IfaUans, and here are pictures, ascribed to Caravaggio^ of 

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xxviii MALTA India 

St. Jerome and Mary Magdalene. The fourth is the French chapel, 
the fifth the Bavarian, and hence a staircase descends to the erypt, 
where are the sarcopha^ of the first Grand Master who ruled in Malta, 
L'Isle Adam, and of La Yalette and others. 

The Qov^mor'B Palace, formerly the Grand MastM*'*, close to the 
Strada Reale, is a noble range of huHdings, containing marble-paved 
corridors and staircase, and many portraits, and armed figures carrying 
the shields of all the Governors from the first Grand Master to the 
present day. The armoury is full of interesting relics, including the 
original deed granted to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem by Pope 
Pascal II. in 1126, and the deed when they left Rhodes in 1522. The 
Library, close to the Palace, contains 40,000 volumes, and some Phoe- 
nician and Roman antiquities. The highest battery commands a fine 
view of both harbours and of the fortifications. There are several statues 
of Grand Masters and Governors in the walk on the ramparts. The 
Opera House, the Bourse, the Courts of Justice, once the Auberge 
d^Auvergne, and the Clubs (the Union Club was the Auberge de 
Provence), and the statues of L'Isle Adam and La Valette, are all in 
the Strada Reale. The Auberge d'ltalie is now the engineer's office ; 
the Auberge de Castille has become the headquarters of the Artillery ; 
the Auberge de France, in the Strada Mezzodi, is now the house of the 
Comptroller of Military Stores ; and the Auberge d'Aragon is where 
the General of the Garrison resides. The Auberge d'Allemagne was 
removed in order to erect St. Paul's Church on its site. The Anglo- 
Bavarian Auberge is the headquarters of the regiment stationed at St. 
Elmo. The Military Hospital has the largest room in Europe, 480 
ft long, erected in 1628 by Grand Master Vasconcelos. Below the 
Military Hospital is the Civil Hospital for Incurables, founded by 
Caterina Scappi in 1646. Where the Strada Mercanti joins the Strada 
S. Giovanni a large hook may be observed, which formerly served as 
the Pillory. For further information consult the Guide to .Malta, 
included in Murray's Handbook to the Mediterranecm. The island on 
which the Quarantine House stands was captured by the Turks in 1666. 
The Parlettario there is a long, narrow room near the anchorage, divided 
by a barrier, where the gold and silver filigree-work, the cameos, brace- 
lets and brooches in mosaic, and other b^onterie for which Malta is 
famous are sold. Maltese lace and silk embroidery should be bought 
under the advice of an expert, for the vendors in general demand 
extravagant prices. In the wall of a house in Strada Strella and Strada 
Britannica is a stone with an Arabic inscription, dated Thursday 16th 
Shaban 569 A.H.s2l8t March 1174 A.D., for which see Jotumdl Boy, 
As. Soc. voL vl p. 173. 

Five m. beyond the landing-stairs is the Governor's country Palaoe 
of S. Antonio, where is a lovely garden with creepers of astonishing 
beauty, and cypresses 40 ft. high, as well as many luxuriant btange 

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inirdi. kAi.4^ txix 

tree& About j^ m. jGgurther to the S.W. is Oitta Veoohia^ which 
stands on a ridge £rom 200 to 300 ft high, a£f6rding a view over nearly 
the whiole island. There is a fine church here, St Paul's ; near it are 
some curious catacombs. This is alL that it is possible to see during the 
short stay steamers usually make, but those who have more leisure can 
visit St. Paul's Bay at the N.W. extremity of the island, with the 
statue of bronze erected on an islet at the mouth of the bay. Also 
the Carthaginian or Phoenician ruins at Ha.erlar Ohem, properly Hajar 
Kaim, " upright stone," near the village of Casal Crendi, 1 J hour's drive 
from Valetta. These ruins, excavated in 1839, consist of walls of large 
stones fixed upright in the ground, forming small enclosures, connected 
with one anotlLer by passages, and all contained within one large enclos- 
ure. The building is thought to have been a temple of Baal and 
Astarte. The main entrance is on the S.S.E., and a passage leads from 
it into a court, on the left of which is an altar, with the semblance 
of a plant ruddy sculptured on it Similar remains are found in other 
parts of Malta and in Gozo. 

Malta is said to have been occupied by the Phoenicians in 1500 b.c., 
and by the Greeks in 750 b.c. The Carthaginians got possession of it 
in 500 B.C., and the Romans took it after the sea-fight of Putatia in 
215 B.C. The Goths and Vandals invaded it in 420 a.d. In 520 a.d. 
Belisarius made it a province of the Byzantine Empire, the Moslems 
conquered it in 730 A.D., and Count Roger, the Norman, captured it in 
1 100 A.D. It then passed to Louis IX., to the Count of Anjou, and to 
the Kings of Castile, and then to Charles V., who gave it, in 1530, to 
the Rnights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem. On 18th May 1565 
the Turks attacked St Elmo, St Angelo, and Sanglea, but the siege was 
raised on the 8th of September (see Major Whitworth Porter's History 
of the Knights of Malta, Longmans, 1858). The Knights had their own 
mint, fleet, and army, and accredited ambassadors to foreign Courts. 
In the archives are letters from Henry VIII., Charles II., and Anne, 
addressed to them as princes. On the 7th of September 1792 the 
Prencli Directory commanded the Order to be annulled, and seized all 
its French possessions. On the 7th of June 1798 Bonaparte arrived 
with a fleet of 18 ships of the line, 18 frigates, and 600 transports, 
and Malta was surrendered A tree of liberty was planted before the 
Palace, the decorations of the Knights were burned, and the churches, 
palaces, and charitable houses at Valetta and Citta Vecchia were 
pilk^ed. On the 2d of September 1798, when the French tried to 
poll down the decorations in the Cathedral, a general revolt took 
place, and Nelson sent Captain Alexander John Ball with a frigate to 
aid the Maltese, and himself blockaded Valetta. The French were 
reduced to such extremities that a rat sold for Is. 7d., and on the 5th 
of Septen^ber 1800 their commander. General Vaubois, surrendered. 
Over the main guard-room in St George's Square is written : 

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'* Magnffi et inyicte Britannise 
MeUtensium amor et Europe vox 
Has insulas confirmat A.D. 1814." 

Bgyfp, Port Said, and the Suez Canal. — ^The land about 
Port Said is so low, that the approach to the harbour would be difSctilt 
were it not for a lighthouse 160 ft. high, built of concrete, which 
stands on the sea-shore to the right of the harbour close to the W. 
mole, and shows an electric light flashing every 20 seconds, and visible 
20 m. off. The harbour is formed by two breakwaters, 1500 yards 
apart, built of concrete, the western 2726 yards long, the eastern 1962 
yards long. A red light is shown at the end of the W. mole, and a 
green one at the end of the R The depth of water at the entrance is 
30 ft. Since the works were begun, the sea has receded ^ m., and a 
bank has formed to the N.W. of the entrance, having only 4 to 5 
fathoms water on it, and it increases, being caused by a current which 
sets along the shore, and meeting the sea rolling in from the N., is 
forced back, and deposits its silt Inside the W. jetty another bank 
is forming, and extends 100 ft. every year. In 1874 the channel 
was dredged out to 29 ft, and by 1875 it had filled again to 25 ft. 
Port Said town is modem, and though not very inviting, consisting 
mainly of wooden houses, chiefly low caf^s and gambling-houses, with 
some shops, has, since 1890, been improved, and is a very important 
coaling-station. Opposite the anchorage on the Marina is the French 
office, where pilots are got, and where they take a note of the ship's 
draught, breadth, length, and tonnage. In this office there is a wooden 
plan of the canal, along which wooden pegs, with flags, are placed, 
showing the exact position of every vessel passing through the canaL 
The Arab quarter lies to the W., and contains over 7600 souls and a 
mosque. The Place de Lesseps in the centre of this quaiiier has a 
garden, and some houses of a better sort The streets swarm with flies, 
and mosquitoes also are numerous. The Exchange Hotel may be recom- 
mended. There are Coptic and Syrian churches, as well as Protestant 
and Catholic. Trains leave for Ismailia, Suez, and Cairo twice daily. 

The Oanal,^ opened in 1870, is in round numbers 100 m. in 
length, and as far as Ismailia, that is for about 42 m., it runs due N. 
and S. It then bends to the R for about 35 m., and is again almost 
straight for the last 20 m. 

The following were the dimensions of the canal, which is now 
being widened (see Handbook of Egypt), 

Width at water-line, where banks are low • • 328 ft. 

„ in deep cuttings . • . 190 „ 

,, at base 72 „ 

Depth 26 „ 

Slope of bank at water-line 1 in 6 ; near base 1 in 2. 

^ For a history of the canal, see Sandbook i^Egupi^ John Murray. 

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Introd, ISMAILIA xxxi 

Every few m. there is a grare, or station, and a siding with signal 
posts, by which the traffic is regulated according to the block system 
by hoisting black balls. Every year the navigation is rendered easier 
by the construction of additional sidings. Traffic is carried on through 
the canal at night by the aid of electric light. Vessels must not 
move faster than 6 m. an hour. 

On the W. of the canal, as far as Al Kantarali (the Bridge), that 
is for about one-fourth of the way, there is a broad expanse of water, 
called Ijake ManzaJali, and for the rest of the distance to the W., and 
the whole distance to the E., a sandy desert, on which foxes, jacials, 
hyenas, and, it is said, occasionally even lions, wander at night 21 m., 
or 34 kiL, from B^antarah, and 20 m. from Port Said, the old Pelusiac 
branch of the Nile is crossed, and 8 m. to the S.E. are the ruins of the 
ancient city of Pelusium. At Kantarah the canal intersects the 
caravan-track between Egypt and Syria, and is crossed by a flying 
bridge ; a traveller should go on the upper deck of his ship 
when approaching it, as, if a caravan chances to be passing, it 
is a most interesting sight. 10 m. to the W. is Tel al Daphne, 
the site of Daphne, the Taphnes of Judith, i. 9. At 2 m. S. 
of Kantarah the canal enters the Lake Ballah, and after 12 m. 
reaches the promontory Al Fardanali, which it cuts through. 
Thence, after 4^ m., it reaches Al Q-irsh, the highest groimd in 
the isthmus, 65 ft. above sea-level. There was a great camp here 
when the works were in progress. A staircase of 100 steps lea 
do-wn to the canal. Beyond this, near the entrance to Lake TimsaJi, 
a small canal joins the maritime canal to the Fresh-Water Canal. 
The difference of level is 17 ft, which is overcome by two locks. 
A steam-launch comes to meet steamers on the canal, and land 
passengers for 

ISMAILIA, pop. 4000, which has now much of the importance and 
trafl&c that formerly belonged to Suez ; the mails and passengers for 
Egypt are landed here — hotel. A broad road lined with trees leads from 
the landing-place across the Fresh-Water Canal to the Quai Mehemet, 
and traverses the town from E. to W. In the W. quarter are the 
stations, the landing-quays of the Fresh- Water Canal, and large blocks 
of warehouses, and beyond them the Arab village. In the E. part are 
the houses of the employes, the residence of the Khedive, which was 
used as a military hospital during the English occupation of Ismailia 
in 1 882, and the works by which water is pumped from the Fresh- 
Water Canal to Port Said. These are worth visiting. At Ismailia 
there is much vegetation, and some good houses, — one belongs to M. 
de Lesseps. There is good water-fowl shooting here, and some ante- 
lopes are to be found. The fish of Lake Timsah are better flavoured 
&an tliose of the Mediterranean. Lake Timsah, or Bahr al Timsah, 
^ the Lake of the Crocodile/' to which the Bed Sea is said to have 

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jcxxlt dt7£2 India 

formerly extended, is crossed in about 2^ m. The course is marked 
by buoys. After 4 m. tbe canal reaches the higher ground of Tussum, 
where the level of the desert is 20 ft. above the sea, and here the first 
working encampment in the S. half of the isthmus was formed in 
1859. Three m. to the S. is Serapeum, where the level is from 15 to 
25 ft. above the sea, so called from some remains of a temple of Serapis. 

A mile and a half from this the canal enters the Bitter Lakes, 
where the course is buoyed. These lakes are the ancient Gulf of 
HersBopolis. At the N. and S. ends of the principal lake is an iron 
lighthouse 65 ft. high, on a solid masonry base. After 28 m. the 
deep cutting of Shaluf is reached, in which is a band of sandatone, 
with layers of limestone and conglomerate, in which fossil remains 
of the shark, hippopotamus, tortoise, and whale have been found. 
From this to the Suez mouth of the canal is 12 J m. Some think 
that the passage of the Israelites was through the Gulf of Herseopolis. 

All the way from Ismailia the banks are fringed with vegetation, 
and the plain on either side is dotted with bushes. There is a little 
fishing in the canal for those who like the amusement, and at Suez there 
is a great variety of fish. 

SUEZ.^ — The chief historical interest of Suez is derived from its having 
been supposed to be the spot near which the Israelites crossed the Red 
Sea under the guidance of Moses, and where the Egyptian army was 
drowned, but modem criticism tends to place the scene of this event 
farther N. In the early years of the 1 8th century Suez was little better 
than a small fishing-village, galvanised now and then into commercial 
life by the passage of caravans going to and fro between Asia and Egypt. 
But in ISSt, owing to the exertions of Lieutenant Waghom, the route 
through Egypt was adopted for the transit of the Indian mail, and a 
few years after the P. & 0. Company began running a line of 
steamers regularly between India and Suez. This was followed in 
1857 by the completion of a railway from Cairo (since destroyed), and 
Suez soon began to increase again in size and importance. It suffered, 
however, from the want of fresh water until the completion (1863) of 
the Fresh-Water Canal to Suez brought an abundance of Nile water 
to the town ; and the various works in connection with the Suez Cansd, 
the new quays, the docks, etc., raised the population to 15,000. With. 
the completion of the canal, the activity of the town decreased, and 
since the transfer of the mails to Ismailia, the place has been almost 
deserted, and the fine quays and warehouses are unused, as steamers 
now usually anchor in the Roads. There is a railway line to 
Ismailia and Port Said. 

The Old Town itself offers few points of interest. To the N. of 
the town are the storehouses of the P. & 0. Company, the lock 
which terminates the Fresh^ Water Canal, the English Hospital, and, 
on the heights above, is the chalet of the Khedive, from which there is 

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Ifdrod, EXCURSION to wells of MOSES xxxiii 

a magnificent view ; in the foreground is the town, the harbour, the 
roadstead, and the mouth of the Suez Canal ; to the right the range 
of Q^bel Attakah, a most striking and beautiful object, with its 
black-violet heights hemming in the Red Sea ; away to the left, though 
considerably fsirther S., are the rosy peaks of the Mount Sinai range ; 
and between the two, the deep blue of the gulf. 

The whole of the ground on which the quays and other constructions 
stand has been recovered from the sea. 

ExcuBSiOK TO Wells of Moses. — A pleasant excursion may be 
made to the Wells or Fountains of Moses, Ain Musa. (This 
is the quarantine station for Suez.) From a steamer in the roadstead 
the wells look quite near. It will occupy, according to the route 
taken and the time spent at the place, from half a day to a day. 
The shortest way is to take a sailing - boat, . or one of the small 
steamers that ply between the town and the harbour, as far as the 
jetty, which has been built out into the sea to communicate with the 
new Quarantine lately established on the shore of the gulf for the 
reception of the pilgrims on their return from Mecca. From this 
point to Ain Musa the distance is not much over a mile ; if donkeys 
are required between the jetty and the Wells, they must be sent from 
Suez. The other plan is to cross over in a boat to the old Quarantine 
jetty, about half a mile from the town, either taking donkeys in the 
boat or sending them on previously, and then to cross the Suez Canal 
by the ferry used for the passage of caravans between Arabia and 
Egypt, and ride along the desert to the Wells. Or the boat may be 
taken down to the entrance to the canal, and then up it a short 
way to the usual starting-point for the Wells. Either of these routes 
will take from three to four hours. The sums to be paid for boats 
and donkeys had better be strictly agreed upon beforehand. There 
are two so-called hotels at Ain Musa, where beds and refreshments 
can be procured, but the visitor who intends spending the day 
there had better, perhaps, take some food with him. This excursion 
may be combined with a visit to the docks, the traveller landing there 
on his return. 

The " Wells " are a sort of oasis, formed by a collection of springs, 
surronnded with tamarisk bushes and palm trees. Since it has become, 
as Dean Stanley calls it, " the Richmond of Suez," — a regular picnicking 
place for the inhabitants of that town, — some Arabs and Europeans 
have regularly settled in it, and there are now a few houses, and 
gardens with fruit trees and vegetables. The water from the springs 
has a brackish taste. Most of them are simply holes dug in the soil, 
wfaiBh is here composed of earth, sand, and clay ; but one is built up 
of Biassi'^e masonry of great age. Though not mentioned in the Bible, 
its position has always caused it to be associated with the passage, of 
tbeBecl Sea by the Israelites, and tradition has as the 
fjndtal Digitized by LiODgie g 

xxxiv THE BED SEA India 

spot where Moses and Miriam and the Children of Israel sang their 
song of triumph. 

The Red Sea. — A fresh breeze from the N. generally prevails for 
two-thirds of the voyage down the Red Sea, and is, during the winter 
months, succeeded by an equally strong wind from the S. for the rest of 
the way. During the summer, the wind from the N. blows through- 
out the sea, but is light in the southern half, and the heat is great. 
The Sinaitio range is the fii^t remarkable land viewed to the E., 
but Sinai itself, 37 geographical m. distant, can be seen only for five 
minutes, from the bridge of the steamer. 

The Red Sea extends from the head of the Gulf of Suez to the 
Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, about 1400 miles, and its greatest width is 
about 200 miles. At Ras Mohammed it is split by the peninsula of 
Sinai into two parts ;. one, the Gulf of Suez, about 150 m. long, 
and from 10 to 18 wide, and the other, the Gulf of Akabah, about 
100 m. long, and from 5 to 10 wide. 

Wherever seen from the sea, the shores of the Red Sea present an 
appearance of absolute sterility. A broad sandy plain slopes inappreci- 
ably to th i foot of the mountains, which are in most parts a considerable 
distance inland. The ordinary mail-steamer's track, hpwever, lies down 
the centre of the sea, and little more than the summits of the distant 
bare and arid mountains will be seen. 

The only port on the E. shore between Suez and the division of 
the sea is Tor, two days' journey from Sinai. The Khedivieh Company- 
run steamers, touching at one or two of the intermediate ports between 
Tor and El Wedj. Opposite the end of the Sinai peninsula is Jel>el 
ez-Zeit, "the mountain of oil," close to the sea. At this point the 
Egyptian Government have lately expended large sums in searching 
for the petroleum which there is reason to believe exists. Up to the 
present, although a certain amount of oil has been found, it has not 
been proved to exist in sufficiently large quantities to pay for the 
money sunk. If leave can be obtained from the Public Works De- 
partment, a visit to the site of the borings might be made. At ESI- 
Gimsheh, a headland, terminating the bay to the S.S.W. of it, are 
some sulphur-mines, grottoes, and inscriptions in the Sinaitic character. 
About 27 m. inland are the old porphyry quarries of Jebel ed-Dokhan, 
"mountain of smoke." The road from Gimsheh past Jebel ed- 
Dokhan may be followed to Keneh on the Nile. The distance is 
about 140 miles. 

The ruins of Myos Hormos are on the coast in latitude 27* 24', 
The town is small, very regularly built, surrounded by a ditcH, 
and defended by round towers at the comera and the gateways. 
The port mentioned by Strabo lies to the northward, and is nearly 
filled with sand. Below the hills, to the eastward, is the Fons Tadmos, 
mentioned by Pliny. Besides the ancient roads that lead from Myoa 

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Hormos to the westward is another running N. and S., a short distance 
firom the coast, leading to Aboo Durrag and Suez on one side, and to 
Suakin on the S. 

KossEiR. — At Old Kosseir are the small town and port of Philotera, 
of which little remains but mounds and the vestiges of houses, some of 
ancient, others of Arab date. The modem town of Kosseir stands 
on a small bay or cove, 4j m. to the southward. The population is 
about 2000. This is a separate governorship. It was formerly a place 
of some importance, but is now falling into decay. The water-supply 
is bad. There is a custom-house, but the trade is very limited, consist- 
ing principally of dates from Arabia. 

After passing Kosseir are the " several ports " mentioned by Pliny, 
with landmarks to direct small vessels through the dangerous coral- 
reefs, whose abrupt discontinuance forms their mouth. These 
corresponding openings are singular, and are due to the inability of 
the coral animals to live where the fresh water of the winter torrents 
runs into the sea, which is the case where these ports are found. 
There are no remains of towns at any of them, except at Nechesia 
and the Leucos Partus ; the former now called "Wadi en-Nukkari, the 
latter known by the name of Esh-Shuna, or "the magazine." Nechesia 
has the ruins of a temple, and a citadel of hewn stone ; but the Leucos 
Portus is in a very dilapidated state ; and the materials of which the 
houses were built, like those of Berenice, are merely fragments of 
madrepore and shapeless pieces of stone. About half-way between 
them is another small port, 4 m. to the W. of which are the lead-mines 
of Ghabel er-Rosas ; and a short distance to the northward, in Wadi 
Abu-Raikeh, is a small quarry of basinite, worked by the ancients. 
About 20 m. inl ind from the site of Nechesia are the old Neccia 
quarries and emerald mines at Jebel Zobarah. 

Behind the headland of Raa Benas, called Has el-Unf, or Cape Nose, 
by the Arab sailors, opposite Yembo on the Arabian coast, there is a 
deep gulf, at the head of which stood the old town of Berenice. Tliis 
gulf, according to Strabo, was called Sinus Immundus. The long 
peninsula or chersonesus, called Lepte Extrema, projecting from this 
gulf, is mentioned by Diodorus, who says its neck was so narrow that 
boats were sometimes carried across it from the gulf to the open sea. 
From the end of the cape may be perceived the Peak of St. John, or 
the Emerald Isle, Jeziret Zibirgeh, or Semergid, which seems to be 
the *0<f>t4a&rfs^ or serpentine island, of Diodorus. The inner bay, which 
constituted the ancient port of Berenice, is now nearly filled with sand ; 
and at low tide its mouth is closed by a bank, which is then left entirely 
expooed. The tide rises and falls in it about one foot. 

The town of Berenioe was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and 
10 called after his mother. There is a temple at the end of a street, 
tovards the centre of the town, built of hewn stone, and consisting of 

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xxxvi SUAKIN — JIDDAH India 

three inner and the same number of outer chambers, with a staircase 
leading to the summit, the whole ornamented with sculptures and 
hieroglyphics in relief. It was dedicated to Serajns ; and in the 
hieroglyphics are the names of Tiberius and Trajan. 

Between Ras Benas and Ras Elba are a number of small harbours 
which are much used by Arab traders to convey provisions to the 
Bishareen tribes, and to bring slaves back to Yembo and Jiddah. 
Since the trade with the Soudan has been stopped in consequence of 
the rebellion, a good deal of the commerce which used to pass through 
Suakin now goes to these small harbours, the custom duties being thus 
lost to the Egyptian Government South of Ras Elba is Bas Roway, 
a long, low promontory. Here is an Egyptian station dependent upon 
Suakin. At Roway are some very extensive salt-fields, from which a 
considerable amount of salt is exported annually, principally to India. 

Suakin is the most important town on the W. side of t^e Red Sea. 
It was the scene of the two English expeditions of 1884, 1885, neither 
of which led to any result. In 1896 the 21st Bombay Infantry held 
Suakin for the Khedive of Egypt, and caused a division of Osman 
Digna's forces, thus enabling the Khedive's troops, under Sir Herbert 
Kitchener, the more easily to reconquer the North Soudan. The prin- 
cipal tribes in the vicinity of Suakin are the Hadendowa and Aniarar. 

After leaving Suez the lighthouses seen are Zafarana and Has 
Gharib, both on the W. coast before Tor is reached. Then follows the 
light on Ashrafi, just inside the mouth of the Gulf of Suez, and that 
on Shad war, just south of it. The light on The Biothers is nearly due 
E. of Kosseir. The Daedalus Reef, small and dangerous, lies in mid- 
channel in latitude 26'*,€uid was a terror to navigators before the light was 
erected. And lastly, the light on Perim Island in the Bab-el-Mandeb. 

The most important ports of Arabia on the Red Sea are Yenbo, lat 
24'* N., the port of Medina^ 130 m. to the E. The town is sur- 
rounded by a wall 12 ft high and is a mean place, but the harbour 
is one of the best on the coast 

Jiddah, in latitude 21^° N., is an important place ; the seaport of 
Mecca, which is 60 m. E. The population, including surrounding 
villages, is about 40,000. English and other steamers call here 
frequently. The anchorage is 3^ m. from the shore. The town is 
square in shape, enclosed by a wall with towers at intervals, and on the 
sea-face two forts. There is a good street parallel to the sea. The 
other streets are irregular and not so clean. The town, for this 
part of the world, is well kept, but the suburbs are very poor. The 
population is most fanatical, and Europeans landing must behave in al 
respects cautiously. Supplies are abundant, but it is the custom to 
ask strangers exorbitant prices. There are three entrances to the town 
on the sea side, but the central one at the jetty is the only one in 

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ItUrod, HODEIDA xxxvii 

ardinary use. The gate on the S. side of the town is seldom opened, 
that on the N. is free to all, hut the E. or Mecca gate, which fonnerly 
was strictly reserved for Mohammedans, should he approached with 
caution, though Eurox>ean8 are now generally permitted to use it. 
The only sight of the town is the so-called Tomh of Eve. This is a 
small mosque in the centre of two long low walls 140 ft. in length, 
which are supposed to enclose the grave of our gigantic ancestress. 
It is regarded with considerahle veneration, and lies north of the town 
The antiquity of the tradition is unknown. Jiddah was homharded 
by the British in 1858 in retribution for a massacre of the consul and 
other British subjects by the population. 

HODEIDA, lat 14'* 40' N., has a population of about 33,000. The 
anchorage here also is about 3^ m. from the shore. European 
steamers call weekly or oftener. Mooha, which this place has sup- 
planted as a commercial port^ is 100 m. S. Hodeida has wel!-built 
houses and an amply -supplied market. It looks well from having 
moeques with fine domes and minarets. 

The Italians and French have settlements on the African shore in 
the S. part of the Bed Sea, at Asab and Obokh, but passenger 
steamers to India do not approach these places. 

The Island of Perim occupies the narrowest part of the Strait of 
Bab-el-Mandeb ("the gate of tears "). It is distant 1 J m. from the Arabian 
coast, and 9 to 10 m. from the Aifrican. The average width is ij m., 
the greatest length 3^ m. Captain F. M. Hunter has given the most 
complete description of the island in his Statistical Account of Aden. 

Perim is called by the author of The Pervplus the island of Diodorus, 
and is known amongst the Arabs as Mayun. The formation is purely 
volcanic and consists of long low hills surrounding a capacious harbour 
about 1^ nL long, ^ m. in breadth, with a depth of from 4 to 6 
fsXhoioA in the best anchorages. The highest point of the island is 
245 ft. above sea-level. All endeavours to find water have failed, and 
but little is procurable from the mainland near. There are water 
tanks that used to be supplied from Aden, but a condensing apparatus 
is found the most convenient means of supply. The British are the 
only nation who have ever permanently occupied Perim. Albuquerque 
landed upon it in 1513, and erected a high cross on an eminence, and 
called it the island of Vera OruZj by which name it is shown on old 
Admiralty charts. Afterwards it was occupied by pirates who in vain 
dug for water. In 1799 the East India Company took possession of it, 
and sent a force from Bombay to hold it, to prevent the French then in 
Egypt from passing on to India, where it was feared they would effect a 
junction with Tipu Sahib. The lighthouse on the highest point was 
completediu 1 86 1, and since then two others have been built on the shore. 
There is always a guard from the garrison at Aden. They occupy 
a amall block house for the protection of the lighthouse and coaling- 
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xxxviii ADBN India 

stations. Steamers usually pass to the E. of the island near the 
Qovemment boat harbour. The western side of the large inner 
harbour has been assigned to the Perim Ck)al Company, who have ex- 
pended £120,000 in making the place one of the most perfect coaling 
and salvage stations in the East The salvage steamers are powerful, 
and always ready to render assistance to vessels in distress. The 
" City " line of steamers coal here. 

Throughout the Red Sea enormous coral reefs run along the coasts 
in broken lines parallel to the shores, but not connected with them. 
They usually rise out of deep water to within a few feet of the surface. 
A navigable channel from 2 to 3 m. wide extends between them and 
the E. coast, and a narrower one on the W. coast. The whole sea is in 
course of upheaval The former seaport of Adulis, in Annesley Bay, near 
Masspwa, is now 4 m. inland. 

The tides are very uncertain. At Suez, where they are most regular, 
they rise from 7 ft. at spring to 4 ft. at neap tides. 

During the hottest months, July to September, the prevalence of 
northerly winds drives the water out of the Red Sea. The S.W. 
monsoon is then blowing in the Indian Ocean, and the general level 
of the Red Sea is from 2 to 3 ft. lower than during the cooler months, 
when the N.E. monsoon forces water into the Gulf of Aden and thence 
through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. 

Aden was known to the Romans, and was for many years held 
by the Turks, who captured the port from the Arabs. Marco Polo, 
the Venetian, visited Aden on his return from his travels in China. 
It was then, in the 14th cent, held by a governor appointed by the 
" Soldan." Polo mentions the port as having been " a seat of direct 
trade with China in the early centuries of Islam." An Arab reports 
it at that period as " enclosed by mountains, and you can enter hy 
one side only." On the 18th February 1513 Albuquerque sailed 
from India with 20 ships for the conquest of Aden. In the assault on 
the fortress their scaling-ladders broke, and although they succeeded 
in taking " a bulwark which guarded the port with 39 great pieces of 
cannon," they were obliged to withdraw after a four days' siege. On 
the 3rd of August 1539 Soliman "Basha," the admiral-in-chief of a 
Turkish armada of 74 ships and gunboats, cast anchor in the port. 
His mission was against the Portuguese in India A Venetian captive 
serving as a slave on a Turkish galley writes in his Memoirs : ** *Tis 
very strong, and stands by the seaside, surrounded with exceeding 
high mountains, on the top of which are little castles or forts" 
(evidently watch-towers, the ruins of which are still to be seen on the 
most inaccessible points on the rim of the Crater). " 'Tis encompassed, 
also with ravelins on every side, excepting a little opening, about 30O 
paces wide " (now made into the " Main Pass "X " for a road into the 

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Introd. ADEN xxxix 

country and to the shore, with gates, towers, and good walls. Besides 
all this there is a shoal before the city, on which is built a fort ; and 
at the foot of it a tower for the derence of the port, which lies to the 
south, and has two fathom of water. To the north there is a large 
port, with good anchorage, covered from all winds" (this is the 
modem port). 

On this occasion the admiral was offended at the reception he met 
with from the Turkish governor of 'Aden, and landed a force of 
Janissaries, who occupied all the forts, and brought the governor to 
pay a visit to the admiral The latter gave a most sumptuous 
entertainment to his guest ; but when about to withdraw made a 
signal to his crew, on which the governor was seized, and he and his 
staff hung out on the yard-arms of the flag-ship. 

Marco Polo mentions : " And it is a fact that when the Soldan of 
Babylon went against the city of Acre" (in a.d. 1291) "this Soldan of 
Aden sent to his assistance 30,000 horsemen and 40,000 camels, to 
the great help of the Saracens and the grievous injury of the Christians. 
He did this a great deal more for the hate he bears the Christians 
than for any love he bears the Soldan." This was the Mameluke 
Sultan Malik Ashraf KhaliL 

Aden was taken from the Arabs by the British on the 16th 
of January 1839 (see the Aden Handbook, by Captain F. M. Hunter). 
It was attacked by the Abdalis and Fadthelis on the 11th of November 
in that year, but they were repulsed with the loss of 200 kille<iand 
wounded. The united Arab tribes made a second attack on the 22nd 
of May 1840, but failed after losing many men. On the 5th of July 
1840 a third attack took place, but the assailants, Abdalis and Fad- 
thelis, were driven back and lost 300 men. In January 1846 Saiyad 
Ismail, after preaching a jihad, or religious war, in Mecca, attacked this 
place, and was easily repulsed. A series of murders then commenced. 
On tiie 29th of May 1860 a seaman and a boy of H. E. I. C. steam- 
frigate Auckland were killed while picking up shells on the N. shore 
of the harbour. On the 28th of February 1851 Captain Milne, com- 
missariat officer, and a party of officers, went to Wahat, in the Lahej 
territory. At midnight a fanatic mortally wounded Captain Milne, 
who died next day, severely wounded Lieutenant MTherson, of the 
78th Highlanders, slightly wounded Mr. Saulez, and got clear away. 
On the 27 th March following, another fanatic attacked and severely 
wounded Lieutenant Delisser of the 78th Highlanders, but was killed 
by that officer with his own weapon. On the 12th of July in the same 
vear, the mate and one sailor of the ship Sons of Gommercey wrecked 
near Qhubet Sailan, were murdered. In 1858, 'Ali bin Muhsin, 
Sultan of the Abdalis, gave so much trouble that Brigadier Coghlan, 
Commandant at Aden, was compelled to march against him, when the 
Azabs were routed with a loss of from 30 to 40 men, and with no 

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xl ADEK India 

casualties on our side. In December 1865, the Sultan of the Fadtheli 
tribe, which has a seaboard of 100 m., extending from the boundary 
of the Abdalis, attempted to blockade Aden on the land side ; but 
was utterly routed by Lieut. -Col. Woolcombc, C.B., at Bir Said, 15 
m. from the Barrier Gate. A force under Brigadier-General Raines, 
C.B., then marched through the Abgar districts, which are the low- 
lands of this tribe, and destroyed several fortified villages. Subse- 
quently, in January 1866, aii expedition went from Aden by sea to 
Shugrah, the chief port of the Fadthelis, 65 m. from Aden, and de- 
stroyed the forts there. Since 1867 this tribe, which numbers 6700 
fighting men, have adhered to their engagements. The Sultan of the 
Abdalis, who inhabit a district 33 m. long and 8 broad to the N.N.W. 
of Aden, and number about 8000 souls, was present in Bombay during 
the Duke of Edinburgh's visit in February 1870, and is friendly. His 
territory is called La Hej, and the capital is Al-Hautah, 21 m. from the 
Barrier Gate (see expeditions, p. xliii.) 

Aden is hot, but healthy. Snakes and scorpions are rather 
numerous. The town is full of interest to the anthropologist, and a 
visit to the bazaar in the afternoon is well worth the trouble. Wild 
Arabs from the interior of Arabian Yemen, Turks, Egyptians, hideous 
Swahelis from the coast of East Africa, Somalis from the untamed 
shock-headed Bedouin to the more civilised ofl&cer's servant, Jews of 
various sects, inhabitants of India, Parsis, British soldiers, Bombay 
Macathas, and lastly the Jack-tar, are seen together in a motley 

The Crater used in former days to be the fortress of Aden. Now 
modem science has converted " Steamer Point " into a seemingly im- 
pregnable position ; the peninsula which the " Point *' forms to the 
whole Crater being cut off by a fortified line which runs from 
N. to S. just to the eastward of the coal wharfs. The harbour 
mouth is swept by a powerful armament of 10" and 6" guns mounted 
on " disappearing " hydraulic carriages in Forts Tarshine and Morbut 
Batteries sweep the inner harbour and the approach by land from 
the Main Pass and village of Ma'ala. The accuracy of the artillery 
fire is ensured by " position finders " on the spurs of the mountain 
Shumshum. The whole position bristles with quick-firing ordnance 
of the latest patterns. The only fault that critics have found is 
that too much has been spent on ordnance of unnecessarily large 

Inside the Light Ship the waXer shallows to 4 fathoms, and a large 
steamer stirs up the mud with the keeL As soon as the vessel stops, 
scores of little boats with one or two Somali boys in each paddle off 
and surround the steamer, shouting "Overboard, overboard," and 
" Have a dive, have a dive," also " Good boy, good boy," aU together, 
with a very strong accent on the first syllable. The cadence is not 

^^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

InirocL ADEN xli 

trnpleasing. If a small coin is flung to them they all spring into the 
water, and nothing is seen but scores of heels disappearing under the 
surface as they dive for the money. Owing to a number of fatalities, 
&om sharks, diving is prohibited in the S.W. monsoon months. Other 
fish are almost as ravenous. In 1877 a rock cod between 5 and 6 ft. 
long seized a man who was diving and tore off the flesh of his thigh. 
The man's brother went down with a knife and killed the cod, which 
was bronght ashore and photographed at Aden, as was the wounded 

As soon as the captain has fixed the hour at which he will leave 
the port, a notice is posted, and then passengers generally start for the 
shore to escape the dust and heat during coaling. All the ports are 
eloeed, and the heat and closeness of the cabins will be found quite in- 

No boat can ply for hire in Aden Harbour without a licence 
&om the Conservator of the Port, and the number of the licence must 
be displayed on the bow and stem, and also by each of the crew. 
When asking payment the crew must exhibit the tables of fares and 
rules, and any one asking prepayment is liable to fine or imprison- 
ment. In case of dispute, recourse must be had to the nearest European 
poKce oflScer. By special agreement a first-class boat may be engaged 
for 4 fares, and a second-class boat for 3 fares. Every boat must have 
a lantern at night A boat inspector attends at the Gun Wharf from 6 
AJL to 11 P.M. to call boats, suppress irregularities, and give informa- 
tion to passengers. After sunset passengers can lije landed only at the 
Gun Wharf. 

It takes from twelve to twenty minutes to land at the Post Office 
Pier, which is broad and sheltered. The band occasionally plays 
^ere^ To the left, after a walk or drive of a mile, one arrives at 
&e hotels. There is also a large shop for wares of all kinds kept 
by a Parsi 

Land Conveyances 

Every conveyance must have the number of its licence and the 
number of persons it can carry painted on it. A table of fares must 
be fixed on some conspicuous part of the conveyance, and the driver 
must wear a badge with the number of his licence, and must not 
demand prepayment of his fare. From Isthmus to the Point the fare 
is the same as from Town to Point. The Point signifies any inhabited 
part of Steamer Fomt, the name given to the part of the peninsula off 
vUch the steamers lie. 


At a short distance N. of the hotels is a condenser belonging to a 
pfrmte proprietor. There are three such condensers belonging to 

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xlii ADEN India 

Government, and several the property of private companies, and by 
these and an aqueduct from Sheikh Othman, 7 m. beyond the Barrier 
Qate, Aden is supplied with water. Condensed water costs from about 
2 rs. per 100 gallons. 

The Tajiks 

Besides these there are tanks, which are worth a visit The 
distance to them from the pier is about 5 m. Altogether there 
are about fifty tanks in Aden, which if entirely cleared out, 
would have an aggregate capacity of nearly 30,000,000 imperial 
gallons. It is supposed that they were commenced about the second 
Persian invasion of Yaman in 600 a.d. Mr. Salt, who saw them 
in 1809, says, ^'The most remarkable of these reservoirs consists 
of a line of cisterns situated on the N.W. side of the town, three of 
which are fully 80 ft. wide and proportionally deep, all excavated 
out of the solid rock, and lined with a thick coat of fine stucco. A 
broad aqueduct may still be traced which formerly conducted the 
water to these cisterns from a deep ravine in the mountain above; 
higher up is another still entire, which at the time we visited it was 
partly filled with water.'' In 1856 the restoration of these magnifi- 
cent works was undertaken (see the Aden Handbook, by Captain F. M. 
Hunter). And thirteen have been completed, capable of holding 
8,000,000 gallons of water. The range of hills which was the crater 
of Aden is nearly circular. On the W. side the hills are precipitous, 
and the rain that descends from them rushes speedily to the sea. On 
the E. side the descent is broken by a tableland winding between the 
summit and the sea, which occupies a quarter of the entire superficies 
of Aden. The ravines which intersect this plateau converge into one 
valley, and a very moderate fall of rain suffices to send a considerable 
torrent down it. This water is partly retained in the tanks which were 
made to receive it, and which are so constructed that the overflow of 
the upper tank falls into a lower, aud so on in succession. As the annual 
rainfall at Aden did not exceed 6 or 7 in., Malik al Mansur, King of 
Yaman, at the close of the 15th century built an aqueduct to bring the 
water of the Bir Hamid into Aden (see Playfair's History of Yaman). 

The Salt Pcuis on the way to Sheikh Othman are curious. The sea- 
water is pumped into shallow pans cut out of the earth, and allowed 
to evaporate, and the salt which remains is collected. It belongs 
to an Italian company, who pay royalty on every ton of salt procured. 
The Keith-Falconer Medical Mission at Sheikh Othman, as well as 
Steamer Point, was established by the Hon. Ion Keith - Falconer, 
Arabian Prtjfessor, Cambridge, who died there. His tomb, erected by 
the Dowager Countess of Kintore, of fine Carrara marble, is in the 
military cemetery of Aden. The Mission, under the care of the 
doctors of the Free Church of Scotland, is most popular. At Steamer 

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Inirod. aden xliii 

Point there are three churches for the troops, Anglican, Scottish, and 
Roman. In the Crater there are two churches. 


There is no risk attending an expedition at any time in the day 
I beyond the Barrier Gate up to Sheikh Othman, distant about 5 m. 
Parties of officers now go shooting without being troubled in the 
I Abdali country, within a radius of 20 m. 

An expedition should be made, if a few days' stay at Aden is 
poerible, to Al-Hautah. There is a Dak Bungalow provided by the 
Saltan of La Hej, with bed -cots and crockery, etc., and cooking 
iitensik Food should be taken from Aden, where also camels for 
riding can be procured by application to the Commissariat officer. 
Fhe PoUtical Resident is always pleased to give every attention to any 
application for permission. The Sultan of Al-Hautah is most generous 
in his provision for strangers. It is the custom to call upon him. 

After leaving Aden the only land usually approached by steamers 
tx)iind for India is the Island of SoootiB., which is about 150 m. 
E. of Cape Guardafui, the E. point of the African continent The 
island is 71 ul long, and 22 broad. Most of the surface is a tableland 
about 800 ft above sea-leveL The capital is Tamarida or Hadibu, on 
the N. coast. The population is only 4000, or 4 to the square mile. 
It is pohtically a British possession subordinate to Aden, but adminis- 
tered in its internal affairs by its own chiefs. 

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The census of 1891 gave the population of India and Burma a^ 
follows : — 

Feudatory . 
Portuguese . 

Area in 
Square Miles. 


Persons per 
Square Mile. 










\ chiefly in 
j towns 




Of this total of 288,000,000 about 150,000 are British bom, of 
whom one half are soldiers. The army of British India compiisee : — 

British Troops 74,000 

Native 145,000 


In addition there are Native Reserves, 15,000 ; Imperial Service 
Troops furnished by Native States, 19,000 ; and European or Eurasian 
Volunteers, 27,000, making altogether 61,000 additional men trained 
by British officers. The Native States have semi -trained troops 
which are not included in this list. 

There are four races in India — ^the aborigines, or non-Aryans ; the 
pure Aryans, or twice -born castes ; the Mohammedans ; and the 
Hindus, a blend of Aryans and non- Aryans, who form the bulk ol 
the population. 

The census of 1891 gave, in round numbers, the following religious 
statistics : — 

Brahmanic . 
Animist (non- Aryan) 
Buddhist . 





Sikh . 





(strictly Muhammad, "the praised**) 

Mohammed (strictly Muhammad, "the praised**) was bom a1 
Mecca in 570 A.D., his father being a poor merchant who died soon 
after the birth of his son. When twenty-five years old he became 
manager or agent to a rich widow named Khadija, who, although 
fifteen years his senior, offered him marriage. By her he had two sons 
who died young, and four daughters, of whom the best known h 
Fatima. At the age of forty he received the first divine communica- 

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don in the solitude of the mountain Hira, near Mecca. The angel 
Gabriel apx>eared, and commanded him to preach the new religion. 
The Meccans persecuted him; his wife and uncle died; and he became 
poTertj - stricken. In June 622 he fled to Medina, where he was 
accepted as a prophet. He made war upon the Meccans, and finally 
succeeded in capturing Mecca, where he was then recognised as chief 
I and prophet He died in the arms of his favourite wife Ayesha, on 
the 8th June 632. 

The chief tenet of the Mohammedan religion is Islam, which means 
resignation, submission to the will of Qod, In its dogmatical form it 
is Imam (faith), in its practical Din (religion). The fundamental 
principle is, " There is no God but Gkxi ; and Mohammed is God's 
prophet," There are four great duties. 1. Daily prayers. These should 
tike place five times a day — at sunset, nightfall, daybreak, noon, and 
^moon. 2. The giving of alms. 3. The fast of Ramazan. 4. A 
pilgrimage to Mecca. In the Koran (much of which was dictated by 
ifobammed), a holy war or Jihad is enjoined as a religious duty, 
rhe Mohammedans believe in resurrection, heaven, and hell. In 
heaven are all manner of sensuous delights. In heU all who deny 
the unity of Qod will be tortured eternally. There is a separate 
heaven for women, but most of them will find their way to hell. 
Mohfiunmed enjoined care in ablution of the hands, mouth, and nose, 
before eating or praying. The Koran forbids the drinking of wine, 
or the eating of the flesh of swine. Usury, and games of chance are 
prohibited, and the laws against idolatry are very stringent. Every 
man may have four wives, and some concubine slaves, but he must 
not look upon the face of any other woman except a near relative. 
Hope and fear, reward and punishment, with a belief in predestina- 
tion, form the system of faith. It is contrary to the religion of 
Mohammed to make any figure or representation of anything living. 
There are two main Mohammedan sects. According to the Sunnis the 
.^ret four caliphs (representatives) after Mohammed are Abubekr, 
Onaar, Othman, and Ali in that order. The Shias consider that Ali 
was the first, excluding the other three. 

Eras. — ^The Mohammedan era of the Hijrah takes its name from 
the ** departure ** of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina on Friday the 
116th of July 622 A.D. This date was ordered by the Khalifah Umar 
;to be used as their era by Mohammedans. Their year consists of 
'{twelve lunar months, as follows : — 

Ihharrani ... 30 days. 

&&r .... 29 

SOiolavval 80 

Mus-aani . . 29 

Slomda '1 awal . 30 

Aooada 's-sani . . 29 .. 

= 354 days. 

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Rajah . 










Zi hijjah 



Their year, therefore, is 1 1 days short of the solar year, and their 
New Year's Day is every year 1 1 days earlier than in the preceding year. 
In every 30 years the month Zi hijjah is made to consist 11 times of 
30 days instead of 29, which accounts for the 9 hours in the lunar 
year, which = 354 days, 9 hours. To bring the Hijrah year into ac- 
cordance with the Christian year, express the former in years and 
decimals of a year, and multiply by -970225, add 621*54, and the 
total will correspond exactly to the Christian year. Or to effect the 
same correspondence roughly, deduct 3 per cent from the Hijrah year, 
add 621*54, and the result will be the period of the Christian year 
when the Mohammedan year begins. All trouble, however, of com- 
parison is saved by Dr. Ferdinand Wiistenfeld's Comparative Tables, 
Leipzig, 1854. 

The Tarilch Ilahi, or Era of Akba/r, and the Fasli or Harvest Era 

These eras begin from the commencement of Akbar's reign on Friday 
the 6th of Rabi ua-sani, 963 a.h.= 19th of February 1556. To make 
them correspond with the Christian, 593 must be added to the former. 

Mohammedan Festivals 

Bakari *Id, held on the 10th of Zi hijjah in memory of Abraham's 
offering of Ishmael, which is the version of the Koran. Camels, 
cows, sheep, goats, kids, or lambs are sacrificed. 

Muharram, a fast in remembrance of the death of Hasan and 
Husain, the sons of 'Ali by Fatimah the daughter of Mohammed. 
Hasan was poisoned by Yezid in 49 A.H., and Husain was murdei'ed at 
Karbala on the 10th of Muharram, 61 a.h. = 9th October 680 a.d. 
The fast begins on the Ist of Muharram and lasts 10 days. Moslems 
of the Shi'ah persuasion assemble in the T'aziyah Khana, house of 
mourning. On the night of the 7th an image of Burak, the animal 
(vehicle) on which Mohammed ascended to heaven, is carried in proces- 
sion, and on the 10th a Tabut or bier. The Tabuts are thrown into 
the sea, or other water, and in the absence of water are buried in the 
earth. The mourners move in a circle, beating their breasts with cries 
of '* Ai 1 Hasan. Ai ! Husain.'' At this time the fanatical spirit is 
at its height, and serious disturbances often take place (see Hobson 
Jobson in Yule's Glossary of Anglo-Indian Terms), 

Akhiri Ghahar Shanibahj held on the last Wednesday of Safar, when 
Mohammed recovered a little in his last illness and bathed for the last 
time. It is proper to write out seven blessings, wash off the ink and 
drink it, as also to bathe and repeat prayers. 

Bari Wafat^ held on the 13th of Rabi ul avval in memory of Mo- 
hammed's death, 1 1 a.h. 

Pir-i'Dastgiry held on the 10th of Rabi us-sani in honour of 
Saiyad 'Abdul Kadir Gilani, called Pir Piran or Saint of Saints, who 

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taught and died at Baghdad. During epidemics a green flag is carried 
in his name. 

Chiraghom-^r-Zindah Shah Madar, held on the 17th of Jumada '1 
avral in honour of a saint who lived at Makkhanpur, and who is 
thought to be still alive, whence he is called Zindah, " living." 

Urs-i-Kadvr JFaU, held on the 11th of Jumada's-sani, in honour of 
Khwajah Mu*in-ud-din Chisti, who was buried at A j mere in 628 a.h. 

Muraj'i-Mvharnmad, held on the 25th of Rajab, when the Prophet 
ascended to heaven. 

Shdb'i'barat^ night of record, held on the 16th of Sh'aban, 
when they say men's actions for next year are recorded. The 
Koran ought to be read all night, and the next day a fast should 
be observed. 

BaTnazany the month-long h&t of the Mohammedans. The night 
if the 27th is called Lailatu '1-Kadr, "night of power," because the 
£(»ran came down from heaven on that night. 

*Idu 'l-fttr, the festival when the fast of the Bamazan is broken. 
The evening is spent in rejoicing and in exhibitions of the Nantch girls. 

ChircLghan-i-Bamdah Nwwaa, held on the 16th of Zik'adah in 
honour of a saint of the Chisti family, who is buried at Ealbarga and 
is also called Gisu Daraz, ^' long ringlets." 

Some Mohammedan Dates AFrEcriNG India 


Birth of Mohammed , 570 

His departure from Mecca to Medina. The h\jrah era . . 622 

His death 632 

Arab invasions of Sind 647-828 

Ifahmud of Ghazni defeats the Rajputs at Peshawar 1001 
Mahmud captures Somnath in Guzerat, and carries off the temple 

gates to Ghazni 1024 

The Afghans of Ghor capture Ghazni 1152 

Mohammed of Ghor captures Delhi 1193 

\utb-ud-din (originally a slave) proclaims himself sovereign of 

India at Delhi 1206 

Altamsh extends the empire of the slave dynasty 1229 
Ala>nd-din conquers Southern India ; defeats several Mogul in- 

vaaions from Central Asia 1295-1315 

Timur, or Tamerlane, sacks Delhi 1398 

Babar the Mogul, sixth in descent from Timur, defeats the Afghan 

Saltans of Delhi, at the battle of Panipat 1524 

Babar defeats the Rajputs at Fatehpur Sikri near Agra . 1527 

Akbar defeats the Afgnans at Panipat 1556 

Akbur conquers the Rajputs, annexes Bengal, Guzerat, Sind, 

Cashmere, and Kandahar .1561-94 

Death of Akbar at Agra 1605 

Commencement of the struggle between the Mogul Emperor and 

tiMMarathas 1688 

Anmagzeb captures Sambhaji, the son of the Maratha chief Sivaji, 

wi puts him to death 1689 

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Death of Atuningzeb ; decline of the Mognl power .... 1707 

Rajputana lost to the Mofful 1715 

Defeat and persecution of the Sikhi, the Mogul putt their leader 

Banda to death with cruel tortures 1716 

Kabul severed from the Moguls 1738 

Nadir Shah, king of Persia, sacks Delhi 1739 

The Marathas obtain Malwa ; Oude becomes independent of Delhi 1743 

Hyderabad becomes independent 1748 

The Marathas obtain Southern Orissa ; and tribute from Bengal . 1751 
Invasion of the Afghan Ahmad Shah Durani, and cession of 

Punjab to him 1751-2 

Ahmad Shah Durani sacks Delhi 1758 

The Marathas capture Delhi 1759 

Defeat of the Marathas by the Afghans at the battle of Panipat . 1761 

General Lake captures Delhi 1803 

List of Soybbeigns who bKigned at Delhi from 1193 to 1837 a.d. 
The PathcMi, Afghan, or Qhori Kmgs qf Hindustan who reigned at Delhi, 

Muhammad bin Sam, Ist Dynasty . 


Aram Shah 

Shams-ud-din Altamsh . 
Ruknu-din Feroz .... 
Sultanah Riziah .... 



Kasirn-din Mahmud 



Jelalu-din Feroz Shah, 2nd Dynasty. 
Kuknu-din Ibrahim .... 
'Alau-din Muhammad 
Shahabu-din *Umar .... 
Kutbu-din Mubarak 
Nasiru-din Ehusru .... 
Ghiasu-din Tnghlak Srd Dynasty 
Muhammad bin Tughlak . 

Feroz Shah 



Muhammad Shah . . . . 



Nusrat Shah 

Mahmud restored .... 
Daulat Ehan Lodi . . . . 
Ehizr Khan Sa'id, ith Dynasty 

Mubarak Shah II 

Muhammad Shah 

'Alam Shah 

Bahlol Lodi, 5th Dynasty 



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The Mogul Emperors of HvndtLstcm, 







Bahadur Shah 

Jakndar Sh^ 

Famikhsiyar . . 



Nuhammad Shah 



WAlam ; 

Akbar II. ........ 

Bahadur Shah ....... 






































The first form of the Hindu religion was Vedism, the worship of 
i»ature, as represented in the songs and prayers collectively called 
^eda. Their chief gods were the triad Indra (rain), Agni (fire), and 
Surya (sun). Then followed Brahmanism, from hrihy to expand, which 
introduced the idea of a universal spirit, or essence, which permeated 
tverything. Men, gods, and the visible world were merely its mani- 
festations. Prose works, called Brahmanas, were added to the Vedas, 
^ explain the sacrificeff, and the duties of the Brahmans, or priests. 
"Hie oldest of these may have been written about 700 b.o. The code 
of Mann, which is believed to have originated shortly before the 
^^^iristian era, lays down the rules of domestic conduct and ceremony. 
^t divides Hindus into four castes. First, the Brahmans ; second, 
'^e warriors, called Kshattriyas or Rajputs, literally " of the royal 
^ock"; third, the agricultural settlers, called Vaisyas. All these 
^ing of Aryan descent^ were honoured by the name of the Twice-born 
"*8te8. Fourth, were the Sudras, or conquered non- Aryan tribes, who 
*<»me serfs. They were not allowed to be present at the great 
'•^wnal sacrifices, or at the feasts, and they were given the severest 
toO in the fields, and the dirty work of the village community. The 
^JertB asserted that they, the Brahmans, came from the mouth of 
^^•IfflMi ; the Rajputs or Kshattriyas from his arms ; the Vaisyas from 
^tkighs; and the Sudras from his feet Caste was originally a dis- 
^ndia] ^ ^ ^ ^ Googfe 


tinction between priest, soldier, artisan, and menial Each trade in 
time came to have a separate caste. The priests insisted on the rales 
of caste as a means of securing their own social supremacy. 

The modem Hindu religion is a development of Brahmanism. 
There is one impersonal and spiritual Being which pervades everything 
— one Gk>d, called Brahma. His three personal manifestations are as 
Brahma, the Creator ; Vishnu, the Preserver ; and Siva, the Destroyer 
and Reproducer. Brahma, the Creator, is generally represented with 
four heads and four arms, in which he holds a portion of the Veda, a 
spoon for lustral observations, a rosary, and a vessel of lustral water 
(see Plate). Sarasvati, the wife of Brahma, rides on a peacock, and 
has a musical instrument, the " vina," in her arms. She is the goddess 
of music, speech, the arts, and literature. The sin of lying is readily 
expiated by an offering to her (see Plate). 

Vishnu holds a quoit in one hand, a conk shell in another, and I 
sometimes a mace or club in another, and a lotus flower in a fourth 
(see Plate). A common picture shows him with his wife, Lakshmi, 
sitting on Naga, the snake (eternity), with Brahma springing on a 
lotus from his navel (see Plate). He is said to have come down from 
heaven to the earth nine times, and is expected a tenth time. These 
ten incarnations (avatara, or descents) are — (1) a fish ; (2) a tortoise ; 
(3) a boar ; (4) a man lion ; (5) a dwarf ; (6) Parasu rama ; (7) RamnOy 
the hero of the epic poem, the Ramayana. His wife, Sita, was carried 
off by Havana, the tyrant king of Ceylon, and recovered by Rama after 
making a bridge of rocks to the island. He was aided by Hanuman, 
a non-Aryan chief. Rama carries a bow and arrows (see Plate). He is 
revered throughout India as the model of a son, a brother, and a hus- 
band. When friends meet it is common for them to salute each other 
by uttering Rama's name twice. No name is more commonly given 
to children, or more commonly invoked at funerals and in the hour of 
death. Hanvwman is represented as a monkey, his images being 
smeared with vermilion (see Plate). He is worshipped as the model 
of a faithful devoted servant (8) Krishna,, whose biography is given 
in the epic poem, Mahabharata, although himself a powerful chief, was 
brought up among peasants, and is peculiarly the god of the lower 
classes. As a boy he killed the serpent Kaliya by trampling upon his 
head. He lifted the mountain-range Qovardhana on his finger to 
shelter the herdsmen's wives from the wrath of Indra, the Vedic rain- 
god. Krishna had countless wives and 108,000 sons. He is a sen- 
suous god. He stands on a snake with his left hand holding its body, 
and a lotus in his right (see Plate). He is painted blue. Sometimes 
he is playing the flute. (9) Buddha. The adoption of Buddha as one 
of the incarnations was a compromise with Buddhism. (10) Kalki. 
Vishnu will descend as an armed warrior on a winged white horse 
for the purpose of dissolving the universe at the close of the fourth or 

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Mrod. THE HINDUS li 

Kali age, of 432,000 years, when the world has become wholly 
Devotion to Vishnu in his human incarnations of Rama and 
Krishna (who were real men) is the most popular religion of India. 
His descents upon earth were for the delivery of men from the three- 
fold miseries of life, viz. (1) from lust, anger, avarice, and their evil 
consequences ; (2) from beasts, snakes, wicked men, etc, ; (3) from 
demons. Vishnu has power to elevate his worshippers to eternal 
bliss in his own heaven. 

Vishnu's wife Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and beauty, sprang 
from the froth of the ocean when churned by gods and demons (see 
Pkte). An image of her is often to be found in the houses of shop- 

Siva is also called Mahadeva, the great god, and his wife who is 
known by several names and in several characters as Parvati (see Plate) 
be goddess of beauty, Durga or Kali, the terrible (see Plate), is also 
tailed Devi, the goddess (see Plate). The commonest of these is Kali, 
vho requires to be propitiated by sacrifices (see Plate). Siva holds 
% trident, an antelope, a noose for binding his enemies, and a kind 
of drum in his four hands, and wears a tiger's skin about the loins 
(see Plate). He is a less human and more mystical god than Vishnu, 
and is worshipped in the form of a symbol, the linga, or as a bulL 
In his character of destroyer Siva haunts cemeteries and burning- 
uTounds, but his terrible qualities are now more especially associated 
with his wife Kali. He is the impersonation of the reproductive power 
of nature, the word Siva meaning "blessed" or "auspicious." He 
is the typical ascetic and self-mortifier. And as a learned philosopher 
he is the chief god of the priests. 

Siva has two sons Ganesh, or Ganpati, and Kartikkeya. Ganesh has 
i fat body and an elephant's head (see Plate). He is a great favourite, 
being worshipped for good luck or success. It is as a bringer of success 
Jiat he is invoked at the beginning of every Indian book. Kartikkeya 
lias six heads and twelve arms, and is a warlike god, the leader of the 
kets of good demons (see Plate). In the south of India he is called 
Skanda or Subrahmanya. 

The Hindu theory of metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls, 
arises from the belief that evil proceeds from antecedent evil, and that 
the penalty must be suffered in succeeding existences. According to 
Hindu belief there are eighty-four laks of different species of animals 
diroiigh which the soul of a man is liable to pass, and the Hindu's 
object is to get rid of the series of perpetual transmigrations so that he 
may live in the same heaven with the personal god. To this end he 
makes offerings to the image of a god, Krishna, Ganesh, or Kali being 
the most generally selected ; he abstains from killing any animal ; he 
givw money to the priests ; and does penances which sometimes extend 

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to severe bodily torture. His religion amounts to little more than the 
fear of demons, of the loss of caste, and of the priests. Demons have 
to be propitiated, the caste rules strictly kept, and the priests presented 
with gifts. Great care has to be taken not to eat food cooked by a 
man of inferior caste ; food cooked in water must not be eaten together 
by people of different castes, and the castes are entirely separated with 
regard to marriage and trades. A sacred thread of cotton is worn by 
the higher castes. Washing in any holy river, particularly the Qanges, 
and more especially at Allahabad, Benares, Hard war, and other excep- 
tionally holy spots, is of great efficacy in preserving caste, and cleansing 
the soul of impurities. 

The traveller should remember that all who are not Hindus are 
outcasts, contact with whom may cause the loss of caste to a Hindu. 
He should not touch any cooking or water-holding utensil belongingj 
to a Hindu, nor disturb Hindus when at their meals ; he should not 
molest a cow, or shoot any sacred animal, and should not pollute holy 
places by his presence if any objection is made. The most sacred of 
all animals is the cow, then the serpent and the monkey. The eagle 
(Gkiruda) is the attendant of Vishnu, the bull of Siva, the goose of 
JBrahma, the elephant of Indra, the tiger of Durga, the buffalo of Rama, 
the rat of Qanesh, the ram of Agni, the peacock of Eartikkeya, the 
ps^rot of Kama (the god of love) ; the fish, tortoise, and boar are 
incarnations of Vishnu ; and the crocodile, cat> dog, crow, many trees, 
plants, stones, rivers and tanks, ^re sacred. 

The Kali-Yvg^ or Hindu Era 

According to the Hindus, the world is now in its 4th Yug, or Age, 
the Kali- Yug, which commenced from the equinox in 18th Feb. 3102 
B.C., and will last 432,000 years. The 3 preceding ages were the 
Satya, the Treta, and the Dwapara. The Satya, or Age of Truth, 
lasted 1,728,000 years; the Treta (from tra^ "to preserve") lasted 
1,296,000; and the Dwapara (from dwa, "two," and pa/r^ "after") 
864,000 years. 

The Era of Vilcramaditya or Samtoat 

This era commenced from the first year of King Vikramaditya, who 
began to reign at Ujjain 57 b.c. 

The Shaka Era, or Era of Shalivahana 

Shalivahana, having a shall (lion) for his vehicle (vahana), was a 
king who reigned in the S. of India. The Shaka era dates from his 
birth 78 A.D. 

Era of Pa/rashurama 

This era is current in Malabar and Travancore, and dates from a 
king of that name, who reigned 1176 A.D. 

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j^D^rga or Kali 






To face p. m. 

Some Common Forms of Hindu Gods 

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Some Common Forms of Hindu Gods, 

y u 



1,2,8, and 4, Followers of Vishrni. 
5, 6, 7, and 8, Followers of Siva. 

Caste Marks. 

; Buddha 

( Teaching) 





(ReyiouMcingthe WorJdJ 

TofoUow Plate 1 after p. lii.^ 

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The Hindu year has 6 seasons or ritiis : Vasantay " spring/* gnshma^ 
"the hot season/' varsha, "the rains," sharada, "the autumn" (from 
shri, "to wither"), hemanta, "the winter," shisMra, "the cool season." 

Table of the Seasons and Months in Sanscrit, ffiTuht, and English 

1. Vasanta . 

2. Gbishma . 

3. Varsha . . 

4. Sharada . 

5. Hemanta . 

6. Shishira . 

Names of Months. 




/ Chaitra. 
t Vaishakha. 
/ lyeshtha. 
1 A'shadha. 
J Sravana. 
1 Bhadra. 
J Ashwina. 
/ Marffasirsha. 
1 Paaiha. 
1 Phalgona. 













May. ) 
June. } 
July. 1 
August, j 
September. \ 
October. \ 
November. \ 
December. / 

Hindu Festivals 

MaJcar Sankrcmti, — On the 1st of the month Magh (about 12th 
January) the sun enters the sign Capricorn or Makar. From this day 
till the arrival of the sun at the N. point of the zodiac the period is 
called Uttarayana, and from that time till he returns to Makar is 
Dakshinayana, the former period being lucky and the latter unlucky. 
At this festival the Hindus bathe, and rub themselves with sesamum 
oiL They also invite Brahmans and give them pots full of sesamum 
seed. They wear new clothes with ornaments, and distribute sesamum 
seed mixed with sugar. 

Vasamt Panchami is on the 5th day of the light half of Magh, and 
is a festival in honour of Vasanta or Spring. 

Shdvaraij the night of Shiva, is held about the middle or end of 
February, when Shiva is worshipped with flowers during the whole 

HoH. — ^A festival in honour of Krishna, held fifteen days before the 
moon is at its fcdl, in the month Phagun, celebrated with the squirting 
or throwing of red or yellow powder over every one. All sorts of licence 
are indulged in. It is a kind of carnival. 

Qudhfi Pada/va, on the Ist of Chait. The leaves of the Melia 
Azadvr<ichia are eaten. On this day the New Year commences, and 
the Almanac for that year is worshipped. 

Ramanavami, held on the 9th of Chait, in honour of Eamachan- 
dra, who was bom on this day at Ayodhya. A small image of Rama 

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is put into a cradle and worshipped, and red powder called giUal is 
thrown about. 

Vada SavUri, held on the 15th of Jeth, when women worship 
the Indian fig tree. 

Ashadhi Ekadashiy the 1 1th of the month Asarh, sacred to Yishnn, 
when that deity reposes for 4 months. 

Nag Paruiiham% held on the 5th of Sawan, when the serpent Kali 
is said to have been killed by Krishna. Ceremonies are performed to 
avert the bite of snakes. 

NaraU Pumimay held on the 1 5th of Sawan. The stormy season 
is then considered over, and oflPerings of cocoa-nuts are thrown into the 
sea on the west coast. 

Gokul Ashtami, held on the 8th of the dark half of Sawan, when 
Krishna is said to have been bom at Qokul. Rice may not be eaten on thii 
day, but fruits and other grains. At night Hindus bathe and worship 
an image of Krishna, adorning it with the Ocymum sanctum. The 
chief votary of the temple of Kanhoba dances in an ecstatic fashion, and 
is worshipped and receives large presents. He afterwards scourges the 

Pitri Amavasyay held on the 30th of Sawan, when Hindus go 
to Yalkeshwar in Bombay and bathe in the tank called the Banganga, 
which is said to have been produced by Kama, who pierced the 
ground with an arrow and brought up the water. Shraddas or cere- 
monies in honour of departed ancestors are performed on the side ol 
the tank. 

Oam^esh GhaJtwihi^ held on the 4th of Bhadon, in honour ol 
Ganesh, a clay image of whom is worshipped and Brahmans are 
entertained. The Hindus are prohibited from looking at the moon 
on this day, and if by accident they should see it, they get 
themselves abused by their neighbours in the hope that this wil] 
remove the curse. 

BiM, PancJiarm, held on the day following Gkmesh Chaturthi, ii 
honour of the 7 Rishia 

Gauri Vahan, held on the 7th of Bhadon, in honour of Shiva'i 
wife, called Qauri or the Fair. Cakes in the shape of pebbles are eatei 
by women. 

Woman Dwadashi, on the 12th of Bhadon, in honour of the 5tl 
incarnation of Vishnu, who assumed the shape of a dwarf to destroj 

Anamt Chaturdashiy held on the 14th of Bhadon, in honour d 
Ananta, the endless serpent I 

Pitri PaJe»hy held on the last day of Bhadon, in honour of thii 
Pitras or Ancestors, when oflPerings of fire and water are made v 

Daaara, held on the 10th of Asan, in honour of Durga, who 

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this day slew the buffalo-headed demon Maheshasiir. On this day 
Bama marched against Havana, and for this reason the Marathas chose 
it for their expeditions. Branches of the Bviea frondosa are offered at 
the temples. This is an auspicious day for sending children to school. 
The 9 preceding days are called Navaratra, when Brahmans are paid to 
ledte hymns to Durga. 

DiwcUi, " feast of lamps/' from dfimif " a lamp," and ali, " a row," 
held on the new moon of Kartik, in honour of Kali or Bhawani, and 
more particularly of Lakshmi, when merchants and bankers count their 
wealth and worship it It is said that Vishnu killed a giant on that 
day, and the women went to meet him with lighted lamps. In 
memory of this lighted lamps are set afloat in rivers and in the sea, 
and auguries are drawn from them according as they shine on or are 


Bali Pratipada is held on the 1st day of Kartik, when Hindus fill 

a basket with rubbish, put a lighted lamp on it, and throw it away 

outside the house, saying, ** Let troubles go and the kingdom of Bali 


Kartik Ekadashiy held on the 11th of Kartik, in honour of Vishnu, 

who is said then to rise from a slumber of 4 months. 

Kartik Pumvma, held on the full moon of Kartik, in honour of 

Shiva, who destroyed on that day the demon Tripurasura. 


Gkiutama, afterwards called Buddha (the enlightened), was bom in 
the sixth century B.C. His father was a prince of the Sakya tribe, and 
of the Kshattriya or Rajput caste. Driving in his pleasure grounds 
Qautama met a man bowed down with age ; then a man stricken with 
incurable disease ; then a corpse ; and finally an ascetic walking in a 
calm and dignified manner. Much troubled by the spectacle of human 
suffering, he decided to leave his happy home, his loved wife, and the 
child which had just been born to him ; he cut off his long hair ; 
exchanged his princely raiment for the rags of a passer-by ; and went 
on alone as a homeless beggar. This is called the Great Renunciation. 
He studied under two Brahman hermits in the Patna district, who 
taught him to mortify the body. For six years he inflicted severe 
austerities upon himself, and gradually reduced his food to a grain of 
rice per diem. But no peace of mind or divine enlightenment came. 
He thereupon gave up penance and sat in meditation under a fig tree 
(the Pipal), where he was tempted by Mara, the personification of 
carnal desire, to return to his home and the world, but he resisted and 
thns became the Enlightened. 

Buddha taught that all life is suffering ; that suffering arises from 
indulging desires, especially the desire for continuity of life ; and that 

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the only hope of relief lies in the suppression of desire and the ex- 
tinction of existence. A man's object should be to become enlightened 
by meditation and introspection, so as to earn a cessation of the cycle 
of lives through which he would otherwise be destined to pass, and 
thus finally to reach nirvana, which puts an end to all re^ birth. He 
should accumulate merit with the object of annihilating all conscious- 
ness of self; he should respect the life of all creation in order to earn 
the extinction of his own. In this task he must depend upon himself 
alone, and not upon any spiritual aid or guidance. ^1 men are 
capable of attaining nirvana, without distinction of caste, and neither 
sacrifices nor bodily mortifications are of any avaiL It is a pessimist 
and atheist creed, to which, however, excellent moral rules have been 
attached. Buddhism gave some encouragement to education ; it in- 
culcated universal benevolence and compassion; and stimulated exertion 
by declaring that a man's future depended, not upon sacrifices and 
self-torture, but upon his own acts. It is *' the embodiment of the 
eternal verity that as a man sows he will reap ; associated with the 
personal duties of mastery over self and kindness to all men ; and 
quickened into a popular religion by the example of a noble and 
beautiful life" (Sir W. W. Hunter). "It substituted a religion of 
emotion and sympathy for one of ceremonial and do^ma " (H. G. Keene). 
It never ousted Brahmanism from India, but the two systems existed 
together from about b.c. 500 to a.d. 800, when it finally disappeared 
from India (except Ceylon). Sir Monier Williams estimates that 
there are not more than 100,000,000 Buddhists in the world, and 
that this number is decreasing. Buddha is generally represented in 
one of three attitudes ; he sits cross-legged, either with his hands in 
contact in an attitude of profound meditation, or with one hand point- 
ing to the earth, or with both hands raised in the preaching posture. 
His ears sometimes reach to his shoulders (see Plate). 

The small sect of Jains are the only Buddhists left in India (if 
Ceylon be excluded). Their founder was Mahavira, a contemporary 
of Qautama. The Jains consider bodily torture to be necessary to 
salvation ; they do not agree with other Buddhists in denying the 
existence of a soul, but believe that even inorganic matter has a soul, 
and that a man's soul may pass into a stone. They carry the Buddhist's 
concern for animal life to an extreme. Their figures of Buddha are 

Buddhist Festivals 

The New Year Festival corresponds to the Makara-sankranti of 
the Hindus (see p. liii), but in Burma it often takes place as late as 
April At a given moment, which is ascertained by the astrologers of 
Mandalay, a cannon is fired off announcing the descent of the King of 
the Naths (genii) upon earth. Then begin the Saturnalia. 

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The last birth of Qautama is celebrated at the end of April or 
beginning of May by the worship of his images, followed by processions. 

The festival of lamps, corresponding to the Hindu ** diwali " (see 
p. \y,)y occurs at the end of the rainy season, and is a day of rejoicing. 

In Ceylon the coming of the Buddha to their island is celebrated 
by a festival in March or April, when the pilgrims visit either his 
fbotprint on Adam's Peak, or the sacred £o-tree at Anuradhapura. 

Some eablt Hindu and Buddhist dates 


The Yedas or hymns (probably about) 1400-800 

Birth of Gautama Buddha (the Enlightened) . (probably) 557 

Death of Buddha ; First Great CounoU of Buddhists (probably) 478 

Second Great Buddhist Council 378 

Alexander the Great crosses the Indus near Attock ; defeats Poms 
at the passage of the Jhelum (Hvdaspes) ; captures Mooltan, where 
he is severely wounded ; and tnen retires to Persia via Karachi 
and Baluchistan, leaving Greek garrisons behind him . 327-6 
Chandra Gupta, a Hindu, conquers the Gangetio valley . 316 
Chandra Gupta receives a Greek ambassador, named Megastheues . 306 
Asoka, grandson of Chandra Gupta, is converted to Buddhism . 257 
Asoka convenes the third Buddnist Council at Patna, and dissemi- 
nates the principles of the faith 244 

The Mahabharata, an epic poem of the heroic age in Northern 
India ; the Ramayana, an epic poem relating to the Aryan advance 
into Southern India (of about 1000 B.C.) ; and the code of Manu 
laying down the laws and ceremonies for Brahmans — are all of 

uncertain age, but may date from 200-500 

The era of Samwat dates from Yikramadilhra, of Ujjain, who with- 
stood the inroads of the Scythians. The drama of Sakuntala, 
or the lost ring 57 


The Northern form of Buddhism becomes one of the State religions 

of China 66 

The era of Saka dates from Salivahana 78 

The fourth and last Buddhist Council held under the Scythian King 

K%Tii«hVii. (about) 100 

Pilgrimage of the Chinaman Fa Hiang to Buddhist shrines in India 400 

Similar pilgrimage of the Chinaman fiiouen Thsang 629-45 

The Vishnuite doctrines embodied in the Vishnu Purana . 1045 
Birth of Nanak Shah, a Hindu reformer, who preaches the abolition 

of caste and establiishes the Sikh religion 1469 


The Sikhs are a sect of Hindus who follow a reformer named 
Kaoak Shah, who was bom near Lahore in 1469. The word Sikh 
means a " disciple " of the Guru or teacher. Except in denouncing 
idolatry and in welcoming all ranks, without distinction of caste, 

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Iviii THE 8IKHS India 

Nanak's pliilosophy was very similar to that of the worshippers of 
Vishnu. Quru Qovind finally abolished caste, established the Sikh 
religion on a political and military basis, and stimulated the worship 
of the Qranth, or holy book, which is now the chief Sikh god. 

In the middle of the 16th century the Sikhs, who had been 
gradually rising into power, struggled with the Afghans for supremacy 
in the Punjab. In 1716 their last Quru, Banda, was tortured to 
death by the Mogul In 1764 they fought a long and doubtful battle 
with the Afghan Ahmad Shah Durani, in the vicinity of Amritsar. 
They then captured Lahore, destroyed many mosques, and made their 
Afghan prisoners, in chains, wash the foundations with the blood of 

From this period, 1764, the Sikhs became the ruling power in the 
Punjab. The following is a chronological table of their Gurus, or 
spiritual leaders. Govind refused to name a successor. He said : — 
" He who wishes to behold the Guru, let him search the Granth." 


A. Si. 

1. Nanak, founder of the Sikh sect, born 1469, died .... 1539 

2. ADi,ad 1562 

3. Amara das ^ 1552 

4. Ram das, built the lake temple at Amritsar 1574 

5. Arjun Mai, compiled the Adi GrarUh 1581 

6. Har Govind, first warlike leader 1606 

7. Har Eae, his grandson 1644 

8. Har Krishna, died at Delhi 1661 

9. Tegh Bahadur, put to death by Aurangzeb in 1676 . . .1664 

10. Govind, remodelled the Sikh Government 1675 

11. Banda 1708 

The Sikhs were now formed into confederacies called Misls, each 
under a Sirdar, or chief. These were — 

1. Bhangi, called from their fondness for bhang, extract of hemp. 

2. Nishani, standard-bearers. 

3. Shahid or Nihang, martyrs and zealots. 

4. Ram^arhi, from Kamgarh, at Amritsar. 

5. Nakeia, fh)m a country so called. 

6. Alhnwali, from the village in which Jassa lived, 

7. Ghaneia or Ehaneia. 

8. Faizulapuri or SlnghpurL 

9. Sukarchakia, 

10. Dalahwala. 

11. Erora Singhia or Panigarhia. 

12. PhuUda. 

All the other Mills were, about the year 1823, gubdued by Ranji 
Sing of the Sukarchakia, and for a long time Ranjit was liie znos 
prominent personage in India. He died in 1839. 


>d by Google 

Mrod. THB PAR8IS liz 


The Parsis, formerly inhabitants of Persia, are the modem followers 
of Zoroaster, and now form a numerous and influential portion of the 
population of Surat and Bombay. 

When the Empire of the Sassanides was destroyed by the Saracens, 
about 650 A.D., t^e Zoroastrians were persecuted, and some of them 
fled to Hindustan, where the Rajah of Guzerat was their principal 
protector. They suflfered considerably from the persecution of Moham- 
medans until the time of the British occupation. Their worship, in 
the course of time, became corrupted by Hindu practices, and the 
reverence for fire and the sun, as emblems of the glory of Ormuzd, 
degenerated into idolatrous practices. The sacred fire, which Zoroaster 
was said to have brought from heaven, is kept burning in consecrated 
spots, and temples are built over subterranean fires. Priests tend the 
fires on the altars, chanting hymns and burning incense. A partially 
successful attempt was made in 1862 to restore the creed of Zoroaster 
to its original purity. In order not to pollute the elements, which 
they adore, they neither bum nor bury their dead, but expose their 
corpses to be devoured by carnivorous birds (see Towers of Silence, 
Bombay). There is now a marked desire on the part of the Parsis to 
adapt themselves to the manners and customs of Europeans. The 
public and private schools of Bombay are largely attended by their 
children, and every effort is made to procure the translation of English 
works. Many follow commercial pursuits, and several of the wealthiest 
merchants of India are members of this religious community. 

Pabsi Months 

There are 12 months, of 30 days each, and 6 days are added at 
the end. They approximate as below to the English montha 

1. Farvardin, September. 

2. Ardibihisht, October. 

3. Khurdad, November. 

4. Tir, December. 

5. Amardad, January. 

6. Sharivar, February. 

7. Mihr, March. 

8. Aban, April. 

9. Adar, May. 

10. Deh, June. 

11. Bahman, July. 

12. Asfandiyar, August 

The Parsi Festivals 

PcUati, New Year's Day. The Ist of Farvardin. The Parsis rise 
earlier than usual, put on new clothes, and pray at the Fire Temples. 
They then visit friends and join hands, distribute alms and give 
clothes to servants and others. This day is celebrated in honour of 
the accession of Yezdajird to the throne of Persia, 632 a.d. 

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Farvardin-JasaUf on the 19th of Farvardin, on which ceremonies 
are performed in honour of the dead called Frohars or " protectors." 
There are 1 1 other Jasans in honour of various angels. 

Khurdad'Sal, the birthday of Zoroaster, who is said to have been 
bom 1200 B.O. at the city of Rai or Rhages near Teheran. 

Jamshidi Naurog^ held on the 2l8t of Mihr. It dates from the time 
of Jamshid, and the Parsis ought to commence their New Year from it. 

ZaHa^ Diso, held on the 11th of Deh in remembrance of the 
death of Zartasht or Zoroaster. 

Muktady held on the last ten days of the Zoroastrian year, including 
the last five days of the last month, and the five intercalary days called 
the Gatha Gahamhars. A clean place in the house is adorned with fruits 
and flowers, and silver or brass vessels filled with water are placed there. 
Ceremonies are performed in honour of the souls of the dead. 


Rbliqion has so great an influence upon architecture that we may 
most conveniently classify the different styles in India as Buddhist, 
Brahman, and Mohammedan. 

Buddhist, — Although Gautama preached 600 B.C., his religion made 
little progress before its adoption by the great Asoka, who reigned 
from 272 to 236 ac. The palaces, halls, and temples which may 
have existed before the time of Asoka were made of wood, and have 
perished. There was no stone architecture in India before Asoka, 
and all the monuments known to us for five or six centuries after his 
date are Buddhist. 

Every Buddhist locality was sanctified by the presence of relics, 
which were contained in dagobas, or topes. Some topes were without 
relics, the oldest and simplest form of tope being a single pillar 
(sthambra) either regularly built, or carved out of one stone, in which 
case it was called a lat Where a tope had relics, they were con- 
tained in a sort of box or case at the summit of the tope, called a tee. 
Rails are found surrounding topes, or enclosing sacred trees, pillars, 
eta Chaityas, assembly halls or temples, correspond to the churches 
of the Christian religion. Yiharas are monasteries. 

The best known topes are those at Bhilsa, Sarnath, and Buddh 
Qaya. There are also a number of them scattered over the ancient 
province of Qandara, the capital of which was Peshawar — especially at 
Manikyala. In Ceylon there are topes or dagobas at Anuradhapura 
and Pollonarua. The lats, or pillars, stood in front of, or beside, each 
gateway of every tope, and in front of each chaitya hall. Asoka was 
the great builder of pillars. Two of his are still in existence at 
Delhi, and a more complete specimen at Allahabad. The iron pillar 
in the mosque at old Delhi is not Buddhist, but seems to be 

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dedicated to Vishnu. The most interesting rails are at Sanchi and 
Buddh Gaya ; the remains of the Bharhut rail are at Calcutta, and 
of the Amaravati rail in the British and Madras Museums. There are 
good examples of torans, or gateways, with the rail at Sanchi. 

Our knowledge of the chaitya halls or temples, and the Viharas 
(monasteries), is derived from the rock-cut examples. This method of 
working is much easier and less expensive than the ordinary process 
of buUding. For a cave nothing hut excavation is required ; while 
for a building the stone has to be quarried, transported — perhaps a 
long distance — and then carved and erected. According to Fergusson ^ 
the complete excavation of a temple, both externally as well as 
internally, would cost only about one-tenth of the expenditure 
necessary for building ; and the Buddhist caves were still cheaper, as 
the rock was not cut away externally, the interior chamber alone 
being excavated. Examples of Chaityas are to be found at Karli, 
Bhaja and Bedsa, Behar, Nassick, EUora, Ajanta, and Eanhari. The 
vihara is a kind of court with cells, galleries two or three stories high, 
and richly carved pillars. The most notable specimens are at 
Udayagiri and Khandagiri, Bhaja and Bedsa, Ajanta, NhSsick, Bagh, 
Salsette, Dumnar, EUora, Jamalgarhi, and Takht-i-bahi (near Peshawar). 

The architecture of the Buddhists proper was succeeded by that 
of the JainSy who are the only followers of that religion remaining in 
India (excepting Ceylon). The Jains were great builders. Unlike 
the Buddhists they were not great cave-cutters, though some examples 
of their cave- work exist at EUora. The characteristic Jain feature is the 
horizontal archway, which avoids the strain from the outward thrust 
of a true radiating arch. Indeed, with the exception of some 
specimens of the time of Akbar, no radiating arch exists in any 
Baddhist, Jain, or Hindu temple in India up to the present day. 
Another Jain feature is the carved bracket form of capital, which, 
springing from the piUars at about two-thirds of their height, extends 
to the architraves, and forms a sort of diagonal strut to support them. 
The leading idea of the plan of a Jain temple was a number of 
columns arranged in squares. Their domes, like their arches, were 
bmlt horizontally, on eight pUlars forming an octagon, with four 
external pillars at the angles to form a square. The lateral pressure of 
a dome built on the radiating plan by the Roman, Byzantine, or Gtothic 
architects prevents the use of elegant pillars, great cyUnders with 
heavy abutments being necessary. The decoration of the Jain domes, 
being horizontal, allows of more variety than can be given to the 
vertical ribs of Roman or Gk)thic models, and has rendered some of 
the Indian domes the most exquisite specimens of elaborate roofing 
that can anywhere be seen. The Indian dome allows the use of 
pendants from the centre, which have a Ughtness and elegance never 
^ Hiitory qf Indian and JBastem ArcMtecture, 

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even, imagined in Gothic art. On the other hand they are necessarily 
small, and require large stones, whUe a dome on the radiating 
principle can be built of small bricks. The Jains built their templee 
in groups, or cities, of temples, as at Palitana, Parasnath, Gimar, 
Mount Abu, Muktagiri, Eliajnrahu, and Gyraspore. Their love 
of the picturesque led them to build their cities sometimes on 
hill-tops, as at Mount Abu, sometimes in deep and secluded valleys, as 
at Muktagiri. The two towers of Fame and Victory at Chittore are 
examples of Jain work, called sikras. Of modem Jain architecture 
the most notable specimens are at Sonagarh and Muktagiri ; the 
temple of Hathi Sing (a.d. 1848) at Ahmedabad ; and the temple at 
Delhi, about 100 years old. 

Brahman architecture is divided by Fergusson into the three styles 
of Dravidian, Chalukyan, and Indo- Aryan. The Dravidian op 
Madras architecture is best seen at Tanjore, Trivalup, Sri Rangam, 
Chidambaram, Rameswaram, Madura, Tinnevelly, Conjeveram, Coim- 
batore, and Vijayanagar. ** There is nothing in Europe that can be 
compared with these Dravidian temples for grandeur and solemnity, 
and for parallels to them we must go back to ancient Egypt and 
Assyria" (Sir G. Birdwood). The temple itself, which is called the 
Vimana, is always square in plan, surmounted by a pyramidal roof of 
one or more stories ; a porch or Mantapa covers the door leading to 
the cell in which the image of the god is placed ; the gate pyramids 
or Gbpuras are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures 
which, with numerous other buildings, surround the Vimanas. The 
chief Dravidian rock-cut temples, which, unlike the Buddhist caves, 
are excavated externally as well as internally, are at Mahabalipur and 
Ellora. The palaces exhibit Mohammedan influence, having the 
Moorish pointed arch. They are to be found at Madura, Tanjore, 
and Vijayanagar. 

The GhcUukyan style was at its best in the province of Mysore 
during the three centuries a.d. 1000 to 1300, when the BeUalas 
ruled there. They erected groups of temples at Somnathpur, Belur, 
and Hullabid. Other Chalukyan examples are at Warangal and 
Hammoncondah. This style is remarkable for elegance of outline and 
elaboration of detail. The artistic combination of horizontal with 
vertical lines, and the play of outline and of light and shade, especially 
in the Hullabid example, far surpass anything in Gothic art The 
animal friezes begin, as is usual in India, with elephants on the bottom 
line ; then lions, then horses, then oxen, above which are pigeons. 

Examples of the Indo- Aryan, or Northern style, are at Bhuvanesh- 
war, Khajurahu, the black pagoda at Konarak, the temple of Jagannath 
at Puri, the Garuda pillar at Jajpur, the Teli-Ka-Mandir at Gwalior, 
the temple of Vriji at Chitor, the golden temple of Bishweshwar at 
Benares, the red temple at Bindraban, and the modem temple erected 

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bj Sindhia's motber at Gwalior. There are three rook-oat temples of 
thiB stjle at Badami, and the Dumar Lena at Ellora. 

Of Brahman civil architecture the best specimens are the tomhs 
of Sangram Sing and Amara Sing at Oodejpore, and of Bakhtawar 
Sing at Alwar. The latter shows the foliated arch which is so 
common in Mogul buildings ; and it also shows the Bengali curved 
comices^ whose origin was the bending of bamboos used as a support 
fop the thatch, or tiles. The finest Brahman palaces are at Oodeypore, 
Datia, Orchba, Amber, Dig, and the Man Sing Palace at Gwalior. 
The beauty of Hindu architecture is greatly enhanced by the use of 
picturesque sites, either on hills, in valleys, or where the aesthetic 
value of water may be utilised. At Rajsamundra, in Oodeypore, for 
eiample, the bund or dam of the artificial lake is covered with steps, 
vhich are broken by pavilions and kiosks, interspersed with fountains 
nd statues, the whole forming a fairy scene of architectural beauty. 

The chief styles of Mohammedan architecture are the Pathan and 
the Mogul. The Pathans found in the colonnaded courts of the 
Jain temples nearly all that was required for a ready-made mosque, 
rbey had to remove the temple in its centre, and erect a new wall 
on the west side, adorned with niches — mihrabs — pointing towards 
Mecca ; and they added a screen of arches with rich and elaborate 
carvings. The best examples are at Delhi and Ajmere. Of the screen 
at the Kutub mosque, Delhi, Fergusson says that the carving is, 
v?ithout exception, the most exquisite specimen of its class known to 
exist anywhere. He says of the Minar that '*both in design and 
finish it far surpasses any building of its class in the whole world " ; 
^nd considers that Giotto's Campanile at Florence, " beautiful though 
it is, wants that poetry of design and exquisite finish of detail which 
marks every moulding of the minar." During the Pathan period 
tall minarets were not attached to the mosques. 

We have no examples of the Mogul style in the reigns of Babar 
or HumajTin. Akbar was, in architecture as in religion, extremely 
tolerant^ and his buildings exhibit marked Hindu features. The 
chief of them still in existence are the tomb of his father Humayun 
near Delhi, the town of Fatehpur-Sikri, the fort at Allahabad, the 
palace at Lahore, the tomb he began for hihiself at Sikandarah, and 
t^ red palace in the fort at Agra, which by some authorities, in 
^ite of its Hindu features, is ascribed to Jehangir. The tomb of 
Anar Kali at Lahore was built by Jehangir, in whose reign the tomb 
^^ Itimad-ud-daulah at Agra was built. Shah Jehan, during whose 
reign the Mogul power was at its highest, was the greatest of all 
[ndian builders. There is a great contrast between the manly vigour 
ind exuberant originality of Akbar, and the extreme, almost effeminate, 
elegance of his grandson. Shah Jehan built the palace at Delhi, 
^e fort and palace at Agra, and the famous Taj Mahal, perhaps 

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Ixiv ARTS India 

the most beautiful building in the world. His son Aurangzeb was 
a religious fanatic, who has left little save the mosque at Benares. 
The later examples of Mogul architeeture at Lucknow show marked 
deterioration, which is partly attributable to European influence. 
Other notable examples of Mohammedan architecture are at Jannpur, 
Mandu, Sarkhej, and Ahmedabad. 

In other styles should be mentioned the ruins at Martand in 
Cashmere, which bear evidence of classical influence ; and the modem 
Golden Temple of the Sikhs at Amritsar. 

The Burmese pagoda, with its thin spire, has been evolved from 
the solid hemispherical dome of the Buddhists. The best examples are 
at Prome, Pagan, Rangoon, Mandalay, and the Shwemawdaw pagoda at 


Fergusson says of Indian sculpture, that when it *' first dawns upon 
us in the rails at Buddh Gaya and Barhut, 250 to 200 b.c., it is 
thoroughly original, absolutely without a trace of foreign influence, 
but quite capable of expressing its ideas. Some animals, such as 
elephants, deer, and monkeys, are better represented there than in 
any sculptures known in any part of the world ; so, too, are some 
trees, and the architectural details are cut with an elegance and pre- 
cision which are very admirable." The highest perfection was 
attained in the 4th and 5th centuries a.d. Little sculpture of any 
merit has been produced since that time. 

The excellence of Indian art production is to be found in its pottery, 
metal work, carving, jewellery, weaving, dyeing, and embroidery. In 
these directions the Indian artisan is remarkable for his patience, 
accuracy of detail, thoroughness, and artistic sense of both colour and 
form. The elaboration of ornament in the best Indian metal ware, 
or carving, the composition of colours in the best Indian carpets, or 
enamel, the form of the best Indian pottery, have seldom, if ever, been 
excelled. Much of the skill of the Indian handicraftsman is due to the 
hereditary nature of his occupation. The potter, the carpenter, the 
smith, the weaver, each belongs to a separate caste ; a son inevitably 
follows the trade of his father, and the force of custom, with generally 
a religious basis, impels him to imitate his father's work. The result 
is that the form and workmanship of artisan work is almost exactly 
the same now as it was thousands of years ago, and that the artisan, 
with great technical and imitative skill, has little creative power. 
The combined competition and prestige of Europe have created a 
tendency to imitate European methods. ITie best work used to be 
done, at leisure, to the order of the wealthy princes and nobles of an 
ostentatious native court Some of these courts have been abolished. 

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Mrod, ARTS Ixv 

wiiile others have suffered in purchasing power and in influence. 
The authority of the trade guilds, and of caste, has been relaxed 
onder ^e freedom of British rule, and the importation of British 
goods has forced many artisans into agriculture and even domestic 
serrice. British supremacy, having produced peace, has almost 
destroyed the armourer's trade; the fancy cheap cotton goods of 
America and Britain have displaced the muslins of Dacca ; aniline 
dye8, and jaU work, have nearly killed the carpet industry. Whether 
the Schools of Art which the €k)vemment has established all over 
India have hastened, or retarded, the process of degeneration which 
is everywhere so visible, is a much -disputed point Some trades 
wHch were dying out have been resuscitated by their efforts ; and 
the mania for imitating European designs is sometimes effectually 
direrted from the worst to the best examples. But a School which 
CQQtains principally casts from the antique, and details of Italian and 
Gothic ornament, must inevitably destroy the purity of indigenous ideals, 
which is much to be deplored. To restrain rather than to strengthen 
the tendency to imitate the designs and methods of the dominant race, 
should be the aim of art education throughout the country. 

In the very slight sketch of Indian arts which follows, certain 
places are mentioned as being noted for particular work ; but it 
should be remembered that the small towns are gradually losing their 
tpecialities, the best workmen drifting steadily towards the larger 
centres. A visit is recommended to the Indian Museum at South 
Kensington, before leaving England. 

Nearly every Indian village has its pottery who is kept constantly 
It work making domestic utensils of baked clay — for in millions of 
looseholds no earthen vessels can be used a second time — as well as 
Inages of the gods. The forms of the utensils which he makes are 
if great antiquity and beauty. The best glazed pottery is made in 
ke Punjab, of blue and white ; and in Sind, of turquoise blue, 
tapper green, dark purple, and golden brown, under an exquisitely 
kansparent glaze. The usual ornament is a conventional flower 
^ttem, pricked in firom paper and dusted along the pricking. The 
ladura (Madras) pottery deserves mention for the elegance of its 
inn, and richness of its colour. The Bombay School of Art produces 
Imitations of Sind ware. In the Punjab and Sind, and especially 
ft Tatta and Hyderabad, there are many good specimens of old 
tohammedan mosques and tombs decorated with encaustic tiles. 
he of the finest examples is the mosque of Wazir Khan at Lahore. 

The Punjab has long been noted for its gold and silver work, and 
<|)eeiaUy for parcel-gilt saraiis, or waters-vessels, of elegant shape and 
tocale tracery. The gold and silver ware of Cashmere, Cutch, 
Eicknow, Patna, Bombay, Ahmednagar, Cuttack, and Tanj^e, 4s 
•trthy of mention. The hammered repouss^ silver work of Cutch 

[Jn^al Digitized by GoOgl^ 

Ixvi ARTS IndiA 

is of Dutch origin. The embossed silver work of Madras, with 
Dravidian figures in high relief, is called Swami ware. 

Domestic utensils in brass and copper are made all over India^ the 
Hindus using the brass and the Mohammedans the copper. The brass 
is cleaned by scrubbing with sand or earth and water ; the copper 
periodically receives a lining of tin. The copper bazaar of Bombay 
is celebrated, and so is the brass ware of Moradabad. Benares tt 
famous for cast and sculptured mythological images and emblems. 
Kansha plates are made at Burdwan and Midnapore. Other places 
noted for brass and copper ware are Nagpore, Ahmedabad, Nassic^ 
Poona, Murshedabad, and Tanjore. The Cashmere and Peshawar 
ware has marked Persian features. 

The artisans of India were formerly very skilful in the use of iron 
and sted, Fergusson says of the iron pillar in the Kutub mosque al 
Old Delhi, to which he assigns the date of aj>. 400, that *' it opens oui 
eyea to an unsuspected state of affairs to find the Hindus at that age 
capable of forging a bar of iron larger than any that have been forg&i 
even in Europe up to a very late date, and not frequently even now 
It is almost equally startling to find that, after an exposure for fourteei 
centuries, it is unrusted, and the capital and inscription are as cleai 
and as sharp as when the pillar was first erected.'' Sir Qeorg< 
Birdwood ^ says : " The blades of Damascus, which maintained thei 
pre-eminence even after the blades of Toledo became celebrated, wer< 
iA fact of Indian steel." Indian arms are characterised by thei 
superb, and sometimes excessive, ornamentation. But the moden 
work in iron, steel, and arms is not of much importance. 

Damaseening is the art of encrusting one metal upon anothel 
Th0 best or true damascening is done by cutting the metal deep, an 
filling it with a thick wire of gold or silver. The more commo 
process is to heat the metal to a blue colour, scratch the design upo 
it, conduct a gold' or silver wire along the pattern, and then sink 
carefully with: a copper tooL The art comes from Damascus, hen^ 
its. name. Damascening in gold is carried on chiefly in Cashmel 
Gujrat, and Sialkot, and is called koft-work. In silver it is call< 
bidri, from Bidar, in the Nizam's dominions. A cheap imitation 
koft-work is made with gold leafl 

Enamd is an artificial vitreous mass, ground fine, mixed wit 
gum water, applied with a brush, and fixed by fusion. In tl 
champlev4 enamelling of Jeypore — the best in India, perhaps in tl 
world — the <:olours are placed in depressions hollowed out of ti 
metal, and are made to adhere by fire. The Jeypore artist is renown 
|cur;the purity and brilliance of his colours, and the evenness w^ 
w^i<jh they are applied. He is particularly famous fbr a fiery is 
^hiohi is unique. For enamel on gold— besides Jeypore— ^Al war, Del 
^ Th€ Jndustrial Arts of Jiidia^ 

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Introd. ARTS Ixvii 

and Benares should be mentioned ; on silver, Mooltan, Hyderabad 
(Sind), Karachi, Abbotabad, Catch, Lahore, Eangra, and Cashmere ; 
on copper the Punjab and Cashmere. A quasi -enamel, the mode 
of preparation being kept secret, is made of green colour at Pertabghar, 
and of blue at Kutlam. Glass was known in India at the time of 
the Mahabluirata ; glass bangles and other ornaments are made all 
over the country. 

The splendour of Indian jewellery is due to the free use of diamonds, 
rubies, emeralds, and other gems, some of them mere scales, so light 
thit thej will float on water. A dazzling variety of rich and brilliant 
cdonrs is produced by means of gems which are valueless except as 
points, sparkles, and splashes of gorgeousness. Rings for the fingers 
aid toes, nose and ears ; bracelets, armlets, anklets, nose ^nids, 
necklaces made up of chains of pearls and gems ; tires, aigrettes, 
aid other ornaments for the head and forehead ; chains and zones 
d gold and silver for the waist — such are the personal ornaments 
k daily use amongst men and women, Mohammedans and Hindus. 
One reason for the great popularity of gold and silver jewellery is 
that it is portable wealth, easily preserved. The silver filigree work 
>f Cuttack and of Ceylcm, generally with the design of a leaf, is 
emarkable for delicacy and finish. For gold and silver jewellery, 
rrichinopoly, Vizagapatam, and Ahmedabad are noted. The best 
tnamelled jewellery comes from Delhi, Benares, and Hyderabad 
Deccan). The old Delhi work in cut and gem -encrusted jade is 
lighly prized. The pietra dura inlaid work of Agra was originated 
n the Taj Mahal by Austin de Bordeaux. While Florentine in 
>rigin and style, the designs have a thoroughly local character. The 
reU-known Bombay boxes are a variety of inlaid wood- work called 

Indian lacquer, so-called, is really Zoc turnery. It is the surface 
^btained by pressing a stick of hard shellac to a rapidly revolving 
Ifooden object The friction develops heat sufficient to make it 
Where irregularly. Further friction with an oiled rag polishes the 
prface. The lac is obtained from the incrustations made by the 
pnale of an insect {coccus lacca) on the branches of certain trees, 
phe numeral lac, signifying 100,000, is derived from the enormous 
Munber of these insects found on a small area. The chief consumption 
P lac in Europe is for sealing-wax and varnishes. All over India it 
I made into variegated marbles, walking-sticks, mats, bangles, and 
^ Lac -turned wooden and papier -mach^ boxes and trays are 
Me in Cashmere, Sind, Punjab, Bajputana, Bareilly, and Kamul 
pCadias). Of nnall objects, the mock ornaments for the idols, made 
i pi^»er, should be noted at Ahmedabad and in most parts of India 
trtiilcial flowers, and models of the temples, are made of the pith of 
^e 8(^ plant, hence the " solar topee," or sun-hat of pith. 

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Ixviii ARTS hidia 

Skilful carving is done at Bombay in blackwood, for doors or 
furniture, in a style derived from the Putch. At Ahmedabad the 
blackwood ia carved into vases, inkstandB, and other small object& 
Jackwood also is carved in rectangular forms at Bombay, Sandals 
wood is carved at Bombay^ Surat, Ahmedabad, Canara, Mysore, and 
Travancore ; ebony at Bijnur (Rohilkund) ; ivory at Amritsar, Benares, 
and Yizagapatam. Silhet is noted for its ivory fans, Rutlam for its 
ivory bracelets, and Yizagapatam for boxes of ivory and stag's horn. 
The beautiful carved ivory combs, which used to be found in eveiy 
bazaar, are not now so common. Figures of animals, and of the gods, 
are carved in white marble at Ajmere, Jeypore, and Rajputana 
generally. Excellent building stone is found in Rajputana, where it 
is carved for architectural purposes. At Fatehpur-Sikri (Agra) models 
of the rums are carved in soapstone. Models in clay of fruit ani 
figures are admirably made at Lucknow, Poona, and Calcuttai 
In the cities of Guzerat, and wherever the houses are made of wood, 
their fronts are elaborately carved. 

India was the first of all countries that perfected weaving, sewing 
not being practised until after the Mohammedan invasion. The 
Greek name for cotton fabrics, sindon, is etymologically the same as 
India or Sind. The word chintz is from the Hindu chhint, oi 
variegated, while calico is from the place of its production, Calicut In 
delicacy of texture, in purity and fastness of colour, in grace of design, 
Indian cottons may still hold their own against the world — but not in 
cheapness. The Dacca muslin, once so famous, one pound weight oi 
which could be made to cover 260 miles, is now superseded by the chea| 
machine-made goods of Europe and America; and European cbinti 
now takes the place of the palampore, a kind of bed-cover of printed 
cotton, for which Masulipatam used to be celebrated. In the Punjal 
the weaver's trade still flourishes, but large quantities of th< 
cheaper cottons are now made in India by machinery. Pure «t2i 
fabrics, striped, checked, and figured are made at Lahore, Agra 
Benares, Hyderabad (Deccan), and Tanjore. Gold and silver brocadec 
silks, called kincobs, are made at Benares, Murshedabad, anc 
Ahmedabad. The printed silks which are worn by the Pars 
women of Bombay are a speciality of Surat Bhawulpore is noted fo; 
its damasked silks. Most of the raw silk comes from China. Th< 
Mohammedans are forbidden by their religion to wear pure silk, bu 
may wear it mixed with cotton. Gold and silver wire, thread lac€ 
and foil are made all over the country, for trimming shoes and caps 
for stamping muslins and chintzes, for embroidery and brocades. Wit] 
such skill is the silver wire prepared that two shillings worth of silvti 
can be drawn out to 800 yards. The best embroidery, remarkable fo 
its subdued elegance and harmonious combination of brilliant coloun 
comes from Cashmere, Lahore, and Delhi. The natterp and coloru 

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Inkvd. tRBlGAZlOK Ixix 

diversify plan^ surfaces Witbout destroying the impression of flatness. 
Much tinsel is used, but the result has not a tinselly appearance. . The 
famous Cashm^^e shawls are made of the fine, flossy, silk-like wool 
obtained firom the neck and underpart of the body of the goat of 
Ladak. Originally a speciality of Cashmere, they are now made 
in the Punjab also, especially at Amritsar. They have grieatly 
deteriorated since the introduction of French designs and magentJa 
dyes. The finest of the woollen stuffs called patu in Eangra and 
Cashmere, is made of camel's hair. A rough but remarkably 
durable patu is made from goat's hair. The shawls called Rampur 
cbtdars are made at Ludhiana, of llampur wool. The intrini^ic 
difference between Eastern and Western decorative art is revealed in 
OmtaX carpetSf where the angular line is substituted for the flowing, 
chsaical *4ine of beauty.'' The Oriental carpet is also more artistically 
(^ed, and. is decorated according to the true principles of conventional 
<iesign. As a rule the pile carpets of India and Persia are of floral 
design, while those of Central Asia, Western Afghanistan, and 
Baluchistan are geometric In Persia and India the source of the 
majority of the patterns is the tree of life, shown as a beautiful 
ilowering plant, or as a simple sprig of flowers. The dari is a carpet of 
cotton made chiefly in Bengal and Northern India ; but the most 
^mmon cotton carpet is the shatrangi, made throughout India, but 
specially at Agra. The principal patterns are stripes of blue and 
^hite, and red and White. In point of texture and workmanship the 
rugs from Ellore, Tanjore, and Mysore are the best. Costly velvet 
carpets embroidered with gold are made at Benares and Murshedabad. 
rhe carpets of Malabar are now the only pile woollen carpets made 
tf pure Hindu design. Fine carpets are made at Amritsar. Central 
bian carpets are best purchased at Peshawar. 



The history of irrigation in India stretches back into remote 
itiquity, many of the modem works being founded upon old native 
mis which have been restored and extended. The storage of water 
n tanks is very common in Southern India The works are for the 
Host part of native origin, but much has been done by the British in 
^pairing old tanks and constructing new ones in Madras, the Bombay 
Eteccan, and Ajmere. In many places the natives have made artificial 
^es with dams, which are often of great architectural beauty. In 
N more level tracts of the south every declivity is dammed up to 
wher the rain. Innumerable wells cover the whole country. And 
f » very usual for the native cultivator to make his own tiny irrigating 
r^Mn, carrying it along the brows of mountains, round steep declivities^ 
M acro9S yawning gulfs and deep valleys ; his primitive aqueducts 
^^ formed of stones and clay, the scooped-out trunks of palm trees 

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Ixx tHiB MUTINY India 

and hollow bamboos. To lift the water a bucket wheel is employed, 
worked by men, oxen, buffaloes, or elephants. A good part of the 
Punjab and the whole of Sind would be scarcely habitable without 
irrigation ; and it is practically indispensable also in the south-east of 
the Madras Presidency. 

The greatest British works have been in canal irrigation, the waier 
being drawn directly from a river into either a " perennial " or an 
" inundation " canaL The perennial canal is furnished with permanent 
headworks and weirs, and is capable of irrigating large tracts through- 
out the year, independently of rainfall An example is the Ganges 
Canal, which has been in operation since 1854, has cost Rx. 3,000,000 
comprises 440 miles of main canal, and 2614 miles of distributaries, 
and in 1896-96 supplied water to 759,297 acres. In one place it 
is carried over a river 920 feet broad, and thence for nearly J 
miles along the top of an embankment 30 feet high. The Sirhin^ 
Canal, completed in 1887, is even larger. These two canals, for siz 
and power, are without any rivals outside of India. The inunda 
tion canals are simply earthen channels without masonry dams o 
sluices, and are supplied with water by the annual rise of th 
Indus and its affluents in the month of May. Both these classe 
of canals take off from the larger rivers, which, even in times o 
drought, can be depended upon for an unfailing supply of water. 

There are great differences in the financial results of the worki 
due to the variations in surface, soil, climate, the absence or presenc 
of large rivers, and the character and habits of the people ; and th 
methods of assessing and collecting the revenue also vary considerabl 
in different localities. If the rainfall is plentiful the cultivator wi 
try to do without the irrigation water, and the receipts falL 

The capital outlay, direct and indirect, up to the end of the yei 
. 1896-96, was Rx. 37,474,751 ; the gross receipts were Rx. 2,706,418 
the working expenses Rx. 1,166,750 ; the net receipts Rx. 1,650,668 
the percentage of net receipts on capital outlay was 4*1 ; and the ar< 
irrigated, with 14,000 miles of main canals and 26,000 miles of di 
tributaries — 40,000 miles altogether — was 10,308,990 acres. Besidi 
this, however, it is calculated that something like 20,000,000 acr^ 
are irrigated by means of tanks, wells, lakes, and the smaller natii 
channels. Probably the area irrigated by one means or another i 
India is greater than in the whole of the rest of the world. 


From 1764 to 1857 the history of British rule in India is mark* 
by frequent mutinies among the native troops or sepoys. Ever ain 
the days of Dupleix and Clive, sepoys, led by European officers, ha 
been the main instrument for European aggression in India. Thi 

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Inirod. !tHfi mutiijY Ixxi 

bare hired theiuBelyes out to fight against their owii coUDtrymen for 
the Ake of two kinds of reward, pay and prestige. Whenever their 
expectations on either of these points have been threatened they have 
been ready to mutiny, and have generally found a religious excuse for 
their disaffection. The first serious mutiny, in 1764, was for an 
increase of pay. It was promptly suppressed by Hector Munro, who 
reftised the higher pay, and ordered the twenty-four ringleaders to be 
blown from guns. There was a more extensive rising throughout 
Madras in 1806. It began at Vellore, where the British officers were 
maidered, but Qillespie galloped from Arcot, eight miles off, and 
reaq»tured the fort, killing or dispersing the mutineers. On this 
occasion the complaint of the sepoys was that orders had been issued 
forbidding the use of earrings, or caste marks, or beards, and that the 
lew hat had a leather cockade made from the skin either of the 
detested pig, or of the holy cow. The Mohammedan princes of Mysore, 
?ho had been dethroned by the British, lived with numerous 
ittendants in the fortress of Vellore. They told the sepoys that the 
new regulations were intended to deprive them of their caste, and 
force them to become Christians ; and the report was spread that the 
British power had been extinguished by Napoleon. The mutinous 
spirit had extended throughout Madras before it was finally quenched. 
The Home Government declared that the mutinies were due to the 
fear of being Christianised, to the residence of dethroned princes at 
Vellore, to the annexations of Lord Wellesley which had shaken 
confidence in British moderation and good faith, and to a loss of 
authority by British officers over their men. The analogy between 
Vellore in 1806, and Meerut in 1857, is very striking, the chief 
variation being that the sepoys had greater causes of discontent in 
1857, and that at Meerut there was no Colonel Gillespie. The 
religion of the sepoys seemed to them to be in greater danger than 
ev^; the capital of India, Delhi, was the home of the dethroned 
descendant of the Mohammedan Moguls ; Lord Dalhousie's annexations 
had far exceeded those of Lord Wellesley, and were evidently intended 
to be still further pursued ; the discipline of native regiments was 
diflturbed by the encouragements held out to their British officers to 
8eek employment on the General Staff j and Russia in the Crimea was 
sopposed to have destroyed British power moi*e effectively even than 
Napoleon. And yet Vellore had been so completely forgotten, that 
Sir Henry Lawrence was the only prominent Englishman in India 
who foresaw the Meerut rising, or understood what it meant. In all 
quarters there was touching faith in the loyalty of the sepoAS, a faith, 
in the case of the British officers of native regiments, that was only 
eztingaished by t^e hand of the sepoy assassin. 

llie eight years from 1848-66, when Lord Dalhousie was Goviemor> 
Qcaeral, will long be remembered in India. They form a period of 

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Ixxii THE MUTINY India 

large social and material reforms, and are also particularly remarkable 
£6r Bntisli annexations of native territory. After a severe straggle 
with the warlike Sikhs the Punjab was conquered and annexed in 
1849. Lower Burma followed in 1852, and Oudh, without conquest^ 
in 1856. By a new doctrine, the territory of a native prince who died 
without an heir of the body, was treated as hipaed to the British, an 
adopted heir not being recognised. Under this rule we became 
possessed of the principalities of Sattarah, Jhansi, Kagpore, and others. 
It was also decided that the stipends which had been paid to those native 
princes who had been deprived of their territories in former years,, 
should not be continued to their successors. Among others of less, 
importance, the Nana Sahib, the heir of the Peishwa of Poona, the 
nominal head of th^ Marathas, was refuged the pension of £80,000 
per annum which the Peishwa had enjoyed during his life. The 
descendant of the Moguls, Bahadur Shah, was informed that his son 
would not be allowed to live at Delhi, or to retain the regal title. 
And when the territory of the loyal king of Oudh was annexed, 
owiog to his persistent misgovemment, the surplus revenues of the 
State, after payment of a substantial pension to the king, were 
gathered into the coffers of the British Government. All this looked 
like a policy of unjust and high-handed aggression. The natives 
understand annexation after conquest, and the conquered provinces 
of Punjab and Lower Burma remained loyal throughout the 
Mutiny. But now every native prince feared for his dominion, as 
the British seemed determined to absorb all their territory, either 
by conquest, or on the plea of misgovemment, or by the new rule 
excluding adopted heirs ; and this policy of greed seemed to be 
further evidenced by the resumption of pensions, and the confiscation 
of the surplus revenue of Oudh. Of the chiefs directly affected the 
Mogul and the king of Oudh were Mohammedans, a race which 
considers itself as the natural ruler of India and likely to profit by the 
ejection of the British ; the Banee of Jhansi and the Nana Sahib were 
Maratha Hindus, and the Marathas had practically conquered the 
Mohammedans when the British intervened. The leaders of the two 
most warlike and aggressive races in India, and of the two religions, 
complained of harsh treatment at the hands of the British. They 
determined, if possible, to rouse the sepoys, a portion of whom were 
already in an insubordinate condition. 

In 1856 one of the first innovations of the new Governor-General, 
Lord Canning, was the General Service Enlistment Act, by which all 
future recruite in Bengal were m^de liable for service outside the 
Company's dominions without extra pay. Iliis had always been the 
riile with the i^poys of the Madras and Bombay armiea . Buttiie 
Bengal sepoy was a man of high caste, and entitled to privileges. 
He was now threatened with the loss of his caste by being taken 

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IntrGd. THE MtTMNt lixiii 

over the sea (the *' black water ^) to serve in Burma. He^ considered 
tliat healone had conquered India for the Gompafty, Mid belieVed 
that he was now to be used for further conqaests^ without any increase 
of pay, in regions far from his home. Moreover, the new regulations 
would confine all future enlistment to low caste men, and thus 
deprive the Bengalee of his monopoly of military service. His pay, 
his prestige, and his caste were thus attacked. The agitators im- 
pressed upon his superstitious and credulous mind, that the^ railways 
and tdegraphs which had recently been introduced, were a kind of 
magic designed to oppress him ; and that the new rule, made by Lord 
Canning, which permitted the re-marriage of Hindu widows, and the 
new zeal fOT edlication, were deliberate attacks upon his religion. 
The sepoys knew also that while the British troops had been reduced 
ky draits sent to the Crimea, and to Persia, the native army hiad been 
increased for the purpose of garrisoning the recently acquired territories, 
the British fwce being now only 40,000 to ^40,000 sepoys. The 
prestige of England had been shaken by the disasters of the Afghan war ; 
it was believed that the British had been beaten in the Crimea; and an 
M prophecy was revived which foretold that the Ootnpany'is reign 
would end in 1857, one hundred years after the battle of Plassey. 
At this critical moment, with Mogul and Maratha, Mohammedan and 
Hindu, Princes violently aroused against the British ; with an army 
of h^h caste soldiers alarmed concerning their pay, their privileges, 
and th^ religion ; with the British force reduced to insignificance, - 
there occurred the &mous cartridge incident A new type of rifie 
having been issued to the sepoys, the hideous blunder was perpetrated 
of smearing the cartridge with a composition of the fat of the cow, the 
sacred animal of the Hindus. On complaints being made British 
officers honestly, but ignorantly, declared that no cow's fat had been 
uaed, an answer which the sepoys knew to be false, and which only' 
doubled their suspicions of British motives. Here, then, was the 
positive, clear proof of the sinister intentions of the British. 

The first r^;iment to mutiny was the 34th Native Infantry at' 
Barrackpore, near Calcutta, in February 1867, which was followed in 
March by the 19th at' Berhanipore, in the same neighbourhood. 
Both these regiments were disbanded, and the 84th (British) was 
brought over from Burma to Barrackpore. But nothing else was 
done. '* Allahabad and Delhi, the two chief fortresses, arsenals, and 
stiategical positions of the North Western Provinces, were still 
w^ottt the protection of British garrisons, and no steps, such as the 
eeOecticA^ of supplies and carriage, had been taken anywhere for the 
pf^apt i90Yement or mobilisaticm of British trodps ? (McLedd Inn^isjf;^ 
On the 3rd May the 7th Qudh Irregulars mutinied at Luckjjpw, and 
w«ie disarmed, by Sb H^nry lUiwreiice. - Then oh the lOth came the 
great outbreak at Meerut, forty miles from Delhi. The sepoys after 

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IxxiV; *he5^ mutiny 3 ~ 

liberating some of their comrades, who had been imprisoned 
insubordination, made ofiP for Delhi ; arrived there they declar^ 
Mogul as the ruler of India. ^- ^^j--- 

Probably this forwwrd move of the Mogul party aroused the jeJ 
of the other rival conspirators. For three weeks there was no t , 
mutiny. But when the natives found that days and weeks pL** 
without any punishment being inflicted upon them, they be^ ^. 
think that the British power was really at an end. On the SOtl^i 
the 71st Native Infantry mutinied at Lucknow, and from thirf •• 
there was a general rising. In some cases British officers, women 

children were all murdered ; in others the men alone were killed 
in still others they were all spared, and even escorted by the muti 
out of harm's way. As each regiment rose, it made for 1 ^"»«*» 
Cawnpore, or Lucknow, which became the centres of the coii ^^"' 
Delhi, the Rome of Asia, was in the hands of the rebels ; at Cawn 
Sir Hugh Wheeler with a mere handful of soldiers was suri^u ^~ 
by overwhelming numbers ; and at Lucknow, a garrison undo) r ... 
Henry Lawrence was closely invested. Relief could come from 1 ^ 
quarters. Lord Canning was at Calcutta ; General Anson^ 
Commander- in- Chief^ at Simla ; and Sir John Lawrence in , 

Between Calcutta and Meerut, a distance of 900 miles, 
were only three British regiments, — ^the 14th at Dinapore, the _ . 
at Lucknow, and a Company's Regiment, the 3rd Europeans, at <n^' 
Lord Gannmg made energetic efforts to obtain reinforcements. *'* 
Madras Fusiliers, under Colonel Neill, arrived at Calcutta o: 
23rd May ; the 64th and 70th from Persia early in June 
other British troops from Burma, Ceylon, and Singapore, and 
sepoys from Madras soon followed. A force which was on ii 
to China was, with the consent of Lord Elgin, diverted to Cal* 
several regiments were despatched from the Cape Colony, and 
requests for additional troops were sent to England. The m< 
transport were very indifferent The railway from Calcuti 
been completed only as far as Ranigunj, a distance of 120 
and there was difficulty in procuring the bullock carts and 
vehicles which had to be employed. So it happened that the 
from Calcutta were only just in time to secure Benares and Alia 
and it was not till the 7th July that General Havelock was al 
advance from Allahabad with an. inadequate force of 2000 
Genercd Anson^ on receiving the Meerut news at Simla, at once to. 
the British and Gurkha regiments which were in the hills, and 
to move on Delhi, but his progress was slow owing to lack of 

^ A more detailed account of the events at these important places ' 
found on pp. 18», 261, and 289. The sequence of events wiU best ^e 
consulting the chronology, p. IxxxiiL 

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Grand Trunk Road • 

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IfUrod. *tiB MUTINY lixv 

and commissariat. The important arsenals at Phillour and Teroiepur 
were secnred. On the 27th May Anson died of cholera. The attack 
iq)on Delhi did not begin until the 8th June, when Sir H. Barnard, 
with the troops collected bj Anson, amounting to 3800 men, defeated 
a rebel army of 30,000 men at Badli-ka-serai, and thus obtained 
possession of the famous ridge overlooking the walls of Delhi. Barnard 
died of cholera on the 5th July, and was succeeded by Reed, who re- 
dgned on the 17th owing to ill-health, handing over the command to 
Archdale Wilson. The natives had purposely timed their rising for 
the beginning of the hot weather, knowing l^w debilitating active 
operations are at that period to all Europeans. For some time the 
British, while affecting to invest Delhi, were themselves hotly be- 
si^ed on the ridge. In the Pui\jab Sir 'John La/wrence was ably sup- 
ported by such men as Nicholson, Edwardes, Chamberlain, and Mont^ 
gomery, who energetically suppressed, by disarmament, the local 
mutinies or threats of mutiny at Peshawar, Nowshera, Mooltan, 
Meean Meer, imd Ferozepur. A movable column was formed under 
the command of Nicholson, to suppress any further risings in the 
Punjab, and then to march on Delhi The value of Nicholson's 
conn^ and decision can hardly be over-estimated. The Punjab wad 
in a restless condition. With his small force, moving from place to 
place, disarming or dispersing the mutineers, he kept that province 
from rising. But it was not until the 14th August, three months 
after the Meerut outbreak, that he was able to leave the Punjab and 
join the British force at Delhi. No move could be made there 
until, on the 6th September, the siege guns arrived from Ferozepur, 
which opened on the waUs on the 1 1th, and prepared the way for the 
storming of the works on the 14th, and the final capture of Delhi on 
the 20th. It came not a day too soon. Sir John Lawrence had 
emptied his province of British troops, sending every possible man to 
Delhi ; and the Sikhs and Punjabees, who had hiUierto been loyal, 
were becoming agitated with the idea that the British would never 
regain their position. If these troops had turned against us we should 
have had to begin again the conquest of India. 

Meanwhile, the British between Calcutta and Delhi were in sore 
straits. At Agra the sepoys were disarmed on the 31st May, but 
alUiough the Maharaja Scindia, of Gwalior, was himself loyal, his 
fine body of disciplined troops only awaited an opportunity to march 
on Agra. At Cawnpore Sir H. Wheeler's small garrison capitulated 
on the 26th June, and were massacred next day, but, the women aind 
children were made prisoners. At Lucknow a small British force 
was holding out against enormoua numbers of the enemy« . 

Havelodc advanced to their assistance with 1400 British and 
600 Sikh troops, leaving Allahabad on the 7th July. The line 
between Calcutta and Allahabad was disturbed, the communi- 

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hcxvi TH32 MtrDlNt India 

cations thi^atened, and Havelock obtained ho substantial reii^ 
fbrcements till tbe middle of September. When lie had mtatchied 
for five days from AUaiiabad he defeated a large force of mutineei% 
imd Marathas at Fatehpore, and fought two other successful bdttleis 
on the 15th of July at Aong and Pandoo Nuddee. On the evening ol 
that day, being then 22 miles from Cawnpore, he leiuned that tbe 
British women and children of Wheeler's garrison were still alive, and 
tired as his men were, he marched them 14 miles that night, defeated 
the Nana Sahib next day in three separate actions/ and rested bis 
weary troops on the outskirts of Cawnpore on the evening of the 16tb. 
The heat was so intense that many of his men died from sunstroke or 
exhaustion. The women and children were murdered by the orders 
of the Nana on the 16th, when Havelock had started on his last 
desperate effort to save them. On the I'Zth he occupied Cawnpore. 
On the 20th, leaving 300 men there under Neill, he began tbe 
crossing of the Ganges with 1500 men. On the 29th he defeated tbe 
rebels at Oonao ^md Busherut GungCj but finding immense numbers 
of mutineers still between him and Lucknow, while his own force bad 
been reduced to 860 effectives, he had no alternative but to retire 
to Cawnpore. On the 4th August he marched out of CaWnpore a 
second time with 1400 men; on the 5th he again defeated the rebels 
at Busherut Gunge, but his losses from disease, as well as battle, bad 
been so great that it was hopeless to proceed further, and he fell back 
once more, reaching Cawnpore on the 13th. On the 16th he attacked 
and defeated 4000 sepoys at Bithoor. He had now only 1000 effectives. 
In his front towards Lucknow were some 30,000 rebels ; at Fumick- 
abad were probably as many more ; he was threatened on both flanks ; 
and had to face on the south the Gwalior contingent, and many 
other smaller bodies. Yet he courageously determined to keep bis 
position at Cawnpore instead of falling back upon Allahabad. Tbe 
relief of Lucknow was, of course, out of the question until reinforce- 
ments had arrived. These continued to dribble in during the next 
month, but there was mischievous delay between Calcutta and 
Allahabad, some 6000 men, who might have been sent on to Have- 
lock, being detained to suppress local disturbances. On the 15tb 
September Sir James Outram arrived to supersede Havelock. In 
the most generous and chivalrous manner, he gave up the command 
to Havelock, and thus left the honour of relieving Lucknow to 
the man who: had already made such able and gallant etforts to that 
tod At lengili, on the 19th September, Havelock crossed the Gang^ 
with 3000 'inen. He defeated the rebels at Mungalwar on the Slst, 
and on the 28rd, ^4th; and 26th, was gradually fighting his Way Hi 
to Lucknow ; and finally effected a junction with the garrison late in 
the evening of the 26th, though with a loss of 700 out of his 300O 
men. Outram then took command of the old and the new garrisons 

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Mrod, THE MUTINY Ixxvii 

at Lucknow. Delhi having Mien to the British between the 14th 
and 20th, the mutineers from that place were arriving at Lucknofw, 
and Oatram found it impossible to fight his way out taking with him 
the women, children, and sick of the old garrison. He remained on 
the defensive, closely invested, until the final relief of Lucknow twp 
months later. 

The dangerous period of the mutiny ended with the capture of 

Delhi and the reinforcement* of Lucknow towards the end of September. 

I Prom this time the British position was assured by the arrival of rein- 

ibrcements from England. The first of them was iS^V Oolin Campbell^ 

the newly -appointed Commander-in-Chief in India, who reached 

Calcutta on the 17th August As reinforcements were now steadily 

uriving, his first care was to arrange that regular batches should be 

forwarded with all speed. Then he started for the seat of war, and 

reached Cawnpore early in November. Leaving 1000 \men under 

Windham at Cawnpore, he advanced on Lucknow with 5000, reached 

the Alum Bagh on the 12th ; left a garrison there ; marched upon the 

rebels with 4200 men on the 16th ; and effected a junction with Outram's 

beleaguered force on the 17th, though with a loss of nearly 600 men. 

The original Lucknow garrison, who had been closely invested since 

the 2nd July, a period of more than four months, were thus finally 

relieved. But Sir Colin found the rebels so numerous, and the 

difficulty of escorting the women, children, and sick safely out of 

Lucknow so great, that he felt himself imable to hold Lucknow in 

addition, and accordingly evacuated it, leaving Outram at the Alum 

Bagh with 4000 men to maintain the appearance of British authority, 

Hayelock died of dysentery on the 24th November. When Sir 

Colin reached Cawnpore with his precious human freight, he found 

that Windham had been defeated by a Maratha named Tantia Topi, 

aod had been gradually forced out of the city of Cawnpore into his 

entrenchments on the banks of the Ganges. On the 3rd December 

the families and sick were sent on to Allahabad, and then Sir Colin 

attacked Tantia Topi, captured his artillery, and dispersed his army. 

Beyond clearing the Doab, the country between the Ganges and 

Jumna, little was done in the next three months except the collection 

of reinforcements. On the 2nd March Sir Colin joined Outram at the 

Alum Bagh with a force which the constant streams from Calcutta 

had now raised to 19,000 men with 120 guns. To this was shbrtly 

added a brigade imder General Franks, and a contingent of Nepalese 

under Jung Bahadur, which brought the army up to the respectable 

total of 31,000 men and 164 guna The mutineers in Lucknow 

numbered 90,000 trained men, and a laige force of irregulars, and 

they bad employed their respite in erecting three strong lines of defences 

aioond tWr position, Sir Colin's attack began on the 7th Mardi, 

and he finally drove oflf the enemy and captured Lucknow on the 15th, 

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Ixxviii THE MUTINY India 

On the 20th Lord Canning issued the Confiscation Proclamation, 
by which the estates of all the important chiefs in Oudh were con- 
fiscated. Most of them, although <;ertainly not loyal, had abstained 
from active participation in the revolt They now rose, and were 
joined by other princes who feared thai they would be ta^ated in like 
manner, and that they had nothing to lose, but everything to gain by 
opposing the British. Thxis it happened that although the sepoys 
were dispersed, only small bands of them still remaining in the field, 
new enemies sprang up who were not subdued until the end of the 
year 1868, by which time there were 100,000 British troops in India 
Of the various British brigades which operated in different parts of the 
country, the most important was that under Sir Httgh Rose (afterwards 
Lord Strathnaim) in Central India. On the 8th January 1858, Rose 
left Mhow with a Bombay force, and marching northwards captured the 
fortresses of Ratgarh on the 28th, and Gkirrakota on the 13th February. 
After several successful battles he arrived before the walls of Jhansi on 
the 21st March. On the Ist April he totally defeated Tantia To^h 
who was marching to the relief of Jhansi with 22,000 men ; and he 
stormed and captured Jhansi on the 4th. The Ranee fied with her 
defeated troops towards Kalpee where Tantia Topi was collecting 
another army. Rose marched out of Jhansi on the 25th April, 
defeated Tantia Topi on the 6th May, and captured Kalpee on the 
23rd. The Ranee then fled to Qwalior, where she was joined by 
the Maharaja's troops, and thus obtained possession of the strong 
fortress. In spite of the great heat Rose marched upon Gwalior, and 
captured it on the 24th. The Eanee, dressed as a man, was killed in 
battle. On the 21st Sir Robert Napier (afterwards Lord Napier of 
Magdala) attacked and defeated Tantia Topi at Alipore Jowra. From 
this date the wily Maratha was incessantly hunted throughout Central 
India ; he had covered 3000 miles in his flight before he was betrayed 
on the 7th April 1859, ten months later. He was tried, and hanged. 
Meanwhile the rebellion in Oudh and the North West Provinces, 
which had now assumed the character of a popular rising, had been 
gradually suppressed ; and the Nana had been driven into the Nepal 
jungle, where he died of fever. 

The prophet who had announced that the Company's rule would 
end in 1857, a hundred years after the battle of Plassey, was not far 
out in his reckoning. On the 1st November 1858, at a grand darbar 
at Allahal:^, Lord Canning announced that the Company's possessions 
in India were transferred to the British Crown. Since the mutiny 
there has l>een a great change in British policy. The British 
troops, in 185*!^ one -sixth of the native, are now more than one 
hall AH the strong fortresses, magazines, and arsenals are garrisoned 
by British soldiers; there are no batteries of native artillery 
of any importance ; and the modem preparations for transport^ com- 

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Inirod, remarkablk kvbnts Ixxix 

missariat, and mobilkation, combined with the railway system, ensure 
the speedy movement of British troops on any given spot The high 
caste sepoy has been to a considerable extent replaced by a less exact- 
ing soldier, and the danger of a groundless religious panic thereby 
lessened. The right of adoption, for which many of the chiefs fought, 
has been conceded. The policy of annexation in India has been 
abandoned. The pay of the sepoy has been raised, whether on service 
is his own country or in foreign districts. And the British officers of 
mtive regiments are no longer encouraged to leave their men for the 
attractions of civil or staff employment Both races have learned their 
lesson. The best proof is that whereas formerly sepoy mutinies were 
rf frequent occurrence, no single example has since occurred to revive 
Bemoiies of the great tragedy of 1857. 



Vasco da Gama sails to Calicut round the Cape of Qood Hope . 1498 

The Portuguese Viceroy, Albuquerane, captures Goa .... 1510 
Bassein, Salsette, and Bombay oeded to the Portuguese by the Raja 

ofGuzerat 1584 

Thomas Stephens, of New College, Oxford, becomes rector of the 

Jesuits' college at Salsette 1579 

Charter from Queen Elizabeth to "The Governor and Company of 

Merchants of London trading to the East Indies " . . 1601 

The Dutch East India Company formed ...... 1602 

The first French East India Company formed 1604 

The Dutch occupy Pulicat (near Madras) 1609 

The Mogul, Jehangir, issues a proclamation nermitting the English to 

establish factories at Surat, Ahmedabad, Cambay, and Gogo . 1611 

The first Danish East India Company formed 1612 

Captain Best defeats the Portueueso squadron at Swally 1612 
Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador to Jehangur, obtains favourable concessions 

for English trade 1615 

An English factory founded at Armagaon 1626 

An English fsctory founded at Masulipatam 1632 

The English Company allowed to trade in Bengal .... 1634 

Fort St. Greorge founded at Madras by Francis Day .... 1639 
Gabriel Broughton, surgeon of the Hopewell, obtains from the Mogul, 

Shah Jehan, exclusive privileges of trading in Bengal for the 

English Company, as a reward for his professional services to the 

Mogul and the it^'a 4>f Bengal 1645 

The Dutch take Negapatam from the Portuguese .... 1660 
Bombay ceded to mgland by the Portuguese as part of the Infanta 

Oatherina's dower on her marriage with Charles II. ... 1661 

French settlement established at Pondicherry 1674 

AiHBW jBnglish Company formed, with a capital of £2,000,000 , . 1698 

The old Company buys the site of Calcutta . . 1700 

Dmth of the Mo^l, Anrangzeb, and decline of the Mogul power . 1707 
IhioQgh the arbitration of Lord Oodolphin the two English Companies 

ure amalgamated ....... (^^^. t^ • ^709 

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The Austrian Emperor Charles VI,. grants a charter to the Ostend 
Company ...... r • ► • •. • • ... 1723 

England and FrancB>t war in Europe ^ . . . . .' . 1743 

A French fleet under La Bourdonnais captures Madras . . . '1746 
An Eiiglish fleet under Admiral Bosoawen besieges Pondicherry, but is 
repulsed. The treaty of Air-la-Chapelle restores Madras to the 
English . • " . . . . , . . . . . 1748 

Dupleiz places nominees of his own on the throne at Hyderabad and 
Arcot. The English support Muhammad All for Arcot. "War 
between the English and French in the Camatic . . . . 1749 

Capture and subsequent defenpe of Arcot by CHve . . . . 1761 

The French capitulate at Trichinopoly 1752 

Clive returns to England . 1758 

Dupleix superseded. Treaty of peace between the English and French 

signed at Pondicherry . . 1754 

Clive returns to India . ... . . . ... 1756 

Suraj-ud-daulah, Nawab of Bengal, captures Calcutta. 20th June. 
— ^The tragedy of the Black Hole. The English prisoners, 146 in 
number, are confined in a room 18 feet square, with only two small 
windows. Next morning only 28 remain alive . . . . 1756 

Recapture of Calcutta by Clive. 23rd June. — Battle of Plassey. Clive 
with 1000 Europeans, 2000 sepoys, and 8 guns, defeats Snraj-ud- 
daulah and 35,000 men, 16,000 horse, and 50 guns. War with 
France renewed in the Camatic . . . , . . • 1757 
Lally arrives with a French fleet. He takes Arcot. Clive is appointed 
the first Governor of the Company's settlements in Bengal . . 1758 

Clive defeats the Dutch 1759 

Eyre Coote totally defeats Lally at the battle of Wandiwash . . 1759 
Arcot taken by the English. Clive sails for England . . . 1760 

Pondicherry capitulates to the English. Fall of the French power in 

the Deccan 1761 

Pondicherry restored to the French by the treaty of Paris. The first 
sepoy mutiny in the English camp is suppressed by Hector Munro. 
Munro defeats the Nawab of Bengal at the decisive battle of Buxar. 

Pupleix dies in poverty in Paris 1764 

Lord Clive arrives at Calcutta as Governor-General. The revenues of 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa granted to the Company by the Mogul, 
ShahAlamlL . . . . . . . . . . 1765 

The Northern Circars ceded to the English. Clive prohibits the 
servants of the Company from engaging in private trade or accept- 
ing presents, and increases their salaries. Lally is executed at Paris 1766 
Clive leaves India. The Nizam and Haidar Ali attack the English . 1767 
The Nizam cedes the Camatic . . . . . . . 1768 

Terrible famine in Bengal . . . 1770 

Warren Hastings, Governor-General . 1772 

Supreme Court established at Calcutta. The Dutch expelled from 

Negapatam by the English 1773 

The Rohilla chiefs defeated by the English. Salsette and Bassein 

taken by the Bombay troops. Clive commits suicide in England . 1774 
The Nawab of Gudh ceaes Benares . . ... . , . 1775 

Chandemagore, Masulipatam, Earikal, and Pondicherry taken from 

the French . ... . • . . . . .1777 

The first Maratha War begins. General Goddard's celebrated march 

across India. Convention of Wargaon . . . . . . 1779 

Haidar Ali takes Arcot Captain Popham captures Gwalior. Warren 

Hastings wounds Sir Philip Francis (Junius) in a duel . . . . 1780 

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Sir Eyre Ooote defeats Haidar Ali at Porto Novo. The English capture 

the Dutch ports of Pulicat and Sadras 1781 

Death of Haidar AIL The French assist Tipu, his son . 1782 

The captured French possessions restored to them by the treaty of 

Yersailles 1788 

Petce with Tipn ; the conquests on both sides restored. Pitt's Bill 

establishes a Board of Control 1784 

IStii February. — ^Warren Hastings impeached by the Houseof Oommons, 
before the House of Lords, for corruption and oppression . . 1788 

Tipa ravages {>art of Travancore 1790 

Lcid Comwallis leads the British army against Tipu in person. Takes 

Bangalore. Is joined by Nizam Ali and the Peishwa . . . 1791 
Tb alUes storm the redoubts at Seringapatam. Tipu yields one-half 
•f his dominions, to be divided between the Nizam, the Peishwa, 
Old the English ; and agrees to pay £3,000,000 .... 1792 
l^ular Civil Ck)urts established in Bengal. The revenue settlement 
if Lord Comwallis in Bengal, by which the Zamindars, who had 
been the revenue agents of the Mogul, were declared to be the land- 
owners, is made permanent. Pondicherry taken from the French 

for the third time 1798 

3rd April. — Warren Hastings is acquitted after a trial lasting seven 
years. The Company grant him £4000 a year for life . . . 1796 
rbe Dutch settlements in Ceylon, and the Cape, taken . 1796 
Seringapatam stormed, and Tipu slain. His dominions divided be- 
tween the Nizam and the English 1799 

rhe Nizam gives up his share of Mysore in consideration of English 

protection 1800 

The Nawab of the Carnatic cedes Nellore, North and South Arcot, 
Trichinopoly, and Tinnevelly. The Nawab- Wazir of Oudh cedes 
Bohilkund and the Boab. Ceylon made a Crown Colony . . 1801 
Treaty of Bassein, by which the foreign relations of the Peishwa are 

supervised by the British 1802 

'^laratha War. Battle of Assaye, 23rd September ; Wellesley (after- 
wards the Duke of Wellington) with 4500 men defeats 50,000 Marathas 
under Sindhia and the Raja of Nagpur. Lake defeats the Marathas 
at Aligarh, and captures Delhi and Agra. Cession of the greater part 
of what are now the North- West Provinces. The Mogul king of 
Delhi becomes the pensioner of the British. Conquest of Cuttack . 1803 
ilonson's advance into Holkar's territory, and disastrous retreat, 
tapture of Indore. Holkar's attack on Delhi defeated . . . 1804 
Lake abandons the siege of Bhurtpore. Holkar cedes Bundelkund 1805 

Mutiny of sepoys at Vellore. Suppressed by Colonel Gillespie . . 1806 

lise of Runjeet Singh in the Punjab 1807 

V&r declared against Nepal. Repulse of the British .... 1814 

^ckterlony defeats the Ghurkas at Maloun 1815 

Treaty of Segowlie. Cession of hill stations . . .1816 

Operations against the Pindharis, bands of freebooters. Maratha War. 
Battle of Khirki: defeat of the Peishwa and capture of Poona. 
Battle of Sitabuldi : defeat of the Raja of Nagpur. Battle of 
Mehidpore : defeat of Holkar. Cession of Ajmere oy Sindhia . 1817 
lefence of Korygaum by 800 sepoys, with ten British officers, against 
25,060 Marathas. Holkar cedes territory. The dominions ot the 

Peishwa annexed 1818 

krmese War .... 1824 

Ctptore of Bhurtpore, hitherto deemed impregnable. Treaty of Yan- 
daboo ; cession by the Burmese of Assam, Arracan, and Tenasserini 1820 

Ixxiii . AEMAltKABLB EYfiNl^B Tndia 


Sati, or widow - burning, declared "culpable homicide" by Lord 
William Bentinck 1829 

Renewal of the Company's charter, on condition that the Company 
abandons its monopoly of the China trade, and acknowledges the 
right of Europeans to reside in India and acquire land . . . 1833 

Annexation of Coorjg 1834 

Lord William Bentinck leaves India, having abolished sati, suppressed 
(with the aid of Sir W. Sleeman) Thuggee, reformed the judicial 
administration, restored the use of the vernacular language in all 
courts, extended education, effected the revenue settlement of the 
North- West Provinces (with the aid of Robert Bird), given the 
natives a share in the government, restored the finances, and pro- 
moted steam communication vid Suez 1 815 

Efforts to eradicate female infanticide. The freedom of the Press 
established. Ranjit Singh seizes Peshawur 18S5 

Dost Muhammad, Ameer of Afghanistan, receives a Russian mission. 
Lord Auckland declares war 1818 

Capture of Kandahar and Ghazni, and occupation of Kabul. Shah 
Shnja made Ameer. Death of Ranjit Singh. Capture of Aden . 18 3t 

2nd November. ^-Murder of Sir A. Bumes at Kabul. 28rd December. 
— Murder of Sir W. Macnaghten 1843 

Retreat of British army of 4500 men (the remnants of a force of 15,000) 
from Kabul, of whom one only. Dr. Brydon, reaches Jellallabad 
alive. Pollock forces the Khyber and joins Sale's garrison at 
Jellallabad. Murder of Shah Shiga at Kabul and accession of 
Akbar Khan. Pollock defeats the Afglians at Tezeen, and re- 
occupies Kabul. Lady Sale and the Kabul prisoners ransomed. 
Retiu'n of the British anny to India 184' 

Sir Charles Napier defeats the Sind armies at Miani and Hyderabad. 
Annexation of Sind ......... 184] 

First Sikh War. Gough fights an indecisive action at Moodki. Assault 
on the Sikh entrenchment at Ferozeshah, which is captured on the 
second day after an obstinate struggle. The Sikhs lose 74 guns, 
and the British 2400 killed and wounded 1841 

Sir Henry Smith defeats the Sikhs at Aliwal. Gough fights a 
desperate battle at Sobraon, which ends in the rout of the Sikh army. 
Jammu and Kashmir sold to Gholab Singh for £750,000 . . .184 

Murder of Vans Agnew and Anderson at Mooltan. Second Sikh War. 
Unsuccessful siege of Mooltan 184 

Mooltan stormed by General Wlush. Gough fights an indecisive action 
at Chilianwallah ; both armies retire ; British loss of 2400 men, 4 
gims, and 3 colours. Gough defeats the Sikhs at Giyrat ; they lay 
down their arms. Annexation of the Punjab. Annexation of 
Sattarah by lapse 18^ 

Burmese War. Annexation of Pegu 18£ 

Annexation of Jhansi by lapse 18£ 

Annexation of Nagpur by lapse. Competitive system for civil appoint- 
ments introduce . ISl 

7th February. — Annexation of Oudh, owing to persistent misrule. 
Xord Dalhousie leaves India, having opened the first railway for 
traffic, formed a department of puolic works, introduced cheap 
postage, constructed telegraphs, opened the Ganges Canal, and 
established an education department with the three universities of 
Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. 29th February.— Arrival of Lord 
Canning. The General Service Enlistment Act . . . - 18 

Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, a philanthropic Parsi, made^ Baronet. The 

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Inkod, E£MARKABLB fiVBNTd Ixxxiii 


Mutiny. Febraary. Mutinies at Barrackpore and Berhampore. 
The sepoys refuse to use the new cartridges which were greased with 
the fat of beef and pork. 8rd May. Sir Henry Lawrence suppresses 
a mutiny of the 7th Oudh Irregulars at Lucknow. 9th May. At 
Meerut eighty-five sepoys refuse to use even the old cartridges, and 
are imprisoned in irons. 10th May. Rising of the sepoys at 
Meerut ; they release their comrades from jail, bum the cantonment, 
snd make for Delhi. 11th May. The mutineers reach Delhi ; 
murder the Europeans ; and proclaim the Mogul as Ruler of India. 
80th May* Mutiny in the cantonment near Lucknow. 4th June. 
Mutinies at Benares and Allahabad, and slaughter of Europeans. 
5th June. Mutiny at Jhansi. Massacre of the Europeans who had 
mrrendered on a promise of their lives. Mutiny at Cawnpore. 6th 
June. Attack upon Sir Hugh Wheeler in the entrenchment at 
Cawnpore. 8th June. Battle of Badli-ka-serai, near Delhi. Defeat 
of the rebels and occcupation of the Ridge. 11th June. Arrival of 
KeUl with the Madras Fusiliers at Allahabad. 23rd June. This 
being the anniversary of the battle of Plassey, the mutineers make a 
determined assault on the Ridge at Delhi. 26th June. Capitula- 
tion of Sir H. Wheeler at Cawnpore on a promise from the Nana 
Sahib that the lives of all will be spared. 27th June. Massacre of 
the males of the garrison at Cawnpore by order of the Nana. 2nd 
July. Investment of the Residency buildings at Lucknow. Sir H. 
Lawrence mortally wounded by a shell. 7th July. Havelock 
advances from Allahabad with 2000 men. 16th July. Murder of the 
British women and children at Cawnpore by order of the Nana. 
17th July. Havelock retakes Cawnpore. 14th August. Anival of 
Nicholson's column at the Ridge, Delhi. 6th September. Battering 
faain arrives at the Ridge. 14th to 20th September. Delhi stormed 
with a loss to the British of 1200 men. Nicholson mortally 
wounded. 26th September. Havelock and Outram fight their way 
into Lucknow, and are shut in. Death of Neill. 17th November. 
Sir Colin Campbell relieves Lucknow. 22nd November. Lucknow 
evacaated. 24th November. Death of Havelock. 27th November. 
Windham driven into his entrenchments by the Gwalior rebels, who 
plunder Cawnpore. 6th December. Sir Colin Campbell defeats the 

Gwalior rebels . 1857 

fo* Colin Campbell reconquers Lucknow. Sir Hugh Rose captures 
Jhansi and Gwalior. Sir Robert Napier (Lord Napier of Magdala) 
defeats Tantia Topi Loyalty of Dost Muhammad, Ameer of Afghani- 
stan, and Jung Bahadar (of Nepal) throughout the Mutiny. 1st 
November. The Government of India transferred from the Company 
to the British Crown, represented by a Viceroy .... 1858 

income tax imposed 1860 

slative Councils established in the three Presidencies . . . 1861 
tth from fiimine of one-fourth of the population of Orissa . . 1866 

>rkand taken by the Russians 1868 

^ ssination of Lord Mayo, the Viceroy, while on a visit to the con- 
vict settlement in the Andaman Islands 1872 

le Russians, under General Kaufftnann, take Khiva . . . . 1873 
luiune in Behar. Government expenditure of £7,000,000 . . . 1874 

tisit of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 1875-6 

fcinine. Government expenditure of £8,000,000. Increase of 5,000,000 

deaths. British subscription of half a million sterling . . . 1876-8 
M January. — H. M. the Queen proclaimed Empress of India at Delhi 1877 
Ikere Ali, Ameer of Afghanistan, receives a Russian but not a British 

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missiQn. Three British columns move on AfehaliistAn. Capture of 
Ali Musjid. Roberts storms the Peiwar Eotal. Flight of Shere Ali 
to Turkestan, and accession of his son Yakub Khan. Despatch of . 
native troops to Malta 1878 

Death of Shere Ali. Treaty of Gundamuk. Sir liouis Gavagnari 
is received at Kabul as British representative, but murdered six 
weeks after his arrival. Roberts advances ; carries the heights of 
Charasiab, takes Sherpur, and enters KabuL Abdication of Yakub 
Khan 1879 

Ayub Khan defeats General Burrows at Maiwand, with a loss to the 
British of 1000 men killed out of 2500 engaged. Brilliant march 
by Roberts with 10,000 men to the relief of Kandahar, 313 miles 
in twenty -one days. Roberts completely routs Ayub Khan. The 
British nominate Abdur Rahman as Ameer. The British forces re- 
turn to India 1880 

■Skobeleff defeats the Tekke Tui-komans and captures Geok Teppe . 1881 

Further advance of the Russians. Death of Skobeleff. Lord Ripou 
extends local self-government with some powers of election. Aboli- 
tion of customs duties on all articles except intoxicants and arms. 
A contingent of the native army is sent to Egypt .... 1882 

The Ilbert Bill proposes to ** invest native magistrates in the interior 
with powers over European British subjects." Bitter race animosities 
aroused. Compromise adopted by which Europeans are entitled to 
a jury of which one-half at least are of their own race . . 1883 

Occupation of Merv and Sarakhs by the Russians .... 1884 

A. Russian force attacks the Afghans at Panjdeh. The Ameer meets 
Lord Dufferin at Rawul Pindi, and is given money and munitions 
ofwar 188i 

King Thebau, of Maudalay, having made overtures to i^'rauce and 
refused to receive a British envoy, is deposed. Annexation of Upper 
Burma. The National Congress of natives commences its annual 
meetings. Delimitation of the northern boundary of Afghanistan by 
an Anglo-Russian Commission 188< 

16th February. The Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Empress 
celebrated with great manifestations of native loyalty . . .188 

Formation of Imperial Service Troops in Native States . . 188 

Completion of the Afghan Frontier Railway and Defences . . 188 

Murder of British officers at Manipur. Capture and execution of the 
leaders. Visit of the Cesarewitch, now the Czar . . . . 18£ 

The Indian Councils Act introduces an elective element ' into the 
Legislative Councils 18^ 

The Mints closed to the free coinage of silver ; the value of the rupee 
fixed, for Government purposes, at Is. 4d. Compensation given to 
officials on account of depreciation of rupee . . . . . 18^ 

Visit of Sirdar Nasrullah Khan, second son of the Ameer, to England. 
Final delimitation of the Pamir Boundary. Chitral Campaign. 
Storming of the Malakhand Pass, and relief of the British force in 
Chitral. Imposition of import duties 181 

Cholera and plague at Bombay. The boundaries of Beluchistan laid 
down IS 

Plague and Famine. British subscription of more than half a million 
sterling. Severe earthquake in Bengal and Assam. Insuboixiination 
of tribes on N.W. frontier. Punitive expedition . . . .1.8 

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Tntrod. Indian terms lixxv 


fA. sfgnifles Arabic ; H. Hindi^stini or Hindi ; K. Kanarese : Mai. Malaydlam ; M. Mara^hi ; 
My. Malay ; P. Persian ; S. Sanscrit ; Tel. Telugu ; Tur. Turkish ; T. Tamil.] 

IMIB (Ameer), A. ** commander," a title of princes and nobles, as the Amirs 

of Sindh. 
Lsi (Anna), H. the 16th part of a rupee. 
BabtJl, a. the Acacia arabica tree. 

BABij)UB, P. "brave," **chivalric," a title of honour among Mohammedans. 
BuxGALOW, H. (bangla) a thatched house ; the name usualfy applied to the 
houses of the English in India, and to the rest-houses for travellers built 
b^ Government on the public roads. 
Bi0Li, trough of water, at a spring, hence a well. 
B^B, P. a market or market-place ; a street of shops. 
BiBAM (B^om), Tur. a lady of rank ; a queen or princess. 
BiATA (Batta), H. additional allowance to public servants or soldiers em- 
ployed on special duty. 
&AHMAN, S. a Hindii of the first, or priestly caste. 
ftiDDHiST, S. a worshipper of Buddh, or Sakya Muiii, who died b.o. 548. 
C^STE, class ; sect ; corruption of the Portuguese cdsta or race. 
Catamaban, T. hUtUf **to bind," maram^ "a tree," a log-raft on which 

the natives of Madras paddle through the surf. 
ChIwadi, Tel. a native rest-house for travellers. 
Chottltrib, an English corruption of Chawadi, q,v, 

Cbunam, S. an English corruption of H. cMn<i,*from S. cMrTUnhf lime, a plaster or 

mortar sometimes made of shells of a remarkable whiteness and brilliance. 

Compound, probably My. an enclosure. A corruption of the Malay word 

Daohopa, Daooba, S. deh^ "the body," gup, "to hide," a circular structure 
inside Buddhistic cave temples, supposed to contain the ashes or relics of 
Buddha, and occupying the place of our altars. 
1>AK, Post. Dak-Bungalow (or Muzafari Bungalow) a Kest-house for travellers. 
pABBAR (Durbar), P. a royal court ; an audience or levee. 
X>haramsAlA, S. dha/rma, "justice," '* piety," and s^?rf, "a hall," a place 

of accommodation for travellers and pilgrims. 
I^iwAN, P. ** aroyal court," **a minister," especially the chief financial minister. 
tAxisif A. **poor," a religious man, who has taken the vow of poverty. 
^hAt (Ghaut), S. ghatta, "a landing-place," "steps on a river side," a 

mountain pass ; any narrow passage. 
B^OPUBA, H. the ^te of a Pagoda. 
fcsAKTHi, Sanscrit written in the Tamil character. 
CmUsHTAH, p. an agent 
CuMBAz, a cupola ; a dome. 

gAMnATi, A. a bearer of a palki, in Bombay an indoor servant. 
'^ BiM (Haram), a sanctuary ; ladies' apartments. 

tTALBAB, H. an officer in native regiments corresponding to our sergeant. 
X7KKAH (Hookah), A. a native pipe. 

[imB, A. the royal presence, a respectful term applied to high officials. 
K^iE, P. a tenure by which the public revenues of an estate or district were 
granted to an individual, with powers to collect them, and administer 
the geneiml afiEairs of the estate. 
i^^XDJiSLf A. a native officer next to a Siibahdar, and corresponding to our 

J»oj, 1^ Hindu d©v<4®«> as ?akir is a Mohammedi^^. ^ j 

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Ixxxvi INDIAN TERMS India 

Kaohebi or EAOHHABi, H.M. a court or office for public business. 

EhIn, a. a Mohammedan title of nobility answering to our ''lord.*' ■ 

Eh AS, special Khas Mahal = Hall of special audience. 

KuBBAH, A. a tomb. 

Kvjji (Cooly), T. and Tur. a day labourer. 

tiAKH (Lac), S. the number 100,000. 

VLihit S. a garland. 

Man (Maund), H. a weight, varying in different parts of India. In Bombiy 

it is 25 lbs. ; in Bengal, since 1883, 80 lbs. 
Mandapam, S. an open pavilion or porch in front of a temple. 
Massulah, T. a boat sewed together, used for crossing the surf at Madras. 
MiHBAB, the recess in the wall of a mosque — on the side nearest Mecca — to 

which Mohammedans turn at prayer. 
MiMBAR, the pulpit in a mosque. 
Monsoon, A. a corruption of the A. mavMm, **a season ;'* applied now to 

the periodical rains in India which fall during the S.W. Monsoon. 
MuNSHi (Moonshee), A. a writer ; a secretary ; a teacher of languages. 
MuNSiF, A. a native judge. 
NliK, S. an officer in native armies corresponding to a corporal ; an ancient 

NlUGH (Nach), S. a dance ; an exhibition of dancing-girls. 
Naubat khana, a. the guard-room ; the chamber over a gateway, where a 

band is stationed. 
NAwAb, a. this word means lit. ** deputies," being the plural of nd*ib, "a 

deputy." It is now a title of governors and other high officials. 
NizAm, a. an arranger ; an administrator ; a title of the prince whose capital 

is Hyderabdd in the Deccan. 
Nulla,' properly Nala, "watercourse." 
Pagoda, P. an Anglican corruption of the P. word hut-kadahy "an idol 

temple"; also a coin=8i rupees, called by the natives him, but de- 
riving its appellation of pagoda from its showing a temple on one face ; 

there are other derivations. 
Pi.L-AL, T. the priests of the Tuda tribe, lit. "milkmen." 
PAlegAr (Polygar), T. Tel. a shareholder ; a landed proprietor. A title of 

persons in the Madras Presidency who correspond to Zamindars in othe.T 

parts of India. 
Palanquebn, H. an Anglican corruption of the -wor^ pdUci, a vehicle in whicli 

persons of rank are carried on men's shoulders. 
PIn, S. the leaf of the betel creeper. Pan-supari is areoa nut rolled in thii 

leaf for chewing. 
Pi.Rsis, P. a sect who worship the Deity under the emblem fire. 
Pb-kovil, T. " devil-temple, a hut dedicated to the worship of the spirit 

of dead men. 
Peons, from the Portuguese peao, Spanish peouy but sometimes thought ai 

Anglican corruption of the H. YfoxA piydddh, "footman." 
PeshkAes, p. an agent. In Bengal, the native officer under a judge, next t 

the Sarishtaddr in rank. 
PeshwjC, p. the prime ministers of the R^as of Satira ; Brahmans who aft« 

wards became the supreme chiefs of the Mardtha nation. 
PhatbiiXr, M, lU* "a letter carrier," a fast-sailing vessel common on the \S 

iioast of India. 
Phinr, T. the 7uda name for the stone circles on the Nilgiri Hills. 
Pice, H. a corruption of the word paisd, a copper coin, of which 64 fgp to 

PiB, P. old, a Mohammedan saint. 
Ri.j^, S. a Hindfi'king or prince. 
\^^U S. the wife of alUja ; a queen or princeg|,^^^, .^ GoOgle 




Rath, S. a ch&riot. 

RisAt.ahdjLe> a. a natiye captain of a troop of horse. 

Riot, A. an Anglican corruption of the A. word r^a^fot, a subject, a peasant. 

Sadi Amin, A. a native judge. 

Sade 'AdAlat, a. formerly the Supreme Court of Justice in India for trying 

Sahib, A. lord ; a title applied to English gentlemen in India. 
SarAi , a rest-house for travellers ; a caravansaraL 
Sati (Suttee), S. the burning of a widow with her deceased husband. 
ShAh, p. a king ; a title usually applied to the King of Persia. 
SianIbs, T. a tribe in Tinnevelly and the extreme S. of India, who are palm-^ 

tree ^difflbers by profession. 
Shankh, S. a shell ; 1^ Ib^ i^ells which an blown at kc/rm by tte Hindis 

during religious ceremonies. 
SiOLA, T. a patch of jungle, a wooded delL 
SjPAHi (Sepoy), P. a native soldier, one of a 9ipdh or army. 
Stbahdae, a. a governor of a province ; a native military officer corresponding 

to a captain. 
fAHZHi, a division of Zilla (see below), equivalent to Taluk, 
fiHslLDAB, A. a native collector of revenue, who is also a magistrate. 
rii,*P. a crown. 

Talttk, or more properly ta^oMiikahy a district ; a division of a province. 
TappIl, H. in Bombay the post ; delivery of letters ; a relay of norses. 
TATn, M. matting ; a mat snade. 
Teppa Kulam, Smth India, a tank surrounded by steps with usually a 

temple in the centre. 
TuDAS, T. a remarkable tribe on the Nigiri Hills. 

YAhak {or Waman) S. the 5th incarnation of Vishnu, in the shape of a dwarf. 
VAziK, A. a prime minister. 

ViHi.RA, S. a cell, an apartment in a monastery or cave. 
VislAnah, S. a sacred vehicle or shrine. 
ZamindAk, p. a landed proprietor, a person who receives a percentage of 

€rovemment rents. 
Zia2at, a. a burial-place. 
ZiL*A (Zillah), A. a province or tract, constituting the jurisdiction of a circuit 


A Few Hindu Words 



















































Thirty-two ^,^ 














Untis './-. 


















































Seventy -eight 


Eighty ' 







































Ninety -five 















A hundred 



Two hundred 

Do sau 


Three hundred 

Tin sau 


Four hundred 



Five hundred 

Panch sau 


Six hundred 

Chhah sau 


Seven hundred 

Sat sau 


Eight hundred 

Ath sau 


Nine hundred 

Nau sau 


A thousand 



Ten thousand 

Das hazar 


A hundred thou- 





A million 

Das Ukh 


Ten millions 



A quarter 



A half 



One and a quarter 

Paoha, tin pdo * 




One and a half 



One and three- 

Pdone do 




Two and a quartei 



Two and a half 



Two and three- 

Pdone tin 




Three and a 

Sawa tin 




Three and a half 

Sdrhe tin 


Three and three- 

Pdone chdr 




Four and a quarter Sawa char 


Four and a half 

Sdrhe char 


Four and three- 

Pdone pdnch 


A third 


Tisrd hissan 





A fifth 

Pdnchwdn hissah 


A sixth 

Chhathan hissah 

I A aoarUr leu than, pdoiu ; a half pioM than, «irJ^ 

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A seventh 

Sdtwdn hissah 



An eighth 

Athwdn hissah 



A tenth 

Daswdn hissah 










































Indian Coinage 
Silver Goim — 

The Rupee (sixteen annas) is assumed to be equal to 2s., but its 
value in gold has snnk as low as Is. 2^d. 

Half Rupee = eight annas. 

Quarter Rupee = four annas. 

One Eighth of a Rupee = two annas. 

Copper Coins — 

One Anna = lour pice = twelve pie. 
Half Anna = two pice = six pie. 
Quarter Anna = one pice = three pie. 

The following Abbreviations are used in the Routes given in 
THIS Book. I 

.. Post-office. 

.. River left bank. 

D B i ^^^ Bungalow, a rest 

\ house for travellers. 

div. Division of the army. 

E. I, G. East India Company. 

E. East. 

n. Feet. 

ff. Hotel. 

in, Inch. 

I Left hand. 

juM Junction. 

n, Mile. 

M North. 

P- Page. 


r,lh. ... 

r. h Right bank. 

R. Refreshment Room. 

R,H. Rest-house. 

rly Railway. 

rs Rupees. 

Roy, As. Soc. Royal Asiatic Society, 

r. &rt Right hand. 

sta Station. 

S, South. 

W, West. 

yds, Yards. 

ifi This sign in the text appended to a name indicates that further informa- 
tion relating to the subject is to be found in the hidei^ amd Directory at the 


^ The Indian months begin ahout thn 15th of the English month ; thus Pi'is is tli« 
latter half of January and the first half of February, and so with all the other months. 

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Calcutta to Bombay (shortest 


(See Routes 1 and 3). 

Xow that the Bengal Nagpur Rail- 
WOT has a direct entry into Calcutta, 
in* Khargpur, the distance between 
tint city and Bombay has been short- 
eBfd to 1221 miles, and the journey is 
affomplished in 44j hours. 

The Grand Circular Tour of 

Travellers should note that with the 
opening of through direct railway 
communication between Calcutta and 
Madras, lately effected, and with the 
establishment of an " overland '* service 
six days a week between Madras and 
Colombo, it is now possible to make a 
grand cii-cular railway tour through 
India, beginning at Bombay and ending 
,it Colombo, or vice versdy and visiting 
'ill raiUe all places of interest in South- 
era, Northern, and Western India. 

Calcutta to Madras, 1031 miles, 

UlLWAYS, via MiDNAPUR (Kharg- 

I'R), Balasobe, Cuttack (and Puri), 
JfliLKA Lake, Vizagapatam, Cocan- 
lda, and Bezwada. 

Calcutta, see p. 52 (see also Rte. 21). 

34 m. Kola Gbaut (R.) Here the 
ailway crosses the Roopnarain River, 
I large tidal river flowing into the 
loognly, at its junction with which 
ire the famous James and Mary sands, 
he scene of so many wrecks in the 
looghly. The bridge over this river, 
Ibout i mile in length, is a very fine 
iic, and from the engineering diffi- 

culties met with in constructing it, it 
ranks as one of the most important 
bridges in India. 

72 m. Kliargpur (R.) An important 
station, being the junction of the trans- 
peninsular line to Bombay, and of the 
Coast line to Madras. There is also a 
short branch line to the big town of 
Midnapur, an old East India Company 
settlement, 8 miles distant, and 
another line is now under construction, 
which wiU run north-westwards to 
Bankura and the Jherriah coalfields. 

144 m. Balasore (R.) (D.B.) Head- 
quarters of Civil District Government 
and an Ordinance station for testing 
shells and guns. The open sea makes 
it a favourite resort, and it promises to 
become in the near future a large 
watering place. The delicious pomfret 
fish is procurable and is finding its way 
into the Calcutta market. There are 
large Roman Catholic and Baptist 
Missions in the town. The place was 
once of great commercial importance, 
and both the Dutch and the Danes had 
factories here. There are two curious 
old Dutch tombs, dated 1683, built 
like three-sided pymmids about 20 feet 
high in a small secluded enclosure near 
the native part of the town. 

202 m. Jajpur Road. This is the 
station for Jajpur, the ancient capital 
of Orissa. (For description, see p. 290 
et seq, of Handbook, Fourth Edition. ) 

253 m. Cuttack (R.) (D.B.) [For 
description, see pp. 288, 289 of Hand- 
book, Fourth Edition.] 

Within 11 miles north and south of 
Cuttack the railway line is carried over 
no less than five big bridges, the whole 
section comprising the most difficult 
piece of riverine engineering to be seen 
anywhere in India. 

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270 m. Bhuvaneshwar. V [See pp. 
283 et seq. of Handbook, Fourth 

282 m. Khurda Road (R.) Junction 
for Puri (j^gannath) 28 miles distant. 
[See pp. 278 et seq.] 

331. m. Burcool. Situated on the 
shores of the beautiful Chilka Lake, 
the frontier station between Madras 
and Bengal Presidencies. [See under 
Rambha below.] 

344 m. Rambha. [See p. 353 of 
Handbook, Fourth Edition. The last 
sentence should read : — " It subse- 
quently became the property of Mr 
Minchin, proprietor of a Distillery and 
Sugar Factory at Aska, in the interior 
of the District ; and now belongs to 
the Rajah of Kallikotah and Atgada."] 

351 m. Homma. The site of the 
large Government Salt Factory, the 
salt being manufactured from sea- water 
by evaporation in ** salt-pans," which 
can be seen between the railway and 
the sea. 

355 m. Ganjam. [See under Humma, 
p. 353 of Handbook, Fourth Edition.] 
360 m. Chatrapur. [See p. 353.] 
374 m. Berhampur. [See pp. 352, 
420 m. Palasa (R.) [See p. 353.] 
465 m. Chicacole Road. [See p. 353.] 
508 m. Vizianagram (R.) [See pp. 
352, 353.] 

546 m. Waltalr (R.) The junction 
between the Bengal-Nagpur Railway 
and the Madras Railway systems. 
[See pp. 352.] 
548 m. Vizagapatam. [See p. 352.] 
606 m. Tuni (R). [See p. 352.] 
639 m. Saxnalkot Junction (R. ) See 
p. 352.] 

670 m. Rajahmundry (R.) [See p. 

671 m. Godavery. The site of the 
huge Havelock bridge (66 spans of 150 
feet) over the Godavery River. 

726 m. EUore (R.) [See p. 352.] 
763 m. Bezwada Junction (R. ) (D. B. ) 
An important station, the junction of 
three lines : the Madras Railway (East 

Coast line) ; the Nizam's Railway, 
running due west via Hyderabad and 
Secunderabad to Bombay; and the 
Southern Mahratta Railway (Bellaiy- 
Kistna line) running south-west to 
Guntakal Junction. [See pp. 358, 359 
and 360.] 
809 m. Bapatla (R.) 
849. m. Ongole (R.) Important 
station of American Baptist Mission. 
900 m. Bitragunta (R.) 
921 m. Nellore. Head-quarters of a 
Civil District of the same name. The 
scene of a massacre of French soldiers 
in 1758, under orders of Najib-ulU, 
who subsequently submitted to the 
British. The town contains an old 
fort, now in the District Magistrate's 
Office, and an old cemetery with graves 
dating back to 1785. [See p. 334.] 

945 m. Gudur Junction. Junction 
for the South Indian Railway branch 
line to Renigunta Junction (on the 
Madras Railway north-west line), Pak- 
ala, and Katpadi (Vellore) Junction 
(on the Madras Ilailway south-west 

1009 m. Ponneri (R.) 
1021 m. Ennur. On a spacious 
backwater. Formerly a suburban 
resort much frequented by people from 
Madras. The site of a large Salt 

1031 m. Madras (Beach Station). 
[For description of Madras, see p. 336 
et seq. ] 

Madras to Colombo (Overlane 

[See Route 31. The title of this 
route should be altered] : — Madras t< 
Colombo via Villupuram (for Pon 
dicherry), Tanjore Trichinopoly, 
Madura and Tuticorin. The de 
scription up to p. 407 may be foUowec 
until ' ' 425 m. Maniyachi " is reached 
when it should continue thus : — 

425 m. Maniyadii Junction. Hen 
a branch line runs to Tinnevelly an< 
Palamcotta. [For description of thea 
see pp. 407 and 408.] 

443 m. Tuticorin (R. ) The southei^ 
terminus of the Railway, and tl^ 
embarking place for Colombo. 

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ffistorical* — Tuticorin was originally 
a Portuguese settlement, and was 
founded about 1540. In 1658 it was 
raptured by the Dutch, and in 1782 
fij the English. It was restored to 
the Dutch in 1785 and again taken by 
the English in 1795. During the 
Poligar war of 1801, it was held for a 
short time by the Poligar of Panchal- 
auikurichi, and was ceded to the Dutch 
iu 1818. It was finally handed over 
to the English in 1825. 

Objects of Interest. — The old Dutch 
ceietery containing several tombstones, 

on wl)iioh ^ve carved armorial bearings 
and raised insciiptions, is worthy of a 
visit. Twenty miles south of Tuticorin 
on the sea lies the village of Ti'iohen- 
dur, which contains a large and impor- 
tant temple dedicated to Subramanya, 
the God of war, and second son of Siva. 
The temple contains some excellent 
sculpture and several inscriptions. A 
few miles further south is a group of 
16 columns each bearing an inscription. 
There is a good road to Trichendur, and 
carts can be hired for the journey there 
from Tuticorin at Rs. 5 each. 


Hotel : British India H. , | 
immediately opposite the 
station, has accommoda- 
tion for three first-class and 
two second-class visitors. 
The charge for board and 
lodging is — 

First class, Rs. 4-8-0 ) per 
Second „ „ S-O-Ofdiem 

Road Conveyance : 
Carriages and jutkas are 
usually procurable at the 
station, the fares being 8 
and 2 annas per mile, re- 
spectively. Bullock-carts 
can be hired in the town, 
the charge being 2 annas 
per mile. 

Railway Facilities : 
first and second class car- 
rJa^ges are run to and from 
the pier in connection with 
the departure and arrival of 
the 3£iil steamers to and 
from Colombo. Waiting 
accommodation is provided 
at the station for ladies and 
gentlemen, and there is 
also a Ref^shment Room 
under the management of 
Messrs Spencer & Co. The 
hatler in charge has usually 
a few copies of the Madras 
Mail and Madras Times for 
ale, as well as a small 
itock of travellers* requis- 
ites. In case of the late 
i^val of the Colombo 
ileamer, Messrs Spencer & 
Co. can generally arrange 
to serve breakfast in the 
todo. Ice and aerated 
vsters are carried by all 
oyUn line Mail trains dur- 
\b% da>y journeys, and can 
bo purchased at the rates 
nilmshed in the Company's 

gbippliig Arrange- 

ments : A* British India 
Steam Navigation Com- 
pany's steamer leaves daily 
(Sundays excepted) at 6 ' 
P.M. for Colombo, and one | 
arrives from Ceylon daily 
(Mons. excepted) at about & j 
A.M. , the passage occupying | 
about 16 hours. The jour- 
ney between the pier and 
steamer is made in a steam 
launch belonging to the 
British India Steamer 
Agents at Tuticorin, and 
occupies about three-quar- 
ters of an hour. For fur- 
ther particulars, in con- 
nection with the launch 
service, the Company's 
Guide should be consulted. 
The British India Com- 
pany's coasting steamers 
between Calcutta and 
Bombay touch at Tuticorin 
once a week and their 
other vessels as occasion 
offers. The Asiatic Com- 
pany's steamers and those 
of the Japanese line also 
call at the port. A large 
number of sailing boats of 
20 tons burden are always 
procurable on an average 
payment of Rs. 12.8 per 
trip to steamer and back. 
The pier belongs to Govern- 
ment, and is under the 
control of the Port OflRcer. 
There are also several pri- 
vate jetties belonging to 
the various mercantile 

Local Manufacturers 
and Products: There is 
a large Government salt 
factory about a mile-and-a- 
half from the station, with 
which it is connected by a 
siding. In the town are 
several cotton presses and 

an important Spinning 
Mill. Tuticorin is the 
centre of very ancient 
pearl and conch shell fish- 
eries, but since the deep- 
ening of the Pamban Chan- 
nel between India and 
Ceylon, the yield has 
greatly decreased. The 
Manaar pearl, which is not 
of good colour, is usually 
fished for in March, April 
and May, under Govern- 
ment management. 

Local Officials: The 
oflBcials having offices at 
Tuticorin are the Sub- 
Collector, Deputy Tahsil- 
dar, Sub-Registrar, Assis- 
tant Superintendent and 
Inspector of Police, Assis- 
tant Commissioner of Salt 
and Abkari, Customs Sup- 
erintendent, and the Port 
Ofticer, who is also the 
Superintendent of Pearl 
Fisheries. The Bank of 
Madras and National Bank 
of India have branches, 
and British India and Asi- 
atic Steam Navigation 
Companies, Agencies in the 

Missions, Churches, 
etc : The Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel 
maintains a training school, 
and a College named after 
the late Bishop Caldwell. 
Within easy reach of the 
station are a Protestant 
and two Roman Catholic 
Churches. The native 
fishing community profess 
Christianity to a large 
extent, and are almost 
entirely Roman Catholics. 

Club : A Club for Euro- 
peans is situated on the 
sea front. 

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p. Ixxxix. — Silver CoinsL^The value 
of the Rupee iu gold is iio\r fixed at 1/4. 

P. 289, line 34— * "The launches . . 
Calcutta. " — This is not required now 
that through railway cdhimunication 
is opened from Calcutta to Madras. 

P. 318, col. 1, line 10.- 
40 houra read 32 hours. 

-For about 

P. 366, col. 2, line 2 from bottom— 
Cannannore. — A railway S. along 
the coast, via Tellicherry, to Calicut 
is about to be opened (1901) and 
eventually it is to be continued N. to 
Mangalore, p. 365. 

P. 369, col. 1, line 10 from bottom- 
Cochin. — A i-ailway to Shoran on the 
Madras Railway (Calicut line) is now 
(1901) being constructed, and will 
shortly be opened. 

P. 405, col. 1, line 14. —Madura.— 
A railway is now (1901) being con- 
structed from here to Paunben (Rames- 
waram, pp. 371 and 400), which will 
probably take the place of Tuticorin as 
the starting place for steamers for 
Colombo, deep water allowing vessels 
to get close in shore, whereas at Tuti- 

corin they have to lie several miles 

P. 376, col. 1, line 4 from bottom.— 
Bowringpet.— The Kolar Gold Mines 
are well worthy of a visit, over 50,000 
miners are employed. Since 1881 the 
yield has been £12,000,000. It is 
proposed to work the mines bv elec- 
tricity to be generated by the force of 
the Cauvery Falls (p. 279). 

P. 388, col. 1, last line— Mettupil- 
aiyam. — This is the terminus of the 
broad-guage line, and the junction with 
the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, which 
mns as far as Coonoor, 17 miles, and 
which is eventually to be continued to 
Ootacamund, 12 miles further. The 
Nilgiri Railway is the metre gauge, 
and on the mountain gradient is fur- 
nished with a central rack rail, enabling 
it to ascend 1 in 12. The scenery is 
magnificent, and the journey up, in 
the course of which the line ascends 
6000 feet, occupies 3^ hrs., the journey 
down occupying 2 J hi-s. From Coonoor 
to Ootacamund the journey is done in 
pair-horse cunicles (tongas) provided 
by the Railway Company, w^hich under- 
takes through booking for passengers 
and luggage. 

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k>laba Cemetery 
temetery, Parell . 

Ation Orotind . 
ilence . 
1 Saints', Malabar Hill 

■ch, Byculla 

•cb, frgaon 

I of Scotland 
holic Church 
1*8 (Scotch Presbyterii 
I Colaba 



dex and Directory). 

E O., Prince's, Sassoon, 
k Graving, Merewether 

I Institutions — 
I College for Parsi Ladies 
"If ission) High School 
i-Islam . 
|Hi^ School for Girls . 
De College . 

one High School 
tArt . . . 
f Jesuit College 

>le8 of Kanhari 

^ Falls 
r Caves 


Cription of Bombay 

il Position 

i Houses, Malabar Point, 







Parell 6 

J Index and Directory). 
fArts and Manufactures 

OharltaUe and otherwise, 

Is, etc. — 
[^Hospital . . . . 

nt Home, Colaba 

Institutions, etc.— 

European General Hospital 

Gokaldas Hospital . 

Grant Medical College . 

House of Correction . 

Incurable Hospital 

Jamshidji Dharmsala . 
„ Hospital 

Motlebai Obstetric Hospital 

Ophthalmic Hospital . 

Parsi Almshouse .... 
„ Dharmsala .... 

Pestonji Kama, for Women and Children 


Sailors' Home .... 

St. George's Hospital . 

Sir Jamshidtji Jijibhai's Parsi Benevo- 
lent Institution 

Sir D. M. Petit Hospital . 


Institutions— Literary and Scientific- 
Anthropological Society 

Asiatic Society .... 

Mechanics* or Sassoon Institute . 

Natiu^ History Society 
Landing and Landing-places . 
Lighthouses — Kennery, Prong 
Markets — 

Cotton Market, Colaba 

Crawford „ .... 

Nul , 


Municipal Buildings 
Museum and Victoria Gardens 
Native Quarter .... 
Observatory at Colaba . 
Public Offices- 
Courts of Justice .... 

Mint ... . . 

Post Office 

Presidential Secretariat 

Public Works' Secretariat . 

Telegraph Office .... 

Town Hall 

University Library and Clock Tower 

University Hall .... 


Shops (see Index and Directory). 

Statues .... 

Suburbs— Breach Candy, Byculla, Mala 

bar Hill, Mazagon, Parell . 
Temples— Hindu .... 
Victoria Railway Station 














from one another by very narrow chan- 
nels, some of which have now been filled 
up. They are : 1. Bassein ; 2. Dravi ; 3. 
Versova ; 4. Salsette ; 5. Trombay, in 

mark implies that further information is to be found in the Index and Directory 

HD OF Bombay is situated in 
8'46", long. 72''52'. It is one 
J of islands which were at one 
ii-ated from the mainland and 





which the hill called the Neat's Tongue, 
900 ft high, is a conspicuous mark ; 
6. Bombay ; 7. Old Woman's Island ; 
8. Colaba; 9. Elephanta; 10. Butcher's 
Island; 11. Oibbet Island; 12. Ear- 

Bombay Island is 11} m. long from 
the S. extremity of Colaba to Sion 
Causewayi over which the railway passes 
to the larger island of Salsette, and from 
8 to 4 m. broad in that portion which 
lies to the N. of the Esplanade. It is 
difficult to estimate its area, but it 
may be put down as about 22 sq. m. 
The last census (1891) of the city is 
821,764, viz. : 

HiDdofl . . 548,291 
Mohammedans 154,247 
Qhristians . 45,810 
Baddhists 190 

Jains . 25.225 

Parsil . .47,458 
Jews . . 5,021 
Atheists, other 
than Buddhists 
and Jains . 8S 

Limiting the area of Calcutta to the 
municipality, and excluding the 
suburbs, Bombay ranks as the second 
most populous city in the British 
Empire. Most of its population is 
crowded into an area or about 4 
sq. m. From the 8th August 1896 
to the 80th June 1897, there were 
27,597 deaths in Bombay of plague, 
or bubonic fever. Of those attacked 
60 p. c. died. The epidemic was of 
a comparatively mild form, but re- 
sulted in great loss to business men, 
owing to the world-wide quarantine 
imposed upon all vessels from Bombay. 

Climate. — ^The average temperature 
of Bombay is 79*2** F. It is neither 
so hot in summer nor so cold in winter 
as many places in the interior. The 
coolest months are from November till 
March. The S.W. monsoon begins 
about the second week in June, and the 
rains continue till the end of September. 
The average rainfall is 70*80 in. 

Bombay Harbour.— On approaching 
Bombay from the W. there is little to 
strike the eye. The coast of the island 
is low, the highest point, Midabar 
Hill, being only 180 ft. above the sea. 
But on entering the harbour a stranger 
must be impressed with the pictur- 

esqueness of the scene. To the W* 
the shore is crowded with buildings 
some of them, as Colaba Church mi 
the Tower of the University, very lofty 
and well proportioned. To the 
£. are numerous islands, and on till 
mi^inland hills rising to an altitude cH 
from 1000 to 2000 ft Pre-emiMni 
amongst these is the remarkable Ull 
of Bawa Malane, otherwise called Ibl- 
lan^idh, on tiie top of which is in 
enormous mass of rock with perpn* 
dicular sides, crowned with a fort »w 
in ruins. On the plateau below fte 
scarp was a strone fortress which, in 
1780, was captured by Captain Abiig- 
ton, who, however, found the np|er 
fort quite impregnable. (See Grait 
Duff, vol. iL p. 41.) 

The port is crowded with vessels d 
all nations, and conspicuous amongst 
them are 2 monitors, for the defence o^ 
the Harbour. These are called the 
Abyssinia and the Magdala, and are 
armed with 8-inch guns in 2 turrets. 
There are also 2 torpedo catchers, 
and 6 fast torpedo boats. The main 
defences, remoaelled and armed with 
the newest and heaviest guns, consiBt 
of batteries on the islands in the 
harbour. The fort most to the S. is 
called the Oyster Roek; that on the 
Middle Ground shoal is in the middle 
of the anchorage. The third defence 
is on Cross Island, at the N. end of th( 
anchorage. The higher part of thii 
island has been cut down and armec 
with a battery, in addition to whicl 
there are 8 large batteries on the main 

Tianding and Landing • plaoM. - 

Passengers are landed at the Ballari 
Pier in launches. The Custom-Hous 
officers come on board for the inspec 
tion of personal baggage, but hear 
boxes are more conveniently pa8se< 
through at the Custom House. Th 
hotel authorities and Messrs. T. Coo] 
& Son generally send representative 
to meet passengers by each steamei 
It is convenient for travellers to entrus 
their baggage to one of them, or t 
their private native servant, if the 
have engaged one beforehand and haA 
instructed him to meet them on boan 

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I th« steamer arrives at night, it is 
ihrisable to remain on board until the 
loming. The P. & 0, steamer, after 
bding the mail and most of the pas- 
iDgen, proceeds about 1 m. N. up 
le harlK>ur to the docks. Though 
le new tariff of 1894 has increased the 
iltmber of articles dutiable, those which 

tre trouble ar« firearms only. If these 
ve not been in India before, or 
kve not been in India for a year, a 
Ighfli valorem duty is levied on them, 
Hd they cannot be removed from the 
(usbm House until the duty is paid, 
t atertificate given that a full year has 
lotilapsed since the owner left India. 
laTellers who have not been in the 
t4 before will be struck by the pic- 
toKqneness of the scene on landing in 
Bftbay. The quaint native craft at 
Aquay ; the crowds of people dressed 

■ the most brilliant and varied cos- 
ines ; the Hindus of different castes ; 
h Mohammedans, Jews, and Parsis, 
■ith a sprinkling from other national- 
ities; the gaily painted bullock- carts, 
■d other sights of equal novelty, com- 
iie to make a lasting impression on 
le stranger's mind. 

Q«naral Description of Bombay and 
Iburbs.— The Apollo Bandar, where the 
kveller used to land, is in the modern 
kronean quarter. As he stands facing 
I, the narrow promontory of Colahia 
foehind him to the S.E. ; on his right 
• the Yacht Club; and before him 
letches the main thoroughfare of the 
fr, passing through ' * The Fort, " with 

■ business quarter on the rt., and the 
►nd array of Public Buildings — the 
ide of modem Bombay — on the 1. 
J^ogb other modem cities may boast 
■finer individual buildings, none can 
toparewith these m general arrange- 
ifcBt and unity of effect, "conceived 
V the most part with a happy inspira- 
wi which blends the Gothic and the 
Mian schools of architecture. "^ On 
farther side W. they face Back Bay. 
■weeding N. the promontory upon 
■ich Bombay stands widens. On the 
*wne right are the docks and dock- 
Ws, on the left the bay trends away 
^ and 8. to Malabar Hill and Malabar 

^ 81? Edwin Arnold's India Revisited. 

Point. In the centre, at the junction 
of two thoroughfares, are Victoria Sta- 
tion and the new Municipal Offices, 
the largest and most elaborate build- 
ings in Bombay, with the Crawford 
Market beyond ; and then commences 
the densely populated native citv, which 
extends N. for 2 m. to the suourbs of 
Mazagon and Byculla, and to the foot 
of MiQabar and Camballa Hills. 

The best suburb is Malabar Hill 
(about 8i m. from the Fort), which 
affords the highest and healthiest situa- 
tion, and is covered with charming villas 
and bungalows surrounded by gardens. 
These chiefly belong to wealthy natives, 
but are for the most part inhabited by 
Europeans and Parsis. Unfortunately 
the best and highest position of all 
is occupied by the gardens attached 
to the Towers of Silence (see below). 
Along the top of the same ridge is 
the Ladies' Gymkhana — a favourite 
resort in the evenings (see Index), 
and the little Church of All Saints. 
At Malabar Point, at the extreme 
S. W., is Government House, and 
close to it the Temple of Walkesh- 
war, in an unhealthy depression. To 
the N.E. is Camballa Hill and 
Breach Candy, overlooking the Indian 
Ocean, where there are numbers 
of pleasant bungalows and villas. 
To the N. is Parell, where are the 
old Government House and the Vic- 
toria Gardens ; and to the W. the 
suburbs of Byculla and Mazagon, which 
include many cotton and other manu- 
factories and warehouses. At Mazagon 
are some of the docks, including those 
of the P. & 0. Company. 

Public Offices. 

One of the most conspicuous features 
in Bombay is the impressive line of 
government buildings which face Back 
Bay and succeed one another in the fol- 
lowing order, from N. : the Govern- 
ment Secretariat, close to Watson's 
Hotel on the Esplanade, University 
Hall, Library aiid Clock Tower, Law 
Courts, Public "Works' Secretariat, Post 
Office and Telegraph Offices. There 
is a building to the N.E. of the Tele- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



graph Offices which is used for the 
accommodation of the employes of the 
telegraph department. 

The Presidential Secretariat is 443 
ft. long, with two wings 81 ft long. 
In the first floor are the Council HaD, 
50 ft. long, Committee Rooms, Private 
Rooms for the Governor and Members 
of Council, and the Offices of the 
Revenue Department. The second 
floor contains the Offices of the Judicial 
and Military Departments. The style 
is Venetian Qothic, and the designer 
was Col. Wilkins, R.E. The carving 
is by native artists. The staircase is 
lighted by the great window, 90 ft. 
high, over which rises the tower to 170 
ft. At the entrance are the arms of Sir 
B. Frere (who was Governor when the 
plans were formulated for erecting 
Public Buildings, and to whom Bom- 
bay owes many of its improvements) 
and Sir S. Fitzgerald, and there is a 
very handsome armoire made of teak, 
inlaid with black wood, all the work 
of native ai-tisans. 

The Uniyersity Library and Clock 
Tower form a grand pile, designed by 
Sir Gilbert Scott in the style of 14th- 
century Gothic. The Library is a long 
low room adorned with carving, and the 
Great University or Rajabai Tower on 
the W. side forms part of it, and is from 
its height the most conspicuous building 
in Bombay. It is 260 ft. high, and 
was built at the expnse of Mr. Prem- 
chand Raichand, in memory of his 
mother, Rajabai. It cost 300,000 rs. 
He also gave 100,000 rs. for the Library ; 
and these sums with accumulations 
more than sufficed to complete the two 
buildings. The Tower, from the top of 
which there is a fine view of Bombay, 
is divided into 6 stories, and is sur- 
mounted by an octaconal lantern spire, 
with figures in niches at the angles. 
There are 24 fibres in all upon the 
tower representing the castes of W. 
India. The first floor forms part of 
the upper room of the Library, and the 
second contains a study for the Regis- 
trar. There is an opening several feet 
square in the centre of each floor, so 
that one can look up 115 ft. to the 

ceiling of the Dial Room. The fourth 
floor is for the great clock. Under the 
dials outside are 4 small galleries, vith 
stone balustrades. 

University HalL— This fine building, 
in the French Decorated style of the 
15th cent, is 104 ft. long, 44 ft. broid, 
and 68 ft high to the apex of the 
groined ceiling, with an apse separated 
from the Hall by a grand arch, ani a 
gallery, 8 ft broad, round three site. 
The painted glass windows have an 
excellent effect, and are also most vm- 
ful in tempering the fierceness of fte 
Indian sun. The Hall, designed by 8u 
Gilbert Scott, R.A., is called after ftr 
Cowasjee Jehangir, who contributed 
100,000 rs. towards the cost of erection. 
It was completed in 1874. 

The Cotute of Justice. — This im- 
mense building, 562 ft long, with a 
tower 176 ft. high, was designed by 
Gen. J. A. Fuller, R.E., is said to have 
cost £100,000, and was opened in 1879. 
The style is Early English. Th^ 
principsd entrance is under a large 
arched porch in the W. &9ade, on 
either side of which is an octagon towei 
120 ft. high, with pinnacles of white 
Porbandar stone, and surmounted hy 
statues of Justice and Mercy. The 
main staircase is on the E. side, and if 
approached by a noble groined corridoi 
in Porbandar stone, which runs througl 
the building. The oflBces of the Higl 
Court are on the first and third uppei 
floors. The Appellate and Origins 
Courts are on the second floor. Th< 
Criminal Court is in the centre of thi 
building, above the main corridor 
and has a carved teak gallery for thi 
public running round 8 sides. Thi 
ceiling is of dark polished teak ii 
panels, with a carved centre-piece 
The floor is Italian mosaic. From th 
windows of the tower fine views ar 
obtained. On the £. are the harbour 
fringed with islands, Modi Bay, and th 
Fort ; and to the W. are Malabar Hil 
Back Bay, and S. Colaba Point 

Separated from the Post Office by 
broad road which leads E. to the Foi 
by Church Gate Road, and W. to th 
Church Gate station of the B. B. 

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dl. fiailway, is the Public Works' 
fecretariat, with a fa9ade 288 ft. long ; 
ike central part having 6 stories. 
The Railway, Irrigation, etc. De- 
^rtments are in this office. 

Tlie Post Office has 3 floors, and is 
3(2 ft long; with wings on the N. side. 
It is in the mediaeval style (architect, 
Irutshawe). The stone used is the 
Ame as that of the Telegraph Offices ; 
tie tmui^ment is exceUent in point 
tf cmvenience. 

Ike Telegraph Office, in modem 
Gotic style, has a fa9ade 182 ft long. 
Thi facing is of coursed rubble stone 
fro Coorla in Salsette, and the columns 
anof blue basalt. 

The State Becord Office and Patent 
flfice occupy the W. wing of the 
flphinstone College, close to the 
Jiechanics* Institute. Amongst the 
records are preserved the oldest docu- 
ment relating to the Indian Empire, a 
fetter from Surat, 1630 ; and the letter 
rf the Duke of Wellington announcing 
4e victory at Assaye. 

: The Town Hall, in the Elphinstone 
j6rele, designed by Col. T. Cowper, was 

rsned in 1 835, and cost about £60,000, 
far the larger portion being defrayed 
^ the E. I. Comp. The buflding has 
I colonnade in iront, and the fa9ade 
1260 ft. long. The pillars in front, 
fed ^ external character of the 
^ce, are Doric ; the interior is Cor- 

On the ground floor are : the Medical 
fcard oihces, in which are four hand- 
|me Ionic pillars, copied from those 
<a temple on the banks of the llyssus ; 
ad the office of the Alilitary Auditor- 
fenend, and some of the weightier 
inosities of the Asiatic Society. In 
le upper story is the Grand As- 
lubly Soom, 100 ft. square, in which 
iblic meetings and balls are held ; 
Assembly Room of the Bombay 
ktk Society ; and the Library of 
Society, founded by Sir James 
' itoeh, containing about 100,000 
A stranger can have gratui- 
to the rooms for a month by 

an order from one of the members of 
the Society. The Levee Rooms of the 
Governor and the Commander-in-Chief, 
the Council Room, etc., are no longer 
used for their original purposes. The 
place of honour in the Grand Assembly 
Rooms is occupied by a statue of the 
distingulBhed Governor Mountstuart 
Elphinstone, executed by Chantrey, as 
are also those of Sir J. Malcolm and 
Sir C. Forbes. At the head of the 
staircase, on one side, is a fine statue 
of Lord Elphinstone, the Governor 
during the Mutiny, and on the other 
side is a statue of Sir Bartle Frere, an 
excellent likeness. Between the cir- 
cular flights of stairs is the statue of 
Sir Jamsnidji Jijibhai. 

The Council Room contains mctures, 
by Mr. Wales, of Baji Rao Peshwa, 
(whose adopted son, Nana Dhundu 
Pant, will be ever infamous as the 
author of the massacre at Cawnpore) ; 
of Baji Rao's celebrated minister, Nana 
Farnavis ; and of Mahada^i Sindia. 
In the Asiatic Society's Library are 
busts of Sir James Carnac by Chantrey 
and Sir J. Mackintosh. The Geo- 
graphical Room contains pictures of 
Sir A. Burnes, and Sir C. Malcolm 
and Captain Ross, the two first Presi- 
dents of the Geographical Society ; 
also a very fine collection of maps. 

The Mint is close to the Town Hall, 
but farther back, having a tank in front 
of it. It is a plain building, with an 
Ionic portico, designed by Major J. 
Hawkins, and completed in 1829. It 
stands upon reclaimed land, where con- 
siderable difficulty was experienced in 
laying the foundations : tne cost was 
in consequence very great. Author- 
ity was granted to the Company by 
the Crown to establish a mint so early 
as 1676. In the Bullion Room there 
are sometimes from £100,000 to 
£200,000 of silver in London bare, 
weighing 80 lbs. each, and San Fran- 
cisco bars, weighing 100 lbs. It is 
unnecessary to describe the working 
of the mint which resembles that of 
similar institutions. Forty specimens 
of false coins are exhibited, one of 
which has been a good coin, but all 
the silver has been scooped ^ut and 

Digitized by VjGOQIC 





lead substituted. These coins have 
been collected since September 1872. 
Adjoining the Mint, on the Ballard 
Road, are the administrative offices of 
the Port Trust, an imposing building. 

Government House at Malabar 
Point. — It is a pleasant drive of about 
4 m. from the Foit along the seaside, 
skirting Back Bay, which on account 
of the sea-breeze is cooler, though less 
interesting, than through the hot and 
crowded bazaars. At about 3 m. from 
the Fort the road begins to ascend a 
spur of Malabar HilL Near the top 
on the 1. are the entrance gates to 
the drive, which in less than i m. 
through a shady grove of trees by the 
sea-shore leads to Government House. 
It is a building of no architectural pre- 
tensions, but is simply a bungalow, or 
rather a series of bungalows, with large 
cool rooms and deep verandahs over- 
looking the sea, and a pleasant view 
across Back Bay to the city of Bombay 
on the farther side. Some of the de- 
tached bungalows are for the Governor's 
staff and for guests, all being from 80 
to 100 ft. above the sea. Below them 
at the extreme point is a battery, which 
could sweep the sea approach. Not 
far off to the N. a large ship, the 
Diamond, was wrecked and 80 pas- 
sengers were drowned. Sir Evan Nepean 
was the first Governor to reside at Mala-, 
bar Point. He went there in 1813, as 
the cool sea-breeze was indispensable to 
his health, and built an additional room 
to the Sergeants' quarters, which was 
the only house existing in the neigh- 
bourhood. In 1819-20, Mr. Elphin- 
stone added a public breakfast-room, 
and a detached sleeping bungalow on 
a small scale. In 1828 Sir John Mal- 
colm gave up, for public offices, the 
Government House in the Fort and the 
Secretary's office in Apollo Street, and 
considerably enlarging the residence at 
Malabar Point, regularly constituted it 
a Government House. Close by is the 
picturesque temple of Walkeshwar (see 
below). The drive from Malabar Point, 
and thence along the sea by Breach 
Candy, is one of the most beauti- 
ful in the island, and is thronged 
with carriages and equestrians every 

evening. Finer still is that recently 
opened up bv Gibbs Road, continuing 
the Ridffe Road through a garden of 
ferns and crotons to Camballa Hill. 

Government House at Parell was a 
Portuguese place of worship and mon- 
astery, confiscated by the English 
government on account of the traitor- 
ous conduct of the Jesuits in 1720. 
Governor Hornby was the first -who 
took up his residence there, between 

To supply the required accommoda- 
tion Mr. Elphinstone built the ri^t 
and left wings. The public rooms are 
in the centre facing the W. ITie 
drawing-room or ballroom above the 
dining-room occupies the place of the 
old Portuguese chapel. On the staircase 
there is a bust, and in the ballroom a 
portrait, of the Duke of Wellington. 
At the end of the ballroom is what is 
called the Darbar Room. From the S. 
corridor steps descend to a platform in 
the garden, where the band plays. 
The garden of Parell is pretty, and 
has at its W. extremity a tank, and on 
its margin a terrace, which rises about 
10 ft. above the water and the grounds. 

Since 1880 the Governors have Uved 
principally at Malabar Point, and Parell 
House has been only used by the (Gover- 
nor occasionally for garden-parties in 
the winter. 

The Victoria Station, terminus of 
the Great Indian Peninsular Railway, 
stands in a conspicuous place, in the 
angle between the Esplanade Market 
Road and the Boree Bandar Road, within 
a few minutes walk of the Fort. It is 
a vast building, elaborately ornamented 
with sculpture and surmounted by a 
large central dome ; at the same time 
its arrangements are found to be practi- 
cally most convenient The architect 
was F. W. Stevens, CLE. ; the style 
is Italian Gothic, with certain Oriental 
modifications in the domes. It cost 
the Rly. Comp. £300,000, and was 
completed in 1888. It is one of the 
handsomest building in Bombay, and 
the finest rly. sta. m India, if not in 
any country. 

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1. Victoria Museum. 

2. Gowalee Tank. 

3. Native Theatre. 

4. Jail. 

5. CtariBt Church. 

6. Free Church High School. 

7. European and Mohammedan Bury- 

S. Gokaloas Hospital. 
9. St. Xayier College. 
10 School of Art. 
Tofiustp. 6. 

11. Marine Battalion Lines. 

12. Gaiety and Novelty Theatres. 

13. European General Hospital. 

14. Mint. 

16. Town Hall. 

16. St Andrew's Church. 

17. Lunatic Asylum. 

18. English Cemetery. 

19. Wilson College. 

20. Elphinstone Reclamation. 

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Tbe Municipal Buildings (architect, 
F. W. Stevens, CLE.) occupy the angle 
between the Hornby and Cruicksbank 
Roads, opposite the Victoria Rly. Sta. 
The Oriental feeling introdnced into 
the Gothic architecture has a pleasine 
effect The tower, 255 ft. high, and 
saimounted by a masonry dome, can 
be seen from aU parts of Bombay. The 
central gable terminates in a statue 13 
ft. high representing "Urbs prima in 
Indis." The ^rand staircase is also 
cnnnied by an imposing dome. 

Between the Mint and the Custom 
HoQse are the remains of the Castle, 
coiering 300 sq. ft. Only the walls 
fadng the harbour remain. There is 

a flagstaff here from which siffuals are 

oule to ships, and also a clock tower, 

ibere a time signal-ball, connected by 
la electric wire with the Observatory 
It Colaba, in which are valuable 
arrangements for magnetic and other 
observations, falls at 1 p.m. 

Adjoining the Castle is the Arsenal 
[order for admittance must be obtained 
from the Inspector-General of Ordnance 
at Poona). Besides the usual warlike 
materials, harness, tents, and other 
such necessaries for army equipment 
are made here ; and here also is an 
interesting collection of ancient arms 
md old native weapons of various 

The Custom House is a large, ugly 
tld building, a little to the S. of the 
town Hall and Cathedral It was a 
Portuguese barrack in 1665, and then a 
marter for dvil servants. Forbes in 
ba Oriental Memoirs says that in 1770 
ke was there and could get no supper 
ir candles, so he sat on the roof read- 
ng Shakespeare by moonlight It be- 
came a Custom House in 1802. The 
landing-place E. is called the Town 
^ndar. The Dockyard extends hence 
to the Apollo Gate, with a sea-face of 
learly 700 yds. 

The Dodcyard.~So early as 1673 
the East India Company had been 
impelled to build snips of war to 
protect their merchantmen from the 
ttacks of the Haratha and Malabar 
lirates. Surat, however, was the 
diief station for building vessels, and 
ip to 1785 there were no docks in ex- 

istence at Bombay. In that year a 
vessel was built at Surat for the Com- 

Cy, and an officer despatched from 
nbay to inspect it Being much 
pleased with the skill and intelligence 
of the Parsi foreman, Lowii Naushir- 
wanji, and knowing that the Govern- 
ment was desirous of establishing a 
building-yard at Bombay, this officer 
endeavoured to persuade him to leave 
Surat and take charge of it. The Parsi, 
however, had too much honesty to 
accept this advantageous offer without 
permission from his master to whom he 
was engaged. On its being granted, he 
proceeded to Bombay with a few arti- 
ficers, and selected a site for the docks. 
Next year Lowji was sent to the N. to 
procure timber, and on his return he 
brought his family with him. From 
that day to this the superintendence 
of the docks has been wholly in Lowji's 
family ; or, as it is well expressed by 
a well-known writer, "The history of 
the dockyard is that of the rise of a 
respectable, honest, and hard-working 
Parsi family." Up to this time the 
king's ships had been hove down for 
repairs at Hog Island. About 1767 
it became necessary to enlarge the yard. 
In 1771 two grandsons of Lowii — 
Framji Manikji and Jamsbidji Banm- 
aiyi— entered the dockyard, working 
as common carpenters at 12 rs. a 
month. In 1774 Lowji died, leaving 
only a house and a sum of money undei 
£3000. He bequeathed, however, to 
his family a more precious legacy, 
— the remembrance and prestige of 
his character for spotless integrity. 
Manikji succeeded him as master- 
builder, and Bahmanji was appointed 
his assistant, the two managing the 
docks with increased success. They 
built two fine ships of 900 tons, and 
the men-of-war crippled in the severe 
actions between Sir Edward Hughes 
and Admiral Suffrein were docked at 
Bombay. Bahmanji died in 1790, in 
debt ftnd Manikji two years afterwards; 
leaving but a scanty sum to his family. 
Their sons succeeded them. Jam- 
sbidji in 1802 built the ComwaUis 
frigate for the East India Company 
and his success determined the Home 
Government to order^he construction 

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of ships for the Royal Navy at Bombay. 
In consequence of his talents, he was 
permitted to have the sole supervision 
as master builder. In 1805 the dock- 
yard was enlarged ; and in 1820 the 
MindeUf 74, built entirely by Parsis, 
was launched, and about the same time 
the ComioalliSt 74, of 1767 tons. Subse- 
quently the WelUsley, 74, of 1746 tons ; 
tne Malabar^ 74 ; the SeringapcUam, and 
many other ships of war were built ; in- 
cluding the Ganges, 84 ; the CalcuUaf 
86 ; and the Miani, of 86 guns. All 
these vessels were made of teak, and 
have sufficiently proved . the lasting 
quality of that wood. It has been said 
tnat a teak ship will last from four 
to fives times as long as one of English 
oak. The old Loujji Castle, a merchant- 
man of about 1000 tons, is known to 
have made voyages for nearly three- 
quarters of a century. Although the 
dockyard has been of late years much 
enlarged and furnished with the best 
and newest machinery, no large ships 
are built here. The enclosure contains 
about 200 acres. There are 5 graving 
docks, 3 of which together make one 
large dock ; the Bombay Dock, 648 ft. 
long, 57 ft. broad at top, and 34 ft. at 
bottom, and with 12 ft perpendicular 
depth; the other 2 graving docks 
make a single dock, 550 ft. long, 68 ft. 
broad at top, and 46 ft. at bottom, and 
with 26 ft. perpendicular depth. There 
are also 4 building-slips opposite the 
Apollo Pier, and on the S.E. side of 
the enclosure. Bombay is the only 
important place near the open sea in 
India where the rise of the tide is suffi- 
cient to permit docks on a large scale. 
At Bombay the highest spring tides 
reach to 17 ft. ; but the usual height 
is 14 ft. The dockyard is lighted by 
electricity, so that work can be carried 
on by night if necessary. 

The Duncan Graving Dock, origin- 
ally constructed in 1807, can be divided 
into two by means of a steel floating 
caisson ; its teital length is 630 feet and 
depth 26 feet at spring tides. The 
Govemment W«t Basin, constructed 
in 1891-3, has an area of 4^ acres, and 
was designed for the use of Government 
ships ; its depth is 25 feet at spring tides. 

The Bassoon Dock at Colaba is a 

wet dock for the discharge of caigo 
which has been purchased by Govcto- 
ment. The Bomoay, Baroda, and C. I. 
Railway runs to the S. of the dock, 
and a siding is carried under the very 
warehouses, so that in the monsoon 
the goods are not wetted. The Bom- 
bay, Baroda, and C. I. Rly. jons 
the G. I. P. at Dadar, so that, practi- 
cally, both railways join the doclo. 
The Sassoon Dock, the first wet dock 
made in India, is 650 ft. long, with la 
average breadth of 250 ft. The depfli 
is 19 ft. at high water at neap tidee^ 
and 22 ft. at spring tides. In one of 
the warehouses at the W. end are 6 
hydraulic cotton presses, which exert 
a pressure of 800 tons on each bale. 
They can press from 125 to 150 bcdes 
a (iay. A bale weighs more than 
deal but less than teak of the same 

Prince's Dock was commenced dar- 
ing the Prince of Wales's visit in 1875- 
76. In excavating it the remains of 
a submerged forest were found at a 
depth of about 10 ft. About 100 trees 
from 10 to 20 ft. long were exhumed ; 
the wood is red and very hard. The 
dock extends over 30 acres, and 
is capable of containing 30 ocean 
steamers. On the N.W. of this dock 
is the Merewethar (Government) 
Dock. Adjacent to the docks is a 
whole street of warehouses and offices. 

The Victoria Dock, S. of the Prince's 
Dock and connected with it, occupies the 
space formerly taken up by the Musjid 
and Nicol basins. It covers 25 acres, and 
has an entrance 80 feet in width. 

Both these docks are excavated on 
the estate known as the Elphinstone 
Reclamation, which has taken in from 
the sea 276 acres, and has raised and 
improved 110 acres. The Mody Bay 
Reclamation is S. of the Elphinstone 
estate. These two groups of work 
have transformed the eastern foreshore 
of the island from- a mud swamp to a 
busy mercantile quarter worthy of the 
capital of Western India. 

Several hours might be spent in visit- 
ing these vast reclamation works on 
the E. shore of Bombay Island, ^m 
the Custom House to Sewri on the N. 
On these works and on those at Colaba 

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ind Back Bay £5,000,000 sterling have 
been exp»ide<L 

The Dockyard of the P. ft 0. Com- 
Mny is in the suburb of Mazagon. 
The office is situated in the Mazagon 
Dock Road, in a garden with a profusion 
of flowering shrubs. The works were 
Inished in 1866. The dockyard covers 
12 acres, and there are iron sheds for 
18,000 tons of coal. The dock is 420 
ft. long, and capable of receiving 
tcskIs of deep draught On its left, 
looking towards the pier, is the Ice 

Ihe Kennery Lighthouse, which is 
12 m. to the S. of Bombay, has a 
fiad first-class cata-dioptric light in a 
twer 161 ft. above high-water mark. 
ft cost about 2 lakhs. There are 2 
32-pounders on the island for signalling. 
The foundation-stone was laid by Sir 
fiartle Frere in 1867, and the light was 
first shown the following year. 

A ridge or causeway, which com- 
mences a little S. of the Colaba Ceme- 
tery, and is 3600 ft. long, leads to the 
^ew or Prong Ughthoaae, from the 
Old Lighthouse, extinguished 1874. 
This ridge is diy at low water for 4 
Uja before and 4 days after full moon. 
JTear the Old Lighthouse and at Colaba 
Point are two modern batteries, and N. 
flf it are the lines of the artillery and the 
Wadquarters wing of a European regi- 
ment. The Prong Lighthouse is 150 
i high, with walls 17 ft. thick at the 
«west story, and cost £60,000. The 
I Solving gear has to be wound up every 
5 minutes, which employs 2 men. In 
tonus the waves rise 50 ft. up the sides, 
tid the tower vibrates. Before this 
3ghthouse was built dreadful ship- 
necks took place here, and many of 
tie bodies of tnose drowned are interred 
91 C<^ba Cemetery. It is interesting 
to watch the light from the shore of 
lack Bay as it flashes into full snlen- 
ioor and l^en in a few seconds tades 
ato darkness. The light can be seen 
^ the distance of 18 m., and beyond 
%& Hothouse the shoal water extends 
Ir a nile. It flashes every 10 seci:)nds. 

Another lighthouse takes the place 
«f "die eld Inner Light vessel 


The Cathedral of St. Thomas stands 
in the Fort, close to Elphinstone Circle. 
It was built as a garrison church in 
1718, and made a cathedral on the 
establishment of the See of Bombay 
in 1888, on which occasion the low 
belfry was converted into a high tower. 
It is simple in plan, and a mixture of 
the classical and Grothic in style. The 
chancel, added 1865, is a satisfactory 
specimen of modem Early English. 
There are some monuments here which 
deserve attention, — one by Bacon to 
Jonathan Duncan, Governor for sixteen 
years. It represents him receiving the 
blessings of young Hindus. This had 
reference to his successful efforts in 
suppressing infanticide in certain dis- 
tricts near Benares, and afterwards in 
Kattywar, through the zealous and 
able agency of Colonel Walker. 

Amongst other monuments to be 
noticed are that to Cap. G. N. Hardinge, 
R.N., who died in 1808, in a brilliant 
engagement when he took the frigate 
La JHedmontiare ; that to Col. Burr, 
who commanded at the battle of Eirkee ; 
and a third to Major Pottinger, who dis- 
tinguished himself in the defence of 
Hirat The fountain in front of the 
Cathedral was erected by Sir Cowasjee 
Jehangir Readymoney, at a cost of 
7000 rs. 

The Afghan Memorial Church of St. 
John the Eyangelist at Colaba, conse- 
crated in 1858, consists of nave and 
aisles 138 ft. long, with a chancel 50 ft. 
long, and a tower and spire 198 ft. high, 
conspicuous for some distance at sea. As 
in the great church of Antioch in early 
ages, and in St. Peter's at Rome, the 
altar is at the W. end. The efiect on 
entering is good, owing to the length 
and height of the building, the simpli- 
city of tne architecture, and the **dim 
religious light" diffused through the 
stained-glass windows. The roof is 
of teak. The first object remarked on 
entering is the illuminated metal screen, 
light and elegantly designed, and sur- 
mounted by a gilt cross. S. of the main 
entrance is the Baptistery, with a 
large font and triplet window erected 
by the congregation m memory of the 

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Rev. Philip Anderson, author of The 
English in Western India, About ith 
of the cost of the spire was contributed 
by Mr. Cowasjee Jehangir in 1864, a 
striking instance of Parsi liberality 
and of the good feeling between Parsis 
and Europeans. 

At the W. end of the N. aisle is a 
triplet window, erected to the memory 
of Greneral David Barr. 

The arch of the chancel is 65 ft. high. 
The pulpit was given by a member of 
the congregation, the desk by the 
officers of H.M.'s 28th Regt. on leaving 
the country in 1864, in memory of 
seven brother officers. 

The brass altar candlesticks were 
made in the School of Art at Bombay. 
Behind the lectern is the Litany stool, 
inscribed, "A Thank Offering from the 
R. W. Fusiliers, 1869 a.d.*' The choir 
desks are supported by wrought-iron 
stands, illuminated, and made in the 
School of Art The " memorial mar- 
bles," are of alternate colours of white, 
red, yellow, and blue ; and beneath 
them there runs the following inscrip- 
tion, painted on a blue ground : — 

This Church was built in Memory ol the 
Officers whose names are written above, and 
of the Non-Commissioned Officers and Priirate 
Soldiers, too many to be so recorded, who fell, 
mindftd of their duty, by sickness or by the 
sword, in the Campaigns of Bind and Afghan- 
istan, A.D. 1838-1843. 

All Saints', the Ridge, Malabar Hill. 

Christ Church, Byculla, was conse- 
crated by Bishop Wilson in 1835. It 
holds 500 people. There are here several 
monuments and tombs of interest and 
some monumental brasses. 

St. Peter's Church, Mazagonj has a 
memorial window to the officers and 
men drowned in the S.S. Camatic, 

St Nicholas Church, at the docks, is 
for the use of seamen. 

St. Andrew's Kirk, in Marine Street, 
was built in 1818. In 1826 the steeple 
was thrown down by lightning, and 
rebuilt by John Caldecott. 

The new Free Church stands in 
Wandby Road, near the Esplanade. 

The Bomau Catholic Church, in 
Medow Street, dates from the begin- 
ning of last century. There is a bread- 
fruit tree in the inner quadrangle. 


The S.P.G., with Church in Kamati- 
pura Road, has 4 missionary clergr in 
the town, and a branch of tne Ladies' 
Association working in the zenanas. 

The CM. 8. (estabd. in Bombay since 
1820), has a Church and large Sdmls 
for boys and girls at Girgaon. 

The Mission Priests of St. John the 
Evangelist (Cowley Fathers) serve flie 
Ch. of St. Peter's, Mazagon, and h»?e 
a Mission House and Schools for bof s 
and ^rls near it : also a native Mission 
and Orphanage in Babula Tank Roai 

The ^*A11 Saints'" Sisters (from Mar- 
garet St.) have been working in Bombay 
since 1878, and nurse the following 
Hospitals: European General, Jam- 
shidRi, Pestoigi Kama. They have 2 
High Schools for Girls, with Boarding 
Schools: one in Elphinstone Circle 
called the Cathedral Girls' School, the 
other near St Peter's, Mazagon. Also 
St. John's Orphanage for natives 
(mostly foundlings) at Umer Khadi. 

The American Presbyterian Board oj 
Foreign Missions or Maratha Mission 
has a considerable staff. The Uniied 
Free Church of Scotland has a strong 
body of missionaries connected with the 
Wilson Mission College (p. 13) affiliated 
to the University. 


The European Cemetery, at Parell, 
formerly a Biotanical Garden, opened in 
1830, is a sheltered spot under Flacstafl 
Hill, with trees on either side, and wai 
turned into a cemetery about 1867. 

The Colaba Cemetery, beyond th€ 
church, at the extreme point of th< 
promontory, is tolerably well kept, bul 
IS no longer used. 

The Girgaon Cemeteries facing Bacli 
Bay. He most northerly is the old 
European cemetery, where was buried 
the celebrated French naturalist apt] 
traveller Jacquemont. His remaini 
were eventually removed to Fiance. 
Neither this nor the adjacent Moham 
medui buijing'ground are now in use 

To the 8. is the ground for Eindt 
Cremations, Europeans who desire ar« 
allowed to enter. To the S.E. is th* 
Scotch Cemetery, now closed. 

The five Towers of Bilenoe stand upoi 

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tHe highest point of Malabar Hill, 100 
ft above the sea. In order to see them 
pennission most be obtained from the 
secretary to the Parsi Panchayat. Sir 
Jamshiif ji Jijibhai, at his own expense, 
made the road which leads to the 
Towers on the N. side, and gaye 
100,000 sq. yds. of land on the N. and 
E. sides of the Towers. They are best 
approached by Gibbs Boad. 

Within the gateway of an outer 
eBclosnre a flight of 80 steps mounts 
up to a gateway in an inner wall. 
Kom this point the visitor is accom- 
l^ied by an official of the Panchayat, 
aid turning to the rt. comes to a 
4Dne building, where, during funerals, 
jraycr is offered. From this point one 
if the finest views of Bombay may be 
ibtained. To the 1. are Sion, Sewri, 
ind Mazagou Hills, and between them 
some 20 lofty chimneys of cotton mills 
and other high buildings. Below, at 
the foot of tne hiU, stretches a vast 
grove of palms, in which no human 
habitation is visible, though many are 
concealed by the broad palm leaves. On 
the rt. are seen in succession the new 
Municipal Buildings, Victoria Sta., Ca- 
thedral, Grovernment Offices, Memorial 
Church at Colaba, and the Prong Light- 
bouse. Probably while the traveller is 
looking at the view, a funeral will take 
place. A bier will be seen carried up 
the steps by 4 Nasr Salars, or " Carriei-s 
of the Dead," with 2 bearded men 
following them closely, and perhaps 
100 Parsis in white robes walking 2 and 
2 in procession. The bearded men who 
come next the corpse are the only 
persons who enter the Tower. They 
wear g^loves, and when they touch the 
bones it is with tongs. On leaving the 
Tower, after depositing the corpse on 
the grating within, they proceed to 
the puntying place, where they wash 
and leave the clothes they have worn 
in a tower built for that exijress pur- 
jKiee. The Parsis who walk in proces- 
BOO atter the bier have their clothes 
lintol, in which there is a mystic 
naaning. There is a model of one of 
tba Towers which was exhibited to the 
Prince of Wales, and is produced to 
TintoTS. The towers are 5 in num- 
tey cylindrical in shape, and white- 

washed. The largest cost £80,000, 
while the other 4 on an average 
cost £20,000 each. The largest tower 
is 276 ft. round and 25 ft. high. At 
8 ft from the ground is an aperture 
in the encircling wall about 5} ft. sq., 
to which the carriers of the dead ascend 
by a flight of steps. Inside, the plan 
of the building resembles a circular 
gridiron, gradually depressed towards 
the centre, in which is a well 5 ft in 
diameter. Besides the circular wall 
which incloses this well there are 2 
other circular walls between it and the 
outside, with footpaths running upon 
them ; the spaces between them are 
divided into compartments by radiating 
walls from an ima^nary centre. The 
bodies of adult males are laid in the 
outer series of compartments thus 
formed, the women in tne middle series, 
and the children in that nearest the 
well. They are placed in these grooves 
Quite naked, and in half an hour the 
flesh is so completely devoured by the 
numerous vultures that inhabit the 
trees around, that nothing but the 
skeleton remains. This is left to bleach 
in sun and wind till it becomes per- 
fectly dry. Then the carriers of the 
dead, gloved and with tongs, remove 
the bones from the grooves and cast 
them into the well. Here they crumble 
into dust. Round the well are perfora- 
tions which allow the rain-water or 
other moisture to escape into 4 deep 
drains at the bottom of the Tower, ana 
the fluid then passes through charcoal 
and becomes disinfected and inodorous 
before it passes into the sea. There is 
a ladder in the weU by which the 
carriers of the dead descend if it be 
requisite to remove obstructions from 
the perforations. The dust in the well 
accumulates so slowly that in 40 years 
it rose only 5 ft. This method of inter- 
ment originates from the veneration 
the Parsis nay to the elements, and their 
zealous enaeavours not to pollute these. 
Parsis re6i)ect the dead, out consider 
oorpses most unclean, and the carriers 
are a separate and peculiar class who 
are not allowed to mix in social inter- 
course with other Parsis. Tet even 
these men wear gloves and use tonge 
in touching the remains of a deceased 

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person, and purify themselves and cast 
away their garments after every visit 
to a tower. Fire is too much venerated 
by Parsis for them to allow it to be 
polluted by burning the dead. Water 
is almost equally respected, and so is 
earth ; hence this smgular mode of 
interment has been devised. There 
is, however, another reason. Zartasht 
said that rich and poor must meet 
in death ; and this saying has been 
literally interpreted and carried out 
by the contrivance of the well, which 
is a common receptacle for the dust 
of all Parsis, of Sir Jamshid\ji and 
other millionaires and of the poor 
inmates of the Parsi Asylum. In 
the arrangements of the vast area 
which surrounds the Towers nothing 
has been omitted which could foster 
calm and pleasing meditation. You at 
once arrive at the house of prayer, and 
around is a beautiful warden full of 
flowers and flowering 3irubs. Here 
under the shade of fine trees relatives 
of the deceased can sit and meditate. 
The height of the hill and the proximity 
of the sea ensure always a cool breeze ; 
and the view to the W. and S. over 
the waters, and to the E. and K*. over 
the city, the islands in the harbour 
and the distant mountains beyond, is 
enchanting. The massive gray towers 
and the ^ick woods about tnem are 
very picturesque. Even the cypresses, 
as the Parsis themselves say, tapering 
upwards, point the way to heaven ; and 
it is certain that the Parsis follow out 
that thought and are firm believers in 
the resuiTection and the re-assemblage 
of the atoms, here dispersed, in a 
glorified and incorruptible body. 

Educational Institutions. 
Elphinstone College, removed from 
Byculla in 1890, now occupies a large 
building close to the Mechanics* In- 
stitute, from which it is separated by a 
narrow street. This building is called 
after Sir Cowasjee Jehaneir Ready- 
money, in recognition of nis having 
given a couple of lakhs for the pur- 
pose of building the original institu- 
tion. The Elphinstone Institution 
was founded as a memorial to the 
Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, the 

Governor of Bombay. In 1866 it was 
divided into a High School (see below) 
and this College for the higher educa- 
tion of natives, who contributed up- 
wards of 2 lakhs to endow professorships 
in English, and the Arts, Sciences, and 
Literature of Europe. The sum accumu- 
lated to about 4 lakhs and a half, and 
Government augments the interest by 
an annual subscription of 22,000 rs. 
There are 16 senior scholarships, and 
29 junioi' are competed for annually. 
A certain number of undergraduates 
who cannot pay the College fee are ad- 
mitted free. In 1862 Sir Alexander 
Grant, Bart., was Principal of the Col- 
lege, and some distinguished scholars 
have filled Professorships, as, for in- 
stance, Mirza Hairat, who translated 
Malcolm's J7wtoryo^P(er«Mi into Persian. 
The building is in the mediseval style, 
and contains lecture-rooms, library (in 
which is a portrait of Elphinstone by 
Lawrence), a room for the Principal, 
with one for the Professors, and donni- 
tories above for the resident students. 
The W. wing is the Record Office. 

The New Elphinstone High School 
is in Esplanade Cross Road, in front of 
the W. face of St. Xavier's College. 
Sir Albert Sassoon contributed £1500 
towards the cost of the building. It 
is the great public school of Bombay, 
and reteined possession of the original 
buildings on the Esplanade when the 
College Department was separated to 
form the Elphinstone College. 

" The object of this school is to fur- 
nish a high-class and liberal education 
up to the standard of the University 
entrance examination, at fees within 
the reach of the middle-class people of 
Bombay and the Mufassil. it has 
classes for the study of English, Mar- 
athi, Guzerati, Sanscrit, Latin, and 
Persian." There are 28 class-rooms, 
a hall on the first floor measuring 
62 X 35 ft., and a Library. The build- 
ing was designed by G. T. Molecey. 

St Xayier's College, near the W. 
end of the Esplanade Boad. This 
Jesuit institution, which serves the 
purpose of school as well as college, 
grew out of the development of St 
Mary's Insritutipn and the European 
R. C. Orphanage. The site for the 

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CoUmw was granted by Government in 

The Wilson College'(named after Rey. 
Dr. J. Wilson, F.R.S.', Oriental scholar 
ind Scottish missionary), for the 
education of young men, is a fine 
boildiog near Chami Road Station. 
It eost a lakh and a half of rupees, and 
is the largest college for natives in 
Western India. 

The Alexandra College for Farsi 
Ladies, in Kausji Patel Street in the 
Fort, was founded by the late Mr. 
Minikji Ehurshidji, who was amongst 
the first of the Parsi gentlemen to 
tnrel in Europe. It was opened in 
193. The girls remain in some cases 
to the age of 24, and are extremely 
Mril instructed in history and geo- 
fliphy and the English and Gujarati 
Signages. They aJso embroider and 
do needle-work exceedingly welL Per- 
^Ds desirous of visiting the institution 
eould no doubt obtain permission. 

Two High Schools for Girls, with 
Boarding Schools (kept by the All 
Saints* Sisters : one in Elphinstone Cir- 
cle, called the Cathedral Girls' School, 
the other near St. Peter's, Mazagon. 

The Uission High School at Ambroli, 
together with the church, cost £5000, 
and is being further extended. There 
is adjacent a college for youths, where 
Sanscrit and Persian are well taught. 

The School of Art was first opened 
for pupils in 1857. In 1877 a hand- 
lome new building was erected on 
the W. side of the Esplanade, near the 
(lokaldas Hospital. Excellent draw- 
ings and designs are made here, as well 
IS good pottery, arms, artistic work in 
silver and copper, and decorative carving 
in wood ana stone. The buildings in 
Western India owe much of their 
beauty to the work of students of this 

150 yds. off, in sheds set apart for 
the purpose, are the Art Pottery Works, 
where some beautiful designs purely 
Indian in form and ornament have been 
earned out 

The Anjuman-i-Islam School is a 
Hohammedan School in Hornby Row, 
•pp. Victoria Terminus ; erected by the 
«M)peration of Government, which gave 
^e site, valued at 158,000 rs., with a 

money-grant of 88,000 rs., while the 
Mohammedans subscribed 10,000 rs. : 
the building was opened by Lord Harris 
in 1893. The erection of this school 
marks an epoch in the history of the 
Mohammeoan community. The build- 
ing, which is of most pleasing appear- 
ance, was designed by. Mr. J. Willcocks 
of the Public Works Dept 

Institutions— CHARITABLE and 


The Royal Alfred Sailors' Home, a 

very solid-looking building in a con- 
spicuous position close to the Apollo 
Bandar, nas accommodation for 20 
officers, 58 seamen, and it is stated 
that in case of emergency it could con- 
tain 100 inmates. Officers have separ- 
ate and superior quarters. Each man 
pays 14 annas a day, for which he gets 
breakfast, dinner, tea, with hot meat, 
at 6 P.M., and supper, and the use of 
the reading-room. The sculpture in the 
front gable, representing Neptune with 
nymphs and sea-horses, was executed 
in Bath stone by Mr. Bolton of Chel- 
tenham. His late Highness Khande 
Rao Gaekwar gave 200,000 rs. towards 
the cost of the building, to commemor- 
ate the Buke of Edinburgh's visit, and 
the foundation-stone was laid in 1870 
by the Duke. 

The European General Hospital,* is 
at the entrance to Boree Bandar Road, 
close to Victoria Rly. Sta. Should 
the traveller fall ill in Bombay, he 
cannot do better than go to this hos- 
pital, where he will receive the best 
medical treatment. Close beyond in 
connection with this is the new St. 
George's Hospital. 

The Pestonji Kama Hospital * for 
Women and Children^ a Gothic build- 
ing in Cruikshank Road, is an institu- 
tion worthy of attention. 

Gokaldais Hospital, in Esplanade 
Cross Road, can contain 126 patients, 
and is generally full. The history of 
this hospital is rather curious. Mr. 
Rustamji Jamshidji had offered to.give 
£15,000 if Government would give a 
site for a native hospital and contribute 
£10,000 more, and if the municipality 
would undertake to support the Institu- 

* Nursed by the " AU Saints'" Sisters. 

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Circle, facing the Town Hall, are statues 
of Lord OomwalliSj under a cupola, and 
of Lord WeUesley, by Bacon, much 
injured by the effects of the weather. 

On the ed^e of the Maidan and close 
to the Pubbc Works* Secretariat are 
statues of Sir Richard Temple and 
Lord Reay. 

The Mnseum, on the Parell Road, a 
handsome building, stands about 100 
yds. back from the road. Until 1857 
the collection, which is not an import- 
ant one, was kept in the Fort Barracks, 
but on Sir G. Bird wood being appointed 
curator by Lord Elphinstone, ne raised 
a subscription of a lakh for building 
this Museum. Sir B. Frere laid the 
first stone in 1862, and Gk>yemment 
completed the building in 1871. The 
Clock Tower in front of it was erected 
by Sir Albert Sassoon. There is a fine 
statue of Prince Albert here by Noble. 
The Victoria Gardens, in which the 
Museum stands, have an area of 34 
acres, and are prettily laid out The 
beautiful Bougainvillea is very con- 
spicuous. Within the grounds are a 
Menagerie and Deer Park. The band 
plays nere twice a week, and it is a ^eat 
resort for the citizens. The municipal- 
ity keep up the gardens at a cost of 
10,000 rs. yearly. 


The best time for visiting the Markets 
is early in the morning, about 7 o'clock, 
when they are thronged with all sorts 
and conditions of men and women i^ 
the brightest and most picturesque cos- 

The Crawford Market stands in 
Market Road, which is approached from 
Hornby Row, and is about IJ m. N. of 
Watson's HoteL This market was 
founded by Mr. Arthur Crawford, C.S., 
Municipal Commissioner from 1865 
to 1871. (This able officer got the 
Slaughter Houses, which at the com- 
mencement of his term of office were 
near the market, removed to Bandora 
in Salsette. ) The market consists of a 
Central Hall, in which is a drinking- 
fountain given by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir 
R«adymoney, surmounted bv a Clock 
Tower, 128 ft. high. To the right is 
a wing, 150 ft, by 100 ft, in which are 

fruit and flowers, and on the lefk is 
another wing, 350 ft. by 100 fL, for 
spices and vegetables. The whole is 
covered with a double iron roof. The 
^ound is paved with flag-stones fimn 
Caithness. '*In that oollection of 
handsome and spacious halls . . . fiih, 
flesh, vegetables, flowers, fruit, and 
general commodities are vended in 
separate buildings all kept in adnnr- 
able order and cleanliness, and all opt- 
ing upon green and shady ^ardem" 
(Mwin Arnold). The stalls in whiih 
the leaves of the Piper betel are s<M 
should be noticed. These leaves aie 
called pan, and the betel-nut is called 
supari. The leaves are spread with 
lime, and the fruit of the Areca palm 
is wrapped in them. These leaves are 
chewed by the natives, and make the 
lips and the saliva red and the teeth 
black. There are many kinds of plan- 
tains or bananas, but the best are snort, 
thick, and yellow. The best oranges 
are those from Nagpur, and the best 
grapes are from Aurangabad. The black 
grape, called Hahshi (the Abyssinian), is 
the most delicious, and the best white 
grape is the Sahibi. The mangoes come 
m in May, and are amongst the finest 
fruit in the world : two or three iced 
form a delicious adjunct for breakfiist. 
The best are grown about Mazagon ; 
the kind most esteemed is called the 
" Alphonse " ; large numbers of an in- 
ferior quality come from Goa. The 
Pummelow, the (Htru>s decumanBt, is 
particularly fine in Bombay, very cool- 
ing and wholesome, but somewhat 
astringent. The Bombay onions are 
famous. The Beef Market is built of 
iron. The paving-stones were brought 
from Yorkshire. The Fish Marketis 
at the end of the Mutton Market. The 
turtles come from Karachi in Sind. 
The oysters are of moderate size and 
well flavoured. The Palla fish, gener- 
ally about 2 ft. long, the salmon of 
India, is excellent. Its flesh is light 
coloured, and has many troublesome 
bones. The best fish of all is the pom- 
flet, or pomfret, called SargtUali, the 
black kind being called ffalwa. This 
is a flat fish, about the size of a luge 
flounder. The best are caught at Vera- 
wal ; they are very cheap and whole- 

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some. The Surma, with projecting 
knobs, are not equal to the English 
flounder. The Bhm Machchhi, or 
muflet, are fairly good. The guard- 
fish, DatoA, long and very thin, are 
excellent, but the flesh has a greenish 
colour. The BmJbil, called by the 
English Bommelo and Bombay duck, 
is 1 glutinous fish, very nice when 
fr^, and much used when salted and 
dried. Near the fountain, with its 
beaatiful shrubs, are seats for loungers. 
Thire is also a Coffee House, where 
serrants congregate, and which clears 
12J0 rs. a year. On the S. side is the 
/*«% Market, where fowls, ducks 
t«keys, snipe, curlew, teal, and occa- 
sitaUy ilorican may be purchased 
jjbn in season,— the last excellent. 
m market cost over 1,100,000 rs. 
ae crowd in the Meat and Fish Mar- 
ets early in the morning Is dense and 
oe hubbub deafening. 
The Cotton Market is held near the 
^mway terminus at Colaba. It is a 
aglit worth seeing. 4, 000,000 cwts. are 
ainually exported, and half that amount 
isniadeuse of in the Bombay spinning- 
mills, which number nearly a hundred. 
TheNnl Market, between Parell and 
wan Road, supplies a large part of 
Bombay, and is generally immensely 
ffowded. Men and women may be seen 
pirehasing opium, and the women ad- 
mt that they give it to their infants. 
The Pedder Markets at Mazagon are 
fi the middle of a garden. 

Indtjstbial Arts and Manu- 

In Bombay there are nearly 3000 
jwellers of the different Indian nation- 
«ties of the Presidency who find con- 
tentand lucrative employmen t. One of 
«e most active industries is the manu- 
*ctQre of brass and copper pots and 
«ner utensils. " The Copper Bazaar, 
Jppsite the Mombadevi Tank, is the 
wsiest and noisiest, and one of the 
»08t delightful streets. " i The black- 
•t^od carving of Bombay is famous, 
m sandal-wood and other carving is 
My carried on here, also inlay 

JjSirQ. Birdwood'8 Industrial Arts of India, 
^ch see for farther particulars. 

work ; indeed the term " Bombay 
Boxes" includes sandal-wood carving 
as well as inlay work. Tortoise-shell 
carving is a specialiU, also lacquered 
turnery. Gold and silver thread is 
manufactured and used for lace, and 
Bombay embroidery is much prized. 
The Bombay School of Pottery (see 
above) we owe to the exertions of Mr. 
Geo. Terry, who has developed two 
original varieties of glazed potteiy there. 

Cotton. — The development of cotton- 
spinning during the last 80 years is 
remarkable. In 1870 there were 10 
mills in the Island of Bombay, em- 
ploying some 8000 hands ; there are 
now 101 employing more than 110,000 

The traveller who is at all fond of 
the picturesque is strongly recom- 
mended not to leave Bombay without 
visiting the Native Quarter. The 
streets and bazaars are narrow and 
tortuous, but clean and bright in the 
extreme. Some of the houses are 
remarkably fine as works of art, and 
display undoubted Portuguese influ- 
ence. Their fronts are covered with 
carving, and in some cases they have 
projecting stories supported upon ela- 
Dorately sculptured corbels. Here and 
there are mosques and Hindu temples 
gaudily painted. The streets teem with 
life. Sir Edwin Arnold writes of them : 
" A tide of Asiatic humanity ebbs and 
flows up and down the Bhendi bazaar, 
and through the chief mercantile 
thoroughfares. Nowhere could be seen 
a play of livelier hues, a busier and 
brighter city life. Besides the endless 
crowds of Hindu, Guzerati, and Maratha 
people coming and going — some in gay 
dresses, but most with next to none 
at all — between rows of grotesquely 
painted houses and temples, there are 
to be studied here specimens of every 
race and nation of the East: Arabs 
from Muscat, Persians from the Gulf, 
Afghans from the northern frontier, 
black, shaggy Beluchis, negroes of 
Zanzibar, islanders from the Maldives 
and Laccadives, Malagashes, Malays, 
and Chinese throng and jostle with 
Partis in their sloping hats, with 
Jews, Lascars, fishermen, Rajpoots, 
Fakirs, Europeans, Sepoys and Sahibs,' 

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Iq the Bliendi Bazaar are the Arab 
Stables, weU worth a visit in the early 
morning, not only for the sake of seeing 
some of the finest horses in the East, 
but to see the Arabs themselves who 
bring them to Bombay for sale. 

For the most part the Hindu Temples 
in Bombay are quite modem ; bat at 
the same time they are picturesque and 
particularly striking to a stranger who 
nas not been in Bombay before. Of 
these the most important is 

The temple of Walkeshwar " Sand 
Lord," on tne W. side of Malabar Hill, 
close to Malabar Point. Throngs of 
Hindus will be met coming from it, 
their foreheads newly coloured with 
the sectarial mark. The legend says 
that Rama, on his way from Ayodhya 
(Oudh) to Lanka (Ceylon), to recover 
his bride Sita, carried off by Havana, 
halted here for the night Lakshman 
provided his brother £iima with a new 
Lingam direct from Benares every 
night. This night he failed to arrive 
at the expected time, and the im- 

EEitient Rama made for himself a 
ingam of the sand at the spot When 
the one from Benares arrived it was 
set up in the temple, while the one 
which Rama had made, in after ages, . 
on the arrival of the Portuguese, sprang 
into the sea from horror of the bar- 
barians. There is a small but veiy 
Sicturesque tank here, adorned with 
ights of steps, and surrounded by 
Brahmans' houses and shrines. This 
spot well deserves a visit ; a traveller 
will nowhere in India see a more Epical 
specimen of the better class of Hindu 
town architecture. It, too, is not with- 
out its legend. Rama thirsted, and 
there being no water here, he shot an 
arrow into the earth, and forthwith 
appeared the tank, hence called Vana- 
tirtha, « Arrow-Tank." 

A Temple of less importance is the 
Dwarkaaath'B Temple, close to the 
Esplanade, on the right-hand side of 
the road that leads to Parell, and a little 
N. of the Framji Eausji Institute, 
which is on the opposite side* of the 

Entering bv a side door on the N., 
the visitor finds himself in a room 
40 ft sq. with a silver door at the end 

7 ft. high, which hides from view thc^ 
principal idol. There are many iinages- 
and paintings of Krishna and Radha, 
his favourite mistress. 

There is a group of MahaZuksfmee 
Temples at Breach Candy, and others 
in the native quarter around the tai^s 
of Mombadevi and Oowalia. 

Shooting. — Tigers and panthers ire 
rather numerous in the Konkan, and 
may be found occasionally in Salsette. 
At the hill -fort of Tungarh, about 
20 m. from Bombay, tigers are occasion- 
ally to be found, but it is difficult to get 
accommodation there, as there are omy 
one or two huts, and horses picketed 
outside are likely to be killed during 
the night. Newcomers should en- 
deavour to go with some experienced 
sportsman, by whom all the arrange- 
ments should be made. Snipe are 
numerous on the E. side of Bombay 
Harbour in Panwell Creek and other 
places. At the Yehar Lake and Tanna 
and close to Narel wild duck, snipe, 
hares, and partridges are to be found. 
At places in Guzerat some of the finest 

Juail, snipe, and duck -shooting in 
ndia is to be obtained. 

Bailwaye, Tra/nvwayst and Steatners, 
— The terminal stations of the tnm- 
ways and of the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway are at Colaha, 
i m. S. of Watson's Hotel, but there 
is a station much closer, and nearly due 
W. of Watson's Hotel, called Church- 
gate Station, whence passengers can start 
for any places reached by the B. B. and 
C. I. Ime. Those who are living in the 
northern suburbs will go of course 
from the Bycidla Station, or from the 
Gfrant Road Station, according to their 

Sights in thb Vicinity of Bombay. 

1. Blephanta. 6. Jogeshwmr GkTe. 

2. Venar Lake. 7. Matheran. 

3. Montpezir Caves. 8. The Tknaa Wttef 

4. C^ve Temples of Supply. 
Kanhari. 9. Karli. 

5. Saparn. 

10. Oeraoppa FUli. 

(1) Elephanta is a small island aboia 
6 m. from the Fort of Bombay. Fol 
visiting this remarkable place 

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latmches^ can be hired at Apollo Bandar, 
and make the passage in about 1 or 1^ 
ks., or a bandar-boat may be hired at 
torn 3 to 5 rs. In this case the length 
of the passage will depend on wind and 
tide. Or, if living near Mazagon, the 
traveller may hire a boat or engage a 
steam launch from the pier there. The 
boat will pass close to Batcher's Island, 
vhich is 3 m. nearly due E. from Maza- 
gon Dock. Persons coming from sea 
vith infectious diseases, such as small- 
pox, are placed in quarantine at this 
islaid. The view in this part of the 
hailour ia beautiful. To the N. is the 
iiiB known as the Neafs Tongue, on 
TrBibav island, which is 1000 ft above 
serieyel. The ruins of an old Portu- 

g«e chapel at Trubah in Trombay are 

at a hei^t of 324 ft. The highest 
mt of Elephanta is 668 ft. There 
K another hill 400 ft. high to the left 
rfthe Caves as you approach theuL 

Elephanta is called by the natives 
Oharapuri ("the town of the rock," 
or "of purification," according to Dr. 
Wilaon) — according to Dr. J. Stevenson, 
Oarapurij **the town of excavations." 
The caves are called Lenen (Lena) by 
the natives, a word used throughout 
India and Ceylon for these excavations, 
»ost probably on account of the first of 
fiiem being intended for hermitages of 
Jaddhist ascetics. The island is covered 
*ith low corinda bushes and Tal palms. 
I consists of two long hills, with a 
terrow valley between them. About 
SO yards to the right of the old landing- 
)iace, at the S. end of the island on the 
liae of one of the hills, and not far from 
fee ruins of a Portuguese building, was 
imass of rock, out into the shape of an 
ilephant, from which the place derives 
^Eoiopean name. In September 1814 
; te head and neck dropped off, and in 
: ^64 the then shapeless mass was re- 
moved to Bombay, and may now be 
*en in the Victoria Gardens. 

The modem landing-place N.W. of 
4e ishmd is not a very convenient one. 
1 1 consists of a rather slippery pier of 
«ncrete blocks. The caves are distant 

'Consult Messrs. T. Ck)ok & Son. Their 
^m laonch makes the excursion several 
Vnes a week, and makes other excursions in 

about i m., and are approached by easy 
steps, constructed in 1853 by a native 
merchant at a cost of 12,000 rs. 
There is a bungalow at the entrance, 
where a fee of 4 annas is paid. 

The time when these caves were ex- 
cavated can only yet be jessed at, but 
it is generally supposea that it must 
have been some tmie between the 9th 
and 11th cents. a.d. The disintegra- 
tion of the rock, since the caves were 
first described by Niebuhr, and even 
during the last 30 years, has been very 

The entrance into the temple is be- 
tween two massive pillars, formmg three 
openings, hewn out of trap rock, over- 
hung by brushwood and wild shrubs. 
The whole excavation consists of three 
principal parts : the great temple itself, 
which is m the centre, open on three 
sides, and two smaller chapels, standing 
back one on each side of the great 
temple, but not perceived on approach- 
ing it. They are now reachea by two 
narrow miniature passes in the hill, 
one on each side of the grand entrance, 
at short distances from it. The side 
fronts are exactly like the principal 
one : all beina; hollowed out of the solid 
rock, and each fa9ade supported by two 
hu^e pillars with two pilasters, one on 
each side. The two wings of the temple 
have no covered passage to coimect 
them with it. 

The left side of the creat cave is 133 
ft. in length, while me right side is 
only 128 ft. 4 in., measuring from the 
chief entrance to the fai^hest end. 
Irregularities of this kind are to be 
found in every other part, although the 
general appearance is that of perfect 
regularity. The breadth is fully 130 
ft. from the eastern to the western 
entrance. It rests on 26 pillars (8 of 
them now broken) and 16 pilasters; 
neither the floor nor the roof being in 
one plane, it varies in height from 17i 
to 16 ft. The plan is regular, there 
being seven pillars and a pilaster in a 
line from the N. entrance to the S. ex- 
treme of the temple, and six together 
with the shrine from the E. to the W. 
entrances. The only deviation from 
this regularity in the chief temple is the 
small square excavation that is seen to 

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the rt. on going up the temple ; it 
oooupies the place of four pillars and 
of the intermediate space enclosed be- 
tween them. This is the LiTigam Shrine. 
It is 19^ ft. square, with four doors 
facing different ways. Around this 
shrine on the outside are two large 
figures at each entrance, representing 
doorkeepers, who lean on demon-dwarfs. 
The Lingam is a cylindrical stone 2 ft. 
10 in. in diameter, the emblem of Shiva 
and of reproduction, and is worshipped 
on great occasions by crowds of devotees. 
At the back of the cave there are two 
small excavations facing each other, the 
one on the right, the other on the left ; 
their use is not well ascertained ; they 
were probably employed for keeping 
the temple utensils and offerings. The 
pillars, which all appear to run in 
straight lines parallel to each other, 
and at equal distances, are crossed by 
other ranges running at right angles ; 
they are strong and massive, of an 
order remarkably well adapted to their 
situation and the purpose which they 
serve. ' 

The Great Cave at Elephanta is what 
the Hindus call a Shiva Lingam Temple, 
a class of sacred buildings very common 
in India. The natives maintain that 
this cave and all other excavations are 
the works of the sons of Pandu, who 
constructed them while wandering about 
in banishment They consider that 
these excavations are works far too 
mighty for mortals to have constructed. 
The Great Cave is visited by crowds of 
Hindus, on the great festival of Shiva 
in the latter half of Febniary. 

Three-faced Bust, or Trimurti. — ^The 
chief of the mural figures is the immense 
three-faced bust, 19 ft. in height, at 
the far end of the Great Cave, facing 
the N. entrance. It is the representa- 
tion of Shiva, who is the leading char- 
acter in all the groups of the cave. The 
front face is Shiva in the character of 
Brahma, the creator; the E. face (spec- 
tator's 1.) is Shiva in the character of 
Rudra, the destroyer ; and the W. face 
(spectator's rt.) is considered to be 
Shiva in the character of Vishnu, the 

Ereserver, holding a lotus flower in his 
The Arddhanariahwar, or half-male 

haif-female Divinity in the first oom- 
partment to the £. of the central figure 
(spectator's 1.) represents Shiva, 16 ft. 
9 m. high, in his character of Arddha- 
nanshwar. The right half of the hgore 
is intended to be that of a male, nd 
the left that of a female, and thus to 
represent Shiva as uniting the tro 
sexes in his one person. The same 
tradition is represented in a carving at 
the caves at Badami. Such a n\aii- 
festation of Shiva is described in the 
Puranas. The bull on which two of 
the hands of the figure lean, and vi 
which he is suppos^ to ride, is called 
Nandi, a constant attendant on Shift. 
Brahma, on his lotus throne, supported 
by five swans, and with his four fetces, 
is exhibited on the right of the figure. 
He has a portion of all these faces 
visible. On the left, Vishnu is seen 
riding on what is now a headless Gamda, 
a fabulous creature, half man half eagle. 
Above and in the background are found 
a number of inferior gods and sa^ of 
the Hindus. India, iXrd of the Firma- 
ment, appears mounted on an elephant. 

In the compartment to the W. of the 
Trimurti are two gigantic figures of 
Shiva and ParbaU, the former 16 ft. 
high, the latter 12 ft. 4 in. Shiva haa 
a high cap, on which the crescent and 
other symbols are sculptured, and from 
the top of it rises a cup or shell on which 
is a three-headed figure representing the 
Ganga proper, the Yamuna and Sarasi 
wati, wnich three streams are fabled tb 
unite at Prayag, or Allahabad, and form 
the Ganges. According to a well-knowi^ 
Hindu legend, the Ganges flowed from 
the head of Shiva. The cod is standing 
and has four arms, of which the outei 
left rests on a dwarf, who seems to bend 
under the weight. In the dwarfs righl 
hand is a cobra, in his left a ehimrii 
from his neck hangs a necklace, thj 
ornament of which is a tortoise. Oo 
Shiva's right are several attendant^ 
and above them Brahma, sculpturet 
much as in the compartment on tb 
right of the TWrnwrii. Between Brahmi 
and Shiva is Indra on his elephail 
Airavata, which appears to be kneelin| 

Marriaae of Shiva and Parbati is 
sculptured group (greatly damaged) I 
the end of the W. aisle. The podtio 

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rf Parbati on the right of Shiva shows 
that she is his bride ; for to stand on 
the right of her husband, and to eat 
rith him, are privileges vouchsafed to 
1 Hindu wife only on her wedding-day. 
h the comer, at the right of Parbati. 
B Brahma, known by his four faces, 
fitting and reading, as the priest of 
ke ^ds, the sacred texts suited to 
ftie marriage ceremony. Above, on 
Shiw's left, is Vishnu. Among the at- 
fe'ndants on the right of Parbati is one 
bearing a water-pot for the ceremony. 
Thisis probably Chandra the moon-god. 
BeMid the bashful goddess is a male 
tiguie, probably her father Himalaya, 
who is pushing her forward. 

Mrth of Skcmda the War-god^ is a 
sculptured group at the E. end of the 
y. aisle. Shiva and Parbati are seated 
tether, with groups of male and 
female inferior divinities showering 
down flowers from above, the rock 
being cut into various shapes to repre- 
sent the clouds of Kailas, Shiva's 
heaven. Behind Shiva and Parbati is 
a female figure carrying a child on her 
Mp, from which it has been supposed 
that the sculpture represents the birth 
i Skanda, the war-god, who figures so 
prominently in Kaudasa's fine poem, 
4e Kv/mara Smribhava (spiritedly trans- 
lated by Griffiths). Dr. Stevenson 
liought Ganesha or Ganpati, the 
ifephant-headed god of wisdom was 
perhaps intended here. 
Savana attemjAing to remove Kailas. 
-The visitor must now face completely 
Rumd, and look to the N. instead of 
4e S., and, advancing a few paces, he 
iHl come in front of the sixth compart- 
isent, which is to the right of the eastern 
•trance. Here Havana, the demon 
^of Lanka, or Ceylon, is attempting 
to remove Kailas, the heavenly hill of 
Siiva, to his own kingdom, in order 
tkt he may have his tutelary deity 
>lvays with him, for Ravana was 
^'er a worshipper of Shiva. Havana 
Itts 10 heads and 20 arms, and is with 
|d8 back to the spectator. Shiva is seen 
in Kailas, with Parbati on his right, 
and votaries and Rishis in the back- 
ground. The legend runs that Havana 
shook Kailas so much that Parbati was 
alarmed, whereupon Shiva pressed down 

the hill with one of his toes on the head 
of Havana, who remained immovable 
for 10,000 years. 

The figure of Bhairava, — The visitor 
must now cross over to the opposite side, 
passing the Lingam shrine, in order to 
arrive at the correspondingcompartment 
on the W. to that just described on the 
E. This was formerly supposed to re- 
present fhe sacrifice of Daksha, and is 
twice depicted at Elora, and more than 
once at the Amboli caves in Salsette. 
Daksha, a son of Brahma, born from 
the thumb of his right hand for the 

Surpose of peopling the world, had 60 
aughters, of wnom 27 are the nymphs 
of the lunar asterisms. One of them, 
named Sati or Durga, married Shiva, 
and 17 were married to Kashyapa, and 
were the mothers of all created beings. 
Daksha began a sacrifice according to 
the ancient Vaidik ritual, and as the 
gods of the Vedas alone were invited, 
Shiva and his wife were not asked to 
attend. Sati went, nevertheless, un- 
bidden, and being badly received, threw 
herself into the tire, whereupon Shiva 
made his appearance in his most terrific 
form as Vira Bhadra^ which manifesta- 
tion of the god here forms the principal 
figure of the group. He dispersed the 
gods and other attendants of the sacri- 
fice, and seizing Daksha with one hand, 
decapitated him with another, while in 
a third he held a cup, into which spouted 
the blood. The head was hacked to 
pieces; but when Shiva's wrath was 
appeased, he put the head of a ram on 
Daksha's body, thus keeping him ever 
in mind of the power of his decapi- 
tator. The sculpture may or may not 
have a special reference to Daksha. 
It is doubtless intended to repre- 
sent Shiva in one of his usual dreaaful 
forms, viz., that of Bhairava, Mahakal, 
or Kapalabhrit. 

Natesha or Tandava. — Shiva is said 
to perform a frantic dance at eventide, 
attended by his gatva or retinue of 
demons, stamping with mad energy, 
when the dust he raises is put on their 
heads by the other gods. Above is a 
very perfect Ganesh with elephant head. 
Natesha has eight arms, which are all 
broken but one. 
Shiva as am, Ascetic^he last group, is 

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to the left of the grand entrance. Here 
Shiva appears as a Yogi, and the figure 
so mucn resembles Buddha that the 
early describers of the cave, before 
Erskine, thought! b to be that person- 
age. The figure has the remains of two 
arms, which appear to have rested in 
his lap. It is seated on a lotus, the 
stalk of which is supported by two 
figures below. 

The W, wing, opposite the Lingam 
chapel firat described, and across a court 
to the W., is a smaller excavation in 
the face of the hill in which Ganesh is 
seated at the 8. extremity with a com 
pany of Shiva's attendants. The portico 
of the shrine is ornamented with a good 
deal of sculpture. 

The E. wing is approached by a few 
steps, flanked by sculptured lions, lead- 
ing up to a small Lingam chapel, in 
which are no figures. 

Supplementary Eoccavations. — Round 
the hill, a little to the S., are two other 
excavations fronting the E. These are 
also Lingam shrines, with JDwarpals 
sculptured outside. On a hill opposite 
to the Great Gave is a small cave, and 
an excavation has been commenced but 
without much progress having been 
made. Since this some steps have been 
unearthed supposed by some to be the 
original ones leading to the sea. 

Dr. Burgess's account of the caves, 
which is the best, was published in 
Bombay, 1871. 

(2)1 Vehar Lake (drive 15 m.) from 
Bombay, or better by G. L P. Rly. 
to Bhandup, 17 m. Arrange with the 
station-master at Bhandup oeforehand 
to have a pony ready, and canter to 
the lake in half an nour, turning to 
the rt. at a signpost, marked 3 m. to 
Pawe, a village belonging to a Parsi, 
amidst 16,000 mango trees. From the 
gateway or Darwazah of Pawe it is 2 
m. to the lake ; the jungle is very thick 
part of the way. The lake covers 1400 
acres, and measures 2 x 1 J m. ; it was 
made by Mr. Conybeare, C.E., by 
damming up the Garpur river. It 
cost £373,650 with the connectmg 
pipes, and can supply 8,000,000 gal- 
Ions of water a day. The embankment 

1 Bxcuwiona 2, 8, 4 may aU be done in one 

is 30 ft. broad and 30 ft. above the 
water. The water is 75 ft deep, of 
which 50 ft. are available for the 
supply of Bombay and 25 ft are kept 
for settling. Fish are numerous, ptr- 
ticularly singara or *' cat-fish." Tnere 
are also many conger-eels, which grow 
8 or 9 ft. long. There are many ted 
on the lake, but it is very difficult to 
get within shot, except in the very 
early morning. Tigers are scarce now, 
but many have been killed there. One^ 
shot by Mr. Robertson, O.S., had killed 
16 persons. 

The Tulsi Lake, which lies 2 m. to 
the N., was formed in 1872, at a cost 
of £40,000, and water is carried thence 
to the top of Malabar Hill. 2 m. N. 
are th^ Kanheri Caves. 

(3) Montpesdr Caves (Mandapesh- 
war),—h, B. and C. I. Railway to Bor- 
ivll Station, 22J m., thence nde 1 m. 
Write beforehand to the station-master 
for a pony and coolie to carry tifiln- 
basket. Good clean waiting-room at 
Borivli. Leaving the station, proceed 
N., turning at about 200 yds. to the 1. 
At the caves is a ruined Portuguese 
chm'ch, with a cross close by. IU)and 
the N.E. corner of the church are 
three caves hewn out of the rock, which, 
judging from the pillars, may be of the 
9th century. The cave on the E. is 
57 ft 8 in. X 18i ft. There is no carv- 
ing inside, but there are two pillars in 
the fa9ade shaped somewhat like the 
Ionic. Adjoining this cave to the W. 
is a stone basin for water, of which 
there is a good supply, said never to 
fail, and this may be one reason why 
the Portuguese built here. The next 
cave is 27 ft. 3 in. x 14 ft 9 in. In 
the W. wall is a group of figures very 
much mutilated. The principal fig|ui-e 
has four arms, and is said to be Bhim, ^ 
but is probably Shiva, with 25 Ganas. 
In the comer of the outside wall is 
half a door of the church, of teak, witlx 
two saints carved on it The third or 
W. cave is locked, but the key can be 
obtained from the priest | m. oflT. I 
was probably a vihara cave in whic] 
10 or 12 hermits lived, but was converted 
into a chapel in 1555 A.D. In the I^ 
part of the E. wall, upside down, is th 
stone originally^ over j the entrano 

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door, inscribed with the date 1555. 
it the N.W. are pillared partitions 
kdms to cells, and on the W . side are 
tro pilasters and four pillars about 12 
t high, with tapering 3haftsand angular 
espitus. To tne S., on an eminence, 
is a round tower (40 ft. high), which 
the priest calls a Calyarium. The 
rtaiioase is on the outside, and in 
placflB there are apparently embrasures 
for ffons. The people about say it was 
asedas a tower of defence. There is a 
good view from the top over the plain ; 
mdibout 4 m. off to the E. is the hill 
in wkich are the 

{ij Cave Temples of Kanliari ^ (Km- 
?i«fy).— These caves are all excavated in 
the face of a single hill in the centre 
ofihe island of Salsette, and are about 
5 m. by a bridle path from Borivli 
Station on the B. B. and C. I. Railway, 
2 m. N. of the dam of the Tulsi lake, 
and 6 m. from the D.B. at Tanna (see 
Ete. 1). There are 109 of these caves ; 
bat though more numerous, they are 
pronoimced by Mr. Fergusson^ to be 
mich less interesting ttian those at 
Ajanta, Elora, or Karli. The same 
nthority considers that the greater 
»rt of them in India, was executed 
Va colony of Buddhists, "who may 
uve taken refuge here after being ex- 
l^led from the continent, and who 
ined to reproduce the lost Karli in 
fteir insidar retreat." The caves date 
fern the end of the 2nd century a.d. 
1» about the middle of the 9th, or pos- 
Uj a little later. The great Chaitya 
i one of the earliest here ; those on 
leh side may be 2 centuries later : the 
kest is prooably the unfinished one, 
i^ch is the fust the traveller ap- 
Iroaches by the usual route, and which 
fctes about the 9th or 10th century 
tD., or is even still more recent. How- 
ler this may be, it is at least certain, 
lat, to use Heber's words, *'the beau- 
ftil situation of these caves, their 

' The best and most complete information 
{the sabject of these caves is to be found in 
^ Ttmmes and BuddhUt Caves, by James 
^Stm, lli.D., D.C.L. 

^Boek^wt Temples of India, p. 34. 

elaborate carving, and their marked 
connection with Buddha and his re- 
ligion, render them every way remark- 
able." i 

The path to them is narrow, and 
winds along the sides of rocks, but 
it is quite possible to proceed along 
it in palkis or on horseback. Most 
of the surrounding hills are covered 
with jungle, but the one in which 
are the caves is nearly bare, its 
summit being formed by one large 
rounded mass of compact rock, under 
which a softer stratum has been de- 
nuded by the rains, forming natural 
caves, which, slightly improved by 
art, were appropnatea as cells. The 
road which ascends the hill leads to 
a platform in front of the great arched 
cave, where are several mounds of 
masonry. The largest of them was 
opened by Dr. Bird, and some relics 
and inscriptions on copper were found. 
This is the first stage of ascent to 
the caves, which consist of six ranges, 
on the ledges of the mountain, con- 
nected with each other by footsteps 
cut in the rock. The ascent is gradual 
until within a few hundred yards 
of the southernmost, when the path 
becomes steep and rugged, and so 
closely shaded with shrubs and lofty 
trees as to conceal every appearance 
of the caves until the traveller is 
actually in front of them. In the 
first which comes in view two massive 
columns, of the same order as those 
at Elephanta, support a plain solid 
entablature, above which an oblong 
square is hollowed out. Within are 
two anterooms, and beyond, an un- 
finished chamber, 26 ft. deep. The 
front screen has three doors, and three 
windows over them, and the partition 
between the second and the inner 
chamber has likewise three doors, and 
over the centre one a large open arch, 
rising nearly to the roof. Salt thinks 
that the workmen began this cave 
from the top, and worked downwards. 
There are no figures or carvings here, 

1 A good account of the Kanhari caves is 
given by Salt, p. 47, vol. L, TnmsacUons qf 
the Liierary Society of Bombay, which is here 
followed, corrected by Dr. Burgess's account 
in Cave Temples oflndia^ 

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and the details are of little interest. 
Fergasson supposes it to be the latest 
excavation in the hill, and to date in 
the 9th or 10th century a.d., or even 

From this a vihara, consisting of a 
long irregular verandah with cells at 
he back extends in a direction from 
S.W. to N.E. to the Great Cave, from 
which it is divided by a partition, 
so thin that it has been broken through 
by some accident. It contains, and 
this is the chief point of interest, two 
sanctuaries, in which are dagobas, or 
solid masses of stone or earth, in the 
form of a cupola. The most southern 
of these stands in a recess, the three sides 
of which are divided into panels on 
which are carved one, two, or more 
figures of Buddha and of Bodhisatwas in 
various attitudes. Behind the northern 
dagoba Buddha is represented on a 
lion -throne, which rests on a lotus, 
whose stalk is supported by two boys 
with hoods like that of the cobra. 
From the main stem spring two others, 
on which are two youths with the fans 
called chaurif and one with a lotus-head 
in his hand. Above are two flyingfigures, 
and two of priests below, and a group is 
thus formed, the fac- simile of which 
is seen at Earli and Ajanta. 

The Great Chaitya Cave joins this 
verandah in the manner just men- 
tioned ; it resembles the great cave at 
Karli. Figures of Buddha 23 ft high 
occupy both extremities. On the jamb 
of the entrance to the verandah is an 
inscription of Gautamiputra IL, in 
the 4th cent. A.D. In front of the 
cave itself is a portal, and after that a 
vestibule. Between the verandah and 
the Gh-ecU Caoe is a small tank. Five 
steps lead up to the portal, which opens 
into a court, where are two lofty 
columns, that on the rt. surmounted 
by 4 lions couchant. Its pedestal is 
cut into panels and supports an image 
of Buddha, whose head is canopied by 
five heads of the hooded snake. The 
left column has three dwarf figures on 
the top, which once, perhaps, supported 
a wheel. The whole space at the imher 
end of the portico is occupied by the 
front face of the cave, which is divided 
by plain columns into three square 

portals beneath and five open windows 
above, beyond which is the vestibule. 
On the right and left of the vestibok, 
in recesses, are gigantic statues of 
Buddha, 23 ft. high. The intenor 
temple again is parted from the veiti- 
bule by a second screen, the figures of 
which, like all the carving of this care, 
are most slovenly. The pillars tkt 
surround the nave are of the sane 
order as those at Earli, but mudi 
inferior in execution. Six on one side 
and 11 on the other have capitals omi- 
mented with figures of elephants pour- 
ing water from jars on the sacred bo 
tree or on dagobas, and boys with 
snake heads are also introduced. The 
nave terminates in a semicircle, and 
at this end is a dagoba. 

Mr. Fergusson is of opinion that this 
Great Chaitya Cave was excavated after 
the vihara, and that the three dagobas 
existing at its threshold are more 
ancient than the cave itself. As the 
spot had been regarded as sacred owing 
to them, some devotee, he thinks, deter- 
mined on excavating a great temple 
behind and between them. 

The Durbar Cave. — Proceeding a 
little to the N.E. from the cave just 
described, and turning to the rt. 
round an angle of the rock, there is a 
long winding ascent by steps cut in the 
rock, leading to many smaller caves in 
a ravine through which a strong moun- 
tain torrent pours in the rainy season. 
There are ranges of caves at different 
heights on both sides the ravine, com- 
municating by steps with one another, 
and above are the remains of a dam 
erected across the ravine, by which a 
capacious reservoir was once formed. 
The first cave on the rt. hand is the 
so-called Dwrhar Cave^ or "Cave of 
Audience," the finest vihara of the 
series, and the onlv one that can com- 
pete in size with those at Ajanta. It 
IS 96 ft. 6 in. long, and 42 ft 3 in. 
deep, exclusive of the cells. Immedi- 
ately opposite is a vast excavation, in 
which are a few fragments ot columns 
hanging to the roof. 

Upper Caves, — ^Ascending still higher 
from the platform of the Great Cave, 
the traveller comes to 20 or 30 exca- 
vations, containing nothing of note. 

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Above these again is another series of 
nhans, of which several are very inter- 
filing, their walls being entirely covered 
lith figures, finely executed. The 
nneral design is Buddha seated on a 
Iitus. Bemains of plaster and painting 
ire seen here and there. Mr. Fergusson 
Huaiks on the peculiar head-djness of 
tke principal figure in some of the 
|roi^, wMch he had not noticed else- 
where, and observes also that this 
figure is attended by two female figures, 
whereas the true Buddha is sdways 
atteded by men. This is Padmapani 
or iralokiteshwar, one of the Bodhi- 
sat^ of later Buddhism, attended bv 
twoTaras. On the E. side of the hill 
is I broad, long, and level terrace, 
cottnanding a very fine view of the 
snnounding country.* 
Jhe following passage from Dr. 
Bird's book refers to a discovery of 
gK&t importance made by him : — 

"The tope at Kanhari, which was 
opened bjr me in 1839, appeared to have 
wen originally 12 or 16 ft. in height, 
and of a pyramidal shape ; but being 
ouch dilapidated, formed exteriorly a 
bp of stones and rubbish. The largest 
«f several being selected for examina- 
tim, was penetrated from above to the 
fee, which was built of cut stone. 
ifter digging to a level with the ground 
Bd clearing away the loose materials, 
h workmen came to a circular stone, 
toow in the centre and covered at 
ie top by a piece of gypsum. This 
stained two small copper urns, in 
«e of which were a ruoy, a pearl, 
•d small piece of gold mixed with 
tiles. In this urn there was also a 
^ gold box containing a piece of 
ith, and in the other, ashes and a 
ifer box were found. Outside the 
Amlar stone there were two copper 
ites, on which were legible inscrip- 
ms in the Lot or cave character. 
■e smaller of the plates had two lines 
^writing in a character similar to that 
kt with at the entrance of the A janta 
•res; the larger one was inscribed 
•Wi letters of an earlier date. The 

%e inscriptions at Eanbari have been 
Elated by Dr. Bahler in Dr. James Bur. 
PI'i elaborate work already referred to on 
h Templet amd BuddhUt Caves. 

last part of the fu-st-mentioned inscrip- 
tion contained the Buddhist creed, as 
found on the base of the Buddha image 
from Tirhut, and on the stone taken 
from the tope of Samath, near Benares.** 
The most cmious fact of all connected 
with Kanhari is the existence there in 
ancient times of a tooth of Buddha. 
The cave over which inscription 7 
of those mentioned by Stevenson is 
engraved, is called Sakadatya-lena, the 
** Buddha- tooth Cave," probably be- 
cause the relic was there temporarily 
deposited, while the tope in which it 
was finally lodged was being prepared 
(see p. 27). 

(5) Snpara is a village W. of the B. B. 
and C. I. Railway 3 m. N. W. of Bassein 
Road station on that line. A Buddhist 
tope at this place was opened which 
yielded some highly interesting relics, 
now to be seen in the great room of 
the Ajsiatic Society in the Town Hall, 
Bombay. The subject is worthy of the 
study of Orientalists and the continued 
research of travellers. 

(6) Jogeshwar Cave.— 6 m. S. of 
Magathana Caves, and 2 m. N.E. of the 
village of Jogeshwar (about 1 m. from 
Goregaon sta. on the B. B. and C. I. 
line). Mr. Burgess attributes these 
caves to the latter half of the 8th 
cent. ; next to those at Elora they 
are the largest in India, being 320 ft. 
long by 200 ft. broad. The W. en- 
trance is that now used ; but the 
decorations on the E. side are more 
carefully executed, and the prin- 
cipal entrance was probably there. 
Over the sloping path that leads to 
the W. entrance a natural arch is 
formed by the branches of a banyan 
tree, which, shooting across, have 
taken root on the other side, and 
render the approach singularly pic- 
turesque. Eight steps lead down to 
a small anteroom, in which the figures 
are greatly decayed. A door leads into 
the Great Cave, and above this are two 
figures in the attitude in which Rama 
and Sita are often represented. The tall 
figures on each side of the entrance are 
exactly like the dwarapalnaX Elephanta. 
The Great Cave is 120 ft. square, and 
18 ft. from the door are 20 pillars of the 
same order as at Elephanta, ,forming 





an inner square. Within there is a 
chamber 24 ft. sq., with 4 doors. This 
is a temple sacred to Mahadeva. On 
the waUs are the vestiges of many 
figures. Over the door at the E. en- 
trance is the curious design of a monster, 
the rndkaraj with the mouth of a hippo- 

E' uus, trimk of an elephant, and a 
)n's tail, which appears to vomit 
a sculptured group, representing 
some scene of Shaiva mythology. From 
this entrance two vestibules lead to 
three doorways, which again open into 
the Great Cave. Over the doorways are 
some curious designs, as, e,g, over the 
centre one a figure resembling Buddha, 
and on one side a guardian leaning on 
a dwarf, who grasps in his hands two 
enormous snakes that are closely twined 
round his body. 

(7) Matheran.— 54 m. from Bombay 
by G. I. P. Ely. (see Ete. 24). 

(8) The Tansa Water Supply (D.B. 
G. I. P. Kljr. to Atgaon sta., 59 m.)— 
The increasing population of Bombay 
led the mumcipality to construct a 
still larger reservoir on the Tansa 
River, about 60 m. N.E. of Bombay, 
which was formally opened by H.E. 
the Viceroy, Lord Lansdowne, in March 
1892. The Dam which encloses the 
watershed of ihe Tansa Eiver, com- 
pleted 1891, is the largest piece of 
masonry of modem times. It is of a 
uniform height of 118 ft., and is 2 m. 
long, 108 ft. thick at the base, and 24 
ft. at the top, where a flagged road runs 
along it. it encloses a lake 8 sq. m. 
in area, and is capable of supplying 
33,000,000 gallons daily (Engineer, Mr. 
W. Gierke; Contractors, Mr. T. 0. 
Glover, and Messrs. "Walsh, Lovatt, 
and Co.) 

(9) Karli. — 85 m, from Bombay; 
caves 6 m. from rly. sta. (see Ete. 24). 

(10) Oersoppa Falls (D.B.)— From 
Bombay by steamer to Earwar. From 
Karwar to Honawar (D.B.) by "man- 
chul," 52 m., 15 rs. ; Honawar to Ger- 
soppa, 18 m., by native boat up a 
shallow river to Eule ; Gersoppa to the 
Falls, 18 m., by manchul, 4-8 rs. 
Write beforehand to the Mamlatdar at 
Karwar for manchul, and to the Mam- 
latdar at Honawar to make arrange- 
ments. "There are in all 4 faUs, 

which have been called the Great Fall, 
the Eoarer, the Eocket, and the Dime 
Blanche. In the first of these the 
water, in considerable volume, mikes 
a sheer leap down of 829 ft., wd 
falls into a pool 132 ft dee^." The 
others are all in line with this, aonss 
the river, which is of gi-eat width. Bie 
scenery up the valley and the ghat to 
the Falls is superb, but road is vry 
naalarious until Dec. or Jan., by which 
time the Falls have run out a great d€iL 
Provisions should be taken. This is a 
long and somewhat toilsome journey ; 
for full particulars see Ete. 28.^ 

.ROUTE 1. 

Bombay to Calcutta by Nasik, 
Caves of Ajanta, Jabalpur, 
Allahabad, and Benaees. 

BaU, 1400 m. (G. I. P. R and B. I. R): mai^ 
train 46 hours. 

The rule for breaking journeys oi^ 
Indian railways allows tne traveller to 
spend 16 days on the journey from 
Bombay to Calcutta with one through 
ticket. Cost, 1st class 91 rs. 11 as., 2nG| 
class 45 rs. 14 as. , and servants 16 rs. 8as^ 
Luggage beyond a small allowance is 
extra. The 85 m. between Bombay and 
Igatpuri are by far the most picturesque 
on the whole line between tne western 
and eastern capitals, but unfortunately 
the mail train each way passes ovei 
the best part of this in tne dark. Th« 
traveller can arrange to see it by day, 
light, on the eastward journey, by pre 
ceding the mail. He should leave b\ 
the midday train and reach I^tpui" 
in the evening, rejoining the mail trail 
at that place at night, and on th^ 
westward journey he should wait al 
Igatpuri for a slow train. 

I See also Dr. George Smith's Ijife qf 4oh\ 

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On leaving Bombay, between Sion 
ud Coorla, the railway passes on a 
auseway from the island of Bombay 
tD the larger island of Salsette. 
9 m. Coorla sta. Close by, rt., are 
&e once famous cotton-mills. 
21m. Tanna (Thana) sta., D.B. 
An early Portuguese settlement, com- 
landmg the most frequented passage 
from the mainland to the island of Sid- 
Ktte. Marco Polo (1298 a.d.) says, 
"Tana is a great kingdom lying towards 
flie west. . . . There is much traffic 
bewi and many ships and merchants 
freqaent the place. In 1320 four 
ChoBtian companions of Friar Odoricus 
hen suffered martyrdom. Friar Jor- 
dans narrates that he baptized about 
90jersons ten days* journey from Tanna, 
bcides 35 who were baptized between 
Tiana and Supara. 

The country round Tanna was highly 
ailtiyated, and was studded with 
mansions of the Portuguese when, in 
1737, it was wrested from them by the 
Harathas. In 1774 the Portuguese sent 
a formidable armament from Europe 
fcr the avowed object of recovering 
their lost possessions. The Government 
<f Bombay determined to anticipate 
feeir enterprise, and to seize upon the 
Uand for the English. A force was 
Kepared under General Robert Gordon, 
caTannawas taken after a siege of three 
ttys. On 6th March 1776 the Peshwa 
kghoba by the Treaty of Bassein ceded 
fce island of Salsette in perpetuity. 
h 1816 Trimbakji Danglia, tne cele- 
bted minister of Baji Rao, the last 
\ fcshwa^ effected his escape from the 
Irt of Tanna, though guarded by a 
\ frong body of European soldiers. The 
ifficuties of this escape were greatly ex- 
terated all over the Maratha country, 
ia it was compared to that of Shivaji 
fcm the power of Aurangzib. The 
^cipol agent in this exploit was a 
laratna horse-keeper in the service 
tf one of the English officers of the 
trrison, who, passing and re-]>assing 
nimbakji's cell, as if to exercise his 
taster's horse, sang the information 
« wished to convey in a careless 
Banner, which disarmed suspicion, 
whop Heber, who had seen Trimbakji 
vprisoned in the fort of Chunar, was 

much interested in this escape, and 
writes — 

''The groom's sineing was made 
up of verses like the following :— 

" Behind the bush the bowmen hide, 
The horse beneatii the tree. 
Where ahall I find a knight will ride 
The Jungle paths with me ? 

" There are five and fifty coursers "there, 
And four and fifty men ; 
When the fifby-fifth shall mount his steed, 
The Deccan thrives again. " 

Heber adds that Tanna is chiefly in- 
habited by Roman Catholic Christians, 
either converted Hindus or Portuguese, 
who have become as black as the 
natives and assume all their habits ; he 
also describes the place as neat and 
flourishing, and £unous for its breed of 
hogs, and the manner in which the Por- 
tuguese inhabitants cure bacon. The 
English Church was being built when 
he arrived, and on 10th July 1825 was 
consecrated by him. In the 16th cent, 
the Silk IindtLstry here employed about 
6000 persons. It is now confined to 
only 7 Portuguese families and 14 looms. 

[Tanna is the best starting-place for 
the Caves of Kanhari, excavated in 
one of the hills of the island of Sal- 
sette. It is about 6 m. drive in a 
bullock-gharry to the foot of the hill. 
There are 109 caves in all, and the 
largest is 90 ft. x 40 ft. (see Environs 
of Bombay at the beginning and p. 23). ] 

88 m. Kalyan junct. sta. (R.) Here 
the Madras line through Poona and 
Raichur branches off S.E. (Rte. 22). 
This is a very ancient town, and in 
early times, no doubt, was the capital 
of an extensive province. In 1780, 
the Marathas having out off the 
supplies from Bombay and Salsette, 
the British Government determined 
to occupy the Konkan opposite Tanna, 
as far as the Ghats. Accordingly, 
several posts were seized, and Kalyan 
amongst them; and here Captain 
Richi^ Campbell was placed with 
a garrison. Nana Famavis forthwith 
assembled a large force to recover 
Kalyan, on which he set a high value, 
and his first operations were very 
successful. He attacked the English 
advanced post at the Ghats, and 
killed or made prisoners the whole 

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detachment. He then compelled En- 
sign Fyfe, the only survivmg officer, 
to write to Captain Campbell that, 
unless he surrendered, ne would 
put all his prisoners, 26 in number, 
to death, storm Ealyan, and put 
all the garrison to the sword. To 
this Campbell replied that, "the 
Nana was welcome to the town if 
he could take it." After a spirited 
defence, he was relieved by Colonel 
Hartley, on the 24th May, just as 
the Marathas were about to storm. 
The remains of buildings round 
Ealyan are very extensive ; and Fryer, 
who visited the place in 1673, "gazed 
with astonishment on ruins of stetely 
fabrics and many traces of departed 
magnificence." A few miles S. is the 
fine 10th century temple of AmtMr- 
natb (p. 818). 

Between Ealyan and Igatpuri, the 
railway ascends from the Eonkan to 
the Deccan plateau by the mountain- 
pass, known as the Tal (Thull) Ghat. 

75 m. Easara sta. (R.) Here a 
special en^ne is attached and the 
ascent of &e Ghat begins. In 9} m. 
the line ascends 1050 ft. 

At 79i m. is the reversing station, 
and the ascent terminates at 85 m. 
Igatpuri, 30c D.B. (R.), where the special 
engine and brakes are removed. 

The ascent of the Tal Ghat is at all 
seasons interesting ; but it is most 
beautiful in September owing to the 
wild flowers. The leaves are then 
bright green, and the country below 
the Ghats is all streams, pools, and 
inundations ; the Ghats themselves 
all cascades and torrents. Igatpuri, 
roperly Wigatpura, " the town of dif- 
iculties," so called on account of the 
precipitous road that preceded the 
railway, is a pleasant sanitorium and 
summer resort of Europeans from Bom- 
bay. Some large game is to be foimd 
in the neighbourhood. There are 
several European bungalows belonging 
to railway officials. The line passes 
through a comparatively level country, 
with low mountains on either side, to 

113 m. Deolali sta. A halting-place 
for troops arriving fipom or proceeding 
to Europe. There are barracks for 1000 


117 m. NASIK Road ste., 3^ D.B. 
( The Nasika of Ptolemy. ) 

A tramway conveys passengers to 
the town, D.B. (1900 ft. above sea- 
level), 6J m. N.W. of the sta. Pop. 
35,000. It is one of the most sacred 
places of the Hindus ; 1800 families 
of Brahman priests are settled heie. 
It is said that Lakshman, the elder 
brother of Rama, cut off the n«e 
of Sarpnakha, Ravana's sister ; and as 
Nasika in Sanskrit is "a nose," lie 
place hence got its name. The reil 
cause of the sanctity of Nasik, however, 
is its position on the banks of the sacred 
river Godavari, about 19 m. from its 
source at Trimbak. 

Nasik may be called the Western 
Benares, as the Godavari is termed the 
Ganga — "Ganges." All Hindus of 
rank on visiting it leave a record of 
their visit with their Upadhya, or 
"family priest," for each noble family 
has such a priest at each celebrated 
place of pilgrimage. In this record 
are entered tibe names of the visitor's 
ancestors, and thus the pedigree of 
every Hindu chief is to be found in the 
keeping of these Upadhyas. Even 
Jang Bahadur, the late de fa/io ruler 
of Nipa], had his Upadhya at Nasik. 
The present Gaekwar owes his seat on 
the throne to this custom, for when 
the Gaekwar of Baroda was deposed 
and an heir sought for, the family 
Upadhya at Nasik supplied proofs of 
the young prince's legitimate descent 
from Pratap Rao, brother of Damaji, 
the third Gaekwar. 

The Sundar Narayan Temple was 
built by one of Holkar*s Sanlars in 
1725. It is smaller than that of the 
Black Rama (see below), but a miracle 
of art. Below it may be seen the 
temples of Balaji and of the White 
Bamxiy and the Memorial erected to the 
Eapurthala Rajah, who died in 1870 
near Aden, on his way to Europe. 
From Sundar Narayan Temple the rivei 
is crossed by a bridge, completed is 
1897, which cost Rs. 1.81.000. 

At Nasik the river, here 80 yds. broad 
is lined on either side for a distance o; 
400 yds. with flights of steps, and dottec 
with temples and shrines, and, as ii 
most Indian cities situated near flowin| 

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rivers, the view along the banks when 
iiundreds of men and women are bath- 
ing is extremely picturesque. The 
part of the town which stands on the 
rt bank of the river is built upon 8 
hills, and is divided into the New Town 
K. ind the Old Town S. The quarter 
on the 1. bank, where are the chief 
objects of interest, is called Panchwati. 
The manufacture of brass and copper 
nan, especially of idols, caskets, boxes, 
chains, lamps, etc., flourishes here. 
Specimens of the beautiful old work, 
thongh rare, are still occasionally to be 
foiffld in the " old '* copper bazaar. 

The temples at^Nasik, though pic- 
turesque, have no striking architectural 

} m. to the W., on the Panchwati 
sk of the river, is a solidly-built house 
MoDgiog to the Rastia family. Here 
ifight and walk a few hundred yards 
ap a lane to five very old and large 
trees of the Ficus indica species. U nder 
the shade of the largest is a small build- 
ing. None but Hindus may pass the 
vestibule. It consists of a low room, 
at the S. end of which is an arch 3 ft. 
high, and beyond steps descend to 
2 apartments 5 ft. sq. and 4 ft high. 
In the first room are images of Rama, 
Sita, and Lakshman. In the second 
is an image of Mahadeo, 6 in. high, 
rhich those three personages are said 
to have worshipped ; hence arises the 
extreme sanctity of the place, which is 

Jnite one of the holiest in Nasik. This 
ole is Sita's Onpha, or Cave, where 
! ihe found an asylum until lured away 
j 1)? Bavaua to Ceylon. Farther down 
j the river, and just before reaching 
I the riverside, is the oldest temple in 
the place, Eapdleshwar, ''God of the 
! Skull," a name of Shiva. The ascent 
to it is by 50 stone steps. It is said 
to be 600 years old, but is quite plain 
ind unattractive. Opposite to it the 
river foams and rushes in a rocky bed. 
Kama's Kund is the place where the 
^ is said to have bathed ; hence it 
, B very sacred, and bones of the dead 
ire taken there to be washed away. 
Opposite to it and in the river itself is 
I stone dharmsala, with several arches, 
lK)&d over, in which ascetics lodge 
thm th3 water is low. Down the 

stream, about 20 yds., are three temples 
erected by Ahalya Bai. The first is 
only a few feet high and long, but the 
next is a large square building, with a 
stone foundation and brick superstruc- 
ture, dedicated to Rama ; N. of it is 
a long dharmsala, and a little down 
the stream is the third temple, all of 
stone. About 200 ft. down the stream 
is Nam Shaakar's temple, with an 
elaborately carved portico and a large 
stone enclosure. This ends the temples 
immediately on the water on the Panch- 
wati side. Proceed then J m. by a 
back way through streets of well-built 
houses to the great temple dedicated to 
Kal& Rama, or "Black Rama," which 
cost £70,000. It stands in an oblong 
stone enclosure, with 96 arches. To 
the W. is a hill called Sunar 'All, 
and there is another hill close by, 
called Junagadh, or Old Foii;, on 
which is a square building, in which 
Aurangzib's chief officials used to 
reside. They command fine views over 
the city. The Hingue Wada, an old 
palace of the Peshwa (chief of the 
Mahrattas), at present used as a school, 
is worth a visit for its beautiful carved 

The traveller should not leave Nasik 
without visiting Sharanpore, seat of 
the mission founded by the Church 
Missionary Society in 1835, in the 
Junawadi part of Nasik, and moved to 
Sharanpore by Mr. W. S. Price in 1855. 
Since tne establishment of the Grovem- 
ment High School at Nasik in 1872 
the missionary school has fallen off. 
There was connected with this mission 
an African Asylum for youths rescued 
from slavery, and it was from here that 
Livingstone's Nasik hoys were drawn. 
It closed in 1875, and Mr. Price took 
the boys to the E. coast of Africa, where 
a colony is established for redeemed 
slaves. There is a well-built but archi- 
tecturally disappointing church. 

In a hill 4| m. S. of Nasik are the 
Lena Caves. A narrow path ascends 
to the height of about 450 ft to a 
broad black line in the N. face of the 
hill, which extends about J m. in length, 
and marks the excavations. In the 
centre, just opposite the spot where 
the path ends, is a Cave 37 ft x 29 ft. , 

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and 10 ft. high, with a perfectly flat 
roof, hewn out of the solid rock. Kound 
the central chamber are 16 cells, each 
6 ft sq. with a recess, hewn so as to 
make a couch -for the inmate. In the 
centre is a modem figure of Bhairav 
(see below) with a mace, on which he 
leans with his left hand. On either 
side of him is an earlj female figure. 
That on the right is fairly well carved. 
On the inside face of the corridor, and 
on one side, is a long inscription in old 
Pali characters. To the W . is a small 
cave with two pillars with elephants on 
their capitals ; then a ruined cell with 
a broken inscribed tablet. Next is a 
fine cave (No. 3) with six pillars, of 
which two are broken, and the heads 
and busts of six giants supporting the 
basement of the corridor. Inside the 
verandah, on the left of the entrance, 
are two long inscriptions. The door 
has a figure about 4 ft. high on either 
side, which is probably a Yaksha, and 
all round the door are small figures 
much defaced. Then there is a large 
chamber, nearly the same size as that 
in the first cave, with 18 cells surround- 
ing it. At the end is a da^oba with 
figures on the sides, a carved belt half 
way up, and a double ornament at top. 
To the W. is a low cave with 12 figures. 
On the left is Buddha, seated, with 
attendant figures on either side, and 
opposite are other two figures. To the 
W. in a line with them is a figure 3 ft. 
6 in. high, called by the guides Gautama. 
Then there is a large excavation, about 
20 ft. long, called Sita's tank which 
is carried under the rock. There are 
four pillars in front, two of them broken. 
Above is a frieze 6 in. broad, with figures 
of horses, bulls, deer, and elephants. 
Beyond is a tank. To the E. is a 
Chaitya cave (No. 13) with seven pillars 
and a dagoba, which the guides say is 
Bhhn's mace. Beside it is a vihara 
(No. 12) approached by steps. It has 
seven cells round it, and at the N. end 
a defaced figure of a goddess. 

Farther £. is the large Vihara Cave 
(No. 15). It is 46 ft. deep, and 37 ft. 
broad. There are 22 cells round it. On 
the right and left of the q)eotator as he 
enters the ante-chamber to the shiine 
are two dw&rapals, probably Manjushri 

and Avalokita. In the recess is a; 
seated figure of Buddha, as he sits 
with attendant disciples or Boohisatvas. | 
There is a wall 3 ft. high in front of; 
the recess, which is so dark tiiatl 
nothing can be seen without a torch.! 
There are several other smaller cellsl 
of less importance.^ 

About 2 m. E. of the town, in tlie 
hill of Ramshej, is another group of 
excavations, but they are of little im- 

19 m. by road is Trimbak. 

There are several stone-faced wdls 
on this route, and at Nirwadi, on the 
right of the road, is a beautiful tank 
lined with stone, and with stone steps 
and 2 small paeodas built by Ahalya 
Bai. Near Warn 2 conical hills, about 
900 ft. high, face each other on eithe^ 
side of the road. From these the hillti 
run in fantastic shapes to TWmbak 
where they form a gigantic crescenl 
from 1210 to 1600 ft. high. Belo^j 
this mountain waU, which has nea^ 


the top a scarp of about 100 ft., is th^ 
small town of about 8000 inhab. I 
derives its name from Tri, "three 
and Ambak, "eye" ; three-eyed bein^ 
a name of Shiva. The Fort stands oi] 
an impregnable height, 1800 ft. abov^ 
the town. The Temple of Trlmbakeslii 
wax, which is on the E. side of th^ 
town, not far from where the Nasil 
road enters, was built by the great Baj 
Kao Peshwa, who died in 1740. I 
cost £90,000. It stands in a stone eni 
closure, which has no corridor, but « 
portico, which is the music gaUeryl 
and is 40 ft. high. The ascent is b^ 
steps outside, and strangers are perj 
mitted to mount in order to look int^ 
the interior of the temple, which non^ 
but Hindus may enter. A flight ol 
690 steps up a hul at the back of Trim 
bak leads to the sacred source of th^ 
river Grodavari, where "the watei 
trickles drop by drop from the lips o 
a carven image shrouded by a canop; 
of stone" into a tank below. For ■ 

1 See Fergusson and Burgess, Cave TenpUi 
pp. 268-270, and plates xix.>xxyi ; and Buigess 
Cktve Temples, pp. 87flr. 

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IL the banks of the stream, 15 ft. broad, 
are &ced with stone. The water is 
&*ty. On its coarse is a fine stone 
tank, surrounded on three sides by a 
portions 25 ft high, with a pagoda at 
eich comer. This is the sacred bath- 
ing-place of pilgrims, and is called the 
Kushawat. In front of it are two stone 
enclesures full of filthy water, into 
rhifih the leaves offered to the deities 
ire thrown and there decompose. At 
the 8. end is a temple to Shiva. 

147 m. Laaalgaon sta. From this 
place Gh4mdoT, an interesting town, 
oveAung by a fine hill -fort, is 14 m. 
N. by a good road. The Maharajah 
Hcftar is hereditary Patel of Chandor. 
The fort was taken by the British in 
18M, and again in 1818. 

162 m. Mniimar junct. sta., D.B. (B./ 
Tlas is the junction of the Dhond 
ud Munmar State Railway, which 
forms a cord line between the N.E. 
and S.E. branches of the G.I.P.R. 
About 4 m. S. of the station is the 
Ankai Tanki Fort, now in ruins, and 
1 Buddhist caves of some interest. 
Between tile caves and the station 
rises a curious hill called Bam Gulni, 
mrmounted by a natural obelisk of 
trap rock 80 or 90 feet high. 

178 m. Naadgaon sta., D.B. (B.) 
From here a road runs S.E. to Auran- 
gabad, 56 m., the fort of Daulatabad, 
ffld the Caves of EUora (see Rte. 2). 

282 m. Fadiora sta., D.B. From 
bere the Oaves of Ajanta, distant 84 m., 
ve reached by a rough road. 
[Expedition to AJaata. 

The D.B.^ nearest to the caves is at 
Fardapur, 80 m. from Pachora. The 
kcst way is to write at least one clear 
day before to the Mamlatdar (native 
magistrate) at Pachora asking him 
to arrange for conveyances. A traveller 
vho does not know the language well 
must be accompanied by a servant or 
interpreter, and each person must have 
bedding and provisions. The journey 

1 It is said that the best road to AJa^ta is 
low ftora. Jalgaon sta. (distance about 80 m.) 
foither B. along the line. Special arran^e- 
aents for carriages are necessary, and permis- 
sion to occupy, if required, one of the two 
Dak Bungalows on the road. The travel'er 
should write one clear day or two days bAfore- 
haud to the Gollector of Khandesh at Dholia. 
mentioning the number of persons in the 

will take from 9 to 12 hours, and cost 
from 12 to 16 rs. for each cart Not 
more than 80 pounds of luggage should 
be taken in the cart The less the 
better for speed and comfort. There 
are fairly good guides on the spot. 

The caves are a good hour's walk, 4 m. 
by a bridle-path from the D.B. at 
Fardapur. The bed of the Wagora 
river is crossed and recrossed several 
times. The ravine is wooded. The 
caves extend about one-third of a mile 
from E. to W., and are excavated in 
the concave scarp of the trap rock, at an 
elevation of from 35 to 110 ft above the 
bed of the stream. The most ancient 
caves are near the K end. 

Following Fergusson's arrangement, 
they are numbered from E. to W . The 
cave-temples and monasteries of Ajanta 
furnish a history of Buddhist art, and 
illustrate the legends of the religion and 
the domestic life of the people from 
shortly after the reign of Asoka to 
shortly before the expulsion of the faith 
from India. The oldest caves are 
believed to date from about 200 B.c.^ 

The narrow path by which access is 
gained to the caves reaches them at the 
seventh cave from the E. Thence the 
path goes on ascending to E. and W. 
along a narrow ledge, in some places 
little more than 2 ft. broad, and reaches 
cave Number 1, the farthest point on 
the E. This is a Vihara. Dr. Burgess 
assigns this cave to the 7th century. 
The fa5ade is richly decorated with 
sculptured processions of elephants, 
horses, and people. On the S. frieze of 
the portico is a very sjArited repre- 
sentation of a wild buffalo hunt. The 
hunters are mounted and armed with 
bows and arrows. The door jambs are 
embellished with male and female 
figures in amatory attitudes. The great 
hall or central chamber is 64 ft sq., 
and has 20 pillars. The capital of 
one on the S. side is remarkable for 
four bodies of deer with only one head, 
which suits each body according to the 
position from which you look at it 
There are remains of highly interesting 

1 The Indian Grovemment caused copies of 
these ancient mural paintings to be made, 
and ninety of them may be seen at the South 
Kensington Museum. Several were destroyed 
by a fire soon after arrival. t 





paintings in oil on the walls of this cave. 
Remark on the rieht-hand side of the 
back wall a very Chinese-looking figure 
of a youth with a perfectly white skin. 
Remark also four pictures of a group 
of four figures, which Mr. Fergusson 
has pronounced to be very probably 
Khusru and Shirin and two attendants. 
Khusru II., or Khusru Parviz, whose 
loves with Shirin are the subject of 
some of the most famous Persian poetry, 
reigned from 591 to 628 A.D. This king 
of Persia received an embassy from a 
king of the Deccan, in whose territory 
were the Caves of Ajanta, and it is 
thought by some that when the embassy 
returned the king sent with it Persian 
painters who executed these designs. 
The king, a large fair man with all the 
look of a voluptuary, and dressed in 
Eastern robes with a strange high 
loose cap something like the red night- 
cap which used to be worn in England, 
holds a broad shallow cup, into which 
a beautiful girl, supposed to be Shirin, 
is pouring wine from a vase of classic 
character. In another tableau the 
king in royal state is receiving and 
apparently sending back the embassy 
from the Indian prince. There is a 
sort of fillet worn by Khusru, which 
resembles that exhibited on a patera 
in Paris, and displays an undoubted 
representation of Khusru. In the 
shrine of this cave Buddha is seated in 
the teaching attitude. There are four 
cells in the back wall besides the shrine, 
and five in each side wall. The paint- 
ings in this cave, as in Numbers 2 and 
16, are, in Dr. Burgess's opinion, auite 
equal in colour and groupmg to those 
at Pompeii. 

Number 2, a vihara cave. There are 
two chapels to the verandah. Observe 
in ceiling near the S. chapel two figures 
of men with striped socks. One holds 
a beautifully-shaped amphora, and a 
flattish cup in his hand. The flowers 
on the ceiling are particularly beautiful. 
Inside the side chapels in the back 
wall are very remarkable ItalianJook- 
ing female figures. The middle one 
of one of the 4 groups has quite the 
look of a Madonna, and all resemble 
the Italian paintings of the early part 
of the 14th century. Buddha holds 

the little finder of his left hand with thJ 
thumb and forefinger of the right. Th^ 
Mohammedans seem not to have geaer 
ally destroyed the noses here as tkej 
have at Ellora. In the centre o^ 
Buddha's throne isthe Wheel of theLaii 
between two deer. The chapel in th^ 
back wall, on the right of the shrine, ha< 
two figures, which are either the pa^i 
and patroness or Indra and Indmiil 
In the left-hand top comer is a verj 
remarkable groun, to all appearance \ 
woman teaching her child to pray, anc 
resembling a famous European piotir« 
On the frieze below is a ram-fignt, anc 
figures boxing and wrestling, witl 
musicians and a president. The Italian 
looking figures of fair women are man^ 
of them nude to the waist. The chape 
on the left has two male figures with head 
dresses like wings of an enormous size 
and all hanging on the left shoulder, j 

Number 3, 9, small vihara, quite un 

Number 4, a large vihara. There il 
a very remarkable representation of th( 
Litany, as it is called by Dr. Burgess 
on the right of the door, consisting o 
two sets of four groups each. The ls{ 
group on the left consists of two figure! 
nying from an infuriated elephant 
the 2d group is of two figures flyinj 
from a lion; the 8d exhibits tw< 
figures flying from a roan with i 
sword, who is stabbing one in th< 
stomach ; the 4th group is intende* 
to represent the perils of the sea, but i 
so much obliterated that one can mak) 
out nothing but some fibres in a vessel 
The 1st group on the nght hand repre 
senta the perils of fire ; the 2d grou] 
is a pair of figures threatened by i 
cobra ; the 3d group is of two figures 
one of which holds tne other by a rope 
which passes over his shoulder and l 
fastenea round his wrist, — this repre 
sents Captivity ; the 4th group repre 
sents Kali the Hindu goddess of destruc 
tion, uplifting her skeleton arms to seizi 
a victim, — this represents Famine. 

Number 6, a vihara, commenced only 

Number 6, a vihara, remarkable foi 
having two stories, of which there h 
here only one other example, viz, cavt 
Number 25. The staircase to th< 
upper stoiy is broken away to th( 

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\Bgh.t of 18 ft., 80 that that story is 
iloiost inaccessihle. The Bhil free- 
bten for a long time inhabited this 
•76, and damag^ it excessively. 

Nvtnber 7, a vihara. It has a large 
leraiidah with cells at the back like the 
(bttaek Caves. Two porches of two 
jdlars each project from the front line 
of the venuadah, resembling those at 
Gepbsnta and the Duma Lena, and are 
]ioDtbIy of the same date. There is also 
leh^ with two pillars at either end. 
la tie vestibule are 4 rows of 5 cross- 
kged figures seated on the lotus, with 
ilottt Mtween each pair, and one row 
of sbdying Buddhas. On the right 
aie tro similar sculptures of repeated 
figiiiiB of Buddha seated and standing. 
Wiiin the sanctuary on either side are 
two large figures and one small, and 
tvD £m-bearer8. On the step are 16 
cnss-l^ged figures, 8 on either side. 

i^woKr 8, a vihara of no interest. 

A^imier9isadagoba. There are 3 in- 
scriptions, probably of the 2d cent. a.d. 

dumber 10, a dagoba. The statue 
of Buddha is quite separated from the 
nil The roof is ribbed. The ribbing 
IB the aisles being of stone, and in the 
tt?e of wood, wough now only the 
^ning pins, and the footings for one 
ttwo of the ribs are left. The da- 
(iitta is plain and solid, with only the 
•pare capital or Tee on the top. The 
%Ie of this cave has been painted, 
4ingh now only some figures ofBuddha 
«i his disciples are len. On the in- 
fcior fiice of the cave, and very high 
%is an inscription in the pure Ldt (see 
wary) character, which would give 
•antiquity of from 200 to 100 B.o. 

i/wnwer 11 resembles cave Num- 
W 12, but has four pillars in the 
<ltre supporting the roof, being prob- 
% one of the earHest instances of 
h introduction of pillars for such a 
fipose. On the walls are antelopes, 
fcs, and a boy praying, sculptured in 
lb very best style of ait, and evidently 
omd with the Ganesh Gupha at 
lOtttack. The walls have been stuccoed 
M painted. 

Muniber 12 is one of the most ancient 
ill plainest of the series, having no 
ftkrSf sanctuary, or visible object of 
Ntship. The only ornament consists 

of seven horse-shoe canopies on each 
side, four over the doors of the ceUs, 
the other three merely ornamental. 
These canopies are very similar to 
those at Cuttack. There is an inscrip- 
tion on the inner wall in a character 
slightly modified from that on the 
LdtSy and written probably early in the 
Christian era, if not before it. 

Number 18, a small cave with 2 cells. 

Number 14, a large unfinished vihara. 

Number 15, a plain square cave. 

Number 16 and Number 17 are the 
two finest viharas of the series. On the 
external faces are two long inscriptions. 
These caves date probably about the 
4th century A. D. The paintings in the 
great hall are very interesting, repre- 
senting battles. The soldiers hold 
short swords like the Nipalese knife, 
and oblong shields, like the shield of 
Achilles. The architectural details 
are more ele^mt than in any cave in 
the series. Number 17 is called the 
Zodiac Cave, and resembles 16, except 
that it is not so lofty, and the detam 
are not so elegant. Tlie paintings, how- 
ever, are more perfect. On the right- 
hand wall, as you enter, a procession is 
painted. Three elephants are issuing 
from a gateway, one black, one white, 
and one red. Flags and umbrellas are 
borne before them, and men with-speara 
and swords make up the train. On the 
back wall is a hunting scene, in which 
a maned lion, now not found in India, 
is a prominent figure. In the verandah 
are some curious paintings, especially a 
circular one, with eight compartments. 
Over the door are eight sitting figures, 
of which four are black, and the rest 
each a degree fairer, the eighth being 
quite white and wearing a crown. Mr. 
Fergusson pronounces these paintings 
to be decidedly superior to the style 
of Europe during the age in which 
they were execut^. 

Number 18 is merely a porch with 
two pillars. 

Number 19 is a chaitya (see Glossary) 
cave, remarkable for the beauty of its 
details. The roof is ribbed in stone. 
The dagoba has three stone umbrellas, 
rising till they touch the roof ; in front 
is a standing figure of Buddha. 

Number 20 is a vihai'a. 





Number 21. The paintings are 
almost obliterated, except on the left 
hand as you enter, where there is a 
large black Buddha with red hair, 
attended by black slaves, also a number 
of females, fair as Europeans. 

Numbers 22 and 23 are unimportant. 

Number 24 is unfinished; but the 
details, where completed, are so rich as 
to leave no doubt that this would have 
been one of the finest caves had the 
design been fully carried out Only one 
pillar has been completely sculptured. 

Number 25 is a small rude vmara. 

Number 26 is a vaulted ohaitya cave, 
and perhaps the most modem of the 
series. It resembles Number 19, but 
is much larger. Its sculptures are 
more numerous and minute than any 
other. The Buddha in front of the 
dagoba is seated, with his feet down. 
The walls are covered with sculptures 
of Buddha and disciples. In uie S. 
aisle is a figure 23 ft. 3 in. long, reclin- 
ing all its length, in which attitude 
Buddhists prepare to receive nirvdnaht 
"beatitude." Above are many angels, 
one of them sounding vigorously a big 
drum. The fat figures which serve as 
brackets have four arms. There are 
•two inscriptions on the outside, one 
under a figure of Buddha on the left of 
the entrance ; the other much broken, 
but more distinct, on the right, in the 
character of the 6th century A.D. 

Number 27 is small and unfinished.] 

276 m. Bhnsawal June. sta. (R.) A 
place called into existence by the 
G.I.P.E. works. Junction of the 
Bengal - Nagpur Railway. (See p. 

278i m. The TapU Bridge, one of 

the most important works on the line. 
The first bridge built was abandoned 
in consequence of the inferior nature 
of the stone of which it was con- 

310m.Burhanpur8ta.D.B. The city 
18 about 8 m. distant. Pop. 84,000. 
It lias been a place of much import- 

ance, and is completely walled in. The 
neighbourhood contains some interest- 
ing Mohammedan ruins, and a curious 
aqueduct still in use. In the town are 
two handsome mosques. The Baithai 
KUla—thQ ruins of a citadel and pikce 
— ^is beautifully situated on a hekht 
overlooking the Tapti river. fh« 
place was founded in 1400 A.D. by 
Naser Ehan of the Faruki dynasty of 
Ehandesh, and was annexea to the 
Mogul Empire by Akbar in 1600 A.D. 
It was the capital of the Deccan Pro- 
vince of the empire when in 1614 A.D. 
Sir Thomas l^e, ambassador ^m 
James I. to the great Mogul, passed 
through, and paid his respects to the 
Viceroy Prince Parvis, son of Jehanglr. 
Sir Thomas complains that the Prince 
'' made himself orunk out of a case ol 
bottles I gave him, and so the visit 
ended." The place was taken bj 
General Wellesley in 1808, and mvei 
back to Sindia the next year. It ii 
now British territory. 

822 m. Chandni sta. About 6 m. b] 
a fair road is Asirgarh, an interest 
ing and picturesque hill-fort, a detache^ 
rock standing up 850 ft. from the sur 
rounding plam. It Was taken by stom 
by General Well^ey's army in 180^ 
restored to Sindia, and a^in taken ii 
1819, since when it has belonged to thi 
British. The country around is wili 
and abounds in large game. 

858 m. Ehaadwa junc. sta., D.c 
(R. ) A civil station, the chief place c 
the district of Nimar in the Centn 
Provinces. From here the metre-gauj 
system of the Bombay, Baroda, a^ 
Central Indian Railway runs N. I 
Mhow, Indore, and through Westei 
Malwa to Ajmere, Agra, and Delhi m 
Bte. 4) ; also to Ferozpore, Pmnab. 1 

417 m. Harda sta., D.B. close 
station, good (pop. about*14,000). 
important mart for the export 
grain and seeds. Here the rail^ 
enters the great wheat -field of 1 
Nerbudda valley, which extends 
Jubbulpore. Haida has a good IX 
8 m. walk from the sta. Ralli B] 
have an agency at Harda. 

464 m. Itarsi junc sta., D.B. ( 

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horn this the system of the Indian 
Kdlaod Bailway rans N. to Hoshan- 
|d)ad, Bhopal, Jhansi, Gwalior, Agra, 
ad G^wnpore (see Bte. 6), 

505 m. Pipaiia sta. 3^ There is a 
QOBifortable D.B. dose to the station. 
[i fair road leads in 32 m. S. to 
hchaarijsOc the hill-station of the 
OBQtnl Provinces. There are many 
bnngalows at Pachmari and barracks, 
^ciare occupied by European troops 
in the hot season. The station is nearly 
40OO feet above sea -level. There is 
aD.E on the way ; the ascent, which 
is 12 m. long, is very pleasing. Good 
large-game diooting in the forests 
below the station.] 

5U m. 0adarwara junc. sta. A 
railway 12 m. long leads S. to the Moh- 
pui coal-mines, worked by the Ner- 
bndda Coal Co. 

616 m. JABALFUB sta. s^c (792 
m. from Calcutta b;^ the Allahabad 
route). (R.), an important civil 
tad military station, the meeting- 
"^ce of the G.I. P. and East Indian 

The town (pop. 84,570) and station 
M well laid out and well cared for, 
k contain little of interest in them- 
ires. Travellers stop here in order to 
iit the Marble Rocks (see below. ) In 
liinodern settlement of India few sub- 
^ have created more interest than 
ii suppression of the Thags {Thug8\ 
4itemity devoted to the murder of 
kan beings by strangulation. The 
" ipation was hereditary. They made 
t once a religion and a means of 
ihood. The principal agent in 
iting down these criminals was 
lelSleemau, and it was at Jabal- 
|t — ^ great centre of their operations 
«ftat the informers and the families of 
^captured Thags were confined. They 
Ike kept in an enclosed village, and 
^provide them with occupation the 
#e famous " School of Industry " was 

elished in 1885. Originally there 
2500 of these people, now very few 
JNliin. A pass is required to see the 
BSkig vUla^e, and the interesting and 
pi organSed JalL 

[Expedition to the Marble Bocks.^ 

The Marble Rocks, which are 11 m. 
from Jabalpur, are worth a visit. 
Tongas can be hired for the trip. The 
road is heavy and dusty in places, but 
generally Kood. About half-way, and 
i m. olf the main road is a remarkable 
ancient fortress of the Gond Kings, 
perched on the summit of an enormous 
granite boulder. At 9J m. turn 1. to 
the rocks by a branch road, which for 
the last i m. is impracticable in the 
rains. There is a comfortable D.B. 
Descend 70 ft. to the river-side, and 
there embark. Four men to row and 
one to steer are quite enough. The 
river in the dry season is a series of 
deep pools without current, and of a 
dark green, and full of fish and alli- 
gators. The latter do not come out on 
the rocks till the sun is high, when 
they bask, and might be shot at, were 
it not for the bees. There are pigeons, 
too, and water-fowl, but shooting has 
its perils, for there are both hornets' 
and bees' nests. These quickly attack 

Jiersons who fire guns or make a noise, 
ust at the end of the pools, at a place 
called the Monkey's leap, two young 
railway engineers were attacked by bees 
as they were shooting. One got ashore 
and ran off with the natives into the 
jungle, and though much stun^, escaped 
death. The other jumped into the 
water and dived, and though a good 
swimmer, was drowned, for when he 
came up the bees attacked him again, 
and would not leave him till he sank. 
The nests are quite black, and more 
than a yard long. The cliffs are of 
white marble, which, when broken, is 
bright and sparkling, but the surface 
is somewhat discoloured by the weather 
Near the new bungalow, where are 
several white temples, the cliffs are 
80 ft. high. The water is said by the 
people of the place to be here 160 ft. 
deep. 1 m. farther the barrier rocks 
intercept the stream, and no boat can 
pass in the dry season. In the rains ^ 

1 Passengers who are pressed for time, h^ 
telefiraphing beforehand to the hotel manager 
at Jabalpur to have a carriage rea^for 
them at the rly. sta., may visit thei>ocks, 
and proceed on their journey by the fqiowing 


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the riyer rises 30 ft, and is then a 
mighty torrent, and very dangerous 
About i m. upon the 1. is an in- 
scription in the Nagri character, made 
by Madhu Rao Peshwa. f m. 1. are 
curious rocks called Hathi ka Panw, 
** elephant's legs," from a fancied resem- 
blance. The neight of the rocks no- 
where exceeds 90 ft., and though the 
scenery is picturesque, it is not grand. 
There is a cascade { m. beyond the 
barrier rocks called the Dhuandhar 
or ** Smoke Fall. " 80 yds. beyond the 
bungalow is a flight of 107 stone steps, 
some of them carved, which lead to 
the Madanpur Temple, surrounded by 
a circular stone enclosure. All round 
it are figures of Parvati, with one leg 
in her kp. Though much mutilated, 
they are quite worm a visit.] 

673 m. Xatni juno. sta. Line S.E. 
to the coal-fields at Umaria 37 m., and 
thence to Bilasipur on the Bengal-Nag- 
pur Ely. (p. 76;. ' A line W. to Saugar. 

784 m. Sutna (or Satna) sta., D.B. 
(B. ). A town and British cantonment in 
the Bewah state, also the headquarters 
of the Baghelkhand Political Agency. 
The Umbaila road branches from this 
point eastward meetingthe Great Dewari 
Koad which runs from Jabalpur to Mir- 
zapur. Rewah is situated on this road 
8 m. from the junction. There is nothing 
whatever to see at Sutna. Near Satna 
were found the remains of the Bharhut 
stupa removed to Calcutta Museum. 

788 m. Manikpur junc. sta. From 
this place the Indian midland line runs 
W. to Jhansi, 181 m. (Rte. 5a). 

842 m. Naini sta. (R.) Hotel Close 
by is the Jail, one of the largest in 
India, and admirably managed. 2 m. 
farther the line crosses the Jumna by a 
fine bridge, and enters 

844 m. Allahabad sta. » The 
capital of the North- West Provinces, 
316 ft. above sea-level (pop. 162,896), 
is a good place to make a halt, 
'^vellers coming from Bombay or 
N<??***» between the months of 
to 'P^y. *^d March, are warned 
clothe?^^; themselves with warm 
RTiH W«nket8, as they will find 

it cold at Allahabad and &rther n(Hth 
Allahabad is situated on the 1. bani 
of the Jumna river, on the wedge o 
land formed bv its junction with th 
Gan^s, crossed by 2 bridges of boat 
on tne N. side of the town. 

The Fort stands near the junction c 
the Ganges and the Jumna. The (5v: 
Station, Cantonments, and City stretc 
W. from this point 6 m. The preaei 
Fort and City were founded by Akbs 
in 1575 A.D., but the Aryans possesse 
a very ancient city here called Prayaj 
The Hindus now call it Prag. It is 
very sacred place with them, as the 
believe that Brahma performed h 
sacrifices of the horse here, in memM 
of his recovering the four Vedas fipoi 
Shankhasur. The town was visitc 
by Megasthenes in the 3d cent. b.< 
and in the 7th cent A.D. Hiou< 
Thsang, the Buddhist pilgrim, visit* 
and described it. It was first conquert 
by the Moslems in 1194 A.D., und 
Shahabu-din-Ghori. At the end • 
Akbar's reign Prince Salim, afterwan 
the Emperor Jehangir, governed it ai 
lived in the fort. Jehangir's soi 
Ehusru, rebelled against him, bat w 
defeated and put under the custody 
his brother Ehurram, afterwards tj 
Emperor Shah Jehan. Ehusru di* 
in 1615, and the Khusru Bctgh (s 
below) contains his mausoleum. 
1736 Allahabad was taken by t 
Marathas, who held it till 1750, wh 
it was sacked by the Pathans of Farrc 
habad. It changed masters sevei 
times, and in November 1801 it \ 
ceded to the British. 

Allahabad was the seat of the goTe^ 
ment of the N.W. Provinces fn 
1884 to 1855, when that was removed 
Agra. In 1858, after the suppresd 
of the Mutiny, it again became 1 
seat of the provincial government. 

In May 1857 the all-impori 
station of Allahabad, with its mal 
ficent Arsenal and strong Fort, wail 
spite of the warnings of Sir Jti 
Outram, garrisoned by a single S^ 
regiment, the 6th, to which, on 
May a wing of the Ferozpur r^ui 
of Sikhs and, ten days later, two ti? 
of 'Oudh Irregular Horse, were a<l 
The officers of the 6th N.I. were 

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Bent In the loyalty of their corps, but 
iirttinately a few days later 60 English 
ioyalid soldiers were brought in from 
Qmnar. The history of the outbreak 
i Allahabad is one of the saddest 
diapters in the long list of misfortunes 
fhich marked the commencement of 
fte great Mutiny of 1867. Fifteen 
cficere were murdered by the Sepoys. 

It was an awful crisis. Had the 
£khs in the Fort fraternised with the 
Sepoys, that stronghold, with its im- 
meoM stores of guns and ammunition, 
f onU have gone to swell the strength 
9f lie rebels ; but Brasyer, who com- 
ma]^ the Sikhs, drew up his detach- 
meitat the main gate, and with him 
wen the guns manned by the English 
in^d artillerymen from Chunar, and 
sioiil knots of English volunteers. 
Tie Sepoys were overawed, disarmed, 
a&i expelled from the Fort. Mean- 
f iile Russell, an officer of the Artillery, 
M. laid trains to the magazines, and 
was prepared to blow them up in case 
of a reverse. While this went on 
in the Fort, anarchy reigned in the 
city--the jail was broken open, and 
the inrisoners, with the irons still 
ttttling on their limbs, murdered every 
Mtian they met. On the morning 
of the 7th the Treasury was sacked, 
«d the 6th N.I. disbanded itself, 
«^h man taking bis plunder to his 
Jative villaga Each Sepoy canied off 
3(100 or 4000 rs., and many of them 
*re murdered by the villagers. A 
liohammedan Maulvi was put up as 
Wemor of Allahabad, and took up 
^ Quarters in the Khusru Bagh. 
Oa the 1 1th of June General Neill 
«nved in the Fort, and on the morn- 
ing of the 12th opened fire from the 
^t guns on the village of Daraganj, 
Qd sent out a detachment of Fusiliers 
lui Sikhs, who burned the village and 
Rt possession of the bridge of boats. 
^ the same day Major Stephenson, 
^th 100 men of the Fusiliers, passed 
into the Fort. Neill then scoured the 
Bfidibouring villages, and produced 
^m a terror in the city that the in- 
lubitants deserted en masse, and the 
tfanlvi fled to Cawnpore. 

The Khmm Bagfa, close to the 
Btation, and E. of it, is entered by an 

old archway, nearly 60 ft. high and 46 
ft deep, overerown with creepers. With- 
in the well-kept garden are 3 square 
mausoleums. That to the E. is the tomb 
of Sultan Khusru, W. of it is a ceno- 
taph of Nur Jehan, who was buried at 
Lahore, and farther W. that of Sahibah 
Begam, wife of Jehangir. They are 
shiuled by some fine tamarind trees. 

The mausoleum of Khusru has been 
very handsome inside, and is orna- 
mented with many Persian couplets, 
and with paintings of trees and flowers, 
which are now faded. The actual grave 
is underground, but above is a cenotaph 
of white marble, on a raised platform, 
without inscription. To the rt. and 1. 
two of Khusru*s sons wre buried. In 
the gardens are the reservoirs for the 
water supply of the town ; and beyond 
the gardens is the native quarter, con- 
taining some picturesque corners. It 
is quite distinct from Canning Town, 
the European quarter, which since the 
time of tne Mutiny has been laid out 
amongst a network of wide avenues. 
All Saints' Church, near the rl^r. sta., 
is a large cruciform building in the 
Romanesque style. Trinity Church is 
on the way to the Fort, and a little 
over 2 m. to the N.W. of it. This 
church contains a tablet which is valu- 
able as a historical record of those who 
perished in the Mutiny, and gives a list 
of their names. The Boman Catholic 
Cathedral, in the Italian style, is W. 
of the Alfred Park. 

The Muir College, to the N. of the 
Alfred Park, is a fine building in the 
Saracenic style. It has its name from 
Sir William Muir, formerly Lt-Governor 
of the N.W. Provinces, and author of 
the Life of Mahomet. Close by is 
the Mayo Hally or Memorial, a fine 
structure, with a tower 147 ft. high. 
The main hall is used for balls and 
amateur theatricals. 

The Club is close to the Mayo Me- 
morial, and S. of it, and is reached by 
the Thomhill Road. 

The Thomhill and Mayne Memorial. 
— In the Park is also the Thomhill 
Memorial, where are the Library and 
Museum. In the Library there are 
between 9000 and 10,000 books and 

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The Port was built by Akbar in 
1575. It forms a striking object from 
the river, but its " high towers haye 
been cut down, and the stone ramparts 
topped with turfed parapets, and fronted 
with a sloping glacis. The changes 
rendered necessary by modem military 
exigencies have greatly detracted from 
itspicturesquenessas a reHcof antiquity. 
The principal gateway is capped with a 
dome, and nas a wide vault underneath 
it. It is a noble entrance. The walls 
are from 20 to 25 ft. high. There is 
a broad moat which can be filled with 
water at any time. Within the en- 
closure lie the officers* quarters, powder 
magazine, and barracks, while the old 
palace, greatly disfigured by the facade 
built by the English, is now utilised 
as an arsenal " (an order to enter must 
be obtained from the Ordnance Com- 
missary at Allahabad). The central 
room IS what was the Audience Hall. 
" It is supported by 8 rows of 8 columns, 
and surrounded by a deep verandah of 
double columns, with group of 4 at 
the angles, all surmounted by bracket 
capitals of the richest design. — J. F. 

Asoka'B Pillar.— Close to the Palace 
is the Asoka Pillar, which rises 49 ft. 
5 in. above ground. It is of stone, 
highly polished, and is of much interest 
on account of its great antiquity. On 
it are inscribed uie famous Edicts of 
Asoka {circa 240 B.O.), and also a record 
of Samudra Gupta's victories in the 2d 
cent, and one by Jehangir, to commem- 
orate his accession to the throne. There 
are also minor inscriptions, beginning 
almost from the Christian era. Ac- 
cording to James Prinsep, the insertion 
of some of these inscriptions shows 
that it was overthrown, as it would 
have been impossible to cut them while 
the pillar was erect It was finally 
set up in 1888 by the British. 

The Akshai Bar or nnddoaying 
banian tree. — Hiouen Thsang, the 
Chinese Pilgrim of the 7th cent, in de- 
scribing Prayag gives a circumstantial 
description of ttie undecaying tree. 
In the midst of the city, he says, stood 
a Brahmanical temple, to which the 
presentation of a single piece of money 
procured as much merit as that of 1000 
«ieces elsewhere. Before the principal 

room of the temple wasatree surrounded 
by the bones of pilgrims who had sacri- 
ficed their lives there. 

There are a few steps leading to 
a dark underground passage which goes 
85 ft straight to the E., then S. 30 ft. 
to the tree. Beyond this Is a scroare 
aperture which the Indians say leads 
to Benares. There are some idols 
ranged along the passage. In the centre 
of the place is a lingam of Shiva, orer 
which water is poured by pilgrins. 
Cunningham in his Ancient Cieography 
of India gives an interesting sketch 
of the probable changes in the locality, 
and concludes : '* I think there can be 
little doubt that the famous tree here 
described is the well-known Akshai 
Bar or undecaying banian tree, which is 
still an object of worship at Allahabad. 
This tree is nowsituatea underground, 
at one side of a pillared court (or crypt) 
which would appear to have been open 
formerly, and which is, I believe, the 
remains of the temple described by 
Hiouen Thsang. The temple is situated 
inside the Foit E. of the Ellenborough 
barracks, and due N. from the stone 
pillars of Asoka and Samudra Gupta." 

As no tree could live in such a situa- 
tion, the stump is no doubt renewed 
from time to time. Close by is a deep 
octagonal well flanked by 2 vaulted 
octagonal chambers. 

It is worth while walking round 
the ramparts for a view of the Con- 
fluence of the (hinges, which is li 
m. broad, flowing firom the N., with 
the Jmnna, i m. broad, flowing 
from the W. The Ganges is of a 
muddy colour, the Jumna is bluer, 
and they meet J of a m. beyond 
the Fort The Mela, a religious 
fair of great antiquity, to which 
Allahabad probably owes its origin, 
occurs every year about the month 
of January, when it is said that the 
pilgrims have numbered a million 
persons. They come to bathe at th< 
confluence of the sacred rivers, and 
encamp on the sandy tongue of land 
between them. 

The Akbar Bund or embankmenj 
runs from Dara Ganj N.E. of the fori 
The Old and New Kotwalis are ^ 
S. of the Ehusm Bagh and the Pa 

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fay Station. These are well built, and 
ire worth looking at. 

The Jail is at Naini, about 2 m. to 
&e W. of the Jumna, after crossing 
irer the bridge (see above). 

509 m. Hinapur sta. An important 
lell-builtcity. Pop, 84,130. Before the 
opening of the £ast India Bailway it 
was the largest mart on the Ganges for 
piin and cotton ; much of the trade 
18 now diverted elsewhere. It is still 
•oted for carpets and rugs, dyed with 
old Batire vegetable dyes, wnich are 
rery permanent Two manufacturers 
havft the privilege of displaying their 
patterns on the r^way platform during 
theitoppage of the train. There is a 
haidsome river front with fine ghats. 
Tin civil station is to the N.E. of the 

^Im. Mosnil Sarai June. sta. (R.) 

Ih)in this point the traveller should visits ^great quantities in the narrow lanes 

lBEHAKB8(F<»rana8i-'Easi).:i^ Xfa^* 
Cantonnieait sta. is 10 m. distant from*' 
Xogul Sarai on the Oadh and Rohil- 
eand ByL : at 7 m. the Ganges is crossed 
by a steel bridge nearly } m. in length, 
mere is a station called the Benares 
fiver-station on its banks. 

Benares (pop. 222,400), commonly 
ealled Kcuivj the Hindus, has be^ 
the religious capital of India from be- 
^nd historical times. The most gener- 
ally accepted derivation of the name, 
Tarajictsi is &om the streams Yarana 
twdemBama- )and Asior Ashi(riiw^). 
Ihe former, a river of some size on the 
H. and E. of the city; the latter, a 
rivulet now embraced within its area. 

The site of Benares has often been 
iiianged, but there is good groimd for 
^posing that the first city was built 
It Samath. The past history of this, 
«ie of the most ancient cities in India, 
• involved in obscurity. It is, how- 
wer, certain that it was a most flourish- 
ke and important place 6 centuries 
inore the Christian era, for Sakya 
koni, who was bom about 557 b.o., 
^ died in 478 b.c., came to it from 
iiya to establish his religion, which 
h would not have done had it not been 
ften a great centre. Many of the most 
llportant writers of the Hindus were 
fct heard of at Benares. Of inter- 
mediate events little is known, but we 

learn from Husain Nizami's history 
that in 1194 A.D. Jaychand, Ri^ah Ok 
Benares, "whose army was countless as 
the sand," was defeated and killed by 
Eutb-ud-din, the general of Shahab- 
ud-din Ghori. Kutb destroyed 1000 
temples, and built mosques on their 
sites. From that date Benares was 
governed by the Moslems, and became 
part of the province of Allahabad. It 
IS due to the iconoclastic spirit of the 
conquerors that hardly a single build- 
ing can be found in Benares which 
dates beyond the time of Akbar. 

The ornamental Brass-Work which 
is met with all over the world is a 
spedalitd of Benares ; but the modem 
^ork is far less carefully executed than 
,the old, which is now difficult to pro- 
cure. Small idols and other images in 
brass and other materials are mi^e in 

around the golden temple. 

Shawls, silks, and embroideries 
may also be purchased here. 

Asi^he finest view of Benares is 
obtained from the river Ganges, the 
banks' of which are bordered by Ohats, 
or flights of stotie steps, descending to 
the water from the most famous bmld- 
in^ in the dty, the traveller will do 
well to spend some time in a . boat, 
passing along the whole of the river 
frontage, where, in the morning especi- 
ally, he will see crowds of the people 
coming down to bathe and drink the 
water of the sacred river. 

For those who are pressed for time, it 
vn)l be sufficient to see the Observatory, 
the Monkey Temple, and the whole 
length of the Ghats, and disembark at 
the Panchganga to see the Golden 
Temple. The rest may be omitted. 

Particulars regarding these Ghats and 
the buildings near them are given be- 
low. The river and native town are 
nearly 2 m. from the 

Cantonment, where a detachment of 
Europeans and a native regiment are 
stationed. Near the Hotel is St. Mary's 
Church, with some old tombs, and the 
Benares Gtovemment CoUeg^e, a building 
in the Perpendicular style, called Queen's 
college. It contains an Archnological 

To the N. of the College is an 

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ancient monolith, 81^ ft hkh, with 
an English inscription attached. It 
wasfonndnearGhazi}>Tir. On the ohelisk 
there is an inscription in the Gupta 
character. To the E. of the grounds 
are carved stones brought from Samath, 
Bakariya Ennd, and other places. 

Should the trayeller desire to go 
first to the Raj Ghat, near the Railway 
Bridge, by the Grand Trunk road, he will 
pass the Naadeshwar Kothi, a residence 
of the Maharaja of Benares. In this 
house, Mr. Davis, Judge and Magistrate 
of Benares, was attacked by tne fol- 
lowers of Vazir *Ali, the deposed Nawab 
of Oudh, who had just killed Mr. 
Cherry, the British Resident, on the 
14th of January 1799. Mr. Davis sent 
his wife and two children on to the roof, 
and, with a spear, placed himself at the 
top of the staircase leading to it, where 
he so successfully defended himself that 
his assailants contented themselves with 
destroying the furniture, and watching 
their opportunity. Vazir 'Ali then 
sent for materials to fire the house, but 
Mr. Davis was rescued by the arrival 
of a regiment of cavalry. The house 
at present is lent by the Maharaja to 
persons of rank who visit Benares. 
The furniture and pictures seem to be 
of Mr. Davis's time. The garden is 

The Church KiBaion House at Sigra 
is IJ m. to the W. St. Paul's 
Church is 1 m. due S. of the rly. 
Stat., and was finished in 1847. 
There is an Orphanage for girls and 
boys attached, also Normal and Indus- 
trial Schools for Women. Thence the 
traveller can drive IJ m. to the Maha- 
raja of Vijayanagram's Palace at 

Belipur. Permission must be obtained 
to see the house from the agent of the 
Maharaja. There is a good view from 
the terraced roof of the palace over the 
Ganges, in the direction of AurangziVs 
mosque. The Gk>lden Temple is seen 
to the E.N.E. Close to the palace on 
the W. are several Jain Temples. 

Native Town. 

The Durga Temple is sometimes 
called the Monkey Temple by European, 
from the myriads of monkeys which 
inhabit the laige trees near it. Tlie 
temple is about three-fifths of a mile 8. 
of the y^jayanagram Palace. It is 
stained rea with ochre, and it stands 
in a quadrangle surrounded by high 
walls. In front of the principal entrance 
is the band room, where the priests 
beat a large drum three times a day. 
The central portion is supported by 
twelve curiously carved pulars, on a 
platform raised 4 ft. from the ground. 
The doors are plated with brass, and 
there are two bells. The temple and 
the fine tank adjoining were constmoted 
by the Rani of Natre in the last cen- 
tury. As Durga is the terrific form 
of Shiva's wife, and is said to delist 
in destruction, bloody sacrifices are 
offered to her, and goat's blood may be 
seen sprinkled about. 

From this temple the traveller may 
proceed to the GHiats, embarking at 
the Han Uandir Ghat, and rowing 
slowly past in front of them. The 
Ghats are here given in succession 
from the W. proceeding down stream. 
A detailed description follows the 

Table op Ghats and Buildikos adjoining them 

Names of the Qhkpi or flights of steps 
trom S. to N. 

1. Aihi Ghi^ or Asi Sangam Ghdj; 

2. lAliMisrGhitorBachhr^Ghit. 
8. Tulsi Qhit 

4. R&o BOdb Gbit . 

5. Akrol dh&t^ 

6. BhiviU Qh4t .... 

7. Dan4i Gh4t. 
- ifih 

8. HanomAn Qhi^. 

Names of the Bnildings adjacent to 
each GhAf* 

1. The Monastery of Tulsi Das, Jagannith 
Tbmple to S. ; Dturgi Kond or Monkey 
Temple to W. 

8. Enm Chatr Temple. 
4. Image of Bhim. 

0. Eh&li Ma^l, Prince of Dihll's hooea. 

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ttOOtk 1. BKltAltfiB 


Nunes of the 6h4t» or flights of steps 

Names of the Baildines adjacent to 
each Ghil. 

Dram S. to N. 

». SmasUbiorllMhiaGhi^ . . . 

9. The Cremation Ground. 

». liUOhi^ 

U. K«d4r Gh4t 

It ChankorOhankiOhit . . . . 

11. KedimAth Temple. 

12. Mansarovar, a tank smronnded by shrines. 

». Chfttr Gh4( or lUji Ghi$ 

IS. The Ghatror Beat-honse of Bi^a Amfita 

U. SomeshwGhAI^ 


15. Puide GhA^ 

16. Kand QU%. 

17. ChatrGhA^ 

18. Bengali Toli Gfait. 

1». OoraPantGhi^ 

». ChaoaathlGhAI 

n. Uni Ghi^ 

12. ftmahi Gh&l 

20. Temple of the Goddess Chansathi. 

21. Bnilt by the Bind of Oodeypur. 

22. A fine bonding at head of stairs. 

IS. itelya BAi'8 Oh^ 


25. Bisashwamedh GhAt 

26. The Observatory. 

26. If ahalla Affast Knnd Hiest DOint for em- 

36. lin Mnndir GhAt 


st^^m ^■^•••^^••■w "■qvw^w m^^m^k%^ ^»^^^«vv ^|r^^»»»v a^^* ^'■■* 





and Holy Well. 

U, ]U«ikarapika QhA^ 

83. Temple of Tdrkeshwara, Well of Mani- 

karanikA. Cremation Ground. 

R Sfandia's Ghit . .... 
S. RlifmkaGhit. 

84. Broken Wall. 

3«. Gapesh GhA^. 

S7. Ghosla Gh&t. 


88. Temple ef B&m. 

89. Connn^Mie of the DhantanAnA. Jarandn* 

Ada, Eir^dnada, Saraswati, and Ganga, 

the first four undei*ground. Aurang- 

zib's Mosque, called H&dhu DAs ki 


«. Dnisd or EAli Gh^t^ 
.-fl. Binda MAdhaya Ghit. 


42. Stone figure of a cow. 

a.TraoehaDaGba^(orPilpUlaTirth) . . 

48. Houses of the Dihli ftmfly and Cemetery 



& Haitra Ghdii. 

4k Piahlid Gh&(. 

«. lUidGfail 

47. Bridge of Boats. 

The Aslii Ghat is one of the five cele- 
kited places of pilgrimage in Benares. 
Ike diannel of the Ashi, which here 
Ills into the Gan^s, is dry during the 
0^ weather. It is about 40 ft. broad. 
Sie steps at this Ghat are a good deal 
koken, and though one of the most 
iMmd, it is certainly not one of the 
kndsomeet Ghats. This is the nearest 
fihat from which to cross to Bamnagar, 
lla palace of the Maharaja of Benares. 
Ihe next Ghat is the Bao^hraj or Lola 
Mar OkaL Here the Jains have built 
tao temples, which stand on the bank 
flftheGiaiges. At the K. end of Tmlsi 
fltet, whidi comes next, huge masses 
d the bidlding have fallen, and lie on 

the river's edge. At Bao Sahib Ohat 
is a huge recumbent image of Bhim, 
which is said to be annually washed 
away and restored. The traveller will 
now pass the Akrul Ghat and come to 
the Shivala Ohat. Here stands the 
fort in which Chait Sing resided. It 
is a handsome building, and appears as 
fresh as when first constructed. In 
the upper imrt of the N. wall are five 
small windows in a row, from one of 
which Chait Sing made his escape, 
when he fled from Warren Hastings in 
1781. It is now called the Khali 
Mahal, or ** empty palace," and be- 
longs to Government. In this vast 
building two companies of Sepoys and 

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three officers, who were sent by Hastings 
to arrest Ohait Sing, were massacred by 
a mob, owing to the soldiers having 
come without their ammunition. When 
fresh troops reached the palace, Ohait 
Sing had fled. The Shivala Ghat is one 
of tne finest and most crowded of the 
Ghats. Part of it is assigned to the 
religious ascetics called Gosains. The 
next is the Dandi Ohat, and is devoted 
to the staff- bearing ascetics called 
Dandi Pants. It is also very large. 
The Hannmaa Ohat, which comes next, 
is large and generally crowded. At the 
Sma&an Ohat, jrvres for cremation may 
be seen being built, while bodies wrapt 
up in white or red cloths lie with their 
feet in the Ganges ready to be burned. 
Passing the Lali Ghat, the Kedar 
Ohat, which comes next, deserves at- 
tention. According to the religious 
books of the Hindus, the city is divided 
into three great portions — Benares, 
Eashi, from whence the popular name, 
and Eedar. Eedar is a name of Shiva, 
but it also signifies a mountain, and 
especially a part of the Himalayan 
mountains, of which Shiva is the lord, 
hence called Eedamath. His temple, 
or rather the top of it, may be seen 
from the river at this Ghat. It is 
much resorted to by the Bengali and 
Tailangi ^p. of the city. The temple 
is a spacious building, the centre of 
which is supposed to be the place where 
Eedamath dwells. At the four comers 
are Shivalas, with cupolas. Here are 
two brass figures, hidden by a cloth, 
which is removed on payment of a fee. 
The walls and pillars are painted red 
or white. There are two large black 
figures, which represent the dwarpals, 
or janitors ; each has four hands holding 
a trident, a flower, a club, and the fourth 
empty, to push away intraders. At 
the bottom of the Ghat is a well called 
the Gauri Eund, or "weU of Gauri," 
Shiva's wife, the waters of which arc 
said to be efficacious in curing fevers, 
dysentery, etc. To the W. at 600 yds. 
is the Mansarovar tank, round which 
are 60 shrines. Manas or Mansarovar 
is a fabulous tank in: the Himalayan 
mountains, near Eailas, or Shiva's 
heaven- Near the tank at Benares so 
called IB a stone 4^ ft. high, and 16J ft. 

in periphery, which is said to grow daily 
to the extent of a sesamum seed. In a 
street to the £. of the tank are figures of 
Balkrishna, or the infant Erishna, and 
Chatrbhig or Vishnu. Close by is a 
Shivala, built by Bajah Man Sing, and 
called Maneshwar. At the Chavki 
Ohat is the place where serpents are 
worshipped. Here, under a pippitl 
tree, are many idols and figoies of 
snakes. In a street close by, called 
Eewal, is a figure of Durga with ten 

The next Ghat, where the stairs 
ascend into a large house or sarai built 
by Amrit Rao for travellers, is the Chair 
or Bajah Ohat. On leaving it tiie 
traveller reaches the Semeshwar Ghat 
so called from the adjacent temple of 
the moon, Sorna being the *'moon, ' and 
lahvjar "lord." At this Ghat every 
kind of disease is supposed to be healed 
Close by is an alley, in which is the 
shrine of Barahan Devi, a female 
.^Isculapius, who is worshipped in the 
morning, and is supposed to cure 
swelled hands and feet. From Chanki 
to Pande Ghat the water is very dirty, 
owing to a lar^e drain, which pours the 
filth of the city into this part of the 
Ganges. There is nothing particular 
to be seen at the next four Ghats, but 
the one after them, Chaiuathi Ohat, 
is one of the most ancient at Benares. 
Here, in a narrow lane, is a temple to 
the goddess Chausathi. Chausathi 
signifies "sixty-four." The Bana Ohat, 
bmlt by the Maha Rana of Oodeypnr, 
is not much frequented by Hindus. 
It is the special place for tne bathing 
of the Mohammedans. The Mnnahi 
Ohat is the most picturesque of all the 
Ghats at Benares. It was built by 
Munshi Shri Dhar, Diwan of the B^ah 
of Nagpur. Notice the building at the 
top of the stair. Of the two next Ghats 
nothine particular is to be said. Sitla 
Ghat signifies "small-pox Ghat," over 
which a Hindu goddess presides. 

Dasashwamedh Ohat is one of th< 
five celebrated places of pilgrimage i] 
Benares. It is specially throngen 
during eclipses. Here Brahma is sai^ 
to have offered in sacrifice ten hoisei 
and to have made the place eqtud ii 
merit to Allahabad. 

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Tlie traveller may disembark here 
md walk to the Man Mandir Ohat to 
see the Observatory. This lofty build- 
ing giyes a fine appearance to tne Ghat, 
md commands a beautiful yiew of the 
river. It was erected by Rsgah Jay- 
sing, the founder of Jeypore in 
Kajpatana, who succeeded the Rajas 
of imber in 1693. Chosen by Mu- 
hammad Shah to reform the calendar, 
his astronomical observations were 
fornmlated in tables, which corrected 
those of De la Hire. He built five 
observatories — at Delhi, Benares, 
Miittra, Ujjain, and Jeypore. On 
entering the Observatory the first in- 
stnment seen is the Bhittiyantra, or 
" «aral quadrant." It is a wall 11 ft. 
h^ and 9 fL 1^ in. broad, in the plane 
of the meridian ; by this are ascer- 
tiined the sun's altitude and zenith 
distance, and its greatest declination, 
and hence the latitude. Then come two 
Urge circles, one of stone and the other 
of cement, and a stone square, used, 
perhaps, for ascertaining the shadow of 
the gnomon and the degrees of azimuth. 
^ext the Yantrasamant will be seen, 
the wall of which is 36 ft. long and 4^ 
ft broad, and is set in the plane of the 
meridian. One end is 6 ft 4 J in. high, 
tod the other 22 ft 3^ in., and it 
slopes gradually up, so as to point to 
the North Pole. By this, the distance 
from the meridian, the declination of 
my planet or star and of the sun, and 
&e riffht ascension of a star are cal- 
mlated. There are here a double 
nural quadrant, an equinoctial circle 
•f stone, and another Yantrasamant. 
Cloee by is the Ghakrayantra, between 
tiro walls, used for finding the de- 
dination of a planet or star ; and near 
it a Digansayantra, to find the degrees 
•f azimuth of a planet or star. 

At Bhairaya Ghat is a Shivala, as 
Bhairava is only a terrific form of 
Shiva. The idol here is said to be the 
Kotwal, or magistrate of the city, 
vho rides about on an invisible dog. 
There is an image of a dog close to the 
ilol, and the confectioners near sell 
kiages of dogs made of sugar, which 
tre offered to it A Brahman waves a 
fiin of peacock's feathers over visitors 

to protect them from eyil spirits, and 
they in return must drop offerings 
into the cocoa-nut shell he holds. The 
idol ia of stone, with a face of silver, 
and four hands. The temple was 
built in 1825 by Eajah Rao of Poena. 
There are several other idols, and 
among them one of Sitla, goddess of 
smallpox, the offerings at which are 
taken by men of the gardener caste, 
as they are the professional in- 
oculators of India. At this place 
dogs are daily fed by a Gosain, who 
has servants under him, who make up 
cakes of wheat, barley, or jowari flour. 
On festivals the dogs have cakes of 
wheaten flour, butter, and sugar. The 
traveller will come next to the Mir 
Ghat^ which was built by Rustam' Ali 
Ehan, Nazim of Benares. It now be- 
longs to the Maharaja of Benares. 
From this the Nipalese Temple is seen, 
a picturesque object, but disfigured by 
indecent carvings. It does not re- 
semble in the least the Hindu temples. 
It is popularly called the Nipali 
Kharpa. Up a flight of steps behind 
this temple is a Wrestler's College. 
The manager welcomes visitors, and 
the performance of his pupils is curious 
and interesting. 

The famous Gtolden Temple (see 
below) is between this Ghat and the 
Jal Sain Ghat. 

The Kayastli Ohat is of no im- 
pori^ance. The ManifcaranlTra Ohat, 
one of the five celebrated places of 
Hindu pilgrimage in Benares, is con- 
sidered the most sacred of all the 
Ghats, and in November is visited 
by multitudes of pilgrims. It is also 
at the central point of the city, so 
that if a line were drawn from it 
to the W., it would divide Benares 
into two portions N. and S. Just 
above the flight of step is the Mani- 
karamka Well, and between it and 
the steps is the temple of Tarkesh- 
wara. Below this temple the bodies 
of Hindus are burned. The well has 
its name from Mcmi, "a jewel," and 
Kcmuby "the ear," Devi or Mahadeo 
having dropped an ear-ring into it. 
During the eclipse of the sun it 
is visited by millions of pilgrims. 
The well, or, more properly, tank, is 

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85 ft sq., and stone steps lead down to 
the water. Offerings of the Bel tree, 
flowers, milk, sandaf-wood, sweetmeats, 
and water are thrown into it ; and from 
the putrefaction of these a stench arises 
eautu to that which ascends from the 
Well of Knowledge. It may he men- 
tioned that at the Cremation Ground 
helow the fire must he brought from 
the house of a Domra, a man of very 
low caste. The Domra who has the 
monopoly of giving fire for cremation 
is very wealthy, as fees are demanded 
and given up to 1000 rs. At Tarkesh- 
wara the idol is kept in a reservoir of 
water. At this Ghat is the Charana- 
paduka, a round slab projecting slightly 
from the pavement, on which stands a 
p^estal of stone : on its marble top are 
2 imprints, said to have been made by 
the feet of Vishnu. At the second 
flight of steps of this Ghat is a temple 
to Siddha Vinayak, or Ganesh. The 
idol has three eyes, is painted red, and 
has a silver scalp, and an elephant's 
trunk covered with a bib, which 
resembles a barber's cloth wrapped 
about a man when he is about to be 
shaved. At the feet of the image is 
the figure of a rat, which is the Yahana 
or ** vehicle " of Ganesh. 

The traveller will now proceed to 
Sindi&'s Qhat, which is curious from 
the fact that its massive structure has 
sunk several feet, and is still gradually 
sinking. The temple on the left of the 
S. turret is rent from top to bottom, 
as are the stairs leading to the curtain, 
between the turrets. It was built by 
Baiza Bai, who constructed the colon- 
nade round the Well of Knowledge, 
but was left unfinished. Passing over 
the next two Ghats, the traveller will 
come to the Ohosla Ghat, which was 
built by the Nagpur Raja, and is very 
massive and h^dsome. Bam Ohat 
comes next, and is much frequented 
by Marathas. On the steps is a very 
sacred temple. 

The next is the Panchganga Ohat, 
beneath which 5 rivers are supposed 
to meet. Above it rises Aurangzib's 
mosque, called in maps 'Hhe Minarets." 
The view from the top of the minarets 
(160 ft high) of the town beneath is 
very striking. 

Passing the Durga Ghat, the trardler 
will come next to the Bindu Hadhara 
Ohat, which was formerly dedicated to 
Madhava or Krishna, whose temple 
was rased by Aurangzib. The next 
Ghat is the Gau Ohat, so called from 
the number of cows that resort to it, 
and also from the stone figure of a oem 

The Trilochaaa Ghat, also called tke 
Pilpilla Tirth, will next be reached. 
The pilgrim bathes in the Ganges at 
this Ghat, and then proceeds to ^ 
Panchganga, and there bathes again. 
There are two turrets at the TrilocnaBa 
Ghat, and the water between them 
possesses a special sanctity. Passine 
the three next Ghats the traveller will 
arrive at the Baj Ghat near the Bridge. 
On the morning of the 1st May 1850 a 
terrific explosion took place here, owing 
to a magazine fleet blowing up, when 
lying at this Ghat ALL the buildings 
near were shattered. At the junction 
of the Ganges and the Bama is a piece 
of high ground which in the Mutiny 
was strongly fortified, and has ever 
since been called the Baj Ghat Fort 

The Golden Temple is dedicated to 
Bisheshwar, the Poison God, or Shiva — 
a word compounded of Fish, "poison," 
and Ishioar, **god," because Shiva 
swallowed the poison when the gods 
and demons churned the ocean. The 
temple is in a roofed quadrangle, above 
which rises the tower. At each comer 
is a dome, and at the S.E. a Shivala. 
The temple is surrounded by very nar- 
row crowded streets. Opposite the en- 
trance, with its finely wrought brass 
doors, is a shop where flowers are sold 
for offerings. The visitor may enter the 
shop and ascend to the story above, 
which is on a level with the three 
towers of the temple. The red conical ^ 
tower L is that of Mahadeo's temple ; 
next to it is a gilt dome, and on the 
rt is the gilt tower of Bisheshwar's 
temple. The three are in a row in the 
centre of the quadrangle, which they 

1 These conical towers, almost oniTersal in 
Hindu temples, are called Siknu or VimanaKs. 
The origin of their peculiar form is unknown. 

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ilmort fill up. They are covered with 
^Id plates, over plates of copper which 
eoYertbestones. The expose of Riding 
fas defrayed by Maharaja RaDJit Sing 
of lihore. The temple of Bisheshwar 
is 51 ft high. Between it and the 
temple of Mfuiadeo hang nine bells from 
I carred stone framewonc One of these, 
md the most elegant, was presented by 
the Maharaja of Nipal. The temple 
of Mahadeo was built by Ahalya Bai, 
klakrana of Indore. Outside the en- 
cloore, and to the K. of it, is the Court 
of lahadeo, where on a platform are a 
niaber of lingams, and many small 
idii are built into the wall. Tliey are 
thflffht to have belonged to the old 
tenle of Bisheshwar, wmch stood N.W. 
of me present one, and was destroyed 
bf Aurangzib. Remains of this temple 
nstill to be seen, and form part of a 
itosque which Aurangzib built, where 
tiie old temple stood (see below). 

In the quadrangle between the 
nosQue and the Temple of Bishesh- 
tar 18 the famous Juan Kap, " Well 
rf Knowledge," where the Hindus 
sappoee that Shiva resides. The quad- 
langle itself is unpleasant, but in that 
respect falls short of the well, which 
is absolutely fetid, from the decaying 
lowers thrown into it, notwithstanding 
^t it has a grating over it, overspread 
Tith a cloth ; for in this doth there 
ire large gaps, and flowers are continu- 
illy falling throueh them. The 
Totaries also throw down water ; and 
» they are not at all particular how 
4ey throw it, they make the pave- 
fieat one vast puddle, and besprinkle 
fteir fellow-worshippers all over, so 
that the clothes of many of them are 
ii a dripping state. It is said that 
then the old temple of Bisheshwar was 
destroyed, a priest threw the idol into 
this well, hence its uncommon sanctity. 
the platform is thronged by men and 
t(Hnen, and the horrible din of gones 
Ad voices deafens the visitor. Crowds 
rf fresh pilgrims arrive incessantly ; 
Ad as numbers of cows are mixed up 
^ the throng, and must be treated 
flth great consideration, the jostling 
^ something terrific. The roof and 
•loimade of this quadrangle were built 
ia 1828, by Baiza Bai, widow of Daulat 

Rao Sindia. To the E. of the 
colonnade is a stone Nandi, given by 
the Raja of Nipal, 7 ft. high. On the 
S. side of the colonnade is an iron 
palisade, within which is a shrine 
of white marble, and one of white 
stone, and a carved stone support, 
from which hangs a bell. Around are 
many richly carved small temples, 
particularly one to the S. of Bishesh- 
war, and the gateways of the court- 
yard are similarly carved, and small 
gilded spires add to the picturesqueness 
of the scene. 

Auraogiib'B Moiqae, *' whose tall 
and graceful minarets still form one 
of the most prominent features in 
every view of the city" (Fergusson), 
is otherwise of no great magnificence. 
This mosque, built to insult the Hindus 
in one oi their most sacred localities, 
has led to much animosity between 
them and the Moslems. The Hindus 
claim the courtyard between the mosque 
and the wall, and will not allow the 
Moslems to enter by the front of the 
mosque, but only on one side. The 
Moslems built a gateway in front of 
the mosque, which still stands, but no 
Moslem can enter by it, and the space 
between the pillars has been built up. 
A Fieiu religiosa tree overshadows the 
gateway and the road, but the Hindus 
will not suffer the Moslems to touch a 
leaf of it. The British Government 
acts as trustee of the mosque, and 
allows certain monevs belonging to it 
to be paid into the Treasury, and to be 
periodically made over for the benefit 
of the trust. During the period of 
nearly two centuries since the mosque 
was built not a stone has been loosened. 
It was constructed on the site of a 
magnificent temple of Madhava, or 
Krishna. A small number of the 
faithful assemble here on Fridays, 
otherwise it is deserted. 

The traveller can ascend the central 
staircase, which leads to the roof, by t^o 
most precipitous flights of steps. There 
are ropes on either side. The view from 
the minarets is picturesque. 

Just outside the Golden Temple is 
the Shrine of Sanichar, or Sham, the 
planet Saturn or its regent The 

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imagd is a round silyer disc, firom which 
hangs an apron, or cloth, which 

Erevents one remarking that it is a 
ead without a hody. A garland 
hangs from either ear, and a canopy is 
spread above. A few steps beyond 
ttiis is the Temple of Annapuma, a 
goddess whose name is compounded 
of-4w7ia, ** food, "and Pwma, * 'who is 
filled." She is supposed to have express 
orders from Bisneshwar to feed the 
inhabitants of Benares. In front of 
this temple are a number of beggars, 
who pester all passers-by. It was 
built about 1721 by the Feshwa of 
that date, Baji Bao. There are four 
shrines in this temple dedicated to the 
Sun, Ganesh, Gaun Shankar, and the 
monkey-god Hanuman. Near this is 
the temple of Sakshi Vinay&k, the 
witnessing deity. It was built in 1770 
by a Maratha, whose name is not- 
recorded. Here pilgrims, afterfinishing 
the Panch Kosi, or five kos or 10 m. 
circuit round Benares, must get a 
certificate of having done so, otherwise 
their labour goes for nothing. S. of the 
temple to Shani is that of Bhokaresh- 
war, ShuJcar being the planet Venus 
or its regent, and lahwwr <'god." 
Here prayers are made for han£ome 
sons. Between the Temple of Anna- 
puma, and that of Sakshi v inayak is a 
strange figure of Gaaeeh, squatting on 
a planorm raised a little above the path. 
This ugly object is red, with alver 
hands, feet, ears, and elephant's 

After viewing too closely the vul^ 
aspect of Hindu worship, and suffering 
from the smells, jostlings, and noises 
of the Golden Temple, it will be a re- 
lief to visit the Canniohael Library, 
which was built by public subscrip- 

About 1 m. N. from this is the 
Town Hall, a modem building of red 

Banmagar and Samath. 

Before visiting Banmagar, the resi- 
4ence of the Maharaja of Benares, 
which is on the right bank of the 

Gkmges, it will be well to ask permis« 
sion to visit the palace. Having ob- 
tained this, the traveller will drive post 
the Durga Eund Temple to what is 
called the Banmagar Ghat on the W. 
bank of the Ganges, opposite to a Ghit 
of the same name on the £. bank, 
which is overlooked by the palaoe. 
There is a fine view from the rooms 
which look on the river. 

At 1 m. to the N.E. of the pslace is a 
beautiful tank, with flights of stone 
steps to the water's edge, and a stone 
casm^ all round. To the N. of the 
tank is a tem^e called Sumer Mandir. 

Samath.— The site of old Benares, 
where Buddha taught To reach it 
cross the Bama Bridge and pass Warren 
Hastings's sun-dial on £., proceed slong 
the Ghazipur Eoad to the third mile- 
stone, and then turn off to the left. 
ShorUy after turning, two towers, one 
of which stands on a hill, come in view. 
In Fergusson's Hist, of Arch, is a view 
of this tower, or Tope, and also an 
excellent account of it ; with a repre- 
sentation of the panelling. " The best 
known as well as the best preserved of 
the Bengal topes, is that at Samath, near 
Benares. It was carefully explored by 
General Cunningham in 1835-36, and 
found to be a stupa— viz. containing 
no relics, but erected to mark some 
spot sanctified by the presence of Bud- 
dna, or bv some act of his during his 
long residence there. It is situated in 
the Deer Park, where he took up his 
residence, with his five disciples, when 
he first removed from Gaya on attaining 
Buddhahood, and commencing his mis- 
sion as a teacher. What act it com- 
memorates we shall probably never 
know, as there are several mounds in 
the neighbourhood, and the descriptions 
of the Chinese pilgrims are not suffi- 
ciently precise to enable us now to dis- 
criminate between them."^ 

The building consists of a stone base- 
ment 93 ft in diameter, and solidly 
built, the stones being clamped together 
with iron to the height of 43 ft Above 
that it is in brickwork, rising to a 
height of 110 ft above the surrotmd- 
ing rains, and 128 ft above the plain. 
Externally the lower part is relieved 
1 FergoBsoa's IndUm ArtMieOur^ 

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] y d^t proiectmg fietces, each 21 ft 6 
JL Wide, and 15 ft. apart In each is 
I small niche, intended apparently to 
•ntain a seated figure of Buddha, and 
Mow them, encircling the monument, 
iia Imd of sculptured ornament of the 
■ost exquisite beauty. The central 
part consists of geometric ^ttems of 
peai intricacy, but combined with 
ingolar skill ; and aboye and below 
Ibluge equally^ well designed, and so 
nu^ resembling that carved by Hindu 
irtiits on the earliest Mohammedan 
moaqoes at Ajmere and Delhi, as to 
nab us fisel sure that they cannot be 
feiT distant in date. 

^In his excavations, Creneral Gun- 
niii^am found, buried in the solid 
mamry, at the depth of lOJ ft. from 
thi summit, a large stone, on which 
m engraved the usual Buddhist for- 
aala: 'Ye dharmma hetu, ' etc., in char- 
ictere belonging to the 7th century." 
Dr. Fergusson writes that he is " inclined 
to adopt the tradition preserved by 
Captain Wilford, to the enect that the 
Sarnath monument was erected bv the 
Kms of Mohi Pala, and destroyed (in- 
terrupted) by the Mohammedans in 
1017 A.D., before its completion. The 
ibrm of the monument, the character 
«f its sculptured ornaments, the un- 
finished condition in which it is left, 
md indeed the whole circumstances of 
tke case," he continues, ''render this 
ktd so much the most probable, that I 
M inclined to adopt it almost without 

Sarnath was visited by the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrims, Fa-Hian in 399 A.D., 
ltd Hioaen Thsang in 629-645 A.D. 
Die former says : ** At 10 li (2 m.) to 
4e N.W- of Benares is the temple, 
itoated in the Deer Park of the Im- 
bortal. " Hioaen Thsang states that to 
4e N.E. of Benares was a stupa, built 
3^ Asoka, 100 ft. high, and opposite to 
It a stone column "of blue colour, 
kight as a mirror." He says the 
ionastery of the Deer Park was divided 
tto eight parts, and was surrounded 
^ a wall, within which were balus- 
tades, two-storied palaces, and a Vi- 
kn, 200 ft. high, surmounted by an 
ia-molo or mango in embossed gold. 
There were 100 rows of niches round 

the stupa of bric^ each holding a 
statue of Buddha in embossed gold. 
To the S. W. of the vihara was a stone 
stupa raised by Asoka, having in front 
a column 70 ft high, on the spot where 
Buddha delivered his first discourse. 
W. of the monasteiT was a tank in 
which Buddha bathed, to the W. of that 
another where he washed his monk's 
water-pot, and to the N. a third where 
he wasned his garments. Close to the 
tanks was a stupa, then another, and 
then in the midst of a forest a third. 
To the S, W. of the monastery at J a m. 
was a stupa, 800 ft high, resplendent 
with lewels and surmounted by an 
arrow. The Dhamek Stupa, the one 
now existing, stands on rising ground, 
and has to the W. a Jain temple sur- 
rounded by an enclosure. About 40 
ft from the K end there is a torso of 
Buddha, with the Brahmanical Thread. 
There are also a few carved stones. To 
the W. are acres of mounds and exca- 
vations, showing that there were exten- 
sive buildings m that direction. At 
370 ft. to the W. by S. of the Dhamek 
Stupa, is a round well 50 ft in diameter, 
which the guide calls the Bani's bath. 
It is 15 ft. deep, and a torso of Buddha 
lies in it 

A little to the N. of the well is Jagat 
Sing's Stupa, so called by Cunning- 
ham, because Babu Jagat Sing, Diwan 
of Chait Sing, excavated it to get 
bricks to build Jagatganj. The other 
tower stands on a very steep mound 
about 100 ft. high. The building is 
octagonal, and has an Arabic inscrip- 
tion on the N. side, and a well down 
the centre. 

The objects of interest in the Canton- 
ment are the Mint, where the Europeans 
and other Christians assembled when 
the Mutiny broke out in 1867, the 
yellow bungaloWf where Warren Hast- 
ings lived, and the sun-dial he erected. 
There is a large jail, and the necessary 
offices of a large civil station.] 

983 m. Buxar sta. (R.), D.B., Hotel. 

1082 m. Arrah sta., D.K The special 
interest that attaches to this spot is ic 
connection with an incident of the 
Mutiny. After some preliminarr 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




troubles, the Sepoys at JXnapur 
mutmied on the 24th July. They then 
marched to Arrah, where they released 
the prisoners in the jail, plundered the 
treasury, and, but for the gallant re- 
sistance offered, would have destroyed 
all the Christians in the place. A 
serious misfortune added enormously 
to the difficulties of the situation. A 
relieving party of about 230 Europeans 
from Dinapur fell into an ambuscade 
and were nearly annihilated. In the 
meantime the little party of English 
at Arrah were holding out against tre- 
mendous odds. They were surrounded 
by 2000 Sepoys, and a multitude of 
armed insurgents, perhaps four times 
that number. There were about 12 
Englishmen and 50 Sikhs. 

On the 27th of July the Dinapur 
mutinous Sepoys attacked the little 
garrison under Vicars Boyle, the Civil 
Engineer, and Hereward Wake, but 
were met with such a heavy fire that 
they broke into groups and sheltered 
themselves by trees. The enemy had 
recourse to various devices for driving 
the English out, but in vain. A week 
thus passed, but when the second 
Sunday came round Major Vincent 
Eyre, who had fought his way through 
the enemy's lines, arrived with 4 guns, 
60 English gunners, and about 260 in- 
fantry, and after a very critical engage- 
ment against overwhelming numoers, 
charged home, and the enemy broke 
and led in confusion. 

The house they defended stands in 
the Judge's Compound. It is nearly a 
sq., and has two stories, with a veran- 
dah on three sides, supported by arches 
which the besieged filled up with, 
sand -bags. The lower story is a 
little over 10 ft. high, and was held by 
50 Sikh soldiers. The garrison dug a 
well in the house, and that was all the 
water they had. 

At about i m. from the Judge's 
house is St. Saviaur^a Cfmreh, a venr 
small but neat building. In this churcn 
and in a railed enclosure near the Col- 
lector's Court-house are some interest- 
ing monuments and tombs of those 
who fell in this gallant defence and 

Arrah is on a branch of the San 

Ganalf the great irrigation -work of 
South Behar. The Granges is crossed at 

1062 m. Bankiirarjunc. sta.,:Oc (R-), 
D.B., the Civil Station of the district, 
forms the western extremity of the city 
of Patna (sta. 6 m. farther £.) (170,000 
inhab.}, which covers 10 sq. m., aid 
with its suburbs extends 9 m. along 
the S. bank of the Gkinges, but cob- 
tains nothing of much interest to ^e 
traveller, except a building called l^e 
Gtolah, which was built for a granary 
in 1783, but has never been used for 
that purpose. It is 426 ft. round at 
the base, built of masonry, with walk 
12 ft. 2 in. in thickness, the interior 
diameter being 109 ft. It is about 90 
ft high, and might contain 137,000 
tons. Inside there is a most wonderful 
echo, the best place to hear which is in 
the middle of the building. As a 
whispering galler^r there is perhaps 
no such building in the world. The 
faintest whisper at one end is heard 
most distinctly at the other. As a 
curiosity, if for no other reason, the 
building should be ke^t up. The 
ascent to the top is outside, by steps. 
At the top is a platform 10 ft. 9 m. 
round, which has a stone placed in the 
centre. This stone can be lifted and 
access obtained to the interior. It is 
said that Jung Bahadur of Nipal rode 
a pony up the steps outside to the top 

Patna is a great centre for the Indigo 
TnUle. The Basaan are very exten- 
sive and well worth a visit. The 
Government Opiam Faetory is the 
largest in India. 

Bankipur is the junction for the 
Tirhoot State Ely., N. ; the Bengal and 
N. W. Rly., leading to Oudh ; and the 
Patna Gaya Rly. S. 

[Expedition to Gkiya. 

67 m. from Bankipur. 
This joumev will not repay the ordin- 
ary traveller, but to the archffiologist or 
the student of Buddhism it will be 
full of interest. The district of Gaya 
contains many places of great aancti^. 
The rocky hills which here run oat far 
into the plains of the Ganges Valley 
teem with associations of the religion of 
Buddhism many of which have been 

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firerted to new objects by modem 
aperstition. The Brahmans stamped 
oit the Buddhist faith, bat they nave 
utilised its local traditions to their own 
infit At the present day the chief 
pilgTims to the temple and sacred tree 
atBoddh Gaya are devout Marathas, 
vko oome to pray for the' souls of their 
ucestors in purgatory. The pilgrim, 
before leaving his home, must first walk 
five thnes round his native village, 
oiling upon the souls of his ancestors 
to accompany him on his journey. 
Arriied at Graya, he is forthwith placed 
in charge of a special Brahman guide. 

Ql|a is a city of 80,000 inhab. At 
lm.from the station is the D.B. and, 
a Bhvt way to the W. of it, the Col- 
lectt's office. 

ik>ut 100 yds. N. of the cemetery, 
3 B. £. of the station, is a Temple, 
sacred to Mahadeo, Ram, Lakshman, 
Osnesh, and Hanuman, built by Bani 
lodrajit, of Tikari, at a very consider- 
able cost. Thence to the temple of 
Biihn Pad, in Old Gaya, is 1) m. It is 
difficult to approach the temple except 
on foot, owing to the extreme narrow- 
0618 of the streets. Beyond this is the 
Mstep of VisHma, or the Bishn Pad, 
viich is 13 in. long and 6 in. broad. 
it is of silver, and is enclosed in a 
Yttel of silver inserted into the pave- 
QB&t, whichhasa diameter of 4 ft. Here 
Inrer and other offeriugs are made. 

laddh Ckiya is 7 m. S. of the city. 
It the first 5 m. the road is good, but 
Hhaded by trees. Pass the prison, 
4; after 5 m. turn L and go for 2 
11 along a country road. The Temple 
^Buddh Oaya is of very great anti- 
aoounds with 

fity (643 B.O.), and 

Wtions of the life of Buddha. 


I built in a hollow, which diminishes 
^apparent height. It is also shut in 
^mall houses. The figure of Buddha, 
*M>rdiiiff to Hiouen Thsang, was of 
Muned paste, and was destroyed cen- 
iies 9m. Other figures of plaster 
Kb saraequently made aud also de- 
J^iyed. To the 1. is the place where 
ttl founder of the present College of 
its, about 250 years ago, performed 
s, that is, sat surrounded by 
8, with the sun overhead. The 
were preserved, and a hollow 

pillar, with a diameter of 4^ ft; and 
4 ft high, rising from a sq. base was 
built over them. Nearly in line with 
it are three masonry tombs of Mahants. 

It is known that Asoka surrounded 
the temple with a stone railing. As 
much of this railing as could be found 
has been restored to the position which 
it is supposed to have occupied. The 
railing has four bars of stone, sup- 
ported by pillars at intervals of 8 ft. 
The top rau is ornamented with carv- 
ings of mermaids, or females with the 
taus of fish, inserting their arms into 
the mouths of Makarahs, that is, im 
aginary crocodiles, with large ears like 
those of elephants, and long hind legs. 
Below this top bar are three others, 
also of stone, ornamented with carv- 
ings of lotus flowers. The pillars are 
adorned with carvings of various groups, 
such as a woman and child, a man, with 
a woman who has the head of a horse, 
Centaurs, and so on. Mr. Fergusson 
pronounced this to be ' * the most ancient 
sculptured monument in India." The 
plinth of the temple is 26J ft high, 
and at the top of it is a clear space IS 
ft. broad, which allowed a passage round 
the tower, and also gave access to a 
chamber in it. At each corner of the 
platform by which the passage round 
the tower was effected was a small 
temple, and below, outside Asoka's 
rail, were many subordinate temples. 
Behind the temple, on a raised platform, 
is the sacred Bo tree (a pipul or Ficus 
religioaa) under which Buddha sat. 

Mr. J. C. Oman says : ** If it were 
possible to ascertain by any means what 
particular spot on earth is the most 
sacred in the opinion of mankind, 
there is every reason to think that the 
majority of votes would be given in 
favour of Buddh Gaya. Defaced by 
time and the hand of man, transformed 
a good deal through well-meant restore^ 
tions, the celebrated temple at Bud4h 
Gaya, even in its modem disguised 
condition, with its 19th-century stucco 
about it, and its brand new gilt finial, 
is an imposing structure, about 170 f^ 
high and 50 ft. wide at its base. All 
things considered, it has certainly lasted 
remarkably well, the material of which 
it is constructed beinff only well-burnt 

Digitized by VjOOQ B 




brick cemented with mud. Stone has 
been need <mly in the door frames and 
flooring. The buildini; is plastered 
with lime-mortar. It is bnilt in the 
form of a p3rramid of nine stories, em- 
bellished on the outer side with niches 
and mouldings. Facing the rising sun 
is the entrance doorway, and above it, 
at an elevation greater than the roof of 
the porch which once adorned the 
temple, there is a triangular opening 
to admit the morning glory to fall upon 
the image in the sanctuary." 

A Burmese inscription records its 
restoration in ld06-1309. Aeain in 
1877 permission was granted them to 
restore the temple, but Rajendralala 
Mitra, deputed by the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal to inspect their 
work, states that **the Burmese carried 
on demolitions and excavations which 
in a manner swept away most of the 
old landmarks." The remains of the 
vaulted gateway in front of the temple 
were completely demolished^ and the 
place cleared out and levelled. The 
stone pavUion over the Buddha Fad 
was dismantled, and its materials cast 
aside on a rubbish mound at a distance. 
The granite plinth beside it was re- 
moved. The drain-pipe and gargoyle 
which marked the level of the granite 
|»avement were destroyed. The founda- 
tions of the old buildings noticed by 
Hiouen Thsang were excavated for bricks 
and filled with rubbish. The revetment 
wall round the sacred tree had been 
rebuilt on a different foundation on the 
W. The plaster ornaments on the 
interior facing of the sanctuary were 
knocked off, and the facing was covered 
with plain stucco, and an area of 218 
ft to 250 ft. was levelled and sur- 
rounded by a new wall. For further 
description of the temple, refer to Raj- 
endralalaMitra's Buddh Gaya, Calcutta, 
1878; and Cunningham's Arch, Surv. 
vol. iii. ; and Sir ]^win Arnold's most 
delightful chapter in India Revisited, 
1886, " The Land of the Light of Asia." 

To the N.W. is a small but very 
Micient temple, in which is a figure of 
Buddha standing. The doorway is 
finely carved.] 

lllSm.Mokanwhjuncsta.(R.) Line 

to the N. joining the Tirhoot Stat4 
Bailway. To the K tiie loon line o* 
the East Indian Railway, whicli foUowi 
the banks of the Ganges, rejoins th< 
direct route at Ehana junc, near Burd 

262 m. Lnokeeseni junc. tta 
[Here a loop line of the E. I. Sly 
branches E. along the banks of th 
Ganges via Jamalpur, Sa.heb£^ii]i|^ 
and Tiapahar to Ehana (see below] 
where it rejoins the main line.] 

1217 m. Madhupar junc sta. (R. 
of the Giridih Line. 

[Excanioa to Parasnath 

Parasnath Mountain.— From Mac 
hupur sta. to Oiridih sta. 24 m.. b 
rail, from the latter place to the foi 
of mountain 18 m. by good roac 
Bearers at Madhuband for ti 
ascent (2| hrs.) The f^rtsman an 
the lover of mountain scenery wi 
e^joy a visit to this far-fiuned mountai 
and place of pilgrimage. The num^ 
ous temples, though most pictnresqti 
are of no great antiquity. It is 44^ 
ft. above sea-level, and is the Eastei 
metropolis of Jain worsh^). Aoc<»dii 
to tradition, Parasnath, who waa t] 
23d Tirthankar of the Jains, was boi 
at Benares, lived 300 years, and w 
buried on this mountain. 

Madhuband, 1280 ft., where t) 
bearers are procured, is at the N. si^ 
of the mountain. Here is a Jain c<^ 
vent on a tableland. In a clearance, 
the forest, **the appearance of t 
snow-white domes and bannerets of 1 
temple, through the fine trees by whJ 
it is surrounded, is very beautira 
The ascent of the mountain is uf 
pathway worn by the feet of innnntH 
able pilgrims from all parts of In< 
10,000 still visit the place annua 
The path leads through woods *« 
large clumps of bamboo over slaty m 
of gneiss, much inclined and slop 
away from the mountain. The y 
from a ridge 500 ft above the vil] 
is superb. Ascending higher, the | 
traverses a thick forest of «iZ ( VaU 
or Shxyrea, rohu8ta\ and other t 
spanned with cables of Bauhinia sti 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



it dOOO ft the vegetation becomes 
aore luxuriant, and the conical hills 
i tlw white ants disappear. At 3500 
t tlie yegetation again changes, the 
tees becoming gnarled and scattered. 
Ihe traveUer emerges from the forest 
4 tie foot of a great ridce of rocky 
jeab, stretching E. and W . for 3 or 4 
1. The saddle of the crest (4230 ft.) 
i mrked by a small temple, one of 
lai^ which occupy various promi- 
ienees of the ridge. The view is beauti- 
M. To the N. are ranges of low wooded 
lill^and the Barakah and Aji rivers. 
To the S. is a flatter country, with 
low ranges and the Damodar river. 
Tbtsituation of the principal temple 
is ^ fine, below the saddle in a hollow 
^ the S., surrounded by groves of 

fun and Fieus indica. It contains 
but the sculptui^ed feet of Paras- 
^ and some marble cross-legged 
jpues of Baddha, with crisp hair, and 
• Brahmanical Cord. Bears are 
•nnerous round this spot A conval- 
•ent depot for European soldiers was 
•toblished in 1858, but was abandoned, 
•d the officers* quarters are now 

1262 ni. Sitaraxupur junc. sta. for 
war, 5nL 

j 1268 m. AsenBOl junc. sta. of the 
fgal and Nagpur Railway (see 

1279 m. Banigunj sta., 3^ on the E. 

edge of the very extensive coal-fields of 
Bengal, which stretch out 384 m. to the 
W., and extend under the bed of the 
Damodar. The place was formerly the 
property of the Kaja of Burdwan, hence 
the name. More than 30 species of 
fossil plants, chiefly ferns, have been 
found m the coal, of similar species to 
those in the Yorkshire and Australian 
coal. The mines aflbrd regular employ- 
ment to a large number of men and 
women, chiefly of the Beauri tribe. A 
vast number of boatmen on the Damo- 
dar river are employed in carrying coal 
to Calcutta. The coal is piled on the 
banks of the river, and can be carried 
down only while the Damodar is in 
flood. The mines are said to have been 
accidentally discovered in 1820 by Mr 
Jones, the architect of Bishop's College 
at Calcutta. The hills of Chatna. 
Bihari Nath, and Pachete look well 
from Ranigunj. 

1325 m. Khana junc. sta. for the 
loop line (see p. 264). 

1334 m. Burdwan sta. (R.) 

1376 m. Hooghly junc. sta. for the 
Eastern Bengal Railway by the fine 
Bridge over the Hooghly (fftigli) river. 

1379 m. Chandemagore and Seram- 
pore stations (see Excursion from 

Calcutta, p. 64). 

1400 m. Calcntta, 
minus (see next page). 

Howrah ter- 

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Arsenal 58 

Asiatic Society 67 

Belvedere (Lt -Governor's Palace) . . 60 

Bishop's College 59 

Brahma Som^j 60 

Calcutta University Senate House . 66 

St. Paul's 58 

Roman Catholic 60 

Armenian 60 

Greek 60 

Old Mission 59 

St. Andrew's or Scotch Kirk . . 60 

St. John's (Old Cathedral) ... 59 

St Thomas's Roman Caraolic . 60 
Clubs (see Index and Directory). 

Custom House 54 

Dalhousie Institate 67 

Engineering (Civil) College ... 62 
Esplanade, or Maidan .... 64 
William 67 

Old Port 68 

Garden Beach 60 

Gardens — 

Botanical • • • • 

Eden . . • • 

Government House . 
HighCourt .... 


Hotels (see Index and Directory), i 
Leg^islative Council Office . ' 
Maidan or Esplanade 
Metcalfe Half . . . . | 
Military Prison . . . i 

Mint f 

Missions J 

Mosque of Prince Ghulam Muhaia 
Museums— Economical . . i 

Indian J 

Palaces— King of Ondh's . . J 

Lt -Governor's (Belvedere) , 
Post Office .... 
Public Buildings . 
Bace-course ... 

Statues ..... 
Telegraph Office 
Town Hall ... 

2*he Approach from the Sea, Hooghly 
Mver, cmd Landing-place at Calcutta. 
—At Pilot's Ridge during the S.W. 
monsoon, that is from the 15th of 
March till the 16th of September, there 
is a floating Light -vessel, which is a 

?[iide to vessels making the Hooghly 
ilot Station. At this point the 
traveller enters its waters. The Cal- 
cutta Pilots are better paid, better 
educated, and occupy a higher position 
than others of their profession. The 
Hooghly is a most dangerous and diffi- 
cult river to navigate. There is in the 
first place the dread of cyclones, which 
may take place in any month except 
February, when they are unknown. 
The worst months are May and Octo- 
ber. In some of these cyclones a storm 
wave has covered the adjacent shores, 
and many thousands of persons have 
perished. The cyclone of 1874 covered 
Sau^ Island with Water. But in 
addition to the possible danger of 
storms, there is the normal one of 
shoals and tides. New shoals are con- 
tinually forming, and nothing but a 

daily experience of the rive^ 
a pilot to tf^e a vessel 
There is, for instance, the m 
ous shoal called the "James 
The real origin of the name 
the wreck of a vessel called 
James and Mary on that hi 
It appears first under this 
chart dated 1711. Upon 
many other wrecks have t 
The Hooghly cannot be i 
night, nor until the tide i 
be ascended. It is usual, i 
anchor near Saugar Islan 
casion serves. 

Saugar Island^Agath^ 
100,000 to 200,000 pilgril 
parts of India, but princ 
the Bengal districts, takes ] 
early part of January, the 
great Bathing Festival of B< 
bdthing ceremony as a ru 
three davs, though the fair 
couple or days longer. Th( 
fair is a sandbank on the h» 
the island, facing the surf, jiut 

d by Google 


. the locaUty by the n7^ 
(from C«lctttt». 

jetnes. jror umamff irom vm sanHn 

one of the Ghats the fee is 2 annas 
each person, and 4 annas for luggag< 




.M.^ MtU UVUl- 

xa.u iH a sanabank on the S. siia] 
^ Botbmg but a I the island, facing the snrf, jnst tc 



T. of the junction of Pagoda Creek 
with the bay. An offering is made to 
&e sea of cocoa-nuts, fruits, or flowers, 
md especially of five gems — a pearl, 
diamond, an emerald, a topaz, and a 
mece of coral worth a rupee or two. 
lormerly children used to be cast into 
the aea.. After bathing, the pilgrims 
JO to the spot where the Pholu emblem 
of Eipila Muni is set up. 

Sport is abundant Deer, wild boar, 
and a great varietv of sea-birds are 
found throughout the year. 

Tkers are to be met with in the 
jun^. The best way to get about is 
m a boat, sportsmen landing when 
thejso desire for shooting, and return- 
ing it night In this way good sport 
ma^be had ; but without previous ex- 
penence too much must not be expected. 

He lighthouse, of iron, 76 ft high, 
was commenced in 1808. It is at 
JGddleton Point, at the 3.W. end of 
fte island, 570 yds. from low -water 

I The mouth of the Hooghly is about 
|90 m. from Calcutta. 

At 40 m.t is the town of Kalpi, D.B., 
n the rt ^oing up stream. 
^ It contains a large market-place for 
sale of rice grown in the interior, 

I there is a ro^ from it to Calcutta. 

At 30 m.,t as the crow flies, is Dia- 
lond Harbour, marked by a large 
imber of trees, where the E. I. Com- 
Biy's ships used to anchor. There is 
Custom House here, and the officers 
ird ships proceeding U]^ the river. 
\j, to Calcutta, 3 or 4 trains daily, in 
to 4 hrs. At 28 m.t is the Rupnarayan 
iw, which flows into the Hooghly 

^ in.+ Tamluk is passed 1. (^p. 
HO). A very famous city in ancient 
les, and a maritime port of the 
ddhists, where the Chinese pilgrim 
iHian embarked for Ceylon in the 
(inning of the 5th cent a.d. Hiouen 
lang 250 years later speaks of it as 
important Buddhist harbour. It 
low a long way from the ocean, but 
thed by the tide. There is a Temple 
known in the locality by the name 
t From C«lcatt«. 

of Dargah Bhama or Bhenna. It was 
ori^aJly a Buddhist temple. The 
shnne is surrounded by a cunous triple 
walL The foundation of the place con- 
sists of large logs covered with bricks 
and stones to a height of 80 ft covering 
the whole area. 

The Ikimodar river enters the 
Hooghly District from Bordwan, and 
flows past the villages of Ampta £. and 
Baghnan W. to Mahishrakha Ghat, 
where it is crossed by the Ulubaria 
Midnapur Canal, and flows into the 
Hooghly opposite Fulta. It is navi- 
gable as far as Ampta, which is 25 m. 
from its mouth, by boats of from 10 to 
20 tons. By this river, large quantities 
of coal are brought from the Raniguig 

Fulta is a large villa^ just opposite 
the mouth of the Damodar. It is the site 
of a Dutch factory, and is the place to 
which the English ships sailed on the 
capture of Calcutta by Sirajudaulah. 

At 15 m. S.t Ulubaria, a small town 
on the L of tiie Hooghly, is passed. 
Here the main road from Calcutta to 
the temple of Jagannath at Pun crosses 
the Hooghly, and here begins the Mid- 
napur High-Level Canal. A few m. If. 
of this on the rt are the extensive Akra 
brick-fields belonging to Government. 

At 7 m.t the first view of the city 
is obtained, and then Garden Beach 
is passed rt ; the Botanical Gkirdens 
and Bishop's (now Civil Engineering) 
College on the 1. The river is now 
crowded with ships at anchor, many 
rows deep, all the way up to the 
Landiuff-place, Tfie view is very strik- 
ing, and the forest of masts, the plain 
of the Esplanade, the Fort and the 
fine buildings in the background, all 
give the idea of a great commercial 

Arrival at CALOUTTA. a^^ 

Every vessel that arrives at Calcutta 
must be berthed by the Harbour-master 
either in the new Docks or at the 
jetties. For landing from the stream at 
one of the Ghats the fee is 2 annas for 
each person, and 4 annas for luggage. 

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Frinsep's Ohai, nowsome distance in- 
land since the reclamation of the fore- 
shore bythe excavation of the new docks, 
is marked by a pavilion of stone, sup- 
ported by pillars, and inscribed " James 
Prinsep." The passenger must take with 
him a pass from the Custom • House 
officer, without which he may not put his 
luggage into a carriage. From the jetty 
to tihe street is about 100 yds., through 
the enclosure of the Custom House. 

The Population of the city and 
suburbs was 840,000 in 1891. 

The Esplanade, or Haidan (plain), is 
a magnificent open space of about 1^ m. 

Ochterlony Monvmeni. — Not far from 
Government House, in the centre of 
the Esplanade, is a colvmm, 165 ft. hi^h 
to Sir David Ochterlony, Resident in 
Malwa and Rajputana in 1823. It has 
two galleries at top, from which a fine 
view over Calcutta is obtained. W. of 
it are several statues. 

Stattces, — First comes the bronze 
equestrian statue of Lord ffardinge. He 
is bareheaded, with his sheathed sword 
by his side. It is a good likeness, and 
well executed. W. of this statue is 
that of Lord Latorence, standing bare- 
headed. To the E. of Lord Hardinge's 
statue is an equestrian bronze statue of 
£Iarl of Mayo, On the Chowringhee 
Road side is the equestrian statue of 
Sir James OiUram, by Foley, R.A. He 
is represented bareheaded, with a drawn 
sword in his right hand. His horse is 
violently reined in. Beneath is an in- 
scription. There are statues of Lord 
Dvfferin and Lord Roberta on either 
side of "the red road" now used for 
the evening drive. 

At the N.W. comer of the Esplanade, 
lining the Strand, are the Eden 
Gardens, for which Calcutta is indebted 
to the Misses Eden, Lord Auckland's 
sisters ; here a band plays every even- 
ing. On the S. side is a fine marble 
statue to Captain Sir William Peel, 
of H.M.S. Shannon^ Commander of the 
Kaval Brigade in the Indian Mutiny. 

On the N. side of the Gardens is the 
statue of Lord Auckland, 

Standing picturesquely by the water- 
^de is a Burmese Pagoda, brought from 
Prome and set up in 1856. Close to 

the Gardens is the Ground of the Cal- 
cutta Cricket Club. There is a good 
drive along the river side from the 
Gardens past Fort- William to Behe- 
dere, the Lieut. -Governor's resideaee, 
and another E. from the Gardens to 
Government House. * There is also a 
drive on the S. side of the Esplanide 
to the Cathedral and Chowringhee. 

A little to the N. is Babu Ghit, 
named from Raj Chandra Das, irho 
constructed it There is a bandsoae 
colonnade with Doric pillars. 

Government House stands in a 
garden of 6 acres. Begun 1799 by cot- 
mand of Lord Wellesley (arch. Captain 
Wyatt). The design is copied from 
that of Eedlestone Hall, Derbyshire, 
built by Adam, and consists of a centnl 
building with four wings connected 
with the centre by gaUeries. The 
building stands N. and S., and the 
grand entrance faces the N. To the 
rt. on entering, beneath the porch, is 
a finely-executed white marble statue 
of the Marquis Wellesley. Close by are 
portraits of Lords Canning, 1856-62, 
Hasting, 1813-23, and Mayo, 1869-72. 

The Dining-room is of white chunam 
with a floor of veined .white marble. 
On either side are six well -executed 
marble busts of the Caesars, taken from a 
French ship during the war. The 
Throne-room is so-called from its con- 
taining the throne of Tipu. The pic- 
tures are, the Queen seated, by Sir George 
Hayter, a most indifferent picture ; 
Queen Charlotte, standing ; next G^rge 
III., — both supposed to be by Hudson, 
the master ofSir Joshua Reynolds. Next 
is General the Hon. Arthur Wellesley, 
1803, by Home, R.A., one of the best 
in the collection, and extremely inter- 
esting. On the way to the breakfast- 
room, pass E. through a curved passage 
to the Council-room, In this passage 
are three full-length portraits — Lord 
Teignmouth, 1793-98, The Earl of 
EUenborough, 1842-44, and Lord 
Metcalfe, 1835-39, the well-known 
likeness by Hayes. 

At the end of the passage is the 
Council -room. The pictures are as 
follows : The Earl of Minto, 1807-18 
Sir Eyre Coote (over the centre door) 
Marquis ComwalliB, 1786-98-1806 

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lord Hardinge, 1844-48, a {-length 

eiit, in blue undress, wearing a 
; Warren Hastings, 1772-85, 
with ft motto, ''Mens equa in arduis," 
It the top, — a fine mcture. Over the 
2d door rt is The Earl oi Elgin and 
Kincftrdine, 1862-63, a {-length. Over 
&e window. The Earl of Auckland, 
183642, a ^-length. Mr. John Adam, 
1823, a fine nicture by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence. Marquis Wellesley, 1798- 
1805, in peer's robes. Over a window 
Lord Clive, {-length, wearing Riband 
of the Bath, by I^athaniel Dance. 

There are also pictures of Louis XY. 
and Ms Queen, perhaps by De la Roche ; 
of 'Udy William Bentinck, by Beechy ; 
of the Nawab S'aadat 'Ali Khan, by 
Chinnery ; the Shah of Persia, 1798 ; 
Jaswant Sing, Maharajah of Bhurtpur, 
by Anger ; and the Amir of Kabul, by 
W. M. White. 

Above the dining-room and the ad- 
jeiniBg rooms is a splendid ballroom. 
"Die £K}r is of polished teak, and the 
ceilings are beautifully panelled, after 
designs by Mr. H. M. Locke. The 
chandeliers are said to have been cap- 
tared with the busts of the Ceesars and 
the portrait of Louis XY. from the 
French. It is believed that they were 
ill taken from the same ship, and were 
apresent from the French Ejne destined 
m the Nizam of Hyderabad. In the 
S. anteroom is another picture of the 
Xtrquis Wellesley. On a table are the 
absidiaiy treaty of Hyderabad, 1798, 
die partition treaty of Mysore, 1799, 
tad subsidiary treaty of Seringapatam, 
The extensive grounds are well kept. 
40 yds. from the verandah on the 
giound-floor is a fine brass 32-pounder, 
kken at Aliwal, and inscribed in Gur- 
tokhi. On either side is a 6-pounder 
kass tiger-gun, taken from Tipu. On 
the N. side is a large brass ^n, which 
ii inscribed " Miani, 17th February," 
«d also ''Hyderabad, 30th of March 
1843." On the K. side is another, with 
tearriage representing a dragon. There 
iialso a small brass gun to the N.W., 
«riou8 on account of its extreme a^e. 
The Town HalL — ^This fine building 
stands W. of Government House. It was 
Wi% by tl^e inhabitaxits of Calcutta in 

1804, and cost £70,000. The style is 
Doric, with a fine flight of steps lead- 
ing to a portico on the S. The car- 
riage entrance is to the N. under a 
portico. The centre of the building 
IS occupied by a saloon 162 ft. long, 
and 65 ft. broad. In the S. front is a 
central room 82 ft. long, by 30 ft broad, 
and two smaller rooma In the S. vesti- 
bule is a marble statue of Warren 
Hastings, by R. Westmacott, R.A. 
He stands between a Mohammedan and 
a Hindu. At the W. end of the lower 
saloon is a marble statue by J. Bacon, 
junr., of the Marquis of Comwallis. 
This statue was erected by the British 
inhabitants of Bengal, 1803 A.p. In 
the vestibules are busts of C. B. Green- 
law, Esq., and John Palmer, Esq., and 
portraits of Lord Lake, Lord Gough, 
Sir 0. Metcalfe, Sir H. Durand, Dwar- 
kanath Thakur, Bishop Wilson, Mr. 
Cameron, Mr. Wilberforce Bird, Sir 
Henry Korman, and other distinguished 
men. There are also full-length por- 
traits of the Queen and Prince Albert, 
presented by Her Majesty to the city 
of Calcutta. 

Opposite the Hall, about 60 yds. off, 
is a oronze statue of Lord William 
Bentinck, with an inscription by Lord 
Macaulay, and close by is a statute of 
Sir Stuart Bayley, a former Lieutenant 

The Legislative Council Office is 
close by to the N.W. The S. front is 
adorned with Corinthian columns. 

The High Court is after the model 
of the town hall at Ypres. The Chief 
Justice's Court is in the S.W. comer. 
The Court of First Instance is at the 
S.E. comer. In the E. face is the 
Barristers' Library. The Attorneys' 
Library is in the E. corner ; and here 
is a portrait of Justice Norman. In 
the Court of First Instance, which is 
also used as a Criminal Court when 
required, are portraits of Sir Wm. Bur- 
roughs, by Lawrence, 1818 ; Sir Fred. 
Workman M'Naghten, by Chinneiy, 
1824 ; and Sir Elijah Impey, Knt, by 
Kettle, 1778. The next room contains 
a picture of Shambu Nath Pandit, the 
first Indian Judge, a native of Cashmere. 
In the Chief Justice's Court are 3 pic- 
, tures— Sir E. Im|)ey, by Zoffany, 1782^ 

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in red robes, standing ; Sir H. Bossell, 
by Ohinnerv, 1872, robed in red ; and 
Sir John Anstmther, 1805. In the 
centre of the £. side is a statue of Sir 
Edward Hyde East, 1821. In the 
Judges' Library are six pictures — 
Justice Trevor, H. B. Harington, and 
Sir John Colvin, who died at Agra. 
Opposite are Sir Ed. Ryan, Sir Robert 
Chambers, and Sir Lawrence Peel. 
There is a earden in the centre quad- 
rangle, and a fountain. 

The Secretariat. — This noble build- 
ing stands on the N. side of Dalhousie 
Square, and occupies the site of the 
Old Writers* Buildiugs, where so many 
illustrious Indian statesmen com- 
menced their public career. 

Calcntta University Senate House. 
— On the N.W. of College Square are 
Presidency College, Hare School, and 
the Calcutta University. The Uni- 
versity Senate House is a grand hall 
120 ft. X 60 ft., in which the Convoca- 
tions for conferring degrees take place. 
It has a portico, supported by 6 lofty 
pillars. Close by is the Hare School, 
which is self-supportine, — ^itwas erected 
out of the surplus fees of students. 
The Hindu College was founded in 
1824, and opened in 1827. The total 
cost was 170,000 rs. In the year 1855 
it was merged in the Presidency College. 
The foundation stone of the new build- 
ing of this College was laid in 1872 by 
Sir Qeorge Campbell 

The Indian MiiBeiini,^ 27 Chow- 
ringhee Road, is an immense building, 
and contains a very fine collection of 
Fossils and Minerals, a Geological 
Gallery with rich specimens, and a 
Library ; but the most important 
feature is the Gallery of Antiquities, 
well worth inspection, particularly tiie 
Buddhist remains brought from the 
tope at Bharhut (see Fergusson's Hist 
of Arch.) ; also those from Muttra and 
Gandhara (Pai^jab), etc Some display 
exquisite feeling, and are executed with 
a vigour and grace worthy of the 
Greeks. The composition of the figures 
and the representations of the drapery 
MO very remarkable. 

1 Tbera ti «n ezo^ent catalogue. 

Amongst other fine objects from 
Muttra notice MS, a figure of Buddha, 
6 ft. high, with a halo behind the head, 
carved with floral devices. In the 
Gandhara Collection notice amongst 
many others G81atog,7 seated winmd 
male human figures; G9S, a portion 
of a frieze representing 6 naked boys, 
quite classicin design ; GIOS, adomestio 
scene, suggesting the Stable at Betii- 

The archseologist wiU find here 
selected pieces from the most famous 
ancient buildings in India. There are 
interesting fragments of Buddhist art 
from the caves of Orissa, from Sandu, 
and Buddh Gaya, from Muttra, and 
Samath, near Benares, and great num- 
bers of other sculptures. 

Amongst the Siwalik Fossil Remains, 
observe the Hysenarctosor Hyena-Bear ; 
the Amphicyon, a dog-like animal as 
largeas the Polar bear ; the Machairodos 
or Sabre- tooth tiger, whose canine teeth 
were 7 in. long; also the Siwalik 
cat, which was at least as large as a 
tiger, — it is distinguished by a ridge 
running along the upper ijart of the 
skull. Amongst the American Eden- 
tata remark the Megalonvz, long-nailed 
animal, and the Glyptodon, a cigantic 
armadillo, whose armour was afi of one 
piece, so tiiat it could not roll itself up. 
There is the skeleton of a Megatherium 
brought from America, and one of an 
elephant 11 ft high ; also of Hodson*s 
antelope, whose two horns seen in a line 
were tnought to belong to a miicom. 
Amongst Siwalik birds there are the 
shank-bone and the breast-bone of a 
wading-bird as big as an ostrich. This 
bird has been called the Megaloscelomis, 
and these bones are the only ones 
belonging to this species existing in 
the world. In the Upper Palseonto- 
logical Gallery there are many bones 
of the Dinornis. Amongst the reptiles, 
remark a Ma^r or crocodile, from 
Matlah, 18 ft lone, and a snake of the 
Ihrthon species, also of that length. 
There are the jaws of the Balnnoptera 
indica, which must have belonged to a 
fish between 80 ft and 90 & long. 
Observe also the remains of the Groco- 
dilus crassidens, an extinct species of 
enormous dimensions. There is also 

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iipedmen of tbe Siwalik Oolossochelys, 
» gigantic tortoise of prodigious size. 
It will be noticed that whereas all the 
8|iecie8 and many of the cenera of the 
Siwalik Mammals and Birds are entirely 
different from those inhabiting the 
earth, all the genera of the Reptiles 
have living representatives in India. 
The Collection of the Fossil Vertebrata 
of the Siwaliks is the most complete 
and comprehensive in the world. 

As to Minerals, it may be said that 
most of the diamonds exhibited are 
Indian, from Bnndelkund, S. India, 
and Sambalpnr. There are also models 
of tbe most celebrated diamonds, such 
as the Regent, the most perfect brilliant 
ia existence, the Koh-i-Nur, the Great 
Niiam, etc, all of which were obtained 
in India. Amount the Meteorites, 
remark the model, ITo. 16, of one which 
fell on the 23d of January 1870, at 
Nedagolla, 6 m. S. of Parbatipur, in 
the Madras Presidency. The original 
weighed over 10 lbs. There is a 
portion of the ori^nal weighing 7 oz. 
260*8 CT., numbered 90, in the collection. 
It is the only Indian meteoric iron here. 

The Economical MuBemn. — Those 
who desire to study the products of 
the country and see the finest samples 
of native manufactures, should visit 
this section of the Museum. It occu- 
pies a quadrangular building on the 
Chowringhee Road facing the Maidaji. 
It was here that the C^cutta Inter- 
lational Exhibition of 1883-84 was 

The Hint is at the W. end of Nim- 
tolla Street; built 1824-30 (archit. 
Major W. N. Forbes). The style is 
Doric, the central portico being a copy 
in half size of the Temple of Minerva 
it Athens. The area of the building 
lad grounds is 18} acres. 

The Dalhoosie Institnte stands on 
^ S. side of Dalhousie Square, and 
was built ''to contain within its walls 
statues and busts of great men." The 
fomdation-stone was laid in 1866, but 
the entrance portico preceded it, having 
been built m 1824. It contains a 
statue of the Marquis of Hastings, by 
Chan trey. 

The hall is lined with marble, and 
measures 90 x 45 ft. It contains statues 
of the ^eat Marquis of Dalhousie, and 
of the At Hon. James Wilson, and a 
bust of Edward £. Yenables, indigo 
planter, Azimgarh, all three by SteeU, 
tLS.A. Also busts of Brig. -General 
Neil, C.B., and of Sir Henry Havelock, 
by Noble ; and of Sir James Outram 
and General John Nicholson, who led 
the attack upon Delhi, by Foley. 

The Bengal Asiatic Society is at 57 
Park Street. This institution wa* 
established in 1784 by Sir William 
Jones and led to the foundation of 
the Royal Asiatic Society in London. 
Visitors can be elected members. The 
Asiatic Researches began to be issued 
in 1788, and continued to be published 
until 1839. The Journal began in 
1832, and firom that time to 1839 both 
publications were issued. The curi- 
osities have all been sent to the Indian 
Museum, where the Society was to have 
had rooms. This having been denied 
to them. Government made a grant to 
the Society of IJ lakhs in compensation. 
The library consists of 15,000 volumes, 
and there is a large collection of coins, 
copper-plates, pictures, and busts. 

The Post Office (opened 1870) is a 
fine building. It stands on the site 
of the S. face of the Old Fort, and looks 
E. on Dalhousie Square, formerly Tank 
Square, and S. on Koilah Ghat Street. 
It cost 630,510 rs. , and occupies an area 
of 103,100 sq. ft. At the S.E. corner 
is a lofty dome. According to the 
Government plan, the site of the Black 
Hole is marked by the third and fourth 
pillars in the side fronting the Square, 
counting from N. to S. 

The Telegraph Office is also a fine 
building. It stands at the S. comer 
of Dalhousie Square. 

Fort -William, S. of the Maidan, 
received its name from William III. 
Its site was changed in 1757, after 
the battle of Plassey, from that which 
is now occupied by the Post Office, to 
the river-bank, where Clive commenced 
a new and much more formidable 
fortress, which was finished in 1773, 
and cost £2, 000, 000. It is an irregular 

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octagon, of which fire sides look land- 
ward and three on the river. It is 
surrounded by a fosse 30 ft. deep and 
50 ft. broad, which can be filled from 
the river. There are now two regi- 
ments, one English and one N. L, and 
one battery of artilleiy. There are six 
gates— Chowringhee, rlassey, Calcutta, 
and WatOT Gate, as well as St George's 
and the Treasury Gate. Opposite the 
Water Qate is the Gwalior Monument, 
erected by Lord EUenborough, in 1844, 
in memory of the officers and men who 
fell in the Gwalior campaign of 1848. 
It was designed by Colonel W. H. 
Goodwjm, Beng. Eng. It is of brick, 
faced with Jeypore marble, surmounted 
by a metal cupola made from guns 
taken from the enemy. In the centre 
the names of those who fell at the 
battles of Maharajpur and Paniar are 
engraved on a sarcophagus. There is 
also a sallyport between Water and St. 
George's Gates. Entering by Chow- 
ringhee Gate, past the Governor's resid- 
ence, used as a Soldiers* Institute and 
Garrison School, is the Fort Church, 
St. Peter's, built in 1835. The Catholic 
Chapel, St. Patrick's, was built in 1857. 
The Military Prison is built on a mas- 
sive storehouse, on which is an inscrip- 
tion relating to the amount of rice and 
grain deposited there by the authorities 
in 1782. The Arsfftud is worth a visit. 
The Fort commands the river, and is 
a formidable defence to Calcutta. 

The remains of the Old Fort. —The 
first Fort- William lay between Banks- 
hall Street, now Koilah Ghat Street, 
on the S., and Fort Ghat Street, now 
Fairlie Place, on the N. Its W. side 
fronted the river. 80 ft. W. of the 
Post Office is all that remains of the 
S. curtain of the Fort, — a row of arches 
10 ft hiffh in the walL The place is 
now used as a workshop, with stables 
at the W. end. According to some 
authorities, the Black Hole was at the 
second arch where you enter. 

Metcalfe Hall, close by the S.W. 
comer of Hare Street, was founded in 
honour of Sir Charles Metcalfe by public 
subscription. The design is copied 
from the portico of the Temple of the 
Winds at Athens. The entrance is on 
the £. under a roofed-in colonnade. The 

building contains the Public library 
and the offices of the Amcultural and 
Horticultural Society. In the Library, 
which has passed through a period of 
shameful neglect, there are many lare 
and valuable works. 

St Paul's Cathedral, on the K of 
the Maidan, is about 1 m. from the Fort 
(archit, M^or W. N. Forbes). The 
style is Hindu - Gothic, or spurious 
Gothic modified to suit ^e climate of 
India. In the vestry of the Cathedral 
is a large folio MS. volume entitled 
" History of the Erection of St. Paul's 
Cathedral," which contains a plan of 
the Cathedral at p. 265. Over the 
porch is a library, left to the public by 
Bishop Wilson, and here is an ex- 
cellent bust of that Bishop. The £. 
window represents the Crucifixion, 
designed bv West. It cost £4000, and 
was given dv the Dean and Chapter of 
Windsor. It was intended to be given 
by George III. to St Gorge's Cha^l, 
Windsor. Beneath it are mosaics. 
The Communion Plate was given by 
the Queen. The building cost £50,000, 
of which the Bishop gave £20,000, half 
of which, however, went to endowment 
The W. central window is a memorial 
to Lord Mayo. 

On the 1. side of the vestibule is a 
black marble tablet to 16 officers of the 
BengEd Engineers, who fell during 
the Indiaji Kevolt in the years 1857- 
58. It is ornamented with 16 bronze 
medallions, representing a well-known 
and gallant incident in the siege of 
Delhi — ^the blowing up of the Cashmere 
Gate by Lieutenant Salkeld. Next is 
a tablet to 15 officers who fell in the 
Bhutan campaign. Next is a very 
elaborate and peculiar monument, in 
memory of John Paxton Norman, of 
the Inner Temple, officiating Chief 
Justice of Bengal, who was assassinated 
on the steps of the Town Hall when 
entering the High Court on 20th Sep- 
tember 1871. Next is a tablet to 7 
officers of the 68th Regiment N.I., 
<*who died during the Mutiny of the 
Native Troops, and subsequent opera- 
tions, from 1857 to 1859 ; some on the 
field of battle, some by the hands c^ 
their own followers, others from disease; 
all doing their duty." 

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Then follows a tablet to Mr. William 
Kitchie of tiie Calcutta Bar and Inner 
Temple, a member of the Council of 
the Governor-General. The inscription 
on the tablet is by Thackeray, who was 
I cousin of Mr. Ritchie's. On the left 
it a tablet to Sir H. M. Lawrence. 
The tablet is adorned with a medallion 
portndt in white marble. In the centre 
of the left wall of the passage from the 
vestibule to the transepts and body of the 
dturch is a monument to Lord Elgin. 

In the S.K comer of the S. transept 
is the tomb of Lady Ccmniiig, brought 
from Barrackpur. It consists of a base 
of white marble with a sarcophagus, 
on which is inlaid a cross with flowers. 

The upper part of the steeple fell 
dnnng the great earthquake of 12th 
June 1897. 

St John's Church, the Old Cathedral, 
—To the W. of Church Ijane before 
coming to the General Post Office. 
"Council House Street" is written on 
the S. E. gate pillar. The compound is 
shaded with trees. Outside the church 
to the N. of the W. entrance is a 
domed pavilion about 50 ft. high, with 
twelve pillars. It is said to have been 
erected in commemoration of those who 
fell in the Bohilla war, but strangely 
enough there is no inscription. 

The W. vestibule has on the 1. a 
Urge picture of the Last Supper, painted 
lod presented to the church by Sir John 
Zoffany, in which the Apostles are all 
portraits of certain well-known inhabit- 
aots of Calcutta. The head of Our 
Smour is said to have been taken from 
» Greek clergyman, called Parthenio, 
lad St. John from Mr. Blaquire, the 
v^-known police magistrate. In this 
ebirch and its compound are the oldest 
lid most interesting tablets to be found 
ia Calcutta. 

In the compound in the pavilion, 
it the K. end, is a tablet to William 
^milton, who, in 1717, having cured 
^ Emperor Farrukhsiyar, obtained 
for the £. I. Company the right of 
«K>rting their goods free of duty, 
SM. other great privileges. 

Close to this is a tablet to Job Char- 
nock, one of the first Governors of 
Bengal, and the founder of Calcutta. 

A few yards to the S. is the tomb of 

Admiral Watson, who with Clive re- 
took Calcutta. It has a large square 
base supporting an obelisk, inscribed 
to his memory. 

The Old Mission Church. — This 
Church is called the Pooranah Gin'ah, 
or Old Churchy by the natives. This, 
with the parsonage and the office of 
the Church Missionarv Society, is in a 
pretty compound in Mission Row. It 
18 125 ft long from E. to W., and 81 ft. 
10 in. broad, and seats 450 persons. It 
was built by the celebratea missionary 
Johann Zacharias Kiemander, who was 
bom at Azted, in Gothland, Sweden, 
in 1711, and educated at the University 
of Upsal. Being offered a post as mis- 
sionary, he left England in 1758, and 
opened a school in Calcutta. His 
second wife on her death left valuable 
jewels, with which he founded a school. 
He called his Church Beth Tephillah, 
" House of Pi-ayer.** When blind he 
was deceived into signing a bond which 
ruined him. The church was seized by 
his creditors, but redeemed by Mr. 
Charles Grant for 10,000 rs. He then 
went to Chinsurah, and died there in 
1 799. There is a windowpresented by 
Eiemander's grandson. There is a good 
engraving of him in the Mission Room, 
with an inscription in German. There 
are many interesting tablets in the 
church, particularly one to Mr. Charles 
Grant, and one to the Rev. Henry 
Martyn, also to Bishop Dealtry of 
Madras, to Bishop Wilson, and to an 
Arab lady of distinction who was con- 
verted to Christianity. 

The steeple was so seriously injured by 
the great earthquake of 12th June 1897, 
that it has been necessary to rebuild it. 

Missions of the Church of England. 
— The Oxford Mission, 42 Comwallis 
Street, works chiefly among the high- 
caste natives, and has charge of Bishop's 
College (in Circular Road), a Boys* High 
School, and Industrial School. 

S,P,G., headquarters Bishop's Col- 
lege, Lower Circular Road ; Mission 
Church, St. Saviour's, Wellesley Square, 
with a Boarding School. 

S.P,G. Ladies^ AsaociaUon have 
charge of the Milman Memorial School 
for Girls. 

Sisters of St, John (Clewer) have 

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charge of the Oovermnent Ctoneral 
Hospital, the Medical Staff Hospital, 
the Eden Hospital, and the Lady 
Caxming Home for Nwraes. Also of 
native mission-work at FeqnUputty in 
the rice-fields 3 m. distant. 

The Free Churchqf Scotland's Missum, 
begun by Alexander Duff in 1830, is 
conducted from the Duff College, 
Nimtola Street, the Mission houses 
2 Comwallis Square, and the Woman's 
Society's Schools in Beadon Street. 
The Scottish church is in Wellesley 

The Scotch Kirk, St, Andrew*8, is 
situated in Radha Bazaar. It is c^led 
by the natives Lai Oirjah, It was 
opened in 1818, and cost £20,000. 
This church sends a representative to 
the General Assembly at Edinburgh. 
It seats 500 persons. In the vestry 
there is a portrait of Dr. James Bryce, 
the first minister, by Sir John Watson 
Gordon. There are some handsome 
monuments within the church. 

The first Portuguese came to Calcutta 
in 1689, to whom the English granted 
a piece of land in Portuguese Church 
Lane on which the firiars of the order 
of St. Augustin erected a chapel 
in 1700. Its successor the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral was built in 1797. 
It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary of 
the Rosary. 

St. Thomas's Roman Catholic 
Church. — A handsome building, in 
Middleton Bow, not far from the 
Indian Museum ; commenced in 1841. 
Close by is the Convent of Our Lady 
of Loreto. 

The Ghreek Church. — Turning to the 
W. down Cannine Street, on uie way 
to Burra Bazaar, tne traveller will come 
to the Greek Church, built in 1780 by 
subscription, Mr. Warren Hastings 
heading the list with 2000 rs. 

The Armenian Church of St, Nazar- 
eth is close by. It is on the rt. of the 
road leading to Burra Bazaar. It was 
founded in 1724, and completed in 1790. 

The Brahma SomaJ is the reformed 
Theistic oect of Hindus. It has very 
little hold on the rural population, the 
few members being generally men of 
good social position. The sect was 
founded by Raja Ram Mohan Rai in 

1830. In 1858 Eeshab Chandra Sen 
joined the Somaj, being then 20 years 
of age. In 1862 he was ordained 
minister of the Calcutta Brahma'Somaj. 
In October 1865 his secession took pUce, 
and next year a new body was organised 
by Eeshab, entitled the Brahma Sonuy 
of India, and in January 1868 the first 
stone was laid of a new church for the 
progressive Brahmas or Eeshab Chan- 
dra Sen's party. Brahma marriages 
being illegat in 1872, on the application 
of Keshab, Lord Mayo passed the 
Native Marriage Act, which enacts that 
the parties must be unmarried, the 
bridegroom and bride must have com- 
pleted the age of 18 and 14 years 
respectively, must not be related within 
certain degrees, and, if under 21, except 
in the case of a widow, must have the 
written consent of parent or guardian. 

The Mosqne of Prince Ghnlam Mu- 
hammad. — This is the finest Mosque 
in Calcutta, and stands at the comer 
of DhuramtoUa Street and may be 
visited when driving up Chowringhee, 
from which it is conspicuous. It is 
inscribed, ''This Musjid was erected 
during the Government of Lord Auck- 
land, G.C.B., by the Prince Ghulam 
Muhammad, son of the late Tipu Sultan, 
in gratitude to God, and in commemora- 
tion of the Honourable Court of Dir- 
ectors granting him the arrears of hib 
stipend in 1840." 

Belvedere, the Lt-Govemor's Falace, 
— This fine building stands in ex- 
tensive and well-kept grounds. In 
the entrance hall are some trophies of | 
Indian arms, and full-length portraits 
of Sir John Grant and Sir William Grey. 
In the reception room are portraits of 
H.M. the Queen-Empress and of Sir 
Charles and Lady Elliott. The electrie 
light is worked from the neighbouring 
jaiL At the spot which is now the "V^ 
entrance of Belvedere, on the 'AJipui 
road, was fought the dnel between War- 
ren Hastings and Sir Philip Francis^ 
in which the latter was wounded. 

Bace-conrse. — In driving to Belv* 
dere, the Race-course on the Maid«| 
will be passed on the rt The ground I 
perfectly level, and the distance is 2 n 

Garden Beach. — Here used to \ 
numerous fine villas, most of whid 

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were built between 1768 and 1780, 
BOW utilised by steamship companies 
md cotton and jute mills. Just above 
Garden Reach is the village of Eidder- 
par, so called after Mr. Kyd, who con- 
stracted the Government Dockyard, 
near which the Port Trust has excavated 
magnificent new Docks. Between 1781 
and 1821 ships were built at the Eid- 
derpnr Docks, at a cost of more than 
£2,000,000, and in 1818, the Hastings, 
a 74-gun ship was launched there. At 
the W. extremity of Garden Beach, or 
in its vicinity, was situated the small 
fort of 'Aligarh, and opposite to it, on 
the other bank of the river, was the 
Fort of Tanna, both of which were 
taken by Clive in the recapture of 
Calcutta in 1756. 

A short distance to the E.of 'Alipur, 
and immediately S. E. of Calcutta, is the 
saburb of BaJigimj, within the limits of 
the S. Suburbfm Municipality, and the 
residence of many Europeans. Beyond 
is ToUygimj where the Calcutta resi- 
dents have laid out the fine grounds of 
the Athletic Club. 

Kallghat, celebrated as the site of a 
temple in honour of the goddess Eali, 
the wife of Shiva, is situated on the 
bank of the old bed of the Ganges, a 
few m. S. of Calcutta. The place 
derives sanctity from the legend that 
when the corpse of Shiva's wife was 
cat in pieces by order of the gods, 
lad chopped up by the disc {sudarsan 
Mera) of Vishnu, one of her fingers 
fell on this spot. The temple is 
■opposed to have been built about 
three centuries ago. A member of the 
Sabama Chandhu family, who at one 
time owned considerable estates in 
fids part of the country, cleared the 
^gle, built the temple, and allotted 
194 acres of land for its maintenance. 
A man of the name of Chandibar was 
&e first priest appointed to manage 
the affairs of the temple. His descend - 
aits have now taken the title of 
Haldar, and are at present the pro- 
prietors of the building. They have 
amassed great wealth, not so much 
from the proceeds of the^ Temple lands 
as from the daily offerings made by 
pH^rlms to the shrine. The principal 
religious festival of the year is on the 

second day of the Durca-puja, when 
the temple is visited by crowds of 
pilgrims, principally belonging to the 
district of ^e 24 Parganas and the 
surrounding villages. 

Crossing Eidderpur bridge, the visitor 
passes the garden gate of what was once 
the residence of the late King of Oudh. 

Excursions in the vicinity of 

The Royal Botanical Gardens, on 

the W. bank of the river, opposite 
'Alipur, were founded in 1786, on the 
suggestion of General Eyd, who was 
appointed the first Superintendent. 
His successors, Roxburgh, Wallich, 
Griffith, Falconer, Thomson, Anderson, 
and Eing, have all been celebrated 
botanists. The visitor may drive to 
the Gardens from Howrah or to the 
Eing of Oudh's place and cross the river 
Hooghly in a boat. The area of the 
Gar&ns is 272 acres, with river frontage 
of a mile. The whole of them may be seen 
without descending from the carriage. 
At the N. W. comer is the Howrah Gate, 
where are three fine trees — a Ficus 
vndica in the centre, with a Ficus 
religiosa on either side. There is an 
avenue of Palmyra palms to the right 
of the entrance, and one of mahogany 
trees to the left. The visitor will pass 
up a broad road in the centre, leaving 
to the left a sheet of water, and then 
passing through casuarina trees, up 
which are trained specimens of climb- 
ing palms, will enter the Palm Planta- 
tion. A canal divides this from the 
rest of the Gardens, crossed by three 
bridges. Having crossed one of these, 
the visitor will find the Flower Garden 
on the right, where are many con- 
servatories and two orchid houses: 
close by is a conservatory 200 ft. 
long, and a monument to General Eyd, 
from which a broad walk runs down 
to the River Entrance. Leaving this 
to the left, the visitor will pass along a 
road which leads to the Great Banyan 
Tree {Ficus indica), which covers ground 
nearly 1000 ft. in circumference. On 
the 1. of an avenue near the ^eat tree 
is a monument to Roxbui^, with a 
Latin epitaph by Heber. There are 

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also tablets in the Garden, near the old 
conservatory, to Jack and to Griffith. 

Sir J. Hooker, in his interesting 
work Himalayan JoiimdU, toL i 
says of these Grardens, in 1848, that 
"they had contributed more nsefol 
and ornamental tropical plants to the 
public and private gardens of the world 
than any other establishment before or 
since." He says also, " that the creat 
Indian Herbarium, chiefly formed by 
the Staff of the Botanic Gardens, under 
the direction of Dr. Wallich, and distri- 
buted in 1829 to the principal Mu- 

seums of Europe, was the most valu- 
able contribution of the kind ever 
made to science ; " and adds, ** that the 
origin of the tea-culture in the Hima- 
layas and Assam was almost entirely 
the work of the Superintendent of the 
Gardens at Calcutta and Saharanpur." 
The Superintendent has a house in the 
Gardens. Near it is the Herbarium, or 
collection of dried plants, probably the 
only one in Asia of the first class. 
There are from 30,000 to 40,000 species 
represented in it. Attached to the Her- 
barium is a very fine Botanic Library. 

dvU Bngineerinc: OoUege, N. of 

the Gardens, including the Bishop's 
CJoUege, looks well from the river. 

Barraokpur sta., called by the natives 
Charnock, from Job Chamock, who 
resided there for a period. The journey 
may be made by rail, carriage, or by 
river, if the traveller can procure the 
loan of a steam launch. The trip up 
the river takes 3 hrs., and is interesting 
and picturesque. If time permits, the 
river excursion may pleasantly be ex- 
tended to Serampore, Chandemagore, 
Chinsurah, and Hooghly (see below). 

Just before reaching Barrackpur, 
there are some handsome modem 
temples on the L bank, then comes 
the oeautiful park (rt) with noble trees 
and a small pier as landing-place, at 
which the Viceroy's yacht very often 
lies. At 300 yds. to the S. of the 
house, under a fine tamarind tree, is a 
polygonal enclosure, within which is 
a wmte marble monument to Lady 
Cannine ; it replaces that removed to 
the Cathedral at Calcutta. The Hall, 
built by the Earl of Minto in 1818, is 

100 yds. to the N. of the house, snd 
stands within a colonnade of Corinthian 
pillars. Over the outside entrance is 
a black slab, inscribed — 

To the Memory of the Brave. 

On the walls are four Tablets erected 
by different Governors-General to the 
memory of British soldiers who fell in 
Mauritius and Java 1810-11, in Isk of 
France, Maharajpur, and Paniar, 1843. 

The House, which is the Viceroy's 
country residence, was commenced by 
Lord Minto, and enlarged to its present 
size by the Marquis of Hastings. It 
contains some interesting pictures of 
native princes. N. of the park is Bar- 
rackpur Cantonment. Iroops were 
first stationed there in 1772, when the 

Slaoe received its name. In 1824, 
uring the Burmese War, the 47th 
B. N. I., which was ordered on service, 
mutinied here on the 30th October, 
on which the Commander-in-Chief, Sir 
Edward Paget, proceeded to the can- 
tonment with two European regts., a 
battery of European artillery, and a 
troop of the Governor-General's Body- 
guard. The mutinous regiment was 
drawn up in face of these troops, and 
was ordered to march, or grouna arms. 
The Sepoys refused to obey, when the 
guns opened upon them, and throwing 
away their arms and accoutrements 
they made for the river. Some were 
shot down, some drowned, many hanged, 
and the regt. was struck out of the 
"Army List." Again, in 1857, there 
were Mutiny trouDles here. 

Dum Dam sta., D.B., 4^ m. from Cal- 
cutta. A municipal town and canton- 
ment. There is a D.B. in the sta. 
(31,578 inhab.) It was the headquarters 
of the Bengal Artillery from 1788 till 
1858, when they were removed to 
Meerut ; and their mess-house is now 
the Soldiers' Club, and is known as tiie 
Outram InstittUe, A bust of Sir James 
Outram stands in the verandah. 

In the centre of the Barrack Square 
is a huge gun which has seen some 
service. Near this is the monument 
to the officers and men killed in the 
Ehaibar whilst returning from Kabul 
in 1841. The Treaty which restored 
the British settlements after the re- 

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ttptme of Calcutta was signed at Dmn 
Dam. There is an En^h Ohnioh 
-St. Stephen's — a Boman Catholic 
Oiapel, and a Wesleyan ChapeL 
Theie is a Small Arm AmmtmUion 
Factory, which is guarded by British 

Pdo, cricket, and football, snipe- 
shooting, and tank -fishing are the 
imusements of the place. Lord Clive 
had a house at Dum Dum, and Fairy 
Hall was occupied by Sir Henry 
Lavnnce, when a Lieutenant 

From CcUctdta by the E, I, Rly, vp the 
W, bank of the Rooghly. 

The Howrah sta. is on the W. bank 
of the Hooghly river, 200 yds. beyond 
the Hoo^ly Bridge. This Imdge 
opens on Tuesdays and Fridays for two 
hours for ships to pass. 

Madras tiT/ie is kept at all stations, 
and is 33 min. behind Calcutta time. 
1st and 2d class return -tickets, avail- 
able for two months, are issued to any 
station more than 130 m. distant, at the 
i&te of one ordinary fare and a half. 
Holders of monthly tickets, on arriving 
at a station where they intend breaking 
theirjoumey must have inserted on their 
tickets the date and train of arrival, 
and when leaving the date and train 
of departure. Each first^dass passenger 
may take 1^ maunds of luggage free. 

24 m. Hooi^y sta. {Hugli) and Chin- 
snrah (2 m. from Hooghly sta., see 
below), are bracketed together as one 
in the Census Report, and together 
cover an area of 6 sq. m. The pop. is 
31,000. Hooghly town is the adminis- 
trative headquarters of the district of 
the same name. It was founded by 
the Portuguese in 1647 a.d., when the 
royal port of Bengal, Satgaon, began 
V) be deserted, owing to the silting up 
•f the Saraswati, on which river it 
was situated. They commenced by 
boilding a fortress at Ghol^hat, close 
to the present Hooghly jail, some 
vestiges of which are still visible in 
the l»d of the river. When Shah Jehan 
came to the throne, complaints were 
made to him of the conduct of the 
Portujniese at Hooghly. He sent a 
large toTce there ; the fort was besieged. 

and after 4} months was stormed. 
More than 1000 Portuguese were 
slain, and 4000 men, women, and chil' 
dren were captured. Out of 300 Portu- 
guese vessels only three escaped. The 
prisoners were sent to Agra, and 
forcibly converted to Islam. Satgaon 
was then abandoned for Hooghly, which 
was made the royal port, and was also 
the first settlement of the English in 
Lower Bengal. The E. I. Co. established 
a factory there in 1642, under 2l firman 
from Sultan Shtga*, Governor of Ben- 
gal, and second son of Shah Jehan. 
Thisj^rman was granted to Dr. Bough 
ton, who had cured a favourite daughter 
of the emperor, and who asked tor it 
when desired to name his reward. In 
1669, the Company received permission 
to bring their ships to Hooghly to load, 
instead of transporting their goods in 
small vessels, and then shipping them 
into large. In 1685, a dispute took 
place between the English at Hooghly 
and the Kawab of Bengal, and the 
Company sent a force to protect their 
Hooghly factories. It chanced that a 
few English soldiers were attacked by 
the Kawab's men in the bazaars, and a 
street fight ensued. Colonel Nicholson 
bombaided the town, and burned 500 
houses, including the Company's ware- 
houses, containing goods to the value 
of £300,000. The chief of the English 
factory was obliged to fly to Sutanuti, 
or Chattanatti, and take shelter with 
some native merchants. In 1742 
Hooghly was sacked by the Marathas. 
The principal thing to be seen at 
Hooghly is the Imambarah, built by 
Earamat ' Ali, the friend and companion 
of Arthur Connolly, at a cost of 800,000 
rs. from funds bequeathed by Muham- 
mad Mushin, who owned a quarter of 
the great Saiyadpur estate, in Jessore 
District, and died m 1814, without heirs, 
leaving property worth £4500 a jrear for 
pious purposes. The trustees quar- 
relled, and Government assumed charge 
of the estate. During the litigation a 
fund of £86,110 had accumulated, and 
with this the Hoo^ly College was 
founded, in 1836. The facade of the 
Imambarah is 277 ft.x36 ft, and in 
its centre is a gateway flanked by two 
I minarets, or towers, 114 ft. high. On 

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either side of the door are inscriptions. 
Within is a quadrangle, 150 ft. x 80 ft, 
with rooms all loond, and a fine hall, 
paved with marhle, having a palpit 
with sides covered with plates of silver, 
and a verse of the Koran inscribed in 
each plate. ' The library was bequeathed 
by Earamat 'Ali, but a few books have 
since been added by other people. 
Amon^ them are 787 MSS., including a 
fine fouo Koran, in two vols., given by 
Prince Ghulam Muhammad, son of 
Tipu. On the opposite side of the road 
from this Imambarah is the old Imam- 
barah, buUt in 1776-77. In the W. 
comer lie the remains of Karamat 'Ali, 
and there is a white marble tablet placed 
acainst the wall, with an extract from 
the Koran, but no tomb. 

About 6 m. from Hooghly is ScUgaonif 
where there is a ruined mosque, 
which, together with a few tombs 
near it, is the only remnant of the 
old capital of Lower Bengal. It was 
built by Sfidyad Jamalu-din, son of 
Fakhru-din, who, according to in- 
scriptions in the mosque, came from 
Amol, a town on the Caspian. The 
walls are of small bricks, adorned 
inside and out with arabesques. The 
central Mihrab is very fine. The 
arches and domes are in the later 
Pathan style. At the S.E. angle 
are three tombs in an enclosure. 
During the last century, the Dutch 
of Chmsurah had their country seats 
at Satgaon, to which they walked, 
in the miMle of the day, to dine. 
The river of Satgaon, up to Akbar*8 
time, formed the N. frontier of 
Orissa^ and Satgaon flourished for 
not less than 1500 vears. Three cen- 
turies ago the Hooghly flowed by the 

ddnsurali is written in the old 
Hindu books, Chuchimda or Chim- 
chuda. Chinsurah was held by the 
Dutch for 180 years, and ceded by 
them to the English in exchange for 
Sumatra, in 1826. The old IhUeh 
Church, of brick, is said to have been 
built by the Governor in 1678. In 
it are 14 escutcheons, dating from 
1685 to 1770, and the inscriptions are 
in Dutch. 

The Hooghly College is to the S. of 

the church. There are 600 students, 
ihe cemetery is 1 m. to the W. of the 
church ; the new part is tolerably well 
kept, but; not so the part where the 
old tombs are. Many of them are of 
Dutch officials. 

Bandel is 1 m. N. of Hooghly and 
28 m. N. of Calcutta. The Portag^se 
monastery and church was built in 
1599, and the keystone with the date 
was erected in the new one, which is 
of brick, and very solidly built It ia 
dedicated to Nossa Senhora di Bosario. 
There are fine cloisters on the S., and 
a priory, in which is a noble room called 
St Augustine's HaU. The organ is 
good. The church was founded b^ the 
Augustinian Missionaries, demolished 
by Shah Jehan in 1640, and rebuilt by 
John Gomez di Soti. 

Serampore sta. The headquarters ot 
the subdivision of the same name is 
on the W. bank of the Hooghly, oppo- 
site Barraokpur, 13 m. from Calcutta 
(24,440 inhab.) Babu Bholanath Chan- 
dra, in his Travels of a Hindu, p. 6, 
says, " Serampore is a snug little town, 
and possesses an exceeding elegance and 
neatness of appearance. The range of 
houses along the river-side makes up a 
gay and brilliant picture. The streets 
are as brightly clean as the walks in. a 
garden, but time was when Serampore 
had a busy trade, and 22 ships. cleared 
from this small port in three months. " 
Its chief claim to historical notice arises 
from the fact that it was the scene of the 
apostolic labours of Carev, Marshman, 
Ward and Mack. The zeal and successes 
of the Baptist missionaries of Seram- 
pore, at the beginning of this century, 
form one of the bri^test episodes of 
Evangelistic efforts in India. From 
its press proceeded 40 translationa of 
the Scriptures. Serampore was for- 
merly a Danish settlement, and was 
then called FredericksnacRLr. The fine 
mansion of the Danish Governor now 
forms the Courts of Justice and admini- 
strative offices. In 1845 a treaty 
was made with the Kin^ of Den- 
mark, by which all the Danish posses 

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lions in India, namely, Tranquebar, 
Fredericksnagar, and a small piece of 
ground at Buasore were transferred to 
the R I. Company for £125,000. 

The old Danid Church (1805) cost 
18,600 rs., of which 1000 were given 
by the Marquis Wellesley. There are 
tablets in memory of the above- 
mentioned Baptist missionaries. Their 
tombs are in the native Christian 
cemetery, on the right hand of the 
road from the railway station. The 
church is now Anglican. 

The College is a handsome building 
<Hi the banks of the river, and com- 
mands a fine view across it, over Bar- 
rackpur Park. The porch is supported 
by SIX pillars 60 ft high. On the 
ground floor are the Lecture-rooms, and 
in the floor above, the Great Hall, which 
is 103 ft. long, and 66 ft. broad. In 
the Library are the following portraits : 
1. Madame Grand, by Zofiany ; she 
afterwards married Talleyrand (see 
Mdme. de Remusat's Memoirs) ; 2. Dr. 
Marshman, by ZoffSany; 8. Frederick 
VL of Denmark ; 4. Frederick's wife, 
Qneen of Denmark ; 5. copy of a 
Madonna by Raphael ; 6. Rev. W. Ward, 
by Penny. The library contains the 
first editions of Carey and Marshman*s 
forty translations of the Bible; also 
some curious Sanscrit and Thibetan 
manuscripts, and an account of the 
Apostles drawn up by Xavier's nephew 
for Akbar. In the College compound 
is the house in which Carey lived and 
died, now inhabited by the Principal of 
t^ College. Before reaching the Col- 
lege the Mission Chapel is passed, with 
manorial slabs. 

The fine mansion next to the chapel, 
vhich was the common centre of the 
Sounpore brotherhood, with all Carey's 
pak and botanic garden, is now the 
nperty of the India Jute Company, 
bro, from 1835 to 1875, the weekly 
hiend €f India was edited. 

Qhaademagore sta. 3^ The French 

laiie a settlement here in 1673, and 

infte time of Dupleix more than 2000 

bilk houses were built in the town, 

«od a considerable trade was carried 

OB. In 1757 the town was bombarded 

l^ the English fleet under Admiral 

Watson, and captured. The fortifi- 


cations were demolished, but in 1763 
the town was restored to the French. 
In 1794 it was again captured by the 
English, and held till 1815, when it 
was again restored to the French, and 
has remained in their possession ever 
since. The railway station is just 
outside the French boundary. 

Chandemagore receives from the 
English 800 chests of opium on con- 
dition that the inhabitants do not 
eneaffe in the manufacture of that 
article. A church stands on the bank 
of the river, built by Italian mission- 
aries in 1726. Between Chandemagore 
and Chinsurah is Biderra^ where the 
English obtained a decisive victory 
over the Dutch. It is said that the 
English commander was aware that his 
nation and the Dutch were at peace, 
and wrote to Clive for an order in 
council to fight. Clive was playing 
cards, and ^rote in pencil: "Dear 
Forde, fight them to-day, and I will 
send you an order to-morrow. — Thurs- 
day nth, 1.30 P.M." 

Bombay to Attrangabad and thb 
Caves of Ellora by Nandgaon sta. 

Bombay (Victoria term.) to Nandgaon 
sta. 178 m. by the G. I. P. Rly. The 
mail tonga runs dail^ from Nandgaon 
to Aurangabad, a distance of 56 m. 
in 9 hours — a fairly good road. Con- 
veyances to the Ellora Caves can be had 
only by special arrangement with the 
mail contractor at Nandgaon. 

Deogaon, D.B. 3^ (36 m. from 

The road to Roza and the caves leaves 
the main road from Aurangabad 4^ m. 
beyond Deogaon, from which point 
the caves are 4} m. distant. Some 
persons prefer to go first direct to 
Aurangabad, seeing Daulatabad, the 
caves, and other places of interest on 
the return journey. 

56 m. Aurangabad, D.B. This 
thriving city (pop. 8680), which has a 
considerable trade in cotton and wheat, 
was first called Khirki, and was founded 
in 1610 by Malik Ambar, the head of 
the Abyssinian faction in the Ahmad- 
nagar state. The t^wn lies to the E., 

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the cantonment and the road to Daula- 
tabad, Koza, and EUora to the W. 300 
yds. S. of the Old Cemetery, 1 m. N.E. of 
the city, is the grand HauBOleum of 
Babi'a Dazraaii daughter of Aurangzib. 
The great door at the gateway is plated 
with brass, and along the edge is 
written, "This door of the noble mauso- 
leum was made in 1089 a.h., when 
Atau'Uah was chief architect, by Haibat 
Rai." Near the inscription is an in- 
finitesimally small figure, which is said 
to be a bird, indistinctly carved, and 
there is a similar carving on the door 
of the mausoleum itself. It is a com- 
mon joke amongst natives, when any 
man asserts that he has been to Rabi'a's 
mausoleum, to ask if he saw the biixi 
there, and if he answers in the negative, 
to dispute his having seen the mauso- 
leum at all. In the garden is a long 
narrow basin of water, in which foun- 
tains used to play, and on either side 
of the water is a walk and ornamental 
wall. In the wall of the mausoleum 
is a second but much smaller door, only 
6 ft. high, plated with brass, where the 
second bird is pointed out. The carving 
of the flowers on this door is curious, 
and that of the dragons particularly so, 
and both are extremely like Japanese 
work. Q'he bird is on the edge of the 
door close to the upper central knob. 
The cenotaph is endosed in an octa- 
gonal screen of white marble lattice- 
work exquisitely carved, and stands on 
a raised marble platform. The place 
for the slab is empty, and nothing but 
earth appears. This is much approved 
by Moslems, as showing humility. The 
Government of the Nizam has gone to 
great expense in restoring this mauso- 
leum. The main fault of this otherwise 
beautiful building, which is compared 
to the Taj, is the want of sufficient 
height in the entrance archway. Ob- 
serve the cuiious roof of the gateway 
of the mausoleum. Below the right 
corner of the platform is a second tomb, 
said to contain the remains of Rabi'a 
Durrani's nurse. There is no inscnp- 
tion. In the gallery above the tomb is 
a marble door exquisitely carved. To 
the W. of the mausoleum is a mosque 
of brick faced with cement (chuTumi) of 
tt dazzling whiteness. The pavement is 

covered with tracings of prayer-carpets. 
The mimbarj or pulpit, is of marUe. 

The Pan Chakki or water-mill is 
perhaps the prettiest and best kept 
shrine in this part of India. It isatu- 
ated on the rt. of the road from the 
cantonment to the Begampura bzidge, 
and on the very edge of the Eham» the 
river of Aurangabad. To enter, turn to 
the rt. into a beautiful garden by the 
side of a brimming tank of clear water, 
full of fish from 1 ft. to 3 ft. long, of 
a species called Kfiol, This tank over- 
flows into a lower one, and that again 
into a narrow conduit. The saint en* 
tombed here (see below) is Baba Shah 
Muzaflar. He was a Chishti (member of 
a theosophical sect amon^ the Moham- 
medans), and came originally from 
Bokhara. He was the spiritual pre- 
ceptor of Aurangzib. His successor is 
still in charge of the place. Beyond 
the first tank and the ornamental 
garden is a second and much larger one. 
It is entirely supported on vaults, on 
two rows of massive pillars. The weight 
of the great body of water i-esting on 
them is enormous, and altogether it i8 
a remarkable work. Below is a Roble 
hall reached by steep steps down to the 
level of the river. On the rt. of the 
second tank is a fine mosque, the roof 
of which is supported by four rows of 
massive pillars. In two of the rows 
the pillars are of teak, and in two of 
masonry. At the S.W. corner of this 
mosque, in a little garden, is the Tomb 
of the saint. It is of beautiful light- 
coloured marble, but very diminutive. 

After leaving the Pan Chakki, drive 
i m. N. to the Mecca Gate of the city, 
and the Mecca Bridge^ which are prob- 
ably some centuries old. The gateway 
from the top of the parapet is 42 ft 
above the road whicli passes over tb< 
bridge. The flanking towers are snr 
mounted by domes. Inside thegate then 
is a black stone mosque built by Malil 
Ambar. In the centre is a niche with th< 
Divine Name, and * ' Victory is near.' 
Above that is the Kaliviafiy and sonw 
verses of the Koran written in difficull 
T-Mgr^ra (ornamental characters and use* 
in royal signatures). Close by is a reces 
with a bell-shaped ornament. Thisi 
perhaps the oldest mosque in the city. 

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The Goyenunent Offices are 2 m. 

to the S.E. of the cantonment, and 

in or near the Arkilla or citadel built 

by Aorangzib. This spot not long ago 

was entirely covered with cactus and 

jungle, the haunt of hyenas and other 

wild animals. It was, however, the 

site of gentlemen's houses in the reign 

(^ Anrangzib, when Aurangabad was 

the capital of the Deccan. Sir Salar 

Jang ordered the site to be cleared, 

and when this was done, numerous 

reservoirs, fountains, and other works of 

interest were discovered. These have 

been repaired, and the wilderness has 

literally been changed into a blooming 

garden. On the high ground looking 

down upon the Revenue Settlement 

Officer's Rooms, and on those of the 

Municipality, is a fine hall, and in iront 

of it is a beautiful tank of most jwil- 

locid water. Behind the hall is a 

well-an*anged garden, and in rear 

of that again is the BaraMarif or 

Oovemme7U RovsCf with a fine fountain 

in front. The facade of the Barahdari 

is ornamented with lace-like patterns 

in white chunam . Only one archway of 

Anrangzib's citadel remains, but here 

53 great princes, like the Maharajas 

of Jeypore and Jodhpnr, attended the 

court of the Emperor with thousands 

of armed retainers, and Aurangabad 

was then the Delhi of the South. As 

toon as Aurangzib died the princes 

departed, and Aurangabad sank at 

once into comparative insignificance. 

The Jmnma Hnsjid is on the right 

of the road, amid a grove of some of 

the finest trees in India. One 

B&mense Ficus indica stands close on 

the road and shades some 300 ft. of 

it The Mosque is low and so are the 

ninarets. But the fa9ade is rendered 

itriking by an ornamental band of 

<*rving 2 ft. broad along the whole 

init Over the central niche are the 

taiimah and inscriptions in Tughra 

■nting as in Malik Ambar's Mosque. 

^ mosque is wonderfully well kept, 

*ri there is, what is not seen anywhere 

<^ a net covering the entire fa9ade, 

fithat no birds or other creatures can 

•ter. Malik Ambar built half this 

teosque, and Aurangzib the other half. 

The Caves of Aurangabad are beyond 


the N. outskirts of the city near Rabf a 
Durrani's mausoleum, from which it is 
necessary to ride or walk to the foot of the 
hills, which are here about 500 ft. high. 
The ground at the base of the hill is 
very rough, and intersected with deep 
ravines. The visitor will have to climb 
over a very rough and slippery rock 
about 250 n. up to the caves. He will 
then see the mausoleum of Rabi'a 1} 
m. to the S.E. Steps lead to the 
entrance of Cave No. L On the left 
of the door is Buddha in the teaching 
attitude, that is, holding the little 
finger of the left hand between the 
thumb and forefinger of the right. 
A Gandharva is nying nearly over 
Buddha's head. On ttie left is the 
Padmapani, "lotus holder," an attend- 
ant. The other attendant on the right 
is Vajrapani, "lightning holder." 
Above the side door on tne left are 
three Buddhas, two of which are cross- 
legged, and the third is in the teaching 
attitude with the usual attendants. On 
the right of the main entrance are 
Buddha and three figures similar to 
those on the left. A lai^e figure of 
Buddha, of black stone, 6 ft. high, sits 
facing the entrance to the shrine. A 
circle in relief on the wall represents a 
halo round his head. Padma and Vajra 
are one on either side as usual, with 
Gandharvas over their heads. This 
cave has been whitewashed, and the 
white patch on the side of the hill 
can be seen &om a mile off in the plain 
below. There is an ornament like 
prongs round the archway. 

Cave No, ;^ is a Ohaitya Hall with t 
semicircular roof with stone ribs, like 
the Yishwakarma Gave at EUora, and 
a triforium. It consists of a nave 15 
ft. long on either side, besides a bow or 
curve 17 ft. long. Near the end of the 
nave there is a dagoba with a "Tee" 
very perfect. The ribs of the roof are 
13 ft. above the cupola of the dagoba. 
Canje No. 5 is a vihara. The outer 
verandah is ruined. The centre hall 
is portioned off as usual by twelve 
pillars, with plain bases, shafts, and 
brackets. There is the usual vestibule 
and sanctuary. The central Buddha 
is 9 ft. 6 in. hi^h. On either side are 
seven worshipping figures. Cave No» 

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^ is a small vihara. Buddha is seated 
on a Singhascm in the teaching attitude. 
All round on the wall are smaller 
Buddhas. The sanctuary is 8 ft. 4 in. 
square. The Yajrapani has a da- 
goba in his crest, and two figures of 
Buddha. The Nagas, known by their 
snake-heads, stand at the sides of the 
two attendants. A good example of 
the dagoba crest or Tee is in the 
corridor to your right as you enter, after 
passing the first division, about the 
middle in point of height. Cave No. 5 
is higher up in the face of the cliff, and 
is not worth the trouble of a visit. 
These caves are, as is generally the case, 
in the centre of a semicircular ridge, as 
at DUora. At the distance of 300 yds. 
from the foot of the hill on the descent 
is reached a beautiful cluster of trees, 
of which the principal are two im- 
mense specimens of the Indian fig tree. 

There are man y other places of interest 
to be seen in the hills around. The 
journey to Daulatahad from Av/rcmga- 
badf 9 m., can be done in one hour and 
a half in a tonga with two good horses. 
3 m. from Aurangabad is the village of 

It will be necessary to aiTange before- 
hand for a relay of horses at Dautata- 
bad to get on to Roza {the tomb), 7 m. , 
the same day. Near Daulatabad a 
ghat or steep nill is passed, which tries 
the horses very much, and sometimes it 
is necessary to have coolies, or labourers, 
to assist them. Permission must be 
obtained from the British station staff- 
officer to see the fort of Daulatabad. 

Daulatabad (Deogiri) a 13th cent, 
fortress, 8 m. from Aurangabad, is 
built on a huge isolated conical rock of 
granite about 500 ft. high, with a per- 
pendicular scarp of from 80 to 120 ft all 
round the base. At the base is a strag- 
gling patch of houses and huts, which 
IS all that remains of the native town. 
It is defended by a loop-holed wall 
with bastions which on the E. side joins 
the scarp of the fort. At the bottom 
of the scarp is a ditch, before reaching 
which four lines of wall, including the 
outside wall of the town, must be 
passed. The fosse can be crossed 
only in one place by a stone causeway, 
so narrow that only two men can obtain 

a footing on it abreast, and commanded 
on the side near the fort by a battle- 
mented outwork. The only means of 
ascending the rock is through a narrow 

f)assage hewn in the solid stone, and 
eading to a large vault in the interior. 
From this a ramp or gallery, gradually 
sloping upwards, and also excavated 
in the solid rock, winds round in the 
interior. The first part of the ascent 
is easy ; towards the end it is difl&ciilt 
The height of the passage averages 
from 10 to 12 ft, with an equal breadth, 
but it is so dark that torches are requi- 
site. The entrance is on the £. side, 
past 2 gates armed with very formidable 
spikes of iron to resist elephants ; at 
the third gate there are 3 Hmdu pillars 
and 3 pilasters on either side. Facing 
this third ^ate is a bastion 56 ft. high. 
It has a balcony or gallery with Hindu 
curved supports, and is called the 
Nakar Khana, or music gallery. It 
has a small window on which are 
carved in alto-relievo two leopards like 
those in the royal shield of England. 
The fourth archway faces to the E., 
and beyond it on the ri^ht is an old 
Hindu temple, with a broken lamp 
tower 13 ft. high. On the left of the 
road is a smul ehattri, or pavilion, 
which is the dargah of the Pir-i-Eadus. 
Passing along the side of a tank, and 
turning to the 1., there is an entrance 
to a mosque which was first a Jain 
temple and then a place of worship 
of Kali. Prayers are said here in 
Ramazan, and at the Bakri 'Id, other- 
wise it is not used. On the rt of 
the central dome, looking W., in a 
niche, is a stone covered with a San- 
scrit inscription, whitewashed over and 
placed on its side. Groing out of the 
temple to the N. is a minaret said 
to have been erected by the Moham- 
medans in commemoration of their 
first capture of the place. It was built 
in 1435, according to a Persian inscrip- 
tion in one of the chambers in the 
foundation. From the window above 
the third gallery an admirable view is 
obtained. The fifth gateway leads to 
a platform, which goes partly round 
the hill, and has on the rt a building 
called the Chini Mahal, in which 
Hasan Shah, last king of Golkonda, 

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wtt imprisoned for thirteen years. 
Ascend here to a bastion, on which is 
a eamum indented in two places by 
cannon balls. It is caUed Eil'ah Shi- 
kan, leveller of forts, and is 21 ft 10 
in. long, and the mnzzle has a diameter 
of 8 in. It was made by Muhammad 
Hasan the Arab. The really difficult 
and in former times impregnable part 
of the fortress is now entered. Cross- 
ing a narrow modem stone bridge, con- 
structed to replace the movable planks, 
that formerly were the only means of 
entering, the ditch that surrounds the 
citadel is now passed. To the 1. of the 
bridge and overlooking the moat are 
the extensive ruins of a Hindu palace 
with remains of some excellent carving 
in wood and stone. Continuing to 
ascend by a flight of steps and rock- 
cat passages at the place where the 
tufa and limestone strata join, and 
eventually emerging from a tunnel, we 
reach a platform, and look out over a 
garden with immense nests of hornets 
hanging from the branches of the trees. 
Passing on we come to an opening 
covered over with an iron shutter 20 
ft. long and 1 in. thick, made in ribs 
(part of it is gone), which in case 
of siege was heated red hot, so that 
if assailants could have penetrated so 
far, they would have encountered a fiery 
roof quite unapproachable. To provide 
ventilation for the fire a large hole has 
be^i tuniielled through the rock close 
hj. Passing a gateway, and the shrine 
of the Fakir Sukh Sultan, we come 
toa Barahdari, or pavilion, from which 
there is a fine view. It is believed to 
have been the residence of the Hindu 
Princes of Deogiri, and was a favourite 
SDBmer resort of the Emperor Shah 
hba.n and his son Aurangzib. The 
(arilion has a wide verandah, with a 
ndpice of from 100 to 200 ft. in 
Bsnt, and a view to Aurangabad on 
^ £. and to Roza on the N. In the 
ilbction of Aurangabad is the small 
iiakted hill of Chaman Tekri, upon 
vUch are the ruins of Hindu temples 
of great antiquity. 100 steps more 
fWBt be climl>ed to reach the Citadel 
itself, on a platform 160 ft. x 120 ft. 
At the W. comer is a one-gun battery, 
60 fL X 30 ft. The gun is 19 ft. 6 in. 

long, with a bore of 7 in. On one 
bastion is a large gun, cm which is a 
Guzerati inscription, saying that the 
funds for its construction were provided 
by certain Banias, and also a Persian 
inscription, naming the gun "Creator of 
Storms." Tavemier says that the gun 
on the highest platform was raised to its 
place under the directions of a European 
artilleryman in the service of the Great 
Mogul, who had been repeatedly refused 
leave to return to his native land, but 
was promised it if he could mount 
the gun on this spot. Stimulated by the 
promise, he at last succeeded. 

In the year 1293 'Alan -din, after- 
wards Emperor of Delhi, took the city 
of Deogiri (Daulatabad). The citadel 
still held out. He raised the siege on 
receiving an almost incredible ransom, 
15,000 lbs. of pure gold, 175 lbs. of 
pearls, 50 lbs. of diamonds, and 25,000 
lbs. of silver. In 1338 a.d. Muhammad 
Shah TugUak attempted to establish 
his capitel in the Deccan, removed 
the inhabitants of Delhi to Deogiri, 
strengthened the fortifications, and 
changed the name to Daulatabad. His 
plans, however, were finally baffled. 

The road (7 m.) to Roza and the 
caves of EUora is up the steep hill called 
Pipal Ghat. It was paved by one of 
Aurangzib's courtiers, as recorded on 
two pillars about half-way up the hill, 
where there are fine views. 

Rosa (or properly Itauza) or Khul- 
dabad, 3^ a walled town, 2000 ft above 
the sea (2218 inhab.) It is 2 m. from 
the caves of Ellora and 14 m. N. W. of 
Aurangabad. Tongas or light carts can 
be taken up or down the ghats. An 
annual Fair is held here on 7th Feb., 
at which thousands of people assemble. 

Roza jpossesses a pleasant and tem- 
perate climate, and is largely used as a 
sanitarium during the summer months. 
It is the Kerbekt (a holy shrine) of 
the Deccan Mussulmans, and is cele- 
brated as the burial-place of many 
distinguished Mohammedans, amongst 
whom are the Emperor Aurangzib and 
his second son, Azim Shah ; Asaf Jah, 
the founder of the Hyderabad dynasty ; 
Nasir Jung, his second son ; Malik 
Ambar, the powerful minister of the last 
ofthe Nizam Shahi kings; ThanahShah, 




the exiled and imprisoned kinc of Gol- 
konda ; and a host of minor celebrities. 

Roza once contained a considerable 
population, but the place is now in 
great part deserted. It is surrounded by 
a high stone wall (built by Aurangzib) 
with battlements and loopholes. Old 
and ruinous mosques and tombs abound 
in every direction on each side of the 

Midway between the N. and S. gates 
of the city is the MauBolemu of Aur- 
angsib. An ascent of 30 yds. leads to 
the domed porch and gateway, erected 
about 1760 by a celebrated dancing girl 
of Auraneabad : within it is a large 
quadrangle. Some of the surrounding 
buildings are used as rest-houses for 
travellers, and one as a school. In the 
centre of the S. side is an exquisite little 
Nakar Khana, or music hall, from the 
galleries of which music is played when 
festivals or fairs are celebrated. The 
W. side is occupied by a large mosque, 
the roof of which is supported on scal- 
loped arches. Facing the N. end of 
the mosque is a small open gateway 
leading into an inner courtyard, in the 
S.E. an^le of which is the door of 
Aurangzib's tomb itself. Above the 
door is a semicircular screen of carved 
wood. The grave, which is uncovered, 
lies in the middle of a stone platform 
raised about half a foot from tne floor. 
It is overshadowed by the branches of 
a tree (Bukuli) which bears sweet- 
smelling flowers, otherwise it is quite 
open to sun and rain, as it should be, 
according to orthodox Mohammedan 
ideas. This emperor, who was a man 
of austere piety, is said before his death 
to have desired that his sepulchre 
should be poor and unpretentious, in 
accordance with the tenets of the 
Koran. The tomb is plain almost to 
meanness, from which it is only 
redeemed by the beauty of the delicate 
marble screen, 5 ft. high, which encloses 
the lower portion on the W. side. It 
is a remarkable circumstance that he, 
who had erected such a magnificent 
mausoleum over his wife Rabi'a Durani 
at Aurangabad, should have desired 
such a lowly sepulchre himself ; but it 
is generally believed that his son, Azim 
Shah, who was near him at the time of 

his death, and his courtiers, religiously 
obeyed his wish in intening his remnins 
in this manner, and in a place sanctified 
by the tomb of a celebrated Moh&m- 
medan saint. He is said to have 
"desired in his will that his funeral 
expenses should be defrayed from the 
proceeds of caps which he had quilted 
and sold, and this amount did not 
exceed 10s. ; while the proceeds of the 
sale of his copies of the Koran, 805 is., 
were distributed to the poor." 

Fifteen or twenty paces to the R of 
Aurangzib's tomb is a small quadran- 
gular enclosure of marble, withm which 
are three graves, the one on the right 
being that of the daughter of the 
Mohammedan saint buried close by ; 
the next that of Azim Shah, Aurang- 
zib's second son, attached to which is 
a small marble headstone carved with 
floral devices ; and the one beyond is 
the grave of Azim Shah's wife. The 
whole is surrounded by a plain screen 
of white marble. Midway between 
these tombs and that of Aurangzib is 
the Mausoleum of Sayyad Zainu-din, 
on the E. side of which are inscribed a 
number of verses from the Koran, and 
the date of the Saiyad's death, 1370 a.d. 
This tomb, however, was erected many 
years after that period by one of his 
disciples. The doors of the shrine 
are inlaid with silver plates of some 
thickness ; the steps below it are em- 
bellished with a number of cuiiously cut 
and polished stones, said to have been 
brought here from time to time by 
fakirs and other religious devotees of 
the shrine. A little distance to the 
rear of this tomb is a small room built 
in an angle of the courtyard wall, which 
is said to contain the robe of the 
Prophet Mohammed. It is carefully 
preserved under lock and key, and is 
only exhibited to the gaze of the 
faithful once a year, the 12th Rabia-l- 
Awal (March). 

Opposite the tombs of Aurangzib 
and his son is that of Asaf Jah, the 
first of the Nizams of Hyderabad. 
The entrance is through a large quad- 
rangle, having open-fronted builaings 
on all sides, and a Nakar Khana, or 
music hall, at the R end. The W. 
end is used as a school for instruction 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



in the Koran. A door at this end 
giv^es access to an inner courtyard in 
which are a number of graves. Facing 
the entrance are the shrines of Asaf 
Jah and one of his consorts, surrounded 
bj a lattice screen of red sandstone, 
and that of Sayyad EazraJt Burhanu- 
(Hn, a saint of great renown amongst 
Mohammedans, who died at Roza, 
1344. The Sayyad is said to have 
left Upper India with 1400 disciples 
a few years before the first invasion 
of the Deccan by 'Alau-din, 1294, 
for the purpose of propagating the 
tenets of his faith amongst the Hindus 
of this portion of India. Deposited 
within the shrine are some hairs of the 
Prophet's beard, which are said to in- 
crease yearly in number. The shrine, 
however, boasts of a still more remark- 
able treasure, which is described by the 
attendants as follows : "For some years 
after its erection, the disciples of the 
Saiyad were without means to keep it 
in repair, or to provide themselves with 
the necessaries of life. Supplication 
to the deceased saint, however, pro- 
duced the following remarkable pheno- 
menon. During the night smaU trees 
of silver grew up through the pavement 
on the S. side of the shrine, and were 
regularly removed every morning by 
the attendants. They were broken up 
and sold in the bazaars, and with the 
proceeds thus realised the Saiyad's dis- 
ciples were enabled to maintain the 
wine and themselves. This remark- 
able production of silver is said to have 
continued for a number of years, until 
a small jagir was allotted to the shrine, 
once which time the pavement has 
only yielded small buds of the precious 
netai, which appear on the surface at 
Bight and recede during the day." In 
proof of these assertions the visitor is 
ibwn a number of small lumps of 
liver on the surface of the pavement. 
The shrine doors are covered with plates 
ofwhite and yellow metal wrought into 
designs of trees and flowers. 

Small game is plentiful in this neigh- 

24 m. from Bozais the native village 
of Kvnhur, in the fertile valley of the 
Sinna. 20 m. farther is Chalisgaon, 
Oft the G.I. P. Rly. 

The OftYds of Bllora.^ 

Ellora {Elura or VenU), « about 1^ 
m. from Boza, a village in the Nizam's 
Dominions. Distant N. W. fix)m Auran- 
gabad 14 m., from Drulatabad 7 m. 
Pop. 742. The village is partly walled, 
and contains a Mohammedan shrine 
famed throughout the Deooan for its 
marvellous healing powers. Ellora is 
famous for its highly remarkable series of 
rock-caves and temples, situated in a 
crescent-shaped hUl or plateau. They are 
first mentioned by Ma'sudi, the Arabic 
geographer of the 10th cent., but merely 
as a celebrated place of pilgrimage. They 
were visited in 1306 by Ala-ud-din or 
his generals, when, as Dow {History of 
Hindostan) relates, the capture occurred 
of a Hindu princess of Guzerat, who was 
here in concealment from the Moham- 
medans, but was afterwards carried to 
Delhi and married to the emperor's son. 

Contrasting the caves of Ellora 
and Ajanta, Mr. Fergusson writes: 
*' Architecturally the Ellora caves 
differ from those of Ajanta, in con- 
sequence of their being excavated in 
the sloping sides of a hill, and not 
in a nearly perpendicular cliff. From 
this formation of the ground almost all 
the caves at Ellora have courtyards in 
front of them. Frequently also an 
outer wall of rock, with an entrance 
through it, left standing, so that the 
caves are not generally seen from the 
outside at all, and a person might pass 
along their front without being aware 
of their existence, unless warned of the 
fact." The caves extend along the face 
of the hill for IJ m. They are divided 
into three distinct series, the Buddhist, 
the Brahmanical, and the Jain, and are 
arranged almost chronologically. 

"The caves," writes Dr. Burgess, 
"are excavated in the face of a hill, or 
rather the scarp of a large plateau, and 
ran nearly N. and S. for about IJ m., 
the scarp at each end of this interval 
throwing out a horn towards the W. 
It is where the scarp at the S. end 
begins to turn to the W. that the 
eaniest caves — a group of Buddhistic 
ones — are situated, and in the N. horn 
is the Indra Sabha or Jain group, at 

1 Ellora is 45 m. from Nandgaon sta. The 
road passes (9 m.) Deogaon (D.B.), see p. 66. 

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the other extremity of the series. The 
ascent of the ghat passes up the S. side 
of Kailas, the third of the Brahmanical 
group, and over the roof of the Das 
Avatar, the second of them. Sixteen 
caves lie to the S. of Kailas, and nearly 
as many to the N., but the latter are 
scattered over a greater distance. 
"Most of the caves have got dis- 

are 5 at the extreme N. There are 
also some cells and a colossal Jain image 
on the N. side of the same spur in 
which is the Indra Sabha." Amongst 
the Buddhist, the most important are 
the Dherwara, the oldest ; the THsh- 
wakarma, or Carpenter's Cav& a 
Ghaitya with a ribbed roof, a parallelo- 
gram about 85 ft. long ; the I>oii Tal (2 

The Dherwara. 

tiuguishiug names from the Brahmans ; 
but it may be quite as convenient, for 
the sake of reference, to number them 
from S. to N., beginning with the 
Buddhistic caves, of which there are 
12, and passing through the Brah- 
manical series, of which 17 are below 
the brow of the scarp, and a large 
number of smaller ones above, and end- 
ing with the Jain caves, of which there 

The Kftflas. 

storeyed, really 3); and Tin Tal (3 
storeys). The Das Ayatar is the oldest 
of the Brahmanical series. The great 
hall is 143 ft. long, and is supported 
by 46 pillars. 

The most splendid of the whole series 
is the Kailas, a perfect Dravidian 
temple, complete in all its parts, char- 
acterised by Fergusson as one of the 
most wonderful and interesting monu- 

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ments of arohitectaral art in India. 
" It is not a mere interior chamber cut 
in the rock," continaes Mr. Fergusson, 
"but is a model of a complete temple 
soch as might have been erected on the 
plain. In other words, the rock has 
been cut away externally as well as 
internally." This temple is said to 
have been excavated about the 8th cent 
by R^a Elu of EUichpur— but the s^le 
and other evidence point to its havmg 
been constructed in the reisn of Danti- 
durga, the Bashtrakuta king, 730-755 
A.]>. Dedicated to Shiva, it is surrounded 
with figures also of Vishnu and the 
whole Puranic pantheon. The interior, 
and parts at least, of the exterior have 
been painted. Unlike any of the pre- 
ceding cave-temples, Kailas is a ^eat 
monoUthic temple, isolated from sur- 
rounding rock, and profusely carved out- 
aide as well as in. It stands in a great 
court averaging 154 ft. wide by 276 ft. 
long at the level of the base, entirely cut 
out of the solid rock, and with a scarp 
107 ft high at the back. In front of 
this court a curtain has been left, carved 
cm the outside with the monstrous forms 
of Shiva and Vishnu and their congeners, 
and with rooms inside it. It is pierced 
in the centre by an entrance passage 
with rooms on each side. Passing this, 
tile visitor is met by a large sctupture 
«f Lakshmi over the lotuses, with her 
^ndant elephants. As we enter, to 
right and left is the front portion of 
the court, which is a few teet lower 
than the rest, and at the N. and S. ends 
of which stand two gigantic elephants, 
7-that on the S. mucn mutilated. Turn- 
ing again to the £. and ascending a few 
steps, we enter the ^eat hall of the 
temple. In front of it, and connected 
bya bridee, is a mandapam for the Nandi 
Mi, and on each side of this mandapam 
stands a pillar, 45 ft. high. On the N. 
side of tne court is a series of excava- 
tims in two tiers with finely sculptured 
ifflars. Another magnificent Brahmani- 
eil cave temple is that of Dumar Lena, 
aasoring 150 ft. each way. ** One of 
t^ finest Hindu excavations existing." 
Irom here a footpath leads to 
f (1 nt) the fine series of Jain caves, the 
^ Jsgaianath, and Indra Sabhas, at the 
I H. end. 


Bhusawal via Nagpttr to Calcutta 
(G.I. P. and Bengal-Nagpur Rlys.) 

By this line a new route from 
Bombay to Calcutta (1278 m., or about 
126 m. shorter than any other) is 
opened up. It is not probable that 
this line will be much used for through 
passenger traffic, because it takes two 
hours longer than the route via Jub- 
bul^re ; but it taps an immense 
temtory of the Central Provinces which 
has hitherto been inaccessible to ex- 
ternal trade, and provides an outlet foi 
the great wheat and seed-producing 
district of ChaUisgarhf "the granary 
of India. " The scenery in parte of the 
line, notably at Dare Kassa^ Dongar- 
garhf and Saranda, is very fine. 

The route from Bombay to 

276 m. Bhusawal junc (B.) is de- 
scribed in Rte. 1. 

Soon after leaviiig Bhusawal the 
traveller enters the Province of Berar 
(pop. 2,896,670), which continues 
almost all the way to Nagpur. It 
belongs to H.H. the Nizam, but was 
assigned to the British bv a treaty, in. 
1853, for the support of the Hyderabad 
Contingent force. This treaty was 
remodelled in December 1860, by 
which, for the Nizam's services in the 
Mutiny of 1857, his debt of 50 lakhs 
was cancelled, the districts of Dharaseo 
and the Raichur Doab were restored, 
and the confiscated territory of Shola- 
pur was ceded to him. 

The traveller cannot fail to be struck 
with the fertility of this Province, 
which is one of the richest and most 
extensive cotton-fields in India. The 
soil is black loam overlying basalt. 
The rainfall is regular and abundant, 
and at harvest-time the whole surface 
is one immense waving sheet of crops. 
The districts into which Berar is 
divided are Akola, Amraoti, EUchpur, 
Buldana, Wun, and Basim. 

333 m. Jalamb junc. sta. 

[Branch 8 m. S. to Khamgaon sta., 

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where there is an important cotton- 

340 m. Sheagaon sta. (R.), D.B. 

363 m. Akola sta. is the head- 
quarters station of the West Berar 
district of that name. 

[A road from Akola runs S. 72 m. to 
the important town and military station 
of Hingoli. About 30 m. from Akola 
is the town of Mekar^ and 15 m. S. of 
Mekar is a celebrated soda lake called 
LonaVf formed in the crater of an extinct 
volcano. The salt is used for washing 
and dyeing purposes, and is exported 
in considerable quantities. The area 
of the Akola district is 2659 sq. m., 
pop. 692,800.] 

413 m. Badnera June. sta. (R.), D.B. 

[Br. 6 m. N. to Amraoti sta. (R.), 
D.B. Both places have cotton-marts, 
and there are cotton-gins and ware- 
houses. Amraoti is the headquarters 
of the district of that name, and has 
the usual public offices attached to a 
civil station.] 

472 m. Wardha June. sta. (R.), D.B. 
The chief town of the most westerly 
district of the Central Provinces. The 
place is auite modern, dating only from 
1866, and is a considerable cotton-mart. 
Here is a Medical Mission of the Free 
Church of Scotland, with fine hospital 
and leper asylum. 

[Branch S. to the Warora coal-fields. 

21 ro. Hinganghat sta., D.B., a very 
important old cotton-market. 

45 m. Warora terminus sta., a 
town in the Chanda district of the 
Central Provinces, and a considerable 
cotton -mart Close to Warora are 
mines of fairly good coal ; 3000 tons a 
month have been supplied to the rail- 
way, the yearly out-turn has been 
about 100,000 tons. 

30 m. S.E. of Warora is Chanda, 
D.B., reached by a good road. This 
place is the headquarters of the Chanda 
district. Too far off the main lines of 
commnnication to be visitBd by harried 

travellers, it is yet a most attractive 
spot. The town is surrounded by a 
continuous wall of cut stone 5J m. in 
circuit. Inside the walls are detached 
villages and cultivated fields. The 
foliage is beautiful and there are ex- 
tensive forest -preserves near. The 
tombs of the Gond kings, and the 
temples of Achaleswar, Maha Kali, and 
Murlidhar, are all worth a visit. At 
LcUpet, in the town, a large spa^e is 
covered with monolith figures of gigtn- 
tic size which appear to have been pre- 
pared for some great temple never 
erected. Cunningham, in reviewing 
the travels of Hiouen Thsang in South- 
em India in the 7th century, con- 
siders that Chanda has a strong claim 
to be considered the capital of the 
kingdom of Maha-Eosala. Here a 
traveller would see the Gonds, a people 
differing from the surrounding popula- 
tion in religion, language, ana race.] 

520 m. Nagpur,3^ is the capital 
of the Central Provinces, which have an 
area of 112,912 sq. m. (pop. 10,761,630). 
The district of iTagpur itself has an 
area of 8786 sq. m. Among the in- 
habitants are upwards of 2,000,000 of 
aboriginescalled Gonds ; andof these the 
hill-tribes have black skins, flat noses, 
and thick lips. A cloth round the waist 
is their chief garment The religious 
belief varies from village to villa^. 
Nearly all worship the cholera and tne 
small-pox, and there are traces of serpent 

The ancient history of the Province 
is very obscure. In the 6th century 
A.D. a race of foreigners, Vavanas^ 
ruled from the Satpura plateau, and 
between the 10th and 13th centuries, 
Rajputs of the Lunar Race governed 
the country round Jubbulpore, and the 
Pramars of Malwa ruled territory 
S. of the Satpuras. The Chanda 
dynasty of Gonds reigned probably 
as early as the 10th or 11th cen- 
tury, and the Haihayas of Chattis- 
garh were of ancient date. In 1898 
A.D. there were princes reigning at 
Kherla, on the Satpura plateau, and 
Ferishtah says '* they possessed all the 
hills of Gondwana." In 1467 they 
were conquered by the Bahmani 

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kings. The next century the Gronds 
again rose to power, but in 1741 the 
Maratha Bhonsias inraded the country. 
In 1818 the English annexed the 
Saugar and Nerbudda territories, and 
in 1853 Nagpur and other districts, 
which in 1861 Lord Canning formed 
into the Central Provinces. 

Nagpur, situated on the small stream 
called the Nag (pop. 117,900), is the 
headquarters of the administration of 
the Central Provinces, The munici- 
pality includes, besides the city, the 
suburb and the European station of 
Sit^tbaldi. In the centre stands Sita- 
baldi Hill, crowned mth the fort of the 
same name, which commands a fine 
view. Below to the N. and W. is the 
prettily wooded civil station of Nagpur. 
Beyond to the N. are the military lines 
and bazaars, and beyond these the 
suburb of Taklit once the headquarters 
of the Nagpur Irregular force. There 
is a fine new Residency on Takli Hill, 
but the Chief Commissioner resides 
chiefly at Pachmari on the Satpuras. 
Close under the S. side of the hill is the 
native suburb of Sitabaldi. Below the 
glacis is the railway station ; beyond is 
the Jumma Talao, a large tank ; and 
more to the E. is the city, hidden in 
foliage. Three great roads lead from the 
European station to the city, one on 
the N. and one on the S. bank of the 
tank ; the third, which is the most N. 
of all, crosses the railway by a bridge 
to the N. of the station. Besides the 
Jumma Talao, there are two other fine 
tanks, the Ambajhari and Telingkheri, 
in the neighbourhood. The chief 
gardens are the Maharaj Bagh, in 
Sitabaldi, the Tulsi Bagh, inside the 
aty, and the Paldi, Shakardara, Sona- 
pon, and Telingkheri in the suburbs. 

The traveller will remember that 
Kagpur is famous for its delicious 
Manges, large numbers of which are 
tiported during the first three months 
rf the year. His first visit may be to the 
Sitabaldi Eill, Here, on the 26th and 
^th of November 1817, the Maratha 
troops of the Bhonsla Raja, Apa Sahib, 
attacked the Resident, Mr., afterwards 
Sir R. Jenkins, and the few troops he 
had been able to assemble. After a 
desperate engagement, during which 

the Marathi at one time got possession 
of one of the two eminences of the 
Sitabaldi Hill, the English were at 
length victorious. The Resident was 
then joined by fresh troop, and de- 
manded the surrender of the Raja and 
the disbandmeut of his army. This 
latter point was only obtained after a 
second battle, in which the Marathi 
were completely routed. 

Apa Sahib escaped and died in exile. 
A child was raised to the throne under 
the title of Raghoji III., and on his 
death, in 1853, the country was annexed 
by the British. On the 13th of June 
1857 the native cavalry conspired with 
the Mohammedans of the city to rise 
against the British, but the infantry 
continued loyal, and arrested tlie native 
oflScers sent to them by the cavalry. 

The Bhonsla Palace^ built of black 
basalt and richly ornamented with 
wood carving, was burnt dovm in 1864, 
only the Nakar Khana, or music hall, 

Thence the traveller may proceed to 
the Tombs of the Bhonsla Bajas, in 
the Shukrawari quarter, to the S. of 
the cit^. The markets are in the 
Gurganj Square and Gachi Pagar, and 
take place once a week in each. In 
the city are also the Small Cause Court 
and the Magistrate's Court. Tlie Cen- 
tral Jail is an important institution. 

The old Besidencyy where the Chief 
Commissioner formerly resided, and 
the Secretariat, are at Sitabaldi. There 
is a small detachment from the English 
regiment at Kampti garrisoning the 
fort, and there are also the head- 
quarters and wing of a N.I. regiment. 

The city and civil station are well 
supplied with water from the Ambajhari 
reservoir, and the station roads are lined 
with beautiful trees. There is a hand- 
some English church, and a large 
Roman Catholic cathedral and school, 
and an important branch of the Missions 
of the Free Church of Scotland, with 
the Hislop College, two hospitals for 
men and women, and a fine Marathi 

The Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
terminates at Nagpur, and from this 
point E. towards Calcutta the line 
belongs to the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. 

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529 m. Kampti D.B. A large town 
and military cantonment on the right 
bank of the Eanhan river, which is 
spanned by ahandsomestone bridge that 
cost £90, 000. Close to it is the railway 
bridge, a fine iron structure that cost 
£100,000. Pop. 51,000. Kampti dates 
only from the establishment of the 
military station in 1821, and for about 
fifty years it was governed entirely by 
the military authorities. The neigh- 
bouring city of Nagpur during the 
greater part of this time was the capital 
of the state, and the residence of a 
Maratha court. No more striking evi- 
dence could be adduced of the just and 
moderate tone of the army administra- 
tion than the rapid growth of this place. 
The roads are broad and well laid out. 
The English church was built in 
1833, and there is a highly useful 
Roman Catholic establishment of the 
order of St. Francis de Sales with a 
church and convent, where good educa- 
tion is given to a class of children who 
would otherwise be neglected. There 
are 5 mosques and 70 Hindu temples. 

559 m. Bhandaxa Boadsta.,.D.6., is 
about 6im. from the town, which is close 
to the Wainganga river. It is the head- 
quarters of a district of the same name, 
and contains the usual public offices, 
schools, and institutions. Pop. 11,000. 
Between Bhandara and Nagpur few of 
the richer natives ever mount a horse, 
they ride astride on the pole of a very 
light two-wheeled ox-cart called a ringi. 
The oxen for these carts are a special 
breed, very small and active, and cap- 
able of sustaining a trot equal to the 
pace of an ordinary carriage horse. 
Here is the B. Barbour Medical Mission 
of the Free Church of Scotland. 
615 m. Amgaon sta. (R.) 
From 624 m. Salekasa sta. to 
647 m. Dongai^^h sta. (R.), the line 
passes through hUls and heavy bamboo 
jungles, and through a pass with a 
tunnel at the summit. The jungle 
near this tunnel is famous for ^ner- 
ally having a man-eating tiger in it. 
During the construction of the railway 
a large number of natives were killed 
here, and victims have more recently 
been carried ofl*. Large game of all 

1 beei 

sorts abounds. Don^rgarh is a lirge 
engine-changing station, with a oon- 
sidemble European population con- 
nected with the railway. The ruins of 
a fort are on the N.E. face of a detached 
hill, some 4 m. in circuit. Inside the 
fortified space there are tanks for water 
supply, but no buildings. 

708 m. Baipur sta. The chief town 
of a district of the same name, the 
residence of the commissioner of CPujUtis- 
garh, and a small military cantonment 
The usual offices will be found. The 
old town was to the S. and W. of the 
present one, which was laid out by 
Colonel Agnew in 1830. The pop. is 
25,000. The town is surrounded by 
tanks and groves of trees, which form 
its attraction. The Fort was built by 
Raja Bhuraneswar Sing in 1460, and 
in its time was a very strong work. 
Its outer wall is nearly 1 m. in cir- 
cumference. Large quantities of stone 
were used in its construction, though 
no quarries exist in the neighbourhoM. 
The Burha Tankf on the S., the same 
age as the Fort, covered nearly 1 sq. m. 
In later improvements it has been 
reduced in extent The public gardens 
are on its K shore. The Maharaj 
Tank was constructed by a revenue 
farmer in the times of the Marathas, 
and close to it is the temple of Ram- 
chandra, built in 1775 by Bhimbaji 
Bhonsla. There are several other reser- 
voirs in the suburbs ; and in the centre 
of the town is the Kankali tank, con- 
structed of stone throughout, at the 
close of the 17th century. 

776 m. BUaspur junc. sta. (R.). 
This place is a large engine-changing 

[Branch N.W. throngha mountainous 
district and the coal-fields of Umaria 
to 198 m. Katni junc. on the E. I. RIy. 
(p. 86). This branch passes at Pendra 
sta., under the Aniarkant»alr plateau 
(4000 ft) where the Nerbudda has its 
source. There are several temnles 
and a **khund" or reservoir enclos- 
ing the head spring. The plateau 
is frequented by the " tirath wwis," 
and other pilgrims.] 

The traveller enters the province of 
Chattisgarh about Amgaon, 95 m. £. 
of Nagpur, and continues in it to about 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


iUigarh station, at 334 m. The people 
of this country still consider themselves 
a septrate nationality, and always call 
themaelves ChaitUgaris, The Bajas 
of Batanpor raled originally over their 
36 forts, each the chief place of a 
district; but abont 750 A.D., the 
kingdom was divided into two, and a 
separate raja ruled in Raipur. Ealyan 
Sdii, who ruled between 1536 and 
1573, went to Delhi and made his 
submission to the great Akbar, and 
this prudent conduct resulted in the 
Haihaya rulers retaining their country 
until the Maratha invasion in 1740. 

The district, which is regarded as 
oneof the richestcom-growing countries 
in the world, and is known as the 
"granary of India," is in the shape of 
a vast amphitheatre opening to the S. 
on the plains of Raipur, but on every 
other side surrounded by tiers of hills. 
About 15 m. E. of Bilaspur is the 
precipitous hill ofDahla^ 2600 ft. high, 
affording a grand view. 

[12 m. N. of Bilaspur is Batanpor, 
or Rnttunpur, the old capital of the 
formerly self-contained kingdom of 
ChaUisgarh, or the S6 Forts, in which 
is included the districts of Raipur and 
Klaspur. The town lies in a hollow 
surrounded by the Eenda hills. It 
ceased to be the capital in 1787, but 
the crumbling arches of the old fort, 
the broken walls of the ancient palace, 
tnd the half-filled-up moat which sur- 
rounded the city, recall its former con- 
^on. The population is under 6000. 
The Brahmans of Ratanpur are still the 
leaders of their class all over Chattis- 
garh. The town covers an area of 15 
v{. m., and contains within its limits 
I forest of mango trees, with numerous 
tanks and temples scattered amidst 
fteir shade, l^iixed up with temples, 
peat blocks of masonry of uniform 
ihape commemorate distinguished satis 
[tuUees). The most prominent of these 
is near the old fort, where a largo build- 
ing records that there in the middle of 
tfi 17th century 20 ranis of Raja 
Ukshman Sahi devoutly fulfilled tne 
duty of self-immolation. Kota sta. on 
the Eatni branch is a few miles from 

Before reaching 

809 m. Champa sta. the 1 > 

is crossed. The stream cuts w. 
fields of Korba, some 20 m. N. ot ^^ 
railway ; and in the jungles on its banks 
are to be found some of the few herds 
of wild elephants still roaming through 
the forests of the Central Provinces. 

The line continues £. through a 
thinly-inhabited flat country to 

890 m. Belpahan sta., on leaving 
which the Eeb river, which flows S. 
into the Mahanadi river, is crossed by 
a considerable bridge. The scenery at 
the crossing is very fine. 

903 m. IharBiigada juno. sta. 

[Branch for the civil and military 
station of Sambalpur, distant 30 m. ; 
whence, at different times, diamonds 
have been exported to a considerable 
value. They are said to be found in the 
bed of the Mahanadi up-stream from 
the town, but whether the source of 
supply is the Mahanadi or the Eeb 
river is perhaps not clearly known.] 

From Tharsuguda the railway takes 
a N.E. course, and continuing tiirough 
a well-inhabited plain country to 

916 m. Bagdeni sta., it enters the 
hills, in which it continues until the 
plains of Bengal are reached. 

936 m. Ctarpos sta. Hereabouts the 
forests are very dense, and in the rainy 
season they are largely resorted to by 
wild elephants. Between 

947 m. Konmarkela sta. and 

945 m. Bonrkela sta. near Kalunga, 
the Brahmini river is crossed. The 
natives here earn a very fair living by 
washing the river-sands for gold. The 
view up-stream is very grand when the 
river is in flood. 

991 m. Honarpur sta. Here the 
railway enters the Saranda forests, 
which contain some of the finest Sal 
trees {Shorea robusta) in India. The 
line winds round hills, passing close 
under them on both sides. The sum- 
mit of the range is reached through a 
heavy cutting leading into a tunnel. 
During the construction of the Bengal- 
Nagpur Railway through these forests 
and heavy jungles very great diflSculty 
was experienced in procuring labour, 
as they have a very had reputation for 
unheal thiness. The few inhabitants 

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these wilds are nearly all Kols, an 
aboriginal race. 

1015 m. fitonoa sta. is only 2 m. 
from Farahat, the principal town of 
what was formerly a separate Zamin- 
dari state of the same name. 

In 1857 Anan Sing the last Riga of 
Parahat rebelled, and was sentenced to 
imprisonment for life at Benares. The 
estate of Parahat was confiscated, and 
is now under the management of 

1028 m. Chakardarpnr sta. Here 
the hills recede. The country is well 
cultivated. This is a considerable rail- 
way settlement and engine-changing 
station. A good road connects Chak- 
ardarpur wiui Ranchi and the Chota- 
Nagpur plateau. 

Ghota-Nagpur is the seat of a Mis- 
sionary Bishop of the Church of 
England, who has a handsome Church 
and good Schools and Native Mission in 
the town of Ranchi : there are com- 
munities of Christian Kols^ the result 
of extensive S.P.G. missions, conducted 
by a brotherhood from Trinity College, 

[Chaibaia, a civil station, is distant 
about 16 m. to the S. A great fair is 
held here at Christmas-time, to which 
the people of the country flock. 
Athletic sports, races, and national 
dances take place on the last day of 
the year, and no better opporhmity 
can be taken for seeing the people. 

1062 m.Gha]idil sta. Before this place 
is reached, the hills again close in on 
the line. Dalma HiU, 3407 ft. above 
sea-level, is seen 12 m. £. It is from 
the country about here that the labour- 
ers for the tea-cultivation in Upper 
Assam and Cachar are mainly recruited. 

1095 m. Pumlia sta. The ^head- 
quarters of the Manbhum District, 
through which the traveller has been 
passing for many miles. The place 
has nearly 10,000 inhabitants and the 
usual offices of a civil station. From 
here also a road runs to Ranchi. 

1147 m. ABenaol junc sta. [Branch 
of about 10 m. W. to the coal-mines.] 
About 6 m. before Asensol is reached 
the river Damuda is crossed on a very 
line bridge. From Asensol to Calcutta, 

a distance of 132 miles, the traveller 
proceeds by the East Indian Railway. 
(See p. 61.) 


Ehandwa to Ajmere (Rajputana 
and Malwa Metre Rly.) 

From Bombay 853 m. Khandwa junc ita. 
The traveller is here transferred to tiie 
metre-gauge line. 

At 38 m., Hortakka sta., D.B., the 
Nerbudda river is crossed by a fine 
bridge, with a cart-road under the rails. 

This neighbourhood abounds in large 
game of every sort 

[A good cart road of 6 m. leads to 
Unkazji, a place quite worth visiting. 
The best mode of transit is by river 
in one of the large flat-bottomed boats 
found at Mortakka, where there is 
accommodation for Europeans at the 
Serai. The stream is ascended before 
the westerly breeze, and is descended 
by oars with the aid of the current 
Provisions must be taken. The country 
is wild, wooded, and the scenery on t3ie 
river very beautiful, 

Unkarji is more properly Omkarji, 
from the mystic syllable Om (au 
ejaculation used at the beginning 
of a prayer). The Oreai Temple oj 
Omkar is situated in the island of 
Mandhata in the Nerbudda. It is said 
that the island was ori^ally called 
Baidurya Mani Parvat, but its name 
was changed to Mandhata as a boon 
from Shiva to Raja Mandhatri, the 17th 
monarch of the Solar Race, who per- 
formed a great sacrifice here to that 

The area of the isle is about five- 
sixths of a sq. m., and a deep ravine 
cuts it from N. to S. At the N. the 
ground slopes gently, but terminates 
at the S. and E. in precipices 500 ft. 
high. At this point the S. bank of 
the Nerbudda is equally steep, and 
between the cliffs the river is exceed- 
ingly deep, and full of alligators and 

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large fish. Hunter says that the N. 
branch of the Nerbudda is called the 
Kareri, and it is believed that a stream 
80 called enters the Nerbudda 1 m. 
higher up, passes unmixed through it, 
and again leaves it at Mandhata, thus 
making it a double junction of two 
holy rivers. 

On both sides of the river the rocks 
are of a greenish hue, very boldly 
stratified. It is said that the Temple 
of Omkar and that of Amreshwar on 
the S. bank of the river are two of the 
twelve great temples which existed in 
India when Mahmud of Ghazni des- 
troyed Somnath in 1024 a.d. During 
the wars of the 17th and 18th centuries, 
the S. banks were deserted and over- 
grown with jungle, and when the 
Peshwa desired to repair the temple it 
could not be found, so a new one was 
built, with a group of smaller ones. 
Afterwards part of it was found, and 
the late Raja Mandhata built a temple 
over it ; but its sanctity and even its 
name have been appropriated by that 
which the Peshwa built. 

The Raja Mandhata, who is hered- 
itary custodiuu of the temples, is a 
Bhilala, who claims to be 28th de- 
scendant of the Ohauhan Bharat Sing, 
who took Mandhata from Nathu Bhil 
in 1165 A.D. The old temples have 
suffered from the Mohammedans, and 
every dome has been overturned and 
every fimire mutilated. The gateways 
are finely carved. The oldest temple in 
that on the Birkhala rocks at the £. 
Old, where devotees used to cast them- 
idves over the cliflfs up till the year 
1824, when the custom was abandoned. 
The temple consists of a courtyard, 
with a vei-andah and colonnades sup- 
ported by massive pillai-s boldly carved. 
On the hill are the niins of a very fine 
Ttmple to Siddeshvara Mahademty which 
aiood on a plinth 10 ft. high. Round 
tie plinth was a frieze of elephants, 5 
ft. high, carved in relief with remark- 
aWe skill, on slabs of yellow sandstone, 
hat all but two of the elephants ai-e 

In front of the Temple to Oauri Som- 
neUh is an inmiense bull carved in a fine 
«fre«ii stone, and 100 yds. farther is a 
pillar 20 ft. long. On the island itself 

all the temples are Shivite, but on the 
N. bank of the Nerbudda are some old 
temples to Vishnu, and a group of Jain 
temples. Where the river bifurcates 
are some ruined gateways, and a large 
building on which are 24 figures of 
Vishnu, well carved in green stone. 
Among them is a lar^ figure of the 
boar Avatar. On an image of Shiva, 
in the same building, is the date 1346 
A.D. Farther down the bank, in the 
Ravana ravine, is a prostrate figure 
18} ft. long, with ten arms holding 
clubs and skulls. On its chest is a 
scorpion, and at its right side a rat, 
and one foot rests on a prostrate human 

The bed of the ravine is covered with 
huge basalt blocks slightly carved. 
The Jain Temples stand on an eminence 
a little back from the river. The 
largest is on a plinth of basalt, 5 ft. 
high. The £. wall is still complete. 
On each side of the doorway is a ngure 
with Shivite and Jain emblems curi- 
ously intermixed. The hills near these 
temples, as well as the island, are 
covered with remains of habitations. 

A great fair is held at the end of 
October, attended by 15,000 persons. 
According to a prophecy, the fulfilment 
of which the Brahmans at Mandhata 
anxiously expect, the sanctity of the 
Ganges will soon expire and be trans- 
ferrw. to the Nerbudda. The scenery 
around the island is beautiful.] 

58 m. CHunral sta. From this point 
the ascent of the ghat commences and 
continues almost into Mhow. The 
scenery is very fine. On approaching, 
71 m., Fatal Paai sta. look out on the 
1. for the waterfall of that name. 

74 m. Mhow sta. (R.), D.B., in the 
territory of Holkar, an important mili- 
tary cantonment of British and native 
troops, headquarters of a first-class 
district command, 1900 ft. above 
sea-level, pop. 27,000. Troops are 
stationed here as provided in theTreaty 
of Mandsaur of 1818. Mhow has no 
special interest for a traveller. The 
buildings and institutions are those 
common to all places where troops are 

[From Mhow an expedition of 30 m. 
may be made S.W. to the ruined city 

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of Mandu, the ancient capital of the 
kingdom of Malwa. It is in the terri- 
tory of the Maharaja of Dhar, and 
the best route is by tonga or carriage 
to the town of Dhar (10 m.), taking an 
introduction &om the political agent 
to the Maharaja, who will then make 
arrangements for the remaining 20 m. 
of the journey. Dhar is a walled town 
of some historical and archseolo^ical 
interest, containing several ruined 

Another route, avoiding Dhar, passes down 
the main road for about 10 m., and then 
strikes off into the country past Nal(^, 
where the ruins commence. A tent is neces- 
sary. Small game shooting may be obtained 
alon^ the road, but it is advisable to get per- 
mission from tiie general at Mhow, or at any- 
rate to inform the agent at Dhar. 

Mandu (1944 ft.) occupies 8 m. of 
ground, extending along the crest of 
the Vindhyas; and is separated from 
the tableland, with which it is on a 
level, by a valley. The traveller can 
pass the night in one of the temples, 
if he does not object to bats and bad 
air, but he will do better to take a tent 
with him and camp beyond the village, 
near the Jumma Musjid, on the verge 
of the great lake. Paths have been cut 
through the jungle to all the ruins of 
interest, the chief being the Jumma 
Muy'id, less injured than any of the 
others, and said to be the finest and 
largest specimen of Afghan architecture 
extant in India ; the Fort^ the Water 
Faktce, the marble Mausoleum of Ho- 
shamg Ohor% King of Malwa, who 
raised the city to great splendour ; and 
the Palace of Baz Bahadur, another 
king of Malwa. These once magni- 
ficent buildings are still, in their 
ruined state, very striking on account 
of their massive proportions. The 
fortifications were constructed by 
Hoshang Ghori, who reigned in the 
beginning of the 15th cent., and in 
whose time the city attained its greatest 
splendour. In 1526 Mandogarh was 
taken by Bahadur Shah, ruler of 6u- 
zerat, and annexed to his dominions, of 
which it remained part until their con- 
quest by Akbar in 1570. Of late years 
measures have been taken for the preser- 
vation of some of the most interesting 
ruins. According to Malcolm, Mandu 

was founded in 313 A.D. Its history 
(written by a resident of Dhar) should 
be looked at before visiting the place. 
It will be found full of interest for any 
one who is at all acquainted with the 
ancient history of Malwa. Sir Thomas 
Roe, the Ambassador of James L of 
England, entered Mandu in the train 
of Jehangir, part of the triumphal 
procession of the Great Mogul being 
500 elephants. Sir T. R. complains in 
his Memmrs of the lions which then 
infested the country, and killed one of 
his baggage ponies. The Rajas of tiie 
towns Mandu and Chitor were at feud 
with each other for many years (see 
Chitor). From June till Nov. the 
locality is very unhealthy. The place 
is very wild, the scenery fine, and game 
of various sorts, including panthers, 

87 m. Indore sta., D.B. This place 
is the capital of the state, and the 
residence of Holkar the Maharaja. 
Pop. 75,000. 

Indore stands on an elevated and 
healthy site. Of recent years modem 
improvements have been introduced. 
Roads have been metalled, drains 
built, the water-supply cared for, and 
the principal streets lighted. Among 
the chief objects of interest are the Lai 
Bagh or garden, the mint, high school, 
market-place, reading-room, dispen- 
sary, and large cotton-mill. There is 
considerable export trade in grain. To 
the W. of the city is an antelope pre- 
serve. Adjoining the town, on the 
other side of the rly., is the British 
Residency i an area assigned by treaty, 
and containing not only the house and 
park of the Governor-Grenerars agent 
and the bungalows occupied by his 
staff and other officials, but a bazaar of 
some importance, and tiie central opium 
stores and weighing agency. The 
barracks for the Governor- Greneral's 
native escort and the Rajkumar College 
for the education of young native chiefs 
and nobles are also within the Resi- 
dency limits. Here is a Mission of 
the Presbyterian Church of Canada. 

The palace of the Maharsga Q m. 
from the rly. sta.), with its lofty, 
many-storied gateway, is situated al- 

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most in the centre of the city, and is a 
ooaspictious object from every part of 
it It faces E. and is in a small square, 
with the Gopal Mandir to the S., 
wWch was built by Krishna Bai, H.H.'s 
mother. To the W. of the palace is 
the Sharafa Street, where the money- 
lenders, chiefly Marwaris, live. Close 
by is the Haldi Bazaar, where the 
dealers in opium live, and the Itwar, 
or Sunday Street, where a market is 
held on Sundays. At the end of this 
is the old jail. H.H. sometimes re- 
ceives guests in the Lai Bagh mentioned 
above, which is on the banks of the 
river, and contains a handsome villa. 
At one end is a house where several 
lions are kept, and there is also an 
aviary. In an upper room are portraits 
of many Hindu Kajas. In the lower 
story is a handsome hall of audience, 
which looks out on a ghat and on the 
Snrsuti river, which is dammed up 
here. From the terraced roof is a fine 
view over the country. 

The Sursuti river divides the city. 
The old capital of the Holkar family was 
Maheshvar in Nimar, on the banks of 
the Nerbudda, where is the magnificent 
Chattri (a monumental memorial) of 
Ahalya Bai, an ancestress of Holkar. Sir 
John Malcolm says of this lady : "The 
character of her administration was for 
more than thirty years the basis of the 
prosperity which attended the dynasty 
to which she belonged. She sat every 
<Uy for a considerable period in open 
<Iurbar transacting business. Her first 
principle of government appears to 
have been moderate assessment and an 
^ost sacred respect for the native 
i«ht8 of village officers and proprietors 
jfland. She heard every complaint 
a person, and although she continu- 
«fly referred causes to courts of equity 
ad arbitration, and to her ministers 
fcr settlement, she was always acces- 
iHe, and so strong was her sense of 
i*y on all points connected with the 
ftl&ibution of justice, that she is re- 
pftBented as not only patient, but un- 
HVwied in the investigation of the 
most insignificant causes when appeals 
were made to her decision. It appears, 
above all, extraordinary how she had 
mental and bodily powers to go through 

the labour she imposed upon herself, 
and which from the age of 80 to that 
of 60, when she died, was unremitted. 
The hours gained from the affairs of 
the state were all given to acts of 
devotion and charity, and a deep sense 
of religion appears to have strengthened 
her mmd in performance of her worldly 
duties. Her charitable foundations 
extend all over India, from the Hima- 
layas to Cape Comorin, and from Som- 
nath to the Temple of Jagannath in 
the E." Ahalya Bai is certainly the 
most distinguished female character in 
Indian history. This short notice is 
given as it will probably add interest 
to the temples and ghats erected by her, 
which the traveller will find in almost 
every place of note he visits in India. 

112 m. Fatehabad junc. sta. (R.) 
From here a short branch line of 26 m. 
runs to 

[UJJain (or Djjaiyini) D.B.). This 
famous city (the Greek 'Oi^viy) is situated 
on the right bank of the river Sipra, 
which falls into the Chambal after a 
total course of 120 m. Ujjain is in the 
dominions of the Maharaja Sindia of 
Gwalior in Malwa, of which it was once 
the capital. It stands in N. lat. 23" 1 1' 
10", and is the spot which marked the 
first meridian of Hindu geographers. It 
is said to have been the seat of the vice- 
royalty of Asoka, during the reign of his 
father at Pataliputra, the capital of 
Magadha, supposed to be the modem 
Patna, about 263 B.C. It is, however, 
best known as the capital of the cele- 
brated Vikramaditya (Valour's sun), 
founder of the era called Samvat, which 
begins 57 B. c. He is said to have driven 
out the Shakas or Scythians, and to 
have reigned over*almost all N. India. 
At his court flourished the Nine Gems 
of Hindu literature, viz. Dhanvantari, 
Kshapinaka, Amarasinha, Shanku, 
Vetala-bhatta, Ghata-karpara, Kali- 
dasia, Varanruchi, and Varaha-mihiiu. 
Of these the poet Ealidasa has obtained 
a European celebrity. Ujjain, as well 
as the whole province of Malwa, was 
conquered by Ala-ud-din Khilji, who 
reigned at Delhi 1295-1317 a.d. In 
1387 A.D. the Mohammedan Vicerov 
declared himself independent. ^ His 
name was Dilawar Khan Ghori, of 

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Afghau origin, who ruled from 1387 
to 1405, ana made Mandu his capital. 
In 1631 Malwa was conquered by 
Bahadur Shah, King of Guzerat, and in 
1671 by Akbar. In 1658 the decisive 
battle between Aurangzib and Miirad 
and their elder brother Dara, was 
fought near this city. In 1792 Jas- 
want Rao Holkar took Ujjain, and 
burned part of it. It then fell into 
the hands of Sindia, whose capital it 
was till 1810, when Daulat Rao Sindia 
removed to Gwalior. 

The ruins of ancient Ujjain are 
situated about 1 m. to the N. of the 
modern city, which is oblong in shape, 
and 6 m. in circumference, surrounded 
by a stone wall with round towers, and 
on all sides by a belt of groves and 
gardens. The principal bazaar is a 
spacious street, flanked by houses of 
two stories, and having also four 
mosques, many Hindu temples, and a 
palace of Maharajah Sindia. Near the 
palace is an ancient gateway, said to 
have been part of Vikramaditya's fort. 
At the S. end of the city is the Observa- 
tory, erected by Jai Sing, Rajah of 
Jeypore, in the time of the Emperor 
Muhammad Shah. The same prince 
erected observatories at Delhi, Jeypore, 
Benares, and Muttra (see Benares 

161 m. Rutiam June. sta. (R.), D.B. 
(Branch line W. by Godhra Anand 
junction for Baroda, E. to Ujjain), is the 
capital of a native state and the resi- 
dence of the chief. It was founded by 
Ratna, ^at- grandson of Uday Sing, 
Maharajah of Jodhpur. Ratna was at 
the battle of Fatehabad, near Ujjain, 
in which Jaswant Rao Rath or, with 
30,000 Rajputs, fought Aurangzib and 
Murad, with the whole Mogul army. 
Tod, vol. ii. p. 49, says, "Of all the 
deeds of heroism performed that day, 
those of Ratna of Ratlam by universal 
consent are pre-eminent. " Outside the 
town the chief has a very charming villa 
and garden, in which he entertains 
guests. The palace in which the Prince 
resides is within the walls, and is a fine 
new building, with a handsome reception 
room. The town is a great emporium 
for opium. There is a Chauk or 
square, buUt by Munshi Shahamat 

' Ali, who administered the state during 
the Raja's minority. Beyond this 
square is the Chandni Chauk, in which 
the bankers live ; and this leads to the 
Tirpoliya Gate, outside which is tiie 
Amrit Saugar tank, which in the rains 
is very extensive. In the town is a 
college with 600 students. 

213 m. Uandasor sta. A fortified 
town, remarkable as being the place 
where in 1818, at the end of the 
Pindari War, a treaty was made between 
the British Government and Holkar. 
Here severe fighting occurred in 1857 
between the rebels and a brigade of 
British troops moving from Mhow to 
relieve the British officers besieged in 
the fort of Neemuch. Early in that 
memorable year Mandasor became the 
headquarters of a serious rebellion 
which threatened all Malwa. 

243 m. Neemuoh sta. ^Oc (R.), D.B., is 
on the Rajputana and Malwa Rly. line. 
A cantonment of British troops con- 
taining the usual barracks and sub- 
sidiary buildings, also a small fort 
Neemuch was about the most southerly 
place to which the mutiny extended. 
In 1867 the place was garrisoned by a 
brigade of native troo^ of all arms of 
the Bengal army. This force mutinied 
and marched to Delhi, the European 
officers taking refuge in the fort, wnere 
they were besieged by a rebel force from 
Mandsaur, ana defended themselves 
gallantly until relieved \>j a brigade 
n'om Mhow. Some 42 ladies and non- 
combatants found refuge at Oodeypur. 
278 m. Chitor sta. ^ (Branch line 
to Debari for Oodeypore p. 85). The 
Gambheri river is crossed oy a massive 
old bridge of gray limestone, witii ten 
arches, all of pointed shape, except the 
sixth from the W. bank, which is semi- 
circular. The gateways and towers 
which existed at either end of the bridge 
have now disappeared. Unfortunately 
the bridge is deficient in water-way, so 
that floods pass over the parapets and 
cut into the banks, and consequently 
the ford has to be used. The date and 
builder of the bridge are not known, bat 
it is popularly said to have been built 
by Ari Sing, son of Rana Lakshman, 
both of whom were killed in the 
by 'Alau-ud-din, about 1308 A.©. 

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When Chitor was the capital of 
Mewar, the city was up in the fort, 
and the htdldings below were merely 
an outer bazaar. The modem town, 
called the Talehti or Lower Town of 
I Chitor, is little more than a walled 
village, with narrow, crooked streets, 
resembling an outwork to the lower 
gate of the principal W. entrance to 
the great Fort. 

The abrupt rocky hill crowned by 
this magnificent Fort rises 500 ft. above 
the surrounding country, and is a very 
conspicuous object, though its great 
length of 3| m. makes it lo% lower than 
it i^ally is. The whole of the summit 
is covered with ruins of palaces and 
temples, and the slopes with thick 

ale. A single ascent 1 m. Icng 
( to the summit, and is defended 
at intervals by seven very fine monu- 
mental gateways, large enough to con- 
tain gn^*d-rooms and even nne halls. 
They are the Padal Pol, the nearly 
obliterated (Broken) Bhairo or Phuta 
Pol, the Hanuman Pol, the Ganesh Pol, 
the Jorla Pol, the Lakshman Pol, and 
the main gate, or Ram Pol. 

Immediately outside the Padal Pol 
on the L is an erect stone marking the 
spot where Bagh Sing, the chief of 
Ueolia Pratapgarh, was killed during 
the siege of Cnitor by Bahadur Shah of 
Giuerat, iii 1535. 

Between the " Broken " and the Hanu- 
nan gates there are on the rt. two 
chattris marking the spots where the 
K&owned Jaimall of Bednor and his 
diBsman Kalla were killed in Akbar's 
siege, in 1568. Ealla carried his 
voonded chief down to have a last 
sboke at the enemy, and died, fighting. 
"^ 39 memorial stones are mucn 
^'derated, as if marking the shrine of 
3«*e minor deity. 

facing the great gate is a pillared 
Ml used as a guardhouse, and ap- 
pvintly of ancient construction. From 
tiatop of this hall, on which there are 
t* four-pillared chattris, a fine view of 
tivplain is obtained. 

tte Ram Pol is a large and hand- 
9me gateway, crowned by a Hindu 

^ for a striking account of this wonderftQ 
rort, see The Naulakha and LOtwM (JMa/rgue, 
botti by Rndyard Kipling. 

horizontal arch, in which the npper 
courses of either side, projecting in- 
wards, overlap each other till they 
meet, or nearly so, being then slabbed 
over. This is the construction of all 
the gateways on the ascent, except the 
Jorla, though in one, the Lakshman, 
the lower angles of the projecting 
courses are sloped off, giving the whole 
the outline of a regular pomted arch. 
Inside the gate, on each side, is a fine 
hall, supported on square-shaped and 
slightly tapering antique pillars. 

Within, directly facing the gate, 
the hill a^n rises steeply, and at the 
foot of this upper rise is a chattri mark- 
ing where Patta Sing felL 

The site of the old city is eveiy. 
where covered with ruins. The chief 
objects of interest are the Towers of 
Fame and Victory, the only two remain- 
ing of a great number of similar monu- 
ments which probably once adorned the 
brow of Chitor. 

The old Jain Towar of Fame stands 
up grandly on the E. rampart. This 
tower is called the small Kirthanay 
which is a contraction of Eirthi 
Stambh. Fergusson thus describes it: 
"One of the most interesting Jaina 
monuments of the age (the first or 
great age of Jaina architecture, which 
extended down to about the year 1300, 
or perhaps a little after that) is the 
tower of Sri AUat (Rana Alluji). It is 
a singularly elegant specimen of its 
class, about 80 ft. in height, and 
adorned with sculptures and mouldings 
from the base to the summit. An 
inscription once existed at its base, 
which gave its date as 896 A.D., and 
though the slab was detached, this is 
so nearly the date we shouM arrive at 
from the style that there seems little 
doubt that it was of that age. It was 
dedicated to Adnath, the first of the 
Jaina Tirthankars, and his figure is 
repeated some hundreds of times on 
the face of the tower ; but so far as I 
could perceive, not that of any of the 
other Jaina saints. The temple in the 
foreground, S. side, is of a more modem 
date, being put together, principally, 
of fragments of other bnildings, which 
have disappeared." 

The tower consists of seven stories, 

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with an internal narrow and oramped 
staircase ; the top storey is open, and its 
roof, which rests on pillars, and has been 
much damaged by lightning, has bushes 
growing on it Its construction is locally 
attributed by some to Ehatan Rani, wile 
of Khata Bana, and by others to Allata 
Rana, who ruled a.d. 950 or accordmg 
to Tod A.D. 896. Fragments of an in- 
scribed stone are on the ground under 
a tree just N. of the tower. 

From the W. ridge the view opens out, 
and a semicircular valley is seen with the 
Elephant reservoir close to the cliff and 
a baclqground of trees, out of which rises 
the magnificent Jaya-stambh or Tower 
of Victory. Of this Mr. Fergusson says : 
''To Kumbo, who reigned from 1418-68, 
we owe this tower, which was erected to 
commemorate his victory over Mahmud, 
kine of Malwa, in 1439. It is a Pillar 
of Victory, like that of Trajan at Rome, 
but of inhnitely better taste as an archi- 
tectural object. It has nine storeys, 
each of which is distinctly marked on 
the outside. A stair in the centre 
leads to each storey, the two upper ones 
being open and more ornamented than 
Idiose below. It stands on a base 47 ft. 
square and 10 ft. high, and is 30 ft. 
square rising to a height of 122 ft., the 
whole being covered with ornaments and 
sculptures to such an extent as to leave 
no plain part, while this mass of decora- 
tion is kept so subdued that it in no way 
interferes with the outline or general 
effect. The old dome was* injured bjy^ 
lightning, and a new one was substi- 
tuted by H. H. Sarup Sing. The stair 
is much wider and easier than that in 
the Jain tower (the small Eirthan), and 
in the inside are carvings of Hindu 
deities witb the names below. In the 
top storey are 2 of the original 4 slabs 
with long inscriptions. The tower took 
7 to 10 yrs. to build, from 1548 to 
1558. On the road at the comer of the 
lower platform is a square pillar record- 
ing a sati in 1468, A.D." 

Close by the gate of the Sun, on the 
E. rampart, are two large tanks, and ad- 
Joining them is the fine Palace of Bana 
Kpmbo, the builder of the Tower of 
Victory, a fine example of the domestic 
architecture of RajpJutana before the 
Mussulman invasion, showing all the 

beautv of detail which chamctoises 
such buildings in generaL In front is 
a court surrounded by guard-roonuand 
entered by a vaulted gateway. 

The Palace of Batna Sing (or Bhim) 
is a very pleasing example of the style of 
the Hindu architecture of this country 
in the 13th cent That of his wile 
Rani Padmani is a lai^e and beautiful 
building overlooking the tank. From 
one of these palaces Akbar carried off 
the famous gates now in the fort at Agra. 

The Temple of Vriji, built by Bana 
Eumbo about 1450, is a massive build- 
ing with a sikra (or tower) of unusu- 
ally large proportions. Adjoining it 
is a temple, in the same style, 
built by his wife, the famous Mira Bai, 
of which the chief peculiarity is that 
the procession path round the cell is 
an open colonnade with four small 
pavilions at the comers. 

At the highest point in Chitor a broad 
terrace has been made, whence there 
is a magnificent view. 

Near the Tower of Victory is the 
Mahasata, a small wooded terrace, the 
pleasantest spot on the hill, which was 
the place of cremation of the Banas 
before Oodeypur was founded. Below, 
on a lower terrace, are the Gaumukh 
springs and reservoir. The sjHings 
issue from the cliff at places where are 
cow-mouth carvings, hence the name. 
To the S.W. is a large carved stone 
temple, built by Rana Muka^L On 
the back wall is a huge carved head. 

A branch line runs from Chitor to 
Debari, whence there is a regular service 
of vehicles toOodeypore, 8 milesdistant 
Dabok, where Uvea Colonel Tod, the 
first Resident and author of the ** Annals 
of Ragastan," lies in ruins a few miles 
south of Debari. 

About 1 m. before reaching the capi* 
tal, the Arh river is crossed, with 
the old ruined town of that name 
on its banks. This stream collects 
the whole drainage of the Girwa, 
the natural outlet from which was 
dammed up with an immense masonry 
embankment by Maha Rana Udai 
Sing. He thus formed the Udai 
Saugar Lake, the surplus waters from 
which, escaping, form the Birach riven 

Oodeypore, or Udaypur, the marvel* 

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londy picturesque capital of the state 
of Mewar, the residence of the Maha- 
rana, Samp Sing, and of the British 
fiesident, to whom a suitable intro- 
I dflction should be brought. 

It is difficult to conceive anything 
more beautiful than the situation of this 
place. It may be described as the centre 
of the Lake District of India. Some of 
the best views are obtained from the 
palace, the embankment, or the Dudh 
Talao, more especially in the morning, 
when the early sun lights up the marble 
of the water palaces, with the dark 
water beyond, and the still darker back- 
ground of the hills. 

The Oity is surrounded by a bastioned 
wall, which towards the S. encloses 
several large gardens. The W. side is 
farther protected by the lake, and the 
N. and E. sides by a moat supplied 
from the lake, while on the S. the 
fortified hill of Eklinjgarh rises steep 
and rugged. The principal gateways 
are the Hathi Pol or " Elephant Gate," 
to the N. ; the Kherwara Gate, to the 
S. ; the Suiaj Pol, or "Gate of the 
Snn," on the E. ; and the Delhi Gate. 
On the side towards the lake is a 
handsome TirpoUyay or three-arched 
water gateway. Another gate with 
massive arches opens on a bridge, and 
leads to a suburb on the W. of the lake. 
The beautiful Pola Lake lies to the 
W. of the city. It is said to have been 
constructed in portions at different 
periods. TJdai Sing probably com- 
menced it. The N. portion is called the 
Samp Saugar, having been constructed 
by liaha Rana Samp Sing. The groves 
and palaces on the islands are so l^auti- 
fal ^at the traveller will be glad to 
pais wie whole day there ; but the boats 
<a the lake belong to the Maha Rana, 
aad are only obtainable through the 
Boident. There is fine makseer and 
otW fishing in the lake, for which 
pttmission must be obtained. In one 
of the Palaces the Emperor Shah Jehan, 
then Prince Salim, took shelter from 
tie displeasure of his father Jehangir. 
Here are retained some relics of the 
ftince, and there is a handsome shrine 
of polished stone. Here too the 42 
rafiogees from Neemuch, at the time of 
the Mutiny, were received and pro- 

tected by the Maha Rana Sarup Sing. 
From another of the palaces, Outram 
when taunted by the Maha Rana, 
spi-ang into the lake, swarming though 
it was with alligators, who were being 
fed, and swam to shore. The fine 
Hindu Temple is a perfect example of 
the Indo- Aryan style. ** The porch is 
covered with a low pyramidal roof, 
placed diagonally on the substructure, 
and rising in steps, each of which is 
ornamented with vases or urns of 
varying shapes. The tower is orna- 
mented by four flat bands, of great 
beauty and elegance of design, between 
each of which are 35 little repetitions 
of itself, placed one above the other in 
5 tiers, the whole surmounted by an 
amalaka, and an urn of very elegant 
design. Every part is carved with great 
precision and delicacy." (Ferguson.) 
A day should be spent in a visit to 
the lUyyal Palace on the brink of the 
lake, if permission can be obtained 
from the Resident. The modem part 
of the palace, close above the lake, 
is the part most accessible. *' It is a 
most imposing pile of granite and 
marble, of quadrangular shape, rising 
at least 100 ft. from the ground, and 
flanked with octagonal towers, crowned 
with cupolas. Altnough built at various 
periods, uniformity of design has been 
well preserved ; nor is there in the East 
a more striking structure. It stands 
upon the very crest of a ridge, running 
parallel to, but considerably elevated 
above the margin of the lake. The 
terrace, which is at the E. and chief 
front of the palace, extends throughout 
its length, and is supported by a triple 
row of arches, from the declivity of 
the ridge. The height of this arcaded 
wall is full 60 ft., and although all is 
hollow beneath, yet so admirably is 
it constructed, that an entire range of 
stables is built on the extreme verge 
of the terrace, on which all the forces 
of the Maha Rana, elephants, cavalry, 
and infantry, are often assembled. 
From this terrace the city and the valley 
lie before the spectator, whose vision is 
bounded only by the distant hills; 
while from the summit of the palace 
nothing obstructs the view over lake 
and mountain." There is a hospital, 

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church, and home of the U.P. Church 
of Scotland. 

A driye should he taken along the 
principal street of Oode3rpur from the 
Hathi Pol through the main hazaar to 
the Palace, ^adually rising along the 
side of the ndge and passing the great 
Jagdes Temple. Another drive leads 
through the hazaars from either the 
Delhi or Suraj Pol Gate to the Ottkib 
Gurdea^ which, with its stately trees, 
beautiful flowers, walks and fountains, 
is well worth a visit. Passing through 
it, go to the IhjiM, TcUao or *'muk 
tank," a branch of the Pechola Lake, 
and by a picturesque road round it re- 
turning to the D. B. by the outside road. 

Another visit may oe made to Ahar^ 
3 m. to the E. of the lake, where are 
the cenotaphs of the Maharanas. These 
chattris containing the royal ashes stand 
in what is called the Mahasati or royal 
place of cremation, which is enclosed by 
a lofty wall and is adorned by many fine 
trees. The most remarkable are those 
of Sangram Singh ILj a large and 
beautifal structure, and of Amara Singh, 
grandson of Udai Singh.^ Besides the 
modem village of Ahar, there is the older 
town, where are ruined temples, which 
are the chief objects of interest, and also 
some still more ancient mounds. 

If he has time, the traveller may go to 
see the great lake at Kankroliy or Kaj- 
nagar, called the Bajsamudra, 80 m. to 
the N. of Oodejrpur. The retaining wall 
of this lake is of massive masonry, in 
many places 40 ft. high. The Band or 
Ghat is 1115 ft. long, with pavilions and 
torans or ornamental arches all of 
marble ; behind is an embankment 35 
yds. wide. It was erected (1660) as a 
famine work. There is a fair cart-track 
to this place. 

The Dhibar, or Jaisamand lake, 
is about 20 m. S.E. of Oodeypur city 
through a wild country ; it is about 
9 m. K>ng by 5 m. broad, and is one of 
the most beautiful sights in India.] 

379 m. Nuueerabad sta., D.B. 
The military cantonment for Ajmere. 
The station was originally laid out in 
1818 by Sir David Ochterlony. It is a 
long, strangling place. Some interest 
IS attached to Nusseerabad from the 
* See FeiguMon. 

fact that when the mutiny broke out 
in 1857, the Bombay Cavaliy (1st) were 
compelled to remain neutral— tiboufh 
loyally inclined — as the families of the 
native officers and men were tt the 
mercy of a Bengal regiment, who 
mutinied and marched on Ajmere. A 
cavalry skirmish took place near where 
the railway station now stands, in 
which several officers lost their lives. 
None of the officers' bungalows of the 
1st cavalry were touched. One officer, 
on his return to Nusseerabad in more 
peaceful times, found even his dock 
on mantelpiece as he left it. Good 
small -game shooting and pig-sticking 
are to be had in the neighbourhood. 
Here is a Scottish (U.P.) Mission. 
393 m. Ajmere junc. sta. (see Rte. 6.) 

Itarsi Junction to Oa^itnfobe, 



Itarsi junc sta. 464 m. from Bombay 
on the G.I.P. Railway (see Rte. 1). 

11 m. HoBhangabad sta., D.B. A 
town with population of 16,000 ; the 
headquarters of a district of the same 
name. The place contains nothing to 
detaiA a traveller. Passing out of Hosh- 
angabad the railway crosses the Ner- 
buada on a fine bndge. About 4 m. 
N. of the Nerbudda river the ascent 
of the ghat commences, and at the top 
the line runs on the tableland of 
Malwa, which has an average elevation 
of 1500 ft 

57 m. Bhopal sta. (R). D.B. [Branch 
to Ujjain]. The town stands on tfie N. 
bank of a fine and extensive lake, 4} m. 
long and IJ broad. Bhopal is the capita] 
of a native state, under the Oentra] 
Indian Agency. It has an area of 820C 
sq. m. The d3masty was founded by Dosj 
Muhammad, an Afghan chief in t] 
service of Aurangzib, who took adva 
tage of the troubles that followed 1 
Emperor's death to establish his in< 
pendence. His familv have always sho^ 
their friendship for the British. In 1 T 
when General Goddard made his fiunc 
march across India, Bhopal was t 
only Indian sUifi which showed its 

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Mendly. In 1809, when General Close 
commanded another expedition in the 
neighbourhood, the Nawab of Bbopal 
applied to be received under British 
notection, but without success. The 
Nawab then obtained assistance from 
the Pindaris, in the gallant struggle he 
maintained to defend himself against 
Sindia and Baghoji Bhonsla, in the 
course of which his capital underwent 
a severe but ineffectual siege. 

In 1817 the British Government in- 
tervened and formed an alliance with 
the Nawab of Bhopal, who was in 
1818 guaranteed his possessions by 
treaty, on condition of furnishing 600 
horse and 400 infantry, to maintain 
which five districts in Malwa were 
assigned to him. He was soon after- 
waids killed by a pistol accidentally 
discharged by a child. His nephew, an 
infant, was declared his successor, and 
betrothed to his infant daughter, but 
the IJawab's widow, Khudsya Begam, 
endeavoured to keep the government 
in her own hands, and the declared 
heir resigned his claim to the throne 
and to the hand of the Nawab's daughter 
Sikandar Begam in favour of his brother 
Jehangir Muhammad. After long dis- 
sensions, Jehangir Muhammad was in- 
stalled as Nawab, in 1837, through the 
mediation of the British. He died in 
1844, and was succeeded by his widow, 
Si]candar Begam, who ruled till her 
death in 1868. She left one daughter, 
8bdi Jehan Begam. The State main- 
tains 694 horse, 2200 foot, 14 field guns 
and 43 other guns, with 291 artillery- 
men, and pays £20,000 to the British 
Government in lieu of a contingent. 

The name of Bhopal is said to be 
derived from that of its founder, Raja 
ftoj, and the dam by which he formed 
'fte Tank, dam being in Hindu paL 
thus BhojjMil has been corrupted into 
Aopal. The city proper is enclosed 
% a masonry wall, 2 m. in circuit. 

The traveller should visit the Palace 
4 the Begam, which is not of much 
»ehitectural beauty, but is a large and 
llQiofiing building; the Citadel, from 
pf» walls of wMai a fine view of the 
Jake and surrounding country is ob- 
tained; the Jiimma Musjid, built by 
^ late Khudsya Begam; the Moti 

Musjid, built by the late Sikandar 
Begam (it somewhat resembles the 
Mosque at Delhi) ; the MirU and Ar- 
senal, and the Gardens of the Khudsya 
and Sikandar Begams. 

The town of Bhopal is well kept and 
lighted, and fairly clean. In the city 
proper, water has been laid on to all 
the houses. The Water-works were 
built by the Khudsya Begam, and are 
much superior to those of most Indian 
cities. The s7naUer lake E. of the town, 
2 m. long, was constructed by Chota 
Khan, minister of Nawab Hyat . 
Muhammad Khan, a former ruler of 
Bhopal. The dam is of masonry, and 
is an imposing work. 

90 m. Bhilsa sta. A fortified town 
in the Gwalior state. Pop. 7000. The 
town is situated on the rt. or E. bank 
of the river Betwa, and is perched on 
a rock of 1546 ft. above sea-level, and 
has a fort enclosed by a castellated 
stone wall, and sun-ounded by a ditch ; 
the suburb outside has some spacious 
streets containing good houses. In the 
fort lies an old gun, 19^ ft in length, 
with a bore of 10 in., said to have been 
made by order of the Emperor Jehaiigir. 
After changing hands several times, 
Bhilsa was finally, in 1570, incorporated 
with the Empire of Delhi by Akbar. 
The tobacco produced in the vicinity 
of the town is considered the finest in 
India. Bhilsa is now chiefly note- 
worthy as a famous place of Hindu pil- 
grimage to the temples, picturesq^uely 
situated in the bed of the Betwa nver, 
and as giving its name to the remark- 
able and interesting series of Buddhist 
Topes found in its neighbourhood.^ 

Mr. Fergusson says, in his History 
of Architecture : "The most extensive, 
and perhaps the most interesting group 
of topes in India, is that known as the 
Bhilsa Topes: within a district not 
exceeding 10 m. E. and "W., and 6 m. 
N. and S., are five or six groups of 
topes, containing altogether between 
25 and 30 individual examples." 

1 These are described in General Cunning- 
ham's BhiUa Topes, 1 voL 8vo. 1854 ; also In 
Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship. One half 
of this book and 46 of its plates, besides wood- 
cuts, are devoted to the illustration of the 
Great Tope. A cast of the B. gateway is in the 
South Kensington and Edinburgh Museums, 

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Notwithstanding all that has been 
written about them, we know very little 
that is certain regarding their object 
and their history. 

5 m. from Bhilsa is Sanohi, A where 

there is a group of 11 topes, 
the principal is — 

Of these 

cended by a broad double ramp on one 
side. It was probably used for proces- 
sions round the monument The centre 
of the mound is quite solid, being of 
bricks laid in mud, but the exterior is 
faced with dressed stones, over which 
was cement nearly 4 in. thick, origin- 
ally adorned, no doubt, with paintings 
or ornaments in relief 

As is usual in these Buddhist topes, 
the building is surrounded by ** rails," 
exhibiting the various steps by which 
the modes of decorating them were 
arrived at, with 4 gateways or torans 
(3 m situ), covered with most elaborate 
sculptures, quite unequalled by any 
other examples known to exist in India. 
The period of erection probably ex- 
tended from about 250 B.C. to the Ist 
cent, of the Christian era; the rails 
were constructed first and the gate- 
ways at intervals afterwards. 

Besides the gi-oup at Sanchi, tliere is 
at Sonari, 6 m. off, a group of eight 
topes, of which two are important struc- 
tures in square courtyards, and in one 
of these numerous relics were found. 
At SadharOf 3 m. farther, is a tope 101 
ft. in diameter, which yielded no relics. 

Section Great Tope at Sanchi. 


The Chreat Tope, a dome 106 ft. in 
diameter and 42 ft. high. On the top 
is a fiat space 34 ft. in diameter, once 
surrounded by a stone railing. In the 
centre was a **Tee," intended to repre- 
sent a relic-casket. The dome, 42 ft. 
high, rasts on a sloping base 120 ft. in 
diameter, and 14 ft. high, and was as- 

In one tope, 24 ft. in diameter, were 
found relics of Sariputra and others 
like those found at Sanchi. 

At Bhojpur, 7 m. from Sanchi, are 
37 topes, the largest 66 ft. in diameter, 
and in the next to it important relics 
were found. At Andher, 6 m. W. of 
Bhojpur, is a group of three small but 

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?e(y interesting topes. ** As fai' as can 
beat present ascertained," says Mr. Fer- 
gmson, " there is no reason for assuming 
that any of these topes are earlier than 
the age of Asoka, 220 B.C., nor later 
than the 1st century a.d., though their 
mis may be later." 

In 1883, by order of the Grovemment 
of India, the main group of buildings 
received much attention. The fallen 
gateways were set up. The sacred rails 
were secured, and, where fallen, were 
re-erected. The body of the stupa was 
restored to its original shape, and the 
processional paths were cleared. Where 
it was necessary to put in new stone 
for structural purposes the surfaces have 
been left quite plain. 

143 m. Bina junc. sta. (R.) A line 
from here runs S.K over an undulating 
coontiy to Saugor and Dnmmon. 

[47 m. Saugor, D.B. Principal town 
and headquarters of Saugor district. 
Central Provinces. A military canton- 
ment Pop. 44,000. Saugor stands 1940 
ft. above sea-level, on the borders of 
a fine lake, nearly 1 m. broad, from 
vhich it derives its name. The lake is 
said to be an ancient Banjara work, but 
the present city dates only from the 
end of the 17th cent, and owes its 
riae to a Bundela RajaJi, who built a 
small fort on the site of the present 
stmcture in 1660, and founded a village 
called Parkota, now a quarter of the 
modem town. Saugor was next held 
by Chatar Sal, and formed part of 
tie territory left by him on his death 
10 his ally the Peshwa. Govind Pandit 
was appointed by the Peshwa to ad- 
minister the countiy, and his descend- 
aats continued to manage it till 
Aortly before it was ceded to the 
Bdtish Government by the Peshwa Baji 
Bao in 1818. During this period the 
tetn was twice plundered by the Pin- 
doi chief Amir Khan and his army, 
and again by Sindia in 1804. During 
the Mutiny of 1857 the town and fort 
wm held by the English for eight 
menths, until the arrival of Sir Hugh 
Rose. During that time the whole of 
the surrounding country was in posses- 
ttittiof thereb^ 

Saugor town is well built, with wide 
streets. The large bathing-ghats on the 
banks of the lake, for we most part 
surrounded with Hindu temples, add 
much to its appearance. 

The existing Fort at Saugor was com- 
pleted by the Maratbas about 1780. 
It stands on a. height N. W. of the lake, 
commanding the whole of the city and 
surrounding country, and consists of 20 
round towers, varying from 20 to 40 ft 
in height, connected by thick curtain 
walls. It encloses a space of 6 acres, 
for the most part covered with old 
Maratha buildings two stories high. 
The British Government have con- 
structed a magazine, a large building 
now used for medical stores, and a bar- 
rack for the European guard. The 
only entrance is on the E. side. The 
building is now used as the tahsil, and 
as the office of the executive engineer. 
The laige castellated jail, capable of 
containing 500 piisoners, is situated 
about J m. E. of the lake ; the Deputy 
Commissioner's Court is on a hill over- 
looking the city and lake ; the Sessions 
Court-house, a little to the N. ; and the 
city kotwali, or station-house, under 
the western walls of the fort. In 1862 
an unhealthy swamp lying N. E. of the 
lake, which cut off the quarter called 
Gopalganj from the rest of the city, 
was converted into a large garden with 
numerous drives and a piece of orna- 
mental water. The civil station begins 
with the mint, about 1 m. E. of the 
lake, and extends northwards for 1 m. 
till joined by the military cantonments, 
which extend in a north-easterly direc- 
tion for 2 J m., with the church in the 

182 m. LaUtpnr sta., D.B. The head- 
quarters of a district of the same name. 
Pop. 11,000. Formerly unimportant, 
this place is now bscomiug more 
prosperous. Buddhist remains built 
into the walls of modern buildings 
indicate that some large shrine once 
existed in the neighbourhood. 

207 m. Talbahat sta. A picturesque 
town with a large piece of artificial 
water covering more than 1 sq. m. 
The water is retained by damming the 

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streams that flow through a rocky 
barrier about 800 ft high. The ridge 
is covered with old battlements and 
defences. The fort was destroyed by 
Sir Hugh Rose in 1858. 

238 m. Jhansi June. sta.30c (R.), D.6. 
centre of the Indian Mid. Rly. system. 
The main line runs N.E. to Cawn- 
pore, a branch N. to Gwalior and Agra, 
and another £. through Banda to 
the £. I. Rly. at Manikpur. Jhansi 
is one of the main halting-places for 
troops proceeding up country. It is 
well worthy of a visit on account of its 
Fort, which the British Grovemment 
have exchanged with Maharaja Sindia 
for Gwalior. 

The Province of BundeUnrnd, in 
which Jhansi is situated, has for ages 
been one of the most turbulent and 
difficult to manage in all India. In 
the early part of the 17th century the 
Orchha state was governed by Bir 
Sing Deo, who built 9ie fort of Jnansi, 
8 m. to the N. of his capital, which is 
situated on an island m the Betwa 
river. He incurred the heavy dis- 
pleasure of Akbar by the murder of 
Abul Fazl, the Emperor's favourite 
minister and historian, at the instiga- 
tion of Prince Salim, afterwards known 
as the Emperor Jehangir. A force was 
accordingly sent against him in 1602 ; 
the country was ravaged and devastated, 
but Bir Sing himself contrived to 
escape. On the accession of his patron, 
Salim, in 1605, he was naturally 
pardoned, and rose into great favour ; 
but when, on the death of that em- 
peror in 1627, Shah Jehan mounted 
the throne, Bir Sing revolted. His 
rebellion was unsuccessful, and although 
he was permitted to keep possession of 
his dominions, he never regained all 
his former power and independence. 
During the troubled times which suc- 
ceeded, Orchha was sometimes in the 
hands of the Mohammedans and some- 
times fell under the power of Bundela 
chieftains. In 1732 Chatar Sal found 
it expedient to call in the aid of the 
Marathas, who were then invading the 
Central Provinces under their first 
Peshwa, Baji Rao. They came to his 
assistance with their accustomed promp. 

titude, and were rewarded on the Baja's 
death, in 1734, by a beouest of ojie- 
third of his dominions. The territory 
so ffranted included pc^ons of the 
mooem division of JhisMd, but not the 
existing district itaelf. In 1742, how- 
ever, the Marathas found a pretext for 
attacking the Orchha State, and an- 
nexing that amongst other territories. 
Their general founded the city of Jhansi, 
and peopled it with the inhabitants of 

The district remained under the rule 
of the Peshwas until 1817, when they 
ceded their richts to the E. I. Com- 
pany. Under British protection, native 
Kajas ruled until their folly and in- 
competency ruined the country, and 
when the dynasty died out in 1858 
their territories lapsed to the Britidi 
Government. The Jhansi State, with 
Jaloun and Chanderi Districts, were 
then formed into a Superintendency, 
while a pension was gpunted to the 
Rani or widow of tiie late Raja Rao. 
The Rani, however, considered herself 
aggrieved, both because she was not 
allowed to adopt an heir, and because 
the slaughter of cattle was permitted 
in the Jhansi territory. Reports were 
spread which excited the religious pre- 
judices of the Hindus. 

The events of 1857 accordingly found 
Jhansi ripe for rebellion. In May it 
was known that the troops were dis- 
affected, and on the 5th oi June a few 
men of the 12th Native In&ntry seized 
the fort containing the treasure and 
magazine. Many European officers 
were shot the same day. The re- 
mainder, who had taken refuge in 
a fort, capitulated a few days after, 
and were massacred with their families 
to the number of 66 persons, in spite of 
a promise of protection sworn on the 
Koran and Ganges water. The Rani 
then attempted to seize the supreme 
authority, but the usual anarchic 
quarrels arose between the rebels, during 
which the Orchha leaders laid siege 
to Jhansi and plundered the country 
mercilessly. On the 4th of April 1858 
the fort and town were captured by Sir 
Hugh Rose, who marched on to Kalpi 
without being able to leave a garrison 
at Jhansi. After hi» departure, tbi 

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rebellion broke out afresh, only the 
Gasarai chieftain in the N. remaining 
fiiithfal to the British cause. On the 
nth August a flying column under 
Colonel Liddell cleared out the rebels 
from Mhow, and after a series of sharp 
contests with various guerilla leaders, 
the work of reorganisation was fairly 
set on foot in ifovember. The Rani 
herself had previously fled with Tantia 
Topi, and finally fell in a battle at the 
foot of the rock fortress of Gwalior. 

The siege of Jhansi occupied Sir 
Hugh Rose's army from 21st March 
till 4th April 1858, and cost us 348 in 
killed and wounded, of whom 36 were 
officers. The engineers lost 4 officers 

escalade. Madleson, (quoting Sir Hugh 
Rose, gives the followmg description of 
Jhansi at the time of the investment : 

"The great strength of the Fort of 
Jhansi, natural as well as artificial, 
and its extent, entitle it to a place 
among fortresses. It stands on an 
elevated rock, rising out of a plain, and 
commands the oily and surrounding 
country. It is buut of excellent and 
most massive masonry. The fort is 
difi&eult to breach, because composed of 
granite ; ite walls vary in thickness 
from 16 te 20 ft It has extensive and 
elaborate outworks of the same solid 
construction, with front and flanking 
embrasures for artillery-fire, and loop- 
holes, of which in some places there were 
five tiers for musketry. On one tower, 
called the * white turret,' since raised in 
height, waved in proud defiance the 
standard of the high-spirited Rani. 
The fortress is surrounded on all 
sides by the city of Jhansi, the W. and 
part of the S. face excepted. The 
steepness of the rock protects the W. ; 
the fortified city wall springs from 
the centre of ite S. face, and ends 
in a high mound or nutmelon, which 
protecte by a flanking fire S. face. The 
mound was fortified by a strong circular 
liaation for five guns, round part of 
which was drawn a diteh, 12 ft. deep 
and 15 ft broad of solid masonry. 

** The city of Jhansi is about 4\ m. in. 
circumference, and is surrounded by a 
fortified and massive wall, from 6 to 12 
fL thick, and varying in height from 

18 to 80 ft., with numerous flanking 
bastions armed as batteries, with ord- 
nance, and loop-holes, with a banquette 
for infantry. The town and fortress 
were garrisoned by 11,000 men, com- 
posed of rebel sepoys, foreign mercen- 
aries, and local levies, and they were 
led by a woman who believed her cause 
to be just." 

It is being modernised and supplied 
with strong armament. The views 
from the top and from the road round 
the ramparts are very extensive. 

The old civil stetion (Jhansi Naoa- 
bad) atteched to Jhansi before 1861 
remains the headquarters of the dis- 
trict, and is under British rule. 

[7 m. from Jhansi, on the river Betwa, 
is the interesting native fort of Orchha, 
well worth a visit.] 

Between Jhansi and Cawnpore the 
country abounds in black buck. Num- 
erous old fortified villages are seen 
from the rly. train. 

308 m. Oral ( Urai) ste. (R.) A thriving 
place of 8000 inhabitents. The head- 
quarters of the Jaloun district. Before 
1839 the place was an insignificant 
village. There are some handsome 
Mohammedan tombs and the usual 
public offices. 

329 m. Ealpi ste. on the Indian 
Midland Railway. The town is situ- 
ated on the right bank of the Jumna 
amongst deep rugged ravines. The 
river here is crossed by an iron girder 
bridge. Tradition says that the town 
was founded by Basdeo or Vasude va, who 
ruled at Kamba from 330 to 400 a.d. 

Daring the Mogul period Kalpi 
played so large a part in the annals of 
this part of India that it would be im- 
possible to deteil ite history at length. 
After the Marathas interfered in the 
affairs of Bundelkund, the headquartere 
of their government were fixed at Kalpi. 
At the tmie of the British occupation 
of Bundelkund in 1803, Nana Gobind 
Rao seized upon the town. The British 
besieged it in December of that year, 
and, after a few hours' resistence, it 
surrendered. Kalpi was then included 
in the territory granted to Raja Himmat 
Bahadur, on whose d^thi in 1804, it I 



once more lapsed to Government. It 
was next handed over to Gobind Bao, 
who exchanged it two years later for 
villages farther to the "W. Since 
that time Kalpi has remained a British 
possession. After the capture of Jhansi, 
and the rout of the mutineers atKoonch, 
they fell back on Kalpi, which through- 
out the previous operations they had 
made their principal arsenaL Here, on 
22d May 1858, Sir Hugh Rose (Lord 
Strathnaim) again defeated a large 
force of about 12,000 under the Rani of 
Jhansi, Rao Sahib, and the Nawab of 
Banda, who then fled to Gwalior. 

Ealpi was formerly a place of far 
greater importance than at the present 
day. T^e East India Company made 
it one of their principal stations for 
providing their commercial invest- 
ments. The western outskirt of the 
town, alonff the river side, contains a 
large number of ruins, notably the 
tomb called the 84 Domes, and 12 
other handsome mausoleums. At one 
time the town adjoined these ruins, 
but it has gradually shifted south- 
eastward. Ganesganj and Temanganj, 
two modem quarters in that direction, 
at present conduct all the traffic. The 
buildings of the old commercial agency 
crown some higher ground, but are now, 
for the most part, empty. A ruined 
fort, situated on the steep bank of the 
Jumna, overhangs the ghat. 

874 m. Cawnpore junc. sta. (see 
p. 260). 


AoRA TO Gwalior, Jhansi, Banda, 
AND Manikpub. 

Starting from the Agra Fcyrt Statum 
(p. 168) by the Indian Midland RaU- 
way, the traveller reaches at 

36m. Dholpur sta. (R.), the chief town 
of the native state of thatname. In 1658 
Aurangzib defeated and killed his elder 
brother Dara-Shikoh at Ran-ka- 
Chabutara, 3 m. E. of Dholpur. The 
imperial princes, competitors for the 
crown, 'Azim and Mu'azzim, fought a 

Ct battle in 1707 at the village of 
jhta near Dholpur, and the former 
was killed, on which Mu'azzim became 
eniperor, mth the title of Bahadur Shah. 

The sights of Dholpur are not numer- 
ous. The Palace is a moderately hand- 
some and very commodious building. 
The tank of Much Kund, about 2 m. 
from Dholpur, is about ^ m. long, and 
contains several islets, on which are 
pavilions. The banks are lined with 
temples, but none of them are ancient 
or remarkable. There are alligators in 
the tank, but though crowds of pilgrims 
bathe in the watei-s, there is no story 
of any of them being caiTied ofL 

The river Chambal runs through 
this state, and is bordered everywhere 
by a labyrinth of ravines, some of which 
are 90 ft. deep, and extend to a distance 
of from 2 to 4 m. from the river banks, 
near which panthers are sometimes 
found. The floods of the Chambal are 
very remarkable. The highest recorded 
flood above summer level rose no less 
than 97 ft. There is a very fine Bridge 
over the stream about 4 m. from Dhol- 
pur, built of the famous red sandstone 
of Dholpur, a ridge of which, from 660 
to 1074 ft. above sea -level, runs for 
60 m. through the territory, and sup- 
plies inexhaustible quarries. 

77m.OWALIOE8ta.3^(R.),D.B. The 

capital of Maharaia Sindia, and &mous 
for its fort, one of the most ancient and 
renowned strongholds in India. 

For many years a strong brigade of 
British troops was maintained at Morar, 
a few m. E. of the fort. The latter 
was garrisoned by British troops from 
1858 to 1886, when it was restored to 
the Maharajah's custody, and Gwalior 
and Morar were made over to him in 
exchange for Jhansi. 

General Cunningham, in vol. iL of 
the JSeports of the ArchceologiocU Sur- 

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ny^ gives a most valuable account of 
Gwauor. He says that of the three 
16th and 17th cent, authorities for the 
early history of Gwalior, Eharg Rai 
ttys Gwalior was founded 8101 B.C. ; 
that Fazl 'All assigns 275 a.d. as the 
year of its foundation ; and that this 
date is also adopted by Hiraman. 
Tieffenthaler, Wilford, and Cunning- 
nam agree in fixing on this later date. 
According to Cunningham, Toramana 
was a tributary prince under the Gup- 
tas, against whom he rebelled, and 
became sovereign of all the territory 
between the Jumna and Nerbudda, 
and in the reign of his son, 275 
A.D., the Sun Temple was built, the 
Suraj Ennd excavated, and Gwalior 
founded, by Suraj Sen, a Eachhwaha 
chief, who was a leper, and coming 
when hunting to the hill of Gopagiri, 
on which the Fort of Gwalior now 
stands, got a drink of water from 
the hermit Gwalipa, which cured him 
of his leprosy. In gratitude for that 
he built a fort on the hill, and called 
it "Gwaliawar," or Gwalior. Suraj 
Sen got a new name, Suhan Pal, from 
the hermit, with a promise that his 
descendants should reign as long as 
they were called Pal ; so 83 reigned, 
but the 84th was called Tej Eara, and 
having discarded the name of Pal, lost 
his kingdom. 

This Eachhwaha dynasty was suc- 
ceeded by seven Parihara princes, who 
ruled for 103 years till 1232 A.D., when 
Owalior was taken by Altamsh, in the 
21st year of the reign of Sarang Deo. 

General Cunningham found an in- 
teription on an old stone sugar-mill at 
Chitauli between Nurwar and Gwalior, 
ihich is dated Samwat 1207 = 1150 
ID., in the reign of Ram Deo, which 
ipees witii and strongly corroborates 
the dates he has accepted. 

The capture of Gwalior by Altamsh 
«as commemorated in an inscription 
placed over the gite of the Urwahi, 
ltd the Emperor Babar states that he 
aw it, and the date was 630 a.h. = 
1232 A.D. Briggs, in a note to Firish- 
tah, says it is sl^l to be seen, but 
General Cunningham sought for it in 
tin. From 1232 to Timar's invasion 
in 1398 the Emperor of Delhi used 

Gwalior as a state prison. In 1375 
A.D. the Tumar chief, Bir Sing 
Deo, declared himself independent, 
and founded the Tumar dynasty of 

In 1416 and 1421 the Gwalior chiefs 
paid tribute to Ehizr Ehan of Delhi, 
and in 1424 Gwalior, being besieged 
by Hushang Shah of Malwa, was de- 
livered by Mubarak Shah of Delhi. 
In 1426, 1427, 1429, and 1432, the 
Eing of Delhi marched to Gwalior, an(l 
exacted tribute. Dimgar Sing, 1425, 
commenced the great rock sculptures 
at Gwalior, and his son Eirti Sin^, 
1 454, completed them. In 1 465 Husain 
Sharki, king of Jaunpur, besieged 
Gwalior, and obliged it to pay tribute. 
Man Sing acknowledged the supremacy 
of Bahlol Lodi and of Sikandar Lodi, 
but the latter in 1505 marched against 
Gwalior, fell into an ambuscade and 
was repulsed with great loss. In 
1506, however, he captured Himmat- 
garh, but passed by Gwalior, which he 
despaired of reducing. In 1517 he 
maae great preparations at Agra for 
the conquest of Gwalior, but died of 
quinsy. Ibrahim Lodi had sent an 
army of 30,000 horse, 800 elephants, 
and other troops, against Gwalior, and 
a few days after they reached that place 
Man Sing died. He was the ^eatest 
of the Tumar princes of Gwalior, and 
constructed many useful works, amongst 
others, the great tank to the N.W. of 
Gwalior, caUed the MoH JML Cun- 
ningham says his palace affords the 
noblest specimen of Hindu domestic 
architecture in N. India. He was a 
patron of the Fine Arts, and an elephant 
sculptured in his reign, with two riders, 
was admired by the Emperor Babar, 
Abu-1-Fazl, and the traveller Finch. 
After Man Sing's death his son, Vikra- 
maditya, sustamed the siege for a year, 
but at last surrendered, and was sent 
to Agra. 

Balmr sent Bahimdad with an army 
to Gwalior, which he took by a strata- 
gem, suggested by the holy Muhammad 
Ghana. In 1542 Abu-1-Easim, Gover- 
nor of Gwalior, surrendered his fortress 
to Sher Shah. In 1545 Salim, son of 
Sher, brought his treasure from Chunar 
to Gwalior, and in 1553 died at the 

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latter place. Rana Sah, son of Yikiam, 
tried to seize Gwalior, and fought a 
great battle, which lasted for three days, 
with Akbar's troops there, but was de- 
feated. He then went to Chitor. In 
1761 Gwalior was taken by Bhim Sing, 
the Jat Kana of Gohad, and in 1779 
captured by Major Popham from the 
Marathas, into whose hands it had 
fallen, and restored to the Bana of 
Gohad. It was again taken by the 
Marathas under Mahadaji Sindia in 
1784, and again captured by the English 
under General White in 1803, and re- 
stored to them in 1805. In 1844, after 
the battles of Maharajpur and Paniar, 
it was a third time occupied by the 

At the time of the Mutiny the great 
Maratha prince, Sindia, had, besides 
10,000 troops of his own, a contingent 
consisting of 2 regts. of Irregular 
Cavalry — 1168 men of all ranks, 7 
regts. of Infantry aggregating 6412 men, 
and 26 guns, with 748 Artillenrmen. 
This force was officered by Englishmen, 
and the men were thoroughly drilled 
and disciplined, and were, in fact, ex- 
cellent soldiers, as they proved by de- 
feating and almost driving into the 
river General Windham's brigade at 

At this time Sindia was in his 23d 
year, an athletic and active man, and 
a first-rate horseman and fond of 
soldiering. It is admitted that he 
could handle troops on parade as well 
as most men, and he possessed an 
extraordinary liking for the military 
profession. Had he decided to throw 
m his lot with the rebels he might 
have marched to Agra, which was only 
65 m. distant, and with his powerful 
army must have made himself speedily 
master of that city ; and the results 
might have been temporarily disastrous 
to the British. But Sindia's able minister, 
Dinkar Rao, knew something of the 
powOT of the English Government ; 
knew that though he could have ob- 
tained a temporary success he would 
be certainly overpowered in the end. 
He therefore peorsuaded Sindia to deal 
subtilely with uis dangerous army, and 
by delays and evasions kept them for a 
time from issuing from uieir canton- 

ments and adding their formidable 
strength to the rebel army. He could 
not, however, prevent them killing their 
English officers. 

^ven officers and several ladies and 
children escaped the showers of bullets 
that were aimed at them, and reached 
the Residency, or Sindia's Palace. 
These were sent on by the Maratha 
Prince to the Dholpur territory, where 
they were most kindly treated and sent 
to Agra. 

For some months Gwalior was quiet, 
thouffh the country round was in 
rebeUion, and on the 22d May 1858 a 
very important battle was fought in 
front of Kalpi in which the mutineers 
led by Tantia Topee and the Khanee 
of Thausi were severely defeated by 
Sir Hugh Rose. They retreated in the 
direction of Gwalior. 

On the Ist June Sindia with all his 
army moved out from Gwalior to meet 
them. The engagement took place about 
2 m. £. of Morar. Malleson thus de- 
scribes it : — 

"He had with him 6000 infantry, 
about 1500 cavalry, his own bodyguard 
600 strong, and 8 guns, ranged in 3 
divisions, — his guns centre. About 7 
o'clock in the morning the rebels ad- 
vanced. As they approached, Sindia's 
8 guns opened on them. But the 
smoke of the discharge had scarcely 
disappeared when the rebel skirmishers 
closed to their flanks, and 2000 horse- 
men charging at a gallop, carried the 
guns. Simultaneously with their 
charge, Sindia's infantry and cavalry, 
his bodyguard alone excepted, either 
joined the rebels or took up a position 
indicative of their intention not to 
fight . . . The rebels then attacked 
the bodyguard, who defended them- 
selves bravely, but the contest was too 
and Sindia turned and fled. 

accompanied by a very few of the sur- 
vivors. He did not draw rein tUl he 
reached Agra." 

The Rhanee thereupon seized the 
Fort of Gwalior and proclamed the 
Nana as Peishwa. On hearing of this 
Sir Hugh Rose, on the 4m June, 
marched upon Gwalior. As he neared 
it he was joined by Sir Robert Napier 
(Lord Napier of Magdala), who took 

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eommind of the 2od Brigade, and by 
the Hyderabad troops. On the 16th he 
cime into touch with the rebels at 
Bahadnrpore, near Morar. In spite 
of the long and fatiguingmarch which 
his force had endured, Sir Hugh attacked 
the enemy at once, and £*ove them 
from their position. 

"The main body of the enemy, driven 
through the cantonments, fell back on 
a dry nuUah with high banks, running 
round a Yillage which they had also 
occupied. Here they maintained a 
desperate hand-to-hand struggle with 
the British. The 71st Hi^landers 
suffered severely, Lieutenant Neave, 
whilst leading them, falling mortally 
wounded ; nor was it till the nullah 
was nearly choked with dead that the 
Tillaee was carried. The victory was 
competed by a successful pursuit and 
slaughter of the rebels by Captain 
Thompson, 14th Light Dragoons, with 
a wing of his regiment 

"The result, then, had justified Sir 
Hugh's daring. Not only had he dealt 
a heavy blow to the rebels, but he 
gained a most important strategical 

(The visitor to the Fort sees this 
battle-field below him to the E. and S.) 

Early next morning (the 17 th of 
June), Brigadier Smith marched from 
Astri and reached £otah-ki-serai, 5 m. 
to the S.E. of Gwalior, without opposi- 
tioiL There he discovered the enemy 
in great force, and showing a disposi- 
tion to attack. "Reconnoitring the 
groond in front of him, he found it 
TeiY difficult, intersected with nullahs 
m impracticable for cavalry. He dis- 
oorered, moreover, that the enemy's 

Cwere in position about 1500 yds. 
Kotah-ki-serai, and that their 
hoe lay under the hills, crossing the 
Mid to Gwalior. Notwithstanding 
tliis, Smith determined to attack, 
lint he sent his horse artillery to the 
fiont, and silenced the enemy's guns, 
which limbered up and retired. This 
leeomplished, Smith sent his infantry 
aeross the broken ground, led by Raines 
of the 95th. Raines led his men, 
covered by skirmishers, to a point about 
M yds. from the enemy's works, when 
tha skirmishers made a rush, the rebels 

falling back as they did so. Raines then 
found himself stopped by a deep ditch 
with 4 ft of water," but surmounting 
the difficulty he gained the abandoned 
entrenchment ** Whilst he was con- 
tinuing his advance across the broken 
and hilly ground, Smith moved his 
cavalry across the river Umrah, close 
to Kotah-ki-serai. They had hardly 
crossed when tbe^ came under fire 
of a battery which till' then had 
escaped notice. At the same time a 
body of the enemy threatened the 
haggage at Kotah-ki-serai. Matters 
now became serious. But Smith sent 
back detachments to defend the bag^ge 
and rear, and pushed forward. The 
road, before debouching from the hills 
between his position and Gwalior, ran 
for several hundred yards through 
a defile along which a canal had been 
excavated. It was while his troops 
were marching through this defile that 
the principal fightme took place. 
Having gained the farUier end of the 
defile, wnere he joined Raines, Smith 
halted the infantry to guard it, and 
ordered a cavalry charge. This was 
most gallantly executed by a squadron 
of the 8th Hussars, led by Colonel 
Hicks and Captain Heneage. The 
rebels, horse and foot, gave way before 
them. The hussars captured two guns, 
and continuing the pursuit through 
Sindia's cantonment, had for a 
moment the rebel camp in their pos- 

** Amongst the fugitives in the rebel 
ranks was the resolute woman who, 
alike in counsel and on the field, was 
the soul of the conspirators Clad in 
the attire of a man and mounted on 
horseback, the Rani of Jhansi might 
have been seen animating her troops 
throughout the day. When inch by 
inch the British troops pressed through 
the pass, and when reacning its summit 
Smith ordered the hussars to charge, 
the Rani of Jhansi boldly fronted the 
British horsemen. When her comrades 
failed her, her horse, in spite of her 
efforts, carried her along with the 
others. With them she might have 
escaped, but that her horse, crossing 
the canal near the cantonment 
stumbled and felL A hussar, clos« 

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upon her track, ignorant of her sex 
and her rank, cut ner down. She fell 
to rise no more. That night, her 
devoted followers, determined that the 
English should not hoast that they 
had captured her even dead, burned 
her body/' 

Following up the operations above 
described late into the night of the 
19th June^ Sir Hugh regained the 
whole place — Morar, the city, the 
Lashkar — everything but the Fort, 
which was a few fanatics, who 
had fii-ed on our advancing troops 
whenever they could throughout the 
day, and recommenced the following 

"On the morning of the 20th, 
lieutenant Rose, 25th Bombay Native 
Infantry, was in command with a de- 
tachment of his regiment at the kot- 
wali, or police-station, not far from the 
main gateway of the rock fort As the 
guns from its ramparts continued to 
fire, Rose proposed to a brother officer. 
Lieutenant Waller, who commanded a 
small party of the same regiment near 
him, that they should attempt to 
capture the fortress with their joint 
parties, urging that if the risk was 
great, the honour would be still greater. 
Waller cheerfully assented, and the 
two officers set off with their men and 
a blacksmith, whom, not unwilling, 
they had engaged for the service. 
They crept up to the first ^teway 
unseen. Then the blacksmith, a 
powerful man, forced it open ; and so 
with the other five gates that opposed 
their progress. By the time the sixth 
gate had been forced the alarm was 
given, and when the assailants reached 
the archwav beyond the last gate, they 
were met by the fire of a gun which 
had been brought to bear on them. 
Dashing onwards, unscathed by the 
fire, they were speedily engaged in a 
hand-to-hand contest with the garrison. 
The fight was desperate, and many 
men fell on both sides. The gallantry 
of Rose and Waller and their men 
carried all before them. Rose especially 
distinguished himself. Just in the 
hour^ of victory, however, as he was 
inciting his men to make the final 
charge, which proved successful, a 

musket was fired at him from behind 
the wall. The man who had fired the 
shot, a mutineer from Baraili, then 
rushed out and cut him down. Waller 
came up, and despatched the rebel; 
too late, however, to save his friend. 
But the rock fortress was gained," and 
continued in British hands till 1886. 

The New City or Laahkar.— When 
Daulat Rao Sindia obtained possession 
of Gwalior in 1794-1805, he pitched 
his camp on the open plain to the S. 
of the fort. As the camp remained, 
the tents soon disappeared, and a new 
city rapidly sprung up, which still 
retoins the name of Lashkar, or the 
camp, to distinguish it from the old 
city of Gwalior. The Sara/a, or mer- 
chants' (marter, is one of the finest 
streets in India. In the Ph/ul Bagh is the 
Modem Palace of Maharaja Sindia 
(not shown to visitors). In the centre 
of Lashkar is the Barah, or Old Palace, 
and near it are the houses of the chief 
Sardars, or nobles, of the state. 

The new buildings worthy of a visit 
are the Dufferin Saraij the Victoria 
College, and the Tayagi Bao Menumal 
Hospital, The modem Temple was 
erected by Sindia's mother, and is 
mentioned by Fergusson. 

Since the occupation of the Lashkar, 
the Old City has been gradually decay- 
ing, and is now only one-third as large 
as the New City. But the two together 
still form one of the populous places in 

The Old City of Gwalior is a crowded 
mass of small fiat-roofed stone houses. 
Flanking the city to the N. stands a 
curious old Pathan archway, the re- 
mains of a tomb. Outside the |;ates is 
the Jumma Musjid, with its gilt pin- 
nacled domes and lofty minarets. Sir 
W. Sleeman says [Rambles, L 847) : 
"It is a very beautiful mosque, with 
one end built by Muhammad Khan, in 
1665 A.D., of the white sandstone of 
the rock above it. It looks as fresh as 
if it had not been finished a month." 
It has the usual two rainars, and over 
the arches and alcoves arc carved pas- 
sages from the Koran in beautiful Kufik 

Beyond the stream, and just on the 
outslcirts of the city, is the noble tomb 

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of the Muhammad Oham, a saint 
venerated in the time of Bahar and 
ilbar. It is of stone, and is one of 
the best specimens of Mohammedan 
architecture of tlie early Mogul period. 
It was built in the early part of 
Akbar's reign, and is a square of 100 
ft, with hexagonal towers at the four 
comeis, attached at the angles instead of 
the sides. The tomb is a hall 48 t. 
sq., ^th the angles cut oflf by pointed 
arches, from which springs a lofty 
Patban dome. The walls are 5^ ft. 
thick, and are surrounded by a lofty 
Terandah, with square bays in centre 
of each side, enclosed by stone lattices 
of the most intricate and elaborate 
patterns. These are protected from 
the weather by very bold eaves, sup- 
ported on long stone slabs resting on 
brackets. The building is of yellowish 
gray sandstone. The dome was once 
covered with blue glazed tiles. The 
whole is choked with whitewash. 

Tomb of T^msen, the famous musi- 
cian, is a small open building 22 ft. 
3q., supported on pillars round the 
tombstone. It is close to the S.W. 
comer of the large tomb ; hence it is 
thought he became a Moslem. The 
tamarind tree near the tomb is much 
rioted, by musicians, as the chewing of 
the leaves is alleged to impart a won- 
derful sweetness to the voice. Lloyd, 
in 1820, in his Jiywmey to KunawaVy i. 
TK 9, says that this is still religiously 
believed by all dancing girls. They 
stripped the original tree of its leaves 
till it died, and the present tree is a 
seedling of the original one. 

To see Gwalior Fort an order is 
necessary : it can be obtained at the 
Besideney Office, or from the keeper of 
^ Musafir Ehana (the Maharaja's 
liiiigalow for strangers). The rest- 
houe keeper will make arrangements 
far the elephant which the Maharaja 
kindly puts at the disposal of visitors, 
to meet them at the foot of the steep 
aseent to the Fort. 

"The great fortress of Gwalior," 
saya Grenenil Cunningham, '* is situated 
on a inrecipitous, flat-topped, and iso- 
latad hill of sandstone," which rises 300 
ft. above the town at the N. end, but 

only 274 ft. at the upper gate of the 
principal entrance. The hill is long and 
narrow ; its extreme length from N. to 
S. is If m., while its breadth varies from 
600 ft. to 2800 ft The walls are from 
30 to 35 ft. high, and the rock imme- 
diately below iiiem is steeply but 
irrj^ularly scarped all round the hill. 

Tae objects of chief interest are all in 
the Fort, with the exception of the tomb 
of Muhammad Ghaus, which is passed 
on the way there. Notice especiallv the 
gateways, the Man, Earan, and Vikram 
palaces, the Sas Bahu temples, the Jain 
and the* Teli-Ea-Mandir temples, and 
the gigantic rock-cut figures. 

The view from the Fort is varied and 
extensive, but, except during the rainy 
season, when the hills are green, the 
general appearance of the country is 
brown and arid. To the N., on a 
clear day, mav be seen the gigantic 
temple of Sahamiya, about 30 m. 
distant, and still farther in the same 
direction the red hills of Dholpur. 
To the W. and within gunshot lies the 
long flat -topped sandstone hill of 
Hanuman, witn a basaltic peak at the 
N. end, and a white-washed temple on 
its slope, whence the hill has its 
name. Bej^ond, far as the eye can 
reach, nothmg ia seen but range after 
ran^e of low sandstone hills. The 
conical peak of the Raipur hill towers 
over the lower ranges in the S., and to 
the E. the level plains, dotted with 
villages, lengthen till they pass out of 
sight. On the plain below lies the Old 
City of Gwalior, encircling the N. end 
of the fortress, and to the S., upwards 
of 1 m. distant, is the New City of 
Lashkart literally "camp." 

The Tnam enJtrance to the Fort is on 
the N.E. The ascent was formerly by 
many flights of broad steps alternating 
with pieces of paved level road, but 
these nave been removed, and there is 
now a continuous road. The entrance 
on the N.E. is protected by 6 Gates 
which, beginning from the N., are — 

The * Alamgirig&ie built by Mu'tamad 
Ehan, Governor of Gwalior, in 1660, 
and called after Aurangzib, one of whose 
titles was 'Alamgir. it is quite plain, 
and the inscription is obliterated. 
Inside is a small courtyard, and an 

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open, hall in which the Mohammedan 
governors sat to dispense justice, whence 
it is called the Cvicherry, 

The BadcUgarh or Hmdola gate has 
its name from the outwork Badalgarh, 
which was called ^m Badtd Sing, the 
uncle of Man Sing. This gate is also 
called Hindola, from hindol^ * 'aswinje, " 
which existed outside. It is a fine 
specimen of Hindu architecture. An 
inscription on an iron plate records 
its restoration by the Governor Saiyad 
'Alam in 1648. 

Close under the rock to the rt. is 
the stately Oujari Palace, built for the 
queen of Man Sing. It measures 800 
ft. by 230 ft., and is two stories high. 
It is built of hewn stone, but is much 

The Bhairon or Bansur gate has its 
name from one of the earliest Kach- 
hwaha Rajahs. It is called Bansur, from 
bansor, "an archer," lit. "a bamboo- 
splitter," a man who had the charge 
of it On one of the jambs is an in- 
scription dated 1485 a.d., a year before 
the accession of Man Sing. 

The Ganesh Gate was built by Dun- 
^reli, who reigned 1424 to 1454. Out- 
side is a small outwork called KalnUar 
KhanOf or " pigeon house," in which 
is a tank called Nur Saugar, 60 ft. x 
39 ft. and 25 fL deep. Here, too, is a 
Hindu temple sacred to the hermit 
Gioalipa, from whom the fort had its 
name. It isa small square open pavilion, 
with a cupola on 4 pillars. There is 
also a small mosque with an inscription 
which Cunningham thus translates : — 

In the reign of the great Prince 'A'lamglr, 

Like the foU-shioing moon. 

The enlightener of the world, 

Traise be to God that this happy place 

Was by M'utaraad Khan completed 

As a charitable gift. 

It was the idol-temple of the vile Owali. 
He made it a mosque 

Like a mansion of Paradise. 

The Khan of enlightened heart, 

Nay, light itself from head to foot. 

Displayed the divine light like that of mid-day. 

He closed the idol temple. 

Then follows the chronogram giving 
a date corresponding to 1664 A.D. 

Before reaching the Zakshman Oate 
^^ t ^^Pl® hewn out of the solid 
rock and called ChcUur-bhuj-7mndir, 

shnne of the four-armed," sacred to 

Vishnu, inside which, on the left, is a 
long inscription, dated Samwat 9S3 = 
876 A.D. it is 12 ft. sq., with a portico 
in front 10 ft. by 9 ft supported by four 
pillars. There is a tank here, and 
opposite to it the tomb of Tiy Nizam, 
a noble of the Court of Ibrahim Lodi, 
who was killed in assaulting this gate 
in 1 5 1 8 A. D. Between the gates on the 
face of the rock are carvings of Mahadeo 
and his consort, and about 50 Lingams. 
There was a colossal group of the Boar 
incarnation, 15} ft high, which Cun 
ningham thinks to be one of the oldest 
sculptures in Gwalior ; it is quite 
defaced. A fi^re of an elephant over 
the statue has oeen cut away to form a 

The Hathiya Paur, or Elephant Gate, 
was built by Man Sing, and forms part 
of his palace. Here was the carving of 
an elephant, which Babar and Abu-1- 
Fazl praised. 

There are threegates ontheN.W. side 
of the Fort, which have the general 
name of Dhonda Paur^ from an earlv 
Kachhwaha Rajah. In an upper outwork 
the state prisoners used to be confined. 

The S. W. entrance is called Ghaar- 
gharj Paur, or Gurgling Gate, either 
from a well of that name inside, or 
from a redoubt. It has five gates in 
succession, threeof which were breached 
bv General White. This entrance is 
also called Popham by the natives, in 
memory of its capture in 1780 by 
Captain Bruce, brother of the tra- 
veller, who was an officer of Popham's 
force. The escalading party had grass- 
shoes furnished them to prevent them 
slipping, and the cost of these shoes 
is said to have been deducted from 
Popham's pay. 

Gwalior has always been thought 
one of the most impregnable fortresses 
in Upper India, and is superior to 
most in an unfiling supply of water 
in tanks, cisterns, and wells. There 
are several wells in the Urwahi out- 
work, and the water in them is always i 
sweet and wholesome, and is now the I 
only good drinking water in the fort [ 
The Suraj Kund, or Sun pool, wasj 
built about 275 to 300 A.D., and is the I 
oldest in the fort It is 350 ft. by 180l 
ft., ^vith a variable depth. It is situ- 1 

d by Google 

d by Google 

d by Google 



ated about 500 ft. N.W. of the Sas- 
btbu Temple. The Trikonia Tank is 
at the extreme N. point of the Fort, 
near the Jayanti-thora, where are two 
inscriptions, dated 1408 a.d., and a 
little earlier. The Johara tank is in 
the N. of the Fort, in front of Shah 
Jehan's palace, and has its name from 
the Johar, or sacrifice of the Rajput 
women there when Altamsh took the 
place. The Sas-bahu tank, "mother- 
in-law and daughter-in-law," is near 
the Padmanath temple, and is 250 ft. 
by 150 ft., and 15 ft. to 18 fL deep, 
but usually dry, as the water runs 
through. The Gangola Tank is in the 
middle of the Fort, is 200 ft. sq., and 
always has deep water on the S. side. 
The Dhobi tank, at the S. end of the 
Fort, is the largest of all, being 400 ft. 
by 200 ft, but it is very shallow. 

There are six Palaces, or mandirs, 
in the Fort. (1) The Oujari, already 

(2) The Man Sing Palace (1486- 
1516, repaired in 1881), rt. on entering 
the Fort, is on the edge of the E. cliff. 
It was also called the ChU Mandir, 
or painted palace, as " the walls are 
coTered with a profusion of coloured 
tiles — bands of mosaique candelabra, 
Brahmin ducks, elephants, and pea- 
cocks—enamelled blue, green and gold, 
giving to this massive wall an unsur- 
passed charm and elegance. The tiles 
of this great windowless wall possess 
a brightness and delicacy of tint un- 
blemished by the 10 centuries which 
they have weathered. Nowhere do I 
remember any architectural design 
capable of imparting similar lightness 
to a simple massive wall. The secret 
of these enamelled tiles has not yet 
been discovered " (Rouselet). It is two 
stories high, with two stories of under- 

Cd apartments, now uninhabitable 
the bats. The £. face is 300 ft. 
long and 100 ft. high, and has five 
niiasive round towers, surmounted by 
open-domed cupolas, and connected at 
ton by a battlement of singularly beauti- 
fol open lattice-work. The S. face is 
160 ft long and 60 ft. high, with three 
round towers connected by a battlement 
of lattice-work. The N. and W. sides 
aie much ruined. The rooms are 

arranged roimd two courts, — small but 
with singularly beautiful decoration. 

(3) The Palace of Vikram is between 
the Man and Karan palaces, and con- 
nected with them by narrow galleries. 

(4) The Karan Palace should be 
called the Kirti Mandir. It is long 
and narrow, and of two stories. It has 
one room 43 ft. by 28 ft., with a roof 
supported by two rows of pillars. There 
are smaller rooms on either side, and 
bath-rooms below, with some fine 
plaster-work on the domed ceilings. 
Close by to the S. is a hall (1516 a.d.) 
36 ft. sq., and the roof is a singular 
Hindu dome supported on eight curved 
ribs, of which four spring from the side 
pillars and four from the angles of the 
building. Internally the top of the 
dome is a flat square formed by the 
intersection of the ribs. The roof is 
flat, and once had a pavilion on it. 

(5) T?ie Jehaiigiri and (6) Shah 
Jehan Pala^xs, at the N. end of the Fort, 
are of rubble plastered, and are quite 
plain and of no architectural interest. 

There are 11 Hindu temples which 
have been desecrated by the &1 ohamme- 
dans, but are still visited by Hindus at 
stated times. These are (i.) the GwaZipa, 
and (ii.) the Chatur-hhuj^ both already 
mentioned, (iii) The Jayanti-thora 
was destroyed by Altamsh in 1232 
A.D., but its position is shown by the 
name given to the most N. point of the 
Fort, where there is a deep rock -cut 
well and some pillared arcades with 
inscriptions dated 1400 to 1419 a.d. 
(iv.) The Teli-Ea-Handir (probable 
date, 11th cent., restored 1881-83) 
is in the centre of the Fort, overlooking 
the UrwahL It is supposed to have 
been built by a Tel% or oilman. It is 
60 ft. sq., with a portico projecting 11 
ft on the E. side. The sides slope 
upwards to 80 ft., where the building 
ends in a horizontal ridge 30 ft. long. 
It is the loftiest building in Gwalior. 
The doorway is 35 ft. high, and has a 
figure of Garuda over the centre. It 
was originally a Vishnavite Temple, 
but since the 15th cent, it has been 
Shivite. The whole of this very mas- 
sive building is covered with sculptures. 
The gateway in front of it was formed 
out of fragments found in the Fort by 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Major Keith. The sculptured frag- 
ments set up round the temple were 
also collected by him. 

(v. vi.) The Sas-bahu or Sdhasra 
bahUf "mother-in-law" and "daughter- 
in-law," or 1000-armed temples, are two 
temples, a large and smaller one near 
the middle of the E. wall of the Fort. 
There is a long inscription inside the 
portico, with the date 1093 a.d. 
There are figures of Vishnu over the 
main entrances. The great temple, said 
to have been built by Rajah Mahipal, 
is 100 ft. long by 63 ft. broad. The 
entrance is to the N., and the adytum 
to the S. The temple is now 70 ft. 
high, but the top has been broken, 
and General Cunningham thinks it was 
once 100 ft. high. It stands on a richly- 
carved plinth. The central hall is 31 
ft. sq. It is crowded with four massive 
pillars to aid in bearing the enormous 
weight of its great pyramidal roof. 
The construction of the roof is worthy 
of study. The temple was dedicated 
in 1092 A.D. The small Sas-bahu is 
built in the shape of a cross, but consists 
of a single story, and is open on all four 
sides. The body is 23 ft. sg[., supported 
on twelve pillars. The phnth is 6 ft. 
high, and is decorated like that of the 
great temple. The pillars are round, 
with octagonal bases and bracketed 
capitals. The lower part of the shafts 
in both temples are ornamented with 
gi'oups of female dancers. It is a fine 
specimen of the ornate style of medi- 
aeval Hindu architecture. 

(vii.) The Jain Temple was dis- 
covered by Glen. Cunningham in 1844, 
and is a small building placed against 
the E. wall of the Fort, midway 
between the Elephant Gate and Sas- 
bahu temples. It was built about 1108 
A.D. The four other temples, Surya 
Deva, Mala Deva, Dhonda Deva, and 
Maha Deva, are of less importance. 

* * The Bock Sculptures of Gwalior," 
the same authority writes, "are unique 
in Northern India, as well for their 
number as for their gigantic size. 
They are all excavated in the steep 
cliff, immediately below the walls of 
the fortress, and are most of them easily 
accessible. There are small caves and 
niches in almost every place where the 

face of the rock is tolerably smooth 
and steep, but the more prominent 
excavations may be divided into five 
principal group, which I will designate 
according to their positions, as 1st, the 
Urwahi group; 2d, the south-western 
group ; 3d, the noi*th-westem group ; 
4th, the north-eastern group ; 5th, tne 
south-eastern group. Of these the 
first and the last, which are by far the 
most considerable, both in number and 
size, are the only sculptures that have 
attracted travellers. Most of them 
were mutilated, by order of the Emperor 
Babar 1527 a.d., only 60 years after 
they were made. Babar himself records 
the fact in his Memoirs : ' They have 
hewn the solid rock of this Adwa, and 
sculptured out of it idols of larger and 
smaller size. On the south part of it 
is a large idol, which may be about 40 
ft. in height. These figures are perfectly 
naked, without even a rag to cover the 

Earts of generation. AdvxL is far from 
eing a mean place ; on the contrary it 
is extremely pleasant. The greatest 
fault consists in the idol figures all 
about it. I directed theae idols to he de- 
stroyed, * The statues, however, were not 
destroyed, but only mutilated, and the 
broken heads have since been repaired 
by the Jains with coloured stucco. 

* ' The Urvjahi group is situated in the 
cliff of the S. side of the Urwahi valley, 
and consists of 22 principal figures, all 
of which are naked. The figures ai-e 
accompanied by six inscriptions, dated 
Samwatl497, 1510 = 1440 a.d. and 1453, 
during the sway of the Tumara Rajahs. 
The chief statues are, No. 17, a colossal 
figure of Adinath, the first Jain pontiff, 
who is known by the symbol of a bull 
on the pedestal. This has a long in- 
scription dated 1440 a.d. in the reign 
of Dungar Sing, which has been trans- 
lated by Rajendralala Mitra (see Beng. 
As. Soc, Jour, 1862, p. 423). The 
largest figure of this group, and of all 
the Gwalior sculptures, is the colossus 
No. 20, which Babar says is 40 ft 
high. Its actual height, however, is 
57 ft, or 6i times the length of the 
foot, which is just 9 ft. In front of the 
statue is a small figure with a squat- 
ting figure on each of its four faces. 
The extreme W. figure of this group, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ttOUTB 6a. rock SCUliPTtTRUS 


Ko. 22, is a seated colossus upwards 
of 30 ft. high, of Nemnath, 22d Jain 
pontifi^ known by a shell on the pedes- 
tal Besides the 22 figures there are a 
few isolated excavations to the right 
and left, now inaccessible from the 
falling of the rock-cut steps. 

" Tie soiUh-toestem group consists of 
fire ^ncipal figures, situated in the 
cliflf mimediately below the one-pillar 
tank, and just outside the Urwahi wall. 
No. 2 is a sleeping female 8 ft long, 
lying on her side, with her head to the 
i and face to the W. Both thighs are 
straight, but the left leg is bent back 
underneath the right leg. The figure 
is highly polished. No. 3 is a seated 
group of a male and female with a 
child, who are Siddhartha and Trisala, 
the reputed father and mother of the 
iuEuit Mahavira, the last of the 24 Jain 
pontiffs. The deeping female also is 
probably intended for Trisala, to whose 
womb, when she was asleep, the foetus 
of Mahavira is said to have been trans- 
ferred from its true Brahman mother. 

" The north-western group is in the 

W. cliff of the Fort, immediately N. of 
the Dhonda gate. The figures are un- 
important, but one of them, Adinath, 
has an inscription dated Samwat 1527 
= 1470 A.D. 

"The north-eastern group is in the 
cliff under the Mohammedan palaces, 
and above the middle gateways of the 
£. entrance. The sculptures are small, 
and unaccompanied by mscriptions, and 
are, therefore, unimportant. One or 
two of the caves are large, but now very 
difficult of access. 

**The south-eastern group is in the 
long, straight cliff of the E. face, just 
under the Gangola tank. This is by far 
the largest and most important group, 
as there are 18 colossal statues from 20 
to 30 ft high, and as many more from 8 
ft to 1.5 ft, which occupy the whole face 
of the cliff for upwards of J m. A few 
caves are blocked up, and occupied by 
surly mendicant Byragis, who refuse all 
admittance, but there isnoreason to sup- 
pose they differ from the other caves. 

The details are here as tabulated by 
General Cunningham. 





























4 others 
































— . 







16x 7X28 

Male figure 






lOx 7X16 












2 others 






12X 8X25 






















































80x 8x80 














And 4 others 














12x 8X20 












The first. European who describes 
these statues was Father Montserrat, 
who visited Gwalior on his way from 
Surat to Delhi, in the reign of Akbar 
(see As, Researches^ ix. p. 213). 

The Prisons are in a small outwork 
on the W. side of the fort, above the 
Dhonda gate. They are called the Nau- 
chokij nine cells, and are well lighted 
and well ventilated ; but must have 
been insufferablv close in the hot 
season. Here Akbar confined his re- 
bellious cousins, and Aurangzib his son 
Muhammad, and the sons of Dara and 

122 m. Datia sta. A town of 28,000 
inhabitants, the residence of the Chief 
of the Datia state, which contains an 
area of 836 sq. m. 

The town stands on a rocky height 
surrounded by a good stone wall. It 
is full of picturesque houses and palaces. 

The Raja's present residence stands 
within the town surrounded by a pretty 
garden. To the W. of the town, beyond 
the walls, is a very large palace of 
great architectural beauty, now un- 
tenanted. A group of Jain temples, 
4 m. distant, are curious. Datia is a 
place the lover of the picturesque should 
not pass by. 

138 m. Jhansijuno. sta. (seep. 90). 

From Jhansi 7 m. Orchha sta. is the 
old capital of Orchha state, the oldest 
and highest in rank of all the Bundela 
Principalities, and the only one of them 
that was not held in subjection by the 
Peshwa. It is built on both banks of 
the Betwa. There is an Imposing 
fortress, connected by a wooden bridge 
with the rest of the tewn, containing 
the former residence of the Rajah, and a 
palace built for the accommodation of 
the Emperor Johangir. 

Tehri {Tekamgarh)y the present 
capital, in the S. W. comer of the stete, 
is about 40 m. S. from Orchha, with 
which town and Baumari it is connected 
by road. 

18 m. Barwa.Saugarsta.,D.B. The 
town IS picturesquely situated at the 
*bot of a rocky ridge on the shore of the 

Barwa-SaugarLake,an artificial sheet of 
water formed by a masonry embank- 
ment f m. in length, constracted by 
Udit Sing, Raja of Orchha, between 
1705-37, containing two craggy, wooded 
islete. Below, a tract of lanoTextending 
over 4 m., is thickly planted with mango 
and other trees, often of great age and 
enormous size. N. W. of tne town rises 
a fine old castle also built by Udit Sing, 
but now uninhabited. 3 m. W. stand 
the remains of an old Chandel temple 
built of solid blocks of stone, carved 
with the figures of Hindu gods, much 
defaced by Mussulmans. The town 
consiste of three diviaions separated by 
stretehes of cultivated land, and the 
houses are prettily embosomed in foli- 

40 m. Man ste., D.B. (pon. 23,500). 
Mail Ranipur is, next to Jhansi, the 
principal commercial town of Jliansi 
district. Its buildings are remarkably 
picturesque, in the style peculiar to 
Bundelkund, with deep eaves between 
the first and second stories, and hanging 
balconies of unusual beauty. Trees line 
many of the streete, and handsome 
temnles ornament the town ; the prin- 
cipal being that of the Jains with two 
solid spires and several cupolas. An 
old bnck- built Fort with bastions 
adjoins the bazaar and conteins the 
public offices. The town is of quite 
modern commercial importence, having 
risen from the position of a small agri- 
cultural village since 1785, through the 
influx of merchants from Chhatarpor. 
Kharwa cloth is manufactured and 
exported to all parte of India. 

67 m. Jaitpur ste. The town was 
formerly the capitel of a native state. 
It is picturesquely situated on the banks 
of the Bela Tal. Probably founded in 
the early part of the 18th centory by 
Ja^traj, son of the famous Bundela 
Raja, Chatar Sal, who built the large 
fort still in existence. The town 
resembles a collection of separate vil- 
lages, fully 2 m. in length, but ver}' 
narrow. Handsome temple ; two forti 
one of which could contidn almost 
the whole population. 

The Bela Tal, a teuk or lake damm< 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


wt I 


ROtfTfi 5a. MAliOBA 


ap with solid masonry by the Chandel 
ralers of Mahoba in the 9th century 
extends for 5 m. in circumference, but 
is now very shallow, the embankment 
having burst in 1869. 

86 m. Mahoba sta. D.B. The town, 
founded about 800 a.d. by Raja Chan- 
dra Varmma, stands on the side of the 
Madan Saugar Lake, constructed by the 
Chandel Rajas, and consists of three 
distinct portions — one N. of the central 
hill known as the Old Fort ; one on 
the top of the hill known as the Inner 
Fort ; and one to the S. known as Dariba. 
Architectural antiquities of the Chandel 
period abound throughout the neigh- 
bourhood. The Ram Kund marks the 
place where Chandra Varmma, founder 
of the dynasty, died j and the tank 
is believed to be a reservoir into which 
the united waters of all holy streams 
pour themselves. The Fort, now almost 
mlirely in ruins, commands a beautiful 
tiew over the hills and lakes. The 
temple of Munia Devi, partially reno- 
rated, has in front of its entrance a 
stone pillar inscribed to Madana Varm- 
ma. Of the lakes, confined by magni- 
ficent masonry dams, two have greatly 
silted up ; but the Kirat and Madan 
Saugars, works of the 11th and 12th 
centuries, still remain deep and clear 
^eets of water. The shores of the 
lakes and the islands in their midst 
are thickly covered with ruined temples, 
monstrous figures carved out of the 
solid rock, pillars, broken sculpture, 
aod other early remains, while on the 
hills above stand the summer-houses 
of the early Rajas, and shrines over- 
hang the edge. Relics of Jain temples 
and Buddhist inscriptions also occur. 
The existing monuments of Moham- 
medan date include the tomb of Jalhan 
Khan, constructed from the fragments 
of a Shivite temple, and a mosque also 
bailt of Chandel materials. 

The modem town contains a tahsil^ 
police-station, post office, school, dis- 
pensary, and D.B. 

[34 m. S. of Mahoba is the ancient 
decayed town of Khajaraho, formerly 
he capital of the old province of 
Jahoti. Hiouen Thsang mentions it in 

the 7 th century ; and General Cunning- 
ham attributes to the same date a 
single pillared tendple called Ganthai, 
and a nigh mound which probably 
conceals the ruins of a BuddMst mon- 
astery. Upwards of 20 temples still 
stand in the town, and the ruins of at 
least as many more bear witness to its 
former greatness. In one alone General 
Cunningham counted over 800 statues 
half life-size, and 8 sculptured ele- 
phants of like proportions. The inner 
shrine of this edifice constituted in it- 
self a splendid temple, and was crowded 
with figures. Captain Burt noticed 
seven large temples of exquisite carving, 
whose mechanical construction adapted 
them to last for almost indefinite 
periods. Most or all of these noble 
buildings and the inscriptions found 
in the neighbourhood must be referred 
to the Chandel dynastjr, who ruled at 
Ehajuraho apparently from 870 to 1200 
A.D. The modern village contains only 
about 160 houses.] 

119 m. Banda sta. ajc (R.), D.B., isa 
municipal town and the administrative 
headquarters of Banda district. It 
stands on an undulating plain 1 m. 
E. of right bank of the Ken river. 

The modem town derived its im- 
portance from the residence of the 
Nawab of Banda, and from its position 
as a cotton mart. After the removal 
of the Nawab in 1858 owing to his dis- 
loyalty during the Mutiny, the town 
began to decline, while the growth of 
Rajapur as a rival cotton emporium 
has largely deprived Banda of this 
trade. The town is straggling and ill 
built, but with clean wide streets. 
It contains 66 mosques, 161 Hindu 
temples, and 6 Jain temples, some of 
which possess fair architectural merit 

Cantonments 1 m. from the town on 
the Fatehpur Road. 

162 m. Earwi sta. (pop. 4100). In 
1805 the town formed a cantonment for 
British troops, and in 1829 it became 
the principal residence of the Peshwa's 
representative, who lived in almost 
regal state, built several beautiful tem- 
ples and wells. Numerous traders from 
th e Deccan were thus attracted to Karwi. 

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During the Mutiny Narayan Rao, after 
the murder at Banda of Mr. Cockerell, 
Joint-Magistrate of Karwi, assumed the 
government, and retained his independ- 
ence for eight months amid the subse- 
quent anarchy. The accumulations of 
his family constituted the great treasure 
afterwards so famous as the **Kirwee 
and Banda Prize Money. " It was kept 
in a vault of the Bara, a large building 
forming the palace of Narayan Rao's 
family. Since the Mutiny the pro- 
sperity of Karwi has gradually declined. 
There is a magnificent temple and tank 
with masonry well attached, known as 
the Ganesh Bagh, built by Vinayak Rao 
in 1837. There are five mosques and 
as many Hindu temples. 

181 m. Manikpur junc. sta. of £. I. 
Rly. and Jubbulpore Kly. (see p. 36.) 


Bombay to Delhi through Baroda, 
Ahmedabad, Ajmere, Bandikui, 


Rail. 890 m. Mail trains 40^ hrs. in 
transit. Through fares approximately, 
first class 56 rs., second class 28 rs., 
and servants 9 rs. For some railway 
rules see Rte. 1, p. 26. The route 
is throughout by the 6. B. and C. I. 
Rly. Tnere is a chan^ of ^uge at 
Ahmedabad. The stations in Bombay 
are Colaba,^ Church Gate Station^ and 
GrarU Road^ where ample time is given. 

9 m. Hahim sta., where the rly. 
crosses a causeway connecting the 
island of Bombay with the island of 
Salsette. The country is flat, studded 
with villages and cocoa-nut groves. 

The Scottish Orphanage^ established 
here in 1859, is the only institution of 
the kind in the Bombay Presidency. 

10 m. Bandarasta., 1., on sea-shore, a 
favourite residence for persons who have 
daily business in Bombay ; it is nearly 
surrounded by water, and is cooler than 
Bombay. Several chapels built by the 
Portuguese still exist here, notably 
that of Mount Mary, held in respect 

1 It la advisable to start flpom the Ctolaba 
terminus to ensure getting places. 

for miles around by all the inhabitants. 
Christian and otherwise. 

Here are a R. C. convent for orphans, 
and a school for orphan boys. 

18 m. Ctoregaon sta. About 1 mUe 
from the sta. are the famous Hindu 
caves of Jogeshwar. See " Sights in 
the vicinity of Bombay, No. (6), p. 26. 

22 m. Borivli sta. is near the Caves 
of Montpezir (see p. 22) and the ruins 
of a Jesuit monastery of the 16th 
century. The Caves of Eanheri (see p. 
23) are only 5 m. distant, but are more 
easily visited from the Talsi Lake. 

22 m. Bhayandar sta., on the S. 
edffe of the Baisseln creek, which divides 
Sa^tte from the mainland. Persons 
who have made arransements to visit 
the ruins of Bassein by boat or by steam 
launch, embark at this station. The rail- 
way here crosses the river by a very long 
bridge. On the right, and for some miles 
up the stream, the scenery is most 
beautiful — the Kamandru^ Hills and 
Ghodbandar, with the quiet water be- 
tween them, forming a tropical landscape 
as charming as can be seen in India.^ 

83 m. Basseiii Boad sta., i^ D.B. 
The ruins are distant about 5 m. 

The first notice we have of Bassein 
is in 1532, when the Portuguese ravaged 
the neighbourhood and burned all the 
towns hetween it and Chikli Tara- 
pur. In 1534 they took Daman, which 
they still hold, and obliged Sultan 
Bahadur of Guzerat, then hard pressed by 
the Emperor Humayun, to cede Bassein 
in perpetuity. "For more than 200 
years Bassein remained in the hands of 
the Portuguese, and during this time 
it rose to such prosperity that the city 
came to be called the Court of the 
North, and its nobles were proverbial for 
their wealth and magnificence. "With 
plentiful su]5plies of both timber and 
stone, Bassein was adorned by many 
noble buildings, including a cathedral, 
5 convents, 13 churches, and an asylum 
for orphans. The dwellings of the 
Hidalgos, or aristocracy, who alone were 
allowed to live within the city walls, 

1 Write beforehand to station-master foe 
a tonga. 

d by Google 



are described (6175) as stately build- 
ings " (Hunter.) On the 17th February 
1765 the Marathas invested Bassein, 
and the town surrendered on the 16th 
of May, after a most desperate resist- 
ance, in which thocommandant> Silveii-a 
de Mineyes, was killed, and 800 of the 
garrison killed and wounded, while the 
Maratha Iosk was U])wards of 5000. On 
the 13th of November 1780 General 
Goddard arrived before Bassein, and on 
the 28th his first battery oj)ened against 
it He had very powerful artillery, and 
one battery of 20 mortars, which shortly 
after opened at the distance of 500 yds., 
and did great execution. The place 
surrendered on the 11th December, on 
which day Colonel Hartley, with a cover- 
ing army of 2000 men, defeated the 
Maratha relieving army of upwards of 
24,000 men, and killed its distinguished 
General, Ramchandra Ganesh. 

The Fort with the ruins stands on 
the Bassein Creek, a little away from 
the sea. The fort is now entered from 
the N. There is a road through the 
town ^m the rly. sta. 

The Old Town, 5 m. from the sta., 
sorronnded by walls and ramparts, 
contains the ruins of the Cathedral of 
St Joseph and other churches built by 
Boman Catholic missionaries in the 
14th and 15th centuries. Several in- 
scriptions remain, the earliest dated 
1536. A guide is necessary to point 
oat the various ruins. Among them 
are the church of St Anthony, the 
Jesuits* church, and the churches and 
convents of the Augustinians and Fran- 

Fryer, describing the town in 1675, 
says: "Here were stately dwellings 
gnced with covered balconies and large 
windows, two stories high, with panes 
of oyster shell, which is the usual glaz- 
ing among9t them (the Portuguese) in 
India, or else latticed." 

Close to these venerable ruins is a 
modem temple of Shiva. 

116 m. Udvada sta., remarkable as 
containing the oldest Fire Temple in 
India It is believed that the fire still 
kept alive is that which was originally 
brought from Persia by the Parsis and 
first kindled here in 700 a.d. 

108 m. Daman Boad sta.,^ D.6. 

Daman (7 m. W.) is a Portuguese 
settlement subordinate to Goa. It was 
attacked and taken in 1531, and again 
in 1535, and finally captured by the 
Portuguese in 1559. The town is situ- 
ated on the Daman Gunga river, which 
has a bad bar. Outside is a roadstead. 
The place in the days of small ships 
had a very considerable trade. It has 
a fort on each bank of the river. In 
the main fort, on left bank, are the 
ruins of an old monastery and two 
churches, — onlv Christians may reside 
within the walls. In it are the houses 
of the governor and his staff and the 
public offices. The smaller fort of St. 
Jerome opposite is more modem. 

125 m. Balsar sta. This place is 
occasionally used as a rest -camp, and 
near it is the village of Tithiil on the 
sea -coast, where many inhabitants of 
Guzerat resort in the hot season. There 
are fine sands and a grand rolling sea. 

149 m. Navsari sta. (pop. 16,276, 
including 4,452 Parsis). The capital 
of the Gaekwar's southern possessions, 
and the headquarters, from the earliest 
days, of the rarsi community. Here 
the Zoroastrian Priesthood receive their 
initiation and confirmation. The Tovm 
Hall is an imposing building. A 
Parsi has established here a manu- 
factory of essences and soaps on Euro- 
pean principles. 

167 m. SURAT sta. sQc (R.) The name 
is derived by Sir Henry Elliot and 
others from Saurastra, the ancient 
name of the peninsula of Eattjrwar, 
with which it was the principal port 
of communication. In the 12th cent, 
the Parsis, who were driven from Persia 
200 yrs. before, and had settled in 
Sanjan 70 m. from Surat, found their 
way here on the death of the Sanjan 
chief. There are now some 89,900 
Parsis in India, but though many 
of them are still to be found here, 
the greater number — about 47,500— 
are settled in Bombay. Amongst 
Indian cities it is not a place of anti- 
quity, but it had a large trade at the 
end of the 15th cent, and in the 18th 
was one of the most populous and 
important mercantile cities in India, 
the port being much frequented by 

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British and other European traders. It 
is the seat of a collectorate, is situated 
on the river Tapti, and is surrounded 
on the land side by a wall about 5^ m. 
round, with 12 gates. Except the main 
street running from the station road to 
the castle, the streets in Surat are nar- 
row and tortuous, and many of them 
still bear marks of the creat fire in 
1837, which raged for nearly two days, 
when 9378 houses were destroyed, and 
many persons perished. Again in 1889 
a fire broke out which raged for over 
12 hrs., and destroyed 1350 shops and 
houses. In 1 896 Lord Elgin here inaugur- 
ated the new " Rupee Railway " a local 
joint-stock enterprise, to run up the 
valley of the Tapti. 

The population of Surat as late as 
1797 was estimated at 800,000, but as 
Bombay rose Surat declined, until in 
1841 it had only 80,000 inhabitants. 
From 1847 its prosperity gradually in- 
creased, and the population now (1891) 
numbers 109,000. 

The Portuguese found their way to 
the place soon after their arrival in 
India, and in 1512 sacked the then open 
town. On the 19th January 1573 it 
surrendered to Akbar after a siege of 1 
month and 17 days. Early in the 17 th 
cent, the English began to visit it, and 
in 1612 the Moeul Emperor sent 
down a finnan, authorising an English 
minister to reside at his court, and 
opening to English subjects the trade 
at Surat. In 1615 Captain Downton, 
with four ships, mounting 80 guns, 
defeated the Portuguese fleet, consist- 
ing of four galleons, three other large 
ships, and 60 smaller vessels, mounting 
in all 134 guns. This victory estab- 
lished the reputation of the English 
for war, and their superiority over the 
Portuguese. The Dutch trade with 
Surat commenced in 1616, and for some 
years the Dutch Factory competed 
successfully with the English at Surat. 
The French Factory was not founded 
till 1668, when the agents of the French 
East India Company, which Colbert had 
established in 1664, settled at Surat 
On January the 6th of the same year 
the prosperity of Surat received a 
severe blow from Shivaji, the founder 
of the Maratha Empire, who with 

4000 horse surprised the city, and 
plundered it for six days. He laid 
siege to the English factory, but all his 
attempts to take it failed on account 
of the gallantly of the few factors who 
defended it. Their courageous defence 
so pleased Aurangzib, that he sent Sir 
G. Oxenden a robe of honour, and 
granted the English an exemption from 
customs. The walls of Surat up to 
this time were of mud, but they were 
now ordered to be built of brick. Surat 
was again partially pillaged by the 
Marathas in 1670, 1702, and 1706. 
About this timecommenced thedispntes 
of the rival London and English Com- 
panies ; and on the 19th of January 
1700 Sir Nicholas Waite, Consul for 
the King, and President of the New 
Company, arrived at Surat. The 
struggle of the Companies continued 
till 1708, when they were united. A 
new era now began to dawn upon the 
English at Surat. They were fast ap- 
proaching the period when they were 
to acquire political influence m the 
city, which was then regarded as the 
greatest emporium of W. India. 

In 1759 the Nawab signed a treaty 
by which the castle and fleet were 
made over to the English with a yearly 
stipend of 200,000 rs. This arrange- 
ment was confirmed by the Emperor at 
Delhi, and the English authority was 
firmly established in Surat. In 1842 
the last titular Nawab died, and the 
flag of Delhi was removed from the 

The Castle, so prominent in the 
early annals of the English in W. 
India, stands on the bank of the river, 
and was built by a Turkish soldier about 
1540. It is an uninteresting brick 
building with walls about 8 ft. thick, 
much modernised. There is a good 
view of the city and river from the 
S.W. bastion. Over the E. gateway is 
an inscription. 

Factories. — The remains of the JSng- 
lish Factory are near the way to the 
Katargaon Gate, close to the river. 
The building is now a private dwelling. 
N. of it is the Portuguese Factory, where 
some records are still kept. A wooden 
cross marks the site of the church. 
Close to this are the vacant site of the 

y Google 



French Lodge and the Persian Factory. 
AdjoiDing the castle is the well-kept 
Victoria Gfarden, of 8 acres. There is 
a fine view of the town from the Clock 

In the ETvglisk Cemetery^ N. of the 
city on the Broach Road, is (on the rt. 
on entering) the mausoleum of Sir 
George Ozendon, and near it the tomb 
of his brother Christopher. 

The Dutch Cemetery is also curious 
from the great size of the monuments. 
The most striking is that of Baron van 
Rheede, a learned man, who was the 
author of the valuable work, ** Hortus 
Mcdabaricus," and made valuable col- 
lections of books and curiosities, which 
he sent to Holland. 

The chief Mosques are— 

1. Khwajah Diwan Sahib's Mosque, 
buUt about 1530. He is said to have 
come to Surat from Bokhara, and to 
have lived to the age of 116. 2. The 
Nau Saiyad Mosque, '* Mosque of the 
Nine Saiyads," on the W. bank of the 
Gopi I^e. 3. The Sayyad Idrus Mosque, 
in Sayyadpura, with a minaret, one of 
the most conspicuous objects in Surat ; 
it was bnilt in 1639, in honour of the 
ancestor of the present Eazi of Surat. 
4. The Mirza SamiMosque, built 1540 by 
Khndawand Ehan, who built the castle. 

The Tombs of the Bohras deserve a 
visit. There are two chief Parsi ftre- 
temples, built in 1823. The Hindu sect 
of the Walabhacharis has three temples. 
The Swami Narayan temple, with three 
white domes, is visible all over the city. 
In the two old temples in the Ambaji 
ward the shrines are 15 ft. underground, 
a relic of Mohammedan persecution. 
The Shravaks, or Jains, have 42 temples, 
the chief of which are from 150 to 200 
years old. There are several steam 
Cotton Mills here ; and carved sandal 
wood and inlaid work form important 

Across the Hope Bridge 3 m. is 
Sander^ built on the site of a very 
ancient Hindu city, destroyed by the 
Mohammedans in the 12th century. 
The Jumma Musjid stands on the site 
of the principal Jain Temple. In the 
fa9ade the bases of the Jain columns 
ure still visible, and the great idol is 
l^aced head downwards as a doorstep 

for the faithful to tread on in entering 
the mosque. In another mosque are the 
wooden columns and domes belonging 
to the Jain Temple, which are the only 
wooden remains of the kind in Guzerat. 
2 m. after leaving Surat the Tapti or 
Tapi river is crossed by a very long 
bridge, and close to BroRohthe Nerbudda 
or J^rmada river is passed on the finest 
Bridge on the B. B. and C. I. Railway. 
From it a good view is obtained on left of 

203 m. Broach sta. (R.) D.B. 
{B?iaroch), is a place of extieme 
antiquity, but unmterestin^. Pop. 
37,000. Part of the town is withm 
about J m. from railway station. The 
author of the PeripluSt 60-210 A.D., 
mentions Broach under the name of 
Barugaza. It was then ruled by a Gurj - 
jara prince, probably a feudatorv of some 
larger state, and subsequently fell under 
l^e rule of the Chalukyas. The Mos- 
lems appeared in the 8th cent., and 
Broach was ruled by them from 1297 
to 1772. In 1613 a.d. it was first 
visited by Aldworth and Withington, 
English merchants, and in 1614 a house 
was hired for a factory, permission to 
establish which was granted to Sir 
Thomas Roe by Jehangir in 161 6. The 
Dutch set up a factory in 1617. In 
1686 the Marathas plundered Broach. 
On the 18th of November 1772 the 
British troops stormed the place with 
the loss of their commander. General 
Wedderbum, whose tomb is at the 
N. W. corner of the Fort. On the 29th 
of August 1803 Broach was again taken 
by storm by the British. 

The Nerbvdda here is a noble river, 
1 m. in breadth. The city with its 
suburbs covers a strip of land 2^ m. long 
and f m. broad, hence by its inhabitants 
it is called Jibh, or " the tongue. " The 
Fort stands on a hill more than 100 ft. 
above the river, and a massive stone 
wall lines the river bank for about 1 
m. The streets are narrow, and some 
of them steep. The houses are of plain 
brick, two stories high, with tiled 
roofs. In the Fort are the Collector's 
Office, the Civil Courts, the Dutch 
Factory, the Jail, the Civil Hospital, 
the English Church and School, the 
Municipal Office, aiid the JLibrary. 

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The Dutch tombs are 2 m. W. of the 
Fort, and some 100 yds. otf the road 1. 
Two of them are from 16 to 20 ft. high. 

Opposite the Dutch tombs are five 
Tovjers of Silence^ one of them about 
15 ft high. The second tower is still in 
use. Outside the E. gate on the river 
bank is the Temple of BhriguBishi, from 
whom the town got the name of Brigu- 
kackha, contracted into Bharuoh. 

Broach is celebrated for its cotton 
there are two spinning and weaving 
mills and several ginning and cotton 
pressing factories. 

[10 m. to the E. of Broach is the 
celebrated place of Hindu pilgrimage, 
Shukaltirth. It is on the N. or right 
bank of the Nerbudda, and here Chan- 
akya, King of Ujjain, was purified of 
his sins, having arrived at this holy 
spot by sailing down the Nerbudda in a 
boat with black sails, which turned 
white on hisreachingShukaltrith. Here 
too Chandragupta and his minister, 
Chanakya, were cleansed from the guilt 
of murdering Chandragupta's eight 
brothers, and here Chamund, King of 
Anhilwada, in the 11th century, ended 
his life as a penitent. There are three 
sacred waters — the Kavi, the Hunkar- 
eshwar, and the Shukal. At the second 
of these is a temple with an image of 
Vishnu. The temple is not remark- 
able. There is a fair here in November, 
at which 25,000 people assemble. Op- 
posite Mangleshwar, which is 1 m. up 
stream from Shukltirth, in the Ner- 
budda, isan island in which is the famous 
Banian Tree called the Kabir wad, or 
**the fig-tree of Kabir," from whose 
toothpick it is said to have originated. 
It has suffered much from floods. 
Forbes, who visited Broach 1776-88, 
says in his Oriental Memoirs^ i p. 26, 
it enclosed a space within its principal 
stems 2000 ft. in circumference. It had 
350 large and 3000 small trunks, and 
had been known to shelter 7000 men. 
Bishop Heber, in April 1825, says 
though much had been washed away, 
enough remained to make it one of the 
vmost noble groves in the world. A 
8i«iall temple marks the spot where the 
orignnal trunk grew.] 

<. 4n,i^.* "^y"««»i i^nc. sta. This is 
a 3^^-tion of a system of narrow gauge 

railways (2' 6") owned by the Gaekwar 
of Baroda and worked by the B.B. 
and C. I. Rly. Dabhoi is the place of 
chief interest on these lines, and may 
best be visited by leaving the main line 
at Miyagam and rejoining it at Viik- 
vamitri jmiction, 2 m. S. of Baroda sta., 
if the traveller intends continuing his 
journey; but for seeing the ci^ of 
Baroda, it may be better to leave the 
train at Goya Gate sta. 

[From Miyagam 20 m. DabhM, a town 
belonging to the state of Baroda. Pop. 
16,000. The ancient Hindu architec- 
ture of this place is most interesting, 
and is little known. It appears to 
have escaped notice by James Fergusson, 
whom it would have delighted. The Fort 
is said to have been built by the Vaghela 
king of Patau in the 13th century. 

The Baroda Gate is 31 ft high, 
with elaborately carved pilasters on 
either side. Tne carvings represent 
the incarnations of Vishnu, and 
njrmphs sporting with heavenly alliga- 
tors. Near this the interior colonnades 
in the Fort walls are very interesting. 
They afford shelter to the garrison. 
The roofs give an ample rampart, but 
they indicate no fear of the breaching 
power of artillery. Pass then through 
dusty streets, in which the houses are of 
immense solidity, and built of burnt 
brick much worn by the weather, to the 
S. or Nandod gate, which is 29 ft 
high and 16 ft. 4 in. wide. Trees have 
grown in the walls and fractured them 
with their thick roots. The Hira Gate 
in the E. face of the town is 37 ft. 
high, and a marvel of minute carviug. 
On the spectator's left as he looks out 
from inside the tower, is the temple of 
Maha Kali, and on his right beyond the 
gate and inside it is a smaller temple, 
now quite ruined. These gates are well 
worth attention. The Temple of Maha 
Kali is a wondrous example of carving, 
which when new must have been very 
beautiful, but is now much worn by 
the weather. The carving of the gate 
outside the town is elaborate. About 
10 ft. up in the N. face of the centre, a 
man ana woman are carved 4 ft. high, 
standing with a tree between them, 
like the old representations of Adam 
and Eve. To the left is the tall figure 

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of a devil, with a ghastly leer. High 
in the centre face is an elephant, under 
which the hoilder of the gate is said to 
have heen interred. On the N. side 
of the town is what was the palace, in 
which the law courts now sit. There is a 
fine tank on this side and the Mori gate. 
(From Dahhoi a branch rly. runs 10 m. 
S. to Chandod sta. , a celebrated place 
of Hindu pilgrimage, owing to its 
situation at the confluence of the 
NerhvMa and the Or, Thousands 
flock there every full moon. On the 
further side of the Nerbudda the ter- 
ritory of the Rajah of Rajpipla is 

29 m. Bahadarpur sta. The line is 
in construction K to 

38 m. Songir, where there are 
quarries of fine marble. 

(15 m. N.E. of Bahadarpur is the 
fortified mountain of Pauxingarh and 
f^-. mined city of Champanirf (see p. 

^tt m. BABODA sOe (R.) is the capi- 
tal of the very important Maratha 
state of the Gaekwar, which with its 
dependencies covers an area of 8570 
sq. m., with a pop. of 2,415,400. 

The CantonrnerU and Besidevvcy are a 
long m. N. from the railway station and 
adjoin one another. They are well 
laid out with open well-planted roads. 

The city of Baroda is S. £. of the can- 
tonment, about 1 m. It is a large busy 
place, with a pop. of 116,400, but con- 
tains few sights to detain a traveller. 
TTie Vishvamitri river flows W. of the 
town, and is spanned by four stone 
bridges, which exhibit great contrasts 
of ttyle. The city proper is intersected 
at right angles by two wide thorough- 
fores, which meet in a market-place, 
where there is ajinepaviluni of Moham- 
■9dan architecture. The new Lakshmi 
'^Qas Palace, seen from the railway 
towering above the town, cost 27 lacs 
of rupees. Passes to view it can be ob- 
tained from the Governor Gen.'s Agent. 
The suburban palace Mukhapnra is 4 
a. 8. of the city. There are also many 
other handsome modem buildings, 
amongst which may be mentioned the 
JUanhUmess of Dufferm*8 Hospital^ the 
baroda Stale lAhrary^ the Central Jail^ 
tJfca Barvda College^ and the Anglo- 

Vemacula/r School. The English 
Church was consecrated by Bishop 
Heber 1824, and in 1838 was almost 
entirely rebuilt. There is a good 
public garden between the canton- 
ments and the city on the banks of the 
Vishvamitri river. ^ 

The Naulakhi Wdl is 50 yds. N. of 
the new palace. It is a beautiful 
structure of the Baoli class, described 
generally below. The water from it is 
pumped by steam into pipes leading to 
the city, the Moti Bagh, and Nazar 
Bctgh.^ Twenty yds. beyond the Nazar 
Bagh Gate on the rt. in a barrack are 
some small gold field-pieces mounted 
on silver-plated carriages. They con- 
tain 280 lbs. weight each of solid gold, 
and are drawn by splendid milk-white 
bullocks, stabled hard by. 

Baroda is supplied with water from 
the artifical Jjtoa Lake, 18 m. distant, 
which possesses ah area of 4*71 sq. m. 
It was completed in 1892, at a cost of 
35 lakhs. 

The BcLolis, in Guzerat, are large 
wells. The following account of these 
structures is given by Mr. A. Kinloch 
Forbes, in his interesting work on 
Guzerat, the Bas MaXa : "Of the wells 
of this period there remain in different 
parts of the country examples of two 
kinds. Some are large circular wells 
of ordinary construction, but contain- 
ing galleried apartments ; others are 
more properly described as *ivavs* or 
*baoli8.* The tiniv is a large edifice, 
of a picturesque and stately, as well as 
peculiar, character. Above the level of 
the ground a row of four or five open 
pavilions, at regular distances from 
each other, usually square in the 
interior, but sometimes, in the larger 
examples, passing into the octagonal 
form within, is alone visible ; the roofs 
are supported on columns, and are, in 
the stractures of the Hindu times, 
pyramidal in form. The entrance to 
the wav is by one of the end pavilions ; 
thence a flight of steps descends to a 
landing immediately under the second 
dome, which is now seen to be sup- 
ported by two rows of columns, one 

1 The Old Palace and Toshah Khana are well 
worth a visit. 

2 A much finer specimen ot this class or 
wells is to be found at Ahmedabad. 

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over the other. A second flight of 
steps continues the descent to a similar 
landing under the third pavilion, 
where the screen is found to be three 
columns in height In this manner 
the descent continues stage by stage, 
the number of the columns increasing 
at each pavilion, until the level of the 
water is at last reached. The last 
flight of steps frequently conducts to 
an octagonal structure, in this position 
necessarily several stories high, and 
containing a gallery at each story. It 
is covered by the terminating dome, 
and is the most adorned portion of the 
wav. The structure, which is some- 
times 80 yds. in length, invariably 
terminates in a circular well." 

At Baroda the traveller has entered 
the part of Guzerat that is most fertile 
and park-like. It will be a pity to 
pass through it in the dark. Nearly 
every village has its tank and its temple, 
large well-grown trees abound, and the 
fields, which are lichly cultivated, are 
surrounded by high hedges of milk 
bush {Euphorbia tintcalli). The small 
game shooting is exceptionally good. 

[An expedition may be made from 
Baroda by the Gaekwar*s narrow gauge 
rly. to the fortified mountain of Pawan- 
gcurhf and the ruined city of Ghampanir; 
the distance is about 38 m. Cham- 
pauir was long the residence of the 
kings. After many vicissitudes it was 
taken in 1484 by Mahmud Begada of 
Ahmedabad, whomadeithis capital, and 
in 1535 it was besieged by Humayun, 
Emp. of Delhi. In person he scaled the 
precipices of the Fort by the aid of iron 
spikes driven into the rock, and opened 
the gate to admit his army. There are 
remains of many mosques, tombs, and 
tanks in the lower city; and in the 
forest for miles around may bo found 
the ruins of massive wells, minarets, 
and palaces, which testify to the former 
greatness of Chamianir ^]. 

270 m. Anand junc. sta. 

[(a) One branch line from this sta, ex- 
tendsN.E. to 76m. OodliraandRutlain.] 

18 m. Dakor sta. There is a " 

miZ^ 1^® architecture of Champanir, Mah- 

lake, and a temple with an image much 
venerated by the Hindus. As many aa 
100,000 pilgiims assemble in October 
and November. 

About 20 m. N. of Dakor is the 
walled town of 

Eapadvanj, D.B., noted for its in- 
dustry in soap^ glass, and leather jars 
for **ghee." The glass is made by 
Mohammedans in large earthen fur- 
naces in form like huge slipper baths, 
the floor sloping towards holes pre- 
pared to receive the melted sub- 
stance. The furnace inside is baked 
as hard and looks as white and slippery 
as ice. The component parts of 
the glass are alkali, us, an impure soda 
compound partly carbonate and partly 
silicate, sajj'i khdr, and a dark-coloured 
flinty sand from Jeypore. These are 
mixed together, placed in the famaces, 
and thoroughly boUed for hours. 
When ready, the boiling mass is 
allowed to run into a trench to cooL^ 
It is then broken into small pieces,' 
remelted, and in this liquid state made 
into bangles, beads, bottles, glasses, 
and fancy animals, chiefly peacocks. 
The last are extremely thin and brittle. 
This glass goes chiefly to Bombay and 
Eathy war. Midway between Dakor and 
Eapadvanj are the hot springs of Las- 
sundra, the highest temperature being 
115^ The water is slightly sulphurous 
and efficacious in skin diseases. There 
is a small D.B. in the cantonment.] 

[(h) Another line runs S. W. 15 m. to 
Petlad, a commercial town, pop. 15,528. 

15 m. S.W. of Petlad is Cambay, 
the capital of the Native State of that 
name, pop. 31,390. The town and 
port are of great antiquity. In A.D. 
913 Cambay is described by the Arab 
traveller Masudi as standing on the 
shores of a deep bay surrounded by 
towns, villages, farms, cultivated fields, 
trees, and gardens. It was governed 
by the kings of Anhilvada (the modem 
Patau), up to the end of the 13th cent 
Mohammedan writers of the period call 
it the * * first city in Hind. " The beauty 
and wealth of the country led to its 
invasion by the Mohammedan Emperor 
Ala-ud-din in 1304, when the city was 
plundered and its temples destroyed. 

Cambay reached the height of its 

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glory under the Mohammedans at the 
latter end of the 15th and beginning 
of the 16th cents., and in 1583, letters 
carried by Fitch, Leedes, and New- 
berry from Queen Elizabeth, were ad- 
dressed to Akbar as King of Cambav. 
The Portuguese and Dutch had already 
established factories here in 1618 when 
the English appeared; it was still a 
flourishing city, but commenced to 
decline as Surat increased in import- 
ance. In the 18th cent it was 
plundered more than once by the 
Marathas; at the same time the en- 
trance to the harbour began to silt up, 
and it has now become as unimportant 
a city as it was formerly great 

Csonbay was formerly a stronghold 
of the Jains and still possesses some 
of their MSS, second only to those at 
Patan. The Jumma Mu^'id (1325), 
was built with fragments of Jain and 
Hindu Temples. 

The town is celebrated for the manu- 
&cture of agate, cornelian, and onyx 

292 m. Mehmadabad sta. i^ Pic^ 
turesque view of river from rly. sta. 
In the morning and evening troops of 
monkeys play about quite near the 
titin. Mehmadabad was founded by 
Mahmud Begada in 1479. There is a 
tomb 1^ m. £. of the town, built in 
1484 in honour of Mubarak Sajryad, a 
minister of Mahmud. For simplicity 
of plan, and solidity and balance of 
parts, it stands almost first among 
Indian mausoleums. Begada also con- 
structed the Bhamuvra Btzoli well. It 
bas two stone arches, on which it was 
said the king's swing was hung. It is 
74 ft long by 24 ft. broad, is entered 
by four winding stairs, and has eight 
underground chambers. 

[K&a {Kheda\ 7 m. from Mehma- 
dabad, by a good road shaded by fine 
trees (pop. 29,000), is the largest town 
in the district of that name. It consists 
of two parts, the town proper and the 
soborbe. Kaira is said to oe as old as 
1400 B.C. Copper-plate grants show that 
the city was m existence in the 5th cent. 
There are now only five European dvil 
officers resident there. The chief in- 
dustry is printingcloth for saris and other 
native garments. In the centre of the 

town is the Court House, a building 
with pillars of a Greek order. Near it 
is a Jain Temple, with beautiful dark 
wood carving. Outside the E. gate is the 
new Jail. Outside the S. gate are the 
Reading-room and Library and a Clock 
Tower, built in 1868. It was once a 
military cantonment, but proved so 
unhealthy for Europeans that the troops 
were withdrawn. The large church was 
consecrated by Bishop Heber in 1822, 
and has a beautiful bell. It is the 
capital of a coUectorate of well- wooded 
fertile country. Wild hog may still be 
found in the district and the Nilgai 
{Portax pictus\ antelope (Antilope 
bezoartica), and Indian gazelle {Oazella 
Bennettii)i are very common. The 
Sarua is a tall and beautiful gray crane 
with a crimson head. All these animals, 
assisted by monkeys, do great damage 
to the crops, but the cultivators protect 
them from sportsmen. Wild-fowl, bus- 
tard {Eupodotis Edwardsii), and florican 
{8yj^ieotide$ aurUus)y partridges and 
quails, sand-grouse, plovers and bitterns, 
pea-fowl and green pigeon, are found 
everywhere. The Mahsir (Barhus 
Mosal)^ little inferior to the salmon, are 
found in the Mahi, Vatrak, Meshwa, and 
Sabarmati, and afford excellent sport 
with the rod and fly. There are few 
richer and more pleasing portions of 
India than the Kaira coUectorate.] 

It may well be asserted that the lines 
of railway from Mehmadabad and Rut- 
lam to' Delhi through northern Guzerat 
and Rajputana, traverse a country more 
crowded with beautiful buildings and 
ruins than any in the known world. 

310 m. AHMEDABAD,^ June. sta. 3^ 

This most beautiful city, covering an 
area of 2 sq. m. (148,412 inhab.), stands 
on the 1. bank of the Sabarmati river, 
which skirts its W. wall. The remains of 
an old wall, pierced by 12 gateways, 
surround it 

Ahmedabad, once the greatest city 
in Western India, is said to have been 
from 1578 to 1600 the '* handsomest 
town in Hindustan, perhaps in the 

1 No tonrist should pass the ancient capital 
of the Saltans of Guzerat, the stronghold of 
the northern Jains, without pausing at least 
long enough (4 hrs.) to visit the Tombs qf the 
Queens. I^e chief objects of interest marked 
with an asterisk. 

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world." In Sir Thomas Roe's time, 
1616, we are told, **it was a goodly 
city as large as London." It was 
founded in 1411 by Sultan Ahmad I., 
who made Asaval, the old Hindu town 
now included in the S. part of the city, 
his capital. It passed through two 
periods of greatness, two of decay, 
and one of revival. From 1411 to 1511 
it grew in size and wealth ; from 1512 
to 1572 it declined with the decay of 
the dynasty of Guzerat ; from 1572 to 
1709 it renewed its greatness under the 
Mogul emperors ; from 1709 to 1809 it 
dwindled with their decline ; and from 
1818 onwards it has again increased 
under British rule. 

The city is supplied with filtered water 
obtained from wells sunk in the bed 
of the river, nearly opposite Oonianpur, 

The Cantonment lies 3) m. N.E. of 
the city, and is reached by a good road 
lined by an avenue of trees, the haunt of 
thousands of parrots. Here there is an 
English Church, and there is another, 
Christ Church, in the Idaria Quarter^ 
600 yds. S. of the Delhi Gate. 

It is hard to account for Ahmedabad 
being so little known to modem travel- 
lers from Europe. It certainly ranks 
next to Delhi and Agra for the beauty 
and extent of its architectural remains. 
Its architecture is an interesting and 
striking example of the combination 
of Hindu ana Mohammedan forms. 
** Nowhere did the inhabitants of Ah- 
medabad show how essentially' they 
were an architectural people as in their 
utilitarian works (wells [Baoli8\ and in- 
lets to water reservoirs). It was a ne- 
cessity of their nature that every object 
should be made ornamental, and their 
success was as great in these as in their 
mosques or palaces " (see Fergusson). 

The Jaina feeding-plctces for MrdSf 
which at the first glance look like 
pigeon-houses, to be seen in many of 
the streets, are a peculiar feature of 
Ahmedabad: they are extremely pic- 
turesque, ornamented with carving, and 
otten gaily painted. Many of the houses 
in the street have fronts beautifully 
ornamented with wood-carving, which 
is a speciality of the place (see below). 

A traveller pressed for time, having 
only one day at his disposal, might take 

the buildings in the city in the follow- 
ing order : — 

The Jumma Musjid and Tombs of 
Ahmad Shah and his wives ; the Rani 
Sipari's Tomb and Mosque; Dastur 
Khan's M6sque ; the Tin Darwazah ; 
the Bhadr Azam Khan's palace ; Sidi 
Sayyad's Mosque ; Ahmad Shah's 
Mosque ; Shaikh Hasan's Mo8(^ue ; the 
Rani (or Queen's) Mosque in Mirzapur; 
Muhafiz Khan's Mosque. 

With a second morning to s^re, he 
should start early and see Sarkhej, across 
the river to the S. W., giving himself cU 
least four hours for the trip. A second 
afternoon could be devoted to the Kan- 
kariya Tank and Shah 'Alam, S. of the 
dty, and perhaps the modem Jain Tem- 
ple of Hatnising, outside the Delhi gate. 

Near the rly. sta. are the handsome 
lofty minarets and arched central gate- 
way, which are all that remain of a 
mosque^ (1) destroyed in the struggle 
with the Marathas in 1753. 

The Jnmma Husjid (3),* or prtn^ 
dpal mosque, stands near the centre of 
the city, on the S. side of the main street 
(Manik Chauk), a little E. of the Three 
Gateways. It was built by Sultan 
Ahmad I. (Ahmad Shah) in 1424. Mr. 
Fergusson says : ** Though not remark- 
able for its size, it is one of the most 
beautiful mosques in the East." The 
mosque is entered from the N. by a 
flight of steps. On the S. is another 
porch leading into the street, and on the 
E. is the enclosure, in which is the tomb 
of the founder. The courtis surrounded 
by a cloister. To the W. is the mosque 
proper. On the threshold of the main 
arch, embedded in the pavement, lies a 
black slab brought from Chintaman's 
Temple, which, according to Mr. Hope, 
is a Jain idol turned upside down for the 
faithful to tread on ; and touching it on 
the E. is a white marble crescent, where 
the Imam stands to pray. In the right- 
hand comer on entering is a gallerjr, 
which was probably used for themembers 
of the royal family. The roof, supported 
by 260 columns, has 15 cupolas with 
galleries round the three in front. The 
centre cupola \a larger and much higher 
than the others. The 2 minarets lost half 

1 These numbers in brackets refer to the 
numbers on the accompanying plan. 

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faee p. 112. 

tf^aikcr OfBoutail sc. 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 

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their height in th& earthquake of 16th 
Jane 1819. They are now 43 ft. high.* 
On a marble slao above the centre of 
the three kiblahs or prayer-niches are 
these words in Arabic : ' * This high and 
far-stretching mosque was raised by the 
slave who trusts in the mercy of Grod, 
the compassionate, the alone to be wor- 
shipped.^* The Koran says, "Truly 
mosques belong to God, worship no one 
else with Him. " * * The slave who trusts 
in God, the Aider, Nasiru'd dunya va 
din Abu'l Fath Ahmad Shah, son of Mu- 
hammad Shah, son of Sultan Muzaffar. '* 

Through the E. gate is the Tomb of 
Alunad Sliali (2), (repaired 1587). 
This domed building has a portico to 
the S. with 18 pillars. The windows 
are of perforated stonework. The 
central chamber is 86 ft. square. It is 
paved with marble of different colours. 
The centre cenotaph is that of Ahmad 
Shah, the one to the W. is that of his 
son, Muhammad Shah, and that on the 
E. is that of his grandson, Kutb Shah. 

50 yds. to the E. across the street are 
the Tombs of the queens of Ahmad 
Shah (2). * The houses are so close that 
they quite shut out the facade of the 
mausoleum, which is raised on a plat- 
form. In the facade are 13 highly 
ornamented carved recesses. Inside is 
a rectangular court, with a corridor 
numing ronndit. In the centre are eight 
large cenotaphs and several small ones. 
The centre tombstone is of white 
marble, finely carved, and is the tomb 
of Moghlai Bibi. It is of black stone 
or marble, inlaid with white. This 
building is one of the finest in Ahmeda- 
bad, but much out of repair. 

Ban! Slpari's Mosque and Tomb (4) * 
Me almost the most beautifiil monu- 
loents in Ahmedabad. Rani Si^ari was 
one of the wives of Mahmud Bigadah, 
*Qd mother of Prince Ahmad. Her 
HMJeque and tomb were completed in 
1514. "They are the first oi a series 
of buildings more delicately ornate than 
any that preceded." ^ The mosque has 
2 minarets, about 50 ft. high, having 

^ In 1781 Mr. Forbes, in his Oriental 
Mmofn, said of them : "A circular flight of 
steps led to a gallery near the top of each. 
A little force at the arch of th* upper gallt-ry 
5*de both minarets shake, though the roof of 
"» HKMque reroain^d unmoved. 

^^opiefB ATmeddbad. 


four compartments tapering up to the 
top. The roof is supported by a row 
of 6 couiJed pillars with single ones 
behind. The roza, or tomb, is 36 ft. sq. 

Dastur Khan's Mosque (5), built in 
1486 by one of Mahmud Bigadah's 
ministers. Remark the open stone 
screen-work that shuts in the cloister 
round the courtyard. In the gateway 
the marks of shot may be seen. A few 
yds. to the E. of Dastur Khan's Mosque 
IS Asa BhiVs Moundy the site of the 
fort of the Bhil chief, from whom the 
town of Asaval had its name. 

A little to the N.E. of the Jamalpur 
Gate is Haibat Khan's Mosque (6), 
which is interesting as one of the earliest 
attempts to combine Mohammedan and 
Hindu elements. Haibat Khan was 
one of the noblemen of Ahmad Shah's 
court. The mosque is very plain. The 
front waU is pierced by three small 
pointed arches some distance apart. 
The minarets are small and without 
ornament, and rise like chimneys from 
the roof. The central dome, of Hindu 
workmanship and of great beauty, is 
barely raised above the others. The 
pillars, taken from different temjles, 
display every variety of rich ornament. 
Except for the form of its dome, the 
outer porch would suit a Hindu temple. 

The Tin Darwazah, or Three Gate- 
WKjs (7), built by Sultan Ahmad I., 
is of stone richly carved. It crosses 
the main street a little to the N. of the 
Jumma Musjid. The terrace on the 
top of the gateway was formerly roofed 
over, but was thrown open in 1877. 
This gateway led into the outer court 
of the Bhadr, known as the Royal 
Square, and was surrounded, in 1638, 
by two rows of palm trees and tamarinds 
(J. A. de Mandelslo's Voyages, 1662, ^. 
76). Facing the Bhadr Gate is a muni- 
cipal garden. N. of the garden is the 
High School, and to the W. the Hema- 
bhai Institute, with a good library and 
newspapers and periodicals. Near it is 
the Mosque of Malik Sha'ban, with an 
inscription that says it was built in the 
reign of Kutb-ud-dm, by Sh'aban, son of 
'Imadu'l mulk, in 856 a.h. = 1452 a.d. 

The Bhadr (8), (pronounced Bhud- 
der) an ancient enclosure or citadel, 
built by Ahmad Shah,^1411, and named 

Digitized by Google I 




after the goddess Bhadra, a propitious 
form of Kali, is occupied by public 
offices. In the £. face is the Palace, 
built by 'Azam Khan (9), the 23d 
Viceroy (1635-42), who was called 
Udai, "the white ant," from his love 
of building. It is now the jaiL Over 
the entrance is a Persian chronogram, 
giving the date 1636 A.D. The N, 
efrdrance to the Bhadr is very handsome. 
The gate is 18 ft. high, under an arch- 
way, opening into a regular octagonal 
hail of great elegance, containing, in 
the upper story, an arched gallery, 
and having in front a low wall of 
open-cut stone, each gallery surmounted 
by a cupola. Underneath this hall is 
a fine vaulted chamber, entered by a 
flight of steps at each side, with a reser- 
voir and fountain in the middle. Close 
to the Jail is a temple to Bhadra Kali 
Mata. At the N.E. comer is Sidl Say- 
3rad'B Mosque (12),* which forms part 
of the wall ; it is now the Mumlutdar's 
office. Two of its windows are filled 
with delicate stone traceiy of tree- 
stems and branches beautifully wrought. 
Mr. Fergusson, who gives an illustra- 
tion of one of the windows, says in his 
Hist, of Arch. : " It would be difficult 
to excel the skill with which the vege- 
table forms are conventionalised just 
to the extent required for the purpose. 
The equal spacing also of the subject 
by the three ordinary trees and four 
palms takes it out of the category of 
direct imitation of nature, and renders 
it sufficiently structural for its situa- 
tion ; but perhaps the greatest skill is 
shown in the even manner in which the 
pattern is spread over the whole surface. 
There are some exquisite specimens of 
tracery in precious marbles at Agra and 
Delhi, but none qtute eaual to this." 

In the S.W. corner of the Bhadr is 
Alunad Shah's Mosque (10), built by 
him in 1414, 20 years before the Jumma 
Musjid, being perhaps the oldest here. 
It is said to have been used as the king's 
private chapel. Left on advancing to- 
wards the mosque, was once ttie Ou\ji- 
Shaliid or store of Martyrs, where were 
buried the Moslems killed in storm- 
ing the town. The fa9ade is almost 
bare of ornament, with ill-designed 
pointed arches. Tlie two minarets are 

evidently unfinished. The mvnibart or 
pulpit, is adorned with what looks Uke 
laurel leaves. The architecture shows 
the first attempts at building a Moslem 
edifice in what had been a Hindu city. 
The pillars still bear Hindu figures and 
emblems. The N. porch, leading into the 
latticed ladies' gallery, is Hindu through- 
out, and may be part of a temple. 

W. of this mosque is the Muiik Bnij 
(11) or Ruby Bastion, built round the 
foundation-stone of the city. There is a 
small round tomb in the yard near the 
collector's office, which is said to be that 
of Ibrahim Euli Khan, a Persian warrior. 

Shah Wajihu-din's Tomb (13). baUt 
by Saiyad Murtaza Khan Bokhari, 11th 
Viceroy, 1606-1609, is a very beautiful 

Bayyad 'Alam's Mosque (14), built 
about 1420 by Abubakr HusainL The 
inner details are as rich as Hindu art 
could make them. S. of this 170 
yds. is 

The Bani Musjid (Queen's Mosque) 
(15) in Mirzajmr^ a few yds. to the S. 
of the D.B., built probably in Sultan 
Ahmad I.'s reign. There are two 
minarets, unfinished or partly destroyed 
by an earthquake, and now only 33 ft 
high. The roof has three domes,, and 
is supported by 36 plain pillars. To 
the N.E. of the mosque is the roza or 
tomb (restored). Under the dome are 
two cenotaphs of white marble ; the 
central one is the tomb of Rupavati, a 
princess of Dhar. It is in good preserva- 
tion, while that on the W. side is 
much injured ; both are ornamented 
with the chain and censer, a Hindu 
device. Mr. Fergusson has given a 
plan of this mosque, and says, *'The 
lower part of the minaret is of pure 
Hindu architecture. We can follow 
the progress of the development of this 
form from the first rude attempt in the 
Jumma Musjid, through all its stages 
to the exquisite patterns of the Queen's 
Mosque at Mirzapur." 

The Mosque of Sbaik Hasan Mu- 
hammad CUshti in ShaApur (16) is in 
the N.W. angle of the city, not far from 
the Sabarmati, 1665 a.d. The minarets 
are unfinished. ''The tracery in the 
niches of their bases is perhaps superior 
to any other in the city." On the S. or 

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left side of tlie central arch is a Persian 
quatrain. This chronogram gives the 
date 1566 a.d. 

N. of the city is the Mosque of 
Huhafiz Khan (17), which is 350 yds. 
to the £. of the D.B., and was hnilt in 
1465 hy Jamal-nd-din Muhafiz Khan, 
governor of the city in 1471 under 
Mahmud. Begadah. It is the best pre- 
served of all the mosques ; and Hope 
says, "its details are exquisite," and 
he considers that the minarets of this 
mosque and those of Rani Sipari ''sur- 
pass those of Cairo in beauty." ^ 

S. of this mosque is the modem Swami 
Narayan's Temple (18), finishedin 1850. 
It has an octagonal dome, supported on 
12 pillars, and is a fine builcung. 

Close to it is the Panjrapol or Asylum 
for AnirnaZs, The enclosure is sur- 
rounded by sheds where about 800 
animals are lodged. There is also a 
room where insects are fed. Close to 
the S. of it are nine tombs, each 18 ft. 
3 in. long, called the Nau Oaz Firs, 
"the Nine Yard Saints." They are 
most likely the tombs of a number of 
men killed in some battle. 

The Mosque, Tomb, and College of 
Shuja'at Khan.— This mosque has two 
slender minarets and is divided by 
piers into five bays, and over the kiblah 
are written the creed and date =1695. 
The walls, up to 6 ft., are lined with 
marble. The tomb is of brick, with a 
marble floor, much destroyed. It is called 
both the Marble and the Ivoiy Mosque. 

Ahmedabad is celebrated for its 
Handicraftsmen — goldsmiths, j ewel- 
lers, etc., who carry the cJiopped form 
of jewellery (the finest archaic jewellery 
in India) to the highest perfection ; 
copper and brass-workers, as instanced 
particularly in the very graceful and 
delicate brass screens and pandans 
(spice -boxes) ; carpenters, who have 
long^ been famous for their superior 
carving in shisham, or mongrel black- 
wood, of which the finest specimens 
are to be found here ; stone-masons, 
lacquer -worjkers, carvers in ivory, — 
also for the manufacture of ** Bombay 
boxes " ; mock ornaments for idols ; 
leather shields ; cotton cloth (4 monster 
tteam-factories) ; calico-printing, gold- 

steam-factories) : calico-printing, gold- 
figured silks, and gold and silver tissues ; 
kincobSf or brocades (the noblest pro- 
duced in India) ; gold and silver lace 
and thread, and aS manner of tinsel 

Its industrial importance is shown by 
the fact that "the Nagar-Seth, or city 
lord, of Ahmedabad is the titular head 
of all the Guilds and the highest person- 
age in the citv, and is treated as its 
representative Dy the Government." ^ 

Carpets have also become a speciality 
of Ahmedabad, and the manufactories, 
as well as the workshops of the other 
crafts are well worth visiting. 

Environs.— For 12 m. round Ahme- 
dabad the country is full of interesting 
ruins ; but here only the principal can 
be mentioned. Just outside the Delhi 
Gate, rt. of the road, is the Hathi Sing's 
Temple (19),* a modem building, sur- 
mounted by 53 pagoda domes. This 
and a rest-house and family mansion 
close by were finished in 1848, at a cost 
of 1,000,000 rs. The dimensions or 
this temple are of the first order ; its 
style the pure Jain ; and it stands a 
convincing proof that the native archi 
tecture has not been extinguished by 
centuries of repression. In its sculp- 
tures may be seen representations oi 
the 24 holy men, or Tirthankars, and 
hundreds of other images, all similar, 
but each labelled on the base with the 
emblem of some distinct Jain. The 
entrance is from a courtyard surrounded 
by a corridor, where woollen slippers 
are provided, before ascending a portico 
richly carved and supported by pillars. 
The Temple consists of an outer and an 
inner chamber, both paved with coloured 
marbles chiefly from Makran in Rajpu- 
tana: in the latter istheimageof Dharm- 
nath, who is represented as a beautiful 
youth, with a sparkling tiara of imitation 
diamonds. Mr. Fergusson says: "Each 
part increases in dignity to the sanctu- 
ary. The exterior expresses the interior 
more completely than even a Gothic 
design, and, whether looked at from its 
courts or from the outside, it possesses 
variety without confusion, and an ap- 
propriateness of every part to the pur- 

1 See also Burgess, ArcMteoture Of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




pose intended.'* N.W. of this is the 
ruined Tomb of Daxya Khan (20), 
1453, minister of Mahmud Shah Begada. 
The dome is 9 ft. thick, and the largest 
in Guzerat. Not far beyond it is the 
Chota or small Shahi Bagh, of no 
architectural interest, now a private 
house, where it is said the ladies of the 
royal harem lived. Across the railway 
line is the Shahi Bagh, a very fine 
garden-house, now the residence of the 
Commissioner of the Division. A sub- 
terranean passage is said to communicate 
between the two places. The building 
was erected in 1622 by Shah Jehan, 
when Viceroy of Ahmedabad, to give 
work to the poor during a season of 
scarcity. In the 16th century this was 
the great resort for the people of the 
city. The Shahi Bagh is close to the 
railway bridge over the Sabarmati, 
which river it overlooks. Half a m. 
S. W. of the Shahi Bagh is Miyan Khan 
Chisti's Mosqne (22), built in 1465 by 
Malik Maksud Yazir ; and } m. more to 
the S.W. is Achat Bibi's Mosqne (21), 
built in 1469, by *Imadu*l mulk, one of 
Begada's ministers, for his wife Bibi 
Achut Kuki, whose tomb is close by. 
There were seven minarets here, all of 
which were thrown down in the earth- 
quake of 1819. Returning from this 
point, the traveller may drive to the 
N.E. side of the city, to Asarva, which 
is about J m. N.E. of the Daryapur 
Gate, where are the Wells of Dada Hari 
(23)* and Mata Bhawani. The real 
name of Dada is said by the local people 
to have been Halim, " mild," and they 
call him Dada Hari. He is said to have 
been the husband of the Dai, or Nurse 
of one of the Kings. There is an ascent 
from the road to the platform which 
surrounds the well's mouth. A domed 
portico, supported by 12 pillars, gives 
entrance to 3 tiers of finely constructed 
galleries below ground, which lead to the 
octagonal well, and inscriptions in 
Sanscrit and Arabic The well beyond 
the octagonal one has pillars round it, 
and a fence wall. Beyond this is a 
circular well for irrigation. A very 
narrow staircase leads to the level 
ground, where by the side of the well 
are two stone mandaps. About 50 yds. 
to the W. is Dada Hari^s Mosque, one 

of the best decorated buildings at 
Ahmedabad, though no marble is em- 
ployed. The stone is of a dull reddish- 
gray colour. The bases of the two 
minarets are richly carved. A portion 
of them was thrown down by the earth- 
quake of 1819. To the N. is the Rom 
of Dada Hari or Halim, The N. door 
is exquisitely carved, but the inside is 
quite plain. 

Hata BhawaJtti (24).— This we41 is 
about 100 yds. N. of Dada Hari's, but 
is much older, and is thought to be of 
the time of Karan, when Ahmedabad 
was called Karanavati. The descent 
to the water from the platform is by 
52 steps and pillared galleries as at 
Dada Hari. The porticoes are qnite 
plain, and the well is altogether inferior 
to that of Dada Hari. 

Most of the houses in the Madhavpura 
suburb are warehouses, and it is the 
great business quarter. Saraspur is a 
distinct walled town, the largest of the 
suburbs. It is E. of the rly. station. 
In this suburb is the Jain Temple of 
Chintaman (25), restored in 1868 by 
Shantidas, a rich merchant, at a cost 
of 900,000 rs. Aurangzib defiled it by 
having a cow's throat cut in it^ and, 
breaking the images, changed it into a 
mosque. The Jains petitioned the Em- 
peror Shah Jehan, who ordered his son 
to repair and restore the temple. But 
in 1666 Thevenot speaks of it as a 
mosque ( VoyageSy v. p. 28). 

J m. S.E. of the Raipur Gate is 
the Hauz-i-Kutb, generally called the 
Kankariya Lake (26), or Pebble Lake. 
This reservoir, one of the largest of 
its kind in this part of India, is a 
regular polygon of 34 sides, each side 
190 ft. long, the whole being more than 
1 m. round. The area is 72 acres. It 
was constructed by Sultan Kutb-ud-din 
in 1451, and was then surrounded by 
many tiers of cut-stone steps, with six 
sloping approaches, flanked by cupolas 
and an exquisitely carved water-sluice. 
In the centre was an island, with a gar- 
den called Nagina or the Gem, and a 
pavilion called Ghattamandal. In 1872 
Mr. Borrodaile, the collector, repaired 
the building, and made a road to the 
Rajpur Gate. On the E. bank of the 
lake are some Dutch and Armenian 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



tombs, Saracenic in style, with domes 
uid pillars. They are a good deal 
rained. The dates range from 1641 to 

Sarkhej is 6 m. to the S.W. of the 
Jamalpore Gate, whence a dumnif or 
covered cart on springs, with a good 
horse, will take two people comfortably 
in an hour. The start must be made 
ia the early morning. The road crosses 
the Sabimnati river, the channel of 
which is about ^ m. broad, but the water 
in the dry weather is little more than 
2 ft deep. The river-bed during the 
day \B one of the most interesting sights 
in Ahmedabad. The sand is dotted 
with enclosures for the cultivation of 
mdons, potatoes, and other vegetables, 
and the running water is lined with 
gailv- dressed women washing their 
clothes. Garments of every shape and 
of the brightest colours are laid out to 
dry. These persons are not profes- 
sional washerwomen, but belong to 
manv classes of society. The remains 
of a bridge will be seen near the cross- 
ing; both it and the railway bridge 
were carried away by the great flood in 
1875, but tiie latter was at once restored. 
Near the bridge the city wall is from 
iO to 60 ft high. The road from the 
river's bank is good, with rich fields 
on either side, and at !{ m. rt. is the 
massive brick 

Mausoleum of 'Aiam and Mozam, 
bnilt probably in 1457. These brothers 
are said to have been the architects of 
Sarkhej, and to have come from Ehor- 
asan. The immense structure which 
contains their tombs is raised on a 
platform. About 800 yds. from the 
principal buildings at Sarkhej there 
are two brick towers about 30 ft. high, 
the bases of which, close to the ground, 
have been so dug awav that it seems a 
miracle they do not fall. After another 
200 yds., the road passes under two 
arches, leading into the courtyard of 
Sarkhej. To the left on entering is 
the fine mausoleum of Mahmud Big^ah 
and his sons, and connected with it 
by a beautiful portico another equally 
magnificent tomb on the border of the 
tank for his queen B&jabai. To the rt 
is the Tomb of the Saint Shaik Ahmc^ 
KhaUu Qwnj BakJuh, called also Magh- 

rabi. Ganj Bakhsh lived at Anhalwada, 
and was the spuitual guide of Sultan 
Ahmad I., and a renowned Moham- 
medan saint; he retired to Sarkhej, 
and died there in 1445 at the age of 111. 
This magnificent tomb and mosque 
were erected to his memorv. The tomb 
is the largest of its kind in Guzerat, 
and has a great central dome and many 
smaller ones. Over the central door of 
the tomb is a Persian auatrain. It gives 
the date 1473 A. D. The shrine inside is 
octagonal, surrounded by finely- worked 
brass lattice-windows. The pavement 
is of coloured marbles, and the dome 
inside richly gilt, — from it hangs a 
long silver chain which once reached 
to the ground. The vast ac^oining 
Mosque is the perfection of elegant sim- 
plicity: it has 10 cupolas supported 
on 18 pillars. The whole of these 
buildings, says Mr. Fergusson, '*are 
constructed without a single arch ; all 
the pillars have the usual bracket 
capitals of the EEindus, and all the 
domes are on the horizontal principle." 
S. of the saint's tomb is that of his 
disciple Shaik Salahu-din. 

Mahmud Begurra excavated the great 
tank of 17i acres, surrounded it by 
flights of stone steps, constructed a 
richly -decorated supply -sluice, and 
built at its S.W. comer a splendid 
palace and harem (now in ruins). 

With the lake, the Sarkhej buildings 
form the most beautiful group in Ahme- 
dabad. They belong to the best period 
of the style, and have the special in- 
terest of being almost purely Hindu, 
with only the faintest trace of the 
Mohammedan style. Numbers of 
people bathe in the tank in spite of the 
alligators. A little S. of the lake is 
the tomb of Baba Ali Sher, a saint even 
more venerated than Ganj Bakhsh. It 
is small, ugly, and whitewashed. Close 
by are the remains of Mirza Ehan 
^anan*s Garden of Victory, laid out 
in 1584 after his defeat of Muzafiar 
III., the last Ahmedabad king. In 
the 17th century Sarkhej was so famous 
for indigo, that in 1620 the Dutch 
established a faotorv there. 

From Ahmedabaa another expedition 
may be made to Batwa, which is almost 
5 m. due S. of the Bajpur Gate. Here 

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Burhanu-din Eutbu '1-Alam, the grand- 
son of a famous saint buried at Uch on 
theSutlej, is interred. He came to the 
court of Sultan Ahmad I., settled at 
Batwa, and died there in 1452. A 
vast mausoleum of fine design and 
proportions was erected to his memory. 
It resembles the buildings at Sarkhej, 
but the aisles are arched and vaulted, 
and the dome is raised by a second 
tier of arches. The workmanship is 
most elaborate, but the building is 
unfortunately much out of repair. 
Adjoining it are a mosque and tank. 

The tomb of Shah Alam is 2 m. 
S.E. of the town on the Batwa road. 
Before reaching the tomb the road 
passes under two plain ^teways, and 
then through one, with a Nakar Khana 
(music gallery) above the archway, and 
so into a vast court. To the W. is the 
mosque, which has two minarets of 
seven stories, handsomely carved and 
about 90 ft. high. The tomb of Shah 
'Alam, who was the son of the saint 
buried at Batwa, is to the E., and is 
protected by metal lattices : he was the 
spiritual guide of Mahmud Begadah, and 
died in 1495. To the S. is an assembly 
hall built by Muzaffar III. (1561-72), 
and partly destroyed by the British in 
1780 to furnish materials for the siege 
of the city. The tomb is said to have 
been built by Taj Khan Nariali, one of 
Mahmud's courtiers. Early in the 17th 
century Asaf Khan, brother of the 
Empress Nur Jehan, adorned the dome 
with gold and precious stones. The 
floor of the tomb is inlaid with black 
and white marble, the doors are of open 
brass work, and the frame in which 
they are set, as well as what shows be- 
tween the door-frame and the two stone 
pillars to the .right and left is of pure 
white marble beautifully carved and 
pierced. The tomb itself is enclosed 
by an inner wall of pierced stone. The 
outer wall in the.N. is of stone trellis- 
work of the most varied design, and 
here Shaik Kabir, renowned for his 
learning, who died in 1618, is buried. 
The mosque was built by Muhammad 
Salih Badakbshi. The minarets were 
begun by Nizabat Khan, and finished 
by Saif Khan. They were much 
damaged by the earthquake of 1819, 

but have been repaired, and are now 
in good order. To the S. of the mosque 
is a tomb like that of the cMef 
mausoleum where the family of Shah 
'Alam are buried. Outside the wall 
to the W. is a reservoir, built by the 
wife of Taj Khan Nariali. 

Another day may be spent in visiting 
the Monastery of Piraruiy which is at 
the village of Giramtha, 9 m. S. of 
Ahmedabad. The mausoleums are 
those of Imam Shah, Nurshah, Surab- 
hai, Bala Muhammad, and Bakir *A1L 
The legend is that Imam Shah came 
from Persia in 1449, and performed 
certain miracles, which induced Mu- 
hammad II. to give him his daughter 
in marriage. On the anniversary of 
Imam Shah's death a fair is held, 
attended by many Hindus. 

There are many other interesting 
ruins near Ahmedabad, but these are 
the principal, and to see all would take 

Leaving Ahmedabad, the railway 
crosses the Sabarmati river quite close 
to the Shah-i-bagh on a fine bridge, 
which carries the rails for both gauges 
and a footway on one side. 

At 314 m. Sabarmati junc sta. the 
narrow gauge continues N. to Delhi, 
whilst the broad gauge turns W. for 
Wadhwan and Kattywar (Rte. 7). 
The new Jail here is one of the largest 
in the Presidency. 

The country going N. is flat and 
well cultivated. The beautiful and 
celebrated well at Adalaj is in this 
direction, but can perhaps be more 
easily visited by road. 

350 m. Hehsana junc. sta. This 
is one of the most important railway 
centres in Guzerat, as it is the junction 
for three branch lines constructed by 
the Gaekwar of Baroda. They are: 
(1) a line passing through Visna^^ar, 
Vadnagar, and Kheralo, total distance 
27 m., general direction N.E. ; (2) 
a line to Patan, the historic capital of 
Guzerat, distance 24 m. N.W. ; (8) 

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a line to "nramgam, 40 m. S.W., 
made to connect the Rajputana and 
Eattywar metre-gauge lines of railway. 
(For Yiramgam see p. 162.) 

On these branch lines two places 
only Deed be noticed here. 

[Vadnairur, 21 m. N.E. (pop. 
15,941). This place, once very import- 
ant, is stated to have been conquered 
by a Rajput prince from Ayodhya in 
145 A.B. It probably occupies the 
site of Anandpura, known in local 
history since 226 a.d. There are some 
interesting ruins, and the Temple of 
Hatkeshvar Mcbhixdeo is worth a visit. 
It is now the religious capital of the 
Nagar Brahmans, a most influential 
class of men in Guzerat and Kattywar. 
It was long the chartered refuge of the 
Dhinoj Brahmans, a class of robbers 
who were protected and taxed by suc- 
cessive native governments down to 
quite a recent date. 

Patau, 24 m. N.W. of Mehsana 
(pop. 32,646). The city stands on the 
site of the ancient Anhilvada, capital 
of the Hindu kings of Guzerat : it was 
taken by Mahmud of Ghazni on his 
way to attack the temple of Somnath 
in 1024 A.D. The site for generations 
has been a quarrv whence beautiful 
carved stones haveWn carried to other 
places. It is still famous for its 
libraries of Jain MSS. There are no 
less than 108 Jain temples here.] 

Kadi the N. division of Baroda in 
which Sidhpur is situated is the only 
part of the whole of the Bombay Presi- 
dency in which Poppies are allowed to 
be grown. The opium is manufactured 
in Sidhpur at the State Stores, 

866 m. IJnjha sta. A town in the 
Baroda territory of 11,287 inhab. and 
headquarters of the Kadwakanbis, 
a peculiar caste of agriculturists. 
Marriages among them take place but 
once in 11 years, when every girl over 
40 days old must be married on one or 
other of the days fixed. Should no 
husband be found, a proxy bridegroom 
is sometimes set up and married to a 
number of girls who immediately enter 
a state of nominal widowhood until an 

eligible suitor presents himself, when 
a second marriage takes place. 

374 m. Sidhpur sta. (pop. 16,224). 
It stands on the steep nortnem bank 
of the Sarasvati river, and the scene in 
the bed of the river during the day in 
the dry weather is specially gay. The 
place is of extreme antiquity, and con- 
tains the ruins of Rvdra Mala^ one of 
the most famous ancient temples in W. 
India. It was wrecked by Ala-ud-din 
Khilji in 1297 ; and much of it has been 
carried off since for building purposes. 
The stones are gigantic, and the carving 
superb, but very little of it remains. 
A row of small temples is converted into 
a mosque. The more modem temples 
are very numerous. 

393 m. Palanpnr sta. (R.), D.B. 
The chief town of a native state of that 
name, the residence of a Political Agent. 
[Rly. N.W. to the military station of 
Deesa on the K Banas 18 m. dis- 

425 m. Abu Boadsta.3^ (R.), D.B. 
This is a well-built, attractive-looking 
place. Mount Abu looking down on it 
from the N.W. 

[The excursion to Mount Abu is 
one of the most interesting in India, 
more especially on account of the Jain 
temples. The ascent to it, 16^ m., is 
by a very good road, fit for light- 
wheeled traffic for about 5 or 6 m., 
through delightful scenery, with fine 
views across a wide valley towards Achil- 
ghar. Thence by pony or rickshaw 
(about 4 J hrs.) to the top of the mount. 
Although regarded as part of the Ara- 
valli range, Abu is completely detached 
from that chain by a valley about 15 m. 
wide. The plateau at the top is about 
14 m. by 4 m., and varies m height 
from 4000 to 5600 ft.* 

1 The traveller should arrange to arrive at 
Abu Road sta. by a morning train, when 
he will have time to arrange for the trip up 
to Mount Abu in the evening (having pre- 
viously written or telegraphed to secure rooms 
there at the small hotel), allowing himself 
about 6 hours' daylight for the journey. The 
temples can be seen before noon the following 
day, tlie light luggage started downhill before 

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Mount ABUsOc is the headquarters of 
the Rajputana administration, and the 
residence of vakils or agents from a 
large number of native states. It is also 
a sanitarium for European troops and 
favourite hot -weather resort m the 
summer season. 

The height of the civil and military 
station is 4000 ft. ; the highest point is 
in the northern end. 

At the Headquarters are the Resi- 
dency, Churchy Lawreivce Asylwm Schools 
for children of soldiers, Barracks^ Club, 
Bazaar of native shops, a considerable 
number of private houses on the margin 
of the Gem Lake^ a most charming piece 
of artificial water studded with islands, 
and overhung by a curious rock that 
looks like a gigantic toad about to 
spring into the water. The Railway 
Schools for children are outside the 
station on the plateau. The surface of 
Mount Abu is very much broken up, so 
that the carriage roads are very few, 
but there are plenty of bridle-roads and 
picturesque footpaths. 

The Dilwaxra Temples, the great 
attraction of Mt. Abu, are reached by a 
good bridle-path (2m.) A pass to visit 
them is necessary. 

When Europeans first settled at Abu 
the temples were unguarded and open 
to all comers, and were frequently mis- 
used by the lower classes of all races. 
They owe their improved condition to 
the exertions of educated European 
officers, a fact the custodians sometimes 
forget in their conduct towards visitors. 
In spite of ill usage and some very bad 
restoration, the Dilwan-a temples are 
very beautiful, and find a fitting frame- 
work in their nest of mango trees, with 
green fields of barley waving at their 
feet, and surrounded on all sides by the 
everlasting hills. 

"The more modem of the two 
temples was built by the same brothers, 
Tejahpala and YastupaJa, who erected 
the triple temple at Gimar. This one, we 
learn from inscriptions, was erected 
between 1197 and 1247, and for minute 
delicacy of carving and beauty of detail 
stands almost unrivalled, even in the 
breakfast, the visitor following in the after- 
^,V°/'"^®. ^ ,1***^^ **»e evening train. It 
will he found cold at Abu in winter, 

land of patient and lavish labour. It 
is said to have taken 14 years to build, 
and to have cost 18,000,000 rs. besides 
56 lakhs spent in levelling the hill on 
which it stands. 

**The other, built by another mer- 
chant prince, Vimala Sah, apparently 
about 1032 A.D., is simpler and bolder, 
though still as elaborate as good taste 
woula allow in any purely ardiitectural 
object. Being one of the oldest as well 
as one of the most complete examples 
known of a Jain temple, its peculiar- 
ities form a convenient introduction to 
the style, and serve to illustrate how 
complete and perfect it had already 
become when we first meet with it in 

"The principal object here, as else- 
where, is a cell lighted only from the 
door, containing a cross-legged seated 
figure of the saint to whom the temple 
is dedicated, in this instance Pars- 
wanatha. The cell terminates upwards 
in a sikra, or pyramidal spire-like roof, 
which is common to all Hindu and 
Jain temples of the age in the north 
of India. To this is attached a jwrtico 
composed of 48 free-standing pillars ; 
and the whole is enclosed in an oblong 
courtyard, about 140 ft. by 90 ft, sur- 
rounded by a double colonnade of 
smaller pillars, forming porticoes to a 
ran^ or 55 cells, which enclose it on 
all sides, exactly as they do in Buddhist 
viharas. In this case, however, each 
cell, instead of being the residence of a 
monk, is occupied by one of those cross- 
legged images which belong alike to 
Buddhism and Jainism. Here they 
are, according to the Jain practice, all 
repetitions of the same image of Pars- 
wanatha, and over the door of each 
coll, or on its jambs, are sculptured 
scenes from his life. The long beams, 
stretching from pillar to pillar, sup- 
porting the roof, are relieved by curious 
angular struts of white marble, spring- 
ing from the middle of the pillar up to 
the middle of the beam " (Fergusson). 

Aohilghar is reached by following 
the bridle-path past Dilwarra for about 
4 m., when the village of Uria is reached, 
where there is a bungalow. From this 
turn r. along a bad track for another 
1 m. to the first temple. It is sur- 

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rounded by a wall, approached by a 
flight of steps, and beautifully orna- 
mented. S.K of this are other temples 
on higher ground overlooking the 
valley. The view is magnificent. These 
are the buildings the traveller has seen 
in ascending the hill. S. of the first 
temple is the Agni Kund^ a tank famous 
in Hindu mythology. On the bank is 
a marble image of Pramar with his 
bow, and near him three large stone 
buffaloes. This figure is superior in 
style and treatment to most ; and the 
same may be said of the statues in 
other temples around the Hill of Abu, 
specially of the brass figure at Gaumukh 
alluded to below. The Achilghar group 
is peiiiaps as attractive as the more 
renowned temples at Dilwarra, though 
not comparable in size or finish ; but 
the absence of modern work, and an 
air of antiquity, solidity, and repose, 
make them worthy of all admiration. 

Around Mount Abu in the plain and 
on the hillside are many temples, some 
very beautiful, and all in charming 
spots ; but the traveller who wishes to 
visit them must have plenty of leisure 
and be a good walker, and must always 
be accompanied by a guide. It is 
very dangerous to leave a beaten path 
on the sides of Abu without a person 
who knows the country intimately. 

Gaumukh, a beautifully situated 
temple 500 ft. down the S.E slope, and 
3 m. from the church. Observe the 
brass figure facing the temple. 

Rishi KrisJiTia, at the foot of the hill, 
S.E. side, 14 m. from the Civil Station, 
is easily visited from Abu Road rail- 
way station. 

Gautama, on S. side of the hill, W. 
of Gaumukh ; 5 m. from station. 
Lovely view. 

Devaiigan, in the plain, S.W., 2 m. 
S. of Anadra, B.D.] 

528 m. Marwar Railway junc. sta. 

[Ezcursion to Jodhpur. 
From this point the Jodhpur- Bikanir 
Railway branches £. to 44 m. Zt^nt junc. 
sta. (from which » line diverges W. to 
the salt-works at Pachhadra, distant 
60 m. , and continues in N. direction). 
Many miles before reaching Jodhpur 

the fort can be distinguished rising 
abruptly out of the bare plain. 

64 m. JODHPUR sta., D.B. the capi- 
tal of the Rajput state of that name, and 
of the country known as Marwar Oarea, 
is the residence of the Chief and of a 
Political Agent, to whom it is necessary 
to bring an introduction asking for 
permission to see the place. 

The State of Jodhpur or Marwar 
covers an area of 37,000 sq. m. with a 
pop. of 1,760,500. The CUy was built 
by Rao Jodha in 1459, and from that 
time has been the seat of government. 
It stands on the S. extremity of a 
rocky range of sandstone hills lim- 
ning E. and W., and is surrounded by 
a strong wall nearly 6 m. in extent, 
with seven gates, each bearing the 
name of the town to which it leads. 
Some of the houses and temples in the 
city are of stone richly carved. Amongst 
the most important buildings are the 
Temple in tne Dhan Mundi (wheat 
market) and the Talati Mai, an old 
palace now used as the Darbar High 

The Fort stands up boldly some 300 
ft. above the city and the plain, and 
presents a magnificent appearance. The 
rock is on every side scarped, but 
esnecially at the N. end, where the 
palace is built on the edge of a per- 
pendicular cliif at least 120 ft. high. 
Strong walls and numerous round and 
square towers encircle the crest of the 
hill. A modem engineered road winds 
up the neighbouring slopes to a massive 
gateway. Here is the first of 7 barriers 
thrown across the zigzag ascent, having 
immense portals with separate guards 
in each. On the wall of the last are 
represented the hands of the 15 wives 
of one of the rajas who underwent 
saii at his death. 

At the top of the rock are the highly- 
interesting Old Palaces, There are 
courtyards within courtyards, all solidly 
built and surrounded by lattice windows 
of the most delicate and beautiful 
designs. Here in the Treasury are the 
Maharaja's jewels, a wonderful collec- 
tion, and well worth seeing. Sonje of 
the pearls, emeralds, and diamonds are 
unusually fine. The silver trappings 
for elephants and horses should also 

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be noticed. The view from the palace 
windows is most interesting and exten- 
sive, and shows the town nestling 
under the huge rock. 

There was formerly great scarcity of 
water, and the women had daily to 
walk all le way to Mandor (see below) 
to fetch it, but now it has been brought 
up to the top of the Fort in pipes. The 
principal Tanks are— 

The Fadcmi Savior Tank, in the 
N.W. part of the city, excavated out 
of the rock, but of small size. In 
the same quarter is the Hani Satigar, 
at the foot of the W. entrance into the 
Fort, with which it is connected by 
outworks, and is chiefly reserved for 
the garrison and ladies residing in the 
Fort The Oulab Saugar, to the E., 
is handsomely built of stone, and is 
capacious, witn a smaller one adjoining 
it. The Baiji ka TcUao, S. of the city, 
is extensive, but not capable of holding 
water long. The modem Sardar Saugar^ 
on N.E. 1 m. W. is a lake called Ak- 
herajji ka Talao^ which is a fine sheet 
of water, clear, deep, and extensive, re- 
sembling rather a natural lake than an 
artificial tank. 8 m. K. of the city is 
the Bal'Samandf a pretty tank, with a 
palace on the embankment and garden 
below, used by the Maharaja as a 
summer residence. The Oanal from 
it to the city is a work of much im- 

The chief Sport near Jodhpur is pig- 
sticking^ the pigs being preserved by 
the Maharaja. 

A great religious fair is held here in 

S.E. of the city are the Baikabag 
Palace, where the late chief resided, 
and the Jubilee Buildings or public 
offices near it, designed b^ Col. Jacob. 
In the native style, with elaborate 
detail, they are extensive and beautiful, 
and deserve attention. 

The Palace of the present chief is 
further S. 

The Public Gairdens, and fine stone 
houses of the officials, have now re- 
placed the barren tract that formerly 
touched the city walls on the S. side. 
These, and many other improvements, 
are due to the Prime Minister, Sir 
Partob Sing, G.C.S.I. 

At about i m. outside the N.K an^e 
of the city is a suburb of 800 houses, 
called the Maha Mandlr, or *'sreat 
temple." The roof of the temple is 
supported by 100 pillars, and the in- 
terior is richly decorated. This suburb 
is defended by a stone wall, with a few 
weak bastions. In it are two palaces, 
in one of which the spiritual adviser of 
the late Maharaja lives. The other 
is reserved for the spirit of his prede- 
cessor, whose bed is laid out in a state 
chamber, with a golden canopy over 
the pillow ; and has no living occupant 
The priests, called NatJis, have lost 
nearly all their former prestige. 

Majidor. — This was the capital of 
Marwar before the foundation of Jodh- 
pur. It is situated about 8 m. to the 
N. of Jodhpur. Here are the CfhaUris, 
or cenotaphs (much neglected), of the 
former rulers, erected on the spots 
where the funeral pyres consumed their 
remains. Some are fine massive build- 
ings, — that dedicated to AjU Sing, d. 
1724, being the largest and finest. 
These * * proud monuments, " as Tod calls 
them,^ are built of *'a close-grained 
freestone of a dark brown or tm tint, 
with sufficient hardness to allow the 
sculptor to indulge his fancy. The 
style of architec^re here is mixed, 
partaking both of the Shivite and the 
Buddhis^ but the details are decidedly 
Jain, more especially the columns. 
Across a little stream not many yards 
from here is a pantheon called the Serine 
of the 300 million gods, containing a 
row of gigantic painted figures of divini- 
ties and heroes. At the end of the 
long building where these figures are 
arranged is a curious fresco of a sea- 
piec3. Near this is the stone palace of 
AbhaySing, who succeeded Ajit Sing in 
1724. It is now quite deserted and 
given over to the bats. There are some 
fine bits of trellis screen-work in the 

128 m. Merta Bd. junc for Bikanir. 
Merta, a fortified Marwar town of some 
importance, is some miles from the 
railway. Near this town was fought 
a decisive battle between the Maratbas 
and Rajputs, in which the former, witk 
the treacherous assistance of a laige 

1 For full detaUs see Ck>l. Tod's JU^jasUuxmk 

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body of Pindharis under Amir Khan, 
iumcted a crushing defeat upon the 


[Excnrsion to Bikanir. 

35 m. Nagaur. A fortified town of 
importance in Marwar. The crenel- 
lated wall, houses, and groups of 
temples make an agreeable break in 
the monotonous rolling desert. 

103 m. Bikanir, the capital of the 
state of that name. The ruling chief 
is descended from a branch of the 
royal house of Jodhpur. The state has 
an area of upwards of 20,000 sq. m., 
and a pop. of about 400,000. The 
principal part of the state is desert, 
and the great depth (150 ft. to 300 ft.) 
at which water is found renders culti- 
vation or irrigation impossible. The 
chief wealth of the people is their flocks 
and herds, which feed on the bushes and 
scanty herbage. The Maharaja's palace 
at Bikanir itself is picturesque and 
imposiDg, viewed from a distance. But 
like most Hindu palaces, its interior 
is a mass of small irregular suites of 
rooms, due to the superstitious custom 
which forbids a chief to live in the 
apartments of his predecessor. ** Pal- 
atial" loses its force as an adjective, 
applied to native Indian interiors. 
Some of the rooms in the palace are 
lined with willow-pattern plates and 
tiles set in the walls. The town is 
surrounded by a wall, and contains a 
few houses with handsome fronts of 
carved stonework, belonging to wealthy 
Jain merchants. A political agent 
resides here, and his garden, green with 
grass and bright with flowers, is a veri- 
talde oasis in the desert, which beats 
with its sandy waves impotently on 
the Burrounding wall. One of the 
dcepweUs should be seen and its depth 
viewed by a beam of light reflected 
tnm a mirror.] 

216 m. Sambhar stat 

Sawbha/r Lake is situated on the 
bcfder of the Jeypore and Jodhpur 
states. The surrounding country is 
aaid and sterile, being composed of 
rod(8 abounding in salt, and belonging 

to the Permian system ; and the salt 
of the lake comes from the washing of 
these rocks. The bottom is tenacious 
black mud resting on loose sand. The 
lake is 21 m. long from E. to W. after 
the rains, and the average breadth at 
that time is 5 m. from N. to S., and 
the depth, 1 m. from the shore, is only 
2J ft. The water dries up from October 
to June, and leaves about an inch of 
salt in the enclosures, which are con- 
structed only where the black mud is 
of considerable thickness. 

From the 17th century the salt was 
worked by the Jeypore and Jodhpur 
Governments conjointly till 1870, when 
the British Government became lessees 
of both states. The works are on the 
£. and N. edges of the lake. The 
average yearly out-turn is from 300,000 
to 400,000 tons of salt, and the cost 
of storage and extraction is fd. for every 
82f lbs. When the salt is formed 
men and women of the Barrar caste 
wade through the mud and lift it in 
large cakes into baskets. 

221 m. Phalera stat N. juno. of 
R.M. and J.B. railways. 

Proceeding from Marwar junc. (p. 121) 
towards Ajmere, after leaving, 561 m., 
Haripnr sta., D.B., the line engages in 
a rocky ascent which continues to close 
to 582 m., Beawar sta., D.B., an im- 
portant town, and reaches 

615 m. AJMTtRB junc. sta., if. D.B. 
[From this place a line runs S. to N%s- 
seerabady Neemuch, Butlam^ Tndore, 
MhoWf and Khandwa (see Kte. 4).] 

Ajmere, the key to Rajputana (pop. 
67,800), is the capital of an isolated 
British district in the Rajput states. 
The district comprises two tracts known 
as Ajmere and Merwara (pop. 541,900). 
The Agent of the Governor-General for 
Rajputana, whose headquarters are at 
Abu, is ex-officio Chief Commissioner 
of Ajmere. The city is of great an- 
tiquity and celebrity, and is situated 
in a valley, or rather basin, at the foot 
of the rocky and picturesque Taragarh 
Hill (3000 ft. above the sea). It is 
surrounded by a stone wall with five 
gateways, and is well built, containing 
many fine houses of jsjbone with oroa- 

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mental facades. Ajmere was founded 
in 145 A.D. by Ajaypal, one of the 
Chohan kings. 

In 1024, Mabmud of Ghazni, on his 
way to Somnath in Kattywar, sacked 
Ajmere, and Akbar conquered it in 

The memory of the Ajmere Chishti 
was held in particular respect by the 
great Akbar, who was accustomed to 
pay a yearly visit to his shrine. 
Several of these pilgrimages were made 
on foot from Agra and other places. 
The road from Fatehpur-Sikri to Aj- 
mere was so much usea by Akbar that 
he caused **Kos Minars" (masonry 
columns answering to our milestones) 
to be erected along the route. Several 
of these minars can still be seen from 
the railway. 

Thomas Coryat, in the 17th century, 
walked from Jerusalem to Ajmere, and 
spent £2 : 10s. on the journey. Sir 
Thomas Roe, the ambassador of James 
I., gives an account of the city in 
1615-16. In about 1720 Ajit Sing 
Rathore seized the city, which was 
recovered by Muhammad Shah, and 
made over by him to Abhay Sing. His 
son Ram Sing called in the Marathas, 
under Jav Apa Sindia, who, however, 
was murdered, and in 1756 Ajmere was 
made over to Bijai Sing, cousin of 
Ram Sing. In 1787 the Rathores 
recovered Ajmere, but after their defeat 
at Patau had to surrender it again to 
Sindia. On the 25th of June 1818 
Daulat Rao Sindia made it over by 
treaty to the English. 

The Besidency is on the brink of 
the beautiful artificial lake called the 
Ana Saugar, constructed by Raja 
Ana in the middle of the 11th cent. 
It forms the source of the river Laoni, 
which finally unites with the Delta of 
the Indus. The Emperor Shah Jehan 
erected a noble range of marble pavil- 
ions on the embankment. They were 
long the only public offices in Ajmere, 
but the chief one is now used as the 
official residence of the Commissioner. 
The central and most beautiful pavil- 
ion, in which the emperor often re- 
posed, has been restored at great cost. 
The walk along the bund or embank- 

ment (which is public) is very de- 
lightful, — quite the pleasantest sight 
in Ajmere. If the flying foxes still 
hang in the trees, they are worth ob- 
serving. They are sure not to be 
far off even if they have changed their 
quarters, as they love the vicinity of 
water. To the N. is the broad expanse 
of the lake, and to the S. under the 
bund is the Public Garden, The city is 
supplied with water from the nev 
le^e, the Foy Saugar, formed by an 
embankment thrown across the valley 
6 m. higher up. The water of the spring 
known as the Digi, on the Nusseerabad 
side of Ajmere, is said to possess a high 
specific gravity, owing to the stratum 
of lead through which it passes. 

Akbar'8 Palace is outside the city 
proper, to the £., not far from tlie 
railwav station. The entrance gate is 
very nne. It was an arsenal, and is 
now used as a tehsil. 

The mosque called the Arhai-din-ka- 
jhompra, or "The Hut of two and a 
half Days," is just outside the city gate 
beyond the Dargah. It was built by 
Altamsh or Kutbu-din about 1200 
from the materials of a Jain temple. 
The name is derived from a tradition 
that it was built supematurally in two 
and a half days. Modern archseolocrists 
assert that it was probably erected byj 
the same architect who built the Kutb 
mosque near Delhi. It is uncertain] 
whetner anv of the undoubtedly Hindu 
pillars of which the mosque is built ard 
now in siiu» Their ornamentation is 
very complete, no two being alike. The 
mosque proper, supported by 4 rows of 
18 of these columns, derives its beauty 
from the materials of which it is con- 
structed. The screen in front of it is a 
work well deserving attention: it ia 
the glory of the mosque, and consista 
of seven arches very similar to those 
with which Altamsh adorned the court- 
yard of the Kutb. In the centre the 
screen rises to a height of 56 ft. 
Nothing can exceed the taste witiii 
which the Eufic and Tughra inscrip* 
tions are interwoven with the moil 
purely architectural decorations anl 
the constructive lines of the design. 

The bridle-path to Taragarh passei 
this mosque, and by a steep asceol 

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rMches the sttmtnit in 2 m. The tra- 
veller can ride or be carried in a chair, 
OT jhampan. The trip will occupy 
three hours. The view from the top is 
the principal reward for the trouble. 

One of the principal points of inter- 
est in Ajmere is the Dargah. It is ven- 
erated alike by Mohammedans and 
Hindus, and derives its extreme sanctity 
from being the burial-place of Khwajah 
Muin-nd-din Chishti, who was called 
Aftab-i-MuIk-i-Hind. He died in 688 
A.H.=1236 A.D. He was the son of 

the shoes on entering the Dargah. 
Passing through a lofty gateway, a court- 
yard is entered in which are two very 
large iron caldrons, one twice the size 
of the other. These are known as the 
great and the little deg. A rich pilgrim 
may ofifer, at the annual fair and pilgrim- 
age, to give a deg feast. The smallest 
sum with which to buy rice, butter, 
sugar, almonds, raisins, and spice to 
fill the large deg is 1000 rs., and be- 
sides this he has to pay about 200 rs. 
as presents and offerings at the shrine. 

The Arhai-din-ka-jhompra Mosque at Ajmere. 

Khwajah 'Usman, and was called Chisti 
from a qnarter in the city of Sanjar 
in Persia. He had gone into a chapel 
to pray, and his relative, the Chishti 
frwnFatehpur-Sikri, coming to see him 
00 the sixth day found him dead. Of 
^family of saints and courtiers, Farid- 
a-din is buried at Pak-patan, in the 
^igab; Nizam-nd-din, Kutb-ud-din, 
indNasir-ud-din atornear Delhi ; Shaik 
Wim at Fatehpur-Sikri near Agra ; 
aid Bandah Nawaz at Kalbargah in 
he Beccan. 
Woollen socks have to be put over 

After this gigantic rice pudding has 
been cooked Dy means of a furnace 
beneath, it is scrambled for, boiling 
hot. Eight earthen pots of the mix- 
ture are first set apart for the forei^ 
pilgrims, and it is tne hereditary privi- 
lege of the people of Indrakot, and of 
the menials of the Dargah, to empty the 
caldron of the remain(&r of its contents. 
All the men who take part in this 
hereditary privilege are swaddled up to 
the eyes in cloths, to avoid the effect 
of the scalding fluid . When the caldron 
is nearly empty, all the Indrakotis 

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ttimble in together and scrape it clean. 
There is no doubt that this custom is 
very ancient, though no account of its 
origin can be given. It is generally 
counted amon^ the miracles of the 
saints that no uves have ever been lost 
on these occasions, though burns are 
frequent. The cooked rice is boi\ght 
by all classes, and most castes will eat 
it. The number of pilgrims at this 
festival is estimated at 20,000. 

The TonU) of the saint is a square 
building of white marble surmounted 
by a dome. It has two entrances, one 
of which is spanned by a silver arch. 
S. of it in a small enclosure with well- 
cut marble lattices is the Mazar or 
*' grave" of Hafiz Jamal, daughter of 
the saint, and W. of it, close by her 
tomb is that of Chimmi Be^am, daughter 
of Shah Jehan. Christians may not 
approach within 20 yds. of these holy 
places. There are some very fine trees 
in the enclosure. 

W. of the sanctuary is a long, narrow, 
and very handsome mosqiie of white 
inarhle, built by Shah J^icm. It has 
11 arches, and is about 100 ft long ; 
a Persian inscription runs the whole 
length of the roof under the eaves. 
There is another mosqiie within the 
enclosure — to the rt. on entering — 
built by Akbar, Most of the outer 
doors are completely covered with 
horse-shoes, and many slips of writing 
are plastered on the walls. 

Before leaving the visitor will prob- 
ably have a necklace of flowers put 
round him, which it will be polite not 
to take off until he has gone some 
distance. A small present^ say 1 r., 
should be given in return. 

To the S. of the Dargah enclosure is 
the Jhalra, a deep tank where ablutions 
are made, partly cut out of the rock and 
lined by steep flights of irregular stexw. 

Ajmere is the headquarters of about 
1800 miles of metre-gauge rly. worked 
by the B.B. and C.I. Railway Co. 
Near the rly. sta. are very extensive 
workshops emplo3dng many thousand 
Hindu and Mohammedan workmen, 
who accomplish their tasks with a 
wondOTfolly small amount of European 
supervision. Across the railway line 
from the city is an extensive civil 

station, inhabited almost exclusively 
by railway officials ; and beyond their 
houses S. is the Mnyo College fw the 
education of youne Rajput princes 
opened by Lord Dufferin m 1875. It 
contains about 80 boys between the 
ages of 8 and 18 years. A visitor, 
even if pressed for time, ought to drive 
through the grounds. The centril 
buildmg is a handsome white marble 
pile, slightly marred by some incon- 
gnious aetails. The subsidiary build- 
ings have been erected by native 
bmlders for the chiefs as lodging- 
houses for their pupils and servants. 
Perhaps nowhere else in India is so 
much good modem native architectnre 
to be seen. 

The Cantonment of NoBseerabad is 
14 m. from Aimere (see p. 86). 

[The traveller who has leisure should 
visit the sacred Lake of Pushkar, about 
7 m. Permanent pop. 4000. 

The road skirts the W. shore of the 
Ana Saugar. At 8 m. from Ajmere is 
the village of Nausar, in a gap in the 
hills which divide the Ana Saugar from 
the Pushkar Lake. This striking pass 
through the hills is 1 m. long. Push- 
kar is the most sacred lake in India, 
in a narrow valley overshadowed by 
fine rocky peaks, and is said to be of 
miraculous origin, marking the spot 
hallowed by the great sacrifice of 
Brahma. Early in the Middle Ages 
it became one of the most frequented 
objects of pilgrimage, and is still visited 
during the great Mela (fair) of Oct. and 
Nov. by about 100,000 pilgrims. On 
this occasion is also held a great mart 
for horses, camels, and bullocks. 

Although the ancient temples were 
destroyed by Aurangzib, the 5 moden^ 
ones with their ghats on the mai^gin oj 
the lake are highly picturesque. That 
to Brahma is usually said to be the orUi 
one in India; but there are smaller 
shrines to Bralunaatseveral old templed 
Over the gateway is the figure of th^ 
hans, or **§oose," of Brahma. The D. B 
is in a native house on the lake, fron 
which there is a good view.] 

658 nl. Naraina stat. The villagi 
with a large tank is seen from the rly. 
It is the headquarters of the Dadn- 
panthi sect of reformers. Their relh 

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^OD, ethics, and teaching are embodied 
mt mass of poetry written by Dadu 
Pinth md his disciples. A division of 
the sect is composed of military monks 
who ser?e in the armies of the Jeypore 
and neighbouring states. 

^699m. Jfe7FORE(or Jaipur)sta., 3«c 
D.B. Pop.. 143,000. Amb^r is the 
uicient capital, Jeypore the modern ; it 
is the lesidence of the Maharaja, whose 
state covers nearly 15,000 sq. m., with a 
pop. of 2,500,000, and the headquarters 
of the Resident. It derives its name 
from the famous Mahara.ia Siwai Jey 
(or Jaya) Sing. II., who founded it in 
1728. The town is surrounded on aU 
sides except the S. by rugged hills, 
crowned with forts. That at the end 
of the ridge overhanging the city on the 
K. W. is the Nahargarh, or * * tiger fort. " 
The face of the ridge is scarped and 
inaccessible on the S. or city siae, while 
on the N. it slopes towards Amb^r. A 
masonry, crenellated wall, with seven 
gateways, encloses the whole city. 

Jeypore is the pleasant healthy 
capitol of one of the most prosperous 
independent states of Rajputana, and is 
a very busy and important commercial 
town, with large banks and other trad- 
ing establishments. It is a centre of 
aatiye manufactures, especially that of 
many kinds of jewellery and of coloured 
printed cloths and muslins. The 
enamel-work done here is the best in 
Ma, and the cutting and setting of 
gwnets and other stones found in the 
«t»te is a large branch of industry. 
"rhe crowded streets and bazaars are 
i»08t Uvely and picturesque. The city 
ii remarkable for the width and regu- 
bity of its streets. It is laid out in 
netuignlar blocks, and is divided by 
(^ streets into six equal portions. 
The main streets are 111 ft. wide, and 
•ttjpaved, and the city is lighted by gas.^ 

htses to view the Maharaja's ralace 
«id Stables and the old Palace of 
Mh may be obtained from the 

The Kaharaja's Palace, with its 
heantiful gardens and pleasure pounds 
I m. long, adorned witn fountains, fine 
trees, and flowering shrubs, occupies 
fte centre of the cify and covers f of 
^ Sea LetUn (^Marque^ by Rudyard Kipling. 

its area. The whole is surrounded by 
a high embattled wall, built by Jey 
Sinff, but many of the buildings in- 
cluded in it are of a later date. The 
Chandra Mahal, which forms the centre 
of the great palace, is a loftv and strik- 
ing building, seven stories high, looking 
over the gardens. 

On the ground-floor is the Diwan- 
i-Khas, or private hall of audience, 
built partly of white marble, and 
remarkable even in India for its 
noble simplicity. On the top story 
there is a magnificent view over the 
centre city. To the L are the gaudily- 
furnished modern buildings containing 
the apartments of the Maharajaand his 
courtiers, and the zenana. 

East of the Chandra Mahal is the 
famous Jantra or Observatory, the 
largest of the five built by the celebrated 
royal astronomer Jey Sine (see Benares, 
Muttra, Delhi, and Ujjain). It is not 
under cover, but is an open courtyard 
full of curious and fantastic instruments 
invented and designed by him. They 
have been allowed to go much out ot 
repair, and many of them are now quite 
useless, it being impossible even to 
guess what purpose they served in the 
wonderfully accurate calculations and 
observations of their inventor ; but 
dials, gnomons, quadrants, etc., still 
remain of great interest to astronomers. 

Adjoining the Observatory are the 
royal Stables, built round large court- 
yards ; and beyond them is the Hawa 
Mahal, or HaU of the Winds, one of 
Jey Sing's chefs cTosuvret a fantastic 
and elaborate building, decorated with 
stucco, and overlooking one of the chief 
streets of the town. 

In the central court of the palace are 
the Raj Printing Office, the Clock 
Tower, and the Armoury. To the E. 
of the Diwan-i-'Am is the Parade 
Groimd, girt with open colonnades, 
behind which are the Law Courts. 
Horses can mount to the top of the 
palace by inclined planes. 

Near the chief entrance rises the 
Ishwari Minar Swarga Sul, the " Min- 
aret piercing heaven,** built by Rajah 
Ishwari Sing to overlook the city. 

Public Gaxdezi, outside the city wall, 
is one of the finest gardens in India, 

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70 acres in extent, and was laid out 
by Dr. de Fabeck at a cost of about 
400,000 rs. Attached to it are a fine 
menagerie and aviary. These gardens 
cost the Maharaja 30,000 rs. a year to 
keep up. There is a fine statue oj 
Lord Mayo, 

In the centre of the garden is the 
Albert Hall, a sumptuous modern build- 
ing, of which the Prince of Wales laid 
the first stone in 1876. It contains a 
large Darbar Hall and a beautiful 
museum, — an Oriental South Kensing- 
ton, suitably housed. The collections 
of modem works of art and industrj% 
and also of antiquities, from every part 
of India, are very complete and highly 
interesting. There is a fine view from 
the top. 

The Mayo Hospital. —Beyond the 
gardens is the hospital, of rough white 
stone, with a clock tower. It can 
house 150 patients. 

The Church is on the way to the 
Railway Station, a little to the "W. of 
the road. 

At the School of Art, a handsome 
modem building, are first-rate technical 
and industrial classes for teaching and' 
reviving various branches of native 
artistic industry, such as metal and 
enamel-work, embroidery, weaving, etc 

The Maharaja's Ck)llege.— In Jey- 
pore public instruction has made greater 

grogress than in the other states of 
Ajputana. The College, opened in 
1844 with about 40 pupils, had in 
1889 and 1890 a daily class attendance 
of 1000, and compares favourably with 
similar institutions of the kind in 
British India ; it is affiliated to the 
Calcutta University. 

The chattris, or cenotaph^, of the Ma- 
harajas at Gethur are just outside the 
N.E. city wall. They are in well- 
planted gardens, the trees of which 
are full of solemn-looking, gray-headed 
monkeys. The first seen on entering 
is Jey Sing's Chattri, the finest of all. 
It is a dome of the purest white marble, 
supported^ on 20 beautifully carved 
pillars rising from a substantial square 
platform, and profusely ornamented 
with scenes from Hindu mythology. 
S.E. of Jey Sink's Chattri is that of 
his son Madhu Smg, a dome rising from 

the octagon on arches reveraed. The 
only ornaments are carved peacocks. 
W. of this chattri is that of Pratap 
Sing, his son, completed by the late 
ruler Ram Sing. It is of white marble 
brought from Alwar. 

The water which supplies Jeypore is 
drawn from a stream on the W . of the 
city, running into the ChambaL The 
pumping-station and high-level reser- 
voirs are nearly opposite the Chandpol 

[An expedition for the sake of the 
view may be made by elephant or on 
foot to the Shrine of the Sun God at 
Oalta, an uninteresting building ^50 ft 
above the plain, and built on a ^'utting 
rocky platform, on the summit of a 
range of hills, about 1^ m. to the E. of 
Jeypore, of which by far the finest view 
is obtained from this point. The way 
the sandy desert is encroaching on the 
town should be noticed. It has caused 
one large suburb to be deserted, and the 
houses and gardens are going to ruin. 
The sand has even drifted up the ravines 
of the hills. This evil ought to he 
arrested at any cost by planting.] 

[The excursion to Ambdr (5 m.), the 
capital of Jeypore till 1728, now ruined 
and deserted, is most interesting, and 
will occupy a whole day. It is neces- 
sary to obtain permission to visit Amb^r 
from the Resident of Jeypore, and that 
official, as a rule, kindly asks the State 
to send an elephant to meet the traveller 
at Chandrabagh, where the hill becomes 
too steep for a carriage. 

On the left of the road a line of 
fortified hills are passed ; these culmin 
ate in the great Fort 400 feet above the 
old palace, connected with it and built 
for its defence. The picturesque situa- 
tion of Amber at the mouth of a rocky 
mountain gorge, in which nestles a 
lovely lake, has attracted the admira- 
tion of all travellers, including Jacque- 
mont and Heber. The name is first 
mentioned by Ptolemy. It was founded 
by the Minas, and still flourishing in 
967. In 1037 it was taken by the 
Rajput, who held it till it was deserted. 

The old Palace, begun by Man Sing, 
1600, ranks architecturally second only 
to Gwalior, though instead of standing 
on a rocky pedestal it lies low on the 

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slope of the hill, picturesquely rooted 
on its rocky base and reflected in the 
lake below. The interior arrangements 
are excellent. The suites of rooms form 
vistas opening upon striking views. It 
is a grand pile, and though it lacks the 
fresh and vigorous stamp of Hindu 
originality which characterises earlier 
bufldings, the ornamentation and tech- 
nical details are free from feeble- 

Entered by a fine staircase from a 
great courtyard is the Diwan-i-*Am, 
a noble specimen of Rajput art, with 
double row of columns supporting a 
massive entablature, above which are 
latticed galleries. Its magnificence 
attracted the envy of Jehangir, and 
Mirza Riga, to save his great work 
from destruction, covered it with 

To the right of the Diwan-i-'Am steps 
is a small temple where a goat, offered 
each morning to Kali, preserves the 
tradition of a daily human sacrifice on 
the same spot in pre-historic times. 

On a higher terrace are the Raja's 
own apartments, entered by a splendid 
gateway covered with mosaics and 
sculptures, erected by Jey Sing, over 
^ich is the Svhdg Mandiry a small 
pavilion with beautiful latticed win- 
dows. Through this are further mar- 
vels, — a green and cool garden with 
fonntains, surrounded by palaces, 
brilliant with mosaics and marbles. 
That on the 1. is the Jey Mwndir^ or 
Hall of Victory, adorned by panels of 
alabaster, some of which are inlaid, and 
others are adorned with flowers in alto- 
relievo, ** the roof flittering with the 
mirrored and spangled work for which 
Jeypore is renowned." Near the Jey 
ihndir a narrow passage leads down to 
tJw bathing-rooms, all of pale creamy 
nuirble. Above is the Sas Maridir, 
"which literally glows with bright and 
tender colours and exquisite inlaid work, 
and looks through arches of carved ala- 
baster and clusters of slender columns 
upon the sleeping lake and the silent 

At theN. E. angle is a balcony, whence 

there is a fine view over the town of 

Amber and the plain beyond to the 

hiU which overlooks Ramgarh. Some 


chattris outside the wall are those of 
chieftains who died before Jey Sing II. 
In the palace to the ri^ht is a chamber 
on the rt wall of which are views of 
Ujjain, and on the 1. views of Benares 
and Muttra. That opposite the Jev 
Mandir is called the SukhNawaSy * * Hall 
of Pleasure. '* In the centre of the narrow 
dark room is an opening for a stream to 
flow down into the groove or channel 
which runs through the hall. The doors 
are of sandal-wood inlaid with ivory. 

A steep path leads down to the 
Khiri Gate, beyond which, as it leads 
to one of the forts, Kantalgarh, no one 
is allowed to pass without an order. 
At the bottom of this path there is a 
temple to Thakurji, or Vishnu. It is 
white and beautifully carved, and just 
outside the door is a lovely square 
pavilion exquisitely carved with figures 
representing Krishna sporting with 
the Gopis. 

Amb^r formerly contained many fine 
temples, but most are now in ruins.] 

[Sanganer is about 7 m. to the 
S. of Jeypore, a nice drive past the 
Residency and the Moti Dongari, and 
garden where the Indian princes who 
are visitors to the Maharaja some- 
times encamp. 

A gateway leads into this town 
through two ruined Tirpoliyas, or triple 
gateways of three stories, about 66 ft. 
high. The second story has an open 
stone verandah, supported by four 
pillars on either side of the archway. 
Ascending the street is a small temple 
on the rt. sacred to Kalyanji or KrishTUi, 
the door of which is handsomely 
carved. Opposite is a temple to Sita- 
ram, with a pillar, 6 ft high, of white 
Makrana marble called a Kirthi Kambh. 
On the four sides are Brahma with four 
faces, Vishnu, cross-legged, holding the 
lotus, Shiva holding a cobra in his rt. 
hand and a trident in his 1. , with Par- 
bati beside him and Ganesh. 

Higher up, on the 1. , are the ruins 
of the Old Palace, which must once 
have been a vast building. N. by E. 
from this is the Sanganer Temple with 
three courts. Visitors are not allowed 
to enter the third. There are several 
other old shrines in the place.] 

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coined their own money, and their 
currency was called Gokul Sikkah. It 
is a place of considerable trade, particu- 
larly in iron and salt The Town Hall 
is handsome, as are the Jain Temples^ 
close to the town. 

The rly. passes W. of the Kutb Minar 
and of the tombs and ruins S. of Delhi, 
a line of hills shutting them out from 
view, and when near the city turns E. 
(Here the Delhi, Umballa, and Ealka 
Rly. turns N.) The line enters through 
the W. wall, meeting in a fine central 
station the E. I. Rly. and N. W. Rly., 
which enter the city over the Jumna 
river bridge from the E. 

890 m. Delhi junc. sta.,a^ D.B. 
(193,600 inhab.) 


Little is definitely known of the 
history of Delhi prior to the Moham- 
medan conquest in 1193 a.d. It is 
said that a city called Indraprastha 
was founded by the early Aryan im- 
migrants, under a king called Yudhis- 
thira, and that the fort of Indrapat, 
also called Purana Killa, or ''Old 
Fort," stands on the site of this city. 
The extensive ruins lying S. of modern 
Delhi, and covering an area of about 
45 sq. m., are the remains of seven 
forts or cities, built by different kings. 
The oldest are the Hindu forts of Lal- 
kot, built by Anang Pal in 1052 a.d. ; 
and Rai Pithora, built by the king of 
that name, about 1180 A.D. The ruins 
of these two forts, and the iron pillar 
at the Kutb, are the only remains of 
the Hindu period. The five Moham- 
medan forts or cities were Siri, built by 
'Alau-din in 1304 A.D. ; Tughlakabad, 
built by Tughlak Shah, in 1321 a.d. ; 
the citadel of Tughlakabad, built by 
the same king at the same date ; 'Adi- 
labad, built Dy Muhammad Tughlak 
in 1325 A.D. ; and Jahanpanah, endosed 
by the same king. The name Delhi 
first appears in the 1st century B.C., 
but the area thus designated cannot 
now be determined. 

The modem town dates from the 
commencement of the fort by Shah 

Jehan in 1638, whence it was \ 
Shahjehanabad. Delhi has beol 
quently attacked, and often cap! 
It was sacked by Timur, the Moi 
1398 ; by Nadir Shah, the Pem 
1739 ; and by Ahmad Shah Durai 
Afghan, in 1756. On the 10th II 
1739, the small Persian gar^ - 
which Nadir Shah had introi ^ 
into the city when he captured it'"^/ 
almost entirely put to the swoi // 
the people. On the 11th he g^yf 
troops, who had been summoned ^^jV 
the encampment outside the city, c^.^^^ 
for a general massacre. From su^v . j 
till 12 o'clock Delhi presented a { i ; 
of shocking carnage, the horroiT'^ 
which were increased by the €3y| 
that now spread to almost every qu M 
of the capital. The Mogul Em^t 
Muhammad Shah then interoedet, i^ 
the people, and Nadir replied, " [^ 
Emperor of India must never a«r f 
vain," and commanded that the ^< 
sacre should cease. A vast multi P^ 
of persons had perished, however,^ / 
when Nadir left Delhi he carried ^^/ 
him immense treasures, estimate/f^ - 
from 30 to 70 millions sterling^ . 
famous Peacock Throne, and the 1 / 
i-Nur, diamond. y^ 

In 1789 the Maratha chief, Mah 
Sindia captured Delhi, and the T 
thas retained it till, in September' -. 
General Lake defeated Louis Bou| | 
commanding Sindia's army, and s 
possession of Delhi and of the f 
and person of the Mogul Shah *i 
In October 1804 Delhi was besieg 
the Maratha, Jaswant Rao Holka] 
successfully defended by the B ^ 
under General Ochterlony. '. > 
that time to 1857 the old capit 
India remained in the possessit 
the British, although the descent 
of the Mogul were allowed some 
of royalty, and the name of 1 
Bahadur Shah succeeded in 18315 
was about 80 years old whe: 
Mutiny broke out. With his 
at Rangoon in 1862, the last 
of the Mogul dynasty disapp 

1 A list of sovereigns who reitcned i 
from 1198, will be found o& p. uviii. 

d by Google 

by Google 

d by Google 



The Siege of Delhi, 1857.^ 1 

On the 10th of May 1857 there 
were in the large cantonment of 
Meenit, aboat 40 miles from Delhi, 
a British force consisting of a battalion 
of the 60th Rifles, a regiment of 
Dragoons armed with carbines, and 
a large force of Artillery, though only 
two field-batteries were fully equipped. 
The Native troops were one regiment 
of Cavalry — the 3d, and two re^raents 
of Infantry — the 11th and 20th. 
Eighty-five troopers of the 3d Cavalry 
had been imprisoned for refusing to 
use the new cartridges, but were 
released on the day above mentioned 
by their comrades. On that day, 
Sunday, when the sun went down, 
the Sepoys broke into revolt. The 
English soldiers in the cantonment 
were in amply sufiicient numbers to 
have crushed the mutiny locally had 
they been conmianded by a competent 
general, but General Hewitt does not 
seem to have comprehended the neces- 
sity for vigorous action, and the 
mutineers, after setting fire to the 
houses of the European officers, escaped 
to Delhi. On the moraiog of the 
11th there was still time for the 
British Cavalry and Horse Artillery 
to have reached Delhi soon enough to 
have saved many precious lives, but 
the General took no action. 

In the meanwhile the Native Cavalry 
arrived at Delhi, entered the city, cutting 
down any Europeans met withj and then 
found their way to the Fort, and in- 
duced the 38th N.I. to join them. 
The church was subsequently destroyed, 
and all Christians met with put to 
death. There were no British troops 
either in the Fort, or in the cantonment 
about 2 m. outside the city. The 64th 
N.I. under Colonel Ripley was marched 
from the cantonment to the Fort, but 
at once fraternised with the 38th, and 
allowed their officers to be shot down. 
Major Abbott with the 74th N.I. and 
two guns arrived next on the scene, 
bat his regiment also joined the muti- 

1 A traveller who desires a concise account 
of the siege of Delhi, etc., without military 
technicalities, cannot do better than refer to 
Holmes' Indian Mvivtiy^ 

neers. Lieut. Willoughby, with two 
officers, and six non-commissioned 
officers defended the magazine, in the 
city, against enormous odds ; and 
finally exploded it, only three of them 
surviving. No assistance arriving from 
Meerut those who had taken refuge in 
the Fort attempted to escape. Many 
were shot down while doing so, and 
Delhi, with its well-fortified palace and 
strong city wall, was left in the hands 
of the mutineers. 

Instant measures were taken for the 
concentration of European troops and 
loyal native regiments upon Delhi. 
Sir H. Barnard took command of the 
troops collected at Kumal, and on 6th 
June reached Alipur, where he halted 
till the Meerut brigade joined him. 
On the 7 th the latter brigade, after fight- 
ing two engagements with the rebels, 
arrived. On the following day the 
combined forces marched on Delhi, and 
found the rebels well posted and 
supported by 30 guns 6 ra. north of 
Delhi, at the village of Badli-ka-Serai. 
Attacking the mutineers, Barnard 
gained a complete victory. The most 
important result of this success was to 
give the British possession of "the 
Ridge," from which all subsequent oper- 
ations against Delhi were made. 

* * On the left and centre of the Ridge, 
obliquely to the front of attack, the 
tents of the English were pitched a 
little to the rear of their old houses, 
and effectually concealed from the be- 
sieged. The position on the extreme 
right invited attack. It was sur- 
mounted by an extensive building 
known as Hindu Rao's house. A strong 
body of troops was posted here, and in 
an old observatory near it. About 800 
yds. to the left of Hindu Rao's house, 
and on the Ridge, was an old mosque, 
and again 800 yds. to the left was the 
Flag-Staff Tower, a double-storied circu- 
lar building — a good post for observa- 
tion, and strong enough to afford shelter 
to troops. At these four points Barnard 
established strong picquets supported 
by guns. Beyond Hindn Rao's house 
was the suburb of Subzee-mundee, which, 
with its houses and walled gardens, 
afforded shelter to the enemy, and was 
in fact the key of the, English position. 

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Beyond Sabzee-mundee, towards the 
Kabul Gate, were the viUages of Kish- 
engunge, TVevelyangunge, Paharipur, 
and Tdiwara, all strong positions which 
covered the enemy when they advanced 
to the attack, but were too near the city 
walls for us to occupy. A little to the 
S. of the Flag-Staff, but farther to the 
E., was Metcalfe House, on the banks of 
the Jumna, with substantial outbuild- 
ings, and a mound in their rear, which 
seemed to recommend it for occupation. 
Between it and the city was an old 
summer palace of the Emperor, the 
Kudsiya Bagh, with lofty gateways 
and spacious courtyards, and in a line 
between the latter and Hindu Rao's 
house was Ludlow Castle, the house of 
the late Commissioner Simon Frazer." 

To take this great walled city Greneral 
Barnard had a force of about 8000 
British, one Ghoorka battalion, the 
Coips of Guides, the remnant of certain 
native regiments, and 22 ^ns. At 
first it was intended to assamt the city 
by night, but as failure would have 
been disastrous, it was considered best 
to delay till the expected reinforce- 
ments liad arrived. Between the 12th 
and 18th the rebels attacked the British 
position four times, in front and rear. 
Again on the 23d they attacked, having 
been reinforced by the mutineers from 
Nusseerabad. Fortunately the British 
by that time had received an additional 
850 men. 

On the 24th General Chamberlain 
arrived, and with him the 8th and 6l8t 
Europeans, the 1st Panjab Infantry, 
a squadron of Panjab Cavalry, and 4 
guns, raising the British strength to 
6600. The rebels had received an 
accession of about 4500 from Bareilly. 

On the 9th and 14th of July fierce 
engagements were fought on the right 
of the English position, near Hindu 
Rao's house, in and about the Subzee- 
mundee. In these engagements the 
British lost 25 officers and 400 men. 

7 On the 17th of July Gen. Reed 
resigned the command, and made it 
over to Brig.-Gen. Archdale Wilson. 
At this time the besieging force was in 
great difficulties ; two generals had died, 
a third had been compelled by illness 
to resign, the Adj. -Gen. and Quarter- 

master-Gen. lay wounded in their 
tents ; and the rebels had attacked so 
often, and with such obstinacy, that 
it had. come to be acknowledged that 
the British were the besieged and not 
the besiegers. On the 18th of July 
the rebels made another sortie, which 
was repulsed by Col. Jones of the 60th 
Rifles. The Engineer officers then 
cleared away the walls and houses 
which had afforded cover to the enemy, 
and connected the advanced posts wi^ 
the main picquets on the Ridge. After 
this there were no more conflicts in the 
Subzee-mundee. On the 23d of July the 
enemy streamed out of the Cashmere 
Gate, and endeavoured to establish 
themselves at Ludlow Castle. They 
were driven back, but the English 
were drawn too near the city \rall8, 
and suffered severe loss. An order 
was then issued prohibiting pursuit, 
which had led to so many disasters. 
But reinforcements were now on their 
way from the Panjab, and were to be 
commanded by one of the best soldiers 
that India had ever produced — Gen. 

"On the 7th of August Nichobon 
stood on the Ridge at fielhi He had 
come on in advance of his column 
of 2500 men, which arrived on the 
14th. On the 25th he marched out 
towards Najafgarh with a strong 
force to attack the Sepoys, who had 
moved [to intercept the siege train 
coming from Ferozepur. The march 
was a troublous one, through deep 
mud. He found the mutineers in three 
bodies, occupying two villages and a 
sarai in fronl^ afl protected by guns. 
As the English passed the ford, the 
water being breast-high even tiere, 
the enemy poured upon them a shower 
of shot and shell. Nicholson, at the 
head of the 61st and the Fusiliers, 
stormed the sarai, and captured the 
guns ; but the Sepoys fought well, 
and sold their lives dearly. Those who 
survived limbered up their guns and 
made for the brid^ crossing the Najaf- 
garh Canal. Nicholson's men over- 
took them, killed 800, and captured 18 
guns. It turned out to be the Neemuch 
Brigade who were thus beaten. The 
Baraili Brigade had not com^ up 

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Nicliolson blew up tho Najafgarh 
Bridge, and returned to camp. 

** On the morning of the 4th of Sep- 
tember the siege guns, drawn by 
elephants, with an immense number of 
ammunition waggons, appeared on the 
Ridge. On the 6th the rest of the Rifles 
from Mecrut marched in. On the 8 th the 
Jummoo contingent arrived, with Rich- 
ard Lawrence at their head. Many, and 
amongst them foremost of all Nichol- 
son, chafed at the delay which occuiTcd 
in stonning Delhi. The responsibility 
of the attack rested with Archdale 
Wilson, and he had stated the magni- 
tude of the enterprise in a letter to 
Baird Smith, of the 20th of August. 
' Delhi is 7 m. in circumference, filled 
with an immense fanatical population, 
garrisoned by full 40,000 soldiers, 
annedand disciplined by ourselves, with 
114 heavy pieces of artillery mounted on 
the walls, with the largest magazine of 
shot, shell, and ammunition in the 
Upper Provinces, besides some 60 pieces 
of field artillery, all of our own manu- 
facture, and manned by artillerymen 
drilled and taught by ourselves; the 
Fort itself having been strengthened by 
perfect flanking defences, erected by 
our own engineers, and a glacis whicn 
prevents our guns breaching the walls 
lower than 8 ft from the top.* These 
eircomstances led Wilson to write that 
the chances of success were, in his 
opinion, an^hing but favourable ; but 
he would yield to the judgment of the 
chief engineer. Many condemned his 
apparent reluctance to order the assault, 
hut they have since acknowledged that 
they did him less than justice, for the 
principles of warfare were upon his side. 
"Investment by the English, with 
their limited means, being impossible, 
it was necessary to concentrate all their 
hreaching power on a portion of the 
walls sefected for a front of attack. 
This was the Mori, Cashmere, and Water 
Bastions, with their connecting cur- 
tains. This front was chosen because 
the fire of the Mori Bastion alone com- 
manded the approach to it, and because 
there was excellent cover to within a 
short distance of the walls. On the 
evening of the 6th of September, a light 

hitteryjconsisting of si^ 9-pounders and 

two 24-pounders, under the command of 
Captain Remmington, was constructed 
on the plateau of the Ridge to protect 
the operations going on below. On the 
night of the 7th the first heavy battery 
was constructed at 700 yds. from the 
wall. It consistedoftwo parts connected 
by a trench. The right portion held 
five heavy guns and a howitzer, the func- 
tion of which was to demolish the Mori 
Bastion. The left held four guns to keep 
down the fire of the Cashmere Bastion. 
While darkness lasted the enemy only 
fired twice, but when the morning re- 
vealed the British plans, the rebels 
poured in a shower of shot and shell, 
but the English persevered in their 
work, and oefore sunset the rebel 
battery was silenced. The English 
had lost 70 men in the trenches. The 
left section of their battery maintained 
a fire on the Cashmere Bastion during 
the greater part of three days, but at noon 
on the 10th it took fire and the guns 
were of necessity withdrawn. By that 
time No. 2 Battery had been finished 
— the left section immediately in the 
front of Ludlow Castle, and the right 
section 90 yds. to the front of it. Both 
were within 600 yds. of the city ; the 
right section had seven howitzers and 
two 18-pounders, and the left section 
nine 24-pounders. 

'* This battery did not open fire till 
No. 3 Battery was completed. It was 
built behind part of the Custom House, 
at 180 yds. from the Water Bastion, 
on which it was to play. The enemy 
poured in such an incessant fire of 
musketry, with occasional shells, that 
it was impossible to work in the day, 
and difficult at ni^ht. Meantime a 
powerful mortar battery was con- 
structed in the Kudsiya Bagh. At 8 
A.M. on the 11th of September the nine 
24-pounders in the left section of No. 
2 Battery opened with terrific effect on 
the Cashmere Bastion. The enemy re- 
plied and severely wounded the com- 
mandant of the heavy guns, but their 
fire was soon silenced by No. 2 Battery, 
aided by the mortars in the Kudsiya 
Bagh. Then the walls of Delhi began 
to Mill, and whole yards of parapet came 
down. At 11 A.M. on the 12th No. 3 
Battery unmasked^nd pounded the 

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Water Bastion into ruins. All through 
the 12th and 13th the roar of 50 heavy 
guns was heard day and night, without 
intermission. On the 13th Alexander 
Taylor, of whom Nicholson said, * If I 
survive to-morrow I will let all the 
world know that Aleck Taylor took 
Delhi,* announced that the breaches 
were practicable. 

"The arrangements for storming 
Delhi were forUiwith made. The 1st 
Column under Nicholson consisted of 
300 men of the 76th Foot, 250 of the 
1st Fusiliers, and 450 of the 2d Panjab 
Infantry. It was to storm the breach 
in the curtain near the Cashmere 
Bastion. The 2d Column, under Brig. 
Jones, C.B., was to storm the breach 
in the Water Bastion, and it con- 
sisted of 260 men of the 8th Foot, 
250 of the 2d Fusiliers, and 350 of 
the 4th Sikhs. The 3d Column, 
under Col. Campbell of the 52d, 
was to assault the Cashmere Gate, 
and consisted of 200 men of the 52d 
Foot, 250 of the Kumaon Battalion, 
and 500 of the 1st Panjab Infantry. 
The 4th Column, under Major Charles 
Reid, who so long and gallantly held 
the post at Hindu Rao's house, was to 
enter the city by the Lahore Gate. It 
consisted of 860 men of the Sirmur 
Battalion, the Guides, and other c<^rps. 
The 5th Column, the Reserve, was com- 
manded by Brig. Longfield, and con- 
sisted of 1700 men. Besides these five 
columns, Hope Grant with 600 sabres 
of the 9th Lancers and Sikh Horse, 
whose duty it was to prevent sallies 
from the Lahore and Ajmere Gates, 
were for long under heavy fire. 

**0n the night of the 13th Lieuts. 
Medley and Lang explored the Cash- 
mere breach, and Greathed and Home 
that of the Water Bastion. The morn- 
ing of the 14th was fine and still. 
Nicholson laid his arm on Brig. Jones's 
shoulder, and asked him if he was 
ready. He then rejoined his own 
Column, gave the order to storm, and 
immediately the heavy guns, which 
were roanng at their loudest, became 
silent. The Rifles sounded the ad- 
vance, and the Ist and 2d Columns 
ascended the glacis. The fire of the 
enemy was terrible, and the Engineers 

Greathed and Ovenden were the first 
to fall. The stormers carrying the 
ladders were led by Captain Baines 
and Lieut. Mel^ e. When Baines reached 
the Water Bastion he had only 25 
men left out of 76. Both he and 
Metje were carried disabled to the 
rear. The 1st Column was divided 
into two sections. Nicholson him- 
self led one, and Col. Herbert of 
the 75th the other. Nicholson was 
the first to mount the walL In the 
other section Lieut. Fitzgerald, who 
was the first to ascend, was shot dead. 
His place was soon supplied, and soon 
both sections of the 1st Column had 
carried the breach near the Cash- 
mere Bastion, and taken up their posi- 
tion at the Main Guara The 2d 
Column, entered by the breach in the 
Cashmere curtain, doubled along the 
open space to their right,* and cleared 
the ramparts to the Mori Bastion, 
where the rebel gunners fought gal- 
lantly, and were bayoneted at their 
guns. The Column then advanced 
and took the Kabul Gate, on which a 
soldier of the 61st planted a flag. From 
the Lahore Gate the enemy kept up a 
galling fire. Nicholson collected a 
number of men to storm this gate. As 
he advanced he found himself in a long 
nan-ow lane lined with marksmen on 
both sides. Some of the enemy's guns 
were brought to bear on the attacking 
column, and the men fell fast. Major 
Jacob of the 1st Fusiliers received his 
death -wound. Captain Greville and 
Lieut. Speke were struck down. The 
Column wavered; Nicholson rushed for- 
ward, his lofty stature rendered him con- 
spicuous, and in a moment he was shot 
through the body, and in spite of his re- 
monstrances was carried to the rear todie. 
" The 3d Column had been apjjointed 
to enter the city through the Cashmere 
Gate, which was to be blown open by 
Lieuts. Home and Salkeld, Seigeants 
Carmichael, Burgess, and Smith. Home, 
with his bugler, was first down into 
the ditch. He planted his bag, but as 
Carmichael advanced with his he was 
mortally wounded. Smith then ad- 
vanced, and placed his dying comrade's 
bag as well as his own, and prepared 
the fuzes for ignition. Salkeld was 

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ready with a slow match, but as he 
was lighting it he received two bullets, 
and falling he called on Smith to take 
the match, which was taken by Bur- 
gess, and Smith was in the act of 
giving him a box of lucifers when Bur- 
gess also fell with a bullet through his 
body. Smith was now alone, but he 
had struck a light, and was applying 
it when a portfire went oft' in his face. 
There was a thick smoke and dust, 
then a roar and a crash, as Smith 
scrambled into the ditch. There he 
placed his hand on Home, who said he 
was unhurt, and having joined the 
Column went forward. The gate had 
been shattered, but not so destroyed 
as had been anticipated. But the 8d 
Column passed through it. Smith 
there obtained stretchers, and had Bur- 
gess and Salkeld carried to the camp, 
but both of them died — Burgess on tne 
way, and Salkeld a few days afterwards." 
Thus were the walls of Delhi won, 
but before the whole place was in our 
possession there was six days' more 
severe fighting, which there is not space 
to descnbe. Our loss in these street 
encounters was most severe, and tried 
greatly our exhausted force. 


The sights of Delhi and its neigh- 
bourhood cannot well be seen in less 
than 3 days. These 3 days may be 
employed in the following manner : — 

Ist Morning. — Fort and Palace, 
Jumma Musjid, Jain Temple, Kalan 

Afternoon. — Drive to Ferozabad and 

2d Morning. — Visit sights outside 
the town in connection with the Mutiny, 
driving out by the Cashmere Gate and 
returning by the Mori Gate. 

Afternoon. — Drive by Jey Sing's Ob- 
servatory to Safdar Jang's Tomb, round 
by Tomb of Nizamu-din Auliya to that 
of Humayun, and so back. 

dd Day. — Starting early, drive to 
Kutb, stopping en route to see the 
Reservoir of Hauz-i-Khas. After an 
early luncheon, proceed to Tughlakabad, 
and back by the Muttra Road, 

Objects of Interest within the 

The Fort which was built bv Shah 
Jehan in 1638, has 2 grand gate- 
ways to the W. The Lahore Gate is 
truly a magnificent building, and from 
the top is a fine view looking W. to the 
Jumma Musjid, with, to its right, a 
white Jaio temple and the Indian 
town. Straight from the gate is the 
street called the Chandni Chauk, 
** Silver Square." To the right, 
outside the city, are Hindu Rao's 
house, and the other celebrated places 
on the Ridge ; and imni( diately to the 
S. is the Delhi Gate of the Fort, very 
similar in appearance and construction 
to the other. 

Passing under the Lahore gateway, 
the traveller will proceed due E. along 
a great arcade like a huge cathedral, 
but lined with shops on each side, to 
the Nakar Ehana (A), beyond which 
is the Diwan-i-'Am (B), or Hall of 
Public Audience, " open at three sides, 
and supported by rows of red sandstone 
pillars, formerly adorned with gilding 
and stucco-work. In the wall at the 
back is a staircase that leads up to 
the throne, raised about 10 ft. from 
the ground, and covered by a canopy, 
supported on four pillars of white 
marble, the whole being curiously in- 
laid with mosaic work. Behind the 
throne is a doorway by which the 
Emperor entered from his private apart- 
ments. The whole of the wall benind 
the throne is covered yiiih. paintings 
and mosaic, in precious stones, of the 
most beautiful flowers, fruits, birds, 
and beasts of Hindustan. They were 
executed by Austin de Bordeaux, who, 
after defrauding several of the princes 
of Europe by means of false gems, which 
he fabricated with great skill, sought 
refuge at the court of Shah Jehan, 
where he made his fortune, and was in 
high favour with the Emperor. In 
front of the throne, and slightly raised 
above the floor of the hall, is a large 
slab of white marble, which was form erlv 
richly inlaid with mosaic work, of which 
the traces only now remain. " ^ 

1 Beresford's Guide to DdhLMbQ. 



d by Google 



The Diwaa-i-Khas (D), or Private 
Hall of Audience, is about 100 yds. 
farther on to the E., and is a pavilion 
of white marble open on all sides and 
richly ornamented with gold (re^t 
1891) and pietra dura work. The ceilmg 
is said to nave been plated with silver, 
which was carried otf by the Marathas 
in 1760. Over the N. and S. arches is 
written the famous Persian distich : 

If on earth be an Eden of bliss, 
It is this, it is this, none but this. 

In the centre of the E. side is the white 
marble stand on which the Takht-i- 
Tans, or famous Peacock Throne, 
carried away by Nadir Shah in 1739, 
rested. It is still to be seen in the 
Royal Palace at Teheran. It "was 
so called from its having the figures 
of two peacocks standing behind it, 
their tails being expanded, and the 
whole so inlaid with sapphires, rubies, 
emeralds, pearls, and other precious 
stones of appropriate colours, as to 
iqiresent li^. The throne itseK was 
• ft. long by 4 ft broad ; it stood 
9t six massive feet, which, with the 
- kdy, were of solid gold, inlaid with 
.Mhies, emeralds, and diamonds. It 
lis surmounted by a canopy of gold, 
si^ported by twelve pillars, all richly 
emblazoned with costly gems, and 
a fringe of pearls ornamented the 
borders of the canopy. Between the 
two peacocks stood the figure of a 
parrot of the ordinary size, said to 
We been carved out of a single 
emerald. On either side of the throne 
stood an umbrella, one of the Oriental 
emblems of royalty. They were formed 
of crimson velvet richly embroidered 
»ik1 fringed with pearls ; the handles 
were 8 ft. high, of solid cold, and 
stadded with diamonds. The throne 
was planned and executed under the 
supervision of Austin de Bordeaux, 
already mentioned in connection with 
the Diwan-i-*Am." 

The Baman Bnzj (G) and Bang Mahal 

(C), to the S. of the Diwan-i-Khas, has 
in the centre of its N. wall a richly 
carved and gilt screen, with a small 
window in the middle, and above, the 
Mizan-i-Insaf, or "scales of justice," 

The ladies* apartments here are of 
white marble, beautifully inlaid below, 
with fresco-work above, and adorned 
with gilded scrolls. In the old days, 
as is explained by the verses, they were 
surrounded by a formal Oriental garden 
and fountains. The palace must then 
have been more beautiful than any- 
thing in the East that we know of. Now 
everything has been cleared away ; even 
the houses have been removed, and the 
buildings that are left have become 
quarters for the English soldiers. 
Viewing the detached remnants of the 
royal residence as they now stand, it is 
difficult to realise the general idea on 
which the ground was laid out, but this 
will be rendered more easy by an exam- 
ination of the accompanying native plan 
of the palace in its splendour, from a 
plate in Fergusson's Indian Architec- 

A shallow channel for water runs 
firom the Baths beneath the Diwan-i- 
Khas across the open courtyard to the 
Saman Bun. The Baths (F), called the 
'Akab Baths, are a little to the N. of 
the Diwan-i-Khas. They consist of 3 
large rooms, floored with white marble, 
elaborately inlaid with pietra dura 
work, and crowned with white marble 
domes. In the centre of each room 
there is a fountain, and in the wall of 
one of them a reservoir of marble. 
These baths were lighted by windows 
of coloured glass in the roof. 

Opposite to them, to the W., is the 
Moti Musjid(E), or the " Peari Mosque," 
an architectural gem of white and gray 
marble. It has a bronze door covered 
with designs in low relief, and the 
fa9ade has three arches. The mosque 
proper has three arches, and is divided 
into two aisles. The arches display 
some Hindu influence. The walls are 
most delicately decorated with low 
reliefs. Saiyad Ahmad says it was 
built in 1635 A.D. by Aurangzib, and 
cost 160,000 rs. 

The rest of the palace has been cleared 
away to make room for barracks, etc. 

Jamma Musjid.— This mosque is 
said to be unrivalled for size. Mr. 
Fergusson says it "is not unlike the 
Moti Musjid in the Agra Fort in 

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plan, though built on a very much 
larger scale, and adorned with two 
noble minarets, which are wanting 
in the Agra example ; while from the 
somewhat capricious admixture of 
red sandstone with white marble 
it is far from possessing the same 
elegance and purity of effect. It is, 
however, one of the few mosques, either 
in India or elsewhere, that is designed 
to produce a pleasing effect externally. 
It IS raised on a lofty basement, and its 
three gateways, combined with the four 
angle towers and the frontispiece and 
domes of the mosque itself, make up a 
design where all the parts are pleasingly 
subordinated to one another, but at the 
same time produce a whole of great 
variety and elegance. Its principal 
gateway cannot be compared with 
that at Fatehpur - Sikri, but it is 
a noble portal, and from its smaller 
dimensions more in harmony with the 
objects by which it is surrounded.** 
The gateways are surmounted with 
galleries, on th^ roof of which are fif- 
teen marble domes, with spires tipped 
with gold. Above these are six fluted 
marble minarets, with open arched 
chambers at the top, and surmounted 
with gilt pinnacles. These three noble 
gateways are approached by grand 
flights of steps, unrivalled elsewhere. 
As of old only the Mogul Emperor 
could enter the main gateway, so now 
only the Viceroy of the Queen-Empress 
may do so. Hence it remains shut 
save on a Viceroy*8 visit. 

The doors are massive and overlaid 
with brass arabesques half an inch thick, 
giving access to a stately quadrangle, 
325 ft. square, in the centre of which 
are a marble basin and fountain. 
Round three sides of the quadrangle 
i-uns an open sandstone cloister, 16 ft. 
wide, with pillars of the same material. 
The mosque proper is 201 ft. long and 
120 ft. broad. The inscription gives 
the date in Arabic as 1658 a.d., the 
year in which Aurangzib deposed his 
father, Shah Jehan. 

Five thousand workmen were em- 
ployed for six years in the construction 
of this mosque. At the N.E. corner is 
a pavilion in which are placed relics of 
Mohammed. The traveller must not 

forget to ask to see the MSS. and leHcs 
here. There is a Koran written in 
Kufik of the time of 'Ali, that is in the 
7th century of our era ; one written by 
the Imam Husain, very clear and well 
preserved ; one written by the Imam 
Hasan, the pages of which are much 
crumpled at the beginning ; the Kafsh- 
i-Mubarak or "Prophet*8 Slipper,** filled 
with jasmine ; the Kadmu'l Mubarak, 
" Footprint of the Prophet ** imprinted 
on a stone ; Mui-i-Mubarak, a hair of 
the Prophet's moustaches ; and part of 
the canopy over the Prophet's tomb. 
The two minarets rise to the height of 
130 ft. They contain staircases, and 
the ascent to the top is easy. At the 
top are small pavilions, from which the 
whole city can be viewed. 

Chandni Chauk, which is the princi- 
pal street of the city, runs from E. to 
W. in almost a direct line from the 
Lahore Gate of the Fort to the Lahore 
Gate in the W. wall of the city. It is 
lined with fine trees, and has a covered 
aqueduct running along the middle. 
Tne chief articles of native manufac- 
ture are jewellery and embroidery in 
gold and silver, and the best shops are 
in this street. In the centre of the 
Chandni Chauk is the Northbrook 
Fountain. The Mosque of Roshanu- 
daulah, also called the Sonala or 
" Qolden Mosque," from its three gilt 
domes, is close to this fountain. It was 
built in Muhammad Shah*s reign, by 
Roshanu-daulah Zafar Khan in 1721 
A.D. It is a small but beautiful build- 
ing, and on it Nadir Shah sat during 
the massacre at Delhi. The KotwaU 
is next to it, and it was here that 
Hodson exposed the bodies of the Delhi 
Princes whom he had killed. At the 
W. end of the Chandni Chauk is the 
Fatehpuri Mosque. It was built in 
1 650 A.D. by Fatehpuri Begam, wife of 
Shah Jchan. It is of red sandstone. 
There are two minarets 105 ft. high. 
The Mor (or Queen's) Sarai, in Queen's 
Road, near the rly. sta., is a modem 
structure buUt by the Municipal Com- 
mittee at a cost of 100,570 rs. for the 
accommodation of native travellers. 

Close by are the Queen's €kurde&8. 
They have the Chandni Chauk skirting 
them to the S., and face the rly. and 

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sta. on tlie N. They are laid out with 
beantifol trees and shrubs of all kinds, 
and in them stands a huge stone ele- 
phant On the platform upon which it 
is raised is an inscription stating that it 
was brought from Gwalior, and set up 
outside the south gate of his new palace 
by the Emperor Shah Jehan, 1646 A.D. 

A legend relates that the two famous 
Rajput chiefs, Jaimall and Patta, who 
defended Chitor against Akbar, were 
represented by stone figures riding on 
this and another elephant which has 
been lost. Akbar himself killed Jai- 
mall, and set up the elephants, with 
the two warriors riding on them, 
at Agra. Shah Jehan brought them 
to Delhi They were mutilated by 
Aurangzib and lost sight of. The two 
figures are now in the verandah of the 
Kuseom of the Institute, which con- 
tains little of interest except portraits 
of the two Lawrences, Sir it Mont- 
gomery, Nicholson, Lord Metcalfe, Lord 
Canning, and others—poor pictures, but 
better than none. The Clock Tower 
adjoins this building, and stands in the 
Ch&ndni Chauk. It is of red sand- 
stone, 128 ft. high. 

The Kalan Musjid, or Black Mosque, 
to the S. of the town near the Turku- 
man Gate,* is well worthy of a visit as 
one of the most perfect specimens of 
the age of Feroz Shah Tughlak, 1386. 

On the outside, the building consists 
of two stories, of which the lower, 
forming a kind of plinth to the actual 
place of worship, is 28 ft. high, the 
total height to the top of the battle- 
ments being 66 ft. * * The sloping style 
of the architecture seems peculiarly 
illustrative of the buildings of that and 
earlier periods. The sloping pilasters 
on each side of the main entrance give 
Bwnewhat of an Egyptian appearance 
to the front of the building, which is 
not dissimilar from those of the more 
ancient remains of Hindu architecture. 
. . . The peculiar construction of the 
arches and domes, the stones of which 

1 The Torktunan Gate has its name from a 
saint called Shah Turkaman, who was styled 
the " Sun of Devotees. " He died in 638 a. h. = 
1240 A.D., in the time of Muizza-din Bahram 
Shah, lliere is a pavement round his tomb, 
and cm the 24th of R^jab a great ikir is held 

are held together by the wonderful 
adhesive qualities of the lime used in 
those days, without any keystones, is 
characteristic of the Mohammedan 
Indian buildings of the 14th cent" 
(Carr Stephen). The walls, which are 
very thick, have in the upper story a 
number of openings, filled with red 
stone screens, now much mutilated. 
There is a stern look about this sombre 
unadorned building, the plan of which 
Bishop Heber say^s **is exactly that of 
the original Arabian mosques — a square 
court surrounded by a cloister and 
roofed with many small domes of the 
plainest and most solid construction." 

The Jain Temple, to the N.W. of the 
Jumma Musjid (about end of last cent. ) 
is approached by narrow streets, and 
stands upon a high walled platform 
gained by narrow steps. It consists of 
a small marble court surrounded by a 
stucco colonnacfe in front of the temple 
proper, which rises breast-high above 
the court and is surmounted by an 
oblong dome. Within, the ceiling and 
walls are richly gilded, and are sup- 
ported by two rows of small marble 
columns. In the centre of the temple 
is a pyramidal platform in 3 tiers, upon 
which rests a small figure of Buddha, 
seated beneath an elaborate ivory 
canopy. In the porch, Fergusson 
draws particular attention to the ex- 
quisite device of filling in the back of 
the struts which support the architrave 
beneath the dome — characteristic of 
Jain architecture — with foliated tracery. 

The Cambridge Mission to Delhi 
was sent out from the University in 
1 876. The members live in community 
at the Mission House near the United 
Service Hotel. They work among the 
natives in connection with the S.P.G. 
which has an old-established station 
here. The Mission Compound and St. 
Stephen's Mission Church are close to 
the railway station. The two Missions 
conjointly have charge of St Stephen's 
College^ of a native boys* boarding 
school with 600 pupils, and seversu 
day schools. 

The S.P.G. has also a Medical Mis- 
sion here. 

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Sites in oonnbotion with the 
Mutiny and Siege op 1857. 

The Bidge is outside the city about 1 
m . to the N. W. The traveller driving 
there from the rlv. sta. will pass the 
following objects of interest on nis way. 

Near the Post and Telegraph Offices 
are the 8 Gateways of the Arsenal, 
which was blown up by Willoughby 
on the 11th May 1857. They have 
been left standing in meTnoriam. From 
what remains it is evident that it was 
a fine building. 

St. James's Memorial Church, rt., 
was erected at the sole expense of Colonel 
Skinner, as recorded in a tablet on left 
of entnince. Another tablet records 
that he died at Hansi in 1841, and was 
buried in this church in 1842. It is a 
rotunda, with four large porticoes sup- 
ported by pillars. 

In the church are a-large number of 
tablets of unusual interest, some to 
commemorate regimental losses, some 
in remembrance of whole families, and 
others in memory of individuals. It is 
a sad list ; a record of evil times. 

Beyond to the W. is the Cashmere 
Gate, which was blown in on the 
morning of 14th September, and the 
site of the breaches close to it through 
which the storming columns Nos. 1 
and 2 pass.ed. On a slab set up by 
Lord Napier of Me^dala, just outside 
the gate, the event is described. 

Just inside the Cashmere Gate was 
posted the Main Guard at the time of 
the Delhi Mutiny. 

Outside the Cashmere Gate, the 
Kudsiya Gardens are about 300 yds. 
to the N. ; they are prettily laid out. 
Near them in the Cemetery, close to the 
entrance, is the tomb of General Nichol- 
son, one of the greatest heroes of India. 

*< Who led the assault of Delhi, bat feU 

In the hour of victory. 

Mortally wounded, 

And died 23d of September 1857. 

Aged 86 years." 

There is a splendid monument to 
Nicholson in tne Puigab, near Rawal 
Pindi, but this is the place where his 
body was actually interred. At the 
end farthest from the entrance is a 
memorial cross 26 ft. high. 

Just beyond the Cemetery is Lud- 
low Castle, a large house which was 
the residence of Simon Frazer, the mur- 
dered Commissioner of Delhi. There 
are two blocks of masonry in the com- 
pound inscribed as follows : — 

No. 2 Battery, Left, 

With armament nine 24-poander8, 

Mi^or Campbell, B.A., commanding. 

To breach curtain of Cashmere Bastion. 

The 2d block is 160 yds. to the S.E. 
and close to the cemetery wall : — 

No. 2 Battery, Right, 

Armament two IS-pounders and 

Seven 8-inch howitzers. 

Major Edward Eats, B.A., commanding 

Ludlow Castle was a post of importance 
in the closing scene of the siege of Delhi, 
as will be seen from the historical sum- 
mary above. Continuing along the 
Alipur Road, at some little distance the 
traveller will pass Metcalfe House on 
the right, and shortly after will reach 
the Ridge Road, which commands a fine 
view. Here is the Flag-staif Battery, 
a castellated tower, now quite empty. 

Turning at an acute angle to the S.E. 
the Second Kcquet, 300 yds. to the S., is 
reached, and 400 yds. farther in the same 
direction is a mosque, where the Mosque 
Picqnet was stationed. The building 
is now a picturesc|[ue ruin. It is a 
Pathan mosque, with the remains of 
the battery in front. 200 yds. to the 
S.E. is Hindn Bao's Honse, which is 
now used as a convalescent hospital for 
soldiers. It is a large white bungalow. 
About 200 yds. S. of it is Asoka's Pillar. 

Asoka's PiUar. — On the pedestal is 
a tablet stating that this pillar was 
originally erected at Meerut, in the 3d 
century before Christ, by King Asoka. 
It was removed thence, and set ud in 
the Eushak Shikar Palace, near this, 
by the Emperor Feroz Shah, 1356 a.d. ; 
thrown down and broken into five 
pieces by the explosion of a powder 
magazine in 1713-19. It was removed 
and set up in this place by the British 
Government 1867 (see vol. v. of the 
Arch. Bep. ) There are two of Asoka's 
pillars at Delhi, this one and another 
standing on the top of a building in 
Feroz Shah's Eotila, in Ferozabad (see 
below). Both of these pillars were 
brought to Delhi by Feroz Shah. The 

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small inficriptions on this pillar are 
dated Samwat 1369=1312 A.i>. ; Sam- 
wat 1416=1359 A.D. ; Samwat 1681 = 
1524 A.D. All the lon^ inscriptions 
are given at the end of Saiyad Amnad's 

The Mutiny MunoriaL— This is 400 
yds. fjEtfther on along the Ridge, and 
is of red sandstone. It forms an octa- 
gonal Gothic spire, standing on three 
HiminiBhing platforms, with seven win- 
dows, and was erected to commemorate 
the events of the siege, the names of 
the regiments and baUeries who served 
at it, and of the officers who died in the 
performance of their duty. Ascending 
to the top of the building, the traveller 
will gain a complete view of the posi- 
tion. In the plain to the N. of the 
Ridge is the spot where H. M. the Queen 
of England was proclaimed Empress of 
India on the 1st of January 1877. On 
that day Lord Lytton occupied a place 
in a centre pavilion, with an amphi- 
theatre in front of him in which were 
all the feudatory princes and chiefs of 
India, while at his back sat the leading 
European officials and envoys from 
places even as distant as Siam, and to 
the W. an army of about 60,000 men, 
British and Indian, was drawn up. 

Turning from the Ridge S. by the 
drcular road, the traveller may re-enter 
the eity by the Mori Gate, close to 
lAidi IS seen the Mori Bastion, from 
^ihich the rebels maintained so terrible 
a fire till the storming. 

Old Dslhi and thb Neiohboubhood. 

The Idgah is west of the city about 
"1 m. from the walls, and not far off is 
^Kadam Sharif, or "Holy Footstep" 
^bo called the Farash Ehana), where 
VMe is the tomb of Prince Fateh Ehan, 
boat hj his father Feroz Shah in 1374. 
There is also a Mosque, College, and 
' o&er buildings, and a miraculous im- 
press of the Irophet's foot, said to have 
mea. brought from Mecca by the young 
^l^lsee's tutor. 

The Jail is J m. S. of the Delhi Gate, 
on the opposite side of the road to 
Ferozabad. It was an old Caravansarai, 
and the walls are 26 ft. high, and very 
massiTe. Paper, mats, carpets, and 
bedding are made in the workshops. 

To the E. about 260 yds. from the 
jail is the fort of Ferozabad, built by 
Feroz Shah Tughlak, 1354. It is now 
utterly ruined, but must have been a 
strong place in the old time when it 
was the citadel of a city which extended 
from the fort of Indrapat to the Eushak 
Shikar, or "Hunting Palace," near 
Hindu Rao's house, where the other 
Pillar of Asoka, called the Delhi Meerut 
Pillar, now stands. The three-storied 
buildinff called Eotila (see below), 
stands due N. and S., at } m. to the 
W. of the Jumna. The tihree stories 
diminish in area as they rise. 

The Lat, or Asoka pillar erected on 
the roof, is broken at the top in a 
jageed way. Cunningham calls it the 
Ddhi-Siwalik Pillar, as it was brought 
from Tophar at the foot of the Siwalik 
Hills, where the Jumna enters the plains. 
It is a monolith of pink sandstone, but 
the people of the locality called it 
{Kurwnd) corundum stone. "When 
the pillar was fixed, the top was orna- 
mented with black and white stone- 
work surmounted by a gilt pinnacle, 
from which no doubt it received 
its name of Minar Zarin or 'Golden 
Minaret.' This gilt pinnacle was still 
in its place in 1611 a.d., as when 
William Finch in that year visited 
Delhi, he described the pillar as passing 
through three several stories, rising 24 
ft. above them all, having on the top a 
globe surmounted by a crescent. " The 
pillar is 10 ft. 10 m. round, where it 
issues from the roof, and the total height 
is 42 ft. 7 in., of which 4 ft. 1 in. is 
sunk in the masonry. At 10 ft. 1 in. 
from the roof are some Nagri inscrip- 
tions, with the dates in two of them, 
Samwat 1681 = 1624 a.d. These must 
have been inscribed after the removal 
of the pillar to DelM. The others 
were written at Tophar. Above these 
Nagri inscriptions is the Pali, which 
contains the edict of Asoka prohibiting 
the taking of life. The Pali inscription 
dates from the middle of the 3d century 
B.a, and the characters are of the oldest 
form that has yet been found in India. 
Though it is very clearly written, when 
Feroz Shah assembled all the learned 
of the day to decipher the inscription, 
they were unable to do so. The last ten 

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lines on the K face, as well as the whole 
of the continuous inscription round the 
shaft, are peculiar to this pillar, other- 
wise the inscription is to the same 
pui*port as those on the pillars of Gimar 
and Allahabad. There is a second in- 
scription, which records the victories 
of the Chauhan Prince Visaladeva, 
whose power extended from Himadri 
to Vindhya. This record consists of 
two portions, the shorter one immedi- 
ately above Asoka's edicts, and the 
longer immediately below them. Both 
are dated Samwat 1220 = 1163 A.D., and 
refer to the same prince. The minor 
inscriptions are of little interest. 

Indrapat or Purana Killa (Old 
Fort).— At 2 m. S. of the Delhi Gate, 
the traveller (having passed rt. the fine 
gateway of Lai Darwazah) will come to 
the Old Fort, on the site of Indra- 
prastha, the ancient city of Yudish- 
thira, which fort was repaired by 
Humayun, who changed its name to 
Dinpanah. The walls of the Old Fort 
have crumbled in many places, and it 
certainly has the appearance of great 
antiquity. There have been several 
gates, but all are closed save one to 
the S.W., reached by a steep incline. 
The Killa Kona Mosque, the chief ob- 
ject of interest, is, Fergusson says, one 
of the most satisfactory buildings of its 
class in India. It is a noble specimen 
of the late Pathan period, in which 
"every detail was fitted to its place 
and its purpose. We forget the Hindu 
except in its delicacy, and we recognise 
one of the completed architectural 
styles of the world." It is bi^ and 
bold with huge arches and sharp fanely- 
cut mouldings. To reach it you pass 
along a lane between poor houses. It 
was built by Sher Shah in 948 a.h.= 
1541 A.D. It is of red sandstone, inlaid 
with marble and slate, and covered with 
inscriptions, texts from the Koran, in 
the Naskh and Kufik characters. In 
the alcoves and other parts the inlaid 
work is very beautiful. The facade is 
about 150 ft. long, and consists of 5 
bays. The pendentives of the vaulting 
are remarkably fine and should not 
escape notice, and the struts which 
support the side bays, which are oblong 
in plan and not square are curious. 

The white marble Eiblah is covered 
with texts, which are marvels of oali- 
graphy. In the angle towers it the 
back of the mosque are octasonal 
pavilions richly ornamented with ex- 
quisite designs in red sandstone. To 
the S. is an octagonal building of red 
sandstone called the Sher Manail, 70 ft 
high. In 963 A.H. = 1655 A.D. Huina- 
yun placed his library here. On that 
very night it was understood that 
Venus would rise, and the Emperor, 
wishing to see it, fell down the staircase 
and died a few days afterwards of the 
injuries he received. 

Tomb of Nizam-ud-din AuUyaisabout 
1 m. S. of Indrapat, and stands within 
an enclosure surrounded by other tombi 
and sacred buildings. The traveller 
must leave his carriage and walk 
through ruins to an archway. At 30 
yds. from this is the Chausath Khamba, 
or ** Hall of 64 Pillars," the resting- 
place of 'Azizah Kokal Tash, foster 
brother of the Emperor Akbar. It is 
all of white marble ; and the "chased 
style in which the pillars are oma-l 
mented, the well -finished groined' 
arches, and the beautiful screens, form 
an uncommonly beautiful sight' 
Azizah's cenotaph, also of white marblej 
bearing the date 1623, is at the W. 
end ; beyond it is that of his mother, 
and tliere are eight others. 

To the W. of the Chausath KhamH 
is an enclosure in which is the Dargu 
of Nizam-ud-din. The first thing oi 
entering to be noticed is the tomb of th( 
Amir Khusrau the poet. The real namj 
of this personage was Abu '1 Hasan, an( 
he was called Tuti-i-Hind, " Parrot i 
Hindustan," from the sweetness of hi 
style. His grandfather, a Turk, cami 
to Hindustan from Trans -oxyana, ii 
the time of Changiz Khan, and died a 
Delhi, leaving a son named Amir Mah 
mud, or according to others, SaiiO 
din, who was high in the favour of th 
Emperor Tughlak Shah. He perishej 
in battle against the Hindus. His m 
Amir Khusrau succeeded to the royi 
favour, and eiyoyed the confidence j 
patronage of seven successive empen 
He became so famous that it is r 
that S'adi, the celebrated Persian \ 
i visited India for the sole purpose ( 

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seeing Mm. He was the author of 98 
works, of which the greater part are 
lost. His songs are still in popular 
use. He died at Delhi in 1315. 

At the N. end of the small square 
building which forms Ehusrau's tomb 
is a tall white marble slab, on which is 
written, first the Moslem Creed, and 
then 18 Persian couplets. N. of this 
tomb is that of Mirza JehcmgiTf son of 
Akbap Shah II. There are, as custo- 
dians of the tombs here, 50 descendants 
of Nizama-din's sister. The saint him- 
self never married. The family are 
Sufis. The tomb is of white marble, 
and the handsome lattice-work is of the 
same material. It is on the right of 
the entrance into the enclosure, and the 
tomb of Muhammad Shah is on the 
left Muhammad Shah was the em- 
peror whom Nadir Shah despoiled of 
immense treasures. 

To the S. of it is the tomb of the 
tmlypious andheavenly-minded«7<3^n- 
am, daughter of Shah Jehan. At 
the W. end is a headstone 6 ft. high, 
OB which at top is in Arabic, ** God is 
the life and the resurrection," followed 
by the letter Mim, one of the mystical 
letters of the Koran, under which is a 
Persian insoriptioii as follows : — ; 

Save the green herb, place naught above my 

Such pall alone beflta the lowly dead ; 
'Rtt fleeting poor Jehanara lies here. 
Her sire was Shah Jehan and Ghist her Fir. 
May God the Ghazi monarch's proof make 


The yerses end with a conventional 
fifle, which expresses a prayer for her 
&ther. The date is 1681. 

The holy men of Chist are the family 
teibed in connection with the Dargah 

On the left of Jehanara's tomb is that 
irf'Ali Gkiuhar Mirza, son of Shah *Alam, 
Od on the right that of Jamilu 
Ifisa, daughter of Akbar Shah II. 
! The building covering the tomb of 
iTizamu-din, the greatest of the re- 
Bowned Chisti saints, is of white 
tearble; it is 18 ft. sq., and has a 
^hdah 8 ft. broad, built by Mir 
lOran's son. The date is 1063 a.h.= 
K(2 A.D. 
Over the actual cenotaph is a wooden 

canopy, and as usual with tombs ot 
great personages it is covered with a 
cloth. The lattice-work screens of white 
marble are exquisitely carved, and the 
verandah is ornamented with a painted 
flower scroll. To the W. two fine trees 
overshadow the building, and a few 
yards to the S. of them is a Kirni tree, 
said to be as old as the time of Nizamu- 

N. of this is a Well with galleries, 
built by the saint, who is said to have 
blessed it, so that no one who dives in it 
is ever drowned. The usual depth is 39 
ft. Into this men and boys sprmg from 
the roofs and walls of the adjacent build- 
ing, coming down from a height of 50 ft. 

On the E. side of the tomb enclosure 
is a square marble cistern, holding 
perhaps twelve gallons, which when a 
person desires to make an offering has 
to be filled with a mixture of rice, 
sugar, milk, and other good things. 
On one occasion, when the writer sat 
reading in the mosque, one of the 
principal dancing women of Delhi 
arrived to pay her devotions, accom- 
panied by her mother and her attendant 
musicians, and bringing the food in a 
very large iron pot with her. Whilst 
this was preparing she dressed herself 
in cloth of gold and danced for a long 
time before the tomb of Khusrau, and 
afterwards for a shorter time before 
that of Nizamu-din. When this part of 
the ceremony was over, the food which 
had been placed in the marble vessel was 
distributed in a very orderly manner 
to every one connected with the place, 
H. G. Keene says of Nizamu-din : " He 
is said by some to have been a sorcerer, 
by others an assassin of the secret 
society of Khorasan. Sleeman was of 
opinion that he was the founder of 
Thuggism, as the Thugs profess a special 
reverence for his memory." 

Humayun's Tomb about 1 m. S. of 
Indrapat. The approach is through 
two gateways, the first being of red 
sandstone, and lofty. On the left of 
the second door of the entrance is a 
placard which says that the Nawab 
Hamidah Bano Begam, otherwise called 
Haji Begam, widow of Humayun, built 
the mausoleum after her husband's 

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death. He died in 1555 a.d. It cost 1 5 
lakhs, and took 16 years to build. 
Hamidah Bano and other members of 
the Imperial family are buried here. 
The mausoleum stands upon a wide 

Sketch Plan of Humayun's Tomb. 

raised platform, and consists of a large 
central octagon surmounted by a dome 
with octagon towers of unequal sides 
at the angles. " Its plan is that after- 
wards adopted at the Taj, but used 
here without the depth and poetry of 
that celebrated|building. It is, however, 
a noble tomb, and anywhere else must 
be considered a wonaer " (Fergusson). 
A side door leads into a chamber in 
which are three beautiful white marble 
tombs, being those of 'Alamgir II., 
Farakh Sir, and Jehandar Shah. 
There are no names or dates. Huma- 
ynn^s cenotaph is of white marble, and 
is under the centre of the dome, in an 
octagonal hall, — it is quite plain, with- 
out any inscription. 

The enclosure in which the mauso- 
leum stands contains about 11 acres. 
The red sandstone is most artistically 
picked out in relief with white marble. 
The windows are recessed, and the 
lower doors are filled in with lattices 
cut out of the solid stone and marble. 
In the centre of each side of the main 
octagon is a porch 40 ft. high with a 
pointed arch. The wall of the dome 
IS 11 ft. thick, and covered with slabs 
of white marble. The view from the 
top is worth seeing. Hither Baha- 
dur Shah fled after the storming of 
Delhi in 1857, and surrendered to 
Hodson, who on the following day, with 
a small force and in the presence of a 
threatening concourse of natives, re- 
turned for the princes, the sons of 
Bahadur Shah, who also surrendered 
and were shot by him on the spot. 

Jai ( Jey) Sing's Observatory, or tk 
Jantr Mantr, is 2 m. S. of the Ajmere 
Gate and 250 yds. to the 1. of the main 
road. Mr. Beresford's description of all 
these buildings is the best (see Ddhi^ 
1856). "The largest of the buildings 
is an immense equatorial dial, named 
by the Raja the Samrat Yantra, or 
* Prince of Dials,* the dimensions of the 
gnomon being as follows : — 

It in. 

Length of hypothennse . . 118 5 

„ base . . . . 104 

„ perpendicular . . 56 7 

These buildings, chiefly interesting 
to persons who have a knowledge of 
astronomy, were constructed in 1131 
A. H. = 1 724 A. D. , by Jai Sing II. , Rajd 
of Jeypore, commonly called Sawai Jai 
Sing. He was an engineer, mathe- 
matician, and an astronomer. He con- 
sti-ucted on his own plan this Observa- 
tory, and others at Jeypore, Benares, 
and Ujjain. All the buildings are now 
much ruined. 

Tomb of Safdar Jang.— At f m, 
beyond the Jantr Mantr, on the I ighl 
of the road, is the tomb of Safdar Jang 
whose real name was Abu '1 Mansni 
Khan, Safdar Jang being merely hi 
title. He was Vazir to Amad Shah 
eldest son of the Emperor Muhamma( 
Shah. In 1749-50 Safdar Jang engag« 
in a war with the RohiUas, and wi 
defeated in a great battle, when he wa 
obliged to call in the Marathas, L 
1753 he was deprived of his office o 
Vazir, and died. His son, Shuj'an 
daulah, appointed Balal Muhamma 
Khan to superintend the building c 
this mausoleum, which cost three lakh 
of rupees. It is of red sandstone an 
stucco. Safdar Jang's wife, Ehujistai 
Bano Begam, is buried with him. 

The mausoleum stands in an ez 
closure. On the left of the entraiw 
is a sarai for travellers, and on tt 
right a mosque with three cupolas. O 
the gi'ound platform are two earthe 
mounds, which are the real grave 
This building is 99 ft. sq. and three stori* 
high, and contains in the central aipa* 
ment the marble cenotaph. Fergasae 
bestows only qualified praise upon it, sag 
ing *' it will not bear close inspection. 

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A cross-road leads from this mau- 
soleum to Humayun's Tomb, which is 
distant under 3 m. On the left of this 
road is a group of four tombs, regarding 
which General Cunningham writes : 
"The N. group, consisting of two octa- 
gonal tombs and a bridge of seven arches, 
is attributed by the natives to the time 
of the Lodi family, the larger tomb, 
within a square, being assigned to 
Sikandar Lodi, and I believe that this 
attribution is most probably correct. 
But the S. group, which consists of a 
mosque and two square tombs, belongs, 
in my opinion, to an earlier period." 

Hau-i-Ehas. — This reservoir was 
constructed by Sultan 'Alau-din in 
the year 1293 A.D. ; it is 2 m. N. of the 
Kutb, near the viUage of Kharera, and 
is difficult of approach, as there is no 
carriage-road to it. It is most easily 
reached from Safdar Jane's tomb. The 
area of the tank is a little over 100 
Indian acres. It is now a complete 
ruin. Feroz Shah cleared it out in the 
wa 1354 A.D., and repaired it and 
kilt a college near it, at which Yusuf 
Bin Jamal Husaini was professor, and 
he was buried in the courtyard of the 
wlWe. The tomb of Feroz Shah stands 
on the bank. He died in 1388 a.d. 
The tank is now dry, and is culti- 

From Safdar Jang's tomb to the 
Kutb Minar is full 6 m. Near Begam- 
fw there is a mosque 800 yds. to the 
left of the road. 

The Eutb Hinaf , with its adjacent 
■weque and surrounding buildings, is 
j *kout 11 m. from the Ajmere Gate, and 
•tiods, it is said, on the site of the 
j JBginal Hindu city of Dilli, probably 
jfethe Fort of LcUTcot built by Anang 
; fWII. in 1052 a.d. Adjoining to the 
B. was the Fort of Rai Pithora, 1180 
j-A-D. The line of fortification of these 
^•ees is indicated by the mound ex- 
fending several miles to the W. and 

I The Kutb is a grand monument, and 
faob what it is intended to be — a 
' of victory. 1 1 has been a question 
[[hetiier it was not originally Hindu, 
and completed by the Moham- 
conquerors. It is the general 
of tiie people that it was built 

by Rai Pithora, that his daughter 
might see the Jumna from the top 
of it. Saiyad Ahmad inclines to the 
belief that it is of Hindu origin. But 
Cunningham seems to come to the right 
conclusion that it is a purely Moham- 
medan building.^ The inscriptions 
appear to show that it was begun by 
Altamsh. As we see it at present, it is 
240 ft. 6 in. high, and rises in a suc- 
cession of 5 stories marked by corbelled 
balconies and decorated with bands 
of inscription. The base diameter is 
47 ft. 3 in., and that of the top about 
9 ft. The three first stories are of 
red sandstone with semicircular and 
angular flutings ; the two upper stories 
are faced chiefly with white marble, 
and were almost entirely rebuilt by 
Feroz Shah Tughlak in 1368, when he 
also added a cupola. On 1st Aug. 
1803 the whole pUlar was seriously 
injured by an earthquake and the 
cupola thrown down. It was injudi- 
ciously restored in 1829, when besides 
the injury to the inscriptions already 
mentioned, the battlements and the 
balconies were removed and replaced 
by the present flimsy balustrades, and 
an entirely new cupola (now standing 
on a mound by the side of the tower) 
was erected. This cupola does not 
pretend to any resemblance to the 
original one. Notice should be taken 
of the honeycomb work beneath the 
brackets of the first-story balconies, of 
which the ** structure differs in no 
perceptible degree from that in the 
Alhambra." It is worth, for the sake 
of the view, to ascend to the top of the 
Minar, where may be seen the stump 
of Feroz Shah's cupola. 
The Mosque of Eutb'iU Islam (Kuvat 
ul Islam) was begun by Kutb-ud-din 
Aibak when Viceroy, inmiediately after 
the capture of Delhi in 587 A.H. = 1191 
A.D., as recorded by the King himself 
in the long inscription over the inner 
archway of the E. entrance. Even in 
ruins it is a magnificent work. It was 
seen by Ibn Batuta about 150 years 
after its erection, when he describes it 
as having no equal, either in beauty or 
extent. It is not so large as the great 

1 For particulars regarding the discussion 
see ArchcBO. Be/ports, voL 1. p. 190. 

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mosques of Jaunpor and others, but 
is still unrivalled for its grand line of 
gigantic arches, and for the graceful 

demolished by the Mohammedans. 
Altamsh in 1210-1280 surrounded it 
by a larger cloistered court, in the S.E. 







Tomb of 

beauty of the flowered tracery which 
covers its walls. 

It occupies the platform on which 
stood Rai Pithora's Hindu Temple, 

comer of which stands the Eatb I 
and in 1800 'Ala-ud-din appends 
further eastern court, enterod 
great S. gateway the Alai Da 

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, (we below). 'Alau-din also began the 
Alai Minar (see below). The main 
mtnmce to the mosque is an arched 
gteway in the centre of its E. wall. 
fhia opens upon the courtyard (142 
ft. X 108 ft), which is surrounded by 
doisters formed of Hindu, Buddhist, 
mdJainpillarsplacedoneupon another. 
Some of these are richly ornamented ; 
imanyof the figures have been defaced by 
the Mohammedans, though some may 
still be found in unnoticed comers. The 
number of pillars thus brought into 
use could not have been much less than 
1200. The Arabic inscription over the 
1 entrance to the courtyard states that 
tiie materials were obtained from the 
demolition of 27 idolatrous temples, 
each of which had cost 27 lakhs of 
diKak, 50 dilials being equal to 1 rupee. 
The cost of the whole, therefore, was 
^108,000. The domed pavilions in the 
angles of the cloisters are worthy of 
Qotioe. The S. side of the cloister was 
*^th a strange want of discrimination" 
leconstructed in 1829. 

The famous Iron Pillar (see below) 
stands in front of the central opening 
to the mosque proper, a building of 
finall proportions, now in ruins over- 
topped and hidden by the vast screen 
of gigantic arches which occupies the 
^ole of the W. side. This screen was 
erected by Kutb later than his other 
work, and was extended beyond on 
either side for 116 ft. by Altamsh. 
lie central arch is 63 ft. high x 31 ft. 
wide. "The Afghan conquerors had a 
tolerably distinct idea that pointed 
wAes were the true form of architec- 
fewl openings, but being without 
l^ace sufficient to construct them, 
m left the Hindu architects and 
Iwders to follow their own devices as 
l^^mode of carrying out the form. 
Iccordingly they proceeded to make 
lie pointed openings on the same prin- 
iple upon which they built their domes 
-they carried them up in horizontal 
otuses as far as they could and then 
tosed them by long slabs meeting at 
te top." The impost in the central 
Kh was added by the British restorers, 
be ornamentation, interspersed with 
Kts from the Koran, is evidently 
^n from that on the old pillars. 

Fragments of the roof of the mosque 
still remain, supported by the small 
Hindu columns, and do not reach more 
than one-third of the height of the 

The Iron Pillar is one of the most 
curious antiquities in India. The Col- 
ossus of Rhodes and the statues of 
Buddha, described by Hiouen Thsang, 
were of brass or copper, hollow, and of 
pieces riveted together ; but this pillar 
IS a solid shaft of wrought iron, more 
than 16 in. in diameter, and 23 ft. 8 in. 
in length. The height of the pillar 
above ground is 22 ft., but the smooth 
shaft is only 16 ft., the capital being 3 J 
ft. and the rough part below also 3f ft. 
Dr. Murray Thompson analysed a bit 
of it, and found that it was pure 
malleable iron of 7*66 specific gravity. 

"The iron pillar records its own 
history in a deeply cut Sanscrit 
inscription of six lines on its W. fstce. 
The inscription has been translated by- 
James Prinsep (B.A»S, Joum, vol. vii. 
p. 630). The pillar is called * the Arm 
of Fame of Raja Dhava.' It is said 
that he subdued a people on the 
Sindhu, named Vahlikas, and obtained, 
with his own arm, an undivided sover- 
eignty on the earth for a long period." 
It appears that the Raja was a wor- 
shipper of Vishnu, and the pillar was 
probably surmounted by a figure of 
that deity. James Prinsep assigns the 
3d or 4th century after Christ as the 
date of the inscription, which Mr. 
Thomas considers too high an antiquity. 
General Cunningham suggests the year 
319 A. D. According to universal tradi- 
tion, the pillar was erected by Bilan 
Deo, or Anang Pal, the founder of the 
Tomar dynasty. The name of Anang 
Pal also is inscribed on the shaft, with 
the date Samwat 1109 = 1052 a.d. The 
remaining inscriptions are numerous 
but unimportant. At 7 ft. 3 in. from 
the pedestal there is a Nagri inscrip- 
tion. At 4 ft above the inscription is 
a deep indentation, said to have been 
made by a cannon-ball fired by the 
troops of the Bhurtpur Raja. 

Tomb of Altamsh (who died in 1235 
A.D.) outside the N.W. comer of the 
great enclosure of the mosque. It is 
of red sandstone. The ipain entrance 

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is to the E., but there are also openings 
to the N. and S. The interior is in- 
scribed with beautifully written pass- 
ages of the Koran, and in the centre of 
the W. side is a Kiblah of white marble 
discoloured with age. About 5 ft. from 
the ground are several lines in Kufik. 
The tomb is in the centre, and has 
been greatly injured ; the top part is of 
modem masonry. Cunningham says 
that there is no roof, "but there is 
good reason to believe that it was 
originally covered by an overlapping 
Hindu dome. A single stone of one 
of the overiapping circles, with Arabic 
letters on it, still remains. " Fergusson 
says: "In addition to the beauty of 
its details, it is interesting as being the 
oldest tomb known to exist in India. " 

The Alai Darwazah, 40 ft. to the 
S.E. from the Kutb Minar, is the S. 
entrance of the great or outer enclosure 
to the mosque. This gateway was 
built of red sandstone richly orna- 
mented with patterns in low relief, in 
1310 A.D., by 'Alau-din. Over three 
of the entrances are Arabic inscriptions, 
which give *Alau-din's name, and his 
weU- known title of Sikandar Sani, 
the second Alexander, with the date 
710 A.H. The building is a square. 
On each side there is a lofty doorway, 
with pointed horse-shoe arches. In 
each comer there are two windows 
closed by massive screens of marble 
lattice-work. A few yards to the E. 
stands the richly carved building, in 
which is the tomb of Imam Zamin, or 
father of Imam Muhammad 'Ali, of 
Mashhad. He is otherwise called 
Saiyad Husain. He came to Delhi in 
the reign of Sikandar, and himself built 
the mosque as a tomb. He died in 944 
A.H. = 1537 A.D., and left in his will 
that he should be buried here. There 
is an inscription in the Tughra char- 
acter over the door. It is a small 
domed building, about 18 ft. square, of 
red sandstone covered with chunam. 

Alai Minar is at the distance of 435 
ft. due N. from the Kutb. Just above 
the base or platform, which is 4 ft. 3 
in. high, the circumference is 259 ft 
The traveller must climb 8 ft of wall 
to get into this Minar. The whole 
stands on a moimd 6 ft high. The 

inner tower and outer wall are made 
of large rough stones, very coarse 
work, as the stones are put in anyhow, 
The total height as it now stands is 7C 
ft. above the plinth, or 87 ft above 
the ground-level. A facing of red stone 
would doubtless have been added. The 
eutrance is on the E., and on theN. 
there is a window intended to light 
the spiral staircase. Had this pillar 
been finished it would have been 
about 600 ft. high. 'Alau-din Khilji, 
who built it, reigned from 1296 to 
1316 A.D., and Cunningham thinb 
that the building was stopped in 

Metcalfe House was the tomb of 
Muhammad Kuli Khan, the foster 
brother of Akbar. It has been en- 
larged, and rooms have been added fw 
modern requirements. It is less thai 
a 4 m. from the Kutb Minar. Si 
T. Metcalfe made this his residenci 
during the four rainy months. Ther 
were beautiful gardens in his time, an( 
fine stables to the S., of which only tb 
entrance pillars now remain. 

Some other Buildinge. — 1 m. to th 
N.E. is a solitary tower, N. of thi 
tower is the tomb of Akbar Khai 
brother of Adham and Muhamma 
Kuli Khan. ^ m. along a made road t 
the S.W. are the tombs of Jamali 
din and Kamalu-din, Maulvis ; the 
are white marble, covered with roofi 
and have side walls adorned with ei 
caustic tiles and exquisite decoration) 
The handsome mosque of Faizu '11a 
Khan is close to these. 

The Police Rest-hmise is the Ton 
of Adham Khan; it lies S.W. • 
the Kutb, and is 75 ft. high. Tb 
Khan was put to death by Akbar f< 
killing the Emperor's foster-brothe 
Adham was thrown from the top of 
lofty building, and it happening th 
his mother died the same day, the ts 
bodies were brought to Delhi and i 
terred here. Close by is a deep W< 
into which the natives let themselv 
fall from a height of 60 ft. above ti 
water, and then demand 8 annas eat 
from the spectators. 

S.W. of the Kutb Minar is i 
village of Maharoli. The tomb 
Kutbu-din Ushi is here, as are al 

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1i '0\^ /^ t^^i* 


several tombs of kings after the time 
of Auiangzib. f m. from this a 
pared way is passed leading to the 
Temple of Jog Maya, which is very 
famous amongst Hindus, who refer it 
to the very ancient date of Krishna's 
childhood. In fact, however, the 
present building was erected in 1827. 
There i& no image in it. There is a 
iair here every week. On the rifht are 
the rains of the palace of Altamsn, and 
on the left the entrance gateway to a 
garden of the king. 

Toffhlakabad. — This fort is upwards 
of 4 m. to the E. of the Kutb. It 
is on the left of the main road coming 
from Delhi, and is built on a rocky 
eminence from 15- to 30 ft. high. 
Oanningham thus describes it (Arch. 
Iiq>. vol. L p. 212): "The fort may 
be described with tolerable accuracy as 
a half hexagon in shape, with three faces 
o! rather more than | m. in length, 
and a base of 1^ m., the whole circuit 
being only 1 furlong less than 4 m. It 
stands on a rocky height, and is built 
of massive blocks of stone, so large and 
heavy that they must have been quar- 
ried on the spot. The largest measured 
was 14 ft. in len^h by 2 ft. 2 in., and 1 
ft thick, and weighed rather more than 
6 tons. The short faces to the W. , N. , 
ind K are protected by a deep ditch, 
and the long face to the S. by a large 
sheet of water, dry, except in the rainy 
season, which is held up by an embank- 
ment at the S.E. comer. On this side 
the rock is scarped, and above it the 
main walls rise to a mean height of 40 
ft, with a parapet of 7 ft, behind which 
rises another wall of 15 ft., the whole 
height above the low ground being 
i5>ward8 of 90 ft" 

In t^e S.W. angle is the citadel, 
which occupies about one-sixth of the 
area. It contains the ruins of an exten- 
sive palace. The ramparts are raised 
on a lino of domed rooms, which rarely 
oommanicate with each other, and 
which formed the quarters of the 
garrison. The walls slope rapidly in- 
wards, as much as those of Egyptian 
buildings* and are without ornament, 
but the vast size, strength, and visible 
aolidily of the whole give to Tu^h- 
lakabad ao. air of stem and massive 


grandeur that is both striking and im- ^ 
pressive. The fort has thirteen gates, 
and there are three inner gates to the ^ 
citadel. It contains seven tanks, and '"' 
ruins of several larffe buildings, as the 
Jumma Musjid, and the Birij Mandir. 
The upper part is full of ruined houses, 
but the lower appears never to have 
been fully inhabited. Saiyad Ahmad 
states that the fort was commenced in 
1321, and finished in 1323, A.D. 

The fine Tomb of TughWc is outside 
the S. wall of Tughlakabad, in the 
midst of the artificial lake, and sur- 
rounded by a pentagonal outwork, 
which is connected with the fort by 
a causeway 600 ft. long, supported on 
27 arches. Mr. Fergusson says : ** The 
sloping walls and almost Egyptian 
solidity of this mausoleum, combined 
with the bold and massive towers of 
the fortifications that surround it, form 
a picture of a warrior's tomb unrivalled 
anywhere." The outer walls have a 
slope of 2*333 in. per foot; at base 
they are \\^ ft. thick, and at top 4 ft. 
The exterior decoration of the tomb 
itself depends chiefly on difference of 
colour, which is effected by the free use 
of bands and borders of white marble 
inserted in the red sandstone. In ^lan 
it is a square, and three of its four sides 
have lofty archways, the space above 
the doorway being filled with a white 
marble lattice screen of bold pattern. 
It is surmounted by a white marble 
dome. A lesser dome within the same 
pentagon covers, it is said, the tomb 
of one of Tughlak's ministers. 

"Inside the mausoleum there are 
three cenotaphs, which are said to be 
those of Tughlak Shah, his Queen, and 
their son Juna Khan, who took the 
name of Muhammad when he ascended 
the throne." 

A causeway runs to 'Adilabad, the 
fort of Tughlak's son Juna Khan, who 
assumed the title of Muhammad Shah 
bin Tughlak. He was a famous tyrant, 
and is still spoken of as the Khuni 
Sultan, "the bloody King." Feroz 
Shah, his successor, got acquittances 
from all those he had wronged, and 
put them in a chest at the head of the 
tyrant's tomb, that he might present 
them when called tojudgment. 

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Ahmbdabad to the Runn of Cutch 
(Wadhwan, Bhaunagar, Pali- 

Leaving Ahmedabad (Rte. 6), 310 m. 
from Bombay the Sabarmati is crossed 
on a fine bridge, with a footway for 
passengers alongside, and carrying the 
rails for both broad and narrow gauges. 
From, 4 m., Sabarmati (junc. sta.), 
on N. bank of the river of that name, 
the narrow gauge continues N. to Delhi 
and Agra, whilst the broad gauge turns 
W., and passing through a well-culti- 
vated country, reaches at 

40 m. Viramgam junc. sta., i^ a 
walled town. Pop. 20,000. The Man- 
sar tank dates from the end of the 11th 
century. It is shaped like a shell, and 
surrounded by flignts of stone steps ; 
round the top of the steps runs a row 
of small temples. The inlet is much 
ornamented. The neighbourhood 
abounds in black buck, grouse, and 
all manner of water-fowl. 

[From this place a branch line runs 
N.W. passing at 17 m. Patri, D.B., a 
small walled town with a Citadel ; and, 
at 22 m., reaches Eharaghoda, where 
there are very extensive government salt- 
pans on the edge of the Bnim of Catch. 
In the dry season the Runn presents the 
appearance of a hard, smooth bed of 
dried mud, and may be ridden over 
at any place. There is absolutely no 
vegetation except on some small islands 
which rise above the level of the salt 
inundation ; the only living creatures 
that inhabit it are some hems of wild 
asses, which feed on the lands near its 
shores at night, and retreat far into the 
desert in the daytime. With the com- 
mencement of the S.W. monsoon in 
May, the salt water of the Gulf of Cutch 
invades the Runn, and later in the 
season many rivers from Rajputana 
pour fresh water into it. The sea is 
now encroaching rapidly on the Runn 
at its iunction with the Gulf of Cutch, 
and there is reason to suppose that 
serious changes of level are taking place. 
The centre of the Runn is slightly 
higher than the borders, and dries first. 

The railway has many sidinf^s extend- 
ing into the Runn, to facilitate the 
collection of the salt, which is stacked 
at the station in very large quantities 
under the custody of the Salt Customs 
Department. Originally it was con- 
sidered necessary to erect expensive roofs 
over the salt stacks, but experience has 
shown that this can be dispensed with. 
The salt is evaporated by the heat 
of the sun from brine brought up in 
buckets fix)m depths of 15 to 80 ft 
The mirage is beautiful in this nei^- 
bourhood, and in the winter season the 
flights of flamingoes and other birds 
are extraordinaruy large. There are 
grouse to be had in the neighbourhood.] 

80 m. Wadhwan junc. sta. D.B. To 
the W. runs the Morvi State Bailway^ 
the exclusive property of the Horvi 
state, constructed on 2\ p^ gauge to 
maintain communication with Morvi^ 
Jetalsar and Bajkot, To the S. the line 
IS continued by means of the^Aauno^or 
GondcU BaUwayy a portion of the metre- 
gauge system, which opens up a laige 
number of places in South Eattywar. 
These railways are under a central 
administration, but are the property of 
the states through which they pass. 

The Civil Station of Wadhwan^ on 
which the rly. sta. is built, is a 
plot of land rented by Government in 
perpetuity from the Wadhwan state, 
for the location of the establishments 
necessary for the administration of the 
N.E. portion of Eattywar. A small 
town nas sprung up close to the rail- 
way station. 

The only institution of special interest 
in the place is the TiMkdaH School^ 
where tne sons of Otrassias, or land- 
owners, are educated when their parents 
are unable to afford the heavy cost of 
sending them to the Rajhamar or 
Princes* College at Bajkot. In many 
cases elder brothers are placed at the 
Rajkumar College, and the younger at 
the Talukdari SchooL 

The Provvnce of KaHywar (or Kathi- 
awad) which is now entered, exists under 
circumstances quite exceptionaL It 
consists of 187 separate states, ranging 
in extent from considerable tracts of 
country, with chiefs enjoving great eze- ' 

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cutive freedom, to mere village lands, 
necessarily states only in name. Almost 
without exception the capitals of these 
states are places of interest, but there 
is no space in this work to describe 

For purposes of administration the 
Province is divided into/our Frants, or 

The ardnous task of administering 
this Province is entrusted to a Political 
Agent who resides at Itajkot, and has 
assistants distributed through the 

Everywhere in Kattywar the travel- 
ler will remark long lines of palias, 
or memorial stones, peculiar to this 
Proyince, on which men are usually 
represented as riding on a very large 
horse, whilst women have a wheel below 
them to indicate that they used a 

A woman's arm and hand indicate 
here, as in other jMurts of India, a monu- 
ment to a lady who committed sati. 

Proceeding S. by the Bhaunagar 
Gondal Bailwa^, the river is crossed 
dose to the station. 

At 83 ULWadhwan City sta.i8 reached. 
The town wall is of stone and in good 
order. Towards the centre, on the N. 
wall, is the ancient temple of Baaik 
Devi She was a beautiM cirl, bom 
in the Juna^adh territory when Sidh 
Baja was reigning at Patau, and was 
berthed to nim. But Ra Khengar, 
who then ruled Junagadh, carried her 
off and married her, which caused a 
deadly feud between him and Sidh Raja, 
whose troops marched to Junagadh. 
Ciengar was betrayed by two of his 
kinsmen, and was slain by Sidh Raja 
snd his fortress taken. The conqueror 
vanted to marry Ranik Devi, but she 
poformed acUi, and Sidh R^'a raised 
this temple to her memory. 

The temple bears marks of extreme 
old age, the stone beinc much worn and 
Dorroded, and all but me tower is gone, 
baide is a stone with the effigy in 
Nlief of Banik Devi, and a smaller one 
^th a representation of Ambaji. N. 
|f this temple, and close to the city 
nil, is a saU stone dated 1619. Close 
the Lakhupol Gate is a well with 

steps, ascribed to one Madhava, who 
lived in 1294 A.D. 

The Palace is near the centre of the 
town, has four stories, and is 72 ft 
high. It stands in a court facing the 
entrance, on the right of which is a 
building called the Mandwa, where 
assemblies take place at marriages. 

96 m. Limbdi sta. Chief town of 
the cotton-producing state of that name. 
Pop. 13,000. A well-cared-for place, 
very handsome palace. 

126 m. Botad sta. Frontier of the 
Bhaunagar state. 

152 m. Dhola June sta.(R.) Here the 
line turns W. to Dhoraji and Porbandar, 
and E. to Bhaunagar, passing at 

165 m. a little N. of Son|^ sOc the 
residence of the Assistant Political 
Agent for the eastern portion of the 

pSxcursion to Palitana and the 
Shetnmjee (or Satmnjaya) Hills. 

(Arrangements for a conveyance can 
be made, by applying to the Dep. Assist. 
Polit. Agent at Songad. No puolic con- 
veyances can be depended upon.) 

Palitana, sOc about 15 m. S. of Songad, 
the latter part of the road over a barren 
country between low rocky hills, is the 
residence of the chief, and is much en- 
riched by the crowds of pil^ms who 
reside in it during their visit to the 
ffoly Mountain, the site of some of the 
most famous Jain temples in India. 

The distance from Palitana to the 
foot of Sainmjaya, or the Holy Moun- 
tain, is H m. The road is level, with 
a good water supply, and shaded by 
trees. The ascent begins with a wide 
flight of steps, guarded on either side 
by a statue of an elephant. The hill- 
side is in many places excessively steep, 
and the mode of conveyance is the doli, 
a seat or tray 18 in. square, slung from 
two poles and carriea by four men. 
Few of the higher -class pilgrims are 
able to make the ascent on foot, so there 
is an ample supply of doUs and bearers. 

Satmnjaya or Shatrunjaya hill is 
truly a city of temples, for, except a 
few tanks, there is nothing else within 
the gates, and there^ a cleanliness 

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withal, about every square and pass- 
age, porch and hall, that is itself no 
mean source of pleasure. The silence 
too is striking. Now and then in the 
mornings you hear a bell for a few 
seconds, or the beating of a drum for as 
short a time, and on holidays chants 
from the larger temples meet your ear ; 
but generally during the after-part of 
the day the only sounds are those of 
vast flocks of pigeons that fly about 
spasmodically from the roof of one 
temple to that of another. Paroquets 
and squirrels, doves and ringdoves 
abound, and peacocks are occasionally 
met with on the outer walls. The top 
of the hill consists of two ridges, each 
about 350 yds. long, with a valley be- 
tween. Each of these ridces, and the 
two large enclosures that flu the valley, 
are surrounded by massive battlemented 
walls fitted for defence. The buildings 
on both ridges again are divided into 
separate enclosures called tuks, generaDy 
containing one principal temple, with 
varying numbers of smaller ones. Each 
of these enclosures is protected by strong 
gates and walls, ana all gates are care- 
fully closed at sundown." 

Ko attempt is made to describe the 
shrines in detail; their general char- 
acter is so often repeated that it would 
only be possible to do so with the aid 
of profuse illustrations. The area en- 
closed on the top is small enough for 
any one of ordinary activity to see all 
over it in the course of a two hours* visit. 

There is one gate leading into the 
enclosure, but there are 19 gates within, 
leading to the 19 chief Pagodas. Not 
far from the Eam-pol (pol means gate) 
is a resting-place used by persons of dis- 
tinction, with a tolerable room sur- 
rounded by open arches. 

James Fergusson says : — 

**The grouping together of these 
temples into what may be called * Cities 
of Temples,' is a peculiarity which the 
Jains practised to a greater extent than 
the followers of any other religion in 
India. The Buddhists grouped their 
stupas and viharas near and around 
sacred spots, as at Sanchi, Manikyala, 
or in Peshawur, and elsewhere; but 
they were scattered, and each was sup- 

'>8e(i to have a special meaning, or to 

mark some sacred spot. The Hindus 
also grouped their temples, as at Bhuvan- , 
eshwar or Benares, m great numbers 
together ; but in all cases because, so 
far as we know, these were the centres of 
a population who believed in the gods 
to wnom the temples were dedicated, 
and wanted them for the purposes of 
their worship. Neither of these re- 
ligions, however, possesses such a gronp 
of temples, for instance, as that at 
Satrun j aya, in Guzerat. It covers a very 
large space of ground, and its shnnes 
are scattered by hundreds over the sum- 
mits of two extensive hills and in the 
valley between them. The larger ones 
are situated in tuks, or separate enclos- 
ures, surrounded b^ high fortified walls ; 
the smaller ones Ime the silent streets. 
It is a city of the gods, and meant for 
them only, and not intended for the 
use of mortals. 

" All the peculiarities of Jain archi- 
tecture are found in a m^e marked 
degree at Palitana than at almost any 
other known place, and, fortunately for 
the student of the style, extending 
through all the ages during which it 
flourished. Some of the templesareas old 
as the 11th century, and they are spread 
pretty evenly over all the intervening 
time down to the present century." 

James Burgess in his report gives the 
following general description : — 

" At the foot of the ascent there are 
some steps with many little canopies 
or cells, IJ ft. or 3 ft. square, open 
only in front, and each having in its 
floor a marble slab carved with the 
representation of the soles of two feet 
{charan)f very flat ones, and generally 
with the toes all of one length. A 
little behind, where the ball of the 
great toe ought to be, there is a 
diamond -shaped mark divided into four 
smaller figures by two cross lines, from 
the end of one of which a curved line 
is drawn to the front of the foot 

"The path is paved with rough . 
stones all the way up, only interrupted 
here and there by regular flights of j 
steps. At frequent intervals also ther« I 
are rest-houses, more pretty at a dii* | 
tance than convenient for actual i»e^^ 
but stiU deserving of attention. Hi^ 
up, we come to a small temple of 1 

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Hindu monkey god, Hanuman, the 
image bedaubed with vermilion in 
ultra-barbaric style. At this point the 
path bifurcates to the right leading to 
the northern peak, and to the left to 
the yalley between, and through it to 
the southern summit. A little higher 
up, on the former route, is the shrine 
of Hengar, a Mussulman pw, so that 
Hindu and Moslem alike contend for 
the representation of their creeds on 
this sacxed hill of the Jains. 

"On reaching the summit of the 
mountain, the view that presents itself 
from the top of the walls is magnificent 
in extent ; a splendid setting for the 
unique picture. To the E. the pros- 
pect extends to the Gulf of Cambay 
near Gogo and Bhaunagar ; to the N. it 
is bounded by the granite range of 
Sihor and the Chamardi peak ; to the 
N.W. and W. the plain extends as 
Eur as the eye can reach. From W. 
to E., like a silver ribbon across the 
foreground to the S., winds the Satrun- 
jaya river, which the eye follows until 
it is lost between the Talaja and Kho- 
kara Hills in the S.W.] 

[Excnrsion to Valabhipur. 
The antiquarian who is not pressed 
for time may care from Songad to visit 
the site of the ancient city of Vala- 
bhipur, which is nearly identical with 
the modern town of Walah, and is 12 m. 
distant by road. The authorities at 
Songad will always arrange the journey. 
Valabhipur was perhaps as old as Rome, 
and was the capital of all this part of 
India. The present town (under 5000 
inhab.) is the capital of one of the 
small Kattywar states. It has been 
very much neglected. There are scarcely 
any architectural remains at Walah, 
but old foundations are discovered, and 
sometimes coins, copper plates, mud 
seals, beads, and household images have 
bc«n found in some abundance. The 
ruins can be traced over a large area of 

Resuming the journey from Songad 
to Bhaunagar, 

90 m. Sihor sta. D.6. This was 
' ct'OB^ time the capital of this state. 
■ Tbe |f|?n, well situated IJ m. S. of 

the rly., has some interesting Hindu 

103 m. Bhaunagar. 9^ The city (of 
50,000 inhab., founded 1723) stands 
on a tidal creek that runs into the 
Gulf of Cambay. The head of the 
Gulf above this creek is silting up so 
rapidly that it is very difficult to main- 
tain the necessary depth of water for 
native trading vessels and coasting 
steamers. The Bhaunagar state has 
from its first connection with the 
British Government been administered 
by men of intelligence, and the town 
will be found a most pleasing sample of 
the results of native Indian government 
going hand in hand with European 
progress. The staple export is cotton. 
There are no interesting ruins, but 
abundance of very handsome modern 
buildings on Indian models, water 
works, reservoirs, and gardens ; and at 
the port will be seen an intelligent 
adoption of modem mechanical im- 

The traveller, if he proposes to visit 
Junagadh, Somnath, Porbandar, or 
any places in the W., must return to 
Bhota June, and change there. There is 
nothing to detain him until he reaches 

Jetalsar June. sta. (R.) 152 m. from 
Wadhwan. This place is the residence 
of the Assist. Political Agent for the 
S. or Sorath division of the Province 
of Kattywar. Here the line branches 
(1) S. to Verawal for SomimtK (2) W. 
to PorhandaTf p. 162, and (3) N. to 
Eajkot, Vankaner and Wadhwan^ p. 

(1) Jetalsar to Verawal, 
16. m. (from Jetalsar), Junagadh (the 
old fort) sta., j^ D.B., W. of the town, 
opposite a modem gateway, called the 
Eeay Gate; the capital of the state, and 
the residence of the Nawab. Pop. 30,000. 
Situated as it is under the Giraar and 
Datar Hills, it is one of the most pic- 
turesque towns in India, while in anti- 
quity and historical interest it yields to 
tew. The scenery from the hills around 
is most pleasing, and the place has 
attractions wanting in most ancient 
Indian towns, which, as a rale, are situ- 
ated in uninteresting plains. There is 
a great deal of game in Kattywar, and 

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specially in the Oir, the large unculti- 
vated tract to the S.E. of Junajgadh ; 
but the Gir is very unhealthy in the 
early part of the autumn, and again at 
the beginning of the rains. 

The fortifications of the present town 
were all built by the Mohammedans 
after the capture of the place by Sultan 
Mahmud Bigadah, of Guzerat, about 
1472. The Nawab's Palace is a fine 
modernised building. In front of it is 
a good circle of shops called the Mahubat 
Oirde, The Arts College was designed 
and built by a local architect, and was 
opened by Lord Curzon in Nov. 1900. 

The Tombs of the Nawabs are highly 
finished buildings. Fergusson says: 
''There is a cemetery at Junagadh 
where there exists a group of tombs all 
erected within this century, some within 
the last 20 or 30 years, which exhibit, 
more nearly than any others I am ac- 
quainted with, the forms towards which 
the style was tending. The style is not 
without a certain amount of elegance 
in detail. The tracery of the windows 
is executed with precision and appropri- 
ateness." Entering the enclosure by 
the N. gate, the tomb of Bahadur Khan 
II. is in front on the L, next to it the 
tomb of Hamed Khan II., and on its 
1. that of Ladii Bu, a lady whose mar- 
riage, and the influence she gained, 
caused no slight difficulty to this state, 
and no little trouble in the Political 
Agency. Beside these is the tomb of 
Nawab Mohobat Khan, in Saracenic 
style, and finely carved. ^ m. beyond 
the N. gate of the town is the Sakar 
Bagh, a well hdd-out garden that be- 
long to the Vazir. There is a two- 
stoned villa, surrounded by a moat full 
of water. About 50 yds. from the house 
is a menagerie, in which are panthers, 
deer, etc. In a still finer garden at the 
S. of the town, the Sardar Bagh, are 
kept a number of lions and lionesses 
from the Gir forest. There are no 
tigers in the Kattywar peninsula, but 
up to the middle of the present century 
lions inhabited all the large jungles, 
and were shot in the Choteyla Hills E. of 
Rajkot. Now the animal is confined to 
the Gir. The lion is in no way inferior 
to the African species, although the mane 
is not so large. The Gir lion is not a man- 

eater usuallv, but Col. J. "W. Watson 
has heard of one or two well-authenti- 
cated instances of his killing men. 

The soft sandstone which everywhere 
underlies Junagadh is an interesting 
study. Formed apparently in very shal- 
low water, it shows on all sides compH- 
cated lines of stratification. The facility 
with which itis worked maybe onereason 
why it has been largely excavated into 
cave-dwellings in Buddhist times. 

The Cayes. — In the N. part of the 
town enclosure, near the old telegraph 
office, is the group called the Khapra 
Khodia, These caves appear to have 
been a monastery, and bear the cogniz- 
ance of the then ruling race, a winged 
griffin or lion. They appear to have 
been two or three stories high. They 
are, however, excavated in good building 
stone, and the modem quarrymen have 
been allowed to encroach and injure 
them ; the lower ones have never been 
systematically cleared out. The most 
interesting caves of all are situated in 
the Uparkot, about 60 yds. N. of the 
great mosque. They are now closed by 
an iron gate. They consist of two 
stories, the lower chambers being 11 
ft. high. Mr. Burgess says: **Few 
bases could be found anywhere to excel 
in beauty of design and richness of 
carving those of the six principal 
pillars. " Inside the Waghesh wan Gate, 
through which theGimar isapproachedi 
are the caves known by the name of 
Bavxi Piara^ a comparatively modem 
Hindu ascetic who is said to have resided 
in them. 

The Uparkot^ on the E. side of the 
city, used as a jail until 1858, is 
now practically deserted. It was the 
citadel of the old Hindu princes, and is 
probably the spot from whence Junagadh 
derives its name. Permission to visit 
it must be asked. Without presenting 
any very special features to describe, the 
Uparkot is one of the most interesting of 
old forts. The parapets on the £. , where 
the place is commanded by higher 
ground, have been raised at least three 
times to give cover against the in- 
creasinglylongrangeofprojectiles. The 
views from the walls are delightful. 
Here were quartered the lieutenants of 
the great Asoka (250 B.O.), and, later. 

d by Google 


d by Google 

1. Wagheshwari Gate. 

2. Asoka's Stone. 
8. Bridge. 

4. Temple of Damodar. 

5. ,, „ Savanath. 

6. „ ,, Bhavanath. 

7. Chadd-ni-wao Well. 

8. Wagheshwari Temple. 

9. Bhairo-Thumpa. 

10. Oaomuki Temple. 

11. Amba Deva Temple. 

12. Mdliparah Khund. 

13. Datdtari. 

14. Hdthi pagla Ehund. 

15. Sesd wan Temple. 

16. Hanmandhara Ehond and Temple. 

17. Kamandal Temple. 

18. Sakri dmbli. 

19. Malbela. 

20. Suraj Khund. 
31. Sarkharia. 

22. Bawaba Madhi. 

To face p. 157, 

d by Google 




those of the Gupta kings. The entrance 
is beyond the town, in the W. wall, and 
consists of three gateways, one inside 
the other. The fort walls here are from 
60 to 70 ft high, forming a massive 
duster of buildings. The inner gate- 
way, a beautiful specimen of the Hindu 
Toran, has been topped by more recent 
Mohammedan work, but the general 
effect is still good and, wim the 
approach cut through the solid rock, 
impressive. On the rampart above 
the ^te is an inscription of Manda- 
lika V. dated 1450. Proceeding 160 
yds. to the left, through a grove of 
sUaphal (custard apples), you come to 
a huge 10 in. -bore caanon of bell-metal, 
17 ft longand 4 ft 7 in. round at the 
mouth. This gun was brought from 
Dio, where it was left by the Turks. 
There is an Arabic inscription at the 
muzzle, which may be translated : ^ * The 
order to make this cannon, to be used 
in the service of the Almighty, was 

flven by the Sultan of Arabia and 
ersia. Sultan Sulaiman, son of Salim 
Khan. May his triumph be glorified, 
to punish the enemies of the State and 
of the Faith, in the capital of E^ypt, 
1631." At the breech is inscribed, 
^The work of Muhammad, the son of 
Hamzah." Another large cannon called 
Chudanal, also from Diu, in the southern 
portion of the fort, is 18 ft long, and has 
« muzzle 14 in. diameter. STear this 
is the Jmnma Musjid, evidently 
constructed from the materials of a 
Hindu temple. Mr. Burgess says it 
was built by Mahmud Begadah. One 
plain, slim minaret remains standing, 
but the mosque is almost a complete 
ruin. The ascent to the terraced roof 
is by a good staircase outside. 

The Tomb of Niiri Shah, close to the 
mosoue, is ornamented with fluted 
cupolas, and a most peculiar carving 
over the door. There are two Wells in 
the TJparkot — the Adi Chadi^ said to 
have been built in ancient times by 
the slave girls of the Chudasama rulers, 
is descended by a long flight of steps 
(the sides of the descent show the most 
reroarkable overlappings and changes 
of lie in the strata, for which alone it 
is "worth a visit to any one with geo- 
logical tastes) ; and the Naughan^ out 

to a great depth in the soft rock, and 
with a wonderful circular staircase. 

There is a fine dharmsala belonging 
to the goldsmiths near the Waghesh- 
wari Gate. 

The mountain Gimar is the great 
feature of Junagadh, and the Jain 
temples upon it are amongst the most 
ancient in the country. It is 3666 ft. 
high, and is one of the most remarkable 
mountains in India. From the city of 
Junagadh only the top of it can be seen, 
as it has in front of it lower hills, of 
which Jogniya, or Laso Pawadi, 2627 
ft., Lakshman Tekri, Bensla, 2290 ft. 
high, and Datar, 2779 ft. high, are the 
principal. Girnar was anciently called 
Kaivata or Ujja^anta, sacred amongst 
the Jains to Neminath, the 22d Tirthui- 
kar, and doubtless a place of pilgrimage 
before the days of Asbka, 260 B.o. 

The traveller, in order to reach Gimar, 
will passthroughtheWagheshwariQate, 
which is close to the TJparkot. At 
about 200 yds. from the gate, to the 
^rht of the road, is the Temple of 
Wacheshwari, which is joined to the 
road, by a causeway about 160 yds. 
long. In front of it is a modem temple, 
three stories high, very ugly, nat- 
roofed, and quite plain. Alwut a fur- 
long beyond this is a stone bridge, and 
just beyond it the famous Asoka Stone. 
It is a round boulder of granite, measur- 
ing roughly 20 ft. x30 ft., and is 
covered witn inscriptions, which prove 
on examination to be 14 Edicts of 
Asoka (250 b.o.)i Nearlv identical 
inscriptions have been found at Dhauli, 
near Peshawur, and elsewhere. The 
character is Pali. 

On leaving Asoka's Stone, cross the 
handsome bridge over the Sonarekha, 
which here forms a fine sheet of water, 
then pass a number of temples, at 
first on the 1. bank of the river and 
then on the rt., where Jogis go about 
entirely naked, to the largest of the 
ten^les dedicated to Damodar, a name 
of Knshna, from Dam, a rope, because 
at this spot his mother in vain at- 
tempted to confine him with a rope 
when a child. The reservoir at this 

1 See We 0/ John fFOww, Jf.JJ.5., by Dr. G. 
Smith, for picture and account of the stone ; 
or Burgess, Second Archascl. Bepwt. 

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place is accounted very sacred. The 
path is now through a wooded valley, 
with some fine Indian fig trees. Near 
a cluster of them is an old shrine called 
Bhayanath, a name of Shiva. There 
are a number of large monkeys here, 
who come, on being called. Unless 

well called the Chadd-ni-wao. The 
paved way begins just beyond this and 
continues for two-thirds of the ascent, 
and may be divided into three parts ; 
at the end of the first the first rest- 
house, Chodia-pa,raba, is reached, 480 
ft. above the plain. The second halt- 

Temple of Nimnath, Qimar. 

the traveller be a veiy good climber, 
he will do well to get into a doli, for 
which he will pay 3 or 4 rs. according 
to tariff. A long ridge runs up from 
the W., and culminates in a rugged 
scarped rock, on the top of which are 
the temples. Close to the Mandir is a 

ing-place is Dholi-deri, 1000 ft above 
the plain. There the ascent becomes 
more difficult, winding under the face 
of the precipice to the third rest-house, 
1400 ft. up. So far there is nothijag 
very trying to any one with an ordin- 
arily steady brain. But after that the 

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path turns to the right along the edge 
of a precipice, and consists of steps cut 
in the rock, and so narrow that the 
doli grazes the scarp, which rises per- 
pendicularly 200 ft. above the travel- 
ler. On the right is seen the lofty 
mountain of DcUar, covered with low 
jungle. At about 1500 ft. there is a 
stone dharmsala, and from this there 
is a fine view of the rock called 
Bhairav-Thampa, which means "the 
terrific leap. " It was so called l)ecause 
devotees used to cast themselves from 
its top, falling 1000 ft or more. 

At 2370 ft above Junagadh the gate 
of the enclosure known as the Deva 
Eota, or Ra Khengar's Palace, is reached. 
On entering the gate, the large enclosure 
of the temples is on the left, while to 
the right is the old granite temple of 
Man Sing, Bhoja Rajah of Cutch, and 
farther on the much larger one of 
Vastupala (see below). Built into the 
wall on the left of the entrance is an 
inscription in Sanscrit. Some 16 Jain 
temples here form a sort of fort on the 
ledge at the top of the great cliff, but 
still 600 ft. below the summit The 
largest temple is that of Neminatha (see 
plan, p. 158) standing in a quadrangular 
court 195 X 130 ft. It consists of two 
halls (with two porches, called by the 
Hindus mandapamsX and the slmne, 
which contains a large black image of 
Neminath, the 22d Tirthankar, with 
naassive gold ornaments and jewels. 
Bound the shrine is a passage with 
many images in white marble. Be- 
tween the outer and inner halls are 
two shrines. The outer hall has two 
small raised platforms paved with slabs 
of yellow stone, covered with repre- 
sentations of feet in pairs, which repre- 
sent the 2452 feet of the first disciples. 
On the W. of this is a porch overhang- 
ing the perpendicular scarp. On two 
of the pillars of the mandapam are in- 
scriptions dated 1275, 1281, and 1278, 
~4ate8 of restoration, when Burgess 
says it was covered with a coating of 
chuuam, and " adorned with coats of 
whitewash " within. The enclosure is 
nearly surrounded inside by 70 cells, 
each enshrining a marble image, with 
\ covered passage in front of them 
^o^deA by a perforated stone screen. 

The principal enti-ance was originally 
on the E. side of the court, but it is 
now closed, and the entrance from the 
court, in Ehengar's Palace, is that now 
used. There is a passage leading into 
a low dark temple, with granite pillars 
in lines. Opposite the entrance is a 
recess containing two large black im- 
ages ; in the back of the recess is a lion 
rampant, and over it a crocodile in 
bas-relief. Behind these figures is a 
room from which is a descent into a 
cave, with a larse white marble image, 
an object of the most superstitious 
venei-ation by the Jains, which the 
priests usually try to conceal. It has 
a slight hollow in the shoulder, said to 
be caused by water dropping from the 
ear, whence it was called Amijhera, 
"nectar drop." In the N. porch are 
inscriptions which state that in Samwat 
1215 certain Thakors completed the 
shrine, and built the Temple of Ambika. 
After leavingthis, there are three temples 
to the left. That on the S. side contains 
a colossal image of Bishabha Deva, 
the 1st Tirthankar, exactly like that 
at Satrunjaya, called Bhim-Padam. 
On the throne of this image is a 
slab of yellow stone carved in 1442, 
with figures of the 24 Tirthankars. 
Opposite this temple is a modem one 
to Panchabai. W. of it is a large 
temple called Malakamsi, sacred to 
Parshwanath. N. again of this is 
another temple of Parshwanath, which 
contains a large white marble image 
canopied by a cobra, whence it is called 
SheshpTvanit **an arrangement not un- 
frequently found in the S. but rare in 
the N." (Fergusson). It bears a date 
= 1803. The last temple to the N. is 
Kumarapala's, which has a long open 
portico on the W., and appears to have 
been destroyed by the Mohammedans, 
and restored in 1824 by Hansraia Jetha. 
These temples are along the W. face of 
the hill, and are all endosed. Outside 
to the N. is the Bhima Eunda, a tank 
70 ft X 50 ft., in which Hindus bathe. 
"Immediately behind the temple of 
Neminatha is the triple one erected by 
the brothers Tejahpala and Vastupala 
(built 1177)." The plan is that of 3 
temples joined together. The shrine 
has an image of Mallinath, the 19th 

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Tirtliankar. Farther N. is the temple 
of Samprati Raja. This temple is 
probably one of the oldest on the hill, 
date 1158. Samprati is said to have 
ruled at Ujjain in the end of the 3d 
cent. B.C., and to have been the son 
of Kunala, Asoka's third son. S. of 
this, and 200 ft. above the Jain temples, 
is the Gawmukha Shrine, near a plenti- 
ful spring of water. From it the crest 
of the mountain (3380 ft.) is reached by 
a steep flight of stairs. Here is an 
ancient temple of Amba Mata, which 

or attendant of the shrine is seen in 
front. To the rt. is a stone platform 
surrounding an unusually fine manffo 
tree, with a tank just beyond, and tne 
shrine of Datar, a building 80 ft bigh 
with a fluted cone at top. Here it is 
necessary to take off one's shoes. The 
shrine and the whole place are very 

There is a Leper Asylum near the 
Datar Temple for 100 lepers of both 
sexes, built at the expense of the Vazir 
Sahib Bahu-ud-din. H.R.H. Prince 


Temple of Tejahpala and Vastupala, Gimar. 

is much resorted to by newly-married 
couples of the Brahman caste. The 
bride and bridegroom have their clothes 
tied together, and attended by their 
male and female relations, adore the 
goddess and present cocoa-nuts and 
other offerings. This pilgrimage is 
supposed to procure for the couple a 
long continuance of wedded bliss. To 
the E., not far off, are the 3 rocky 
spires of the Gorakhnath, the Neminath 
or Gtird-dattAraya, and the Kalika Peaks. 
S.E. of the Verawal Gate of Juna- 
gadh is the Sbrine of Jamal Sbah or 
Datar. After passing under a low arch 
near the city, the house of the Mujawir 

Albert Victor laid the foundation-stone 
in 1890. Above it, 4 m. in S.E. direc- 
tion, is the Datar peak (2779 ft.) 

On the summit of the hill is a small 
shrine, and a very beautiful view. The 
hill is held sacred by Mohammeduis 
and Hindus alike, and is supposed to 
have a beneficial effect on lepers, who 
repair to it in considerable numbers. 

61 m. Verawal sta. i^ The nulway 
terminus is on the W. side of the city, 
close to the walls, and about i m. from 
the lighthouse at the landing-place. 
This is a very ancient sea-port, and 
probably owes its existence to its more 
celebrated neighbour Patan SanvtuM 

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It rose into notice daring the time of 
the Gnzerat saltans, and in Hieir reigns 
became, antil superseded by Sarat, the 
principal port of embarkation for 
Mohammedan pilgrims to Mecca. It 
is still a flourishing little seaport In 
the Temple Haraad Mata is a celebrated 
inscription (1264), recording that a 
mosrjne was endowed in that year, and 
bearing dates in four different eras. 
It was from this inscription that it was 
discovered that the Valabhi era com- 
menced in 319 A.D., and the Shri Sing 
era from 1113 a.d. The river Devka 
ifows to the N. of Verawal, and joins 
the sea at a place called Dani Baru. 
The Jaleshvar Temple, about 2 m. 

Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and African 
coast. The place is renowned in Hindu 
mythology. It was here the Jadavs slew 
each other, and here Krishna was shot 
by the Bhil. In the 6ir forest, inland 
from Patan, is the only place in India 
where there are one or two separate 
communities of African negroes. Mah- 
mud of Ghazni conquered the town in 
1025 A.D., and it appears that he left 
behind a Mohammedan Governor. 
Subsequently the Hindus recovered 
their power, but it was again cast down 
by Alagh Khan circa 1300 A.D., and 
the coast belt or Nagher kingdom con- 
quered. From this date Moham- 
medan supremacy prevailed throughout 

Verawal and Patan. 

Stmn^cnta Gettf* . 

N.W. from the town, at the mouth on 
the right bank, is of great antiquity. 
On the S. W. face of Verawal there is. a 
modern sea-wall and an unfinished 
stone pier, with a lighthouse at the end 
of it. A large Custom House has been 
built on the sea face, and near it is a 
dock established on reclaimed land. 

On the sea-shore, nearly 3 m. to the 
S.EL , is Patan Somnath, also known as 
Prabhas Patan, or Deva Patan, the 
Semmab of Marco Polo. The anchor- 
a^^es at Verawal and Patan are so bad 
th»t it is hard to account for the un- 
donbted fact that from the earliest 
tim^ they carried on a trade with the 

the belt, and from the reign of Muham- 
mad Tughlak regular governors were 
appointed. Finally, owing to the gal- 
lantry and statesmanship of Diwan 
Amarji, it was conquered by the Nawab 
of Junagadh in whose hands it remains. 

About the middle of the 15th cent. 
Somnath (with Verawal) had become 
the principal port of embarkation for 
Mohammedan pilgrims to the cities 
of Mecca and Madinah, and this lasted 
till it was superseded by Surat. 
Though it is eclipsed now as far as 
wealth and population are concerned, 
by the adjacent port of Verawal, it is 
still an important town. 

Proceeding from Verawal to Patan by 

Digitized by VjOOS M 




the road, to the rt. is a vast burial- 
ground, with thousands of tombs, and 
palias. There are also buildings which 
well deserve examination after the tra- 
veller has seen the city. The Junagadh, 
or W. Gate, by which Patau is entered, 
is a triple gate, and is clearly of Hindu 
architecture. The centre part of the 
first division of the gateway is very 
ancient, and is shown to be Hindu by 
the carving of two elephants on either 
side pouring water over Lakshmi ; but 
the figure of the goddess is almost 

After passing the second gate on the 
left, is the W. wall of a mosque of the 
time of Mahmud. There is no inscrip- 
tion in it, but its antiquity is so crecUted 
that the Nawab has assigned the 
revenue of three villages for keeping it 
in order. After passing the third 
portal of the Junagadh Gateway, there 
are four stones on the right hand, of 
which two have Guzerati, and two San- 
scrit inscriptions. Driving on straight 
through the bazaar, which is very 
narrow, and has quaint old houses on 
either side, the Jwmma Musjid is 
reached. The entrance is by a porch, 
which has been a mandir in front of a 
Hindu temple. 

The most interesting part of this very 
ancient building is, that in each of the 
four corners is a carving of two human 
figures, with the Bo tree between them. 
A low door in the W. side of the porch 
leads into the court of the mosque, 
which is much ruined ; it has been 
deserted for 25 years, and inhabited by 
Moslem fishermen, who dry their fish 
in it. 

To reach the Old Temple of Som- 
nath it is necessary to drive through 
the bazaar of Patau and turn to the 
right. The temple is close to the sea. 
Fergusson considers that it was prob- 
ably never a large temple, but adds that 
the dome of its porch, which measures 
33 ft. across, is as large as any we know 
of its age. The interior of the porch is 
V^ Jiow in its ruins very striking. 
From what fragments of its sculptured 
oecorationa remain, they must have 
^t2i,- ^®** beauty, quite equal to 
anythmg we know of thiJ class of their 
age. It was, no doubt, like the temple 

of Neminath, on Gimar, surrounded bj 
an enclosure which would make it a 
strong place. Now the temple stands 

flan of Temple of Somnath by J. Bui^gess. 

alone, stripped even of its marble ; like, 
but superior to, the temples at Dabhoi 
and liakkundi. There are three en- 
trances to the porch, and a corridor 
round the central octagonal space, 
which was covered by the gi-eat dome, 
There are four smaller domes. The 
dome in the centre is supported by 
eight pillars and eight arches, and no 
wood seems to have been used. The 
pillar on the right hand, looking from 
the E., next but one before reaching 
the adytum, has an inscription, which 
is all illegible but the date, Samwat 
1697 = 1640 A.D. The walls on the 
N., S., and "W. sides have each two 
handsomely carved niches, in which 
there have been idols. 

The temple is said to have been first 
built of gold by Somraj, then of silver 
by Havana, then of wood by Krishna, 
and then of stone by Bhimdeva. Thoo^ 
three times destroyed by the Mohan- 
medans, it was nevertheless three tioMt 
rebuilt, and so late as 1700 A.D. Jtm 
still a plax^e of great sanctity. Bat te 
1706 Aurangzib ordered its destra< 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



and there seems every reason to believe 
that this order was carried out 

Sultan Mahmud's celebrated expedi- 
tion was in 1025 A.D. ; he seems to have 
marched with snch rapidity, by way of 
Guzerat, that the Hindu rajas were 
unable to collect their forces for its 
defence. Thence he seems to have 
marched upon Somnath, and after a 
sharp fight for two days to have con- 
quered both the city and the temple. 
Immense spoil was found in the temple, 
and after a short stay Mahmud returned 
to Ghazni. It was on this occasion 
that he is supposed to have carried off 
the famous so-called *' Gates of Som- 
flith," now in the fort at Agra. The 
traveller may at once dismiss from his 
miod as a fable that the gates brought 
from Ghazni to Agra in Lord £llen- 
boiough's time were taken from Som- 
m&L They are of Saracenic design, 
and are constructed of Himalayan cedar 
(seeAgra).^ Elliot says that 10,000 popu- 
lated viUai^es were held by the temple as 
an endowment, and that 300 musicians 
and 500 dancing-girls were attached to 
it There were Sso 300 barbers to shave 
the heads of the pilgrims. 

The eonflnence of the Three rivers, 
or Triveni, to the E. of the town, has 
been, no doubt, a sacred spot from 
times of remote antiquity. To reach 
this the traveller will proceed through 
theE. gate, called the ifamt, or "small," 
also the Sangam^ or "confluence gate." 
It has pilasters on either side, and on 
the capitals figures are represented issu- 
ing out of the mouths of Makars, a 
fabulous crocodile, which in Hindu 
mythology is the emblem of the God 
of Love. About a J m. E. of the gate, 
(Httside it, you come to a pool on the 
right hand, called the Kund, and a 
small building on the left called the 
Adi Tirth, and then to a temple and 
the Tirth of Triveni, where people are 
always bathing. The stream here is 
from 200 to 300 yds. broad, and runs 
into the sea. N. of this, about 200 
yds. ofi^ is the Suraj Mandir, or temple 
to the sun, half broken down by Mah- 
Md, standing on high ground, and 
woBdrously old and curious. Over the 

VThere is a beautiful illustration of them 
Tm vtfle'a Uaroo Polo. 

door of the adytum are groups of figures, 
with a tree between each two. Inside 
the adytum is a round red mark for 
the sun, not ancient ; and below is a 
figure of a goddess, also coloured red. 
On the W. and S. outer walls are masses 
of carving much worn. At the bottom 
there is a frieze of Keshari lions, that 
is, lions with elephants' trunks. This 
temple is probably of the same age as 
that of Somnath. About 250 yds. to 
the W. is a vast tomb, quite plain ; and 
below, in a sort of quarry, is a subter- 
raneous temple, which is called Ahdi 
Shah's. The same name is given to 
a mosque with six cupolas to the N., 
which has been a Hindu temple. 

Returning from this, and re-entering 
the Nana Gate, proceed 200 yds. to the 
N.W., where is the temple built by 
Ahalya Bai, to replace the ancient Som- 
nath. Below the temple is another, 
reached by descending 22 steps. Tlie 
dome of this subterraneous building is 
supported by 16 pillars. The temple 
itself is 13 ft. sq. It is of no interest 
except on account of its builder, Ahalya 

Returning towards Verawal, about \ 
m. outside the Patau Gate is the Mai 
Puri, which in ancient times was a 
temple to the sun. The carving of 
this building is exquisite, and in better 
preservation than that of the temple of 
Somnath. In the centre of the build- 
ing is an enclosure 6 ft. sq. , in which 
Mai Puri, **the Perfect Mother," is 
buried. A legend is told about her, 
which alleges that she brought about 
the siege of Somnath by Mahmud. 
The temple or mosque, as the Moslems 
have made it, contains a mass of old 
Hindu carving, still beautiful though 
mutilated. This temple is a perfect 
gem, and ought to be visited by every 
traveller. About 300 yds. to the E. is 
a plain stone enclosure on the right of 
the road, in which are the tombs of 
J'afar and Muzaffar, quite plain, but 
with pillars 3 ft. high at the headstone. 
Not far from the Mai Puri is the tomb 
of Silah Shah. There is a curious stand 
for lamps here carved in stone, in the 
shape of a crown. To the S.E., about 
50 yds., is the tomb of Mangroli Shah, 
which has been restored. Before reach- 




ing the shrine you pass through the 
porch of an ancient Hindu temple. 

Not far from this spot is the Bhid 
BJianjcm Pagoda on the sea -shore, 
locally known as Bhidiyo, very old, 
perhaps of the 14th century. It is 60 
ft. high, and forms a good mark for 
sailors. To the E. of the pagoda is a 
clear space, where Englishmen coming 
from Rajkot pitch their tents. 

Many coasting steamers call at Vera- 
wal, and a traveller can go by sea to 
Bombay or to Porbandar, Cutch, or 
Karachi If he desires to return by 
land, he retraces his steps to Jetalsar 

(2) Jetalsar to Porbandar, 

9 m. Dhoraji, an important com- 
mercial town, pop. 16,000. 

79 m., Porbandar terminal sta., 
D.B., E. of the town, the capital of the 
state of that name, and a place of some 
interest. It is identified with the ancient 
city of Sudtopuri, known to readers of 
the Bhagavata, Near this is an old 
temple of Sudtoa. The line is con- 
tinued for goods traffic along the shore 
to the creek W. of the town, where it ter- 
minates in a wharf. Here the traveller 
has reached a very old-world corner, 
not recomnjended to visitors in a hurry, 
but very interesting to those who have 
leisure, or to sportsmen. The coasting 
steamers between Bombay and Kar- 
achi touch at Porbandar. 

[The places of interest in the neigh- 
bourhood are — 

{a) Shrinagar, 9 m. N.W. of Porban- 
dar, believed to have been the first 
capital of the Jethwa Rajputs. There 
are remains of an ancient temple of 
the sun. 

(h) Mianiy a very ancient seaport 
18 m. N.W. of Porbandar. To the 
extreme N.W. in the district of 
Okhamandal, directly under the Gaek- 
war of Baroda are some of the most 
sacred Hindu Temples in India, e.g. 

at that time by the British Govern- 
ment, still cling to their former tradi- 
tions by which each man believes that 
he is a prince in his own right. 

(c) CAaya, a village 2 m. S.E. of 
Porbandar, was once the capital. The 
old palace is still there. 

(d) BiUshwa/r, 8 m. N. of Ranawao 
sta., a small village E. of the Barda 
Hills. There is here a fine temple of 
considerable antiquity, and in good 
preservation. . 

(e) GhumZi or BhumU, is about 12 m. 
N. of Bileshwar, or 24 m. from Por- 
bandar by the road passing W. of the 
Barda Hills. This place is now abso- 
lutely ruined and deserted ; it was the 
capital of the Jethwaswhen at the zenith 
of their power. It lies in a gorge of the 
Barda Hills ; the ruins are of the 1 1th or 
12th century. The most interesting 
remains are the Lakhota, the Ganesh 
Dehra, the Bampol, the Jeta Wao, and 

ut i/iie piaue were a wariiKe briue ui 
Rajputs, called ** WTuigire" who were 
uotorious pirates up to the early part 
af the 19th century, and, though reduced 

the group of temples near the Son 
Kansari Tank, and some ruins on the 
summit of the Abapura Hill. It was 
at one time a large flourishing city. It 
is about 4 m. S. of Bhanwar, a fort be- 
longing to tiie Jam of Nawanagar.* 

40 m. S.E. from Porbandar, at Mad- 
hayapur, Krishna is said to have been 
married. There is an important temple 
dedicated to him there.] 
(3) JetaZsar to Rajkot, Vankaner and 
23 m. Oondal is the capital of the 
state of that name, and the residence 
of the chief. It is a cheerful, well- 
cared-for town, with many handsome 
temples. The public offices are situated 
outside the town on open sites sur- 
rounded by ^rdens. The courtyard 
of the palace is very handsome. 

46 m. Bajkot sta.,3^ a civil and 
military station, the residence of the 
Political Agent, and the headquarters 
of the administration. 

The most important public work in 
Rajkot is the Kaisar-i-Hind Bridge 
over the Aji river, built by Mr. S. R. 
Booth, whose name is connected wiA 
nearly every important modem boil<l- 
ing in the Province. The total co* 
of the bridge was 117,500 rs., of whiA 
1 Ghumli is fllustrated in Burgeas's 5« "* 
Arehceol. JUp. ^^ ' 





the Oliief of Bhaunagar paid all but 
7500 rs. The munificent donor of this 
bridge was educated at the Rajkumar 
College, on which he bestowed 100,000 
rs. to build a wing and a residence 
for the principal, and further contri- 
buted 50,000 rs. to the Endowment 

The Hajkumar College deserves a 
visit, as the place where the young 
princes of Kattywar are educated. It 
was opened in 1870. On the ground 
floor is a fine hall, which gives access to 
the class-rooms. Some good portraits 
hang on the walls. Along both fronts 
is a massive verandah, and over the E. 
entrance a rectangular tower 55 ft. 
bigh. The entrance is on the W., and 
is flanked by two circular towers. The 
N. and S. wings contain 32 suites of 
bedrooms and sitting-rooms, bath- 
rooms and lavatories. To the W. of 
the J^. wing is a chemical laboratory, 
and on the opposite side a ^/mnasium 
and racquet-court. N. of the labora- 
tory are extensive stables. The young 
princes, besides playing all manly 
gwnes, are drilled as a troop of cavalry. 
W. of the quadrangle are the houses of 
the Principal and vice-principal, with 
extensive gardens. S. of the buildings 
is the cricket-field of 19 acres. The 
college was founded by Col. Keatinge. 

The High School was opened in Janu- 
ary 1875. It cost 70,000 rs., which were 
given by the Nawab of Junagadh. In 
the centre is a fine hall. 

N.E. of Rajkot are the Jubilee Water 
WctIcs^ which are for the supply of the 

A branch line runs to (54 m.) Nawa- 
^iogar or Jamnagar, capital of the 
state of that name, whence Maridvi 
can be reached by native craft. 
Small steamers occasionallyply between 
Beoi, near Nawanagar, and Bombay. 
The best way to reach Mandvi would 
be by steamer direct from Bombay. 
Steamers call about twice a week. 

From Bajkot the Morvi State Bail- 
ww (a narrow-gauge (25) line) runs 
'BX to Wadhwan, via VaaJcaner junc. 
rta. (25 m.) This is the capital of a 
email state and the residence of the 
chiel The country around is undulat- 
ing, rising into hills W. and S. of the 

town. From Vankaner the line runs E. 
to (51 m.) Wadhwan, and (91 m.) Vir- 
amgam (see p. 162). From this point 
a line runs to Mehsana (see p. 118) for 
Ajmere, Delhi» etc. 



Rewari junc. sta. is 52 m. S.W. of 
Delhi, described in Rte. 6. (p. 131). 

52 m. Bhewani sta., with 86,000 
people, chiefly Hindus. 

74 m. Hansi sta., D.B., a modem town 
of 14,000 inhabitents, lies on the W. 
Jumna Canal. It is said to have been 
founded by Anangpal Tuar, Kinc of 
Delhi, and was long the capitw of 
Hariana. There are ruins of an ancient 
Citadel and some remains of gateways, 
and a high brick wall, with bastions 
and loop-holes. This old town has no 
connection with the new, which, like 
many others in this district, owes its 
origin to the establishment of a secure 
British rule, and the opening up of 
the country by railways. The canal 
which flows by it is fringed with hand- 
some trees. In 1788 it was desolated 
by famine, but in 1795 the famous 
sailor adventurer George Thomas fixed 
his headquarters at Hansi, which 
forthwith began to revive. Col. 
Skinner, C.B., settled here in 1829, 
In 1802 British rule was established, 
and a cantonment was fixed here in 
which a considerable force, chiefly 
of local levies, was stationed. In 
1857 these troops mutinied, murdered 
all the Europeans they could lay hands 
upon, and plundered the country 
When peace was restored the canton- 
ment was abandoned. At Tosham, 
23 m. S.W., are some ancient inscrip- 
tions. They are cut in the rock half 
the way up, as is a tank which is 
much visited by pilgrims, who come 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




from great distances to the yearly fair 

89 m. Hissar sta, (R.), D.B. Pop. 
16,000. The IV. Jumna Canal maidehy 
the Emperor Feroz Shah crosses from E. 
to W. In 1826 it was restored by the 
British. In this place as well as in 
Hansi the local levies revolted during 
the Mutiny of 1867, and murdered 
14 Christians, to whom a monument 
is erected beside the little church, 
but before Delhi was taken, a body 
of Sikh levies, aided by contingents 
from Patiala and Bickanur, under 
Greneral Van Cortlandt, utterly routed 

As at Hansi, so here the modern 
town owes its present prosperity to a 
settled rule and to the introduction of 
railways. Like many other colonies, it 
has been formed at the foot of an old 
ruined town, which lies to the S. of 
it. It was founded in 1354 a.d. by 
the Emperor Feroz Shah, whose favour- 
ite residence it became. It is the 
centre of mounds and architectural 
remains, havine lain on the main 
track from Mo(3tan to Delhi in pre- 
Mussalman times. At Hissar tnere 
is a Government cattle - farm (Bir), 
managed by a European superin- 
tendent, and attached to it is an estate 
of 43,287 acres for pasturage. 

The District of Hissar borders on the 
Rajputana Desert, and is itself little 
better than a waste, scattered over with 
low bushes. The water-supply is in- 
adequate, the average rainfall being 
only 16 in. The chief stream is the 
Ghuggar^ which, with scant verdure 
alon^ its banks, winds through the 
district like a green riband. The Hissar 
branch of the "Western Jumna Canal 
passes through a part of the district. 

140 m. Sirsa sta. Pop. 16,000. 
The town and fort are supposed to have 
been founded by one Raja Saras, about 
the middle of the 6th century. A 
Muslim historian mentions it as Sarsnti. 
A great cattle -fair is held here in 
August and September, at which 150,000 
head of cattle are exposed for sale. 

. 187 m. Batinda iunc. sta. (1400 
inhab.) From this place lines run E. 

to Patiala, Rajpura, and UmbaUa, and 
W. to Bahawalpur, Hydrabad and 
Karachi. There is a very high pictur- 
esque fort seen well from the railway, 
but the modem town contains nothing 
of special interest. It was brought into 
existence by the British shortly before 
the Mutiny. 

213 m. Kot-Kapora junc. sta. (B.) 
From here a branch line of 50 m. runs 
W. to Fazilka on the Sutlej river. 

241 m. Ferozepur sta. (R.), D.B. 
Pop. 40,000. There is a fort and a 
military cantonment 2 m. to the S. 
The place was founded in the time of 
Feroz Shah, Emperor of Delhi, 1351-87 
A.D. At the time of occupation by the 
British it was in a declining state, but 
through the exertions of Sir Henry 
Lawrence and his successors it has 
increased to its present importance. 
There is a large commerce and a cotton- 
press. The main streets are wide and 
well paved, while a circular road which 
girdles the wall is lined by the gardens 
of wealthy residents. 

The Fortj which contains the prin- 
cipal arsenal in the Panjab, was rebuilt 
in 1858, and greatly strengthened in 
1887. The railway and the trunk road 
to Lahore separate it and the town 
from the Cantonment. 

The Memorial Churchy in honour of 
those who fell in the Sutlej campaign 
of 1845-46, was destroyed in the 
Mutiny, but has since been restcH^. 

In the cemetery lie many dis- 
tinffuished soldiers, amongst them 
Major George Broadfoot, C.B., Gover 
nor-Generals Agent, N.W. Frontier, 
who fell at Ferozeshah in 1845, and 
Generals Sale and Dick. 

On the 16th of December 1845 the 
Sikhs invaded the district, but, after 
desperate fighting, were repulsed. Since 
then peace has prevailed, except during 
the Mutiny of 1867. In May of that 
year one of the two Sepoy regiments 
stationed at Ferozepur revolted, and, in 
spite of a British regiment and some 
English artillery, plundered and de- 
stroyed the Cantonment. 

The three great battlefields of the First 
Sikh War can best be visited from 
this point. Ferozeshah, where the battk 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Wis fought on 2l8t and 22d December 
1845, is distant 13 m. in a S.E. direction, 
and Moodki is 10 m. beyond it in a 
straight line. The fight at the latter 
place was on the 18th December 1846. 
Sobraon was the scene of a great battle 
on lOth February 1846. It is 24 m. 
'distant from Ferozepur in an N.E. 

64 m. from Ferozepur Lahore sta. 
(seep. 199.) 


Jeypore to Agra 

From Jeypore to Bandikni junc. 
sta. (R.), 56 m. (see p. 130). 

116 m. Bhurtpur or Bharatpur sta., 
D.B.jtheresidenoe of the Maharajachief 
of the Jat state (67,000 inhab.) The 
mlmg family is descended from a Jat 
Zsmindar named Churaman, who har- 
aaaedtherear of Auranezib's army during 
his expedition to the Deccan. He was 
sncceeded by his brother and after him 
by his nephew, Suraj Mall, who fixed 
Ms cajatal at Bhurtpur, and subse- 
quently (1760) drove out the Maratha 
gOTemor from Agra, and made it his 
own residence. 

In 1765 the Jats were repulsed before 
Delhi and driven out of Agra. 

In 1782 Sindia seized Bhurtpur 
aad the territory ; however, he restored 
U districts to them, and when he got 
ioto difficulties at Lalkot he made an 
alliance with the Jat chief Ranjit Sin- 
dia; jmd the Jats were defeated by 
Ghnlam Kadir at Fatehpur-Sikri, and 
wwe driven back on Bhurtpur, but 
being reinforced at the end of the same 
year, in 1788, they raised the blockade 
of Agra, and Sindia recovered it. In 
1803 the British Government made a 

^ Bee Tke Sikhs and the Sikh, Wan by 
' Gougfa, V.C., and A. D. Innes. 

treaty with Ranjit, who joined General 
Lake at Agra with 6000 horse, and re- 
ceived territory in return. But Ranjit 
intrigued with Jaswant Rao Holkar. 
Then followed the siege of Bhurtpur 
by Lake, who was repmsed with a loss 
of 3000 men. Ranjit then made over- 
tures for peace, which were accepted on 
the 4th of May 1806. Troubles a^in 
breaking out regarding the succession, 
Bhui-tpur was again besieged, and on 
the 18th of January 1826, after a siege 
of six weeks, the place was stormed by 
Gen. Lord Combermere. The loss of 
the besieged was estimated at 6000 men 
killed and wounded. The British had 
103 killed, and 477 wounded and 

The Walled City of Bhurtpur is an 
irregular oblong, lying N.E. and S.W. 
The Inner Fort is contained in the N. £. 
half of the outer fort. Three palaces 
run right across the centre of the inner 
fort from K to W., that to the K being 
the Raja's Palace. Next is an old 
palace built by Badan Sing. To the 
W. is a palace which is generally styled 
the Eamara ; it ia furnished in a semi- 
European style. 

There are only two gates to the inner 
fort, the Chau Burj Gate on the S., and 
the Asaldati on the N. The bastion 
at the N. W. comer of the inner fort is 
called the Joioahar Burj^ and is worth 
ascending for the view. N. of the 
Kamara ralace is the Court of Justice, 
the Jewel Office, and the Jail. On the 
road between the Chau Burj Gate of 
the inner fort and the Anah Gate of 
the outer fort are the Ganga ki Mandir, 
a market-place, the new mosque, and 
the Lakhsnmanji temple. 

133 m. Achnera junc. sta. (R.) 
This is the junction of a line of railway 
passing through Muttra to Bindraban 
and to Hathras on the East Indian Rail- 
way. Also to Farakhabad, Fatehgarh, 
and Cawnpore. As, however, the 
journey from Agra to Cawnpore can be 
made more conveniently by the East 
Indian Railway, this route will not be 
described in detail. (For Muttra, Bin- 
draban, and Dig see Rte. 10.) Fateh- 
pur-Sikri (see below) is 10 m. S.W. 
from Achnera by a direct track, and 

Digitized by VjOOQ 



nearly 13 m. via Kiraoli and the Agra 

149 m. AGBA Fort Bta.3«c (R.), 
D.B. where travellers alight for the 
hotels. It is W. of the Fort, lust 
outside the Delhi Grate, and is usea by 
all the lines running into Agra. The 
cantonment sta., junc of the Indian 
Midland Rly. to Gwalior and Jhansi, is 
2 m. S. of the Fort sta. About 1 m. up 
the river is the Pontoon Bridge which 
leads from the city to the old East 
Indian Railway station, now used for 
goods only. 

This is the second city in size and 
importance of the N.W. Provinces, 
and has a pop. of 165,000. It is 841 
m. distant from Calcutta by rail, and 
139 m. from Delhi. It stands on the 
W. or right bank of the Jumna, here 
crossed by a Railway Bridge of 1 6 spans. 


Though a week might veiy pleasantly 
be spent in visiting the sights in and 
around Agra, they can be seen in 
shorter time, and for those persons who 
have not many days at their disposal 
the following Itinerary may be of ser- 
vice : — 

Ist Day, Morning. — Fort and Palace. 
Afternoon. — Drive to the Jumma Mus- 
jid and on to the T^j. 

2d Day, Morning. — Drive to Sikan- 
darah. AfUmoom. — To Itimadud- 
daulah, and Chini ka Roza* 

Most people will like to visit some of 
the places more than once. A full day, or 
better still, 24 hours should be devoted 
to the excursion to Fatehpur-Sikri. 

The old Native City covered about 
11 sq. m., half of which area is still 
inhabited. It is clean and has a good 
bazaar. The chief Articles of Native 
Manufacture are gold and silver em- 
broidery, carving in soapstone, and 
imitation of the old inlay work {mdra 
dwra) on white marble. 



The Cantonment and Civil Static!,^ 
lie to the S. and S. W. of the Fort, anf- 
E. of them on the river bank is tl^ 
famous Tig. ^-5 

History. — Nothing certain is know 
of Agra before the Monammedan periol 
The house of Lodi was the first Me 
hammedan dynasty which chose ^g£ 
for an occasional residence. Befon[ 
their time Agra was a district of Bianiu^ 
Sikandar bin Bahlol Lodi died at Agm' 
in 1515 A.D., but was buiied at DemlL 
Sikandar Lodi built the Barahduir 
Palace, near Sikandarah, which subniik 
received its name from him. The Lodi 
Khan ka Tila, or Lodi's Mound, is noif 
built over with modem houses ; it is said 
to be the site of the palace of the Lodis, 
called Badalgarh. Babar is said to ha' 
had a garden-palace on the E. bank 
the Jumna, nearly opposite the'Taj, and 
there is a mosque near the spot, with -^ 
inscription which shows that it i 
built by Babar's son Humayun, in 1580 


On the Agra side of the river, netr 
the Barracks, there are the remains of 
an ancient garden. Mr. Carlleyle thinki 
it was the place where Akbar encamped 
when he first came to Agra. In it ii 
the shrine of Kamal Khan, 40 ft. loo^ 
and rectangular. It has red sandstone 
pillars with square shafts and flinds 
bracket capitals. Broad eaves project 
from above the entablatures, and are 
supported by beautiful open-work 
brackets of a thoroughly Hindu char- 
acter. The great w^ is at the btck 
of Kamal Ehan's shrine ; it is 220 ft 
in circumference, with a 16-sided ex- 
terior, each side measuring 13 ft 9 in.: 
at it 52 people could draw water at once. 
From such works it appears that Am 
was the seat of government under 
Babar and Humayun, though after 
Humayun's restoration he resided 
frequently at Delhi, and died and was 
buned there. Agra town was probably 
then on the bank of the Jumna. Akbar 
removed from Fatehpur-Sikri to kffi 
about 1568. The only buildings that 
can now be attributed to Akbi^ him* 
self are the walls, the Magazine to 
the S. of the Water Gate, on» 
Akbar's audience - hall, and tlie iw 

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|Mlace in the fort He died at Agra 
m 1605. Jehangir left Agra in 1618, 
and neyer returned. Sh&ii Jehan re- 
sided at Agra from 1632 to 1637, and 
built the Fort and Palace and the 
I Taj. He was deposed by his son Aurang- 
zeb in 1658, but lived as a State prisoner 
seven years longer at Agra. Aurang- 
zeb removed the seat of government 
permanently to Delhi. In 1764 Agra was 
taken by Suraj Mall, of Bhurtpur and 
Sumroo, with an army of Jats, who did 
much damage to the town. In 1 7 70 the 
Marathas captured it, and were expelled 
byNiyaf Khaninl774. In 1784 Mu- 
hammad Beg was Governor of Agra, 
and was besieged by Mahadaji Sindia, 
who took it in 1784, and.the Marathas 
held it till it was tiQcen by Lord Lake, 
17th October 1803. Since then it has 
been a British possession. From 1835- 
1358 the seat of government of the 
N.W. Provinces was removed to Agra 
from Allahabad. 

On the 30th May 1857 two companies 
of the 40th and 67 th N.I., who had 
been sent to Muttra to bring the 
treasure there into A^a, mutinied and 
marched off to Delhi. Next morning 
their comrades were ordered to pile 
amis, which they did, and most of 
them went to their homea On the 4th 
the Kotah contingent mutinied, and 
went off to join the Neemuch mutineers, 
consisting of a strong brigade of all 
arms. Their camp was 2 m. from the 
Am cantonment, at Suchata. On 
5uL July, Brigadier Polwhele moved 
oat with 816 men to attack them. 
The battle began with artillery, but 
the enemy were so well posted, sheltered 
by low trees and wails and natural 
earthworks, that the British fired into 
them with little damage. At 4 p.m. 
the British ammunition was expended ; 
then Col. Riddell advanced with the 
English soldiers, and captured the 
village of Shahganj, but with such 
heavy loss that they were unable to 
hold their ground, and were obliged 
to retreat into the Fort of Agra. The 
rebels burnt the cantonments, murdered 
all Europeans who were found out- 
side the Forty and then marched to 

There were now 6000 men, women, 

and children, of whom only 1500 
were Hindus and Mohammedans, shut 
up in the Fort. Among these were 
nuns from the banks of the Garonne 
and the Loire, priests from Sicily and 
Rome, missionaries from Ohio and 
Basle, mixed with rope-dancers from 
Paris and pedlars from America. 
The fort was put in a thorough state 
of defence. Soon after Brigadier Pol- 
whele was superseded, and CoL Cotton 
took his place. On the 20th of August 
he sent out his Brig. -Major Mont- 
gomery with a small column, and on 
the 24th Montgomery defeated the 
rebels at Aligarh, and took the place. 
On the 9th September Mr. Colvin, 
Lieut. -Governor of N.W. Provinces, 
died. When Delhi was captured by 
the British in September, the fugitive 
rebels, together with those of Central 
India, advanced, on 6th October, against 
Agra. MeantimeCoL Greathed's colunm 
from Delhi entered the city without 
their knowledge, and when they, un- 
suspicious of nis presence, attacked 
the place, they were completely routed 
and dispersed. Agra was thus relieved 
from all danger. 

The Taj Mahal should be seen more 
than once. The best time for a iirst 
visit is late in the afternoon. A good 
road leads to it, made in the famine 
of 1838. It stands on the brink of 
the Jumna, a little more than 1 m. 
K of the Fort. The building is pro- 
perly named Taj bibi ke Roza, or 
•*The Crown Lady's Tomb." The 
Taj with its surroundings is a spot of 
unequalled beauty. The heroic size, 
the wonderful contrast of colours in the 
materials employed, the setting of noble 
trees, sweet shrubs, and clear water, 
form a combination that we seek in 
vain elsewhere. This mausoleum was 
commenced in 1040 A.H., or 1630 A.D., 
by the Emperor Shah Jehan, as a tomb 
for his favourite queen, Aijmand Banu, 
entitled Mumtaz Mahal, lit. the 
** Chosen of the Palace," or more freely, 
"Pride of the Palace." She was the 
daughter of Asaf Khan, brother of 
Nurjehan, the famous empress-wife of 
Jehangir. Their father was Mirza 
Ghiyas, a Persian, who came from 

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Teheran to seek his fortune in India, 
and rose to power under the title of 
Itimadu 'd-daulah. His tomb is de- 
scribed below. Mumtaz - i - Mahal 
married Shah Jehan in 1616 a.d., had 
by him seven children, and died in child- 
bed of the eighth in 1629, at Burhanpur, 
in the Deccan. Her body was brought 
to Agra, and laid in the garden where 
the Taj stands untU the mausoleum 
was built. The Taj cost, according to 
some accounts, 18,465,186 rs., and, 
according to other accounts, 31,748,026 
rs. It took upwards of seventeen years 
to build, and much of the materials and 
labour remained unpaid for. According 
to Shah Jehan's own memoirs, the 
masons received 30 lakhs. There 
were originally two silver doors at the 
entrance, but these were taken away 
and melted by Sun^ Mall and his Jats. 
It is uncertain who was the principal 
architect, but Austin de Bordeaux was 
then in the Emperor's service. He was 
buried at Agra, and it is probable that 
he took part in the decoration, and 
especially in the inlaid work, of the 

The approach to the Tig is by the 
Taj Gfanj GcUe, which opens into an 
outer court 880 ft long and 440 ft. 
wide, in which (1. ) is the Great Gate- 
way of the garden -court, which Mr. 
Fergusson calls "a worthy pendant to 
the Taj itself." It is indeed a superb 
gateway, of red sandstone, inlaid with 
ornaments and inscriptions from the 
Koran, in white marble, and surmounted 
by 26 white marble cupolas. Before 
passing under the ^teway, observe the 
noble caravanserai outside, and an 
equally fine building on the other side. 
Bayard Taylor says : ** Whatever may 
be the visitor's impatience, he cannot 
help pausing to notice the fine propor- 
tions of these structures, and the rich 
and massive style of their construction." 
They aie not only beautiful, but they 
increase the glories of the mausoleum 
itself, by the contrast of their somewhat 
stem red sandstone with the soft and 
pearl-like white marble of which it is 

Having passed the gatewav, the 
visitor finds himself in a beautiful gar- 
den. In the centre is a channel of 

water, which runs the whole length of 
the garden, and has 23 fountains in its 
course. The beds of the garden are 
filled with the choicest shrubs and 
cypress trees, equal in size and beauty 
to those of Mazandamn. It is now 
that the mausoleum presents itself to 
the gaze in all its glory. It stands in 
the centre of a platform, faced witii 
white marble, exactly 313 ft sq. and 
18 ft. high, with a white minaret at 
each comer 133 ft high. It is asq. 
of 186 ft with the comers cut off 
to the extent of 3^ ft The principal 
dome is 58 ft. in diameter, and 80 ft. 
in height 

The Tai was repaired before the Prince 
of Wales s vi^t. The dome is brick 
veneered with marble, and all the slabs 
with which it is faced were examined, 
and repointed where necessary. The 
marble was damaged chiefly by the 
swelling of the iron clamps during 

In every angle of the mausoleum is 
a small domic^ apartment, two stories 
high, and these are connected by 
various passages and halls. Under the 
centre of the dome, enclosed by *'a 
trellis-work screen of white marble, 
a <^f (Toeuvre of elegance in Indian 
art," are the tombs of Mumtaz -i-Mahal 
and Shah Jehan. "These, however, 
as is usual in Indian sepulchres, are 
not the trae tombs— the bodies rest in 
a vault, level with the surface of the 
ground beneath plainer tombstones 
placed exactly beneath those in t^e 
hall above." In the apartment above, 
where the show tombs are, " the light," 
says Mr. Fergusson, "is admitted only 
through double screens of white marble 
trellis-work of the most exquisite de- 
sign, one on the outer and one on the 
inner face of the walls. In our climate 
this would produce nearly complete 
darkness ; but in India, and in a build- 
ing wholly composed of white marble, 
this was re(juired to temper the glare 
that otherwise would have been intoler- 
abla. As it is, no words can express 
the chastened beauty of that central 
chamber, seen in the soft gloom of the 
subdued light that reaches it through 
the distant and half- closed openings 
that surround it When used as a 

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i face p. 170. 

Section and Flan of the Taj Mahal. 

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1. Northern Tower. 

2. Descent to Water Gate. 

3. NaginahMu^id and ladies'priTate Bazaar. 

4. Small Oonrta and ruins of Baths. 

6. Open Terrace with Diwan-i-Ehas on S.slde. 

6. Recess where the Emperor's Throne 


7. Diwan-i-'Am (Hall of Public Audience). 

8. Machchi Bhawan. 

9. Mr Golvin's Qrave. 

10. The Marble Baths of the Princesses. 

11. The Anguri Bagb (Grape Gao^en). 

12. Saman Buij (Jasmine Tower) (at }j 

angle is an outlet by secret pusageli 

13. Ehas Mahal. 

14. Shish Mahal (Mirror Palace). 

15. Well. 

16. Palace of Jebangir (or Akbar). 

17. Tower. At the base is an entrance t 

a secret passage. 

18. Incline firom Ummer Sing's Gate. 

19. Ruins of Palace of Akbar. 

20. Blephant Gate. 

21. Court of Ummer Sing's Gate. 

To face V' ITl. 

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Barahdari, or plfeasure-pallsuje, it must 
ilvays have been the coolest and the 
loFcfiest of garden retreats, and now 
that it is sacred to the dead, it is the 
most graceful and the most impressive 
fi! sepulchres in the world. This build- 
ing too is an exquisite example of that 
system of inlaying with precious stones 
which became the great characteristic 
of the style of the Moguls after the 
death of Akbar. All the spandrils of 
the Taj, all the angles and more im- 
portant details, are heightened by being 
inlaid with precious stones. These are 
combined in wreaths, scrolls, and frets 
as exquisite in design as beautiful in 
colour. They form the most beautiful 
and precious style of ornament ever 
adopted in architecture. Though of 
course not to be compared with the 
beauty of Greek ornament, it certainly 
stands first among the purely decorative 
forms of architectural design. This 
mode of ornamentation is lavishly be- 
stowed on the tombs themselves and 
the screen that surrounds them. 
The judgment with which this style 
of ornament is apportioned to the 
various parts is almost as remarkable 
as the ornament itself, and conveys a 
Wgh idea of the taste and skill of the 
hidian architects of the age" (see 

The delicately sculptured ornamenta- 
tion, in low relief, to be found in all 
prts of the building, is in its way as 
Wtiful as the pietra dura work 

. There are two wings to the mauso- 
leum, one of which is a mosque. Any- 
where else they would be considered 
important buildings. There are three 
inscriptions: 1046 a.h. =1636 A.D., 
1048 A.H,=1638 A.D., and 1057 a.h. 
= 1647 A.D. Mr. Keene, who has given 
an excellent account of the Taj, thinks 
that " the inscriptions show the order 
in which the various parts of the build- 
ing were completed. Such then is 
this "poem in marble," whose beauty 
has been faintly shadowed out. It 
should be seen if possible by moon- 
light, as well as by day. The S. face, 
which looks upon the garden, is per- 
haps the most beautiful, but the N. 
front which rises above the Jumna, 

derives an additional charm from the 
broad waters which roll past it. 

The Fort. — Most of the magnifi- 
cent Mogul buildings which render 
Agra so interesting in the eye of the 
traveller are situated within the Fort. 
They justify the remark of Bishop Heber 
that " the Moguls designed like Titans 
and finished like jewellers." The Fort 
stands on the right bank of the Jumna. 
The walls and flanking defences are of 
red sandstone, and have an imposing 
appearance, being nearly 70 ft. high. 
The ditch is 30 ft. wide and 35 ft. deep. 
The water gate on the E. is closed, but 
there are still 2 entrances — the Ummer 
Sing gate on the S., the Delhi Gate 
on the W. Within it, and approached 
by a somewhat steep slope, is another 
gateway called the Hathiya Darwazah 
"Elephant Gate," or Inner Delhi Gate. 
There used to be two stone elephants 
here with figures of Patta and Jaimall, 
two famous Rajput champions ; they 
were removed, but the marks where their 
feet were fixed may still be traced on 
the platforms on either side of the arch- 
way. There are here two octagonal 
towers of red sandstone, relieved with 
designs in white plaster: the passage 
between these is covered by a dome. 
Following the road, the traveller will 
then pass the Mini Bazaar, now barrack 
premises, and reach 

The Moti Musjid, the "Pearl 
Mosque," Fergusson describes as "one 
of the purest and most elegant build- 
ings of its class to be found any- 
where." It was commenced 1056 A. H. 
= 1648 A.D., and finished 1063 a.h.= 
1655 A.D., and is said to have cost 
300,000 rs. It was built by Shah 
Jehan on ground sloping from W. to E. 
The exterior is faced with slabs of red 
sandstone, but within with marble — 
white, blue, and gi*ay veined. The 
entrance gateway of red sandstone, 
which is very fine, makes a trihedral 
projection from the centre of the E. 
face of the mosque, and is approached 
by a double staircase. ** The moment 
you enter, the effect of its courtyard is 
surpassingly beautiful." 

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In the centre there is a marble tank, 
37 ft. 7 in. sq., for ablutions, and be- 
tween it and the S.E. inner comer of 
the mosque there is an ancient sun- 

Moti Musjid. 

dial, consisting of an octagonal marble 
pillar 4 ft. high, with no gnomon, but 
simply two crossed lines and an arc. A 
marole cloister runs round the E., N., 
and S. sides of the court, interrupted 
by archways, of which those in the N. 
and S. sides are closed. The mosque 
proper consists of 3 aisles of 7 bays 
opening on to the courtyard, and is 
surmounted by 3 domes. On the en- 
tablature over the front row of support- 
ing pillars, i.e. on the E. face, there is 
an inscription running the whole lentfth, 
the letters being of black marble inlaid 
into the white. The inscription says 
that the mosque may be likened to a 
precious pearl, for no other mosque is 
lined throughout with marble like this. 
Narrow flights of steps lead to the top 
of the gateway and to the roof of the 
mosque, from which there is a fine view. 
During the Mutiny this mosque was 
used as an hospital. 

Turning rt. from the Moti Mosque, 
the grand Armoury Square, the Place du 

Carrousel of Agra, with the Diwan-i- 
*Am on the left, is entered. There are 
ranges of cannons here and large 
mortars, and amongst them the tomb 
of Mr. Colvin. Here is also the ffavz 
of Jehangir, an enormous monolithic 
cistei-n of light -coloured porphyry or 
close-grained granite ; externally it is 
nearly 5 ft. high, and internally 4 ft. 
deep. It is 8 ft. in diameter at top. 
It originally stood in Jehangir's palace. 
Some have thought the Diwan-i-'Am 
was built bv Akbar, others by; Jehangir, 
but accordmg to Carlleyle it was built 
by Shah Jehan, and was his public Hall 
of Audience. This building is 201 ft. 
long from N. to S. , and consists of 8 
aisles of 9 bays open on 3 sides. The 
roof is supported by graceful columns 
of red sandstone, painted white and 
gold on the occasion of the Prince of 
Wales's visit. Along its back wall are 
grilles, through which fair faces could 
watch what was going forward in the 
hall below, and in its centre is a raised 
alcove of white marble richly decorated 
with pietra dura work and low reliefs, 
which bear evident traces of Italian 
design. Here travellers describe Au- 
rangzib sitting to watch the administra- 
tion of justice in the hall below. 

Ascend now some stairs at the back 
of the place where the Emperor sat in 
the Diwan-i-*Am, and pass through a 
doorway into Shah Jehan's palace. 
Here is the Machchi Bhawan, or " Fish 
Sauare," formerly a tank. In the N. 
side are two bronze gates taken by 
Akbar from the palace at Chitor. At 
the N.W: corner is a beautiful little 
three-domed mosque of white marble, 
called the Naginah MuBJid, or "Gem 
Mosque." It was the private mosque 
of the royal ladies of the court, and was 
built by Shah Jehan, who was after- 
wards imprisoned there by his successor 
Aurangzib. Beneath, in a small court- 
yard, was a bazaar where the merchants 
used to display their goods to the ladies 
of the court. A two-storied cloister 
runs all round the Machchi Bhawan, 
except on the side which fronts the 
Jumna, where the upper story gives 
place to an open terrace, with a black 
throne, on the side nearest the river» 
and a white seat opposite, where it ii 

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! said the Court Jester sat. The black 
throne has a long fissure, which is said 

I to have appeared when the throne was 
usurped by the Jat chief of Bhurtpur. 
There is a reddish stain in one spot, 
which shows a combination of iron, but 
the natives pretend that it is blood. An 
inscription runs round the four sides, 

I which says in brief, when Salim became 
heir to the crown his name was chanced 
to Jehangir, and for the light of nis 
justice he was called Nuru-din. His 
sword cut his enemies' heads into two 

' halves like the Gremini. As long as 
the heaven is the throne for the sun, 
may the throne of Salim remain. Date 
1011 A.H.=1603 A.D. Beneath this 
terrace is a deep wide ditch where con- 
tests between elephants and tigers used 
to take place. Close by, near the S. W. 
comer of the terrace, is the Meena 
MoBJid, or private mosque of the em- 
peror. On the N. of the terrace is the 
site of the hall of green marble and 
Honmiaiii, now in a ruinous condition, 
and on the S. 

The Diwaa-i-Khas, or Hall of Private 
Audience. It is a miracle of beauty. 
The carving is exquisite, and flowers 
are inlaid on the white marble, with 
red cornelian, and other valuable stones. 
From this building, or from his throne 
on the terrace, the Emperor looked 
OTer the broad river to the beautiful 
gardens and buildings on the opposite 
shore. The date of this buildinff is 
1046 A.H.=1637 A.D. The inlaid or 
pietra dura work has been restored. A 
staircase leads from the Diwan-i-Ehas 
to the Saman Biuj, or Jasmine Tower, 
there the chief Sultana lived. Part of 
the marble pavement in front of it is 
made to represent a Pachisi board. The 
lovely mar Die lattice-work seems to have 
been broken by cannon-shot in some 
places. A beautiful pavilion, with a 
fountain and retiring-room, close upon 
the river, are the chief apartments here. 

Adjoining and facing the river is the 
Qolden Pa^on,so called from its being 
roofed with gilded plates of copper. In 
it are bedrooms for ladies, with noles in 
Ae wall, 14 in. deep, into which they 
iwedto slip their jewels. These holes 
we so narrow that only a woman's arm 

could draw them out. There is a simi- 
lar building on the S. side of the Khas 
Mahal (see below). 

Near here are remains of reservoirs 
and watercourses, and arrangements 
for the raising of water from below. 

The traveller will now enter the 
Angari Bagh or ''Grape Garden," a 
fine square of 280 ft. planted with 
flowers and shrubs. At the N.E. 
comer is the Shish Mahal, literally 
" Mirror Palace." It consists of two 
dark chambers furnished with fountains 
and an artificial cascade arranged to 
fall over lighted lami)s. The walls and 
ceiling are lined with innumerable small 
mirrors (restored in 1875). From here 
there is direct communication with the 
Water Gate and the Saman Burj. At 
the E. end of the square is a lovely 
hall, called the Khas Mahal, the gild- 
ing and colouring of which were in part 
restored in 1875. In front are small 
tanks and fountains. Proceeding to 
the S., the visitor will come to three 
rooms, beautifully decorated in fresco, 
which were the private apartments of 
Shah Jehan. 

On the rt. is an enclosure railed in, 
in which stand the so-called Gates of 
Somnath, 25 ft. high, and finely carved : 
they are of Deodar wood, of Saracenic 
work. There is a Kufic inscription 
running round them, in which the name 
of Sabuktagin has been read. They 
were captured by General Nott at 
Ghazni and brought here in 1 842. The 
room nearest the river is an octagonal 
pavilion, and very beautiful. In it 
Shah Jehan died, gazing upon the Taj, 
the tomb of his favourite wife. 

Jehangir Mahal, a red stone palace 
into which the traveller now enters, 
was built either by Jehangir or Akbar. 
It stands in the S.E. part of the Fort, 
between the palace of Shah Jehan and 
the Bangali bastion. The red sandstone 
of which it is built has not resisted the 
destructive action of the elements. In 
some parts there are two stories ; the 
lower story has no windows looking to 
the front, but the upper has several. 
The upper front is ornamented with 
blue and bright green tiles inserted into 
the sandstone. The masonic symbol 

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of the double triangle, inlaid in white 
marble, occurs in several places on the 
front gateway. The entrance gateway 
leading directly into the palace is very 
fine. The two corner towers were sur- 
mounted by elegant cupolas, of which 
one only remains. Near here, on the 
roof, may again be seen arrangements 
for the storage of water, with 21 pipes 
for supplying the fountains below. The 
entrance leads through a vestibule into 
a beautiful domed hall, 18 ft. sq., the 
ceiling of which is elaborately carved. 
A corridor leads into the grand central 
court, which is 72 ft. sq. The design 
of this court, its pillars, the carving 
and ornamentation, are all pure Hindu. 

"On the N. side of the court is a 
grand open pillared hall 62 ft. long 
and 87 ft. broad. The pillars support 
bracket capitals, richly carved and 
ornamented with pendants. The front 
brackets support broad sloping eaves 
of thin stone slabs. But the stone 
roof or ceiling of this pillared hall is 
the most remarkable feature about 
it. It is supported most curiously 
by stone cross-beams, which are orna- 
mented with the quaint device of a 
great serpent or dragon carved on them 
lengthways. A covered passage, or 
corridor, runs round the top of this 
hall, from which one can look down 
into it The other pillared hall on 
the opposite or S. side of the grand 
court is somewhat less in size." 

Passing from the grand court, through 
a large chamber to the E., the visitor 
will find a grand archway in the centre 
of a quadrangle which faces the river. 
It is supported by two lofty pillars and 
two half pillars of the more slender 
and graceful Hindu kind. Some of 
the diambers are lined with stucco, 
which has been painted, and has 
lasted better than the stone -work. 
For minute and exquisite ornamental 
carving in stone, the great central 
court is pre-eminent. The palace ends 
on the side facing the river with a 
retaining wall, and two corner bastions, 
each surmounted by an ornamental 
tower with a domed cupola. There 
are many vaulted chambers underneath 
the palace, believed to have been used 
as places of retreat during the summer 

heats. They were thoroughly explored 
during 1857, but as the air is very 
close, and snakes are numerous, they 
are seldom visited. Between the palace 
of Jehangir and that of Shah Jehan 
there is a series of bathing tanks and 

The Jamma Musjid faces the Delhi 
gate of the Fort, and is close to 
the rly. sta. It stands upon a raised 
platform, reached by flights of steps on 
the S. and E. sides. The mosque 
proper is divided into 5 compartments, 
each of which opens on the courtyard 
by a fine archway. The work has all 
the originality and vigour of the early 
Mogul style, mixed with many re- 
miniscences of the Pathan schooL The 
inscription over the main archway sets 
forth that the mosque was constructed 
by the Emperor Shah Jehan in 1644, 
after five years' labour. It was built in 
the name of his daughter Jehanara, 
who afterwards devotedly shared her 
father's captivity when he was deposed 
by Aurangzib. The great peculiarity 
01 this Musjid consists in its three great 
full-bottomed domes without necks, 
shaped like inverted balloons, and built 
of red sandstone, with zigzag bands of 
white marble circling round them. 
Its grand gateway was pulled down by 
the British authorities during the 
Mutiny, as it threatened the d^ences 
of the Fort. 

St. George's Church is divided into 
a nave with two side aisles. It was 
built in 1826, partly by Government 
and partly by subscription. The tower 
and spire are of more recent date. The 
inlaid marble work for which Agra is 
so famous is well worth notice in the 
rercdos and the altar. 

St. Faul's [Military) Church was 
built by the E. I. Co. in 1828. It 
contains several interesting tablets. 

St. Paul's {Civil) Church, about 4 
m. N. of St. George's Church. 

St. John's College is the centre of 
the C.M.S. Mission. 

The Agra College. — At the end of 
the last cent Maharaja Sindia made 
over certain villages in the districts of 
Muttra and Alisarh to a learned Brah- 
man for the twofold purpose of keepbg 

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up a Sanscrit school and of supplying 
the wants of pilgrims visiting the 
shrines around Muttra. In 1818 he 
left his lands in trust to the £. India 
Ca, who devoted two- thirds of the pro- 
ceeds to the establishment of this col- 
lege, and one -third to hospitals at 
Muttra and Aligarh. The College, 
opened 1886, consists of a high school, 
with 700 pupils and 27 masters, and a 
college |ffoper, with 250 undergraduates 
and 11 professors. It is managed by a 
board of trustees. 

TheBoman Catholic Cathedrali Con- 
nnt^ and Sehools, dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, are quite close to the Old 
Jail, and i m. N.W. of the Fort. 
There is a tower about 150 ft. high. 

To the N. of the church is a fine 
white building, a convent, and to the 
S. is the priests' house. On the wall 
of the garden are several inscriptions, 
the oldest of which bears the date of 
1791 A.D. These buildings are large, 
but not architecturally interesting. 
The establishment is, however, worthy 
of attention for its antiquity and the 
good work it does. It is the seat of a 
Roman Catholic Bishop. The Mission 
was founded in the time of Akbar, and 
bas long been celebrated for its school, 
where the children of soldiers and others 
ve educated. The earliest tombs con- 
nected with the settlement of Christians 
at Agra are in the old cemetery attached 
to the Mission. The most ancient epi- 
taphs are in the Armenian character. 
John Hessing and Walter Reinhai'dt 
(Sumroo) lie here. 

The Central JaU, 1 m. to the N.W. 
of the Fort, is one of the largest, if 
not the largest, in India. The manu- 
&ctores in this Jail are well worth 
attention. In the carpet factory men 
lit on each side, ana the Instructor 
calls out the thread ; his words are 
repeated by one of the men, and the 
tliread put m accordingly. A first-class 
carpet has eight threads in the weft, and 
eight in the warp in the sq. in. Six 
men in a fall day of ten hours' work can 
5 in. a day in a 12 ft. carpet 

Qtad&OB, otherwise called 

the Asafa Bagh, where the band plays 
every Wednesday. In the centre is a 
lofty sandstone obelisk, with an inscrip- 
tion to General Sir John Adams, 

The Tomb of I'timada-daulah.— 
This building, one of the finest in Agra, 
stands on the left bank of the Jumna 
near the E. I. Railway Goods Station. 
The traveller should cross the pontoon 
bridge and turn to the left, and at about 
200 yds. he will come to the garden 
in which it stands. It is the tomb of 
Ghayas Beg, called by Sir W. Sleeman, 
Khwajah Accas, a Persian, who was the 
father of Nur Jehan, and her brother, 
Asaf Khan, and became high treasurer 
of Jehangir. This mausoleum is entirely 
encased -vrith white marble externally, 
and partly internally, being beautifully 
inlaid with pietra aura work. It is a 
square building with an octagonal tower 
at each comer and a i-aised pavilion in 
the centre. On each side of each of the 
entrances are window recesses filled with 
exquisite marble lattice-work. Notice 
the remarkably delicate low relief work 
in the return of the doorways overhead. 
Each chamber has a door leading into 
the next, but the central has only one 
open door, the other three being filled 
uith marble lattice- work. In this cen- 
tral chamber are the two yellow marble 
tombs of Ghayas Beg and his wife, on 
a platform of variegated stone. The 
walls are decorated with pietra dura. 

There are seven tombs altogether in the 
mausoleum. The side chambers are 
also panelled with slabs of inlaid marble, 
but the upper part of the walls and the 
ceiling are lined with plaster, orna- 
mented with paintings of flowers and 
long-necked vases. In the thickness of 
the outer walls of the S. chamber there 
are two flights of stairs, which ascend 
to the second story, on which is the 
pavilion, containing two marble ceno- 
taphs, counterparts of those below. The 
roof is canopy-shaped, with broad slop- 
ing eaves, and marble slabs. The sides 
are of perforated marble lattice-work. 
The octagonal towers, faced with marble, 
at each corner of the mausoleum spread 
out into balconies supported by brackets 
at the level of the roof. There was a 
' marble railing, which has been de- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





stroyed, along the platfonn of the roof. 
The mausoleum is surrounded by a 
walled enclosure, except towards the 
river, or W. front ; in the centre of the 
river-front is a red sandstone pavilion. 

Chini ka Boza, or china tomb, 
stands on the left bank of the Jumna, 
opposite Agra. It has one great dome 
resting on an octagonal base. In the 
centre is a beautiful octagonal domed 
chamber in ruins. In it are two tombs 
of brick, which have replaced marble 
tombs. Besides the central chamber, 
there are four square comer chambers, 
and four side halls. The mausoleum 
stands on the river bank, in a masonry 
enclosure. Though called china, this 
ruin is only externally glazed or en- 
amelled. It is said to have been built 
by Afzal Ehan, in the time of Aurang- 

The Ealan Husjid is opposite the 
present Medical School in the Saban 
Eatra. Mr. Carlleyle thinks it the 
oldest mosque in Agra, and that it was 
built by Sikandar I^di. 

Akbar'8 Tomb is at Sikomdarah^ so 
named from Sikandar Lodi, who reigned 
from 1489 a.d. It is 5^ m. from the 
cantonment at Agra, in a N.W. direc- 
tion. There are many tombs on the 
way, and a badly sculptured horse, which 
formerly stood on an inscribed pedestal, 
now removed. This is on the left or S. 
side of the road, nearly 4 m. from A^a, 
and nearly opposite the lofty arched 
gateway of an ancient building called 
the Eachi ki SaraL At ^ m. farther on 
is a tank of red sandstone, with orna- 
mental octagonal towers, called Guru 
ka Tal. On the S. side are three flights 
of steps, and E. of them is a long and 
broad channel of masonry, which brought 
water to the tank. At the E. side 
there is a mausoleum on a platfonn of 
masonry. According to Mr. Carlleyle, 
the Barahdarl was built by Sikandar 
Lodi in 1495 a.d. It is a red sand- 
stone two-storied building. The ground 
floor contains forty chambers. Each 
comer of the building is surmounted 
by a short octagonal tower. It is com- 
monly known as the tomb of Begam 
Mariam, because Akbar interred here 
his so-called Portuguese Christian wife 
Mary. Her tomb is in the vault below 

and there is also a white marble ceno- 
taph in the centre of the upper story. 
The Barahdari is now occupied by a 
part of the establishment of the Agra 
Orphan Asylum. 

The gateway to the garden surround- 
ing Akbar'8 Tomb is truly magnificent 
It is of red sandstone, inlaid with white 
marble, very massive, and with a 
splendid scroll, a foot broad, of Turiua 
writing adomine it. On the top of the 
gateway, at each comer, rises a white 
minaret of two stories. The kiosks 
which crowned them have been de- 
stroyed over 100 years. There is a fine 
view from the platform at the top, and 
it is worth ascending the steep stairs for 
it. To the W. are seen the Orphanage 
Church, and a little to the right of it 
the Begam ka Mahal, its dark red colour 
contrasting with the white of the 
church. Far to the S.W. on a clear day 
the grand gateway at Fatehpur-Sikri can 
be dimly seen. Over the tomb to the 
N. is seen the Jumna ; to the S.E. are 
seen the Fort, the Taj, the church in 
the Civil lines, and the city of Agra. 
A broad paved path leads to the mauso- 
leum of Akbar. It is a pyramidal 
building of 4 stories, three of which 
are of red sandstone, the fourth, where 
rests Akbar's cenotaph, being of white 
marble. A massive cloister runs rouud 
the lower story, broken S. and N. by 
high central arches : that on the S. forms 
the entrance. The vaulted ceiling of 
the vestibule was elaborately frescoed 
in gold and blue. A section has been 
restored. The Surah-i-Mulk runs under 
the cornice in a scroll 1 ft broad. A 
gentle incline leads to the vaulted 
chamber in which the great Akbar 
rests ; it is quite dark, and the once 
illuminated walls are now dirty and de- 
faced. On either side of the main arch 
bays of the cloister are screened off and 
contain tombs. First on the left is 
a tomb with an Arabic inscription in 
beautiful characters. This is tie tomb 
of Shukm'n Nisa Begam. The second 
is the tomb of the uncle of Bahadur 
Shah, the last king of Delhi The next 
is the tomb of Zibu'n Nisa, daurfitcr of 
Aurangzib ; and in a niche in the side 
of the room, farthest from the entranec^ 
is an alabaster tablet inscribed with 

Digitized by CjOOQIC ^ J 



the dd divine names. On tlie £. of the 
entrance is the tomb of Aram Bano. 

Narrow staircases lead above. The 
fourth or highest platform is surrounded 
by a beautiful doister of white marble, 
carved on the outer side into lattice- 
work in squares of 2 ft., every square 
having a different pattern. In the 
centre is the splendid white cenotaph 
of Akbtr, just over the place where his 
dust rests in the gloomy vaulted cham- 
ber below. On the N. side of this 
cenotaph is inscribed the motto of the 
sect he founded, "Allahu Akbar," 
"God is greatest" ; and on the S. side 
"JaUa Jalalahu," "May His glory 
shine." To the N. of this cenotaph, 
at the distance of 4 ft., is a handsome 
white marble pillar 4 ft. high, which 
was once covered vjrith gold and con- 
tamed the Koh-i-Nur. It is said that 
Nadir Shah took it from here. 

A short distance to the left of the 
main road, which runs through Sik- 
andarah, there is an old mosque, partly 
built of brick and partly of red sand- 
stone, called Bhuri Khan's. It has one 
d(nne. There is an octaeonal tower at 
each front comer. A snort distance 
to the S.K are the remains of Bhuri 
Khan's palace, namely, the gateway 
and part of the fa<^e. Just beyond 
the N.W. comer of the mausoleum at 
Sikandarali is an old Hindu boundair 
stone with a Nagari inscription, which 
gives the date 1494. 

A good road — the one used by the 
great Akbar himself — leads W. from 
Agra through a shady avenue to 22^ m. 

nearest rly. stas. are Achnera June, 
12 SL, and Bhurtpur, 11 m. No 
carria^ at either place. ) 

Phi^eeding to tne W. from Agra 
through Sha^gai^, observe at the en- 
trance to it the ruins of a mosque, with 
an inscription saying it was built in 
1821, the 16th year of Jehangir's reign. 
It marks the site of the old Ajmere 
sate. Farther on is a Muslim cemetery. 
Known as Mujdi ka Gumbaz, where is 
Uie tomb of Mirza Hindal, son of Babar, 
hdier of Akbar's chief wife. At the 
foot of the tomb is a monolith 7 ft. 
^^ with the date 1570. 

The royal and now deserted city of 
Fatehpur-Sikri, standing on a low 
sandstone ridge, was essentially Akbar's, 
the whole being begun (1670) and com- 
pleted during his reign ; owing to this 
fact and on account of its very perfect 
state of preservation it forms a unique 
specimen of a city in the exact condition 
in which it was occupied by the Great 
Mogul and his court. It is hard to 
say what induced Akbar to build at 
Fatehpur-Sikri, possibly because after 
the death of twm sons it was prog- 
nosticated by Salim Chisti, an old 
saint residing there, that another would 
be bom to him who would survive. As 
foretold, this was the case, and the 
child, called Salim after the hermit, 
eventually ascended the throne as 
Jehangir. Akbar cave the town the 
prefix "Fatehnur" (city of victory) to 
commemorate his conquest of Guzerat. 

Beyond the period of Akbar's occu- 
pation, Fatehpur-Sikri has no local 
history worth mentioning. The British 
Government had a tahsil here as late 
as 1850, when it was removed to Earaoli 
on the ground of unhealthiness. Dur- 
ing the Mutiny it was twice occupied 
by Neemuch and the Nusseerabad reoels 
between July and October 1857. 

From the arrangement of the build- 
ings it is evident that Akbar had the 
whole carefully planned out. This 
will be seen by the position of the 
Khwabgah, Akbar's private room, 
which commands the Ik^fter Khana^ 
Record Ofl&ce, and the whole of the 
principal buildings. From it he could 
reach, without being observed, "Jodh 
Bai " — by a covered way pulled down 
during 19th century restorations — 
Miriam's House, Bir Bal's, Panch 
Mahal, Turkish Sultana's House,Council 
Chamber, etc. etc. On entering the 
city by the Agra gate, the traveller will 
see the remains of an old building 
formerly used by merchants. Proceed- 
ing up the road, which lies between 
mounds of debris and mins, he passes 
beneath the Nawbat Khana, from the 
upper rooms of which musicians played 
as Akbar entered the city. Farther 1. 
are the remains of the Treasury, and 
opposite it what is known traditionally 
as the Mint, a large quadrangular build- 
Digitized by vjOOQ N 




ing. Just in front of this is the Diwan- 
i-'Am, measuring some 866 ft. from N. 
to S. by 181 ft. from E. to W., and 
surroimded by a flat-roofed cloister. 
On the W. side is the hall, with a deep 
verandah in front, from which Akbar 
delivered his judgments in the presence 
of the assembled crowd below. He 
stood between two pierced stone screens 
of fine geometric design, extant but 
restored. The room behind has a 

in Persian (much defaced) to the Em- 
peror. Originally the chamber was 
painted. Below is a room, and in it a 
platform supported by two splendid 
red sandstone shafts beautifrilly carved. 
Probably the Hindu priest lived here. 
W. is a door which led to the Dafter 
Khana (see above), and by it the 
officers and others could enter the 
Khwabgah. The space to the N. 
formed the Khas HahaL 

peculiar root which was painted. The 
road leads through the courtyard to the 
Dafter Khana, or Record Office, now 
the D.B. On the back is a staircase 
leading to the roof, from which there is 
a fine view of the city. The inner 
stone partition walls are modem. In 
front, facing N., is Akbar's Khwab- 
gah, or Sleeping Apartment, literally 
y House of Dreams." Written on the 
internal walls over the architraves of 
the doors are some complimentary verses 


At the N.E. corner of the courtyard 
is the ''TurkiBh Qneen's" House, 
thought by most people to be the most 
interesting apartment of alL As it 
now stands it consists of only one small 
chamber 16 X 15 ft Every square inch 
is carved, including the soffits of the 
cornices. The ceiling and decoration 
of the verandah pillars and pilasteis 
are exceptionally fine. Inside is a most 
elaborate dado about 4 ft. high, con- 
sisting of 8 sculptured panels repre- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



senting forest views, animal life, etc. 
Above, the wall takes the form of a 
stone lattice screen, the divisions of 
which were used as shelves. Much of 
the carving is curiously like Chinese 

W. is the Girls' School, a small plain 
building carried on square stone piers. 
In front is an open square, upon the 
stone flags of which is Akhar's rachisi- 
board, with his stone seat in the centre. 
It is in the form of a cross and is laid 
out in coloured pavement It is said 
the game was played with slave girls to 
take the moves, as we use ivory pieces 
on a chess-board. 

At the N. of the quadrangle is the 
Diwan-i-Khas, or "Private Hall," or 
Cooncil Chamber. From the outside 
it appears to be two stories high, but 
on entering it is found to consist of one 
only, with a central pillar crowned by 
an immense circular corbelled capital, 
radiating from which to the 4 comers 
of the building are 4 stone causeways 
enclosed by open trellis stone balus- 
trades (restored). Tradition says that 
in the centre of this capital the Emperor 
sat whilst the comers were occupied by 
Ids 4 ministers. The shaft is beauti- 
fally carved, and should be carefully 
studied. On the E. and W. sides are 
stone staircases communicating with 
the roof. The open screen-work in the 
windows is modem. A few feet to the 
W. is the building known as the Anh 
UichatUi, and the story told is that 
Ae Emperor here played hide-and- 
seek witn the ladies of the Court ; but 
it was most likely used for records. 
It consists of 3 large lofty rooms sur- 
rounded by narrow passages, lighted 
by stone screen windows. The ceuings 
of 2 of the rooms are coved, but the 
3d is flat and supported on struts orna- 
mented with grotesque carving. In 
front, on the S.£. comer, is a small 
canopied stracture used by the astro- 
loger, who probably was a Hindu Guru, 
or "teacher." It is after the style of 
trchitectare used by the Hindus dur- 
ing the 11th and 12th cents. Under 
the architraves are curiously carved 
abuts issuing from the mouths of 
iBonsters dowelled into the shafts 
at Uie comers. The under side of the 

dome was painted. Adjoining these 
buildings to the W. is the Hospital. 
Some of the stone partitions forming 
the wards are eztant. The ceilings 
are of solid slabs of stone, carved on 
the outside to represent tiles. 

From here is next seen the Fanch 
Mahal, a 5-storied colonnade, each tier 
being smaller than the one below, till 
nothing but a small kiosque remains 
atop. It was probably erected for the 
ladies of the court as a pleasure resort, 
as the sides were originally enclosed 
with stone screens : these were removed 
during modem restorations, when the 
solid stone parapets were replaced by 
the pierced ones as at present seen, and 
the positions of the staircases were 
altered. The first floor is remarkable 
on account of the variety of the 56 
columns which support the story 
above, no two are alike in design. 
Many of the shafts are similar, but the 
caps vary: at the angles of one are 
elephants' heads with interlaced trunks, 
on another a man gathering frait On 
the N.W, angle is a group of 4 which 
should be examined. From the top- 
most floor there is a splendid view. 

S. and a little to W. of the Panch 
Mahal is the House of Miriam (said to 
have been Akbar's Portuguese Christian 
wife, but more probably a Hindu 
princess), a small building with defaced 
frescoes in the niches and upon the 
walls, and piers of verandah. One, in 
which the wings of angels are distinctly 
visible, suggests the Annunciation. At 
one time the whole house was painted 
inside and out. The original name 
Sunahra Makan, or "Golden House," 
was given it on account of the profuse 
gilding with which its walls were 
adomed. On the N.W. is Miriam*s 
Garden, and at S.E. angle her bath, 
with a large column in the centre. On 
the W. side is the Naginah, or Zenana, 
Moeque, and the remains of a small 
Turkish bath. At the S. end of 
garden is a small fish tank, which, to- 
gether with the stone pavement of the 
garden, was brought to light by Mr. E. 
W. Smith of the Arch. Survey, 1891. 

To the N.W. a road leads to the 
Hathi Pol (Elephant Gate) on the N. 
of the city. Over iit^ W. archway, 20 

Digitized by VjOOQ 




ft. from the ground, are 2 life-sized 
elephants much mutilated (probably 
by Aurangzib). To the 1. is the 
Sungin Btuj, a groined bastion or keep, 
said to have been the commencement 
of the fortifications planned by Akbar, 
but abandoned on account of objections 
raised by Saint Salim Chisti. Down 
the old stone paved road on the 1. is 
the Earwan Saxai (caravanserai). It 
consists of a large court 272 x 246 ft. 
surrounded by the merchants' hostels. 
Formerly the S.E. side was 3 stories 
high. At the N. end, beyond the 
Sarai, stands the Hiran Minar (Deer 
Minaret), a circular tower some 70 ft. 
high studded withprotrudingelephants' 
tusks of stone. Tradition says that it 
is erected over the grave of Akbar's 
favourite elephants, and that from the 
lantern in the top the Emperor shot 
antelope and other game brought up by 
beaters, hence its name. The land to 
the N. and W. was a large lake in 
Akbar's time. 

On the 1. of the road returning to 
the Hathi Pol is a very fine stone 
well surrounded by rooms and stair- 
cases which formed a part of the 
waterworks. The water was lifted 
from this level by Persian wheels 
and a system of reservoirs to the 
arched gate on the N.W. corner of 
Bir Bal's House, and thence dispensed 
throughout the palace. 

The palace of Birtoal is to the S.W. 
of Miriam's Garden (see above). It is 
the finest residence in Fatehpur-Sikri, 
and was built by Rajah Bir Bal for his 
daughter. It is a 2-storied building of 
red sandstone standing on a raised 
platform, and consists of 4 rooms 15 
ft sq. and 2 entrance porches on the 
ground floor and 2 above with small 
terraces in front of them, enclosed by 
stone screens, forming a ladies' pro- 
menade. Over the upper rooms are 
flat-ribbed cupolas, carried on octagonal 
drums and supported on richly orna- 
mented corbel brackets stretching 
across the angles of the rooms ; and the 
stone panelled walls and niches are 
covered with intricate patterns. The 
ceilings of the lower rooms are supported 
on a fine and unique frieze, and the 
whole of the interior, pilasters, recesses, 

walls, and cusp-arched doorways are 
elaborately and beautifully carved with 
geometrical patterns. The exterior 
walls are almost as profusely orna- 
mented. No wood has been used in 
the construction of this extraordinary 
building, to which the words of Victor 
Hugo have been applied : **If it were 
not the most minute of palaces, it was 
the most gigantic of jewel-cases." 
Rajah Birbal was celebrated for his wit 
and learning, and was the only Hindu 
of eminence who embraced the new 
religion of Akbar, whose favourite 
courtier he was. He perished with the 
whole of the army he was commanding 
in the Yusufzye country to the N.E. 
of Peshawar in 1586. 

S. of Bir Bal's house are the Stables 
for 102 horses and nearly as many 
camels. In some of the mangers stone 
rings for the horses* halters stul remain, 
and on the N.W. side one of the old 
doors. The camel stables are lighted 
by openings in the roof. 

The Palace of Jodh Bai, erroneously 
so called, was probably used by the 
Emperor or by his chief wife Sultana 
Rukia. It adjoins the stables, but the 
entrance is on the E. from the open 
space in front of the Record Ojfice. It 
is a quadrangular building, 232 x 215 
ft. The courtyard within has recep- 
tion rooms on the N., S., and W. sides 
connected by a flat -roofed corridor 
partly closed by stone walls. The 
room on the W. is more ornate than 
the others, and in the rear wall is a 
fireplace. There are chambers above, 
and those on the N. and S. sides rise 
to 2 stories : they are gable-roofed and 
ornamented with blue enamelled tiling. 
At the angles the chambers are sur- 
mounted by cupolas, originally painted. 

Overlooking Miiiam's Garden is a 
small room, the walls of which are 
entirely composed of beautiful stone 
lattice-work. Prom the mezzanine floor 
on the N. side a closed passage leads to 
a garden abutting on the waterworks, 
beside which a gallery passed to the 
N. side of the Sarai near the Hiran 
Minar. It is now in ruins, and not 
easy of identification. In the pass- 
age, and just before the garden is 
reached, is a very fine stone screen 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



beneath a small cupola which should 
be seen. 

The Dargah and Mosque are S. W. of 
the Becord Office. The £. gate, called 
the Badshahi, or "royal" gate, opens 
into the great quadrangle. To the rt is 
the Tomb or Dargah of Shaik Salim 
Ghisti,the Kawasa or gi-andson of Shak- 
har Ganj Shah, who is buried at Pak 
Patan. It is surrounded by beautiful 
white marble lattice-work screens, and 
has doors of solid ebony, ornamented 
with brass. Within, the building is 
marble only for the first 4 ft The canopy 
oyer the tomb of the saint is inlaid with 
ikiother-of-pearl, hung with the usual 
dkphy of ostrich eggs. On the ceno- 
taph is written the date of the saint's 
death and the date of the completion of 
the building, 1580, "May God hallow 
his tomb ! The beloved helper of the 
sect and its saint, Shaik Salim, whose 
miraculous gifts and propinquity to the 
Divine Being are celebrated, and by 
whom the lamp of the family of Chisti 
illuminated. Be not double-sighted, 
looking to the transitory self, as well 
as to the everlasting Deity. The year 
of his decease is known throughout the 
world." This last line is the chrono- 

The brackets which support the drip- 
stone or eaves of the tomb are copies of 
those in the old mosque of the stone- 
masons outside the quadrangle and W. 
of the mosque, where Shaik Salim lived 
his hermit life in a cave now covered 
by a room. In a portico on the right 
the saint taught his disciples before 
the place had attracted the notice of 
royalty. Childless women, both Hindu 
and Mohammedan, resort to the tomb 
and pray the saint to intercede in their 
|avour. On the N. of the quadrangle 
is also the tomb of Islam Khan, sur- 
mounted with a cupola ; he was the 
grandson of the sain^ and Governor of 

The Hosque proper, to the W. , is said 
to he a copy of the one at Mecca. It 
is about 70 ft high, and very beautiful. 
It consists of 3 interior square chambers 
surrounded by rows of lofty pillars of 

1 An the inscriptions here may be fonnd 
in the Miftahu 'I Tawarikh, by John EUis, 
printed at Agra. 

Hindu type. At the N. and S. ends 
are zenana chambers. Going out by 
a door at the back of the mosque, in an 
enclosure on the right is an iQfant's 
tomb, said to be that of the saint's son, 
whose life was sacrificed at the age of 
6 months in order that Akbar's son 
(Jehangir) might live when bom. At 
the S. of the quadrangle is the Gate of 
Viotory, Buland Darwazah ("high 
gate "), which towers to the height of 
1 30 ft. Fergusson says that when looked 
at from below its appearance is noble be- 
yond that of any portal attached to any 
mosque in India, perhaps in the whole 
world. The grandeur of this great height 
is increased by a vast flight of steps on 
the outside, giving a total height of 
160 ft. Fine view from the top. 

In the archwajr is an inscription on 
the left hand going out, which says 
that the "King of Kings, Shadow of 
God, Jalalu-din, Muhammad Akbar, 
the Emperor, on his return from con- 
quering the kingdoms of the S., and 
Khandesh, formerly called Dhandesh, 
came to Fatehpur in the 46th year of 
his reign, corresponding to 1601 a.d., 
and proceeded from thence to Agra." 
On the opposite side is inscribed " Isa 
(Jesus), on whom be peace, said : * The 
world is a bridge, pass over it, but 
build no house on it. The world en- 
dures but an hour, spend it in devo- 
tion.'" The doors of this great gate- 
way are studded with horse-shoes, affixed 
by the owners of sick horses who im- 
plore the prayers of the saint for their 
recovery. From the steps, or better 
still, from the summit of the gate, may 
be seen the villages of Sikri and Fateh- 
pur, and a tract of dry and barren 
country. It is supposed that it was 
the want of water which caused Fateh- 
pur to be deserted. In front of the 
steps are some Turkish baths. N. of 
the Dargah and outside the mosque 
are the houses of the brothers Abu '1 
Fazl and Faizi, the famous and learned 
favourites of Akbar and followers of his 
new religion. These are now turned 
into a boys' school. They consist of 
several rooms ; in one Hindu and Urdu 
are taught, in another English, and in 
a third Persian and Arabic. What is 
now the English class-room was the 

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zenana. To tbe W. of Boland Dar- 
wazah is a large well, into which boys 
and men spying from the walls, from 
heights va^ng from 30 to 80 ft. A 
Hela, or fair, commences on the 20th 
of Bamzarit the anniversary of the 
saint's death, and ksts for 8 days. 

A little to the N.E. of the Record 
Office is the HaMm, or doctor's house, 
and a very large and fine Humxnam, 
the walls and ceilings of which are 
richly ornamented with stamped plaster- 
work. To the rt. on leaying and ad- 
joining the Nusseerabad road is a spa- 
cious and interesting Baoli, from which 
the baths and this part of the city were 
supplied. Leading to a well at one 
end is a broad staircase enclosed on 
each side by rooms. Around the well 
are chambers for Persian wheels for 
drawing the water. ^ 

The Nusseerabad road is stone paved, 
and leads through the market to the 
Tehra Gkite. On the outside is a tomb 
with small mosque and 'Idgah, but 
they are not of much importance. 


Agra to Bindrabak by Aohnera 
Juno, and Muttra (with excur- 
sions to Mahaban and Dig). 

Achnera junc sta. (1 7 m. W. of Agra), 
on the B. B. and C. I. Rly. (see 
p. 147). 

From Achnera to Muttra is 23 m., 
from Hathras junc (97 m. S. of Delhi) 
to Muttra is 29 m. 

Muttra (or Mathura) junc sta., 
I D.B., in the cantonments S. of the city 
[ (the town rly. sta. is on the branch line 
I to Bindraban, 8 m. distant, see below). 
1 Pop. 60,000. The city stretches for 
t about IJ m. along the right bank of 

the Jumna. The Fort, rebuilt in Ak- 
i 1 Fathepur Sikrl has been extensively illns- 

trated in 4 vols, of the Archce^ogioal Survey 

BeporU by Mr. B. W. Smith. 

bar's time, is in the centre : only the 
substructure remains. The Jail and 
Collector's Office are 1| m. to the S. 
beyond the town, and 1 m. to the W. 
of the town is a Jain temple and a 
large mound of bricks called Chaurasl 
Tila. In a line with the Jain temple, 
but bordering on the town, is the Katra 
mound (see below), and about ^ m. to 
the S. is another mound called Kankali, 
and to the S.W., at distances varying 
from ) HL to 1 m., are five mounds 
called the Chaubarah mounds.^ There 
are 3 Churches— the Anglican *' Christ 
Church," the Roman CathoHc Church, 
and a Presbyterian Church. The former 
contains several interesting monu- 

The city is entered by the Hardinge 
Gate, also called Holi Gate, built by 
the municipality. The finely -carved 
stonework i&qadea of the better class of 
houses are well worthy of inspection, 
and are one of the peculiarities of the 

The Biver and Ghats. — Even in the 
beginning of May the Jumna is here 
800 yds. broad. There is a paved street 
the whole way along it, with bathing 
ghats, descending to the water, and 
ornamental chabutarahs, or platforms, 
and small but well-proportioned pa- 
vilions. Generally speaking, the men 
bathe at separate ghats from the 

The river is full of turtles, some of 
them very large, poking their long 
necks and heads out to be fed. About 
80 yds. W. of the bridge is the fine 
House of the Guru Farshotamdas. 
Then comes another belonging to a 
Guzerati, called Ballamdas. Opposite 
to this, on the farther bank of the river, 
is the flourishing village of Hans Oanj, 
or "Swan borough," and N. of this 
again is a stone tower, 55 ft. high, 
called the Sati Buxj, because when 
Hans was killed by Knshna, his widow 
committed sati here. Growse, p. 97, 
says it was the wife of Baiah Bhar 
Mai, of Amb^r, mother of Bhagwan- 
das, who built it in 1570 a.d. The 
traveller now descends several steps to 

1 All these places will be fonnd mentioned 
by General Conningham in vol. iiL of his Arrh, 
Survey Bqports, p. 18, and also in vol. i. p. 23^ 

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the Bisraut Ghat, a little N. of the Sati 
Boij, and so to a sort of square, where 
the Rj^as are weighed against gold. 
There is a small white marble arch 
here, close to the river. Beyond this 
is a ghat bmlt by Jai Sing, of Jeypore, 
and the enormous house and temple 
belonging to Seth Lakshman Das, %.e. 
son of Seth Govind Das. 

The Jnnmia Hiujid, once corered 
with encaustic tiles, stands high. Its 
court is 14 ft above the level of the 
street On either side of the fii^ade of 
the gateway are Persian lines. The 
chronogram gives the date 1660-61. 
Over the fa^de of the mosque proper 
are the 99 names of God. At the sides 
are two pavilions roofed in the Hindu 
manner. There are four minarets, which 
are 132 ft high. At the entrance to 
the W. of the town is the 'Idgah (the 
glazed tiles should be observed), and 
about J m. to the W. of the town is 

The Katra, which is an enclosure 
like that of a sarai, 804 ft long by 
658 ft broad. Upon a terrace stancte 
a great red stone mosque, the most 
conspicuous object in a distant view of 
Mottra. There is another terrace 6 ft 
lower, where are votive tablets in the 
Nagri character, dated Samwat 1718- 
20. On this site stood the great 
temjde of KeiaTa Bao, which Tavemier 
saw in the beginning of Aurangzib's 
ni^, apparently about 1659 A.D., and 
which he describes as very magnificent, 
adding that it ranked next after the 
temples of Jacannath and Benares 
{Travels f -pi, ii ok. iii. ch. 12, French 
ed., and Cunningham, Reports, vol. iii 
pi 15. ) In the Katra mound a number 
ef Buddhistic remains have been found 
by General Cunningham and others, 
ioeluding a broken Buddhist railing 
pillar, with the figure of Maya Devi 
standing under the Sal tree, and also 
a itone on which was inscribed the 
well-known genealogy of the Gupta 
dynasty, from Shri Gupta, the founder, 
down to Samudra Gupta, where the 
stone was broken off. He also found 
hoilt into the wall of a well, one of the 
peenliar curved architraves of a Bud- 
dhist gateway, and an inscription on 
the base of a statue of Shakya dated 
Stmwat 281, or 224 a.d., in which 

the Yasa Yihara is mentioned. Two 
capitals of columns, one no less than 3 
ft. in diameter, were also found. A 
fragment of the larger one is still to be 
seen lyine inside the gateway. At the 
back of the Katra is a modem temple 
to Eesava, and close by is the Fotara- 
Kond, a tank in which Krishna's baby 
linen was washed. This tank is faced 
throughout with stone, and has flights 
of stone steps down to the water. There 
is also a very steep ramp down where 
horses go to be washed. 

In the New Museum, erected by 
public subscription, at the suggestion 
of Mr. Mark Thqfnhill, is the carving 
which Mr. Growse calls, p. 101, "the 
most refined and delicate work of the 
kind ever executed." 

The best piece of sculpture in the 
Museum is the Yasa-ditta statue of 
Buddha. The face is really beautiful, 
more artistic than that of any figure 
vet discovered, but the nose has been 
broken off ; the most curious object is 
a carved block representing a Bacchanal 
group. Immediately opposite are the 

Public Gardens, and a little farther 
on is the JalL 

When Fa Hian travelled in the end 
of the 4th century and the beginning 
of the 5th, he halted a whole month at 
Muttra, and found that there were 20 
Buddhist monasteries with 3000 monks ; 
but when Hiouen Thsang visited the 
place in 684 a.d. the number had de- 
clined to 2000, whence it appears that 
Buddhism was even then on the wane. 
It had wholly disappeared when Mah- 
mud of Ghazni came to Muttra in 1017 
A.D. He remained there 20 days, pil- 
laged and burned the city, and carried 
off five golden idols, whose eyes were of 
rubies, worth 50,000 dinars =£25, 000. 
A sixth idol of gold weighed 1120 lbs., 
and was decorated with a sapphire 
weighing 300 Mishkals, or 3^ lbs. 
There were also 100 idols of silver, 
each of which loaded a camel. The 
idols together were worth not less than 
£300,000. The Brahman temple of 
Eesava Rao was built on the very site 
where the great Buddhist monastery 
Yasa Yihara stood. 

Kear the Jail stood a mound, in 
removing which to provide a site for 

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the Collector's Office aud Magistrates' 
Courts, the most extensive discoveries 
were made. It appears that on it 
stood two Buddhist monasteries, the 
Huvishka and the Kunda-Suka Vihara. 
The latter is the place where the famous 
monkey which made an offering to 
Buddha jumped into the tank aud 
was killed. At this mound statues of 
all sizes, has-reliefs, pillars, Buddhist 
rails, votive stupas, stone umbrellas, 
and inscriptions have been found. 
One inscription is of the 1st century 
B.C. The earliest is of the Satrap 
Sandasa, and the next of the great 
King Kanishka in Jhe year 9. The 
left hand of a colossal Buddha has 
been found, the figure of which must 
have been 24 ft. high. The most 
remarkable piece of sculpture is that 
of a female, rather more than half 
life size, whose attitude, and the 
position of whose hands resembles 
those of the famous Venus of the 
Capitol. Cunningham says it is one 
of the best specimens of unaided 
Indian Art. 

In the Chaubarah mounds, 1^ m. to 
the S.W. of the city, measuring from 
the gateway of the Katra, was found 
a golden casket, now in the possession 
of Mr. F. S. Growse.i 

The most important discoveries at 
Muttra have been made by Dr. Fiihrer 
during his excavations at the Kankall 
Tila mound, which he looks upon as 
the site of the Upagupta monastery 
mentioned by Hiouen Thsang. The 
remains of one Vaishnava and two Jain 
temples, and a Jain stupa, some 49 ft. 
8 in. in dia., have been brought to 
light, and besides some hundreds of 
most valuable sculptures, stupa rail- 
ings, panels, etc., on many of which 
are inscriptions dating back before 
the time of Christ. The discover- 
ies prove that the national Indian 
arts of architecture and sculpture 
nourished in a high degree at Muttra, 
and have led to the conclusion that 
play-acting was practised very early in 
the city of the gods. All the objects 

,.i,*'o'' tl»e many other discoveries made in 
omerent mounds near Muttra reference must 
«S.o^?v ^ Cunningham's Report, vol. iii., 
where they are aetailed »t ^reaneDgth. 

discovered have been deposited in the 
Lucknow Museum,^ where they can be 
examined by visitors. 

[Mahaban is about 6 m. S.E. of 
Muttra, on the left bank of the Jumna, 
and is reached by a good road. It is a 
very ancient town and place of pil- 
grimage, and first emerges into modem 
history in the year 1017 A.D., when it 
shared the h,te of Muttra, and was 
sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni. The 
Hindu prince is said, when the fall of 
the town became inevitable, to have 
solemnly slain his wife and children, 
and then committed suicide. In 1234 
a contemporary writer mentions Maha- 
ban as one of the gathering places of 
the imperial army sent by Sham's-ud- 
din against Kalinjar. It is incidentally 
referred to by the Emperor Babar in 

The country round about it, although 
now bare of woods, appears to have 
once been literally Mahaban^ *' a great 
forest." Even as late as 1634, the 
Emperor Shah Jehan held a hunt here, 
and killed four tigers. This ancient 
woodland country fringing the sacred 
Jumna is the scene of very early reli- 
^ous legends. In Sanscrit literature 
it is closely associated with Goknl, 
about a mile ofif, overhanging the 
Jumna. Indeed, the scenes of the 
youthful adventures of Krishna, as- 
cribed in the Puranis to Gokul, are 
actually shown at Mahaban, about a 
mile from the river. Gokul seems to 
have been originally the common name 
for the whole, although it is now re- 
stricted to what must have been the 
water-side suburb of the ancient town. 

The ruins of Mahaban rise as a hill of 
brick and mud, covering about 30 acres, 
the site of the old fort. The architect- 
ural remains combine Buddhist and 
Hindu forms. 

The most interesting relic at Maha- 
ban is the so-caUed Palace of Nanda» 
the foster-father of the changeling 
Krishna. It consists of a covered 
court, re-erected by tie Mohammedans 
in the time of Aurangzib from ancient 
Hindu and Buddhist materiali to 8erv« 

1 See illustrated description in Proeeedi^n 
o/the ArchoBol, Dmt, of (hi if, W, F. 

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18 a mosque, and is divided into 4 aisles 
3y 5 TOWS of 16 pillars, 80 in all, from 
(rhich it takes its popular name of 
A88i Khamba, or the " Eighty Pillars." 
Many of the capitals are curiously 
carved with grotesque heads and squat 
figures. Four of them are supposed 
to represent by their sculptures the four 
ages of the world. The pillar known 
as the Surya Yug, or ** Golden Age," 
I is covered with rich and beautiful 
I earring ; that known as the Dwapar 
I Yug, or " Second Age " of the world is 
adorned with almost equal profusion. 
The Treta Yug, or "Third Age," is 
more scantily carved ; while the Kali 
Yofc or present "Iron Age" of the 
world is represented by a crude un- 
sculptured pillar. 

In the Palace of Nanda are laid the 
scenes of Krishna's infancy. His 
cradle, a coarse structure covered with 
red calico and tinsel, still stands in 
the pillared hall, while a blue -black 
image of the sacred child looks out 
frcm under a canopy against the wall. 
The chum in which Krishna's foster- 
inotiier made butter for the household 
is ^wn, and consists of a long bamboo 
sticking out of a carved stone. A spot 
in the wall is pointed out as the place 
where the sportive milkmaids hid 
Krishna's flute. One pillar is said to 
have been polished by his foster- 
mother's hand, as she leant against it 
when churning, and others have been 
equally polishwi by the hands of genera- 
tions of pilgrims. 

From the top of the roof there is a 
view over mounds of ruins, with the 
Jmnna beyond showing its waters, at 
intervals, amid an expanse of sand, 
high grasses, and rugged ravines. 
Mahab^ is still a very popular place 
of pilgrimage among the Hindus. Thou- 
sands of Vishnu worshippers, with yel- 
low-stained clothes, yearly visit the 
scenes of the infancy of the child-cod. 
The anniversary of Krishna's birth is 
celebrated during several days in the 
month of Bhadon (August) by a vast 
concourse of people. 

The riverside village of Gokul, where 
Vishnu first appeared as Krishna, has 
few relics of antiquity. Its shrines and 
temples are quite modem. It is ap- 

proached, however, by a lofty and 
oeautiful flight of steps (ghat) from the 
river, and for more than three centuries 
it has been the headquarters of the 
Vallabhacharya sect, or Gokulastha 
Gusains, whose founder preached here. 
Many thousands of pilgrims, chiefly 
from Guzerat and Bombay, yearly re- 
sort to this centre of their faith, and 
have built numerous temples of a 
rather tasteless type.] 

[From Muttra a traveller with plenty 
of time may make an expedition to Dig, 
or Deeg, a town in the territory of the 
Rajah of Bhurtpur, 24 m. W. from 
Muttra by a good road, and should he 
be going S., he might rejoin the railway 
at Bhurtpur, 22 m. farther ; but he 
should make all arrangements for the 
journey before leaving Muttra. At the 
village of OoTardhaa, about 14 m., is 
a celebrated hill, which was upheld 
by Krishna on one finger to shelter 
the cowherds from a storm excited by 
Indra as a test of Krishna's divinity. 
Here, on' the rt, is the burial-place of 
the Bhurtpur Rajahs, a striking group 
of tombs, temples, and ghats buut on 
the margin of two vast tanks, one of 
which, called the Munusa Gunga, is 
the resort of thousands of pilgrims 
during the annual autumn fair. The 
chief chattris are those of Buldeo Sing, 
and of Suraj Mall, the founder of the 
dynasty, and his wives ; also of Rand- 
hir and Bala Diva Sing. Most of them 
show good specimens of carving. Fer- 
gusson says of one of the temples, built 
in Akbar's reign : * * It is a plain edifice, 
135 ft. long bv 35 ft. wide, externally, 
and both in plan and design singularly 
like those Early Romance churches 
that are constantly met with in the S. 
of France, belonging to 11th and 12th 

For 3 m. before reaching Dig the 
road forms a sort of causeway above a 
very low, flat country. 

At Dig 30c (or Deeg) the chief object 
of interest is the splendid Palace, or 
rather group of palaces, built by Suraj 
Mall of Bhurtpur. Though his grand 
design was never completed, it surpasses 
all the other fortified palaces in the 
Rajput states for grandeur of conception 

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and beaulnr of detail Fergusson greatly 
admires this palace, and says : '* The 
glory of Deeg consists in the cornices, 
which are generally double, a peculiarity 
not seen elsewhere, and which for extent 
of shadow and richness of detail surpass 
any similar ornaments in India, either 
in ancient or modem buildings. The 
lower cornice is the usual sloping en- 
tablature almost universal in such 
buildings. . . . The upper cornice, 
which washorizontal, is peculiar to Deeg, 
and seems designed to furnish an ex- 
tension of the flat roof which in Eastern 
palaces is usually considered the best 
apartment of the house ; but whether 
designed for this or any other purpose, 
it adds singularly to the richness of 
the effect, and by the double shadow 
affords a relief and character seldom 
exceeded even in the East." The chief 
pavilions are the Qopal Bhawan (where 
travellers are allowed to lodge, and from 
the roof of which there is a fine view), 
which stands E. of the fine Kachcha 
Tank ; the Nand Bhawan, N.E. of this, 
a fine hall 20 ft. high; the Snraj 
Bhawan, S., 88 ft. long; the Harde 
Bhawan, W. ; and the ElBhn Bhawan, 
S.E. All these are highlv decorated, 
and between and around them are 
lovely gardens. Beyond and adjoining 
the gardens is the large Bnp Sangar 

The W. gate of the Fort (there are 
two gates) is i m. from the Gopal 
Bhawan : it has 12 bastions, and a ditch 
50 ft. broad. Beyond this is a natural 
mound, about 70 ft. high, and beyond 
that a building which serves as a prison. 
The walls are very massive and lofty. 
There are 72 bastions in alL On the 
N.W. bastion, about 80 ft. high, is a 
very long cannon. 

Dig is celebrated for the battle fought 
on the 18th November 1804, in wmch 
General Frazer (see Mill, vol. vi. p. 593) 
defeated Jeswant Rao Holkar's army. 
The British took 87 pieces of ordnance 
in this battle, and lost in killed and 
wounded about 850 men. The remains 
of Holkar's army took shelter in the 
fort of Dig. 

On the 1st December following. Lord 
Lake joined the army before Dig, and 
immediately commenced operations to 

reduce that town. On the night of the 
23d his troops captured an eminence 
which commanded the city, but not 
without considerable loss, llie enemy, 
however, evacuated Dig on the follow- 
ing day and the fort on the succeeding 
night, and fled to Bhurtpur.] 

6 m. from Muttra is Bintaiban sta. 
(properly, Vrindaban literally, a forest 
of tulsi plants), the place to which 
Krishna removed from Gokul. 

There is no reason to believe that 
Bindraban was ever a ^eat seat of 
Buddhism. Its most ancient temples, 
four in number, date only from the 16th 
cent., '* while the space now occupied 
by a series of the laigest and most 
magnificent shrines ever erected ii 
Upper India was 500 years ago an 
unclaimed belt of woodland (see 
Growse, p. 174). The four chief temples 
are those of Gobind Deva, Gopi Nath, 
Jugal Kishor, and Madan Mohan. Bin- 
draban is famous as the place where 
Krishna sported with the Gopis (milk- 
maids), and stole their clothes when 
they were bathing. The Jumna bounds 
the town to the E., and winds 
pleasantly round it. At the entrance 
to the town, on the left, is the large 
red temple, datine firom 1590, sacred 
to Oobind Deva, which was almost de- 
stroyed by Aurangzib, but has been 
somewhat restored by the British 
Government. ** It is one of the most 
interesting and el^nt temples in 
India, and the only one, perhaps, 
from which an European architect 
might borrow a few hints. The 
temple consists of a cruciform porch, 
•ntemally nearly quite perfect, tnongh 
externally it is not quite clear how it 
was intended to be finished. The cell, 
too, is perfect internally— used for 
worship — ^but the sikra is gone, possibly 
it may never have been completed. 
Though not large, its dimensions are 
respectable, the porch measuring 117 
ft. E. and W. by 105 ft. N. and S., 
and is covered by a true vault, built 
with radiating arches — the onij iii- 
stance, except one, known to exist ii 
a Hindu temple in the N. of India 
Over the four arms of the cross the vadb 
is plain, and only 20 ft span, but ik 
the centre it expands to 85 ft., and Ii 

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fflite equal in design to the best 

(othic yaulting known. It is the 

crtemal desi^ of this temple, how- 

<Fer, which is the most remarkable. 

"he angles are accentuated with sin- 

jTilar force and decision, and the 

tpenings, which are more than suffi- 

;ient for that climate, are picturesquely 

irranged and pleasingly divided. It 

is, however, the combination of vertical 

withhorizontal lines, covering the whole 

surface, that forms the great merit of 

the design" (Fergusson, Arch.) 

E. is a modern Temple^ built by Seth 
Badha Krishna and Seth Govind JDas 
in the Dravidian style. Europeans are 
not allowed to enter. The temple con- 
sists of a vast enclosing wall, with three 
gopuras, which are 80 to 90 ft. high, 
while the gates are about 56 ft. Above 
the "W. gate is a terrace, commanding 
a view of the temple. 

This temple is dedicated to Shri 
Ranga, a name of Vishnu ; and figures 
of Gamda, the man-bird of ViSinu, 
are very conspicuous. In the great 
court are two white marble pavilions, 
one E. and one W. of the tank ; and a 
stone pavilion with a flat roof, sup- 
ported by sixteen pillars, opposite the 
E. gopura. 

At the back of a temple which is 
of red stone (repaired in 1877 by the 
Brit. Gov.), and adjoining it on the 
W., are, at two corners, two other 
temples which resemble each other. 
Thwe is a new temple adjoining this 
to the W., built by a Bengali Babu. 
It IB not tasteful, but has a finely- 
carred door. 

The Ma4laB Mohan Temple stands 
above a ghat on a branch of the river. 
Uider two fine trees, a Metis indica and 
a Naudea orientalis, is a pavilion, in 
which many cobras' heads are repre- 
seoted. Shiva is said to have struck 
peri with a stick here, when she 
jumped o£f this ghat, and made it a 
^aee for curing snake bites. There is 
here a Salagram (a species of Ammonite 
wcnrdiipped as a type of Vishnu), with 
two footprints, 2Jin. long. This temple 
it 85 ft. high, and is in the shape of a 

The Temple of €h>pi Nath is thought 
liy Mr. Growse to be the earliest of the 

series. It was built by Raesil Ji, who 
distinguished himself under Akbar. 
It resembles that of Madan Mohan, 
but is in a ruinous condition. Its 
special feature is an arcade of three 
bracket arches. 

The Temple of Jngal Eishor is at 
the lower end of the town, near the 
Eesi Ghat. It is said to have been 
built by Nou-Earan, a Chauhan chief, 
in 1627 A.D. The choir has pierced 
tracery in the head of the arcn, and 
above it a representation of Erishna 
supporting the hill of Govardhan. 

The Temple of Badha Ballabh.— 
The shrine was demolished by Aurang- 
zeb. The ruins are fine. 

Dblhi to Umealla, Ealka, and 

There are two railway routes from 
Delhi to Uniballa. 

(a) The direct line on the right or 
W. bank of the Jumna river through 
Paniput and Eurnal, 122 m. 

(b) The line on the E. bank of the 
river, crossing it twice, and passing 
through Ghaziabad, Meerut, and Sa- 
haranpur, 162 m. 

Leaving the central station at Delhi, 
the railway proceeds over a vast plain to 

54 m. Panipnt sta., D.B. Pop. 
27, 547. The modern town stands near 
the old bank of the Jumna, upon a high 
mound consisting of the d^bns of earlier 
buildings. In the centre the streets are 
well paved, but the outskirts are low and 
squalid. There are the usual civil offices. 
The town is of very great antiquity, being 
one of the places called j^ofe, ovprasthasy 
demanded of Duryodhana by Yudish- 
thira, about 1100 B.o. It is famous 
for being the place where three of the 
most decisive battles in India have 
been fought ; but the silent plain tells 
no tale, and shows no sign of the events 
that have happened on it. 

Here on the 21st April 1526 
Babar encountered Ibrahim Lodi. 
On the night before the battle Babar 
had sent out 5000 men to make a 
night attack on the Afghan army. 

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but this had failed, owing to a 
delay on the part of the attacking 
force, which did not reach the enemy s 
camp tiU dawn. With the first stretUiLS 
of light next day the Mogul pickets 
reported that the Afghans were ad- 
vancing in battle array. Babar im- 
mediately prepared for action, and 
appointed commanders to each divi- 
sion. On the ri^ht and left of the 
whole line he stationed strong flanking 
parties of Moguls, who, when ordered, 
were to wheel round, and take the 
enemy in flank and rear. When the 
Afghans arrived at the Mogul lines 
they hesitated for a moment, and 
Babar availed himself of their halting 
to attack them, at the same time 
sending his flanking parties, to wheel 
round and charge them in the rear. 
Babar's left wing was roughly handled, 
but he supported it by a strong de- 
tachment from the centre, and the 
Afghans in the end were driven back. 

On the right too the battle was ob- 
stinately contested. Babar*s artillery, 
however, was very effective, and at 
last the Afghans fell into confusion. 
They maintained the battle till noon, 
when they gave way in all directions. 
The rest was mere pursuit and slaughter. 
According to Mogul accounts, 15,000 
Afghans were left dead on the field of 
battle, and those who fled from the 
field were chased as far as Agra. The 
body of Ibrahim Lodi was found the 
same afternoon with 6000 or 6000 of 
his soldiers lyin^ in heaps around him. 
Babar reached Delhi on the third day 
after the battle, and on the Friday 
following his name as Epmeror was 
read in the public prayers at the 
Grand Mosque. 

The Second great Battle was fought 
in the latter part of 1556 A.D., when 
the youthful Akbar, who had just suc- 
ceeded his father the Emperor Huma- 
yun, defeated Himu, the general of 
Sultan Muhammad Shah 'Adil, nephew 
of Sher Shah. Himu had 50,000 
cavalry, and 500 elephants, besides 
infantry and guns; but afte. a well- 
contested battle he was wounded in 
the eye by an arrow, taken prisoner, 
and put to death. This battle was 
decisive of the fate of the Afghan 

dynasty called the Sur, and estabUshei 
the fortunes of the House of Timur. 

The Third Battle took place on thi 
7th of January 1761 A.D., when th( 
whole strength of the Marathas wai 
crushed with terrible slaughter V 
Ahmad Shah Durani. All the Ma 
ratha chieftains of not€, Ho] 
Sindia, the Gaekwar, the Peshwa'i 
cousin and son, were present wil 
their forces. The Maratha army is 
said to have amounted to 15,000 in- 
fantry, 55,000 cavalry, 200 guns, and 
Pindaris and camp-followers, number- 
ing 200,000 men. The Afghan force 
consisted of 38,000 infantry, 42,000 
cavalry, and 70 guns, besides numerom 
irregulars ; but the Marathas had al- 
lowed themselves to be cooped up in 
their camp for many days. They we« 
starving, and on the morning of tbe 
battle Siey marched out with the ends 
of their turbans loose, their heads and 
faces anointed with turmeric, and witii 
every other sign of despair. Seodashec 
Rao, the cousin and generalissimo of 
the Peshwa, with Wishwas Rao, the 
Peshwa's eldest son, and Jeawant Bao 
Powar, were opposite the Afghm 
Grand Yazir. The great standard oi 
the Maratha nation, the Bhagm 
Jhtmda, floated in the Maratha van, ad 
there were three Jaripatkas, or Grand 
Ensigns, of the Peshwa in tlxe field. 

The Marathas made a tremendod 
charge full on the Afghan centreJ 
and broke through 10,000 cavali) 
under the Vazir, which unwisely re 
ceived them without advancing. 
The dust and confusion were so greil 
that the combatants could only dis 
tinguish each other by the war-cry 
The Vazir Shah Wali Khan, who wai 
in full armour, threw himself firom hi 
horse to rally his men, but most o 
the Afghans gave way. 

Ibrahim Khan Gardi, who com 
manded the Maratha artillery, brok 
the Kohillas, who formed the right wii|| 
of the Mohammedan army, and kille 
or wounded 8000 of them. Ahmai 
Shah now evinced his generalship! 
he sent his persoi^al guards to rally ta 
fugitives, and ordered up his reserves i 
support the Vazir. In this protra<^ 
and close struggle the physical strengfj 

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<f the Afghans was an overmatch for 
he slighter frames of the Hindus. 

A little after 2 p.m. Wishwas Rao 
ras mortally wounded, and Seo- 
tasheo Rao, after sending a secret 
nessage to Holkar, charged into the 
hickest of the fight and disappeared. 
iVhatever the message to Holkar was, 
it proved instantaneously fatal, for he 
went off and was followed by the 
Gaekwar. The Marathas then fled ; 
thousands were cut down, and vast 
numbers were destroyed in the ditch 
of their entrenchment. The village 
of Paniput was crowded with men, 
women, and children, to whom the 
Afghans showed no mercy. They took 
the women and children as slaves, and 
after ranging the men in lines, amused 
themselves with cutting off their heads. 

76 m. Eumal sta., D.B. Pop. 
23,000. This town is traditionally of 
ereat antiquity, being said to have been 
founded by Rajah Kama, champion of 
the Eauravas, in the great war of the 
Mahabharata. It was seized by the 
Rajas of Jind in the middle of the 18th 
centui7,and wrested from them in 1795 
by the adventurer George Thomas. It 
was conferred bv Lord Lake in 1803 
upon Nawab Munammad Ehan, a Man- 
cm Pathan. A British cantonment was 
mamtained here until 1841, when it Was 
alandoned, probably owing to the un- 
healthiness of the site, as the W. Jumna 
Canal, passing the city, intercepts the 
dninage and causes malarious fever. A 
will 12 ft. high encloses the town. The 
streets are narrow and crooked, and the 
water is impure. Jacquemont speaks of 
this town as " an infamous sink, a heap 
of every sort of uncleanliness. " He 
ajds; "I have seen nothing so bad in 
Iidia, and it is fair to mention that 
amon^ the natives its filth was pro- 
verbid It has, however, a handsome 
mufue overtopping the wall, which is 
worth a visit. A government Stud 
fann for horse breeding has been 
titoblished in the old barracks. There 
lifidr small game shootine. 

Komal is famous as bemg the place 
wktm Nadir Shah defeated the Mogul 
Smperor Muhammad Shah in 1739. 
fii had surrounded his camp with 
VrtKBchments, which appeared so for- 

midable to Nadir that he would not 
permit his soldiers to attack them. 
The battle lasted two hours, 20,000 of 
the Indian soldiers were killed, and a 
much greater number taken prisoners. 
An immense treasure, a number of ele- 
phants, part of the artillery of the 
emperor, and rich spoils of every de- 
scription fell into Nadir's hands. The 
Persian loss is variously stated at from 
500 to 2500 killed. The next dav 
Muhammad Shah surrendered himself 
to Nadir, who marched to Delhi, and 
after a massacre in the streets and a 
58 days' sack returned to Persia with a 
booty estimated at £32,000,000. 

97 m. Thanesar, D.B. As many as 
100,000 persons have been known to 
assemble here on the occasion of an 
eclipse of the moon, when it is believed 
that the waters of all other tanks visit 
the one here, so that he who bathes in 
it at the moment of eclipse obtains the 
additional merit of bathing in all the 
others. The Tank is about 1 m. from 
the rly. sta. (To reach it, it is necessary 
to pass through part of the town, see 
below.) It is an oblong sheet of water 
3546 ft. in length, and is not only the 
centre of attraction to pilgrims, but 
also the haunt of innumerable wild- 
fowl from the pelican to the snipe. It 
is surrounded by temples in every stage 
of decay, overshadowed by great trees, 
and flights of dilapidated steps lead 
down to the water on all sides. On 
the W. a causeway stretches out to an 
island where, partly hidden by trees, 
the most perfect of the temples stands. 
The ruins of this causeway extend 
farther S. to the remains of other 
temples. Around the tank for many 
miles is holy ground, and popular belief 
declares the holy places connected with 
the Pandovas and Kauravas and other 
heroes to be 360 in number. 

The Town is about J m. N. of the 
tank, and beyond it are extensive re- 
mains of the Mohammedan Fort. The 
chief building of interest, and that in 
best repair, is the white-domed Tomb of 
Shaik Chihli It is an octagon ot 
drab-coloured marble, lighted by trellis- 
work windows of fine design. It stands 
upon a small octagonal platform in the 
centre of a larger onen^a square — sur- 

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rounded by cupolas. In the centre of 
the W. side is a small pavilion with 
deep eaves. It also forms a tomb. 

S.W. from here, within a stone's 
throw, is a small mosque of red sand- 
stone (the Lai Mnsjid), supported on 8 
columns. The carving on the domes and 
elsewhere is very beautiful and resembles 
that at Fatehpur-SikrL Some of the 
trees in the neighbourhood are very 
fine. Between this and Delhi — round 
about Paniput — ^the rly. passes through 
the country which from the earliest 
times formed the battle-field of India, 
and the scene where, over and over 
again, her fate has been decided. 

123 m. Umballa Cantonment junc. 
sta. UmballaCityandCiYUStationsOc 
are 5 m. farther W. (total pop. 79,000). 
The important cantonments were formed 
in 1843 : they cover 7220 acres, and are 
laid out with good roads and fine trees. 
The centre is occupied by the bungalows 
of the residents, and to the W. are the 
military lines, and the whole is sur- 
rounded by extensive Maidans. 

The Bace-cotme is on the E. Maidan, 
Paget Park, a favourite resort, is on the 
N. There are several good European 
shops in the town, which is a second- 
class municipal town, and the capital 
of a district. 

The Church, which is in the Grothic 
style, was consecrated in 1857, and is 
one of the finest, if not the finest, in 
India. There is also a Presbyterian 
Church, a Hospital, Charitable Dispen- 
sary, and a Leper Asylum. 

Umballa and its neighbourhood are 
intimately connected with the earliest 
dawn of Indian history. The strip of 
country included between the Saras- 
wati and Drishadvati (Sarasouti and 
Ghuggar) is "the Holy Land" of the 
Hindu faith, the first permanent home 
of the Aryans in India, and the spot in 
which their religion took shape. Hence 
the sanctity, even in modem times, of 
the waters of the Sarasouti, to which wor- 
shippers flock from all parts of India. 

35 m. (from Umballa) Kalka sta., 3^ 
D.B. (R.), the terminus of the railway 
at the foot of the hills, 2400 ft. above 
sea-level. Passengers for Kasauli and 
Simla here separate* 

(1) For Kasauliy travellers take a 
jhampan or pony and follow the old 
Simla road (a bridle-path). 

9 m. Kasauli. 3^ This is a canton- 
ment and convalescent dep6t on the 
crest of a hill overlooking the Ealka 
Valley, and 6322 ft. above sea-level. 
The views from Kasauli are very 
grand and extensive. 

This road continues on through 
Jutogh (see below) to Simla (41 m. from 

[3 m. off across a valley the road rises 
to Sanawar, which, however, is not 
quite so high as Kasauli 

Here is the Lawrence Military Asy- 
lum. From it may be seen Dugsbai 
and Sabathu, and in the far distance 
Simla. The ground was made over toj 
the Asylum in 1858, in fulfilment of 
the wish of Sir H. Lawrence. There 
are separate barracks for boys, girls, 
and infants, and a chapel. Children 
of pure European parentage take pre- 
cedence as candidates for admission, as 
more likely to suffer from the climate 
of the plains, except in the case of 
orphans, who have the preference over 
all others. The boys qualify for the 
service of Government in various de- 
partments. A local committee manages 
the College.] 

(2) The tonga-road from Kalka to 
Simla runs E. of the old road; thft 
stages are as follows : — 

Name of Stage. 
Ealka to Dharmpur 
Dharmpur to Solon 
Solon to Keri Ghat 
Keri Ghat to Simla 

Total . 

. 15 mfles. 
. 12 » 
. 15 „ 
. 15 „ 

. 57 miles. 

The road to Dharmpur is narrow. 
[From Dharmpur a road strikes left to 
(10 m.) Sabathn, which lies between 
the two roads, and is a consnicuous 
object from Simla.] After leaving 
Dharmpur, there is an excellent road 
to the military station of Solon, ^ 
where is a neat D.B. on the E. The 
last 3 m. is a very sharp descent. From 
Solon it is one long ascent round pro- 
jecting rocks : the tongas go fast, the 
drivers blowing their horns, which is 
necessary, as strings of mules and carts 
are continually passed. For the last 

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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I winds along the E. side 

Ue^s, and in places there are 

i which gradually increase in 

'" the Eeri Ghat D.6. is 

im building is perched over 

«nt of 1600 or 2000 ft. The 

kes about 7 hrs. by tonga. 

om the plains the cold of the 

J rather trying. 

. 3^ The land upon which 
ads was retained by the 
Dvemment as a sanitarium at 
f the Gurkha War in 1816-16, 
of the surrounding district 
to the natives. Lieut. 
, the first residence, a 
^^^ wooden cottage, in 1819. 
-"^ »sor, Lieut Kennedy, in 1822 
_/lg^ mnanent house. OtneroflScers 
' ^ the example, and in 1826 Simla 
i settlement. In 1829 Lord 
spent the summer there, and 
t date the sanitarium grew 
favour with Europeans, 
government of Sir John 
in 1864, Simla has been 
&er capital for India. As 
ihe hot weather sets in, the 
Mit officers and Viceroy quit 
For Simla, which is deserted in 
r. The European residences 
y r"' fer a ridge in a crescent shape, 
-^ 18 from W. to E. for a distance 

toot of this ridge is a precipi- 

pt, in some places a complete 

ff about 1000 ft., leading down 

, which is watered by several 

B the Gumbhar and the 

which are tw^o waterfalls. 

there are the Pahar, the 

and the Sarsa streams. 

bazaar road cuts off one 

from another. The E. 

led Chota Simla, the W. is 

The ridge running N,, 

with oaks and rhododen- 

led Elysium. On the 

the station is Jutoghf a 

; on the top of a lofty 

\\ m. to the E. 

Prospect HUl, 7140 ft. 

which is the W. point 

nt of which we nave 

to the £. of this hill is 

Peterhoff, the old residence of the 
Viceroy, with Observatory Hill and 
the fine OovemmerU House on it 3 
furlongs to the W. 

The United Sermee Cflub lies 600 
ft. due S. of Combermere Bridge 
on the slopes of Jako, a hill 8048 ft. 
above sea -level. The Bandstand is a 
little way to the S. of the Club ; and 
the Mayo Orphanage is at the N.E. 
comer of Jako. 

The Public Institntioiui at Simla 
comprise the Bishop Cotton School, 
the Punjab Girls' School, the Mayo 
Orphanage, a Roman Catholic Con- 
vent, and a handsome Town Hall, 
besides the QoTenundnt Offices. These 
occupy several fine blocks of building. 
In one are the offices of the Accountant- 
General, the Public Works Secretariat, 
the offices of the Executive Engineer, 
the Superintendent of Works, the 
Director-General of Railways. Another 
building contains the Legislative and 
Home Departments, the office of the 
Surgeon-General of H.M. Forces, the 
Commissariat Department. Another 
block is occupied by the Judge Advo- 
cate-General's office, the office of H. E. 
the Commander-in-Chief, the Quarter- 
master-General's office, the Intelligence 
Branch, and the Revenue and Agricul- 
tural Departments. Above are the 
Adjutant-Greneral's office, the Meteoro- 
logical Department, the Survey of 
India, and many other offices. About 2 
m. from these buildings is the Foreign 
Office. Not far from it is the General 
Post-Office and the Telegraph Office. 
In the Court House are the various law 
offices. The Town Hall contains the 
Municipal Offices and the Station 
Library. This building also has a 
theatre, a concert -room, and a fine 
ballroom. A few minutes' walk from 
the Town Hall is 

Christ Church at the foot of Jako Hill. 

The scenery at Simla is of peculiar 
beauty ; it presents a series of magni- 
ficent views, embracing on the S. the 
Umballa Plains with the Sabathu and 
Kasauli HiUs in the foreground, and 
the massive block of the Chor, a little 
to the E. ; while just below the 
spectator's feet a series of huge ravines 
lead down into the deep valleys which 

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score the motmtain sides. Northwards 
the eye wanders over a network of 
confused chains, rising range aboTe 
range, and crowned in the distance by 
a crescent of snowy peaks standing out 
in bold relief against the clear back- 
ground of the sky. The rides and 
walks will furnish endless amusement 
to the visitor, who, however, will do 
well to be cautious, particularly as 
regards the animal he mounts. A 
number of people have been killed by 
falling over precipices at this station, 
and many more have had narrow 
escapes of their lives. 

Anaadald is a fairly extensive plain, 
in a vaUey 1200 ft. below the ridge 
on the N.W. of the station. The 
Race-cowrse surrounds it, and it con- 
tains the Ptiblic Gardens, the Cricket 
Groimd, and some very fine trees. This 
is 'the spot where all open-air meetings 
are held. West again of Anandale is the 
Glen, a charming wooded valley with 
some grassy slopes and fine timber. The 
dripping rock snould be looked for in it. 

The distances at Simla, taken from 
Christ Church, are — Round Jako, 5 
m. ; Boileaugaiy, 2| m. ; to the end 
of Chota Simla, 2 m. 

From Simla the traveller may make 
an expedition to, 4 m., Mnshobra, a 
pleasant place to spend a few days, 
and to 

Narkanda and Kotgarh, D.B. There 
he will be rewarded by seeing some 
grand scenery. The stages are as 
follows : — 

Names of Stages. 


Above Sea-lereL 

Mahasu fh)ra Simla 


8200 ft. 

Phagu . 



Theog . 





7720 „ 

Narkanda . . 



Kotgarti . 




At Phagu, D.B., iu the territory 
of the Rana of Kotah, is a magnificent 
view of the snowy range. 

10 m. E. of Theoi^ are the Kot 
Khai iron-mines. 

Narkanda, D.B., splendid view. 

53} m. Kotgarh. 

[Soltanpur, the old residence of the 
Sultans of Kulla, In the KuUa VaUej, Is 
approached by way of Simla ; it is a long Mfl 
tedious expedition, but the scenery cannot l» 
surpassed for grandeur, and the Deodar 
Forests abound in pheasants and other game. 
Farther up amongst the high peaks sportnnen 
will find ibex and bears.] 

















Simla Theog 
Theog Mathiana 


Vil. good bungalow 


Good road 




»1 M >' 


ru "_. 




t> >> »» 


Fine view, 
good road. 




„ „ 






„ no bungalow 


Cross Sut- 
1^. Ascent 
and des- 




„ small bungalow 






>< i> i> 


Cross val- 
ley, steep 
ascent and 







»> >» •! 







M l» ■ l< 










„ good bungalow 






Delhi to Umballa by the E. bank 
OF Jumna River— Meerut, Sar- 


RA Dun and Mussourie. 

13 m. Qh ariabadjupc. sta. :^ From 
:hi8 point the E. I. Rly. runs S.E. to 
Allahabad and Calcutta. 

41 m. Heerut city sta. 

44 m. Mbebut Cantonment sta. 3^ 
(The N.W, Rly. enters the cantonment 
at the S.W.) The Oantonment of 
Meemt is the headquarters of a division 
of the army, and is noteworthy from 
its size and importance, and because 
the Mutiny of the Bengal Army inUpper 
India began there. It was held all 
through the Mutiny by a few British 
troops, who kept order in the surround- 
ing district Meerut is an ancient city 
half-way between the Ganges and 
Jnmna, and was raised from decay by 
British patronage. It is an extensive 
station, measuring 3^ m. from the rail- 
way on the W., to the Police Lines on 
the extreme E., traversed by the Mall 
Road, one of the finest and broadest 
roads in India, and 3 m. from where 
the Bulandshahar Road, on the S., 
leaves the sta., to the end of Church 
Street. The European Cavalry Bar- 
racks are of remarkable extent. 

St. John's Church, completed 1821, 
in the Italian style, was the first church 
erected in the Upper Provinces of India. 
There are tablets m it to a great number 
of officers who have been killed in 
action or have died in Upper India. 

The Cttnetery, which lies to the 
N.W. of the church, is vast, and 
divided into two parts — the new being 
marked by crosses and English tombs, 
the old by cupolas and pyramids. The 
pilhir, 50 ft. high, was erected to Sir 
K Rollo Gillespie, who subdued the 
Mutiny at Vellore. 

The Central Jail, completed in 
1819, is capable of holding 4600 
prisoners. The District Jail is a little 
ferther to the E. 

Temples, etc— The Sv/rc^ Kund, 
commonly called by Europeans the 
"Monkey Tank," is to the W. of the 
Jaii " It was constructed by Jo>.dhir 
Mull, a wealthy merchant of Lawar, ' 

in 1714. There are numerous small 
temples, dharmsalas, and sati pillars 
on its banks, but none of any note." 
The Baleshwar Nath Temple is the 
oldest in the district, and dates from 
before the Moslem invasion. The 
Dargahj in the Nau Chandi Mahallah, 
is said to have been built by Kutbu- 
din, from the remains of a Hindu 
temple which he pulled down. The 
Dargah of Shah Fir is a fine structure 
of red sandstone, erected about 1620 
A.D. by Nur Jehau, in memory of a 
pious fakir of that name. The Jumma 
Musjid is said to have been built in 
1019 by Hasan Mahdi, Vazir of Mah- 
mud Uhaznavi, and was repaired by 
Humayun. The Makharah of Salar 
Masaud Gliazi is attributed to Kutbu- 
din Aibak in 1191. There are two 
large Imamharahs, one near the Eam- 
bou Gate, and another in the Zabidi 
Mahallah, and an 'Idgahy on the Delhi 
Road, built in 1600. There is a mosque 
built by Nawab Khairandesh Khan in 
the Saraiganj. And besides those already 
mentioned, there are 62 mosques and 
60 temples in the city, none of which, 
however, deserve any particular notice. 

Before reaching Sarahana the Ganges 
Canal, made by Sir Proby Cautley, is 

51 m. Sardhana sta., D.B., is con- 
nected with an adventurer named 
Sombre or Sumroo, of French or Wal- 
loon origin, who came out to India as 
a carpenter in the French navy. He 
became leader of a band of European 
deserters and native Sepoys, whom he 
brought to a state of discipline unusual 
in native soldiers. After serving under 
several native chiefs, but staying with 
none of them long, he joined one 
Gregory, an Armenian, who was high in 
the favour of Mir Kasim, the Nawab of 
Bengal. It was after the fall of Munger 
that he did his employer the base service 
of putting to death all the sixty English 
prisoners who had been collected at 
Patna (in 1763), a deed for which his 
name will ever be held in abhorrence. He 
nextjoined the Bhurtpur chief, and from 
him finally went over to Najaf Khan, 
from whom he received a grant of the 
Parganah of Sardhana, then valued at 
6 lakhs a year and to him he remained 

Digitized by GoOgleO 




faithful for the rest of his life. He 
died in 1778, and his Begam, originally 
a Cashmere dancing-girl, viaa recognised 
as Ms widow, and succeeded to his 
domains and the command of his troops. 
She became a Roman Catholic in 1784, 
and married a French adventurer named 
Le Vaisseau (1792), who having shown 
himself incompetent to rule was in- 
duced to commit suicide. The revolt 
which he had caused was (jueUed by 
the Begam, aided by an English servant, 
George Thomas, and by a son of Sumroo, 
Zafar yab Khan.' At his death, 1802, 
the Begam ^ve his daughter in mar- 
riage to Mr. Dyce, one of her officers, 
afterwards known as Colonel Dyce 
Sombre, who in 1862 married Lady 
Mary Jervis, daughter of Earl St. 
Vincent, afterwards Lady M. Forester. 
The Begam was a woman of shrewd 
ability, and after keeping up a good 
understanding with the British Govern- 
ment, her forces were received into 
British pay. 

E. of the town is a modern English 
mansion, built 1834, and called the 
Palace, with a ffrand flight of steps at 
the entrance. It stands in a garden of 
50 acres, and is commonly known as 
the Eothi Dilkusha. Within will be 
found two framed inscriptions record- 
ing the charities of H.H. the Begam 
Sombre in Sardhana. There are por- 
traits of the Begam and her friends. 
In one she is represented smoking, with 
Dyce Sombre as a child beside her. 
Also of George Thomas, General Ochter- 
lony. Sir C. Metcalfe, Lord Comber- 
mere, Colonel Boileau, General Ventura, 
and the Begam's butler, etc. 

The B. C. Cathedral is outside the 
town on the S. It is an imposing 
building, standing in an enclosure, sur- 
rounded by an ornamental wall. By 
the side entrance, on the rt., is the 
Begam's white marble monument, made 
at Home. Close by is the B. C. College, 
a low masonry house, which was once 
the Begam's own residence. It is in- 
tended for the instruction of native 
priests, and endowed by the Begam. 
There are 60 pupils taught by the 
Italian priest ana his curate. The 
Begam's or Sumroo estates lapsed to 
Government in 1835. 

111m. Saharanpore junc. sta.,3^ (R.) 
D.B. From here the Oudh and Rohil- 
cund railway runs K to Hardwar, AU- I 
garh, Lucknow, Ajodhya, and Benares 
(see Rte. 16 ; good road to 42 m. Dehra 
Dun, p. 256). 

This municipal city, with a pop. of 
68,300, is the headquarters of the Jumni 
Canal establishment. 

The town was founded in the reign 
of Muhammad Tughlak about 1340. 
It was called from Shah Haran Chisti, 
whose shrine is still much visited by 
Mohammedans. It was a favooiite 
place of summer resort of the Mognl 
court. In the reign of Shah Jehan a 
royal hunting -seat, called Badshah 
Mahal, was built by 'All Mardan Khan, 
the projector of the Eastern Jqhuii 
Canal. Unhappily the canal was 
neglected during the decline of the 
Mogul Empire, and was never of much 
utility till the district came under 
British rule. Sir P. Cautley recon-