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^ I 

1 •.■> : 

. .;\y 1 





'OF Jesus Christ in Africa 

AND in whose steps 






On my arrival at Nanzela in July, 1902, 1 found it necessary 
to commence at the very beginning in learning the language, for 
nothing had as yet been done to reduce it to a written form. 
I was fortunate in having some knowledge of the Suto language 
and in securing as my first assistant a young man who knew 
considerable Suto as well as Ua. With his help I began at once 
to compile a vocabulary and to make grammatical notes. After 
a time I found that this man used a dialect which was more like 
Tonga than real Ila; so I procured the assistance of another 
young man, who was a true Mwila, and who had lived for some 
time at the mission. He has continued to be my assistant since 
then^ and his help has been invaluable. The extensive knowledge 
he has displayed of his own language, and especially the copious- 
ness of his vocabulary, have been a constant source of wonder and 
pleasure to me. From the beginning I had the intention of 
compiling such a Handbook as this ; and I now submit the result 
of my labours to my fellow pioneers in North- Western Rhodesia, 
trusting that they may find it a help in learning the language. 

I do not pretend to have mastered every detail of the language ; 
but SLS it is certain that I shall have to make the same remark if 
I continue my studies for many years, I do not think that is 
a reason for delaying the publication of the book. Whatever has 
been omitted through' ignorance or inadvertence, the main outlines 
of the language will^ I believe, be found correctly delineated. 

And here I should like to utter a word of caution. If any one 
using this book finds that some expression he has caught from 
C a native is dififerent in sound or form from what he reads here, 
I would ask him not to hastily conclude that I am wrong. In 
\! different parts of the country different words are used, and the 
',' same words may occur in slightly different forms ; indeed one 
S:* man will at one time pronounce a word in a certain way aud ^X 







another differently. I shall be glad if readers will note down any 
variations they find, any new grammatical forms, and any new 
words, and communicate them to me, so that later it may be 
possible to compile a more complete work. 

It has been my aim throughout to produce a book that will be 
of practical use to those who desire to learn the language. 
Matter that would be of interest to philologists merely I have 
either entirely omitted or had printed in smaller type than the 
rest of the book. And I have paid special attention to preparing 
the exercises, which I should like to bring to the particular notice 
of readers. 

It was my intention to have added another chapter to the 
grammar dealing with the relation of Ila to other Bantu languages. 
For this I had prepared many notes tracing the resemblances to 
and variations from other languages, and had collected also short 
vocabularies of the Koya, Lamba, Luba and Sodi dialects, all as 
yet unwritten. But I have been compelled by lack of space to 
omit this. 

The sentence, and not a word, is the unit of language ; and one 
of the chief difficulties in systematizing a new language is to 
determine the method of dividing sentences into their component 
words. In this respect this book will be found to differ con- 
siderably from some other works on Bantu. In reading some 
books one is struck by the inordinate length of the words. 
Thus in the first Kaffir grammar published we find on one page 
a long list of words containing from eighteen to twenty-five 
letters each; e.g. Dayendtbendtngebendtbendu And in the 
latest Kaffir grammar we find such words as Obungenakuianda- 
huzeha. In Kongo, again, such as Bekutufwantalakeselanga. 
In Ganda, Natambulatambulakedomusana, The explanation 
of such words is that they are compounded of various pronouns, 
particles, verbs, &c. It would no doubt be possible to match 
these with equally lengthy words in Ila, but I cannot but think 
that they must prove a stumbling-block to learners. I have, there- 
made it a rule to write as far as possible the various 


pronouns, &c., by themselves ; though as a matter of convenience, 
and where it may be done without causing any perplexity, I have, 
in some instances, joined into one word several small particles. 
In this method I have followed the example set by Zulu and 
other grammarians. 

In issuing this Handbook I cherish the hope that it may lead 
many to study the language and not to use Kitchen Kaffir. 
For those who are not familiar with the term, I may explain that 
Kitchen Kaffir is a hotch-potch of many dialects, without gram- 
matical structure and very limited as to vocabulary. It is largely 
used by Europeans throughout South Africa, and it is a proof of 
the intelligence of the natives that they frequently understand 
what in reality is the most arrant nonsense. It is customary to 
laugh at the * pidgin' English spoken by natives; how much 
greater reason is there for ridicule when one hears an educated 
Englishman speaking a jargon at least as hideous as any corrup- 
tion of English ! I am sure that readers of this book will agree 
with me that nothing is of more consequence for the future of 
this country than that Europeans and natives should understand 
each other ; and for that reason I plead for a careful and diligent 
study of the native idiom. A knowledge of Ila is the chief 
means to an understanding of Baila customs and modes of 
thought. 'Every language is a temple in which the soul of 
those who speak it is enshrined.' I believe that without knowing 
the language it is impossible to properly understand any people 
— especially a savage people like the Baila. 

Ila is by no means a difficult language to learn, and I should 
think that any one could gain a very considerable knowledge of 
it in six months. As regards methods of study, the well-known 
aphorism of Bacon is as applicable to Ila as to anything else — 
* Reading maketh a full man ; conference a ready man ; and 
writing an exact man.' To learn Ila one must embrace every 
opportimity of speaking it, not in a careless, slipshod fashion, but 
with constant and careful attention to pronunciation, accentuation, 
and grammar. One should aim at speaking as nearly as possible 


as the natives do. This makes the ready man. I would further 
recommend readers not to neglect reading and writing. Reading, 
as Bacon's words suggest, is invaluable as a means of enlarging 
one's vocabulary and becoming familiar with grammatical forms ; 
the diligent reader will be a full man. It is for this reason that 
I have included in the Handbook a number of Ila tales. These 
I have written down from natives' dictation ; and I trust they 
may be as useful to others as they have been to myself in under- 
standing the language. I would further advise readers to write 
— not only the exercises given in this book, but also new words, 
tales, riddles, proverbs, as they may have opportunity. They 
will, I am sure, find that any labour spent in this way will bear 
abundant fruit. 

In the preparation of this Handbook I have derived consider- 
able help from similar books published on other Bantu languages ; 
among these I would specially refer to Bishop Steere's book on 
Swahili, Dr. Grout's on Zulu, and Dr. Bentley's on Kongo. Nor 
must I forget to mention the work on Suto by my friend the 
Rev. E. Jacottet, a book which laid the foundation of all I have 
since learnt concerning Bantu languages. Father Torrend's Com- 
parative Grammar has been in my hands constantly of late years, 
and I have derived much help from it, especially as the language 
he takes as his standard, Tonga, is a very close cognate to Ila. 

I must express my gratitude to the Directors of the British 

South Africa Company and to the committee of the Primitive 

Methodist Missionary Society, who together have provided the 

funds for publishing the Handbook ; and, also to my colleague, 

the Rev. W. Chapman, who is the first European of those now 

living in the country who settled among the Baila, and who has 

an unrivalled knowledge of the people and their ways. He has 

read through most of my manuscript and favoured me with many 

suggestions and also additions to the vocabularies. 


NW. Rhodesia. 

Nov. 37, 1906. 






Sect. I. The Alphabet 5 

Sect. 2. Phonetic Changes ....... 9 

Sect. 3. Syllables and Accent 13 

Exercises on Chapter II 14 


Sect. I. Classification 16 

Sect. 2. Gender 26 

Sect 3. Case of Nouns 27 

Sect. 4. Locative Nouns . • 32 

Sect. 5. Copulative Particles 33 

Sect. 6. Formation of Nouns 35 

Sect. 7. Foreign Nouns 40 

Exercises on Chapter III 42 


Sect. I. Adjectives of Quality 56 

Sect. 2. Comparison of Adjectives 64 

Sect. 3. Adjectives of Quantity 66 

Sect. 4. Locative Adjectives 74 

Exercises on Chapter IV 7S 




Sect. I. The Personal Pronoun . . . . . .80 

Sect. 2. The Substantive Pronoun 86 

(a) The Simple Form 86 

(d) The Indicative Form ...... 88 

(c) The Indicative Form emphasized .... 90 

(cf) The Prepositional Form '91 

(e) The Conjunctive Form 92 

Sect. 3. The Possessive Pronoun 93 

Sect. 4. The Interrogative Pronoun 100 

Sect. 5. The Reflective Pronoun 103 

Sect. 6. The Demonstrative Pronoun 104 

Sect. 7. The Relative Pronoun 108 

Exercises ON Chapter V 11 1 

Ila Tales for Reading and Translation : 

The Hare eats Lion's Children 115 

The Tortoise and the Hare 116 

The Two Leopards 117 


Sect. I. Verbal Species 119 

1. The Relative Species 120 

2. The Causative Species 123 

3. The Reciprocal Species 127 

4. The Stative Species . . . . . . .128 

5. The Capable Species . . . . . .128 

6. The Intensive Species 129 

7. The Reversive Species 130 

8. The Repetitive Species 131 

9. The Persistent Repetitive Species . . . .131 
Compound Derivative Forms 132 

Sect. 2. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs . . . '135 

Sect. 3. Conjugation 136 

Sect. 4. Auxiliary Particles 139 

Exercises on Chapter VI 140 

I LA Tales for Reading and Translation : 

The Hyena and the Moon 142 

The Hare and the Moon 143 



The Leopard and the Cheetah 143 

The Hare and Momba 144 

The Hare and the Jackal 144 

The Hare and the Lion 145 


Sect I. Affirmative Conjugation 146 

Sect. 2. Negative Conjugation 164 

Exercises on Chapter VII 175 

ILA Tales for Reading and Translation : 

A Tale of a Fool 177 

The Elephant and the Wart Hog 178' 

The Woman who wanted a Husband 179 



Sect I. Irregular Verbs 181 

Sect. 2. The Verb * To Be ' 184 

Sect. 3. The Verb * To Have ' 184 

Sect. 4. Verbs used idiomatically 185 

Exercises on Chapter VIII 187 

iLA Tales for Reading and Translation : 

The Lion and the Hare 188 

A Tale of a Fool 189 


Sect. I. The Copula in the Present 190 

Sect. 2. The Copula in the Past 199 

Sect. 3. The Copula in the Future 204 

Sect. 4. The Copula in Indirect Clauses .... 206 

Exercises on Chapter IX 207 

iLA Tales for Reading and Translation : 

The Bird which swallowed People 208 

The Hippo, and the Rhino 209 

Why the Zebra has no Horns 209 



The Honeybird and the Bees . 210 

The Crab and the Jackal 210 

A Tale of Two Men 211 


Sect. I. The Adverb 213 

Sect. 2. The Preposition 220 

Sect. 3. The Conjunction 224 

Sect. 4. The Interjection 227 

Exercises on Chapter X 227 

ILA Tales for Reading and Translation : 

The Honeybird and the Bee 230 

The Jackal and the Dog . * 230 

The Hare and the Jackal 23 r 


Sect. I. The Syntax of Sentences 232 

1. The Simple Sentence 232 

2. Compound Sentences 238 

Sect. 2. Syntax of Particular Forms 242 

1. Syntax of the Noun 242 

2. Syntax of the Adjective 244 

3. Sjmtax of the Pronoun 244 

4. Syntax of the Verb 246 

Sect. 3. Analysis and Parsing 247 

Final Exercises 249 

iLA Tales for Reading and Translation : 

The Hare and the Lion 25 1 

The Elephant and the Hare 252 




I. Words inadvertently omitted and others acquired since 

Part III went to press 481 

II. Some Proverbs in addition to those in the Vocabularies • 487 

III. Table of Ila Concords tofacep,^Z% 




The Ila language is spoken by the Baila, or, as they are 
commonly called, the Mashukulumbwe, a people livmg in North- 
West Rhodesia on either side of the middle Kafue. The home 
of the true Baila is a tract of country about 250 miles long by 
50 wide. They number about 25,000. But the use of the 
language is by no means limited to that area. The neighbouring 
tribes — the Basala, the Bambala, the Balamba, the Baluba — all 
understand and speak it : to a less extent so do the Mankoya. 
On the south the language of the Batonga (or Batoka) is so 
closely allied to Ila that they can hardly be called different 
languages. The language of the Basubia is also very similar. 
It will therefore probably be found that Ila is the most widely 
understood, and therefore the most useful, language in North- 
West Rhodesia. 

The name Mashukulumbwe was given to the Baila by the 
Marotsi, whose custom it was at one time to make periodic raids 
into the country for slaves and cattie. The meaning of the 
word is doubtful, but in some way it probably refers to the chief 
physical characteristic of the Baila, their tall head-dresses. 
Another name heard in connexion with the tribe is * Bamala '. 
This strictly applies to the inhabitants of the Mala district, but 
inasmuch as that is the centre of the true Baila the name is 
sometimes applied to the whole tribe. It will be noticed that 
Mala corresponds to Ila as plural to singular ; but the derivation 
of the words is very obscure. 




Around Nanzela the majority of the people call themselves 
Balumbu, and others bearing the same name are found else- 
where. They differ somewhat from the true Baila in their 
customs : in not wearing the cone, and in not going naked. 
The nucleus of these people seems to have migrated from the 
south-west : slaves and refugees from other tribes have swelled 
their numbers. Whatever their original language, they now 
speak Ila, but with certain variations. The aim of this Hand- 
book is to record the true Ila language : any Lumbu variations 
will be found noted in the vocabulary. 

The Baila have always had the reputation of being a par- 
ticularly savage and turbulent people. Until the arrival of the 
pioneers of the Baila-Batonga Mission at the end of 1893, no 
European had settled in their country. There are stories still 
to be heard among the people of Europeans who had previously 
visited them and who were murdered or robbed : two well- 
known travellers, Holub and Selous, met with the latter fate and 
barely escaped from the former. 

Ila belongs to the great family of languages to which the 
name Bantu is given, and which covers almost the whole of 
Africa south of a line drawn obliquely across the continent from 
the Cameroons to the mouth of the Tana River. 

To these languages certain terms are applied by philologists. 
They are said to be Agglutinative languages. This point, which 
however is of very little practical importance, may be understood 
from the following quotation : — * In the agglutinative languages 
grammatical relations are shown by prefixing, suffixing, or in- 
fixing sounds and syllables which are no longer independent 
words, and yet are clearly distinguishable from the full-words 
they modify, and not inextricably blended with them as in in- 
flexion. If English, in addition to word-order and form-words, 
indicated grammatical relations only by such formations as 
im-just-ly, care-less-ness, it would be an agglutinative lan- 
guage.' ^ 

* Sweet, History of Language , p. 62. . 


They are also termed prefix pronominal languages, because 
the pronoims are formed from the prefixes of the nouns, not as 
in the case of many languages, from the suffixes. 

From a practical standpoint, the most important principle of 
these languages is that of the Alliterative or euphonic concord. 

Now, the term alliteration is a well-known one. Early English 
poetry, we are told, had alliteration as its rule in place of rhyme; 
and to-day ' Alliteration's artful aid * is often invoked for the sake 
of emphasis or as a mere play of the fancy. Compare Shake- 
speare's line : — 

* The praiseful princess pierced and pricked a pretty pleasing 

In Ila, as in all Bantu languages, alliteration, i. e. the continued 
repetition of one letter or syllable (sometimes changed slightly 
but always immediately recognizable), is not an accident of 
style, it is the very essence of the language. The whole structure 
of the language is based upon it. In the inflexional languages, 
the relation between the various words in a sentence is shown 
by suffixes. Thus in Greek: anthrop-os agath-os, a good 
man ; anthrop-oi agath-oi, good men. In Latin : porta bona, 
a good gate; port-ae bon-ae, good gates. In French: un 
homme bon, a good person ; des hommes bons, good people. 
In English : the tree's leaf; the trees' leaves. In Ila this 
grammatical relation is formed by means of prefixes, not suffixes : 
we have to look at the beginning of words, not the end. Thus : 
mu-ntu mu-botu, a good man: ba-ntu ba-botu, good people. 
The noun is the chief word in the s.entence : it is the master, 
so to speak, and every pronoun or adjective dependent upon 
it takes its prefix (or modification of it) as a livery or mark of 

This will be clear from the following examples :— 

Mu-ntu u-mwi mu-botu mw-ini-mw-ini wa ke za. 
LiL — Person one good truly he did come. 
One really good person came. 

B 2 


Ba-ntu ba-mwi ba-botu be-ni-be-ni ba ke za. 
Lit. — People others good truly they did come. 
Other really good people came. 

Aka letwa ma-samo a-mwi ma-lamfu me-ni-me-ni ; twa a zanda. 
Lit. — They were brought trees other long truly : we them like. 
Other really long trees were brought : we like them. 

Tw-ambotwa-kwe tu-mwi ntu-biabe twi-ni-twi-ni: twa tusula. 
Lit. — Sayings his some bad truly : we them hate. 

Some of his sayings are really bad : we hate them. 

Nohl che-chi ohi-ntu cha-ngu nohi nda leta. 
Lit. — It this thing mine which I bring. 

This is my thing which I have brought. 

Nshi she-Shi shi-ntu sha-ngu nshi nda leta. 
Lit. — They these things mine which I bring. 
These are my things which I have brought. 

This is the principle of the Euphonic or Alliterative Concord. 

NoT£. — Many variations exist in spelling the word Mashukulumbwe. 
The following may be mentioned : — Bashnkulompo (Livingstone) ; Mashu- 
kulambe (Holab and Amot) ; Mashukulumbwi (Selons) ; Basbikulombwe 
(Sir H. Johnston) ; Mashikulumbwe (Gibbons). The French spelling is 
Machikouloumbone. The spelling adopted above is that used in the 
Mission from the beginning, and the one adopted by the R. G. S. and the 
B.S.A. Co.*s Administration. It would be best to drop the use of this 
ponderous polysyllable in favour of ' Baila ', the true tribal name of the 

Note. — ^As some misunderstanding may occur with reference to the use 
of the terms Ila, Chila, Baila, Bwila, Mwila, it may be as well to explain 
their use here. The word Chila cannot be used adjectively so as to say : 
the Chila language, for it includes within itself the idea of the language. 
Ila is properly so used: say, the Ila language, the Ila people, the Ila 
country; or simply: Chila, Baila, Bwila. In speaking of the language it 
is permissible to speak simply of Ila. But only in use with Europeans : no 
native would understand 'Ila'; in speaking to natives be careful to say 
Chila. The use of Ila is thus similar to that of English in the following 
phrases : the English people, the English language, the English country. 


The principles guiding the Ila orthography are as follows: — 

1. To write phonetically, i.e. as the words are pronounced. 

2. To write the principal words of a sentence, nouns and 
verbs, without any addition of particles such as auxiliaries, 
pronouns, prepositions, &c. 

But it is not always practicable to carry out these principles 
to their fullest extent, as they are sometimes found in antagonism 
to each other. That is to say, it is sometimes convenient, in 
order to preserve the correct sound, to join words together 
which otherwise were best written separately. Thus the irregular 
verbs are written kwiba {^for ku iba), kwina i^for ku ina), &c. 
Again, to carry out the second principle we are sometimes bound 
to write grammatically instead of phonetically. Thus in the 
regular verbs we write ku amba {^pronounced kwamba), ku 
imba {^pronounced kwimba), &c. These need cause the student 
no trouble. 


The Ila alphabet consists of twenty-four letters, i, e. the 
English alphabet without the signs q and z. The sound of q is 
represented by kw : x is not required 

The Vowels. 
The vowels are a, e, i, o, u : but each has more than one 
value according to the stress laid upon it. 

a is pronounced as a in mat written & ku niat&, to daub. 

a long „ „ a „ fi:7ther „ a ku mat&, to daub, 

e „ « <? » th<?n „ 6 ku bdtdka, to judge, 

e long „ „ e „ th^re „ e menzhi, water. 

i „ „ t „ p^'ty „ i chintu, a thing. 


i long is pronounced as i in ravine written i ku dila, to cry. 



„ ^n 


5 bdngo, brains. 

o long „ 


„ b(7ne 


5 insoki, grass seed. 

o broad „ 


„ b^re 


6 ku b61a, to rot. 



u „ full 


a Mtintu, a person. 

u long „ 


00 „ ^oo\ 


u ku filla, to blow. 


There are two diphthongs in Ila : ai and oL Ai is pronounced 
as in the English affirmative aye : oi as in doj^. ' 

Examples : Bongai P ShongaiP OngaiP Ingoi. 

But often these vowels come together and are separately pro- 
nounced, with no diphthongal sound, although in rapid speech 
they may seem to have. In that case a diaresis is placed over 
the latter vowel. Thus : Chinshainshai, ingaXna, mai, ku- 

The Consonants. 

The consonants are as follows : — 
B pronounced as h in ^one. Ku bona, to see. 

B sometimes has a slightly explosive sound as in ku bala, 
to read. Cf. ku bala, to pass by. 
C occurs only in the compound Ch, 
D pronounced as d in ^ie. Ku dila, to cry. 

D is very closely related to 1: when followed by i it is 
often very difficult to know whether to write di or li. 
F pronounced as/in/ool Ku fUla, to blow. 

Ku guna, to nod. 
Ku humpa, to crowd. 
Kjovwa, help me. 
Kangashikoswe, a mouse. 
Ku lapa, to convey 
Mama ! Oh dear ! 
Nini, so-and-so. 
Ku pala, to scrape. 
(See note below,) 




g „ ^one 




h „ ^imp 




J »Joy 




k „ ^ngardo 




/ ,,/ap 




m „ mzmmz, 




n „ mne 




p ,,/arlour 




r „rest 


S pronounced as s in ^lad Ku sala, to choose. 

T „ „ / „ Aimonr Ku tuma, to send. 

V „ „ V „ very Ku vwima, to hunt. 

Z „ » Si f, 2^eal Ku zea, to consider. 

Note. — ^The sound of the English r is never heard in Ila, but is intro- 
duced here for use in spelling proper names transferred from other languages. 
In such cases the Baila would sound the r as 1 ; but often the r seems 
necessary in writing in order to preserve the int^rity of the names. For 
example : Kreste, Abrahama, would be pronounced as Keleste, Abelahama. 

Compound Consonants. 

CH. This varies between the sound of ch in church and the 
sound of fue in vt'rfue. Sometimes it comes very near to k to 
which it is phonetically closely allied. 

TCH represents ch preceded by the explosive t, as in Tchita, 
I don't know. 

SH is pronounced as in English^ shin, ShintUi things. 

ZH is pronounced as 2 in azure. Ku zhala, to bring forth. 

VH. By this we represent the peculiar sound in so many Ila 
words, e. g. ku vhumba ; ku vhwa. It is neither v nor h, nor 
is it an aspirated v. In fact it must be heard to be learnt. It 
and its nasalized form ngvh are the only difficult Ila sounds to 

NG. There are in Ila two distinct sounds of ng, corresponding 
to the sounds in English of finger (fing-ger) and singer (sing- 
er). In the former, the sound of g passes over to the following 
vowel, and so we get a diflferent sound from that in singer, in 
which there seems to be a slight hiatus between the ng and the 
next vowel. Both these sounds are in Ila. The former is repre- 
sented by ng, the latter by ng\ " 

Ng (finger). Ng (singer). 

Ingubi. Ing'ombe. 

IngiuLna. Ing'anda. 

Manga. Mang'a. 

Note. — The difference between ng and ng* will be noticed Ixi \.\i& 


Grammar and Vocabularies, but elsewhere there is no need to distinguish 
between them, as one soon becomes accustomed to the words in which they 

Combinations of Consonants. 

No two consonants come together except (a) in the case of 
the nasals m and n which may be prefixed to other consonants ; 
and (b) the semi-vowels which may be suffixed to other con- 

Nasalized consonants are rather troublesome to a European, 
but the difficulty of pronouncing them is more apparent than 
real. In the following list, if the English words be divided and 
pronounced as shown, they will give sounds very like the Ila. 

mb pronounced as mb in co-;»3ine thus : ko-mbila. 

nd „ „ nd „ la-»<Ang „ ta-ndila. 

naf „ „ mf ,^ co-fn/brt „ kn-mfosa. 

nj ,» „ ng „ lou-«^er „ i-njelo. 

nk „ „ nk „'\2L-nky „ i-nkuti. 

inp „ „ mp „ la-fv/oon „ la-mpisha. 

ns „ „ ns „ cou-«jel „ me-nso. 

nt „ „ nt „ hu-«^ng „ i-ntimba. 

nw „ „ nw ,, x-mmx^ „ ka-nwino. 

ny „ „ ny „ la-«yard „ i-nyemo. 

nz „ y^ ns „ clea-;tring ,, mushi-nzo. 

neh ,, „ nc „ co-//retto(c=ch)„ ku nchi-dila. 

nsh „ „ ns „ ^z-nsion „ ma-nsha. 

There is also ngvh, as in bongvhn, for which there is no 
English equivalent. 

The combination of consonants with the semi-vowels gives a 
long list which it is not necessary to record here. 

The Semi-Yowels. 

W and Y are semi-vowels. 

W is the sound of u followed by another vowel. 

u + a = wa;u + e = we;u + o = wo;u + i = wi. 
Y is the sound of i followed by another vowel, 
i + a = ya ; i + e = ye ; i + o = yo ; i + u = yu. 


W and Y are not used in those cases where the two vowels 
are separately pronounced. Often in such cases a very light 
w or y may be detected between the vowels, as in iya = ia ; 
iyi = ii ; iyamba = iamba; bowa = boa; sowa = soa. 


mwami mwangu (smuami uangu); intipa yangu 
( = intipa iangu). 


The principle of euphony, or the easy enunciation of sounds, 
plays a great part in Ua, and demands many changes in vowels 
and consonants when they come together. In some cases a 
toning down takes place by which harder sounds are made 
easier ; in other cases a strengthening of weaker sounds so that 
they may be brought out and better heard. All through the 
following changes this is the principle at work. 

Changes in Consonants. 

I. — When m is prefixed to words beginning with b which 
contain another nasal, the b is deleted. 


ku bamba Ba la m'amba (= mba- They arrange me. 


ku banda Ba la m'anda ( = mba- They name me. 


ku banzela Ba la m'anzela ( » mba- They take out (grain) 

nzela) for me. 

ku bambasikila Ba la m'ambasikila They level for me. 

( = mbambasikila) 

This is also seen when the classifier IM- is added to stems 
beginning with b. Thus: Lnbanza, a courtyard. Imanza 
(~ im-banza), courtyards. 

2. — When n is prefixed to words beginning with 1 which 
contain another nasal, the 1 is deleted. 



kulumba Ba la n'umba (=nlumba) They thank me. 

ku londela Ba la n'ondela (» nlondela) They receive for me. 

ku lanzha Ba la n'anzha (= nlanzha) They show me. 

ku lengela Ba la n'engela (== nlengela) They cut up for me. 

ku lambila Ba la n'ambila ( = nlambila) They worship me. 

This is also seen when the classifier IN- is prefixed to stems 
in 1. Thus : Inembo (= inlembo, from ku lemba, to engrave), 

3. — In cases other than the above 1 becomes d when n or m 
is prefixed. Thus : ku lemeka. Ba la ndemeka, they honour 

4. — ^When n or in is prefixed to words beginning with y, y 

changes into j. 


ku yaya Ba la njaya (= nyaya) They kill me. 

ku yalwila Ba la njalwila(= nyalwila) They open for me. 

ku yana Ba la njana (= nyana) They find me. 

5. — Before an initial w, n becomes ng. 

ku wisha Wa ngwisha (= nwisha) He throws me down. 

ku wezela Wa ngwezela ( = nwezela)He hunts for me. 

6. — Before i, 1 generally is sounded as d. (See note above, 
p. 6.) 

Ku bala, to carry on the back. Ku badika, to cause to carry. 
Ku sala, to choose. Ku sadisha, to choose carefully. 

7. — For the sake of euphony letters are often introduced into 
a word. These letters are generally termed epenthetic, but they 
really mean that a strong nasal is introduced to make the word 
sound more forcibly. 


From the adj. -inu. Cf. ing'ombe iujinu with muntu mwinu. 
From the root -anda. Cf. ing*anda with ianda. 
From the root -ombe. Cf. ing'ombe with mpmbe. 


So when n is prefixed to verbs beginning with a vowel. 

Ku idila, to imitate. Ba la njidila, they imitate me. 
Ku ita, to pass. Ba la njita, they pass me. 

Notice the insertion of g or j in these examples. 

Changes in Vowels. 

Many changes are caused by two vowels coming together. 
What takes place is either elision, assimilation, or contraction. 
Elision means that one of the vowels is dropped ; assimilation 
that one of the vowels is modified to become like the other ; 
contraction means that the two vowels unite to form one. 

I. — When two a's come together, elision may take place. 


Bik! anshi {/or Bika anshi) Put down. 
Waamb' ati {/or Wa amba ati) He said that. 
Kadi mo {/or Ka a di mo) He was there. 

This rule does not always apply, in deliberate speaking and 
writing at all events. Thus we may read : Ba la amba, they 
are speaking. When uttered rapidly the two vowels are slurred 
over and only one heard, da V amba, 

2. — When a and e come together, either assimilation or con- 
traction takes place, a + e = ee (7r e. 


Beembezhi (or bembezhi) shepherds \/or Baembezhi. 
TS'di le za I am coming \/or Ndi la eza. 

3. — When a and i come together contraction takes place. 

A + i = e. 


Kedi mo, It was there 'y/or Ka i di mo. 
Ke zize. Let it come \/or Na i zize. 

This takes place when the locative prefix or preposition, a, 
comes before nouns of class 3. e,g. Ezeulu, above; /or a 


Also in the case of verbs beginning with i, short and unstable. 
But not when the i is long and permanent. Compare the 
following : — 

Ba le njila, they enter ; for ba la injila. 

But Ba la ingiila, they answer. 
Ba le ta, they call ; for ba la ita. 

But Ba la ita, they pass. 

This also takes place in nouns of Class 8 and Class 9 pi., 
where the initial i is also short and unstable. Compare these 
with nouns of Class 3. 

Ba le te ng*ombe, they bring catde ; for ba leta ingombe. 
Ba ine nsana, they have not strength ; for ba ina insana. 

4. — When & and ti come together they are contracted into o. 


Miimoni no be o, let there be light ; for na u be o. 
Kg ya koko, go thou there ; for ka u ya. 

This takes place when the nominative personal pronouns 
ending in a come before the objective pronoun, cl. 2. sing. u. 
Thus :— 

Wo leta, he brought it ; for Wa u leta. 

5. — Short i is generally elided before another vowel, which 
then is pronounced long. 


Chamba, chest ; for chiamba. 
Chuna, stool ; for chiuna. 

Notice this in the genitive particles where shi + a becomes 
aha ; ohi + a = cha ; and in the demonstratives, shi-esho 
becomes shesho. But dia and bia are not altered because the 
i is long ; so in the demonstratives we have biebi not bebi, 

6. — When a comes before o assimilation or contraction takes 
place. A + o = 00 <?r o. 



Ba lo ompolola, or ba rompoloJia;y^r Ba la ompolola, they call 
Ba lo ona, or ba Tona ; for Ba la ona, they sleep. 

7. — When ti comes before o contraction takes place. 

U + o = o. 


Bongo; /or buongo, brain. 
Lozhi ; /or luozhi, bark-string. 
Mombe ; /or muombe, calf. 

Note. — Other changes besides the above might be noticed, bat it is 
impossible to note all those caused by rapid utterance. As is only natural 
where all words end and many begin with vowels, in rapid speaking the 
vowels are slurred over or omitted. Attention to the above rules and 
examples will soon enable the student to follow such changes. 


Every syllable in Ila ends in a voweL This is an important 
rule in learning the pronunciation of words. Thus : Muntu is 
to be divided and pronounced mu-ntu, nol mun-tu ; ba-mba, 
nof bam-ba ; la-nga, nol lan-ga. 

Instead of learning intricate rules for correctly placing the 
accent, it is far better for the student to learn by constant inter- 
course with natives the correct accentuation. Where mistakes 
are most likely to be made the accent will be found noted in the 

It will considerably help him if the student will read through 
the following exercises with an intelligent native, not to learn 
the meanings of the words so much as the pronunciation and 
accent. It would also be to his advantage to read through in 
the same way the Ha Readir^ Book^ No, i, which contains 
a number of Ila tales, lists of hard words, and other reading 
matter. These will do him more service than learning rules for 
pronunciation, for it cannot be too strictly urged upon the 
student that it is from the natives themselves that he must learn 
how to pronounce the language. 



Beading Exercise 1. 

A list of words to be carefully distinguished in sound. 

Ku bala, to read. 
Ku baia, to carry. 
Ku bala, to pass by. 
Ku cha^ to clear 

Ku cha, to get fish. 
Ku cheka, to set ajar. 
Ku cheka, to carve. 
Ku dia, to pay. 
Ku dya, to eat. 
Ku ela, to bear fruit. 
Ku ela, to fit. 
Ku fuma, to sail along. 
Ku fuma, to be early. 
Ku fumba, to burrow. 
Ku fumba, to extol 

Ku fua, to possess. 
Ku fwa, to die. 
Ku kamba, to clap. 
Ku kamba, to scratch. 
Ku komba, to pray. 
Ku komba, to eat 

food left over. 
Ku kumba, to brew. 
Ku lampa^ to be long. 
Ku lampa, to be 

Bongo, brains. 
B6ngo, he-goats. 
Ku sama, to cut up 


Ku sama, to dress. 

Chamba, chest. 

Chamba, an old hoe. 

Chanda, old house. 

ChUnda, curds. 

Chanda, forked stick. 

Changa, an animal. 

Chango, three-forked 

Chilu, site of ruin. 

Chilu, race of people. 

Chiwa, drought. 

Chiwa, outer appear- 

Chulu, ant-heap. 

Chulu, thousand. 

Ilundu, a mountain. 

Hondo, a drop. 

Imo, very tall person. 

Imo, razors. 

Impute, large fish- 

Impute, ground-nut. 

Imputi, binding on 

* spear. 

Inkanzo, dancing- 

Inkanzo, kind of meat. 

Insuki, a hair. 

Insoki, grass seed. 

Bwanda, curds. 

Bwanda, a wall. 

Ku shika, to paddle. 
Ku shika, to arrive. 
Lwiya, side. 
Lwlya, a horn. 
Lwala, mane. 
Lwala, nail, claw. 
Manga, kindness. 
Manga, twins. 
Mang'a, ruts. 
Masuki, many hairs. 
Masuke, buttermilk. 
Mwezhi, moon. 
Mwezhi, jawbone. 
Mwezhi, waterfall. 
Mwendo, hind-leg. 
Mwendo, a trader. 
Mwini, master. 
Mwini, handle of hoe. 
Mumi, living person. 
Mume, dew. 
Munto, name of a 

Muntu, a person. 
Inseke, a hen. 
Inseke, a grain. 
Kanda,small fork stick. 
KSnda, small house. 
Ku pela, to lick lips. 
Ku pela, to sweep. 
Ku soma, to eat new* 

Ku soma, to sheathe. 



Beading Exercise 2. 

Some Salutations. 
Person at home : Wa bonwa Thou art seen. Good day. 

Stranger : 

Nda bonwa 

I am seen. 


Ku mudi 

You are there. (Inquiry as 


Ku tudi 

We are there, to people at 



Mu la langa ? 

You are alive ? 


Tu la langa 

We are alive. 


kwadi ? 

Is your wife there ? 



She is there. 


Mwana u la 
nonka ? 

Does the child suck ? 


U la nonka 

It sucks. 



What is said? i.e. What 


Ku la inza 

It is simply quiet. 


Mu dya nzhi ? 

What do you eat ? 


Inzala budio, 

Famine only, my friend. 

Beading Exercise 3. 

Turn to the exercises on Chapters V and VI and read the Ila 
tales over with a native, ignoring for the present the translation. 




Every noun consists of a root and a prefix. The root carries 
only a general meaning, the precise signification of the word 
being given by the prefix. Thus the root -Ila gives the general 
idea of the Ila people and from it are formed various nouns, each 
with a definite meaning. 

Thus : — 

Mw-ila ( = Mu-ila), a person of the Ila tribe. 
Baila, the Ila people. 

Ch-ila (=5 Chi-ila), the language of the Ila people. 
Bw-ila (= Bu-ila), the country of the Ila people. 

Again, the root -anda gives the general idea of a dwelling- 
place ; by adding various prefixes we get the following words : — 

In-g*-anda, a house. 

I-anda, a large house. 

M-anda (= ma-anda), houses. 

Ch-anda (= chi-anda), a tumbledown house. 

E!-anda (= ka-anda), a small house. 

Tw-anda ( = tu-anda), small houses. 

Bw-anda ( = bu-anda), the wall of a house. 

These prefixes, thirteen in number, are called classifiers, 
because by their means all nouns are divided into classes. They 
are as follows : — i. MU-; 2. BA- ; 3. MI-; 4. I- ; 5. MA-; 
6. BU-; 7. KU-; 8. KA-; 9. TU-; 10. CHI-; 11. SHI-; 
12. IM- orIN-; 13. LU-. 

In forming number, the prefix of a noun undergoes change to 
indicate singular or plural, while the root remains unchanged. 


Some of the prefixes represent the singular and others the 
plural. Arranged in pairs they appear as follows : — 



I. MU- 

2. BA- 

I. MU- 

3- MI- 

4. !• 

5. MA- 

6. BU- 

5. MA- 

7. KU- 

5. MA- 

8. KA- 

9. TU- 

10. CHI- 

n. SHI- 

12. IM- IN- 

12. IM-IN- 

13- LU- 

12. IM- IN- 

From this it is seen that the fifth prefix MA- corresponds as 
plural to three singular prefixes ; that the first, MU-, corresponds 
to two plural prefixes ; and that the twelfth appears in both the 
singular and plural. 

Nouns, then, are classified according, not to meaning, but to 
their prefixes. As has already been explained, and as will be 
seen more fully presently, the whole structure of the language 
is built up by means of these prefixes and it is therefore most 
important to grasp them thoroughly at the start. 

We have thus nine classes of nouns. 

Note. — It is not intended that the many words given as illustrations in 
this chapter and elsewhere shoold all be committed to memory: many 
of them are not common words, and it is useless for the student to commit 
long lists of words to memory. The words given in the exercises, on the 
contrary, should be learnt. 

Class 1. 
This consists of nouns having in the singular the prefix MU- 
and in the plural BA-. When the root of the noun begins with 
a vowel MU- generally appears as MW-. 

Mu-ntu, a person. Ba-ntu, people. 

Mu-loxnbwana, a man. Ba-lombwana, men. 

Mu-kamtu, a woman. Ba-kaintu, women. 

Mw-iyi, a teacher. Ba-iyi, teachers. 


The nouns of this class are mostly personal. 

To it also belong the generic names of animals. Thus : — 

Mu-nyama, a wild beast. Ba-nyama, wild beasts, game. 
Mu-ssune, a bird. Ba-znne, birds. 

Mu-puka, an insect. Ba-puka, insects. 

Many names of animals belong to this class, mostly those 
which are large and powerful compared with others of the same 
kind. Thus : — 

Mu-nyati, buffalo. Ba-nyati, buffaloes. 

Mu-sefu, eland. Ba-sefa, eland. 

Mu-zovu, elephant. Ba-zovu, elephants. 

Mu-chende, a bull. Ba-ohende, bulls. 

Mu-bondo, the barbel. Ba-bondo, barbel. 

Many proper names are found in this class, though, of course, 
they have no plural. Such names, however, may take the 
prefix Ba- to denote a company of people of whom the person 
named is the leader or representative. Thus: — Ba-Miika- 
matame, Mukamatame and her people. 

Sub-claas la. 

There are many nouns which are shown by their pronouns 
and adjectives to belong to class i, but which have not the 
proper singular prefix MU-; these may be regarded as belong- 
ing to a sub-class. 

They include : — 

1. Many proper names. 

These are largely formed by means of certain prefixes : Shi 
or Sha, ' father of,' for masculine names ; Na, ' mother of,' for 
feminine. Thus : — 

Sha-matanga, the father of melons, or^ herds. 
Na-miyobo, mother of reeds. 

2. Words beginning with Shi, Sha, and She. These are : — 
Certain names of animals : — 


Shiluwe, a leopard. Plural: B»-8hilawe. 

Shempela, the rhinoceros. ,, Ba-shempela. 

Shimakoma, a kind of snake. „ Ba-shimakoma. 
Shaluzuke, a kind of fish. ,, Ba-shaluroke. 

Certain names of trees and bushes : — 

Shikameba, a bush with red fhiit. PL : Ba-shikameba. 

Certain personal nouns : — 

Shinkondo, enemy. Plural: Ba-shinkondo. 

Shiluse, a merciful man. „ Ba-shilnse. 

Shatambi, a dumb person. „ Ba-shatambi. 

3. Certain words expressing relationship: — 

Tata, my father. Plural : Ba-tata. 

Use, thy father. „ Ba-uso. 

Ushe, his father. „ Ba-uahe. 

Ushesu, our father. „ Ba-ushesu. 

Ushenu, your father. „ Ba-ushenu. 

Ushabo, their father. ,, Ba-ushabo. 

Uachisha, my uncle. „ Ba-chisha. 

4. Certain words which seem by their form to belong to other 
classes but which really belong to this. 

Words beginning Mi which seem to belong to class 2, pi. : — 

Mintengwe, a kind of bird. Plural : Ba-mintengwe. 
Mishika, a large hawk. ,, Ba-mishika. 

Words beginning with Ka which seem to belong to class 6 : — 

EAbwenga, a hyena. Plural: Ba-kabwenga {not 

Kafnmbwi, sable antelope. „ Ba-kafombwi. 

Eaknne, a certain snake. „ Ba-kakune. 

Words beginning with Cha or Chi which seem to belong to 
class 7 : — 

Chiwena, crocodile. Plural : Ba-ohiwena. 

Chibizit a zebra. ,, Ba-chibizL 

COiibawe, otter. „ Ba-ohibawe. 

c 2 


5. A few nouns seemingly of class i form their plural by 
prefixing BA- to the singular form of the noun without removing 
the prefix. 

Moze, a kind of bird. Plural: Barmoze. 
Mwaba, a jackal. „ Ba-mwaba* 

Nouns of this class have really U as their singular classifier, 
but with most nouns it is heard only when special emphasis is 
put on the word. Thus at the beginning of sentences one may 
hear, or see written, U-ohibizi, U-shiluwe. 

Note. — ^In the tables of prononns, &c., it is not necessary to give 
separate lines to this sub-class as the words contained in it are treated 
uniformly as those of class i. 

Class 2. 

This comprises nouns which in the singular have the prefix 

MU-, as in cl. i, and MI- in the plural. They are distinguished 

from those of cl. i by being impersonal. When the root of 

a word begins with a vowel the classifier generally appears 

as MW. 


Mu-kondo, a spoor. Plural: Mi-kondo. 

Mu-lusu, a stick. ,, Mi-lusu. 

Mu-laka, tongue. „ Mi-laka. 

Mu-chila, a tail. ,, Mi-ohila. 

Names of trees belong largely to this class. (See list in 
Eng.-Ila Vocab.) 
Examples of contracted words found in this class : — 

Mozo, heart. /or mu-ozo. Plural : Miozo. 
Moza, spirit. „ mu-oza. ,, Mioza. 

Munda, garden. „ mu-unda. „ Miunda. 

Mungo, spoon. „ mu-ungo. ,y Minngo. 

Class 3. 

This consists of nouns whose singular prefix is I- and the 
plural MA-; The singular prefix is a contraction for DI-, 


which appears in a few words, and which gives the form to 
many of the pronouns, &c., belonging to this class. 


I-dindi, a hole. Plural: ma-dindi. 

I-fafwe, a lung. ,, ma-fufwe. 

I-kanda, a soft skin. „ ma-kanda. 

I-kumbi, a cloud. ,, ma-kmnbi. 

Many nouns in this class are augmentatives. That is to say, 
the prefix I- gives them the notion of greats large, important. 
For example : — 

Lubu, a reed. Ibu, a large reed. 

Miikainta, a woman. Ikainto, a large woman. 

Ing<anda, a house. landa, a large house. 

Mulombwana, a man. Ilombwana, a big man. 

Examples of contracted words found in this class : — 

Dinso, eye for di-inso. Plural : menso for ma-inso. 
Dine, tooth ,, di-ino. „ mono „ ma-ino. 

Class 4. 

The singular prefix of this class is BU-, which before roots 
beginning with a vowel appears as BW-; the plural prefix 
is MA-. 


Bu-ta, a bow. Plural \ Va-ta. 

Bu-tala, a grain-bin. „ Ma-tala. 

Bwato, a canoe. „ Mate (^for ma-ato). 

Many of the nouns of this class are abstract : — 

Bubotu, goodness. Bubiabe, badness. 

Bnlozhi, witchcraft. Buzhike, slavery. 

Busongo, wisdom. Busu, sorrow. 

Bufwi, jealousy. Bwami, authority. 


Names of countries belong to this class: — 

Bwila, the country of the Baila. 
Bukubu, „ ,, Marotsi. 

Butonga, „ „ Batonga. 

Many nouns in this class are of a collective character and 
have no plural. Thus : — 
lyi, an egg (cl. 3). Buyi, roe of a fish. 

Mwani, a mopani tree (cl. 2). Bwani, a mopani forest. 
Ibwe, a stone (cl. 3). Bubwe-bubwe, gravel. 

Muzune, a bird (cl. i). BuEune, a number of tiny birds 

regarded as one thing. 

Examples of contracted words found in this class : — 

Meya, thorns, /or ma-iya. 
Bongo, brain. „ bu-ongo. 
Boa, mushroom. „ bu-owa. 
Boza, wool, hair. „ bu-oza. 
Bofa, blindness. „ bu-ofu. 

Class 5. 

This class consists of : {a) three nouns which in the singular 

have KU-, and in the plural MA-; and {d) verbal nouns. 

These latter are simply verbs in the infinitive mood, Ku, the 

sign of the infinitive, being prefixed to the verb and becoming 

a classifier. These nouns are treated in every respect as the 

others, but have no plural. 


Ku-twi, an ear. Plural: Ma-twi. 

Ku-boko, forearm. „ Ma-boko. 

E!ulu, a leg {/or ku-ulu). „ Ma-ulu. 

Knfona, love, loving. 

Kuzanda, wanting, will. 

Class 6. 

This consists of nouns which in the singular have the prefix 
KA- and in the plural TU-, which before roots beginning with 


a vowel appears as TW-. This is the diminutive class, though 
all nouns in it cannot be regarded as diminutives. To form 
a diminutive a word is taken from another class, stripped of its 
prefix and given the prefixes of this class. 

Moshimbi, a girl (cl. i). Kashimbi, a little PL : Tushimbi. 

Isamo, a tree (cl. 3). Kasamo, a stick. PL : Tusamo. 
Mulonga, a river (cl. 2). Kalonga, a brook. PL : Tulonga. 

The plural classifier TU- is often used to express a small 
quantity of something, especially something to eat or drink. 

TukukxL, a small quantity of beer. From Bukuku. 

Tnshima, a small quantity of bread. „ Inshima. 

Twine, a small quantity of salt. „ Mwino. 

Examples of contractions found in this class : — 

Kembe {or Keembe), an axe, /or Kaembe. 

E!ele {or Keele), a scab,/(7r Kaele. 

Class 7. 

This class consists of nouns which in the singular have the 
prefix CHI- and in the plural SHI-. 

Chi-ntu, a thing. Plural : Shi-ntu, things. 
Chi-bia, a pot. „ Shi-bia, pots. 

Chi-banga, an axe. „ Shi-banga, axes. 

Chi-ftia, a bone. „ Shi-fua, bones. 

A few nouns have BI- as an alternative prefix in the plural. 

Bi-dyo or shi-dyo, food. 
Bi-nta or shi-ntu, things. 
In many cases CHI- gives the idea of old^ broken^ worthless. 
For example : — 
Lukoma, a calabash dipper. Chikoma, a spoilt lukoma. 
Mnkaintu, a woman. Chikaintu, a bad woman. 

lamba, a hoe. Chamba, an old hoe. 


Names of languages belong to this class : — 
Chila, the language of the Baila. 
Chitonga, the language of the Batonga. 

It would be more correct, perhaps, to regard the Chi in such cases as 
indicating ' custom ' or ' manner*, e,g, U la amba Chitonga, he speaks after 
the manner of the Batonga. The prefix has this meaning in many nouns. 
Thus : Wa zaka chikua, he builds after the manner of a white man ; Wa 
mata chikaintu, he daubs after the manner of a woman. Allied to this, if 
not identical with it, is the prefix Cha which goes to form adverbs. U la 
chita chansana, he does with strength, forcibly ; U la chita chaluse, he does 
in a merciful manner, mercifully. 

Examples of contractions found in this class : — 
Chulu, an ant-heap, for chi-ulu. 
Chamba, chest, for chi-amba. 
Chela, iron, for chi-ela. 

Class 8. 

This comprises nouns which are identical in form in both 
numbers, i. e. both the singular and plural classifiers are IM- or 
IN-. The numbers are only distinguishable by the pronouns 
which follow, the singular personal pronoun being i or ya, the 
plural shi or sha. Thus : — 

Impongo i la ya, the goat is going. 
Impongo shi la ya^ the goats are going. 

The prefix IM- is found before roots beginning with h, /, and 
w, IN- before others. 

Sing, and Plur. In-komo, bag, bags. 
„ „ In-gubo, blanket, blankets. 

„ In-swi, fish, fishes. 
„ Im-poko, knife, knives. 
The initial i of this prefix is unstable and very liable to be lost. 
Thus :— 

Bika oheclu mu nkomo, put this in the bag. 

N.B. — Not mu inkomo. 
The i is always retained at the beginning of a sentence. 



Class 9. 
This class consists of nouns which in the singular have the 
prefix LU- and in the plural IM- or IN-. Before roots be- 
ginning with a vowel LU- appears as LW-. 

Lu-fumba, a hoof. Plural i Im-fumba, hoofs. 
Lu-tele, a net. „ In-tele, nets. 

Lw-imbo, a hymn. „ In-yimbo, hjmns. 

Examples of contractions found in this class : — 
lK>yo, quitch grass, yV lu-oyo. 
Lozhi, bark-string, for lu-ozhi. 

Sub-olass a. 

While the proper plural classifier corresponding to LU- is 
undoubtedly IN- there are many nouns which take MA- in the 
plural instead. These we regard as forming a sub-class. 

Lu-pidi, a hill. Plural', ma-pidi. 

Lu-ngwalo, a l&ter. „ ma-ngwalo. 

Iiu-bu, a reed. „ ma-bu. 

Examples of contractions found in this class : — 
Lwala, a finger-nail. Plural-, malay^^r ma-ala. 

Lwampa, unroofed house. „ mampay2?r ma-ampa. 

Table of the Noun Classes. 








MU- (MW-) 

MiL-ntu, a person 


Ba-ntn, people 



(TJ-) shiliLwe, leopard 


Ba-shiluwe, leopards 

MU- (MW-) 
I- (Di) 

Ma-nshi, a village 


Mi-nsbi, villages 

I-tende, foot 


Ma-tende, feet 

BU- (BW-) 

Bu-shiku, a day 


Ma-shiku, night 

KU- (KW-) 

Ku-twi, an ear 


Ma-twi, ears 


E[a-8himbi, a girl 

TU- (TW-) 

Tu-shimbi, girls 



Ohi-nta, a thing 


Shi-ntu, things 
Bi-ntu, things 



Im-pongo, a goat 

IM- IN- 

Im-pongo, goats 


LU- CLW-) 

Iin-tele, a net 

IM- IN- 

In-tele, nets 

9a LU-(LW-) 

IiiL-bu, a reed 


Ma-bu, reeds 


Defeotive Nouns. 

There are many nouns which have no singular form. For 
example : — 

Menzhi, water. Mabishi, sour milk. 

Mankanza, honeycomb. Maumba, butter. 

Madianshima, wedding feast. Makatalo, weariness, fatigue. 

Sect. 2. GENDER. 

There is no change in the noun to indicate distinction of sex. 
So important in European languages, gender plays no part 
whatever in the construction of Ila. To distinguish the sexes 
we must resort to the methods indicated below. 

1. Different words are used for the masculine, feminine and 
common genders. 



Masculine, Feminine, Common, 

Mulombwana, a man. Mnkainta, a woman. Muntu, a per- 
Mukombwe, a cock. Inseke, a hen. Inkuku,afowl. 

Muchende, a bull. Impwizhi, a cow. Ing'ombe, a 

head of cattle. 

2. A limited use is made of the adjectives -zhazhi and -tumbe, 
both indicating ' child-bearing '. 


Ingombe inzhazhi, a cow. 
Munyama muzhazhi, a female animal. 
Chibizi muzhazhi, a zebra mare. 
Impongo intumbe, a she-goat. 

3. In the case of children the words mulombwana, a man, 
and mushimbi, a girl, or mukaintu, a woman, are used to 
indicate the male and female sexes respectively. Thus : — 


Hwana mulombwana^ a male child. 

Hwana muahimbi, or mwana mukaintu, a female child. 

Sect. 3. CASE OF NOUNS. 

There are four cases in Ila, viz. Nominative, Accusative, 
Genitive, and Vocative. Except in the last, the noun undergoes 
no change in form, the case-relation being expressed by position 
in the sentence or by means of particles. 

The Nominatiye Case. 

This indicates that the noun is the subject of the action ex- 
pressed by the verb. The noun in the nominative always stands 
absolute, i. e. it is not the real subject of the verb, it must always 
be connected with the verb by means of a personal pronoun. 
This is one of the most important points in Ila grammar and 
must be firmly grasped at once. 


Muntu a la ya, the person is going. 
Lit. — Person he is going, 

Bantu ba la ya, the people are going. 
Lit. — People they are going, 

Kashimbi ka la ya, the little girl is going. 
Lit. — Little girl she is going, 

Tuslumbi tu la ya, the little girls are going. 
Lit. — Little girls they are going, 

Ixnpongo i la ya, the goat is going. 
Lit. — Goat it is going, 

Impongo shi la ya, the goats are going. 
Lit. — Goats they are going. 

The pronouns will be given subsequently; from the above 
examples it will be seen that they are either identical with, or 
slightly modified from, the classifiers. 

The noun in the nominative may be placed either before the 


verb or after it, but the connecting pronoun always retains its 
position before the verb. Thus : — 

Muntu u la ya, the person is going. 

or U la ya muntu, the man is going. 
Lit. — He IS going {the) person. 

The Accusatiye (or Objeotiye) Case. 

The noun in the accusative case does not change in form but 
may easily be distinguished from the nominative. It is never 
preceded or followed by a personal pronoun in the same way as 
the nominative. Sometimes to give emphasis to the thing spoken 
of, it is placed at the beginning of the sentence, and the pronoun 
in the nominative case is inserted between the accusative noun 
and its pronoun. Just as we say in English : The man, do you 
see him ? Thus : — 

Bantu ba la bona banyama, the people see game. 
Banyama twa ba bona, the game, we saw them. 
Lit. — Game we them saw. 

Prepositions govern the accusative case. They will be found 
in their proper place, but here we may draw attention to the 
three prepositions, Mu, Ku and A. These are identical in 
form and meaning with the locative prefixes given in the next 
section, but used as prepositions they are properly not joined to 
the noun. 

Mu indicates position within, motion out of, ox from, or into\ 
and answers to our prepositions in, into^ among, out-of, 

Ku indicates motion towards or from, position at; and 
answers to our prepositions to, from, at. 

A indicates position on, near, motion off', and answers to our 
prepositions along, upon,from''Off. 

Mu tends to become tun when it comes before nouns beginning 
with b, and u when it comes before nouns beginning with ni. 
Likewise Ku tends to become u or o before nouns beginning 


with k. Ma and ku may become mw and kw and be joined 
to nouns beginning with a vowel. A coalesces with the initial i 
of nouns of class 3 to form e. 


Mnkainta wa ka zhoka mu kudima, the woman returned 
from hoeing. 

Muloxnbwana udi shiti mu nfif anda, the man stays in the 

Bakaintu ba la bika maseka ku matwi, the women put 
rings in the ears. 

Bantu ba la diza ku lupidi, the people climb up the hill. 

Beenzu ba la kala ku munzhi, the travellers stay at the 

Bantu ba le enda a muma wa Iwenge, the people walk 
along the river bank. 

A mu kale a shuna, sit ye on the chairs. 

Genitiye Case. 

This case denotes certain relations between two nouns, 
such as : — 

1. Possession, e.g. in^ombe sha mwami, the chiefs cattle. 

2. Origin, e.g. masamo a inshi, trees of the earth, i.e. 
trees which spring from the earth. 

3. fitness, e.g. Cliindi oha kudya, a time for eating, //'/. 
of eating. 

The first noun always represents the thing possessed, having 
origin or fitness; the second, that possessing, originating, or 
giving fitness. 

The two nouns are connected by means of what are called 
genitive particles, as given in the table below. These have the 
same meaning as ^ in such phrases as : the law of the land, 
the Tvork of John. But often we should translate them hy for 
or to rather than of e.g. Imbuka ya kubala, lit. a book of 
reading, L e. a book for reading, or, to read. 



Table of Gtenitiye Particles. 













I- (DI.) 








GeH» Particle 













































IM- IN- 


Gen. Particle 

































On the formation of these particles, note the simple forms are generally 
formed from the classifiers by suffixing the preposition a ; thus bu + a « 
bwa, lu -h a « Iwa, ku + a » kwa. But when the a is added to a classifier 
ending in i, the i is dropped, thus shi + a -« sha. But the / of BI being 
long the particle is bia. In class 3, sing., the full form of the classifier 
DI- is used, giving dia not ia. Whenever the classifier begins with m, 
this letter is dropped, thus ya not mia, wa not mwa, a not ma. In the 
plurals of classes 7, 8, 9, the particle is sha. The full forms are simply the 
above with o prefixed. The copulative forms are effected by a conjunction 
of the copulative particles and the simple forms, e,g, ngn + wa ~ ngwa, 
n + ya « nja, ngu + a — nga, &c. 

The simple forms are in common use as in the following 
examples. The full forms are used when the noun possessed 
is understood and the particle stands first in the sentence. 
Thus :— 

Owa mwami ngu wezu, that of the chief is this. 

The copulative forms are used in such sentences as this : — 

That village is of my chief, or, my chief's, Munzhi wezo 
ngwa mwami wangu. 

Examples of the use of these particles. 

Class I. Muzhike wa mwami, the slave of the chief. 
Bazhike ba mwami, the chiefs slaves. 


Class 2. Muohila wa mtinyama, the tail of the wild beast. 
miohila ya banyama, the tails of the beasts. 

Class 4. Buta bwa shilnmamba, the warrior's bow. 
Mata a bashilumamba, the warriors' bows. 

Class 5. Kutwi kwa mwana, the child's ear. 
Matwi a mwana, the child's ears. 

Class 6. Kasonde ka mukaintu, the woman's needle. 
Tnsonde twa bakaintu, the women's needles. 

Class 7. Chibia cha muzhike, the slave's i)Ot. 
Shibia sha bazhike, the slaves' pots. 
Bintu bia mwami, the chiefs things. 

Class 8. Imbelele ya mwami, the chiefs sheep. 
Imbelele sha mwami, the chiefs sheep. 

Class 9. Lwimbo Iwa mwenzu, the traveller's song. 

Inyimbo sha beenzu, the songs of the travellers. 

Class 9 a. Luseba Iwa muntu, a person's body. 
Maseba a bantu, people's bodies. 

In the possessive of personal nouns and proper names there 
is a different formation. Instead of using the genitive particles 
the possessive pronoun is used in the following manner : — 

Mwanakwe Sezungo, son'of-him Sezungo, Sezungo's child. 
Mwinakwe Shaloba, wt/e-of-him Skaloba, Shaloba's wife. 
Namatwangakwe mnzhike, mistress-of-him slave^ the slave's 

In such words the pronoun kwe is an enclitic, i. e. it is so 
closely united with the noun as to seem part of it ; the accent is 
thrown forward, mwdna, mwandkwe ; mwina, mwindkwe. 

The Vocative Case. 

The vocative case is confined to a few nouns of class i a, 
expressing relationship. In addressing one's father, e,g, you do 
not say Tata^ but Ta; to your mother, not Bama^ but Ma; to 
your uncle, not Uachisha, but Achisha. 



Besides the classifiers already given there are three other pre- 
fixes found in nouns. They differ from the classifiers in that 
they are prefixed to the whole noun, not simply to the root. 
A locative noun is made up of three parts : locative prefix + 
classifier + root. 

These prefixes are as follows : — 

MU indicates position within^ inside, 
KU „ „ at. 

A „ „ around^ upon. 

They are, therefore, identical in form and meaning with the 
prepositions given in the last section ; but while as prepositions 
they are properly written separate from the nouns, as locative 
prefixes they must be treated like the classifiers and joined to 
the nouns. 

Mu and Ku when joined to nouns of cl. 3, sing., become 
Mw, Kw. A then coalesces with the i to form e. When 
joined to nouns of cl. 8 and cl. 9, pL, the initial vowel of the 
classifier is lost. 

Like other nouns, locative nouns in the nominative case are 
followed by pronouns, which in their case are identical in form. 
They also give form to adjectives, demonstratives, &c. 

Note. — This will be fuUy illustrated in the following chapters, but in 
view of its immediate importance it may be as well to give examples in 

The student would do well at this point to refer to and carefully study 
the parts of Chapter IX dealing with the connecting of nouns and pronouns 
with locatives. (Sect. 1,4; 2,4.) 


Mnng'anda mu la shia, the house is dark inside. 
Lit. — Inside-ihe-house inside is blacks 

Mono muohikilo mubiabe, it is dirty here in the kitchen. 
Lit. — In-here in-kifchen in-bad. 

THE h^OUN 33 

KunsM kwisamo nkubiitbe, it is dirty beneath the tree. 

Lit. — To-earih to-iree to-ts bad. 
Adi solWele amudiango, it is dirty around the door. 

Lit — Around'ts dirfy arcund-door, 
Sa mwadi menzhi mtmkomo P Is there water in the bag ? 

Lit. — Is it-is water in-bag. 

Pe, mwina menshi mimkomo. No, there is no water in 
the bag. 
Lit. — NOf in-is»noi water in-bag. 

Ano angu ngakando, my place here is big. 
Lit. — at'here at-mine at-big. 


In English we say : it is a tree \ they are trees^ using the two 
words it and they of all nouns in the singular and plural re- 
spectively. In Ua there are two ways of expressing such a 
thought We may simply say : Munto, it is a man ; Bantu, 
they are people. Or we may use certain particles as given in 
the following table : — 

Table of Cppulative Fartioles. 



Kgu muntu, it is a person. 

Kgu munzhi, it is a village. 

Kdi isamo, or nd' isamo, it is 

a tree. 
4. BU- M, mbu Mbuzane, or mbu buzane, it is 

Kku kutwi, it is an ear. 
Nku kashimbi, it is a little girl. 
Kchi chintu, it is a thing. 
Kimpongo, it is a goat. 
Kdumo, orndu lumo, it is arazor. 
Kdupidi, or ndu lupidi, it is 

a hill. 




I. MU- 


2. MU- 


3- I- 

Ndi, nd' 

5. KU- 


6. KA.- 


7. CHI- 


8. IM- IN- 

TS (nji) 

9. LU- 

lSt\ ndu 

9 a. LU- 

K; ndu 



I. BA- 

M; Mbo 

2. MI- 


3. MA- 


4. MA- 


5. MA- 


6. TU- 


7. SHI- 


8. IM- IN- 


9. IM- IN- 


9 a. MA- 





Mbantu, or Mbo bantu, they 

are people. 
Kji minzhi, they are villages. 
Kgu masamo, they are trees. 
Kgu mazane, they are meats. 
Kgu matwi, they are ears. 
Ktu tushimbi, they are little girls. 
Kshi shintu, they are things. 
Nsh'impongo, they are goats. 
Ksh'imo, they are razors. 
Kgu mapidi, they are hills. 

It will be noticed that these particles are merely the classifiers nasalized. 
In Classes 7 singly 7, 8, and 9//., the n is so slight as to be almost inaudible. 
In CI. 8 and 9//. the singular particle n is also used. 

The forms in brackets are used with pronouns, &c. Where 
two forms are given the second is used in emphasis. 

These particles may be used to connect two nouns, but in 
that case it must be carefully noted that the particle agrees in 
class with the second noun, not the first. 


Tushimbi mbo bateu, the little girls are thieves. 

Not ntu bateu. 
Isamo ngu mwani, the tree is a mopani. 

Not ndi mwani. 
Impongo ngu shembwe, the goat is a ram. 
• Not n shembwe. 

Note. — There are negative forms of these particles, which the student 
may conveniently learn at this stage. See Chap, ix, Sect, i, i. 

Note. — These particles are often a stumbling-block when writing down 
words from natives. You ask the word for a canoe and get the answer 
xnbwato : you write down the word thinking perhaps it belongs to Class 8. 
Afterwards yon find it means, it is a canoe. Even Dr. Livingstone was 


caught in this trap. In his MS. vocabulazy of Tonga, we read Ndoka, 
a tsetse ; ISfiBixxia, porridge ; for Inka, insima. 


Nouns are formed from other nouns, from verbs, adjectives, 
and adverbs. This is done by prefixing a classifier according 
to the idea to be expressed, and often, when formed from verbs, 
by changing the final vowel of the verb. The rules governing 
the use of the various classifiers are very obscure, and only a few 
general remarks can here be made at present. Further study 
may possibly bring to light many more rules than are given here. 

1. Many nouns are formed from simple verbs by prefixing 
the classifiers MTJ-, BA-, and changing the final vowel into i. 
These nouns indicate the doer of an action, and correspond to 
English words ending in -rr, such as : reader ^ writer ^ traveller. 


Ku bula, to advise, instruct. Mubudi, adviser, instructor. 
Ku iya, to teach. Mwiyi, a teacher. 

Ku fana, to love. MufUni, a lover. 

2. Many active nouns are formed, not from the simple but 
from the causative form of the verb, by prefixing MU-, B A-, and 
changing the final vowel into L These nouns are much more 
common than the above. 


Simple Verb. Causative Verb. Noun. 

Ku embela, to herd. Ku embezha. Mwembezhi, herds- 
Ku swaya, to visit. Ku swazha. Muswazhi, a visitor. 

Ku Bolola, to precede. Ku solozha. Musolozhi, prede- 
cessor, guide. 

3. Some nouns are formed from the stative species of the 
verb. They indicate that the person named is in a certain state 
or condition. The final suffix -uka becomes -ushi : Mu-, Ba-, 
are prefixed, and the final vowel changes into i. 

D 2 



"KvL futiika, to be saved. Muftitiishi, one saved. 
Ku fanguka, to be weaned Muftrngaslxi, a weaoed one. 

Sometimes another prefix is used instead of Mu-. Thus : — 
Ku zapaiika, to be torn. ObiBapanshi, something torn, rag. 

4. Many nouns are formed from verbs by prefixing the 
classifier Chi and changing the final vowel into o. These are 
formed from causative verb$ and indicate the instrument with 
which the action is performed. 


SimpU Verb. Causative. Noun. 

Ku yala, to close. Ku yasha. Chiyazho, something to close 

with, e. g. a door fastening. 
"KvL paila, to offer Ku paizlia. Chipaizho, an offering, 
to ancestors. 

Instead of Chi, the classifiers IM- or I- or KA- may be used. 
Observe the shades of meaning given by the different classifiers. 
As we have seen before, Chi often gives the idea of old, useless, 
worn out. 


From Ku pela, to sweep. Causative form, Ku pezha. 

Impezho, an ordinary broom or brush. 

Ipezho, a large „ „ 

Kapezho, a small „ „ 

Chipezho, a worn-out „ „ 

From Ku beza, to carve wood. Causative form, Ku bezha. 

Imbezho, a carving tool. 

Ibezho, a large carving tool. 

Kabezho, a small carving tool. 

Chibezho, a worn-out carving tool. 

5. Some nouns are formed from the relative species of the 
verb by prefixing Chi, and changing the final vowel into o : they 
indicate the place where the action is performed. 



Simple Verb, 

Relative form. 

Eu Imnbtila, to Ealtunbudila. 
pay a tax. 

Eu paila, to offer Ku paidila. 

to ancestors. 
Eu ika, to cook. 
Eu ona, to sleep. 

Ohilnmbudilo, place for 

paying tax ; ' Receipt 

of custom '. 
Chipaidilo, a place for 

Chikilo, a kitchen. 
Ghoneno, a bedroom. 

Eu8hingaliika,to Eushiugalu- 
go round. kwa. 

Eu onena. 

6. Some nouns are formed from the passive verb by prefixing 
a classifier without changing the final vowel. 

Verb. Passive Verb, Noun, 

Eu ftma, to love. . Eu fnnwa. Mufanwa, one who is 

Chiahingulukwa, some- 
thing gone round, as 
obstacle in path. 

Eu sama, to dress. Ku samwa. Chisamwa, clothing. 

7. Verbs in the infinitive mood become nouns by simply 
taking as a classifier the particle Eu, which otherwise is not pre- 
fixed to the verb. Nouns may in this way be formed from any 
verb, or any form of a verb, but care must be taken as to the 
shades of meaning imparted by various forms of the verb. 


From Eu katala, to tire. 

Eukatala, weariness. 
Eukatazha, troublesomeness. 
Eukatazhiwa, troubledness. 
From Eu bona, to see. 

Kubona, seeing, sight. Eubonwa, being seen. 

Kubonya, showing. Euboneka, visibleness. 

Elubonesha^ clear sight Eubonana, mutual seeing. 


8. Other nouns are formed from these, infinitive nouns by 
simply prefixing the genitive particle Sha (Class 7, pL\ 


Kudya, eating. Shakudya, food. 

"Km hozha, to pay wages. Shakuhozha, wages. 

9. Nouns of Class i a are formed from other nouns by pre- 
fixing Shi^ 


Shikufwa, a dead person from Kufwa, death. 

Shimano, a cunning person ,, Mano, cunning. 

ShilwengU; a notorious person „ Lwengu^ notoriety. 
Shimanga, a kind person „ Manga, kindness. 

Shinkole, a cruel person ,, Inkole, cruelty. 

10. Nouns of Class i a are also formed, by prefixing Na to 
other nouns. 


Kabukando, a chief wife from Bnkando, greatness.. 
Kakufunwa, a favourite wife ,, Knfiinwa, love. 
Nabwaniohe, a younger wife „ Bwaniohe, youthfulness. 

11. Nouns are formed from others by simply changing the 
prefix into Chi. These nouns indicate something broken^ bad, 
worn-out, useless. 


Miikaintu, a woman. Chikaintu, a bad woman. , 

Mubinda, a loin-cloth. Chibinda, a worn-out loin- 


12. Diminutive nouns are formed from others by changing 
their classifiers into KA-, TXJ-. 


Mwembezhi, shepherd, young Kembezhi, a boy. 

Midombwana, a man. Kalombwana, a boy. 


13. Other diminutive nouns are formed by prefixing Kanga. 
These belong to Class 6, and mostly are names of animals. 


Shikembezhi, a lad. Kangashikembezhi, a young lad. 

PL Tungabashikembezhi. 
MnzoYU, an elephant. Kangamazovu, a young elephant. 

PI. TiingabazoYU. 

14. Augmentative nouns are formed from other nouns by 
changing the prefixes into I-, MA-. 

Mulombwana, a man. Ilombwana, a big man. 

15. Abstract nouns are formed from other nouns by changing 
the singular classifier into BIT-. 


Muoneki, a king. Buoneki, kingly dominion, 

Mwami, a chief. Bwami,chieftainship,authority. 

Musu, a sorrowful person. Busu, sorrow^ distress. 

16. Proper nouns are formed from common nouns by pre- 
fixing Shi, Sha, Shi for masculine names ; Muka or Na for 
feminine names. Often no prefix is heard, but the word is 
changed into Class i a, and U is always understood, and is heard 
when the noun is emphasized. 


Shimunza, from Munza, daytime. 

Shibwizu, „ Bwizu, grass. 

Shimiata, , 

Mukamukombwe, , 
Mukachikwikwi, , 
Shantebe, , 

Shamanga, , , 

Mata, bows. 
Muluti, missionary. 
Mukombwe, a cock. 
Chikwikwi, locusts. 
Intebe, a bag made of barL 
Manga, kindness (or perhaps twins). 


Shamweshi, from Mweahl, moon. 
Kamiyobo, „ Miyobo, reeds. 

(XJ-)Cliikanda, „ Chikanda, a hide. 

X 7. Abstract nouns are formed from adjectives by prefixing Bu-. 

Bubongvhu, softness from -bongvhu, soft. 
Bubotn, goodness ,, -botu, good. 

Btuiumo, hardness „ "Eiuno, hard. 

These adjectives are themselves formed from the verbs j ku 
bomba, ku bota, ku zuma. 

18. Some adjectives are treated as nouns. 


Muzhazhi, a female person: the adj. -sliashi, with prefix of CI x. 
Inzhazhi, a female goat, &c. „ CI. 8. 

19. A few nouns are formed from adverbs. 

Shikalo, an ancient from Kale, long ago. 
Shakumbadi, secrets „ Kuxubadi, aside. 

20. Finally, examples may be given of compound nouns, 1. e. 
nouns formed of two or more words of different parts of speech. 

Chi-zhinga-bula, that-which-surrounds-the-bowel^ i. e. in- 
testinal fat. 
I'PB,'0'lsjihozha,I/e'lkal'-gtveS'-and'-ro/s (a name given to God). 
Mu-dima-ku-bushu, wkal-digs-on-lkeface, I e. small-pox. 


The introduction of civilization among the Baila has inevitably 
enlarged their ideas and rendered necessary many additions to 
their vocabulary. For many of the new ideas it has not been 
necessary to borrow words ; either {a) existing words have had 
an extended meaning given them, or {d) new words have been 
made according to the rules given in the previous section. 


But over and beyond these, there exist many foreign words 
ilatzed. Many words are borrowed from Tebele, others from 
English ; many more from Suto. Suto has had most influence 
in this way, because of the Kololo (Suto) speaking Marotsi, and 
also because the first settlers among the Baila were missionaries 
who spoke Suto. Many of the words from Suto are really 
sutoized Dutch words, and this explains the curious presence in 
Ua of many Dutch words. A study of neighboining dialects 
would probably show that from them also the Baila have bor- 
rowed. But notwithstanding all this, Ila remains a very pure 

In introducing foreign words they are brought as much as 
possible into an Ila form, by giving them classifiers, spelling 
them phonetically (where necessary), and making such changes 
as will render them easy of pronunciation to Baila. 

Foreign words are indicated as such in the Vocabulary. They 
include the following : — 

(N.B.—E.»* English; T.« Tebele; S.«Suto; D.- Dutch.) 

1. Administrative terms', Inkambe, a government station 
(E. camp); IntelongOy a prison (S. teranko; D. tronk); 
Ukapoteni, a captain ; Useijaiii, a sergeant ; Itikiti, a census 
receipt, labour ticket. 

2. Names of coins i Itiki, a threepenny bit {tickey); Icdkis- 
pense, a sixpence ; Impondo, a pound ; Ishilini, a shilling. 

3. Names of common articles of civilized use : Chikati, a watch, 
clock (T. isikati^ tin^); Ghlnotolo, a key (S. senotlolo] D. 
sleutit) ; Ibiikiti, a bucket 

4,, Names of articles of clothing: Ibulukwe, trousers (S. 
burukwe', D. broek) ; Ihempi, a shirt (S. hempi) D. hemd). 

5. Names of time and seasons : Imbelekelo, Saturday (T. 
if^egelo)] MushimbuLttko, Monday (T. Umsombulukoy i.e. 
the unfolding) ; Insunda, Sunday ; Chismasi, Christmas. 

6. ^Missionary words* i Inkeleke, a church (S. kereke; 
D. ker^); Lubapatizo, baptism; Imputeu, a catechumen 
class (S. phuteho) ; Ghikolo, a school. 


The following exercises have been designed with a view to enabling the 
student, after mastering them, to join words into sentences, and thus 
anticipate what he will learn afterwards. He may find them rather a tax 
npon his patience : but he will have the consolation of knowing that when 
he has mastered them he possesses the essence of the whole grammar, and 
should straightway be able to make himself understood by the people. 
Subsequent exercises will not be upon this scale. 

Exercise L 

Classify the nouns given in Chapter II, writing down the 
singular and plural of each. 

Exercise 2. 

Find from the Vocabulary the meaning of the following words 
of CI. I and i a, and write down and learn their plurals : — 

Muntu; midombwazia; makaizitu; mwana; muztme; 
mwembezhi; mwami; mazhike; mutwanga; miishimbi; 
kamwale; chiwena; shumbwa. 

Also the words for my father ^ thy father^ my mother^ thy 
mother^ &c. With all these nouns, and all others of CI. i and i a, 
use the following : 

Adjectives \ — Mubiabe, //. babiabe, bad ; mubotu, //. ba- 
botu, good, fine; bonse, all; banjibanji, many; omwi, one; 
bobili, two. 

Pronouns : — Wa, he, she, it ; ba, they ; wezu, this ; wezo, 
that ; ivedia, yonder ; baba, these ; babe, those ; badia, 
yonder ; wakwe, //. bakwe, his ; wesu, //. besu, our ; wenu, 
//. benu, your ; wabo, pi, babo, their. 

With adverbs, use udi for it is ; badi for they are. 

With nouns and pronoims, use ngu for it is; mbo for 
they are. 

Adverbs : — Inzho, now, then ; kabotu, well ; kwi P where ? 

Verds : — Ku bona, to see ; ku leta, to bring ; ku langa, to 
look for ; ku f una, to love ; ku chita, to do ; ku yaya, to kill. 


Kda bona, I see ; wa bona, thou seest, he sees ; twa bona, 
we see ; mwa bona, you see ; ba bona, they see. 

Translate into English : — 

Nda bona mulombwana mubotu. Muzbike mubiabe. Ba- 
shimbi ba langa ushabo. Sa mwa bona bakamwale ? Nda bona 
kamwale omwi. Ngu wedia chiwena. Balombwana babo ba 
yaya bashumbwa bobili. Twa bona batwanga bakwe bonse. Mbo 
babotu. Mwami wakwe wa yaya munyama. Bantu bonse ba 
langa banyama. Bama ba leta mwana wabo. Mukaintu wedia 
ngubauia. Beembezhi babotu badi kwi ? Mbobadia. Bashimbi 
ba chita kabotu. Sa mwa bona banyama banjibanji? Twa 
bona munyama omwi. Mwami wenu udi kwi ? Shumbwa wezo 
wa yaya bakaintu bobili. Nda bona bazune inzho. Ushesu 
wa bona chiwena omwi. Uso wa leta muzhike wakwe. Ngu 
wezo mushimbi mubotu. Ngu wako mwana wezo. 

Translate into Ila : — 

Those young-girls. All the shepherds. My father sees 
many game. Those children are good. I look-for my father. 
My children do well. Do you see my mother ? The two slaves 
are his. I see now. The chiefs are yonder. This is my child. 
Do you see the birds ? All the men look-for game. We saw 
two crocodiles. The men kill many lions. Your mother brings 
her child. Where are all the men ? I see one man. Those 
servants. This lion. Your children. Thy slave. Your two 
children. A bad girl. Bad servants. Good people. 

Exercise 8. 

Find from the Vocabulary the meaning of the following words 
of CI. 2, and learn their plurals : — 

Mnnzhi; mutwi; mosamo; mukondo; mudiango; 
mozo; muchelo; mudllo; mnnda; mwaka; mwani; 

With these nouns in the singular use the same adjectives, &c. 
as in Class i ; in the plural use these : — 
Mibiabe, bad; mibota, good; yonse, all; minjiminji, 


many; yobili, two; ya, they; eshi^ these; eeho, those; 
yedia, those yonder; yangu, mine, my; yniko, thy; yakwe, 
his ; yesu, our ; yenu, your ; yabo, then*. 

With adverbs, use idi for /hey are : with nouns, &c., nji. 

Verbs :— Ku dima, to hoe ; ku zaila, to weed; ku ya, to go ; 
ku weza, to hunt ; ku biawa, to be ripe ; ku tema, to cut 
down ; ku tola, to take to ; ku londa, to fetch ; ku tobela, 
to follow (spoor). 

Ku, to; mu, in; nxhiP what? 

Translate into English .•— 

Mutwi wangu. Nji ezho miunda yenu. Ba ya ku dima mu 
miunda yabo. Sa mwa bona menzhi ? Nda leta musamo mu- 
botu. Ngu wezu mwani« Mozo wako mubiabe. Bakaintu ba 
ya ku zaila. Balombwana ba tema miani ezho. Munyama 
nzhi wezo ? Twa tobela mikondo ya munyama. Miaka yonse. 
Twa dima miaka minjiminji mu munda wezo. Bana ba londa 
michelo. Ba tola michelo ku ushabo. Twa bona minzhi 
minjiminji: nji mibiabe yonse. Ngu wezu tnunzhi mubotu: 
ngu wangu. Mudilo udi kwi ? Bana ba ya ku kunka mudilo. 
Twa bona shumbwa mu munzhi. 

Translate into Ila : — 

My two villages are bad. This is the door. The girls go to 
the gardens to weed. The men follow the spoor. They go to 
cut-down mopani-trees. Many years. The women go to light 
fires. Where is thy village? The children take fruit to their 
mothers. The fruit is ripe in the garden. This month. Next 
month. This is thy medicine. The men go to hunt. They 
kill many game. Two years. Their fields. What are you 
cutting-down ? 

Exercise 4. 

Find from the Vocabulary the meaning of the following and 
learn their plurals : — 

Isamo; itashi; itende; dinso; dino; ikumbi; iamba; 
ikani; ibwantu; isuba; isani; isumo. 


l^th diese nouns, and all others of CL 3, use the foUowing :-<-^ 

AdjecHves: — ^Ibisbe, //. msbiabe, bad; iboto, pi. ma- 
bota, good ; onse, all ; manjimanji, many ; diomwi, one ; 
obili, two. 

Pronaufu : — Dia, it ; a, they ; ledi, this ; ledio, that ; ledia, 
yonder ;. aaa, these ; aao, those ; adia, yonder ; dianga, //. 
anga, my ; diako, //. ako, thy, thine ; diakwe, pi akwe, his ; 
diesu,//. esu, our ; di9nu,//.e]iu,your; diabo,^/.abo, their. 

With adverbs use didi for it is ; adi for ihey are. 

With nouns, pronouns, adjectives : nd', H is ; JXgu, /^ are. 

Verbs : — Eu yasai to spear ; ku dya^ to eat ; ku nwa, to 
drink ; kn amba, to gpeaJc ; ku enda, to travel, walk ; ku 
Tbumba, to cover; ku ula, to buy; a tu, let us; ko, do 
thou (imperative) ; ka mii^ do ye. 

O, with^ and. 

Transktie into English : — 

Twa ya ku nwa ibwantu. Babo bantu ba amba makani 
manjimanji. Mwa ula kwi isani dienu ? Masumo ngu a balo- 
mbwana : mamba ngu a bakaintu. Makumbi a vhumba izuba. 
Nd' isamo nzhi ? Ngu mwani. Balombwana ba yasa banyama 
o masumo abo. A tu ende inzho. Ka mu leta masumo enu o 
mamba enu. Matashi obili. Itende diomwi. Meno abo onse. 
Menso enu obili. A tu ende ku masamo adla. Meno angu 
onse mabiabe. Masumo aza onse ngu angu. Isamo diako 
didi kwi? Ndi ledio. Mwa nwa nzhi? Twa nwa ibwantu. 
Mwa dya nzhi ? Ba amba nzhi ? 

Translate into Ila : — 

The cloud covers the moon. Where is your spear ? This is 
it The women go to drink beer. Thy tooth is bad. The 
men speak many tidings (makani). The girls' teeth are fine. 
The men spear the game with their spears. The women hoe 
their fields with their hoes. This tooth of mine is bad. Thy 
two feet. Bring ye all the trees. What does he say ? What 


do you buy ? Let us go now. What are you eating ? Those 
affairs are yours. Let us go to see the chiefs villages ; they 
are two. 

Exercise 6. 

Find from the Vocabulary the meanings of the following 
nouns of CI, 4, and learn their plurals, where they have, any : — 

Bwato; biita; buzane; buchi; busongo; bwami; 
biikoko; buloa ; bulungu ; biimi; bushiku; bulongo. 

With nouns of this class, in the singular use the following. 
In the plural use those of CI. 3, //. 

Bubiabe, bad ; bubotu, good ; bonse, all ; bunjibrmji, 
much ; bomwi, one ; bwa, it ; bobu, this ; bobo, that ; 
bodia, yonder ; bwangu, my, mine ; bwako, thy, thine ; 
bwakwe, his ; bwesu, our ; bwenu, your ; bwabo, their. 

With adverbs use budi for it is; with nouns, &c., xnbu, or xn. 

Ndi kwete, I have ; udi kwete, thou hast, he has ; tudi 
kwete, we have ; xnudi kwete, you have ; badi kwete, they 
have. Ku zaka, to build ; ku zasha, to build with. 

Translate into English : — 

Bwato bwako mbubotu. Ndi kwete buchi bunjibunji. Ba 
zasha bulongo. Ba ya ku ula bulungu. Bushiku bobu.. Bantu 
banjibanji ba funa ku nwa bukoko. Bumi bwako. Buta 
bwakwe budi kwi ? Mbu bobu. Ko leta buchi bwako bonse. 
Baami babo badi kwete bwami bunjibunji. Ka mu leta buzane 
bwangu. Mwa tola kwi bwato bwangu ? Mata angu adi kwi ? 
Bulungu bwenu mbu bobu, Mbu bodia buchi bubotu. Buloa 
bwakwe bonse. 

Translate into Ila : — 

This is thy canoe. The men build-with clay. The women 
go to buy beads. That man has much wisdom. All this day. 
Let us go at night. Thy life. Those people love to drink 
strong-beer ; we love light-beer. Bring much clay. This honey 
is bad. Our chiefs have authority in their villages. I have two 
canoes ; bring the big one. This is his bow. 


Ezeroise 6. 

Find from the Vocabulary the meaning of the following nouns 
of Class 5 and learn their plurals, if they have any : — 

Kutwi; kuboko; kulu; knfuna; knshis; kudya; 

{Remember thai any verb may be made into a noun by joining up 
the Ku.) 

Most of the nouns of this class have no plural : those that 
have use the same adjectives, &c., as CI. 3 ; in the singular use 
the following : — 

Kubiabe, bad; kubotu, good; komwi, one; kwa, it; 
koku, this; koko, that; kodia, yonder; kwangu, my; 
kwako, thy ; kwakwe, his ; kwesu, our ; kwenu, your ; 
kwabo, their. 

With adverbs use kudi for {'/ is ; with nouns, &c., nkn. 
Buti? how? chinichini, much, very much. 
Ku chisa, to pain; ku lampa, to be long; ku zosha, to 

Translate into English : — 

Bwami bwa mwami wezu bwa zosha. Kutwi kwangu kwa 
chisa. Nda bona kushia kwako. Kufuna kwakwe kwa zosha. 
Matwi akwe a lampa. Kudya kwakwe. Udi kwete kutwi 
komwi. Kuchita kwako kudi buti ? Nku kubotu. A tu ende 
chinichini. Kwenda kwako kwa zosha. Maulu akwe a lampa. 
Mutwi wangu wa chisa chinichini. Kuchisa kudi kwi ? Kudima 
kwako kudi buti ? A mu lete buchi bunjibunji. 

Translate into Ha : — 

I like your doings. My ear is painful. Your love is 
wonderful. Your eating. I see your blackness. You love 
your food very much. He has long arms. Your buying is 
good. His singing is bad. My leg is very painful. He has 
one ear. The ears of zebras are long. Their building. Your 
going. Your love. 


Bzeroise 7. 

Find from the Vocabulary the meaning of the following nouns 
of Class 6, and learn their plurals ^^ 

Easlumbi; kasamo; kambo; kasonde; kalambwe; 
kalobo; kalombwana; kasaka; kembe; k&nda. 

With these nouns use the following .*«*- 

Kabiabe, //. tubiabe, bad ; kabotu, //. tnbotu, good ; 
tonse, all ; tunjitunji, many ; komwi, one ; tobili, two. 

Ea, it; twa^ they; kaka, this; kako, that; kadia, yonder; 
totu, these ; toto, those ; todia, yonder ; kangu, //. twangu, 
my, mine ; kako, pi, twako, thy ; kakwe, pL twakwe, his ; 
kenu, pL twenu, our ; kesu, //. twesu, our ; kabo, //. twabo, 

With adverbs: kadi, it is; tudi, they are. With adjectives, &c.: 
nku, it is ; ntu, they are. To say /here ts none, use kwina, 
with all nouns. 

Ku sobana, to play ; ku beleka, to work ; ku sha, to dig ; 
ku loba, to fish with a hook ; ku lukanka, to run ; ku dila, 
to cry ; ku sempula, to carry. 

Translate into English : — 

Tushimbi twa sobana kabotu. Nku kako kambo kabiabe. 
Tnlombwana twa ya ku mulonga ku loba. Kembe kako kadi 
kwi? A mu lete tusamo tunjitunji. Balombwana ba sha 
kalambwe. Bakaintu ba ya ku kasaka ku chaba nkuni. Tu- 
shimbi twa zaka twanda tobili. Babo bantu ba amba twambo 
nzhi? Kasonde kaka nku kangu. Tusamo toto ntubiabe: a 
mu lete tubotu. A tu ende ku kasaka kadia. Kwina tulobo. 
Tushimbi twa dila chinichini. Tulombwana twa sempula 
nkuni. Bashimbi ba beleka. Nku kambo komwi. Badi kwete 
makani manjimanji. Kasonde kakwe kadi kwi? Twembe 
twenu ntubiabe. 

Translate into Ila ;— 

This is my axe. We go to the forest to gather firewood. 
The crying of the little girls. The forest is yonder. The boys 


go to the river to fish. The little girls play : they build little 
houses. The man digs a pit. Bring ye many sticks. Bad girls. 
This is your affair. There is no news. Two little giris. My 
fishhook. What are you digging? How do they play? What 
are you working at? What are you carrying? There is no 
firewood. There are no people. 


Find fi-om the Vocabulary the meaning of the following nouns 
of Class 7, and learn their plurals : 

Chintu; ohana; ohibia; ohifua; chimpata; chanda; 
chishi; chmiibwa; chikala; chidisho; cbianza, chi- 

With these nouns use the following : — 

Chibiabe, //. shibiabe, bad ; chibotu, pL shibotu, good ; 
shonse^ all; shinjishinji, many; ohomwi, one; shobili, two. 

Clia, it ; sha, they ; checlii, this ; checho, that ; chedia, 
yonder; sheshi, these; shesho, those; shedia, yonder; 
changu, //. shangu, mine; chako,//. shako, thy; ohakwe, 
pi, shakwe, his ; chesu, //. sheso, our ; chenu, pL shenu, 
your; chabo,//. shabo, their. 

With adverbs : chidi, it is ; shidi, they are. With nouns, &c. 
nchi, it is; nshi, they are. 

iEflfdi la bona, I am seeing; u la bona^ thou art, he is 
seeing ; tu la bona, we are seeing ; mu la bona, you are see- 
ing ; ba la bona, they are seeing. (NB. this form of the verb 
is also used as an immediate future tense : we shall see, &c.) 

TSlXjl kala, to sit, to remain : ku njila, to enter; ku njizha, 
to put in ; ku bumba, to form ; ku sata, to be sick. 

Translate into English : — 

Nshi sheshi shumbwa shangu. Ka mu njizha ing'ombe mu 
chimpiata. Nda sata chilonda; nda langa musamo mubotu. 
Bashimbi ba la dya chanda. Nchi checho chifua. Ka mu leta 
shibia shobili. Nshi shianza shesho. Kwina shuna shinjishinji. 




Leta shuna shako shonse. Chishi chechi chidi buti? Tu la 
langa chidisho : tu le njizha mu chibia chestu Balombwana ba 
la ya ku chikula chedia. Nchi chabo chibotiL Ka mu kala mu 
chimpata. Shidi kwi shintu shenu? Bakaintu ba la bumba 
shumbwa shesu. Nchi chedia chikula cha mwami wenu. 
Nchi chibiabe chishi chechi. 

Translate into Ila : — 

Where are all your things? There is no relish to put into 
our pot. The girls are eating curds. That man has many 
pots. Where are the stools? Bring ye two. We want to sit. 
Go ye and sit in the kraal. The girls are sick with ulcers. 
That woman is making bins. Those are your things yonder. 
This is a bad nation. We look-for relish to put into our pot. 
The cattle are entering the kraal. Their customs are all bad. 
My pots are all good. This is his stooL Dogs like to eat bones. 

Exercise 9. 

Find from the Vocabulary the meaning of the following nouns 
of Class 8, and learn their plurals : — 

Imbelele ; imbongolo ; imbuto ; impato ; impoko ; im- 
pwizhi; ing'ombe; ingubo; ing'anda; inkldi; inkuku; 
inshi; inswi. 

With these nouns (except where the plurals vary) use the 
following: imbiabe, bad; imbotu, good; shonse, all; shinji- 
shiiiji, many ; yomwi, one ; shobili/two; ya, it; sha, they; 
ezhi, this ; ezho, that ; yedia, yonder ; sheshi, these ; shesho, 
those ; shedia, yonder. 

Yangu,//. shangu, mine; yako, //. shako, thy; yakwe, 
pL shakwe, his ; jesxifpL shesu, our ; yenu,//. shenu, your; 
yabo,//. shabo, their. 

With adverbs use : idi, it is ; shidi, they are. With nouns : 
n, it is. With pronouns : nji, it is. With nouns and pronouns : 
nshi, they are. 


Nda ka bona, I did see, I saw ; wa ka bona, thou didst, 
he did see ; twa ka bona, we did see ; mwa ka bona, you 
did see ; ba ka bona, they did see. 

Eu mena, to grow (of plants, &c.) ; ku kula, to grow (of 
persons) ; ka vhula, to be much, many ; ku shanga, to sow ; 
Ndetela, bring me. 

Translate into English : — 

Nshi sheshi impongo shangu: nda zanda ku ula masani. 
Nda ka bona imbelele shobili. Inkuku shangu shinjishinji. 
Kwina imbongolo. Bakaintu ba la shanga imbuto shabo. 
Balombwana ba ka loba inswi. Ingubo shakwe sha vhula. 
Mwana wa ka kula chinichini. Impoko yangu nimbotu. Nji 
ezhi ng'anda yangu: a mu njile. Inkidi yako nji yedia; ni* 
mbotu chinichini. Impato shako nshi sheshi. Inshi ezhi idi buti ? 
Bantu babo ba ka bona inkuku shinjishinji. Sheshi inkuku nshi 

Translate into Ila : — 

Where are your two donkeys ? These are they. This is my 
good knife. The women are sowing the seed yonder in their 
gardens. These trees are growing well. Bring me your stamp- 
ing-block. There are many cows in the kraal. Those are his 
goats. How are you selling your sheep ? The boys are going 
to fish. The fish are many in the river. Bring me two cows. 

Exercise 10. 

Find from the Vocabulary the meaning of the following nouns 
of Classes 9 and 9 a, and learn their plurals, noting especially 
those which have ma and those which have in for the plural. 

Iiuba; lubalo; lubeta; lubanza; ludimi; Iwinibo; 
Inkoma; Inkwi; Inmo; lusako; luseba; lutambo. 

With the nouns which have in- for the plural, use the same 
adjectives, &c., as those given in Class 8 : with those which have 
ma- use the adjectives, &c., given for Class 3, pi. In the singular, 
use the following : — 

Lubiabe, bad; lubotu, good; lomwi^ one; Iwa^it; lolu, 

£ 2 


this ; lolo, that ; lodia, jonder ; Iwanga, my ; Iwako, thy ; 
Jlwakwe, his; Iwesu, our; Iwenu, your; Iwabo, their. 

With adverbs use ludi, it is ; with pronouns, ndu, it is ; 
with nouns n (changing initial 1 into d), or ndu, it is. 

KxL bika, to place; ku imba, to sing; ku laxupa, to be 
sharp ; ku anga, to tie ; ku angulula, to untie. 

Translate into English : — 

Ka mu ya ku leta ingozhi shinjishinji. Wezo muntu udi 
kwete indaka shobili. Bakaintu ba la imba kabotu inyimbo 
shabo. Ndu lodia lupidL Lutambo Iwangu ludi kwi? Imo 
shako shidi shobili. Leta lukoma Iwangu. Mwami wa bika 
imbeta shinjishinji, nshimbotushonse. Nshi sheshi imbalo. Lukwi 
Iwako ndu lolo. Lumo Iwangu Iwa lampa. A mu bike luba. 
Lubanza lolu ndukando. 

Translate into Ila : — 

Your razor is sharp. They sing good songs. The hill is 
ponder. The men are going to bring bark-string. This is his 
belt. He has two dippers. The hills are many. The chief 
puts a law. There are no wattles. His body is sick. All the 
bark-string is mine. Untie that string. Let us sing this song. 

Exercise 11. 

Learn the meaning of the following : — 

Mudiango; lutele; ehifaa; ku pona; ifofWe^; lubu; 
xnukalo; chifwezho. 

Translate into English : — 

Midiango ya minzhi. Intele sha balombwana. Ing'ombe ya 
mwami. Indiasho sha mulombwana. Mato a mwenzu. Buchi 
bwa nzuki. Mano a mwami. Inkuku sha bakaintu. Kuenda 
kwa mushimbi. Michelo ya masamo. Kutwala kwa muntu. 
Kudila kwa kashimbi. Shifua sha munyama. Kupona kwa 
muntu. Mafufwe a muntu. Chuna cha mukaintu. Mukalo 
wa munzhl Mabu a mwenzu. Kufwa kwa mwami Musamo 


wa mushidishL Chifwezho cha muzhike. Shintu sha mukaintu. 
Kuimba kwa Iwimbo. 
Translate into Ha : — 

The ox's head. The women's pots. The trees of the village. 
A woman's heart. The fruits of the trees of the gardens. The 
chiefs house. The man's marriage. The town's fountains. 
The men's sheep. The children's blankets. The sheep's bones. 
The doorway of the house. The trees of the forest. The 
men's cunning. The bees' honey. The man's nets. The 
love of the child. The traveller's boots. The woman's fowls. 
The heads of the game and their tails. The playing of the 
little-girls. The head of my father. The men's bows. The 
children's reeds. 

Insert the genitive particles in the following spaces : — 

Kudila . . . bana. Menzhi . mulonga. Intele . . . muntu. 
Mitwi . . banyama. Kufdna • . . mushimbi. Butanga . . . 
mwami. Bongo • . . muntu. Chuna . . . mukaintu. Lozhi 
. . . muntu. Masamo . kuzaka. Meno . muntu. Mabu . mu- 
longa. Ifufwe . . . mushimbi. Ikanda • . • munyama. Mukondo 
. . ng'ombe. Munda • . mwami, Dinso , . mushimbi. Inswi . , 
mulombwana. Isamo , • . kasaka. 

Exercise 12. 

Learn the meaning of the following : — 

Ku shia ; ku sweya ; ku pidingene ; ku tuba ; ku 
sofWala; ku tontola ; ku pia; ku nunka. 

Translate into English : — 

Mung'anda mu la tontola. Mono muchimpata mu la sweya. 
Ano a la shia. Koko kudi sofwele. Bantu mubadi modia. 
Kwadi muntu koko. Momo mwina muntu. Mono mu la 
nunka chikuno* Tola ngombe mu chimpata. Njizha shintu 
mu nkomo. Mung*anda mudi pidingene. Lubu kuludi ku- 
mulonga. Koko kushidi shintu shinjishinji. Mukasaka mwadi 
masamo manjimanji. Ing'ombe yangu idi kwi ? Mwidi muchi- 


Translate into Ila : — 

Here in the house is dirty. Put the meat in the box. They 
go along the bank of the river. We have come from hunting. 
Where are the people? They are at the village. The house is 
clean inside. The top of the house is white. The house Is 
cold inside. It stinks in here. Yonder there are many game. 
Where is my hat? It is in the box. Around here is in dis- 
order. There is no man there. 

Exercise 13. 

Translate into English : — 

Ngu mapidi. Nshing'ombe. Nji minzhi. Nd'isamo. Mbu^ 
zane. Nimbelele. Nku kuchita. Nku kutwi. Ngu matwi. 
Ngu mano. Nchi chintu. Mbo bakaintu. Ntu twambo. Nku 
kusobana. Ngu musamo. Nji michelo. Ngu mata. Nji 
mikondo. Nshintele, Ngu manda. Nd' ikumbe. Ndutele. Nchi 
chimpata. Ningubo. Nku kasonde. Nku koma. 

Translate into Ha : — 

It is an. eland. It is a crab. It is the feather of a cock. It 
is the bone of a sheep. They are men. It is the saying of the 
chief. It is the man's fault. Those things are mine. They 
are the chiefs nets. It is my house. It is the spoor of an 
elephant. This is the fruit of that tree. This is your doing. 

Exercise 14. 

Correct the /allowing where necessary, and assign reasons for 
so doing : — 

Nji menzhi ya mulonga. Ngu bantu ba munzhi. Nda langa 
kuboko wa munyama. Isamo ezhi ndi mwanL Tushimbi tu 
bateu. Ing'ombe ni mongo. Nji mano wa muntu. Nku kutwi 
kwa muntu. Nku kashimbi wa mwami. Ngu mitwi ya banyama. 
Kambo ka mwami. Mbulongo ba ku zaka. Nga mano a 
balombwana. Nshing'ombe ya mwami, Tushimbi ntu bana ba 


mwamL Mulombwana enda ku munzhi. U la fiina mukaintu 
balombwana. Bongo ba muntu. Shikisu sha mwana. Chibawe 
cha mulonga. Isamo ya kasaka. Chiwena chidi u menzhi. 
Menso a mukaintiL Kamwale ka la ya ku muDzhi. Shumbwa 
sha luma bantu. Shumbwa sheshi wa shi bumba mukaintu, 
Mung*anda u la shia. Lozhi Iwesu Iwa mana. Shiluwe shi la 
ya mashiku. Bama u la amba. Baushabo ba ndetela kudya. 
Kabwenga ka ke njila munganda. Udi kwi chibizi ? 



Adjecti\^es may be divided into two classes according as they 
express quality or quantity. The former include adjectives 
proper and such other constructions as take their place, while in 
the latter division are found the numerals, &c. 


a. Adjectives proper. 

Adjectives proper are like nouns in this : they consist of two 
parts, root and prefix. But they differ from nouns in that the 
prefixes are not stable, the root taking the prefix of whatever 
noun the adjective qualifies. This explains what is very per- 
plexing to a new student. He hears, e. g., the word good given 
as xnubotu, then again as ohibotu, bubotu, xnabota, &c. — in 
fact, he may hear thirteen or fourteen forms of that simple 
adjective. The explanation is simple : the root of the adjective 
is -botu, and the prefix is added according to the classifier of 
the noun. There being thirteen prefixes (fourteen with Bi), 
there must also be thirteen forms of each regular adjective. 

The following are adjectives proper : — 

-beta, good, beautiful, nice. -fumpiu, blunt. 

-biabe, bad, nasty, ugly. -kulukulu, old, very old. 

-bongv)iu, soft. -ini-ini, true, real. 

-zumo, hard, dry, difficult. -lamfa, long, tall, high, 

-teke, moist, wet. -fWafwi, short. 

-lemu, heavy. -shonto, small. 

-pia, new, young. -inu, fat. 



•koftt, lean, thm. -iki, cooked, 

-kando, large, big, great. -kadi, angry, sharp, 

-bishi, unripe, raw. -nji-nji, many, much. 

Besides the above, there are many adjectives proper directly 
derived from the stative and capable forms of the verb. 

-hundanshi, dirty, defiled (of water) from Ku hundauka. 

•komoshi, broken 
-pandnlushi, trained, educated 
-sampnshi, useless 
-sepweleshi, weak 
-tandubudishi, elastic 
-zandishi, precious 
-bendnshi, chipped 
-boneshi, visible 
-chengeshi, credulous 
-zapanshi, ragged 
-ebeshi, admirable 
-fonishi, lovable 
-ftingushi, weaned 
-dimbushi, foolish 
•fvirembeslii, unlovable 
-kasazhi, warm 
-knnkumiiBhi, faded 
-lamaushi, sticky 



















Ku komoka. 
Ku panduluka. 
Ku sampuka. 
Ku sepweleka. 
Ku tandubudika. 
Ku zandika. 
Ku benduka. 
Ku boneka. 
Ku chengeka. 
Ku zapauka. 
Ku ebeka. 
Ku funika. 
Ku fiinguka. 
Ku dimbuka. 
Ku fwembeka. 
Ku kasala. 
Ku kunkumuka. 
Ku lamauka. 

Note. — ^This fonnation of adjectives is the same as that of the notins of 
the third derivatioii (see Sect. 6, Chap. 3). Indeed these adjectives may 
stand alone as nouns, but nevertheless are trne adjectives when they qnalify 
noons. This, indeed, applies, more or less, to all proper adjectives. 


As adjectives, 
Manta mudimbashi, a foolish person. 
Chibia chikomoshi, a broken pot. 
Masani maEapaushi, ragged cloths. 
Manta mubiabe, a bad person. 
Bosane l^utemeki, dried meat. 

As nouns. 
MtLdimbushi, a fool. 
Chikomoshi, a broken thing. 
Mazapaushi, ragged things. 
Mubiabe, a bad person. 
Butemeki, biltong. 


Adjectives may be used in two ways : first, the adjective may 
be used as a descriptive word, as in the expression, ' a good 
man ' ; second, it may be used as affirming something with the 
aid of a verb. In the former case the adjective is termed an 
attribute, jn the latter a predicate. 

Adjectives proper used as attributes. 

The following examples will show the use of adjectives as 
attributes : — 

CI. I. MU- Muntu mubotu, a good person. 
Muntu xnubiabe, a bad person, 
BA- Bantu babotu, good people. 
Bantu babiabe, bad people. 
CI. 2. MU- Munzhi mushonto, a small village. 

Munzhi mupia, a new village. 
MI- Minzhi xnishonto, small villages. 
Minzhi mipia, new villages. 
CI. 3. I- Ivhu izumo, hard ground. 

Ivhu ibODgvhu, soft ground. 
MA- Masamo malamfu, tall trees. 
Masamo mafwafwi, short trees. 
CI. 4* BU- Bufu buzumo, dry meal. 
Bufu buteke, moist meal. 
MA- Meya manjimanji, many thorns. 
Meya makando, big thorns. 
CI. 5. KU- Kuftma kukando, great love. 
Kuftma kushonto, small love. 
MA- Matwi malamfu, long ears. 
Matwi mafWafwi, short ears. 
CI. 6. KA- Ejksani kazapaushi, a torn rag. 

Kabia kabendushi, a chipped cup. 
TU- Tuzane tukasazhi, a small quantity of warm meat. 
Tushimbi tukofa, thin little girls. 
CI. 7. CHI- Chibia chikomoshi, a broken pot. 

Chintu ohikulukulu, a very old thing. 


SHI- Shidyo shibishi, raw food. 

Shintu BhigandiBhl, precious things. 
BI- Bidyo biki, cooked food. 

Bidyo bikasashi, warm food. 
CI. 8. IM- Imbata inzumo, hard potatoes. 

Impongo imfunguslii, a weaned goat. 
IM- Impongo inkofa, lean cattle. 

Ing*ombe injinn, fat cattle. 
CI. 9. LU- Lutele lusepweleshi, a weak net. 

Lutele Insampushi, a useless net. 
IN- Ingcihi inteke, moist bark-string. 

Intele impia, new nets. 
CI. 9a. LU- Lubu liiBepweleshi, a weak reed. 

Lupidi Inkando, a big hill. 
MA- Mabu mafwafwi, short reeds. 

Hapidi mashonto, small hills. 

Note. — (a) The adjectives -Dji-nji and -ini-ini are reduplicated words 
and require that the noun prefixes be used twice, thus : Maila maxiji- 
manji, much grain ; makani menimeni, true affairs. The latter obeys 
the laws given for the coalescence of vowels : a + i a* e. In Class 8 pi. we 
find ing'ombe ahinjialiiiiji, not injiinji; also ixikani shinishini. In 
Class 3 sing, ikani inini, a true saying ; ivhu diBjidiaji, much earth. 

(p) In adjectives of Classes 8 and 9 the rule obtains that im- is prefixed 
to those whose initial letter is d,p or/; in- to others. 

(c) When the adjective -inu is used with nouns of Classes 8 and 9 the 
letter/ is inserted, thus : injinn, not ininu. 

Adjectives proper used as predicates. 

Used as predicates, the adjectives do not differ in form from 
those given above, except that, in all cases where the classifier 
does not begin with m, the copulative particles are used instead 
of the noun prefixes. There is also a secondary form in which 
the adjective is joined to the noun by means of the particle di 
suffixed to the personal pronouns. This form is used in relative 
clauses, and at other times to give emphasis. Htuitu udi 
mnbotu really means person who is good. 


The adjectives given above as formed from verbs obey these 
rules, or their corresponding verbal forms may be used. Thus : — 

Menzhi mahtindaiishi, dirty water. 
Menzhi a hnndanka, the water is dirty. 


CI. I. MU- Muntu mnbotu, or mtintu udi mubotu, the 

person is good. 
BA- Bantu mbabotu, or bantu badi babotu, the 
people are good. 
CI. 2. MU- Munzhi mupia, or munzhi udi mupia, the 

village is new. 
MI- Minzhi mipia, or minzhi idi mipia, the villages 
are new. 
CI 3. I- Isamo ndilamfa, the tree is tall. 

MA- Masamo malamfti, or masamo adi malamfu, 
the trees are tall. 
CI. 4. BU- Bufu mbuzumo, or bufu budi buzumo, the 

meal is dry. 
MA- Meya mazuxno, or meya adi mazumo, the 
thorns are dry. 
CI. 5. KU- Eutwi nkushonto, or kutwi kudi kushonto, 

the ear is small. 
MA- Matwi mashonto, or matwi adi mashonto, 
the ears are small. 
CI. 6. KA- !Ea8himbinkabiabe,(?rkashimbikadikabiabe, 

the girl is bad. 
TU- Tu8liimbiiitubiabe,(?rtushimbituditubiabe, 
the girls are bad. 
CI. 7. CHI- Chintu nchipia, or chintu cMdi chipia, the 

thing is new. 
SHI- Shintu nshipia, or shintu shidi shipia, the 

things are new. 
BI- Bintu mbinjibinji, or bintu bidi binjibinji, the 
things are many. 


CI. 8. IM- Impongo niojinu, the goat is fat. 

IM- Impongo nshinjinu, the goats are fat. 
CI. 9. LU- Iiutele ndolemti, the net is heavy. 

IN- Intele nshindemti, the nets are heavy. 
CI. 9a. LU- Iiupidi ndnlamfa, the hill is high. 

MA- Mapidi malamfa, or mapidi adi malamfu, the 
hills are high. 

b. Other Adjectival ConstructionB. 

Besides the adjectives proper, other expedients are resorted 
to for forming adjectival constructions, words being used as 
such which are not adjectives at all. 

Verbs used as adjectives. 
I. — Many of the adjectives proper have corresponding verbs 
which may be used in place of them as predicates. Thus : — 

Adjective, Verb, 

-lemu, heavy. Kn lema, to be heavy. 

-inu, fat. TSjol ina, to be fat. 

-biabe, bad. Eu bia, to be bad. 

-fwafBiri, short Eu fwimpa, to be short. 

-bongvhu, soft. ^ TSLvl bom^ba, to be soft. 

-zumo, hard. TSLvl zuma, to be hard. 

-botu, good. TSLvl beta, to be good. 

-lamfa, long. TSLvl lampa, to be long. 

When these verbs are used as predicates they follow the 

ordinary construction of verbs with nouns ; as attributes they 
follow the construction of relative classes. 


Lwa lema lubono lolu, this load is heavy = Iiubono lolu 

Shi zanda lubono lu lema, I don't like a heavy load = Shi 

zanda lubono lulemu. 
Muntu wezu wa bota, this man is good = Huntu wezu 



Nda langa muntu u bota, I want a good person = Kda 

langa muntu mubotu. 
Other verbs may be used in the same way. Thus : — 
Menzhi aza a la tontola, this water is cold 
Nda langa menzhi a tontola, I want cold water, i. e. which 

is cold. 
MenzM aza a la pia, this water is hot 
Nda langa menzhi a pia, I want hot water, i. e. which is hot 

2. — Another construction is to use the verb in the perfect 
tense with the relative pronoun. It is convenient in this case to 
join the relative pronoun to the verb, but the relative construc- 
tion must not be forgotten. And care must be taken to use the 
relative pronouns, not the classifiers, as with adjectives proper. 

When it is desired to use them as predicates, the full form of 

the perfect must be used, i. e. the relative pronoim has suffixed 

to it the particle di. 


Shisamo shandene, different, or divided, sticks. 

Shisamo shidi andene, the sticks are different, or divided. 

Chintu chibumbunkene, a round thing. 

Chintu chidi bumbunkene, the thing is round. 

Bantu badiebile, quiet people. 

Bantu badi diebile, the people are quiet. 

Mulomo ulakeme, an open mouth. 

Mulomo udi lakeme, the mouth is open. 

Muntu ululeme, a righteous person. 

Muntu udi luleme, the person is righteous. 

Chintu chipampamene, a flat thing. 

Chintu chidi pampamene, the thing is flat. 

Makani apotene, involved affairs. 

Makani adi potene, the affairs are involved. 

Butanga butwetene, a decreased herd. 

Butanga budi twetene, the herd is decreased. 

Nouns used as adjectives, 
I. — When a noun is to be used as a predicate it carries the 


copulative prefix ; when used as an attribute it is joined to the 
noun qualified by means of the genitive particle in its full form. 

Butezhi, slipperyness. 

Inghila ezhi mbatezhi, this road is slippery. 
Shi zanda Inzhila oya butezhi, I don't like a slippery road. 
Banvuka, beeswax. 

Musamo wezn mbtmvuka, this medicine is sticky, i. e. it 

is beeswax. 
Shi zanda musamo owa bunvuka, I don't like sticky 
Bntambo, voracity, rapacity. 

Shumbwa wezo mbutambo, that lion is ravenous. 
Shi zanda ku swanganya shumbwa owa butambo, I 
don't like meeting a ravening lion. 
Buzandi, preciousness. 

Chintu chechi mbuzandi, this thing is precious. 
Nda nla shintu osha buzandi, I buy precious things. 
Bwala, plenty, plenteousness. 

Mwaka wezu mbwala, this is a plenteous year. 
Tn la zanda miaka oya bwala, we like plenteous years. 
2. — Another way is by employing the nouns beginning with Shi-. 

Wezu muntu ngu shinsana, this person is strong. 

Lit. — IS a strong person, 
Wezu muntu ngu shimanga, this person is kind. 

Lit. — is a kind person. 
Wezu muntu ngu shimano, this person is cunning. 

Lit. — is a cunning person. 
As attributes these may follow the first noun without any 
connecting link ; or the prefix Shi is dropped and only the 
neuter noun used. Thus : — 

Kda fona muntu shinsana, or Nda funa muntu udi 
insana, I love a person who is strong, /;'/. who has 


3. — There are some nouns describing the colours of cattle 
which are used adjectively. 


Bubala^ white and black, with black spots. 

Ing*ombe ezM nja bubala, this beast is as above. 
Nja = n+ya, // is of. 
Ikosole, red or black with white stripes around body. 
Ing*ombe ezM nje kosole, this beast is as above. 
Nje = n+ya+i. 
Masekwe, black and white. 

Ing*ombe ezhi nja masekwe, this beast is as above. 
Ishudiangombe, yellow. 

Ing'ombe ezhi nje shudiangombe, this beast is yellow. 
Nje = n+ya+L 


In English the degrees of comparison are formed by simply 
adding -er and -est to the adjective, as in the expressions : He is 
taller than I ; He is the tallest of all. In Ila there is nothing 
corresponding to this. Properly speaking, there are no degrees 
of comparison in the language ; the idea can only be expressed 
by circumlocutions. 

I. — To express the comparative degree the verb ku bazha. 
to surpass^ may be used. 


Muntu wezu mukando ku bazha wedia, lit. — person this 
great to surpass yonder. This person is bigger than yon. 

Isamo ledi ndikando ku bazha ledio, lit. — tree this is great 
to surpass that. This tree is larger than that one. 

* Or the verb may be used in a different way. Thus : — 

Muntu wezu u la bazha wezo ku nsana, this person sur- 
passes that in strength, lit. by strength. 

Isamo ledi di la bazha ledio ku kumena, this tree surpasses 
that in growth, lit. — by growing. 


Intipa yanga i la basha yako ku kulampa, my knife sur- 
passes thine in sharpness, liL^hy being sharp. 

The same verb may be used to express the superlative degree. 


Kttnta weau mal>ota ku basha bonse, this person is good 
to surpass all, i. e. this person is the best of all ; 

er Muntu wezu a la basha bonse ku kubota, this person 
surpasses all in being good, i. e. is the best of alL 

Isamo ledi ndikando ku basha onse, this tree is big to sur- 
pass aU, i. e. this tree is the biggest of all ; 

or Isamo ledi i la basha onse ku kumena, this tree 
surpasses all in growing, i. e. is the biggest of all. 

2. — ^Another way of expressing the comparative is by using 
the copula di with the preposition ktL 


Muntu wezu mukando kudi wedia, this person is big to 

that, i. e. this person is bigger than you. 
Bantu baba mbashonto kudi badia, these persons are small 

to those, i. e. these people are smaller than you. 

The superlative may be formed in the same way. 


Xuntu wesu xnubotu kudi bonse, that person is good to all, 

i. e. that person is best of all. 
Impongo ezhi ninjinu kudi shonse, this goat is fat to all, 

i. e. this goat is fattest of all. 

3. — The adjective may be reduplicated to express a kind of 

indefinite superlative. 


Ifda langa masamo makando makando, I want big big 

trees, i. e. very big. 
Udi muntu mubotu mubotu, he is a very good person. 

4. — The adverbs, chinichini, very; chakubazha, sur- 
passingly y may also be used. 




Bulo bobo mbukando chinichini, that bed is very big. 
Bulo bobo mbukando ohakubazha, that bed is surpassingly 

5. We may here take notice of certain particles sufiSxed to 
adjectives which express a superlative or absolute idea. They 
do not seem to be used with all verbs. 

Ne. Menzhi a la tontola-n^, the water is very very cold. 

Bu. Mnntu u la tuba-bii, the person is very, or altogether, 


Nswa, Menzhi a ziuna-nswd, the water is altogether dried up. 

Nia. Cheohi cha zuma-nt&, this is very very hard. 

Pi. Menzhi a la pia-pi, the water is very very hot. 

Ptu, Ing'ombe ya subila-piii, the beast is very very red. 

6. These particles are also used interjectionally, the verbs 
being omitted, e.g. Nda ka ya kn menzhi. Nswa I I went 
to the water. Quite dry ! Ne pole ne ! Quiet, quite quiet ! 


a. The Cardinal Numerals. 

The Baila count on their fingers. The left hand is closed, the 
little finger is then raised by the forefinger of the right hand to 
indicate one. The next finger is two, the next three, and so on. 
Six is represented by placing the two thumbs together ; seve^ 
by raising the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, toget|ier 
with those of the left, and so on. Ten is shown by placing the 
two palms together. 

There are also names for the numbers up to and including 
ten ; also names for hundred and thousand. The numbers can 
be formed beyond a thousand. In schools children are taught 
to count in English. 

I. The numbers 1-5. 

These are proper adjectives, but do not take the simple dassi- 



fiers of the nouns like other adjectives. The particles used with 
them are as follows : — 

Table of particles prefixed to nnmerals. 






I. MU-BA- 
a. MU-MI- 

3. I-MA- 

4. BU-MA- 

5. KU-MA- 

6. KA-TU- 

7. CHI-SHI- 


8. IM-IM- 

9. LU-IN- 
9a. LU- MA- 














Note. — ^It is difficult to explain these particles. In other Bantu languages 
the numerals are treated jnst as other proper adjectives ; why this change 
thronghout from the vowel of the classifiers to o, we do not know. If the 
nmneral roots were -omwi, -obili, or -unwi, -abili, &a, the explanation 
would be simple, the assimilation of the two vowels would produce o. 
Thus — ba-obili <= bobili, &c. 

The following examples will show the use of these numerals i — 






Muntu omwi. 

Bantu bobili. 

Bantu botatwe. 


Munzhi omwi. 

Minzhi yobili. 

Minzhi yotatwe. 


Isamo diomwL 

Masamo obili. 

Masamo otatwe. 


Bushiku bomwi. 

Malo obili. 

Malo otatwe. 


Kutwi komwi. 

Matwi obili. 

Matwi otatwe. 


Kambo komwi. 

Twambo tobili. 

Twambo totatwe. 


Chintu chomwi. 

Shintu shobili. 

Shintu shotalwe. 


Ingubo yomwi. 

Ingubo shobili. 

Ingubo shotatwe. 


Lutele lomwi. 

Intele shobili. 

Intele shotatwe. 

9 a. 

Lupidi lomwi. 

Mapidi obili. 

Mapidi otatwe. 

Class Four. 


I. Bantu bond Bantu bosanwe. 

2. Minzhi yon€. Minzhi yosanwe. 

F 2 



5 Four. 



Masamo on^. 

Masamo otatwe. 


Malo on^. 

Malo osanwe. 


Matwi on^. 

Matwi osanwe. 


Twambo ton^. 

Twambo tosanwe. 


Shintu shon^. 

Shintu shosanwe. 


Ingubo shond. 

Ingubo shosanwe. 


Intele shon€. 

Intele shosanwe. 

9 a. 

Mapidi on^. 

Mapidi osanwe. 

The above table shows the use of the numerals as attributes. 
As predicates they are used as follows : — 

Muntu omwi or Muntu udi omwi, the person is one. 

Bantu bobili or Bantu bad! bobili, the people are two. 

Shintu shotatwe or SMntu shidi shotatwe^ the things 
are three. 

Impongo shone or Impongo shidi shone, the goats are 

Michelo yosanwe or KEichelo idi yosanwe, the fruits are 

The particle -nana is suffixed to omwi, diomwi, &c., to 

express only, merely. Thus : — 

Eadi muntu omwin&na, it was only one person. 
Eadi ng'ombe yomwindna, it was only one beast. 

2. 7%^ numbers 6-9. 

Six, Chisambomwi. Seven, Chiloba. 

Eight, Lusele. Nine, Ifoka. 

These are nouns and are connected with the nouns they 
qualify by means of the particle di suffixed to the pronouns. 


Bantu badi chisambomwi, the people are six ; or six people. 
Masamo adi chiloba, the trees are seven ; or seven trees. 
Baohiwena badi liuele, the crocodiles are eight ; or eight 



Mikalo idi iftikft, the water-holes are nine ; or nine water- 

Note : — ^In the Lambn dialect, six is kakole, seven is tukole tobili, 
eight is tukole totatwe, nine is tokole tone. 

3. Tens^ hundreds. 

Ten is Ikumi. 

Twenty is two ttnsy Malnimi obilL 
Thirty is three ienSy Makumi otatwe. 
Forty IS /our tens, Makumi one. 
Fifty is five lensy Maknmi osanwe. 
Sixty is six ienSy Makumi adi chisambomwi 
Seventy is seven tens, Makumi adi chiloba. 
Eighty is eight tens, Makumi adi lusele. 
Ninety is nine tens, '^^^nmA adi ifnka. 
One hundred is Mwanda. 
Two hundred is Mianda yobili. 
Three hundred is Mianda yotatwe. 
&c., &c. 

4. The joining of the units to the tens is rather complicated. 
If you are simply counting use the word intesha, a unit ; if you 
are counting anything use the constructions as below : — 

Eleven, Ikumi diomwi o mu ntesha yomwL 
Eleven people, Bantu badi ikumi o mu muntu 
Twelve, Ikumi diomwi o mu ntesha shobili. 
Twelve cattle, Ing'ombe shidi ikumi o mu ng'ombe 
Thirteen, Ikumi diomwi o mu ntesha shotatwe. 
Thirteen trees, Masamo adi ikumi o mu masamo 
Fourteen, Ikumi diomwi o mu ntesha shon^. 
Fourteen men, Balombwana badi ikumi omu balom- 
bwana bon^^ 


Twenty-one, Makumi obili o mu ntesha yomwi. 
Twenty-one sheep, Imbelele shidi ikumi o mu mbelele 
One hundred and one, Mwanda omwi o mu ntesha yomwi. 
One hundred and eleven, Mwanda omwi o mu ikumi 
diomwi o mu ntesha yomwi. 

One hundred and twenty-one, Mwanda omwi o mu ma- 
kumi obili o mu ntesha yomwi 
&c., &c. 

b. The Ordinal Numerals. 

These are formed by the cardinal numerals joined to the 
nouns by means of the genitive particles. An exception is in 
first, which is not formed by the numeral -mwi but by the noun 
lutanzhi, beginning. Or the regular adjective -tanzhi, first, 
may be used. 

First, lutanzhi Bushiku bwa lutanzhi, or bushiku 

butanzhi, the first day. 
Second -bidi Bushiku bwabidi, the second day. 

Third, -tatu Bushiku bwatatu, the third day. 

Fourth, -ne Bushiku bwan^, the fourth day. 

Fifth, -sanu Bushiku bwasanu, the fifth day. 

SixthjChisambomwi Bushiku bwa chisambomwi, the 

sixth day. 
Seventh, ohiloba Bu8hikubwachiloba,the seventh day. 

Eighth, lusele Bushiku bwa lusele, the eighth day. 

Ninth, ifiika Bushiku bwa ifUka, the ninth day. 

Tenth, ikumi Bushiku bwa ikumi, the tenth day. 

&c. &c. 

Note that the ordinals for second^ third, ^xA fifth differ slightly 
in form from the cardinals. Thus : -bidi^ not -bill ; -tatu, not 
-tatwe ; -sanu, not -sanwe. 

When the ordinal numeral stands first in a sentence o is pre- 
fixed to it Thus : — 

Owan6 ngu wezu, the fourth (person) is this. 



c. Numeral Adverbs. 

To express once, twice, three times, &c. the particle ko is pre- 
fixed to the numerals from one to five. Beyond ^37^, the cardinal 
numerals are used. Thus : — 

Once, komwi. 
Twice, kobilL 
Three times, kotatwe. 
Four times, kon^. 
Five times, kosanwe. 
Six times, chisambomwi. 
Seven times, chiloba. 
&c. &c. 

d. Indefinite Adjectives. 

I. The indefinite B.d}tctrvesone,some, other fanotherzre expressed 
by means of the root -mwi prefixed by the personal pronoun. 

In the same way is treated the root -nji, signifying : other, 
different; also the root -udieP which J^ found in the next 
chapter imder interrogative pronouns. 

Tadie of the Indefinite Adjectives -mwi, -nji. 





• • 



• • 

I. MU-BA- 





2. MU-MI- 





3. I- MA- 




4. BU-MA- 



■ axnwi 


5. KU-MA- 



6. KA-TU- 





7. CHI-SHI- 

8. IM-IM- 



1 shimwi 


9. LU-TN- 
9a. LU- MA- 

1 lumwi 




Those of the above indefinite adjectives beginning with a consonant have 
prefixed to them when they stand first in a sentence. Thus Oshimwi nshi 
aheahi, other (things) are these. 



Class 1. 

Mtintu tunwi wa fvira, umwi wa pona, one person is dead, 

another lives. 
Bantu bamwi ba shala, bam^id be enda, some people stay, 

others go. 
Wa yasa munyama weztt, ome nda yasa nnji, he speared 

this animal, I speared another, i. e. a different one. 
Baba bantu ba shika 'sunti, 8C»ia ku la shika banji, 

these people come to-day, to-morrow there will arrive others, 

i. e. different ones. 

Class 3. 

Isamo dixnwi ndilamfa, dimwi ndifwafwi, one tree is long, 

the other is short. 
Masamo amwi nji miani, amwl nji milombe, some trees 

are mopani, others milombe. 
Walo ngu a leta masamo asa, ome nda leta anji, he it is 

who brought these trees, I brought others. 

Class 7. 

Chintu chimwi nohishonto, chimwi nohikando, one thing 

is small, the other large. 
Shintu shimwi nshikando, shimwi nshishonto, some things 

are large, others are small. 
Shi zanda chintu cheohi, nda zanda chinji, I don't want 

this thing, I want a difTerent one. 
Shintu sheshi ta shidi shangu, shangu shinji, these things 

are not mine, mine are different. 

Class 8. 

Ing*ombe imwi ninjinu, imwi ninkofa, one beast is fat, 

another lean. 
Impwizhi shimwi sha subila, shimwi sha tuba, some 

cows are red, others white. 
Nshi sheshi impongo nshi nda zanda ku ula, shi zanda 



shinji, these are the goats which I wish to buy, I don't want 
others, i.e. different ones. 

Note the difference between mnwi, &c., and omwi, &c. 
The difference is slight in form, but great in meaning. 

Lupidi lomwi, one single hill. 

Lupidi Itunwi, one hill, a certain hill among others. 

2. The indefinite adjective aii is the root -onse, joined to the 
personal pronoun. The root -ongeana^ /hv, is treated in the 
same way. Also the root -ongai P haw many ? found in the 
next chapter. 

TahU of the Indefinite Adjectives -onse, -ongeana. 







I. MU-BA- 




(a + onse) 

(ba + onse) 

(ba + ongeana) 

a. MU- MI- 




(u + onse) 

(i + onse) 

(i + ongeana) 

3. I-MA- 


(di + onse) 

4. BU-MA- 




(bn + onse) 

(a + onse) 

(a -¥ ongeana) 

5. KU-MA- 




6. KA-TU- 




(ka + onse) 

(tu + onse) 

(tn + ongeana) 

7. CHI-SHI- 

(chi + onse) 


8. IM-IM- 


^ ahonae 


(yi + onse) 

(shi + onse) 

(shi + ongeana) 

9. LU- IN- ) 




(la + onse) 



(a + onse) 

(a + ongeana)' 


CI. I. Mtintu onse, the whole person. 
Bantu bonse, all the people. 
Bantu bongeana, a few people. 


CI. 2. Moiizlii oxLse, the whole village. 

Minzhi yonse, all the villages. 

Mikalo yongeana^ a few water-holes. 
CI. 6. Eambo konse, the whole matter. 

Twambo tense, all the affairs. 

Tushimbi tongeana, a few girls. 
CI. 8. Impwizhi yonse, the whole cow. 

Impwizhi shonse, all the cows. 

ImpwizM shongeana, a few cows. 

The adjective -onse has also forms for the first and second 
persons plural. Thus : — 

Tn la ya tense, we are all going. 
A mu zize nonse, come all of you. 

3. The indefinite adjective evety is the reduplicated form of 
-mwi, i.e. -mwi -mwi. 

Mnntu mnwi umwi, every person. 
Ing'ombe imwi imwi, every beast. 
Ikani dimwi dimwi, every affair. 

Note.— It is difficult to know whether such words as the above should 
be classified as adjectives or pronouns. Some vrriters call them the one, 
others the other. On the whole it is perhaps better to do as we have done. 
But it must be noticed that all the words given above may be used as pro- 
nouns. Thus : Bonse ba la ya, they are all going, where, of course, the word 
bantu is understood before bonse. But in that sentence bonse may be 
correctly regarded as a pronoun. So with the others. 

The three locative prefixes may also be used with adjectives. 

Mono mnng'anda mubiabe, Here in the house is bad. 
A mu pele muohimpata monse, Sweep ye all the yard, 
i. e. in all the yard. 

A mu bike bnlongo ezenln anganda onse, Put ye clay 
all on the top of the house. 



Ezeroise 1. 

Vocabulary: Adjectives proper in Sect. i. Nouns, &c., will 
be found in Vocabularies. 

Translate into English : — 

Banyama banjibanji. Kasamo kashonto. Minzhi mibotu. 
Miunda mikando. Bulo buzumo. Lozhi luteke. Inzuki 
shinjishinji. Musamo mukadi. Mukalo mulamfu. Koma 
kashonto. Imbelele inkofu. Tushimbi tubiabe. Ingubo 
impia. Lwimbo lubotu. Michelo mibishi. Buzane bwiki. 
Mulombwana mufwafwi. Inshima imongvhu. Inshi inteke. 
Chela chilemu. Intipa imfumpiu. Chisani chikulukulu. Ma- 
kani menimeni. Tata mubotu. Bwato bulamfu. Muntu 
mufiinishi. Mutiba mubendushi. Impongo imfiingushi. Ma- 
bala makunkumushi. Musamo mulamaushi. Mitiba misam- 
pushi. Shimamo mufwembishL 

Translate into Ha : — 

An unlovable rogue. Ragged loincloths. A short needle. 
Soft clay. A large bow. Beautiful flowers. Admirable chil- 
dren. Warm food. Raw meat. Bad water. A heavy tree. 
Many wild animals. A sharp knife. A hard bed. Dry reeds. 
Lean goats. Bad gardens. Foolish women. A small affair. 
A long string. A young child. Moist clay. A pretty little 
girl. Bad men. Good women. Sticky medicine. Precious 
grain. A big village. Fat sheep. Faded colours. Ragged 
clothing. A credulous man. A visible star. Elastic string. 
Explained affairs. Broken pots. 

Ezeroise 2. 

Vocabulary : Adjectives as before. 

Translate into English : — 

Lubono ndulemu. Bulongu mbubongvhu. Imbelele sheshi 
nshinjinu. Inzuki shidi shinjishinjL Impongo ezho ninkofu. 


Isamo ledio ndilamfu. Tushimbi tudi tubotu. Inyimbo nshim- 
botu. Mitwi yesu mizumo. Wezo muntu wa funika. Chibia 
changu cha benduka. Wezo mwana wa dimbuka. Mwami wabo 
wa chengeka ; wa vumina budio makani onse. Shikobelo shako 
sha zapauka. Chilendi checho nchilamfu. Chifua chechi chi- 
bongvhu. Wezo chihole wa sepweleka. Bachivhubwe babo 
mbo bakadi. Dino diangu ndilamfu. Mabwe azo adi buti? 
A zuma chinichini. Imbuto shakwe nshiteke^ 

Translate into Ila : — 

That fence is strong (zumo). This song is new. That belt 
is useless. These clothes are very old. This stamping-block 
is new. The mealies are dry. The meal is moist. The pit is 
deep. The goats are fat. His wisdom is great. The meat is 
bad. The houses are tall. The girls are good. The clay 
is wet The villages are big. This man is credulous ; he be* 
lieves all I say. This basket is small ; I don't want it. The 
lion is fierce. These basins are chipped; take them away. 
These are many fruits ; where did you find them ? That man is 
very foolish. He wears ragged clothes. 

Exercise 8. 

Vocabulary : Nouns, &c., used as adjectives in Sect. i. 

Translate into English : — 

Lozhi lolo Iwa fwimpa. Luba Iwesu Iwa zuma. Baba bantu 
ba la bomba inzho. Muntu wezo mbutambo ; wa beleka chini- 
chini shikwense. Moza wa muntu mbuzandi. Mwami wesu 
ngu shimanga ; owabo ngu shilutuzhi. Tu la letela mubeteshi 
makani aza apotene. Wezo mimtu wa usa ku bona butanga 
bwakwe butwetene. Ozona nda ka ula ngombe idi bubala. 
lamba ledi didi pampamene. Wa beza lusako lubumbunkene. 

Translate into Ila : — 

Bring me that round thing. This thing is short; I want 
a long one. In our village the people are quiet ; in his village 
they are fighting. This road is slippery ; many people fall here. 


That man is ravenous in eating (xov to eat). That man is wise ; 
he knows all our affairs. My herd has decreased very much. 
Years of plenty follow years of famine. This cow is yellow. 
Bring me cold water ; this is hot. That man is righteous ; he 
is not harsh. This business is divided. 

Exercise 4. 

Vocabulary : All adjectives in Sect. i. 

Insert the proper prefixes in the/oUawing spaces : — 

Mata . . kando. Inswi . . nji . . nji. Imbeta . . zumo. 
Ingombe , . inu. Dino . . lamfu. Mozo . . bongvhu. Tulam- 
bwe . • lamfu. Shintu . . pampamene. Muntu , . luleme. 
Bufu • . teke. Buzane . . iki. Tata . . botu. Chiwena 
. . kadi. Ing'anda . . zumo. 

Translate into English : — 

Sa mapopwe a zuma ? A zuma kabotu. Tu langa ku ula 
inyemo. Nda kapola isani ibotu. Ba ka leta minkodi. Imbata 
shi la bomba. Matuba a bola. Mapushi a subila. Nda langa 
matanga mabishi. U la ula buti miseza ? Nda langa bulungu 
bn tuba. Ba ka nwa bukoko bunjibunji. Nda zanda ibwantu 
ikadi. Shimwina mulombwana wezo a tu letele buchi. 

Translate into Ila ;— 

What do they bring to sell ? They brought potatoes yester- 
day; to-day they bring honey and cassava. Is the cassava 
cooked ? Is the honey new ? Are the potatoes soft ? What 
do you want ? The mealies are very dry. We found nuts in 
the field. Do you want red cloth ? These are the chiefs goats ; 
he wishes to buy white cloth. 

Exercise 6. 

Subject: Sect. 2. 

Translate into English : — 

Inzoka ezho ninlamfu ku bazha yedia. Chile chechi nchilemu 
ku bazha shimwi. Bulo bwangu mbukando ku bazha bwako. 


Chihunisho cbechi cha chea kudi checho. Menzhi aza a la 
pia-pi. Nda langa shisamo shilamfu-lamfu. Nda zanda ku kala 
kono ku bazha kodia. Muntu wezo udi luleme chakubazha. 
Twa ka ya ku mukalo ku nwa menzhi : twa yana a zuma-nswa. 
Mwana wezo u la bazha bonse ku kukula. 

Translate into Ha : — 

My goat is fatter than that. This reed is stronger than that 
This country is finer than mine. Your wife has more children 
than mine. Give me your knife ; it is sharper than his. I want 
very tall trees, for I am building a surpassingly high house. This 
load is lighter than that. This water is very very cold ; bring 
me some hot to add to it. Your cattle are all redder than mine. 
I prefer red cattle to all. 

Exercise 6. 

Subject : The numerals in Sect. 3. 

Translate into English:— 

Imbata shotatwe. Imbelele shi^i makumi one. Ingubo 
yomwi. Bantu badi chisambomwi. Masamo adi osanwe. 
Banako badi bongai ? Badi botatwe budio. Ndi kwete mwana 
omwinana. Bakaintu bosanwe. Bantu badi ifuka. Ndetela 
inyemo shidi chiloba. Kwa ka shika bantu badi makumi adi 
ifuka. Ndi kwete ng'ombe shidi ikumi o mu ng'ombe shosanwe. 
Mwami wezu ngu muvhubi : udi kwete impwizhi shidi mianda 
yobili. Kale kale wa ka fua ku bazha 'sunu: pele butanga 
bwakwe budi twetene. 

Translate into Ha : — 

My father has three goats; I have only one. Sixty-four 
children. Ninety zebras. Bring me six baskets of com. How 
many children have you ? I have only one child. In this fence 
there are 435 mopani poles. I want twenty-six carriers. There 
are nineteen loads, and I want eight boys to carry me in the 
hammock. When five days have passed we shall arrive at 
Nkala. That man has four wives. 


Exercise 7. 

Subject'. Ordinal numerals, numeral adverbs, indefinite adjec- 

Translate into English ;— ^ 

Wa ka chita bobo kongai ? Nda chita komwi. Bantu bamwi 
badi kwete masumo manjimanji; ome ndi kwete diomwinana. 
Mwanako mutanzhi ngudie ? Ka badi bantu bongeana. Nda 
ko ompolola banjibanji, anokuti kwa shika pele bongeana. 
Bufii bumwi mbuteke, bumwi mbuzumo. Ndetela inyemo 
shenu shonse. Lutele lumwi nduznmo : lumwi Iwa sepweleka. 
Mapidi amwi adi kono; amwi adi kodia. Kashimbi kamwi 
nkabiabe, kamwi nkabotu. Ndetela ibwe yomwinana. Makani 
ako onse adi potene. Usunu mbushiku bwatatu nambuti ? Shi 
zanda chechi : leta chinjL 

Translate into Ha : — 

I don't like this fowl ; bring me another. One of your cows 
has calved This is the sixth day. Do this four times. This 
is your first work. All the men came yesterday ; to-day there 
are but few. Some of these trees are short; go and bring 
others. I told him to ptdl out the rotten tooth, whereas he 
pulled out a different one. Where are all your children ? Only 
a few are here. All this journey we have travelled fast. I have 
visited that village four times. 



The pronouns in Ila are very numerous and most important. 
In English we have simply the pronouns, singular and plural, of 
the three persons, ist, 2nd, and 3rd, nominative and objective, 
masculiqe, feminine, and neuter. In Ila there is no gender 
classification, but in addition to die ist and 2nd persons there 
are pronouns in the 3rd person corresponding to each of the 
noun classes. Nobody can hope to speak the language correctly 
without thoroughly mastering all the different forms. 

There are seven different kinds of pronouns, viz. : — Personal, 
Substantive, Possessive, Interrogative, Reflective, Demonstrative, 
and Relative. 


We will first take the forms of the pronoun used in the first 
and second persons and in the third person. Class i. These 
are : — 










ndi, nda, n, I 
u, wa, thon 

n, m, me 
ku, thee 
ma, him 

tu, twa, we 
mu, mwa, yon 
ba, they 

tu, us 

mu, ma, you 

ba, them 

Note : — 

(a) Of the two forms given in the nominative, that ending in 
a is used in certain perfect and past tenses, and the aorist. The 
form n in the first pers. sing, is used with verbs in the subjunc- 
tive mood. 


{d) There is no difference in pronunciation between the 2nd 
and 3rd pers., nom. sing, u ; the distinction between them is 
given only in the context, or by the use of certain substantive 

(c) In the ace. of the 2nd pers. plur. there is a double form, 
mu and ma. These can be used interchangeably ; only when 
mu is likely to be confounded with the 3rd pers. sing. ace. it is 
better to use ma. 

(d) Occasionally one may hear the 2nd pers. plur., mu, you, 
used instead of u, /Aou, as in English, but generally u is 

The accusative of the ist pers. sing., n, m, is prefixed to 
the verb. 'When it is prefixed to certain verbs phonetic change 
takes place in the initial consonant or vowel of the verb accord- 
ing to the rules given in Chapter II. 

I. When prefixed to a verb beginning with a vowel the pro- 
noun is nasalized, i.e. n or m prefixed to a verb beginning with 
a, 0, or u becomes ng. 


Eu anzha, to salute. Ba la nganzha, they salute me. 

Ku abila, to divide among. Ba la ngabila, they distribute 

to me. 
Eu ambila, to speak to. Ba la ngambila, they speak to 

Ku ompolola, to call. Ba la ngompolola, they call me. 

Ku udila, to buy for. Ba la ngudila, they buy for me. 

N or m prefixed to a verb beginning with e or t becomes nj 
or ny. 

Ku ebela, to look at. Ba la njebela, they look at me. 

Eu enzha, to guide. Ba la nyenzha, they guide me. 

Ku ingula, to answer. Ba la nyingula, they answer 

Eu iyiVj to teach. Ba la njiya,, they teach me. 



2. Prefixed to verbs beginning with ze;, n or m becomes ng. 


Ku wisha, to throw down. Ba la ngwisha, they throw me 


3. When n or m is prefixed to verbs in /, 1 becomes d. 


Ku lemeka, to honour. Ba la ndemeka, they honour me. 
Ku Iwila, to fight for. Ba la ndwila, they fight for me. 

Ku letela, to bring for. Ba la ndetela, they bring for 


4. When n or m is prefixed to verbs whose initial is 3 or / 
and which contain another nasal, the 3 or / is deleted. 

See examples given in Chap, II ^ Sect, 2 (i, 2). 

5. When n or m is prefixed to verbs beginning with ^, 

y becomes j. 


Ku yaya, to kill. Ba la njaya, they kill me. 

Ku yovwa, to help. Ba la njovwa, they help me. 

6. Before verbs beginning with m or n the pronoun is simply 
dropped. To indicate this elision an apostrophe may be inserted, 
but there is no change in the spoken language. 


Ku manina, to serve. Ba la 'manina, they serve me. 

Ku nununa, to redeem. Ba la 'nununa, they redeem me. 

7. Before the other consonants m or n undergoes no change. 

B. — Ku bala, to pass by. Ba la mbala, they go past me. 
Ch. — Ku china, to throw down. Ba la nchina, they throw me 


D. — Ku didila, to weep for. Ba la ndidila, they weep for me. 

E. — Ku fusa, to throw. Ba la mfosa, they shoot me. 

K. — Ku kaka, to refuse. Ba la nkaka, they refuse me. 

S. r-Ku sempula, to carry. Ba la nsempula, they carry me. 



T. — Eu tambuia, to receive. Ba la ntambula, they receive me. 
V. — Ku vumina, to believe. Ba la nyumina, they believe me. 
Z. — Ku zanda, to like. Ba la nzanda, they like me. 

The verbs also take this form in the subjunctive mood, the 
final vowel changing into e. Thus : — 

Sa wa axnb'ati, ngange P Do you say I must tie ? 

Wa ntnina kumbele ati nyenzhe beenzu, he sent me 

ahead that I might guide the travellers. 
Nde ziza, ntambule shintu shangu, I come that I 

may receive my things. 

In relative clauses, also, this form of the pronoun is often found ; but 
here, in order, it seems, that the pronoun may be more distinctly heard, it 
takes the form of in-. Thus Nku kako kambo nku inanga, this is the 
affair I want; Inge masamo aza ngu inanga, they are not the trees 
I want Pronounce: nkwinanga; ngwinanga. 

When the accusative xnu is used before verbs beginning with 
h it often appears as urn prefixed to the verb. Thus : — 

Ta ba oh'timboni dinji, they did not see him again. 
Dimwi ba ka mnbusha, afterwards they raised him. 
Bantu ba ka umbuzlia, the people asked him. 

The pronouns given above are equivalent to our English /, 
thmiy he, &c. ; there yet remain forms for all the classes, 2-9a, 
equivalent to our /'/, they^ them. These pronouns are shown in 
the following table : — 








3. MU-MI- 

u, wa 


i, ya 


3. I- MA- 

di, dia 



4. BU-MA- 

bu, bwa 


f » 


5. KU-MA- 

ku, kwa 



6. KA-TU- 



tu, twa 


7. CHI- SHI- 

ohi, oha 


shi, aha 



bi, bia 


8. IM- IM- 

i, ya 


shi, sha 


9. LU-IN- 

lu, Iwa 


shi, sha 


9a. LU- MA 

lu, Iwa 




G 2 


On the use of these pronouns note particulariy : — 

{a) The subject of a sentence, when a noun or substantive 
pronoun, must always be followed by a personal pronoun. An 
apparent exception to this is when the subject noun or substan- 
tive pronoun is placed after the verb ; but that it is only apparent 
is seen by changing the position of the subject. Thus : — 

Muntu u la ya, the person is going ; //'/, — person he is 

Ing'ombe shi la fiila, the cattle are grazing ; ItL — cattle 

they are grazing. 

Putting the subject at the end, these sentences appear thus : — 

TJ la ya mxintu, he is going, the man. 

Shi la fiila ng'ombe, they are grazing, the cattle. 

(d) When used as objects the personal pronouns are placed 
between the pronominal subject and the verb, never in any other 
position. Thus : — 

Muntu u la mu yaya, the person kills him ; //'/. — person 
he him kills. 

These are most important rules and, particularly the first, are always 
violated by those who speak that dreadful lingo called 'Kitchen Kaffir'. 
This is the sort of thing one has inflicted upon him : — * Mhia fima tenga,' 
'Umfana funa hamba,' corruptions of the Tebele; *Mina ngi ya ftina ugu 
tenga,* * Umfana u ya funa ugu hamba.' Fancy : * Me want go ' ! * Boy 
want walk ' ! — as those ' sentences ' may be translated. 

Examples of the use of the Personal Pronoun. 

Notice the suflBxing of the verbal copula di to the pronoun. 
This is merely a matter of convenience. 

Muntu u le enda, the person Nda mu bona, I see him. 

Bantu ba le enda, the people Twa ba bona, we see them, 



Munzhiwazakwa, the village Two ebela (= twa u), we 

is built. admire it. 

Minzhi idi kwi P Where are Ta tu i bwene, we have not 

the villages ? seen them. 

Isamo di la mena, the tree Wa di nwisha, he waters it. 


Masamo adi ongai P How Adi otatwe, they are three. 

many trees ? 

Bwa xnana bufa, the meal is Twa bu dya, we have eaten 

finished. it. 

Eutwi ka la ohisa, the ear is Nda ku bona, I see it. 


Kashimbi ka la sobana, the TJ ka shimwine, tell her. 

little girl plays. 

Tushimbi tu la dila, the Sa mwa tu lelaP Do you 

little girls are crying. feed them ? 

Chintu ohidi kwiP Where Sa mwa ohl bona P Have you 

is the thing ? seen it ? 

Shintu shidi kwiP Where Sa mwa shi bona? Have 

are the things ? you seen them ? 

BintubiayhwakwiP Where Sa mwa bi bulaP Do you 

are the things from ? need them ? 

Impongo i la dila, the goat Ko ya, u i yaye, go and 

bleats. kill it. 

Ing'ombe shi la fula, the Ka mu shi bingile kono, 

cattle are grazing. drive ye them here. 

Lupidi ludi kulale, the hill Twa lu bona, we see it. 

is far. 

Lutele ludi kwiP Where is Shi lu bwene, I haven't seen 

the net ? it, 

Intele shidi kwi P Where are Shi shi bwene, I haven't seen 

the nets ? them. 

Locative Personal Pronouns, 
The locative prefixes appear as pronouns, mu, ku, a. 




Mimganda xnudi sofwele, the house is dirty inside. 
Anganda adi sofwele, the house is dirty, i. e. outside. 
Kunganda kudi sofw^ele, it is dirty by the house. 
Munganda xnwina (= mu ina) chintu^ there is nothing 

in the house ; //'/. — In-the-house in-it-has-no thing. 
Kunganda kwina ohintu, there is nothing at the house. 
Anganda a ina chintu, there is nothing on the house. 

The substantive pronoun has different forms, the various uses 
of which may cause some perplexity to the student at first ; it 
will be best to take each form separately and explain it. 

a, — The Simple Form. 

Ome, I myself Uswe, we ourselves. 

Uwe, thou thyself TJmwe, you yourselves. 

Walo, he himself. Bale, diey themselves. 

The forms for the classes 2-9a are as follows : — 







Class, Singular, 

MU- MI- Walo \ 

I- MA- Dialo 

BU- MA- Bwalo 

KU- MA- Kwalo 

KA- TU- Kalo ^ It itself, 

CHI- SHI- Chalo 
IM- IM- Yalo 
LU- IN- Lwalo 
LU- MA- Lwalo/ 







^They themselves. 

In the third person, all classes, the demonstrative forms are 
sometimes used instead of the above. 

Use of these pronouns : — 

{a) The pronouns of the second person are used vocatively : — 
TJmwe ! Urn we ! Ka mweza (mu eza) kono : You ! You ! 

Come you here. 
Uwe ! Ko ya : You, go you. 


(S) They are used to distinguish clearly between two persons 
or things named in a sentence. They may thus be used when 
there is a likelihood of confusion between the 2nd and 3rd 
persons sing, of the personal pronoun, u, Zhou or he. They are 
also used in a general way to give emphasis. 


Ome nda ma pa nshima; walo {or wezo) u la ma pa 
buzane, I, I give you bread ; he, he gives you meat. 

JSwOj ko ya ku munda ; wezo a shale kono, you, go you to 
the field ; he, he may stay here. 

Balo ba la tuba, wezo u la shia, they are white, (whereas) 
he is black. 

Ewalo kukozhana ba la kozhana, even as regards resem- 
blance, they resemble each other. 

Budimbtislii bwalo, foolishness indeed. 

Ome nda ma bapatizha menzhi ; walo u ka la ma 
bapatiza o Moza u sweya, I, I baptize you with water ; 
(but) he shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit. 

The locatiye forms are as follows : — 

Mwalo, even in. 
Kwalo, even at, or to. 
Alo, even on. 


Mwalo media ka ya ku njila, even, or just, there he 

entered in. 
Ewalo kodia ka ya ku vhwa, even just there he came out. 
Alo adia ka ya ku kala, just there he sat down. 

{c) These pronouns may also be used as objectives after 
prepositions, the particle di being appended to the preposition. 

Wa ka leta shidyo kudi balo, he brought food to them. 



TJ tu kwatile milandu bubona mbu tu kwatila badi 
milandu kudi uswe, forgive our faults as we forgive them 
that have faults to us. 

{d) These pronouns when immediately following nouns express* 
only, merely, simply ; e. g. Impongo shalo, only goats. 

{e) These pronouns are emphasized in the plur. by means of 
the particle lona. The meaning is peculiar. Intongwezhi 
sha ba shalo lona, the stars are themselves alone ; i. e. nothing 
else visible. Koko kudi balombwana bale lona : There are 
only men there, i. e. no women or children. 

3. The Indicative Form. 

This is formed by means of the copulative particles and the 
latter syllables of the simple form. In the first and second 
persons the copulative particle is ndi. 








1st p. 

Ndime, it is I 

Indime, it is 

Ndiswe, it is 

Indiswe, it is 

not I 


not we 

2nd p. 

Ndiwe, it is thou 

Indiwe, it is 

19'dimwe, it is 

Indimwe, it is 


not thou 


not you 

I. 3rd p. 

Inguwe, it is he 

Ingwe, it is 

Imbabo, it is 

Imbo, it is not 


not he 




Inguo \ 

Ingwe V 

Injiyo \ 

Injo \ 


Indidio ] 




Imbubo 1 







it is 
'it, &c. 


It is ' 
Wit X 


It IS 



it is not 










Indulo / 

Indo / 

Ingao / Ingo / 

On the uses of these pronouns, note : — 

{a) In the negative of classes i-pa use is made of the 
copulative particle negative, followed generally by the demon- 
strative pronouns; and in the affirmative, the demonstratives 
preceded by the copulative particles are also often used. Thus : — 


Ngu weso, it is this, or it. Ingwe weao, it is not that, or it 
Ndi ledio, „ Indio ledio, „ 

(d) As the name implies, these pronouns are used in indicating 
or pointing out somebody or some thing. Unlike the demon- 
strative pronouns, they are never used adjectively. 


Kgnni owa ohita bodia P Who is it who did so ? 
Kdime nda ka ohita, It is I who did (it). 
Ingawe owa shika 'zona, it is he who arrived yesterday. 
Inko kako kaxnbo nku inanga, it is not the affair I look for. 
Ingao masamo ako, these are thy trees. 

(r) The afilrmative forms (the initial i being deleted) are 
used, with or without prepositions, to indicate the author of an 
action or^the instrument with which it is done, thus including our 
prepositions ^, with^ by means of. 


Chintu ohechi cha letwa ndime, this thing was brought by me. 

8a cha letwa ndiwe P Was it brought by thee ? 

Bantu ba la shindikilwa ndiswe, the people are accom- 
panied by us. 

Mutatula wezo, nda ka umwa nguo [pr ku nguo), this 
whip, I was beaten with it. 

Bwato bobo, tu la landuka mulonga mbubo (or ku 
mbubo), that canoe, we will cross the river by means of it. 

{d) These pronouns may also be used with the preposition 

ka, to, from, to which the particle di may or may not be 



Eweza (Ko eza) kudi ndime, come to me. 
Wa ke za kudi ndiwe, he came to thee. 
Ka mu ya kudi nguwe, go ye to him. 
Kweza kudi ndiswe, come to us. 



The locative forms are as follows :— 

ImumO; it is in. Ima, it is not in. 

^^^^Jnkirirorit is at. Inko, it is not at. 

Ingao, it is on. Inge, it is not on. 

c. The Indicative Form Emphasized. 

By suffixing -na to the indicative form given above, an 
emphasis is given to it. The meaning is, it is just so-and-so. 




Ndimena, it is I 

Ndiswena, it is we 



Ndiwena, it is thon 

Ndimwena, it is you 




Nguwena, it is he 

Mbobona, it is those 



2. MU- MI- 

Nguwena \ 

Njiona \ 

3. I- MA- 



4. BU- MA- 




it is 

5. KU- MA- 


it is \ 


6. KA- TU- 

Nkakona rjust it 

Ntutona Vparti- 

7. CHI- SHI- 




8. IM- IM- 




9. LU- IN- 


9a. LU- MA- 

Ndolona / 

Ngona / 


Shikwe iiiji, njiona ezhi inshipi yangu, I don't want 

another, it is just this my bracelet. 
Ndnlona lolo Iwimbo, that is the very song. 
Mbubona bushiku bobo, it is just that very day. 
Nda tola miisamo wezu nguwena ngu wa ka sha, I 

take this very medicine which you have dug up. 
Ngoni a sempula inkomo yangup Nguwena Shama* 

tanga. Who is it carries my bag? It is even he, Shama- 


From some of these examples it is seen that these pronouns 
are used to emphasize the demonstratives. The same is true of 
the locative forms : — 



Mtunona, just in there. 
Nkokona, just at there. 
Ngona, just on there, &c. 


A ahike ngona a ka wila shumbwa ase muxovn wa wa. 

When he arrived just where the lion fell, he also the 

elephant fell 
Mbike kwi ohinta oheohi P Bika mumona momo. Where 

am I to put this thing ? Put it just in there. 
Mwa Yhwa kwi umweP Nkokona koko nku tu vhwa. 

Where are you from ? It is just there whence we come. 
Tnishila idi kwiP Ngona 'wa. Where is the road? Just 


d. The Prepositional Fonn. 




Imbele, me 

Tubele, us 

ITbele, thee 

Mubele, you 


Abele, he 

Babele, him 

2. MU-MI- 

Ubele \ 

Imbele \ 

3. I- MA- 



4. BU-MA- 




5. KU-MA- 


6. KA-TU- 

Kabele Vit 

Tubele Vthem 

7. CHI-SHI- 



8. IM-IM- 



9. LU-IN- 


9a. LU- MA- 

Iiubele ' 

Abele / 

These forms are verbal in origin ; the second part of them, 
-bele, being the perfect of the verb ka ba, to be, to become, Ko 
ya ku babele really means go where they are, but is commonly 
used to mean simply go to them. So that while the meanings 
above are used care must be taken to remember the original 
meaning. To express a more personal idea the indicative forms 
are used as shown above. 



Kweza kwimbele (ku imbele), come to me* 
Ing'ombe ku shidi koko, ko ya ku shibele, the cattle are 

yonder, go to them. 
Be ziza ku tubele, they come to us. 

e. The Conjunctive Form. 

This is formed by means of the particle a, wiihy and, prefixed 
to the latter syllable of the simple form of the substantive 

Ame, I also, with me. 
Aze, thou also, even thee. 

Aswe, we also, even us, with us. 
Amwe, you also, even you, 
with you. 
Aze, he also, even him, with Abo, they also, even them, with 

him. them. 

Notice that the 2nd and 3rd persons sing, are irregular ; the 
particle aze being substituted for the form awe. 

In the 3rd person plur. there is a double form, abo and 
The sufi^ -bo is added to the above to give them emphasis. 
Amebo, I, even I. Aswebo, we, even we. 

Azebo, thou, even thou. Amwebo, you, even you. 

Azebo, he, even he. {wantingy use abalo). 

For the other classes, these are the forms : — 







MU- MI- 
BU- MA- 
KU- MA- 
KA- TU- 
IM- IM- 
LU- IN- 

9a. LU- MA- 


awo \ 








alo , 

.even it, 
r with it 


ayo >^ 





even they, 
with them 

These pronouns are both nominative and accusative; as 
nominatives they have the meaning even /, even il, &c., and 



must then be followed by a personal pronoun like other pro- 
nouns ; as accusatives they have the meaning with me, with it, &c. 


Tu la ya ase, we will go with thee, i. e. together. 

Twa ke enda abo, we travelled with them. 

Ame ka nda ya, I also am going. 

8a wa BJOYwa, amebo ni nku swile, do you help me, me 

who hated you ? 
Ome 8lii ka ba amwe, I, I will not be with you. 
Mwaba wa ya ku mnnzhi wakwe ; aye inkala yo ona a 

xnnnzhi wayo, Mwaba went to his village ;. it also the crab 

slept at his place. 
Ome shikwe aza, nda zanda ipepe odia ko aze, I, I 

don't want these, I want the feather which is there with you, 

i.e. on you. 
Ndutele lubotu, kweza kono alo, it is a fine reed, come 

here with it. 
Nda langa kaboko kwa museAi, kweza kono ako, I want 

the foreleg of the eland, come here with it. 

The following is a table of the possessive pronouns : — 








-ngu, my, mine 

-isu, our, ours 


-ko, thy, thine 

-inn, thy, thine 



MU- BA- 

-kwe, his, hers, its 

-bo, their, theirs 


MU- MI- 

-0 « >» 

-yo „ ,y 



-dio „ „ 



BU- MA- 

-bo „ „ 

\ -0 „ „ 


KU- MA- 

-ko „ „ 



KA- TU- 

-ko „ „ 

-to „ „ 


C^I- SHI- 

-oho „ ,, 




-yo y, f* 

\ -sho „ „ 


LU- IN- 

-lo „ „ 



LU- MA- 

-lo » i> 

-0 „ „ 


On the form and use of these, note : — 

a. The pronouns of classes 2--9a are identical with the latter 
syllables of the indicative substantive pronoun, i. e. that part of 
them which is not the copulative prefix. 

h. These pronouns are connected with the nouns they qualify 

by means of the genitive particles which are prefixed to them. 

Thus :— 

Ohintu cha-ngu, my thing. 

c. In the I St and 2nd persons plur. -isu and -inn obey the 
phonetic law that their initial i coalesces with the a of the genitive 
particle to produce e. Thus : — 

Makani esu ( = a + isu), our affairs. 
Manda enu (= a + inu), your houses. 
Shintu shesu ( = sha + isu), our things. 
Ing'ombe shenu ( = sha + inu), your cattle. 

d. They are placed immediately after the noun possessed. 
€, The locative prefixes are also used with these pronouns. 

Examples of the use 0/ Possessive Pronouns, 

Ing'anda yangu, my house. Manda angu, my houses. 
Ing'anda yako, thy house. Manda ako, thy houses. 
Ing'anda yakwe, his house. Manda akwe, his houses. 
Ing'anda yesu, our house. Manda esu, our houses. 
Ing'anda yenu, your house. Manda enu, your houses. 
Ing'anda yabo, their house. Manda abo, their houses. 
Mnnzhi o bantu ba6, the village and its people. 

Minzhi o bantu bay6, the villages and their people. 
Isamo o matovu adi6, the tree and its leaves. 

Masamo o matovu a6, the trees and their leaves. 
Bwato o mwini wab6, the canoe and its owner. 

Kulu o shilonda shakd, the leg and its ulcers. 
Kalombwana o kusobana kwak6, the boy and his playing. 

Tulombwana o kiusobana kwatd, the boys and their 



Chiknba o mudixni waoh6, the garden and its hoer. 

Shiknba o badimi ba8h6, the gardens and their hoers. 
Ing*ombe o chimpata ohay6, the beast and its kraal. 

Ing'ombe o ohimpata oha8h6, the cattle and their kraal. 
Lutanga o beembezhi bal6, the cattle outpost and its 

Intanga o beembezhi bashd, the cattle outposts and their 

Locative Possessives. 

Prefixed by mu 

Prefixed by ku 

Prefixed by Vk 

1st p. sing. 




2nd p. sing. 




3rd p. sing. CI. I 




1st p. plur. 




and p. plur. 




3rdp.plnr.Cl. I 










































































These are formed like other possessives by prefixing the genitive 
particles to the possessive pronouns given above. Their mean- 
ings must be carefully noted, as they differ in some respects from 
other pronouns. 

The first forms, mwangu, &c., mean literally in-of-mine. 
They are used in two ways ^ («) to indicate inside something, 
inside one; or (^) within one's dwelling. This latter meaning 
of course applies only to the ist and 2nd persons, and to the 
ist cl. of the 3rd pers. 

The second forms, kwangu, &c., mean literally to-of-mine. 


They also are used in two ways : {a) to indicate to something, 
and thus they have more of a prepositional than a possessive 
meaning ; and {d) to indicate at or to one's place of residence, 
one's home. In the latter sense they are used only in the ist 
and 2nd persons and the 3rd pers., CI. i ; they are also in this 
sense preceded by the preposition u (modified form of ku) to 
distinguish from the other sense. 

The third forms mean literally on^of-mine and are used with 
locative nouns, &c., to express the meaning of possession only. 

The following examples will make all this clear. 


Sa koko kwako kwina u zanda ku belekaP At your 

place is there nobody wanting work ? 
Ano angu a ina masamo, On my premises here there are 

no trees. 
Ohifumo tu la bwela u kwesu, In the morning we are 

going to our home. 
Mono mwangu mwina biQwazhi, In me, or^ in my place 

there is no suffering. 
Monse mwakwe mwina chintu, In all his place is nothing. 
Tola sheshi u shi bike mukati mwadio, Take these and 

put them within it (i. e. ikwati, a box). 
Twa ka ona afwafWi ao. We slept in the vicinity of it (i. e. 

Bika ohechi kumbadi kwayo, Put this by the side of it 

(i. e. inganda). 

Enclitic Possessives. 

Various possessive pronouns are suffixed to the nouns, and 
therefore have the name enclitics. The following are examples 
of this : — 

TatSsu, our father. 

Mwandngu, my child. 

BanSsu, our children. 


Mwanikwe mwami, the chiefs child. 
Ban&bo band, the chiefs childreiu 
Besides these, other possessive suffixes are found in nouns 
bearing a kind of collective meaning. These suffixes are as 
follows : — 
-ma, my fellow . . . -nokwesu, our fellow . . . 

-noko, thy fellow . . * -nokwenu, your fellow . . . 

-na, -nina, his fellow . . . -nokwabo, their fellow . . . 


Mnkazhima, my fellow wife. 
Mukazhinoko, thy fellow wife. 
Mukazhina, her fellow wife. 
Mukazhinokwesu, our fellow wife. 
Mukazhinokwenu, your fellow wife. 
Mnkazhinokwabo, their fellow wife, 
Bakazhima, my fellow wives. 
Bakazhinoko, thy fellow wives. 
Bakazhina, her fellow wives. 
Bakazhinokwesu, our fellow wives. 
Bakazhinokwenn, your fellow wives. 
Bakazhinokwabo, their fellow wives. 

The above are used by and of the wives of a polygamist. 
Miusama, my fellow initiate. 
Musanoko, thy fellow initiate. 
Miusanina^ his fellow initiate. 
Musanokwesu, our fellow initiate. 
Miusanokwenii, your fellow initiate. 
Miusanokwabo, his fellow initiate. 
Basama, my fellow initiates. 
Basanoko, thy fellow initiates. 
Basanina, his fellow initiates. 
Basanokwesu, our fellow initiates. 
Basanokwenu, your fellow initiates. 
Basanokwabo, their fellow initiates. 




The preceding are used by and of men who passed through the 
initiation ceremonies together and who through life form a kind 
of league. 

Possessive Phrases. 

Another way of expressing the possessive is by using the 
following forms. These are really phrases, containing in them- 
selves personal and possessive pronouns, as we should say, ' it 
is mine,' &c. 

In the singular these phrases are personal, i. e. they indicate 
what belongs to one himself. In the plural they denote what 
belongs to one's family, village, or nation. 



1st Person, 



































































Examples of ike use of these, 
wezo ngwa kani P Munakwangu. Whose is this 


dog ? It is mine. 


lamba ledi ndinakwangu, This hoe is mine. • 

A mu tole mamba onse, pele manakwangu a shale^ Take 

ye all the hdes, but let mine stay. 
Mwa sambasha ing'ombe shangu nambuti P Pe, twa tola 

flhinakwangg badio. You have traded with my cattle, is 

it not so ? No, we took mine only. 
Haobeme asa onse ngu manakwesu, All this Kaffir com 

belongs to our village, or to our family. 
Tuntu totu ntmiakwangu tonse. All these little things are 

Baoakwesn, People of our &mily, my intimates, relations, 

fellows, brethren. 

Notice that used as predicates these are prefixed by n or m, 
except where the initial is already m. 

Pofisessive PronoiinB with the Copula. 

The possessive interrogative pronoun whose? is kaniP 
This is connected with the noun by means of the genitive 
particles, copulative form. In answering the question, the 
copulative particles are also used. 


Hontu wezu ngwa kani P Whose person is this ? Ngu 

wanga, he is mine. Or, Ngwangu. 
Bana babo mba kamP Whose children are those.' Mbo 

bangu, they are mine. Or, Mbangu. 
Mutiba wezu ngwa kaniP Whose basin is this? Ngu 

wakwe, it is his. Or, Ngwakwe. 
Mitiba ezhi nja kani P These basins are whose ? Nji yesu, 

they are ours. Or, Njesu. 
Ismno ledi ndia kani P Whose spear is this ? Ndi diangu, 

it is mine. Or^ Ndiangu. 
Masomo aza nga kaniP Whose spears are these? Ng' 

esu, they are ours. 
Hbwa kani bwato boboP Whose canoe is that? Mbu 

bwangu, it is mine. Or, Mbwangiu 

H 2 


Kashimbi kako xika kaniP Whose girl is that? Wlvl 

kangu, it is mine. Or, Nkangiu 
Tiushimbi toto ntwa kaniP Whose girls are those? Ntu 

twakwe, they are his. Or, Ntwakwe. 
Ohintu oheobi ncha kaniP Whose is this thing? I^'ohi 

changu, it is mine. Or, Nohangu. 
Shintu sheshi nsha kani P Whose are these things ? IS'shi 

shangu, they are mine. Or, Nshangu. 
Impongo ezhi nja kaniP Whose goat is this? JSfji yako, 

it is thine. Or, Njako. 
Lutele lolo ndwa kani P Whose net is this i Ndu Iwanspi, 

it is mine. Or, Ndwancpi. 


Personal Stng. NiP Who? Whom? FI. Bani? 

Neuter „ and Plur, NzhiP What? 
Possessive „ „ KaniP Whose? 

On the use of these, note : — 

(a) The possessive kani P whose ? has been illustrated above. 

ifi) The form nzhi succeeds a noun or verb without any inter- 
vening particle, the accent of the noun or verb being drawn forward 
to the final vowel. It asks the question. What sort? when used 
with nouns ; simply whai ? when used with simple verbs ; and 
why ? when used with verbs of the relative species. 


Mnnyama nzhi wedia P What sort of animal is yon ? 
Mwand nzhi wezo P What sort of child is that ? i. e. male or 

female ? 
Mwa letd nzhi P What do you bring ? 
Mwa ambild nzhi bobo P Why do you speak like that ? 

{c) In asking the question What is this j' in a general way, 
without special reference to a particular thing, the pronouns of 


Class 7 are used In this way also there is another form of the 
interrogative, nyamanshi P what ? Thus :— > 

Chi nyamanshi P What is it ? 

ChinzhiP What is it? 

(d) The pronoun niP who? whom? is sufiixed to the 
indicative forms of the substantive pronoun of the 2nd and 3rd 
persons to ask the question Who is he ? &c Thus : — 
Ndiweni P Who art thou i 
Ngnni P Who is he ? {noi nguweni). 
Ndimweni P Who are you ? 
Hbobani P Who are they ? {nof mbaboni). 
Ndiweni izhina diakoP h'/. — it-is-you-who name of-you? 
What is your name ? 

{e) The pronoun nip may be preceded by a preposition, 
which is then prefixed to it. Thus : — 

Wa ka amba oni P With whom did yon speak ? 

Wa ka pewa kwani ohintu ohechi P By whom were you 
given that thing ? 

There are two other forms used in asking questions, viz. 
-ndieP Which? and-ongaiP How many? 

a. The Stem -die? Which? 

This may be called a discriminative pronoun, as it seeks to 
distinguish one thing from among many of the same kind. 
Used adjectively it is prefixed by the personal pronouns of the 
classes to which the nouns belong. Used pronominally it is 
prefixed by the copulative particles. 


CI. I. MU- Wa langa muntu udieP Which person do you 

Muntu ngudie P Which is the person ? 
B A- Wa langa bantu badie P Which people do you 
want ? 
Bantu mbobadie P Which are the people ? 


CL 2. MI- Mwa beza xnitiba idieP Which basins have 

you carved ? 
Mitiba xgidie P Which are the basins ? 
CI. 3. I- Mwa shika iznba didie P Which day did you arrive ? 
lamba ndidie P Which is the hoe ? 
MA- Mwa dima o mamba adieP Which hoes do 
you hoe with ? 
Mamba ngadie P Which are the hoes I 
CI. 4. BU- Wa tila bufa budie P Which meal have you 

BuftL mbudie P Or, mbnbudie P Which is the 
CI. 5. KU- TJ la sata kutwi kudie P Which ear are you sick? 

Kutwl nkudie P Or, nkukudie P Which ear ? 
CI. 6. KA- Wa leta kasonde kadie P Which needle have 

you brought ? 
Kasonde nkukadie P Which is the needle ? 
TU- Wa leta tusonde tudiep Which needles have 
you brought ? 
Tusonde ntutudie P Which are the needles? 
CI. 7. CHI- Mwa bona ehinta obidie P Which thing have 

you seen ? 
Ohintu nohidieP Or, nehiohi^ieP Which is 
the thing? 
SHI- Mwa bona shintu shidie P Which things have 
you seen ? 
Shintu nshidie P Or, nshishidie P Which are 
the things ? 
CI. 8. IM- Wa yaya impongo idle P Which goat have you 

Impongo njidie P Which is the goat ? 
IM- Wa yaya impongo shidie P Which goats have 
you killed ? 
Impongo nshidie P Or, nshishidie P Which 
are the goats? 


CL 9. LU- Wa lets lutele Indie P Which net have you 

brought ? 
Iiutele ndudie P Or^ nduludie P Which is the 

h. The Stem -ongaiP How many? 

This is treated like the indefinite adjectives -onse, all\ 
-ongea2ia,yh&. (See Chap. IV, Sect. 3 d) 


CI. I. Mwa leta bantu bongaiP How many people have 
you brought ? 
Bantu badi bongai P How many are the people ? 
CI. 2. Mwa bona mitiba yongaiP How many basins have 
you seen ? 
Mitiba idi yongai P How many are the basins ^ 
CI. 3. Mwa kapola mate ongaiP How many canoes do you 
require ? 
Mato adi ongai P How many are the canoes? 
CI. 7. Mwa bona shintn shongai P How many things do 
you see ? 
Shintn shidi shongai P How many are the things ? 


The reflective pronoun is di, for all persons, numbers, and 
classes. Its position in the sentence is immediately before the 
verb, to which it may be conveniently prefixed. 


Ku anga, to tie. Kn dianga, to tie oneself. 

Ku angulnla, to untie. Kn diangulnla, to untie one-' 

En koBola, to cut. Kn dikosola, to cut oneself. 

En iya, to teach. Kn diiya, to teach oneself, to 



The following is a table of the demonstrative pronouns :- 




* This' 


« Yonder' 



« Yonder' 

I. MU-BA- 







2. MU-MI- 







3. I- MA- 





4. BU-MA- 




1 aza, 
[ ano 



5. KU-MA- 





6. KA-TU- 







7. CHI-SHI- 











8. IM-IM- 




r slieshi. 



9. LU-IN- 




1 sheno 

9a, LU- MA- 









On the form and use of these, note : — 

{a) The first forms given, wezn, weno; ledi, leno, &c., 
denote things close to the speaker — IhiSf these. The second 
forms, wezo, ledio, &c., denote things at some distance from 
the speaker and also things already referred to — that^ those. 
The third forms, wedia, ledia, &c., refer to things at a dis- 
tance — that yonder^ those yonder, 

{J>) By laying stress upon the latter syllable of the third form, 
things at a greater distance are indicated ; the more the syllable 
is drawn out the further away the thing. Thus : Shintu she- 
d-i-a. This is not shown in the written language. 

(c) It will be noticed that there are two forms for this, these ; 
the latter ending in -no, the former in the vowels a, i ^r u. The 


forms for that^ those ^ all end in o ; and those for yonder in dia. 
This is a useful help to the memory. 

i^d) The demonstratives are generally placed after nouns, but 
sometimes they are used before them. Either position is correct. 

Examples of the use 0/ Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Class I. 
Munta wezn, this man. Bantu baba, these people. 

Munta wezo, that person. Bantu babe, those people. 

Muntu wedia^ yon person. Bantu badia, yon people. 

Class 2. 

Munzhi wesu, this village. Minzhi ezhi, these villages. 
Munzhi wezo, that village. Minzhi ezho, those villages. 
Munzhi wedia, yon village. Minzhi yedia, yon villages. 

Class 3. 

Isamo ledi, this tree. Masamo aza, these trees. 

Isamo Iodic, that tree. Masamo azo, those trees. 

Isamo ledia, yon tree. Masamo adia, yon trees. 

Class 4. 

Bulo bobu, this bed. Male aza, those beds. 

Bulo bobo, that bed. Male azo, those beds. 

Bulo bodia, yon bed. Male adia» yon beds. 

Class 5. 

Eulu koku, this leg. Maulu aza, these legs. 

Eulu koko, that leg. Maulu azo, those legs. 

Class 6. 

Eashimbi kaka, this girl. Tushimbi totu, these girls. 

Eashimbi kako, that girl. Tushimbi toto, those girls. 
Eashimbi kadia, yon girl. Tushimbi todia, yon girls. 

Class 7. 

Chintu cheohi, this thing. Shintu sheshi, these things. 
Chintu ohecho, that thing. Shintu shesho, those things. 
Chintu ohedia, yon thing. Shintu shedia, yon things. 


Qass 8. 

Impongo ezhi, this goat. Impongo sheshi, these goats. 

Impongo ezho, that goat. Impongo sheshOi those goats. 

Impongo yedia, yon goat. Impongo shedia, von goats. 

Class 9» 

Lntelo lolu, this net. Intele sheshi, these nets. 

Lutele lolo, that net. Intele shesho, those nets. 

Lntele lodia, yon net. Intele shedia, yon nets. 

Demonstratiyes used predicatiyely. 

Instead of saying this is the things Baila say it is this the thing y 
or the thing it is this. Thus : — 

Kgu wezu muntu, this is the person. 
Mbo babo bantu, those are the people. 
Muntu ngu wedia, yon is the man. 
Bantu mbo badia, yon are the people. 
Mutiba ngu wezu, this is the basin. 
Mitiba nji ezhi, these are the basins. 
Kdi ledio isamo, that is the tree. 
Kg' azamasamg^ these are the trees. 

When the question is asked : Where is so and so ? the proper 
answer employs the demonstrative in the same manner. 

Kgudi kwi muntu P Where is the person? Kgu wezo, 

that is he. 
Hjidi kwi mitiba ? Where are the basins ? Hji yedia, yon 

are they. 
Isamo ndidi kwiP Where is the tree? Ndi ledio, that 

IS It. 

Notice that m asking die above questions the copulative 
particles are used; it would be equally correct to use the 
personal pronouns, udi kwi, Ac. 


Iiooattre DemonstratiTes. 
These are as iollows :— 

Locative prefix. 













ano, awa 



These are used with locative nouns. Thus : — 
MuxLganda mono, in this house, or in the house here. 
They can also be used substantively. Thus : — 

Mono mwina (mu ina) mnntu, //*/. — In-here it-has-no person. 

There is no person in here. 
An o anga a ina masamo, //'/. — At-here at-of-my at-has-no trees. 

There are no trees here at my place. 
Eodiakwina (ku ina) mabwe,/i7. — ^To-yonder to-has-no stones. 


There are no stones yonder. 
They are also used as adverbs. 

Mono, kono, ano each mean here; momo^ koko, awo, 
there] modia, kodia, wdoA^ yonder — but with slighdy different 

Mono means in here ; momo, in there ; modia, in yonder. 

Kono means to here; koko, to there ; kodia, to yonder. 

Ano, awa means on here ; awo, on there ; adia, on yonder. 

Thus while it is correct to say Leta kono, bring to-here, it is 
incorrect to say Leta ano. On the other hand, while it is in- 
correct to say Bika kono, you may say correctly Bika awa, 
put here^ because the verb leta implies bringing to somewhere, 
while bika implies putting on somewhere; so that the two 
adverbs kono and awa are not interchangeable. So with the 

There are shortened forms of these demonstratives, mo, ko, o, 
used in relative constructions and elsewhere. Thus : — 

Wa ka lukanka a ka shike ko kwa ku salwa meya, He 
ran that be might arrive there where horns were chosen. 


The following is a table of the relative pronouns : — 
















I. MU-BA- 

u, ngu 






2. MU-MI- 







3. I-MA- 





4. BU-MA- 







5. KU-MA- 





6. KA-TU- 







7. CHI- SHI- 





8. IM-IM- 




\ Shi 



9. LU-IN- 





9a. LU- MA- 







Note on the form of these pronouns : — 

The first forms are identical with the personal pronouns ; the 
second with the lengthened form of the personal pronoun with o 
prefixed (except in those classes in the plural which have a) ; 
the third forms are identical with the copulative particles. 

Formation of Belatiye Clatises. 

r. When the subject of the relative clause represents the 
antecedent the first form of the relative pronoun is used, but if 
the verb is in the past or aorist tense the second form is used. 


Kgudi kwi muntn a leta bwizuP Where is the person 

who brings grass ? 
Ngadi kwi muntu owa ke za 'zona P Where is the person 

who came yesterday ? 
Nguwena ngu ponya bantu tusunu, it is he who makes 

people live to-day. 
Imbabo bantu ba to zhi Leza, they are people who do not 

know God. 
Ndi ledi ibuka odia ka ngwalwa nguwe, this is a book 

that was written by him. 


2. When the subject of the relative clause does not represent 
the antecedent the third form of the relative pronoun is used. 


Musamo wezo nga wa ka mpa wa mana, that medicine 

which you gave me is done. 
Mukamta wesK> ngu nda ka f ana wa fwa, that woman 

whom I loved is dead. 
Isamo ndi nda ka shimpikila awa dia fwa, the tree which 

I planted here is dead. 
Ivhn ndi wa leta dia mana, the soil which you brought is 

Lungwalo ndu wa ka ngwala Iwa sweka, the letter which 

you wrote is lost. 
Masamo nga nda ka shimpikila awa a fwa onse, the trees 

which I planted here are all dead. 
Minzhi nji nda ka bona 'sona mibiabe, the villages which 

I saw yesterday are bad. 
Tushimbi ntu nda ka bona ntubotu, the little girls whom 

I saw are good. 
Shintn shesho nshi nda leta shidi kwiP Where are those 

things which I brought ? 
Bwiohi mbu nda ka nla bwa bola, the honey which 

I bought is rotten. 
Easamo nkn nda ka tema kadi kwiP Where is the stick 

which I cut? 
Wa ya kwi ngpa ta sempnla aze P Where has he gone with 

whom we carry ? 

Relative clauses which in English are introduced by a prepo- 
sition are constructed in the same way as those above, no notice 
being taken of the preposition. If possible the verb is changed 
to convey the idea that we convey by the preposition. 

Kji ezhi intipa nji u ka manya midimo, this is the knife 


viith which you can do the work. Z//. — Which you can 

cause-to-finish the worL 
Kji ezhi inzhila bantu nji ba ya bu enda, this is the 

road by which people travel. 
Inshi eshi bantu nji ba shiti mnflhi inkaudo, this earth 

on which people live is a great earth. 

3. In forming possessive relative clauses use is made of the 
copula diy here taken to stand for fo have. 


Kgudi kwi muntu udi ng'ombe ezhi i fnla P where is the 
person whose ox this is grazing ? LiL — Who has this ox 
which is grazing ? 

Kgnni muntu udi milandu nji u swileP Who is the 
person whose faults you hate ? 

4. The locative classifiers may also be used to form relative 



Kg ya nku tu yhwa, go where we came from. 

Chi bike mu mwa ka chi yana, put it where you found it. 

Koko nku nda vhwa, there where I come from. 

5. We must notice here a change that takes place in the 
negative verb when used in the relative clause. The negative 
verb is formed by means of the auxiliary ta; in principal 
clauses this ta is foimd before the personal pronoun, thus : ta 
boni (ta + a), he does not see. In relative clauses this ta shifts 
its position and is found after the personal pronoun. The ist 
person pronoun n is prefixed to the ta. 


Ta be zhi twambo twangu, they do not know my afifairs. 
Imbabo bantu ba ta zhi twambo twangu^ they are people 
who do not know my affairs. 


Ta boni shintu ; ingnwe mofti, he does not see anything ; 

he is a blind person. 
ULcfa ngu munta a ta boni shintu, a blind person is a 

person who does not see things. 
Shi bwene shintu Bhanga; shidi kwiP I don't see my 

things ; where are they ? 
Shidi kwi ahintn nshi nta boni? Where are the things 

which I don't see ? 


Exercise 1. 

For words in these exercises consult the Vocabularies. 

The subjunctive mood is as follows : — Mbone, fhaf I may 
see ; u bone, fha/ thou mayesi see ; a bone, that he may see ; tu 
bone, thai we may see; mu.bone, that you may see; ba bone, 
that they may see. The future is formed by inserting ka, thus — 
nka bone, u ka bone, &c. 

Translate into Ha : — 

They distribute food to me. They speak to me. What is it 
you told me yesterday ? Come and untie me. Hang up this 
axe for me. My father it is who gave me this name. Go and 
take out for me (use the subj.) some grain from the bin. They 
show me their cattle. They answer me well. They call me. 
These men fought well for me. Bring me my food. The men 
have gone to buy grain for me. They come to help me. The 
people all honour me. Do you say I must tie this ox ? We 
saw him yesterday. I am going to ask him the news. There 
is the little girl ; go and tell her what I say. Have you brought 
your cows ? Drive them here that I may see them. 

Translate into English : — 

Bantu ba ka ngabila inyemo. Ba ka nshimwina makani abo. 
Kg ya u ka pele koko nku nda ka beza. Manzila maila 
mashonto. Banangu ba la ngompolola ndye. Ba la ndetela 


ngombe shabo, ati ngule. Ba shimwine ati be zize ku ngangul- 
wila ingozhi sheshi. Bantu bonse ba la ndemeka. Sa mbike 
kwi sheshi shintunshi nda leta? Bakaintu ba la 'maninamidimo 
kabotu. Ba la ndimina miunda. Ka mu ziza mu ka nimbile 
kono. Ba la umbusha wezo u ona chinichini. Nchi chechi 
chikoma changu ; tata ngu wa mpa. Balombwana babo be ziza 
ati ba ndwile. 

Ezeroiso 2. 

Translate into Ila : — 

I give yoii meat ; he gives you bread. Even in that house 
there are many snakes. We are taking food to them. It is not 
so ; you are telling me a different tale. It is just there in the 
house where I foimd him. You men go and cut down trees ; 
the others stay here and work. Come ye here to me all of you. 
See ye those mopani trees ? Go to them and cut down three. 
Have you seen my children ? Go to them and tell them that I 
want them. It is you yourselves who ought to be beaten. I 
will destroy that very village which he has built. This very ox 
is mine. I don't want that man : I want another ; yes, that is the 
very one I want. Where did he sit ? He sat just there. Where 
am I to put this box ? Put it just there on the ground. Where 
do those men come from ? They come from just there whence 
we also came. The goats are in the kraal ; go to them and 
choose the fattest. Those are the people with whom we 
travelled. You are a good traveller ; I will go with you to-day. 

Translate into English : — 

Shikwe aza masamo, nda langa anji mabotu ; eya, ngon'azo, 
kweza ab kwimbele. Nkukona koko nku tu vhwa. Balombwana 
l)amwi ba ye ku tema miani : bamwi ba shale. Ndimwena mwa 
ka chita bobo, mudi elele ku fwa nonse. Ing'ombe sheshi shalo 
nshi shangu. Wa ka kala kwi, uwe ? Nda ka kala ngona ngu 
kala aze. Uswe tu la zanda bukoko : balo ba zanda ibwantu 
dialo. Imbo bobo mbu mwa chita ; mwa chita bunji. Indidio 
jsamo ledi ndi 'nanga^ nd'ilamfu chinichini. Sa mwa bona 


keembe kangu ? Nda ka yasa muntu nkako. Umwe mwa ka 
mana buti mudimo wezu? Mbubona bobo mbu two mana. 
Ing'ombe shangu nshishona shedia : ka mu ya ku shibele, mu ka 
shi bingile kono. Bantu babo mbo beenzu : aswebo tu le enda 
abo. Bana babo mbo bangu, abalo badia, bonse mbanakwangu. 
Nda ka fusa shumbwa : aze muzovu nda ka mu yaya. 

Exercise 8. 

TranshUe into Ila : — 

Bring me the hoe and its handle. Where am I to put this 
blanket ? Do you see that box yonder ? Is it that one near 
the house ? Yes, that's the very one ; go and put the blanket 
inside it. At your place yonder are there no children who wish 
to enter school ? No, there are none. Here at our place there 
is abundance : yonder it is simply famine. We have no slaves 
here. Tell your fellow wives to all come and work. Whose 
are these many catde ? They are mine, all of them. That man 
is of our place ; he has come here to visit us. Whose is this 
thing ? It is mine. And these basins also, whose are they ? 
They are ours. Take them and put them all in the house. 
What sort of animal is yon ? It is an eland. With whom did 
you come ? What does that man say? My children, by whom 
were you given these things ? Which is the ox you want to 
sell? It is just that white one grazing there. How much 
money do you want ? How many cattle have you ? 

Translate into English : — 

Kodia kwako kwina bakaintu ba bumba shibia ? Nsha kani 
ng'ombe shesho ? Shonse nshinakwakwe. Wezo muntu wa amba 
nzhi ? Twambo twakwe ntutona toto. Sa mwa bona mubwa 
wezo ? Ko ya mu kwate, mu bike mono munganda. Nchi chidie 
chuna chu langa ? Nchichona chechi nchi u kadile. Kodia nku 
ta vhwa twa ka bona banyama banjibanji. Banyama bonse ba 
mikumo mikumo. Mwa ka yaya bongai ? Pele omwi. Mono 
mwina muntu u zanda ku sempula makwati. Sa mwadl menzhi 
media? Eya, muroona mu tu ka one. Chi bike mono mu 



inkala. Ka mu ya koko ku cbitantala. Konse nku twe enda tw& 
yana bantu oba usa. Zeni kono kwangu. Sa mwa luba bubona 
bu twa zhima ngon' awa ozona : nda ka ku shimwina, ati, Munda 
wako nguwena wezo, u ta ku bala inyinza sheshi. Konse nku 
mwa bona masamo aza inshi i la bota. Shi vuminina ati u zake 
koko nku nda zanda ku shanga. Ko ya u ka zake kukona koko. 
U ta diati ano ngu shi shangwa imbuto shangu. Mono 
mwinzhila ezhi mwina chintu pele mabwe. 

Exercise 4. 

Translate into Ila : — 

Whose is yonder village that I see ? Who art thou who hast 
left thy father's village ? By whom will your ox be brought ? 
Which is the person whom you love best ? By whom are you 
sent ? The dog you gave me has eaten my meat. Is it not the 
chief whom you have seen? My friend who went away last 
year is dead. The river which we have crossed is full of big 
stones. The game we saw this morning has now gone into the 
forest. The fountain at which we have often drunk is com- 
pletely dry. The women who cultivate in our garden. The 
boys whom I saw. The girls whom I told to come. Who is it 
who cut up the meat ? The children who have brought these 
flowers. The man whom I hit The stranger who slept at our 
place. The fence which will fall. The flowers which they 
bring. The rubbish which they took away. Where is the bowl 
which you threw away ? The bridge which they made. The 
chair which I brought. These two fowls which he left. The 
elephant which they shot yesterday died in the night That man 
with whom we spoke yesterday has cut his fingers. I do not 
see that bird you speak of; which is it ? Whom do you like — 
the chief of this village or his wife ? 

Translate into English : — 

Nguni wezo owa ka kusha chechi mu nganda ? Nsha kani 
ng'ombe sheshi nshi twa bona. Sena nje ku mwita wezo owa 
shika 'zona. Ba ka shika kale mbo twa ke enda abo. Nguni 


weso mwanakwe ngu u kwete? Wedia mwana ngu a kwete 
ngwa kani ? Twe ke enda aze mwenzu u te edi. Nda langa 
mnlombwana u nyembelela. Mudimo wakwe ngu a chita wa 
mu fununa. Bantu babo oba shika 'sunu ba la fwembana. 
Wezo muntu u shika nzho u hupula kwi? Shimakoma ngu 
nduma. Nda mu fwila ntenda wezo u bula shakudya. A 
kunkumuka mabala a ngubo nshi twa ula. Chisamo chechi nchi 
twa shimpa chidi kwadle kabotu. Wa lambila mwami ngu a 
fwine. Leza ngu a shi lenga. Bantu ba la longa munzhi wezu 
ngu ba zaka kale kale. Udi sakene munzhi wezo ngu twe elele 
ku shikila ko. 


Ths Hare sats Lion's Children. 

Ushumbwa wa ka zhala bana badi jkumL Inzho mwenzhina 
sulwe we za, wa ba yana bana ba shumbwa. ^ We ba umwi, wa 
mu tola, wa ku dya. Mwini bana wa zhoka, ati : * * Wa ndila 
bana; inzho ame nda ku dya.' Wa amba sulwe, ati: 'Pe. 
Indime nda tola mwanako.' Shumbwa wa leka. ' Bwa cha, wa 
vhwa, wa shia banakwe ; inzho odimwi sulwe wa zhoka wa dya 
umwi. Pele * dimwi wa ba mana bonse bana. Inzho wa ba 
mana bana, wa ya ku chishi chimwi. Wa amb'ati : ' Nda tia ; 
* u la njaya banakwe mbo nda dya.' * A shike ku chishi chimwi, 
inzho ba amb'ati : ' Wa londa nzhi ? ' Ati : ' Ndime nda ka dya 
bana ba shumbwa ; inzho chi nde zila. Ushumbwa u ina mudimo 
ngu a ka mana.' Wa kala. Inzho ba mu tanda ku chishi 
chabo, ba mu shimwina, ati: 'Ko ya; bwela kwa shumbwa 
banakwe mbo wa ka dya.' Odimwi wa zhoka kwa shumbwa. 
A shike, wa amb'ati : ' Shumbwa, koko nku nda vhwa, ku kudi ba 
ka dya banako. Inzho ^ nku funge lozhi.' Inzho wa mu funga, 
wa mu tola ko. " A shike budio, ati : ' Tu one.' Bo ona. 
'Buche budio, wa amb'ati shumbwa: 'Ndimwe mwa ka dya 
banangu. Ngonao ame nda zanda ku ma dya.' Inzho wa ba 
dya bonse oba ka dya banakwe. Wa ba mana bonse. Inzho 

I 2 


wa amb'ati : ' Wa mana mulandu/ Pele odimwi wa amba : 
^0 ( Bu ^a mana mulandu inzho u ka zhale bana bamwi/ Pele 
wa ya ku zhala : wa zhala banji. Abalo ba ba dya. Ngonao 
shumbwa wa amb'ati : ' Bu mwa ndila bana nda leka ku zhala.' 
Kwa mana makani a shumbwa. 

Notes. — ^ We ba s wa iba, he stole. ' Wa ndila bana, lit, you have eaten 
from me children, i. e. you have eaten my children, or, you have deprived 
me of my children. ' Bwa cha, it dawned, i. e. next day. Bnshikn i$ 
understood before bwa. ^ Dimwi, i. e. izuba dimwi, another day. ° He 
will kill me whose children I have eaten. * A shike, when he arrived, on 
his arrival. ^ Let me tie you with bark-string. * A shike budio, as soon 
as he arrived. * Bu che budio, as soon as it dawned. ^ As the fault is 
done with, you can beget other children. 

The Tortoise and the Hare. 

Banyama bonse ba ka fwe nyotwa, ba amb'ati : ' A tu lukanke 
lubilo, tu bone ^ ati a ka shike ku menzhi.' Pele, * Fulwe ngu a 
ka zhala bana banjibanji : ' u la ya bu zhika ^ mwivhu ; umwi 
mwana wa mu zhika kumbadi ku menzhi. Inzho banyama ba 
amb'ati : ' A tu tiane, tu ka shike ku mulonga, tu ka nwe 
menzhi.' Ba fuma, ba lukanka bonse, ba amb'ati : ' Tu bone 
ati nguni u ka tanguna ku shika.' Pele ba lukanka, odimwi 
• bafulwe ba la ya bu amb'ati : * Imbelembele o bashanasulwe.' 
Odimwi ba lukanka, odimwi ba amb'ati : ' Imbelembele 
obashanasulwe/ Dimwi izuba dia ibila, ba la ya bu ompolola : 
' ' Dimwi kwa shia. Imbelembele o bashanasulwe.' Dimwi 
banyama ba mana ku fwa, mwana fulwe ^owa kudi kum- 
badi ku menzhi wo ompolola^ ati : ' Imbelembele o bashana- 
sulwe.' Wezo Sulwe wa ya ku fwa, wa bula o ku shika ku 
menzhi. Mwana fulwe owa kudi kumbadi ku menzhi ^ wa ba 
letelela menzhi mu kanwa : ke ziza ku lapwila banyama. Ati : 
' Ndimwe mwa ku zumanana, ati, Fulwe tu la mu shia lubilo. 
Inzho ^mwa ba nzhi ku shika? Mudi banichi. Ndime 
mukando, nda shika ku menzhi. Mudi banichi.' Ngonao wa 
ba lapwila menzhi a kudi mu kanwa. ^^Ba bula o ku mu 
ngula: ba usa budio. Inzho banyama ba amb'ati: 'Tu ku 


fumbe mukalo, ^^ tu ka ku nwa u mukalo menzhi.' Inzho ba 
fumba. Basulwe ba kaka ku fumba, inzho ba amb'ati: *Bu 
mwa kaka ku fumba inzho '* ta mu ti mu nwe menzhi. Mu la 
mana ku fwe nyotwa.' Kwa shia, ba kaka ku fumba ba ya ku 
mukalo, ba ^' kwiba. Inzho banyama bamwi ba amb'ati : ^^ ' A 
tu ba zube basulwe, tu ba bone.' Inzho ba ba bona, ba ba 
kwata, ba ba anga. Pele ba amb'ati : ' Bu mwa tu anga, inzho 
twa beba. A mu tu tole a bwina, ^' mu ka tu yayile ngona.' 

NOTES^ — ^ Ati a ka shike kn menzhi, that he may arrive at the water, 
le. that who wUl arrive first at the water. ' Falwe, it is who bore. 
' U la ya bn zhika, he goes burying. * Mwivhn » ma ivhn, in the 
gromid. * The tortoises go along saying, forward, forward, and they also 
who are with Snlwe. ' Dimwi kwa shia, /it. another (day) it is dark, 
le. another day has passed. ^ Owa kudi, who was. * Wa ba letelela, 
he brought to them. ' Mwa ba nzhi ku shika? — yon become what to 
arrive ? i. e. what has become of yon that you did not arrive ? ^* £a bula o 
ku mu ngula, they were without answer for him, they could not answer 
him. ^^ That we may be able to drink water in the hole. ^' You shall 
not drink. ^ Kwiba « ku iba. ^* Let us lie in wait for Sulwe. ^ That 
you may kill us just there. 

The two Leopards. 

Bashiluwe bobili ba ka dima maila : inzho ba amb'ati : ' Twa 
dima, inzho maila esu twa a dia, ^ twe 'kuta. 'A tu ka tente 
mudilo.' Pele ba ya. Umwi wa tenta maila akwe : umwi wa 
kaka, ati : * Shi tenti maila.' Umwi wa tenta, pele odimwi wa 
fwe nzala. Mwenzhina wa amb'ati : ' ' Ome angu sha tentele, 
inzho u la fwe nzala.' Pele wa tola bukwebo bwakwe wa ku 
ula ku shiluwe umwi ^u ina uka tenta maila akwe. Inzho a 
shike budio, wa kumba bukoko, wa amb'ati : ' Bodia mbu nda 
kumba bukoko ' a mu ka mwite wezo shiluwe umwi.' Ba ya ku 
mwita : ba mane ku mwita ba amb'ati : * A shike budio niu pe 
bukoko, a nwe. A mana ku nwa tu mu yaye. Twa mana ku 
mu yaya tu ka sale maila akwe.' Wa shika mukamwini maila, 
wa nwa. Ngonao ba mu kwata, ba leta keembe, ba mu yasa 
* mu mutwi. Ngonao ba ya ku sala. Ba mane ku sala, kwa 
shika basazhina shiluwe. Ba shike budio, ba amb'ati : * Mwa 


mu yajila nzhi musazhinokwesu ? MaOa akwe ngu a ka dima 
mwini, sa mwa mu yayila a mailaakwe ? Pele, a mu lete madi» 
mu tu pe. Inzho a mu zake ing'anda inkando, mu die/ Ba 
zaka, ^ be zuzha lubono ezbo ng*anda. Odimwi ba amb'ati : ^ ' A 
mu zake imwi, shi be shobili/ Ba zaka imwi. Inzho ba 
amb'ati : ' Imwi i zuzhe maila.' Pele ba i zuzha maila; ayo be 
zuzha maila. Pele ka mana kambo. 

Notes. — ^ Twe 'kuta -> twa ikuta. ' A ta ka tente mudilo » a ta ka a 
tente. ' Ome angu sha tentele ■■ shi a tentele, I m]rself I have not burnt 
mine. * U ina uka tenta, who did not bom. ' A mn ka mwite » a ma 
ka mu ite. * Mn mutwi. Notice the nse of mu, it signifies * into the 
head'. ' Be (>> ba) zuzha lubono ezho ng'anda, they it filled with goods 
that house. ' Build ye another, that they be two (houses). 


The simplest form of the verb is found in the second person, 
singular, of the present imperative, active voice : ohita, do ; 
kala, sit. The verb almost invariably ends in a ; when this 
final vowel is removed we get the root of the verb, i. e. that part 
which remains unchanged whatever prefixes or suffixes may be 
added. Changes at the end of a verb are generally made to the 
root, that is, after the final vowel has been removed. 

Note. — ^The only ezoeptions to the rule that the verb ends in a are 
found in (a) the subjunctive mood where a is changed to e, and (j6) in the 
negative conjugation where a becomes i. Besides these there are two verbs 
which end always in i, ku ti, to say ; ku shiti, to stay. 


Most probably all root or original verbs in Ila are disyllabic ; 
if therefore we meet with verbs of more than two syllables we 
may conclude them to be derivatives. Certain derivative forms 
are termed verbal species. They are formed by adding suffixes 
to the verbal root and they modify or extend very considerably 
the original meaning of the verb. These verbal species, indeed, 
are one secret of the flexibility and richness of the language. It 
must be noted that the various derivative forms are treated in 
the conjugation just as simple verbs. 

The species are nine in number : — 

I. — Relative. 5. — Capable. 

2. — Causative. 6. — Intensive. 

3. — Reciprocal. 7. — Reversive. 

4. — Stative. 8. — Repetitive, 

9. — Persisteiit repetitive. 


I. The Belative Species. 

The relative form gives the verb a prepositional meaning and 
largely takes the place of our words— ^r, to, on behalf of 
about, &c. 

It is formed by suffixing -ila, -ela,-ina, or -ena to the verbal 
root. These suffixes are applied according to the phonetic 
rules : — 

(a) If the root contains a, i, or n the suffix has i (i. e. -ila or 

(3) If the root contains e or o the suffix has e (i. e. -ela or 

(c) If the previous syllable contains m or n, -ina or -ena is 
suffixed, i. e. the 1 in -ila, -ela becomes n. (These rules apply to 
other species also.) When the suffixes are added to roots 
ending in 1, the 1 becomes d. Thus ku sala, ku sadila. 


Verbs ending in -na and -ma take the suffix -ina or -ena. 

Kn kotama, to bow. Ku kotamina, to bow down 

to, or before. 

Ku lema, to be heavy. Ku lemeua, to be heavy upon. 

Ku Buntama, to kneel. Ku suntamina, to kneel down 


Ku tuma, to send. Ku tumina, to send to, or for. 

Ku shina, to squeeze. Ku shinina, to squeeze for. 

Other verbs have -ila or -ela. 

Ku amba, to speak. Ku ambila, to speak to. 

Ku bamba, to arrange. Ku bambila, to arrange for. 

Ku beza, to carve. Ku bezela, to carve for. 

Ku dila, to weep. Ku didila, to weep for. 

Ku ika, to cook. Ku ikila, to cook for. 

Verbs ending in -ula, -ola, -una, -ona, all polysyllabic, take 
-wila, -wela, -wina, -wena. These are mostly verbs of the 
repetitive and reversive species. 


Ka shimnna, to tell. Ku shimwina, to tell to. 

Ka angulula, to untie. ,Ku angulwila, to untie for. 

Ku kosola, to cut. Ku koswela, to cut for. 

Ku Bomonona, to draw out. Ku somonwena, to draw out 


Verbs ending in -ezlia or-izha, or -islia or -esha, take -isha. 
These verbs belong to the causative species. 

En iijisha, to put in. Ku njizhizha, to put in for. 

En bisha, to destroy. Ku bishizlia, to destroy for. 

En buaba, to lift up. Ku bushizba, to lift up for. 

Note the following verbs : — 

En ya, to go. Ku ila, to go for. 

Eu nwa, to drink. Ku nwina, to drink for. 

En eza (kweza), to come. Ku zila, to come for. 

Eu dya, to eat. Ku dila, to eat for. 

Eu Ha, to fear. Ku tila, to fear for. 

On the use of this species, note the following : — 
Intransitive verbs taking the relative suffix become in a way 

transitive, i. e. they take what in English would be called an 

indirect object. Thus : — 

Eu lemana, to be angry. TSda, mu leHianina, I am 

angry with him. 

Eu chebauka, to look around. Kda chebaukila bantu, I 

look round upon the people. 

Transitive verbs with the relative suffix take two objects, one 
direct, the other indirect. The direct object is governed by the 
verb itself ; the indirect by the suffix, as if it were a preposition. 
Thus : wa ndila bana (a phrase in an Ila tale), ke ea/s-/rom-me 
children, i. e. he eats my children^ or he deprives me of my children. 
Here n is the indirect and bana the direct object. Nda letela 
mwami impongo, / bring-for the chief a goat. Here mwami 
is the indirect object and impongo the direct object. Generally 
speaking, the indirect object stands before the direct in a 


The verbs in the relative species form the passive voice in the 
usual way by inserting w before the final vowel, but the meaning 
of the passive needs to be noticed. Thus : Kda lelelwa bana 
means not, as it might appear, I am fed on behalf of the children^ 
but / have the children fed on my behalf i. e. that somebody has 
fed the children on my behalf In the active construction this 
sentence would read : Ba ndelela bana, they feed-on- behalf-of- 
me children. This is according to the rule of the passive, that 
the indirect object in the active construction becomes the subject 
of the passive. Thus, again : — 

Active, Passive. 

Ba bezela mwami bwato, Mwami wa bezelwa mbabo 

they carve-for the chief a bwato, the chief has carved 

canoe. for him by them a canoe. 

Tata wa nfwila, my father is Nda fwilwa tata, I am 

dead to me. deprived (by death) of my 


Intipa yangu ya nswekela, Nda swekelwa ntipa yangu, 

my knife is lost to me. I have lost my knife. 

Verbs in the relative species are generally used in sentences 
before locative nouns and adverbs. Thus : — 

A tu landukile mwitala modia^ let us cross over to yonder 

Wa ke Djizhizha kwi oluntu checho P In where did you 

put that thing ? 

In asking the question Why ? the relative verb is used followed 
by nshi. Thus : — 

Ba ambila nzhi bobo P Why do you speak thus ? 

U la udila nzhi isani led! P Why do you buy this cloth ? 

Mwa chitila nzhi chechi P Why do you make this ? 

The literal meaning of such expressions is, You speak-for 
what ? corresponding to our * What do you say that for ? ' 
^ In replying to such questions, and generally in giving a reason 
for anything, this form of the verb is also used. Thus : — 


Kohl oheohi nohi nda ohi ohitila, it is for this that I am 

doing it. 
Nkn kako nka twe sila, that is why we came. 
Kka kako nka nda udila ohechi, it is for that reason I buy 


The Double Relative Form. 

In some verbs the meaning given by the prefix is simply that 
of the preposition to; to give the idea of 'on behalf of the 
suffix is repeated. Thus : — 

En ambila, to speak to. Kn ambidila, to speak on 

behalf of. 
Ka kombela, to pray to. Ku kombelela, to pray on 

behalf of. 

Other verbs which have a quasi-relative form, i. e. they are 
used only in that form, the root from which they are derived 
being either obsolete or rarely used, also take the double suffix 
to indicate a prepositional meaning. Thus : — 

En Yumina, to believe, assent (from ku vuma, obs.). 

En Ytiminina, to assent for, to allow. 

En dindila, to wait (from ku dinda, to watch — seldom heard). 

En dindidila, to wait for, on behalf of. 

The double form is also sometimes used idiomatically, to 
indicate an intensive meanit^g. Thus : — 

En znminina, to be completely dried up (from ku zuma, to 
be dry). 

2. The Causatiye Species. 

Verbs in the causative species express the idea of causing, 
helping, or making a thing to be done. Intransitive verbs put 
into this species become transitive. 

This species is formed by means of the suffixes -zha, -sha, -ya. 
Instead of being added to the root of the verb, these suffixes are 
largely added to what remains of the verb when the final syllable 
is removed. 



Verbs ending in -la take the suffix -zha, the final syllable 
being removed. 

Ku pala, to scrape. 

Ku pazha, to scrape with, to 

set to scrape. 
Ku Bofvirazlia, to defile. 
Ku endezha, to cause or help 

to rule. 
Ku dizha, to cause or help to 

Ku sozha, to cause to taste. 
Ku uzha, to cause to buy, to 


Verbs ending in -nga, -nda take -nzlia, the final syllable 
being removed. 

Ku langa, to behold. Ku lanzha, to show. 

Ku ohinga, to meet. Kudhinzha, to cause to meet. 

Ku tonda, to be tabooed. Ku tonzha, to taboo. 

Verbs ending in -ka take -sha, the final syllable being 

Ku sofvirala, to be unclean. 
Ku endela, to rule. 

Ku dila, to weep. 

Ku sola, to taste. 
Ku ula, to buy. 

Ku leka, to leave off. 
Ku teka, to draw water. 
Ku ambuka, to turn aside. 

Ku lesha, to stop. 

Ku teslia, to draw water with. 

Ku ambusha, to cause to turn 

Ku londauslia, to cause to 

Ku lobosha, to cause to run 


Verbs ending in -ta, -sa take -sha, the final syllable being 

Ku chita, to do. Ku chisha, to cause to do. 

Ku sata, to be sick. Ku sasha, to sicken. 

Ku ikuta, to be satiated. Ku ikuslut; to satiate. 

Ku londauka, to drop. 
Ku loboka, to run away. 



Ka oliisa, to be painful. 
Ka ita, to pass. 

Ku ohiflha, to pain. 
Ka isha, to cause to pass, to 

Many verbs ending in -na take -zha, the final syllable being 

Ka lemezha, to overload. 

Ku lemazha, to anger. 
Kn komezha, to make big. 
Kn manizha, to cause to serve. 

Ku lemena, to be heavy 

En lemana, to be angry. 
Kn komena, to be big. 
Kn manina, to serve. 

Notice that the above verbs ending in -na are polysyllabic ; 
disyllabic verbs ending in -na take -ya added to the root. 
Verbs ending in -ma and -mpa, -mba, take the same. 

Kn minya, to cause to swallow. 
Kn lakamya, to cause to open. 

Kn sen ya, to cause to approach. 
Kn fnmpya, to blunt 
Kn temya, to fell with. 
Kn znmya, to dry. 
Kn ambya, to cause to speak. 

There are a few exceptions to these rules ; they will be found 
in the Vocabularies. Thus : — 

Kn mina, to swallow. 

Kn lakama, to open the 

Kn sena, to approach. 
Kn fompa, to be blunt. 
Kn tema, to fell. 
Kn znma, to be dry. 
Kn amba, to speak. 

Kn lampa, to be long. 

Note also the following: — 

Kn Iwa, to fight. 
Kn shia, to be black. 
Kn loa, to bewitch. 
Kn nwa, to drink. 

Kn lansha, to lengthen. 

Kn Iwisha, to fight against. 
Kn shizha^tomake black, dirty. 
Kn lozha, to cause to bewitch. 
Kn nwislia, to cause to drink. 

Besides the above suffixes there is another which also gives 
a causative meaning to the verb, but the idea it conveys seems 
to be slightly different. The suffix is -ika or -eka. It seems to 
be related to the stative suffix -nka, and to mean : to cause to 


be in a certain state. Some verbs have two causative forms. 
Thus :— 

Ku mena, to grow. Ku menya, to make grow. 

Ka meneka, to cause to be in 
a growing state. 
Ku ona, to sleep. Ku onya, to cause to sleep. 

Kn oneka, to cause to be in 
a sleeping state. 
Ku bomba, to be soft. Ku bonzha, to soften. 

Ku bombeka, to moisten. 
Ku bunga> to gather. Ku bungika, to cause to gather 

Ku banda, to name. Ku bandika, to converse. 

Ku vhundama, to lie on the Ku vhundamika, to lay on 
face. the face. 

Verbs with this causative suffix are liable to be confused with 
those of the capable species. 

On the uses of the causative form, note the following : — 

The causative suffix gives the idea, not only of causing, but 
also of helping to be done. Thus: ku sempuzha, from ku 
sempula, to carry, means not only to cause one to carry, but also 
to help one to carry. 

The causative suffixes have also a prepositional force, in- 
dicating to do a thing by means of, with, by. Thus : — 

Muzune u la zhunzha mababa, the bird flies with wings. 
Muntu u la tuluzha chituluzho cheohi, the person bores 

with this boring-tool. 
Ba disrazha mushinzo mulamfa, they kill themselves by a 

long journey. 

0/Aer Illustrative Sentences. 

Wezo u la ku manya midimo, he will set you to work. 

Lit. — He will you cause to finish works. 
Mwami u tu fwezhe, Sir, make us to smoke. (A request for 



Kguni n meneka maila ? Who is it causes the grain to grow ? 
Tu la ya ku disha bantu ba fwilwa mwana, we are going 

to weep with people who have lost a child. 
Leza wa ka andanya muxnoni o mushixiBe, God separated 

the light from darkness. 
Mushidishi u la ponya bantu, the physician cures people. 

Zt/, — causes-to-live people. 

3. The Beoiprooal SpeoieB. 

This expresses mutual action ; also to do something together. 
It is formed by suffixing -ana to the verbal root 


En bona, to see. Ku bonana, to see each other. 

Ku buzha, to ask. Ku buzhana, to ask each other. 

Ku Iwa, to fight. Ku Iwana, to fight together. 

Ku sula, to hate. Ku sulana, to hate each other. 

Ku fnna, to love. Ku funana, to love each other. 

Ku telela, to hear. Ku telelana, to hear each 

Ku sena, to approach. Ku senana, to approach to- 


Verbs in this species are sometimes used in an idiomatic way, 
to indicate a plural. Thus: Nda binda, I (singly) am in 
a hurry. Twa bindana, we are both in a hurry, used by two 
people. A tu tiane, let us both run. 

0/Aer Illustrative Sentences, 

^ ka twalana o mukaintu, he marries the woman. Lit. — 
They married-each-other, or together, with a woman. 

Babo ba chita mulongo ukuti ba ftmana, they make a 
covenant because they love each other. 

Bantu ba la bushana twambo, the people ask each other the 


4. The Stative Species. 

Verbs in the stative species express being in a state or con- 
dition. The suffix is -nka or -oka. Verbs found in this species 
are mostly formed not from simple verbs but from derivatives. 
Thus there are numerous transitive verbs ending in -ula or -ola, 
which have a corresponding intransitive form ending in -uka or 
-oka. These form the majority of the verbs in this species. 


Ku andnla, to split. Ku andnka, to be split ; to be 

in a split condition. 

Ku fansula, to wean. Ku fanguka, to be weaned, in 

a weaned state. 

Ku sandula, to turn. Ku sanduka, to be in a turned 


Ku tulula, to bore. Ku tuluka, to be pierced. 

Ku kosola, to cut. Ku kosoka, to be cut. 

Ku konona, to break. Ku konoka, to be broken. 

Ku euzununa, to melt. Ku enzunuka, to be molten. 

Illustrative Sentences. 

Twa ke enda o ba oh' ambuka ambuka, we went with 

people who were continually getting out of the road. (Ila 

riddle : answer, mubwa, a dog.) 
Cha tuluka chisamo, the log is pierced. Said when an auger 

has pierced a piece of timber. 
Dia kosoka isamo, the tree is cut. 
Sandula ohintu chechi, turn over this thing. Cha sanduka, 

it is turned. 
Sa mwana wezo wa fonguka P Is that child weaned ? Eya, 

nda mu fangula kale. Yes, I have weaned it already. 

5. The Capable Species. 

This gives the idea that the action expressed by the verb is 
capable of being done, or fit to be done. Verbs in this species 
correspond to English verbs ending in -able. 



The suffix is -ika or -elui ; the same as the causative suffix, 
from which it needs to be distinguished 


Ka aba» to divide. Ku abika, to be divisible. 

Ka chenga, to deceive. Ku ohengeka, to be deceivable, 


En bona, to see. Ku boneka, to be visible. 

Eu fwemba, to dislike. Eu fwembeka, to be dislike- 

able, unlovable. 

Eu mina, to swallow. Ku minika, to be swallowable. 

Eu twala, to marry. Ku twadika, to be marriage- 


Eu chita, to do. Ku chitika, to be possible to 

be done, to be fit to be done. 

Eu shoma, to trust. Ku shomeka, to be trust- 


Eu ula, to buy. Ku udika, to be saleable. 

Illustrative Sentences, 

Shidyo fiheshi sha Ohea; ta shi abika, this food is small ; 

it is not divisible, i. e. it cannot be divided and distributed. 
Hudimo wezo to chitiki, that work cannot be done. 
Shi fwine muntu wezo ; wa fwdmbeka, I don't love that 

person ; he is unlovable. 
ITda ka zanda ku uzha musune wangu ; ta udika, I wanted 

to sell my ox, but it is not saleable. 
Makani akwe a teleleka, his affairs are capable of being 


6. The Intensive Species. 

Verbs in the intensive species express the idea of the simple 
^rb intensified in meaning. The suffix has the effect of our 
adverbs very, greatly, clearly, carefully, &c. The suffix is 
'iflha or -esha, and is added to the verbal root. 



£u amba, to speak. Ku ambisha, to speak loudly. 

Ku bamba, to arrange. Ku bambisha, to arrange 

Ku beza, to carve. Ku bezesha, to carve nicely. 

Ku bona, to see. Ku bonesha, to see clearly. 

Ku langa, to look. Ku langisha, to look intently. 

Ku enda, to travel. Ku endesha, to travel swiftly. 

Ku lakama, to open the Ku lakamisha/to open widely. 

Ku bonzha, to soften. Ku bonzesha^ to make very 


Illustrative Sentences. 

A mu telelishe makani a mwami, understand well the affairs 

of the chief. 
Bezesha musako wangu, carve nicely my walking-stick. 
U ta ku tepekezha ; ambisha, don't mumble ; speak put 

We, tu le endesha. Dear me, we are going fast. 
Uwe, lakamislia, mbone mono ako, open your mouth wide 

that I may see your teeth. 
A mu langishe ; banyama nzhi badia P Look ye intendy ; 

what are yon animals ? 

7. The Beversive Species. 

Verbs in this species express just the opposite idea to those of 
the simple verbs. The suffix answers to our English prefix un-. 
The suffixes of this species are -ula or -ulula; -una or 

-ununa; -ona or -onona. 


Ku amba, to speak. Ku ambulula, to unspeak; to 

Ku yhumba, to cover. Ku vhumbulula, to uncover.. 

Ku anga, to tie. Ku angulula, to untie. Also 




Kn yala, to shut. 

En vhunga, to fold up. 

Ku bamba, to arrange. 

Ku yalula, to open. 

Ku yhmigulTila, to unfold. 

Ku bambulula. Idiom i To 

take the pegs out of a skin 

stretched out to dry. 
Ku somonona, to pull out. 

En soma, to sheathe. 

Illustrative Sentences, 

A mu vhumbulule ing*anda ezhi, uncover this house, i. e. 

unthatch it. 
ITguni owa bambulula isalo P Who unpegged the skin ? 
A mu vhungulule ingozhi sheshi, unfold this bark-string. 
Ba la sambulula koze, they untwist the string. 

8. The Bepetitive flpeoies. 

Many verbs having the suffix -ulula, &c., express not the idea 

of reversion but that of doing over and over again. These 

belong to the repetitive species. The suffix corresponds to our 

prefix re-. 


Ku ululula, to trade a thing 

Eu ula, to buy, trade. 

Eu nenga, to cut 

Eu beza, to carve. 

Eu ohita, to do, make. 
Eu shanga, to sow. 

over and over again. 
Ku nengulula, to cut up, i. e. 

again and again. 
Ku bezulula, to carve over 

again, recarve. 
Kuchitulula, to re-do, remake. 
Ku ishangulula, to resow, i. e. 

when the first sowing has 


9. The Persistent Bepetitive Species. 

Besides the above repetitive form there is another formed 
simply by inserting a before the final syllable of other verbs. It 
indicates doing a thing over and over again, to keep on doing, to 
be in the habit of doing, to do a thing gradually ; sometimes the 

K 2 


meaning is rather intensive and indicates doing something 
entirely. Often it is very difficult to tell the difference between 
verbs in this species and those from which they are formed* 

HlXi Botoka, to jump. 

Ktt sotaoka, to jump over and over again ; to hop as an 
Kn sandula, to turn over. 

Kn sandaula, to turn over and over, as in examining a 
blanket before buying. 
Ku seluka, to descend. 

Ka selaoka, to descend and ascend contmually, as any- 
thing cooking in a pot 
Ku pepula, to open, as a book. 

£u pepaula, to turn over and over, as the pages of a book. 
£n nyonkola, to pluck up anything, i. e. in one act. 

Kn nyonkaola, to pick out as in thinning out seedlings. 
Ku ohebiika, to look round. 

Kn chebanka, to keep on looking around, as when a man 
is travelling and he fears a wild beast is on his track. 
Kn hnndnka, to be dirty, of water. 

Kn hnndanka, to be altogether dirty, of water. 
Kn fwifiuka, to leave, i. e. altogether. 

Kn fwisanka, to leave in companies. 
Kn angika, to hang up, fasten up. 

Kn angaika, to fasten up, of a lot of things. 
Kn andnla, to split, i. e. in one act. 

Kii andanla, to split up, chop up, as firewood. 
Kn shindila, to ram earth, Ac. 

Kn shindaila, to ram earth by a series of actions. 

Compound Derivatiye Forms. 

These are formed by adding to the verb suffix upon suffix, 
thus vastly extending the meaning of the verb. Many examples 
will be found in the Vocabularies ; a few will suffice here. 


Causative^ekUive species^ i. e. the relative added to the causative. 

Note that the relSttive suffix is -izha or -ezha when the causative 

is -aha. 


Eu bia, to be bad, £u bota, to be good. 

Eu bisha, to destroy. Ku bosha, to make good. 

En bishizlia, to destroy for. Ka boshezlia, to gladden. 

i^u meua, to grow. 

Ku meneka, to cause to grow. 

Ku i4enekela, to cause to grow for. 

Reversive-stative species^ i. e, the stative added to the reversive. 


Eu anga, to tie. Ka katala, to be tired. 

Eu angulula, to untie. Ku katulula, to refresh. 

Eu angoliika, to be untied. Ku katoluka, to be refreshed. 

Stative-relaUm species^ i. e. the relative added to the stative. 


Eu sanduka, to be turned Ku sandukila, to be turned 

over. over towards. 

Euchinduluka, to be turned Ku chiadulukUa, to be 

round. turned round towards. 

(The root of this verb is chinda ; chindulula is the reversive, 
chinduluka, the reversive-stative ; chinduiukila, the rev.-stat-rel.) 

Rectprocal-Causative^ i. e. the caiisative added to the reciprocal. 


Eu fona, to love, Ku buzha, to ask. 

Eu ftmana, to love each Ku bushana, to ask each 

other. other. 

Eu ftmanya, to cause to Ku bushanya, to discuss. 

k)ve each other. 


■Rtlative-reciprocal, i. e. the redprocal added to the relative. 

"Sjol aba, to divide. Kn abila, to divide among. 

Kit abilana, to divide among Kn abilanya, to cause to 
each other. divide among each other. 

Note. — It is not considered polite to use in a mixed company words 
ending in nya, because of the meaning of that snffix when it stands as 
a verb by itself. So that abilanya is not always used, the word abizhana 
taking its place. 

Reverstve-reciprocaly i. e. reciprocal added to the reversive. 

Ku angolula, to untie. £n ansululana, to untie each 


Illustrative Sentences, 
Langa, wa angoluka mubwa, look, the dog is loose. 
Mn ta tu enzesha, you must not make us go quickly. 
A mu bunganye antomwi shintu shenu, gather together 

your things. 
CM nohindTiliikile, let it turn round to me. 
Bazhike ba ka angululana mashikn, the slaves untied each 

other in the night. 
IT ba abizhane tombwe, cause them to divide the tobacco 

among themselves. 
Usunn twa bomba ; tu la kattQuka ozona, to-day we are 

fatigued ; we shall be refreshed to-morrow. 

Before leaving the subject, there remain four things to be 
noted. First, while nine different species have been noted 
above, it is not to say that these are all that might be found. 
There are many verbs ending in -ala, -ama, &c., which may still 
after further study be brought into species. 

Further, it must be noticed that not every verb can take all 
the nine different forms given above*; at least they are not heard 
in ordinary speech. 


Again, there are numbers of verbs which from their appear- 
ance belong to the species named ; but either the original roots 
are lost or, where still in use, have such an entirely different 
meaning that it seems impossible to connect them in meaning 
with the derived forms. Numerous examples of this will be 
found in the Vocabularies. 

Take, for example, the rerbs longelwa, longeKha, and the noun malongo, 
aU referring to a corenant of friendship ; the root from whence they are 
derived is longa* The word longa in our Vocabnlaries means ' abandon ', and 
it is doubtful whether this is the root. They may be derived from lunga, 
* join up together,* but why the change in the vowel ? The Kongo verb 
longa, ' to cheer, console,' seems to be the root ; if so it is obsolete in Ila. 

Again the verb shingulola appears to be the reversive or repetitive form 
of shinga, bnt that verb is used only of boys reaching puberty. 

The yerb imoka appears to be the stative form of ima, but there is no 
snch word in Ila. It evidently is the word ' to stand ', as we see in other 
languages: Zulu, Shuna, ma, ema; Suto, ema; Swahili, simama; Luba, 
imana ; Nyanja, Ganda, ima ; Lamba, imakana. The Ila word is zhima ; 
like the Swahili it has now an initial consonant If imoka is derived 
from this root it would signify 'to be in a standing position *, hence, as its 
meaning is, ' to delay.* It might be possible to trace back many other Ila 
derived words in the same way. 

Note, lastly, that derived verbs, when there is no doubt as to 
their root, have very different meanings from the verbs they are 
derived from, but it is often easy to trace the development of 
meaning. See, for example, the development of meaning from 
bota to boshezha (p. 133)* 


Ila verbs are either transitive or intransitive. In transitive 
verbs the action expressed passes over to an object, e. g. Nda 
Bftncla munttt, I like a person. Intransitive verbs simply in- 
dicate a state of being or an action which has reference to no 
object, e. g. Kda fwa, I am dead ; Nda luka, I vomit. 

Transitive verbs may be made intransitive by being put into 
stative species, e. g. trans., ku tulola ; intrans., ka tuluka. 


Intransitive verbs may be made transitive by being put into 
the causative species, e. g. intrans., ku enda ; trans., ku enzha. 

Intransitive verbs put into the rejative species also become 
transitive in a way, e. g. ku lemana ; ku lemanina. 


By conjugation we mean the changes which take place in 
a verb in order to express differences or changes as to persons, 
time, or conditions, and also to show whether the agent is active 
or passive. Such changes are denoted by pronouns, tenses, 
voices, and moods. 

a. By Pronouns. 

In English the form of the verb often varies according to the 
person of the subject pronoun, thus : — I do, thou dost, he does. 
In Ila it is not so ; the verb remains unchanged and only the 
pronouns vary according to the idea to be expressed, thus : — 
K da Chita, I do ; wa chita, thou dost ; wa chita, he does. 

3. By Tenses. 

By tense we mean the change in the verb to express differences 
of time. The tenses are many and need not be enumerated 
here, as they are given in the next chapter. They may be 
divided into simple and compound, the latter being formed by 
means of auxiliaries. 

c. By Voices. 

By voice is meant the change in the verb to express whether 
the subject of the sentence is acting or is acted upon. There 
are two voices : the active, denoting that the nominative of the 
verb is the person or thing which performs the action ; and the 
passive, denoting that the nominative is the person or thing 
acted upon. 

The passive is formed from the active by suffixing -wa or -iwa 
to the verbal root. When the verb ends in e or i the passive 
suffix becomes -we, -wi; or -iwe, -iwi. 


Verbs ending in -sha, -sha^ -ya, -nya, take -iwa. 

Active. Passive. 

En bosha, to raise* Ku bti3hiwa» to be raised. 

En enzha, to lead« Ku enzMwa, to be led. 

En yaya, to kiU. Ku yayiwa, to be killed. 
En lemekisha, to honour ^u lemekishiwa, to be 

greatly. honoured greatly. 

En Imubusha, to tax. Ku lumbuzMwa, to be taxed. 

En mwaya, to scatter. Ku mwayiwa, to be scattered. 

En njizha, to put in. Ku igizhiwa, to be put in. 

En ponya> to cure, Ku ponyiwa, to be cured. 

Other verbs take -wa; and certain exceptions to the above 
rule also take -wa instead of -iwa. 

Eu bisha, to destroy. Kn. bishwa, to be destroyed. 

En bonya, to show. Ku boaywa, to be shown. 

Eu bungany a^ to gather. Ku bunganywa, to be gathered. 

Eu amba, to speak. Ku ambwa, to be spoken. 

Eu leugaila, to lead astray. Ku lengailwa, to be led astray. 

Other verbs, again, take either form of suffix. 

Eu binga, to drive, Ku bin^a, or biugiwa, to 

be driven. 
Eu kwata, to hold. Ku kwatwa, or ku kwatiwa, 

to be held. 

Notice the verb ku tewa, to be said, from ku ti, to say. 

From these examples it appears that the passire voice is very similar in 
meaning to the stative species. Indeed some Bantn grammarians (e. g. Tor- 
rend) n^ard the latter as a form of the passive ; while others (e. g. Bentley) 
term it the Middle voice. The difference between the two must be care- 
folly distinguished. What, e.g,, is the difference between Isamo di' auduka 
and Isamo di' andalwa, both meanmg the tree is split ? The difference is 
that in the passive an agent is named or at least implied, whereas in the 
>tative it is not so. Thus in the example just quoted, Isamo di' andulwa 
implies the idea that somebody has split the tree. Isamo di* andnka, on 
the other hand, rivets attention on the tree itself; the tree is simply split, 


in a split condition, whether by the agency of man or the elements is not 

This is one of the points to which attention mnst be paid if one desires 
to speak correct Ila. 

Prepositions tised with the Pa49sive. 

The passive may be followed by two indirect objects, the one 
denoting the agent who performs the action, the other denoting 
the instrument with which it was performed. Thus : He was 
killed by a man with a spear. 

In Ila, to express the agent, often no preposition is used. 
Thus :— 

Kda chengwa mxtntu, I am deceived by a man. 

Remember also the use of the indicative substantive pronoun. 
The preposition ka or kwa denotes the agent. 

Inshi ya ka btimbwa kwa Leza ktl kukanka, the earth was 
formed by God in the beginning. 

To express the instrument the preposition o is used. Thus : — 

Muntti wa angwa kwangu o koze, the person is tied by me 
with a cord. 

Notice in this connexion the use of the causative form of the 

When a verb has two objects, a direct and an indirect, it is the 
indirect object which becomes the subject when the verb is made 
passive. Thus : — 

Active : Nda udila bananga shidyo, I buy food for my children. 
Passive : Banangn ba udilwa kwangu shidyo, my children 

are bought-to food by me. 

The Baila use the passive much more than we do, for the 
reason that they seek to make the person speaking, or the sub- 
ject of conversation, the subject of the verb. This causes an 
idiom which often sounds strangely in English ears, for i^ 
necessitates intransitive verbs taking the passive. Thus : — 
Munganda momo ta mu igilwa bana, pele bakando, thi3 
house is not entered by children, only by elders. 


d. By Moods. 

By mood we mean variation in the form of the verb to 
express the manner in which the action or fact denoted by the 
verb is conceived in connexion with the subject, i. e. whether it 
is expressed as a fact or possibility or command. We admit 
five moods in Ila. 

I. — The indicative mood simply states or affirms or indicates 
that an act is done or not done. Thus : — 

KdA ka bona, I was seeing. 
Nixia ku bona, I was not seeing. 

2. — The subjunctive mood expresses condition, or doubt, or 
purpose. It is preceded, in thought if not in fact, by a conjunc- 
tion, in order that. It is also used in some cases as a command. 
It is readily distinguished, as generally the final vowel is e« 

Ea mu ya, mu ka tole shidyo, go ye (that) ye may carry food. 

3. — The potential mood expresses power, possibility, or 
liberty. Thus : — 

Tn la ka dya nzhi ? What are we to eat ? 

4. — The imperative mood expresses command or entreaty. 

Chita, do thou. Na mU ehite, do ye. 

5. — The infinitive mood simply names the act or fact without 
expressing affirmation or request or purpose, or anything. It 
therefore requires another verb to complete it in a sentence. 
The sign of the infinitive is the particle Ku. 

Nda zanda ku dya, I want to eat. 

We may say that there are two conjugations in Ila, suffi- 
ciently defined by their names: (i) the Affirmative; (2) the 


Various auxiKaries are used in conjugating the verb. 
LA : This is used in the immediate future indicative ; also in 
the present potential. 


KA: This is used (i) in the indicative to denote the past 
tense; (2) in the potential mood, of which it is the sign; (3) in 
the imperative as equivalent to * let '. 

NA : This is used in the imperative, equivalent to * let \ 

IN A : This is the verb kwina (ku ina), to be not, have not ; 
used as auxiliary in certain negative tenses. 

TA : This is used in the negative conjugation, equivalent to 
* not '. 

SHI : Used in the negative conjugation, in place of ta, in the 
I St pers. nng. 

CHI : Used in certain tenses, equivalent to * still '. 

BU : Used with similar meaning to Chi. 


Exercise 1. 

Translate into Ha : — 

Am I to cut the meat here ? Go and ask for a garden for 
me. Cook this meat for me in your pot. Leave off just there. 
Help me to some food. Tie the clothes on that rope that they 
may dry there. Come and sell me two cattle. Why do you 
delay ? Here are two boys who want to serve you. All right, 
let them wait for me, I will set them to work. Why have you 
cut up all the meat ? Why do you talk so much ? He goes to 
buy honey for me. Why did you carve the stick like this ? Go 
and recarve it. They allow us to cut wood in their garden. 
You must not defile your clothing. He gave me to taste of his 
beer. We are going to meet them to-morrow. The chief tabooes 
this thing, it is not to be done. This food satiates us. I have 
nothing to draw water with. Drop this medicine into your eye 
every day, it will cure you. He wanted to shoot the bird, but 
missed. You must not anger me. This is the axe to cut 
mopani with. Go and dry your clothes. He gave me beer to 
drink. Moisten this clay. We will converse together in the 
morning, I am busy now» The men understand each other. 
Their aifairs are capable of being understood. Why do you 


hate each other? The beeswax is molten. Who is it melted 
the beeswax ? The cup is broken* Who is it broke the cup ? 
The calf is weaned. The girl is marriageable. It is not possible 
to do this thing. This food cannot be swallowed, it is very 
hard. His power is visible to all to-day. He is a trustworthy 
person ; he does not lie, he does not steal. We travelled swiftly 
yesterday; to-day we shall refresh ourselves. You must not 
pull out grass from the roof. Unfold your tickets that I may 
mark them. Take out the pegs from the skin, it is dry now. 
We are going to resow our fields ; all the seed is dead. 

Translate into English : — 

Wezo muntu wa ka nkuzhizha mwana* Bakaintu ba ya ku 
nkumbila funku. Wezo muntu wa ka nwa funku, inzho wa ba 
mukolwi, wa kunauka. Leta menzhi manjimanji, u kupanye 
mitiba yesu yonse. A mu kweleshe kabotu isamo ledio. Wa 
labukulula tulabi twesu. Tu la mu lambizha mwami. Uwe ko 
nampizhizha ntipa yangu. A mu landulule buzane : bwa bizwa 
nzho. A mu dilangile. Twa ka landukila mwitala modia. 
Maila esu a lebuka : a tu tebule. A mu lapulule ivhu. Balomb wana 
ba bezesha ; ba tu langidizha midimo yabo* Ko ya, u nindidizhe 
bwato. Ba la ndukila chitendele. Twa lumbila mwami shintu 
nsha tu pa. Mwami wa tu lutidila, anokuti twina kambo. W^e, 
wa ndweza. Shimwina bantu babo ba mane midimo mani nka 
ba leshe. Kweza, ndo, manwina keembe kangu. Mukalo wa 
zuminina. Mwami wa nyansha muzhike. Ko ya, u ka mu 
ombolozha makani. Ngompolwela mwanangu. Tu la mu pazha 
isalo ledi, u la konzha ku padisha. Usunu nda pakasha, nina 
chindi cha ku bandika aze. A mu mpandulwile makani azo. 
Bantu babo ba la tu penzha. Twa pengela maila esu. Mu shim-* 
wine a pesulule masuso akwe. Kweza musama, mpesulwila 
masuso. Ndumbana wezo wa pumpila kutwala. Bantu ba munzhi 
ba ya ku pupumina mwenzu. Wezo muntu wa potanya makani : 
ta teleleka. U tu pompomwene makani ngu a tu ambila. Mubwa 
wa ka mu sotekela. Mwa mu sudila nzhi ? Udi mubiabe : wa 


sudika budio. Ba la tambuzhanya infuko. Twina cha ku 

tesha. U ba tu teshizhe menzhL Bulwazhi bu la twetanya 

bantu ba munzhi. 

Exercise 2. 

Explain the following derivative verbs: — 

Umanya. Ululuka. Umpuka. Vhundamikila. Nvhum- 

bulwila. Njalwila. Njizha. Nzambulwila. Zambaila. 

Zhadisha. Zhanina. Zhiminganya. Zhimbulusha. Zhoke- 

lanya. Zhibanya. Dizhibya. Zudisha. Lukankisha. Lusha. 

Nimbila. Nembela. Nengelezha. Ndetela. Nangidizhau 

Ndazha: Katazhiwa. Kadikila. Kalabisha. Kalazha. 

Ambulula. Inya. Inisha. Ibusha. Ibizha. Fumpuluka. 

Funika. Fufumushiwa. . Ebela. Embelela. Dizisha. Dimbu- 

lula. Diatikizha. Diidila. Chitulula. Zapauka. Tekunya. 

Lumbudila. jChabizha. Bulunganya. Budizha. Minzha. 

Mingisha. Binzhanya. Manzeshisha. Nganzhizha. Ngan- 


Exercise 8. 

What is the passive of the following verbs : — 

Uma. Tuma. Etnbda. Binga. Chaba. Amba. Yayila. 
Inya. Telela. Mata. lya. Sowa. Fua. Tizha. Towa. 
Sha. Zhia. Shia. 


The Hyena and the Moon. 

Kabwenga a bone ^ mwezhi ku tuba mangolezha, wa ya ku 
mulonga ku nwa menzhi. Wa yana mwezhi ku tuba u menzhi, 
* wa amba : * Chifua.' Ngonao, ' u le bila. We bile kunshi wa 
ya ku zhinzhilika ku menzhi. ^ Wa yana chifua, ku chi bona, 
pe. Wa fumpuluka. Odimwi wa bwela, we bila, wa ya ku 
zhinzhilika : ku chi bona, pe. Ngonao bushiku ^ bwa mu chela, 
wa ya budio mu kasaka, wa ya ku ona. 

Notes. — * Mwezhi ku tuba, the full moon. *Wa amba, 'Chifua*, he 
said, or thought, ' A bone.' ' U le bila^u la ibila« * Did he find a bone^ 
did he see it? No. ' Bwa mn chela, it (the day) dawned upon him. 


The Hare and the Moon. 

Mwezhi o sulwe ba ka Iwa : ^ ba ka Iwila a nyemo. Sulwe 
ati : ' ' Nda ku dya inyemo.' Mwezhi wa amb'ati : Ome, nda 
ya ku chita mumoni/ Sulwe wa amb*ati: *Tu andane, 
mukwesu/ Mwezhi wa amb'ati : ' E.' Bu che budio ba fuma 
budio, sulwe wa ya ku buzha ku mwezhi, ati : " Sena u chi 
bandika makani a 'zona ngu wa ka amb'ati : Tu la andana ? 
* Tu be fu diomwi. Inzho usunu tu andane. Uwe u ka chite 
mumoni: ome nda shala 'nshi.' Ngonao ba andana. Umwi 
sulwe wa shala ku mwezhi : umwi wa ke za 'nshi. 

Notes. — ^ Ba ka Iwila a nyemo, they fought about groimd-nuts. ' Nda 
ka dya, I am going to eat. ' Do you still speak the affairs of yesterday, 
which you said. * Tu be fn diomwi •■ Tu ba ifn, Let us be one stomach. 
This tale gives the explanation of how the hare came to be in the moon; we 
talk of the man in the moon, the Baila of the hare. 

The Leopard and the Cheetah. 

Ushiluwe ba ka andana o malama. Ushiluwe wa ka luma 
ngombe ya mwami, ^ e lume budio wa lambaizha buloa bwa 
ngombe ku malama. Bu che budio ba hula: ba yana ati 
ing'orobe imwi te o, ba amba: 'A mu ompolole malama o 
munina shiluwe, tu ba buzhe ku yaya ng'ombe ya mwami.' • Ba 
shike budio ba ba buzha, ba amb'ati : ' Shiluwe.' Wa ingula, 
ati : ' Wa amba nzhi, mwami ? ' Ati mwami : ' Ing'ombe yomwi 
te o imwi.' Ushiluwe wa amb'ati : * Ome, mwami, * shi bwene.' 
Aze malama ati : ' Ame mwami shi bwene.' Ushiluwe chi be 
chindi odimwi wa ingula, ati: 'Mwami 'bukadi bobo ^u la 
bona u kwete buloa ku mulomo o ku matashi ngu bwene 
ing'ombe yaka' Ngonao mwami wa langa ku mulomo wa 
shiluwe o ku matashi. A zhole budio dinso kwa malama wa 
bona buloa ku mulomo o ku matashi : ngonao wa tuma nguwena 
munina shiluwe, wa mu kwata, wa amb'ati: 'Inzho uwe, 
ushiluwe, * ka be mukadi ku bantu o ku banyama. Uwe uma- 
lama, ku ka luma bombe^ ba ka ku yaye beni ngombe.' Ngonao 
obudisunu malama a yana ngombe u la mu luma. Nikuba 


bobo aze shiluwe u chi luma bombe o bantu. Ta ba andana 
chinichini. * Bubona mbu ba ta andana ku mabala a malama a 
shiluwe, wa amb'ati : * Tia, malama/ — ku la tia shiluwe. Wa 
amb'ati : ' Tia shiluwe/ — kwa tia malama. Ukuti ba la kozhana 
shianza shabo* Ka mana. 

Notes. — ^ £ lame budio a i + i, as soon as he bit it. ' Shi bwene » 
shi i bwene, I have not seen it. ' Bukadi bobo, as it is so, if so. ^ Yon will 
see who has blood on his mouth and hands it is who has seen your beast. 
' Ka be mukadi, or u ka be, you may be fierce, or be you fierce. * Just as 
they do not differ in colour. 

The Hare and Momba. 

Sulwe o momba ba ka ya ku nwa mukuku: ba amb'ati: 

* Bukoko * ta bu nwi u ina meya.' Sulwe a telele bobo, wa 
dibuixibidila bunvuka ku mutwi, ati ' ba ambe meya. Ba ya ku 
bukoko. A shike, sulwe wa kadila ku mudilo. Momba wa 
kala ku mudiango, Ba ba pa bukoku. Momba ati : ' Di enzunuka 
imvuka.' Usulwe wa ingula, ati : ' Momba u la kumbila buse.' 
Ba mu pa. Wa langidila kwa sulwe, wa bona bunvuka mbu a 
dibumbidila bwe enzunuka, bwa kanka ku kunka. Momba wa 
amb'ati : ' Di enzunuka imvuka.' Usulwe odimwi wa amb'ati : 

* Momba u la kumbila buse.* Ba mu pa. Wa nwa. Odimwi 
imvuka dia enzunuka odia sulwe : ' ku kulukanka wa lukanka 
sulwe, wa vhwa mo munganda* * Mbwa ka ba chenga sulwe. 

Notes. — ^ Ta bn nwi n ina meya, he may not drink it who has no horns. 
' Ba ambe meya, that they may say horns, i. e. that they may take them 
for horns. ' Ku kulukanka wa lukanka (an emphatic expression), by 
running he ran, i. e. he ran hard. * That is how Sulwe deceived them. 

The Hare and the Jackal. 

Sulwe wa amb'ati : * Tu ya tu ka dye inyemo, mwaba.' Ba 
ya ba shike ku chinyemo, ba fumba inyemo. ^ Shi ba kole, bo 
ona ; kangasulwe ka buka, ka sha chidindi, ka zhika muchila wa 
mwaba. Ka shindaila ko. Ka mane ku shindaila ka mu 
busha, ka amb'ati : ' Buka, ndo, ba shika bantu. Ba la tu yaya. 
' Tu ku ya.' Kalo ka lukanka. Mwenzhina wa kachilwa ku 


lukanka ba mu yana babo bantu obadi inyemo. Ba yaya wezo 
mwaba. Mbwa ka mu chenga bobo mwenzbina. 

NoTftS. — ^ Shi ba kole, when they, i. e. the ntits, had made them drank. 
The idea is that nuts affect them as beer does men. ' Tu ka ya, let's be 

Th& Hars and the Lion. 

Kangasulwe ka yana shumbwa, ati : 'A tu ende tu ka sobane 
^bu twa ku sobana o bachisha bamuzovu/ Shumbwa wa 
ingula, ati : ' A tu ende.' Ba shike, shumbwa wa diza kwisamo : 
sulwe wa langa ibwe ikando ikando. Ibwe ledio wa di tola 
shumbwa kwisamo. Ushumbwa ' ni a ti a fusile afwafwi, sulwe 
wa amb'ati : ' Pe, ko ya chinichini kodia ku matovu, ame ' nchi 
dibamba mono munshi.' Sulwe wa chela matovu, u la tafuna. 
Aze shumbwa ^ wa leka ibwe, sulwe wa lakama. A bone budio 
ati dia shika afwafwi sulwe wa sotoka o, wa lea, dia wila anji. 
Di we budio ibwe, sulwe wa lapwila o matovu * ebwe awo, wa 
shimwina shumbwa, ati : ' To bwene ntu tubiabe totu/ Ushumbwa 
wa vumina, ati : ' £. Ame inzho nda lakamsu Aze inzho u 
di dizike ibwe kwizeulu kwisamo.' Sulwe wa di tola : ushumbwa 
munshi wa lakama, sulwe wa ya ku matovu ku mpela, wa ya ku 
di leka ibwe koko. Shumbwa wa lakama, a bona ati, dia shika 
afwafwi ibwe, wa lakamisha chinichini. A lakame bobo, ibwe 
dia shikila a meno, meno onse a mana ku fwa. Shumbwa aze 
wa fwa. Sulwe a seluke budio, wa amb^ati : ' Ame nda zowa. 
Baba bamuzesu ba lakama buti ? Ome, nda ba ambila, ati : na 
mu lakamishe chinichini. Balo ba la lakama kashonto budio. 
Kambo kako inzho ba diyazha beni. Komwi nda chenga baba 
bachisha.' A mane bobo, wa lukanka, wa ya. 

Notes. — * As we were playing with my uncles the elephants. * When 
he was aboat to throw near. ' I am still arranging, or placing, myself 
here below. *He threw the stone. 'Ebwe awo^^a ibwe awo, there on 
the stone. 



In the following paradigm the essential tenses of the verb are 
g^ven. Many of them are given in full, not only with the pro- 
nouns in the first, second, and third persons, but also with nouns 
of the various classes in the third person. While this plan 
involves a considerable space in the grammar, it will, it is hoped, 
render the study of the verb easier to the student. 

No separate paradigm is necessary for the passive voice, as no 
change takes place except the insertion of w, as explained in the 
previous chapter. 



I. Present Tense. 
Prtmoun form, 

Kdi bona, or mbona, I see. Tu bona, we see. 
XT bona, thou seest. Mu bona, you see. 

XT bona, he sees. Ba bona, they see. 

Noun form. 

1. Muntu u bona, the person sees. 
Bantu ba bona, people see. 

2. Mudilo u tenta, fire burns. 
Midilo i tenta, fires burn. 

3. Isamo di mena, the tree grows. 
Masamo a mena, the trees grow. 

4. Buzune bu ulnka, the bird flies. 
Maziine a uluka, birds fly. 


5. Slutwi ka ohisa, the ear pains. 
Matwi a chisa, ears pain. 

6. Kashimbi ka sobana^ the girl plays. 
Tushimbi ta sobana, girls play. 

7. Chinta ohi bonwa, the thing is seen. 
Shinta shi bonwa, things are seen. 

8. Impongo i dila, the goat bleats. 
Impongo shi dila, goats bleat. 

9. Lumo lu koBola, the razor cuts. 
Imo shi koBola, razors cut. 

9a. Lupidi lu budika, the bill appears. 
Mapidi a bndika, the hills appear. 

N.B. — ^lliis tense is found only in relative clauses ; Mantu « bona, &c., 
will also read * the person who sees '. Generally the immediate fnUre, Ndi 
Is bona, or the aorist Nda bona is osed with a present meanin^^ 

2. Present Tense: Another Form. 
Pronoun form, 

Kdi di mu ku bona» I am Tudi ma ku bona, we are 

seeing. seeing. 

Udi mu ku b<ma, thou art Mudi mu ku bona» you are 

seeing. seeing. 

ITdimukubona^ he is seeing. Badi mu ku bon% they are 

Noun form. 

1. Muntu udi mu ku bona» the person is seeing. 
Bantu badi mu ku bona, the people are seeing. 

2. Mudilo udi mu ku tenta, the fire is burning. 
Midilo idi mu ku tenta, the fires are burning. 

&c., &c. 

N.6. — This tense indicates that the subject of the verb is at present 
actually engaged in doing or sufTering the action. It means literally, 
'I am in to see* or '^ I am in seeing* — the mu bemg the preposition in. 
Jut as we say^ ' He k in the mA cS doing sa* 

L 2 


3. Present Progressive Tense. 

Pronoun form, 

Kchi bona, I still see. Tu eM bona, we still see. 

XT chi bona, thou still seest. Mu chi bona, you still see. 
XT chi bona, he still sees. Ba chi bona, they still see. 

Noun form, 

1. Montu a chi bona, the person still sees. 
Bantu ba chi bona, the people still see. 

2. Monzhi u chi budika, the village still appears. 
Minzhi i chi budika, the villages still appear. 

3. Isamo di chi mena, the tree still grows. 
Masamo a chi mena, the trees still grow. 

4. Buzune bn ohi uluka, the bird still flies. 
Mazune a ohi uluka, the birds still fly. 

5. Kutwi ku ohi chisa, the ear still pains. 
Matwi a ohi ohisa, the ears still pain. 

6. Kashimbi ka ohi sobana, the girl still plays. 
Tushimbi tu chi sobana, the girls still play. 

7. Ghintu chi chi bonwa, the thing is still seen. 
Shintu shi chi bonwa, the things are still seen. 

8. Impongo i chi dila, the goat still bleats. 
Impongo shi chi dila, the goats still bleat. 

9. Lwizhi lu chi yosa, the flood still abates. 
Inyizhi shi chi yosa, the floods stiU abate. 

9a. Lupidi lu ohi budika, the hill still appears. 
Mapidi a ohi budika, the hills still appear. 

4* Past Imperfect Tense. 

Pronoun form, 

Nda ku bona, I was seeing. Twa ku bona, we were seeing. 
Wa ku bona, thou wert seeing. Mwakubona, you were seeing. 
Wa ku bona, he was seeing. Ba ku bona, they were seeing. 


Noun form. 

1. Muntu wa ka bona, the person was seeing. 
Bantu ba ku bona, the people were seeing. 

2. Mnnzhi wa ku bonwa, the village was being seen. 
Minahi ya ku bonwa, the villages were being seen. 

3. Isamo dia ku mena, the tree was growing. 
Masamo a ku mena, the trees were growing. 

4. Buzune bwa ku uluka, the bird was flying. 
Mazune a ku uluka, the birds were flying. 

5. Eutwi kwa ku ohisa, the ear was being painful. 
Matwi a ku chisa, the ears were being painful. 

6. Kashimbi ka ku sobana, the girl was playing. 
Tushimbi twa ku sobana, the girls were playing. 

7. Chintu cha ku bonwa, the thing was being seen. 
Shintu sha ku bonwa, the things were being seen. 

8. Impongo ya ku dila, the goat was bleating. 
Impongo sha ku dila, the goats were bleating. 

9. Lwimbo Iwa ku imbwa, the song was being sung. 
Inyimbo sha ku imbwa, the songs were being sung. 

9a. Lupidi Iwa ku budika, the hill was appearing. 
Mapidi a ku budika, the hills were appearing. 

N.B. — This tense denotes what was being done at some past time. It may 
also indicate something that will take place shortly. It is formed by placing 
the aorist before the infinitive of the verb. 

5. Imperfect Progressive Tense. 
To form this simply place chi before the verb in the above 
examples. Thus : Kda ku chi bona, I was still seeing. 

6. Imperfect Habitual Tense. 
Pronoun form. 

Nda ku ya bu bona, I was Twa kuyabu bona, we were 

going seeing. going seeing. 

Wa ku ya bu bona, thou Mwa ku ya bu bona, you 

wert going seeing. were going seeing. 

Wa ku ya bu bona« he was Ba ku ya bu bona, they were 

going seeing. going seeing. 


Noun form, 

I. Munta wa ku ya bu bona, the person was going seeing. 
Bantu ba ku ya bu bona, the people were going seeing. 
&c., &c. 

N.B. — ^The meaning of this tense is best expressed in the English eqniva* 
lents given above. It indicates that the two actions of going (in thooght) 
and seeing were carried on simultaneously. This tense would be employed 
in translating such sentences as : He was going about collecting taxes, wa 
ka ya bu lumbuzha. 

7. Aoriat Tense. 
Pronoun form, 

Nda bona, I saw. Twa bona, we saw. 

Wa bona, thou sawest. Mwa bona, you saw. 

Wa bona, he saw. Ba bona, they saw. 

Noun form, 

1. Muntu wa bona, the pers(m saw. 
Bantu ba bona, the people saw. 

2. Munzhi wa budika, the village appeared. 
Minzhi ya budika, villages appeared. 

3. Isamo dia mena, the tree grew. 
ICasamo a mena, the trees grew. 

4. Buzune bwa uluka, the bird flew. 
Mazune a uluka, the burds flew. 

5. Kutwi kwa chiBa, the ear pained. 
Matwi a chisa, the ears pained. 

6. Eashimbi ka sobana, the girl played. 
Tushinibi twa sobana, the girls played. 

f . Chintu oha bonwa, the thing was seen. 
Shintu sha bonwa, the things were seen. 

8. Impongo ya dila, the goat bleated 
Impongo sha dila, the goats bleated. 

9. Iiwimbo Iwa imbwa, the song was sung. 
Inyimbo sha imbwa, the songs were sung. 


9a.Iiupidi Iwa budika, the hill appeared 
Mai»di a budika, the hills appeared 

N.6. — ^Following the example of Kaffir grammartaDS we call this tense 
the aozist, hot in Ila it does not always denote what is absolutely past In 
Uadt, with slight cha|iges in acoen^ it may express anything, past, present, or 

I. It sometimes answers to the English perfect, expressing an action 
accomplished, thns : Wa ya, he has gone, i» e. and is still away. 

3. Hence it is commonly used with a present meaning. Nda bona, 
I see. 

3. It is used as an historical past and in narratives follows the preterite 
or imperfect ; e. g. Nda ka ma fona, nda ma yovwa, I loved him, I helped 

4. With a slight change In accent it has a fnttire meaning : Nda ya, I am 
going, or I will go. The explanation of this usage seems to be that the 
action though not yet accomplished in fact is accomplished in thought. 

8. Aorist FrogressiTe Tense* 

To form this simply place ohi between the pronoun and the 
verb, thus : Nda ohi bona, I still saw. 

9. Aorist Habitual Tense. 

This is formed by placing the particle bu between the pro- 
noun and verb, thus : Nda ya bu bona, I went or I go seeing. 

xo. Fast or Freterite Tense. 

Pronoun form* 

Hda ka bona, I saw, I did see. Twa ka bona, we did see. 

Wa ka bona, or ko bona, Mwa ka bona, you did see. 

thou didst see. 

Wa ka bona, m- ka bona, he Ba lea bona, or ka ba bona, 

did see. they saw, they did see. 

Noun form, 

1. Muntu wa ka bona, or ka bona, the person did see. 
Bantu ba ka bcma, or ka ba bona, the people did see. 

2. Mudilo wa ka tenta, or ka tenta, the fire did burn. 
Lo ya ka tenta, or ka tenta, the fires did burn. 


3. Isamo dia ka mena, or ka di mena, the tree did grow. 
Masamo a ka mena, or ka mena, the trees did grow. 

4. Busline bwa ka iiluka, or ka bu uluka, the bird did fly. 
Mazune a ka uluka, or ka uluka, the birds did fly. 

5. Kutwi kwa ka chisa, or ka ku chisa, the ear was painful. 
Matwi a ka chisa, or ka chisa, the ears were painful. 

6. Kashimbi ka ka sobana, the girl played. 

Tusbimbi twa ka sobana, (^r ka tu sobana, the girls 

7. Cbintu cha ka bonwa, or ka chi bonwa, the thing 

was seen. 
Shintu 8ha ka bonwa, or ka shi bonwa, the things 
were seen. 

8. Impongo ya ka dila, or ka dila, the goat did bleat. 
Impongo sha ka dila, or ka shi dila, the goats did bleat. 

9. Lwimbo Iwa ka imbwa, or ka lu imbwa, the song 

was sung. 
Inyimbo sha ka imbwa, or ka shi imbwa, the songs 

were sung. 
9a. Lupidi Iwa ka budika, or Isa Vol budika, the hill did 

Mapidi a ka budika, or ka budika, the hills did appear. 

N.B. — This teose denotes what was completely done at some time past. 
Notice the two forms according as the particle ka precedes or succeeds the 
pronoun. No rule can be given as to when to use the one or the other ; they 
can be used alternatively as desired, except that in the relative clauses the 
first form is employed. When the verb begins with a vowel changes take 
place according to rules given in Chapter II. • 

II. Fast Tense: Another Form* 

This is formed by means of the particle ka, and the perfect 
form of the verb. 

Pronoun form, 
Chi mbwene, I did see. Ka tu bwene, we did see. 

Eo bwene, thou didst see. Ka ma bwene, you did see. 

Ka bwene, he did see. Ka ba bwene, they did see. 


Noun form. 

1. Mttntu ka bwene, the person did see. 
Bantn ka ba bwene, the people did see. 

2. Munzhi ko bwenwe, the village was seen. 
lOnzhi ke bwenwe, the villages were seen. 

3. Isamo ka di menene, the tree did grow. 
Masamo ka menene, the trees did grow. 

4. Buzane ka bu ikilwe, the meat was cooked. 
Mazane ka ildlwe, the meats were cooked. 

5. Kutwi ka ka ohisile, the ear was painful. 
Matwi ka ohisile, the ears were painful. 

6. Kashimbi ka ka sobanine, the girl did play. 
Tushimbi ka tu sobanine, the girls did play. 

7. Chintu ka ohi ehikile, the thing did arrive. 
Shinta ka shi shikile, the things did arriv^e. 

8. Impongo ka didile, the goat bleated. 
Impongo ka ahi didile, the goats bleated. 

9. Iiumo ka lu koeolele, the razor cut 
Imo ka shi kosolele, the razors cut. 

9a. Lupidi ka In budikile, the hill appeared. 
Mapidi ka budikile, the hills appeared. 

12. Fast ProgressiYe Tense. 

This is formed by merely placing ohi before the verb in 
No. lOy thus : Nda ka ohi bona, I did still see. 

13. Fast Habitual Tense. 

The form for this is : !Nda ka ya bu bona, I went seeing. 
Muntu wa ka ya bn bona, the person went seeing, &c. 

14. Ferfect Tense. 
Pronoun form. 

Ndi bwene, I have seen. Tudi bwene, we have seen. 

Udi bwene, thou hast seen. Mndi bwene, you have seen. 
ITdi bwene, he has seen. Badi bwene, they have seen. 


Noun form. 

1. ICunta udi bwene, the person has seen. 
Bantu badi bwene, the people have seen. 

2. Mudilo udi tentele, the fire has burnt. 
Midilo idi tentele, the fires have burnt 

3. Isamo did! menene, the tree has grown. 
Masamo adi menene, the trees have grown. 

4. Bazune budi ulnkile, the bird has flown. 
Mazune adi ulukile, the birds have flown. 

5. Eutwi kudi ohisile, the ear is psunful. 
Matwi adi chisile, the ears are painfuL 

6. Eashimbi kadi sobanine, the girl has played. 
Tushinibi tudi sobanine, the girls have played. 

7. Chintu chidi bwenwe, the thing has been seen. 
Shintu Bbidi bwenwe, the things have been seen. 

8. Impongo idi didile, the goat has bleated, 
Impongo shidi didile, the goats have bleated. 

9. Lumo ludi kosolele, the razor has cut. 
Imo shidi kosolele, the razors have cut. 

9a. Iiufu ludi shikile, death has arrived. 
Mafu adi sbikile, deaths have arrived 

N.B. — The perfect tense and those tenses formed from it are the only 
ones that are formed by means of suffixes. The general rule is that the 
suffix -ile or -ele is suffixed to the root of the verb, but, as in the case of the 
relative suffix which it resembles, it undergoes some modification. 
Verbs ending in -na take -ine or -ene or -wene, 
,, „ -mba take -ene, 
„ „ -ama change -ame into -eme, 
M „ -ata change -ata into -ete, 
,, „ >ala change -ala into -ele. 
Intransitive verbs in the perfect tense denote being in a certain state. 
Thus, above, kutwi kudi chisile means that the ear is painful. Bantu badi 
bambene, the people have arranged themselves side by side and axe now in 
that position. Isamo didi chieme, the tree is across. 

It will be noticed that the particle di is appended to the pronoun. In 
relative clauses this is dropped. Muntu 11 bwene, the person who has 
seen, Ace. 


See Chapter IV, SectioBS i, 2, lor the uses of verbs is this tense as 

Certain verbs are used mostly in the perfect form, e.g. kwete (from 
kwata), when used in the sense of ' have ' ; fwine from ku fona, to love, &c. 

15. PluperflBot Tense. 
Pronoun form, 

Nda ku bwene, I had seen. Twa kn bwene, we had seen. 

Wa ku bwene, thou hadst Mwa ku bwene, you had 

seen. seen. 

Wa ku bwene, he had seen. Ba ku bwene, they had seen. 

Noun form. 

1. Muntu wa ku bwene, the person had seen. 
Bantu ba ku bwene, the people had seen. 

2. Mudilo wa ku tentele, the fire had burnt. 
Midilo ya ku tMitele, the fires had burnt. 

&c., &c. 

N«B.^ — ^This tense indicates something that had taken place before some- 
thing else had happened, thns: Chi nta na kn shika nda kn ma bwene, 
before I arrived I saw him. It is formed out of the imperfect and perfect 

16. Perfisct ProgressiYe Tense. 

This is formed merely by inserting chi before the verb in the 

perfect tense. Muntu u chi bwene, the person has still 

seen, &c. 

17. Immediate Future Tense. 

Pronoun form. 

ITdi la bona, I am about to Tu la bona, we are about to 

see, I shall see. see, we shall see. 

U la bona, thou wilt see, &c. Mu la bona, you will see. 

XT la bona, he will see. Ba la bona, they will see. 

Noun form. 

I. Muntu u la bona, the person will see. 
Bantu ba la bona, the people will see. 
• 2. Mudilo u la tenta, the fire will burn. 
Midilo i la tenta, the fires will burn. 


3. Isamo di la mena, the tree m\\ grow, 
Masamo a la mena, the trees will grow. 

4. Buzune bu la uluka, the bird will fly. 
Mazune a la uloka, the birds will fly. 

5. Kutwi ku la chisa, the ear will pain. 
Matwi a la chisa, the ears will pain. 

6. Eashimbi ka la sobana, the girl plays. 
Tnshimbi tu la bobana, the girls will play. 

7. Chintu cM la bonwa, the thing will be seen. 
Shintu shi la bonwa, the things will be seen. 

8. Impongo i la dila, the goat will bleat. 
Impongo shi la dila^ the goats will bleat. 

9. Lumo lu la kosola, the razor will cut. 
Imo shi la kosola, the razors will cut. 

9a. Lupidi lu la budika, the hill will appear. 
Mapidi a la budika, the hills will appear. 

N.B. — This is a very extensively used tense. It is used with three meanings, 
I am about to see, 1 shaU see, I am seeing, &c. 

18. Immediate Future Habitual Tense. 

The form of this is : Kdi la ya bu bona, I shall go seeing, 
I am going seeing, &c. 

19. Future Tense (1). 
Pronoun form. 

Nka la bona, I shall see. Tu ka la bona, we shall see. 

IT ka la bona, thou shalt see. Mu ka la bona, you will see. 
U ka la bona, he will see. Ba ka la bona, they will see. 

Noun form, 

1. Muntu u ka la bona, the person shall see. 
Bantu ba ka la bona, the people shall see. 

2. Mudilo u ka la tenta, the fire will bum. 
Midilo i ka la tenta, the fires will burn. 

3. Isamo di ka la mena, the tree will grow. 
Masamo a ka la mena, the trees will grow. 


4. BnzTine bu ka la uluka, the bird will fly. 
Maziine a ka la uluka, the birds will fly* 

5. Kutwi ku ka la ohisa, the ear will pain. 
Matwi a ka la chisa, the ears will pain. 

6. Kashimbi ka ka la sobana, the girl will play. 
Tushimbi tu ka la sobana, the girls will play. 

7. CMnta ohi ka^ la bonwa, the thing will be seen. 
Shintu shi ka la bonwa, the things will be seen. 

8. Impongo i ka la dila, the goat will bleat. 
Impongo shi ka la dila, the goats will bleat. 

9. Lumo lu ka la kosola, the razor will cut. 
Imo shi ka la kosola, the razors will cut. 

9a. Lupidi lu ka la budika, the hill will appear. 
Mapidi a ka la budika, the hills will appear. 

20. Future Tense (2), 

This tense is the same in form as the preterite Kda ka 
bona, but with a slightly different pronunciation. The action 
to be done is regarded as already done. So, when Baila attempt 
to speak Suto, they often say Be tsamaile, we have gone, 
when they mean Bea tsamaea, or re tla tsamaea, we are 
going, we shall go. 

21. Future Tense (3). 

This is the same as the aorist, with a slightly different pro- 
nunciation, Nda bona, I shall see, &c. The same remarks 
apply as above. 

22. Future Tense (4). 
Pronoun form. 

Ndi la ya ku bona, I shall Tu la ya ku bona, we shall 

S66. see* 

n la ya ku bona, thou wilt Mu la ya ku bona, thou wilt 

see. see. 

U la ya ku bona, he will see. Ba la ya ku bona, they will 



Noun form. 

I. Muntu u la ya ku bona, the person will see. 
Bantu ba la ya ku bona, the people will see. 
&c., &c. 

N.B. — ^The literal mesning of Ndi U ya kn bona is, I am going to see. 
It indicates something about to happen Texy soon. , 

23. Future Frogrenive Tense. 

This is formed by inserting chi before the verb in the first 
future tense, thus : Muntu u ka la chi bona^ the person will 
still see. 

24. Future Habitual Tense. 

This is formed from the first future tense by inserting bu 
before the verb, thus : Muntu u ka la ya bu bona^ the person 
will go seeing. 


I. Fresent Tense. 

Pronoun form, 

Nka bona, I may or can see. Tu ka bona, we may see, &c. 
n ka bona, thou mayest see. Mu ka bona, you may see. 
U ka bona, he may see* Ba ka bona, they may see. 

Noun form. 

1. Muntu u ka bona, the person may see. 
Bantu ba ka bona, the people may see. 

2. Mudilo u ka tenta, the fire may burn. 
Midilo i ka tenta, the fires may burn. 

&c., &c. 

N.B.~This corresponds to the indicative present ndi bona, ftc, and like 
it is fonnd mostly if not solely in relative clauses. 


2. Immediate Fature Tense. 

Pronoun form. 

ITdi la ka bona, I may be Tn la ka bona> we may be 

seeing. seeing. 

U la ka bona, thou mayest Mu la ka bona, you may be 

be seeing. seeing. 

XT la ka bona, he may be Ba la ka bona, they may be 

seeing. seeing. 

Noun form. 

1. Muntn u la ka bona, the person may be seeing, or may see. 
Bantu ba la ka bona, the people may be seeing, or may see. 

2. Mudilo u la ka tenta, the fire may burn. 
Midilo i la ka tenta, the fires may bum. 

3. Isamo di la ka mena, the tree may grow. 
Masamo a la ka mena, the trees may grow. 

4- Busnne bu la ka olnka, the bird may fly. 
Mazune a la ka oluka, the birds may fly. 

5. Eutwi ka la ka ohisa, the ear may pain. 
Matwi a la ka ohisa, the ears may pain. 

6. Eashimbi ka la ka sobana, the girl may play. 
Tnshimbi tn la ka sobana, the girls may play. 

7. Chintu obi la ka bonwa, the thing may be seen. 
Shintu shi la ka bonwa, the things may be seen. 

8. Impongo i la ka fwa, the goat may die. 
Impongo shi la ka fwa, the goats may die. 

9. Ltuno In la ka sweka, the razor may be lost. 
Imo shi la ka sweka, the razors may be lost. 

9a. Lupidi lu la ka bndika, the hill may appear. 
Mapidi a la ka bndika, the hills may appear. 

N.B. — ^This corresponds to the indicative immediate future tense, and like 
it, as shown in the above examples, is often used with, a present meaning. 

3. Imperfect Tense. 

This is formed by inserting the particle ka before the verb in 
the indicative imperfect. Thus : Nda ku ka bona, I might or 
could see. 


4. Perfect Tense. 

This is formed by inserting the particle ka before the verb in 
the indicative perfect. Thus: Kdi ka bwene, I should or 
would have seen. 

5. Future Tense. 
Pronoun form, 

Nka ka bona, it may be I Tu ka ka bona, it may be we 

shall see. shall see. 

IT ka ka bona, it may be thou Mu ka ka bona, it may be 

wilt see. you shall see. 

IT ka ka bona, it may be he Ba ka ka bona, it may be 

will see. they will see. 

Noun form, 

I. Muntu u ka ka bona, it may be the person will see. 
Bantu ba ka ka bona, it may be the people will see. 
&c., &c. 

For notes on the use of the subjunctive mood, see Chap. XL 

t. Present Tense. 

Pronoun form. 

Mbone, (that) I see. TU bone, (that) we see. 

n bone, (that) thou see. MtL bone, (that) you see. 

A bone, (that) he see. Ba bone, (that) they see* 

Noun form. 

1. Muntu u bone, (that) the person see* 
Bantu ba bone, (that) the people see. 

2. Mudilo u tente, (that) the fire burn. 
Midilo i tente, (that) the fires bum. 

3. Isamo di mene, (that) the tree grow. 
Masamo a mene, (that) the trees grow. 

4. Buzune bu uluke, (that) the bird fly. 
Mazune a uluke, (that) the birds fly. 


5. Kutwi ku ohise, (that) the ear pain. 
Matwi a chise, (that) the ears pain. 

6. Kashimbi ka sobane, (that) the girl play. 
Tushimbi tu sobane, (that) the girls play. 

7. Chintu ohi bonwe, (that) the thing be seen. 
Shintu shi bonwe, (that) the things be seen. 

8. Impongo i fwe, (that) the goat die. 
Impongo shi twe, (that) the goats die. 

9. Lmno lu kosole, (that) the razor cut. 
Imo shi kosole, (that) the razors cut. 

9a. Lupidi lu budike, (that) the hill appear. 
Mapidi a budike, (that) the hills appear. 

2. Present Tense: Another Form. 

Pronoun form, 

Ndu ku bona, (that) I see. Tu ku bona, (that) we see. 
U ku bona, (that) thou see. Mu ku bona, (that) you see. 
A ku bona, (that) he see. Ba ku bona, (that) they see. 

Noun form, 

I. Muntu a ku bona, (that) the person see. 
Bantu ba ku bona, (that) the people see. 
&c., &c. 

3. Future Tense. 
Pronoun form, 

Nka bone, (that) I may see. Tu ka bone, (that) we may 

XT ka bone, (that) thou may Mu ka bone, (that) you may 

A ka bone, (that) he may see. Ba ka bone, (that) they may 

Noun form. 

1. Muntu a ka bone, (that) the person may see. 
Bantu ba ka bone, (that) the people may see. 

2. Mudilo u ka tente, (that) the fire may bum. 
Midilo i ka tente, (that) the fires may bum. 


3. Isamo di ka mene, (that) the ti'ee may grow. 
Masamo a ka mene, (that) the trees may grow. 

4. Buzune ba ka oluke, (that) the bird, may fly. 
Mazmie a ka ttluke, (that) the birds may fly. 

5. Kashimbi ka ka sobane, (that) the girl may play. 
Tushimbi tu ka sobane, (that) the girls may play. 

6. Kutwi ku ka chise, (that) the ear may pain. 
Matwi a ka chise, (that) the ears may pain. 

7. Chintu chi ka bonwe, (that) the thing may be seen. 
Shintu shi ka bonwe, (that) the things may be seen. 

8. Impongo i ka fwe, (that) the goat may die. 
Impongo shi ka fwe, (that) the goats may die. 

9. Lumo In ka kosole, (that) the razor may cut. 
Imo shi ka kosole, (that) the razors may cut. 

9a. Lupidi lu ka budike, (that) the hill may appear. 
Mapidi a ka bndike, (that) the hills may appear. 

4. Future Temie : Another Fomr. 

Pronoun form, 

Nka ku bona, (that) I may Tu ka ku bona, (that) we 

see. may see. 

U ka ku bona, (that) thou Mu ka ku bona, (that) you 

may see. may see. 

A ka ku bona, (that) he may Ba ka ku bona, (that) they 

see. may see. 

Noun form, 
I. Muntu a ka ku bona, (that) a person may see. 
Bantu ba ka ku bona, (that) people may see. 
&c., &c. 

I. Present Tense: Simple Form. 
Singular : Bona, see thou. Plural: (wanting). 

Augmented Form. 
This is formed with the help of the auxiliaries Sa> Na> A. 


The first is followed by the pronouns and by the verb in its 
simple fonn. The two latter particles are followed by the verb 
in its subjunctive form. 

First form : Ka. 
Pronoun form* 

Ka nda ya, let me go. Ka ta ya, let us ga 

Ko ya (ka u), go thou. Ka mu jra, go ye. 

Ea ya (ka a ya), let him go. Ka ba ya, let them go. 

Noun form. 

1. Muntu ka bona, let the person see. 
Bantu ka ba ya, let the people go. 

2. Mudilo ko tenta, let the fire burn. 
Midilo ke tenta, let the fires bum. 

3. Isamo ka di rnena^ let the tree grow. 
Masamo ka mena, let the trees grow. 

4. Buzone ka bu oluka, let the bird fly. 
Mazune ka ulnka, let the birds fly. 

5> Eashimbi ka ka sobana, let the girl play. 
Tushimbi ka tn sobana, let the girls play. 

6. Eutwi ka ku chisa, let the ear pain. 
Matwi ka chisa, let the ears pain. 

7. Chintu ka chi bonwa, let the thing be seen. 
Shintu ka sbi bonwa, let the things be seen, 

8. Impongo ke fwa, let the goat die. 
Impongo ka shi fwa, let the goats die. 

9. Lumo ka In kosola, let the razor cut. 
Imo ka shi kosola, let the razors cut. 

9a. LupiddL ka lu budika, let the hill appear. 
MapiddL ka budika, let the hills appear. 

Second form : Na, A. 
Pronoun form. 

Ki mbone, let me see. Ka, or a, tu bone, let us see. 

Ko bone, see thou. Ka, or a, mu bone, see ye. 

Ifa 0r a bone, let him see. Ka, or a, ba bone> let them ^ee. 

M 2 


Noun form, 

1. Muntu na, or a, bone, let the person see. 
Bantu na, or a, ba bone, let the people see. 

2. Mudilo no tente, let the fire burn. 
Midilo ne tente, let the fires bum. 

3. Isamo na, or a, di mene, let the tree grow. 
Masamo na, or a, tente, let the trees grow. 

4. Buzune na, or a, bu nlnke, let the bird fly. 
Maznne na, or a, nluke, let the birds fly. 

5. Kutwi na, or a, ku chise, let the ear pain. 
Matwi na, or a, chise, let the ears pain. 

6. Kashimbi na, or a, ka sobane, let the girl play. 
Tnshimbi na, or a, tu sobane, let the girls play. 

7. Chintn na, or a, chi bonwe, let the thing be seen. 
Shintu na, or a, shi bonwe, let the things be seen. 

8. Impongo ne fwe, let the goat die. 
Impongo na shi fwe, let the goats die. 

9. Liuno na In kosole, let the razor cut. 
Imo na shi kosole, let the razors cut. 

9a. Lupidi na lu budike, let the hill appear. 
Mapidi na, or a budike, let the hills appear. 

2. Future Tense. 

This is formed by means of the future subjunctive preceded 
by the particle a. Thus : A tu ka bone, let us see ; a mu ka 
bone, do ye see, &c. 



I. Ftesent Tense. 
Pronoun form, 

Shi boni, I do not see. Ta tu boni, we do not see. 

To (ta u) boni, thou dost not Ta mu boni, you do not see. 


Ta boni (ta a), he does not see. Ta ba boni, they do not see. 


Noun form. 

1. Muntu ta (ta a) boni, the person does not see. 
Bantu ta ba boni, the people do not see. 

2. Mudilo to (ta u) tenti, the fire does not bum. 
Hidilo te (ta i) tenti, the fires do not bum. 

3. Isamo ta di meni, the tree does not grow. 
Masamo ta meni, the trees do not grow. 

4. Boztme ta bu uluki, the bird does not fly. 
Maziine ta uluki, the birds do not fly. 

5. Kutwi ta ku chisi, the ear does not pain. 
Matm ta ohisi, the ears do not pain. 

6. Kashimbi ta ka sobani, the girl does not play. 
Tushimbi ta tu sobani, the girls do not play. 

7. Chintu ta ohi bonwi, the thing is not seen. 
Shintu ta shi bonwi, the things are not seen. 

8. Impongo te (ta i) fWi, the goat does not die. 
Impongo ta shi fwi, the goats do not die. 

9. Lomo ta lu kosodi, the razor does not cut 
Imo ta shi kosodi, the razors do not cut. 

9a. Lupidi ta lu budiki, the hill does not appear. 
Mapidi ta budiki, the hills do not appear. 

2. Present Tense : * Not Yet ' Form. 

Pronoun form. 

Shi na ku bona, I have not Ta tu na ku bona, we have 

yet seen. not yet seen. 

To na ku bona, thou hast not Ta mu na ku bona, you have 

yet seen. not yet seen. 

Ta na ku bona, he has not Ta ba na ku bona, they have 

yet seen. not yet seen. 

Noun form, 

1. Muntu ta na ku bona, the person has not yet seen. 
Bantu ta ba na ku bona, the people have not yet seen. 

2. Mudilo to na ku tenta, the fire has not yet burnt. 
Midilo te na ka tenta^ the fires have not yet burnt 


3. Isamo ta di na ka mena, the tree has not yet grown. 
ICasamo ta na kti mena, the trees have not yet gtown. 

4. Buzune ta bn na kn uluka, the bird has not yet flown. 
Mazune ta na ku uluka, the birds have not yet flown. 

5. Kutwi ta ku na ku ohisa, the ear has not yet pained. 
Matwi ta na ku ohiBa^ the ears are not yet painful. 

6. Kashimbi ta ka na ku Bobana, the girl has hot yet played. 
Tushimbi ta ta na ku sobana, the girls have not yet 


7. Chintu ta obi na ku bonwa^ the thing is not yet seen. 
Shintu ta shi na ku bonWa, the things are not yet seen. 

8. Impongo te na ku fwa, the goat is not yet dead. 
Impongo ta Bhi na ku fwa^ the goats are not yet dead. 

9. Lumo ta lu na ku kosola, the razor has not yet out. 
Imo ta shi na ku kOBOla, the razors have not yet cut. 

9a. Lupidi ta lu na ku budika, the hill has not yet appeared. 
Mapidi ta na ku budika, the hills have not yet appeared. 

N.B. — This tense indicates that the action etpressed by the verb is 
incomplete and still going on, e. g. Keinbe kangu kadi kwi? Shi na ku ka 
bona, where is my axe ? I have not yet seen it, i. e* I am still locking for it. 
So that while by the English equivalent it seems to be a perfect tense^ it is 
really a present incomplete tense. 

3. Perfect Tense. 
Pronoun form. 

Shi bwene, I haSre not seen. 47atubwene,'^ehavenots^en. 
To bwene, thou hast not seen. Ta mu bwene, you have not 

Ta bwene, he has not seen. Ta ba bwene, they have not 


Noun form. 

I. Muntu ta bwene, the person has not seen. 
Bantu ta ba bwene, the people have not seen. 
&c., &c. 

N.B. — This tense is formed from the affirinati've perfect indicative by 
placing before it the negative particle ta, the copula di being omitted. 


4. Perfect Tense: Second Form. 
Prtmaun form. 

Ndina (pr nina) kn bona, t *!Fwina kti bona, we have not 

have not seen. seen. 

IT ina kn bona, thou hast not Mwina ku bona, you have 

seen. not seen. 

IT ina ku bona, he has hot Ba ina ku bona, they have 

seen. not seen. 

Noun form, 

1. Mnntu u ina ku bona, the person has not seen. 
Bantu ba ina ku bona, the people have not seen. 

2. Mudilo u ina ku tenta, the fire has not burnt. 
Midilo i na ku tenta, the fires have not burnt. 

&c., &c. 

N.B. — Literally Mnntu n ina ku bona means ' the person has no seeing*, 
the particle ina being the verb kwina, ' to be not, to have not.* The tense 
carries either a perfect or a present meaning, < the man has not seen, he does 
ndt iee^* Notioe tllc coalescence of vowels. 

5. Aorist Tense. 

This is formed frotn the affirmative aorist indicative by 
placing ta before it. But in the ist per. sing, we have Shi bona, 
not Ta nda bona, and the pronouns throughout are not the 
long -a forms but the short u, di, &c. Coalescence of vowels 
takes place just as in the present negative. 

6. Imperfect Tense. 

Pronoun form. 

Ndi na uku bona, I was not Twina uku bona, we were 

seeing. not seeing. 

U ina uku bona, thou wert Mwina uku bona, you were 

not seeing. not seeing. 

TJ ina uku bona, he was not 3a ina uku bona, they were 

seeing. not seeing. 


Noun form, 

I. Muntu u ina uku bona, the person was not seeing. 
Bantu ba ina uku bona, the people were not seeing. 
&c., &c. 

N.B. — This tense is very similar in fonn to the second form of the 
perfect, ndina kn bona, &c., the only difference being that u is placed before 
the infinitive particle, ku. This u is probably a form of ku. 

7. Past Tense (i). 

This is formed similarly to the imperfect, the only difference 
being that instead of the particle uku before the verb we find 
uka. Thus : Ndi na uka bona, I did not see ; Twina uka 
bona, we did not see. 

8. Fast Tense (2). 
Pronoun form. 

Ndi ne nda ka bona, I did Twina nitwaka bona, we did 

not see. not see. 

IT ina ni wa ka bona, thou Mwina ni mwa ka bona, 

didst not see. you did not see. 

IT ina na a ka bona, he did Ba ina ni ba ka bona, they 

not see. did not see. 


1. Muntu u ina na a ka bona, the person did not see. 
Bantu ba ina ni ba ka bona, the people did not see. 

2. Mudilo u ina ni wa ka tenta, the fire did not burn. 
Midilo i na ni ya ka tenta, the fires did not burn. 

3. Buzune bwina ni bwa ka uluka, the bird did not fly. 
Mazune a ina ni a ka uluka, the birds did not fly. 

4. Isamo di na ni dia ka mena, the tree did not grow. 
Masamo a ina ni a ka mena, the trees did not grow. 

5. Kutwi kwina ni kwa ka chisa, the ear did not pain. 
Matwi a ina ni a ka chisa, the ears did not pain. 

6. Kashimbi ka ina ni ka ka sobana, the girl did not play. 
Tushimbi twina ni twa ka sobana, the girls did not play. 


7. Chintu ohi na ni cha ka bonwa, the thing was not seen. 

Shintu shina ni sha ka bonwa, the things were not seen. 
'8. Impongo ina ni ya ka fwa, the goat did not die. 

Impongo shi na ni Bha ka fwa, the goats did not die. 
9. Lumo Iwina ni Iwa ka kosola, the razor did not cut. 

Imo shina ni sha ka kosola, the razors did not cut. 
9a. Lnpidi Iwina ni Iwa ka bndika, the hill did not appear. 

Mapidi a ina ni a ka budika, the hills did not appear. 

9. Past Tense (3). 
Pronoun form. 

Chi nta boni, I did not see. Ka tu ta boni, we did not see. 

Eo ta boni, thou didst not Ka mn ta boni, you did not 

see. see. 

E!a ta boni, he did not see. Ka ba ta boni, they did not 



1. Muntu ka ta boni, the person did not see. 
Bantu ka ba ta boni, the people did not see. 

2. Mudilo ko ta tenti, the fire did not burn. 
Midilo ke ta tenti, the fires did not burn. 

3. Isamo ka di ta meni, the tree did not grow. 
Masamo ka ta meni, the trees did not grow. 

4. Bazime ka bu ta ulnki, the bird did not fly. 
Mashine ka ta nlnki, the birds did not fly. 

5. Kntwi ka ku ta chisi, the ear did not pain. 
Matwi ka ta chisi, the ears did not pain. 

6. Kashimbi ka ka ta sobani, the girl did not play. 
TxLshimbi ka tu ta sobani, the girls did not play. 

\* Chintu ka chi ta bonwi, the thing was not seen. 

Shintu ka shi ta bonwi, the things were not seen. 
B. Impongo ke ta fwi, the goat did not die. 

Impongo ka shi ta fWi, the goats did not die. 
9. Lumo ka lu ta kosodi, the razor did not cut. 

Imo ka shi ta kosodi, the razors did not cut. 


9a. Lupidi ka lu ta bndiki, the hill did not appear. 
Mapidi ka ta bndiki, the hills did not appear. 

10. Past Tense — 'Ifot Yet' Form. 

Chi nta na ku bona, I had Ka tu na ku bona, we had 

not yet seen. not yet seen. 

Ko ta na kn bona, thou Ka mu ta na ka bona, you 

hadst not yet seen. had not yet seen. 

Ka ta na ka bona, he had Ka ba ta na ka bona, they 

not yet seen. had not yet seen. 


1. Monta ka ta na ka bona, the person had not yet seen. 
Banta ka ba ta na ka bona, the people had not yet seen. 

2. Madilo ko ta na ka tenta, the fire had not yet burnt. 
Midilo ke ta na ka tenta, the fires had not yet burnt. 

3. Isamo ka di ta na ka mena, the tree had not yet grown. 
Masamo ka ta na ka mena, the trees had not yet grown. 

4. Bazune ka ba ta na ka olaka, the bird had not yet 

Mazime ka ta na ka tilaka, the birds had ^ot yet flown. 

5. Katwi ka ka ta na ka ohisa, the ear had not yet pained. 
Matwi ka ta na ka chisa, the ears had not yet pained. 

6. Kashimbi ka ka ta na ka sobana, the girl had not yet 

Tashimbi ka ta na ka sobana, the girls had not yet 

7. Chinta ka chi ta na ka bcmwa, the thing had not yet 

been seen. 
Shinta ka shi ta na ka bonwa, the things had not yet 
been seen. 

8. Impongo ke ta na ka fwa, the goat had not yet died. 
Impongo ka shi ta na kafwa, the goats had not yet died. 

9. Lamo ka la ta na ka kosola, the razor had not yet cut. 
Imo ka shi ta na ka kosola, the razors had not yet cut. 


9a. Lupidi ka In ta na ka bndika, the hill had not yet 
Mapidi ka ta 2llk ka bndika, the hills had not yet 

N.B. — This teiot indicate* an action that in the part Was not yet com- 
plete but still going on. It can often be best translated by means of the word 
' before % e. g. Nda ka shika wezo ka ta na ka badika, I arrived before he 
appeared, lit. he had not yet appeared. 

11. FlajMrftet Tens*. 


Shi na ka bwetid, I had )iot ¥a ta Ha ka bWen^, we had 

seen. not seen. 

To na ka bwene, thou hadst Ta mn na ka bwene, you 

not seen. had not seen. 

Ta na ka bw^e, he had not Ta ba na ka bwene, they had 

seen. not seen. 


I. Muntu ta na ka bwene, the person had not seen. 
Bantu ta ba na ka bwene, the people had not seen. 
&c., &c. 

N.B. — A native will say that Shi na ka bwene, &c, expresses inrprise ; 
Std na ka bwene chintn chidi bodlft, I had not seen Ikueh a things I have 
never before seen such a thing. 

12. Tntiu^e Tense (i). 

Shi nti mboni, I shall not Ta tu ti tu boni, We shall 

see. not see. 

To ti a boni, thou shalt not Ta mn ti mu boni, you fihall 

see. not see. 

Ta ti a boni^ he shall not Ta ba ti ba boni, they shall 

see. not see. 

Noun form. 

I. Mnnttt ta ti a boni, the person shall )iot see. 
Bantu ta ba ti ba boni^ the people shall not see. 


2. Mudilo to ti u tenti, the fire shall not burn. 
Midilo te ti i tenti, the fires shall not burn. 

3. Isamo ta di ti di meni, the tree will not grow. 
Masamo ta ti a meni, the trees shall not grow. 

4. BuLZtme ta bu ti bu uluke, the bird will not fly. 
Mazune ta ti a meni, the birds will not fly. 

5. Kntwi ta ku ti ku chisi, the ear will not pain. 
Matwi ta ti a chisi, the ears will not pain. 

6. Kashimbi ta ka ti ka sobani, the girl will not play. 
Tushimbi ta tu ti ta sobani, the girls will not play. 

7. Chinta ta chi ti chi bonwi, the thing will not be seen. 
Shintu ta shi ti shi bonwi, the things will not be seen. 

8. Impongo te ti i fwi, the goat will not die. 
Impongo ta shi ti shi fwi, the goats will not die. 

9. Lnmo ta lu ti lu kosodi, the razor will not cut. 
Imo ta shi ti shi kosodi, the razors will not cut. 

9a. Lupidi ta lu ti lu budiki, the hill will not appear. 
Mapidi ta ti a budiki, the hills will not appear. 

13. Future Tense (2). 


Ndi na ni nka bona, I shall Twina ni tu ka bona, we 

not see. shall not see. 

IT ina ni u ka bona, thou Mwina ni mu ka bona, you 

wilt not see, will not see. 

U ina ni a ka bona, he will Ba ina ni ba ka bona, they 

not see. will not see. 

Noun form, 

1. Muntu u ina ni a ka bona, the person will not see. 
Bantu ba ina ni ba ka bona, the people will not see. 

2. Mudilo u ina ni u ka tenta, the fire will not bum. 
Midilo i na ni i ka tenta, the fires will not bum. 

3. Buzune bwina ni bu ka uluka, the bird will not fly. 
MaziLne a ina ni a ka uluka^ the birds will not fly. 


4. Isamo di na ni di ka mena, the tree will not grow. 
Masamo a ina ni a ka mena, the trees will not grow. 

5. Kutwi kwina ni ka ka chisa, the ear will not pain. 
Matwi a ina ni a ka chisa, the ears will not pain. 

6. Kashimbi ka ina ni ka ka sobana, the girl will not play. 
Tnshimbi twina ni ta ka sobana, the girls will not play. 

7. Chinta ta chi na ni ohi ka bonwa, the thing will not be 

Shintu Shi na ni 8hi ka bonwa, the things will not be 

8. Impongo i na ni i ka fwa, the goat will not die. 
Impongo shi na ni shi ka fwa, the goats will not die. 

9. Lumo Iwina ni la ka kosola, the razor will not cut. 
Imo shi na ni shi ka kosola, the razors will not cut. 

9a. Lapidi Iwina ni la ka badika, the hill will not appear. 
1 Mapidi a ina ni a ka badika, the hills will not appear. 


I. Present Tense. 
Pronoun form. 

Shi ka boni, I may not see, Ta ta ka boni, we may not 

&c. see, &c. 

To ka boni, thou mayest not Ta ma ka boni, you may not 

see, &c. see, &c. 

Ta ka boni, he may not see, Ta ba ka boni, they may not 

&C. see, &c. 

Noun form, 

I. Monta ta ka boni, the person may not see, &c. 
Banta ta ba ka boni, the people may not see, &c. 
&c., &c. 

N.B. — This tense is sometimes used as a future indicative, I shall not see. 


a. FatQve Texme^ 

Pronoun form^ 

Shi ka ka boni, it may be^ I Ta ta ka ka bom, it m^i^ be 

shall not see. we shall not see. 

To ka ka boni, it may be tl^ Ta mu ka ka boni, it may be 

shalt not see. you will not see. 

Ta ka ka boni, it may he he Ta ba ka ka bonl^ it may be 

will not see. they will not see. 

Noun form, 

I. Muntu ta ka ka boni, it may be the person wiU not see. 
Bantu ta ba ka ka boni, it may be the people will not see. 
&c.| &c. 


I. Pir^ae^li Texiae, 
Pronoun form. 

lEfl'ta boni, (that) I see not. Ta ta boni, (that) we see not. 

U ta boni, (that) thou see not. Mu ta boni, (that) you see not. 
A ta boni, (that) he see not. Bata boni, (that) they see not. 

Noun form. 

I. Muntu a ta boni, (that) the person see not. 
Bantu ba ta boni, (that) the people see not. 

%. Future Tense. 

Pronoun form. 

19'ta ka boni (that) I may not Tu ta ka boni, (that) we may 

see. not see. 

U ta ka boni, (that) thou Mu ta ka boni, (that) you 

mayest not see. may not see. 

A ta ka boni, (that) he may Ba ta ka boni» (that) they 

not see. may not see. 

Noun form, 
I. Muntu a ta ka boni, (that) the person may not see. 
Bantu ba ta ka boni, (that) the people may not see. 
&c., &c. 



Preaent TenciQ: Simple Form. 

U tft boni {or u ta bona), thou must not see. 
Mu ta boni {or mu ta bona), you must not see. 

Augnunted Form, 

XT ta ku bona, you must not Mu taka bona, you must not 

see. see. 

A ta kn bona, he must not Ba ta ku bona, they must not 

occ see. 

Ein t% boni, not to see. 


Szeroise 1. 
Translate into Ila :^^ 

Come and tell me all the news which you were hearing yester- 
day. We did not hear any news. He has not yet arrived ; as 
soon as be arrives I will tell him what you say. Why did you 
lie to me ? Did you not know that I find out all you do ? Your 
ddngs will be known abroad^ You cannot deceive me or any 
one else. We built this house last year. It is not yet plastered 
because I have had much other work. That grass of yours will 
all rot if you leave it outside. When will the rain arrive ? It 
may come next month. Have you not yet finished your fields ? 
We have not yet finished, the women are still working there 
now. We may finish when the moon is seen. Before he came 
here he was a bad man, now he has abandoned his evil ways. 
I saw him when he was still a child, he has now grown much. 
Go ye and work much ; if you work hard I will give you much 
Jnoney, but if you are lazy you will find only a little money. 
I don't give lazy folk much money. The people I want to work 


for me are they who are clever. I don't want those who can 
only carry. You must not hurry over your work, do it very 
nicely indeed. This is where you will dig ; when you have 
done, come and tell me. Do you see this Stick ? Measure the 
hole with it ; when you have arrived so far stop digging. We 
are going to the forest to gather firewood. 

Exercise 2. 

Translate into Ua : — 

My house is not far off ; come ye all and let us eat some milk 
together. That child has the pot which I want. Bring it here 
to me. Let me take your child with me. The police have 
found the man whom they have been seeking ; he was hiding in 
the forest. We will not do this work, it is troublesome. He 
got up very early and went to look for his goat which was 
lost. If you leave very early you may arrive l)efore sunset. If 
you don't bend down very much the game will see you. We 
are still sitting here in the shade because the sun is very hot to- 
day. I have not yet seen the thing which you told me to find. 
Let us see who can do this work. Approach closely that I may 
see you well. That man does not see ; he is blind. The herd- 
boy was not watching his flock yesterday, he left them and sat 
by the fire all day. Before the men had arrived we built a house 
for them. Go ye into my garden and hoe ; you must not pluck 
the fruit of the trees. The chief is in the act of eating ; we 
cannot disturb him now. The gun did not break as you said. 
They did not beat me. We will go to-morrow morning. You 
must learn that you may not grow up a fool. We were going 
visiting everywhere among our friends. He does not understand 
that if he does not work he will get no wages. 

Exercise 3. 

Translate into English : — 

Ing ombe shonse a shi vhwe mu chimpata. Nchi nda ka langa 
nchi chechi ; kambo nzhi kwina ku ndetela ? Muntu wezu u 


ina uku miana kabotu midimo yakwe. Ko ya ku abele : u ka 
mu shimwine ati, a ta chita kabotu ta ti a yane madi akwe. Wa 
amb'ati nda ka mu lemezha, anokuti wa pewa chintu chishonto 
budio. Bantu babo ka ba ta na ku shika kono ka ba shiti kwi ? 
Mwami nda mana ku sha roadindi azo ngu wa nshimwina. Ko ya, 
uwe, u ka bwele ku midimo yako ; u ka la sha mani nku leshe. 
Uwe, ko swezha mozo ku diiya mu chikolo : wa ta chita bobo u 
la ba muntu mudimbushi budio. Chi nta ma shimwini bobo. 
Bantu ba ina ni ba ka shika mwezhi weno : antela ba la ka shika 
mwezhi umwi. A mu zhingashile bubona mbu twa ma lazha kale 
kale : usunu a mu chite bubona bobo. A mu pele chinichini ati 
nta ka boni itomba na kashonto. 


A Tale of a Fool. 

Wa ka ita mwenzu ku chishi chimwi. A shike a munzhi 
umwi wa buzha ati : ' Ezhi inzhila i la ya kwi ? ' Ba ingula ati : 
' Ila ya koko ku minzhi.' ' Sa ku ku vhwa basazhima ? ' Bamwi 
ba ingula, ati: '£.' *No inzhila pele ezhi idi yomwi?' Ba 
amb'ati: 'Pe, shidi shobili. We enda, we enda, wa shika a 
mampanda a nzhila, u ka tole ya chimonswe, u ka pinuke,^ u ka 
tole njiyo.' Wa ya, a shike budio a mampanda a nzhila wa pinuka, 
wo ona. * Bwa ko onena, bwa ko onena, dimwi bamwi bantu 
ba shika, ba yana udi lele, ba amb'ati : * Wezo muntu wa fwa, 
na u la langa, ' na wa ba nzhi ? * Dimwi ba umbusha, ba yana 
kamwi ku Iwiya ^ wa bumbwa o mulanzhi. Ba umbuzha ati : 
* Kambo nzhi nku onena mwinzhila V Ati : ' Nda ona ukuti ba 
amb'ati : wa ka shika a mampanda a nzhila, u ka pinuke u ka 
tole ya chimonswe : oya chidio ' u ke leke.' Ngonao basongo 
ba umbuzha, ati : * No ya chidio njidi kwi o ya chimonswe ? ' 
Walo wa ingula, ati: 'Shi zhi mazhila.' Ngonao ba mu 
shimwina, ati : ' Oya chidio nji ezhL Oya chimonswe nji ezhi.' 
Ngonao ba amb'ati : * Zhimoka tu ku ya.' Ni ba shika ku 
nuinzhi ku bantu ba ka ba shimwina, ati : ' Wezo muntu mu« 



diinbushi ngu mwa ka shimwina inzhila, a shike budio a mam- 
panda a nzhila walo wa pinuka wo ona, mbu mwa ka atnb'ati: wa 
ka shika a mampanda a nzhila u ka pinuke/ Ngonao obu« 
disuno obudisuno ta ba mu luba wezo muntiL Banichi o 
bana o bakando ba amb*ati : 'Wezo muntu kadi mudimbushi.' 
Ngonao inshi yonse wa ya impuwo, ati : ' Weso muntu kadi 
mudimbushi mwihimwini. Mudimbushi owa ka tewa atit 
wa shika a mampanda a nzhila u ka pinuke u ka tole i ya 
chimonswe. Walo a shike, wa pinuka, wo ona mani wa bumbwa 
o mulanzhi. Budimbushi bwalo/ 

Notes. — * The point of this tale hangs upon the two meanings of the 
word pinuka; the man was told to turn and take the road to the right, 
whereas he took them to mean he was to turn aside and sleep. 'Bwa 
ko onena, as he was sleeping, ' Na wa ba nzhi? or what is he? lit. what 
has he become ? ^ Wa bumbwa o mulanzhi, he was moulded by white 
ants, i. e. they had built their tunnels upon him. ' U ke leke a u ka 
i leke. 

The Elephant and the Wart-Hog. 

Shankde mwiwa wa muzovu. Chi be budio chindi ba ya ku 
menzhi : ba shike budio muzovu wa amb'ati : * Nguni u ka 
tanguna ku nwa menzhi ? ' Ushankole wa amb'ati : ' Ndime 
nka tangune achisha.' Ngonao shankole we njila mwizhiba ku 
nwa menzhi. A mane ku nwa menzhi, * muzovu udi zhimine 
a muma, wa kanda menzhi : Wa mana ku a kanda wa amba : 
^ Kweza inzho, u nwe, achisha.* Muzovu * wa nwa o ku nwa. 
A mane ku nwa musundu wa mu luma kwitashi. A lange bodia 
wa amb'ati : ' Chechi cha nduma chi kushe.' Musundu to vh wi ko^ 
A kakutula, a kakatule, musundu to vhwi. Dimwi wa ka kanka 
ku uma kwisamo : musundu to vhwi ko. U la umputa, musundu 
to vwi ko. Dimwi dia kanka itashi ku vhwa buloa. Muzovu 
u la umputa. Walo musundu mbwa ka lumina dimwi itashi dia 
konoka. U la umputa. Dimwi itashi dia zhimba. Musundu 
to vhwi ko. Dimwi muzovu wa zowa, wa amb'ati : * Wezo 
mupuka ta ku vwi kwitashi diangu.' Dimwi itashi dia bola« 
Muzovu u la umputa. Shi vhule inshiku budio, dimwi muzovu 


ii^fwft. Ushankole wa amb'ati: 'Uachisha wa fwa. *Ndiine 
mokando inzho mbwa fwa achisha.' Odimwi wa sowa, wa 
amb'ati: 'Na ndime nda ka bisha inenzhi nda ku tanguna ku 
nwa ? Musondu ngu a ka mu liuna, nambuti ? ' Ngonao ba 
andana. Muzovu wa tola meya makando : ushankole wa tola 
meya a kozhana a muzovu. Ngonao shankole wa amba : * Ngu 
achisba u zbalwa o bama*' Ngonao ba andana. Muzovu wa 
kula, shankole wa fwimpa. Kwalo kukozhana ba la kozhana : 
mubidi o boza ^ i^ shankole na ngu muzovu chintu chomwL 
Wa langa meya a shankole a muzovu onse a la tuba« O boza 
bu la kozhana o mubidi chintu chomwi. 

Notes. — ^ The elephant standing on the bank. * He drank and drank. 
' I am the elder now as my nncle is dead. * It is the wart-hog or it is 
the elephant one thing, i. e. they are the same. 

The Woman who wanted a Husband. 

Inzho mukaintu wa bula mulombwana, wa amb'ati : ' Nda bula 
mulombwana a ntwale/ Inzho ba mu shimwina,ati : ' Mbu wa bula 
mulombwana u ka teme tusamo tushontoshonto, u ka luke izhizhi. 
Wa ka mana ku luka u ka ye ku mulonga. Wa shika u ka zele 
ku mulonga. Inzho u la ka yaya mubondo. Wa rou yaya, * mu 
lete ku munzhi. U lange intesho inkando, u ka mu bike mo, u ka 
hunike o. Wa ka hununa ^ u la yana wa ba muntu. Inzho u la 
bona mulombwana.' Mukaintu wa ya ku zela mubondo. Wa ka 
bona bantu ba vhwa a munzhi, wa ya ku hununa : muntesho wa 
langa mo, mubondo wa ba muntu. Wa amb'ati : ' U ta njika. 
' Ndi muntu. ^ Bodia mbwina mulombwana twala ome. Odimwi 
ome kudya kwangu 'shi dyi maila, nda dya michelo ya bapombo. 
We dya aze nda bwela u menzhi, to ka mboni dinji.' Ngonao 
mukaintu wa vumina. Chi be budio chindi mukaintu we ba 
michelo yakwe. A zhoke budio mulombwana wa hula, wa 
amb'ati : * Michelo wangu te zudile. We ba mukaintu.' Wa 
lutila, ati : *Mbu wa dya chidyo changu ome nda bwela u menzhi.' 
Inzho pele mukaintu bwa cha wa bweza iamba diakwe, wa shia 
mulombwana a munzhi. Mukaintu wa zhoka mu kudima, wa 

N 2 


shika wa hununa 'mwa kala mulombwana, inzho wa yana 
mulombwana wa vhwa mo muntesha Inzho wa amb'ati: 
' Nda bwela kwakwesu, mbu wa dya shidyo shangu/ Mukaintu 
wa amb'ati : * Tu la ya aze.' Inzho wa shika ku menzhi, 
mulombwana we njila mo* Wa amb'ati : * Nda bwela. Uwe 
mukaintu u la bona banji balombwana.' Walo wa ya mu 
menzhi a kwabo. Mukaintu a lange a lange, to mboni dinji. 

Notes. — ^ Ma lete a ma lete, bring him. * You will find he has become 
R man. * I am a peison. * As yoa have no man mairy me. * I do not 
eat. * Where he sat. 






Therk are certain verbs beginning with a vowel which it is 
necessary to regard separately from others on account of varia- 
tion in form and conjugation. They are as follows : Ku ita, 
to call ; ka eza, to come ; ka iba, to steal; ku izhi, to know. 

In the infinitive of these verbs the u of the particle coalesces 
with the initial short vowel to form w. Thus, instead of the 
above, we write : Kwita, kweza, kwiba, kwizkL 

The same form is found in the imperative : — 

Ka u ita becomes ko ita which becomes kwita. 
ka u eza „ ko eza „ kweza. 

ka u iba „ ko iba „ kwiba. 

ka u izhi ^y ko izhi „ kwizhi. 

When these verbs are preceded by any particle or pronoun 
ending in u, the u becomes w as above, and the two words are 
written as one. Thus : — 

Ba la mu ita becomes ba la mwita. 
Shi mu izhi „ shi mwizhi. 

When, however, the preceding vowel ends in a, the process of 
contraction takes place, i.e. a+i = e* The resulting word is 
written as two not one. Thus : — 

Ba la ita becomes ba le ta not ba leta. 
Ba la izhi „ ba le zhi „ ba lezhi. 
Ta ba izhi „ ta be zhi „ ta bezhi. 
Mu ta ibe „ mu te be „ mu tebe. 
Kabaiza „ kabeza„ka beza. 


The verb kn ina, to be not, to have not, is an exception to 
this. In the infinitive it is written and pronounced kwina, but 
when preceded by a particle ending in a no contraction takes 
place. Thus: — 

Ba ina ahidyo, tb^ have no food; noi^ be na shklyo* 

The Y^bs kwita and kwiba require no further remarks, but 
kweza and kwizhi are so irregular in conjugation that we give 
their principal tenses here. The peculiar thing about them is 
that they have. more than one Ibrin. 

Kwisla or k^pnzhislu or ku zltiba or kwishiba, to know. 
Kwesa or kwiza or ka wt% to come. 


Indioatiye KLood. 
Preu$U Tensi. 

Aff. ist p. NdisM, or ndizhiihL Nde za^ or nde eiaa. 

3rd p. U di Bhiy W0 Shi, or W& aa, or we zisa. 

Neg. ist pi. SM zhi or shi zhizhi. Shi zi, or shi zisi. 

3rd p. To zhi, or te zhizhL Te zi, oriA zizi. 

Present Tense.— ' Not Yet: 

Neg.xiX^. Shi na kwizhiba. Shi na kwiza. 

3rd p. Ta na kwizhiba. Ta na kwiza. 

Perfect Tense* 

^/: istp. Ndi zhibile. Hdi zile. 

3rd p. TJdi zhibile. TJdi zile. 

Neg. ist p. Shi zhibile. Shi zile. 

3rd p. Te zhibile. Te zile. 

Aorist Tense. 
Aff. ist p. Nde zhiba. Nde za, or nde ziza. 

3rd p. We zhiba. We za, or we ziza. 

Neg, ist p. Shi zhiba. Shi ziza. 

3rd p. Te zhiba. Te ziza. 


Imperfect Tense, 

Aff. 1st p. Kdakwizhi. Kdakwiza. 

3Fd p. W% kwishi. Wa kwisa. 

Neg.1^1^ Ndi na ukwiehi, or Ndinaukwisa, oruku 

uku zhiba. lisa. 

3rd p. IT ina ukwizM, or U ina ukwiza, or 
tiku shiba. oka siBa. 

Putt Tense. 

Aff. ist p. Nda ke zhi, or ahiba. Kda ke za, or liia. 

3rd p. Wa ke zMt or ihiba. Wa ke aa, or ziza. 
Neg. 1st p« Ohi nte ahi, or ikiihi. CM nte si. or ohi nte 


3rd p. Ea te ihii Ka te si, or ka te siza. 

Future Tenie. 

Aff, I St p. Nde zMba, (?r nda ka 19'de siza, or nda ke 

zhiba. ziza. 

3rd p. We zhiba, or wa ka We ziza, (tt wa ka ziza. 

JVeg. I St p. Shi ka ishibi, or shi Shi ke ziza, or shi ke 

ke zhi. zi. 

3rd p. Ta ke zhibi. Ta ke zi. 

Subjunotiye Mood. 

Present Tensi* 
Aff. I St p. Nzhibe. Nze, nzize. 

3rd p. E zhibe. E ze, e ziza 

Nieg. ist p. Nte zhibi Nte zizi. 

3rd p. A te zhibi. A te zize. 

Imperative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Aff. 2nd p. Eo zhiba. Eo ziza. 

3rd p. Ee zhiba. Ee ziza. 

A^^. 2nd p. XJ ta kwizhiba. XJ ta kwiziza. 

3rd p. A ta kwizhiba. A ta kwiziza. 


Notice that the 2nd person plur. imperative of kweza is zeni, 
come ye. This is the only verb in Ila which takes a suffix to 
denote this tense. In other Bantu languages it is the rule for 
all verbs : so Zulu : hambani, go ye ; Suto : tsamaeang, go ye ; 
Swahili : pendani, love ye. 

Sect. 2. THE VERB ' TO BE '. 

The verb ku ba means to be^ or 'rather, to become. As it is 
conjugated Hke other verbs there is no need to give a separate 
paradigm. The following sentences will show how it is used, 
and further examples are given in the next chapter of its use in 
forming the copula. 

A mu zake ng'anda imwi shi be sbobili, build ye another 

house that they be two. 
Inzho oha ba chibanda, then there was peace. 
IT la yana wa ba muntn, you will find he has become 

a man. 
Na wa ba nzhi P How is he ? ///. he has become what ? 
Mbe muzhike wake, let me be thy slave. 
Tudi elele ku ba basongo, we must be wise. 
Miaka yako i be Tninjiminji, may thy years be many. 
Ni mba mudimbushi mu ta ku xijaya^ although I become a 

fool you must not kill me. 
tfumoni no be o, let there be light. 

The particle di also largely represents our verb * to be '. Its 
use is fully illustrated in the next chapter. For convenience' 
sake it is appended to the personal pronoun. 

Sect. 3.— THE VERB * TO HAVE '. 

The particle di is often used to express the verb to have^ 
especially in relative clauses. Thus : — 

Wezo muntu udi insana, that man has strength, 
Badi kwi bantu babo badi milandup Where are those 
people who have faults ? 


In other sentences di is used with o. Thus : — 
Usunu ba di o oholwe : To-day they have good luck, UL they 
are with. 

The negative of this is the verb kwina, to have not, to he not. 
This is used in a limited way, not in all tenses. Thus : — 
Nd'ina shidyo, I have no food. 
Sa ba ina shidyo, they had no food. 

Again, the verb kwete, perfect of kn kwata, to hold, is used 
in the affirmative, and the verb ku bola, to be without^ to lack, 
is sometimes used in the negative. 
Kdi kwete shidyo, I have Nda bula shidyo, I have no 

food. food. 

Kda ku kwete shidyo, I had Nda ka bula shidyo, I had 

food. no food. 

These verbs are conjugated like other regular verbs. 

There are certain verbs which when used with other verbs 
have an idiomatic meaning, and are generally best translated in 
English by adverbs. The following are the most common of 


1. The verb ka ti, to say, is used with other verbs to give 
the idea of * about ', ' nearly,' * almost.' The following verb is 
put into the subjunctive mood. Thus : — 

Ktl mu me inzho nda leka, I was about to strike him, then 

I forebore. 
Hi a ti a yaye shumbwa, ushumbwa wa mu luma, as he 

was about to kill the lion, the lion bit him. 
Bantu ka ba ti ba mane iknmi, the people were about ten. 

2. The verb ku amba^ to speak, is used in the same way as 
ka tL Thus : — (Sentences from Ila tales). 

Mubwa a ambe a vhwe mutwi wa patila mu chibia, when 
the dog was about to come out its head stuck in the pot. 

Xwaba a ambe a chebuke munshi, when the jackal was 
about to look behind. 


Sulwe wa shika $ a aml^e a nwe menzhi« falwe wa f oma, 
wa mu luma meno, the hare arrived ; when he was about 
to drink water, the tortoise snorted and bit him. 

Muzoyn a aaaabe a angnle wa wila umbwina, when the 
elephant was about to unfasten (it) he fell into the hole. 

3. The verb ku bwelela, io return to^ is used as equivalent 
to our ' again'. The verb following is either in the 8ubjunctt1^e 
or infinitive. 

Nda bw^lela ngambe, I speak again. 

Bantu ka ba bwelela ku njila^ the people entered again. 

4. The verb ku foramba, /^ hasten^ is used as equivalent to 
our * quickly '. The verb following is in the infinitive. 

Ba ka ftramba ku xijlla, they entered quickly. 
A mu fwambe ku yaya ng*ombe, do ye kill quickly the 

5. The verb ku yliwa, to come out^ is used in the sense of 
* just '. The verb following is in the infinitive mood. 

Kda yliwa ku ahika, I have just arrived. 
Wa mu yana ni a yliwa ku sbika, be found him when he 
had just arrived. 

6. The verb ku kachilwa is used to give the idea of ' unable '. 
It is followed by the infinitive verb. 

Nda kachilwa ku ohita cheoho, I was unable to do that. 

7. The verb ku konzha, to overcome, gives the idea of 
'able', or, in the negative, 'unable'. It is followed by the 
infinitive verb. 

Sa u la konzha ku bala P Are you able to read ? 
Pe, shi konzha ku bala, no, I am not able to read. 

8. The verb ku tanguna gives the idea of ' first '. It is 
followed by the infinitive verb. 

Nguni owa ka tanguna ku zaka P Who is it who built first ? 
Tu bone ati ngnni u ka tanguna ku shika P Let us »ee 

who can arrive first. 


^ The verb ka mana^ h Jlmsh^ is often used to express 
'altogether \ It is followed by the infinitive verb, 

Keno onse % ka mana ka fwa, all the teeth died together. 
Kapopure anga a mana ka diwa, my mealies are altogether 

ID The verb ka leka, to abandon^ Is often used with other 
verbs. Thus : — 

Ldka ka dila awe, leave off crying, you. 
Leka ka chita bobo, leave off doing thus. 


Ezeroise L 

Tr^mslak into Ha:-^ 

The people were stealing mealies in my field. Go ye and 
call the people, that they may assemble together to-morrow. I 
don't know you. Do they say I must come ? I refuse : I won't 
eome. I did not know your name. I came to your village 
yesterday. I have not yet seen the chief, tell him to come to* 
morrow to see me* I don't yet imow your customs. You say 
jrott don't know me. Why is that? I worked for you long ago. 
Yoa must not come here at night. Let me be your herdboy« 
Bring me two more fowls that they be three. I have no food. 
When he was about to hit me I ran away. As he was about to 
chop the wood the axe fell on his foot. They quickly returned 
to me. Who will be the first to be able to read ? To him who 
is first I will give a present The missionary tells us that we 
must abandon our evil ways. Your calves have entered my 
field : they have altogether eaten my mealies. 

Ifzeroise 2. 

TramiaU into English : — 

Shi konzha ome, ndime mushonto budio. Nda kachilwa ku 
shika ko ukuti wa nkasha. Twa vhwa ku mana usunu midimo 
joose. A vhwe ku shika wa fwamba ku dya : a mane budio 


ku dya wa bwelela ku enda. Muntu wezo ta zhimi : u la konzha 
chinichini ku enda. Ku katala, pe, ta katadi. Uswe twa ka 
bula shidyo. Mwami ngu tata: kwina nchi nka bula. Ba amb'ati, 
nze ? Pe, shi zi. Mu shimwine e zize kono, tu ka bandike aze. 
Muntu wezu te zhibile shianza shesu. Shi ke ziza 'zona, ndi 
kwete midimo minjiminji : obwadimwi nda ke ziza« Mwem- 
bezhi ta na kwiza : ing'ombe wa shi shia kwi ? Ka mu yz umwe 
mu ka shi late kono. Twina ukwizhi mazhina abo. Shi zile 
ku dya maila ako. Ka tu te zhi inzhila eno. Ta mu ke zhibi 
midimo ezho. 


The Lion and the Hare. 

Ushumbwa wa zhala bana ; a zhale budio bana aze sulwe we 
ziza ku lela bana. Shumbwa wa ya ba chela, sulwe wa dya 
mwana shumbwa. Wa isha inkidi ku mafiitila : a zhoke budio 
wa mu chenga shumbwa ati : ' Kwa ita bazovu, mbo ba mu djra 
mwanako.' Wa kusha mwana umwi wa ya ku nonka kwa 
baina. Shumbwa wa ya ku weza, a zhoke budio wa yana bana, 
wa ba mana sulwe ku ba dya. Wa ya bu enda sulwe, wa ba 
yana banyama ku munzhi wabo badi zakile, wa ba yana ba la 
sobana. Wa ba chenga, ati : ' Ozona nda ka leta mubwangu, 
mwize ku mu bona.' Wa zhoka, we za ku mu anga shumbwa, 
wa mu anga munshingo, wa amb'ati : * Shumbwa, nda yana oba 
ka dya banako. Nda ba chenga ati, Ozona nda leta mubwangu, 
mwize ku mu bona.' Bu che budio ba ya : usulwe wa funga 
shumbwa lozhi munshingo, wa mu tola ku munzhi wezo, wa mu 
shimwina, ati : ' Nku tole kudi ba ka dya banako. Nda ka shika 
kodia nka amb'ati, A mu bone mubwangu, u ka ba yaye abo/ 
A shike budio wa amb'ati : ' A mu bone mubwangu.' Banyama 
bonse be ebela, ba amb'ati : * Wa bota mubwa.' Chi be chindi 
wa mu kusha lozhi munshingo, wa lukanka, wa luma banyama 
bonse, a ba lume budio, wa ba funda buzane : ba mane ku funda 
buzane ba bu temeka ; bu zume budio ba kudika. Usulwe wa 
kudika, o shumbwa, ba la ya bu enda. Ba shika akati muzhiu 


wa shmnbwa wa konoka, sulwe wa amb'ati : ' Ko ya ku tema 
unji/ Chindi cha chi ya, sulwe wa tola buzane bonse bwa 
shumbwa. Ushumbwa a zhoke wa yana buzane ta bwi o, wa 
zhinzhilika, ta mu boni sulwe, wa ya ku sonda kwa shibombolwa, 
wa amb'ati : * Ko ya u ka lange u menzhi, u la ka mu bona 
sulwe/ Wa ya ku menzhi: a shike, wa langa, wa bona 
chingvhule u menzhi, odimwi we bila u menzhi, wa bula o ku mu 
bona sulwe. Wa bwela kwa shibombolwa, wa amb'ati : ' Ko ya u 
ka lange kwisompe, u la ka mu bona sulwe/ Wa ya ku langa 
kwisompe, wa mu yana sulwe. A mu bone budio sulwe, wa 
amb'ati : * Shumbwa, lakama, nji ezhi inshima/ Wa bumbidila 
jbwe mu nshima: ushumbwa wa lakama sulwe wa wala mu 
kanwa. Meno onse wa mana ku a yaya : usulwe wa lukanka, 
wa ya« 

A Tale of a Fool. 

Mashimashi, kwizeulu kudi komwi. Ka ba ile balombwana 
ka ya ku swaya. 6a shike budio ba kala, ba ba ikila inshipia. 
Ba mane budio ku ika, ba dya o ya kubwenga : shimenzo wabo 
wa amb'ati : ' Ka mu dya, beenzu. Mwa mana ku dya ezhi mu 
kandile.' Beenzu ba la dya : ba mane ku dya, ba bweza masumo 
ba ya ku dila. Bantu ba zowa, ba amb'ati : ' Baba beenzu ba la 
dila nzhi ? ' Inzho ba be ta, ba ba buzha, ati : ' Mu dila nzhi ? ' 
Ba amb'ati : ' Tu la dila kaini mwa amb'ati : mwa mana ku dya 
ma ka ndile.' Ngonao, ba zowa bonse, ba amb'ati : ' Baba 
bantu mbadimbushi/ Nku ku ti, ba ba shimwina ati: Tu 
amb'ati, mwa mana ku dya o ya kubwenga mu kandile. Ku 
kandila ta kudi ku dila. Twa amb'ati, tu ma pe mabeshi mu 
kandile nshima. 


In English the copula is fonned by mesuxs of the various 
parts of the verb * to be '-^* I am a man/ • thou art just,' * bow 
are they ? ' In Ila the verb ku ba, /a ie, io became, does not 
form the cc^ula except in the future. The copula is formed 
largely by means of the particle di, but it is complicated by the 
use of other particles. As this is one of the most puzzling 
points in the Ila grammar we give in this chapter tables showing 
the use of the copula in the following instances : — 

(i) When a pronoun is connected with another pronoun or 
a noun. 

(2) When a pronoun or noun is connected with a noun. * 

(3) When a noun or pronoun is connected with an adjective. 

(4) When a noun or pronoun is connected with an adverb. 

(5) When a noun or pronoun is connected with an interroga^ 

And, to complete the matter here, examples are given of the 
use of the copula in indirect clauses. Some repetition in this 
chapter is unavoidable, and may be forgiven for the fullness 
which is the result 


I. Pronoun connected with another Fronotm or a 


When a pronoun is connected with another pronoim the sub* 
stantive pronoun simply is used. When a pronoun is connected 
with a noun, the copulative particles are used. In the negative 
the alternative use of the particles ta . . di is to be noticed. 



Ndime, it is I. 
Ndiwe, it is thou. 
Ingawe, it is he. 

1. Ngamuntu, itisaperson. 

2. TS[ga munzhi, it is a 

3* Kd' isaioo, it is a tree. 

4. Mbuzanej^^rmbubuzane, 

it is meat,. 

5. Nkn kutwi, it is an ear. 

6. mntkashimbijitisagirl. 
}. Hchi chinta, it is a thing. 


Ndiswe, it Is we. 
Ndimwe, it is 70U. 
Imbabo, it is they. 

Mbo bantu, they are people. 
Nji rninshi, they are villages. 

Ngu masamo, they are trees. 
Ngu mazaue, they are meats. 

Hga matwi, they are ears. 
NttL tushixnbi, they are girls. 
Nflhi shintu, they are things. 
NBhimpongo, they are goats. 

8. KimpongO) it is a goat. 

9. Kdu lumo, or ndnmo, it Ushixno, they are razors. 

is a razor. 
9a. Kdu lupidi, or ndupidi, Ngu mipidi, they are hills, 
it is a hill. 


Indime, it is not I. Indiswe, it is not we. 

Indiwe, it is not thou. Indimwe, it is not you. 

Ingwe, it is not he. Imbo, it is not .they. 


I. Ingwe muntu, or tadi (ta a di) muntu, it is not a person. 
<• Ingwe muzLzhi, or todi (ta u di) munzhi, it is not a village. 

3. Indip isamo, or tadidi isamo, it is not a tree. 

4. Imbo buzane^ or tabudi buzane, it is not meat. 
5' Inko kutwi, (?r takudi kutwi, it is not an ear. 

6> Inko kashimbi, or takadi kashimbi, it is not a girl. 

}. Incbo chintu, or tachidi chintu, it is not a thing. 

S> Injo impongo, or tedi (ta i di) impongo, it is not a goat. 

9« Indo lumo, or taludi lumo, it is not a razor. 

9a.Indo lupidi, or taludi lupidi, it is not a hilL 



1. Imbo bantu, or tabadi bantu, they are not people. 

2. Injo minzhi, or tedi (ta i di) minzhi, they are not villages. 

3. Ingo masamo, or tadi (ta a di) masamo, they are not trees. 

4. Ingo mazane, or tadi (ta a di) mazane, theyare not meats. 

5. Ingo matwi, or tadi (ta a di) matwi, they are not ears. 

6. Into tushimbi, or tatudi tushimbi, they are not girls. 

7. Insbo shintu, or tashidi shintu, they are not things. 

8. Inslio impongo, or tashidi impongo, they are not goats. 

9. Inslio imo, or tashidi imo, they are not razors. 

9a. Ingo mapidi, or tadi (ta a di) mapidi, they are not hills. 

2. Pronoun or Noun connected with a Noun. 

In this case the copulative particles connect noun with noun, 
but it must be noticed that the particles agree with the second 
nouns, not with the first. Thus : — 

Not Isamo ndi mwani, the tree is a mopani. 

But Isamo ngu mwani. 

In connecting a pronoun with a noun^ either the substantive 
pronoun or the copula di is used. 


Ndime nmntu, or Ndi Ndiswe bantu, or tudi 
muntu, I am a person. bantu, we are people. 

Ndiwe muntu, or udi Ndimwe bantu, or mudi 
muntu, thou art a person. bantu, you are people. 

Inguwe muntu, or udi Mbo bantu, or badi baaita, 
muntu, he is a person. they are people. 

1. Muntu ngu muteu, the person is a thief. 
Bantu mbo bateu, the people are thieves. 

2. ICwezhi ngu mumoni, the moon is a light 
Miezhi nji mimoni, the moons are lights. 

3. Isamo ngu mwani, the tree is a mopani. 
Masamo nji miani, the trees are mopani. 

&c., &c. 



Indime mnnta, or shidi Indiswe bantu, or tatudi 

muntu, I am not a person. bantu, we are not people. 

Indiwe muntu, or todi Indimwe bantu, or tamudi 

muntu, thou art not a person. bantu, you are not people. 

Ingwe muntu,ar tadi (taa di) Imbobantu,(?rtabadi bantu, 

muntu, i e is not a person. they are not people. 

1. Muntu tadi muteu, the person is not a thief. 
Bantu tabadi bateu, the people are not thieves. 

2. Mucbelo todi muchanka, the fruit is not nice. 
Miclielo tedi (ta i di) michanka, the fruits are not nice. 

&c., &c. 

3. Pronoun or Noun connected with an Adjective. 

The substantive pronouns may be used when a pronoun is to 
be connected with an adjective. With the noun there is a 
variation : some simply taking the adjective without a link, 
while others take the copulative particles. In the negative 
ta . . di are used. 


llTdime mubotu, or ndi Kdiswe babotu, or tudi 

mubotu, I am good. babotu, we are good. 

ISTdiwe mubotu, or udi Ndimwe babotu, or mudi 

mubotu, thou art good. babotu, you are good. 

Inguwe mubotu, or udi Mbo babotu, (^badi babotu, 

mubotu, he is good. they are good. 

I. Muntu mubotu, the person is good. 

Bantu mbabotu, the people are good. 
2- Munzhi mukando, the village is big. 

Minzhi mikando, the villages are big. 

3. Isamo ndilamfu, the tree is tall. 
Masamo malamfu, the trees are tall. 

4. Buzane mbubotu, the meat is good. 
Mazane mabotu, the meats are good. 



5. Kutwi nkushonto, the ear is small. 
Matwi maslionto, the ears are small. 

6. Kashimbi nkabiabe, the girl is bad. 
Tnshimbi ntubiabe, the girls are bad. 

7. Chintu nohibongvhu, the thing is soft. 
Shintu nshibongvliu, the things are soft 

8. Impongo ninjinu, the goat is fat. 
Impongo shinjinu, the goats are fat. 

9. Iiumo ndupia, the razor is new. 
Imo ushipia, the razors are new. 

9a. Lupidi ndushonto, the hill is small. 
Mapidi malamfa, the hills are high. 

N.B. — Note that the copulative particles are used when the 
classifiers do not begin with a nasal ; that is why when the 
classifier begins with m, the adjective has no link with the noun. 


Shidi mubotu^ I am not good. Tatudi babotu, we are not 

Todi mubotu, thou art not Tamudi babotu, you are not 

good. good. 

Tadi (ta i di) mubotu, he is Tabadi babotu, they are not 

not good. good. 

1. Muntu tadi mubotu, the person is not good. 
Bantu tabadi babotu, the people are not good. 

2. Munzbi todi mukando, the village is not big. 
Minzhi tedi mikando, the villages are not big. 

3. Isamo tadidi ilamfti, the tree is not tall. 
Masamo tadi malamftL, the trees are not tall. 

4. Buzane tabudi bubotu, the meat is not good. 
Mazane tadi mabotu, the meats are not good. 

5. Kutwi takudi kusbonto, the ear is not small. 
Matwi tadi mashonto, the ears are not small 

6. Kashimbi takadi kabiabe, the girl is not bad. 
Tushimbi tatudi tubiabe, the girls are npt bad. 



7. Chinta taohidi ohishonto, the thing is not small. 
Shintu tashidi shishonto, the things are not small. 

8. Impongo tedi njinu, the goat is not fat 
Impongo tashidi njinu, the goats are not fat. 

9. Lumo taludi lupia, the razor is not new. 
Imo tashidi impia, the razors are not new. 

9a. Lupidi taludi lulamfu, the hill is not high, 
i tadi malamfa, the hills are not high. 

4. Noun or Pronoun connected with an Adverb. 

We take the locative adverbs, mono, kono, ano, here. The 
idiomatic use of these must be carefully noted. Thus : — 

Muntu mwadi mono (muntu mu a di mono), /r'/., person 

in-he-is in-here. 
Muntu kwadi kono (muntu ku a di ku-ono)^ ///., person 

to-he-is to-here. 
Muntu ngadi ano (muntu ng-a-di a-ono), /i/., person on-he-is 


Notice the phonetic change of a into ng in the last example. 

In the following table the nouns are omitted and also the 
English equivalents ; they may be readily supplied by the reader. 



1. Mwadi 

2. Mwodi 

3. Mudidi 

4. Mubudi 

5. Mukudi 

6. Mukadi 

7. Muchidi 


9. Muludi 
9a. Muludi 



Sing. Plur. 


o 2 























1. Ngadi 

2. Ngodi 

3. Ngudidi 

4. Ngubudi 

5. Ngakudi 






9a. Nguludi 




In the case of pronouns, ist and 2nd persons sing, and plur., 
the following are used : — 

I St p. Mwindi Mutudi 
2nd p. Mudi Mumudi 

I St p. Ngwindi 

2nd p. Ngudi 

Examples of the use 0/ these. 
Mwindi mono munganda, I am here in the house. 
Kwadi kodia, he is yonder. 
Mbudi kwi buzane P Mubudi modia. Where is the meat ? 

It is in yonder. 
Ing'ombe ngwidi ano, the cattle are here. 
Minzhi kwidi kodia, the villages are yonder. 

In the negative the idiomatic form above is not used, simply 
the particle ta followed by the adverb. Here, however, two 
other things must be noticed. A shortened form of the adverb 
is used, thus : mo for mono, momo, modia ; ko for kono, 
koko, kodia ; o for ano, awo, adia. These may be followed 
by the full forms for the sake of emphasis. The other point is 
that the pronoun ending in a becomes e ; that is to say there is 
an i which coalesces with the a to form e. This i is probably 
the remnant of the particle di, here apparently omitted. Thus : — 

Muntu te ko kono = Muntu ta a i ko kono. 

Minzhi te ko kono = Munzhi ta i i ko kona 

Note. — I notice that in the Ganda language the di is retained in full in 
such cases. Thus: tadiwo, he is not here; tadimu, he is not inside— 
answering to the Ila tio (-> ta-i-o), temo (= ta-i-mo). 









ist p. 





2nd p. 


(ta u i) 




3rd p. 























































ist p. 

8hi6 Tatwi6 5. 



2nd p. 

Twi6 Tamwi6 6. 



3rd p. 


Te6 Tabe6 7. 




T06 T06 8. 




Tadi6 Te6 9. 




Tabwi6 Te6 9a. 




N.B. — The locatives are accented. 

Examples of the use of these. 

Bnsaae tabwimd mung'anda, the meat is not here in the 

Sa bavumini kubadi konoP Fe, tabekd. Are there be- 
lievers here ? No there are none. 

Ndetele makuzu. Te6 ano, bring me wild figs. There are 
none here. 

Usiiiiu shimd muohikolo, to-day I am not in school. 


5. Noun or Fronoxm eonneoted with an 


In the case of pronouns, the simple form is used with the 
copula dl With nouns the same form may be used, or, more 
properly, the copulative particles. The interrogatives illustrated 
below are: KwiP Where? BntiP How? What sort? 
Ongai P How many ? English equivalents may be supplied by 
the reader. 









UdikwiP NgudikwiP 

Muntu ndi kwiP 

MunzM ndi kwi P 

Isamo didi buti P 

Ndidi buti P 

Buzane budi kwi P 

Mbudi kwi P 



Kashimbi kadi kwi P 


Chintu chidi kwi P 

Kchidi buti P 

Impongo idi kwi P 

Njidi kwi P 
9. Lumo ludi kwi P 

Ndudi kwi P 
9a. Lupidi ludi kwi P 



Bantu badi buti P 
Minzhi idi kwi P 
Kjidi kwi P 
MaMuno adi buti P 
Kgadi ongai P 
Masamo adi kwi P 
Kgadi kwi P 
Matwi adi ongai P 
Kgadi kwiP 
Tushimbi tudi kwi P 
Ktudi tongaiP 
Shintu shidi shongai P 
Kshidi shongai P 
Impongo shidi shongai P 
Kshidi kwi P 
Imo shidi kwi P 
Kshidi kwiP 
Mapidi adi kwi P 
Kgadi kwi P 



I. Pronoun connected with a Pronoun or Noun. 

The particle ka is used in the affirmative followed by the 
pronoun and the copula di. In the negative ta is inserted 
between the pronoun and di. 


Chidi ome, it was !• Ka tudi uswe, it was we. 

Kodi awe, it was thou. Ka mudi umwe, it was you. 

Kadi nguwe {or wezo) it Ka badi babo, it was they, 
was he. 

I. Kadi muntu, it was a Ka badi bantu, they were 
person. people. 

2. Kodi munzhi, it was a Kedi minzhi, they were 

village. villages. 

3. Ka didi isamo, it was a Kadi masamo, they were 

tree. trees. 

&c., &c. 


Chi ntadi ome, it was not I. Ka tutadi uswe, it was not we. 
Kg tadi uwe^ it was not thou. Ka mutadi umwe, it was not 

Ka tadi nguwe» it was not he. Ka batadi babo, it was not 


1. Ka tadi muntu, it was not Ka batadi bantu, they were 

a person. not persons. 

2. Kotadi munzhi, it was not Ke tadi minzhi, they were 

a village. not villages. 

3. Ka ditadi iaamo, it was Ka tadi masamo, they were 

not a tree. not trees. 

&C.9 &C. 

To express our impersonal ' there was a man ' ; ' there was 
not a man' the forms are : Ka kudi muntu ; Ka kwina muntu. 


2. Pronoun or Noun connected with a Noun. 

There are two forms used in the affirmative, the first being 
the past tense — kadi muteu; the second the imperfect — Muntu 
wa kudi muteu. In the following table the reader may supply 
what is omitted. 


Nda kudi muntu, I was a Ku tudi bashimbi, we were 

person. girls. 

Wa kudi muteu, thou wert Ka mudi bateu, you were 

a thief. thieves. 

Wa kudi muntu, he was a Ka badi bantu, they were 

person. people. 

1. Muntu kadi muteu, the person was a thief. 
Bantu ka badi bateu, the people were thieves. 

2. Muohelo kodi shidyo, the fruit was food. 
Mlchelo kedi sbidyo, the fruits were food. 

3. Isamo kadidi mwani, the tree was a mopani, 
Masamo kadi miani, the trees were mopani. 

&c., &c. 


Shi nda kudi muteu, I was Ti twa kudi bateu, we were 

not a thief. not thieves. 

Tiwa kudi muteu, thou wert Ti mwa kudi bateu, you 

not a thief. were not thieves. 

Ti a kudi muteu, he was not Ti ba kudi bateu, they were 

a thief. not thieves. 

1. Muntu katadi muteu, the person was not a thief. 
Bantu ka batadi bateu, the people were not thieves. 

2. Muohelo kotadi shidyo, the fruit was not food. 
Michelo ketadi shidyo, the fruits were not food. 

3. Isamo ka ditadi mwani, the tree was not a mopani. 
Masamo katadi miani, the trees were not mopani 

&c., &c. 


3. Pronoun or Noun oonnected with an Adjective. 


Chindimubotu, I wasgood. Ka tudi baboto, we were 

Eodimubota, thou wert good. Ka mudi babotu, you were 

Eadi mubotu, he was good. Ka badi babotu, they were 


1. Muntu kadi mukando, the man was big. 
Bantu ka badi banjibaziji, the people were many. 

2. Munzhi kodi mukando, the village was big. 
Minzhi kedi mibiabe, the villages were bad. 

3. Isamo ka didi ikando, the tree was large. 
Masamo kadi makando, the trees were big. 

&c., &C. 


Shi nda kudi mubotu, I was Ti twa kudi babotu, we 

not good. were not good. 

Ti wa kudi mubotu, thou Ti mwa kudi babotu, you 

wert not good. were not good 

Ti a kudi mubptu, he was Ti ba kudi babotu, they 

not good. were not good. 

1. Muntu ti a kudi mubotu, the person was not good. 
Bantu ti ba kudi babotu, the people were not good. 

2. Munzhi ti wa kudi mubotu, the village was not good. 
Minzhi ti ya kudi mibotu, the villages were not good. 

&c., &c. 

4. Noun or Pronoun connected with an Adverb. 

The locative adverbs mono, kono, ano may again be illus- 
trated. They appear in their shortened forms mo, ko, o, and 
are connected with the noun or pronoun by means of the copula 
di in the affirmative. In the negative the same remarks apply 
as in the present tense. See above, sect, i, 4. 


In the following tables the English equivalents may be sup- 
plied by the reader. 



Plur, Sing. Plur, 

Ka tudimd Chi ndik6 Ka tudik6 
Kamudimd Kodik6 Kamudikd 
Ka badimd Kadik6 Ka badikd 
Kedimd Kodik6 Kedik6 

Kadidikd Kadik6 

Ka budikd 


ist. p. Obi ndimd 
2nd p. Kodimd 
3rd p. I. Kadim6 

2. Kodim6 

3. Ka dicLim6 Kadim6 

4. Ka budimd Kadim6 

5. Ka kadim6 Kadim6 Ka kndikd Kadikd 

6. Ka kadim6 Ka tudimd Ka kadikd Ka tudikd 

7. Ka ohidimd Ka shidimd Ka ohidikd Ka shidikd 

8. Kedixnd Ka shidimd Kedik6 Ka shidLkd 

9. Ka ludim6 Ka 8hidim6 Ka ludik6 Ka shidikd 
9a. Ka ludim6 Kadim6 Ka ludik6 






ist p. 



5. Kakudid 


2nd p. 


Ka mudi6 

6. Kakadid 


3rd p. I. 



7. Ka ohidid 

Ka ahldid 




8. KodiA 

Ka 8hidi6 


Ka didi6 


9. Ka ludid 

Ka 8hid16 


Ka budid 



9a. Ka lndi6 









ist p. 

Ohi ntem6 Ka tutemd Ohi ntekd 

Ka tatekd 

2nd p. 


Ka mutemd Kotekd 


3rd p. I 

. Katemd 

Ka batemd Katekd 

Ka batekd 


. Kotemd 





. Ka ditemd Katemd 

Ka ditekd 


4. Ka budimd Katemd Ka budikd Katekd 



•Snif • Pimr, Sing. Pbtr, 

5. Ka ]ciitem6 Katem6 Ka katek6 Katek6 

6. Ka lnitmn6 Ka tatemd Ka katekd Ka tntek6 

7. Ka chitemd Ka shitemd Ka ohitekd Kashitekd 

8. Ketamd Kashiten 

16 Katem6 


9. Ka lutem6 Ka shitemd Ka lutek6 


9a. Ka Intemd Katem6 




Sing. Plur. 



ist pu CM nte6 Ka tate6 

5. Kakate6 


2nd p. Kote6 Ka mute6 

6. Kakate6 


3rd p. I. Kate6 Ka bate6 

7. Ka ohited 


2. Kote6 K6te6 

8. Kete6 


3. Kadite6 Kate6 

9. Kalute6 


4. Kabate6 Kate6 

9a. Ka lute6 


N.B. — ^The locative particles are accented. 

Examples of the use of these. 

Oscma cbi ntem6 mono mnng*anda, yesterday I was not 

here in the honse. 

tndikd kodia ku xnunshi, we were yonder at the village. 

ahidid imi>oxigo ahinjishinji, there were there many goats. 

mtidimd muchikolo, you were in the school. 
Katek6 masamo, there were no trees there. 

5. Hoan or Pronoun connected with an Interrogative. 

Chi ndi kwi f Where was I ? Ka tndi kwif Where were we? 

Kodikwif Where wert thou? Kamndikwif Where wert thou? 

Kadi kwi P Where was he ? Kabadikwif Where were they? 

I. Mnntu kadi buti f How Bantu ka badi buti P How 

was the man ? were the people ? 

UnnzhikodibutiP How Minzhi kedi kwiP How 

was the village ? were the villages ? 

IsamokadidikwiP How Masamo kadi kwiP How 

was the tree ? were the trees ? 

&c. &c. 




This is formed by means of the verb ku ba, to be^ to become. 
In the affirmative three forms are found of the future tense of 
this verb : — 

a. Muntu u la ba muteu, the person will be a thief, i.e. 


b. Nda ba muteu, I shall be a thief, i. e. soon. 

c. Nda ka ba muteu, I shall be a thief, i. e, at some distant 


I. Pronoun oonneeted with a Pronoun or Ifoun. 

Here we distinguish two forms, corresponding to the English 
* it will be a thief and ' he will be a thief. The former is im- 


Ku la ba ome, it will be I. Ku la ba uswe, it will be we. 
Ku la ba uwe, it will be thou. Ku la ba umwe, it will be you. 

Ku la ba wezo, it will be he. 

I. Ku la ba muteu, it will 
be a thief. 
tr la ba muteu, he will 
be a thief. 

Ku la ba babo, it will be they. 

Ku la ba bateu, it will be 

Ba la ba bateu, they will be 


Ta ku ka bi ome, it will not Ta ku ka bi uswe, it will not 

Ta ku ka bi uwe, it wi]l not 

be thou. 
Ta ku ka bi wezo, it will not 

be he. 

I. Ta ti a ka bi muntu^ he 
will not be a person. 
Ta ku ka bi muteu, it will 
not be a thief. 

be we. 
Ta ku ka bi umwe, it will 

not be you. 
Ta ku ka bi bale, it will not 

be they. 

Ta ba ti ba ka bi bantu, 

they will not be people. 
Ta ku ka bi bateu, it will 
not be thieves. 


2. To ti n ka bi munzhi, it Te ti i ka bi minzhi, they 
will not be a village. will not be villages. 

Ta ka ka bi mtiiuihi, Ta ku ka bi minzhi, there 
there will not be a village. will not be villages. 
&c. &c. 

2. Pronoun or Noun connected with a Noun. 


Nda ka ba munta, I shall Twa ka ba bantu, we shall 

be a person. be people, 

Wa ka ba muntu, thou wilt Mwa ka ba bantu, you will 

be a person. be people. 

Wa ka ba muntu, he will be Ba ka ba bantu, they will be 

a person. • people. 

I. Muntu u la ba muteu, the person will be a thief. 
Bantu ba la ba bateu, the people will be thieves. 
&c., &c. 


Here we may use the future tenses as given in the previous 
chapter : — 

Shi nti mbi muteu, I shall not be a thief. 
Ta ti a bi muteu, he will not be a thief 
Ndi na ni nka ba muteu, I shall not be a thief. 
TI ina ni a ka ba muteu, he will not be a thief. 

Or often the potential future tenses are used : — 

Shi ka bi muteu, I shall not, or may not, be a thief 
Shi ka ka bi muteu, I shall not be a thief. 

3. Pronoun or Noun connected with an Adjective. 

Here again are the three forms : — 

Nda ba mubotu, I shall be good. 
Ndi la ba mubotu, „ „ 
Nda ka ba mubotu, 

» >> 


Here also the forms mentioned above are in use : — 

Shi nti mbi mabotu, I shall not be good. 

Ndi na ni nka ba mubotu, I shall not be good. 

4. Nonn or Fronoxui oonnected with an Adverb. 

The same forms are used as above in affirmative and negative. 

Ba la ba kono, they will be here. 

Ba ba kono, „ „ * 

Ba ka ba kono, „ „ 

Ta ba ti ba bi kono, they will not be here. 

Ba ina ni ba ka ba kono, „ „ 

5. Noun or Fronoxin connected with an Interrogatiye. 

The same forms are used in this case as above : — 

Ba la ba buti P How will they be ? 

Ba ba buti P ,, „ 

Ba ka ba bongai P How many will there be ? 


In indirect clauses the copula takes the form of kudi in the 
affirmative and takudi in the negative. Notice that in the 
negative indirect clause the particle ta always takes its place 
after the pronoun. 


Masamo a kudi miani nda ula, if the trees are mopani I will 

buy them. 
Masamo a takudi miani sha ula, if the trees are not mopani 

I won't buy them. 
Nda ula buti a takudi mabotu P How can I buy them if 

they are not good ? 
Buzane bwa takudi bubotu bu sowe, if the meat is not good 

throw it away. 


Nda ka dya bnti bwa kudi bnzumo P How can I eat if it 

is hard? 
Wa takudi kono nda ka yovwa but! f If you are not here 

how can I help you ? 
A ka ohidi mong'anda nke njile bati P If he is still in the 

house how can I enter ? 
Nda kadi a moahinie nda ku bona bati P If I am in the 

dark how can I see you ? 
Ka takadi mwami nda ma yaya, if he were not a chief 

I would kill him. 
Wa kadi mabota nda ka yovwa, if you are good I will help 

A kadi mabiabe ma me, if he is bad, hit him. 
Lomo Iwa kadi lafkimpia nda la kwanga, if the razor is 

blunt I will sharpen it. 
Monzhi wa takwiko nda shoka, if the village is not there 

I shall return* 
Hda ka lela bati tadyo twa takwid P How can I feed you 

there being no food ? 


Exercise 1. 

TranslaU into Ila: — 

Yesterday he was in the field. Why were you not here ? It 
is not a ram that I want ; I want a she-goat. We are not 
people who travel much on the water. That child troubles me ; 
he is a thief, a liar ; I don't know what I shall do with him. I 
am not a good carpenter. The goats are in the kraal. The 
cattle are here. The hoes are in that house yonder. In which 
house? I am here in the house still eating. There are no 
cattle there in that country. How is that abscess of yours which 
I lanced yesterday ? How many people were in church yesterday? 
It was we who drove your cattle away. It was that village he 
burnt because the people did not pay their tax. They were very 
good trees which we brought. It was he who stayed behind. 


It was not I. There was no man in the village when we passed 
yesterday. If you do not go at once I shall fine you. They 
were not goats which ate your mealies ; they were cattle. That 
man was not a thief when he was a young man, he has changed 
much. The fruit which you were eating was not food. The 
people were not many. I was there in the field when you called 
me. They were not here at my place ; I have not seen them. 
The men you speak of were in the forest yesterday cutting down 
trees for me. We were not there, we did not see the dancing. 
Where were your children yesterday, they were not in school ? 
They will be there to-morrow. 

Exercise 2. 

Iranslaie into English : — 

Ba ina ni ba ka ba banjibanji kaini ba fwa bamwi. Bafiilwe 
ngubadi ano. Bachiwena tabemo mu mulonga wezu. Tashiko 
shintu nshu ambila. Ngadi buti masamo ngu wa ndetela ? Ma- 
pidi teko kodia ku banaisha. Inshima ka shiteko ozona. Lu- 
kona ka ludimo mwitashi diakwe. Munkomo ka shitemo 
shintu. Minzhi minjiminji kediko. Ome chi nteko koko, pele 
wezo. Katemo masamo adi bodia. Ku la ba wezo we ba 
shintu shako. Wezo u ina insana, ta ti a bi mwami. Bodia 
mbwi ntadi mwami nda ku koswela buti makani ? Muntu atakaudi 
muteu u la mu njizha buti mu ntelongo ? Na to luleme nda ku 
uma. U ina ni wa ka lukanka u la hola buti ? Na indiwe we ba 
kambo nzhi nku wa lukankila ? Ndi la ka ya buti ku tata mulom-* 
bwana wezo a takwio ? Nda takwiko kodia nda ku bona buti ? 
Insho sheshi nshi nzanda, nda langa pele impongo inkando. 
Ka kwina muntu koko ni twa ita ko ozona. Ka badi kwi? 
Muzhikenina kadi mo. 


The Bird which swallowed People. 

Muzune mukando mukando wa ka ya mwinzhila, wa bona 
bantu be enda wa ba mina. Inzho bamwi ba amb'ati : ' A tu ka 


sonde/ Inzho ba ya ku sonda. Inzho musonzhi wa amb'ati : 
' Wezo muzune mu ka mu letele mahuba inchelwa. Wa ka shika 
ko ku muzune wezo aze u la ka ku mina. A ka ku mina budio 
mwifu diakwe u ka ku hukuta mahuba. Bantu mba ka mina 
bonse ba la ka vhwa.' Inzho ba ya ku muzune. Muzune wa 
mina muntu. Inzho mwifu dia muzune wa hukuta. Inzho 
wezo muzune wa telela mahuba inzho wa fwa. Bantu mba ka 
mina ba vwila ansengwe bonse. Ba vhwe budio bantu ba 
amb'ati : ' Inzho musonzhi u la bona bu twa vhwa mwifu dia 
muzune.' Dia mana ikani dia muzune. 

The Hippo, and the Rhino. 

Shempela o chivhubwe ba ka Iwa. Chivhubwe wa ka bweza 
lumo Iwa shempela, inzho ba Iwa. Shempela wa amb'ati: 
' Lumo Iwangu nguni wa lu tola ? ' Chivhubwe wa ingula ati : 
'Ndime. Nda ku shiza mwinangu.' Shempela wa amb'ati: 
* Leta kono.' Ati chivhubwe : * Shi lu bwene.' Ngonao ba 
Iwa. Ati inzho shempela : ' Tu andana. Ome nda ka ku dya 
mulundungoma.' Aze chivhubwe ati : * Pele u menzhi.' Ku 
ambwa'ti : ' Tu andana mbu ba ka andana shempela o 

Why the Zebra has no Horns. 

Banyama ba ka bungana antomwi, — muzovu o shankole o 
munyumbwi o chibizi o musefu o munyati o luengu o nakasha 
naduvwi o shichisunu o mukulo o mutubiakalomo o shasubila o 
nanja o nakasotokela o shombololo, bonse banyama ba mikumo 
mikumo ba ka bungana antomwi ba la chela. Chi be chindi 
cha shika chindi ocha ku ya ku sala meya. Banyama bonse ba 
amb'ati: 'A tu ka sale meya.' Ngonao banyama bonse ba 
luicanka, ba mikumo mikumo bonse ba lukanka ba ya ku sala 
meya. Be zudila bonse, munyama nzhi o mushonto o mukando 
udi buti. Bonse ba mikumo mikumo meya be zudila. Kwa 
shala chibizi pele. Chi be budio chindi ba amb'ati : ' Chibizi 
ba kwima ku sala meya.' Na ka amba a zhibaluke wa lukanka 
a ka ahike ko kwa ku salwa meya. Wa usa budio wa yana na 



Iwiya, onse ba a mana. Wa yana ko mwala o matwi mal^mafu 
o mabala o mulomo mukando. Ngonao beenzhina ba mu seka, 
ba amb'ati : ' Uwe, kudya kwako udi buti ? Bona, meya ba a 
mana, o bana bashonto bonse mey^L : uwe, pele mabala o mwala 
o malwi o kulengezha mnlomo kwa ba ku bweza o. Bona uswe 
tonse meya o mukando o mushonto.' Ngonao beenzhina ba mu 
sampaula, ba amb'ati : ' Uwe udi shindya, kudya kwako kwa 
kwimya meya.' Ngonao chibizi wa usa chinichini mbwa ka budila 
meya. Ngonao pele kudya ku disha chinichini, obudisunu obu- 
disunu chibizi ngu shindya. Antela u la bazha banyama bamwi 
ku kudya. Pele. 

The Honeybird and the Bees. 

Solwe wa ka ya ku sesa ku nzuki. A shike kodia wa amb'ati : 
' Nda langa mukaintu.' Banzuki ba mu pa mukaintu. Chi be 
chindi ba mu nanga. Ba mu nange budio, solwe wa amb'ati : 
' Bu mwa nkasha mwinangu pele nda ku ma chechelela ku bantu 
oba ita mwinzhila.' Bwa ka ambila bobo obudisunu a bona 
muntu owa ita wa mu tola, wa ya ku mu lezha inzuki. 

The Crab and the Jackal. 

Ba ka chita chikani mwaba inkala. Inkala ya amb'ati : ^ Nda 
ku shia lubilo.' Mwaba wa zowa, wa amba : * Pe. Nodi ma- 
tende achieme to nshii lubilo, udi mwanichi.' Inkala ya 
amb'ati kwa mwaba: 'U ka fume ozona tu ze ku lukanka.' 
Mwaba wa ya ku munzhi wakwe : ayo inkala yo ona a munzhi 
wayo. Bu che chifumo mwaba wa shika ku nkala, ati : ' A tu 
ende inzho, tu lukanke.' Inkala ya zhima ku muchila wa 
mwabn. Mwaba a ambe a lukanke, inkala ya mu luma ku 
muchila: mwaba u la lukanka ayo inkala ya bu ya ku mu 
lumina ku muchila. A lukanka chindi chilamfu chi ya. budi 
kodia ku mulonga. Mwaba a ambe a chebuke munshi inkala 
ya ku sotekela kumbele. Mwaba wo ompolola inkala, inkala ya 
ingula kumbele : mwaba wa zowa odimwi, wa amb'ati : * Inkala 
ya ingula kumbele/ Odimwi chi be chindi ba ya ka zhima 


ambde, odimwi inkala ya luma ku muchila, odimwi ba lukanka 
chindi ochi ya budi kodia ku mulonga. Mwaba wa chebuka 
munshi, inkala ya sotekela kumbelc. Mwaba wa jsowa, ati: 
' Uwe, ankala, udi mukando, shi kwiti dinji odia bwana inzho 
nda beba kwako/ Mwaba wa bwela ku munzhi wakwe, wa ya 
ku kala. Ayo inkala ya bwela ku munzfai wayo. Ngonao ka 
mana kambo kako. 

A Tale op Two Men. 

Ba ka lEhimoka balombwana badi bobili, umwi wa bweza 
mubwa, umwi wa bweza chibia. Ba shike mwisokwe, wezo owa 
ku kwete mubwa wa yaya munyama. Owa ku kwete chibia, 
ad : ' A tu ike, tu dye.- Ba mane ku ika, ba dya. Wezo mubwa 
we njila mu chibia ku komba. A ambe a vhwe mutwi wa 
patila mu chibia. Wezo udi chibia, ati : ' Ndo, chibia changu 
chi ka la fwa. Mubwako wa patila mu chibia changu. Kweza, 
u mu kushe mo.' Udi mubwa wa kaka, ati : ^ Ome shi mu 
konzha mubwa.' ' Sena mbwa ku kachila a tu mu kosole 
mutwi chibia chechi chi vhwe kabotu mutwi.' Ati : ' Uwe, ndo, 
nodi chibia chibotu nchi chidie o mubwa o chibia ? ' Umwi wa 
ingula, ati : ' Chibia changu nchi chibotu.' Ati : ' Mbubo, ko 
kosola budio.' Wezo udi chibia wa bweza keembe, wa kosola 
mubwa. A mane ku kosola, wabweza chibia chakwe, wa yana 
china ku fwa, wa leta mehzhi wa sanzha mo buloa. A mane ku 
sanzha, wa leta ingozhi, wa anga, wa kudika, u la ya bu enda 
ku munzhi. Aze udi mubwa wa ya ku munzhi. A shike ku 
munzhi wezo udi mubwa wa yana mwanakwe u la sata, wa te- 
laika ati: *Wedia u kwete chibia mwanakwe wa ke tolela inshipi 
yangu.' Wa lukanka lubilo, wa ya ko. Ku ka shika, ati: ' Uwe, 
mwenzuma, mpa inshipi yangu.' Bo ompolola mwana wezo, 
inshipi ezho ya kaka ku vhwa kwitashi dia mwana wezo, ukuti 
ya ke njila kale kale ka chidi mwana, usunu wa kula, wa ba 
kamwale. Ati : ' Bodia mbwi ya kaka a tu kosole itashi.' Ati : 
' Ndo, to kosodi itashi ; a tu ku pe budio inji inshipi.' Wezo 
munto wa kaka, ati : ' Shikwe inji, njiona ezhi inshipi yangu.' 

p 2 


* Chibotu nchi chidie, inshipi, itashi dia mwana ? ' Wezo muntu 
wa kaka, ati : * Ome inshipi yangu ezhi nji nzanda/ Ushe wezo 
mwana, ati : ' Bweza keembe, u kosole itashi/ Wa kosola, 
inshipi ya ku vhwa. Wa tola inshipi yakwe, ati : ' Inzho, ndi 
ledio itashi dia mwanako, u lunge, tu bone na u la lunga buti. 
Ome mubwangu wa ka mu kosola.' Wa tola ezho inshipi, wa 
ya ku sonda mwanakwe owa ku sata. A ka shike kwa wezo 
munganga, wa ku sonda, ati : ' Ka she budio musamo, mwana 
u la ka pona/ Wa zhoka, we za ku sha musamo. Wa mu 
shidika, mwanakwe wa pona. A mane ku pona bobo, wa mu 
kumbila mukuku, wa mu paila. A mane ku paila, ba kala, ba 
nwa mukuku wezo. A mane budio mukuku, abo bantu ba 
leka, ba mana. Ngukgla, a mana makani. 




Sect. i. THE ADVERB. 

Besides adverbs proper, the Baila have other ways of express- 
ing adverbial ideas. , The simple adverbs are as follows : — 

Hi, or Wdi, when. UkUTi P Where ? 

Fele, only, simply. KwiP Where ? 

Budio, merely. Ukwi-ukwi, wherever. 

AntomiiTi, together. Chani P Koohani p How ? 

lohe, alone. Kale, already. 

Mani, until. Kale-kale, long ago; in the 

Ka, not, not even. future. 

On ni or ndi see the note below. 

Fele and budio have a similar meaning, but pele is used 
largely with nouns and pronouns, e. g. Kdime pele, I is only, 
or merely, I. Ba xnu yasa budio, they simply speared him. 
Budio is also used with the subjunctive to indicate ' as soon as '. 
A ka shike budio, as soon as he arrives. 

Fele and mani probably are of verbal origin. The latter 
may be connected with ku mana, to finish. Fele is perhaps 
connected with the noun impela, extremity ; there is no current 
verb ku pela, to end, but the root is probably that found in the 
Zulu ukupela, to come to an end. For just as Zulus say 
kupela, that 's all, there 's nothing more, so do the Baila use 
pele at the end of a narration. 

XJkUTi P is used when the question is asked without naming 
anything, while kUTi P follows a verb or copula. 


Chani, or koohani, is the same word as the Suto yuang; 
Zulu, igani, kanjani ; Nyanja, tshiani. Its use is very like 
that of batiP e.g. Wezo mmita u la amba koohani P 
How is that man talking, i. e. what is he saying ? XT la amba 
buti seems rather to refer to the manner of speaking. 

Kale is also a common Bantu word. In Zulu it takes the form 
of kade ; Suto, khale ; Swahili, kale ; Bemba, kali. It is used 
in the sense of * already ' : Twa chita kale, we have done it 
already ; in its duplicated form, kale-kale, it refers to distant 
time, either past or future. 

Noiiins used as Adverbs. 

The foDowing are examples of nouns used as adverbs without 
any change of form. They are mostly expressive of time. 

Chiftimo, early morning. Mashiku, at night. 

Mangolezha, late aflemoon. Chikasadizhi, forenoon. 
Chifatenuma, backwards. Chami, purposely. 

Besides these adverbs are formed from nouns by prefixing the 
locative particles. Among these are the following : — 

From inshi, the ground. 

From kati, middle, ohol. 
From izeulu, the sky. 

From imbadi, side, odsai. 

From imbele, front, odsoL 
From insengwe, outside, odsoL 

Munahi, afterwards, behind. 
Eunshi, below. 
Anshi, on the ground 
Mukati, within, inside. 
Akati, among, between. 
Mwizetdu, in the air, above. 
Kwiaeulu, above. 
Eaeulu, above. 
Eumbadi, aside. 
Ambadi, ^ 

Eumbele, in the front, before. 
Ambele, afore, before. 
Kunsengwe, outside. 
Ansengwe, outside. 


From iwe, the east. Kwiwe, towards the easL 

Ewe, in the east. 

From imbo^ the west. Kumbo, towards the west. 

Ambo, in the west. 

It 18 interesting to trace the presence of some of these adverbs in other 
Bantn languages. Some languages have lost the regular use of the locative 
prefixes, but yet retain many words which indicate that at one time they 
were used. 

Thus conesponding to anahi we find in Zulu, pansi, below; Xosa, pantsi. 
In Suto this becomes fttsei In languages retaining the use of the locatives, 
we have Kongo, munshi, kunshi, vanahi ; Nyanja, pansi ; Ganda, wansi. 
Kongo seems to come nearest to Ila in this respect. 

The root kati seems to be obsolete in Ila, i. e. it is not used by itself, 
though it so far retains its noun form as to be followed by the genitive 
particle ka when used as a preposition, akati ka, &c. The word kati is 
in use in Kongo and Bemba where it means middle, interior. The word 
appears in Zulu in the locative form; pakati, among; Swahili, katika, 
among ; Ganda, wakati, in the middle. In Suto it takes the form of hare, 

The root iaoulu means the space above ; it also is a widely prevalent 
Bantu word. In Zulu the word is isula, and the loc eaeulu takes the form 
of pezulu ; Kongo, eatilu ; in Swahili it is contracted to juu : cf. Tonga, 
jjnla ; Ganda, wagulu. 

The roots imbadi and imbele and insangwe are obsolete in Ila. Imbele 
appears in Swahili as mbele, before, in front. Imbadi appears in Ganda 
as ka *badi, at the side ; and in Ganda as in Ila it has also a plural form, 
ma'bali. Insengwe does not seem to be used elsewhere ; but in Bemba we 
have nse, kanse, outside. 

In addition to the above, adverbs are also formed from nouns 
by prefixing oba. These express manner. 

Noun, Adverb, 

Insana, strength. Chansana, forcibly. 

Inkole, cruelty. Chankole, cruelly. 

Bwanga, kindness. Chabwanga, kindly. 

ImpuwOy fame. Champuwo, publicly. 

laubilo, swiftness. Ghalubilo, swiftly. 

Iinse, mercy. Chaluse, mercifully. 


Intenda, pity. Chantenda, pitifully. 

Bnsn, sorrow. Chabnsu, sorrowfully. 

Iiwengn, notoriety. Chalwengu, notoriously. 

Mano, cunning. Chamano, cunningly. 

Other IiooatiTe Adverbs. 

Besides forming adverbs by being prefixed to nouns, the 
locative prefixes are the basis of other adverbs. 

Those formed from Mu have the general idea of rest within, 
motion into or out of. They therefore answer to our adverbs : 
wherein, herein, therein, hither, thither, hence, hither, in where ? 
just in here, &c. 

Those formed from Ku have the general v\tz.'oi position at a 
place, motion to or from a place : here, there, yonder, hither, 
hence, thither, thence, to where ? from where ? just there, &c. 

Those formed from A have the general idea of rest on or 
upon^ motion on to ox from off: here, hereon, thereon, on whete ? 
just on there, &c. 

The following are the forms of these locative adverbs : — 

a. ITie simple forms: — Mu, Ku, A. 

b. The contracted forms : — Mo, ko, o (see Chap. IX, sect, i, 4). 

c. The demonstrative forms : — 

Mono, in here. Momo, in there. Modia, in yonder. 
Kono, to here. Koko, to there. Kodia, to yonder. 
Ano, on here. Awo, on there. Adia, on yonder. 

d. The demonstrative forms emphasized: — 

Mumona mono, just in here ; Mumona momo, just in there ; 
Mumona modia, just in there. Kukona kono, just to 
here ; Kukona koko, just to there ; Kukona kodia, just 
to there. IN'gon'ano, just on here ; IN'gon'awo, just on 
there ; IN'gon'adia, just in here. 

e. The interrogative forms : — 

Mudie P In where ? Kudie P To where ? Adie P On where ? 


f. The firms derived /ram -nji, different: — 

Mnigi, in a different place ; Kunji, at a different place ; Anji, 
on a different place. 

g. The /arms derived /ram -lue, all: — 

Mouse, everywhere inside ; Konse, everywhere (to or from) ; 
Onse, everywhere upon. 

h. The indicaiwe /arms : — 

Imnmo momo, &c., (it is) in there, &c. ; Inkuko koko, Sec, 
(it is) there, &c. ; Ingao awo, &c., (it is) on there. 

L The n^aiive /arms: — 

Imo momo, ftc, not in there, &c. ; Inko koko, &c., not there, 
Ac ; Ingo adia, &c., not on there, &c. 

Examples a/ the use a/ theu, 

Uwe, ko ya u ka kiuhe mo shinta shako, I say, go and 

take out firom there your things. 
Ghibota; insho mliike mndief Right, now wherein shall 

I pot them? 
U ka sld i^jislrishe mmnona momo, yon can pot them jost 

in there 
Jmo momo, luisha mod]% no, not in there; pat it in yonder. 
Ko -vliwa awo : n kale ngon'aiio, get off there, come and sit 

just here. 
Shi aaada kooo; nda ja km^ji, I don't like here, I am going 

Adverbs hosed am Ba asid VL 

The abstract dasnfier BU- is the hasis of a nmnber of adfcrbs 
ofmamicr, asloDovs: — 
BByMbii. as Taandana mlm ba ka andana shenqiehi o 

Ai l hu biPB, let as separate as did the rfaiiia and bcppa 
Bmyi, difl c icmli. Mn la kn ddla bobo. a wool eUdta 

haajpi, foa wool not dothns: do difiterentir, m a di&rent 



• demonstrative forms. 

Bobo, thus, 
Bodia, so, 

Mbubo, it is so, 
Imbobobo, it is not so^ 

demonstrative forms with copulative 

Bubona, just as, just so. Emphasized demonstrative form. 
INikubabobo, nevertheless, i. e. although it is so (conj.). 
Bukadi bobo, in that case, if it is so. 
Buti P How ? lit. it says ? 
Bodia mbu, as (conj.). 
XJbtidi, as (prep.). 
Mbukabele, it is so. 
Imbo bokabele, it is not so. 
Bubona budi, just as (prep.). 

Several preps, and conjs. are included in this list, so as to 
show all the forms derived from bu. 

Similarly from DI-, the third classifier, other adverbs are 
formed. These refer to time, so that they may be said to have 
reference to the word izuba, sun, day. 

IN'di, ni, when, it is when. 

Ni is a contraction for ndi : cf. nina ku bona, I have not 
seen, for ndina ku bona. It is used simply as ' when ', but 
its proper meaning seems to be : * it is when,' * it is then.' Thus : 
XT ka Djayile a bwina, ni nka ka fwa, kill me on the burrow, 

it is then I shall die. 
DimiiTi, afterwards, i. e. another (day). 
Dinji, afterwards, i. e. a different, another (day). 
Udidie P didie P didi P When ? 

XJdidie is used when it stands first in the sentence, or alone ; 
didie is used to follow a verb. These forms mean : On which 
(day) ? Bidi is evidently a corruption from these, and there is 
a slight difierence in meaning. Didie refers to a day, i.e. to- 
morrow, or another time ; didi may mean when, this day. 
XJdidie ni mwa mu bona P When is it that you saw him ? 
Mwa mu bona didie P When, or what day, did you see him ? 


Mwa mu bona didl P When did you see him to-day ? 

Kdidiona, just then, at once. 

Kdidiona ni, it is just then that; e.g. mwami wa mu tuna, 
ndidiona ni a mu yaya, the chief beat him, (and) it 
was just then that he (i. e. the one beaten) killed him. 

Odimwi, again. 

Bionse, always, i. e. the whole (day). 

Adyerbs formed from AdjectiTes* 
Adverbs are formed from adjectives by prefixing ka. Thus : — 

Eanjikanji, often. From -i^i-nji, many. A shortened form 
of this, S^anji, means frequently, sometimes. 

Eabotu, welL From -botu, good. Chibotu is heard fre- 
quently instead of kabotu. 

Kabiabe, badly. From -biabe, bad. Chibiabe is often heard 
instead of kabiabe. 

Kaahomto, little. From -shouto, smalL Ashonto is used 
often for kaahonto. 

Kongftif How many times? how often? From -ongaiP 
How many ? 

Komwi, once. From -mwi, one. 

From the adjective -fWafwi, short, come the adverbs aiwafwi, 
kofWafM, near, formed by prefixing the locative particles a, ku. 

InterrogatiTe Farticlee. 

The adverbial particles used in asking questions are 8a, na, 
aena, and kaL Ka also appears as no. 

8a mu la ya kwi balombwana P Where are you going, men ? 
Ha mwa chita but! P What have you done ? 
8ena ige kn mwita P Shall I not go and call him ? 
Kai is used to express. Is it not ? Kai ome P Is it not I ? Kai 
ng'ombe eshi P Is it not this ox ? 

Adrerbial Ideas expreeeed by Verbs. 

First, adverbs are expressed by the various verbal species. 
See Chap. VI, sect i. 


Thus, our adverbs * reciprocally ', * together/ are expressed by 
the suffix -ana of the reciprocal species. 

Ba la fnnana, they love each other, reciprocally. 
Ba la Iwana, they fight together. 

• The adverb * intensely ' is rendered by the suffix -isha of the 
intensive species. This suffix is to be translated by different 
adverbs according to the meaning of the verb. Thus : — 

Ba la angisha, they tie tightly. 

Ba la fonanisha, they love each other intensely. 

Ba la endesha, they travel swiftly. 

The adverb * over again ' is rendered by the suffix -ulnla of 
the repetitive species. 

Wa chitulxila, he does over again. 

Secondly, the verbs kn ti, ku amba, ku bwelela, &c., express 
adverbial ideas in connexion with other verbs. See Chap. VIII, 
sect. 4. 

Adverbs are also expressed by the various verbal auxiliaries, 
<jhi, ta, bu, &c. See Chap. VII. 

Finally, there are adverbial phrases formed by verbs, &c., and 
often the idea of subordination of time is expressed by a differ- 
ence in tense only. Thus : — 

Ku kmnana ba xnu yaya, in the end they killed him. 

Ku kukanka ba ka chita kabotu, in the beginning they 

did well. 
Chi be chindi ba ka sanduka, after a time they changed. 
Twa ya tu la mwita, when we go we will call him. 
Imvula ya wa nda dima, when the rain has fallen I shall dig. 


Iiocatiye Prepositions. 

The three simple locative prepositions are Mu, Ku, A. 

Mu expresses rest wiihitiy motion into or out from. Its 


equivalents are : in, among, inside of, within, out of. In 
expressing time : in, during, through. 


Wa kala mu Ibakaintn, he sits among the women. 

Imbuto aha ka wila mu mabwe, the seed fell among stones. 

Kukainta wa ka yhwa mu kndima, the woman came from 

Kka cbi sobole mu nkomo yangu, I can keep it in my bag. 
Weso udi shiti mu ug'aiida, that (person) sits in the house. 

The preposition kn expresses rest aty motion to or from. It 
also indicates the agent of an action. Its English equivalents 
are : at, bj, toward, from, to. 

Ku changes into kwa when it comes before a personal name, 
or before a noun expressing relationship. 


Ome nda yhwa ku lutauga, I myself come from the catde- 

Hgodi kwi mwananguf Udi ku munshL Where is my 
child? He is $tt the village. (Cf. the English provin- 
cialism : He is to the village.) 

Tata udi shiti kwa Leselo, my father is staying at Leselo's. 

laamo dia ka beswa ku mulombwana weao o kembe, the 
tree was carved by that man with an axe. 

Tola maila asa kwa ubo, take this grain to thy father. 

The preposition a expresses restup<m^ motion on to or /ram off. 
Its equivalents are : on, upon, at (on), off from, on to, off. It 
is also used to express, because^ on account 0/ following the verb 
in the relative species. Further, to express about, concerning. 


Weao mimtu wa ka wila a luludi, that person fell off 

the roof. 
Twm mu i"wi«^ a mulandu wakwe, we beat him on account 

of lusfiuilt 


Twa mu landila a kndisanta kwakwe, we fined him on 
account of his sitting down when he should have been 

A mu kale a shuna shesho, sit ye upon those stools* 

A mu vhwe a shuna shesho, come ye off those stools. 

IN'da zanda ku bandika ase a shianza shenu, I want to talk 
to you about your customs. 

Compound LoeatlTe Prepositions. 

In the last section we found a number of adverbs formed fix>m 
nouns by prefixing the locative particles. These adverbs become 
prepositions when they are followed by certain other particles ; 
these are generally merely a repetition of the locative particles, 
but sometimes they are the genitive particles of the original 
nouns from which the adverbs were formed. The following 
are in general use : — 

Kunshi ku, below. 
Bika chechi kunshi ku ntafole, put this below the table. 

Munshi dia, after, behind. 
Bantu ba ke za umwi munshi dia umwi, they came one 
after another. 

Kwizeulu ku, above, to the top of. 

Tola shintu kwizeuhi ku lupidi, take the tfiings to the 
top of the hill. 

Ezeulu a, above, on the top of. 
Bika sonkoto ezeulu a Uganda, put a pinnacle on the top 
of the house. 

Kunsengwe ku, outside, to the outside of. 

Tola ing'ombe kunsengwe ku chimpata, take the beast 
outside the kraal. 

Ansengwe a, (at the) outside of. 
Bantu na ba kale ansengwe a Uganda, let the pec^le sit 

outside the house. 


Kumbadi kn, by the side of. 
Bantu ba le enda kmnbadi ku mtdonga, the people walk 
by the side of the river. 

Ambadi a, (at the) side of. 
Ba la kala ambadi a mnlonga, they sit at the side of the 

Mumbadi u, by the side of, in the vicinity of. 
Ba la kala xnnmbadi mwisamo, they sit in the vicinity of 
the trees. 

Mukati mu, or mukati ka, within, inside of. 
Mwa cbita nshi mukati mu ng*andaP What are you 
doing inside the house? 

Akati ka, or akati ka, between, among. 
Kda ke enda akati a miunda, I walked among the fields. 

Mufwafwi mu, near to, in the vicinity of. 
A tu one mufwafwi mu munzhi, let us sleep in the vicinity 
of the village. 

Eufwafwi ku, near to. 
Ko ya kufwafwi kn ng'anda, go near to the house. 

Afwafwi a, near by. 
Kg bika shintu afwafwi a ng'anda, put the things near 
the house. 

Eumbele ku, in front of. 
Ka mu ya kumbele ku mbishi, go ye in front of the horse. 

Ambele a^ in front of. 
Wa ka ahimoka ambele a bami, he stood up before 
the chiefs. 

Mumbele djjiy in the presence of. 
Ba ka amba makani mumbele dia mivami, they spoke 
the affairs in the presence of the chiefs. 

Mnnuana ya, after, behind. 
Umwi u chi chidila muniuna yangu, another is still 
following behind me. 


The Preposition o. 

The preposition o expresses the instrament with which any- 
thing is done. Thus: Twa ka tema masamo o keembe 
kaka, we cut down trees with this axe. 

Phrase Prepositions. 

Kamko ka, on account of. 
Nda ku tuna kambo ka ku chita kwako, I will hit you on 
account of your doings. 

Bubona budi, like, just as. 
Bashikale ta ka ba zaka bubona budi bantu oba sunu, 
the ancients did not build like the people of to-day. 

Ku chindi cha, ku busena bwa, in the place of; in the stead of. 
Kwina muntu u yumina ku umwa ku busena bwa 
umwi, there is no person who assents to being beaten in 
the place of another. 


Conjunctions are somewhat rare in Ila. The following are 
used: — 
Ni, although. 

Wa chi chita ni nda ku shimwina ati u ta chi chiti, 
you have done it although I told you not to do it. 

Kikubabobo, nevertheless. 
Wa chita chibiabe chinichini; nikubabobo nda ku 
kwatila, you have done very badly : nevertheless I forgive 

Ansha, unless, except. 

XT ta Thwi mono ansha wa nshwimina makani ako, you 
do not leave here unless you tell me your affairs. 

Anokuti, whereas. 
Twa bona bintu biebi okoya mbishonto, anokuti 
mbikando chinichini, we see these things as if they were 
very small, whereas they are very large. 


Aid, that, in order that 
Ba ka mu letela mukalra. at! a nwe, they brought him 
beer that he might drink. 

At! na, whether. 
Shi zbi ati na a la ka shika sonu, I don't know whether he 
may arrive to-day. 

Euti, that. 
Nda ka telela kuti wa fwa, I heard that he was dead. 

Kgonao (ngonawo), then, just then. 
Ifgonao wa yhwa a mnnzhi, just then he left the village. 

Inzho, now, then. 
Inzho ati, tu andana, then he said, let us separate. 

0, with, and 
Kdetela menahi o bwizn, bring me water and grass. 

XTkuti, because, 
Mwana a la dila ukati wa umwa, the child cries because 
it is beaten. 

Nl . . . ba> either . . or; neither . . . nor. 

Between ni and ba the personal pronouns are inserted, so we 
get the following forms : — 

Kimba, nor I, &c. Kituba, nor we, &c. 

Kiuba, nor thou. Nimuba, nor you. 

CL I. Niaba, nor he. Nibaba, nor they. 

2. Koba, nor it. Niba, nor they. 

3. Nidiba, ,, Kaba, „ 

4. Ifibuba, „ Naba, „ 

5. Nikuba, „ Kaba, „ 

6. Kikaba, „ Nituba, „ 

7. Kiohiba,,, Kishibi, „ 

8. Niba, „ Nishiba, „ 

9. Niluba, „ Kishiba, „ 
9a. Kiluba, „ Naba, „ 

Ex. — H ta ohiti midimo noba omwi mwiznba ledio ; 



niuba uwe, niaba mwanakb mulombwana, niba ing ombe 
yako, thou must do no work on that day, neither thou, nor 
thy son, nor thy ox. 

Wa, either, or. 
Nohi ohidie noha zanda, na cheohi na oheoho ? Which 
do you wish, either this or that ? 

Ambwene, perhaps. 
Ambwene nda ya ozona, perhaps I will go to-morrow. 

Ukuba, if, perhaps, supposing that. 
TJkuba mwa zhinzhilika mu la ka yana, if you search 
you may find. 

Atela, lest. 

Mu ta dyi atela mu la fwa, you must not eat lest you die. 

Antela, it may be, perhaps. 
Antela ba la ka shika obwadimwi, it may be they will 
arrive the day after to-morrow. 

Eaini, because. 
Nda shika kaini wa ka nsliiinwina, 1 have come because 
you told me. 

Inji, but. 
Kale ka ba bia» inji nsunu pe, they were bad ^before, but 
to-day, no. 

The conjunction o is used to join together nouns and may be translated 
by 'with' rather than 'and'. When nouns of Class 8 and 9 pi. are to be 
joined, instead of using o, the initial vowel of those words is lengthened, or 
the copulative particle is used. Thus, Ukuti bwami mbu bwabo, insana 
{or ninsana) o busweyo, thine is the authority, the power, and the glory. 
There is no conjunction corresponding to our * and ' joining sentences. In 
a series of sentences, or in a compound sentence expressing consecutive 
events, the place of 'and' is taken by the aorist or preterite tense of the 
verb. Thus, Muwezhi wa ka ya ku weza, ka fusa munyama, ka mu yaya, 
ka mu funda, the huntec went hunting, he shot an animal, and he killed it, 
and he cut it up. 

It will be noticed that several conjunctions are formed from the verb ku 
ti, to say: knti, thiat; ati, that; nkati, because; anoknti^ whereas; kuti 


amply expresses the indicatiTe, that ; at! U used to introduce a direct quota- 
tion, generally, not always following the verb amba. It is also used with 
the subjoactiTe. 


S! Eya! Yesl 

Fe! No! 

Aima I Not I ! Not so 1 No fear! 

XTma! Really! 

Mama ! expresses sorrow, distress. 

We ! expresses surprise, disgust, reproof. 

Shangwe! Thanl&s, sir. To a chief (introduced from the 

Ingoi ! Sir! Expresses assent to a chiefs remarks. 
She! That's it I Expresses agreement with a person speaking. 
Mawe ! Dear me I Expresses surprise, distress. 
Mawe bndio ! Expresses great distress. 
Hi! Expresses disgust (a peculiar nasal sound). 
Ai! Expresses a sudden feeling of pain. 
Ifti mama ! Phew I It's hot ! 
Yeye ! Yeye ! Women's cry at funeral. 
£-na ! Really I 

Hi! Hi! Expresses disappointment, disgust. 
Te I Ye ! Ye I Ye ! Expresses reproof as on the return of a 

delaying messenger. 
Tchita 1 I don't know. 
Akaka ! Expresses reproof, disgust. 


Bxeroise 1. 

Translate into Ila : — 

If you dig for me a whole day I will give you a shilling. The 
slave troubled his master much, then the master cursed him. 
When I go I will call you. When you arrive ask where he lives. 
When rain falls I will plough. He loved him unto death. I will 
keep the book until I die. What do you call this thing? Sit 



wherever you please. They have already arrived. Yes, let us 
go together. I have told you all the news. Yes, that's all. 
Where shall I take this thing to ? Take it towards the west. 
Climb up the tree. Where is your village ? It is in the east. 
Treat your slave mercifully and then he will serve you gladly. 
Don't take things from people forcibly. Ask them simply to 
give you what you want : they will give as soon as you ask. 
Take these boxes out of here and put them in elsewhere. Take 
the cattle elsewhere : there is no grass here. 

Exercise 2. 

Translate into Ha : — 

It is not so, you are merely lying. As you have no food, 
come and work for me, then I will give you food. I pay you 
just as I pay all the boys who work for me. In that case, let us 
go away. I want money like that boy. Afterwards we will go 
and hunt. When is it you saw the game ? We heard the guns 
frequently, but we did not see the hunters. We walked the 
whole day but we did not see even one head of game. You 
have done very ill, nevertheless I will forgive for I see you 
are sorr}'. We didn't get even a litde food there. How many 
times have you done this thing? After a time we went to 
Bulawayo to work. We are going to-day to the village. They 
hit us on account of our laziness. He is living at our place. 
You must not stop work until I tell you. I thought he was telling 
the truth, whereas he was merely lying. We must not do it, 
either I or you. Perhaps we shall find game there. Is it not 
thou who didst so ? 

Exercise 8. 

Translate into Ha : — 

Remain here until he comes. Wait until the rain stops. I 
cannot eat until I am well. When did he die ? When did the 
chief arrive ? When did he give you that cow ? When will you 
begin work ? How much money have you ? How will you go ? 
How much does it cost } How many sheep have you ? The 


goats alsa, how many are they ? How often do you pray ? As 
soon as he comes let us eat. As soon as the sun sets it is cold. 
As soon as I hear I will tell you. It is for that reason I went 
away. I found my knife under that tree. There is a snake 
among the stones. There will be prosperity next year. Is 
there a man there? There is no man here. Are there children 
there ? Are there hoes in the garden ? Is it so ? Yes, it is so. 
Were there people in this house yesterday ? Were there horses 
in the field to-day ? No, there were only oxen. He eats like a 
wild beast. He croaks like a frog. He runs like a horse. We 
will work hard just as they did. Beat the drum as I do. He 
ran after him because he had stolen his calabash : he almost 
caught him, but a stone tripped him and he fell. When he got 
up again the boy had disappeared already and he did not see 
him again. That is not the reason. Is it not his laziness ? 
Whereas he says he is sick. He is not sick : he is merely 

TranslaU into English : — 

Ndidiona wa vhwa mo, wa lukanka, ka ba to mboni dinji. 
Umwe mwa ka bona didie ing'ombe shangu ? Imbo bobo mbu 
nda ku shimwina. E, mbukabele, wa chita kabotu. Bodia 
mbwina mushtdi, ko ya ku Kalomo, u ka ule ko. Banangu mu 
ta chiti bobo, a mu chite bunji ; mwa chita bobo mu la dipenzha. 
Twina ni twa ka bona munyama na omwi. Umwe nonse mu ta 
ku chita bobo, nimba ome nimuba umwe : chechi ta chi chitiki. 
(J la banda kochani muchelo wezu ? Sa kwa mana makani ako 
onse ? E, mbukabele ; pele aza. Mwami nkwatile luse : nina 
ku chita chami. A mu sotoke chimfutenuma. Mwami wesu wa 
chita chabwanga shikwense. Inko koko nku u elele ku chita. 
Nku kambo kako nku nda ku umina. Imbo mbukabele, mwa 
bea budio. Kai ku chita chibotu ? Ing'pmbe shako shidi kwi ? 
Kushidi kodia kwa Malalu. A mu nchidile munshi diangu. 
Bantu babo ta be zhi ati na udi kwi. Nda ku shia kaini wa 


nchitila chibiabe. Nda ku umina a bukata bwako. A tnu 
dindile mani imvtila ya mana ku wa. Chi be chindi chilamfii tu 
ka la ya kodia kwa Kalomo tu ka beleke. Sa tu la yana kwi 
tnadi a kulumbula ? Nda amba, wa shinizha, anokuti wa bea 
budio. Mu ta ba nangi budio shintu: mwa shi pumpa mu la 
pewa chakubotelwa. Nku kako nku nde zila. A mu zake bubona 
mbu nda zaka kale. U ta zumanani o muzhikenoko. A mix 
lukanke mbwa ka lukanka wezo. Bakaintu ba zemuna mabukiti 
a mutwi. U la kozhana o mukua. Bushu bwakwe bu la kozha 
izuba. Babo ba le enda ku kanka chifumo, ansha mashiku. 


The Honey Bird and the Bee. 

Inzuki ya ya ku langa musamo kwa solwe. I shike kwa 
solwe, ati : * Solwe, utnwalo wangu, mpa ko musamo, nka shidike 
mwanangu.' Solwe wa katazha, wa mu somwena ipepe diakwe 
odia ku cheyeye, wa mu pa, wa bwela. Kodia wa ya ku shidika 
mwanakwe, mwanakwe wa pona. Chi be chindi chishonto, aze 
mwanakwe solwe wa sata, wa ya ku nzuki solwe. Ati : * Inzuki, 
mpa ko musamo, nka shidike mwanangu, wa sata.' Wa kusha 
musamo budio. Solwe wa amb'ati : ' Ome, shikwe aza, nda 
zanda ipepe odia ko aze/ Inzuki ya kaka ya amb'ati : ' Ome, 
ndina mapepe manjimanji, ndo : adi obili pele angu. Wa kusha 
ledi dimwi ku shale diomwi^ nfwe nambuti ? Ndi ku bula o ku 
chela.' Solwe wa amb'ati : ' Chibotu. Nda tola musamo wezu 
nguwena ngu wa kusha.' Wa tola wezo nguwena, wa ya ku 
shidika mwanakwe. Mwanakwe wa pona. Pele: ka manina 
koko kako kambo. 

The Jackal and the Dog. 

Kabwenga wa ka tuma mubwa, ati, ' Ka lape mudilo, tu ze tu 
zote.' Mubwa wa ya. A shike ku munzhi wa yana oba ika 
inshima o buzane. Kabwenga wo ompolola, ati : ' Mbiza, no 
wa ka ya ku mudilo wa ya ku kala.' Mubwa wa kaka ku ingula ; 


wa kaka ku ingtda mbu ba mu pa inshima. Kabwenga wa bwela 
mu kasaka, udi ka shiti iche budio ku mpeyo. Mubwa wa kaia 
ku munzhi. 

The Hare and the Jackal. 

Sulwe wa ka ya kwiba ingoma ya kabwenga. Ka ba uma 
chikani, ati : * Usunu tu la bona u ka shala mo.' Kabwenga wa 
ya mashiku ku ya ku langa shifua. Walo sulwe wa shika, wa 
kusha ingoma ya kabwenga. We uma sulwe, kabwenga wa 
telela, wa amb'ati: 'Ngu wedia wa ku uma chikani owa ka 
amb'ati : Tu ka bone u ka shala mo.' Wa lukanka kabwenga, 
wa shika a munzhi wakwe, wa yana ingoma te mo munganda; 
Ku ka telela obudi kodia kwa Leselo. Sulwe wa ya ku um^ 
ingoma, wa amb'ati : * Kabwenga sunu ndiwe u dibea.' Kabwenga 
wa lukanka, wa ya ku shika kwa ku umwa ingoma, ke telela ya 
didila obudi kona Munshi wa vhwa kabwenga, odimwi wa ya 
ku lungvwenuma. Odimwi kutelela ya didila ku munzhi kwa 
vhwa kabwenga. Kabwenga wa bula lubilo, wa kachilwa ku 
lukanka, wa katala. Wa zhoka a munzhi sulwe nga yana 
ingoma : a shike kabwenga, sulwe wa amb'ati : * Ndiwe owa ku 
dibea, ati, ndi kwete lubilo.' 


This part of our subject is divided into two parts : the syntax 
of sentences generally, and the particular use of certain gram- 
matical forms. Many matters properly belonging to this chapter 
have been conveniently disposed of under the heading of the 
various parts of speech ; repetition is avoided as much as possible, 
but the idea of this chapter is to sum up everything of a syn- 
tactical nature. 

N.B. — The sentences used as illustrations in this chapter are 
almost wholly taken from Ua tales. 


I. The Simple Sentence. 

In every proposition two things are necessary, i. e. a subject, 
that of which something is affirmed, and a predicate, that which 
contains the affirmation. 

In English it is not common to find a proposition consisting of one word 
only, bnt in Ha it is common enongh. The indicative forms of the sub- 
stantive prononn, e.g. are all proper sentences, containing within them- 
selves subject and predicate, e. g. Ndime nda ka chita. This, to us, is a 
complex sentence, it is I who did (it); ndime standing as the principal 
clause, the rest a relative clause. 

The first rule of syntax is very important, viz. the subject of a 
sentence is always a personal pronoun. This rule admits of no 
exception. The only apparent exceptions are in such proposi- 
tions as Jfdime, and in certain constructions with the subjunc- 
tive, where, however, the pronoun is understood. Thus : — 

Chechi oha nduma ohi kushe. 


The subject of the sentence here is a understood, and the sen- 
tence might equally correctly read : U ohi kushe oheohi oha 
ndnxna, take away this which bites me. 
The predicate may be : — 

a, A noun connected with the subject by means of the 


Udi mtmtu, thou art a person. 

Or without a particle : — 

Shankole mwiwa wa muzovu, Shankole (is) the nephew of 

In this, udi, he is ; or kadi, he was, is understood. 

h An adjective connected with the subject in the same way: — 

Udi mubotu, he is good. 

c. An adverb connected in the same way: — 

Kadi memo, he was there. 

d, A verb : — 

Wa ke za, he came. 

When the sentence is expressed impersonally as in the 
English, there came a man^ there is a man^ the particles ku, kwa 
(pronouns of CI. 5) are used. 

Kwa ita bazovu, there have passed elephants. 

Kwa mana makani a shumbwa, it is finished the story of 

the lion. 
Eu vhwa buloa, there comes out blood. 

The subject and predicate may be enlarged or extended. 

a. — Enlargement of the Subject, 

I. By means of a noun called the Nominative in Apposition 
(for short N.A.) agreeing with the subject in person, number, 
and class. Thus : — 

Shumbwa wa ya bu ohela, the lion went feeding. 

Here wa is the subject, shumbwa the N.A. 


The position of the N.A. is not always before the subject as in 
the above sentence ; it may be placed after the verb, but never 
between the pronoun and the verb. 

Ba Inkanka banyama, the animals ran; ///. they ran, the 

We ba mukaintu, the woman stole ; //'/. she stole, the woman< 
Wa ya bu enda sulwe, sulwe went on ; ///. he went on, sulwe. 

2. The N.A. may be enlarged by means of a substantive, 
possessive, indefinite, or demonstrative pronoun ; a noun in the 
genitive ; or by another noun in apposition. 

The demonstrative may precede or succeed it 

Wezo sulwe we ziza ku lela bana, that sulwe came to feed 
the children. 

Muntu wezo wa ka zowa, that man was astonished. 

The substantive and indefinite pronouns may also precede or 

Bonse banyama ba lukanka, or banyama bonse ba 

lukanka, all the animals ran. 
Banyama bonse be ebela, ba amb'ati : wa beta mobwa, 

all the animals gazed and said : it is a good dog. 
Dimwi bamwi bantu ba shika, afterwards other people 

Shumbwa ace wa fwa, the lion also died. 
Aze muzovn wa wa, the elephant also fell. 

The possessive pronoun follows the noun. 

Chibia ohangu chi ka la fwa, my pot will die. 

The noun in the genitive also follows the N.A. : it may be 
even at the end of the sentence, thus : — 

Odimwi imvnka dia enznnnka odia sulwe, again the wax 
melted of sulwe. 
The noun in apposition with the N.A. may precede or succeed. 

Munyati, aclusha, a mu lete chanza, munyati, my uncle, 
do you bring (your) forehead. 


3. The N.A. may be a substantive pronoun when it is treated 
in just the same way as a noun. 

Abalo ba la dya, they also eat 

Ome nda ka ka dya mtLlaiidiiiigoma, I am going to eat 

4. The N.A. may be more than one noun joined or not by , 
the conjunction o. If the two nouns are of the same class, 
the plural pronoun of that class is used ; if not, the pronoun of 
the latter noun may be used. 

Shempela o chivhubwe ba ka Iwa, the rhinoceros and 
hippopotamus fought. 

5. The N.A. may be extended by means of a relative clause, 
in which case, of course, the sentence is no longer simple but 

Mwana Fnlwe, [owakudi kumbadi ka menzhi,] wo 
ompolola, the child Fulwe, who was by the side of the 
river, called. 

The relative clause is included between the brackets. 

The true logical subject of a sentence is therefore : — 
Pronoun (grammatical subject) + N.A. + enlargements of N.A. 

The sentence, Umwi mtmtu mnkando shinsana wa ko 
sa may be thus analysed : — 

Umwi (enlargement of N.A.). 

mnnta (N.A.). 
Subject.-! mnkando ^^^J* ^i^^argement of N.A.). 

shinsana (noun enlargement of N.A. in apposition). 

wa, subject. 
Predicate, Ke sa. 

b. — Extension of the Predicate. 

The predicate may be completed by a direct or indirect object 
and extended by adverbial adjuncts* 


1. Transitive verbs are completed by a direct object which 
may be a noun or pronoim. If a personal pronoun, its place 
is immediately before the verb : if a noun it generally follows. 

Nda langa mukaintu, I want a wife. 

Sulwe wa chela matovu^ Sulwe plucked leaves. 

Wa mu shimwina, he told him. 

2. For the sake of emphasis the object may be a noun 
placed at the beginning of a sentence, in which case a corre- 
sponding pronoun is inserted before the verb. This pronoun is 
to be regarded as the proper object, the noun standing in apposi- 
tion with it. 

Umwi mwana wa mu zhika koxnbadi ku menzhi, ///. one 
child he him placed by the side of the water. 


Subj. wa ; pred. zhika ; obj. mu ; obj. in app. umwi mwana. 

Fulwe tu la mu shia lubilo, we will leave Fulwe by swiftness. 

Subj. tu; pred. la shia; obj. mu; obj. in app. Fulwe. 

3. The object, direct or indirect, may consist of more than 
one noun connected or not by means of the conjunction o. 

Wezo muzune mu ka mu letele mahuba inohelwa, that 

bird you may take for him the bellows and spout 
Subj. mu; pred. ka letele; dir. obj. mahuba inohelwa; 
indir. obj. mu ; indir. obj. in app. wezo muzune. 

4. When the object, direct or indirect, is a personal pronoun, 
I St pers. sing., it is prefixed to the verb. See Chap. V, sect. i. 

5. The object may be enlarged in the same way as the 

Fele dimwi wa ba mana bonse bana, but afterwards he 
finished all the children. 

Obj. ba ; obj. in app. bonse bana. 
Nda dya miohelo y a bapombo, I eat fruit of baboons. 

Obj. miohelo ; enl. of obj. ya bapombo. 
Aze nda ku yaya, you also 1 will kill you. 

Obj. ku ; enl. of obj. aze. 


Insho mweiuiliina sulwe wa ba yana bana ba sulwe, then 

the friend of Sulwe found them, the children of Sulwe. 

Obj. ba ; enl. of obj. bana ba sulwe. 

6. When there are two objects, direct and indirect, the 
indirect is placed before the direct. If the object is a pronoun 
it is placed inunediately before the verb. The verb in the 
relative and causative species has this construction^ See 
Chap. VI, sect, i (i). 

Be ziuha lubono ezhi nganda, they fill (with) goods this house. 
Indir. obj. lubono; dir. obj. ezhi nganda. 

Imwi i Bunhe maila, another fill with grain. 

Dir. obj. i: indir. obj. maila. 

ITmwe, mu tu twile biifa. Ba ba twila. You, stamp meal 
for us. They stamped for them. 

Dir. obj. bufa ; indir. tu, ba. 

Mwana ftilwe wa ba letelela menzhi mu kanwa, the child 
Fulwe brought for them water in (his) mouth. 
Dir. obj. menshi ; indir. obj. ba. 

IXgoBfo wa ba lapwila menzhi, then he spat out the water 

for them. 

Dir. obj. menzhi ; indir. obj. ba. 

7. In the passive construction the subject is the indirect 
object of the active verb. See Chap. VI, sect i (i) ; sect, 3 (c). 

8. The object may be an infinitive clause. 

Ame nda zanda ka ma dya, I also want to eat you. 

Obj. ka ma dya. 

9. The predicate may be extended by means of adverbial 

(a) Of Htm: — 

Ta ba ch' umboni dinji, they did not see him again. 
Dimwi bamwi bantu ba shika, afterwards other people 

Kgonao baaongo ba nmbuzha, then the wise asked him. 


(b) Of place: — By means of adverb or locative noun. 
Inzho mwifa dia mtunme wa hoknta, then in the belly of 

the bird he worked the bellows. 
U ta Bjayila ano, you must not kill me here. 
Ko njasrila a bwina, kill me on the burrow. 

(c) Of manner: — 

Mbwa ka ba ohenga, how Sulwe deceived them. 

Mbwa ka mu ohenga bobo mwenshina, how he thus 

deceived his friend. 
Banyama ba ka bungana antomwi, the animals gathered 


(d) Of purpose: — By means of the infinitive. 

Subwe wa ka ya ka aha bwina, Sulwe went to dig a burrow. 

(e) Of reason or cause : — 

Inzho nchi nda ke zila, now that is why I came. 

2. Compotmd Sentences. 

Two or more propositions connected together are called a 

compound sentence. 

a. — Co-ordination. 

When two propositions are each in a manner independent of 
the other and yet so related as to form one thought they are 
said to be connected by way of co-ordination. 

I. Two independent clauses are sometimes connected by 
means of a copulative conjunction or some equivalent. Copula- 
tive conjunctions are rare in Ila ; substantive pronouns are largely 
used in sentences of this kind ; generally sentences are placed 
following each other, with a logical but not grammatical con- 

Mnzune mnkando mnkando wa ka ya mwinzhila, wa 
yana bantu be enda, wa ba mina, a very large bird 
went along the road : he saw people walking (and) he 
swallowed them. 

Inzho wezo mnzune wa telela mahuba, inzho wa fwa 
muzune, then the bird felt the bellows, and then he died. 


2. Sometimes the two clauses tmited to form one thought 
aie contrasted with each other forming an adversative co-ordinate 

Mnzora wa kula, shankole wa fwimpa, the elephant grew 

big (but) the wart-hog small. 
Eale kale nda ka mu fana : inji usnna ndi mu swile, long 

ago I loved him, but to-day I hate him. 

3. The sentences may be so arranged and connected that 
one shall denote a cause or reason of what is expressed in the 
other, giving a causal co-ordinate sentence. 

Ta mu na ka bomba ; nohi twa ma yayila, you have not 
yet become humble ; that is why we kill you. 

Inshipi ezho ya kaka ku vhwa kwltashi dia mwana wezo, 
ukuti ya ku ojila kale kale, ka chidi mwana, that 
bracelet refused to come off the hand of that child, because 
it had been put on long ago when she was still a child. 

b. — Subordination, 

When two sentences are so related that one is dependent 
upon the other, as when one defines and explains the other, or 
as when one member of a sentence is modified and expanded 
into an additional sentence, they are connected by way of sub- 
ordination. Subordinate clauses are of three kinds : substantive, 
adjective, and adverbial. 

Subordinate clauses are put between brackets. 

I. Substantive clauses are those which form objects of the 
verb. They include direct quotations introduced by the con- 
junction ati. 

Banyama bonse ba ka fwe nyotwa, ba amb'ati : [' A 
tu Inkanke lubilo '.] 

All the animals were thirsty, and they said : ' Let us run 

Wa ka hununa u la yana [wa ba miintu.] 
When you have uncovered you will find it is become a 



2. An adjective clause is one in which an adjective is 
expanded into a sentence and employed to give a more exact 
definition of a noun or pronoun. Adjective clauses are intro- 
duced by relative pronouns. They may be connected with the 
subject or the object. 

For the rules for forming such clauses see Chap.V, sect. 7. 

(a) Connected with the subject : — 

U la njaya [banakwe mbo nda dya.] 
He, whose children I have eaten, will kill me. 

[Lumo Iwanga] nguni [wa lu tolaP] 
Who is it who has taken my razor. 

Ba shike mwisokwe, wezo [owa ka kwete mubwa] 
wa yaya munyaina. 

When they arrived in the forest he, who had the dog, killed 
an animal. 

The antecedent may be omitted. 
Owa ka kwete chibia, ati, who had the pot said. 

(b) Connected with the object : — 

Ushumbwa wa ka zhala bana [ba di ikomi] 
Lion had children who were ten. 

Inzho wa ba yaya bonse [oba ka dya banakwe.] 

Then he killed all who ate his children. 

5. An adverbial clause is one used in place of an adverb. It 
may express : — 

(a) Place: — 

Shumbwa, [koko nku nda yhwa,] ka kadi ba ka 

dya banako. 
Lion, there where I come from, are those who ate thy children. 

Wa honuna [mwa kala malombwana.] 

She opened where the man sat. 

(b) Time : — ^The relation of time is often expressed not by an 
adverb but by moods and tenses of the verb. Thus, the follow- 


ing sentences will show how the preterite indicative, and the 
subjunctive are used. 

[A shike kn cliishi chimwi] ba amb'ati : ' Wa londa 

When he arrived at the other country, they asked him : 
* What do you want ? ' 

[Wa ka mana ku luka,] u ka ye ku mnlonga. 

When you have finished weaving, go to the river. 

[Wa mu yaya,] mu lete ku miinBhi. 

When you have killed him, bring him to the village. 

[Bu ohe bndio,] wa amb'ati shumbwa: 

As soon as it dawned, lion said : 

Inzho [a shike budio,] wa kumba bukoko. 

Then as soon as he arrived, he brewed beer. 

[Ba inane ku mwita,] ba amb'ati : 
When they had called him, they said : 

[A shike a mtinzhi iimwi,] wa buzha ati : 

When he arrived at one village, he asked saying : 

(c) Manner : — 

Inzho musonzhi n la bona [bu twa Yhwa mwifti dia 

Then the seer will see how we have come out of the bird's 

Tu andana [mbwa ka andana shempela o chivhubwe.] 

Let us separate as did the rhino, and hippo. 

A tu ende, tu ka sobane, [mbu twa ku sobana o 
bachisha bamuzovu.] 

Let us go and play as we played with our uncles, the elephants. 

(d) Cause, reason, or purpose : — 

Ngonao shumbwa wa amb'ati : [' libu mwa ndila 

bana] nda leka ku zhala.' 
Then lion said: 'As you eat my children I leave off 




[Bodia mbu nda kumba bukoko] a mn ka mwite 

shiluwe iimwL 
As I have brewed beer, go ye and call the other leopard. 

[Bodia mbwina molombwana J twala ome. 

As you have no husband, marry me. 

[Mbu wa dya ohidyo chaugu] ome nda bwela u 

As you have eaten my food, I shall return. to the water. 

[Bodia xnbu ya kaka,] a tu kosole itashi. 

As it refuses, let us cut off the hand. 


I. Syntax of the Noun. 

The leading rules under the noun apply also to the pronoun. 

1. The noun used as the N.A. is in the nominative case. 

2. A noun placed after another signifying the same thing to 
explain, describe, or qualify it, is in the same case as the other 
noun, denominated apposition in the same case. 

libu twa sobana o baohisha bamuzovu. 

As we played with our uncles the elephants. 

3. A noun used to limit another noun by denoting origin, 
ownership, or designation, is put in the genitive case, when the 
latter signifies a different thing from the former. 

(a) In respect to origin, source, or cause. 

Dia mana ikani dia muzune. 

It is finished the story of the bird. 

{d) In respect to ownership or possession. 

Kangasulwe ka zhika muchila wa mwaba. 

The hare buried the tail of the jackal. 

{c) In respect to designation, object or fitness. 

Chashika chindi ocha ku ya ku sala meya. 

The time arrived for going to select horns. 


4. The limiting or governing noun is frequently omitted, or 
implied in the use of the particle alone. 

lEf gonao basongo ba mnbuzha^ at! : ' No ya chidio njidi 
kwi, o ya chimonswe P ' 

Then the wise asked him, saying : ' Which is the right and 
which the left ? ' Lit, of the right it is where, and of the left. 

Oya ohidio nji ezhi : oya ohimonswe'nji eshi. 
Of the right it is this. Of the left it is this. 

The reference is to inzhila, road. 

5. There is a nice distinction between the genitive subjective 
and the genitive objective. The genitive is termed subjective 
when it denotes that which has or does something, e. g. Kubona 
kwa bantu, the seeing of people, i. e. the people see. The 
genitive is termed objective when it denotes that which suffers 
something, or that which is the object of what is expressed by 
the noun limited ; e. g. Kubonwa kwa bantu, the being seen 
of people, i. e. the people are seen. 

In the English New Testament the phrase ' The love of God * may mean 
two qoite different things, and is not always understood ; e. g. ' The love of 
Christ constraineth us * (a Cor. v. 14) ; here the idea is of Christ's love for 
US. But in a John ii. 5 ' In him hath the love of God been perfected ', it is 
the Christian's love to God. In Ila no misunderstanding could happen ; 
the first would be translated, knfuna kwa Kristi ; the second, Kufunwa kwa 
Leza. In the first case kufuna denotes the love with which Christ loves ; in 
the other, kufunwa is the love with which God is loved. 

6. When several nouns in the genitive follow each other, 
each must have the sign of the genitive. ' 

7. The noun depending upon an active transitive verb is in 
the accusative case. The noun depending upon a preposition 
is also in the accusative. 

8. But a noun may be in the accusative without a preposition : — 
(tf) When it is the efficient agent of an active verb in the 

passive voice. 

Ing'anda ezhi ya ka zakwa mulumi angu. 

This house was built by my husband. 

R 2 


{b) Some neuter verbs also take the accusative without a 

Wa Inkanka lul^ilo, he ran (with) swiftness. 
XJshnmbwa wa kanka ku pia mtileyu wakwe. 
Lion began to burn (at) his beard. 
{c) The place of a preposition is often supplied by some 
specific modification of the verb. See the remarks on relative 
and causative verbs in Chapter VI, 

{d) Nouns denoting duration of time are generally put in the 
accusative without a preposition. They therefore may be called 

Kabwenga a bone mwezhi kutuba mangolezha. 
When the hyena saw the full moon in the evening. 

2. Syntax of the Adjective. 

1. The adjective agrees with its noun in class, number, and 

2. When two or more adjectives belong to one noun, they are 
put in juxtaposition one after another without a conjunction. 

Nda ka bona ing*ombe inamfti inkofti. 
I saw a tall lean ox. 

3. Where an adjective belongs to two or more nouns, if they 
are personal nouns the pronoun ba is used, if neuter the pro- 
nouns of cl, 7 pi. 

Bana babo o bashimbi bad! bakoftu 

Those children and girls are thin. 

Ing*ombe impongo shesho shidi inkofa. 

Those cattle and goats are lean. 

3. Syntax of the Pronoun. 

I. The pronoun agrees with its subject, the noun or pronoun 
which it represents, in class, ntunber, and person. 

The exception to this is when the plural of the 2nd person is 
used as a mark of respect. 

Achisha, a mu shime kodia. 
My imcle, do you stand yonder. 


2. Where the pronoun stands for two or more nouns or pro- 
nouns in Class i, ba is used. 

Banichi o bana o bakando ba amb'atL 

The youngsters and children and elders say. 

Or the pronoun may agree with neither noun in particular, 
but with the- two taken together and considered as plural, either 
as persons or things. 

Ba ka chita chikani mwaba inkala. 

They disputed, the jackal and the crab. 

Or the sentence may be put in another way. 

Wa ke enda mwaba, ayo inkala ye enda. 

The jackal and the crab went. 

Lit, — The jackal went : he also the crab went. 

3. The personal pronoun of the third person is used not only 
as a substitute for a noun but as a complement to it. As a 
substitute it is required really only when the noun is omitted. 
As complement it is most important, as showing relation of the 
noun to other words in the sentence. 

The Ila pronouns used as substitutes for nouns do not differ 
from the English pronouns : he, she, it, they. 

They may be the subject or object of the sentence. The 
personal pronoun is not used after a preposition : or as object 
after a verb. Substantive pronouns must be used in such 

We enda, we enda, wa ka shika a mampanda a 
nzhila, u ka tole ya chimonswe, u ka pinuke, 
u ka tole njiyo. 

Going on and on you will come to the dividing of the roads : 
take the left, turn aside and take that. 

Wa ka amba kudi babo, he said to them. 

4. The possessive pronoun follows the noun it limits. 

5. The possessive pronoun is often used without a limiting 


noun, but its form shows clearly what manner of noun is under- 

Owako ngn wezo ; owangu nga wedia. 

That is yours : yonder is mine. 

(With any singular noun of cl. i and 2.) 

5. When used as object the personal pronoun is placed before 
the verb : sometimes, according to rules already discussed, it is 
joined to the verb. It is frequendy in its place to form a kind 
of double object, i.e. with a noun elsewhere in the sentence. 
See above, p. 236. 

Ngonao obudisuno ta ba mu luba wezo munta. 

Now even to-day they do not forget that man. 

Ibwe ledio wa di tola shiimbwa kwisamo. 

That stone, the lion took it up the tree. 

4. Syntax of the Verb. 

1. It must be noticed that very often Ila requires a fullness of 
expression where in English we can make a short cut. Thus, 
when there are two subjects in a sentence and one predicate. 

IJmwi wa bweza mubwa, umwi wa bweza chibia. 

One took the dog and the other the pot. 

Particles expressing <?r, &c., also require an extended form. 
Na u langa, na wa ba nzhi P Is he alive, or what ? 

2. The infinitive mood is used : 

{a) As a noun either accusative or nominative. 

(3) It may be used as an adverbial adjunct to express purpose. 

Wezo mubwa we njila mu chibia ku komba. 

That dog entered the pot to lick it out. 

Inzuki ya ya ku langa musamo kwa solwe. 

The bee went to look for medicine from the honey bird. 

{c) To express emphasis. 

liuzovu wa nwa o ku nwa. 

The elephant drank and drank. 


3. The subjunctive mood is used: 

{a) To give a command or express desire. 

A tu ende inzho ta lukanke. Let us go now and run. 

IT ka fame ozena, ta ze ku lukanka. 
Rise early to-morrow and come and run. 

A tu ike, tu dye. Let us cook that we may eat. 

Kweza u mu kushe mo. Come and take him out. 

Ndo, to kosodi itashi, a tu ku pe budio inji inshipi. 

Friend, don't cut off the hand : let us give you another 

{d) To express subordination of time. 

A ka shike kwa wezo munganga wa ku sonda. 
When you arrive at that doctor's he will divine for you. 

(f) To express purpose. 
A tu ende tu lukanke. Let us go now that we may run. 

A tu fumbe mukalo tu ka nwe. 

Let us dig a water-hole that we may drink. 


As an illustration of the foregoing rules of syntax, let us take 
the following sentence and analyse and parse it : — 

Wa usa budio, wa yana na Iwiya, onse ba a mana, wa 
yana ko mwala o matwi malamfu o mabala o mu- 
lomo mukando. 

A compound sentence made up of four simple sentences in 

wa Subject. 

I. Jusa Predicate. 

budio Extension of predicate. 

wa Subject. 

2 .yana Predicate. 

na Extension of predicate. 

Jwiya Object. 





ronse Enlargement of object. 

ba Subject. 

a Object. 

\mana Predicate. 


/wa Subject. 

yana Predicate. 

ko Extension of predicate* 

mwala o matwi o ) ^v . 

, , , > . . . Object, 

mabala o mulomo J 

\malamfu, mukando . . . Enlargements of object. 

Parsing : — 

Wa, pers. pro., ist cl., 3rd pers. sing., nom. to usa. 

iisa, verb, intr. act. indie, aorist, 3rd pers. sing., agreeing with 

its nom. wa. 
budio, adverb of manner modifying usa. 
wa, pers. pro., ist cL, 3rd pers. sing., nom. to yana. 
yana, verb, trans, act. indie, aorist, 3rd pers. sing., agreeing with 

its nom. wa. 
na, adverb of negation modifjdng yana. 
Iwiya, noun, ql. 9 a, 3rd pers. sing., accusative governed by 

onse, indefinite adjective, cl. 3, 9 a (refers to meya). 
ba, pers. pro., 3rd pers. plur., cl. i, nom. to mana. 
a, pers. pro., cl. 9 a, 3rd p. plur., accusative governed by mana. 
mana, verb, trans, act. indie, aorist, 3rd pers. pi. agreeing widi ba. 
wa, as above, nom. to yana. 
yana, as above. 

ko, adverb of place modifying yana. 
mwala, noun, cl. 2, sing., 3rd pers., accusative governed by 

o, o, o, conjunctions. 

matwi, noun, cl. 5, 3rd pers. pi., accusative governed by yana. 
malamfa, adj. of quality, agreeing with matwi, cl. 5, pi. 


mabala^ noun, cl. 3, 3rd pers. plur., accusative governed by 

mulomo, n., cL 2, 3rd pers. sing., accusative governed by yana. 
mnkando, adjective of quality, agreeing with mulomo, cl. 2, 



These exercises will serve to test the student's knowledge of 
the grammar. 

1. In the Grammar locative particles are given under the 
heading of nouns, pronouns, &c. ; let the student now make for 
himself a table showing all these forms together and their mean- 
ings. Then they should be applied to nouns chosen from the 
vocabularies, such as: ibwe, inkomba, impako, bwina, chim- 
pata. Sec. 

2. Explain carefully the meanings of the following : — landa, 
landwa, landila, nandila, landula, landulula, landuka, landudika, 
landukila, landusha, landulwa, nandwila, landukile; langa, 
lanzha, nanzha, dilangila, langidila, langisha, langidizha, lan- 
zhizha ; tamba, tambula, tambila, tambika, tambikizha, tambu- 
zhanya tambala, tambuzha; tila, tidila, tika, tikaisha, tikaika, 
tikula ; zamba, zambaila, zambila, zambuhila. 

3. Turn to the Eng.-Ila vocabulary and learn what is said 
under : account, ought, like, equal, fellow, first, since, side. 

4. Explain the following forms and contractions : — Nch'ona'no, 
to mboni, todi, tedi, ngadi, ngwidi, ngodi, ngudi, temo, tomo, 
teo, shimo, ntudi, njidi, kedio, kotemo, koteo. 

5. What is the force of the following sufl^es and prefixes ? 
Wh^e they involve any phoneticcbangesexplain what these are: — 
di-, -ika, n-, Hii, -ine, -ile, -ya, -eka, -ulula. 

6. What are the diflferent meanings of: o, ku, a, na ? 

7. When the following letters undergo phonetic change what 
do they become ? Give examples : — a, u, w, 1, j. 

8. How are augmentadves and diminutives formed in Ua? 
Give ten examples of each. 


9. How do the Baila express : more, most, very, really, just, 
first, again, before, as soon as ? 

10. What is the difference between kdio and ka16, shdlo and 
shal6, ddio and adi6, mbo and imbo, ndime and indime, ngao, 
ingao and ingo, into toto and intuto ? 

11. What are the meanings of: nchi bamba, shi bambi, 
ndina ku bamba, shi bambile, shina ku bamba, chi nta bambi, 
ndi ne nda ka bamba, chi nta na ku bamba, shi na ka bambile, 
shi nti bambi, ndi na ni nka bamba, shi ka bambi, shi ka ka 
bambi, nta bambi, nta ka kambi ? 

12. Translate: mu ta ngumi. Explain the change in the 
verb, and cite the rules governing changes of the same kind in 
other verbs. 

1 3. What is the passive voice of the following : — dya, iya, ti, 
ita, leta, lanzha, selusha, iba, uzha ? 

14. Analyse the following : — 

'Wezo muntu mudtmbushi ngu mwa ka shtmwina inzhila, a 
shike budio a mampanda a nzhila walo wa pinuka wo ona, mbu 
mwa ka amb'ati : wa ka shika a mampanda a nzhila u ka pinuke.' 

Parse the words in italics, 

15. Explain the formation of the following words: — chipaidilo, 
shilwengu, chalwengu, nikubabobo, mudiezhina, chichezho, chab- 
wanga, chilombwana, shichimbembe, diakomboka, inkambidizho, 

16. Translate the following into Ila : — 

The Tortoise said to the Ape: *My friend, let us go and 
gather fruit in the forest.' The ape agreed and they went off. 
It was the tortoise who arrived first, and picked up some of the 
fruit from the ground. When he had finished eating them he 
called his friend, saying : * Ape, my friend, I have found fruit : 
come here.' The ape came and climbed up the tree: the 
tortoise tried to climb but always fell back again. As he was 
unable to climb, he said to the ape : * Gather me some fruit; 
I am imable to climb.' The ape answered : * It was you who 


came first : how can you beg of me ? ' The ape then went on 
eating. When he was satisfied they went off home. The 
tortoise did not arrive until sunset. He took a stick and split it 
down the middle, then, when the ape was still asleep, he cut 
a number of sharp pegs and put them in a bag. Next morning, 
while it was still early, the tortoise went to the ape and said : 
' My friend, let us go again and eat fruit.' ' To-day,' he said 
again, ' I shall put fruit in my bag.' When they arrived at the 
tree, the ape climbed up first ; the tortoise stayed below. The 
ape laughed very much and despised his friend because he could 
Dot climb. But it was the tortoise's cunning only. The tortoise 
sat talking and smoking and making the ape laugh. At last the 
ape was satisfied, and said, ' let us go home.' Now before this, 
the tortoise had hammered the pegs around the tree ; so when 
the ape jumped down, he fell upon a peg and was killed. The 
tortoise then skinned him, cutting off the paws, the head, and the 
tail. He put the meat on his shoulders, and went home. That 
is how the tortoise deceived the ape. 

This IS pari of a Suto taU, 


The Hare and the Lion. 

Sulwe wa mwita shumbwa, ati : ' Achisha, a mu ka zhime 
kodia. Ome nda ya mululu modia.' A shike wa ya ku njila, wo 
ompolola shumbwa, ati : ' Uwe, shumbwa, tenta koko mudilo, u 
zbingulushe bodia lulu lonse, ome nd'ona'no.' Ushumbwa wa 
tenta mudilo : mudilo u la zaka, u shike budio afwafwi, sulwe we 
njila mu bwina. Lulu lonse Iwa pia, kangasulwe mbu ka ke njidila 
mu bwina. Lu mane budio ku pia lulu ka vhwa ansengwe 
kangasulwe. Ka alabana mu mimbi, ka ya ku lezha shumbwa, 
ati: 'To bwene ome, musama, ndina ku pia. To bwene 
imimbi ezhi ? ' Ushumbwa ati : ' Ame mpa ko musamo, ndu ku 
ya.' Wa mu chelela matovu, wa mu- pa. Wa lu langa lulu 
lukando oludi bwizu bunjibunji, wa ya ku ona shumbwa momo 


mukati ka luliL Sulwe wa zhingulusha mudilo u mabadi; u 
mwenzhe shumbwa afwafwi mudilo wa dila. Sulwe wa ingula, 
ati: 'U to didila mudilo wezo, u la pia/ Mudilo wa shika 
afwafwi, ushumbwa wa kanka ku pia mulevu wakwe. Odimwi 
wa shika mudilo a mubidi, boza bwakwe bwa kanka ku pia. 
Dimwi wa pia chinichini, wa fwa. A fwe bobo kangasulwe ka 
lukanka, ka amb'ati : ' Nda mu chenga mwalo wangu/ Ka ka 
shika kodia ka ya ku kala. Pele ; ka mana. 

The Elephant and the Hare. 

Ba ka yana muchelo munjebele muzovu o sulwe, ba ka yana 
ko muchembele u zakile ku chanda. Kwaka ita shumbwa, 
wa yana wezo muchembele, wa ka chela ko munjebele ku mu 
yumbula, ati : * Nshi shidyo nshi ndya kono ome/ Ushumbwa 
wa buzha, ati : * No wezo muchelo izhina nd'izhina nzhi ? ' Wa 
mu shimwina, ati : * Munjebele/ Ati : 'Ko ya ku amba bobo 
mwinzhila, u ka shimwine beenzhinoko, mu ka dye wezo ngu 
mwa yana koko.' A shike akati shumbwa a batezhi, wa wa : a 
shike ku beenzhina ba buzha ati : ' Muchelo nzhi ngu wa ya ku 
dya ? ' Wa amb'ati : * Nda wa akati, nda luba izhina.' Ku 
kuya muzovu wa ya ko, ati, nka buzhe izhina. Miizovu a shike 
ku muchembele, wa mu shunwina, ati : * Muchelo wezo munjebele. 
Ko ya bu imba : Munjebele, munjebele. U ta luba.' A shike 
ngona a ka wila shumbwa, aze muzovu wa wa, wa di luba izhina 
dia munjebele. A ka shike muzovu kwa ya sulwe, a shike ku 
muchembele wezo, wa buzha, ati * No izhina dia musamo ngu ba 
ti ka ba luba be ziza kono, nd'izhina nzhi ? ' Wa mu shimwina, 
ati : ' Munjebele.' Wa mu pa o kalangu. Wa mu anga mu- 
shingo kalangu, ati : ' No ya ku wa u ka ambe : munjebele, 
munjebele.* Wa shika awo a butezhi, wa wa, wa amba : * Mu- 
njebele.' Wa shika sulwe awo ngu ba ku shiti o beenzhina, wa 
chela wezo muchelo munjebele, wa dya. Beenzhina ba mu 
buzha, ati : ' Sa u zhiba izhina ? ' A dye, a dye, wa ba shimwina, 
ati : ' Mimjebele : ka mu dya budio.' A mane ku dya, sulwe 
wa amb'ati : ' A tu ende ku menzhi, ome ndi kwizhi, tu ka nwe 


menzhu Ba mane kiinwa, bo ona munshi mwizhiba ledio. • . / 
{A short parHon of the story is best omitted here. It describes 
a nasfy trick paid by Suhoe upon the elephant ^ which led to the latter 
being put to death by the other animals, Sulwe is afterwards found 
out^ and another elephant seizes him), . . . Muzovu wa mu kwata, 
ad : * Ndiwe wa beesha budio mukando.' Sulwe wa amb'ati : 
* Qme ni mu nkwata bodia, mu ta ka ngumi ebwe, shi fwi. A mu 
ka ngmnine a bwina bwa namunkwize : ngwinti nka fwe.' Ano- 
kuti ka la ba chenga. Ba shike a bwina, ba ambe ba ka ume, 
ke npla umbwina. Umwi we njizha itashi umbwina, wa ka 
kwata ka mwendo, ka amba umbwina, ati : ' Indime wa kwata, 
wa kwata izanda.' A telele bobo, owa ka ka kwata wa leka, 
ati : ' Atela cbebeni, nda kwata muzanda/ Ba leta iamba, ba 
sha, kalo kodia ka yaku vhwa, ke zila ku nzhila, ka peswa isuso, 
ka sanduka, ka ba muntu. Ka shike, ka buzha muzovu, ati : 
' Mu sha nzhi momo, achisa ? ' Ati : ' Tu la sha kangasulwe, 
ka ka tu sbia momo umbwina.' Ati : ' Mu lete kono : nshe ko/ 
Ka sha ko, iamba dia kuka. Ka amb'ati: 'Tu kankamine 
kwi iamba? Twa kankamina kwisamo tadi kwatidi. A mu 
lete mwindi, tu kankamine ngao/ Ka kankamina lushonto- 
shonto, ka sha, odimwi iamba dia kuka. Ati: 'A mu teye 
chanza, achisha, tu kakamine awa.' Ka mu yasa : ka mu yasa. 
Ke njila mumona momo umbwina. Munyati e njizhe itashi, wa 
ka kwata. Ka imba Iwimbo Iwa kako, ndulona lolo, ati : 'Indime 
wa kwata, wa kwata izanda.* Ba amb'ati : ' A tu ka sonde/ Ba 
ya ku sonda kwa shimunyeu. Shimunyeu wa amb'ati : ' Inzho 
mwa ka bona, mu ka ka kwate budio.' Ba zhoka. Ba shike 
budio ba la sha. Ka budika kwinzhila, ka le za bu uma kanko- 
bele, ka shika, ka buzha, ati ' Mu la sha nzhi ? ' Ati : ' Tu la 
sha wezo owa ka chisa mwenzhinokwesu owa ka mu yaya.' 
Ngonao balo ba luba, ba bula o ku nra kwata : ka ba nanga 
iamba* Ka sha ko. Iamba dia kuka. Ati : ' Munyati, achisha, 
a mu lete chanza, tu kankamine ngao.' Wa mu yasa odimwi 
Dgona, ke njila umbwina. Ba ka kwata, ka imba Iwimbo Iwako, 
ati : ' Indime wa kwata ; wa kwata izanda.' Odimwi shumbwa 


wa amb'ati : ' A tu ka fumbe mukalo, mu ka kwate fulwe, tu ka 
bike budimbo a mubidi wa fiilwe, tu la ka mu yana/ Ba ya ku 
fumba mukalo. Ba bika fulwe budimbo, ba mu bika u menzhi. 
Sulwe wa shika, a ambe a nwe menzhi, fulwe wa foma, wa mu 
diata itende, wa kakatila o, wa mu luma meno, meno a kakatik 
o ; ba shika, ba mu yana o sulwe, ba mu yaya sulwe. 




I. The student is not to expect that he will find every Ila word in these 
vocabularies. There are bound to be still thousands of unrecorded words. 
Nor is he to expect to find every possible modification of those words which 
are recorded. Rules are given in the Grammar for the formation, e. g., of 
the plural of nouns, and, therefore, excepting a few which are inserted for 
spedal reasons, he will not find plural nouns in the vocabularies. Many 
of the modifications of the verb are inserted, but there are many more that 
are in use. Having, however, mastered the rules for the formation of the 
verbal species, the passive voice, &c, he should have no difficulty with 
such words. 

3. Words are recorded in alphabetical order, according to the first letter 
of the words themselves, not of the roots. 

3. The student may often come upon words which, apparently, are not in 
the vocabularies, but which really are there only disguised through some 
phonetic change. Having mastered what is said in Chapter U and else- 
where on these changes he ought to experience no difficulty in tracing these 
words ; but the following hints may be helpful :— 

If you cannot find a word b^;inning with Afw, Kw^ Bw, look under the 
vowel following the w. Thus : — 

For Kwimba look for Imba. 

,, Kwisamo „ „ Isamo. 

„ Mwivhu „ „ Ivhu. 

„ Bwimba „ „ Imba. 

When yon cannot trace a word b^inning with e, look under t , because 
e = a •¥ i. Thus, for Evhu look under Ivhu. 

When you cannot find words beginning with Mu, Kuy A, remember that 
many nouns of cL 8 lose an i when they take those prefixes ; therefore look 
under 1. Thus, for Munganda, Kunganda, Anganda, look under Inganda. 

Similarly with verbs beginning with if or m, if you cannot find them in 
their place, look under t . 

Thus, Npla is entered under i « injUa, 




» Accnsative case. 















Aorist tense. 



Capable spedes. 



Causative species. 



Confer (Compare). 






Conjunction or con- 









For example. 


♦ > 

Emphatic, empiui' 












That is. 






Indicative mood. 

















>> » 

Noun of class 3, &c. 




N. prop. 

signifies Proper noun. 


















Passive voice. 



Perfect tense. 
























Which see. 


















Subject ; subjunc- 
tive mood. 












Verb, intransitive. 





A What-is-it, a tbing the name of 
which yoa do not know or cannot 
call to mind, n, 7. ohinini; e,^. 
bring the what-do-yon-call-it, 
leta ohinini. Other classifiers 
may be added to the root -nini 
according to the subject of conver- 
sation ; e.g: in making of trees, 
mnnini, a what-do-yon-call-it 

What's his namk, a person whose 
name yon do not know or cannot 
call to mind, nini, i ; pi. ba- 
nini ; ^.^. call so-and-so, kwita 

Abandon, to, v,t, kn leka, kn 
longa, ku lokeab*. To a. an 
old village, ka kmsa nmnshi 
wa kale. To a. a custom, kn 
leka ohiansa. To a«, desist 
from a porpose, kn leka, kn 
lekeaha ; ^.^. I intended to kill 
him, but I desisted, B'da ka 
hnpula ka nra yaja, inaho nda 
lekesha. To forsake, desert, kn 

Abase, to, to cast down, phr. ka 
wisha 'nahi. To hnmble, ka 
bonsha^ To abase or hnmble 
oneself, ka dibonsha. 

Abassment, If . 5. kabanaha, ka- 
bonxhiwa, kabomba. 
Self-abasement, n, 5. kodibonaha. 

Abate, to, v. t. ka yoaa, ka oba- 
loka, ka ahimbolaka. Of a 
flood, ka yoaa, ka pompa. Of 
a river, ka obaluka. Of a 
swelling, ka ahimbalaka. v. /. 
to abate pain by appljring medi- 
cine, ka ahimbalola. To a. or 
decrease, v. i, ka twetana ; v, /. 
ka twetanya. 

Abbreviate, to, 9./. to shorten, 

Abbreviation, n. 5. kofwinaha. 

Abdomen, below the navel, if. 3. 
ibomba. Above the navel, if. 3. 

. ifti. When distended with food, 
If. 7. chifti. 

Abhor, to, v. t. ka sadisha. 

Abhorrence, if. 5. kasadisha. 

Abide, to, v, i, ka kala. To a., 
or remain behind, ka shala. 

Ability : power, if. 8. insana. 

Able, to be, pAr. kadi nsana; e.g. 
he b able to do all things, adi 
naana aha ka ohita ahonse. To 
be able to do, v.i. ka konaha, 
ka koma ; e.g. 1 am not able to 
do this, Shi konzha chechi; I 
am able to build, Nda koma 

•ABLE. The English suffix -able is 
represented by the suffix -ika or 
-eka of the capable species. See 
Gram., chap, vi, sect, i, 5, 

Ablution, if. 5. kaaamba. 

Aboard : to go aboard,embark, v. i. 
ka ohila. To put aboard, load 
a canoe, v. /. ka chiaha. 

Abolish, to, v. t. ka manya. 

Abolition, if. 9. lamanyo. 

Abominable, to be, v.t. ka 

Abominable, adj. -sadiahi. 

Abomination, abominable conduct. 
If. 3/. mafiinaL A person who 
does such things, if. i a, ahima- 

Abort, to, v.t. ka sowa. To 
cause alxntion, v. /. ka sosha. 

Abortion, if. 6. kaaowe. Used as 
an imprecation, ndiwe kaaowe. 

Abound, to, to be rich, v.u ka 
vhaba. To possess, v. t. ka ftia. 
To be in abundance, v. i. ka vhala. 

ABOXJT,prep. around,manibadinia; 
e,g, they are sitting around 



him, ba la kala mumbadi 
prep, concerning, a. I speak to yon 
concerning your customs, Nda 
ma ambila a shianza shenu. 
Expressed also by the relative 
suffix merely. 

On the point of. Use the verb ku 
ti, to say; e^g, I was about to 
hit him, but did not, inti mu 
me, inaho nda leka; he was 
on the point of death, but re- 
covered, a ti a fwe ixiBho wa, 
pona ; when he was about to 
kill the lion, the lion bit him, ni 
a ti a yaye shumbwa, ushum- 
bwa wa mu Inma. 
To go about, or round a thing, v. t . 
ku zhinguluka. 

Above, adv, mwiseulu, kwi- 
seulu, ezealu ; prep, kwiseolu 
ku, eseulu a ; $,g. Lewanika is 
above all the chiefs, Ii. udi eaeolu 
a baami bonse ; I put iron above, 
or, on top of my house, Nda 
bika chela eseulu a nganda. 
Surpassing. Use the verb ku basha ; 
e.g, I like this above all things^ 
nda Kanda oheohi ku baaha 
bintu bionse. 

Abrade, to, to mb off skin, v. /. 
ku ku Bupula; v.i. ku bu« 

Abreast, to sit or stand abreast, 
ku bamba, ku bambana; e,g, 
the people sit abreast, bantu 
badi bambene, or, badi bam- 
bile. Fig. ku bamba isasa. 

Abridge, to, to shorten, v. /. ku 

Abroad : to go abroad, to another 
country, ku ya ku ohishi 
ohimwl. To be noised abroad, 
V, i, ku ibuka, ku ya impuwo. 
To noise abroad, v, i, ku ibusha. 

Abscess, n. 3. iute. To open an 
a., ku anda ; the abscess is sup- 
purating again, bwa tumbila 
bushila odimwl mwiute. 

Abscond, to, v, i. ku loboka. 
To cause to a., v. t. ku lobosha. 

Absconder, n, i . muloboshi. 

Absent. He is absent,. te6y tekd. 

temd ; he is absent from school, 
temd mu ohikolo. See Gram,, 
ch, tr, sect, 1,4 ; sect, 2,4 ; sect,'^, 4. 

Absorb, to, v,t, ku nwa, ku 
To dry up, v, /. ku zumya. 

Abstain, to, v. i, ku dilesha ; e, g. 
Christians abstain from drinking 
strong beer, Bakxisti ba la di- 
lesha ku nwa mukuku. 

Abundance, n. 4. bwala. 

Abundant, ad/, -nji-nji, with noun 
prefixes; e.g. abundant food, 
bidyo binjibinJL To be a., 
sufficient, v. i, ku ludila. 

Abuse, to, by using abusive lan- 
guage, V, t, ku tuka. 

Accept, to, to receive, v.t. ku 
tambula. To accept tidings, 
believe, v, /. ku vumina. 

Accident, if.3.//.malowe, malele. 

Accidentally, adv, ohamalowe. 

Accompany, to, v, /. ku shindi- 
kila. You will accompany me, 
/it, we will go with yon, tu la ya 
ase ; to accompany any one who 
goes to give thanks or to salute, 
V. /. ku sekeleaha. 

According, according Xo^prep, ku ; 
e.g, we will do according to his 
will, tu la ohita ku kuianda 

Account, reason, affair, matter, 
iu 6. kambo. It is on that 
account, for that reason, nku 
■kambo kako, nku kako ; e,g, 
it is on that account I came here, 
nku kako nku nde zila kono ; 
it is not on that account, for that 
reason, inko kako; on that 
account, kambo kako ; on ac- 
count of what? why? kambo 

Accumulate, to, v,i, ku bu- 
ngika, ku bunganya; v,i, ku 

Accurately. Use the intensive 
form of the verb ; $, g. read ye 
accurately, well, a mu badishe. 

Accuse, to, phr, ku bika kambo, 
ku tolela mulandu, ku oheche- 
lela ; e, g, they accuse him to the 
chief, ba mu tolela mulandu 



Icn mwami, bamn bika kambo 
ka mwami, ba mu oheehelela 
ku mwami, ba mu ihimwinina 
kxL mwami. To a. falsely, 9. /. 
ku lengelela, ku lengeleaha. 

Accustomed, to be, v,i, ku ihibi- 
dila, ku BOloka; €,^. I am 
accnstomed to speak the truth, 
ndi ahibidile ku ahinliha. I 
am accustomed to do as I tell you , 
ndi ahibidile ku chita bu nda 
ku shimwina ; they are not yet 
accustomed to the laws, ta ba na 
ku ahibidila imbeta; ku ao- 
loka seems to have also the idea 
of being habituated to a thhig and 
likmg it ; e,^. I am used to moot- 
ing, nda aoloka ku Aisa : i, e. 
I can shoot and I like shooting. 

Ache, to, v, i, ku chiaa. 

Ache, n, 4. bulwaahi. Toothache, 
If. 9. lushinga. See Pain. 

Acid, to be, v,L ku papa;^. 
muohelo u la latela buu. 

Acknowledge, to, v,t. ku vu- 

Acquaint, to, 9. /. ku ahibya. 

Acquit, to, v. /. ku leka. 

Across, to go across a river, ku 
landnka mulonga. To take a 
person across a river, v,t, ku 
landuflha. He goes across by 
the bridge, wa landukila a 
bulalu. To place across, as a 
thing across the road, v,t, ku 
ohiamika. To put across, one 
thing across another, v,t, ku 

Act, to, V, t, ku ohita. 

Act, ccmduct, n, 8. inkani ; work, 
n, 3. mudimo. 

Action, doing, n, 5. kuchita; 
lawsuit. If. 2. mulandu. 

Adam's Apple, n, 8. imbozoboso. 

Add, to, to a full pot, v. /. ku 
songa. To add up, as figures, 
9. /. ku Bungizha, ku swanga- 
nya. To add to anything, v,t, 
kuBungidila. To add one state- 
ment to another, as different wit- 
nesses, also of £Eilse accusations, 
ku aongelela. 

Addled, to be, v, i, ku-uwa. 

Address, to, in public, ku ahi- 
muna makani mumbale dia 
bantu, or, ku buahu bwa 

Adhere, to, to stick to, v. /. ku 
kakatila, ku Bhama; e,g. they 
adhere to their bad wa3rs, ba la 
kakatila ku shianaa aliabo; 
the clay sticks to me, bulongo 
bwa nshaminina; the affair 
sticks to him, he can't get rid of 
it, is always talking about it, 
kambo ka mu Bhama; not to 
leave, persist in, v. /. ku suma- 
nana; e.g. they adhere to their 
disputes, ba sumanana shikani 
■habo ; to stick together, v. i. ku 
kamantana; v.t, ku kaman- 

Adherence, n. 5. kukakatUa. 

Adherent, adj, -kakatile. 

Adhesive, adJ, -lamaushi; Jig, 
this medicine is sticky, lit. is 
birdlime, miiaamo weau mbu- 

Adieu, to bid farewell, v,t, ku 

Farewell salutations : To the one 
remaining : Remain well ! Still 
stay! shala kabotu! ko obi 

To the one leaving : Go well ! 
Still go ! ko ya kabotu ! ko chi 

Admirable, to be, v, i, ku ebeka.' 

Admirable, adj\ -ebeshi. 

Admire, to, to gaze at, v.t, ku 
eba, ku ebela; e,g, I admire 
tiiat fine woman, nde eba mu- 
kaintu wezo mubotu. To a. 
oneself, ku dieba. To cause to 
a., V, t. ku ebezha. 

Admonish, to, z^. /. ku bula. 

Admonition, n, 5. kubula. 

Admit, to, v, /. to cause to enter, 
ku njizha. 

Adorn, to, by dressing, v.t, ku 
samika, ku samikisha. To a. 
oneself, ku disamika. To orna- 
ment, V, t, ku ebeBha. 

Adopt, to : To take an infant from 
its mother and adopt it, ku ftin- 
gula. To adopt an older child. 

S 3 



ku lela. Recompense paid by 
parents if they resume charge of 
their child after it has been 
adopted, n, 2. mulelwe. 

Adore, to, to love very much, v. t. 
ku fiinisha. To honour, v,t, 
ku lemeka. To worship, v,t. 
ku laxnbila. 

Adult, n, i. mukando. 

Adulterer, Adulteress, n. i a, 
referring to one act only, shibu- 
mambe ; referring to more than 
one act, shimamambe. 

Adultery, n, 3/. mamambe. Of 
a single act, n, 4. buxnambe. 
Partner in, n. i a, umaxnba. To 
commit a., ku ohita mamambe, 
ku ba ahimamambe. Child of, 
mwana omaJiuna; pL bana 
bomahuna. Partner in, his, 
ohimaswakwe, kasua kakwe, 
umambakwe. Permitted, ar- 
ranged adultery, n. 9. lubambo. 

Advance, to, to go forward, /Ar. 
ku 7a kuznbele. To go in a., 
precede, v. i, ku aolola. To a., 
be promoted, v, i. ku sumpuka. 
To a., promote, v.t. ku sum- 

Adversary, n, 1 a. my, ahinko- 
ndoma; thy, ahinkondonoko, 
&c. See Enemy. 

Advice, n, 5. kubula. Mutual a., 
n. 5. kubulana. 

Advise, to, v.t, ku bula. To 
advise eadi other, ku bulana; 
ku bula is used of a messenger 
going from village to village 
spreading tidings ; cf, our English 
idiom, to advise of some news. 

Adviser, n. i. xnubudi. The 
word is applied to an old woman 
who instructs girls before their 

Adze, n. 3. ibeso. To adze, v, /. 
ku beza. 

Affair, n. 6. kambo ; n. 3. ikani ; 
n, 8. inkaxii. 

Affection : love, n. 5. kuftma ; 
mutual a., n. 5. kufanana. 

Affirm, to, strongly, v,L i. ku 

Affliction, n, 4. bulwaihi. 

Afoot : to travel afoot, ku enda o 

Afore, adv, ambele. 

Aforetime, tuiv. kale, kalekale. 

Afraid, to be, v, i, ku tia. To 
tremble with fear, v.t. ku aha- 
ngama, ku tutuma. To make 
afraid, v. L ku tiaha. Of a per- 
son who is afraid to go when sum- 
moned because of a fault, v. i. ku 
leyauka. To be a coward, ku 
ba mukandu, ku ba nawala. 

After, cuiv. munahi ; prep, xnu- 
nshi dia, mununa ya, xnwiaule 
dia; e.g. they came one after 
another, ba ka shika umwi 
munahi dia umwi. To go after, 
follow, V. i. ku ohidila. 

Afternoon : about 3 p.m., aka- 
bonzhabembeahi ; later, diau- 
ngaunga, mangoleaha. To start 
a journey in the afternoon, v.t, 
ku iaukila. 

Afterward, adv. munahi. 

Again, adv. odimwi. Again and 
again, odimwi, odixnwi. Use is 
also made of the verb : To return 
to, bu bwelela; e.g. he again 
entered the house, wa bwelela 
we njila munganda. To do a 
thing over again, v. t. ku auxmi- 
nana, ku lolola. See chap, vf , 
sect. I, 8, 9. 

Age, years, n, 2. pi. miaka. What is 
your age ? udi niaka yongai P 

Aged, to be, v, i. ku ohexnbala ; 
v. /. to age, ku chembaaha. 

Aged, adj. -ohembele. 

Aged Person, n. i. muohembele ; 
very aged, weak, n. i. xnupami. 

Agedly : like an aged person, n. 7. 
ohipami; e.g. he walks like a 
mupami, u le enda ohipami. 

Agent : one who does on behalf of 
another, n. i. muchitidi. 

Aggravate : make greater, v. /• 
ku komeaha. 

Agitate, to : to stir up people, 
V. t. ku ahinikiaha ; to shake, 
V. t. ku Bunganya, ku tapasha. 

Ago, adv, kale; long ago, kale- 

Agree, to, v, t. ku vumina. To 



agree to, allow, v.t, ka vnmi- 

xdna. To agree together, v, /. 

kn vumininana. 
Ahead, ado, ambele, kninbele. 

To go ahead, v.i, kn solola, ku 

7a knmbele. To send ahead, 

V, t, ka solosha^ 
Aim: to take aim, ka shina menso. 

To miss an aim, ka iaha. To 

aim at, to intend to go to a place, 

9. /. ka hapola. 
Air, n. i. xnosa. To spread things 

in the air to dry, v, t. ka aanika. 
Ajar, to be ajar, v.p, ka ohdkwa. 

To leave ajar, shut partially, v, t. 

Alarm, n. 2. mokanga. To raise 

an a., ka oma mokanga. 
Alas! inierf. Mawel mawe ba- 

Alike, to be, v. i. ka koshana. 

To cause to be, v. t, ka koshanya. 
Alike, adj, -koahene. 
Alive, to be, 9. i. ka pona, ka 

All, adj. -onse prefixed by personal 
proooons. See Gram.^ chap, iv, 
sect. 3. All the men, baLomb- 
waiut bonse; all the country, 
ehiahi ehonae. Is this all! 
Fele haP 

All right I mbabo I 

Allegiance, to own, v.t. ka 
lemeka. See note, Ila^Eng. 
Vocab. 00 ditaja. 

Allot, to, v. /. ka aba. To allot 
to, distribute among, v. t. ka 

Allotment : share, pottioo, n. 7. 

Allow, to, 9. /. ka innrinlna. 

Almighty, THE, n. lo. Uahinsaii*- 

Alone, ado. ich«; e.g. I went 
alone, nds k» enda iebe. A 
man who tiafds aboot alone, 
n-io. alriniwiaiMtaicbii. 

Aloud, to qxak aloud, v. i. ka 
ambidia* ka poaonmka* 

Already, ado. kale ; t.g. I have 
already done it, ndi eld ehit» 

forms of the subs. pro. See Gram., 

chap, V, sect. 2,e\e,g.l also, ame; 

they also, abo, abalo. 
Alter, to, v. t, ka sandula ; v, i, 

Alterable, to be, v. i, ku san- 

dudika ; adj, -sandudiahi. 
Although, conj. nl. 
Altogether, see above, all ; e. g, 

altogether they were ten, bonse 

ka badi ikruni ; ach. konae, 

konsekonse; unitedly, antomwi. 
Always, cuiv. shikwense, dioniie. 
Am, expressed by the copula. See 

chap. ix. 
Amaze, to, v. t, ka Iwesa. ku 

Bosha. To be amazed, v, i. ku 

Iweswa, ku aowa. To be very 

greatly amazed, ku fwa intu- 

Ambassador, ff. i a, ohinkombwa ; 

pi. baahinkombwa. 
Ambush : to lie in ambush, as 

around a village, ku onenena. 

To hide in ambush, v. i. ku suba. 
Amid, amidst, prep, akati ka. 
Amiss, cuh, kabiabe. 
Among, amongst, prep, mu, akati 

ka ; e.g. he sits among the men, 

wa kala mu balombwana. 
Amputate, to, v. t. ku koaola. 
Amuse, to: to make laugh, v.t. 

Ancestor, n. i a., ahikale ; //. 

Ancient : as an adjective use kale 

kala and gen. part. ; e.g. ancient 

customs, ahiansa aha kala kale* 
And, amj. o ; joins together noons. 

Expressed also in conj. form of 

subs. pro. Ama, and I, &c. 
Angel^ If. i«. far, anjala; pi. 

Anger, n. 4. bukadi. 
Angle, n. 7. chikokola. 

of a house, n. 2. mwako. 
Angrily, ado. cbahnlradi 
Angry, to be, v.i. ka lemana, 

ku kalala, ku lapukila, ku ba 

Also is CAp it Mc dintheconioMtiTe 

to anger, make angry, v.t. 
lamaaha, ku kalaihaj kn 



to be angry with, v, /. ku lema- 

nina, ku kaladila. 
Animal, n. i. munyama. 
Animal nature, n. 4. bunyama. 

Manner, custom of animal, n, 7. 

Female animal. munyama muBha- 

Bhi. Little a., n, 6. kanyama. 

List of Animals. 

{Fcr birds, insects, fish, see under 
those headings^ 

Domestic animals^ 

Bull, muohende,//. ba-. 

Calf, mombe,//. bombe. A weaned 

calf, imfiinguslii. 
Cat, kase, pi. bakaze. 
Cow, s, and //. impwizhi. 
Dog, mubwa, //. babwa. 
Draught ox, musune, pi. ba-^ 
Goat, s, and//, impongo. 
Head of cattle; cattle, s. 9SiA.pL 

Kid, kaponso, pU tu-. 
Lamb, kambelele,//. ta-; mwa- 

Pup, small dog, kabwa. 
Ram, shembwe,//. bashembwe. 
Sheep, X. vtApL imbelele. 

Wild animals. 

Ant-bear, ohinengwe, pL baohi* 

Ape : monkey, sokwe,//. basokwe ; 

dim, kanga-sokwe. Baboon, 

pombo, pi, bapombo ; dim, ka- 

Buffalo, munyati, //. banyati, or 

bamunyati ; dim, kanga-mu- 

nyati. Herd of, inyati. 
Bushbuck, shicliibabala,//. bashi- 

ohibabala ; shioliibaiigo, //. 

bashiohibango ; dim, kaDga- 

Bush-pig, kantnla,//. bankuntula ; 

ngulube, //. bangolube. 
Cerval-cat, inBuzhi,//. banzuBhi ; 

dim, kanga-nBiiBhi. 
Chameleon, nanundwe, //. bana- 

nusdwe ; naluntambwe, //. 

banaluntambwe ; dim. kanga- 


Cheetah, maliuna, pi, bamalama; 

//. ma-itntuluwe. 
Coney: rock-rabbit, ohibila, //. 

Crocodile, ohi wena,//.baoliiwena ; 

dim, kanga-ohiwena. 
Duiker, nakasha, pi, banakaaha ; 

dim, kanga-nakasha. 
Eland, musefti, pi, basefd, ba- 

musefti; dim. kanga-museftL. 
Elephant, muBovn, //. basoru, 

Giraffe, intutwa, pi, bantutwa. 
Gnu, mtmyambwi, //. bamunyu- 

mbwi ; dim* kanga-xnonyu- 

Grysbuck, timba,//. batimba. 
Hare, solwe, pi, basulwe; dim, 

Hartebeest, konBe, //. bakonae ; 

dim, kanga-koziBe. 
Hippopotamus, ohivhubwe, pi, 

baohivhubwe ; dim, kanga- 

Jackal, mwaba,//.bamwaba; dim, 

Klipspringer, n. i a, ngombani,//. 

Kudu, namutentatila, pi, bana- 

mutentanla ; moBiilumatwi ; 

shombololo; dim, kanga-namu- 

Lechwe,iiainja,//. banainja; dim, 

Leopard, shiluwe, pi, bashilu'W'e ; 

dim. kanga-ahiluwe. 
Lion, shumbwa,//. bashombwu. 
Lynx, n. i a. Iiubo ; pi, Balubo. 
Muircat, kabwinde, pL baka- 

Oribi, nakafwifwi, //. banaka- 

fwitwi ; nakasotokela,//. bana- 

kasotokela ; naohindwa, //. 

banaohindwe ; dim, kanga- 

Otter, ohibawe, pi, baohibawe; 

dim. kanga«ohibawe. 
Pallah, nanBeli, pi, bananseli; 

lubondwe, pi, balubondwe ; 

aha8ubila,//.ba8ha8ubila; dim, 

kanga - nanBeli. (N.B. This 

animal should not be called 




Poicnpine, (diaminnligwe, pL ba- 

Poku, shiohirana, //. bashiohi- 

mmn ; dint, kanga-ihiohianxiu. 
Ratel, honqr-bear, ohibvla, pU ba- 

Reedback , nalUTwi ^//.banaluTWi ; 

dim. kaAga-naluFwl. 
Rhinoceros, shempela, pL bashe- 

mpela; ahilanffwa, pi. bashi- 

langwa ; dim. kanga-shempela. 
Roan antelope, ohilumbulnmbu, 

pL baohiluxnbiiliiznbu ; xnulu- 

mbulambu, //. bamultunbala- 

mbu; dim* kanga-chilnmbulu- 

Sable antelope, kaftimbwi, pi. ba- 

kaftunbwi; kantanta, pi. ba- 

kaatanta; laengo,//.baluexigo; 

dim, lcanga*kaflciinbwi. 
Sitntimga antelope, shiohlnsobe, 

//.baablohinsobe insobe (Lnm- 

bn) ; dim, kangashichinBobe. 
Sknnk, kanyimba,//.bakan7i]nba. 
Spring-hare, xuununkwiBe, pi. ba- 

n amnTi Icwiae, 
Sqninel, ahikonao, pU bashiko- 

nso ; poloiigwe,//.bapolongwe. 
Tortoise, falw«, /iC baftilwe ; dim. 

Wart-hog, shankole, pi. basha- 

nkole ; dim. kanga-skankole. 
Waterbnck, mokulo,//. bamukulo; 

dim, kanga-mokulo. 
Water*rat, xnasanshi. 
Wild-cat, inahipba, ohanga, pL 

baehanga. Ohifvri, //. ba* 

ohifiri ; shimatuya, //. ba- 

ahimatiiya ; mwalangane, pi. 

bamwalangane ; fwididila, pi. 

Wild-d<^9 musaka, pi. bamnsa- 

ka ; mnpi, pi, banmpi ; dim. 

Zdna, chibisi, //. bacbibiai; na- 
mbwenga ; nalawawa ; dim, 
kaaga-ohibisi, &c. 

Ankle, n. 7. ohipokoto. 
Anklet, n. 8. inshipi, ingondo. 
Announce, to, v. i, ka shimuna ; 

very londly, ka posomtika. 
Annoy, to, v, t, ku kataaha. 

Annoyance, n. 5. kukatatha, kn- 

Annually, every year, miaka 

Anoint, to, to anoint oneself, v. t. 

ku nana. To anoint another, 

V, t, ku nanika. 
Another, adj. -mwl, prefixed by 

pers. pro. ; another, dinerent, adj, 


Answer, to, v. t, ka taba, ku 

Ant, n. 8. mupuka ; n, 4. bu- 

puka. Termite, lumoma, mu- 

lanzhi; black, biting, bashi- 

munyau; the semyi ant, busu- 

lubi ; red, biting, shimwenaha- 

lubilo ; another kind of red, 

biting ants, manjenji; another 

kind, bumbuswa. 
Antbear, n. I a, chinengwe ; //. 

Ant-heap, n. 8. lulu, //. ingulu ; 

n, 7. chulu. 
Antelope, n. i. munyama. ^<;^ 

list above, under Animal. 
Anus, n. 8. inyo ; it. 7. chandanyo. 
Anvil, n. 3. itako. 
Any, adj. -mwi ; anywhere, konse- 

konse, ukwi tikwi. 
Apart, cuij, -andene. 
Ape, monkey, n. 1 a. eokwe ; //. 

basokwe. Baboon, n. la. pom- 
bo ; //. bapombo. 
Aperture, opening, doorway, n. 2, 

mudiango ; hole, n. 7. chipolo ; 

gap, as in fence, n. 2. musena. 
Apex, summit, n. 8. impela. 
Apostle, n. la. chinkombwa ; 

n. i.mutumwa; n.far, la. apos- 

tele, pi. ba-apo8tele. 
Apparent, to be, v, i. ku boneka. 

Of affairs, tf. i, ku teleleka. 
Apparent, ad/, -boneshi, -tele- 

Appear, to, v. i, ku budika, ku 

I>ompa. To cause to appear, v. t, 

ku budisha. To appear for, v. i, 

ku budikila. 
Appearance, n, 5. kubudika. 

Ontward appearance of a person, 

n. 7. chiwa. 
Appease, to, v, t, ku kambidiiha. 



Appoint, to, ». /. ku bika, ku 

Approach, to, v. i. ku sena, ku 
swena (Lumbu). To approach 
each other, ku senana. To ap- 
proach closely, V. i. ku senenena. 
To approach crawling, as after 
game, ku benda. To approach 
stealthily to, in order to surprise, 
V, t. ku sobelela. 

April, month of, n, 5. kukubwe 

Apron, woman'8,wom in front, n, 2. 
mulapi ; ditto of men, n, 8. in- 
kuti. Apron worn behind, of 
women, n, 7. ingubo ; of men, 
inkuti ya makato. 

Are, expressed by the copula. See 
Gram.f chap. ix. 

Aright, adv, ohakululama. 

Arise, to, v, i, from sleep, ku 
buka. To stand up, v, i. ku 
zhimoka. Of the sun, v, i. ku 
vhwa, ku pasa. 

Arm, n, 3. itashi. To carry any- 
thing under the arm, v. i, ku 

Armlet, n, 8. inohoko. Put on 
upper arm, n, 8. intasa. 

Armpit, n, 8. inkwa. 

Army, n. 8. impi. 

Around, prep, mumbadi dia. To 
sit around the fire, ku zota, 
ku engela mudilo. To go round 
an obstacle, to go around, v. i, ku 

Arouse, to, v. t. ku busha. 

Arrange, to, v, /. ku bamba. 
To arrange for somebody, v, t, ku 
bambila. To arrange grass for 
inspection, ku bamba bwizu. 
Arrange yourselves in line, fall in, 
a mu dibaznbe. To put in order, 
V. /. ku lulamika. 

Arrest, to, to seize, v,t. ku 

Arrival, n, 5. kushika. 

Arrive, to, v, i, ku shika. Of a 
canoe, v, i, ku shoka. 

Arrow, n, 2. muvhwi ; shaft o^ 
n, 9. luxnpute ; feather of, n. 8. 
intangwa. Sheath for arrows, 
n, 2. muntemba. Barbed arrow, 

n. 8. inkungwa. Large arrow- 
head without barbs, n. 2. mun- 

As, conj. bu, bodia bu ; prep. 
ubudi, bubona budi. 

Ascend, to, v. t. ku disa ; of a 
bird, V. i, ku uluka, ku sumuka; 
of smoke, v. i, ku faka. 

Ash, n, 3. itwe; of burnt grass, 
n. 8. imimbi ; to put to roast in 
ashes, v, t. ku fukuma. 

Ashamed, to be, v,u ku usa 

Aside, adv, kumbadi ; secretly, 
adv. kunao ; to turn aside out of 
a path, V, i, ku ambuka z, t, ku 

Ask, to, a question, v, t, ku busha ; 
to ask each other, v.t, ku buz- 
hana ; to ask persistently, v, /. 
ku buzhiaha; to ask for, to 
beg, V, t, ku kumbila, ku puxn- 

Ass, ». 8. imbongolo. 

Assemble, to, v. i, ku bungana, 
ku zoboloka ; v, /. ku bungika, 
ku bunganya. 

Assembly, ». 8. imbungano; 
meeting for judging cases, n. 9. 
lubeta; place of, n. 7. ohibu- 

Assent, to, v,i, ku vumina; 
by nodding the head, v,u ku 

Assist, to, v, t, ku yovwa. 

Astonish, to. See Amaze. 

Astonishingly, Adv. ohankanka. 

Astonishing Person, n, 1 a. 
Thing, n. 3. //. xnalweza. 

Astonishment, n. 5. kuzowa; 
great, n, 8. intuntwa. 

Astray, to be, v. i, ku aweka. 
•^*^' to go astray, to turn from 
path of rectitude : v, i, ku am- 
buka ; to cause any one to go 
astray, v./. ku ambusha. To 
lead astray, entice, v, /. ku 
lengaula; ku lengauzhs; ku 

Asunder, to cut asunder, v,t. ku 
kosola ; to burst asunder^ v, i. ku 



At, prep, ku, kwa ; at once, iniho 
inzho ; at night, mashikn ; e.g, 
he is at the "village, udi ku 
mnnshi, kwadi ku mnxiBhi. 

Attack, to, v, t. ku Iwiaha. 

Attain, to, to arrive at, phr, ku 

Attempt, to, v. /. ku solaka. 

Attempt, i». 5. kuBoleka. 

Attend, to, on a journey, v, /. ku 
ahindikila; to listen, v./. ku 
teltfla, ku telelisAis; to serve, 
phr. ku manina midimo. 

Audible, to be, z^. i. ku teleleka. 

Audible, adj. -teleleshi. 

Aught, n. 6. kantu; e,g. I have 
not heard aught, nina ku telala 

Augur, n. 7. ohituluaho. 

August, month o^ kaaangabimbi. 

Aunt, one's maternal or paternal 
aunt is called bama, my mother. 

Authority, n. 4. bwami; head- 
man's, n. 4. bunkoahi; kingly, 
«. 4. bnoneki ; one with au- 
thority, n.\a. ahabwami. 

Autumn, ado. knnkoaoko. 

Avoid, to, to a, a missile by jump- 
ing aside, v. i. ku lea. 

Await, to, v. t. ku dlndllfc 

Aware, to be, v. /. ku shiba ; to 
make aware, v. t. ku shibya. 

Away, to get a., v. i. ku aeanka ; 
todrifea.,9./. kutanda; to run 
a., V. i. ku tia ; to abscond, v. i. 
ku loboka; to take away, v.t. 
ku kiMiba> 

Awful, to be, v. u ku tika ; to 
fii^tcn, V. L ku tisha. 

Awvix, a^. -tubi. 

AZEy fior cnttii^ wood, &c, n. 6. 
\mnlm . pL twembe; battle-axe, 
sr.4.1nikaiia; dd, #r. 7. chUauuk 
For dffrncT; ». 7. ehlbaoga; 
large ditto, sr. 3, ibanga; with 
dialt oofcfcd with copper, n.\a» 

AxTT.i.A, n. 8. Inkwa,. 
Booox. IK. I 

BiBT, U. I. 


just bom is called manihi 

Babyhood, n. 4. bucheohe. 

Bachelor, n. i a. shikatanda, //. 

Bachelorhood, n. 6. katanda. 

Back, of the body, n. 8. inuma; 
small of the, n, 4. bukome ; 
between the shoulders, n, 9. luwe- 
Bu, n, 8. indalo ; to go or 
come, V, f . ku bwela, ku shoka ; 
to go back or return again, v. f. 
ku bwelela; to take back, t/./. 
ku Bhola, ku bwaaha; to turn 
back, v.i. ku piluka; to torn 
one's back to, ku futamina; to 
look back, ku chebuka munsbi ; 
to lie on the back, v. i. ku 
salama ; phr. he lies on his back, 
udi lele buaashi ; to put some- 
body down on his back, v, t, ku 

Backbite, to, v. t. ku vwlya ; of 
one who goes about speaking evil 
falsely of another person, vA, ku 

Backbiter, slanderer, n. i. muv- 
wiahi; mufweti. 

Backbone, n. 2. mongo. 

Backslide, 10^ phr. ku shokal* 

Backwards, adv. chimftitenuina, 
chimfate, lungrwenuina. I'o 
go backwards and forwRtdi be- 
tween two places, v. i, ku 9mm^ 
panka. To iaX\ backwards, phr, 
ku wa inaala buaashi. To 
walk backwards, ku endala 
ehitnfhtenuina. To jump back- 
wards when yoo see a snake in 
front of yoo, v. i. ko tldlmnka> 

Bad, to be, v. i. ku Wa. To make 
bad, v.t. ku biaha. 
Of a good man who loses bts 
charaftfT through KAie bad deed, 
v.u ku aampoka* Same word 
med of gron&d that loses itnUity 
through nnch pbrntiDg. 
To aaae to be hsA, or loae cbafac 
ter, V, t. ku aampuxha. 
Adj. '^aiaibe ; t.g. a lad sua, mn^ 
ntu mnbiaba. 

Badly, a^. kafafate; the aoca 



babi is also used, e,g, ka lele 
bubi, he slept badly. 

Badness, n, 4. bubiabe, bubi. 

Bag, n. 8. inkomo ; small bag fot 
money, purse, n, 8. impatana; 
made of bark, n, 8. inteba. 

Bait, n, 4. bupo. 

Bake, to, v, /. ku zooha. 

Balance^ to, a spear in taking 
aim, V. t. ku snknma. 

Bald, a baldheaded person, n, 
I a. shilubala. One altogether 
bald is called, n, la. utubia- 
mutwi ; he is bald, udi kwete 

Baldness, n. 9. lubala. This 
refers especially to baldness on 
the crown. 

Bale, to, v. /. ku kupa. 

Ball, n. 8. impila. Balls of earth 
wrapped in grass and tied to the 
fishing-mats (Iwando) to prerent 
their rising, n, 3.//. manda. 

Ballad, little song, n. 6. ka 

Bamboo, n, 2. xnusununu. 

Band, belt, ». 9. lutambo. For 
tying around the waist, when 
hungry, or after giving birth, n. 2. 

Bandage, to, v. /. ku zambaila. 

Bangle, n, 8. inshipi. 

Banish, to, v, /. ku tanda. 

Bank, of a river, n, 2. muma; 
steep bank, n, 8. inkomwe. To 
bank up a small stream, v, /. ku 

Banner, flag, n, 8. imbftkini. 

Baobab-tree, n. 3. ibuau; pods 
of, n. 3. //. mabuzu. 

Baptism, n. 9. lubapatizo. 

Baptize, to, v.t. ku bapatisa. To 
baptize with, cause or help bap- 
tize, ku bapatizha. 

Baptizer, n. I. mubapatizhi. 

Bare, a bare place, n. 7. ohibuwe ; 
to bare the head, ku kusha 
inkuane ku mutwi ; to be bare, 
clean of dirt, v, i, ku sweya. 

Bargain, a good bargain, good 
fortune in selling or buying, n, 3. 

Bark, to, v. i. ku kua. 

Bark, outside bark of trees, n, 3. 
pi. mapapo ; inside bark used 
for string, n, 9. lozhl. To strip 
off bark, v.t, ku umpula. To 
strip oif lozbi from the mapapo, 
V. L ku fundula. 

Barrel, of a gun, n. 2, muludi ; a 
cask, n. 3. ipopa. 

Barren, a barren country, desert, 
ft. 5. kuxnanizha ; a barren 
woman, n, i. musundl; a barren 
cow, n. 8. insundi ; a barren or 
impotent man or bull, n. 1. 
mombo. A barren cock, xno- 

Barrenness, of woman, if. 4. 
buBundi ; or impotence of a man, 
n, 4* bombo. 

Barter, to, to exchange, v,l. ku 

Basin, n. 2. mutiba; a small, n. 6. 

Basket, n. 8. intumba; n. 8. in- 
tundu ; a shallow basket used as 
a plate, n. 8. impudilo ; winnow- 
ing basket, n. 9. lukwi; an old 
lukwi, n. 7. ohikwi; an old in- 
tundu, n. 7. ohitundu ; an open- 
work-basket used for carrying 
potatoes, fish, &c., n, 7. ohizungo. 
A small basket used as a funnel 
on calabash, n. 4. buaaka. 
Basket - work fishtraps, u. 3. 
izhizbi, ivhumbo ; u. 9. lu- 
shiko. To weave baskets, v.L 

Bastard, n. 1. xnwana omahujia. 

Bat, n. i a. ahikampafwa; wooden 
bat used in a game, n. a. xnu- 
bango ; old ditto, n. 7. ohibango. 

Bathe, to, v.^. ku supa, ku 
kanda, v. i. ku samba. 

Bathing-place, n. 7. ohisambilo. 

Bayonet, of police, n. 3. icheba. 

Be, to, v,t. ku ba, ku di. See 
chaps, via and ix. 

Beads, n. a. bulungu; a great 
many beads, n. 4. //. malaiisu ; 
a single bead, n, 8. inungu; 
a small bead, n, 6. kalungu; 
small quantity of, n, 6. //. 
tulungu ; a string of beads 
around loina^ n. 8. iiuapo ; neck- 



laoe 6f beads, n, 8. inkonde, n. 
6. pi, tunyoni, n, 7. ohinkonta, 
It. 3. mwnahambwa. 

Different kinds of heads. 

Pink, lai^ge, kalnkolww kaahia. 
Red, namnndilo. 
Large white, lukolwe. 
Small white, iaapo. 
Smaller white, kabwlbwi. 
White and black, kankanga. 
Di£ferent kinds of coloured : kama- 

nmohipwiohipwi, kanuimena, 


Beak, of bird, n. a. molomo. 

Beam, a cross-beam, n, 3. mutanti; 
beam or xay of snn, if. 3. mun- 

Bean, n, 8. imbwila, intalaba- 
nda; pod of, if. 5. ipapa; a 
bean is called, mushimbila-ba- 
mwika, because of its filling, 
constipating qualities. 

Bear, to, to carry, v, /. ku aam- 
pola, ka aemuna. To bear or 
carry 00 head without holding, as 
women do water, v. /. ku tenge- 
neaha. To bear fruit, v,L ku 
eahft; e»g, the tree bears fruit, 
iaamo didi eshile michelo. To 
bear, give birth to, v. t. ku zhala ; 
€,g, the woman bears children 
for her husband, mukaintu wa 
ahadlla mulumi akwe bana. 

Beard, if. 3. mulsTu. 

Bearer, carrier,- if. i. muaempu- 
ahl, muiemuni ; hammock- 
bearer. If. I. mufeembeshi. 

Bearing, child-, adj, -Bhaahi. 

Beast, if. i. munyama. 

Beat, to, a drum, ku uma ingoma ; 
with a hammer, v, /. ku kanka- 
mina. To b. out a piece of 
metal thin, v. t. ku pampamika. 
To b. out in order to sharpen, 
v.U ku aamuna. To hit, v.L 
kn uma. To hit severely, v./. 
ku umiaha. To b. with fist, ku 
uma imftinahi. To b. with open 
hand, ku uma lukombaahi. 
To b. in a mortar, v, /. ku twa. 
To b. as the heart, 9. /. ku tun 
tauka.. To b. violently, as after 

running, v. i. ku bidintika. To 
b., overcome, v, t, ku Bunda. 
Beautiful, adj\ -botu, -ebeshi; 

to be beautiful, v, i. ku ebeka. 
Beautify, to, v.t, ku ebeaha. 
Because, conj, ukuti, kambo ka, 
kaini. For ess. see chap, jt, 
sect, 3. 
Beckon, to, v, /. ku labiaha. 
Become, to, v,i, ku ba. See 

chap, via. 
Bed, Bedstead, if. 4. bulo; to 
prepare a bed,/iir. ku aala bulo. 
Bedroom, place for sleeping. 

If. 7. choneno. 
Bee, If. 8. inauki, if. i a. kan- 
aama, //. bakanaama ; bees' 
nest in tree, if. 7. ohibangu. 
Beer, strong, «. la. Funku, 
Namansi ; n. 4. bukoko, if. 3. 
mukuku (Lumbu); small quan- 
tity of mukuku, if. 6. //. tukukiu 
Mild beer, if. 3. ibwanfcu. Strong 
beer made from honey, if. 8. Im- 
bote. A quantity of ibwantu. 
If. 3.//. mabwantu ; small quan- 
tity, n, 6. pi, tubwantu. 
Note. — Beer is made from maize, 
kaffir com or mansi. The grain is 
first soaked in water for two days, 
then taken out (ku nuna), and 
shelled (ku polola); it is then moist- 
ened with water (ku aanaa) and 
beaten up (ku twa); it is then 
cooked (ku ika), and left for a time 
(ku oaha). The yeast (bumena) 
is then made and mixed with the 
prepared grain Daass, and left for 
three days or so. Some more grain 
is then prepared, and mixed with 
bumena ; then it is all put together, 
and after a time is ready to dnnk. 
Beeswax, if. 4. bunvuka. 
Beetle, if. i. mupuka. 
Varieties : borer, n. i a, ahika- 
busumpwe ; scavenger, n, la, 
ohitolamatuai, kafomba-fti- 
mba, kanondanonda, ahafu- 
mbula ; another kind which is 
often tied by people in their hair 
to catch lice, ingombemuka. A 
kind of flying beetle, if. 8. in- 
yenae. A kind that miJces a 



loud singing noise in rainy season, 
n. 6. kankontyonkontyo. 

Before, prep, kumbele ku; e.g, 
I send him before you, nda xnu 
turns kumbele kwako, adv, 
ambele, kumbele ; e,g. go ye 
before, ka mu ya kumbele. The 
* not yet ' tense of the verb is used 
to express before \ e,g, before I 
was bom, lit. when I was not yet 
bom, ni nta na ku zhalwa. 

Beg, to, v,t. ku lomba, ku ku- 
mbila, ku pumpa. 

Beget, to, v, t, ku zhala. 

Beggar, a person who is alwa3rs ask- 
ing for things, n, i. mukumbizhi. 

Begin, to, to commence, v. U ku 
kanka ; to be first, v, i, ku tang4, 
ku tanguna. 

Beginning, n, 5. kukanka; e,g, 
in the beginning, ku kukanka. 

Behalf, the £ng. phr. on bekalf of 
is expressed by the relative suffix 
of the verb. e,g. to speak on 
behalf of, ku ambidila. 

Behold, to, v, t. ku langa. 

Belch, to, v. i, ku tikula. 

Belief, n, 4. buvum.ino; an article 
of, n, 7. chivumino. 

Believe, to, v, t. ku vumina. 

Believer, n, i. muvumini. 

Bell, m. 2. mulangu ; dim, n, 6. 
kalangu. A European bell is 
called, n, 8. inshipi. A kind of 
double bell, which is struck with 
a stick, and used to call people 
together, n, 8. ingonji. 

Bellow, to, v. i. ku dila ; of a 
person, or beast, giving a cry or 
bellow when mortally wounded, 
V, i. ku boba ; of a cow calling 
for its calf, v, i. ku bingila. 

Bellows, n, 3. //. mavhuba ; to 
blow bellows, v, t. ku hukuta. 

Belly, n. 3. See Abdomen. 

Below, prep, kunshi ku ; e.g. 
below the stool, kunshi ku 
ohuna ; adv, kunshi, anshi. 

Belt, n. 9. lutambo, n, a. 

Bend, to, v, t, ku oba, ku lema ; 
to bend a bow or other thing 
straight, v,L ku olola; to be 

bent, warped, v,i. ku konko- 
mana; to bend, or warp, v,t, 
ku konkomeka ; to be bent, 
crooked, v, i, ku sendama ; to 
bend under a weight, v. i, ku 
eta. Fig, the person goes with 
bended head, muntu we eta. 
Of a thing bent and slightly 
broken at the bend, v. i, ku funu- 
kila. To bend a thing so that it 
breaks slightly, v,t, ku funu- 

Bendable, pliable, v, i, ku obeka. 

Beneath, o^v.and/r^. .S>« Below. 

Bent. See Bend. 

Berry. See Fruit. 

Beside, prep, kumbadi ku; adv. 
ambadi, kumbadi. 

Between, prep, akati ka; e,g, 
plant it between the stones, ohi 
shimpe akati ka mabwe ; adv. 

Beverage, n, 7. pL shakunwa. 

Beware, to, v,t. ku dilangila, 
ku langidila. 

Bewitch, to, v,t. ku loa; e,g. 
wa Iwewa, he is bewitched. 

Beyond, to pass beyond, v.t. ku 
bala ; to be distant, v, i, ku 

Bible, n, \a,for Bibele. 

Bicycle, n, \a, namutendele,//. 
banamutendele. The name has 
been adopted by the Baila from 
that of a plaything of theirs. 

Bifurcation, of road, n, 3. //. 
mampanda a nshila. 

Big, adv, -kando ; e.g, a big thing, 
chintu chikando. A very big 
thing, n,\a, nyabo, n, \a, bunsu- 
lulu ; e,g, this person is very big^ 
muntu wezu ngubung^ulu, or 
nyabo. To be big, v,i, ku 
komena. To make big, v, i. ku 

Bile, n. 8. indulwe ; to be bilious, 
ku fwe ndulwe. 

Bin, for grain, made of grass, ». 3. 
isumpila; of wattle and daub, 
n, 4. butala ; of clay and grass, 
n, 7. chumbwa. Hole in, for 
taking out grain, n, 8. inkwanto. 

Bind, to, as a broken stick, v,L 



kxL BumhlU; to !»id wattles in 
bfoildiiigSy 9./. ka baoji]*. To 
bmd over again, L e. repair bind- 
ing of wattles, v./. Ini IwDjidilA. 
Bird, «. i. mnsane ; a large, n. 5. 
iaime; a small, «. 6. kaiun*. 
Small birds wfaidi eat the grain, 
If. 4. Imsane. To ensnare birds, 
v.t ka tea. Nest of, n. 7. 

List of Birds. 
A kind of snake-eating bird, mom- 

BnsUrdy sihiehibwabs, //. b*-; 

ahloliainpami», pL ba-. 
Crested crane, namawmne,//! ba-. 
Different hawks, bozzaids, miahika, 

Umbe (or, bimbila), lubanae, 

hmca, ahiQiidio, lukomba, 

ahikakonse, Innga. 
Domestic fowl, s. and/, inknko. 
Domestic hen, s, and p. inaeke. 

Cock, miikoinbwe. 
' Go-away-lnid,' ahimowa, pL b*-. 
' Gninea fowl, s. and/, inkanga. 
Honey-biTd, aolwa, pL basolwe. 
Kanbont storic, mankonBe, pi, 

bamuxikoiiae ; shikabUa, pi. 

Owl, ahiaWaMnf, pi. bMhiahi- 

Pelican, siUAindwe, //. ba-. 
Pbeaiant, kwale, pL bakwale, 

QaaH, kftnehele, pL bakanohele ; 

ehlngaohalala, pL baohinga- 

Ssnd-groiise, ahljlngongo, pi. ba-. 

Secretary bird, nakansakwe, pL 
ba*; nnikobelaiiBoka. 

Spar-winged goose, naohiaekwe, 

Stofk, nakakodio,//. ba-. 

Valtnre, aliikiibe,/il ba*. 

White-necked crow, ohikwangala, 
pL lTafth1kw#"g ft1<^ -. 

Wild dock, ineluMw; bwididi,//. 
ba*; ahlohinkotwe (the 'knob- 
nosed goose*). 

WoodpedECTy riilmnkonkomona, 

The following are found by the 
riverside, mostly fish-eaters : — 
Changwe, ahiluntaba (nalu- 
ange, ahilnnyange), milondwe, 
ohibongelele, ahikwaae, ahiko- 
ndwindo, mose, itongola, dia- 

Birth, n. ga, luahalo, n. 5. ku- 
ahalwa, n. 5. kushala. 

Birth, to give, v, t. ku zhala ; for 
firit time, v, t. ku iya. 

Birth-pangs, «. 3.//. miiTi^vi^ 

Bite, to, v, t. ka lama ; one who 
is bitten, n. i. malome ; one 
who bites, n, i. malami ; as a 
snake, v./. ka konka; to bite 
off a piece of bread, v.U ka 

Bitter, to be, 9. tl ka lala. 

Black, to be, v.i, ka shia; to 
be very black, ka ahisha; ka 
shia ohiniohini; a very black 
person, if. i. maahietongo. 

Blacken, to, v.l ka babila; to 
make black or dirty, v.t, ka 

Blacksmith, n. i. mafbshi ; way, 
manner, custom of, n, 7. ftTi4fti«iii ; 
to work as, tr. /. ka fhla. 

Bladder, urinary, n, 3. iaabilo; 
gall-bladder, iaabilo dia ndalwe. 

Blade, of spear, n, 4. babamba ; 
of knife, ». 4. bacheai ; fiist 
small blade of cereal, n. 4. ba- 

BLAME,TO,/iir.ka bika kambo ka. 

Blanket, If. 8. ingabo ; a coloured 
cotton. If. 3. iiMu; a woollen. 
If. 8. indamba ; a large heavy 
woollen. If. 8. indamba in- 
kando ; a large white heavy. 
If. I tf. manale,//. bamanale ; a 
smaller white, with led stripe. 
If . I a. manalft mashonto ; a 
white cotton, if. la. makwati, 
pi, bamakwati ; a fringed blan- 
ket. If. 1 0. ohadi, pi, baohadi. 

Blaspheme, to, v.t. ka bislia- 
biaha; kaiokaliesa. 

Blaze, to, v, i. ka aaka ; to blaze 
much, V. f . ka ■^vi^h^ 



Bleed, to, at nose, v. i . ku nokola ; 
ku vhwa buloa. 

Bless, to, v, t, to make happy, ku 
longezha, ku pa oholwe ; to 
thank, praise, v. t, ku lumba. 

Blessed, a blessed, happy person, 
n. I a. shiohoba. 

Blessedness, n, 7. ohoba. 

Blind, to, to dazzle, v.t ku 
towa; to be blind, v.i, ku of- 

Blind person, n. i. mofii, //. 
bofu ; wife or husband of, n. i. 

Blindly, adv, ohabdfu. 

Blindness, n, 4. bofu. 

Blister, n. 3. ituza. 

Blood, n. 4. buloa ; clot of, n, 3. 

Blot out, erase, v. t. ku Bhimin- 
ganya; to be blotted out, v.i, 
ku zhimingana. 

Blow, to, v, u ku unga ; e. g. the 
wind blows, u la unga Iieaa. 
To b. hard, v, i, ku pupula. To 
be blown about, v. 1. ku pepu- 
luka; e.g. the papers are blown 
about by the wind, xnapapelo a 
pepuluka o znowo. To be 
blown off, V. i. ku ululuka ; e.g, 
the roof is blown off by the whirl- 
wind, ing*aiida ya ululuka 
kaxnbizhi. To b. a trumpet, 
phr. ku shiba impeta. To b. 
with the mouthy v. /. ku folafula. 
To b. the fire, v.t. ku fudila 
mudilo. To b. the nose, v.t, 
ku pemba. To b. the bellows, 
phr. ku hukuta mavhuba. 

Blue, called black, n, 5. kuBhia. 

Blunt, adj. -fumpiu ; e.g. a blunt 
knife, intipa imfumpiu. 

Blunt, to be, v. i. ku fumpa ; to 
make blunt, v, t. ku fumpya. 

Boast, to, v.i. ku fumba, ku 
diteznbaula. Of a man dancing 
about and boasting of his deeds 
after a fight or hunt, v.t, ku 

Boat, canoe, n. 4. bwato; Euro- 
pean boat, n. 3. for. ibote, //. 

Body, n. 9, 9 a, luseba, pL inseba 

and maseba, n. 2. mubidi; a 
dead body, corpse, ». a. mutunta. 

List of Anatomical Terms. 

Abdomen, below navel, ibumbu; 

above, ifu. 
Ankle, ohipokoto. 
Arm, itashi. 
A sinew, buzbixigo. 
Axilla, inkwa. 
Back, inuxna; lumbar region, bu- 

kome ; base of back, phikato. 
Beard, znulevu. 
Big toe, ohilulome. 
Bladder, isubilo ; gall b., iaubilo 

dia ndulwe. 
Blood-vessel, kashinga. 
Bowel, bula, mala. 
Bram, bongo. 
Breast, lukolo. 
Bridge of nose, mombombo we 

Buttocks, matako. 
Cheek, itama. 
Chest, chamba. 
Chin, ohilerlLU. 
Clitoris, mukongo. 
Diaphragm, luambanyama. 
Ear, kutwi. 
Elbow, lukokola. 
Eye, dinso, //. menso. 
Eyebrow, chikowe. 
Eyelash, inkowe. 
Face, biuhu. 
Finger, munwe. 
Fist, imfunshi. 
Foot, ohifumba. 
Forearm, mukono. 
Forehead, inkumu. 
Glans-penis, museke. 
Gullet, mumino. 
Hair, of head, nuunuo ; a single, in- 

suki ; body, bosa ; on abdomen, 

mulalabongo ; on pubes, masha. 
Hand, itashi ; palm of, lukom- 

baahi; right, ludio; left, ohim- 

Head, mutwi. 
Heart, mozo. 
Hip-joint, kasolo. 
Inside the mouth, kanwa. 
Jawbone, mwezhi. 
Kidney, insa. 



Knee, irbwL 

Knudde, inimso. 

Labia majon, mMhIno. 

Leg, kola, mwando, Mads. 

Liver, mnni. 

Long, ifatwB, 

Mouth, lip, mtilomo. 

Nail, IwaU. 

Neck, JnaMngo ; front of, mtuli- 
in^ ; back of, miikoahi. 

Nose, inanffo,//. mananso, nostrils. 

Penis, intoni. 

Prepnce, ipapa. 

Rib, luTwabuti, 

Shin, mwindi. 

Shoulder, obiftuiBhi. 

Shoulder-blade, iknko; space be- 
tween, indole, InwMU. 

Spine, monffo. 

Spleen, ibanibi, mubenibi. 

Stomach, ifti. 

Teat, ksntinkela 

Tendo Achillis, muflhita. 

Testicle, ibdo. 

Thigh, ohibelo. 

Thoracic cavity, kaagp. 

Thumb, ohiknmo. 

Toe, kaltOoma. 

Tooth, dinOfP/. mana 

Tongue, mnlaka. 

Tonsil, iLMpapo, kakolo. 

Trachea, iknlnmixio. 

Umbilical coid, ludila^ 

UmbiUca% Ivkambou 

Vagina, intolo. 

Votebsa promiaeafy inkatl. 

Waist, ehibmni. 

Womb^ iahadila 

BoG^ BoGCT Place, «. 4. botoprio, 
■scd as si^\ ; e g. this road is 

BML,TO,9.i:k«rlks'lEB ika,; a» 
itt,«.«.lniaaatps; i;./.inb<Ia; 

Boil, au 7. ckfleadi 

Bold, bcxae. m^, 
woii wmtd aa fee ao^rf. 

Bolt, To^a./, ks ta^a. 

Bolt, JaaBrning ix -iatir^ «. x 

M. 4^ 

BoKE, M. 7. ohiAia ; UritSi m« jt* 
iAia; small, a, 6. kalUa; lanra 
kg*bone of animal, a. 8, ittdt« 
a, a. mwindi. Breast -iKme of 
bird, a. 3. ipanco. Divining* 
bones, a. 3. /A makakata. 

BoNPiRK, a. 3. ibila. 

Book, a. 8.y^r. imbuka ; a. 3.ySrr. 

Boot, sandal, a. 8. iadiaaho, ika- 
tulo, impato. 

BoRDKR, boundary, a. H. inyiniai 
fringe of blanket, &o., a. 4. 

Bore, to, v, /. ku tulula. To Im; 
bored, pierced, v./. ku tuluka. 
Of the borer insect, v, /• ku 

Boring-tool, n. 7. ohituluiho. 

Born, to bk, v,pais, ku ihalwa. 

Borrow, to, /^r. ku putnpila 

Both, expressed In different wavs. 
We will Ijoth go,iu U jra toblH. 
Yon will go both of yoti, mu la 
7a noblli. I will Ixitb 1/aat ami 
fine yon, nda ku uauk, odimwl 
nda ku landa. 

Bc/Tff KR, TO, V. t. ku kalaaha* 

Bc/iTLk, n, %,f0r, Inbotolo \ n, %, 
for, ibololo* 

B</TToM, of aaylbinKf, n. %, ltak«« 

lkjt:finf », t, aniiatrl, 

hf}vnuAkr, n, K injrimMk 

Jk^;mtnyt, to n%f v, t. ka f^Mfka 
lr^ifi:^i\fn:iA/tt ado. steko^MM. 

l5<fT«r, t% tr, /, kfl k44aa»a, t'f 
t>yw 'tW* V,^ V* L ka k/4aa»^/ira. 

trai^ji»a^ %,//, aiala^ f'4k/ji^ v/va^, 

a, ^ila^ 
h^rm;., n, t^ «^>tMba^ 
l^/sr , a. ^ ifkwail. ^fmM- V«qr, a. ^. 

^i^r, i r 4m ' 0'» ah i, nHvi Tr ^aw H a u K M . 
A.- i*vv»r M*i^«yw -vf J(v>f««Ma^ jm» 
MmbnrciiM. Aa ^^M^r IM^ 



mweznbezlii. A young man is 
called kakubushi. 
Elangashikembeshi is a some- 
what scornful name to give a boy, 
something like * Kid *, A boy 
(or girl) who has not passed 
through the initiation ceremonies, 
If. J a. chivhuntula. An ignorant 
youngster, chinkunka. A young- 
ster of either sex is called Mwan- 

Boyhood, youth, n, 4. bwaniche. 

Boyish, n. 7. chaniche. 

Bracelet, of ivory, n. 8. inkaya, 
inyanga. A child's grass b., 
n. 6. kankungwa ; if. 7. chin- 
ktmgwa. Armlet, n, 8. inchoko. 
Grass bracelet, n, 8. intasa, im- 

Brackish, to be, v. i, ku lundu- 

Brackish, adj, -lundumuahi. 

Brains, if. 4. bdngo (no pi.). 

Bran, if. 8. impolo. Of maize, 
If. 3. pL mapepa. 

Branch, of a tree, if. a. mutabL 

Branch, to, of a road, v, i. ku 
andana, ku pam,bana. 

Brass, if. 8. inshipL 

Bread, if. 8. inshima. Loaf of. 
If. 2. mukamu. Bread of new 
soft grain, iTtBhima ya chin- 
tembwe. To break bread, v.L 
ku siinuna. 

Breadth, n, 4. bwamba. 

Break, to, v. t ku konona. To 
b. off, as a piece from lump of 
bread or tobacco, v.t, ku ko« 
mona. To b. up, as a lump of 
tobacco, V, t, ku shamuna. To 
b. in, train, v, t, ku bonzha. To 
b., transgress a law, v» t, ku so- 
toka. To b. out, of an eruption 
on the body, v. u ku fukuluka. 
To b., as darkness, v. i. ku ko- 
soka. To b. in two, v. t, ku 
andanya, ku andula. To b. 
wind, V. i. ku inshikila. To b. 
wind downwards, ku chita znus- 

Breakfast, to, to eat in early 
morning, v. i, ku disuka, ku 
lapula mate. 

Breast, of man or woman, if. 9. 

lukolo. Chest, if. 7. ohamba. 

Of animal, the part sent to the 

chief, If. la. shiViakaba, katiti, 

Breath, if. 3. mosa. To be out 

of, V. f . ku fundidila. 
Breathe, to, v. i. ku zoza. To 

b. stertorously, v. u ku foma. 

To take a deep breath, v, i, ku 

dishishimukila. To b. hard, 

moan, as in sickness, v,i, ku 

tongela. To b. quickly, pant (of 

an animal), v, u ku fwekema, 

ku Bekezna. 
Breeze, a light b., if. 9. luwo. 
Brew, to, v, /. ku kumba. To b. 

for, V. t. ku kumbila. 
Brick, if. "j.for, chitini. 
Bride, n. la, nabwinga ; //. ban- 

Bridegroom, if. la, naohibinde. 
Bridge, if. 4. bulalo. A large b.. 

If. 3. ilalo ; old, broken, if. 7. 

Bridle, if. S./ar, intomo. 
Bright, to be, of metals, v. i, ku 

Brighten, to, to shine up, v, /. ku 

Brimfull, to be, v. f. ku ftmdi- 

Bring, to, v.t. ku leta. To b. 

back, V. /. ku zhola, ku bwezha. 

To b. off chickens (of a hen), v. t. 

ku tentumuna, ku konkwela. 

To b. forward the hands, &c., 

ready to receive, v, t, ku tea. To 

b. up, rear, v. /. ku kuzha. 
Brittle, to be, v. i. ku komo- 

Broad, adj, -kwazeme, -saleme. 
Broad, to be, v. i, ku kwazams. 
Broaden, to, v. /. ku kwazamika. 
Broken, to be, v. i, ku konoka, 

ku komoka, ku ohokauka. 

Phr. the basin is broken, mutiba 

udi kwete ibende. 
Brook, if. 6. kalonga. 
Broom, brush, if. 3. ipezho. Old, 

useless, if. 7. chipezho. 
Brother, if. i. muchizhi. 
This word is used for brother and 





sister; if the sister speaks it meins 
brother; in the month of a brother 
it means sister. Elderbn>ther,if. i. 
mnkftndo. His younger brother, 
mnnina. My yonnger brother, 

Brotherhood, n, 4. bnnina. 

Brother-in-law, n. i. mulamu, 
//. balamu or bamulamo. 

Brotherly, adv. ohabunizia. 

Brown, light b. colonr, n, 3. ifa- 
mbalnshi. Dark b. colonr, n. 3. 

Brush, h. 8. impeiho. Large, n, 3. 
ipeaho. Small, n.6, kapeaho. 
Old, useless, if. 7. chipezho. 

Brush, to, to sweep, v, t. ka pdla. 

Bubbles, n. 3. //. mambwambwa- 
diahi ; if. 4. bwintL 

Bucket, n, Z'for, ibukiti. 

Bud, to, v. t. ku sonsa. 

Buffalo, h. i. i a. munyati ; //. 
banyati, bamimyati. 
Said of the buffalo: uwaobik- 
wapi ; uwambesa ; bnndabu- 
nda ; mwensu o mangvliale. 

Bug, If. 8. injina. 

Bugle, n. 8. impeta. 

Build, to, v. t. ka aaka. 

Bunj>ER, If. I. mosaahL 

Bulb, of water-lily, n, 8. imbe. 

Bull, n. i. mnohiende. 

Bullet, n. 8. insolo. 

Bullock, m, i. mnaona. 

Bunch, oif wild grapes, n. 3. iaaaaa. 

Bundle : Of spears, n. 8. inkama. 
Of grass, IV. 8. Inkama ; larger, 
n. a. nmlau Of fish, n. 3. ikoka. 
Of firewood. If. 7. chila. Of dried 
meat, baik, or fidi, n. 7. ehlkate. 

Burden, to, v. t. ka lemima To 
be budcocd, Im lameitwa. 

BuRi^ TO. v.L ka tenia ; v. i, ka 
pia» To bom a dide of grass 
aiDOBd a village so that gxaaiHfiics 
■ayaotieaAtliehoiistSyV./* ka 
bafaOaw To be bunt, of kxA^ 
«. u ka. lonciala. To be bBper- 
fecdy bant, at vet gaas, 9. r. ka 
tyankila; £,g. tbe ooastrr b 
bant m ymUhts cbIt, dia taitO' 

Burrow, n, 4. bwina. 
Burrow, to, o. L ku ftunba. 
Bury, to, o. a ku abika. 
Bush, n, 7. chihuna. A small b,, 

If. 7. ohiaoko. 
Varieties of bnshes: kamwaya, 

ahikameba, mundambe, mu- 

Bush-pig, If. I0.ngulaba,kuntula. 
But, prep, except, only, pele. 
conj,^ inJL 

Butcher, n, i. muAindi. 
Butt-end, of spear, if. 8. inshinka ; 

of gnn, If. 3. itako. 
Butter, if. 3. pL maumba. To 

churn butter, ku suka maumba. 
Butterfly, if. 8. Inkongolokwa, 

Buttermilk, if. 3. pi, masuke. 
Buttocks, n, 3. pL matako. 
Button, if. 8. imbuta. 
Button, to, v, /. ku ngomena. 
Buy, to, v, t, ku ula. 
Buzz, to, as bees, v. u ku ngoka. 
By, prep, near by, afwafwi a. Ex- 
pressing agent, ku, kwa. 
Byeway, If. 6. kasbilambadL 

Cage, for fowls, n. 7.ohtnkalaaga> 
Calabash, the vegetable, if. 3. 
ipuahi ; a kiml of, not eaten, n, % 
ilunda ; a small, if. 9. laiika«lil. 
For carrying water, n. %, inteaho ; 
a large, if. 8, inkodi ; a small, 
II, 3. mnnkodi ; old, useless, n, 7* 
ehlnkndi, Va^yct^n.iyXvlkomM,, 
Old, If. 7. ohikoma. For hold- 
ing milk, n. 8. inaawa. Mostc^l 
instmment made birgely with 
calabashes, n, 4, bndifliba. A 
pipe made M a small calabash. 
If* 9« imbokoflia. 
Calf, «.f« momba; //.bomb*; 
a wcaaed, if« H, iMoitut^fatOii ; a 
newly tMn, if. i. nraboio^ Calf 
of tbe kg. If. 9. inaa/a ; hoU fJ, 

M» 1. BIWilMlL 

Cali cci, n. > iaaai i tuba* 

Cali^ to, v. t. kwlla ^ka Ita^, k« 

ompdLfAM. Tv ^i '>vS m tuoam 

w&ea frtr^zeri, vA, ks bfl> ba . T// 

ca^y sf^sau alM«i> ^./. k« 9««6^ 



moka. To call, give a name to, 
V. t, ku banda. 

Calm, n, 9. ludinso. 

Calumniate, to, v. /. ku bteha, 
ku lengelela umwi kambo. 

Calve, to, v, t. ku shala. 

Camelthorn tree, n. 3. ihunga. 

Camp, n, for, 8. inkambe. The 
word is applied to a Government 
camp or station. 

Can. This is expressed by the verb, 
ku konzha, to overcome; e,g. I 
can do this, Nda koazha <^echi. 

Candle, n, %,fir, inkandele. 

Candlestick, n. 7. ohikadikila 

Cannibal, n. 3. idyabantu. 

Canoe, n, 4. bwato. 

Cap, n. 6. kakuane. Gun-cap, n, 8. 

Capital, a chiefs village, n. ^ 

Capsize, to, v.i, ku 15ba; v.t, 
ku Idbya. 

Captain, n, la, for, kapoteni ; 
//. bakapotenl 

Captive, to take, v. /. kuftimpa. 

Captive, a slave, n, i. musbike. 

Carcase, n, 2. mutunta. 

Care, anxious trouble, n. 3. ipensbi. 

Careless, to be, v.i, ku fwa- 

Carelessly, adv, ohakufwiuislia- 

Carelessness, n. 5. kufvraxiEha- 

Caress, to, v, t. ku kumbata. 

Caretaker, one who looks after a 
house, &c. during owner's absence, 
n, I a. kadlndisbi, pi. batudi- 

Carpenter, n, i. mubesbi. 

Carrier,!^, i. musempusbi; «. i a, 
sbimakwati; shimusempula. 

Carry, to. .S>^ To bear. To a 
anything away, v. /. ku susa. To 
c. a load between two people, as 
a hammock, v. t, ku tembeka. 
To c one thing upon another, v. i, 
ku kambika, ku zbidika. To 
c. on the head without holding, 
as women carry water, v./. ku 
tengoneBha. To c. under the 
arm, v. /. ku pal^kta. To c. on 

the back, v, t, ku bala. To put 
a child on another's back, v, t, ku 

Cart, n, %,for, inkaliki. 

Cartilage, n, 7. obilekete. The 
c. at the base of the sternum, n, 6. 

Cartridge, n, 2. mushosbo, xnu- 

Carve, to, v. /. ku besa. To c. 
for, V. t, ku bezela. To c again, 
recarve, as when a walking-stick 
is too thick at first, v, t. ku besu- 
lula. To c carefully, well, v, /. 
ku beBesba. To c. with, cause 
or help to c, v, /. ku bezha. To 
c. or turn ivory, v. t. ku obeka. 
To Ci with, cause, or help to c, 
V. /. ku obesba. To c. for, v, t, 
ku cbekela. To c. well, care- 
fully, V. /. ku ohdkesba. To c, 
engrave, v.t, ku lemba, ku 

Carving, engraving, as of table-leg. 
If. 3. //. xnayanBa ; in wood, it. 4. 

Cask, n. 3. ipopa. 

Cassava, n, 3. ikamba. A variety 
of. If . I a. shakanjungo. Leaf of, 
n. 1 a, ahombo, obisbu cba ma- 

Cast, to, to throw, v. /. ku wala. 
To cast about, scatter, v,t. ku 
mwaika. Of trees casting leaves, 
v,i, ku tikumuka. To cast, 
throw away, v, /. ku sowa. To 
cast nets into water, v./. ku 
Bdla. To be cast down, v* i, ku 

Castor-oil plant, n, 3. ibono- 

Oil is made from the beans. The 
pods are first shelled (ku Bujm), 
and the beans spread out to d^ 
(ku sanika). When dry they are 
beaten up in a mortar (ku twa), 
and boiled (ku zenga). As the 
refuse rises to the top it is skinuned 
off (ku ibula). The oil is used 
to anoint the body. 

Castrate, to, v. i, ku tatula. 

Cat, n. i a, for, kaze ; pi, bakaae. 
Wild cat, K. 8. InwuBhi. 



Cataract, water&ll, u. 7. ohign- 
mo. In tbe eye, «. 3. itab«. 

Catch, to, v, t. Ini kwata ; v. t 
ku ksp*. To c. foot in sttiinp, 
stumble, v, t. ku diftunpala. To 
c, of a sickness, 9. t. ku samba- 
kishs; e.g, I caught small-pox 
from another person, "S^ ka 
aambnklBhaohlmbeinba ku mu- 
nta omwl. To cfidi with a hook, 
V. /. ku loba; with a net, v,i, 
ku Bela. To c. fish, v.t, ku 

Catechism, n. 8. />r. inkatektsi- 

Cattle, head of, n* 8. ing'ombe. 
A herd of, ii. 4. bntanca. Cattle 
ontpost, M. 9«. lotaaga. A horn- 
less beast, n. 8. ingThnina, inko- 
tolo. A beast with one horn np 
tnd the other down, n, 8. imbaba. 

Names given U cattle according te 

Black-and-white, Mack spots, bu- 

bala, mabala. 
Bladc-and-white, maaekwa. 
BladE head and hnmp, white body, 

Blade head, white and black body, 

Claiet, insmnn. 
Light red, incrkamba. 
R^-and-white, nralala. 
Red-aiid>whtte qiedded, dUfti-cha- 

Red with idiite stripe roond body, 

White, with black back, mnlala- 

White, with red spots, inaau. 
Caolx, to, a caaoe, v.t, ku 

Cavk, n. J. mofmbe. 

Cease, to, to leave off, v./l ka 

laka^ To finish, 9. /. ka mana. 
CiUBACT, n. ^ katanda. 
Celibate, jk. i «. aidkataiida. 
C EHnp g JE , j». 3. flmnahamiawe. 
Cesttee, at the centre, ado, akatL 

hi Ike centre, iimkati. 
Ceetaist, a certua pcnoo, aumta 

Chafe, to, v. t. kukumbola ; v. t. 
ku kumbuka. 

Chaff, when grain is beaten out, 
If. 4< bungUi 

Chain, n, S./or. inketanl 

Chair, n. 7. chuna. 

Chalk, n. *i.for, ohoko. 

Chameleon, ». io. nanundwe, 

Change, to, v. /. ka aandula ; 
9. f. ku sanduka. To change 
one*s conduct, v, u ku sanduka 
kukuohita. To change or barter, 
9. /. ku ahinta, ku abintaaa. 
To change the mind, v. 1. ku 

Change, a c. in one*s character. 
If. 7. chibuko ; n, 6. habuko. 

Changeable, fickle, v, i, ku aa- 
ndauka; adi, -aandausAii 

Chap, a crack in the flesh, n, 3. 
//. mang^a ; n, 4. bwanda. 

Chapter, n, 7. ohandano. 

Character, n. 6. katombo. 

Charcoal, n. 3.//. maabimbL 

Charge, to, to accuse, v.t, ku 
bika kanibo ku. To command, 
enjoin, v, /. ku lasha. To c. or 
load a gun, v, t, ku abonm. As 
a lion, or man in anger, 9. i, ku 

Charity, love, n. 5. kuftina. 

Charm, n. 7. ohinda^ The word 
is used of sundry things wliich are 
worn to protect the wearer from 
sickness, witchcraft, accident. 
Among others we find : 

lauaentfo, a small ham filled with 
medidDe, hnng roond the neck. 

Mufkiko, a small bag made of 
snake-skin, and wom round the 

Imamba, a small button-like thing 

wom in the hair. 
Chase, to, v.t. ku eliidila, ku 

Chaste. TO 'KE.jpkr. kwina ftomba. 
Cheap, to be, v. i. fer. ka chfpa 

To naake cheap, lower pdoe, v. t» 

ku cfaipiaha. 
Cheat, to, v. t. ka dionca 
Cheek, n. 3. itama. 
Cheer, to, to gladden, v.t. ka 

T 2 




botezha, To encourage, v, t, ku 
kotamuna. To comfort, v,t, 
ku sozha. 

Cheerful : a joyous, cheerful per- 
son, muaumaxnenso, shima- 

Chest, box, n, 3. ikwati. Of the 
body, If. 7. chamba. 

Chew, to, v. t, ku taftina. To c 
hard things, as maize, v,t, ku 
lukuta. To c. noisily, phr. ku 
tafuna znuolianku. 

Chicken, n. i. mwanankuku. 
Newly hatched, n, 6. kansho. 

Chief, n, i. znwami. Petty chief, 
headman, n. la, unkoshi ; //. 

Chiefdom, n, 4. bwami. 

Chieftainship, n. 4. bwami. 

Chignon, the head-dress of the 
Baila, made of hair plastered to- 
gether in a cone. When small, it 
is called, n, 8. impumbe, insuku. 
When made very tall and finished, 
n, 8. impwidi, isusu. Balumbn 
speak of these derisively as In- 
ganda aha injina : lice-houses. 

Child, ^. i.znwana. Specifically, 
one's own child, n, i. xnuzhale. 
A small child, (. e, innocent, n, 7. 
chishinshi. A very small child, 
n. 6. kansho. A still-bom child, 
If. 6. kasowe. To be with child, 
early stages, kudi kwete ka- 
tomba; later, kudi kwete ifu. 
A pregnant woman, n, 1 a. umi- 
shi. To have a child for the first 
time, ku diiya znwana. To be 
delivered of a child, v. u ku tu- 

Childhood, n. 4. bwana. 

Childishly, adv. chanaohana. 

Chili, n. 3. ing*ombs ;//. mang'o- 

Chin, n, 7. chilevhu. 

Chip, if. 7. chipampasha, ohibala- 
bala; if. 3. ibslabala. 

Chip, to, v.t, ku bendula, ku 
benduj^ ; v, i, ku benduka. 

Chisel, if. 8. imbezo. 

Choke, to, v, t. ku shina ; v.p. ku 

Choose, to, v»t. ku tala, ku no- 

mona. To c. for, v. t. ku sadila. 
To c for oneself, v, /. ku disadila. 

Chop, to, down a tree, v, t, ku 
tezna. To c. up meat, v, t. ku 
yasaula. To c. up firewood, v. /. 
ku andaula. 

Christ, n,for, KBISTI. 

Christian, n, i. mukristi. 

Christianity, n, 4. bukristi. 

Christmas, n,for, Chismasi. 

Church, an ecclesiastical building. 
If. ^.for, Inkeleke. The collec- 
tive body of Christians, n, 1 a, for. 

Churn, if. 8. insuws. 

Churn, to, v. /. ku suka. 

Cicatrice, scar remaining after the 
healing of a wound, if. 2. mukdftu 

Cinders, if. 3. itwe. 

Circle, to describe a, v. t. ku fu- 
ndulula ; v. u to go round in a 
circle, ku zhinguluka. 

Circulate, to, to cause to pass 
from one to another, v.t. ku 

Circumcise, to, v. t. ku palula. 

Circumcision, if. 5. kupalula. 

City, large town, if. 3. inzhi. 

Civility, if. 5. kulemeka. 

Civilly, adv. ohakulemeka. 

Clamorously, adv. ohakusaba. 

Clamour, to, v. i. ku saba. 

Clan, if. 7. ohilu ; n. 2. xnukoa. 

Clap, to, v. t. ku kamba. To c. 
for, salute, v. t. ku kambidila. 

Clarify, to, by pouring gently, 
leaving dregs at bottom, v, t. ku 

Class, as in school, n. 8. inkamu. 

Claw, if. 9 a. Iwala. 

Clay, if. 4. bulongo. A quantity 
of. If. 3. ilongo ; larger quantity. 
If. 3.//. malongo. Whitish, used 
for smearing bodies in time of 
mourning, if. 2. znulaznbQ. Pot 
clay. If. 2. znuntanango. Red 
clay, used for smearing the body, 
If. 7. ohiahila. A lump of dry 
day. If. 3. ikoznwe ; a small ditto, 
If. 6. kakomwe. 

Clean, to be, v. /. ku sweya. To 
make clean, v. /. ku swezha. 

Cleanse, to, to wash, v./. ku 



nftTighft. To c. by scraping, v. t. 
ku palapala. To c by iubbing, 
V. /. ku ahnls. To c. hands by 
brushing ofif dirt after working, 
v./. ku dishobaahoba. To. c 
grain by removing dirt, v. t, ku 
pepeta, ku Bimgnlft, To c, 
purify, V. t, ku njolomya. 

Clear, to, to c. away grass by hoe- 
ing, V, /. ku aebula. To c as 
mist, donds, v.i, ku mwaika. 
To c, as the night, to dawn, v, u 
ku cha. To be c., as water, v. i. 
ku njoloma, ku telekela. 

Cleave, to, to cleave to, adhere to, 
v,t. ku kakatila. To part by 
splitting, V. /. ku andula. 

Clench, to, to c the fist, v. /. ku 
fombatila. To c. the teeth, in 
anger, phr, ku luma inkwino. 

Clever, to be, skilful, kudi mano. 
To be c or quick in learning, so as 
to saipass others, ku lung^tila. 

Cleverness, n, 3.//. mano. 

Climb, to, v. /. ku disa. To c. by 
cnrling ronnd, as plants, v, i, ku 

Clitoris Feminae, n, 2. mu- 

Clock, it. *i,for, chikatiL 

Clod, lump of earth, ikomwe. 

Close, to, a door, v. t. ku yala. 
To c the eyes, v, i, ku vhula- 
lata. To c. a pot, or book, v, t. 
kuThunika. To c. a hole, crack, 
v,t. ku shinka. To c. a door 
partly, V. t, ku chdka. To c the 
fist, V, /. ku fombatila. 

Close, adv, afwafwl 

Clot, of blood, n, 3. itumpata, 

Cloth : print, calico, n, 3. iaani ; 
n, 4. buluba. Tweed, &c., n, 7. 
for, ctaitofo. A loin-cloth, n. 2. 
mubinda. A long stretch of, 
». a. mubululu. A shorter 
stretdi of, n. 7. chitango. 

Clothe, to, v.i. ku sama; v.t. 
ku samika. 

Clothes, n. 8. ingubo ; n. 7. //. 
^thaknmuna; ahisomwa. Euro- 
pean clothes, n. 7. //. shikobelo. 
White ditto, n. 7.//. shitukulo. 

Cloud, m. 3. IkumbL 

Clout, to, to beat with the hand, 

pAr. ku uma lukombashi. 
Clout, a cloth for wiping with, 

worn-out rag, n, 7. chisanL 
Club, ft. 8. inkodi. 
Clump, cluster of trees, fruit, n. 7. 

Cluster, of fruit, tt. 7. chivhutula. 
Coagulate, to, to thicken as blood, 

V. t. ku angana, ku ba makang- 

aloa. To curdle as milk, v, i. ku 

dianga, ku angana. 
Coat, n. %,for, imbaiki. 
Cob, of maize, n. 8. inkoshi. 
Cobweb, n. 9. lutangatanga. 

White spider's nest, n. i a, namu- 

Cock, n. mukombwe. Comb of, 

n, 9. Iwala, Iwimbididi. Spur of, 

n. 7. chimbi. 
Coil, to, as wire round spear, v. t. 

ku sambila, ku zambaila. As 

a rope, v. /. ku zhinga. 
Coil, n. 3. ikata ; n. 8. inkata ; 

e.g. the snake coils himself up, 

inzoka ya dizhinga makata. 
Cold, to be, v. i, ku tontola, ku 

fwempeyo (fwa impeyo). To 

tremble with, v. i. ku tutuima. 
Cold, of wind, n. 8. impeyo. 

Catarrh in head, n. 3. ishini. C. 

in chest, n. 3. ikolokolo. 
Collect, to, v. t. ku bunga, ku 

bungika, ku bunganya; v.i. 

ku bungana. Of pus in an 

abscess, v.i. ku tumbila; e.g. 

the pus collects, bwa tumbila 

bushila. See To gather. 
Colour, n, 3. ibala. There are 

only three colours expressed by 

verbs, viz. ku tuba, to be white ; 

ku shia, to be black ; ku aubila, 

to be red. To express other colours 

use is made of the names of various 

things, e.g. 
lahudiangombe, lit. cow*s urine, 

Injanjabizhi, something found in 

stagnant water. A kind of green. 
See under Cattle. 
Slightly coloured, n. 3. ibalabala ; 

e.g. my ox is only slightly coloured. 



insomba yangu idi kwete 

ibalabala budio. 
Colonr, paint, n. 2. mabaso. 
To colour, paint, n, 5. ku basa. 
Comb, to, the hair, v. i. ku sukula. 
Comb, n, 7. chisukulo. Of cock, 

n. 9. Iwala, Iwimbididi. 
Come, to, vJ, kweaa (ku esa), 

ku Eiaa. To c. after, follow, v, t. 

ku obidila. To arrive, v. u ku 

shika. To c. back, v, i, ku 

shoka. To c. down, v.u ku 

seluka. To c. for, v. i, ku zUa. 

To c. in, V, i, ku Bjila. To c. 

out, of a handle, v. i, ku kuka. 

To c. np, of plants, v, /. ku vhwa 

busonga. To c. near, approach, 

V. i, ku sena. 
Comfort, to, v. t. ku sosha. 
Comforter, n, i. muaoahi. 
Command, to, to order, v.t, ku 

laaha. To lead soldiers, v, /. ku 

Command, a law, order, n. 9. lu- 

beta ; n. a. mulazho. 
Commandant, n, i. muaunffudi. 
Commandment, n, 9. lubeta ; n, 2. 

Commence, to, v, i. ku tanguna. 
Commingle, to, v. u ku aangana, 

ku vwelana. 
Commit, to, v, t, ku ohita. 
Communion, n» 5. kuyanana. 
Companion. See Friend. 
Company, small company of people, 

n, 8. inkamu ; n. 8. for, inku- 

Compare, to, to c. one thing with 

another as to likeness, v. L ku 

koahanya. To place alongside 

each other, to c. size, vj, ku ba- 

Compassion, n. 8. intenda. 
Compassionate, to, phr. ku ohi- 

shilwa muntu moBO, ku fwila 

muntu intenda. 
Compassionately, adv. ohan- 

Compel, to, to force, do with 

strength, ku ohita chansana. 
Complain, to, z/. /. ku tenga. 
Complete, to, v, t. ku maaa, ku 


Completely, adv. chakumana. 

Compress, to, to squeeze, v, t, ku 
shina To make small, v,t. ku 

Comrade, ». i. ninlongo. My 
comrade, mulongwMigiu ; thyc., 
jnulongwako ; his c., muloug- 

Conceal, to, to hide, v.i, ku 
Buba; V, t, ku sosaika, ku 
seseka, ku zubika. 

Conceited, to be, v,u ku di- 

Conceited person, it. i. mudi- 

Conceive, to, in the womb. 
Phr, the woman conceives, mu- 
kaintu wa ko0ola. To become 
pregnant, v, i, ku imita. To 
cause to conceive, v* t, ku iiniaha. 
To give medicine to canse con- 
ception, V, t, ku kandainikft^ 

Concerning, /fv/. a; e.g, let ns 
speak concerning his conduct, a 
tu bandike a knohita kwa- 

Conciliate, to, v, t, ku bonaha, 
ku kambidiaha. A present given 
to c, n. 7. ohikambidialio. 

Conclude, to, v.hlca, manina. 
Phn Here it ends ; this is the end, 

Concubine, one with whom a man 
has Intercourse but is not properly 
married to her, n, 7. oldkulu- 
bwilo ; n. la, nachiaandula. 

Conduct, to, to direct, guide, v, /. 
ku enaba. Custom, n, 7. chi- 

Coney, ». i a, cbibila ; pi. bachi- 

Confess, to, to own a lault, v.L 
ku dlwhlinuTia. 

Confession, n. 5. kudishixnuna. 

Confide, to, v. t. ku shoma. 

Confidence, if. 5. kualioma. 

Confirm, to, v. /. ku shiuiaba. 

Confiscate, to, v. t. ku landa. 

Confiscation, n. 5. kulauda. 

Conflict, n. 5. kulwana. 

Confluence, of rivers, n. 5. ku- 
yanana kwa milonga. 

Confuse, to, perplex, v./.ku ahi- 



ngnlusluk To be oooiiised, v» t . 

Confusion, disorder, n. $, kupi* 
dlngana. To create disorder, 
conftisioii, v./. ku picHngany. 
To be in a state of confasioD, dis- 
order, 9. f . ku iiidingana.. 

Congeal, to, v. /. ku diang*, ku 

Congregate, to, v,i. ku bun- 

Congregation, n, 8. imbungana 
Connect, to, v. /. ku lunga. 
Conquer, to, v, /. ku sunda. 
Conqueror, n. i. muaundi. A 

conquered person, if. i.muBunda. 
Conscience, to be conscience- 
stricken, ku Thwa moBO. 
Consecrate* to, to set apart for, 

V, t, ku sadila ; 4, g. This tbing is 

consecrated to God, Ohintu ohe- 

Chi oha aadilwa Iieaa. 
Consent, to, v. /. ku irumina.. 
Consider, to, v. f. ku telaika. 
Console, to, to comfort, v. A ku 

Consume, to, to waste, eat up, v. /. 

ku dya. Of fire, v, t. ku tenia. 
Contagious, v, i, ku sambukila. 
Contain, to. To express this nse 

is made of other words ; i^g. This 

bag contains grain, Inkomo eohi 

idi kwete maila, or, munkomo 

mono mudi maila. 
Contemn, to, to despise^ v.i, ku 

sampatila. To aUise, v.t, ku 

Contemptible, adj, -aampuahi. 
Continually, adv, shikwenae, 

Contract, to, to shorten, v. /. ku 

Contradict, to, v.t, ku kasha, 

ku aeulula. 
Contradiction, n. ^.pl, maaau. 

A person who contradicts, n. la. 

shimaaeu ; n. i. muaeuluahi. 
Convene, to, to gather together, 

V. t, ku bunganya, ku aobolola. 
Conversation, n, 5. kubandika. 
Convert, to, v. /, ku aandula ; 

v.u "kVL sanduka; n, i, musa- 


Convince, to, v.t, kn'vuminya. 
Cook, to, by boiling, v, t. ku ika; 

by roasting, v. /. ku Booha. To 

cook for, V, t, ku ikila, ku so- 

Cool, to be, v. i, ku tontola. To 

cool, V. t, ku tontoBha, 
Copper, n, 2. mukuba. 
Copulate, to, of mankind, of the 

man, v. /. ku kunda, ku teba. 

Of the woman, ku kundwa, ku 

tabwa. Of animals, of the male, 

V, t, ku sampa ; of the female, ku 

Eupk, of the male, ku sotoka ; of 

the female, ku aotokwa. 
Copy, to, v.y. ku idila, ku idi- 

Cord, string, if. 9. loshi. A c. 

used for tying fish, n, 6. koae. 
Cork, stopper, ». 7. chiahinaho. 
Corn. Set Grain. 
Corner, n, 2. mwako. 
Corporal, n, ia,for. kopolo; //. 

Corpse, n, 2. mutunta. 
Corpulent, to be, v. i. ku iniaha. 

A corpulent person is nicknamed 

IbuBu, f . e, a baobab. 
Correct, to, to amend, v. i. ku 

Corrupt, to be, to be rotten, v. 1. 

ku bola. To make corrupt, v, t, 

Corruptible, to be, v. i, ku bo- 

Cost. This must be expressed in a 

different way; e,g. What is the 

cost of this? lit. How is this 

bought, Oheohi chi laulwa buU ? 

This thing is costly, oheohi oha 

ulwa busumo. In the sense of 

precious, costly is to be rendered 

by the verb ku aandika, or the 

noun buaandi. 
Cotton, wild, ». 4. butongi. 

Cotton-bushes, n, 4. //. matongi. 
Cough, to, v.i. ku kola. To 

clear the throat by coughing, tr. /. 

ku koma. 
Councillor, n, i. mubudi. 
Counsel, advice, if. 5. kubula; 

V. /. to advise, ku bula. 



Count, to, v. t. ku bala. 

Countenance, n, 7. chiwa ; n, 4. 

Country, n, 8. inshl A c. with 
trees, and only short grass, n, 2, 
musweya ; n, 3. itwentwe ; n, 3. 
//. mabua. A c. with no grass, 
only a few trees, hard ground, 
water scarce, n. 8. inkanda. A 
c. with tall grass, scattered trees, 
n, 3. isokwe. A c. open, few 
or no trees, a plain, n, 3. ibanda ; 
a large plain, n. 8. inyika. An 
inhabited c, n. 4. bwande. 
The prefix Bu- indicates names of 
conntries ; ^.^. Bukubu, the coiin- 
tnr of the Marotsi; Bwila, that 
ol the Baila. 

Courage. Same word as for anger^ 
fierceness, n, 4. bukadi. 

Court, to. There is nothing 
answering to our custom of conrt* 
ship before marriage. If the pro- 
spective bridegroom be young, the 
parents take charge of the busi- 
ness, and arrange a marriage be- 
tween the young people. If he be 
an adult, the man goes to the girFs 
parents and asks for her (ku sesa). 
If they agree, then the amount to 
be paid as dowry is fixed (chiko). 
If the girl is still a child, the mar- 
riage may be arranged to take 
place when she reaches puberty ; 
m that case the man, during the 
time of waiting, gives her presents. 
This is termed ku badddla> or, 
ku samika. 

Court-house, house of chief where 
cases are heard, n, 6. kalonga. 

Court- yard, n. 8. inkanzo ; n. 9. 

Covenant, «. a. mtdongo. To 
make a covenant, v. t, ku tanga ; 
e,g. I make a covenant with him, 
Nda mu tanga mulongo. To 
make a covenant mutually, v./. 
ku tangana. See Ita-Eng. Vocab, 

Cover, to, a pot, v. /. ku vhuni- 
ka. To c. anything over, v, t, 
ku vhumba. To c. in a hole or 
grave, v, t, ku lapaila. 

Covering, lid of a vessel, n. 7. 

Covet, to, v. t. ku dikumbuzba, 

ku dielezha ; e,g, I covet his 

things, Nda dikumbuzha shintu 

Co^^ETOUSNESS, 91. 5. kudikumbu- 

Cow, n, 8. impwizhi. A heifer 

ready for the bull, inanga mu- 

ohende. A barren c, n, 8. in- 

Coward, n, i. mukandu. 
Cowardice, n. 4. Bowa (boa). 
Crab, n, 8. inkala. 
Crack, to, nuts or lice, v, /. ku 

ponda. To c, split, v,t, ku 

andula. To c. the finger-joints, 

ku chita impongolwa. 
Crack, in wood or wall, n. 9. luta ; 

in foot, or in path, n. 3. //. 

Craftily, adv. cbamaiio. 
Crafty, to be, kudi mano. 
Cram, to, food into the mouth, v, /. 

ku toznwena. 
Cramp, used in carpentry, «. 7, 

chikwatisho. To have cramp in 

leg, itende dia minwa. 
Crane, crested, if. i a. namuwaae; 

//. banamuwane. 
Crave, to, to ask for earnestly, v, t, 

ku pumpisba. 
Crawl, to, v, u ku kalaba. 
Crazy person, n. i a, shikalalu ; 

//. baahlkalalu. 
Creak, to, v, i, ku tetema. 
Cream, n. 9. lukungu. 

CREAM-OF-TARTAR tree, If. 3, 

Create, to, v. /. ku bumba. 
Creator, n, i. mubumbi. Name 

given to God as Creator, it. i a. 

Creature, n. 7. cbibumbwa. 
Credulous, to be, v./. ku bdka, 

ku ohengeka. 
Credulous, culj, ohengeshi. 
Creek, used in fishing, kaunga- 

Creeper, kasamo ka zambaila. 

A kind of creeping plant said to 

have neither beginning nor end^ 



n. la, BSBambe. A kind of 

creeper of which the root is nsed 

to suffocate bees, if. a. mutindL 
Crest, n, 8. ingala. 
Crime : ^Eiiilt, if. 6. ksmbo, n. a. 

Crimson, to be, vJ. ku subi- 

Cripple, n, la, ohihole, //. baahi- 

Crocodile, n, la, ohiwena, //. 

Crook-back, when bent inwards, 

n, la, shichimiiii ; when bent 

outward, hnmp-back, n. la. 

Crooked, to be, carved round at 

one end, v,t. ku kombomana; 

warped, v. 1. ku konkomana ; 

twisted in one place, v, i. ku 

sendama; twisted all through, 

V, i. ku pitana. 
To make crooked, as above^ v.t, 

kn kombomeka, ku konko- 

meka, ku 8endainika» ku 

Crooked, adj, special meanings as 

above, -kombomene, -konko- 

mene, -sendeme, -pitene. 
Crooked Thing, a thing which 

corves, bends back, n. 7. chimini ; 

a smaU ditto, n, 6. kaxnini. 
Crop, of bird, if. 7. chiaugilo. 
Cross, to, v,u a river, ku lan- 

duka ; to c. a river, v, t, ku 

landusha; to c, put one thing 

across another, v.t, ku chin- 

kanya, v. i. ku ohinkaaa. 
Cross, n, 7. chichinkano. 
Crouch, to, down in hiding, v. i. 

ku bamb^ala. 
Crow, h. i o. ohikwangala. 
Crow, to, of a cock, v. u ku koko- 
. loka. 
Crowd, to, of a number of people 

pressing, v. f . ku vhumpa ; to be 

crowded, without room, v. f. ku 

Crowd, a crowd of people, ii. a. 

Crown, of beads put around the 

head, if. 3. mushinl 
Crucifixion, if. 5. Subambulwa. 

Crucify, to, »./. ku bambula. 
The word is applied originally to 
the stretching out and pegging of 
anything, such as a hide. 

Cruel, to be, kudi inkole. 

Cruelly, adv. ohankole. 

Cruelty, if. 8. inkole; a cruel 
person, if. \a, shinkole. 

Crumb, h. 6. kapansha, if. 4. 

Crumble, to, v, t, ku pondaula. 

Crush, to, v, t, ku shanyansa, ku 

Cry, to, v, i, ku dila ; to cry much, 
loudly, V. f. ku didiaha ; of a 
wounded animal or person, v. u 
ku boba; of a child, v,u ku 
kuwaila ; of a child, angrily, v, i, 
ku pimba; of the shrill cry of 
women when playing, v. i. ku 
wela; of women when saluting, 
V, i. ku ulubwizha, ku uma 

Cucumber, wild, n, 3. ikoa, 

Cud, to chew, v. /. ku aelula. 

Cultivate, to, ». t, ku dima. 

Cultivator, if. i. mudimi. 

Cunning, if. 3. //. mano. 

Cunning PERS0N,«if. i a, shimano. 

Cunningly, adv, chamano. 

Cup, drinking-utensil, if. 7. chin- 
wino. If. 6. kanwino, if. 6. 
kayenge, if. %.for, inkomiki. 

Cup, to, v.i. ku sumika; horn 
used in cupping, if. a. musuku. 
In cupping the &m is first scarified, 
then the hoin is placed over the 
spot, and through a hole in the 
end a person sucks; blood then 
flows. Of this it is said, The 
musuku draws blood, Musuku 
wa kwela buloa. 

Cure, to, v. t, ku ponya. 

Curl, to, round, v, i, ku Bamba- 

Curry, to, a skin by scraping, v, t. 
ku pala. 

Curse, to, v.t. ku ombwesha, 
ku ahinganya. 

Examples: — May the lion bite 
you, XTshumbwa ngu wa ku ku 
luma. May the mulala bite you, 



Mulala nga wa ku ku konka. 
May yoa die before you are 
grown, XT old alele wa ku fwa 
a buyi bu te edi. May Leza 
strike you, ITwe u ohi elele 
kono Leaa wa ku anda. 

To swear, take an oath, v, f . ka 

Examples ofoatks: — By Leza, ngu 
Iieza. By the ash, nd'itwe. 
As we may forget those who are 
dead, bu twa ka ba lubila oba 
ka fwa. By the ash, which the 
dead say, nditwe ndi la amba 
ba fwa. May I cnrse my elder, 
I have not got it, Nda mu tuka 
weao mukando, shi ohi kwete. 
By the ground, nd' ivhu. May 
I be cut np into pieces, Nda 
pasauka. May you be split up, 
17 la andauka. 

To curse, to call foul names^ ku 
tuka; such abnsings are called 

Examples : — You have eaten your 
mother, Wa ba dya banoko. 
Wa ba twala banoko, You have 
married your mother. Wa ba 
kunda banoko, You slept with 
your mother. Su tuka is con- 
sidered a very serious thing. 
Curtain, ». 7. ohidishitidialio. 
Custom, n, 7. ohianaa. 
Cut, to, n, 7. ku kosola ; to c. the 
skin, tatoo, v. t, ku lemba ; to c. 
oneself, v. /. ku nenga ; to c. up 
firewood, v, /. ku andaula ; to c. 
the hair, v, /. ku shisa ; to c. 
even the poles of a roof, or thatch, 
V. t, ku konkolola ; to c. round, 
as a hide in making reins, v,t. 
ku nengulula; to c. np into 
pieces, v.t, ku pasaula; to c. 
across with knife or saw, v, /. ku 
tenda ; to c. down trees, v. /. ku 
tema ; to c. open belly of animal, 
V, t, ku talula ; to c. with adze, 
V, t. ku beaa ; to c. up meat, v, t, 
ku yasaula; to c. up an animal, 
V. U ku famba ; to c. a tree 
above, i.e, to cut off branches, 
v.t, ku kunka; to c. np meat 
into strips for drying, v./, ku 

sama; to c grass dose to the 
ground, mow, v, t. ku ixhesa. 
Cut, adj. chopped-np, -andausbl. 

Daily, each day, bushiku bumwi 
bumwi. Every day, all the days, 
iiudiiku shonae; e,g. our daily 
bread, inshima shesu aha inshi- 
ku shonae. 

Damage, to, v.t, ku biaha. 

Dam, bank of earth across a stream, 
n, 8. insenda. 

Damp, moist, acy\ -teke ; t.g. damp 
or moist mealies, mapopwe 
matake. Damp, dampness, «. 3. 
mushu, mushiwe ; 4.g. the 
ground is damp, inslii idi 

Dance, if. 7. ohiBhano. Varieties of: 
chipelu, ohiBhimbo, dinguya. 
Lewd dances are, ohingande, 

Dance, to, v, i, ku ahana ; 
dancing-place, n, 8. inkanao. 

Dare, to, to try, v. t, ku aoleka. 

DANGEROUS,of a road, adj, -lumine, 
-sokobele ; e.g. this road is dan- 
gerous, inahiia eahi idi lumine. 
The word is applied to a road 
when lions are upon it, or when 
the people near it are on the look- 
out to kill travellers. 

Dangerous, to be, v, i. ku soko- 

Dark, to be, v. u ku ahia ; to be 
very dark, v. i, ku ahiaha- 

Darkness, n, 2. mushinae, mun- 
ahinaew; darkness is falling, wa 
tuluka, or wa koaoka mu- 
shinae ; darkness is breaking, 
mushinae wa ombuluka. 

Dash down, to, v.t. ku kankata; 
to dash or sweep down as a hawk, 
V, i. ku kwempa. 

Dart, to, out upon any one, as lion 
or dog, V. /. ku sotekela. 

Daughter, n. i. mwana mn« 

Dawdle, to, v. i. ku imoka. 

Dawn, to, v. i. ku oha. At the 
time of the second cock-crow, ku 
manoha, ku manchela ; time 
before sunrise, shimbundn; of 



tbe daikness breaking, v.i. ka 
baloosalft, ka ombolnka. 

Day, h, 4. BnflhikOi biunba; i». 3. 

Bnflhika indicates the whole 
twen^-fonr hours; btusaba, or 
isuba* the daytime only. 
To-day, usiina; to-morrow, uso- 
aa. The day before yesterday, or 
the day after to-morrow, ubws- 

JIfiw tk£ day is divided :-^ht first 
cock-crow, ka busbika ; at the 
second cock-crow, ka manohela, 
ka mimoha ; before snnrise, 
•hlmbonda, chifhmofiuao,olii- 
ftuno ohiniohini ; at sunrise, 
nidiiMaa; early morning, soon 
after sunrise, ohiAimo ; about 
breakfast-time, ohikaaadishl ; 
midday, akalendebwe. Noon is 
monsa; the name is also given 
to the whole period of daylight. 
Just at noon, manaa mwini- 
mwini ; early afternoon, kaboa 
shabembeBhi ; later, 4Uaanga- 
onga; late afternoon, mango- 
leaha; at sunset, diakomboka, 
dJbabila ; just after sunset, when 
the sky is red ; diaaubidiaha ; 
erening, aohialdaho; at night, 

Days of the week : — Sunday, In- 
•anda ; Monday, Muahimbu- 
lako; Tuesday, BwabiU; Wed- 
nesday, Bwatata ; Thursday, 
Bwase ; Friday, Bwaaano ; 
Saturday, Imbelekelo. 

Dazqje, to, V, /. ka towa. 

Dead, to bb, v. i, ka fwa. JSupk. 
ka koaoka. A person who has 
died, n, i. mafU; n, la. shi- 

Deadly thing, a thing which will 
cause death, ». 7. obifo. 

DSAF PERSON, If. I. mula ; 
maahinkematwi ; n. la. ohi- 

Dear, to be, to be loved, v,p, ku 
funwa. To be lovable, v. i. ka 
fanika. To be dear, costly, v. 1. 
ka Boma ; e,g'. this grain is very 
costly, mailaaaaaalwabaaamo. 

Death, m,*g a, lafa ; n, 5. kafwa. 
Deathly, adv, ohalafa. 
Debate, to, to follow one another 

in speaking, ka ohidiahanya ka 

Debt, fault, n, a. malanda. 
Decay, to, v,i. ka bola; to be 

much decayed, rotten, v.i, ka 

bodiaha ; to decay or fail as an 

aged person, v,i, ka ela; v.i. 

ka ahinoLpa. 
Deceit, n. 5. kaohenga. 
Deceitfully, adv. ohakaohenga. 
Deceivable, to be, V, i. ka che- 

ngeka, ka beka. 
Deceivable, adj. .-ohengeahi. 
Deceive, to, v. t, ka ohanga, v. i. 

ku diaataoka. 
Deceiver, n. i. maobengi. One 

who promises and does not do, 

n. I. mudibeahi. 
Decline, to, of the sun, v. i. ka 

Decorate, to, by clothing, v.t. 

ku samika ; to ornament, v, /. 

ka ebezha. 
Decrease, to, v.i. ka twetana; 

V. t. ku twetanya. 
Decreased, adj. -twetene. 
Deep, v. i. ka lampa, adj. -lamfa, 

n, 4. balondu, used as o^*. ; e.g, 

this river is deep, weza mulonga 

wa lanii>a ; weza malonga nxu- 

lamfa; weaa malonga adi 

Deepen, to, v.U ka lanaha; to 

deepen a fountain by taking out 

the mud, v. t, ku kololola. 
Defaecate, to, v. I. ku nya, ku 

aala. Phr, Have you been to 

the bush to-day ? 8a wa ya 

kunae aaunu? 
Defeat, to, v. t. ka zanda. 
Defeat, n. 4. bazunde. 
Defend, to, to defend oneself, to 

parry, v./. ku kobela, ku kobe- 

zha; to defend another, v.t. ku 

Defile, to, v. t. ku sofwazha ; to 

make black, dirty, v. t. ku 

Defiled, to be, v. i. ku sofwala, 




DEFORMED) TO BE, V, t. IcU shislli- 

bala. The same word is used of 
a misshapen pot ; e.g. this man 
is deformed, muntu wezu udi 

Deformed, adj. -shiahibele. 

Deject, to, cast down in spirits, 
V. t. ku etezha. 

Dejected, to be, v. i. ku etezha, 
ku etezhiwa. 

Delay, to, v. i. ku imoka, ku 
poposha. To delay or take a 
long time in doing anything, v. i. 
ku ohezha ; e.g. ushimpoflo wa 
chezha, the postman has taken a 
long time ; mudimo wa oliezlia, 
the work has taken a long time in 
doing. One who delays, n. i. 
mukoko ; e.g. why do yon delay? 
mwa imokilanzM ? 

Deliberately, slowly, without 
haste, adv. ohabunonga. 

Deliberation, in work, or eating, 
n, 4. bunonga; a deliberate per- 
son, n. I a. shibunonga. 

Deliver, to, from difficulty, 
danger, v.t. ku vhuna; to be 
delivered of a child, v. i. ku 

Deliverance, n, 5. kuvhuna. 

Deliverer, n. i. muvhuxiL 

Demolish, to, a house, v. t. ku 

Demon, n. i. for znudemona. 
Evil spirits, spirits of the dead, 
whom to see is to die, shikazwa, 
kanchinya. A spirit or some- 
thing supposed to live in the 
forest ; if one chances to see it he 
will die, n. i a. shiohobochobo. 

Denial, n. 5. kukazha. 

Denier, n. i. znukazhL 

Deny, to, ku kazha. 

Depart, to, to leave, v. t. ku shia; 
to start, V. i, ku unka, ku zhi- 
znoka. • 

Deprive, to, v.t, ku imya; to 
deprive by fining, v. /. ku landa. 

Depth, n. 4. bulondu. 

Deride, to, v.f. ku seka; to 
deride veiy much, v. t. ku se- 

Descend, to, v. i. ku seluka ; to 

descend into a pit, ^ku z^ila mu 
kalaxnbwe ; to descend a hill, or 
bank of river, v.i, ku kunku- 

Desert, to, v. /. ku leka ; to 
desert or leave one alone, especially 
a friend, v. t. ku imbizha ; to be 
left, deserted, v. p. ku imbilwa. 

Desert, a wide plain, n. 8. inyika. 
The word komanizha is used by 
some to mean a desert; but it 
seems that this word is simply a 
mistranslation of the Snto lefee- 
leng. The Suto word is derived 
from feela, and means a place 
where there is nothing; whereas 
the Ila word is derived from ku 
xnana, to finish, and means die 
end of something. The mistake 
has arisen by confounding the Sato 
word feela with ku fela, to end. 

Deserted village, the place 
where a village stood at one time 
is called, n, 3. itongo; the 
whole locality, with the old fields, 
n. 3. iyundo. 

Deserve, to, to be fit for, kudi 
elele ; e.g. he deserves to die, 
udi elele ku fwa. We deserve 
to be beaten, tudi elele kn 

Desire, to, to wish for, v, t. ku 
zeza; to desire, covet, v.t. ku 
dikuxnbuzha ; to desire, par- 
ticularly food, lit. to swallow 
spittle, ku mina mate ; ku fwB 
lunyaunya; ku fwu ohimlna- 

Desire, for food, if. 7. ohimina- 
mate, n. 9. lunyaunya; other 
desire, n. i. znuzezo ; evil desire, 
especially sexual, n. 7. ohiimwhi. 

Desist, to, v.t. ku ahilrila, ku 

Desolate, to lay, v, t. ku sfila. 

Despicable, to be, v. i. ku sa- 

Despise, to, v,t, ku sampaula, 
ku cbata, ku dimbausha. 

Despised, adj. -sampaushi. 

Destroy, to, v. t. ku zonaula^ ku 

Destroyed, to be, v. i. ku 



Bonaokab Impaired, destroyed 
as to utility, as gunpowder when 
soaked, v. f . ku tunduka. 

Destroyed, €Ldj. -sonaashi ; a 
destroyed thing, ». 8. ingftu 

Details, small facts, ». 6. //. 
tukani; to tell a story in full, 
with details, v. t. leu kololola. 

Devil, n. 10. Diaboloai; Satan, 
It. itf. Shatani. 

Devour, to, to eat, v, t. ka dya ; 
to eat much, rayenously, v. t, 
ku dialia. 

Dew, n. 2. xnuin^. 

Dewlap, n. 3. ibovhu. 

Dialect, ». 2. mw&mbo. See 

Diarrh(ea, to have, v. i. ku 

Die, to, v, i. ku fwa. 
The word is used with a wider 
meaning than in English, hence 
the following words : Tod. much, 
altogether, zf. fl ku fwiaha, ku 
fwididila ; to d. for, v. i, ku 
fwila ; to d. suddenly, without 
apparent cause, v,i, ku mansu- 

Different, to be, v.u ku an- 
dana, kudi andene; e.g, these 
stories which you tell me differ, 
tulabi totu ntu wa xuBhimwina 
tudi andene. They are different 
from each other, badi andanine. 
How are they different? Ba la 
andana buti? The idea of 
other, different, is expressed by 
the adj, -nji; e,g, I want other, 
different, food, Nda kapula 
ahidyo shinji. 

Dig, to, v.t. ku aha; to dig 
much, v.t, ku shisha; to d. or 
hoe, in cultivation, v, /. ku dima ; 
to d. or hoe deeply, v.t, ku 
chinka ; to d. out a fountain, 
v./. ku kololola. 

Dignified, to be, v, i, ku lemia. 

Dignity, »• 4. bulemu ; with 
dignity, adv, ohabulemu ; a 
dignified person, ». i. mulemu. 

Diminish, to, to make small, v, /. 
ku ohesha; to make less, de- 

, cxease, v./. ku twetaaya. 

Dining-room, a place for eating, 
n, 7. chidilo. 

Dip, to, v,t, ku teka; calabash 
dipper, n, 9. lukoma ; small 
ditto, n, 6. kakomia. 

Direct, to, to instruct, order, v, t. 
ku laaha; to d., show, v,t. ku 
leaha ; to d. or send, v, t, ku 

Direction, ». 4. buluzhilushi ; 
e.g, to point out the direction 
where he lives, ku tondeka 
buluzhilushi mbwa shitL In 
all directions, adv, AnkiJTika. 

Directly, adv. inzho, inaho- 
inzho, ndidiona. In the sense 
of as soon as, use budio, with the 
subjunctive; e.g. directly upon 
his arrival he began to eat, a 
shike budio wa kanka ku dya. 

Dirge, funeral song, n, 9. Iwimbo 
Iwa ku diaha. 

Dirt, ». 3. itomba; sweepings of 
a house, n. 3. //. makwaahanyi. 

Dirtily, adv, cdietomba. 

Dirty, adj. -aofwele ; of water, 
-hundaushi; to be d., v.i, ku 
ahia, ku sofwala ; of water, ku 
hundauka ; to make dirty, v. t. 
ku ahizha, ku sofwazha ; of 
water, by stirring up, ku hun- 

Disagree, to, v, u ku andana. 

Disagreeable, a disagreeable, 
quarrelsome person, n, la. ahi- 

Disagreeableness, quarrelsome- 
ness, n. 4. bwanahi. 

Disagreeably, ad;, chabwanahi. 

Disappear, to, v, i. kupetuka ; 
e.g. he disappears into the forest, 
V, u wa petiika ku isokwe. 

Disappearance, n. 5. kupetuka. 

Disappoint, to, to make sorry, 
V. /. ku uaha. 

Disbelieve, to, v.t, ku dimbu- 

Discharge, to, a gun, v.t. ku 
fusa; to discharge or dismiss a 
workman for a fault, v,U ku 

Disciple, one taught, n. i. mwi- 
yiwa (mwiwa). 



Disclose, to, an affair which has 
been hidden, v, t, ka subulula ; 
to point out a man in fault, v. t, 
ku anza. 

Discord, n. 5. kupyopyongana. 
To be in discord, tumultuons, v. i, 
ku pyopyongana ; to create dis* 
cord, tnmult, v. t, ku pyopyon- 

Discourage, to, v,l ka etesha. 

Discourse, to, to talk, v,L ku 
bandika, ku shimuna ; of a set 
discourse, speech, or sermon, of 
one person speaking at length, 
V, f. ku kambauka. One who 
discourses, a preacher, iu i. 

Discover, to, to find, v,t, ku 
yana; to discover, invent, intro- 
duce something hitherto unknown, 
V. /. ku lenga. 

Disease, n. 4. bulwashi, if. 7. 
ohilwaahi; a sick person, n, i. 
xnulwaBhi ; any contagious 
disease, which spreads quickly, as 
rinderpest, or small-pox, ». 7. 

List of diseases^ tfc. 

Bronchitis, ikolokolo. 

Cataract in eye, itube. 

Catarrh in head, ishini. 

Haematuria, ishinga. 

Itch, bwele. 

Leprosy, chinsenda. 

Madness, kalalu. 

Malarial fever, nrwaasa. 

Mange, ohilongwe. 

Measles, ohibombwe. 

Pleurisy, kamuchamba. 

Quinsey, tupopo. 

Rinderpest, kankolomwena. 

Small-pox, chimbembe, naohin- 

kwa, mukolotila, mudimaku- 

Syphilis, mananaa. Others : — ohi* 

bondo ; ohalutente ; buaono ; 

ohikuba; ohinzovwe; isho- 

kola; isuba. 
Disentangle, to, a tangled string, 

v.t, ku potonona; to untwist, 

V. t. ku sambulula. 
Dish, n, 2, mutiba. 

Dish-up, to, v./. ku pampula; 
to turn out porridge, or bread, 
V. t, ku pula. 

Dishonest, to bb, v, >. kudi sen- 

Dishonest, ad/, -sendeme. 

Dishonour, to, v.t, ku ubaula; 
to treat an elder, or superior, with 
disrespect, ku nyanBha, ku te- 

Disjoin, to, v, t. ku lungulula ; 
of pieces of wood mortised to- 
gether, V, t, ku kula. 

Dislike, to, v./. ku fw«mba; 
e,g, I dislike him, ndi mu 
fwembele. To mutually dislike, 
V, t. ku fwembana. 


fwembika; (ulj, 'fwexnbiabi. 

Dislocate, to, v,u ku leyuka, 
V, t, ku leyula. 

Dislodge, to, an animal from its 
den, V, t, ku sokonya ; anything 
from up in a tree, v, /. ku onsa. 

Dis&nss, to, an assembly, v,t, ku 

Dismount, to, v, i, ku seluka. 

Disobey, to, v,t, ku kaka, ku ba 

Disobedience, n, 7. ohisapi. 

Disobedient person, n, la, 
shiohisapi, diiikisapi. 

Disorder, to be in, v,i, ka 
pidingana; e,g', the house is in 
disorder, munganda xnudi pi- 
diiig«iie. To cause to be in dis- 
order, V, t, ka pidingaaya. 

Disown, to, to deny, v,t. ka 
kasha ; e,g, he disowns the dog, 
saying. It is not mine, wa kasha 
mubwa, ati, Tadi irango. 

Dispensary, n, 7, ehiithidlkilo. 

Disperse, to, to drive away, v,t. 
ku tanda; to scatter, of people, 
v,t, ku sangaula; to be dis- 
persed, scattered, v,i, Yxi san- 

Dispersion, n, 5. kusaagaoka;. 

Dispute, to, v,i, ku zumanaiia, 
ku ohlta shikanL 

Disrespect, n, 5. iuboba ; to 
treat an elder with disrespect, o« /• 
ku nyaniha, katengola. 





DissATiSFiiCTiON, If. 5. kutenga. 

Dissatisfied, to be, v.i, ku 
tensa; e.^. he ig dissatisfied with 
his money, wa tenga madi akwe. 

Dissolve, to, v.t. ka enitintuha, 
v.u leu enBrmtika. Of dods 
breaking np under the rain, v,i, 
ka bomboloka. Said of two 
who dissolve a prerioas friendship 
and fip[ht, or of two who made a 
bargam and one became dissatis- 
fied and it is broken, v,i, ka 

Distant, to be, v. i, ku lakaaa. 

Distant, a^*. •«akena,a<ft^. kalale. 

Distribute. See To allot. 

Ditch, a long ditch to keep off 
locnats from, a field, n, 9. lata. 

Dive, to, v.i. ka ibila; e.^. the 
man di^ed and came ap, monta 
ke bidile, wa ftunpoka. 

Divide^ to, v. /. ku aba, ka abil% 
ka aadanya ; e. g, he divided the 
food among his people, wa abila 
baatn bakwe shid^o. The 
Creator divided the day and the 
ai^^t, Iiabomba wa ka an- 
duiya monaa o maahika. To 
divide among each other, ka 
abUana; v.i. Ym andana; of 
roads, v, i, ka pambana. 

Divine, to, by casting bones, v, t. 
ka sonda, ka waaha. 

Diviner, m- i* moaonahi. 

Divinity, Godhead, n, 4. Ba- 

Divisible^ to be, 9. i, ka abfka. 

Division, n. 7. ohipaQaha, ohaa- 
danoy ohabilo> 

Divorce, to, v,t, ku leka mu- 

Do, to,, v.t. ku Chita; to do 
hnniedly, carelessly, v. t ku 

iha; to do quickly, 
ka fwamba ka ohita; to ao 
over again, v.LIkxl lolola; to do 
for somebody, v./. ku chitila; to 
do something new, v. t, ku lenga; 
to do earnestly, ku mana o moso 
omwi y to do, or work well, v. t. 
ka londda; to keep on doing a 

thing, adhere to it, v. /. ku suma- 

Doctor, 0. i. munganga, mushi* 

Doctor, to, v, /. ku ahidika, 

Dodge, to, v. /. ku lea. 

Dog, ff. I. mubwa; a small dog, 
n, 6* kabwa ; a dog is also 
named mbiaa; to eat as a dog, 
v. t. ku kapa. 

Dominion, n, 4. buoneki. 

Donkey, n, 8. imbongolo. 

Door, n. 7. chitendele ; doorway, 
gateway, n. 2, mudiango; door 
listening, n. a. mwinaho ; n, 7. 

Doubt, to, ku ta ahoma. 

Doubt, n. 5. kutashoma. 

Dove, Turtle, n. 8. inahiba. 

Down, adv, anahi. 

Dowry, things given to parents of 
wife, n. 7. ohiko ; to pay a dowry, 
V. /. ku kwa. 

Doze, to, v, i, ku fakula. 

Drag, to, v. /. ku kwela. 

Draw, to, v.t. ku kwela; to d. 
water, v. /. ku teka; to d. water 
with, V. L ku teaha ; to d. water 
for, v,t. ku tekela; to d. knife 
from sheath, v, t, ku aomona ; to 
d. tight, v.t, ku kweleaha; to 
d. out, V, /. ku tandabula ; to d. 
out by the roots, v. U ku shim* 
pula, ku ahula ; to d. near, v, t, 
ku aena ; to d. out hairs from the 
pubes, V, t. ku menaa, ku maaa ; 
to d. out as grass from thatch, 
V. t. ku popomona. 

Dread, fear, n. 3. //. mampuba ; 
e,g, he will take it in dread, u la 
ohi kwaaha mampuba. 

Dread, to, v. t, ku tia. 

Dreadful, to be, v, i, ku tXka. 

Dream, to, v. t, ku lota. 

Dream, n, 7. ohiloto. 

Dregs, of beer, n, 4. bu86. 

Dress, to, v.t. ku aama; to d. 
much, v,t, ku samisha; to d. 
another, v,t. ku aamika; to d. 
skins by scraping, v, t. ku pala ; 
to d. the hair, v, t, ku disokula. 

Dress, n. 2. muahinshi. See 



Dribble, to, v. i, ka londauka. 

Drift, to, v, i. leu kunka. 

Drill, to, to pierce, to bore, v, /. 
ku tulula. 

Drill, boring-tool, n, 7. ohitu- 

Drink, to, v. t. ku nwa ; of dogs, 
ku kapa, ku sabinta ; to give to 
drink, v. U ku nwisha ; to drain 
the last drop in a cup in drinking, 
z'./. ku anzwila, ku anzulula; 
to drink just a little, v,L ku 

Drip, to, z/. u ku londauka, v, /. 
ku londausha. 

Drive, to, v,t. ku binga; to 
cause or help to drive, v,t, ku 
binzha ; to d. fast, v, t, ku 
bingisha ; to d. towards, v. /. ku 
bingila ; to d. away, v. t. ku 
tanda ; to d. a waggon, v. L ku 
ensha nkoloi; to d. away flies, 
V, U ku kuwaola ; to d. in pegs, 
V, /. ku kankamina. 

Driver, n, i. mwenzhi. 

Drizzle, to, v.t, ku londauka; 
of a drizzling rain, Iioza u la 
londauka ; a misty drizzle, n, 3. 
ifufu, n. I a, shikunku. 

Droop, to, as leaves and flowers in 
heat, z/. i. ku nyata. 

Drop, n, 3. Hondo. 

Drop, to, as medicine, v,t, ku 
londau^ia, v. u ku londauka ; 
to let fall, v.t, ku wisha; to 
fall, V. u ku wa. 

Drought, n, 7. chiwa, n, 9. 
Iwanga ; an interval of drought 
in the rainy season, n, 9. lulanga. 

Drown, to, v, i, ku fwa u men- 

Drowsily, adv, chakuftikula. 

Drowsy, to be, v,%, ku fukula; 
to make drowsy, v, t, ku fukuzha ; 
a drowsy state, as when one is 
half awsike in the morning, n, 8. 
indolo; a person in this state, 
n, \a. shindolo. 

Drum, native, n, 8. ingoma. 

Drunk, to be, v, i. ku kolwa ; to 
make drunk, v,t, ku kozha. 

Drunkard, n, i. mukolwi. 

Drunkenness, n, 5. kukolwa. 

Dry, adj, -zumo; very dry, -ku- 

Dry, to be, v, t, ku zuma, v. t. ku 
zumya ; to wipe dry, v. t. ku 
shula ; to dry fish or green com 
at a fire, v. t, ku umpulula. 

Duck, wild, n, 8. inohoza, n, 1 a, 

Dug, teat, of cow, &c., n. 6. kanun- 

Duiker, n. 10. nakasha; Dim, 

Dull, blunt, adj, -fumpiu. 

Dull, to be, stupid, z/. s. ku zhi- 

Dumb, to be, v, i, ku tamba. 

Dumb person, n, i a, ahatambe. 

Dung, n, 4. bufnmba, mafnmba ; 
very dry, n, 2. muautelo ; faeces, 
ft. 3. //. mazhi ; a bundle of 
dung tied up in grass and burnt 
in burrow to scare out an animal, 
ft, 2. muzenge. 

Dusk, to be, v, i, ku shia. 

Dust, ti, 9. luftiko ; large quantity 
of, ti, 3. ifiiko ; a dust-heap, »• 7. 

Duty, a, ft, 7. ohSlelo. Derived 
firom ku ela, to be fit : it means 
something that is fit or proper to 
be done. There seems to be no 
nearer word to express our idea of 

Dwarf, stunted person, ti, i. muf- 
wafwi, mufubio. 

Dwarf, to, to make short, v, t, ku 
fubia, ku fubya ; v, i, to be 
dwarfed, short, v, i. ku fuba. 

Dwell, to, v, i. ku kala. 

Dwelling, ft, 8. Inganda ; a tem- 
porary dwelling made of branches, 
ft, 7. ohilao. 

Each, all, adj, -onae, -mwi -mwi ; 
e,g, each person, muntu umwi 
umwi. Each thing, ohintu 
ohimwi chimwi. 

Each other, expressed in the in- 
tensive suffix of the verb, -ana ; 
eg, to love each other, ku Ai- 

Eager, to be, v.fL ku tempana, 
ku fwa ohiminamate ; e,g* I 



ftm eager to see him, nda fwm 
ohiminamato ku ma bona. 

Eagekness, strong desire, fi. 7, 

Eagle, Fish, n. la, shikwaae. 

Ear, ff. 5. kntwi ; ear-ache, n. 8. 

"Wax in ear, ff. lo. ahimpolu- 
katwi. It is supposed that there 
is an insect in the ear which pro- 
duces the wax ; this name is given 
to both wax and insect. 
A person with part of ear cat off, 
n. I. mukosole-kutwi ; an ox 
ditto ditto, n. 8. inkosole-kutwi ; 
hole in ear for ear-ring, n. 4. bu- 
Ininba; earofgrain,M.3. ikunka. 

Early, early in morning, chifomo ; 
very early, chifamofamo ; to be 
up early, v. f . ku fUma ; to be up 
very early, v. i. ku fnmisha. 

Earnest, to be, ku ba ahimdao- 

Earnest person, one with a single 
heart, n. J a, ahimdsomwi. 

Earnestly, adv. ohamoadmwi. 

Ear-ring, n, 6. kaaeka, n. 4. 
buaeka. Boaeka is used of many. 

Earth, m, 8. inahi; black hard 
groond, n, 8. inkanda ; soft, 
sandy ft. 3. iaenga; a place with 
dry ground, and old unbumt 
grass. If. 7. ohondti; earth, soil, 
n. 3. ivhu. 

Earth-worm, n. la. namula. 

Earwig, n. la. ■hamuaoaha, sha- 

Ease, to be at, v. i. ku diba, ku 

Easily, without difficulty, adv. 
kabongvhu ; slowly, adv, kabo- 

East, is. 3. iwe; in the east, /oc. 
adv* owo. 

Eastward, adv. kwiwe. 

Easy, to be, v.f. ka bomba, adj. 
-bongvbu; e.£^, easy work, mu- 
dimo mabongvhu. 

Eat, to, v. t* ku dya ; to e. much, 
V. /• ku diaha ; to e. ravenously, 
tf, t, ku ftikftlala ; to e. little, 
v.t. ku sola; to e. early maize, 
v.t. ka aoma; to e. bread with- 

out relish, v.t. ku bnaa; to e. 
as a dog, v. t. ku kapa, ku aab- 
inta ; to e. food left over, to 
scrape out a pot, v. t, ku komba ; 
to eat rapidly, v.t. ku fukaula; 
to e. dry meat with bread, v.t, 
ku luminiaha ; to e. soft things 
such as eggs, potatoes, v.t, ku 
dankununa ; to e. apart from 
others, /^r. ku dya xnambumbu. 

Eatable, to be, v. i. ku dika. 

Eatable, n. 2. mudyo; n. 7. 

Eater, a great, n. i. mudiahi, 
n. I a. ahindya, n. 1 0. ahintafu. 

Eaves, space under, verandah, n. 3. 
iluse; e.^, to sit under the eaves, 
pAr. ku kala mwiluae. 

Edge, sharp edge of spear or knife, 
ff. 4. buoheai; blunt edge, or 
back, n. 2. mongo ; edge or 
fringe of blanket, &c., n. 4. 
bwaya ; to turn up at edge, as a 
hat-brim, v.t. ku pepenyana, 
V. t. ku papenyanya. 

Educate, to, to teach, v.t, ku 
iya ; to bring up, train, v. t. ku 
kuaha; to l^ educated, v.t. ku 

Educate, adj. -pandultushi. 

Efface, to, v.t. ahiminganya, 
V. i, ku zhixningana. 

Egg, n, 3. ii, or iyi, //. mal; 
white of e., n. 7. chilekete ; yolk 
of e., If. a. muahinda ; to sit on 
e., v.t, ku kuniba; addled e., 
mai a uwa ; to lay e., ku ahala 
n^ ; egg-shell, n. 3. ipapa ; un- 
formed e., ft. 4. buyi. 

Eight, ftum. Itusele. 

Eighteen, ttutn. ikumi diomwi o 
mu nteiEdia ahidi lusele. 

Eighty, ftutn. makumi adi lusele. 

Either . . or, canj. na . . na ; e, g, 
take which you like, aala nchu 
aanda, na oheohi na cheoho. 
Either you or I must go, ndiwe 
na ndime nda ya. Either go or 
stay, it is your affair, ko ya na u 
la kala, ndiwe umwini. 

Elastic, to be, to be capable of 
being stretched, v.t. ku tandu- 



Elastic, adj. -tandubudishi. 

Elbow, n, 9. lukokola. A dam- 
aged e., n, 7. ohikokola. 

J^LDER, n, I. mwalu ; //. balu. 

Elderlike, way^ custom, manner 
of elder, adv. chabalu. 

Elect, to, to choose, select among 
others, v. /. ku nomona. To e. 
or place in office, ku bika, or, ku 
kadika, a bwami. 

Election, n. 5. kunomona. 

Elephant, n, i., ijtz. musovu ; //. 
baaovu, bamusovu. 

Elevate, to, to lift up, v,i. ku 
katula. To exalt, promote, v. t, 
ku sumpula, ku aumpusha; 
V. f . ku sumpuka. 

Eleven, num, ikumi diomwi o 
mu ntesha yomwi. 
To say eleventh, use the above pre- 
ceded by gen* part.\ e.g, the 
eleventh person, muntu wa 
ikiuni o mu ntesba yomwi. 

Elsewhere, adv. kunji, anji, 

Elucidate, to, to make plain, v, U 
ku pasulula. 

Emaciated, to be, v. i. ku swa. 

Emancipate, to, to release by pay- 
ing for one, v. /. ku nununa. 

Embark, lolphr, knobilaumbwa- 

Embers, live coals, n, 3. //. mia- 

Embrace, to, v, t, ku kumbata. 

Emetic, n, 2 ' musamo wa ku 

Empty, to be, kudi budio. It is 
best to express this more fully ; 
say, there is nothing in the pot, 
mwina chiptu mumbia, imbia 
i ina ohidi mo. 
To express the trans, verb to empty, 
say, e. g, drink all the beer in the 
pot, i. e. empty it, ko nwa ib- 
wantu dionse did! mo mumbia, 
or use the verb, ku ansulula, to 
drain by drinking. 

Encircle, to, to go round, v, /, ku 
shinguluaha. To sit round, en- 
circle, as a fire, v. i. ku engela. 

Enclosure, n, 7. chimpata. A 
large, n. 5. impata. 

Encouraged, to be, pkr, ku 

kadika moso. 
Encrustation : salty encrusta- 
tion. If. 3. itundila; n, a. mu- 

End, to, v. f. & /^ ku mana. To 

bring to an end, v. /. ku manya. 
End, ». 5. kumana. 
Fhr, here it ends ; this is the end, 

Endeavour, to, v, /. ku ooleka, 

ku somba, ku sukualuk 
Endless, to be, v, u ku ta mana. 
Endure, to, to bear anything 

courageously, v, i. ku kola, v, /. 

ku kolela. 
Enemy, i». i a. My enemy, shin- 

kondoma ; //. ba. Thy e., ahin- 

kondonoko; //. ba. His e., 

shinkondouina ; //. ba. Our e., 

shinkondonokweau ; //. ba. 

Your e., ahinkondokwenu ; //• 

ba. Their e., shinkondokwabo ; 

//. ba. 
Engrave, to, v, t, ku lemba, ka 

Enjoy, to, v, t, ku aekela ; e.g, I 

enjoy my life, nda aekela bumi 

Enlarge, to, in size, v, t, ku ko- 

meaha ; in number, v. /. ku sun- 

Enormous, to be, v,u ku ko- 

Enough, to be, v.f. ku sudila; 

e^g, the food is enough, aha 

Budila ahidy o. To have enough 

of anything, to be sick kA a thing, 

v./jjj.kuchimwa; eg, lam sick 

of work, Kda ohimwa mudimo. 
Enquire, to, to ask, v, /. ku buaha. 

To enquire into a matter, v. /• ku 

Enrage, to, to make angry, to./. 

ku lemaoha, ku lutiiha. 
Enrich, to, v. /. ku vhubya. 
Enslave, to, to seize, 9./* ku 


Phr. ku bonya muntu buihike. 
Ensnare, to, v, /. ku toa. 
Entangle, to, v. t, ku potanya; 

p. f . ku potana. 
Entangled, adj. -potMM.. 



£NTERyT0,9.f.lmnJil». To cause 
to enter, v. /. kn njiaha. 

Enticb, to, to lead into doing 
wrong, 9./. ka lengaoBha, kn 
lensawila. To tempt one into 
wrong-doing, cr. /. Ira. tepanla. 

Enticer, ff. I. multtngaaahL 

Entrails, n. 3. //. mala. 

Entrance, to an enclosore, n. a. 
mwatoaho ; doorway, n, 2, mu- 

Entrap, to, v. /. ka tea. 

Entreat, to, v,t. ka kombila, 
kn piiinpa. 

Enviously, adv, ohabnfwi. 

Envy, ff . 4. bofWi ; n, 3. ibivhwe. 

Equal, to be, p. il ku ingaina. 

Equality, n, 4. bwingaino. 

Equalize, to, tu /. ku ingainya. 

Erase, to, to effiiMe, v. t. ku ahi- 

Erased, to be, v,t. ka ahimi- 

Erect, to, to build, 9. /. kn saka. 
To set up, V, t. ka shimika; e.g. 
the cat erects the fiir on its back, 
kaae wa shimika Iwala. The 
lion erects its mane, TTshombwa 
wa ahimika misnkwa. To be 
e., of tHe penis, v. i, ka Innda ; 
V, t, kn lanaha. 

Err, to, same word as to forget, 
V, /. kn Inba. 

Eruption, on skin, n, 7. ohiloa. 
To break out, of e., v, f . kn fuku- 

Escape, to, v, i, kn lea ; e.g. the 
crocodile tried to seize him, bnt he 
escaped, ohiwena wa mn 
fwampa, inaho wa lea. 

Establish, to : 

To be established, of a custom, 
V. f. kn 8oka; e.g, the customs 
were established by Leza, shlanza 
aha ka soka bobo kwa Iiesa. 

To first e. anything, v.t ku 
lenga; e,g, Leza established this 
custom, Iieaa wa ka lenga ohi- 
ansa chechi. 

Esteem, to, v,t, ku lemeka. 

Eunuch, n. i. mushibe. 

European, m. i. mukna. Many 
Europeans., makna. 

European, the manner, custom, 
way, speech of, ff. 7. ohikna. 

Evade, to, a missile, 9. i, kn lea. 
To dodge, v. /. kn onga. 

Evangelist, writer of one of the 
Gospels, n. i. Miievaiigele. 

Evaporate, to, v, i. kn anminina» 

Evasion, n, 5. knahimba, kusan- 
saika. To evade by hiding some 
part of a matter, /^r. kn ahimba 
makani. To evade by prevari- 
cating, V, /. ku aanaaika. 

Even, to be. See Equal. 

Even, expressed in the conj, mds. 
pro, ; e.g, even I, even me, ama, 

Even As^conJ. bnbona bo, or, mbu. 

Evening, adv. achishiaho. 

Every, adj\ -onae, -mwi-mwl 
Every person, all the people, ban- 
tu bonse. Every person, taken 
individually, muntnumwiumwi. 

Everywhere, adv, konae, konae- 
konae. Everywhere inside,monae, 
monae-monae. Everywhere upon, 
onae, onae-onae. 

Evidence, makani a knsanga. 

Evil, n. 4. bnbi, bubiabe. See 

£wE, n, 8. impongo inahaahi, im- 
belele inzhashi. 

Exaggerate, to, v, t, make laige, 
ku komesha. To tell lies, «. L 
kn amba ahakubea. 

Exalt, to, promote, v, t, kn anm- 
pnla, kn aumpnaha ; v, i, kn 
anmpuka. To extol, praise, «. /. 
ku tembanla, ku Inmba. 

Examine, to : 
To e. by turning over, v.t kn 
aandaula, kn alanla. To e. any- 
thing to see if part has been stolen, 
■ tf . /. kn vhula. To e. into a case, 
v.t. kn omboloaha. To e. a 
witness by asking over and over 
again, v* t. ku ahombwelela. To 
e., work, or school, v, t, kn din- 

Examiner, n, i. mudingudi. 

Example, to follow, to be like 
another, ku mn koaha. To 
imitate, copy, v*t, kn idila 

U 2 



Excavate, to, v, t, leu fumba. 

Exceed, to , v, t, ku bala, ku bazha. 
To exceed very much, ku badisha. 

Exceedingly, adv, ohakubazha. 

Excel, to, v.t. ku bala, ku 

Excellently, adv. ohakubazha. 
The adv, is expressed also in the 
intensive species of the verb; e*g* 
to carve very nicely, excellently, 
ku bezesha. 

Except, prep, pele ; e,g» Let them 

all go except Shamatanga, Na ba 

ye bonse pele Shamatanga. 

conj, unless, ansha ; e. g. You shall 

not leave here except you pay me, 

. XT ta Thwi moxno anidia wa 

Execrate, to, v,t. ku tuka. 

Execrations, n, 3. //. matushi. 

Exhausted, to be, tired, v. i, ku 
bomba, ku fwa makatalo. 

Exile, to, v,t, ku zangadisha; 
V* i. ku zangadika. 

Exile, n, i. muzangadishi. 

Expect, to, to look for, v.t, ku 
langila. To hope, trust, v. t, ku 
shoma. To trust for, v, /. ku 
shomena ; e.g.l trust him for my 
money, f . e. I expect he will pay, 
Nda mu shomena madi angu. 
To look out for, expect visitors, 
V, t, ku sompela. 

Expectorate, to, v,t. ku lapula 

Expectoration, n, 3. //. mate. 

Expend, to, to pay, v, t, ku dia. 

Expert, one who knows his busi- 
ness, as a blacksmith, n, i. muza. 

Expertly, adv, chabuza. 

ExpERTNESS, n, 4. buza. 

Explain, to, v.t. ku pandulula, 
ku pasulula; e.g. Let us explain 
this to you, A tu ma pandulwile 

Extend, to, in length, v.t, ku 
lansha; in size, v.t, ku ko- 

Exterminate, to, to finish, v.t. 
ku mana, ku xnanya. 

Extinguish, to, a fire, &c., v.t, 

. kti zhima. To be e., v.t, ku 

Extract, to, v, t. ku kusha. To 
e. a jigger, ku zepaula iundu. 
To e. a tooth, v. t. ku kula. To 
e. a thorn, v.t. ku bangula. To 
e. charge from gun, v. t, ku so- 
mona. To e. grain from a bin, 
V. t. ku banza ; ditto, for another, 
V. t. ku banzela ; ditto, in quan- 
tity, V. t, ku banzisha. 
Eye, n. 3. dinso ; //. menso. To 
have dust, &c., in e., v. pass, ku 
twewa. To put out e., ku 
tulaula menso. To open the 
eyes, v. t. ku tutulula. To open 
and shut the eyes, v. t., ku hula- 
hula, ku kopaula. To roll 
the eyes about, ku bilaola 
menso. To gaze intently in one 
direction, v.t. ku tunama. To 
wink the eye, ku shina- 
shina dinso. To look out of 
comer of eye, ku langila kunyo 
ya dinso. To eye anjrthing, v. t, 
ku chendaula. To open eyes 
very wide, v. t. ku bwamuna. 

Comer of eye, n. 8. inyo. 

Eyebrow, n. 7. chikowe. 

Eyelash, n, 8. inkowe. 

Pupil of eye, n. 8. imbone. 

Fable, n. 6, kalabL 

Face, n. 4. bushu. To lie on the 
face, V. i, ku Thundama. To 
lay on the face, v, t, ku yhunda- 

Fact, kambo ka ahiniiha, 
kambo kenikeni. 

Fade, to, as grass on a hot day, v, i, 
ku zuma. To £ as colours, v, i. 
ku kunkumuka. To f. in strength, 
v.i. ku ela; e.g. the old man is 
failing, mnpami u le ela. The 
traveller does not fjail, mwensu 

Faded, adj. -kunkuxnuahi. 

Faeces, n. 3. pi. xnazhi. 

Faint, to, to become nnconsdoiu, 
V. i. ku diftisa, ku zuminina. 
To be faint with hunger, v, i, ka 

Faith, n, 4. bnvumino, kuTumi- 
na. These words are to be used 
for < iiuth', in the sense of 'belief*; 



in the sense of ' tnist ', ' confidence 

in,' use ka shoma. 
Faithful, to be, tnutworthy, r. u 

"ka. 8h.oxn,ekA. 
Fatthfully, iuh. ohakoflhome- 

Fall, to, V, i. txL wa. To let fall, 
v.t, ku wisha. To f. off as 
feathers, v,$. to nyonkanlra. 
To t short, V. f . ka lela. To f. 
off as leaves, or fruit, v. i, ka 
tlknmnka, ka pulomuka. To 
be ready to fall, to be tottering, as 
a tree cut nearly through, v. i, ka 
nensesela. To f. backwards, 
/Ar. ka wa insala btusaahi. To 
t, into the dust, so that when you 
rise dust cleaves to you, pAr, ka 
wa ohiboiisalula. To £ down 
from a height, v,i, ka laka* 

Family, generation, ir. a. muk- 
washi; n, 3. ohila, ohlBongu. 
A person of our family, ma- 
xnbonyokwesa ; a p. of your f., 
mambonyokwena ; a p. of their 
f., mambonyokwabo. ^.f. are 
they of one £Eimily ? 8a ba banta 
mninbonyokwikbo ? Yes, they 
are ; iif, they are of one stomach 
(womb), Sya, mba ifa diomwL 

Famine, n, 8. inzala. 

Famish, to, to die of hunger, to be 
hungry, /^r. ka fwa insala. 

Famous, to be, pAr. ka ya im- 
pawo; e.^. his strength was 
famous^ i,e, noised abroad, InBana 
shakwe sha ya impawo. 

Fan, to, to winnow, v. t, ka seba. 
To fan grain or anything by waving 
something over it, v,t. ka pe- 
paola. To fim away fUes, v,t. 

Fan, n, 7. obipepaasho. 

Fang, of tooth, n, 2, muaanda; of 
snake, n. 3. dino dia naoka. 

Far, to be, v. i, ka sakana. To 
be f., long, V, u ka lampa. To 
be very L, v,u ka lampisha ; 
adv, kalale. 

Far off, adj, -aakene ; e.g.z. &r- 
off, distant conntry, chishi chisa- 

Farewell. See Adieu. 

Farm, n, a, manda. 

Fast, to be, v. i, ka kwatila ; e,g, 
the pole is fast, firm, chisamo oba 
€uij, -kwatile. 

Fast, to, to abstain from iooA, phr, 
ka dileshaka kadya, ka diima 
ahidyo. To break one's fast, phr, 
ka disaka, ka lapola mate. 

Fasten, to, to tie, v,t. ka anga. 
To f. eyes upon, gaze intently at, 
V. t, ka tanamina. 

Fastening, for door, n, a. mwin- 

Fat, n. ^,pl. mafata. 
The Hng, ifata, is used in a special 
sense ; e, g,\ have not even a little 
fat, Ni na ifata budio. Par- 
ticles of fat swimming on top of 
a liquid, n, 3. //. manyinyeBhi. 
Oil or liquid fat, n, a. mung- 
wimba. A lump of hard fat, suet, 
n. 7. ohisazo. A receptacle for 
fat, n, 8. impaa. F. surrounding 
intestines, n, 7. chizhlngabola. 
To fizz as boiling fat, v,i, ka 
chuohonia. To anoint a dead 
person with fat, phr. ka shoba 
mafti mafata. The fat congeals, 
mafata a dianga, or, a angana. 

€uij. -ina ; e.g. a fat person, ma^ 
ntu mwina. A fat beast, in- 
g'ombe injina. 

Fatal, a fatal sickness, accident, or 
other deadly thing, n, 7. ohifo. 

Father can only be expressed 
united with a pronoun. Thus : 
My father, Tata (in address, Ta). 
Thy father, oso ; thy fathers, 
batuso. His father, aslie; his 
fathers, baoshe. Our father, 
ushesa, or, tatesa ; our fathers, 
baoshesa. Your father, ashena; 
your fathers^ baoshena. Their 
father, ushabo; their fiithers, 

Father-in-law. My father-in- 
law, mokwanga; thy father-in- 
law, mokwako; his father-in- 
law, mokwakwe ; our father-in- 
law, makwesu (makwa ecu); 
your father-in-law, makwena 



(iiiiikw» enu); their iktlier-iii- 
law, nmkw&bo (nmkw* abo). 
Fatigue, n. 5. knbomtm ; n. 3. //. 

Otlicr wofds nsod in the 



Fatness, n. 4, bwinn. 
Fatten, to, v. t, kn inya. 
Fault, n. 2, nralanda. 
Favourite, child or wife, n. la. 

Fear, to, v, i. kn tia. 

Fear, n, 5. katia. Fear or dread, 

as in approadiiog a superior, n, 3. 

pi, mampnba. 
Fearful, to be, terrible, v. i. kn 

Feast, n. 3. ipobwe. A wedding 

f.» n, 3. //. TnadlanBhlma, A 

fnneral f., n, 3.//. madidila. A 

beer-drinking, n, 3. ikubL 
Feast, to, v, i. ka pobola. To 

meet for drinking beer, v.i. kn 

Feather, n, 3. ipepe. Tnft of f. 

on bird*s head, n, 6. kala; //. 

twala. Downj feathers, as on 

jonng chicken, ». 7. cfaintyo- 

mbwe. Feathers on arrow, n, 8. 

intangwa. Long tail feather, ». a. 

Feed, to, v. t. ka lela, ku sanina. 
Feel, to, v. i. & /. ku telela. 
Feeling, n. 5. kutelela. 
Feign, to, v.uta chenga. 
Fell, to, trees, v, t, ka tema. 
Fellow, an equal, friend ; mj, ma- 

longwangu, &c. 
There is a series of suffixes which 

answer to our yiot^ fellow in such 

words as fellow man. These are : 

My, -ma ; thy, -noko ; his, -nina ; 

onr, -nokwesa ; your, -nokwenu ; 

tiieir, -nokwabo. 

Examples : — 

My fellow initiate, maaama; thy f. 
i. , maaanoko ; his f . i. , muaanina ; 
our f. i., muaanokwesu; your f. i., 
maaanokwenu ; their f. i., mu- 
sanokwabo. My fellow initiates, 
basama ; thy t i., baaanoko ; his 
f i., basanina; our f.i., baaanok- 
weaa ; your f. i., baaanokwenu; 
their f. i., baaanokwabo. 

nmfoshima, my iidlow blacksmith. 

mnkaxhima^ my fellow wife ; used 
by the wi^es ii a polygamist. 

xnolatima, my fellow missionary, 
my colleague. 

mantama, my fellow man. 

mapenBhlVna, my fellow sufferer ; 
used by people who have been 
through some difficulty together. 

n mt w aalilma, one who is married 
into the same family as myself — ^my 
brother-in-law, my sister-in-law. 

mawestdiiia, my fellow hunter. 

nnmhaahlma^ my fellow parent, 
used by people who are connected 
by the marriage of their children. 

moshichema, my fellow slave. 

mwftnimma, my fellow traveller. 


Female, adf, -shaahi, -tombe* 
Fence, n, 9. lonlcolo, Ixiba. An 

inner fence of reeds, &c., n, 7. 

ohimpinda. A place thus fenced 

off, If. 7. ohilw&. A fence for 

a chief, it. 3. idinga. 
Ferment, to, v. i. ka yaoma. 
Ferment, malt, 0. 4. bomena. 

Applied also to yeast. 
Bumena is used by the natives in 

making beer. It is made from 

grain by soaking until it sprouts. 

It is then put aside to dry, and is 

then boiled up with the beer. 
Ferry, crossing-place, n, 3. ilaado. 
Ferry, to, to take across a river, 

V, t. ka landoaha. 
Ferryman, n, i. molandoahi. 
Fertile, to be, v, t. ka ina. 
Fetch, to, v. t, ka leta. To come 

to receive aujrthing, v.U ka 

Fetter, for feet and hands, n* 7. 

chidiba ; ibr the neck, if. 8. in- 

kabo, impangati. 
Fever, ague, if. 2. mwansa. To 

have ague, ka ahangama mva- 

Few, adj. -ongeana; e.g. a few 

people, banta boogeana. 
Fickle, changeable, v. tl ka san- 




Field, cultivated land, n. 2, mtiiida; 
//. miunda. A deserted f., n. 3. 
itonffo. A f. where the grain has 
been gathered, the stalks left 
standing, n, 7. ohikaba. A C of 
gronnd-nuts, n, 7. ehinyemo. A 
small £, garden, n. 7. ohikuti. 
A f. cultivated three years in suc- 
cession, and then left fallow, n, 7. 
ohilala. A f. hoed up in dry 
season before spring, n. 4. bu- 
konlnu A f. partly prepared at 
end of wet season, n, 4. buahinde. 
To go to make new fields, v, /. kn 

Fierce, aify\ -kadi. 

Fierceness, n, 4. bukadi 

Fifteen, num, ikumi diomwi o 
mu nteaha shosanwe. 

Fifth, mim. -aano, prefixed by gen. 

Fifty, num. maknmi osanwa. 

Fig, wild, n, 8. inkoni. 

Fight, to, w. *. ku Iwa. To f. 
for, p. /. ku Iwila. To f. against, 
V, t, ku Iwisha. To f. together, 
V. /. ku l-wana. 

Fig-tree, wild, n. 4. bnknzu. 

Figure, image, picture, parable, 
n, 7. ohikoBhano. 

File, n» ^. ibeleko. 

File, to, to f. teeth, v, /. ku p^pen- 
yeka. To walk in single f., pAr, 
ku enda mulongo. 

FiLLy TO, tf, /. ku Buaha. To fill up 
a grave or hole, v. t, ku vukaila. 

Filth, h, 5. itomba. 

Filthily, €ukf, chetomba. 

Fin, side f. of fish, n. 3. itende ; f. 
on back of fish, n, 9. longo ; //. 
in^ngo ; longololo, pi, ingo- 

Final, to be, v.u'kXL mana. 

Find, to, v.t, ku yana. 

Fine, to be, v, u ku bota,ku ebeka. 

Fine, to, v, t. ku landa. To im- 
pose a fine for, v, t ku landila ; 
e.^.1 fine you for your laziness, 
Nda ku landila a bukata 
bwako. Of a lot of people pay- 
ing one man's fine, if* /. ku enga. 
To pay a fine for somebody, tf, t, 

Finger, n. 2. munwe. Names 
given to fingers and thumb by 
diildren : (i) Little finger,kanten. 
geaa; they say, Kantengeaa, 
kantengesa banako badibon- 
gai? (a) namunwemunwe ; 
(3) shimulalakati ; (4) nangan- 
damulesa; (5) ehikombokom- 
Finger-nail, n, 90. Iwala. 
Finger- ring, n, 8. inwenwe. 
Finish, to, v. /. ku mana. 
Fink, n, 4. busokoshi. 
Fire, n, a. mudilo. Flame of f., 
n, 3. ibangabanga. Firebrand, 
n, 8. insama. Hot earth under 
the fire, n, 3. ifokusi. Big fire 
in cattle kraal, n, 2, mukwashi. 
Fireplace, n. 7. chiko. To set 
on fire, v, /. ku tenta. To re- 
plenish a fire, v. /. ku sesela. To 
beat out a fire, v, t. ku hupaula. 
To produce fire by friction, v, /. 
ku pika. 
Firefly, m. 6. kamweshimweshi. 
Firewood, n, 9. lukuni; //. in- 
kuni. A log of f., lukuni. A 
bundle of f., n. 7, chile. T6 
gather f., v, /. ku chaba. 
Firm, to be, of a stick, &c., v,i, 
ku kwatila. To be firm, tough, 
hard, strong, of a person, v, i. ku 
kdla, ku suma. 
First, adj. -tanahi ; n, 9. lutan- 
zhi ; e.g, the first person, muntu 
mutanzhi; the first child, first- 
bom, mwana mutanshi. 
First, to be, v. i, ku tanguna. 
Fish, n, 8. inawi. A bundle of 
fresh f.. If. 3. ikoka; ditto, of 
dried f., n. 7. chikata. Fish-spear> 
n. 2. mumba; //. miumba. 
Fish-hook, n, 6. kalobo ; n. %. 
iwezhi ; n, 8. impute. Bait for 
fish, n. 4. bupo. Fishing-net, 
n. 9. lutele, luyaba. Traps for 
fish, n. 3. iBhi2hi,ivhumbo; #1.9. 
lushiko. A fish-basket, n, 7. 
dhizongo. A fish-string for 
threading, n, a. moze. Poison 
put in river to kill fish, n. i a, 
tinde ; n. 6. kanyangalakata ; 
n, 7. ohiweaese. Roe of fish, 



n. 4. buyi. A midnight fishing, 
n, 3. ikuo. A reed stockade 
stretched across a river for catch- 
ing fish, n. 9. Iwando. To catch 
fi£ with hook, v. t, ku loba. To 
catch fish by trap, or net, v, t, leu 
sola. To poison the river, v. t, 
ku twilft. "Fo get a draught of 
fishes drawn to the bank, v. t. ku 
fWika. To get fish, v. /. ku 
cba ; e,g. How many fish did yon 
get? "Wa ya ku oha shongai 

List of Fishes. 

Imbavu (kind of bream), Chiae- 
kele, Intungu, Ealongwe, Mu- 
lopwe, Mulumbu, Muzonzwe, 
Secbokochoko, Mubondo (bar- 
bel), Shalusuke, or, Shimbe- 
mbe, Shimulele, Inkungwe, 
Fata, Izanshl 

Fisherman, n. i. muEezhi. 

Fist, tu 8. imfunshi. 

Fit, to be, v, t, ku ela, ku elela ; 

e.g. these clothes fit me, Shiko- 

belo aheshi a a njelela. 
Five, num. -sanwe ; e, g, five fish, 

inawi shoaanwe. 
Fix, to, to t spear-head in shaft by 

means of a glae made of root of 

the musese tree, v. t, ku pomba. 
Fixed, adj, -kwatile. 
Flag, n, 8. imb&kani. 
Flame, n. 3. ibangabanga. 
Flap, to, as a bird £ wings, v. t. 

ku ditikumuna. 
Flat, to be, v. i. ku pampamana. 
Flat, adj. -pampamene. 
Flatten, to, v. t. ku pampamika. 
Flea, ». 8. injina. 
Flee, to, v. i. ku tia. 
Fleetly, adv. chalubilo. 
Fleetness, n. 9. lubilo. 
Flesh, n. 4. busane. 
Float, to, v. i. ku ibauka. 
Flood, to, v. i. ku paya; e.g. the 

river is full and floods, Iwenge 

Iwe aula, Iwa paya. 
Floor, to stamp a f.,ku ahimbila. 

A threshing-floor, n. 9. lubanza. 
Flour, n. 4. bufu. 
Flow, to, v. i. ku kunka. 

Flower, n. 9. luluba ; //. induba; 
n. 3. //. malangalanga. A 
cluster of flowers, n. 4. buluba. 
Female flower of maize, boza, 
ohoza, buzunde. 

Fly, to, v. i. ku uluka. To fly 
very high, v. i. ku zumuka. 

Fly, common, n. 8. inzhi. Cattle- 
fly, n. 8. inzMmbwa. A large 
biting f.. If. 8. impobe. Sand- 
flies, n. 4. bumpuausu; one 
single fly, n. 6. kaxnpususu. 
Tsetse fly, n. 1 a, ahiluka ; //. 
baahiluka. Of many tsetse, n. 9. 

Fly-whisk, made of an animal's 
tail, n» 2. mwiko. 

Fog, mist, n. i a. ahikunku ; n. 8. 

Fold, to, v. t. ku vhunga. To f. 
the arms,kudikunibataiaata8hi. 
To f. up as a folding-table, v. t. 
ku shikaula. To f. over, hem, 
V. t. ku lundlla. 

Follow, to, v. t. ku chidila. To 
f. spoor,/^r. ku tobela mikondo. 

Folly, n. 4. budimbushi. 

Food, n. 7. //. ahidyo, bidyo, 
ahakudya. An article of food, 
n. 7. chidyo. A small quantity 
of food, n, 6. //. tudyo. Food 
for a journey, n. 4. budilo. Some- 
thing to give relish to food, n. 7. 

Fool, n. i. mudimbushL Other 
names given to a fool are, namu- 
zhiwe, shikazwa, shikuizinze. 

Fool, to be, v. i. ku dimbuka. 

Foolish, adj. -dimbushi. 

Foolishly, adv. chabudixnbuahi. 

Foolishness, n. 4. budimbushi. 

Foot, n. 3. itende; n. 7. ohi- 
fumba. F. or paw of a cat-like 
animal, n. 7. ohituta. F. or hoof, 
n. 9. lufumba. 

Footstep, -mark, n, 2. mukondo. 
Noise of footsteps when walking, 
n. 2. muchinohi. 

For, ^ep. Expressed in relative 
species of verb; e.g. to receive 
for somebody, ku tambwila. To 
come for, ku zila. 
Cifft/, because, ukuti. 



Forbear, to, to f. to act, v, L ka 

Forbid, to, v.t, ku kasha. See 

Force, strength, n, 8. inaana. 
Forcibly, adv, chanaana. To 

take things from one by force, v, t. 

ka anjila. 
Ford, n, 3. ilando ; n, 7. chito. 
Forearm, n, a. mukono. 
Forehead, ». 8. inkumu. 
Foreleg, n, 5. kolu ; //. mania. 
Forenoon, early, n, 7. chikaaa- 

Forerunner, n, i. moaoloahi. 
Forest, n, a. muaanza. A dense 

£, If. 6. kaaaka. 
Forge, place where blacksmith 

works, n, 8. inaaka. 
Forget, to, v. t. ka ahinaoka, ka 

Forgive, to, v, /. ka kwatila. He 

forgives him in mercy, wa ma 

kwatila luae. 
Forgiveness, n, 5. kakwatila. 
Fork, table f., n. 3. for, ifoko. 

Forked stick, n. 7. ohanda; 

ditto, for tying slaves in, if. 8. 

impangati, ix^cabo. 
Form, to, v, t, ka bomba. To 

form for somebody, v. /. ka bu- 

mbila. To f. carefully, nicely, z^. /. 

ka bumbiaha. To f. into a ball, 

V, t, ka bamba-bamba. 
Formerly, adv, latanzhi. 
Fornicate, to, ka ba mwamu. 
Fornication, ». 4. bwama. 
Fornicator, n. i. mwama. 
Forsake, to. See Abandon. 
Fortunately, (tdv, chesambwe. 
Fortune, good, n, 3. iaambwe, 

n, 7. ctaolwe, choba. 
Forty, num. makumi one. 
Forward, adv. ambele, kumbele. 

Forward ! forward ! Imbele- 

mbele ! 
Found, to, establish, v,t. ka 

Fountain, n, 3. mwinzo. 
Four, num. -ne ; e.g. four things, 

ahinta shone. 
Fourteen, num, ikomi diomwi o 

ma nteaha shone. 

Fourth, num. -ne, prefixed by gen. 

Fowl, domestic, n. 8. inkoka. 

Fragment, broken piece of cala- 
bash, n. 6. kapapa ; broken piece 
of spear-shaft, n. 7. chipipila. 

Free, to, to f. a person by getting 
him off, or pajring his fine, v. t. ka 
pasala. To be freed from one*s 
fault, V. i. ka pasoka. 

Freely, adv. chabadio; t.g. I 
give you this freely, i. e. without 
payment, Nda ka pa ohecbi 

Frequently, adv. kanji. 

Friend, my, n. i. malongwanga; 
thy, molongwako ; his, malong- 

Friendship, n. a. malongo. To 
form a friendship, covenant, phr. 
ka tanga mulongo. 

Frighten, to, v. t. ka tiaha. 

Fringe, n. 4. bwaya. 

Frog, n. 1 a. bombwe ; a small, 
n. I a. kabombwe ; //. ba-. 

From, prep, ka, kwa. 

Front, n. 4. boshu. To go in 
front, ahead, v. i. kn solola. In 
front, adv. kambele, ambele. 

Frost, n. 7. chandwa. 

Froth, on milk or beer, n. 3. iovo. 

Frown, to, phr. kn zhinga tnn- 
kaaa, kn zhinga twimba. 

Frozen, to be, v. i, kn andwa. 

Fruit, n. 2. mnohelo. To bear fruit, 
ka ezha,ka ela. To gather, pluck, 
V. t. ka chela. To have almost 
ripe fruit, of a tree, v. t. ka olozha. 

Names of Fruits. 

All eaten by the people, 

Iwi, Ita- (wild orange), Inko- 
.mona, Inghnma (of palm trees), 
Chongola, Intnmbnlwa, Ifambo, 
Chingvnbika, Isane^-sangu (snuff- 
boxes made of shell), Isansa (bunch 
of wild grapes ; single fruit is called 
Mnsansa), Mtusompe, Ibungo, 
Itobo, Shikameba, Ohibnmbn, 
Shikisn, Ibnmbu, Chibnlan- 
shi, Chibwebwe, lannka, Mu- 
shibi, Imbula, Inkuzn, Injenje, 
Chenjekotwe, Montamba, Maya. 



Fugitive, adj, -loboshi. 

Full, to be, v, u ku izula (kwi- 
zula). Of the moon, v» i, ku 
zhuka. To be brim full, v. u ku 
ftindidila. To be half full, phr, 
kudi inusa. To be very full, of 
a river, v. i, ku pimba. 

Funnel, basket-funnel of calabash 
churn, n. 4. busaka. 

Fur, n, 4. boza. 

Furrow, on forehead, n, 8. inkusa. 

Gain, to, v. t, ku fua. 

Gale, a strong wind, »• 3. ikunku, 

Gall, n. 8. iiidulwe;^. 2. mululwe. 
Gall-bladder, ». 3. isubilo dia 

Gallop, to, of cattle and horses, 

V. i. ku kalata. 
Game, animals of chase, n, i. mun- 

yaxna; //. banyama. See Hst 

under Animal. 
Names of games : n. 7. chisolo ; 

n. 8. intela \ n. la. namuche- 

chadi ; ». 5. kushanga ; n. i a. 

uchinemunemu ; ». 6. kata; 

n, I a. shimunyeu, kafumba- 

bombe-bombe ,* n. 5. kupwa; 

If. 4. bungo; n. i a. namuzun- 

Game-path, n, 2, mukula, mu- 

Game-pit, fu 2, mulambwe. 
Gaol, prison, n. %,for intelongo. 
Gap, n» 2. xnusena. 
Gape, to, to yawn, phr, ku dya 

mwao , ku fwa mwao. To gape, 

be open, of wound, &c., v, i, ku 

Gaping, adj. -lakushl 
Garden, n, 6. kaunda ; n, 7. dii- 

kuti. A field, n, 2. munda. A 

large field or garden, n, 3. 

The //. maunda, used of forest 

where people go to gather fruit in 

time of famine. 
Gardener, n, i. mudimi. 
Garden hut, erected for the season 

for use when watching gardens, 

n. 7. ohitungu ; i». 6. kf^udi. 
.Gargle, to, v, U ku diaukulula. 

Garment. See Clpthing. An old 
garment, n* 2. mukula. 

Garrulous, to be, phr, kudi 

Garrulousness, n. 4. bwanta. 

Garrulous person, n. 1 0. ohib- 
wanta; //. bachibwanta. 

Gash, to, v, /. ku nenga. 

Gasp, to, to breathe with open 
mouth, V, f. ku fwekexna. 

Gate, n, 7. chitendele. 

Gateway, of kraal, ». 2. mwa- 
tuzho. Poles to close g., placed 
yertically, n, 2. pL TniBhinko ; 
ditto, placed horizontally, n, 4. 

Gather, to, v,t. ku bunga, ku 
bungika, ku bunganya, ku 
kunga-kuDga. To g. up dung 
into heaps, to g. weeds hoed up 
in field, z/. /. ku bunga. To g. 
stones, &c, into a heap, v. /. ku 
lundika. To g. by raking, 
sweeping, v,t, ku p61a. To g. 
firewood, v, t, ku ohaba. To g. 
people together, v, t, ku bungika, 
ku bunganya. To make a 
gathering in cloth, blanket, &c., 
V, t, ku fonka. V, i, ku bun- 
gana, ku zoboloka. 

Gathering, assembly, n, 8. imbu- 
ngano ; n, 9. lubeta. 

Gathers, made in cloth, &c, n, 2. 
munkonya ; //. minkonya. 

Generation, n. 2. musela. 

Genial, to be, phr. kudi ahib- 

Genial person, n, la, sliib- 

Geniality, n. 4. bwanga. 

Genitals. See under Body. 
Words beginning with Bu- denoting 
quality, status, are also used to 
express the genitals euphemistic 
cally. Thus : 

Buchende, quality of a bull, genitals 
of a bull. 

Bukalntu, feminine quality, geni- 
tals of a woman. 

Bukazhi, female quality, genitals of 
female animal. 

Bulombwana, quality of a man, 
genitals of a man. 



Gently, adv, kabotn-lEabota. 

Genus, kind, n. a. mukomo. 

Get, to, v, i. ka bwema. To g. 
wealth, to gain, v. /. ka ftuk To 
g. up, V, f . ka buka. To g. out 
of the way, v, i. ka sefloka. 

Ghost, spirit of departed, n, 2, 
moBhimo ; n. la, ahikaswa, 

These names axe given to the spirits 
of the dead. They are belieyed 
to be in the power of the mun- 
ganga and balozhi, who can send 
tiiem to kill people. It is also 
said that if any living person, 
except he has medicine to protect 
him, sees one of these, he will die. 

Ghost, Holt, Mosa a Sweya. 

Giant, n, i. mimgwala. A very 
tall person is nidcnamed a palm 
tree, kalala ; a tall, stout person, 
a baobab, ibiuo. 

Gift, See Present 

Gill, of fish, n. 3. ilakula. 

Giraffe, n. i. a, intutwa. Not 
found in Bwila, but tiie name is 

Gird, to, v, /. ka ahingasha ; to 
be girded, v. i. ka Bbinguka. To 
g. oneself, ka dishingasha. 

Girdle, n, 9. latambo; n. 2. 
mwambo. Women's g. of beads, 
n, 8. insapo. 

Girl, before puberty, ir. i. ma- 
shiinbi. A big girl, n. 7. ohi- 
shixnbL A young girl, n. 6. 
kashimbL At and after puberty, 
n. I a, kamwale. 

Girlhood, before puberty, n. 4. 
bashimbi ; after puberty, n. 4. 

Girlish, Girlishly, adv, chaba- 
ahimbi, chakashimbi, chaka- 

Give, to, vJ, ka pa. To g. a 
present at close of a sale, v, U ka 
shidikila. To g. a present, phr, 
ka pa mpasela. To g. one food 
left over in pot, v, t, ka pasha, 
ka kombya. To g. to one to take 
to another, v. t. ka tambikizha. 
To g., to offer, 7. / ka tambika. 


Glad, to be, v. i. ka botelwa, 
ka tangala. 

Gladden, to, v, L ka botealia, 
ka tangasha. 

Gladly, ath, chakabotelwa, 

Glass, n, 7. chimbone. Name 
applied to window or mirror. 

Glean, to, v, t. ku papula. 

Glitter, to, v. i. ka beka. 

Glorify, to, to praise, »./. ka 
lamba, ku tembaula. 

Glory, brightness, cleanness, n. 4. 
buaweyo. Honour, dignity, n, 4. 

Glow-worm, ». 6. kamweshim- 

Glue, to, v. /. ku pomba. 

Glutton, n. 1 a. shindy a. 

Glutton, to be a, phr. kudi 
shindy a. 

Gluttony, ». 8. indya. 

Gnash, to, the teeth, />&r. ku luma 

Gnaw, to, as a dog a bone, v, t. ku 
lukuta. As a rat a piece of wood, 
V, t, ku papumuna. 

Gnu, n, i a, munyumbwi ; //. 
bamunyumbvTi; a small, young, 
kanga- munyumbv^ 

Go, TO, v,u ku ya. To go for, 
V. L ku ila. To go ont of a village 
in numbers, v. i, ku pupuma ; e.g, 
they go out to a traveller, ba la 
pupumina mwenzu. To go one 
behind another, ku tunga mu- 
longo, ku enda mulongo. To 
go stooping, as after game, v, i, 
ku benda. To go stealthily, as 
a cat, V. i, ku nanamba. To go 
quickly, v, i, ku fwamba, ku 
fwambana. To go down as a 
swelling, v.i. ku zhimbuluka. 
To go down as a flood, v, i, ku 
yosa, ku pompa. To go round 
in a circuit, v. i. ku zhinguluka. 
To go round, v, i. ku zhinguka. 
To go to bed hungry, phr, ku 
ona ayo ; v. i. ku ihupika. To go 
out as fire, ku zhiluka. To go 
about, V, I. ku endenda. To go 
aside, v, i, ku ambuka. To go 
out of sight, disappear, v, i, ku 



petuka. To go ahead, v, i, ku 

Goat, n, 8. impongo. Male goat, 

n. I. mOngo. 
Goblet, «. 7. ohinwino. 
God, Xieza. Other names given to 

the Supreme Being are : 

Babulaladiwila, the one who 

throws down for himself the 

imbula fruit. 
Chilenga, the one who institutes 

customs, &c. 
Ipaokubozha, the one who gives 

gifts and rots them. 
Ijubolekamasiiko, the one who 

rots the masuko, a fruit which goes 

rotten in the rainy season. 
Ijubumba, the Creator. 
Mangwe, the sender of so much 

water that there is no place left 

Muninde, the giver of thunder and 

much rain. 
Mutalabala, the one who does what 

no other can do. 
Ifamese, the rain-giver. 
Shakemba, the rain-giver. 
ITshatwakwe, that all things are 

his, and he can do as he wishes. 

Ila ideas concerning God are of the 
vaguest description : it is very 
difficult to discover what they 
actually, apart from Christian 
teaching, think about God. From 
the names given above, which may 
be said to sum up the Ila theology, 
it is seen that Leza is closely iden- 
titied with nature, but as Lubumba, 
the Creator, He is above nature, 
and as Chilenga He is regarded as 
the grand institutor of customs. 
So close is the connexion of God 
and Nature that rain is given the 
same name, Leza. Yet it is not 
plain that they regard rain and 
God as one and the same; but 
rather that, rain being considered 
as God's chiefest and best gift, it 
has come to pass that giver and 
gift have been given the same 
name ; but the identification is in 
name only. That they are not 

considered as one is shown by the 
people ascribing to God whatever 
they cannot understand. Thus of 
the lightning they say, ' God is 
angry, and of a tree struck by 
lightning they say it is split by 
Leza. So of thunder, they say, 
* God is hoeing deeply,' * God is 
shaking His skins.* 
The Baila seem to regard Leza as 
their own particular tribal God, 
and imagine that each nation has 
its own deity. They do pray 
to Him on occasion : prayers 
are also addressed to the Miz- 
himo, the ancestral spirits, the idea 
seeming to be that the Mizhimo 
act between God and man. God 
has little influence over their lives, 
none at all over their morals. The 
name Ushatwakwe indicates a 
more or less fatalistic belief, f . e, 
that God will do as He lists, apart 
from us : that we are in the hands 
of fate. In connexion with this 
idea there is the saying that when 
a person dies God has plucked His 
fruit, f . e. He has a right to do as 
He will with His own. 
It is interesting to note that Leza 
is a widespread name for God in 
the centre of Africa. In the west 
the general name is Nyambi or 
Nzambi; in the east Mulungn. 
Between these there is a large 
number of languages which con- 
tain the name Leza, or some slight 
phonetic modification of it. Thus: 
Iiesa in Lamba, Sodi, Luba, 
Bemba,Bisa; while Luba (Congo), 
Subia, Tonga, and Ila.have JLess; 
and Karanga has Beja, and 
Mbunda, Bedza. In Nyanja, 
where the word for God is Ma- 
lungu, Leza or Resa is found; 
according to Laws, uta-wa-lesa, 
the rainbow, means bow of spirit, 
bow of God. (Cf. Ila, buta bwa 
Ijeza.) Rebman says Mwana 
wa Besa means the Rainbow. 

Godhead, n. 4. buleza. 

Gold, n, %.for, ingolida. 

Good, to be, v. ^ ku bots. Of a 



roady v.i, ka sslala. A good 
man, phr. montn suso. 

Good, adj. -botu ; e, g, good fruit, 
micdieio xnibotu. 

Good-bye, to say, v, i. kn lasha. 

Goodness, n. 4. bubotu. 

Goose, wild, n. i a. nachisekwe. 

Gospel, «. 3..^. Ivangele. 

Govern, to, v, /. kn endela. 

Governor, n, i. mwendeBhi. 

Grace, mercy, m. 9. lose. 

Grain, n. 3. //. msila. Inyanti 
grain, n. 3.//. mansi. Kaffir com, 
maoheme, kolwe, matuba. 
Maize, n. 3. pL mapopwe. Late- 
grown maize, n, i a. namutompo. 
A stack of maize, n. 8. inknngo ; 
n,\a. ahikule. G^ain-bins, n. 3. 
iatunpila ; n, 4. butala ; #f . 7. 
ohnmbwa. Sheath of maize, n, 3. 

' ikwelele. Earofmacheme, if. 3. 
ikunka. Bare maize cob, n. 8. 
inkoahi. Cob of maize without 
sheath, n, 3. ipumbulu. Maize- 
flower, n, 6. kalani; female ditto, 
bosa, choza, bturande. Plat- 
form for storing grain or nuts, 
n. 4. bnsanaa. Grain first show- 
ing above the ground, n, 4. bu- 
songa. A single grain, if. 8. in- 
seke. A small quantity of grain, 
If. 9. Itmga. To eat young maize, 
v./. kn soma. To stack up 
maize,/^r. ku anghika inkungo. 
To harvest g., v,t. ku tebula. 
To stamp com, ku chokola, ku 
j>olola, ku andanla, ku twa 
(different stages). To take maize 
off the cobs, v, /. ku bulula. 

Grandchild, my, if. i. musu- 
kushangu ; thy, muaukuzha- 
ko ; his, muzuknahakwe, &c. 

Grandparent, if. la. kaka, 

Grapes, wild, if. 2. musanaa; 
bunch of. If. 3. iaansa. 

Grasp, to, with both hands, v,t, 
ku fukatila. To g. firmly, v. U 
kn AxkatiBha. To cause to g., 
V. /. kn ftikatiaha. 

Grass, if. 4. bwisu. A kind of 
grass used for mats, if. 2 . musems ; 
another kind, if. 3. //. znanyan- 

Bha, mauongwe. Thatching- 
grass, If. 2. muntende. Used by 
natives for thatching, if. 6. ka- 
vhumbe, kalalatimba. Quitch- 
grass, If. 9. I070. Old dry un- 
bnmt grass, if. 7. chant. A kind 
of running grass, if. 6. kaleba- 
bodi. Young juicy grass, if. 2. 
mwemvu. A kind of tall, rough 
grass, If. 8. impolwe. A sharp, 
three-edged grass, if. i a. nya- 
mbaula. A kind of thin, tough 
grass, very suitable for thatching. 
If. 9. luaange. A very tough 
grass, used to make rope, if. 4. 
bunahinde. Grass by the side of 
a river, if. 3. iaale. A patch of 
old dry grass, if. 7. ohizu. Grass 
seed, which adheres to clothing, 
If . 8. inaoki. To clear away grass, 
V, t. ku sebula. A small bundle 
of grass, If. 8. inkama. A large 
bundle of grass, if. 2. mule. 

Grasshopper, if. i a. bimba ; if. 8. 

Grave, if. 7. ohilendi. Other 
names given tog., if. 7. ohifWene, 
ohumbwe; if. 2. mulenda. A tree 
planted by a grave, if. 3.ibwabwa. 
A grove of trees planted around 
a grave, if. 3. //. mabwabwa. 

Grateful, to be, v, i. ku lumba. 

Gratefully, adv. chakulumba. 

Gravel, if. 4. btibwebtibwe ; if. 7, 

Gravy, if. 2. muahinaa. 

Gray hair, if. 8. invhi. 

Graze, to, v,t, ku kupula; v.i. 
ku kupuka. Of cattle, &c., v. i. 
ku chela 

Great, adj. -kando. 

Great, to be, v.i. ku komena. 
To be very great, big, v. i. ku ko- 
menesha. To make great, v.t. 
ku komezha. 

Greatly, adv. ak&ndo. So greatly, 
how greatly, adv. chanyabo. 

Greed, Greedjiness, n. 8. indya. 

Green, colour, if. 3. itubuzhu. 

Grief, sorrow, if. 4. biisu. 

Grieve, to, v. i. ku usa. To weep 
for, V. t. ku didila. To g., or be 
snlky, because made to do some* 



thing against one's will, v, f . kn 
pisauka ; v. t, ku pisaiisha. 

Grind, to, as knives, v, t» ku 
kwanga. As com, tobacco, v, t, 
ku shila. 

Grindstone, for knives, &c., phr, 

. ibwe dia kukwanga. Upper 
stone for grinding com, n, 8. 
impelwe. Another stone used 
in connexion with above, n, 8. 
ingvhula, imanzho. 

Groan, to, v, i, ku tongela, ku 
boba. The last dying groan of 
man or animal, n, 2. munkanga. 

Grope, to, to g. about in dark to 
find anything, v, i, ku ampasha. 
Of a blind man, v. i. ku ofwala. 

Ground. See Earth. 

Ground-nut, «. 8. inyemo. Varie- 
ties, n. 8. impute, impumpu; 
n, a. muninga. 

Grove, around grave, n, 3. pi. 

Grow, to, as plants, vegetation, 
V. i. ku xnena. As people, v. i, 
ku kula. To cause to grow, v. t, 
ku meneka, ku kuzha. 

Growl, to, v. i, ku huluxna. 

Growth, of plants, n. 5. kumena. 
Of a child, n, 5. kukula. 

Grub, found in maize-stalk, n, i a. 

Grudge, to, to be gradging, un- 
willing in giving or working, v, f. 
kunyonyonoka, ku nyonauka ; 
f. g. He gives us food gradgingly, 
"Wa tu nyonauklla. To cause to 
be grudging, unwilling, v, t, ku 
nyonausba ; as when you make 
one work against his will. 

Grumble to, v,i. ku tongauka, 
ku sholauka. To speak aside in 
a grambling way, v, u ku vwiya. 

Grumble, n, 8. intongo ; e,g, stop 
your grumbles, a mu leke in- 
tongo shenu. 

Grumbler, n, i a. shintongo. 

Grunt, to, v» i. ku fwemba. 

Guard, to, v. t. ku dindila. 

Guess, to, as a riddle correctly, v, t, 
ku labukulula. 

Guest, n. 2. mwenzu. 

Guide, to, v.t, ku enaha. 

Guide, n. i. mwenshi, musolozhi. 

Guile, n, 3. //. mano. 

Guilty, to be : to be found guilty 
after examination, v, i. ku sulwa. 
To find guilty, v, /. ku sula. To 
be ashamed because of guilt, v, i. 
ku fulaika ; e. g. We are ashamed 
of our sin before God, Twa 
fulaika ambele dia Iiesa. To 
express * to be guilty of so and so ' 
one must say, he is guilty of 
murder — he has killed somebody, 
wa ya^a muntu. 

Guinea fowl, n, 8. inkanga. 

Gullet, n. 2. mumino. 

Gulp, to, to swallow in a gulp, ku 
To gulp down food without chew- 
ing it, phr, ku mina mukunku- 

Gum, of teeth, n. 7. cMshishini ; 
exuded from tree, n. 8. impompo. 

Gun, n. 8. intobolo ; n, 3. itangu- 
la. Stock of, n. 3. itako. Wood 
at back of barrel, chiaamo cha 
ntobolo. Sight of, n, 3. dinso. 
Trigger, n. 2. munono ; n, i a. 
nalunkalamba. Barrel, n. 2. 
muludi. Hammer, n. 7. ohi- 
pani. Nipple on which cap is 
put, n. I a, suko. Gun-cap, n, 8. 

Habit, custom, n, 7. cbianaa. 

Haematuria, n, 3. ishinga. 

Haemorrhage, blood, n. 4. buloa. 
To bleed at the nose, 9. f. ku 

Hail, n. 7. chivliulamabwei 

Hair, n. 3. isuao, maauso. Single 
hair, if. 8. insuki. Hair or wool 
or fur of animals, also body-hair 
of people, n, 4. boza. Hair,.&c., 
on animals* back, which can be 
made to rise, mane, mwala, 
musukwe. Grey hair, n, 8. 
j^vhi. Bunch of hair left on head 
when rest is shaved off, n, 7. ohi- 
aumpa. Hair on abdomen, H. 3. 
mulalabungu. On pubes, in 
armpit, n. 3. //. mazha. Rought 
uncombed hair, n, 3. Ikanka. 
Straight hair, such as European's, 



n, 2. //. miepo. A hairy person, 
n, I. mutundtu To dress hair, 
v.t, ku aukula. To cut hair, 
V, /. ku shisa. 

Hairy person, n. i. mutundii; 
If. 3. iknlsbuahiktu 

Half, n. 3. /or. Ihafo. Half or 
piece of broken spear, n, 7. chipi- 
pila. To be half full, kudi 

Hallow, to, to choose, set apart, 
v./. ku saUu To honour, v.t, 

Halo. When the people see a halo 
around the sun or moon they say, 
* To-day there is judgement above^* 
TJsunundu lubeta kwiseulu. 

Halt, to, to be lame, v,i, ku 
Bunkuta. To stand or stop, v, 1. 

Hammer, h. 8. inTundo; n» 7. 

Hammer, to, v. /. ku kankamlna. 

Hand, n. 3. itashi. Right hand, 
n, 9. ludio. Left hand, n, 7. 
ohimonswe. To grasp with both 
hands, v, /. ku fukatila, ku shi- 
katila. To hold out the hand to 
give, V. /. ku tambika ; ditto to 
receive, v, /. ku tambula. A left- 
handed person, n, 1 a, Shiohi- 

Handle, or sheath of knife, n, 7. 
ohilalo. Of axe or pick, n, a. 
mwini. Shaft of spear, n» 9. 
lusako. Handle of cup, n, 7. 
cMkole. Of a door or tool, n. 7. 
ohikwatilo; n» 3. //. makwa- 
tilo. To come out (of handle), 
V, i. ku kuka. To put in a handle, 
9. /. ku kwika. 

Hang, to, to h. up as on a nail, 
v,i, ku xuanika, ku anahika. 
To h. down or be suspended, v. i, 
ku lengelela. To h. or suspend, 
«./, ku lengelezha. To h. a 
chain round neck and under one 
arm, v^L ku pakata. To h. 
clothes out to dry, v, t, ku 
aanika. To 1l up carefully, 
well, V, t, ku anzhikiaha. To h. 
up for somebody, v^ U ku anshi* 

Happiness, n, 7. cholwe, choba. 

Happy, to be, phr. kudi cholwe, 
kudi choba. To be made happy, 
v.pass. ku longelwa. To make 
happy, V. /. ku longesha. 

Hard, to be, v. i. ku auma. To 
make hard, v, t. ku aumya. A 
very hard thing, such as heart of 
mopani, n. 8. iiijelu. 

Hard , adj. -auxno. Very hard, dry, 
adj. -kukutu. e.g. dry, hard 
meal, bufu buaumo. The meat is 
very hard, it isnot cooked, buzane 
mbukukutu, bwina ku biawa. 

Hard man, as in bargaining, &c., 
n. I . xnukukutu. 

Hardness, M.4. buzumo; extreme 
h., n. 4. bukukutu; e.g. this 
man is quite insensible, weau 
muntu wa zuma bukukutu. 

Hare, n. i a. sulwe ; a young, 
small, kanga-sulwe. 

Harm, to, v.t, ku biaha, ku 

Harmless, to be, v. i. ku bomba. 
Of an animal which does not 
spring upon you when wounded, 
I. e. is easily killed, v. i. ku yayika. 

Harp, n. %.for. inkalepa. 

Harshly, adv. chalusunau. 

Harsh man, n. i a, shilusunsu. 
To be harsh, phr. kudi ahilu- 

Harshness, n, 9. luaunau. 

Hartebeest, n. i a, konzo ; pL 
bakonze. A small, young kanga- 

Harvest, to, v. t. ku tebula. To 
reap, cut off the macheme, V. t, 
ku konka. 

Haste, n. 9. lubilo. To make 
haste in going, phr. ku tola lu- 
bilo ; ditto, in coming, phr. ku 
leta lubilo. 

Haste, to, to be in a hurry, v. i. 
ku binda. To hasten one, v. t. 
ku fwanzha, ku binzha. To 
make haste, travel quickly, v.i. 
ku bilana. To hasten, cause to 
travel quickly, v. t. ku bilanya. 
To make haste, v. 1. ku fwam*- 
pauka. To come or go or do 
quickly, v. i. ku aansavSca. 



Hat, n, 8. inlcuane, imftisi 
Hatch, to, to sit on eggs, v. t, ku 

kumba. To bring off eggs, v, /. 

ku konkwela. 
Hate, to, v. t, ku aula. To hate 

each other, v, t. ku sulana. 
Hateful, to be, v, i. ku sudika. 
Hateful, adj. -sudishi. 
Have, to, kudi kwete, kudi. See 

chap, viiiof Grammar, 
Hawk. See list under Bird. 
Haze, iu \a. shikunku. 
He, pers, pro. O, A, wa, &c. See 

chap, V of Gramtnar, 
Head, n, 2. mutwi. Head of a 

class, party, &c., n. la, shi- 

Headache, n. 2. xnwanza. 
FAr. I have headache, Nda fwa 

xnwanza, or, mutwi. 
Head-dress. See Chignon. 
Head-man, n, 1 a. ITnkoshi ; pi. 

Heal, to, v.t. ku shidika, ku 

ponya ; v. i. ku ola. 
Heap, of grass, clay, sticks, n. a. 

mulwi. Rubbish-heap, n, 7. 

ohitantala ; a large ditto, n. 3. 

itantala. A heap of grass or 

rubbish, n, 3. ikuka. A big heap 

of earth or grass, n. 3. ilunda. 

Heap of firewood, n, 2. mwata. 

Heap of grain when divided into 

lots, n. 2, mwela. 
Hear, to, v, t. ku telela. To hear 

clearly, plainly, v,t. ku tslelisha. 
Heart, n, 2. moao ; pi, mioso. 
Hearth, fireplace, n, 7. ohiko. 
Heat, heat of sun, n. 9. lumwi. 

Great heat, h. of fever, n, 9. 

Heat, to, to warm, v, /. ku kasa- 

Heathen, h. i./or. muhedene. 
Heavy, to be, v, i, ku lema. To 

load person heavily, v.f, ku 

lemena. To be heavy laden, v, /. 

ku lemenwa. 
He \VY, a{fy\ -lemu, 
Heel, n. 7. ohishindi. 
Heifer, one ready to calve, n, 8. 

HeighTi If. 4. bulamftu Heighti 

stature, n. 7. ohimo; e,g: that 

person has no stature, i.e» he is 

short, 'Wezo muntu u ina 

Heir, n. i. mudiezhina. 
Help, to, v,i, ku yovwa, ku 

Helper, h, i. muyovwi, muv- 

Hem, or seam, n, 2. muluko. To 

turn a hem, v. t. ku lundila. 
Hemp, Indian, for smoking, n. 9. 

lubange. Pipe used for smoking, 

n, 8. inzwani. 
Hen, n. 8. inseke. 
Her. No difference is made betvreen 

htm and ker. See chap, v of 

Herd, of cattle, &c., f». 4. bu- 

tanga. Herd of game, n, 2, mu- 

ftinzi. A large herd, n. 2, 

Herd, to, v,t, ku embela. To 

herd for, v, t, ku embelela. To 

cause or help herd, v, t, ku embe- 

Bba. To herd well, v,i, ku 

Herdsman, n* i.mwembeBhi. 
Here, mono, kono, ano. 
Hesitate, to, to delay, v,%. ku 

Hiccough, n, 8. inshikila. 
Hiccough, to, phr, ku fWa inshi- 

Hide, soft, n, 3.. isalo. A dry hide, 

n, 7. chikanda. 
Hide, to, v, i, ku zuba ; v,t, ku 

Bubika, ku seaeka, ku sosaika. 

To hide a matter, v, t, ku shimba, 

ku sosaika. To hide in grass 

through fear, v, i. ku bantaz&la. 
High, adj, -lamfu; high ground, 

n, 7. ohuma. 
Hill, n, 9 a. lupidi. 
Hillock, n, 6. kapidl. 
Him,, mu. S^chap, v of 

Hinder, to, v, t, ku kasba. To 

check, prevent, v. t, ku ohinjila. 
Hip, hip joint, n, 6. kasolo. 
Hippopotamus, If. i a, ohivhubwe. 
His, poss, pro. kwe. Prefixed by 

gen, parts. 



Hiss, to, of green firewood, v* f . Im 
shima. Of a snake, &c., v, 1. ku 

Hit, to, v,t, ku tuna. To hit 
hsurl, v,t, ku nmiaha. To hit 
with a hunmer, v. i, kn kanka- 
mina. To hit with a spear with- 
out pierc&ig, V, /. kn funknnya. 

Hither, to this place, adv, kono. 

Hoe, n. 5. iamba. An unfinished 
hoe-head, n, 7. ohibimbL An old 
hoe, n, 7. ohamba, chikata. 

Hoe, to, v. /. ku dima. To hoe a 
new field at end of rainy season, 
V. /. ku shinda. To hoe deeply, 
V, t, ku chj-nka. 

Hold, to, v, /. ku kwata. To hold 
carefiilly in hands, v, /. ku tumba- 
tila. To hold out hand to offer 
something, v. U ku tambika. To 
hold for, V, t, ku kwatila. 

Hole, f». 3. idindi; n, 7. chi- 
dindL Animals* burrow^ n, 4. 
bwina. A very deep hole, pit, 
n. 6. kalambwe. Hole in wood, 
also wound, n, 7. ohipolo. Hole 
in corn-bin for taking out grain, 
n, 8. inkwanto. &cape hole 
from bwina, n, 8. impo. Hole 
made in ground by rain, if. 3. idi- 
bila. Hole in river-bed where 
fish live, n, 3. isengo. Hole in 
a tree, n, 8. im,pako. Hole in 
ear for ear-ring, n. 4. bulumba. 
Old hole in ground, n. 7. chishe. 

Holiness, iu 4. busweyo. 

Hollow, to, v, t, ku kolola. 

Hollow, adj\ -kolwelwe. 

Holy, to be, dean, firee from dirt, 
V, i, ku sweya. 

Home, my h., in my place, mwangu. 
I am going home, ue. to my 
people, ITda ya ku banaiaha. 

Homesick, to be, v, i. ku sokama. 

Honey, n. 4. bwiohi, buchi, n. i a. 
kanaama. To go seeking h., v, i. 
ku enaa. 

Honey-bee, n. 8. inzuki. 

Honey-comb, full of honey, n. 8. 
impuma ; without honey, n, 1 a, 

Honey-guide, ff. i. a. Solwe. This 
bird calls travellers in the forest, 

and if they follow, leads them to 
where the bees have a nest in a tree. 

Honour, to, v, /. ku lemeka. 

Honour, dignity, n, 4. bulemu ; 
esteem, n. 4. bulemeko. 

Honourable, to be, v,i, ku 

Hoop, n, 9. luftunba. 

Hook, fish-, n. 6. kalobo ; n. 3. 
iweahi; n. 8. impute. 

Hoop, n, a. mubalo. 

Hop, to, pkr, ku enda sunkutile. 
As insect, v. i. ku sotaoka. 

Hope, to, to trust, v, i. ku shoma. 

Horn, n, ga, Iwiya; pi. meya. 
Horn containing medicine, used as 
a charm, n, 9. luaengo. Horn 
fixed to skull, n, 7. chanza. 

Hornet, n, 3. ingvhti; //. 

Horse, n, 8. imbizhi. 

Host, n. i a. shimenzo. Our host, 
shimenzo esu. 

Hot, to be, v. i. ku pia. To be 
hot to taste, as pepper, v. i, ku 
FAr, The sun is hot, lumwi 
Iwa badisha. 

Hour, n. i a. /or, Ora ; pi, baora. 

House, n.'anda; //. ing*anda 
and manda. H ouse of unmarried 
men, umbalombwana. A very 
large house, n, 3. ianda. A house 
without a roof, n. 9. luampa. Old 
tumble-down house, n, 7. ohanda. 
House with gable ends, n,g. longo ; 
pi, ingongo. Temporary house 
built in a field, n. 7. chitungu. 

Processes in building. 

To describe a circle in laying out a 
hut, V. t, ku fundulula. 

The trench dug for the upright 
poles, n. 2. mwimbi. 

The upright poles, n, 3. pi. maz- 

Doorway, n, 2. mudiango. 

Threshold, n. 8. chikunguzho. 

Piece of wood placed above doorway, 
n. 7. chikotamino, chilungamo. 

Short poles stood on top of chiko- 
tamino, n. 4. bulebo. 

Partition wall, n. 2, mdmbe. 



Oatside wall, #f . 4. bwanda. 
Wattle used for binding, n, 9. lu- 

balo, //. imbalo. 
The Inbalo put on top of wall to 

which roof-poles are tied, lubalo 

Iwa ohilongolongo. 
To put roof on, v, t, ku tongika. 
First poles of roof, n, 3. //. ma- 


Poles put next, n. 3. pi. masondo. 
To put in masondo, v.t, ku 

To cut roof*poles even, v,t. kn 

Kind of basket-work made at the 

apex, into which masondo are 

pushed, n, 4. bunyoni. 
To thatch, v, /. ku vhumba. 
Pinnacle of grass put on top, n,ieu 

To put on iirst coat of clay, v, t, 

ku xnata. 
To finish-off smearing, v. /. ku 


How ? adv. Buti ? Koohani ? 

How MANY? adj\ -ongai? e,g. 
How many people? Bantu 
bongai ? 

How OFTEN? adv. Kongai? 

However, nevertheless, canj, niku- 

Hum, to, as people, v. i. ku vhu- 
vhuta; of insects, 9. f.kungoka. 

Human nature, also virtue, n, 4. 

Humble, to be, v. i, ku bomba. 
To abase, reduce, v, /. ku 
fwinaha, ku bonzha. 

Hump, n, 8. intunda. 

Humpback, n. 1 a, shintunda. 

Hundred, n, 2. mwanda. 

Hunger, n, 8. inzala. Severe 
hunger, n. 9. Iwizu. 

Hungrily, adv. chanzala. 

Hungry, to be, phr. ku fwa 
inzala. To be very hungry, v, i, 
ku lenguka, ku fwa Iwizu. To 
be weak with hunger, phr. ku 
zhunza ku xnenso. To go to 
bed hungry, pkr. ku ona aye ; 
V. t. ku ihupika ; phr. ku di- 
vhunga, ku lenguka o mavhwi. 

Hunt, TO , z^. /. ku weza, ku Twima. 

Hunter, n, i. muwezbi, muvwi- 

Hurriedly, adv, ohalubilo, eba- 

Hurry, TO, 9. /. ku binzha. To 
hurry over work, doing it badly, 
V. t. ku fwanzha-fwanzha. To 
be in a hurry, pressed for time, 
V. i. ku binda, ku bindana. To 
be in a great hurry, v, i. ku 
bindanisha. To hurry each other, 
V. t, ku binzhanya. 

Hurt, to be, v. i, ku ohisa ; v, L 

Husband, n, i. mulumi. 

Hush I Dinza! Tontolanet 

Hut. See House. 

Hyena, n. 1 a. kabvrenga ; a 
small, young, kanga-kabwenga. 

Hymn, n, 9. Iwimbo; //. inyimbo. 

Hypocrisy, n. 5. kupaupa. 

Hypocrite, n. la. shikupaupa. 
To be a hypocrite, phr. ku 
upaupa xnenso. 

Hypocritically, adv. chaku- 

I, pers. pro. IVdi, Nda, n, &c. See 
chap, V of Grammar, 

Idle person, an, n. i. mukata, 
mutolo ; If . 1 a. bololo ; //. 
babololo. Said of an idle person, 
' In opening his mouth to eat, tiiat 
is where hk strength lies,* Mula- 
kumune ku ku^a kwalo udi 
kwete insana. 

Idleness, n. 4. btikata. 

Idly, adv, ohabukata. 

If, conj. ni ukuba. See chap, x 
of Grammar. 

Ill, bad, adj. -biabe. 

Ill, to be, v.-i. ku sata; phr. 
kudi mulwazhi. 

Ignorant, to be, not to know, phr. 
ku te zhi. Said of a child, igno- 
rant or innocent, n. 7. chik^nku. 

Ignite, to, to light a fire, v. t. ku 

Iguana, n. i a. bulwe ; //. ba- 

Illegitimate child, n. i.mwana 

Illumine, to, to give light, v. t. ka 



mimilca. As a firefly, intennit- 
tently, v. i, kn mweka-mweka. 

Image, n. 7. cihllr<Mihiwio. 

Imitate, to, v,i, ka idila; kn 
idisha, kn kobesha. To imitate 
each other, v,f, kn idllana. e.g^. 
That person is not to be imitated, 
'Weao ta idiahiwa. 

Imitation, am, n, 7. ohikobesho. 

Imitator, n. i. mwidiahi. 

Impatient, to be, in the sense of 
short-tempered, fkr, kadi ahilu- 

Impatiently, with short temper, 
adv, ohalutoriii. 

Impatient person, short, quick- 
tempered, ft. I a, atdlutoahL 

Impediment, in speech, #f. 6. ka- 

Implore, to, v, t ka pompisha. 

Importunate, to be, of a person 
who retnms again and again to 
ask for a thing, v,u ku ohin- 
ohila^ ka chinda. 

Impossible, to be. Use the cap. 
sp. with the n^;atiye ; e. g. This 
thing is impossible, i, e, it is incap- 
able of being done, Ohaohi ta old 

Impotence, n, 4. boxnbo. 

Impotent, an impotent person or 
animal, n, i. mombo. 

Imprecate, to, v, t, ku tuka. 

Imprecation, n, 3.//. matoahl 

Impress, to, to impress upon one*s 
mind, v. t, ku pompomwena. 

Improve, to, to make good, v. t, 
ka boaka. To i., get better in 
health, v, i, ku pona-pona. 

Impudence, n. 6. kasapalasapala, 
iububu, kaaankweaankwe, ka- 

Impudent person, n, i a, shika- 
sapalasapala, ahikamikami, 
shikaaankwesankwe, shiubu- 

Impudent, to be, pkr. kadi shi- 
kasapalasapala, dec. 

Impure, of water, adj\ -hundaushi. 

In, prep. xno. On the uses, &c., of 
Mu, see cAap. x of Grammar. 

Inactive person, an, n. i a. ahi- 

Inch, n. %.for. inohi. 

Incision, in the skin, n, 4. bwa- 

Incline, to, the person, bow, v. %. 

ku kotama. To i. or lean a pole, 

&c«, V. /. ku selebeka ; ditto, v. i. 

Increase, to, v. i. ku paka ; v, t. 

ku pasha, ku vhuaha. 
Indent, to, as a tin vessel, v, t, ku 

fobola, ku tiftOa, ku tifwaula. 

To be indented, v. i. ku foboka, 

ku tifuka, ku tifauka. 
Indentable, to be, v. i. ku fobo- 

dika, ku foboleka, ku tifwBu- 

Induna, If. I a, unkoshi. Way, 

custom, manner of, ohinkostai. 
Inert, to be, strengthless, of drugs, 

V. i. ku sampuka. 
Infancy, n. 4. buoheohe. 
Infant, n, i. muohaohe. 
Infanticide, to commit, phr, ku 

sowa xnwana. 
This is a common custom among 

the Balumbu. Should a child be 

bom feet foremost, it is immedi- 

lately killed, either by burjring it 

alive or in some other way. Such 

a child is called Ohimpini. If a 

woman who has never menstruated 

bears a child it is also destroyed. 

It is called, mwana a ta selwa, 

or, mwana wa xnfuuahi. 
Infectious, to be, v, i. ku aambu- 

Infirm person, aged, n. i. mu- 

Infirmity, old age, n. 4. bupami. 
Inflate, to, v, t ku tukumuna ; 

V, i. ku tukumuka. 
Inform, to, to tell to, v.t. ku 

Bhimwina. To tell about, v.t, 

ku ohechelela. 
Inherit, to, lit. to eat the name, 

phr. ku dya izhina. 
Inheritance, n. 3. izhina. That 

is, ' name,* so termed because 

when a person inherits anothei^s 

property or position he takes the 

name of the deceased. 
Inheritor, n. i. mudyeahina. 
Initiate, to, to do a thing for the 

X 2 



first time, to establish a custom, 
V, t. ku lei]«a. To be initiated, 
V, f . ku shinga. 
This word is applied to the initia- 
tion of youtns into manhood. 
When boys reach puberty they are 
sent to a cattle outpost, or kraal, 
where they stay five or six days 
herding cattle. The initiation con- 
sists in the boys, one at a time, 
beating a bull, ku ujna mu- 
ohende. At the end of that time 
they are sent home, a feast is made, 
and the youngsters' teeth are 
knocked out, Ira banga zneno. 
This completes the initiation. 
"With regard to girls reaching 
puberty (bakamwale), a number 
of them leave their homes and 
gather in the forest around a 
munto tree; they clear a space 
and sleep there. When they are 
found there they are taken back to 
their villages and put into huts, or 
sometimes together into one hut ; 
here they must stay a month or 
two, and all the time are instructed 
by the old women as to the duties 
of womanhood. Any girl who 
has given trouble may come in for 
a severe beating to knock the non- 
sense out of her, or she may be 
taken down to the river, put into 
the water, and almost throttled. 
During this time of seclusion the 
girls are allowed out only at night, 
and they must appear covered 
from head to foot; if otherwise, 
they may come in for a beating. 
At the end of the time a feast is 
made, and the girls are decked 
out in beads, &c. They are carried 
into the village on the backs of 
elders, and a dance is made for 
them, ku shanina bakanxwale. 
A good deal of immorality goes 
on during these initiation cere- 

Injure, to, v. t. ku biaha. 

Ink, «. 8. for, inki. 

In order that, conj. ati. 

Innocence, childish, n, 4. buahi- 

Inquire. See Enquire. 

Insane, to be, kudi shikalalu, 

kudi mugrabushi. 
Insane person, n, i a, shikalalu ; 

n. I . xnugabushi. 
Insanely, cuiv. ohakalalu. 
Insanity, n, 6. kalalu. 
Insect, n, i. mupuka ; n, 4. bu- 


List of Insects. 
See also Ant, Beetle. 

A kind of insect which bites and 

hangs on, n, i a. ohenje. 
Bee, inzuki, kansama. 
Butterfly, iukongolokwa. 
Firefly, kamweshiniweshi. 
Flies. See Fly. 
Grub found in maize-stalk, ngong- 

Hornet, ingvhu ; pi. znangvhu. 
Jigger, iundu. 
Locust, ohikwikwi, ohiute, shin- 

ohuta, inzhie. 
Mantis religiosa, lulukwati, na- 

Mosquito, imwe. 
Moth, ipempe. 
The mason wasp, namushingi- 


Inside, adv, mukati. 

Insolent. See Impudent. 

Inspect, to, v. /. ku dingula. 

Inspiration, breathing, n, 5. ku 
zoza. To breathe upon something 
or somebody, v,t, ku fudidizha. 

Instal, to, v. t. ku kadika. 

Instantly, adv, inzho-inzho, 

Instead of, prep, ku busena bwa. 

Instruct, to, to teach, v, /. ku iya. 
To i. by giving advice, v, U ku 

Instructor, if. i. mwiyi, znubudi. 

Insurrection, to be rebellions, to 
refuse to obey commands, v. u ku 
papa,kupapala. To turn against, 
V, t. ku sandumukila. 

Intend, to, v. i. ku hupula. 

Intent, to be, upon work or eat- 
ing, V. i, ku Aikalala. 

Intercede, to, to speak on behalf 
of, v,t, ku ambidila. 



Interpret, to, v. /. kn sandnla, 

ku pindiila. 
Interrupt, to, to break in when 

another is speaking, phr, ku xnu 

njila xnu kanwa. To stop one 

from speaking, pkr, kn xnu lesha 

ku amba. 
Intestines, n. 4. bula; //. mala. 

A large intestine, n, 3. ila. 
Into, prep, mu. 
Intoxicate, to, v. /. ku kola. To 

be intoxicated, z'.^zjj. ku kolwa. 
Introduce, to, to make two people 

(or more) known to each other, 

V. /. ku lubulula, ku zhibaxiya. 
Invent, to, v, /. ku lenga. 
Invert, to, v, t, ku sandumuna. 
Invite, to, v. t. ku taxnba. 
Iron, n . 7. chela ; rough, unwronght 

iron, n. 4. butale ; n, 6. katale. 
The word is applied to any metal. 
A large iron tool, n, 3. ibulo, 
A small piece of flat iron, if, 6. 


Prisoners* irons, n, 8. inshimbi. 
Is. See chap, viii of Grammar,. 
Island, n, 7. ohilwa. 
It, pers, pro. See chap, v of 

Itch, to, v, u ku baba, ku babwa ; 

e.g. My body itches, Mubidi 

wangu wa baba. I itch, Nda 

Its, poss, pro. See chap, v of 

Ivory, bracelets made of, n, 8. 


jACKALy n. la, mwaba ; pi, ba- 

Jacket, n, 3.y&r, ibaiki. 
Jag, to, to notch, v, t, ku lomaula. 

To be jagged, v. i, ku lomsuka. 
January, month of, kulumi. 
Jaw, lower, n, a. mwezhi. 
Jealously, adv, ohabufwL 
Jealous person, n, i a, shibufwl 
Jealousy, n, 4. bufwi; n, 7. 

chifwi ; n, 3. ibivhwe. 
Jehovah, n. i a, for. Jenova. 
Jest, to, v, t, ku sesha. 
Jest, n. 3. //. masesho. 
Jester, n, i a. shimasesho. 

Join, to, to meet, v, i, ku swa- 
ncana; v.t. ku swanganya. 
To j. end to end, v, i. ku lunga. 
To J. side by side, v, t. ku yan- 
yanya ; v. i. ku yanyana. 

Joint, n, 3. ingo. Finger-joint, 
n. 8. inungo. Hip-joint, n, 6. 
kaaolo. To break a reed at the 
joint, V, U ku kombola, ku ko- 
Jomts of meat : hind-leg, mwendo 
wa bukomi ; shoulder, mwendo 
wa ohiftmzhi, uwebesho ; a cut 
through an animal, uchakati, 
chunsru ; breast (chiefs portion), 
shinakaba, ahinabwaawi. 

Joke, n, 3. pi, miasealio. 

Joke, to, v, t, ku sesha. 

Jolt, to, as a hammock, v. t, ku 
aexupauBha ; v, i, ku aempauka. 
To j. or shake from side to side, 
of hammock, v, /. ku sumbanya ; 
V. f . ku Bumbana. 

Journey, n. a. muahinzo ; n. 9 a. 

JOY, n. 5. kubotelwa, kutangala. 
OYFULLY, adv, ohakubotelwa, 

Judge, n, i. mubsteshi. 

Judge, to, v, t, ku beteka. To j. 
on behalf of, v, t, ku betekela. 
To j. carefully, at length, v, t, ku 

Judgement, n. 9. lubeteko. Meet- 
ing for trying cases, n, 9. lubata. 

Juice, of tree, fruit, n, 3. pi, 

July, month of,Ki^pukupuku, Ka- 

Jump, to, z/.i. ku aotoka. To j. 
aside to escape a missile, v, i, ku 
lea. To j., be startled, when a 
gun is fired unexpectedly, v. i. ku 
tidimuka. To j. as locusts, v. i, 
ku sotaoka. 

June, month of, Chiteke-oha- 

Just, to be, v, i, ku lulama. 

Just, cuh. Expressed by the verb 
kuvhwa,to come out ; e,g. He has 
just arrived, "Wa vhwa ku shika. 
He has just finished, Wa vhwa ku 



Justice, v, 5. kululama. 
Justly, ach, oliakubosha^ ohaku- 

Kaffir corn, n. 3. pL maoheme, 

Keep, to, to preseryey save, v, U ku 
zobola. To k. for somebody, 
9./. ku Bobwela. To k. out, 
v,t, ku shinka. To k. a law, 
v,t. ku kwata lubeta, ku 
bamba lubeta. 

Keeper, n, i. muiobodi; a 
watcher, caretaker, n* i. mudin- 

Kernel, of not, n, a. xnuaeke. 

Kettle, n, %,for, inketale. 

Key, n, T*for, ohinotolo. 

Kick, n. 2. muleuahi, mulensliay 

Kick, to, phr, ku diatamilanzhi, 
ku sansa xnilenBhi. 

Kid, n, 6. kapongo, n, i. mwana- 

Kidnap, to, v, /. ku fiimpa. 

Kidnapper, n, 1, mufumpi. 

Kidney, n, 8. insa. 

Kill, to, v. /. ku yaya. To k. by 
throttling, v. /. ku shina. To k. 
a weak, helpless animal or person, 
V. /. ku saulula. To k. or crack 
lice, V, U ku ponda. To k. 
insect by nibbing between fingers, 
V. L ku shokota. To k. a fowl 
by twisting round its neck, v. t. 
ku nyongolola. To k. many 
game at a time, v, t, ku poaaula ; 
V, f . ku poaauka. To be killed, 
V. /. ku yayiwa. 

Kind, species, n, a. mukumd. 
Animals of various kinds, banya- 
ma ba mlkiifno-iTiikuiTio. 

Kind person, if. i a. shimanga, 

Kindle, to, a fire, v, t, ku kuuka. 

Kindly, adv. ohamanga^ oha* 

Kindness, n. 4. bwanga, manga. 

King, n, i. muoneki. 

The Baila seem to have no idea of 

a king or kingdom ; the term mu- 

oueki is derived from the verb 

ku oneka, to make sleep, 1. «. to 

give peace. It is not a widely 
used word, probaUy only lately 
coined by them. 

Kingdom, n, 4. buoneki; n, 2. 
for. mubuso. 

Kiss, TO, v.t. ku shonta. Tok. 
each other, v. /. ku shontana. 

Kitchen, n. 7. ohikilo. 

Kitten, n, 6. kakaae, kanga- 

Kloof, n, 2. mwako. 

Knead, to, dough, v. /. ku huba. 
To k. clay in making mortar, 
&c., V, t. ku ahanyanga. 

Knee, n. 3. ivhwi. 

Kneel, to, v. i, ku suntama, ku 
ftikama. To k. down to, v, /. 
ku suntamina, ku fakamina. 

Knife, n, 8. impoko. European 
knife, n. ^.for. intipa. Point of 
knife, n, 8. insonga. Handle or 
sheath, n. 7. ohilalo. 

Knock, to, v.t. ku uma, ku 
kankamina. To k. at a door, 
v./. ku uma-uma, ku konko- 
mona. To k. each other, as 
knees, v. t. ku umana, ku dyo- 
nbengana. To k. against each 
other, V. t. ku umanya. To k. 
one's foot against a stone, v. /. ku 
difumpula. To k. or rap with 
knuckles, phr. ku uma ohinko- 
nya. To k. out teeth, v. t. ku 

Knot, n. 7. ohikoto. A small 
knot, n. 6. kakoto. A slip-knot, 
n. 4. bufwiahl To tie a slip- 
knot, V, t. ku fwiaika. 

Know, to, v. t. kwishi^ kwishi- 
Bhi, ku ahiba. To k. each other, 
v.t. ku abibaxla. To make 
known, v. t. ku lesha, ku ahi- 

Knowledge, n. 5. kwiahiba. 

Known, to be, to be spread abroad, 
V. f . ku ibuka ; e. g. The thing is 
known, is notorious, Ke buka 
kambo, ka ya impuwo. 

Knuckle, n. 8. inungo, ingo aha 

Kraal, n. 7. ohimpata. 

Kudu, n. i a. namutentaula, mu- 
Bulumatwi, shombololo. A. 



young, small, kaEnga-namaten- 
taula, &C. 

Labour, it. 2. mudimo, m, 2. fir. 

Labour, to, if. i, fir, ka bal^ka, 

pkr. ku mana midimo. 
Labourer, n. i,fir, mubelald. 
Lack, to, v, /. ku biil% ku budila, 

ka bndjgha* 
Lad, n. 6. kalombmum. 
Ladder, in. 7. cbidiiilo. 
Laden, to be, v. pass, ka lama- 

nwa; v,i,kxL paknahft. 
Lady, the wife of a chief, n. i. 

modi, //. bodL 
Lake, n, 3. iahiba. 
Lamb, if. 6. kambalala, n, i. 

Lame, to be, v.i. ka sonkata; 

with fatigue, v.Kta babata ; to 

lame, v, /. ka sunkoaha. 
Lameness, it. 5. koaonknta. 
Lamp, h, z-fi*"* ilainpL 
Lance, to, an abscess, v./. ka anda. 
Land, ground, if. 8. inshi. 
Land, to, v. L ku landuka, v. t. 

Landing-place, if. 3. ilando. 
Language, If . 2. mwfimbo. Names 

of languages have the prefix ohi- ; 

e.g. ohikubo, the 1. of the 

Bakubu or MarotsL 
Languid, to be, from weakness, 

v. f. ku lengaoka. 
Languid, adj. -langauahi. 
Lap, to, v. t. ku sabiuta. 
Large, to be, v.i. ku komana; 

to make 1., v.t, ka komeaha,* 

to be very 1., v. i. ku komenasha. 
Large, adj. -kando ; e.g. a large 

thing, chintu chikando. 
Last, last month, pkr. mweahi 

owa ka ita, or, owa kudi ko ; 

last week,/^r. iviki dia ka ita, 

or, odia kudi ko ; last year, n. 2. 

mwakadi; the last child a woman 

will have, n. 8. inkomba. 
Late, to be, v. i. ku imoka. 
Lathe, for turning ivory bracelets, 

If. 3. iclieaho. 
Lather, n. 3. iovu. 
Laud, to, v. t. ku tembaula. 

Laugh, to, v. f. ku saka ; to laugh 
long, loud, V, i, ku sakaska. 

Laugh, n. 5. kuaaka. 

Launch, to, a boat into the water, 
phr. ku chiaha bwato ku Iwa- 
nge ; to push off, v. t. ku tonka. 

Law, If. 9. lubata, n. 2. mulaaho. 

Lawful, to BE,/ir. kudi alala. 

Lawsuit, n. a. mulandu. 

Lay, to, to 1. eggs,/^r. ku shala 
mal ; to 1. a thmg down, v. t. ku 
oneka, ku onya; to 1. oneself 
down, v.i. ku aalama, ku pi- 
nuka ; to 1. one thing across an- 
other, v,t. ku ohiatnika, ku 
ohika ; to 1. any one down, v. t. 
ku pinuna ; to L by, save, v. t. 
ku Bobola ; to 1. hold of, v. t. ku 

Lazily, adv. ohabukata. 

Laziness, if. 4. bukata. 

Lazy person, if. i. mukata, 
bololo, mutolo, mulenga. 
Called also in derision, ohikata, 

Lead, to, v. t. ku enaha; to 1. or 
command soldiers, v.i. ku sun* 
gula; to 1. by going ahead, v. i. 
ku solola; to 1. astray, v.t. ku 

Leader, if. i. mwanshi, musolo- 
zhi; coomiander, n. i. musun- 

Leaf, n. 3. itovu ; edible leaf, if. 7. 
chishu; leaf of a book, if. 3. 
ipapa; dry, fallen leaf, if. 8. 
inkwaya; young leaf, if. 8. in- 
delema ; of reed or maize, if. 3. 
//. malekaleka ; to strip leaves 
off branch, v.t. ku pulula; 
shed leaves in autumn, v. i. ku 
kunkumuka ; to sprout, of leaves, 
V, i. ku sonsa; to turn leaves over 
in book, v. t. ku pepaula. 

Leak, to, v. i, ku swdka ; e,g, the 
house leaks, v.i. ing'anda ya 
swaka. The canoe leaks, bwato 
bu la vhwa menzhi. 

Lean, to be, v. i. ku koka ; to be 
lean, emaciated by sickness, v.i. 
ku pupungana. 
Lean, adj. -kofti. 
Lean, to, v.t. ku salabaka, ku 



seka ; to 1. against, v, i, ku sele- 
bala ; to 1., of a person leaning 
against a tree, &c., v,u ku 

Leanness, n. 4. bukofa. 

Leap, to, v. i. ku sotoka. 

Learn, to, v,i, ku diiya, ku 

Learner, n, i. xuudiiyl 

Leave, to, to depart, v.i. ku 
unka, ku zhimoka, ku fwisuka, 
ku fwisauka ; to 1. behind, v» /. 
ku shia ; to 1. a place after rest- 
ing, V. i, ku sunduka ; to 1. off, 
V. /. ku leka, ku shikila. 

Leaven, n, 4. buxnena. 

Leavened, to be, v, i, ku netuka; 
e.g. the bread is leavened, inshi- 
ma ya netuka buxnena. 

Leavened, adj, -netushi. 

Leavings, as food in a pot, n. 3.//. 

Leech, n. i. musundu, munsu- 

Lees, dregs, sediment, n, 4. buse. 

Left, n. 7. ohimonawe. Left hand, 
itashi dia chunonswe. The left 
side, Iwiya Iwa ohimonswe. 

Left-handed person, n, la. shi- 

Leg, n. 5. kulu ; hind-leg of animal, 
n. 2. mwendo; fore-leg of aninud, 
n. 5. kuboko. 

Leglet, n, 3. iseka, n, 3. ilanda; 
of women, n, 8. inyinga. 

Lend, to, to give a loan,/^r. ku 
pa xnuta. 

Length, n. 4. bulamfu. 

Lengthen, to, v. /. ku lansha. 

Leopard, n. i a. shiluwe. 

Leper, n. i a. shiohinsenda. 

Leprosy, n, 7. ohinsenda. Natives 
regard leprosy as being not con- 
tagious, but inherited. A leper 
is not allowed to eat the flesh of 
eland, zebra, bush-pig (ohulube), 
or the barbel (mubondo), nor 
ipushi. They say that these 
things have leprosy; others say 
that the flesh of these* is white 
and similar to leprosy, and if a 
leper eat them he will soon die. 

Less, to become, v, i. ku ohea. 

Lessen, to, v, t. ku oheaha. 

Lesson, reading, n, 7. ohibalo. 

Lest, conj. antela ; e.g. You must 
not do so lest you die, 17 ta ku 
ohita bodia antela u la fwa. 

Let, aux, a, na; e.g. Let us go, Jl 
tu ende. Go ye, Na mu ye. 

Letter, ». 9 o. lungwalo ; of the 
alphabet, n* Z'f(^* iletele. 

Level, to, v.L ku bambasika; 
to 1. for somebody, v,t, ku ba- 
mbasikila ; to be 1., v. i, ku ba- 
znbasala ; the road is 1., inzhila 
idi bambasele ; to 1. or smooth, 
V. t, ku eabezha. 

Lewd person, n, la. ahinyauwe. 

Lewdness, n. 8. inyauwe. 

Liar, n, i. mubeahi. One who 
promises but does not act, n, i. 

Liberally, adv, chakupdsha. 

Lick, to, v. /. ku miansha ; to 1. a 
dish, of a dog, v. t. ku pela, ku 
komba; to 1. the lips in eating 
anything nice, v, /• ku dimi- 

Lid, n, 7. ohivhunisho. 

Lie, £dsehood, phr, kambo ka 

Lie, to, to tell falsehoods, v, 1. ku 
bea, ku pepesha ; to 1. down, 
v.i, ku ona, ku pinuka; to 1. 
down, of animals, v. i. ku buta ; 
to 1. with head on arm, v, i, ku 
dishikila; to 1. stretched out, 
V, i, landabala ; to 1. on belly, 
V. i, ku vhundama ; to 1. on 
back, v.i, ku salaxna; to 1. in 
wait for, v, t, ku ftunpa ; to tell 
lies about somebody, v./. ku 

Life, h. 4.bumi. 

Lift, to, v,t. ku katuls; to L 
high, V. t, ku katulisha ; to 1. up 
the head, stand erect, v.i, ku 

Light, n. 2. mumoni. 

Light, to be, not heavy, v. i. ku 

Lighten, to, a load, v. /. ku ubya. 
Of lightning, v.i. ku laba; to 
show light, V. t. ku munika. 

Lightj^ing, If. 9 a. lulabo. It 



ligbtens, "Wa laba Iiess, w» 
kalala !••■&. Tlie tree is struck 
by lightning, iBamo dia andwa 

Like, to, v. t. kn ftma. 
Like, to be, v, /. ku koaha ; to 
be like eadi other, v,i. ka ko- 

Liken, to, v. /. ku koahanya. 
Likeness, image, pictmei n. 7. 

Lily, water*, root of, n. 8. imbe ; 

stem o^ Mk a. mndidima. 
LiiCE, BIED-, ft. 4. Imdinibo. 
Limp, to, v,i, ka nmkata; to 

limp with fiitigne, v.i, lax ba- 

LiNE, string, n, 6. koahL A line 
stretched in a house upon which 
blankets, &c^ aie hung, ik. 3. 

Link, to, as a plank for sawing, 
V, /. ka ftmdaliila. 

Lion, m, la. shambwa. Other 
names given to the lioo are: — 
Kapompa, Shamangana, She- 
twi, flhanaa, Shanaa-mokolo, 
Indavo, Mwanda-banyamau 
Said of a lioo : — ^XTahombwa a le 
enda inahi i la tongelay When 
the lion travels the earth groans. 
Xaaokwe manaa, maahlka ya 
ba indavo. In die daytime a 
patch of gnm, at night he be- 
comes a lion. latombola ka- 
mine ya miniika i dya monto. 
Ka wansa maniaala. Shaba- 
faola ba langwa kamaanba. 

Lip, n. *3. malomo ; to move lips 
without speaking, 9. £. ka lakaa- 
ka, /^. ka tapaaha malomo, 
ka takol aihakawba 

Listen, to, v. /. ka papalala. 

Little, aiff. -ahonto. Expressed 
also in die diminndve prefixes, 
ka-t ta-. 

Live; to, to live well, be well, v. i. 
ka pona; to be alive, v.t. ka 
lanca ; to live or reside, v. i, ka 

«. la. 

■hikabwekatanBhi, ahaohika- 
oka, bulabe (different varieties). 

Load, to, to pnt a load on one's 
shoulder, v. t. ka twika ; to load 
any one heavily, v. t. ka lemena ; 
to support a load on shoulder by 
putting a stick under it and over 
the other shoulder, v. t. ka dinga- 
diaha ; to load a canoe, v. t. ka 
chiiha ; to carry a big load, v, t. 
ka kambika. 

Load, carried on a stick upon the 
shoulder, n. a. moahio. 

Loaf, of bread, n. a. makama. 

Loan, n, a. mate. 

Loathe, to, v. t. ka sala. 

Lock, to, v. t. for. ka notala. 

Locust, n. 7. chikwikwi ; a large 
number, n. 3. ikwikwi ; the voet- 
ganger, n. i a. sbinchato ; varie- 
ties, n. 7. chiute, n, 8. inahie ; 
to appear, as locusts, v.i. ka 

Lodge, a place for spending a night. 
If. 7. chonaalo, n. 7. chidioko- 

Lodge, to, v. i. ka onaa. 

Log, of wood, n. 7. chiaamo. 

Loins, n. \. bakome; die waist, 
n, 7. chibano. 

Loin-cloth, n. a. mabinda. 

Long, adj. -lamfti. 

Long, to be, v. i. ka lampa ; to 
be very long, v. i. ka lampi- 
aha; to make long, v.t. ka la- 

LivER, «. a. monL 
LiZAKO, n. 8. 

Long ago, adv. kale-kale. 

Long, to, to long ioft^phr. ka fwa 
chimin am atft. I fcHig to see 
him, Hda fwa chiminamate ka 
ma bona. To look at a thing 
longing for it,- but not asking, 
V. t. ka ehfwiidania. Of doing 
this, they say, Menao, menso, 
nkombidila, malomo wa 
aowa; Eyes, eyes, ask for me, 
the mouth is astonished (afraid). 

Look, to, v. /. ka langa, ka ebala; 
to L around intently and fre- 
quently, V. i. ka chebaaka ; to L 
around, v.i. ka oheboka; to 1. 
ahead intently, gaze, v. i. ka ta- 
nama ; to L out, expect people, 



v.t "kxL soxnpela; to L into, as 
into a grain-bin, tf. t, ku sondela ; 
to 1. upwards, v.u ku dialala; 
to 1. around upon people seated in 
circle, v. i. ku ohen^oluka. 

Looking-glass, n, 7. ohimbone. 

Loop, n, 4. bufwisu. 

Loose, to, v.t, ku angulula; to 
loosen a pole by swaying it to 
and fro, v, t. ku 8uns;unya, ku 
Eunganya ; to be loose, of a hoe- 
handle, &c., v. i, ku zunguna ; 
to come loose of a cord or string, 
V. i, ku aenzela. 

Lop, to, to cut branches off a tree, 
V. t. ku kunka. 

Lop-sided, of a muzhia heavier at 
one end than the other, 11.7. 
chifalaila. Fhr, Mushiu wa 
lexua Iwiya, The load is heayy at 
the side. 

Lord, chief, n, i. mwaml 

Lordly, manner, custom of a lord, 

Lordship, n, 4. bwini, bwami. 

Lose, to, to throw away, v, t, ku 
sowa. yiE//^m:ku8wekelwa; e,g, 
I have lost my knife, lit, 1 am 
lost to my knife, Nda swekelwa 
impoko yangu. To throw away, 
waste, v,U ku sowalla; to lose 
one's skill, v,t. ku bulula; to 
lose by dispersing tilings, v, t. ku 

Lost, to be, v,t. ku swoka; to 
be lost by dispersion, v*i, ku 

Lot, to be a lot, v, i, ku vhula ; an 
allotment, share, n. 7. ohabilo ; 
a lot or division of grain, n, 2, 

Lot, the only approach to throwing 
lots, except in the throwing of the 
bones in divining, seems to be in 
the children*s game, ohisolo, ku 
wala ohisolo, ku dya ohiBolo. 

Loudly, to talk, v, t. ku ambi- 

Louse, n, 8. injina, n, 6. kadunta. 

Lovable, to be, v, i. ku funika. 

Lovable, adj\ -funishl 

Love, n. 5. kufuna ; mutual love, 
. n, 5. kuftinana. 

Lover, one who loves, n, i. mu- 

Lovingly, cuh. ohakufona. 
Low, adv. kunkudiko. He lives 

in a low place, i. e, not elevated, 

*Wa kala ku kunkudiko. 
Lower, to, to let down, v.t. ku 

Luck, good, n. 7. oholwe. 
Lull, to, to sleep as a child, v. t. 

ku butika; to subside as wind, 

V. i. ku batamina. 
Lump, of earth, &c., n. 3. ikomwe. 
Lumpy, to be, of mortar, &c., phr. 

kudi kwete makomwe. 
Lunacy, n, 6. kalalu. 
Lunatic, if. i a. shikalalu. 
Lung, n. 3. ifafwe. 
Lurch, suddenly, of a canoe, v. 1. 

ku kunauka ; to roll from side 

to side, of a canoe, v,i, ku 

Lust, sexual desire, n. 7. chiaushi. 
Lying, n. 5. kubea. 

Mad, to be, v. i. ku sondoka^ 
phr. kuba shikalalu. 

Madden, to, v. t, ku sondoaha. 

Madman, n. i. mukabushi, muga- 
bushi ; n. la. shikalalu ; f». i • 

Madness, n. 6, kalalu; in dogs, 
n. 7. ohilongwe. 

Maggot, in meat, n. 3. iumba. 

Maid, girl till puberty, n. i. muahi- 
mbi ; at and after puberty, n. 1 a, 
kamwale ; old maid, unmarried 
woman, n. 1 a. nabutema. 

Mail, post, n. S./ar. ImpoBO. 

Maim, to, v. t. ku holofiMiha. 

Maimed, to be, v. i. ku hoiofiEkla. 

Maimed person, n. i a. ohihole, 
//. baohihole, n, la. ohi&nga. 

Maize, n. 3. //. mapopwe. 

Make, to, v, t. ku ohita ; to make 
over again, remake, v. t, ku ohitu- 
lula ; to help or cause to make, 
v.t. ku ehisha; to make for, 
V. t. ku ohitila ; to be makeable, 
doable, v. t. ku ohitika ; to form, 
mould, v.t. ku bumbai Ex- 
pressed also in the causative 
species. Thus: ku lutila, to be 



angrjr; kn faitlahft^ to make 
angry, cause to be angij. 

Maker, n. i. mneUti, nnilniiiibi. 

Malice, n, 8. iakole. 

Maliciously, adv. ehankolo. 

BfAN, penoii. If. I. mimta ; a male, 
n. I. amlom b ^ajm ; a big man, 
n. ^ ilombwBiift ; a yoong man, 
n. la, kaknlnulil, ndnmbaaa. 
A stroi^ man, a bad maa, manner 
or costom of a man, ohUomb- 

Mahe, n, a. mcwialA, mnunkwo. 

Manhood, m, 4. balom b w a iuk 

Manner, n, 7. dhidUo. 

Manner, n. 7. oWanBft Manner, 
custom of a pecMo cxpr es B cd by 
the prefix dhl-. Thns: manner, 
way, custom of a chie^ cliami- 
ohami ; of a woman, ohikaintu. 

Mantis, n. in. namntokftmenahl , 

Manure, dang; maftuaba, bu- 

Many, o^. -uji-xiji; g,^. many 
people^ bantu ban jiba^L 

March, to, ka ends; to march 
«p and down carrying spears as 
at limeral, v, i, ka lembA. 

Mark, to, v. /. ka lemba ; to mark 
tickets, V. i./or. ka tikita. 

Mark, foot-, n. a. mokondo. 

Market, place for baying, n, 7. 

Markiage, m, in. bwings, n. 9^. 
Jntwalow This girl is taken to 
her fstore fansband's place by 
women : this is ka kokola, mu- 
kaintu wa kokolwa, the woman 
is taken thns ; or they take her to 
the wedding, ba mu leta ku 
bwrlnga. The bridegroom gives 
presents to the bride's sisters, this 
is ka fwenesba. The marriage 
feast is, Tnadlanahi-mA. Ku 
aangana indicates the custom of 
the bridegroom and bride par- 
taking of food together, each 
hand i ng a portion to the other; 
it signifies that henceforth they 
are to live and eat together. 
After the feast, the parents of the 
bride bring her presents, ku mu 

aangfla; the porpoae of this is 
expressed by ahintu aha ku mu 
lumbwila. The bride is given a 
new name by her husband, Ku 

Marriageable, to be, v,i, ku 

Marrow, n, 4. buaesa; a large 
quantity of, n. 3. iaeaa. 

Marry, to, of the man, v.t. ku 
twala ; of the woman, ku twal- 
wa ; oif them both, 9. i. ku twal- 
ana ; to marry more than one 
wife, V. t, ku adika. 

Marsh, n, 5. iaaba, n. a. mulondo. 

Marvel, to, v. pass, ku Iweiwa. 

Marvel, a wonderful thing, if, 3. 
pi. malweaa. 

Mash, a dish of nuts crushed up, 
seasoned with salt, cooked or not, 
katongola, kayobe. A mixture 
of mealies, beans and nuts cooked 
up together, n, 4. budyodyo. 

Mass, a large quantity of any- 
thing, n. 7. nhi^ma. 

Massacre, to, v.t. ku poaaula, 

Master, n. 1. mwinl My — , 
ahimatwangangu ; pi. ba-. 
Thy — , ahimatwangako ; //. 
ba-. His — , ahimatwangakwe; 
//. ba-. Our — , ahimatwan- 
geau ; //. ba-. Your — , ahimat- 
wangenu ; //. ba-. Their — , 
ahimatwangabo ; pi. ba-. 

Masticate, to, v. t. ku tafnna. 

Mat, of grass, n. a. muaeme; 
laige mat made of impolwe grass, 
n. 3. iaaaa. 

Matches, n. 3. pi. for. mankisi. 

Matted, or towzled hair, n. 3. 

Matter, pus, n. 4. bushila ; case, 
business, n. 3. ikani, n. 8. in- 
kani. Fhr. What's the matter 
with him ? VTtk ba nahi ? 

Mattress, n. 4. bula 

May, month of, Busangule. 

Me, n, m. See chap, v of Grants 
mar. With me, even me, Ame, 

Meal, n, 4. bufu ; coarse, n, 3. pL 
mandu ; fine, if. 4. bulamu. 



Mealies, n. 3. //. mapopwe. 
Measure, to, v,t, ku eleka; to 

cause to measure, to measure 

with, V. t, ku elesha. 
Measure, a rule, n. 7. oheleslio. 
Meat, n. 4* buzane ; meat boiled 

much, nice and soft, n, 8. inkanzo 

(eaten by elders only). 
Mediate, to, to speak on behalf 

of, V. /. ku ambidila. 
Mediator, n. i. Mwambidizhi. 
Medicine, n, 2. muaaxno. 

Some kinds of native medicines, 

Buvhumo. This is put around a 
village and elsewhere to scare 
away lions. 

Ohipezhabazhike. A short shrub 
the root of which is used in 
leprosy and syphilis. The root is 
pounded, wrapped in cloth, and 
soaked. The bundle is then 
applied to the sores. 

Kabwengwe. Leaves and twigs 
of a small bush. They are 
crushed, soaked in water, and 
applied to the eye, when a snake 
has spat into it. The immediate 
result is a profuse watering of the 
eye, which relieves the pain and 
washes out the poison. It is also 
said to be applied to snake bites. 

Kaxnankamala. The leaves or 
root of this shrub are chewed ; said 
to be a cure in case of diarrhoea. 

Mubondo. The dried head of 
this fish is crushed up and mixed 
with the fat of the same ; this is 
said to be a cure for the disease 

Mubumbu. Bark of this tree 
used as a cure for dysentery and 
diarrhoea. The bark is soaked 
in water which turns a red colour; 
the decoction, which is bitter to 
taste, is either drunk or cooked 
with porridge. 

Mudyadya. The root of this 
shrub is cooked in beer or por- 
ridge ; said to stimulate the 

Mufofiima. From the root of 
this tree is made a decoction 

which is supposed to cause chil- 
dren to grow big. The root is 
crushed and soaked, and the child 
is washed in the decoction and 
made also to drink some of it. 

Mufwebabachazi. The root of 
this tree evidently contains a 
strong narcotic. The bark is 
taken and broken up, and natives 
say that if these are smoked in a 
pipe unconsciousness is quickly 
caused, death following. This is 
not an uncommon way of com* 
mitting suicide. 

Mululwe. Root of this tree used 
as a cure for leprosy or syphilis. 
Deep incisions axe made in the 
root, which is then soaked in 
water; the decoction, which is 
bitter to taste, is taken either 
locally or used as a lotion. 

Munto. The leaves of this tree 
are soaked or chewed and then 
placed on the head, in case of 

Mutongabofo. The root of this 
small shrub is soaked in water, 
and the decoction is drunk three 
or four da3rs in succession by 
women in order to produce fer^ 

Mwazhi. This is used in the 
ordeal by the Baltunbn ; it is 
said not to be found in Bwila, but 
brought from the Butonga. It is 
given to suspected witches, &c : 
if they vomit, they are declared 
innocent; if they die, they are 
declared guilty. 

Ifamudilakuahobwa. A beetle. 
This is taken and rubbed on the 
gums of a child to facilitate the 
cutting of the teeth. 

Ifgombi. A shrub, the root of 
which is used as an emetic The 
root is soaked in water, and the 
decoction taken internally 
Meek, to be, v. i, ka bomba. 
Meekly, adv. ohakubomba. 
Meet, to, v. i. ku swangana^ kix 
chinga ; of strangers meeting, 
v» f . ku tintana ; to meet, v. /• 
3eu swanganya, ka ohlnuba ; 



to gather together, v, u ka bun- 

gana, v.t. ka buzki^anya, ka 

Meeting, n. 5. kabungana, ka- 

Boboloka; an assembly, n, 8. 

imbongano ; a meeting of people 

for play, n, 2. masalo; a meeting, 

class of catechumens, n, 8. /or, 

Meeting-place, n, 7. ohibon- 

ganino, ohiohlTigaTilTio. 
Melon, n, 3. itanga; the inside 

of, ff. 4. boAiiuBo. 
Melt, to, v.i^ta ensonaka, v. t. 

ku ensanasha ; to melt slightly, 

get soft, of a candle in the heat, 

&c., zr. i ka emoka. 
Mend, to, by sewing, v. /. ku sasa, 

ku sasidila; by i>atching, z/./. 

ku tumbika. 
Menstruate, to, v,i, ku sea; 

for the first time, v, i, ku sa- 

Merchant, n. i. musambazlil. 
Mercifully, adv, ohaluse, 
Mercy, n. 9. luse. 
Merciful person, n, \a. shi- 

Merciless person, m. i. musu- 

Message, if. 8. inkombe. 
Messenger, 11.1a. chinkombwa, 

n, I. mutumwa. 
Metal, n, 7. ohela. 
Micturate, to, v, u ku suba. 
Midday, ado, akalendebwe. 
Middle, adv, akati, mukati. 

Middle, or half-way, inengane- 

nga ; e,g* we arrived in the 

middle of the plain, twa shika 

anenganenga ebanda. 
Midnight, n. 2. mulungashiku. 
MiGRATEy to, of game, v,u ku 

Mildew, n, 8. invhundi. 
Milk, finesh, iu 2. xnukupa ; sour, 

If. 3. pL mabishi ; curds, thick 

milk, If. 4. b wanda, if. 7. ohanda ; 

buttermilk, if. 3. //. masuke. 
Milk, to, v, /. ku kama. 
MiLK-PAiLy If. 2. muleu. 
Milk-way, the, if. 8. mulala- 


Millet, n, 3. //. maoheme, ma* 

Millipede, if. io. shongolwe. 

Millstone, the upper, n, 8. im- 
X>elwe; the lower, if. 3. ibwe, 

Mimic, to, v, t, ku idila. 

Mince, to, to cut meat into small 
pieces, ku kosaula ahitudi; to 
mince very small pieces, ku ko- 
saula bunengele. 

Mind, intellect, n, 3. pL maaesela. 

Mind, to change, v,i, ku sa- 

Mine, pass, pro, -ngu, prefixed by 
gen. parts.; e,g, this thing is 
mine, ohintu cheohi nchi 
cbangu. There is also a series 
of pronoun (see Grammar ^ chap, 
v)f such as chinakwangu, it is 
mine, used with all nouns of cl. 
8, and so on. 

Mingle, to, v, i. ku sang^ana, v, t, 
ku sanganya, ku vwela ; of 
cattle or people so intermingling 
as to be indistinguishable, v, i. ku 
dyombengana, v.t, ku dyo- 

Minister, missionary, if. i. for, 

Ministry, office, status of minister, 
If. \,for, buluti. 

Mire, if. 8. intimba. 

Mirror, if. 7. chimbone. 

Miss, to, an aim, v, t. ku iaha ; to 
miss or pass each other on road, 
V, t, ku isihanya. 

Misser, one who misses in shoot- 
ing, If. I. mufunka. 

Mist, if. \a, ahikunku, if. 8. 

Mistake, to, v. i, ku luba. 

Mistress, wife of master, my, if. 
la, namatwangangu, &c. 

Mix, to, v,t, ku sanganya, ku 
vwela ; to be mixed, v. i, ku 
sangana ; of affairs mixed up, 
entangled, v.i. ku potana, v.t, 
ku potanya. 

Mixed uf, adj. -sangene, -potene. 

Moan, to, v. i, ku tongela. 

Mock, to, v, i, ku sabula ; to 
mook at, v. t, ku sabwila. 



Mealies, n, 3. //. mapopwe. 
Measure, to, v.L ka eleka; to 

cause to measure, to measure 

with, V. t, ku elesha. 
Measure, a rule, n. 7. oheleslio. 
Meat, n. 4* buzane ; meat boiled 

much, nice and soft, n, 8. inkanzo 

(eaten by elders only). 
Mediate, to, to speak on bebalf 

of, V. t. ku ambidila. 
Mediator, n. i. Mwambidizhi. 
Medicine, n, 2. miiaaxno. 

Some kinds of native medicines. 

Buvhiimo. This is put around a 
village and elsewhere to scare 
away lions. 

Ohipezhabazhike. A short shrub 
the root of which is used in 
leprosy and syphilis. The root is 
pounded, wrapped in cloth, and 
soaked. The bundle is then 
applied to the sores. 

KabweiifiTW-e. Leaves and twigs 
of a small bush. They are 
crushed, soaked in water, and 
applied to the eye, when a snake 
has spat into it. The immediate 
result is a profuse watering of the 
eye, which relieves the pain and 
washes out the poison. It is also 
said to be applied to snake bites. 

Kaxnankamala. The leaves or 
root of this shrub are chewed ; said 
to be a cure in case of diarrhoea. 

Mubondo. The dried head of 
this fish is crushed up and mixed 
with the fat of the same ; this is 
said to be a cure for the disease 

Mubumbu. Bark of this tree 
used as a cure for dysentery and 
diarrhoea. The bark is soaked 
in water which turns a red colour ; 
the decoction, which is bitter to 
taste, is either drunk or cooked 
with porridge. 

Mudyadya. The root of this 
shrub is cooked in beer or por- 
ridge ; said to stimulate the 

Hufafmna. From the root of 
this tree is made a decoction 

which is supposed to cause chil- 
dren to grow big. The root is 
crushed and soaked, and the child 
is washed in the decoction and 
made also to drink some of it. 

Mufw-ebabachazi. The root of 
this tree evidently contains a 
strong narcotic. The bark is 
taken and broken up, and natives 
say that if these are smoked in a 
pipe unconsciousness is quickly 
caused, death following. This is 
not an uncommon way of com- 
mitting suicide. 

Molulwe. Root of this tree used 
as a cure for leprosy or syphilis. 
Deep incisions are made in the 
root, which is then soaked in 
water; the decoction, which is 
bitter to taste, is taken either 
locally or used as a lotion. 

Mtmto. The leaves of this tree 
are soaked or chewed and then 
placed on the head, in case of 

Mutongabofo. The root of this 
small shrub is soaked in water, 
and the decoction is drunk three 
or four da3rs in succession by 
women in order to produce fer^ 

Mwazhi. This is used in the 
ordeal by the Balumbu ; it is 
said not to be found in Bwila, but 
brought from the Butonga. It is 
given to suspected witches, &c. : 
Sf they vomit, they are declared 
innocent; if they die, they are 
declared guilty. 

Ifamudilakuahobwa. A beetle. 
This is taken and rubbed on the 
gums of a child to facilitate the 
cutting of the teeth. 

Ifgombi. A shrub, the root of 
which is used as an emetic The 
root is soaked in water, and the 
decoction taken internally 
Meek, to be, v, i, ka bomba. 
Meekly, adv. chakabomba. 
Meet, to, v. i. ka swangana^ ka 
chinga ; of strangers meeting, 
V, f . ka tintana ; to meet, v. /• 
ka swanganya, ka ohinaba; 



to gather together, v, u ka bun- 

gana, v.t, ka bunganyay ka 

Meeting, n. 5. kabungana, ka- 

BOboloka; an assembly, n. 8. 

imbangano; a meeting of people 

for play, n. 2. mosalo; a meeting, 

class of catechumens, n. 8. far, 

Meeting-place, n, 7. ohibon- 

ganino, ohiokinganino. 
Melon, n, 3. itanga; the inside 

of, M. 4. boAlIUBO. 
Melt, to, v. i, ka enaanoka, v. i, 

ku ensanaslia ; to melt slightly, 

get soft, of a candle in the heat, 

&c, V. u ka emaka. 
Mend, to, by sewing, v. t, ka sasa, 

ka saaidila; by patching, v./. 

ka tambika. 
Menstruate, to, v,u ka sea; 

for the first time, v, i, ka sa- 

Merchant, n. i. masambaahi. 
Mercifully, adv, chaluse, 
Mercy, n, 9. lose. 
Merciful person, n, la. shi- 

Merciless person, n, i. moaa- 

Message, n. 8. inkombe. 
Messenger, n, la. chinkombwa, 

n. I. matumwa. 
Metal, n, 7. chela. 
Micturate, to, v. i, ka saba. 
Midday, <uh, akalendebwe. 
Middle, adv, akati, mokati. 

Middle, or half-way, inengane- 

nga ; e,^, we arrived in the 

middle of the plain, twa shika 

anenganenga ebanda. 
Midnight, n. 2, malangashika. 
Migrat£| to, of game, v, i, ka 

Mildew, n. 8. invhundi. 
Milk, fresh, n. 2, makapa ; sour, 

n. 3. //. mabishi ; curds, thick 

milk, n, 4. bwanda, n, 7. chanda ; 

buttermilk, n. 3. //. xnasuke. 
Milk, to, v, t, ku kama. 
MiLK-PAiLy n, 2. maleo. 
Milk-way, the, n, 8. molala- 


Millet, n, 3. //• znaoheme, ma- 

Millipede, 11.1a. shoiigolwe. 

Millstone, the upper, n, 8. im- 
X>elwe; the lower, n, 3. ibwe, 

Mimic, to, v, t, ka idila. 

Mince, to, to cut meat into small 
pieces, ka kosaala ahitudi; to 
mince very small pieces, ka ko- 
fiaala banengele. 

Mind, intellect, n, 3. pL masesela. 

Mind, to change, v,i, ka sa- 

Mine, pass, pro, -nga, prefixed by 
gen. parts.; e.g, this thing is 
mine, ohintu chechi nchi 
cbangu. There is also a series 
of pronoun (see Grammar^ chap, 
v), such as chinakwangn, it is 
mine, used with all nouns of cl. 
8, and so on. 

Mingle, to, v, i. ku sangana, v, t, 
ku sanganya, ku vwela ; of 
cattle or people so intermingling 
as to be indistinguishable, v, i. ku 
dyombengana, v,t, ku dyo- 

Minister, missionary, n, i. far, 

Ministry, office, status of minister, 
n, j^,far. buluti. 

Mire, n, 8. intimba. 

Mirror, n, 7. ohimbone. 

Miss, to, an aim, v. /. ku islia ; to 
miss or pass each other on road, 
V, t. ku ishanya. 

MissER, one who misses in shoot- 
ing, n. I. mufunka. 

Mist, n, la, ahikunku, n, 8. 

Mistake, to, v. i, ku luba. 

Mistress, wife of master, my, n, 
la, namatwangangu, &c. 

Mix, to, v,t, ku sanganya, ku 
vwela ; to be mixed, v, i, ku 
sangana ; of affairs mixed up, 
entangled, v,i, ku potana, v.t, 
ku potanya. 

Mixed uVyadj. -sangene, -potene. 

Moan, to, v, i, ku tongela. 

Mock, to, v, i, ku sabula ; to 
modL at, V, t, ku sabwila. 



Moist, adj. -teke ; e.g, moist 
mealies, mapopwe xnateke ; a 
moist place, n, 2. mutamfu. 
Moisten, to, to sprinkle water, 
V. t ku sanaaila, ku sansa- 
MoisTNESS, If. 2. mushiL 
Mole, n. la, shilufiikwe. 
Moment, a very small space of 

time, n. 6. kalndi. 
Monday, n, a. for, miuhlxnbu- 

Money, ». 3. pi, for, madi. 
Monkey, n, la, sokwe. 
Month, n, 2. mwezhi. 
Names of the months. Many of 
these names are given according 
to the season, and do not seem to 
be fixed. 

January, Kulumi. 
Febmary, Kuyoba. 
March, Itano (» Ita ano, 'pass 
here'; Koya, Pitahano). 
April, Kukubwe. 
May, Busangule. 
June, Inkonaulamasanga, Fnfa- 

la, Ohiteke-^ha-Bwila. 
July, Kapukupukiiy XaBha- 

August, Elasane^abimbi. 
September, Katu, Kavhumbi 

October, Ivbumbi ikando. 

November, Mwenje, Sbiznwesije. 

December, Kukashi. 

Moon, n, 2. mweelii. The moon 

is full, mwezhi wa shtUca. Full 

moon is also called, oboiia- 

nobecbe, because it rises when 

the children go to sleep. Moon 

in first quarter, xnwei^ mwi- 

tuba. When it first appears, 

mweshi u ohidi muoheohe. 

Of the moon on the wane, oboHa- 

nkando, because it appears when 

the elders go to sleep. 

MoPANi, n, 2. mwani; a mopani 

forest, n, 4. bwani. 
Morass, swamp, n, 4. butinti. 
Morning, before sunrise, chifa- 
mofumo, shimbundu. After 
sunrise, chiftmio. 
Morning star, n, 8. intfinda. 

Morose, to be, of a man keeping 

to himself gloomy, v, u ka un- 

sumana, ku pokomana. 
Morsel, oif bread, n. 2. xnukusu; 

a small morsel, n, 6. kakusu. 
Mortify, to, v, i, ka cliukiuna. 
MosQuiTOy n, 3. imwe, //. 

Moth, n. 3. ipempe. 
Mother, found only connected 

with pronouns, thus : — 
Bama, my mother (in address. 


Banoko, thy mother. 
Baina, his mother. 
Banokwesu, our mother. 
Banokwenu, your mother. 
Banokwabo, theu: mother. 
Mother-in-law, same as father- 
in-law, q, V, 
Mould, to, v,t, kn bnmba; to 

mould bullets, v. U ku salfulxila. 
Mould, for bullets, n, 8. intelo. 
Mouldy, to be, as bread, v, f. ka 

Moult, to, of fowls, v, i, ka 

nyoskaiika ; of a snake, z'. f. ka 

Mound, n, 7. chilandulandu ; a 

smaller, n, 7. ohilundo. 
Mount, to, v,t, ku disa; to 

cause, help mount, v, t, ka 

Mountain, n, 3. ilundu. 
Mourn, to, v, i, ku dila; to mourn 

for, V, t, ku didila. 
Mourner, n, i. mudishl 
Mournfully, ^dly, udv, ohabu- 


Mouse, n, 1 a, ohikoswe. 

Mouse-trap, n, 3. idiba. 

Mouth, outer part, lips, n, a. 
mulomo ; the cavity of the 
mouth, n. 6. kanwa ; bill of 
pelican and stork, n, 9. luyaba. 

Move, to, to m. things out of the 
way, V, t, ku sestQa ; to shift 
things to a place near by, v, t, 
ku tantninuna ; to m. one's 
residence near, v.i. ku %unka, 
ku panda; d^tto, far, v,i, ka 

Mow, TO, V, t, ku ohesa. 



Much, adj. -nji-nji ; e,g, mnch 
honey, bnohi bunJibuD^ 

Mucus, from nose, n, 3. pi, mami- 

Multiply, to, v,t. ku vhosha, 
ku paaha. 

Multitude, of people, «. a. mn- 

Murder, to, v, /. ku yaya. 

Murderer, m. i. xnuyayL 

Murmur, to, v. i, ka tonga ; to 
grumble, complain, v, i. ku ton- 
gauka, kn aholauka. 

Murmuring, n, 8. intongo. 

Musical instruments : — 
Budimba. Formed of a number 
of wooden notes, fixed upon a 
board, above a number of cala- 
bashes of different sises; played 
by means of a stick. 
Impeta. Homofreedbuck, puku, 
or pallah used as a trumpet 
Tndandala. A small kind of 
drum played by beating with a 

Ingoma. Drum formed out of 
hollowed piece of wood, and a 
piece of skin stretched tightly 
over one end ; played by strOung 
with the hand. 

Injua, insakalala. Consists of a 
tin upon a stick and containing a 
number of small stones or grain.; 
this is used as a rattle bv travellers 
when approaching a village, or in 
summoning their fellows to start. 
Intimbwa. Consisting of one or 
two bows, upon a bowl. Used 
only by balcamwale at their 
Ipopa, maumwakodi. Large 
drum, played in pairs by men. 

Saltunbu. A monochord across 
a bow, with a resonating calabash. 
Kankobele. Consists of a num- 
ber of metal notes upon a small 
basis of wood, and a calabash 
below ; the notes are played with 
the fingers. 

Mwandu. A stamping-block has 
a skin stretched tightly over the 
top ; a reed is then nicely 
smoothed, stood upon the block. 

and a person witiii a wet hand rubs 
his hand up and down the reed, 
producing a sound. 

Muscle, of arm or leg or back, 
n. I a, shikamufume ; of calf of 
leg, n. 2, mubondo. 

Mushroom, n. ^. boa, n. lo. 

Must. The nearest to this is the 
verb kudi elele. Thus : — You 
must do this, ITdi elele ku chita 
checbi. In the negative the im- 
perative is used: — You must not 
do it, IT ta ku chi obita. 

Mustache, n. 8. intomeno. 

Mustard, m, 2, for, mustada. 

l/iYf pass. pro. -ngu prefixed by gen. 
parts; e.g. my slave, muaMke 
wan go. 

Nail, peg, n. 8. inembe ; of finger 
or toe, n. 9 a. Iwala. 

Naked, adv, ohintanda. He goes 
naked, IT le enda obintanda. 

Nakedness, n. 7. ohintanda. 

Naked person, n, la. sbiohin- 

Name, n. 3. iohina. What is your 
name ? Ndiweni iahina diako P 
To give a name to, v.t, ku 
udika.; to name, v.t. ku banda; 
to call anybody by his old name, 
V. t, ku ahokolola. 
The latter word refers to the fact 
that a person will have more than 
one name during his life, first that 
given in infancy, and later others. 
To call a person by an old name 
is reckoned a fault, and the de- 
faulter is supposed to become 
weak and thin by reason of it. A 
man is also prohibited from sp>eak- 
ing his own name. He is not 
allowed to speak his wife's maiden 
name, but must give her a new 
one. He is also prohibited from 
speaking his father's, mother's, 
and sister-in-law's names. If a 
man is speaking with another 
having the same name as himself, 
he will not address him by name 
but will say, Musediangu, My 
namesake. If he has a child 



named after its grandfather, he 
may not address it by name^ but 
will say, MuBediata, My father's 
namesake. And so on with other 
names. See Ila-Eng. Voc, under 

Nap, to, to have a short sleep, v,u 
ku huluBlia, ku hulola. 

Nape, of neck, n. 2. mukoshi. 

Narrow, to, v. i, ku shankana. 
The doorway is narrow, xnudi- 
angfo adi shankene. 

Narrow, adj, -shankene. 

Narrowness, n, 5. kuahankana. 

Nation, n, 7. ohishi. 

Nausea, n, 6. kasese ; a person 
liable to nausea, n. 1 a, skikasese. 

Nauseate, to, v,t, ku sesemya. 
My heart is nauseated, Mozo 
wangu wa sesema. I am nause- 
ated) Nda sesemwa. The words 
are applied to a feeling of nausea 
caused by anything very nasty. It 
is also used,y!]f., in a moral sense, 
of deep disgust at an unclean 

Navel, n. 9. lukombo* a big, 
swollen n., umbilical hernia, 
ikombo. Navel-cord, ludila. 

Nay, pe. 

Near, adv. afwafwi, kufwafwi; 
to draw near, approach, v. i. ku 
sena; to draw nearer, closer, v. i, 
ku senenena. 

Near to, prep, afwafwi a, kufwa- 
fwi ku. 

Neck, n. 8. inshingo ; nape of, 
n, 2. mukoshi. 

Necklace, n. 8. inkonde, n. 6. pi. 
tunyoni, n. 7. ohinkonta, n. 2. 

Need, to, to lack, v.f. ku bula; 
to want, V. t. ku kapula. 

Needle, n. 6. kasonde, n, 8. inye- 
nda, n. 8. indongra (Lumbn). 

Neighbour, n. i. My — , mwen- 
Euma; //. bdnzuma. Thy — , 
mwenzhinoko ; pi, bSnzhlnoko. 
His — , mwenzhina ; //. b§n- 
zhina. Our — , mwenzhinok- 
wesu ; //. bdnzhinokwesu. 
Your — , mwenzhinokwenu ; 
//. bdnzhinokwenu. Their -^^ 

mwenzhinokwabo ; //. bSnzhi* 

Nephew, niece, n, i. mwiwa. 

My — f mwiwangu ; //. bewa 

bangu. Thy — , mwiwako ; pi. 

bewa bako. His — , mwiwf^- 

we ; //. bewa bakwe, &c., &c. 
Nest, of bird, n, 7. ohitanto ; of 

bees in tree, n. 7. ohibango ; of 

hen, n, 7. ohiftikofuko. 
Net, n. 9. lutele, luyaba. 
Nettle, n. 6. kalokananundwe, 

//. tulotwananundwe. 
Nevertheless, conj. nikubabobo. 
New, adj. -pia ; e.g. a new house, 

ing*anda impia. 
New, to make, to renew, is ex- 
pressed in the repetitive species 

of the verb ; e.g. to renew a house» 

rebuild it, ku zakulula. 
News, n. 3. //. makani. Phr. 

What 's the news ? Kwa ambwa 

Next, saj^, which comes ; e. g. next 

year, mwaka u ziza (or mwaka 

Nice, n. 2. muohanka. The food is 

nice, Tudyo tudi muohanka. 
Nicely, adv. kabotu, ohamu- 

Niggard, n. i. mutuni, mutavhu. 
Night, n. \.pl. mashiku. 
Nine, num. ifuka. 
Nineteen, num. ikumi diomwi 

o mu ntesha shidi ifuka, ikumi 

odi twesha ifuka. 
Ninety, num. makumi adi ifuka. 
Nipple, of breast, n. 6. kanunkelo; 

of gxm, n. I a. suko. 
Nit, egg of louse, n. 2. muyi, //• 

No, adv. pe. 
Nod, to, to assent by nodding the 

head, v. i. ku gui^a. 
Noise, to make a, v. i. ku yoba, 

ku saba. 
Noise, n. 5. kusaba, knyoba; a 

great noise, n. 3. izwanga. 
Noise, to abroad, v.t. ku ibu- 

aha. Phr. to be noised abroad, 

ku ya impuwo. 
None, say, there is not a thing, 

kwina ohinta« 



Nonsense. Phr, He speaki non- 
sense, IT la axnba o ahi te o. 

Noose, n, 4. bafvriBii. 

North : this is expressed ambiga- 
OBsly. In the south they say, 
ka xnbalSy or ka bwila, i.e, 
towards the Mbala country, or 
towards the Bwila country. 

Nose, n. 3. inango. Bridge of, 
muombombo wenango. Inside 
cartilages of nose, n, 8. in- 

Nostrils, n, ^.pL manango. 

Not, neg. aux. ta, ahi, Sec. 

Notch, to, to cut a notch on a 
stick, v,t, ku lemba; to notch 
an ox's ear, v. t. ka anda. 

Nothing : say, there is not a thing, 
kwina chintcu What do you 
want ? Nothing. IT londa nshi P 

Notify, to, v. t. ku shibya. 

Notoriety, n. 9. Iwengu. 

Notorious person, n, la, shil- 

Notoriously, adv. chalwengu. 

Notwithstanding, conj, nikuba- 
bobo. The sentence must be 
rearranged ; thus, I forgive you, 
notwitl^tanding your fault, TJdi 
kwete kambo, nikubabobo nda 
ku kwatila luse. 

Nourish, to, v, t. ka lela. 

November, month of, Mwesije. 

Novice, n. i a. shikiya. 

Now, adv. inslio, ngonao. 

Number, ». z. pi. for. inumbelo. 

Number, a small number of people, 
n. 8. inkamo; a great number, 
n. 3. //. makamo, moftinzl 

Numerous, to be, v. i. ku vhola. 

Nut, ground-, «. 8. inyemo; 
varieties of, n. 8. impumpu, n. 8. 
impute, n. 2. muninga. 

Oar, paddle, n, 8. inkashi. 
Oath, to take an, v. i. ku pinga. 
Obediently, adv. chakutelela. 
Obey, to, v, t. ku telela. 
Object, to, v. i. ku kaka. 
Obliterate, to, v. /. ku zhimin- 

Observe, to, to see, v.t. ku bona; 

to look attentively at, v,L ku 

Obstacle, something in path 
jumped over, n. 7. ohisotokwa ; 
something gone round, if. 7. 

Obstinacy, ». 7. ohinguni. 

Obstinate person, n. \a. ahi- 

Obstruct, to, v.t. ku ohinjila. 

Obtain, to, as pay, v.i. ku hola; 
to reach to, phr. ku ahika ku. 

Occasion, n. 7. ohindi. 

Ochre, red-, n. 7. ohishila. 


Odour, n. 2. munko; a pleasant 
odour, n. 4. bwema ; body smell 
of people, n. 2. mumwe ; odour 
of burning meat, k. 8. //. ahilo ; 
odour, scent of a snake, n. 3. 
izambula; a putrid smell, n» 7. 
ohikuno ; smell of people, n. 7. 
chibeaha. Banyama ba tu 
telela chibesha. The animals 
have our scent. 

Odorous, to be, v. i. ku nunkika. 

Ov¥y prep, a. Come off that stool, 
Ko vhwa a ohuna ohecho. 

Off, to take, v. t, ku kusha ; 
to take a pot off the fire, v. t. ku 
iyula, ku yula. 

Offend, to, v. t. ku lemasha. 

Offer, to, v. t. ku tambika. To 
offer for, on behalf of, v. U ku ta- 
mbikizha. To offer payment 
doubting -whether it will be ac- 
cepted, V. t. ku somba. To offer 
a gift at grave of one*s ancestors, 
V. t. ku paizha. 

Offering, at graves, »• 7. ohipa- 

Offerings at graves are numerous. 
The £ings that may be offered 
are beer, maize, tobacco, im- 
pemba, mukangabishi, hemp, 
cloth, hoes, cups, ingonji, im- 

These are given in connexion with 
prayers ; to pray at graves is.ku 
paila, though not altogether con- 
fined to graves. 

Thus when there is no rain the 



people go to the grave of a chief, 
put beer or grain on the gratre, 
and then pray, So-and-so give us 
Tain, or water; IT tu pe lesa, or, 
TJ tu pe menshi. If a person is 
sick the relatives go to the mu- 
sonzhi about it ; he tells them 
to pray, saying, the spirit wants 
beer, &c., muzhixno n langa 
mukuko. He may tell them to 
pray ku mudiango, at the door 
of the house (ju^ in»de), or an- 
tumba, ue, in the house; then 
they make their offering there, 
and say : Munta weBn na a 
pone ; t=w» komba, twa ka- 
mbidila; a kadi ndlwe na a 
pone, i.e. Let this person live, 
we pray ; we salute by clapping, 
if it be thou let him live. An- 
other ^>coasioB for offering is 
When a person has killed a beast 
in hunting. Cutting off four 
pieces, he throws one to the east, 
and says : ITwe u muire mbobu 
buzane : You in the east, here is 
meat ; then to the north, ITwe u 
mwila ; then to the south, TJwe 
n mnbishi ; then to the west, 
tXwe u mumbo. Having thus 
offered to the spirits in all direc- 
tions, he kneels and claps, and 
then says : Ozona ozona n mpa 
bnzane : To-morrow and to- 
morrow give me meat (his way of 
expressing thanks). 

Offering-place, n. 7. ohipai- 

Offspring, n, i. xnwana. 

Often, adv, kanji, kanjikanji. 

Ogle, to, to look with side-glances, 
phr, ka lang» maohenchela. 

Oil, n, 2, mmigwhnba, n. 3. //. 

Oil-can, n. 8. impam. 

Old, to be, of persons, v, i. ka 
chembala ; of things, v. i. ku 
Inmpala ; to cause to be old, v, U 
ku dhembazha, ku lumpazha. 

Old, very, adj, ^kulakoln. 

Old age, n, 4. bupami. 

Old person, an, n, i. nkoohe* 

mbele; of a £eeble, old person, 
n, I. mnpamL 

O^.prcp. A, Bzeulu a. On ! Let 
us on ! Tu yeni ! 

Once, adv. komwi ; at once, adv, 

One, num. -mwi; indef. adj. 
-mwi. As a numeral -mwi is 
prefixed by the particles o, yo, 
&c. ; as an indef. adj. by u, i, 
&c. ; e. g. Muntu omwi, one 
person; muntu umwi, one out 
of several people, one, other, 
certain one. 

ONEONLY,«»vf.-anwinana; e.g. one 
person only, muntu omwinaoa. 

Open, to, v.t. ku yalula; to o. 
a door for somebody, v.t. ku 
yalwila. The door is open, 
Mndiango udi yalwilwe ; or, 
Mudiango udi bukwazhi; or, 
Udi bulaahi. To o. or lance an 
abscess, v.t, ku anda; to o. a 
bin, V. /. ku matola; to o. a box, 
bag, v,t. ku shinkula; to o. a 
book, pot, V. t. ku hununa, ku 
hunukula ; to a a |;nn, v.t. ka 
lakula ; to o. wide a split in any- 
thing, v.i, ku lakumnna ; to o. 
the mouth, z^/. ku lakama; to 
40. the mouth wide in eating, v. /• 
ku laba ; to a slightly, v. /. ku 
mwenuna; to be open^ slightly, 
v.u \xi mwenufca ; to o. the 
eyes, v. t. ku tntulula:; to be o., 
of tiie eyes, v.i. ka totfoluka ; 
to o. the hand, v,t. ku fkunba- 
tiila ; to o. the hand widely with 
fingers outspread, v. t. ku aanana ; 
to be o.^ of the hand, v.i. ku 
fumbatitka ; to o. up an animal, 
». /. ku tidula. 

Open, adj. -faunukile, -lakeme, 
-lakushi. Special meanings as 

Opening, n. a. mudian^ro; in 
fence, fi. 2. musena. 

Openly, adv. ohampuwo. 

Opportunity, n. 7. ohindl 

Opposite. The village is opposite, 
MunaM u di bwenema. 

Or, na. 

Orx»ain, to, to appoint, establidi a 



custom, 9./. Ieu lenca; to set 
apart to office^ v. /. ku kxiilrfti 

Order, to, to command^ v.t. ku 
layA, knlaidiUt; to pat in order, 
arrange, v. t. ka bamba ; to put 
straigbt, v./. ku engoaha, ku 
nonoBha; to be in order, v,u 
ka non<d» ; «. g, Munganda 
ta mn nonokele, The house is 
not in order. 

Ornament, of feathers for head, 
M. 8. ingsJa^ 

Ornament, to, v,t, ka aamika, 
ka ebeaha. 

Orphan, is. i. moshala. 

Orphanhood, n, 4. boabala. 

Other, •mwi; €,g* the 
other man, mulombwana omwi. 

Otherwise, adv, ukuziji, buBji. 

Otter, is. iol ohibawe, //. baohi- 
bawe. A yonng, small, kanga- 

Ought, Yon ought to do so, Udi 
elele ku chita bobo. 

OuR,/arf./ri9.-iau. Prefixed by gen. 
parts. See chap, v 9fGrammar» 

Out, to comb, v, i. ku irhwa. 

Outcast, m. i. muaangadichi. 

OuT-DO, to, V, t. ku baaba. 

Outside, adv, anaangwa. 

Outside of, prep, anaaxigwe a, 
knnaengwe ku. 

Over. : the adverb is expressed in 
the relative species of the verb ; 
§.g!. to cross over to the other 
side, kn landukila mwitala 

Overcome, to, v. /. ku konaha ; 
e,g. I cannot do, or, overcome, 
this work, Shi konsha naudimo 
weau. To overcome or conquer, 
V, t. ku aunda. 

Overflow, to, of a pot in boiling, 
sr.f. ku fdftuna; of a full cup, 
V, f . ku kupana ; to fill to over- 
flowing, V. t, ku kupauya ; of a 
basket filled to overflowing, v,u 
ku mwamwatika; of a river, 
V. i. ku paya ; to cause to over- 
flow, V, i, ku ftifnmima. 
Overhang, to, of trees overhang- 
ing a path, V, t. ku kotamina ; 
of a tree, &c.» cut nearly through 

and likely to fall, v, i, ku nenge- 

Overspread, to, to cover over, 

V, /. ku vhumba ; as an eruption 

on the body, v, t, ku ftikuluka. 
Overtake, to, to catch up to, pMr. 

ku shika ku ; to meet, v, f, ku 

Owl, n, la. ahiahlBblnl. 
Owner, n. i. mukamwini. 
Ox, n, I. musune. 

Pace, fast pace, n, 9. lubilo ; to 
travel a fast pace, phr. ku enaha 

Pacify, to, an infant, v,f. ku 
umbudiaha. To pacify or com- 
fort an adult, v, t, ku soaha. 

Pack, to, load up a canoe or 
waggon, V, t, ku chiaba. 

Pack, as of wild dogs, ». 4. bu- 

Pad, of leaves or grass used in 
carrying a load on the head, «. 8. 

Paddle, n. 8. inkaahi. 

Page, of a book, n, 3. ij>epa. 

Pail, n, z^for, ibukiti. 

Pain, to, v,u ku ohiaa; v,t. 
ku obisha. 

Pain, n, 4. bulwaahi; n, 7. ohi- 

In spealcing of pains in different 
parts of the body, some have 
special names, but others are de- 
scribed by saying, I am sick so- 
and-so ; I am dead so-and-so — the 
part affected being named. 

To have pain in the teeth, ku sata 
jkupa mono. 

To have faceache, with swelling, 
ku fwa lushinga. 

To have pain in the head, headache, 
ku fwa mwanza, ku fwa mu- 
twi; ku sata mubiabe. 

To have pain in stomach, ku aata 

To have birth-pangs, ku aata mi- 

To have throbbing pains, as in 
abscess, or in breast, ku aii;te 
mupujca; ku fwa kuvhunta; 
mupukA u U vbuAta. 

Y 2 



To ha^ne stabbing pains in chest, 
ku sata kaxnuohAxnba, or, ku 
sata kabiabe. 

To have pain in the side, ku fwa 

To have a stiff neck, ku fwa 

To have pain in loins, ku fwa 
ohibunu; ku fwa ohi-banda- 
bakando. The latter name is 
given to this because it is sup- 
posed to be a pain for older 
people ; if young people have 
pains in the loins they are sup- 
posed to keep silence about it. 

To have pains all over the body, as 
in fever, ku sata xnubidi, ku 
fwa xnubidi. 

Painfully, ado. ohabulwasht 
Paint, n. a. mubaso. 
Paint, to, v, U ku basa. 
Palate, the hard palate, n, 9. ludi- 

Palatable, to make, v,t. ku 

ikusha, ku bosha. 

These words are applied to certain 
things which are put into food to 
make it palatable and which have 
the common name, n. 7. ohidislio ; 
e.g, Ohidisho chi le kusha 
inahima, The relish makes the 
bread palatable. To make palat- 
able by dipping into gravy, ku 

Things employed as shidislio, are 
meat, fish, milk, leaves (shishu) 
of certain plants, of which the 
following may be named : ipu- 
bubu, impululwa, impoko, 
namunkulungu, umpampa* 
ohubo, ibabamu, namukalaka- 

Palm-tree, n, 6. kalala, kanghu- 
ma; fruit of, n, 8. inkomona, 
iugiiuina ; the inside of a small 
palm, eaten, n, 7. ohinshaSnahal. 

Pant, to, v. i. ku foma ; of a dog, 
V. i. ku hekema, ku zekema. 

Palpitate, to, v. i. ku bidintika. 

Pap, n. 7. ohele. 

Paper, n, %*for. ipapelo. 

Parable, ». 7. ohikoshano. 

Paralysis, to have, phr. ku sumi- 
nina mubidi. 

Paramour, partner in adultery, of 
man or woman. My — , uma- 
mbangu; chimaswang^ Thy 
— , mnambako ; cbiiuaswako. 
His — t umambakwe ; ohima- 

Parch, to, v,t, ku alaula ; e.g, 
Mushinzo wezu wa tu alaula, 
This journey parches us, i, e. We 
get little or no water. To be 
parched, v. i, ku alauka. 

Parent, n. i. muztaAzhi. My 
fellow parent (applied to those 
whose children have married), 

Parry, to, v,t, ku kobela. 

Part, to, v. i, ku andana ; v, t, 
ku andanya. 

Part, division, piece, «. 7. ohipi- 

Partition, dividing-wall in house, 
tt, 2. mombe. 

Partner, in initiation dance (ohi- 
shimbo), kasua, mwana-kasua. 
My — , mwana-kasua, or kasua 
kangu. Thy — , mwana-kasua- 
noko, or kasua kako. His — , 
mwana-kasuanina, or kasua 

Pass, to, v, U ku ita ; to p. by, go 
beyond, v. /. ku bala; to p. under 
by stooping, vA, ku fubidika, 
Ini onga, ku ongoleka ; to p. at 
a distance, ku ita ansansa; to 
p. from one to another, v, /. ka 
tambuzhanya ; to p., of the 
night, V, i, ku cha ; to p., of 
rain, Bwa oha leza, wa bu ku- 

Passionate, a passionate, irascible, 
quick-tempered person, n, la. 

Patch, n, 7. chitumba; to patch, 
v,t, ku tumbika. 

Path, n. 8. inzhila ; a broad path 
or road, n. 2, mukwakwa; the 
path is roundabout, /^r. iTiwK^la 
i la zhumbwela ; a game-path, 
n. 2. mulenga, mutala. 

Patient, a patient person, n» la. 



BhisweshamoBO. To be patient, 

ku sweBha moao. 
Patrol, to go on, v. i. ku kata. 
Paw, of dog or ravenous beast, n, 7. 

Pay, to, wages, v, /. ku hoaha ; to 

p. fine or fee, v. /. ka dia ; to p. 

for somebody, v, /. ku didila ; to 

p. a tax, v,u Yji liunbula, ku 

aanga, ku tela. 
Payment, of wages, n, 5. kuhola. 
Peace, n, 7. chibanda. 
Peacefully, a€h, chaohibanda. 

To sit peaoefnlly, at ease, with 

nothing to tronble yon, v, i. ku 

Peck, to, as a fowl, v, /. ku so- 

Pedlar, n. i. musambaBhi. 
Peel, to, v, t, ku aupa. To p., as 

potatoes, v.t, ku benda, ku 

lenga. To p. for, v, t. ku ben- 

dela. To p. carefully, v,t, ku 

bendeaha. To p. o£f, as skin, 

V. t, ku Bupulula ; ditto, v, f . ku 

Peg, nail, n, 8. inembe, n, 3. 

ilembe. Peg driven into the 

ground, as tent-peg, ». S.inkanka. 
P^, to, out a skm, phr, ku bamba 

Peucan, n.ia. shiAindwe. 
Pen, n, ^for. ipene. 
Pencil, n. ^.for, ipensile. 
Peninsula, n, 7. chikobo. 
Penis, ». 8. intoni. Circumcised 

glans-penis, n, 8. impala. 
Penitence, n, 5. kubeba. 
Penitent, to be, v, i. ku beba. 
Penny, «. z»for. ipeni. 
People, n, i .//. bantu. Our people, 

our friends, relations, countrymen, 

n, I.//, banaiaha. 
Our countryman, &c., munaiaha, 
//. banaisha; your — , muna- 

muaenu, //. banamuaenu ; 

their — , munamuBhabo, //. ba- 


Perceive, to, v. /. ku tweluka. 

Perfect, to be, complete, finished, 

V. i, ku xuaninina, ku londoka. 

Perfectly, adv, chamushilo ; e. g. 

He has built perfectly, i, e, every 

part of the work is finished, Wa 

aaka ohamuahilo. 
Perforate, to, v. t. ku tulaula. 
Perfume, sweet smell, i». 6. ka- 

Perhaps, conj, ambwene, antela. 
Perish, to, v, i, ku fwididila. 
Permit, to, v. t. ku vuminina. 
Perpetually, adv, omuya-miaka. 
Perplex, to, v. t, ku zhinga. 
Perplexed, to be, v. pass, ku 

Persecute, to, v. t, ku pansha. 
Persecution, If. 5. kupenBha,ku- 

Persevering, to bb, phr, ku awe^ 

aha moso. 
Persevering person, n. 1 a, 

XTahisweshamoao. A persistent, 

persevering person is also named, 

Mutanda-chilaahi ; i,e, a wild 


Person, n, i. muntu. 
Descriptive names of persons are 
largely formed from other names 
by means of the prefix Shi- ; thus : 
An angry person, n, 1 a. Shin- 
kole. A short-tempered person, 
n, la, Shilutuzhi. A wicked 
person, n. 1 a. ShimafUnai. A 
kind person, n, 1 a. Shimanga. 
A jealous person, n, la, Shi- 
bufWi. A dumb person, n. i a, 
Shatambe. The custom, manner, 
way of a person, Chintu-ohintu. 
A despicable kind of a person is 
called Chintu. 

Perspiration, n, 3. ibe. 

Perspire, to, v. i, ku fwaibe. 

Persuade, to, {/./.kukombeleaha. 

Pervert, to, v. t, ku lengauaha. 

Pestilence, n, 7. ohika. 

Pestle, n, 2. munaha. 

Pet, pet wife or child, n,ia, naku- 

Petticoat, n. 2. muahinahi. 

Phlegm, n. 3. ikolwa ; small 
quantity of, n, 6, kankolwa. 

Physician, n, i, munganga, mu- 

Pick, to, to choose, v. t, ku aala, 
ku nomona. To p. a bone, v. t. 
ku kunkutula. To p. out any- 



thing, as with pohit of a knife, 
V. t, ku tongola. To p. np one 
thing out of others, v. /. ku son- 
tola, ku soxnpola. To p. one*g 
teeth, V. U ku ditongola. To 
pick, pluck, ff nit, v, t, ku ohela. 

Pickaxe, «. ^>for. ipiki. 

Picture, yi. 7. ohikoBhano. 

Piece, of broken stick or spear, n, 7. 
ohipipila. P. of broken pot, n, 7. 
oiiipampaslia. A small p. of a 
broken pot, n, 6. kangalukai, 
kangadibwa^ A long p. or strip 
of meat for drying, n, d. mu- 

Pierce, to, v, t ku tulula. 

Piercer, boring-tool, n. 7. ohitu- 

Pig, bush-pig, i». i tf. kunttda, ngu- 
lube, oiiulube. 

Pigeon, dcnnestic, n. 8. inkwi- 
dimba. Woodpigeon, 9f. 8. 
inshiba ; n, 6. kalungiuushiba. 

Pile, n^ 7. ohilundo. A pile of 
wood cut down in forest in making 
fields, yi. 3. ibibi. 

Pile, to, v, t, ku lundika. 

Pillow, n. 2. musakamino, 

Pimple, on face> &c., n. 8. infiila. 

Pin, ft. 8./?r, ipini. 

Pincers, of blacksmith, nr. 9. lu- 
kwaslio ; used for taking up fire, 
It. 9. lumano. 

Pinch, to, v, U ku shamba. 

Pinnacle, put on top of house, 
n, 7. ohisuwa \ n,\u, sonkoto. 

Pip, n, 8. iuaeke^ Of fruit spewed 
out in eating, #f. 2. miia]iliuihi» 
Of pumpkin, melon, calabash, n, 8. 

Pipe, n. 8. ini\ako. A large pipe, 
If. 3. iAiko. Another kind, IS^ 2» 
muteile. A kind of calabash pipe^ 
n. 8. imbokoma. A pipe used 
for smoking bhang, n, 8. inawani* 

Pit, If. 6. kalambwe^ A water* 
pit, i». 2. mukalo. Game-pit, 
IT. 2. mulambwe. 

Pitcher, n. 8. intesbo. 

Pith, it. 2. moao, mushiuda. Pith 
of sweet reed, spewed out, it. 7. 

Pitifully, ado, ohantenda. " 

Pity, n, 7. intanda. To have pity 
upon a person, /An ku mu fwila 

Place, n, 4. busena. A bare place. 
If. 7. ohibuwe. A resting-place. 
If. 7. obidiokeaheBho. A place 
where one sits, abides, it. 7. ohi- 
kadilo. A place of abode, n, 7. 
cbishitilo. A place where clothes 
are stored, wardrobe^ it. i <t. ahi- 
kole. A place for prayer, 11. 7. 
cbikombelo. A place for offer- 
ing to ancestors, it. 7. cbipaidilo. 
A place for paying a tax, if. 7. 
cbilumbudilo. A place for 
putting anything, cupboard, &&, 
If. 7. chibikilo. 

Place, to, 9. /. ka bika, ku ka- 
dika, ku ahitikizlia. To place 
crosswise, v, t. ku obianilkft. 

Placenta, human, ». i a, aohaba- 
ohembela ; of animal, it. 3. 

Plain, n, 3. ibanda; n, 8. inyika. 

Plait, to, v, t, ku luka. 

Plan, stratagem, n. 6. kaAimba 

Plank, «. z*for, ipalanka. - 

Plant, to, to sow, v, t. ku ahaiiga» 
To plant trees, plants, &&, v. /. 
ku shimpikila. 

Plant, n, 7. ohisoko. A kind of 
plant from which string is made, 
If. 2. mukuaa. A kind of weed* 
plant with small thorns^ which 
cause itching, n^ 8. iiixi>e8e. 
Another kind, with yellow flowera, 
blade adhering seeds, 11. 3. ipu- 
bubu. A cUinbing, endless plant> 
If . I if. aaaambe. 

Plaster, to, to fill up the inter- 
stices between the poles of a hut» 
the first operation in plastering, 
9. /. ku mata. To finish-off by 
smoothing the wall, «./« ku 

Plate, if. }t*for, ipeleto. 

Platform, for storing grain, nvta, 
&c., If. 4. buaansa. Built in a 
house for firewood, it. 9. la- 

Play, to, v.U ku lobans. To 



cause to plaj, help to play, play 

with, V. /. ka aolNuaiya. To play 

for, 9. iL ka ■otmnitia. 
Plaything, diildren's, made of 

glass, n. 3. TuniihiTiahi. Used in 

Sie game of kupfwa, u, 8. impwi- 

Plead, to, v, t. ku pumpiaha. To 

p. on behalf of another, v. /. ku 

Please, to, v. /l ka boteoha. 
Pleiades, the, i». 4. buleBbi. 
Plenteouslt, ado. ohabwala. 
Plenty, to have, to be well paid, 

to be given abundantly, v. u ka 

f on kola, v. /• ka fonkosha. 
Plenty, abmidance, n, 4. bwala ; 

e,g. Ljist year we were dying of 

&mine, this year there is plenty, 

Mwakadi twa ka fwe oaala, 

a kono mbwala. 
Pliable, to be, v. a. ka ftinakika, 

Pluck, to, np by the roots, v. /. ku 

nyottkola. To p. a fowl, v./. 

ka nyonkaola. To p. oat the 

hair on the pubes, v, t, ka xnensa. 

To plock, gather frnit, v, t, ku 

Plug, of chnm, n, 8. inahlbo. The 

ping or ' show * in childbirth, ft. 8. 

Pod, n, 3. ipapa. 
Point, of knife, n, 8. inaonga ; of 

a stick. If. 7. ohiaongoaho. 
Point, to, v./. ka tondeka, ku 

tendeka. To sharpen a stick to 

a point, ka ehita ohiaongoaho. 

To point ont, to p. towards, v, /. 

ka tondekela, ka tendekela. 
Poison, fish poison, n, 7. kanya- 

ngalakftta (the root of a plant) ; 

n. I a, tinde (roots of a plant) ; 

n, 7. ehilalwe (fruit of a tree so 

named); n, 2, moyu (fruit of a 

tree of same name). Put on arrows, 

balembe, kababa. Used in 

ordeal, if. 2. mwaahi. 
Poke, to, with finger, v,L ka 

Pole, n. 7. ohiaamo. A pole for 
- shutting a gate, n, 2. xnaahinko ; 

n, 7. chishinko. For supporting 

roof in house, if. 2. moaemu. 

Upright pole in wall of hut, it. 3. 

iiiiilo. A cross-pole, it. 2. mu- 

tantl Poles placed horizontally 

for closing a gate, n. 4. bompi- 

Policeman, n. j, for, mapoliaa; 

name used as epithet, n, la. ahi- 

Polish, to, v, /. ka takola, kabe- 

Pollard, the first product in stamp- 
ing grain, n, 3. iunse. A quantity 

of. If. 3. //. maunso. 
Ponder, to, think over anything, 

V. t, ka aesa, ka bombabamba. 
Poor, to be, v. i, ka pata. 
Poor person, n, i. mupoahi. 
Porcupine, if. i a. obaminga- 

ngwa; quill o(, if. 2. manu- 

Porridge, if. 7. ohele; n, 3. //. 

Portion, share, ». 7. ohabila An 

equal portion, hali^ if. 7. obi* 

Possess, to, v. /. ku fUa. To 

possess much, v, t, ku foiaba. 
Possible, to be, v, i, ka ohitika. 
Post, mail, n, S,/or, impoao. 
Postman, it. i a. abimpoao. 
Pot, n, 8. ixnbia; n, 7. <^bia. A 

small pot. If. 6. kabia. Pot for 

drawing water, if. 8. inteaho. 

Large earthen pot, n, 8. inko- 

mba ; if. 7. ohiiikomba. Newly 

made, un burnt pot, if. 7. obi- 

X>empa. Large ditto, it. 3. 

Potato, sweet, it. 8. imbata. Other 

kinds, n. 2. moaeaa; n, 3. //. 

Pouch, of stork, n, 9. latele ; it. 6. 

kankolenkole. Latter word also 

applied to the fold of skin on neck 

of eland. 
Pound, to, in mortar, v, t. ka twa. 
Pound, n. %,for» impondo. 
Pour, to, ». /. ka tila. To p. out, 

or into, v./. ka tidila. To p. 

grain on to the ground or into a 

basket, v, /. ka kanuna. To p. 

water, v^t. ka tontolala. To 



p. water on to plants, &c, v, t, 
ka tuntudwila. 

Powder, n» 2. mushidi. 

Power, n, 8. insana. 

Powerfully, adv. ohansana. 

Practise, to, v, t. Ini soleka. 

Praise, to, v, t. ku tembaula, ku 

Prance, to, as a warrior at a dance, 
V, i, ku fiixnba. 

Pray, to, v, t ku komba, ku 
enzela, ku alala. To pray for, 
V, U ku kombela, ku enselelela. 
To ask or pray on behalf of, v» t, 
ku kumbidila. A place for 
prayer, n, 7. chikoxnbelelo ohi- 
kombelo. See Offering. 

Prayer, ». 5. kukomba; n, 9. 

Preach, to, v, t. ku kambauka. 
To preach to, v, t. ku kambau- 

Preacher, ». i. mukambau- 

Precede, to, v,u\xi solola. 

Precious, to be, vA, ku sandi* 
ka ; V, i, ku zuma. 

Precious person, n, i. muzandi- 
shi. People, Balunzandi. 

Precious, adj, -zandishi. 

Preciousness, n, 4. buzandl 

Pregnant, to be, v, i, ku imita^ 
In early stages, phr, kudi kwete 
katomba. A pregnant woman, 
n, I. umishi, mi:S'uxnba. Said 
of a p. woman, phr, ITdi shiti 

Prepare, to, v, U ku ludika, ku 
lulamika. To p. or arrange, v, /. 
ku bamba. To p. food, v, t, ku 
lata. To p. food for somebody, 
V, U ku tatila. 

Prepuce, n, 3. ipapa. 

Presence, ». 8. imbele ; phr, ku 
bushu; e,g. They speak in the 
king*8 presence, Ba la amba mu 
mbele dia muoneki, or, Ku 
bushu bwa inuonekL 

Present, to, v, t, ku pa. 

Present, n, 8. for. impasela. A 
p. given to conciliate or thank, 
n, 7. ohikambidizho ; n, 8. 
inkambidiBho. A p. given on 

close of sale, n, 4. buzhidi. A 
p. taken when going to a fimeral, 
». 7. obidizho. A p. given as 
return for sexual intercourse, n. 7. 
obipo. A p. of food given to 
traveller, n. 3. iumbu. To take 
a present to a chief, v, /• ku 

Presently, adv. inzho. After a 
time, phr. chi be obindi. 

Preserve, to, v. t. ku zobola. 

Press, to, v. t. ku dimba. To p. 
down com into a bag or basket, 
V. t. ku shindaila. To p. down 
bushes with a stick, v. t. ku pe- 
pula. To p. matter out of a sore, 
also to see if ready for lancing, 
V, t, ku chankachanka, ku 
timbatixnba. To p. or crowd, 
V. /• ku huxnpa. To p. oneself 
into a crowd, v. t. ku diatikizha. 
To keep on pressing, v.i. ku 
dimbausha. To be pressed, v, u 
ku dimbauka. 

Pretend, to, v. i. ku chenga. 

Prevaricate, to, v.t, ku zelu- 

Prevent, to, to forbid, v.t. ku 
kasha. To hinder, obstruct, v. t. 

Pride, n. 5. kudinunika. 

Print, to, v. t, ku dimbausha. 
To be printed, v. u ku dimbau- 

Prison, n. %.for. intelongo. 

Prodigal, n. i. mutaka. 

Prohibit, to, v. t. ku tonzha. To 
be prohibited or tabooed, v, i, ku 

Prolific, to be, v,t. ku zhadi- 

Prolific person, n. \a. shilu- 

Promise, to, v. t. ku shoxnezha. 

Proof, n. 7. cbiahimuzlio. 

Prop, to, v. t. ku sakula. 

Prop, n. 7. ohisakuzho. 

Prophesy, to, v.t. ku shinahl- 

Prophet, n. i. musala, mw&mi; 
n. I. for. muproflta. 

Propitiate, to, v.t. ku kambi- 



Propitiation, n, 8. inkambidi- 

Prosperity, i». 7. ohoba. 

Prosperous person, n. la, shi- 
ohoba, shioholwe. 

Prosperously, ado. ohaohoba. 

Prostrate, to, oneself in saluting, 
v,t ku lamba. To p. oneself 
before, v, /. ku lambila. To lie 
prostrate, phr, ku ona buaale- 

Protect, to, v. t, ku kobela. 

Proud, to be, v, i. ku dlnuTilka. 

Prove, to, v. t, ku ahlmnKha. 

Proverb, it. 6. kaahimid. 

Examples of proverbs. 

Ing'oxnbe intaka i takaaya mu- 
chila wayo. The wasteful beast 
threw away its own taiU Applied 
to a squanderer. 

Ka aezna znaao, he was silent with 
canning. Said of a person who 
does not talk. 

Kombekaohe kavhwa ikmni dia 
ng'ombe, a small ox produces ten 
cattle. Said to indicate that one 
making a loan expects interest. 

Matako axnwensuma kadikwa, 
a traveller is to be made to sit 
down ; i, e. if you don't invite a 
traveller to stay he will go on. 

MuBongo wa ka Inkanka, ta ka 
chi dile ; mudimbuahi owa 

kwesa xnunahi wa ka chi dya. 
The wise man ran on, he did not 

eat it ; the fool coming behind ate 

it. A rebuke to those who despise 

others as fools. 
8hi-lete-kambo wa ka tea inso- 

ka xnwinahila, Mr. I-have-no- 

fault ensnared a snake in the road. 

A rebuke to those who say they 

have no fault. 
Xf kwata-kwata ta budididi. He 

who works hard does not lack. 

Provoke, to, v, /. ku lemaaha. 
Public, a thing that is public, n. 7. 

Publicly, euh. champuwo. 
Puff out, to, as a snake, v, i, ku 


Puff-adder, n, la. ohipile. 
Pull, to, v. /. ku kwela. To p. 
towards, v, i, ku kwelela. To 
p. hard, v, t ku kweleaha. To 
p. out, V, t, ku somoxia. To p. 
sticks out of the fire, v, t, ku so- 
•olola. To p. out a tooth, v. t, 
ku kula. To p. out a thorn, phr, 
ku bangula bwiya. To p. grass 
ottt of a thatch, v, t, ku popo- 
mona, ku somonoxia. To p., of 
a scab, phr, ku papula 1 Tilth am o. 
To p. feathers out of a bird, v, /. 
ku nyonkaola. To p. up a stick 
planted in the ground, v./. ku 
Pumpkin, n. 3. ipushi. 
Varieties : n, 2. muugu ; n, 8. 
impungu ; n, 1 a, kampande ; 
n. 2. muntemba. 
Punish, to, to beat, v, t, ku uma ; 

V, Lfor, ku puniaha. 
Punishment, n, 5. kfima, kumwa. 

n, %,for, impunisho. 
Pupil, n, 1. mwiyiwa; if. lo. 
ahikiya. Of eye, «. 8. imbone. 
Purchase, to, v, t, ku ula. 
Purchaser, ». i. mudl 
Pure, to be, v, i, ku njoloma. 
Purge, to, of bowels, v, /. ku su- 

Purify, to, v, t, ku njolomya. 
Purity, n, 5. kunjoloma. 
Purposely, adv, chaxni, muye ; 
e.g. He came for the purpose of 
bating us, Wa shimpikila ku tu 
Pursue, to, to go after, v,t, ku 

Pus, ». 4. bushila. 
Push, to, v. /. ku tonka. To p. 
towards, v, /. ku tonkela. To p. 
hard, v, /. ku tonkesha. To p. 
into a sheath, v. /. ku soma. To 
p. one when there b no room, 
V, /. ku sunda. To p. mutually 
when there is no room, v. /. ku 
sundaua. To p. sticks into a 
fire, V, t. ku aesela. 
Put, to, v, t, ku bika. To p. on 
hat or shoes, v, /. ku sama. 
To p. away a wife, v, /. ku tanda, 
ku leka. To p. thingsinto a box, 



V. t, Yxx. longela. To p. down, as 
a load, V, i. ku tula. To p. aside, 
V. t leu pwika. To p. a thing on 
the top of another, v, t, ku ahi- 
dika. To p. an affair on the top 
of another, v,t, ku tikila; e,g. 
They put affairs upon him, Ba mu 
tikila makani. 
Putrid, to be, v» < . ku bodisliay 
ku ohukuma. * 

Quail, n, i a. kanchele. 
Quake, to, v, u ku zhangama, ku 

Quarrel, n. 7. ohikani. 
Quarrel, to, phr, ku chita ohi- 

kani ; v, 1. ku zhingana, ku zu- 

Quarrelsome person, ». i a, shi- 

ohikani, shikaminomino. 
Quarter, direction, n, 9. Iwiya. 
Quench, to, a fire, v,t, ku zhi- 

Question, to, v, u ku buzha. 
Quick, to be, v, i, ku fwumba, 

ku fWaxnbaua. 
Quickly, <id&. obakufwamba. 
Quiet, to be, v. i, ku diinza, ku 

tontola, ku otobala. 
Quieten, to, v. t ku tontozha, 

ku otobazha, ku inzlka. To q. 

a child by rodcing it in the arms, 

V, L ku umbudizha. 
Quietness, calm, n, 9. ludiinzo. 
Quill, of porcupine, ». 3. mu- 


Rabbit, rock-, ». i a. ohibila. 

Rafter. See House. 

Rag, n. 6. kazapaushi ; n. 7. ohi- 

Rage, n, 4. bukadi. 

Raid, to, v, /. ku fiiinpa. 

Raider, n, i. muftunpi. 

Railroad, n, 8. injanji. 

Railway, ». *i*for, ohitemela. 

Rain, ». 8. imvula ; n, 1 a. leza. 
Note. — The real Ila word is leza, 
but as this is the same as the name 
for God, it seems better to use 
imvula. This is the word in 
Tonga, and is quite understood by 

the Baila. Indeed, it is, in one 
form or another, a very widely 
prevalent^ Bantu word for rain. 
The other languages which have 
Iieza for God all have imvula 
(or some modification of it) for 
rain. Thus: Tonga, imvula; 
Bemba, infula ; Luba (Congo), 
nfUla ; Luba, ixnTura ; Bisa, 
infula; Karanga,ivuTa; Mbnnda, 
nfera ; Lamba, imftila ; Sodi, 
ingftila. In the following phrases 
the word imvula may be substi- 
tuted for Iieza if this suggestion 
is adopted. See the. note on 
A continuous heavy rain, n. 6. ka- 
ohoboohobo. A continuous rain, 
n, a. muyoba. A slight shower, 
pkr. Iieza wa fwilaila. A driz- 
zling rain, n, 3. ifofU. To make 
rain,/Ar. ku puka leza. 

Rain, to, pkr, ku wa imvula^ ku 
wa leza. 

Rainbow, />fcr. buta bwa Iieza; 
ff. 8. inkongolo. 

Rainbush, n. I a, kamwaya. 

Rainy season, n. 3. pi, mainza. 

Raise, to, v. t, ku katula. To r. 
up high, V. /. ku katulisha. To 
r. up one lying down, v.t, ku 
busha. To r. a price, to demand 
a high price, v, /• ku kankatila. 
To r., elevate, promote, v*t, ku 
sumpula, ku sumpuzha. 

Ram, n, i a. shembwe. 

Ram, to, earth into a hole, v, /. ku 

Ramble, to, to walk abont, 9. i. 
ku endenda. To r. in speech or 
in delirium, v,u'kxL tamauka. 

Ramrod, n, 2. musesezho, mu- 

Ransom, to, v, t. ku nununa. 

Rap, to, with knuckles, phr, kn 
uma ohinkonya. 

Rape, n, 5. kuvbumokila. To 
commit rape, v. t. ku vhumokila. 

Rapidly, to do, v, /. ku aanaaula. 
The word is also applied to a per- 
son settling without delay any 
matter referred to him, as a judge 
a case. 



Rapidly, ado, ohAkaf^amlw. 
Rash, 00 body, «. 7. ohilos. 
Rat, If. I o* shikoswa ; watcr-rmt. 

If. I. mukoswe. 
Rattle, to, phr. ka imiA injua, 

kn dUha i^lua. 
Rattle, carried by camera, if. 8. 

iztjtia, inaakalala. 
Ravener, a person who eats raven- 

onsly. If. I a. shibutambo. 
The word is also applied to a man 

who sticks keenly to his work and 

won't leave it 
Ravenously, ado, ohabutambo. 
Ravenousness, If. 4. butambo. 

The lions are ravenons, Bashn- 

i&bwa mbutainbo* 
Ravish, to, v, t, ka biaha. 
Raw, oq^'. -biahL 
Ray, of son, if. a. mnxiBha. 
Razor, if. 9. Inmo. 
Reach, to, v, t. kn uTifkila. To 

reach as high as possible, standing 

on tiptoe and stretching ont the 

hand, v, i, ku TiaTiftTniTia. 
Read, to, v, t, ku bala. 
Ready, to be, v. i. kn ItiUuna, ku 

dibakanya. Are you ready? 

8a mwa dibakanya ? 
Real. adj. -1x11-1x11. A real or true 

saying, kambo kenlkenl. A 

really good man, mtmtu mu- 

botu xnwixilmwlxd. 
Reap, to, v» t. ku konka. 
Reaper, if. i. xnukoxikl. 
Rear, to, to cause to grow, v, /. 

ku kusha. 
Reason, if. 6. kambo. For this 

reason, Kambo kako. That is 

the reason, TSTka kako kambo, 

or, Nku kako. That is not the 

reason, Inko kako. 
Rebel, to, to be self-willed, obsti- 
nate, V. f. ku papa, ku pa- 

Rebuke, to, kindly, v. t, ku tapa- 

tila ; with anger, v, /. ku kala- 

Recarve, to, V, t. ku besulula. 

To be recarved, v, f . ku beau- 

Receive, to, v.U ku tambula. 

To r. wages, food, v, t, ku hola. 

To r. on behalf of, v* /. ku ho- 

Receptacle, of grass, in which is 

tied up meat,&c., if. 7. chumpa; 

for &t, If. 7. Impau, insaahl. 
Recline, to, to lean against, v. /. 

ku aamlna. To recline sideways, 

V. i. ku aendalala. 
Recognize, to, v,t, ku shlmpl- 

kila; e.g. I recognize you now, 

I had forgotten, If da ku ahlmpi- 

kila Ixiabo, nda luba luta- 

Recollect, to, v.t. ku ahlba- 

Reconcile, to, v,t. ku shoke- 

lanya, ku yanyanya. To be 

reconciled, v. 1. ku shokelana, 

Rectify, to, v.t, ku bosha, ku 

Red, to be, v, i. ku aublla. To 

be very red, v, i. ku subldlaha. 
Red clay, if. 7. cblshlla. 
Redden, to, v. t, ku sublaha. 
Redeem, to, v, /. ku nununa. 
Redeemer, n. 1. Mununuxil. 
Redemption, if. 5. kunununa. 
Reed, if. 9 a. lubu. A large r., 

n, 3. Ibu ; a small r., if. 6. kabu. 

A young tender r., if. 8. inte- 

ngantenga. The tough rind of 

r., If. 8. Inevhwa-nevhwa. 
Reform, to, to tum from bad to 

good, V. f. ku sanduka ; pkr, 

ku ba xnuntu. 
Refrain, to, v.t, ku lekesha. 
Refresh, to, v. t. ku katulula, ku 

katulusba. To be refreshed, v. i, 

ku katuluka. 
Refreshed, adj. -katulushl. 
Refuge, if. 3. //. matilo. 
Refuse, to, v. t. ku kaka. To r., 

to shake the head in refusing, v, i. 

Refuse, n. 7. //. bikulukulu. 
Regeneration, if. 9. luzbalutulo. 
Rejoice, to, v. i. ku tangala. To 

rejoice with another in his good 

fortune, ku sekelela. To rejoice 

with another by taking presents 

to show your joy, ku sekele- 





To show the exact expressions to be used in calling one's relations the 
following table is provided, representing an actual Ila family. Names 
printed in italics indicate females ; others are of males :— 

Mwanabeni (i) 
(marries four wives) 

Mwanga (2) Masele (3) 
(no children) 

Kaiyobe (6) Shamatanga (7) 

m. Kambwe (10) m. Kalubi (13) 

Nachishimbo (4) Namucheme (5) 


Mongona (12) Nachiloba (14) 

(i) will address his wives by name, 
or as *■ Mwinangu *. His wives 
will address him as Mulumi 
angu, but they may not speak 
his name except before the chief. 

Either of the wives addressing the 
other will say, Mukaahima. 
Mwanga is the head wife, nabu- 
kando; Namucheme the nsbu- 

(6) (7) (8) (9), speaking to their 
father, will say Ta; they must not 
say his name. 

(i), speaking to (6) or (8), will say 
Mwanangu, or musediama. 
The latter name really indicates 
that the children were named after 
their grandmother, i.e, their 
father's mother; but it may be 
used in a wider sense, even though 
the children are not so named, as 
a term of honour. 

(3), speaking to (7) or (9), will say 
mwanangu or mosediata. 

(7), speaking to (6), will say Mu- 
ohizhi wangu, or mukando wa- 

(6), speaking to (7), will say mu- 
chizhi wangu, or mwanioha- 
ngu ; she must not say his name. 

(6) will call (8) mukwesu, or 
Yaya ; other people speaking to 
(6) about (8) will refer to her as 

(8), speaking to (6), will also say 
mukwesu or yaya. 

(7), speaking to (8), or (8) to (7), 
will also say muchizhi wangu. 

Kaskiashia (8) Mungonze (9) 

(9) is older than (7), he will there- 
fore call him mwaniohangu, 
while (7) will call (9) mukando 

Each of the wives of Mwanabeni 
will be addressed as Ma by the 
children, even if they are not her 

(10) will speak to (i) as mukwa- 
ngu, ( I ) to (10) as mukwe wangu 
or mukwangu. 

(6) will call her mother-in-law 

(12) will call (i) Nkaka, or she 

may speak his name, 
(i) will call (12) or (14) m.u8u- 

(12) will call (3) Nkaka» or may 

speak to her by name. 
(3) will call (12) or (14) muzuku- 

(12) will call (7) aohisha; she 

may not say his name. 

(7) will call (12) mwi wangu. 

(12) will call (8) Ma, and may not 
speak her name. 

(6) will call (13) mulamuy and 

vice versa. 
(10) will call (7) mulamu, and 

vice versa. 

(13) will call (9) bazhibebesn, 
and vice versa. 

Release, to, to untie, v./. ku 

Relent, to, to change the mind, 

V, I. ku sanduka. 
Reliable, to be, v, i, ku shomeka. 



Relieve, to, to r. each other, as 

men do in carrying a machila, v. i, 

kn baikana. 
Relieve, to, to lighten a bnrden, 

V. t. ku ubya. To take a man's 

burden from him, v, /. ku innna, 

ku ubnlula. 
Religion, n. 8. inkombelo. 
Religious person, ». io. ahil- 

wenso, ahinkombelo. 
Relinquish, to, v, /. ku leka. 
Relish, something to make food 

palatable, n, 7. ohidiabo. 
Rely, to, v.t, ka shoma; e,g. 

Yon mnst not rely upon ns, Mu 

ta ku tu shoma. 
Remade, to be, z^.il ku chito- 

Remain, to, v. i, kn ahala. 
Remake, to, v. t. ku chitulula. 
Remember, to, v,t. ku shinga- 

8hil% ku ahibaluka. 
Remind, to, v. /. ku ahibaluaha. 
Remnant, what is left over, n, 8. 

Remorse, ». 5. kuvhwamoao. 
Remorse, to suffer, v,i, ku 

▼hwa moBO. 
Remove, to, to take ont of the way, 

V, /. ku seanla; v. i. ku se- 

Rend, to, v. t. ku sapula. 
Renew, to, an operation or conver- 
sation or subject, after an inter- 

mption, V. t. ku sunaukila. 
Rent, ». 7. chipolo. 
Repay, to, a loan, ^kr, ku shola 

Repeat, to, v. t, ku lolola. 
Repeatedly, €uiv, odimwi odi- 

mwi, chalnilolola. 
Repellent person, n. i . mnlema. 
Repent, to, v. i. ku beba. To r. 

on account of, v, u ku bebela. 

To cause to repent, v, t. ku be- 

Repentance, i». 5. kubeba ; n, 9. 

Reply, to, to a question, v, t, ku 

ingrula. To a call, v. t. ku taba. 
Reptile. See Snake. 
Rescue, to, v,t, ku Aitula. To 

be rescued, v, u ku ftituka. 

Rescued, adj, -ftituahi. 
Rescuer, n, i. muftitudL One 

who is rescued, ». i. muf^toahi. 
Resemble, to, v, /. ku koaha, ku 

koahana. To cause to resemble, 

V. t. ku koahanya. 
Resow, to, V, /. ku ahangulula. 
Respect, to, v, /. ku lemeka. 
Respectfully, adv, ohakule- 

Respiration, n. 5. kuzoaa. 
Rest, to, v, i, ku diokeaha. To 

cause or allow to rest, v. /. ku 

okeaha. To be rested, refreshed, 

V, i, ku katuluka. To cease 

work, and rest, in master's absence, 

V, i. ku diaanta. Of one thing 

resting upon another, v. i. ku 

Restore, to, v. /. ku bweaha, ku 

Restrain, to, v.t. ku ahinkila, 

ku kasha, ku leaha ku kakaaha. 
Retract, to, anything said, v.L 

ku ambulula. To be retracted, 

unsaid, v, i, ku ambuluka. 
Retreat, to, pkr. ku ahokela 

Return, to, v, i, ku ahoka, ku 

bwela ; z/. /. ku ahola, ku bwe* 

Reveal, to, to make known, v. /. 

ku ahibya. 
Revere, to, v. t. ku lemekesha. 
Reverse, to, v. U ku sandumuna. 
Revert, to, to a subject under dis- 
cussion after interruption, v, u ku 

Revile, to, v» /. ku tuka,ku cho- 

Revilings, n, 3. //. matushi. 
Revive, to, after a fit, z;. »1 ku shi- 

shimuka ; z/. /. ku shishimuna, 

ku shishimusha. 
Revolve, to, v.t, ku BhinguLu- 

sha ; V. i, ku ahinguluka. 
Reward, to, v, /. ku saula. 
Rhinoceros, n. i a, shempela. 
Rib, n. 9. luvwabuti. 
Rich, to be, v, i, ku vhuba, ku 

fiia. To be very rich, to possess 

much, V, /. ku ftdsha. To enrich, 

V, t. ku vhubya. 



Riches, n. 3. //. mabono. 

Riddle, n, 6. kalabi. To ask a 
riddle, z^./.lnilabika. To answer 
correctly a riddle, v. /. ka Isbu- 

The Baila have a great number of 
riddles. Two are given below 
as examples. They mostly appear 
rather £ur-fetched to a European. 

Examples of riddles, 

Ka-chea-kalombwana ka cbenga 
bakando, A very small boy de- 
ceived the elders. Ans, Ingfa- 
mpu, A stump in the path over 
which you stumble. 

Ifda wala mwitala» I threw some- 
thing to the other side. Ans, 
Menso, Eyes. 

Ride, to, v. /. ku disa. 
Ridicule, to, to laugh at, v, /. ka 

Right, to be, phr. kudi luleme. 

Right hand, if. 9. ludio; n, 7. 

Right, to the, adv, ku ludio. 
Righteous, to be, v. i. ku lulanuk 
Righteousness, n, 5. kululama. 
Rind, m. 3. ipspa. 
Rinderpest, n, in. kankolG- 

Ring, for finger, if. 8. inwenwe. 
Rip, to, v. t, ku andula. 
Ripe, to be, v, i, ku biowa. 
Ripen, to, v. t ku bizuaba. 
Rise, to, v. L ku buka. To r, to 

surface as fish, v. i. ku bwa. As 

food in cooking, v, i. ku aelauka. 

To c from a sitting position, v, u 

ku ahimoka. To r. as dust or 

smoke, v. i. ku fuka. To r., of 

the sun, v, i, ku paaa, ku vhwa. 

To r. up for something, v, /. ku 

River, if. a. muloaga; if. 9. 

River-bank, n, 2, muma. 
Rivulet, if. 6. kalonira. 
Road, h. a. mukwakwa. See 

Roam, to, v, i, ku endenda. 
Roan antelope, if. 1 a. chilumbu- 


Roar, to, v. i. ku dila. 

Roast, to, v. t, ku aooha. 

Rob, to, v. i. ku iba (kwiba). 

Robber, if. i. muteu. 

Rock, a big, hard stone, ft, 2. 

Rock, to, as a canoe, v, u ku ley- 

Rod, fishing, if. 6. kaLobo. This 
is the name properly of the hook, 
but it is also applied to the whole 
outfit — stick, hue, and hook. 

Roe, of fish, if. 4. buyi. 

Rogue, if. i a, shimaAinBi. 

Roll, to, over and over, as in sick- 
ness, V. f . ku alabana, ku alauka. 
To r. into a ball, v, /. ku bumba- 
bumba, ku pekesa. To r. as a 
horse, v, i. ku alumuka. To r. 
along as a log, v* t. ku kunku- 
luka; 2/. /. ku kunkulnsha. To 
r. the eyes about, v, U ku bilaola. 
To r. up as a bed, v, /. ku vhunga. 
To r. over and over, v, U ku ala- 

Roof, if. 9. luludL 

Room, n, 6. kanda; or space, if. 4. 

Root, if. a. musanda; a kind of 
edible r., if. 4. buaala. 

Root up, to, v, t, ku abula, ku 

Rot, to, v. i, ku bola ; v* /. ]<|i 
boalia, ku boleka. 

Rotten, adj, -boahl. 

Rough, to be, phr, kudi masu^ 

Roughness, n, 3. //. masumnrnya. 

Round, to be, v, u ku bumbuBka- 
na; e.g. This fruit is round, 
Muchelo wezu udi bumbu- 
nkene. To make round, 9. /. ku 
bumbunkanya. To cut round 
a hide in making reims, v. /, ku 

Roundabout, to be, v, i, ku ahu- 

Roundness, n, 5. kubumbu- 

Rub, to, with pressure, as in embro- 
cating, V, t, ku pikisa. To r. or 
ffcratdi when itching, v,t, ku 
kw^ya. To x, hands togethisr, 



v.L ku didioiMiiito]% kn disho* 
bashoba, ka dliMwila. To r. so 
as to pol^ v.t. ka tiiobak To 
r. a skin widi a stooe or bone, r. /. 
ka mwaila. To i. a sore eye, 
v,u ka diahokota. To r. or 
cha§e, V. /. ka kombola, ka ka- 

Rubbish, h. 7.fafkafaikala; bits of 
rubbish, «. 5. /f. manta-aiaitta. 

RuBBisH-HXAP, If. 7. ohitemtala. 

Rule, -Biraiairr, «. 7. eheleaho. 

Rule, to, to gofcm, v.t, ka 
mdala. To cause to, or assist 
to mle, «. /. ka andaaha. 

Ruler, n, i . mwandeahl 

Run, to, v.i, ka lokaaka, ka 
tiiana. To r. towards, v. t. ka 
faikankfla, ka tianina. To r. 
baid, of animali» v. i, ka dizna. 
To r. away, absooad, v, i. ka lo- 
boka. To r. away in iear when 
one's fftult is found ont, z/. &. ka 

Rush, to, to rash out of a place, 
9. i. ka palamoka. 

Rust, n, la. aenke. 

Rut, n. a. mwimbididi. 

Sabbath, n.ia. Babata. 

Sable antelope, ik. la. kafii- 

Saol, If. 8. inkomo; if. 3. for. 

Sacrament, Lord's Sapper, Mula- 
dilo wa Mwaml 

Sacred, to iiold, v,i. kaaadila. 
Tke Baila, at thie beg:inning of the 
rains, set apart a day upon which 
tiiey do no work, believing that if 
tbey work there will be no lain. 
Of this they say, Ma ta ku yasa 
Iieaa, Yon must not spear Leza. 
They call this action, ka tonda 
Iieaa. This seems to be the only 
case t>f their holding any day 

Sacrifice, offered to tiie ancestral 
^nritSy n. 7. ehipaiaho. 

Sacrifice, to, v, u ka xiaiaha. 
See Offering. 

Sad, to be, v.i. ka oaa. 

Saddle, if. i,for, iaale. 

Sadness, a. 4. baso. 

Safe, to be, to be rescued, v. i, ka 

ftitoka. To be kept, preserred, 

V. i. ka aoboka. 
Sail, to, along as a bird, v. <• ka 

Sale, if. 4. bokwebo. 
Saliva, n, 3. //. mata. 
Salt, n. a. mwino ; small quantity 

of, n, 6. //. twino. 
Salt-pan, Salt-pool, n, 3. iaho ; 

small ditto, if. 6. kaaho; n, 7. 

Salute, to, v,t, ka anaha. To 

s. on behalf of another, v. /. ka 

anahiaha. To s. by clapping, v. /. 

ka kambidila. A way, manner 

of thus saluting, n, 7. ohikambi- 

Salvation, n, 9. luf^tuko. 
Same. To express this use the adj. 

-mwi. Thus: Kohi chinta 

chomwi. It is one thing; or the 

same thing. 
Sanctify, to, to separate for, v, t, 

ka aadila. To purify, «./. ka 

aweaha, ka aalaaha. 
Sand, n, 3. iaanga. 
Sandal, if. 8. impato, indiasho, 

Satiate, to, v, /..ka ikaaha. 
Satiated, to be, v, i, ka ikata ; 

with woxlc, sayings, &&, v, i, ka 

Satisfied, to be, by hearing news, 

evidence, 8cc,^r, ka ikata ma- 

kani, v. pass, ka lamwa ; to satisfy 

in this manner,kuikaBba makani^ 

Saturday, if. S,for. Imbelekelo. 
Save, to, to preserve, keep, v, t, ka 

aobola ; to rescue, deliver, v, t, 

Saviour, one who preserves, keeps, 

if. I. moBObodi; one who de- 
livers, rescues, n, i. mufdtudi. 
Savour, to lose, v, i, ka loluka, 

Saw, n, %.for. insaha. 
Say, to, v, t, ka ti, ka amba. 
Scab, if. 8. inahamo ; to pull off» 

pkr. ka papula inahamo. 
Scaffold, if. 4. boaanaai 



Scale, of fish, n, 9. lukanda. 
Scald, to, v, t, Ini tenta. To scald 

slightly, 77. /. Ini babula. 
Scamp, n, i a, shimaftinzi. 
Scar, n, 2. mukofii. 
Scare, to, to frighten, v,t ku 
tizha. To scare birds from grain, 
v,t, ku kwa. To s. game, ku 
Scarify, to, v, /. ku lexnba. 
Scatter, to, v, t. ku mwaya. To 

be scattered, v, i. ku mwaika. 
Scent. See Odour. 
Sceptic, disbeliever, ». i. mudi- 

Scholar, n» i. mwiyiwa, n, 1 a. 

Scissors, n, 7. obikosozlio. 
Scold, to, to rebuke, v, t ku ta- 


Scoop, to, to hollow out in carving, 

v,t, ku kolola. To scoop out 

earth from a hole, v, t kuilapulula. 

Scorch, to, v, i, ku babuka ; v, t 

ku babula. 
ScoRNER, n, 1. musampauzhi. 
Scorpion, n, 6. kapididi, kabanzL 
Scoundrel, n, i a, shimafunzi. 
Scrape, to, v, t, ku pala, ku pala- 
pala. To scrape meat off a bone, 
V, t ku kunkutida. 
Scratch, to, v.t, ku kwalida. 
To s. up ground, v. t, ku kaxnba, 
ku kambaula. To s. as fowls, 
V. t, ku yaxiga, ku fukumuna. 
To s. oneself^ v, t, ku kwanya. 
To s. the head, v. /. ku shishina. 
Screw, to, to screw up, v, t ku 

Scream, to, v. i, ku dila ; as 
women in saluting, zf, t. ku ulu^ 
Screen, for keeping off wind, n. 7, 

Screen, to, oneself from the wind, 

V. /. ku dishitidila muwo. 
Scribe, n. i. mungwadi. 
Scum, n, 3. lovu. 
Sea, n, g,/or. luatele. 
Seam, n. 2. xnuluko. 
Search, to, v, /. ku zhinzhilika. 
Seasons, the : — 
Spring, n. 7. Chidimo. 

Summer, rainy season, n, 3. pi. 


Autunm, n» 5. Kunkosoko. 

Winter, n, a.'Mweto. 
Seclude, to, to shut against, v, U 

ku yadila. 
Second, »«<;//. -bidi. The second 

day, bushlku bwabidi. 
Secondly, adv, kobili. 
Secret, n, 7. chakumbsdi 
Secretary bird, n, i. mukobe- 

lanzoka \ n, \a, nakansakwe. 
Secrete. See Hide. 
Secretly, to do anything secretly, 

phr^ ku chita kunso, or ku- 

Seduce, to, v, t, ku lengauzha. 
See, to, v, t, ku bona. To s. clearly, 

V, U ku bonesba. To s. each 

other, V, U ku bonana. To s. for, 

after, v, U ku bonena. To s. 

indistinctly, v,t» ku mwininsi- 

Seed, n, 8. imbuto. Small s., as 

tobacco, n, 8. insangru. Grass s., 

n, 8. insoki. Of melon, &c., ». 3. 

inungu. S. already sown, ». 3. 

ikanko,//. xnakanko. A kind of 

scarlet and black s. used in play, 

n. I a, namuohipwiohipwi. 
Seek, to, v, t. ku zhinzhilika, ku 

langaida. To look for, want, v, /. 

ku langa, ku kapula, ku londa. 
Seize, to, v, i. ku kwata. To seize 

or take away from a person, v. /. 

ku nanga. 
Select, to, v, t, ku sala, ku no" 

mona. To select for oneself, v, t, 

ku disadila. 
Self. The refi. pro, di- prefixed 

to verbs often gives the idea of 

'self; e,g, I love myself, ITds 

The word mwini is also used, as 

in the following : — 
Ndime mwini : It is I, my own 

Ndime ndi mwini : It is I, I am 

myself; i. e. It is my own affair. 
Ifdiwe u mwini : It is thy own 

self; /. e. It is thy affair. 
Self-abasement, n» 5. kudibo- 




Self-confidence, n, 5. kudi- 

Self-conceit, h, 5. kudinimiks. 
Self-love, n. 5. kudiftma. 
Selfish, to be, phr, kadi mutoni, 

kadi xntinya. 
Selfish person, n, i. mntoni, 

Sell, to, v. /. ka oshs, ka Bamba- 

zha, ka tenga. 
Seller, n. i . mashi, moaambaBhl 
Semen, n. 4. bwenie, bwensens*. 
Send, to, v. t, ka tama. To send 

to or for, V. /. ka tomina. 
Sentry, n, i. xnaBmnbl 
Separate, to, v. i. ka ^T^«^^^■Tn^. ; 

V, t, ka andanya. 
September, month of, kata. 
Sergeant, n. 1 a. for, oBejanl 
Servant, if. i. matwanga. 
Serve, to, phr. ka manina omwi 

midimo; zr./.y2T.kabelekela. 
Set, to, of the son, v. i, ka ibila. 

To s. or settle or become clear, of 

dirty water, v,i. ka batamina. 

To s. or place, v. t ka blka, ka 

kadika, ka shitikisha. To s. 

pot on fire, v, t, ka shimpika. 

To s. in order, v, t, ka bamba. 
Settle, to, v.i. ka kala. To 

settle a dispute, v, t ka kosola. 
Seven, num, ohiloba. 
Seventeen, num. ikomi diomwi 

o mn ntesha shidi ohiloba. 
Seventy, tmrn, makomi adi ohi- 
Sew, to, v, L ka sasa. 
Sex: Of what sex is this child? 

Mwana nshi weza ? 
Shade, if. 7. ohingvhole. To 

shade eyes with hand, phr» ka 

IftTigila ohishinshi. 
Shaft, of mine, if. 8. impishi ; of 

spear, if. 9. losako. 
Shake, to, v.i. ka tapala, ka 

zhangama. To s. anything, v, /. 

ka tapasha. To s. a cloth, v, /. 

ka sankamana. To s. up in 

mixing, v, t. ka zonganya. To 

be shaky, v, i, ku zongana. To 

s. a tail, V, /. ka pasha. To s., 
jolt, as man riding ox, v. i, ka 
sompaoka. The ox shakes him 

up, Mosone wa ma snmpaola. 
To 8. a spear in trying it, or in 
taking aim, v, /. ka sakozna. 
Shallow, adj. -fwafwi; e g. It is 
a shallow river, Malonga ma- 

fwafWL It is shallow here, Ano 

Sham, to, v, /. ka ohenga. 
Sham, n, 3. //. makaohilo. 
Shame, if. 8. insoni. 
Shamefully, €ulv, chansonL 
Shape, to, by moulding, v,t, ka 

Share, to, z^. /. ka aba. To s. 

among, z/. /. ka abila. To s. 

among each other, v. t, ka abi- 

lana. To cause to s. among each 

other, V, t. ku abizhaoa. 
Share, if. 7. ohabilo. 
Sharp, to be, v. i, ka lampa. 
Sharp, adj. -kadi. 
Sharpen, to, v, t. ka lampya. To 

sharpen by grinding, v,i, ka 

Shave, to, v. t ka kulola, ka 

sambala. A shaved head, if. 9. 

lunkula. A person with all his 

head shaved, if. i a, shilankala. 
She, pers. pro.^ same as He. See 

chap. V of Grammar, 
Sheath, of knife, if. 7. ohilalo ; of 

mealies, n. 3. ikwelele. 
Sheathe, to, v, /. ka soma. 
Shed, to : of trees shedding leaves, 

V. f . ka kankamoka. 
Shed, adj, -kankumashi. 
Sheep, if. 8. imbelele. 
Shelf, if. 7. ohilala. Really palm- 
tree leaf or branch, used as a 

Shell, if. 3. ipapa. Shell used as 

an ornament, if. 8. impande. An 

imitation impande, made of 

earthenware or something, if. i a. 

shamende ; //. bashamende. A 

kind of mollusc, if. 9. Iwidi ; //. 

Shelter, made of tree boughs, n, 7. 

ohilao. A refuge, if. 3. //. ma- 

Shepherd, herdsman, if. i. mwe- 

Shield, if. 8. intobo. 



Shield, to, v. t, ka kobela. To 
shield another, v, t, ku kobelela. 

Shift, to, v,t, ku aesnls, ku 
tantumuns ; v, u ku sesuka. 

Shin, n. 2. mwindi. 

Shine, to, v, u ku beka, ku be- 
k6iia, ku bek^ma. To shine up, 
v,t, ku bekenya. As a glow- 
worm, also of the early sun, v, u 
ku mweka. The fierce shining 
of the sun at midday, n, a. mute- 
ngaauba. To shine intermit- 
tently, v. i, ku b6kab6ka. 

Ship, a very large canoe, n, i a. na- 
dinkwsnzs, namusholonia. 

Shirt, if. i (i,for, hem^pi. 

Shoe, n, 8. indiaslio. 

Shoot, v, /. ku fiisa. 

Shop, store, «. 7. chiudilo; n. 7, 
for, ohintolo. Workshop, n, 7. 

Short, to be, v, i, ku fwimpa. 

Short, euij\ -fwafwi. 

Short, to fall, v. i, ku lela. 

Shorten, to, v, t, ku fwinsha. 

Shoulder, n, 7. chifapghi ; shoul- 
der-blade, ff. 3. ikuko ; space 
between shoulder-blades, n. 3. 
indelo ; shonlder of animal, n, 3. 

Shout, to, v. i, ku ompoloU, ku 

Shove, to, v, /. ku sunda. 

Shovel, n. zf^* ifosholo. 

Show, to, v, /. ku lesha, ku bonya. 

Shower : it is a shower, phr, Wa 
fwilaila Iieaa. 

Shriek, to, v, u ku didisha. 

Shrink, to, as garments in wash, 
V. i. ku shankana, ku vhun^^ana. 

Shrug, to, the shoulders, v, u ku 
ditikinya, ku tidimuka. 

Shudder, to, as after drinking 
bitter medicine, v. u ku tidi- 

Shut, to, a door, v. t, ku yala ; to 
s. the eyes, v. /. ku hulalata ; to 
8. the mouth, v, t, ku muina ; to 
s. and open the eyes, when you 
are afraid anything will enter, 
v i, ku hulaliula, ku kopaula. 

Sick, to be, v. i, ku aata, phr, 
kudi mulwaahi. 

Sick, adj, -lwaslii« 
Sick person, ». i. mulwaahi. 
Sickle, n, i.for. isikile. 
Sickness, n, 4. bulwaahi, n, 7. 

Side, n. 9. Iwiya ; e.g. Sit on 

yonder side, Eala koko ku 

Iwiya. Side of a river, n, 3. 

itala; e,g. Let us cross to the 

other side, A tu landukile mwi- 

tala modia. 
Side, to place side by side, v^ t, ku 

Sideways, adv, kambavhwe. To 

walk sideways like a crab, /^r. 

ku enda kambavbwe. 
Sieve, n. 7. ohisekusho. 
Sift, to, v. /. ku aebayku sekusha; 

siftings of grain, n, 3.//. xnaseke. 
Sigh, to, v, i, ku diekela, ku 

Sight, of gun, n. 3. dinso. 
Sight, to be in sight of each other, 

phr, kudi bwenene. 
Sighted, weak-, to be, v, i. ku 

chesha; a weak-sighted person, 

n, I a. uclie8ha-0-m,en8o. 
Silence, to, 9. /. ku tontoaha, ku 

Silent, to be, v,i, ku inaa, ku 

diinza, ku tontola. 
Silver, n, %.for. inshiliva. 
Similar, to be, v,t, ku kosha, 

V, i, ku kozhana ; e, g. These 

things are similar, Shintu aheshi 

shidi koabene. 
Sin, evil, n, \, bubi; a sin, iu 7. 

Sin, to, v,u ku bia» ku ohita 

Sinner, n, i. muobitashibi, shi- 

Since: they knew him since he 

was a child, Ba xnwizhi ka 

obidi mwana. 
Sincerity, n, 4. bwini. 
Sinew, used in sewing, if. 4. bu- 

Bhingo, n, 3. isaso. 
Sing, to, v, /. ku imba ; to sing well, 

loudly, V, t, ku imbiaha ; to sing 

of, or for, or to, v. /. ku imbila. 
Singe, to, v. /. ku tsnta. 
Singer, n, i. xnwixnbi. 




Singly, one by one. Uie the 
nnmeral, -mwi-mwl. Thus : Let 
them come singly, one at a time, 
If a be liae omwi omwl. 
Sink, to, v,i, ka ibila; v,t, Ini 
ibisha. Of a canoe lying at the 
bottom of the ziver, v.i,lm kata- 
Sip, to, v./. ka pwitapwita. 
Sir, Mwami I In answering a 

chief. Yes, sir, Ingoi I 
Sister, ft, i. muohiahi. Used 
when a brother speaks to or of 
his sister ; when one sister speaks 
to another, she says Mukweso, 
or Yaya. 
Sister-in-law, n. i. mushile. 
Generally heard in the pi. only, 
Baahilebesu, my or our sister- 
or sisters-in-law. 
Sit, to, v, i. ka kala ; to s. round 
in a circle, v, i, ku engela ; to s. 
around a fire, v» i, kn aota ; to 
s. near, v. i, ku aenenena ; to s. 
very near any one, v. t. ku shindi- 
baia, ku shindibadila. 
Site, of destroyed house, n, 7. chilu. 
Six, num. ohiaambomwL Ba- 

lumbu say, Kakole. 
Sixteen, num, ikmni dlomwi o 
muntesha ahidi chiaambomwi. 
Sixty, num. inaknmi adi chi- 

Sjambok, n. 3. mntatula. 
Skilfully, adv, chabuaa. 
Skill, n, 4. busa. 
Skim, to, milk, &c., z'. /. ku ibula. 
Skin, of person, ». 9. lukanda; 
fresh or soft skin, n, 3. isalo ; 
a prepared skin, n, 8. ingubo; 
a hard, dry skin, n, 7. chikanda. 
Fore-legs of a skin, which the 
women tie across their chest, the 
baby being in the skin behind, 
n, 2. mondo, miondo. 
Skin, to, v, /. ku fimda. 
Skunk, n, la, kanyimba. 
Sky, If. 3. izaulu. 
Slack, to be, v, u ku tantebela ; 
to cause to be s., v, /. ku tente- 
Slander, to, v,t. ku besha, ku 
lambaiaha. The latter word 

means to smear, defile by smear- 
ing dirt on anybody; hence of 
besmirching one's character. 

Slanderously, adv, chakubeaha. 

Slate, n. *j»for, chilate. 

Slaughter, to, to kill many, v, /. 
ku poaaula. 

Slave, n, i. muahike. 

Slavery, n, 4. buahike. 

Slavish, the manner, custom, way 
of a slave, n. 7. ohiahike. 

Slay, to, v. t. ku yaya. 

Sleep, n. 6. //. tulo. 

Sleep, to^ v, u ku ona. To go 
and sleep with a friend's wile, 
V, i. ku ata. 

Sleepily, adv, cliakuftikula. 

Sleepy, to be, v. u ku ftikula. 

Slip, to, and fall, v, i, ku teau- 
muka, /Ar. ku wa buteahi; to 
slip without falling, v, i, ku iAia- 

Slippery, to be, like a fish, v, 1. 
ku teahima ; a slippery place, 
slipperiness, n, 4. buteahi. 

Slop^ n. 9. Iwata. This game- 
pit has sloping sides, Mulambwe 
weau udi kwete Iwata. 

Sloth, n, 4. bukata. 

Small, adj. -shonto. Expressed 
also in the classifiers of cl. 6. 
Thus, a small house, kanda ; //. 

Small, to be, vA, ku ohea; to 
make small, v, /. ku obeaha. 

Smallness, n. 4. busbonto. 

Small-pox, n, 7. obimbombe, 
i». lo. nacbinkwa, n, 2, muko- 
lotila, mudimakubufihu. A 
man marked by small-pox, n, la. 

Smart, to, v, t, ku sosoma. 

Smear, to, v,t. ku mata, ku 
shingulula ; to s. body with clay 
in time of mourning, v. i, ku 
lamba ; to s. dirt on anybody, 
v,t, ku lambaizha. 

Smell, to, v, /. ku nufuaba ; to 
smell or stink, v. i. ku nunka. 

Smelt, to, iron, /Ar. ku tenta 

Smile, to, v. i. ku mwena. 

Smite, to. See To hit. 

Z 2 



Smith, black-, n. i. mufuKlii. 

Smithy, n. 8. insaka. 

Smoke, to, v, t, ku fvreba ; to s. 
with short rapid pnfTs, v. t. ku 
fakumuna ; to s. much, v. t, ku 
fwebesha ; to be smokeable, v. i. 
ku fwebeka. 

Smoke, n, 4. buslii ; a great quan- 
tity of, n. 3. ishi. 

Smoker, ». i. mufwebi ; of hemp, 
n, la. sliilubaBge. 

Smoothe, to, v. L ku ealieBlia, ku 
bulunganya ; to be smooth, 
carved nicely without roughness, 
v,u ku bulungana; to smoothe 
off with a shell pots when made, 
V. U ku bumbula ; to smoothe 
a road, v, t, ku salazha ; to 
smoothe (clothes), v,t, ku bu- 

Smoothly, adv, ohakuezhezhs, 

Snake, n» 8. inaoka, n, i. muzoka. 

Some varieties of snakes, 

Ohipile, puff-adder, poisonous. 

Chisambwe, short, poisonous. 

Impushi, non -poisonous. 

Ingongoki, this and the previous 
one are said to bring good luck to 
those who see them. 

Xnkombola, very poisonous, some- 
thing like the shimakGina. 

Itosld, a fabulous water-snake. 
See note in Ila-Eng, Vocab. 

Kakune, a green tree-snake, 

Muoheka, a kind of python, swal- 
lows animals. 

Mulala, or lumanyendo, a large 
tree-snake, said to be extremely 

Munkanga. ? kind. 

Shibudikila, described by natives 
as having two heads; a short, 
dark-coloured snake. 

Shimakoma, the African cobra; 
long, dark-coloured; very poison- 
ous, spits. 

Shimufulaniweiuyu, a green 
snake, non-poisonous. 

Snap, to, v, /. ku kombols ; v, i, 
ku komboka 

Snapped, adj. -komboshi. 
Snarl, to, v, i, ku huluma. 
Snatch, to, v. t» ku soxnpola ; as 

a hawk snatches chickens, v. /. 

ku kwempa. 
Sneer, to, v, i. ku shinanana. 
Sneeze, to, v, i. ku shamits, ku 

chislia, ku ditimuna. 
Snore, to, v, i, ku kuluzna. 
Snuff, n. 8. intombwe. 
Snuff, to, v, t. ku fwebs. 
Snuff-box, n, 8. ingoma. 
Snuff-spoon, n, 7. ohifw-ezho, 

n. 3. ibeko. 
So, adv, bobo, bodia. 
So-and-so, Nini,//. Banini; e.g^. 

They were so-and-so, I forget 

their names, Ka badi banini, 

nda luba mazhina abo. 
So-so, not quite right, but almost, 

adv, poni poni. This work is 

so-so, Mudimo wezu mponi 

Soak, to, v,t, ku iniks, ku bo- 

Soap, n. 2, /or. mulola. 
Soar, to, v, i. ku zumuka. 
Sober, to be, v. i, ku kololokwa ; 

to make sober, v,t, ku kolo- 

Sock, n. z,/or, iaokisi. 
Soft, to be, v, i, ku bombs ; to 

be very soft, v. i, ku bombesha. 
Soft, adf. -bongvhu ; of food, 

Soften, to, zf.t. ku bonsha; to 

make very soft, v,t. ku bonse- 

sha; to soften a skin, v,t. ku 

Softness, n, 4. bubongvhu. 
Soil, n, 3. ivbu. 
Soldier, n, i a. shilumamba. 
Solidify, to, zf, i, ku dianga, ku 

Solitary, to be, v, pass, ku im- 

bilwa; to leave one alone, in 

solitude, V. t. ku imbisha. 
Some, adj. -mwi ; e.g, some people, 

bantu bamwi. 
Something, n. 6. kantu. 
Son, n. i. mwana mulombwana. 
Son-in-law, n. i. mukwe. My — , 

mukwe wangu, or mukwango. 



SoNSHiPy n, 4. bwana. 

Song, n, 9. Iwiznbo. 

SooN» after a time^ phr» ohi be 

Soot, n, a. mtqre. 

Soothe, to, a child, v, /. ka umbu- 

Sop, to, v. t. ka kandila. 

Sorcerer, n, i. muloslii. 

Sorcery, ». 4. bnloahi. 

Sore, ». 7. oldlonda. 

Sore, to be, v, i, ku ohiaa. 

Sorrow, iu 4. busu. 

Sorrowful, to be, or downcast, 
V. pass, ku eteshiwa ; to caase to 
be downcast, v, /. ku eteaha. 

Sorrowfully, adv, chabuau. 

Sorrowful person, n, i. muau. 

Sorry, to be, v. u ku uaa. 

Sort, kind, n. a. mukumo. 

Sound, to, of the intestines ram- 
bling, also of a waterfall, v, i. ku 
gama; to cause to ramble thns, 
V. t, ku ffuxnya ; of drams sound- 
ing a long time, v.i. Ini k»l»- 
uka; of thunder, v,i, ku indi- 

Soup, n, a. mushinaa. 

Sour, to be, v. i, ku papa. Of a 
sour thing it is said, Cha aaku- 
muna mate. It increases the 
saliva. 29rda aakumuka mate. 
My saliva flows, increases. The 
feeling when one tastes anything 
sour is called, bu, or buu. 

South : expressed very indefinitely. 
A general way of saying it is, Ku 
bubiahi, or ku butonga, i,e. 
Towards the country of the Ba- 
Sow, TO, V. /. ku shanga. 
Sower, ». i. musbangi. 
Space, n. 4. busena. 
Spade, n, i.for. ifosholo. 
Spark, n. 3. inaansi. 
Speak, to, v,i, ku amba; to s. 
to oneself, v. t, ku diambya ; to 
s. loudly, V. t, ku amblsha ; to 
s. under one's breath, to murmur, 
vj, ku tongauka, ku sholauka ; 
to s. to, V. /. ku ambila ; to s. at 
great length, so as to weary 
people, V, i. ku londolola ; to s. 

out, hiding nothing, v, t ku pa- 
aaiila ; to s. on behalf of, v, /. 
ku ambidila; to s. altogether, 
making a noise, v, i, ku yo^ola ; 
to 8. the trath all through a 
matter, v. u ku lungulula. 

Spear, ». 3. iaumo; large s. used 
in hunting elephants and buffaloes, 
n. 3. iyonga, n. a. mwanabo; 
shaft of spear, n. 9. luaako; a 
large s., n. 3. ibeshi; another 
kind of s., n. 8. impula ; fish s., 
ff. 2. mumba. Different kinds of 
barbed spears: n, 7. chinkoahi; 
n, la, ahikamimbia (so called 
because it has two barbs which 
are supposed to resemble a swal- 
low's tail) ; n. 3. iaholaule ; 
». 7. chikwangadi ; ». i a. shi- 
kakombo. The part of the spear- 
head not hammered out, n. 2. 

Species, n. a. muahobo, mukumo. 

Spectacles, n, 7. //. ahimbone. 

Speed, n, 9. lubilo. 

Speedily, adv, chalubilo. 

Spend, to, v, t. ku dia. 

Spider, n, 3. ibubi \ n,\a, shilu- 
bidila. Spider's nest made by 
8hilubidila,namuiidelele. Web 
of the ibubi, lutangatanga. 

Spill, to, v, i, ku tika, ku tlka- 
ika; to spill, v. /. ku tila, ku 

Spin, to, to twist cotton into thread, 
V, /. ku pesa. 

Spine, n. a. moxigo. 

Spirit, n, a. moaa, //. mioaa; 
apparition, n, \a, shikazwa; of 
ancestors, n, a. muzhimo. 

Spit, to, v,t, ku fwila, ku la- 
pula ; to spit out, v. t, ku ahipa. 

Spittle, n, 3. //. mate. 

Spleen, n, 3. ibenzhi, n, a. mu- 

Splinter, ». 6. kashamo, kasha- 

Split, to, v, t, ku anda, ku andu- 
la, ku andaula ; to be split, v, i, 
ku anduka, ku andauka. 

Spoil, to, v,t, ku aonaula, ku 

Spoon, n, 2. mungo. 



Spoor, n» 2. mukondo, mnlrala; 

a faint spoory n, 7. ohiknla. 
Spout, of bellows, n. 8. inchela. 
Spread, to, v.i, ka aala; to s. 

news abroad, v. t. ka ibuaha ; to 

s. out extensively in growing, as 

pumpkin, v.i. ka ombengans; 

to s. out, scatter, of people, r. 1. 

ka dyombengana ; to s. out 

wings, of a bird, v. /. ka bftma. 
Spring, n, 7. chidixno. 
Spring, to, to jump, v, i, ka 

•otoka ; as seeds, v, i, ka mena. 
Spring, of water, n. a. mwinao, 

//. minao ; hot spring, n, 3. //. 

xnabia; spring of a gun, n. 2, 

Spring-hare, n. 1 a, naxnan- 

Sprinkle, to, v, t, ka aanaails. 
Sprout, to, v, i. ka sonaa. 
Spur, n, 7. clmnbi. 
Spy, to, V, /. ka okela. 
Spy, ». I. maokeahi. 
Squanderer, n, i. mataka. 
Squeeze, to, v»t, ka ahina, ka 

Squirrel, if. ia.8hikdnBo. 
Stab, to, v, /. ka yasa. 
Stack, oif mealies, n, 8. inkango ; 

a big stack, n. 3. ikongo. 
Stagger, to, as drunkard, v, i, ka 

tekana, ka kanaoka. 
Stalk, to, game, v. t, ka benda. 
Stalk, of grain, n, 3. isenga ; a 

mealie-stalk without any grain, 

n, 7. chipapa. 
Stammer, to, v» i. ka lendula. 
Stammerer, ». io. shikalenda, 

Stammeringly, adv. chakalenda. 
Stamp, to, v.t. ka diata ; to stamp 

grain, v, /. ka twa, ka ohokola, 

ka polola ; to stamp a floor, vj, 

ka ahimbila. 
Stamping-block, n, 8. inkidi. 
Stand, to, v,u ka ahima, v.U 

ka Bhimika; to stand with legs 

stretched out, v, i. ka tatanana ; 

to stand up, v. 1. ka ahixnoka. 
Stand, a thing for placing another 

upon, as a candlestick, n, 7. ohi* 


Star, m. 8. intongweahi. The 
morning star, intanda. The 
evening star, ianLXwiahi. A 
shooting star, int&nda. A star 
seen very near the moon, inaka- 
mweahi. The Pleiades, Bale- 

Stare, to, v, i, ka tanama. 

Start, to, a tune, r. /. ka soiiBa; 
to start a journey late in the day, 
V. I . ka iaokila. 

Starvation, n, 8. inaala. 

Starve, to, /Ar. ka fwa inaala. 

Stature, n, 7. chiino. 

Steadfast, to be, v.i, ka kira- 
tila, ka ta aungana. 

Steal, to, v, t, ka iba (kwiba). 
To steal at time of famine, v. t. 

Stealthily, to go, v.i. ka na- 

Stealthily, adv. kafcunpe. 

Steep, adj. -zhimikile. The bank 
is steep, Inkomw idi ahimi- 

Steer, to, a canoe, v,U ka obi- 

Step, m. 8. intambuko. 

Steward, watcher, caretaker, n. i. 

Stewardship, n. 4. badindiBhi. 

Stick, n. 6. kaaamo ; walking- 
stick, n, 2. maaako. A a. for 
beating; n. 7. ohompaaho, oha- 
mio. A stick for tying-np slaves, 
n. 8. impangati; a forked s., 
n. 7. ohanda, n. 8. inganda. A 
8. for taking £Eit out of pot, if. a. 
matombio. A s. outside a village 
upon which spears, &c., are 
placed, If. 9. Iwanga. A pointed 
s. for digging, if. a. xnaaongo- 
sbo. Short sticks put above 
doorway in hut-wall, also sticks 
used by women in carrying things 
on the head, if. 4. balebo. 

Stick, to, to adhere to, v.U ka 
kakatila, ka ahaina. 

Sticky, adhesive, adj. -lamaoahi. 
To be sticky, v. f . ka lamanka. 

Stiff, to be, as porridge, v. i. ka 
kankabala. To make porridge 
sti£f, V. /. ka kankabaaha. 



Still, particle, ohl ; #.^. Tliey are 
still going, Ba ohi ya. 

Stimulate, to, v./. ka ahini- 

Sting, to, as a bee, v. /. ka Itixna ; 
as a nettle, v. /. ku babym. 

Stinginess, h, 4. bntaTlm. 

Stingy person, iv. i. mutaTlm. 

Stink, it. 4. buniimfti. 

Stink, to, v,i, ku niinka, ku 

Stir, to, v,t, ku sambika, ku 
ipinda. To stir up ¥Fater or por- 
ridge, V. t, ku k6pak6pa. 

Stock, of gun, if. ^ itako. 

Stockade, n, 9. luba. 

Stomach, n. ^ iftu The 'first 
stomach' of cattle, iftu The 
* second stomadi', olminbai ohi- 
ndyabombaBhi. The * fourth 
stomach ', imftinka. 

Stone, n. 3. ibwe, n» 2, mwala. 
See Millstone. 

Stool, n. 7. ohuna. 

Stoop, to, v. i, ka TiamiTia. To 
stoop down to drink water, v, /. ku 
ftilama. To stoop down so as to 
drink directly by the mouth, v, t. 
ku kunamlna. 

Stop, to, to cease, v,t, ku laka. 
To stop, obstruct, v,t. ku ohi- 
qjila. To stop anybody from 
doing, V, /. ku lesha. 

Stopper, n, 7. ohishinaho. Of 
snuff-box. If. 7. ohitibio. Of 
chum. It. 8. inahibo. 

Store, if. T^fir. ohintolo. 

Stork, if. i a. nakakodio. 

Storm, if. a. muofo, if. 3. iuwo. 

Straight, eufy', -luleme. 

Straight, to be, v, i. ku lulama. 
To put things straight, in order, 
V. t. ku engesha. To do so for 
somebody, v, t. ku engezheBha. 

Straighten, to, v,t ku lula- 

Strain, to, as beer, honey, v.t, 
ku ansa. 

Strainer, h. 7. ohansilo. 

Strait, narrow, adj. -shankene. 

Stranger, if. i. mwenau. 

Strangle, to, v. t. ku shina. 

Strength, if. 8. insana. 

Strengthen, to, phr, ku pa 

Stretch, to, out the hand, v.t, 
ku vhungulula. To s. oneself, 
V. i. ku diolola. To be stretched 
out like a corpse, v. u ku landa- 
bala. To s. out as elastic, v.U 
ku tandubula. To s. out as 
legs, V, /. ku tandabala. 

Stretchable, to be, elastic, v.u 
ku vhunguludika, ku tandu- 

Stride, if. 8. intambuko. 

Strife, if. 5. kulwa ; wordy 
strife, n, 7. ohikani. 

Strike, to, v.t, ku uma. Of a 
spear striking without piercing, 
zi. /. ku limkunya. 

String, made of bark, if. 9. loihi, 
n, 6. koahL Palm-leaf-string, 
If. 7. chibala, if. 9. lubala. A 
fish-string, if. a. moae. 

Strip, to, off bark, v, t. ku ftmdu- 
la. To s. on behalf of somebody, 
V. t, ku ftmdwila. To s. leaves 
off a branch, v. t, ku pulula. To 
s. maize off a cob, v, t. ku bu- 
lula. To s. sheath from mealie- 
cob, v,t, ku paula. To s. off 
clothes, v. /. ku aamnnnna, ku 

Strive, to, to wrestle, v.t, ku 
kwatana. With words, ku 

Stroke, to, with hands, v.L ku 

Strong, to be, phr, kudi insana. 
A strong person, if. i a. shinaana. 
A strong person who never tires or 
gets sick IS called a rock, mwala. 

Stumble, to, v. i. ku diftimpula. 

STUMBLiNG-BL0CK,if.8. ingftimpo. 

Stump, of tree, n, 7. ohishishi. 

Stupid, to be, v, i. ku dimbuka; 
to be dull, V. I. ku ahiluka. 

Stuiter, to, v. i. ku lendida. 

Stutterer, n. la. ahikalenda. 

Submerged, to be, v, i. ku kata- 

Submit, to, v, i. ku bomba. 

Subside, to, v, L ku obuluka, ku 
pompa. Of wind, v. i, ku bata- 



Succeed, to, to follow, v.L ku 

ohldila, phr, ku dya izhina. 
Such, adv, bodia. I don't like 

sach people, Shi zanda bantu 

badi bodia. 
Suck, to, v, t. ku mumuna. As 

an infant, v* L ku nonka. 
Suckle, to, v, /. ku nonsha. 
Suddenly, adv, ndidiona-ndidi- 

Suffer, to, v^ t, ku chisa. 
Suffering, n. 5. kuohisa. 
Suffice, to, v,i, ku izudila. 
Sugar, n, S,/or. insukele. 
Suit, to, v. t, ku botela. These 

clothes salt me, Shikobelo she- 

shi aha mbotela. 
Sulky, to be, v. i. ku pisauka. 
Sulphur, n, 2, for, musolufiA. 
Summer, n, 3.//. Mainza. 
Summon, to, v, A ku ita (kwita). 
Sun, n, 3. izuba. 
Sunday, n, ^,for^ Insunda. 
Sunk, to be, v. i, ku katamina. 
Sunset, adv, diakomboka, die- 

Sunshine, n, 9. lumwi. 
Supper, n, 2, muladilo. 
Suppose, to, v. i, ku telalka, ku 

zuQga ; e,g, I supposed it was 

so, bat no ! Nda zunga mbuka- 

bele inji, pe ! 
Surpass, to, v, t, ku bazha. 
Surpassingly, adv^ ohakubazha. 
Surrender, to, v, t, ku ditola. 
Surround, to, as game, v, t. ku 

oba. To sit aronnd, v. t, ku 

engela. To surroond a village 

in order to seize the people, v, t, 

Suspend, to, v, t. ku lengelezha. 
Swallow, to, v. t, ku mina. To 

cause to swallow, v, t, ku minya. 
Swallow, n, \a, shikamimbia. 
Swallow ABLE, to be, v,t, ku 

Swamp, n, 3. isaba, n, 2. mu- 

Swear, to, to affirm strongly, v, t, 

ku pinga. To revile, curse, v, t, 

Sweep, to, v, t, ku pela, ku ku- 


Sweet, to be, v, t . ku Iwela. 
Swell, to, v. i. ku zhimba. 
Swift person, n. la, shilubilo. 
Swiftly, adv. ohalubilo. 
Swiftness, n. 9. lubilo. 
Swim, to, v.t, ku samba. To 

float on surface, v. i. ku ibauka. 
Swindle, to, v, t. ku ohenga. 
Swing, to, dangle in air, v.i, ku 

Swoop, to, v, i. ku kwempa. 
Sword, n, 3. ioheba. 
Syphilis, n, 3. //. manansa. 

Table, n, %yfor. intafole. 
Tabooed, to be, v, i. ku tonda, 
ku ila, ku zhila; to be tabooed 
for, on account of, vJ, ku tondela; 
to taboo, V, t, ku tonzha. 

These words are used especially 
with reference to certain things 
which are forbidden to various 
people. Among these the follow- 
ing may be named :t— 

Young people are forbidden to eat 
eggs, mukamu (a kind of bread), 
masekeseki (another kind) ; the 
sliim.ulele, shibembe, and in- 
kungwe, fish ; kansama (a kind 
of honey) ; mankalwe (a kind of 
potato) ; katongola (a kind of 
bread made of ground nuts) ; 
miseza (a kind of potato), and fat. 

A pregnant woman and her husband 
are forbidden to do certain things 
for the benefit of the child that is 
to be bom. Some of these things 
are as follows : — They may not 
eat the flesh of the gnu, the reason 
being that the gnu occupies a long 
time in the actual bringing forth 
of its young, and it is supposed 
that if the woman or her husband 
eat of it the woman will have a 
long confinement. They are also 
forbidden to eat hartebeest flesh ; 
it is said that the young harte- 
beest is bom blind, and if the 
woman or her husband eat this 
meat their offspring will be blind 
also. They are also forbidden to 
eat food that has been cooked on 



a day previoiis and left over ; this 
food is called ohidyo oh'ons, or 
ohidyo oha mnlala. They may 
not sit on other people's stools, 
for fear of inducing miscarriage. 
They may not fight with other 
people, the reason being that they 
may peradventore fight with a 
muloBhi, and a miscarriage might 
result Neither husband nor wife 
may have intercourse with other 
people, though if the man be a 
polygamist he may go into his 
other wives. The woman is also 
not allowed to sleep in the day- 
time, it being supposed that other- 
wise her child will be sleepy- 
headed or the confinement will be 
a lengthy one. It is also said 
that people must never stand about 
the door of a pregnant woman's 
house, otherwise her confinement 
will be lengthy. 

Young girls (bashimbi) are for- 
bidden to touch the miando (the 
musical instruments of the 
bakamwale), and they may not 
eat btunena, or it will happen 
that on the day of their initiation 
danceit will rain. Children may not 
refuse to go when sent on errands. 
And children must never say Nda 
sata chibunu, I have a pain in 
the loins ; if they do this their 
elders may die. Women must not 
speak of sexual matters before 
men, nor may men before women : 
that is to say, they may not speak 
of the genitals and such matters. 
Women and girls are to be 
properly clothed in the presence 
of men. Among the Balumbu it 
is also forbidden U>r men to appear 
improperly clothed before women, 
but the Baila proper have no such 

It is quite admissible to give these 
terms a wider use and apply them 
to things prohibited by Christianity 
and civilization; e,g. This thing 
is not for a believer to do, it is 
tabooed, Chechi ta chi chiti 
muyxunini, chi la tonda. 

Tadpole, k. la. habe, //. baha- 

Tail, n, 2. muchila. A large t., 
such as a horse*s, n, 3. ichila ; 
t of bird, n, 7. chiyeye ; t. of 
fish, n, 2. muyeye, n. 8. impepe. 

Take, to, v, t. ku bweaa. To t. 
out all food in a pot, v.t, ku 
pukula. To t a little food out 
of a pot, V, /. ku nembula. To 
t. out one piece of food, leaving 
the rest, v, t. ku landula. To t. 
in both hands, v, /. ku fukatila. 
To cause to t. in both hands, v, t, 
ku fukatiaha. To t. a thing out 
of the way, v, /. ku sesula. To t. 
a thing away from a person, v, t, 
ku nanga. To t. away from a 
person so as to relieve him, v, /. 
ku nangila, ku inuna. To t. a 
thing out of the water, v.t, ku 
fiimpula. To t. a pot off the fire, 
V, t, ku yula. To t. to, v, t. ku 
tola. To t everything fi-om a 
person, v.t. ku kukula. To t. 
away or seize a person's things, 
v» t, ku anjila. To t., of a man 
who takes things from his grand- 
children, V, /. ku bombola. To 
t. things outside in cleaning up a 
house, V, t, ku tutulula. To t. 
young birds out of a nest, v, t, ku 
zalwila. To t. fat out of a recep- 
tacle, V, t, ku tomba. 

Tale, folk-lore, n, 6. kalabi, also a 

Tale-bearer, 11.1. mucliecliele- 

Talk, to, z^. tl ku bandika. 

Tall, adj\ -lamfti. 

Tall person, n, i a. shichimo. 

Tallness, n. 7. chimo. 

Tame, to, v. t, ku bonzha. 

Tardy, to be, v. i. ku nyosa. 

Tassel, n. 2. muzenaa. 

Taste, to, v, t, ku manaha. To 
t. or eat just a little, v.t, ku 
sola. To cause to eat just a little, 
V. t, ku sozha. To t. hot as 
pepper, v. i. ku bangabanga. 

Tax, to, v. t, ku lumbuzha, ku 
ohetesha. To pay a tax, v. t» ku 
lumbula, ku chetela. 



Tax-gatherer, n.i. mulumbu* 

Bhi, muoheteshi. 
Taxing-place, n. 7. ohiluxnbu- 

Tea, n. i a. ti. 

Teach, to, v. t. ku iya, ku bula. 
Teacher, n. i. mwiyi. 
Teaching, n. 5. kwiya. 
Tear, n. 2. inusoBhi. 
Tear, to, v, t. ku sapula. To t. 

to pieces with teeth, phr, ku 

Butula o meno. To t. to pieces, 

of a wild beast, v. t, ku andula. 
Teat, n, 6. kanonkelo. 
Teeth, n. 3. //. meno. To file t., 

V. t. ku pepenyeka. To knock 

out t. in the manner of the Baila, 

V. t, ku banga. To take out t. 

as is the custom of the Bandnwe, 

ku nomona meno. 
Tell, to, v, u ku shimuna. To 

t. to, V, /. ku shimwina. To t. 

tales, particularly lying tales, v. t. 

ku cbechelela. To t. one's 

names, v.t, ku tembula. To t. 

out, hiding nothing, v, t, kukolo- 

lola. To t news, tidings, v,t, 

ku ombolola. To tell news to, 

to make known things done, v, t, 

ku ombolOBha. 
Temple, n. %,for, intempele. 
Tempt, to, to try, v. /. ko soleka, 

ku sukusha. To lead astray, 

v,L ku lengauBha. To entice, 

tempt, V. t. ku tepaula. 
Tempter, n,i. musoleshi, mu- 

ohengi, mutepauehi. 
Ten, num, ikumi. 
Tend, to, to herd, v, t, kuembela. 

To watch, v.t, ku dindila. 
Tender, soft, etdj, -bongvhu, espe- 

cially of meat and food, aJj, 

Tendon, n, 4. buBbingo ; the 

Achilles tendon, n. 2, mushisa. 
Tent, n. i^Jor, itenti. 
Termite, n, 9. lumoma, mulauBhi. 
Terrible, to be, v, i ku tika. 
Test, to, v. t. ku sukusha. 
Testament, n. 5. Itestamente. 
Testicle, n. 3. ibolo. 
Testify, to, v.t. ku Banga, used 

especially ol testifying to a crime. 

Testimony, n, 5. kusanga. 
Thank, to, v. /. ku lumba. 
Thankful person, n. i. mulu- 

Thankless person, 11.10. shilu- 

That, dem, pro.^ weao, ledio, &c. 

See tabu in chap, v of Grammar, 

Conj. ati, kutl. 
Thatch, to, v, t. ku rhumba. 
Thee, pers. pro. ku. 
Their, poss. pro. -bo, &c., prefixed 

with genitive particles, thus : 

TnJTiBhi ya-bo, their villages. 

See table in chap, v of Grammar. 
The^, pers. pro. ba, &c See tabie 

in chapi v of Grammar. 
Then, a^., conJ. insho, ngonao. 
There, adv. momo, koko, awo. 
Therefore, conj. kambo kako. 
These, dem. pro, baba, asa, &c. 

See table in chap, v of Grcunmar, ba, &c. 
Thick, to be, as porridge, v. i, ku 

kankabala, ku Buma-Buma. 
Thicken, to, porridge, &c., o. /« 

ku kankabasha. 
Thief, n. i. muteu. 
Thigh, n. 7. chibelo. 
Thin, TO be, or lean, v. i. ku koka, 

ku pupungana. To t. out 

seedlings, v.t. ku nyonkada. 

To beat out thin, v, /• kupampa- 

mika. To be beaten out thin, 

flat, v.i.'kxL pampamana. 
Thin, flat, culj. -pampamene; 

lean, adj. -pupungene, -kofo. 
Thing, n. 7. chintu ; a small thing, 

n. 6. kantu. 
Think, to, v.t. ku telaika, ku 

BOBa, ku kumbula ; to turn any- 

thing over in the mind, v.t. ku 

Third, ord, num. -tatu ; e. g. the 

third day, buehiku bwatatu. 
Thirst, n. 8. inyotwa, n. ^ lu- 

Thirsty, to be, phr, ku fwtk 

inyotwa, ku fwa lupamba. 
Thirteen, num. ikumi diomwi o 

mu ntesha ehotatwe. 
This, cUm. pro. weau, ladi, &c. 

See table in chap, v of Grammar. 



Thithbr, aAt. kdko. 

Thorn, it. 4. bwiya^//. meya. 

Tho&n-trkb, ' kameddom,' n. 3. 
ihuxiga; a clump or wood of 
thom^reei, ». 4. bukoka. 

Those, dem. pro, babo, aso, &c. 
See tabU in chap, v of Grammar. 

Tuov, pers. pro, IJ. 

Though, eonj, nL 

Thought, it. 2, muaaio, n 3. //. 

Thousand, n, 7. ohuln. 

Thread, n, 4. butoii«l. 

Thread, to, v.t. kn tmiffa. 

Threaten, to, to lift hand 
threateningly, v. t, kn aoxiaa. 

Three, num, -tatwe. 

Thresh, to, phr, m. 9. kn nma 
Tn^fif i Inbanaa. 

Threshing-floor, n, 9. lubanaa. 

Threshold, n. 7. ohiknnguaho. 

Thrice, num. kotatwe. 

Throat, n, 2, mmniiio. 

Throb, to, as a sweUtng, v, i, kn 

Throng, of people, if. a, mnAmii ; 
it.3. //. makamo; it. 7. chtuna. 

Through, prep, mo. 

Throw, to, v.t. kn fhsa, ku 
wala. To t. any one on the 
gronnd violently, v.t. ku kan- 
kata. To t. into the air as in 
the game ' intda ', v. t, ku ama. 
To t. up gronnd with the feet in 
running, v, t. ku kaltUa. 

Thumb, n, 7. ohikumb, name given 
by children, it. 7. ohdkomboko- 

Thunder, n. makadL Said 
of t. that seems to be everywhere, 
Iiesa wa tikumana masalo 
akwe. Of distant t, Wa chinka 
Iieaa. Oflondt.,Kumdindima. 

Thus, €uh. bobo, bodia. 

Thy, poss. pro. -ko, prefixed by 
genitive parts. 

Ticket, n. z,for. itikiti. 

Tickle, to, v, i. kn tekuna^ v, t. 
ku tekunya. 

Tie, to, v, t. ku anga. To t. each 
other, v.t. ku angana. To t. 
oneself, v. t. ku dianga. To help 
or cause to t.^ v. t. ku anaha. To 

t a slip-knot, v. t. ku fwiaika. 
To tie up, as a calf, v. t. kuftmga. 
To t. things together, v.t. ku 
angidila. To L tightly, v. t, ku 

Till, €onj, manl 

Time, it. 7. chindi, ohikati. 

Tin, name given to a paraffin tin, 
If. 9. muntemba ; it. %.for, itini. 

Tip, of knife, it. 8. insonga. 

Tired, to be, v. i. ku katala, ku 
bomba, phr. ku fwa makatalo. 
To be very tired, v. i. ku chuku- 
luka. To he unable to walk 
through weariness, v.t. ku ba- 

To, prep, ku, kwa. 

Toad, n.\a. kangvhungvwe. 

Tobacco, n. i a. tombwe, nalu- 
botu. A kind of strong tobac- 
co, It. a. mutonga, mukweka. 
Another kind, ir. i a. namakati. 

To-DAY, usunu, *8unu. 

Toe, n, 6. kalulome. The big toe. 
It. 7. chilulome. 

Together, ado. antdmwi. Ex- 
pressed also in the reciprocal 
sp. of the verb. Ku Iwana, to 
fight together. 

To-morrow, osona. 

Tongs, 11.9. lumano. Used by 
blacksmith, n. 9. lukwasho. 

Tongue, n. 2. mulaka, n. 9. 
ludimi, lulaka. 

Tonsil, it. 6. kapopo, kakoto. 

Tool, t. used by blacksmith to 
cut barbs, n. 8. inkanslio. 

Tooth, n. 3. dino. 

Torn, to be, v. i. ku aapuka. 

Tortoise, n. i a. fulwe. 

Totter, to, to walk slowly, feebly, 
ku beleleka. As a child learning 
to walk, V. i. ku tambwaila. To 
stagger, v. i. ku tekana. 

Touch, to, v.t. ku ampa, ku 
kwata ; to touch, jog, in order to 
remind one, v, t. ku shishixnuna. 

Tower, n. %.for. intola. 

Town, n. a. munahi, a large town. 
If. 3. inzhi. 

Trachea, n. 3. ikulumino. 

Trade, to, v. i. ku sambala, v. t, 
ku sambazba. 



Trader, n, i. mwendo,inu8amba- 

Trail, spoor, n, 2, mukondo. Of 
a snake, n. a. miifundufandu. 

Train, to, to bring up a child, z/. /. 
ku kuzha. To train cattle, v, t, 
ku bonzha. 

Train, n, 7. ohitemela. 

Trample, to, v, t, ku diata. To 
trample or tread clay, ku 

Transfiguration, 11.5. kusan- 

Transfigure, Transform, to, 
V, /. ku sandula. 

Transgress, to, phr. ku sotoka 

Transgression, n, 9. lusotoko. 

Transgressor, n, i. muiiotoslLi. 

Translate, to, v,t, ku pilula, 
ku pinula. 

Trap, to, v, t. ku tea. 

Trap, for animals, n, 4. bufwizu ; 
n. 7. ohikotamo. For small 
game, n, 7. ohifumps. For fish, 
n. 3. izhizlii, iyhumbo ; n, 9. 
lushiko. For rats and birds, 
ff, 3. idiba. 

Parts of the idiba trap : — The stick 
planted as a spring, n. a. mweto. 
The cord, n, 6. koze. The short 
stick tied at the end of the koze, 
n, 8. imbwa. The stick support- 
ing the top, to which bait is nzed, 
n. a. munono. The short stick 
put in the ground, n. 8. inkanka. 
The top of the trap, n. 3. idiba. 

Trapper, n, i. mutezhi. 

Travel, to, v, i, ku enda. To 
t. fast, V. i, ku endesha. To t. 
about continually, v,i, ku 

Traveller, n,i, xnwenzu. A 
constant traveller, n. i. mupo- 
poshi. A solitary traveller, n, 1 a. 

Treachery, of a man who incites 
his fellows against another, but is 
fearful of that man knowing it, so 
that when they come to seize him 
he pretends to intercede for him 
as a friend, ku ohita ohihuna- 

Tree, n, 3. isamo. A small tree, 
n,6. kasanzhi. 

A List of Trees. 

Bukuzu, wild fig-tree, fruit is 


Chikunku, of no use. 
Ibula, a large evergreen tree, good 

workable timber, fruit eaten. 
Ibuzo, the baobaba. 
Ihunga, the camelthom-tree. 
Indiondionga, grows on the river 


Infumo, fruit eaten. 
Isompe (mwalala), grows on 

river-bank, fruit eaten. 
Isuku, wood good for poles, fruit 


Iwi, the wild orange-tree. 
Kabangalulu, not eaten by borers, 

used as medicine. 
Kabombwe, fruit said to be used 

to kill fish. 
Kalala, palm-tree. 
Mubanga, hard timber, not eaten 

by borers. 
Mubombo, good bark, bark used 

to make intebe. 
Mubuxnbu, medicine made from 

the bark. 
Mudianswi, hard borer-proof 

timber, walking-sticks made of it. 
Mufuf uma, root used as medicine 

to make children grow. 
Mufundi, has good bark, not 

eaten by borers. 
Mufwebabachazi, bark of this 

made into powder and smoked 

will kill a person. 
Muhubu, a kind of willow. 
Mukaka, bark good for string. 
Mukololo, it is said that where 

this tree grows there is good soil. 
Mukomba, a flowering tree. 
Mukunku, has no uses. 
Mukushi, stamping-blocks and 

pestles made of it. 
Mukutabulongo, good firewood. 
Muleambezo, good timber, not 

eaten by borers. 
Mulombe, light open-grained 

timber with dark heart, excellent 

for joinery work. 



Mulota, something like mupupu, 
used as medidne. 

Mulabtilulws, fruit eaten. 

MTdulwe, hard wood, but not 

Malumiknmi, it is said that the 
scent of the boming wood of this 
tree scares away snakes. 

Mnnkalazikaiiss, kind of thorn- 

Mnnkonono, has a dark heart, 
not eaten by borers. 

Montembwe, good for wattles. 

Monto, with a white sticky sap, glue. 

MontokoahiA, fruit eaten, spoons 
and basins made of the wood. 

Montiintiiinba (mtunbolo), hard 
wood, used for making drums. 

Mupasopaso, hard like mopaai, 
good firewood. 

Mujmpii, light fleshy leaves, 
white sap very irritating to the 
eyes; people mix dried leaves with 

Muinuho, seems to be of no use. 

Mnwambii, bark used for string. 

Muse, dark wood, used for walk- 
ing-sticks and spear-shafts. 

Musekese, said to indicate good 

Muaeoe, good for charcoal, stamp- 
ing-blocks made of it. 

Muahibi, grain-stampers made of 
the wood, fruit eaten. 

Muahikidi, an ereigreen tree. 

Mutab* (Bnteba), sap used as 
btrdHme, fruit eaten. 

Mutentws (liontwa), very thick 
bark, intebe made from bark. 

Mutombo, good timber, root used 

Motama, has a large peadi-like 

Motobo, has yellow flowers, fruit 

Mutondo, axe-shafts made of it ; 

flowen of this tree (intondo) are 

taken as a sign that it b time to 

go and search for honey. 
MatoyA (mnahiwe), bark good 

for string. 
KujUy frwlcateo. 

MaBhtila, long roots used for 
beating out grain. 

Mwangampande, a tree with 
fleshy leaves similar to mupupo. 

Mwangula, similar to muse : with 


Mwani, the mopani. 

Mwanza, medicine made from it. 

Mwanzwa, good workable, hard, 
yellowish timber. 

Kamatudi, sap used as medicine 
for bwele. 

Namu8angula,thelily- or sausage- 
tree, has huge pods. 

Shitantasokwe, good mining 
timber, not eaten by borers. 

Tremble, to, v, i, ku shangama, 
ku tatama, ku bimba, ku kan- 

Trench, n, a. mwimbi, long 
trench to keep spring-hares and 
locusts out of field, n, a. mon- 

Tribe, n, a. nnikoa, mnshobo. 
Mnahobo seems to have reference 
more to the language. 

Trigger, of gun, n. 2. manono. 

Trip, to, v. i. kn letm, v, /. kn 

Trouble, to, v. i. ku penga ; v. /• 
ku penaha. To be troubled about 
something, v, t. ku pengela. 

Trouble, n, 3. ipenshi. Trouble- 
some person, n. i. mukomL 

Trousers, n. ^.pl. far. malikwe. 

Truly, adv. chiniobini. They 
say ITditwe, It is ash — appar- 
ently an oath. The reference 
seems to be the ash put on the 
body at frmerals. 

Trumpet, if. 8. impeta. 

Trunk, of elephant, n. a. mu- 
bombo, mukono. 

Trust, to, v. t. ku ahoma. 

Trusty, to be, trustwoithy, v, L 
kn ahJomeka. 

Truth, ir.4. bwini. To %peaik 
the truth, v. t. ku whlnlahft. 

Try, to, v,t. ku aoleka. To try 
aftersooin bargaining to see if he 
wUl accept a small sum, v. /. ka 



Tuesday, bwatata, bushika 

Tuft, of feathers on bird's head. 
If. 6. kala, pi, twala. 

Tumult, n, 5 kupyopyongana. 

Turn, to, v.t, ku sandula. To 
t., be turned, v. i, ku sanduka. 
To t. any one over, v, /. ku fata- 
muna. To t. away from, v.t, ku 
futamina. To t. back again, 
v.t, ku futuluka. To t. back, 
V, i, ku piluka. To turn any- 
thing back, V, i, ku piluls. To 
t. aside from a path, v,i, ku 
ambuka. To t over leaves of a 
book, V, /. ku pepaula. To t. 
right over, v, i. ku sandumuka, 
v,t, ku sandumuna. To t. a 
person over and over again, v, t, 
ku pUaula. To t. or steer a 
canoe, v, /. ku ohindulula. To 
t. partly round, v, i, ku chindu- 
luka. To t a thing over and 
over again, v. /. sandaula. To t. 
up at edges as hat-brim, v, i, ku 
pepenyana,z'./. kupepenyanya. 
To t. away the head, v. t, ku 
puka. To t. over and over in 
pain, V, i, ku alauka. 

Turner, of bracelets, n, i. mu- 

Twelve, num, ikumi diomwi o 
mu ntesha shobili. 

Twenty, num, makumi obili. 

Twice, num, kobili. 

Twilight,to be,z^.2. kubalangala. 

Twin, n.i, mwana wa manga. 
Twins, n, manga. 

Twirl, to, v. t. ku puka. 

Twist, to, v, t. ku pesa. 

Two, num. -bill. 

Uddeibl, n, 3. ibele. 

Ugly, adj, -biabe. 

Ugly person, n, la, malukwa, 

pi, bamalukwa. 
Ulcer, n. 7. ohilonda. 
Umbilical cord, n, 9. ludila. 
Umbilicus, n. 9. lukombo. A 

large swollen umbilicus, umbilical 

hernia, n, 3. ikombo. 
Unable, to be, ku ta konslia ; I 

am unable, Shi konzha. 

Unbelief, n, 5. kudimbulula. 
Unbind, to, v. t, ku angulula, ku 

angununa, ku sungulula. 
Uncle, n. la. Uaohisha ; voc. 

form, Achisha. 
Unclean, to be, v.i.'kfx sofwala. 
Uncoil, to, as a snake, v, i, ku 

Unconscious, to be, v, i, ku ahi- 

Uncover, to, v,t. ku vhumbu- 

lula. To be uncovered, v, i, ku 

Under, culv, kunshl; prep, ku- 

nshi ku. 
Understand, to, v, /. ku telela ; 

to u. clearly, z^. t. ku telelesha. Of 

a man who is told, but does not 

understand, though he says he 

does, and either comes back to ask 

again or tells a wrong tale, v, i, 

Understandable, to be, v, i, ku 

Undress, to, v, t, ku sakulula, ku 

Uneatable, to be, v,i, ku ta 

Unequal, to be, v, i, ku ta inga- 

Unfaithful, to be, v, i, ku ta 

Unfasten, to, v. t. ku angulula. 
Unfold, to, v, i, ku vhungulula. 
Unfruitful, to be, ku ta eaha. 
Ungodly person, n, i, musumu- 

Unite, to, v. t, ku lunga, ku ya- 

nyanya, v, i, ku yanana. 
Unjust, to be, v, i, ku ta lulama. 
Unlade, to, v,t, ku knaha, ku 

Unleavened, bread, Inahima i 

ina bumena. 
Unless, conj, ansha. 
Unlock, to, v, t, ku ingulula. 
Unplait, to, V, t, ku aambu- 

Unplug, to, v, t, ku shinkula. 
Unravel, to, v. t, ku aambulula. 
Unripe, adj. -bishi. 
Unroll, to, v, t, ku Thungulula. 
Unsay, to, v, t, kuambulula. 



Uif sREATHBy TO, V. t kii aomosa. 
Unsuitxd, to be : to be unsiiited 

to one, cr. /. ka bOa. 
Untie, to, v, t, ka ftncalnlft, ka 

Until, c^. nuuii. 

Untwist, to. v, /. ka Bambalula. 

To be untwisted, v,u lea sam- 

Unwise, to be, v. tl ka dimboka. 
Unworthy, to be, ka ta elele. 
Up, adu. kwiseala. 
Upon, pr^ %, eaeala a. 
Upright, to be, kadi Bhimikile. 
Upright, ae^, -shimikile, -laleme 

Urine, n, 2, monaha. 
Us, ta, oswe. See List tf Pronouns 

in cJkt^. V iff Grammar, 
Usage, custom, n, 7. chiansa. 
Useless, to be, /«r. ka iaa ma- 

dime; vri. ka sopala. 
Uterus, iv. ^ iahadilo. 
Uvula, n, 6. katambalaTmhlTna. 

Vagabond, n, i. mweleiiBe, kaa- 

Inn^^wo. Mwaianae also means 

a pauper. 
Vagabond, to be a, v. i, ka aanga- 

Vagina, n, 8. intoto. 
Vagrancy, also poverty, n, 4. bwe- 

Valley, n. ^ Ibanda; a small, 

narrow, it. 7. chibandabanda. 
Valuable, to be, v, i. ka sandika. 
Vanquish, to, v. /. ka aonda. 
Variety, kind, it. a. mokomo. 
Vast, a veiy big thing, n, 7. ohi- 

Vaunt, to, v, i. ka dikalanklla, 

ka finnba. 
Vegetable, n. 7. cMsha, chidiaho. 
Veil, to. to bide behind a curtain, 

V, /. ka ahitidila. 
Veil, cnrtain, n, 7. chidiahitidi- 

Vein, blood-TCSsel, n. 6. kashinga. 
Vengeance, he killed him in v., 

wa wca yaya chadiyana. 
Verse, n. 8. impaogo. 
Vertebra, n, 7. chifoa oha 

mongo. Thittfertebraprominens 
n. 8. inkoti. 

Very, expressed in the intensitive 
species of the verb. To be very 
good, v^i, yea botesha. Veiy 
much, greatly, adv, akando, ohi- 

There are also the superlative par- 
ticles: Ka tontola-nd, to be 
very, very cold. Ka taba-bii, to 
be very white. Ka aoma-naw^ 
to be very, altogether dry. Ka 
aama-ntii, to be very hard. Ka 
pia-pi, to be very hot. Ka aa- 
bila-pia, to be very red. Ka 
ahia-mbi, to be very black. 

Vex, to, v. /. ka kataaha. 

Vibrate, to, v, i, ka ahanga, ka 

Vice, n. 3. //. mafiinirf. 

Victory, n. 5. kuaonda. 

Vile, ad/, -biabe. 

Village, n, a. monahi. An old 
village where the chief has died, 
If. 7. chifdahi. 

Vine, wild grapes, if. 3. iaanaa. 

Violate, to, v, t, ka biaha. 

Violently, adv. chanaana. 

Virgin, n. i a. nakadindo. 
Owing to the immoral ways of the 
Baila, it is doubtful whether such 
a thing as virginity is to be found 
among them, and they seem to 
have no word to express the idea. 
The word nakadiiido means a 
young woman. 

Virtue, n. 4. banta. 

Virtuous, say, of virtue, -a banta. 

Visible, to be, v. i. ku boneka. 

Visit, to, v, t, ka awaya. 

Visitor, n. i. moawaahi. 

Voice, ik. 3. iawi \ n. 2. intilomo. 

Vomit, to, v. i. ka luka. To cause 
to vomit, V. /. ka lusha. 

Voraciously, adv. chabatambo. 

Voracity, u. 4. batambo. 

Vulture, if. 1 a. ahikobe '; //. ba- 

Wade, to, v.uyox vhoma. 

Wag, to, v. i. ka fwiaauka ; v, /. 
ku fwiaaola. To wag the head, 
pMr, ku aunganya mofewi. 



Wages, n, 7. shalmliola. 

Waggon, n. S./or. inkoloi. 

Wail, to, v. i. ku dila. 

Waist, n. 7. ohibunu. 

Wait, to, v. i. ku dinda, ku di- 
ndila. To wait for something, 
some one, v. t, ku dindidila. To 
wait a long time, v, i. ku bu- 

Wale, left by whip or stick in beat- 
ing, If. a. mukofu. 

Walk, to, v, i, ku enda. To walk 
listlessly, through sorrow or weari- 
ness, V, i, ku lembaila, ku le- 
ngaila. To walk on tiptoe, 
stealthily, v. i. ku nanaila, ku 

Walking-stick, n, 2. musako. 

Wall, ontside-wall of house, n, 4. 
bwanda. Division-wall in house, 
n, 2. moxnbe. Wall of brick or 
stone, ft, 5. ipupi. 

Wall- PLATE, n, i a. shamanga. 

Wallow, to, v. t . ku kandana. 

Wander, to, v, i. ku zhidika. 

Wanderer, n. 1. muzhidishi. 

Want, to, v. t, ku langa, ku ka- 
pula. To like, v, /. ku zanda. 
To lack, be without, v»L ku 
bula. To be in want of food, v. i. 
ku kopoka. To be in need, poor, 
V, i, ku ovhulwa, ku puta. 

War, n. 8. inkondo. Of continuous 
fighting, H. 9. lumamba. 

Ward, to, to parry, fend, v, t, ku 

Ward-stick, a stick used for parry- 
ing spears, n. 7. ohikobezho. 

Wardrobe, n, 7. ohibikilo. A 
box used for storing away clothes 
in, n, 7. obianga. 

Warm, to be, v. u ku kasala. To 
warm, v.U ku kasazha. To 
warm up meat, v,L ku enzu- 

Warm, adj,. -kasazlii. 

Warmth, n, 5. kukasala. 

Warn, to, v, t, ku bula. 

Warp, to, v.u ku kombomana; 
V, t. ku kombomeka. 

Warped, adJ, -koinbomen«, 

Warrior, n, 1 a, shilmnaiaba. 

Was, aux. Ka is the sign of the 

past tense; e.g. He was here 

yesterday, Kadi ano ozona. 
Wash, to, v.i. ku samba; v.t. 

ku saxLzha. To wash very tho 

roughly, v. t, ku ohokola. 
Washing, n. 5. kusamba. 
Washing-place, ». a.musambilo, 

ft. 7. ohisambilo. 
Waste, to, v. t. ku sowaila. 
Wasteful person, prodigal, «. i. 

Watch, to, v, i. ku dindila. 
Watch, n. *i for. chikati. 
Watcher, n. i. mudindizhi. 
Water, n. 3. //. menzhi. 
Water, to, flowers, v^etables, 

V. t. ku tandudwila. 
Waterfall, n. 2, mwezhi. A 

cataract, n. 7. obigumo. 
Water-hole, n. 2. mukalo. 
Water-lily: stem us^ in making 

snuff, n. 2. mudidima. Root 

of, n. 8. imb6. 
Wattle, used in building, n, ^(u 

lubalo. Wattle put on top of 

wall before roofing, lubalo Iwa 

Wave, on river, n. 8. inkuahita, 

Wave, to, of grass, v. i. ku peka. 
Wax, in ear, n. la. shimpuluku- 

twi. Beeswax, n. 4. bunvuka. 
Way, road, n. 8. Inzhila. Manner, 

custom, n. 7. ohianza. 
Waylay, to, v, /. ku fiimpa. 
We, /^ers. pro, Tu, ITswe. See 

chap. V of Grammar. 
Weak, to be, v.u ku leng^aka, 

ku lengauka, ku bomba ; e.g., 

We are weak with hunger, Twa 

lengaukila nzala. 
Weak-sighted, to be, v.i. ku 

Weak-sighted person, n. \a. 

Wealth, n. 3.//. mabono. 
Wean, to, v.t. ku fttngula. To 

be weaned, v. i. ku ftmguka. 
Weaned, adj. -ftingushi. 
Wear, to, v. i, ku sama. To wear 

a cloth to cover the whole body, 

v.i. ku yamba. To wear any- 



thing over one shonlder and tinder 

the arm, v, U ku pskata. 
Weasel, if . i o. kabwind«. 
Wbariness, n, 3. fi, makatalo. 
Weary, to be, v. i, ku katala, ku 

ftmuka. To wearj, v.t, ku 

Weary, adj, -ftumahi. 
Weave, to, v, t. ku loka. 
Wed, to, of the man, v,U ku 

twala. Of the woman, v. pcLss, 

ku twalwa. 
Wedding, n. 4. bwinga. 
Wedding feast, n, 3.//. madia- 

Weed, ». 8. insaku. 
Weed, to, v, /. ku saila. 
Week, n, %*for» iviki, pL maviki. 
Weep, to, v, i. ku dila. Weep 

for, V, t. ku didila. 
Weevil, same name as borer insect, 

ff. I a. sfaikabusunipwe. 
Weight, it. 4. bulemu. 
Well, if. 2. mukalo. 
Well, adv. kabotu. Expressed 

also in intensive species of the 

Wen, on the head, if. 8. insefu. 

It is given this name because it 

is supposed that if one grumbles 

about his share of eland meat 

(musefii) he will be punished by 

having an inaefo. 
W^EST, If. 8. imbo. Towards the 

west, adv. kumbo. In the west, 

€utv, ambo, mumbo. 
Wet, moist, adj, -teke. 
What, inter, pro, Nzhi P What 

is this? OhinzhichechlP What 

do you say ? VITa amba nzhi ? 
Wheel, of waggon, if. 3. itende 

dia nkoloi. 
When, adv, udidi P didie P udi- 

die P Ni. 
Where, adv. ukwi ? kwi P 
Whereas, conj, anokuti, anu. 
W^HEREFORE, coftj. kambo nzhi P 
Whet, to, sharpen a knife, v,t. 

ku kwanga. 
Whey, if. 2. menze, if. 8. intoya 

Which, -die; e.g. Which thing? 

Chintu chidie P The tel. pro. 

which will be found fully ex> 
plained in chap. v. 

Whip, n. 2. mutatula. 

Whirlwind, if. i a. kambizhi. 

Whiskers, if. 2. mulevhu. 

Whisper, to, v, t, ku tepekezha, 
ku nongotezha. To whisper to 
each other, v. i. ku tepekezhana. 

Whistle, to, v. t. ku shiba. 

Whistle, if. 2. mulozhi. This 
refers to the noise made with the 
lips. A kind of manufactured 
whistle is, if. 8. ingolwa. 

White, to be, v.t. ku tuba. 
White of t^%^ n. 7. chilekete. 

Who, inter, pro. Ni ? e.g. Who 
is be ? Nguni P Who are you ? 
Ndimweni P 

Whole, -onse ; e.g. the whole 
village, munzhi onae. 

Whosoever, oni oni, ng^uni 
nguni, muntu udi buti. 

Why, <idv. This is expressed by 
the reL sp. of the verb and the 
intern nzhi P Thus : Why has 
he come ? "We zila nzhi P It 
is also expressed by, Kambo 
nzhi P Chinzhi P Thus : Why 
do you do so? Kambo nzhi 
nkuchitabodiaP Chinzhi nohu 
chita bodia P 

Wickedly, adv. chamafunzi. 

Wickedness, if. 3. //. mafonzi, 
n. 4. bubi, bubiabe. 

Wide, to be, v. i. ku kwazama. 

Wide, adj. -kwazeme. 

Widen, to, v. t. ku kwazamika. 

Widow, Widower, n. i. muka- 

Wife, n. i. mukazhi. My wife, 
mwinangu. Thy wife, mwinako; 
his wife, mwinakw'e. My wives, 
benangu; our wives, benesu, &c. 
Wife of a chief, n. 1. modi. 
Principal wife, n. i a. nabu- 
kando. Inferior wife, if. i a, 
nabwaniche, nabushonto. A 
favourite wife, if. \a. naku- 
funwa. My fellow wife, muka- 
zhima. See Fellow. 

Wild, fierce, adj. -kadi. 

Wild-dog, n. \a. musaka, pi. 
bamusaka, umpi, //. baumpi. 

A a 



Wildebeest, n. i a. munyumbwi, 
//. bamunyumbwi. A small, 
young kanga-manyuinbwL 

Wilderness, n. 8. inyika; n, 5. 

Will, n, 5. kuzanda; n, 9. lu- 

Willingly, adv, ohakuzanda, 

Wind, h, a. muwo. A strong 
wind, n. 3. ikunku. 

Wind, to, v. t. ku vhiinga. 

Window, n. 7. chimbone. 

Wine, n. z-fi^- iveni. 

Wing, n, 3. ibaba. 

Wink, to^ phr. ku ponda dinso. 
To winic at somebody, ku mu 
pondela dinso. 

Winnow, to, v. t, ku seba. 

Winter, tu 2. mweto. 

Wipe, to, v, t. ku shula. 

Wisdom, n. 4. busongo. 

Wise, to be, v, u ku sauta. To 
become wise, v, i. ku songwala, 
ku ba musongo, ku dimbuluka. 

Wise person, n, i. musongo. 

Wisely, adv. ohabusongo. 

Wish, to, v. /. ku aeza. To wish 
for, V. t. ku zanda. 

Witch, n, i. mulozhi. Way, 
custom, manner of witch, n, 7. 

Witchcraft, n, 4. bulozhi. 

With, prep. o. 

Wither, to, v.i, ku zuma. Of 
things withering in the heat, v. i, 
ku ompoka, ku ny ata, ku kusa. 
Of things dried np by heat and 
destroyed, pAr. ku pia shukutu. 

Within, adv. mukati. 

Without, to be, to lack, v, i, ku 
bula, ku budila. To cause to 
be without, v. t. ku budizha. 

Without, outside, adv* ansengwe, 

Witness, n, 1 . muzangi. 

Witness, to bear, v, /. ku zanga. 
To bear false witness, v,t, ku 
tamikizha, ku lengelela. 

Woman, n. 1, mukaintu, muka- 
zhi. Several women, n,ia, lu* 
tsaiipl. balukazi. A pregnant 
woman, n. i. umiahi, mufumba. 

A bad woman, n, 7. obikaintu. 
Small or weak woman, n. 6. ka- 
kaintu. A large woman, n. 3. 
ikaintu. A woman whose chil- 
dren all die, n, la, namantezi. 
A young woman, n, la, naka- 

Womanishly, custom, manner, way 
of a woman, ckikaintu. 

Womb, n. 3. izhadilo. 

Wonder, n. 3. //. malweza. 

Wonder, to, v. pass, ku Iwezwa. 

Wood, a piece of wood, n. 7. ohi- 
samo. Firewooil, n, 9. lukuni. 

Woodpecker, n, la, shimuko- 

Wool, n, 4. boza. 

Word, n, 3. izwi. 

W^ORK, If. a. mudixno ; if. a. for, 

Work, to, v. t, ku beleka, phr, 
ku mana midizno. To cease 
work in master's absence, v, i, ku 
disanta. To work without a 
will, to be sick of work, v. u ku 
ohimwa. To engage in different 
kinds of work, v, t, ku adika. 

Worker, n, i. mubeleki. A good 
worker, if. i. mulondo. A bad 
worker, if. i. mudiwo. 

Workshop, if. 7. chiohitilo. 

World, the earth, if. 7. inshi. 
Mankind, if. 1. pi. bantu. 

Worm, if. 3. iumba. Found in 
meat, maggot, if. 3. iseni. 

Worse, to be, v. i. ku satisha. 

Worship, to, v. /. ku komba, ku 

Worthy, v,i. ku ela, ku ezha. 
He is worthy of praise, Udi elele 
kutembaulwa. I am not worthy, 

Wound, to, v, t. ku yasa. 

Wound, n. 7. ohipolo. 

Wrath, ik. 4. bukadi. 

Wrestle, to, v, /. ku kwatana. 

Wriggle, to, as snake, v,i, ku 

Wring, to, clothes, v./. ku pisa, 
ku nyona, ku nyononona. 

Wrinkle, on forehead, if. 8. inku- 
Bhila, inkuaa. Between eye- 
brows^ If. 6. kaimba,//. twimba. 



Wrist, n, a. mudhikwatabakoftL 
Write, to, v,t. ka ngwala, ku 

Writer, n, i. munswadi. 
Writing, it. 4. bulembo. 

Yard, n. 7. ohimpate. 

Yawn, n, 2, mwao. The man 

yawns, Montu u la dya mwao ; 

"w^ ya mwao. 
Ye, ^ers. pro, mu. 
Yea, adv, e, eya. 
Year, it. a. mwaka. 
Yeast, it. 4. bmnena. 
Yes, ado. e, eya. 
Yesterday, adv, oaona. 
Yoke, n.\a, for. yoko,//. bayoko. 
Yon, Yonder, wedia, &c. See 

list of dem, pros, in chap, v of 

the Grammar, 
Yolk, of tgg^ n, 9. mnahinda. 
Young, adj. -pia. 
Youngster, n, i. kangashike- 

Your, poss, pro. -inn. See chap. 

V of Grammar, 
Youth, n. i . mwaniche. 
Youthfully, ach. ohaniohe. 
YouTHFULNESS, If. 4. bwaniolie. 

Zealous, to be, phr, kn ba sbi- 

Zealous ferson^ n. la. shimo- 

Zebra,, ohibisi. 
Zinc, m. 3.^. iaenka. 

end of part u 

a a 2 


A. The Yowel has two sounds — a as 
in father, a as in mat For the 
modifications which take place 
when a comes into collision with 
other vowels, see Gram.^ chap, it, 
sect, 2. 

A. (i) gen, part, cl. 3, 4, 5, 9 a. //. 
As a preposition, of^ it is used to 
form all the gen. parts. 

(2) prefix^ in conj. forms of 
subs. pro. it gives the idea of 
withy andy even. 

(3) pfi^s,pro, 3/., used in past 
tenses with nouns of d. i ; also in 
snbj. mood; cl, 3, 4, 5, ga,pl, 

(4) ret, pro, in d. mentioned 

(5) loc, pref, and prep, — on, 
upon, from off. Sec 

(6) imperative part., with subj., 

Aba, ku (-^kwaba), v.t. to divide 
in portions, allot, share, distribute; 
perf. abile ; eg. shidyo shidi 
abilwe, the food is divided. 

Ab&lo, suds, pro, conj, alt, abo, 
with them, even they ; e.g, na be 
ende abalo, let them go, even 
they. Tu le za ab&lo, we are 
coming with them. 

Ab^le, Tubs, pro. prep. 3 /. s. cl, i , 
him ; e.g. ko ya ku ab^le, go to 
him, or, where he is. 

Abika, ku, v,i, cap, aba, to be 
divisible ; e.g, ob eobi nohisb onto, 
ta ohi abika, this is small, it' 
cannot be divided. 

Abila, ku, v. t, rel, aba, to divide 
among, distribute to ; ku diabila, 
to allot to oneself; ngabila, 

allot to me ; e.g. mwami wa 
abila bantu bakwe shidyo, the 
chief distributes food to his people. 

Abil&na, kti, v.t, rel. rec, aba, to 
divide among each other ; perf. abi- 
lene ; e.g. bantu ba la abilana 
shidyo nshi nda ba pa, the people 
divide among each other the food 
I gave them. 

Abil^ya, ku, v,t, rel, rec, caus, 
aba, used of two men who lend 
each other their wives for immoral 
purposes. Syn, ku senanya. 

Abizh&, ku, v. t. rel, caus, aba, to 
cause to distribute to. 

Abizh&na, ku, v,t, rel, caus. rec. 
aba, to caase to share among 
each other; e.g. u ba abizhane 
tombwe, let them divide the 
tobacco among themselves. 

Abo, subs. pro. conj. 3 /. pi., cl. 4. j. 
with them, even they; with it, 
even it. 

Achlsha, voc. of uachisha, uncle. 

Achizhizho, adv, in the evening; 
i.e. when the evening meal is 
finished and the people gather 
around the fires. 

Acho, subs, pro. conj. 3 p. j. cL 7, 
with it, even it. 

Adia, dem, pro, cl, 3, 4, 5, ^a,pL 

Adie ? int, pro, cl, 3, 4, 5, 9 a, pL 

Adfka, ku, v, t. to marry more than 
one wife; to engage in different 
kinds of work ; to serve two 

Adio, subs. pro. conj, 3/. 5, cl, 3, 
with it, even it. 



Afwifwi, adv, near, close hj. 
Al, irUerj, expresses a sadden feel- 
ing of pain. 
Alma, ifUerj, Not 1 1 No fear ! 
Akabdnsha-beemb^zhi, cuto, in 

the early afternoon, about 3 p.m. 
Ak6k6, intefj, expresses reproof. 
Akalend^bwe, aijtu, midday. 
Akand6, ttdv, greatly, very much. 
Akati, ado, between, among. 
Akata a, or^ ka, prep, between, 

Ako, subs » pro. conj, 3/. s, cL 5, 6, 

with it, even it. 
Alab&na, ku, v, u to roll over and 

Alabinya, ku, 9. /. caus. alabana, 

to roll over and over. 
Alala, kOy v, /. to pray. 
Alatika, ka, v. u to be in pain, to 

turn over and over in pain, to be 

imable to sleep with pain ; to be 

Alatila, ku, v,t, to turn a thing 

over and over ; to parch ; e,g, 

miiBhinBO wesu wa ta alanla, 

this journey makes us thirsty, 

parches us. 
-alanflhi, adj» parched, suffering. 
Alo, subs, pro, conj, 3/. x. cl, g,ga, 

with it, even it; also sub. pro. 

simple^ el. 3, 4, 5, 9^. //. they, 

Alumtika, ka, v.i. to roll, as a 

Azna, ka, v.t, to throw up into the 

air as in the game ' intela '. 
Amba, ko, v. t. to speak, to say, to 

Ambadi, cuh. at the side. 
Ambadi ^^prep. by the side of. 
Ambele, ado. ahead, before, in front. 
Ambidila, ko, v. t, rel. amba, to 

speak on behalf of, intercede for. 
Ambila, ko, v,U rel, amba, to 

speak to, to say to; ngambila, 

speak to me. Mwa ambil& 

nshi P Why do you speak ? 
Ambisha, ka, v.t, int. amba, to 

speak much, to speak loudly. 
Axnbishlzha, ka, v.t, int. rel, 

amba. Mwa ambishizha nshi ? 

Why do you speak so loudly ? 

Axnbo, adv. in the west 
Amboka, ka, v. i. stat, ambola, to 
turn aside, to leave a path when 
travelling ; hence,^^. to leave the 
path of rectitude, to go astray, to 
fall away ; also of children going 
to the bush. Riddle: Twa ke 
enda o ba ch'ambaka-mboka. 
We travelled with those who were 
continually turning out of the 
path. Ans. A dog. 
Ambtila, ka, v, t, to put something 

out of the road, to take aside. 
Ambalaka, ka, v. i, rev. stat, amba, 
to be unsaid, altered, changed, of 
news, orders ; retracted. 
Ambaldla, ko, v. t. rev, amba, to 
unspeak, to unsay, to retract ; e.g. 
Nda ambolola babonambanda 
ka amba ozona, I retract what I 
said yesterday. 8h' ambolola, 
osono mbobona, I don't unsay ; 
to-day it is the same, 
-amboloshi, adj, changed, re- 
Ambusha, ko, v. t. stat. eaus. am- 
bola, to cause somebody to turn 
out of the road ; Jig^, to lead 
somebody away, astray. 
Ambwene, conj. perhaps. 
Ambya, ko, v. t, caus. amba, to 
cause to speak ; ko diambya, to 
speak to oneself, nobody being 
present ; such a person said to be 
a wizard. 
Ame, subs, pro, conj. i /, j. with 

me, even me, even L 
Amebo, emph, ame. 
Ampa, ko, v. t. to touch. 
Amp&sha, ko, v. i. to grope about 

in the dark. 
Amwe, subs. pro. conj, 2 p. pi, 

with you, even you. 
Amwebo, emph, amwe. 
-ana, suffix to verbs, forms ree. sp. 
Ana, ko, v,t, to narrate a loano 

{q, v.). 
Anda, ka, v. t, to open an abscess, 
to stamp dry mealies without 
putting in water, to cut notches 
in ear of animal; pass, andwa, 
to be frozen ; e.g, menshi a 
andwa, the water is frozen ; also, 



split; isamo dia ka andwa 
Jjeza, the tree is split by light- 
ning ; fig' Nda mu anda lubilo 
munyama, I chase and kill an 
animal, ue, I run it down. 

Andina, ku, v. i, rec, anda, to be 
separate, divided, different ; perf, 
andene ; e.g. baidi andene, they 
are separate, different. 

Andanina, ku, v. /. rec, reL anda, 
to be separate from, divided ; petf, 
andanine, e.g, badi andanine, 
they are separate from each other. 

Andanya, ku, v. t, rec, caus, anda, 
to divide, to separate. 

-andaushi, cuij, cut, chopped up. 
Inkuni ingandaushi, chopped 
up firewood. 

Andauka, ku, v. /. per, rep, anda, 
to split up, chop up; e.g, ko 
andaula nkuni, chop up the fire- 

-andene, adj, separate, different, 

. diverse. 

Andaula, ku, v, i, per, rep. anda, 
to be split up. 

Anduka, ku, v. i, stat, anda, to be 
torn, split ; e.g, oha anduka 
ohisamo, the log is split 

Andula, ku, v, t. to tear, split, rip, 
divide, to rend (as a wild beast 
rends prey) ; e,g. u ta ku andula 
isani, you must not tear the 

Anga, ku, v. t, to tie, to bind, fasten ; 
perf. . angile ; ku dianga, to tie 
oneself ; nganga, tie me ; e,g. 
shintu shidi angilwe chile, the 
things are tied into a bundle ; fig, 

• . mafuta a dianga, the fat solidi- 
fies, congeals. 

Angaika, ku, v, i, pers, rep, anga, 
to fasten up (of a lot of things). 

Ang&na, ku, v.t, rec. anga, to tie 
each other; e,g, badi angene, 

. they are tied together; fig, ma- 
futa a angana, the fat congeals. 

-angene, adj. congealed, coagu- 
lated ; mafuta angene, congealed 

, fat. 

Angldila, ku, z/. /. rel, anga, to tie 

^ things together, to tie on to ; e,g, 
.wa angidila shintu shimwi ku 

muzhiu, he ties other things on 
to his load. 

Angika, ku, v, t. to fasten up. 

Angisha, ku, v, t, int, anga> to tie 
tightly, firmly. 

Anguliiika, ku, v, i, rev, stcU, anga, 
to be untied, unfastened. 

Angulula, ku, v^ t, rev, anga, to 
untie, release. 

Angulul&na, ku,z'./. rev, rec, anga> 
to untie each other. 

Angnilwila, ku, v, t, rev, rel, 
anga, to untie for. 

Anguntlna, ku, same as angrulula. 

Anjele, n, \a,for, an angel. 

Anjila, ku, v, t, to take something 
from another by force ; e,g, "weBO 
muntu u la anjila shintu 
shangu, that person takes away 
my things, saying they are his. 

Ank&nka, adv, in all directions. 

Ano, Iqc, dem, adv. here, on this place. 

Anokliti, conj, whereas, but; e.g, 
twa lamga bintu bedia okoya 
mbishonto, anokuti mbikando 
ohinichini, we see those things 
as if they were small, whereas 
they are very large. 

Ans^ngwe, cidv, outside. 

Ansengwe, ku, or, tkyprep, outside of. 

Ansh6, canj, except, unless; e.g, 
mu ta Thwi mono ansha 
munyokwenu e size kono, you 
do not leave here unless your 
brother come here. 

Anshi, he, form of inshi, used as 
adv, down, on the ground. 

Antela, conj, perhaps, lest; e.g,. 
u ta ku chita bodia antela u 
la f wa, yon must not do so lest 
you die. 

Ant6mwi, euiv, together, altogether. 
Root of the wo^ is the obsolete 
ntu, seen also in kuntu ; it ap- 
pears to mean on onephue, 

Anu, conj. but, whereas. 

Ansa, ku, v. t. to disclose, open up ; 
e.g, ba mu ansa makani, they 
disclose the affairs to him, i,e, 
after they have been hidden a long 
time. Muntu u la ansa kala- 
mbwe, the person begins to dig 
(open up) a pit. 



Ansa, kUy 9. /• to ttnun, as beer or 

Anaha, ka,9.iL cams, anga^ to cause 

or help to tie. 
ATiaha, ko, v,t. to salute. 

Hganaha, salute me. 
Anshft a. ka, v, /. to haog up, fix np. 

Ku anaMlra inkaoso, to stack 

up mealies. 
Anahikfla, ku, v. /. rgi, anahlka, 

to hang np for, fix np for. 

Nganahikila, hang np for me. 
Anshikfsha, ka, 9. /. ini. anahlka, 

to hang np wdl, fix np strongly. 
AnBhfah4, ku, rel, anaha, salute 

on behalf of. Hganahiaha, 

salute on my behalf. 
Ao, s$t6s. pro. 3 p, pi. cl, 3> 4* 5* 9 <»> 

with them, even they. 
Asho, subs, prm, conj. 3 p. pi. cL 7, 

8, 9, with them, even th^. 
Aahonto, adv. little. 
Aswa, subs, pro. conj. 2 p. pi. with 

ns, we also, even we. 
Aawebo, emph. aawe, we, even we 

Ato, ku, V. f. to be crowded ; e.g, 

ahintii aha ata, the things are 

crowded. Bantu ba ata, the 

people are crowded, they have no 

Ata, ko, V. U to go to sleep with a 

friend's wife. 
Atela, conj. perhaps, but 
Ati, conj. that, in order that. 

Always used to introduce a direct 

quotation, following amba. "Wa 

amb' ati, he says diat. 
Ati na, conj, whether. 
Ato, subs, pro. conj. 3 /. pi. cl. 6, 

with them, even they, they also. 
Aw&, he. dtm. adv. here, at this 

Aw6, he. dem. adv. there, on or at 

that place. 
Awo, subs, pro. conj. 3 /. s, cl, a, 

with it, even it, it also. 
Ayo, subs. pro. conj. 3 /. s. cl. 8, 

also cl, 2 pi. with it, even it, it 

also; with them, they also, even 

k, dtm. pro. pi. cl. 3, 4, 5, 9*1, 


Aae, subs. pro. conj. 2 and 3 p. s, 
with thee, even thee, thou also, 
with him, even he, he also, him 

As6bo, emph. ase. 

Aao, dim. pro, cl, 3, 4, 5 cmd^a. pi. 

B. Consonant pronounced as ^ in 
bone. It has also a slightly ex- 
plosive sound as in ku bala, to 

BA. (i) //. classr. cl. i. 

(a) pers. and rel. pro. cl, i,pl, 

(3) ^w»« I^^' cl. I. //. 

Ba, ku, V, i. to be, to become ; e.g, 
muntu a la ba muteu, the 
person will be, or become, a thief. 
The subj. form is be; e.g. mbe 
mnahike wako, let me be thy 
slave. Mumoni no be o, let 
there be light. The neg. form is 
bi ; e.g. u ta bi muteu, thou 
must not be a thief. 

Ba, contr. form of iba ; e.g. ba la 
ba, for ba la iba, they steal. 

Baba, dem. pro, cl. i. //. these. 

Baba^ ku, v. i. to itch. Muntu 
wa babwa, the person itches. 
Mubidi wa baba, the body 

Babata, ku, v.i. to limp, to be 
lame with fatigue. 

Babele, subs, pro. prep. 3 /• //. f ^ i » 

Babo, dem, pro. cl, i. //. those. 

Bab^ka, ku, v. i. to be scorched. 

Babula, ku, v. i, to scald slightly, 
scorch slightly. 

Babya, ku, v.t. to sting (as a 

Badia, dem. pro, cl. i. //. yon, 

Badika, ku,9./. caus. bfilA, to assist 
another in patting a load on his 
back, to put a child on the back 
of a woman. 

Badikila, ku, v. t. caus. rel, bftU, 
to give a girl presents with a view 
to marriage. 

Badisha, ku, v. i, int. bfila, to ex- 
ceed greatly. 

Balna, n, i. no sing, his mother. 



Bakana, ku, v.i. to relieve each 
other, as men do m carrying a 

Bfil&y kii, v.t, to carry on the 

Bala, kn, v, t, to pass beyond, to 
pass by, to pass farther. 

B&la, ku, V, t. to read, to count. 

Balangala, ku, v. i, to break (of the 
darkness), to be twilight. 

Balo, subs. pro. 3 /. //. cl, i, they 

Balongo, n. i. pi. friends. 

Balu, //. of mwaln, elder; e,g, 
MbobanibaboP Mbalu? Who 
are those ? They are elders. Balu 
ba la amba bobo, the elders say 
so. Idiom, my friend ; e,g. ndi- 
twe b&lu, truly my friend. 

Baxn^, sing, my mother, my 
Bani6 bakando, my mother's 
eldest sister. 

Bamfi banicbe, my mother's 
younger sister. 

Bama, ku, v. t. to spread out (as a 
bird its wings). 

Bfimba, ku, v.t. to arrange, pre- 
pare, put in order ; perf. bambile. 
Ku baxnba xnapopwe, to stack 
up mealies. Ku bamba imbe- 
ta, to keep a law. Ku baxnba 
bwizu, to put grass in order for 

, inspection. Ku bamba isalo, 
to peg out a skin. A mu 
dlbambe, arrange yourselves, 
fall in. Bantu badi bambile, 
the people are arranged ; i.e. 
they stand in line. — B is elided 
when the pers. pro, m is pre- 
fixed ; e.g. u la mamba, for u 
la mbamba. 

Bamb&na, ku, v. i, rec. bamba, to 
arrange each other, to be close 
together, to sit or stand abreast ; 
perf. bambene, e^. bantu badi 
bambene ,the people stand abreast. 

Bambanyft, ku, v. /. rec, caus, 
bamba, to place abreast, to com- 

Bambasa, ku, v. u to be very tired, 
unable to walk. 

Bambisala, ku^ v, 1. to be level, to 

crouch down close to the ground 
in hiding; muntu wa bamba- 
sala, the person crouches down ; 
perf, bambasele; e.g. inzhila 
idi bambasele, the road is level. 

Bambasfka, ku, v.t, caus, ba- 
mbasa, to make level ; e.g. a mu 
bambasike inzhila ya mwami, 
make ye level the chiefs road. 

Bambasikfla, ku, v.t. caus. rel. 
bambasa, to make level for ; e.g. 
a mu bambasikile mwami in- 
zhila, make ye level the road for 
the chief. Ba la mambasikila 
inzhila, they level the road for 

Bamblla, ku, v. t. rel. bamba, to 
prepare, put in order, for some- 
body; e.g. a mu mambile isalo, 
peg out the skin for me. 

Bambfsha, ku, v. t, int. bamba, to 
put carefully in order. 

Bambula, ku, v. t, to crucify. The 
word originally applied to the 
stretching out tightly and pegging 
of a skin. 

Bambulula, ku, v.t, rev. bamba, 
to unpeg a hide when dry. 

Bami, n. ^ mwami, chiefs. 

Bamwana-kasua, my paramours, 
partners in initiation dances. 

Bamwana-kasuanina, his para- 
mours, partners in initiation 

Bana, //. of mwana, children. 

Banaohishfi, n. i. pi. of muna- 
ohisha, people of our home, 
or country, 

Banaishfi, n. i. pi, of munaisha, 
our home, people of our home ; 
e.g. tu la ya ku banaSshi, we 
are going home. 

Banakwabo, //. of munakwabo, 
their people. 

Banakwako, pi, of munakwako, 
thy people. 

Banakw&kwe, //. of munak- 
wakwe, his people. 

Banakw&nffU) pl» of munak- 
wangu, my people. 

Banakw^nu, //. of munakwenu, 
the people of your home, family, 
or tribe. 



Banakwtei, fl, of mtmakwesn, 
the people of our fJEunily, tribe, or 

BSiid% kn, 9. /. to name, to call by 
name, to speak one's name, to 
praise ; e.g, a mu dibande, give 
ye yonr names. Ba la banda 
nrwami, they praise the chief, i,e, 
by speaking his names. 

Bftndika, ku, v, t, cans, banda, to 
converse, to talk together, to dis- 
cuss ; e.g. nda ka bandika aze, 
I talked with him. Ku la ban- 
dikwa ohiftimo, it will be talked 
over, discussed, in the morning. 

Bftnga, ku, v./. to knock ont the 
teeth (11a feishion). 

Bfogabibiga, ka, v. i. to be hot to 
the taste, as pepper. 

Bangtila, ka, v. t. to extract a thorn. 

Baniohe, if. i. //. of mwaziiche, 
youngsters, young people. 

Banini, so and so ; e,g, ka badi 
banini, nda luba mashina abo, 
they were so and so, I forget their 

BanjidHa, ko, v, t. rel. banjila, to 
lebind, as when a fence gets out 
of repair. 

Banjila, ko, 9. /. to bind the wattles 
on a fence with string. 

Bandko, n,i,no sing, thy mother. 

Banokw6bo, n. i. no sing, their 

Banokw^no, n, 1, no sing, your 

Banokw^sn, i». i. no sing, our 

Bantaz&la, ko, v, i. to hide away 
in the grass in fear. 

BanBa> ku, v.t. to extract grain 
from a bin, leaving the rest. 

Banzela, ka, v.t. rel. banza, to 
take ont grain for somebody or 
something ; e.g. manzela ma- 
popwe, take out some maize for me. 

Banzfsha, ko, v, t. int. banza, to 
take much grain out of a bin. 

Bapatiza, ka, v. t. for. (Eng. bap- 
tize), to baptize. 

Bapatizha, ka, v, t.forcaus. bapa- 
tiza, to baptize wUh, to cause or 
help to baptize. 

Basa, ku, v. t. to colotu', to paint. 

Basama, n. J. pi. of mos&ma, my 
equals, those who were initiated 
with me, my fellow initiates. Tu 
di o bas&ma, we are fellow 

Bas&ndkwfibo, n. i. pi, ^mu8&- 
n6kw&bo, their fellow initiates. 

Ba8&n6kw6na, n. i. pi. of musa- 
ndkw^na, your fellow initiates. 

Bas&ndkw^su, n. 1. pi. of masa- 
ndkw^su, our fellow initiates. 

Baahasuna, n. i a. pi. people of to- 

Batamina, ku, v.i. to settle (of 
dirty water), to subside (of the 

Baush&bo, if. i. //. of ushabo, 
their fathers. 

Baushe, if. i. //. of ushe, his 

Baush^nu, n. i. //. of ushenu, 
their fathers. 

Baush^su, If. I.//, ^ushesu, our 

Bauso, If. U80, thy fathers. 

Bazha, ku. v.t. caus. bala, to sur- 
pass. Used in forming the com- 
parison of adjectives. See chap, 
iv, sect. 2, 

Bazhichema, if. i. pi. of muzhi- 
chema, my fellow slaves. Tndi 
o bazhichema, we are fellow 

Bazhichenina, if. i.//. his fellow 

Bazhichendk^su, if. i. //. our 
fellow slaves. 

Bazhichendko, if. i. pi, thy fellow 

Bazhichen6kw&bO| if. i. //. their 
fellow slaves. 

Bazhichendkw^nu, if. i. pi, yonr 
fellow slaves. 

Bazhile, if. 1. //. of muzhile, 
mostly used in pi., sister-in- 
Bazhil^ besu, our sister-in-law, or, 

Be, subj.form of ku ba, to be. 

Be, contr. subj. form of ku iba 
(kwiba), to steal. 

Bea, ku, v, t, to tell a lie, to deceive. 



Ku amba twaxnbo twa kubea, 
to tell lying tales. 

Beba, ku, v. i. to repent. 

Bebela, kn, v.t. rel. beba, to repent 
for, to repent about, because of; 
e,g. ba la bebela nsuwe, they 
repent because of him — i.e. one 
was punished for disobedience, 
now his fellow workers repent for 
fear of also being punished. 

Beb^sha, ku, v, t. rel, cans, beba, 
to cause to repent, as by making 
one an example to the rest by 
punishing him. 

Beka, ku, v.i. to shine, to glitter, 
to be blight as brass, &c. 

Beka, ku (or, ku beSka), cap. bea, 
to be deceivable, to hp credulous. 

B6kab6ka, ku, v. i, redupl, beka, 
to shine intermittently. 

-beke-beke, adj. shining intermit- 
tently; e.g. nda ka bona chintu 
chibekebeke, I saw a thing shin- 
ing intermittently. 

Bek^ma, ku, v. i. to shine brightly, 
to be brought to a state of bright- 

Bek6na, ku, v. i, to shine, be bright. 

Bek6nya, ku, v. t. to shine np, to 
brighten, to polish. 

Bela, ku, v. t, rel, ba, to be for, 
become for. 

Bele, petf, ku ba, to be, to be- 
come. Wezo muutu udi bele 
mupushi, that person has become 
a pauper. 

Beleka, ku, v. t,for, (Teb. beleka), 
to work. 

Belek61a, ku, v. t, rel, beleka, to 
work for, to serve. 

B61el6ka, ku, v, i, to totter, to walk 

Ben&bo, n, \,pl. ^mwinabo, their 

Ben6ko, n, 1. pi. ^mwinako, thy 

Ben&kwe, n, \,pl.of mwinakwe, 
his wives. 

Ben&ngu, n, i. //. my wives. 

B§nda, ku, v. i, to creep up after 
game, to go in a bending position, 
to creep stealthily. 

BSnda, ku, v, t, to peel potatoes, &c. 

BSndela, ku, v,t. rel, benda, to 
peel for. Uwe, mendela imba- 
ta slieshi, I say, you, peel these 
potatoes for me. 

Bend6sha, ku, v. i. int, benda, to 
creep very carefully, to stalk very 

. quietly and carefully. 

BSnd^sha, ku, v, t. int. benda, to 
peel very carefully, well. 

Bendtika, ku, v, i, to be chipped, 
as edge of a basin. 

Bendtila, ku, v, t, to chip. 

Bendtisha, ku, v. t, cans, benduka, 
to cause to be chipped, to chip. 

-bendushi, adj.^ chipped ; eg, 
mutiba mubendushi, a chipped 

Ben^nu, n, your wives. 

Ben6su, n, i. //. our wives. 

Beni, n. 1. pi. of mwini, masters; 
also used idiomatically, others. 
Mapopwe aza nga beni, this 
maize belongs to others ; also to 
mean, yourselves, as in the sen- 
tence, mudi o beni, it is to your- 
selves, it is your business (not ours). 

Binzhina, n. 1. pi. iT/'mwenBhina, 
his neighbours, his companions. 

Bdnzhin6ko, n. i. //. of mw^en- 
Bbinoko, thy neighbours. 

Benzhin6kw&bo, n, i. //. of 
mwenzhindkw&bo, their neigh- 
bours, their companions. 

Benzhin6kw6nu, n. 1. //. of 
mwenzhindkw^nu, yonr neigh- 
bours, your companions. 

Bdnzhindkw^su, n, i. //. <if 
niwenzhin6kw68u, our neigh- 

Bdnsu, n. i. //. ^T^mwenau, travel- 
lers, strangers, guests. 

BenBtima, n, i,pl. ^mwenslima, 
my neighbours, my companions, 
my fellow travellers. 

Bdshfi, ku, v,t. to tell lies about 
one, to calumniate. 

Bet^ka, ku, v.i, to judge, to govern. 

Betek^la, ku, v, t, rel. bet6ka, to 
judge on behalf of. 

Betek^sha, ku, v. t, int, beteka, to 
judge carefully, well, at length. 

Bet^sha, ku, v, t, caus. beteka, to 
help, cause to jndge, to set one 



at lib^ty as innocent after judge- 

BSsa, ka, v, /. to woik in wood, to 
carve, to adze, to plane. 

BSsela, ku, v. i. ret. beaa, to carve 
for, to work in wood for; e.g. 
mbesela mutiba, carve a basm 
for me. 

BSa^sha, ku, v.t. int. beaa, to 
work in wood careiiilly, welL 

BSsli6, ka, V, t. caus. besa, to cause 
to carve, to woik in wood ¥rith, 
to help to work in wood; e.g. 
bezha imbeio aaho, carve with 
this tooL 

BSzultika^ ko, v. i. rev, stat, beaa, 
to be recarved. 

BSzululay ku, v.t. rev. beaa, to 
recarve, to carve again ; as when 
the head of a walking-stick is too 
large, and the worker recarves it 
and makes it smaller. 

•beaalaahi, adj. recarved ; e.g. 
mosako mubeauluahi, a re- 
carved walking-stick. 

Bi. (i) alt. classr. cl. 7. //. 

(2) pers. and rel. pro. cl. 7. //. 

Bl, n^. form of ku ba, to be. 

Bi, contr. neg. form of ku Iba (kwi- 

^t^) f ^*S^ ii^^ ^ ^i» yo^ mnst 

not steal. 
Bia, ka, v.i. to be bad, spoilt, 

destroyed ; e.g. montn wezu wa 

bia, this person is bad. Chintu 

ohechi cha bia, this thing is 

spoilt, destroyed, 
•biabe, adj. bad, nasty, ngly ; e.g. 

mnntn mubiabe, a bad person. 
Bibele, n. i a. for. the Bible. 
Bidintfka, ku, v. i. to palpitate, to 

beat violently (of the heart) after 

Bidyo {or^ bidio), n. *l.pL food. 
Biebi \ 

Biebo f dem. pro. cl. 7. //. 
Biedia X these, those, yonder. 
Bieno / 
Bika, ku, v. t. to place, to put, to 

Bikfla, ku, v.t, rel. bika, to place 

for, on behalf of. 
Bikultiktilu, n. 7. //. of chikulu- 

kulu, a quantity of rubbish, refuse. 

Bila, ku, V. i. to boiL 

Bila, ku, v.t. rel. bia, to be un- 

suited to one, to be bad for ; e.g. 

abikobelo aheshi aha mbila, 

these clothes are no good for me, 

they are unsuitable to me, they 

don't fit me. 
Bil6na, ku, v. i. to make haste, to 

be swift, to travel quickly. 
Bilinya, ku, v. t. caus. bilana, to 

cause to be swift, to cause to 

travel quickly. 
Bil&ola, ku, v.t. to roll the eyes 

-bill, num. two ; e.g. bantu bobili, 

two people. Ord. second ; e.g. Mu- 

ntu owabili, the second person. 
Bilwa, ku, pass, bila, to be dis- 
contented, dissatisfied, unhappy. 
Bimba, n. i a. a grasshopper 

Bimba, ku, v.i. to be afraid, to 

tremble, to shiver. 
Bimb6, n. la. a kind of hawk. 

(Also biznbile.) 
Bimbile, n. 1 a. same as bimbe. 
Bin da, ku, v. i. to be in a hurry, to 

be pressed for time. 
Bind&na, ku, v. i. rec. binda, to be 

in a hurry, to be pressed for time. 

It seems to be used of more than 

one person, while binda is of one. 
Bindanlsha, ku, v. i. int. bindana, 

to be ill a great hurry. 
Binga, ku, v. t. to drive (as cattle). 
Bingila, ku, v.t, rel. binga, to 

drive for, towards ; e.g. a mu 

shi bingile kono, drive ye them 

Bingisha, ku, v.t. int. binga, to 

drive fast, hard. 
Bintu, n. 7. alt, pi, of ohintu, 

Binzha, ku, v,t. caus, binga, to 

cause or help to drive. 
Binzha, ku, v.t. caus. binda, to 

cause to hurry, to hurry. 
Binzh&nya, ku, v. t. cans. rec. caus. 

binda, to cause each other to 

hurry, to make haste. 
Bisha, ku, v. t. caus. bia, to destroy, 

to make bad, to harm, to injure, 

to violate. 



Bishabisha, ku, v, i, redupl, bisha, 

to blaspheme, 
-bishi, adj, raw, unripe. 
Bishizha, ku, v. t. caus, rel. bia, to 

destroy, &c., for somebody; e.g. 

mbishizha mitiba yedia, destroy 

for me yonder basins. 
Bizwa, ku, v. i. to be ripe, to be 

cooked; e.g. maila a la bizwa, 

the grain is ripe. Musozha wa 

bizwa, the pap is cooked. 
-bo, poss. pro. 3 p. pi. cl. i, their, 

theirs. Prefixed by gen. parts. ; 

e.g. bazhike ba-bo, Sieir slaves. 
Bo, num. part, cl, 4. sing.\ e.g. 

bushiku bo-mwi, one day. 
BOa, n. 4. mushroom. 
Boba, ku, v. i. to call out in alarm 

when seized, of the cry of a 

wounded person or animal. 
Bobili, num. cl. i,pl. two. Banta 

bobili, two people. 
Bobo. (i^ cl. 4. sing, that. 

(2) cutv. thus, so. 
Bobu, dem. pro. cl. 4. sing. this. 
Bodi, n. 4. qaality, status of a chiefs 

wife ; ladyship. 
Bodia. (i) dem. pro, cl, 4. yon, 

(2) adv. thus, so. 

(3) conj. as, seeing that. 
Bodfsha, ku, v. i. to be very rotten, 

Bofu, n, 4. blindness. 
BOla, ku, v.i, to be rotten, to be 

Bol6ka, ku, v. i. slot, bola, to be 

decayable, to be corruptible ; v.t, 

caus. sp. X.0 cause to rot, decay. 
Bololo, n. \a.9, lazy, idle person. 
BOmba, ku, v, i. to be soft ; to be 

fatigued, exhausted ; to be meek, 

subdued, bumble ; to be harmless; 

to be easy ; to submit. 
Bdmbe, n. i. //. of mombe, 

BOmbeka, ku, v. t, caus. boxnba, 

to put to soak in water, to soften, 

to moisten, to sprinkle. 
BOmbela., ku, v. i. rel. bomba, to 

submit to, to be meek because of. 
B0mbel61a, ku, v. i, rel. bomba, to 

be weak on account of -something. 

B0mb68ha, ku, v. i. int. bomba, to 
be very soft, &c. 

Bombo, n. 4. the condition of being 
impotent sexually, of a male, im- 

Bombola, ku, v.t. to take away, 
applied to a man who takes away 
his grandchildren*s things ; e.g, 
kaka wa bombola sbintu 
sheshu, my grandfather has taken 
away our things. 

Bombol6ka, ku, v. i. to break up, 
of clods after rain. 

Bombwe, n. i a, frog. 

Bona, ku, v. /. to see ; pass, bonwa. 
"Wa bonwa, you are seen (an Ila 
salutation) ; perf. bwene. 

Bon&na, ku, v, t, rec. bona^ to see 
each other ; perf. bwenene. 

Bon6ka, ku, v. i. cap. bona, to be 
visible, apparent. 

Bonela, ku, ) v. t. rel. bona, to 

Bonena, ku, { see for, on behalf oC 

Bonesha, ku, v. t. int. bona, to see 
clearly, well, distinctly. 

-boneshi, adj. visible, apparent. 

Bdngo, If. 4. brains. 

BOngo, If. I. //. of mongo, male 

-bongvhu, adj. soft, easy. 

Bonya, ku, v.t. caus, bona, to 
cause to see, to show. 

BOnz^sha, ku, v.t. caus, int, 
bomba, to make very soft. 

BOnzha, ku, v,t. caus. bomba, to 
make soft, to soften, to humble, 
to subdue, to tame (of cattle), to 
break in. 

Bdsha, ku, v. t. caus. bota, to make 
good, to make right, to improve, 
to correct, to amend ; e.g. mwami 
wa beteka ku kubosha, the 
chief judges justly. 

Bosh^zha, ku, v. t. caus. rel. beta, 
to make good for, to gladden, 
please, to cheer. 

Bota, ku, V. i. to be good, fine, nice. 

Bot&twe, num. cl, i. //. three; 
bantu botatwe, three people. 

Bot61a, ku, V. t. rel. bota, to be 
good for, to suit Makani a 
mu botela, the affairs suit him. 

Bot61wa, ku, V, pass, botela> to 



be suited, to be glad; e^g, Nda 
botelwa ka ka bona, I am glad 
to see yon. 

Bot^aha, kn, 9. f . int, bota, to be 
veiy good, to be very nice. 

Botesha, ko, v, /. rtl^ caus, bota, 
to gladden, to please. 

-bota, adj, good, nice, pleasant, 

Bowa («r. Boa), n. 4. cowardice. 

BOsa, ». 4. iftf //. hair, wood, far. 
Applied to animals and the body 
hair of a person ; also the female 
flower of maize. 

Boiha, ku, v, /. cam. bola, to cause 
to rot. 

-boahi, A^'. rotten, decayed, cor- 

Bu. (i) cleusr. cU 4. nr^.\ pers, 
and r^, pro. d, 4. sing, it. 

(a) coHJ. if; e.g, bn nda 
an^wa ingoshi impia, if I am 
bound with new cords. 

(3) ado. as, how. Mwina ka 
chita ba nda ma shimwina, 
yon have not done as I told you. 

Bu, particle used with ku tuba, to 
be white ; e.g. I tuba bti, it is 
very white. Also with pale, 
pele \stL ! there is none ! 

Bu (or Buu), used toexpress the feel- 
k^ in the mouth when one tastes 
anything sour. Nda tia bu, I am 
afiiaid of the bitterness. Muchelo 
n la letela bu, the fruit tastes 
sour, sets teeth on edge. 

Bubala, n. 4. colour of black and 
white ox, black spots ; e.g. ing'- 
ombe eahi nja bubala, this is 
snch an ox. 

Bubele, subs. pro. prep. cl. 4, sing. 
it (where it is). 

Bub^mba, n. 4. the blade of a spear. 

Bubi, n. 4. anything bad, such as 
sickness, eviL Used as an adj., 
badly, evilly. Muntu ka lela 
bubi, the person slept badly. 
Mukaintu udi ahiti bubi, the 
woman is pregnant. 

Bubiabe, n. 4. evil, badness. 

Bubiahi, n. 4. raw meat 

Bubona, emp. dem. pro. cl. 4, just 
that ; adon just so. 

Bubona budi, prep, as, like; e.g. 
A. mu ngwede bubona budi 
uswa. Do ye write like us. 

Bubona mbu, adv. just as, how, 
as ; e.g. A tu bone bubona mbu 
mwa chita, Let us see just how 
yon have done. 

BubAngvhu, n. 4. softness. 

Bubotu, If. 4. goodness. 

Btibwe-btibwe, n. 4. gravel. 

Buch^olie, n. 4. quality of an infant ; 
infancy, babyhood. 

Bucbende, n. 4. quality of a bull ; 
genitals of a bull. 

Bucbesi, n, 4. sharp edge of knife 
or spear. 

Buchi, If. 4. (Lumbu) honey. 

Budie f inierr. pro. cl. 4. sing. 
Which? e.g. bufti budie P 
which meal ? 

Budika, ku, v. i. to appear. 

Budikila, ku, v. t. rel. budika, to 
appear for, or to. 

Budila, ku,9. /. rel. bula, to be in- 
sufficient for, to lack. ; e.g. Ba la 
budila shidyo. They have not 
enough food. 

Budilo, If. 4. food for a journey. 

Budimba, if . 4. a musical instru* 
ment made largely of cala- 

Budimbo, if. 4. birdlime made of 
the sap of the butaba-tree. 

Budimbtiahi, if. 4. foolishness, stu- 

Budindishi, if. 4. watching, guar- 
dianship, providence. 

Budi6, adv. only, simply, merely. 
Query whether this is really a noun 
of cl. 4, with the meaning of 
' nothingness '. 

Budiaha, ku, v. t. caus. budika, to 
cause to appear. 

Budiaha, ku, rel. caus. bula, to 
cause to lack ; e.g. Bukata bwa 
ma budiaha shidyo, Laziness 
causes you to lack food. 

Budyodyo, n.j^a. mixture of maize, 
beans, and ground-nuts cooked 

Bufu, If. 4. meal, flour. 

Btifubtifa, If. 4. crumbs. 

Bnfiunba, if. 4. cattle-dung. Ba> 



lumbu say buftunba ; Baila, ma- 

Bufunzo, If. 4. the inside of a melon 
or pumpkin. 

Bufwefwelenga, n, 4. crumbs. 

Bufwi, n, 4. jealousy ; e, g. baka- 
intu ba la Iwa bu^i, the women 
fight out of jealousy. 

Bu^vizUy n, 4. a slip-knot ; a bird- 
trap made with a slip-knot, a loop. 

Buka, ku, v, t. to rise, to get up. 
Mwa bnka, you are up. Ila 
morning salutation. 

Buk&di, n. 4. anger, wrath, fierce- 
ness, courage, sharpness. 

Bukalntu, n. 4. feminine quality, 
womanhood, feminine genitals. 

Bukana, n, 4. a battle-axe. 

Bukana, ku, v, i. to dissolve. Said 
of two who have made a friend- 
ship and afterwards fight, or who 
have made a sale and afterwards 
one is dissatisfied, and the bargain 
is broken. 

Bukata, n, 4. idleness, laziness. 

Bukazhi, if. 4. female genitals, 
especially of animal. 

Bukila, ku, v. t, rel. buka, to get 
up for; ^.^. Nda bukila menzhi 
a kunwa, 1 got up to drink water. 

Bukilwa, ku, pass, bukila, to com- 
mit adultery (of the man). 

Bukislia, ku, v. t, rel, cans, buka, 
to commit adultery (of a woman) ; 
e, g. xnukaintu wa mu bukizha, 

' the woman made him get up to 
sleep with her. 

Buk6fu, If. 4. leanness. 

Buk6ka, it. 4. a cluster of thorn- 
trees, a thorn-forest 

Bukoko, If. 4. strong beer. 

Bukokole, if. 4. the actual marriage. 
See Ku kokola. 

Buk6m9, If. 4. the small of the back, 
the loins, the lumbar region of the 

Bukristi, if. ^.for, (from English, 
Christ) Christianity. 

Buktibu, If. 4. the country of the 
Bakubu or Marotsi. 

Bukukutu, If. 4. extreme hardness ; 
e. g. muntu wa zuma bukukutu, 
the person is dead ; or he appears 

as if dead, senseless, as after 

Buktinku, if. 4. a field hoed up in 

the dry season when the ground 

is hard. 
Buktlsa, ku, v. t. tosmoothe (cloth, 

clothes), to stroke with the hand. 
Buktizu, If. 4. the wild fig-tree. 
Bukw&zhi, n, 4. openness; e,g. 

mudianfl^o udi bukwashi, the 

door is open. 
Bukw6bo, If. 4. a sale, a buying. 
Bukwetunga, n, 4. quality, status 

of a mukwetunga {q v.). 
Bula, ku, V, t, to lack, to need, to 

be without. 
Bula, ku, V, t, to advise, to teach, 

to counsel, to admonish, to warn. 

Applied to a messenger going from 

village to village spreading news. 
Bula, If. 4. bowel, intestine. 
Buldlo, If . 4. a bridge. 
Bulamfti, If. 4. length, depth, 

Bul&mu, If. 4. very fine meal. 
Buldna, ku, v, t, rec, bula, to advise 

each other. 
Bul6bo, If. 4. the short poles put 

above a doorway in building a 

hut ; also the sticks used by women 

in carrying things on the head. 
Bul^mbe, if. 4. poison put on 

Bul^mbo, If. 4. writing, carving, 

moulding ; a cutting in the skin, 

also the scar left ; tatooing. 
Bulem6ko, n. 4. honour, esteem. 
Bul6mu, If. 4. heaviness, weight; 

honour, dignity. 
Bu-l^aa, If. 4. divinity, Godhead. 
Bul^ahi, If. 4. the Pleiades. 
Bulezhi, if. 4. status of a person who 

feeds others. 
Bulo, If. 4. a bed. 
Buloa, If. 4. blood. 
Bulombwana, n, 4. quality, status 

of a man ; male genitals. 
Buldndo, if. 4. depth, a deep place 

in the river. 
Bulongo, If. 4. clay. 
Buloahi, «. 4. witchcraft 
Buluba, If.. 4. a cluster of flowers; 

also cloth. 



Bultibe, #1. I a. a kind of lizard. 

Bulula, ku, V, i. to take maize off 
the cob. 

Bulula, kOy V. i, to lose skill, forget 
what one has learnt. 

Bultiinbay n, 4. hole in ear for ear- 

Bulundo, If. 4. a snbstance made 
np of roasted groond-nnts and 
soot, used to pnt on the drum- 
skins ; it is said that it makes the 
droms sound well. 

Bulunsana, ka, v. i, to be smooth, 
to be carved smoothly ; e,g. Mu- 
tibft wesu udi bulungene, it is 
carved nicely, without any rough- 
ness of surface. 

Bulunganya, ku, v. t. caus, bulu- 
ngans, to carve smoothly. 

-bnlmigene, ae^\ smooth; e.g. 
mntiba ubnluxigene, a smooth 

Bulunga, n, 4. beads. 

Bnluti, If. 4. fifr, (Suto, borati) 
quality, status of a missionary; 

Bnli&BhiltiBlii, if. 4. direction, posi- 
tion ; ^.^. ka tondeka buHishi- 
ItisM znbwa shiti, to point out 
the direction in which he lives. 

Bulw&shi, If. 4. pain, sickness, 
affliction, disease. 

Bul'we, If. I a. the iguana. 

Buzn&mbe, if. 4. illicit intercourse, 
adultery (especially of one act). 

Buznbs, ku, v, t, to work in clay, 
to form, mould (as bricks or pots)., ku, redupl, bumba, 
to roll into a ball, to turn a thing 
over in the mind. 

Biunbila, ku, v. /. rel, bumba, to 
form for somebody. 

Bombislis, 9./. int. bumba, to 
form, mould, carefully, nicely. 

Biunb^a, ku, v, i. to be finished 
off smoothly (of pots). 

Buxnbula, ku, v.. t. to finbh off pots 
by scraping with a shell, thus 
niaking them smooth. 

Buznblinkana, ku, v, t. to be round, 

Bumbunkanya, ku, v, t. caus. bu- 
mbunkana, tb make round. 

-bumbunkene, adj. round, 
•bumbuahi, adj. smooth ; e.g. mu- 

tiba mubuxnbushi, a smooth pot. 
Buxn^na, if. 4. yeast, leaven, malt. 
Bumi, If. 4. life. 
Bumpingidi, if. 4. the poles used 

for closing a gateway; they are 

placed horizontally. 
Buxnpuatisu, if. 4. the sandfly (of a 

number). One single fly is ka- 

Bumw&le, if. 4. girlhood (after 

Bunakwabo, poss, phr. cU 4. sing. 

their, of their place. 
Bunakwako, poss. phr. el. 4. sing. 

Bunakwakwe, poss. phr, cl. 4. sing. 

Bunakwangu, poss, phr. cL 4. ^if^. 

Bunakwenu, poss, phr, cl, 4. sing. 

your, of your place. 
Bunakweau, poss, phr. cl. 4. sing. 

our, of our place. 
Bunaahichixikudi, if. 4. bow ; the 

whole outfit of bow, arrows, and 

Bundtika, ku, v, i. to wait a long 

time, as a person who wishes to 

sell, and the buyer is busy about 

something else. 
Btinga, ku, v, t. to gather up, as 

grass, weeds, dung into heaps. 
Bung6na, ku, v, i. rec. bunga, to 

assemble, to congregate, to collect 

Bunganya, ku, v, t, rec, caus, 

bunga, to accumulate, to collect, 

to gather people together. 
Bungika, ku, v. t, caus, bunga, to 

gather together, to cause to as- 
semble, to accumulate. 
Bungfaha, ku, v. t. int. bunga, to 

collect carefully, well. 
Bungo, If. 4. name of a game. 
Bungu, If. 4. chaff. 
Bunguka, ku, v.i, stat, bunga, 

wait a long time (= bunduka). 
Bungrultilu, If. 4. vastness, a very 

big thing; e.g. wezo muntu 

ngu bungululu, that person is 




Bunina, n, 4. brotherhood ; e. g. 
bonse mbunina, they are sdl 
brethren, i, e. all of the brother- 

Bunji, adv, differently, otherwise. 

Bunk6shi, n. 4. the quality, status, 
authority of a headman. 

Bun6nga, n, 4. deliberation, slow- 
ness ; e,g, woBu wa dya bu- 
nonga, he eats deliberately, 
slowly, without hurry. 

Biinono, n. 4. yaws» 

Bunsene, n» 4. a large grass mat. 

Bunshinde, n. 4. a very strong grass 
used in making rope. 

Btintu, n, 4. status, quality of a 
person ; manliness, virtue. 

Bunumfa, n, 4. a stink. 

Bunvtika, n. 4. beeswax. Musamo 
wezo mbunvuka, this medicine 
is sticky. 

Bunyama, n. 4. inside of a skin ; 
animal nature. 

Buny&nga, n, 4. the feet, lungs, and 
heart of an animal, allowed to be 
eaten by men only. 

Bunydni, n. 4. the kind of basket- 
work at the apex of a hut, into 
which the roof-poles are fixed. 

Budneki, n, 4. kingly authority, 

Bup&nii, n, 4. the infirmity of old 

Bupo, n, 4. fishing-bait. 

BupiiUca, ». 4. an insect, a collection 
of small insects. 

Bus&ka, n. 4. a small basket around 
the opening of the insua, used as 
a funnel ; a funnel. 

Bus&la, n, 4. name of an edible 

Busangule, n. 4. the moon of May, 
when all the food b stored and 
winter begins. 

Busanaa, ». 4. a platform for 
storing grain, &c., a scaffold used 
in building. 

Biu&zhi, n. 4. ; e.g. kn wa insala 
busazhi, to fall backwards. Udi 
lele busazhi, to lie on the back 
( «■ ku salama). 

Bus6, n, 4. the dregs of beer, the 
lees, or sediment. 

Bus^ka, ». 4. a cluster of ear-rings ; 
//. xnaseka, used of the rings put 
on legs. Buseka may also be 
used of a single ear-ring, but one is 
generally called kaseka. 

Busena, «. 4. space, room, place, 

Busenga, if. 4. grit produced when 
grain is first stamped («= iunze). 

Bus^za, If. 4. marrow. 

Buaha, ku, v. t. cans, buka, to raise, 
arouse ; pass, bushiwa. 

Bushdla, If. 4. orphanhood. 

Blishi, If. 4. smoke. 

Bushlku, If. 4. day, i, e. the whole 
twenty-four hours ; double plural^ 
insbiku, days ; mashiku, night. 
Ku bushiku, at the first cock- 

Bushila, n, 4. pus, matter. 

Bushimbi, n. 4. girlhood (before 

Bushinde, if. 4. a field hoed up in 
the autumn, grass left on it and 
burnt later. 

Buahinshi, n. 4. childish innocence. 

Bushizha, kn, v. t, cans, rel. buka, 
to raise for, to arouse for the pur- 
pose of. 

Bushonto, If. 4. smallness. 

Bl^bu, If. 4. the face, countenance, 
front; e.g. ka kala ku bushu 
bwa ng*anda yakwe, he sat in 
front of his house. 

Btisokoshi, if. 4. the Fink. 

Busdnga, if. 4. first small blade of 

. a cereal; e.g. mapopwe a la 
▼hwa busonga, the maize is just 
coming up. 

Bus6ngo, If. 4. wisdom, cunning. 

Bu8u, If. 4. sorrow, distress. 

Busundi, if. 4. barrenness (of a 

BuBweyo, if. 4. cleanness, bright- 
ness, holiness. 

Buta, ku, V. i, to lie down, to rest 
(of animab). 

Buta, If. 4. bow ; buta bwa Iioza, 
a rainbow. 

But&ba, If. 4. name of a large 
evergreen tree, sap used as bird- 

Butala, If. 4. large graia-bia boilt 



of watfle tnd daub, in the same 
way as a hot 

Batdile, #1. 4. a quantity of native 
iion^ not yet woriced. 

Buttoibo, If. 4. layenoQsness. Of 
a caimvorons beast when eager for 
prey, also of a man keen on his 
work, or eating, or speaking, &c. ; 
€*g. oaanu bashombwa mbu- 
tambo, to-day the lions are fierce, 
eager for prey. Weio muntn 
xnbatambo ku Imdya, that man 
is ravenous for food. Muntn 
weso mbutambo ka midimo, 
that man is very keen on his 
work. Montaweao mbutambo 
ku kuamba, that man is keen on 
talking; he talks mnch. Weao 
mbutambo ku buaongo, that 
person is very wise indeed. 

Butanga, #1. 4. a herd of cattle or 
antelope, flock of sheep or goats. 

Butavhu, n. 4* stinginess, mean- 

Butemeke, n* 4. dried meat, bil- 
tong. Properly the adj. -temeke 
in cl. 4, used as a noon. 

Buteu, #1. 4. thieving, stealing, 

But^shi, If. 4. slipperiness, a slip- 
pery place. Nda wa buteshi, I 
slip smd falL 

Butif interr, adv, how?; e^g, TJ 
la Chita butfp what are yon 
doing, OTy how are yon doing? 
Bantu babo ka badi butfp 
what sort of people were those ? 
Kudi butiP or MbutiP how 
is it? 

Butika, ku, v, t, caus. buta, to pat 
a child to sleep. 

Butinti, If. 4. a morass. 

Butombo, M . 4. B Butongo q,v, 

Butonga, it. 4. the country of the 
Batonga or Batoka. 

Butongi, It. 4. cotton bush, wild 
cotton, thread. 

Butongo, If. 4. falseness, deceitfhl- 
ness ; a change in a man's way of 
doing things, as when a man has 
been in the habit of feeding his 
employees, and suddenly refuses 
to dp so, — ^udi kwete butongo. 

Butop61o, If. 4. a boggy place. 
Bumbuawa, if. 4. a Idnd of red, 

biting ant. 
BuThumo, If. 4. a kind of medicine 

used to scare away lions. 
Buvumino, if. 4. belief faith. 
Buya, ku, v. i, to return, to go or 

come back. 
Buyi, If. 4. roe of a fish ; unformed 

eggs of a fowl. 
Buyoka, n, 4. name given to a snake 

when it is pinned down by a spear 

through the head. 
Buaa, If. 4. skill, expertness. 
Buza, ku, V, /. to eat food without 

a relish. 
Buzandi, 11. 4. predousness, costli- 
ness; e.g chintu chechi mbu- 

aandi, this thing is precious. 
Busane, if. 4. meat, flesh. 
Buzha, ku, v. /. to ask, to enquire, 

to question. 
Buzh6na, ku, v, t to ask each other. 
Buzhanya^ ku, v.t, rec, caus, 

buzha, to ask each other, to 

Buzhidi, #1.4. a present given on 

conclusion of a sale. 
Buzhike, if. 4. quality, status of a 

slave, slavery. 
Buzhingo, if. 4. sinew of an animal 

used for sewing. 
Buzhiaha, ku, v.t, int. buzha, 

to ask persistently, carefully. 
Buzuba, If . 4. a day. 
Buzumo, If. 4. hardness, precious- 

ness, costliness. 
Buzunde, if. 4. birdlime. 
Buzunde, if. 4. defeat. 
Buzunde, if. 4. maize flower. 
Bwa (i) Gen. part, cl, 4. sing, ; e.g, 

busongo bwa-kwe, his wisdom ; 

(2) Per s. pro, cL 4. sing, it. 
Bwa, ku, V. i, to rise to the surface 

(of fish). 
Bwa « Bu a : e.g, bubona bwa 

chita, as be did. 
Bwabili (Obwabili), contr. for 

buahiku bwabili, the second 

day, Tuesday. 
Bwadimwi (Obwadimwi), the day 

before yesterday, the day after to- 





Bwala, If. 4. plenty; plenteoasness, 

abundance. . Mwaka wezu 

mbwala, this is a plenteous 

Bwalo, subs, pro, simple, cl. 4. sing. 

it itself. 
Bw&mba, n, 4. breadth, width. 
Bwami, n, 4. quality, status of a 

chief, authority. 
Bwamu, ». 4. fornication, harlotry. 
Bw&muna, ku, v, t, to open widely 

(of the eyes). 
Bwana, ».4. quality, status of a 

child, childhood. 
Bw&nda, ». 4. bird-trap made of 

sticks and cord. 
Bwanda, n, 4. the outside wall of 

a house, a wall. 
Bw&nda, n, 4. curds, thick milk. 
Bwande, n, 4. a crack in the skin, 

or a lancet-cut in the skin, inci- 
Bwande, n, 4. an inhabited country. 
Bwane (Obwane), contr. for 

buahiku bwane, the fourth day, 

Bwanga, n 4. kindness, geniality. 
Bwani, ;r. 4. a mopani forest. 
Bwanlche, n, 4. youthfulness, 

Bwtfnta, ku, v, i. to be noisy, 

Bwantulula, ku, v, t. rep, bwanta, 

to retell old news, to tell people 

things they knew long ago. 
Bwanzhi, n, 4. quarrelsomeness, 

Bwatatu (Obwatatu), contr. for 

buahiku bwatatu, the third day, 

Bwato, M. 4. a canoe. 
Bwiya, ff. 4. a fringed edge of a 

blanket or garment, a fringe. 
Bw61a, ku, V, t, reL buya, to 

return to. 
Bw^le, ft, 4. the itch. 
Bwelela, ku, v. t. rel. bwela, to 

return for a purpose. Used 

idiomatically to express ' again '; 

e.g, ba bwelela ku njiht, or 

be njile, they entered again. 
Bwel^nze, n, 4. yagrancy. 
Bwelo, n* 4, a place where the river 

is banked for the catching of fish ; 

a fishing-trap made of reeds. 
Bwema, «. 4. a pleasant smell. 
Bwene, per£ of ku bona, to have 

Bwen^ne, perf. of ku bonana, to 

be in sight of each other; e,g, 

minalii idi bwenene, the villages 

are in sight of each other. 
Bwanga, ku, v,t, to make 

palatable; e,g, to eat meat with 

bread, or milk and bread. 
Bwengeka, ku, v, i, to be eatable 

together, — of two things which 

agree well, such as bread and meat. 
Bwense, n, 4. semen. 
Bwensenae, n. 4. semen. 
BweBa, ku, v, t, to take up, to take. 
Bwea^la, ku, v, t. rel, bwesa, to 

take for. Ku dibweaela, to take 

for oneself. 
Bw^Bha, ku, v, t. rel, caus. buya, 

to take back to, to cause to 

return to. 
Bwichi, n, 4, honey. 
Bwididi, n,ia.h. wild duck. 
Bwila, If. 4. the country of the 

Bwina, 11.4. the burrow of an 

Bwinga^ if . 4. a wedding. 
Bwingaino, n, 4. equality. 
Bwini, If. 4. truth, reality. 
Bwinti, If. 4. bubble, bubbles. 
Bwintika, ku, v, i. ^^ ku bwenge- 

ka, g. V, 
Bwinu, If. 4. fatness, stoutness. 
Bwiya, if. 4. a thorn. 
Bwizu, If. 4. grass. 

O. This varies in sound between eh 
in church and tue in virtue. It is 
closely allied with the sound of k 
in keep\ indeed, many words in 
this vocabulary are pronounced by 
many natives with k instead of ch, 

Oha (i) Gen. part. cl. 7. sing, ; e,g, 
ohintu oha-ngu, my thing ; (a) 
Pers. pro. cl, 7. sing. 

Oha occurs as a prefix in many 
adverbs formed from noons. 

Cha, ku, v,t. to clear op (of the 
night), to dawn. Bwa ch% or 



bu che, adv, phr, next day. 

"WeBO montu bws ka oha, that 

man is wise, f.^. he isas if the snn 

had arisen npon him. 
Cha, lea, v, t. to answer, reply. 
Cha, ku, v.t, to get, catch (fish). 

"Wa ya kn oha inswi ahoxigai P 

how many fish did yon get ? 
Chaba, ka, v,t, to cut or gather 

Chab&lu, adv, the way of the elders, 

in an elderly way. 
Ohabfla, ka, v,t, reL oliab% to 

gather firewood fot. 
KShaSaHo, n, 7. a share, portion, 

Chabfaha, ka, v. /. int, ohaba, to 

gather a lot (of firewood). 
GhiEkbislia, ka, v,t, rel. caus. 

ohaba, to cause to cut wood for. 

Used esp.^ to put a lot of wood 

on a fire. 
Chabdfti, adv, blindly, in the fashion 

of a blind man. 
Chabadimbashi, adv. foolishly, 

after the manner of a fool. 
Chabiidio, adv. freely, without 

Ohabtifwi, adv. jealously. 
Chabak^di, adv, angrily. 
Chabakita, adv. lazily, idly, in the 

manner of a lazy person. 
ChabuldmOf adv. in a dignified 

ChabolwaBhi, adv, painfiilly, in a 

painful manner. 
Chabanlna, adv. brotherly, in a 

brotherly fashion. 
Chaban6nga, adv. deliberately, 

ChabaBhimbi, adv. girlishly, in the 

manner of a young girl. 
ChaboB^ngo, adv. wisely, in the 

manner of a wise person. 
COLabasa, adv. sorrowfully, in a 

sorrowfiil manner. 
CSiabotimbo, adv. ravenously. 
Ohabatongo, adv. (to speak) 

differently, in a changed manner. 
Chabuza, adv. skilfully, expertly. 
CSiabwala, adv. plenteously, abua* 

Ghabwanga, adv. geniidly, kindly. 


.Ohaoli6ba, adv, prosperously. 

Chadi, n.ia.SL fringed blanket 

Ohakalala, adv. insanely, in the 
manner of a madman. 

Ohakal6nda, adv. stammeringly, 
after the manner of a person with 
an impediment in hb speech. 

Chakamwale, adv. girlishly, in the 
manner of a girl (one past 

Ohakaa h imbi, adv. girlishly, in the 
manner of a young girL 

Obakubfizha, adv. surpassingly, 

Chakabfnda, adv. hurriedly. 

Ohakabdmba, adv. with humility, 
humbly, in a subdued manner. 

Chakub68ha, adv. justly, in the 
manner of one who puts things 

Ohakabotelwa, adv. gladly, joy- 

Obakabalangana, adv. smoothly. 

Chakacbengay adv. deceitfully, in 
a deceitful manner. 


ChakaAma, adv, lovingly. 

Ohakufwamba, adv. quickly, in a 
rapid manner. 

CbakufwanzhafwaiiBha, adv. hur- 
riedly, carelessly. 

Ohakal^meka, adv. respectfully, 

Ghakulalama, adv. rightly, in a 
right manner. 

Chakalamba, gratefully, with 

Ghakaxnana, adv. completely, in sL 
finished manner. 

Ohakombadi, n. c/. 7. a secret 
thing, a mystery, secret. Food 
eaten by woman who is men- 
struating; reckoned unclean by 
others ; adv. secretly, mysteri- 

Chakiipaapa, adv. h3rpocritically. 

Chakapdsha, adv^ bountifully ; in a 
free, generous manner. 

Ohakoaaba, adv. noisily, boister- 

. ously, clamorously. 

Chakatangala, adv. gladly, joy- 

Ohakweshesha, adv. smoothly. 




OhAlo, suis, pro, simple cl, 7. jm^. 

it, itself. 
ChalubllOy adv, swiftly. 
Ohalufu, tuh, in a deathlike 

Ohaluse, adv. merdfally. 
Chalusunsu, adv, harshly, nn* 

Chalutuzhi, mdv, in a hasty, short- 
tempered fashion. 
Ohaluzando, adv, willingly. 
Chalw^nso, €uiv^ notorionsly, 

Ohalwiki, adv, persereringly, 

patiently, persistently. 
qiuunaAmzi, ado. wickedly, profli^t 

Chamanga, adv, kindly. 
CSiam^no, adv, cunningly, cleverly. 
Oh&mba, n. cl. 7. the chest 
Chamba, n, cl, 7. an old, nselesshoe. 
Ohfimi, adv. purposely, on pnrpose. 
Ohamiohami, adv, in the manner 

of a chief, in a lordlike fashion. 
Chaininungwe,^. la. a porcupine. 
Ohamozdinwi, adv, zealously, 

earnestly, with a single heart. 
Champango, 19.7. a verse of a 

hynm or song. 
Ohampuwo, adv, openly, in a 

known fashion. 
Ghamtikoa, adv, in a friendly, 

brotherly manner. 
Ohamumya, n. 7. that for which 

one is beaten, a fault. 
Chamushilo, adv. completely, per- 
fectly, in a complete manner. 
Chanachana, adv. childishly, in 

the way or manner of a child. 
Chanda, n, 7. an old tumbledown 

Ohftnda, n. 7. thick milk. 
Chfinda, ». 7. a forked stick. 
Chandano, ^7. a division, a 

OhAndanyo, n. 7. the Anus. 
Chandwa, n, 7. frost 
Ch&nga, n.ia, a variety of wild 

Ch&nga, n, 7. an old Iwanga (^. v,), 
Ohani P adv. How ? Like whom ? 
Chani, n, 7. old dry grass, not 


Ohaniobe, cuh, youthfully, in the 
manner of a young person. 

Cniankaclianka, ku, v, t, to press 
matter out of a sore. 

Chankanka, adv, astonishingly, 

Chankole, cuh, cruelly, maliciously. 

Chansana, adv, with strength, for- 

Ohaii80iii,a^zr, with shame, shame- 

Ohantenda, ado, pitifully, merci- 

Ohanyabo, adv, how great ! 

Chansa, n, 7. the horn of an animal 
together with the base of the horn 
on the skull. 

Chanaala, adv, in a hungry fashion, 

Ohansilo, n. 7. a strainer, sieve. 

Oh&pa, ku, v,t, to despise, belittle. 

Ohauminwa, n, 7. that for which 
one is beaten, a fault. 

Ohea, ku, v,u to be small, to 
become less, to be insufficient 

Ohebauka, ku, v,i. pers, rep. 
ehebuka, to keep on looking 
about one, as when suspecting 

Ohebaukila, ku, v. t, rel, chebaukay 
to look round about upon. 

OhebelabSnsu, n, 7. a thing that is 
public, not hidden, known to all 
travellers that pass the place. 

Cniebuka,ku,7^. i. to raise one's eyes, 
to look round. Ku ohebuka 
muBshi, to look back. 

Oheohela, ku, v, i, to cluck (of a 

Ch6oh.el61a, ku, v, t, rel, cbeehela^ 
to tell tales, esp. l3ring tales. 

Chechi, dem,pro. cl, 7. sing, this. 

Cheoho, dem, pro, cl. 7. sing, that 

Chedia, dem, pfo. cl. 7. yon, yonder. 

Oheka, ku, v,t, to leave a door 
partly open, ajar. 

ChSka, ku, v,t, to carve or turn 
ivory bracelets. 

OhSk^la, ku, v,t, rel, cheka, to 
carve (bracelets) for. 

OhSk^sha, ku, v.t, ini, oheka, 
to carve (bracelets) nicely, or to 
carve many. 



Chekwa* ka, v. pma* dhok% to 

be ajar (ofa door). 
ChdlAy ff. 7. irao, MctaL 
ChSl*, kn, «./. to gitbcr, plnck 

(fruit). Of ottde, to gme. 
ChSlA, kn, v.iL re^ elio» to riae 

upon (of tbe sb), to dam vpoo. 
Gholo, n» 7. ponidge, papu 
GhSlala^ kn, v./. reL diola» to 

plnck, gatbcr (frmt, Ac) lac 
Cbelelo, s. 7. a dirtj, obligatioo. 

Tlieiracd is derived froai knobk 

and Means loiBetliiD^ tibat k fit or 

onglit tobedooe. 
Ohffloaho, n. 7. a BMaamn^ mstim- 

menty a mle, an indi ti^ie, ftc. 
Chftma, IK. 7. the potrid aneQ of a 
VdA fv» ^oma. I 

ko, r. i. to be 

anally to 

Choinh41% kn, n.^ to be old. 

Chwmh^aliB, kn, v./. «nu.diem- 

beUy to cuse to be old, aged. 
Ghmnhololo, iv. 7. a shdter eiccted 

fay a shcpihcid or herAwnaa. 
Chwncholeka, kn, 9. s. to go roond 

OheiHlfaIn, ka, v. /. to look at a 

thing, longing for it bot not asldi^ 

for it; to eye a thing. 
Cb^nga, ka, v./. to deceive, to 

cheat, to iiejgn, to pietend, to be 

niggaxdlj in girii^, esp. wages. 
Cheng^ka, kn, v.uiop, ebenga, 

to be decetvable, cfedolons. 
•ehengeahi, a^I oednloos. 
Cafteogaliika, kn, v. i. to tnxn 

aside, to look badL 00 any one 

ChoBJe, n.\tu name of an inseet 

which bitesand hangs on. Idiom. 

kn Inma 6hei0e> said of a pole, 

&C., which is fixed fast. 
Gheqjekotwe, ». 1 a, pi, Ba-, 

name of a tree and its froit (» a 

big Inj^nji). 
CSie^Jela, kn, v. i. to nm away in 

fear when fanlt is foimd oat, to 

Ch^aa^ kn, v.t. to cot grass close 

to the ground, to mow. 
Chosimbwe, adv. fortmiatcly« 

inddly (esp. in 

kn, V. /. to choose, 
Chelfla, kn, v./. reL ehotay to 

cbooae for, select for. 
Chotfia, kn, r. /. to pay a tax. 
Chat6alia» kn, v. /. iml, eheta, to 

sdect caicfiilly, wdL 
Chot^siha, kn, v.t. cmmr. ehotola, 

to tax. 
Choiomha, a^. dirtily, filthily ; in 

a dirty, filthy manner. 
Gh^aha, kn, v.t, trntts. ehaka, to 

cause orassist tocarte (braodcts), 

to carve with. 
Chi (I) classr. cL 7. siMg. ; (2) pen. 

mmireLprwuiLj.simg.i {j^wtriml 

rnmriHaiy fmrtUle^ still, just, ftc 

€^, nohi bandika mo, I stiU 

speak with you. Hi l>a cdii dya, 

when they woe still eating. 
Chfama, kn, p. £ to be put across to 

be across, crosswise, aslant. Perf. 

ehiemo, e.g. frhiaamo ehimwi 

ehidi ahiinikHo, ohiniwi ehidi 

chlmno, one stidc is fJanted up- 

r%ht, anodier is put across. 
Chfamlka, kn, u, /. emus, ehiama, 

to lay one thing across another, 

to put aslant. 
Chlfaga, a. 7. a box or place for 

putting dothes in. 
Chlanga, a. la. a lame, maimfd 

person (» Ohfholo). 
Chiangflo^ a. 7. the crop of a bird. 
Ghianaa, a. 7. cnstom, manner, 

way, bdiaviour, habit 
Chi aaahavwimi, a. 7. a kind of 

priddy weed planL Used as 

medicine; also pot over food to 

keep rats away. 
Chibidi, a. 7. the side. IT la dila 

ohibadi, he eats with food at the 

side of hinu 
GhibOabAla, a. 7. a diip. a frag- 

Ghibile, a. 7. palm-leaf string used 

in braiding the hair. 
Ghibalo, a. 7. a reading-lesson. 
Chlhalo, a. 7. an old Inbalo. 
Chlhanda, a. 7. peace. 



Ohibandabanda, ff.7. a narrow 
valley or vld. 

Ohibanffa, ». 7. an axe used for 
fighting, hunting, &c. . 

Chibango, ». 7. an old bat used in 
a game. 

Ohibangu, n. 7. a bees* nest in a 

Ohibawe, n.ia. an otter. 

Ohibele, subs, pro, prep. cL 7. sing, 
it (where it is). 

Cbibelo, n. 7. the thigh. 

Ohibengelele, n. i a. name of a 
fish-eating bird. 

OhibSsha, n, 7. the smell emanating 
from the human body. 

Chib§slia, n. i a. liar, deceiver. 

Chibia, n. 7. a pot. 

Obibiabe, n. 7. a bad thing. 
Properly tea adj. in cL 7, but it is 
used as a noun. 

ChibikilOy n, 7. a place for putting 
anything, cupboard, wardrobe. 

Ohibila, ». i a. a rock-rabbit, coney. 

Chibimbi, n, 7. an unfinished hoe- 

Cbibinda, n. 7. an old, worn-out, 
short loin-cloth (mubinda). 

Chibishi, n. 7. an unripe, raw thing. 
Properly the adj. -bishi in cL 7. 

Chibishi, n. 7. the language, man- 
ners, customs of the Batoka or 
Batonga (» Ohitonga) ; also 
used of the Batoka country 
( = Butonga, or Bubiahi). 

Chibizf, n. i a. the zebra. 

Chibombwe, n.j. measles. 

Chibondo, n. 7. name of a disease. 
The medicine employed in a case 
of chibondo is the dried head of 
the mubondo fish, crushed and 
mixed with the fat of that fish. 

Ohibubii, n, 7. name of a tree from 
which medicine for catarrh is made. 

Chibiiko, n.*j.2i change in character 
or action or appearance, applied 
to persons or things; e.g. udl 
kwete chibuko, he changes in 

Chibul&nshi, n. i a, name of a kind 
of fruit. 

Chibtlznbu, n. i a. name of a kind 
of fruit. 

Qhibumbwa, ic 7. a creature. 

Ghibunganino, n. 7. a place of 
assembly, a meeting-place. 

Cniibimgu, n. 7. kind of dance per- 
formed by those possessed by a 

Ohibtizigiiliilii, n. 7. dust, dirt ad- 
hering to one. Wa wa chibun- 
gululu, he falls into the dust (so 
that when he rises dust still 
cleaves to him). 

Ohibunu, n. 7. the waist. 

Chibuwe, n. 7. a bare place, a 
space cleared of rubbish. 

Ohibwanta, if . i a. a garrulous 

Cbibw^bwO; n, 1 a. name of a kind 
of fruit. 

Chioh^zho, n. 7. anything used for 
gathering fruit in. 

OhiohinganinOy n. 7. a meeting- 

Chichink&no, n. 7. a cross. 

Ohi^hitilo, n. 7, a place for work* 
ing, a workshop. 

Chidfba, n. 7. fetters of wood for 
the feet of slaves. 

Chidie,*j .sing, which? 
e.g. Chintu chidie P which thing? 

Ohidfla ku, v. t. to follow, to come 
after, to pursue. 

Ohidilo, ff.7. a place for eating, 
a dining-room, applied also to 
such things as a horse*s manger* 

Ohidimo, n. 7. spring, hoeing-time. 

Ohidindi, if. 7, a hole in the ground. 

Ohidio, If. 7. the right hand. Used 
also adverbially, to the right, on 
the right. 

Chidiokezh^Bho, if. 7. a place for 

ChidishitidiahOy if. 7. a cnrtaiuy 

Chidisho, if. 7, a relish, an3rthing 
added to food to make it more 

Cbidiaho, if. 7. a present taken 
when you go to mourn at a friend's 
place to assuage your friend's 

ChidizHo, If. 7. a ladder. 

Chidyo, n. 7. an article of food. 

Ohieme,/^. ^knohiajna. (^.«.). 



-ehimoM, adj. croMwiie, placed 

Ohifo, n, 7. something which will 
kill a penon ; as a ntal sickness, 
or a poisoooiis fruit, or a fatal 

Chifti, If. 7. the abdomen when 
distended with food. Vde kute 
chifti, I am oompletelj satisfied, 
I am ' fiill np '. 

Ohiftta, n, 7. a bone. 

Ohifti-cha-mabele, n, 7. the colour 
of a red and white speckled ox. 

Ohifadilo, ». 7. a blacksmith's 
worldng-plaoe, shop. 

Chifolia, n. 7. a foot. 

Ohiffikoftiko, m. 7. the nest of a 
domestic fowL 

Ghiftilafla, n, 7. a lopsided thing. 

Ghiffimba, n, 7. the foot. 

Ohifttmo, ». 7* the early morning 
after sonrise. 

ChiffiTnofttmo, n. 7. irerj early 

Chiffimpa, ir. 7. a kind of trap for 
small game. 

ChifHinBlii, if. 7. the shonlder. 

Ohiftiton^ina, adr., backwards. TJ 
le enda ehifatenuma, he walks 

Chlffiahi, If. 7.* the manner, cus- 
toms, ways of a blacksmith. 

Chiftiahi, ir. 7. an old village 
where a chief has died. 

Ohifw^na, if. 7. a grave. 

Chifw^sho, If. 7. a snnff-spoon. 

Chifwi, If. I a. a kind of wild cat. 

Chifwi, If. 7. jealousy. 

Chigtiino, n. 7. a cataract. 

Ghihole, if . i a. //. baahihole, a 
cripple, a maimed person. 

Chilitina, if. 7. a buso, shmb. 

Ohihiiiuibabanga, treachery (?).'Wa 
ohita o. Said of a man who incites 
his fellows against another but is 
fearfal of that man knowing it, so 
that when they come to seize him 
he pretends to intercede for the 
victim as a friend. 

Chika, If. 7. a pestilence ; any dis- 
ease which spreads rapidly, as 
smallpox, rinderpest 

k, ku, vJ, to lay a thing across 

another, to put aslant (ska 

Ohikadfkilo, n. 7. a thing vpoa 

which anodier is placed ; a stand, 

^9 ^•^•) & candlestick. 
Ohikadilo, n, 7. a place where one 

rests, sits, abides. 
Chikainta, ». 7. a bad woman ; 

also the manner, customs, ways 

of women. 
Ohikambidilo, if. 7. a manner of 

Chikambidfaho, if. 7. a present 

taken to conciliate a chief; also 

a present to express one's thanks. 
Chikimpi, n. 7. the pith of sweet 

reed spewed out after being 

Cliik&na, n. 7. an old battle-axe. 
Ohikanda, if. 7. a dried skin, a hide. 
Chik^ni, if. 7. a wordy quarrel, a 

dispute. Ohikani oohi ta mana 

chi la letela kulwa, a dispute 

not finished ends in fighting. 
Chikaaadialii, if. 7. the forenoon ; 

properly about breakfast time, ue, 

the cool part of the day. 
Ohikiahi, if. 7. a piece of a broken 

pot, or calabash; used for drinking 

out of, &c 
Chikita, If. 7. a bundle of dried 

meat or bark or fish. 
Chikata, ». 7. name given in deri- 
sion to a lazy person (mukata). 
Chik&ti, If. 7./^. (Teb. Isikati) 

time : a timepiece, watch or clock. 
Ohikato, if. 7. the base of the back 

(above the buttocks). 
Cblkilo, If. 7. a place for cooking, 

a kitchen. 
Ohiko, If. 7. fireplace. 
Chiko, If. 7. dowry, things given to 

the bride's people by the bride- 
C^kobeaho, if. 7. the ward-stick, 

a stick used to parry spears. 
Chikobeaho, if. 7. an imitation, a 

thing made in imitation of another. 
Chikdbo, if. 7. a peninsula. 
Chikokola, ». 7. a damaged elbow, 

an angle. 
Obikokola, n. 7. a mealie cob 

deformed in growing. 



Chik61e, n, 7. handle of a cup. 

Chikdlo, n, 7. for. (Eng. school) 
a school ; a sdiool-honse. 

Chikolo, n, 7. The language of 
the Bakola Used of a person 
who employs words not known 
by other people : TJ la amba 

Chikdma, ». 7. a spoilt, broken 
Inkoma {q.v.). 

Ohikoma, n. 7. a blacksmith's 

Chikombeldlo, ff. 7. a place for 
prayer, a church. 

Ohikombelo, ' n, *j, » Chikom- 
belelo {q.v.\ 

Chikombokomboka, n. 7. name 
given by children to the thnmb. 

CMko861o, ff. 7. a section of a 
joumey, a section of work. Nda 
mana chikosolo cha nmnda, 
I have finished a part of the field. 

Ghikosdzlio, ff. 7. scissors, shears. 

Chikotamino, n, 7. a piece of wood 
placed above the doorway in a 

Chikotimo, n. 7. a kind of trap. 

Chikdto, If. 7. a knot in string or 

Chik6we, «. 7. eyebrow. 

ChikoBhino, n, 7. a likeness, a 
picture, image, parable. 

Chiki&a, If. 7. the speech, manner, 
ways of a Em-opean. Also, a bad, 
wicked European. 

Ghiktiba, n. 7. a disease in which 
portions of the skin lose colonr, 
beginning in small spots, and 

Chiktiba, if. 7. a field, especially 
one where the grain has been 
harvested and tiie stalks left 

Cliikubu, If. 7. the language, way, 
custom of the Bakubu or Marotsi. 

Chikuku-ohiiniba, name given to 
the kwale: Prev. Chikuku- 
chumba utauinwa ingftunpu 
ni lu bala o maalimisha: the 
kwale is not hit with a stick in 
the daytime among the grass tufts. 

Ohikula, if. 7. salt-pool, salt-pan. 

Chiktila, n, 7. a fiunt spoor. 

Chiknlubwilo, if. 7. a concubine, 

a person who is given one*s old 

Chikuluknla, if. 7. a very old thing, 

Chikumo, if. 7. a thumb. 
OhikuBsaBho, if. 7. a threshold. 
Ohikunku, n. 7. an ignorant, 

innocent child. 
Chikonka, if. 7. name of a tree. 
Ghikiino, if. 7. a nasty smell, a 

Ohikupwilo, if. 7. a person who is 

given one's old clothes ; also one 

who has a fault falsely put upon 

Chikusazho, if. 7. a scraper. 
Cbikuta, if. 7. an old hoe. 
Chikuti, If. 7. a small field, a 

Chikwangadi, if. 7. a kind of 

barbed spear. 
Cliikwaiig41a, if . i a. a crow. 
Chikwatilo, if. 7. handle of a door, 

or of a tool. 
Chikwatfsho, if. 8. a cramp, used 

in joinery, &c. 
Ghlkwi, If. 7. an old winnowing- 

basket (lukwi). 
Cliikwlkwi, If. 7. locust, a swarm 

of locusts. 
GMla, If. 7. the language, customs, 

manner of the Baila. 
Ohlla, ku, V. f . to embark, to enter 

a canoe. 
Chilaka, if. 7. a stanmiering tongue. 
Chilfila, If. 7. branch of a p^m- 

tree used as a shelf; a shelf. 
Chilala, if. 7. a field cultivated three 

years in succession, then left 

fallow; food cooked to-day and 

kept till to-morrow. 
Ohilalo, If. 7. handle or sheath of 

a knife. 
Ghil&lo, If. 7. an old bridge. 
Chilalwe, if. i a, name of a tree ; 

fruit used as fish poison. 
Chilao, If. 7. a temporary dwelling* 

place made of branches, &c. 
Ohilapilo, if. 7. something by means 

of which fire is conveyed from 

place to place. 
Chile, If. 7. a bundle of fixewood* 



Chilekete, n, 7. white of an egg; 

Chil^ndi, if. 7. a grave. 
ChilAiga, If. I a. name given to 

God, the great institntor of 

customs, the Creator. 
Chilenflra, n. 7. a stick broken in 

two, so that the pieces are sharp 

and can cut into one. 
Ghilete, if. 7. /or. (£ng. slate) a 

Ghilevhn, if. 7. the chin. 
Ghilos, If. 7. a kind of rash or 

eruption on the skin. 
Chiloba, num, seven. 
Ghiloxnbwana, if. 7. the manner, 

customs, wa3rs of a man; also a 

bad man. 
Chil6nda» if. 7. an ulcer, a sore. 
Chil6nfl;ol6ngo, if. 7. Iiubalo Iwa 

chilongolongo, the wattle put 

round on the top of the wall of 

a hut, to which the roof-poles are 

Ohildngwe, if. 7. dog-madness. 
Ghil6to, If. 7. a dream. 
GhildalLildBhi, if. 7. the custom, 

manner, way of a witch. 
Chiln, If. 7. site of a destroyed house. 
Chilli, If. 7. a family, clan, race. 
Chiluloxne, if. 7. the big toe. 
Ghiluma, if. 7. something that bites, 

wild beast, &c. 
Chilumbaluinba, if. 7. name of a 

fruit, when ripe it is black, grows 

on a bush of the same name. 
CSdluinbu, If. 7. language, &c., of 

the Balumbu. 
Ohilmnbudilo, if. 7. a place for 

pa3ring a tax, the < receipt of 

custom '. 
Chiliunbtilumba, if. i a, the roan 

Ghilmnbuliiinbu, if. 7. a mocking 

way of saying Chilumbu {g»v.). 
ChiLxmdvLf n, 7. a pile, or heap, or 

Chilundulundu, if. 7. a big mound, 

or heap. 
Ohilimgamo, if. 7. = Ohikotamino. 
ChiloEhiluzhi, if. 7. == Bulushi- 

loshi, the direction, whereabouts 

oU ObiluBhiloEhi oha SeEuxigo 

kokwi, whereabouts does S. 
live ? Used also in asking about 
a certain thing, when you don*t 
know exactly what it was, or who 
did it; e^, IXgaxA chiluzhi- 
lushi u konona musako P who 
is it (among you) broke the walk- 
ing-stick ? STguni akati kenu wa 
cUta chUuzhilaBhi ? who is it 
among you who did a certain 

Ohilwa, If. 7. an island. 

Chilwfohi, If. 7. a bad pain, sick- 
ness, disease. 

Ohimala, if. 7. the language, cus- 
toms, manners of the Bamala. 

Ohimaswiko, if. 7. Chimasw^- 
kwe. If. 7. Chimasw&ngu, if. 7. 
thy, his, my partner in adultery, 

Chimb^mbe, if. 7. small-pox. 

Ghlmbi, if. 7. a spur, of cock or 
spurwinged goose; also applied 
to a riding-spur. 

Chimb6ne, n, 7. a window, mirror. 

Chimf&te, ChimftLtentuna = Chi- 
fUtennina {q, v,), 

Ohimfnamite, if. 7. a strong desire. 
Nda fwa chiminamate ku 
umbona, I am longing to see him. 

Chimini, if. 7. a crooked thing (bent 

Ohimo, ». 7. stature, tallness. 

Chimonswe, if. 7. the left hand; 
used as adv. to the left, on the left. 

Ohimpima, if. i a. pi, bachimiM- 
ma, a deaf person. 

Ohimp6ta, if. 7. an enclosure, a 
yard, a cattle-kraal. 

Ohimpfxida, if. 7. an inner fence, 
a reed stockade used for catching 

Ohimpfni, if. 7. a child bom feet 
foremost, by Ila custom it is 

Ohimpaluintika, if . i a. a kind of 

Ghimwa, ku, v. pass, ku chima, to 
be sick, tired of anything, as work, 
instruction. Nda cliimwa, I've 
had enough. 

Chimwe, n, 7. Muntu udl kwete 
cluinwe, said of a man who has 



eaten fat and has not washed his 

month and fingers. 
Chinakw6bo, pass, phr, cU 7. sing, 

something belonging to their 

family or village. 
Chinakw6ko, /^jj. //ir. cl. 7. sing, 

thy thing. 
Cliinakw6iicn,/&5J. phr, cl, 7. sing. 

my thing. 
01iiiiakw&-we,^5J./Ar. cl, 7. sing, 

his thing. 
Chinakwinu, poss. phr, cl, 7. sing. 

something belonging to your 

family, &c. 
Chinakw^su, n. 7. something be- 
longing to onr family, &c. 
Chinchfla, ku, v, i. to be impor- 
tunate ; of a person who returns 

again and again to ask for a thing. 
Chinda, ku, v, i. to go about much, 

to wander about. 
Chinda, n. 7. experiment, a thing 

done as a triaL "Wa ka aaka 

chinda, he built as a trial ; e.g. 

to see if his material would hold. 
Ohinda, n. 7. a charm. 
Chindi, n, 7. time, occasion, op- 
portunity. Ohi be ohindi, after 

a time. 
Ohinduluka, ku. v, i. rev. stai. 

chinda, to be turned partly round, 

to turn round. 
Chindulukila, ko, v. i. rev, stat. 

rel. ohinda, to turn, or be turned 

Chindulula, ku, v, t. rev, chinda, 

to turn about, to steer (a canoe). 
Chindulwila, ku, v, U rev, rel, 

chinda, to turn or steer towards. 
Chindy4bemb6zhi, n, 7. See 

Ohin^ngwe, n. i a, the ant-bear. 
Ghinga, n, 7. a fragment of a 

broken pot 
Chfnga, ku, v, i, to meet. 
Chingaohalala, ». i a. a quail. 
Ching&na, ku, v. i, rec. chinga, to 

meet each other. 
Ghinginde, n, 7. a kind of dance. 
Chinginya, ku, v, t, rec, cans, 

chinga, to cause to meet each other. 
Chinganyibo, n. 7. a very big 
.. thing, what a big thing 1 

Ohinguni, n, 7. disobedience, 

OhingvhTde, n, 7. a shadow, shade. 

Chlniohini, adv, much, very much, 
greatly, truly. 

Chinini, n. 7. a thing of which yon 
don't know the name or don't 
wish to speak it. See NinL 

OhinjfLa, Ini, v. t, to chedc, obstruct, 
to hinder, to prevent. 

Chinka, ku, v. t. to dig or hoe 
deeply, to hoe soft ground. Wa 
oh^iika leza, sa^ of distant 

Ohinkalanga, n. 7. a cage for fowls. 

Chinkana, ku, v, i, to be placed 

Chinkanya, ku, v. i, caus, chi- 
nkana, to put across. 

Chinkomba, n. 7. a large earthen 

Ohinkombwa. Sometimes treated 
as of cl, 7 ; sometimes as cl, i a, 
pi, baahinkombwa, an am- 
bassador, messenger, apostle. 

Ohinkonta, n. 7. a necklace. 

Ohinkonya, n. 7. the set of knuckles. 
Ku uma ohinkonya, to rap with 
the knuckles. 

Chink6shi, n, 7. the manner, way, 
custom of a headman. Used as 
an adv., headman-like. 

Chinkoshi, n. 7. ^ Inkoahi, q, v. 

Ohinkdahi, n, 7. a kind of barbed 

Ohinkudi, f». 7. an old useless 
calabash. Idiom. Bamnyayila 
ohinkudi, when a man is over- 
come with fear or astonishment, 
the people break a calabash behind 
his back so that he starts and 

Chinktingwa, n. 7. a children's 
bracelet made of grass. 

Chinotolo, n, ^,far, (Suto, aenot- 
lolo ; Dutch, sleutel) a key. 

Chins^nda, n. 7. leprosy. 

Ohinshalnshal, n, 7. the indde of 
a palm, eaten by the people. 

Chint^nda, n. 7. nakedness. Used 
as adv. ; e,g, u le enda ohinta- 
nda, he goes naked. 

Ohintembwe, n, 7. soft new grain. 



Ttmhlnia jm ehintembw, bread 
made of soft new grain. 

Cihintimbwi, n. 7. half (of the 
head). Ba peswa ehintimbwe, 
said of people who have their 
heads braided like the Mankoya, 
bnt only half done. 

Chixxtu, n. 7. a thing ; also applied 
to a despicable person. 

Cbinta-chfntiif n, 7. tiie manner, 
costom, ways of a peison. 

Ohintyombwe, n, 7. downy 
feathers, as on a young chicken. 
Also fresh first leaves of grain. 

OhiBuntuilio, n, 7. a ransom price. 

Ohinwinoy n. 7. a cup, a goblet, a 
drink ing-yessel. 

Ohinyto^, n, 7. manner, custom of 
an animal. 

Chiny^xno, n. if, sl field of ground- 

Chinaha, kn, v, /. earns, chinga, to 

Ghinaovwe, if. 7. name of a disease. 

Chion^no, n, 7. a place for sleeping 
in ; a bedroom. 

Ghipa, ka, v, 1. /or. (Eng. cheap) 
to be cheap. 

ObiiMddilo, n. 7. a place for pray- 
ing to the mizhimo ; place for 
making offerings to the mizhimo. 

ChipalBho, n, 7. an offering made 
to the mizhimo. 

Ghipamp^bha, n. 7. a chip of wood. 

Ohipande, if. 7. joint of the neck. 
Ku konona ohipande cha 
Xkahingo, to twist the neck — a 
favourite way of killing people in 
former times. 

Ohip^ni, If. 7. the custom, manners, 
ways of an aged, infirm person. 
Used as adv., like an aged person. 

OhipAni, if. 7. hammer of a gun. 

GhipAnBlia, If. 7. a part, dmsion, 

CMp^lOy If. 7. a kind of dance. 

Ohjp^znpa, if. 7. a newly-made pot, 
not yet burnt. 

Ohipepatialio, if. 7. something for 
fanning ; a fan. 

GhipeBhabashiko, if. 7. a short 
shrub, the root of which is used as 
medicine for leprosy and syphilis^ 

Ohiptebo, If. 7. an old brush, 

Chipfle, If . I a. puff-adder. 
Chipipfla, If. 7. a piece or fragment 

of something broken, especially 

of a spear. 
Ohipisba, ku, v. Ufor. cam. ohipa, 

to cheapen, to lower a price. 
Ohipo, If. 7. a present given to a 

woman when a man has cohabited 

with her. 
Ohipok6sho, if. 7. a joint ; of the 

elbow, wrist and ankle-joints. 
Ohipok6to, If. 7. the ankle-bone. 
Ohip61o, If. 7. a hole in a wall or 

garment ; a wound. 
Ohiptipa, If. 7. a mealie or mabele 

stalk with no grain on it. 
Ohlsa, kn, v, i, to be painful, sore. 
Chisakabale, if. 7. a palm-tree. 
Chisaktislio, if. 7. a prop. 
Chioambilo, if. 7. a bathing^place ; 

a washing-place. 
Chiaambdmwi, num. six. 
Chia&mbwe, n.ia. z. kind of snake. 
OhiaAmo, if. 7. a tree cut down, a 

log, piece of wood, a pole. 
Ohisiimwa, if. 7. clothing ; in pi, 

euph. the testicles. 
Chiaanaamwe, if. 7. early morning, 

when it is still cool. 
Chiaipi, if. 7. disobedience, wilful- 
Chisaulo, if. 7. gift, present. 
Chisekele, if. 7. a small whitish 

kind of fish ; ? whitebait. 
Ohisenaa, if. 7. bare patch of 

ground, without grass. 
Chisha, ku, v.t. caus, ohisa, to 

cause pain, to pain. 
Chisha, kn, v.t, caus, ohita, to 

cause, help to do, to do with, to 

make with. 
Chishe, if. 7. an old hole in the 

CMahi, If. 7. an inhabited country 

and its people, a nation. The 

regular//, is ahiabi, but generally 

mashi is used. 
Chishldikflo, n, 7. a place for deal- 
ing with sick people, a dispensary, 

a hospital. 
Chiahfla, if. 7. red clay used by 



people to smear themselves 

Chishfmbi, » • 7. a big girl (before 

Ohishfmbo, n, 7. a kind of dance. 

Ghishfndi, n. 7. the heel. 

Ohiahfnko, n, 7. a pole for stopping 
up a gateway. 

Chialiiiishi, n. 7. a young, ignor- 
ant, innocent child. 

Chishinahi. Ku langa mu chi- 
shlnahi, to shade the eyes from 
the sun in looking. 

Chiahinaho, n, 7. a stopper, cork. 

Chishlshl, n, 7. a stump of a tree. 
Idiom. Mnkainta wa kala ku 
ohiahiahi, said when a woman 
bears a child which defaecates in 
its birth. Such a child is de- 

Chishiahini, n. 7. the gum, gums, 
of the teeth. 

Chiahitidizho, ». 7. a screen, some- 
thing to screen or shade you from 
the wind. 

Chishitilo, n, 7. a place of abode. 

Chfahu, n, 7. an edible leaf, vege- 
table. Chiahu cha makamba, 
leaves of the cassava. 

Ohiaila, ku, v. i, reU chiaa, to feel 
pain for, to be pained on behalf 
of. Nda mu chiailwa moao, I 
have compassion upon him. 

Chiamaai, n, *j*for, £ng. Christmas. 

Ohisoko, n, 7. a small bush, shrub. 

Chiaokdbwe, n, 7. gravel. 

Ohiaolo, n, 7. name of a game 
played by girls. 

Chiadmo, n, 7. an old worthless 

Oh''86mo, n. 7. the month of April. 

Chiaongdaho, if. 7. a pointed stick 
used for digging ; the point is 
also called chiaongoaho. 

Chiaotokwa, n. 7. an obstacle, 
something in the path which must 
be jumped over. 

Chiatimpa, n, 7. round top-knot of 
hair left when all the rest is 
shaved off. 

Chiatingn, if. 7. a kind of dance, 
danced at the girrs puberty 

Chisnalii, n, 7. evU deare, especially 

sexual ; lust. 
ChiatLswa, n, 7. a pinnade of grass 

put on the top of a hut 
ChiatLws, i». 7. a calabash for hold- 
ing milk, chum, an old inana. 
Ohi^iso, n, 7. a lump of hard frit. 
Chita, kii, V, t, to do, to make. 
Chit&ntfila, n. 7. a rubbish-lump. 1 
Chit^nto, n. 7. a bird's nest. 
Chi-toke-oha*bwila, n, 7. the 

month of June. 
Ohit^ku, If. 7. the place just] under 

the ribs which is ticklish. 
Chit^mela, n, 7. /or. (Eng. steam, 

through Suto aetamela), the rail- 
way, engine or train. 
Chitendalo, n, 7. a door. 
Ohitibio, n. 7. stopper of a snuff- 
Ohitika, ku, v, i. cap, chita, to be 

doable, to be possible to be done. 

In the negative it expresses ' im- 
possible '. 
Ohitila, kn, v,t, rel. dhits, to do 

to or for another. 
Chitini, n. 7. for, ^Suto, aetene ; 

Dutch, steen) a bnck. 
Chit6, n, 7. a crossing-place, ford. 
Chitofo, n, 7. for, (Suto, aetofo ; 

Dutch, atof) European doth, 

tweed, &c. 
Chitolamattizi, if. la. a scavenger 

Ohitulukar, ku, v- i. rep, stat, chita, 

to be remade. 
Ohitulula, ku, v,t, rep, ohita, to 

do over again, to remake. 
Chituluma, i». 7. uneven piece of 

country, ridge. Inahi ya ahitu- 

luma, hilly country. 
Ohitultizho, if. 7. a boring-tool, bit 

and brace, auger, See 
ChittunlMt, If. 7. a patch. 
Chittinda, if. 7. an old basket. 
Chittingu, n, 7. a temporary house 

built in a field, occupied by 

Ohittita, If. 7. foot, paw, of animal 

of the cat tribe. 
Ohiudilo, If. 7. a place for boying 

and selling, a shop. 
Gbiut0, If. 7. a variety of locust. 



CntiiThtibwe, if, la. a hippopota- 

GhiThiilamibwe, n, 7. hail. 

OhiThnnisho, n. 7. a lid, cover, 

GhiThuntola, n. la, a boy or girl 
who has not yet been through the 
initiation ceremonies. 

Ghivhntula, if. 7. a cluster of trees, 
garden bed, gronp. 

OUviiiiiino, If. 7. a thing believed| 
an article of belief. 

Ghiwa, n. 7. drought 

GhiwA, If. 7. the outer appearance 
of a man, countenance. 

GhiwenA, if. i a. a crocodile. 

Ghiwesese, if. 7. a kind of fish 

CbiyiMho, if. 7. a door-&stening, 
anything to close a door with. 

Ghijeye, if. 7. tail of a bird. 

Ghisapsoflhi, if. 7. a rag, a ragged 

Chisha, ka, v.t, caus, ohila, to 
load up a canoe or waggon. 

OhialUino, if. 7. a dance. 

Chighfke, if. 7. the way, custom of 
a slave. 

GhiBMngabula, if. 7. the fat sur- 
rounding the intestines. 

OhiBhingnlnkwa, if. 7. something 
that is gone round; e,g, a tree 
fallen across the path or an island 
in the river. 

GhlBU, If. 7. a patch of dry, long 

Ohistiiigo, If. 7. an open basket of 
reed used for fish, potatoes, &c. 

Ghisrdngiiy if. 7. a family, genera- 

Cho, (i) poss, pro, cL 7. sing, its. 
Prefixed by gen. parts.; e.g. 
mwizii ws-cho, the master of it. 
(a) Num. part, cl, 7. sing. ; e,g, 
ohdntu olio-mwi, one thing. 

Cli6ba, If. 7. happiness, prosperity, 

Ghokauka* ku, v^ u of things, 
broken; of people, tired, worn out. 

Cnioko, If. *l'for. (£ng.) chalk. 

Chok61a, ku, v. t, to stamp grain. 

Ohokdls, kn, v,t, to wash very 
much; also to revile, curse very 

Oh61we, If. 7. good fortune, good 

Ghongdla, if. 7. name of a finit, 
red when ripe, 

Cli6iika, kn, v, i, to poke with the 
finger, or a stick ; also of an ox. 

Ohoaa, ir. 7, => bosa, the female 
flower of the mealie. 

Cboaa, if. 7. Munta wa ahima 
ohosa, said when any one is very 
cold, or very weak. ' 

OhoxiBelo, If, 7. a lodging-place, 
place for spending the night. 

Chuohoma, ku, v. i, to fizz, as boil- 
ing fat. 

Ohukuluka, kn, v,i, to be over- 
ripe, soft, rotting; to be very 

Ohnkama, kn, v. i, to mortify, to 
be putrid, to be over-ripe. 

Chtdn, If. 7. an ant-heap. 

Chtilu, n. 7. a thousand. 

Ghultibe, If. I a. a bush-pig. 

Ohilma, n. 7. a mass, of things, also 
of people. 

Ohiania, if. 7. an elevated position, 
high ground. 

Chomba, if. 7. The so-called 
*• second stomach *, the reticulum 
or honeycomb of cattle and sheep. 

Chtimbwa, if. 7. a grain receptacle, 
moulded with clay and grass. 

Chtunbwe, if. 7. a grave. 

Chnniio, if. 7. anything used to beat 
a person with ( s Ohumpiifliho). 

Ghiunptiaho, if. 7. b Chomio. 

Chuna, if. 7. a stool, a chair. 

Chundu, If. 7. dry ground, ground 
that has old unbumt grass upon it. 

Chungu, n. 7. a cut through the 
middle of an animal, taking in 
two or three pairs of ribs and cor- 
responding vertebrae. 

Chtiiigwe, If. I a. name of a bird. 

D, pronounced as in English. D is 
very closely related to 1; thus 
when 1 is preceded by n, or fol- 
lowed by i, it becomes d ; e.g. 
nda lezha, I show; ba ndeahia 
(not nlezha), they show me ; ku 
dila, to cry ; ku didila (not ku 
dilila), to cry for. 



DanlmntLka, Im, v.i, to be soft 
and nice (of food snch as 

Dankuntinay ku, v,u to eat soft 
things, snch as eggs and potatoes). 

-dankunushi, adj\ soft and nice; 
e.g, bidyo bidanknnt^hi, soft) 
nice food. 

Dexnona, n. i a, for. (Eng. demon)) 
a demon. 

Di iX), full form of classifier^ cl, 3. 
sing. In most words the class 
appears as i, bat the full form is 
seen in dine, dinoo; and it 
appears in the pronouns of this 

(2) Pers, and, cl, 3. sing, 

(3) Refl, pro, prefixed to verbs; 
e,g, ku dilela, to feed oneself. 
In the following vocabalary some 
verbs appear with di prefixed, 
either because of some special 
meaning or because they are 
generally used in that way. These 
will be indicated, so that no mis* 
take may be made as to their 

(4) Found as a kind of classifier in 
certain adverbs of time ; e,g, dia- 
komboka. In such cases the 
adverb is really a clause made up 
of a pronoun and verb, the word 
iziiba being understood. Thus : 
diakomboka stands for izuba 
dia komboka. 

Dia {i)gen. part, cl, 3. singn ; e,g* 

dine dia-ngu, my tooth. 
(2) cl. 3. sing. it. 
I>ia> ku. See ku dya. 
Dia, ku, V, t, to pay, to spend. 
Diabolose, n. la, for, (Greek, 

diabolos), the deviL 
Diakomboka, adv, at sunset, or just 

before the actual setting. 
Dia-konoka-itelo, if. lo. name of 

a river-bird. 
Dialala, ku, v. i. to look upwards. 
Dialo, subs, pro, simple cl, 3. sing. 

it, itself. 
Diantauka, ka, v* i, of a man who 

refuses a request, alleging he has 

no time, or is too busy ; also of a 

man who promises to do, but 

doesn't : in any case a deceiver. 
Diasubidizha, adv, sunset; just 

after, when the sky is red. 
Diata, ku, v, t, to kick, to trample, 

to stamp. 
Diataoka, ku, v. t, to tread, as day. 
Diatikfgha, ku, v, t, fr, diata, to 

press oneself into a crowd; to 

overtake anybody. 
Diaungaunga, adv. in the middle 

of the afternoon. 
Diba^ ku, v,i, to sit at ease with 

notiiing to trouble one; to rest 

Diba, ku, v, t. from kn iba, to 

rob, especially of people robbing 

each other, i.e, A robs B, and B 

robs A. 
Dib&kanya, ku, v. t, to get oneself 

ready; e.g. Sa xnwa dibaka* 

nya P are you ready (to start) ? 
Dibaxnba, ku, ku bamba^ 

to arrange oneself; e.g, a mu 

dibambe, arrange yourselves, 

fall \xu 
Dibele, subs. pro. prep. cl. 3. sing. 

it (where it is). 
-dibile, adj. peaceful, at rest* 
Didi, Didie P adv, when ? 
DidieP interr. pro. cl, 3. sing. 

which? e.g. Wa dima o iamba 

didie P which hoe have you 

hoed with? 
Didila, ku, v, t, rel, dila, to weep 

Didilana, ku, v, t, rel. rec. dila, to 

weep for each other. 
Didisha, ku, v, i, int. dila, to weep 

loudly, at length ; to duiek. 
•die P prefixed by pros, which ? 

e.g. Muntu udie P which 

Di6ba, ku, v. t, fr, kn eba, to 

admire oneself. 
Diebila, acbf. at sunset. 
Diekela, ku, v. ku ekela^ to 
' sigh. 

Dielasha, ku, v, t. to covet. 
Difumpula, ku, v,i,fr. ku fiimpa, 

to stumble. 
DiAina, ku, v. i. fr, ku ftma, to 

love oneself. 



Difwlshafwiaha, ku, v, i, fr, ku 
fwa, to pretend to be dead. 

Diidila, Ini, v.U rel, dift, to pay 
for, on ^behalf ot 

Diin«;adil», ku, v,, kn ingnla, 
to answer for oneself, to be re- 

Diinza, ku, v. t,fr, ku insa, to be 
qniet, silent \ e,g, a mu diiiiB», 
be qniet 

Diiya, ku (or, ku dlxa), fr, ku 
ija, to leain. 

Iliiym, ku (or, ku diya), v. U to 
have a child for the first time ; 
e.g, Wedia mwana ngu a 
kwete ka akelo odixnwi naP 
Pe> ngu a ka diiya, that 
child she has, had she given birth 
to another? no, that is the first 

Dika, ku, v. u cap, dya, to be eat- 

Dikalaukila, ku, 9. i, fr, ku ka- 
lauka, to boast, to vannt; espe- 
cially of a man jumping about 
and boasting of his deeds after a 
fight or hunt. 

Dikumbtislia, ku, v, t, fr, ku ku- 
mbula, to desire, to covet. 

Dila, ku, V, i, to cry, weep, mourn ; 
of animals, to call, bellow, sing. 

Dila, ku, V, t, rel, dya, to eat for, 

Dilangila, ku, v,i, fr, ku langa, 
to look out for oneself, to beware. 

Dileaha, ku, v. t, fr, ku leka, to 
leave off work, to abstain from 
doing or eating. 

Bima, ku, v, t, to hoe, to cultivate. 

Dima, ku, v, i, to run very hard (of 

Dimba, kn, v,i, to press, to touch 
firmly; of a sorcerer changing the 
dead. TJ la dimba, nku kuti, 
wa buaha bakafwa ati ba be 
baahike bakwe, that is to say, 
he raises the dead to be his slaves 
(said of a doctor). 

Dimba, ku* v, i, of people going in 
numbers, as all the people in a 

. village, to fetch or take anything. 
Ba la dimba ku chela, they idl 
go to gather fruit. 

Dimbauka, ku, v,u pers, rep, 
dimba, to be printed, pressed; 
also of one person sleeping upon 
another for lack of room. 

Dimbauaha, ku, v, t, to print, keep 
on pressing ; also to despise any- 

Dimbuka, ku, v.i. to become 
foolish, to be a fool, to be stupid. 

Dimbulnka, ku, v,i. rev. dim- 
buka, to become unfoolish, to 
become wise. 

Dimbulula, ku, v. t, to disbelieve, 
to reject advice, instruction. 

•dimbulushi, cufj. unfoolish, wise. 

-dimbushi, adi, foolish, stupid. 

Dimiansha, ku, v, i, to lick the 
lips when eating something nice. 

Dinakwabo, poss, phr, cl, 3. sing, 
their, of their place. 

Dinakwako, poss, phr» cl, 3. sing,, 

Dinakwakwe,/^J5./Ar. cl, 3. sing* 

Dinakwangu, poss, phr, cl, 3. sing, 

Dinakwenu, poss, phr, cl, 3. sing, 
thy, of thy place. 

Dinakwesu, poss, phr, cl, 3. sing, 
our, of our place. 

Dinankumuna, ku, v,i, to lick 
round one's mouth inside, so as to 
remove food from teeth, &c. 

Dinda, ku, v, i. to wait. 

Dindidila, ku, v,t, rel, dindila, 
to wait for, watch, guard for. 

Dindila, ku, v, i, to wait, to await, 

Dingatfsha, ku, v,t to put a pole 
on one shoulder, in order to sup- 
port a load carried on the other. 

Dingula, ku, v, t, to inspect, to go 
to one's field to see how it is, to 
go and visit a trap to see if any- 
thing is caught. 

Dingn^ula, 1^, v.i. of a person 
whom you tell something and he 
understands, but nevertheless re- 
turns and asks again; then you 
say to him, u la ningulula, wa 
telela kale. 

Dingtiya, n, 3. a kind of dance. 

Dino, n, 3. a tooth, fang of snake. 



Dinso, n, 3. //. menso, eye, also 

sight of a gnn. 
Dintinika, Im, v, u to be proud, 

Dio {i),poss. pro. cL 3. sing^. its; 

e,g, matovu a»dio iaamo, the 

leaves of it, the tree, (a) Num, 

part, cl, 3. sing. ; e.g. isamo dio* 

mwi, one tree. 
Diok^zha, ku, v, u to rest. 
Diomwi, num, cl, 3. sing, one. 
Dionse, adv. always, continually. 
pipa, ku, V, i, fr, ku pa, to give 

each other something ; also, to 

take something belonging to an- 
other person, tmknown to him, bnt 

with the intention of telling him. 
Disadila, ku, v. i. fr. ku sala, to 

choose for oneself. 
Dis^nta, ku, v,i. to cease work 

when the master is away. 
Diaha, ku, v.U int. dya, to eat 

much, ravenously. 
Dishikila, ku, v. i. to lie with the 

head on the arm. 
Dishimuna, ku, v.t. Jr. ku shi- 

muua, to confess. 
Dishishimukila, ku, v,t. to take 

a long breath, to breathe deeply. 
Dishobashoba, ku, v. i, to cleanse 

hands by brushing off dirt after 

Dishokota, ku, v, i. to rub a sore eye. 
Disuka, ku, v.i. to break one's 

£cist, to breakfast. 
Disukula, ku, v. i, to dress the hair. 
Pisukulula, ku, v. i. to gargle the 

Ditexnbaula, ku, v. i. fr. ku to- 

xnbaula, to praise oneself, to boast. 
Ditikinya, ku, v. i. fr. ku tiki- 

nya, to shrug the shoulders, 
pitikumuna, ku, v., ku tiku- 

muna, to flap, as a bird its wings, 

to shake the head. 
Pitimuna, ku, v. i. to sneeze. 
Ditola, ku, v.i. to surrender, to 

give oneself up. 
Diubula, ku, v.i. fr, ku ubula, 

to moult, to cast skin, as snake. 
Diya, ku = ku diiya, to learn. 
Diya, ku = ku diiya, v. /. to have 

a child for the first time. 

Di2a, ku, V. t, to dimb, to mount, 
to ascendy to ride (a horse or ox). 

I>izha, ku, v.t. caus. ku dila, to 
cause, or help to mourn, as when 
people go to a village where a 
person has died, to weep with 
their friends ; ku diaha ixijua, to 

Biahinguaha, ku, v, ku stai- 
nga, to gird oneself. 

Dizika, ku, v.t. caus. diza, to 
cause or help to climb, mount. 

Diziaha, ku, v.t. int. diaa, to 
climb swiftly, hard, much. 

Dya, ku, v. t. to eat, to waste, to 
consume, to devour; ku dya 
izhina, to eat a name, to inherit ; 
ku dya makani, to eat affairs, to 
discuss matters ; ku dya inaun- 
da, to eat Sunday, to spend Sun- 
day, to attend church: 

Dyombengana, ku, v.i. to be 
mixed up, indistinguishable, as 
when more than one herd mixes, 
or when loads lie scattered about 
and no one can tell his from an- 
other, also to be knock-kneed ; of 
people, to scatter. 

Dyombenganya, ku, v.t. to scat- 
ter, mix up. 

E. The vowel has two values, § as 

in there, 8 as in th3n. See cho^. iiy 

sect. 2 for the changes which take 

place when e is in collision with 

other vowels. 
Eba, ku, V, /. to gaze, to admire ; 

ku dieba, to admire oneselL 
Eb^ka, ku, v.i. cap. eba, to be 

admirable, fine. 
Eb^la, ku, V. t, rel, eba, to look at, 

contemplate ; ba la njebela, they 

gaze at, admire me. 
Ebel&na, ku, v. t. rel. rec. eba, to 

gaze at, admire each other, 
•ebeahi, adj. admirable, beautiful. 
Eb^zha, ku, v. t, rel, caus. eba, to 

cause to gaze at, to ornament, to 

^hel intery. expresses agreement, 

Bkela, ku, v. i. to sigh. 



Xklesia, m. i a, for, (fir. ekklMa) 
the Church, the collective body 
of Christians. 

SUby kn, V, u to fail, to get weak 
as old person, to fail in strength, 
to come to an end ; Ijeza te edi 
(for ta edi), God does not fail ; 
xnuntu we ela, wa ba mnpami, 
the person fails in strength, he 
becomes an old person ; mwenau 
wesu te edi, ue traveller does 
not fail, does not get weary. 

Ma, kUy V, U to bear fruit. 

Xla, ku, V. f . to be fit, to fit exactly. 
The p€rf» of this verb, elele, is 
used to express our ideas, ought, 
must. Thus, ndi elele kii chita 
bobo, yon are fit to do so, yon 
ooght or must do so ; bantu ta 
be elele ku chita bobo, the 
people must not do so. See also 
the causative form, eaha. 

BKka, ku, V, t, to measure. 

Slelela, ku, dble, reL ku ela, to 
be fit for, sufficient for ; wa lete 
nehima 07a mu elelela, he 
brings bread which is sufficient 
for him. 

Xleaha, ku, v,t cans, eleka, to 
measure with, to cause or help to 

Xmba, kUy 9./. to do a thing to 
any one in fun ; to invite to 

Smb^la, ku, v, t to herd, to guard a 
captive that he does not run 

SmbelAa, ku, v, /. reL embela, to 
herd for ; e, g, nda langa muntu 
u nyembelela, I want a person 
to herd for me. 

Embel^sha, ku, v. t, int. embela, 
to herd well, carefully. 

Xmb6sha, ku, v.t. cam. embela, 
to cause, help to herd. 

Bm6ka, ku = ku imoka. 

Emtika, ku, v. i. to soften, partially 
melt, as a candle. 

Z-na 1 interj. really ! 

Snda, ku, v.i. to walk, travel, 
march ; ku enda mulongo, to 
walk in single file; ku enda 
flonkutile, to hop. 

End^la, ku, v.t. rel. ends, to 
travel to. 

End^la, ku, v.t. to rule, govern, 

XSnd^nda, ku, v.i. redupl. enda, 
to walk or wander about. 

Xlnd^aha, ku, v.i. int. enda, to 
travel fieist, well. 

XSnd^Bha, ku, v. t. caus. endela, to 
cause or assist to govern, to rule 

XSnga, ku, v. i. of a number of peo< 
pie paying one man's fine. 

Xng^la, ku, v. i. to sit around ; 
bantu ba le engela ku chiko, 
the people sit around the fire- 

JBngezha, ku, v. t. caus. engela, to 
surround, to put things around 
the wall inside a house, to put 
straight, in order. 

Bngeah^zha, ku, v.t, caus. rel, 
engela, to put in order for some- 

XInu, pass. pro. a p. pi. « a-inu ; 
e.g. manda enu, your houses. 

Enza, ku, v. i. to go seeking honey. 

Bnzana, ku, v. i. to be all there, 
complete, perf. enzene ; muntu 
udi enzene, he is all there, f . e. 
has no sickness or physical defor- 
mity, also, in a moral sense, 
blameless, &c 

Enz^la, ku, v. t. to pray. 

Snzelela, ku, v. t. rel. enzela, to 
pray to or for. 

Bnzha, ku (kwtaiha), v.t. caus. 
enda, to guide, to lead, to con- 
duct ; ba la nyenzha, they guide 
me ; ku enzha nkoloi, to drive 
a waggon. 

Enzha, ku (kwSnzha), v.t, to 

Enzhfaha, ku, v. t. caus, int, enda, 
to cause to travel well, swiftly, 

Enzuntika, ku, v.i, stcU. enzu- 
nuna, to be melted. 

Enzundna, ku, v.t. to melt, to 
warm up meat. 

Enzunt^ha, ku, v.t, stat, caus, 
enzununa, to cause to melt, to 




Esu, poss, pro, I /. //. formed by 
prefixing a to isu ; 6,g, manda 
esu (for a-isu), our houses. 

Eta, ko, v,u to bend under a 
weight ; mabalo a le eta (for a 
eta), the hoops bend under the 

Xt^la, ku, V. i. rel, eta, to be sorry 
for somebody ; liU to bend under 
a weight for him. 

Et^Bha, ku, v,t, caus, etela, to 
cause to be downcast, to be de- 
spondent; wa dietesha, he is 

Eteahiwa, ko, pttss, of etezha, to 
be grieved, sorry on account of 
somebody, or something. 

Ewe, adv. lot. form of iwe (a iwe), 
in the east. 

Bya, €uiv, yea, yes. 

Esa, ku (kweaa), vA, to come. 
Also appears as ku isa (kwisa) 
and ku siza. 

Ezeulu, adv, above; loc, form of 
izeulu = a-izeulu. 

Ezeulu a, prep, upon, above, on 
top of. 

Ezha, ku, v,t, caus, ela, to bear 
fruit, to produce; insua i le 
ezha, the chum produces ; petf, 
ezhile, e.g, isamo idi ezhile, the 
tree bears fruit. 

Ezha, ku, v. i. caus, ela, to be 
worthy, to be fit. See Ku ela ; 
ezha has the same idea of ought. 
Shi ezhi ku xnu bona, I am not 
worthy to see him. TJ diezhe ku 
ta ohita bobo, you are worthy 
not to do so ; i. e, you ought not 
to do sa Bantu ka ba te ezhi 
ku ohita bobo, the people ought 
not to have done so. 

Ezhezha, ku, v, t, to smoothe, level. 
Idiom, wezu muntu te ezhezha, 
that person is habitually bad. 

F, pronounced as in English. 

Fisa, ku, v,t, to hide ; 9. i, to wag. 

Fisauka, ku (or fwisauka), v.i, 
pers, rep, fisuka, of people who 
leave a place in companies, not in 
one body ; v.t, to wag (a tail). 

Fisuka, ku (or fwi8uka>, v, i, of 
people leaving in a body. 

F6ba, ku, v, t, to indent. 

Fobodika, ku ( » ku foboleka) 
v,i, cap, fobola, to be indentable. 

Foboka, ku, v,i, stat, fobola, to 
be indented. 

Fob61a, ku, v. t, to indent. 

Foboleka, ku ( « fobodika), v, i. 
cap, fobola, to be indentable. 

Fdma, ku, v, i, to breathe deeply, 
to breathe stertorously in sleep, to 
pant in running, to hiss, as a snake. 

Fonkola, ku, v, i, to have plenty, 
to receive plenty. Said by a per- 
son who has received good wages, 
a big price or large presents, nda 

Fonkdzha, ku, v, /. cctus, fonkola. 
to give plenty, to pay good wages, 
give presents, a high price ; e,g. 
ohintu chechi oha nfonkozha, 
my thing has got much for me. 

Fua, ku, V, t, to have, to possess, 
to gain, to be rich ; petf, ftiile ; 
e.g, wezo muntu udi ftiile zna- 
bono, that person is rich. 

Fuba, ku, v, i, to be dwarfed, short, 

Fubia, ku ( B ku fnbya), v, t, 
to dwarf, to shorten. 

Fubidfka, ku, v, i, to stoop down 
in passing under anything, to 
crouch doiwn in running away; 
e,g, muntu wezo wa fabidika 
u musanza upatile, be stoops 
down (in passing through) the 
dense forest. 

Fubya, ku, z^. /. «* ku fdbia {q, v.), 

Fudidlsha, ku, v, t, rel. caus, fula, 
to blow upon, breathe upon, to 

Fudfla, ku, zr. /. rel. ftila, to blow ; 
e.g, uwe fddila mudilo, blow 
the fire. 

Fufala, the moon of June. 

FufVima, ku, v. i, to overflow (of a 
boiling pot). 

Fuftuniika, ku, v, i, to boll over 
(of food), also of bread rising; 
idiom, of a man whose rage over- 
comes him, and he lifts his hand 
to strike. 



Foftiintila, ku, v, /. to cause to rise 
and overflow, as yeast does to 

Pnfnmnaha, ka, v,i. caus. ftifti- 
xnuka, to cause to boil over. 
Shidyo ahashi aha ftiflnnnwhi- 
wa, this food is caused to boil 
over — as when a pot overboils 
before the food is properly cooked. 

Foiaha, ku, v.i. int, Aia, to 
possess much, to be rich; v./. 
caus, tuA, to cause to be rich ; e,^. 
xnudimo wakwe wa xnu fuiaha, 
his work enriches him. 

Fnka, ko, v,i, stai, ftila, to rise 
(of smoke). 

Foka^ ku, v./. to build a house, 
pntdng grass in the walls instead 
of clay. 

Pnkalala, ku, v,i. to be intent 
upon something, of a person 
bending over his work, working 
intently without looking up, of a 
hungry man eating ravenously, 
and not looking about him. 

FokimA, ku, v. t, to kneel. 

Vnkomina, ku, v.t, rd, fokama, 
to kneel before. 

Vnkita» ku, v, i, to be half full 

Pukatila, ku, ? rel, Aikata, to re- 
ceive a thing with both hands, to 
grasp firmly with both hands. 

Vnkftiialia, ku, 9./. ^int, Aikata, 
to grasp firmly. 

Vukatiaha, ku, v,t, ^rel, caus, 
ftikata, to cause to take with two 
hands (as when giving anybody a 
quantity of beads). 

Ti^^a, ku, V, t, to eat or drink 

Pnkula, ku, v,t, to be sleepy, 
drowsy, to doze ; ^.^. uda fiikula 
ku kuamba kwakwe, I am 
drowsy with his talking. 

Vuknluka, ku, v,i, to break out 
(of a rash or eruption on the 

Vukdma, ku, v, t, to rake out ashes 
from a fire, to put maize in ashes 
to roast, to put a stick in the fire 
to straighten it ; e,g. wa fukuma 
mapopwe mu ohiko, he roasts 
maize in the fireplace; weao wa 

ftikuma mudilo, he rakes out 
the ashes and spoils the fire. 

Fukumiiia» ku, v. /. rel. Aikuma, 
to roast for somebody; nftiku- 
miua imbata a mudilo, roast 
for me potatoes in the fire. 

Fukumtbia, ku, v, t, to scratch up 
(of a fowl), of a person smoking 
with quick short, puffs, emitting 
much smoke. 

Fuktiaha, ku, v. t, caus, Itikula, to 
cause to be drowsy ; e,g, ya mu 
Aikuzha inzala, hunger makes 
him drowsy. 

Fula, ku, V, t. to blow, to work in 
iron, as a blacksmith ; €,g, fkkla, 
nda twewa, blow, I have dust in 
my eye. 

Fulafnla, ku, v, t, redupl, Aila, to 
blow with the mouth. 

Fulalka, ku, v, t, to regard with a 
lowering countenance ; also to be 
afraid of looking one in the fiacc 
because of a fauh. 

Fulalkila, ku, v, t, rel, ftilaika, to 
lower one's countenance against 
another; e,g, mwami wa mfii* 
laXkila bushu, the chief regards 
me with a lowering countenance, 
i. e. on account of some fault. 

Fulama, ku, v, i, to stoop down to 
drink water, &c. 

FtUwe, n, i a, the tortoise. 

Ftuna, ku, v. i, to be early astir, to 
be up early, to start early on a 

Fuma, ku, v, i, of a bird, to sail 
along in the air without moving the 
wings ; of a person, to go along, 
too angry to speak. 

Ftimba, ku, v, t, to burrow, to dig 
a deep hole. 

Fumba, ku, v. i, to boast, vaunt ; 
of a man dancing and praising 
his own deeds after a battle or 

Fumb6ta, ku, v, t. to close the fist, 
perf, ftimbete ; e.g, weao muntu 
udi fumbete, that man has his 
fist closed. 

Fumb6tila, ku, v,t, to dose or 
clench the fist. 

Fombattika, ku, v,i, rev, slot. 

C C 2 



fambata, to have the fist un- 
clenched, to be open, of the hand. 

Pumbattila, ku, v. t. rev, fambata, 
to open the fist, nnclench the fist. 

Fumina, ku, v, u rel. fuma, to be 
up early for something; e.g. wa 
ka fumina kudya, he got up 
early to eat. 

Fumfaha, ku, v. t, int. ftuna, to be 
up very early. 

Fumpa, ku, v, u to waylay and 
rob, to kidnap, to take captive, to 

FtiLinpa, ku, v. i, to be blunt. 

Fumpia, ku ( s ku fumpya), v. t, 
caus. fiixnpa, to blunt, to dull. 

-ftunpiu, adj. blunt, dull ; e.g. 
kexnbe kaftunpiu, a blunt axe. 

Fumptika, ku, v. i. stai. ftunpula, 
to come up out of the water ; e. g. 
chivhubwe wa fumpuka, the 
hippo, comes up. 

Fumptika, ku, v. i. to be nearly 

FumptUa, ku, v.t. to take things 
out of the water, also to nearly fill 
a basket. Idiom, inoao wangu 
wa ftimpula, i.e. I understand, 
but my heart does not want to 
do it 

FumptUuka, ku, v. i. rep. fumpu- 
ka, to come up over again out of 
the water. 

Fumpulula, ku, v. t. to take things 
out of water again and again. 

Fumpya, ku *= ku fuinpia (^. v^. 

Funa, ku, v, t. to Xos^^perf. fwine ; 
e.g. miikaintu wezo ndi mu 
fwine, I love that woman. 

Fun&na, ku, v. t, rec, funa, to love 
each other. 

Funanfsha, ku, v. t. rec. int. funa, 
to love each other exceedingly. 

Fun&nya, ku, v. t. rec. cans, funa, 
to cause to love each other. 

Flinda, ku, v. t. to skin an animal, 
to cut up an animal. 

Fundidila, ku, v. i. to be brim- 
full, to be out of breath, to be 
unable to breathe ; e. g. cha fun- 
didila chibia, the pot is brim- 
full. Nda fundidila bukadi, 
I am brim-full of anger, i. e. 1 am 

Tery angry indeed. HTda fiindi- 
dila mi dime, 1 am full up with 
work, i. e. 1 am tired of work. 

Fundila, ku, v.t. rel. Ainda, to 
skin or cut up for. 

FundtUa, ku, v.t. to strip off 

Fundulula, ku, v. t. ? rev. fnnda, 
to mark out, to describe a circle 
when setting out a hut, to mark a 
line on a plank for sawing. 

Fundwila, ku, v. t. rel. f^dula, 
to strip off (bark) for. 

Funga, ku, v.t. to tie up; ku 
funga bombe, to tie calves by 
the leg at milking-time. 

Funga, ku, v.t. ku Ainga im- 
pumbe, to grow a top-knot (Baila 

Fungiika, ku, v. i. stat. ftrngula, 
to be weaned, to be adopted. 

FungtUa, ku, v.t. to wean, to 

Fungulfila, ku, v. /. rev, ftmga, to 

Fungumana, ku, v. i. to sorrow. 

Fungumanina, ku, v. i, to sorrow 
because of, for. 

Fungusha, ku, v, t. caus. fonguka, 
to cause to be weaned or adopted. 

-funguahi, adj. weaned; e.g. 
mwana mufunguahi, a weaned 

Funlka, ku, v.u cap, ftina, 

Funlaha, ku, v.t. tnt, ftina, to 
love exceedingly, to adore. 

-funishi, cuij. lovable; e.g. 
mwana mufuniahi, a lovable 

Funka, ku, v. t. to shorten, abbre- 
viate, to make a gathering in a 
cloth, blanket, &c. 

Funku, n, i a, strong beer. 

Funktlnya, ku, v.t. to strike 
without penetrating; isumo dia 
mu fnnkunya, the spear strikes 
him without penetrating. Fig. of 
affairs. Makani a muluti wa 
mu funkunya, the teachings of 
the missionary reach him but do 
not penetrate, i,e. they have no 



Ftmtika, ko, v, i, to be 'weaiy after 
a long margh, or long toil ; to be 
broken slightly (of a stick). 

Funuldla, ku, v, t, ? re/, fiinuka, 
of a thing beut and slightly broken 
at the bend. 

Funuklzha, ku, v,t, 7 re/, caus, 
fonuka, to bend anything so as 
to break it slightly at the bend. 

Fununa, ku, v.t. to weary, tire; 
e.^, mudimo wakwe wa ma 
ftmoDa, his work wearies him. 

•fanuahi, ai(/\ weary, tired; e,£, 
mwexiEU muftinnahl, a weary 

P68a, ku, V, /. to shoot, to discharge 
a gnn, to throw at Ku difiiaa, 
to faint 

Fusila, ku, v, t, re/, fusa, to shoot 
for, to shoot at. 

Kta, ku, V, /. to be rotten, to smell 

The root idea of this word is * to 
tarn ' ; of. our English idiom of a 
thing that begins to go bad : * it 
is tamed.* The idea of taming is 
common to the following words 
derived from ftita : — 

Futama, ku, v. f . to tam roand. 

Futamlna, ku, v, /. to tam one*s 
back upon, to tam aside, away 
from, to abandon. 

Futamtika, ku, v,i, to tum, be 

FutAmnkfla, ku, v,t, re/, fata- 
muka, to tam against, to rebel 

Futamtma, ku, v, t, to tam any one 

Futaula, ku, v. t. per, rep, ftitula, 
to tie a person's hands behind his 

Fut^ka, ku, v,i, to be rescaed, 

Futtila, ku, V, t, to rescae, to save, 
to tam ; e,g, I nte ngangwe wa 
nftitula, when I was about to be 
tied he rescued me. 
The original meaning of this word 
seems to be ' to tum altogether ', 
as is seen in the phrase, ku fa- 
tula nkomo, to tum a bag inside 

Futtiltika, ku, v,i, to torn back 

Futultila, ku, V, t, to bring back a 

Putusha, ku, v, t, caus, ftituka, to 
cause to be rescued, saved. 

•ftitushi, €u/j, rescued, saved ; mu- 
ntu muftituahi, a saved, rescued 

Fuzha, ku, v, t. caus, ftila, to help, 
or cause to blow, or work in iron. 

Fwa, ku, V, i. to be dead, to die, to 

be destroyed. 
The verb ku fwa is used in a great 
many idiomatic expressions, for, 
with an exaggerated way of speak- 
ing, the Baila are always saying 
they are dead; e,g, ku fwa bu- 
Iwazhi, to have pain, to be sick. 
Ku fwa insala, to be hungry. 
Ku fwa nyotwa, to be thirsty. 
Ku fwa ibe, to perspire. Ku 
fwa makatalo, to be dead-tired. 
Ku fwa lushinga, to have tooth- 
ache (with a swollen face). Ku 
fwa mwanza, or mutwi, to have 
headache. Ku fwa ohiteku, to 
have pain in the side. Ku fwa 
mwiAi, to have pain in the 
stomach. Ku fwa itende, to 
have a sore leg. So with other 
parts of the body. 

Fwuba, ku, v, i, to travel very fast. 

Fwafwadika, ku, v. i, to be weak. 

-fwafwadishi, ac/j\ weak. 

-fwafwi, cuij, short, shallow. 

Fw&mba, ku, v, i, to hasten, to be 

Fwamb&na, ku, v, i, rec, fwamba, 
to be quick, to hasten. 
There appears to be no difference 
between fwamba and fwambana, 
except that properly fwambana 
seems to be applied to more than 
one person, fwamba to one only. 

Fw&mpa, ku, v, i, to attempt to 
seize a thing or a person, but in 

Fwam.p&na, ku, v. i, rec. fwampa, 
of two people attempting to seize 
each other's things. 

Fwampdnya, ku, v, i, rec. caus, to 
cause to attempt to seize* 



Fwunpatika» ku, v. i, to be always 
quick, to be rery quick. 

Fw&nshay ku, v, /. cans, fwumba, 
to hasten, to hurry one. 

Fw6nahafW&nBhayka,z;. /. redupU 
fwansha, to do a thing hurriedly 
and badly, to be careless. 

]*i}v^ba, ku, V. i. to smoke, to take 
snufT; ku fweba tombwe, to 
smoke tobacco; ku fweba lu- 
bange, to smoke hemp; ku 
fweba intombwe, or ku fweba 
mwizuingo, to take snuff. 

Pweb^ka, ku, v, i, cap, tweibt^, to 
be smokeable. 

Fweb^ha, ku, v. i. int. fweba, to 
smoke much. 

]*i}vek6may ku, v. i, to breathe hard, 
to pant as a dog, to gasp. 

]*i}v6znba, ku,?'. f . to grunt, as a pig. 

Pw^mba, ku, v. t, to dislike ; perf. 
fwembele. Badi fWembele, 
they dislike each other. 

Pwemb^jna, ku, v, t, rec, fwemba, 
to dislike each other. 

Fwembeka, ku, v, i. cap, fwemba, 
to be unlovable, to be dislikeable. 

'fwembeshi, adj, dislikeable, un- 

Fwenfeha, ku, v,t, to give pre- 
sents to the sisters of one's bride. 

Fw^sha, ku, v, t. caus, fweba, 
to give to smoke, to cause to 

Fwididfla, ku, v. i, double rel, fwa, 
to be altogether dead, perish. 

Twididila, if . i a. a kind of wild cat. 

Fwika, ku, v. L to draw a draught 
of fishes to the bank. 

Fwfla, ku, V, t, to die for, to be 
dead to. Idiom, nda fwilwa ba- 
nangu, my children are dead. 

Fwfla, ku, v,U to spit upon ; e,g, 
u ta ku nfwila mate, yon must 
not spit upon me. 

Fwilaila, ku, v, i, pers, rep, fwila, 
to keep on spitting. Wa fwl* 
laila Lesa, there is a shower. 

Fwlmpa, ku, v. i. to be short. 

Fwlnaha, ku, v. t. caus, fwimpa, to 
shorten, abbreviate, to summarize. 

Fwisauka, ku, v, i, to wag. 

IVisaula, ku, o. /. to wag. 

Twiaha, ku, v, i. mt fwa, to be 
much dead; e,g, nda fwishA 
naala, I am very much dead of 
hunger, i,e, I am very hungry 

Fwiaika, ku, v, t, to tie a slip-knot. 

Giima, ku, v, i. to sound. Applied 
to the sound of a water&U, also 
to that of the intestines. 

G6mya, ku, v./. caus, guma, to 
cause to sound. Musamo wu 
ngumya mwifti, the medicine 
causes my intestines to sound. 

GtLna, ku, v, t, to assent by nodding 
the head. 

H, pronounced as in English. 
Hek^ma, ku, v, %, to pant (of a dog). 
Hempi, n, \a. for, a shirt 

(«■ chempi, q,v^. 
Hi I (a peculiar nasal sound) inter j, 

expresses disgust. 
H61a, ku, V. t. to receive, obtain, 

payment or rations. 
Holela, ku, v, /. rel, hol», to re- 
ceive on behalf of another. 
Holofala, ku, v, i, to be maimed. 
Holofaaha, ku, v, /. caus, holofala, 

to maim. 
HoBha, ku, v, t. caus. hola, to pay 

wages, give rations. 
Hube, n, tadpole. 
Hultima, ku, v,i, to growl, to snarl. 
Hundauka, ku, v, i, to be dirty, of 

water, f . e, ihll of sand, grass, &c 
Hundaula, ku, v, t, to stir up and 

make water dirty, 
-hundaushi, adj, dirty; menahi 

mahundaushi, dirty water. 
Hupaula, ku, v,t, Ku hupaula 

mudilo, to beat out a fire. Ku 

hupaula mamwe, to drive away 

HupuU, ku, v,i, to sleep just a 

little, to have a nap. 
Hupula, ku, v,t, to aim at, to 

intend to go to a place. U hu> 

pulakwiP where are yon going ? 

I. The vowel has two sounds: i 
as in ravine, and I in pity. For 
the changes which take place 



when i comes into collision with 
other vowels, see chap, it, sect, 2, 

I (i) classifier^ cl, 3. sing, where it 
represents di-. (2) Pers. and rel, 
pro, cl, 8. sing,, and cL a. pL 
(3) Shortenedform of the adv, ni, 
iefore the pers, pro, ip,\ eg,! 
nda kn ya koko, when I was 
going there. I nti Dgaxnbo, 
when I was abont to speak. 

lamba, n, 3. a hoe. 

linda, n, 3. a very large house. 

Iba, ku (« kwiba), v,t, to steal. 
When a pers. pro. or particle pre- 
cedes iba, the i coalesces with 
the 8. Thns : Mu te bi (« mu 
ta ibi), yon must not steal. 

IbAba, n. 3. wing of a bird. 

Ibaiki, n, 3. a big coat. See 

Ib&la, n, 3. a colour. 

Ib^lab^Xa, n, 3. a chip. 

Ibalabala, n. 3. a slight colour; 
e,g, ing'ombe yangu idi kwete 
ibalabala, my ox is only slightly 

Ib&nda, n. 3. valley, plain, open 

Ibftnga, n, 3. a large dLibanga, q.v, 

Ib&ngabinga, M. 3. flame. 

Ibaiika, kn, v, i. to float on the 
surface of water. 

Ibe, n, 3. perspiration; kn fwaibo, 
to perspire ; //. is mibe. 

IbALO, n, 3. a snuff-spoon. 

Xbele, n, 3. a single grain of mabele. 

Ib^le, n, 3. udder of cow or ewe ; 
applied also to a big, protuberant 

Ibel6ko, ». 3. a file. 

Ib^nde, n, 3. a broken thing, a 
crooked thing (of a person not 
hoeing straight in a field). 

Ib^nde, n, 3. a kind of rat. 

Ib^nahi, n, 3. the spleen. 

Ib^ho, n, 3. shoulder of animal. 

Ib^hi, i». 3 a large spear. 

Ibibi, n, 3. a pile of wood just cut 
down in a new field ; //. mabibi. 
Nda ya ku mabibi, I am going 
to the new fields. 

Ibila, n, 3. a bonfire, a big fixe such 
as that of the mabibi. 

Ibila, ku, V, i, to sink, to dive, to 
set (of the sun) ; e, g. isuba dia 
bila (dia ibila), the sun sets. 
Perf, ibidile ; e,g, montu ke bi- 
dile, wa ftunptdut, the man dived 
and came up. 

Ibivhwe, n, 3. jealousy, envy. Ba 
mu ohitila ibivhwe, th^ are 
envious of him. 

Ibisha, ku, v. t, caus, ibila, to sink 
a thing in water. 

Ib61o, n. 3. a testicle. 

Ibdmbwe, n, 3. a rash, eruption on 
the skin. 

Ibdndwe, n, 3. an edible leaf. 

Ibon6ntel6mba, n, 3. the castor- 
oil plant. 

Ibdshi, n, 3. a rotten thing. Pro- 
perly the adj. boBhi in cl, 3. 

Ibu, n, 3. a large reed. 

Ibtibi, ;f. 3. a long-legged spider. 

Ibtika, n, 3. for. (&ig.) a book, 
especially a large book. 

Ibuka, ku, v, i, to be known, to be 
noised abroad ; muntuwebuka, 
the person is notorious, is known ; 
ke buka kambo, the affair is 
known abroad. 

Ibukiti, n, 3. fifr, (Eng. bucket) a 
pail, bucket. 

Ibtila, ku, v,t, to akim, to take 
things out of water. 

Ibtila, H, 3. a large evergreen tree, 
its timber very good for joinery 
work, has an edible fruit. 

Ibtilo, n, 3. any large iron tool. 

Ibulukwe, n, 3. for, (Suto, buru- 
kwe ; Dutch, broek) trousers. 

Ibtimbu, n, 3. the ab<k>men below 
the navel. 

Ibliaha, ku, v.t, cans, ibuka, to 
spread news abroad; e,g, ba ke 
buaha makani akwe, they spread 
abroad his affairs. 

Iblizo, n, 3. the baobab-tree. A 
big stout person is called an 

Ibwabwa, m. 3. a tree planted by a 
grave ; //. mabwabwa, used of a 
grove of trees planted around a 

Ibwinta, n, 3. a large house. 

IbwAntu, n, 3. light beer; //. ma- 



bwantu, indicates a large qnan* 

Ibwe, n, 3. a stone. 

lohe, adv, alone ; we ziza iohe, he 
comes alone, bj himself; iche 
nana, quite alone, all by himself. 

Ich^ba, If. 3. a bayonet, sword. 

loh^zho, If. 3. a lathe for turning 
ivory bracelets. 

Ichlla, ff. 3. a large tail, as of a 

Idiba, If. 3. a trap for birds or rats. 

Idle P interr, pro, which ? IT la 
langa mitiba idle f which 
basins do you want ? 

Idila, ku, V. t, to imitate, to copy ; 
also to credit or believe lying tales. 

Idil^bia, ku, v,L to imitate each 

Idibila, if. 3. a hole made by water 
washing out the soil. 

Idimba, if. 3. a cloudy, cold time ; 
e,g, mweshi wezu nd' idimba, 
this month is cold, cloudy. 

Idindi, if. 3. a hole in the ground. 

Idfnga, If. 3. a fence erected for a 
chief, a fortress. 

Idfzha, ku, v, t, cans, idila, to copy, 
imitate; ^.^. nda mu idizha, I 
will imitate him ; wezo ta idi- 
zbiwa, that (person) is not to be 

Idyabdntu, if. 3. a cannibal. 

Ifoko, If. 3.y5>r. (Eng.) a fork. 

Ifosholo, If. Z'f<^. (Zulu, ifotyolo) 
a spade, shovel. 

Ifu, IS. 3. the stomach, abdomen 
(above the navel), the so-called 
' first stomach *, the rumen, or 
paunch, of cattle and sheep, the 
(pregnant) womb. Mukaintu 
udi kwete ifu, the woman is 
pregnant ; bantu baba mba ifa 
diomwl, these people are of one 

Ifii mama I inUrf, phew t 

Ifua, If. 3. a large bone. 

Ifofu, If. 3. a slight rain, a misty 

If6fwe, If. 3. a lung. 

Ifdka, If. 3. num, nine. 

IMko, n. 3. a big pipe, a lot of 

Ifdktisi, If. 3. a lot of hot earth 

under a fire. 
Ifombaldshi, is. 3. a light brown 

colour., If. 3. the finit of the mn- 

ntokoshia bush. 
Iflinefdne, is. 3. cool, overcast 

weather ; e, g, nsunu nd' ifune- 

fane, to-day it is cool, cloudy. 
Ifdta, If. 3. usually in pi. mafuta, 

fat. Used in reply to a request 

for fat ; ^. ^. ni na ifata budio, 

I have not even a little fat. 
Ihafo, If. 3. for, (Eng.) a half. 
Ihempi, if. 3. for, (Suto, hempe ; 

Dutch, hemd, hempie) a shirt. 
Ihupfka, ku, v, i, to go hungry to 

Ika, ku, V, t, to cook, to boil. 
Ikalntu, If . 3. a very large woman. 
IkAla, If. 3. a coiL 
Ik&mba, if. 3. cassava. 
Ikdnda, if. 3. soft skin of an animaL 
Ikangaloa, if. 3. a clot of blood. 
Ik&ni, If. 3. an affair, saying, conduct. 
IkAnka, if. 3. rough, towsled hair, 

like that of a Munkoya. 
Ik&nko, If. 3. seed sown in the 

Ikasadizbi, if. 3. the cool of the 

Ikatdlo, If. 3. sandal, boot, 
-iki, adj, cooked; e.g. buzane 

bwiki, cooked meat ; mapopwe 

maiki, cooked maize; shishu 

shiki, cooked leaves; ikamba 

iki, cooked cassava. 
Ikila, ku, V' t, rel, ika, to cook for ; 

e,g, Ba la njikila, they cook 

for me. 
Ikisha, ku, v. t, int, ika, to cook 

well, to cook much. 
Ikizha, ku, v. t, to stick to a thing, 

to persist in doing, especially in 

advising, teaching ; to keep law or 

custom ; nda mu ikizha, I stick 

to him, I persist in my attentions 

to him. 
Ik6a, If. 3. a wild cucumber, applied 

also to a European cucumber. 
Ik6ka, If. 3. a kind of thorn-tree. 
Ikdka, If. 3. a large bundle of fish 

on a string. 



Ik61ok61o, n. 3. a cold in the chest, 

Ik61wa, n. 3. phlegm ; //. mako- 

Iwa, used of a quantity of phlegm. 
Ik6mbOy n. 3. a large navel, an 

nmbilical hernia. 
Ik6inwe, n. 3. a large clod, lump 

of earth ; kudi kwete makomwe, 

to be lumpy, of mortar, &c. 
Ik6to, H, 3. a large knot. 
Ik6ba, n. 3. a large field. 
Iktibi, n, 3. a beer-drinking feast. 
Ikubi = shikubi, a vulture. 
Iktika, ». 3. a lump of rubbish 

gathered up in a field. 
n^ko, n, 3. the shoulder-blade. 
Ikiilabtiahfku, n, 3. a name given 

to a hairy person, one who grows 

Xknluxnino, n. 3. the trachea. 
Ikamba, n. 3. a hard, dried-up skin. 
Iktimbi, n. 3. a cloud. 
Iknxni, n. 3. num. ten; makumi 

obili, twenty. 
IktiDgo, n, 3. a big stack of mealies. 
Iktmka, n, 3. an ear of grain, ear 

of macheme. 
Ikunkalwishi, n, 3. anything car- 
ried down a stream by the current, 

applied also to a person who is 

always travelling about. 
Iktmku, If. 3. a gale, a strong wind. 
Tkdo, ft. 3. a midnight lishing. 
Ikapam^no, is. 3. toothache, not 

of one tooth, but when all seem 

to be aching ; neuralgia. 
Iktisha, ku, v, t, caus, ikuta, to 

feed up anybody, to make food 

Iktita, ku, V. 1. to be satisfied, 

satiated, with food ; perf, ikutile. 
Ikuta, n, 3. a large chikuta (q.v.). 
Ikutidils, ku, v. i, dble. rel. ikuta, 

to be quite satiated with food. 
Ikutisha, ku, v. i, int. ikuta, to 

be very satisfied, quite satiated. 
Iktizu, n. 3. fruit of the bukusu 

tree, wild fig. 
Ikwdti, ». 3. a box, tin. 
Ikwel61e, ». 3. sheath of the 

Ikwfld, n. 3. a big cloud of locusts, 

a great number of locusts. A 

cloud of locusts is regarded as one 

thing. SeeChikwikwl 
Ila, ku, V. i. rel. ku ya, to go 

for, to go to ; bantu mbo ba 

ka ila koko, the people that 

they went there for. 
Ila, ku, V. i. to be tabooed ; e.g, 

chi la ila ohechi, ta ohi chit- 

wa, this thing is forbidden, it is 

not done. 
Ha, n. 3. a large bowel. 
Ila (ila), n. 3. a single grain ; //. 

maila, used of a lot of grain. 
Ilala, If. 3, a large palm-leaf. 
Il&lo, If. 3. a large bridge. 
Ilampi, If. 3. for. (Eng.) a lamp. 
U&na, ku {or, ku wilana), v. i. of a 

person who goes on perseveringly 

in spite of illness. 
Il&nda, If. 3. a leglet, ring of wire 

worn below the knee. 
Il&ndo, n. 3. a ford, landing-place. 
Ilandu, If. 3. (? Tonga) a fault. 
U&ngaldnga, if . 3. a flower. 

Usually used in pL maJanga- 

He, perf. ofkxL ya, to go. 
lie. If. 3. a large ohile {g. v.). 
Ilembe = inembe, if. 3. a peg, 

Iletele, if . 3. far, (Eng.) a letter 

of the alphabet. 
Ilombwina, if. 3. a big man. 
I16ndo, n. 3. a drop. 
I16ngo, If. 3. a large quantity of 

Ilumabanduwe, n. 3. a centipede. 
Htimbu, If. 3. a variety of maize. 
Uumbu, If. 3. a big person of the 

Lumbu tribe, 
ntinda, if. 3. a kind of calabash. 
Iltinda, if. 3. a big heap. 
Ilundu, If. 3. a mountain. 
Iluse, If. 3. an overhanging roof, 

verandah. "Wa kala mwiluse, 

he sits under the verandah. 

Iiubalo Iwa iluze, the wattle 

put round at the extremity of the 

Im, classifier cl. 8. sing.^ 8 and 9.//. 
Ima, ku, V. t. (kwima), to deprive. 
Imamba, ». 9. //. of lumamba, 




Imftmba, n, 8. a small button-like 
object worn in the hair, a charm. 

ImambAla, if. 3. the woman who 
accompanies a girl on her first 
visit to her husband's house. 

Im&no, n, 9. //. of luinano, 

Im6naa, n, 9. //. 0/ lubanaa, 

ImAnzho, n, 8. = ingvhiilay a 
stone used to sharpen or roughen 
a grindstone. 

Imba, n.^, pi, of luba, fences, 

Imba, ku, v, t. to sing. 

Imb&ba, n, 8. an ox with one horn 
horizontal, the other vertical; e.g. 
ing'ombe ezhi nimbaba, this ox 
is of such a kind. 

Imbabo, s$ibs, pro. indie, cl. i. //. 
it is they. 

Imbadimbadi, n.%. the Kafne 

Imbaiki, n. 8. for, (Suto, baki ; 
Dutch, baaiji) a coat, jacket. 
See Ibaiki. 

Imb&k&ni, n. 8. a flag, a banner. 

Imbalo, n. ^.pl. ^lubalo. Wattles 
used in building. 

Imb&ta, n. 8. a sweet potato. 

Imb&vn, n. 8. name of a fish, a 
kind of bream, very good eating. 

Imbe, n. 8. the bulb of the water- 

Imbele, n. 3. presence ; e.g. ba la 
kala mumbele dia mtioneki, 
they sit in the presence of the 

Imbele, subs, pro, prep, i /. sit^. 
and cl. 8. sing, and cl. 2. //. me 
(really, where I am), it, them ; e.g. 
kweaa kwimbele, come to me. 

Imbele-mbele I forward ! 

Iinbelekelo,M.8.y^r. Saturday. This 
word is derived from the Zulu 
(through Tebele), Umgqibelo, the 
nnishing. Owing to the impossi- 
bility of pronouncing the clicks 
the word has been changed so as 
to appear derived from ku bele* 
kela, to work for. (Or perhaps 
it is from the Teb. impegelo.) 

ImbeUle, n, 8. a sheep. 

Imb^ta, n, 9. //. of lubeta. 

Meetings for trying cases, laws. 
Imbeteko, 11.9. //. of lubeteko, 

sentences, judgements. 
Imb^Bo, imb^aho, n. 8. a tool for 

working wood; a plane, adze, 

Imbidila, n.%. the rough outside 

bark of trees, the rough exterior 

on some horns. 
Imbila, ku, v.t. rel, iniba. To 

sing to, to sing of or about. 
ImbUa, ku, v, t. to weep very mndi 

so that tears flow down on to the 

body. Imbilwa, pass, to be left 

alone in solitude with nobody to 

talk to. 
Imbflo, n. 9. //. of lubilo. In the 

sing, the word means swiftness, a 

fast pace ; in the pi. it means great 

swiftness, a very fJEist pace. 
Imbiaha, ku, v. 1. int. jLmba. Te 

sing loudly, to sing well. 
Imbizha, ku, v.t. caus. imbila, 

to desert one, to leave him alone 

in solitude. 
Imbizhi, n. 8. a horse. 
Imbo, subs. pro. indie, cl. 4. sing. 

and cl. I. pi. it is not it, it is not 

Imbokdma, n. 8. a pipe made from 

a calabash. 
Imbol^zhi, n. 8. manure. 
Imbombo, n.B. the Machabel tree. 
Imbongolo, ik.8. an ass, donkey, 

Imboni, n.S. the pupil of the eye ; 

the pupil is associated with the 

sight of the eye, thus imboni 

means also sight. 
Imbono, n. 9. //. of Inbono, 

Imbotolo, u, 8. for. (Eng.) a 

Imbdaobdzo, n» 8. Adam's apple. 
Imbubo, si^s. pro. indie, cl. 4. sing. 

it is it, it is so. 
Imbuka, n. 8. for. (Eng.) a 

Imbtila, n. 6. the fruit of the ibula 

Imbultilu, n. S. the last quarter of 




ImlmBginOi «i.8. a meeting, an 

Imbdts, M. 8. a small white object 

worn in the ear, a button. 
ImbtitOy n. 8. seed. 
Imbws, M.8. a short stick tied at 

the end of the kOBO in the idiba 

Imbweoh^ohe, ».8. the river 

Imbwffngins, n, 8. tick of dog or 

Imbwila, n. 8. a round edible bean. 
Imf&di, f^ 8. gizzard of a bird. 
Imftiklisi, If. 9. //. 0/ Inftikiiai, 

Imffimba, n, 9. //. 4ff luftunba, 

hoofs of animals. 
ImAimfwe, i». 8. a fish that has 

been killed and partly eaten {e.^, 

by a crocodile) and found in the 

Imftmgnahiy n, 8. a weaned calf ; 

properly the adj. -fungashi in 

cl. 8. 
ImAinke, n. 8. the so-called fourth 

stomach of cattle and sheep. 
Imftuishi, n, 8. the fist. Ku nma 

imfdnshi, to strike with the fist. 
Imftmynnga, n. 8. « imftidi, giz- 
Imimbi, n, 8. the black ash of 

burnt grass. 
Inrfnhft, ka, v./. caus, imita, to 

cause to conceive, to become 

Iinita, ka, v, 1. to become pregnant, 

to conceive. 
Imo, n, 9. //. ^lumo, razors. 
Imo, n, 3. a very tall person. 
Imoka, ko, v. i. to delay, to be 

Imokila, ku, v./. rel. imoka, to 

wait for, to delay on account of; 

we mokUa nahi? why did 

you delay ? 
Iflaomba, n. 8. the black genet. 
Impaka, n, 8. something which i^ 

alike all through, as a suit of 

ImpAko, n, 8. a hole, crevice, in a 

tree. Menahi a mu xnpako, 

water in a tree-hole. 

Imp61a, If. 8. the glans penis when 
circumcised. Circumcision is 
practised by Mankoya and some 
Baila : the prepuce is eaten by the 
one circumcised. 
N.B. — This word is commonly 
used for the Pallah antelope, it 
being the Sekololo name for that 
animal : owing to the meaning of 
the word in Ila it should not be 
used among Baila. 

Imp&nde, if. 8. a large shell used 
as an ornament and much es- 
teemed by the Baila. 

Impang&ti, if. 8. a fork-stick used 
for tying up slaves, a neck fetter. 

Imp&ngo, If. 8. a line or verse of a 

Impasela, if. 8. fir, a present. 
This word has an interesting 
history : we trace it to the Dutch 
word baas ; from this is derived 
the Kaffir word uku basela, to 
give a present, ue, show me by a 
present that you are my baas, my 
master or lord ; also the noun 
ibaao. In Suto the word appears 
as paiela, a present. Hence the 
form impasela. 

Imp&BO, If. 8. a grasshopper. 

Imp&ta, If. 3. a large enclosure, kraal. 

Impat&na, n. 8. a small bag, pouch, 

Imp&to, If. 8. sandal, boot. 

Impau, If. 8. a receptacle for fisit, 
an oil-can. 

Impaula, ku, v.f. of one who 
frowns and doesn't look upon 
another, i.e. he is angry with him 
or disgusted at his doings — ^u la 
impaka bukadi. 

Imp61a, If. 8. the extremity, end of 
anything^ summit of a tree, tip of 
a knife, apex of a house ; the 
conclusion of an affair, speech, 
discourse, or book. 

Imp^lwe, If. 8. the top grinding- 

Imp6pe, If. 8. tail of a fish. 

Impose, If. 8. a kind of plant with 
small thorns upon it which cause 
irritation if handled. 

Imp6ta, If. 8. a horn of reed-buck, 



pnkn, or pallah, used as a trampet; 

a bugle. 
Imp^yo, n,S, a cold wind, cold. 

Ku fwa impeyo, to be cold. 
Ixnpezho, n. 8. a broom, brush. 
Ixnpi, n.S. an army. 
Ixnpfla, ft. 8. a ball. 
Impishi, n. 8. a mine-shaft 
ImpO) ft. 8. the escape hole from an 

animal's burrow. 
Imp6be, ft. 8. a large biting fly. 
Imp6kOy If. 8. a knife. 
Imp6ko, ft. 8. a plant used to give 

relish to food. 
Imp61o, ft. 8. bran. 
ImLpologdso, ft. 8. earache. 
Impdlwe, ft, 8. a kind of tall, 

rough grass. 
Imp6mbo, ft, 8. gum exuded from a 

Impondo, ft.S. for, (Eng.) a 

pound, a sovereign. 
Imp6ngo, ft, 8. a goat. 
Impongolwa. n. 8. the sound pro- 
duced by cracking the 6nger-joints. 

Ka chita impongolwa, to crack 

the finger-joints. 
Imp68o, ft. %,for, (Eng.) post, mail. 
Impudilo, ft. 8. a shallow basket 

used as a plate. 
Imptila, ft. 8. a kind of spear, used 
. among other things to dispatch a 

wounded animal. 
Impultilwa, ». 8. a kind of plant 

eaten as a relish with food. 
Impdma, ft, 8. honeycomb with 

honey in it. 
Impumba, n, 8. a heart-shaped 

thing. Ndi kweta impumba ya 

moEO, I am grieved, unhappy. 
Imptimbe, ft, 8. the chignon of the 

Baila when not fully grown. 
Imptimpa, ft, 8. a grass armlet. 
Imp-dmpwa, ». i a. the cheetah. 
Impumpa, n. 8. small ground-nut. 
Impungu, ft, 8. a variety of small 

Impunisho, ft. 8. for, (Eng.) a 

Imptishiy ft, 8. name of a kind of 

snake, non-poisonous; belts made 

from the skin. 
Impute, ft, 8. a large fishing-hook. 

Impute, n, 8. a variety of ground- 

Imputeo, ft, 8. for, (Suto, phu> 

theho) a meeting, a class of 

Impati, ft. 8. a small band of iron 

put round the spear-shaft to hold 

in the blade. 
Impawo, ft, 8. a thing known, 

spread abroad ; famous thing. 

Shianza shabo usuna nim- 

puwo, to-day their customs are 

famous. Insana sliakwe aha 

ya impuwo, his strength is 

Imipwidi, ft, 8. the tall head-dress 

of the Baila when fully grown. 
Impwisho, ft, 8. a plaything used 

in the game of kupwa. 
ImpwizM, If. 8. a cow. 
Imvtila, ft, 8. rain. (See note in 

Eftg.-Iia Vocabulary.) Ku wa 

imvula, to rain. 
Imwe, ft. 3. a mosquito. 
Imwe, ft, 8. s chimwe {q, v,), 
Imya, ku, v,t, caus, ima. To 

deprive. Bukata bwako bwa 

kwimya kudya, thy laziness has 

deprived thee of food. 
In, classifier cl, 8. sing, and //. 
Ina, ku (kwina), v, i, to be fat, 

to be fertile. 
Ina, ku (kwina), v, t, to be not, to 

have not ; e, g. nina ( » ndi ina) 

tudyo, I have no food. Ba ina 

ku mana, they have not finished. 

Ba ina uku mana, they were not 

finishing. Kwina muntu, there 

is no person. Ka kwina muntu, 

there was no person. 
Inakwabo,/0jx. phr. cl, 8. a thing 

belonging to their people. 
Inakwako, poss, phr, cl, 8. a thing 

belonging to thee. 
Inakwakwe,/0fx. phr, cl. 8. a thing 

belonging to him. 
lnakwangu,/0jj./^r. cl,%, a thing 

belonging to me. 
Inakwenu, poss. phr, cl, 8. a thing 

belonging to your people, your 

Inakwesu, poss* phr. cl, 8. a thing 

belonging to our place^ our peopl^ 



Infingabaoh^nde, n, 8. a heifer 
ready for the bull, old enough to 
calve for the first time. 

Inangabadya^ n, 8. the evening star, 
indicates, 'that which sees the 

In&ngo, n, 3, a nose. The pi. 
manango, used of the nostrils. 

Inch^bxioh^bu, n, 3. a small beetle, 
supposed to give good luck. 

InohJls, n, 8. the spout of the 
blacksmith*s bellows, that part 
which is in the fire. 

Inohi, n, S,/or (£ng.) an inch. 

Inohicho, suds, pro, indie, cl, 7 
sing, it is it. 

Inoho, subs, pro, indie, cl, 7 sing. 
it is not it 

InclL6ko, n. 8. armlet or leglet. 

Inchdaa, n. 8. a kind of wild duck. 

Inchwa, n. 8. a dangerous disease, 
as small-pox, &c. 

Inda kn, v. t. to try, to experiment. 

Ind&ka, n. 9. pi. ^lulaka, tongues. 
IJdi kwete indaka shobili, he 
has two tongues, i.e. he says one 
thing now and another afterwards. 

Indanddla, n, 8. a kind of musical 

Ind&vu, n, 8. (?from Totela) a 
lion. Kasokwe munsa, mashi- 
ku ya ba ndavn, a bit of grass 
in the day, in the night he becomes 
a lion. (Said of the lion.) 

Indel^ma, n. 8. a new, young leaf. 

Indole » n, 8. the space between 
the shoulders. "Wa mu yasa a 
ndelo, he speared him between 
the shoulders. 

Indi, ». 3. a large mwindi, shin- 

Indiasho, n. 8. sandal, shoe, boot. 

Indidio, subs, pro, indie, cl. 3. sing, 
it is it. 

In dime, suhs. pro. indie, i /. sing, 
it is not I. 

Indixni, n, 9. pi, of ludimi, 

Indimwe, subs, pro, 2 p, pi, it is 
not you. 

Indindima, ku, v, i. to thunder, 
of the sound of thunder; wa 
indindima leza, it thunders. If 

you ask a native for an explanation 

of this word he will say it means, 

Iiesa wa chita ndi-ndi-ndi« 

ndi. . . 
Indio, subs, pro, indie, cl, 3. sing, 

it is not it. 
Indiodionga, n. 3. name of a tree 

growing by the river-bank. 
Indiswe, subs, pro, indie, i /• pi. 

it is not we. 
Indiwe, subs, pro, 2 p, sing, it is 

not thou. 
In do, subs, pro. indie, cl. 9, 9 a. 

sing, it is not it. 
Indolo, If. 3. drowsiness, sleepiness. 
Ind6nga, n, 8. a needle (Lumbu). 
Indtiba, n, 9. //. ^Inluba, flowers. 

Induba sha buchi, flowers from 

which bees take honey^ 
Induba, ». 8. a bird, the red 

feathers of which are used as a 

head-dress by warriora. 
Indulo, subs. pro. indie, el. 9, 9 a. 

sing, it is it. 
Indiwe, If. 8. bile, gall. Nda fwa 

ndulwe, I am bilious. 
Indlimo, 11.8. fame. 
Indlimba, if. 8. a woollen blanket ; 

indumba inkando,a large, heavy 

woollen blanket. 
Indw&Bhi, If. 8. a sick animal ; of 

cattle, sheep, goats. Properly the 

adj. -Iwazhi, in. el, 8. sit^. or pi, 
Indya, if. 8. gluttony, greed, 

In^mbe, n. 8. a peg, naiL 
In^ngan^nga, m. 8. middle, or half 

way; e.g. twa shika anenga* 

nenga ebanda, we have arrived 

half way across or in the middle 

of the plain. 
Inevhwan^vhwa, if. 8. the outside 

covering of a reed, or maize-stalk. 
Infdko, If. 8. a pipe. 
Infdla, If. 8. a pimple, especially 

on the face. 
Infi^mo, If. 8. name of a tree, fruit 

Infwembilo, if. 8. that part of the 

abdomen which swells when one 

shouts or shrieks; in certain 

animals a gland. 
Ingal interj. expressing surprise, 



reproo£ Inga! "We mokal 

well, you have delayed. 
Inga, isMjV.t, to bolt a door, to lock. 
Ingalnai ku, v. i, to be equal, 
-ingalne, adj, equal ; e,g, Shintu 

shingaine, equal things. 
Ingalnya, leu, v. t, cans, ingalna, 

to equalize, make equal. 
Ingala, n, 8. a crest, head ornament 

of feathers. 
Ing*anda, n, 8. irregular pi, 

manda, a house. 
Inganda, m. 3. a large man. 
Ing'anda, ». 8. a long, large forked 

Ingando, n. 9. //. of Iwando, q* v, 
Inganyabo, n, 3. a very big thing. 
Ing&o J suds, pro, indie, cl, 3, 4, 5,9 a. 

it is they. 
Ingashf , n, 8. a platform erected in 

a field, with a hut built npon it. 
IngAi, n. 8. a thing dead, destroyed, 

rendered of no use. 
Ingflunpo, If. 8. anything which 

causes one to stumble, a stumbling- 
Inghuma, n, 8. fruit of palm-tree. 
Ingila, ku « ka injila, q, v. 
Inge, subs, pro, indie, cl, 3, 4, 5, ga, 

pi, it is not they. 
Ingo, If. 8. joint, especially of hand 

and foot. Inge aha zuinwe, 

Ingot I inter), used to express deep 

respect when speaking to a chief, 

especially to express assent to 

what he says. 
Ingolida, n,i,for. (Eng.) gold. 
Ingol61o, If. 9. //. of longolola, 

Ing61wa, If. 8. a kind of whistle. 
Ingdma, if. 8. a snuff-box. 
Ingomi, If. 8; a drum. 
Ingomantambwe, if. 8. a kind of 

musical instrument 
Ing'6niba, if. 3. a chili. 
Ing6mbani, if. i a, th& klipspringer. 
Ing'ombe, if. 8. a head of cattle ; 

in the pL, cattle. 
Ing'ombe-muka, i». 8. a kind of 

beetle. This beetle is used by 

the Baila to tie into their hair to 

catch lice. 

Ingondo, if. 8. a heavy ring of 

metal worn by women. 
Ing'ongo, It. 9. //. ^longo, q,v, 
Ing*ongoki, i». 8. a kind of snake 

said to bring good fortune to 

those who see it ? Fabulous. 
Ing6nji, if. 8. a native bell, used to 

call people together. 
Ingoshi, n, 9. //. of lozhi, bark 

string in quantity; applied also 

to other string, rope, cord. 
Ingubi, If. 8. a mist. 
Ingtibo, If. 8. a prepared skin for 

wearing ; a blanket, clothes. 
Ingtila, kn, v, t, to answer. Ba la 

ingula, they answer. Ba la 

nyengnla, they answer me. 
Ingultila, ko, v, t, rev, inga, to 

unbolt, to unlock. 
Ing*unsiLn8ii, n, 8. lawlessness. 
Ingao, subs, pro. indie, el, 2, sing, it 

IS It. 

Inguwe, subs, pro, indie, eL i.sing, 

it is he. 
Ingvhu, n. 3. a hornet, wa^. 
Ingvhnla, if. 8. a stone used in 

connexion with the lower grind- 
stone » imanaho. 
Ingvhtinia, if. 8. a hornless beast, 

ox or cow. 
Ingvhumba, n, 8. the colour of 

a light-red ox, also an ox of that 

Ingwe, suds, pro, el. i cmel 2, sing. 

it is not he, it is not it. 
Ingrw^qihi, If. 8. a kind of fish ? the 

tiger fish. 
-ini, adj. expresses ' of itself, self'. 

Cha anguluka ohini, it came 

untied of itself, 
-ini-ini, adJ, real, true; e, g, 

miinta mwinimwini, a true 

person ; kambo kenikeni, a 

true saying. 
Infka, ku, v, t, to put to soak, as 

mealies, &c. 
Iniska, ku, v, i, int, ina, to be very 

fat, corpulent. 
Inj&njabizhi, if. 8. a Idnd of green 

substance found in stagnant water, 

Inj&nji, If. 8. railroad. 
Ixijiltt, If. 8. a very hard thing 



such as the heart of the mwani 

InjADj^ma, n, 3. a piece of flat iron 

or metal — sndi as a sheet of zinc. 
Injenji, n, 8. name of a fruit. 
Inji, conj, bat Kale ba ka bia, 

inji usTiiiu pe, they were bad, but 

to-day, no. 
Injidi, n. 9. //. of Iiwidl, q, v, 
Injila, ku ( * njila), v, u Xo enter. 

The initial vowel coalesces with 

a preceding vowel ; ۥ g, ba le 

x^ila mn ohimpata (ba la Ixijila), 

they enter the kraal. The prep. 

ma or ku must always follow the 

verb ; the idiom is thus different 

from onr own ; we say, they enter 

the bouse; Baila say, they enter 

into the house. 
Injfna, n. 8. a louse, flea. 
Injio, subs, pro, indie, d, 8. sing, 

and cl, a. //. it is it, it is they. 
Injlsha, ku (njisha), v, /. (aus, 

injils, to put into, to cause to 

Injo, subs. pro. indie, cL 8. sing, and 

cl. 3. //. it is not it 
Isjomo, n. S. prosperity, happiness. 
Injna, n. 8. a kind of rattle carried 

by carriers and travellers. 
InlD&bo, n, 8. a fork-stick used for 

tying up slaves, fetter for the 

neck ; also, a tmp of meat set for 

a wild beast. 
Inkako, subs, pro. indie, cl, 6. it 

is it 
InkAla, n, 8. a crab. 
Inkal^pa, n, 8. for. (Eng.) harp. 
TT^irft-ifTri^ n, 8. for, (Suto, kariki ; 

Dutch, kairetje) a cart 
InkJTfia, ». 8. a small bunch of 

grass, the size of one's arm ; also 

a small bundle of spears. 
TnkAmbe, i». 8. for. (Eng.) a camp, 

a government station. 
Inkfoibi, n, 8. a present given to 

conclude a bargain. 
Ink&na, n, 8. a small group of 

people, a class in schooL 
ZnkAnda, n, 8. black, hard ground ; 

a piece of country with few trees, 

a scarcity of water and hard 


Inkandele, n, 8. for, (Eng.) a 

Ink&nga, n, 8. a guinea-fowl. 

Inkanka, n, 8. a short stick driven 
into the ground, a tent-peg. 

Inkanka, n, 8. a big, wonderful 
thing, used as adv. U ta ku 
enda inkanka, you must not 
travel hard. 

Inkdnsho, n, 8. a tool used by the 
blacksmith for making barbs on 

Ink&nso, n, 8. a place for dancing. 

Ink&nao, n. 8. meat left after all fat 
is boiled out, eaten only by elders. 

Inkftshi, ff. 8. a paddle. 

Ink&shi, n, 9. //. of lonkaahi, a 

Inkisn, n. 8. loud talking ; quick, 
loud answering, it may be, dis- 
respectfully. Applied to any one 
who is quick in answering when 
called, in a amba inkasu, he 
talks loudly and at length. 

Inkata, n, 8. a pad used in canying 
things on the head, also a coil. 

Inkatekisima, n. 8. for, (Eng.) 
a catechism. 

Inkaya, ff. 8. an ivory bracelet. 

Inkeleke, n. S.for, (Suto, kereke ; 
Dutch, kerk) a church. 

Inketani, n. %,for, (Suto, ketane ; 
Dutch, keten) a chain. 

Inketele, n, %.jfbr, (Eng.) a kettle. 

Inki, n. i,for. (Eng.) ink. 

Inkidi, n. 8. a stamping-block; 
a mortar used for stamping grain. 

Inko, subs, pro. indie, el, 5, 6. sing. 
it is not it. 

Inkodi, n. 8. a short stick with a 
large knob, a knob-kerrie. 

Inkdfa, n. 8. a lean animal, cow, 
goat, or sheep. Properly the adj, 
kofu in cl. 8. 

Inkdfti, n, 8. a bug. 

Inkokola, n. 9. //. of lukokola, 

Inkdla, n, 8. cruelty, malice. 

Ink61o, n. 9. //. of, lukolo, breasts. 

Inkoloi, n. 8. for, (Suto koloi) a 

Inkdma, n. 9. //. of lukoma, cala- 
bash dippers. 



Inkdmba, n, 8. the last child a 

woman will have. 
Inkdxnba, if. 8. a large pot used 

for cooking meat. 
Inkomb&zhi, n. 9. //. 0/ lukom- 

bazhi, palms of the hands. 
Inkdmbe, n, 8. a message. Ku 

tuma inkombe, to send a 

Inkomb^lo, n. 8. a manner of 

prayer, religion. 
Ink6mbOy n. 8. the bow or stern of 

a canoe. 
Inkombdla, n. 8. a kind oC snake, 

very poisonous. 
Inkomiki, n, 8. for. (Suto, komiki; 

Dutch, kommetje) a cup. 
Ink6mo, n, 8. a bag, sack. 
Inkom6na, n, 8. fruit of the palm- 
Inkomonkomo, n. 8. end of a 

narrative, case, tale. The idea is 

that at first a person may not tell 

the exact truth, but at the end he 

will out with it; this is the 

makani a nkomonkomo. 
Inkdmwe, n, 8. a steep bank, a 

Inkona, n, 9. //. o/lvLkonAy barbed 

Inkonaulamasanga, the moon of 

Ink6nde, n. 8. a necklace of beads. 
Ink6ndo, n, 8. war. 
Inkong61o, n, 8. a rainbow. 
Inkong61o, n. 8. a butterfly. 
Inkongol6kwa, n, 8. a butterfly. 
Ink68a, n. 8. a knot tied in grass 

by children. 
Inkdsha, n. 8. meat-hunger. Nda 

fwa inkosha, I want meat very 

Inkdshi, n, 8. a bare mealie cob. 
Inkosdle, n. 8. colour of a red 

ox with a white stripe round the 

body, an ox of that colour. 
Inkosole-kutwi, n. 8. an ox or 

cow with the ear notched, or 

partly cut off. 
Ink6ti, n, 8. the vertebra pro- 

Ink6to, n, 8. the state in which 

people are when they have been 

fighting, they have no dealings 
with each other, a grudge. 

Inkot61o, n, 8. an ox or co^ 
without horns. 

Inkdwe, n, 8. the eyelash. 

Inkdya, n, 8. a big individual of 
the Mankoya tribe. 

Inkiiane, n. 8. a hat, cap, bonnet. 

Inktidi, n, 3. a large calabash. 

Inknko, subs, pro, indie, cL 5. sing, 
it is it. 

Inkdku, n, 8. a domestic fowl. 

Inkumbankumba, n, 8, a snail. 

Inkumbn, n, 8. pity, compassion 
( s Intenda). 

Inkumpani, n, 8. for, (Eng.) a 
company of people. 

Inktiinu, n, 8. the forehead. 

Inktingo, n, 8. a stack of maize. 

Inktingwa, n, 8. a barbed arrow. 

Inktingwe, #f. 8. a kind of small 

Inktinka, n, 8. a house built in. 
beehive shape, the roof touching 
the ground. 

Inktuia, n, 8. a wrinkle, furrow on 
the forehead. 

Inkiishila, n, 8. a wave on a river 
or lake, wrinkle on face. 

Inktiti, n. 8. an apron of skin, &c. 
worn by men in front, InkutiL 
ya matako, apron worn behind. 

Inkwa, If. 8. the axilla or armpit. 

Inkwabilo, n, 8. a sandal, boot, 

Inkwakwa, if. 8. a kind of small 
edible root. 

InkwAnto, n, 8. a hole made in 
a grain-bin for taking out grain. 

Ink^dsho, If. 9. //. of lokwaaho, 
blacksmith's pincers. 

Inkw&ya, if. 8. dry, fallen leaves. 

Inkw^la^ If. 8. name of a custom. 
Ba la Chita inkwela. It denotes 
a covenant made between a man 
and woman ; a reminder of friend- 
ship, or a renewal of the same. 
The woman clears a piece of 
ground by the side of a road, the 
man plants a stick to represent 
a house. He then chops down 
some bushes around the place to 
represent clearing a field. 



Inkwiy If. 9.//. ^iikwi,wiimowiiig- 

Inkwidlmba, n, 8. a domestic 

Inkwino, ». 9. ku luma inkwino, 

to gnash the teeth. 
Inkwiflhita, n, 8. wave on surface 

of river or lake^ fnrrow on foie- 

In6ngo, n. 8. (? Tonga) a clay 

Inafty H. 8. a kidney. 
InaAta, n, 8. calf of the leg^. 
InaahAy n. 8. for, (J^^») & s>^* 
Ins&ka, n, 8. smithy, foxge, black- 
smith's shop. 
Tn«Av>^iAii^, n, 8. a kind of rattle 

carried by carriers and travellers. 
Insako, n, 9. //. of Inaako, spear 

Ina&kn, n. 8. a weed. 
Ina^ma, n, 8. a burning brand, a 

torch, a firebrand. 
Tnaina, n. 8. strength, power, 

ability. Used mostly mpL Ku 

pa ixuana, to give streogth. 
Ins&ngu, If. 8. seed of tobacco and 

Inainae, if. 8. a spark. 
Inaapo, if. 8. a woman's girdle of 

Tnaaithi, if. 8. a calabash in which 

fat for anointing purposes is put. 

Fig, a stont, £at person; e,g. a 

la nana mafbta a mu nsashi, 

he anoints himself with, fat out 

of the insazhi. 
Inaeba, if. 9.//. ^luaaba, bodies. 
Inaebensabe, if. 8. quick going 

with short strides. (See ka sebe- 

Ina^d, If. 8. a wen. 
Inseke, if. 8. a single grain. 
Ina^ka, if. 8. a hen. 
Ins6nda»inkungwa, q,v, 
Ina6nda, us. 8. a dam, bank across 

a river. 
Ina^u, If. 8. the colour of a white 

oz with red spots on the back, an 

OS of that colour. JDahi ing*ombe 
. Binaea, this ox is of such a kind. 
Inahi, if. 8. country, the earth. Fl. 

is also maahi, nations. 

Inahikila, if. 8. hiccough. Wesu 

montu wa fwa nahikila, this 

man hiccoughs. 
Inahiliva, ». %,for, (Eng.) silver. 
Inahlma, n. 8. bread. Used as an 

interj, when doing easy work. 

Inahima ! This isn't work, it's 

bread! Ku dya nahima, is an 

idiom for doing easy work. PL 

is also Mashixna, of a quantity. 
Inahimba, if. 8. a varie^ of wild 

Inahfmbi, if. 8. an iron instrument, 

leg-iron for prisoners. 
Inahindarnwina, if. 8. the meal 

left in the bottom of the inkidi ; 

not to be eaten by children, it 

being said that if they eat they 

will not grow. 
Inahinga, if. 9.//. ^lusbinga, q.v. 
Inahingo, if. 8. the neck. 
Inahfnka, n, 8. the butt end of a 

Inahfpi, if. 8. a brass bangle, metal 

Inahiaho, subs, pro, indie, cl, 7, 8, 9. 

//. it is they. 
Inaho, subs, pro, indie, cl, 7, 8, 9. //. 

it is not they. 
Insli6nya, is. 8. the inside cartilages 

of the nose. 
Inaoki, n. 8. a grass seed. 
Inadlo, n. 8. a bullet. 
In8om6ni, if. 8. a cow that has 

calved once. 
Inadnga, if. 8. the point of a spear 

or knife. 
Inaongwa, n. 8. a long pointed 

stick, used as a spear by boys 

in playing. 
Ina6ni, n, 8. shame. 
Inatia, if. 8. a calabash for holding 

milk, a chum. 
Inai^ n, 8. the 'show* in child- 
Inankele, if. 8. for, (Eng.) sugar. 
Instiki, u, 8. a single hair of the 

Ins6ku, If. 8. the head-dress, cone, 

of the Baila when still small. 
Inatimpa, if. 8. the summit or top 

of a house. 
Inatimu, n, 8. colour of an oz^^a 




kind of claret, an ox or cow of 

that colour. 
Insunda, n. S,/or. (Eng.) Sunday. 
Instiiidi, n, 8. a barren cow, goat 

or sheep. 
Znawi,, n. 8. a flying ant. 
Inswl, n, 8. a fish. 
Inta, ft. 9. pi, of luta, cracks, 

crevices in wood, &c. 
Intafole, n, 8. for. (Suto, tafole ; 

Dutch, tafel) a table. 
Intalab&nda, n. 8. a bean. 
Int&le, n, 8. iron binding on spear 

Int&ma, n, 8. a bundle of spears. 
Intambo, n. ^.pL i^utambo, belts. 
Intamb^o, n, 8. a step, stride. 
Int&mo, n. 8. space between legs 

when stretched out. 
Int&mo, n. 8. false tales, excuses, 

denials. "Wezo muntu wa tama 

intamo, said of a person who 

falsely denies his fault and lays 

it upon another, or who falsely 

accuses another of a crime he 

himself has done. 
Intdnda, n. 8. the morning star. 
Intanda, n. 8. a falling, shooting 

star, a meteor. 
Intanga, n. 9. //. of lutanga, 

cattle outposts. 
Intangatanga, n, ^.pl. ^lutanga- 

tanga, cobwebs. 
Intdngwa, n, 8. feathers of arrow. 
Intapintapi, n. 8. a renmant, any- 
thing left over. 
Intaaa, n. 8. an armlet put on the 

upper arm. 
Int^be, If. 8. a bag made out of 

Int61a I interj, is it so ! 
Intela, n. 8. name of a game. 
Int^lo, n. 8. a mould for bullets. 
Intelongo, n. %.for. (Suto, teronko ; 

Dutch, tronk) a prison. Some 

pronounce it intolongo. 
Interna, n, 8. a new field, wherein 

trees are newly felled. 
Intempele, n, 8. for, (Eng.) a 

Int^nda, n, 8. pity, compassion. 

Xu fwila muntu intenda, to 

Xeel compassion for a person. 

Intento, if. 9.//. ^lutento, plates. 
Int^sha, ff. 8. a unit. Used in 

counting; e.g. Ikumi diomwi 

o mu ntesha yomwi, eleven. 
Int^sho, n. 8. a calabash used for 

drawing water, a pitcher. 
Intestamente, n. 8. a testament 
Intimba, n. 8. slough, marsh, mire. 
Intimbwa, n, 8. a kind of musical 

Intipa, n. ^^for, (Suto, tbipa) a 

European knife. 
Intite, n. 3. name of a small bird. 
Into, subs. pro. indie. eU 6. //. it is 

not they. 
Int6bo, n. 8. a shield. 
Intobdlo, If. 8. a gun. Chisomo 

oha ntobolo, the wood support 

on back of a gun. 
Intola, n. Z.for. (Eng.) a tower. 
Intomb^la, n. 8. a lizard. 
Intombdla, n, 8. tail of a lion. 

Intombola -kamine yaminuka, 

i dya muntu, when a lion's tail 

wags he*s going to eat somebody. 
Int6mbwe, n. 8. snuff. 
Intom^no, if. 8. mustache. 
Intdngo, If. 8. grumbling, grumble. 

A mu leke intongo shenu, 

stop your grumbling. 
Intongw^Bhi, if. 8. a star. 
Intoni, If. 8. the penis. 
Intopisho, If. 8. a gun-cap. 
Intoto, If. 8. vagina feminete, 
Intoya, n. 8. whey (Lumbu). 
Inttidi, If. 8. a small piece of meat, 

without bone. 
Inttunba, if. 8. a basket 
Inttunba, the east Ku ya ku 

ntumba, to go to the east. 
IntumbtUwa, if. 8. name of a kind 

of fruit, dark in colour like a 

plum, eatable. 
Inttinda, if. 8. a hump on the back, 

rounded shoulders, also a hump 

in wall of house, where the poles 

are not straight 
Inttindu, if. 8. a kind of basket 
Intdngu, If. 8. a kind of fish. 
Intdntwa, if. 8. great astonishment, 

amazement. Bantu ba la fwa 

ntuntwa, the people are greatly 




Inttbuho, If. 8. a needle. 

Intato, subs, pro, i$uUc, cL 6. //. it 
is th^. 

Intatn, it. 8. a man's possessions 

Int6tw«, n. I a. //. bantutwa, a 

-inn, <idj, UX. Incr'oxnbe injinu^ 
iat cattle. Mmita mwino, a fat 

Intima, if. 3. the back of anything, 
of a person particolarly. Us^ 
adverbially,, behind. U !• as 
mnnnma, he comes behind. As 
a /n^. xnnnmna ya. U le sa 
nmnunia yanca^ he comes be- 
hind me. 

Innmbelo, ff. S.ySv. (Eng.) a num- 

Inifina» kn, v. /. to take anything 
snch as a burden firom another in 
order to give him relief and rest ; 
to reliere. 

Inungo, It. 8. a joint, as the 
knuckles or knee ; also of reed or 

Intmgn, if. 8. a smgle bead. 

£ntuicri^ M* 8. seied of melon, 
cucumber, pumpkin. 

InThi, If. 8. grey hair. 

Inw^nwe, if. 8. a finger-ring. 

Inys, ka, v, /. cans, ina, to make 
fat, to £Eitten. 

Inyaba, n. 9.//. ^luyaba, nets. 

Inyabo, if. 8. a veiy big thing; 
iniefj, Vyabo! what a big 

Inyama, n. 8. meat, flesh. 

Inyambadla, if. 8. a kind of sharp 
three-edged grass. 

Inyinga, if. 8. an ivory bracelet; 
also tusk. 

Inyati, n. 5. a herd of buffaloes. 

Inyauwe, if. 8. lewdness, lewd coo- 

Inyemo, if. 8. ground-nut. Used 
as inUrj, when doing easy 
woik. Inyemo ! Inyemo ! This 
b not work, it is inyemo! Ku 
dya inyemo, to have easy work. 
Iny6nda, if. 8. a needle. 
Inyenge, ir. 9.//. ^Iwenge, large 


Inyando, it. ^, pL of Iwando, 

Iziyense, if. 8. a flying beetle which 

eats leaves off trees, flies vdth a 

buzdng noise. 
Inyenso, if. 9. //. of Iwanso, 

Inyika, if. 8. a large barren plain, 

a wilderness. 
Inyimbo, if. 9. pi, of Iwimbo, 

songs, hymns. 
Inyimbldidi, if. 9. //. of Iwimbi- 

didi, mane, cock's comb. 
Inyinga, if. 8. a woman's leglet 
Inyinaa, if. 8. dividing line l^twecn 

fields, border, boundary. 
Inyo, If. 8. the anus, comer of the 

Iny6twa, if. 8. thirst. 
Inyi^do, If. 8. a hammer. 
Insa, ka, v. i. to be quiet, silent. 
Insula, If. 8. hunger, famine, star- 
vation. Ka fwtk ifiaala, to be 

InslUUno, if. 8. a scab. 
Inshi, If. 8. the common house-fly. 
Inshi, If. 3. a large village, town, 

InaMba, if. 8. wild dove, pigeon. 
Inahlbo, if. 8. stopper or plug of 

the chum calabash. 
Tnnhfe, if. 8. a kind of locust. 
Tnahfia, n, 8. a path, road. 
Inshimbwa, if. 8. cattle-fly. 
Inshinge, if. 8. a quaiL Said to be 

eaten as a medicine to secure one 

from being seen. 
Inaho, coHJ. and ado. now, then. 
Inxho-inalLO, adv, at once, unmedi- 

Insika, ka, v, t, caus, insa, to 

silence, to quieten. 
Ins6be, it. 8. the situtunga antelope 

Ina6ka, if. 8. a snake.' 
InstUd, It. 8. the honey-bee. 
Ina6ahi, if. 8. the cerval cat. 
Inswini, it. 8. a kind of pipe used 

for smoking hemp, 
lova. If. 3. froth, lather, scum. 
I6shi, It. 3. a la^ string of bark, 

a rope. 
Ipai, ik 3. a coloored blinkct. 




Ipango, n. 3. breast-bone of a 

Ip»okab6aliay name given to the 

Supreme Being. It signifies one 

who gives gifts which do not 
. last; €.£. the rain dries up, the 

grain rots. 
Ip6pa, n. 3. shell, dried skin of 

animal, rind, prepuce, pod. 

Ipapelo, «. Z'/^' (^gO <^ Pf^pc'y 
or paper generally. 

Zpelanks, n, ^.for, (Eng.) a plank. 

Ipelete, n, ^for, (£ng.) a plate. 

Ip6ini>a, n, 3. a newly*m»de, un- 
baked pot. 

Ipene, n, z.for, (Eng.^ a pea. 

Ip«ni, n, 3.3^. (Eng.) a penny. 

Ipensile, n, z,for, (Eng.) a pencil. 

Ip^nshi, If. 3. trouble, difficulty, 

Ipeps, If. 3. a light thing, a page of 
a book. 

Ip6pe, If. 3. a feather. 

Ip^zlio, If. 3. a large brush or 

Ipiki, If. %,for. (Eng.) a pick, pick- 

Zpfnda, ko, v. t, to stir food while 

Ipini, If. 3. /v. (Eng.) a pin. 

Ipobwe, If. 3. a feast. 

Ip6mo, If. 3. a pole for the roof, 
rafter. Mapomo are the smaller 
poles put in a roof. 

Ipdpa, If. 3. a big drum, a cask, 

Zpopi, If. 3. a low wall of earth, a 

Ipopwe, If. 3. a mealie; generally 
found in the//, mapopwe. 

Xpub^bu, If. 3. name of a weed 
plant, with yellow flowers, and 
adherent seeds. 

Ipumbulu, If. 3. a maize cob with- 
out the sheath. 

IptipullUwa, If. 3. a very strong 
wind, a gale. 

IptUihi, n. 3. a pumpkin. 

la^ba, If. 3. a big marsh, swamp. 

Isaka, n, ^./or, (Eng.) a sack. 

Isale, If. I. far* (EngO ^ saddle. 

Is&le, If. 3. grass growing on river 

Zailo, If. 3.. a soft, fresh skin or hide. 

Zs^Unbwe, if. 3. a good bargain, 
good fortune in selling or buy- 

Zaftmo, If. 3. a tree. 

Za&nga-s&ngu, if. 3. a fruit shell 
used as a snufif-box. 

Zaani, if. 3. cloth, calico, print. 
Zaani i tuba, calico. Zaani dia 
mabala, coloured print. 

Xsinsa, If. 3. a bunch of virild 

? rapes. 
xxBa, n. 3. a big busanaa. 

Zsanzhi, n, 3. twig, small branch. 

Zsapo, If. 3. small white beads. 

Zaasa, «. 3. a large mat made oi 
impolwe grass ; a mat of reeds. 

laaso. If. 3. a sinew used m sew- 

Xseka, n. 3. a leglet. 

Zsenga, if. 3. sand, a sandy place.. 

Zaenge, if. 3. a grain stalk. 

Zadngo, if. 3. a large luaengo, 

Zsdngo, If. 3. a hole in the bed of a 
river where fish live. 

Zs^ni, If. 3. a maggot found in 

Zaenke, if. 3.yS7r. (Eng.) zinc, cor- 
rugated iron. 

Xa^za, If. 3. a large quantity of 

Za^zhi, If. 3. placenta of animal. 

Zaha, ku, v, t. eaus. ita, to cause to 
pass, to miss a shot. 

Xaha, ku, v,t, caus, ilea, to cause 
or help to cook. 

Zahanya, ka, v. t, rec, caus. ita, to 
miss each other by taking different 

Zshi, If. 3. a quantity of smoke. 

Zshinga, if. 3. blood in the urine, 

Zahlni, if. 3. a cold in the heady 

Zahialu, if. 3. dark-brown colour. 

Zaho, n. 3. a salt-pan or pooL 

Zahokdla, if. 3. a venereal disease. 

Zahudiangdmbe, n, 3. yellow 
colour ; lit, cattle urine. 

Zaikile, if. z,for, (Eng.) a sickle. 

Zaikiapenae, if. I* fir, (Eng.) a six- 



Isoldsi, m, 5. fir, (Eog.) sock, 

Isdkwe, If. 5. country, with tall 

grass ; scattered country. 
l86mi>o, If. 5. name of a tree which 

grows upon the river bank ; it 

bears benies. 
la6ndo, n, 5. a pole ibr the too£ 
Ian, pars. pra. i /.//. onx. Preceded 

by gen, parts. , and the i coalesces 

with a to forai •; e.g. mftnda 

6811, oar house (nutnd* s-isu). 
Isubilo, K. $. the bladdCT; isubilo 

dia ndulwe, the gali-bladder. 
Isoldla, ka, v, i. to start a journey 

late in the day, to delay starting. 
Istikii, If. 3. name of a tree ; wood 

is good for poles ; it bearsa fmtt. 
Isule, If. 3. the back; mwianle 

( s xnn inde) dia, prep, behind. 
Ismno, II. 3. a spear. 
Isompila, n. 3. a bin made of grass 

for receiving grain just harve^ed. 
Isunta, If. 3. oxen or food consumed 

at a fimeral feast. 
Isontnla, n^ia. name of an animaL 
IsuflO) If. 3. a large calabash. 
Isusa, If. 3. hair of the head, head- 
dress of the Baila when very talL 
Ita, kn, V. t. to pass ; ba la ita, 

they pass; ba la njita, they pass 

me ; Ira. ita ansansa, to pass at 

a distance. 
Ita, ku, («kwita) v.t, to call; 

mwita, call him ; ba le ta, they 

are calling. 
Itako, II. 3. the base of anything, 

anvil, stock of gun ; pi. xnatoko, 

the buttocks. 
It&la, If. 3. side of river or valley; 

mwitala modia, on the other 

Itala, n, 3. a big butala (^.v.). 
It6ma, n. 3. the cheek. 
It&nda, If. 3. a big shooting star, 

It&nda, If. 3. a chiefs shelter, where 

he rests or judges cases. 
Itanda, if. 3. stock of a gun. 
Itanga, if. 3. a melon. 
Itangnla, ir. 3. a gun. 
Itano (« Ita anoj, the moon of 


ItantOa, if . 3. a big rabbish heap. 

ItiMii, n. 3. an arm, hand. 

Itdlo, H, 3. a stick or tree placed 
across a road over which yoa most 

Itembulabnahii, is. 3. ka amba L — 
to give an order indistinctly, so 
that the person does not do uriut 
yon say. 

It6nde, if. 3. a foot, fin of fish. 
Itenda dia nkoloi, a w a ggon- 

Itente, if. 3.ySir. (Eng.) a tent. 

Itfba, If. 3. a large basin, bowl; 
also that wliich holds the misemu 
in a house. 

Itikiti, n, 3. far. (Eng.) a ticket, 
labour or census ticket 

Itdmba, n, 3. dirt; e.g. mongV 
nda mudi itoxnba, the house is 
dirty inside. 

It6iigo, If. 3. old deserted field and 
village, where there are no people ; 
xnwitongo, on the site of an old 

Itong61a, If . 3. a fish-eating bird. 

Itoshi, If. 3. a fabulous water-mon- 
ster (called by the Marotsi ingo- 
ngodi) supposed to inhabit the 
rivers. It has been described to 
the writer as being as big as a 
large camel-thom tree, but no- 
body, unless he possesses strong 
medicine to protect him, ever sees 
it. If anybody else sees it he will 
die. It is supposed that spirits 
of men pass into these monsters. 
There are several of them in the 
Nanzela river, in which now reside 
former chiefs of the locality. It 
is supposed to seize people. When 
this happens, a person who is duly 
protected by medicine goes along 
the bank, and sits there praying 
for the captive's release. After a 
time itoshi, annoyed by the man's 
importunity, releases its captive. 
The people seem to be very afraid 
of this monster, and will paddle 
very carefully past the place where 
it lives. 

It6vti, If. 3. a leaf of a tree. 

Itti, If . 3. a variety of wild onmge. 



Ittibe, If. 3. a cataract in the eye. 

Itubtizhn, n, 3. green colour. 

Ituxnpftta, If. 3* a clot of blood. 

Itundila, n. 3. a brackish incrusta- 
tion in a valley. 

Ztmigiaho, if. 3. pole for a roof. 
The matungisbo are the first poles 
put on a roof ; they are generally 
prepared on the ground and taken 
up together. 

Itatultiwe, If. 3. a cheetah. 

Itt^a, If. 3. a blister. 

Itw^, If. 3. ash, cinders ; nditwe, 
it is true. See Eng.'Ila Vocab. 

Itw^ntwe, If. 3. a country with trees 
and only short grass. 

Itwi, If, 3. a big head. 

lobubu, If. 3. impudence, dis- 

Ifunbs, If. 3. a worm found in men 
and dogs, maggot in bread. 

I^mbu, If. 3. a present of food given 
to a traveller. 

lumbiiawa, ». 3. a kind of ant- 

Ifunpa, If. 3. a large dLumps (^.v.). 

lumpalzhi, if. 3. name of a star. 

Iiftnda, If. 3. a large field or garden. 

lundu. If. 3. the jigger insect. 

Iiftnga, If. 3. a large kind of thorn- 
tree, camel-thorn, kameeldom. 

I6iise, If. 3. name given to the first 
product in making meal, the husk 
still in it, * pollard ' or * seconds ' ; 
//. maiinze, of a large quantity. 

Itite, If. 3. an abscess, a boil. 

Ivangele, if. 3. far. (Gr. Bvange- 
lion), the Gospel. 

Ivhu, If. 3. soil, ground. 

iTh^mbi ikando, if. 3. the month 
of October. 

iTh^mbo^ ». 3. a basket-work fish- 

ItIlwI, If. 3. the knee. 

Iviki, If. 3 for, (£ng.) a week. 

iTini, ff. 3.y2v. (Eng.) veine. 

Iwe, If. 3. the east, generally used 
as an iuh, in its locative forms, 
ambo, Ictunbo. 

Iwezhi, If. 3. a large fish-hook. 

Iwi, If. 3. a wild orange. 

lys, ku, v» U to teach, instruct. 

Ijaiiaa, if. 3. a carving, moulding. 

such as that on a spear shaft and 

on a table leg ; also the curve in 

a horn. 
lyeye, if. 3. a thing done purposely, 

out of spite. 
lyiy ^* 3- P^' mal, an ^^, 
lydnga, if. 3. a large spear used in 

hunting elephants and buffalo. 
Zydla, Ira, v, t, to take a pot off the 

lytiiido, If. 3. a place where a vil- 
lage once stood, together with the 

old fields. 
Isambiila, if. 3. the odour, scent of 

a snake. 
l£6n2lii. If. 3. name of a kind of 

Iz6ng8, If. 3. a quantity of lusenge 

iBeulu, If. 3. the space above, sky, 

l£ha, Ini, V, t, to converse together 
after food. 

Xshadflo, If. 3. a womb. 

Ishibs, If. 3. a pool of water, a lake. 

lahilo, If. 3. pole planted upright 
in building wall of a house» gene- 
rally heaid in//, mashilo. 

l£hins. If. 3. a name, inheritance. 
Ku dys izhina, to eat a name, to 
inherit. Izhina diako ndiweni ? 
What is thy name ? 

Ishlwo, If. 3. the lower grinding- 

. stone, millstone. 

Izhizhi, If. 3. a fish-trap. 

Izholaule, if. 3. a kind of spear. 

lEubs, If. 3. the su% day. 

lauba. If. 3. a venereal disease in 
men and women. 

laudila, ]ni, v, U to suffice for. 

Izula, Ira. (kwiauls), v./. to be 
fnlL Peff, izwile; e,g, Intu- 
mba te swilo, the basket is 
not full. 

latine, » . 3. a big bird. 

lawsngs, If. 3. a great noise of talk- 
ing, as at a drinking-bout. 

law^ If. 3. word, voice. 

S[, pronounced as In English. 
Ka (i) Classifier t cL 6. sing, 
(a) Gen, part. cL 6. jf'i^. ; als^ 
ptrs, and rel, pro* same cL 



(3) Prefix to adverbStluiXiotai dec. 

(4) Imperatwe particle in sing, €tnd 
pL In sing, its final s coalesces 
with the pro, to fonn ko ; thus, 
ko ys « ka u ya, 

(5) Particle Qsed in formine several 
tenses of the yerb. See ^3a/. vii. 

Kab^ba, if. 6. poison on arrow, a 

small feather. 
Kabangnlulu, n,ia. name of a 

forest tree, medicine made from it. 
KabibiBi, If. 6. a scorpion. 
Kabele, subs, pro, prep, cL 6. it 

' (where it is). 
Kabla, n. 6. a small pot. 
Kablabe, adv, badly. 
Kabiabe, if. 6. a pain in the chest. 

STda fwa kabiabe, I am suffering 

with a pain in the chest. 
Kab^mbwa, it. i a. a frog ; idiom 

ba ka Inma bakabombwe, the 

frogs bite yon, said of a child with 

a dirty nose. 
Sabdmbwe, k. 6. name of a tree, 

frnit nsed as fish poison. 
Sabongvhwe, ado. easily, slowly. 
KabonBhabdmbeihi, A^. the early 

afternoon, f . e, when the shepherds 

are beginning to get tired. 
Kabota, adv, well, nicely. 
Sabota-kabotUy adv, gently, 

Kabu, If. 6. a small reed. 
Sabuambua, if. 6. a mushroom. 
Kabnko, if . 6 « chibuko (^.v.)* 
Kabw^, If. 6. a small dog, a pup. 
Kabw6nga, if • i a. a hvaena. 
Kabw6ngwe, if. 6. snake medicine. 

(See Eng.'Ila Voc,, Medicine.) 
Kabwlndie, if. i a. a muircat. 
Kaoh6booh6bo, if. 6. a continuous 

Kadia, dem, pro* cL 6. sing, yon, 

-kadi, o^'. sharp, fierce, angry, wild, 

Kadie P interr, pro, cl, 6. Jf if^. 

which? Samindi kadie P which 

needle ? 
Sadika, ka, v,t. cans, kala, to 

place, appoint, to install ; e, g, Ba 

xnu kadika ma chona oha 

bwami, they put him in the seat 

of authority, install him as chief. 
Idiom, ka kadika moio, to be 

Kadikila, ka, v, t, caus, reL kala, 
to place for somebody, &c. 

Kadindiahi, n,ia.9, watcher, care- 
taker ; prov, kadlndlahi ta fwi 
naala, bakata mba ba ma 
yaya, a caretaker doesn't die of 
hunger (f . e, he helps himself to 
what be can find), it is laziness 
that kills him. 

Kadunta, if. i a. a hair-louse. 

Kadyo, if. 6. a small article of food. 

KaAia, if. 6. a small bone. 

Sa-fOmba-bombe-bombe, if. 6. 
name of a game. 

Kafambaftunba, if. 6. a plan, 
stratagem. Udi kwete kafti- 
mbaftunba, said of a person who 
wants work but does not ask for 
it ; he simply sets upon a job, so 
that you may ask him : Do you 
want work ? 

Kafaxnbaftimba, if . i a. a kind of 
scavenger beetle. 

Kafombwi, if. i a, the sable ante* 

Kafampe, adv, stealthily; a le 
enda kafampe, he goes 
stealthily, e, g, like a lion. 

Kai, an interrogative particle ex- 
pressing : Is it not ? Used especi- 
ally in answer to questions ; e,g, 
Ngoni owa leta inkani f Kai 
oawe P Who is it brought fire- 
wood ? Is it not we ? 

Kaimba, if. 6.//. twimba, a wrinkle 
on the forehead. 

Kaimbo P interr. Is it not so ? 

Kaimbo, if. 6. a small, short song. 

Kaindi, if. 6. a small space of 
time, a moment. 

Kaini, conj, because. 

Kaka (or Nkaka), if. i tf . a grand* 

Kaka, dem, pro, cl, 6. sir^, this. 

Kaka, ko, v, t, to reftise, disobey, 

Kakalnta, if. 6. a small or weak 

Kakaaha, ka, v, t. to prevent, stop. 

Sakata, ka, v, t, said of a thief who 



Ittibe, If. 3. a cataract in the eye. 

Itubtizhn, n. 3. green colour. 

Itnmpftta, if. 3, a clot of blood. 

Itondila, if. 3. a brackish incrusta* 
tion in a valley. 

Itnngisho, if. 3. pole for a roof. 
The matnngisbo are the first poles 
put on a roof ; they are generally 
prepared on the ground and taken 
up together. 

Itatultiwe, If. 3. a cheetah. 

Ittiza, If. 3. a blister. 

Itw6, If. 3. ash, cinders ; nditwe, 
it is true. See Eng,'Ila Vocab, 

Itw^ntwe, If. 3. a country with trees 
and only short grass. 

Itwi, If, 3. a big head. 

lububii, If. 3. impudence, dis- 

Ifunba, If. 3. a worm found in men 
and dogs, maggot in bread. 

I^mbu, If. 3. a present of food given 
to a traveller. 

lumbiiawa, ». 3. a kind of ant- 

Itimpa, If. 3. a laige ohuinps (^.v.). 

lumpalzhi, if. 3. name of a star, 

Iiftnda, If. 3. a large field or garden. 

lundii. If. 3. the jigger insect. 

Iiftnga, If. 3. a large kind of thorn- 
tree, camel-thorn, kameeldom. 

I6iise, If. 3. name given to the first 
product in making meal, the husk 
still in it, < pollard ' or ' seconds ' ; 
//. matmze, of a large quantity. 

Itite, If. 3. an abscess, a boil. 

Ivangele, if. 3. for, (Gr. Bvange- 
lion), Uie Gospel. 

iThu, If. 3. soil, ground. 

iThfbnbi ikando, if. 3. the month 
of October. 

iThfunbo, n, 3. a basket«work fish- 

iThwi, if« 3. the knee. 

Iviki, If. 3 for, (Eng.) a week. 

Ivini, ». 3.yi?r, ^Eng.) wine. 

Iwe, «. 3. the east, generally used 
as an adv, in its locative forms, 
ambo, Ictunbo. 

Iwezhi, If. 3. a large fish-hook. 

Iwi, If. 3. a wild orange. 

lys, Ini, v^ U to teach, instruct. 

lyazuuty If. 3. a carving, moulding. 

such as that on a spear shaft and 

on a table leg ; also the curve in 

a horn, 
lyeye, if. 3. a thing done purposely, 

out of spite. 
lyi. If. 3. //. mal, an egg. 
Iy6iiga, If. 3. a large spear used in 

hunting elephants and buffalo. 
lyUla, ku, V. /. to take a pot off the 

lydndo, if. 3. a place where a vil- 
lage once stood, together with the 

old fields. 
l£smbiila, If. 3. the odour, scent of 

a snake. 
l£6n2hi, If. 3. name of a kind of 

Iz6Dge, If. 3. a quantity of loBenge 

iBeulii, If. 3. the space above, sky, 

laha, ka, v, U to converse together 
after food. 

Xzhadflo, If . 3. a womb. 

Izhiba, If. 3. a pool of water, a lake. 

lahilo, If. 3. pole planted upright 
in building wall of a house» gene* 
rally heaid in//. maBhilo. 

Ishins, If. 3. a name, inheritance. 
Ku dys is^iina, to eat a name, to 
inherit iBhina diako ndiweni ? 
What is thy name ? 

Ishiwo, If. 3. the lower grinding- 

. stone, millstone. 

Izhizhi, If. 3. a fish-trap. 

Izkolaule, if. 3. a kind of ispear. 

Izubs, If. 3. the su% day. 

Izuba, If. 3. a venereal disease in 
men and women. 

Izudila, ku, v, t, to suffice for. 

Izula, ka (kwizuls), v. /. to be 
fulL Feff izwile; e,g, intu- 
mba te swile, the basket is 
not full. 

IzTine, If. 3. a big bird. 

Izwangs, If. 3. a great noise of talk- 
ing, as at a driiScing-bout 

Izw^ If. 3. word, voice. 

'K, pronounced as in English. 

Ka (i) Classifier y cL 6. sing, 
(a) Gen, part, cl. 6. jfi^.; alsm 
P(rs, and rel, pro, same cL 



snch as the heart of the mwani 

Injenj^ma, n, 3. a piece of flat iron 

or metal — such as a sheet of zinc. 
Injenji, n, 8. name of a fmit. 
Inji, canj, bat. Kale ba ka bia, 

inji usnnu pe, they were bad, but 

to-day, no. 
Inji di, If. 9. //. of Lwidi, q, v, 
Injila, ku ( 1- njila), v. u to enter. 

The initial vowel coalesces with 

a preceding vowel ; ۥ g, ba le 

Bjila ma ohimpata (ba la isjila), 

they enter the kraal. The prep. 

mil or ku must always follow the 

verb ; the idiom is thus different 

from onr own ; we say, they enter 

the house; Baila say, they enter 

into the house. 
Injina, if. 8. a louse, flea. 
Injio, mbs, pro. indie* cU 8. sing, 

and cl. 2. pi, it is it, it is they. 
Isjislia, ku (njizha), v, /. caus, 

injila, to pot into, to canse to 

Injo, subs* pro, indie, el, 8. sing, and 

cl, 2, pi, it is not it 
Injoino, n. 8. prosperity, happiness. 
Injua, If. 8. a kind of rattle carried 

by carriers and travellers. 
Ink&bo, If. 8. a fork-stick used for 

tying np slaves, fetter for the 

neck ; also, a trap of meat set for 

a wild beast. 
Inkako, sidts, pro, indie, cl, 6. it 

IS It. 

Ink&la, If. 8. a crab. 

Inkal^pa, if. 8. for, (Eng.) harp. 

Inkalfki, if. 8. for, (Sato, kaxiki ; 

Dutch, kaire^e) a cart 
Inkfoia, If. 8. a small bunch of 

grass, the size of one's arm ; also 

a small bundle of spears. 
Inkfoibe, if. 8. for, (£og.) a camp, 

a government station. 
Inklimbi, n, 8. a present given to 

conclude a bargain. 
Ink^mu, If. 8. a small group of 

people, a class in schooL 
ZnkAnda, if. 8. black, hard ground ; 

a piece of country with few trees, 

a scarcity of water and hard 


Inkandele, if. 8. for, (Eng.) a 

Ink&nga, if. 8. a guinea-fowl. 

Inkanka, if. 8. a short stick driven 
into the ground, a tent-peg. 

Inkanka, if. 8. a big, wonderful 
thing, used as adv. U ta ku 
enda inkanka^ you must not 
travel hard. 

Inkftnsbo, if. 8. a tool used by the 
blacksmith for msdcing barbs on 

Ink&nzo, if. 8. a place for dancing. 

Ink^nao, if. 8. meat left after all fat 
is boiled out, eaten only by elders. 

Inkftahi, if. 8. a paddle. 

Ink&shi, If. 9. //. of lunkaahi, a 

Inkdau, if. 8. loud talking ; quick, 
loud answering, it may be, dis- 
respectfully. Applied to any one 
who is quick in answering when 
called, m a amba inkasu, he 
talks loudly and at length. 

Inkata, if. 8. a pad used in carrying 
things on the head, also a coil. 

InkatekiainiA, if. 8. for. (Eng.) 
a catechism. 

Inkaya, if. 8. an ivory bracelet 

Inkeleke, if. %,for, (Suto, kereke ; 
Dutch, kerk) a church. 

Inketani, if. ^,for, (Suto, ketane ; 
Dutch, keten) a chain. 

Inketele, if. %.for* (Eng.) a kettle. 

Inki, If. %,for, (Eng.) ink. 

Inkidi, if. 8. a stamping-block; 
a mortar used for stamping grain. 

Inko, subs, pro, indie, el, 5, 6. 5iif^. 
it is not it. 

Inkodi, If. 8. a short stick with a 
large knob, a knob-kerrie. 

Inkofu, If. 8. a lean animal, cow, 
goat, or sheep. Properly the adj. 
kdfa in cl, 8. 

Inkdfa, if. 8. a bug. 

Inkokola, if. 9. //. of lukokola, 

Inkdla, if. 8. cruelty, malice. 

Ink61o, If. 9. //. of, lukolo, breasts. 

Inkoloi, If. 8. for, (Suto koloi) a 

I]ik6ma, if. 9. //. of lukoma, cala- 
bash dippers. 



takes off everything, leaving no- 
thing; also of a carrier, who 
gathers up things which remain, 
leaving nothing behind. 

gaVatfla, Ini, v. /. to cleave to, to 
adhere, to stick to; e.g. bs la 
kakatila shiansasbiabashikale, 
they cleave to the customs of the 

Kakato, n. 6. dim, of chakato. 

Kakaae, n. 6. a small cat, kitten. 

Kakila, ku, v, t, rel, kaka, to refuse 
for, on bdialf of. 

Xako, dem. pro. cL 6. sing. that. 
Used to express reason ; e. g, nka 
kako nku nde sila, it is for that 
reason I come. Inko kako, that 
is not the reason. 

Kak61e, num, six. This is the 
Lnmlni word. 

Kakoma, n» 6. a small hammer. 

KakdmA, n. 6. a small cup, a small 
calabash dipper. 

Kakdmwe, n» 6. a small clod or 

Kak6to, n, 6. a small knot, also 
tonsil ( ^ kapopo). 

Kakuane, n, 6. a small hat, cap. 

Kakub6aiii, if. i a. a young man. 

Kaktuno, if. 6. a small toe. 

Kaktimii, n, 6. a small forehead. 

Kaktine, n, \a. a long green thin 
tree-snake, poisonous. 

Kakiihii, n. 6. a small piece of fire- 

Kakdsu, n. 6. a small morsel. 

Kakuttila, ku, v. /. to scratch, to 
force a thing out of a man's closed 

Kakwangabaltiini, n, 6. a nettle. 

Kakwlbwi, if. i a. a small kind of 
white beads. 

Kala, kn, v, i, to sit, to settle, to 

K&la, If. 6. a tuft of feathers on a 
bird's head, crest 

Kal&ba, kn, v, i. to crawl. 

Kal&bi, n. 6. a riddle, fable, folk- 

Ealabfsha, ku, v, i. int, kalaba, 
to crawl very carefully. 

Kaladila, ku, v. /. reL kalala, to 
be angry with, to rebuke angrily. 

Kaladfsha, ku, v. i, int, kalala, to 

be very angry. 
Kalai, n. la, name given to the 

KaUlla, ku, v, i. to be angry, fierce ; 

e, g. Ohela oha kalala, the iron 

is fierce — said when in woricing 

iron a fragment flies off and hits 

you. "Wa kalala lesa, it lightens 

and thunders. 
Kal&la, n. 6. a palm-tree. 
Kal&lo, n. 6. a small bridge. 
Eal&lu, If. 6. madness, insanity, 

Kal&mbwe, if. 6. a big, deep hole, 

a pit. 
Kalingu, If. 6. a small belL 
KalAni, if. 6. the flower of the muze. 
Kal&ta, ku, v. i, to gallop, of horses 

and cattle. 
Kalauka, ku, v, i, to sound a long 

time (of drums) , also of guns fired 

frequently. Ingoma aha ka- 

lai:dca, tiie drums sound a loag 

Kalaukila, kn, v. /. to praise, 

extol; e.g. wa dikalaukila, he 

praises himself for strength or 

Kalazha, kn, v> t caus, kalala, to 

make angry, fierce. 
Kile, adv. already, some time ago. 
K61e-k&le, adv, long ago. 
Kalebabddi, n. 6, long running 

KflJ6nda, if. 6. an impediment in 

the speedi. 
Kalo, suds. pro. simple cl. 6. sing. 

it, itself. 
Kal6bo, If. 6. fish-hook, fishing- 
Kalokanantindwe, if. 6. pi. tnlo- 

twa-nanundw<e, a nettle. 
Kalombw6na, if. 6. a boy. 
Kal6nga, n. 6. a small river, a 

Kaldnga, if. €. a chiefs house, 

where cases are settled. 
Kal6ngo, n. 6. a small line of people 

in single file. 
Kal6ngwe, if. i a. name of a kind 

Kaluba, n. 6. a small flower, esped- 



ally flower of pqmpkin, melon, 
and snch like. 

gftl^di, n. 6. a small roof^ a small 
hoase erected in gardens, a sun- 
shade or umbrella. 

Ksliik61w8y If. 6. a larg^ pink 

XAltUs, txL, V. f . to ran hard, as in 
a race ; to throw up the sand with 
one's feet in running. 

KaluI6ine, if . 6. a toe. 

Kaltunbu, if. 6. a musical instru- 

Ealungs, n. 8. sugar reed. 

Kalonsa, if. 6. a small bead. 

Kalnngonshiba, if. 6. a wood- 

Kama, kn, v. /. to squeeze, to milk. 

Kanamuoliipwiohipwi, it. 6. a 
kind of coloured beads. 

yftTnaTikumAlfti if. 6. a shrub, the 
leaves of which are used as a 
medicine for diarrhoea. 

Kamba, ka, v, u to clap. 

K&mba, ku, S7. /. to scnitdi up the 
ground (of a cat, &c.). 

Xambtoia, ku, v.f. of one thing 
resting upon another. Kamn- 
Bhin^didi waya ku kambama 
a makumbi, N. went to rest upon 
the clouds. 

Eamb&mba, if. 6. the lower end of 
the sternum. 

Kaxnbauka, ku, v, i. to speak at 
length, to discourse, to preach. 

Slambaukila, ku, v,t, reL kam« 
bauka, to preach to. 

Kambaula, ku, v. /. to scratch up 
ground like a cat 

Kambavhwe, adv^ sideways. 

Kambelele, n, 6. a small sheep, a 

Kambidlla, ku, v, U reL kamba, 
to salute by clapping. 

Kambidfzha, ku, v, t, reL cans, 
kambch to cause or help to salute, 
to bring a present as a salutation 
or to conciliate. 

Kambfka, ku, v, t. to cany one 
thing upon another, as two lots of 
firewood upon one shoulder, to 
carry a big load. 

Kambflai ku, v, /. reL kamba, to 

clap for another, as in clapping 

an accompaniment to another's 

KambiBhi, if. 6. a whirlwind. 
Ximbo, It. 6. pL twanibo» affair, 

fault, saying, reason. Kambo 

ka kubea, a lying tale. Kambo 

nshinkuwa Chita bodiaf Why 

do you act thus? 
Kambo ka, prep, because of, on 

account of. 
Kambtika, ku, v.i, to be weary, 

sick of a thing. 
Kambtila, ku, v, U to tire, weary, 

sicken (of anything that wearies 

by its monotonousness). Maila 

a la tu kambula, grain sickens 

us, f. e. we are tired of eating 

grain only. 
Kamlnl, if. 6. a small crooked 

Kamikfoii, if. 6. impudence. 
Kamp6nde, if. 6. a variety of 

Kami>6ta, if. 6. a small enclosure. '. 
Kamuchamba, if. 6. stabbing pain 

in the chest, pleurisy. 
Kamum^na, if. 6. a kUid of coloured 

Kamw&le, if. i <7. a girl at and after 

Kamwftya, if . i a. a kind of bush ; 

people take this bush and wave 

it in the direction they wish the 

clouds to take. 
Kamw68himw68hi, if. 6. glow- 
worm, firefly. 
Kanakwabo, poss, phr, cL 6. sing* 

their, of their place. 
Kanakwabo, /(7JJ. phr, cL 6. sing, 

Kanakwakwe, pass, phr, cL 6. 

sing, his. 
Kanakwangu, poss, phr* cL 6. 

sing, my, mine. 
Kanakwenu, poss, phr, cL 6. sing, 

your, of your place. 
Kanakweau, poss, phr. cL 6. sxng>, 

our, of our place. 
Kanana, ku, v, i, to narrate, to teA 

at length. 
Kanohele, if . i a. a quail. 
Kanch^lench^le, if. 6. a shrill 



crying. Bakaintu ba la tuna 

tunohelenohele, the women 

salute by crying shrilly with a 

hand over their mouth. 
Kanohenohema, n, 6. a small piece 

of iron or zinc. 
Kanohfnya, n.ia.axi evil spirit 
Kanda, n. 6. a small forked stick. 
Kanda, n, 6. a small house, a room. 
Kanda, ku, v.t. to knead, to 

trample or knead clay ; to bathe 

a wound. 
Kandamika, ku ; kandamfsha, 

ku, V, t. to give a woman medicine 

to make her bear a healthy child, 

when her previous children have 

all died In infancy. 
Kandfla, kn, v, /. to dip, sop. Of 

dipping bread into milk. 
Kandfsha, ku, v.t. kanda. To 

knead (clay) very much, 
-kando, adj, great, big, large. 
Kandolo, ». la. a variety of sweet 

Eanga-, prefix to many words to 

indicate diminutives. 
Kanga-ohib6we, n, 6. a small or 

young otter. 
Kanga-chilumbnlumbu, n, 6. a 

young or small roan. 
Kanga-ohivhnbwe, if. 6. a small 

or young hippopotamus. 
Kanga-chiwena, n, 6. a small or 

young crocodile. 
Kanga-dibwa, n. 6. a small piece 

of a broken pot* 
Eanga-ftilwe, n. 6. a small or 

young tortoise. 
Kanga-kafumbwi, n, 6. a small or 

young sable. 
Kanga-kaze, n, 6. a kitten. 
Kanga-konze, n.6, a small or 

young hartebeest. 
Kanga-lukai, ». 6. a small piece of 

a broken pot. 
Kanga-mukulo, n. 6. a small or 

young water-buck. 
Eanga-munyati, n. 6. a small or 

young buffalo. 
Kanga-munyiunbwi, ^ 6. a small 

or young gnu. 
Kanga-musaka, n, 6. a small or 

young wild dog. 

Kanga-mnsefu, if. 6. a small or 

young eland. 
Xanga-mwaba, n,6, a small or 

young jackal. 
Kanga-nainja, n, 6. a small or 

young Lechwe. 
Kanga-nakafwifwi, n. 6. a small 

or young oribi. 
Kanga-nakasha, n. 6. a small or 

young duiker. 
Kanga-naluTwi, n. 6. a small or 

young reed-buck. 
Kanga-namutentatila, » • 6. a 

small or young kudu. 
Kanga-nanundwe, n,6. a small 

or young chameleon. 
Kanga*nanzell, if. 6. a small or 

young pallah. 
Xanga-nznzhi, n, 6. a small or 

young wild cat. 
Kanga-pombo, if. 6. a snuiU or 

young baboon. 
Kanga-shankole, if. 6. a small or 

young wart-h(^. 
Kanga-ahempeUt, if. 6. a small or 

young rhinoceros. 
Kanga-shichiibabala, if. 6. a small 

or young bush-buck. 
Kanga-shiohinzobe, if. 6. a small 

or young situtunga antelope. 
Kanga-ahichisunu, if. 6. a small 

or young puku. 
Kanga-shikalonibwana, if. 6. a 

youngster, a boy. 
Kangai-iBhikembeBhi, if. 6. a 

youngster, a boy. 
Kanga-shikoswe, if. 6. a small rat, 

a mouse. 
Kanga-shiliiwe, if. 6. a small 

Eanga-aokwe, if. 6. a small or 

young ape. 
Kanga-anlwe, if. 6. a small or 

young hare. 
Kangh^ma, if. 6. a palm-tree. 
Kango, If. 6. the thoracic cavity. 
Kangoti, if. I a. a small hawk. 
Kangvhule, if. 6. a little shade. 
Kangvhungvwe, if . I a. a toad* 
Kani P interr, pro, whose ? 
Kanichi, if. 6. a very small youth. 
Kanjenjema, if. 6. a small piece of 

flat iron ^ kanohonohema* 



KaBji, euto, frequently. 
Kanji-kaoji, adv, often. 
Kanka, Ini, v. i, to begin. 
Kanksbila^ ku, v,u to be stiff, 

thick (of porridge) ; to be hard, 

of uncooked food, nnripe frnit ; 

of a person, to be strong. 
Sankabasha, ku, v. U cans, kan« 

kabal% to noake porridge stiff, 

Kank&ma, kn, v.i. to shiver. 

Kankamina, ka, v, /. to hammer. 
Kank6nga, »«6. a kind of white 

and black bead. 
Kank^ta, ka, v.L to throw 

violently on the ground. 
Tfankafeikft, ko, v, i, to walk with 

a stick, or to go haltingly, as a 

sick or infirm person. 
Kankatfla, ka, v, t, to raise a price, 

to put a high price on a thing. 
KaTikila, ka, v. /. reL kanka. To 

begin with. 
Kankob^le, if. 6. a small native 

Elankolenkole, n, 6. the pouch of 

the stork ; also the fold of skin 

under an eland*s neck. 
Kankolomw^na, ». 6. cattle 

disease, rinderpest. 
Kank61wa, if. 6. a small quantity 

of phlegm. 
Xankontyonkontyoy i>.6. a kind 

of beetle, makes a loud singing 

noise in the rainy season. 
Kanktmgwa, if. o. a child's grass 

Eano, If. 6. a riddle. 
KaPBJTna, if. i a. a kind of honey. 
Kanaho, if. 6. a newly hatched 

chicken, a newly bom baby. 
Eaiit4nta, if. i a. the sable. 
B[anteng6Ba, if. la. name given by 

children to the little finger. 

Children say : Kantengeza, kan- 

tengeaa banako badi bongai P 

K. K. how many are your 

children ? 
Kanta, if. 6. a small thing, derisive 

name for a small person. 8a 

mwa bona kantuf Have you 

seen aught? 

KanonkAo, if. 6. nipple of breast, 

teat, dug. 
KannndannTida, if. 6. name of a 

kind of beetle. 
Sanani, if. 6. the top, summit of a 

Kanwa, if. 6. the cavity of the 

mouth. Ka ma njila ma kan- 
wa, to interrupt one in speaking. 
Eanwino, if. 6. a drinking-ntensil, 

Kanyangalakata, if. 6. name of a 

plant, roots of which are used as 

a fish poison. 
Kanyftma, if. 6. a small animaL 
Xanyimba, if. i a. the skunk. 
K&nza, If. 6. a skull. 
Kanzhi, if. 6. a small village. 
Kanzhi, if. 6. a small fly. 
K6pa, ku, V, t, to eat as a dog, to 

Kap&nzha, if. 6. a small fragment, 

a crumb. 
KapApa, n, 6. a fragment 
Kap^mpa, if. 6. a small newly made 

unbaked pot. 
Kap^zho, If. 6. a small broom or 

Kapidi, if. 6. a small hill, hillock. 
Kapidfdi, if. 6. a scorpion. 
Kap6ngo, if. 6. a small goat, a 

Kap6po, If. 6. a tonsil. Nda aata 

tapopo, I am sick with quinsey. 
Kapoteni, if. la. for, (i^ng.) a 

Kapadlsha, ka, v, t, int, kapala, 

to seek or want much. 
Kapukapuka, if. i a. the month of 

July, when there is much wind; 

also name of the wind that blows 

Kaptila, ka, v, t, to seek, want. 
Kaptimpu, if. i a, name given to 

the lion. 
Kapwila, ka, v, /. rel, kapala, to 

seek or want for. 
Kas&ka, if. 6. a dense forest country^ 
Kasala, ka, v, i, to be warm. 
Kas&ma, if. 6. a small firebrand, 

Kas&mo, if. 6. a stick, small 




Kssaaigabfinbe, n. i a. the month 
of August, when the hawks come. 

Kssapalaaapaia, n, 6. impudence. 

Ks8&Bha, ku, v, /. to warm, to heat 

-kas&zhi, adj. warm. 

£&86, i». 6. fragments of grass float- 
mg on water. 

Kasika, n. 6. an ear-ring. 

Kaa^se^ n, 6. nausea, disgust. 

Kasha, ku, v. /. to forbid, prevent, 

Kashdmo; KaBhashAmo, if. 6. a 

Kishi, n. 6. a small nation. 

Kaahfmbi, n. 6. a small girl. 

Kashimbo, n. 6. a kind of dance. 

Kaghimfnlaniv6mvu, ». 6. a kind 
of coloured bead. 

Kashixnpi, n. 6. a proverb, wise 

Kashinga, n, 6. a blood-vessel. 

Xashlsa, if . 6. a sinew. 

K&sho, n, 6. a salt-pan, Balt-po<^ 

Kasdlo, n, 6. the hip-joint 

Kasowe, n. 6. an abortion, still- 
bom child. 

STasua, if. 6. a small calabash 
chum, paramour, partner in ini- 
tiation dance. 

Xasumo, ». 6. a small spear. 

Xasundi, n,6, a small barren 

Kasunae, n, 6. a nice smell, scent, 

Kata, n, 6. a child^s bow for shoot- 
ing, a musical bow ( » kalumbu). 

K&ta, n, 6. name of a game. 

Kata, n, 6. a small cnu:k. 

Kata, ku, v. i. to act as sentry, to 
go cm patrol. 

Kat&la, ku, v. i, to be tired, weary. 

Kat&le, ». 6. a piece of rough native 

Kat&ma, ku, v. u to deny a fault. 

Katiznbo, if. 6. a small thong, 

Katambulanshixna, n, 6. the 

Katamina, ku, v*i. to be sunk 
under water, submerged. 

Xatanda, if. 6. ^chelorhood, 

Katizha, ku, v.t. eaus, katala, 
to tire, annoy, bother. Pass : 
kataahiwa. to be perplexed. 

Katiba, if. 6. a small baan. 

Katiti, Jf.€. the breast of an animal 
(the part always sent to the 

Kat6mba, if. 6. a small dirty thing, 

a foetus. Udi kwete katomba, 

said of a woman in the early 

stages of pregnancy. 
Kat6mbo, if. 6. An occasional 

action or way of doing things, 

generally of bad deeds. 
Katong61a, if. 6, a dish of nuts 

crushed up, seasoned with salt, 

eaten raw or cooked. 
Katu, the month of September, when 

the leaves fall and new ones 

KattUa, ku, v. /!. to lift up, elevate, 

Katulisha, ku, v.t, int. katula. 

To lift up high. 
Katultika, ku, v, i, rev. stai. 

katala. To be rested, refreshed. 
Katultila, ku, v./. reu, katala. 

To refresh, rest. 
-katulushi, adj\ refreshed, rested. 
Katwila, ku, v. U rel, katula. To 

lift up for. 
Kaultingwe, n.ia. a poor person, 

Kat^uHa, if. 6. a small field, garden. 
Kaungakdnahi, n, 6. pL tunga- 

konshi, a small creek, used in 

Kavhumbe, if. 6. grass used by 

natives for thatching. 
KaThumbi*ka8h6nto, the month 

of October-November, when the 

rain begins. 
Kayebela, if. i a, spirit, ghost 
Kay^ngo, i*. 6. a cup. 
Kaa&ne, if. 6. a small piece of 

KasaiMktLBlii, if. 6. a rag. 
Kaze, If . I a. a cat. 
K&sha, ku, v. /. to deny, disown, 

Kazhalakdnae, the moon of July, 

when the pallah is bora. 
Kaahilambfidi, if. 6. a byway. 



gftuhfiTift, kn, V. /. r«/. kaih*, to 
deny for. 

Kasime, fr. 6. a small bird. 

KAle (or keelo, for kaato), n, 6. a 
small pimple, rash, papnle. 

Kdla> (or keele, for kaela), a 
small quantity of porridge. 

Ximbe (or keembe, for kaambe), 
n, 6. an axe. 

Kdmbeshi ^or keembeihi for 
kaembeshi), a boy of 7 or 8 3rears. 

XJo (i)» jfiass. pro. a/, sing*^ thy; 
also 3/. d, 5, 6. it; e.g, Ohintu 
cha-ko, thy thing. Mwini wa- 
k6, the master of it. (1) num, 
part, cL 5, 6. sing,\ eg, kambo 
koxnwi, one affair. (3) voc, part, 
and adv, short form ^kono, &c. 

Xob61a, kn, 9. /. to shield, to parry. 

Kobel^la, kn, v. /. reL kobela, to 
defend another, to parry for 
another, to protect. 

KobAsha, ku, v. /. to imitate, to 
refuse to pay a debt because of 
another owing to yon by your 

KobiU, num. adv, twice. 

Koch&ni ? adu, how ? 

Kodia, dem, pro, cl, 5. yon, yon- 
der. As adv, yonder. 

-kofa, adj, lean, thin. 

Koka, ka, v.i. to be lean, thin,, 

Eok^la, kn, v. L to be lean, thin 
for. Kda kokela mwanangn, I 
am thin for my child, i, e, through 
grief for my dead child. 

Koko, dem, pro, cl, 5. that. As 
adv» there, thither. 

Kokola, ku, v. i, to prepare a trap, 
to prepare a stick by stripping off 
twigs and thorns; also to bring 
a wife home on day of wedding. 
Proverb : Wa bu kokola bukole, 
he has prepared a trap, i, &, of a 
person who has killed a lion or 
other dangerous beast, he has 
conferred a public benefit 

-kokola, adj, clean, stripped (of 
grass, &c.). Bwiin bukokole, 
clean grass. 

Kokol6ka» ku, v, 1. to crow (of a 
cock). A native will explain thii 

by saying: munkombwa wa 
amba 'ti : ko-ko-lo-ko. 

Kokn, dem, pro, cl, 5. sing, this. 

Kdla, ku, V. f . to cough. 

Kdla, ku, V, 1. to be strong, to bear 
an3rthing courageously, to be 
tough, hard (of a person). 

Eol^Ut» ku, v,t, rel. kola, to be 
strong for, endure. Cha kolela 
muahinae obipami, a riddle i 
What old man endures the dark- 
ness ? 

Koloka, ku, v. i, to be hollowed out 

•kolokele, ctdj, hollow. 

Kolola, ku, V, t, to hollow out 

Kolol6kwa, ku, v, i, to be sober, 
to become sober. 

Eololola, ku, V, t, to dig out, e,g. 
a fountain to make it deeper, to 
untie a load, to tell out everything 
of an affair hiding nothing. 

Xololdaha, ku, v, t, to make sober. 

Kdlwa, ku, v, i. to be drunk. 

Kolwe, n.ia, pL bakolwe or 
bankolwe, kaffir com, red 

-kolwelwe, adj. hollow. 

E6ma, ku, v,u to dear one*s 
throat by coughing. 

Koma, ku, v, t, to be able. Nda 
koma ku aaka, I am able to 
build. Nda koma ku yaya 
muntu pele nda tia, I am able 
to kill anybody, but I am afraid to. 

E6mba, ku, v»t. to pray to, to 

K6mba, ku, v,t, to dear out a 
dish, to lick out a dish, eat food 
left over. 

Eombaola, ku, v, t, per, rep, kom- 
bola, to pluck fruit 

KombekiLche, n. 6. a small ox, or 
cow. Proverb : Kombekache ka 
▼hwa ikumi dia ing'ombe, a 
young ox (or cow) produces ten 
head of cattle, — used to justify 
charging interest on a loan. 

Kombela, ku, v, t, rel» komba, 
to pray for, or to. 

Xombel61a, ku, v, t. reL komba, 
to pray on behalf of, to persuade. 

Xombdka, ku, o. L to decline, to 
set (of the sun). 



Komb6ka, ku, v.f. to snap, be 

Komb61a| kn, v, t, to snap, break 
off (as a pumpkin from its stalk), 
to lift up its head (of a snake). 
Inzoka ya kombola, the snake 
rears its head. 

Xombom^na, ku, v, i, to be bent, 

Kombom^ka, ku, v. t. caus. kom- 
bomana. To make crooked. 

•komboxnene, adj. bent, crooked. 

-komboshi, adj, snapped, broken. 

Kombya, kn, v,t, caus, komba, 
to give one food left over. 

Kom^na, kn, v. i. to be large, to 
become large, to increase in 

Komen^sha, ku, v, i, int. komena, 
to be or become very large. 

Kom^zha, ku, v, t, caus. komena, 
to make large, increase in size. 

Koxn6ka, ku, v, i. to fall in, as side 
of a pit. 

Koxn6na, ku, v. /. to break off, as 
a piece of tobacco from a lump ; 
to bite off a piece of bread. 

Xomon^ka, ku, v, i, cap. komona, 
to be breakable, brittle. 

-komoshi, adj, broken. 

Komwi, num. adv. once. 

Kona, ku, v. t. to receive the things 
of a dead person, also those of a 
man who returns home from work 
and shares the things he has 
brought ; e.g, Nda kona shintu 
slieahi 8ha muAi, I have re- 
ceived these things of the dead 

Konaola, v. t. per. rep, konona, to 
keep on breaking. Bapombo 
ba la konaola mapopwe onse, 
the baboons go on breaking all 
the maize. 

Konda, ku, v, t, to please, gratify. 

Kone, num. adv. four times. 

Konga, ku, v, t. to scare, frighten. 

K6nka, ku, v. t, to cut ofif the ears 
of mabele, to reap. 

Konka, ku, v.U to gather people 
together in crowds. 

X6nka, ku, v,t, to bite (of a 

KonkUa, ku, v,t, rel. konka, to 

reap for somebody. 
Konkolola, ku» v. t, ? rep. konka, 

to cut even the poles of a roof or 

the thatch. 
Konkomdna, ku, v, i, to be bentr 

crooked, warped. 
Konkom6ka, ku, v,t„ caus, kon- 

komana, to warp, make crooked, 
-konkomene, cuij, bent, crooked^ 

Eonkom6na, ku, v, i, to knock, as 

on a door, and as a woodpecker 

knocks on a tree. 
Konkwela, ku, v, /. to hatch 

Kono, dem, pro. locative^ this. As 

adv. here, hither. 
Kon6ka, Ira, v, i, to be broken. 
Kon6na, ku, v. t, to break, 
-konoshi, adj, broken. 
Konse, cidv. everywhere. 
Konse-konse, adv, everywhere, 

Kenya, ku, v, t. caus, kona, to 

give one things that belonged to a 

person now dead ; also of a per- 
son who gives his friends thmgs 

on his return from working — wa 

ba konya. 
Konze, n, i a, the hartebeest. 
Kdnzha, ku, v, /. to overcome, to 

be too mndi for, to be able. Ku 

ta konzha, to be unable. 
Konzhi, », 6. an overhanging tree, 

or other thing. 
K6pak6pa, ku, v./. to stir up 

Kopatila, ku, v, t, to wink the eyes 

when yon are afraid anything 

may enter them. 
Kop6ka, ku, v,%, to be in want, 

Kopdla, ku, v.t, to want, need 

(ku kapula). 
Kopolo, n, I a, for, a corporal of 

Kosanwo, ord. num, five times. 
Kosaoka, ku, v, i.per. rep, koaoka^ 

to be broken up. 
KosaoBha, ku, v, t, caus, kosaoka, 

to cause to be broken up. 
KosatUa, ko, v./. to cut op meat 



Kukoaanls shitadi, to cut up 
meat into small pieces. 

So86k% Ini, V. f. to be cat, to be 
dead, to be settled (of afifairs). 
"Wa kosoka mushixiBe, the 
darkness is breaking. 

Eo861s, ko, v,t. to cut, to settle an 
affair; ku kosola twambo, to 
settle affairs. Ka kosola im« 
pTunbe, to take off the chignon. 
Iieza u la kosola didi P When 
will the rain stop? Mukaintii 
wa kosola, the woman con- 
ceives. "Wa kosola mukondo 
wa mufweahi, he has found the 
smoker's spoor — said in case of a 
theft: people go to the place 
where tiie theft took place, but 
find the thief disappeared, then 
the first person that comes there 
they accuse of the theft. Shina 

. ka koswelA, I had not yet cut — 
an expression used by a person 
who is greatly astonished by 
something which he had never 
seen or heard before. 

XosTunlika, ku, v,i. to go ahead 
leaving others behind. 

Xo8w61a, ku, v.t. rel, kosola, to 
settle for, cut for. Mwami wa 
tn koswela twambo, the chief 
settled the affairs for us. 

Kot&ma, ka, v* < . to bend, to bow, 
to incline. 

Kotamina, ku, v,f. rel, kotaxna, 
to bend down to, bow down 

Kotamiika, ku, v. u to lift the 
head, stand erect, be encouraged. 

Kotamiftna, ku, v,t, to cause to 
stand np erect, to encourage. 

Kot6twe, num, adv, thrice, three 

Kot6twe, num, adv, thrice. 

£ot6ka, ku, v. i, to leave work at 
rest-time or in the evening. 

K6ze, n, 6. a string, cord. 

K6zha, ku, v./. to be like, to 

Kdzha, ku, v. /. to intoxicate. 

Xozh&na, ku, v. u rec, kozha, to 
be like each other. 

Koshftnya, ku^ v./. rec. cam. 

kozha, to liken, compare. Wa 
XQU kozhanya o sokwe, he 
compared him to an ape. 

-kozhene, adj, like, similar. 

Kozhi, n, 6. a small bark-string, a 
line, string. 

Ku (x) classifier cl, 5. sing, ; also 
pers, and rel. pro. 
(a) Sign of infinitive mood. 

(3) Preposition and locatiye classi- 
fier^ to &c 

(4) Pers, pro, 2 p. sing. ace. thee. 

(5) Prep. by. 

Kua, ku, V. i, to bark, to scare 
birds from a field. 

Kubele, subs, pro. prep, cl, 5. sing, 
it (where it is). 

Kub6ko, n, 5. fore-leg of animal, 
arm of person. 

Kudidila, ku, v. i, dble. rel. kula, 
to grow up with; e.g. Chianza 
ohakwe wa kudidila acho, he 
has grown up with his custom, 
i. e, that way of doing things he 
had when young. 

Kudie P interr, pro. cl. 5. which ? 
Kutwi kudie P Which ear ? 

Kufiingu, n,\ a. a superstitious 
disease. Before a man has inter- 
course with his wife after weaning 
the child, he may send her to 
another man, thinking she has 
this disease and so get rid of it. 

Kufw&fwi, adv. near. 

Kufwafwi, ku, prep, near to. 

Ktika, ku, v.i, to come out, as 
handle of axe. 

Kuk&zhI, n, i a, the month of 

Kukubtila, ku, v. t. to sweep. 

Kuki!ibwe, n. i a, month of April. 

Kuk41a, ku, v.t. to take away 
everything firom a person, leaving 
him nothing ; to gather things up, 

Kukumwina, ku, v.t. to gulp 

•kukutu, adj. Aijf very hard. 

Ktila, ku, V. t, to extract a tooth ; 
to take handle out of hoe or axe ; 
to disjoint two mortised pieces of 

KtUa^ ku, V. i, to grow 



KnUktUa, ku, v, t, to clean beak 
(as a fowl) by rubbiog it on the 
ground. IT la knlaka&k mnlomo 
anshi, he cleans his month on 
the ground — said of an ungrateful 

Kulale, aeh. far, distant. 

Kulu, n. 5. the leg. 

Kulubwila, ku, v. /. to give a per- 
son your old clothes. 

-kulukulu, adj, very old, ancient 

Knlula, ku, v. t. to shave. 

-kalulu,a^'. broad (of a road only). 
Inshila inkululu, a broad road. 

Kultiltika, ku, v,u to be old, 
ancient, useless; also of things 
falling off a man's load, shieb 
kululuka shintu. 

Kultima, ku, v, i, to snore. 

Kultimi, n, i a, the month of 

Kumani 1 interj.for, come on ! 

KumaniBha, ». 5. a desert, wilder- 
ness. (See note in Eng.-lla 

Kumba, ku, v. /. to brew ; to sit 
upon eggs (of a hen). 

Kumbadi, adv. at the side, aside, 

Kumbadi ku, j^ep. beside. 

Kumbata, ku, v, t. to caress, em- 
brace. Ku dikumbata, to fold 
the arms. 

Kuxnbele, adv. before,, in front, 

Kumbele, ku, prep, to or in front 
of, before, ahead of. 

KumbHa, ku, v, t, to beg, entreat. 

Kumbfla, ku, v, t reL kumba, to 
brew for. 

Kumbo, <idv. to or towards the 

KumbtLka, ku, z/. t. to be remem- 

Kumbtika, ku, v. i, to be chafed. 

Kumbtila, ku, v. t. to rub or chafe. 

Kumbtila, ku, v.i. to think or 
remember, to desire. 

Kumbtuha, ku, v, t. to cause to 

desire, as when you offer a man 

a thing not intending to give it to 


Kumpatila, ku, v. t, to stop (of the 

rain). Wa bu knmpaula I«eza, 

the rain is finished. 
Knmpaula, ku, v,t, to drink 

guTnimka, ku, v. u to start, leave 

on a journey. 
Kunakwabo, poss, phr, cl, 5, sing. 

their, of their placie. 
Eunakwako, poss. phr. el. 5* sing. 

Eunakwakwe, poss.phr. cl. 5. sing. 

Eunakwancn, poss, phr, cL 5. sing. 

Eunakwena, poss. phr. cL 5. sing. 

your, of your place. 
Eunakwesu, post, phr, cl. 5. sif^. 

our, of our place. 
Eunamizia, ku, v. i. to stoop down 

so as to drink directly by the 

Euna^ika, ku, v.i. Xa Inrcb sud- 

d«ly (of a canoe), to stagger (as 

a drunken man). 
Eunda, ku, v.t, ta copulate (of 

Eundulula, ku, v. U rtp^ ktinda, 

to kunda over and over again. 
Eunga-knnga, ku, v.t, to gather 

things together. 
Eung6iha, ku, v, t. to tax. 
EuDJi, adv. elsewhere. 
Etinka, ku, v.i. to flow, drift. 

Buloa bwakwe bwa kunka 

anshiy his blood flowed to, or was 

spilt upon the ground. 
Eunkila, ku, v. t. rel. kunka, to 

be spilt upon, to flow upon. 
EunkOBdko, n. 5. autumn. 
Etmkudiko, adv. low, low ^ring. 
Eunkula^ ku, v. t. to hoe up anew 

field in dry season, ue. when the 

ground is hard. 
Eunkula, ku, v, /. to rub or scrape 

against, as a yoke against ox. 
Eunkuldka, ku, v. i. to descend, 

to roll along (as a log). 
Eunkultisha, ku, v, t. to roU along 

(as a log). 
Eunkumtika, ku, v.i, to fall (of 

leaves in autumn), to fade (of 

•kunkamxishi, adj, fiid^, shed. 



Knnknttila, Ya, v,t. to scrape. 
Ku konlnitiUa busane ku 
chifda, to scrape meat off a bone. 

Etinsengwe, adv, ontside, towards 
the outside. 

Kunsengwe "kxi^prep, outside of. 

Kunslii, adv. below, beneath. 

Kunshi ku, prep, under, below. 

Kunso, tutu, secretly. 

Kuntti, n, he, place, locality, 
direaion ; a place whose name 
you forget or may not say. 
Bonse bs swangana knnta 
komwi, they all gather at one 
place. Kunta yomwi, or 
komwi, to another place, 
another direction. 

Kuntula, n, i a. bush-pig. 

Kirnnna, ku, v. t, to pour. IT la 
ktmuna mapopwe anslii, he 
pours the maize upon the ground. 

Knnse, euiu. 8a wa ya kunse 
tuunuP have you been to the 
bush to-day? 

Kupa, ku, V, /. to bale. 

Knpaila, ku, v, t. ?per, rep. kupa, 
to apply water to the face of one 
who is delirious. 

Knpana, ku, v, i, to overflow. 

Eupftnya, ku, v, /. to hll to over- 

Kupaula, ku, v,t, to take leaves 
ofif mealies. 

KuptLka, ku, v. u to have skin 
grazed off. 

XuptUa^ pu, V. t to graze, wotnd. 
Ghisamo chechi cha nkupula, 
this stick has wounded me. 

Kupwila, ku, v. t, to put one^s 
fault on another, 

Kusa, ku, V, i, to wither, fade ; of 
maize, &&, withering with heat. 

Knsha, ku, v. t, to take away, 
remove, extract, to take off. 

Kusha, for ikusha, q. v. ; tudyo 
twa nkusha, the food satiates 

Kuti, conj, that. 

Kutula, » kuntula, bush-pig. 

Xtitwi, n. 5. an ear. 

XuwaXla, ku, v.i. to cry a long 

. time (of a child), to speak a long 

Kuwaola, ku, v. /. to drive away 

Kuyoba, the moon of February. 
Ktusha, ku, v, t, cam, kula, to 

cause to grow, to train up. 
Kuzhfgha ku, v, t. caus, rel, kula, 

to train up for. 
Kwa, ku, V. t, to pay marriage 
. dowry. Nda ka kwa ing'ombe 

shobili, I paid a dowry of two 

Kwa (i) prep, denoting' agent ; also, 

to, from, 
(a) pers, pro, el. 5. sing ; also gen, 

part, cl, 5. sing, 
Kwabo,his home, his place, to them. 
Kwadi » ku a di. 
Kwale, ». I a. a pheasant. 
Kwalo, subs, pro, cl. 5. sing, it, 

Kwalula, ku, v, t, to scratch. 
Kwanga, ku, v, t, to sharpen knife, 

&c., on stone. 
Kwanya, ku, v, t, to rub or scratch 

when you itch, to comb, to tear 

off a scab. 
Kwasha, ku, v, /. to set a trap, to 

catch fish. 
Kwata, ku, v. t, to hold, seize, to 

grasp, to arrest. 
Kwatana, ku, v, t, rec, kwata, to 

seize each other, to strive, wrestle. 
Kwatila, ku, v.i. rel. kwata, to 

be fast, firm, steadfast. 
Kwatila, ku, v. t, to forgive. Ku 

kwatila muntu luse, to forgive 

a person in mercy. 
-kwatile, adj, fixed, firm. 
Kwatisha, ku, v, t. int. kwata, to 

hold fast. 
Kwazima, ku, v. i, to be broad, 

Kwasamlka, ku, v. t, caus, kwa- 

sama, to broaden, widen. 
^kwazeme, adj. broad, wide. 
Kwe, poss. pro. 3 /. sing, his ; prC'- 
. fixed by gen. parts, 
Kwela, ku, v.t, to draw, pull, 

Kwelela, ku, v, t, rel. kwela, to 
. pull towards. 
Kwelesha, ku, v. t, int, kwela, to 

pull hard. 

E e 



Kwembs, ka, v, i. to gnmt. 
Kwempa, ku, v.t, to snatch (as 

a hawk snatches chickens). 
XwenUythy place, thy home, to yon. 
"Kwean, onr place, our home, to us. 
Kweza -> ku eza, to come. 
"Kwi ? adv, where ? 
Kwiba. = ku iba, to steal. 
Kwikay ku, v. t, to pnt .in a handle. 
Kwika "■ ku ika, to cook. 
Kwins B ku ina, to be noU 
Kwlwe, £uiv. (life, cf iwe) to the 

east, eastward, 
Xwiseulu, loc. of iaeuXu as atkr, 

up, above. 
Kii^eulu ta^prepi above. 
Kwishi « ku izhi ; kwishiflhi 

-B ku iBhiehi, to know. 

Ii, pronounced as in English. When 

1 undergoes change it becomes d; 

under some circumstances it is 

omitted. See cAap. it, sac/. 2« 
Iia, particle used in forming several 

verbal, tenses ; see chap, vii, 
Ii&ba, ku, v.t, to open mouth 

widely, to put a finger down the 

throat to bring out a bone stick- 
: ing there, or to cause vomiting; 

Muntu u Is labs, said of a man 

who opens his mouth wide in 

eating, and eats fast Phn, Ws 

labs Iiezs, it lightens; 
Iiabflca, ku, v, t, to ask riddles; 
Iisblls, ku, V, /. to eat a little* 
laab&ha, ku, z^ /. to call a person 

by beckoning with the hand ; also 

to give a person a little food. 
Iiabukulula, ku, ti^i^ to answer 

riddles correctly. 
Xiadila, ku, 9. t, to eat the eveotng 

^sidfla> ku, v.t; ral, lavth to. 

order, command. 
Iiak^ms, ku, v» i, to open, tiw- 

Iiakamiaha, kn, v* t. ifU. laksma, 
. to open the mouth wide^ 
Iiak&mya, ku, v, /. caus. lakams, 

to open another's mouth. 
Iiak4ts, ku, v. i, to travel verylmrd, 

so as to do a long journey in. ona 


Tiskfttflrs, ku, v. i, to fdiU from 

a height (of leaves and fruit), to 

arrive from a long journey, 
•lakeme, aef;\ open (of the mouth). 
Iiakauks, ku, v. i, to move the lips 

without speaking, to keep on 

opening the mouth, wil^ut 

making a sound. 
Iiaktika, ku, zr. ». to be open, of 

a gun ; to gape, of a wound ; ^/^ 

of a maa who at last speaks after 

being silent a long time. 
Lakfils, ku, v, /. to opeu (a 

Iiskumtics^ ku, m k to be- open 

.(of a gun). 
Lakum&is, ku, v, t. to open a gun 

for putting- in caitridg^ to <q)en 

wide a sput^ in anything. 
Iisk&Bha, ku, v, /. caur. lakaks, 

to open, to caaseto gape, 
-lakuahi, a^'. open, gapmg. 
Iisla, kn, V. L (? Tonga), to^ sleep. 

The perf. lele is commonly used. 

IJdi lele, he is lying down, or 

Itfslela, ku, Vi /. rel: lata^ to sleiep 

for, &c. ; to be on guard a» when 

a lion is about ; to go aad sleep 

near- a village in order to seiae the 

people there. 
Tialuks, kn, v; t. to be split;. 
Ijalula, ku, v. t, to split 
la^ims, kn, 9. /. to smear, te: «■= kn 


liamws, knv t>. ^ to be Mtisfied (of 

affairs); k ^ that they aietme.- 
Iiama^ka, ku, v, i. to- be soft and 

-lamsushi, adj, sticky; 
Limba, ku, v, t to smeac* IJIe body 

with clay in time of moamiog^ of 
. aaimalszolling in the Brad. 
Ii^Lmba/, ku, Vi fV to prostzato* one- 

sdf in saluting^ a superior, 
lismbsfithst kot perts^ repi laalis, 

to smear dirt upon \Jig. to slander, 

besmirch one*s chsiraoter.- 
Lamfafla, ku, v, /; ni, lsiiiba». 

to prostrate oneself btfocei to 

X^ambiaha^ ku, «v $. mi* tarns. 

lamba» to cause one to prostrate 



. himself before a superior, to cause 

to worship. 
-IftmAi, adj, long, deep, tall, high, 
lianiika) ku, v, t, to bring two 

things dose together ; to put on 

a patch ; to put a stamp on a 

letter ; e,g. nda lamika xninkndi, 

I put two calabashes t<^ther, tV. 

on one »de of a load. 
JLamikfla, ktz, z». /. r^L lamikft, to 

put a pikch on for somebody, to 

stamp a letter for somebody. 
Iianaiia^ leu, v, «. to be far, long,. 

deep, tall. 
Iiftmpa, "kxky V, i, to be sharp. 
I«Smpiaha-, ku, nu si. to be rery long, 

far, deep. 
Iifiaipishft) kiSy 0. i, to be very 

Juampiahi^ia, "kxL, tK /. caMs, reL 

lAupa, to sharpen for another; 

e. g, nsmpishizlui imiK>ko, 

sharpen for mc the knife. 
Iiftmpya, ka, v, /. caut, ISmps, to 

sharpen, to make sharp. 
TiaamVfty ku, 9. i, to be soft, free 

from grit and lumps (of meal 

especially) k 
lAmtUuk, V, /. to make meal soft 

and ftee from lumpSk 
liamysi kUy v. U caus* lamav to 

satisfy (of food oc affairs). 

GhidjFO- oheehi eha ndamya^ 

tills food satisfies me. 
Iianda, ka, v, L to fine, to- impose 

ft fine upoQv to make pay for one'il 

fiiult, to confiscate. 
laaaadftbAlft, ka, v. i, to be stretched 

out. Ferf, landabale ; e, g, ITdi 

bmdftbeie, he ties s^etehed 


lifttidftbtfahft,; kg, ik /. eems. landki- 
bala,' to stretch out,, as a mat or 

-kundabelej €uif, outstretched, 

IiancUUa, ku,. v* i, to be left in- 
complete, unfinished. Undimo 
Wft laadala^ the work is left 

Landila, ku, v, t, rel, laudn^, to 
impose a- fine out somelxidya 
bthalfy t» fine for; ^g, Sda 

landila muntu mulauda 

wakwe, I fine (on behalf of 

another) the nun tor his fimlt; 
Iiandisha, ku, v, t, reL caus. 

lands, to cause or help to fine on 

behalf of another. 
Iisndudika, ku, 9. /. ct^» landuka^ 

to be crossable (of a^ ri^er). 
Tiaudtika, kI^ tk $. to cross arrver, 

to land. 
Iiandukils, ku^ tu t, reL landuka, 

to cross over to; e.g. a tu 

landulrile mwitala modiay let 

us cross over to the other side. 
Iiaadiila, ku, vi /. to take a piece 

of meat out of a pot, leaving the 

Iiandultila) ku^ 9;/. to take some 

meat out of a pot, putting it on 

a plate. 
Lauddflha, ku,2r. /. ^oivr. landuka, 

to cause to cross over, to ferry over. 
Iianduahixha,. ku, v, t, cans, rel^ 

landuka, to ferry over (things) 

on behalf of, for. 
Landwila, ku, u, L rtL laadula, 

to take out for. 
Ii&nga, ku, V, t to behold, to look, 

to want, to look for ;. also, to be 

alive, to be welL 
Tiangania, ku,. v. /. Jr, ku laiiga» 

to look about for, to seek, 

Iiangidila, ku, v, t, reL langaj to 

look at, to look out, to expect. 
Iiangidizha, ku, v, /. reL cems, 

langa, to cause to lod^ at, or look 

for ; e,g. Bantu ba la ku langi- 

diaha- mf dizno,. the people cause 

yon tO' look at their work, r. e^ it 

is done so welL 
Iiangfla, ku, tr. t, reL lamga, to 

look for, to look towards^ Ku 

langila mu- ehiahiuvhiy to* look 

with- shaded eyes. Eu dilaagilay 

t0 look oat for oneseii; to 

IianeiBha, kn^ o. A, int langai: to 

look intently. 
Iftfosha, ka> Vi /. cems, UxapSy to 

lengthen,, to- make long; 
!L«inirtiT>h«, kn^ v, /. eamK fwt^ 

iampav to lei4;tli«K foe 

E e 2 



Ii&nxhtk, kn, v. /. caus. lanffs, to 
show ; e, g. Ba la nansha mi- 
dixno yabo, they show me their 

IiamBhizha, kn, v, t. caus, reL 
langa, to show on behalf of. 

Ii6pa, ku, V, t, to take fire from one 
place to another ; to take a person 
to go and show him anything. 
Fig. to anger (from this the 
following words are derived^ 
lapuka, &c.)* 

Iiapalla, ku, v, /. to fill up a hole 
or grave. 

Ijapila, ku, v. /. rel, lapa, to con- 
vey fire for. 

Iiap&ka, ku, v, u to msh, charge in 
anger, as a man or lion. 

IiapukUa, kii, v* U rel. lapuka, to 
rush upon one in anger; to be 
short, quick tempered. 

Iiap^la, ku, z/. /. s kn lapusha. 

Iiapula, ku, v. t. to spit, to 
expectorate. Phr. kn lapiUa 
mate, to break one*s fast ; to eat 
early in rooming. 

IiapultUa, ku, v, t. to scoop earth 
out of a hole. 

Iiapulwfla, ku, v. t. rel. lapnliiLa, 
to scoop out earth for another. 

LaptiBha, ku, v, t. caus, lapuka, 
to anger, cause to charge (as 
when people disturb and annoy a 

Iiaya, kn, v. t. to order, advise, 

Ii^zha, ku, V. t. to order, command. 
Also to say adieu, good-bye. 

IjazhiBlia, kn, v.i. rel, lasha, to 
say good-bye for somebody else. 

Ii€a, ku, V, t. to jump aside to 
avoid a missile, to dodge a spear, 
to escape, to evade. 

Ii6ba, ku, V. i. to trip. 

lieblUEa, ku, v. i, of a person, to 
be footsore or lame after a long 
journey ; of grain, dry at the time 
of harvest, or bending down to 
the ground ; e, g, maila a lebuka, 
adi elele kn tebulwa, the grain 
is dry, it must be harvested. 

Iiebtila, ku, v. t. to cut off grain- 
stalks so that they fall to the 

ground ; to hit a man on the leg, 
or knee, so that he &1U down ; 
also of a maggot destroying grain- 
stalks, eating them through. 

X*edi, dent, pro, cl, 3. sing. this. 

liedia, cUm, pro, cl, 3. sing, yon, 

Iiodio, dem. pro, cl, 3. sing, that. 

Ii6ka, ku, V, t, to* leave, to leave 
off, to cease, to stop; ku leka 
mukaintu, to leave or divorce 
a wife. 

Iiekela, kn, v, t, rel, leka, to leave 
for, cease for. 

Iiok^zlia, ku, V. t. to leave off, 
desist from a purpose ; to refrain 
from acting. 

Iiela, ku, V. t. to feed, to nourish, 
to adopt a child. 

Ii^la, kn, V. i, to fall short, to be 
short in the sense of unable to 
reach anything. 

Iielina, ku, v. t. rec, lela, to feed 
each other. 

Iiele, petf, of kn lala, q. v, 

Zael^la, kn, v. t. rel, lela, to feed 
on behalf of. 

Ij6ma, kn, v, i, to be heavy; of 
a person, to be dignified ; e,g. 
wa lema muntu, he is dignified, 
honourable, respected and feared 
by people. 

Iiem^na, ku, v, i. to be angry. 

Iiemanfna, ku, v.t. rel. lemana, 
to be angry with. 

Iiemizha, ku, v. t, caus, lemana, 
to anger, enrage, offend, provoke. 

Iiemba, ku, v, t. to write, engrave, 
to tatoo, to notch. Ku lemba 
mayanza, to carve or engrave 
beading as on table leg. Ku 
lemba inembo, to make incisions 
in the skin. 

Iiemba, ku, v. t. to teach, to show 
way of doing anything ; e. g. nda 
mu lemba ati a njidizhe, I teach 
him that he may imitate me. 

Iiembaila, ku, v, i. to travel or 
walk listlessly, as in returning 
disappointed and tired from hunt- 

Iiom^ka, kn, v, t. caus, lema, 
to hooour, to esteeniy to own 



allegiance; e.g, tu la lemeka 
mwami kn nsana shakwe, we 
hononr the chief for his strength. 

I«einekeka, ku, v, i, caus, cap, 
lema, to be honourable. 

Ziomekesha, ku, v,t, cans, int. 
lema, to honour greatly, to revere. 

Item^na, kn, v,t, reL lema, to 
burden. Pass, lexnenwa, to be 
burdened, to be overweighted; 
e, g. nda lemenwa, I am over- 
burdened. Ku lemena also 
indicates the power of a chief 
over his people. Mwami wa tu 
lemena, the chief makes us afraid. 

Iiem^sha, ku, v, U reL caus, lema, 
to cause another to be heavily 
burdened, to over^load a person. 

-lemu, adj, heavy, honoured. 
Mwami mulemu, a chief who 
has dignity, power. 

Ii^nda, ku, v, /. to stamp hard 
maize, to hit a man hard on the 

Iiendila, ku, v, /. reL lenda^ to hit 
a man on the head on behalf of 

I«endtUa, ku, v, i, to stammer, to 
stutter, to have an impediment in 
the speech. 

Ii^nga, ku, V, /. to introduce 
something hitherto unknown, to 
establish a new custom, to invent, 
discover; e,g, Iieza ngu a 
■hi lenga, it is God who did it, 
a rebuke to a man*s presumption ; 
it was not by his strength. 
MuluU ngu a ka lenga shitini 
kono, it is the missionary who 
first made bricks here. 

Iienga, ku, v. /. to cut up cassava 
roots or sweet potatoes. 

IiengaUa, ku ■« ku lembaila. 

Iieng&lay ku, v, i. to shirk, be 
unwilling, of a man who starts 
working but soon abandons it and 
goes away ; or starts on a journey 
and turns back. 

I«enganka, ku, v. Lpers, rep, lenga, 
• to be cut up,* to be out of 
sorts ; to have no heart for work, 
to be weak. 

Ii0iigaukila» ku, v, L reL lenga- 

uka, to be weak on account of ; 
e,g, twa langaukila naala, we 
are weak because of famine. 

Iiengaula, ku, Iiengausha, ku, 
v.L to cause one to be weak, 
tottering. Bukoko bwa mu 
lengausha, beer makes him 
totter, to be weak on his legs. 

-lengaushi, adj, weak, languid, 

Zaengauaba, ku, v. /. to lead astray, 
to seduce into wrong doing, to 
entice one astray; applied, e*g. 
to a ringleader in a strike, one 
who leads others to leave their 
work ; e.g. twa kalengauahiwa, 
we were led astray. 

Iiengawila, ku, v, t, <- ku lenga- 

Iieng^la, ku, v, i, to hang down, 
be suspended; e,g, isani di la 
lengela, the cloth hangs, i. e, as 
a curtain. 

Iiengela, ku, v, /. rel, lenga, to 
cut up for. 

I<engel61a, ku, 9. tL to be hung up, 
as of a man suspended from a 
tree with his feet dangling, as v, t, 
to accuse falsely or bear false 
witness against ; e, g, wa nenge* 
lela kambo, he accuses me 

Iiengel^Bha, ku, v, t, to suspend. 

Iiengtika, ku, v. i. to be weak, 
very hungry, to be starving. 
Phr. ku lenguka o mavhwi, to 
be weak at the knees, i, e, weak 
and helpless with hunger. 

Iienglila ku, v, t, to make a person 
weak, especially by beating. 

L68ha» ku, v, t. caus, leka, to stop, 
to cause to leave off, to restrain ; 
e.g, ba mu lesha ku amba, they 
stop him speaking. Ku dilesha, 
to abstain, to rest in quiet doing 

Iieshizha, ku, v, i, caus, reL leka, 
to restrain on behalf of; e,g, 
ndeshizha muntu wezo ku 
amba, stop for me that man 

I«eta, ku, V, L to bring, fetch. 

Iiet^la, ku, V, t, reL leta, to bring 



for; g.^, ndetela menahi, being 

me water, 
Iiet^8ha> ku, v. /. iia^ leta, to bring 

lieystika, ku, v. i, to rode abont, 

of a fanoe; of a man when he 

fears to go to the chief, when 

called, heeaose of his fault, and 

avoids the chief's village. 
Ijeydka, ku, v, t, to be dislocated. 
Iieylils, ku^ v. /. £aus, leynka, to 

XiOEa, n. la, prop, God, rain. See 

note in Eng.^lla vocab, under God . 
Ii^sfaa, ku, V. t, to show, to direct. 
Iio (i) poss. prfi, cL 9 and 9 a, 

sing. Prefixed by gen. parts. 

Mwini waldi the master of it. 

(2) Num, part, cl, 9, 9 a, sing. ; 

e.g, Ijupidi lo-mwi, one hill. 
I«6a, ku, V, t, to bewitch* Pass. 

Iioba, ku, V, t, to catch fish with 

a hook. 
Ij6ba, kUy V. i, to capsise, upset. 
Iiob6ka, ku, v, i, ? rev. loba, to 

escape after being caught^ to run 

away secretly. 
I«ob61a, ku, v.t, to catch fish. 
lK>b68lia, ku, V. t, caus. loboka, 

to cause to nm away secretly, or 

to help. 
-loboslii, adj, fugitive. 
IfObya, ku, v, t. caus. laba, to 

Iioela, ku, V. t, rel, loa^ to bewitch 

for, on behalf of. 
Ijolela, ku, v* u to be given any- 
thing freely. 
Iioleeha ku, v, t. to give a person 

things freely, esp. to any one who 

has nothing. 
Iiol61a ku, V. /. to repeat, to do 

anything again and again, ll^da 

lolola makaui a tanguxxa, I 

repeat the first affairs. 
I«6ma, ku. v, i. to be given a thing 

just suited to yon. 
Xiomauka, ku« v. i. to be jagged, 

Iiomatila, ku, v. t. to jag, to notch 

(as an axe edge). 
Ii6mba, ku, v, /. to aftk^ beg. 

Uuda, kOy V. t, to come to take 

anything, to fetch. 'W.a londa 

nzhi P What are yon after ? 
Iiondadka, ku, v, i, to drip, to 

drop as medicine in drops, to 

dri»de ; ^. ^ leza n la londauka, 

the rain &lls in a drizzle. 
XiOndauBhA, ku, v. t. caus, lon*> 

dauka, to cause to drip, to drop 

Ijondoka, kn^ z^.f. stat, loudQla, 

to be done well, to be ^CHnplete, 

•londokele, adj. perfect. 
Iionddla, ku, v,i. to work well, to 

make a good job of anything. 

Wezo muntu wa londola 

xnudimo wakwo, wa bote, that 

person does his work well, it is 

Iiondoldla, ku, n./. rev, limdola, 

to speak at great length, so as to 

weary people. 
IiondoloshiEha, ku^sku loxido- 

Iidnga, ku, v* S. to abaadon a 

Zions^la, ku, v. i, to put things into 

a box or bija. 
Iiong^lwa, ku, v, pass, cf lon- 

cela, to be happy, to be made 

happy, to be bletted. 
Iiong^sha, ku, v, t, caus. lonsela, 

to make happy, to blen. 
Ldngo, Zjongol6lo« n, 9. pL inffo, 

ingololoy dorsal fin of a fish. 
Iidugo, n, 9. >/. ingonco, a 

house, with gable ends. 
Longolk, u. 9. the place round 

about a hot spring. 
Iaongol6lA, kn, v. i. to unlade, to 

take things out of a box or 

Itontomoka, ku, v.t. Xq go ahead in 

haste, to come rushing in anger. 
Iiopa, ku, V. i. to be very wet, 

drenched, soaked. 
Iiota, ku, V, t, to dream. 
Iiowo, n, I a. name of as animaL 
Ijdyo, If. 9. quitch-grass. 
Zidaha, ku, v. /. caus. lo», to 

bewitch by means of something. 

Jffda mu loaha ^tanmiywa, X 



cattsed Sum to be token by « 

Xjosha, kxLj v. t. to be ftble, t« 

lK>Bhi, H, g. pL ingoihiy bark 

string, any «ord, string, rope. 
X«u (a) Classifier^ d* 9 mmd 9 a. 

sing,^ (i) Pers. and reL pro, cL 

9 amd^ a, sing, 
IrtiMnbMiyma, vi. 9. the dia- 
lauangantfa, im. 9. contianal tying 

and ant3^g of loads-~of people 

travelliag, Beensu badi kw«te 

Xaoane, i». 9. a folk-tale, pait of 

which is sung; 
Xufttele, M. g,f6r, (Soto, l«o»tle) 

the sea, ocean. 
X6ba, n, 9. //. imba, a fence, 

Xaba, ku, cr. /. to forget, to -err, to 

make a mistake. 
lanbila, n, 9. baldness (on top of 

X^bAle, n, 9. string made of the 

palm leaf. 
3«iLb41o, «. 9. a wattle nsed in 

Xfab^KmbOy-ff. 5^ intercourse between 

a man and another's wile, per- 
mitted by the husband. 
lanbinge, n, 9. wild hemp used 

for smoking, 
laubftnsa, n. 9.//. imansa, a clean 

place in the midst of a kraal; 

a ^ef s court for hearing cases; 

Iiub6nEe, ». i a. a kind of large 

hawk or falcon '^ Miahika. 
IiUbapatiao, n, g,far, (£ng.) bap- 
IfOb^bo, n. 9. repentance. 
lAbele, M. 9. a kind of grain similar 

to but smaller than mansi ; Polish 

lanbele, subs, pro, prep, cL 9, 9 a, 

sing, it (where it is). 
Iiiib6t», n. 9. judgement, a meeting 

for trying cases ; a law. ITsmiu 

kadi kLbeta kwizeulix, to-day 
. there is a court above ; said when 

a halo is seen around the moon. 

XiY&b«tekOy III.9. a judgement, sen*> 

Ijubibi, ff . 9. cream, 
laublla, ku, v,t, rel, Inba, to'foiget 

about. Nda ka ma hibila, I 

forgot about him. 
Lubllo, n. 9. swiftness, speed, fast 

pace. Kn leta liibilo» to come 

quickly, Ku tola InbUo, io go 

quickly. PL imbilo, used of 

great swifbiess. 
Zitibo, «f. I tf . a lynx. 
Iiubolekaxnastiko, n, prop, name 

given to the Supreme Being. It 

signifies : he who rots the maSuko, 

a fruit which goes rotten in the 

rainy season. 
Iiab6ndwe,i». ia.//.baluboitdwo, 

the pallah. 
Lab6no, n. 9. a load, possession. 

Double plural : imbono, loads ; 

mabono, riches, wealth. 
Iinbiilo, n, 9 a. any iron or tool, 

such as knife, spear, &c. 
Iiubultisa, kn, v, i, to introduce, 

to make two people known to 

each other. 
Iiubtimba, n, prop, name given to 

the Supreme Being, signifying, the 

Iiubya, kn, v. t. cam, lubft, to 

cause to err, forget. 
Iitichena, n, 9. the chiefs villftge, 

Iiuohende, n, i a, squirrel ( i*> shi- 

Xudiabdma, n, 9. roof of the 

mouth, palate. 
Iiudiangaaga » luanganga. 
Iiudika, ka, 9. /. to prepare, get 

Iiudikila, kn, v, t, rel, ludika, to 

prepare for. 
Iiudila, n, 9. the umbilical cord. 
Ijudlmi, n. 9. tongue, tip of knife. 

ITdi kwete indimi shobili, he 

has two tongues, i, e, be speaks 

one thing now and another later. 
lindinzo (ludiinao) n, 9. peace, 

quiet, calm. 
Ijudio, n, 9. the right hand. Used 

adverbially, kn Itidio, to the 

right, on Uie righ^. 



Jitfa, n. 9. death, //. ingfii, severe 

mortal disease. 
Iitiffiko, n, 9. dust. 
Iiufokdsi, n. 9. hot ash under a fire. 
Iiiif dmba, n, 9. a hoof. 
Iiufdno, n. 9. love. 
Iiuftituko, n. 9. salvation. 
Iitika, ku, V. i. to vomit. 
IfUka, ku, V, i, to weave, to plait. 

Ku luka ohitendele, to make 

a door of reeds. 
Iitika, n, 9. Tsetse fly (used of a 

Ijukai, n, 9. a piece of a broken pot. 
Iiuk&nda, ». 9. a skin (of man, 

also of mubondo fish), scale, of 

Xiuk&nks, ku, v. i, to run. 
Iiukankila, ku, v, i. rel, lukanka, 

to run towards. 
Iiukankisha, ku, v,u int. lu- 
kanka, to run fast. 
Iiukansha, ku, v. t. caus, lukanka, 

to cause to run. 
Iiukataaho, n, 9 a. trouble, annoy- 
Iiuk6n, n,ia.a number of women ; 

//. balukazi, a large number of 

Iiukila, ku, v. /. rel. luka, to weave 

Ijuk6bo, n, 9. a fiock of white birds. 
I«ukok61a, n, 9. the elbow. 
liuk61o, If. 9. breast of male or 

Iiuk61we, n, 9. large white beads. 
I«uk6ma, n, 9. a calabash dipper, 

Xiukombftslii, n. 9. the palm of the 

hand ; ku tuna lukombazhi, to 

hit with the palm of the hand, to 

Iiuk6mbo, if. 9. the umbilicus or 

Iiuk6na, if. 9. a barbed spear. 
I(UkonO| If. 9. possessions of a de- 

ceased person distributed to those 

who have the right to them. 
Iiukuba, If. 9. a field where all the 

grain has been reaped, the stalks 

alone remaining. 
Ijuktunba, m. 1 a, a. kind of hawk. 
Jauktingu, n, 9. cream. 

IiuktLni, If. 9. a log or piece of fire- 

Iiuklita, ku, v.t, to chew hard 
things, such as maize ; to gnaw, as 
a dog at a bone. 

IiukwSkwa, If. 9. a fence, stockade. 

Iiukw^sho, If. 9. the blacksmith's 

Ii^wi, If . 9. a winnowing-basket. 

Ijtila, ku, V, i. to be bitter, strong 

Iiul&bo, If. 9 a.* lightning. 

Iiulaka, n. 9. tongue. IT la ka dya 
kaahonto, pele ku kuaha lu- 
laka, you may eat just a little — 
only a taste, lit. to put out the 

IiuHma, ku, v,L to be right, 
straight; used in a moral sense, 
to be honest, righteous, just. 
Peff, luleme; Inzhila idi lu- 
leme, the road is straight. 
Muntu udi luleme, the person 
is good, honest, just. 

Iiulamika, ku, v, t. caus. lulama, 
to make right, to rectiiy, to put 
in order. 

Iiul6nga, If. 9. an interval of 
drought in the rainy season. 

-luleme, adj, straight, honest, 

IitUu, If. 9. an ant-heap. 

Iiullidi, If. 9. //. indudi, a rooH 

Iiultika, ku, v.i, to lose savour, 
strength (of medicine, &c.). 

Iiulukw&ti, If. I a. the mantis. 

Iiuma, ku, v, /. to bite, to sting (of 
a bee). Ku Itima inkwino, to 
gnash the teeth. 

Iiuma-luma, ku, v. i. redupl, luma, 
to be unfluent, slow and hesitating 
in speech. 

Iiumimba, n. 9. //. imamba, war, 
not of a single battle, but continu- 
ous fighting. 

ZaunULno, if. 9. pL imano, tongs, 
pincers for taking up fire. 

Iiumanya, ku, v. /. rec, caus, luma, 
to cause to bite each other; to 
join up, as wattles upon a fence. 

Iiumany^ndo, if. I a. a large tree- 
snake, said to be extremely 



Iitixnanyoy if. 9. abolition. 
Iitunbs, ka, v, /. to thank, to praise, 

extol, be grateful. 
launibidila, ka, v,t, reU lumba, 

to thank on behalf of another. 
Iiumbila, ku, v,t, reL lumba, 

to thank for, on account of. Ku 

dilumbila, to praise for oneself. 
IfXimbisha, ku, v. t, int, lumba, to 

thank very mnch. 
Iiumbtila, ku, v, t, to pay a tax. 
laumbtuBlia, ku, v,t, cans, lu- 

mbula} to impose, collect a tax ; 

also, to kill by witchcraft. People 

used to forbid their sons going to 

Bulawayo to work, fearing that 

while away, or on their return, they 

would kill them by witchcraft : 

it is to this the word is applied. 
Itumiua, ku, v,u to be dirty, in 

disorder, unclean. 
•lumine, adj, dangerous (of a road), 

Ut, biting; eg. inshila idi lu- 

mine, the road is dangerous {i,e, 

there is a lion upon it). 
Iituniulzha, ku, v.t. to eat dry 

meat with bread. 
Iituno, n. 9. //. imo, a razor, a 

knife for cutting ofif hair or 

I<uin6ma, n, 9. termite. 
Iiump^Us, ku, v,u to get old (of 

clothes, &c.). 
Xiumpl^lia, ku, v, t, cans, luznpals, 

to cause to get old. 
IiTunpiika, ku, v. i. to rush out, as 

out of a house, in anger. 
Iiumpuke, n. i a. name of a fish. 
laumpukils, ku, v, t. rel. luxnpuka^ 

to rush out after (in anger). 
Xiumpute, n, 9. pi. impute, shaft 

of arrow ; //. is also mimpute. 
Iitimwi, If. 9. sunshine, heat of the 

sun; phr, lumwi lu badisha, 

the son is very hot. 
Itunakwsbo, poss. phr, cU 9, 9 a, 

sing, their, of their place. 
Ifunakwako, poss, phr, cL 9, 9 a, 

sing. thy. 
launiJcwskwe, poss. phr, cL 9, 9 a. 

sing, his. 
Jbuu^kwangu, poss, phr, cl, 9, 9^ 


Iiunakweuu, poss, phr* cl, 9, 9 a. 
your, of your place. 

Iiunakwesu, poss. phr, cl, 9, 9 a. 
our, of our place. 

Iiunda, ku, v.t, to be erected (of 
the penis). 

Iiuudina, ku, v. i. rec, lunda, to 
be gathered together ; e.g. bwisu 
bwa lundana, the grass is 
gathered up. 

Lundlka, ku, v. /. caus, lunds, to 
collect together, to pile up, as 
stones, &c., into a heap. 

Iiundikila, ku, v,t, caus, rel, 
lunda, to pile up for. 

Iiundila, ku, v. i, to fold over, to 

Iiundtika, ku, v, i, to be collected, 
to go all in a body at once. Ba 
limduka balombwana, the men 
have all gone in a body. 

Iiundumtika, ku, v, i, to be 

liundumnka, ku, v.i, to go in 
crowds, nobody being left behind. 

Iitinga, ku, V. t. to join up together, 
end to end, to unite ; also, to 
season meat with salt. 

Iiiinga, n, la, a, kind of hawk. 

liuugs, n. 9. a small quantity of 

I*uiiff6ka, ku, v. i, to be vexed. Of 
a man who loses something by 
the carelessness or malice of 
others, and is sorry and angry on 
account of it. 

Lunglila, ku, v, i, to be burnt, of 
food ; e.g, bwa luugula butane, 
the meat is burnt up. Chele cha 
lungula, the porridge is burnt, 
scorched; v. i. to vex, disap- 

Iiungtilu, If. 9. great heat; e^g, 
mudilo u la pia lungulu, the 
fire is very hot Muntu u la 
pia lungulu, the person is in a 
buming fever. 

Iiungul^la, ku, v, t, to tell out a 
matter speaking the truth all the 
time, to be quick in learning. 

Iiunguliila, ku, v,t. rev. lunga, 
to disjoin, to disunite. 

Lungvwentima, adv, backwards. 



Ibungwilo, n, 9. a lettor, writing of 
any kind. 

iMinkfahi, n. 9. a small calabash 
used for drinking purposes. 

Imnk6l0) n. 9. a fienoe. 

liUnlEubwinlnibwi, n, 9. tributary, 
or tributaries of a river. Pxoverb : 
ICulonga u mla InnlnAnirinku- 
bwi, the river is filled by its 
tributaries, i.e. doesn't get full 
all at once. Applied to one in a 
hurry to learn, &c, he must not 
expect to know eTerythingat first. 

ZAiiiy4iiaho, ». 9. contempt ; of one 
who despises counsel, refuses to 
listen and pursues his own way^ 
ITdi kwete liinyansho. 

Ziunya^nya, n. 9. desire for food. 
Nda fwa lunyaunya, when you 
see people sitting eating and tbey 
give you nothing, this is to ask 
for some. 

Iiiinzha, ku *• ku lundA. 

Iiupa, ku, V. L to please, to be 
nice for; e.^. ohiansa -oheohi 
cha mu lupa, this custom pleases 
him, $. e. he will not break away 
from it, or^ ohiansa ohidi mu 

Iiupamba, ». 9. thirst. Ko. fmtb 
lupamba, to be thirsty. 

liUp&ngo, n. 9. a kind of platform 
in a house where firewood is 

Iiupldi, n.^a.9L hill. 

Iiupisha, ku, v.t, int. Inpa, to 
please very much. 

Ifiipo, n, 9. generosity ; a slanting 

Jiuptikila, ku, v. t, to be angry. 

Ijtipwe, n, 9. moisture in the eyes, 
continually overflowing. 

Iituaka, n, 9. dense bush. 

Ijtis&ko, If. 9. a spear-shaft. 

IjU86kwe, n, 9. the rough outside 
of horns, also of a tree. 

Ijus&nge, n. 9. a kind of thin tough 
grass, very good for thatching. 

I«£se, n. 9. mercy, grace. 

Ijiis^ba, ft. 9. a body. 

Iius^le, num. eight. 

Iiusenge, n. 9. grain-stalks cut 
down in a field. 

Lns^ngo, is. 9. a horn corilMaing 

chacm-iiiedicine, a diariii. 
Iiusensa, n. 9. place with sboitgmss. 
I^daha, ku, 9./. caus^ Inha, to 

cause to vomit Mvaamo wa 

kolnaha, an emetic 
laoahiko, «i. 9. a baskdt-woik fish- 
Imahime, if. 9. a thing known and 

spoken about and kept in nMmory. 

Obudiaonn ndusliiiiio, ta la 

znana, even to-day it is « thing 

spoken o<^ it does not come >to an 

Iiuahinga, n. 9. tootiiac^. XTda 

fwa huMnga, I have toothache. 
IiosongrKra, n, 9. a very full thing, 

as a basket or grain-bin. 
Ijiuotoko, ». 9. a transgression. 
IiTistilo, If. 9. hate. 
Iiustinaa, if. 9. harshness. 
Iitita, n, 9. a crack,a long ditch dug 

for the purpose of trapping game 

or keeping locusts out of a £eld. 
Iiut&mbo, «». 9. a band, girdle, 

belt, rein. 
Ijutdxiga, If. 9. a cattle oatpost. 
Xjutingat&nga, n. 9. web of the 

shilutangatanga spider. 
Iiat&nzbi, if. 9. a previous time, a 

first time ; used adverbially, before, 
• at firsts 
IiUt^le, If. 9. fishing-net, the pouch 

of a stork or pelican. 
Lutembaula, ». la^ eat who 

praises or extols. 
Iiut^nde, If. 9. a kind of plant from 

which basket string is nuwie. 
Ittit^nte, If. 9. a place where the 

grass has been burnt off ; a grass 

Iiut^nto, «». 9. a piece of a •fanroken 

pot, used as a plate ; a plate. 
Iiutfla, ku, v.i, tohe angry, hate. 
Ijutflana, ku, v. i. rec. lurtila, to 

hate each oUier, to be angry with 

each other. 
Iiutisha, ku, v.t. €aus» kUila, to 

make angry, to anger. 
Iiutuluka, ku, v. i. to be shipped 

of its thatch (of a hut). 
Iiutultila, ku, V. /. to taice the graas 

off a hut. . ■ 



I^DEtiishi, n, 9. pasdonatenesi, tm- 

patient temper, spite, 
lautwalo, n. g, marriage. 
I•UTMxu^ n. 9. umibers of Inshei 

IiUTwabtfti, «. 9. a nb. 
Ztawtez, m. 9. space between the 

I^wo, M. 9« a light breeze. 
Xmx&ba, if. 9. a net, mesh of fat 

aroond the stomach; bill of 

pelican and stork. 
LauBAado, -n. 9. will, desire. 
Iiuzenge, n, 9. spittle, e^iecially 

tongh spittle of a side persoa. 
Lnaha, ku, v. t. to forget or break 

a promise. 
Iinzhalo, u, 9. birth. 
IiQSubo, n, 9. a hiding-place. 
Iiwa (i) g€n, part, d, 9 and 90. 


(a) fers, fr», cL 9 and 911. 
Iiws, ku, V. /. to nght. 
IiwUa, #f . 9 tf . a claw, finger-nail. 
liwlla, ». 9. comb of cock. 
IiwalOy fK&r./r^. simple cL 9, 9^. 

jm/-. it, itself. 
Iiwimps, If. 9^ a hoase not yet 

Iiw6na, ka, v. /. r^r. Iwa, to fight 

Itfw&ndo, ». 9. //. ingando, a reed 

stockade pnt across the river in 

catching fish. 
Iiw<aig«, n. 5). drought 
I«wftiiSB, if. 9. a stick with many 

forks inside a village, or out, 

upon which things are hmig, 

spears rested, &c. 
Iiwata, ff. 9. a slope. Mulambwe 

weao udi kwete Iw&ta, this 

game-pit slopes down to a 

-Iwaahi, ^'. sick, afflicted. Muntu 

mnlwBBhi, a sick person. Ing'o- 

mbe indwashi, a sick cow. 
]Uwfila, ku, V, 1. to be nice, sweet. 
law^ndo, If. 9. pL inyendo, a 

I>w6nge, If. 9. pL iny enge, a large 

Irw6ngu, If. 9. a notorious thing, a 
< thing JsBown to all, notoriety. 

Iiw^nso, Yf. 9. pi, iayeinBo, a 

lArawa, pass, ku loa, to be be- 

Ziwtek, ku, v,t, to astonish, te 
amaze. IT la ndwesa, you 
astonish one. 

I^veswa, km, pass, Iwesa, te be 
astonished, to be amazed, to 

Iiwfdi, If. 9. //. izijidi, a kind of 

Lwlki, If. 9. persistency, persever- 
ance, patience. 

Ijwlla, ku, v,t, reL Iwa, to fight 

Iiwimbididi, if. 9. //. inyimbi- 
didi, cock's comb ; mane, hair 
on an animal's back which can be 
erected ; also, of a man who cuts 
his hair, leaving one portion like 
a cock's comb, udi kwete 

Iiwimbo, If. 9.//. inyimbo, a song, 

lAi^isha, ku, v./. caus. Iwa, to 
fight against. 

I/wiya, If. 9. side, quarter, direc- 
tion. Ku Iwiya kono, to this 

Iiwiya, If. 9 a. pi. meya, horn. 

Iiwishi, If. 9. a very large river, a 
flooded river. 

Iiwizu, If. 9. severe hunger. li'da 
fwa Iwisu, I am very hungry. 

M. Pronounced as in English. 
M, cop, part, cL 4. sing.^ e.g. Mbu- 

zane, it is meat. 
Ma (i), classifier^ cl, 3, 4, 5, and 

9 a, pi, 

(3) pers, pro, 2 p. pi. ace, you. 
Ma, ku for ku uma, to hit. 
Mab&la, if. 3. pi. colours. Name 

given to a black and white 

speckled ox ; e. g. £zhi ing*oinbe 

nja mabala, this ox is black and 

white, speckled. 
Mab&nga, if. 3. baldness on the 

side-front of the head. 
Mab&nge, n, ga. pi. sl quantity of 

hemp for smoking. 
Mabia, if. 3. if^ sing, a hot spring. 



Mabishiy n, 3. no sing, sour milk. 

Mab6no, n. ga. pL riches. 

iCabtunbUy n, 3. name of a kind 
of fruit. 

Mabiingo, ». 3. name of a kind of 

Mabtizo, n. 3. pods of the baobab. 

Mabw&bwa, n, 3. //. a grove of 
trees planted around a grave. The 
sing, ibwabwa is used of a single 
tree of the grove. 

Mabw&ntu, n. 3. //. of ibwantu, 
a quantity of beer. 

Maohaka, n, 3. name of a plant 
eaten as a vegetable. 

Macheme, n, 3. no sing, Kaffir 

Madi, «. 3. no sing, for, money. 

M&di, n. 3. no sing, two or more 
jobs carried on at once, work 
for more than one master ; poly- 

Madidila, n. 3. no sing, a funeral 

Msdilwe, n, 3. no sing, cries, 
crying) esp. at funeral. Madilwe 
a ng'ombe, noise of the cattle. 

Mafda, n, 3. no sing, place for 
fire, stove, oven. 

Maf6mba, n. 4. //. of buftunba, 

Mafdnzi, n. 3. no sing, wicked- 
ness, vice. 

Mafdta, n. 3. fat. 

MaX, n, i,pL ofii, eggs. 

MaXla, n, 3.//. ^ila, grain. 

Malmbo, n, ga. pi. many songs. 

MaXnza, n, 3. no sing, summer 
time, the rainy season. 

Makaohidilo, Makachilo, n. 3. no 
sing, a pretence, sham, lie. 

Mak&di, n. 3. no sing, thunder. 

Hakakata, n, 3. the divining-bones. 

Makala, n, 3. //. live coals, em- 

Mak61ambfa, n, 3. leavings, as in a 

Hak&mLO, 11.3. a large number of 

Mak&nko, n. 3. seed already sown. 

Makankflo, n. ^, no sing, be- 
ginning, commencement of any- 

Mak&ta, n, 3. bundles, coils. In- 
zoka ya dishiziga makata, the 
snake coils up. 

Makatfilo, n, 3. no sing, weari- 
ness, fatigue. 

Mak6ba, n, 3. //. i^ikoba, caves. 

ICakobo, n, 3. //. overhanging 
brows. Prov. Bapoxnbo ba In 
diaeka u xna^obo, the baboons 
laughed at each other about their 
makobo, i, e, people don't see 
their own defects. 

Mak6kOy n, 3. no sing, self-sown 

Mak6a, n, i. ait, pi, of mukna, 

Makdba, n, 3. fields in which the 
grain has been harvested. 

Makwash&nyi, if. 3. pL sweepings. 

Makwati, 11.3. //. of ikwati, 
boxes, cases. 

Makwati, if . i a. a white cotton 

Makwatilo, n, 3. //. of ikwatilo, 
handles, of tools, &c. 

Mila, If. 4. pi. ^bula, intestines. 

Mala, If. ga, pi. of Iwala, daws, 

Mal&ma, if. i a, pi, sbamalama, a 

Mal6ngal&nga, if. 3.//. of ilanga- 
langa, flowers. 

Mal6kal6ka, if. 3. leaves of reeds 
or grain. 

Malelo, If. 4. provender, provision. 

Maloa, If. 4. pi, of buloa, blood. 
Often used in this pi. form. 

Maltikwa, if. I a. an ugly person. 

Mallimbu, if. 3. //. a variety of 

Malungashiku, if. 3.//. middle of 
the night. 

Malungu, if. 4. //. of Bulonga, a 
large quantity of beads. 

Malw6za» if. 3. //. a wonderful 

Mama, interj, express sorrow, dis- 

Mamambe, if. i. if^ sing, adultery 
(used of repeated acts). 

Mamantfzha, ku, v, i . to be nig- 
gardly, to stammer; to be carefiil 
of one's possessionsi — as of one 



-who keeps what he has, even 

although they are old ; also of 

one who carefully mends his 

clothes althongh old. 
Mamba, n, ^.pL ^lamba, hoes. 
Mambdnyambdnya, n, 3. no sing, 

self-satisfaction of a rich person 

who despises the poor. 
Mambumbu, n, 3. //. IT la dya 

mambuinbu, he eats very slowly. 
Mambw&mbwadi2lii,/f . 3. bubbles. 
Mamlna, n, 3. no sing, mucus of 

the nose. 
Mampa, n, gtupL o/lMwaxa.'pt^f q.v. 
Mamp&nda n, 3. no sing, a 

dividing-place. Mampanda a 

nzhila, bifurcation of roads. 
Jffampombwe, n. 3. //. continual 

begging, giving nothing in return. 

Wa ohita mampombwe, said 

to a person who always does so 

(kn poxnbola). 
Mampliba, n. 3. no sing, dread, fear. 
Mtoa, kii, V. t. to finish, complete 

to end, exterminate ; v, i, to be 

finished, &c 
Manakwibo, poss. phr. cl. 3, 4, 5 

^ their, of their place. 
Manakwako, poss, phr, cl, 3, 4, 5 

9 a, pi. they. 
Manakwakwe, poss. phr, cl, 3, 4, 

5,, his. 
ICanakwangu, poss, phr. cl, 3, 4 

5, g a, pi, my, 
ISjKnAlLwenxLy poss, phr. cl. 3, 4, 5 

9 a. pi. your, of your place. 
Manc&cwesu, poss. phr, cl, 3, 4, 5 

9 a. pi, our, of our place. 
ICan&le, n,ia, a large white heavy 

Mangle mushonto, n. la. k white 

blanket with red stripe. 
Mantosa, n, 3. no sing, syphilis. 
M6ncha, ku ; Manch61a, ku, v. i, 

to dawn (of the day). 
Manchenga, 11.3. no sing, cross- 

ICanda, n.i,pl, ^ing'anda, houses. 
ICanda, n. 3. //. of ianda, a big 

pole with a fork at the end. 
M2nda, if. 3. //• balls of earth, 

wrapped in grass, tied to the 

JLiwando, to keep it sunk. 

Uftndu, If. 3. if^ sing, coarsely 

ground meal. 
Mandyadi, if. 3. idle tales, affairs 

of no consequence. 
Mftnga, If. 3. if^ sing, twins. 

Mwana wa m&nga, a twin. 
Mftnga, If. 4.//. ^bwanga, kind- 
Mang'a, if. 3. no sing, cracks, 

Iffangilo, If. 3. //. tags, ends for 

MangolSzha, if. 3. if^ sing, late 

Mang'omba, if. 3. chilies. 
Mangwe, n. prop, name given to 

the Supreme Being ; signifies, the 

sender of so much rain that there 

is no dry place left. 
Mani, amj, then, until; e.g, Ke 

endLa chinichini, mani wa 

shima, he travelled hard, then he 

stopped. IT la dlma ntiani nku 

leshe, you will hoe imtil I stop 

Manfka, ku, v. t, to hang up. 
Manlna, ku, v. t. rel, mana, to 

finish for. "Kvl mu manina 

midimo, to serve him, lit, to 

finish work for him. 
Maninfna, ku, v, i, rel, mana, to 

be complete, peifect. 
Manlzha, ku, v. t, to finish, to end, 
Manjenji, if. 3. pi, red biting 

Mank&lwe, if. 3. if^ sing, a kind of 

Mankftnza, if. 3. if^ sing, honey- 
Mankisi, if. 3. if^ ^fif^. for. (Eng.) 

llankolongwa, if. 3. name of an 

edible root. 
Mankonga, if. 3. if^ sing, a 

shelter made of tree branches. 
llankonti, if. 3.//. things given to 

a paramour. 
Mankushita, if. 3.//. ^inkushita, 

waves on a river, wrinkles on 

Mankwashinkwashi, if. 3. //. 

things or affairs of no importance 

or use, rubbish. 



lCang*ong:we, if . 3. m? xm^. a kind 

of grass used for making mats. 
Mano,. n. 3. no sing, cunniogi 

Mazuanse, n. 3. //. sparks. 
Mans^nda, n, 3. //. lands prepared 

at the close of the rainy season. 
Mansha, ku, v. /. to lick with the 

tongue, to taste*. 
Manshonya, n. 3.//. ^imdiOBya, 

the inside cartilages of the noss. 
Mansi, n. 3. no sing, inyanti grain. 
ICanstika, ku, v, i, to* (fie so&enly 

without apparent cause. 
Mantimbwa, n, 3. pi. ef Inti- 

mtowa, g, v, 
lCant6ngwe, n, 3.//. dry discharge 

of the eyes {ue, that which is 

washed away in the morning). 
M&nta*m.&ntu, n. 3. na sing, little 

bits of rubbish. 
Mant6mbwimbwa, it. 3. iw sing, 

false boasting. 
Manukw^bo, n, 3. na sing, their 

mothers, i, e, moUier and maternal 

Manuna, ku, v. iL to take down a. 

thing, such as- anything from, a 

Manwina, kit, v,t, rei, nunuma, 

to take down for. 
Manya, ku, v, t, caus^ mansi to 

abolish, bring to an end. 
ManyanBha, n, 3. no: sing, a Idnd 

of grass used for making nuUS. 
Manyiny^hi, n, $. na sing, par- 
ticles of fat swimming on a liquid. 
Map^pa, m 3. no sing, meslie 

bran ; //. of ipepa, pages. 
Map6po, n. 3. no- sing, tiie. <sqX^ 

side bark of trees. 
Mapdpwey n, 3. //. maize. 
MapumbtUu, n, 3. pL maize cobs 

without tlie sheath. 
Mas^ke, n, 3. no sing, refnse left 

after stamping grain, 
llasekeseki, n. 3. no sing: cooked 

Has^kwe^ n, 3. no sing, the 

colour of a white and black ox ; 

e.g. ing'ombe. etXkt nim mose^ 

kwe, this ox is black andwhite. 
Jias^sho, n. 3. no sing, jnt^jokm- 

Maa^Uy. n, 3. no sing, contradic- 
Mash% ku, o. t caus, mata,. to 

cause or hdp smear, danb* 
Mashikn, Mi4, pi, of biudiika, 

Maahimbi, n. 3, no sing, char- 
Maahfno^ m, ^^ na sing, labia 

Maahtbudia, m 3. pi, tniU ol gnEss^ 

such as are left when the long 

grass is burnt off. 
MaBoafao, n. 3. no sing. coasol» 

tion> comfort. 
Masuke, n.^,no sing, batter milk. 
Mastiki, n, 3. //. of iiumJd, many 

Maatmka, m. 3. name o£ a- kind of 

Mastbutuiya, n, 3, pi, roughness. 

Kudi masunsuaya, to be xiongh. 
Mata, "kXL, v:k to daab, smear r of 

filling the interatices between tiit 

wall-poles of a house. 
Mat£ko, n, 3. //. rf UadDOv^ the 

Mat&nga» ir. 4. pL of botanga, 

herds; 11.3. //.^itanea, melons^ 
M&te, n, 3. no sing, spittle* 
MatelaXahi, n*^,no sing: thoaghtSsr 
Matila, ku, v, t, rol, nunto, to 

smear, daub, for.. 
Mattlo, n. 3. no sing, a refbgc; 
Mat6bo, n^ 3. name of a Idnd tfC 

Mat6mpOb ik 3. «■ Xitenvtompfii 

Kat6b% M.3. w4ute nuitt^ of 

Kaffir com. 
MattUa, ku, tv t rovi mate, t^ 

open (as a gtain-bin); .flerf. 

matudile. Bhombwa^ aliidi ma^ 

tudilwo, the gnun-binsane' openv 
Mattiahi, n» 3. no sittg, rsvilings, 

curses;- impfvcatioBs. 
llatwlla, ku, v. t, rel, nuBtalA^ to 

open foNT. 
MauBibay 111^3. nosing, Dmtlttr. 
ICaumba, it. 3. pt- of iimiba, 

wormS| maggots; 
Koundaf li. Z* f^9f tuttds,, Inge 

fields^ xauk ofi a Smmc uMier 



people go to gather fruit in £unine 

Mavhuba, n. 3. //. bellows. 
Maw6 r ^erf. Dear me 1 expreases 

sorrow or distress. 
Maw6 budio ! tn(gfy\ Oh dear me 1 

expresses distress. 
May^naa, n, 3. //. carvings, mould- 
MaBea§la> n, 3.//. mind, thoughts, 

M^aha, ft,^n^ sing, hair, on the 

H tehi, n. 3. no sit^, feeces. 
Maahilo, n,^» pi. 0/ iahilo^. widl- 

polea of a house. 
MaBhinsaAhila, n, ^ no sing, 

recollection, memory, mind. 
Ma^okelo, n. 3. pi, die place: to 

which one returns. 
Mba, gm, part. cL 1,. pL they 

are of. 
ICbaba, subs, pro, 3 p, pi, el, u 

Mbala, pAr, ku mbala, novtii- 

wardii; i;i, towards, the Mbala 

Mbi^ particle used with kn. ahia;. 

o,g, JX 1ft ahia mbi, he is. very 

black. How black, is hel 
Xbia, gsn, part, cl, j, pL they 

are of. 
Mbiaa, m 1 a>, pi, bambiaa,. a 

ICbo, (j) cop. parti cl, i,pL they 

arp ; (3) rel. pro. cl, i. //. which. 
IVfivi, (r) cop. part, cL 4. sing, ML\sk%. 

(3) rel, proi cl, 4. j/x^.. whiclu. 
ICbubo, stibs, pro. cl. 4. sing, it 

tiAodv. it is SO) it is all right. 
Mbwai gen, part, cl, 4. sing, it is 

M61e, //. form cUt, cf ohale, poi^ 

H6na» ka» v, i, to. grow (of pdantv 

Mena, n, 4. pi. o/hwinA, burrowak 
Men6ka, ka, v, t causi iiiAn»,. to: 

cause to groww Bintu bionae- 

wa bi meneka Iveaai^. Gocb 

makes all thingsgrow., 
Men^E^a^ ku, V4t, catiti. reli. 

viaxi% to make.grow fozw 

Menena, kii, v, t, rel, mena^ to 

grow for. 
MAno, n. ^*pl. o/dino, teeth. 
KMiaa, kn, v. t. to dmw out hair 

from the pubes (ku mesa). 
Kenao, n, 3. //. 0/ dinaa, eyes^ 

▲ ahia a menao, it is dark about 

the eyes,, tl /. he is blind. 
Menya, ku, v. t. eaus. mema, to 

cause, make to grow. 
M^nae, n, 3. no sing, whey* 
Mdnafai, n, 3. no sing, water, sap 

of txee^ juice of fruit. A newly 

bom duld is called KenaM 

MenaO) n, 3. pi. place where one 

visits, hostel. 
M6ya, n, 4. //. ofhwiss^ thoma. 
Midya, n, ga. pi. <^lwlya, horns. 
Mi, classifier of cl. 2, pi, 
Kiepo, n, 3. pi. straight hair, aa 

that of £uropeansw 
Xina, ku, v,L to swallow.. "Kbl 

mina mate, lit. to swallow spittle, 

to desiroi 
Minakwabo, posp, phr, cL 2^ fi'. 

their, of their place. 
Mioakwako, poss, phr, cl, 3;. //. 

M£iitd:wakwe, post, phr, cL %. pti 

Minakwangu, pass, pkr, d, 2i pt^ 

Minakwenu, poss, phr, cL a. //. 

your, of your place. 
Minakwoau, poss. phr, cL a; /£ 

our, of our place. 
Minama, ku, v. i. to be- crooked,. 

dishonest. Frov* Shimwanda 

umineme, aae wa minama, he. 

who goes with a dishonest person 

becomes dishonest himself.. Evill 

communications corrupt good 

Mini, m. 2, pi, of mwioi^ koe 

Minikft, kn, v* i, cap,, mina. Ttt. 

be swallowable. 
Mint^ngwo,.*. i-ct, namerofa. bladl 

Mintika, ku, v^L to. wagv ^ ^ 

erect (of:a.tail)» 
Hinuna, ku, v, t, to erect (» tail). 



Minya, ku, v. t cans, mina, to 

cause to swallow. Bantu ba 

minya, the people annoy, vex me. 
Mishika, n,ia, a kind of large 

Mishika, n, 2. pL birth pangs. 

Mukaintu wa sata mishika, 

the woman is in travail. 
Mishinko, n, a.//, poles placed to 

close a gateway. 
Misukwe, n, 2. //. mane of lion. 

ITshuxnbwa wa zhimika misu- 
kwe, the lion erects his mane. 
Mita, ku [ =ku imita], v, i. to be 

Mo, he, part, and adv, short form 

of xaom.0, there. 
Moa, ». I. a coward. 
Mddi, n, i. //. bodi, a lady, wife 

of a chief. 
Modia, loc, dem* used as adv, in 

yonder, ont from yonder. 
Mofu, n, I. pi, bofo, a blind 

Mofti [ = muofu], M. a. a storm. 
Mola, M. I a. a gun-spring. 
Moma-balumbu, «. a. an ox with 

black head and rump and white 

Momba^ if. i. a kind of snake-eating 

Mombankliku, «. i. a barren cock. 
Mombe, n, a. a dividing-wall in a 

Mombe, n, i. //. bombe, a calf. 
M6mbo, n.i, an impotent man or 

Mdmbombo-wen&ngo, n, a. 

bridge of the nose. 
Momo, loc. dent, used as adv, in 

there, out from there. 
Mondo, n. a. pi. miondo, fore- 
legs of skin used by women as a 

MOngo, n. a. spine, backbone ; 

blunt edge of a knife. 
MOngo, n, i. //. bongo, a male 

Mono, n, 2. a fishing-trap. 
Mono, loc, dem. used as cuiv, in 

here, out from here. 
Monse, loc. everywhere in here or 
■ there. 

Mosa, n, a. air, breath ; spirit, soul ; 
Moza u 8wei8ha, the Holy 

M6ze, «. I a. name of a bird. 

M6zo, n, a. //. miozo, heart, core 
of tree. 

Mpemtina, if. lo. a kind of strong 

Mpile, If. I a. spring-hare. 

Mu, (i) classifier, cl, i and a. sing. 
(a) locative prefix and prep, 
denoting position within, motion 
into or out from. (3) pers. pro, 
3/. sing, cl. I. him, it; aiso 2 p, 
pt, nom. and ace. you. 

Mub&lo, If. a. a curved or bent 
stick, a hoop ; the clavicle. 

Mubambala, n. a. a kick. 'Wezo 
munyama wa sansa mibam- 
bala, that animal kicks. 

Mub&mbi, if. i. a keeper, pre- 

Mub&nga, if. a. name of a forest 
tree ; very hard timber, not eaten 
by borers. 

Mub&ngo, If. a. a piece of wood 
used in a game, a bat. 

Mub&nzhi, if. i. one who takes 
food out of a bin ; one who feeds 
people ; a trusty servant ; one iXrho 
knows where things are kept ; e.g, 
znu tume wezo, ngu mubanshi, 
send him, he knows where things 
are kept. 

Mubapatizhi, if. i. one who bap^ 

Mub&so, If. a. colour, paint. 

Mubele, subs, pro, prep, a /. pi, 

Mubeleki, if. i. worker, labourer. 

Mubeleko, if. a. work, labour. 

Mub^nzhi, if. a. the spleen. 

Mubeshi, if. i. a liar. 

Mubeteshi, if. i. a judge. 

Mubezhi, if. i. a worker in woody 
carpenter, joiner. 

Mubi, If. I. a sinner. 

Mubiabe, if. i. a bad person. 

Mubfdi, If. a. a body. 

Mublnda, if. a. a loin-doth. 

Mublshi, If. I. a destroyer. 

Mubdmbo, if. a. name of a tree, it 
has good bark which b lued by 



the Mankoya for clothing and for 

making intebe. 
MubdmbOy n, a. trtmk of an 

Mub6ndo, n,i. name of a large 

fish, the barbeL 
Mab6ndo, n. 2. muscle of the calf 

of the leg. 
Mubtidi, If. I. a conncillor, teacher ; 

name given to the women who 

instruct girls previons to marriage. 
Mubtimbi, n,i, a maker, creator. 
MubtinxbUy if. 2. name of a tree, 

bark used as a medicine in 

diarrhoea and dysentery. 
Mubtitix, If. I. a newly bom calf. 
Mtibwa, If. I. a dog. 
Muobinka, if. 2. a nice thing. 
Muchanku, if.2. noisy chewing; 

ku tafnna znuohanku, to chew 

Mucbaxua, if. i. an ox with widely 

spreading horns. 
Muoh^he, if. i. an infant. 
Muohdcbel^zhi, if. 1. 1^ tale-bearer, 

especially of lying tales. 
Mucli^ka, If. I a, pL bamuoheka, 

a kind of python.. 
Muoh^lo, If. 2. a fruit. 
Muoheznb^le, if. i. an old person. 
Muoh^nde, if. i. a bull. 
Muoh6ngi, if. i. a deceiver. 
Muchezije, if. 2. name of a tree from 

which medicine is made for 

bums ; fruit eaten. 
Muoheteshi, if. i. a tax-gatherer. 
Muob^shi, If. I. one who gathers 

Mucb^liiy If. I. a turner, maker of 

ivory bracelets. 
Maobikwatabakofa, the wrist. 
Muchila, if. 2. a tail. 
Muchinchi, if. 2. sound of foot- 
Muohitashibi, if. i. a sinner. 
Mucbiti, If . I . a doer, maker. 
Muohitidi, if. i. one who does on 

behalf of another, an agent. 
Muohizhi, if. i. sister, brother. Used 

by a man speaking to or of his 

sister ; by a woman in speaking to 

or of her brother. 
Mudi, If. I. a buyer, purchaser. 

Mudi a mundi. 

Mudfango, if. 2. a doorway, gate- 

Mudianswi, if. 2. name of a forest 
tree; hard, borer-proof timber: 
walking-sticks made of it. 

Mudib^zhi, if . i . a liar, deceiver ; 
one who promises and does not 

Mudidlma, if. 2. stem of the water- 
lily, made into snuff. 

Mudiezhina, if . z . an heir, inheritor. 

Mudfmakubtishu, if. 2. small-pox. 

Mudimbultidi, if. i. a disbeliever, 

Mudimbtiahi, if. i. a fool. 

Mudfmi, If. I. one who cultivates, 
hoer, gardener. 

Mudfmo, If. 2. work. 

Mudindizbi, if. i. a watcher, care- 
taker, steward. 

liudingudi, if. i. an examiner, 

Mudiniinishi, If . i. a proud person. 

Mudisakamino ^ miuakamino, 
If. I. a head-rest, pillow. 

Mudfshi, n.i. Si big eater. 

Mudfwo, If. I. a bad worker ; also a 
bad person. 

Mudiyi, if. i. a learner. 

Mudizbj, If. I. a mourner. 

Mudlifa, If. I. a person in danger of 
death (or, mulufu.) 

liudyadya, if. 2. a shrub, the root 
of which is cooked in beer or 
porridge and is said to stimulate 
the appetite. 

Mudyo, If. 2. an eatable. 

Muevangele, if. i. /or. a writer of 
one of the Gospels, or, Mwiva- 

Muezhi, if. 2. a jaw-bone. 

MuSzhi, If. 2. a waterfall. 

Mlifa, If. I. a dead person. 

Mufabaftiba, if. i. a fool. 

Mnftibiu, If. I. a very short person, 
a dwarf. 

Muflifa, K. 2. a drizzling rain. 

Mufiif6ma, if. 2. name of a tree, 
bearing violet-like flowers. The 
root is made into a medicine, of 
which children are made to drink, 
and in which they are washed, it 




being thought it will make them 

MufdkO) M. a. a charm, consisting 
of a small bag, or a hollow brace- 
let made of snake skin, and filled 
with * medicine*. 

Hufdxnba, «. i. a pregnant woman. 

Mufdmpi, n, i. a raider, kid- 

Muftindi, n, 2. name of a forest 

Mufdndi, n. i. one who skins and 
cuts up an animal, a butcher. 

Muf&ndufiiiida, «. s. trail of a 

Mufundnlnlu, » . a. a line, mark. 

Mufangtishi, m. i. a weaned child. 

Mufdni, n, i. one who loves, a 

Mufdnka, n. i. one who misses in 

Mufdnwa, n. i. one who is loved, 
a beloved. 

Moitinzi, n. 2, a, herd of game, a 
multitude of people, throng. 

Mufattidi, n,i,a. deliverer, saviour, 

Mufattishi, n, i. one who is saved, 

Mufdzhi, n. 1, a, blacksmith. 

Mufiizhima, n. i. my fellow black- 
smith; iniiftizhinoko, thy fellow 
blacksmith, &c. 
. Mufwafwi, fi. I. a short person, 

Hufwafwi mu, prep, near to, in 
the vicinity of. 

Miifwebabach&zi, n, a. name of 
a tree. See En^.-Ila Vocab, 

Mufwebi, n, i. a smoker. 

Mugabushi » znukabushi, n, i. 
a madman, lunatic 

Muhedene, n. i. for. (Suto, mo- 
hedeiM ; Dutch, heiden), a 

Muhubn, fi. 3. a kind of willow. 

Muhuldlu, n, 2. a long stretch 
of cloth. 

liuhunkbine, n, 2. a plant whidi 
is supposed to keep off mosqui- 
toes ; natives gather it and pot it 
in their huts at night. 

Muka*, prefix to many words and 

proper names; indicates, the one 

of, the wife of. 
Mukaba, n. a. waist-belt, band. 
Mukabiuhi, m. i. a madman. 
Mukadi, m. i. a brave, fierce, angry 

Muk&ka, n, 2. name of a forest tree. 
Mukaka, n, a. fresh milk. 
Muk&lo, If. 2. a waterhole. 
Mukambadshi, n, i. one who db- 

courses, a preacher. 
Muk&mu, H, 2. loaf, bread. 
Mukamdfti,!!. i. a widow, widower. 
Mukamufwi, n, i. wife of a jealous 

Mukamutwddi, ». z. a wife. 
Mukamwenzhi^oko, n. i. the wife 

of thy neighbour. Mukamwe- 

nzhisA, his neighbour's wife, 

Mukamw^zhi, n. i. name given to 

a star which is seen very near the 

moon, hence ' the moan's wife *. 
Mukamwlni, if. i. an owner. 
Muk6ndo, ff. i. a big or important 

person, an elder brother, adult. 
Mukindn, m. i. a coward. 
Mokangablshi, if. 2. uncooked pap, 

Mukita, If. I. a lazy, idle person. 
Mukatf, If. I. a sentry, watchman. 
Mukati, loc.form aftheobsoL kati, 

<idv, within, in the midst, inside, 

in the centre. 
Mukati ka, or xnn, prep, indde, 

Muk&zlii, If. I. woman, wife. 
Mukazhixna, if. i. my fellow wife. 
Mokazbina, n, t. her fellow wife. 
Mukazhinoko, if. 1. thy feUow 

Miikazhinokwabo, n, i. Uieir 

fellow wife. 
Mukazhinokwenu, if. i. your 

fellow wife. 
Mukaahinokwesa, if.i. oar fellow 

Mukoa, n, 2. clan, £unily, genera- 
MukobelaBB6ka, n, i. the secretary 

Mukdfu, If. I. a lean persdn. 
Mukdfti, n, a. a scar, wale. 



Mnkoka, n. a. trace of animal 

dragged through bushes bj lion, 

Mnkdko, ^ i. a delayer. 
MukolOy If. I. a person of the Kolo 

Mnkololo, If. 2. name of a tree, used 

as firewood for chiefs ; it is said 

that this tree indicates good soil. 
Mukolotila, if. 2. small-pox. 
Mukdlwi, If. I. a drunkard. 
Mukdmba, if. 2. a forest tree. 
Mnkombo, if. 2. kind, species. 
Mnkdnibwe, if. i. a cock. 
Mnkdmi, if. i. one who troubles, 

annoys people. 
Mtik6mpi, if. 3. the stalk of a 

melon, &c 
Miik6ndo, if. 2. a footprint, spoor. 
Mtik6nico, It. 2. the clitoris feminae. 
Miilf6Ti1ri, If. I. a reaper. 
Mxik6no, ff. 2. the forearm ; trunk 

of elephant 
Mukdsbi, n, 2. the back of the neck. 
Mukosol^ktitwi, if. i. a person 

with part of his ear cut off. 
MxLkdtrw; if. i. a water-rat. 
Mukristi, if. i /cfr, a Christian. 
Kaktia, tf. i. a white person, £uro* 

Muktiba, if. 2. copper. 
Muknku, if. 2. strong beer. 
Kuknkatu, n. i. a hard man, e.g", 

in bargaining. 
Kuktila, If. 2. a game-path. 
Miikiil&, If. 3. a short stretch of 

Muktilo, n. la, the waterbuck. 
MnkambiEhi, n, i. one who is 

always begging, a beggar. 
Mukilimo, if. 2. a kind, species. 
Kiik:6nga, if. 2. an alann ; ku uma 

makanga, to sound an alarm. 
Muktinku, if. 2. name of a tree. 
Knklipa, if. 2. fresh milk. 
Mnk^sa, if. 2. a plant from which 

string is made (« Iiukuca). 
Mokushi, If. 2. name of a tree, 

stamping-blocks made of it 
Mukdsa, if. 2. a morsel of bread. 
Knkdta) if. 2. a piece of cloth just 

long enough to go round the 


Kukutabulongo, if. 2. name of a 

Mukwabo (» nmkwa abo), n. i. 

their father-in-lawl 
Mukwako, it. i . thy &ther-in-law. 
Mukwakwa, if. i. a wide road, 

Mukwal^e, if. i. his father-in- 
Mukwangn, if . i. my father-in-law. 
Mukwashi, n, 2. a family. 
Mukwashi, if. 2. a big fire in a 

kraal, around which the cattle 

gather on cold nights. 
Mukwaau, if. 2. a stabbing-spear. 
Mukwe, If. I. son-in-law ; mukwe 

wangu, my son-in-law. 
Mukweka, if. i a, tobacco. 
Mukwenu ( « mukwa e&u), your 

Mukwdsu (« mukwa esu), our 

Mukweau, if. i. our brother, our 

sister — when brother speaks to or 

of brother, or sister to or of sister. 

Tudi o mukwesu, we are 

Mukwetlinga, if. i. one who has 

married a chiefs daughter. 
Muladilo, if. 2. a supper. Mula- 

dilo wa mwami, the Lord's 

Mul&ka, If. 2. tongue. 
Mulakumtine, if. i. a person with 

a big mouth; name given to a 

lazy person according to the pro- 
verb, Mulakunmne ku kudya 

kwalo udi kweto insana, In 

eating is his strength. 
Mal61a, if. i a. pi. bamulala, a 

large tree-snake, said to be very 

Mulala, If. 2. name given to a white 

and red ox. 
Mnlalabnngu, if. 2. hair on the 

chest and kbdomen ; name given 

to a white ox with a black back ; 

the Milky Way. 
Multoibo, If. 3. a whitish clay 

used for smearing bodies when 

Mul&mbwe, if. 2. a game-pit. 
liul&mu, If. 3. a brother-in-law. 




Mulamwabo, n, i. their brother-in- 

Mulamwako, n, i. thy brother-in- 

Mulamwikwe, n, i. his brother-in- 

Mulamwansu, n, i. my brother- 

Mulamwenu, n, i. your brother- 

Mulamwesu, ». i. oar brother-in- 

Mulindu, n, a. a fanlt, <lebt, law- 

Mulandushi, if. i. a ferryman. 

Mulangu, fi. 2. a bell. 

Mulanzhi, n, 2. termite. 

Mulapi, n, 2. woman's apron, worn 
in front. 

Mulazho, n. 2. an order, command. 

Mule, n, 2. a large bundle of grass 
or sticks. 

Mtileambezo, n. 2. name of a forest 
tree, good timber. 

MTilelab6ntu, fi. i. a mild, gentle, 
kind person. 

Mul^lwe, n. 2. recompense paid by 
parents to people who have taken 
charge of their children for a time. 

Mtil^nia, ». I.' a repellent person. 

Mtil^mbwe, n, 2. something added 
to food to make it palatable. 

Mul^mu, «. I. an honoured, digni* 
fied, respected person. 

Mul^nda, n, 2. a grave. 

Mul^nga, fi. I. a lazy person. 

Mul^nga, ;f. 2. a line stretched 
across a house on which blankets 
are hung, a game-path. 

Mulenga^zbi, n, i. one who leads 
astray, enticer. 

Mnl^nzha, n, 2, a, kick ; ku diata 
mulenzhA, to kick. 

Mul^nzhi, n, 2. a kick ; ku sansa 
mulenzlii, to kick. 

Muleu, ff. 2. a milking-pail. 

Mulevu, n, 2. a beard. 

Mulezhi, n. i, a, feeder of people. 

Muloboshi, ff. I. one who runs 
away, absconds. 

Mulola, n, 2. /or, (Suto, mulora, 
ash), soap. 

liulombe, n, 3. name of a tree, 

with light, open timber, dark 
heart, very good for joinery pur- 
poses. Natives make canoes and 
dishes of it 

Mulombwana, n, i, a man. 

Mulomo, n. 2. the orifice of the 
mouth, beak of a bird. Milomo, 

Mtddndo, n, i. one who is a good 

Mulondo, n, i. a provident person. 

Mulond6, ff. 2. a swamp, marsh. 

Mul6nga, n, 2. a river. 

Muldngo, n. 2. a covenant of friend- 
ship, If. I. a friend. 

Mulongwabo, n, i. their friend. 

Mulongwako, n. i. thy friend. 

Mulongwakwe, n, i. his friend. 

Mulongwangn, n, i. my friend. 

Mulon^wenu, n,i. your friend. 

Mulonfifwesu, n, i. our friend. 

Muldpwe, n. 1 a, pL bamulopwe, 
name of a fish. 

Mul6ta, n. 2. name of a tree some- 
thing like the mupupu, used as 

Mulozhi, ff. I. a witch, wizard. 

Mulozhi, n. 2. a whistle. 

Mulu, fi. I. a deaf person. 

Mulubululwa, n, 2. name of a tree. 

Multidi, n. 2. barrel of a gun. 

Muldko, ». 2. a seam, hem. 

Mullilu, n, 2. name of a tree. 

Mululwd, n. 2. name of a tree, root 
used as a medicine for leprosy and 

Mullilwe, n, 2. gall ; iaubilo dia 
znullilwe, the gall bladder. 

Multimbi, if. i. a thankful person. 

Multimbu, «. i. a person of the 
Balumbu tribe. 

Mulumbu, n, i 0.//. bamulumbo, 
name of a kind of fish. 

Mulumbuluxnbu, n. i a, the roan 

Mulumbtbshi, n, i. a tax-gatherer. 

Multime, n, i. one who is bitten. 

Multuni, n. i. a husband. 

Multimi, n, 1,9. biter. 

Mulumikumf , if. 2. name of a tree, 
light foliage. It is said that the 
smell of its burning wood scares 
away snakes. 



MulUnga, n. i. one who throws a 
spear at a mark and hits. 

Mtdtifni, «. 2. a stick nsed for beat- 
ing any one. Riddle, nka ko lets 
nitilu8u u ta umya ngombe ; 
<ins, a snake. 

Muluti, n, \for, (Sato, momti), a 
teacher, missionary. 

liulutiina, n, i. my fellow mis- 
sionary, my colleague; muluti- 
noko, thy colleague, &c. 

Mulw^hi, n, i. a sick person. 

Mulwi, If. 2. a heap of grass, clay, 
or sticks. 

Muma, If. 2. bank, edge, of a river. 

Mtuna, ku, v, /. to shut the mouth. 

Mum^ma, if. i. a person who looks 
after his belongings, carefully 
mends his clothes, &c. 

Muxnba, if. 2. //. miumba, a fish 

Miixnbadi, loc, form of ixubadi, 

liumbadi xavL^prep, round, around; 
ba la kala mumbadi mwakwe, 
they are sitting around him. 

Mumbele dlsk^prep, in the presence 

Mtimb6, loc, qfixDho, in the west. 

Mmnbonina, n. i. his family ; e,g, 
uswe tonse awa mumbonina, 
we are all children of his family. 

Miixnbonyokw&bo, if. z. their 
family; sa ba bantu mumbo- 
nyokwabo f are they of one 
family ? 

Mumbonyokwenu, if. i. your 

Mmnbonyokwesu, if. i. our 

Main6, if. 2. dew. 

Mthni, If. I. a living person. 

Mumlno, n, 2. throat, gullet. 

Mtim6na, adv, just in there. 

Miixn6ni, n. 2. light. 

11111X111118, ku, V. t, to suck. 

Mtimwe, if. 2. the body-smell of 

Muna-, prefix, the one of, 

Munaisha, if. i. a person of my 
place, my home. 

Munakwabo, poss, phr, cl, i and 2. 
their person or thmg. 

M.xmt^kws^ i and 2, 

thy person or thing. 
Munakwakwe,/&i5./Ar. cl, i and 2, 

his person or thing. 
Munakwangu,/&jj./^r. cl, i aif^^2. 

my person or thing, my relation, 

Munakwenu, ^ss, phr, cl, i and 2, 

your person or thing. 
Munakweau, poss, phr, cl, i and 2, 

our person or thing. 
Munamazuba, if. prop, name given 

to the Supreme Being. 
MvLnamuzenu, if. i. your neigh- 
bour, a person of your place. 
Munamuxesu, n. i. a person of 

our place, our neighbour. 
Munamuzhabo, if. i. a person of 

your place, your neighbour. 
Munda, if. 2. a field, garden. 
Mund&mbi, if. 2. name of a bush. 
Iiund6ke, if. 2. a ramrod. 
MvLudindi, if. 2. a large herd. 
Munga, If. 2. name of a tree. 
Mung'anga, if. i. a doctor. 
Mung6, If. 2. a small pumpkin, a 

Mungwadi, if. I. a writer, scribe. 
Mungwala, if. i. a giant. 
Mungwimba, if. 2. liquid fat, oil. 
Muni, n. 2, the liver. 
Munfka, ku, v, t, to hold a light, 

to give light, to illumine. 
Munikila, ku, v, t, rel, munika, to 

give light to or for. 
Munimba, if. 2. long tail-feather of 

a bird. 
Munina, if. i. his younger brother. 
Muninde, if. pro. name given to 

the Supreme Being ; indicates one 

who gives thunder and much rain. 
Munlnga, if. 2. a variety of ground- 
Munlni, what*s-its-name ? Used 

when you are speaking of anything 

of cl. 2 sing, and you don't know 

or you forget its name. 
Munislia, ku, v. t, cans, munika, 

to show with. 
Munji, adv, elsewhere. 
Munkalank^nga, n, 2. a kind of 

Munkanga, if. 2. the dying groan of 



an animal; munyama wa boba 

mtinkinga, the animal groans 

its last : n. I CL B. kind of snake. 
Mtinko, n, 2. stink, odour, stench. 
ICunkolwe, n, a. a long deep trench 

dug to keep spring-hares and 

locusts out of a field. 
ICunkombwela, n. a. the stem of 

a calabash, i, e. the tapering end. 
Munkondno, if. a. name of a tree» 

dark heart. 
Miink6xiya, n, a. gather made in 

ICunkdnBe, n, a. the marabont 

Munkdahi, ». i. petty chief, indnna. 
Monkdyo, if. a. name of a bush, 

the root is added to porridge to 

make it palatable. 
Munktidi, n. a. a calabash. 
Manktknbia, n, a. the leaven plant. 
Munonkelo, if. a. the so-called 

third stomach, the omasnm of 

cattle and sheep. 
Munsenda, if. a. large arrow-head 

withont barbs. 
MunshA, n. a. pestle, stick nsed for 

stampii^ com in the inkidi ; ray 

of the sun as seen at sunrise or 

Miinahambwa, n. a. a nedclace of 

Munshi, loc, ^inshi, as adv. after- 
wards, behind. 
Munshi di%prep, after, behind. 
Munsha, u, a. urine. 
Muntllmba, if. a. name of a fruit. 
Muntaningo, n, a. pot clay. 
Munt^mba, if. a. small calabash, 

used as a sheath for arrows ; name 

given to a paraffin tin. 
Munt^mbwe, if. a. name of a forest 

Mnntende, if. a. thick thatching- 
Miint6, If. a. a tree with a white, 

sticky sap, sap used as a glue ; 

leaves are placed on the head as a 

cure for headache. 
Muntokoshia, n. a. name of a tree, 

fruit eaten. 
Miintu, If. I. a person. Often used 

in an emphatic sense of a person 

distinguished by some good 

quality, just as we say, * He's a 

Kuntoma, my fellow man ; mu- 

ntunoko, thy fellow man» &c 
Muntu suan, a good person. 
Kuntunt^imba, if. a. name of a tree. 
Mununia YB,y^ep. after, behind. 
Muni&nfl^e, if. a. porcupine quill. 
Mununiizhijit. i. one who ransoms, 

Munwe, n, a. a finger. 
Munwlshi, if. i. one who gives to 

drink, a butler, &c 
Munyama, if. i. a head of game, 
liunyati, if . i a. a buffalo. Idiom, 

"Wa yasa munyatil You have 

speared the buffalo » yoQ have 

hit the nail on the head. 
Muny 6ko, if. i . thy younger brother. 
Mvinyokwabo, if. i. their younger 

Miinyokw^nu, n. i. your younger 

Kunyokw^su, if. i. our younger 

Mnnyu, if. i. a greedy, selfish 

Munydmbwi, n, i a, the gnu. 
Munza, if. a. daytime. Mtinsa 

mwinimwini, noon. 
Munzhi, if. a. a village. 
Muok^shi, If. I. a spy. 
Muoniiki, if. i. a kiag. 
MuongoBhti, if. 1. a ytry old 

Muovbulwa, if. i. a destitute per- 
son, pauper. 
Mupimi, If. I. an old person, infirm, 

Mupazopazo, if. a. name of a tree, 

hard, like znwaci. 
Mupenshi, if. i. one in trouble. 
Mupenzhima, my fellow sufferer ; 

mupenshinoko, thy fellow suf- 
ferer, &c. 
Mupoliaa, if. i. far. (^?*) ^ 

Mupomp68hi, if. i. one who is 

continually travelling. 
Muprofita, if. i. for. a prophet. 
Mupuka, If. I. an insect, beetle. 



Eu sata mupuka, to have a 
throbbing pain. 

Mup6pu, n» 2, a, tree with thick 
leaves, has a milky sap, which 
causes great irritation if it reaches 
the eyes. 

Mupushi, If. I. a poor person. 

Muposho, ft, 2, name of a tree. 

Moa^ M. 3. a thing half full ; intu- 
mba idi miui4, the basket is half 

Mu8&ka, n, i a. pL bamusaka, 
wild dog. 

Mua&ko, ftf. a. a walking-stick. 

Musakamino, n, a. a head-rest, 
pillow (mudisakamino). 

MiuiUa, If. 2. a meeting of men or 
women for playing, singing, or 

MtuiOa, n. i. one possessed with a 
spirit of divination, a prophet. 
Mosala wa shin a hima, the pro- 
phet prophesies. 

Mus^bna, n, i. my fellow initiate. 
Men who were initiated at the 
same time afterwards form a kind 
of league ; one member addresses 
another as musania. 

Miis&Diba, n. 2. name of a kind of 

Musamb^ahi, n, i. a pedlar, mer- 
chant, trader. 

Mnsambilo, n. 2. a place for wash- 
ing and bathing. 

Mtuamo, n, 2. medicine. 

Mnsampaushi, n, \, z. scornful 
person, mocker, one who de- 

Musana, n, 2. the spine (? Tonga). 

MuaaDgiUe, if. i. a very foolish 

MtuaBina, ». i. his fellow initiate. 

Muaanoko, #f. i. thy fellow initiate. 

Musanokwabo, ». i. their fellow 

Musanokwesu, ff. i. our fellow 

Muaanokwenu, it. i. your fellow 

Musansa, if. 2. wild grapes. 

Muainaa, if. 2. a forest. 

Husazhima, if. i. my friend, rela- 

Muaaahina, ». i. bis friend, relation. 
Kuaaahinoko, if. i. thy friend, 

Muaazhinokwabo, if. I. their 

friend, relation. 
Moaaahinokwena, it. i. your 

friend, relation, 
liusaahinokwesa, if. i. our friend, 

Muad, n. 2. name of a tree, used for 

making walking-sticks and spear 

Musedia-y/r^jr to many words, as 

follow, it indicates ' namesake * ; 

a person is not allowed to speak 

hisowniuine,hence, if speaking 

to or of a person bearing the same 

name with himself, he will say, 

znusediangn, my namesake. So 

with the names of one*s father, &c. 
Musediabalna, if. i. her mother*s 

namesake, f . c* she has the same 

name as her mother. 
Miuediachisha, if. i. my uncle's 

Musediama, n, i. my mother's 

Mutediangu^ if. i. my namesake. 
Musediata, if. i. my father's name- 
Mtuediaushe, if. i. her or his 

father's namesake. 
Musefti, If. I a. an eland. 
Maa^ke, if. 2. kernel of nut, the 

glans penis. 
Muaekese, if. 2. name of a tree. 
Mua^la, If. 2. a generation. 
Mua^me, if. 2. long grass used for 

making mats, also mats made of it. 
Masempdalii, n. i. a porter, carrier. 
Moa^mu^ if. 2. a pole for supporting 

the roof of a house. 
Musena, if. 2. a hole, gap, .in a 

fence, &c. 
Musendo, if. 2. a hammock. 
Muaenga, ». 2. a sandy place. 
Muaenzhi, n, i. name of a small 

Mua^se, if. i. a fool. 
Musese, n. 2. name of a tree, good 

charcoal and stamping- blocks 

made of it. 
Muses^lio, If. 2. a ramrod. 



Mus^sa, n. a. a kind of potato, 
edible tnber. 

MushAla, If. I. an orphan. 

Mushangi, ». i. a sower. 

liushibi, n. a. name of a tree. 

Mushidi, fi. 2. a powder. 

Muflhidishi, n. 2. a physician. 

Mushietdngo, n. i. a blackened 
stump, a very black person. 

Mushfka, n, 2. something added to 
food to make it nice. 

Muflhika, n. 2. a salty encrustation. 

Mushikidi, n, 2. name of a tree. 

Mushilo, n, 2 the end, completion 
of a thing. 

Muflhimbi, ff. i. a young girl, i, e, 
before puberty. 

liuflhinibuluko, n. 2. far. (Zulu, 
tunsombuluko, the unfolding) 

Mushinda, n. 2. yolk of egg, pith 
of reed, &c. 

Mushlngo, n. 2. the front of the 

Muflhingombe, n, a. a herd. 

liushini, n, 2, b. circlet of beads 
put around the head, crown. 

liushinkem&twi, n. i. a deaf 

Miuhinko, n, a. a pole for closing 
a gateway. 

Mushfnshi, n, a. a children's play- 
thing, made of grass. 

Muflhinshi, ». 2. a dress, petti- 

liushlnza, n, 2. gravy, broth, soup. 

MuflliiiLze, n, a. darkness. Mu- 
shinze wo ombuluka, the dark- 
ness is breaking. 

Mushlnzo, If. a. a journey. 

Moahisa, if. a. the tendo Achillis. 

Mushlshi, If. a. the round shank of 
a spear head. 

liushiwe, n. a. name of a tree, bark 
good for string, also == znushu. 

Mushizbi, if. a. wind broken down- 

Muahdbo, if. a. a tribe. (Seems to 
have also a reference to the dialect 
of a tribe.) 

Mushdngo, if. a. a cartridge. 

liuahdaho, if. a. a cartridge. 

liuahu. If. a. moistness. Inahi idi 

Irwete musliu, the ground is 
moist, i,g, after rain. 

linsimnna, if. a. the moon of 

Muaolozhi, n, i. a leader, fore- 
runner, predecessor. 

Musolesdii, If. I. one who tries. 

liusompe. If. a. name of a fruit. 

Muflondi, if. a. a seer, diviner. 

MtLBondoshi, if. i. a madman. 

Musonge, if. i. a young adult. 

MtLBongo, If. I. a wise person. 

Musongozlio, If. a. a sharp stick for 
digging a hole; also the point of 
such a stick. 

Muflonta, if. a. obstinacy, self-will. 

Musonzhi, if. 1 . seer, diviner. 

Musotoshi, If. I. a transgressor. 

Musozha, If. a. cooked maize, i,e, 
not previously stamped. 

Mu86zhi, If. a. a tear of the eye. 

Mus6zhi, If . I. a comforter, consoler. 

Musii, If. I. a sad, sorrowful person. 

Musuba, If . a s mutiba, a bowl, 

Muauke, if. i. one's first husband, 
or wife. 

Muflliku, If. a. a horn used in cup- 

MuBtikwe, if. a. a mane. 

Muflundi, if. i. a barren woman. 

Mustindu, if. a. a leech. 

Mustine, if. i. an ox. 

Musungudi, if. i. a leader, com- 

Musunte, if. a. a big bundle of 

Musutelo, If. a. dry cattle-dung. 

Muswazhi, if. i. a visitor. 

Muflwexna, if. i a. pi. bamoswema, 
a long light-coloured snake. 

Musweya, if. i. a country with 
trees and only very short grass. 

liuta. If. a. a loan. 

Mutaba, if. a. name of a tree, juice 
used for birdlime. 

Mutabi, If. a. a branch, bough. 

liutaka, If . 1 . a squanderer, waster, 

Mutaka, if. a. a small kind of hoe 
used only by chiefs wife or child. 

Mutala, If. a. spoor, footprint, game- 



Mutalabala, n.prop, name giYen to 
the Supreme Being ; signifies the 
One who can do what none other 

liutaxnftL, i». a. a moist place. 

Mutandachilashi, ». i. a wild dog. 
Name given to a person who is 
very persevering, persistent in 
doing something) or in pursuing 
some object. 

HutangalaBhi, n, 3. no sing, self- 
righteousness. ITdi kwete xnuta- 
ngalazhi, said of one who boasts 
of his own goodness and despises 
other people as being bad. 

Mutanti, n. 3. a cross-beam, a pole 
fixed between two uprights. 

Mutantwa, n, 2. name of a tree. 

liutanshi, «. i. a first person, first 
arrival, firstborn. 

Mutatula, «. a. a whip, sjambok. 

Mutavlm, ». i. a stingy, niggardly, 
ungenerous person. 

lintelo, If. 2»for, (Suto, Mothelo), 
hut tax. 

liutembo, n. 2. name of a forest tree. 

Muteme, n, a. name of a tree, 
bears a large peach-like fruit. 

Mutendu, n. 2. a long strip of meat 
cut for drying. 

Muteng^uba, n, 2. the fierce 
shining of the sun at midday. 

Mutepaudi, i>. i. a tempter. 

Mutepaoahi, n, i. one who is 
tempted, seduced. 

Mutate, n, 2. a kind of pipe. 

Muteu, M. I. a thief. 

Mnteshi, n, i. one who sets traps, 

Mutiba, i». 2. a bowl, basin. 

Mutmdi, n, 2. a kind of creeper, the 
root of which is used to suffocate 

Mutobo, n, a. name of a tree, fruit 

Mutolo, ». I. a lazy person. 

Mutombio, n. a. a stick used for 
taking fat out of a pot. 

Mutondo, n, 2. name of a tree ; 
wood used for making axe shafts ; 
the flowering of this tree is taken 
as a sign that it is time to search 
for honey. 

Mutondo, n, 2. a tabooed thing. 

Mutonga, ». i. an individual of the 
Tonga (or Toka) tribe. 

Mutonga, n, 2. tobacco. 

Mutongabofti, n.2, a shrub, the 
root of which is used as a medi- 
cine to produce fertility in women. 

Mutubiakaldmo, n. 1 a. the roan 

Mutukuta, n. 2. perspiration. 

Muttunbe, n.i. & female animal. 

Muttimbu, ». i. a woman carrying 
a child. 

Muttimwa, n, i. one sent, a mes- 

Muttindu, if. i. a hairy person, one 
who grows quickly. 

Muttlini, If. I. a selfish person. 

Muttinta, if. 2. a corpse, carcase. 

Mutliya, if. i. Lumbu name for the 
mushiwe tree. 

Mutw&di, If. I . one who marries or 
is married. 

Mutwanga, ». i. a servant. 

Mutwashiroa, if. i. my fellow 
child-in-law. When two men, 
e.g. marry sisters, and so become 
one man's sons-in-law they call 
each other or refer to each other 
by this name. 

Mutwasbini^a, if. i. his fellow 

Mutwashinoko, if. i. thy fellow 

Mutwasbinokwabo, if. i. their 
fellow child-in-law. 

Mutwashinokwenu, if. i. your 
fellow child-in-law. 

Mutwazhinokwe8U,if. i. ourfellow 

Mutwi, If. a. a head. 

Muvhtibi, If. I. a rich person. 

Muvbtini, if. i. a helper, deliverer. 

Muvhwi, If. 2. an arrow. 

Muvumini, if. i. a believer. 

Muvwimi, if. i. a hunter. 

Muvwizhi, If. I. a backbiter, slan- 

Muwezhi, if. i. a hunter. Muwe- 
zhima, my fellow hunter, &c 

Muwo, If. 2. wind. 

Muyayi, if. i. a murderer. 

Mliye, n. 2. soot 



Muy^, M. 2. a thing done purposely. 
"Wa Chita muye, he does on pur- 

Muyemba, n. 2. a cloth big enough 
to cover the whole body. 

Muyeye, n. 2. tail of a fish. 

Muyi, n. 2. nit, egg of louse. 

Muy6ba, n. 2. a continuous rain. 
PL used of a set-in rain of two or 
three days. 

M\xy6bOy If 2. a kind of reed. 

Muyoka, «. i. a snake. (Name 
given to a snake in songs only.) 

M^yu, ft. 2. name of a tree and fruit. 

Muza, n.i. an expert, one who 
knows his business. 

Muz&la, n, 2. name of a tree. 

Muz&nda, m. 2. a root, fang of a 

Miuandi, n, i. one who likes, 

liuzangadishi, if. i. an outcast, 

Muzangi, ». i. a witness. 

liozashi, n, i. a builder. 

Muzembi, «. 1. a sentry. 

Muzemuzhi, m. i. a carrier. 

liuzenge, m. 2. a bundle of dung 
wrapped up in grass ; burnt in the 
burrow of an animal to scare it out. 

Muz^nza, ». 2. a tassel. 

Muz^zhi, If. I. a fisherman. 

Muz^zo, n. 2. thought, desire. 

MuzMle, If. I. a child ; a man's 
own child, as distinct from bana, 
which may include his people 
generally, dependants and slaves. 

Muzhdzbi, if. i. parent. 

Muzhazhima, if. i. my fellow 
parent. This is applied by a man 
or woman to another man or 
woman, whose children are inter- 

Muzhazhina, if. i. his fellow 

Muzhazhlnoko, if. i. thy fellow 

Muzhazhinokwabo, if. i. their 
fellow parent. 

Muzhazhinokwenn, if. i. your 
fellow parent. 

Muzhazbinokwesu, if. i. our 
fellow parent. 

Muzhichema, it. i. my fellow slave. 
Muzhiohanoko, thy fellow slave, 

Muzhidishi, if. i. a person who 
has wandered, a wanderer. 

MuzMke, If. I. a slave. 

Kuzhile, if . i . a sister-in-law. 
Generally used in the //. 

MiizhiiBblla-ba-mwika,«f. 2. name 
given to beans on account of their 
constipating qualities. 

Muzhlmo, If. I. ancestral spirit. 

Muzhlnga, if. 2. noise of a falling 
person or object. 

Muzhinahi, if. 2. pith of sweet reed 
spewed out after being chewed. 

Muzbiu, If. 2. a load carried on a 
stick upon the shoulder. 

Miizbula, If. 2. name of a tree. 

Muzkuzhabo, if. i. their graod- 

Muzkuzbako, if. i. thy grand* 

Huzkuzbakwe, if..i. his grand- 

Muzkuzhangu, if. i. my grand- 

Muzkuzhenii, if. i. your grand- 

Muzkuzheso, if. i.