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Full text of "A handbook of Highland County and a supplement to Pendleton and Highland history"

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A 
HANDBOOK OF HIGHLAND COUNTY 

—AND— ■ (L 

A SUPPLEMENT TO 
Pendleton and Highland History 



O.F. MOSTOH, 

Author of Histories of Pendleton and Highland, and Other Coucitiea 



M0NTERE3Y, VA. 
THE HIGHLAND RECORDEP 
1922 



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084533 



MONTEREY. VA. 
PRINTED BY THE RECORDER 



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CONTENTS 

Page 

An Outline ot Highland History 1 

Plghland as Seein in a Tour " Z 

Climate . r g 

Scenic Attractions 10 

Villages and Hamlets 12 

Industries i ; ■ ; • 19 

Roads 23 

Schools 28 

A Look Ahead 31 

Notes on the History of Highland 39 

Notes on the History of Pendleton (Beginning on line 11) 57 

The Pendleton People of 1782 68 

Soldiers of the War of 1812 73 

Pendleton and Highland in the World War 76 

Highland in Business and the Professions 101 



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PREFACE 

The original purpose of this volume was to furnish a descriptive and 
industrial write-up of Highland county. But the author's History of High- 
land has been out of print for several years. The History of Pendleton is 
not yet out of print, but he could not realize his intentica of converting the 
remnant of the stock into a revised edition. This Handbook has therefore 
been made to serve the secondary- purpose of bringing the two county 
histories down to date, particularly with reference to their share in the 
World War. The present book has not only a value in itself, but it impartr. 
a new value to the Histories of Pendleton and Highland, as published in 
1910 and 1911. 

The chapter on the World War consolidates in some degree the stories 
or the two counties which relate to that event. But those secticQS which 
seemingly relate wholly to Pendleton are of interest to readers in Highland, 
«i;nd vice versa. And even those topics which pertain to the Handbook as 
simply a Handbook of Highland County, are in very large degree applica- 
ble to Pendleton as well. The two counties are sister counties, in geogra- 
phy as well as in population. 

The additions and corrections to the History of Highland are in large 
part derived from marginal notes written by John M. Colaw on the pages 
of his private copy. Important contributions have been received also from 
Walter P. Campbell, the Rev. M. Ernest Hansel, and Mrs. Helen M. G. Paul, 
all three now living outside of their native county. Without such help an 
this the author could have done very little in that line. 

The roster of Pendleton soldiers in the World War is based upon the 
record preserved by H. M. Calhoun. His industry and plans in keeping In 
touch with the men called to the colors, and in preserving a record of the 
replies to his letters is an unusual display of thoughtfulness, and is highly 
commendable. In those instances where for one cause or rnother, there 
v/as neglect in acknowledging his inquiries, the fault does not rest with Mr. 
Calhoun. In Highland there is a similar acknowledgment to G. Lee Chev/, 
v/ho has taken great care to preserve a record for his own county. 

The author would also extend his thanks to all other persons who have 
actively aided the present undertaking. 

OREN F. MORTON 
McDowell, Virginia, July 28, 1922. 



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AN OTJTUinE OF HIGHTAND HISTORY 

The author's History of Highland County was issued in 1911. In the 
general accuracy of the information secured, and in the printing and bind- 
ing of the book, there is a very marked advance over the original History 
of Pendleton. But the volume has long been out of print. This article 
pre3ents a summary of the leading facts in Highland history, and this is fol- 
lowed by notes of explanation or correction. The reason for putting it into 
this book is that for more than half a century Pendleton included more 
than one-half of Highlamd, and many Pendleton families are represented 
in that county. 

Like Pendleton, Highland has Shenandoah Mountain on the east and 
the Alleghr,ny Front on the west. Its geographic features are therefore 
Very much like those of the northern county. But cince its valleys are 
crossed by the series of saddle-ridges that separate the waters of the Poto- 
mac from those of the James, the average elevation is greater and the cli- 
mate is cooler. The first line between Pendleton and Augusta followed the 
cross-divide and was consequently a natural boundary. Furthermore, the 
first settlers south of the divide were almost wholly Scotch-Irish. North 
of it the German element was much in the lead. But in 1796 the Pendle- 
ton line was moved southward from four to twelve miles, and so remained 
until 1847. 

The magisterial districts of Highland, counting from west to east, 
ore Bluegrass, Monterey, and Stonewall. The area of the county is 390 
square miles. The population in 1850 was 4227. lin 1900 it had risen to 
5,647. In 1910 it had fallen to 5,317, and in 1920 to 4,931. 

The choice lands south of the saddle-divide were covered by an order 
of council issued in 1748 to Atndrew Lewis and certain associates. Settle- 
ment began in 1746, but perhaps in 1745. 

The formation of Highland in 1847 was not so much because Pendleton 
and Bath were too long as because the Staunton and Parkersburg Turnpike 
l^ad been opened in 1838. This circumstance gave the Highland area an 
important advantage. 

County government was organized May 20, 1847 in the house of John 
Cook, which stood near a spring behind the office of E. B. Jones in the town 
of Monterey. The first justices were Ge.orge W. Amiss, Emmanuel Arbo- 
gast, Abel H. Armstrong, David H. Bird, James Brown, Andrew H. Byrd, 
James B. Campbell Benjamin Fleisher, George Hicklin, Peter Hull, Thomas 

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Jenes, John H. Pullin, Samuel Ruckman, John Sitlington, Reuben Slaven, 
Adam Stephenson Sr., and Charles Steuart. 

. Major Peter Hull, was the first sheriff and his deputies were David 
G. McClung and Peter H. Kinkead. Adam Stephenson Jr., was the first 
•Jerk, and Thomas Campbell the first surveyor. The constables for the five 
*stricts into which the county was set off were Andrew J. Jones, John M. 
JBcxTode, James H. Ryder, Houston F. Gwin,' and William S. Thompson. 

A contract for courthouse and jail was awarded to Robert Johnson for 
$4,935. The voting places established in 1847 were Samuel Ruckma^n's and 
Sltlington's mill in Bluegrass, John Cook's and John Wiley's in Monterey, 
msid William McClung's and the village of McDowell in Stonewall. 

'The members of the first, grand jury were George Carlile (foreman), 
Thomas Beverage, George H. Bird, John Chestnut, Gorge Colaw, William 
Carry, Adam Fox, Moses Gwin, James Gwin, John C. Gwin, William T. 
Johns, John Lightner, Jacob Newman. Thomas Parks, Loftus Pullin, David 
Steuart, David Varner, John Vandevender, Sampson Wagoner, Samuel Wil- 
Km, and Amos Wimer. 

The most conspicuous events of the Indian wars were a battle near the 
tead of the North Fork, the attack on the home of William Wilson on Jack- 
son's River, and the building of Fort George on the farm of L. M. McClung. 
The chief events of the civil war were tjie battle of McDowell, May 8, 1862, 
anid the raids by Federal cavalry in 1S63 and 1864. 



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mGHJiAin) AS SEEN IN A TOUR 

'I'he^fetratiger entering Highland from the east, — the direction frcm 
vv'hich thfe'^arly settlers came, — has his first glimpse of the county from Om 
yhiaf^ surtimit of the lofty Shenandoah Moucitain, formerly knorvTm 
as Grtat"' North Mountain, tb distinuguish it from South Mountain 
on the other side of the Valley of Virginia. All along the eastnm 
border of this - coiLcity, Shenandoah Mountain is continuous, its sScj- 
l?ne presenting no deep depressions. Being of sandstone formation, ft 
is inot, like the limestone uplifts, an alternation of open and wooded tracti. 
but is an unbroken forest, and such it has been even since the dawn ^l^r 
white settlement. Nature intended it as a forest reserve, and this condl- 
ticn is insured by its having become one of. the forest reservations of tl» 
national governmcmt. This means that for a very indefinite future thcae 
heights may not be devastated by reckless lumbering, and that fires wiH Im 
suppressed. Clothed uuintenuptcdly in woodland, the graceful coiitoui iff 
iAv huge rampart will remain a lU.Iight to the eye. It will also remjii:- a 
cluito dependable source of pasturage and to lumber and fuel. IncidentaUr 
It will remalii a retreat for game. The more objectionable predatory saa- 
mals, such as- the panther and the wolf are gone, but the black "bear i»- 
niafm, and b^caiise of him, this mountain range is unsafe for sheep. Dev 
have not quite disappeared, but are very rare. 

Looking west from the narrow summit, one may see dlear across Om 
breadth of the county. The prospect is that of a tangle of mountain ransa 
high and low, all piled closely together. This appearance is largely d^ 
ceptlve, and coraf? from looking horizontally across the landscape. RiaLns 
from the almost hiddcm valleys are the upper edges of tracts of open ground. 
Yet as a whole the field 6f vision is almost as primeval as when gazed upaat 
by the pathfinders of nearly two hundred years ago. On a clear, sumiy^ 
day the prospect is well calculated to detain the person to whom a visUm 
uf graceful mountain scenery is not an everyday occurence. 

A seiies of rather sharp turns in this Staunton and Parkersburg tui»- 
pike, — completed in 1838 by an engineer who served under the first Napo- 
leon, — brings us rapidly down the mountain side. Thence a straight tra& 
of about 6ne mile, following a hollow, leads us into the hamlet of Hes*- 
waters or the left bank of Shaw's Fork, a little stream we cross by fordiBC 
The road leads diagonally up the steep eastern face of Shaw's ridge, and M 
only half a miU- from the creek we are at the summit. Looking .baclt «bb 

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have a full view of Headwaters, several new white buildings, including a 
church and a Fxhool house, giving the place a more modern appearance than 
it recently i o-s-seeeed. Northv/ard, toward the line of Pendleton county, the 
valley is quite narrow and has few people. Below it immediately widens 
3Ut, especially on the cast side of the stream', and there is a succession of 
good farms all the way to its mouth, three miles away. Shaw's Fork and 
Shaw's Rid^cre ure named for a man who lived a short while in this valley 
nnd sccnir. to 1 ave been its earliest settler. 

Ky an fcsier g^rade of a mile and a h&lf we come to a ford on the Cow- 
pasture. The pike follows the northward face of a hollow, and in severe 
weather the luad is more icy than would otherwise be the case. Bj^ re- 
peated surveying cf the other side friled to find a more advantageous route. 
The fordings of the two streams should be abolished, rmd in no long time 
they will be. fet the Cowprsture U no more than a mill stream where 
crossed by the pike, and for only very bi ief periods is it rendered impassable 
by high water. 

The valley we have now entered runs the length of the county, bvt its 
northernmost secticci is drained by the first few miles of the Sorth Fork 
of the S«»iUU iJrjii.ch «f 'he Fotomiv . The Cowpasture rises on rho ;;ouili 
s'de of the saddle ridge that devides the waters. The valley i3 narrow and 
rather hilly as far down as the confluence with Shaw's Fork. Below it ii 
n.uch broader, since Shaw's Fork comes to an end where the streams uoiite, 
the low ground lying mainly on the east side of the river. Taken as a 
whole the valley of the Cowpasure is the least fertile and the least develop- 
ed of all the valleys of Highland. In part this i3 due to the lack of ray 
village center. The best section of the valley is that next to the line of 
Bath county. Here the low ground lies chiefly on the right ban^ and for 
coijntlcss years has been enriched by the wash from the limestonie upland 
at the west. 

By the pike it is five miles from the Cov/pasture to the Bullpasture, 
Each river-bottom is skirted on the inner side by abrupt foothills that often 
exhibit a slaty and therefore infertile formation next the respective rivers. 
But immediately within, a limestone base appears. Bullpasture Mountain 
is not a saw-toothed ridge like those with a sandstone core, of which Shen- 
andoah Mountain is an iinstance. It is a broad, swelling dome, highest 
toward the center, and carved by raviines into a complex of short hills. 
There are almost no rumning streams, because the rainwater sinks into the 
cavernous limestone beneath the surface. At the gaps in the foothill side's 
are very strong springs, some of which have been used to turn mill wheels. 
Following a law of- natural history, these deep springs have a constant 
temperature throughout the year. They are relatively warm in winter and 
only during extreme cold do the water wheels become clogged with ice. 

Because of the limestone structure, very much of Bullpasture Mountain 
l»as been cleared and converted into grazing lands. Yet few people actually 



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live on this mountain, the homes of the owners being commonly in thA ^aJi — 
leys below. Nevertheless, this belt of fine pasture is one of the nussst «^— 
teiisive in all Highland county. 

The valley of the Bullpasture runs entirely through the county,, an* fts^ 
broader and more important than that of the Cowpasture. It is likeswfiaKr 
the valley most conspicuous for general farming. Prom Doe Hiir iai tJfaE- 
north nearly to the Williamsville gorge in the south, the bottom Iaft« cfes - 
continuous and year after year produces good crops of corn, wheats 
hay. The river exhibits a strong tendency to keep close to the foot of ] 
pasture Mountain. Westward there is a oreadth of about three miles of i 
paratively low country, threaded by lateral valleys and dotted with hills^aaa. T 
short ridges. Many farms are tucked away in these side valleys.. altIiQiiii3fef> 
but a very miaior part of the surface is brought into tillage 

From this side frequeirt creeks enter the river, one of them, CSori^ 
Rua, being of considerable volume. 

- At the head of the Bullpasture valley is the village of Doe HilL 
way down is McDowell, the oldest village in Highland. Just inside 
line of Bath county is Williamsville. Of these villages more will be i 
elsewhere. 

It is eight miles up the pike by a comfortable gradte^ tothe topot 
divide separating the Bullpasture from Jackson's River. In the 
dasttsuDce we pass through the eastern arm of Jack* Mountain and tmi 
the upper valley of Highland by following the sad^e-ridge which co 
Jack and Monterey mountains. Northward, reaching to the PendTc 
iin«, is the very broken district drained by th«r various arms of "Ti i^ir 
Creek. Notwithstanding the uneven surface a large area is in cultiYXt 
This district is more thickly populated than any other in Highland, 
tendency to sell out and go elsewhere is less conspicuous tham in the i 
ing sections. A young couple settles down at or near the old home 
the number of inhabita»nts increases. But the lands are not of the ^l 
and as a rule the same is true of the farm homes. 

The vaHey opening out to the south shows a different configuratioiu ] 
is narrow, but is at once better suited to farming as well as grazingir. 

From the Monterey divide, one Straight Creek flows north to 
the South Branch at Forks of Waters, a mile within the PendKetda 
From the same divide another Straight Creek courses south to. the: < 
en trainee of Vanderpool Gap, where it meets Jackson's "River.. The 
y< aters th^n flow a dozen miles farther to the line of Bath county;. Ifa^ 
doing so they traverse of succession of farms that comprise a consnferrfBfa^^ 
amount of river bottom. But because of the narrowness of the main rzW^r^ 
there is a much smaller population up the lateral valleys than„ there im^^ 
the case of the Bullpasture. 

Yet to the east, lying between Monterey and Jack Ubxmma^^ 
is a tributary region of much importance. This is Big Valley, one 



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eanoe-shaped basirs that often cccur in the Alleghanies^ The southern^ 
end, reaching several miles into Bctli is known as Little Valley. The: 
ncrthcrn terminaticn is in the vicinity of Sounding Knob. The drainage : 
of the northern end of Big Valley is in the direction of Vanderpool. The 
drainage of the southern and larger portion is westward by way of Bolar 
Run. 

From end to end Big Vf lley is a fine bluegr6,ss pasture, and as such 
its lands command a high price. The local population is more numerous 
than on BuIIpacture Mountain. 

By a seies oi tlic usual zigzags tlic pike ascends Monterey Mountain, 
and then follows the Ilightown saddle en iits v/ay to Lantz Mountain. On 
one side of this saddle are the springs from which issues the South Branch 
cf the Potomac. On the ether side are the sources of Jackson's River,, 
which after its junction with the Cowpasturc i^ Laov/n as the James. At 
Hightown is a large barn, the gables facing nearly cast and west. On one 
side the rainfall feeds the Potomac, while en the other side it feeds the 
James. 

The mountain wall on the west is aearly continuous within the county.. 
The one in the east is pierced but wice. Four miiles south of the saddle-di-- 
vide is Vanderpool Gap, through which Jacksonc River leaves the valley' in 
which it rises. Twice as far to the northward, at the pass marked by the 
Devil's Backbone, the South Branch leaves its own upper valley. 

Immediately to the north of the pike begins the rather famous valley 
known once as Crabapple Bottom and now as the Crabbottom. It is some 
ten miles long and three broad. This limestcae basin is a cea of blue grass.. 
The Crabbottom is recognized as the garden spot of Highland, if a tract 
which is grazed and almost never plowed may be properly termed a garden. 
Of this Cine valley we shall have more to say in another place. 

The upcrmcst valley of Jacscn's River is geograiphically a continution 
of the Crabbottom and is likewise a grazing region. About the same thing 
!R true of the valley known as Big Back Creek, which bears almost the same- 
i elation to Back Creek proper that Big Valley does to Jackson's River.. 
And like Big Valley, Big Back Creek drains westward and not eastward. 

We are still a few miles from the western line of Highland. Between 
La.ntz Mountain and the Alleghany Front is still another valley. To the 
north of the pike it is in fact double, the narrow twin valleys being draine<t 
by Straight and Laurel forks, known below their ji action as the North 
1 ork of the South Branch of the Potomac. To the south is the valley of 
Back Creek, distinguished from its tributary companion as Little Back 
Creek. Though single it is narrow, and our remark that it holds about 
the same relation to Big Valley that Jackson's River bears to Big Valley 
does <not hold true in the matter of population. Little Back Creek is the 
less populous division and the less important in an agricultural sense. The 
twin valleys to the northward are still more thinly peopled, and until re-» 



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colitly there was a large body of merchantable timber in this part of High- 
land. This has been cut away, and the rails of the lumber-road that was 
4)uilt across the Alleghany have been taken up. 

The western boundary of Highland follows the crest of the Alleghany 
Front, the watershed parting the feeders of the Missippl from the 
rivers flowing into the Atlantic. Again we are on a limestone mountain, 
this being higher than the Bullpasture, and in a large degree the forest 
'las been cleared away. Though an excellent grazing area, there is some 
Cilage, the Alleghay being famous for its oats and potatoes. But for 
'even the summer nights are rather too cooL 



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CLIMATE 






TSi* tjlimate of Highland is one of its chiefest attractions. The mountain 
on the east shields this county from the chilly east winds that occur 
«intl)e Atlantic coast. The mountain wall on the west shields it from the 
^ afliiiiiwijiheric disturbances that have free play in the vast plains of the Mis- 
JBBfelpia basin. The elevation gWes it the summer climate of New England 
^afl iia©rthern New York without also giving it a winter of Canadian se- 
vuiJLJly. 

3f it were on the sea level. Highland would have a mean temperature 
4riF SS degrees. Its winters and summers would be similar to those of the 
^i^y of Washington with respect to heat. Directly east, on the shore of the 
tCbesapeake, the growing season is long enough to permit corn to mature 
^viOaBn ft follows a crop of early potatoes. In Highland no such feat may be 
awaDBaplished. At Monterey the average yearly temperature is about 48 
iBegvees. In winter it is about 29 degrees, in summer about 67. The sum- 
xjHBEr^flays are few when the mercury rises above the 80 degree mark. The 
r nights are few when a blanket is not required. But the winters 
^xmg rather than severe. Saiowdrifts may block the roads over the Alle- 
jaShKagr::Eront or even the roads into the Crabbottom, but this is infrequently 
-lEHBtf^ssme *on Shenandoah mountain. People from this region who have rea- 
aBBiUo SD to Baltimore in winter time complain of the penetrating cold of 
JBfes aeacoasL In summer time they as little relish the enervating heat. 
^ At:aH times the air of this region is tonic and exhilarating. It is con- 
^OBCJve to Tjodily vigor and to mental exertion. A sunny day in summer is 
JBKast enjoyable. The mountain ridges, clothed in vivid green foliage, stand 
in clear relief, and the breeze coming through the meadow bears the 
ol the clover and the fragrant milkweed. In the fall there is a 
»*3asimiim of clear, bracing days, and the riot of color in the autumnal foli- 
agg, the maroon, the orange, the reds, the yellows, and the changing greens 
JCBBBt be seen to be appreciated. The winter itself is by no means so 
MBcarly a reign of leaden sky as is so true of some regions on the seacoast. 
"^Ofes sun often comes through the clouds. There is sometimes mud, but it is 
: asBl sticky nor bottomless. 

The woods foliage is fully grown by about May 25, and except on the 
IfiKSher elevations, killing frost is mot likely to come before October. 

The climate of Monterey, where the altitude is 3,100 feet is a mean 
water that ol the county. At Hightown with 3200 feet of elevation, the cli- 

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mate is slightly cooler. At McDowell, where the altitude sinks to 24Q9 1 
it is perceptibly milder. 

The many instances of longevity which occur in this territory are eB»~ 
quent of the general healthfulness. Illness is found here, for no regi6wt 
is exempt, but there does not appear to be any form of disease for whicfe Gfeer- 
climate of Highland is distinctly umfavorable. On the other hand. aoDiae 
forms of sickness are here practically unknown. 

The climate of a mountain district is ordinarily considered from iSi^ 
viewpoint of the summer season alone, the inference being that the winMssr 
is something to be shunned. But on the contrary where there is an alDbraae^ 
tive summer climate, there is likely to be a good winter climate to matjcfi?jfc,_ 
And it may be affirmed of Highland that it has a good all-year climafei scjp- 
tonic and healthful at one season as another. 



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SCENIC ATTRACTIONS 

The person who is plecsed vvith mountain scenery cannot bo disap- 
pointed in Highland. Whichever way you turn there are mountains, and yet 
the outlook is never monotonous. The view is never quite the same. Except 
when artificially cleared, the mountains are dencely covered with forest. 
This woodland growth is almost wholly a diversity of hardv/ood. There is 
never a solid background of pine with its funereal samoness. Where there 
are rocky ledges cr rock-burdened slope:, these are usually screened iin the 
growing season by the lich and varied foliage. Then again, the graceful 
mountain contour so characteristic of the Appalachian country, is here pre-- 
sent in lull nica^uio. 

Several prominences pars the line of -IT 00 feot in elovr.tion. Sounding 
Knob, four miles south cf Monterey, ri::cs 4400 feet above tlio sea and is the 
monarch of the mountairs of Highland. From its summit there is an exten- 
sive view on a fair day. r»Ir.ny ether high peints command cliarming fields 
of vision and are well v/orth the time acid trouble it takes to ascend them. 
On the southern border of Monterey is a conical knob, perhaps the only- 
one of its class in the county. Though of no great elevation it is nevertheless 
steep. On the shcctc issued by the Natiemal Geologic Survey it is marked as. 
volcanic. Viewed from the village the cone appears to end in a sharp point, 
but when asccr.ided it ij found to be truncate, or flat-topped. Tovrard the 
summit the knob is very stcay, especially in a space of crescent form. Iho 
fragments of rock are dark in color and rough in outline. In plugging the- 
crater that once spawned here, nature has left only a slight trace of the vent. 
There is no leager a tree on the knob, although the semilunar pits not only 
show where trees once stood but even show the direction in which they fell.. 
But in every instance trunk and stumps have alike vanished. There is con- 
sequently nothing to intercept the view. In the north the entire county 
seat village may be surveyed by the eye, and beyond it one may look down 
North Straight Creek to the line of West Virginia. In the opposite direc- 
tion, by looking down the half-mile wide valley of South Straight Creek, 
one may discern Vanderpool Gap and have a vista of the lower valley of 
Jackson's River. 

At the head of the mountain gap just below Crabbottom village is the 
Devil's Backbone. Ruaining lengthwise and almost vertically through the 
mountain on the north side of the pass is a projecting sheet of rock. It is 
rather suggestive of the comb on the head of a domestic fowl. Vertical 

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formations of the same character n:ay be seen elsewhere in Highland. A 
lecser example thra the Backbone is the ledge a few miles west of McDowell 
by the side of the Staunton and Parkersburg pike. A double ledge is the 
Devil's Slide on a steep projection of Bullpasture Mountain a little above 
the head of the Williamsville gorge. In this instance two parallel strata 
project from the hillside. 

There are no lakes in. Highland and no cataracts, but the heavy fall 
'Of the streams affords a rapid succession of miniature cascades.- There are 
plcturcsQue gorges, where streams pa&s fronx one valley into another, and 
in these shaded glens are ideal spots for a summer picnic, especially when 
•one of the clear, cool mountain springs is near by. 



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VnXAOES AND HAMLETS 

The Staunton and Parkersburg turnpike created the county of High- 

and the town of Monterey. When that state road wos opened in 1858. 

raaa^was as though a line of railway had beeoi located near the boundary be- 

Pendleton and Bath. Strong influences were brought to bear to make 

S3iew road pass nearly through the center of the new county, and as a re- 

: Pendleton and Bath were shortened. But though smaller than either 

»l>arent bounties, the pike gave such am advantage to Highland that 

"fltarai ^while it had more people than Bath and nearly as many as Pendleton. 

^n 1847 there was less open land thain there is now, and the timher- 

jBbbS area had been but very lightly culled. The county was nearly self- 

j— la^u ning^ and for the very good reason that it had to be. Almost all the 

homes were log houses. Exceedingly few were those of stone or 

, and concrete was unknown. The only good road was the pike, reach- 

; tfc© the Ohio River, and so long as it was in its glory it answered the 

p3[90Be of a railway. The road between Vanderpool and Bolar cros30l 

onV River twenty-two Hmes. In place.', the bed of the stream was 

[ <,iit and U3*d as ji :iigh\\ay. The otlior i.ourty voutLj wf^i little bet- 

, al any. 

The new county made one more county seat necessary. It was a fore- 

c<.»nclusion that the courthouse would be built somewhere on the line 

pike. Where McDowell now stands was the hamlet then known as 

* tree Bottom, but this was passed over in favor of an opening in the 

and laural thickets on the saddle connecting Jack and Monterey 

iiis. 

iiVen v/hen the war of 1861 broke out Monterey was a village of only 
flwelli.ng houses, sind nearly all were built of logs. The houses had 
.maatttgaM,e increased at the rate of one a year. But there was also a Methodist 
and I here was a bricK at;*' f»my. 
:^lnce that small showing the county seat of Highland has steadily in- 
1, the census of two years ago givirng it a population of 313. Though 
ed three-quarters of a century ago, Monterey looks comparatively 
The pulling down of a few sheds or other buildings migh improve 
ssqppearance of the little town, yet there is an abseince of dwellings on 
rge of collapse, or such others as are unsightly without being ruinous, 
few exceptions the homes of the townspeople are of quite modern 
ture, the log homes of an earlier day having disappeared. Whether 

12 






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IS 

cid or mewr ^^ houses are almost exclusively frame, and almost as general^ 
ly are paiAted white. The house yards are well grassed. Shade trees, 
shrlibhery, flo\^^ring Vines and potted plants are almost everywhere in evi- 
dence. The rMiety, treacherous wooden sidewalk has all but vanished, and 
h^ given place to ccmcrete, walks of the same material leading also from 
the street to the front door of not a few of the homes. 

The location of Monterey is exceptional. Though in a valley, the 
town is nevertheless on the summit of a ridge. Eastward is the well for- 
ested Jack Mountato, the summit being two miles distant by way of the 
v.'inding turnpike. Westward, and a little farther away, is Monterey 
Mouatain, open fields alternating with wooded tracts all along its eastern 
face. Foothills^ sometimes abrupt, yet never of great altitude, narrow the 
valley, but leave a half-mile of comparatively open floor on the crest of the 
saddle-ridge. This saddle is a portion of the divide between the basins of 
the Potomac and the James, and from it are pleasing vistas into the valleys 
of the North and the South Straight Creeks, each valley broadening as the 
distance from Monterey increases. 

If the view from the village itself is interesting, panramas that are 
different and more extensive reveal themselves as a high point is ascended. 
From a bend in the tunnpike a mile east of Monterey, the whole town is exr 
hibited as though from an airplane. From the long extinct volcanic cone 
just south of the village, the place is again looked down upon, but from a 
very different aingle, while at the same time the observer may look a long 
distance into ,^^. valleys of two Strait Creeks, one opening northward and 
the other southward. Following the turnpike westward to the summit of 
*t€*rey MbUhtain, t^ upper portion of the Crabbottom is displayed, just as 
is the county seat h"om the point first named. The point of view overlooks 
the two considerable ridges immediately west of the Crabbottom amd dis- 
closes a long section of the Alleghany Front, extensive bluegrass pastures 
reachiing to its very summit. Once again, the visitor may ascend Sounding 
Knob, four miles south of Monterey in an airline. This monarch of the 
mountans of Highland towers 1300 feet above the village and not only per- 
mits a still more comprehensive view of the Alleghany Front, but enables 
one to peer over the lofty Shenaindoah Mountain and gain glimpses of the 
distant Blue Ridge. 

Though Monterey is 46 miles from Staunton, its leading railroad out- 
let, it lies but 182 miles from Richmond, 198 from the capital of the United 
States, 257 from the rising seaport of Newport News, and 386 from New 
York, the American metropolis. Therefore the county seat of Highlaind is 
not at all out of the world, aind a first class pike will bring it one hour near- 
er. 

In the «ngle formed by the main street and the streeE bearing soulh- 
'A'ard is the courthouse yard, inclosed by ViH iro« fence. It is a feature of 
the little town that is worthy of more than a passing mention. The in-r 



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liasure is a park as well as courthouse yard. In towns llk^e, Staunton the 
■tranger looks quite in vain for the comfortable spot in the ^050:1 where he 
Koy feel free to sit down and rest. The city park is remjote, and around thb 
•oarthouse the only shade is that offered by the buildin^/itself. , The anly 
aea.ts are the stone steps, and if a crowd be presont he Is in the wa: cf 
acsme one. As to the very limited patch of sward on the east side, he is ox- 
BBCted to "keep off the grass.** But at Monterey is an extensive, well-sodded 
33Lrd. Some twenty-five locusts give plenty of shade, and there are movable 
metallic benches. And furthermore there is no curt poster waiiiing him to 
Itjee^ off from the verdure. The resident or the visitor may enjoy the com- 
*nt of a bench and still be in the center. of the town. 

At the further side of the yard is the brick courthouse built in 1848 
fkMT a number of dollars almost precisely equal to the .number of peopie in 
X92Q. Though not of modern architecture, it is for from being any dis- 
credit to the town and county, and is likely to be retained for some ^ cars 
Mi come. The office cf the county clerk, however, is rather too small. To 
Slc left of the courthouse is the squarish brick jail, a rather recent buildi ig. 

la front of the courthouse door is the marble statue of an accoutered 
■oLller, holding his gun at rest and shading his eyes v/ith his lelt hCviid cs 
tsL looks northward. The statue is mounted on a grnnite shaft, around 
^tiicli, and above a circular base, is a ring of grass. This memorial was 
mX up by the U. D. C. at an expense of abcui $1500. On thiis shaft is the in- 
atription : 

The Confederate Soldiers of Highland County,a living tablet to the past 
Represent, and the future. Erected by the Highland Chap, of tf. D. C. 1918. 

The churches of Monterey are two, the Methodist Episcopal, South and 
WkA Presbyterian. The former is a white frame building, the latter a con- 
crete structure erected so recently as 1909. 

The financial interests cf the town are cared for by the Citizen's BanK 
«f Highland County and the Fiirst Naticmal Bank of Highland. The firU 
K housed in a massive structure of natural, gray-brown stone, the second, in 
«Ae of concrete. The respective resources at this< writing are $214,3 74.10 
aod $488,488.75. C. C. Hansel is cashier of the Citizen's and A. P. Gum 
•f the National. 

The hotels are the New Monterey, the Cunningham, and the Whitelaw. 

The general stores are the Highland Mercantile Company, C. W. Trim- 
We. R. M. Trimble, D. H. Peterson Company, V B. Bishop and Company, 
axd J. Lunsford acid Sons. C. G. Ralston has a Grocery. The Monterey 
afeda Fountain is carried by Don and Lloyd Sullenberger, the proprietors of 
Ifte Highland Mercantile Company. An old established business interest is 
Uat of H. F. Slaven cad Son, undertakers. The planing .mills are those o^ 
W: E. Gum and R. N. Jones. "The Little Fashion Shop*; has lately been 
•pciied by Mrs. Dore of Staunton.' H. M. Slaven is th<? yiilage jeweler, and 
Wbs. H. M. Slaven the postmistress. Dr. Hall, optometrist, very recently 



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opened a store for jewelry and optical goods: A. K. Evick of Franklin 
a caddlery. The faces of the adult males of Monterey are kept smooth aifll 
their hair within conventional limits by Charles Diggs and the newly open- 
ed barber shop of Houston Wimer. The village blacksmith is Paul Brown. 
The Monterey Garage Send Light Company, C. M. Lunsford, proprietor, ni* 
only houses and fepafi*^' automobiles, but supplies the town with electTK 
1 Sht. Near it is the Highland Garage, Charles Calhoun proprietor Towafl 
the western end of High Street is the three-story Masonic Hall completed i» 
1^10. The fraternal lodges are tho3e of Masons rad Odd Fellows. The lin- 
eal bar is composed of John M. Colav/, Edv/in B. Jones, Andrew L. Jones, 
and Boyd Stephenson. The resident physicians are C. B. Fox and A. S. 
\aiden. The dentist is Dr. O. J. Campbell. Though last mentioned, -nofc 
the least important of the business enterprises of Monterey is the we4i 
equipped office of the Highla'hd Kecordcr, H. B. Wood proprietor. 

As a matter cf course, Monterey hi the lionie of the county officei^ 
these being W. H. Matheny, county and circuit clerk, W. N. Ehcl, shorilL 
]]. M. Slaven, treariurer, J. W. E. Lockridge, commirsioner of the reve- 
nue, nnd I. L. Beverage, surveyor. 

The one defunct industry cf the town is the Monterey T^Iilling Com- 
rany. 

As this book goes to pre~s a nev/ rclioolhouse is rising in the south of 
the town. When complete it will be a very mode: a one-story building «^ 
77 by 120 feet in dimensions, and will contain eight rooms and a hnH. 
The capacity of the auditorium v/ill be enlarged by the folding doers tcm- 
recting it with two adjacent rooms. The new building v/ill seat 300 pn- 
pils, the present number being 225. The most approved ideas in school :i3=- 
chitecture and school management are observed in the new town rxhoiiL 
The contract price of which is $33,400. 

Before leaving the count-- scat a few words may be added as to it" Tth 
ture. The very attractive and favorable position of Monterey fit it for be- 
ing something more than the political and business center of 400 SQuarc 
miles of territory and 5000 people. Itns destined to be more than a mere 
summer resort also. Modeim roads and quick and regular communicatloa 
with the nearest railroads will cause Monterey to be a place of resideiir* 
for persons whose business or professional interests permit a large mcasrane 
of freedom in choosing where they prefer to live, and to whom the climrite 
and scenery of the Appalachians are well-nigh irresistible. It dees not i-e- 
quire an extravagant optimist to predict that within a comparatively sht>Tt 
time the present 300 inhabitants of Monterey will have grov/n into ^-O^ 
There is ample room for a town of this size, even, though the inconveniciic* 
of commanding a large water supply works against the coming of a city «^ 
ct>nsiderable dimensions. 

Ten miles east of Monterey is McDowell, the oldest village in HighlaTit 
Eighty years ago, and before Monterey was even thought of, it was the liTom- 



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16 

let of Crab Run, and its postmaster, Robert Sittlington, enjoyed the lavish 
compensation of about $28 a year. A decade earlier, and when known as 
Sugar Tree Bottom, there was still the nucleus of a town. But while Monte- 
rey has increased its population twenty-seven per cent in twenty years, Mc- 
Dowell has gained only four per cent the enumerator of 1920 finding 142 
inhabitants here. And no more than two new dwelling Rouses have been 
built for some time. But the coming of the automobile has induced the . 
appearance of a commodious garage. The business interests of the little 
village are the garage and grocery of W. H. Swadley, the general stores of 
McNulty Brothers and A. R. Hiner, the McDowell Milling Company of Pe- 
terson and Flesher, and the Mansion House conducted by R. O. Bradshaw. 
T. A. Hamilton carries on a blacksmithing and wheelright business. A very 
recent interest is a soft drink stand. The town has a resident minister 
and a physician. The two churches are of the same denominations as at 
the county seat. Just beyond the Bullpasture River are the towering foot- 
hills of Bullpasture Mountain, offering at once a fine scenic background, 
a grazing place for hundreds of cattle and sheep, and a place for gathering 
blackberries and huckleberries by the bushel. On the western side of the 
stream the broad bottom presents an unlimited opportunity for expansion 
when the time arrives for McDowell to be able to make good its claim for 
a share of the new population which will at length begin to find its way to 
Highland. The scenic setting is not quite so ideal as at the county seat, yet 
the river valley is broad and contains some fine farms. McDowell is the 
seat of one of the high schools of Highland. A mile away, among the 
mountain to the east, Stonewall Jackson gained a victory over Milroy and 
Schenk, May 8, 1862. Near the pike and on the border of the battlefield 
was placed a few years since abrown stone marker. This was through the 
and at the lower entrance to the narrow and picturesque gorge separating 
exertions of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

On the Bullpasture, one mile above its conflnrace with the Cowpasture 
T^ullpasture Mountain from Tower Hill is the village of Williamsville. It 
became a postoffice and a name just eighty years ago, aind the first postmas- 
ters were William Lockridge and James Gay. The village stands just be- 
yond the Bath line, yet requires menticoi because about one-half of its tri- 
butary region lies in Highland. Williamsville posesses a good waterpower, 
utilized by a flouring mill, and around this the village has grown up 
containing a Presbyterian church, three stores, a blacksmith shop, a resi- 
dent physician, and about one dozen dwelling houses. A little southward 
are a Baptist church, a Presbyterian manse, and a two-roomed school house. 
The village is fifteen miles below McDowell. 

Eight miles above McDowell, and very near the sources of the Bullpas- 
ture is the smaller village of Doe Hill. It is not actually so new, yet be- 
cause of its white cottages it is rather suggestive of a new place. The 
most recent of the business buildings is a handsome little structure, the 



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17 

home of the Farmers' Bank of Highlcmd, the resources of which are 
165,078.92. There are two general stores, a Methodist church, a school 
house of two rooms, and a resident physician. Travelliag visitors are en- 
tertained by L. M. Pope. Doe Hill is the center of a fine farming aind 
grazing district. The Valley is as bread as at McDowell. . . It is often true 
of the river-basins in this section of the Alleghauies that they are fan-sha- 
ped toward their heads, owing to the relatively low saddle-ridges connec- 
ting the mountain chains. The altitude of Doe Hill is 2900 feet. The 
neighborhood is good, the climate is good, and the scenery is pleasing. 
With a more easily approach from the outside world. Doe Hill should be- 
come an attractive residential town of several time its present size. 

Taking a course parallel with and near the line of Pendleton, we 
come to the" larger village of Crabbottom, just above the upper entrance to 
the gorge by which the South Branch of the Potomac forces its way 
through the wall known in Highland as Monterey Mountain. This pas3 
is not so narrow as the cae at Williamsville, and the village is directly 
adjacent to the farming and grazing district around. Yetthe two confront- 
ing crags, towering a thousand feet above the village, and rising at a 
heavy angle, aftord an ample mountain background, an unusual feature of 
which is the perpendicular ledge of rock projecting from the northern 
moi^intain end and known as the Davil's Backbone. On the other moun- 
tain tip is a corresponding protrusion, although it is less conspicuous. The 
village has not merely grown during the last decade. It has likewise 
improved. A concrete sidewalk extends nearly the length of its princi- 
pal street. The place has nearly or quite as many people as McDowell, 
and in commercial importance it ranks next to the county seat. Its ftnan- 
cial citadel, the Bank of Crabbottom, is the second strongest institution 
cf its class in Highland, and is first in the numbr of its stockholders. The 
handsome white building dates from 1915, and the resources of the 
bank are $273,723.34. The cashier is Ira W. Nicholas. The general 
stores are those of J. Y^. Riser and Sons, L. C. Wlmer and Bro., and H B. 
Marshall, the last named having a soda fountain. The large flouring 
mill is carried on by R. L. Waybright. Travellers are well cared for at 
the Crabbottom House, the proprietor being W. E. Rexrode. Charles Ral- 
ston has a garage. A. Lee Wimer is a jeweler, and J. M. and Milton Marshall 
have a blacksmith shop. Dr B. Swecker is the resident physician. The South- 
ern Methodists have a church and parsonage. The United Brethren church is 
the only one of ^hat denomination in Highland. The high school is the 
second strongest Institution if its class in the county, and is now enlarg- 
ing its quarters. The financial solidity of the village is due to its widely 
known bluegrass pastures, in which cattle are made ready for the mar- 
ket without the help of grain. There is very little land uflider the plow 
south of the village, but considerable to the north. 

A short mile up the South Branch brings us to New Hampden. A- 



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18 

long its short street are a Presbyterian church, a general store, a grist- 
mill, and a half-dozem dwellings, two or three others standing near on the 
hillside. Yet the hamlet is not holding its own. Four of its houses are 
vacant, as a result of the steady exodus from the valley and the nearness 
of its more pow^erful rival. 

On Bolar Run, two miles from where it flows into Jacksca's River 
and eighteen miles from Monterey, is the village of Bolar, lying against 
the line of Bath and partly withfin that county. It is the center of some 
country trade, yet is best known to the outer world by its springs of min- 
eral water. These springs have important curative influences, especially 
in catarrhal ailment and in affections of the skin.- . Bolar is thus a resort 
for pleasure and health as well as fccus of trade. Yet the place is verjr 
small acid does not improve, a fev/ buildings lying idle. The visitor wishes- 
it presented a more attractive appearance, in keeping with its merits ?je 
a resort. Tlirs can 01.1-/ come with adequate hotel cad v/atering accomo- 
dations, and with easy roads to the nearest railway points. So long as 
Bolar is deficient in these matters, just so long will it fall short of its des- 
erts. In this twentieth ccatuary, a place cannot command much sum- 
-• ratronage unless it can easily be reached. Around Bolar are pornts 
" -Irloric and scenic interest. The village itself lies in a water-gap, down 
'/hich in warm weather is a draft of air, as regular in its hour as the sea 
breeze. 

Keadv/aters, on the Staunton and Parkersburg pike, seventeen miles 
f)om Monterey and twenty-nine miles from Staunton, is a very small place 
in the valley of Shaw's Fork. Here and close by are two churches, a school- 
house, a store, and almost one-half dozen clvrciling houses. 

We have now completed our survey of the centers of population in 
Highland. Stores are scattered about through the (5ountry neighborhoods, 
but in no other instance are there quite enough people close by to properly 
entitle the group to the designation of hamlet. 



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INDUSTEIES 

The industries suited to Highland are g,ccurately' indicated by the 
gkographic conditions. First is agpiculture, with stoclcgrov. ing r.s its lead- 
inv feature. But the comparative isolation of the county has in some do- 
iree stood in the way of any si:ecialization of its farmimg. General farm- 
ing: feature. But the comparitive isolation of the county has in some de- 
l^i-axitible. A specialized agriculture necessarily awaits the coming of a 
tetter commercial outlet. 

Because of the very large proportion of surface occupied by mouataiu 
lidges, only a minor part of the 250,000 acres are suited to tillage. This 
minor part includes the river and creek bottoms, a considerable portion of 
tlic bench lands, and the more level tracts en the limestone uplifts. But 
because of the sandstone ridges, the slaty foothills, the deep ravines, and 
the occasional steep and rocky slopes, very many acres are suited only to 
forestry or pasturage, or to both purposes at once. 

Much the larger portion of the merchantable timber has been sent to 
tlifi sawmill. Yet there remains isolated tracts of no size, though of 
considerable importance in the aggregate. Since the greater part of the 
CGnnty should remain in timber, and since the United States is fast nearing 
SL lumber famine, the capabilities of Highland as a forecast reserve becom 
important and v/ill be spoken of in another chapter. 

Highland i i preeminently a grazing county. Much of the open lana 
is best suited to pasturage, and the forest tracts are also used as a ran^e 
fur the livestock. The books of the assessor for 1920 report 1901 horses, 
10408 cattle, 17,104 sheep, 204 goats, and 3,956 hogs. Bluegrass district 
sharply leading in the nunibor of sheep as well as cattle, and therefore 
Ipcding in the asses.scd value of livestock. Stonev/all district ranks f.rst 
ill horses and hogs, and Monterey district ranks first in Angora goats. The 
time when a horse w^ould bring only $40, a cow $15, and a hog or sheep 
fcoly one or tv/o dollars has faded into tradition. Since the population of 
the United States. has passed the one hundred million line, it is no longer 
iKMEible to glut the market with beef, mutton, and pork under normal bus- 
iness conditions. The time is approaching when the American will have 
to content himslf with a decreased ration of meat and will have to use more 
cotton in his clothing amd less wool. In the regions most sui,table, the 
SPawing of domestic animals therefore becomes an increasingly safe de- 
pemdence. It is true that this industry cannot be expanded to an indefinite 
extent in Highland, since there is a tolerably well fixed ratio between the 

19 



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2C 

orea of a pastoral region and the number of livestock it will safely sustain. 
Yet the suitability of Highland for grazing is very pronoonced. The soil 
pnd climate are exceedingly favorable to the growth of grass, the sununers 
are cool and winters not too severe, there is a comparitive freedom from 
insect pests, and the winter storms which cause thousands of cattle and 
sheep to perish in the Northwest are here unknown. The Highland pas- 
ture is certain to have shade and nearly certain to have a spring or a flow- 
ing branch. • 

It goes without saying that a good cattle region is by nature well 
adapted to the production of milk, butter, and cheese. Here again, the 
lack of an easy outlet has greatly restricted the output of dairy products 
and compelled the selling of cattle on the hoof. As yet, the direct 
murketini? of tiilk is almost out of the question and no cheese is made on 
a commercial scale. Butter does not bring the price it would of the marget 
were wntctically nearer. 

A similar remark is true of the poultry industry. A fertile soil is not 
nn absolute oiecessity to the poultryman. He jnay prosecute this line to ad- 
vantage on a site that is indifferent in the matter of tollage. The possibili- 
ties of Highland in i.his respect are very considerable, but thus far the dis- 
trince to market curtails the price of poultry and eggs. 

Bee-keeping is not overlooked, yet is not followed in any marked de- 
gree, such as is the case, for instamce, where buckwheat is a more important 
staple. ' 

What is known as general farming was once nearly universal in all 
the states north of the cotton belt, and it is only here ad there that it has 
yet given place to diversified farming. Such farming is a matter of necess- 
ity so long as the leading staples have tp be provided near where they are 
io be consumed. Thus it has been the practice of the Highland farmer to 
ccnfine his attention to hay, corn, and oats, nnd in a less degree to rye and 
buckwheat. Yet despite the absence of any railway, or of piked public 
roads, a tendency to specialization in agriculture has begun to rppear. For 
instance, the increased attention to livestock, combined with the increasing 
exodus from Highland tend to diminish the acreage of corn and wheat. 
The crop does not meet the local demand, and some corn, even, is im- 
ported from the adjoining counties. 

The agricultural methods of the present day favor giving special atten- 
tion, in any given region, to the crops for which that region is peculiarly 
adapted. This readjustment, of course, assumes that the marketing facili- 
ties are adequate. 

Unless the Highland valleys should some day become dencely popula- 
ted, hay will always be the leading farm staple. The same conditions of 
soil and climate which make this county a natural home of the grasses, nec- 
essarily make it a hay-producing section. I n the average Virginia county 
east of the Blue Ridge, it is quite as much trouble to secure a yield of hay as 



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21 

to secure a yield of com or wheat. In Highland this problem almost takes 
cure of itself. On the Bullpasture is a meadow which has never been plow- 
ed, and which, nevertheless, has regularly been producing hay ever since it 
came into possession of its first white owner, about 175 years ago. It mcy 
b(- counted on for a crop, fourteen years out of fifteen, and in good seasons 
the yield is two to three tons to the acre. Some other river-farms might 
furnish a similar record, were their history so well known. Clover and the 
common grasses supply the hay of this county. Inhere is Uttle alfalfa, this 
crop being better suited to lower, warmer, and more level regions. The 
sward in the limestone belts is bluegrass, the same plant which has given 
fame to the central part of Kentucky. 

It cannot be said that Highland has an ideal corn climate because of 
the comparatively cool nights. Yet the crop succeeds well, and a yield of 
seventy-five bushels of shelled car^ to the acre is not infrequently attained. 
We majr expect that the local crop will ^mmyB foe consumed wltktii the 
eounty, uless the csmnins of aweet eora i^ouM same -day gain a foot^eld. 

For wheat the climate is more suitable and yields as high as thirty 
bushels to the acre are obtained. In these upland valleys there is in fact 
an approach to the climatic conditions found in the inorthwest of Europe, 
where the average yield of wheat is more than double what it is in the 
United States. Yet Highland can never be a large producer of wheat, be- 
cause of the limited amount of land on which it may be grown to good ad- 
vantage. However, it would take only one per cent of the area, growing 
an average of fifteen bushels to the acre, to supply the present number of 
people with flour. 

The humidity in the atmosphere of this county is very favorable to the 
oats crop, finother grain which docs better in Western Europe than in most 
parts of America. Jared A. Hiner of Doe Hill has grown 85 bushels to the 
acre, and yields of 60 to 65 bushels per acre for several years in succession 
on the same land have been obtained. This is the grain crop in which 
there is the most possibility of producing a surplus above the home demand. 

Rye, which of all the cereals is best adapted to rough land and an in- 
different soil, receives little attention in this county. Buckwheat also takes 
kindly to rough and evon stony ground, although it ia somewhat taxing 
to the soil. In this crop. Highland has ranked fourth among the one 
livndred counties of Virginia. 

1'he potato \i: ir.os^i at hcLt in a cool, moist climate. In this region 
the vines are of luxuriant growth and produce large yields of tubers of 
superior quality. The crop does better than in the Valley of Virginia, and 
the potatoes grown on the Alleghany Rcinge in the west of Highland sur- 
pass those grown in the valleys. The possibilities of Highland, as a pota- 
to-producing section, are therefore very considerable. The same remark 
applies to the cabbage, a plant requiring a very similar climate. It is 
ibPtructive to know that a flourishing cabbage industry has been built up 



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22 

ground Rural Retreat in the south of the Valley of Virginia. The elevation 
there is about 2500 f^et, and the easy marketing facilities are responsible 
for the business. , , . ■. 

Highland is a natural home of both orchard and small fruits of all 
species suited to the latitude, ^m apple tree set out on the Jackson's River 
bottom by William Wilson in 1765 has had hundreds of grafts taken from 
it, and is still bearing spitzenbergs. At Forks of the Waters another ven- 
erable apple tree attained a girth of more than tea feet, and in a favorable 
season could be. counted oa for eighty buchels of fruit. The county also 
produces pears, peaches, plums, and quinces, becides cherries in variety. 
Highland is not especially subject to rctimely frosts, and when the bloom 
is not blighted by these, there is a heavier product of orchard fruit than 
can be used. As matters now stand, there is of course very little reliance 
on the outside market. And because of the varying altitudes, it is mot at 
all necessary that the orchards be on the river bottoms. Ridges may be 
found where the air drainage almost counteracts the visitation of Jack Frost 

Strawberries, it»<^r)'jt rrios. end other garden fruits succeed finely, and 
the yield of the wild blackberries and huckleberries is enormous. Even 
the grape flourishes much better than the cool, moist climate v/ould lead 
one to expect. The housewife of Highland is seldom without a supply of 
t:anned berries, since the practice of canning a surplus in thet fat years 
t?nables the lean years to be borne with much equanimity. The usual abun- 
dance of fruit, botli large and small, is a very plain hint as to the capabili- 
ties of Highland in this line. 

In maple sugar. Highland has generally, if not quite always, stood first 
among the connties of Virginia. During the recent reign of the "high cost 
of living", maple sugar from this county sold at sixty cents a pound in the 
Shenandoah valley,and maple syrup at a corresponding rate. Sugar ma- 
rles are not so numerous ia Highland as formerly, but since the American is 
always willing to pay a good price for the sweet from this handsome tree, 
the land holder who owns a sugar orchard thould think twice before cut- 
ting it down. 

Nut trees, particularly chestnuts, walnuts and hickories, are very com- 
nion in this county. 

When we pass from the domairn of agriculture, there is little to be said 
as to industrial pursuits in Highland. Certain small industries, like that of 
tanning, are now extinct. Sawmill'/Ti?-, which by the American practice, 
means the speedy conversion of a tract of handsome woodland into a waste 
of stumps rjnd brush-heaps, is a migratory pursuit. The number of grist- 
n^.ills decreases, for not only does the population fall off, but the people. who 
remain depend in some degree on imported flour. The mineral wealth lies 
untouched, except for the making of lime, I'sed chiefly as a fertilizer. Re- 
gicins with both waterpower and metallic deposits are favored sites of me- 
chanical indugtry, provided the outside world is accessible. 



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EOADS 

The evolution cf the public ror.d may be ctucicd to peculia-r advant- 
age in a ref^ion like Highland county. While it v/?.g ctiil a wilderneso it 
was traversed by paths, the v/ork cf the 5.:idian and of gracs eating animals, 
especially the buffalo and the elk. The red man preferred io r.:a!;3 his 
trail on a ridge, and to cress a ctream v/here the v/ater is cl::/. Idv.. When 
a herd cf buffal? I. ad eaten up the grass en one pasture ground, it moved 
on to another taking a very direct course. 

Yevy naturally, the white sctt'cr used these ready-n:ade paths v/hcn- 
ever they served hi^ purpose sutTiciently v/ell, and scction.'j cf the roads noAv 
in use vrere at one time, undoubtedly, sections of the paths used by the 
native American and the shaggy biiiTalo. Ctill ether reads became neces- 
sary, their direct ica being determined by the spots chcson for the pioneer 
homeo, by the positions of gristmills, and by the nearest county scat. 

Since the early comers lived almost ciiclusivoly on the largo v;ater- 
eours?, the first vclley conformed very closely to the general direction 
of the valley itseh". And since the Highland river is a quite ccastant 
succescion cf bendi";, fords v/ere numerous and sometimes quiitc near to- ^ 
gether. At times, the river-bed itself v/as the road. 

It v/as sometimes desiiable to connect tv.o parallel valleys by a road.. 
Kere again, the course was quite direct, there being an observance of the 
axiom in gecmetrjT that a straight liine is the shortest distance bctv\^een two 
points. So when a ridge had to be crosced, the pioneer read v/cnt right up 
the ascent, p;cbab:y entering by a hollow and reaching the summit at a 
depression in the sky-line, but with little regard to the steepness of the 
hillside. 

Nevertheless, for that day and age, such roads v/ere practical. Travel 
was moLtly en horseback, and most loads v/ere candied on packsaddles. To 
follow a bee-line as nearly as possible was instinctive. A river-crcssing 
was no hindrance, unless just after a heavy rain. A steep path up a 
mountain meant slow going, but mothing worse. When a person did hap- 
pen to be on foot, and came to a stream not crossed by a foot-log, he could 
take off his boots or moccasins — if he wore any — and wade through. 

Wagons were few at first, but they became increasingly numerous, and 
they necessitated a lessening of the heavy grade; ia. the mountain roads. 
This was done by making the wagon track longer and more crooked. About 
one century ago, there came a beginning of a turnpike. There was now 
r.n attempt to grade the leading highways in a methodical manner.. ThQ 

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24 

grade was now reduced to four or five feet of rise in each one hujndred feet 
of distance. Accordingly, where a turnpike crosses a mountain ridge, it is 
still more sinuous than the preceding road, and curves, easy enough for a 
wagon, are rather abrupt for an automobile, and thus require the exercise 
of caution. On the eastern face of Bullpasture mountain, at some distance 
below the grade of the Shenandoah and Parkersburg pike, may be seen a 
steeper and /narrower roadway, abondoned about eighty-five years ago. 

The successive reductions in the grades in the ridge roads have com- 
pelled in a considerably increasing degree just v/hat the early builders could 
not afford to undertake. These mon avoided cuts and fills as far as possible 
at all. Roads had to be built and maintained within the limit of the sup- 
ply of free labor prescribed by state lav/. And besides, the road overseer 
of the olden time was deflciont in engineering skill. Hov.ever, even when 
the first turnpikes arrived their road beds were constructed for from two to 
ton^^^ent of what is now spent in building a thoroughfcre cf the best sort 
B^en thon, such roads were built by private companies and not put of the 
public treasury. 

In the valleys the problem has not been one of grades but of river-ci*bs- 
sings. At first the road ran somewhere near the center of the river bot- 
tom. At length, there was a tendancj- to push the road to one side or the 
other, so that areas of bottom land would not be needlessly subdivided, 
but this caused the road to follow closely the brmk of the river, or even take 
the river-bed itself, when a loop in the watercourse come close to a bluff, 
fcuch roadbed as did exist was torn out by every flood. The next ctep was 
to set the road at a higher level, so to put it above the flood-lfine, and to 
eliminate river-crossings as far as possible. Eridges are a necessity in 
our age, but as they are expensive, the road builder puts in no more than he 
can help. Thus the road leading south from Monterey, after strikiiig Jack- 
son's River at Vanderpool, does not again cross that stream inside of High- 
land county. In the village of Doe Hill are two head brr aches of the Bull- 
pasture. But southward, the river is never again crossed in this count}'. 
Here the road skirts the edge of the bottom, and there it runs along the 
brow of the upland, where a slate formation permits a less muddy roadbed 
thain would be the case if the road were wholly in the bottom. 

The highways of Highland county are a very great improvement over 
those of fifty and more years ago. With the present methods of road-mak- 
mg they are capable of much further improvement without even then meet- 
ing the demands of the future. 

The population of this couinty has been declining for about a quarter 
of a century. The downward movement is still in progress, and the num- 
ber of inhabitants in 1922 is probably not ten per cecit greater than in 1850* 
Before the tide can be definitely arrested, the number may sink to what 
it was in 1847, whcai Highland was organised. In other words it may drop 
to 4,000, or about thirty per cent helow the high water mark of 1900. 



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25 

This drift cannot be regarded with complacency by any progressive citizen. 

The future well-being of Highland depends very greatly upon roads. 
And when we speak of roads, we speak of public highways. This county 
is one of the very few in Virginia which are without a single mile of per- 
manent railway. Railroad building in the United States is at a standstill, 
partly because the country has nearly as great a mileage as it is ever likely 
to need. 

From what direction can a steam railroad be expected to enter High- 
land? Quite assuredly not from the east or the west, because there is no 
ftound ecnncmic rerson to justify an east and west line. Such a line would 
be very expensive to build, and v/here is the traffic to come from that will 
warrant the enterprise? A stronger case may be made out in favor of 
closing the gap of ninety miles between Petersburg and Hot Springs. River 
valleys are followed all the way, and the grades are not too heavy. But 
the spurs ending at those two points are weak lines with r«q»eet to the 
amount of traffic they carry. Closing the gap would indeed create a 
through line, but it is for froia evident that a through line ot much impor- 
tance would be created. It is very probable that the iron ores along the 
line of this gap will some day require a steam railroad for their exploitation 
but that day is not in the near future. An electric road is more feasible, 
and the iindeveloped water power along the line would supply the motive 
energy.. But until conditions are markedly different from what they are 
now, motor trucks and busses can take care of the business now in sight, 
provided there is a first class highway the entire distance from Petersburg 
to Hot Spring3. Passengers and parcel post packages could then be taken 
from pcint to the other in four hours. The railroad is a great convenience, 
but the coming of llic gasoline engine renders it less indispensable than it 
used to be. And certain of the influences that attach to small railroad 
towns do not make them the most desirable places to live in. 

With an adequate system of modern highways. Highland would have 
little reason if any, to regret the absence of a steam railroad. 

As these pages go to press a macadamized road has been brought to 
the eastern foot of Shenandoah Mountain at West Augusta. It is Number 
Nine of the State Highways of Virginia. That the hard surfacing will 
come farther is already assured, and within a few years we may expect it 
to reach Monterey, the western terminus of the road, the eastern being 
Newport News. To see that the macadamiziffig does not stop here but is 
carried as far westward, at least, as the Greenbriar River, should engage 
the earnest efforts of every Highland "booster." Staunton and Durbin are 
about seventy miles apart, and except in time of heavy snow fall, one 
point could be reached from the other in four hours. The road would thus 
become an automobile trunk line crossing a region of rare scenic beauty. 
It might not be the local passenger traffic which would yield the larger 
share of passenger income. 



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28 

A line quite as important is a thoroughly macadamized road to connect 
the railway termini at Petersburg and Hot Springs. At the southern end 
is already an adequate road as far as Warm Springs. In tlie north a 
modern highway is already in course of construction between Petersburg 
and Franklin. This line will be less subject to snow blockades than the 
other. It will be a boon to the spur-railroads that come to Kot Springs 
and Petersburg. 

With these two lines completed. Highland will have good outlets to 
the north, the east, the south, and the west. . Hov/ever, two tributary lines 
Avithin the county will still be needed. A good hard-surfaced rcr.d s'.ioiijd 
connect Doc Hill with Wiiliamsvillc. Another, leavin^r the South Erancli 
road at Forks of the Waters should run up Crabbottom and dov/n Back 
■Creek to the line of Bath. The counties of Pendleton and Bath would 
link these brrnches to their own systems. 

It is true enough that to build a hundred miles of up-to-date roadway 
is a very costly proceeding; rather too much so for the unaided resources 
of a county with less than 5,000 people. But to the nge in v/^ich we live 
good roads are an absolute necessity, and have to be secured at almost any 
cxponse. 

That the system of roads we have outlined for iliiz county will arrest 
the drop in population is not open to serious doubt. Even v/c"o the popu- 
lation figures to hover around the five thousand mark, there would be 
not a few componsations. Marketing and shopping v/ould bo facilitated. 
Automobiles would last longer because less subject to severe wear and 
tear. Hundreds of city people would be attracted here during the summer 
months. 

But the population v/ould not remain stationary. The dc^rr^wr.rd dri^'t 
<an bo arrested r<nd the current turned in the contrary direction only by 
presenting valid inducements to people of other communities to make 
permanent homes in Highland, cither for profit or for comfort of living. 
Under prescmt conditions the tide cannot well be turned. With adequate 
loads it can be turned, and it does not require the vision of an enthusiast 
to see a Highland of 10,000 inhabitants within fifteen or twenty rears 
after the good roads question is settled. A doubling of the population 
might be expected to double the resources of the four banks of this county. 
This increment would of itself equal the cost of the macadamized roads. 

A lesson may bo fouind in Switzerland. That little country is ex- 
ceedingly rugged, and but a very sm.all part cf it is suited to tillage. Yet 
the Swiss have spent many millions of dollars in building roads v/hich are 
not excelled by those of any other country in all the v/orld. Tourists visit 
^witzerlrmd by the thousand. They would visit it only by the dozen if 
they had to use roads of the sort that has been typical of America. The 
tourist business is enough to justify the Swiss in the expense they have 
incurred in building their magnificent roads. 



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2T 

It is not good bu^inecs to build a superior road rad then fail to keep 
it up. Neither is it good business to keep it up after the time honored 
fashion of working the public roads. The most scientific way is to divide 
^^uch a road into sections and appoint a caretaker for each, making it his 
business to mend every defective sf)ot as fast as it appears. This is no 
more than patterning after the practice of the railway corporations. 

Not all the highways of Highland can be macadamized, owing to the 
cost, and yet the mileage needs to be increased, in order that the several 
valleys may become more acceseible, one with another. For instance, the 
old Wilson road, dating from the middle of the eighteenth century, and 
connecting Bolar Springs with the Bullpasture needs to be reopened. It 
has been permitted to degenerate into an indifferent foot-path. Observfmg 
well established principles in road-making, the dirt road may be a very 
comfortable road to use. Many are the communities in the United States 
that would envy Highland if they knew of her wealth in road buildiffi(r 
iiaterial. The well built hillside road that lies in a slate formation is 
well drained and never muddy. It may be made almost equal to a turn- 
pike itself. But even when slate is not present other good material is 
always near at hand, and concrete, when needed, is readily prepared. 

Had scientific road-building been as generally rnderstood a hundred 
and fifty years ago as it is now, and had it been resorted to instead of the 
prevalent haphazard practice that scarcely registers any substantial ad- 
vance, there might now be no problem associated with the declining popu- 
lation of Highland. 



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SCHOOLS 

It is now more than fi|ty years since tke free school system began in 
Virginia. The decade immediately preceding was a time of war and re- 
construction, and public education languished very much. The men and 
women are few, and fast becoming fewer, who can tell by word of mouth 
of the pay system in vogue until 1870. But from small beginnings, and 
not the most cordial public sentiment to start on, the free school has so won 
its way that the private educational institutions of the section of the state 
west of the Blue Ridge are almost wholly confined to certain schools for 
secondary and higher education. Though much still remains to be accom- 
plished, the progress of the public school system in Virginia, v/ithin the 
last ten years, is quite remarkable. 

Along educational lines two conflicting tendencies have been observable 
in Highland since the present century came in. One is the steady depletion 
in the rural neighborhoods of the younger element of the population. The 
parents often remain, but all or nearly all of the younger members of the 
household go into the villages or leave the coiinty altogether. Thus there 
Tas been, and still is, a shrinking in the number of homes where there are 
children of school age. The result is seen in the closed schoolhouses, and 
in the districts where there is trouble in maintaining the scale of attendance 
required by the school law. Sometimes the actual distance to a school is 
almost prohibitive. The other and opposite tendency lies in the strength- 
ening of the schools in the leading villages and the consequent appearance 
of the high school department. 

The tendencies in American life are such as to tolerate the country 
^;chool of one room only when there appears to be no way to avoid it. A 
school of eight or ten members^ cannot be highly interesting to either teacher 
or pupils, asd the teacher's chair therein is not eagerly sought by well 
qualified instructors. Those parents who move into other communities do 
so largely on account of the better school facilities thus afforded them. In 
fact, this is one of the motives that explain the diminishing population of 
Highland. 

The only solution in sight is the centralized school, and this makes the 
school car 'inevitable. But the massing of much the greater share of the 
inhabitants of Highland into narrow valleys makes this transportation 
problem the easier to handle. 

Perhaps the day is near when there will be no more than twelve schools 

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29 

in Highland; two for the Cowpasture and Shaw's Fork, three for the Bull- 
pasture, four for the middle, or Monterey valley, and three for Bluegrass 
District. So long as present conditions continue, a few of these may still 
need to be one-room schools, but when, as is discussed in another chapter, 
there is sufficient opportunity for a marked growth in the population of the 
county, every school may be expected to become one of three or more rooms. 
There will then be little or no occasion • for the Highland family to move 
elsewhere because of the educational situation. 

The high schools at Monterey, Crabbottom, and McDowell provide one 
such institution for each of the three magisterial districts. All these have 
now four-year courses of study and are therefore senior high schools. The 
comparatively short period during which these have been in operation has 
already brought marked results. So long as the one-room school was nearly 
universal within the county, there was some indifference about receiving a 
higher education. A better schooling was known almost altogether by 
heresay, because the facilities for it were remote, or could not be secured 
except at much sacrifice. But the coming of three high schools has brought 
a change of attitude,, and this is shown by the number of the young people 
of Highland who have within the past decade graduated from colleges, nor- 
mal and professional schools, and business schools. In several cases, nearly 
every member of the family has secured a higher education. The inhabi- 
tants cf Highland do not rank low in natural intelligence, and this intellec- 
tual broadening can scarcely fail to work an influence very beneficial to the 
wncle community. 

The criticism is often made that higher education weans -^he young 
people from the country. There is much truth in this charge, because 
tc o many of the makers of text-books, and too many of the framers of school 
courses have given a very decided city twist to their efforts. But there is 
an increasing tendency in matters educational to make the practical work 
hand in hcind with the scholastic. When a countj^ is essentially rural, and 
is finding its v/ay to a specialized husbandry, as is the case in Highland, its 
high school courses must conform, and undoubtedly will conform, to t'no 
fact, in order to give the community the greatest possible service. 

The high school at McDowell has lately doubled the size of its building, 
and yet the frame house must some day give place to a more modern struc- 
ture of brick, so that it may better fulfil its mission, as well as more suita- 
bly accommodate the larger number of pupils which it will eventually have. 

Likewise Crabbottom is increasing its facilities by putting up a second 
frame building alongside the first. This valley is wealthy and well-peopled, 
and has a most creditable record in the number of college students who 
began their educational career in the high school. Before long, it will be 
needful to exchange the existing quarters for a home more fully in line 
with the developing needs of the present time. 

Monterey is throwing its frame schoolhouse into the discard, a pro- 



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teeding that the pupils, at all event, are not likely to regret. Suitable 
school quarters go very far indeed toward making an education pleasanter 
and easier. At this writing a brown stone edifice is taking form whicli 
will be a credit to the county and town. An up-to-date school plant costa 
much money, but it increases the earning capacity of the young men and 
women it sends out, and makes them more servceable to the community- 
Like the good road, the modern schoolhouse is an absolute necessity. 



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A LOOK AHEAD 

In tliis chapter let us take an "account of stock," and see what bear- 
ing it is likely to have on the future of Highland. 

One of the very strongest assests of this county is its climate. Good 
authority clrcsiScs the diviEicns cf the cr.£:t end middle of the United Stotes 
as follows, v/ith respect to their healthfulness: 1. The Southern High- 
fends. 2. The Northern hi?;h»jnu:s. 3. The Northern lowlands. '4. The 
t-outhern lowlands. The Pacific plateau is an arid region and can never 
suBtain a large population. Deserts are not popular resorts. The Pacific 
coast is a world by itself. The superiority of its climate is so harped upon, 
early and late, by interested parties, that it has become good form to accept 
^■^hat thesse persons say as law and gospel. That section is unquestiona- 
bly mild in winter, if indeed its winter can properly be termed winter. 
But v/hen the visitor, or even the resident, becomes frank and speak out 
what is in him, we are told that the country which is rainless and dusty 
more than half the yeear cannot boast of possessing an ideal climate. In 
fact, the ideal climate is a will o' the wisp. When you imagine it is locat- 
ed, it jumps to some other spot, and repeats the performance as long as you 
attempt to follow the trail. 

Certain climatic facts are r.ot much in controversy. The European 
rt:>clLs that until after the close cf the vrra- of 1C61 formed the basis cf the 
population of the United States came from the British Isles, France, Ger- 
many, Scandinavia, and the low coiiiJries. The ancestors of the immi- 
grants from thi..t part of Ki:if pe h{»d lived there centuries upon centuries, 
and were most thoroughly acclimated. The climate of that region is in 
general characterized by an ub^-cnce cf cxtiemes. Rarely is it exceedingly 
«v-)Id or exceedingly hot. No pcf.sr.ii cf the year is rainless. There is 
enough humidity at all times to ( iiise ary srecies of turf-grass to flourish. 
Any grass that does not make a close turf if likely to be a dry climate plant. 
In the United States these stocks have best maintained their physical vigor 
where the climatic conditions approximate those of the mother countries. 
They have not easily accommodated themselves to the Atlantic lowlands, 
even as far -lorth as New Jersey. In the hot, dry lowlands of the Southwest 
tfiey are restli-ss and discontented. They do not take kindly to a climate 
Chat is homelike to the Spaniard. 

But in I he Appalachian belt the immigrant stocks thrive as well as in 
Europe, llore is a country of turf-grass. Here the air is tonic and brac- 

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32 

ing at all reasons. Longivity is very common. The people are robust and 
are rather more prolific than other Americans. All this is an approach to thef 
conditions that have produced the people of -Western Europe. There is 
plentyof sunshine and yet there is sufficient humidity. The chillines of the 
winter air of the seacoast is not experienced and the transition from heat 
to cold, or from cold to heat is not so accentuated as is the case in the great 
Mississippi basin. For the "making of the American," in a physical and 
iilso in an intellectual sense, no part of the United States can excel the 
Southern Alleghanies. Thus far the people of this region have not made 
the most of their heritage, but we may feel assured that such a statement 
will n(it hold true of the future. 

After a few decades the Southern highlands became well peopled, ac- 
cording to the standard of an earlier time. As a rule, the counties of thiS' 
region steadily advanced in population, although they have as steadily sup- 
plied an outflow that has spread in every direction. They have been a 
nursery ground, not only for the peopling of the newer communities to the 
westward but also for taking a hand in this renaissance of the older com- 
munities which will bear fruit in the future. 

It has been set forth, and with much show of reason, that this moun- 
tain land has already as many people as it properly needs. But the read- 
justment of economic life which is now in progress will reveal that the 
saturation point is still well in the future; that possibilities little more 
than suspected will afford room for still more people. Some of the high- 
landers, or their children, will return. They will be accompanied by 
natives of the lowlands in search of an unspoiled America, and to whom the 
graceful scenery and tonic air will have an irresistible appeal. Many of 
Ibis latter clpss v/ill be people v/ho work with tl\cir hands or their brains. 
The more of such the better. The summer visitor will come without special 
urging. But he is a of passage, with only a fleeting interest in the moun- 
tain, and since he is a dr>ne or a devotee of pleasure while away from his 
place of business his influence is not altogether healthful. Wherever the 
exotic summer interest overshadows the local all-the-year interest, one 
finds a community that is not desirable to the ordinary man as a permanent 
place of residence. The summerer cannot be excluded, and it is not right 
to tell him he is not wanted at all; but at the same time it is not wise tc» 
permit him to set a pace for a community not of his mould to try to follow. 
II" "the sunburnt world a man will breed," a world that is at work is the 
only truly normal world. 

We have elsewhere stated that when a good summer climate is men- 
tioned there is left the impression that the climate of the same place in the 
winter season leaves much to be desired. This may sometimes be the case, 
but in Highland we affirm there is a good all-the-year climate. When the 
cold is greatest the snow is dry, and this is a more confortable condition 
than the penetrating sharpess of milder winter air on the seacoast. The 



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CQ 

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33 

<^/inter season in this county is long rather than cold, and it conduces to a 
•fomestic life. A resident of another Appalachian county not far from here 
Tent South for his health, and complained that "Florida has n-o firesides.** 
S'uch an observation is not at all true of the Appalachians. 

Another asset, of much more consequence than appears at a first 
g^Iance, is the forest ground. It would be exceedingly difficult to deter- 
mine just how many acres of the surface are covered with trees. Most 
experts will probably agree that not many more acres should be cleared, 
vhile on the other hand, there is now and then a field which does not justi- 
fy its existence, and should be allowed to revert to woodland. But the 
forested area is probably not less than 100,000 acres. Just now it is in 
the aggregate, of small commercial value. Very much of the timbered 
surface has been stripped of its large trees. The usual practice with Amer- 
ican sawmillers is to cut down every saleable tree, large or small, and leave 
behind a waste of stumps and brush-heaps. Woods fires may occur in 
rny body of timber land, but they are peculiarly destructive in land that 
tas been cut over. The young growth is destroyed and the soil impoverished. 
But fire or no fire, it is a long while before there is a new growth ready to 
convert into Ivmber, fuel, or mine props. In the meantime it only affords 
a little range for the livestock or a crop of berries that can be consunaed 
enly within the county. 

This unsystematic and wasteful method must speedily come to an end,, 
for the very good reason that the United States is on the verge of a timber 
famine. The v/hite pine forests of the North and ihc yellow pine of the 
South are virtually exhausted^ The only timber reserve of much impor- 
tance i3 in the states of Washington and Oregon. Hard woods in insuffici- 
ent quantity arc used to eke out the vanishing supply cf soft woods. For- 
estry has bcccnio a recognized science. It is already applied to the in- 
crer.sing acreage embraced in the Nationol forest reserves, and the public 
good already dictates that it be applied to the woodland still in private 
evrnership. The time may not have arrived when there should be regular 
plantations of trees, as is the case in the more progressive countries of 
Europe, but there should no longer be jany indiscriminate pillaging of the 
American forest. There must be restrictive regulations as to the trees 
which may be felled. Trees of little use for any purpose must give room 
for those of more value. The woods fire must be kept from gaining any 
headway, so far as is possible at all. 

Scientific forestry thus means a regular and quite dependable output of 
lumber and fuel, just as the cleared lands grow regular crops cf hay, 
corn, and wheat. In the long run the forests yield a more ample supply 
of woods products than under the present short-sighted method. The for- 
thts of Appalachian American are more luxuriant than those of France and 
Germany. II the forests of Highland were umder the supervision prac- 
Uced in those countries they would soon be yielding a yearly return of halt 



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34 



a million dollars. 

The policy of a certain corporation in the state of Maine becomes in- 
structive. It purchased a large area of birch woodland for the manufac- 
ture of stJOoJs. Instead of slashing down the trees as rapidly as poss5ble, 
Slid ihen movingto another spot, if perchance another spot could be found, 
the tract was divided into twenty-five sections, only one of which might be 
culled in a/ay one year. At the end of the quarter-century the first four 
per cent of the acreage would be nearly certain to have as large a growth 
as at first. The mill would therefore be permanent. 

But a forest yields by-products as well as timber. Nut bearing trees 
will be of much importance in the America of tomorrow. Another item is 
g'lme. The sportsmen is very much inclined to an exterminating slaughter, 
his weak sense of individual responsibility making him quite imdifferent to 
the fact that he is killing a goose that lays a golden egg. When the state 
of Pennsylvania found that its game was almost shot out of existence, it 
adopted effective game laws, and the game has come back. If Highland 
wore yielding as much dressed game as a like average area of Pennsylvania, 
its yearly value would be $15,000; an item not to be despised. 

A thing quite impossible to estimate in terms of dollars is the influ- 
ence of woodland in regulating the run-off of the rain-fall. For example 
the destructiveness of the floods in the Ohio has kept pace with the cutting 
away of the forests within the basin of that river. . We have pointed out 
that with one slight exception, no watercourse enters Highland. And since 
the county is but twenty miles square, its rivers cannot be large where they 
leave the county boundary. Nevertheless, the fall is alv/ays very consider- 
able. At Williamsville the Bullpasture has fallen mcro than a thousand 
feet from its source near Doe Hill. Where it crosses vUo Pendleton the 
South Branch has already fallen several hundred feet. In general, the 
streams of Highland are fairly constant in volume because of the large 
wooded area and also because of the upder-ground drainage from limestone 
belts like Bullpasture mountain. They are therefore of potential impor- 
tance as sources of electric energy. Highland has no coal, and its sky can 
never be befouled v/ith the, fumes arising from rows of coke ovens. But 
its "white coal" is inexhaustible and of prospective economic importance 
in producing electric light and running small industrial plants. As one 
of the leadiing countries of Europe, Italy has been regarded as greatly 
handicapped on account of having no coal. But when the coal of England 
is used up, it is now recognized that the streams flowing out of the Alps 
and Appenines will by means of electric motors have converted Italy into 
a manufacturing region. This is likewise true of Switzerland, and ,High- 
land is one of the Switzerlands of Virginia. 

A third resource is the soil, the possibilities of which have not as yet 
been heavily drawn upon. In 1832, after less than one century of occupa- 
tion, the farms of Highland were badly run down. This was because of\ 



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35 

faultj'^ tillage, for a soil that will grow walnut trees six feet thick is certain 
to have great recuperative power. The outer world remained nearly as 
remote as ever, but better farming methods were gradually ?idopted, and 
the county ceased to wear a neglected, poverty-stricken look. 

It is true that the population of this county has been fallng off for 
about twenty-five years, but the causes are quite well understood. One of 
these is the sharply increased price of livestock that accompanied the entry 
of the United States into the World War. Another is the lure of the cities 
and towns, because of the high wages that came to be paid for almost any 
torm of labor or service. Until less than ten years ago it was said that a 
real estate agent would starve in Highland, because if a place did chance 
to come on the market, it was quickly and speedily snapped up by some 
man living near by. This has not been true of the last half decade. There 
has been a very considerable movement in real estate. The people who 
sell out usually leave the county. In about one instance out of every two, 
thepurchaser is a resident who simply adds to the acreage he already has- 
In the other instance, the buyer is a non-resident, especially from the 
Shenandoah Valley. He buys to get grazing land, and he leaves his pur- 
chase in the care of some local man. This absentee landlord has scarcely 
any personal concern in the churches and schools, the horizon of his in-^ 
tcrest being guaged by his tax bill ^nd by the sales of livestock. It is the 
grazing districts, usually the better lands, which show the most depletion 
i:^. population. Lands of average quality bring $100 per acre. The better 
lands, particularly in the Crabbottom, command twice this amount. 

Some features ofthis tendency are regrettable. The vacated house, 
even when in good condition, remains closed, the new owner not wishing 
that it be occupied even by a tenant. Schools and church congregations 
are weakened, and the social life of a neighborhood becomes less interesting. 
And yet the movement is a natural one. It simply registers an increased 
specialization of the county in the direction of grazing, which is one of its 
very strongest lines. So long as marketing facilities remain as they are 
now, this specializing will hold the field. The decline in the population 
will continue until it reaches the point where there begins to be an insuf- 
ffcient number of people to manage the activities of the county. 

To cause the pendulum to swing in the opposite direction, no one 
thing is more necessary than that an intensive agriculture be made worth 
while. This does not necessarily mean a railroad, but at the least it does 
raean a system of solid roads suitable for motor trucks. Neither does it 
mean that all thegrazing tracts will be broken up into small farms. Graz- 
ing will always be very prominent in Highland, but when, as is the case 
here, there is much ground finely suited to tillage, the strictly agricultural 
interest cannot be kept submerged. 

The lessened man-power of the farms of this county, and the in- 
creased prominence given to livestock are reflected in a diminished yield 



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36 

of the staples. The crops cf corn, v/heat, and even oats do not meet the 
local demand, although there is a surplus of potatoes. There is likewise 
a surplus of the minor products of the farm, such as poultry, eggs, and 
maple sugar. 

As already pointed out, there cannot be a very heavy increase in the 
crops of corn and grain,' because of the limited amount of prime agricultural 
land. Highland may never, as a rule, have an export surplus of corn and 
wheat, and it is not essential that it should. But in two grain crops there 
ip room for considerable expansion. These are oats and buckw^heat, especi- 
ally the former. Wchave remarked upon the unusual suitabilityof High- 
Lmd for oats, particularly in the cooler districts, such rs the slope of the 
Alleghany divide. It may not be fanciful to suggest that the possibilities 
in oats may at length warrant a local plant for the conversion of a portion 
of the crop into a cereal food. 

Where the oats crop is best, there also the potato crop is best. It may 
easily happen that it v/ill yet rank first among the agricultural staples of 
Highland. The potato fields might cover no more thp»n one acre in tv/enty- 
five, and still produce a million bushels a year. A county spccinliziRg in 
potatoes is quite sure to be highly prosperous. Accomac and Northhamp- 
ton in this state and Aroostook in Maine are instances. 

And where the climate and soil favor potatoes, they also favor cabbage 
and turnips. • 

Attention hasJieen called to the suitability of Highland for all the 
common kind of fruits. This resourceMs destined to become important. As 
an apple-producing section, Washington and Oregon have no natural ad- 
vantage over the Alleghany belt, and growers from that quarter are turn- 
ing their attention our way. With the same care in cultivation, spraying, 
picking, and packing, this region need need not fear the competition of the 
Pacific coast. A portion of the huckleberry crop vrill at length be canned, 
as is done in New England and Michigan. The abundance cf wild black- 
berries r.aid dewberries is a hint to grow domesticated varieties for the 
market. 

All in all, the agricultural possibilties of Highland are ample for the 
support of a much larger population then the present. But this implies 
that the present system of grazing and general farming must in some degree 
give place to small farming conducted on a more or less intensive scale. 
This in turn implies that the products of the modified system of farming 
must be sent to market without an undue outlay of time and expense; a con- 
tingency that positively demands a system of good roads. 

In a yesterday that is still near, the head of a family in Highland had 
to provide for the winter by laying in a stock of provisions, fuel, and other 
necessaries. This was in part obligatory because the road over a mountain 
was liable to be blocked by snow. The young people, as they- grew up^ 
tho.ught they must go elsewhese, either for a full education or for employ- 



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'^ 3T 

ment. The parents were influenced by the exodus, and often believed they 
ought to join in It. 

But the isolation so complained of then is losing its hold. The time 
when the hours of winter daylight were not long enough to make the jour- 
ney to Staunton is a recollection and no longer a reality. In a practical 
sense, the time is already reduced to a third of what it was. The parcel 
post brings many an article of merchandise to the farmhouse door, and 
brings some of the conveniences of the town within easy reach. The snow 
blockade isno longer an annoyance to be endured. It is one to be banished 
by the snow plow. 

The new Highland which has already begun to take form, and which 
will become full grown after the arrival of better roads, will not so much 
be considered a good place to go from. It will be more attractive to the 
rising generation, and more of the young people will feel it worth while to 
cling to their native county. The schools are already improving, and the 
field for profitable employment will broaden. 

Perhaps ninety-nine per cent of the people of this county belong to 
families that have long been settled here. Ever since Highland was formed 
the emigration has been so large that it has very nearly kept down the nat- 
ural increase. As farmers or mechanics, or in profesional or business ca- 
reers, people of Highland birth are quite widely diffused in the United 
States. It is claimed, and probably with slight exaggeration, that a hundred 
Highland families are now settled in the adjoining county of Augusta. 

One of the surest things of the future is that people reared in different 
and sometimes distant communties will come here to live. They will be 
\ery much influenced by the salubrity of the climate and the beauty of the 
scenry. Some ^vill be of indojyOiu-ent means and therefore able to chose a 
home to their liking. Some others, as in certain professional lines, will al- 
so be able to use their own choice in selecting a home. Still others will be 
men who use their muGcle as well as their brains, and they will sometimes 
occupy corners of the industrial pasture which are more or less unfamiliar 
to the native because hitherto undeveloped. And in thus replacing emi- 
f^rants, Highland need not be the loser. More than one half of the American 
people now live in the cities, and it looks as though the proportion will be- 
come still K'oater. And as the tiller of the soil has more and more mouths 
to feed, his employment becomes the safer thereby. 

The summer visitor will also come iin increasing number, especially to 
the villages. Though not himself an actual resident, he contributes greatly 
to the support of the communities to which he gives a preference. The 
summerer who prefers the mountain to the seaside will at least be glad 
to know what Highland can offer him. 

Once again, and at the risk of being tiresome, we repeat that the 
possibility of a railroad outlet for Highland is limited to a north and soutk 
line. This possibility is too remote and uncertain to base any calculationa 



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28 

upon. But a system of highways which will fill the bill avUI artswxr 
nearly as well as a railroad Itelf. The county absolutely needs sucli i 
«nd must hs-ve them. All roads not likely to be macadamized jniut-^ ifcir 
degrees be reconstructed upon scientific principles, so a9 to ins^ir;^ 
drainage at all points and to eliminate needless hujnBS.. 



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ITOTIS CIT THE HISTORY OF mGHLAlTD 

The man or woman Y/ho can v/rito a local history and have it ahso- 
Inte^ free from error doe ; net live and never has lived. In the History 
cf Hishland published in ICll, there is ncv;^ and then rn omission or an 
inaccuracy, just as there are in any other book of thi3 class. In the pre- 
f2ico to that book he explicibly states that he can ©ot guarantee the entire 
aicaaracy of the fam.ily ckctches on pages 25 Y to 388. On page 243 he 
teeations some of the dilUculties with which the local historian has to 
contend. 

In at least one instance the purchaser of the History of Highland 
Boteil on the margin of the pages above named all the deaths and marriages 
fee toaew of that had occurred since the date of the book. He also noted 
BCFcrai omissionn; or inaccuracies. All these are given below. Valuable 
ccmtributions along the same line have been received by mail, and some 
cihB^r additions have been given verbally'. 

The abbreviations in this chapter arc those explained in the History 
en pages 245-240. "3 down" follov/ing a page number, means the third 
Iliie below the top of the page. "3 up" means the third line up from the 
ffiot &I the page. And so with other expressions of the same sort. When 
& date iz follov/od hy "c," it means that the date or the number of years 
^T»i3 is approxiniale, and not necessarily the exact figure. 

Other additions should undoubtedly appear in thi3 chapter, but as 
ilicj T.'ero net reported to the compiler, the fc.ult is net his. 

POSTOFFICES IN HIGHLAND AND PENDLETON, 1843 

TVith name of postmaster. and his compensation: 
C!anapbeirs Store — Alexander Campbell $24.29 

Cirabbottom — Emanuel Arbogast 5.78 

Crrih Hun — Robert Sitlington 28.88 

Dse Hill — Jared Armstrong 29.01 

Fnmklln — Joseph I. Gray 152.96 

Heaflwaters — John D. Erwin .27 

IJeveiier's Stcr: — (nanio changed during year to Campbell's 

Utore) — Jacob Ilovener, Jr. (partial return) 3.02 

Oa^ Flat — William Dyer 281.0 

li'tickmansville — John H.Ruckman 26.45 

CtolLlHat William Dyer 28.10 

ISilccnville — William V/ilson 10.25 

39 



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40 



Ministers of Monterey, Crabbottom, and Pisgah Presbyterian churches 
— amended list. 

Charles S. See ' 1879 — 1881 
A. F. Laird 1882 — 1887 
E. H. Amis , 1887 — 1890 
William B. Hamilton. D. D. 1890-^1893 
Hobert M. Latimer 1894 — 1895 
C. W. Trawick 1896 — 1897 
.John Ruff ~ 1897 — 1901 
W. S. Trimble 1903 — 1909 
N. A. Parker 1912 — 1919 
George L. Kerns 1921 

The sub-headings at the beginning of each chapter are intended to 
take the place of an index,so far as Part I is concerned. For Section VI, 
pages 257-352, there is an index on page 256. Sections V VIII and IX 
are brief, and like the others are arranged in alphabetic order. For Sec- 
tion VII, pages 353-372, the index is as follows: 



Bible 


Hammer 


Moats 


Sponaugle 


Bland 


Harold 


Moyers 


Stone 


Bowers 


Herold 


. Nelson 


Swadley 


Burns 


Hedrick 


Peringer 


Swoope 


Byrd 


Helmick 


Pope 


Trumbo 


Calhoun 


Hinkle 


Pritt 


Vance 


Carpenter 


Hoover 


Propst 


Vandevendcr 


Corbett 


Keister 


Puffenberger 


Varner 


Ciummett 


Kincaid 


Ratclife 


Vint 


CunBLingi^am 


Masters 


Rexrode 


Waggy 


Dyer 


Mauzy 


Ruleman 


Wallace 


Eckard 


McClintic 


RusmisCil 


Wees 


Evick 


McGuffin 


Simmons 


Whitecotton 


Eye 


McQuain 


Skidmore 


Wilfong 


Ginger 


Mitchell 


Smith 


Wimer 


Hamilton. 








For pages 


378-387 the surnames are 


these: 




Black 


Given 


Life 


Seig 


Brantner 


Hardway 


Meadows 


Seiver 


Brown 


Hempenstall 


MiddletoB 


Shinneberger 


Burner 


Henderson 


Miller 


Sims 


Callahan 


Herring 


Moore 


Sitlington 


Carlile 


Hickman 


Morton 


Smallridge 


Church 


Holcomb 


Naigley 


Summers 


Deaver 


Holt 


Oakes 


Taylor 


Dinwiddle 


James 


Peebles 


Tharp 


Duffleld 


Johnson 


Pickens 


Thompson 



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.a 






o 

Eh ^ 

M CO 



o >> 
^ o 

<D C 



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41 



Edmond Karicofe 


Porter 




Trainor 


Estill Keitz 




Redmond 




Wilson 


Floyd Knox 




Roby 




Wise 


Frail Layne 




Ruckman 




Wood 


Gall Lewis 




Rymer 


Zickafobse 


25 (15 up): Not 


"Wappacomac" 


but **Wapacomo," 


which 


means 



"wild plum." 

25 (14 up): Not *'Wallawhatoola" but "Walatoola," which means 
*'flne white cedar." 

67 (8 up): "Estill" not "Ashton," which was simply a mispronunci- 
ation. 

69 (9 up): Hugh Miller went to Greenbier. 

^ 69 ( (last line) : Delamontony and Elliot were non-residents who lived 
in the Shenandoah Valley. 

70 (14 down): "Hance" not "Hans." He was a son of Michael Sr, 
and a brother to Matthew. 

71 (20 down): Hisreal name was "Hercules Wilson." 

72 (12 down): "Anglin," not "Anglen." The family weoit to Green- 
brier and later to Randolph. 

79 (13 down): its name was Fort George. 

81 (8 up): The name of the boys was Kephart, a tenant family on 
the farm of John McCreery. They escaped from the Indians. 

84 (picture): The tree in the foreground is the swamp oak. The 
apple tree is one of the two near white cross. 

P. 86 (9 down): Burnside and Hempenstall went to Greenbrier, 
Dawson Wade was a non-resident. 

87 (8 down): The Frames and Dufiields moved to Gauley River. 

P. 116 (14 down): "Andrew J. Jones" not Andrew H. Jones." 

P. 128 (13 up): The Confederates also had the sun in their faces. 

P. 131 (13 down) : Thursday not Sunday. After the war the remains 
of the soldiers killed in this battle were taken to Staunton; the Confederates 
to Thornrose Cemetery, the Federals to the National Cemetery. 

181 (14 down): "Bcn-Ammi," not "Benoni." And so on p. 182 and 
elsewhere. 

183 (15 down): "John W. Arbogast, 1879-1889," not "William M. 
Arbogast, 1879-1899." John W. v/as succeeded by his son Emory M. (1889- 
1899), and Emory M. by J. Edward, another son, (1899-1911.) 

207 (20 down): Slaven, William B. — in Valley campaign, 1864 — 
company, etc. uiikncwn — (By affirmation of Capt. A. G. McGffin.) 

201 (9 down): Haman WefiS— was in Company A., 18th Virginia 
Cavalry, and was living in 1911. 

222: Ben-Ammi Hansel was perhaps the best farmer of his commu- 
nity, and is said to have brought into the Crabbottom the first mowing 
machine and the first top-buggy ever known there; also to have planted in 



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42 

that valley its fiiet "nurcery orchard/' still in existanee at his old IiamQ. 
a fine brick mansion of colonial design. A large bank barn and numcxous 
out-buildings are near by. Mr. Hansel was a patron of education. He was 
deeply religious and did much to establish the Presbyterian church in tfee 
Crabbottom. 

239. "Hansel" should be changed from the Scotch to the German lisL 
"McNulty*' is an Irish name, and placed among the Scotch names only be- 
cause among the Ulster immigrants were some families who had left the 
Roman Catholic communion and attached themselves to the Preshyteri«i, 

257 (Alexander, Charles G. died 1916. E. M. died 1913. 

257 (Arbogast): William H. died 1913. 

258 (12 down): Emory M. m. Annie S. McNulty; Arthur W. vk 
Tessie Douglass, Poca, 101 2, -J. Edward m. Margaret C. Gilkerson, 1912. 

258-10 down (Arbogast): Sallie J., 6th of Daniel, died 1918. 

259-3 down (Arbogast): Jane Colaw died 1922. 

260-261 (Armstrong): . Jared M. died 1915. 
Glenn of Abel H. m. Lillie K. Armstrong — D. 1922. 
Abbot L. died 1921, aged 76. 

John M. (of George) died 1912, his widow died 1918. James aimd 
Harmon are ethers c. of John M. 

Mahlon (died 1919, aged 92) m. Hannah Rexrode, widov/ of Josiah Hioei:. 
c. — Medora (died 1922) m. George Mitchell. 

Adeline (of John O.) died 1921, aged 29. 

262-263 (Beverage): William A. of Johm died 1917. John K. died 
1917. Andrew J. died 1920. Eva J. (of Willie) m. P. S Miller ISIS 
Claude (of Samuel) died 1920. Jacob E. (of Josiah) m. Arbelia F. Bev- 
erage, 1915. 

Hon. A. J. Bevcridgc, of Indianna is a kicisman to the Beverages of 
Highland. 

264-21 down (Benson): Edna died 1914. 

266-15 down (Bird): Littleton H. died 1912. 

266-18 up (Bird): Alexamder W., died 1919. 

266-2 up (Bird): Missouri A. Rexrode died 1913. 

268-2 down (Blagg): Elsie V. died 1921. 

268-5 down (Blagg): Ben-Ammi H. died 1921 aged 74. 

269-8down (Bodkin)): Charles died 1916. 
^ 270-12 down (Bodkin) : Caroline A. died 1916; William A. died I522L 

271-7 down (Bradshaw) : James B. died 1916. Josephine a da.U£^ 
ter. Jasper M. (not John N.) 

271-16 down (Bradshaw): Herbert (mot Hubert). Mary J. (nut 
Mary F.) m. Jeremiah G. Helms, 1921. 

271 (Briscoe): J. Brown died 1912. 

272 (Bussard): A. Wesley died 1919. Leslie W. died 191?. AJfred 
(of Leslie W.) died 1912. Susanna B. Gibbs died 1915. Lola Kramer Cnot 



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43 

272-S up (Campbell): c-5 of Walter P. — 1. Prentiss (m. Lucy 
tlactor, 1921). 2. Raleigh. 

27S-7 down (Campbell): c-4 of Oscar J. — 1. Helen (m. William H. 
LHBSford). 2. Eva (m. Adam Stephenson). 3. Sallie (m. William Steph- 
caaanny. 4. Jesse (m. Harry Bird, 1916). 5. Warren. 6. Catherine. 7. 
Comeliia (dead). 

273-2^ down (Campbell): Robert B. m. Mary Boggs, who died 1921. 

273-26 dowm (Campbell): Almira died 1922. 

275-19 up (Campbell): William A. died 1917. 

274-18 down (Chestnut): Gladys died 1821. 

274-15 up (Chew): William K. died 1919. 

275-top (Chew): Jacob G. (b. 1874, D. 1921) m. Eva Beclts. 

275-16 down (Chew): Sarah B. m. J. Harry Leslie, 1920. 

275-2 up (Colaw): Cyrus, b. Nov. 7, 1814, D. 1915, aged 100. 

276-12 down (Colaw): Daniel died 1911, aged 91; his w. died 1913. 

Elizabeth m. John (not Peter) Life. Andrew J. died 1921. 

27-6-16 down (Colaw): Heinry E. died 1921. 

276-16 down (Colaw): c-5 of George. — 1. Clarence (m. Esta Fleisher, 
1912>. 2. Russell (m. Lillian Rexrode, 1921. 

276-20 down (Colaw): Martin A. died 1917. Howard D died 1918 

276-16 up (Colaw): Joseph M. (m. Hazel Billington, S. D. 1917. 

277 (Corrigan): James came to U. S. 1855c. Died 1915, aged 89. 

278-18up (Davis): Phoebe J. (D. 1916) m. Samuel A. Wilson. 

27S-9 down (Dever) : Samuel G. died 1821, aged 77c; his w. died 
1»M. 

27S-19 up (Dever): c-4 of Charles F. — 1. Annie S. (m. Clyde G. 
Bossaxd.) 2 Charles S 3. Arlie E.. 4. William L. 5 Stewart G 6 

27S-17 up (Dever): Ivrm (not Iven) m. Ethel Lantz, 1921. 

279-23 down (Dever): John M. died 1913. James P. died 1913. 

280-7 down (Devericks): Thomas M. died 1915. 

2S0-11 up (Douglass): Susan Terry died 1914, aged 89. 

2S1-16 down (Doyle) c-5 of N. J. (of Jacob). — 1. Spurgeon (D 1922). 

2L m. Ryder. 3. Mabel. 4. Ruth. c-5 of James F — 1 

IJEna Ctq. Rev. W. C. William, 1918). 2. others. 

2S1-S up Eagle): Harmon L. m. Mary L. Roth, 1912. Russell M. 
m. DMtJthy Dendinger, 1921. Samuel C. died 1917. 

232-7 down (Eagle): Harrison L. (of Philip R.) m. Nellie C. Gut- 
AaJOi^ 1913. 

282-16 up (Ervine): John S. died 1915. 

282-7 up (Erviwe): Agnes died 1920. 

283-17 up (Ervine): Bertie died 1917c. 

284-6 up (Fleisher): James A. died 1919, 



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285-19 up (Fleisher): Nannie S. m. Ottis Harper, 1912. 
28^-17 up (Fleisher): Estie J. m. Clarence Coiaw, 1912. 
285-7 up (Fleisher): Wife of George O. died 1917. 
285-3 up (Fleisher): Myrtle V. m. Roy Obaugh, 1912. 

286 (Fleming): Robert H. died 1919. Belle died 1922. 

286-22 down: c. of R. D. Folks. — 1. Esta C. — b. 1894 — m. M. L. Sim- 
mons, 1920. 2. William B.— b. 1896. 3. Martin M.— b 1899 
287-3 down (Fox): Rexrode (not Reynolds.) 

287 (Gardner): Harry Fulton died 1913. 

287-21 up (Gibson): Wife of William D. died 1922. 
287-14 up (Gibson) William A. m. DeLacy W. Munson, 1917. 
Charles K. died 1909. 

287-6 up (Gibson): Sallie M. — m. Ryland Swope, 1914. 

288-4 down (Gilmore) : Samuel A. died 1922, aged 87. 

288-9 down (Gilmore): Horace (not Harris). 

288-8 up (Graham): Emma (not Annie.) 

288-5 up (Graham): Charles H. m. Annie F. Lockridge, 1912. 

290-22 down (Gum): Althea died 1921. 

290-19 up (Gum): John E. died 1910; his wife died 1922. 



290-14 up (Gum): W. E. (of James K. P.) m. Sallie M.- 



c-7- 



1. Elbert (m. Myrtle Brooks, 1921). 2. Walter (m. Lucile Hendricks). 
3. Grace 4. Harry. 5. Fred. 6. Robert. 7 Paul 8 Mildred 9 Pearl 
290-13 up (Gum): Ephraim A. died 1919; his wife died 1916. (>ar- 
iret died 1919. 

Peter died 1916. 
Russell C. killed on R. R., 1919. Arnet P. m. 



291-8 down (Gum) : 

291-19 down (Gum), 
liillian Trimble, 1916 

291-22 down (Gum): 
1919. 

291-24 down (Gum): 
291-13 up (Gum): 

294-13 down (Gwin): 
1921, aged 84. 

294-20 down (Gwin): 
4. Steuart. 

294-12 up (Halterman): 
1912. 

295-17 down (Howard): 

295-13 down (Hansel): 

295-19 down 

295-24 down 



Addie W. (of H. Albert) m. W. C. McLaughlin, 



Maud K. m, Guy Ralston. 
Anson D. died 1921. 
Charles (of Moses) m. Martha Hupman- 



-D. 



other c. of Charles, — 3. Mary V. (died 1917). 
Albert M. (of Peter) m. (2) Effle A. Key, 



(Hansel): 

(Hansel) : 
Jones — Presbyterian minister, Mebane, N. C. — c.-4. 
J. — Elizabeth J. — M. Ernest Jr. — H. Harriscm — V. 
El\ra J. 



Amanda M. died 1905. 
Margaret (not Mary) Wallace. 
Sarah E. m. John S. Newman. 
Mary O. (dy). M. Ernest m. Elizabeth J. 
Margaret E. — Gary 
Jean — Holmes R. — 



Digitized by 



Google 



45 

C-4 of B Hiner. — 1. Robert S. (m. Mary Goode, Loudoun Co.) — broker, 
f^ittsburg. Pa. 2. John S. 3. Margaret (dy). 4. Louise S. 5 Elizabeth M 

C-4 of C. Cameron. — Margaret H. — Elizabeth B. — J. Hiner — Emily 

295-10 up (Helms) : Jeremiah G. m. Mary J. Bradshaw^ 1921. 

296-top (Hevener): George W. died 1918; his w. died 1915. 

296-8 down( Hevener): Mary R. m. R. H. Crummett, 1913. 

296-10 down (Hevener): Ratie (not Katie), c-5 of Jacob W. 1. 
Richard (m. Mary Hofsess, 1919). 2. Irene (m. Rev. Paul K. Buckles, 
1922). 3. Summers (m. Helena M. Boice, 1917). 4. Mary (m John 
Stephenson, 1920 

296-20 down (Hevener): Washington W. died 1920. 

296-2 up (Hevener): John W. died 1922. 
' 296-foot (Hevener): Samuel C. died 1913. 

297-3 down (Hevener): William A. died 1920. 

297-5 down (Hevener) George (of Hemry C.) m. Bonnie Rexrode, 1921. 

297-7 down (Hevener): William Messersmith (not Wm. M. Smith.) 

297 (Hevener): Edwin T. (of George) m. Grace Gilmore — c. — 1. 
Hannah (D. 1920.) 2. John. 

298-12 down (Hicklin) : John S. died 1922. 

298-14 dowin (Hicklin): George H. died 1921. 
298-17 up (Hicklin): Ruby M. died 1920. 

299-8 up (Hiner): William J. died 1912 aged 87. First w. died 
1867. 2d w. died 1909. 

300-'J up (Hiner): A.c of Josiah (by 1st w.) m. J. R. Gilkerson. 

301-3 down (Hiner): John J died 1921 

301-22" down (Hiner): William K. died 1915. 

302-4 down (Hiner): Forest A. m. Olive W. Carpenter, 1921. 

302-7 down (Hiner): Gideon J. died 1919. 

302-16 down (Hiner): Clyde m. Lena Demasters, 1920. 
S02-18 down (Hiner): Edward (of Joseph A.) m. Annie Eye, 1912. 

304-14 up (Hull): Mary M. (not Mary A.) died 1919 

304-11 up (Hull): William C. died 1915. Charles C. died 1914, 

Cyrus S. died 1917., 

304-6 up (Hull): Lola J. Berry died 1914. 

304-foot (Hull): Ethel W. m. Isaac Eckard, 1918. 

305-2 down (Hull): Kate (not L. H.) Whitelaw. 

305-10 down (Hull): William G. m. (2) Thelma H. Page. 

305-19 up (Hull): Kenton J. died 1916. 

305-2 up (Hull): Martha died 1921. 

306-19 up (Jack): Martin M. died 1916. 

307-6 up (Jones): c-4 of Henry C. 1 John M. (b. 1857, D. 
1917) m. (1) Lydia Hiner, (2) Clara McCarthy. 2. T. M., Ph. D — professor 
ot Greek, Hampden Sidney College 3 Marshall — physician. 4. Brj^on. 
%. ((daughter) m. J. K. Gilbert. 6. Margaret J m. John J Hioier 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 

7, Alice m. Richard Ralston. 

207-2 up (Jones): Charles P. died 1914. — c-5. — Margaret W. died 
1917, VLHCd 10. Phoebe D. j.i. (2) Prol A. B. Warwick. 1917. Thomas R. 
m. Cecile M. Sherman, 3J)3 2. Mabel H. m. Lt. George P. McCoy, 1918 
Richard C. m. Maida C. Bird, 1913. Martha V. m. Robert S. Sterrett, 1915 
John M. (dy). Mary E. m. William McC. Yarbrough, 1919. 

308-20 down (Jones): William A. died 1918. 

?08-22: down (Jones): Martha V. (not Martha J.) died 1920. Sig- 
nora died 1922. 

.^08-18 up (Jones): Other c. of Henry H. — 8. Emma G. (m. J. Elmer 
Moore, Poca.) 9 Henry G. (in S. C). 

308-15 up (Jones): Katie B. (c-6 of Andrew L.) Isabella F. and 
Bary W. (c-6 of William F.) 

308-14 up (Jones): Mary W. m. Rv. William T. Mann, 1917. 

308-10 up (Janes): M. Hester m. Theodore Alphin, 1920. 

309-8 down (Jones): Thomas J. died 1915; Joseph died 1916. 

309-12 dov«n (Jones): c-5 of Thomas J. — 1. J. Luther m. Case, 

1919. 2. Mary m. M. J. Simmons— died 1915. 

311-15 down (Kramer): Philip died 1917, aged 74. 

312-7 down (Lantz) : Emma L. m. Glenn Waybright, 1812c. 

312-2 up (Leach): Mattie V. (of Mayberry L.) died 1912. 

313-16 up (Lightner): Jane (not Virgi-nia). c-3 of John — 1. Susan 
H. (b. 1827, D. 1896) m. James Gay. 1848. 2. Elizabeth McC (b. 1829, D 
1911) m. (1) William Rice, (2) Dr. Mortimer L. Williams. 3. Rachel 
(b. 1831, D. 1912) m. James A. McCauley, D. D., L. L D, president of Dick- 
enson Collage. 4. Paul (b. 1833, D. 1885) — s — attorney. 

314-12 down (Lightner): Peter A. (not Peter H.) m. Carrie E. Siple 
(not Caroline) — D. 1912. 

314-13 down (Lightner): James C. m. (2) Josie O'Ferral, 1921. 

314-18 (Lightner): Harry T. m. Bessie Cleek, 1922. 

315-13 and 15 down (Lockridge) : Huffer (not HafPord). 

315-13 up (Lunsford): Joshua died 1914. 

315-6 up Harry C. m. Lena Vance, 1916. 

315-3 up (Lunsford): Maud m. Guy C. Keister, 1916. 

316-14 down (Malcomb) : Martin V. died 1912. 

317-8 up (Marshall): Franklin J. died 1919. 

318-16 dowin (Matheny): Sarah died 1916. 

318-19 up (Matheny): J. Clifton died 1922. 

318-16 up (Matheny): Blanche C. m. Dr. Clarence V/agner, 1917. 

321-14 down (McGlaughlin) : William A. died 1914. 

321-18 down (McGlaughlin) : Emma B. m. Robert K. Hamilton, 1913. 

321-4 up (McNulty): John S. died 1915. 

322-3 down (McNulty):' Patrick H. died 1919. 

322-8 dowin (McNulty): James G. m. Nellie Wagner, 1913. A. 



Digitized by 



Google 



47 



William A. died 1922. 
Margaret A. died 1912. 

Frances died 1917. 
Sudie E. (not Sarah E.) 



Salisbury died 



J. Walter (not 



Frank m. Caddie Slaven. 

323-14 down (Mullenax): 
324-12 down (Newman): 
1921. 

324-16 down (Newman): 
324-23 down (Newman): 
Walter). 

326-12 dowin (Price): Martha V. died 1921. 

327-14 down (Pullin): Balsor H. died 1912. 
328-12 up (Ralston): James M. ("Big Jim") died 1918. 
329-8 down (Revercomb): Sarah E. died 1922, aged 82. 
329-14 down (Revercomb): Andrew W. died 1915. 
329-22 down (Revercomb): Rebecca m. Holmes Stephenson — D. 1913. 
330-7 up (Ryder): George B. died 1912. 

331-9 down (Ryder): Harvey m. (2) Emma Pullin — D. 1920. 
David C. m. Beatrice Pullin, 1913. 
Grace m. F. P. Barber. Loyd (not Floyd). 



331-20 up (Samples): 
331-8 up (Samples): 
Edina m. Cecil Wade, 1920. 
'332-17 up (Seybert): 
332-11 up (Seybert): 



Jemima died 1913. 
Sallie m. Robert Mustoe, 1919. 
333-4 down (Shumate): Margaret A. died 1921, aged 82 
C. died 1922. Jacob L. died 1921. 

333-15 down (Shumate): Kenton F. m. Moyers. 

333-26 down (Sipe) : Horace McK. died 1919 after return 
france. 

Joseph died 1919. 
Delilah died 1913. 
John M. died 1918. 
Jesse B. died 1919. 

Charles H. died 1917.' Howard H. m 



William 



from 



333-5 
333-3 
334-3 



up (Siple) : 
up (Siple): 
up (Siron): 
335-5 up (Slaven) 
336-4 down (Slaven): 
— Hevener. 

336-10 down (Slaven): 
336-12 down (Slaven): 
336-16 down (Slaven): 



(2) 



Mary L. Ogilvie died 1922. 
Thomas H. ded 1921. 

H. Bruce m. Lettie Nisewander, 1919 Elsie 
L. m. J. P. Lunsford, 1915; Forest L. m. Dora Garland, Aug. 1916; John E. 
m. Genoa Swecker, 1922. 

336 (Snyder): C. of Henry A. — 1. Blanche (m. Arbie Pullin, 1919. 
2. Florence. 3 John. 4. Sallie. 5. Roy. 6 Alma 
337-11 up (Stephenson): Allie died 1918 

337-9 up (Stephemson): Oscar A. died 1917. Susan E. died 1917. 
John W. died 1921. James B. died 1915. 

337-2 up (Stephenson): c-5. of Lucius H. — 1. Janet C. (not Jose- 
phine) m. Major Charles S. Roller. 2. Josephine m. Joseph W. Boycr of 
^voodstock, 1916. 3 Boyd m. (2) Hattie Stephenson, 1917. 4. L. Homer 



Digitized by 



Google 



48 

m. (1) Elsie Hiner 1912, (2) Edith McLaughlin, 1920. 
33t-2 down (Stephenson): Omit John C. R. 

338-5 down (Stephenson): Oscar H. m. (1) Rebecca Revercomb, (2^ 
Elizabeth Dudley, 1917. John H. m. Mary Hevener, 1920. 
338-17 down (Stephenson):^ John A. m. Mima Goodloe. 
338-20 down (Stephensc<n) : Charles O. m. Mary K. Campbell, 19 2X 
Willard L. m. Fannie F. Bratton, 1921. 

338-22 down (Stephenson): William W. died 1915. 

340-6 up (Sullenberger) : Jay died 1917. 
341-7 down (Swecker) : c. of Eldrige D. — Arlie D., Berlie T. (m. Lilliam 
Hull, 1919), Cyrus C, Leah (m. Peter P. Keckley, Pa., 1920), Rachel, Per- 
lie E., Tresse-F., Pattie, Jaunita 

341-1 up (Terry): Howard H. diedl919. 

341-18 up (Terry): Hazel G. m. Ralph Trimble. 1922. 

342-5 down (Terry): Elizabeth m. William Lockridge, 1922. 

342-2 up (Trimble): John died 191G. 

342-foot (Trimble): Hcmry L m. (2) Harriet Hiner, 1921. 

343-9 down (Trimble): Kenton H. died 1916. c-5 — 1. Kenton H. 
Jr. m. Thelma L. Charlton, 1920). -2. Alma C. 3. Richard 

343-6 down (Trimble): c-5 of Charles W. — 1. Ralph M. (m. Hazel 
G. Terry, 1922. 2. Lucy M. 3. Mary C. 4. Charles W Jr Henry I Jr. m 
Bertha Pritt. Louetta (not Loretta.) 

James O. (not James A.) — wife died 1921 — c-5 — Lula (m. Kermit W- 
Ryder, 1921. 

344-18 up (Wade): Annie M. died 1919. 

344-9 up (Wade): Stephen S. died 1922. 

-Charles (of Abraham by 1st w.) died 1920 — c-5. — Johjn. 2. m- 

Washington Gum. 3. Minnie — m. Terry. 4. Boon. 5. Mrs Woo^ - 

Gum. 6. Mrs. Frank Wade. 

345-3 down (Woods): James O. died 1915. 

345-18 up (Wagoner): Uriah died 1919. 

345-9 up (Wagoner): Una (not Eunice) died 1922 aged 69. 

345-6 up (Wagoner) : c-6 of J. Albert — 1. Nellie (m. Glonn McNultjr 
1913.) 2. Clarence {m. Blanche Matheny, 1917.) 

C-6 of Thomas S. — 1. Bessie M. (m. Dr. W. D. Fitzhugh, 1914) 2 
others. 

346-13 up (Waybright): Susan C. died 1912. Lemuel B. (m. - 

Wimer) — D. 1913. Glenn (m. Laura Lantz, 1912). 

347-6 down (Vv^aybright) : c-4 of Miles — 1. Nicholas (m. Ellen Nel- 
son), 2. Annie m. Markv/ood Moyers. 3. George. — m. Loretta F. Hevener. 
1887 — died 1921. 4 Ephrain L. m. Ella Moyers. 

C-5 of Nicholas — 1. William G. m. Lucinda Helmick. 2. Annie m- 
Charles Wagner. 3. Ada. 4. others. 

C-5 of George W. — 1. Clarence A. (m. 1. Lura Fox, 2. Jessie Gillespie. > 



Digitized by 



Google 



4» 

2. Annete M. (dy). 3. Ethel E. (s). 4. Henry V. (m. Margaret Blackburn) 
5. Richard W. 6. Dennis C. (m. Adelle Williams). 7. Mildred C 8 
Leamm G. (dy). 

Adam (b. 1816, D. 1916) m. (2) Alice Colaw — Mo. 

347-24 down (White): Lucinda Colaw died 1921. Lavina Hevener 
died 1916. 

347-11 up (White) : Eliza, w. of Jocob, died 1915. 

347-2 up (Whitelaw): Nicholas A. died 1921; his w. died 1917. 

348-5 dowm (Whitelaw): Ernest B. m. Juanita Herold, 1912. Kate 
Hull died 1921. Robert died 1918. 

348-23 down (Wiley): Marcellus F. m. Pearl K. Burns, 1915. 

348 (Williams): This sketch, which should follow the topic "Will." 
seems to have been lost by the printers, c.of Paschal— 1. Ashley J. died 
1916, aged 60. 2. Roger died 1920, aged 70c. 3. S. Ellis, whose c. Arlie 
died 1919. 

349-24 down (Wilson: Other c. of William I. — 16. Solomen G. died 
1920. 17. Nancy E. 

349-11 up (Wilson): J. Burner died 1913 — c-6. 1. J. Burner Jr. 
2. Lona M. — m. Hubert Smith, 1912.. 
Josiah m. Mary A. Blagg — died 1919; his w. died 1913. 

350-top (Wilson): John E. died 1916. 

350-7 down (Wilson): Eldridge V. died 1915. 

350-10 down (Wilson): James M. died 1922. Peter B. died 1921; 
his w. died 1917. 

354-2 up (Byrd): John T. diedl912. 
356-2 down (Carpenter) : David M. died 1912; his w. died 1914. 

356-9 down (Carpenter): Sylvia (of Charles R.) m. David J. Parmer 
1912. 

356-14 dowm (Carpenter): Minnie G. (of E. Gay) m. John W. Gut- 
shall, 1912. 

356 (Corbett): Mustoe H. died 1919. Charles P. died 1913. 

356 ( Grummet t: Sallie, W. of Silas W., died 1921. 

357-7 down (Crummett) : Emory J. m.Lelia B. Doyle, 1917. 

357 (Cunningham): William A. m. (1) Elizabeth Koogler( not 
Crigler) — died 1918. 

357 (Eckard): c. of Samuel (died 1922) — 1. Pinckney. 2. Isaac 

(m. Ethel Hull, 1918). 3. William. 4. Kenton. 5. Oliver 6 Lucy (m 
Samuel Lindsay). 

357 (Evick): Dice died 1917. 

358-2 down (Hamilton): John G. died 1910. 

358 (Hammer): Edward A. died 1912, aged 48. John is a brother. 

359 (Herold): Juanita m. E. B. Whitelaw, 1912. 

359-21 dov/n (Helmick) : Philip died 1912. Margaret (of Philip) 
m. James O. Trimble. 



Digitized by 



Google 



50 

359-22 down (Helmick) : Phoebe J. died 1918. 

360-18 up (Keister): Martha E. died 1919. 

361-10 down (Kincaid) : Floyd died 1914; his w. died 1915. 

361 (Kincaid): Brown of J. S. died 1918. 

361-19 down (Kincaid): John S. (not John D.). 

362-12 down (Mauzy) : Georgiana M. (not Georgianna A.) 

Charles m. Hevener D. 1918. 

362-17 down (Mauzy): Mollie M. m. R. E. Myers, 1919. 

362-14 up (McClintic) : Mary died 1921. Ardrew (not Alexander B> 

362-4 up (McGuffln): Robert G. m. (2) Florence Moore, 1912. 

363 (Mitchell): George m. Medora Armstrong, 1922. 

363 (Obaugb): Roy m. Myrtle Fleisher, 1912. 

364-2 up (Puffenberger) : James R. m. Sallie Ryder, 1916. 

365-16up (Rexrode): George M. died 1922. 
365-13 up (Rexrode): Russell m. Ludie Simmons, 1912. 

366-2 down (Rexrode): Samuel B. died 1919. 

366-4 down (Rexrode): Henry E. Bryant died 1922. Annie E. m. 
(2) Brown Gardner, 1917. 

366-367 (Rexrode): Wife of Leonard (of John) died 1912. An- 
drew (of Michael) died 1912. 

C. of William P. — 1. Sadie (D. in Africa, 1921). 2. Thomas J (m — 

Vandevender) D. 1917. 3. Joseph (m. 1. Hoover, 2. Gladys V Eye, 

1921 

C. of Thomas J. — 1. Eonmie (m. George Kevener, 1921). 2. Maggie 
(m Ira Rerrcde, 1920.) 

367-top (Rexrode): Elizabeth died 1912. 

?67-ll down (Rexrode): George A. died 1917. 

368 20 down (Simmons): W. of John W. died 1921. 

368-23 down (Simmons): C-7 of Markwood A. — 1 Ira. 2 (m. Fannie 
Newman). 2. Hiram L. (m. Esta Folks, 1920). John died 1919. 

ofcS (Simmces) : Addison (of John W.) had Minor K.., whose daugh- 
ter Ludie m. Russell E. Rexrodo, 1912. 

Wiliam I. (of Andrew J.) b. 1860, D. 1912, m. Minnie F. Lantz. John 
S. (of Lewis) died 1919, aged 66. 

368 (Smith): Ida (of George H.) died 1918. Hubert m.Lena M. 
Wilson, 1912. 

369-8 down (Stone): Samuel died 1920. Amos died 1913. 
369-19 down (Swadley) : Mary V. Beverage died 1914. 
369-21 down (Swadley): Lydia F. Gum died 1921. 
389-19 up (Swadley): William F. m. Mary Lowman (not Phoebe 
Trimble) — D. 1915. 

369 (Swope): Ryland m. Sallie Gibson, 1914. Nola m. Eugene 
Crickenberger — died 1920. Susan U. m. Charles A. Ballard, 1915. 

370-8 up (Varner): Martha Middleton (not Martha J. Rexrode). 



Digitized by 



Google 



51 



370 (Varncr) : William died at Palo Alto, 1921 — m. Catherine Botkiii 
(b. 1844c, D. 1921) — c. — 1. D. W. 2. Mrs. John Huffman. 3. Mrs. J. W 
Beverage. 4. Mrs. Addison Crummett. 5. Mrs. W. P. Simmons. 6. Geo. W 

371 (Waggy): c. of Harvey — 1. Rosa B. (died 1919). 2. Mary S. 
<m. Forest T. Hincr, 1922). 

371 (Wallace): Mrs. John S. died 1922. 
372-21 down (Wimer) : Cornelius died 1912. 

372-24 dowa (Wimer): Levina R. (not Lucy) Colaw. Charles D. 
Newlin (not Newman). 

372-16 up (Wimer): Ellen died 1913. 
372-13 up (Wimer): Fremont (not Tremdnt). 
372-10 (Wimer): Joseph died 1921; his w. died 1920. 

372 (Wimer): Jack (of Philip) died 1919. George W. (of Emman- 
uel) died 1922. 

373 (Carrichoff): Lewis A. died 1915. Lewis A. Jr., m. Mary G. 
Watson. , 

373 (Cro3S): Charles G. died 1914 — m. Fannie Koogler (died 1922). 

374 (Dickson): Kenton S. m. Elsie Pritchard, 1921. 

374 (Dudley): George D.m. Mary S. Hevener, 1883 — c. — Martha S. 
(m. Robert H. Bear, 1920). 

374 (Faurote): Fred m. Carpenter. 

374 (Gibbs): c. of Charles B. — 1. Hai-vey A. (died 1919). 2. Daisy 
E. (m. Elmer W. Miller, 1920). 

3'«"4 (Gilkeson): A. R. (b. 1848, D. 1920) — c. — Margaret C. (m. 
J. Edward Arbogcst.) 

374 (Gillett): Andrev/ W. died 1921. 

C. of J. Luther — John W. (m. Minnie G. Gillespie, 1912, died 1922). 
Ray (of Ira D.)- m. Florence Corbett, 1921. 

375 (Kite): MargaretA. died 1912. 

375 (Johnson): John R. died 1921. Sarah E. died 1917. 

376 (Mackey): John il. came to Monterey in boyhood from Rock- 
bridge — m. Melissa J. Wods — c — 1. James W. (m.Jaunita Gum). 2Her- 
bcrt L. 3. Ilary C. 4. Ilcnry II. C. Ida C. 

375 (Marshall): Elizabeth A. died 1917. 

375 (Miller): Dr. A. W. m. Rebecca E. Zieglcr, Rockins^ham, 1913. 
375 (Mundy): William H. came from W. Va. 1898. 
375( Page): Mary K. (of H. J.) m. Sidney Lowery, 1919. 
375-10 up (Palmer): Sarah W. Wimer died 1920. 
375-7 vp (Palmer): Charles K. died 1912. 
375-5 up (Palmer): David J. (of David W.) m. Sylia Carpenter, 
1912. 

375 (Patterson): Emma J. (w. of Dr. Henry M.) died 1921. 
Janet (of H. P.) dy. 

376 (top line) D. H. Peterson m (3) Miss G. K. Burton, 1922. 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 



376 (Shaffier): David m. Betsy P. 



376 (Sterrett): Robert S. m. Martha V. Jones, 1915. 

376 (Wiseman): Thomas J. died 1922. 

37Ci (Wood) : H. B. came from Charlottesville 1898, but is a native of 
Berkley County, W. Va. — m. Annie Lee Holt, N. C. 

380 (Church): Mary A. died 1916. 

P. 381 (Gay): James — b. 1815, D. 1872 — m. Susan H. Lightner— 
High town — c. 

1. Susan J. — b. 1849, D. 1886 — M. G. Kerr, Aug. 

2 . James — D. 1873, aged 23— s 

3-6. — Margaret A., Lucy H., John S. John L. — dy. 
7. Paul L. — b. 1858 — m. Blanche L. Manoi — Orange Co., Va. 

8. Lelia B.— b. 1860, D. 1908 — m. Stephen A. Porter. 

9. Helen M. — b. 1867 — m. Richard Paul, Minneapolis, Minn. 
P. 382 (Layne): Emma (w. of Patrick Maloy) D. 1915. 

P. 382 (Joh/nson): Jesse m, Elizabeth Ruckman. 

Eleanor (of Jesse) m. Cornelius Sutton. 

P. 383 (11 down): Sarah (of John) m. John C. Taylor — D. 1918. 

P. 385 (23 down): Phoebe A. died 1919. 

P. 385 (13 up): Sully B. (/not V.) died 1919. 

P. 386 (Strickler): William A. (of Jacob P. and Elizabeth Gilmor 
m. Tea McCoy — D. 1919 — c. 

1. A. G. 2. Katherine U. Percy (brother toWillia m A.) m. 

D. 1920. 

CAMPBELL FAMILY 

The following revised genealogy of the Campbells of Highland, and the 
reflated branches of other families was furnished by W. P. Campbell. The 
abbreviations ac-j ihose •:i'ed in iLe crunty History. The names of those 
now living are marked by a star. Thomas, b. in Scotland 1715, D. 1788. 
His son Thomas, b. 1738, D. 1794, had four sons: 

1. — John, b. in Md., jTiiO, D. :.'>'.0: — m. Susan McCowan. 

2. J.imcs, b. !762, 1». 18:32; ni. Lirvlot Forgusson. 

S.Samuel, b. 1764, D. 1852, went to Gallipolis, Ohio, 1810. Name of 
v/ife unknown. 

4. Alexander, b. in Md. 1768, D. 1845 at head Jackson's River; m. (1) 
Margaret Brown, 1797 (b. 17G9, D. 1822); m. (2) Polly Moore: 

(C-1.) of Alexiiiuier; 

1. James B. b. 1797, D. 1852; m. Alcinda C. Lightner, 1845. 

2. Thomas, b. 1800, D. 1876, m. (1) Elizabeth Slaven, (2) Mrs. 
Mary J. Bonner, 1859, (3) Mrs. Susan Wade, 1867. 1st w. b. 1800, D. 
1857; 2d b. 1810, D. 1866; 3d, b. 1824, D. 1886. 

3. John, b. 1802, D. 1882, m. Sarah Jackson, b. 1818. 

4. Sraiiuel B., b. 1800, D. 1833, ni. (1) Jane V/oods, 1828, (2) Isabel 
Woods. 



Digitized by 



Google 



53 

5. Benjamin B. b. 1808, D. 1884, m. (1) Margaret Slaven, 1834. 
(2) Laura Russell, 1853. 1st w. b. 181*1, D..1849; 2d w. b. 1820, D. 1908. 

6. William M. b. 1811, D. 1881, m. Mary J. Warwick McGuffin, 1837. 

7. AlexanOer i^I., b. 1S15, 1>. is^D, m. Isabella Spiller Lewis, 1840, 
wife b. 1820, D. 1904. 

8. Edgar, b. 1818, D. 1886; m.( 1) Sarah Herold Boone, 1838. (2) 
Elizabeth R. Lockridge. Susan b. 1815, D. 1846. 

9-11. Azariah P., Laura H., Milton (all dy). 

C-2 of Thomas (by 1st w.): 1. Margaret B.* — m. Roger Hickman*. 
2. Isabella J.'^--m. Moses ^\I(.ore'^ V. Matilda B.* (twin to Isabella). 
4. Sarah A.* — m. Anson O. Wade. 5. Austin W.* — m. Susan M. Hamil- 
ton, (by 2d w.) 6. Mary B. Watts.* (By 3d w.): 7. Sallie Hamilton. 

C-?f {»f MiUgaret B. II.' iiUi'i: 1. Manha E.* 2. Virginia Ara.-Josip'i 
E. Hamilton*. 3. Thomas B. — m. (1) Mary W. Payne,* (2) Mary K. Whit- 
mire. 4. James E.* 5. Emma S. S.* — m. James W. Balger. 6. Matilda 
M. — m. Charles I. Hepler. 7. Laura E.* 8. Peter L. — m. Ollie G. Lock- 
ridge. 9. Andrew J*. 

C-4 of Thomas B. Hickman: 1. Carrie* — m. Louis LaSalle. 2. Sallie 
D. — m. Marion Miiller. 3. Mary B. — m. Charles H. Gum. 4. Theola B. — 
m. Edwin W. Parsons. 5-7. Margaret E., Laura L., Robert A. (c. of 2d w.) 

C-5 of Mary B. Gum: Charles H. — Chester L. — Frederick. 

C-5 of Theoia B. Parson: Theola L. 

C-4 of Matilda M. Hepler: .1. Willie B. — m. Hattie L. Goddin. 2 
Fletcher E. 3. Minnie F. — m. William V. Woods. 4. Charles E.* . 
Clarence M.* 6. Forrest D. — m. Lula P. McClung. 

C-5 of Willie B. Hepler: Marlin J. — Virginia M. — Stella M. — Emma 
G. — Laura J. — Ruth G. — Winnie L. — Charles Vv. — Lula J. — Mary F. — Kate 
H. — Esther E. 

C-5 of Minnie F. Wade: Mildred H.— Stanley R. 

C-5 of Forest D. Hepler: Bryan F. — Murray C. — Margaret L. — 
Jame3 H. 

C-4 of Peter L. Hickman: Roger, — Forest E. — Ollie V. — Clair B, — 
Ruth G. — Julian K. — Harry H. 

C-3. of Isabella J. Moore: 1. Isaac B. — m. Rebecca C. Curry.* 2. Roy 
P. — m. Bonna F. Snapp, Washington Co., Pa. 3. Florence B. — m. Robert 
G. McGufun. 4. Lula M. — m. Samuel B. McGuffin. 5. Bo-sie G. — m. Ben- 
jamin B. Campbell. G. Mary M. 7. Mattie A. 8. Fred B. — m. Grayce 
A. McComb. 

C-4. of Isaac B. Moore: 1. William P. — m. Maude E. Jordan. 2. Peter 
L. 3. Jack C. 4. Hugh B. 5. Lynn M. 6. Fred B. — m. Grayce A.McComb 

C-5 of William P. Moore: William P. Jr. 

C-4 of Roy P. Moore: Roy P. Jr. 

C-4 of Florence B. McGuffin: Adam R. — Mildred B. — Ralph G. — Her- 
bert L. 



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C-4 of Lula M. McGuffln: Virginia G. — Jessie E. 

C-4 of Bessie G. Campbell: Luther B. 

C-2 of John: 1. Emma J.* — m. Dr. Henry M. Patterson.* 2. Morgan 
B. (diKior)* — m. (1) Annie Lupton,* (2) Lillie T. Woodzelle. 3. Cath- 
arinr M.* — m. William H. Smythe. 4. Oscar J. — m. Annie L. Slaven. 5. 
Am Of? J.* 

( -3. of Emma J. Patterson: 1. Annie M.* — m. Stuart F. Lindsay.* 

2. LlUie G.— m. William W. Brennaman.* 3. Mary K. 4. John B.* 5. 
Susan J.* 6. Grace P. — m. Firth deF. Luck. 7. Sally C. — m. Dr. William 
V. Nance.* 8, Elsie M. 9. Wilber E.— m. Annie B. Dull. 10. Edwin C* 

C-4 of Lillie G. Brennaman: Homer P. — William W. Jr. 

C-4 of Sally C. Nance: Willie V. 

C-4 of Wilber E. Patterson: Martin A. 

C-3 of Morgan B. Campbell: 1. Annie L. — m. Wallace G. Hoover. 2. 
Stanley B. (By 2d w.) 3. Winfred W. 4. Mildred J. 

C-3 of Catherine H. Smithe: 1. Harry G.* 2. Jesie H.* — m. Dr. 
Samuel B. Hamer. 3. Josephine C. — m. Rev. Robert E. Elmore. 

C-4 of Josephine C. Elmore: Harry S. — Katharine C. — Josephine R. 

C-ii of Oscar J: 1. Helen M. — m. William H. Lunsford. 2. Eva C. — m. 
Adaru Stephenson. 3. Sallie L. — m. William R. Stephenson. 4. Jessie S. — 
m. Hairy St. G. Bird. 5. Warren M. 6. Catharine M. 7. Cornelia J.* 8. 
John E.* 

C-4 of Helen M. Lunsford: Katharine C. — Anna M. — Harry W. 

C-4 of Eva C. Stephenson: Anna. M. 

C-4 of Sallie L. Stephenson: William R. Jr. 

C-4 of Jessie S. Bird: Warren M. 

«: y « « * * * 

C-2 of Samuel B. 1. Mary A.* 2. Rollin — m. Marriet L. Rodgers.* 

3. Aleximder.* (1) Susan Matheny, (2) . 4. Vonnon — m. Bettie A. 

Bird. 5. Ananias.* 6. Rachel R.* — m. William G. Rodgers.* 7. Caleb — 
m. Phoebe Sullen berger.* 8. Margaret J. — m. Gideon M. Burns. 

C-3 of Rollin Campbell: 1. Eugenia P. — m. James V. Fidler.* 2. 
Etlward J.* 3. Harriet J.* 4. Locy R.* 5. Mary B.— m. (1) William L. 
Gillo}3pie,*(2) Albert L. Swisher. 

C-4 of Mary B. (by Gillespie): Wilmina E. (by Swisher): Basil E. 
(Wiimina E. adopted by Swisher.) 

C-3 cf Alexander Campbell (by 1st w.): Henry. 2. Maggie* — m. 

Fred Hoover, (by 2d w.): 3. M:'«nnie — m. Shrives. 4. Mary — m. S. 

T. Fletcher 

C-?y of Vernon Campbell: Flora V. — m. William H. Frazer. 

C-4 of Flora V. I iT.zer. 1. Harry V. 2. Sarah E. — m. Henry L. Chev- 
erton. 

C-4 0-" S:irah K. f']\v\'rAcn: Hedrick L. 

C-4 oi Maggie Hoover: 1. Annie — m. Kenton. 2. Susan. 



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55 

C-r. of Rachel H. Kj (Igers: 1. Minnie J. 2. Dr. Charles W.» — m. 
Margaret Van Lear. 3. Mni^iglL L.-— m. Rev. J. M. Plowdon. 4. Dr. George 
C* — m. Ji^aclie iMoCue. 5. Annit R. m. Huggard Irwin. 6. Eugene K. — m. 
Edna P. Slavcn. 

C-4 of Charles W. Kotlj;tiT. Rachel, — William, — Charles. 

C-4 of Maggie L. Piovdon: Marie — Minnie — Rebecca — Eldridge — 
William. 

C-4 of Eugene K. Kodgv,.'-:: Kring. 

C-3 of Caleb Camp]j(.Jl: 1. infant. 2. Thomas J. — m. Jennie Lund- 
quist. 3. Samuel S. 4. I.attie E. — m. Thomas W. Vernon. 5. Caleb A. — 
m. Ruth Sidcinif^s. 

C 4 of Thon^afi J. C:iriip'j'\'j: Thomas C. — Margaret R.. 

(^•4 of Hattie E. Adi (»,i: Dorothy C. 

C-3 of Margaret J. Puin^: 1. Charles II.* — m. Kitty Allen. 2. Dana 
B.— m. Clara V. McConnell. o Winnie L.* 4. David F. 5. Mary H — m 
Horace M. LJoyd. 

C-1 of Dana B. Burns: iMav.-aret V. — Mary E. — Dana B. — Robert M. 

C-4 of Mary H. IW.yd: D;iviu li.- -Virginia C. 

« « * « 4 « «r 

C-2 oi r.en^juiiiu B: J. "VVujIm- A. 2 . James B. — m. Amanda A. 
Pleishor.'^' 3. Mai^ E.* •!. EJizaneth R.* — m. Dr. S. Pruyn Patterson. 5. 
Stnart A. — m. (1) Agncti SJa>ci..'' (2) Emily Lowry.* 6. Luther E. — m. 
Mollie E. Benf^son.* 

(3-3 of Janie.^ B. Camj)l)cjl: R. bert B. — m. Mary W. Boggs.* 

C-4 of Robert B. C'ar/ii htlJ: James B. 

C-3 of Klizabeth R. I'.itieiHon: 1. Harry P. — m. Mary Barlow. 2. 
Margaret C. — ni. K.-ulor. 3. Annie M. — m. William H. Barlow. 

C-4 of Margaret C. I;a\l€i : Gordon C. 

C-4 of Annie M. Bavicv/: IleJen P. 

C-3 of Stuart A. Cunpbcjj: 1. Grace D. — m. Fisher. 2. Fred N. 

3. Charles P. 

C-4 oi Grace D. Fisher: I-iany — m. Berhe Newcome. 
('-5 of Harry Pisher: Mi.r> J. 

C-3 of Luther E. Caiuphell: 1. Benjamin B. — m. Bessie G. Moore. 2. 
Margie B.— m. Kcv. K< i.aper D. ^'vreckcr. 3. Luther R. — m. Onie Thompson. 

4. Willie R. — m. Herbert Noel. 5. Oscar J. — m. Louise Moore. 6. Gay — 
m. Stella O. Dilley. 7. Guydwin to Gay) — m. Florence Austin. 

C-4 of Benjamin B. Caiiipi»Fii: Luther B. 
C-4 of Margie B. Sweclier: Virginia C. 
C-4 of Luther R. Campixill: Arden H.*— Eldon E. 
C -4 of Willie R. CampbtU: Juniata L.— Helen R. 

C-4 of Oscar J. Campbell: Katharine M. — Mary V. — Jane J. 

C-4 of Gay Campbell: Koilh G. 

C'-4 of Guy Campbell: Gay A- l\.'ary F. 



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C-2 of William M. 1 *Louisa J."^— m. William H. Shumate!* 2. David 
H. — m. Eliza V. Dover- -kas. ;>. Oames K.* — m. Georgia Ball.* 4. Laura 
E.* 5. lto)»ert B* 6. I'JIIuoio V.--m. Mary A. Sively. 7. Clara. 8. 
William P. — m. Lottie A. KiKKineai. 

C-O of Louisa J. Sbiiinate: 1. Mary L. — m. David O. Bird. 2. Clara 
R.* 3. Lucy H. — m. Newman B. McClung. 4. William R. — m. L^lia V. 
McClung. 

C-4 of David O. Bird: I!;, ry ;>L. 'I. (;i). Jessie S. Campbell) — William 
M.- Luoy G.— David K.— Kruersl N.- -V.-'iCst H. 

C-5 of Harry St. G. Bird: V anen M 

C-4 of Lucy H. McClung: Dtniol il; - Andrew N.— Lilins H. 

C-4 of William R. fshumate: y-iwy C- John R. — Anne G. 

C-3 of James K. Campboll: 1. Bruce C:. 2. Almira E.* m. Sidney 
Ruck man. 

0-4 of Ahiiira E. Uuckman: William C- Charles. 

C-3 of Fillmore T. 1. George W.- ni, Telia Page. 2. Mary K. — m. 
Charles Stephenson. 3. AJiiort E. 4. L'C'AP.rd F. 5. Edward G. 6. Scott 
M. 7. Aluiira L. 8. V/iiliam C. 

C-o of William P. Cuapbell: 1. Boyd L — m. Mary M. Lockridge. 2 
Dr. Glenn C. — m. Mary K. Pierce. 3. WiV^iam K. 4. Edna E. 5. Arthur 
P. C. Lena M. 7. JMamle L. S. R«»bcrt I . P Margaret V. 10. Lillian R. 

C-4 of Boyd L.- -William i>. Poyd I *— Newton W. — Charlotte. 

nr 4^ 9|e » « * * 

C-2 of Alexander H. 1. Cl):ales L.-^— ri. I.tiura V. Mentz Myer.* 2. 
Mary L— m. Liicins H. Siephenson.- 3. A\ 'iham A.* — m. Mary V. McCoy* 

C-3 cf Charles L. C:v.i:pi)ell: J. Ediia J — m. Ellis W. Harrison. 2. 
Charles A* 3 Ilelon M. -in. Ot-car T. Tkcic. 

C-4 of Edna L. Harrison: Charles W. 

C--1 of I'flon M. i^l'r.ie: Pii jline "^ -• ^Ji^Don M. 

C -3 of Liiciusli. Stephenson: 1. Jc-^rhine — m. Joseph W. Boyer. 
2. Bc»yd— in. (1) Frances L. ILi I e,* (2) I--{ t tie Si.ephensson. 3. Lucius H. — 
m. (3). Elsie Hiner=^ (2) Edith McLaughlin. 4. Janet C. — m. Charles S. 
Roller. 

C-4 of Boyd (by 1st w.) : l.'MiL-e il.- - r^y2d w.) : Lucius H. — Boyd W. 

C-4 of LuclusH.— -Jessie W.- -Elsie .1. 

C-4 of Janet Roller: Charles C. 

C-3 of William A. Ctiinpholl; 1. Roy L. — m. Katharine Priest. 2. 
Carrie M.— -m. M. S. Lodges. 

C-4 of Roy L. Canjpbell: Maurice H. — Mary L. — ^William P.* 

C-4 of Carrie M. Ilo.ifcefc: MaryV. 



ijY 



C-2 of PMgar: 1. Mary K. — m. John M. Burns.* 2. William C* 3. 
Susan C* (by 2d w.) 4. Alice — m. John W. Flannagam. 5. Thomas 



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57 

A. — m. Rissa I. r-ininiDg. 6. James (dy). 7. Harry H.* — m. (1) Amy 
Scott,- (2) Lizzie F. I'itney. 

C-;; of Mary K. Inirns: I.Gertrude L.* 2. Margaret H.* 3. Ben- 
jamin B.* — m. Ethel B. Brownson, (Texas). 4. Daisy.* 5. Lucretia M. 6. 
John M. Jr.*- -11). Nora Ware. 7. William C* 8. Susan C* 

C-4 of Benjamin B. Campbell: Katharine — Ethel O. — Benjamin B. Jr. 

C-3 of Alice Flannagan: 1. Clyde — m. E. N. Faulkner. 2. Mary — m. 
Robert .Mur. ell. 3. T. O. — m. Annie Knight — doctor. 

C-3 of lienry H. Campbell (by 1st w.) : Edgar H. — Roscoe T. — George 
P.-- Nellie L. — Mary C. 

P. 1 (18 down)*: For 1846 read 1847. 

P. 4(18 up): The lindian name is Wapacomo, not Wuppctoniika, and 
it means "wild plum." 

P.5(22 down): For "Hawes" read "Horse's." The name should pro- 
perly be Haas, from Henry Haas, who was drowned in this stream about 
1760 

P. (19 up) : At the confluence of the Cowpasture and the Bullpasture, 
the latter is much the longer and larger stream. From the source of the 
Bullpasture to the junction of tho united waters with Jackson's River, the 
two streams are nearly CQual in length and volume. But because it rises 
in the Alleghany Divide, Jackson's River has the better claim to be regard- 
ed as the head branch of the James. 

P.10(par.2): In Pendleton the air is less humid than it is beyond the 
Alleghany Divide, and while the rainfall is lees there is scarcely any greater 
trouble from drouth. There is also more sunshine,' especially in the cold 
season. Observations for 11 years at Upper Tract show the following mean 
temperatures:- winter, 32.8 degrees: spring, 52.1; summer, 70.4; fall, 54.1; 
mean for the year, 5 2.G. The .average Icv.cct tcmrcraiuro is G degieso be- 
low zero, and the highest is 94 above, although extremes of 28 below and 
100 above have beem noted. The rainfall is 33.6 inches, distributed as fol- 
lows: wioiter, 6.9; spring, 8.7; summer, 12.1; fall, 6.3. The average date 
for the last killing frost in spring is May 9 ; for the earliest in fall, October 
3. 

P. ll(par.2): The amount of land made open by persistent burning of 
the grass by the Indians at the close of the humting season was undoubted- 
ly much greater than is here suggested. Furthermore, the v/oods v/ere com- 
paratively free from underbrush. 

P.13(22 down): For "600" read "200". 
P. 18(27 down): For "other" read "special." 

P. 21(4 down): Probably 12 instead of 22. 

P. 21 (par. 4): An old map of the Northern Neck shows a "warrior 
path" crossing the Fairfax Line a little west of the North Fork. This was 
a branch of the Seneca Trail and led dov/n the valley of the North Fork, 
keeping the foothill ridge. The buffalo, an animal that goes only in herds, 



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6S 

is a maker of paths as well as the Indian. 

P. 28(5 up) : Read 'juvat," not "jurat." What is here said as to a new- 
order of chivalry is not to be taken in a literal sense. In European usage 
the bestowal of knighthood is a prerogative of royalty. The little golden 
horseshoes given by the governor to the aristocrats of the party were noth- 
ing more than souvenirs. 

P. £9(7 up): Read "1734," not "1704." 

P. 30 (9 up) : As finally adjusted, the Fairfax Line ran parallel with 
the present north line of Pendleton and about 7 miles to the northward. 
The boundary between Rockiingham and Shenandoah is a part of the Fairfax 
Line, which from 1753 to 1778 was the boundary between Frederick an^ 
Augusta. 

P. 30 (16 down): Read "Morton" not "Norton." 

P. 31 (24 down) : The name of this jockey was Rutledge, and he lived 
on the Augusta side of the P^airfax Line. 

P. 33 (14 up): Insert "had become" after "If he." 

P. 34 (last line): An exception was the path running the whole 
length of the Shenandoah Valley, and nearly coinciding v/ith the present 
Valley Turnpike. It was Innown as the "Indian Road," end also as the 
Pennsylvania Road," and in 1745 was adopted as a public thoroughfare by 
the court of Orange. The Indian trail was generally broad enough to admit 
a wagon. 

P. 35 (20 up): "Luke Collins," not "Duke Collins." The peti- 
tioaers were Jeremiah Calkin, Luke Collins, John Knowles, Benjamin Pat- 
ton, John Patton, Mathew Patton, Samuel Patton, Jacob Reed, Leonard 
Reed, Peter Reed, Jr., Daniel Richardson, William Stephenson, and George 
West. They represented that the bridlepath they asked for would be 3 
miles nearer than the old rcrd. The mill of James Ccbum was a little 
above the mouth of Mill Creek end but a short distance from the town of 
Petersburg in Grant county. Patton's mill was near the Fort Seybert 
postoffice. 

P. 35 (11 up: For "Hawcs" read "Haas," and so in all other instances 
in which this name occurs. Henry Haas and not Peter wasa son-im-law 
to Roger Dyer. Peter Haas lived beyond the Fairfax Line. 

P. 35 (15): Dyer and his neighbors were the first settlers to receive 
deeds within the Pendleton area. They paid down for their land ajid 
probably v/anted a clear title without delay. They may have settled on 
their lands in the rpring of 1747, but probably not earlier. Quite a num- 
ber of other people, mcstlyGermans, came to the South Fork and South 
Branch about the same time, amd insome instances perhaps a little sooner. 
They did not secure deeds for their holdings until 1761 and 1763. The 
* "P'* stands for page, "par" for paragraph. "18 down" means the eight- 
euth line dowm the page, beginning with the first regular line. "18 up** 
means the eighteenth line up from the foot of the page. 



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cause of this long delay is not quite clear, but seems due to some arrange- 
ment with Wood, Green, and Russell. It is probable that tlje surveys by 
«lj<?Ge three land monopol'^7ts followed promptly after an incursion o' what 
were de iH'^n tci b»- «-i;' il!i rs, n .c, i rt, as ;i concession, — doubtless pro- 
longed by the Indian v ar, — the n. •vconicis v.ere allowed a stated period 
for elTecting purchase. 

P. ".5 (par. A): In 1760 John Dunkle amd Michael Hevener were or- 
dered by the court of Augusta to veiw a road from Michael Propst's to the 
county line of Frcdoncl^; also from Propst's across Shenandoah Mountain 
to Daniel Harrison's, a, few miles north from where Harrisonburg now 
stamds. 

P. 35 (14 up): With his parents, John and Agnes, Mathew Patton 
came from county Donegal, Ireland, in 1740. The father died in 1757. 
The son moved to the Carolinas but soon returned to the South Fork. For 
his time he was-, a wealthy main. About 1794 he settled in what is now 
Clarke (cunty, Kentucky, where he died May 27, 1803. With his son-in- 
law he was the first to introduce blooded cattle to the Bluegrass State. 
His (;staie, nov/ known as "Sycamore," is still in the family. The children 
or Matthew Patton were James, William, Roger, Matthew, Esther, Ann, 
Sarah, and John. 

....P. 36 (par. 2): Peter Reed lived on the South Fork between Fort 
Scybert and Moorefleld. The men named in the road order were his neigh- 
bois. Ijow the Reed's Creek of Pendleton comes by its name we do not 
cen^amly know. A fair guess is that the mill at Upper Tract was con- 
ducted by Peter Reed, Jr. The court of Augusta issued an order, August 
14, 1749, for a valuation of the Upper Tract survey, then held by William 
Parks. Among the appraisers were John Patton Jr., John Shelton, George 
Sea, James Rutledge, and Martin Stroup (Shobe?). Their report, dated 
Nov ember 17, 1749, mentions as livimg en the land Hanness DockcII, John 
Kerr, Peter Moser, George Mouse, and Jacob Sifert. For many year^^ the 
Upper 'i'ract was knov/n as "Shelton's tract." Shelton was a non-resident. 
It is rather singular that we are much in the dark as to how the title 
pas.-^ed from Parks to Shelton, and from Shelton to later owners. 

P. 36 (17 up): Some and perhaps all the settlers alluded to were 
hex"e by 17 -18, although none of their survey's is of earlier date than 1753. 

P. 36 (5 up): "Keister" not "Sherler." 

P. 36 (last line) : In the property of James Coburn, who died in 1748, 
and whose mill has already been mentioned, the following items are spoken 
of: 22 horses, 20 cattle, 30 hogs, pewter dishes, tankard, razor, fleshfork, 
box and heater, candlestick, padlock, sidesaddle, grubbing hoe, v/eeding 
hoe, iron-toothed harrow, brown coat, leather breeches, two pairs of trow- 
j^ers, two pocketbooks, a cowbell, a buffalo hide valued at two shillings, 
and 7 J yards of shalloon worth $3.75. There was due the estate, $314.81. 
Jonatha»n Coburn was executor. Persons named in the settlement were 



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60 

Thomas Crawford, William Dean (Presbyterian minister), Garrett Decker, 
Thomas Dove, David Evans, Christian Evy, Henry Femster, George Sea, 
Frederick Se'^a, Henry Shepler, Abel Westfall, and Jacob Westfall. 

P. 37 (last line) : In point of fact, the early settlers began tilling the 
Indiain meadows," and for some years little actual clearing was necessary. 
But a tree standing near a cabin was doubtless cut down so that it might 
i^ot be a cover to a hostile Indian. ^^^ 

P. 38^ (7 down): Read "roads" not "broads." ^^^ 

P. 40 (3 down): Insert "good" before "will." 

P. 40 (21 down): "1758" not "1753." 

P. 42 (par 3) : Fort Upper Tract stood on the left bank of the South 
Branch, a quarter of a mile above the bridge on the road to Kline, and at a 
bend in the river. There is here a steep bluff some forty feet high, but 
the stream may be reached by a short, deep ravine just above the site of 
the fort. The stone foundation of the blockhouse may be traced, and close 
by is a shallow, circular depression in the general level of the river bottom. 
A very few relics have been fouoid on this spot, which commands an ex- 
tensive view of the river and the opposite shore. In the opposite direction 
there is no high ground for nearly a mile. Two hundred yards away in 
the direction of Upper Tract village was once a prehistoric stone-heap. 
Thirty carloads of 'river stones were once take^n from it to fill a ditch. 
From an earth-mound also near some relics have been taken. 

At a council of war held at Staunton, July 27,1756, it \.r.3 tliought 
necesfsaiy to garrison these points: Peterson's fort near Mill Crcok, tw^o 
miles above the coumty line, w^ith 50 men; Hugh Mann's foil Lt Upper 
^Tract, the "most convenient and important pass between Upper Tract and 
Matthew Harper's," with 50 men; Harper's, or "some convenient spot near," 
20 miles above Trout Rock, with 3 men. 

P. 43 (0 dawn) : Biting into a bullet v/as the Indian method of mak- 
ing a duniduni bell. The design vras to increase the severity of the wound. 

P. 43 (15 up): Captain Dunlap and some of his men were from the 
Great Calfpasture. Josiah Wilson lived on the Bullpasturc. 

P. 45 (15 up):" "Robinson" not "Robertson." 

P. 46 (7 down): "Scalped" not "scalps." 

P. 47 (20 down): Nicholas Seybert never married. The Seyberts of 
Highland are of the posterity of George and Henry, his younger brothers. 

P. 50 (3 down): "Fort Syvers" was rebuilt at a cost of $61.67 for 
328 days labor. Among those who worked on the reconstruction were Jonas 
Friend, Ulrich Conrad, Adam Harper, Adam Propst, James Fowler, George 
Lewis, and three Cunninghams, AndrcAv, John, and AVilliam. 

P. 51 (par 3): In 1747 and 1748 Moravian missionaries visited the 
South Fork, traveling by twos. Those coming in the former years were 
told tliat no minister had been in the valley since its settlement, and that 
as a result the Lord's Supper had not been administered. There was a 



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61 

third visit in November, 1749. The strangers were entertained over night 
by Roger Dyer, who praised the medicine left him by Bishop Spangenberg, 
because it had cured hisson of a bronchial affection. Next day they con-- 
tinued up the valley, meeting several German families and arranging for a 
preaching service on Sunday. Saturday night they lodged with Michael 
Propst, v/liojii they had known jn ilie floh^jisey River In New Jersey Ir 
was undoubtedly at his house that one of the missionaries preached cin 
Suhday, November 12, 1749, O. S., using as his text, First Timothy 1:15. 
The mothers urgently asked that their children be baptized, and wept 
bitterly when the ceremony was refused on the ground that most of the 
men were then absent hupting bear. They v/cnt on to the house of an 
English-speaking settler, who told them the way.to New River, whither they 
were bound, was very dangerous because of the wild animals. Taking his 
two dogs this man accompanied them to their next lodging place, and ifi 
the path they encountered a large wolf. When the travelers le^t this 
cabin in the morning the German woman gave them some bread and cheese. 
For a distance given as 30 miles there was no house, the valley was timber- 
ed, and the path v/as poor. At the source of the South Fork they lodged 
in an "English cabin," E<nd slept on bearskins before the fire, the night 
being cold. Bear steak was found in every cabin and it was in evidence 
here. But there was no bread, and the guests shared their supply with the 
family. Thursday the Moravians reached Warm Springs valley. 

P. 54 (3 dowm): Postle was a nickname for Sebastian. 

P. 54 (3 up): In a suit brought by Frederick Upp, he says he left a 
place he hcd rented of Jacob Westfall, on which were growing six acres 
cf winter grain, four of corn, one of oats, and a half-acre of barley. In 
April, 1760, Henry Stone said that if Upp would come to the South Fork 
and keep school, he would insure 34 pupils, each paying 12 shillings in 
money and one bushel of wheat for six months tuition, and in prororticii 
for more time or less. Only 16 pupils appeared and these net cf Stcnc'.i 
procuriuig. Upp asked 40 pounds damages. 

P. 54 (17 down): Hornberger was pronounced Hornbarry and Horn- 
barrier in the Swiss dialect of the German settlers. Likewise Puffenberger 
was called Puffenberry. 

P. 56 (par 4): The unanimity of the Scotch-Irish is here overstated. 
The declaration ascribed to Washington is not regarded as authentic. It 
seems to be founded on his resolve to make a stand behind the Blue Ridge 
if driven from the seaboard. 

P. 62 (last line) : To look for deserters Sebastian Hoover, a lieuten- 
ant in the militia, went to the house of Philip Eckard, who lived a little 
below Sugar Grove. In disregard of a warning by the family he opened 
the door of the inner room and was shot dead by John Wilfong, who made 
his escape. This ,murder took place April 27, 1780. Next December Wil- 
fong was brought before a called session of the Augusta court, was adjudg- 



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62 

ed guilty, and Philip Eckard and John Snyder were held as witnesses. The 
journal of the state auditor for the following March mentions the trial of 
Wilfong, but we do not know the result. He seems, however, to disappear 
from further view. 

P. 63 (19 up): *'Gandy" not "Grady." 

P. 63 (17 up): In this paragraph thr^e distinct William Wards are 
confounded. There was William Ward of the Borden Tract, who returned 
from a stay in South Carolina and settled im Botetourt, where he was a man 
of affairs in the Revolution and held high rank in the militia. Another 
William Ward was reared at Warm Springs, fought in the battle of Point 
Pleasant, was a sheriff of Greenbrier, and finally moved to Ohio, where in 
1805 he founded the city of tlrbana. William Ward the tory was probably 
of the Wards who settled on the South Branch near Moorfield. 

This tory leader was bound by the court of Rockingham, March 27, 

1780, on the complaint of uttering words "tending to raise tumults and 
disorders." The trial mentioned was the next August. The jury was 
chosen from east of Shenandoah Mountain. July 13, 1781, there was a 
called session of the Augusta court to consider the complaints against Cap- 
tain William Ward and his lieutenant, Lewis Baker. Captain Robert Davis, 
Henry Swadley, John Snyder, and Christian Stone were held as witnesses 
in the proceedings at Richmond. Within a few days Ward r nd those con- 
fined with him broke jail. It was probably just after this escare that Ward 
and four of his followers .concealed themselves in a cave on the coui be of the 
Blackthorn. This retreat was a veritable fortress, and the rcrurcea were 
prepared for a siege. One morning, while the men were at the b::.nk of the 
creek, some one hundred yards below the perpendicular cliff in which was 
the entrance to the cavern, they heard a muffled roar above. It turned out 
to be a fall of earth and rock, completely blocking the way to their under- 
grouiid home. Even to this day the cave has never been reopened. It must 
have been shortly after this predicamont that a meeting was arranged be- 
tween llobort Davis and William Ward, the leaders, respectively,of the patri- 
ot and lory factions in Pendleton. The conference took place within 
sight of the home of Davis. The spot is where the road from Brandywine 
crosses a little slate ridge on the farm of Labam C. Da,vis. Ward promised 
good b(?havior r.,nd the local hostilities came to an end. There was more rea- 
son for this result, because the date of the parley must have been near the 
time of the surrender of Cornwallis. It is not known that any person ex- 
cept Hoover was killed during this guerilla warfare, but tradition states 
that several were wounded. The books of the state auditor for October 18, 

1781, mention the sum of 2375 pounds 2 shillings (depreciated money) 
ordered paid to Robert Davis and others for sundries on behalf of the mi- 
litia called out. 

P. C4(10 down): For "Gerard" read "Jared Erwim." 

Philiii- Echard was bound to good behavior on a charge of "complot- 



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63 

ting arnd conspiring." His sureties were Henry Stone and Christian Rule- 
man. 

On complaint of Captain McCoy, Michael Simmons was indicted in 1779, 
for rescuing a horse impresed in-service of the commonwealth. At the same 
time and for the same offense, Stoffle Eye was indicted on complai^nt of 
George Nicholas and Jacob and Martin Kile, and was fined 40 pounds with 
inprlsonment for eight days. In 1780, about 30 settlers on the South 
Branch a<nd South Fork refused to swear to the value of their taxable 
property, and prosecution was ordered. About this time a constable sent 
to the South Branch entered these words on his writ: "Not executed for 
fear of the tories." 

P. 61 (11 up): For "Dahmer" read "Dorman." 

P. 65 (par 4): Burton Blizzard, San}uel Skidmore, and Jacob Ells- 
worth were appointed constables in May, 1778. In September of the same 
year Frederick Keister became a lieuteinant. In 1779 Peter Vaneman was 
a road surveyor to succeed Francis Evick. In the spring of 1780 Robert 
Minniss, George Teter, and Abraham Hinkle were ordered to view a road 
along the North Fork from the Augusta line to the Hampshire line. 

P. 72 (4 up) : The widow of Martin Judy, who died in 1785, was to 
have each year 150 pounds of pork, 12 bushels of wheat, 20 bushels of 
corn, six bushels- of rye, one pair of shoes, and sufficient clothing. 

P. 73 (5 up): For "were" read "mere." 

P. 74 (3 up): For "1784" read "1781." 

P. 77 (par 2): As late as 1909 a woman on the upper Seneca was 
fitill cooking without a stove. 

P. 78 (18 down): For "quipped" read "equipped." 

P. 81 (7 up): For "country" read " county." 

P. C6 (10 up): At the request of its inhabitants, tlio country be- 
tween the Alleghany Front and the Back Alleghany was, upon the forma- 
tion of Bath, annexed to Bath and Pendleton in 1790 or shortly afterwards. 
This transalleghany district was lost upon the creation of Pocahontas in 
1822. Greater Pendleton must have been fully as large as the present 
county of Randolph. 

P. 93 (3 down): For "two" read "ten." 

P. 98 (par 5): In 1845 Pendletcm was authorized to pay a wolf 
bounty of $20. 

The voting places in 1858 were Franklin, Harper's, Riser's, Vint's, 
Cowger's Mill, Mallow's, Seneca, Circleville. The poll at Mallow's was 
established in 1834, that at Riser's in 1848, that at Vint's mew schoolhouse 
in 1849. The poll at Jacob Seybert's was dropped in 1848. In the same 
year there was a voting place at Jacob Wanstaff's. 

P. 108 (4 up): For "140" read "110." 

P. 113 (par 2): The Federal force actually engaged was about 2400 
strong. On the Confederate side were the 2800 men under the immediate 



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64 

commcmd of General Johnson and five regiments of Stonewall Jackson's 
own army, the latter being lightly engaged. Milroy's purpose in the attack 
on Sitlington Hill was to hold his enemy until nightfall, so that he might 
then safely retreat from a position easy to flank. This object was accom- 
plished. Jackson was unable to overtake or to outflank the retreating 
column. The Confederate loss was 498, the Federal 256. The smaller 
loss of the latter was because of their fovorable position behind a natural 
rampart. In firing downhill their opponents aimed too high and the sun 
was in their facfes. Jackson began his return from McCoy's mill. May 12, 
blocking the roads as he fell back, and ordering the direct road from Frank- 
lin to Harrisonburg to be obstructed. 

P. 123 (last line) : Beth of the tv/o branches of the United Brethren 
are represcated in Pendleton. 

P. 130(6 down): The first trustees of Franklin were William McCoy, 
Oliver McCoy, James Patterson, Peter Hull, Joseph Johnson, James Dyer Jr., 
John Roberts, Joseph Arbaugh, John Hopkins, Jacob Conrad. 
P. 133(15 up): Read "oak" not "walnut." 

P. 236 (par 3): Martin Judy, v/hcs3 v/iie v/r.s Rosanna, died ijn 1785. 
His children vrere John, Martin, Henry, Nicholas, Elizabeth, Margaret, and 
a daughter who married Jacob Barrows. John had gone to parts unknown. 
Martin Jr. had died about 1783, leaving at least tv/o children, Martin and 
Jacob. 

P. 338 ("Settlers Before 1760") : Below are the names and dates of 
arrival at Philadelphia of certain German immigrants, some of whom, at 
least, appear to be identical with settlors in the South Branch basin, especi- 
vAly the Pendleton area. 

Jacob Alt 1751 George Arbengast Johnnes Arbengast 1751 

Philip Jacob Pup 1738 Christian Ewig 1737 Johnnes Hedrigh 1738 

Johannes Possert 1751 Antoni Rueger 1737 John Jacob Seibert 1738 
Johan Marx Seypell 1738 Jrcob Zorn 173.3 Hans Georg Huber 1727 

Martin Morer 172.^ Oeorf: Diete; 1729 Johan Adam Mosser 1728 

Johannes Dunckel 1730 Johannes Kepplinger, 1730 Conrad Eckart 1731 
■enrich Lanciscus 1730 Ulrich Keyser 1731 Hams Jacob Eberman 1732 
Martin Beniger 1739 Liulv/ig Hevener 1739 Matthais Wilf anger 1750 
Antonius Lambrecht 1751 Peter Haas 1736 Jacob Hornberger 1735 
John Martin Bauer 1732 Lorenz Simon 1736 Frederick Keister 1737 
Adam Heisser 1732 Martin Tschudi 1738 Michael Simon 1739 

Johan Teis 1740 Georg Hetrick 1746 J. Adam Ewig 1751 

Michael Sinicn 1739 

P. 333: The name "Bodkin" is spelled "Botkin" by the present mem- 
bers of the group-family ?in Pendleton and Highland. 

P. 336 : Read "Life" not "Lipe." 

P. 343(18 up) : Read "Hitc" not "Sipe". 

P. 343(22 up): in 1757 and 1758, while commander-in-chief on the 



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65 

frontier, Washington visited Pendleton on tours of inspection. In coming 
from Wi -'Chester Lt^ followed the South Fork valley and probably visited the 
Bouth Branch valley also. The Puffenberger traditicin may be strickly cor- 
rect. 



P. 354: After reading "cold dinner $10," turn back to page 353 and 
read the four items in lower right hand corner, then turn to the second col- 
umn at the top of page 354. 

374 (par 4): Read "sheriff $250" not "sheriff $25." 
P. 375 (Surveys and Patents): The following are additions amd cor- 
rections to the list beginning cm this page. 

Surveys and Patents: Additions and Corrections to List on p. 375. 
Dunkle, John - east side SF-44- P, 1766. 

Eberman, Michael - NF one mile below mouth of Seneca - 116 - p, 1757 
Frize, Michael - betv/een SB and lower end Shelton tract - 72 p, 1757 
Gamble, Joseph - head of Blackthorn between Bright and Stone - 111 - p, 
1769. 

Gragg, Robert - near top of Castle h ill -513- P, 1769. 
Harrison, John - west of Mill Cr. - 400 - 1755 

Hinkle, Joi?t • East side NF above head of Deer Spring - 220 - P. 1765 
Hornborger, Jacob - Richardson's Run v/est side of Dyche - 229 -P, 1767 
Keister, Frederick - Little Walnut Bottom, South Fork Mtn. - 35 -P, 1757 
Mallow, Michael - SF Mtn -470- P, 1761 

Moser, Peter: (1) Peter Reed's Creek of SB -190 -1768; (2) jiorthwes side 
Shelton tract - 25 - P, 1757 

Parsons, Thomas - head of Mill Cr. - 290 -P, 1762 
Patton, John - Six Mile Cr. between Sv/eedland Hill and 
mountain - 54 - P, 1757. 

Peninger, Hcciry - belov/ homestead on SB - 12 - P, 1769 
Poage, John -oB adjoining Shelton on south - 284 - P,1769 
Shaver, Paul - Licking Cr., east side Shelton tract -200 - P, 1765 
Sibert, Ja^?b - SF Mtn -88 - P, 1757 

Sriiiiions. Leanord - NF 2 miles belov/ mouth of Seneca - P. 1767 
Skidmore, Joseph: (1) NF, Little Walnut Bottom above Cunning- 
ham-97-F, 1767; (2) Lick Run, SB 54- P, 1767; (3) SB - 150 - P, 1767 
Smith, Abraham - Licking Cr. above Paul Shaver - 142 - P, 1764 
Smith, Peter - SF - 54 - P, 1767 

Smith, Charles - SF between Davis and Dyche - 76 - P. 1769 
Swadley, ;\jark: (i) Winter Spring, Blackthorn - 130 P, 1769; 
(2) lower meadows, blackthorn - 4 0- P, 1769 

. Waggoner, Lin!vick - cast side SF - 47 - P, 1766 
Wilmoth, Thomas -Skidmore's Run - 130 -P, 1768 
Surveys by Robert Greem 1747: (1) SB - -2464 - Jan. 12, 1747; 



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t?>SF-2643; (3) SB - 370; (4) SB - 1120 (5) SB - 800; (6) SB - 

«W; (7) SB -3470; (8) SB - 1080; (9) SB - 660 

Patents by Col William Green, son of Robert. 1762: (1), Mill 

Cr.- 1G50; (2) near head of SF -190; (3) Mill Cr. - 176; (4) on and 

■ear head of t^F - .14 5 I'aunt ty Jamvs Wood. Robert Green, \V*Tii;:iii 

K^aar licad ol f'F- i45. 

Patents by James Wood, Robert Green. William Russell. 175: (1) 

SSr— 750; (2) SF— 600; (3) SF— 2400 

P. o84 (last line): *:• urn to page 385 and ioiclude last two lines. 

Tken read tirst six lines on page 3 80. 

P. 387: Alter reading down to the heading, "A List of Tithables," 

tain back to page 385 and include all that page but the laast two lines. 
P. :ii)?r. In ^'Supplies for Military Use, 1792," chr.age date to "1782." 
In line 3 (down), read "1774," not "1794." 
P. ::94: Insert "Pension" in "A Declaration of 1820." 
P. 440 (3 down): Read "during the nineteenth." mot "until the 

se\'€n teeth." 

P. 441 (2 up): Read "it" not "they." 
P. 465 (3 down): Read "economic" not "economical." 
P. 476 (9 down): Read "Wars are" not "We are." 
P. 365: County Officials since 1909. 



P?.^V2 (par 4): 
BSirton/ Blizzard 
CSiarles. Fleckhynden 
GharlesBorrer 
John Devericks 
Palsor Hammer 
Jacob Hoover 
lF*chael Hoover 
Vliomas Hoover 
Henry Huffman 



Pensioners of 1835 with dates of birth — 
1758Henry Mallow 



1760 

1759 Thomas Kinkead 1765 

1761 Edward Morton 1765 

1765 Zachariah Rexroad 1762 

1765 George Rymer 1764 

1752 Joh,n Simmons 1755 

1754 John Smith 1761 

1765 William Smith 1753 

1758 Elibab Wilson 1756 

P. 411: The Confederate regiments containing Pendleton men are 

ffivmierated on page 406. Any different numbers occurring in the roster 

5iv e-Kors of the printer. 

P. 4 84 (3 up): Omit all of article after "loss of life." and insert. 
"^as 110,000 from wounds and 250,000 from disease. The Confederate 
^k-^ was 94.000 from wounds and about 160,000 from disease." 



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p. 488: Omit. 

P. 491: (Upper Tract.) Omit the words beginning, "The earliesf 
and Cfnding with "few years later." - "♦ v 

P. 492 (1-3 down ;. O^nit. 

P. -19 2 (11 cown): omir ';<J«5*iag:?'lhe Pi'ench and Indian War." ' 

P. 493 (last p|ir.) This extraordlinary statement was put into the, biMfe: 
without the knowledge of the author or his consent. ' 

If the way had been open for the projected Revised Edition of the Hs^^ 
tory of Pendleton, the book would ha:Ve contained a new map of the coobIjl 
All other new matter that was to api^ar id the Revised Edition appeaxiin 
this Handbook; !lt 'was not p'racticable to include a new map. How^inec* 
there is in the map to the original edition ohly one inaccuracy of import^ine 
The line of 1785, separating Pendleton and Hardy should be drawn paralHI 
with the present north line of Pendleton, and so as to strike the mouth of ffast 
Seneca amd the south line of Sweedland Hill. 



Notes from Minnie K. Lowther's History of Ritchie County - '- ' - 

Patrick Sinnett was born in Ireland about 1750, served in the DuniBABe 
war and the Revolution, married Katherine Hefner, and moved to Rltdie 
with all his eleven children except Henry..- , 

George Moats and his wife Eve Stone ,w»ent to Ritchie about 1819. ait 
which time some of their twelve children were/, married. Peter m aiiil i t 
Rachel Grogg about 1817. Christiana, Katherine, Susan and Frances ] 
ried, respectively, John Shrader, Absalom Harpold, Solomon Mullenax. 
Harmon Sinmett. 

Thomas Hoover, who mar ried.. Frances, a sister to Zachariah Rexrofc 
had ten children and went to Ritcliie about 1844. 

Jacob Hammer went to Ritchie about 1845. 

James Moyer and Peter Mfjyer went to Ritchie in 1849. The fomcr 
married Abigail, daughter of Zachariah Rexroad, and the latter manlA 
JiOuisa Rexroad. 

Jacob Crummett married Abigail Rexroad. He was a grandfather Km 
S. P. Crummett, a Methodist mininter. 

Samson Zickafoose, born 1792, married a Wade and went to Riclile a- 
bout 1845. 

Jacob Shrader died in Pendleton in 1858. His son Uriah went -m 
Ritchie. 

Abraham Simmons married Mary Mullenax and went to Ritchie ubtnA 
1848. 

Between 1835 and 1845, three Rexroads, Noah, Henry, and ZachajSa^i. 
Jr., went to Ritchie. Noah married Matilda Mullenax. Zachariah ma 
Sarrah Hoffman. 



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THE PENDLETON PEOPLE OF 1782 



The names below are tj:Len frcm the personal property books of 178^ 
The lists thus derived were used as a ntate census. Since this county wa* 
not yet formed the aggregate of the districts mentioned is not quite coex- 
tensive with the present limits of Pendleton. Yet the result is approxi- 
mate cmough to be fairly satisfactory. The IJrmpshire retians give the 
number of the persons in each family. In the Rockingham returns the sec-' 
ond and third figures indicate, respectively, the number of dwellings on the 
farm and the number of other buildings. Slaves are indicated by the abbre- 
viation 8. 

COUNTY— MICHAEL STUMP'S RETURN 
Hornback, Anthony — 8 



• HAMPSHIRE 
Algier, Hermonus — 12 
Algier, William— 3 
Barger, Jacob — 4 
Bible, Christopher — 6 
Brake, Jacob, Sr. — 8 

Brake, James — 4 
Bullitt, William— 6 
Calahan, Charles — 8 

Carter, William — 5 
Combs, Francis — 6 — Is 
Cowger, George — 4 
Coutzman, Adam — 3 
Cpwfelt. Philip — 9 
Dasher, Christopher — 7 
Dickeson, Jacob — 8 
Eldridge, David — 8 — 2s 

Firebaugh, Daniel — 8 — 2s 
Funk, Adam — 5 
George, Susanna (widow) — ' 
Goodwins, Solomon — 2 
Hall, Thomas — 7 
Harness, Leonard — 6 
Harness, Peter — 6 
Hays, John — 3 
Hedges, John — 7 
Hog, Aaron — 7 



-6s 



House, Jacob — 5 

Huffman, Catharine (widow) — 6; 
Jefferson, Luke — 4 
Jordan, Katharine (widow) — 3: 
Kent, Isabel (widow) — 3 
Lacewell, Elias — 6 
Leonard, Martin — 7 
Lev/is, John — 5 
Lynch, Charles — 4 
Lyon, Charles — 4 
Mace, Ann (widow) — 5 - 
Mace, John — 7 
Mahuran, Ebenezer — 3 
Maiis, Barnaba&^-4 
Mars'iali, Benjamin — 3 — l* 
Mitchell, Ni';hoiaE — 9 
Mltchcn, John— 4 
Moor, Anthony — 9 
Morrow, James — 7 
Naif, George — 6 
Naif, Henry — 6 
Naif, Michael — 8- 
Ozburn, Jeremiah — lO^ 
Radabaugh, Adam^ — 9 
Reel, Nicholas — 5 
68 



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e^* 



Regar, Anthony — 1 

Regar, Jacob — 11 

Regar, John — 4 

Rogers, James — 8 

Borebaugh/ JohP-— 11 

Roads, Henry — 5 

Roy, Thomas — 5 •^'r-.- 

Row, Thomas — 5 

Scott, Joseph — 1 

Sea, George — 8 

Sears,James — 3 

Sears, John — 8 

Sears, William — 10 
Sellers, John — 5 
Shedd, George — 9 
Shepler, Henry — 5 
Shinear, George — 8 
Shook, Herman — 6 
Shook, John — 3 
Shook, Peter — 7 
Shook, William— 12 
Simon, George — 9 

JOHN WH4SON' 
Algier, John — 7 
Algier, Michael — 6 
Atchiscm, William, Sr.— 5 
Atchison, William, Jr.— 12 
Bailey, William — 7 
Berry, Joel — 5 

Borrer, Charles — 3 
Butcher, Eve (widow) — 3 
Butcher^ Paulser — 7 
Buzzard, Henry — 11 
Cantrill, Christopher — 6 
Caplinger, John — 7 
Carpender, Jacob — 7 
Coones, Joseph — 5 
Coones, Peter — 5 
Cooper, Valentine — 7 
Crites, Philip, Sr. — 4 
Crites, Philip, Jr. — 3 
Cunningham, James — 8 — 3s 
Cutrack, Henry — 7 
Cutrack, John — 5 



Simon, Leonard — 8 
Simond, Christi&n — 4 
Smith, Charles — 12 
Smith, Michael — 3 
SplUman, John — 6 
Spore, John Ulrich — 10 
Stackhouse, Isaac — 4 

Stephenson, 7 

Stump, George — 8 — 2s 
Stump, Leonard — 7 
Stump, Michael — 7 — Is 
'i^ace, Jacob — 7 
Trumbow, Andrew — 8 
Trumbow, George — 7 — Is 
Watts, Thomas — 6 
Wortmiller, Jacob — 6 
Willowby, Benjamin — 10 
Wilson, Charles — 5 
Wilson, David — 7 
Wilson, John — 2 
Yoakum, George — 4 

S RETURN 
Davis, Jobn — 7 
Ermintrout, Christopher — a 
Fisher, George — 10 
Hagler, Bastian — 9 
Harpole, Adam, Jr. — 4 
Haun, Michael — 7 
Henkle, Moses— 4 
Henkle, widow — 7 
Hicks, Thomas — 3 
Hier, John — 5 
Hier, Leonard, Jr. — 4 
Hier, Leonard, Sr. — 7 
Horst, William, Sr. — 5 
Judy, Henry — 7 
Judy, Nicholas — 7 

Kersman, 6 

King, Henry — 2 

Ligget, John — 4 

Likens, John — 4 ; 

Mace, Nicholas — 7 

Mallow, Adam — 6 



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-TO 



Mallow, Henry — 3 
Mcllhany, Felix — 5- 
Morrow, Ralph — 2 
Moser, Adam — 7 

Ours ,^ Sithman — 4 

Pendleton, John — 5 
Peterson. Jacob, Sr.- 



-8 



Peterson, Jacob, Jr. 
Peterson, Martin — S 
Peterson, Michael — 6 
Pickle, Jacob — 9 
Poage, Robert — 2 
Post, Valentine — C 
Powers, Martin — 9 
. Radabaugh, Henry — S 
Regan, Jacob — 9 
Reel, David— 9 
Rosecrratz, Hezekiah — 4 
Rule, Henry, Sr. — 11 
Rule, Henry, Jr. — 5 

Schoonover, Benjamin — 5 
Shobe, Jacob — 8 
Shobe, Martin-7-6 
Shobe, Riddy — € 
Shobe, Rudolph — 3 



Badgley, Anthony — 7 
Bodkin, Charles — 2 
Bodkin, Richard — 7 
Bcaner, William — 6 
Boulger, John — 4 
Boulger, Michael — 8 
Buff en berry, Peter — 19 
Byrum, Philip — 8 
Carr, Conrad — 6 
Carr, Henry, Sr. — 9 
Carr, Joseph — 6 
Chenoth, Jonathan — 4 
Childers, William— 9 
Clark, Abraham — 7 
Clark, Daniel — 4 
Clark, Henry — 7 
Clark, John — 4 
Clark, Robert — 8 



Shultx, Andrew — 4 

-Is aims, John, Jr. — 2 

^Ites, George — 7 
Slcith, Alexander — 3 
Stackey, Abram — 6 
Stackey, Magdalene (vridow) — 

-C Stingier. Jacob — 5 

Strader, Christopher — 9 
Straley, Christian — € 
Swank, ITillip — 5 
Thorn. Valentirne — 7 
Weaze, Adam, Sr. — 13 
Weaze, Adam, Jr. — 5 
Weaze, Jacob — 5 . 
Weaze, John — C 
Weaze, Michael — 2 
Westfall, Daniel — 11 
Whitstone, Geogo — 9 
Whitecotton, James — 9 
Wilson, John — 9 — Is 
Wise, John, Sr. — 8 
Wise, John, Jr. — 5 
Wood, Joseph — 3 
Woolf, John — 8 
Yeaple, Jacob— 3 
JOB WELTON's RETURN 

Clark, Watson — 4 

Clark. William— 5 

Cobberly, James — 9 

Craig, David — 3 — Is 

Curie, William— 5 

Curie, Jeremiah — 8 

Eaton. Benjamin — 3 

Eaton, Joseph — 4 

Eatca, Thomaa — 8 

Everman, Michael — 12 

Fearis, James — 7 

Finley, Patricli— 3 

Fleming, John — 3 

Harpole, Adam — 8 

Hock, Catharine (widow) — 6 

Hole, Daniel — 5 

Hornbeck, Michael — 8 

Horse, Peter — 3 



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tl 



Hoffman, Christopher — 9 
Hutson, David — 7 
Hutson, John — 3 
Jane, Joseph — 7 
Jordan, Julius — 3 
Judy, Margaret ( widow )- 
Lanslsko> Henry — 12 
Little. Job — 6 
Utile, Josiah — 7 
Majors, Jobn — 9 
McKave, Ross — 5 
Miller, George — 5 
Miller, Michael — 7 
Miller. Henry— 2 
Miller, Thomas — 5 
Mouse, Daniel — 8 
Norman, William — 6 
Orahond, Alexander — 10 
Orr, James — 6 
.Pecli, George — 7 
Powell, Caleb — 8 

Radcliff, Richard — 7 
Radcliff, Stephens — 6 
Richardson, Jonathan — 7 

ROCKINGHAM COUNTY 
Berger, Jacob 5 — 1 — 3 
Blizzard, Burton 5-1 
Blizzard, Jame3 2-1-1 
Blizzard, Thomas 5-1-3 
Byrnes, John 7-1-1 
Cogar, Jacob 4-1-1 
Davis, Robert 7-1-6 
Dunkle. George 7-1-7 
Dunkle, John 6-1-13 
Dyer, Rodger — 6 — 1 — 5 
Dyer, Mathias 13-1-1 
Dyer, James 11-1-14 
Dyer,, John 4-1-1 
Fuls, Lewis 1-1 
Cralaspy, Jacob 3-1 
Galaspy, Thomas 3-1-2 
Gragg, William 4 
Gragg, William, Jr. 6 - 1 
Grogg, Henry 9-1-1 



Richardson, Joseph — 5 

Robey, Pior — 9 

Robinson, John — 6 

Sadouskie, Samuel-^8 

Scott, Alex — 3 
8 Scott. Benjamin, Sr. — 6 — Is 

Scott, Bonjamin, Jr. — 6 

Seymour, Felix — 12 — 3s 

Shevelear, Anthony — 5 

Shook, Jones — 5 

Shook, Lawrence — 8 

Sims, John, Jr. — 7 

Staats, Elijah — 1 

Smith, Robet — 9 . 

Smith, William— 7 

Stroud, Adam — 7 

Thickstcne, Thomas - 8 

Tl « p.ipsor., 'ci?iro - 6 

\Vc\y\, V\}y£Stiiv - 11 3s 

Wiinsley, David - 4 

Vv'atls, Jo:.r.»^han - 4 

Wcltoii, Jesse, - 8 - 2s 

Woitun, Job - 10 - 6s 

Yeotle, David - 3 
-RETURN OF JAMES DYER, SOUTH FORK 

Havener, Frederick 8 — 1 — 2 

Havener, Jacob 10-1-3 
Hoover, George 5-1-1 
Hoover, Lawrence 6-1-1 
Hoover, Peter 9-1-1 
Hoover, Sebastian 3 — 1 — 2 
Keeper, Jacob 1-1 
Kester, Frederick 8-1-3 
Kester, James 1-1-1 
Morrill, Mary (widow) 8-1-1 
Patton, Mathew 8-16 
Proops, Damiel 3-1-2 
Proops, Frederick 10 — 1 — 2 
Proops, Henry 2-1-1 
Proops, Leanord 10-1-2 
Proops, Michael 2-1-1 
Rexroad, Zachariah, Jr. 3 - 1 
Roleman, Christian 11-1-5 
Senate, Paterick 3-1 



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;Stone, Henry 8-1-3 Wagoner Lewis 5-1-3 

.Swadley, Henry 6-1-2 

RETURN OP ROBERT DAVIS, SOUTH BRANCH 



Briggs, Joseph 11-1-3 
Bush, Jacob 4-1 
Bush, Leanord 7-1 
Bush, Lewis 2-1 
Bush, Michael 3-1 
Castel, Valentine 8-1 
Clifton, William 4 - 1 
Clickshaw, Lawrence 5-1 
Coks, Thomas 3-2-2 
Collick, Thomas 3-1-2 
'Conrad, 7'hoiiiab 3-1-2 
Coyle, Gabriel 13-1 
Evick, Francis 3- 1-3 
Evick, George 7-1 
Faris, John 6-1 
Friend, Jacob 10-1-3 
Hammer, George 5-1-4 
Harper, Jacob 11 — 1 
Hedrick, Charles 11 - 1 - 
Hole, Adam 11-1-2 



Hole, George 4-1 
Keplinger, Adam 3 
Keplinger, George 8-1-1 
Matthews, Lashley 3-1 
Michael, Nicholas 5-1 
Mucklewain, Thomas 9-1 
Powers, Charles 5-1 
Price, Joseph 8-1 
Richard, Saml 5-1-2 
Shankling, Thomas 11 — 1 — 3 
Skidmore, Joseph 11-1-7 
Skidmore, Thomas 7-1-1 
Stratton, Seraiah 7-1-3 
Vandevner, Jacob 6-1-2 
Vaniom, Peter 4-1-3 
Waldron, George 4-1-3 
WarpoV John 3 
Warpole, Nichalas 5-1-3 
Weaton, Benjam!|n 2-1-1 
Windelplock, Henry 4-1-3 



RETURN OF ISAAC HINKLE, NORTH FORK 



iAIlen, Moses 1-1 
IRland, Thomas 5-1 
:iBaairit, Redding 9-12 
Carr. Jacob 7-1-3 * 

<:heverunt, Joseph 8-1-1 
Cunningham, James 11 - 1 - 
Bennet, Joseph 11-1-1 
Bumgardner, Godfrey 8 - 1 - 
Eberm&n, Jacob, Sr. 4 - 1 - 1 
Eberman, Jacob, Jr. 5-02 
Eborman, William, 1-1-1 
Gandey, Uriah 4 
Crag, Samuel 1 
Harmer, Richd. 1 
Harper, Jacob 10-1-2 
Harper, Philip 7-1-1 
:Hinkle, Adam 11-1-2 
Hinkle, Jost 6-1-3 
H inkle, Isaac 4-1 
^Johnston, Andrew 7-1-2 



Lambert, John 6-1-1 
Minnis, Robet 1-1-2 
Mitchell, John 2 - 1 - 1 ' 
Nagele, George 3-1-2 
Pharis, Johnston 4-1-1 
Redmon, Saml 1 
Root, Jacob 3-1-2 
Shall, John 2-1-3 
Shall, Peter 5-1-2 
Shuk, Jacob 3 

Summerfield, Joseph 3-1-1 
Teter, George, Sr. 11-1-3 
Teter, George, Jr. 3 
Teter, Philip 11-1-1 
Teter, Rebekah (widow) 7 
Walker, George 11-1-1 
Waugh, James 8-1-5 
Wilkerson, George 3 - 1 - 
Wood, Isaac 8-1-1 



1-2 



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SOLDIERS OF THE WAR OF 1812 

The following' muster roll is of a company of infantry "under the com- 
liiind of Captain Jesse Hinkle, from the Forty-Sixth Regiment, in service^ 
at Fort kelson at Norfolk, atached to the Fifth Regiment commanded by 
Lieutenant Colonel John Hopkins, then by Lieutenant Colonel W. Street,, 
and later by Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Boothe*. The company was enlisted' 
for six months, beginning July 21, 1814. But for some reason not known, 
it was continued in service until after Feb. 1, 1815. In the War Depart- 
ment at WashingtCQ, D. C. are muster rolls dated August 30, 1814, October 
30, 1814, December 30, 1814, and February 16, 1815*. From these records 
the following record was compiled for H. M. Calhoun by Virgil A. Lewis, 
June 19, 1912. The four muster roll d^ttes are indicated in the roster b/ 
(A), (B), (C), (D), in the order of their occurrence. 
COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Jesse Henkle — captain — sick (C). ' 

John Flesher — first lieutenant. 

John Henkle — second lieutenant. * 

Edward Janes — ensign. 

Adam Snider — ensign — in private quarters (C). 

SERGEANTS 

1. Milton, Taylor. 

2. Andrew Gardner — discharged (C). 

3. Hiram Taylor — sick (B) and (C). 

4. John Dean — sick (B) sind (C). ^ 

5. William Thompson — sick (B) amd (C). 

6. Nicholas Cook — became sergeant (C). 

.7 John Bland — became sergeant (C) — discharged, December 10.. 

CORPORALS 

1. William Henkel — sick (A)— discharged, Oct. 14. 

2. Robert Griffith — sick (A) — became corporal, Oct. 14. 

3. William Seybert — became corporal Oct. — dead, Dec. 30, 1814.. 

4. James Armstrong — sick (A) — made corporal, Oct. 19. 

5. Abraham Burner — made corporal (C) — died, Jan. 25, 1815. 

6. Adam Bouce — made corporal (C). 

7*. William Cook — sick (A) — made corporal, Dec. 31. 

8. Jacob Snider, Jr. — made corporal Oct. 19 — discharged, Nov. 1^_ 

9. James Dean — a recruit appointed corporal Jan.» 26, 1815. 

73 



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MUSICIANS (enlisted July 26, 1814). 

William Trumbo — drummer. 

Adam Gum — flfer. 

PRIVATES 

Amick, Henry — discharged, Nov. 12. 

Arbogast, Daniel — sick (C). 

Arbogast, Nicholas — discharged, Nov. 12. 

Arbogast, Peter — died, Nov. 12. 

Arbogast, William — discharged Jan. 15, 1815. 

Atkin, Benjamin — enlisted Jan. 25. 1815. 

Bland, Thomas — sick (A) — discharged Oct. 19. 

ealhoun, William — sick (C). 

Champ, John — sick (A) — discharged Nov. 12. 

Champ, Thomas. 

Coberly, Martin. 

Crummit, George. 

Davis, Joseph — discharged Dec. 10. 

Dean, George — discharged Dec. 14. 
Dean, William— sick (A). 

Dizard, James — died Dec. 11. 

Eagle, John — enlisted Sept. 12. 
£chard, Abraham. 

Eckard, Henry— sick (A). 

Ervin, Edward— sick (C). 

Faint, Jacob — sick (A). 

Gardner, John — sick (C). 

Grogg, Benjamin — died Dec. 19. 

Halterman, George. 

Halterman, Peter — discharged Dec. 12. 

Harmon, George — died Oct. 19. 

Harpold, George. 

Hazelrod, Samuel. 

Hedrick, Jaco»«. 

Hedrick, John — sick (A) — discharged Nov. 12. 

Helmick, Philip— sick (A). 

Helmiek, Samuel — sick (A). 

Helmick, Solomon — discharged Septl4. 

Helmick, Uriah. 

Hevner, John. 

Higgins, John — sick (A) — discharged Oct. 19. 

Hizer, Adam — discharged Nov. 12. 

Hogwood, James — died Jan. 14, 1815. 

Hollaoid, Joseph — discharged Nov. 12. 
. Hoover, John — discharged Sept. 14. 



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75 



Holloway, Lewis. 

Hoover, John H. — eick (A) — discharged Nov. 12. 

Huffman, Daniel — discharged, sick (A). 

Huffman, Jonas — sick (A). 

Johnson, James — deserted Dec. 21. 

Jones, Joseph — sick (A). 

Ketterman, Justice. 

Lamb, Michael. 

Leisure, Thomas — confined. 

McKan, Henry — discharged Nov. 12. 

Miller, John — ^sick (C) — discharged Jain. 16, 1815. 

Moats, Jacob — sick (A). — discharged Dec. 10. 

Mowry, John. 

Mullinox, Jacob. 

Mullinox, Joseph. 

Mullinox, William. 

Nelson, Benham — discharged Nov. 12. 

Nicholas, George — died Dec. 5. 

Philips, George — sick (C). 

Propts, Christian. 

Rexroad, Jacob. 

Rexroad, John — discharged Nov. 12. 

Roby, Thomas — discharged Nov. 12. 

Seybert, James — enlisted Oct. 4 — discharged sick, Nov. 12. 

Simmons, Jacob. 

Snider, Frederick. 

Snider, Jacob, Sr. — sick (A). 

Taylor, James — enlisted Oct. 30 as substitute for William Henkle. 

Tharp, Amiss — enlisted Sept. 10. 

Trimbl§, John— confined. 

Vint, John. 

Waggoner, George, Sr. — sick (C). 

Waggoner, George, Jr. — died Nov. 13. 

Waggoner, Jacob — sick (C). 

Waggoner, Joseph — sick (C). 

Wamsley, John. 

White, George — discharged sick (A). 

Whitecotton, James — discharged Sept. 17. 

Weese, Isaac — sick (C). 

Wiat, John. 

Wllfong, James. • 

Wilson, James — discharged (C). 

Wliner, llcvuy — sick (C). 

Wimer, Jacob — sick (C). 



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PENDLETON AND fflGHLAND IN THE WORLD WAR 

The war ending in 1918 was attempt to dominate the world by a na- 
tion which thereby made itself an outlaw. It became the police duty of 
the other nations to suppress this powerful criminal, and on the part of the 
United States the war was one of self-defense. The boast of the kaiser that 
lie would take no nonsense from our country was not an empty threat. The 
United States had to exert its entire strengrth, and consequently the activi- 
ties at home form a very real part of the history of the Great War. 

In the five Liberty Loans, the quotas assigned to Highland were re- 
spectively 130,000, $60,000 160,000 184,000, and $96,000, a total of $333,- 
•000. No action was taken with respect to the first. The subscriptions 
for the second, third, fourth, and fifth were respectively $17,t)00^ $60,000, 
$84,000, and $102,000, a total of $261,000. The chairman in each instance 
was H. M. Slayen. The committee consisted of J. A. Whitelaw, E. A. Mo«- 
Ifulty, S. W. Wilson, W. T. Hamilton, H. T. Bradshaw, H. E. Colaw, Walter 
NVwmfcn, D. O. Bird, and J. C. Matheny. 

The Red Cosss report by Mrs. V. B. Bishop, county chairman in the 
War History Commission, states that the activities in this line were per- 
formed with enthusiasm. It was after work had informally begun that a 
lofal chapter of the Red Cross was organized at the courthouse, March 30, 
1918. The following officers were chosen: 

Mrs. J. E. Arbog^st,, Chairman; Andrew L. Jones, Vice-Chairman ; 
JVlrs. H. B. Wood, Secretary; A. P. Gum, Treassurer. 

The Executive Committee was thus constituded: Mrs. H. 'M. Slaven 
<chairman), H. B. Wood, Kate Gibson, Bess Bishop, Mabel Jones, C. B. 
Pox, W. H. Lunsford, Robert Sterrett, and J. C. Matheny. E. B. Jones, Mrs. 
W. H. Matheny, rind Mrs. C. W. Trimble were afterward added. Several 
changes were made from time to time in the personnel of the staff of officers. 
JVIiss Mabel Jones was made director, and Mrs. Robert Sterrett secretary of 
xoom work. The heads of special committees were as follows: 
Packing, D. H. Peterson 

Purchasing, Mrs. H. M. Slaven. 

Organizing, J. C. Mathany. # 

Finance, Miss Bess B. Bishop. 

Membership, H. M. Slaven. 



Publicity, H. F. Slaven. 
iSchools, Robert Sterrett. 



76 



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T7 

Home Service and Civilian Relief, Willis Gibson. 
War Relief Fund, Don Sullenberger. 
Nurse Fund, J. H. Pruitt. 

Comfort Kit a-nd House wife, Mrs. A. M. Eastham. 
The committee on Home Service and Civilian Relief found little to do 
in a county like Highland, although it used about "$400. 

Before the middle of June auxiliary chapters were adopted at McDowell, 
New Salem, and Doe Hill, and one for Bluegrass Valley. There was also a 
'colored auxiliary. Each is pronounced by the report as deserving of special 
mention. 

Practically all the children of the county were enrolled in the Junior 
Auxiliaries, particularly those of Crabbottom, Monterey, McDowell, and Doe 
Hill. 

In May, 1918, the chapter doubled its quota of $100 to the Red Cross 
Relief Fund, largely through the €<.nergetic efforts of Don Sullenberger, 
chairman. The last day of the drive was a rally day in Monterey^ and it 
was heavily attended. Among the addresses was one by Firank Ray, a 
wounded soldier. 

At the Red Cress work room each and every call was promptly filled, 
hut in pursuance of the directions given, no surgical dressings were made. 
Kach soldier of the county was given a kit on his departure. Clothing 
^as sent to the refugees in the allied countries, and linen to the hospitals 
m France. The chapter sent |100 to the Staunton canteen to be used in 
providing lunches for the troops passing through the town. To this fund 
the McDowell auxuliay added $50. For the same purpose $50 was sent to 
•Cnifton Forge. 

J. F. McNulty, chairman of the Christmas Roll Call, campaigned the 
vhole county and secured over 1000 members. 

The Red Cross membership in Highland was 1800, and the receipts of 
the Chapter were $4,365.67. There was no outlay for salaries, rent, etc., 
all kinds of service being donated. 

By proclamation of Governor Stuart, April 19, 1917, the Virginia Ag- 
Fienlture Council of National Defense was established, and G. Lee Chew 
\r9s appointed chairman of the Highland branch. He organized a local 
council at Crabbottom, with R. H. Crummett as secretary, and a branch at 
lliistoe, with the Rev. Mr. pardner as secretary. At the meetings food con- 
servation was stressed. The influenza epidemic interfered with perfecting 
the local organizations. Mr. Chew was also appointed Building Commis- 
acmer for Highland, but h\ this isolated county there were no duties for 
sach an officer to perform. 

When the War History Commissioner was organized, Mr. G. Lee Chew 
was appointed chairman of the Highland branch. Miss Elizabeth Whitelaw 
secretary. Miss Josephine Bradshaw treasurer. At the time of organi- 
zation Miss Eva Eagle became secretary, and Andrew L. Jones vice chair- 



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To facilitate the collection of data, Miss Josephine Bradshaw, Misfl 

: Bishop, and Miss Emma M. Hevener were appointed district chairmen 
ftr Stonewall, Monterey, and Blueg^i-ass districts, respectivelj*, and excellent 
reports were sent in. 

In spite of certain disadvantages, military records for about two-thirds 
«f the service men were secured. This was a higher proportion than was 
awDDfiplished irn most counties. 

,j^1he foilo;^ing, slightly abbreviated, is the report by Mr. Chew on 
VHt-war conditions in Highlrmd: 

•*Upon the, signing of the Armistice, the people of Highland, generally 
apesking, settled down to their original pursuits, ceased all efforts to raise 
■Kuey or other means for the prosecution of the war, but continued to do- 
■de toward suffering humanity through the Red Cross, Near East Relief, 
asaC other orgjanizations. They received with open arms their returnfing he- 
SHB^ most of whotm went back to their former occupations, proud they had 
«v«(l their country but seldom or never wishing a repetition of their exper- 
JlHBcca and hardshiqs in camps and on battlefields. The soldiers feel that 
«■ inpressing them into foreign military service at 30 a month, the Govern- 
wmkbX should have impresed all other able-bodied men of the same age into 
flKrrice at home, and at the same or a smaller compensaticoi. To be frank, 
«itar that if our country were again to enter into war, many of these sol- 
d&Rx would be hard to find. 

"The after-war conditions have been aaid are somewhat depressing and 
fKnoaraging. Most of the citizens are farmers and stockgrowers, and farm 
sanAKts could not be sold to cover the cost of production. Though the 
flKBing population of our entire country is more or less discouraged and 

tied, this is less the case ici Highland than in most other counties of 
ritate.. 

•*In war times Highland said, 'There's nething too good for our soldier 

-Oh, that she would prove her sincerety by her action toward them!" 
The following written report of the Chairman of the Highland County 
ach of the Virginia War History Commission was read by him at the 
]Kist Quarterly meeting of said Commission held in the Senate Chamber 
flfffiLC Capitol Building, Richmond, Va. Nov., 1919. The reading was 
MBwed by much applause. It was one of the best repots from any of the 
«HiBtiesof the state; many counties not yet organized and therefore having 
wmttdng to report. A good many records were secured after this report waf* 

*•?*> the Virginia War History Commission: 

"Your Local Committee for Highland County met at the Court House, 

mHt«rey, on the day of August, 1918, and elected Miss Eva Eakle, 

armtary. Miss Whitelaw, who was appointed by your Commission failing 
«h»anve as such. 



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"We further organized for the work by appointing Mr. J. C. MathensT^. 
County Vice-chairman, and the following District Chairman: 

Stonewall District, Miss Josephine Bradshaw. 

Monterey District, Miss Bess Bishop. 

Blue Grass District, Miss Emma May Hevener. 

"The Chairman ordered and paid for Soldiers* Military Service QiiesF- 
tJonaires, and to date, we have seventy-flve (75) of them filled up, le» 
than one-half the number of service men furnished by the County. 

"We find much difficulty in securing theSold iers' records. Some hanw 
gone away to other states, and quite a number of these pay no attentica t» 
filling up Questionaires sent them with postage enclosed for return. Some 
are slow to give the desired information when solicited in person. Thoisgla^ 
v/e are getting along with our work slowly, we are not discouraged, sasSi 
expect to get most of the records by and by. We have appointed collaboiai- 
tor Chairman for every topic of the history that will apply to our county. 

"So, far, our Supervisors have given us no financial aid in the imp«^ 
tant drive, which fact makes the securing of War History data slower Uam 
it would be if well financed. Our workers hesitate to give too ire^j^ fif 
their time and energy and bear a considerable outlay of their own mcautj^ 
also. We are yet hopeful that our Supervisors will give us some finamnft 
aid and that we shall be able to furnish your Commission a creditable war 
record of the little county of Highland, the Gem of the AUeghanies, aElt 
the Switzerland of Virginia, if not of America. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. LEE CHEW, Chairman. ** 

"Highland County being principally a grazing section, with no 
ies, no public works, no railroads, and cut off in great measure *to he 
Dy mountain boundaries, is slow to be affected, or much interested in vfeadt 
is going on in other parts of the earth or even in her own nation or stefte. 

"Of course, her citizens read with some interest the news of openlcis 
hostilities in Europe, and became more and more interested as nation ailcr 
nation was drawn into it; but not until the question of an open sea, a»* a. 
tree and unobstructed commerce or export from our own country waa Ubki^- 
ed, did her people begin to awake to the fact that her country's and 
ewn interests were affected. Even yet there was aio excitement and 
murh interest. The more intelligent and well informed discussed thej 
able results of the war as it might affect the countries of Europe in the ^ 
area. At this time there was no thought of America's being vdrawn 
the conflict. 

"Wheal the submarines began to pink neutral vessels and «destroy 
nocent life and world commerce, we began to realize the awfu^ness 
cruelty of the War and when the news of the sinkimg of the Lusitania i 
the loss of so many American lives came to us, we began to realize that i 
own country would possibly be brought into the conflct. Up to this 



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80 

trade and business and a pjeneral quiet prevailed in the county, but when- 
our country declared war, Highland's citizens began to wake up in earnest- 
It began to come home to them that their sons must face the cannon's mouth 
and the poison gas clouds on a foreign battlefield across the great sea. 

"Most of the intelligent and well informed caw at once the wisdom of 
our country's going in immediately to protect her rights and maintain her 
traditions, while others opposed the idea vehemently and even up to the 
close of the war, seme opposed every war measure end every effort to pros- 
ec\ite the war, — ^a fev/ of them. being of the more intelligent class. Whil© 
most of the opposition was political, a smaller part was because of German 
ancestry. 

"The people of the county, taken as a whole, were patriotic, and helped 
in every way they could to prosecute the war to a successful finish. It may 
truly be said that most of the citizcjns of Highland County proved them- 
selves true, red-blooded Americans, ao v/itnessed by the fact that the county 
furnished her quota of soldiers, went over the top in Red Cross and most 
of the Liberty Loan Drives and received her returned war veterans with 
open arms and a "Well done, good and faithful servant," thou shalt not be 
forgotten,' and also by the addittional fact that despite the scarcity of farm 
laborers, her people produced more foodstuffs of all kinds during the war 
period than ever before or since in the same time. They also manifested a 
conservative spirit along all lines that was most admirable." 

In the sale of Liberty Bonds in Pendleton no systematic plaoi was 
adopted with respect to the First and Second loans. But in the case of the 
Third, Fourth, and Fifth loans, and in the campaign for War Savings. 
Stamps, an organization was effected. In all four of these drive3, the quota 
for the county was over-subscribed in a quite considerable degree. 

When it was proposed to sell the quota for the Third Loan, the idea, 
was considered by many as useless, and in fact impossible. But an organi- 
zation was perfected, and the allotment was over-subscribed by more thaa 
fifty per cent. The quota could have been doubled, had it been deemed 
expedient. Because of the belief that other loans would follow, as was 
confirmed by subsequent events, it was thought best to hold some subscrip- 
tions in reserve. 

Prior to the war it is probable that not a single Government securitr 
was owned in the county. In fact, the people had no knowledge of invest- 
ments of this kind. It was therefore necessary to conduct a campaign o» 
education throughout the county. The result utterly silenced the doubt- 
ers. In a county with a population of little more than 9000, and having 
no railroads, ho corporations, and no wealthy citizens, securities to Cbe 
{Lmount of more than half a million dollars were placed. 

The people of Pendleton were equally liberal in their investments lii 
the cause ot humanity. In all the philanthropic drives they not onlj 



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81 

reached their quota, but in moet cases they went far beyond it. In the 
United War Works drive they were aslicd for $2000 and over-subscribed 
this amount. In the Red Cross campaign they were asked for $1000, and 
doubled it. With the additional surplus there wa,s erected a War Chest 
Fund. This was later used in employing for a year a community nurre. 
On every fund that v.as asked the county responded by paying its full quota 
or even more. 

The iccal Selective Service Board made up of M. S. Hodges (cl:c.irman 
and clerk). Dr. O. Dyer, and Z. M. Nelson. 

The members of the Legal Advisory Board were William McCoy (chair- 
man), B. II. Kine:-, and H. M. Calhoun. 

In the County Council of Defense were B. H. Hiner (chairman), J. H- 
Cook (secretary), James Sites, and D. C. Harper. 

The War Fund chairmrai was B. H. Hiner. 

The officers of the Red Cross chapter were Mrs. B. H. Hiner (chairman)^ 
Miss Alice McCoy (secretary), Mrs. O. Dyer (treasurer). The Pendleton 
chapter was very active and had several auxiliaries about the county. Each 
section did splendid work in making garments and bandiages. 

In the several campaigns for the Liberty Loans and the War Savings 
Stamps and United War Works drives, B. H. Hiner was chairman. He was 
also Fuel Administrator. M. S. Hodges was chairman of the special drive 
for the Salvation Army, the quota of $100 being subscribed. The Food Ad- 
ministrator was at first L. D. Trumbo. He was succeeded by Rev. C. R- 
Lacy. 

The above is a statement, slightly condensed, made for this Handbook 
by B. H. Hiner. 

FROM THE HIGHLAND RECORDER— 1917 

The United States has just reached the limit of endurance. It must 
assert its international rights or confess itself a craven v/ho is unworthy of 
any rights. The hour for determined and overv/helming action is at hand- 
The Stars and Stripes forever. — Mar. 30. 

The day passed without incident. So far as we have heard, not a man 
of the prescribed age is known by the authorities to have kept away. 360 
whites and 17 colored were registered. — June 8. 

Mabel H. Jones is chairman for Highland of the National League for 
Women's Service. — June 15. 

33 ladies registered at Monterey for cooperative army work. — July 6L 

D. C. Graham, sheriff, W. H. Matheny, clerk, and Dr. C. B. Fox form 
the Exemption board. — July G. 

A lunch sale on court day realizes $173.43. — July 13. 

The first quota under the selective draft is 43 men for this county. — 
August 10. 

The men now in camp are 39. One man has failed to report. — Oct 12. 

M. V. Bishop writes from the aviation camp at San Antonio that he 



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82 . . ■ 

wants to get "over there." — Oct. 26. 

J. D. Kramer and G. H. Graham of the first quota write from Camp» 
Lee: *'We are proud to do our bit for Uncle Sam, who is providing so well 
for his soldiers. Drilling is very hard, but we are giving Uncle Sam a part 
of our dollars we receive every day for a Liberty Bond." — Oct 26*. 

Long and interesting letter from Carl SuUenberger in France. — Nov. 9. 

Arthur R. Gum, Jesse J. Gwin, Ernest H. Hoover, Henry C. Snyder 
complete the quota of 433. — Nov. 15. 

Y. M. C. A. fund is $524,76. E. B. Jones, chairman. Emercon Alex- 
ander writes from Fort Sill. Willis Gibs.n and C. A. Dlclcbuu return from 
a visit to Camp Lee bringing a favorable report. — ;Nov. 2'6. 

1918 

The first soldier death is that of Ira Carpenter, son of J. W. Carpenter 
of Big Valley, the date being Jan. 10. 

Work room of Women's Service League closed for cold weather, and: 
cutting done at private homes. — Jan. 18. 

It is easy to Hooverize along most liaes, but when it comes to greea 
wood that is hard to get and still harder to burn, Mr. Hoover must ex- 
cuse us. — Jan. 18. 

Six men home on furlough, — Jan. 25. 

A Red Cross chapter organized Feb. 21 with 10 members. 

No alien enemies to be registered here. 

A War Savings Stamp drive results in sales of $188.77. The Moa- 
terey branch of the Woman's Service League reports for January and Feb- 
ruary 689 articles made up and sent off, besides 62 from McDowell. — Mar. 8^ 
R. S. Sterrett publishes a request for books and other reading matter for 
the soldiers. 

56 new Red Cress names. — Mar. 15. 

Home Service Committee of Red Cross: Willis Gibson (chairman), 
Eva Eakle (secretary), A. L. Jones (attorney). Dr. C. B. Fox (physician), 
J. r. McNilty, Mrs. C. P. Jones, Kate Gibson. At McDowell a crmunKjr 
auxiiliary wjis tigamzed Ai«rii 21 w th J. il. Hiner as chairman, R. B. Broa- 
Shaw trf;usi;ror, I(ia <r.iidor .*ocrftary. - P/.'jiv S 

Allotment in Vf.ird Liberty Loon, ?C4,700; taken, $66,700. Now in 
service. 70 men, Mrs. Hanger of Stannton hos given several Red Cross ad- 
dreses in the cour.ty. - 'May 3 0. 

One honor flag lor each r: in net rmd one for the county. — May 24. 

43 new legistrmts.- Juik* 7. 

Doe Hill coniribnteg $203.60 to Red Cross. First army airplane cross- 
es Highland.-- June 1 1. 

Many good leter.s from camps begin to appear in August. 

54 8 uve CI' lolled for service; 43 more than the Govennment estimate. — ~ 
Sept. 12. 

Legal advisory board: J. M. Colaw, Boyd Stephenson, A. L. Jones. — 



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83 

Sept, 12. 

Elzie Wilfong, wounded, is the first soldier to return from the front. — 
liov. 15. 
, Rally Day — ^^Nov. 16 — celebrated in Monterey by raising a service flag. 

161 now in service. — Nov. 22. 

PENDLETON TIMES 

C. R. Lacy, chairman of the Pcindleton- County Pood -Administration, 
'Twites in February, 1918, that "there is a marked and commendable im- 
^profvment in the attitude of the people as a whole, toward the food question. 
The time is not for off when a home that does not have a window card in it 
will be a marked home. The pledge is binding only so far as circumstances 
permit. It is voluntary. It is safe. Especially do we thank the teachers 
for their great help. 

The Moorefield Examiner taken to task for publishing as deserters five 
Pendleton boys, all of whon returned and satisfactorily explained their over- 
stay — Mar. 1&. Y -" 
all of whom returned anti aatisfactorily explafined their overstay. — Mar. 15. 

One farmer subscribed $3,000 as soon as the Third Liberty Loan opened 

•*It is possible for chastity to exist in hell, but never in a country in- 
'vaded by the Hun soldiers." 

Guy, Cri^ler the first soldier to return from France. 
LETTERS FROM OVERSEAS 

The letters writton by the soldier-boys from Pendleton and Highland 
are the best war letters the author has seen. They are earnest and they 
are patriotic. And last but not least they are instructive. These two 
^Mninties are rural communities. The young men were particularly struck 
by the various points of contrast between Europe and Appalachirin America, 
and their observations are close and interesting. Our space forbids giving 
xaore than a few extracts from these letters. 

The French children have taken a great liking to us, and whenever we 
pass, or they come out to where we are, they yell, "oui. oui** (yes, yes) at 
US. I have never seen such kindness and hospitality as the people here 
have shown us, and while I do not understand much French, their looks and 
^actions bespeak their deep gratitude. 

You ^ee no one except old men and young boys. Women are plentiful 
and do most of the work. Just as soon as we arrived here yesterday even- 
ing (June 8), they came around with the finest strawberries. I think they 
are sold here for 15 cents per pound. 

I have a little job to do over here, and when that is accomplished, why, 
I am coming back and put in my licks at home. 

I am becoming a Frenchmnn now in two ways; by learning to speak 
French, and by letting my mustache grow, like a lot of the boys are doing. 

The trains look like toys here. There is some nice country in France. 
JHU the buildings are of stone, but there are some nice cues. 



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14 

Uucle Sam takes good care of his fighting men. He gives us good 
clothes, plenty to eat, good helmets, and good gas masks. We have a good 
place to sleep, only I don't like the big rats very much. They try to kiss 
some times while we are sleeping. 

A soldier's greatest pleasure is reading a letter from home. No matter 
how tired and worn out he may be,- it never fails to revive end and refresh 
him. 

We came over to win this war, and we are going to do it, or stay here 
fill Gabriel blows his horn. 

You people over there can't realize how much these people over here 
have suffered - very seldom you run across a family that hasn't lost a father, 
son, or some very close relative. The atrocities the Huns commit are some- 
thing awful. I did not believe it till I came over here. 

We have lots of furn trying to talk with the people. 

The boys who don't get to come to this country will lose half of their 
lives. , , 

I would rather get a letter from home than get a check for |100. 

Have a good time with the French children who come to sell us beech- 
Huts. I don't have much trouble getting them to understand me, but I 
can't understatnd them very readily. They talk at lightning speed and run 
the words together. 

If any one country has suffered from the war it is France, and we are 
here to help them get revenge. 

May God help the first Boche that gets in my wiay, and he had better 
get in the first blow, for if I get there first I will have no mercy on him. 

Above everythfing else 1 am going to lead a straight life while I am ever 
here. 

I have been out in No Man's Land looking^or the square-headed devils, 
and looked down the barrel of a one-pound gun, but the Hun behind happen- 
ed to be asleep. He did not wake up. 

Framce is a beautiful country, and there ape wonderful things for us to 
fy-ee. The country reminds me very much of Virginia, and I have seen some 
sections that reminded me very much of the Crabbottom valley. 

We are not taking very many prisoners now. The GcJinan gets the 
^yonet first, unless it is seen he is unarmed. 

ROSTER OF PENDLETON SOLDIERS 

The date following the name shows the time of leaving home, 1918 be- 
ing understood when the year is not given. "DD" means discharged for 
«li8abilty of a ph^'sical nature soon after arriving at camp. "Dis" means 
honorable discharge at a later time. The year of birth, when stated, is put 
in parentheses, as "(b 1895)" AEF (American Expeditionary Force) 
fiieans that the soldiers v/ent overseas. The Ip.st item given ii the 
ljK>stoffica address at the time of enlistment. "Rej" means rejected. 



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85 

Among the men from Pendleton, there were, in ^ political preference, 
218 Democrats, 169 Republicans, and one Socialist. In religious, ^affiliation 
or membership there was the following exhibit: 

United Brethren 84 

Lutherans '64 

Church of the Brethren 53 

Presbyterians , .25 

Methodist Episcopal 22 

Methodist Episcopal, South 22 

Disciples 8 

Mennonites , 8 

Mormons - 2 

AfricPin Methodist Episcopal 2 

Paptist 1 

Not given 118 

FIRST CALL 

Ait, Alvin — Mar. 4 — DD — Upper Tract. 

Alt, Charles Austin — Mar. 4 — ^Upper Tract. 

Alt, Enoch Franklin — July 25 — Brushy Run. 

Arbogast, Dixie — rJune. 27 — DD — Circleville. 

Arbogast, Leonard — April 25 — ^DD — Circleyille. 

Armstrong, Berlin L. — Mar. 26 — A. E. F. — Moyers. 

Ayers, Jerry Sheridnn — May 26 — Branch 

Bennett, Clement — Sept 19, 1917 — A. E. F.— Dry Run. 

Bennett, Dale — July 25 — DD — Circleville. 

Bennett, Jacob Maynie — June 27 — Brandy wine. 

Bennett, Jesse H. — May 25 — Circleville. • 

Beinnetf, Opie — April. 2 5 — Circleville. \ 

Bible, George W. — June 27 — A. E. F. — Cave. 

Black, Hendren — Mar. 4, Greenleaf — A. E. F. — Cave. 
Llack, Ira D. — Sept 17,1917 — A. E. F. — Mouth of Seneca. 

Bland, Arlie — May 26 — A. E. F. — Riverton. 

Bland. Byrcii S. — May 26^— dis. in Sept — Mouth of Seneca. ^ 

Bland, Dewitt — Mar. 4 — Riverton. 
• Bland, Robert — May 26 — A. E. F. — Box. 

Bodkin, Martin E. — July 2 5 — Palo Alto. 

Botkin,Roy K. — Brandywine. 

Boggs, Lester A. — Sept. 3 — ^A. E. F. — Mouth of Seneca. 

Bolton.J. Fred. (b. Dec. 3, 1893) — April2 — Franklin. 

Bonner, William H. 

Bowers, John — July 14 — Dahmer. 

Bowman, Thomas J. — (b. April 5, 1891) — May 12 — Franklin. 

Brenner, George Michael — July 55 — Fort Seybert. 

Calhoun, Brooks Fleming — Sept. 3 — A. E. F. 



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96 ' 

Calhoun, Camden H.— Sept. 17. 1917— A. B. F. 

Calhoun. Charles — June 17. 1917 — Dry Run. 

Calhoun. Charles Lee— May 26— dis. DD. — ^June SORoarinir. 

Calhoun. Fred — regular armr — A. E. F. — Kline. 

Champ. Robert L.^^navy — Mouth of Seneca. 

Cobb, Harry Ernest— Oct. 4. 1917 — ^A. E. F. — Doe Hill. 

Coffman. Lester L — (b. Jem. 27. 1888) — Mar. 3. — Upper Tract. 

Cook. John A. — Sept 3,1917 — A. E. F.~Circleville. 

Cox, Samuel Calvin — July 25 — dis. DD. — Aug. 4 — Brushy Run. 

Crigler. William Guy— July 28 — A. E. F. — Franklin. 

Dahmer. John — Sept. 19.1917 — A. E. F. — Franklin. 

Dahmer. John E. — (b. Feb. 2. 1394) — Mar 4 — 

Dare, John Dayton — (b. Jrme 11, 1895) — Sept 19, 1917 — ^A. E. F. — 
Hiverion. 

7>avi8, Otho H — Sept. 19, 1917 — dis. DD. — Franklin. 

Daugherty, James H. 

Dean, Edward B. — July 25. 

Dean, Fred Bland — July 25 — Riverton. 

Dean, Saraue] Whitman-- May 22 — Brushy Run. 

Di.fc. Luther Guy — Oct. 4, 1917 — A. E. F. — Fmnklin. 

£?ce, RuBsell W. — Apil 2 — Franklin. 

D»ce, William Harrison — July 25 — Franklin. 

Dlckensn, Clinton- -(b. June 28, 1894) — May 26 — A. E. F.— Brandy- 
wine. 

Dickonson. Treston — A. E. F. 

I>olly, Edgar Wilson— May 22 — Teterton. 

Dolly, Fred -Oct. 4, 1917 — Teterton. 

Dolly. Olie Corbin— Sept. 19, 1917 — A. E. F. — Key. 

DougluKH, Mervine (colored) — ^Aug. — A. E. F. — Franklin. 

Dyer, Edmond Foster — Mar. 4 — Fort Seybert. 

Dyer, Dolan D. — May 22— Brandy wine. 

Dyer, Verncin Lough — Fort Seybert.. 

Dyer, Willie Roy — July 25 — Fort Seybert, 

Edward, Chiirles — June 1 — Sugar Grove. 

Eckard, Ephraim P. — May 22 — Sugar Grove. 

Eckard, Jol) — July 27-^ugarGrove. 

Eckard. Walter — Aug. — A. E. F. — Sugar Grove. 

Evick. Grover C.-^June 27 — A. E. F. — Franklin. 

Evick. William Fred— (b. Nov. 23, 1895) — Mar. 4 — Franklin. 

Eye.Berlin — (b. Feb 29, 1888) — Feb. 20 — Marines. — 

Eye, Fred Wilson — May 26 — A. E. F. — Deer Run. 

Eye, Romer F. — April 25 — Brandy wine. 

Eye, William Washington — Mar. 4 — 



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8T 



Pleisher. licy — Aug. 29 — Cave 

Fult:fi, Frank A. — Sept. 5 — DD — Brandywine. 

Fultz, Walter — July 25 — Mitchell. 

George, Harry — July 25 — Kline. 

Grahaia. William Perry — July 25 — DD — Kline. 
Giogi3% ;?amuel F. — July 25 — 

Guyer, Giover C. — Mar. iv — a. ju. F. — Brahdywlno. 
Kamme, Lester C. — June 3 — Ruddle 
Harman, John Roscoe — April 2 — DD — Ruddle 
Farman, Denver R. — Sept. 19, 1917 — Macksville 

Harman, Love E. — July 14 — Macksville 
Harman, Raymond L. — Sept. 19, 1917 — Brandy wine 
Harman, William O. — Mar. 7 — Key. , 

Karper, Burrel Forest — Mar. 27 — AEF — Mouth of Senecca 
Harper, Charles D. — Sept. 3, 1917 — AEF — Circleville 
Harper, Cletus Hoy — Sept. 19, 1917 — AEF — River ton 
Karper, George Earl — ^Aug. 19, 1917 — Cave 
Harper, James Willam — Jan. 18 
Harper, John — Sept 3, 1917 — AEF — Circleville 
Harper, Jobn C. — May 16 — Cave 
Harper, Kenna Andrew — May 26 — Cave 
Harper, Russell W. — July 14 — Macksville 
Harper, Roy Weldon — July 25 — Cave 
IJariina»T-A:tisttn T. — Sept. 19, 1917 — AEF — Brandywine 
Hartnaan, Honi^ E. — May 26 — Zigler 
HartniaiiT- ^ODOo P . — July 25 — Brandywine 
Hartman^_01in_Di:er — May 22 — Franklin 
Hedrick, Elmer E.— (b. Oct. 10, 1880 — July 25— Ruddle 
Kedrick, Frank E. — Juine 27 — dis. DD — Circleville 
Hedrick, Isaac Roy — Mar. 4 — Rudelle 

Hedrick, Jason — Aug. 4 — Onego 
Hedrick, Neal Andrew — May 26 — Ruddle 
Hedrick, Ola T. — Jan. 3 — Brushy Run 
Hedrick, Oscar O. — (b. Sept. 22, 1856) — Ruddle 

Hedrick, Robert Hugh (b. Jan. 23, 1894) — July— 25 Franklin 

Hedrick, Ulysses Alfred — May 27-^AEF — Hardy County 

Hedrick, William — June 27 — Rej. — Reverton 

Hevener, Asa — July 20 — DD. — Mouth of Senecca 

Hevener, Virlie A. — July 25 — Kline 

lUnkle, Edward J. — April 26 — AEF — Franklin 

Hinkle, Harness — registered at Lethbridge, Camada — Circleville 

Holloway, John McKee — April 2 — AEF — Upper Tract. 
Homan, Virgil R. — (b. May 20, 1895) Aug. 12 — Franklin 
Hoover, Alston I. — May 30, 1917 — AEF — Brandywine 



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88 

Hoover, Ennest C. — May 26 — Moycrs 

Hoover, Homer F. — April 4 — ABF — Brandy wine 

Hoover, Homer Albert— July 25 — Sugargrove 

Hoover, Henry E.— Sept. 19,1917 — A. E. P.— Moyers. 

Hoover, Joseph— Oct. 4, 1917 — A, E. F.— Doe Hill. 

Hoover, J. Kiser -May 12 — Brandy wine. 

Hoover, Norval^ — July 14 — Doe Hill. 

Hoover, William Franklin — April 2 — Brandywine. 

Hoover, William V/. — Jul^ 15, I'JlT — A. U. F. — Brc»ndyv*^ine. 

Hopkins, John J.- -ilineLiboro, III. 

Hopkins, Lester H. — May, 1917 — Upper Tract. 

Hopkins, William Boulden — Feb. 18. 

Huffman, Garnett — Mar. 4 — Rivcrton. 

Huffman, RobertM . — May 26 — A. E. F. — Franklin. 

Johnson, Edwin S. — (b. Nov. 29, 1894) — July 24 — Franklin. 

Johnston, Mortimer — Ocl.. 4, 1917— A. E. F. — Riverlcn. 

Justice, Frank — April 2 — Circleville. 

Judy, Austiin L. — Sept 19, 1917 — A. E. F. — Riverton. 

Judy, Bert — June 27 — Ketterman. 

Judy, James Edward — (b. Aug. 22, 1893) — July 14 — Cave. 

Judy,Omer Clyde — Mar. 14 — Zigler. 

Judy, Stillman Wade — Sept. 19, 1917 — Zigler. 

Judy, Willie D. — May 27— DD — Circleville. 

Keister, Jesse M. — July 25 — Brandywine. 

Kesner, Robert G. — May 12 — Kline. 
•• Kile, Isaac G. — Oct. 6 — Brushy Run. 

Kimble, Abram E. — May, 1917 — Branch. 

Kimble, Albert Edward — July 25— DD. 

Kimble, Charles — Mar. 4 — ^Bramch. 

Kimble, Ernest Clemmer — July 25 — Kline. 

Kimble, Howard James — July 25 — ^Brushy Run. 

Kimble, Nolen — June 27 — Branch. 

Kisamore, James McKinley — Sept. 19,1917 — A.E.F. — Macksville. 

Kisamore, Joel — May 26 — Mouth Seneca. 

Kisamore, Ola — Sept. 19, 1917 — Onego. 
Kisamore, Riley — Mar. A — DD — Aug.l. 

Kiser, Early Everett — Oct. 4, 1917 — A. E. F. — Brandywine. 

Kuykendall, William Washington — Jn le 27 — A. E. F. — Fort Seybert. 

McAvay, Austin — (b. Sept. 16, 1892) — May 26 — A. E. F. 

Mallow, Otho A.— Sept. 19, 1917, — AEF— Kline. 

Mauzy, Frank B. — May 26 — Zigler. 

Mauzy, Luther S. — Mar. 4, 1917 — Zigler. 

May, Charles E. — May 26 — DD — Fort Seybert. 

Meadows, Charles Cleveland — July 25^-Creek. 



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89 

Meadows, David Wellington — Mar. 4 — Creek. 
Mitchell, Albert Ira — June 3 — Kline. 
Mitchell, Arlie Boyd — July 25. 
Mitchell, Baxter — July 25 — Fort Seybert. 

Mitchell, Benjamin Hurl — Oct. 4, 1917 — A. E. F. — Sugar Grove. 
Mitchell, Jacob Harry — May 26 — DD — Mitchell. 
Mitchell, Jacob Walter — May 18 — DD — Sugar Grove. 
Mitchell, James Ward — July 25 — DD — Fort Seybert. 
Mitchell, Joseph Loy — May 26 — A.E. F. — Sugar Grove. 
Mitchell, Leon Floyd — April 25 — Sugar Grove. 
Mitchell, Morgan Sibert — April 25 — Fort Seybert. 
Moats, Charles — May 26 — DD — Moyers. 
Moats, Ira — May 26 — Doe Hill. 

Moats, Jarrett (colored) — Oct. 2 6, 1917 — A. E. F. — Moyers, 
Moats, Jesse — May 26 — DD — Moyers. 

Mangold, Byran McKee — Sept 19, 1917 — A. E. F. — Kline. 
Moore, Dr. Charles L. — Sept. 27, 1917 — Upper Tract. 
• Morral, Algie — May 15 — Mouth of Seneca. 
Morral, Irving — Sept. 19, 1917 — Onego 
Morral, Olie — July 25 — Mouth of Seneca. 
Mowery, Chester C. — Sept. 19, 1917 — A. E. F. — Brushy Run. 
Mowery, Jesse — Sept. 10 — Creek. 

Mowery, Oliver C. — July 25 — Creek. * 

Moyers, George S. — May 26 — A. E. F. — Franklin. 
Moyers, Grover C. — July 25 — DD — Frajiklin. 
Moyers, Howard — Sept. 19, 1917 — A. E. F. — Moyers. 
Moyers, James Harmon — May 26 — Franklin. 
Moyers, Lester D. — Mar. 26 — Moj'ers. 
Moyers, Martin Luther — June 27 — Cave. 

Moyers, Pinckney — April 2 — A. E. F. — Sugar Grove. 
Moyers, Roy — Oct. 4, 1917 — Moyers. 

Mullenax, Edward Jacob — (b. April 30, 1892) — May 2^ — A. E. F. — 
Dry Run. 

Mull€inax, Fred — May 26 — Cave. 

Mullenax, Marvin Dewey — May 26 — A. E. F. — Cave. 

Mullenax, Vivian Lester — July 14 — Cave. 

Murphy, Grover C. — July 25 — DD — Franklin. 

Nelson, Garnett O. 

Nelson, Harmnn W. — June — Simoda. 

Nelson, Zell V. — May 22 — Circleville. 

Nesselrodt, George W. — May 26 — Brandywine. 

Nesselrodt, Isaac C. — July 25 — Fort Seybert. 

Nesselrodt, J. Floyd — July 25 — Fort Seybert. 

Nesselrodt, John F. — June 27 — Fort Seybert 



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30 

Nesselrodt, Joseph A. — May 26 — Aug. — DD. — Fort Seybert. 

Nesselrodt, Robert Cleveland — April 25 — Fort Seybert. 

Nicholas, Grover C. — Mar. 4. 

Fainter, Charles Osea — Sept 2 — Ruddle. 

Painter, Jacob E. — (b. July 16, 1893) — Juoie 27 — DD — Macksville. 

Painter, Walter K. — Sept. 19 — Macksville. 

Payne, Charles Marvine — May 26 — DD — Macksville. 

Pennington, Ora — Mar. 4 — Riverton. 

Ponny backer, Courtney B. — May 26 — Franklin. 

Phares, Edward B. — July 14 — :DD-— Riverton. 

Pitsenberger, George D. — July 25. 

Pitsenberger, James Luther — Oct. 4, 1917 — A. E. F. — Brandy wine. 

Pitsenberger, Jesse A. — May 26 — Franklin 

Pope, Forest L. — July 25 — DD— Sept. 10 — Fort Seybert 
Propst, Daniel Michael — (b. June 30, 1892) — July 14 — Dahmer 
Propst, Ervin — Sept. 2 
Propst, Fred M. — July 25 — Brandywine 
I'ropst, Lev/is Arthur — July 25 — Brandywine 
Propst, Martin — July 25 — Palo Alto 
Propst, Milton A. — May 26 — AEF — Franklin 

Propst, Ora B. — May 26 — AEF — Brandywine 

Propst s, Pear lie Mark — Mar. 4 — A. E. F. 

Propst, Robert Clinton — July 25 — DD — Nov. 6 

Puffinberger, J6sse Loy — Mar 12 — Sugar Grove 

Puffinberger, Fearlie Est in — Oct 4, 1917 — AEF — Sugar Grove 

Puffinberger, Samuel Henry — Oct 4,1917 — DD — Sugar Grove 

Rader, Clem W. — Sept 19, 1917 — DD — May 20, 1918 — Mitchell 

Raines, Henry C. — May 22 — Teterton 

Raines, Ralph— Oct. 4, 1917 — A. E. F. — Teterton. 

Rexroad, Andrev/ J. — Mar. 4. — DD — July 

Rexroad, Arthur M. — May 2G — AEF — Cave 
Jlexroad, Delmone — June 27— DD — Circleville 

Rexroad, Emory C. — Sept. 19, 1917 — AEF — Dahmer 

Rexroad, George H. — Oct 4, 1917 — Moyers 

Rexroad, Minor C. — Sept. 17, 1917 — Dahmer 

Rexroad, Pearl A. — June 3 — Deer Run. 

Rexroad, Noah Marvin — June 3 — AEF — Fort Seybert 
llexroad, William Harvey — Aug.19,1917 — Dahmer 

Riggleman, Adam Jr. — Mar. 4 — Kline. 

Riggleman, Arlio O — Oct. 4, 1917 — AEF— Kline 

Roy, Olie — July 25 — Roarimg. 

Ruddle, Roy C. — Sept. 2 — Franklin 

Ruddle, Whitney H — May 26 — Franklin 

Seymore, Otto W. — June 27 — Riverton 



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91 

i 

Shrcve, Homer — July 25 — DD — Brushy Rua 

Shrave, John Byron — ^April 25 — Brushy Run. : > 

Simmons, Ammon — ^Mar. 4 — Sugar Grove • 
Simmons, Calyin — May 22 — Sugar Grove -, 

Simmons, David L. — Sept. 17, 1917 — Moyera 
r ^mfioiis, Dice3;7-July 25— -Zigler 
' > -S^ 26-rrDI>T7rSugar, Grove. 

Simmons, Ernest L. — ^July 25 

Simmons, Glenn — July 25 — Zigler. ' 

Simmons, Fred Sperman — ^July 25 — Sugar Grove 

Simmons, Harry G.-^— May 26 — DD — Oct. 9 — Sugar Grove 

Simmons, Liester Clyde — May 12 — AEF — Franklin 

Simmons, Luther E. — (b. Aug. 6, 1895) — AEF — Rexroad 

Simmons, Myron W. — June 27 — Brandy wine 

Simmons, Olin S. — Oct. 4 — Brandywine 

Simmons, Perry — May 26 — DD — Doe Hill 

Simmons, Samuel H. — May 26 — Doe Hill 

Simmons, Solomon Roy — Aug. 27— Sugar Grove 

Simmons, William Luther — May 26 — AEF — Sugar Grove 

Simpson, E:nest L. — (b. Sept. 9, 1895):— May 24 — Brandywine. 

Simpson, Walter — Jan. 21 

Sinnett, CharlesArthur — Mar. 4 — Franklin. 

Sinnett, David Clarence — Jan. 18 — Mitchell. 

SiJUie*t -Harvey— <b. Oct. 15, 1895) — Mar. 4-^A. E. F. — Brandywine. 

Siihnek.Winiani H.— (b. April 23, 1897) — July 25— DD— Nov. 19 — 
Cave. t . 

Sites, Cletus — May 26 — Mouth of Seneca. ' rt- * 

Sites, Curtis — Oct. 4, 1917 — Mouth of Seneca. 

Sites, Lester B. — Sept. 19, 1917 — A. E. F. — Onego. 

Sites, Ola — ^June 29 — DD. 

Sites, Olie M.— Sept. 18, 1917 — A. E. F. — Teterton, 

Skidmore, James W. — May 12 — A. E. F. — Franklin. 

Skiles, Byron — May 26 — DD — Port Seybert. 

Skiles, Carl Michael — May 22 — Deer Run. 

Smith, Arlie C. — Aug. 19,1917 — A. E. F. — Sugar Grove. 

Smth, Charles Eliot — May 26 — Sugar Grove. 

Smith, Joseph Tyree — July 25 — Sugar Grove. 

Smith. Olie — (b. Aug. 16. 1895) — May 15— A. E. F. — Macksville. 

Stewart, Clarence (colored) — Aug. 4 — ^Franklin. 

Teter, Admiral Dewey — April 20 — A. E. F. — Kiverton. 

Teter, Dice B. — May 26 — A. E. F. — Riverton. 

Teter, Kirk P. — Aug. 29 — Garnett, Kas. 

Teter, Mitchell — May 26— DD — Circleville. 

Teter, Zola — May 26 — A. E. F. — Teterton. 



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92 



Thompgon, Albert — Aug. 2 — Riverton. 

Thompsca, Frank — July 25 — Riverton. 

Thompson, Fred — July 25 — DD^— Nov. 6-^Riverton. ' 

Thompson, Jason T. — ^Aug. 19,1817 — A. E. F.*"Simoda. 

Thompson, Le8ter-:-0ct. 4, 1917-^Riverton. 

Thompson, Samuel — June 27 — Riverton. • . - 

Trumbo, James Elmer — June27 — A. E. F. — Fort Seybert. - t^r^'T 

Trumbo, James Harmon — Sept. 17, 1917 — A. E.^F. — -firandy^'irie.' 

Turner, Richard — June. 

Vance, Adam — April 25 — DD — Onego 

Vance, Clarence — July 25 — Roaring. * • ' ''' 

Vance, Isom — Mar. 4 — A. E. F. 

Vaince, Omer — May 26— A. E. F. — Mouth of Seneca. " 

Vance, Ora — ^July 25 — Roaring. 

Vance, Ralph — July 25 — DD — Roaring. 

Vandevender, Ellis R. — Sept. 19, 1917 — Zigler. • o. 

Vandevender, Foster — April 14, 1917. 

Vandevender, JohnK. — May 26 — Circleville. 

Vandevender, LonW. — July 25 — Zigler. 

Vanner, John L. — July 27 — Sugar Grove. - 

Vint, Moses L.— Sept. 19, 1917 — Circleville. 

Waggy,Edward — (b. Oct. 27,1887) — Mar. 25 — Sugar Grove. 

Waggy, Harvy Lloyd— July 25 — ^Ruddle • 

Walker,"01iver -G.— July 25— :Kline 

Warner, Charles Adams — July 25 — Circleville/ - ; ' ..(' ^ - ' 

Warner, Ezra T. — Sept., 19, 1917 — Nome,iW. Va. ' '^ 

Warner, Geo. E.— Sept., 3, 1917 — AEF— Circleville 

Warner, Leonerd T. — May 27, Circleville 

Warner, Roy — (b. June 8, 1895) — Riverton 

Warner, Walter L. — June 27 — Riverton 

Warner, Zola D. — April 25 — AEF — Riverton 

Waybright, Clarence — May 26 — DD — Dec. €, Dry Run 

Wilfong, Campbell — May 26 — Franklin 

Wilfong, Charles — Sept. 12 — Upper Tract 

Wilfong, John Boyd~Mar. 4 — AEF — Sugar Grove 

Wilfong, Philip — Mar. 4. — Sugar Grove 

Willis, Emory (colored) — Oct. 26, 1917 — AEF — Franklin 

Wimer, Adam L. — July 25 — Zigler 

Wimer, Cam — (b. 1895) — May 26 

Wimer, Leon J. — (b. Jan. 10 1897) — Aug. 6, 1917, — Ruddle 

Wimer, Pinckney Brady — May 12 — ^^Circleville 

Wimer, Russell Foster — May 26, — Franklin 

Wimer, William G. — Sept. 19, 1917 — Franklin 

Wimer, William H.— Sept 19, 1917 — Franklin 



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93 

Wimer, William H.--May — 26— Ziglcr 

SECOND CALL . - x . I 

Adamsca, Fred Rugsell — Sept, 18 — Onego 
Obaugh, Gordon — Sept 2 — CjlroleyiUe j 
Bauer, Raymond Austn — Sept. 27:^7-3 rushy Run^_ 

"Bfillf tCiV^Y — ;Sept 2-^Mouth of Seneca .. , 
Beir, Willaim Roy— Sept. 20 ... , 

Beninett Clinton M. — Sept 2 — Circleville 
Bennett, Grant Tay — Sept 5- -Circleville 
Black, Dewitt — Sept 20 — Mouth of Seneca n: 

Black. William Walter— Sept 2 — Kline . 
Bland, Frank Lester — Sept. 2 — Rivcrton. 
Bodkin, Clement — Sept. 2— Palo Alto. 
Colaw, Benjamin — Sept. 20 — Circleville. 
Cook, Luther Floyd — Sept. 2 — DD — Ruddle. 
Dahmer, Arthur B. — Sept. 2 — A. E. F. — Kline. 

Dahmer, Charles Stepheii — Aug. 14 — Upper Tract. . 

Davis, Julius A. — Aug. 14 — Franklin. ] 

Day, Fred — Sept. 2 — Macksville. 1 

Dickenson, Albert Lester — Sept. 2 — DD — Franklin. 

Dickenson, Roy — Sept. 20 — Franklin. 

Eye, Robert Anderson — Sept. 20 — Deer Run. 

Harper, Charles F. — Sept. 20. 

Hiirper, Marvin Janates-~Sept;f^2:^-^Teterton. 

Harper, Robert Lee — Sept. 20~MacksvilIe. 

Harold, John Moomau — Aug. 14. 

Hedrick, John Afelanethon — Aug. 14 — Kline. 

Homan, Walter Scott — (b. Aug. 13, 1897) — Ruddle. 

Hoover, Arthur Bryan — Sept. 2 — Brandywine. 

Hoover, Ernest Clyde — Sept 20 

Hoover, Virgil Lee — (b. Aug. 14, 1897) — Sept. 20 — Brandywine. 

Hottinger, Isaac William — Sept. 20 — Fort Seybert. 

Judy, Kcnna C. — Aug. 14 — Circleville. 

Kesner, Russell — Sept. 20 — Kline. 

Kile, George Arthur — Sept. 2 — DD — Brushy Run. 

Kimble, Lee Hamer — Sept. 13 — Brushy Run. 

Kiser, Marvey — Sept. 8 — Sugar Grove. 

Kuykendall, James Elmer — Sept. 9 — Fort Seybert. 

Lambert, Clarence — Sept. 20. ' 

Lough, Loy Hammer — Sept. 2 — Kline. 

Mauzy, Arlie — Sept. 2. 

May, Lester Philip — Sept. 2 — Fort Seybert. 

Mitchell, Albert Cleveland — Sept. 2. 

Mitchell, Harvey Bryan — Oct. 15 — Sugar Grove. 



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94 

r- 

Moyera, Franklin Pierce — Sept. 2 — Ffafnklin. 

Moyers, James Marvine — Sept. 2 — Doe Hill. • •■ . . . « • i* . 

Moyers, John Smith— Sept. 2— Pranklim - t »* .,a hnvMnvHH - 

Moyers, Zodie B. — Sept. 20 — Cave. .. - > iq^'d- -ofi> ^^ 

Nelson,^ Hugh Jenninjgs^ Sept. 20. ;,., vj>>: :^ i^ii --^ 

Nicholas, George F-T-^Sept. 2 — -CrabhottoRi. 'k.^ 

Pa^nfB, William Cecil—Sept. 20. •• ' -. . 

Prbpst, Ervine Upton — Sept. 2 — Brandy wine. 

Raines, Brinton — Sept. 4 — Teterton. ' 

Raines, Kenrna — Sept. 2 — Circleville. .- • 

Raines, Lester — Sept. 2 — DI> — Limoda. 

Rock^ Paul Auville — Sept. 20 — DD — Onego. *" 

Schrader, Floyd — Sept. 15. s . 

Simmons, Albert — Sept. 2 — Zigler . -^ . .«,.v*i. 

Simmons, Arlie B. — Sept. 2 — DD — Franklin. =. ■ 

Simmons, Guy — Sept. 2 — Sugar Grove. ' »^ • - •'• • '' 

Simmons, Lurty Bryan — Sept. 2 — DD — Brandywine. • '"'-^ - 

Simmons, Price— Sept. 2 — Circleville. :- i.-. i . . :; jkifN 

Simmons, Samuel T. — Aug. 14 — Brandywine. ' >"v:4:it« 

Sinnett, William Jennings — Sept. 8 — DD — Brandywine. '' -^'^^ 

Sites, Johnson — Sept. 20 — Upper Tract. - • ' '^nm^ 

Smith, William Isaac — Sept. 2 — DD — Sugar Grove. " jscjlu^ 

Teter/Fraach Dayton — Sept. 2 — Circleville. %»^f^ 

Teter, Leland Baxter — Sept. 2. 

Thompson, Arthur — Riverton. 

Thompson, Charles R. — Sept. 20. 

Vandevender, Fred J.. — Sept. 2 — Circleville. 

Warner, Sewell Jackson — Sept. 20 — Franklin. 

Warner, William Bryan — Sept. 20 — Circleville. s • 

Wilfong, Lester — Sept. 2 — Sugar Grove. 

Wimer, Orion A. — Sept. 2« — Franklin. 

Wyant, Ora — Sept. 3 — Box. 

ROSTSR OF HIGHLAND SOLDIERS 
Explanations: The date following a name shows when the soldier^ '^^'^ 
left. home. The name following the date shows either the place of enlist-' '-'•" 
n»eint or the camp to which the soldiers went. Dis. means date of honorable '"^^ - 
discharge. M. R. C. stands for Medical Reserve Corps. -*»,. 

In the papers filed in the office of the county clerk, 33 report havinff- 
sludied at high school or college. In religious affiliation, 59 declare them- 
selves Methodists, 15 are Presbyterians, 4 are Adventists, 4 are United 
Brethren, 2 are of the church of the Brethrein, and 4 simply style them- 
selves Protestants. Of the Methodists, 5 are of the Methodist EpiscopaJt 
church and 19 of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The other ZS- 
dc not particularize, but call themselves Methodist. The number saylitf^ 



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95 

*hey are of no church is 32. 

Arbogast, John D. — July 24, 1918, Lee — Crabbottom. 

Arbogast, Raymond — July 24, 1918, Lee — Monterey. 

Armstrong, William Mason — Oct. 15, 1918, University — Doe Hill. 

Beard, Luther B. — Aug. 5, 1918 from Elkins — 1st class private, 13th 
■Co., 4th Battalion, 155th Depot Brigade — dis. May 8, 1919. — Monterey, 

Benson, William G. — Sept. 15, 19 17, Lee — Vanderpool. 

Beverage, Hiram J. — May 25, 1918, Lee — dis. (influenza) Nov. 16, 1918 
— Monterey. 

Beverage, Kenneth L. — July 25, 1918, Roanoke — Navy — Monterey 

Beverage, Robert Seebrook — July 25, 1918 — Co. K., Ist Va Inf. — vol- 
^mtcer — dis. from disability. 

Bird, David Russell — Oct. 19, 1918, University — Valley Center. 

Bird, Kenneth H. — Aug. 15, 1917, Ft. Oglethorpe — Valley Center. 

Bird, William Arthur — Sept. 5, 1917, Lee — Valley Center. 

Bishop, John Henderson — May 22, 1918, Uaiiversity — Monterey. 

Bishop, Miller V. — volunteer — Sept. 15, 1917, aviation section, Signal 
Coi-ps. San Antonia^ — Monterey. 

Botkin, William Ennest — May 25, 1918, Lee — Palo Alto. 

Botkin, Willis — Sept. 5, 1917, Lee — Crabbottom. 

Bowers, Dennis — Sept. 3, 1918, Humphreys — Monterey. 

Byrd, Lloyd Campbell — Sept. 15, 1917 — Base Hospital, No. 45, Rich- 
mond — Valley Center. 

Campbell, Glenn C. — Dec. 18, 1917, M. R. C, University — Mill Gap. 

Campbell, Warren M. — Mar. 25, 1917, Pulaski, Va. — Monterey. 

Campbell, William Roy— July 22, 1918 — Navy for duration of war — 
Mill Gap. 

Cariccfi, JaniC3 Edv/r.rd— Oct. 15,19? 8, University — Machinist — Doe 
Hill. 

Caricoff, Jesse B. — May 9, 1918, Roanoke — Doe Hill. 

Carpenter, Ira G. — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — ^Bolar. 

Carpenter, Orin G. — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — Bolar. 

Corpo. Samuel Herold — in regular army on Mexican border — reached 

Carter, Edward Clemm (colored) — July 17, 1918, Lee — McDowell. 

Shew, Charles Conway — Sept. 5, 1918, Lee — Monterey. 

Chew, John W. — May 22, 1918, University — Monterey. 

Chew, Llod M. — May 25, 1918, Lee — Monterey. 

Colaw, Benjamin H. — June 25, 1918, Lee — Co. B., lot Batallion Re- 
placement cind Training Center — Monterey. 
France Dec. 25, 1917 — 126th Infantry, 3 2d Division. 

C olaw, Cyrus W. — Sept. 21, 1917, Des Plains, 111. — 150th Infantry — 
iin 6 battles — with Army of Occupation. — Nov. 7, 1918 toJVlar. 22, 1819 — 

Colaw, James Foster — July 24, 1918, Lee — Monterey. 

XJolaw, Russell M. — July 24, 1918, Lee — ^^Monterey 



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96 

Cook, Dunbar Alexander — Co. A, 318 Engineer Sappers — AEF — Mc- 
I'owell. 

Corbett, Charles Cleveland — Sept. 5, 1918, Lee — Mustoe 

Corbett Fred C. Oct. 8, 1017, Lee — Co. D, 317th Inf. — Mustoe* 

Davenport, Homer Adam (colored) — July 17, 191 8, Lee — rHead waters 

Davis, Andrew Salisbury — Sept 5, 1918, Lee — McDowell 

Dawson, Charles L. (colored) — April 26, 1918, Lee — Monterey 

Dickson, A. Robert — Oct. 15, 1918, University — Students, Army Train- 
ing Corps — Trimble 

Dickson, Kenton S. — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — Trimble 

Dickson, William C. — Sept.5, 1917, Lee — Trimble 

Eagle, Josiah Hiner — Oct. 3, 1917 — volunteer, M. R. C, University, 
for 4 yearcs — Base Hospital M. 41 — Dee Hill 

Eagle, Samuel Rembert — Nov. 10, 1917 — volunteer, M.R.C. University 
—Doe Hill. 

Echard, Walter — July 25, 1917 — Co. K, 1st Inf. 

Epperly, Gilbert Lee — June 25, 1918, Lee — McDowell 

Echard, Ken tea — Aug 5, 1917, Lee-^-Vanderpool 

Eye Charles B. — Sept 5, 1917, Lee — Hightova 

Flcisher, Donnis B. — July 18, 1918, Humphreyss — Monterey 

Fleisher, Ernest Roy — Sept 5, 1.918, Lee — Monterey 

Folks, William Bryan — July 10, 1918, Richmond — Volunteer in Navy 
for 4 yearc — Crabbottom. 

Gardner, Arlie — July 24, 1918, Lee — Mustoe 

Garland, Stary — July 25, 1917, Columba Barracks volunteer, A.M.C. 
— Crabbottom 

Graham, George HamJltc,^ — Sept 15, 1917, Loe — Co. E. 317th Reg't 
SOeh Division — in France, May 25, 1918 to June 1, 1919 — in the battles of 
Picardy, St. Miheil, Meuse-Argonne — McDowell 

Graham, Roy Cleveland — Sept. 5, 1917, Lee — battle of the Somme — 
£'old service medal with chevrons authorized — McDowell 

Griffin, Alexander B. — July 24, 1918 — won Victory Medal in battle of 
Meuse-Argonne — dis. Sept. 27, 1919 — Mustoe 

Gum, Albert P. — Oct 8, 1917 — Hightown 

Gum, Arthur R. — Nov. 22, 1917 — Co. A. 314th M.P. Battalion — Monv- 
terey. 

Gum, Elbert W.— Sept. 23, 1917, at Charleston, W. Va — Ambulance Co 
313, SanitaiT Traini-.ng — overseas, July 10, 1918, to June 1, 1919 — Monter- 
ey. 

Gum, Fred Aron — Sept 5, 1918, Lee — Vanderpool 

Gum, Knox. 
Gutshall, Ellis Mustoe — Sept 5, 1918, Lee — Mustoe 
Gutshall, Harry A. — May 25, 1918, Lee — Trimble 
Gutshall, Robert H. — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — Co. D, 317th Inf. — Trimble 



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Gwin, Jesse James — Nov. 22, 1917, Lee — Co. A. 103rd Engineers — 

Headwaaters. 

Hamilton, Julian Andrew — Sept 25, 1918, Lee — McDowell 
Hamiltooi, Leo Davis — June 25, 1918, Lee — McDowell 
PTamilton, Thomas G. — volunteer, Co. A. 30 2d Tank Corps — McDowell 
Hammer, Winfield Scott — Sept 3, 1918, Humphreys — dis Jan. 6 1919 — 

McDowell 

Harper, Arlie B. — Sept. 9, 1918, Lee — Monterey 

Harris, Robert Lee — July 24, 1918, Lee — Meadow Dale. 

Helmick, Early — Oct. 18, 1918, Lee — Monterey. 

Hevener, Burton — May 10, 1918, St. Thomas, Ky — Monterey 

Hevener, Dorcey L.— -April 22, 1918, Baltimore — Quartermaster Corps 

— Fightov/n 

Ilevcffier, James R. — Sept. 25, 1917, Lee — Co. D., 317th Inf — Hightown 
Uevener, Robert K. — Sept 5, 1917 Lee— Hightown 
Hiner Dewey Sept 5, 19 18, Lee — Monterey 
ITiner, Harry F. — July 24, 1918, Lee — Mustoe 

Hiner, William Dorsey — June 25, 1918, Lee — Doe Hill 

Hook, Alexander Clarence — May 22, 1918, University — Vilna 

Hook, Henry B. — Sept 5, 1917, Lee — Vilna 

Hoover, Ernest Garnett — Nov 22, 1917 Lee — Doe Hill 

Hull, Harrison M. — July 18, 1918, Mumphreys — overseas Sept 1, 1918 

to Mar. 1, 1919 — attended a bridge school — Monterey 
Hupman Jacob Orion — ^Sept 5, 1918, Lee— ^Patna 
Hupman, Roy Huggard — Aug 1, 1917 — volunteer, Aviation Corps, St. 

Thomas— Patma 

Hupman, William Rosser — May 25, 1918, Lee-Patna 

Jack, Arlie M. — Sept 25, 1917, Lee — Monterey 

Jones, Harry — May 10, 1918, Fort Thomas, Ky — Monterey 

Jones, Harry G. — Battery L. 51st Regt. Coast Artillery Corps — Doe 

Hill 

Jones, J. Luther — Mar. 29, 1918, Lee — Monterey. 

Jones, J. Luther — May 23, 1918, University — Monterey. 

Jones, James Lee — June 25, 1918, Lee — Monterey. 

Jones Joeph T. — Dec. 21, 1917, Universitj' — M.R.C. — Doe Hill 

Jones, Robert A. — Oct 8, 1917, Lee — Co. (, 317th Infantry — Monterey 

Key, Dewey Wilson — July 24, 1918, Lee — Auxiliary Remjiant Depot — 

dis. May 9, 1919 — Monterey. 

Kincaid, Kenneth H. — Sept. 5, 1918, Lee — Patna. 

Kincaid, Kenton R. — July 24, 1918 — deserted Aug. 18, 1918 — ^Bolar 
Kramer, John David — Sept 5, 1917, Lee — Co. E. 317th Infantry — Mon- 
terey. 

Lamb, Jared Frank — July 24, 1918 — McDowell 
Lambert, Henry B. — July 24, 1918, — Bartow 



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98 

Leach. William Robert — May 9, 1918, Roanoke — voluntered in Navy 
for 4 years — Doe Hill. 

Lockridge, Andrew Lee — May 25, 1918, Lee — Flood. 

Lockridge, Emory Moffett — May 25, 1918, Lee — Flood. 

Lockridge, James Colaw — Sept 5, 1918 — Flood 
Lowery, Glenn B. — Bolar 
Lowery, John M. — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — Bolar 

Malconi, Charles C— Oct. 8, 1917, Lee— dis (disability), Feb. C, 1918 
— Monterey. 

Malcom, Robert— Ma;' 24, 1918, Lee — Co. A. 342d M.G. Battalicm — 
Monterey. 

Mauzy, Paul L. — Sept. 3, 1918, Humphreys — High town 

Minear, Ccorre Allen (colored) — Sept. 26, 1918, Lcc, McDowell. 

Morgan, Marion (colored) — Nov. 5, 1917, Lee — McDowell. 

MuUenax, Oliver Luther — July 24, 1918, Lee — Crabbottom. 

Nicholas, William R. — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — Crabbottom, 

Propst, Layman W. — May 25, 1918, Lee — Co. G. 10 2d Infantry — AEP 
—Doe Kill. 

Propst, Luther — enlisted from Akron O. — Camp Gaden, Ga. — Co. B. 
3 St Division Ballaton — Montere3^ 

Puffcnbarger, David Troy — July 24, 1918, Lee — McDowell 

Pullin, Roy — enlisted from Ayron, O. — Co. C. 307th Infantry-, 77th 
Division, — Hightowoi. 

Ralston, Charles H. — July 19, 1918, Lee — Crabbottom 

Ralston, Emory Kenneth — July 18, 1918, Humphreys — McDowe'l. 

Ralston, Felix Henry — Sept 3, 1918 Humphreys — McDowell 
Ralston, Frank Tyler — May ^5, 1918, Lee — Flood 

Ralston, James Lewis — June 25, 1918, Lee — McDo^vell. 

Ralston, Jacob Yost — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — McDowell 

Rexrode, Edward B. — June 25, 1918, Lee — Crabbottom 

Rexrode, BJlza M. — Mar. 29, 1918 — Monterey 

Rexrode, Hoy Hammond— May 23, 1918, University, .—Valley Center. 

Reynolds, Johnston Taylor — Mar. 29, 1918 — Headwaters. 

Reynolds, Russell William — Sept 5, 1918, Lee — Headwaters 

Ryder, Edward — April 20, 1918 — Medrial Supply Depot, San Antonla — 
VanderiK)ol 

Ryder, Hubert Steuart — Mar, 27,1918, — Valley Center. 

Ryder, Lawrence B. — Sept. 3, 1918, Humphreys — Valley Center. 

Samples, E. K. — Aug. 6, 1917 — volunteer in Co. C. 116th Infa.ntry— in 
7 battles — dis May 28, 1918 — Monterey. 

Simmons, Clarence E. — May 25, 1918, Lee — Monterey 

Simmons, Samuel Luther — Sept. 5, 1918, Lee — Co. B. 10 Battalion — 
dis. Dec. 17, 1918. 

Simmons, William Abel — Sept 5, 1918, Lee — Monterey 



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99 

Siron, Jacob Hobart — ^July 24, 1918 — Lee — McDowell 

Siron, Orion Otis — Mar. 29, 1918, Lee — McDowell 

Slaven, John E. — Lee — Monterey. 

Slaven, John R. — Sept 5, 1917, Lee — Co E. 38th Infantry — Vanderpool 

Snyder, Henry C. — Nov 22, 1917, Lee — dis (disability) — Doe Hill. 

Snyder William Colaw — June 5, 1918, Richmond — Navy for 4 years — 
Hightown. , 

Sponaugle, Charles — Oct. 8, 1917, — deserted at home — Crabbottom. 

Stephenson, David C. — Oct 8 1917 — Bolar 

Stephenson, Hubert L. — May 25, 1918, Lee — Bolar. 

Staunton, Sandford (colored) — April 26, 1918, Lee — Flood. 

Sv/ecker, Arlie D. — volunteer Monterey. 

Swecker Berlie T. — Sept 5, 1917, — Lee — M. R. C — Monterey. 

Swecker. Harry Tucker — Oct. 8, 1917 — Monterey. 

Swecker, Jennings Judy — July 10, 1918, — Navy — Monterey 

Trimble, Kenton H. Jr. — Aug 2 1918, Washington — Navy for len^'ih 
of the war. — Monterey. 

Wade, Cecil Anson— Sept 5. 1918, Lee — Co B. 2d Battalion, C. T. A. — 
Monterey. 

Wagner, Herbert Floyd — July 25, 1918 — Navy — Monterey 

Wagner, Isaac C. — Dec. 27 1917 — M.R.C., Richmond — Moiaterey. 

Wagner, Orion — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — Monterey. 

Wagnei: Archibald C. — Oct. 8, 1917, Lee — Monterey 

Waybright, R. W. — May 22, 19^17 — volunteered at Parkersburg — dis 
July 28, 1919 — Monterey. 

Wheeler, William H.— Sept. 5, 1917 Lee — Heatiwfiters 

Wiley John R. — July 23, 1918, University — Monterey. 

Wiley, Oscar W. Cibson— Sept5, 1918, Lee — Mill Gap 

Wilfong, Elsie O.— Oct. 18. 1917, Lee — Hightowoi. 

Will, Edward James — Sept 5, 1918, Lee — Monterey 

Williams, Lewis Campbell — Sept 5, 1918, Lee — McDowell 

Wimer, Joseph H. — July 24, 1918, Lee — overseas, Sept. 15, 1918 to 
April 3, 1919 — 8 2d Replacepent Co. — Casual Co. No. 1432 — Monterey. 

Wimer, Paul — May 25, 1918, Lee — Crabbottom 

Wilson, Jernie T. (.colored) — Co. D. 423d Regular Laborers Battalion 
— dis. Mar. 8, 1919— Flood 

Wooddell, Hugh M. — May 25, 1918, Lee — McDowell 

Zirkle, Arthur M. — May 25, 1918, Lee — McDowell. 
* >« « * * * * 

Loyd C. Bird volunteered 1917, when away from Highland, Sailed for 
France July 11, 1918, returned April 19, 1919. His unit, (McGulre Unit, 
liaso Hospital, No 48) is said to have been the most efficient one of its class 
and received the Distinguished Service Medal. 

Other natives of Highland went into the army from other states, but 



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100 



McDowell 

Monterey 

Doe Hill 

Mustoe 

Doe Hill 

Crabbottom 
McDowell 
Monterey 

Crabboltoia 



no records of such have beeoi given to the compiler. 

«. * * ♦ ♦ ♦ 

ADDED TO FOREGOING LIST BY G. L. CHEW. 
Alexander, Dunbar Murray 
Colaw, Cyrus W. 
Eagle, Russell M. 
Kqlly, Othie 
Kiracofe, James Edward 
Nicholas, Robert Lee 
Ralston, Conrad 
Waybright, Richard W. 
Will, Owen W. 

Grand total — 177. 

KILLED IN ACTION 

Albert P.Gum— July 15, 1918. 

James R. Hevener — Sedam, Oct. 4, 1918. 

Roy Nicholas— Oct. 10, 1918. 

Harry Swecker — 1918. 

DIED OF WOUNDS OR OTHER CAUSES 

Ira G. Carpenter — died of pneumonia at Camp Green. 

Homer Devenport — died in camp. 

Samuel R. Eagle — drowned in France Jan. 25, 1919. 
Foul play suspected. 

Arthur R. Gum — died of pneumonia, Feb. 13, 1919. 
Ifc-France. 

Robert L. Harris — died irn France of disease. 

James L. Ralston — died in camp. 

McKlnley Sipe — died of lung disease resulting from gas and* exposure. 
Buried at Smith grave yard, Aug. 27, 1919 with military honors. 

Harry T. Swecker — died of wounds Nov. 1918. 

Luther J. Fisher, formerly of Crabbottom reported to have died of 
wounds — Aug. 9, 1918. 

WOUNDED 

Fred C. Corbett — wounded in left hC4nd, Oct. 5, 1918. 

Howard P. Curry — wounded in leg at Meuse, June 8, 1918. 

Echard, Walter 

Herold, Samuel — wounded in hip by machine gun ball, Aug. 1, 1918. 

Robert K. Hevener. 

Malcom, Robert 

Roy Pullin — two wounds in legs at Chateau-Tierry. 

Slaven, John R. 

Elize O. Wilfong — wounded in July, 1918. T 



Body recovered. 



Buried at Anay- 



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KILLED IN ACTION IN THE WORLD WAR 
Above, Left to Right — Roy Nicholas, Russell Hevener. 
Below — Harry Sweckcr, Albert Gum. 



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101 

mOHLAND IN BUSINESS AND THE PROFESSIONS 

John Clifton Matheny was born in Monterey, April 25, 1876. For a 
long while he was deputy county clerk, and also assistant cashier of the 
Urst Naticaial Bank. Upon the death of his father in 1908, he was made 
clerk of both courts for the unexpired term, and two years later he was 
elected cashier of the First National Bank, holding this position until 1921, 
v/hcn ill health led him to resign. He then gave his attentioffi to life in- 
surance, in which he was eminently successful. Mr. Matheny was a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and was liberal and faithful 
m its support. He taught an organized clcss of young men in its Sunday 
r.chool, until its roll was so thinned as a result of the World War that he 
once more became a scholar. He was also an enthusiastic fraternity man, 
rnd as such was know^n throughout the state. Ke was a very active Masooi 
in both the York and Scottish branches, and in behalf of the order he es- 
teemed no task or sacrifice too great. It was while he was master of the lo- 
cal lodge that the present Masonic Hall was built. He was also an Odd Fel- 
law and Woodman. Jovial, cordial, and warm-hearted, Mr. Matheny made 
1: stinc fr:encls:iips. Charitable almost to a fault, he became known as. 
the *'poor mca's friend," no appeal being turned aside if it were in his power 
to rive the needed help. And what is more, this was done without any 
IJourish of tn^mpcts. Whi'C handling a high-powered rifle, Mr. Matheny 
fxcidenta'ly inflicted i pon 1 imself a n C3t:l v/cund, to which he succumbed 
April :g, 1922 rt the are of fort:--fivc. In 3 902 he was married to Miss 
Lonora Bird of Missouri. Of their four cl ildrcn, Frances, aged 12, and 
John C. Jr., aged 6, survive their father. The scores of letters of condol- 
ence received by Mrs. Matheny are an impressive testimcaial to the number 
of friends her hrsbnd pcssersed, and to the kindly esteem in which he was 
held by t'lem. 
::• • * * * « * » 

roY/rrd F. Alcxrndcr, born 1872, enlisted January 2, 1897 in the Unit- 
c 1 rtrt r. Arr y and ./a^. h (lo-abl/ d'.scliarged January 3, 1900. He be- 
^ ^'\r coirc:ai .^anir ry 13, 1807, sergeant May 5, 1898, and in the war with 
Spain won the following citation: "July 1, 1898. First Sergeant Howard 
Alexander Company M, 9th U. S. Infantry (then attached to Company C), 
for coolness and bravery at the assault of San Junn Hill, Cuba." Transfer- 
red to the Philippines, Sorccant Alexender was appointed Clerk and Collect- 
or Department of Accounts and Collecticris, August 9, 1901, with a salary of 
$1400. At Manila, February 9, 1903, he became Secretary of the Board of 
Tax Revision, resigning this post, April 30, 1903, and bei<ng appointed. May 
1, 1903, Sub-Collector of Internal Revenue at Cotaba in Mindanao. Septem- 
ber 1, 1907, he was commissioned First Lieutencin.t and Inspector in the 
Philippine Constabulary, resigning December 21, 1907. The following Jan- 
uary he was granted three mcmths extension of leave by the Bureau of Con- 



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102 . 

stabulary- Lieut. Alexander spent elevon years in the Philippines and now 
lives on his farm below McDowell. ^ 

In 1890 Edwin B. Jones completed the academic course in Randolph- 
Macon College, taking the A. B. degree. In 1900, he was graduated from 
the law department of the University of Virginia with the degree LL. B., 
and the same year entered the legal profession im partnership with his fa- 
ther, the late Charles P. Jones. Since the death of the latter in 1914 the son 
has carried on the office alone. Besides being in his chosen profession, Mr. 
Jones is busy in other lines, and in public service has filled almost every 
unsalaried position in his community He has twice been Commonwealth's 
Attorney. He is president of the Citizens Bamk and president of the local 
flre insurance company. In the last state election he was chosen Delegate to 
the General Assembly, and has recently become a member of a committee of 
niine for the Simplification of Government. Mr. Jones is very active in 
church and Sunday school work, and is president of the Highland Sunday 
Association as well as superintendent of the Methodist Sunday School of 
Monterey. His landed and livestock interest put him in close touch with the 
agricultural side of Highland county. 

* * * * * * • 

Andrew L. Jones graduated from both the academic and the law de- 
partments of Washington amd Lee University, taking the degree of LL.B. in 
1906. j'he same year he opemed a law office in Monterey, and with practic- 
ally no vacant period and without a partner has followed his profession ever 
sinoe. He was Commonwealth's Attorney, 1911-1916, and was again elect- 
ed in :920. In 1917 Mr. Jones became corasel for the Federal Land Bank. 

♦ • ♦ ♦ * 4t * 

The first meeting of the First National Bank of Highland was held Dec- 
ember 24, 1907, and the national charter was granted February 24, 1908, 
its number 9043. James R.Gilliam, a man of Vne business ability and very 
successful, was the founder. He came to this county before it hcd any bank 
at all, and organized the Bank of Highland, which was a branch of the 
Lynchburg Trust Company of Lymchburg, Va. Mr. Gilliam was president 
until January 13, 1914. His health beginning to fail he was chosen vice- 
president, remaining such until his death. May 15, 1917. The other officers 
at the time of orgamization were J.C lifton Matheny, vice-president, Jared A. 
Jones, cashier, and J. Clifton Matheny, assistant cashier. Mr. Jones died in 
April, 1910, and was succeeded, April 16, 1910, by Clifton Matheny who 
served until Feb. 1, 1921, when A. P. Gum was elected cashier. The first 
directors were O. P. Chew, E. A. Wade, A. L. Jones, Dr. L H. Trimble, John 
M. Jones, H. H. Terry, J R. Gilliam, J. A. Jones, J. C. Matheny, J. A. White- 
law, fad J. Clifton Matheny. At present the board of directors is thus con- 
stituted: H. M. Slaven, A. H. Jones, J. A. Whitelaw, LLo-'d Sullenberger 
C. W. Trimble, J. E. Arbogast, O. P. Chew, E. A. McNulty, Dr. I. II. Trimble 



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103 

H. M Slaven is president and A H. Jonfef- is vice-president. The capital and 
surplus is $65,000, and a general ]»a?iLirg business is carried on. The pre- 
sent building has been occupied since 1908. 

« * * * * * m 

The Citizens' Bank of Highlaaid County was organized April 1, 1908, 
the first president being Charles P. Jones, who was succeeded upon his death 
in 1914 by liis son Edwin B. Jones. C. M. Lunsford was cashier till Febru- 
ary 15, 1909, when he was succeeded by the present cashier, C. C. Hansel, 
regularly elected March, 1909. The present building was occupied in 1919. 
The capital stock is $20,000 the surplus $24,000, and the number of stock 
holders is 32. A general banking business is conducted, and the customers, 
chiefly residents of Highland, represent all portions of the county. The 
vice-president is A. Lee Gum. The board of directors consists of Jared A. 
Hiner, V. B. Bishop, J. W. Hevener, Boyd Stephenson, and L. H. Shumate. 

* « « 4> 4> 4> * 

The Crabbottom Valley Bank, Inc., Crabbottom, Va., was organized iin 
the fall of 1915, and began business December 1, 1915, in a cement building 
erected for its own use and located in the famous Blue Grass section of High 
land Co., Va. This bank started with a capital of $25,000and under very un- 
favorable circumstances being the third in the county and the others hav- 
ing a strong hold in this section, but by courteous treatment and strick at- 
tcmtion to business has pushed ahead until today it is leading bank in the 
county, paying a 10 per cent dividend annually to its stockholders, with tot- 
al liabilties and assets of $301,557.48, a surplus of $12,500 and not a dollar 
borrowed or due other banks. It has 580 depositors on open account sub- 
ject to check, and 300 time certificates outstanding. 

While its territory is quite extensive, it particularly covers the Crab- 
bottom Valley, Lower Straight Creek, and extends into Pendleton County, 
rbout twelve miles by way of South Branch and North Fork. Highland 
families who have moved to other states continue to do business with the 
Bank of their old home town. Its oflScers are as follows: Pres. O. P. Chew, 
V. Pres. H. L. Simmons, Cash. I. W. Nicholas. Directors: John S. Jack, J. 
W. Newman, Geo. E. Swecker, Frank C. Wimer, P. H. Phares, Adam Harper. 

We invite you to do business with ns either in person or by mail and 
will innure you prompt and courteous treatment as inthe past. 

We pay 4^ per cent interest on Time Deposits. 

« « « « 4> * * 

Tin 1885 Harry F. Slaven entered an undertaking business begup by his 
father about 1860. During this long period the changes in the work of the 
funeral director have been as pronounced as in any other line. Since 1889 
P*Ir. Slaven has kept a record of the eight hundred funerals he has had 
charge of, the cause of death beirng noted in each instance. This record is 
of sociologic value. The chop is on a pidc street and in the rear of the 



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104 

Monterey Garage. The style of the house is now H. F . Slaven and Son. 
The senior member is a newspaper reporter by natural gift and inclination 
and not only writes the leaders and local news items for the Highland Re- 
corder, but is the regular correspondent for the News-Leader of Stauinton. 
In former years he served the Richmond Dispatch in the same capacity. 
During thirty years of newspaper correspondence, Mr. Slaven has never lost 
an opportunity to advertise the climatic advantages and scenic beauty of 
Highland. 
♦ * * « ♦ ♦ * 

John M. Colaw, a native of the Crabbottcm, began his academic studies 
at Roa loke College, but securing a scholarship at Dickinson College in Penn 
sylvania, he was graduated there irn 1882. A postgraduate course in the 
r."".me in;:titution gave him the degree of Master of Arts i«i 1886. Meanwhile 
at the University of Virginia, he had finished a year of law study in ICS-I', 
and two years later became a practicing attorney. 

Haviaig a strong leaning to mathematical study, Mr. Colaw specialized 
in this line during hie college course. Associating himself v/ith B. F. ri)ilvCl 
he founded in 1884 the American Mathematical Monthly, and for nine pears 
was its co-editor. This specialized periodical had almost necessarily a lim- 
ited circulation, and it brought its ovvners more repute than money. A 
high standard was maintained, and the 700 copies went into all the leading 
colleges of the land. The magazine still exists, and is published at Lancas- 
ter, Pennsylvamia, by the American Mathematical Association. The sub- 
scription price has been advanced from two dollars to three. In 1893, Mr. 
Colaw severed his connection v/ith the Journal bccai sc of tlie demr nd: rpon 
his time by his law practice and other interests. 

Ja 1900 he begon the preparation of mathematical text-books, in con- 
junction first with Prof. J. K. Elv/ood, and later with Prof. F. W. Duke and 
Dr. J. K. Powers. Three series of arithmetics and two algebrrs have been 
is£jued by them. A series in the higher mathematics r/as projcctod, but v as 
ruled out by the publishers ?.s le^s remrncrctive than the clenicntrry t jxt- 
books. The Colaw arithmetics and algebras have been extensivel:' ured, and 
despite the fierce competition among publishing houses they continro to 
bring Mr. Colaw a ccasiderable income. 

Mr. Colaw has served twelve years as Commonwealth's Attorney for 
IIi:2:hland, and is at present Commissioner of Accounts to the Circuit Court. 
In addition to his legal practice he Lrs important interests in realty md live 
stock. Mr. Colaw is an elder in the Presbyterian Church of Monterey. ITis 
eminence as a mathematician has given him a place in that well-knovvii 
biennial publication, "Who's Who in America." 

In 18.82 the mercantile firm of Bishop Brothers began at Monterey at 
the southeast corner of High and Spruce streets. After forty yacrs — a long 
career for a store in any tov/n^-the hovTsc ir, still very much in cx'str nee, al- 



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though its style is now V. B. Bishop. In poloit of age it is the senior house 
among the business concerns of the county seat The building is 70 by 90 
feet, two stories high, and is filled with goods. The stock carried is of the 
roost comprehensive description to be found in a small town. Im. the front, 
at the angle of the two streets, is an inclosed office room commanding a view 
cf the streets as well as the main store room. The substantial character of 
this establishment and its steady growth are indicative of a high degree of 
business success. Mr. Bishop is a native of the state of New York, and at 
the age of eleven moved with his parents to Elkton, Virginia. After reach- 
ing his majority he came to Monterey. He married Miss Miller, of Mason 

County, West Virginia. 

* * « * « * « 

Mr. H. B. Wood is a native of Berkeley Cournty West Virginia, and grew 
up at the printer's case. In 1905 he settled in Monterey as editor and pro- 
prietor of the Highland Recorder. His present offiice is arranged in several 
apartments, and is so well equipped as to enable book work to be done, as 
v/ell as job printing in variety. Type is set with an Intertype machine, but 
the cases are not abolished. There are both newspaper and job preses, pa- 
per cutter, addressing machine, typewriter, and other features of an up to 
date rural office. Power is furnished by a small steam engine. The High- 
land Recorder stands above the average level of the country newspaper 
Mr. Wood has from the first enjoyed the respect and esteem of the whole 
community. 
« * * * * * « 

In 1912, Charles T. Shumate moved into Monterey from near Hightown 
rad during the next four years was operator of the long distance telephone 
line owned by parties in Elkins and Ronceverte, and connected with tnc 
Gwitchboard of the Mutual Company. In 1916 Mr. Shumate purchased the 
line and has operated it under the style of the Monterey and Staunton Tele- 
phone Co. Uader his ownership, the business of the line has more than 
doubled. A stoppage in the eletric cuiTent receives prompt attention, and 
uf.ually the line is Ln working oder within two hours, except when there is a 
1 oavy deposit of sleet. The state road between Staunton and Monterey is 
Lcinc rebuilt, and it is the policy of Mr. Shumate to make the route of his 
telephone conform to that of the pike. The long distance line betweem 
Monterey and Bartow is carried on as a mutual line. 

About the beginning of August of the present year, Mr. Shumate ioi- 
stalled a radio-receiving station, the cost being $300. This station has a ra- 
dius of 1500 miles, the cicle including all the large cities of the United 
otatcs on and east of Mississippi. It will be of very great imterest to know 
t^at the radio wave are most efficient in rural localties, because they do not 
have to contend with the static electricity in urban centers. 
<• * ♦ . ♦ * * * 

When no more than a youth, Mr. D. H. Petersen became a salesman of 



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106 

conveniences, including delco light, aind has this year been enlarged, so that 
store goods. After following this career more than twenty years, he went 
into the mercantile business. Later on he made Monterey his home and 
helped to organize the Highland Mercantile Company. Five years ago he 
cupied the three-story building at the northeast corner of Spruce and 
High streets. He was then associated with E.T.Hevener, who retired three 
years ago and though Mr. Peterson has since been without a partner, the 
style of the house is still D. H. Peterson aaid Company. The main room is 
' apacious and two other rooms of the tall building are used for storage pur- 
poses. The stock is diversified, and includes notions, groceries, dry goods, 
glassware, etc., but hardv/arc, farm':: piemen ts, and fertilizers are not han- 
. ed. 

Charles W. Trimble begam merchandiseing in Monterey in 1893, and 
ten years later he moved into present quarters at the northwest corner of 
High and Spuce steets. His main room is about 35 by 66 feet, and its ca- 
pacity is enlarged by a parallel side room. The capacious warerooms at the 
rear occupy two floors of the building. In almost thirty years Mr. Trimble 
has been a merchant of the county seat, and for more than twenty years he 
has carried on business in his individual name. This long record, when 
nsidered in connection with the frequeocy of failures in the business 
is indicative of good judgment and a prudant, conservative policy. The 
stock carried by Mr. Trimble is quite varied. It embraces inotions, dry 
goods, clothing, shoes, hardware, queensware, furniture and oil.- farm imple- 
ments, sash and doors, Deeds and fortilizeis, lime and ccment.and all the as- 
cessories in these general lines. 

August 15, 1920, Mrs. Jcmes Dore opened **The Little Fashion Shop," 
a branch of the Store she opened in Staunton several years eairlier. It re- 
quires a personal visit to ascertain the great variety of goods that are to be 
found here. Millinery is in the lead, but ready to wear goods are a strong 
specialty. There is also cloth in bolts, and buyers in search of rcmmr^nts may- 
find these in variety. Notions of nearly all kinds are in display, including 
solid silver ware. Trunks, traveling satchels,and other articles almost too 
numeous to mention are kept in stock. In her line of business, Mrs. Dore 
is the pioneer in Augusta County. She makes it a point to purchase goods 
01 the best quality only, and not to keep them too long on her shelves. 
There are clearance sales every fall and spring. Goods are bought of the 
main factories, and not the middle men, and are offered at prices that make 
the Little Fashion Shop a formidable competitor of the mail order houses. 
The appeal of the latter is enticing, and if its goods are not satisfactory they 
may be retuned. But — aoid it is a large but — when all the frieght or ex- 
press charges are considered, and the durability of the article put to the 
proof, there may be no saving after all. The better course is to see what one 
is buying. The fact that Monterey is not a city enables Mrs. Dore to un- 



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107 

dersell the merchant who has to conteoid with city expenses. The Little 
Fashion Shop deserves to be widely known throughout Highland and liber- 
ally patronized . It is, in truth, an asset to the County. 

When twenty-three years of age, and while traveling in Texas with a 
party engaged in setting up lightning rods, Howard M. Slaven was attacked 
by what was then knowm as acute reusitis. He was abruptly deprived of 
the use of his lower extremities. The famous Dr. Osier and other eminent 
physicians of Philadelphia could give him no releif, and he returned to 
Highland to do the best he could in the battle of life, with no other means 
than a roller chair irn getting about by his own exertions. Will power and 
perseverance havo enabled PIr. Slaven to make good. In May 1897, less 
than five years after his return from Texas, he was appointed postmaster 
of Montere. . and ho held the position almost exactly seventeen years. Dur- 
ing this period the business of thcofSice increased greatly. Mrs. Slaven 
was appointed to the position in the fall of 1921. In the state election of 
1919, Mr. Slaven became treasurer of Highland. From a small beginn- 
ing, soon after becoming postmaster, he dealt ijn clocks and watches as a 
side line. Mr. Slaven hns just moved into a mew office room in his house 
for the better display of his time pieces jewelry ornamental table ware 
and victrolas and also for rttondimg more conveniently to his work as coun- 
ty treasurer. The apartment is about twenty feet square, and is well ar- 
ranged. 

Robert H, Bradshaw entered Mossy Creek Academy in 1859, the princi- 
pal of the school being T. J. White. An asssistant was Jed Hotchkiss, af- 
terwards a major and angineer under Stonewall Jackson. Bradshaw left 
the academy in the spring of 1861 to enter the 31st Virginia Infantry, a 
unit in the Confederate Army of the Northwest. He began army life as a 
private, but rose to the rank of Captain. In the battle of Port Republic 
he was killed, being then in the twenty-fifth year of his age. Until then, 
Capt. Bradshaw had been in all the battles of his regiment, beginniing with 
Philippi, and had never been woumded. In one of his many letters home 
he is said to have foretold the general nature of Stonewall Jacksson,s Valley 
Campaign of 1862. 

The main portion of the Hotel Cunningham is an old but well preserved 
trick building, once the property of Dr. W. C. Jones. During the civil war 
he refugeed to the Valley of Virginia, and traded the property to Thomas 
II. Slaven, an item in the consideration being a slave. It was already be- 
lieved by the owner of the slave that a general emancipation would follow 
the war, and the actual value set on the house and lot was oinly nominal. 

Mrs. W. A. Cunningham opened this building as a hotel in 1919, and 
the house has ever since had a good patronage, which includes tourists and 
commercial travelers. The Hotel Cunningham is supplied with the modern 



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108 

there are now eleven guest rooms. There is excellent table service, and the 

house is deservedly popular. 

* * * * * * « 

In 1909, E. B. Whitelaw, D. H. Peterson, and Dcm Sullenberger formed 
a partnership in the mercantile business. Four years later, Messers. White- 
law and Peterson sold their interest to Lloyd Sullenberger, the house now 
becoming kmown as the Highland Mercantile Company. Its principal 
building has a very advantageous position on the south side of High Street, 
and a wareroom has recently been added to it. The stock carried by the 
firm is of a very comprehensive description. In the main store room is a di- 
versified liae of notions and other miscellaneous goods. Upstairs is ati ex- 
tensive assortment of dry goods, clothing, and shoes, readymade clothing 
being the leading specialty in this department. A large share of the busi- 
ness conducted by the Sulleuberger brothers is not of a conspicuous sort.. Al- 
though it counts up rapidly. The Highland Mercantile Company sells ferti- 
lizers and farm machinery by the carload. During the present season it 
it has handled ten carloads of cement. The two trucks, neatly painted in 
red, are kept busy delivering goods purchased and bringing in fresh sup- 
plies. The brothers are energetic, wideawake, and public spirited. 
« « « * m « » 

In 1900 Silas W. Crummett built the Hotel Montere3% the contractors 
being the Eutsler Brothers of Augusta, who brought their fimished lumber 
from a mill in the northeast of that county. In putting up a hotel of 
three stories and 32 rooms, Mr. Crummett made en appcr.1 to the tourist 
element, aaid in his hands it was quite successful. For some time it wa^ 
the only house of public cmtertainment in Monterey. After several changes 
in ownership o management, the hotel was purchased in the spring of the 
present year by Wm. H. Boggs of Franklin, W. Va. For several years it had 
not been living up to its early reputaticci, and its patonage had accordingly 
declined. Under the present control there is an earnest and aggressive effort 
to win back the good will of the traveling public. The house ha^ beon re- 
painted, without and within. The rooms have been refurnished, nev/. bath- 
rooms have been provided. The unnecessary picket fence in front has been 
removed, and between the two concrete passage ways connecting the long 
porch with the side-walk is a fountain. Before the close of the past sun^.- 
mer the rehabilitation was made complete. By a comprehensive system oT 
advertising, the attention of the public is drawn to what has been rcnnmcd 
"The New Monterey". It always takes a while to recover a prestige thct 
has been lost, but it may be aflarmed that in this case it will soon be re- 
gained and that the New Monterey will become well, and favorably known 
to tourist and the traveling public generally. There is certainly room for 
such a hotel in a town that has so many attractions to the tourist as the 
county seat of Highlcmd. The manager of the New Monterey, is Charles II. 
Boggs. 



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COBBECHONS 

In this book is an occasional printer's error. Excepting the ones noted 
below, the mistakes are so small they may be put right by the reader him- 
self. P. is the abbreviation for page. 

P. 4, lioie 23: "Ridge" not "Fork". 

P. 5, line 23: "middle" not "upper". 

P. 7, line 9: Supply "corn" at end of line. 

P. 16, line 28: This line belongs just below line 30. 

P. 19, line 5: Before "feature" supply "of the usual type has been fol- 
lowed, and mothing else in fact has been practicable". 

P. 19. line 19: "Forest not "forecast" 

P. 23, line 15: Supply "roads" after "valley". 
P. 23, line 2 (up) : Supply "era" after "turnpike." 

P. 49, line 6 (up) > "McGuffin" 

P. 49, line 3: "Leanna" not "Leamm". 

P. 51, line 5 (up) : "Sylvia" oiot "Sylia" 

P. 52: The proof sheets on "Campbell Family" were not returned to the 
author in time to be used. We do not hold ourselves responsible for such 
errors as may occur in this article. 

P. 53, line 5 (up) : Omit all after "Lynn M." 

P. 57: After line 10 supply "Notes to the History of Peeidleton." 

P. 62, line 10 (up): "Laban" not "Labam". 

P. 65, line 14: "Frieze" not "Frize". 

P. 66, line 5: Supply "Russell" at end of line. 

P. 66, line 11 (up): George Rymer was born 1754. 

P. 83, line 17: omit. 

P. 87, line 8: "Hammer" not "Hamme". 

P.92, line 20: "Vamer" not "Vanner". 

P. 95, line 12 (up): "Carpo, Samuel Herold" a copyist's error for "Cor- 
poral Samuel Herold". See line 3 (up) for the consideration of this line. 

P. 95, line 10 (up) : "Chew" mot "Shew" 

109 



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ALDERMAN LIBRABT 

The return of this book Is due on the date 
indicated below 



DUE 



1 




b&v ■ ^ iJSia 



'ffio I a iM&H 




DUE 



UsuaUy books are lent out for two weeks, but 
there are exceptions and the borrower shotild 
note carefully the date stamped above. Fines 
are charged for over -due books at the rate of 
five cents a day: for reserved book£ th^re arc 
special rates and regulations. Books muMt be 
presented at the desk if r«new»i t» 



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