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J^iZ9 6<} 


i'(^' cL 












A. C. MADAN, MA., 







\ ■' •• • " \ 



Therb is probably no African language so widely known 
as the Swahili. It is understood along the coasts of 
Madagascar and Arabia, it is spoken by the Seedees in 
India, and is the trade language of a very large part of 
Central or Intertropical Africa. Zanzibar traders pene- 
trate sometimes even to the western side of the conti- 
nent, and they are in the constant habit of traversing 
more than half of it with their supplies of Indian and 
European goods. Throughout this immense district 
any one really familiar with the SwahiK language will 
generally be able to find some one who can understand 
him, and serve as an interpreter. 

This consideration makes it a point of the greatest 
importance to our Central African Mission that Swahili 
Bhould be thoroughly examined and well learnt. For 
if the members of the Mission can go forth from Zan* 
zibar, or, still better, can leave England already well 
acquainted with this language, and provided with 
books and translations adapted to their wants, they 
will carry with them a key that can unlock the secrets 
of an immense variety of strange dialects, whose veiy 
names are as yet unknown to us. For they will not 

a 2 

iv . Fit EF ACE. 

only be able at once to communicate witb new tribes, 
but in mastering this really simple and far from 
difficult language they will have learnt how to set 
about learning and writing all others of the same class, 
since they agree with Swahili in all the chief respects 
in which it dilBfers from our European tongues. 

The work, then, which is here begun is not to be 
regarded as though its utility were confined to the 
islands and the narrow strip of coast of which this 
language is the vernacular, but much rather as the 
broad foundation on which our labours in the far inte- 
rior must for many years be built up. As there is no 
way by which those inner lands are so ordinarily or can 
be so easily reached as from Zanzibar and the coast 
dependent on it, so neither is there any way by which 
we can make ourselves so readily intelligible, or by 
which the Gospel can be preached so soon or so well as 
by means of the language of Zanzibar and its dependen- 
cies, to which this work is intended as an introduction 
— a language which, through its Arabic relations, has 
a hold on revealed religion, and even on European 
thought while, through its negro structure, it is 
exactly fitted to serve as an interpreter of that re- 
ligion and those thoughts to men who have not yet 
even heard of their existence. 

When Bishop Tozer arrived in Zanzibar at the end of 
AugTist 1864, the only guides we had to the language 
were the grammar and vocabulary of Dr. Krapf, and his 
translation of part of the Book of Common Prayer. 
During Bishop Tozer's visit to Mombas in November» 
he made a copy of a revised vocabularj'^ belonging ta 


Ae Eev. J. Bebmann. However, altliougli one cannot 
estimate too highly the diligence and linguistic ability 
displayed by Dr. Krapf and the patient sagacity of Mr. 
Rebmann, we soon found that, owing partly to the fact 
of their collections having been made in the dialect of 
Mombas, and still more to the confused and inexact 
style of spelling adopted unfortunately by both, their 
works were of scarcely any use to a mere beginner. 

I soon after procured copies of the manuscript voca- 
bularies collected by Mr. Witt and Mr. Schultz, then 
representing the firm of O'Swald and Co. in Zanzibar, 
and with such help as I could procure from any quarter, 
I began in July 1865 to print the first pages of my col- 
lections for a "Handbook of Swahili as Spoken in 
Zanzibar." When I had proceeded as far as page 33, 1 
made the acquaintance of Hamis wa Tani and of his 
son Mohammed, both of them well acquainted with 
EngKsh and French, and of pure Swahili extraction. 
To the disinterested kindness of Mohammed, who, 
while confined to his house by sickness, allowed me to 
spend every . Saturday morning in questioning him 
about his language, I owe all that is best in my know- 
ledge of African tongues. With his help and revision I 
completed the list of substantives, and found my way 
through the intricacies of the adjectives and pronouns. 
Of how much importance an accurate guide in these 
matters would be may be seen from the " Table of 
Concords," first printed in Zanzibar, in a form sug- 
gested* by Bishop Tozer, and now reprinted as part 
•of this volume. 

Mohammed's sickness increasing about the time that 


I had bcgnn to print the conjagation of the verb, I vrvm 
tinable to continne my visits, and completed the ^ Col- 
lectiooB " from Dr. Erapf, with the help of the Yoca- 
halary collected by the late Baron von der Decken 
and Dr. Kersten, and of that collected by the Bev. 
ThomaB Wakefield of the United Methodist Free 
Churches' Mission, both of which I was kindly allowed 
to copy* 

After Mohammed's partial recovery I continued my 
visits to him, and went throngh the verbs, making first 
a list of useful English verbs from a dictionary, and 
entering all the words contained in the collections of 
which I had copies. I thus checked and snpplemented 
what others had already done, and obtained a tolerably 
complete insight into that branch of the vocabulary. 
Before I cotdd get much beyond this, Mohammed was- 
so far recovered as to be able to sail for Bombay. I 
have always much pleasure in acknowledging Ifow 
much I owe to him. 

Meanwhile I had begun my collection of short tales 
in Swahili, the first of which were printed in Zanzibar 
with an interlinear version, under the title of " Speci- 
mens of Swahili," in March 1866, and reprinted in 
an early number of " Mission Life." I also began to 
use my Swahili to a practical purpose by making the 
collections for a handbook of the Shambala language, 
the first draft of which was completed in May 1866. 
These collections were made with a view to the mission 
since commenced in that country by the Rev. C. A. 
Alington; they were revised by the help of another 
teacher, and printed in Zanzibar in the year 1867. 

FREFACE. ^ rii 

Finding the Swahili tales most valuable as well to 
myself as to those who were studying with me, I pro- 
ceeded to print a further collection, with the title 
♦* Hadithi za Kiunguj»," in Swahili only. For the tales 
then printed I was mainly indebted to Hamis wa Kayi, 
a very intelKgent young Swahili, who always compre- 
hended better what a foreigner wanted to know, and 
e:&plained more clearly what was difficult, than any one 
else I met with while in Zanzibar. 
- At the same period I had begun and carried on from 
time to time the investigation of the Yao or Achowa 
language, one peculiarly interesting to us, as that of 
nearly all the released slaves under Bishop Mackenzie's 
charge, and as having now supplanted the Mang'anja 
in the country where our Mission was originally settled. 
From this study I first gained a definite notion of the 
wonderful effect the letter n has in African languages, 
and so came to understand the origin of several appa- 
rent irregularities in Swahili. 

I had begun even before Mohammed bin Ehamis left 
Zanzibar to make some essays in translation,, the best of 
which are embodied in a pamphlet printed in Zanzibar, 
with the title " Translations in Swahili : " it was com- 
pleted in January 1867. 

I was then getting help from many quarters, and on 
explaining to some of our native friends our wish to 
make a complete translation of the Bible into their 
language, one of them. Sheikh 'Abd al 'Aziz, kindly 
volunteered to translate for me the Arabic Psalter into 
the best and purest Swahili. I found, before long, that 
not only did his numerous avocations prevent any rapid 


progress, but that his language was too learned to suit 
exactly our purpose in making the version ; it did not 
therefore proceed further than the Sixteenth Psalm. 1 
printed these as at once a memorial of his kindness 
aud a specimen of what one of the most learned men 
in Zanzibar considers the most classical form of his 

I cannot but mention at the same time the name of 
Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali, a man of the greatest 
research, to whose kindness I was indebted for a copy, 
made by his own hand, of some very famous Swahili 
poetry, with an interlinear Arabic version; he also 
revised for me a paraphrase of it in modem language, 
for which I was chiefly indebted (as for much other 
help) to Hassan bin Yusuf, whose interest in our doc- 
tiines and teachings has always been most marked. 
The verses and translation are both printed in the 
** SwahiH Tales." 

At the end of 1867 I printed a translation of Bishop 
Forbes' little primary catechism, chosen as being the 
shortest and clearest I could And to begin upon. 
Though very imperfect, I am glad to think that it 
has been found of use. 

When I had completed the Yao collections, I went on 
to the Nyamwezi language, as being that of the largest 
and most central tribe with which there is constant and 
tolerably safe communication. 

In November 18G7 I lost, by the sadly sudden deaths 
of the Bev. G. E. Drayton and his wife, most useful 
helpers, who were beginning to be able to give me sub- 
stantial assistance. Their places were, however, well 

. PREFACE, ix 

ftupplied by the Eev. W. and Mrs. Lea, wlio arrived 
opportunely just before the time of our bereavement. 
I was then engaged in preparing the translations of 
St. Matthew's Gospel and of the Psalms, as well as in 
beginning to put in order tho materials for the present 
work. To Mr. Lea I was indebted, amongst other 
things, for the first version of the .119th Psalm, and to 
Mrs. Lea for the arrangement of the Swahili-English 
Vocabulary. The last thing I printed in Zanzibar was 
a translation of the Easter and Advent Hymns, and of 
Adeste Fideles, which I had the pleasure of hearing 
the girls of the Mission Orphanage sing most sweetly 
to the old tunes just before I left. 

I ought also to mention that, having been often under 
great obligations to the French Bomanist Mission, I 
had the pleasure of printing for them a Catechism in 
French and Swahili, which was indirectly valuable to 
me as showing how the great truths we have in 
common were rendered by a perfectly independent 
student of the language. I know not how sufficiently 
to regret that the excellent compiler, P^re Etienne 
Baur, should have been content to use the jargon (for 
it is nothing better) commonly employed by Lidians 
and Europeans, and should have adopted an ortho- 
graphy adapted only to a French pronunciation. 

Only three weeks before leaving I had the advan- 
tage of consulting two large manuscript dictionaries 
compiled by Dr. Krapf, and brought to Zanzibar by 
the Bev. B. L. Pennell. I was able to examine about 
half the Swahili-English volume, with the assistance^ 
of Hamis wa Kayi, enough to enrich materially my 


previous collections, and to show how far even now^ 
I fall short of my first jpredecessor in the work of 
examining and elucidating the languages of Eastern 
Africa. There remains for some future time or other 
hand the examination of the rest of Dr. Krapf'a 
dictionary, as well as the collation of what will no* 
doubt deserve to be the standard Swahili lexicon, on. 
which the Eev. John Eebmann has been for nearly a 
quarter of a century labouring unweariedly. Even 
then there will remain many dialectic variations, and 
many old and poetical words and inflections, so that 
for many years one who loves such studies might find 
employment in this one language. 

Since my arrival in England, at the end of November 
1868, 1 have been able to superintend the printing of 
the Gospel of St. Matthew in Swahili, liberally under- 
taken by the Bible Society, of translations of the^ 
Church Catechism and of their Scriptural Reading 
Lessons out of the Old Testament, kindly undertaken 
by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
For the Central African Mission I have carried through 
the press this work and the collection of Swahili 
Stories with an English version, published by Messrs. 
Bell and Sons, of which those previously printed at 
Zanzibar form a small part, and besides these a number 
of small pamphlets, including translations of the Books 
of Buth and Jonah, and some slight specimens of the 
Gindo, Zaramo, and Ngazidja languages. There remain 
the Psalms, which the Bible Society has promised to- 
print for us, and the collections in the Yao and Nyam- 
wezi languages, all which I should like to get through 


tlie press in the course of this year. I wish there were- 
a chance of the Bev. John Eebmann's Swahili version 
of St. Luke's Gospel, of which I have seen a large part, 
being printed at the same time. 

This handbook is arranged on the principle of sup- 
plying with each portion of it such rules as are re- 
quired for the 'practical use of that portion. In the* 
first part, after some introductory observations, Sub- 
stantives, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs have each*^ 
a separate section, containing first the rules which 
govern their inflecticm and employment, and then aii- 
alphabetical list of the Swahili equivalents of our 
English words belonging to each part of speech. For 
the mere finding of words one general alphabet would 
perhaps have been more convenient ; but as the object 
of this work is not merely to tell what the Swahili- 
words are, but also how to employ them correctly, it 
seems better so to group them as to bring the rules of 
grammar and the words which they control into as 
close a connection with one another as possible. The 
Editor has done what most readers would have had to 
do — sort out first the word and then the grammatical 
rules which must be observed in using it. The minor 
parts of speech are indexed together to avoid a multi- 
plicity of alphabets, except the Interjections, which 
cannot be said to have exact equivalents in any other 
language. The part ends with a section on the forma- 
tion of words, which may be of use where the other 
alphabets fail to give a satisfactory rendering, and 
may alsb be useful as a guide in turning Swahili into 
English, in the case of the many words which igno- 


ranee or some oversight in preparing tlie second part 
may have caused to be omitted. The rules and hints 
prefixed to the second part are intended to enable any 
one who sees or hears a Swahili word to ascertain the 
material part of it, so as to be able to use the dictionary 
which follows. It is evident that there must be great 
difficulties at first in either using or arranging an 
alphabetical list of words which may begin with, in 
some cases, nine or ten different letters, according to 
the grammatical position they hold in each case. 
However, the difficulty is greater in appearance than 
in practice. 

The Appendices contain some curious or useful 
matter which could not well find a place in the body 
of the work. The first contains a specimen of a curious 
kind of enigmatical way of writing and speaking called 
Kinyume. The second gives a specimen of the forms 
used in letter-writing, both in prose and verse. The 
third is part of a Swahili tale, with all the prefixes 
separated and t}ie grammatical forms explained, in- 
tended as a guide and introduction to the art of 
reading, and through that of writing the language. 
The fourth Appendix consists of a small collection of 
phrases, some of them such as are wanted in ordinary 
conversation, some of them useful in illustrating the 
idiom or peculiar constructions used by natives. This 
collection might have been very much increased had 
it not been carefully confined to phrases actually met 
with in conversation with persons reputed to speak 

FnEFACE. xiit 

Tlie name of the language — Swahili — ^is beyond all 
doubt a modified form of the Arabic SawdMl, the plural 
of Sdhil, a coast. The natives themselves jestingly 
derive it from Sawa Mia, which a Zanzibar interpreter 
would explain as " All same cheat.** 

LUHe Steeping, May 1S7Q. 

C ^v ) 


The First Edition having been at the last sold out 
with unexpected rapidity, I have not been able to add 
eo much as I should have wished to this. The chief 
novelty is the omission of what I called the second 
•class of Substantives, which proved to be only the most 
<5ommon instance of the general rule, that Substantives 
of any and every form denoting animate beings are 
-constructed with Adjectives and Pronouns in the forms 
proper to the first class. Some words have been added 
to the Vocabularies and a few mistakes corrected. 

During the last four years the work of translation 
and collection has been going steadily forward, Swahili 
preaching has been going on, and some Elementaiy 
School-books printed in Zanzibar for our vernacular 
schools. The great work of evangelizing Africa seems 
to grow in magnitude the more one understands what 
is required for it ; but our hopes still grow with the 
growth of our knowledge. 

Edwasd SteekSt 

l/ondorif January 1875. 

( »'" ) 



Thi8 Edition may be taken to represent substantially 
the final form wbich the Handbook assumed in the 
liands of its compiler, the late Bishop Steere. No 
estimate can be attempted here of his services to 
philology in general, and the student of African 
Ifti^g^^g^ ^^ particular, still less of their bearing on 
the spread of Christianity in Central Africa. What- 
ever the relative purity of the dialects of Mombasa and 
Zanzibar, and however great the debt Bishop Steere 
undoubtedly owed to his distinguished predecessor in 
their study, Dr. Krapf, the broad fact remains that 
Bishop Steere took the language as he found it spoken 
in the capital city of the East Coast, reduced its rules 
to so lucid and popular a form as not only to make it 
accessible, but easy to all students, and finally made a 
great advance towards stereotyping its forms and ex- 
tending its use by embodying it in oopioiu writings 
and translations. 

Some of the last hours of his life were apparently 
8pen;t in preparing this Handbook for a new edition. 
Those who were familiar with the many cares and 
anxieties then pressing on him, will not be surprised 
that there were signs of haste and pressure in hia 


xviii PREFACE. 

revisicm. With Part I., however, he seems to have 
been satisfied. The corrections of the text were few 
and unimportant, and though the Lists of Words might 
have been largely added to, he seems to have preferred 
leaving them as they were, in view of the strictly 
practical purpose of the whole book. 

With Part II. (the Swahili-English Vocabulary, &c.) 
the case is rather different. With the aid of various 
members of the Mission, the Bishop had made some- 
what large collections in order to expand and complete 
it. Probably from the pressure of work before alluded 
to, he had only prepared a selection of them for this 
Edition. It has been thought better, however, to in- 
corporate all the words found in his notes and added 
with his approval. But it must be remembered that 
the Bishop never regarded Part II. as ranking as a 
Dictionary, even in embryo, but rather as a tolerably 
full list of words to serve as a usefal companion to 
Part I. Even with this reservation, there remain 
many traces of imperfection in arrangement, spelling, 
and interpretation of words, which would doubtless 
have been removed if he had been allowed time to pass 
the whole list under revision finally. 

This final revision no one is in a position adequately 
to supply. Minor corrections and additions have been 
cautiously and sparingly made. One Appendix (No. V.), 
likely to subserve the practical aim of the whole, has 
been added, with the Yen. Archdeacon Hodgson's ap- 
proval. There still remain among the Bishop's notes 
some miscellaneous specimens of Swahili verses, pro- 
verbs, riddles, d;c., which might have formed another. 


It 18 thought best, however, to leserve them, and leave 
the whole book, as far as possible, as the Bishop left it. 
Subsequent editors may find something to add. They 
probably will not find much to alter. 

A. a M. 

P.S. — ^Dr. Krapf 8 great Dictionary of the Swahili 
Language, in its printed form, was in the Bishop's 
hands too short a time to allow of his making any use 
of it for this Edition of the Handbook. 

&nzibar^ Chrittmas. 1882. 





Introduction ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 1 

JL116 AipUClDBt ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• «•• o 

Substantives : — 

Gi-ammatical rules 1G 

List of Substantives •• ... ••• 2i 


' Grammatical rules 83 

Irregular Adjectives 86 

Comparison of Adjectives 87 

JMumerais ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ct^ 

List of Adjectives • 9^ 

Pronouns : — 

Personal Pronouns 102 

Possessive Pronouns 1(K) 

Beflective Pronouns 112 

Demonstrative Pronouns 113 

Relative Pronouns . 117 

luterrogatives, &o. 122 

Verbs : — 

Conjugation 125 

Irregular Verb^ 149 

Auxiliary Verbs 155 

Derivative Verbs 157 

List of Verbs , ,,, .,, \^^ 


Adverbs, Prepositions, and Oonjunctions ••• 209- 

List of Adverbs, &o. ••• 212 

Inteijections • 221 

Formation of Words 22S 

Table of Noun Prefixes in nine languages ••• 234 (^ 

Table of the Preposition -a in four languages ••• ••• 235^ 

PART 11. 

••• ••• ••• ••• 

••• ••• ••• ••• 

Preliminary Observations 
Swahili'English Vocabulary 
Appendices : — 

L Specimens of Enyume 

II. Specimens of Swahill Correspondence 
UL Part of a Swahili Tale, with the Prefixes marked 

and explained «• ••• 

rV. Useful and Idiomatic Phrases 

Y. On Money, Weights and measures in Zanzibar 



• •• 




• •• 













The Swahili language is spoken by the mixed race 
of Arabs and Kegroea who inhabit the Eastern Coast 
of Africa, especially in that part which lies between 
Lamoo and the neighbouring towns on the north, and 
Cape Delgado on the south. 

It is classified by Dr. Bleek as one of the Zangian 
genus of the middle branch of the Bantu languages. 
That is to say, it belongs to one of Ihe subdivisions of 
that great family of Negro languages, which carries on 
the work of grammatical inflexion by means of changes 
at the beginning of the word, similar to that whereby 
in Kafir, umuntUyi% man, becomes in the plural ahantUi 
people*! All these languages divide their nouns into a 
number of classes, which are distinguished by theiz 
first syllable, and bring their adjectives, pronouns, and 
Terbs into relation with substantives hy the use of 
corresponding changes in their first syllables. None 
of these classes denote sex in any way. Dr. Bleek^ in 
his comparative grammar of South African languages,- 
•nnmerates eighteen prefixes which are found in one 
«r other of the 'languages of this family ; but it must 


be remembered that he reckons by the form of the 
prefix only, so that the singular and plural forms of 
most words count as two, while the sai|Le form will 
sometimes answer to two or more forms in the other 
number^ Dr. Block's arrangement is the most conve- 
nient for his purpose, which is the comparison of the 
formatives used in different languages ; but I have not 
followed it in this work, because I think that for practical 
purposes such a classification should be used as will 
enable the l6amer'who sees or hears the' noun in the 
lingular at once to put it into the plural. Ptefixen 
may be counted up separately ; l)ut in praotioe we ha^re 
to da with nouns^ not with prefixes, and a noUn t»nnot 
be put into a different class when it become plutal 
KfT singular without great risk'of oonj^ion.- Thus in 
•Fredoux' Sechuana grammar, 4 and ^ are the plnrald 
of 3, 10 and 6 are the plurals of 11, and 6 alone is the 
plural of 5 amd 14. Can this be a :)lear arrangement ? 
I have very little doubt that Dr. Bleek is right in 
regarding these classes as substantially the «ame with 
the genders in most of the European languages, which 
are even now only sex-denoting to a very Hmited 
extent. There is a distinction in Swahili as to wordB 
which denote living beings, called by Dr. Erapf, not 
very happily, a maaeuUne gender, though it has no 
relation to sex, but to life only. 

' It is very puzzling to a beginner, accnstomed to 
languages which change at the end, to find the be* 
ginnings of words so very uncertain. Thus he hears 
fliat ngema means goad; but when. he begins to apply 


Sds knowledge he finds that natives use for the English 

^^ord good^ not only ngema^ but mwema^ wema, mema. 

^ema^ jema, jpenuiy chema, vyemay and hwema. Again» 

yangu means my, bnt he will hear also, wanguj zangUy 

^hangu, vyangu, langUj pangUy hwangu, and mwangu. It is 

necessary therefore to get at the very first a firm hold 

of the fact that in Swahili it is the end, and not the be< 

ginning of a word, which is its substantial and nnchang- 

. iiig part. The beginning of the word when taken to 

pieces denotds its number, time, and agreements. 

The " Table of Concords " prefixed to the section on 
AdjectiviBS, shows at obae view the variables of the 
iiskngaagey and when that has been mastered, the diffi- 
<dnlties for an English student will be over. The 
various forms will be explained, and the nicer distinc- 
ifions mentioned in the grammatical parts of the book. 
In the preliminary observations prefixed to the second 
rpart will be found an account of all the changes which 
may occur at the end of a word, changes which in 
ipradtice are very feoon mastered, relating as they chiefly 
db to a few points in the conjugaticfd of the "i^erTb. 
^ There is a broken kind of Swahili in tise' among 
«foreigners, Indian as well as European, which serves 
for very many purposes, though it is of course utterly 
tiseless when one has to speak with exactness, or on 
iBUbjects not immediately cotinected with the ordinary 
affairs of life and commerce. Its rules inay be briefly 
laid down as follows :^If you are in doubt about how 
•tb make a plural, prefix ma, or use nytngi, ue, many. 
tlL conjugating the verb, always put fke subject 



before and the object after it, for the present tense<r 
prefix na-y for the past mo-, for the future ta-. For na 
or no^^ use hikuna. It is wonderful how intelligiblei 
you can make yourself by these few rules; but it is. 
just as wonderful what absurd broken stu^ can be 
made to do duty for English. 

yLet any one, however, who really wishes to speak, 
the language get the Table of Concords well into hia 
head, by any means he finds best for the purpose, and 
he will have no need to resort to broken and incorrect 
ways of talking. 

Swa^hili, like all languages of the same family, is 
very rich in Verbs, and poor in Adjectives and Prepo- 
sitions. There is nothing corresponding to the English. 
Article, the word when standing alone implying the 
indefinite article, while the definite article can in many, 
eases be expressed by the use and arrangement of tho 
Pronouns, but still must often be left unexpressed. 
Though the Verb is etymologically the most important 
part of speech, it is the Substantive which determines 
the form of all th^ variable syllables. The Substan- 
tive will therefore be first considered, and next the 
Adjective, which very closely resembles it. The Pro- 
nouns will come next, as it is by their help that the 
Yerb is conjugated, then the Verb itself, and after that 
the minor parts of speech, Adverbs, Prepositions, Con- 
junctions, and, last of all, the Interjections. A sketch, 
of the grammar of each part of speech, which aims at 
being sufficient for ordinary and practical purposes, is 
first given, and after that ajist of word» belonging to* 


tiiat part of speech, thus forming a combined grammar 
and ^Engtish-Swahili dictionary. The second part con- 
sists of a Swahili-English Yocabnlary, and so completes 
the work. 

The Swahili language has been hitherto but liido 
written by those who speak it, and they know and use 
only the purely Arabic alphabet. There are tx)pies of 
religious and secular verses, and possibly other works,' 
composed in the old or po»etical dialect, which is not 
now; and I believe never was, thoroughly understood 
by the mass of the people. The modem dialect is usecl 
in letters ; but they have always a string of Arabio 
compliments at the beginning, and- Arabio words and 
phrases freely interspersed throughout. 

Any one who tries to read a letter or a poem written 
in Arabic characters, will at once see why it is impos- 
sible, to adopt them as the standard Swahili alphabeti 
It is absolutely necessary to have a good idea of what 
you are to read before you can read at all. The reason 
is that Swahili hasvfive vowels, Arabic only three, and 
of Swahili consonants the Arabic supplies no means' of 
writing c^, ^, jp, or v, nor can consecutive consonants be 
written M-ithout shocking Arabio notions of propriety. 
Thus the Swahili are driven to write the ha for jp and 
for nib as. well as for 6 ; the ghain for ^, ng^ and ng\ as 
well as for gli ; the /a for t? and mir, as well as for /; 
the ya for ny as well as for y ; the shin for c/i a^ well as 
for sh ; and to omit altogether the n before (2, y, ^, and z^ 
Initial vowels and consecutive vowels are onty to be 
expressed by Jiemzaa or 'aina. In the .first piece of 

« swahiJjI handbook. 

written Swahili I ever possessed (the Story of the 0% 
and the Ass) the words ng'ombe and punda were written 
ghfjibo and huda. It yn\l be easily seen how imperfect 
and ambiguous a means of writing Swahili the Arabic 
character must be. An instance occurred while I was 
in Tianzibar of a letter written from Eilwa with the 
account of a fight, in which it was said th4t one of 
the principal men, amejcufoj had died, or amewJui^ had 
got away, 9,nd which it was no one could certainly 
iell;« the last two consonants, were fa and qaf with 
three dots over them. If two of the dots, belonged 
to the first letter, the man was dead ; if two belonged 
to the next letter, he was alive : but the dots were 
so equally placed that no one could tell how to divide 
them. If the Arabic had possessed a v, there could 
have been no mistake. It would no doubt be possible 
to express Swahili sounds by using letters with addi- 
tional dots and affixing arbitrary sounds to the letters 
of prolongation, as is done in Persian' and Hindi, but 
the result would puzzle a genuine Swahili and could 
never be quite satisfactory in any respect. 

There seems to be no difficulty in writing Swahili 
in Boman characters, there being no sound which does 
not so nearly occur in some European language that 
the proper way of writing it can readily be fixed upon, 
i^nd illustrated by an example. When this is the case 
there is no need to look for anything further. I think 
those who tiy to settle the alphabets of new languages 
are too apt to forget how essential simplicity is to a 
xeally good alphabet* If the Boman alphabet can be 


made to distinguish all the sounds used in that lan- 
guage, it does all for it that it does for any. To at- 
tempt to distinguish the sounds used in that language, 
from the sounds used in another, or to mark all the 
varieties of tone which occur in speaking, is always 
useless and embarrassing, and not one man in a thou- 
sand has sufficient accuracy of ear to do it properly. 
It is practically easier to learn to attach a new 
sound to a known letter, than to learn a new sound 
and a new letter too, especially when the new letter 
has to be printed and written, and the learner is en- 
tangled in a maze of itcdics and letters with a point 
below and a point above, or a line through them, or 
some Greek letter which has not the sound one gives it 
in Greek, or some new invention which will fit well 
neither into printing nor writing, and looks at its ease 
neither as a capital nor a small letter. It generally 
happens that the sounds of a language, though not 
identical wit!h those of another, correspond with them 
sufficiently to make the corresponding letters appro- 
priate symbols. Thus an English and a French / are 
not identical ; but which nation would or ought to 
submit always to put a dot somewhere about its t to 
show that it is not the ^ which it never will want to 
use, and never did, and could not pronounce, if it met 
with it ? Or, to take a stronger instance, ought Ger- 
mans, Englishmen, and Spaniards always to cross the 
tails of their /s, or print them in italics, or deform their 
books with new symbols, merely because they do not 
pronounce their /s as Frenchmen do theirs? 



: S .•; 


The Yowels aro to be pronounced as in Italian, the 
Consonants as in English. 

A = a in faJOier, 

B = b in hare, 

C]i= cU in cJierry, Italian c before i or e. 

D z= dmdo, J) occurs very frequently in the Mombas dialect 

where j is used in that of Zanzibar. 
'. K = ai in chair, 
F z= fin fine. German o. 
G = <7 in gate^ never soft as in genius. 
][ = 7* in hat, 
I s ee in feet, 
J s= J in joy. Sometimes more like dij or di in cordial, French 

dif German c2/, Italian gi, 
K sz h in halendar, 

^, = Hn long, L and r are generally treated as the same letter. 
j\[ = m in man, 
N r= n in no. 

O = o in hoy^ more like au than the common English o. 
1* = p in paint, 
li = r in raiie. An Engludi, not a Scotch, Irish, German, or 

French r. See L. 
S s « in $un, German m. It is never pronounced like a f or 

the English $ in arUe, S and th are commonly used for 

one anotlier indiscriminately. 
T B Mn ten, T frequently occurs in the dialect of Mombaa 

where di is used in tiiat of Zanzibar. 


•' U = 00 in iooL 

V = tr in very, German to, 

W = 10 4n win. French ou. It is merely a u pronounced as a 
consonant. ' : \ . . 

Y s 1^ in yonder, German J. It is merelyjan t pronounced as a 

ooDsonaat IT, is frequently used. in the Lamoo dialect 
' ''■ where y occurs in tlmt of Zanzibar. 

.2 s s in zany, German «. Z frequently occurs in the dialect of 
. Lamoo where v )b u^ in that of Zanzil>ar. \ 

There are several sounds introduced from tlie Arabic 
<vhich do not occur in pui*ely African words. 

. 'Gh = the Arabic gh<dn ; it is o, guttural g^ resembling 
the Dutch g. It may be obtained by pro- 
nouncing a g (as nearly as it can be done) 
with the mouth wide open. Moi^t Europeans 
imagine, the first time they hear it, that 
there is an r sound after the </, but this is a 

TSh - the. Arabic hlia ; it is a very rough form of the 
. . German ch^ the Spanish y, or the Scotch ch in 
locli. It. resembles the sound made in trying 
to raise something in the throat. It may 
always be replaced in Swahili by a simple /i» 
but never by a A;. 

Th ^ the four Arabic letters tlia^ thai, thod, and thah 
The first of these is the English th in thinks 
f the second that in they. The third and fourth 

are .thicker varieties of the second sound. In 
'Swahili they may all be replaced by a z. No 
attempt is ever made to dis1;^nguish the last 
three letters; but as the first is generally 


marked in pronunciation, it is in the first 
part of this handbook marked by printing 
the th in italics wherever it is to be pro- 
nounced as in the English word thinki, The- 
sound of the English ih in (hat occurs m 
; Glome Swahili as a. dialectic variation for.^. 
In vulgar Swahili z is not merely put for 
the Arabic ih^ but th is also put for the- 
Arabic z. as wathiri for tcazirL a vizir. 

There ttre several compound consonantal sounds- 
which require notice. 

Ch, a yery common sound, representing what i» 
; sometimes a i and sometimes l;t — in other 

. dialects. . G is not required for any other 
sound, as it can be always represented by h 
when h^rd, and by 9 when soft. It would 
probably be an improvement always to write- 
the eh sound by a simple c . . 

Gn, see ng'. 
. ,Kw represents the sound of gu in queer. 

M frequently stands for mu, in which cases it is pro» 
nounced with a half-suppressed u sound 
before it, and is even capable of bearing tho 
accent of the word, as in «n/u, a person, where 
the stress of voice is on the «t, which has a 
dull nasal semivowel sound, not quite unu 
Wherp f» occurs before any consonant except 
h or 10, it must have this semivowel sound. 


'M^ standing for muy has generally its semi*^ 
vowel sound before «• Before a or 6 it 
jbeoomes «itr, and before o it frequently loses- 
the u altogether, and is pronounced as a 
simple 971, 

N has frequently a nasal semivowel sound, a half* 
suppressed % being suggested by it. N has 
alw;ays this semivowel sound where it is 
. immediately followed by cA, /, A, m, n, or «. 

Ky has the sound of the Spanish n, the French and 
Italian (^, the Portuguese n^ and the English 
ni in companion^ only a little thicker and 
more nasal. 

Kg' is a peculiar African «ound, much resembling 

the -ng which occurs at the end' of many 

English words. If we could divide longing 

thus, lo-nging, without at all altering the 

. pronunciation, it would come very near 

. . the African: sound, which is never a final, 

because all Swahili syllables must end in a 

vowel. Some prefer to write this sound gn-^ 

as it resembles the sound given by Germans 

and others to those letters when they occur 

a8[ initial letters in Greek. This sound must 

be distinguished from the common sound of 

,ng-9 in which .the g distinctly passes on to 

the following vowel, as in the English word 

engage; in n/- both sounds are heard, but 

neither passes on to the voweL 

, 8h is the Arabic «itn, the English sh^ the Fxenoh A, 


the German 8ch, 8h and « are commonly 
troated as identical. 

P, Ty K, and possibly some other letters, have occa- 
sionally an explosive or aspirated sound, 
such as an Irishman wiU often give them. 
This explosive sound makes no change in 
. the letter, but is an addition to it, probably 
always marking a suppressed 91. Thus upepo 
is a trt9k2, with both jp*8 smooth as in English ; 
but the plural, which should regularly be 
npepo, is p'ejpo, with a strong explosive sound 
attached to the first letter. This explosive 
sound may be marked by an apostrophe ; it 
is, however, very seldom necessary to the 
^ sense of a word, and is noticeably smoothed 
down or omitted by the more refined and 
Arabizcd Swahili. 

There are other niceties of pronunciation which a 
fine €^ may distinguish ; but as they are 
by no means essential, and are seldom noticed 
by the natives themselves, it is not worth 
while hero to examine them particularly. 


As a rule, the vowels are all pronounced distinctly, 
«nd do not form diphthongs. When, however, a for- 
mative particle ending in -a is placed before a word 
beginning with e- or t-, the two letters coalesce into a 
iong e sound. It is not, however, even in such a case 
as this, always incorrect to pronounce the two vowels 
^tinctly, though it is not usually done. The instances 


of and rules for this unioa of sound will be . found 
where the several prefixes whioh give occasion to it 
are dealt with. 

When two vowels come together at the end of a 
word, they are often to the ear one syllable, and have 
the sound of a diphthong; they are really, however, 
two syllables of which the former bears the accent. 
This is at once appai*ent in the Merima dialect,, in 
which an Z is put between the vowels. Thus Jcufaa^ to 
be of use, which sounds as if written kufdj is in the 
Herima dialect kufala. The shifting of the accent 
sometimes shows that the vowels are really separate. 
Thus a common fruit tree is called mzawharau^ in which 
word the last two vowels apparently unite into a 
sound like that in the English word 7u)w; but when -ni 
is added, making Mzarnbarauni^ at the- zambardu tree — 
the name of one of the quarters of .Zanzibar — the u is 
quite separated from the a, and the last two syllables 
are pronounced like the English -aony^ 

It may be assumed in -all cases in which two vowels 
come together that an I has been omitted betweeii 
them, and will appear in some modification of the word 
or in its derivatives. 

The shifting of the accent above- referred to takes 
place in obedience to the universal rule in Swahili, 
that the main accent of the word is always put upon 
the last syllable but one, a. rule which often ' changes 
the sound of a word so materially as to baffle a beginner 
in his endeavour to seize and retain it. The syllable 
nt is the chief disturber of accents ; and words whichi 


end in it may be always suspected of being plnral 
imperatives if they are verbs, or of being in what is 
known as the locative case if they are nonns. There 
are only a very few words which end in -ni in their 
fiimple forms. 

The formation or division of syllables is so closely 
connected with the powers of the letters, that thii5 will 
be a proper place to mention it. The rule is that all 
Swahili syllables end in a vowel, and that the vowel 
miist be preceded only by a single consonant, oi* by 
one preceded by n or w, or followed by «7 or y. 

There are a few half-assimilated Arabic words hi 
which double consonants occur ; but there is a strdiig 
tendency in all such cases to drop one of the consonants 
and attach the other to the Vowel which follows* liiem. 

W 'can 'be placed after all the other consonants, 
simple and compound, except perhaps F 

Y can follow P,* N, and V. 
■■■ These two letteris are used in the formation of Verbs, 
-«?- being'the sign of the passive, and -y- being used to 
give a transitive meaning. In several cased -fy- stands 
for «^py- ; «^py- occurs in one word only, *mpya^ new. 
' N can be placed before D, G, J, Y, and Z. 
• M can be placed before B, and perhaps Ch and V. 

M in these instances represents an n- used as a sub- 
stantival and adjectival prefix. Used in this way, n 
before h becomes m ; before I or r it changes the Z or r 
into d> making nd- instead of nl- or nr- ; before to it 
•changes into m^ and the w becomes 6, making nA- 



tnfitead of 1110-. It is curious that w can be made to 
follow n without any change, but that n cannot be put 
before w. Before k^ jp, and t, the n is dropped, and 
they become k\ p\ and <' ; before the other letters cA, 
/, h, f», n, and s, it is merely dropped. 

The resulting syllables are not always easy of pro- 
nunciation to a European, as, for instance, nywa in ku- 
nywa, to drink, no)* is it very easy to pronounce ngu 01 
ii$da ; but to a, native such sounds present no difficulty, 
whilst he can scarcely pronoimce such a word as hlcick. 

Instances of the division of syllables will be found 
in the i^ecimen of Kinyume^ whidi forms Appendix I. 
Kinyume is made by taking the last syllable from the 
•end of a word and putting it at the beginning, so that 
-each instancy is a specimen of the native idea as to 
what letters belong to the final syllable. Some Swahili 
«re very ready at understanding and speaking this 
•enigmatical dialect. 

At the head of each letter in the second part will 
be found some observations on its use and {yrontln< 




SwahiK nouns have two numbers, singular and plural 
•vhioh are distinguislied by their initial letters. Upon 
the forms of the Substantives depend the forms of aU 
Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs governing or governed 
by them. It is, therefore, necessary to divide then^ 
into so many classes as there are different forms eitheir 
of Substantives or of dependent words, in order to be 
able to lay down rules for the correct formation of 
sentences. For this purpose Swahili Substantives may 
be conveniently divided into eight classes. . 

I. Those beginning with Jtf"-, *Jlf-, Jtftt-, or Jtfw-, in 
Ihe singular, and which denote living beings. They 
make their plural by changing 3f- &c. into TFa-. 

Mtu, a man ; watu, people. 

The singular prefix represents in all its forms the 
syllable JKm-, which is itself very rarely heard. Before 
a consonant it is almost always pronounced as a semi- 
vowel TO, with the u sound before rather than after it» 
Before a and e the u becomes a consonant, and the 
prefix appears as intr-. Before o and u the tf is very 


frequently dropped, and the m alone is heard. The . 

pn^fiz is treated as a distinct syllable when followed 

by a consonant, but very rarely so when followed by 


Mchaufi, a wizard; wachaicij wizardi. 
' Mjtui, a lizard ; wgfusi, lizards. , . c . ^ - • 

Mwanat a son ; traana, sods. 
Mwoga^ or mogOy a coward ; toaoga, cowards. 
MuumvUiit or mumisfUf a cupper ; wawmUhiy cuppers. . 

When the plural prefix voa- is placed before a word 
beginning with o-, the two a*s run together, and are 
seldom distinguishable by the ear alone. When tea- is 
placed before a word beginning with c- or »-, the -a 
flows into the other vowel and produces a long e sound. 

Mvoenziy a companion ; wenzi^ companions. 
Mtcivi, a thief; trevt, thieves. 

II. Substantives beginning with M-, 'Jlf-, Jtft*-, or 
Muj'j which do not denote living or animate beings. 
They make their plural by changing M- &c. into JT»-. 

Mti, a tree ; miti, trees. 

The same observations apply to the singular prefix 

in this class as in Class I. 

M/upa, a bone ; mifupa, bones. 
MwanzOf a beginning; mianzoy beginnings. 
Mwembet a mango tree ; miembe, mango trees. 
Mtoiba, a thorn ; miiba, or mibat thorns. 
Moto, a fire ; mioto, fires. 

The names of trees belong to this class. 

V^xlfl. Those which do not change to form the pluraL 

Nyumhat a house ; nyumba, houses. 


Thejghnple descr^pt^Qii of fip^ ns.of thia nlrtna la tTi ai 
tliey begin with n, followed by fioiae-^^eg^i ^nsonan t. 
It. is probable that Ni- is the ground form of the prefix 
of this class, since it always appears as ny- before a 
vowel. The singular powers and antipathies of the 
letter n- very much affect the distinctness of this class 
of nouns. As n must be dropped before cA, /, i^, k^ jp, s^ 
or /, nouns beginning with those letters may belong to 
this class;* and as n becomes m before &, v, and tr, 
nouns beginning with mh or mv may belong to it. There 
is a further complication in Swahili, arising from the 
fact that foreign words, except only foreign names of 
persons and offices, whatever their first letters, are 
correctly placed in this class. The popular instinct, 
however, refuses this rule, and in the vulgar dialect 
classes foreign words according to their initial letters,, 
regarding the first syllable as a mere prefix, and treat- 
ing it accordingly (see also p. 20). In some caises words 
are handled in this way even in polite Swahili ; thus the 
Arabic Kitahu^ a book, is very often made plural by 
treating the M- as a prefix, and saying Vitahu^ for books* 

Kambaf a rope ; hambat ropes. 
Mbegu, a seed; mbegu, seeds. 
Nyumhay a house ; nyumhd, housea» 
Meza^ a table ; mezoj tables. 
Bunduki^ a gun ; hunduki, guns. 
Ndizif a banana ; ndizit bananas. 
Njia, a road ; ttjia, roads. 

* There is nothing to show whether nouns beginning with these 
let|;ers belong to this class or to the fifth ; but it is always safest in 
cases of doubt to treat them as belonging to this class, unless tomm 
special largeness is intended to be intimated concerning them. 


: rV. Those which begin with JO- before a ooiisonant 
or Oh- before a vowel. They form their plural by 
changing JKt- into Ft- and Ch- into V'^-. 

Kitu, a thing; vitu, things. 
GunnbOf a YessetT vyombo, vessels. 

Substantives are made diminutives by being brought 
into this class. 

.'^— Wiw w I » " ' »" ■ •»• j ^ 

Jinifna, a mountain ; jLt7tfna, a hill. r 

BujeiOf a box ; kibwetaf a little box. 

If the word stripped of all prefixes is a monosyllable» 
y»- must first be prefixed. 

Mtif a tree ; hijiti, a shrub. 
' Mwiko, a spoon ; k\jikOf a little spoon. 

Words beginning with Ki- may be turned into 
diminutives by inserting -ji' after the prefix. 

Kitwot a head; MJilwa, a little head. 

iCi&o^, a hippopotamus ; ^i/»6ofto, a little hippopotamus. 

In regard to animals, the use of the diminutive has 
a depreciating effect» 

Mbuzif a goat ; Jeibuzif a poor little goat 

V. Those which n^ake their plural by prefixing ma»» 
Kasha, a chest ; maJeashaf chests. 

Nouns are generally brought into this class by re- 
Jecting all prefix in the singular. If, however, the 
^irord itself begins with a vowel, /- is prefixed ; if it be 
A monosyllable, jt- is prefixed. The^- or^»- is regularly, 



omitted in the plural, but may be retained to avoid 
ambiguity, where the regular word would have re^- 
eembled one formed from another root. . , 

JawibOy an affair ; mambo^ affairs. 

Jiclw, an eye ; maclu), eyes. 

Joinho, a large vessel ; majonibo, large vessels. 

If the word b9gin with t- or e-, the -a of the plural 
prefix coalesces with it and forms a long -e-; this 
distinguishes dissyllables with J- prefixed from mono^ 
syllables with j«- prefixed. 


JinOf a tooth ; meno (not marzo), teeth. 

Foreign names of persons and offices belong to thi» 


Waziriy a vizir ; maicaziri, vizirs.' 

In the vulgar dialect of Zanzibar all foreign words: 
which have a first syllable that cannot be treated as a 
prefix, are made to belong to this class, and ma- is 
prefixed to form the plural (see p. 18). 

Anything which is to be marked as peculiarly large 
or important is so described by bringing the word into 
this class. 

MJuhOf a bag ; /m7;o, a very large bag. 
Mtu, a man ; jitu, a very large man. 
Nyurribdii a house ; jumba, a large house. 

- , I 

If a word is already in this class, it may be described 
as • larger by prefixing j»*-. 

Matdngar sails ; mc^ttanga, great saiL^ ' 


Maji^ water, Mafuta^ oil, and other nouns in that 
form are treiated as plurals of this class. 


VI. Those which begin with Z7- in the singular. 
They make their plural by changing U- into Ny^ before 
a vowel, or N- before a consonant. 

Uimbo, a song ; nyvmbo, songs. 

tfdevu^ a hair of the beard ; ndevu^ hairs of the beazd. 

This class is not a large one ; but the formation of 
its plural is full of apparent irregularities produced by 
the letter n. 

1. An nouns of this class, which are in the singular 
dissyllables only, retain the u- in the plural, and are 
treated as beginning with a vowel. 

{TjTa, a crack ; nyu/a, ci-acks. 
Uso, a face ; nyuso, faces. 

2. Words in which the U- is followed by d, g^j\ or «, 
take N' in place of U-. 

3. Words in which the U- is followed by { pr r, take 
N't but change the Z or r into d. 

UUmi, a tongue ; ndimi, tong^tes. 

4. Words in which the U- is followed by 6, v, or tr, 

take n-, but change it into w-, and their first letter is 


UbaUf a plank ; mhau, planki. 
• UtcingUi a heaven ; mlnngu^ the heavens. 

5. Words in which the U- is followed by k, 2' or /, 



drop ihe^lT^ «aid give an- explosive sound to tb^ first 

letter. • 

Upepo^ a wind ; |>'epOy winds. 

f • • • . 

6; Words in which the 17- is followed by eft,/, ft, »,. 
or «, merely drop the 17-. ' 

U/ungtWj a key ; funguo^ keys. 

Nouns of this class are so few in Swahili th&t it i» 
scarcely worth while to notice these distinctions; they 
are, however, important as explaining what, would 
otherwise seem anomalies, and represent influence» 
which have a. much larger field in other .^ripan» 

Abstract nouns generally belong to this class. 

^ , ■ . . ■ ■ •. 1 ' " ^ • . : t 

YII. The one word Mdhali^ place or places, which 
reqxiires special forms in all adjectives and pronouns. 

_ ■ • • 

VllL The Infinitives of Verbs used as Substantives. 
All Infinitives may be so used, and answer to the- 
English Verbal Substantives in <ng. 

Kufa, to die = dying. 
^wiba, to steal = stealing. 

All Substantives of both numbers may be put into* 
what may be called the locative case by adding -mV 
This case has three great varieties of meaning, which* 
are marked by differences in all dependent pronouns. 

1. In, witbtn, to or &om within. * 

2. At, by, near. 

8. To, from, at (of places far oil> 


Kyumbani mwangu, in my house. 
Nyuwbani pangu, near my house. 
Nyumhcmi kwangu^ to my house. 

Mtoni, by the river. 

Ifjiani, on the road. 

Vyombont^ in the vessels» 

Kitwani, on the head. 

Mbingunu in heaven. 

Kuanfuhant^ in fieJling. 

The pofisessive case is expressed by the use of the 
Preposition -a, which see. The objective or accusative 
is the saihe as the subjective or nominative. 

In the following list of Substantives the plural form 
is given in all cases in which, if commonly used, it if 
not the same at the singular* 




The letters in parentheses denote the several dialects : (A.) Kiamn, that of 
Lamoo ; (M.) Eimvita, that of Mombas ; (Mer.) Kimerima, that of the main- 
land opposite 2ianzibar ; (N.) Kingozi, the poeticuj dialect ; (Ar.) Arabic 

A wliat'ts-ilf a thing (he name of 
tohieh you do not Icnow or ean^ 
not recall^ dude, j>Z. madude. 

Such-a-one^ a person whose name is 
not hnoum or is immaterial, 

AhasemenU unenyekea 
Abhorrence, machukio. 
Ability, uwezo. 
Abridgment, muhtosari. 
Abscess, tumbasi, nasur. 
Abundance, wingi, uiigl (M.), mari- 

Abyssinian, Habeshio, pU Mulia- 

Acceptance, ukubalL 
Accident, tukio, ph matukio. 
Accounts, hesabu. 

Account booh, daftari. 
Accusation, matuvumu. 
Accusation (before a judge), mshta- 

ka, pi. mishtaka. 
Ache, inaumivu, uchuugu. 
Action, kitcndo, ph viteudo, amalL 
Addition {in arithmetic), juiula. 

Address (of a letter), anwani. 
Adomm^ent, kipambo, pi, vipambob 

pambo, pL mapambo. 
Adultery, zaui, uzini, uzinzi. 
Advantage (profit), fayida. 
Adversity, mateso, shidda. 
Advice, shauri, pi, mashuurL 
Adze, sboka la bapa, eezo. 
Affair, jambo. 

Affairs, mambo, shughuli, iili- 
Affection, mapenzi, mapendo. 

Mutual affection, mapondano 
Affliction, teso, pL mateso. 
Age, umri. 

Old age, uzee. 

Extreme old age, ukongwe. 

Equal in age, hirimu moja. 

Former a^es, zamani za kale. 
Agent, wakili, pi, mawukili. 
Agreement, maagano, makatibv, 

inwafaka, mapatano, sharti. 
Aim, sliabaha. 
Air, bawa, hewo, npepo. 

For change of air, kubndill liawi^ 
Almond, lozi, pi, malozi. 
AUm, sadaka. 



Aloes, Bubiri, shibirL '■ . ■ 
, Aloes wood, uudi. 
Altar, mathbah, mathabahu. 
Alum, shabbu. 
Ambergris, ambari. 
Amulet, talasimu^ pZ. matnlusimu. 
Amusement, mazumgumzo, mao- 

Ancestors^ babu, wazee. 
Anchor, nanga, baura. 
Ande (see Anldets), kiwiko oha 

mguu, ito la guu (A.). 
Angel, inalaika. 
Anger, hasira, gliathabu. 
.Jfif/Ie, pembc. 
Angoxa, Ngoje. 
Animal, nyama. 

The young of a domestic animal, 

Ayoung she<mimal that has not 

yet borne, mtamba,pL mitamba. 

- 2fative animals. See under their 

several names : — 

- Buku, a very large hind of raL 
Toi, a kind of toild goal, 
Buga (?). 

Ndezi (?> 

Njiri (?). 
'fAfiklets (see Ancle)^ mtali, pi. tuitoli, 

furungu, pi. mafunmgiu 
Answer, majibu, jnwabu. 
Antelopes. See Gazelle. 

Bara, Heleohagus arundiimcevts. 

I>ondoro, Vyker^s aaUelope, 

Kom, water buck. 

K\iguni, haarteheesL 

Mpofu, pi. Wapofu, dand* 

Kyumbo, wHdebeesU 


Antimony, wanja wa manga. 
^fil«,chiuigu,tuiigii (M.),8isim izi (?). 

Siafu, a large ^roim hind. 

Maji a moto, a yeUoja kind vchich 

Hoes in trees. 
White ants, mchwa. 
Ants in their flying stage, kumbi* 

AntJiill, kisugulu, pL visugulu. 
Anus^ inkuuda, fupa. 
AnvH, fuawe. 
Ape, nyani. 

Apostle, intumo, pL mitume. 
Appearance, umbo, pi, maumbo. 
Arah, Mwqrabu. pi. Waarabu. 
Arab from Shelter, Mshihiri, pL 

Arab from the Persian Gulf, Mshe- 
xnali, pi. Washemali, Teude 
Arabia, Arabuni, Manga. 
Arabic, Kiarabu. 
Arbitrator, mpatanishi. 
Arch, tao, pi. matao. 
Areca nut, popoo. See BeteL 
Arithmetic, hesabn. 
Addition, jumla. 
Subtriiction, baki. • 
Multiplication, tharuba. 
Division, mkHsamu. 
Proportion, or division of profits. 
Arm, mkono, pi. mikono. [uirarL 

Under the arm, kwapani 
Armpit, kwapa, pi. makwapa. 
. Perspiration of the armpit, 

. kikwapa. 
Arrangements, madaraka. 
Arrival, kifiko, kikomo. 
Arrogance^ ghnruri. 
Arrow, mshale, pi. mishale, ohemle, 

pL vyembe (N.)- 
Arrovoroot, uwanga, kanjl. 
Artery, vein or nerve, mahipa, 2?/. 



Artifice, kitimbi, pL vitlmbii 1 1 

A»iription» of praise^ tasbiih. 
Ankes, jifu, p2. laajifu, ivo, pL< 

roaivu (M.). 
Am^ punda. 
Assafostida, mvnje. 
AtsetMy, jamaa, jumdJA, inakutano,. 

Plcuie of assembly^ maknsanyiko. 
Asthma, pumii. 

AMonishment, mataajabv, msnngao. 
Aid^vloger, mnajimu. pi, ^iraiiejimii. 
Astronomy f falaki. falak. 
Atttiehment, wambiso. 
Auctum, mnada, pi. minada. 
Audieneer, dalali. 
Aunty sfaangazi, pi, iftnshangazL 
Authority, ngUTH, luamluka, hu- 

Avarice, choyo, bakhili, tamaa. 
Awl, uiiia, pi, nyuma. 
^tci^'n^, chandalua. 
Axe^ sboka, pH, mashoka, 


Bahy^ mtoto mcbaugo, kitoto 

kichanga, malaika. 
Bacli, mauDgo, xngongo. 
Bach • of the Jiead and neckt ki- 

Bacldnme^ uti wa maungo. 
Badness, nbaya, uovu. 
Bag, rnfiike, pi, niit'uko, fnko, pZ. 
nuifuko, kifuko, pi, viiiiko. 
Mkoba, piL mikobii, a scrip, 
Kibcgofibi, pL Tibogoflbi, a s/tnaU 
hag made of skin, 
. Matting lags, 

Kikopu or Chikapu, pi* Tikapu. 
Kapu, j}2. makapu, very large, ' 
.\' Kando, pL :makanda, long aftd 
narrow, broadest at the oottom. 

Junia, used /or rUie, Ae,^ ganfrnJ 
Eigunni» used for dates^ sugary 

&o, ■ ■ ' 

Eifumbo, pi, vifumbOb very large- 
used for cloves. 
Baggage, vyombob 
Bail,liudmA, ' '" 

Bait, ckambo, pi, vvflmbo. 
Baking place for pottery, •d:e,f jokos 
Balances, niizanL 
Biddness, tipaa. 
A shaved place on the hmd, kipaa», 
pi, vipaa. 
Ball, tufe. • 

India-rvJtiber hall, mpiia» pL 

Any small round» thing^ doDgCy pL, 
ixiadon«::e. ' 
Ballast, faruiui. 
Bamboo, 'mwaiizi, pL miwaniL 
Bananas, ndivn. 
Banana tree, mgomba, piL -mi^ 

BancKUls of fruity tana» plL 

The fruit stalk, mkuDgu, pt mi* 
Band (stripe), utcpe, pi, tepe. 
Band (of soldiers, Ac), kikoaiy pL 

Bandage, utamboa, pi, tatnbaa. - 
Bangles, See Anklets, 
Batik (of earth, sand, Ae,)f fufigii». 
.pi. mafnngu. 
Bank of a river, kando. 
' The opposite hank, ng'ambo. 
Baobab, See (kMnuh, 
Barber, kinybzi, pi, vroyozL 
Bargain, mwafaka, maafikanoi 
Bargaining, ubazazi. • 
Bark of a trie, gnm^ (hard), gand» 



Barley^ shairi (Ar.)* 

Barque (a Mp\ merikebn ya mili- 

ngote miwili na nttss. 
Barrel^ pipa, pL napipa. • 
BaHuy bakuli, jiL mabakulL . 
A smaU hagin^ kibaba. 
A hra89 (a«tn, tasa, |>2. matasa. 
See Bowl, 
Basket See Bag, ■ 
OhikaptI, pL vikapu. 
Pakacha, pi, roapakacha, made 
0f eocoorntU leases plaited to- 
gether, ; 
Dobani, a very taU narrow basket- 
made of slips of wood sfippU-] 
merited by eoeoa^ut lea/oes, 
' 'Timga, a round open basket, 
Ungo, ph maungo, or uteo, pi, 
teo (M.), a round fiat basket 
tisedfor sifting, 
Kiteo, pL viteo, a very smaU one, 
Kunguto, piL makunguto, a 
basket used as a colander, 
' .Jaiiianda,p2.majanuuida,. a round 
batiket of thidc workt with a 
raised lid, 
Ba<, popo. N 
. Baichdorf msijana^?). ^ •.■ 
Bath, birika, chakogea. 
Baih room, choo, pL vyoo. See 

Public baths, bamami 
BetUUf mapigano. 
Battlements, menomenoi. 
Bay, gbubba. 

Beach, pwani, mpwa (M.)* > 
Bsads, Qsbanga» pit, «bangQ» 
Kondavi, pi, makondavi, a large 

kind worn by ttomen, 
(rosary), tasbiih. 
Beak, mdomo wa ndege. 
■A parroi^s beolr, mbangow 

Beam, miiypL miti, boriti* mbimili, 

pi. mihimili. 
Beans, IsviVLude, 

Chooko, a very small green kindi. 
Fiwe, grow on a climbing ptiiut 

with a white flower, 
Baazi, grow on a h%u^ something' 
Wee a laburnum. 
Beard, ndtiYU, madeyn. 

One hair of the beard, udcvn. 
The imperial, the tuft of hair on 
. the lower lip, kinwa locbuzi,. 
kionda mtuzi (M.). 
Bea^, nyama. 
Beauty, uzuri. 

A beauty, kizuH, pi, vizuri, baiba- 
Bed (for plahting sioect potatoes)^ 

tuta, pL matuta. 
Bedding, matandiko. 
Bedstead, klta^da^. vitanda. 
The legs, ie&dlegu, pi, matendegiw 
The side pieces, mfumbati, pL 

The end pieces, kitakiao, pi, vita- 

The head, mobago. 
The space underneath, mvoDgu. 
Bee, nyuki. 
Beehive (a hoUow piece of wood),. 

mzinga, pL mizinga. 
Beggar, mwomboji, pL waombaji. 
Begging, maomVi. 
Beginning, mwoDzo, pi, mianzo. 
Start in spedking or doing, feli^ 
ph mafoli. 
Behaviour, mwenendo. 

Good behaviour, kutendft vema» 
. Ill behaviour, kutenda vibaya. 
Bell, kengele. 
Njuga, a small heU worn as st» 
ornament, a dog helL 



JBeUowing, kivUmi, vumi.' 
JieUows, mlfao, mivukuto. 
IJielli/, matumbo. 
£end, pindo.' 
The arm stiffened in a bent form, 

kigosho cha mkono. 
JSemhatooka hay, Mjano^. 
JDetel leaf, tambuu. It U chewed 

with ar£da nut, Ume, and to- 

hacco folded up in it, and gives 

its name to the noliole. 
leverage, kinywaji, pL vinywajL 
Bitang, bangi. 

Biceps muscle, tafu ya mkono. 
J^ier, jeneza, jenaiza. 
JSifurcation, panda. - ^ 

Bile, nyongo. 
BiliousnesSt safura (Ar.), marungu 

Bill SeeBeah 

{account), hesabu, barua. 

Bill of sale, ankra. 

(cHwpper), mundu, pL miundu; 
upamba, ph pamba. 
Bird, ndege, nyuni (M.). 

Young of hirdA, kiuda, pi. ma- 

Birds of the air, ndegc za angn. 

Bird of ill omen, korofi, mkoroli. 
. J^ative birds, 

Pugi, a very smaU hind of dove. 

■Korongo, crane, 

Mbango, a bird with a hooked 

Nlnga, a green dove. 

Zawaridi, a Java sparrow. ' 

Mbayuwayu, a sicaUow. 

Bundl, an owl. 

Luanga — pungn — tendawala (?). 
J[?trti^,uzazi,uyyazi, kizazi, kivyazi. 
Biscuit, biskwiti. 

A very Han hind, kakL 

Bishop, askafu (Af.). 

A chess bishop, khamL 
Bit (a horse^s), lijamu. 
Bitterness, uchungu, nkalL 
Blabber of secrets, p»iyo, |>L mapeyo. 
BlacJcsmith, mfoa cbuma, pi. wafaa 
cbuma, mhunzi (Mer.), .piL 
Blackwood, Beseroi. 
Bladder, kibofu, pL vibofn. 
Blade of grass, uchipuka, piL ohi* 
Blame, matuvumu« 
Blanket, butiliuti. 
Blemish, ila, kipunguo. 
Blessing, baraka, mbaraka, piL mi- 

baraka. . 
Blhidness, npofu (Jjos$ of sight)* 

choDgo (loss of one eye). 
Blinders (used ftir camels i4hen 
. grinding in mt228),.jamanda (of 
basket work), kidoto (of cloth)^ 
Blister, lengelenge, pL malenge> 
A vesicular eruption of the skin^ 
Block. See Pulley. [uwatL 

A block to dry skuU caps upon^ 
Blood, damtu 

Blood-vessel, msbipn, pi. mishipo. 
Blotch, waa, pL mawoa. 
Blowing and belloicing noise (ofiem 

made with a drum), virni. 
Blue vitriol, mnitutu. 
Board, ubau, pL mbaii. 

Piece of board, kibao, pL yibaiL 
Boat, mashua. 
Body, mwili, pi. miili. 

The human trunks kiwiliwilL 

A dead body, maylti. 

The body of soldiers, j£*c., jamiL 



Botty jipn, pL miajipu. 

Bo^nhy konibora. 

Bombay^ Mombee. 

Bfme^ mfupo, ;pl, mifupii, fnpa, jaZ. 

mafupa {vtry large). 
Bookj chvLOj pi. vyuo, kitiibu, pL 
A Mcred hocH:, msaliafu, pL misa- 

An account hook, daftarL 
Bociy^ mateka, nyara. 
Border {boundary), mpaka, pi. mi- 
An edging tcoven. on to a piece of 
clotii, taraza. 
BoVieTj uthia, buja. ' 
Bottle, obupa, pi. macbupa, tupa 
(M.), pi. mutupa. 
A Umg-neched bottle /or sprinlding 

«cents, mrasbi, pi. miraebi. 
A litUe bottle, a phial, kitupa, pi. 
Bottom, cbiDL 
Bough, kitawi, pL vitawL 
Boundary, mpaka, pi, mipaka. 
Boto, npindi, pi, pindi, nta, pi. 

mata, or nyuta. 
Boicl {wooden), fua. See Basin. 
Bowsprit, mlingote wa maji. 
Boz, bweta, pL mabweta, ndusi, 
kisandukn, pi. visandiiku. 
SntdU, kibweta, pL vibweta. 
Large, kasba, piL makasba, san- 

Small metal box, kijaluba, pL 
. 'vijalnba. 

Small, long'shaped metal box, often 
used to keep betel in, kijamanda, 
■ pL TJjamanda. 
Small paper box, kibumba, pi. 
Boy, kijana, pi, ^ijana. 

Bracelet, kekce (JlaC). 
Kikuku, pi. vikiiku (round). 
Kingaja, pi. 'vingaja (of heads). 
BaDagiri(oma7nente<2 with points). 
Braid, kigwe, pi, vigwe. 
Brains, bongo, mabongo. 
Bran, cbacba, makapi. 
Husks of rice, kumvi. 
Branch, lawi, pi. matawi, utanzu, 

pi. tanzu. 
Brand (apiece of wood partly hurnt)^ 

kinga, pi. vinga. 
Brass, sbaba, nuh^s (Ar.). 
Brass wire, mazoka (?). 
Bravery, usbujaa, ii/Aabiti. 
Brawler, mgomvi, 2)Z. wagomvL 
Bread (loaf or cake), mkate. 
Breadth, upai)a. 
Break. See Crack, Notch. 
Breakfast, cbakula cha subui,. 
kifungna kanwa, cbamslia 
Breaking wind (upuxtrd), kiungulia, 
pi. viimgulia. 
(doionward), jomha, pi. majamba,. 
Breast, kifjua, kldari, mtima. 

Breasts, maziwa, sing, ziwa.' 
Breath, pumzi, nafusi, robo. 
Bribe, rushwa. 
Br/de, bibi harusi. 
Bridegroom, bwana barudi. 
Bridle, batamu (halter, reins, d:e.\ 

lijamu (bit). 
Brink, ukingo, mzingo. 
Brook, kijito, pi. vijito. 
Broom, ufagio, pi. fagio. 
Brother, ndugu, ndugn mnme, 
kaka (Eibadimu). 
Foster brother, ndugii knnyonyab 
Brother-in-law, shcmcgi. 



HusbawTs brother, mwamu^ 
Wife*8 hroiherj wifi. 
BroWj kikomo cha ueo, kipajL 
Bruise, vilio la damu, alama ya 

Brush (see Broom), bnrushi 
Brushvoood, koko, makoko. 
Bubble, povu, jpZ. mapovu. 
Bucikel, ndoo. 
Btushler, jxgao, 
Buffalo, nyati. 
Bug, kunguni. 

■Building, }ejigo,.pl. majengo. •. 
Building mcUericds, majengo. 
Firm and good building, mtpmo. 
BuU, fahali,j9^ mafabali, ng'oxube 

mume or ndume. 
Bullet, poopoo, risasi ya bunduki. 
BuUocIc, maksai. 

Bunch, tawi, pi, matawi, kitawi, pi. 
vitawi, kicliala, pi, yichala. 
Tlie bunch is said to he o/ Hie 
tree and not of tite fruits 
Tawi la mtende, a bunch of dates» 
Kichala cha mzabibu, a hunch of 
grapes. See Bananas, 
Bundle, peto, pi. tuai)eto, nzigo, pi. 
In a cloth, bisdo, furushi, . ki- 

furusbi. . 
Cf straw, mwenge, pi, mienge. 
Of sticks, titi, pi. roatUL 
Buoy, cliilezo, pi, vilezo, mlezo, pi, 

Burden, rozigo, pi. mizigo. 
Burial-place, mazishi, maziko. 
Burier (t.6. a special friend), mzisbi, 

pi. wazishi. 
Bush, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 

Bushes, koko, pi. makoko. 
Business, sbugbuli, knzi. 
Urgent business, amiM'a. 

A complieaUd hustneslf, vtfll 


His business, amrl yake. 
: I have no business, &c., sina amxii 

Butter, siagi. 

Clarified buUer (ghee), samli. 
Buttermilk, miiadi. 
Butterfly, kipepeo, pi. vipepeow 
Buttocks, tako, pL matako. 
Button, kifungo^ pL vifango. 
Button loop, Mtanzi, pi. vitanzL 
Button by whicJi the wooden eloge 
are held on, msuruakc, pZ. mir 
Buyer, muwoiuzi, pi, waxixmntL 


Cabin (eide), kipeaa. . . 

Cable, amara. . 

Caffre earn, mtama. 

Cage, kizimbi, pi. vizimbi, (uuda, 

pi. matundu. 
Calee, mkate, j»^ mikate. 
Cake of mtama meal, mkate wn 

Cjake of tobacco, mkate wa tu* 

Bumunda, pi. mabumunda» a sort 

of dumpling or soft cake, 
Kitumbua, pL vitumbua, a eake 

made like a fritter. 
Ladu, a rotund ball made ^ 

semsem seed, spice, and sugar. 
Kinyunya^ pi. vinyunya, a litUe 
cake made to try the quality of 
the flour. 
Calaba^i, buyn, pi. mabuyu. 
Inner part of tlie calabash fruity 

Calabash used to draw waietf 
kibuyu, vibuyu. 



. CalaHHttk Mm cr baobab, mbuyu, 
': pL mibaya. 

A pumpkin MU used to ^hM 
liquids, dundii, pi. madiindu. 
'^lamity, masaibn, m8iba,|>2. misiba. 
^ktUco. See doth. 

Fine, bafto. 
•€kilf^ ndama, ndama wa ng'ombe. 
-^kUHcaiUngy, mwito, pi, miito. 
(a ery), ukelele, ukeiitL 
KikoTombwe, a signal cry. 
C%iZm, shwali, 
^^luraha root, kaomwa. 
Oftine?. ngamia. ^ 

^kimelopard, twiga. '' ' ' *^ 
Oamphor, karafuuinyiti, kafuri 
-^^ndle, tawafa, meshtnaa. 
'^kmdlesiick, kinara, pi, Tinara. 
^Janndbis Indica, bangi. . 
Oannofi» mzinga, pi, tiiizinga. 
"lanoe, galawa {with outriggers^, 
mtumbwi, pL mitumbwi (with" 
out outriggers), hori, pl^ mabori 
(with raised Jiead and stern), 
inter, mgbad (of a horse)* 
Thelih {of an ass). 
"Cap, kofia. 

A cap bloeJs, faroma. 
A gun-eap, fatuku 
"OopocffSf, kadri. 
Cape (1*eadland),r(i»\, 
"Captain, nakhothu, naozn, knpitani. 
"Cat'avan, msafura, j)2. mibttfara. 
Caravaai porter, ippagazi, %Til, wa- 
-Cbrouie, mzoga, |)I. mizoga. 
Cards (ptaying), karata. 
'Cardatnoms, iliki. 
Care, imaaL,piL matunza. 

teauiion), hathari. 
^rgo, shehena. 
'Carpenter, fiermala, pL maBcrmala. 

Carpet, zulia. 
Carriaige, gari, pi, magorf. 
A gun carriage, gurudiimo 1ft 

Cartridge, kiass cha bundukL 
Carving, naksh, nakiski. 
Case or paper hox, kibaniba, pi, 

Casltew nut, korosbo, pi, makorosbo 
Imnuiture nut, dunge. 
Cashew apple, bibo, pi, xnabibo, 

kanju (M.)t pi- makanju. 
Cashew nut tree, mbibo, pi. mibibo» 

mkanju (M.), pi, mikanju. 
Cask, pipa, pi, mapipa. 
Casket, kijaroanda, pi, Tij^manda. 
Cassava, muhogo. 
A piece of the dried root, kopa, pL 

Casde, geroza, ngome^ ' 

A chess castle, fil (Ar.- elepliant). 
Castor oil, inafuta ya mbarika» 

mafuta ya iiyoayo (?), mafiita 

ya mbono (?). 
; Castor oil plant, mbarika, pL mi- 

barika, mbono (?), pi, mil)oiio. 
Cat, paka. 
Catamite^ haniti, hawa, Uawara, 

shogii (A.). 
Cattle, ng*ombc, nyama. 

Catlle fohl^ zizi, pi, mazizi. 
Caudle made on the occasion of a 

hirth, of rice, sugar, and spices 

and given to visitors, foka. 
Caulking, kbalfatL 
Cause, sababuykisa, asili, maana. 
Cautery and the marks of it, pisli<\ 
Caution, hatbari. \^pl, mapisho. 
Cave, paango, pi, mapaango. 
Censer, a small vessel to bum ineenm 

in, dietezo, pi, vyetezo, mkebe^ 

J}/, mikcbe. 



Centipede^ taandu. 
Certainly^ yakini^ kite. 
Chaffs kapi, j>2. makapL 
(o/ rice), kumvi. 

Qyran and criMlied graitui), wishwa. 
Chain, mkufu, pi mikufu, mnyo- 

roro, pi. minyororo, silesile, 
Door oliain, riza. 
Chair, klti, pi vitL 
ChaVIt, chaki. 

Chameleon, klnyoDga, pi vinyonga, 
Cluinee, naaibu. [lumbwi (?). 

('handelier, thuroa. 
Change or changing, geuzi» pi 

Cliapter, sura, bah. 
Character, sifa. 
Character», horufii. 
CJiarcoal, mak(ia ya miti. 
Charm (talitman), talMimu, pi ma- 

Chatter, upuzi. 
< 'hatterer, mpuzi, pi wapuzi. 
Cheat, ayari, mjanja, pi >vi\ianja. 

A gr^at cheat, patiala. 
Cheek (the part over the eheek-honeX 

kitofUto, pi, vitof^ite. 
(7^ part orer the tetth), chafu, 

pi. maolmfu, tavu (A.), pi, 
Cheete, jibini. [matavu. 

C/ifM, 8atami\ji. 
CkeH [o/ men), kifua^ pi, Tifua, 
(of animaU or mm), kidari. . 
(a htg9 box), koslia, |>2. makasha, 

Vhicktn^ famnga, pi. mafaninga, 

kifaraoga, pi vifiurangtu 
Chiefs mftdme, pi wafatme, jumbet 

pL nuyjumbo» munyu 
Ckitjhtiiuikipt \\jumbe. 
diM, wtot(\ III. watoto, kitoto, |< 

vitoto« mwiina« pi* waao^ 

A child which cut» 0$ upper f «A 
first, and is therefore considered 
unlitcky, kigego, pL vigega 
Childhood, ntoto. 

Chimney, dohaan. - ' 

Chin, kidevn, pi. Tidevu, kicvw ' 
(A.), pi, vievu. 
Ornament hanging from the veil ' 
below the Mn, jebu, pi. ma-^ 
Chisel, patasi, ohemben. 
Juba, a mortice chisel 
Uma, a smaU chisel 
Clioice, liiari, hiyari, ikhtiari, na- 
Tour choice, npendavyo (a$ you 
Cholera, tauni, wabba, kipiiKlU'^ 

Churdi, kanisa, pi makauisa. 
Cinders, makoa. 
Cinnabar, zangefuru 
Cinnamon, mdalasiui. 
Ciplicr (figure of nought), Bifuni» 

Circle of a manl» affairs, &c,j nli* 

mwenga wake. 
Circumcision, . tehara, kumbi 

(Mer.) (?). 
Circumference, kiviinba, mzingo. 
Circumstances, manibo. 

A dreumftaiice, jumbo. 
Cistern, birika. 

Citron, bolungi, pi. mabolimgL 
Civet, labadL 
Civet eat^ fungo» tigawa (a largm 

animal than the fungo). 
Cirilization, ungwana. 
Civilized people^ wangwaiuu 
Clamp for Imming Htme, tanm» 
C7ir|» of thunder, radi 
Oar^t\ divai. 



CUjusfor study ^ daraaa. 
daw, iiknoha, ^l. kncha. 

(fif a crab), gando, |)Z. magando. 
day (?), ndongo. 
CUameBSy weupe. 
CZer/f, karani. 
Clergyman^ padre or padiri, jpl. ma- 

padiri, khatibu. 
Clevemessy hekima. 
Climate^ tabia. 
Clock., sasl. 

What o'docit isUi Saa ngapi? 
According to the native reckon' 
ing, noon and midnight are ai 
the sixth hour, saa a sita; six 
o^dbck is saa a t^naahara. 
* Clod, pumba, pi, mapumba. 
Cloth (wooUen), joho. 
{Cotton), nguo. 

(^American sheeting), amerikano. 
(^Bltie calico), kaniki 
Cloth of gold, zaiL 
A loin doth of about two yards, 

A loin doth vjith a coloured border, 

kikoi, |>2. yikoi. \.,'. . Jt- 
A turban cHoHi, kitambi, pL vi- 

A woman*s doth, kiskto, pL vi- 
' A doth twisted into a hind of rope 
used (M a girdle, and to make 
the turbans worn by the Hindis, 
ukumbuu, pi. kiunbuu. 
'Clothes, Dguo, miguo, mavazi, mavao. 
*Cloud, wiugu, pi. mawingu. 

Bain doud, ghubaxi, j92. inagha- 

bari. . 
Broken scattered douds, mayu- 
€!love», garofau, karofuu. 

(Fruit-dalks, kykojiyo,^pl. vikonyo. 


Coals, makaa. 

Coast, pwanL 

Coat, joho (a long open coat of 

broaddoih worn by the Arabs). 
Cob of Indian coin, gunzi, pi. ma- 

Cock,jogoOfpl. majogoo, jogoi, jimbi. 
A young cockerd, not yet able to 

crow, pora. 
A cock*s comb, upanga. 
A cod^s wattles, Ddefu. 
Cockles, kombe za pwani (?). 
Cockroach, mende, makalalao (Ma- 

Cocoa-nut, nazL 

Cocoa-nut tree, nmazi, pi. minazi 
Heart of the growing shoot, used as 

salad, ike, kichilema, shaha. 
Cloth-like envelope of young leaves^ 

Leaf, kuti, pi. makuti. 
Midrib of leaf, uchukuti, pL 

Leaflets, iikuti, pi. kuti. 
Leaf plaited for making fences, 

makuti ya kumba. 
Half leaf plaited together, makuti 

ya pande. 
Leaflets made up for thatching, 

makuti ya viungo. 
Part of a leaf plaited into a 
ia8A:e^pakacha,^4 mapakacha. 
Woody flower sheath, karara. 
Bunch of nuts, tawi la mnazi. 
Flower and first forming of nvis^ 

upunga, pi. punga. 

Small nuts, kidaka, pi. vidaka. 

Half -grown nut, kitale, pi. vitale. 

Full-grown nut before the nutty 

part is formed, dafu, pi. 

madafu. In this stage the shdl 




is perfectly full of the milk or 

juice (maji), and the nuts are 

often gathered for drinking, 
naif -ripe nut, when the nutty part 

is formed and the milk begins to 

wabble in the sfieU, koroma, pi, 

Bipe nut, nazL 
A nut which has grown fuU of a 

white spongy substance without 

any hollow or milk, joya, pi. 

A nut which has dried in the shell 

so as to rattle in it without 

being spoilt, mbata. 
The fibrous case of the nut, cocoor 

nut fibre, mtikumbi. 
Cocoa-nut fibre thoroughly cleaned, 

A stick stuck in the ground to rip 

off the fibre, kifiio, pi, vifuo. 
The shell, kifuo, pi, vifuu, ki- 

fufu (M.). . 
Instrument for scraping the fresh 

nut for cooking, mbuzi ya kn- 

kunia nazi. 
Oily juice squeezed out of the 

scraped cocoa-nut, tui. 
A. small bag to squeeze out the tui 

in, kifumbu, pi, vifumbu. 
The scraped nut after the tui has 

been pressed out, ohicha. 
Copra,the nut dried and ready to be 

pressed in the oil mill, nazi kavu. 
Cocoa-^ut oil, mafata ya nazi. 
Coffee, kahawa, (plant) mbunL 
Coffee berries, buni. 
Coffee pot, mdila, pi, midila^ 
Coin (a coin), sarafu. See DoUar^ 

Bupee, &c. 
Colander {in basket y:ork), kunguto, 

pi, makuDguto. 

Cold, baridi. 
Baridi and upepo are often wnul 
to mean wind or cold indiffer^ 
Cold in the head, mafua. 
I have a cold in the head, siwezi 
CoUar-bone, mtulinga,2)Z. mitulinga. 
Colour, rangL 
Colours are generally described by' 
reference to some known sub- 
stance : rangi ya kahawa, coffee 
colour, brown ; rangi ya majani^ 
leaf colour, green; rangi ya 
makuti, colour of the dry cocoa' 
nut leaves, grey, ^ 

Comb, kitana, pi, vitana, shannu^ 
pi, mashanuu (a large woodei^ 
A cocVs comb, upanga. 
Comfort, faraja. 
Comforter, mfariji, pi, wafariji. 
Coming (arrival), kifiko, pi. vifiko. 
(Mode of coming), majilio. 
Coming down or out from, mshuko,. 
pi, mishuko. 
Command, amri. 

Commander^ jemo/deixi, pi, majema- 
dari, mkuu wa asikari. 
Second in command, akida. 
Commission, agizo, pi, maagizo. 
Comoro Islands, MRsiwa. 
Chreat Comoro, Ngazidja. 
Comoro men, WangaziJja. 
Johanna, Anzwaui. 
Mayotte, MaotwB^, 
Mohilla, MoallL 
Companion, mwenzi, pi, wenzi. 
Company, jamaa. 
Compass (mariner^s), dim. 
Completeness, iizima, ukamiliftu. 



(Jomplifnerds, salaamtu 
Composition (of a worc^, rakibyneo. 
Composition for a murder^ money 

paid to save one's life, dia. 
(Joneealmentf mafioho. 
Conclusion, mwisho, hatima. 
Coneubisie, suria, pi, masuria. 

Bom of a eoneuhine, fiuziyama. 
Condition (ttate), hali, jawabu. 
(A thing necessarily implied)^ 

Confidence, matnmaim. 
Confidential servant, msiri, j)2.wa6iri. 
Conscience, thamiri, moyo. 
Conspiracy, mapatano, mwafaka. 
Constipation, kufonga ohoa 
Constiixdion, tabia. 
Contentment, urathi 
Continmt, merima. 
ContintMnoe^ maiaha. 
Contract, maagano, sharti. 
Concersation, mazumgumzo, mao- 

ngezi, usemi. 
Convert, mwoDgofu, pi. waongofti. 
Cook, xnpiahi, pi, wapishi. 
Cooked grain, especially rice, wall. 
Cooking pot (meta2), sufuria, pi, 

masufaria, kisufuiia, pi, vIbu- 

(fiariken), nyungu, chungn, pi. 

yyangu. mkungu, pi. mikungu* 
(a pot to cook meat m with fat, to 

braze meat in), kaango, pL ma- 

kaango, iiJcaailgo, kikaango, pi, 

A pot lid, mkungu wa kufonikia. 
Tliree stones to set a pot on over 

the fire^ mafiga, sing, figa, 

mafya, sing, jifya. 
Cross pieces ptU in to keep the 

meat from touching the bottom of 

$ke pot and hur^ng, nyalio. 

Coolie, hamali, pi, mahamali 
Copal, sandarusi. 
Copper, shaba, siifuria. 
Coral (red), marijani ya fethaloka 
(marijani alone does not always 
mean the true red coral). 
Fresh coral for building, cut from 
below high-waier mark, matu 
Cord, ugwe, ukambaa (M.)» ph 

kambaa, kigwe, pi yigwe. 
Cork, Mzibo, pi, vizibo. 
Com, nafaka (formerly used as 
Muhindi, Indian com, 
Mtama, millet (the mod common 

Mwere, very small grains growing 
in an upright head something 
like the flower of the bulrush, 
Comer, pembe. 
Corner of a cloth, tamvaa, nta« 
Corpse, mzoga, pi. mizoga, mayitL 
Corpulence, unene. 
Corruption, uovu, kloza. 
Dalia, a yellow composition, 
Yosi, a yellow powder from India, 
Liwa, a fragrant wood from 

Cotton, pamba. 
Couch, kitanda, pi, vitanda. 
Cough, kikohozi. 
Council, baraza, diwani. 
Councillor, diwani, pi, madiwani* 
Counsel, shaiiri. 
Countenance, uao, pi. nyoso. 
, Country, incbi, nti (M<). The names 

D 2 




of countrieB are made from Hie 
name of the people by means 
the prefix U-. 
Unyika, the foountry of the Wa- 

Ugala, the country of the Wagala. 
Uzungu, the country of the Wa- 

zuQgu, Europe, 
In the country f mashamba. 
A country diaZectj lugha ya ki- 
Courage, ushiijaa, TLtheibit, moyo. 
Course (of a ship), mdjira. 
Courtesy, jamala, adabu. 
Courtyard (enclosure), ua, pL nyiia, 
nanda or uanja. 
Court within a house, behewa,kati. 
Cousin, mjukiiii, pi, wajukuu. 
Covenant, maagano, sharti. 
Cover (a lid), kifuuiko. 
A dish cover made of straw and 
often profusely ornamented^ 
il &ooZe cover, jalada. 
Covetousness, tamaa, bakhili 
Cow, ng'ombe mke, pi, ng'ombe 

Coward, mwoga, pIL waoga. 
Cowardice, uoga. 
Cowry, kauri, kete. 
Crab, kaa. 

Ora45k, Ufa, pi. nynfo. 
Cramp, kiharusi. 

A cramp, gango, pL magango. 
Crayfish, kamba. 
Cream, slugi. 
Creed, imani* 
Creek, liori. 

Crest, shongi (used also for a way 
of dressing the hair iu two large 
CreWf baharia. 

Crime, taksiri. 

Crocodile, mamba, mbulu (?)• 

Crook, kota. 

Crookedness, kombo. 

A crooked thing, kikombo. 
Cross, msalaba, pi, misalaba. 
Cross roads, ujia panda. 
Crossing place, kiyuko, pi, viyuko. 
Crow, kunguru. 

Crowbar, mtaimbo, pi, mitaimbo. 
Crowd, kundi, pi, makundi, ma- 

kutano, matangamano, umaatL 
Crown, taji. 

Croum of the head, upaa, utosi. 
Crumbs, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 
Crutch for oars, kilete, pi, vilete. 
Cry, kilio, pi, yilio, ukelele, pL 

kelele, ukemi. 
(for help), yowe. 
(of joy), hoihoi, kigelegele. 
Cucumber, tango, pL matango. 
Cubit (from tJie tip of the middle 

finder to the point of the elbow)^ 

thiraa, mkono, pi, mikono. 
(Jrom the point of the elbow to the 

JcnuckUs when the fist is dosedX 

thiraa konde. 
CuUiiMtion, kilimo. 
Cultivator, mkulima, pi, wakulitma. 
Cunning, chereyu, werevu. 
Cup, kikombe, pi. vikombe. 
Cupboard, sanduku. 
Cupper, mumishi, pi. wammshi. 
Cupping horn, chuku. 
Curiosity (rarity), kioja, pL yioja, 

hedaya, tunu. 
Curlew, sululu, kipila. 
Current, oikondo wa maji. 
Curry, mchuzi, mtuzi (M.). 
A ftmaU seed used in making U^ 

An acid thing put into tt, kitingou 



Durse, laana, pi, malaana. 
Curtain, pazia, pL mapazia. 
Curve, kizingo. 
Cushion, mto, pi, mito. 
A large GiUhion, takia, pL ma- 

Custard apple, topetope, matofele, 

konokono, matomoko. 
Custom, destnri, mathehebu, ada. 
Custom-house, fortha. 
Customs^ duties, ashiur. 
Cut, a short out, njia ya knkata. 
Cutting (Jbreahing off), kato, pi, 

Cuttle-fish, pweza. 

Arms of the cuttte-fisht mnyiriri, 

pH minyiriri. 
CutwcUer of a dhow, hanamu. 
Cypher, See Cipher, 
Cymbals, matoazi, sing, toazi 


Dagger, jambia (the curved dagger 
generally worn). 

Damascus, Sham. 

Dance, mchezo, pL miohezo. 
Names of dances, ganga, msapata, 
hanzoa, kitanga cha pepo, 

Dandy, malidadi 

MtoDgozi, pL watongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to aUract 

Danger, hatari, khofa, kioho. 

DarJcness, kiza, giza (fhese are only 
two ways of pronotmdng the 
same word, but the first is some- 
times treated as though the ki- 
were a prefix and it belonged to 
thefowrtk class, while the second 
is ikken as belonging to ^ fifth ; 
U is probably, however^ most 

correct to refer them both to the 

Dark saying, fambo, pi, mafambo, 

maneno ya fumba. 
Darling, kipendi, pL vipendL 
Dates, tende. 

Date-tree, mtende, ph mitende. 
Daughter, binti, mtoto mke, mwana, 

Daughter-in-law, mkwe, pL wa- 

Dawn, alfajiri, kuoha. 
Day (of twenty-four hours, reckoned 

from sunset to sunset), siku. 
(time of daylight), mchana, mtana 

AU day, mchana kutwa. 
Day labourer, kibarua, pi, vibania 

(so called from the ticket given 

to workpeople, which they give 

up again when paid). 
Daylight, mchana, mtana (M.). 
Dazzle, kiwi. 
Deal (toood), snnobari. 
Death, knfa (dying), manti, ufa, 

Debt, deni. 
Deceit, hila, madanganya, ndanga- 

nifa, hadaa, nwongo. 
Deck, siteha, dari. 
Deep vjoter, kilindi, pi, vilindi. 

Cheat depths. Undo, pi, maHndo. 
Defect, npnngnfa, ila, kombo, ki* 

pnngao, ph vipnnguo. 
Deficiency, kipunguo, upungnfu. 
Defilement, njnsi. 
Deliverance, wokovru 
Demand in marriage, poso, pi, 

Dependant, mfoasi, pL wafoasi. 
Depth, kwenda, chini, uketo. 
{ Derision, mzaha, thihaka. 



Design, kusudi, pL maknsiidi, nia. 
Deseentj mshuko, pi. mishuko. 
Desert, wangwa, jangwa, pi. ma- 

Desolation, ukiwa. 
Destruction, kuharibika, kupotea. 
Destructiveness, uharibivu, upotevu. 
Detctehment (of soldiers, <&c,),'kdkosi, 

pi, vlkosi. 
Device, hila, shauri, pi, mashauri. 
Devil, shetani, pL mashetani 
Devotee, mtaowa, pL wataowa. 
Dew, uiuande. 

Dhow (native craft), chombo, pi, 
vyombo ; when very large, }omho, 
pi. majombo. 

Kinds of dhmos : — 

Dan, pL madan, a small open 
vessel sharp at the stem,with a square 
matting sail. They belong to the 
original ir^iabitants of Zanzibar, 
and are chiefly employed in bringing 
firewood to the town, 

Mtepe, pi, mitepe, a large open 
vessel sharp at the stem, with a large 
square matting sail; the prow is 
made to resemble a camel's head, and 
is omatnented with painting a/nd 
little streamers. The planks are 
sewn together. There is always a 
white pennon at the masthead. Tliese 
vessels belong chiefly to Lamoo, and 
the country near it. 

Betela, the common dhow of Zan- 
zibar : it has a square stem, with a 
low poop and a head much like those 
of European boats. 

Bdgala, pi. mabdgala, large dhows 
with very high square stems and taU 
poops, and long projecting prows. 
The Indian dhows are mostly of this 
class; they have very often a smM 

second mast rising from the poop 
(mlingote wa kalmi). 

Ghangi, they resemble the Bi- 
galas esccept in not being so high in 
the poop or so long in the prow. 

Batili, a low vessel toith a long 
projecting prow, a sliarp stem, and 
high ruddoT'head, They have oftm 
a flying poop and a second mauL 
They belong to the piratical Arabs 
from the Persian (jhdf, 

Bedeni, a dhow with a sharp stem 
and high rudder-head, and a pet' 
pendieular cutwater ; there is often a 
piece of board attached to it, making 
a kind of head ; when this is absent 
the vessel is an Awesia. JSeiefM 
may easily be distinguished among^ 
other dhows by their masts being 
upright ; in aU other dhows the masts 
incline forward. They belong to the 
coast of Arabia, especially that on the 
Indian Ocean, 

Dhow sail, duuxni. 

Prow, gubetL 

Poop, shetri. 

(Quarter galleries, mAlrtuntuWU. 

Joists of deck, darumeti. 

Chunamfor bottom, dehenL 

Place for stowing things Ukdyin 
be soon wanted, feulL 
Dialect, maneno, logha» 

Dialects and languages are usuaSy 
expressed by prefknng Id' totks 
name of thepkuseor people. 

Kiungiga (for Maneno ya Kin- 
nguja), the dialect of Zanzibar 

Kimvita, the dialect of Mambas 

Eiamu, the dialect of Lamo9 



Kignnya, ihe dUdeot of Siuti^ «f». 
Kiarabu, Arabic, 
Kigala, ihe GaUa language. 
Kimashamba, a country dialeet, 
Kifihenzi, the talk of some undvil- 

Kiungwana, a civilized language. 
KizuDgu, (he languages spoken by 
Diamond, almasL 
Diarrhcsaf tumbo la kuenenda. 
Diet, maBLkvli. 
Difference, tofauti, siyimoja. 
DiffieuUy, shidda, ugamu, mashaka. 
Dinner (mid-day), chakula cha 

Direction (bidding), fundisho, pi. 
mafnndisho, agizo, pi. maagizo. 

Diseascj marathi, nweli, ngo&jwo. 
Disfigurement, lemaa. 
Disgrace, Biha, ari, fetheha. 
Disgust, machukio. 
Dishf sahani, kombe, pt makombe, 
mknnga wa kulia, bungu, 
kitnnga, pL vitunga (the first 
is the usual word for European 
An earthen dish to bake cakes on, 
Disorder (confusion), ftyo. See 

Display, wonyesho. 
Disposal, Bmri. 

To put ai his disposal, kmnwamria. 
Dispuie, mashindano, tofauti. 
Disquiet, fathaa. 
Dissipation, asherati, washerati, 

Distortion (by disease), lemaa. 
Distress, shidda, thulli, uthia, msiba, 

District of a toum, mta, pi. mita. 
For the districts of Zanzibar see 
Part II., p. 330. 
Disturbance (riot), fitina» 

(trouble), kero. 
Ditch, haudaki, shimo, pi. mashimo. 
Divine service, ibada ya Muungu. 
Division (arithmetical), mkasama. 
Divorce, talaka. 
Dock for ships, gadi. 
Doctrine, elimu, ilm, mathhab. 
Document, khati. 
Dog, rnbwa. 

Very large, jibwa, pi. majibwa. 
Bize, a wild hunting dog. 
Mbwa wa koko, the houseless dogs 
outside 2kinzibar. 
Doll, mtoto wa bandia. 
Dollar, reale, rea. 
Spanish PiUar dollar, reale ya 

Black dollars, reale ya Sham. 
American 20'doUar piece, reale ya 

French silver, b-frano piece, reale 

ya kifransa. 
For the parts of a dollar see in the 
section on Adjectives under 
Numerals— fra^ions, p. 93, 
Dome, zege. 

Dominion, mamlaka, hukumu. 
Donkey, pimda. 
Donkey from the mainland, kio- 
ngwe, pi. viongwe. 
Door, mlango,j}Z. milango (vulgarly, 
mwango, pi. miango). 
Leaf of door, ubau, pL mbao. 
Centre piece, mfaa. 
Door-keeper, mgoja miango. 
Door chain, riza. 

Doorframe, top and bottom pieces, 
kizingiti, pi. viziDgiti 



Side pieces^ mwimo, miimo. 

Outer heading^ upapi. 
Dotagey mapiswa. 
Doubtf shaka, ph mashaka, tashwi- 

shi, waswas. 
Dove, hua. See Pigeon A Birds. 
Dowry , paid by the htu^n^ to the 

wife^s friends, mahari. 
Dragon-fly, kering'ende. 
Dragon's blood, maziwa (or maoho), 

ya watn wawili. 
Dream, ndoto. 
Dregs, chembe. 
Dress, ngao, mavazi, mavao, nvao. 

Slaves and very poor men wear 
generally an nguo only, that is, a 
loin cloth of white or blue calico. 
Women wear a kisuto, or long doth 
of blue, or printed, or coloured calico 
wrapped tightly round the body 
immediately under the arms, a/nd on 
the head an iikaya, a piece of Uue 
ealioo with two long ends ; it hajs a 
siring passing under the chin, to which 
a silver ornament, jebn, is attached. 

Well-dressed men wear a loin cloth 
with a coloured border, kikoi, a long 
shirt-like garment in white calico^ 
kanzii, a shawl, amazn, tujisted 
round the waist, a waistcoal, kisibao, 
and a long loose coat, joho. On their 
heads tliey wear a red or white skull- 
eap^ kofia, and twisted round it a 
turban, kilemba. Their feet are 
dipped into sandals^ viatu. 

Women wear trousers, soroali, a 
kanzu of coloured maierials and a 
kofia (cap) adorned with gold and 
spangles, or more commonly a silk 
handkerchief, doisamali, folded and 
fastened on the head so as to hide the 
hair. They also wear sometimes a 

kisibao (embroidered wai9tcoa£), and 
nearly always a mash, barakoa. 
When they go out they throw over all 
a large square of black siOc, lebwanL 
On their feet tliey carry wooden elogs 
held by a button (msomake) grouped 
between the toe». 
Dressing ofeaUeo^ donda 
DrtU, keke. The iron i» called 

kekee ; the wood it is fixed ^ 

mBTikano ; the handle in which U 

turns, jiyn ; and the bow, uta. 
Drink, kinwa (or kinywa), pL vinwai 

kinwaji, pL vinwaji. 
Drinker, mnywa, pi. wanywa 
Dripping (fat cooked out of «moQ^ 

nto wa nyama» 
Drop, tone, pi. matone, kitone, j;iI. 

Droppings (dung), mavL 
Dropsy, istiska. 

Drowsiness, leppe, leppe za tizingizi. 
Drum, ngoma. 
Ohapno, a small drum, 
Kumbwaya, a drum upon feel. 
Msondo, a very taU drum^ becUem 

on special occasions. 
The skin of a drum, or anything 

stretched like it very tightly, ki- 

wambo, ph viwambo. 
Drunkard, mlevi, pL walevi 
Duck, bata, pL mabata. 
Duryan, finessi la kizunga. 
Dust, Yumbi, pi, (much dust) ma- 

Dtut and sand on a roocZ, tifdtifti. 
Duties. See Chistoms. 
Duties qf one's position^ kiwango^ 

pi. viwango. 
Dwarf, kibeti, pi. vibetL 
Dwelling, makao, makazi, makaDi, 
Dye, rangi. ^masikani 



Mlcasiri, a tree whose hark is used 
to dye fiehing'-nets aand lines 
Ungamo, a yeUow dye used to dye 
Dysentery f tnmbo la knbaia damtL 


Eagerness ((MBoessive haste), pnpa. 
Eagle (?) koho, firkomba, tai, pn- 
BgOf Mpanga (aU these words 
9eem to denote some large hird of^ 
Ear, sikio, pi, maaikio. 

Hoie pierced in (he lower lobe of 

the ear, ndewe. 
Ear ornaments, a large round 
ornament in (he lower lobe, 
jaflsi, pL majassi 
• Ornaments in (he upper part of 
(he ear, if dangling, kipnli, ph 
▼ipoli ; if shaped Uke a stud, 
kipini, pL vipini. 
Earing, pete ya masikio. 
Ear of com, suke, pL masuke. 
See Bunch, Cob, 
Earnest money, arabuni, stakabathi. 
Ear(k, inohi, udongo. 

The eairOh, inohi, nlimwengn, 
EoMe, raha. [dohia. 

After pain, faraja. 
Ecut wind, maflaa. 
Salves, xnohilizi, pi. michib'zi. 
Eamesdropper, dukizi (pr duzi), pi, 
* madnkizL 
Ebony, mpingo. 
JSafto, mwangwi 
Edge (of a precipice), nkingo. 
(Of a piece of cloth), pindo, pi, 
Edging woven into a piece of eU>(h, 
ta T W-z ft » 

Effort, jnhndi, bidii. 

Effusion {of blood), vilio (la damn), 

pL mavilio. 
Egg, yayi, pi mayayi. 
White of egg, ute wa yayi, 
Yolh of an egg, kiini cha yayi. 
EggsheU, ganda la yayL 
Empty eggshell, kaka. 
Egypt, Misri, Masri, M^ssara. 
Elbow, kisigino, pi, yisigino, kiyi, 

pL vivL 
Elder, mzee, pi, wazee, sheki, pi, 

Elegance, jamala. 
Elephant, tembo, ndovu. 
Elephantiasis (leprosy), jethamu. 

{Barbadoes leg), teende. 
Embarrassment, matata, nthia, ma- 

Embroidery, almaria. 
(stitching), darizi. 
(piping), kigwe, pi, vigwe. 
Embroilment, matata. 
Emetic, tapisho, J7Z. matapisho, dawa 

la kutapika. 
Employment, kazi, utumwa. 
Emulation, bidii. 
Encampment (of a caravan), kitno, 

pi, vituo. 
Enclosure, uanja, na, pi, nyua. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 
cocoa^^ut leaves, ua wa ma- 
Enclosure made by a fence of 

mtama stalks, na wa mabna. 
Enclosure vrith a stone fence, 
kitaln, pi, vitaln. 
End, mwisho, ph miisho (finishing), 
hatima, kikomo, pL vikomo 
(leaving off), 
of a journey, kifiko, ^Z. vifika 
of a piece of cloth, mialamu. 




End or corners of a turban cloth, &c,, 

tamvua, kishungi, pi, vifihungi. 
Enemy ^ adui, pi, adui or maadui. 
Enfjagement, shughuli, utumwa. 
Enigma, kitendawili, pL yitenda- 

Enmity^ wadui, adawa, khusuma. 
EntraiUt matumbo. 
Entrance, kuingia, pakuingilia, 

Envy, hasidi, kijicho, Mjito (M.). 
Epilepsy, kifafa. 
Equal {in o^e), hirimu, marika. 
Equivalent, badala. 
Error, kosa, makosa. 
Eructation, kiungulia,|)Z. yiungulia. 
Escape, wokovu, kuokoka. 

(other course), buddi. 
Esteem, mapendo, maafikano. 
Estimate, maafikano. 
Eternity, milele. 
EuntKh, tawashi, maksai. 
Euphorbia, mtupa, pi, mitupa. 
Europe, Ulaya, Wilaya, Uzungu. 
European {or any one wearing a 

European dress), Mzungu, pi, 

Eve, Hawa. 
Evening, jioni. 
Event {startling), shani. 
Evil, uovu. 

Exaltation, ntukufd, athama. 
Example, mfiEino, pi. mifano. 
Excrement, mavi. 
Expense, gharama. 
Extinguisher, mzima (a person), pi. 

wazima, kizima (a thing), pi. 

Eye, jicho, pi, maoho, jito (M.), pi, 

Loss of an eye, chongo. 
Eyebrow, nynshi, nshi (A.). 

Eyelash or Eyelid, kope. 
A stye in the eye, obocliea. 


Fable, ngano. 
Fa^ie, uso, pi. nyuso. 
Fasces, mavL 
Faggot, tita, pL matita- 
Fa4£h, imani. 
Fall, maanguko. 
Falsehood, nwongo. 
Familiarity, mazoezo. 
Family, jamaa, ndugu. 
Famine, njaa, ndaa QIL), 
Fan, upepeo pi, pepeo, pepeo^ pL 
mapepeo, kipepeo, pL yipepeo. 
Fare, naiili. 
Fast, foDga. 

Fasting month, KamatbanL 
Fatf, shahamu, mafuta. 

A piece of fai, Mpande kilioho- 

FaJt cooked out of meat^ nto wa 
Fate, ajali. 
Father, baba. 

In speaking of one*8 oum falSk» U 
is polite to call him bwana. 

Stepfather, baba wa kambo. 

Father-in-law, mkwe. pi, wakwit* 
Fathom, pima, pi, mapima. 
Fatigue, ntnf u, tdegevii. 
Failing, kinono, pi. vinono. 
FauU, hatlya, kosa, pi, makosa. 
Favour, upendeleo. 

A favour, fathili. 
Favourite, kipendi, pi, yipendi» 

mpenzi, pi, wapenzi. 
Fear, khofu, uoga, kitisho, pL 

yitisbo, kioho, pi, yioho. 
Feast, karamu. 

Feast day, siku kuu. 



Feaiher, tinyoa, pL nyoa, nyoa (or 
nyoya), pi, manyoya. 
A wing fecdher^ iibawa, j9Z. mbawa. 

Feeder^ ndishi, pi. walishi. 

FtUow-servaxd, mjoli, piL wajolL 

FencCy ua, pL nyna. 
Stone fence, kitala, pL yitaln. 

Fenugreek, watu. 

Ferry y Myiiko, pL yiynko. 

Fetter», pingu. 

Fever, homa. 
Swelling of the glands of the groin 

foUoioed hy fever, mtoki. 
Dengue fever, kidinga popo. 

INM, kooDde, pL makoonde, mgu- 
nda (Yao). 

Field labourer, mkulima, ph waku- 

JPtereenew, nkalL 


Fig4ree, mtini, pit. mitinL 

Fight, mapigano. 

Figure of speech, m&no wa maneno. 

Filagree work, temsL 


Fillet, ntepe, pi, tepe. 

FiUh, nohavTi, janaba. 

Fin^ peai, piL mapezi. 

JNnefor a murder, dia. 

Fineness, xami. 

Finger, kidole, pi, vidole, kidole cha 
mkono, chanda (hi.), pi, vyanda. 

Fire, moto, pi, mioto. 
Pieces of wood to get fire by twist- 
ing, npekecho. 
Fir&ujood, koni, one piece, nkuni. 
A haXfAmrat piece of firewood^ 

kinga, pi, yinga. 
The act of pushing the wood further 
into the fire, or an instrwrnentfor 
doing «>,kickocheo,kitot6o (M.)* 

Vireptaee, jiko, pL meko, meko, 

pi. mieko, hence hiteheri, jikoni, 
Three stones to set a pot over the 
fire upon, jifya, pi. mafya, figu, 
pL mafiga. Jify^ is the word 
most used in the town, figa that 
used in the country. 
Firefly, kimurimuri, pi. vimurimurl, 

kimetimeti, pi. vimetimeti. 
FirmaTnent, anga (?). 
Firmness, uslmeme, n^biti, (in 

building) mtomo. 
Fish, samaki. 
Dagaa, very smciU, small fry, 
Njombo, barred with black and 

Taa, a very large flat fish, 
Pono, a fish said to be nearly 

always asleep. 
Other kinds, Chafi, Ohangn, 
Ohewa, Eiingu, Mchambulara, 
Mkizo, Mwewe, Mzia, Nguni, 
Nguva, Panzi, Pungu. TJui 
varieties of fish are exceedingly 
Ohinusi, a kind of fish or eoil 
spirit never seen, but wMch is 
supposed to seize men and held 
them under water until they are 
Fish4rap, dema, lema, cma. 
Fish poison from a species of 
Euphorbia, utnpa. 
Fisherman, mvuvi, pi, wayuvL 
Fist, konde, pL makonde. 
Fits, kifafa. 
Flag, bandera. 
Flat (of a sword, &e,\ bapa. 
Flatterer, msifu, pi, wasifu, msifu- 
Self'flatterer, mwajisifani 
Flattery, kosifii. 



Flavour^ luththa, tamu. 

FluXy katani, kitani 

FUa^ kiroboto, pL viroIx>to. 

Flesh, nyama. 

FleBk%nes8, mnof a. 

Flint gun, bnndnki ya gamegnme. 

Flood, glmrika. 

Floor, chini. 

Chunammed floor, sakafa. 

Upper floor or roof, deri. 
Flower, vol, pi, maua. 
Flue, viimbi, pt (much) mavumbi. 

A flue, dohaan. 
Flute, filimbi, pi, mafilimbi 
Fly, inzi, piL mainzi 
Foam, povo. 

Fog, umande, kimgn, shemaU. 
Fold (of cloth), upindo. 

Cattle-fold, zizi, pL mazizi. 
Foliage, majani. 

Follower, mfaasi, pi, wafuasi, cho- 
kora, pi, machokora (a hanger- 
Folly, npmnbaf a. 
Fondness, mahaba. 
Food, chakula, makuli (Ar.)» kande 

Food saved from an evening meal 

to he eaten in the morning, wall 

"wa mwikuu, bariyo (A.). 
Bokoboko, a dish made of wheal 

and meat 
Bumbwi, rice flour pounded up 

toiih cocoornut, 
Pilao, an Indian ptUaw. 
Fool, mpumbafa, pi, wapumbafn. 
Foot, rnguu, pi, miguu, gan, pi, 

maguu, xujiguu, ph mijigau 

(large), kijiguu, pi vijiguu 

Footprint, uayo, pi nyayo. 

Footing — to make him pay his foci* 

ing, knmshika hakali* 
Forbidden thing, haramu, marafakn. 
Force, ngavn. 
Ford, kivuko, jjL vivuko. 
Forehead, paji la nso. 

Brow, kikomo oha nso» 
Foreigner, mgeni, pi wageni, mja 

na maji, pL waja na maji (from 

over seas). 
Forelock, panja. 
Foreskin, govi mbo. 
Forest, mwitu, rnsitn. 
Fork, kiuma, pH yiuma. 
Forking of a road, tree, Ac, pandA. 
Form (outujard shape), umbo, pL 

Fort, gereza, ngome, hnsniu. 
Fortune, bahati, nasibu. 
Fortune-teller(by means of diagrams), 

mpiga rami], pL waplga lamU. 
Foster brother or sister, ndaga 

Foundation, msingi or msinji, pL 

Fowls, k'uka. 
Fox, mbweha. 

Fraud, hadaa, madanganya. 
Freedom (from, slavery) horn, (pet* 

mission) niksa, rahusa. 
Freight, nauli. 
Friday, Jmnaa. 
Friend, ia£ki,pl, lafiki or marafiki, 

sahibu, pi as'habu, Bhog» 

(amongst vjomen, and in Zanii' 

bar only. See Oatamite), 
Fright, khofa, woga. 

(a start), kituko. 
Fringe, matamvna. 
Frog, chula, pi yynla. 
Fruit, tunda, pi, matunda, no, pL 




ITangn, pL mabnngu, aboui the 
9ize of a mecKor, teith a thick 
russet skin. 
If azu, a kind of hantmcL 
Zambarau, like a large damson, 
Chokoohoko, a red 'prieKly skin^ 
a large kernel, and white pulp. 
Kniiazi, something like a sloe. 
Kitoria, pt vitoria. — ^Koma, pL 
makoma. — - Fun, piL mafha. 
— Mtofaa. 
JFruU which drops premaiurely, 

pooza, piL, mapooza. 
Fruit'StaXk, (of cloves') kikonyo, 
pL vikonyo, (of bananeu) mku- 
nga, pL miknngu. 
Frying-pan^ (metal) tawa, pL 
matawa, (earthen) kaango, pL 
Fugitive J mkimbizi^ pL wakimbizL 
Fume, azma, fukizo. 
J^un, mohezo» mzaha. 
funeral, kuzikani. 
Furnace (for melting metoZ), kalibu. 
Fwmiture, pambo la nyumba, 


Oain, &yida. 

4iaU, mwendo. 

•Oalago, komba. 

GdUbawfrn, ubanL 

(xoU, saf ara. 

-OaUa, Mgala, pi. Wagala. 

iSame, (produce of hunting) mawi- 

ndo, (amusement) mchezo, ma- 

^ao, played on a hoard with thirty- 

two-hole^ in it, 
JdMliyandimu, a game in which 

one holds daum his head, some 

.(»iher knocks it, and he guesses 

m)h» struck him. 

Tiabu, played by throwing up 
sticks, &o., and watching thair 
Dama, played on a board like 

Tasa, a game of touch. 
Tmge,a game consisting in foUow- 
ing the movements of a leader. 

Garden, bustani, sbamba. 

Gate, mlango, pL mllango. 
(xote of Paradise, kilango cba 

Gazelle, paa. 

General, jemadari, pi. majemadaii. 

Generation, kizazi, pi yizazi. 

(xenerosity, ukarimu. 

Genius, Jini, pi, Majini. 

G'en^^emanyinngwana, j}Z. wangwana. 

GenUeness, upole. 

Creorgian woman, Jorjiya. 

Gettings, pato, pi mapato. 

Ghee, samli. 

Ghost, kivuli, pH vivulL 

Ghoul, zimwi, pi mazimwi 

Giddiness, masua, mbasua, kizu- 

Gift, zawadi (a keepsake), tunu (a 
choice thing), bashishi (largess), 
ada ((Customary gift), kilemba 
(gift on the completion of a work 
or to the bride* s father), wapo. 

Ginger, tangawizL 

Giraffe, twiga. 

Girder, mbimili, j^Z. mihimilL 

Girdle, mshipi, pi mishipi, masombo 
(of cloth), maazamu (a shawl), 
kibobwe, pi vibobwe (a piece 
of cloth tied round tJic body 
during hard work). 

Girl, kijana, pi vijano. 
Slave girl, kijakazi, pi, vijakaar'^ 

Girth, kivimba. < 



Gizzardf firigisi. 
GladTiess, furaba. 
Glance^ natliiri. 
Glare, anga. 
Glass, kioo. 

Looking-glasSf kioo, pi, vioa 

Drinhing- glass, bilaun. 
Glitter, kimeta. 
Ghry, Bifa, fakhari, utukufa. 
Glue (or gum), embwe. 
Glutton, mlafi, pL walafi. 
Goat, mbuzi. 

A strong he-goat, bebera (Ar.)* 
Gorbettoeen, kijumbe, pi, vijumbe. 
GOD, MUUNGU,|)r. miungu. 
Goitre, tezi. 
Gold, thahabu. 
Goldsmith, mfua tbahabn, pi, wafua 

Good luck, ghanima, jaha. 
Goodness, wema. 

Goods, mail {possessions), yyombo 

(yJtensils), bithaa {merchandise). 

Gooscy bata la Bukmi, pi, mabata 

ya fiukini. 
Gonorrhoea, kisimono. 
Gourd, See Pumpkin, 
Gout^ jongo. 

Governor, wall, liwali, pi, maliwali. 
Government, serkali, daulatL 

An official, mtu wa serkalL 
Grain. See Com, 

Cleaned grain, mchele. 

Cooked grain, wall. 

Grains of com, punje, ohembe. 
Grandchild, mjukuu, pi, wajukun. 

GreaUgrandchild, kijukuu, pi, 
vijukuu, kitukun, pi, yitukuu, 
kiiembwe, piL vilembwe. 

pi, viningina. 
Grandfather, babiL 

Grandmother, bibL 

Greai-grandmother, mzaa biU. 
Grammar, s^of. 
Grapes, zabibu. 
Gratitude, shukrani. 
Grass, nyasi, majani, nyika. 

grass cut for fodder, ukoka. 
Grasshopper, panzi, pi, mapaDzL 
Grave, kaburi, pL makaburi. 

In ihe gravCf after deaih, ahera, 
Chreatness, ukubwa, uknu, ntnkufu. 
Greediness, choyo, roho, tamaa. 
Grey hairs, mvi. 
Gridiron, uma wa kuokea nyama» 

pi, njTuma za kuokea nyaina. 
Grief, sikitiko, kasarani, msiba» 
huzani, hamu, simanzL 

{for a loss), majonzi. 
Grime {on a pot), masizL 
Grit {small stones), changaiawL 
Groom, mcUimga, pi, wadhunga» 

mtunga (M.)» pi' watunga. 
Ground, chini, inchL 
Ground nuis, mjugu nyasa, (a hard 

round kind) mjugu mawe. 
Chrudging person, hiana. 
Ghruel, uji 

Cruard, mlinzi, pi, walinzL 
Cruava, mpera, pi. mapera. 

Guava-tree, mpera, pL mipezfti 
Guest, mgeni, pi, wageui 
Guide, rubani, kiongozi, pZ. yiongozi, 

mkuu genzL 
GhUtar, kinanda, piL yinan<^a 
Guinea fowl, kanga. 

(a crested kind), kororo. 
(jum {birdlime, &c.), ulimbo. 

(xum {of the teeth), u6zi, piL fizi. 

Gum Arabic, haba, sumugh. 

Gum Amini or Copal, aandarosL 
Gun, bundukL 



^ifU gtmjhimduki ya gumegume. 

Oun4>arrel, kasiba. 

Nipple^ kifa, pL vifa. 

Gun-^ap, fataki. 

Chh'loeky mtambo, pi. mitambo. 

(cannon), mzinga, pL mizinga. 

Chm-^arridgef gunidumo la 
Ounpowder, baruti. 
Ofd, tumbo, pL matmnbo. 


H. The guttural Arable h, ba ngoe. 
The softer Arabic h, he indawari. 
HabitSt mazoezo, inathehebu. 
StemorrhoidSf bawasir. 
Ha/t, mpini, pL mipini, kipini, pi, 

Hair, nyele (or nwele), <in^. unyele. 
(of the heard), ndevu, sing, udevu. 
(of (he body, especially of the 

pubes), mavuzi, sing, vuzi. 
(af the eyebrow), nyushi, sing. 

(of the eyelash), kope, sing, iikope. 
(of the hand and arm), malaiko, 

ting, laika. 
(of an animal), singa. 
Straight hair, oyele za singa. 
WooUy hair, nyele za Mpilipili. 
Bnlf^ nnso. 

A haHf orange, coeoa'nut,&c.^zio, 
pi, vizio. 
Halyards^ henza. 

Ritpes passing through the pulley 
of the halyards, jarari. 
Hammer, nytuido. 
Hand {or arm and hand), mkono, 
pZ. mikono. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cba 
mkono, piL vitanga yya mikono. 
Front of the hand, kofi, pL makofi. 

Inside of the fingers, kikofi, pi, 
Handful {that vnU lie on the hand), 
nkufi, pi. kufi. 
(that which wiU lie on the two 

hands), chopa, pi, macbopa. 
(that can be grasped in the hand), 
konzi, pi, makonzi. 
Handkerchief, leso. 
Pocket handkerchief, leso ya ku- 
futia kamasi. 
Handle {lilte a knife-handle), mpini, 
pi. mipini, kipini, pi. vipini. 
(projecting like that of a sauce- 
pan), kono, mkono, pi, mJsono. 
(bowed like that of a bucket), 
ntambo, pi, tambo. 
Handwriting, khati, mwandiko. 
Hanger-on, chokora, pL machokora. 
Happiness, furaba, fiirabani, raba. 
Harbour, bandari, bundari. 
Hardness, ugumu. 
Hare, See Rabbit, 
Harm, matbara. 
Harness, matandiko. 
Harp, kinubi, pi. vinubi. 
Harpoon, chusa, pi, vyud:i. 
Harvest, mavuno. 
Haste, baraka, hima. 
Hat, cbapeo. 

Hatchet, Idshoka, pi. vishoka, kitoka 
(M.), pL vitoka, upi*nba, pi, 
Haired, machukio, buotha. 
Hawk, mwewe. 
Hawlcer, daluli. 

Head, kitwa (or kichwa), pL 
A little head, kijitwa, pi. vijitwsw 
Head of a ship, omo. 
Head winds, pepo za omo. 
Head cloth worn by tvomen, nkaja 



(of blue calico), dusamali (of 

Headship, ujumbe. 
Healing Uiings, mapoza. 
Health, uzima, afia, hali (state), 
Heapf funga, pL mafungu, 

of stones, boma, ph maboma. 
of wood and sticks, biwi, pi. 

mabiwi, kichaka, pi, vichaka. 
of earth, kisugulu, pL visugulu. 
(a raised bed), tuta, pi, matuta. 
HeaHy moyo, pil, mioyo, or nyoyo, 

mtima, pi, mitima. 
Heat, moto, bar! (sweat), harara 

(prickly heat). 
Heaven, mbinga, sing, nwinga, 

samawati (Ar.). 
Heaviness {weight), uzito. 

(sorrow), bamu. 
Hedge, ua, pi, nyua. 
Hedge made in the sea for taking 

fish, uzio, pi, nyuzio. 
Heel, kifundo (or kisigino) cba 

Heifer, mtamba, pi, mitamba. 
Heir, miiihi, pL wari^i. 
Help, msaada. 
Hem, upindo. 

Hemp, See Cannabis Indica, 
Hempen rope, kamba ulayiti 
Hen, k'uku. 
Laying hen, koo, pi. makoo. 
Hen, fvXL grown^ but ttuu has not 

yet laid, t'embe. 
Henna, bina. 

Herd, kundi, pi, makundi. 
Herdsman, mcbunga, pi. wachunga, 

mtunga (M.), pL watimga. 
jJero, shujaa, pi, masbujaa, fahali, 

pi. mafahali. 
Heroism^ ushigaa. 

Hesitation, msangao. 
(in speaking), kubabaika. 

Hickup, kwikwe. 

Hidden thing, f umbo, pi, maf umba 

Hide, ngozi. 

Hill, kilima, pi, vilima. 
A rocky hillj jabali, pH, mtiga- 

HiU, kipini, pL vipini. 

Hindrance, kiznizo, kiznio, klzuizi. 
It is said that Dr. Krapf, being 
on one occasion delayed from 
day to day, in obedience to 
superior orders, said to those 
who delayed him: — ^Keeho na 
kesho ni madanganya, ao ni 
makatazanya. ^ To-morram 
and to-morrow is deceiving or 
forbidding ;" to which they r». 
plied: — Si madanganya wala 
si makatazanya, ni mazuiza- 
nya. ** It is not deceiving, and 
it is not forbidding, it is delaif 

Hinge, patta, bawaba. 

Hip, nyonga (?), tokono (A.). 

Hippopotamus, kiboko, pi, Tiboko, 

Hire, taja, ijara, njira. 

History, badithi. 

Hoarseness, kupwewa na eauiL 

Hoe, jembe (or gembe), pL Bm> 

Hoeing-up time, mapalilo. 

Hold (of a ship), ngama. 

Hole, tundu, pi, matundu. 
(through anything), kipenyo, pL 

(dibbled for seeds or plants), ko- 

rongo, pi, makoiongo. 
Hole to give light and air^ mm^ 
ngaza, ph miangaza. 



H6U in Vie lower lo&e o/ the ear, 
Hcilinessy utakatifd, matakatifti. 
Hollow (of a tree)f mvungii. 
HoUoioness, nvnrunga. 
Homej kwangu, kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kwenu, kwao, according 
to (he person whose home it is. 
1 have some at homey iko kwangn. 
Honey y asali ya nynkL 
Honour, heshima, ukarimu, ntn- 

Hoof^ ukwato, pL kwato, kwata. 
Hook (fish-hook), doana^ 
(fued to steady work with), 
Hope, matmnami. 
Hordeolum, cliokea. 
Horn, pembe, pi, pembe or ma- 
An antelopes horn used as a 
trumpet, baragomu. See 
Musical Instruments, 
Horse, farasi, firas. 
Hoet (army or multitude), jeshi, pi, 
Host (entertainer), mwenyeji, pi. 
HosttUty, wadBi, adawa. 
House, nymnba. 
(large), jumba, pi, majumba. 
{gmaU), kijumba, pL vijumba. 
Household tf slaves, kijoll 
Hum, maynmL 
Humility, nnenyekeo. 
Hump (of an ox), nundn. 

{of a humpbaek), kigongo. 
Hunger, njaa, ndaa (M.). 
Hundred, mia. 

Two hundred, miteen. 
HunieTf mwinda, pi, wawinda. 

Hurry, baraka. 

Husband, mume, pi. waume. 

Huskf ganda, pi. maganda. 
Husk and bran of rice, kumyL 
Husk of the cocoa-nut, makumbi. 

Hut, kibanda, pi. vibanda. 

Hyxna, fisi, pisi. 
Spotted hyxna, kingubwa. 

Hydrocele, xnshipa, pumbo, kito- 

EypocritCf mnafiki, pi. wanafiki. 

Ibo, Wibo. 

Idiot, bayawani. 

Idleness, uvivu. 

Idolater, kafiri. pi. makafiii. 

Ignorance, ujinga. 

Image, sanamu. * 

Imperial, See Beard. 

Imprecation, apizo, pi. maapizo. 

Imprisonment, kifango. 

Incense, buhuri, ubani, uyumbay 

undi. See Censer, 
Income, pato. 
Independence, upweke. 
Indian (heathen), Banyani, pi. Ma- 

Indian {Mahommedan)^ Mubindi, 

pi. Wahindi. 
Indian rubber, mpira. 
Indian com, muhindi. See Maize. 
Infection, kuambukiza. 
Infidel, kafiri, pi. makafiri. 
Infirmity, utbaifu. 
Information, babari. 
Ingenuity, uyuzi, umabeU. 
Inheritance, uri^i. 
Inheritor, mri^i, ph vf(\xithu 
Ink, wino. 

Inkstand, kidau cba wino. 
Inlaid woirk, njumu. 



Innovation, mzuzi, pi. mizuzl. 
Innovator J mzushi, pi, wazushL 
Insect, mdudii, pi. wadudu. 

Paange, gadfly. 

Manyiga, hornet. 

Dudu yule, a boring hornet 

Buuzi, pi. mabunzi, a stinging 


Vunja jungo, a mantis. 
Boroshoa, a long-shaped lilaclt 

insect found in dust-heaps. 
Insolence (self'Sufficiency), kinaya. 
Instruction, mafundisho. 
Instruments (nautical), vipande vya 

Insult, tukauo, pi. matnkano. 
Intellect, akili {generally treated as 

a plural noun of Class III.). 
Intention^ nia, kasidL 
Interpretation, tafsirL 
Interpreter, mkalimani, pi. wakali- 

mani, posoro. 
Intestines, matumbo. 

Small intestines, chango. 
Interruption, kizuizo, pi. viznizo. 
Intoxicating thing, kileo, pi. vileo. 
Intoxication, Mleo, kulewa. 
Intruder, kizushl, pi. vizushi, fisadi 

{one who enters a house unthout 

lawful purpose). 
Invalid, mgoDJwa,|>Z. wagonjwa. 
Iron, chuma. 

A piece of iron, chnma, pi. vymna. 
Iron bar, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
Island, kisiwa, pi. vi&iwa. 
Itch, upele, pele. 
Itching, mnyeo. 
Ivory, pembe. 
a large tush, buri 


^achal, mbwa wa mwitu. 

Jachfruit, fines!, pi. mafinesl 

Jackfruit tree, mfinesi, pi. mi- 
Jar (for carrying traier), mtungi» 
pi. mitungi. 

Jar (large), kasiki 
Jasmine, jasmini. 
Jaw, taya. 
Jealousy, uwivu. 

Jealous anger, gbeirL 

To we&p for jealousy, kulia ngoa. 
Jewel, joharL 
Jin, jini, pi. majini. 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Joint, kiungo, pi. yinngo. 

(in a cane), fundo, pi. mafando. 

(piece between two joint* in a 
car^), pingili. 
Joist, boritL 
Joke, ubishi 
Journey, safieiri, mwendo. 

Two day^ journey, mwendo wa 
siku mfailL 
Joy, furaha. 

Judge, kathi, pi. makathi, mwn- 
muzi, pi. waamnzi, mwamua, 
pi, waamna. 
Judgment, hnkiimn, maamuzL 
Jug, kopo, pi, makopo. 
Juice, maji. 
Justice, hakL 

Ktel, mkukn, utako (Mer.). 
Kernel, kisa, ph visa. 
Kettle, kanderinya. 
Key, ufanguo, pi. fungua 
Kick, teke, pi. mateke. 
Kidney, nso, figo (M.). 
Kind, namna, ginsi, aina. 
Kind, sort or style is expre$sed hf 
ki. prefixed to the piaee, Uiingf 



or people, Eihindi, the Indian 

tort, Eizungu, the European 

Yiata vya Kihindi, ehoea like 

those worn by the Indians. 
Viazi vya Eizunga, aweet potatoes 

oftheEuropean sort^ie. potatoes. 
Mavazi ya kifaume, robes of the 

kingly sorty royal robes. 
KirtdnesSy wema. 

Every kindness^ killa jambo la 

A hirtdness, fathili. 
Kindred, ndugu, jamaa. 
XJtani, the belonging to a kindred 

Mtani, pi. watani, a person of^a 

kindred race. 
King, mfalme, pt wafalme, inalki, 

Chess king, ehsAi, 
Kingdom, tifalme, nfaliune, ufaiime, 

milki» mulkL 
Kinsman, ndugn, jamaa. See 



Kitchen, jikoni, mekoni 
Kite ijbird), mwewe. 

(fo2(), tiara. 
Knee, gote, pi. magote, ondo, pi. 

maondo (A.). 
Knife, kisu, pi. Yiso. 

{large), jisu, pi. majisu. 

Kotama, a curved knife used in 
getting palm toine. 

Sbembea, a kind of curved knife. 
Knight (chess), firasL 
Knot, fundo, pL mafmido. 
Knoufingness, ujuvi, ujuzi, wereyu. 
Knowledge, maarifa, elimu, hekima. 
Koran, korani, farakanu, msahafu. 
It is divided into thirty juzuu, 

which together make a khitima 

Labour, kazL 
Labour pains, utungo. 

Lae (100,000), lakki. 

Ladder, ngazi 

Ladle made out of a eooooHnuJt, kata, 
pi. makata {deep, used to dip 
up water with); upawa, pi. 
pawa {shallow, used for gravy, 
curry, &c.). 

Lady, bibi, mwana mke wa kiu*^ 
Lady of the house, mwana. 
Ladylove, mcbumba. 

Lake, ziwa la maji, pi. maziwa. 

Lamoo, Amu. 

Lamp, taa. 
Lampstand, a piece of wood with 
two flat piece» projecting at 
right angles on which tfye lamp 
is placed, mwango, pL miango. 
Lampwick, utambi. pi. tambi. 

Land, incbi, nti (M.). 

Landing-place, diko, pL madiko, 
liko, pi. maliko. 

Langtuige, Ingha, maneno., The 
langtuige of a place or nation 
is expressed hy the use of the 
prefix ki-. Maneno ya Eliu- 
nguja or Kiunguja,^6 langtuig( 
of Zanzibar. Kinyamwezi, the 
language of the Nyamwezi 
tribe. See Dialect, 
Filthy and insuUirig language, 

Languor, utepetevo. 

Lantern, fauusi, kandili, pL ma^ 

Lappet, kisbung], pi. yisbungL 

E 2 



Largess, takarima, bashishi. 

LcUhe, keezo. 

Laugh, cheko,|7L maoheko, kicheko, 

pL yioheko. 
Law, sheria, hukmnii. 
Lead, riaasi, rusasL 

(Jor sounding), bildL 
Leader, kiongozi, pi, yiongozi. 
Leaf {of a tree), jani, pL majani 
(of a eocoornut tree), knti, pi. 

Leaf (of a hooJc), ukurasa, pi. 
Lean-to, kipenu, pL vipenu. 
Learning, elimu. 
A man of learning, mwana wa 
Leather, ngozi, ngovL 
Leave, ruksa, ruhusa. 

To take leave, kuaga. 
Leaven, chachu, hamira. 
Lee side, upande wa chinL 
Leech, mraba, pi. mimba, mdudu 

afyonzaye damn. 
Lefthandedness, shoto. 
Leg (or foot), mguu, pL migau. 
(of a native bedstead), tendega, 

pi. matendegu. 
Loss of the use of the legs, kitewe, 
Leg ring. See Atilclet. 
Legend, badithi. 
Leisure (private time), feraglia, 

Lemon, limao, piL malimao. 
Length, urefu. 
Leopard, cbui, tui (M.)* 
Leprosy, ukoma, balanga^ jethamu, 

Letter, waraka, pL nyarakai barua, 
Letter (of the alphabet), hcrofu. 

I Lever^ mvukuto, pi. mivnkuto 
Liar, mwongo, pU wawonga 
Liberality, ukarimu. 
Licentiousness, washerati. 
Licorice, ens. 
Lid, kifimiko,|){. vifuniko, kibia, pk 

vibia, mkmiga wa kufunikia. 
Lie, wongo, uwongo. 
Life, uzima (JieaUh), maisha (oon- 

tinuance), roho (soul). 
Light, nura, weupe, mwanga, piL 

xnianga, anga, pi. maanga 

Lighthole, mwangaza, pL mia- 

Lights (of an animal), yayayavn. 
Lightning, umeme. 
Like (similar thing), kifani, pi 

Likeness, mfano, pi. mifaiio, ki&no 

pi. vifano, sanamu, sura. 
Lime, obokaa. 
Lime (fruit), dima. 
Sweet Ume, dimu tamn. 
Limit, mpaka, pL mipaka (boun» 

dary), kinga (plock), npoo 

(what cannot be surpassed). 
Line, mstari, pL mistari (drawn), 

safu (row), ugwe (cord\ shairi 

{line of verse). 
Linen, kitani. 
Lining of a kauzu round the throat, 

Lion, simba. 

Lip, mdomo, mlomo, or mwomo, pi. 

midomo, milomo, or miomo. 
Lip-ring, ndonya. 
Liquid, maji, kioweya. 
Lisp, kitembe. 
Litter (carried by four mem\ 

Little pieces, vidogo, sing, kidogo 



iAvety ini, pL maini 
lAzard^ mjud, j^L wajusL 
Large vsaier lizard^ kenge. 
Kinds of lizards^ mgurugurn, pL 

wagiirugnra — gorong'ondwfr— 

kinma mbnzi^nijiimbakaka — 

Load, mzigo, pL mizigo. 
hoaf^ mkate, pL mikate. 
Loan^ maazimo, karatha. 
Lock^ kitasa, pL vitasa Q>ox loch), 

komeo or gomeo (a native 

wooden lock), kufoli, pL maku- 

ftili {pcuUocJc). 
Loouttj mzige, pi. wazige, nzige. 
I^> gogo, pi magogo. 

(nautical), batli. 
Loin cloth, nguo, doti, kikoi, pi, 

vikoi (wi^ a striped horder). 
Loins, kiimo, pi. viuno. 
Longing, uchii, tamaa, hawa. 
Look, nathari. 

Looking-glass, Moo, pi. vioo. 
Loop, kitanzi, pi, vitanzi. 
Loops to haul up a hoot hy, 

Lonse, ohawa, tawa. 
Love, Bhanko, mapenzi, habba, 

mababQ, pendo, mapenda 
Luek, bahati, nasibn. 

Messenger of tU luck, korofi. 
Lukewarmness, uynguvagiu 
Lufnibriei, chango. 
Lump, fungo, pL mafongo, fdxnba, 

pL mafdmba. 
Lump {as in flour), kidonge, pi, 

yidonge, Yiimbn, pi, mayiimba. 
Lump (of meat), chinyango. 
Lunacy, kichaa, soda. 
Lufiatio, mwenyi kiohaa. 

Lungs, pafo, pumn, yaynyava (of 

an animal). 
Lust, bawa. 


Mace (spice), basbasL 

Machine, samani, mtambo, pi, xni- 

Madagascar, Buki, Bukini. 
Madness, wazimo, mahoka (oonntry 

Magadoxa, Mkuobyo. 
Magic, ucbawi (black magic), 

uganga (white ma^ic). 
Maggot (funza). 
Magnesia (sulphaie of), obumvi ya 

Maiden, mwana mwali 
Maize (plant), muhindL 
half-grown, matindi. 
(com), mahindi 
(com cob), gimzi, pi. magnnzL 
(young cob), ngara. 
(parched com), mbisL 
Majesty, enzi, ezi. 
Malice, uovu. 

Man (person), mtu, pi. watu. 
(male), mwanamume, pL waa<* 

(human being), mwana Adamu, 

bin Adamn (Ar.). 
A very large man, jitu, pi. majitn. 
A youhg man whose heard is 
beginning to appear, myulana, 
pi. wavulana. 
Man of the world, mtu mwerevu. 
Mango, embe, embe (M.)» pL ma- 
embe. Embe za dodo, large 
Mango-tree, mwembe, j^Z. miembe. 
Mangouste, mohiro, pi. wachira 
Mangrove, mkoko, pi. mikoko. 



Manner, f^sL 

An elegant %nanner, madaha. 
Manners, desturi, matliehebu. 

Good manners, adabu, tasfidsi. 
Mantis, yunja jungo. 
Manure, samadL 
Manuscript, mwandiko, pi. mia- 

Marie, alama. 
Maries made by dragging anything 

along, mkokoto, pi, mikokoto. 
Tribal m^rk, neiQba. See Spot, 
Market, soko, pt, masoko. 
Marriage, ndoa, mikaha. 
(the ceremony), harusi 
(intermarriage), knoana. 
Marrow, bongo. 
Martyr, shahidi, pi. mashahidi 
Mask, barakoa. 
Mason, mwashi, pi. waashi. 

Mason^s trowel, mwiko, pi. miiko. 
Mass, the mass of, jamii ya. 
Mast, mlingote, pi. milingote, 
mgote, pi. migote. 
Small mizen-mast, mlingote wa 
kalmi or galmi 
Master {of a house, or of slaves'), 
Master (of a school), mwalimu, pi. 

Master's son, bwana mdogo. 
Master workman, fundi. 
One's otcn master, 'mweza mwe- 
Mat (coarse matting), jamvi, pL 
Sleeping mat, mkeka, pi. mikeka. 
Sleeping mat made like a hag with 

one side open, fumba. 
Ovai prayer mat, musala, pL mi- 

Bound mat on which food is laid 

out, kitanga, piL vitanga. 
Strips of palm leaf for plaiHng 

fine mats, myaa, pL miyaa. 
Strips of palm leaf for plaiHng 
coarse male, mwaa, pL miwaa. 
Narrow strips ready to he sewn 
together to make coarse mat^ 
shupatn, pL mashupatn. 
Strips for making fine matSf 

ukiri, pt kin. 
TJie thick edge of stripe of 

matting, ng'ong'o. 
Busati, a sort of matting brought 
from Muscat, 
Matchmaker, kijumbe, pL vijmnbeL 
Matches, viberiti. 
Matter (pus), nsaha. 
A matter, jambo, jawabo. 
What is the matter f Ktmanini? 
What is the matter with youf 
Mattress, godoro, pi. magodoro. 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
Meal (food), chakula. 
First meal after a fast, fhtari. 
Meal (flour), imga. 
Meaning, maana. 
Meanness, unyongOi 
Means, njia. 
Measles, ohurawa. 

Measure, kadri, kiasi, oheo, kipimou 
A measure, kipimo, pL vipimo. 
Measuring rod, line, 6m., oheiieBO^ 

pi. vyenezo. 

See Cubit, Fathom, Span, Weight 

The weights are usedas meanure» 

for such a capacity as tootilcl 

contain that weight of millet 

Meat^ nyama. [ (mtama). 

Small pieces cooked on a skewer^ 

msliakiki, pi. mishakiki. 



Fieee$ cooked on tvoo paraUd 

sHekSj subana. 
Meatiness, mnof u. 
Meddler f pingamizL 
Mediator {pecuse-maker), mselehisha, 

fL waselehislia, msuluhisha, 

pL wasnluliisha, mpatanishi, 

pi. wapatanishl 
Medicine, dawa, pi, dawa or madawa. 
(medical hnowledge\ utabibii, 

Medicine man^ mganga, ph wa- 

Meekness, upole. 
MeHem^wly, hnznni, hamtu 
Memorandum (written), khatL 
MemofriaZ, kumbukumbu, uku- 

Memory, nkombuka, ufahamu. 
MenstrmUion, heth. 
Mention, kumbukumbu. 
Merchandise, bithaa. 
Merchant, mfanyi biashara, pL wa- 

fouyi biashara, tajiri, pL ma- 

tajiri (a rich man), tat^biri, 

bazazi {huckster). 
Mercury, zebakh. 
Mercy, rebema, buruma. 
Merit, ajara. 
Merka, Marika. 
Message, maneno, babari. 
^Hessenger, mjumbe, pi, wajumbe, 

mtume, pi. watiune, tume. 
iUetoZ, madim. 

Middle of a piece of cloth, mjL 
Midge, usubL 
Midnight, usiku saa a sita, kati ya 

uriku, ucdku wa manane. 
Midwife, mzalisba, pi, wazalisba. 
MOdew, kawa. 
MOk, maziwa. 

Ourdled milk, maziwa mabivu. 
Buttermilk, mtindi. 
MiU, diuu, pi, vinu. 
Steam miU, kinu cha mosbL 
Oil mUX, kinu oba kushindikia. 
Hand mill, mawe ya kusagia 
{(his last only is used for grind- 
ing com, Einu is properly a 
wooden mortar, and the common 
oU mills consist of a lever turned 
in a mortar by camels). 
Millipede, jongoo. 
Millet, mtama. 
fully formed hut unripe, mtama 

Millet stalks, mabua, sing, 'bua. 
kinds of millet, kibakuli, kipaje. 
Mind, moyo (heart), akili (wits)^ 
Mine, madini [nia (intention). 

Mint (herb), nana, fidina (?}. 
Minute, dakika. 

Miracle, mwujiza,jpZ. minjizti, ajabu. 
Miscarriage, kuharibu mimba. 
Mischief, mathara, uharabu. 
Miser, bakbUi, cboyo. 
Misery, sbidda, tbulli. 
Misfortune, msiha^pl, misiba, taabu. 
Missile, kimwondo, pi, zimwondo 
{used to mean shoolijig stars, 
because said to be cast at the 
Jins by the angels). 
Missionary, mpeekwa, pi. wa- 

Mist, kungu, umande, sbemali 
Mistake, kosa, makosa. 
Mistress (of slaves), bibi. 

{of the house), mwana. It is 

reckoned good manners in 

Zanzibar to speak of one's own 

mother as mwana. 

Mistress (kept woman), kinyumba. 

Mistress {sweetheart), mcbimiba. 



Mizen-mcutj mlisgote wa kalmi or 

Mockery, usimanga. 
Moderatiofiy kadri, kiasL 
Modesty, haya. 
MohiUa, MoallL 
MoU, fuko (?). 
MoTiibas, Mvita. 
Monday, Juma a tatxu 
Money, fetha. 
Monfia, Mafya. 
Monkey, kima. 

Tnmbili, a smaU light' 

Ngedere, a email black monkey, 
Mbega, pL wabega, a black 
monkey with long white hair on 
the shoulders. 
Monsoon {northerly t^rtds), musimL 
Month, mwezi, pL miezi. 
The m^onths of the Arab year are 
determined by the sight of Hhe 
moon, or by the lapse of thirty 
full days. The mxmths practi- 
caUy begin from Hie end of the 
fasting month, and are called 
Mfimguo wa mosi, — ^wa pili, — 
"wa tatu, — ^wa'ime, — wa tano, — 
wa fiita, — wa saba, — wa nane, 
— wa kenda, Bajabu, Shaabani, 
Bamathaiii. See Time. 
A month of less than thirty day», 

mwezi mpnngufa. 
A month of thirty fuU days, mwe- 
zi mwangamu. 
Monthly pay, mshaara. 
Moon, mwezL 
Mooriblindness, kiwL 
Moonlight, bala mwezi 
Morning, subui, assubui, itssubui. 

Morning air, muando, 
Morocco, Magharibi. 

Morsel, kidogo, pL vidogo. 
Mortar for pounding and deaning 
grain, Ac, Mnn, piL vinn. 
Mortar for throwing sheUs, ko- 

Buildei's mortar, chokaa. 
PUMers used a* mortar hoards^ 
cbano, pi, vyano. 
Mosque, meskiti, moskiti, me^id. 
Mosquito, imbu. 
Moth, noondo. 

Mother, mama. It is polite in Zaur 
tibar to speak of on^s own 
mother as mwana. 
Step-mother, mama wa kamba 
Mother-in-law, mkwe, piL wakwe. 
Mould, kalibu. 

(inouldiness\ ukmign, kawa. 
Mound (of earth), kisogulu, pL vi- 
Mound (of stones), boma, piL ma- 
Mountain, mlima, pi. m^^^m^L. 
Mourning (grief), msiba. 
To make a formal mourning^ 

kukaa matanga. 
To finish a formal mourning^ 

kuondoa matanga. 
To live very privately during 
mourning for a husband, kn- 
The feast tjoith which a mourning 
concludes, hitimu. 
Moustache, muomo, pi. miomo. 
Mouth, kinwa, pi. vinwa, kanwa, pL 

Mucus (from the nose), kamasi. 

(from the vagina), utoko. 
Mud, tope ; much mud, matope. 

Muddiness in water, yxunbi. 
Mule, nyxmibu, bdgbsJa. [rab*. 

Mvltiplieation (arithmetical), thi* 



MuUUude^ makatano^ knndi, pl. 
makandi, jeshi, pL majeshi, 
Mummy f mmnyanL 
Mungooae, mchiro, pL wachiro. 
Murderer^ muuwaji, pL wauwajL 
JtftMoZs, tafu. 

Mushroom^ ^oga, pl. yioga. • 

MunOf ngoma. 

MuHcal Imtrwnents. 8ee Drttm, 
Baragnmu, a spiral antelope*$ 

horn used as a trumpet. 
Eayamba, a sort of rattle, 
Kinanda, pL yinanda, a stringed 
ingtrumentf used of European 
ingbrumefnts generally. 
Einubi, a "harp. 
Matoazi, sing, toazi, eyrnhals. 
Mbui, a buffaloes horn played by 

Pftanda, a trumpet, 
Upato, a plate of copper sounded 

by beating. 
Yngo, a large horn sounded by 

Zeze, a three-stringed lute. 
Zomari, a sort of clarionet. 
Muskf mesiki, meskL 
Mussel (shellfish), kijogoo, pl. vijo- 

goo, kome, pl. xnakome. 
Mustard^ kharadali 
Myriad^ kikwi, pl. yikwi or zikwi. 
JfyrrA» manemane. 

NaU {finger), nkucha, pL kucha. 
(yroii)^ msomari, pL misomari. 
Homey jina, pl. majina. 
What is your name f Jina lako 
NamiCta^ somo, pL masomo. 
Mope of the neckf ukoei, kikosL 

Naphiny kitambaa, pL yitambaa. 
Table napkin, kitambaa cha 
Narcotic, Mleo, pl. vileo. 
Nation, taifa, pl. mataifa. 
Native, mzalia, pl. wazalia, kizao, 

pl. vizao, klyyao, pl, vivyao. 
Nature, asili, tabia. 
Nautical instruments, vipande vya 

Navel, kitoYu, pl. vitovn. 
Necessaries (especially as supplied 
by Ood^s providence), riziki, 
(useful things), vifaa. 
Necessity, farathi, lazima, nkwasofh. 
Neiik, shingo, pl, mashingo. 8ee 

Bach, Nape, 
Need, uhtaji, kutaka, matskkwa. 
Needle, siudano. ■ * 

Neighbour, jirani. 
Neighbourhood, upande wa, ki- 

yambo (?). 
Nest, tnndn, pl. matnndu. 

(a laying place), kiota, pl. viota. 
Net, mshipi, pl. misbipi. 
used to take gazelles, &c., wavn, 

pl. nyavu, chavn, pl. vyavu. 
Stake net, hedge made in the sea, 

iizio, pl. nyuzio. 
Round casting net, kimia, pl. 

Beir^ %ujide of European cordage, 

jarifa (or jarife), pl. majarifa. 
Seine made of cocoa-nttt fibre, 

Fish trap Tnade of basket work, 
Nettle, kiwavi, pl. viwavi (used also 
News, habari. [of sea-nettles). 

Night, nsiku. 
AU night, nsiku kuoha. 



Four whole nighU, siku nno UBikn 

Four days and nights^ siku nne 
mohana na usiku. 
Nightmare, jinamisL 
NippUy chuchu ya ziwa, titi, 
bubu (A.). 
of a gun, kifa, pL yifiou 
Nobody, si mtu. 

There is nobody, hapana (or 
haknna) mta. 
Noise, sautL 
of voices, kelele, pi. makelcle, 

See Bellow, Ttoar, Hum, Cry, 
Nonsense, upuzi, puo. 
Noon, athuuri, jua kitwanL 
Noose, tanzi, pL matanzL 
North, kibula, kaskazini. 
* Northerly winds, kaskazi 
Nose, pua, pi. pua or mapna. 

Nose ornament shaped like a stud, 

kipini, pi, vipiaL 
Nose ring, azama. 
Nostril, tundu ya pua, 'mwanzi wa 

pua (?). 
Notch, a place where a triangular 

piece is broJcen out, pengo. 
Note, barua, kbatL 
Number, hesabu, kiwango. 
Nurse, yaya (dry nurse), 'mlezi, pi, 
walezi (of a child), nmguzi, pi, 
wauguzi (of a sick pemon). 
Nut, kokwa, pi. makokwa. See 

Ground, Cashew, &c 
Nutmeg, kungumanga. 


Oar, kasia, pi. makasia. 

Oath uapo, pi, nyapo, kiapo, pi. 

viapo, yaminL 
Obedience, mutiu. 

Objections, makindano, makataxo. 
Occupation, sbughulL 
(Esophagus, umio. 
Offering, eadaka (gif€), thabihu 

(sa^yrifice), kafara (a sacrifice to 

avert calamity ; it is buried or 

throton away). 
Officer, akida, mkuu wa asikarL 
Officiousness, futhuli, afttthuli. 
Offspring, mzao, pL wazao. [ujuvL 
OH, mafuta. 
Castor-oU, mafuta ya mbarika» 
SemsemroU, mafuta ya uta. 
Ointment, marbamo. 
Old age, uzee, ukougwe (extreme). 
Old person, mzee, i^L'wazee, ki- 

kongwe, pL yikongwe (e»- 

tremety old). 
Omelette, kiwanda, kimanda. 
Omen, falL 
Omnipresence, eneo la Munngu (the 

spread of God), 
Onion, kituuguu, pi. vituDgutu 
Open place, kiwauja, pL yiwax^ja, 

wangwa, wanda. 
piece of waste ground in a ioum^ 


Opinion, wasia. 
Optttm, afyuuL 
Opportunity, nafasL 
Ophthalmia, well wa maoha 
Change, obungwa, pi, macbungwa, 
cbungwa la kizungu, danzi la 
Bitter or wHd oranges, danzi, pi, 

Mandarin oranges, kangaja. 
(a larger sort), cbenza, obenza za 
Order, See Command, 
(regularity, or a regular order\ 



Ordecd, Mapo, pL viapo. 
Origin, asili, ehimbuko, mwanzo. 
Ornament, pambo, pi, mapambo, 
kipombo, pL yipambo. 
Dalia, a yeUow eoemetie. 
Ndonya, lip^ng worn by the 

Ny€U9a vjomen. 
Saralii, a smaU gold plate worn 

on the forehead. 
Shangwi, an ornament worn 

between the shoulders, 
Uiembo, hUick lines painted upon 

XJznri, eosmetie applications, 
Vidani, eoUars of gold or stiver. 
See AnkletSj Bracelets, Ear, Nose. 
Orpihan, yatima. 
Os coccygis, kifimdngiL 
Ostrich, biini. 
Otto of roses, hal wdradL 
OuUet, pakutokea. 
Outrigger (of canoes^, matengo. 
Outskirts of a town, kiunga. 
Oven, tanuu, tamiru. 
Over-looker, msimamizi, pi, wasi- 
mamizi, mwangalizi, pL waa- 
Owl, biindi. 
Owner, mwenyewe. 
Ox, ng*ombe or gnombe, maksaL 
Oyster, cheza, kome (?), pL ma- 
kome, kombe za pwani. 

Paee, mwendo. 

Package, packet, or parcel, robota, 
gora (of cloth'), peto, pi, ma- 
8maU packet, kipeto, pi, yipeto. 
Pad of grass, &c,, used to carry a 
load on the head upon, generally 
twisted into a ring, kata. 

Pad used as a saddle for donleeys, 
Paddle, kafi, pi, makafi. 
Padlock, kufulL 
Pail, ndoo. 

Pain, mamnivn, ucbnngo, kuuma. 
Paint, rangi. 

Pair, jozi, jura, jeuzi, jauzi. 
Palace, jnmba. 
Palanquin, machera. 
Palate, kaaka, kaa ]a kinwa. 
Palisading, zizi, kizizi. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
mkono, pi. vitanga vya mikono. 
A sail-maker^s palm, dofra, pi, 
Palm-tree. See Cocoa-nut, Date, 
Leaf -stem of a palm-tree, upongoe, 

pi, poDgoe. 
Mkoche, has an edible fntiL 
Mlala, hyphmne, branching palm. 
Mvuma, borassus palm. 
Palm-oil tree, mchikichi, pi. michi- 
its fruit, ohiMchi, pi, machikichi. 
tJ^e small nuts contained in the 
fruit, kiohikichi, pi, vichikichi. 
Palm-wine, tembo. 
Spirit made from palm-wine, 

Palmrwine syrup, asali ya temba 
Palmar abscess, kaka. 
Palpital^on of the heart, kihereheie 

cha moyo. 
Panniers, sboi, shogL 
Pap, ubabwa. 
Papaw, papayi, pi, mapapayL 

Papaw-tree, mpapayi, pi, mipa- 
Paper, karatasi. [payi. 

Parable, metbili, methali, mfano^ 

pi, mifano. 
Paradise, peponi. 




Gate of parctdiset kilango cha 

Paralysis, Mpooza, tiwo (?), 
ParalytiCj mwenyi kupooza. 
Parched maizey mbisi. 
Pardon, arathi, musama, masameho, 

Parent, mzaa, %il, wazaa, mzazi, pL 

wazazi, mzee, ph wazee. 
Pari, fangu, pZ. mafungn, sehemn, 

upande, pi, pande, Msma. 
Partner, msharika, pL washarika. 
Partnership, usharika. 
PaHridge, kwale (?). 
Kering'eiide, the red-legged par- 
Party (faction), aria. 
Pass, or passport, cheti, pi. vyetL 
Passage (by), pito, pi. kipito. 
(through), kipenyo, pi. vipenyo. 
A very narrow passage, kioho- 

choro, pi. vichochoro. 
Paich (in cloth), kiiaka, pi, viraka. 

(in planking), hasho. 
Path, njia, pito, pi, mapito. 
Patience, saburi, subiri, TiiramiUTn, 

Pattern, namna. 

(to work from) kielezo, pZ. vielezo. 
Pauper, kibapara, pZ. vibapara (an 

insulting epithet). 
Pawn (chess), kitunda, pi. yitunda. 
Pay, ijara, njia, faritha, lishahara 

Pect, dengu {they are not grown in 

Zanzibar, hut are hrot^ht dry 

from India), 
A STnall pea-like hean, ohooko, 

Peace, amani, salamo. 
Peace-maker, mpatanishi, msele- 

hiflha, msuliihisha. 

Pea,cock, tausL 

Peah, kilele, pi, vilela 

Pearl, lulu. 

Pebble (very small), mbwe. 

(or small piece of stone), kokolo^ 
pi, makokoto. 
Peel, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Peg, chango, ph vyango. 
Pelvis, tokoDL 
Pen, kalamtL 

Beed pen, kalamu ya 'mwauzL 
Penis, mbo. 
People, watu. 

People of this world, walimwengn. 

Other peopU^s, -a wata. 

People like us, Mna sisL 

Abdallah*s people, kina Abdallah. 
Pepper, pllipili manga. 

Bed pepper, pilipili hoho. 
Percussion cap, &taki 
Perfection, ukamilifu, atimilivn. 
Perfumes, manukato. 
Period (or point of time}, kipindi, 

pi. yipindi. 
Perjury, azilr, znli. 
Permission, ruksa, rnhusa. 
Persia, Ajjemi 

Persian €hdf, Bahari il 'alL 
Person, mtu. 

A grown person, mtu mzima. 8e$ 
Old, dkc. 
Perspiration, bari, jasbo. 
Pestilence, tauni, wabba. 
Pestle, mchi (or mil), pL miohi, 

mtwango, pi, mitwango. 
Phantom, Mvuli, pi, yivuli 
Phlegm, belgbamtu 
Phthisis, nkohozi. 
Physic, dawa, pi. dawa or madawa. 
Physician, tabibu, mtabibu, pL 
watabibn, mganga. pL wa> 



'tioe, pesa, fL pesa or mapesa. 

"^iMe^ achari. 

^ictwe^ taswira, sura, sanamtu 

^iecBy Mpande, pL yipande. 

Pteee of Madagaaear grass doth, 
ramba,|)2. maramba. 

Piece let in by loay of patch (in 
pUmkingX basho. See Firewood, 

*ig, Dgumwe, nguuwe. 

Jivi, a wild hog. 

'igeon, njiwa, ndiwa (SI.). 

Tame pigeon, njiwa manga. 
Wild pigeon, njiwa wa mwitn. 

*ile of sticks, de,, for burning, biwi, 
pL mabiwi. 

'tZ08 (luBmorrhoids), bawasir. 

'Hgrimage, haj. 

'tZ2, Mdonge, pi, vidonge. 

War, nguzo. 

*iUow, mto, pi. mito. 
Wooden head rest, nfRmilo, pi, 


^imple, kipele, pi, vipele, upele, pi, 
pele (large), }dyNe,pl, viwe (a 
smaU hind). 

^incers, koleo. 

^ine-<ipple, nanasi, pi, mananasL 

^inna (sheUrfUh), kaya, pL makaya, 
panga, pi, mapanga. 

^ipe (water), nelli. 
(clarionet), zomari. 

(tdbacco), kiko, pL viko. The 
native pipe consists of a hoiol 
(bora), a stem (digali) leading 
from the howl into a smaU vessel 
of water, which hist is properly 
the kiko ; the stem from the Mko 
to the mouth is the shilamu. 
The Imbbling of the water when 
it is being smoked is the malio 

Piping, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Pirate, haramia. 
Pistol, bastola. 
Pit, shimo, pi, mashimo. 
Pitch or Tar, lami 
Pity, huruma. 
Place, mahali, pahalL 
Place may often be expressed by 

the prefix pa-. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place, 
Pakutokea, a place to go out aL 
Panginepo, elsewhere, 
or by the use of penyi. 
Penyi mti, the place where the 

tree is, or was. 
An open place, kiwanja, pt 

A clear space in a town, uga. 
A place where offerings are made 
to propitiate spirits supposed to 
haunt it, mzimu, pL mizimu. 
Plague, launL 
Plain, uwanda. 
Plan, shauri, pi, masbanri. 
Plane, randa. 
Plank, ubau, pi, mbatu 
Planking, mbao. 

A plank laid over the body before 

the earth is filled in, kiunza,pZ. 

Plant, mbegu, mbeyu. [viuuza. 

A young plant, mohe, pL miche, 

chipukizi, pi, vipuMzL 
Upupv, cowitch. 
Mbamti, a thistMike plant with 

a yetiow flower. 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant throw* 

ing up a head of red flowers. 
Yungiyimgi, the blue water-lily. 
Afa, the wild Jasmine. 
Kirukia, a paroMte on fruit trees, 
Mpungati, a kind of cactus. 
Plantains, ndizL 



FlantatioUf shamba, pi. mashamba. 
PlaUy kisabani, pi, TisabanL 

A plate of metalf bamba, pi, ma- 
Platter of vjoody cbano, pL yyana 
Pleasure, auasa, furaha. 

Pleasing thingsj mapendezL 
Pledge, ra^ni, amani, kabathi. 
VleiadeSy kiliiuia. 
Plenty, "wingi, ungi (M.), mari- 

Plwf^-line (a stone hung hy a strip 

of banana leaf), timazi. 
Plug, ngonizi, zibo, pi. mazibo. 
Plummet, ohubwL 
Pocket, mfuko, pi. mifuko. 

Pocket-handkerchief, leso. 
Poem, masbairi, uteuzi (religious). 
Poet, mtunga masbairi, pi watunga 

Poetry , masbairi. 

One line of poetry, sbairL 
Point, ncba. 
Poison, Bumu, uobungo. 

Fish poison, utupa. 
Pole, mti, pi. miti. 

for carrying burdens on, mpiko, 
pi. mipiko. 

for propelling a canoe, upondo, pi. 
Politeness, adabn. 
Pomegranate, kamamanga. 
Fcymeloe, furungu, pi. maforangu. 
^ond, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 
Pool, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 

Pool left by the retiring tide, 
Mdimbwi, pi, vidimbwi. 
Poop, sbetrL 
Poor free man, maskini ya Mnu- 

Porcupine, nimga. 
Pores, nwcleo, matokeo ya bari. 

Porpoise, pomboo. 

Porridge, ugali, uji, foka, hasida. 

Porter, See Doorkeeper. 

(carrier\ hamali, pi, mahamali. 

(in a caravan'), mpagazi^jpl. 


Port Dumford, Burikao. 

Position in the world, eheo, kiwa 

Possessions, mali, milki. 

Possessor, mwenyewe. 

Possessor of, dc, mwenyi, &o,,piL 

wenyi, &c. 

Post, mti, pi, miti. 

Bearing post, mbimiTi, pL mihi* 


Posterity, wazao. 

Pot. See Cooking-pot, Censer, 

A lobster-pot, dema. 

Potash (nitrate of), shnra. 

Potatoes, YJBsa. yya kizimgu. 

Sweet potatoes, viazi, sing» kiazL 

Baised beds for planting Tiazi, 

tuta,j92. matuta. 

Potsherd (broken piece of pottery or 

glass), kigai, pi vigai, g^i,pL 

magai (a large piece), kige» 

renyeDza, pi. vigezenyenza {a 

very smaU piece, a spUnter), 

Potter, mfinangi, pi wafinangi, mfi« 

nyanzi, wafinyanzi. 

A place to bake potter's noorh, joko. 

Poultry, k'uku. 

Poverty, umasikini. 

Powder, nnga. 

Chmpowder, baniti. 

Power, uwezo,ngaYii, mamlaka, enzL 

Practice, mtaala, mazoeao. 

Praise, sifa, bamdL 

Prattle, vijineno. 

Prayer (worship), ibada. 

(entreaty), kuombo. 



bed forms), sala. The 
l^oha'nmedan times of 
TCy Magaribi, directly 
\set; Esba, cm hour cr 
'; Alfajiri, "before «un- 
miiri, at noon ; Alasiri, 
ilf-way between noon 
venji kukhntubu, or 



rift), zawadi 
esent, ada, kilemba. 
presents, at a wedding ; 
ride*8 father, mabari, 
; to the bride* 8 mother, 
L^leko ; to the bride's 
losba migau, kifanua 
to the bride herself, 

iure, sbiniklzo. 


vipele yya babara. 
entfor it, liwa. 

i, ph makahiui (used 

ise of soothsayer)» 

, kasisi, padre or pa- 


go, gereza. 


0, pi, mapato. 

'.it, seed, &€.), zao, pi, 

, gbanima. 
0, pi. wazao. 
Li, wabadi. 

Promissory note, awalft. 
PronunMaiion, mata'mka 
Prop, mbimili, pL mihimili, mato- 
A prop to "keep a vessel upright 
when left by the tide, gadi. 
Property, mali, milki 
Prophet, nabii, mtume, pL mitume. 
ProsectUion, mstaki, pi. mistaki. 
Proselyte, mwongioivL, pi, waongofu. 
Prostitute, kababa, pi, makababa. 
Protection, bami, bamaya. 

Under British protection, fi ba- 
mayat al Ingrez (Ar.). 
Proverb, mfano wa maneno. 
Provision, madaraka. 
Provisions, vyaknla. 
Provocation, ekerabL 
Prow, gubeti 
of a small vessel, kikono, pit 

(head), omo. 
Prudence, busara, fikira. 
Pulley, kapi, pi. makapi, gofia. 
Pulpit, mimbara. 
Pump, bomba. 
Pwnpkin, boga, pi, maboga. 
plant, mboga, pi. miboga. 
sheU used to carry liquids in 

dundu, pt madundu. 
MumiiDye, pt mamumuuye, 

sort of vegetable marrow. 
Tan^o, pi. matango, eaten ravy 

like cucumber. 
Eitoma, pi. yitoma, a sma 

round sort. 
Tikiti, pi. matikiti, a rouTid h nd 
of water-melon. 
Punch, keke. 

Purchaser, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzL 
Purgative, dawa la kubara. 
Purity, maaafi, utakatifu 



Purpoeef knsndi, pt makusudi, 

kasidi, nia. 
Purse, kifuko cha kutilia fetha. 
Push in the cheek, mdukuo. 
Putridity, kioza. 
Putty, chaki. 
Python, cbatu. 


Quail, tombo, tomboroko. 
Quality, tabia, ginsi, jisi, aina. 
Quantity, kiasi, kadiri, cbeo 

Quarrel, mateto, tofiEiuti, nazar, 

Quarrelsomeness, ngomvL 
Quarter, robo. 

Three-qiutrters of a dollar, kassa 

Quarter of a toion, mta, pi. mita. 
Queen, malkia. 

(chess), kishi. 
Questiim, maulizo, Bwali. 
Quieting thing, kitulizo,pZ. yitnlizo. 
Q^ietness, ntulivu, makiTii, kimya. 
Quiver, podo. 


Babbit, sungura, Msungnra, pi. 
yisungura, kitimgule, pL vitu- 
ngule, kitltL 
JRoce, mashindano. 
Baft&r, boriti {for a stone roof), 
kombamoyo, pi. makomba- 
moyo (for a thatched roof), 
pao, pL mapao (very thin). 
Bag, kitambaa, pL vitambaa, 

utambaa, pi. tambaa. 
Bain, mvua. 
Bain doud, ghubari, pL maghu- 
Bainy season, masika. [bari. 

Lesser rains, mvua ya mwaka. 

Bainbow, upindi wa myua, kisild 

cba myua (M.). 
Bammer for heating roof s, kipande, 

pi. vipande. 
Bampart, boma, sera. 
Bank, daraja, oheo. 
Bamom, kombozi, pi, makombozi, 

ukomboo, . ukomboziy fidia» 

nfidiwa, ukombolewa. 
Barity, t'unn, hedaya. 
Bash (smaU pimples), vipele. 
Bat, panya. 

a very large kind, buko. 
Bations, posho. 
Bavmess (of meat, Ae.), ubichL 

(dulness), ujinga. 
Razor, wembe. 

Beason, maaua, sababn, buja, akili 
Beasoning, huja. 
Rebellion, maasL 
Becess, kidaka, pH vidaka, kishtt* 

baka, pL yishubaka (a pigeon^ 

WaU at the ha,ck of a reoess, ntt, 
BecommendatUm, maagizo. 
Bectitude, adili 

Bed coral, marijaDi ya fetbaloka. 
Red Sea, Babari ya Sbam. 
Redeemer, mkombozi, pL wako- 

Reed, unyasi, pL nyasi, *mwanzi,|>L 

Reference, maregeo. 
Refuge, makimbilio. 
Regret, majutio. 
Regularity, kaida. 
Reign, ezi, enzi 
Rein, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Rejoicing, foraba, sbangwi. 
Relations (relatives), akraba, ndagQ» 

A near.reUitive, karibu. 



Iteiaxaiion (looaening), nleg^^u. 

^eUgion^ dini, dna. 

Udiith (something to he eaten toWi 

rice or porridge), kitoweo. 
Remainder, msazo, masazo, mabakia. 
Remedy, dawa, mapoza. [baki. 

Reminder, ukumbusho. 
Remission (of sins), maghofira, ma- 

Remnant, mabakia. 

Repentance, toba, majuto. 
Representative, wakilL 
Reproaches, matayo. 
Reprobate, baa, pi, mabaa. 
Reptile (?). 
Kenge, a monitor (7), a very large 

slender lizard. 
P'ili, a large snake. 
Gbatu, apytiion. 
See Snake, Crocodile, d:e. 
Request., baja, matakwa. 
R^idtte, See Remainder. 
A Utile left in a jar, <i^c.,kishinda. 
pL yiahinda. 
Resinj nlimbo. 

Respiration, kntanafusi, knshtisba 
Rest, raha, pumziko. [pumzi. 

Resting-place, pumzikio, kituo, pi. 

zituo OF vituo. 
Restlessness, fathaa. 
Resurrection, nfofuo, ufafulio, ki- 
yama (the general resurrection). 
Resuscitation, (actively) knfafua, 
kuliuisba, (neuter) kufufaka, 
Retainer, mfaasi, pi wafuasi. 
^Retaliation kasasi, kisasi. 
Return, maregeo, marejeo knja 

Revenge majilipo. 
Reverence, imenyekeo. 

Reviling, mashutumti, masbutumio, 
Revival. See Resuscitation. 
Reward, ijara, ujira, luajazo, thttr 
wabu (especially from God), 
Reward for finding a lost thing, 
kiokosi, pi. viokosi. 
Rheumatism, baridiyabis, nweli wa 

Rhinoceros, kifaru, pi. vifaru, pea. 
Rib, ubann, pi. mbavu, khvavti 

chana (A.). 
Rice, growing, or yet in the hush, 
cleaned from the hush, mchele. ' 
coohed, wali. 
watery, artd imperfectly coohed 

coohed so (hat the grains are 
dry and separate, pukute ya 
scorched in the cooking ukoko, 

utandu (A.). 
left from overnight to be eaten in 
' the morning, wali wa mwikuu. 
Kinds of rice, sena, bungala, 
sbindano, garofuu, kapwai, ki- 
fuDgo, madeva, mwanga, sifara, 
Rlclics, mail, ntajiri, nkwasi, . 
Rich man, tajiri, pi. matajiri, mwe- 
nyi mali, mkwasi, pi. wakwasi 
Ridicule, mzaba, tbihaka. 
Right, baki, wajib, adili. 
Righteousness, baki. 
Rind, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Rind of a lemon, &c., after the 
inside has been squeezed or 
extracted, kaka. 
Ring, pete, pi. pete or mapete. 
Rings on the scahbard of a sword, 
&c. iikoa, pi. koa. 




Ring where the Hade enters {he 

hafU noleo, pi. manoleo. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio, 
Bing-womif choa. 
BippUf viwimbi. 
Bisk, in trading, jukiL 
Biver,mio, pi, mito. 
Boad, njia. 

Boar, Dgurnmo, vumL 
Bobber, mnyang'anyi, pi. wanya- 
Dg'fttiyi» liaramia. 
People uho wander about at night, 
robbing and committing viclenoe^ 
mruDgura, mpakacha. 
Bock, mwamba, pi. miamba. 
A gmall rock, ktjamba, pL li* 

in the sea, kipwa, pi. vipwa. 
Boiling of a ship, mramma. 
Boo/, dari, sakafu (stone roof or 
floor), paa, pi. mapaa (thatcJied 
roof). The thatched roofs con- 
sid generally of a front and 
back slope, kipaa cha mbele and 
kipaa cLa nymna, and hips for 
(he ends, which are carried up 
under and within the main 
slopes; tJiese hips are called 
visusi, sing, kisusL 
A lean-to, kipenu, pi, Yipenn. 
The roof over a watcJiing-place in 
the fields, dungu, pL madungu. 
Book (vlvess), fil. 
Boom {space), Dafasi. 

{apartment), chumba, pi, Tynmba. 
UJiuiiibi, haU or porch ; it is within 
a 6tone house, hut, outside an 
eartJien one, 
Sebulo or sebula, parlour, recep- 
tion room, 
Orfa, orofa, or ghdrofa, an uppsr 

Gha|^ a dark room on tJie grownd^ 

floor, a gtore-room. 
Boot, ehina, pL mashina. 
Bootlets, miziti, mizi (M.). 
Bope, kamba, ngole (Mer.). 

Hempen rope, kamba, nlayitL 
Bosary {Mokammedan bead»X tai^ 

Bose, waradi, waridL 
Otto of roses, hal windL 
Bose-water, marashi niA^varidi. 
Bose apple, darabi, pi, madaiabL . 
Boundness, mviringo. 
Bow (Jine), safa. 
Bow (noise), uthia^ kero. 
Boyalty, kifaume, ufaume. 
Bubhish (from old buildings\ fturi, 

(small articles), takafaka. 
Budder, shikio, sakani, ni8iikaiii,|iL 

mkukani, ii8ukaiu,|>L aokaiu. 
Buddie, used by carpenters to wuurk 

out their work^ Dgeo. 
Budeness, ea&lnM 
Buin or Buins, maaBgnko. 
Bunaway (from a master^ home, Ao,\ 

mtoro,.j92. watoro. 
(from a fight, dtc), mkiinbizi, pL 

Bupee, rupia. 
Bupia or any similar sikin iffiiim^ 

Bust, kutu. 
Bustling, mtokaso. 


Sabre, kitara, pi. vitara. 

Sacrifice, sadaka (an oJfering% fldia 
{giving up), thabihu [saerifio' 
ing), matJiabuba (the vieiim\ 
kafara (an animal or ihin§ 
offered but not eaten). 



Saddle, kit! clia frasi, matandlko, 
seruji (an Arab MdcUe), khorj 
(the pad used for a donkey), 
Sadness (see Grief), rammiu 
Safety, ealamti, salama. 
Saffron, zafaranL 
Sail, taDga, pi, matangOi 

DhovD-sail, dnimiu 

Sail-cloth, kitali« 
Sailor, baharia. 
Saint, walli. 
SaJce, ajili, huja, maana. 

For my sake, unipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Sale (auction), mnada. 
Salesman, dalalL 
Saliva, mate. 
Salt, chumvi, mniiyo (A.). 
Saltpetre, slmra. 
Salute (fired), mizinga ya salamu. 

(salutation), salamu. 
Salvation, wokovn, suudi, njema. 
Salver, ainia, pi, masinia. 
Sanction, ithlni. 
Sand, mclianga, mtanga (M.). 
SandalSf viatu, sing, kiatu, viatu 
yya ngozi. 

ifrap of a sandal, gidam* 
Sandalwood, liwa(?). 
Sandfly, nsubi. 
Sap, maji. 

Saturday, Juma a mosL 
Saucepan, sufuria. 
Saviour, mwokozi, pt waokozi 
Savour, luththa, tamn. 
Scab, kigaga, pi. vigaga. 
.Scdhbard, ala, pi, nyala. 

The metal rings on a scabbard, 
tikoa, pL koa. 
Scaffold (for building), jukwarL 
Scales (of a fish), magamba, mamba 

Scales (balances), mizanf. 

Scale pans, vitanga vya mizanL 
Scar, kovu, pi, makovu. 
Scarf (often worn round Ute waisf), 

Scent, harufu, manuka, nukato, pL 
manukato, meski, maraehi (a 
scent for sprinkling), 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
See Jkose, Ambergris, Aloes wood, 
ScJiool, chuoni. 
Scissors, makasi. 
Scoop. See Ladle, 
Score (20), korja. 
Scorn, tharau, thihaka. 
Scorpion, nge. 
Scraps left after eating, makombo, 

sing, kombo. 
Scrape (slide), para, 
Scratch, mtai, pi, mitaL 
Scream, kiowe, pi. viowe (cry for 
help), kigelegele, pi. vigelegelo 
(a trilling scream raised as a 
ery of joy). 
Screw, parafujo. 
Scrip, mkoba, pL mikoba. 
Scrofulous and gangrenous sores, 

Scrotum, pumbo, mapumbu. 
Scull, kitwa, pL vitwa, fuvu or 

^ bupuru la kitwa. 
Scum, povu, mapoTiL 
Sea, babari. 
A sea, mawlmbi, wimbL 
A seaman, mwana majL 
Orie from beyond seas, mja n» 

Seaweed, mwanL 
Seal, muhuri. 
Seam, mshono, pL misbono, band 

(tacked), npindo (a hem). 
Season, wakati, 

» 1 



The principalyseasone in Zanzibar 
are: — ^Musiml, the time of the 
northerly winds (kazkazi), that 
t«, December, January, and 
February, For March, April, 
and May, the rainy season, 
msisika; after that, the cold 
time, kipupwe ; then, about the 
end of August, demani, or 
mwaka. The southerly winds 
(kiisi) begin to drop in October, 
and in the intervals between 
them and the northerly winds 
come the times of easterly and 
westerly m7i€l8,malelezi or tanga 

Seasoning. See Relish, 

Seat, kikao, makazi. 

Hie stone or earth seat near a 
door, baraza, kibaiaza. 

Secrecy, siri, faragha. 

Secrets, mambo ya siri. 

Secretary, mwandishi, j^L waandibhi, 
khatibuy karani. 
Secretary of State, waziri, pi. 

Sect, mathhdb, mathehebiL 

Sediment, mashapo. 

Seedy mbegu, mbeyu. 

Seedling, mche, pi. miche. 

Self, moyo, nafsi, nafusL 

Self-content, kiuaya. 

Semen, shabawa, manni 

Semsem, ufuta. 
Semsem oil, mafuta ya uta. 
Whai is left after the oil has been 
pressed out, ehudu. 

Senna, sanamaki. 

Sense, akili. 

Sentinel, mngoja, pi. wangoja. 

Servant, mtumislii, ph watumishi, 
xutumwa, pi. walumwa, noker. 

One who serves at tattle, mwap 

ndikaji, pi, waandikajL 

In a shamba there are generally 

three chief servants, 1. Msii» 

luamizi, generally a free man, 

2. Nokoa, the chief slave, S. 

Kadamn, tite second head slavei. 

Service, utumwa, hudumu, hidima. 

Setting-out, things set out or the piace 

for them, maandiko. 
Shaddock, furungn, ph mafamngiL. 
Shade, "avvHi, yvli, mvuli, mvili, 

kivuli, kitua. 
Shadow, kiviili, pi. viviQL 
Shame (disgrace), aibtu 
(modesty), baya. 
(a thing causing confusion)^ ari| 

fetbeba, hezaya. 
having no shame, mjanjay pL 
Shape, kiasi, kalibu,namiia. 
Share, funga, pi. mafungu, Bemehn^ 

Sharing, usbarika. 
Sharh, papa. 
Sharpness, ukali. 
Shaving (of wood), nsafi. 
SJiawl, sbali. 

worn round the toaist, mahazamiL 
Sheaf, or bundle of cut rice, mgaiidft» 

pi. miganda. 
Sheath, uo, ph mano, ala, pi, nyala. 
Sheave (of a pulley), roda, koradani» 
Shed, banda, pi. mabanda, kibandv- 

pl. yibanda. 
Slieep, kondoo. 
Sheet, ebiika. 
of a sail, demanl. 
of a booh, gombo, pi. magombo» 
of paper, vkuiSLSA,pl, kurasa. 
Shelf, kibau, pi. vibao. 
in a recess, rufiif. 



Snso, pZ. mABOSO, a hind of hang- 
ing shelf, 
SheU (sea sJMs^BhelleypL masbelle. 
(hush), ganda, pL maganda. 
ifiimpty shell), fuvu, ph mafuvu, 
bupnra, pi, mabupuru, kaka. 
Shepherd, mlisbl, pi, walisbi, mchu- 

nga, pL wachunga. 
"Sherd, See Potsherd. 
Shield, ngao. 

Shin, munndi wa guu (A.). 
SJiip, merikebu, maiikabu, jabasi. 
Man-of'toar, manowari, merikebu 

ya iniziDga. 
Merchant ship, merikequ ya taja» 
■ Steam ship, merikebu ya dohaan* 

merikebu ya mosbi. 
Ship belonging to the government, 

merikebu ya serkali. 
FuU-rigged ship, merikebu ya 

milingote mitatu. 
Barque, merikebu ya milliigoto 

miwili na nuss. 
Native craft, chombo, pH vyombo. 
Shirt, kanzu. 
Shivering, kitapo, kutetema, ku- 

Shoal (hanh), fungu, pi, mafungu. 
Shock, fibindo. 

Shoe, kiatu cha kizungu or cba 
kihindi, pi. yiatu vya kizungu. 
ShoemaJcer, msboni yiatu, pi. wa- 
sboni yiatu. 
-^JBhoot, cbipukizi, ucbipuka, pi. 
A pointed shoot lihe that -eumtairi' 
ing a spilce of flower, Mlele, pi. 
'JBhop, duka, pi. maduka. 

Shops with tcarerooms, bokbari. 
*^Bhot (small), marisaa. 
Shot-heU, betL 

Shoulder, bega, pi, mabega, fuzi, pIL 
maf uzi (A.). 
Shoulder-blade, kombe la mkono. 
Shout, ukelele, pi, keleic, kelele, pt, 

Shower, manyunyo. 
Showing, wonyesha 
Shrewdness, werevu. 
Shroud, saanda. 
Shrub, kijiti, pi, vijitL 
See Thorn, 

Mwaugo, pi. mlwango (?). 
Sich person, mgonjwa, pi. magonjwa» 

mweli, pi waweli. 
Sickness, ugonjwa, uWeli, marathi. 
Side, upande, pi, pande. 
Side of the body, mbayu, mata- 

The other side of a river, dtcp 
Siege, mazingiwa. 
Sieve, kiyamba. 
Siftings of riee after pounding, 

Sighing, kuugua. 
Sign, dalili. 
Signal, isbara. 
Ukonyezo, pi, konyezo, a sign 

made by raising the eyebrows. 
Eakorombwe, a leind of signal cry 
Silence, nyamayu, kimya 
Silk, bariri. 
Silliness, mapiswa, pua 

SiUy talk, upuzL 
Silver, fetba. 
Silversmith, mfua fetba, pi, wafua 

Simpleton, mymgsk,pl. wajinga. 
Sin, tbambi, pi. tbambi or ma* 

tbambi, makosa, taksiri. 
Singleness, upweke. 
Sip, funda CO- 



Sir! Bwana! 

Sister, umbu, pi. maumbu, ndugo, 
ndugu mke. 
As a term of endearment, dada. 
Foster' sister, ndugu kuuyonya. 
Sister-inrlavj, shcmegi. 
Sitter, mkoAypl, wakaa. 
Sitting, kikao, pi, vikao, kitako, pi, 

Size, ukuu, ukubwa, kiasi, kadiri, 

Skeleton, mzoga (?) 
Skilftd vsorkman, xnstadi, pi, wa- 

SJciUed or master-worlmian, fundi. 
SJdn, ngozi 
Sky, uwingu. 
Slackness, ulegevu. 
Slander, masingizio, fitina (soieing 

of discord), 
Slaughter-ltouse, matindo. 
Slave, mtumwa, pi. watumwa, mu- 
hadimu,|>Z. wahadimu, mtwana, 
pi, watwana. 
A slave hoy, kitwana, pt yitwana. 
A slave girl, kijakazi, pi, vijakazi. 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi, wa- 

A concubine slave, suria, piL ma- 

A slave horn in the house or 

country, mzalia, pt wazalia. 
A runaway siave, mtoro, pi, wa- 


A fellow slave, mjoli, pi, wajoli. 
A household of slaves, kijoli, pi. 

Piece of land allotted to a slave 
for his own use, koonde, pi. 
Slavery, utumwa. 
Sleep, uz!ng!z', zi:ig'zi. 

Sle^ng pHaee, mslB^iik 

Things to sleep upon, malazL 
Sleeve, mkono, piL mikono. 
Sling, kamheo, pL makombea 
SUp of a tree, &g^ mche, ph mi<die& 

A slip which has put forth leaves,. 
mche uliochanua. 

One which has made a neut shoot,. 
mcbe uliochipuka. 
Slipperiness, utelezL 
Sloth, uvivu. 
Slovenliness, fujofdja 
SmaUness, udogo. 
SmalUpox, ndui. 
SnieU, hanifu, manuka, azma. 
Sniilh (worlcer in metal), mf ua» pL 

wafua. See Blacksmifh, Ac 
Smoke, moshi, pH, miosbi. 
Snail, koa, pi, makoa, konokono. 
Snake, njoka, joka, pL majoiki^ 

Ghatu, python, 

P'iii, cohra (?). 
Snare, shabuka. 
Sneezing, chafya. 
Snoring, kukoroma. 
Snuff, tumbako ya kunuka, or 

Snuff-box, tabakelo. 
Soap, sabuui. 
Soda, magadi. 
Solder, lihamu. 
Soldier, asikari. 

Sole (of the foot), uayo, pi nyaot 
Solitude, upekee, ukiwa. 
Somauli Coast, Banada. 
Somebody, mtu. 

Some one else's, -a mwenyewe. 

Child of somebody, i,e,, of respect*- 
able parents, mtoto ^a ^atu,, 
mwana wa watu. 
Somersault, kitwangomba. 



mTTana, pL vaana, kijana, 
mtoto mume. 
Wodi Mohammed, Mohammed's 

Bin Abdallah (Ar.), AhdaUalCs 

Hamisi wa Tani, Hamin the ion 

. of Tani (^Othman), 
San-ithhiw, mkwe, pL wakwe. 
Song, uimbo, pt nyimbo. 
Soot, kaa moshl, makaa ya moshi. 
Soothing fhing, Mtulizo, pi. vitulizo. 
SooOuayer, lukhini, pi. makaMni. 
Sore, donda, pt madonda, kidonda, 
pL vidonda, jeraha. 
Soret in the leg, nyungnnyuDgu, 
Sorrow, kasarani, hnzani, sikitiko, 

• Sorrow /or a lots, majonzL 
Sorrow for eometihing done, ma- 
' jutio. 

Excessive sorrow, jitimai. 
Sort (hind), ginsi, namoa, aina. 
The sort is often expressed hy 
the prefix ki-. Kizungu, the 
European sort, kifaume, the 
hingly sort 
Soul, loho. 
Sound, sautL 
Soundness, uzima. 
Source, asili, chimbuka 
South, knsini, suheli. 
SotdJicrly wind, kusi. 
Sovereign, mweoyi ezi, mwenyi 
incM, mwenyi mji. 
{coin), robo IngrezL 
Sooereigniy, ezi, enzL 
Space, nafasi 
(pf time), muda. 
{open space), uwanda, uga. 
Spade, j^nbe la kizungn. 

Span, futuri, sliibiri, sliibrL 

Spangles, puluki. 

Spark, chechi, pi. macheohL 

Sparkle, kimeta. 

Speaker, mneni, pi. waneni, msemi, 
pi. >vasemi, msemaji, pL wa- 

Speaking, knsema, kunema. 
A dark obscure way of speaking, 

kilinge cba maneno. 
An enigmatical way of speaking, 
in which the last syUahle is 
taken from the end, and made 
to begin the word, kinyume, 
kinynma. (See Appendix I.) 

Spear, fvano, pi. mafumo (flat" 
bladed) ml^uke, pi, miknke, 
(three-edged) sagai,|)Z. masagaL 

Spectacles, miwani 

Speech (speaking), knnena. 
{oration), matagnso, milumbe. 

Spider, buibni. 

Spinal column, uti wa maungo. 

Spirits, mvinyo. 
Evil spirit, pepo. 
Kinds of spirits, jini, pi. majini, 
milhoi, mahoka, dungumaro, 
kitamiri, kizun, kiznka, koikoi, 
mwana maua, &o. 

Spit, uma, pt nyuma. 

Spittle, mate. 

Spoil, mateka. 


Splint, gango, pi. raagango, banzi, 
pi. mabanzi. 

Splinter (of wood), kibanzi, pL 
(of glass or earthenware), kige- 
renyenza, pi. vigerenyenza. 

Spoon, mwiko, pi. miiko, kijiko, pi. 
vijiko (a tea-spoon), n^amsho, 
pi. mikamshe (a wooden spoon). 



Spnri, luchezo, mzalia. 

Bpot, wpa, pi, mawaa, kipaku, pL 

Sjpout (^from a roof)^ kopo la 

nyumba, marizabiL 
Spraifij kuteuka. 
Spreadj oiieo. 

Spreading a meal, maandiko. 
Spring, mtambo, pi, mitambo. 

of water, chemchem, jicho la maji 
Sprinlde, manyunyo. 
Sprinkler (for scents), mrashi, pi. 

Spur of a cock, kipi, kipia, pi. vipia. 
Spy, mpelelezi, pi, wapelelezi, 

mtuinbuizi (A.). 
Square, lurabba. 
Squint, makengeza. 
Stable, banda la fi-asi, faja la frasi. 
Staff, gongo, pi. magougo, mkoDgo- 

jo, pi. mikongojo. 
Stagnation, vilio, pi. mavilio. 
Stain, waa, pi. mawaa. 
Stairs, daraja, ngazL 
Up-stairs, juu, darloL 
Down-stairs, chini. 
Stalks, of mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
of a kind of millet chewed Wee 

sugar-cane, kota, pt makota. 
of cloves, dtc, kikonyo,|?L vikonyo. 
Stall keeper, mchuruzi, pL wa- 

Stammering, kigugumizL • 
Stamp, muhuri, chapa. 
Staple, pete, pi. mapete, tuxubuu. 
Star, nyota. 

Falling stars, nyota zikishuka. 
SJiooting stars, kimwoudo, pi. 
Starch, kanji, dondo. 
Start {fright), kituko. 
, {beginning), fcli, pi, mafeli. 

Startling thing, mxmif^Ut pt nA- 


A thing to frighten people, kinya- 
go, pi. vinyaga 
Staie, halL 
Statue, sanamiL 
Stealing, kwiba. 
Steam, mvnke. 

A steamship, merikebu ya moshU 
Steel, feleji, pua. 
Steelyard, mizanL 
Steersman, mshikl 8hikj||0. 
Stem of a tree, sUina, pi. mashina. 

of mtama, bua, pL mabua. 
Step (stepping), Latua. 

{of stone, Ac), daraja. 
Step-father, baba wa kambo. 

Step-motiier, mama wa kambo. 
Steward, msimamizi,j?Z.was1mamigi. 
Stick, fimbo, ufito, pi, fito (thin\ 
bakora (a walking-stick with a 
handle herd at right angUay," 
A short heavy stick, kibarango, 
pL vibarango, mpweke, piL mi* 
A staff, gongo, pi magougo^ 
mkoDgojo, pi. mikongojo (oa 
old man*s staff). 
Stillness, kimya. 

Stirrup, kikuku cha kupandia firasL 
Stocks (for the feet), mkatale. 
Stomach, tumbo. 
Pit of the stomach, chembe ohm 
moyo (A.). 
Stone, jiwe, pi mawe or majiwe. 
A stone Tiouse, nyumba ya mawe. 
SmaU stones or pieces of $ton9f 

kokoto, pi. makokoto. 
Very small stones, not larger tham 

an egg, mbwe. 
Very small grit, ohangarawk 
Fresh coral, matumbawi 



Precious itoneSf Idto, pL vito, 

. Stones of fruit, kokwa, pL ma- 

Stooping, kiinamizi. 
^S^ (end), kikomo, kinga. 

(«topping), kizuizo, kizuizi,kizuio. 
Stoppage in the nose or windpipe, 

(stagnation), yilio, pL mavilio. 
Sapper, zibo, pL mazibo, kizibo, pi, 

Store (put by), akiba. 
Store-room, ghSkiA. 
Storm, IMniba, tufaatu 
Story, hadithi, habaiL See Tde, 
Stoutness, onene. 
Strainer, knnguto, pt makunguto 

(of basket-uHtrk), 
Straits (distress), shidda. 

(narrow seas), kilango oba bahari. 
Strands of a cord, meno, ncha. 
Stranger, mgeni, pt wagem. 
Strap, ukanda. 
Stream, mto, pL mito, kijito, pi. 

Strength, ngnvo. 
String, ugwe, uzi, katanL 

Siring of heads, kigwe, pL yigwe. 
String-course, usbi. 
Strip. See Mat, 
Stripe (line), uzi, pi. nyuzi, xnfuo, 

pi, mifuo, utepe, pi, tepo. 
Study, mtaala. 
Stumble, kwao, pi. makwao. 
Stumhling-bloch, kwao, pi, makwao. 
Stump, sliioa, pi. mashina. 
Stupor, karukwa na akiU. 
Stye in the eye, chokca. 
St^le (of writing), dibaji, a good 


Subject, rayia. 

Svbstance, asili. 

Subtlety, busara, wereyn. 

Subtraction (arithmetical), bakL 

Suburbs, kiunga. 

Sugar, sukaii. 

Sugar-cane, mua, pi, miwa. 

Suit of ctoihes, kisua. 

Sulphate of copper, mrntntu. 
of magnesia^ chumvi ya halulL 

Sulphur, kiberitL 

SuUanship, usultani. 

Sum, JTimla. 

Summary, muhtasarL 

Summit, kilele, pi. vilele (fised of 
any sharp-pointed top or peak, 
of tfie centre shoot of a cocoa- 
nut tree as well as of the peak 
of a mxmniain). 

Sun, jua, pi, majua. 
The coming out of (he sun after 
rain, kianga. 

Sunday, Juma a pilL 

Sundries, takataka. 

Sunset, magharibi, mangaribi 

Supercargo, karani. 

Superciliousness, kitongotoDgo. 

Superintendent, mwangalizi, pL wa- 
angalizi, msimamizi, pL waai- 

Supper, chakula cha jionL 

Suppuration, katonga. 

Surety, izithamini, th^min, thamana, 

Surf, mawimbL 

SwaMow (bird), barawai, mbili- 
wili (?), mbayuwayu (A.). 

Sweaty hari, jasho, vukuto. 

Sweetheart, mchumba. 

Sweet lime, dimu tamiL 

' Sweetness, tamu. 

Sweet potatoes, vlazi, sing. kiazL 



Swindler^ tbalimu. 
Swing, pembca. 
Sufine, nguruwe, ngnuwe. 
Switch, ufito, pL fiio. 
Sword, upanga, pi. panga. 
curved sword, kitara, pL vitara. 
itraight two^dged sword without 

any guard, upanga wa felejL 
toith a rnnaU cross hilt, upanga 

Syphilis, sekeneko, kijaraha cha 

mboni, tego (a virulent hind 

supposed to he the resuU of a 

Syria, Sham. 
Syrup, asali. 


Table, meza. 

Table-^loth, nguo ya meza. 

Table - naphin, Mtambaa cha 
Tack of a sail, goahi 
Tacking {setcing), bandi. 
Tail, mkia, pi. miMa. 
Tailor, mshoni, pi, washoni. 
TaJcitig away, maondoleo. 
Tale, haditbi, kisa, nganow 
TaM>earer, mzuzi. 
Talipes, kupinda na mguu. 
Tall:, usemi, 

SUly talk, upuzL 
TaVcer, msemaji, pt wasemaji 
Tamarind, ukwaju. 

Tamarind tree, mkwaju, pi. mi- 
Tangle, matata. [kwaju. 
Tap, bilula. 
Tape, utepe, pi. tepe. 
Tar, lamL 

Tartar on the teeth, ukoga. 
Taste, tuiiiu, tamu, lutbtba, nvonda, 
maoudi, maonji. 

Taster, mwonja, pL waonja^ mno» 

nda (M.), pi. vaonda, kiouja^ 

pL yioDJa, kionda (B£.), pL 

Tea, cbayi, oha. 
Teacher, mwalimu, pL iTBalimu,. 

mkuf unzi, pL wakufnnzi. 
Teaching, maftmdisbo, elimn. 
Teak, msaji. 

Teapot, buli, jptl roabnlL 
Tear, cbozi, pi. maobozi, toad OBL\' 

pi, matozL 
Teazing, tbibaka. 
Tediousness, uebovu. 
Telescope, duiabini. 
Temper, tabia. 

Temperance, tawasauf, kadiri. 
Temple, bekalu (a great thing^ Aa- 

temple at Jerusalem), baniyft. 

(a building, (he temple ol* 

Temptation, majaribu, nyondA. 
Ten, kumi, pi. makumi 

a decade, mwongo^ piL mioDgOb . 
Tent, kbema, bema. 
Testicles, mapumbu, tamboa. 
Testimony, usbahidi. 
Thanks, sbukuru, usbukoia, aalam^. 

absanta, marahaba. 
Thatch, makuti (of cocoa-^ut leciMt). 
Thin sticks used to tie the malniti 

to, upau, pi. pau 
See CoeoornuL 
Theft, \n^ 
Thicket, kicbaka, pi. vichaka, koioo^- 

pi, makoko. 
Thickness, unene. 
Tliief, mwivi, pL wevi, mwibaji, pL - 

Thieving, kwiba, uizi, 'wibajL 
Thigh, upajo, pi. paja, paja, pL 




ThitMe^ sobana. 
Sailmakea'» palm, dofj-a, pi, ma- 
Thing, kitu, pL vitu (a thing of the 
«enMs), neno, jambo, mambo 
(ikinge of the intellect), 
J have don$ nothing, sikufanya 

J see nothing, sioni kitu. 
A kind thing, jambO la wema. 
Strange things, mambo mageni. 
U^ird (a third pari), t^eluth. 
TJiirtt, kill. 

Tltom, mwiba, pi, miiba or miba. 
Mc^ngoma, pL michoDgoma, a 

thorny tihrvb used for hedges, 
llkwamba, pL mikwamba, a 
. thorny shrub, 
Tlumght, wazo, pL mawazo, fikara, 

ihamiri, nia. 
Thousand, elfu, pL elfu or alafa. 
a thousand or myriad, kikwi, pi, 

zikwi or vikwi. 
' a hundred thousand, lakkL 
Thread, uzi, pi, nyuzi, katanL 
Threat^ wogofva, tisho. 
Throat, koo, pL makoo. 
Thumb, kidole cha gumba. 
Thunder, radi (near), ngummo 

Thursday, AVoBsmiBi, 
Tifiket, Mbarua, pi, vibarua. 
Tickling or tinging, muyeo, kinye- 

TieJcs, papasi (in houses), kiipe (on 

Tide, maji kujaa na kupwa. 
Spring tides, bamviia. 
Neap tides, maji mafu. 
TiHer, kana, gana. 

TtZier ropes, mijiari, sing, mjiari. 
Timher, miti, mil^o. 

Time, wakati, wakti, mi^ira. 
(sufficient), nafasi. 
(h^ur), saa. 
{leisure), faragha. 
(first, &c), mara. 
(fixed term), mohulla. 
Times (age), zamani. 
Space of time, muda. 
Period of time, kipindL 
A short time, kitambo. 
Times, in myUiplication, fi. 
Six times eight, sita fi the* 

Divisions of Time. 

There are two years in use in- 
Zanzibar; that which is most com- 
monly heard of is the Arab year of 
twelve lunar months. It cannot be 
more than about 355 days long, and 
lias therefore no correspondence to- 
the seasons. The months are de- 
termined by the sight of the new 
moon, or by the expiration of thirty 
days since the beginning of the 
previous month. It happens some» 
times that some of the coast towns- 
will begin their months a day before 
or after what was taken as its first 
day in Zanzibar. A gun is usually 
fired from one of the ships when 
the month begins. Practically the 
Bamathan is treated as the first 
month, and tlie rest are reckoned 
from it; the word by which they 
are denoted seems to mean not 
fasting, as though the Bamathan 
being the mouth of fasting, the rest 
were the first, second, third, &c^ 
of not fasting, until the montlis of 
Bajah and Shadban, which . liave- 
both a special religious character 



Tho foUowiag are iho names of the 
Arab months, with their Swahili 




Babia al aowal. 

Rabia al akbr. 

Jemad al aowaL 

Jeinad al akhr, 





Th'U ka'ada. 

Th'il haiiah. 


Mfunguo a 'one. 
Mf anguo a tano. 
Mfunguo a sita. 
Mfunguo a saba. 
Mftinguo a nane. 
Mfunguo a kenda. 
Mfunguo a moeL 
Mfunguo a pili. 
Mfunguo a tatu. 

The two great Mohammedan 
ft-asts are held on the first of 
Shaowal, when every one gives pre- 
sents, and on the tenth of Th'il 
hnjjah, when every one is supposed 
to slaughter some animal and feast 
the poor. 

The other year in use among the 
Swahili is the Nautical and Agri- 
cultural year ; it is roughly a solar 
year, having 865 days. It is 
reckoned to begin from the Stku a 
mwaka (answering to the Persian 
Nairuz% which now occurs towards 
(the end of August. Tiie last day 
of the old year is called Kigunzi^ 
and the days are reckoned by 
decades, called miongo, sing. mwO' 
ngo. Thus — Mwongo tea mia con- 
sists of the days between 90 and 
100. Mwongo wanyapii asks which 
decade it is. The Siku a mwaka is 
kept as a great day, and foimcrly 
had a number of special observances 
.connected with it. In the night or 

early in the morning every one used 
to luithe in the sea; the women are 
particularly careful to do so. They 
afterwards fill a large pot with 
grain and pulse, and cook fhem. 
About noon they serve out to all 
friends who oome ; all the firea aze 
extinguished with water and lighted 
again by rubbing wood. Formerly 
no inquiry was made as to any one 
killed or hurt on this day, and it ia 
still the custom to go armed and 
to be on the guard against private 
enemies. It used to be a fovoiuite 
amusement to throw any Indiaiia 
that could be caught into the sea, 
and otherwise ill-use them, until 
the Biitish Government interfezed 
for their protection. The year ia 
called after the day of the week on 
which it began; thus, in 1865 it 
began on Thursday and was 
Mwaka AJhamin; in 1866 on 
Friday, and was Mtoaka Juma, and 
so on. 

The seasons will be found briefly 
mentioned under that word. 

The week has been reoonstmoted 
on the Arab week, retaining only 
the Arab names of two days, .iflko- 
misi and Juma (Thursday and 
Friday), which answer to our Satur- 
day and Sunday for Mohammedan 
religious purposes, and are the days 
.which slaves in the country aro 
generally allowed for their own 
recreation or profit. Juma is a» 
named from the assembly held on 
that day for public worship; the 
Arab names of the rest ai-o merely 
those used by English Quaken^ 
first, second, third, &c 







Al «bad. 

Jama a pili. 


Ath tAeneen. 

Juma a tatn. 


AM e/kelnth. 

Jnma a 'nne. 


At robna*. 

Jama a tano. 









Juma a mosL 

The day begins at snnset ; tcMiight 
therefore in the mouth of a Swahili 
means what an Englishman T^ould 
call hut night As the days are of 
m very nearly nniform length there 
ia little practical incorrectness in 
taking sunset as six o'clock in the 
erening and reckoning the night 
first and then the day from it, hour 
by hour. Thus, seven, eight, and 
nine, are the first, second, and third 
of the night (ioa a hwanza^ a pilij 
a iaiu ya wihu). Midnight is the 
aixth hour, Mta o tita. Five in the 
mcnning is the eleventh hour of the 
night, Mta a edhcuihara. Nine 
o'clock in the morning is the third 
hour of the day, aaa a tatu. Twelve 
at noon is the sixtli hour, saa a aita, 
and four and &Ye the tenth and 
eleventh hours, 9aa a humij taa a 
edktuhara. Sunset is determined 
by observation, and a gun is fired, 
and tha Sultan's flag hauled down 
to mark it. During the Ramaihan a 
gvai is fired at half-past two in the 
morning to warn every one of the 
approach of morning, that they may 
get their cooking and eating over 
belbre dawn. This gun-fire is called 

There is another way of marking 
the time by reference chiefly to the 
liours of prayer (tee Frayw)\ the 
following are the chief points 

Magaribi, «uiwef. 

Mshuko wa magaribi (coming out 

from Bunset prayers), about 

half-past six, 
Esha or Isha, from half-past si» 

to eight 
Mshuko wa esha, about half-an" 

hour later. 
Nuss ya usiku, midnighL 
Earibu na alfajiri, between three 

and four in the morning, 
Alfajiri mkuu. rising oftfie mom' 

ing star, ahotd fowr, 
Alfajiri mdogo, davm, 
Assubui, ihe morning, i,e,, after 

Mchana, the day from assubui to 

Mafungulia ng*ombe (letting otU 

of cattle), about 8 A.M. 
Mafungulia ng'ombe makuu, is 

earlier, mafungulia ng'ombe 

madogo, is later than eight 

Jua kitwani, noon, 
Athuuri or Azuuri, noon, and 

thence till three o*doch, 
Awali. athuuri, hetioeen twelve and 

Alasiri, about half-past three, or 

from three to five, 
Alasiri kasiri, about five, or thence 

to half -past, 
Jioui, evening, from about five o» 

half-past till sunset* 

Tin, batL 

Tiv ncha, nta (M.)i 
Tillies, zaka. 
Toba4xo, tumbako. 
To-day, leo. 



Toe^ kidole, pi. ' vidole, kidole cha 

Toherij dalili, bnruhanL 
Tomb, kaburi, pi, makaburL 
^o-morroto^ kesho. 

the day after, kesbo kutwa. 

the day after that, mtondo. 

after that, mtondo goo. 
Tonfjfs, koleo, pL makoleo. 
Tongue, ulimi, pL ndimi 

A piece of cloth, dkc., to lie under 
an opening, lisanL 
Tool, samanL 

Carpenter's tool for marJdng lines, 
Tooth, jino, pL mena 

cuspids, chonge. 

Dirt on the teeth, ukoga. 

Me has lost a front tooth, ana 

Tooth stick or brush, msiiaki, pL 
Top, juu. 

{the toy), pia. 
Torpor, utepetefii. 
Tortoise, kobe. 
Total, jumla. 

Tou7eZ,kitambaa cha knfntia uso, &o. 
Tower, mnai-a, pL minara* 
Toion, mjUpl' niijL 
Trace, dalili. 
Tracic, nyayo. 
'Trade, biashara. 
Trader, mfanyi biashara. 
Traitor, khainL 
Trap, mtego, pi, mitego. 

(with a spring), mtambo, pL mi- 
Traveller, msafiri, pi, wasafiri. 
Tiny, ginia, pL masinia. 
Treoijcle, asali ya mua. 
Treasure, hazlna, kanzi, khazana. 

Treutment, mwamaleu 
Tree, mti, pL miti. 

Mkadiy Pandanus. 

Mtomondo, BarringtonieL 

'M.iondoo,CalophyUum inophyUt 
Trench, handaki. 

Trench for laying in foundationBp 
msinji, msingL 
Trial, majaribu. 
Tribe, kabila, iaifa, pL mataifia. 

(taifa is larger than kabila). ^ 

Of what tribe are you f Mtu gaol 
wee ? ' 

Trick, hila, cherevn, madanganya. 
Trot, mashindo (of a horse), matiti 

(of an ass). 
Trouble, taabu, uthia. 
Trousers, sonialL 

Trowel (mason's), mwiko, piL miikoi 
Trumpet, paanda. 

Trunk, shina, pL mashina, jiti, jiL 

(cut down), gogo, piL magogo. 

(the human trunk), MwiliwflL 
Truth, kweli. 

A truth teUer, msemi kweli. 
Trying, maonji, majarlbii. 
Tiib, pipa, pL mapipa. 
Tuesday, Juma a nne. 
Turban, kilemba, pL vilcmba. 

A turban doth, utambi, piL tambL 

ends of turban doth, utamvius pIL 
tamvua, kishungi. 
Turkey, bata la mzinga, |»2. mabata 

ya mzinga. 
Turmeric, manjano. 
Turn, zamu, pL mazamo» 

By turns, kwa zamu. 
Turner, mkereza, pIL wakeresa» 
Turnery, zikerezwazo. 
Turtle, kasa. 

Hawkihead turtle, /rom te/<«db 



tortoisesheU is obtained^ ng'a- 

mba, guamba. 
Turtledove^ hua. 
Twinf pacha. 
Ttotdy pindi, pL mapindi. 
7)fpe ifor printing, i chapa, pi, ma- 



Udder, kiwele. 
UlcerSj donda ndugu. 
UmbrelUi, mwavuli, pL miaviili* 
Native wmbrdlaf dapo, pL ma- 

Unciecameae, janaba, nchavo. 
-Unde, mjomba, pL wajomba, baba 

mdogo (moihet'e brother), amu 

{fcUhere brother), 
47ndergrowth, maj^gu. 
Vhderetanding, akili (p2.). 
Underwood, makoko. 
Unity, Tunoja. 
ZIhiver»e, idimwengo. 
Uproar, ftijo,kelele, makelele, uthia, 

Urine, mkojo. 
JUee, kutmnia, kufaftp 

{habit), mazoeza 
iUeeful things, \ iiaa. 
Usurer, mlariba, p^. walariba. 
■Usury^ iriba. 
Utensils, Tyombo. 
Uterus, mjL 
Uvula, kimia 


Vagabond, bana kwao (homeless). 

Vagina, kuma. 

VaUey, bocmde, pi, boonde or ma- 

Value, kima, (tonani, kadiri, kiasi, 

npataji, uthanL 

What is it worth ? Cbapataje ? 
Vapour, mvuke, fukizo. 

Vapour bath, mvuke. 
Vault, or vaulted place, kuba, kubba. 
Vegetables, mboga. 

Dcdoki, pL madodoki, a long 
many-angled seed pod, 

Fijili or figili, a large white 

Jimbi, pi, majimbi, a root very 
much like a hyacinth rooL 
Vegetable marrow, mumuDyo, pL 

Veil, utaji, sliela. 
Vengeance, kasasL 
Verses, masbairi. 

Uteozi, religious verses* 

Utumbuizo, verses sung at a dance. 
Vesicular eruption on tJte skin^ 

Vial, kitupa, pi, vitupa. 
Vice, uovu, ufisadi, ufiski 

(the tool), jiliwa, pi majiliwa» 
Vicegerent, kaimo, pi, makainm, 

nayibu, kalife. 
Victim, mathabuba. 
Victuals, vyakula. 
Vigil, kesha, pi, makesha. 
Village, mji, pL miji, kijiji, pL vijijL 
Vine, mzabibu, pL mizabibu. 
Vinegar, sikL 
Violence, jeuli, nguvu. 

Kwa nguvu, by violence. 

Ana jeuri. Tie cUtacks people warn» 
Virgin, bikiri, kizinda. 
Viscera, matumbo. 
Vizir, waziri, pi, mawasdiL 
Vizirship, uwaziri. 
Voice, sauti. 
Vow, nathiri, nazirt 



Voyage^ safarL 
Vtdture, taL 


WageSf ujira. 
mont1dt/i mshahara. 
sailors', halasa. 
Wailing, maombolezo. 
Waistcoat, kisibau, pL visiban. 
sleeved, cba mkono. 
sleeveless, kisioho mkono or cha 
Walk, mwendo. 
A voaXk, matembezL 
to go for a walk, kwenda tembea. 
Wall, iikuta, pi, knta, kikuta, pi. 
vikiita, kitaln, pi, vitalu {of an 
enclosure), kiyambaza (mvd 
and stvS). 
WaU-pldte, mbati, mwamba, pL mi- 

Walnut, jozL 
Wandering oihout, mzuDgnko, pL 

Want, uhtaji, nptmgnfa, kiptmgno. 

(poverty), shidda, mnasikinL 
War, vita, kondo (Mer.). 
Wareroom, ghala. 
Warehouse and shop, bokhari, 
Warmth moto, ubarara. 

Luhewarmness, nyuguyngn. 
Wart, chunjua. 
Washerman, dobi. 
Waste, QpoteTO, nharibivTi. 
Waster, mpotevu, pi, wapotevu, 

mnharibiYu, pi, waharibiyu. 
Watch, eaa. 
(vigil), kesba, pi. makesba. 
(time or place of toatching), ki- 

ugojo. pi. vingojo. 
(watching-pJaee), linda 

Water, maji. 
Fresh vjater, maji mafamu, nujl 

Water-closet, choo, cbiro. 
Water cooler (earthen hoiih}f 
guduwia, gndulia, kuzi (a 
larger hind with handles and 
Water Jar, mtungi, pit, mitnngL 
Water meUmy battikh. See 

Water shin, kiriba. 
Wave, wimbi, pL mawimbL 
Way, njia. 

the shortest way, njia ya knkata.. 
Weakness, ntbaifu. 
Wealth, mali mengi, ntajiri, nkwasL 
Weapon, selaha, mata (weapons^ i,e^ 

hows and arrows), 
MlBaiher, wakati. 
Weather side, npande goshin^ 
npimde wa juu. 
Weaver, mfoma, pL wafnnuu 
Wedding, harusi. 
Wedge, kabari. 
Wednesday, Juma a tano. 
Weeds, magngn. 
Kinds of weeds, kitawi, mdag<V- 
gngu m\ritu, mbarutL 
TTeeZc, jnmaa. 

Weight (see Measure), ntbanL 
Houo much does it loeigh f Yapfttm 

kassi gani nthani wake? 
Native Weights : 
Wakia, the weight of a silver 

doUar, about one ounce. 
Battel, sixteen wakia, aboui one- 
Kibaba, pL yibaba, one rattel and 

a half, 
Mani, wo rattel and (hr«#» 



^PiBLi,/otir Tibal)A, or six rattel. 
Frasila, thirty- five rattel, or twelve 

Farra ya mH^seventy-two rattel, 

or twelve piBhi. 
WeUf kisima, pL vifiima. 
Weeping^ kilio. 
TTes^, maghribi. 

Wed wind, timande. 
Wet, rataba, maji. 
WhaU, nyamgnmi, nguiuL 
Wheai, ngano. 
Wheely gurudumu, pi. maguru- 

Wheeied carriage, gori, pi ma- 

Whetstone, kinoo, pL yinoo. 
Whip, mjeledi, pi, mijeledi. 
A pUdted thong carried by over^ 

lookers and schoolmasters, ka- 

mbaa, kikoto (M.). 
Whirlvnnd, kisusnli, pepo za oha- 

WhisUing, msonyo, miunsL 
White ants, mchwa. 
White of egg, ute wa yayL 
WlUteness, weupe. 
Whitening, chaki. 
Whitlow, Tndudn. 
Wich of a lamp, ntambi, pi. 

tambi. : 
of a candle, kope, pi, makope. 
Widow, mjani, mjaanl, mko allofi- 

wa na mmnewe. 
Width, npana. 

Wife, mke, pi. wake, mtumke, pit, 
. watnwake, mwanamke, pi wa- 

Wilderness, bara, nyika, unyika. 
Wild people, washcnzi. 
Wild animals, nyama za mwitn, 

nyama mbwayi, oyama wakali. 

Will (mind), moyo, nia, kusuvli. 

(testament), wosio. • 

Wind, upepo, mticih wind, pepo. 
SeiB Cold, Whirlwind, Storm, East 

N&i'therly Winds, which blow from 

December to March, kaskazi. 
Soutlierly winds, whicfi blow Jrom 

April to November, kusL 
Head winds, pepo za omo (also 

stern winds). 
Wind on the beam, matanga kati. 
Winding, kizingo, pi vizingo. 

of a stream, maghuba. 
Windlass, duara. [dirisha. 

Window, dirisha, pi dirisba or ma- 
Wine, mvinyo (strong wine), divai 
Wing, bawa, pi mabawa. [fclaret). 
A wing feather, iibawa, pi mbawa. 
Wink, kupepesa. 
Wire, masango, uzi wa madint 
Wire^rawer's plate, chamburo. 
Wisdom, hekima, busara, akili. 
Wit, ujuvi (?). 

Witch, mchawi, pi wachawi. 
Witchcraft, ucliawi. 
One who uses witclicraft against 
another, wanga. 
Witness, ehaliidi, pi masLabidL 

(testimony), usbahidi. 
Wits, akili. 

Wizard, mchawi, pi. wachawi. 
Woe, msiba. See Grief. 
Woman, mwanamke, pi waanaake 
or waai^wake. 
A young woman, kijana^pZ. vijana. 
A young woman who has not yet 
left her father^ s house, one whose 
breasts are not yet flattened, 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi wa- 
8ee Person, Old, SLive. [jUvazu 



Tf'omt, turabo, matumbo, mjL 
WondeTt ajabu. 

Wonden^ mataajabu. 
Woody rati. See Firewood^ Timber, 
A woody tnsitu wa miti. 
A piece of woody kijiti, pi. vijiti. 
Kinds of wood. 
Finessi, the wood of the jaeh-fruit 

tree ; it has a yellow colour. 
Mche, a reddish wood much used 

in Zanzibar, 
Mknmavi, a red wood. 
Msaji, teal: 
Mtobwe, the wood of which the 

bed bakora are made. 
Sesemi, Indian black wood. 
Simbati, a kind of wood brought 

from near Cape Delgado. 
Sunobari, deal. 
Wooden clogs, viatu vya mti. 
. The button which is grasped by 
the toes, msuruaki, pi. misu- 
Woollen cloth, jobo (broadchtli). 
Tliick woollen fabrics, blanketing, 
Wordt neno, pi. mancno. 
Bad words, matukano. 
Worh, kazi. 

Workman, mtenda kazL 
(skilled), fundi. 

(skilful, a good hand), mstadi, piL 
Worksliop, kiwanda, pi. viwanda, 

kiwanja, pi. viwanjcu 
rTorld, ulimwenga, dunta. 
People of this world, waUmwengu. 
Worldly affairs, malimweDgu. 
Wwm, nangonaDgo, chango, 

mnio (?). 
Worth, kima. See Value. 
Womid^ jeraha, donda, pL madonda. 

kionda, pL yionda, kidondu, pL 

Wrath, gbathabu. 
Wriggle, pindi, pit. mapitidL 
Wrist, kiwiko cba mkono, kilimbQL 
Writer, mwandishi, pL waandishi» 

akatabao, pi. wakatabao QarUer 

of a letter). 
Writings, maandiko, maandisM. 
Writing-desk, dawaH 
Wrong, thulumu, sivyo. 


Yam, kiazi kikuu, pi. yiazi TikmL 

A kind of yam like a hycuiMh 
root, jimbi, pL majimbi. 
Yard (of a ship), foramalL 

(an enclosure), uanda, Qanja, vm. 
Yawn, miayo. {pL nyua. 

Year (see Time), mwaka, pL mioka. 

Last year, mwaka jana. 

Tlie year before la$t, mwaka juaL 
Yesterday, jana. 

Tlie day before yesterday, jazL 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cba yayi 
Young of bird8,ldQd&, pL makinda» 

See Chicken, d'c. 
Youth, ujana, udogo. 

A youth, kijana, pi. vijaua. 


Zanzibar, Unguja. 

The language or dialect of ZanH^ 
bar, Kiunguja. In Zantibarp 
Kiswahili is understood to mean 
chiefly the language used o» fhm 
coast nortJi of Moinbas» 
The original inhabitants of Zand^ 
bar, Mubadimu, pL Wabadimn. 
Tfieir sultan is the MuDji 
Zeal (effort), juhudu [mkmk 

(jealousy), uwivu. 
Zebra, puuda miluk 



A ^e in the fid in tlie eight following Classes. 

I. Tl ging m- 
i|f beings, 
-Jthe first 
c 5 vizir : 

n. Thtianging 
in. Th ;i, many 

by changing ki- or oh- into vi-. Kitn 
iny things : vyombo vingi, many dhows, 
ttoja, one chest : makasha mengi, many 

, the u- is omitted in the plural. If 
jito ny-. TJkucha mmoja, one claw : 
jdmbo nyingi, many songs, 
.li pengi, many places. 
1, our dying. 

The L^ tantives. \)nouns begin with k- ; if it expresses 
>gin with n 




( 83 ) 



Adjectives always follow the Substantives they 

agree with. 

Mtu mwerfia, a good man. 

Eegular Swahili Adjectives are made to agree with 
the Substantives they qualify by prefixing to them the 
initial syllables proper to the class of their Substan- 
tives, in the singular or plural, as the case may be. 
The minor rules laid down in regard to the prefixes of 
Substantives are applicable to Adjectives and their 
prefixes. The following instances will illustrate the 
ordinary application of these rules : 

Glass L M-tu *m-hay<ii a bad man. 

Wortu wa'haya, bad men* 
Jll'tu mw-eupe, a white man. 
Wortu to-eupef white men. 

Substantives of whatever class denoting living beings 

may have their Adjectives in the forms proper to the 

first class. 

Mbuzi m-kvbtetit a large goat. 

W>uzi toa-Jcvhwai large goats. 
Mhuzi mW'eJeundu, a red goat. 
Ubuzi w-ekundti^ red goats. 



Waziri mtoemaj a good vizir. 

Matoaziri wemat good vizira. 
Kijana mwema, a good youth. 
Vijana toemaf good youths. 

Class II. M-ti m-zuri, a fine tree. 

Mi'ti mi'zuri, fine trees. 
M'ti mtr-emay a good tree. 
. Mi4i mi'-ema, or m-ema, good troeiu 

Class IIL Ny^umha n-zuri, a fine liouse. 

Ny-umha n-zuri, fine houses. 
Ny-umba ny-eupe, a white house. 
Ny-umha ny-eupe, white houses. 

Class IV. Ki-tu Jci-refu, a long thing. 

Vi'tu vi-refu, long thinga, 
Ki-tu ch-epesif a light thing. 
Vi'tu vy-epesi, light things. 

Class Y. Kasha zitOy a heavy chest. 

Ma-kasha ma-zito, heavy chostft 
Kasha j-ekundu, a red chest. 

Ma-kasha m-ekundu, red chests. 

Class VL U-imho m-zuri, a beautiful song. 

Ny-imho n-zuri^ beautiful songs. 
U-hau m-refUt a long plank. 
M-Jbau n-defu, long planks. 

Class VIL Mahdli pa-pana^ a broad place, or broad plaocft 

MaJiali p-eusi^ a black place, or black places^. 

Class VIII. Ku-fa ku-zuri, a fine death. 

Ku-fa kw-emaj a good death. 

It will be seen at once from the above examples how 
to make the Adjective agree with its Substantive in 
ordinary cases. The following rules must be remem- 
bered in order to avoid mistakes : — 

1. Adjectives beginning with a vowel require pre- 
fixes which end in a consonant, wherever possible, as 
in the above instances, mweuj^e, mwelnindu, mwemay 
chej^esi, Jcwema, 


2. Adjectives beginning with a vowel must have /- 
prefixed when they are made to agree with nouns like 
kasha^ as in the instance given above of kasha jekundu^ 
a red chest. Monosyllabic adjectives prefix jt, as in 
kasha jipya, a new chest. 

3. Prefixes ending in -a, when they are put before 
adjectives beginning with e-, merge the a into the 
first letter of the adjective, as in the instances, weupe, 
wehinduj mehmdu^ peusi. This suppression of the a is 
more noticeable in Adjectives than in Substantives, 
and occurs even in the few Adjectives which begin 
with -0-; -a before {- coalesces with it and forms e. 

Weusi = toa-eusu Meupe = ma-eupe, 

Pema = pa-ema. Mororo = ma-orortk 

Wengi= wa-ingi. 

4. Adjectives beginning with a consonant are subject 
to the same rules when n is to be prefixed as Substan- 
tives of the third class and plurals of the sixth. The 
rules are given at length under Class VI. of Substan- 
tives. The following instances will show their appli- 
cation to Adjectives : 

Nyumba [ ndogo, little i 

Mbau \ n^em, strange \ n prefixed. 

Nyimibo i nzurit fine ) 

ndefUf long — r becomes d, 

mbovu, rotten — n becomes nk 

mbili, two— nto becomes nib, 

hubwoy great \ 

nenSf thick 

paTia, broad 

ton», sweet > » suppressed. 

ehache, few 
/upif short 


Besides the many apparent irregularities in ihese- 
n formations, there are two or three really irregular 
forms. These are ngema or njema (not nyema)^ good,. 
and '7»pya (not pya), new. 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel are, like the cor^ 
responding Substantives, regularly formed by prefixing 
ny-t as in the instance given, nyeupe^ from -eupe, white. 

Instances are given in the list of Adjectives where^ 
there is likely to be any practical difficulty in knowing 
what form to use. 

'Oie, all, and -enyi, or -inyi, having or with, are not 
treated as Adjectives, but as Pronouns. Instances 
illustrating their changes will be found under each. 
On the other hand -ngaj^i^ how many ? is treated as an 

Irregular Adjectives, 

Although Swahili is rich in Adjectives when com- 
pared with other African languages of the same family,, 
it is very poor in comparison with English. The place 
of the English Adjective is supplied — 

1. By Arabic words which are used as Adjectives 
but do not vary. 

Baliisi, cheap. Lainiy smooth. 

2. By a verb expressing generally in the present- 
imperfect to become, and in the present perfect to hCp 
possessed of the quality denoted. 

Fimbo imenyoJca, the stick ii straight 
Fimbo iliyonyoka, a straight stick. 

Fimbo imepotoha, the stick is crooked. 
Fimbo iliyopotolm, a crooked stick» 

JItungi um^cMy the jar is full. 
Mtungi uliojaa, a full jar. 


3. By a Substantive connected with the thing qnali- 
fied by the particle -a, of. 

Mtu wa choyo, a greedy person. 

Jmtu wa akilif a man of understanding» a wise man. 

If it is wished to predicate the quality of any person 
or thing, the verb Jcuwa na, to have, must be used. 

AfM clwijo, he is greedy. 
Kina tahctf it is dirty. 

4. By the use of the word -enyi or -inyi^ which may 
be translated by having or toith 

Mtu mwenyi afia, a healthy person. 
Kitu chenyi mviringot a round thing; 
- K(xmba zenyi ngwm, strong ropes. 
Emhe yenyi maji, a juicy manga 

When -enyi is followed by a Verb in the Infinitive, 
it answers to our participle in -ing, 

Mwenyi kupenda, loving. 

5. By the use of Adjectival Substantives which 
change only to form the plural. 

KipofUf blind, or a blind person, pi. Vipyfu, blind, or blind peoples 

Where in English a special stress is laid upon the 
Adjective, in Swahili the relative is inserted. 

Jiwe hubwa, a large stone. 

Jiwe lililo kubwa, a large stone» literally, a stone that is largeir 
Mtu wa haki, a just man. 

Mtu aliye wa hahi^ 9k just maxL 

The Comparison of Adjectives. 

There are not, properly speaking, any degrees of 
comparison in Swahili. 


The Comparative degree as it exists in English is 
rej)resented in several ways. 

1. By the use of huliko^ wher e there is ^ the idea being 
that when the two things are brought together one of 
them % marked by the possession of the quality men- 
tioned, whence it follows that it m]ist possess it in a 
more eminent degree than the other. 

Saa hii njema huWco tie, this watch is good (or the besf) where 

that is, i.e., this watch is better than that. 
Tamu huUlco asaliy sweeter than honey. 

2. By the use of zayidi ya^ more than, or of jmn cfe, a 
little more. '^"^ 

Unguja mji mkuhwa zayidi ya Mvita, Zanzibar is a large town 
more than Mombas, t.6., Zanzibar is a larger town than 

Kitu kirefu punde, something a little longer. 

3. By the use of hupita^ to pass or surpass. 

Salimu ampita AbdaUahj Salim is better than Abdallah. 
Ndiyo tamu yapita asali^ it is sweet, it passes honey, i^, it is 
sweeter than honey. 

4. Comparison of one time with another may be ex- 
pressed by the use of the Verbs kuzidi^ to increase, 
JcupinguUf to dim'tniish. 

Mti umezidi huzaa, the tree has borne more fruit than it did 

The Superlative may be denoted by the use of the 
Adjective in its simple form, in an absolute sense. 

Mananasi mema ya wapii . Where are the best pines? 

Ndiyo mema, these are the best. 

^f yupi alio mwema f Who is the best of them? 

"When this form is used of two only, it is mote 



correctly Englished by the Comparative than by the 
■Superlative. So conversely where the Comparative 
forms are so used as to apply to many or all, they 
must be translated by Superlatives. 

Saa hit njema Jculiho zote, this watoh is the host of all. 

Alt atoapUa wote, Ali surpasses them all, or, is the best of alL 


There are two sets of numerals in use in ZanzibaCr ; 
^ne is properly Swahili, the other Arabic, but in a 
^wahiliized form. 

The numbers from one to ten are as follows : 






























Tissa or TisHa 




It will be seen that for six and seven there are only 
iihe Arabic names. The otlier Arabic numbers under 
-ten are not very commonly used, but for numbers above 
*en the Arabic are more used than the purer Swahili. 





Kumi na moja 



Kumi na mbili 



Kumi na tatu 



Kumi na *nne 



Kumi na tano 



Kumi na nta 



Kumi na saba 








Kami na nane 



Kumi na henda 



Mahumi mawHi 

AtJiarini or Jdkrtn* 


Makumi matatu 



Mahumi marine 



Makumi matano 



Makumi siia 



Makumi saba 



Makumi manane 



Makumi kenda 


The intermediate numbers are expressed in the piir0> 
Swahili by adding na mojay na mbilif &c. Thus forty-' 
one is mahumi manne na moja ; forty-five is mahtmi manne 
na tano^ and so on. In the Arabic, the smaller number 
precedes the larger. Twenty-one is todhid u ishrin, forty* 
fiye is hhdmsi u arohain. The mode of counting most 
usual in Zanzibar is to employ the Arabic names .for 
the larger numbers, but to follow the Swahili order» 
ilius — 











Aiharini na moja 
Afharini na mbUt 
Aaharini na tcUu 
Asharini na *nne 
Afharini na tano 
Afharini na sita 
Axiharini na aaJba 
Aaharini na nane 
Asharini na kenda 
Thelathtnt na moja 
de. d:e. 

There is no negro word in use for a hundred ; the 
Arabic mia is universally employed, and for several 
hundreds the numeral follows it, as mia tatu^ three 
hundred. If the Arabic numerals are used they pre- 
cede the word mta, ihelaiha mia = three hundred. The 


Arabic dnal miteen is very commonly used to express" 
two hundred. 

There is a Swahili word for a thousand, hihoi, hut it 
is very rarely used except in poetry. The common 
word is the Arabic elfu. This is used in the same way 
as mia ; thus, elfu tatu is three thousand, elfu tanoy fiy&^ 
thousand, &c. The Arabic dual elfeen^ two thousand,. 
is more common than elfu mbili. If the Arabfo nu- 
merals are employed the small number comes first, the 
plural form alaf is employed, and the final of the smaU 
number is heard, thus theldthat aldf is three thousand,. 
khdmset aldf five thousand, and so on. 

Ldkki is used for ten thousand, and the word milySn 
is known, but is rarely employed, and perhaps never 
TTith exactitude. 

Fungate occurs for seven, as denoting the days spent byr 
the bridegroom in his bride's company after marriage. 

Mwongo^ plur, miongo^ occurs for €k ten or a decade, in< 
reckoning the nautical year. 

Both thjBse words occur in cognate African languages 
as cardinal numbers. 

When used in enumerating actual things, and not. 
in mere arithmetical computation, six of the Swahilit 
ntunbers are treated as regular Adjectives, the other 
four remaining unchanged. The following table will» 
«how the forms proper to each class of Substantives. 

Mtu Mti Nyumba Kitu 

1. mmoja mmoja moja kimoja 


2. "wawili miwili mbili yiwiii 
& iira'fttii mitata tatu Titatv 







4. wanne 




5, watano 




6. sita 




7. saba 




8. wonane 




9. kenda 




10 kiimi 








1. moja 






Mahali « 


2. jnawili 




3. matatn 




4. manne 




S. matano 




6. dta 




7. saba 




8. manane 




9. kenda 




10. kiimi 




The number always follows the SubstantiYe. 
I One man, mtu mmoja, 

' If an adjective is employed, the numeral follows the 
adjective, thus exactly reversing the English order. 

Two good men, waiu toema w amU. 

1 1| The Ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of the 
: Wariable particle -a. (See Prepositions.) 

. ^ The third man, mtu toa tatu. 

Tlie fourth house, nyumha ya 'fine» 
The fifth chair, kiti dia tano. 

The Ordinal numbers are : 

First, -a most, or more com- 
monly -a Jcioanza, 
Second, -a pili. 

Third, -a tatu. 
Fourth, -a 'fUM. 
Fifth, -a tamo. 


Sixth, -a sita. Tenth, -a humi. 
Seventh, -a 9aba. &o. &c. 

Eighth, -a nane. Lost, -a mvmlio. 
Ninth, -a Jcenda, 

Once, twice, &c., are denoted by the use of marra) or 

flnara, a time. ^"^ " 

^* Once, mara wio/a. 

The first time, mara ^a A;iran2ra. 
Twice, mara mhili. 

The second time, mara ya pUi, 
How many times ? Mara n^ap» ? 
Often, mara nyingi. 

Fbactions may be expressed by the use offungu, a 
part, as 

Fungu la ihelaihini, a thirtieth. 
The only fractions in common use are the parts of fu 
dollar, which are thus expressed in forms borrowed 

from the Arabic : 

One-sixteenth — Nttss ya ihemuni, 

One->eighth — Themunij or Thcmm, or Ze*mni. 

Three-sixteenths — Themuni na nuss ya ihemuni* 

One-fifth — Zerenge. 

One-qnarter — Bobo. 

Five-sixteenths — Echo na nun ya ihemunu 

Three-eighths — Rdbo na themttm. 

Seyen-sixteentbs — Bobo na themum na nuss ya ihemuni. 

One-half— ^t^g g. 

Nme-sixteentE*— ^«M na ntiss ya themuni. 

Five-eighths — Nuss na ihemuni. 

Eleven-sixteenths — Nuss na ihemuni na nuss ya ihemuni, 

Three-qnarters — Kasaa rdbo [i.e., a dollar less by a qnarter]^ 

Thirteen-sixteenths — Kassa rdbo na nu89 ya themmii. 

Seveu-eigbths — Kassa themwrn. 

Fifteen-sixteenths — Kawa nuss ya ihemuni, 

Numbers treated as Substantives make their plurals 
by prefixing ma- : 

Mahumi mawili^ t wo tens, «.«., twenty. 
Mamoja pia, all ones, i.e., all the some. 




Those words to which no hyphen is prefixed do not^take any Tariable lynaUib 

A quality for which one cannot find 
a tcord, a sort of a, -nyangd- 

Citu kiny&ngdlika gani? What 
sort of a hind of thing is this ? 


Ahlef having ability for^ or power 

over, mwezo. 
Abortive (fruitj &c,% -pooza. 
Active, -tendaji. 

Mpaka mmoja, having a common 

Kutangamana, to adjoin, 
AlilcBf sawasawa, -moja. 
Alive, hayL 

All, -ote, or -ot*«, varying as a pos- 
sessive pronoun and not a^ an 
Class i. wote. 

n. sing, mote, pi. yote, 
in. „ yote, „ zote. 
iv. „ chote, „ vyote. 
V. „ lote, „ yote. 
VI. M ^ote, „ zote. 
vn. „ pote. 
vnir ff kwote. 




-ote hax special forms after A« 
particles of time and pioMm 
po pote, whensoever» 
ko kote, whWiersoever» 
mo mote, whereinsoever^ 
Also after iJie first and $eeimd 
persons plurah 
sisi sote, we aXL 
ninyi nyote, you aJL 
Sote has the meaning of together. 

tu sote, we are together. 
Wote ha^ the meaning of both. 
sisi wote, both of us. 

2. Pia, the whde, aU of U or 

3. JamiL 

Jamii wa asikari, aU the toldiertm 
AlmiglUy, mweza vyote. 
AltenuUe, moja bade wa moja. 
Ancient, -a kale, -a «unant» Hk 

Euwa na pembepembe, to ham 
Antique, -a kikale, of the M «lyliu 
Artful, -a vitimbi» 
Awake, macho. 
lie is axcahe, yu machow 




J3a^, -baya, making mbaya with 
nouns lihe nyumba or nyimbo. 
•ovn or -boTU, malnng mbovn 
uiih nouns Wee nyumba or 
nyimbo. -ovu expresses rather 
corruptness than mere badness, 
U(fierly had, baa, pi. mabaa. 
Good for very little, thaifu. 
Hare, -tupu, making tupu vsUh nouns 
like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Barelieadedy kitwa klwazi. 
Barren, of land, kame. 
' o/ ammaZs, tasa. 
of persons, ei mzazu 
beautiful, -zurL 
JBent, of persons, Mbiongo, pL vibi- 

Best, bora (pre-eminent}. 
Bitter, -ohtmgu (-tungu (M.))> 
making uchimgu with nouns 
like nymnba, nyimbo, or kasba. 
Dawa uchongu, hitter medicine, 
Tunda uchtmga, hitter fruit. 
Mlack,'e\m. Sometimes forms occur 
OM if from -usi, tueh as wansi 
for WGUsi, mausi for meusi, and 
viusi for vyeusi or yeusi. It 
makes nyeusi with nouns Uke 
nyumba or nyimbo, and jeusi 
with nouns like kasha. 
Mind, kipofu, ph vipofu. 
Blue, 8amawi (sky colour). 

Maji a bahari (sea-water colour). 
Mlunt, -yivu (see Idle). 

Kisu hakipati, the knife is hlunt 
^old, -jasiri, sbnjaa, pi. maslmjaa. 
JSreeding (of animals), koo. • 

-Koo la mbuzi, a breeding goat 
JBroad, -pana, making panu with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 


Careless, *zembe. 
Castrated, maksai. 
Certain, yakini. 

A certain man, mfu miAOJa. 
Cheap, rakhisi, rahisi. 
Checkered, marakaraka. 
Chief bora, -knu. See Great. 
Choice, -teule, aali. 
A choice thing, bedaya, tunUy - 

Civilized, -ngwana, -a kiungwaim 

(of the civilized sort). 
Clear, safi, fasibi, -eupe (see White), 
Clear, kweu, mbayani, tbahiii ^ 

(manifest), -wazi (see Open), 

-eupe (see White). 
Clever, bodari, mahirl, -a akilL 
Clumsy, -zito (see Heavy). 
Coloured, -enyi rangi. 

Of one uniform colour, -takatilii. 
Comic, -chekesbaji, -testeshi. 
Common, vivi bivi, zizi bizi, &o., 

yee kwa yee, &c. (see PronounsX 
A common thing, jazi. 
Complete, kamili, -kanulifa, •UmH 

Confident, -tumaini. 
Confidential, -siri. 
Consecrated, wakf. 
Cool, wovisi. 
Correct, sahilii, fasihL 
Countrified, -a kimasbamba. 
Covetous, bakhili, -enyi choyo, -enjt 

Crafty, -a hila, -erevu. 
Crazy, mafuu. 
Credible, mutaabir, -tabari. 
Crooked, kombokombo, msbithaiL 
Cross, -kali (see Fierce), 

Cross roads, njia panda. 
Cunnijug, -ereyii, -a liila. 




Damp, kimaji. 
Daring, -jasiri. 
Dark, -a giza (of darJcness), -eusi 

(see Blaeh). 
Dead, -fu. 
One whose mother is dead, Mtu 
aliofiwa na mamaye. 
Deaf, kiziwi, pi. viziwi. 
Dear, ghali. 
Deceased, marehemu. 
Deformed, kilema, pi, yilema. 
Destructive^ -harabu, -haribiyn. 
Devout, -taowa. 
D^erenU -ingine (see Other), mba- 

limbali, ihtilafu. 
Difficult, -gumu (see Hard), -zito 

(see Heavy), 
Disfigured hy disease, -enyi lexnaa. 
Disobedient, aasi. 
Distinct, mbalimbali. 
Double, maradufu. 
Dressed^p, -pambL 
Drunken, -levi. 

Dry, -kayo, making kavn with nouns 
like nyximba or nyimbo. 
DuU, -vivu. See Idle, 
Dumb, bubu, pi, mabubiL 

Easy, -epesi. See Lijht, 
Elder or EldesU -kubwa. See Great 
Eloquent, -semaji, -semi. 
Empty, -tupiu See Bare, 
Equal, sawa, sawasawa, 
Eternal, -a milele. 
European, Ulayiti, -a Eizuogn, 
Even (level), sawasawa. 

(not odd), kamili. 
Every, killa or kulla. It always 
precedes its substantive. 

Killa mtu, every man. 

Killa niendapo, whe/never I go,, 
or, every time I go. 
Evident, thabiri, -wazi. See OpeUm^ 
Extravagant, mubatliarifo. 

Fat, -none. 
Faithful, aminL 
Feeble, thaifu. 
Female, rke. 

On the female side, kukeni. 
Few, haba, -chache, making chaoher 

with nouns like njumba 

Fierce, -kali, making kali wUh mnin»-^ 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Filthy, -chavu. 
Final, tama. 
Fine, -zuri. 
Firm, imara (of things), thMi (of 

Fixed (certain), maalnm. 
Flat, sawasawa, panapana. 
Foolish, -pumbafu. 
Foreign, -geni. 
Forgetful, -sabau. 
Forgiving, -samehe. 
Former, -a kwauza. 
Fortunate, licri, -enyi bahati, <^ 

Free, hnru, -ngwana. 
Fresh, -bichi. See Raw, 
Fresh water, maji matamu, maji %. 

Full, kujaa, to become full 
Full to the brink, fara, farafara. 
FuU of words, mwingi wa mik 

Full grown, -peyiL 
Future, mkabil. 




CTenarotM, karixni], -paji 
Gentle^ -anana. 

GUnitnUf «tukufti, -enyi fakhari. 
Ohdtawma, -lafi. 

Good^ -ema, making ojema or ngema 
toiih nouns like nyumba or ny- 
imbo, and jema toUh nouns Wee 
The idea of goodness may he ex' 
pressed by the suffix -to. 
Manuka, smeUs. 

Mannkato, good smells, 
Knweka, to put, 
KnWekato, to put properly. 
Greedy^ -enyi xoho, -enyi tamaa, 

-enyi choyo. 
Greati bora, -kua and -kubwa or 
•kuba, mahing kuu and kubwa 
vtith nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo. Kmx is used preferably 
of moral or figurative greatness, 
Kubwa, ofphysioal size. 
Oreat^ when applied to anything 
not material, is usudUy rendered 
€hreen^ chanikiwiti, rangi ya majam. 
(Fresht or unripe)^ -bichL See 

fibfnibofiie, -zuri. 
Sandy f -a mkono. 

A handbook, chuo cba mkona 
S<appyf -a beri, f urahani. 
•G*ard» -gumu. 

StM/ving', withy being withy or who or 
which htgs or have, -enyi or 
-InyL It varies like a possessive 
pronoun^ as in &ie following 
examples: — 
f}um L Mtu mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) mali, a rich man. 

Watu wenyi mali, rich people. 
Class IL Mti mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) kuzaa, a tree in bearing. 

Miti yenyi (or yinyi) kuzaa, 
trees in bearing, 
m. Nyumba yenyi (or yinyi) 
dirisha, a house with windows^ 
Nyumba zenyi (or zinyi) 
ditisba, houses toith windows. 

IV. Kikapu chenyi (or kiuyi) 
nguvu, a strong hask^ 

Yikapu vinyi nguvu, strong 

V. Nenolenyikweli, a true word, 

Mabakuli yenyi mayayi, 
basins toith eggs in (hem. 
VL XJpindi wenyi nguvu, a 
strong bow. 

Findi zenyi nguvu, strong 


yil. Mabali penyi mtende, the 

place where (he date-tree stands 

Healthy (of persons), -enyi afia,-zima 

(of placesy &o.\ -a afia. 
Heavy, -zita 
High, -refu. See Long, -kubwa 

See Great. 
Hollow, -a uvurungu, -wazL See 
A hoUow stone, jiwe la uvu- 
It sounds hoUoWy panalia wazL 
The hollow or open spa^oe in or 
under anything, mvuugu. 
Holy, -takatij^ 
Hot^ -a moto. 

J am ^^ nina hari. 
Hot'tem.pered, hararii. 
Hum4jLn, -a mwana Adamu, -a bina- 

damu, -a mtu. 
Humble, -nenyekevu. 
Humpbacked^ -enyi kigongo. ' 



Jgnorani (Uke a simpleton), «jinga. 

JU-Hjimenedj -korofi. 

JU-iempered, -kalL See Fierce. 

Jmtnature, -chauga^ 

Infirmi tbaifu.' 

Ingenious, -jnzL 

InquieUive, -pekuzi, -jasnsi, -pele- 

Insignifioard (mean), -nyonge. 

(unimportant), khafifiL 
Insipid, -dufiL 


Jealous, -wivo. ' 

/tt/cy, renyi pajL 

JtLst, sawa, -a haki, -enyi hakL 


Kind, -ema. See Good, 

(doing kindnesses), -fathilL 
Knowing, -ereTU, -juzi 

Languid, -tepeteva, -chovtt. 
Xar^e,.-kubwa or -kuba. See Great 

(weU-grown), -kuza. 
Lawful, bahkU. 

Lawfvl to you, balili yako. 
Laying (of birds), koo, pi. makoo. 

Koo la k'uku a laying hem, 
Laxy, See Idle^ 
Lee, -a damalini, -a chinL 
Left (hand, &e,), -a kushoto, -a kuke. 
Level, sawa, sawairawa. 
Liberal, karimu, -paji. • ^ 

^nght (not dark), -enpe. See White. 

(Tiot heavy), ^epeti, maJcing nyepesi 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyiiubo, and jeped with nour^s 
like kasha. 

Ctf ntmpertoni),- kliafifn. 

Lined (of clothes), bitana. 
LitOe, -dogo^ kaUti (A.). ^ ^shadi* 
Little wai^Tt maji nuwliadia: 
(Maji and other eimilatmomi 
being treated a» piUmM, emd 
therefore regniTing>ieiw and not 
Bmall as their adjeeftve.) 
Kidogo, pi yidogo, is meed -as a 


piece of anything» 
Living, hayi, -ziiiia. 
Long, -refo, making ndefh «nU 

nouns like nyumba or njB 
Long-suffering,, -▼nmilim. 
LtAkewarm^ -enyi uyugaviigib ' 

Mcul, -enyi wazimn, -enyi fftnltfth 

(Country dialeel). ' 
Male, 'Wooe, making mame or ndmnB 

(as from -lume) wiih momm ef 

the second class. . 

Oh the male side, knwaaesAi 
Manifest, thabiii, yraadwaKif inbtp 

yaiii, -wazL See Ope», ■ 
MaiUyi'XttDe, SeeMaU,' 
Bebera (a strong he-goeii)^ < i 
Fahali (a buU). 
Many, -ingi or -ngl, making nyin^ 
with nouns like nyumbft oft 
nyimbo, and jingi vriih nom^ 
like kasba. 
Maternal (on the moihei^e Mi)^^ 
(motherly), -a mamlL 
itfean, -nyonge. 

Merry, -cLekesbajL ■ ^ 

Middling, kadlri. • 

Mischievous, -harabn, -tnndlL' - 
dfodera^^^-kadiri- ..-. > 



(tee ManyX tele, 
kiuwaji, ndali 

u, vohi See Bare. 
ibamba, mo^'n^ nyemba» 
thfumwe like nyiunba or 
, and jembambia with 
Sb0 kasha. 
WMwdddbie), lazim, fa^ 

K1U0), kanuni 
taking 'mpya with nouns 
nmba or nyimbo, jipya 
octfw like kasha, and 
9itii nouns of place, 
•Idra. See OreaL 
shuhur, mashur. 
(see Good), *tama. See 

issing dosely and tightly), 


.yi» -tiL 
•kaidi, -shindani, Hshi- 

en), vitira. 

itholi, -juvi 

lingt), -kukun, making 

toith nouns like nyumba 

jnbo. Kukuu implies 

odm out. Where mere 

'iy is to he expressed see 


is), -see. 

y ob2,.-kongwe. 

I is he$ Umri wake 


)nyi chongo. 

Only, -a pekee, peke yake, &e» 
Open, -wazi . 
O^W, -ingine or -ngine. 
Class I. Mgine or inwingino. 

IL Mwingine or mgine. 

m, Nyingine (sin^. dn^ jfl > 
FV. Eiiigine or chingine. ' 

V. Jinginfe. 

nmngitie or mengine. 
YL Mwingine or mgine. 

VIL Pangine or pingine. 
(The) other, -a pili.. 
Other people's, -a watn. ' 
Another person's, «a mWenyewis. ' 
(not the same) ' is express^ (jf 

adding the relaiive pdirtide (see 

p. 117). 
panginepo, elsewhere, other plaeesm 


Paternal (on the faihef^e eide\ -a 
(fatherly), -a baba. 

Pat/en<, -fitahimili; -TiimiUva. 

Ferfeet, kainili, -kamilifti; -thnilifii. 

Perverse, -potoe, -tundo. 

Plain (evident),'ihBhiri, -wazL 

Pleasant, -tama (see Stideet)^ -a ki»- 

Plenty, tele. 

Polite, -aadabo. 

Poor, masikinf, fnkara, faklH. 
wretchedly poor, tiialili 
utt^ly destitute, hoh» hs^bBi 

Printed, -a chapa. 

Profdne, -najisL 

Pure, safl, fagihi, «takatiftu 

H 2 



QuarreUome, -gomvL 

Quieiky -pesL 

Quiet^ •tulivu (diH), -nyamaya 


Sare^ nadira, -a tanvu 

Baw, -bichi, making mbichi with 

noun$ Uke nyumba or nyimbo. 

Bichi is wed for raw, unripe, 

underdone, fresh, or any state 

which wiU or might change by 

keeping or cooking, 
{inexperienced), 'iiugBk, This word 

is specially applied to newly 

arrived slaves. 
jReody, tayari. 

(quick'), -pesi, mahiri, 
BebeUious, aasi* 
Bed, -eknndu, making nyekundu 

wUh nouns like nyumba or 

nyimbo, and jekundu with 

nouns like kasha. 
Begular^ -a kaida, taratibo. 
Safo za kaida, reguiar rows, 
Mta taratibu, a person of regular 

Bemarkahle, mashubur, masbTir. 
Bich, -enyi mali, -kwasi, tajiri, pi. 

Bight (hand, Ae.), -a kulia, -a 

kuume, -a kavtdi. 
Bipe, AAyvl, making mbiva wOh 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Biva is used as (he contradictory 

o/biohi See Baw. 
Batten, -ovu or -bovu. See Bad, 
Bough, knparuza, to he rough and 

Bound, -a myiringo. 
Boydl, -a kifaome. 

Safe, ealama. 
Same, moja» pL mamoja. 
Sanguine, «tnmainl. 
Satisfied or content, rathi 

Sdf'Satisfied, -kinayi 
Savage, -kali (see Fierce), mbmt 

Very savage^ ndalL 
Second, -ApUL 

A second «n command^ akida. 
Secret, -ft siri, ndani kwa ndsDl 
Separate, mbali 
Severe, -dto. See Eeaey. 
ShaJJow, [maji] haba, [ma|G 
Sharp, "IsAlL See Fierce, [chaeh^^ 
ShMi, -fapi, making fopi to<ft wm^' 

Uke nyumba or nyimba 
Shrewd, -ereyn, -enyi bnaanu 
Sick, -gonjwa, -welL 
Silent, -nyamayn. 
A silent man, mtn ^f» Umja-^ 
Slim, -embamba. See Nammk 
Slender, -embamba. See Nanem, 
Sleek, -nene. See Stout 
Slow, -yiv^. See Idle, 
Smooth, lainL 

Soaked (with rain, del,), chqpebbflpeu 
Soft, -ororo, making nyomo wUk 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo^ 
andjoTCftowiih nouns lUnlniAm, 
-anana, laini 
the soft, teketeke. 
Solid, yabisL 

Some, baathi ya, akaU ya. 
Some-^ others — , wangine— vap 
ngine — , 
Sound (heaUhy, living, enUn)^ -! 
Sour, -kali See Fierce. 
Spotted, madoadoa, marakanka. 
Square, mrabba. 
Steadfoft, thskhit 





la» -tulivu (quiet), -nya- 
(«iZenO, -zizima (very 
a<er, (fee). 
np, thieik), -nene. 
'oreign, surpruing), -genL 
^X mzungu, pL mizungu. 
jari, -enyi nguvix, -ume. 
mo, maJcing tamu with 
Kke nymnba or nyimbo. 


.• See Long, 
bS tnon, -tamba 


yrupt asali nzito. See 

djivi, pL Tijivi, mwibaji, 


amba («ee Aarrot<7),-epe£i 


ireli, hakika yako, &c, (it 

^e of yoti, d*o.)» yakini 


ly, amini 

a kweli, -neni kwelL 


i^ -ft kishenzL 
(half'€ook€d)y'hiQhL See 

Lcbi See Baw. 

used to him, tuna mazoca 


Vainy ana makuu, he is vain. 
Valuable, -a ^^amani 
Vigilant, macho. £00 AvoaJte. 


Wasteful, -poteTiL 
Walery, obelema. 
Weak, tbaif a. 
Wealihy, See Bieh. 
Weary, -ehoTO. 
Weather, -agoshini, -a jun. 
Well See Healthy. 
Well done (eooked), -Util See 

Wet, majimaji, r&taba. 
White, -enpe, making nyeupe with 

noun» like nymnba or nyimbo, 

and jeupe with nouns Uke 

Very white is expressed hy putting 

a strong accent on ^ Icut 

syllable, and sometimes raising 

the voice on it into a sort of 

Whole, -zima. See Sound, 

pia, pia yote, sote, &a 
Wide, -pana. See Broad, 
Wild (of plants), -gugu. 
(of animals), -a mwitu. 
Willing, -epesi, -pesi 
Worn out, -kukuu (of things), -ko* 

ngwe (of persons). See Old. 


TeUow, rangi ya manjano. 

Young (immatmre), -changa, making 

mchanga with nouns Uke 

nymnba or nyimbo. 
Younger, youngest^ -dpga 




The foil fomna of tlie Personal Pranonns 

I^irtau. We, ^m or fiktiw^ 

Thoo, TTciM. Ton. Kfimfi or NmimgC 

He or ahet Fsfc Thej, IFoo. 

The aeoond and thiid persons singular aie oftea ocnr^ 
tracted into IfVtf and Tee. The second penon fliagnla^ 
is always used where one person only is to ha deau)ted. 

There are no ~ special forms for ii and Acy -when-' 
referring to inanimate things. If any special emphasi^' 
makes it necessary» the DemonstzatiTe Ihononn» 
agreeing with the nonns referred to must be. Qaed» 
Similarly, for k or Ae ind Afy, the Bemonstzmti^r»' 
Prononns proper to the first class may he used, irhe» 
any special emphasis is to he expressed. 

The objectiTO cases, ■«, ikety Aim, A«r, tw, ttea, «tb^ 
eiprosDcd by the same forms as those given aboTO for' 
the sabjectiTe case, J, (kouy dec 

The possessive case, of m«, o/ (ket^ o/ Ains. &a„ i» 


^ea^i:^ J expressed b^'the PoBsesaive Pronouns (which 
8€iei p. 109) ; rtliere is thus no distinction between of vie 
«ad miner of. thee and thiney &o. 

• Habari tanguy my news, or news of me. 

The Possessive Pronouns proper, to anima^te beings 
may be used of inanimate things also ; -dke, its, and 
-oo, their, being used for of it and of them^ in referenca 
to all nouns of whatever class they may be. 

' The possessive ease may be regarded as an instance 
bf the Personal Pronouns in a special form subjoined to 
:the variable preposition -a. Of. 

* The Preposition na, with or and, is commonly joined 
with short forms of the Personal Pronoun to express 
and or with me, and or ioith you, &o. &o, 

Kami, and or with me. KaM .or Naswt, and or with us 

Nawe, and or with you. Nariyi orNanwi, and or with yon. 

Naye, and ott^ with him or her. Nao, and or with them. 

NaOj.NqyOtNtuifio, Nolo, Nujpo, Nao, Nayo, Naxo, Naasyo, Napo, 
Ndko, and or with it and dr with tliem. 

: The above forms may be used for either the^ objective 
or subjective oases after and, Nami = and lor and me, 
'Naipe s *nd;thou or and thee, &o, &o. 

. It i will be seen i^at in referring to* animate beings 
ther'lattet half of the ^ full form of the Personal Pronoun 
ia.. suffixed to the.wa-, and in referring to inanimate 
tld^Bgs the syllable suffixed is thai Which denotes the 
veJatiive {see Relative ' Pronouns, p. 117), a syllable 
whkh oocurs also as the final syllable of those Demon- 
stcative ProBOun» ^ which ifefer to a thing mentioned 
.' )Other Prepositions, til at is to say, hwa And ^a/tlro, are 



eonBtructed with the full form of the FersonalFroiiOiim 
leferring to animate beings, and with the Demonstra* 
tive Pronouns, where necessary, referring to inanimate 
things. This rule distinguishes the preposition hwat 
for, by, &o., from the form of the variable -a required 
by substantives of the eighth class and sometimes by the 
ease in -nt . 

Kvoa mimi, for me. Kioangu^ of me or my, to my [houae]. 

The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark 
the subject and object may be regarded as shortened 
forms of the Personal Pronouns. The objective and 
subjective cases are denoted by slightly different forms. 

It will be most convenient to take the prefixes de- 
noting animate beings first, as they alone can be used 
in the first and second person. The following are the 
subjective or nominative forms : — 

I, Ni' or N'. We, Tu- or Tuh. 

Thou, U' or W'. You, Jtft*-, '3f-, or Mw-. 

He or Bhd, A- (or Ft*-). They, TTa-. 

The rule for applying these prefixes is that the forms 
ending with a vowel are used when they are to be im« 
mediately followed by a consonant, and those ending 
in a consonant are used before a voweL In the third 
person, both singular and plural, the vowel remains 
unchanged before o or tf, it coalesces with e and t 
into an e, and merges in%o an a, so as to be no longer 
distinguishable. Thus, where the verb or tense prefix 
begins with a, the third persv^n singular is apparently 
without prefix and the third person plural is marked 
only by a to-. Examples of and further observations on 
these prefixes will be found under Verhs^ as playing an 

FB0N0UN8. 105 

important part in their conjugation. The form yn- im 

but seldom used for the third person singular, and 

very rarely with any but monosyllabic verbs. 

The syllables which stand for the objective or aceur 

sative case of the Personal Pronouns denoting animate 

beings, when they are connected with Verbs, are — 

Me, -fit-or-«-, U», -ti*- or -<t»-. 

Thee, -feu- or -Jfeii?-. Yoti, -mwk 

Him or her, -m- or -mto-. Them, -100-^ 

The same rules as above apply to the use of forms 
ending in a consonant before a vowel, and forms ending 
in a vowel before a consonant. 

As the forms proper to the first class of Nouns denote 
animate beings, there remain seven classes denoting 
inanimate things, each of which has its appropriate 
subjective and objective pronominal forms when con- 
joined with a verb. The subjective pronominal prefixes 


\3 II. n'fi^. 




I- or Y-. 


III. „ 


„ Y. 


Zi- II Z-. 




,» Ch- 


Vi- „ Vy- 


V. „ 






VI. 1, 


II W» 


Zi- II Z-. 


VII. ,1 




Pa- II p.. 




„ Kw- 


Ku- „ Kw-. 

Here also the forms ending in a vowel are used 
before a consonant, and the forms ending in a conso- 
tiant are used before a vowel. Examples of their use 
will be found in the sections on the conjugation of the 

There^ used as the subject of a verb, is expressed by 
Jbt- or pa- employed as personal prefixes. Ku- is the 
•more indefinite of the two. One, ihey^ or people used 



to denote what is cuetomaiy^ are expcessed. by the- 
prefix hir. 

The objiocti^re forms in reference to inanimftte object»- 
are Yory similar to the snbjectives. 

Class II. 





„ ra. 





., IV. 



w - 


n V. 



.>ff • 


•• VI. 





„ VII. 





„ VIIT. 





In these forms also u becomes w^ and % y^ before Towels.. 
.The following examples will illustrate the nse of the 
objective syllables : they are parted off from tiie rest o^ 
the word by hyphens. Instances are giirsen of botk 
Towel and consonantal verbs. 

'\ dULSS L Anni-^pendait be k>^^es me. 

A'ti-ambiay he tells me. 
A'hvrpenda^ he loves you. 

A'kw-ambia, he tells you. 
Na-m'penda, I love him. 

Na'-mw-ambiay I tell him 
A'tu-peridaf he laves us. 

A4uHimbiat he tells us. 
A'wa-penda, he loves yoo. 

A-wa-amhia, he tells you. 
A'-wa-penda, he loves them. 

A''W€Himbi€it he tells them. 
ff II. A-t^-pendaj ho likes it (mti, a iree)i 

A^yHma, he sees it. 
• ^•i'^MhJo) <h& likes them (mitt'j tfees). 

A'y-oncL, he sees them. . ,' 

. d m. AH-pefidOj he likes it ^^ttyumba, a house). 

A'n/'Oud, he sees it 
Arzi'penda* he likes them (nynm^o, honsesX 

A'Zi*ona, he sees them. ^ 


. J.-^'t-{maf lie sees itt . i 

-■ ■ '• ' A-ti-peHdOy lie likes them {vitu^ tbmgs). 

. . A^-^na^ liesees them. 

^ ^ T» Arli^penda^ he. likes it {kcukfl, ft^est). 

AAironay he sees it ^ 

..^•^•«peiicZa, he likes thein (iiiaXMl^ka,^o 
k-yo-ofki, he sees them. 
• M TI. r^i-ii-2?e7u2a,heillke8 it (ttt'm^a'SOfig). 
A'UhOfMy. he sees it (vbaUf »> plank). 
A'Zi-penda, he likes them (li^'m&o, B0Hg8)i ' 
A'zi-ona, he sees them (m&ats, plauks). 
> M ^^' il'iNi-peii^, h^ likes it or them (place or places> 
il-jMwma, he sees it or theoiL 
„ VIII. A-Jcu-peiidcii he likes it (kwiba, stealiBg). 
*• * ' ui-XruHma, he sees it. . • , 

In all cases the FronomipAl Syllable Tepresentingtlift 

subject is the first pre&cy^and therefore tbe first syllable 

of the word ; and the syllable representing the objeqt 

is the last of the prefixes and iii^nxediately precedes th&- 


r A'takfLpdrktHmct^ t^hea he shall iiee jou. 
' Wa4ipoki-m'penda, when they loyed him. . 

A'ki'kw'itat if he calls you. 

. •. 
It is quite allowable for the' sake of emphasis to uso' 

lh& full forms of the^ Personal Pronouns as wiell as ihe^ 

subjectita and objective syllables. 

Wetoe tpanipend^ mimii you love me. 

.When SO rUsed,hQt^eyer,;a Very etrongv eBfi^hasis is» 
put upon the pQTS(»iB loving^ and Jovedi and unless such 
an emphasis is intended the full forms ought not to be 
used. The abovet |)hrases might be better translated, 
by — ^For myself I love you the best; and, It is yotk 
who love me* 


In poetical S wahili an objective suffix is used as well 
as the objective prefix. The syllables used as a suffix 
are the same as those given before with na (see p. 103}« 
The suffixes are not used in the dialect of Zanzibar. 

U-fit-At/ot&f-mt, do thou preserve me. (Both the -ni- and the 

-mt' represent the object of the verb.) 
AkcHsi-<inga8ha-tOt and he threw them down. (Both the -s^ and 

the-so represent the object of the verb.) 
Ncb-vxjHivibia-nif I tell you. 

The use of the objective prefix implies a reference to 
«ome ascertained object : it is therefore properly used 
wherever in Engl^ the object woidd be expressed hy 
a Pronoun. Where in English Uie object would not be 
expressed by a Pronoun, the objective prefix has the 
effect of a definite article, and its omission that of an 
indefinite article. 

Nataka hununua nytmba (no objective prefix being aged), I want 

to buy a house. 
Nataka huinunua nyumha (the objective prefix -i> being naed)^ 

I want to buy tiie house. 
Naona mtUfil see somebody. 
NamiDona tntu^ I see the man. 

Where a Demonstrative Pronoun is used with the 
object, the objective prefix must always be used. 

Nataka kuinunua nyumba fttt, I want to buy this house. 
Namwona mtu ytiUf I see that man yonder. 

The objective prefix is used where {anything about 
the person or thing is about to be stated. 

NorWrjua aliko [I know of him where he is], I know where he ia, 
Nali'm4hania amekufa [I thought of him, he had died^ I thought 

he was dead. 
Aka-m-kata kitwa [and he out of him the head], and he out oif 

his head. 


Possessive Pronouns. 

The PossessiYe Pronouns are always placed after the^ 
Snbstantiye denoting the thing possessed, and vary 
acoording to its Class and Number. 

The unyarying parts of the Possessiye Pronouns are i 

Hy, ^angtL Our, -ete. 

Thy, • '<iko. Your, -«nif. 

His, her, or its, -a^ Their, '•ao. 

The same forms are used for its and their, of what- 
ever class the thing possessing may be. 

In many dialects of Swahili the form of the third 
person singular is -aJcwe, and in some that of the second 
is "OhwOm 

The above forms may be used as enclitics, and fre- 
quently are so with some common words, such as haha, 
{lather, fnama, mother, tntrana, child, mwenzi, companion,. 
&c. When the final letter of the substantive is -a, -e, 
or -t, it merges into the first letter of the possessive- 

Mimnangu, my child. 

Mwenzanguj my oompanioB» 
Mwandko, thy child. 

MwenzdkOf thy companion. 
Mtoandkct his or her child. 

Mtoenzdke, his or her companion. 
Mwanetu, our child. 

Mtoenzetu, our companion. 
MioanenUf your child. 

Mtoenzenu, your companion. 
Mtcanao, their child. 

Mtoenzao, their companioiL 

<!laS8 I. «tn^. w- plur, w-. 

„ II. f, w- .„ y-. 

» III» ff . y* f» Z-. 

„ IVi „ ch- „ vy- 


The initial letters proper to each class of Substan» 
«tives are.: 

Class Y. Hng. 1- pl«r. y-w 

w VI. „ W- n »•• 

ft VIL „ p- „ P-. 
„ Vni. ,; 'kT«»-^„ kw-. 

Besides these forias proper to the sevem classes» 
Substantives in the locative case in --ni require special 
forms of the Possessive Pronouns according to the 
meaning of the case. These forms are the same for 
all Substantives, of whatever class or number they 
may be. 

1. When the case, denotes heing mthiUf or to^ or fran^ 
wiihin, the Possessive Pronouns must begin with mwr» 

2. Where the case denotes mere nearness, and qan be 
translated at, by, or near, tho Possessive Pronouns must 
•begin with p^- 

3. For all other meanings the Possessive Fronoxixui 
must begin with he*. 

The following instances will show how all these rulee 

-^r^ applied: — ,. . .. 

Class L Mtu wangu, my man. 

Watu wako, thy men. 
Mbuzi wake, his or her goat» 

Mbuzi wetu, our j^oats. 
Waziri wake,' his vinr. 
Mdwaziri wake, his yizira 
^ n. Mti wenu, your tree. 

Miti yao, their trees. 
ff m. Nyumba yangu, my house. 
Nyumho tako, thy houses. 
M rV. iCtY» c^a/ce, his chair. •• * 
VUi vyetu, our chairs. 
,1 Y. Kasha lenu, your cheet. 

JUaZf a«7ia yoo, theurehcsti» 


. Class VI. TJinJfo wangu, my wong, 

Nyimbo zako, tby songs. 
19 YII. Mahali paJce, Me, her, or its place or places^ 
I» 'VIIL. Kufa ktoetU, our dying. 

1. Nyumbani mwenu, in fova house or hbusesi 

2. Nyumbani pao, near their house or houses. 
8,. Nyumbani kwangUj to. my hoxtao. 

All the Possessive Pronoun» will be found in the 
Table of Concords (p. 82), arranged under the classes 
to whicdi they are appropriate. The Peraonal Pronouns 
may be added to give emphasis. ^ ., - , 

Kisu changu mimi, my own knife. 
Vyangu rmimi, they are mine. 

The Possessive Pronoun is used for the preposition 
-a, ofy where it is intended to mark particularly the 

person whose the thing is. 

•.'■■■■ ' , ■'..■•' 

Kiti eha sultani^ the sultan's chair,- or a sultan's chair. - 

KUi choke suUanij the sultan's own chair, or this sultan's chair. 

There is another and short enclitio form for the 
Possessive Pronouns of the second and third persons 
ain^gular, which- lA much used vdth some obrnmon 
^ords, such as mume^ husband, mke, wife, ndugu^ brother 
3r sister, &c. They, consist of -o for the second person 
ctnd -e for the third, with the appropriate initial letters 
for each class as given above (p. 110). 

Mumetbe, her husband. 

Mkeieo, or mkeo^ thy wife. 
Mvoenzivoe^ his companion. 

/tnoZo, thy name. 
Shogaye^ her friend. 

It will be seen from the above tables that there is 
absolutely nothing to distinguish the singular and 
plural of Sul^tantiveS' in the form of the third class 



whioli denote animate beings, when joined with Po0«' 
sessive Pronouns. It is probably for this reason, an3 
to avoid ambiguity, that they are frequently treated as- 
ordinary Substantives of that class« 

Ndugu yangUf my brother. 
• Nduguye or Ndugu yoke, his brother. 

Nduguzo or Ndugu zakOf thy brothers. 
Mbuzi getUf our goats. 

Possessive Pronouns are sometimes used in English 
where Personal Pronouns are used in Swahili. 

WafM'm'funga mikono nyuma [and they tied him hands behmdl. 

and they tied his hands behind him. 
AJii^in-Jcata hitwa [he cat him head], he ont off his head. 

After verbs of coming and going Possessive Pronoun» 
beginning with z- (or in other dialects with vy- or ih-J 
are used somewhat as — ^his way, &c.y were used in old 

Amehwenda soAw, he has gone away, or he has gone otH 

Twende tetu^ let ns be going. 

Wameikuja moo, they have come home, or they have come awaj;;. 

Eeflective Pbonouns. 

The Swahili verb is made reflective by prefixing -fi^ 
-as if it were a pronoun in the objective form. 

Norji-yenda^ I love myself 

Self may be translated by the Arabic word, nefn^ 
nafeif or nafusi ; or by the word mayo^ a heart, pluxv 
mioyo or nyoyo. 

Nafsi yanguy or moyo wingu, myself. 
Nafvi tetUf or nyoyo feiic, ourselves. 

PB0N0UN8. 113 

Itself» ttiemselves, &o., may also be expressed by tke 
^ord -enyewe Tvith the proper prefix. 

Class L Jlfi^ mvoenyevoe, the man himself. 

Watu wentfewe^ the people themselves. 
Mbuzi mwenyewe^ the goat itself. 

Mbuzi wenyewe, the goats themiselvcs. 
Waziri mwenyetoet the yizir himself. 

Miwaeiri wenyewe, the yizirs themselves. 
19 IL Mti mwenyewe^ the tree itself. 

Mitt yenyeuje, the trees themselves. 
,1 IIL Nyumba yenyewe^ the house itself. 

Nyumha zenyewe^ the houses themselves. 
9» rV. KUti ehenyetoe, the thing itself. 

Vitu vyenyetoe, the things themselves. 
,1 y, Kcuiha hnyewe^ the chest itself. 

Makaaha yenyetoe, the chests themselves. 
I» yi. Uimbo mtoenyewe, the song itself. 

Nyimbo zenyewe^ the songs themselves. 
„ yil. 3fa^»j9en^eii^6, the place itself. 

Mwenyewe may be nsed for myself B.ndi thyself , as well 
«w for himself or herself. 

Wenyewe may be used for ourselves and yourselves, as 
^%rell as for themselves. 

'By myself, by ourselves, &c., are expressed by peJce 
-^nOi the appropriate Possessive Pronoun. 


PeJce yangu, by myself, or I only. 
Pehe yetUy by ourselves, or we only. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

There are three Demonstrative Pronouns. 1 , denotin g 
objects at no great distance. 2, denoting objects pre- 
'Viously mentioned. 3, denoting objects at a distance. 
They have each forms proper to the several classes of 
Substantives and to the three meanings of the case 
in -ni. 



Clam L Mtuji,uyfti%\4fixaan^ .. m ^ ^. ,>>; 

... l!F(Di^t^AjQiffa,/4i^i people v.. . 

Mbuai hf$ifu^iii\a! go$bt 

..:,. J(fZ)iu2fAa«>a»tbe99goata^ . - 
iToz/n ftttjfii, tibjl^ Yizir. . . ;} 

.. MawazirLhmvat tfi^M^.Tizirik 
^ U. MtihuUfiiiiaiiGO. ' \ '■* 

Miti hiit tjiese^ tree?» 
„ IIL ^yi«OT^.ftu;t,,tUifL;lw^ . -1 

^ Iv;^«ttMH:ftisrth%r . . /; -, // 

f9 VI jKcu^ahiUi i^ cheat, .., 

tt VL l/tmftp A»V».tbi? ,»oug. . 

^ . NymkQ hmr^9(^.9mi&m.. 

«, VIII. Xtf/a huku, this dying. 

2. ^lyum&ant /iopa, heie» 'by ^e hoiise, .. . ^| ^-s 

3. ^ytff»&(Vi» /ittAiiiy ]^i^,,to.the^oafie.' 


» f 

{ « - # «IP 


1 w « 

It will be observed that the second iflyU^ilifl^^ip^^e^el^. 
of these- D^mpnsi^tiyips M ^ ^.p7(^amilpt iH^]r)I%V^ 
given at p. 105, anith^t aUbegic^ Wth:.4tKJ#W«^ 
the vowel of the pronominal syllable. 

2. This or (hat, ihe8^,0x.fhQai^,x^fenixi% #2 something 
mentioned before. Both the other forms can also be 
used in this sense» 

Cf«A96 J, Mfuhuyff^^j^mBJu / -^r-^l^ 

Watu hao, these people^ . ^ 

Mbtizi huytf, iiiAt goat, '< *' 

■■'.''• MhuziJuiOfiha^goata, .'l.-.-.i r 

H jj ll,,M^lm^\)^tise». . , ry_ ■„••;■•% 

Miti hiyOf thosQ trees. , . * 

n ni. Nyumba Jiiyo^ that honse. - ' 

Nyumha hizo, those liouset. . 1 

Vitu hivyOf those thingg. 
f, y. Kasha hihy that chest 

Jlfa^EOs&cr'Jiia^-thbM chests. 
^, YL l^^tn^o^feiM^ihftt song. 

•v^j^m&olK^of those songtti 

^ YP./jtfa^Zt i^Kfpo^ that pliKse OT; those plM^ , . ' n 
»j- Yillv £»/%! i^ttXfo, that dying. ^ 

2. Nyumbani hapo, hy that^J|io^se^; . 
8. ^^|(m&am fttt^ tQ that, house. 

B. 7%a< and <Ao86 or yonder, lef&ikmg^^^Mpgl^^t k' 
dfetance. ' ^; 

Class ' L MhiyuU, yonder mah, "i' 

TTo^ttti^aZe, tbof^: people* 

^ n. jift» u2e, that tree. 

..,-■. ^., f-w.^ .^i\ ^MtUiiU^iboii^iteeBj ' ■ ' ^ '■-' • 

N^umha ziU^ those houses. 
^ IV. Kitu hile or c/iiZ6,.t}iaii thing; 

Ft^u t?t(e,^ttiose thidgi . 
^ V. £a«^(t <^, that chest. , 

Makdj^'^aie, those cheats. 
^9 VI. ?7t«5o flic, that song. 

.^j^wii^z^^'l^os^ songs. _ ^. .... ' p 

U VII. Mahali pale, that place or tho^^j)1aoef. . . 
«, VIIL Xtf/a ftiife, l^t dying. ^ / ^ 

2. JV^um^ant' |)a^, by that house. 

It will be seen that these last Pronouns are made 
%y adding -Ze to the second gyllahle of the first set of 
X^^^x^^ajt|3lU)^Q0^ ;.S9fii0tm«i9. jUw whola^of tthei first &im 

Jiikile, himle, hilile, hayale, ht^h, hukule. 

' I 2 


An increase of distance is denoted by a stress* uo' th» 

final syllable. 

Mtu yuUf that man yonder. 
Tulee, that one further ofEl 
Tuleee, that one still further. 

The more stress is laid on the final syllable, and the 
more the voice rises into a falsetto, so much the greater 
is the distance denoted. 

When the substantive is mentioned the demonstra* 
tive always follows it. 

The demonstratives are frequently doubled, and then» 
have the meaning of just ihis^ thai very^ &c. 

PalepaU, jnst there« 
Mti uleuUf that very tree. 
Jtfaneno ydUycHe, jnst those words. 

With the first set of demonstratives the final or true 

pronominal syllable is doubled and prefixed to the usual 


Fapahapa, jnst here. 

Vivthivif just these things. 
Zizihiziy those very, &c. 
Kukuhuku^ jnst to this place. 

These forms are also used to denote that there ia 
nothing special about what is mentioned. 

Zizihizi, jnst these and no more. 

Huyo is often used when people are chasing a maik 
or an animal. 

^11^0 / Huyo 1 = There he is I There he is I 

There are other forms which ought probably to be- 
regarded as demonstratives, as they have the force of,. 
This is it, and. This is not it 



i . Lndtmi,itiaL 

ndiii, it is we. 

ndivfe, it is thou. 

ndinifi, it is yon. 

ndiye, it is he. 

ndiOf it is they. 


IL ndio, thin U it 

ndiyot these are they. 


riL ndiyo. 



IV. ndto^ 



y. fidOo. 






VIL n(2t|)o. 


VIIL ndiA;o. 

ndf mo, it is here, or it is theie. 




The negative is made by substituting «t- for ndL 
Siye^ it is not he. Sieho, de. dtc, this is not it 

{Both forms may be used interrogatively. 

Ndiyel Is it he? Stye$ Is it not he? 

Other demonstratives may be used with these for the 
«ake of greater emphasis or oleamess. 


Belativs Pronouns. 

The Selative Pronouns have special forms appropriate 
to the several classes of Substantives and the three 
Meanings of the -m case. 

Class I. Who and Whoniy ting, ye or yee, plur. o or wo. 


A I.. 


rr f.fvi.y o 



















or wo 





























These relatives occur most freqtibntly in -their 
flimple forms in coimectioii with -o^, all. 

ye9 yote^ wo vogU^ whosoever or wliomnoover. ' ' 

too wote, yo yote, $o zoU, cho chote^ vyo vyoU^ lo Me^po pote^ what» 

floever* . i 

mo moUn whereiiifiM)ever, inside everything; 
/» po<«, wheresoever or whensoever. v 

*o ^ote, whithersoever or wheresoever. 

When connected with the substantive verb, to Ix^ 
that verb is represented by the syllable -K-. 


s I. aliye, [he] who is. 

walio, [they] who are.. 


IL «Zio, [it] which is. , 

iliyo, [tiiey] whiehiai^ai 


. IIL t%o. 



iV. Ulieho. 

vtttvyo:' ''" ' ■ 





\L ulio. 



VIL palipo. 

pdUpo, ,>> 


Vm. hfdiko. 


1. mulimoy wherein there ia 


2. palipo, where there is. 

; . 1 1"' :r, " r ■ 

8. kuliho, where there is. 

There is a disposition in Zanzibar to make -o the 
general relative. Thus one very often hears- alio for 
cliye, Ulio for &7tZo, and ilio for iliyo. 

When joined with the verb the syllable denoting ih» 
relative follows the sign, of the tense if there is one. 

The relative may be joined with the verb to form the 
present, or rather, an indefinite tense, without the use of 
any sign of time whatever. It is made precisely as in 
the examples given above of the use of the relative 
with the verb, to be, only substituting the particular 
Terb for the syllable -Zt-. ' 

[he] who loves, ap6ndaye, 
[they] who love, teapettdaa, • 

■ . V. 



[ihe tree] which fadlar, tiangfttl«o. ' * > 

{ireefi] which grow,' imeayo. - 
[the house] which falls, yan^^ka^Oi 

[hooses] which tall; ziangukazo. 

•.■\>,.\-i-, . ■■'■" '.,■•■''-''' 

Wlieretiie relative is the object tif the 'verb the same 
fonu may be used, only introducing the objective prefix 
proper to the ^ubstaiitive referred to, and changing tho 
personal prefix. ' * 

■ 1 1 

[fruit] which I love, fitlipendcHo, •?»- and '-lo^ liein^j the syllables 
appropiiaie' fd tUndc^ a fruit, and other nouns of the Filth 

When taken to pieces the Word is seen tg be, m\ I, 
-K-, it, -jpendchr love, .4o, which. ' 

Belatives are rarely nsed in Swahili with any tenses 
estoept the present imperfect (the •^nb'- tense), the ^ast 
perfect (the -K- tense), and a peculiar form pf the future 
(the 'tdkct- tense). The following instances will show 
the way in which tjie relative, is expressed with these 
several tenses both as subject and object. 

Class I. [the maj|i] • who 1$^ coming, ana^ye-huJtL 

M. ythoee^vqeyqU-ye-kuja' 

,» . who will come, atuftiorye-Zcu/a. 

^ wl|om he Is striking, , ana-ye-mptga, 

„ whom we loved, iuli-ye-mpenda. 

. . . [the men] who will beat U3, MoatakaHy-iupiqa» 

„ whom we will beat, tuta^a-o-wapigcu 

■ .,'•'.'.. ■ [tiieox] which is eating, ana^^e-^a. • 

,, which wa shall CAt, tutdka^e-nda. . 

i» . 1I« [the tree] which fell, uU-ihanguka. ' [ . 

„ which he cut down, ali-o-ukcUa, ^ 

[the trees] which 1?ere vislbte, iK^jftMrnefcanoi ■ 

„ which we saw, tuUryo-iona* . - ■ 

il IXI. [the house] which fell down, tU'yo-a7igit7ccu 

I ' ' • „ which I hbughtl rUli-ifihimiiUiia. - 


Class III. [the houses] which fell down, tUi'WHJMgukcu 

„ which I bought, ntU-ZQ-zinunwu 

„ IV. [the knife] which cut me, kili-ehfhnikaia, 
„ which I took, niU-dio-JUtuKia. 

„ which I gave you, niU-ehth^euptu 

[the knives] which fell down, vtU^ihangukam 
„ which I gave you, nili-vyfhkupa» 

,» Y. [the chest] which is unfastened, lilulo-funguktu 
„ which I unfastened, nm^chUfungwu 

[the chests] which were carried, yo^i-yo-eAwXpiilliMi. 
„ which they carried, loaZt-yo-yacftttftiia. 

M YI. [the song] which pleased me, vU-o^ipefndexa, 
„ which I liked, nUtHMi^penda. 

[the letters, nyardkci] which I wrote, nt2t-so-fl(iiMii%a. 
I, which I sent to you, n%U''ZO''kupeUike€^ 

„ which reached me, zili'SO^ivoasSUtu 

M YII. [the place] which I live in, nina-po-pakaa. 
[the places] which I saw, ntli-p<hp<uma. 

The particles of place and time, mo, po^ ifco, are treated 
as relative particles. 

alimOf where he is (within). 
alipo^ where he is (if near). 
cUikOf where he is (far off). 
anapoJctoenda, when he is going. 
anaJcohwenda, whither he is going. 
alimokioendaj wherein he went. 
alipoktoendoj when he went. 
aUkokwenda^ whither he went. 

There is one ambiguity which cannot be avoided 
where both subject and object are of the same class. 
Aliyempiga may mean, who beat him, or, whom he beat ; 
kilicTiohikata may mean, which cut it, or, which it cut» 
supposing hisUy a knife, to be one substantive, and Jfct/% 
a thing, to be the other. 

The negative is combined with the relative by the 


tise of «^. There is but one negative tense, and it 
-embraces all times, past, present, and future* 

aMye^ [he] who is not, who will not be, who was not 
wioangukiat^ [the tree] which falls not, which is not falling, which 

did not fall, or, which will not falL 
nhichokujpa^ [the knife] which I did not give yon, do not give 

yoo, or, shall not give you. 

Where the relative is used in English with a prepo- 
sition, the relative particle is sometimes joined with the 
verb and also with the preposition ; but more commonly, 
the force of the preposition being contained in that of 
«ihe Swahili verb, no special form is required. See 
Derivative Verbs, p. 157. 

The man whom I went with, mtu naU-o-hwenda naye. 
The man I went to, mtu ndH-o-mtoendea* 
Where I came from, nili-po'toka. 
Where I am going to, nina-ko-hwenda. 

As the Swahili has no proper word for to Kave^ but 
Jises for it huwa na, to be with, cases of double relatives 
:<ire very frequent where having is mentioned* 

The knife I have, kisu nilicko naxiho. 
The houses you have, nyumha utizo nazo. 
The knife I had, hisu nilichokuwa nacho. 
The houses you had, nyumba ulizohuwa ruuo. 

The relative is used in some cases in which it is not 
.employed in English. 

Who went by ? Nani ali-ye-pita (who is he who passed) f 

He likes this fruit, iunda hili ndilo alipendalo (this fruit is it 

which he likes). 
The boy is going, k^ana ciendao. 
Whosoever may come,^ee yote atdkayehuJcL, 

There is another way of expressing the relative by 


mMiiB of awibaye or amhaye hiam^^ though ndl tneA 
in Zanzibar; When it is employed the finilHEryllable of 
aimbaye changes accordiQg to the roles giren above, 
making ambcLOj amhazo^ awbaicko^ Qmbatyo^ &a 

Sometimes an English relative can be exjiits&ed by 
the nse of mwen^', &o., having, . ' ^ 

The man whose house it is, miu mwenyi fisfumbo. * 

. ■. ■ • '.'..■. ■ . • 

Interrogative: and other Pti6i!r6tTlf& ' ' 
. There are four Interrqgatives whioh are not variably 

Nanii Who? I AtVt Whit^ » 

Linii When? | Gatnii Wh^aort? 

Oani always follows the substantive it is oc^nnecteA 


Mtu ffonif What man? - What sort of man? 
KUuganif What thing? . What sort of tiUng? 

' What? lis sbmetimes expressed by the'lfyllable 4f 
suffixed to a verb. 

Atapatanif What will, he get? 

Amefanyanif What has he done ? 

Kunani f What is there ? What is the matter? 

Kinaninif What has it? What is the matter with it ? 

Wananii What have they? WhataJeiheyatP' *' 

What o'clock is it ? is rendered by Soa ngapif How 
many hour»? ' 

The interrogative Which? is expressed by «^ pie» 
ceded by the appropriate syllable, which is the same as 
that used as the subjective personal prefix to verbs» 
It alwajrs follows the iiionn it referi^ to. - •» ^ • 




OsiA» . I. Which [man] Yupil tmen] Wapif i 

„ 11, „ [tree] JJpif [tree»] Ipii 

„ m. „ [house] Ipif (1iduse8]'2i/»? 

sX,:i "'w'- Vfi\ » [thing] Kipif [things] FipfJ^i 

V. „ [chestp] Lipii [cheats] Yap%9 . 

VI. „ [song] F|>»? ^ng^]. Zip»? 

VII. „ [place] Tapii [places] Po|)ff ' 

The Interrogative, if folloW'ed hy a Verb, refquires 9^ 
telative iKri^h it. . 

Mtu yupi apendaye kioendaf Which [drtthat] tosm Kkesi to go ^ 
Nyumba ipi ikupendezctyo f Which house db'you Itk^ ?^ ' 

Nani f who ? is also generally followed by a relative^ 

Nani dliopo mlangoni f Who is at thei door ? ' 

It is, however, allowable io say riafii yujpo rnlangoniy 
which is a literal translatioii of the Englidh; 

The interrogative Where? is wajn for ajnf 


Wenda wapif Where are you going > 

When referring to a substantive wapi mnst always^ 
'be preceded by the tsyllable which is the proper sub- 
jective personal prefix for that substantive. I'his prefix. 
very probably represents the substantive veirb, and may 
often be tranialated by is itf otdrethepf ' '-" ' 

Class I. Hng, Yu wapi? plur, Wawapi? 

„ II. „ U wapi ? „ I wapi ? 

,j III. „ Iw^i? „ Ziwa^i? ' 

„ IV. „ Kiwapi? „ Viwapi? 

„ f Y, „ Li wapi ? » Ya wapi ? 

.. ,„( VI, „ Uwapi? „ Zi wa^^ 

„ VII.. n Pa wapi? „ , Pa wapi? 

. 4l fuljer fopn to reipr^sent «rAere «« itf or irfet*^' are^ 
Aey f is made by adding -ho to. the personal prefix^ 

rti^'o tcapif Where ii he ? Zih&wtpif Where are thejr ?' 


The nonn referred to follows this interrogative. 
I voapi merikebu ? Where is the ship ? 

How? is expressed by the syllable -Je suffixed to the 


Nitakipatajef How shall I get it? 

ChaZifanywaje ? How was it made? 

•UUpendaje^ ao ^upikOf ao bidU f How dp yon like it, cooked or 

Asenuye f [How does he talk ?] What does he say ? 
»Urefu vxxJee ^apak^e f How long is it ? 
Umri wake apaiiaje f How ohl is he ? 
Kioenda ehini huxike chapataje IHHmdjf How deep is it [a 


The use of kupaia^ to get, in these phrases must be 
noticed. There is no direct way of attaching the homt 
to the adjective ; they say therefore, '' His age, how 
gets he it ? " 

How many? is expressed by -ngajpi^ which is treated 

^s an adjective. 

How many people? Wdtu wangapif 
How many goats ? Mhuziteangapiatngapit 
How many trees ? Miti mingapi f 
How many houses ? Nyumba ngapif 
How many chairs ? VUi vingapi f 
How many chests ? MaJcasha mangapi f 
How many planks ? Mbau ngapi f 
How many places ? MahaU pangapi f 

How? is in some cases expressed by the use of other 

How long ago ? Tangu Uni ? [since when 7] 

How much ? Kadri gani^ or KioMt ganif [what quantity 7} 

How often ? Marra ngapi f [how many times ?] 

The exclamatory What I is rendered by the inter» 
irogative pronoun in «;pt. 

Furahaipi! What joy I 

( 125 ) 


BegTilar SwaMIi verbs always end in -a, as, hupcnda^ 
^ love, hupiga, to beat. 

Verbs derived from the Arabic may end in -c, -i, or -Uy 
us, husamekej to pardon, haaajiri^ to travel, hiharibu^ to 
destroy. Verbs in this form do not change the finaf 
"vowel, where verbs in -a regtdarly do so. 

The simplest form of the verb is used in Swahili» 
as in English, for the second person singular of ther 

Pe/nda! Love! Figat Strike! 

Samehel Pardon! Safiri! Travel I 

Haribu! Destroy! 

The second person plural imperative is made by 
adding -nt\ All the other tenses and moods are made 
ly prefixing syllables to the simple form, except that 
"Verbs in -a change -a into -e in the present subjunctive, 
ctnd into -t in the present negative, and a -to- is inserted ' 
to mark the passive. 

There is a negative as weU as an affirmative con* 
jtigation, in which the tenses and persons are also dis^ 
tinguished by prefixes. 

The various prefixes form in pronunciation or^ wor J 



^ith the verb, and when taken to pieces denote iXm 
^rson, number, tense, mood, subject, and object. 

" Amekwamhia = A-mehw-amhia = He-hos-you-tell s= He has told 

Wdliponipenda = Wa-U-po-nt-penda = They-did-when-me-lofi^ 

= When fhoy loved me. 
NUahcLcholtupa = Ni-taka'ChO'lcu-pa = I-8hall-wbich-yoii*giTe-ti» 

= Which I aball give 1o you. 
Ningalimwona = Ni-ngali'miO'Ona =f I-shonld-have-him-see = I 

should have seen him. 

The Bylkbl§3 UjP^d. jas. ,^rp&^f^rh»,lp . iJ»^: tj^trfttpe 
«neaning standing separately as i^y l^Y^^i^^.ootf^t^ 
bined witti th^ y^yb jip: their, pro|)fic*cadp]c^,s^9pTJii»i 
re£UK)ny. tiipr^foire, ,as ^ shqw. ith^{i9nD|)f^;rPfo^ 

ii|inoiati9]i,^ they, with th^ v^rb m]aft^ails,b^^irri^|i9lM>P3 
one word. 

Xifite of their sevei^al .prpfixe^ MJ^l }^^\f^j^t^^.gfB^ 
of ^flt\preUTOn^y,plja^a^;ti^^ 1;p,il^8fa9f^,|9^Tfcio|4- 
this handbook (p. 237). The personal prefixes |f$^,1i^^ 
found described unde^ Pronouns (p. .104),^ and seen 
a,rranged under their %ppropriat;|^-Qj|^se9«pi|fj£h436tanti 
in the Table of Concords, p. 82. '• 

Indbfin^t^ Tenses, , • • •, . „. rrr,., 

1. ;Cu81bqI^aIy,aMBtip^^j^Q,0^pl)Baa«a^'^^ 
to the; yexjU .In. t^nfcHr»( ther^t is. jp^^idifi^iootiin:-^ 
«lumber, perB^,j op, time.. '. , : \ <.. 

Hu-enda, one goes, they go, everybody goesrhd ^pml to- got- 

2.- T^:§,:^^elat^i.Ye .Wi^it)©..^^ Tcith H^i^vfi ^ i ^b sij ln 
any sign of time. The personal.; prefijq miljr^.j^i.paiiikf 
l^efore the. verb» find th^,^?bttixeiBig9i :imffizeditoite:& *. 


: V . VEBBSi '.' 127. 

' ii-pencfa-ye, [^e] who loves* 

^•. VL U-angukorOi . : 

„ VII. P;aii$w4»'^) wl)^.iiin8. 

„ Vm. Kw7mf^lca4cffy:i»h^1iitxM\8.,, 



Plur. n L Tt^^wfMlcw), [t?eJilrliolqve. * 

' ' •' ' Fa^i*fefiiftr-«^;^they3 who love. 

^ - • '' ni • I^angukk-yOiOr, X'-anguha-yo, which falL 

„ rV. iFy^?in^ii*a-l70> . 

y^v'i '>VIU';Z£*<wt^Mra*«Oy 

.v^ •■ ■ 

The relative may li^rescttii thi^^object of' the verb^ 
ft>Tit in that case the obj^t;|^^^. gi^,^p;rl05-d) ought to 
tt>e.mfeHa4bet?ice^^ ft»d^1^e,y«^yl>it 

M*-tca-p«iMfa-o, [youor-th^Jw at yr>.\.j-^ 
. , p. Ni-i^-fienda-o pi] w^ich .j^ lo^e. ' ' * ' ^ 
Hf. Nt't'-pencUi-yo^ 

»VL Ni-a-p^nda^ ' .< '^ ' - -^ 

.... . 4J.V 




J * 






• ' 




! ^ 

' • ' ! 





. W: 

VI., Ni-zi'^idO'ZO^ , .1 V 

.3. The negative form, expressing Who, or whielk doe# ^ 


not, is made by the personal prefix, tho syllable 
[not] and the relative sign, followed by the verb. 

Sing, Class L Nisi^e-pendOf [T] who love not. 

U'Si-ye-penda, [thou] who loyest not 
A-n-ye-fenda^ [he or she] who loves not 

II n. IT-n-o-an^tf^ which fidls not, 

II m. I-9i-y<Mmguhotj 

II TV. Ki-n-cho^nguhcLj 

„ y. Li'Bi-lo-angvkat 

n YI. TJ-ei-iHingukeLy 

I, yn. Pa-et-po-anguA», where fftlls not 
Xtt-M-^EO-anyu]^ whither falls not, 
Mu-81-mo^nguktiy wherein fiedls not 

Flur. M L Tu'si-o-penda, [we] who lore not 

M-si-o-penda, [you]. 
Worsi-o-peTida, [they]. 
n n. I'8i-y(hanguka, which fall not 

,1 III. Zi'Si-zthar^uha, 
M IV. Vi'Si-vyoHijigukaf 

91 y. Ta-M-^o-an^^ 

„ yi. Zi-H-zo-anguka» 

Where the relative is the object of the verb, it i» 

expressed as in the affirmative tenses, by the form of 

the relative particle and the insertion of the objective' 


Ni-H-zo-zi-penda, which I do not like. 

This negative tense may be applied with equal pro» 
{iriety to past, present, or future time, amounting ix^ 
e£fect to a negative of the relation at the time and under 
the circumstances implied in the context. 

The application of the relative to the definite affir» 
mative tenses is explained under Pronouns (p. 119). 

The difference between — ^which I like — and — I who- 
like it — ^is to be found in the form of the relativ» 

VERBS. • 129 

[Nywuibokl niH^o-dpenda, [the house] >Yhich I liked. 
nili-ye-dpenda, I who liked it 

[^KUu] nUi-cho-kipenda^ [the thing] which I liked« 
nili-ye-hipenda, I who liked it. 

Definite Tenses. 

The important part of each tense is the tense prefix. 
It is preceded by the personal sign of the subject, and 
may be followed directly by the verb. If any signs of 
relation are used they are sufi&xed to the tense prefix, 
and the objective prefix (if any) must always imme- 
diately precede the verb. The tense prefix is the same 
for all persons and both numbers. The personal prefix 
is the same for all tenses, except the slight changes 
dependent upon the question whether the first letter of 
the tense prefix is a vowel or not. 

In order therefore to construct the proper form of 
verb, it is necessary first to ascertain the proper personal 
prefix, next the proper tense prefix, then the particles 
of relation and objective prefix, if they are required, 
and then to finish with the verb. Thus, to say, A house 
has fallen down. A house is nyumha, a word of the third 
class ; the proper personal prefix for a singular noun of 
the third class is -t, the tense prefix for the present 
perfect is -me-, the verb to fall la hu- anguka (the hu- 
being the sign of the infinitive : we have therefore — 

Nyumiba imecmguha = a house has fallen down. 

If we wished to say. Six houses have fallen down ; we 
£nd that nyumha being of the third class keeps the same 
form in the plural ; sita is six, and must follow its noun ; 
the subjective prefix proper to plural nouns in the third 


class is n- ; the teiise prefix and the verb remain the 

NywiAa 8ita zimeanguha, six houses have fallen down. 

To take one more complicated example, I saw the 
knife, which yon gave him. The personal prefix for 
the first person is ni- or n^, the tense prefix of the past 
perfect is -aZt-, to see is TctA-ona^ knife is him, a substantive 
of the fourth class. As some particular knife is intended 
we miflst use the objective prefix, and that for a singular 
substantive of the fourth class is -Jb-« As the tense 
prefix begins with a vowel we must use the personal 
prefix which ends in a consonant. We have therefore—!- 

Nalikiona hisu = I saw the knifo. 

* Which you gave him.* The relative referring to a 

singular noun of the fourth class is -cho-. It must 

follow the tense prefix, which is -oZt-, as before, for the 

past perfect. The sign of the second person singular 

is tt- or to-; the verb, to give to, is hu-pa. The object 

of the verb is Tiim, the objective prefix for nouns of the 

first class is -mu- or -m-. Putting these together we 


Which you gave him, wdlichompa. 

And the whole sentence, 
I saw the knife which you gave him, nalikiona hiau wUichampa, 

It mui^t not be forgotten that hi- and pa- may be 
used for ihere in an impersonal sense. 

Kulikuwa or Palikuwa, there was or there were. 
KuJcapiga, dtc, and there struck, &o. 



iNDioATiyi: Tenses. — ^Present. 

There are in the language of Zanzibar two Presents, 
cme Indefinite and one Imperfect. 

1. The Indefinite Present answers to our oommon 
English present, I come, I love, &o. It is made by 
prefixing -a- to the verb. 


> a-penda < 

I love. 
Thou loveet. 
He or she 

It loves. 
We love. 

I You love. 
They love. 

IT-, r-, Cft-, X-, TT-, P-, Kw- 


2. The Present Imperfect answers to our tense with 
am, I am ooming, I am loving, &o. It is made by pre- 
fixing *fui- to the verb. 


A^ JJ't I'f ^«-. Li-, U' 
Pa-, J5Ctt. 




Thou art 

He, she, 

or it is 

We are 

You are 

They are 


Wth, I-, Zi; Fi-, To-, Zv' 

In the first person the nt-is often contracted into 'n-, 
and sometimes altogether omitted. This tense used 
after another verb may be translated by an English 
present participle. 

NamworM, or Nalimwona anahuja, I see him, or^ I saw him 

In the dialect of Mombas this ^no' tense is used of 
past time. In Zanzibar it is the more usual form of 
ihe present. 

K 2 



Tresest Perfect* 

The Present Perfect is made by the prefix -ma-: it 
denotes an action complete at the time of speaking, and 
therefore answers to the English tense with Juwem 




Li; Pa-. Kw 

J-, Zi', Vi- 


I have 
Thou hast 
He or she has 
It has 
We have 
You have 
,They have 


In verbs denoting a state or the posieBSiaii of a 
quality the present has tlie meaning of to enter npon^ 
to acquire, or to become, what the verb denoles. The 
-me- tense must then be translated by to haV6^ or to be» 

<fec. (p. 86). 

InajaxL^ it is getting full. 

Jme^cta^ it is fulL 
Inapasuka, it is being torn. 

Imepasuka^ it is torn. 
ItMpotea, it is becoming lost. 

Imepotec^ it is lost. 
Anavtia, he is putting on. 

AmevcMy he has put on, Gierefofe^ he weaTS. 

Wlicn the -me- tense occurs in a narratiTe» it denotes 
an action complete at the time referred to» and must 
generally be translated by hid, 

Nikamwona ameufwngua mlangOf and I §am that ho bad 
unfastened the door. 

The -me tense may sometimes be translated as a past 



participle, signifying a state arrived at at the time of 
speaking or at the time referred to. 

Yu hafi ao amekufa ? Ib he alive cr dmd ? 
ZaliJmiBa wmepoieoj they were kai 

In this sense it may be used to form compoiind tenses, 
somewhat as the past participle is in English. 

In some dialects of Swahili the prefix is pronounced 
HRflk* rather than -me-. See the end of Ajppendix IL 

Fast Febfect. 

The Ftot Ferfeot tense is made by the prefix -li- or 
«oZf^: it denotes an action complete in past time. It 
must sometimes be translated in English by the tense 
nitih had^ but more commonly it represents the indefinite 
p«0t| which usually ends in -6(i« 

TT-, r-, Ch-, In 


17-, J-, Ki- 
Li-^ Pa-^ Ku- \ j^ 

/-,Zi-, Ft-, To- J 

When it is intended to denote the action as a 


He or ahe 

' penda \It 




oontintioTUi one, the syllable -ibj- may be i 
the tense prefix. 


N-fM-hi-mpendot^ I loved him [not onoe bot eontinnoualy]. 
W-cM'pa'pendana^ when fhey loved one another. 
Tr-^i^90-fti^2Mfidana» while they loved one another. 

Narrative Fast. 

In telling a stoiy it is nsnal to begin with one Terb 
in the -Zt- tense, and then to put all that follow in a 
tense made by the prefix -Icar. This tense indndes in 
itself the power of the conjnnotion and. It can never 
properly stand at the beginning of a narratiTe, but no 
other past tense can properly be nsed for any verb 
except the first. It may occasionally be used after 
another verb, where the time being indefinite wonld 
in English be represented by a present. 



U-, I-, Ki- 
lA^ Fa-t En- 




L^Zir^ Ft-, YOr 


And I 
And thou 
And he or she 
And it 
And we 
And you 
And they 


Ntka- is frequently contracted into Ha-. 

Hamwona = Nikamwona = And I saw him. 

The -ha- of this tense is often pronounced -ib^ in rapid 
or careless talking. 




The Future Tense is made by the prefix -<<i-. 


17-, J-, Ki- 
Li-, Ptt'j Ku- 



J., Zi', Ft-, To- J 


I shall 
Thou wilt 
He or she will 
< It will 
We shall 
You will 
They will 

) love. 

In the first person the prefix Ni- is often omitted. 
Tapenda = Nitapenda = I shall love. 

When particles of relation are introduced the prefix 
•to- is veiy rarely used ; the tense prefix stands almost 
always as "taJca-. 

AtdkayekuJOf [he] who will come. 

With particles of relation the difference between the 
present, indefinite, and future times is much more care- 
fully observed in Swahili than in English. 

NUoHapo^ when I sleep, t.e., in the case of my sleeping. 

NinapoUdOf when I sleep, i,e., at the time when I am sleeping. 

Nitakapolala, when I sleep, t.«., when I shall be sleeping. 

Mtu aendaye^ the man who goes (at any time). 

Mtu anay^ewenda^ the man who is going (now). 

Mtu atakayekwenday the man who goes (at some future time). 

Thus, if it is intended to send a man somewhere and 
pay him afterwards for his trouble, where it might be 
said in English — Tell the man who goes that I will 
pay him when he comes back — ^the Swahili verbs must 
all be in the future, Mwambie yule atdkayekwenda kwamba 



atdkaportidi nitandijpia. Wliere it is the faot and not 
the time, person, or thing, that is the important element 
of the idea, it is better not to use the partioles of rela- 
tion, but to employ the -hi" tense, which see. 

Conditional Tenses. 

There are fonr tenses which may be called Con- 
ditional. The first, made with -iki-, expresses a state of 
things as supposed to be existing. The second, made 
with -^'opo-, expresses a state of things supposed as 
possible. The other two refer to contingencies ; one of 
them, made with -nge- or -nga-, expresses what would 
now be happening, and the contingency on which it 
would depend regarded as existing; the other, made 
with -ngali't expresses what would have happened, and 
the contingency on which it would have depended 
regarded as no longer existing. 

Actual Conditional or Participial Tense. 

This tense is made with the prefix -Jn-, and may be 
translated by the English present participle, or by as, 
if, when, since, though, or any other words by which 
the idea of a state of things can be introduced and coii« 
nected with the rest of the sentence. 



I7-, J-, Ki- 
Li-, Pa-, Ku- 



I' Zi- Vi' Ta 



He or she 



VEBB8. 137 

The prefix Niki- may be contracted into ^-. 

Hifukuza = NUtifuhvaa = As I was driving. 

Viewed as a present participle, the -lei' tense can bo 
ased to form compound tenses, especially a past im- 

AUkmoa akiogolea, he was swimming about 

The following are a few examples of the use of this 
tense: — 

NUafuraM ntkikuonoj [seeing you I shall rejoice] I shall be 

glad to see yon. 
Ah^a AhddUah mioambia, [Abdallah coming, tell him] Tell 

Abdallah when he comes. 
Nikiwa naeho, [1 having it] If I have it — when I have it — if 1 

should have it — in case of my having it — since I have it. 
Jlfyotea akizunguka huja Hku nibiU, [He was lost wandering 

for two days] He lost his way and wandered about for two 

Majivuno yakkoa tnengi, [PufQngs up being many] Much self- 

Upepo vkiwa moto hutanua, [Air being hot] Air expands when 

it becomes heated. 
Jhisema hwdi, hasadikiwi, [Telling the truth, he is not believed] 

If he should tell the truth, he would not be believed. 

In this instance the nse of the -hi- tense and of the 
negative present are both remarkable. It will be seen, 
however, npon examination, that there is no real con- 
tingency in such a sentence as this. It affirms a fact 
in a state of things, not a contingency upon a supposed 
ttate of things; it is not his telling the truth which 
prevents his being believed. 

A ooiresponding past tense may be made by the -Zf • 
tense with the relative particle -po-, 

Wdiipopenda, when they loved, being that they then loved. 




Possible Conditional. 

This tense is made by the prefix -^apo-^ and pnts m 
case ; it generally implies that the case is an extreme 

or unlikely one. It may be translated by even if* 


U; I-, Ki- 
Li-f Far, Ku- )Japo-pend<i, even if ^ 

I-, Zi-, Ft-, To- 

The prefix seems to be formed from huj<iy to oome, 

and -pOf the particle denoting when or where ; so that 

ujajpo may be translated, When you come, and so with 

the other persons ; this will give the force of the tense. 

Wajwpdkupiga, when they oome to beating yon, <^ ev«Q if 
they beat yon. 

Japo with the personal signs may be used alone in 

the sense of — even if. 

Ujapo hukioni, even if yon do not see it. 

Present Contingbnt. 

This tense is formed by the prefix -nge- or -ngO't and 
puts a condition and its results as present. It neoeasarily 
implies that neither are in existence. 

^*" f I should, or if I did 

Then wonldest, or if thon 

He, she, or it wonld, or if I i^^^^ 

he, she, or it did 
We should, or if we did 
You wonld, or if yon did 
They would, or if they did , 


U', h, KU 
Li', Pa-, Kw 


Z-, Zi', Vi; Tar 




The -ngc^ form is used with monosyllabio verbs — 
4ingawa — ^thongh he be, or he would be. 

The two branches of the contingency cannot in 
lEjnglish be represented by the same tense, as they are 
in SwahilL The pair would stand in English, (1) If I 
aid— (2) I should, &c. (1) If it were— (2) it would 
l3e, &0. Or they might stand, (1) Though I did — 
(2) yet I should, &c. 

The second branch is sometimes represented in 
Xiiiglish by a past tense ; sometimes both are. 

Kama ungekuvta na akSU^ maZi yako ungedumu nayoy [If you 
were with wits, your property you would continue with itj 
If you were a man of understanding, your property would 
be (or would have been/yours stilL 

Past Contingent. 

This tense is made with the prefix -ngali'. It sup- 
poses something at a past time, and concludes that 
Bomething else would then have happened, also at a 
past time. It represents the English — If this had 
liappened, that would have happened. It supposes that 
neither condition nor contingency did ever in fact 
occur. In English a past tense is often used to express 
Wb present contingency, but the Swahili seem to dis- 

-tinguish them more carefully. 

/" «^ 

Had I, or I should have 


V". I-, KU 

hi-9 I^Or, KU' 




Hadst thoul, w thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, or he, 

she, or it would have 
fi^oZt-jMncEa | Had we, w we should 

Had you, or you would 

Had they, or they would 


1 loved. 



There is always an accent on the personal prefix and 
none on the tense prefix, thns AfigaUMjOy dngdU^nOj &o» 

Kama ungcdikuwapo hapa, ndttgu yangu angaUponOf If yon 
had been here, my brother wonld have got well 

The Imperative. 

It has been mentioned above that the simplest form 
of the verb may be nsed for the Imperative as in 
English. The final letter of verbs in -a is frequently 
changed into 6-. The plural is made by adding -nt . 

PendOf (Mr Pende^ loye then. Pendani^ or Pendenif love ye. 
TwaOf or Tuoae^ take then. TuMoni^ or TuHtmi^ take ye. 
iSt/tt, praise thon. Sifimi^ praise ye. 

FUeirit consider thou. * Fikirini^ consider ye. 

The form ending in -6 is the more commonly nsed in 
Zanzibar. The other persons are supplied by the use 
of the Subjunctive. 

Ka- may be prefixed to the Imperative to connect it 
with a preceding verb. 

Kajiflchenij and hide ydorselves. 

The SiTBJUNcnvB. 

The Subjunctive is made by prefixing the personal 
sign, and when the verb ends in -a changing that 
letter into -6. It may be translated into a variety of 
English forms. It may be used as an imperative or 
jussive, and is the only form that can be so used in the 
first and third persons. 

Nipende, let me love. 

When used with an interrogative it may be translated 
— am I to — ^is he to, &c. 

Nifany^f What am I to do f 



It k the proper form to express purpose or object — that 
I may, &c. — and must be used in many cases where in 
English the infinitive is employed. 

Mwambie akuaayidie^ tell him to hel^you, w speak to him 
that he may help you. 

Where no purpose is implied the infinitive is used as 
in English. 

I want to sleep, nalaka ItulaUu 

The force of the conjunction and may be expressed 
by inserting -^ after the personal prefix. And is used 
in English in many oases where the second action is 
more or less the object with which the first is to be 
done, as in^-try and find, ko. In such cases -Jcor- raU^t 
not be used, but only the subjunctive in its simple 




A., r-, I- 


JETtS JW-, Pa- 

he or she 

Kw )jp0fu2e, That i 









may loTQ^ 

Verbs which end in -t,* -c, or -tt, keep the same final 
letter in the subjunctive. 

The Infinitivb. 
The Infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing -tii, 

KU'pendaj to lovOi 
ittf-ofia, tasee. 


The -Ur becomes -«0- before a, e, and t, and oflieO- 
disappears before o. 

Kvhambia, to telL 
Kw-enda, to go. 
^ Kw^ha, to finish. 
K-oga, to bathe. 

The Infinitive may always be used to express the^ 
action denoted by the verb. 

Kwenda^ going, 

Eufa, dying. 

Kupendariay mutu&l loving. 

[There are two idiomatic uses of the Infinitive Mood, 
which are common, and may be mentioned here, the 
one a logical, the other a grammatical, contrivance. 

Any finite form of a verb may be preceded by the 
infinitive of the same verb, the effect being rather to"" 
particularize and give prominence to the idea conveyed 
by the verb, than to emphasize the mode of an action. 

Thus Jcufa utakufa, as to dying, you will die. Dying, 
that is what will happen to you. Not, you will 
certainly die. 

Again, when any finite form of the verb, and espe- 
cially a long form, would be closely followed by another 
verb in the same form, connected with the former verb 


by (at most) the simple copula * na,* the second verb 
may be put in the infinitive mood. By this device the 
cumbrous repetition of a series of personal and other 
prefixes in a number of successive verbs is neatly 

Thus, ** anayeahitdiwa na hutuhuzwa^** for anayetuhmwa^ 
" who is worshipped and glorified.'* — A. 0. M.] 

VERBS. 143 


There are properly no Participles in Swahili. The 
present participle in -ing may be represented by the 
'-anor- tense of an incomplete action, by the -ki- tense 
of a state, of continned action, or by the use of the 

The man sitting yonder, mlu aikaaye huJe» 

The past participle may be represented by the -me- 
^nse of a pompleted action, or by the relative when 
"dsed adjectivally. 

Nimehiona hisu TcUichopotea, I liave found the lost knife. 

The Negative Conjugation, 

All Swahili verbs maybe employed with negative 
'prefixes to denote the reverse of their affirmative 
xneaning. It mnst be observed that the negative forms 

cLo not simply denv the affirmative forms but rather 

reverse them. 

Napenda Jcwenda, I like going. 

NcUaha hwenda, I want to go. 
Sipendi kwenda, I dislike going, 
Sitdhi kwenda, I want not to go. 

In English J do not want is not so strong aa I dq not 
Uke, but in Swahili sitaJci is stronger than si^endi. 

The negative tenses are formed by negative personal 
prefixes, which, except in the first person singular, are 
made from the affirmative forms by prefixing ha-. 

For the negative combined with the relative, see 
p. 120. 



lore not 


do not loTei 

Neqativb Present. 
In this tense verbs ending in -a cliange that letter 
into -f ; other final letters remain tmchangecL 

Har^ Hau-, Hai- 
Hahi'f Kali', Eapo" 
Hah»' ) pendi 

Hawa-^ £df-, HatV' 
Havi"^ Hayor ^ 

This tense is a more general negative than the 
English do not tense. It is used for both past and 
future wherever the negative depends npon some oaiiae 
which is not affected by the time referred to. 

The 4 of si- in this and other tenses often disappean 

before a voweL 

Sbgopi, I do not feai; 

Negative Past. 

There is one negative form referring to past time 
generally; it is made by the negative prefixes followed 
by -Jfca-. 

Ha-, Hau-, Hai' 
Hahi'y Hali- 
Hapa; Hdku' 


Hawa-j Hat; EazU 
Havi'f Hayof^ 

In a few rare instances negative prefixes' may be 
followed by -me- or -Zi-. 

Simekuwa mtoongo ? Have I not beoome a luur ? 



He or she 


ku'penda \ I* 









He or she 


have not yet loved. 

The not yet Tense. 
There is a negative tense made by tlie use of the 
negative prefixes followed by vo*» which is a sort of 
negative present perfect, denying the action np to Hie 
time of speaking. 

Hw (I 

J9a-, Hathj Sai» 

Hapa-, Hahu» 


Hawa-y Hai; Hcud- 
Havi; Haya» 

The word hado is often xused with this tense where 

it is intended rather to imply that what has not yet 

happened will some day come to pass. 

Hajqja, he is not yet oome, he is not come even now. 
Majaja hado^ he is not oome, at least not yet. 

The -a- of -ja- coalesces with % and e into a long -e- 


Hajeeha = Hajaisha = He has not yet finished. 

Negative Future. 
The negative fdture is made from the affinnative 
future by merely using negative instead of affirmative 
personal prefixes. 


Ha-y Hau-, Hai» 
Hahi', Hali- 
Hapct-t Haku* 


JSTatro-, Hat', Uazi' 
HavUf Hay<i- 

fia-penda ^ 


I shall not 
Thou wilt not 
He, she, wr it 

will not 
We shall not 
You will not 
They will not 




Conditional' T£Kse81 

The case of not > heing or not doing i3 put by a ikmm 
formed by the affirmative prefixes followed |3y^j[K>-;i 
it may be translated by the preseni ;ptiirtici|4e with, a 
negative, or by as, if, when, though, since, or any other 
word by which the case of not heing^ having^ or daing^ 
may be introduced. • ' , 


■ U- 
A', r-, I-. Ki- 
JA', Fa-, Kw 


TTo-, I-, Z«-, Ft- 




He or she 

eipo-p^da {it ] 

. • ■ . 






• • • • 

This tense may be also tiitod to translate an Ehglisfc 
affirmative preceded by accept or. unless. ' 

Asipojua, unless he knows. 
AsipokuiDa Ahdallahy except Ahdallah* 

■ \i - 

Contingent Tenses. 

The negative contingent tenses, present and past» 
are made from the affirmative forms by merely nsin^ 

negative instead of affirmative personal, prefixes , • « 

-. • • • 

Did I or I. should 


JTa'. Ilau', Hat' 
Hdki'y Hcdir 
Hapa'f Haku» 


Hawa-j Hai'f Hazi" 
Havi'f Uayor 

nge-penda * 

Didst thou or ^ou 

Did he, she, or it,' 

or He, she, or it 

Did we €r We 

l)id you or you 

Did they or They 
. would J 

1 not lova 





JJatoo-, Hai- 
Mazi^ Ravi» ' 

) noi lovedl 


^ad I er I should 

fiadat thou w Thou 

wouldest have 
Kad.l^ filie, pr it, 

or He, she, or it 

n^aZt-:pe«do( would have 

I Had we or We thould 
Had yon or Ton 

ivould have 
Had they or They 
would have 

* > ■ 

Negative Impebahvib. 

The negative imperative is made by the use of <{ 
fnot), with the affiraiative fonniBL ' 

Si penda, love nt^' 
8i iifUf praise not 


8i pendenij l&re ye not 
8i nfuni, praise ye not 

The negative subjunctive is more often used in this 
sense than the imperative-form. 

Negative Subjunctive. 

The negative s^bj^nctIVe is made from the afBrmi^ 
iire form by inserting •n- between the affirmative 
f)ersonal prefix and the verb. 

Nir -\ 

' ' . ' 

f % 


I may 

J', U; I. 

• ' 

thou mayest 

Ki', Li; 

he, she, or 

PA-.Xt*. \ stipend*, That ( it may j 


we may 


you may 

Wa^ I-, Zi" 

1 • t 

they may ^ 

Fi-, To- 





The -f of '8t' often disappears before a vowel* 
atende, that he may not go. 

The negative subjunctive may be Englisbed m 
several different ways. It may be used as above of a 
purpose not to do^ or it may be used of a purpose to do 
which fails. 

AhanUafuta asimwone^ he looked for him, but did not see him> 
or, without seeing him^ 

This form is commonly used for the negative 

Nisende, let me not go. Usende, don't go. 

A form of subjunctive connected with the not yet 
tense is made by the use of -stje- with the affirmative 


ul-, 17-, J. 

Ki'y Li- 

Fa-f Ktt-, ) B^e^penda, That 


Wa; I-, Zi- 
Vi'y Var 

I may 

thou mayest 
he, she, or it 


we may 

you may 

^ they may 

not haye already 

This tense may often be translated by hefore. 
Uiatnpata asUddUif you will eatch him before he goes to sleep. 

'8tje- with the personal prefixes may be used as » 
complete word followed by the -A;a- tense. 

Nii^fe nikafa, that I may not be already dead, or^ that I may not 
die before, &c. ' 

VERBB. 149 

Kbqativb iHFonnyx. 

The negative infinitive is made by the use of Jeuioa 
^to put out), often contracted into hdo- and used as a 

Kuloa hupenda^ or JEtttopendo, not to love, or not loving, to 
dislike, or disliking. 

' Thb Passive Voice, 

The Passive is made from the Active by merely 
inserting -uh before the final voweL 

NapendOf I love. Napendwa^ I am byod, 

Sipendif I do not love. Sipendwi^ I am not loved. 

Nimependa, I have loved. Nimependuxtt I bave been loved. 

KupendOf to love. Kupendwct^ to be loved. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often use the passive of 
their applied form. See pp. 151, 161. 

The Passive is used in a sort of impersonal way to 
denote what is intended to be done. 

Maji yamehwenda kuUtwa, some one has gone to get water. 
Pesa zimekwenda kuvunjwaf some one has gone to get pice in 
exchange for silver. 


As the Auxiliary verbs are mostly also irregular, it 
will be best to speak of their irregularities first, and 
-afterwards of their use in making compound tenses. 

Monosyllabic verbs and most dissyllabic words be- 
ginning with a vowel, retain the Jtu- of the infinitive 
in those tenses in which the tense prefix ^ds in a 


syllable incapable of bearing the accent. These tens^ 
prefixes are -wa-, -ame-^ -aK-, -/a-, -jqpo-, -v^g^^ -ngali'f 
and 'sije-, "The other prefixes, -a-, -id-, -H-, -li^o-,. -fe*-, 
-;;a-, -«»-, are capable of bearing the accent,' and the fcu- 
is not retained when they are used. The pelrsonal 
signs, both flmbje<^tive and objective, ' can beaifthor 
accent, the relative signs cannot. 

Thus, from kuja^ to come, we have : — 

Naja, I oome. NinaJcuJa, I am coming. 

N^aja, and t came. Nimfihya^ I Iiave dome. 

Nik^Of I coming. Ncdikuja, I camow 

Siji^ I come not. Nttdkuja, I shall come. 

Sikuja, I did; not come. Nijapohuja^ even jjf I coqia. . 

Sijc^ay I am not yet come. NingekuJc^I should come. 

M»Je, let me not come. Ning<dikui<if I should have comer- 

I^iaijektyc^ bi^fqr^ I pome* ; 

Ntje, let me not come. NiHpokujOf when I oome not. 

jljKiyd, he who comes. ^^ye^u/o, hd whd oame. ** 7 
NijayCf I who come, ■ • ■ » 

It id shown that 'this irregularity depends upon th^ 

power of certain syllables to support ihe acctot by 

the changes "VvQiich occur when an objective prefix is^ 

inserted.' , 

Amehula, he has eaten. 
Ame^mUif he has eaten him. 


The verb hipa, to give to, is peculiar in always re- 
^uiriiig an objective prefix, and. therefore, never haying, 
booasioii to be irregulax. ' : > . • . «.^ i .* ' 

With dissyllables beginning with a vowel it is gener 
zally indifferent whether the fat- is' retained or not. 

AnnekvoUka ot Ameishaf he hns Qnished. 

t' Many vetbs ooctu: with or without a to-, winch seems 

to be a relic of the -ftu^. 

jEffivo or £icfoJtNi, to fipen. 
Kuaza or Kuwaza^ to consider. 

The word haja^ to come, stands alone in having an 
irregular imperative. 

NjoOf oome. NJoonij come ye. 

Monosyllabic verbs and some dissyllables make their 
passives in a more or less irregular way. The follow- 
ing is a list of the monosyllabic verbs with their 
passives: — 

Kuchctf to fear. Kuchwa, to be feared. 

Kula, to eat. KidiwcL, to be eaten. 

KunywOf to drink. KunyioeuHi, to be drunk. 

JEttp(^ to g;iYe to. KujpaHknnt Kupeioai io leoelfb, 

Kucha is used in the dialeot of Lamoo for to fear, the 
irofd used at Zanzibar being htMgopa^' Kucha liieans 
at Zanzibar to rise (of the sun), and huchwa (or, in the 
dialect of Mombas, huttbay means to set. The[ other 
monosyllabic verbs, hufa, to die, h»fa, to eome^ ituttya^ 
to flBhll like rain, hutoa^ to be, being neuters, do not 
make a passive. 

Two dissyllabic verbs make their passive by merely 

adding -wa to the active form. 

Kuua, to kilL Kuuaiwa, to be kUled. 

KufuOf to beat Kufuawc^ to be beaten. 

Verbs ending, in two vowels often insert an 4- in 

making their passive. See .uiider. Applied. tFcOtiw^t pp. 

158-159. ..:...,. :...;uv.. 

KuzttOt to bear. Kuzawa or Kuzaliuja^ to be bore 

Kukemboa, to ranaom. Kukombolmipaf io be tonaooied, 

KitfumguOi ta opef* . ■- ., Ku/kMgtflitfio^ to be opened. . ; ; 



' The origin of this use lies probably in the difficult 
of pronouncing distinctly the regular passive forms. 
Verbs ending in -6 make their passive in -etoo. 

Kusamehef to pardon. KuMtneheuHi, to be pardoned. 

Verbs ending in -t make their passives in -ttoa. 

Kuhiri^ to confess. Kukirivia^ to be oonfessed. 

Verbs in -u generally make their passive in -ttvo. 

Kuhanhu^ to destroy. Kuhartbiwa^ to be destroyed. 

Where the -tt is preceded by a vowel the passive is 
made in -uliwa. 

Kusahau, to forget. Kusahauliwa, to be fiargotten. 

The verb Jbui^a, to be, has several peculiarities. Th» 
Present tense is very seldom used in its regular form. 
For the Present tense m (or, in the negative, $%) may 
be Tised for all persons and both numbers, or the per- 
sonal prefix appropriate to the subject of the verb may 
stand alone. Ni is apparentiy preferred where being 
is the important part of the idea ; the personal prefix 
is used where the being of that particular thing is 
intended specially to be noticed. Jti (not ii) is used 
for he or she is. 

8i Tcioeli, fii ktuifu ft», it is not tme^ it is only flattery. 
l\i iayari, we are ready. 

' When joined with a relative the regular form luui 
the meaning of who may he, 

Awaye yoUf whoever it be. 

Where no stress is intended to be laid on the heing^ 
the verb to be, when joined with a relative pronoun, is 

VERB 8. 153 

Tepresented by the syllable -li-. See Belatives, p. 118. 
Li is used, though but rarely, with the personal signs 
«to form a tense with the meaning — continuing to be» 
A narative past is also formed with it in the sense of— - 
I have continued to be. 

3^IZi ]^^ ya Kau^a jutf yoJSM^ I being on his back» 
NVcaM niMpotect, and I go on wandering» 

In many cases where the verb to he is used in English 
merely to connect the parts of the sentence it is in 
Swakili omitted altogether. 

Ktoa nini weye kutoa Jcuonehana hiH iiku nyingif why [have] 
yon [been] invisible, i,e^ Why have you kept out of sight so 

. Tupt Tiikutt woof who [is] their chief? 

' "Nyama ya hijaro ngumu mno^ rhinoceros meat ps] very tough» 

The Ptesent Perfect has the meaning of Tms become^ 
Manenotfe yamekuwa uwongot his words are become false. 

The Fast Perfect must be used to translate was and 


NUijpokutoa SuUani, when I was Sultan» 

The English has or have been must be translated by 
« present. 

Nijpo hapa stku nyingi^ I have been here many days» 

The Imperative is used with an i prefixed. 

Jtoe, be thou. Iwenif be ye.^ 

In the negative present and with relatives «t is used 
as ni and *Zt- are in the affirmative tense. The regular 
forms are also used, though but rarely. 

^ The subjunctive forms uwe, mwe are commonly prefett'Od in 
Zanzibar.— A. 0. M. • 


The Terb io he is used in EngliiElh dokndtimes t^ 
denote existence viewed as an ultimate fact, sometime» 
to denote existence in place and time, scttnetimes to- 
denote existence as the possessor of certain Qualities, 
or the doer or sufferer of certain acts. In Swahili thesis 
three uses are distinguished by the employment of 
different forms. 

The simple form of the yerb is used only to deoote 
existence as the posfsessor of qualiUes, or the doer or 
sufferer of acts. , 

Existence merely in place and time, whether the 
place and time are in English expressed or no, is 
denoted in Swahili by the addition to the verb of -jpoy. 
-mo, or 'ho^ as the case may be. See Belativfis» p. 120» 

He is at my house, TuX^o XniMin^' > 
He is here, Ywpo hapa. 
He is in tiie house, Yumo nyumhani. 
When he was liere, Alipokuwapo hapa. 
Where are they ? Ziko loapif 


Existence viewed as a fact in itself is denoted by the 
addition of na to the verb, being the same form as is 
used for the verb to have. Na is joined to the personal 
prefixes to make the present tense, in all other tenses 
it is treated as a separate word, and has generally ih» 
appropriate relative sign suf&xed to it. 

Kuna mtu^ there is a man. 
Ktdikuwd na mtu, there was a man. 
ZinazOj they are. 
Zilikuvoa nazo^ they were. 

In Sw:ahili there is properly no verb to have. Tbey 
employ for it faitra na, to be with. . , 

TEBBa. 15* 

J^tjia, I have. 
J^oli^mDa^ wit .1 l^d* , 
NiJUikvLvoa wi^ I shall hayeb 
jVttM na^ that I may have. 

Where the objective prefix would be used with axk> 

ordinary verb, the appropriate relative particle rnusti 

be suffixed to the na as well as to the tense prefix» 

NinazOf I have them. 
MiyekuibandzOf who "hajiihenu 
Jlizokutoa ndzo, which he had* 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

The Yerbs used as Auxiliaries are, huwaf to be, hitoGr 
to take out, hujd, to oome, kwisha^ to come ta an end. 

Can is represented by the appropriate tenses of 

JaMDeza^ to be able. Must is expressed by $harii^ of 

necessity, or by the negative tenses of huwa na luddiy. 

to have an escape from. 

Sina huddtf I must 

Atiwe na huddif that he may be obliged. 

- After hmoa na huddi either the infinitive or subjunc- 
tive may be employed. 

Ought may be represented by the tenses of htpasa, to- 
concern, or, to come to cbncem. Should is expressed 
in the same way when it implies obligation, and by the- 
contingent tenses when it expresses a bontingen(r)r. ' 

Inienipiua kw&nda, it concerns me to go, i.0., I ought to go. 
/ ^nenipoia niiendej it c6noenu me that I go iiot,.tA, I oaght nol^ 
to go. 

JSupaaa is also used as follows : — 

Haikunipasa intmt, it is no business of mine. : 
Imekupasani ? What have you to do with it f 
iltnen//Mmrm#mt, he is a oonnectifjo of mitie. ' 


May and might may be represented by huweza where 
they imply power, by halali^ lawful, where they imply 
lawfolness, and by the subjunctive where they imply a 

The use of huja as an auxiliary has been mentioned 
under the -Japo-j -ja-^ and -«ye- tenses, pp. 138, 145, 148. 

Kutoa is used to convey a negation in cases where 
the regular negative tenses cannot conveniently be 

With the infinitive it is frequently Qontraoted into 
-to-, and used as a mere formative. 

Kutoa huja, or Kutokujctf not to come. 
Kutoa hupenda, or Kutopenda, aot to Iovql 

The meaning of these negative infinitives may be 
given as, putting out coming, barring coming, coming 
not happening. A transitive form may be made by the 
use of hutoaJia, to make to go out. 

Kutosha httrnwuliza, to exclude asking him. 

In many cases hutoa may be translated by» to forbear, 
•or, to neglect. 

Atnetoa hut<h he has neglected coming, he hns not come. 
Nihitoa hvja^ if I forbear firom coming, OTf so long as I do sol 


The negative tenses do not furnish a true present 
perfect. The past, hahija^ is, he did not come; the 
ipresent, Aof», implies rather that he never will, that 
coming is not to be predicated of him at alL The 
difierence between niatpohija and nihitoa hujd is repre* 
sented in English by that between, if I come not, and, 
while I come not. In all cases the use of toa connect! 

VEnna 1ST 


the negation with tHe tense only ; the negative tense»^ 
imply that the opposite of the verb might be affirmed. 
Kwisha may often be translated by already. 

AmehvDuiha Jcuja, he has already come. 
Nim^cwUiha haUi^ I have done eating. 

It is Tised to strengthen the present perfect, convey- 
ing the meaning that something is not merely done, 
but folly done and over. 

A somewhat similar effect is produced on the present 
by using Jcatiha hmsha. 

Ni katika hwiaha kulci, I am finishing eating, I am just leaving 
off, I have very nearly done. 

Kuwa^ to be, is used in Swahili very Auch as it is in 
English, the -hi- and -me- tenses of the principal verb* 
being used as present and past participles. 

Nili nikienda, I continuing to be going. 
Nikali nikienda, and I am still going. 
Nikiwa nikiendci, I being going, while going. 
Nikiwa nimekuoendaf I being gone, having gone. 
Nikiwa tUmekwiaha kwendct, having aheady gone 
Nalikuioa ntkienda, I was going. 
Ndlikuuia nimekwendOf I was gone, I had gon& 
Nalikmea nimekwisha ktoenda, I had already gone. 
NUdkuwa nikienda^ I shall be in the act of going. 
• NUakuwa nimekwendc^ I shall be gone. 
Nitakuwa nimekwisha kwenda, I shall have already goneu 
Nitdkuwa niliokuoenda, I shall be who has gone, I shall have* 
gone, I shall have gone to or been at. 

Kuwa TM^ to have, is not used as an auxiliary. 

Derivative Verbs. 

There are four derivative forms which may be con- 
structed out of any Swahili verb, where in Englisb 


'we must use either another verb or some oompoimd 

1. What may be celled the applied form is used in 
xBases where in English a preposition wonld be em- 
ployed to connect the verb with its object. By the uw 
of this form verbs which have things for their objects 
may be made to apply to persons. 

This form is made by inserting t or e before the final 
«a of the simple verb. I is nsed when the vowel of the 
preceding syllable is a, t, or u. ^ is nsed when thi» 
*vowel of the preceding syllable is e or o. 

KufanycL, to make. Kufanyia, to make foe, 

Kideta, to brij)g. Kuletea^ to bring for. 

KimkitiJca, to be sorry. Ktisikitikia, to be sorry for, to pity 

KuokOt to bake. Kuohea, to bake f<Nr. 

Kuanguka, to £all down. Kuangukia^ to fall down to. 

Where the simple verb ends in two vowels the •up' 
f)ressed I appears in the applied form. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzaliaf to bear to, 

Kuhwea, toxlimb. Kvkwelea^ to climb for. 

Kimkia, to hear. Kuiikilia, to listen to. 

Kukomhoa, to redccfau Kukomholea, to redeem fei^ 

Kununua, to bny. Kununulia, to buy for* 

The following is a list of the monosyllabio Tariff 
-with their applied forms : — 

Kucha, to fear. Kuclieleiif to fear for. 

Kufa, to die. Kufia, to die to. 

Kuja, to come. Kujia, to come to. 

Kula, to eat. Kulia, to eat with. 

KunycL, to full (like rain). Kunyea^ to fall upon. 

Kunywa, to drink. Kvnyieeaj to drink with. 

J^uuoi to beJ Kuu>i4i, to be to. 

Kuxa, to sell, makes Ktdiza, to sell t<k 

. VEBB8. 159 

, Ei^a, to give to, haying already an applied meanifig^ 
%ai3 no applied form* There is a difficulty in expressing^ 
D^hat would have been t)ie meanixlg of the simple lbrm.r 
J^utoa is i}S(E»d for to give, in the sense of parting with. 
•Such expressions as, which was given you, must be 
Tendered by a change of pedrapn-^uZtoipietoa, Whidi jovl 
had giyen to you, or, which you received. Which he 
gave me, is very commonly rendered niliopema naye. 

Yerbs ending in - j atxd '-u make itheir applied forma 
in -ta. 

Kufoiiri, to expUhi. • Kufa&iria^ to explain to. 

KuharihUj to destroy. KuharibiOf to destroy for. 

The great paucity of prepositione in Swahili brings 

ihe applied forms of verbs iht^f constant use. The 

*only difficulty in their application lieis in the exact 

'discrimination of the meaning of the simple ' Woird. 

Many Swahili verbs imply in thei^ liimple form -what 

can only be expressed in Engli^ by the use of s^ -pve- 

po^itionw Whenever a really good dictionary shall have 

been compiled it wilL supply all the necessary infokma* 

tion. The applied form may be rendered by inserting 

any preposition whidi will suit the ; context. Thiis^ 

hushuhudia is, to bear witness about, for, or against, as 

the case may be, atid kiinenea, which means to speak 

^botit, may have to be translated by, to recommend, or 

-to decry, to scoMt or to describe. The siniple word 

-nena has in itself the force of to mention, so thiat it is 

not nece^ary to use the applied fo^n^ as i^ translation 

^f to speak of, where it means no more than to 


Sometimes the shape of the word will be i^ useful 



reminder to foreigners of its exact meaninfc; tlras^ 
hupoteaj winch may be roughly translated to lose, is inr 
the shape of an • applied form, and really is one, its^ 
exact meaning being, to become lost to. If^ therefore, 
we want to say, I have lost my knife, the oonstmotion 
must be altered into, my knife has become lost to me- 
(kisu changu himentpotea)^ the subject and object having 
to change places. 

Where in English a preposition connected with the 
verb can stand by itself at the end of the sentence, th» 
applied form must be used in Swahili* 

A knife to cat with, hiw cha hukatia. 

Stones to grind wheat with, maioe ye ktuagia nganom 

A place to come ont at, mahaU pa JnUohea, 

A bag to put money in, mfuko wa kutUiafeOia, 

In these sentences the use of the possessive particle 
-a for the English to, denoting a purpose or employ* 
ment, must be observed and remembered. This partid» 
turns what follows into a sort of adjective in this, as 
in all other cases in which it is followed by a word 
which is capable of denoting a quality. It is somewhat 
like the English expressions, a man of miim, a huiUin^ 
of great solidity^ dc. 

When an applied form is followed by mbcM it conveys 
the idea that as a consequence of the action denoted by 
the simple verb something is put out of the way, or 
got rid of* 

AjUe^ or A fie mbali^ that he may die ont of onr way, 
TumiDulie mbcUif let ns kill him and done with it. 
Foteilea mbali, perish out of my way = go and be hanged. 

. The passive of the applied form has a meaning which 

VEEB3. 161 

it requires some attention to remember and apply 
rightly, though it is strictly according to the rule that 
the object of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive voice. 

Kut/eteOf to bring to. Ktdeteioch to have brouglit to one. 

Kufanyia, to make for. Kufanyitoct, to haye made for one. 

It is often difficult in English to express this passive 
without using an altogether different word. What 
suggests itself at first to an English ear, that the 
passive of to bring to would be to he brought to, is wrong, 
and must be carefully avoided. Sometimes a change 
of prepositions will suffice to render the passive cor- 
rectly ; Icwpa may be translated to present to, and then 
hupewa is not to be jpresented to, but to be presented with. 

Passives made in 4iwa and -lewa are used as the 
passives of both the simple and the applied form. 
' Kufungtiiliwa may be used as the passive of hufungua, 
meaning, to be unfastened, or as the passive of kufun" 
gvlia, meaning then, to have unfastened for one. It 
can never mean, to be unfastened for. If it is necessary 
to express a passive in that form it must be done by 
changing the construction. 

A cry was made at him, alipigiwa uheUHe [he had made at him 

The door was opened for him, alifunguliwa mlango [he had 

opened for him the door]. 

2. The Causative form is made by changing the final 
^a into 'sha or -za. 

Kupungua, to grow less. Kupunguza, to make to grow less. 
Kwsidi, to grow greater. Kuzidiahct, to make greater. 


Wlien the final -a is preceded by a consonant iU 
general rule is to use the applied form aa the basitf of 
the causative. 

Kupenda, to like. Kupendeza, to please. 

Kufanya, to nuake^ Ku/anytza^ to cause to jaaake. 

Kupanda, ,to go up. KupartdUha, to make to go ap. 

Verbs which end in the simple form in -to end in 
the causative form in -«a. 

KuldkcUat to be clean. KutaTcata, to make clean. 

Verbs which end in -hi may be turned into oansar» 
tives by changing -^ka into shd. 

KuvDoka^ to be on fire. Kuwatiha^ to set on fire. 

Kulainiha, to be soft. Kulainisha^ to make 'soft* 

- Kutoka, to go out. Kutosha, to make to go oxlL ' ' 

Kusltukii, to go down. Kuahtuihay to let down. 

The causatives of verbs ending in -c, -t^ or «-n are 
constructed on the applied form. 

Kukaribu, to come near. KukaHbUha^ to make to come noan 

3. The Neuter, or quasi passive form is made by 
changing the final -a into -lea, 

KufungtM^ to unfasten. Kufunguka, to be unfastened. 

Kuokoa^ to sava Kuokoica, to be saved. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a consonant tht 
neuter is constructed from the applied form. 

Kuvunjoy to break. . Kuvunjika^ to be broken. 

Kukaia^ to cut. KukatUca, to be cut 

VEBB8. 163 

Causadyes in -^ha- may be tamed into neuters by 
•changing sha into ^io. 

Kudiuiia; \xs tieM6. ' £im^^ to be startkd. 

Yerbs in -^,'-^, dnd -it, construct their neuters on tho 
applied foms. - . ' 

jTffMtn^e^e^ to forgive. J^usaTTie^e^ to be forgiven. . 

JTu/an'n, to explain. Xu/<utrtZ^ to be' explained. 

J^ti^H^. to destroy. iTtf^rt&tZca, to be destroyed. . 

The 'ha form is used (like the English passive) to 
"denote what is generally done or doable. 

Kulihaf to be eaten, or, to be eatable. 

4. Beciprocal forms are made by changing -a into 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendana, to love one another. 
KupigOj to beat. KupigaiM, to beat one another, to flglit. 

Verbs in -e, -t, and -tt construct their reciprocals 
4ipon the applied forms. 

KukaribUf to come near. Kulcaribiana^ to come near to one 


The reciprocal form of the -ha form may be trannlated 
by to be to be, &c. 

KupaWcana, to be to be got. 

KujtUikana, to be to be known, to be knowable 

KuoekanOy to be to be seen, to be visible. 

The derived forms are conjugated and treated in 
•every way as though they were original words, and 
other derived forms may be made from them to any 
•extent that may be required. 

H 2 



The applied form of an applied form generally Big=- 
nifies to do a tMng to or for a person for a purpose. 
Doubling the verb gives an idea of thoroughness. 

KukaJta, to cut. 
KutaftUaf to seek. 
Kwihafuka^ to be in a mess. 

Kwpamhi^ to be torn. 

K^HuUika^ to be oak 

KukaJtakaJU^ to out up. 
KviafvAaXaJvita^ to seek all about 
Kudhafukachafuka^ to be all in ar 


KupasvhapaaiM^ to bo torn to 

KukaUkdkatika, to be all eat 


( 165 ) 


neoMsary to pnt to before the Englbh Verb to mtke the Infinitire» 
seraary to prefix kii- to make the Infinitive in SwahiUL Before 
bic Verbs the ku- bears the accent, and is retained in leyeral of 
. i$ee p. 149. 



atili, tangua, ondosba. 

iihf jaa. 

nt, pass, nwewa. 

rom, epuka, epushwa (to 


toards), tukana. 

ibali, tokabali, pokea (re* 

pUMe or accepted, kuba- 

ly, fuatana na, andomana. 
' the way), sindlkiza, adL 
bumii, shtaki 


iccustomed, zoea. 


i odbea, kitwa cbauma or 


Ige, UDgama, kubali, kiri. 

nyamaa, ritliia. 
itted, toka. 

Act, tenda. 

Adapt, fanya. 

Add to, ongeza, zidiobftg 

Add up, jumlisba. 
Adjoin, tangamana. 
Adjourn^ akirlsba. 

stand ovcTf akirL 
he Adjudged, fetiwa. 
Adjure, apisba. 
Admire, penda. 

I admire him, ameniv'cndez». 
Admits ingiza, aoha kuiugia. 
Adorn, pamba. 

Adorn onesdf, fanya uzorL 
Adulterate, ghosbi. 
commit AduUery, zini, zinga. 
Advance, eudelea mbele. 

Advance money to a trader^ ko* 
he Adverse, gomba, tela. 
Advise, pa sbauri. 
Adze, obonga. 
Affect to he, jifanya, jiona. 
Afflict, tesa. 

he Afraid, ogopa, cha (A.)l 
Agitate, sukasoka. 



Agree (come to an agreement), patana, 
afikana, tuliliana» lekezanya, 
tuzanya (A.). 
(be mutually eatisfied), rathiana. 
(be alike), elekea, lingana. 
Aim, twaa sliababa. 
Alarm, ogoflsba, ogofya, tisha. 
be alarmed [kii-]wa na khofd, 
iugiwa Da khofu. 
AUefuiief farakisha. 

be alienated, farakana. 
JMege a defect in, umbua. 
Allot amongit many, awaza. 
AUow, acba, pa ruksa, rubusu. 
Alter, (neut,) badili, badilika, geuka. 

(act.) geuza, badilL 
Amaze, ajaabisba. 

be amazed, loshea. 
Amend, fanyiza, teDgeneza. 

(of a person reforming), tulia. 
Amuse, zumgumza. 
Anchor, tia nanga. 
Anger, tia basira, gbatbabifiba. 
^0 Angry, p£il-]wa na basira, gba- 

be Angular, [kif-]wa na pembe- 

Announce, bubirL 
Annoy, sumbua, sumbusba, taa- 

bisba, batiki (A.)- 
Annul, langua, batili, gbairL 

be Annulled, tanguku. 
Answer, jibn. 

Anewer when called, itika, itikia. 
Anticipate for, onea. 
he Anxious, tabaruki, taabika. 
make Anxious, taljarakisba. taa- 
bisba. I 

Apostatise (becoitte an tnttdel), ka- 

appear, onekana (become vieible), 
tokea (come out to). 

Apply oneself to, tenda. 
Appoint, nasibii, aini, cbagua (f 

tena (sdeet). 
Approach, karibia, jongea. 
Approach one another, karibianii 
Bring near, jongeza, karibisha. 
Approve, kubali, penda, rathi. 
Argue, jadiliana, sbindana (disp^ 

Arise, ondoka. 
Arm, pa selaba. 

Arm oneself, twaa selaba. 
Arrange, panga, andika» pangifllo 

ratlbn, fanya. 
be Arrogant, gburika. 
Arrive, fika, wasiU. 
arrive at one^s deetinatian, kof^ 
make to arrive, fikisba, wasUi^ 
rea^h a person, fikia, wasilla. 
Ascend, paa, kwea, panda. 
Ascertain, bakiki, uynEt 
be ascertained, Ipni^a. 
be Ashamed, ona baya, tahayliL 
mdke ashamed, tia baya, tibg 
Ask, nliza, uza, sailL 
Ask for, taka. 
Make inquiries on behalf €f 9t'' 

one, ulizia, nuzia, sailia.- 
Ask how one does, nliza lialL 
Ask in marriage, poea. 
Assemble, (act) kusanya» kutania] 
(neut.) ktttana, kusanyika^ kip 
Assent, kubali, itiklza, aftkana» ^ 

Assert, sema. 
Be asserts that he eaw a dk^' 

kamma aliuna jabasi. 
He asserts that he walked cn£ 
water,'k&mmti alikwcndik mK' 
kwa mgrun. 



^sionis\ ajabisha, taajabisha. 
be astanuhed, toshea, shangaa, 
taajabika, toshewa, staajabu. 
. Astound, shangaza. 
Atone for, Beiiii, 

Attach, gandamia, gandamiza, am- 
he attached, ambatana (of things), 
ambisana (of people). 
Attaek, shambulia» 

Attack people wantonly, [kii-]wa 
na jeuri. 
Attend (wait upon), ngojea, fuata. 
Attend to, eaklsk, pulika (A.)» si- 

not to aitend, gliafalika. 
refuse to aMend, jipurnknsha. 
ha Audible, sikiliana, sikizana. 
Avail, faa. 
-Avoid, epuka. 

get aui of the way of, epa. 
• te avoidable, epeka, epukika. 
^vow, knbalL 
A.tDaJee (neut.), amka. 
ytahen (act,), nmshsu 


JBaekbite, chongelezat 
.betray, khinL 

(pottery), tomQa, ohomea. 
Jiale out waiter, vuta maji, teka 

jBanish, fukoza (drive away), ondo- 
sha (make to go away), haraisha 
or tamlsha (M.) or gurisha (A.). 
(to remove), 

Sat (a door), pingia. 

Hargain, £anya ubazazi. 

Jiai^ (like a dog), lia. 
Barter, badili, awUbi 

Baiter (bruise), cbubua^hnbna. 
be battered (like an old eoppet 
pot), cbubukachubuka. 
Bathe, oga. 

Be, wa. . See Irregular Verbs, p. 152. 
(to stay), kaa. 

be on on^s guard, [kii-]wa na 
. hathari. 

be offone^s guard, tagbafalL 
Bear (fruit,' children^ Ac), saa, 
vyaa. ! 

(carry), chukna, himili. 
(tcieraie), viunilia, stahimilL 
bear with another person, chnku- 

Bear with me, niwie ratbi. 
bear witness, sliuhudiu 
about, for or against, shuhudia. 
Beat, piga, puta, menya (Kiyao). 
Beat up together, funda. 
Beai to pieces, ponda. 
Beat a roof or floor, pigilja. 
be well beaten, putika. 
be beaten upon (<u a wreck by ihe 

waves), fiiawa. 
See Conquer, Thresh, 
Beckon to, pungia nguoi 

The usual sign to beckon a person 
to come is to toave a cloth up 
and down. 
Become (befitting), gttlihi. 
Nimekuwa, I am become. 
Simekuwa, am Iiy>t become. 
The act of becoming is generally 
expressed by the present tense o/ 
the verb expressing the being in 
the state or possessing the quality. 
Become a fool, pumbaeika. 
Beg, omba, bembeleza. 
(entreat), sihi, nasihi. 
Ib^ of you, tafatliaL 
Beget, zaa. 



Begifiy anza. 

Begin ujxm, anziliza. 

Btgin a worky malikL 
Behave, ienda. 

Behave weU^ tenda vema. 

Behave ill, tenda yibaja. 

Behave like an invalid, jigo- 
Belch, ODgnlia. 

Belch out, kokomoka. 
Believe, sadiki. 

Believe in, amini 
Bend, (ad,) pinda, (netU.) pindana. 

Bend round, (oeL) peta, (netU.). 
petaDa, petemana. 

^end dou)n,(act.) inamislia, (neut) 

Benumb, &ganza. 

Bequeath, wasia, aohia. 

Besiege, hiisuru (Ar.). 

Bet, ^indania. 

Beicare, angalia, [kii-]wa na ha- 

Bewilder, tekea. 

Bewitch, fanyia uchawi, loga (Mcr.). 

Bicker, papuriana. 

Bid. See Command. 
Make a first bid, ruamn. 

Bind, funga. 
Bind books, jelidL 
Bind oneself, fanya sharti 
Bind round (as when a stick is 
sprung), ganga. 

Bite, nma. 

Blab, payuka. 

Blame, laumu, tia hatiyani, nenae 
(scold), patiliza (visit upon\ 
karipia (call out at). 

Blaze, waka. 

Bleed, toka damn. 
(coptotM^^/), ohuruzika damu, tuza | 
damu (M.). J 

Bless, bariki (tee Copulaieit baiiki% 

Blind, poYua. 

become Uind, pomka. 
Block, kingamisha, pinga. 
Blossom,iotk maua (puiforthflcyien\ 

fuDuka (to open). 
Blow (€Ls the wind), Tnma, vaTia. 

(with the mouth), pnzia, pulisa. 

(a hom^ d:o,), piga soman, && 

(the nose), futa kflmaai. 

(beUows), Yukuta. 
Blow away, peperufiha. 
Blunder, kosa. 

The knife U Uuni, kisu hakipatl^ 
kisu ni kiyivn (A.). 
Blurt out, kokomoka. 
Blush, geuka (change colour), 

put to the blush, hizika. 
Boast, jisifu, jigamba, tamba. 
Boil (bubble up), ohe'mka, totnma» 

cook by boiling, tokofia. 

be cooked by boiUng, tokotiu 

be well boiled, tdkoaeka. 

boU over, farika. 
Bore through, zoa, pekecba («mK 
oho of boring wUh talk), 

with an awl, didimikia. 
Border, pakana. 
be Bom, zawa, vyawa, zaliwa, t]rft> 

liwa, patbiwa. 
Borrow, azimwa, kiritbL 
Bother, srunbua, batika (A.). 
Bow, (act.) inamisha, (neut,) inaina. 
Box the ears, piga kofi. 
Braise, kaanga. 
Bray (like an ass), lia 
pound in a mortar, ponda. 

clean com by pounding, twangai 
Break, vunja, ymida (M.), (neut) 
Tunjika, katika. 



f3 through^ toboa. 
cLgmenUj setaseta. 
iing^ ekua. 
} «prung, eknka. 
ocibB of Indian oont, goboa, 

'he branches of a tree^ kwa- 
,paM, kwanyuka» 
Jamba, ongulia. 
pumua, puziei, tanafosL 
;, paa2^ pumzL 
, shusba pumzL 
Eokota roho, tweta (panQ. 
} oneself (rest)^ pmnzika. 
la, lia (M.). 
zntf ng'ara. 

M*, letea. 
«p, lea. 

together, pambana. 
near, jongeza. 
to an agreement^ patanisba. 
to U/e again, fufua, huisba. 
awAherl Naijenginel 
(act), katua. 

hi, katuka (poZisAecQjUg'ara 
'ted, cbubuka. 
y, oliubuacbubiia. 
^ean), sugua. 
off, epua. 

p, cbe'mka, tutuma. 
ipuza (spring), cbanua (put 
i leaves), mea (grow). 
e, aka. 

wint by putting in smaU 
mes, tomea. 
, Qnda. 
ien iOf Icmea. 

Bum, waka (to he on fire), teketea 
(to he consumed), wasba (to set 
^fire), teketeza (to eonsume), 
choma or chomea (to apply fire 
to), onguza (to produce a feeOtag 
of hwming, to seorch). 

Burrow, fukuafukua. 

Bwrst, pasuka, tambuka. 

Burst out, bubujika. 
Burst into tears, bubujika m»- 


Buy, nnnna, zabimL 
Pwrehasefor, nunuluk 
Buy hack, komboa. 

Buz», like a hee, ynma. 


(jackle. Wee a hen, tetea. 
CaU, ita, nena, taja (name), amkua 
(invite), lingana (A.)* 
CaU out to, pigia ukelele, pigia 

ukemi (Mer.). 
Ckdl for help, piga yow^e. 
CaU to prayers, athlnL 
become CaUous, faganza. 
Cahn, tuiiza. 

be very calm, zizima. 
Can (kuweza, to be dbU). 
Siwezi, I cannoL 
Kaweza, Jcafi. 
Ckinter (of a horse), kwenka kwa 
mghad ; (of a donkey) kwentia 
Capitulate^ selimu, sellim. 
(Jare (take oare), angalia [ki£-]wa 
take care of, tanm. 
consider, waza, tafakarL 
he careless, [kiTjwa mzemhe, 
I don^t eare^ haithoru, mamoja 



Carry ^ ohukuii. 

/or, chnkalia. 

OA a pole over (he cAottZcZer^chu- 
kua mplkoiiL 

«11 tlie head or skoulders, pagaa. 

a child on the haohy beba. 

astride on Hie hip or hack, elcka. 
in front or on tJie lap, pakata. 

in a bundle or faggot, titika. 

off as spoil, teka. 

as cargo, pakio. 

on freight, lakabatliL 
Carve wood, &o., kata nakshi. 

chora (adorn vnih oarvin^X 

he carved, nakishiwa. 
Ccut, tupa. 

upon or at, tupio. 

a glance, tupa natbiri 

one's eyes, tupa macha 

(in a mould), ita. 

off all shame, jipujua. 

cast lots, piga or fanya kura. 
Castrate, basi. 
Catch, daka, nyaka. 

•in a trap, nasa, tega^ 

Jisli, Tua samaki. 

put soTnething tocateh rain-water, 
kinga myua. 

{see one who thinks himself unseen), 
fatbebi, gundua. 

he in time to meet with, dirikL 
Caulk, kalafatu 
Cave in, pomoka. 
Cease, koma. 

make to cease, komeshtb 

talking, nyamaza. 

(of pain), nyamaza. 
C^ise, fukiza (uudi, Ac). 
be Certain about, kinika, tasawari. 
Change, (act) gcuahtk, geuza, badili, 
bfKlilisba, (neut) geuka, badi- 

be cliangedbiSf badilibadlli» bt^ 

change onis wind o&ou^ gbairi. 
change (a piece of money), vunja. 
Charge (direct), agiza, flisitiza (fL)». 
CluLse, winda, wioga. 

away, fukuza. 
Chastise, atbibu. 
Chatter, puza. 

(of the teeth), totemek». 
Cheapen, rakbisisba. 
Cheat, danganya, badaa, ghusabo.. 
be cheated, danganyik% hadailak 
Cheer, ondolea, hnzanL ' 
Chew, tafoua. 

Chirrup (cutoa Idrd), fionya. BoCki 
word and tbiog are uaed m 
Zanzibar to express contempt 
Choke (throttle), kaba^ sama. 
chohe oneself with drinker wpUUs^ 

palia namate^ fta, Ae. 
irritate the tkroaif kerd30ta. 
Choose, chagua, teua» khitari, "peadK 
iotk (send), 
as you choosCf ikhtiaii yaloo^ vp^ 
Chop, chanja (out wp), chiqja if 
(M.) tinda (out), tema isHoAX 
cbonga or tonga (eii< fo o piM)t. 
katakata (chop up trnaU), 
Circulate (intdHgenee}, tangmifc 
Circumcise, tabirL 
Claim, dai. 

Clap the hands, piga makoA. 
Clasp in the hand, abikana, Inwnata. 
in the arms, kumbatia» kninba» 
Claw, papnra. 

Clean, takasa, fanya safi, aafiaha. 
be clean, takata, safika, ^Vbt"^ 
clean com by pounding, twangap. 
dean a s&oond Ome^ pvajai 



{Clean] he quite clear of hwtke and 

■ dtrt, pwayika. 
. eotUm^ cloveSf de.^ chambua. 

eoooor^uU from the hutk, fua. 

by ecrapingy paa. 

cleanse ly ceremonial MutumSf 

* tohara. 

clean out from within a BheU^ 

clean oui a man (jget aU ki$ 
money\ koniba. 

he cleaned oui Qiyse dU one's 
money), kombekib. ^ 

Cledtue, See Clean» 
Qear. See Clean. 

the shy is c2ear,iiwiugu umetakata. 

(moiwtfZear orplain\ eleza, ynza, 
fafaoua, fafanulia. 

(becUar)f elca, fafanuka» fafanu- 
. ground in a forest, fieka m'wita. 
CUaim, (spUt\ pasna, chenga. 
. eieame to, gandama, ambatana. 
CHek, alika, (act) alisha. 
OZuni^ panda, kwea. 

a tree, paraga. 
Cling, ambata. 

together, guiaua, ambatana, fu- 
ngamana, shikamana. 

Close the eyes, dtc, fuinba. 
' thefUtffvanbtkiA, 
: a door, shindika. 

a hock, funika. 
Clothe, yikA, 
Coagulate, gandamana. 
Coax into, shawibhi. 
Cock (a gun), panza mtaiubo. 
'OMle, ODgaenga. 
^hoMt uiith, iDgiliza. 
Cold, See Cool 

be very cold, zizinuw 

I have a eM in: the heady siwezS 

CoUect, kusanya, jamaa, (neut,) ka» 

eanyika, kutana. 
Comb, ohana, chauia. 
Come, ja, imp, njoo, pi. njoonL 
hy,for, to, <£e., jia. 
to a person on a business, jilia. 
(arrive), fika, wasili 
out, toka. 
in, ingia. 

upon (meet with), knta. 
near, karibn, karibia, jongea^ fi- 

Come near! or Come in! Earibt 
Com6 no further ! Koma usije ! 
close to, wasili, wasilia. 
together. See Assemble, 
to life again, fiifuka, hui, bnika.- 
to an end, isha, koma, tekeza. 
'be fully come (of time), wadia. 
come to light, funuka, fumbuka. 
come to nothing (of plants, fruity. 

&e,), dfia, pooza. 
oome apart, katlka. 
oomA out in a roAh, tutiika, tutu- 

mka, tutusika. 
Comfort, fariji, tulizia roho (caln^ 

the sotd), ondolea huzuni (iaJc& 

away grief). 
Phrases used by way of comfort^ 

ing ;— 

Sbukuru MuiiDgu,'^((a7i7£ God. 

Hemdi Muiugu, praise God, 

Itoe huzuni, put away sorrow, 

Usiwe na huzuni, donH grieve» 
he comforted, farajika, shukuro 

Muuiigu, peddezewa, tawakaii 

(trust in God and take courage)^ 
be Comfortable, tengenea. 
f I cannot be comfortable in th^ 

house, nyiunba haiuiwukL 



Command^ a*mru, ambia (tefX)^ 
(Jommistum^ agi2sa. [amrisha. 

CommiL See Adultery, 
Compare, angalia kwamba ni sawa, 
pambanisha (bring together), 
pambanua (disftn^uM^), linga- 
nisha (matdh), fjBt&nisha (make 
Compelj juburo, lazimisba. 
^Camptde, timiza, timiliza, kbati- 
misha, maliza (finish), 
complete one^e education, bitimu. 
he complete, timia, timilia, isba 
'Comprehend. See Understand. 
jua (know). 
kutana (take in), 
he comprehended in, ingia. 
Conceal, setiri, ficba. 

be concealed, stitika. 
Concern, pasa. 
Conciliate, patanisba. 
Condemn, laani (damn)» 
Amefetiwa kuuawa, lie unm adr 

judged to he killed, 
Imempasa kauawa, ^6 ought to he 

Condescend, nenyekea. 
Condole, bana (join in a formal 

Conduct, peleka, leta, obukua. 
Confess^ kiri, ungama, lalama. 
he Confident, tumainL 

have confidence, staamani. 
Confide in, amini, tumania. 
Confound, changanya (mix), batili 
he in Confusion, fatbalka (of 
persons), obafuka (of things). 
Confuse, cbanganisba. 
. put into confusion, fatbebL 
become confused, faibaika. 

Congeal, gandamana. 
Congratulate, furabisba, iihaTigllia. 
Connect, fongamana (tie together), 

angana, ungamana. 
(Jonquer, sbinda. 
Conseerate, fanya wakf. 
Consent, kubali, ritbia, penda, lli^ 

Consider, fikiri, taflBbkari, waia. 
ConsoU (see Coaifort\ taliza, tolisia 

Conepire, waflkana. 
ComlruiGt, jenga, jeDzL 
Consult, taka ahauri (aek adfnee\ 

fanya sbauri (coneuU togeUier), 
Consume, la, teketeza (by fits), 
be consumed^ laba, Ilk», teketea 

(by fire). 
CJontain, chukoBL (contain om a hag 

does rice), 
he contained in, ingia» [kn-jwama^ 

'mna (it is contained in U). 
Contend uiih, Bbindana na» hnwnniL 
Content, litbika. 

be content, [ki!-3wa xathi, kinayi» 
Continue, dumu, kaa, sbiiida (day 

at work, Ac), 
make to continue, dmnisha. 
Contract, pungoza (Jeeeen), fiipi» 

(shorten), fanya ndogo (iialif 

smaU), kaza (jpreae togetker). 
Contract, feuiya sbarti (moifea a oo»- 

tract), fan}a nbanoi (make m 

Contradict, kanya wasa. 
Control, a^abitisba, znia. 
Converse, zumgumza. 
Convert, geuza, fanya. 
Mwenyiezi Munnga amedlwo» 

ngoa, God has turned 

his evil way. 
to be converted, ongokm. 



Con^nee, i&nbutisba, tnmainisba. 

heeome eonvineed, tumainL 
Coohf pika, andaa. 
eook vfith/atf kaanga. 
eooh wUhout/atf oka. 
cooh mvhogo etU into imaU pieees^ 

to become cooked mough^ iva. 
C00I9 (fMut) poa, poroa, {act.) poza 
(fo eodl by pouring backward 
and forward)^ ^amoA (cool hot 
vnUer by pouring in cold). 
Copulate^ jami, tomba (vulgar), 

for ihe first timCf bariki. 
Copyf nakili, fanya nakl. 

copyfrom, twaa ya. 
Correct^ sabihi, sahihisba, radi 
Correepond (write to one another), 

(hrrupt, haribn. 

go bad, oza, haribika. 
Coet, wakifa, simama. 

cost to, wakifia, simamia. 
Cough, kohoa. 

Count, hesabu, wanga (Mer.), ba- 
Cover, fanika, setiri. [zibn. 

CM wiUi a flood, funizika. 
cover, vdth leaves, put into embers, 

dtc), ynmbika. 
be covered, stirika. 
Coffet, tamani. 
Otiefe, tia Ufa. 
as (he earth does in dry weather, 

become cracked, ufa. 
Crash, fanya kisbindo. 
Crawlt tambaa. 
be Crazy, znln. 
Crease, ktrnjia. 

be creased, knnjika. 
Create, nmba. 
be created, bulukiwa^ 

Creep, tambaa. 

CrinTde up, finyana. 

be Crooked, potoka, komboka» 

Cross (lie across), pandana. 

(cross a river), vuka, kwenda 
ng'ambo ya pilL 

(cross a room), kwenda upandd 
wa pilL 

get cross, vana. 

be cross at having anything to do^ 

Crucify, salibi, Bulibisha. 
Cruize, vinjari. 

Crumble, (acL) fikioba, (neuL) fu- 
Crush, seta, ponda. [jika; 

crush and bruise one another, 

crush up, setaseta. 

crush in, (act.) bonyesha, (neut.) 
Cry, lia. 

cry about, Ulia. 

cry out at, pigia, ukelele, karipia» 

cry for help, piga yowe, 

cry for mercy, lalama. 
Cultivate, lima. ' 
Cup, umika. 
Curdle, gandamana. 

curdled milk, maziwa mabivrr... 
Cure, ponya, poza, ponyesha. 

make better, fanya ashekali. 

be cured, poa, pona. 

cure fish, &e., ng'onda. 
Curse, laani, tukana. 
Cut, kata. 

cut obliquely, kata banamiL 

cut for, cui out for, katia. 

cut up, cbanja, chenga, 

cut to shreds, pasukapasuka. 

be cut of from one another, H^ 





Daib, chachaga. 
Damage,, haribu. 
J)amnj laani, laanisha. 
Dancey cheza. 

dance for joy^ raudo. 
Dare, fAubutu, weza, jasirisha. 
■Darken, tia giza. 
Darfiy tililia. 
J)a8ht clmpia. 
Davby paka. 

kuna kwQupe, to he grey dawn, 

pambazuka or pambauka, become 
Dazzle, choma. 

the eyes are dazzled, macho yame- 
fanya kiwL 
Deal in (trade in), fanya biasbara 
ya, &c. 

Deal cards, gawa kaiata. 
Decay, haribika, oza. 
Decease^ fariki. 
Deceive, danganya, padaa. 

deceive by promises, ongofya. 

he deceived, hadaika. 
Decide, kata maneno. 
Deck out, hamba. 
Declare, thlhiiisbei, yaza. 
Decoy, patia or twalia kwa che- 

Decrease, pungoa, pungaza, pu- 

Dedicate, fanya or wekea wakf. 
Defeat, Tunja, kimbiza (put to 

to he defeated, vnnjika, klmbia. 
Defend, linda. 

guard oneself, kinga. 
Deflower, bikiri, vunja unga 
Defraud, thalimu. 
Deign, kubali, nenyckca. 

Delay, (neuL) kawia, kaiwa, fawiCt 

(acL) weka, kawiaha. 
he Delirious, papaynka. 
Deliver, okoa, Yna^ toa. 

he delivered, vnka, okoka. 
Demand, taka. 

demand in marriage, posa» 
Demolish, TUDJa, faaribu. 
Deny, kana, kanisha, 

deny to a person, nyima, hinL 

(refuse), kataa. 

deny all eredenee to, katalia. 
Depart-, ondoka, toka^ enda saagi^ 
zako, &0. 

Depart from ms! Ondoka mbek 
yangu I 

depart from (he alienated /r(m% 
Depend upon, [kif-]wa na. 

Knnaye, depending upon hiws, i 

fungamana na, he oonneetod wiCk 

fuatei, he a dependant, 

tungikwa, hang from» 
Depose, uzulu, nzulia. 
Depreciate (acL), khaahifiiy mnbaa. 
Deprive of, twalia. 
Deride, cheka, chekea» kafani» 

fanyizia xnzaha. 
Descend, shiika. 

Describe, andika, fafanulia (fiy Hke»' 
ing). pambanulia (by diaim» 
Desert, acha, hujurtu [guiAia§^ 
Deserve, stahili. 

deserve weU of, fathilL 
Desire, taka, ipa, tamani (longfmrj^ 

penda (like). 
Desolate, vunja, haribiu 
Despair, kata tamaa. 
Despise, tweza, tharaa (paea, Ibav 

rauliwa), hakiriflha. 
Destroy, baribu, Ttinja. 

be destroyed^ liaribika, ?iii^ik% 



Detain^ kawisha, weka. 
Deter^ kataza, zuia. 
Determine^ yaMnia, dzinrn, kaza. 

determine a matter^ kata maneno. 
Devise, fanya shauri. 
JHe, fa, fakiri, ondoka katika uli- 
niwengc, toweka (A.), tekeza. 
make to die, fisha. 
lose by death, fiwa na. 
J)ig, chimba. 

dig out or away, chimbua. 
fukua, etU a small hole JU to 
receive a pott. 
Dignify, tukuza. 

become dignified, or be raised to 
dignity, tiikuka. 
Dilute, tia maji. 
Dim, tia giza. 

^Diminish, (neut) pongoa, punguka, 

tilifika,- (aetS), punguza, tilifi- 

^JHp, chovya. [sha. 

dip and leave in, choveka. 
-^Direct, agiza (commission), ambia 
(UtU), amuru (order), fundisha 
(instruct), vusha (put into the 
right way), 
^m^Hsagree, gombana, tetanait 
.J)mppear, toweka. 

(as a scar, dtc). Ma. 
JHsarrange, chafaa. 
-•^Hicliarge from an obligation, feleti. 
-J^ifcover, vumbua. 
-J^^riminate, pambanua. 
-^^^^isembowel, tnmbua, tumbuza. 
•^^^isgrace, aibisha, hizika. 
be disgraced, aibika. 
^isgiist, ohukiza. 
be disgusted, cbukiwa. 
^tsh up, pakua. 

TFhen you wish a meal to be served 
you should say, not pakaa, but 
lete chakula. 

Dislocate, teuka. 
Disquiet, fathaisha. 

be disquieted-, futlmika» 
Dismiss, likiza, ondoa. 
be dismissed, tolewa. 
Disobey, asi. 

Disorder (put things in disorder\ 
put an arvny in disorder, fathaisha. 
be in disorder or dishdbiUe, eha- 

be all in disorder, chalukachafiikiL. 
Dissipate, tampanyatapanya. 
Distinguish, pambanua. 
Distort, popotoa. 

Distress (ptU in low spirits), kefyar 
be in distress, thiL 
Distribute, gawanya^ 

DonH disturb yoursdf! Starehe! 
Disunite, farakitfha. 

be disunited, epukana, farakiaua, 
Dive, zama. 
Divide, tenga, gawa, gawanya, kata» 

Divorce, achei, tokana, tangua udoi^ 
Do, fanya, tenda. 
I have done nothing, sikufaoyi» 

He has done notfnng at all, baku- 

fanya lo lote. 
be done or doable, tendeka. 
do (be of use), faa. 

It won't do, balfai. 
do anything slowly and carefully^ 

do wanton violmee, husudu, fany» 

be done (finished), isba. 
be done (cooked), ivuu 



Dote, piswa. 
DoMe, raduf ja. 

Doubt, £Einya tashwishi, [kt[-]wa na 

There is no doubt, hapana shaka. 
Doze, sinzia. 

wake up euddenly from a doxBf 
zinduka, zladukana. 
Drttg, kokota, bamra (haut along). 

drag out of one* 8 hand, chopoa, 
Drain out, churukiza, ohoruzika. 
Z>fau;, Yuta. 

Draw water, teka majL 

Draw together, kunyata. 

Draw near, karibn, karibia, kari- 

Draw a line, piga mstari. 

Draw out naUs, &e,, kougoa. 

Draw breath, taiiafud. 

Draw in the breathy paaza pnmzi. 

Draw up the earth round growing 
orop», palilia. 

Draw the end of the loin cloth 
between (he legs and tuek it in, 
piga uwinda. 
Dread, ogopa, ogopa mno. 
Dream, ota. 
Dress, vika. 
' Dress in, vaa, jitia. 

Dress up, pamba, jipotoa. 

Dress ship, pamba merikebiL 

Dress vegetables for (he marJeet, 
Drift, chukuliwa. 

Drink, nwa, or ny wa ; pass, nwewa. 
Drip, tona. 
Drive, ongoza (lead, conduct), chu- 

nga (as a shepherd), ftikuza 

(drive atoay), fukuzia (drive away 

from), kimbizia (make to run 

«way from}. 

Drop (down\ (neut) anguka, (ad.) 
into, (neuL) tombnkia, (aet^) imor 

(Like leaves ina^umn), pokatika. 
(faU in drops), tona. 
drop from, little by little, dondok»< 
Drown (act) tosa, (neuL) tots, f< 

be Drunken, lewa. 
Dry, (neut,) kauka, nyauka, (aet^ 
become dry by waier leaving ^ 

pwa, pwea, pwewa. 
be left high and dry, pwelektL 
put out to dry, anika. 
dry or cure fishy ng*oiida. 
2>tfj>0, danganya. 
Dust, fUta ymnbt 
Dwell, kaa, kaa kitako^ keti (M.). 
Dwindle, kanjana, pnnguka, ang^ 

mia (go doim in the world). 
Dye, tia rangi. 
kutona bina, to lay on hetma m 
as to dye the part red. 


Earn, pata. 

JSase, fariji, aterebisha. 
become easy, farajikat 
JSase oneself, kunya. 
Eat, la. 
in, with, for, d:e,, lia. 
be eaten or eatable, lika. 
have eaten enough, shiba. 
eat at the expense of eat^ ome A 

turn, la kikoa. * 

eat where eath oontribuies mm» 
thing to the feast, la kwa Ira 
eat all the food away from oA#l 



Ametnima, he has eaten it aU up 

before we came, 
overeat oneself, vimbiwa. 
make a person eat too much, 

eat toithofU hounds, papia. 
eat over voraciously^ la kwa pupa. 
^Ibb, pwa. 

€ Eclipsed, patwa. 
l^dueate, fdnda, fundiflha, alimisha, 

adibu, or tia adabn (teach good 

manners), lea (bring up), 
IJlongaie^ ongeza nrefu. 
'hnbaZm^ tia madawa asioze. 
^mbarh, panda (go on board), ta- 

hasaa (go on board with the 

intention of sailing). 
Jmbra^^, pambajei, kombatia, ku- 

knbroU, tia matata. 
knerge, znka. 
knploy, tmna (send about), tuinia 

(tnaJee use of), tumika (be 

*mpty out, mwaga, mwa}ti. 
'fuMe, wezesha, jalia. 
'ncamp, toa (put down loads), 
'noourage^ tia moyo, t/tubutisba. 
'ndf (neut) isba, koma, (act.) mali- 

za, komesba, khatimisha. 
'nd4}W with, wekea wakf. 
*ndure, ishi (kut), Tumilia (bear 

with), stahimilL 
'nervate, tboofisha. 
'ngcige, afikana, twaa, fanya sbarti. 
'ng^ider, zaa, vyaa. 
Vi/oj^forahi, ona raba, furahiwa na. 
'tilarge^ ongeza, zidisha. 
'rdist (act,), tia auikari. 
i Enough, tosha, toshelea. 
Jt is enough, bassi. 
have had enough food, sbfba. 

Enquire, uliza (ash), hnji (enqu i 

into), hakiki (mdlce sure about)^ 

ulizia (enquire on account of). 
Enrage, ghatbabisba. 

be enraged, gbatbabika. 
Enrich, pa ntajiri. 
Enslave, tia utumwani 
Ensnare, tega. 
Entangle, tia matata. 
Enter, ingia. 
Entice, vnta kwa cberevn, twaa kwa 

Entreat, omba, sibi, nasibi. 
Entrust, wekea amana, amini mtu 

he equal to (an undertaking, dkc), 

Equalize, sawanisbei, sawazisba, 

&nya sawasawa, linganisha (by 

Erect, fiimikisba. 
Err, kosa, kwenda bapa na bapa 

Escape, okoka (60 delivered), pona 

(to get weiC), vuka (to get across), 

kimbia (run away), fiatuka (to 

escape cls a spring, to get free). 
Establish^ tengezeka (?). 
Estimate, kadiri, kisi. 
Evaporate, nwewa. 
Exalt, inua (lift), tukuza, atbimisba. 
be eocalted (great), tukuka, atbi- 

Examine, onja (taste), tafiti, fiatiisbi, 

sayili (by questions). 
Exceed, pita. 
Excel, pita. 
Except, toa, tosba. 
Exchange, badilL 
Excite, tabarrakisba, fitinL 

be excited, bangaika. 
, Excuse^ utburu, samebe (pardwC^ 



Exercise^ zoea. 

exerciae atUlumty over, hnkmnn. 
Exert oneself, fanja juhudi, jitahidL 
Exhort, onya, nabihisha. 
Exorcise hy music, d:c, punga. 
Expand, tanna, kmijiia (unfold), 

zidi (increase), fanuka or 

konduka (become open)» 
Expect, ngoja, ngojea, tumaini.. 
Expel, toa, fukuza. 
expel an evil spirit hy music, d:c, 

pnnga pepo. 
Expend upon, he cU the expense of, 

Explain, eleza, pambanna, fasiri, 

tafsiri, fumbulia, pambanulia 

(explain to), tambulitiha (make 

to recognise). 
Explode, pasiika (hurst), waka 

Explore, fatiishi, jasisi, angalia. 
Export, toa. 
Express, thahiri, bainL 

(press out), kamua. 
Extend, (act.) nyosba, (neuL) iika 

(reach to), kunjuka, enea (he 

spread over). 
Exterminate, ng'oa pia yote (root up 

Extinguish, zima, zimia. 

to go out, zimika. 
Extort, pokonya. 
Extol, sifu. 
Extricate from, toa na, namua 

ExuU, furahL 


Fade, fa, kauka, fifia (pine away), 
pukutika (wither and drop), 
tboofika (grow weak and thin). 

Fail, puDguka. 

Faint, zimia roho. 

faU like rain, nya. 

cause rain tofaU, njoAm» 

faU into, tumbiikia. 

letfaU into, tumbukiza. 

faUflat on (he ground, lata indi^ 

faU in (cave in), pomoka. 

faU sihort, pungaka, tindika (A.*^ 

faU sick, ugua. 
Falter, Bhanghaa, sita. 
Fan, jjieipea. 
Fancy, knmbuka, flkiri. 

fancy oneself ^ jiona. 

break a fast, or eat after a fa 
Fasten, funga. 
Fatten (get fat), nona (of anindU^ 

nenepa (of men). 
Fatigue, ohosha, taabisba. 

he fatigued, ohoka, taabika. 
Favour, pendelea. 
Fear, ogopa, cba (A.X [ktf-Jw» na 

he fearless, peketeka. 
Feast, kerimu. 
Feed, lisha. 

cause to he fed, HRTn>T| ft, 

put morsels into afriendfs Montft, 
Fed, ona (perceive), papasa (<OMft> 
Feign, jifanya. 
FeU, kata. 
Fence, fanya ua. 
Fend off a hoot, tanua mashua. 
Ferment, obacha. 

Ferry over, vusha» vnkisha, abirialuL 
FeU^, leta. 
Fight, pigana. 

set on to fight, piganisha, pigani' 





jiU in [a hole], fokia. 

Ifeeomi fuU, jaa. Tihe pcusive is 
used for being fiUed with some 
extraneous substance. Mtungi 
nmejaa maji, the jar is fuU of 
wateTf hut, maji yamejawa na 
dudu, the water is fuU of 

he half fvXt (by remaining), bM- 
nda, maji yashinda ya mtungi, 
fhejat is halffuXt of watfr, 

fiU up, jaliza. 

JiU with food, shibisha. 

to be fuUf to have had enough, 
^Hnd, ona, zmnbua, yumbna, pata, 

he to be found, zumbukana, pati- 

find out in a trick, fathebi, 

he found out, fetheheka. 

findfauU with, tia hatiyani 
^Hnid^ (oeL') maliza, (neut) isha, 

finii^ off, tengeneza, tengeleza. 

fimUh a journey, koma. 

finish a scholar, bitimiaba. 
•FVr« (set on fire), tia moto, wasba 

(apply fire to in any vjay), oboma. 

a gun, &o., piga bmiduM, &c 
•^VsA, yna samaki. 

fish a spar, &c,, ganga, tia gango. 
^it, faa (do weU). 

Ni kiassi cbanga kama nalika- 
tiwa mimi, it fits as though it 
had been made for me. 

fia the eyes upon, kodolea. 
^lcme^ waka» toa ndimi za mota 

Flap, piga 

make a sail flap by going too near 
the wmd, pigiza tanga. 
Flash (lighten), piga um^e. 
Flatten, tandaza. 
Flatter, sifa, sifa mno, jipendekeza 

(ingratiaie oneself with). 
Flavour^ to get the right flavour 
Flay, cbuna, tuna (M.). [kolea 

lose the skin, cbunika, tunika (M.)- 
Flee, kimbia. 

be Flexible, pindana, [kif-]wa lainL 
Flicker, sinzia. 
Flinch, jikunja, mka. 
Fling, tnpa. 
Float, elea, ogolea. 

Flood, gbaiikisba,f urika,tawanyikay 

be flooded, gbariki. 
Flourish, sitawi, fana, fetnikiwa. 

make to flourish, sitawisba. 
Flow, pita (flow by), toka (flow 
out), bubujika (to burst and 
Flower, toa maua. 
Flurry, zulisba. 
Flutter, papatika. 

fly off, puroka. 
Fold, kunja. 

fold together, kunjana. 

fold in the arms, kumbatia. 
Follow, fuata, andama (M.). 

foUow a pattern, oleza. 
become Foolish, pumbazika. 
Forbid, gombeza, kataza. 
Force (see CompeC), tia nguyn, .la* 

He was forced to ao, alikwenda 
kwa nguvu. 

Foree open, pepetua. 



Foretell, agua, tabiri, bashiri. 
How has {his year been predicted 
ofi Mwaka huu wueaguli- 
Forfeits lazimisbwa. 

he forfeited by, potea. 
Forge tron, do,, fiia cbuma, &o. 
weld on a new point or edge, tam- 
Forget, sahao. 

be forgotten, sabanliwa. 
Forgive, samebe, acbilia, mwafa. 

Forgive me, niwie ratbi. 
Forsake, aoba. 

Fortify, tia boma (put a ramparfy 
Foster, lea, lisba. 

Free (from slavery), weka or aoba 
(from prison), acba, fungua. 
be set free (from prison), tokana. 
Freeze, ganda, gandamana. 
pay freight for, takabatbisba. 
carry on freight, takabatbL 
Frighten, ogofya, tia kbofn, ogo- 
flsba, kbofisba, tisba. 
beootne frightened, ing^wa na 

starUe, stnsba, kutusba. 
Front, kabili, lekea. 

ptU in front of, lekeza. 
Frown, kunja uso, kunja vipaji 
He lias a frowning face, uso iina- 
Frustrate, batili, vunja. 
l?Vy, kaapg». 
Ffdfil, tuxiiza, timib'ga* 

fulfil a promise, fikiliza abadi 
Furl sails, kunja matanga^ 
Fumith a house, pamba nynmbaw 


Gain, pata, pata foyidat 
OaUop, piga mbio. 
Oape, piga nyayo, fdnoa kin^a. 
Garble copal, Ae,, obagua aanda- 

Gather (fruit), dboma 
into a heap, zoa. 
together (act.), knsaiiya» kataat-- 

sba, jamaa, jamiiaha. 
together (neut), kusanyika» 

up into a smdU epaoe, flnyanfti 
onesdf up for an effort, jitatnmiuu 
littU by litOe, lumbika. 
up on^B courage^ piga moyo 
Getd, IiasL 
be Genial (goodrhmmoured imA 

merry), obanga'mka. 
Get, pata. 
get better, pona. 
get a litOe bettor^ [lctf-]w» iflhe- 

get drwik, lew% jilevyat 
get dry, kanka. 
get fire by working mm Mk 

against amoXher, pekeohA 
get for, patia. 

get foul of one asu^her, pambgnt. 
get goods on credit in crdtr if 

trade with them, kopa, 
get into, ingia. 
get into a w€U,a9orape,^te.,(aeL) 

tmnbukiza, (neut,) Unnhnln^ 
get into a passion (iMiif.X ingimi 

na ghatbaba or hasinL 
get into a quarrel (aet), Timilrilia 

get [seeds'] into the gr&undf T» 
I get movMy, fiuiyft «kangv. 



^ out, toka. 

get out of the vaay^ jitenga. 
(hdofihevaayl Simillal 
get out of OM^B sight, tokomea. 
get paJm wine, gema. 
get ripe, iva. 

get thin and watery, poroa. 
get through, (neut) pouya, (jaet.) 

get up, ondoka. 

rise to (a person), ondokea. 
get up or upon, pauda. 
get vjeU, pona, poa. 
be Cf-iddy, leyyalevya. 
QHd, choTya. 
Cfive (a thing), toa. 
(to a person), pa, pass, pewa, to 

give a complaint to, ambukiza. 
give a taste, an inkling, or a litUe 

specimen, dokeza. 
give hack, rudisha. 
give into the hand, kabithi. 
give leave to, pa ruksa or rohnsa, 

give light to, tia mwangaza. 
give mutual gifts, paiia. 
give presents to, tanza, tunukia. 
give rations to, posha* 
give room or space, nafisisha. 
give to drinh to, ny wesha. 
give to eat to, lisha. 
give trouble, taabisha, ftinya iuda, 

give way under one, bonyea. 
Give way (row) I Vuta ! 
^Ranoe, natMri, tupa macho or na- 
ihari (east the eyes or a glance), 
Otare at, ng'ariza. 
Oteam, mulika, ng'ara. 
Olide, tiririka, teleza. 
glisten, sagaa. 

CfUtter, meiameta, mekameka, me* 

rimeti^ mulika. 
Glorify, tukuza, sifii. 
Glow, ng'ara. 
Gnaw, gngima. 
(jh, enda, enenda. 
you can go, mkBa. 
go after or for, endea. 

(foUow), faata. 
go alongside, pambana. 
go a^iore (of a sMp), piuida. 
he left high and dry, pweleka, 
pwewa na maji. 
go ashore (of a person), sliuka. 
go away, enda zangu, zako, zake, 
zeta, zenu, zao, according to 
the person, 
toka ondoka. 
go away from, acha, toka. 
go hack, nidi, regea. 
90 bac^oftl, endeleanymna. 
go h€id, oza. 
go before, tangalia. 
go before a Judge, enda kwa 

go behind, fMsAsL 
go by, pita. 

go crooked, patoa, potoka. 
go forward, endelea mbela. 
go /tm, toka. 
go into, ingia. 
go marketing, enda sokoni. 
go off (like a spring), fiatuka. 
go on (not to stop), fuliza, luzay 

go on (with a work), shinda. 
go on board, panda. 
go on board in order to eaU, tn- 

go on vjHh by turns, pokezana» 
go out, toka. 
(like a candle), zimika. 



He has gone out for the day^ 
amekwenda shinda. 
go over J Tiika. 
go fast, pita. 
go quicJdy down a steep place, 

go running, enda mbio. 
go to expense abotU or upon, gha- 

go to meet, laki. 
go to meet vnHh shouting and joy, 

go to law with, teta. 
go up (neut,), paa. 
(act,) kwea, panda. 
be Good of its hind, fstxisu 
Oorct piga pembe. 
Govern, tawala, miliki 
Grant to, pa, jalia, ruznkiL 
Chappie, kamatana, shikana. 
Grasp, ^ika, fumbata. 
Grate, paraga, paruza. 
Graze, paruga, kwaruza. 

graee one another, paruzana. 

become Great (of a person\ tukuka. 

become great to or hard for, kulia. 

be Greedy, [kii-]wa na roho or 

choyo, fanya tamaa (be greedy 


Greet, salimn, salimia, amkua, ba- 

Grieve, (act.) dkitisha» tia huzmii. 
(neut,) flikHnka, ingiwa na huzuni. 
Grin, toa meno. 
Grind, BB^g^ 

grind eoarsdy, paaza. 
Groan, ugua. 

groan ait, zomea. 
Grope, papasa. 

Grow, ota (of plants), kna (to become 
large), mea (of plants, to grow 
Mr be iTftMoo&Ie). 

What is to be grown here f Efii* 
mo chanini? 

grow to its full size, pea. 

becomefuUrgroum, peviika,koiiiaa 

grow up quickly, vnvmnka. 

not to grow (of seeds), fifia. 

grow large enou^fh to hear findt, 

grow fai, nenepa (o/ jMrtonf)» 
nona (of antmoZs). 

gfrow Giin and lean, hasMtL 

grow larger, kua, kithiri 

grow lesSj pnngoa, tilifiki^ 

make to grow large^ koza. 
Growl, ngonuna. 
Grudge, hbd. 

grudge at, hnsudiL 
Grumble, nnng'miika. 
Grunt, gODA, 
Guarantee payment of a ddi, h»* 

a resuU, tadariki. [wiU. 

Guard, linda, tnnza, hami, ngojea. 

guard oneself against a hhm, 
Guess, bahatisbai kisi, thaiiL 
Guide, onyesha njia (show the way), 

peleka (take). 
Gulp, gugamiza. 

gulp down, ak'ia. 

Halt, toa (put down hwrdens), A' 
mama (stand), edta (go lame, or 
to stop), ohechemea (to put cm 
foot only flat on Uie ground). 

Hammer, gongomea (hammer 4u), 
f ua pass, fuawa (beat €ls wOk m 

Hang, angika '(a« against a wdB), 
tungika (be suspended), to- 
(strangle), nyonga, songa. 



Sappen, tnkia. 

Which happened to him, kilicho- 
Harass, sumbua, uthi, uthia, oho- 
koza, sombusha. 
he harassed, snmbuka, uthika. 
Mamif thurn, hasara. 

No harm ! Haithura ! 
Marpoon^ pSkgBL 
Hasten, (oeQ harakisha» himiza. 

(neuQ fimya hima, haraka. 
Satchy ongua, zaliwa, ongiiliwa (be 
hatched), angua (break the 
Hate, ohukia, buothu, zira (M.). 
Have, [kii-]wa na (see p. 154). 
(possess), miliki ' 
on hoard, pakia. 
power over, weza. 
in ofnis debt, wia. 
To have things done for one, is 
expressed by the passive of the 
applied form (see p. 161). 
Hauik ahout, tembeza. 
JTeol, poza. 

he healed, poa, pona, ongoka. 
Heap up, kusanya, fanya fungii. 
Hear, sikia, pulika (A.). 

hear one another, sikilizana, pu- 

he to be heard, sikilikana. 
Hearken, sikiliza, pulika. 
Heat (get hot), pata moto. See 

Heave the log, tia batlL 
l>e Heavy. See Weigh doum. 
Hdp^ sayidia, auni 
JJem, knnga. 

Hesitate, sliangaa, sita, inglwa na 
fihaka (get into doubt), 
in speaking, babaika. 
Hide, ficha, settiri, sita (A.). 

You have hid the cap from me, 

umenificha kofia. 
Tou have hid my cap, umenifi- 
cbia kofia. 
Hinder, zuia, pinga, fawitL 
Hint, dokeza. 

Hire, ajiri, panga (to rent). 
Hit, piga, pata. 

with a spear or arrow, fuma. 
Hoard, weka, weka akiba. 
be Hoarse, pwelewa sauti 

lam hoarse, sauti imenipwea. 
Hoe, lima. 
%06 up, palia. 
cause to be hoed, palililiza. 
Hoist, tweka. 

Hold, shika, kamata, fumbata 
(grasp), zuia (hold in), zuilia 
(hdd off from), 
hold in the mouth, vuata. 
hold on^s clothes or hands be- 

tween one*s knees, fiata. 
hold a public audience, or council, 

hold up (not to rain), anuka. 
hold in contempt. See Scorn, 
Hollow out, fukua. 
Honour, heshimu, pa heshima, 

Hop, rukaruka. 

Hope, taraja, tumaini (feel eon- 
I hope, roho yatumaL 
Humble, thili, hakiri. 

be huiMe, nenyekea. 
Hunger, [kii-]wa na njaa. 
be ravenously hungry, rapa, lapa. 
I am very hungry, njaa inaniu- 
Hu/nt, winda, winga, saka. 
Hurry, haraka, himiza. 
Hurt, uma, umia, muiza. 



Eutk (Indian «-im), menya, ambaa 

(eocoa-nuU\ fua. 
(flr shell), papatua. 

helU or unwell, lUness U expressed 
by the use of the negative present 
of the verb kuweza, to be able. 
Siwezi, I am ill, Hawezi, he is 
iU, &c. Nalikuwa siwezi, I 
was id. Aliknwa hawezi, he 
trcM f ZZ, Ac 
I have been ill for two monthst 
siwezi yapata miezi ipiwilL 

Imitate, oleza, iga, faatsfi; 

Immerse^ zamisha, chofya. 

Implore, pembeleza. 

he Impossible, toa kufanyika. 
It is impossible, haiyamkini. 

Imprecate against, apiza. 

Imprison, tia gerezani, fonga. 

Imprtnje, tengeleza, silihi, sitawisha. 

Lndine, (neuL) inama, (act) ina- 
indine to Qike), penda. 

Increase, (act.) ongeza, zidisha. 
(neut.) ongezeka, zidi, kithiri. 

be Indebted to, wiwa na. 

Indulge in, zoeza, jizoeza. 

Infecty ambukiza. 

Inf(mn, aiifu, hubiri, pa habari. 
In letter-writivg arifu is always 
employed, on other occasions 
kupata or kawa na habari is 
generally used for to be in- 
formed, and ambia (teU) for to 

Ingratiate oneself, jipeudekeza. 

Inhabit, kaa, ketL 

Inherit^ nthL 

Injure, hasiia, hasiri, hasirishs 
be injured, haairika. 

InnovcUe, zna. 

be Inquisitive, tafiti. 

Inspect, kagua. 

Instruetj ftmdisha, fanza, elemishft^ 

InsuU, dntamUf tukana, ohokoza. 

Intend, kiisudia (purpose), azimu or 
azimia, or yakinia (rescive), 
jn&, or ania, or nuia Qtave i» 
one^s mind). 

Inter, iSiksL, 

Intercede for, ombea. 

Interpret, fasizi, tafsiii 

Interrupt, zoia, katiza, hanilriiBay 
nthia (bother). 

Intoxicate, levya. 
become intoxicated, lewa. 

Intrude, fmnaiiia. 

Ching into another person*s housr^ 
for an unlawful purpose (ku- 
fisidi), or without lawful pmr^ - 
pose (ku-ftmianiana), bars bg 
the law of Zanzibar any daim 
on the part of the intruder I» 
respect of any assauU or injury 
while there. 

Inundate, gharikisha, farika (sweU), 
tawanyika (spread). 

Invade, shambnlia. 

Invent, hum, zumbua. 

Invite, ita, alika. 
invite to come in, karibisha. 

Irrigate, tia maji, nyweaha. 

Irritate, tia hasira, ghatbabishai 
kasirisha, chokoza. 

Bch, — cause to itch, nyea. 
I itch, imeninyea. 


Jam, kwamisha. 
become jammed, kwama, 



teeik, Itke grit in foodf 

i meno. 


I nbishi or mzaha» thi- 

) tinga, {neut,} ungana na. 

ikmnu, hukumia, amna. 

rigindl meaning of amna 

epanste^ and it is used of 

lUng two persons who have 


gether different languages 

fleets, goteza. 



A or cheleza (ptU away}, 
(fake care of), linda 

d), hifathi (preserve), shi- 

oid)f faga (he^ animals), 

or kawisha (delay), 

jossiping, pu2ika. 

tame or in a cage, fugika. 

ct he^ kept, i.e., it wHl 
run away or die, hafa- 

^ake, (neut^ kesha, (a^st.) 


•m, epuBha» znilia. 

order (a person), rudi 

, or capable of being kept, 

ier, rudika. 

ai, sliinda. 

*ur distance ! Koma usije I 

I teke. 

pass, iiawa, waga (Mer.), 

(to cause to die). 

h, Ac, ulia. 

food, oblnja, tinda (M.). 

benda mema. 

ndness to, fathili. 

asha, tia mota 

Kiss, buso. 

lift to the lips and hiss, sogeza. 
Knead, kanda. 
Kneel, piga magote. 
Knit the brows, kunja vipaji. 
Knock, gonga, gota, piga. 
at a dooTf or to cry Hodit if (he 
door be open, bisha. 
Know, jna. Exgna is often used in 
the sense of to know of, about, 
how, &0. 
I know where he is, namjua aliko 

(I know of him, where he is), 
I hnoto how to speak the language 
of Zanzibar, najua knsema kiu- 
lean do UaektmiWs work, najua 

kofiift ohiiixia* 
(fo recognise), tambua. 
be knowable, jnlikana. 
make to know, jnliaha, juvisha. 
become known, tangaa. 
know what to do, tanababL 

Lace in the rope or maUing across a 
native bedstettd, tanda, wamba. 

Lacerate, pSkjpsoaiL 
be laceratedf papuiika. 

be Lame, tegea, oheohemea, tetea, 
kwenda chopi, tagaa (undk tcith 
the legs far apart). 

Land, (neut.) dhxJsA, (act.) shuslia. 


Laugh, oheka. 
laugh cU, chekelea. 

Launch, shua, pass, shnliwa. 

Lay, tia, weka. 

lay a wager, pinga, sbindania. 
lay by, weka akiba. 
lay down, laza. 



lay eggs, atamia, or zaa, or nya 

lay hold of, sliika. 

lay open, funna, weka wazi. 

lay out, andika, tandika, toa. 

lay out money, gharimu, gharlmia. 

lay the beams of a roof, ikiza. 

lay the table, andika meza. 

lay upon the table, weka mezani 

lay to anyone*s charge, tuhumn. 

lay upon some one else, kumbisba. 
he Lazy, [kii-]wa mvivu. 

to he cross at having anything to 
do, kimwa. 
Lead, ongoa, ongoza, peleka, fikisba 
(make to arrive). 

lead astray, kosesba. 

lead devotions, somesba. 
Leah, vnja, fa'mka (to open at the 

Lean upori, tegemea, egemea. 

lean upon a staff, jigongojea. 

hecome lean, konda. 

m^lte lean or thin, kondesba. 
Leap, ruka. 
Learn, jifunza, pata kujua. 

learn manners, taadabu. 
Leave, acba, ata (M.), toka. 

leave hy death, fia. 

leave to (hequeaih), acbia. 

leave go of, aoba. 

Leave offl Waoba! Bass! 

leave off fasting, fungua. 

leave ttUfU or ready, limbika. 

leave (cause to remain), saza. 
he left (remain), saa, salia, baki. 

asJc leave, taka, ruksa. 

give leave, rubusu, pa ruksa. 

give leave abotU, amria. 

take leave of, aga. 
take leave of one another, agana. 

Leaven, cbaoha. 
Lead, azima, kiritbl 
Lengthen, ongeza urefu. 

make long, fanya mrefo. 
Lessen, (act) pungnza, (neut) pn- 

Let (permit), aoba, pa rukBa, knbali, 
let alone, B/aha. 

let a house, pangisba nyambi. 
let down, sbusba, tna. 
let dovm a huciket, puliza ndoa 
let free a spring, fiatua, fiatusb^ 
let go an anchor, puliza. 
let loose, fungua. 
let on hire, ajirisba. 
let water, vuja. 
Level, fanya sawasawa» tendi^ 
he level vdth, lingana na. 
make level with, linga, ling^ 
level a gun at, lekeza bunduU. 
he Liberal to, kerimu. 
Liberate, fungua, pass, fttnguliwan. 
from slavery, woka, or acha luqf 
Lick, ramba. 

Lie (tell lies), soma uwomgo 
(to be), kaa, [kii-]wako. 
lie a^crosB, kingama. 
a tree Ues across the road^ ml 
umekingama njiani 
lie across one another, pandaniL 
lie down, jinyosha» jilasa, lab 

lie heavy on, lemea. 
lie on the faee, wama, fnama (M.]- 
lie on the side, jilnika. 
lie on the hack, lala kwa tanL 
lie in wait for, otea. 
Lift, inua, tweka. 

up the voiee^ paliza sand 



)ha, tia moto. 

lose hy having taken from one^ 



ight, mulika. 

lose hy deaih, fiwa na. 

ightening), piga umeme. 

lose one's senses, nikwa na akilL 


Love, penda, ashiikL 

ject of liking, tamanika. 

be loved by, kora. 


Loujer, shiuAia, tua. 

LuU, pembeza, tnmbuiza. 

f limit, pea. 

Lurk for, oteai 

kwia, kawilia. 


]wa na kitembet 

dliza, pulikiza. 


ereUy, duMza. 


[stay or be), ishi (continue), 

Magnify, kuza, tuknza. 

nra hayi (be alive), [kii-] 

magnify oneself, jitapa. 

ulimwenguni (he in this 

Make, fitnya, fanylza. 

iknza. ^world). 

make to do or be. See p, 162. 


make a floor or roof, sakifo. 


make a pen, ohonga kalamu. 

amiri, shindilia. 

make a sign to, ashiria. 

» with, pakia (of a ship), 

make a wiU, waAia. 

oa (carry). 

make another love one, pendeleza. 


make hriUiant, Dg'aza. 

native look, gomea. 

make cheap, rakhisisha. 


make dear, thihirisha, eleza, weka 




make confident and hopeful, tu* 



^ or looJc carefully, augalia. 

make eraay, ssulisha. 

it 1 Angalia I Jiponye I 

make dear, glialisha. 

1 /or, tazamia. 

make ddiriow, papayuza. 

, tafuta. 

make equal, Uke, &o., sawanisha, 

er, tunza. 


r a property, aua. 

make for, fanyia. 

1 to see what is going on. 

make [dothe^for, katia [nguo]. 


make game of^ thihaki, fanyizia 




make haste, fanya hima, enda 



ley), pata liasara. 

make iU, gonjweza. 

So 6e lost to), [nipotea. 

make into a ring, peta. 

lost my knife, kisu kime 

make lawful, halilisha. 



make light of a matter, jipum- 

make like, oleza. 

make metal things, foa, fulia. 

make over talkative, payuza. 

make pastry, andaa, andalia. 

make peace hettoeen, sulnhisha. 

make plain, thahiii, eleza, thihi- 
risha, weka wazL 

make pottery, finyanga. 

make raw, ohnbua. 

make room for, nafisisha. 

make sorry, sikitisha. 

make sure, hakiki. 

make to a>gree, patanisha. 

make to he at peace, suluhisha. 

make to enter, ingiza. 

make to go up, pandisha, kweza. 

make to grow lean, kondosha. 

make to hear or understand, siklza. 

make to weep, liza, lizana. 

make unlawftU, harimu, hara- 

make up afire, chochea moto. 

make up one's mind, tanabahi. 

make verses, tunga mashairi. 

make water, kojoa. 

make weak, thoofisha. 

make weU, i>onya, ponyesha. 

Dont make a noise I Tulia f 
MamLge, amili, fanya. 
Mark, tia alama. 

Karry, oa (of the husband), olewa 
(of the wife), oana (of the 
couple), oza (of the parents), 

ask in marriage, posa. 
Master, ghelibn, shinda. 

he master of, weza, tamdlaki. 
Match, lingana 

make to match, linga, lingauisha. 

he a match for, weza. 
Mean, taka, nia, kusudia. 

Measture, pima, twaa olieo. 

measure together, enenza. 
Mediate hetween, adehiah*. 
Meditate, tafieikari, waza. 
Meet, onana, kutana, kutanikft, kn» 

meet with, kata. 

go to meet, laM. 
Mdt, (netU.) yeynka^ ayika, (aoUy 

Mend, fanya^ fanyiza. 

(sew up), shonea. 

(dam), tililia. 

(hind up), ganga. 
Menstruaie, [kifjwa na heth. 
Mention, nena, t%ja. 

heaUina mess, nli^falraraiaftilra^ 

make a mess of on^e work^ boro» 
Mercy (have or show), rehemu. 
Mildew, £Btnya kawa. 
MiUc, kama. 

Mind, tunza (take care ef), *^ngitW>. 
(take care), knmbiika (pear im 
Never mind, haithnm, ugitiff- 

IdonH mind, mamoja pla. 
Mingle, ohanganya. 

he mingled, changanyika. 
Miscarry, haribn mimba. 
Miss, kosa. 
(to go near to without Umdkkigyf. 

(not to go direct to\ epea. 
to he missed (not found), kosekamk- 
Mislead, poteza, koseeha. 
Mistake, kosa. 
Mix, changanya. 
mix up hy knocking amd heaUmg^ 
buroga, ftinda. 



Moeky iga, thihaki, komaza, kufdm. 
be Moderate, [kii-]wa kadiri. 
Moleet, Bnmbua, chokoza, basirisha. 
Mould (ptut in a mould), ita, fimya 
kwakalibu. * 
grow mouldy, fianya ttkirngQ. 
IfouldeTf fujikE^ farijika, haiibika. 
(go into lumps like ipoiU flour), 
faaya madonge. 
Mount, panda, kwea. 
Mourn (in a formal manner), kaa 
join in a formal mourning, 
Move, (neut) jongea, (aet,) jongeza. 
Move into the shade, jongea 

(cu a earpet does vhen a mouse is 

under i€), fnrnknta. 
(shiM), tnkoBa, tiJdsa, gnkasnka. 
(change plaee of dwelling), bama, 

taina (M.), gora (A.). 
tause to remove, bamiaha, tamiflba, 
Multiply, (aet.) zidiaba, ongeza, 

(neut.) zidi, ongezeka. 
Murder, na, pass. nawa. 
Murmur, nnng'unika. 
Must, lazimn, sbarti, bana baddi 

8eep, 155. 
Mutilate, kata. 


Name, taja, nena, ita, pa jina (give 

a name to). 
Need, taka, ibtaji, ibtajia. 
NegUet, gbafilika (not to attend to), 

acbiHa (leave undone). 
Nibble, tafuna. 
Nod, sinzia (e{ose)^biria kwa twaka 

(as a signal). 
Notice, ODA, angalia, natMii 

notice a defect, toa kombo. 

take no notice, tagbafali 
Nourish, lisba. 
Nurse (a child), lea, lisba. 

(a sick person), nguza. 


Obey, til, ftiata, slkia, tnmikisk 
Object to, kindana, sbindana, Indi- 
OUige (compel), lazimisba, jnbuni, 
be obligatory upon, lazimn. 
hold under an cbligaiion to do, 

&c., juzo. 
(&y kindness), fatbili, tendea zema. 
Observe, angalia. 
Obstruct, kataza, pinga. 
Obtain, pata. 

Occupy (keep engaged), fawiti. 
Offend, cbnkiza, tia gbabd, fia 
be easily offended, [kil-]wa na 

not to be offended, ku-wa ratbi. 
don't be offended vfith me, niwie 

ratbi, kunratbi. 
I am not at all offended, tatbi 
()ffer to, tolea, jongeleza (Jyring neat 
offer for sale by attction, tembeza 
make a first bid, lissimu. 
Omit, acha. 
Oo«e, tiririka. 

ooze out, Yujia, tokesa, tokea. 
Open (act.) funna (uncover), fungaa 
(unfasten), panua (make wide), 
fumbya (unclose the eyes, &c.), 
sindua (set open a door), pcpe- 
tua (force open), 
(tteut) [kt[-]wa wazi (to Ue elear\ 



ftmnka or kimdnka (jto open 
like a flovoer), panuka (heeome 
toide), fanguka (to get «in- 
Oppoee^ gomba» khalifa, kataza, teta, 
sbindania, ingia kati. 
be opposite^ lekea, kabili, elekea, 

elekeana, kabilia. 
put opposite^ lekeza, kabilisha» 
Oppress^ onea, lemea, tbelimn. 
Order^ amum, amrisha, ambia, 
agiza {commission), 
arrange in order, panga, tuoga. 
put into good order^ fiEtnyiza, 
tengeneza, ganga. 
Ouglit See p. 155. 

ihtajia, taka, pasa. 
Overhear^ by loud talking, Ac, pa- 

mbanya, pambanyiza. 
Overburden, lemea. 
be Overcast, tanda [wingu]. 
Overeat oneself, yimbika, yimbiwa. 
Overfeed, yimbisba. 
Overflow, miminika, tawanyika, 

ghariki, f arlka. 
Oversee, flimamia, angalia. 
Overturn, pindaa. 

be overturned, pinduka. 
Overtcike, pSktBk. 
Overwhelm, gharikisha. 
Owe, "wiwa, 
I oioe him, aniwia. 
to have in one^s debt, wia. 
Oum, miliki (possess), kiri (eonfess\ 
angama (acknowledge). 


Vack up, fhnga. 

Paddle, vuta kwa kafi or kajH. 

PattH una, nrnia. 

Patn^ tia rangi 
Pant, tweta. 
Paralyse, pooBoAm, 

Pare, ambua. 

Pardon, samehe, afii, ^gboBoL, gfa^ 
Forgive me, nipe hiaa yango. 
Ask muiuai pardon amdao take § 
last farewell, takana boriaoL 
Parry, hekxuk. 
Part out, gawa, gawanya. 
Pass, pita, piaha. 
ma^ to jMiM, pitisha. 
pass going in opposite diirttiimK 

pa»s through, penya. 
JXM8 over (a river), ynka. 

(a fault), aohilia. 
pass dose to wUhout ioiidiis§t 

bepassaljle, endeka. 
Pasture, ohmiga, liaha. 
Patch (ihateh, Ae,), ohomelea. 
be Patient, ynmilia, sabiri. 
Paw [the grownd}, parapara. 
Pay, Kpa. 
pay to, lipia. 
cause to be paid, lipiaa. 
pay freight for, ta^bathlshlk 
Peek, dona, dondoa. 
Peel, ambna, pima. 
Peep, chnngnlia, tnngolia CtL), 
Penetrate, penya. 
Perceive, ona, sikia, fahamiL • 
Perfect, kamilisba. 
hs perfect^ kamilik». See Com 
Petf orate, sraa, ina tandii. 
Perform a promise, fikilin ahadL 
dbUUionSt tohara. 



ofis, sal!. 

, ondoa nathiri. 

Ge^ potea, potelea, haribika. 

cfneself^ apa uwongo, shu- 
lia zuli or azilr. 
nihusii, pa niksa, acha. 

, tia matata, ohanganyisha. 
perplexed^ ingia matata, 

Se, fokuza, thulmnu. 
'e, dumu, dumia, dawamn. 
\, taka hari. 

fey sliawishi, kinalsha, pa 

a» vsith a hnife point), 

»*), chuma. 

, Ac, from cloves, Ac, oha- 

mt {select)^ ohagua, teua. 
(p, okota. . 

tip hit by hit, dondoa, lum- 

holes in one another's cha- 
tor, papuriana. 
fiemya achari 
mOf penyesha, penya. 
[plates, d;o.], andikanya. 

iched up, finyana. 
Kty, fifia. 

munia, siMtikia, rehema. 

row on the string^ a "knife in 
heU, &o,, paohika. 

is no place for me in the 
«6, nynmba hainiwekL 
ika, sokota. 

prepare a vjaUfor the white plasty 
hy smootlUng it and tapping in 
small stones, tomea. 

put on a plaster, bandika. 
Play, cheza, laabu. 

play the fool, peketeka. 

play upon an instrumentf piga 
zomari, &o. 
Please, pendeza, furahisha. 

(like), penda. 
as you please, npendavyo. 

Please I Tafathali ! 

he pleased, pendezewa. 

make pleasing, pendekeza. 
Pledge, weka rahanL 
Pluck, ohuma (gather), nyakua 
(snatch), nyonyoa (pick off 

pluck up a courage, piga moyo 
Plug up, ziba. [konde. 

Plunder, teka, twaa nyara. 
Point, ohonga; fanya 'ncha. 

point out, onyesha, amiaha. 
Poison, pa sumn. 
Polce, cboma. 
Polish, katua. 

Ponder, fikiri, waza, tafakail 
Possess, miliki, [kii-]wa na. 

(of an evU spirit), pagaa. 

he possessed hy an evil spirit, 
pagawa na pepo. 
he Possible, [kii-]wa yamkini, weze- 

kana, fanyika, tendeka. 
Postpone, akirisha. 
make Pottery, finyanga 
Pound, ponda, funda. 

clean com hy pounding, twanga. 
Pour, xnimina. 

pour away, mwaga, mwaya. 
have Power over, weza. 
Practise, jizoeza, taala. 

practise witchcraft^ &Dya ludiawL 



Praise, Bifti, hemidi. 

praise oneself, jisifu, jigamba. 
Prate, pnza. 

Pray, omba, sal! (perform the fixed 
devotions), abudn (toorship), 

pray for, taka (ask for), ombea 
(if^cede for). 
Preach, kbutubu, ayitbL 
Precede, tangolia. 
he Precipitous, cbongoka. 
Predict, agua, bashiri, tabirL 
Prefer, penda, khitari, stahiba. 
he Pregnant, chukua mimba, hamili. 
Prepare, weka tayari. 

food, andaa, andalia. 
Present to, tunikia, pa. 

make presents to, puknea, pa 
bashishi, tunza. 
Preserve, hifathi, afa. 

he preserved, bifathika, 
Press, kaza, shindilia, sinikiza. 

press out, kamna. 

press vpon, kandamiza. 

press heavUy vpon, lemea. 

press with tJie teeth, vnata. 

make an impression (as with the 
fingers), bonyesha. 

press and crush food for invalids 
or children, vinyavinya. 

press against one another, Uke 
sheep in a flock, songanaso- 
Pretend to he, jifanya. 
Prevent, zuia, kataza. 
Prick, ohoma. 
Pride oneself, jisifo. 
Print, piga cbapa. 
Prize up, tekaa. 
Proceed, enenda, ftdisa. 
Proclaim, tangaza, hubiri, nadi. 
Procure for, patia. [eleza. 

beprocmubU, patikana. 

Profess, angama. 

Profit, pata foyida, fayidi, ehuma. 


hy the stars, piga falald. 
Prohibit, kataza, gombesnu 
Project, tokeza, tnkiza. 
Prolong, ongeza nrefii, icdlin» 6D* 

Promise, ahidi, toa ahadL 

give a promise to^ pa ahadL 
Pronounce, ta'mka. 
Prop up, tegemeza, ftbiVlii!>- 
he propped, tegemea. 
prop up a vessel to pfweM C^-"* 
falling over when left fif lia>«^ 
tide, gada. 
Propose, nena, toa shauri. 
Prosecute, shtakL 
Prosper, fanikiwa, sitawi, kfl»]^' 

Prostrate 0fie8e2/,-8QJTidii. 
hefore, to, &c, Bujudia. 
Protect, hami, linda, hifat lit^ 1lui|^ii^* 

(ward (iff). 
Prove, tAubutisha. 

he proved, ^ubatii. 
Provide, weka akiba. 
Provoke, kirihi, iririhiMlm^ t||^ baaiiii^ 

Prune, chenga, feka. 
Pry^ dadiai, fatiiahi. 
Puff, puliza. 
he puffed up, tuna, tern, Jelei^ < 
Pull, Yuta. 
pull out, ng'oa. 
he pulled out, ng^oka. 
Moyo unaning'oka, mf JkeaH tea 
jumped into my throat, U9ed ^ 
a person mueh starML 
pull out feathery uymjotu 



it of one*8 handt obopoa. 
p [roots], ng'oa. 
iga bomba. 

athibu, athibisha, tesa 
ict)y sumbusha (give annoy- 
I to)y patiliza (vtBtt upon"), 
akasa, safisha. 
mumial ablutions, tohara. 
ifled, safika, takasika. 

kusudia, ania. 

fnata (foUow), winda 
$e)f fukuza (drive away), 
ta (seek /or), 

gainst, kmnba. 
side, piga kikumbo^. 
f upoUf knmblsha. 

ross [a river'], vnsha. 
oot on the fire, teleka. 

end to, komesha, ghairi. 
fay, weka. 
iTfi, tua. 

ih leaves, chanua. 
a line, panga. 
order, tuDga. 

under anythiTig, vtunbika. 

Of tia. 

motoni, put it in the fire. 

moto, set it on fire, 

the right voay, vusha. 

, akirisba. 

upon another, sukumiza. 

[dothes], Taa. 

his guard, tabathirisha. 

. a turban by winding the 

i round the head^ piga 



' Lfi""^!* zima, zimia. 

! €f Joint, shtusha, shtua. 

idyfor use, sogezeiu | 

put ropes to a native bedstead 
tanda wamba. 

put to (shut), shindika. -, 

put to flight, kimbiza. 

put to rights, tengeneza, tengeleza 

put to straits, thiiki 

put throughf penyesha» 
Putrify, oza. 
PuzzUf tatanisba. 

be puzzled, tatana, tatazana. 


Quake, ietemeka, tetema. 
Quarrei, gombana, nenana, naii- 

ioith, teta, gomba. 
Quarry [stone"], cbimba, Tunja. 
Quell, tuliza. 
Quench, zima. 
Quicken, himiza (inaJce quicker), 

be quick enough (be in time), 
Quiet, taliza. 

become quiet, tulia, nyamaza, 
Quit, acba, toka. 
Quiver, tetema. 

Bace, shindania. 
Bain, nya. 
It rains, mvna Inakunya, m\-iia 

cause it to rain, nyesha. 
leave off raining, anuka. 
Baise, inna (lift), paaza (make to 
rise), tweka, kweza, pandisha, 
raise the eyebrows by way of »ig% 




raise the eyebrows by way of €tmr 
tempt, kunia. 
Bange together, pangana. 
Jtamoniy komboa, fidi (of the prtce), 

fidi» (of the person). 
Bap with the Jmuckles, piga konzL 
be made Haw, chubuka. 
Reach. See Stretch, 

(arrive at), fika, wasili, pata. 

reach a person, flkia, wasilia. 

cause to rea^h, fikibha, wasilifiha. 

put within his reacli,, [mw-]eneza. 

reach its limit, pea. 
Eeadn soma, fyoma (M.). 

teach to read, somesha. 
Reap, vuna. 

(break off the heads %f Indian 
com), goboa. 
Rear [a chikl], lea. 
Reason, tefua. 
Rebel, asi, khalifa, tagUi. 
Rebuke, nenea, laumu, lawaoa. 
Rebut, dakullza. 
Receive, pokca, pewa, twaa. 

(a4icept), kubali, takabalL 

receive for some one else, pokelea.; 

receive a stranger, kaiibisha. 
Reckon, besabn, wanga. 
Recite, karirisha. 

Recline, jinyoslia, tandawaa, pa- 
in zika. 
Recognize, tambua, tambulia, fafa- 

Ite recognizable, lambulikana. 
Recollect, kumbuka, fahamu. 
Recommend, nenea, ngiza, arifu, 

Reconcile, patanisha, sclelii&ha. 
Redeem, kmnboa, fidia. 
Reduce, punguza. 
Reef a viif, punguza tanga. 
Refer to, regca. i 

Reflect (think), kumbuka»* 

Reform, silihi, silihiflliA, sahUl^ 

Refresh, burudisha, stcreliiBluik tft» 

Refuse, katasa, kataa, iza. 
refuse to, njrima, hini. 
refuse to hdieve, katalia. 
Refute, batili. 
Regret, juta, sikitika. 
Rehearse, karirisha. 
Reign, miliki, tawala. 
Reject, kataa, kania. 
Rejoice, (neuL) furehi, f arahiva. 
rejoice in, furahia. 
maJce- to rejoice, f orahiaha. 
shout and triumph, shaogillai ' 
Relate, hadithia, nena» toa, pa. 
Relax, regcza. 

be relaxed, regea. 
Relcom, acha, likiza. 

from an obligation, feleti. 
Relish, ona tamn, ona luththa; 
Rely upon, foDgamana, jetea. 
Remain (stay), kaa, kaa kitoho^ 
keti (M.). 
be left, saa, salia, baki. 
remain awake, kesha. 
remain quiet, starehe. 
to remain om he withee^ 'kimikalia 
Remedy, x>oza. 
Remember, kumbuka, fahamu. 

rememher against^ patiliaa. 
Remind, kumbuaha, fahambsha». 
Remit [sins'], ghoiiri. 

remit to, ghofiria, ondolea. 
Remove, ondoa, tcnga, ondoIeiL 

from an office, uzulu. 
Rend, rarna, pasoa. 
be rent to pieoesy pa^uka] 



Benounce, acha, kana. 

Rent^ panga {hire\ pangisba (let), 

BepatTj fanyiza, fanya. 

Bepay, lipiza. 

Bepentt tubu. 

repent of^ tubia. 
Reply, jibu (give an answer), itika 

(answer tchen caUed). 
Repay, regeza, lipa.. 
Reproach, shutumu, kamia, taya. 
(Heguesf, taka. 
Reicue, toa kunako hatari, toa 

mnamo batari, okoa. 
BewmbUe, fanana na. 

make to resemble, fananisba. 
Resent, fanya gbatbabu, ingiwa na 

Resign, jiuzula, jitoa katika. 
Resist, kbalifu. 
Resolve, yakinia, ^zimu. 
Rest (neuL) pumzik% tulia, starebe. 

(act.) pumzisba. 

He never rests, bana zituo. 

J cannot rest in the house, nyiimba 
Restore, ruduiba, rejeza. 
Restrain, zuia. 
Resuscitate, fufua, buisba. 
Retaliate, twaa kaeasii lipia sawa, 

Retire (go back), endelea nyuma. 
Return, (netU.) rudi, regea. 

(act.) rudisba, regesba. 
Reveal, funua. 

Revenge, nabma, lipia maovu, ^a 

revenge oneself, jilipiza (or lipia) 
Reverence, nenyekea. 
Reverse, pindua. 
Revile, sbutumu. 
Revive, (neut.) fufaka, bui, bu|ka. 

Revive^ (u a plant in water, obnpuza» 

(a>ct) fufua, buisba. 
BevoU (disgust), kinaisba. 

revolt ai, kinai. 
Reward, jazi, jazib'a, lipia, fatbilL 
Bide upon, panda. 
Ridicule, fanyizia mzaba, tbil'.akL 
Ring a hell, piga kengele. 
Rip, pasua. 
Ripen, iva. 
Rise (a^scend), paa. 

(get up), oudoka. 

(stand up), simama, inuka. 

(rise to, or out of respect fw\ 

. ondokca. 

(come to the top of the water)^ 

(of the sun), [ku-]cba. 
Roar, lia, nguruma, fanya ki^bindo 

(make a crcuh). 
Roast, oka. 
Rob, ihia (steal from), nyang'anya. 

(Uike by force), poka. 
Rock, pembeza. 
RoU, (act) fingirislia. 

(neut) fingirika. 

(of a river, time, «fee), pit|u 
Root out, ug'*oa. 
Rot, oza. 

be Rough, paruga, paruza. 
be Round, viringa. 

(spherical), viringana. 
Rouse from sleep, amsba. 
Row, vuta makasia. 

be in rows, pangana. 

put in a row, panga. 
Ruh, sugua. 

the skin off, cbubua, tuna. 

rub to pieces, fikioba. 

rub in ointment, dtc, paka. 
Ruin, angamisba, poteza, Tuna 




le ruined, angamia, tillfa, fi lisika 
(he sold up). 
Bute, tawala. 

rule a line, paga mstarL 
Huminatey teuk&. 
Bun, piga mbio, rukhntliiu 
run a risJc, liatirisha. 
run againstt fulia. 
run away, kimbia. 
make to run away, kimbiza. 
run away from a master, homey 

&c., toroka. 
run aslwre, panda, tekeza. 
run down, like water, or like a 
person doion a steep place, te- 
run down with blood, churuzika 

run hard, kaza mbio. 
run over, farika. 
run vdth a shuffling noise JiJie a 

rat, gugoiiisha. 
rfin (in sewing), piga bandu 
Bush along, enda kassi. 
Bust (neut), ingia kiitu. 
BusHe, piga mtakaso. 


Salute, salimu, sulimn, amkua, 
amkia, salimia. 
fire a salute, piga mizinga ya 
Salve, battdika. 
Sanction, toa ithini. 
Satisfy, rithika. 

be satisfied or content, piti-]wa 

mUisfy with food, shibisha. 
he satisfied, shiba. 
he never satisfied, nyoia. 
he self-satisfied, kjnai 
he enough, ioBhsi. 

he of use to, fa a. 
satisfy lust, timiii ngoa; 
Save, okoa, ponya, vusha. 
he saved, okoka, pona, vnkai 
(put away), weka. 
Saw, kata kwa msumeno, keresa. 
Say, sema. 

say to, ambia. 
Scald, onguza, ungciza. 

he scalded, ungua. 
Scare, fuknza, tia khofd. 
scare hirds from com, dte., linAi 
Scatter, tawanya, tapanya (VL% 
he scattered, tawanyika. 
scatter about, tawanyatairan^ 
tapanjatapanya (M.). 
Scent (put scent to), singa. 

smell out, nnkiza. 
Scold, fanyizia okali, nenea, Uq0^ 

Scoop up, wangoa. 
Scorch, unguza, onguza. 

he scorched, ungua, unguHa. 
Scorn, tharau, tweza, peketeka* 
Scour, sug^ua. 
Scrape, kuna. 
scrape along, kwanxsa. 
scrape for, with, <fec^ kunla. 
scrape into a coarse meai^ 
scrape off, puna. 
scrape off hark, dirt, scales^ 

to dean hy scraping, jmul 
scrape on the ground, pasa. 
scrape out, komba. 
scrape up, kwangua. 
Scratch, kuna, kunyua. 
(make a scratch), piga mfal 
scratch deeply, papura. 
scratch like a hen, pekua. 
Scream, piga kiowe^ piga 




TT, tafuta, tefua. 

aU about, tufutatafuta. 


jomen, tongoza. 

!, or visible^ onekana. 

/ one off, safiriaha. 


ivice, taka sliauru 

it, huji. 

r, tafuta, zengea. 

UfoTf look out for, tafutia. 

M to me., naiona. 

joeet to, koiti. 

mata, guia, shika. 

)r debt, filisi. 

iUy and secretly up to any- 

7 in order to seize it sud' 

tj, nyemelea. 

agiia, teua. 

. The u- of this word is 

unimportant, it is generally 

fed in the -u of ku-, the 

of the infinitive, which is 
'ned in most of the tenses, 

narily sold, uzaiiya. 
eka, leta. 

rsofiy pelekea, letea. 
to reach a person, wasi- 

oay, ondoshn, toa. 
ich, rudifiha, rejeza. 
oon some business, tuma. 
, teuga, weka mbali. 
me another), achann, ataua 
, tokana. 
te), farakisha. 

alienated, furakana, ,ta- 

. $eparaie people who are fighting^ 

{distinguifih\ pambanua. 
be cut off from one another, like 

friends separated by great dis^ 

tances, tindikiana. 
be Serene, Pstt-]wa saff, tulika, 

Moyo wake umekunduka, hi» 

heart is at peace. 
Serve, tumikia. hudumia. 
be a servant, tumika, 
serve for, faa kwa. 
Set, weka. 
(plant), panda. 
(of the sun), chwa» twa (M.). 
The sun is n4>t yet t6f, jua hali- 

set (jL dog on one, tomcsha mbwa. 
set a trap, tega. 
set aside^ tangua, ondoa. 
set fire to, tia moto, washa, kol^a 

set in order, panga, tunga. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 

set open [a doorl, sindua. 
set out on a journey^ saiiri, shika 

set the teeth on edge, tia ganzi la 

meno. ' 
set up (put upwards), panza. 
(m>ake to stand), simikislia. 
set wide apart, panulia. 
Settle, (rieut,) tnana. 
settle an affair, kata maaenow 
86^20 down, tulia. 
settle in one*8 mind^ yakinia. 
Sew, sbona. 
sew through a mattress to confine 

the stuffing, tona godozo. 
1 SJiade, tia uvuli. 



Siialce^ (act,) tikisa. 
(neut.) tikitika. 
shake of^ epua, kupua. 
shake out, kung'uta, kamunta 

become Shallow^ punguka. 
Shajnej tia hnya, tahayarisha. 

he put to shame, fctheheka, aibika. 
Shampoo, kanda. 
Shape, iimba. 
Share, gawanya. 

part out in shares, gawa, hnssn. 

he partners in, shariki, sharikiana. 
Sliarpen on a stone, noa. 
Shave, nyoa. 

shave round the head, leaving hair 
on the crown only, kata denge. 

shave all save one long tuft, kata 
Shed, pukutika. [kinjunjuii. 

Shell, papatua. 

sheU heans, Ac, piia baazi, &c 

shell nuts, Ac, by heating, banja, 
Shelter, tia kivulL 
Shift a burden from one to anotlier, 

shift over a sail to the other side, 
kisi tanga. 
Shine, ng^ara, zagaa, mekamoka. 
Shiver (neut.), tapatapa, tetema, 

tetemeka, tapa. 
Shoot {with a gun], piga [kwa 

(as a plant), chupnka, ohnpuza. 
Shorten, fupiza. 

he slujri and smalt, kundaa. 

faU short, punguka, tindika (A.). 
Shout, piga kelele. 
Shove out of the way, piga kikumbo. 
Show, onycsha, onya. 

show a light, mulika. 

«2^ic one^s ieeth^ toa xucna 

become Shrewd and knowing, ee^ 
make Shrewd, ererusha. [rakk 

Shriek, piga kiyowe. 
Shrink (Jbecome smaller), paogua» 
(from something), jikunja. 
shrink up, jikunyata, fingana. 
Shrivel- (neuL), nyauka, finyana, 

Shrug the shoulders, inua mabega» 
Shudder, tetemeka. 
Shun, epuka. 
Shuffle along, gugnrnsha. 

shuffle cards, tanganya kaiala» 
Shut (put to), shindika. 
(fasten), fuuga. 
(dose), fumba. 
shut against, fnngiaha. 
be Sick or ill, ugua, [lni-]wa mwelir 
[kt[-]wa hawezi, &cs. See lit 
and VomiL 
He feels sick -or Ma-«td5r, moyo* 
wamchafuka, moyo umoi^vefea 
(M.), ana ug'onga (A.)l 
Sift, obunga (hy shaklng\ peta er 
pepeta (by tosHng\ pepoa 
(separate large and amaXlf wkoU 
and broken grains), SiJUag tr 
always done by toeuimg smd 
shaking in a round flat batkeL 
Sigh, ugua, kokota xoho (drtm 

bre<Uh with an effoffy 
Silenoe, nyamazisha. 
become sUerU, nyamaza. 
continue silent, uyamaa. 
be Silly, piswa. 
Sin, fanya thambi, kosa. 
Sing, imba, tumbuiza (luU), 
Sivk (act), zamisba, ioea (drowii)^ 
didimisha (into a aolid fidh 
(neuL), zama, tota (drown), diiii* 
mia (ftink into a solid subtitmm}» 



Bipt nywa ftintja (f io take in by 

Sit, kaa, kaa kitako, keti Q^L), 
Take a Beat, kaa kitako. 
tit like a hen, atamia. ■ 
Skin^ GhuDa, tuna (M.)* 
Slander, siogizia, fitini, amba, tha- 

Slap, piga kofi. 
Slash, iemsL. 

SlaugJUer, chinja (to htU by cutting 
the iJiroat), tinda (M.)* It is 
«o^ lawful to eat any meat that 
has not been so hilled. 

Sleep, lala. 

Sleep well I Lala unoiM> t 
doze, Binzia. 

Iq,m sleepy, mnao uz'mgizi. 
^0 slept upon, lalik^. 
SUdct telcza. 
Sling, tupa kwa kombeo. 

It is slippery, pana utelezi. 
sUpdovm a steep place, poxomtSkA^ 
■■ tdem'ka. 
d^ away grain by grain like 

sand or corn, doDdoka. 
dip off^ pr out of one** hand, de^ 
chopoka, ponyoka. . 
Slit, pMUo. 
Slope, inama. 
be Sluggish^ pumbaa. 
Smart, waka» 

fi/Uike to smart, nyonyota. 
Smear on, .paka. 

SmeU (emit a smeill), nuka, nnsa. 
I .nAuiU amhergris, ioapinuka 
ambari (ambergris makes a 
tmeU to me). 
Do you not smdl iti Huuikii 
ikinuka? (Do you not perceive 
U making a smell ?) . 

Smell at, Bukizo. 

Smile,' taba88am« oheka, knuja 

Smoke, tokA mosihL 
smoke tobacco, vuta turabako. 
smoke (mea,t, &c.\ piga myiikA. 
Smoothe, lainidhu. 
Smoulder, vivia. 
Smuggle, iha fxshvirvL 
Snap, alika (neutj), alisha (aoL'), 
Snare, tega. 
Snarl, toa mcno. 
Snatch, nyakua, pokonya. 
Sneeze, cbafya, sbamua, enda or 

piga chafya. 
Snore, kuroma, piga misouo (make 

a whistling sound). 
Snort, piga pua. 
Snub, kemea. 
Soak, woweka. 
Sob, ingia na sliake la knlia. 
Sober, leyusha. 

become sober, loTuka.. 
So/ten, laini^lui. 
Solve, wathaisha, weka wazi 

Soothe, tuliza, pembcisa» tumbuiza.: 
be Sorry, ^itika, kasirika (&d 
vexed), juta (regret), 
lam sorry for it, sioui vema. 
Sound, pima;najL . ^ 

It sounds hoUow,,pan9\\B, wazi. 
Sow seeds, panda,; yaa (A.)* 

sow.ditoord, fitini. 
Sparkle, mejbnQtatt mekameka, me- 

metuka (A.). .i : . , 
Speak, nena, tema (say), tamka 
(pronoMnce), ambia (say to), 
speak about, At, for, or against^ 
ucpea. ........ 

speak against, amba. 
speak didmctly, pambazua. 



Speak out I Bema aana t 

mo^e a «peee^, tagU8a,liimba. 

ipeak Arabic, sema Eiarabu. 

speaJc a jumble of differejU lau" 
gucLge» or dialects, goteza. 

not to epeale, nyamaa. 
SpeU, eudeleza. 
^pend, tumia, khdrij. 

spend upon or about, harijia, gha- 

spend time, ongea. 
8piU, mwaga, mimina. 

he spilt, mimiiiika. 
Spin, sokota. 
Spit, tenia mate. 
Splash, (act,) nushia. 

(neut.') niMa, tawanya. 
Splice [a rope}, unga. 

[a spar}, ganga. 
Split, (act,) pasiia. 

split up, ineut) pasukapasuka. 

split down (brandiesjf (act,) 

he split down, as when any one Tuls 
heen trying todiTtib up by them^ 
Spoil, haribn, vtmja. 

(neut), haribika, oza. 
Sport with, laabu. 
Spout out, ruka. 

The whale spouts^ nyamgumi 
anatoa moshL 
Sprain, sbtusha mshipa, teuka. 

he sprained, shtiika mshipa. 
SprecLd, (neu^.) enea, farishL 

(act,) eneza. [ka. 

he opened and spread over, kunju- 

spread a doth or a hed, tandika. 

apread outf tanda. 

spread [news'], tangaza. 

(become knovm), tangaa. 
SprinhUf nyuuyiza. 

Sprout, mea, olinpuka, tokeza (iAm» 
Usdf\ dianua (put fwtk 
Spy out, peleleza. 
Squabble^ bishana» gombana. 
SqiMnder, fuja, tapanyatapanja. 
Squeak, lia. 
Squeeze, kauina. 

(grasp), f umbata. 

squeeze together (afiL\ songa. 

(neut) songaua. - 

squeeze onesdf into a hedge or 
against a waU to let others pass, 
Squint, [kii-]wa na makengcia. 
Stab, choma. 
Stagger, pepa. 

he staggered, toshea, shangaa. 

(astonish), shangaza. 
Stain, tia waa, tia madoadoa (sptfy 
Stalk [an animal], nyemelea. 
Stammer, p£u-]wa na kigngomisi» * 
Stamp, piga cliapa. 
Stand, Bimama, kaa. 

up or still, simama (ofpenons), 

make to stand, flinrm-yif^iftha» simiU" 

stand aghast, ghumiwa» 

stand by, simamia. 

stand in the way of, THwilftn^ 

stand over, akiiL 

stand staring, ahangaa. 
Stare at, kodolea. 
Start (he startled), shtuka, gatoka 

(set out), ondoka, safiri 

start otU of tJte way, kwepa^ 
Startle, shtua, stusha, kntiu^ 
Starve, (neut) fa kwa njaa. 

(oc^.) fislia kwa njaa. 
Stay, kaa, kaa kitako, ketl (M.). 

He stayed aU day, aljghindt 



: ^irat'O, ngoja, subirL 

(loiter), kawia, kawilia. 

(remain over long\ hajiiika. 
• : (ttop) (izct.), zuia. 
f>e Steady^ tungamana^ tulia. 
Steal, ibu, jepa (A.). 

s^eaZ /ram, ibia. 
Steep, choTeka, owamifilia. 

he steeped, owama. 
Steer, shika shikio. 

Steer northwards, tsliika m^jira ya 

[a vessel], andika. 
Step over, kiiika, kia. 
Slick, (neut,) shika, gandama, a- 
. . mbata. 

(acL) umbaiiza, ganda. . 

9tich together, ambatana, ganda- 
mana, guiana (Mer.). 
, stick /cut, kwama, sakama. ' 

§tick into [tlie embers to he roasted], 

stick out, (neuL) tokeza. 
(act) benua. 
Stifle, zuia pumuzi. 
StiUf tuliza, nyamazisha. 

he very still, zizima. 
Simulate, taharrakisba. 
Sting, uma. 

Stink, nuka, nuka vibaya. 
Stir, boruga, vtiruga, kologa. 

stir up and knock about, tibua. 

stir, up, turn over, and press 
together, sougii. 

stir up (fire, strife, <fec.), ohoobe- 

Stoopf inama. [lezea. 

Stop, (act.) zuia (hold in), komesba 

(maJce to cease), kingamisha 

, (block), 

(neut,) i>imama (stand), koma 
(leave off), 

stop and stagnate, vilia. 

«top short of its purpose cr per' 

fection, via. 
stop up, ziba. 
Store up, weka akiba. 
Stow, pakiza. 
Straddle (walk with the leg$ far 

apart), tagaa. 
Straighten, nyosha. 

be straight, nyoka. 
Strangle, nyouga, songa. 
Strain (a liquid), chuja, tnja (M.). 
See Sprain, popotoa. 
(make a violent effort), kakamnka. 
Stray, potea, zunguka. 
Strengthen, tianguvu. 
Stretch, nyosha. 
stretch up to reach anyUiing, chu* 

stretch one*s legs, kunjua migun. 
stretch the tlireads for weaving^ 

tcnda Dg^o. 
stretch a/!ross an opening (aeL)^ 
tanda, wamba. 
Strew, mwagia, nyunyiza. 
Strike, piga. 
strike on the ground, piga na ncbL 
strike the foot against anything^ 

strike with the hoof, piga kwata* 
strike out (in writing), fata. 
strike a sore place, toneshtu 
String (beads, &o.), tanga. 
Strip off, ambua, pua, menya, 
(branches, leaves, Ac), pagua. 
Strive with, shindana na, teta, ha* 
(mahe a/a effort), fanya bidii or 

strive for hrea£h, tweta. 
Stroke, papasa. 
£^^ro2Z o&ou^, zungukazunguka..^ 



be Strong and weU-hnit, pirikana, 

Struggle, fanya juhudi. 
Study, taali. 

Tneel in a class for study, dnruBL 
Stumble, jikwaa. 

make to stumble, kwaza. 
be stunned, potea na akili, rukwa 
na akilL 
Stunt, viza. 

be stunted, via. 
Stutter, Pnl-]wa na kigu^mizi, 

Subdue, tiisha, shinda. 
Submit to, tii, fuata. 
Succeed {follow), ja mahali pake. 
SucJi a one succeeded him, baada 

yake aliknja na fullani. 
(prosper}, fanikiwa, kibali. 
imcceed in doing, pata kufanya. 
Suck, nyonya, amwa (M.), fyonda, 
suck up, nwa. 
«uck out, sonda. 

I have sucked him dry (got aU the 
information, d*e., I can out of 
him), nimemzua. 
Suckle, nyonyesha, arowisha (M.). 
Sue for (at law), dai. 
Suffer, teswa, taabika, umwa. 
tchat he suffered, mambo yalio- 

suffer loss, pata hasara. 
Suffice, tosha, tosheloza, kifn. 
Suggest, n^ilia. 

Suit, faa (be of use to), liiigana 
(mtttch), wafiki (be suitable to). 
Sum up, jiimlislui. 
Superintend, liimamia, angnlia. 
Sujpphj, dwini, mzuku (u^td 
pceiaUy of God), 

supply a trader toUh good» §m 
credit, kopesba. 
Support, tegemesa» bimili, cbukoa. 
he supports his parents, awaohu- 
kua wazee wake. 
Suppose, thani (think), thonia (thinik 

of), kisi (guess). 
Suppurate, toa uzaha. 
become Surety, thamiiu. 
Surpass, pita. 

Surprize, toshea, taajabi^faa. 
be surprized, taajabu, toshewa. 
(come upon suddenly)^ fumiiii^. 
Surrender, sellim. 
Surround, zanguka, tftmlnw^ (?)^ 

Survey, ana. . 

Survive, [kii-]wa hayi baadn ym. 
Suspect, thania, tulmmUf ingiaahalBb. 
Swagger, tamba, wayawaya, 
SwailovJ, meza. 
Sway, punga. 
sway about, like a drunken man^. 

lewalewa, umbanmba. 
sway backwards and fonsardSf. 

sway like a tree loaded tcUh fruit,. 

sway about in the wind, ynmba» 
Swear, apa. 
sioear at, apiza. 
make to swear, afya, apbha» 
Sweat, toka hari, fanya jashOi 
Sweep, fagia, pea (M.). 
swe^ togetJier, zoa. 
stoeep away aU there- is, knmba» 
Swell, fura, vimbo, tuna. Tuna. ' 
rise into little swellings, tntnkv 
tutumka, tutusika. 
Swim (of a man), ogolea. 
(float), elca. 



noyo tinaelea (M.), I fid dU" 

turhed in my vMide, 
(mak6 to float), elezo. 
OmndU, punja. 

Swing, See Sway (newl,\ niaglnia. 
(ac<.)) uing'iniza^ bembesba. 
moing the arms, which is'reckoned 

an elegance in a woman'» ear» 

riage, punga mikona. 
9wing round the head in dancing. 




Tach (in sewing), piga bandi. 

(in sailing), pindua kwa goahinu 
Take, twaa. 
(receive)^ pokea, pewa. 
(to a person), pelekea. 
(to a place), peleka^ cbukua, fikiza. 
take a portion from the dish in 

eaiing, mega, ambua. 
take a piece in chess, la. 
take a vjalk, tembea, enda tembea. 
. icJce across, yua, vukisha, vusha. 
take as spoil, teka. 
take away, (mdosba, toa. 
take away from a person, twalia. 
take away from, or off from, epua, 

, take away the desire cf anything 

more, kinaisha. 
take by force, nyanganya. 
take care, angalia. i 

take care of, tunza. 
take civet from the ngawa, zabidi. 
take cotira(jre,tawakali,.piga iQoyo 

take down, angua. 
take leave ofy ag&9 agana na. 
<o/»e off (clothes), vua. 

(the fire), ipua. 
kUce one's due, y\\^.. 

take one*s revenge, Jilipiza ItisasL 

take out, opoa, ondosba, tuu. 

take otU of a trap, Damaa (Mer.).. 

take out of the sun or rain, aima. 

take out of the pot, pakua. 

take suddenly and violently, poka^ 

take Vie responsibility, tadarikL 

take to pieces, kongoa. 

take up, tweka. 

taJce up a little at a Ume^ chota,. 

take upon oneself the obligations 

of another, ha will. 
Talk, nena, sema, jizumgumza. 
talk about, to, of, at, for, or against^ 

talk against one another, nenana. 
talk a person over into doing or 

telling someihing,.'nyenya, 
talk and murmur «9 one*» sleep^ 

talk English, dcc^ sema Kiiiigresi^ 

talk nonsense, puza, puzika. 
talk scandal about, amba, izara. 
tal}t Virough the nose, semea puanV 

[kii-3wa na king^ong'o. 
Tangle, tia matata, .tataoisha. 
be tangled, tatana, latazana. 
Tap, gota, gonga, cbapa. 
Tarry, kawa, kaa. 
Taste, onda, onja, tbuku, limbuka^ 

(taste a new crop, &c, for tha 

first time). 
Tax, f&njA ushuru Q), 
Teach, fundisba^ fuuza, f:mda, ele- 

midba (instruct)ijn\ya, juvisha- 

or julisha (make to know). 
Tear, rarua, babua, papua, papura. 
be torn, raruka, babuka, papuka. 
tear down [braDcbed« i&c.^ kwa^ 




he torn down and broken^ kwa- 

T^aze, chokoza, kefyakefya. 
TeUy ambia. 
'tell a tale, haditlii, liadiihia, nena 

or toa hadithi. 
ieU tales about, choDgeleza. 
Tempt, jorihu (try\ shawishi (per- 

Tend to, lekea. 
Tend (sheepf d:o,% chunga, tunga 

(M.), lisha. 
Terrify, ogofya, tisha, khofisha. 
Testify, shuhudu, sbuhudia, sema 

Tether, funga. 
Thank, ambia asanti, Bhukuru (very 

seldom used except of God), 
TJiank you, assant, marahaba 

(this last is the proper answer 

to a slaveys sdlutaiion). 
Thatch, yimba, ezeka. 
Think (consider), aza, fikiri, tafa- 

kari, kumbuka. 
(suppose), tbani, thania. 
. think oneself, jiona. 
think oneself a man, jipevua. 
think of, tia maanani, kmnbuka 

(remember), nia, ania, or nuia 

(have in one^s mind). 
Thirst, ona kiu (feel thirst), [kii-] 

wa na kin (have thirst). 
Threaten, ogofya, ogofisha, kbofisba, 

kamia (?}. 
Thresh, piga» pura (heat out com), 

fikicba kwa mignu (tread out)^ 

fikicba kwa mikono (rvh out). 
Thrill, tetema. 
Thrive, sitawi, faniklwa (of persons 

Throb, puma. 
Tlirottle, kaba. 

'Throw, tupa. i 

throw a rider, rosba. 
throw a stone, dtc, vurumislia. 
throw about, tawanya, tapaoya 

(M.), cbafua, tefaa (liiL). 
throw aJt, tupia. 
throw away, tupa. 
throw down, ang^ba, 
throw overboard, tosa. 
throw up, or off, roBha. 
throw a hwrden off the AoM&r, 
&c,, bwaga. 
Thunder, [kii-jwa na ngunimo ((itt- 

tant), piga radi (near). 
Thwart, balifu. 

Tickle in the ribs, tekenya, sbtaa» 
Tie, funga. 
tie a knot, piga fundo. 
tie up into a bundle or faffgot, 
Tighten, (act) kaza, tia kasst, (neuL) 

kazana, kazika. 
Tingle, ona kinyenyef a. 
Tip off the head, shoulder^ Aa, 

he Tipsy, lewa, jilevya» 

make tipsy, levya. 
Tire, cboeba, taajazL 
become tired, cboka. 
he tiresome, refuse to he pteatei^ 
. Toast, oka. [deki» 

be Together, 

We are Together, tu sote, 
ToleralCt stabimili, vumilia. 
Torment, atbibu, utbi, atbibisha. 
Toss, rusba. 

Totter, tetemeka (tremble), pepe> 
suka (be shaken), kongnja 
(tx>tter in one's waXky 
Touch, gusa. 
touch gently, papasa. 
touch up, tengeneza. 



Tend for eustonif &e.y sapa. 
Toto, fungasa. 
Trach^ faatu nyayo. 
Trade^ fanya biashara. 

trcide in a $mall way, "keep a daU, 
Train up, adibu, lea. 
2Vam|>fe, finyanga, kanyaga. 
Transcribe, nakili. ' 

Transform, geuza, badili 
be Transparent, ng'ara. 
Transgress, taghi, halifu. 
Translaie, tafsiri, fasiri, gcnza. 
Trap, tega. 
Travail (of a woman), sliikwa na 

Travel, safirL 
Tread, kanyaga, vioga (3^1.)» finya- 

nga (trample). 
Treat, tendea. 

he treats me badly, bnnitendea 

he treats me weU, hunitendea zema. 
7Vem&2e,tetema, tetemeka,tapatapa. 
TrUUde, tiririka. 
Trim, tengeneza. 

trim vegetables, de., for sale, cha- 

trim (sai[), rausi. [mbua. 

Triumph^ shinda, fanya shangwi. 
Trotf enda masbindo (of a horse), 

enda matiti (of an ass), 
Trovhle, taablsha, sumbua. 

50 trovhled, taabika, smnbuka, 

he troubled in mind, fatbaika. 
Trust in, amini, jetaa, tumauia. 

entrust to, aminisba, weka, aminL 

(have confidence), tumaini. 

trust in God and taJee courage, 
Try, jaribu, onja (taste), 
' try hard, jitabidi, fanya bu^j. 

Tuck into the girdle, &e,, futika.. 
Tumble, anguka, pomoka. ' 

tumbukia (faU into). 
Turn or turn into, (act) genza, gena^ 
(neut) turn, turn into, turn itself, 

turn over, or the other way^ 
pindna (<ict,), pinduka (netU.). 
turn round something else, zu- 
Dguka (neut), ziingusba (act). 
He turned round, aligeuka. 
The river turns, mto unazunguka. 
The ship turned^ merikebu ilipi* 
turn (prevent its going on in tha^ 

same direction), pinga. 
turn OMde (neut), potoa, potoka» 
turn bottom upwards, fudikiza. 
turn in a lathe, kereza. 
turn out weUJor, fanikia. 
Tweak, nyokna. 

Twist, (act) nyonga, songa, popotoa; 
(neut) potoka. 

[a rope2 sokota, suka, pakasa 


Unclose, fmnbna. 

he Uncomfortable, taabika, snmbuka,. 

toa kuona raba. 
Uncover, funna. 
Unfasten, fungua. 
Understand, sikia, jua, fafanua,. 

tambna (recognize). 
I understand, yameuiclea, yame- 

make to understand, siki^a. 
to be mutually intelligible, mak€- 

one another understand, siki— 

Zbdertake, Ibamaini, jilazimisba. 




Undervalues rakhisisLa. 
Vndo (unfasten), f ungua. 

untie a knot, fundua. 

(ruin)f poteza. 
ZlndresSf vua nguo. 
Unfold, kiinjua. 
Unite^ unga, ungana. . , 
Unpick or Unrip, fumna. 

become unsetjon, fumuka. 
Unroof f ondoa sakafu (taike off a 
atone roof\ ezua paa, or za- 
mbua paa (A.), {taike off thatch). 
Unsew, fumna. 

come unsewn, fumuka. 
Unthaichf ezua, zumbua (A«) 
Untie, fuDgua. 

a knot, fundua. 
Upbraid, nenea, tuhnmu, taya. 
Upset, pindua. 
Urge, sukuma, kaza. 
Urinate, kojoa. 
'Use (make use of), tumia. 

To have been used for something^ 
kuliknwa na kiln. 

be of use, faa. 

<be of use to one another, faana. 

use bad language io, tukana. 

use words well and eorrecUy, 
fUse (accustom), zoeza. 

become used to, zoea. 
Utter, ta'mka. 


Value, tia kima (pui a price upon), 
penda (like), 
be valuable, faa, faa eana, [ku-] 
wa na manfaa. 
Vanish, toweka, toa kuonekana, 
}X)tea, tokomca (get out of one's 
Qo and hide yourself I Tokomea t 

Venture, batiiisha, (ikubaia. 
Vex, kasirisba. 

be vexed, kasirika, obnkiwa» 
be Visible, onekiana. 
Visit, enda koangalia, kiit^zamai 
or kuzuru, jia (come to), endea 

be visited, jiwa. 

visit upon, patiliza. 
Vomit, tapika, kekomoka (beZcZ* oui^ 

make to vomit, tapisba. 
Void, tangna, batili. 

be made void, tangoka. 
Vow, weka natbiri (make a vow\ 
perform a vow^ ondoa natbiil 

Wail, omboleza. 

Wait, or wait for, ngoja, Babari^ 

Wait a bit, ngoja kwann. 

wait upon, ngojea. 
Wake, (neut) a'mka. 

(act,) a*mi$ba. 

remain awake, kesba, angnsL 

be awake, [kii-]wa macbo. 

wake up suddenly wOh a tiarU 
zinduka, zindukana. 
Wcde, alia. 
Walk, enda, cnda kwa migaiL 

(of a horse or ass), enda deUd. 

walk ahout, tembeloa. 

take a walk, tembea. 

walk up and doum, enda masia. 

walk lame, obecbea, enda ohopL 
Wander^ zunguka, potea. 

in mind, papaynka. 
Want (need), taka, ibtajia, ihta^ 

(wish to.liave), taka, ipa. . 

be wanting, ibtajiwa, pnngnloL 
Ward off, kinga (receive on to w ti 
thing), bckua (knock off again) 



Warm up, kaDga moto, posba nioto.> 
Warn, onya, ambio, ■ nasi, liatba- 

risba {put on one*t guard). 
Warp, benuka {as tcood does in 
Wash, osba. • • [drying), 

wash clothes, fua^ by dabbing. 

gently <mly, cbacbaga. 
oneself, nawa. 

wash oneU hands, nawa mikona . 
Waste, ^act,) tilifa, tilifisba, faja,' 
tbiiy baribu, tawanya, tapanya- 
(M.). ! 

(neuL) piingna, tilifika. 
Waich, (act.) vizia, ngojea, angalia. ! 
keep loatches, ngojea kwa zamu. • 
waich over, linda. 
(not to sleep), kesba, angaza. 
Water, tia maji, nywesba maji 

make water, kojoa. 
Wave, (a4:L) pmiga. 

(neut.) tangatanga. 
Waver, sbangaa. 
Waylay, otea. 
Weaken, tboofisba, toa Dg^vu. 

become weak, tboofika. 
ite Weaned, aoba ziwa (leave the 

breast), abisbwa. 
Wear, — the past tenses of kuvaa, 
to put on, are used to express 
He wears, amevaa. 
He wore, alivna. 
Wear away, (neuL) lika, pnngua, 
(a^t) la, punguza. 
Wear out, (neut) cbakaa (by a^e or 
He wore out mypaiienee, alinonde- 
lea saburi. 
Wear ship, pindua kwa damalim. 
Weary, sbosba. 
become weary, oboka. 

Weave, funoa. : 

tenda nguo, to stretch (he Ctread» 

ready for weaving, 
tarizi, weave a border on to a piece 
of cloth. This is the only hind 
of weaving done in Zanzibar, • 
Weed (Jioe up weeds), boruga, palt- 
Weep, lia. [lia. 

weep together, lizana. 
burst into tears, bubujika iiiacbon. 
Weigh, pima. 

weigh down, leInec^ topeza. 
Weld on a piece of steel or ■ iron, 

Wet, tia maji, chofya majini (dip in 

Whet, noa. 
WJiisper, nong*oiia, noDg^onezana, 


Wliistle, piga mbinda, miunzi, mi- 
aono, or miao. Most, if not aU, 
of these refer to an involuntary 
whistling sound; to whistle 
voluntarily is regarded in Zan' 
zibar as profane. 

Widen, panua (act), panuka (pass.). 

Will, taka, penda. 
If Cfod will, insballab, Muungru 
akinijalia (if God gives me the 

Win, pata. 

Wind (neut), zoDgazonga, zanga- 
wind thread, kunja uzi. 

Wink, kopesa, pepesa, pesa. 
Kukonyesba, to raise the eyebrows; 
this is a sign used as winking 
is in England, 

Wipe, futa, pangusa. 
tdpe the nose, futa kamasL 

Wish, taka, penda. 

Wither, nyauka, fa, fi^ 



WUhhMfrom^ nyima, hlnL 
WUne^Bf ona (see), 

hear vjitnesB, shnhnclu. 

vfitness dboutf/or or against, slm- 
Wonder, taajabu, staajabn. 
Work, fanya kazi, teuda kazL 

work in metal, fua. 

(^ferment), chacha. 
Worry, sumbua, sumbusba. 
Worship, abudii, abudia. 
be Worth, pata kima (get a price). 

What is it worth ? Chapataje ? 
Wound, umiza. 

he unnmded, jerubL 

wound by siriMng or piercing un^ 
awareef yvubmu 

Wrap, kimja. ' ' 
Wreck, Ttrnja. 

he wrecked, Tunja, vrnijilva^ 

go on shore, panda. 

he on shore, pweleka. 
Wrestle, pigana kwa mbayo. 
TTrw/gfle, nyonganyoDga. 
Wring, soDJoa, kamua, popoton 
Wrinkle, nyeuka. 

heeome wrinJded, knnjana. 
Writhe (Uke a wounded S7uike\ 
Write, andika. [fingirika. 

TFron^, thulnmiL 


Yawn, enda, or piga miayo» fonu» 

C 209 ) 



Adverbs in Swahili follow the words they qnalify. 
8mMi tancLy speak out. NJema sana, very good. 

Adjectives may be used aa Adverbs by prefixing w- 

or t?y-. 

Kunul:a vibaya, to smell badly. 

Verbs in the Infinitive and Substantives generally 
may be made to serve as Adverbs by the use of the 
Preposition ktoa, 

Kwa uwongo, falsely. Kwa 1:ujua, knowingly. 

Many English Adverbs may be translated by sana 
(very), which intensifies the action or quality expreyscd 
by the word to which it is subjoined. 

Vuta sana I Pull hard I 
ShiJca sana I Hold tight I 
Mida sana I Go fiut I 


* There are in Swahili very few Prepositions. Indeed 
there are scarcely more than four, na, ya, Jcioa, and l-atiha. 



Kaiika has the same force as the case in -ni^ it denotes 
locality in nearly every form in wliich locality can' 
require to be expressed. Kwa denotes instrumentality 
and object. Na is and or with, and hy of the agent after 
a passive Yerb ; in this last sense m is used at Mombas 
and in other dialects. Fa, or rather -a with a variable 
initial letter, denotes possession ; it is treated as a poft* 
sessive pronoun, and changes its first letter according 
to the class of the noun which precedes it, that is of the 
person or thing possessed; it can very nearly always 
be translated by of. Its forms appropriate to each class 
of substantives are : — 

Class I. sing, ura, plur. tica. 

„ II. „ wa,. „ ya,. 

„ III. „ ya, „ za. 

„ IV. „ dM, „ vya. 

Class V., plor. ^ 
VI. „ ira, .„ ta, 



Aura, M ^(^«A- 


See p. 209 in original. 

Many of our Prepositions are expressed by a Xpun or 
Adverb followed by -a. Many others are expressed by 
Verbs in their simple or applied forms (p. 159). Some^ 
can scarcely be expressed at all. The Preposition /rom 
seems to be almost wholly wanting in Swahili. It is 
sometimes implied in the Yerb, as in hitcika, to come or 
go from, or to come or go out of, but generally it is 
marked only by hatika or the case in -nt, which denote 
merely the locality in which the action commeuoed. 
From, of time, may be translated by tangu, or by toka^ 
or tokea, which do not seem to be used of space or deri- 
vation, but to be best translated by since or heginnimg 


Vniil tOt as far as, of time and space, are frequently 
translated by hatta^ and (less elegantly) by wpalca^ 
followed by a substantive. 


Conjunctions are often dispensed witb by tbe use of 
the tenses with -ha-. And, hut, or any other mere con- 
nective in a narrative, is unnecessary where the -ika- 
tense is employed, as in all ordina^j' cases it must be. 
Thef Imperative and Subjunctive may alsd have-Zro- 
^refixed with the force of the Gonjxtnotion and, 

Katupa ! And throw it away. 

Mitenda sohoni haleta ndizi! Go to the market and fetch some 

t7one, u/k'osadfH, that yoa may' see and^belieTe. 

, 'i 

If and other Conjunctions introducing a state axe 
;generally expressed by using the -hi- tense of the Yerb 
•(kco Verbs, p. X36). 

In order that ib generally expressed only by putting 
the Yerb which expr-^sse» the piirpose into the sub- 






About, (near) karibu na, kama. 
(in the neiglibourhood of), upande 
Ahove, (adv,) juxL 
(prcjp.) juuya. 
AUindantly, tele, sana. 
Y, AfteTf (adv.) nyuma, baada. 

(prep.) nynma ya, baada ya. ^ 
Nyuma is more correctly used of 

plcuse, and baada, of time. 
After this, akiisha (he finishing), 
akaisba (and he finished). 
Afterwards, nyumaye, baada yake, 
baadaye, tena, kiisha, halafo, 
Again, mara ya pili, tena. 
Against, jua ya. Against is oom- 
monly expressed by (lie use of 
(he applied form of the verb. 
long ago, zamani za kale, zamani, 

How long ago ? Tan^ti lini ? 
ten days ago, Ico siku kumi, kwa 
«iku kunii, tangu siku kumi 

Alike, Bawasawa, ginsi moja, x»*^ 

Almost, karibu na. . 

Alone, peke yake, &c. (by him^^^* 

&o,), tu (only), Tu ^^^^^Za 

foUows the vord cr pkr""^"^^ 

qualified by it. 
Along, kandokando ya. 

along with, pamoja na. 
Alongside, mbavuuL 
Ahud^ kwa sauti kub^'a. 
Already, mbele (before), aaaa (i 
He is already gone atpay, n 

kwisha kweuda zake (p. 155. 
Also, na, tena. Na aiway» prtct^ 

what it is connected with. 
AUhough, kwamba, ikiwa. 
Altogether, pia jote, kabisa. 
Always, sikuzote, dayima, abadr 

kipindi, milele (for ever). 
Amidst, katikati ya. 
Among, katika. 

among themselves, wao kwa wb» 
Anciently, zamani za kale, kiranS 
And, na. 
And he, and 1, d-e. Sec p. 1 



And U very often ejrpressed hy the 
use of the -ka- tense. See p, 134 
•and p. 141. 

And followed hy a negaUve must 
he translated hy wala. 

Avd so, and then, Ac, bassi. 
iny is expressed hy using the vjord 

Anywliere, po pote. 

1 donH see anything, sion! kitn. 

AnytJiingwIuUeveTf Mtu chochote. 
\part, mbali. 

[round, pande zote, mzingo wa. 
1« (ichen, or if), -po-, -ki-. Seep, 136. 

(as if), kama, kana, kvsamba. 

(like), -vyo, -vyo-, added to or 
inserted in the verh. 

As you please, upendavyo. 

As it was formerly, yalivyokuwa 

As followed hy as is generally 

As hig as a house, kubwa kama 

As it stands, shelabela. 
{shore, pwani 

go ashore, panda (of a ship), sbu- 
ka (of a person), 

he ashore (of a ship), pwelewa. 
iside, kando. 

It, kwa, katika ; casein »m, followed 
hy pronouns in p-, when it de- 
notes nearness only, hut hy pro- 
nouns in kw- when it is inde^ 

At first, awali, kwanza. 

At home, kwangu, kwako, kwake, 
kwetn, k wenu, kwao, nyumbani. 

Ee is not at home, bako. Hayuko 
IS commonly used hy slaves in 
Zanzibar, hut is wlioUy ineori'ect 

At lastf mwisbo, batimai batta. 

At length, batta, batima. 
At night, usiku. 
At once, mera, mara moja. 
At the top, jua. 
At tlie hottom, cbinl 
go away, enda zangn, zako, ftc, 

according to the person going, 
eom^ away, ja zake, &c. 
He is away, bako. 


Bach, nyuma. 
Ee went hack, alinidi nyuma. 
upon the haak, kwa tani, cball. 
Eadcwards, kingaligali (M.). 
Because, kwa sababu. 
hecause of kwa sababu ya, kwa 
ajili ya, kwani (for). 
Before, (adv.) mbele, kwanza. 
(prep.) mbele ya or za, kabia ya. 
Kabla is used preferably of time^ 
mbele of place. 
To go hefore, tangulia. 
Before he goes to sleep, asljelala. 
Before I die, kabla sijafcu 
Behind, (adv,) nyuma. 

(prep.) nyimia ya. 
Below, (adv,) cbini. 
(prep.) cbini ya. 
Beside, kando la, kandokando ya, 

zayidi ya (more than). 
Besides, tena, zayidi; na (al8o),pre' 

ceding the thing mentioned. 
Better, afutbali, beri or kbeiri. 
You Imd hetter go, afatbali uene- 

nde, u beri uenende. 
Afethali is preferably, beri mean$ 
it would bf) a good tbing. 
Between, katikatl }u, bciiia. 
Beyond, (adv.) kwa kuko. 
( prep.) zayidiya, juu ya. 



beyonl '{of place)j npande wa 
pili wa. 

Both — and — ^,iia — na, * 

Both of themf wote wawili, zote 
mbili, &e,j ftc. 

Butf lakini, wallukini (and Jioicevet^ 
illakmi (except liowever), ilia,' 
ball. In many cases but may 
he best translated by the use of 
the -ka- tense of the verb. 

By (after a passive verb)f na, ni 
(of an instrument), kwa. 
(near) katika), case in 'Tn followed 
by pronouns in p-, 

Certainly 9 yaklni, hokika, bnpana 

You certaiidy, &c„ Haldka yako, 

Cholcefutt, iobtob. 
Ckmstantly, abadan, dayima. 
Crookedly f kombokombo, mishltbari. 


Batlyy killa siku, siku kwa sikn. 
Directly. See Now, 
Distinctly f kiada. 
Doum, chini. 
During, wakatl wa. 

During his journey, alipokuwa 
akisafiri, akiwa akisafiri. 


Early, mapcma. 

Easily, upcsi. 

Either — or — , ao — aa— , ama — 

ama — . 
Elsewhere, panginepo. 
Enlirdy, pia, kabisa, yote, pia yote. 
Ere^ kabla ya, mbele ya. See Before» 

Even, hatta. 

Ecen if, -japo. See p. 138; 
Ever, sikuzote, dayima, kipindL 

for ever, milele. 
Everywhere, mahuli pote. 
Exactly, ballsi, kbassa, bawnba. 
Exceedingly, 'rano subjoined to ik 

word qualified, eaiia. 
Except, ilia, ela (M.). Except ma 

often be expressed by the m 

of the tense with Hsipo. St 

p. 146. 
except by, billa. 
Excessively, *mno sulg&ined to H 

word quuVfied, cLapa, obapan 


Far. or far off, mbalL 
First, kwauza, mbele. 

to gofirsU kutapji^ulia. 
Fluently, kaiiia majL 
For, (conj.) kwau^ 

(prep.) kwa. For U generai 
expressed by the . use ofOiea 
plied form of the verb. 

(in the place of), mahali pa. 

for ihe space of, muda wa. 

for the sake of, kwa ajili ya. 

for my sake, unipendax'yo {us | 
love me). 
Formerly, kwanza, zamanL 
Forth, *iije. 

to go forth, kutoka. 
Forward, mbele. 

go forward, endelea mbele. 
Forwards (upon the foot), fulifo 
fudifudi, kwa kufal.amia (K 
Frequently, mam nyin^L 
From, katika, case in -i:L 

frotu among, miongimi mwa. 

from time to time, mara kwa ma: 

(since), tangu, tokn, tokea. 



1 had ft from (of) the Sheikh, 
nalipokea ya ShdlidL 
Further, .tena. 
Further on, mbcle. 


Gtntlyy polepole, tarafibu, tahafifo. 

Gladly, faraha. 

QratiBt burre, attia, Inlashi 


Eiardf kassi. 

to work hard^ kntenda kazi sana. 

to run hardf kaza mbio. 
HcutUy, hima, kwa haraka. 
JBTere, faapa, huku. 

He is here, 3rupa 

I am here, mimi bapa. 

Here and there^ hapa na bapa. 
Hereafter, baadaye. 
Uiihery batta bapa, bapa. 

Hither and thither, kukn na 
HUherto, liatta leo, batta sasa. 
Howf -je tuljiHned^ to the verb. 
Seep. 123. 

kama ipl ? Kwaje ? 

How ieitf G insi gam ? 

How often ? >Iara ngapi ? 

How much f KsLUBi gaui ? Eadri 
floifTyrginsi w'th 'yyo- joined toith 
Uie verb ; ginsi is of ten omitted. 

How he . was, &c., giiifei alivyo- 
kuwa, &0. 
However, lakiui. 

{T, kana, kwamba, kama; «ki- or 
-po- inserted in the verh See 
pp:iS%UQ. i 

Immediately t mara, mara moja. 

. now immediately», 8€^a Uivi. 
In^ katika, case, in -ni foUoyoed by 
pronouns in. m-. 
in tlie shoulder, ya bega. 
in front, pambele, mbele. 
[J] in going 9 nikienda, nlkiwa 

in good tine, at its pfoper time, 

in heaps, cbungu cbungu. 
in order thati illi. See p. 14L 
in place of, mabali pn. 
in the middle^ katimikati, kati, 

in the middle of, kati ya, katikati 
in the morning, as^ubui. [}'a. 

Indeed, kusema kweli. .. 

grecU indeed, kubwa saiia. 
Inside, ndanL 
inside -off ndani ya, case in *ni 

followed by pronomis tn m-. 
He is inside, jump qdani. 
Into, kaiika, case in -ui followed by 
pronouns in m% 


Just, see p, 116, balisL . • . 
Thai is just ii^ ndiyo yalio. 

Lastly, kwa inwisbo, mwi^bo. 

ai last, batima, mwibbo. 
Late, kasirL 
Less, duni. 

to beeome less, kupuiigua. 

Less by, kassa. 
Like, kaina,.inetbili, b^gab^ ya. 

People like us, kina .&is>i 
Little, Mdfygo, 

a little mfire; pcti^de. . 

a littl^:Umger,,'xetu pjuiid^ 



Merely, tu, bassi. Both words foUow 
the word or phrase they qualify. 
Moderately, kadiru 
Nore, zayidi. 
inore than, zayidi ja. 
a Utile more, punde. 
MoreooeTf teoa, na. 
Mttch more, or much less, sembnsey 

Kear (ado.^, karibu. 

Near to, karibu na, kariba yn. • 

Nturhj^ karibu na or ya, kadri ya. 

Necesnarily, of necessity, kanuni la- 
zim, ukwascfu. 

Neither — nor — , wala— wala— , 

Never, kabisa (with a negative pre- 
ceding), komwi (Mf). 

Next, -a pili yake, kiisha. 
ttext to, -a pili ya. 

No, ahaa, hah^ la, siyo, hakuna, 
hapana, baiona. These last 
three words mean, there is not, 
or there is none. 
No, by no means, hasha. 

'if(yr, wala. 

Not, si. See Negative Tenses of Verbs, 
p. 143. 

Not only — , htd also — ; si — bassi, 
— ^lakini tena ; si — tu, ilia — . 

Not yet, bado, asitasa, haitassa, &c. 
(M.). These words are used to 
denote incompleteness, whatever 
the subject referred to may be. 
Not yet may generaVy be ex- 
. pressed by the negative tense 
with -ja- (seep, 145), after which 
teiise bado is generally added. 

Now, sasa, leo (to^ay), wakati bun 
(at this time)^ zamani hizi (tji 

these times), zamani zetn (4r 
times), Biku hizi (in tliese days)> 
Now direeUy, sasa hivu 


Obliquely, hanamn. 
Of, -a, vnth a first letter varying 
according to the class of ths 
preceding word, that U of tkt 
thing possessed. 
I. Mtu wa Ali, Jli^s man. 
Watu wa Ali, AlCs peopU, 
Mbuzi wa Ali, AlTs goat 
Mbuzi wa Ali, AlVs goats, 
n. Mnazi wa Ali, Ali^s eoeoor 
nut tree, 
Minazi ya Ali, Ali^s mcoo- 
nut trees, 
m. Nymnba ya Ali, AtCs hou»e, 
Nyumba za All, Aid 
TV, Elsu cha Ali, Ali^s hntfe. 

Yisu yya Ali, Ali^s knieeu 
Y, Kasha la Ali, AU^s dhesL 
Makasha ya Ali, AlCm 
VL Uimbo Y!A All, Alfs song. 

Nyimbo za All, Alfs mmgsm' 
vn. Mahali pa Ali, AlCsplaos. 
Till, Eufa kwa Ali, AUs dying. 

1, Nyumbani mwa Aliy'tm ilZTt 


2. Nyumbani pa Ali, (y JlTs 

8. Kyumbani kwa Ali, to Atfs 
Ta is sometimes pronounced a. 

saa a sita, twdve o^dock. 

Where it is intended to mark speciaiUg 

the individuality of the pos»ea$or 

the possessive pronoun may lie 

used instead oftheprepotitum a. 



Citi cLoko Sultani, mean» (he 
cliair in which no one hut the 
Sultan Hte, or the Sultan's own 
Of i$ included in some words which 
are therefore not foUowed by -a. 
Kina Abdallah, AhdaUalCs people^ 

or people like Ahdallah, 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohwmmed^s 

Binti Mohammed, Mohammed^s 

In some common phrases -a is 
omitted apparently /or shortness 
f>ften^ mani n^ingL 
Oit, juu }a, /^ COM in -ni. 
Put it on the tabUf weku mezanL 
Put it on Vie top of the table, weka 

jnn ya meza. 
•an both sides^ pande mbilL 
<on every side, kotekote. 
onfooU kwa migua. 
•on one side, onesidedly, poga 
on purpose, mokusudi. 
on the part of, miongoni mwa. 
Cnce, mara moja. 

at once, mara moja, mara. 
once only, mara moja tu. 
Only, peke yake, &c. (by itself, 
alone), tu, bassi, both following 
the word or phrase qualified. 
Orderly, taratlbu. 
Out, nje. 
out and out, tama. 
Speak out, sema Sana. 
Outiside, nje, kwa nje. 
'outside of, nje ya. 
Outwardly, kwa nje. 
Over, juu ya (of place), zayidi ya 
(of quantity). Over t» the sense 
of excess may be expressed by 

kupita, to pass ; and in the sense 
of finished, by kuisha, to come 
to an end. 
TJte battle is over, mapigano y»- 


PaiienUy, stahimili. 

Perhaps, labuda, hwenda, kwenda, 

kwa nnsllm» insballah. 
Perpetually, dayimn, ^badan. 
Possibly, labudH, yaiukini (it is pos» 

sible), kwa yamkini (by possi" 

Presently, halafu. 
Properly, vema, hulisi, bawaba. 
-to, used as an enclitic subjoined 

to verbs and substantives. 
Amejiwekato, lie has placed hin^ 

self properly. 

Quicldy, hima, hiioahima, kwa h*- 

raka, upesi, mbio (running). 
Quietly, tnratibu, polepole. 
Quite, kabisa, pia hiXisi, 


liaiher, zayidi (more), afathali (pro- 
much raJther, sembuse, senze. 

SeereUy, kwa siri,ndani kwa ndani. 
Side by side, kandokando. 
SilerUly, kimyakimya. 
i^tnce,. tangu, toka, tokea. 
Slowly, polepole, taratlbu, kiada. 
So, when followed by as is generaUp 
omittedf when standing alone ii 



may he expressed hy ginsi, and 
-vyo inserted in the verb. 
He M not 80 iaU as you arCf s^ 

mrefu kama wewe. 
I did not know he was so (all, si- 

kumjua ginsi alivyo mrefu. 
So far as, hutta. 
Sometimes, niara, mara kwa ninra. 
Sometimes he laughs, sometimes he 
cries, mara hucheka, mora hulla. 
Soon, sasa kivi (immediately), upcsi 
(quickly), bado kidogo (ytt a 
liUle), karibu (near), 
SUR, tena, hatta Ico. 
Strongly, kwa iiguvu. 
Suddenly, ghufa'.a, mara moja, thd- 
ruba muja. 


That (liow that), kwamba, ya kwa- 

(in order (hat), illi. See p. 141. 
Then, is often expressed hy the use of 

ths -ka- tense, or by the verbs 

kwisha, to finish, or, kwenda, 

to go. 
^kiisha akatoko, having finished 

this, he went out = then he went 

Akaenda tikamkamata, and he 

went and seized him = then he 

seized him, 
(after this), baadaye, banda yake, 

nyumaye, nyuroa yake. 
(then ii was), ndipo. 
(tn tkose days), zamani zile, sikii 

(at that time), wakati tile. 
There, paie« buko. kule^ Pale 

points to whai. is nearest, kule 

to what is farthest of. 
There/ore, kwa bababu hii 

Though, kwaniba; ihe -ki- tentSf 
p. 136, tr/itf» the ease ie put a» 
an existing one ; the -nge- terue, 
p. 138, where the eaee is pules 
not exuding. 

Though he i«, akiwa. 

Though he he, angawo. 

(even if), -japo, p, 138. 
Thus (in this way), hivl, Livynu 

just thus, vivi hivi, vivyo liivyo. 

(in the sants tmyX ▼i^^yo. 
Till, hatta, mpaka wa. 
To (as the sign of the infinititeh 
ka-; the n l^eeomee w before »• ^ 
or i, and ie often omitted bef^^ 
o and u. 

Ewisba = ku-isba, to finish» 

Kwinda = ku-enda, toffo, 

Koga = ku-oga, to haike. 

To before a verb where ii estpre^' 
the purpose or the elldeet 
ai, is expreuedbif tkeueeof 

I stood up to looJky nal 

Tell him to help ffou, m 
akusayidie. . 

J want him to go, naintaka 

I want to go, nataka k 
(In such caaee ^s Ai$ the 
in the infinitive i» uaed a$ 

(unto) is generally eontained 
the verb, kupa = to give to {\ 
to give). If not eomtaiae 
themieaiiing oftheortQinal 
it may h^ expressed 5y the 
the applied forvL Jb^ the f^ 
oases in whiih- to eaimof 
brought into the meamng of 
verb, it must bo rendered 



(a» far as)^ haita. ' 

(to ^^6 TioiM^ o/), -kwa. ' ' 

Toffetlter, panooja, wotOi 

Whenjoined tcUhpergoMios^iher 

U expressed hy forms cf -ote,- 


twende sote, let us go iogeUier, > 

mwende nyote, go together. 

v-ende wote, let them go together i 
ho(h together^ wote, wote wawili. ! 

• Tifpsy4,urvyi kitwokitwa, vitwav • 

' TotaUy, kabisa, pia. 

* 2VtiZy, kw&li, bakika^ yakini, inna.. 
Tutiee Ofoer, kuwili. 


Unawares, ghafala* 

Under, cliini ya. 

Until, batta. 


Upon, JQU ya, case in -ni. 5e« 0». 

Upwards, juu. 

UiUrly, kabka, pia yote, tikitiki. 


Vaifdy, burre. 

Very, sana. Sana always foThws 

the word qualified by it. 
Vigorously, kwa nguvu, sana. 
ViolenUy, kwa nguvu, kas^. 


WeU, yema, sana, -to. See Properly. 
Whati See p. 122. 

What do you ward f Watakanini? 

What tree is it f Mti gani buu ? 

What man f Mtu ynpi ? 
Whai = that which. See Relaiiues, 

p. 117. 
IF&en? Lini? 

When (if, as soon <u, drc), the -ki 
tense, p. 136. 

(at the time- when), -po, treated 03 

a relative ^rlide and joined 

scith^the verb, p..}19. 
(during the time), wakati wa. 
when it rains, wakati* wa. mvua. 
When the harvest tomes, wakati 

wa kuvx|Da,[wa]viiiiapo. 
(even if), -japo, |). 138». 
Whenever^ vrakati wote, killa -po;. 

Whenever >I go, kil!a nendapj. 
Wherei Wapi, api, p. 123. 
Where are you going i Wenda^ 

wapi? : 

TKAere, po, ^,roOiireated asrelat've 

particles and joined with the 

verb. Po implies nearness, and 

mo {he being inside. 
1 dont know where he is, simjui 

I-don*t IfTUfw where I am going, 

sijui iiinapokweuUa. 
J donH Jcnow where I came from^. 

sijui ninakotoka. 
Where the tree is (or w<is), penyi 

Wherever, po pote, ko kote, mo moto. 
Wherever I go, killa nendako. 
Wherever I enter, killa ninj^ama 
Wherever I am, killa nilipo. 
Wherefore, kwa sababu bii or liiyow 
Whether — or — , ao— ao— ^ 
Whether it be, licba. 
(if), kwamba. 
While, maadani, maazdT. 
While, is generally expressed ly>j' 

the use of -ki- prefixed to the 

verb, p. 136. 
WliiU it is yet early, kungali na> 

mapema bado. 
Wliyf Mbona? Kwani? Kwa. 

nini? Yanini? Kwa suIiuliU» 

gani ? Giiisi or Gisbi gani? 



Withy na, pamoja na. 
(as an VMirument\ kwa. 
(contotmn^, having^y -enyL See 
p. 97. 
WiiUny nd&nL 
TFtYAoti^, nje. 

Without (prep.)» pasipo (u^^^ere fAera 
is not). 
Without is generally expreseed by 
the -sipo- tente (p. 146). It 
may he represented by a eimple 
He is without shames hana haya 

= he has no shame. 
Without, foUoujed in English by 
(he participial or verbal in -ing^ 
may be rendered by the negative 
subjunctive of the verb. 
Without seeing him, asimwone. 
Without there being, pasiwe. 
WcndfrfuUy, ig£b, ajftbii. 


Yearly, mwaka kwa mwalca. 
Yes, ace, e^, na'am, vema, njema, 
yakiui, ndio, kwelL 

Ewaa or Ee wallah are often used 
by slaves or inferiors to express 
a willing assent. 

T n sh a ll ah is used as apromise i& 
do something. 

Lebeka or Labeka, contracted 
into leb^, ebbe or even be, ,i$ 
used by inferiors as an answer 
when called. Superiors ■ or 
equals generdHy use naam, ihs 
Arabic yes. 

Kdiyo yalio, that is just it 
Yonder, kale, kulee, p. 115» 116L 


Zigzag, upo^coapoga 

( 221 ) 


THere are in Swahili, as in all languages, som» 
scarcely articulate Interjections, and many of the natives^ 
especially of the lower class, use a great deal of action,, 
often joined with half-artioulate exdamatory sotmds. 
to illustrate and enforce their meaning. The following 
are the most usual Interjections, and those which can* 
best be written. The words used for Yes and No are^ 
given in the preceding list, pp. 216 and 220. 

The ordinary salutations are in practice a soft of 
Interjections, not being very easily explained under 
any other head. 

A slave addressing a superior says Sikamoo or NasiJca- 
moo, for nashika miguu, I embrace your feet. The- 
superior replies Marahaha, thank you, or welome, the^ 
word being originally an Arabic form of congratulatioi^ 
«nd well-wishing. 

Equals very commonly say when they meet Jamba or 

TaTobOj to which the reply is Jamho or Jambo aana, Thcr^ 

is a playful or very affectionate way of continuing the 

dialogue thus — Jamho. Jamho, Jainho sana, Jamho sana. 

JSana $ana. Sana sana. Kama lulu (like pearls). Kama 


marijani (like coral), dc.y dc. The more correct exprcs- 
eions are — Hu janibo f Are you well ? and the answer, 
^i jamhoy I am well. It is difficult to explain these 
«phrases intelligibly. Hu jamho f is literally, Are you 
not a matter or affair ? or still more strictly. Are you 
not a word ? The meaning is very nearly that of the 
English, Is nothing the matter with you ? Sometimes 
Ha jamho is used to express. He is well, or Ha fambo 
Jcidogo, He is not very ill, or He is a little better. One 
may ask, Uhali gani f What state are you in? i.e., How 
are you ? to which a proper reply is» Njema, hemd il Hiaki^ 
<jrood, praise be to God. The Arabic Sabalkheir, Good 
morning, and Masalkheir, Good afternoon, are often 
heard. The more elegant forms are Svhahh AUdh bilb^ 
Jieir and Mnsah AUdh hilkheir. It is not usual to inqtiiie 
about the health of a wife or of the women of»' house» ' 
fliold, unless among very intimate friends, or fo!r -isom» * 
«pecial reason. When necessary, one should say) JB«* \ 
jamho nyumhani f or IT haU gam nyumbam f How^re 
you in the houses i,e., How are youi^ household, or ^ 
l<hose in your house ? It is proper, if you ire asked * 
liow you are, always to answer, well, for the sake of 
ithe omen ; and similarly if you are asked Hdhari ganit 
What news? to answer Njema, good, and theusafter* 
wards to give a true account of the matter* 

In Swahili Interjections a final h is often distinctly 
tieard. It requires much practice to enable a European 
to make this sound properly. 

( 223 ) 


Lclamatioii of mingle<l 
id surprizr). The final 
be distinctly sounded. ^ 
uinti, thank yoti. Ah- 
an Arabic word tii^an- 
i have done well. It is 
les used profusely by 
nere compliment, 
len, u^ied at tha end of 


you I I say I .. It is 

nerally as a means -of 
attention to what has 
d, or is about to be said, 
sort of vocal note of 


Bcuf8! That will do! 
! Stop ! Kg more I 


exclamation of impa- 
tnd contempt; the ch 
ouud most heard, tlie 
3ing very short aud in- 

Ee! 01 Th^ inteijeetion of'iii^ 
< vocation. 

Ewe! ^Xnr, EnyiL You there I A 

' . rather Qontemptuous way. of, 

*' demandiiig attention. . It, ''i» 

; used for Hi t I say I and ftny 

I . exclamation merely meant to 

attract notice. It must not be 

i used to a superior and rarely 

only to an equal. It is. .custo- 

maiy to call to themJ^irana/ 

Lei, MksterT 'The answer» 

will be found in thei'prcvioas 

list, p. 220, under tjie v^ozd 

, Yes. , 

■ * • * ' ■ . . ■ . , * 



Haya! An exclamation borrowed 
from tlie Arisibic ; ft metos, 
jgive your attentidti to this, go 
on with it. It is uised where 
we say, Gome along I Look 
shaTp! Be quick I €}o odI 
If it has been proposed to do 
anything, Haya! means, I.ei 
T1S set about it. Haya! ia» 
commonly used by A master or 



overlooker to haBten men about 
their work. 

Hima! Quick! Be quick! Make 
haste! Often doubled, Hima 
hima I 

Hddil with a great stress on the 
o. It is not right to enter any 
house or room (not your own) 
without first crying Hddi! and 
waiting fur some one to come, 
or at least to answer, Kdrib^ 
Come in I 


/0/ or Tel Hullo! What now! 
Well! Whatisit? 


Kdrib 1 i.e., come near ! It is used 
to invite people into a house, 
to join a party, or to sit down 
and put themselves at their 
ease. Kdrib I may generally 
be translated, Gome and sit 
with us ! and a common answer 
is, NimekfM kitaJco, I am set 

KifuUl An exclamation of con- 

Kuaheril Good-bye! Farewell I 
Sometimes a plural is made, 
Ktuihennif though it seems to 
be an incorrect form. 

Sometimes a special friend 
adds, Ta huonana, as much as 
to say. May we soon meet again. 

Kunibel What! What then I An 
expression of surprize, espe- 
cially used when things turn 
out not to be as they were 
lepresented to be. 

Laitil Oh that! Would thatT 
An exclamation of regret, 0^^ 
wish that things had beti^ ' 

Looo ! An exclamation of surprize^ — 
the o is more dwelt upon iiv— ' 
proportion to the. amount of"^ 

Mardhaba! Thank you I It Is* ^ 
well ! used by way of acknow- 
ledging a gift or a compliment» 

Miyel Mb I 1 1 I am the one ! 

Mwenyewe i Ton did it yourgelf I. . 


OUI An exclamation fortbodins 
eviL Woe! Olewenu! Woe 
unto you! Die wanguf Woe 
is me! 

8aal You! I say! It is pot 
after a word to give emphasia 
to it. Njootaal Come on, do! 

ScSUuml Peace! Hail! It is 
used as a salutation by the 
Indians. The regular Arabic 
ScUaam dleikuml Peace be 
with yon ! and the answer, Wa 
dleih salaam! And with yon 
peace! is not very oommonly 
heard. Salaam is often used 
in the sense of compliments : 
Salaam Bibil With the mis- 
tress* compliments, — said iik 
presenting anything. 

SimUlal Out of the way! Oii- 
ginally, as it is said, Binnittakt 
Li the name uf God. U ia uev 



fhe common cry by which people 
are warned of something com« 
ing. SimiJla pundal Make 
way for a donkey I SimiUa 
nbaul Take care of the plank ! 
Two servants frequently go 
before a great man to clear the 
way for him, and call out to 
any one in the road, Similla! 

A plnral SimtUenil is some- ; 
times made as though it were 
the imperative of a verb. The 
more correct plirase for Get out 
of the way t is Jitenge ! 
XCardU/ Don't disturb yourself I 
When a new-comer enters, the 
rest rise to do him honour, 
which he tries to prevent by 
mying, Starehe ! StareheJ It 

is properly used to deprecate 
any trouble or didturbanoe on 
the speaker's account 


Tendeni! Go on! Let us go? 
Probably the imperative of hu- 
tendOy to do or to be employed 

Tutu! Don't touch! Used to a 
child meddling with what he 
had better leave alone. 


Vema! Very welll So be it I 
That will do I 


Weye! Yon! You are the ontl 
Iff you 1 



The formation and introduction of new words go 
BO freely in Swahili, that no guide to the language 
would he complete without a section on the subject. 

Foreign words are adopted in a shape as nearly lib 
their own as the rules in regard to Swahili syllables will 
allow. At first indeed a word may be used in its crude 
original shape, but it soon has vowels introduced into» 
and subjoined to it, so as to bring it into a regular form* 
Arabic words seldom present great difficulties when 
once the gutturals have been toned down. Thus JckSbar 
(news) softens into Jidbdri, wdkt (time) becomes first 
wdlcti and then waJedti, Jcahr or gahr (a grave) is softened 
and expanded into Jcahuri. It is seldom that an Arabic 
word presents so much difficulty as did these three. 
Portuguese has furnished some words, as kasha (caxa), a 
large box ; mezay a table ; mvinyo (vinho), wine. French 
gives a few, as hweta (boite) a box; divai (du vin) 
claret. An instance of English adaptation occurs in 
manowari^ which is the current designation of an Englisb 



Some rules have been given at the end of the section 
on Verbs for the formation of several derived form& 
{p. 157). Verbs in the causative and neuter forms may 
be made from other parts of speech, especially from 
foreign Adjectives, by changing their final syllable 
into -isha or -esha^ -iha or -eka, as though they had been 
•originally Verbs. 

GhaLi^ dear. Kughalisha, to make dear. 
Laini, smooth. Kulainielui, to make smooth. 

Kulainilca^ to he made smooth. 

Beside those formations which are in daily use> it is 
a great help to the understanding of the language to 
n[>ear in mind the traces of formations not now ordinarily 
«employed. In regard to Verbs it is a constant rule that 
those ending in -ua reverse the meaning of similar verbs 
«ending in -a only. 

Kufunga^ to fasten. Kufungua^ to unfasten. 

Kvfuka, to fill in a hole. Kufvkua^ to clear out a hole. 

Several verbs show traces of a rule, which prev^,ils in 
«eonie other African languages, that the change of -a into 
-ya gives the Verb a causative meaning. 

Kupona, to get weU. KuponyOy to cure» 
Kuogopa, to fear. Kuogo/ya, to frighten. 

There are many questions about the form of Verbs 
Avhich need much more investigation. What is the rule 
iDy which some causatives are made in -alia and some in 
^^a f Has the -aha termination the effect of to make to 
he, and -za that of to make to do f What is the explana- 
tion of the apparently neuter form of some active VerbSi. 



fiuch aj Tzufanika^ to cover? What is the effect of the 
terminations -ma and -/a, as in hiungama and hufumbata f 
What dialect did they originate in? What are the 
rules for the termination -anyay which seems to be 
common in the most northerly Swahili? 

It has been shown in the section on verbs how some 
tenses are formed by the use of an auxiliary, and some 
by a tense prefix which has no independent meanings' 
An example of the transition between the two is sup- 
plied by the three forms of the negative infinitive : 1. 
kutoa kujperida; 2. Jcutoa penda; 3. hutopenda. In the 
first form both words have a substantial independence ; 
in the second the principal verb, penda^ is already 
drawn out of its proper form, and depends for its 
meaning upon the first verb, toa, as upon a prefix ; in 
the third it has swallowed up the final of the first verb 
and appropriated its prefix hu-. The form of the future 
prefijc which is used with relatives points to taka as the 
original form, and the verb Jcutdka is so like our own 
word to will that one can hardly be wrong in supposing 
that in both cases the change from a verb expressing 
volition to a mere sign of tense expressing futurity hag 
proceeded in a similar manner. Now, if the tense pre- 
fixes were ever independent words, the principal verb 
must have been in the infinitive ; and, if so, the presence 
of the Jcu- before monosyllabic verbs, wherever the accent 
requires it, is fully explained ; it was dropped wherever 
it served no purpose, and retained where it was con* 
venient to retain it. The original independence of the 
tense prefix and of the principal verb would also go to 
account for the way in which the objective prefix ding» 


-to the principal verb; it would then have originally 
followed the Icu-^ and so been severed by it from all the 
-other prefixes. The only cases in which the natives 
separate the prefixes from the verbs in writing seem to 
be where a particle of relation is joined with the -na-^ 
"li'j and 'taka- prefixes, and in the past conditional or 
"ngali- tense. It is curious to have in such a word as 
-atakayehija the same letters exactly used to form a 
tense prefix and to express an independent verb. Ata- 
kaye kuja means, who desires to come, atakayekuja, who 
will come, in the sense of a simple future. 


Adjectives are made from Verbs in correct Swahili by 

substituting -vu or -fu for the final -a. Where the final 

is preceded by a consonant the Adjective is made from 

the applied form. 

Kunyamaay to remain silent. -nyamavUy silent 
Kuharibu, to destroy. 'haribi/u, destructive. 

Verbs that end in -ka change this into -vu in making 
the Adjective. 

Kucholcat to become tired, -ehovu^ tired. 

These forms do not now appear to be freely made or 
used in the common dialect of Zanzibar. A somewhat 
«imilar meaning may be expressed by the use of the 
variable Preposition -a followed by the Infinitive of the 



Substantives may be freely made by prefixing to the 
«imple form of the Verb the initial letters proper to the 
•first, or to the fourth class, according to whether it is 


a living being or a thing which does what the Verb 
expresses. It must be observed, that this form is so 
purely verbal that it takes an object after it just as a 
Yerb would. 

Mfanya bicuikara, a trade maker, f e., a merchant. 
Vifaa, things which are of service, neceBsaries. 
Kifungua nUangOf the door opener. 

The final letter is sometimes changed into -t, and the 
word ceases to govern an object. 

Maemi, a speaker* 
Where the final -a is preceded by a -5- it becomes -»-• 

Ktoibck, to steal. Mwivi, a thief. 

Kugombaf to qnarreL Mgomvif a quarrelsome person. 

Where the above rules would produce a oommon 
word with another meaning, the Jcu of the Infinitive is 

Kttlima, to cultivate. MkultTna, a cnltivator« 

Mlima, a mountain. 

There are a few traces of a formation of verbals by 
changing the last letter into -e, as in -^euZe, chosen, from 
ibufeu[Z]a, to choose. 

The habitual doer of an action may be denoted by 
adding -ji to the simple form of the Verb and prefixing 
the initial letters proper, to the first Class. 

Kuombaf to heg, Mwombaji, a beggar, 

Kuibaf to steaL Mtoibaji, an habitual thief. 

Another way of denoting a person who does what the 
Verb expresses is formed by changing the final letter 
into -««V 'M^ or -sd, and employing the usual prefixes» 


When tho Verb ends in -Tea the -lea becomes ihi; wher& 
the Verb ends in -ta the -ta becomes -si. 

KuokoOy to save. Mwohozi, a savioar. 

Kununua, to buy. Mnunuzif a purchaser. 

KudkOj to build (in stone). Mwashiy a mason. 

KufutUOt to follow. Mfuan, a follower. 

The result of the action denoted by the Verb may be 
expressed by changing the final -a into -o and using 
some appropriate prefix. • 

Kuzaa, to bear. Mazao, fruit, produce. 

KutendOf to do. Kitendo^ an action. 

KvcendOj to go. Mtoendo, a journey, or going. 

Of the Substantival prefixes those of the fourth (Ki-) 
Class are most often used. 

The same forms especially in the fifth Class are used 
to express the place where an action is generally done» 

Kuoka, to bake. Jolw, a baking place. 

KuhuanyikOf to be assembled. Malcusanyiho, a gathering place». 

or an assembly. 

Words of similar meaning are also made by the termi* 
nations -zi -ahi^ -at. See above. 

Mavao, or Mavcuii, dress, garments. 
Kizao, or Kizazi, birth, a generation. 
PendOy or Penzij love. 

Where the Verb and Substantive are both borrowed 
from the Arabic, it is useful to remember that the Sub- 
stantive has generally a where some other vowel occurs* 
in the Verb. , 

Kuabudu^ to worship. Ibada, worship. 

Kumfiri, to travcL Safari, a journey. 


Sometimes both the Arabic and the Swahili fornui 

Kujibuj to answer. Jawahu and majilm, an answer. 

Verbs joined with relatives, or with the particles of 
place or time, may be treated as Substantives. 

Wendako Jcote, whithersoever tboa goest 
KiUa nendapo, every time I go. 
Zilcerezwazo, turnery, turned goods. 

Substantives of place may be made from Adjectivefe 
^by putting them into the form required by MahaUj 
place (Class VII.). 

Panffammmt a quiet plaoa 

The place whero Bomething is may be expressed by 

Penyi intended where the date tree is, or was. 

The place for doing anything may be expressed by 
pa followed by the Infinitive of the Verb. 

PalcutokeOj a place to go out at, an outlet. 

Abstract Substantives are ordinarily formed by means 
of the prefix U- or PT-. 

Karimu, generous. Ukarimu, generosity. 

•eupCf white. Weupe, whiteness. 

Micizi, a thief. Uizi, thievishness. 

Muuaji, a murder. Uuajiy murders. 

Waxiri, a vizier. UuHuiri, viziership. 

An instance in which both Arabic and Swahili forms 
are used occurs in the word for enmity. 

Adui, an enemy. Wddui or Adausa, enmity. 

Nations, their country and language, are regularly 


expressed by the prefixes of the first, sixth, and fourth 

Mgcda^ a Galla. Ugala^ Galla land. Kigala, the Galla> 

Mzungu, a European. UzungUn the native oonntry of the- 

Europeans. KizungUf the language which Europeans» 


It is to be observed that the U- form would also- 
express the being a Galla, European, &c., and that the 
Ki' form denotes the sort or kind of anything, not of 
language only. It is seldom used absolutely except of 
the language, but when preceded by -a (of) its true 
meaning becomes evident. 

MJavao ya Kizungu, European dress. 
Viazi vya Kizungu, potatoes. 

The Ki' form may be made from other substantivesi. 

Mavao ya Jcifaume, royal robes (form m/auTue, a king, and 
ufaume, kingdom or kingship). 

The formation of Adverbs and Prepositions has heen, 
described in the section on the smaller parts of speech. 

(234 ) 

















I ^i 





O .JL 




S « CS '^ '^ ^^ O^ '^ ^^ M B '^ 



i •- • 

S^S.ii , ■.•!(.*i^e3;s f-i ddei 

I fe & Jr? ^ « M. 5 

X A 

9 * 

h3 Jz; 



^ 4. ^iii -^ \ 'k A^ J> A 

!•• Js* t«* t* It* t* 1«* fi* •«»» S* 1"» t* 


rf d &i 

d -^ ^ 

( 235 } 

Table of the Preposition -a (of) 
in four Languages. 

SwARiLi. Shambala. Nyamwszi. TA<k 















































































Part II. 

239 ^» 



In using the following Vooabalary it is necessary to remember that 
Swahili words change very much at the beginning and not often at 
the end. 

In searching for the meaning of a word, which is not to be found 
exactly as written, it is well to examine first the final syllable, so as to 
correct, or remove, any termination or enclitic which may be attached 
to it. These are as follow : — 

1. The passive of the verb is made by changing -a into -wa. Verbs 
ending in two consecutive vowels frequently uso as their passive the 
(Missive of the applied form which ends in -liwa or -lewa. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendwuj to be loved. 

KufunguOj to unfasten. Kufunguliuja^ to be unfastened. 

Kuzaa^ to bear. KuzaHwa^ to be bom. 

Kukoniboa, to buy back. Kultombolewa^ to be bought back. 

2. Verbs ending in -a change the -a into -e in the subjunctive and 
imperative, and into -t in the negative present 

Pende^ love thou. 
Apende^ that ho may love. 
Hapendi, he does not love. 

The. change of the final vowel distinguishes hapendi, he does not 
love, from Tiapenda, a contracted form of nikapenda, and I loved. 

3. The plural of the imperative is made by adding -nt to the 

Pendant or Pendent, love ye. 
Sifuni, praise ye. 
Fihirinu consider ye. 



4. Substantives form the locative case by adding -ni, 

Nyunibani mwanguy inside my liouse. 

Nyumhani Uwangu, to or at my house. 

Nyunibani pangu, by or near my house. All from Nyurnha, 

5. -*it may stand for nini ? What ? 

Watakani f What do you want ? 

6. Jef How? is Bubjoiued to the verb expressing the action in- 
quired about 

Asemaje f How does he speak ? i.e,, What does he say ? 

7. mnOf exceedingly, always follows the word it qualifies, and may 
be treated as an enclitic. 

8. -to, whicl), however, rarely occurs in the dialect of Zanzibar, 
denotes goodness and fitness. 

KuweJca, to place. KuwekatOf to place properly. 
Manuka, smells. Manukato, scents. 

9. The relative signs and the particles denoting time and place are 
subjoined to the verb when there is no tense prefix, otherwise they ' 
follow the tense prefix. 

Tulala-po, when we sleep. 
Tuna-po-lala, while we are sleeping. 

The particles denoting time and place are, 

-jpo, when or where, 
-fco, whither or whence. 
-mOf wherein. 

These preceded only by the personal prefix imply the substantivft 
verb to he. 

Yupo^ he is there, not far off. 

ZipOj <£*c., <&c., they are there, not far off, &c., &c 
YukOt he is there, far off. 

Ziko, Ac, d-c, they are there, far off, &c., &c 
Yumo, he is there inside. 

ZimOj d'c, d'c, they are there inside, &c., &c. 

The relative signs are, -c7/o, 'la, -o, »po, -vyo, -?fo, -y«, -yo, -«o. 
These syllables with na prefixed have the moaning of and^ or trtH 
him, liefi it, or them. 


10. 11)6 possessive pronouns may be used in enclitic forms. 

Thy, or your, may be expressed by subjoining, according to the 
«lass of the substantive, -cho, -lo, -o, -p^ -vyo, -wo, 'yo, or -zo. 

His, Tiers, or its, may be expressed by subjoining -che, -e, -Z«, 'pe^ 
«ye, -we, -ye, or -ze. ^ 

Other enclitic forms of the possessive pronouns are^-^ 

'luju, or -angu, my. 'Ctu, our. 

-fco, or -€Lko, thy. -ent*, your. 

'he, or -aX;e, his, &c. -oo, their. 

The final letter of the substantive generally merges into the initial 
■of the pronoun. 

Mwanangu, my child. Mwanetu, our child. 

Mwandko, thy child. Mwanenu, your child. 

Mwanake, his child. Mwanao, their child. 

11. New verbs may always be formed when wanted by changing the 
final vowel into -ia or -ea, -lia or -lea, to make the applied form ; into 
'Za or 'Sha, 'iza or -eza, -iaha or 'csha, to make a causative form ; into 
-ana, to make a reciprocal form ; and into -ha, -iha, or -elta, to make a 
neuter or quasi-passive form. 

12. In old and poetical Swahili the object of the verb is suffixed as 
well as prefixed, as in U-ni-hi/athi-mi, Do thou preserve me ; where 
both the m and the mi denote the object of the verb. 

The syllables thus used are -chOf -lo, -ni, -nyi, -o, -po, •«, -ryo, -wCf 
-vao, -ye, -yo, -zo. 

Having cleared the word of all adventitious terminations it wil 
probably be found at once ; if not, look for the first syllable, and so 
on, taking syllable by syllable until the word, its number, person, and 
tense, will all have been explained. It must, however, be borne in 
niind that nouns in m- or to- generally drop the initial letter in the 
>pluial and frequently substitute for it n- or ny-. 

Verbs and adjectives are here indexed under the first letter of the 
6imple£>t form, or of that to which the prefixes are joined. 

Kupenda will be found as Penda hu-, to love. 
Mahaya will be found as -haya, bad. 

Worils which may be used as a<]jeetives or as substantives, but from 
'their nature can li»rdly be applied to any but animate beings, will be 
found under w- or mw-, (u* they can very rarely in the singular take 
<Luy other prefix. 


Substantives are indexed by the prefix with which they are generally 
used. It must be remembered, however, that the use of particular 
prefixes may bo nearly always varied to suit any particular shade of 
meaning, so that if the word is not to be found under one, it may 
hapj^n that its meaning can be found under some other. 

Where no plural is mentioned, it is to be understood that the plural^ 
if used at all, is in the same form as the singular. 

The following table of prefixes may be found useful. The use of 
each will be explained in the Vocabulary. 

Substantival prefixes. 


























































Verbal prefixes. 

1. Personal or subjective prefixes, which take precedence of all 



♦Mw- Si- 





N- *Tu- 





Ni. ♦Tw- 





♦Pa- «U- 




♦p. »Vi. 


1. Tense 

prefixes which precede all except the signs 

of person. 



-ku- -na- 





-li- -ngali- 





-me. -nge- 


* Theee may all be preceded by Ha^ to form negative tenses In the Indlcatlre moo^ 
takl personal prefixes followed by -si- make negative subjunctives. 


3. Particles of place, time, and relation, which follow the tense 
prefix, or, if there is no tense prefix, are subjoined to the verb. 













4 Objective prefixes, which always immediately precede the verb. 

















A suppressed 2 or r always exists between two consecutive vowels. 
It is often heard in the Merima dialect, and frequently appears where 
otherwise three or more vowels would follow one another. However, 
the more classical the Swahili, the less tolerant it is in any case of ar 
I between vowels, or even as an initial letter. 

Iceee = hdele, ete = lete, 

• The following letters are interchanged ; 

I and r, % and s^, and vulgarly hi and c7u', and th and i . 

Zanzibar ch = t (M.). 

„ e = a (M.). 

^ h = kh (Ar.). 

„ j = d (M.). y (A.) (N.). 

^ t = ch (Ozi.). 

N „ V = z (A.). 

„ z = V (Mer.), th (Patta and Ozi.), j (vulgar). 

The letters enclosed in parentheses denote the various dialects. 

(M.) = Mombas (kimvita). (Mer.) = Southern Coast dialect 

(A.) = Lamoo (kiamu). (Ar.) = Arabic. 

CN.) = Poetical Swahili (kingozi). 



The sound of a in Swaliili re- 
eembles that of a in the English 
word "father." It is, perhaps, — 
except when doubled — somewhat 
sharper and lighter. 

When the final a of any prefix — 
except the negative prefix ha — is 
brought by composition to precede 
immediately eithcT e or i, it coalesces 
with them and produces the sound 
of a long 6. 

Aka-enda is pronounced dltenda, 

Akavoa'ita is pronounced akaweta. 

A and u have a tendency to 
coalesce into an o sound. 

Arabic substantives incorporated 
into Swahili have often been made 
by changing -U in the verb into -a- 
iu the substantive. 

KubarizU to hold a public 
audience. Baraza, a public 

Kfuafirif to traveL Safari, a 

A occurs in some dialects where e 
if used in Zanzibar. See E, 

A = ya, of. 
-a with a varying initial letter, 

of. -a is used in such phrases 

as the following for in: TJnitie 

loa machOf put it in my eyes. 

Akamchoma ya kitovu, and he 

stabbed him in the navel. 
A-f the sign of the third person 
singular prefixed to verbs when 
governed by substantives whicli 
denote animate beings — he, sha 
or it. 

Where the tense prefix begins with 
a, one of the a*s disappears. 

The following are instances of the 
way in which this a occurs. 

A'penda (for a-a-penda), he loves. 

A-na-penda, he is loving. 

A-m-pendaf he has loved. 

A'li'penda (for a-ali-penda), he 

A-1ca-penda, and he loved. 

A-ta-penda, he will love. 

A'ki-penday he being in the con- 
dition of loving. 

-4-nge-penda, Yl© ^joxjXiSl Vt?^ 



\1 8C0I.L 


».•• a. 

The sound :: i _i • 
ubles that c: c .. .. 
rd «* father/' :: .. 
sept when (!:-..««.. ■ 
urper and ligjL«««r: 
When the finaC u : . 
3ept the negat^^'. ^ • 
mght byoomp'jk^». 
mediately eitiiti « 
th them wad |«mamm.;; . 
a long e. 
^Xco-emla is 

A and « ImiFi; ^ .^ 
deeoe into tb #»*•#<. _ 



•, i«» 


. {' «luWll. 

■ I'ls to put 

'!'! ill com- 

.. army officer. 

..• 11, he having 

-t fnr a child. 
, wit8, under- 
■ii'.v treated as a. 

.' .. . ^. .J' >s;m1 to young or- 
s:-ii . ^... ."<. Ahina hicana' 
Akhia hibif my 

* -^ * « 

. nil] over, to remain 

. • adjourn, put off, 
• !■! <»vi.'r. 
./ ; •-. «if thee. 
■ ••■ . \«»iir own. 
'• ••'■'.t!..n.s. 

»' « humneniy paternal 

' *' >'!•<. 

' ' '.'/ 7:uh.uif maternal 


*' • Aniliit' article the. It is 

T<'t:iifi«d in many words derived 

'.. »!n' Arabic, as Alfajiri for 

'•'/.•, till' dawn. Sometimes 

II. >« ioriii is varied, asLiwali for 

'.I '»//. the governor. 

.\a''if. jilirases the definite 

.' .'i' pr^ tixed to the second of ■ 

t-.\M iitiiuid is the sign of the 

[> .-t.-.-ivc civxv, vxa llavjlal o^ 



A-ngali-penda, he would have 

A'japo-pendaj even if he loves. 
A'Hpo-penda, he not loving. 
A-pende, let him, or that he may 

A-ri'pende^ VA him not, or that 
he may not love, or without hia 
-a-, the sign of the present in- 
definite; it follows the prefix 
denoting the person of the^ 
fiubject or nominative, and 
precedes that denoting the 
object or accusative. 
N'O-m-penda, I love him (I do 
him love). 
Aali, choice, good. 
Aailf disobedient, rebellious. 
Abadan, oiaHmdi, always, constantly. 
Abiri hu; to pass over, go across (a 
Ahiricty passengers. [river, &c.). 

AbtrUha ku-, to put across, to ferry 

Ahiidia Am-, to give worship to. 
Almdisha ku-, to cause to worship. 
Abudu hu', to worship. 
Aeha hu-, to leave, leave alone, let 

be, let go, allow, acquit, divorce. 
Achana hu-, to leave one another, to, 

^chariy pickle, a relish made of 

lemon-juice and red pepper. 
Ackia hu', to leave to or for, to be- 
queath to. 
Achilia ku; to pass over what a 
person has done, to forgive, to 
Ada, a custom, especially ACUBtomarj 

Adabu, good manners, politeness. 
Kutia adabu, to make polite, to 
teach good manners. 


Adamuy Adam. 

Mioana Adamu, or Bin Adamt^ ^ 
human being, a man. 
Adaioa, enmity. 
Adi ku-f to accompany a person pft^^ 

of his way. 
Adibu kU', to educate^ to tea^^ 

Adiliy right, right oonduet 
Adiliku-f to learn to behave rightl 
Adilisha /n*-, to teaoh to bchav 

Adui, plur. Adui or maaduf^ 
Aee, Yes. [enem; 

Afa, plur. fmia/a, an enemy. 
AfatlioUf rather, better of the two^ 

best, preferably. 
Afioj health, good health. 
AJUcana ku-, to eome to sn a] 

ment, agree. 
Afium\ opium. 
Afu, wild jasmine. 
Afu ku-, to save, to deliver, to par- 
don, to preeerve. AIm^ to ge^ 
A/ya. See AJia, health. [walL 

Afya ku', to make to swew. 
Aga ku-f to take leiLTe ot, to agrao 

Agana ku-, to take lesre of nno 

another, to make an agreement. 
Agga ku-, to be lost, to petiah. 
Agiza ku; to oomminiony dlreott 

give in charge, appoint ta 
Agizo, plur. maagixo^ oommiHbn 

Agua ku; to predict 
Agulia kn-, to predict o£ 
Ahaa! Not 
Ahadi ( vulgarly tooAoiKX a promiie, 

Ahadiana ku-^ to promise mutuallyi 

Aliili^ tobUiUy^ rolattoQii 





Aheroy in tho grave.un(ler tlie earth, 

after death, at the end of the 

v^orld. [Ar. alshr, the other.] 
Midi ku; to promise. 
Jiliedntt or Ahsantit or AiajUi, 

thanks I thank you! 
Aibika ku-, to be disgraced, to be 

put to shame. 
Aibidia ku-^ to disgrace, to put to 

Aiba, a disgrace, a reproach. 
Ainay kind. 
Aini ku-y to appoint 
Ainisha Zru-, to show, point out 
Aititodloy pronounced EHwalo, what 

he is wanted (or called) for, o- 

AJahisha Zru-, to astonish, amaze. 
AJabUy a wonderful thiug, wonder- 
AJaliy fate, death. 

KusaUmtlca ajaliy to be altogether 
oome to an end (to be saluted 
by its fate). 
AJaray merit. 
AJ{b! or *Ajab! Wonderful I Won- 

AjUi, or djili, sake, cause. 

Kwa aJUi yo, because of, for the 
sake of. 
Ajiri ku'y to hire. 
AjirUha ku-, to cause to hire, to let 

on hire. 
*AJJemiy Persian. 
Aha ku-y to build in stone, to do 

mason*s work. 
Akaliy some few, some. 

Akdli ya icatu, ya i;i7u, &c., some 
few men, things, &c. 
'■dke, or •aXrire, his, her, or its, of 
him, &c. 

"dke yeye, his own. 
Akendoy for Akaenday and be went 

Akhera = Ahera, 
Akhtilafj to quarrel. 

Atafanya akhtilaf, she will scolds 
Ahia ku-y to build for. 
Al^ia kU'y to swallow, gulp down. 
AkibOy store, a thing laid by. 
Kuweka akibay to lay up, to put 
Akiday an officer, a second in oom< 
Akida wa onkaHy an army officer. 
Akidi ku-y to suffice. 
Akiisha or Akishoy then, he having 

finished this business. 
Akika, a funeral feast for a child. 
AkiLiy intelligence, wits, under- 
standing (generally treated as a. 
plural noun). 
Akinay you — addressed to young or- 
inferior persons. Akina htoana' 
young sirs. Akina hibiy my 
young ladies. 
Akiri ku-, to stand over, to remain 

AkirUha ku-y to adjourn, put of^. 

make to stand over. 
akoy thy, your, of thee. 
'dko wetoey your own. 
AkrahOy relations. 
Akraha ya kuumeniy paternal 

Akraha ya kukeniy maternal* 
Aly the Arabic article the. It is- 
retained in many words derived 
from the Arabic, as Alf ajiri for 
Al Fajry the dawn. Sometimes 
its form is varied, as Liwali for 
Al WaJiy the governor. 
In Arabic phrases the definite 
article prefixed to the second of 
two nouns is the sign of the 
possessive case» «a Uo.\j\a\. c^ 




Ingn'z, a subject of the English, 
i.e., a British subject. 
Ala, plur. madia or nyata^ a sheath, 

a scabbard. 
'AlakOj a tusk of ivoiy. 
AlafUj thousands. 
yUama^ a mark, marks. 
Alasirij one of the Mohammedan 
hours of prayer, about half-past 

3 P.M., afternoon. 
Albunseyidi {At,), of the sons of 


Alf= Elfu, a thousand. 

Alfajiri, the dawn, the earliest Mo- 
hammedan hour of prayer, about 

4 A.M. A stress on the second 
syllable denotes very early dawn. 


Kqfia alfia, a chiefs cap. 
AlhainiMi Thursday. 
-aZi- or -li'y the sign of that past 
tenso which denotes an action 
complete in past time. 
•li or 'li' sometimes stands for 
the verb to he, as in a-li-ye, he 
who is, or merely, who. A-li, 
he is, or, he being. Niha-li, 
and I am. 
A lia ku-t to make a mark by striking, 

to wale. 
MifUf AH/, the first Arabic letter, 

the alphabet. 
AUka ku; to invite, to call, to call 
invited guests to a wedding, to 
inform, to split, to click, to give 
a crack, to snap. 
Alikwa ku-^ to go through a certain 
course of medicine, consisting 
chiefly of various fumigations and 
a very strict regimen. 
Aliki ku-, to hang. 
Aliko, where he is, or was. 
Alimisha ku-, to instruot. 

AliomOj wherein he is, or waa. 
Aliaa, a dancing place, a house of 

Alisha ku-f to cause to snap. 

KwUisha mtambo toa hunduki, tc 
click the lock of a gun. 
AUah (Ar.), God, more reverently, 

AUah ta*ala, God the moet high. 
Allah AUah, without delay or pre- 
AUah littcheir, may God make it 

good. A common answer to the 

usual morning and afternoon 

Almaria, embroidery. 
Almasi, a diamond. 
Ama — ama, either — or. 

Ama nyo f Isn't it so ? 
Amali, an act, a thing done. 
Amali, a kind of amulet. 
Amama (Ar.), a turban ? 
Amana, a pledge, a thing entrusted, 

a deposit, a present sent by another 

Amanif peace. 
Amara, urgent business. 
Amara (ya nanga), a cable. 
Amba ku-, to speak against, to talk 

scandal, to speak, to say. 
Amha, See Ambaye, 
Ambaa ku-, to go near to without 

touching, not to reach, to leave 
Amhari, ambergris. [nnhnrt 

Amhata ku-, to attach, to stick. 
Arnbatana ku-, to cleave together, 

to be mutually attached. 
Amhatiza ku-, to make to stick. 
Ambaye or Ambaye kwamba^ wbo. 
The final syllable is variable» 
making ambazo, amhayo, Ac., 
Ambaza ku-, to cause to pass near 
\ m^Aiout touching;. 




JLmhia hu-, to tell, to say to. 

Pass. KuamhivBaf to be. told, to 
have said to one. 
^mbika ku-, to put (or be put ?) 

firmly together. 
jLmhilika An^, to be spoken to. 
Ambiaana kii-, to be cemented to- 
gether, to stick together. 
JLmhiaha ku; to make to hold to- 
Jbnlma ku-, to peel, to husk, to take 

a morsel in eating. 
Amhukiza ku-,, to give a complaint 

- to, infect. 
AmdeDiany a silky kind of stuiT. 
AmerikanOt American sneeting, best 
cotton cloth used in trading in 
the interior. 
NJiaf &c., ya Amerihano^ the best 
ArniU leu-^ to manage. [way, &c. 
Amifuii Amen. 

Amini ku', to believe in, trust. 
Kuamini miu na kitUf to trust a 
man with something, to entrust 
something to some one. 
Amini, or Amini/u, trustworthy, 

Aminisha ku-<, to entrust to, have 

perfect confidence in. 
Amiri, plur. mcuimirif an emir, an 
Atnka ku-, to awake. [officer. 

Amkia ku-, to salute. 
Arnkwi ku-<, to invite, summon (?). 
Amrawi, a dipping line, made fust 

to the foremost yard-arm. 
A Ttrt, order, command. 

Amri ya MuungUf a matter in 

God's hands. 
Si'na amri, &o., I have no busi- 
ness, &0. 
Jmria ku-, to put a thing at one's 
disposal, to g^ve leave concerning 

Amriafia Au-, to cause to be ordered» 

Amru ku-, to order, command. 
Amaha ku-, to waken, cause to 

awake, rouse. 
Amu, Lamoo. 

Kiamut the dialect of Lamoo, of 
the Lamoo kind. 
Amu, father's brother. 
Amua ku'y to judge, to separate two 
people who are fighting. 

Passive, KuamuUwa, to be j adged» 
Amuka ku- = Amka ku-, 
Amuru ku- = Amru ^u-. 
Amusha ku- = Amslia ku; 
Amwa ku-, to suck (M.). 
Amwhha ku-, to suckle (M ). 
Ana, he has. 
Anakotoka, whence he is coming, 

where he comes from. 
'ananont gentle, soft. 

Upepo mwanana, a soft breeze. 

Miiji manana, clear, quiet water. 
Anapokwenda, whither he is going. 
Anapolala, while he is sleeping. 
Anasa, pleasure. 
AndoM ku', to prepare for cooking» 

to make pastry, &c. 
Andalia ku-, to prepare for, to make 

made dishes for. 
Andama ku-, to follow (1^1.). 

Mwezi umeandama, the month is 
up — the new moon has begun. 
Andamana ku-, to accompany (M.). 
Andika ku-, to put in order, to lay 

out, to describe, to write, to steer 

a vessel. 
Andtkanya ku-, to put things one 

upon another, as plates in a pile. 
Andikia ku-, to write, to lay out, 

&c., for or on account of. 
Andikiwa ku-, to be written, lai(> 

out, &c.« fox. 




Andihiana Xru-, to write to one 

another, to correspond. 
Anfu, knowing, ingenious. 
Anga, a great light, the firmament. 

Ndege za anga, birds of the air. 
Anga ku-^ to jump or dance about 

like a wizard. 
Angatka ku-, to be in a great bustle. 
Angalia hu-, to look attentively, 

regard, take notice, observe, be 

careful, beware of. 
Angama fctt-, to be caught in falling 

(as by the boughs of a tree). 
Angamia ku-, to be ruined, to fall, 
come to poverty. 

vtaangamia mwituni^ you will be 
lost in the jungle. 
Angamisha ku-, to ruin. 
Angaza 7f u-, to be light, to be bright, 
to remain awoke, to keep watch. 

Kutia mwangaza, to give light to. 
Angia ku-, to bewitch by dancing 

and jumping about. 
Angika Aru-, to hang up, to hang 

against a wall, 
•arw/tt, my, of me. 

•angu mimi^ my own. 
Angua ku-, to take down, to hatch 
Anguka ku-, to fSall down. [eggs. 
Angukia ku-, to fall down to, or 

Angtuiha ku-f to make to fall down, 

throw down. 
Ania ku-, to purpose, think of doing. 
Anika ku-, to spread out to dry. 
Ankra, a bill of sale. 
Anua ku; to take out of the sun or 

Anuka kU', to leave oflf raining. 
Anwani, the address of a letter. 
Anza ku; to begin. 

The ku- is frequently retained, as 
Alikwanza for Alianztu 

Anziliza ku-, to make a beginning. 
Anzwani, Johanna. 
Ao, or. 

Ao — ao, either— or. 
-aq, their, of them. 
Apa ku-, to swear. 
Apendalo, what he likes. 
Apif where? 

The a sometimes is so run into 

the final a of the preceding 

word as to be scarcely separable 

from it. 

Apia ku', to swear to, or about 

Apislia ku-, to make to swear, to 

Apiza ku; to swear at, to imprecate 

against, to wish bad luck to. 
Apizo, plur.imiajptzo,an imprecation. 
Arabuni, Arabia, in Arabia. 
Arahuni, earnest money. 
Arathi, pardon. 
Arha'a, four. 
*Art, a thing to make one blush a 

disgraceful thing. 
Aria, following, party, faction. 
AHaa, lower I let out the rope I 
Arifu, knowing, ingenious. 
Arifu ku-, to inform. 
Arohaini, forty. 
Arobata^kara^ fourteen. 
Asa kU', to forbid. 
Asali, syrup. 

Asalt ya nyukij honey. 

Asali ya mua, the boiled jnioe d 
the sugar>cane, treacld. 

Asali ya tembo, fresh palm wine 
boiled into a syrup. 
^Ashara, ten. 
Afhariiii, twenty. 

Abhekali, better in health dnriDg 

Kutca asliekaJd, to improvei. 

Ku/anya ashekdli^ to make belter 




Anherati, dissipation, a dissipated 

Ashiiici /ftt-, to love, to love ex- 
Ashiria ku-, to make a sign to. 
A<tJiiiry castoms duties. 
Asi hu-y to neglect one's duty to, to 
rebel, to be disobedient. 
Kuasi mJeewe, to quarrel with his 
wife, and not do his duty by 
A-stkatiy plur. ankari, or tcaaeiharh 
a soldier. 
Kutia asiJcari, to enlist. 
A-silt, origin, nature, source. 
u±8is1ia hu', to cause to leave, to 

cause to cease. 
A^ntasa, not yet. 
Assubuij in the mitning. 
Asuaa, that which assuages bitter- 
ness or pain, takes away an un- 
pleasant taste. Also Azuza, 
Ata, Atana, Atia, Atiliaj (M.) = 

Acha, Achana, &c. 
A.tamia ku-, to sit on eggs, to hatch 


,AtamUha hu-, to put under a sitting 
Afguly average. [hen. 

Athahatisha ku-, to control. 
Athamay highness. 

Mwenyi aihamoy the Most High. 
Athari = HaiharL 
Athibu ku-y to chastise, to punish. 
Athibisha ku-y to punish. 
Athima = AtJiama. 
Athimika ku-y to be exalted. 
Athini ku-y to call to public prayers. 
AtJiuuriy noon, one of the Moham- 
medan hours of prayer. 
Ati I look you I I say I 
AW)Uy a fragrant herb used in the 

composition of kikuba. 
Attiay gratuitously, for noUiing. 

Atuka ku-y to crack as the eart^i 

does in very dry weather. 
Aua ku-y to make a survey of, to go 

over and look at. 
Auka ku-y to grow large enough to 

bear fruit. 
Aunt ku-y to help. 
Avya ku'y to produce, to spend, to 

give away. 
Aioa fctt-, to go out or away (Mer.). 
Atoalay a promissory note. 
Await or Aowaliy first, almost» 

Awaza ku-y to dispose, to allot to 

each his' share. 
Awesia, a kind of dhow like a hedeni 
(which see), without any prow or 
head, with merely a perpendicular 
Awini ku", to help, to supply. 
Awithi ku'y to barter. 
Ayariy a cheat. 
AyariyO. pulley, the stay of a dhow*» 

AyaHy a sort of grass. 

Ayasi ya shdbay brass wire. 
Ayika ku-y to dissolve, to melt. 
Ayithi ku-y to preach. 
Aza ku- = Waza &«-, to ponder, 

Azamay a nose riug. 
Azimd, a charm used to bring back 
a runaway slave and to drive 
away evil spirits. 
Azima ku-, to lend. 

Azimtca ku-y to borrow. 
Azimia ku-y to make an azima 

Azimia kU'y to resolve. 
Azimu ku'y to resolve (generally 

pronounced dzimu), 
Aziziy a rarity, a curiosity. 
I Azmay scent, fumc% 




Azur, perjury. 
Azuza, See Astwi, 


B has the same Bound as Id 
N chaDges into m before &, as 
mhaya for n-bayay bad. 
mhwa for n^waf a dog or dogs. 
^w also becomes mh, 
mMngufotn'Wingu, the heavens. 
JSa^ a shortened form of hioana. 
Baa, evil 
Baat plor. maiaa, a worthless 

person, an ntter reprobate. 
liaadOf afterwards. 
Baada ya, after (used preferably 

of time). 
Baadaye, or haada yahe, after it, 
then, afterwards. 
Baathi, some. 

Baalhi ya watu, some persons. 
Baazi, a sort of pea growing on a 
small tree somewhat resembling 
Bah (Ar.), a gate, chapter. 
Bab JJlaya, goods for the Euro- 
pean market. 
Bab Kacliiy goods for the Cutch 
Bab U amaruZf something entrusted» 

lent to one. 
Baba, father. 
Baba mdogo, mother's brother. 
Baha wa hamho, stepfather. 
Baba wa waana, > «« ^ i 
Baba tea watotOy 3 
Babailca hu-, to hesitate in speaking, 
to stutter, to talk in one's sleep. 
Bahata ku-, to pat, to tap, to flatten 

Babu, gn ndfather, ancestors. | 

Babua ku-, to strip off. 

Babuka ku-, to tear, to become tor^'* 

Badala or Badalif a thing given i 
exchange for something else, a: 

Badani. See Kamu, 

Badili Aft*-, to change, exchang€^^^* 
alter, become changed. 

Badilika fcu-, to be changed, to'b^^ ^^ 

Badx>y not yet, used generany tcc^-^ -^ 
express that the matter in que» — ^^" 
tion is as yet incomplete. 
Bado kidogOj soon. 

BafCf a kind of snake. 

Bafta, a sort of fine calico. 

Bagala or Bdgala^ a buggalo, a 
largo kind of dhow square in the 
stem, with a high poop and a 
very long prow. Most of tlie 
Indian trading dhows are of this 
build ; they havp generally a 
small mizen-most. 

Bdghalaf a mule. 

Bagua ku', to separate. 

Baguka ku-, to be separate. 

Bagukana JScti-, to be in hostility» to 
be on two sides. 

Bahari, sea. 
Bdhari iValiy the Persian Gnlt 
Bahari ya Sham, the Bed Sea. 

Baharia, a sailor, sailors, the crew. 

Bdhasha, a square bag or pooke'^ 
with a three-cornered flap to ti 
over the opening, fireqoentl 
used to keep books in. 

BdhatiotBdkhti, luck, good Ibrtmie. 
Bakhti miu, that depends on the 

Bahatisha ku-^ to guess. [person. 
Baini, &o. See Bayini^ &o. 

Baini ya, between. 
Bajiay small cakes of gromid bsov 
and pepper. 




Bajuni = Mgunya, 

Bakaha, to dispute, to argue. 

Bakhili^ a miser, covetous, miserly. 

BdlMi, See Bdhati, 

BaJety the remainder, what is left. 

Bdki (in arithmetic), subtraction. 

Bdki hu-, to remain, to be over, to 
be left. 

Bakora, a walking stick with the 
top bent at right angles to the 
stem. The best are made of a 
white, straight-gi-ained wood 
(mtobwe), which will bend nearly 
double like a piece of lead without 
breaking or returning. 

Bahsha, a packet, of clothes, &o. 

Baktdif plur. mdbaktdij a basin. 

Bakvoia &tt-,tosnatchoutof the hand. 

Baloa, sorrow. 

Balamwexij moonlight, moonshine. 

Balauga, leprosy.* « 

Balasi, a large kind of water jar. 

Bali, but 

Bdlighif a boy who is a virgin , a youth. 

Balungif plur. mahalungt, a citron. 

j&am&o, p^ur. mahamba, a plate, a 
flat thin piece. 

SambOf an instrument like a cheese- 
taster thrust into a bag to draw 
out some of its contents for ex- 
Mdbambo, large mats for beating 
out mtama upon. 

£amvua, spring-tides. 

Mana ^u-, to squeeze, press as in a 

Canada, the Somauli coast. 

JianaiiH or Bancufiri, a kind of 
bracelet ornamented with points 
or blunt spikes, much worn in 

JSanda, plur. mahandatO. large shed. 
Banda lafrasif a stable. 

Bandarif a harbour. 

Bandera, a flag, red stuff the colour 

of the Arab flag. 
Bandiy a seam. 
Kupiga bandi (in sewing), to 
tack, to run, to baste. 

Mtoto toa bandia, a doll. 
Bandika hu-, to put on a plaster or 

any medicament. 
Bandua ^ti-, to strip off, to peel off. 
Bandulta ku-f to peel off, to come 

out of its shell, to be peeled. 
Bangif bhang, Indian hemp. 
Banika ku-, to roast on a spit over • 

the lire. 
Baniya, a temple, a buildins:, 

especially that at Mecca. 
Banja ku-, to crack nuts, &o., to 
break off the shell or. husk by 
Banyani, plur. mahanyani, used in 
Zanzibar as a general name for 
the heathen Indians who come 
as traders from Cutch. 
Kujibanza, to squeeze oneself 
against a wall or into a hedge 
to allow some one else to pass. 
Banzi, plur. mabanzi, a small thin 

piece of wood, a splint 
Bao, the tiller of a small craft (A.). 
BaOf a game in card-playing. 
Maba^ sita = Mvumo, 
Kutia baOf to mark, in card-play- 
Bao or Bao la komwe, a board with 
thirty-two small holes, each 
about the size of a teacup, for 
. playing a very favourite game 
also called hao, with kmrnbe^ or 
with pebbles. The holes ore 
sometimes mviiel'j «ssio^^^ wj*. 




in the ground, mid any small 
things used to pltiy with. 
Kucheza haoj to play at the above 
BapcL, the flat of a sword, &e. 
Kupiga hapa, to strike with the 
flat of a sword. 
Bara, a species of antelope (Helgo- 

bagus arundinaceus). 
Bara or Barra^ wild country, coast. 
The Arabic name, Z^njibarr, is 
compounded of this word and 
ZenJ or ZtmJ^ a negro : hence the 
Zanguebar and Zanzibar of our 
maps mean only the negro 
coast The Swahili name for 
Zanzibar is invariably Unguja. 
Barr JVim, the piece of Persian 

coast belonging to Oman. 
Barr Stcdhil, the Swahili coast. 
Barahtty proper, just, exactly. 
Baraharttf a broad open road. 
Bara/Uy ice. 

Baragumo, a spiral horn used as a 
musical instrument ; it is blown 
through a hole at the small end. 
Barai, an after brace carried on the 
Ice side to steady the yard of a 
Baralca^ a blessing. Also common 

as a proper name. 
Barahoa, a mask reaching down to 
the mouth, universally worn by 
the women of .Oman and Zan- 
zibar of the upper class. 
Bara si, a digeose. 
Barathtdi, an idiot, dupe, simpleton. 

Also harazulu 
Barawaiy a swallow. 
Barazn, a stone seat or bench tabic, 
either outside tho house or in 
the hall, or both, where the 
auuter iite in public and receives 


his friends ; hence the durbar, or 

public audience held by the 

sultan, and the ooandl then held. 
Baridi, cold, wind. 

Maji ya haridi, fresh water. 
Baridiyabis, rheumatism. 
Bariki hu-^ to bless. 

N.B.— Young people are said in 
Zanzibar to bariici, whqn they 
first have connecticn with the 
opposite SOX. Girlsare thought 
old enough between nine and 
BaHJcia leu-, to give a blessing to» 

to greet 
Bariyo (A.), what is left from the 

evening meal to be eaten in the 

Barizi leu-, to sit in harazcij to hoUd 

a public reception. 
*Barra, See Bara, 
Barua or Bdrua^ a summons from a 

judge, a bill, a letter. 
Bariiti, gunpowder. 
Barziiliy a fool. 
Banhasit mace, the inner hnsk of 

the nutmeg. 
Bashire liheri! may it be lucky t 
Bashiri ku-, to prognosticate, to 

foretell by signs. 
Ba»hi8hi or BaJchihiahi, a gift, a 

Basiri ku-y to foresee. 
Baas or Bassif enough, it will da 

When it begins a sentence it 

means — well, and so, and then. 

When it follows a word or phrase 

it means — just this and no man, 
Bastolay a pistol. 
Bata, plur. mahaiOy a duck. 

Bata la hukini, a goose. 
Bata la mzinga, a turkey. 
OaCela, the common dhow of Zsn* 




iflwr: it ha'i a sqnaie stem and 
an anlinary boot-like head. 

£a/t, tin. Mock tin. 

BatiL SeeBetilu 

BatUi im-y to. annn], fo aMith, to 
reduce to nothing. 

iBcdli, the k)g (nautical). 

JSatobatOf plnr. ma*^ TarionB eolours 
and marks on an animaL 

Bau^ a M:izard*0 fortune-telling 
Kupiga hau, to divine. 

Baura, a European anchor. 

Bavuni, alongside, at tUe side. 

Bawa, plur. mahatca^ the wing of a 
bird. Also, the scales of a fish. 

BawabOf a hinge. 

Bawahu, ahouae-porter, door-keeper. 

Bawanr, hflomorrhoids. 

-^MffQy bad. It makes mbaya with 
nouns like nyumba, 

Bayini /rti-, to recognize, to knowv 

Bayinika l(u-, to be notorious, to be 
well known. 

Bayinisha Tcu-, to distinguiBh be- 
tween, separate distinctly. 

Bazazi, a trader, especially a cheat- 
ing, over-sharp trader, a huck- 
•Bfha Am-, to carry (a child) on the 
back in a cloth. 

Bebera, a he-goat given to covering, 
strong, manly. 

Bedari, the fixed low«r pulley for 
hoisting a dhow sail and yard, 
bitts to which and through which 
the Jirari are passed and secured. 

Bedeni, a kind of dhow with a per- 
pendicular cutwater, or merely a 
piece of board by way of prow, a 
sharp steni,and high rudder head. 
The mast of a hedeni is per- 
•pcndicular; in other dbows it 

bends forward. They come (:om 
tho Arab coast. 

Bee^ a bargain, a trade, trfinsaotiou. 

Beekf for LAeka. 

Bega^ plur. mabegu^ the shoulder. 

Bekewa^ihe inner court in a stone 
house. All large liouses in ^nzi- 
bar fire built round an inner 

Beina^ between. 

Beinayakonini f what do you know 
about it? Comparo Bayini, 

Behua A;u-, to parry, to knock off a 

Belgliamut phlegm. 

Bembe^ food and confectionery 
cooked by a woman for her lover, 
and sent to him during the 

Bernbeleza /£«-, to beg. 

Benibesha ku-f to swing. 

Bembeza ku- \ to beg, to caress, to 

Bernbeleza ku^ ] pat. 

Benua ku-, to put forward, to stirk 
Kuhenua kidari, to walk with the 
chest thrown forward. 

Benuha ku', to warp. 
Kuhenuka kikokwa kilcOj to warp 
and twist this way. and that. 

Besa, vulgar Arabic for pesa. Bet- 
teen s= Beta mkili, 

Beteroj canopy of a bedstead. 

Betela = Batka* 

Betty a pouch for shot or cartridges. 

Beti (Ar.), a house, a line in vertfos. 

Betili or Batd, a dhow witli a very 
long prow, and a sharp stern 
with a high rudder head. Tlicy 
generally belong to the Sheuiali, 
or Persian Gulf Arabs. 

Beyana, legible, clear. 





Kula bia, to Bul)6oribe to a meal 
in common, to go shares in a 

Biasharay trade, commerce. 
Kvfanya biashara, to trade. 
Mfanyi biasJiarat a trader, a mer- 
chant. . 

Bibit grandmother. It is used as a 
title answering to my lady, and 
for the mistress of slaves. 

BibOf plur. mabibo, a cashew apple. 

'bichi, fresh, green, unripe, raw, 
under-done. It makes mbichi 
with nouns like myurnba, 

Bidii, effort to surpass, emulation. 

Bihira, a virgin. 

BihiH Itu-t to deflower. 

BilasMy gratis, for nothing. 

Bilauri, a drinking glass. 

Bildi, the lead (nautical). 

Bilisi = Iblify the devil. . 

BiUa, except by. 

Btlula, a tap. 

Bima, insurance. 

Bima hu-, to insure against acci- 

Binadamu, a human being (a son 
of Adam). 

BindOt the loin-cloth held up to 
receive or carry things, a bundle 
in a cloth. 
Kuhinga bindo, to hold up the 
loin-cloth to receive things. 

Bingwa, shrewd, knowing. 

Binti, daughter. Womeu in Zan- 
zibar are generally mentioned by 
their father's name only, as, Binti 
Mohammedf Mohammed's daugh- 

Birikatplvi. 9na5tn7ra,a large vessel 
for holding water, a cistern. 

Birimi, a dish composed of meat, 
rice, pepper, &o. 

Bislia hUt to knock or cry JJadi! at 
a door to attract the attention off 
the people within. It is hel^ 
very wrong to go beyond the 
entrance hall of a house unles» 
invited in. 

Bisha ku'f to work in sailing. Also, 
to make boards. 

Bisharta ftt«-, to squabble, to quarreL 

Bishara, a sign, a good sign. 

BishOt tacking, working to the wind- 
Upepo wa bisho, a foul wind. 

Bisif parched Indian corn. 

Bitana, lined, double, used of clothe» 
wherever there are two thick- 

Bithaaj goods, merchandise. 

•bivu or 'WiFUj ripe, well done. It 
makes mbivu with nouns lik«f 

Biwif plur. mabiwi^ heaps of garden 
rubbish, leaves, wood, &o. 

Bizari, a small seed used in making 

Bize, a wild hunting dog. 

Bizimay a buckle. 

'bofu or -oru, rotten, bad, malieioii& 

Boga, plur. mahoga, a pumpkin. 
Boga is used as a general woid 
for edible vegetables. 

Bogi = Pombe, 

Bogoa ku-, to strip off leaves, to tear 
apart, to chop away wood in 
making a point? 

Bohari or Bokhari^ a storehouse, a 
house with a shop and worerooms. 

Boko, a buffalo (?). 

Bokoboko, a kind of food mode of 
wheat, meat, &o. 

Bokwa, jack fruit [Tumbatu]. 

Boma, plur. maboTtui, a heap of 
stones, a rampart 




Bonboj a pompi. 
JSombortMnofco, pluT. 


Bomoa ku-^ to make a hole through, 

to break down. 
Bomoka In»-, to have a hole broken 

throngh it, to be broken down. 
BongOf plor. mdbongo, brains, mar- 
£oniK a bridge, a pier. From the 

French poni, 
£onyea &«-, to give way, to orush 

^onyesha kw, to press so as to sink 

in, to make an impression with 

the fingers. 
^onyeza ku-, to examine by feeling 

and pressing. 8ee Tomofa, 
JBoonde^ a vaUey, a hoUuw place. 
.Boraf great, very great, noble, best, 

^Bari, the bowl of a native pipe. 
Boriii, a rafter, thick poles cut in 

the mangrove swamps and laid 

flat to support the stone roofs. 
JBorohoaf a dish made of pounded 

pulse with flavourings. 
Boromoka ku-, to fall down a preci- 
Boromcka, plur. ma-, precipices, pre- 
clpitous places. Also homboro- 
moka, plur. nui-, 
Maromgdbonmga ku-,io make a mess 

of one** work. 
.Boroihoa, a long-ehnped blaek in* 

■eet f<iiiud in dunghills. 
.Borm^ja km-^ tostir, tocot up weic^hi. 
•xftom «r -orv, rotten, bad. 
Zkca^ ft nareoiie made by mixiug 

bfaang viilk ibmi and b<ney, 
ArsOrtci. idle, dnlL 

, am a^wat (workia^ ik* two 

Bmo, plur. iii<i6iia^ the stem of mUU u 
Bh^o, rupia,appUed Io various «kin 

Bm6ic, (A.), a teat 
Btifric, plur. «106116«, dumb. 
Bii6H/iilMi ku*t to bubble out, buiMt 

Kub%U^ika moe^i, to bunt (uto 
Btt6ttf (M.), dumb. • 
Bttddi, escapis other ooursc 

Sina huddif I have no osonpe, ie.^ 
I must. 
Bueta^ a box. AUo hioeta» (From 

the French, /x/i/s.) 
Buga^ a hare (?). 
Bughuthu /tu-, to hate. 
Buhurif income. 
Buihuif a ipidor. 
Buhi or BMnit MadA^jascnr. 
Buhi^ a kidney. 
Bukut a very large kind of rat. 
BuU, plur. mahuli, a tefl|K)t. 
Bumhuazit perplexity, idinloy. 

Kupigwa na bumhwixi^ to bewMiic^ 

confused and abosh^fl, so ai not 

to be able to go on with tmu*» 


Bumbufiffice flour pounded up with 

scraped cocoa-nut. 
Bwmia, stempost 
Bumuwla^plur, mahtitmmdaf a mtrt 

of soft cake or dumpling. 
Bundi, a native bird« »n //wL OwU 

are thought very unlticky* 
Bunduki^ a gun, a musket 
Buiu/alcL, a kind (ft riee, 
. Bmmf^i pUtr, maUttm^^ a Vf dmI *d 

fruit miat^An% lik« a ttMUa, 
' Bumfu, phir. «ui2«f>^« a d^A^i^ 
' Bm^^ Vt hmpm^A njl^ a wMft«f U^ 
. e«>ol pm*il hi. 



J^uiU, an ostrich. 

Bunif (Ar.), sons, the sons of. 

Bunt ku'f to begin, to be the first to 

do a thing, to iuvent. 
BunJUf a poisonous fish. 
Bunzif plur. mcibunzi, a stinging 

Buothu hiA-, to Iiate. 
Bupuru, plnr. mahupuru, an empty 

Bupuru la Tcitwa, a skulL 
Burangeniy of two colours, neither 

black nor white ; also painted of 

<lifrerent colours, as a dhow with 

a white stripe. 
Baratangif a whirring kite. 

MarasM ya Burdu, eau-de- 
Buri, large-sized tusks of ivory. 
Burianif a final furewell, asking 
a general forgiveness. 

Kutaltana buriani, to osk mutual 
pardon and so take a last fare- 
Burikcu), Port Durnford. 
Burre, for nothing, gratis, in vain, 

for no good. 
Buruda, a book of the prayers used 

over a dying person. 
Burudika hu', to be refreshed. 
BurudUha hu-, to cool, to refresh. 
Burttga hu', to mix up, to knock 

Buruhanij token, evidence. 
Burujif battlements. 
Burura Im-, to drag, to haul along. 
Busani, prudence, subtlety, astute- 
Bmcttit a kind of matting made at 

Bufltaifhif a thin sort of stufil 
JJuahUf tow, a gun-wad« 

Bushuti, woollen stuff, blanket» 
Bustani, a garden. 
Bmu, a kiss. 

BU8U hU', to klBB, 

Buu, plur. mahuu, maggots in meet 

BuyUj plur. mahuyu,h calabash, the 
fruit of the baobab tree, used' 
to draw water with. 
Buzi, plur. mabuzii a Tery large- 

goat. •'• ' ■ 

Bicaga Aju-, to throw' down what 
one has been carrying; to tlp' 
off one's head, &e.; iorest by- 
throwing down one's burden. 
Kvbwaga nazi^ to throw do?nv 
Bvoana^ master of slaves, master of 
the house,lord, sir, used politely 
in speaking of one*fl own father. 
Buoana mdogo, master's son. 
Bwanda = Qwanda, 
BeaU ya hvjara, c dollar under 
full weight, a'5-!jano pieoA. 
Bweta. See Bueta. 


C is required only in writing the 
sound of the English ch or of tho 
Italian o before i and 0. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar ok 
frequently stands for the t of mora- 
northern Swahili, as— 

Chupa, a bottle (Zanzibar) s 
Tupa (Mombas). 

KuchehOy to laugh (Zant.)s 
Kuteka (Momb.). 

Chi, in the vulgar dialect, and 
amongst the slaves in Zanzibar» 
stands for ki in the more coneot 
language, hcvcml of tho tribea 1» 



the intertof fallow the same rtile as 
the Italian iii always pronouncing 
the saji^e root letter en before i aud 
e, and k before a aud o. 

Thus sl^veei oommonly say, Ckitu 
ehidcgOfA little thing, for KitwJci- 
dogo, . 

As a jplevin all Swahili where 
the preformative ki has to be pre- 
fixed to aB adjective or pronoun or 
tense prefix beginning with a vowel, 
it becomes e/«, thus — 

Kiiu c&an0if) my knife, not Kisu 

Kuu ehakatc^ the knife cuts, not 
Kiiu kiakcUa. 

Kitu ehema eho chote, every good 
thing whatsoever, not Kitu 
kiema kio kiote. 

Where eh represents An, as the 
initial sound of a sub&taiitive,.the 
plural is made by changing ch into 

Cftomfto, a vessel, Fyom&o, vessels. 

But where ch stands for <, the 
plnral is mode by prefixing mo. 

Maehupa, bottles. 
' Machungwaj oranges. 

The Arabs confound in their 
pronunciation c/» with «ft, though 
the sounds are in Swahili perfectly 

It would perhaps be an improve- 
ment to write ull ch^a which repre- 
sent ki by a simple c, which has 
been usedfor this sound in Sechuana, 
and to write all ch*a which repre- 
sent t by iy, which has been used 
for this sound in writing Zulu. But 
both are here represented by ehf 
because at least in the infancy of 
our studies it is puzzling to have 
two signs for one sound, and neither 

way of writing might be quite satis- 
factory in all. cases. 

There is little doubt that the 
northern t becomes ch by the addi- 
tion of a 2f sound, as the same sort 
of change takes place with d, which 
becomes di/ or J, and sometimes 
with n, making it nij or the Spanish 
ii. The some sort of change in 
Englitth vulgarizes nature into 
nachuff and Indian into Injun, 

Ch- = ki', which see. 
Ch', a prefix required by sub- 
stantives beginning with ki- or 
eh' representing 7«-, in all pro- 
nouns and adjectives beginning 
with a vowel, and in tenses of 
the verb where the tense prefix 
begins with a vowel. 
Many quasi-sub&tantives may be 
mode by prefixing cJia to a 
verb, kitu being understood, as 
chaku^a (a, thing), of eating, 
Cha or Chay*\ tea. 
Cha kii; to fear [A.] (the ku* bears 
the accent, and is retained in the 
usual tenses). 
Cha ktl; to dawn, to rise [< »f the sua] 
the ku" bean the accent, and 
is retained in the usual tenses. 
Kumekucha, the dawn (it has 

Kunakucha, the dawning.. 
UHku kucha, all night till dawn, 
all night long. See Chvca, 
Chaanzu, the beginning of a piece 

Chacha ku-^ to ferment, leaven, 

Cliachaga /cu-, to Y^a^li tVjVW-* Nj-^ 


-C li A 


dabbing them gently on a stone 

or board, not to beat them so hard 

as is implied in the more common 

word hufua. 
•^hachey few, liltle, not many or 

much. It makes chdohe with 

nonns like myumha, 
Chaehia leu-, to come with a press, 

to come much at once, to burst 

upon one. 
Cliachuy bran, leaven, ferment. 
Chafl, a kind of fish. 

Chafi cha mguu, calf of the leg = 
CliafUf plor. n/idchafu, the cheek, 

especially that part which is over 

the teeth. 
Chafua hu-t to put in disorder, 

Chafuka A;u-, to be in disorder, in 

ilfo^^o umechafuka, (I) feel sick. 
Cliafukachafuka Zru-, to be all in a 

mess, to be all tumbled about 

and in confusion. 
ChafuOj a poisonous horse-fly. 
Chafya ku-, or kupiga chafija, or 

hweiida chafya^ to sneeze. 
Chagaa = Tagaa. 
Chago, land crabs. 
Cliago, the place where the liead is 

laid (on a kitanda, etc.). 
Chagtia, ku-, to pick out, select, 

Chai, or Chayiy tea. 
Chakaa ku-^ to become worn out, 

to become good for nothing 

through age or use. 
Cliake, or cltakioe^ his, her, its. See 

CJiah\ clmlk, whitening, putty. 
Chal'o, thy. See -ako. 

Chakogea = IKOu] eha ku-ogea, a 

thing to bftthe in» a bath. 
Ckdkula, something to oat, food, a 

Chakula cha wbui^ breakfast. 

Chakula cha mchana, dinner. 

Chakula chajioni^ supper, whioh 
is the chief meal of the day. 

Plur. vyakvla^ viotoalt. 
Chahj a cut or gash made for oma 

C?iali, backward, on his back. 
Chama, a club^ guild, band ofc 

Waana chamaj members of it. 
CJiamba ehajicho^ a white film ovec< 

the eye. 
Chamho, plur. vyatnboy a bait. 
Chamhiui ku-^ to dress, dean, picli^ 

over, as to pluck off the onteKtf 

leaves of vegetables when lendins 

them to market, to piok th9i 

sticks and dirt out of cotton, 

pick cloves off their 

Chamhttlia ku-j to dean np, to 

up work or things. 
Chamhuro, a plato for wire diawiag.; 

Pepo za chamcliela^ a whirl wimL «- 
Cha*m8ha kanwa (something 

wake the mouthy somethiD^ 

eaten first thing in the moiniiig. 
Ghana = Tana. 
Ghana ku-^ to comb. 
GJianday plur. vyanda (M.), a finger.'^ 

a toe. 
Ghandalua, an awning, a mosqnitc^ 

-changay young, immature. 
Ghanga ku-^ to sift away chaff a 

Kula ktca kuchanga^ i 




tf S' 






e each contributes some- 

l to the entertainment. 

ka hu', to be genial, to be 

and pleasant. 

uha %u-, to cheer up. 

m kth, to mix. 

\iha ku', to be mixed. 

'Uha ku-y to perplex. 

tot, girt,little white stones 

»e in coarse sand. 

lur. vyangOj a peg to hang 


small intestines, round 

. kind of fish. 

. tribal mark (?). 

ay. See -angti, 

Tanif on the back, Jxiok- 

(-, to comb for, Ac, 

itiy green. 

1-, to cut up [firewood, &c.]. 

J"*', nduiy to be cut for 

3Z, «0 be vaccinated. 

iir. vyano, a large wooden 

a mortar-board. 

I't to put forth leaves. 

ir. See ^ao, 

Lur. machapaf a stamp, 

I, printed. [type, 

dtapay to print. 

;u-, to beat, to stamp. 

iapa, wet through, all 


hat. From the French 


' Chaprara, excessively, 
sort of small drum, 
ython, a crocodile (?). 
ir. vijavu, a net. 
hy, unwashed, 

Chaza, an oyster. 

Chazo, a sucker fish. 

Chechef a small box (such as a 

C%ec7ie,abrownmangou8te. Also = 

Oieche^ a spark. 
Chechea ku-^ to walk lame. 
Chechele, an absent person, one who 

goes far beyond where he in- 
tended to stop through inattention . 
Chechemea ku', to be lame. Algo, 

to reach up, stretch up to. 
Chechiy plur. rncui/iechi, a spark. 
Chegua ku-, to choose. 
Cheka ku-^ to laugh, to laugh at. 
ChekeUa ku-, to laugh at, because of. 
ChekOf plur. macheko, a laugh, a 

loud laugh. 
Chelea ku-^ to fear for, about, &o. 
Chelema, watery. 

CheJewa ku, to be overtaken *by 
something through thought- 
lessness, to wake up and find 
it broad daylight, to be struck 
foolish, to be dumbfounded. 
Also, to be too late. 

SikuJcawia wala Hkuohelewa^ I 

did not delay, and I was not late. 

Clieleza ku-, to keep, to put on one 

side, to put off. 
Chelezea 7fu-, to keep or put aside 
Chdezo = CliUezo, [for. 

Chembe, a grain, grains. 
Chembe,]}\vLT, vyemhe (N.), an arrow, 

the head of an arrow or a harpoon. 
Ckemhe clia moyo (A.), the pit of 

the stomach. 
Chemheu, a chisel. 
Chemchem, a spring of water. 
Che*mka ku-, to boil, to bubble up. 
ChenezOy plur. vyenezo, a measuriu*^ 

rod, line, &c. 


Cll E 


Cfienga hu-, to cleave, to cut wood, 

to prune. 
Ckenge cJiengey email broken bits. 
Chenja = Chenza, 
CJhenu, your. See -enu. 
Chenyi^ having, with. See -enyi, 
Chenza, a large kind of mandarin 

CJiema za ktajjemi, Persian, {.0., 
good chenzos. 
Cheo, plur. vijeo, measurement» 

measure, length, breadth, &c., 

position in the world, station. 
ChepechepCf wet, soaked witji rain, 

CJiepuka hu' = Chipuka, 
Clteraici, a well-known mangrove 

swamp in the island of Zanzibar. 
Ckeree, a grindstone. 
Ckerevu, cunning, subtlety. 
CJi^rkhana, machine. 

Cherkhana cha kutihona, a sewing 
Cheruiea, measles. [machine. 

ChetezOf plur. vyetezo, a censer, a 

pot to fume incense in. 
dieiif plur. vyeti, a pass, a passport. 
Cftetu, our. See -etu, 
CJiewa, a kind of fish. 
Cheza 7;m-, to play, to dance. 

Kuclieza gvcaridi^ to be drilled 
in European fashion. 

Kucheza komari, to play for 
CIteza, a kind of oyster. [money. 
Cheza /.-M-, to play with. 

Kuchtzea vnijagOf to deflower a 
virgin (?). 
ad = A7-. 
Cliicha, the scraped cocoa* nut iftfler 

the oil has been squeezed out. 

It is sonielimes used to rub on 

the hands to clean them of ;rrime, 

but U genemlly thrown uwuy as 

Clhiehiri, a bribe. 
Chikapo = KiJcapu, a bafiket. 
Chikichi, plur. machikichi, the fmiir 
of the palm-oil tree. 

KifhiJcichi, plur. vidtikidii^ tb6* 
small nuts eontaincd ia th*- 
firuit of the palm-oil tree. 
Chilezo, plur. tH^MO, a buoy. 
Cfiiniba ku-^ to dig (M. timba), 
Chimhia Am-, to dig- for (M. titMot). 
Chimbia kt^ = Kimbimku^^ toni» 

Chimhua Aru-, to dig out or away. 
CJiimbukOf origin, first beginning:. 

Chiniy down, bottom, below. 

Yuko ehinif he is tlown stairiL 

Chini yOy under, below. 
Cliinja ku-y to cut, to Blaa^hter 

animals by cutting the throaty 

which is the only manner allowed 

by the Mohammedan law, hence- 

generally to kill for food (fL 

Cliinki, a small yellow bird kepi in 

Chinusi, a kind of water sprite,,' 

which is said to seizo mon when 

swimming, and hold thom im- 

der water till they are dead, (Jfy 

ChinyangOf a lump of meat. 
Chipuka, &c. = ChupuJeat fte. 
Chipukizi, a shoot, a young plant 
See TepukuzL 

Chipukizi ndio mli, ohildren Willi 
be men in time. 
ChirUH, a Email yellow bird ofleii 

kept in cages. 
CInrOt cfiironi = Clioo, ekoomi, 
Chiroho = Chooko, a kind of pnlaa. 
CliHi = Cheiu a note of hand, a rut» 

o![ u.iL^' kind. 




€ho, -eho^ -e/to-, which. 
Che diote, whatsoever. 

«'*J^, Ting./tirm. 

Choeha kU't to poke cut from, out 
uf a hole. 

Ohookea hu; to make up a fire, to 
turn up a lamp. 

ChaeheUzca ku-, to stir up and in- 
crease disoord, to add fuel to the 

Cbofya ku-. See Chovya. 
CMta Jm-y to become tired. 

NimecJioka, I am tired. 
iJhokaa^ lime. 

^SkokeOf a etye in the eye, hordeolum. 
Chokoa ku't to clear out, to free 

from dirt, enlarge asmull hole. 
4}hokochohOi a kind of fruit with a 

red prickly rind, white pulp, and 

a larjere kemeL 
Chohora hi-, to pick (with a knife, 

€Aokor€t, plur. maehokora, a hanger- 
on, a follower, a dependant. 

^Hkokaza /»»-, to teaze,.to irritate. 

C%o2e, a place on the island of Zan- 
zibar famous for coooa-nuts ; also, 
the chief town of Monfia. 

Chama Jbv-, to stab, to stick, to 
prick, to dazzle. Vulgarly in 
Zanzibar — ^to use fire to in any 
way», to bum, to roast, to parch, 
to fire, to apply cautery, to bake 

OAoth&o, plur. vponibOf a vessel, a 
pot, a dhow. 
Vyombo is used for household 
ntensilsj things used in a 
house, goods. 

tyhomea ku-. See Choma hu-, 

Cbomeka ku-, to bo stuck into, to be 
aet on fire. 

CSu/melea ha-, to take out a bad 

piece of cloth, thatch, &^c., and 

put in a new one. 
Chomoza ku-, to be hot 
Chonga ku-, to cut, to adze, to hollow 
out, to cut to a point. 

Ktichongakalamuyto make a pen. 
Chonge, canine teeth, cuspids. 
Chongea ku-, to cut for, or with. 
Chongea ku-, to da a mischief .tp, t» 

get (a person) into trouble, t«> 

inform against 
Chofigeleza ku-, to carry tales, to 

ChongQ, loss of an ^ye. 

Kuwa na chongo, to have lost ai> 

Mvoenyi chongo, a one-eyed perton.. 
Chongoka ku-, to be precipitous. 
Choo, plur. vyoo, a privy, the butho 

room, which always contains one;. 
ChookOf a small kind of pea, veryr 

much resembling the seeds of 

the everlasting pea of £ngli:<h. 

Chopa, plur. machopa, such a quan- 
tity as can be carried in the two- 

Kwenda chopi, to walk lame in* 
such a manner as that the lame 
side is raised at every step. 
Cliopoa ku'f to drag out of one*» 

Chopoka ku', to slip out of the hand. 
Chora ku-, to carve, to adorn witlk 

carving, to draw on a wall. 
Chorochoro, scratches, marks. 
Choropoka ku; to slip out of one'd' 

Chooeka ikts-» to put into water, Uy- 

CJiovya ku'y \^ dip, to gild. 
Chosha ku'f to tire, Vo u^Ve Vvt^A... 




Cho»! = Kiiioze, 

Chota hu-f to make up a little at a 

Chote, all. See -ote, [time. 

Chovu, weary, tired. 

€Jwyo, greediness, avarice. 

Mwenyi ehoyOf a miser. 
•Chozi, plur. machozi, a tear, a tear- 
ijhvbl shtt non«eii8et 
•Clivbua ku-f to take the skin off, to 

•Chvhuaehuhua hu-^ to bruise about, 

to batter. 
CJivbuka ku-y to be raw, to be 

'Chubim, a plummet. 
"Chuchu ya ziwOj a teat. 
Chuchumia ku-, to stretch up to 

reach something. 
'CJiuL a leopard, leopards. 
€huja ku'f to strain. 
Chujuka ku-j to have the colour 

wrashed out. 
<!hukt, the being easily disgusted 
or offended. 

Ana chuki huyu, he is easily put 
*C1iukia ku; to be disgusted at, to 

abhor, to hate, not to bear. 
Chukiwa ku-t to be offended. 
•Chukiza ku; to disgust, to offend. 
ChukiztBha ku-, to make to offend. 
ChukUf a cupping horn. 
Cliukua ku', to carry, to carry 
off, to bear, to support, to sus- 

Kuchukua mimba, to be pregnant. 
Chuktdia ku-, to carry for a person. 

Pass, kuchukuliwa, to be carried 
for, to have carried for one, to 
be borne, to drifb. 
ChuUulia^a ku-, to bear with one 


Cliukuza ku', to make, to carry, 

Chtda or ChurOy plur. vytila, a frog^ 
Chuma, plur. vyumay iron, a 

of iron. 
Chuma ku-, to pluck, to gather, 

make profit 
Chumba, plur. vyumha, a room. 
Chumvty salt. 

Chumvi ya haluliy sulphate 
Chuna ku, to flay. [magnesia^ 

Chunga ku-^ to pasture, to tend^ 

Chunga ku-, to sift. 
Chungu, plur. vyungu, «n eartherk. 

cooking pot. 
CJmngu, ante. 
CfiungUy a heap. 

Chungu ehungu, in heaps. 
'Chungu, bitter (ucHiungUf fh» 

quality of bitterness). 
CJiungulia kit-, to peep. 
ChunguHiy plur. macHtungwa, «a 

Cliungwa la Mzungu^ a sweet 


CJtuntka ku-y to lose the skin, to be 

Chunjua, a wart [flayed. 

Chunuka ku-^ to love exceedingly, to 

long for. 
Chunuzi = Chinun, 
Chunyuj an incrustation of salt, sf 

upon a person after bathing In 

salt water. 
ChuOy plur. vyiw, a book. 

Chuoni, school. 

Mwana wa- chuoni^ a scholar, 
learned man. 
Chupa, plur. machupOy a bottle. 
Chupia ku; to dash. 
Chupuka kU' or Chiptika Xm-, to 

sprout, become sprouted, to shoot» 

to spring. 




Chupuza hu'f or Chtpuza Jcu-^ to 
sprout, to throw oat sprouts, to 
shoot, to spring. 
Churukiza hu-, to drain out. 
Chururika ku- = ChuruzHtd hu; 
Ckuratoay measles. 
Chunusa An»-, to keep a stall, to 

trade in a small way. 
Ckuruzika ku-, to run down with. 
Kuchuruzika damUf to bleed 
ChussOf plur. vyussa, a harpoon. 
Chuuza = Churuza. 
Ckwa kU-y to set (of the sun). The 
ku- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mchana kuchwa, or kutwa, all 
day till sunset, all day long. 


D has the same sound as in 
English. It occurs as an inltal 
letter chiefly in words derived from 
the Arabic. 

Lot r and t. become d after an 
n. Refuj long, makes kamba ndefu, 
a long ropo, not nrefu, 

Kaniiafutia^ and seek out for me, 
when pronounced quickly becomes 

D in the dialect of Mombas be- 
comes ^ or dy in that of Zanzibar. 

Ndoo! Come (Momb.). NJoo! 

8ee C and /. 

DdbOt a small tin box. Also, a fool. 

Dacha %u, to drop. 

Dada, sister, a term of endearment 

among women. 
D St* hhf to pry into things, to 

ask impertinent and unnecessary 

Daflna, a hidden treasure. 

Daftari, an account book. 

Dafuy plur. mada/u, a cocoa-nut 
fully grown before it begins tof 
ripen, in which state it supplies a 
very favourite drink. When the 
shell has begun to harden and 
the nutty part to thicken, it ceases 
to be a Bafu and becomes a 

Baga^, a kind of very small fish 
like whitebait. 

Daggla, a short coat. 

Dai ku-j to claim, to sue for at 

Daka ku-^ to catch, to get hold of. 

Dakika, a minute, minutes. 

DakUf the midnight meal during 
the Bamathan. A gun is fired 
from one of the ships at Zanzibar 
about 2 A.M., to give notice tha|| 
the time for eating is drawing to 
a close. The name is said to be 
derived from the saying : — 

•* Leni upest^ ketho Jeuna mlaa 7mu.'* 
"Eat quickly, to-morrow tUeiewill be 
great hunger." 

Dakuliza ku-, to contradict, to deny 

formally, to rebut. 
Dalalif a salesman, a hawker, an 

Dalia, a yellow composition much 

used as a cosmetic : it is said to 

give softness and a sweet smell 

to the skin. 
Dalili, a sign, a token. 

JSatta dcdili, anything at all, even- 
a trace. 
Dama, a game played on a boards 

like chess. 
Damani = DemanL 




€>amu, bloocl. 

iVanga hu-, to take up carefully, as 
they take up a little water left 
at the bottom of a dippiug place 
to avoid making it muddy. 

' 'Dangantka ku-, to be cheated. 

0)anganikia kt^t to put to confusion. 

JkinganisJia ^u-, to confuse. 

Danganya hu-f to cheat, to humbug, 
to impose upon. 

Danzig plur. madanzi, a bitter, 
scarcely eatable sort of orange. 
Tiie Vanzi is reputed to be 1 he 
original orange of Zanzibar. The 
name is sometimes applied to 
all kinds of oranges, and sweet 
oranges are called madanzi ya 
KizungUj European (Portuguese) 

Dao. See Dau, 

Dapoy plur. madapOf a native 

, Darabif plur. madardbif a rose 

Darajoj a step, a degree, a rank, a 
staircase, a bridge, a league. 

Darasa^fjk class for reading, a regular 
meeting for learning. 

Dari, a roof, an upper floor. 

Darinif up-stairs, or, on the roof. 

Dariziy embi-oidery, quilting. See 

also Kanzu, 
J)arumetiy part of a dhow, inner 

JDoHili, a detergent powder made 
of the dried and powdered leaves 
of the mkunazi, 
Dasturi, See Detiuru 
J)aut plur. madau, a /latlve boat 
sharp at both ends, with a square 
mat sail. They are the vessels 
of the original inhabitants of 

'Zanzibar, and chiefly bring fire- 

wood to the town Ijom t|io sonth 
ond of the iskiud. 
Daulatiy the goyenunent. 
Dawa, plur. dawa w modatCG^ a 
medicine. , 

Dawa ya kiihara, a pnr^oliveu 
Dawa ya hutapika, on omeUflL 
Dawamu %u-, to persevere. 
Datoatij a writing desk. 
Dayimay always, perpetually* 
Dayimara = Dayima, 
Debe^ tin can. See Daha, 
Deheniy lime and fat for ehunmrn- 
ming the bottoms of native craft. 
Deheni ku-, to chunam the bottom 

of a dhow. 
Deka ku-^ to refuse to be pleaaed, 

to be perverse, to be teazing. 
Ddkif a donkey's walk. 
Kwenda delkiy to walk (of a 
Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Demaniy the sheet of a saiL 
Demanif the season of gentle 
southerly winds, beginning aboat 
the end of August. It is applied 
less correctly to the whole seoaon 
of southerly winds from April to 
the end of October. 
DendarOf a sort of dance. 
Kukata denge, to shave the hair 
except on the crown of the hea«L 
Den^ttspens, split peas. They are 
not grown in Zanzibar, but aie 
brought dry from India. 
Dent, debt, a debt, debts. 
Deraye (?), armour. 
Desturif a sort of bowsprit, to canj 

forward the tack of a dhow-aaiL 
Deeturiy custom, customs. 
Deuli, a silk Ecorf worn leonj tha 




J>evaif elaret, light wine. 

Dia, compoeition for a man's life, 

fine paid by a murderer. 
Dibaji, elegauce of composition, a 

good style. 
Didimia ku; to sink. 
Didimikia ku-, to bore with an awl, 


DidimUha ku-, to sink, to cause to 

JDigalif part of a natiyepipe, being 
the stem which leads from the 
bowl into a vessel of water 
through which the smoke is 

JDiko, pluT.madikOf a landing-plilce. 

Dimu, a lime. 
Dimu tamut a sweet lime. 

Diniy religion, worship. 

JHra, the mariner*s compass. 

Diriki kn-t to succeed in one's pur- 
pose by being quick, to be quick 
enough to catch a person, to be 
in time. 

JHrUha^ plur. madirWhat a window. 

Diwani, plur. mcLdiwanij a council- 
lor, a title of honour among the 
coast people. 

Doana, a hook. 

Dohif a washerman. 

Doda ku'y to drop. 

Dodo, See Embe, 

Dodoki^ plur. madodokiy a long 
-slender fruit eaten as a vege- 

Dodoa ku-, to take up a little at a 

Dofra, plur. madofra, a sailmaker's 

'dogoj little, small, young, younger. 

Ddhaan^ Dokhaan, or Doliani^ a 
Marikehu ya doliaan, a.steamship. 

Hence Dohaniy or DoWianij a sort 
of tall basket in which fruit 
is brought on men's heads to 
market. The foundation is 
made of sticks about two feet 
long, loosely tied together, 
which are supplemented with 
plaited cocoa-uut leaves, until 
the wiiole becomes perhaps six 
feet high and fifteen to twenty 
inches in diameter. These 
dohani are often decked with 
flowers and green leaves. 
Dokaa ku-, to nibble. 
Dokeza ku-, to give a little part of 

anything, to give a hint. 
Dokra, a cent. 
Kupiga domo, to tell a person in 
Dona Zftt-, to peck. 
Donda, plur. madonday large sores. 
Donda ndugu, malignant ulcers. 
Dondo, pi. madondo, a tiger cowry. 
Used to smooth down seams with. 
DoncZo, starch, tbe dressing of calico. 
Dondoa ku-, to pick up small frag- 
ments, to pick up rice, &c., to 
pick up bit by bit. 
Dondoka ^u-, to drop from little by 
Mbegu zimenidondokaf the seeds 
dropped from my band one by 
DondorOf Dyker's antelope. 
Donea ku; to flutter like a bird. 
Dongcy plur. madongef a small round 

thing, a ball. 
Donoa ku-, U> peck, to stmg. 
Doti, a loin-cloth, a piece of cloth m 

little less tlian two yards long. 
Doya A'tt-, to go as a spy, 
Duttf wonibip, theology. 



Daara, a windlass, any tiling round. 
Dude, plur. madudej a what-is-it ? 

a thing of which you don't know 

or huve forgotten the name. 
Vudu, plur. madudu, an insect, 

Dadavule, a kind of hornet which 

bores in wood. 
-dufuy insipid, tasteless. 
JJukay plur. maduJca, a shop. 
Dalciza hu-, to listen secretly. 
Dukizi, plur. madiikizi, an eaves- 
dropper, a tale-bearer. 
Dumbuza, a plant having big yellow 

flowers with dark centres. 
Dumia hu-, to persevere. 
Dumuha ku-f to make to continue. 
Dumu, a jar (?). 

Dumu ku-f to continue, to persevere. 
Dun^ a fine. 
DundUf plur. madunduy a large 

pumpkin shell used to hold 

Dunge, the green skin of the ca- 
shew nut, an immature cashew 

Dungu, plur. madunguy the roof 

over the little stages for watching 

com, &c. 
Dumgumaro, a klnji of spirit, also 

the drum, &c., proper for expelling 
Duni, below, less. [him. 

Dunia, the world, this world. 
Durahini, a telescope, an eyeglass. 
Kupiga durabini, to use a glass, 

J)uru kU'^ to surround. 
DuruH ku; to meet in a regular 

class for study. 
Jhuamali, a striped silk scarf or 

handkerchief worn upon the head 

by women. 
Duumi, a dhow saiL 

Buzi^ plur. mndazif one who de- 
lights to find out and proclaim 
secrets and private matterd. 


J^ has a sound between those of a 
in gate and of ai in chair. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar it is 
often substituted for the a of more 
northern Swahili, especially as rer 
presenting the Arabic /s<'Aa. 

Merikebu, a ship, is in t!ie 
Mombas dialect MarikdbUt and in 
the Arabic Markab, 

The sound of e often arises from 
the fusion of the final a of a prefix 
with an e or i which follows it, as— 

Akenda for A-ka-enda^ and he 

Altaweta for A-ka-vM-iia, and hs 
called them. 

Some of the cases in whioh s in 
the Zanzibar dialect stands for a in 
northern Swahili may be explained 
by the substitution at Zansibar of 
in for a mere 'n, as in the word fiv 
"land" or country," whioh is'n/j 
at Mombas, with so mere an '» that 
the vowel of the preceding word may 
be run into it, as in the saying— 

** Mvunddnti, mwandnti," 
** A country can be ruined ooly bj Its own 

Whereas in Zanzibar, besides the 
usual change of t into dk, the flzsl 
syllable has generally a distinot i 
sound, and may be better written 

Thus at Mombas the root of the 
adjective " many " seems to bo ngi, 
making the substantive ** plenty," or 
^ a large quantity," ungi, and with 




the proper prefix **many people," 
^joa-ngL But in Zanzibar ** plenty " 
1b to-ingi, and ''many people*' vfengi, 
if wa-ingi. 

JSlibe^ for Le&efta. 

.Ebu! Eebol well then! come then! 

Ku halia eda^ to remain in ex- 
treme privacy and quiet for five 
months, as is usual by way of 
mourning for a husband. 
JEdtJuharOf eleven. 
JSeS 01 
JSs Waa toiEe WaOah I the common 

answer of slaves and inferiors 

when called to do something, a 

strong assent. 
JEema (M.) = Dema, a kind of fish- 
JESgemea hu-, to lean. 
JEheel Yeal 
Wcerahi, a provocation, an irritating 

word or thino:. 
Mkua hu; to break by bending. 
Mkuka ku'f to be sprung, to be 

'■'ekundu, red. It makes jehundu 

with nouos like kasha, and 
• nyekundu with nouns like ny- 
JEla (M.), except. [umbo, 

JElafu, tiionsands. 
JiJea kn-, to float, to 1)ecome clear. 

Moyo vmmwdea, he feels sick (M.) 

YameliueUa^ Do you under- 
stand? Have they (my words) 
become clear to you ? 
JEleka %tt-, to carry a child astride 

on the hip or back. 
EUikea ^-, to be right, to agree, to 

be opposite to. 
Mlekeana ku-, to be opposite to one 


ElemiftlM kth, to teach, instruct. 
£leza ku; to make to fioat, to swim 
a boat, to make clear, to explaiiL. 
Elfeen or Elfain, two thousand. 
Elfu, a thousand. 
Elimisha ku'^io instruct, to make 

Elimti, or dimu-, leamini?, doctrine. 
-ema, good, kind. It makes jema 
with nouns like kasha^ and rijema 
or ngema with nouns like nyuniba. 
'emharnha, narrow, thin, slim. It 
msikeB jembamba with nouns like 
^a«^,and nyembaniba with nouns 
like nyumha, 
Emhe, a mango. In Mombp.s the 
plural is Maemhef in Zanzibar it 
is Embe, 
Emhe dodo, or Emhe za dodo, a 
very largo kind of mango, m 
named from a plantation in 
Pemba, wliere they fir&t grew. 
ErTihe kinoo, a small kind of 
mango which is very sweet. 
Embwe, glue, gum. 
Emhwe la vbuyu, a kind of paste 
made from the fruit of the 
calabash tree. 
Enda kw-, to go. The kw- is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Kwenda is often used merely to 
carry on the uarralion without 
any distinct raeauing of going. 
Sometimes it is employed as 
an auxiliary, nearly as we say 
in English, he ia going to do 
it Sometimes it expresses 
an action merelv, as Kioenda 
chafya, to sneeze. Kwenda and 
Kwpiga used in this way caiT' 
not be exactly tmncsluted. 
Kwenda kwa mguUf to walk. 

Ktcenda tcmhea^ to go fot «^. v4-dX^ 






Ktrenthx mgJiaJ, Jtc, to go canter- 

ing, &o. 
KuJtnda zangu, zaJcOy zake^ &c., in 
other dialects, vyangu, vyaJce, 
&c.y and thanguj ihake^ &Cm to 
go away, to go, to go one's way, 
to depart. 
Imekioentla iicaUwar^ they have 
gone to fetch it. 
Eadea kw-, to go for, to, or after. 
Eadtha hw-y to be passable, to bo 
capable Sf being gone upon, to 
be gone upon. 
Eadelea kw-, to go either forward 
or backward. 
Kwenddea rnbele^ to advance. 
Kwendelea nyuma, to retire. 
Endeleza leu., to spell, to prolong. 
Knea Jtu-f to spread, to become 

Enenda ku-y to go, mostly in the 
sense of to go on, to proceed, to 
go forward. 
Enenza ku-, to measure together, to 

try which exceetls the other. 
Enen^ the spread, the extent covered. 
Enco la Muunguy God's omni- 
Eiipzn ku-f to spread) to cause to 
8 pi end, to cause to reach. 
Muungu amemweneza kiUa miu 
riziki zake^ God has put wiihin 
the reach of every man what 
is necessary for him. 
Euga ku', to split mahogo for 

Engaenga ku-t to coddle, to tend 

over carefully. 
Engua ku', to skim. 
-enu, your, of you. 

-enu ninyiy your own. 
Eniji or. Enyie, You there! Yon 
theiCt I say 1 

-enyU having, poisesBhij^yWilb. 

makes mwenyif uenyi^ yeut 

zenyit Unyi, ehenifi^ vyentfi^ an 

penyiy which see. 
Enza ku'j to ask news of a person. 
Enzi, or Ezi, sovereigot}', dominim^^^* 
' mnjesty. ■ 

Mucenyi ezi, the sovereign, he 
is supreme; See ExL 
Epa kU'i to endeavour to avoid (t 

stone, stroke, &c.) 
Epea hu'y not io go direct to, i 

miss a mark, nut to shoot ttraigh^ 

(of a gun). 
Ejkka Aus to be avdiduble, to 

whatcan he got oat 6f> the 
^epesi, li^ht, not heavy, eney, qniekr 

willing. It makes j^peti witis 

nouns like hutka, and 

with nouns like nyumlfo. 
Epua liU'y to bruiihiozi shake oA^ 

take away. 
Epulea kiifi to'be kept fxem, to w 

to abstain from. 
Epukana A;«vto-be disimitecL 
Epukika Jtm-, to 'be editable. 

Haiepukiki, it is inevitable. 
Epudia ku'^ ta nake to avoid, 
keep from. " 

EpuifhiDa ku^ to be kept ftom, 
be forbidden someihin^c^ 
-rreru, subtle, shrewd, cnouing. 
Erevudca leu-, to-'l)cconie ehiewd, to 

get to know the ways of the 

world, to grow slmrp;, 
ErevusJia ku-, to maku .sliarp and 

Eria ku-, to ease ol^ let down. 8i0 

Etiha, the latest Mohammodan hoar 

of prayer, which may be said to 

bo from half-past 6 to aUwl 

8 P.M. 







JSSm^ (?), a screw. 
-«(«, our, of us. 

-eiu mi, our own. 
£ua ku-f to sprinkle with wiUcr 
after praying by way of charm 
against a disease, 
•eupe, white, clear, clean, light- 
coloured* It makes jeupe with 
nouns like huiha^ and nyeupe with 
nouns like nyumbcu 
•'eupeSj very white, 
•mm, black, dark-coloured. It 
makes Jeusi with nouns like 
JeaslMi and nyeusi with nouns like 
JSwaa = Ee Wacu 
Micel You there 1 Hi 1 I say, you I 

plur. Enyi, 
Mza hfi-i to measure. 
Mzeka kU't to thatch, to cover with 

JSzi = Enziy sovereignty. 

Mwenyi ezi MuuHgUf or Mioenjfe-. 

zCmngUj Almighty God, God 

- ihc Lord, representing in S wa- 

bill the AUah taala, God the 

Most High, of the Arabic. 

JSzua kU'f to uncover. 

Kuezva paa, to sti ip a roof. 

F has the same sound as in 

J* and V are confounded by the 
Arabs, though in Swabili perfectly 
«listinct, thus : — 

Ktirfaa means— to be profitable to. 

Ku-vaa means— to put on. 

There is, however, in scnne cases 
A little indistinctness, as in the 
Common termination ifu or ivu ; 1 ho 

riglit letter is probably in^ all coses 
a V. 

The Arabs in talking SwahiU 
tump's into /^8, and s&yfunda for 
puncUiy a donkey ; and conversely, 
some slaves from inland tribes turn 
/*s intop's. P, however, does some- 
times become / before a y sound , 
as hiiogopoj to fear, huogofyctj to 

There is a cnrious/^ sound used 
in some dialects of Swahili^ whicli 
is rarely heard in Zanzibar. 

Fa Jed; to die, perish, cease, fade 
away. The ku- bears the ac- 
cent, and is retained in the usual 

Faa ku; to be of use to, to avail» 

to be worth something. 
Uai/aii it is of no use, it won't do, 

Faana ku-, to be of use to one an- 
other, to help one another. 

FafanUha Xeu-, to liken. 

Fafantta ku-, to recognize, to under- 

FafanvJca ku-, to become clear. 

Fafanukia ku-, to be clear to. 

Fafanulia ku-y to make c1o»r to. 

Faganzi ku-, to become callous. 
Mguu wangu umeni faganzi, my 
foot is asleep. 

Fdgia ku-, to sweep. 

Faiiali, plun mafdwli^ a bull^ used 
of men in the sense of manl\\ 

Fdhamia, [btronjc. 

Ktca kufaJiamia (M.), on the fact> 

Fahamisha ku-, to make to under- 
stand, to remind. 

FaJiamu ku-, to understand, to rc^ 

Fahari = FakJuiri^ gW^'. 

T 1 




Kufanya foUiari, to live beyond 
one*s means and station. 
Faja lafrasii a stable. 
Fahe/Of getterou8,a generous person. 
Fakhati, glory. 
Fdlciri, poor, a poor person. 
Fala ku'f (Mer.) = Faa ku-, 
Falakif or /dlaky astronomy. 

Kupiga falaki, to prognosticate 
by the stars. 
Fali, an omen, omens. 
Fana ku-, to be very good of its 

kind) to become like (?). 
Fanana ku-, to become like, to 

Fananisha ku-, to make to resemble. 
Fanikia ku^, to turn out well for. 

Kufanikiwa, to prosper. 
Fanusi, a lantern. 
Fanya ku', to make, to do, to adapt, 
to mend. 
KujifanycLj to make one's self, to 

pretend to be. 
Kufanya kura, to oast lots. 
Kufanya shaurij to take coiinsel. 
Fanyia kvr, to do or make for or to. 
Mkufanyiejei What am I to do 
"with you ? 
Fanyika ku-, to be made or done, 

makable or doable. 
Fanyiza ku-, to amend, to mend. 
Fanyizika ku-y to be very good, to 

be well done. 
Fara or Farafara, brimful, full to 

the brink. 
Faragha, privacy, secrecy, leisure. 
Faraja, comfort, ease after pain. 
Farajika ku-, to be comforted, to 

be eased. 
FaraJcana ku-, to be alienated. 
Farakiana ku-, to be alienated in 

regard to one another. 
Fi^rahishd ku'f to (alienate. 

Faranga^ pi. mafavanga, a chickeD»* 

a young fowl. 
FaraH or Frasi, a horse, in Arabic 

a mare. 
Fariji ku-, to- comfort, to console. 
Fariki ku-, to become separated, to 

Fdrine, a kind of rice and milk 

Farishi ku; to spread. 
Fantha, pay. 

Faroma, a block to put caps on 
after washing them, to prevent 
their shrinking. 
Farrathiy necessity, obligation, obli- 
Farrathi, a place one habituolljf 
goes to. 
The th of this word is the Eng- 
lish th in that, the fA of the 
preceding word is a llttl& 
Farumi, ballast. 
FashifcuJii, nonsense. 
Fashini, the stempost of a dhow* 
Fasihi, correct, clean, pore. 
Fasilit spreading. 

Suna dsili, wala fdnli, yon havfr 
neither root nor branches, ie., 
neither good birth uor great 
Fasiri ku-y to explain, to interpret 
Fasirta ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 
Fataki, a percussion cap, a gun cap. 
Fathaa, restlessness, disquiet 
Faihaika ku-, to be trouble<1, dis- 
quieted, thrown into confusion. 
Faihali= Afathali, preferably. 

Fathehi ku-, to put to confusion,, 
to find out a i>creon in a triok» 


'''^«4 a favour, u., 
«cseeg. " ^'«dne«i toad. 

*^« *««-, to d 
pZ: ^"'"""«•ecia» ro,« „^ 
oorioM. "° PT. to be over 
,*°»Weatter^''^*.*oget through 
^iinder. '*" ''^'«^' »« occupy, to 
^«.t.''"''^ «*•■". advantage 


J^mtoSiS^W^ to «lease 
^*'»'Plar.«„^;;"'»'^ «lease. 

^«ham^. '''^««^^«I thing. , 


«baine. *» *" l» put to 

*'««»eo 4«., to fw. 
J- «<>J»d«ed to fa ^nT^^""^ <» 

«""e judgment oj 


? «nestion «/ i, "^' 

^'St to , "" "^ 
^£t- t ' *" '^ 

«», ^**-. ■<• -M. . „, 

'"> a i^angom • 
up). '* ^''«'«■ace (•«•„,„ 

Wug; *"-««>«. (Of thepe«on 
-^««4» *«., to dear 

», '"«forest. ''° °'«"- «round 
" •*<«» not i^2 " ""'t.- 


"P"»- See Jif^* °'«' the &e 






Fil:aray tLdught. 

Fikiii liU; to reach a person. 

FiJncha Anf-, to crumble, to rub to 

pieces, to rub bard, to thresh 

corn. (Used also obscenely). 
Fikilia Jcu-y to come to a person on 

business of his, to arrive and 

return without delay. 
Fikiliza ku-, to cause to arrive for. 

Kufihiliza dhadi, to fulfil a i)ro- 

Fikuha ku-, to make to arrive, to 

lead, to take. 
FikirOi thought, consideration. 
Ftkiri ku; to consider, to ponder. 
FU, a chess castle or rook (in 

Arabic, an elephant). 
Fila ku- = Fia ku-, 

Afile mhali, that he may die out 
of the way. 
FUimhiy a flute. 
FUisi ku-j to take away a man's 

property, to seize for debt. 
Filmka ku-j to come to want, to 

have been sold up, to have run 

through all one's money. 
Fimho, a stick. 
Finessiy plur. mafineisi, a jack fruit. 

FinesH la kizungu, a duryan. 
Finginka ku-, to itoll along, to be 

rolled, to writhe like a wounded 

FingirUha ku-, to roll, to make to 
Finya ku-, to pinch. [roll. 

Finyana ku-, to be pinched to- 
gether, to be gathered up small. 
Finyanga ku-, to do potter's work, 
to make pots, to tread and 
Fionya ku-, to chirp, to make a 
chirruping noise wilh the mouth, 
to do 80 by way of showing con- 

Fir a ku-, to commit sodomy. 
Firana ku-, to commit sodomy 

Firigisi, the gizzard. 
FiringM = Firigtsi. 
Firkomha, an eagle (?). 
Firuzi, a turquoise. 
Fisadi, one who enters other 

pie's houses for a wrongful pu 
Fisha kw, to cause to dia 
Fisi, a hysBua. 

Fisidi ku; to enter other peopld'i 
houses for a wrongful 
to commit an offence in anothei^ 
man's house. 
Fithuli = FuthtUi, ofBoious, ove^ 

Fitina, slander, sowing of discord^ 

a disturbance. 
Fitini ku-, to slander, to sow dli-^ 

Fitiri, alms and presents given « 

the end of the Uamathan. 
Fito (plur. of iifito\ lung slendei 

Fiica ku-, to be died to, to lose by- 
Mwanamke aJiofiwa na mumewe^ 
a widow. 
Fiwe, a sort of bean growing on a. 
climbing plant with a white 
Fqfofu, [flower. 

Kufafofofu, to die outright 
Fola, a gift expected from those- 
who first touch a new-born baby, 
paying your footing. 
Foramali, a ship's yard. 

Daieatt yaformcuih, a workboz. 
Forsadi, a small kind of edible- 
fruit, mulberries. 
Fortka, a custom-houfie. 
Fur(hani, at the custom-houte. 






FtiUf Ft'osij or Farasi, a liorse, a 

Fraaif a cbess knight 
/«, dead. 

Mtuji mafu, neap tides. 
Fua, a wooden bowl. 
Fua huht to beat (?), to wash clothes, 
to clear the hnsk from cocoa- 
nntd, to work in metal, to make 
things in»metal. 

Kufua ehuma^ to be a blacksmith. 

Kufuafethay to be a silversmith. 
fKvfwi^ ihakalbu^ to be a goldsmith. 

Kufua IcuUy &o., to forge a knife, 
Fnama ^ti-, to lie on the face 

FwUa 1c»'9 to follow, to imitate, to 

Fuaiana Isu-, to accompany, to go 

Fuataniaha hu-, to make to accom- 
- pany. 

Fuawa hu-t to lie on the side and 
• be beaten by the waves, as when 

a T<!Mel goes ashore broadside 6n. 

Pas», of /ua (?). 
Fuawe; an anvil. 
Fudta = Futa, 
Fudifudi, on the face (of falling or 

Fudikiza hth^ to turn bottom np- 

wards, to turn cards backs upper- 

Fufua leu-, to cause to revive, to 

Fufvka hu; to revive, to come to 

life again. 
FiifuUza hu', to cause to come to 

life again for some one. 
Fufumonyfi, in the kitchen (Pemba). 
Fif^ JeU'^ to keep animals either 

tame or in captivity. 

FwjPca liU'y to be capable of bein^ 
kept, to be capable of domesti- 
cation, not to die in captivity. 

Fuja ku; to waste, to squander, to 
leak. See Vujtu 

Fujika ku'f io moulder, waste away. 

Fujo, disorder, uproar. 

Fujofujo, slovenliness, laziness. 

Ftt/fo, a kind of thin porridge. 

Fuku hu-^ to fill in a small hole. 

Fiika moshi hu-, to throw out smoke, 
to fume. See Vuke, 

Fukara, very poor. 

Ffikia ku-y to fill up a small hole. 

Fvkiza ku; to cense, to put the 
fuming incense -pot under a per- 
son's beard and into his clothes, 
by way of doing him honour. 

Fvkizo^ vapour, fumes» 

Ftkko (?), a mole. 

Fuko^ plur. mafuleo, a large bag. 

FuJcua ku'f to dig a small narrow 
hole, such as those to receive the 
posts of houses; to dig into a 
grave so as to get at the body ; to 
dig out, to dig up. 

Fukua/uktM ku-, to burrow. 

Fukuta kU', to blow with hollows. 

Fvkuza ku; to drive away, to chase. 

Fvkuzana feu-, to chase one another. 

Fukuzia ftu-, to drive away from. 

Ftdia ku', to work in metal for, to 
make things in metal for. 

Fuliftdi, on the face, forwards. 

Fuliza ku'j to go en, not to stop ; 
also, to blow upon, to kindle. 

Fullani, such a one, such and such 
-men or things: 

Fululiza kU', not to stop or delay 
to go on fdst. 

Fuma ku , to weave. 

Fuma ku', to hit with a spear, to 
shoot with arrows. 




Fumania hu; to oome suddenly 
upon, to surprise, intrude. 

Fumaniana hu-, to intrude into 
people's houses without reason- 
able cause. Those who do so 
have no remedy if they are beaten 
or wounded. 

Fumatitit an owl (?). 

Fumba liu-, to close, to shut (used 
of the eyes, the mouth, the 
hand, &c.). 
Maneno yafumha, a dark saying. 
Malcuii ya fumba, cocoa-nut 
leaves plaited for making en- 

Fumba, a lump. 

Funiba^ a kind of sleeping mat, 
which is doubled and sewn to- 
gether at the ends, so as to make 
a large shallow bag. The sleeper 
gets inside, and draws the loose 
edge under him, so as to be com- 
pletely shut in. 

Fumbata ku-t to close the fist, to grasp. 

Fumhatika leu-, to be grasped. 

Fumbia ku-, to talk darkly. 

Funibo, plur. mafumbo, a dark say- 
ing, a hidden thing. 

Fumbua ku-, to unclose, to open the 
eyes, &c. 

FurnbuJea ku-y to come to light 

FurrJmlia ku-, to lay open to, to 

Fumi, a kind of fish. 

Fu^mka ku-jio become unscwn, to 
open at the seams, to leak (of a 

Fumo, plur. mafumo, a flat-bladed 

Fumo, a chief (Eingozi and Nyassa). 

Fumua ku-, to unrip, to unpick. 
Kufumua moto, to draw out the 
j/ieco8 of wood from a fire. I ^ng. 

Fumuka hu- = Fu*mka ku-. 
Funda, a large mouthful makiDg 
the checks swell out, a sip (?X 
a draw at a pipe. 

Kupiga funda^ to take lazge 
mouthfuls one by one. 
Funda ku; to beat up, to mix by 

beating, to pound. 
Funda ku-, to teach. 
Fundi, a skilled workman, a master 

workman, a teacher of any handi* 

Fundikha ku-^ to teaob, to i 

Kujiftmdisha, to leom. 
Fundislu), plur. mafundUiho,i 

tion, direction, teaching. 
Fundoy plur. mafundo, a knot 

Kupiga /ungoj to tie a knot. 
Fundua ku-, to untie. 
Funga, a civet oat. 
Funga ku-, to fasten, to tie, to 
to imprison, to fast 

Kufunga choo, to become noniiti ■■ - 
Fungamana ku-, to ding togetlier,^ 

to connect, to tie together» to xelj 

Fungana ku-^ to bind^ to itidk 

Fungasa ku-, to tow. 
Fungate, a period of seven dsys 

after the completion of the wtd- 

ding, during which the bride's 

father sends food to the bride- 
groom and his friends. 
Fungisha ku-, to shut against 
Fungo, a civet cat 
Fungu, plur. mafunguy a bank, a 

shoal, a heap, a part, a week. 
Fungua, See Mfunguo. 
Fungua kw, to unfasten, to oprn, 

to let loose, to leave off fiuHr 







Fungvka ku-, to become unfastened, 

to be unfastenable. 
FunguUtea iSni-, to have unfastened 

for one, to be unfastened. 
Funguo (plur. of Ufunguo)^ keys 
Funguza ku-f to present with food 

during the Banmthan. 
Funika ku-, to cover (as with a lid), 

to close a book. 
Funikika ku-^ to become covered. 
Funildza k»-^ to cover (as with a 

Funot a kind of animal. 
Funua ku-^ to lay open, to uncover, 
to open a book, to unpick sew- 
ing, to show cards. 

Kitfunua fnadio^ to open one's 
Funt^ kuhf to become opened, to 

open like a flower, &o. 
Funza, a maggot 
Funza ku-t to teach. 

KujifunzOi to learn. 
JVfpa, plur. mo/ttpo, a large bone, 

the anus (?). 
•/tcpi» short It makes fupi with 

nouns like nyundxu 
Fupiza ku-, to shorten. 
Fura ku-f to swell, to bo puffed up 

from the effects of a blow ouly. 
Furdhoj gladness, joy. pleasure, 

FuraJianij with gladness, happiness. 
Furahi ku-^ to rejoice, to be glad. 
FuraJiia ^u-, to rejoice in. 
Furahitiha ku-, to make glad. 
Furahttoa ku-, to be made glad, to 

be rejoiced. 
Furijika ku-^ to moulder away. 
Funka h&'t to run over, to boil 

over, to inundate. 
FuruJcuta ku-^ to move, as of some- 
thing moving under a carpet 

Furumi, ballast 

FwungUf plur, mafurungu, a large 

citron, a shaddock, a kind of 

Furwhif a bundle tied up in a 

FuafuB or Fussus, precious stones. 
Fusi^ rubbish. 
Futa kii-, to wipe. 

Kufuta katruuij to blow the nose. 
Futa ku'j to draw a sword ( = vtUa i ). 
Futari, the first food taken after a 

Futij plur. mafuti, the knee (A.) 
Futhidi, officiousiicBS. 
Futika ku'9 to tuck into the girdle 

or loin-cloth. 
Futua ku'^ to open out a bundle, 

take out what was tucked in. 
Futuka ku; to get cross or angry, 
Futtikia ku-, to get cross with. 
Futuriy a span. 
Futuru ku-, to eat at the end of a 

fast, to break a fast 
FuK, plur. ma/uu, a small black 

Fuvu, pIiV' mafuvu, an empty shell. 

Fuvu la kilwa, a skull. 
Fuza ku-, to go on, not to stop. 
Fuzi, plur. ma/uzif a shGuldtr 

Ftcata kU' — Fuata ku-. 
Fyoa ku-f to answer abusively. 
Fyolea ku-^ to answer a person witli 

abuse and bad language. 
Fyonda ku- or Fyonja ku-, to buek 

Fyonya ku; to chirrup. ISce 

Fyonza ku-, to suck. 
Fyoma ku-, to read (M.). 
Fyuka ku-, to go off, to drop, to 

escape like a spring. 





G is always to be pronounced 
liard, as in "gate." Much con- 
fusion arises from the way in whioh 
Ihe Arabic letters jim and hwif ot 
qaf are pronounced by different 
Arabs. Jim is properly an Eui^lish 
J, and is so used by the Swahtli, 
and qaf is properly a guttural k^ 
but most Arabs in Zanzibar pro- 
nounce either jim or qaf os a hard 
g. This must be remembered in 
vrriting or looking for many Swahili 

The Arabic Gliain is retained in 
many Swahili word» borrowed from 
the Arabic, and a similar sound 
occurs in African languages also. 
It is here written gh. Most Euro- 
peans think it has something of an 
r sound, but this is a mistake ; it is 
a hard grating g^ made wlH>lly in the 
throat. It resembles the Dutch (/, 
and the German y approaches it. 

Oaagaahu'y to turn over restlessly, 

to roll like a donkey. 
Gabri, See Kaburi. 
Gadif a -wooden prop to keep a 

vessel from falling over when 

left by the tide. 
Gadimu kw, to put gadi, 
Gagu, plur. magaga^ rubbish, dirt. 
Gaif plur. magai, a large piece of 

Galme, See Kalme, the small mizen 

mast of a dhow. 
GaUtwa, a canoe, a small canoe 

with outriggen» Galawae are 

hollowed out of the trunk of * 
tree, and have two Ion;? piil ^^. 
tied across, to the end of whic^ " 
pieces of wood pc^nted at' bo^:>^ 

ends are attached, which 

to prevent the canoe npoettin: 

These outriggers are caU< 

matengo. See Mtumbwi, 
Gamba, See Jigamba, 
GatMLy the tiller, the rudder haaidl 
Ganda, plar. maganda, husk, rim 
shell, hard bark. 

Ganda la tatu, the thiroe of 
Ganda Am-, to stick, tofreeae. 
Gandama ku-y to cleave,- to atick. 
Gandamana Xru-, -to tleave 

gether, to coagulate^ to enrJle^ 

Gandamia kvh, to stidk to, to deavt 

GandOf plur. magando^ the olaw oj 

a crab. 
Ganga ku; to bind roolid, ai 

a stick is sprang ■ t6 bind i 

round with string, id i^ioe^ 

mend, to cure. 
Gange, a soft white limestone. ' ' 
Gango, plur. magango, a cnunp^ t^ 

splint, something wbieh lioM»- 

other things together in their 

right place. 
Ganil ^Vhat? What aort of^ 

Ihe name of the thing queried 

about always precedes the word 


Imekufa ganti, it baa lost all 
feeling. See Fag&nH. 

Kutia gajigi la m)3iio, to Mi the 
teeth on edge. 
Garif plur. magarif a ca]T;ag*.s'a 

wheeled vehicle. 
GarofuUf clovea, Also^akindofrioo. 




€hiuzat GatfUm^ etc. See Gisuza, 

Geulcat etc. 
GauHi T:u, to divide, to part out. 

Kugatea kardta, to deal cards. 
Oavbaemfa Xru-, to divide, to ehare. 
Gaya ha-^ to change one's mind, 

to vacillate. 
Gayami, a post with a cleat at the 

^de of the poop, to fasten the 

sheet of a dhow sail to. 
GayogdyOf a flat fisli, (?) a sole. 
Gema leu-, to get palm wuie. They 
'< ent the immature flowering shoot 

and hang something under to 

eatoh what flows from the wound, 

irhich is the tembOf or palm wine. 

The cutting is renewed' from 

time to time to keep up the 

Gtwbe^ plur. magembe^ a hoe. See 

"(feni, foreign, strange. 

Wiuu genzif one who knows the 
roads well, a guide. 
Gereza, a fort, a prison. 
Geua kur, to turn, to change (Mer.). 
Geuka ku-, to become changed, to 

torn, to change. 
Geuza ku- or Geusha Jiu- (?), to 

cause to change, to turn, to 

Geuzif plur. mageuzi, a change, 

QMfaUx, suddenly. 
Ghaifcdika ku-, to be imprudent, not 

to attend to, to neglect. 
Ghd/ula = ghdfala, 
Ghairi ku-, to annul, change one's 
mind as to, put an end to. 

Kutia ghairi, to oficnd, to irri- 
GliaJa, a warcroom, a store place, 

especially the rooms on tb» 
ground-floor of Zanzibar houses^ 
which have generally no wii^ 
dows, but merely a feW small 
round holes (miangazd) near 
the ceillilg. 

Ghali, dear. 

Ghalime, See Galme, Kalme 

Ghalisha ku-, to make dear. 

Ghangi^ a kind of dhow resembling 
a bJigala, except that iV has nut 
so long a prow. 

Ghanima, good luck, profit. 

Gharama, expense, payment to a 
native chief by a caravan. 

Gkarika, a flood, the flood. 

Ghariki ku-, to be flooded, to be 
covered with water. 

Gharikisha kt^-^' to flood, to over- 

Gharimia kU', to go to expense 
about, to be at the expense of. 

Ghasi, lEt measure of about a yard. 

Ghasi, rebellion. 

Ghasi kw, to bother, worry, 

Ghasia, bother, coming and going, 
want of privacy. 

Ghathdbika ku-, to be enraged, to 
be angry. 

Ghathabisha 7ai , to enrage, to make 

Ghatliabu, anger. 

Gheltbu ku', to master. 

Gheiri, jealousy, jealuus anger. 

Ghiana, ah aggravating person. 

Ghofira, plur. maghofira, pardon. 

Ghofiri fttf-, to forgive sins ; used of 
God only. 

Ghofiria ku-, to forgive a porsou. 

Ghdrofa, ati upper room. 
Ghoshi kw, to adulterate. 
Ghuha (?}, a sheUei^ed plaoe, a 




Giiuharif plur. maghubari, a rain 

Ghttbha, a bay. 
Ghumtvja kii-, to be startled, to 

stand aghast. 
Ghurika hu-, to be arrogant 
GhuYuri, arrogance. 
Ghuihi Icu' = Ghoshi ku'^ to adul- 
Ghtuvbu hu'y to cheat, to swindle. 
Gidamj the strap of a sandal, 

passing between the toes. 
Ginsi, sort, kind. 

Giiisi ilivyokuioa njema, &c., it 
was so good, &o. 

Ginsi gani 1 or Gissi gani f 
Whv? How is it? 
Giza or Kiza, darkness. 
Gnamha or Ng^amhaf a hawk's-head 

Onombe or Ng*ombey an ox, cattle. 
•Goa, See Goo. 
<Goboa kU'j to break off the cobs of 

Indian com. 
Godoro, plur. magodoro^ a mattress. 
'Gofiay a pulley. 
Gogo, plur. mcujogoi a log of timber, 

the trunk of a tree when felled. 
Gomba fci*-, to be adverse to, to 

oppose, to quarrel with. 
Gombana ku-fio squabble, to quarrel. 
Gamheza ku-y to forbid. 
Gombo, plur. magonibOf a sheet of a 

Gome, plur. magomef bark of a tree. 
Gomea kvr, to fasten with a native 

G(ymeOy a native lock. 
Gonga kih, to knock. 
^Gonjweza ku-, to make ill. 

Kujigonjweza, to make oneself 
out an invalid, to behave like a 
aick man» 

Gongoy plur. magongo, 

Gongojea ku-, 

Kujigongqjea, to prop oneself wii 
a staff, to drag oneself along b; 
the help of a 8tl<& 
Gongomea ku-f to hammer in. 
Goo. See Mtondo goo, 
Gora, a piece of cloth, a package or 

cloth. See Jura. 
Gorong*ondioa, a kind of lizazd. 
Goshif the tack of a saiL 

Upande loa goshini, the 

Kupindua kwa goshini^ to taok. 
Gota ku-f to tap, to knock. 
Gote, plur. magoUt the knee. 

Kupiga magote, to kneeL 
Goteza kib-, to jumble togethe:-^ 

different dialects or language!. 
Govt mho, uncircumcised. 
Gubeti, prow of a dhow. 
Gubiti, barley-sugar (?). 
Gudi, a dock for ships. ' 
Gudulia or Guduwiot a water-oo61er*9 

a porous water-bottle. 
Gif>gu, plur. magugu, undergiowUw 

Gugu muntUf a weed reeembling^^ 
-gugu, wild, uncultivated. 
Qugumiza ku-, to gulp, to awallo^ 

with a gulping sound. 
Guguna ku-, to gnaw. 
Gtiguruslia ^cu-, to run with 

shuffling noise like a zat, to d 

along with a scraping notae. 
Guia ku', to seize (Mer.). 
Guiana ku-, to cling together. 
Gulegule, a dolphin. 

Kidole cha gumbOj the thumK 




- G U IM 



Bunduhi ya gumegume, a flint gun. 
-guTMi^ bard, difficult. 
Guna ku-, to grunt, to make a dis- 
satisfied noise. 
OundiM kvh, to see one ^ho thinks 

himself imseen, to discover un- 

awares, to catch. 
Gunga hth, (1) to warn against 

doing something, (2) to refuse 

Gungu, a kind of dance. 

Gungu la hufunda, danced by a 
single couple. 

Gungu la huhwaot danced by two 
GuniOy a kind of matting bag. 
Chtnssif plur. magunzi, a cob of 

Indian com. 
Gura ku; to change one's place of 

xesidenoe (A.). 
Gurisha Xni-, to make to remove, to 

banish (A.). 

Sukari gurUy half -made suprar. 
GurudumOf plur. magurudumOf a 

Gurudumo la mzinga, a gun- 
Guruguru, a large kind of burrow- 
ing lizard. 
Gu9a Jeu-y to touch. 
Gutuka ^cu-, to start, to be startled. 
Crtttf, plur. maguu^ leg (A.). 
Gu)a ku-, to fall [Tumbatu]. 
Gtoanda, a very short lanzu. 
Gwia ku' = Guia ku-, 
Gwiana ku- = Guiana ku-. 


H has the same sound as in the 
English word •» hate." 
There aie in Arabic two distinct 

Vs, one wholly made in the throat, 
the other somewhat lighter than the 
English h. In Swahili there is only 
one h sound, which is used for both. 
The Arabic kh is pronounced us 
a simple h in all words which ure 
thorougbly incorporated iuto Swti- 
hilL The kh is used by Arabp aiid 
in words imperfectly assrmilntcd. 
Some people regard it as a mark of 
good education to give tho proper 
Arabic sounds to all words of Arabic 


In Arabic a syllable often end?: 
with /i, wldch is then strongly pro- 
nounced ; but in Swahili the h i& 
generally transposed so as to pre- 
cede the vowel. 

KuihHimUy to finish one's eduoa^ 
tion = Kuhttimu, 

H', sign of the negative in the 
second and third persons siur 

H'Upendh thou lovest not. 

H-apendi, he lovest not. 
lla-f sign of the third person sin- 
gular negative when refen'irijLf 
to animate beings, and of the 
negative when prefixed ti> 
the afiOrmative prefixes in tho 
plural, and in the third person 
singular when not referring to 
animate beings. 

Ha-tupendi, we love not. 

Ha-mpendi, you love not. 

Ha-vjapendi, they love not 

Ha-ifaiy it is of no use. 

The final a of this /mi- never 
coalesces with the follo^ 
Ha-i a contraction for nika, 

Hamwona^ and I saw him.. 



II Ali 

The third person singiihir present 
negutivo is distinguished by. 
the final i. 
Bamiconi, he dors not see hinu 
JIdba, little, few, shallow. 
Jlahahif mj lord. 

Mdbari^ news, information, message,' 
Hdbari zangu zilizonipata, an ac- 
count of what had happened to 
ffdbushia, plur. mahahushfaf an 
Abyssinian. Many Galla women 
are called Abyssinians, and the 
name is sometimes u&ed for a con- 
cubine of whatever race. 
Sadaa, deceit, cheating. 
Hadcta "ku-^ to cheat. 
Hadaika ku-, to be cheated, to be 

taken in. 
Sadidi, the Eemicircular ornament 
to wliich Arab women attach the 
plaits of their hair. 
Sadimu^ a servant, slave. See Mu- 

JSadithif a tale, a story, especially 
one bearing upon Mohammedan 
Jladithia ku-, to relate to. 
jSafi/Uf light, inbiguificant. 
MoflUuka ku- = Hifathika ku-, to 

be preserved. 
JIaliUhawahetlia (Ar.), these and 

'Maiha, a beauty, not beauty gene- 
rally, but one good point. 
Hai'j sign of third person singular 
negative agreeing with nouns 
which do not change to form 
the plural. 
6ign of the third person plural 
negative agreeing with nouns 

iu IM»-. 

ITai = Hiuji^ alive. 
Haina, it is not, there is not 
Haitassa, not yet 
Haithuru, it does not barm, it 
no consequence, never mind, 
would be as well. 
Hajy the pilgrimage to Mecca. 
Haja, a request. 

Hana haja, he is good for no p 
pose, he has no ocoasion. 
Ilajiri fcu-, to go to live 
Hajirika ku-, to remain lOverlons, 

KuvMhika hakaU^ to tequiro 
stranger who goes upon 
men's work to pay for lii« ic^ 
trusion, to make him piay bf 
Haki', sign of tha third peno 
singular negative, agreeing 
nouns in ki- or c^-. 
Haki^ justice, right, rightcoueo 
Hakika, true, certain^ oertaiuly. 
Hcikika yakOf it is tme of 
thou certainly. 
Hakiki leu-, to make sure, to 

tain, to prove. 
Hakiri ku-^ to humble. 
Hakirisha ku-, to despise. 
Hako, ho is not there. 
Eaku; sign of the third 

negative indefinite. 
Eciku-, sign of the third 
singular of the negative past 
referring to animate beto|^ 
This form is distinguisheil fhiii.'i 
the preceding by the final lettvK 
of the verb, which is -• in thi 
indefinite and -a in the past tern 
Hakuna, there is not, it «xista 

Ual tcdradu otto of roM«. 






It Will), perjury, 
kfterwards, presently* 

Q.i\oK* wngeg. 
e, condition, healtli. 
gani ? How are you ? 
i gani f How. are they ? 
oa halt ya kwanza, he is 
!ed to his former condition, 
as he used to be. 
BO used as a kind of con- 
ion, being, if it be» when 
supposing, so it was. 
ihaliy family, couneclions. 
^ of tlie tl.ird person 
r negative,' agreeing- with 
rhich make their plural in 

^*u-, to make lawfuL 
:o^ at your disposaL 
Hdlid, exactly, without 
r variation. 

iweetmeat made of ghee, 
eggs» arrowroot (?), and 

ya halvliy sulphate of 

;n of the second person 
•, to change houses, to 

lur. makamalit a porter, 

I public bath. There are 

•lie baths in Zanzibeur. 


myat al Ingrez^ under 

h protection. 



to protect. 

•, to be pregnant. 

Hamiraj leaven, made by mixing 

flour and water and leaving it to 

turn sour. 
Hamisha Jcu-y to cause 'tp xemove» to 

cause to chanp:e one's > place of 

residence, to banish. 
JJa*mna, there is not inside, not 
HamOf he is not inside. 
Hamsiy five. 
Hamsini, fifty. 
Hamstashara^ fiftceB. 
Hamu, grief, heaviness. 
Hamtoimbi ? Don't you sing ? 
Hana, he has not. 
Bana ku-y to mourn with, to join 

in a formal mourning. ... . 
Hana ktoao, he has no home» a 

Hanamuy obliquely. 
Hanamuy the cutwater of a dhov^. 
Handaki, a dry ditch, a trench. 
Hangaika ku-^ to be excited. 
Uangoe^ the guttural Arabic J^ ,ihe 

hha. See Mdawari, ■ . 
Hanikiza ku-, to interrupt people, 

to talk so loud and long as to 
. prevent other people from diiing^ 

Ilanisiy a mati sexually .impotent. 
HanUiy a catamite, a sodomite. 
Hanzuay a kind of dance. 
Hao, or Havjo, these or those before 

mentioned, referring to amniate 

Hapa-f sign of the tl)i]^] person 

negative, agreeing with nuUudu 

place or places. 
Hapay here, this place, in this place. 
Ilajxinay there is not, no ! 

Ilapana refers rather to a pBr- 
ticular place, Hakuna i» gcutir 
Uapoy here, th's or that time. 




Tangu hapOj once upon a time. 

Hapo hale, in old times. 

Tokea hapo, ever so long. 

Toha hapo I get away ! get out of 
this I 
Ilara hu-, to be purged. 

Harisha ku-, to act as a di-astic 
Haraha, haste. 
Haraka Zrtt>, to make haste. 
Harakisha ku-, to hasten. 
Haramia, a pirate, a robber. 
HaramUf unlawful, prohibited. 
Harara, prickly heat, heat, hot 

Harara, quick-tempered. 
Hararii, hot-tempered, 
fltert, heat, perspiration. 

Kutoka hari, to perspire. 
Haribika ku-, to be destroyed, to 

Haribu h*-, to destroy, to spoil. 

Kuharibu mimba, to miscarry. 
Harijia Act*-, to spend money, to lay 

out money, to provide (a feast), 

Uarimisha ktt^t to make or declare 

Harimu ku» = Harimisha kvr, 
Harioe, a cry raised on seeing a 

dhow come in bight (M.). 
Hariri, silk. 
Harufu, Harufi, or Herufu, a letter 

of the alphabet, letters, cha- 
Harufu, a scent, a smell of any kind. 
Harusi, a wedding; vulgarly, the 

Bioana harusi, the bridegroom. 
Bibi harusi, the bride. 
Hasai = Maksai, castrated. 
Hasara, loss. 

Kujpata hasara, to lose. 


Hasara ku', to spoil a thing so tlu ^^ 

its value is gone. 
Basha, not at all, not by any meac:^^^ 

a very strong negative. 
Hasho, a patch in planking, a pi 

let in. 
Hasi ku- or Ehasi leu-, to geld, -^ 

nasibu kUf, to count. 
Hasida, a kind of porridge. 
Hasidi, envy. 
EaHra, anger. 

Kuvoa na hasira, to be angry. 

Kutia hasira, to make angry. 
Hasira ku-, to injure. 
Hasiri Jiptf-, to vex, to do har^ 

Hasirika An*-, to be injured, to 

Hasirisha ku-, to injure. 
Hassa, exactly. 
Hata, Seo Uatta* 
Hatamu, a bridle. 
Hatari, danger, fear. 
Hathari, caution, aire. 

Kuioa na hathari^ to bewaie, 
be on one's guard. 

Kufanya hathari, to become 
ful, to become anxious. 
Edti/, an angel. 
Hatiki ku-, to bother, to annoy 

Batima= Khaiima, end, conclusion,. 

at last. 
Hatirisha &ti-, to venture^ to mi^ 

the risk. 
Hatiya = Khatiya, fitult. 

Kutia hatiyaniy to find fault witlu. 

Mwenyi hatiya nami^ who hat- 
done me wrong. 
Hatta, until, so far as, to, nt length». 
when a certain time had ar> 
rived. It is used to iutrodno» 




the timo when something fresh 
Hatta »ihu mqja, one day. 
Haita asiubuiy in the morning, 

but in the morning. 
ffiUta hcMda ya mwezi hupita, and 
-when a month had passed. 
HaUtOf ^o' nothing. 
HaUiya = Hatiya, 
Matu-f sign of the first person plural 

Hatuci, a step, steps. 
Hau-, sign of the third person 
singular negative agreeing with 
nouns in m- or mtO', not denoting 
animate beings, or with those in u-. 
Havi', sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
plural nouns in vi- or vy; 
Hawa-, sign of the third person 

plural negative. 
Eatoa-^ Eve. 

HawOj these, referring to animate 
, beings. 

JJatoa or Hewa, air. 
Haioa or Eawaty longing, lust, 
Unfanye hawa nafsi, don't be 
partial, don't show favour. 
Haioa or Hawara^ a catamite, a 

Mauoalai transfer of a debt, bill of 

Sawezij he is ilL See Weza Tcu-, 
Eawi, he is not. 

Eatoili Jcu', to take upon oneself 
what was due from another, to 
guarantee a debt, &o. 
Eaya-^ sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
plural nouns in mar, 
Jfaya, these, referring to a plural 
aubstantive in ma-. 

^Haya^ shame, modesty. 

Hana haya, he is shameless. 
Kuona haya, to feel ashamed, to 

bo bashful. 
Kutia haya, to abash, to make 

Haya I Work away! Be quick 1 
Gome along ! 

Haydle, those, those things. 

Eayamhiniy it is impossible. 

Eayaioani, a man without his 
proper senses, an idiot. 

Eayi, plurr-iro^^' (?), alive. 

Eayo, these or those before men- 
tioned, referring to plural sub- 
stantives in ma-. 

Eayuko, vulgarly used in Zanzibar 
for halcOf he is not there. 

Hazi-f sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
nouns which do not cbange to 
form the pluml, or with those 
which begin in the singular with 


Uazibu ku- = Eesabu Jcu-, 

Eazina, a treasure. 

Eazitassa, not yet. 

Eedaya, a choice thing, a tale. 

Eejazi, the E^az in Arabia. 

Eehalu, the temple at Jerusalem, a 
great or famous thing. 

EekimOf wisdom, cleverness. 

Eeliimiza ku-, to make a man under- 
stand, to put him in possession of 

Eemidi ku-, or Eamidi ku-, to praise. 

Eenza, halyards. 

Henzarani, cane-work, 

Eeri = Kheiri, happy, fortunate, it 
is well. 
Ni herit I had better, it will be 

well for me. 
Kua hen, good bye. 




Mta loa herif a fortanate "man. 
Eeria, a cry raised on first seeing a 

dhow coming. Compare Hariowe, 
Herimu = Marika. 
EerOf a wooden platter. 
Eert^fu or Earufu, a letter of the 

EesahUy acooaats, an account. 
Eesabu hU', to count, to reckon. 
Eeshima^ honourr 
Eeshimu Afu-, to honour. 
Eeth, menstruation, menses. 

Kuioa na Tieth, to menstruate. 
Eetima, [ancestors. 

Kusoma Tietima, to pray for one's 
Eeyja or Eawa, air. 
Eezaya, a shame, a thing causing 

Ei; for NiJci', See -hi'. 
Eiana, a grudging person, one who 

withholds things. Ck)mpare 

Eiarit choice. 

Eiha, property left after death. 
Eidimaj service. 
Eifathi Icur^ to preserve, to keep. 
Eifathika ku-j to be preserved. 
Eifukuza = Nikifukuza. 
Eiii this, referring to singular 

nouns which do not change to 

form the plural ; these, referring 

to plural nouns in mi-, 
Eiile, that, those. 
Eikaya = Eedaya, a wonderful 

iiiku this, referring to singular 

nouns in ki- or ch-, 
Eikile, that, yonder. 
Eila, a device, a stratagem, a deceit 

Mtu voa hila, a crafty man. 
JETiVi, this, referring to singular 

nouns which make their plural 

EilOf tills or that before mentioned, 
referring to singular nouns whidb 
make their plural in ma-, 

Eima, haste, hastily, quickly. ' 

Eimahimat be quick 1 

Eimili ku-f to bear, to support. 

^imt'^a A;u-, to hasten. 

Etna, henna, a very favourite red 
dye, used by women to dye the 
palms of their hands and the soles- 
of their feet, often -used to dye 
white donkeys, &c., a pale red 

Eini kwy to refuse to give, to with- 

EiHzi, a written charm worn on Htkb 

EirimUf an equal in age. 
Eirimu moja^ of the same age 

Eisa^ pardon. 
Nipe hiaa yang% pardon me. 

Eitari ku-, to prefer, chooee. See 

Eitima, the feast which conclndes 
a formal mourning. 

Eitimu ku-, to finish one*8 learning. 
to leave off school, to know one's 

Eitimislia ku-, to finish a scholar, to 
bring to the end of his learning of 
whatever kind. 

Eivij thus, these, referring to ploial 
nouns in vi- or vy^ 

Eivile^ those. 

EivyOf after which manner^ theis 
mentioned before, referring to 
plural nouns in vi- or fy% 

Eiyari^ choice. 

Eiyo, this mentioned before, rsk 

ferriiig to singular nonns which 

do not change to form the plnial; 

these mentioned before, referring 

1 to plural ncuns in ml- orini 




Eizi, these, referring to plural 
noQiiB which do not change to 
form the plural, or which begin 
in the singular with tf- or w; 

Biku hizi, ■ome days ago, some 
days hence, now. 
Hiti /m-, to treat with contumely, to 

groan at, to cry out against. 
HiztUf those. 

Hizika Au-, to be put to the blush. 
Hdbe! now go on, be off. 

Kioenda ^o&e, to go wherever it 
Hdbu, grandchild. 
Hoddri, strong. 
Bodil a cry made by way of 

inquiry whether any one is within. 

No one ought to enter a house 

until he has received an answer. 
Sogera Xeu-, to perform a particular 

washing customary after cir- 

Moga^ plur. mahogo, a very large 

xoot of cassava. 
Bohe hahe^ a phrase used to denote 

extreme poverty and destitution. 

PUipdi hcho, red pepper. 

MkaU wa hoho, a cake made with 
fresh palm-oil. 
Jlqfa = Ht^a, 
Mama, fever. 
Hongo, a preeent demanded by a 

local chief for liberty to pass 

through Iiis country. 
Mongwt, a Comoro dance. 
Morari, clever (?). 
Horif or EJioH, a creek, a small arm 

of the sea. 
Horij plur. mahori, a kind of canoe 

with a raised head and stem. 
Su^t a quasi-personal prefix de- 
noting a customary action. It 

applies to all persons and both 
numbers. . 
Hunijibu, it is in the habit of 

answering me. 
Huendat he, &c., commonly goes. 
Htuema, they say. 
JTu- = h-^'f the negative prefix of 
the second person singular. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the termina- 
tiou of tho verb. 
JRuendaj people go. 
Huendi^ you do not go. 
Hua, a dove. They are said to cry. 
Mama akafa^ Jiaha aha/ay nime- 
salia mimij tti, tu, tu, tu, tn, My 
mother is dead, my father is 
dead, I am left alone — lone— lone 
— lone. Another cry of the same 
class of birds is explained as, 
Kuku mfupa mtupu, mimi nyama 
tele tele tele, A fowl is baro 
bones. I am moat plenty, plenty, 
Htibba^ love, affection. 
Hubirif to announce, to give news. 
Hudumda ku^, to serve. ^ 
Hudumuy service. 
Hui kur, to revive, to oome to life 

Huika ku", to be brought to life 

again, to live again. 
Huisha ku-f to revive, bring to life 

again, resuscitate. 
Huja or hqja, sake, account, con- 
cernment, reasoning. 
Kina huJa nyingi^ it is full of 

bother, it is troublesome. 
Hakina huja, it is all clear, it !• 
plain sailing. 
Hujambo ? Are you well ? 
Bviji ku-, to inquire into, seek out* 
Hujuru kvL-t to dcsett. % 



Huko^ there, at a distance. 

Hvko na huko, hither and thither. 
Euku, here, there, near. 

Euku na huku, this way and 
HukumUf judgment, anthority, law. 
Hukumu ku-t to act as judge, to 

have supreme authority over. 
Hiikumia kii-, to judge, to exercise 

authority upon. 
HtUukttoa ku,ix> he created, to be 

a creature. 
Humuma, plur. mo'^ a man who 

knows no religion. 
Hundi, a draft, a bill of exchange. 
MuOy this or that before mentioned, 

referring to singular nouns in 

u- or to-, or which make their 

plural in mi-. 
Muru, free, not a slave. 

Kutoeka or Kuacha hurUj to set 
free from slavery. 
HwrUf plur. mahuru, a freed man. 

Jlfo^iArtt wa Bcdyozi, or Baruzi, 
slaves freed by the British 
Huru, d|fimunds in cards. , 
HurumOf pity. 
Hurumia hu-, to pity, to have pity 

Hu88u hu't to divide into shares, to 

put each one's share separate. 
Husudu Am-, to do wanton violence, 

to grudge at, to envy. 
Husumu hu'f to strive, to contend 

Htiwnif a fort. 
Husuru kvh, to besiege. 
ffidhuria ku-, to be present. 
Buuj this, referring to nouns in 

the singular which make their 

plural in mt-, or to singular nouns 
beginning with «- ok 

SuuU, that. 

HuyOt this or that before mentioned!, 

referring to an animate hetag. 

In chasing a man or animal, any 

one who sees him cries out, 

Huyol huyolhuyol Here heist 

Huytit this, this person, this one, 
referring to an animate being. 

HuyuUt that. 

Huzuni, grief, heavinefls. 

Hwenda^ perhaps. 

I is pronounced like ee in feek 

I before a vowel generally be- 
comes y. It is in many cases im- 
material whether < or y be written, 
but where the accent would other- 
wise fall upon it, its oonaonantai 
character becomes obvious. 

An unaccented t* is often inter- 
changed with a short » aoand. 
Thus the word for lead may be pro- 
nounced either riacui or ruBosL 

N has generally an i sonnd im- 
plied in it It is sometimes eoB- 
pressed following the inas in the 
prefix ni. The final i of ni- disap- 
pears in rapid pronunciation* and in 
the first person of the future, as- • 
cannot coalesce with t, both ktleiM 
are often omitted. When* • is fid- 
lowed by a vowel, or by d» g^ ^, 
or z, the i sound is lost Whmi it 
is followed by other oonsonnnts it 
either disappears altogether or the 
i sound is more or less distineUjr 
prefixed, so as to moke the • a syl* 
lable by itself. The % sound is ma» 
distinct in the dialeot of ZaniibaT 
than in more northern SwahiH. 
' Where t follows the final • of •- 




prefix (except the negative prefix 
ha) it ooalesoes with a into the 
Boimd of a loDg e. 

/, is or was, governed hy a singular 
noun of the class which does 
not change to form the plural; 
are or were, goTcmed hy a 
plural noun in mi-, 

/-, or before a Towel, y-, the personal 
prefix used with verbs whose 
«ubject is a sing^ular noun of 
the class which does not change 
to form the plural, or a plural 
in mi-, it or they. 

•i-, the prefix representing the ob- 
ject of the verb when it is a 
•singular noun of the class which 
does not change to form the 
{duralf or a plural noun in mi-, 

-i-, the reflective prefix in King'ozi 
(and in Njfamwezi)^ selt 

Jba kw' (the hw- is frequently re- 
tained in the usual tenses), to 
■tealy to take surreptitiously. 

Jtala, worship. 

Ibia km-f to rob, to steal from. 


EL there is no eoont- 

UX^^Adai, right eondoet. 

-, to Icam right conduct 
km-f to teach right con- 

JflaikL, bribger of lock. 

J^ hm-^Xa mode, to imitate (M. 

Jk.. SeeiTi-. 

9t im-, to be wanting: 
H'ro km^, to want, to be waatin)^ to. 
mtibaf^ dii&ient. Also a fault. 


lKUim% Jhi-, to finish learning, to 

complete one's education. 
JjarOy pay, hire, rent. 
Ijata^ a reward. 
l^axa ku'y to grant permiMiun for 

Ikhiiari^ choice. 
IkHiaH fctf-, to wish. 
Jkita ku'y to lay the beams of a 

K%iku ya huikita, a fowl cooked 
with eggs. 
Uco^ there is, it is there. 
Ila, a defect, a blemish. 
He, that yonder, referring to a 

singular noun of the class which 

does not change to form itA 

plural; those yonder, referring 

to a plural noun in nU-, 
m = mi, 
Jlihi, cardamoms. 
HiokOf which is, or was there* 
HiopandanOf the compo»itioD of a 

lUzif a small round tbln^ heM 

to be a great charm against 

iZZo, except, unless, but. 
lUakiniy but 
iZU, in order that 
Jlmm^ leamtng. 
Jma — iwMj eitheT'-or. 
Jjma hihf to stead up {King'&zi a.i<1 

Njia ya hwvma^ a straight road. 
Ima km-fio eat np food provided 
for other people. 

AmetrntmOf he has eaten our share 
as well as his own. 
Imantf firm. 
Imba km-, to sin^. 
Jmbn^ moai^nito, mosfyvltKMia 



1 X 

hnisha hu-, to set, up, to make to 


Wa imma, to a certainty. 
Jna, it has, th.^ have. 
Jnama hu-, to bow, to stoop, to bend 

down, to slope. 
Jnamisha hu-, to make to t>end 

down, to bow. 
Jnang*arat it is bright. See ng*aa, 
Jnc&t, land, country, earth. 

Kufanya inda, to give trouble. 

Jnga ku-i to scare away birds. 

-ingi» many, much. It makes Jingi 

with nouns like kashct, and 

nyingi with nouns like nyumba», 

Jngia hth, to enter, to go or come 

Jiigilia hu-, to go or come into, for, 

or to. 
Ingtliza hu-, to oohabit with. 
ingine, other, different. It makes 
mgine or mtoingine with, nouns 
like mtu and mti t jingine with 
nouns like kasha ; ngine or nyi- 
ngine with nouns like nyumba; 
and pinjtne or pangine with 
nouns of place. 
Wangine — wangine^me — others. 
Jngiza ku-, to make or allow to enter. 
Ini, plur. tnatnt, the liver. 
Inika ku-t to hang down, to lay upon 

its side. See Jiinika, 
JnnH, truly. 

Jnahallah, if God will, perhaps. It 
is used as a general promise to do 
as one is asked to do. 
lata = Nta, 

Inua ku-y to lift, to lift up. 
JnuJca ku'f to be lifted, to become 

Jnya, mother (A.)* 

-inyi ^ -enyi, having, with. It maVe» 
mufin^, wenyityingifZinffifUnyir 
kinyif vinyi, aad.penyi* ■ 
Inzif plur. mainzif a fly. 
Jpa kih, to want, desire to>haY«. 
Kuipa rcho mbeUf to long fcr 
everything one sees» to- haT» 
unrestrained desirea. 

Kupiga ipiy to slap ^N.)u » 

Ipif what? . 

Kama ipi f how ? 
ipua /;io-, to take off the fiiik 
Iriba, usury. 
Iriwa^ a vice (the tool). 
Iiiha kWf to finish, to oome to an- 
end. The kw- is retained ii> 
the usual tenses, but sometimee 
the w is drc^pedy as amekitiha 
for amekujishOf he has done. 
Kwisha is commonly used as an 
auxiliary : thus, AmekwUha 
kuja, he has oome already.- 
AUpokwUha kujoj whoi he 
had come. 
Akaisha, or Akesha^ after that» 
when he had done this. 
Ishara^ a sign, signal. 
Ishi ku-y to last, to endure, to livf. 
Isimu or lemu, name, eepedally th 
name of God. 
Ma wmak (Ar.)? What is 701 
name ? 
latara^ a curtain. 
iMiska^ dropsy. 

Ita kw'f to call, to call to, to na 
to invite. The kw- is 
quently retained. 
Kwitwa^ to be called, is somct 
constructed as if it were 
Ita ku'f to cast in a mould.. 
Itala88i\ salin. 




it/t^ni, saoetion. 

. Kuioa Minii to sftnotion. 

Ithneen, two. 

Ilia iSn»-, to oall lor some purpose. . 

Itika ku-^ to answer when called. 

Itikia Jcurt to reply to, to answer a 

person wiien called to. 
Jtikiza Acu-, to assent to. 
Jto la gu^t (A.)» the ankle^ 
Jva 7nh or Wiva hu-^ to become ripe, 

to become completely cooked» tp 

get done. The ku- is frequently 

Jvu, plor. matvtt, ash, ashes (M.). . 
Jtixipif where is it? 
Jxa ku-f to refuse. 
Izara ku-, to tell scandal about, to 

make things public about ft 

pezaon. improperly, 

'. i. , J. 

J, The correct pronunciation of 
ibis letter, and especially that of 
the Mombas dialect, is a very pecu- 
liar one. The most prominent sonnd 
is that of y, but it is preceded by 
another zeaembling d. The French 
dft is perhaps the nearest European 
representative. The Swahili write 
it by the Arabic Jn», which is ex- 
actly an English ^. 

In the more northern dialects and 
in the old poetical Swahili the j is 
represented by a pure y. 

Moya s mqjcLf ono. 

fday4 s maji, water. 

A d in the dialect of Blombas 
very commonly becomes a ^ in that 
of Zanzibar. 

Ndia (M.), a road, Njia (Zanz.). 

Kutinda (M.), to slaughter ; Ku- 
chinja (Zanz.)* 

11 tiny .words which are properly 

spelt with as are vulgarly pro- 
nounced with a y in Zanzibar, ^s, 

Kanju, for kanzu, 

Chenja, for chenza,. 
. This is only carrying to excess the 
rule that a s in the neighbouring 
mainUnd ^nguages becomes a j 
in Swahili. 

The Arabs and some Swahili 
confuse j with g, Thua the late 
j;uler of Zanzibar wa» of^en spoken 
of as BwanaMagidi, his proper title 
being Seyid Mdjid, 

/-, a prefix applied to substantives 
and adjectives In tbei singular of 
the class which make their plural 
ki md-, when they begin with a 
vowel. See J/-. 
«7a, like. 

Ja kit' (the ku- carries the accent 
and is retained in the usual 
tenses), to come. The impera- 
tive is irregular, NjoOf come. 
Njooni, come ye. 
Jala used to form several tenses. 

1. With -jK)- added, meaning even 
if; vjorjapo-kupigck, even if th^y 
beat you. 

2. With negative prefixes mean- 
ing not yet; iM-ja-ja^ he is not 
yet come. 

3. With negative prefix and sub- 
junctive form. Aei-je'lcUa^ be- 
fore he goes to sleep, or that ho 
may not have already gone to 

Jaa ku-, to become fuU, to fill, to 

abound with. 
Maji yanajaa, the tide is coming 

Mtungi umejcui maji, the jar is 

full of water. 
See Jawa ku-^ , 





Shika mdjira yajaa, steer north- 
Jaa, a dust heap. 
Jabali, plur. majahalif a rocky hilL 

Also see Kanza. 
Jabarit absolute ruler, a title of God. 
Jadiliana kii-t to argue with. 
Jdha^ good luok, unexpected good 

Kilango cha jaha^ the gate of 
Jahaziy a vessel, a ship. 
Jahili hu-f to dare, not to fear. 
Jalada, the cover of a bound book. 
Jali ku-j to give honour to. 
Jalia hu-9 to bless, to enable, to 
grant to. 

Muungu dkinijalia, God willing. 
Jalivoa ku-, to be enabled, to have 

power, &c., given one. 
Jaliza kt^-, to fill up, used of vessels 

which have already something in 

Jamaa^ family, assembly, gathering, 

society, company. 
Jamaa ku-^ to collect together, 

Jamaat (Hind.), a council of elders. 
Jamaloj courtesy, good manners, 

Jamandn, plur. majamanda^ a solid 

kind of round bucket with a lid. 
Jamhai breaking of wind down- 
Jamba ku-, to break wind down- 
Jamhia, plur. majambia, a curved 

dagger always worn by Muscat 

JamhOy plur. mambo (from kuamha,) 
a word (?;, a matter, a circum- 
Btance, a thing, an af&ir. 

Akanitenda ktUa jambo la wema, 
and he showed me all poMlble 
Jamho for n jambOf hu Jambo, ha 
Jambo, &o., I am well, are yoa 
well? he is«well, &o., &c. 

Jambo sana, I am very well, aie 
you very well ? &c. 
Jami ku-, to copulate, to have con* 

nection with. 
Jamil, many, a good collection, the 

mass, the company of, the body of. 
Jamiisha ku-, to gather. 
Jamvi, plur. majamvi, a coarse kind 

of matting used to cover floors. 
Jana, yesterday. 

Mwakajana, last year. 
Janna, paradise. 
Janaba, filth, unoleannesB. 
Janga, punishment. 
Jangwa, plur. majangtoa^ a large 

Jani, plur. majani, a leaf. Majatd 

is commonly used for any giui 

or herbage. 
Janvia = Jamhia. 
-japO', sign of a tense aignifying 
even if. 

TTJapofika, even if you arrive. 
Jarari, the ropes passing throagli 

the pulley attached to a dhoVs 

Jaribu ku-, to try. 
Jarifa, plur. majarifa, a seine nr 

drag-net made of European oord- 

age. See Juya, 
Jasho, sweat 

Kufanya jasho, to sweat. 
Jasiriaha kth, to dare. 
JasiH ku-, to explore. 
Jasmini or Jasmin, jasmine. The 

flowers are sold in the streets ol 

Zanzibar for their sceDt» 




TatH, plur. maJcuHf the ornament 
in the lobe of the ear. It is 
generally a silver plate about an 
inch and a half across. 
Talikarif take care t 
TatoOf a coarse kind of Indian 
Kikombe eha Jawa^ a cup of coarse 
Indian ware. 
Taiuoa ftu-, to be filled with, to be 
full ^f: used of something 
which ought not, or could not 
be expected to be there. 
Maji yam^awa dudu, the water 
is full of insects ; but mtunrfi 
umejaa majif the jar is full of 
Taumfr^ an answer, a condition, a 

Tawahir (Ar.), jewels. 
fdza hn-t to fill. 
Tazif a common thing, a thing which 

is abundant 
fan hu-f to supply, to maintain. 
fcLoUa ku; to reward. 
rtf/Hullol WeU! What now I 

./« f how ? 
Tebii, an ornament worn by women, 

hanging under the chin. 
fekundUf red. See 'ekundu, 
^elidi ktht to bind books. 
'wRO, good. See -ema, 
^emadarif plur. majemadari, a com- 
manding officer, a general. 
'0»i5afii&a, narrow, thin. * See 

^embe^ plur. majemJbe^ a hoe. 
Jemhe la kixwigUy a spade. 

^enaiza or Jeneza, a bier. 

^enga ku-j to construct, to build. 

^engea ku-j to build for, or on ac- 
count of. 

^engo, plur. majengo, a building. 

Majengoy building materials. 

Jenzt ku'i to construct 

Jepa ku' (A.), to steal. 

Jepesij light, not heavy. See -epest. 

JerahOf a wound. 

Jeribu kU' — Jartbu ku-y to try. 

Jeruhi ku-, to be wounded. 

Jeshij plur. majeahif a host, a great 

Jetea ku-, to be puffed up, to be 
over proud, to rely upon, to 
trust in. 

Jeihamuj a leprosy in which the 
fingers and toes drop off, ele* 
phantiasis (P). 

Jeidi or Jeuriy violence. 
Anajeuli^ he attacks people wan- 

Jeupe, white. See -eupe, 

Jeusi, black. See eusi. 

Ji'j a syllable prefixed to substan- 
tives which make their plural 
in f?ia-, if they would otherwise 
be of one syllable only. This 
syllable is sometimes inserted 
after a prefix to give the idea 
of largeness, or to prevent con- 
fusion with some other word. Be- 
fore a vowel it becomes J- only. 

-jUf an infix giving a refiective 
meaning to the verb. 
KupendOf to love. 
Kujipenda, to love oneself. 

Kuponya, to save. 
Jiponye, save yourself, look out I 

Jia ku-, to come for, by, to. 
Njia uHyojiOj the road yon came 

Jtbini, cheese. 

Jtbitoa kuy to receive an answer, be 

Jibu ^ii-, to answer, to give an 




Jibwa^ plur. iiiq/i7!»uKi>an eioeedingly 

large dog. 
Jichoj plur. machOf the eje. 

Jicho la majiy a spsing of water. 
JifUi plur. majifUf ashes. 
Jt/yo, plur. ma/yo, one of three 
stones to support a pot over the 
^te, Mafya is the usual word 
in the town, n*afiga is commonly 
used in the country. 
Jiganiba ku-, to boast, to praise one- 
Jtinika hth, to lie on the side. 
Jiko, plur. mekot a fireplace, one of 
the stones to rest a pot on (?). 
Jikoni, in the kitcheii, among the 
Jilia hU't to come to a person on 

some business. 
Jilivja, plur. ma^Uivsa^ a vice (the 

Jhnbif a cock. 

Jimbif AUocasia edulis. Both 
leaves and root are eaten : (a sort 
of Arum). 
JimbOf plur. majimho, a place, a part 

of the country (Old Swahili). 

Kuosha na jimbo, to wash a new- 
bom child with wat^ and 
Jina, plur. mojina, a name. 
Jina lako nanif what is your 

name? . . 

Jina la Jtupangvca, a nickname. 
Jinamisit nightmare. 
Jingij much. See 'ingi, 
Jingine, other. See 'ingine, 
Jini, plur. majini, jin^ spirits, genii 
Jino, plur. meno, a tooth, a twist or 
strand of rope, or tobacco, &o. 
Kamba ya meno maiatu, a cord of 
three strands. 

Jioni, evening. . . ' : , 

Jiput plur. majiptif a boil. 
Jipotoa ku-^ to dress, oucself «^ 

JipyOfjiew. Bee'pya, 
Jirani, a neighbour^ neigjhboun, . 
Jisi, quality. 
Jisu, plur. rnqfitUf a very laige- 

Ji'tenga ^, to get out #f the va^ 
Jiiiyp\ui»:rMnjiti, a tre^ triuik.- 
JUimaij excessive socrraw.- 
Jito, plur. mato = Jicho^ the eye (M.). 
Jitu, plur. malu or majUu, a gloat 

large man,asavagek> . 
Jituza hu-t to, make oneself mean or 

low. See Ttczo. 
Jioari, purchase (of ik;dhow liak 

Jiviy a wild hog. : 

Jivu = Jifu, 
Jiwa hi-, to be visited. 
Jiioe, plur. matoe, a jilonai m pleoe- 
of ^tone. Plur. nu^itoe, of fHf 
large pieces of stone. 
Jiioe la tnanga, a pieoe of ficoeatoiMi 
Nyumba ya tnatoe, a stone iwrauMk 
Jodarif a kind of fish. 
Jogoi = Jogoo. 
I Jogoo, pliur. majogoot a coot^ 
Johari, a jeweL 
Joho, woollen cloth, a.long.Iooi» 

coat worn by the Arabs. 
Joka, plur. maioka^ a very laiga 

Joko, a place to bake pola in» 
Jokum, charge, responsibility, ; , 
JoTnbo, plur. tMyombo, an eioeed- 
ingly large vesseL 
Jongea ku*, to approach, come oear 
to, move. 
Joiujea mvulini, moTe into tb» 



Jongeitza hu-, to bring; near to, to 

Jongeta h^, to bring near, move 

towards» move. 

Jongoet ft large kind of fish. 
«Toa^roo, a millepede. 
Jotjiyay a Georgian, the most valued 

and whitest of female slaves. 
JorcrOy soft. See -ororo, 
Joshf a voyage» a cruize. . 

s= Go8lii, Luff! 

KupcUa Jotojoio, to grow warm. 
JoffOt plur. majoyOf a cocoa-nut 

which is filled with a white 

spongy sub8tu^ce instead of the 

usual nut and juioe. They are 

prized for eating. 
Jozi, Jeozif or Jauzi, a pair, a pack 

of cards. 
Jozi, a walnut. 
Juot plur. majua, the sun. 
. Jua hittoani, noon. 
JwBt ku-, to know how, to under- 
stand, to know about, to know. 

Nanyua aliko, I know where he is. 

Najua kiunguja, I understand the 
language of Zanzibar. 
. Najua hu/ua chujna, I know how 

. to work in iron. 
Jvha, a mortice chisel. 
Juburu ku; to compeL 
JtigOf ground nuts. 
JuJiudij an effort, efforts. 

Ku/anyajukudiy to exert oneself. 
Jt^Uf plur. me^ujuf a fool. 
Jvkuj risk, a word used by traders. 
Jukwarif a scaffold, scaffolding. 
Julia ku; to know about, see to. 
Juluiha ku , to make to know. 
Jwna, Friday, a week. 

Juma a most, Saturday. 


« ^<<e- 

4 ^~ 





Juma, B 

Juniba, pi 
Jumbe, pi . ..«9iim6e, a ohief^ a* 

head-man, a prince, a sultan. 
Jwrnlaf the sum, the total, additionr< 

(in arithmetic). 
JumLislia ku-, to add up, sum up,. 

put together. 
Junia^ a kind of matting bag. See- 

Jura, a pair; a length of calico,, 

about thirty-five yards. 

Haijufi, it is unfitting. 
Jut Kdtam (Hind.), perjury. 
Jula ku-, tc^be sorry for, to regret.. 
^ I /au, up, the top, on the top. 

Yuko juUf he is up-stairs. 

Juu ya, upon, above, over, on tlie^ 
top of, a^inst. 
Juvieha ku-, to make to know, to- 

Juvya ku-t to make to know. 
Juya^ plur. maiuya, a seine or drag- 
net made of oocoa*iiut fibre rope. 
Juza^ obligation, kindness. 
Juza ku-f to make to know. 
Juzi^ the day before yesterday. 

Mwakajuzij the year before last. 

Juaijuzif a few days ago. 
Juzta ku', to compel, to have power 

to compel. 
JuzUf necessity. 

Jamho lajuzu, a neceiisary thing. 
Juzu ku-f to oblige, to bold bound^ 

to have under an obligation to do- 







Juzuu, a section of tho Koran. 
There are in all thirty, which are 
often written out separately. All 
the Juzuu together are Khitima 


K is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabs have two Wb^ one, the 
kef or kafj a little lighter than the 
English h; and one, the kahf or 
qaff made wholly in the throat, and 
confounded by many Arabs with a 
hard g. There is a curious catch in 
the throat between the preceding 
vowel and the qaf, very iiard to 
explain, but easy enough to imi- 
tate. Although the correct pronun- 
ciation of these two ^'s is an ele- 
gance, it is not necessary nor very 
commonly observed in speaking 

Ki is very commonly pronounced 
M in Zanzibar, especially by slaves 
of the Nyassa and Yao tribes. 

Khy the Arabic Ar^o, occurs only 
in words borrowed from the Arabic, 
and subsides into a simple h so soon 
as the word is thoroughly natu- 

Khahari or Hdbarij news. 

Kheiri or Heri, well, good, for- 

Ka-j •ho', a syllable prefixed to or 

inserted in the imperative and 

subjunctive of verbs, with the 

. force of the conjunction '* and." 

'tka-, the sign of a past tense, used 

in carrying on a narration; it 

includes the force of the con- 

jnnction •• and.** 

Akamwamfda, and he lald \» 

Ntka- is often contracted into ha-, 
Kaa ku-^ to sit, to dwell, to stay, ti 
live, to be, to stand, to remain» 
to continue, to live in, or at 

Kukaa hitaho^ to ait down, to xe- 
main quietly. 
Kaa, pluT. maJeaa, a piece of char- 

MaJcaa, coals, charcoal, embers. 

Kaa la moshi or MaJeaa ya moM, 
Kaa, a crab. « 

Kaa mdkoko, small mvd crabt 
with one large claw. 

Kaa la kinwoj the palate. 
Kaaka or Kadkaa, the palate. 
Kaanga ku-, to fry, to braze, to oodk 

with fat. 
Kaango, plur. ma^ango, an earthen 

pot to cook meat in. 
Kaba Itu-, to choke, to throttle. 
Kaha la kanzu, a sort of lining ronnd 

the neck and a short way dowB- 

the front of a kafum, pat in to 

strengthen it. 
Kahari, a wedge. 
Kabibu, narrow. 
Kabila^ a tribe, a subdivision loss 

than taifa, 
Kdbili ku-s to be before, to be op- 
posite. * 
KahUUha hu-, to put opposite, to sei 

Kalma, utterly, altogether, quite. 
Kabithi ku-y to give into the hand. 
KaUa, before, antecedently. 

Kahla ya, before (especially of 
Kabulii acceptance. 
Kabulif pillaw. 
Kahurtf plur. maXra^url (pronounoed 




by many Arabs Gahrt)^ a grave, 
a tomb. 

Xadamuj a servant, tbe lowest of 
the three chief men iisnaUy set 
over the slaves on a plantation. 
On the Zambezi the man who 
stands at the head of the canoe 
to look out for shoals is called 

.Kadiri or Kadri, measnre, modera- 
tion, capacity, middling, mode- 
rate, about, nearly, moderately. 
Kadri ganif how much? 

,Kadiri ya, as, whilst. 

Kadiri ku-, to estimate. 

Kadri = Kadiri, 

KafarOf an offering to avert evil, a 
sacrifice of an animal or thing to 
be afterwards buried or thrown 
away, a charm made of bread, 
sugar-cane, &c., thrown down in 
' a cross-way. Any one who takes 
it is supposed to carry away the 
disease, misfortune, &o. 

Kafl, plur. maJeafty a paddle. 

Kafirif plur. makafiri^ an infidel, an 
idolater, one who is not a Moham- 

Kafurit camphor. 

Kaga ftu-, to put up a eharm to 
protect something. 

KagOf plur. magOf a charm to pro- 
tect what it is fastened to. 

Kagua hu-, to go over and inspect. 

KaJiaba, plur. mahahdba, a prosti- 

Kahatoa^ coffee. 

Kahini, plur. makahini, a priest, a 

Kai Tsu-t to faU down to, embrace 

the knees. 
Kaida^ regularity. 
Ya kaidOf regular. 

-haidi, obstinate. 

Kaimia^ plur. makaimu^ a vice- 
gerent, a representative. 
Kaka^ a lemon after it has been 

squeezed, the rind of a lemon, 

the shell of an egg, &c. 
Kaka^ a brother {Kthadimuy see 

Kaka, a disease with swelling of 

the hand and opening into sores. 
Kakakckka, very many. 
Kakamia, hard of heart 
Kakamia ^, to be longsufferlng, 

slow to be affected. 
Kakamuka ^u-, to make an effort, 

to strain (as at stool, or in- 

Kakaioana Acu-, to be strong, capable 

of great exertion, well-knit and 

firm in all the muscles. 
Kakiy a very thin kind of biscuit or 

Kalafati ku-^ to caulk. 
Kalamika ktt-, to prevaricate in 

giving evidence (?), to* cry from 

pain caused by medicine (?). 
Kala*mka ku-y to be sharp, to have 

one's eyes open. 
Kala^mkia ku-, to outdo, to be too 

sharp for. 
Kalamuj a pen. The pens for 
writing Arabic are made of 
reed, and the nibs are cut 

Kalamu ya mioanziy a reed pen. 
Kalamuziy cunning, crafty. 
KcUaHaj little braes pots. 
Kale, old time, formerly. 

-a kcUe, old, of old time. 

Zamani za kale, old times. 

Hapo kale, once upon a time. 
Kalfaii or Kalafati, caulking. 
•kali, sour, 8haT\>, k!^<^\i^ %»w(^^ 


K Ali 


cross, scvcro, fierce. It makes 
hali ^ith nouus like nijwmba, 
Jua halif a hot sun. 

Kalia hth, to remain for. 
Ku'mkalia tamu, to remain as he 
would wish. 

Kalibu, a mould, a furnace. 

Kama, Kamma, Kana, or Kwamha^ 
as, as if, like, if, supposing. 

Kama Att*-, to milk, to squeeze. 

Kamnmanga^ a pomegranate. 

Kamaliy a game played by chucking 
pice into a hole. If only one 
'goes in they say " Mdiza** and 
the player throws a fiat stone on 
the one that is out. 

Kamasi, mucus from the nose. 
Kufuta kama>8h to blow the nose. 
:8iwezi kamasij I have a cold in 
my head. 

SKamata hu-, to lay hold of, take, 
seize, clasp. 

Kamatana &«-, to grapple, to seize 
one another. 

Kamaiiy balls of wheat-flour lea- 
vened with Umbo, 

Karnba, a crayfiith. 

Kamba, rope. 
Kamha vlayiUf European or 
hempen rope. 

Kambojo^ plur. of ukambojo, cord, 
string (M.). 
Kamhaa^ a plaited thong or wbip 
kept by schoolmasters and 
overlookers in Zanzibar. 

.Kambali, plur. makamhali^ a cat- 
fish living in fresh water. 

Kamharauy a forebrace carried to 
the weather side to steady the 
yard of a dhow. 

£ambi, plur. maJcambij a circular 
encampment, a place where a 

' ^caravan has hutted itself in. 


Baha vxi kambo, stepfather. 

Mamawa kambOf stepmother. 
Kamey quite dried up, utterlf. 

Kamij a bulbous plani with largo 

head of red flowers. 
Kamia ku'y to reproach. 

Kujikamia, to reproach oneselfL 
Kamiliy perfect, complete. 
'kamiltfu, perfect, wanting nothing; 
KamiUka ku-, to be perfect. 
Kamilisha /fu-, to make perfect. ' 
Kamiia ku-, to press, to press 

Kamusif an Arabic lexicon. 
Kamwe (M.), not at all, never. 
Kamwi = Kamwe. 
KanOj a tiller. 
Kana^ if, as. See Kama. 
Kana ku-, to deny. 
Kanda, plur. makandaj a long nar- 
row matting bag, broader at th« 

bottom than at the mouth. 
Kanda ku'y to knead dough, t» 

knead the limbs, to shampoo. 
Kandamiza feu-, to press npon. 
Kande, food (Mer.). 
Kanderinyat a kettle. 
Kandilta fe«-, to plaster. 
Kandiltt plur. makandiUf a laateni. 
KandOf side, aside. 

Kando ya or Kandokando ^ 
beside, along by the side. 
Kanga, a guinea fowl. 
Kanga, a dry stem after the coeoa- 

nuts have been taken ofil 
Kanga feu-. 

Kukanga moto^ to warm. 
Kangaja^ a small mandarin oranga 
Kania ku-^ to deny a person. 
Kaniki, dark blue calico. 
Kanisa, plur. makani$a,tL ohuroh. 




Kanisha Tcu-, to deny, to make to 

Kanjij starch, arrowroot. 
Kaiyu, plar. mdkanju, a cashew 

apple (M.). 
Eanju, vulgarly used for Kanzu. 
Kanunt, a thing implied, a neces- 
sary condition, of necessity. 
Kanway plnr. makanway the month. 
Kanya hi-, to contradict. 
Kanyaga hu', to tread, to tread 

npon, trample on. 
Kanyassa ku-, to scold. 
Kanzt, a treasure. 
'Kanzu, a long shirt-like garment 
worn both by men and women 
in Zanzibar. Men's Jcanzus 
are white or of a brown yellow 
colour, with ornamental work 
in red and white silk round 
the neck and down the breast ; 
they reach to the heels. Wo- 
men's hanzus are generally 
shorter, and are made of every 
variety of stuff, frequently of 
satin or brocade, but are always 
boimd with red. 
Parts of a Kanzu (men's) : 
Too la hanzUf bottom hem. 
Magongo nene, seams. 
Badanij front and back pieces. 

Also Kimo. 
Taharizi, side pieces. 
Sijafuy pieces turned iu at the 
wruits, to receive the darizi. 
Vtktcapa, gores. 
Lisaniy flap under the opening 

in front 
Jabali, red line ccross the back. 
MhaJborU lining at the back of 

the darizi in front. 
£00^0, lining of the neck and 

Sliaday tassel at the neck. 
KUanzu loop opposite the tassel 

in front. '• 
Kazi ya $hingOy the elaborately 
worked border round the 
neck, including — 
Tikiy red sewing over of the 

edge of the neck. 
Mreray lines of red round 

the neck. 
VibokOy small zigzag orna- 
ment in the middle of the 
Vinaray small spots forming 
the outer edge of the 
Dariziy lines of silk worked 
round the wrists and down 
the front. 
Afjuzi (Ar. 8hararaji)y orna- 
ment at the bottom of the 
strip of embroidery in front. 
Mkia wa ^juziy line of silk 
running up the front from tho 
Vipajiy or viguuy four Utile 
projections on the sides of 
the mjazi, 
Kanzu ya ztki, worked with white 
cotton round the neck instead of 
red silk. 
Kaoleniy one whose words are not 
to be trusted, a double-tongued 
Kaamtoa, calumba root. 
Kapiy pint, makapi, a pulley. 
Kapiy plur. makapiy bran, husks. 
Kapiana kth (jnikono), to shake 

KapUy plur. makapu, a large basket 

or matting bag. 
Kapwaiy a kind of rice. 
Karafati kur = EoIa/oiL 




Kara/a mayitiy camphor. 
Karama, a special gift of God, an 

answer to a holy man's prayer, 

an honour. 
Karamuy a feast. 
Karanif a secretary, a clerk, a 

Karaniy tucks. 
Karara, the woody flower-sheath of 

the cocoa-nut tree. 
Karata, playing-cards. 
KarcUha, a loan of money. 
Karatasi, paper. 
Karibf near, come near, come in. 
Karibia kth, to approach, to draw 

near to. 
Karibiana ^u-, to be near to one 

Karibisha, to make to come near, to 

invite in. 
Karibu, near, a near relative. 

Karihu na or ^o, near to, near. 
KarimUy liberal, generous. 
Karipia ku-, to cry out at, scold. 
Karirisha Jcu-y to recite. 
Kasa, a turtle. 
Kasaranif sorrow, grief. 
Kascbsif retaliation, revenge, yen- 

Kasha, plur. makashat a chest, a 

large box. 
Kashifu hur, to depreciate. 
Kashmir^ the ace of spades. 
KoMa, plur. maJcasiaf an oar. 

Kuvuta malcasia, to row» 
KoMbay a gun barrel. 
Kasidi, intention, purpose. 
KoMfa, inquisitiveness. 
Ka^ifu ku-, to be inquisitive. 
Kasikiy a large earthen jar for ghee. 
Kasimele, the juice of grated cocoa- 
nut before water is put to it. 

Ttt$ la hasiineU, See TuU 

Tut la hipoiwloa, the same aftef 
mixing with water, and strain- 
ing again. 

KaHHj towards the end, late. 

Kasirika ku-^ to become vexed. 

KasirUha ku-y to vex. 

Kasiri kw, to hurt, vex. 

Kaskazij the northerly wind which 
blows from .December tiU 
Kaskazini, in a northerly direo» 

Kamro, less by. 

Kassa^ less by. 

Kaasa rdbOf three-quarters of a 
Kassi, See Kiasn, 
Kasi^ hard, with violenoe. 

Kwenda kasH, to rush along. 

Kutia kassiy to tighten. 
KasuTriba^ a preparation of opium. 
Katua ku-, to refuse. 
Kata, plur. makata, a ladle made of 

a cocoa-nut, only about a third of 

the shell being removed. A kaia 

holds from a quarter to half a pint» 
Kata, a ring of grass or leaves put 

on the head imder a water-pot or 

other burden. 
Rata ku-, to cut, clip, divide. 

Kt^ikata, to cut oneself. 

Kukata hananu, to cut obliquely» 

Kukata maneno, to settle an affiur,. 
to decide. 

Kukata naJcshi^ to ornament witb 
carving, to carve. 

Kukata tanuM, to despair. 

Njia ya kukcUa^ a short eat, the* 
nearest way. 
Kdtaha ^u-, to write. 
Katakata ku-, to chop up. 
Katalia ku-, to deny all oreddooi^ 

to refuse to be convinced. 




Katani, flax, thread, string, cotton- 
Kataza 7cu-, to prohibit, to deter. 
KcUJidliha, in like manner. 
Kaihdtvahathaf many, many more. 
Wat» kaihawakatJiOf such and 
snoh i)eople. 
Kafhi, plur. mdkathif a judge, a 

KaH^ inside, middle, the court 

within a house. 
Kaiia hu-, to cut for. 
KukatiwOy to have out, or out out 

for one. 
Ni hitui changu Jcama naliJcatiwa 
miwit it fits as though I had 
been measured for it. 
Kattka, among, at, from, in, about. 
Katika Implies nearness nt least 
at the beginning of the action ; 
it has very nearly the same 
meaning as the case in -nt. 
Katika tafari mle, during that 
Katika ku-^ to come apart, to be cut, 

to break, to be decided. 
Katikati, in the midst. 
Kaiikati ya, &c, in the midst of, 
KatiUf a murderous, bloodthirsty 

person, an infidel. 
Katinakatiy in the middle. 
KatUi (A.), little. 
Kaliza %u-, to put a stop to, to 

break off, to interrupt. 
KatOf plur. makato, a cutting, a 

breaking off. 
Katu^ a kind of gum chewed with 

Katua ku-, to polish, to brighten. 
Kaiuka ku-, to be polished, to be 

Kauka At*-, to get dry, to dry. 

Sauti imekaukOf I am hoarat». 
KatUif a word. 
Kauriy a cowry. 

Kausha ku-f to make dry, to dry. 
-kavuk, dry. It makes kavu witk 

nouns like nyumba, 
Kawan a conical dish-cover of 
plaited straw, often ornamented 
with spangles, &c. 
Kawa, mildew, spots of mould. 
Kufanya kawa, to get mildewed 
or mouldy. 
Kawa ku-, to be delayed, to tarry, 

to be a long while. 
Kawadi (a term of reproach), a bad 

Kawaida^ necessity, custom. 
Kawe, a pebble, a small stone (M.). 
Kawia ku-, to delay. 
Kawilia ku-, to loiter about a busi- 
Kawisha kvr, to keep, to delay, to 

cause to stay. 
Kayaj plur. makaya, a pinna, a kind 

of shell-fish. 
Kayamha, a sieve, a sort of rattle. 
Kaza ku'f to fix, to tighten, (of 
clothes) to fit tightly, to go 
hard at anything. 
Kukaza kwinu^a, to sing louder. 
Kukaza mbio, to run hard. 
Kazana ku-j to fix one another, to 
tighten together, to hold together 
tightly, to be robust. 
Kazi, work, labour, employment, 
Ndio kazi yoke, that is what he 

always does. 
Kazi nibi si mtezo mwema? Is 
not poor work (as pood as) good 
play (nibi for n-wi) ? 
Kazika ku-, to become tight, to 
become fixed. 




-Zrazo, nipping, pressing tight. 

'ke^ female, feminine, the weaker. 

Kee = Kelele (N.). 

KeezOy a lathe, a machine for turn- 

KSfvlel an exclamation of con- 

Kefydkefya A;tt-, to teaze, to put in 
low spirits. 

Keke, a drill. The carpenters in 
Zanzibar always use drills, which 
are much better suited to the 
native woods than gimlets are. 
The iron is called hekee^ the wood 
in which it is fixed msnkano, the 
handle in which it turns Oiou^ 
and the bow by which it is turned 

Kehee, a kind of silver bracelet. 
Kelele, plur. mahtlde, noise, uproar, 

Kem ( Ar.), How much? How many? 
Kemea Jcu-, to rebuke, to snub, to 

Kenda = Kwenda and Kaenda, 
Kenda, nine. 

Ya kenda, ninth. 
Kendapi f for kwenda wapi, going 

where, i.e., where are you going ? 
Kenge, a large water-lizard with 

slender body and long limbs and 

Kengea, the blade of a sword, knife, 

Kengele, a belL 

Kupiga kengele, to ring a bell. 
Kera kit-, to worry, to nag at. 
Kerani = Karani, 
Kereketa ku, to irritate the tliroat, 

to choke. 
Kereza ku-, to saw, to turn, to cut 

a tree half through, and lay it 

down, so as to make a fence. { 

Kefimu ku', to feast, to be liberal td 

Kcring*ende, a dragon-fly, the red- 
legged partridge. 

Kero, trouble, disturbance, uproar. 

Kesha, a watch, a vigil. 

Kesha ku-, to watch, to remaia 
awake, not to sleep. 

Kesheza ku-, to make, to watch, to 
keep awake. 

Kesho, to-morrow. 
Kesho kutwa or kuchioa, the day 
after to-morrow. 

Kete, a cowry. 

Keti ku', to sit down, stay, liye(M.). 

KJmhari, news, information. 

Khadaa, fraud. 

Khafifu, light, unimportant. 

Khaini, a traitor. 

Khalds, the end, there is no more. 

Khdlifu ku- or Halifu ku-, to resist, 
oppose, rebel against. 

Klialui ku-, to deliver. 

Khami, a chess bishop. 

Khamsi, ^yb, 

Khamsini, fifty. 

Khamstashara, flfteen, 

Kharadali, mustard. 

Khdrij Aru-, to spend. 

Khashifu ku^ = Kashi/u ku», 

Khatari, danger. 

Khati, a note, letter, docnmeut, 
memorandum, writing, hand- 

Khatibu, plur. makhatibu, a secre- 
tary, a preacher. 

Khatima, end, completion. 

Khatimuha ku-, to bring to an end, 

Khafiya, fault. See Haiiya. 

Khazana, a treasure. 

Khema, a tent. 

KJieiri = f/ert, well, fortmalflw 
happy, good. 




Jfiai wa kkeiri^ a happy mam 
Ktea Jekeiriy for good. 
Ni lAeifi, I had hotter. 
^Mni Iem-, to betray. 
Xhitari ku-f to choose. 
Khitima nzimoj a complete oopy of 

the Koran. 8ee Juxuu. 
KhofUka ku'^ to frighten. 
Xhofuy fear, danger. 

Kuwa na kho/u, ^ to become 
Kuingivoa na khofuy S afVaid. 
Kutia hho/u, to frighten. 
SBJunjy a pad used as a saddle for 

Khothi (?), paint, colour. 
XhuMri hu-t to inform, give news. 
.SfttMumti, enmity. 
JKhuMu hu-t to preach. 
Biuxurungi or Hutkurungi^ a stuff 
of a brown yellow colour, of which 
the best men's kanzus are made. 
JECi-y a prefix forming a diminutive. 
It becomes eh- before a vowel, 
and in the plural it becomesvi- 
and «y-, or in other dialects «/- 
or ihi', 
Ki' as a prefix also means (es- 
pecially if prefixed to proper 
names), such a sort ; and when 
used alone, words of such a 
sort, i.e, such a language. 
3iavazi ya hifaume, royal robes. 
Viazi ffya kizungu, European 

Kiarabu, Arabic. 
Kipao, the Tao languagia. 
«K»- or di-f the adjectival and pfo- 
aominal prefix proper to words 
agreeing with substantives of the 
above forms. 

<nr A'f the personal prefix of 
Terbi having substantives of the 
above form as th<'ir subject. 

^S the objective prefix ef verba 
having subatantives of the above 
form as their object 
4ri-, the sign of that tense which 
expresses a state of things, 
heing (haU which may be trans- 
lated by the help of the words» 
if, supposing, when, whUe, or 
bo treated as a present parti« 
ciple ia -ing. 
Nihi' may be contracted into &i-. 
AHkuwa aktogoUot he wim bath- 

AkiJOf if he comes, or when ho 

The syllable •X;f- is inserted in 
the past perfect tense to de- 
note a continuing action or 
Walipo-ki'pendanOf when or while 
they loved one another. 
Kia, plur. via, a piece of wood, a 

kind of latch, a bar. 
Kia ku'f to step over. 
Kiada, slowly, distinctly. 
KiaZio, plur. vialio^ cross pieces 
put in a cooking pot to prevent 
the meat touching the bottom 
and burning. 
Kianga, the coming out of the sun 

after rain. 
Klapo, plur. viapo, an ordeal, an 

KiarabUf Axabio. 

Ya ktarabtif Arabian. 
Kiasi s KioiH, 
Kiass cha bundMj a eartrldi^e. 
KiasHt measure, moderation. 
KiasH gtud f or Ka$i{ gani f How 
Klattt, plur. vUUu^ a shoe, a sandal. 
Viaiu vya mtl^ a sort of tall 
wooden clog worn in iU^ V\.(t>i<M^^ 




and especially by women. They 
are held on by grasping a sort 
of button (riMuruaht) between 
the great and second toe. 
Kiazi, plur. viazi, a sweet potato. 

Kiazi hikuUt plur. viazi vikuu, a 

Kiazi sena, with white skin. 

Kiazi hindoroy with red skin. 
Kfha haluli, a knot of makuti to 

light a pipe with. 
Kibdba^ a measure, about a pint 

basin full, a pint basin, about a 

pound and a half. 
Kihahuli, a kin<l of mtama, 
Kibali hit-, to prosper. 
Kihanda, plur. vtbavida, a hut, a 

hovel, a shed. 
Kibanzi, plur. vibanzi, a splinter, a 

very small piece of wood. 
Kihao, plur. vibao, a shelf, a small 

piece of plank. In Tumbatu a 

chair is called Mbao. 
kibapara, a pauper, a destitute 

person (an insulting epithet). 
Kiharango, a short heavy stick. 
Kibaratat plur. vibaraza, a small 

stone seat. 
KilKtrua^ plnr. vibarua^ a note, a 

ticket. Kibarua is now used 

in Zanzibar to denote a person 

liirod by the dny, from the 

custom of giving such persons a 

ticket, to be delivered up when 

tlioy are paid. 
Kiberiti, sulphur. 

Viberitif matches. 
Kibeti^ a dwarf: 

Kuku ktbtHt a bantam. 
Kihia^ plur. «<Ma, an earthen pot-lid. 
KUbifmgo^ plur. vilnongot a person 

bent by «fco or infirmity. 
MiM¥M^ plur* tibobtMy a piece of 

cloth tied round the loins dnriD^ 

hard work. 
Kibofu^ plur. vibofu, a bladder. 
Kibogoshif plur. vibogoshif a small 

skin bag. 
KibokOy plur. vtboikOf a hippo» 

potamus. See also Kanzu, 
Kibua, a small fish. 
Kibueta, plur. mbtteta^ a box. 
Kibula, the JcebUij the point to 

which men turn when they pray. 

Among the Mohammedans the 

Icibula is the direction in which 

Mecca lies, which is in Zanzibar 

nearly north. Hence kibula is 

sometimes used to mean tli» 

KihvJa ItU', to point towards, to be 

opposite to. 
Kibumba^ plur. viJbumba^ a small 

paper box or case of anything. 
Kiburi, pride. 
Kiburipenibe, a native bird. 
Kieluiaj lunacy. 

Mwenyi kichaaf a lunatia 
Kichdka, plur. vichaha^ a thicket, a 

heap of wood or sticks. 
Kichala, plur. vichala^ a bunoh. 

Kichala cha mzabibu^ a bnnoh of 
Kichekoy plur. vichekOf a laugh, a 

Kichikichi, plur. viehikichi^ the 

small nuts contained in the Ihiit 

of the palm-oil tree. 
Kichilenut, plur. vichilema^ the 

heart of the growing part of 

the cocoa-nut tree, whioh if 

eaten as a salad, and in variQiia' 

Kichoy plur. vicho^ fear, a fear. 
Kichocheoy the act of pushing wood 

further into the fire, an inatn^ 




ment for doiDg it, exciting words 

to stir up a quarrel. 
KichochoTOy plur. vichoehoro, a very 

narrow passage, such as is gene- 
rally left between the houses in 

KichiDd, plur. vichwa, for Kitwa, the 

KidoJca^ plur. mdaka^ a recess in 

the wall. 
Kiddkaf plur. vidaka, a cocoa-nut 

when just formed. 
Kidaka Umge, the uvula. 
Kidangay a very small fruit, before 

it gets any taste. 
Kidari^ the chest : hidari is used of 

both men and animals, hi/ua of 

men only. 
KidaUy plur. vidau, a small vessel. 

Kidau eha winoy an inkstand. 
Kidevuj plur. videvu, the chin. 
Kidimbioij plur. vidimhwiy a pool 

left on the beach by the filing 

Kidinga popo, the dengtie fever. 
KidogOf plur. vidogo, a little, a very 

little, a little piece, a morsel, a 


Kupiga JcidoTco, to click with the 
KidoUy plur. viddey a finger, a toe. 

KidoU cha gurnha, the thumb. 
Kidondoj plur. mdonda^ a sore, a 

small sore, a wound. 
Kidonge, plur. vidonge, a very small 

round thing, a lump in flour, a pill. 
XidotOy plur. vidoiOj a small piece of 
' cloth tied over a cameFg eyes 

while turning an oil press. 
jKidezOf plur. viehzo, a pattern, 

something to make something 

else clear. 

Kievu (A,) =: Kidevu. 

Kiendelezo, progress. 

Ki/a, plui. rt/a, the nipple of a gun. 

Ki/a uvjongo, the sensitive plant 

Kifafay epilepsy, fits. 

Kifa/a, plur. vifafa, sparks and 

crackling of damp firewood. 
Ki/anij plur. vi/anif the like, a 

- similar thing. 
Kifano, plur. vifano, a likeness. 
Ki/aranga, plur. vi/aranga, a 

chick, a very small chicken. 
Kifaruy plur. vifaruy a rhinoceros, 

a small rhinoceros. 
KifaurMy royalty, a royal sort. 

Yahifaiimey royaL 
KifikOy plur. vifikOy arrival, point of 

arrival, end of journey. 
Kifu ku', to suffice. 
Kifu nduguy the os ooccygis, the 

bone which the Mohammedans 

say never decays. 
KifiM, plur. vifuat the chest, the 

Kifufu, plur. vifufut the shell of the 

cocoa-nut (M.). 
Ki/uko, plur. vifuko, a little bag, a 
pocket, a purse. 

Kifuko cha ktUiliafetha, a purse. 
Kifumbu^ plur. mfumbv^ a small 

round basket or bag for squeezing 

scraped cocoa-nut in to get out 

the tui, 
Kifurvibo, plur. vi/umbo, a very large 

kind of matting bag. 
Kifundo cha mguu, the ankle. 
Kifando cha mkonOf the wrist. 
KifungOy plur. vifungo^ an3rthing 

which fastens, a button, prison, 

imprisonment, a kind of rice. 
Kifungwiy an unfastener, an opener. 

Ki/ungua kantoa, eadj IknIv 
breakfast/ . . • «^ 





Kifungua nUangOj a present made 
bj the bridegroom to the kungu 
of the bride before she allows 
him to enter the bride's room* 
on the occasion of his first 
Tisit to her. 
Kifuniko^ plor. vi/umkOf a lid, a 

KifuOf plnr. vifuo, a stick stuck in 
the ground to rip the hnsk off 
cocoa-nnts with. 
Kifurwhif something tied up in the 

comer of a cloth. 
Kifusi, rubbish, rubbish from old 

Kifuuy plur. vifuth a cocoa-nut 

Migaga^ plur. vigaga, a scab. 
Kigaiy plur. vigai^ a piece of broken 

potterj or ^lass, a potsherd. 
Miganda chapilif the two of cards. 
Kigaogao, the Pemba name for a 
chameleon, meaning diangeable. 
Kigego = Kijego, 

Kigerenyenza, plur. vigerenyenzOf a 
very small piece of broken pottery 
or glassy a splinter. 
Kigelegde, plur. vigelegeU, a shrill 
trilling scream much iised as a 
sign of joy, especially on the 
occasion of a birth. 
Kigogo^ a little block of wood. 
Kigogo cha kiuihonea, a small 
oblong piece of wood used by 
Kigongo, the hump of a humpbacked 
Mvoenyi kigongo, a humpback. 
KigonOf plur. vigono (Yao), a sleep- 
ing place. 
KigofliOf a bend. 

Kigosho eha mikono, an arm that 
«annot be straightened. 

Kigugwnizi, stammering, a i 

KigtdUf lame. 

Kigunnif plur. vigunni, en obkmgr 

matting bag of the kind in whleh 

dates are brought to Zanzibar. 
Kigunzi, the day before the 8ik» a 

Kigwet plur. vigwe^ a plaited cord, 

reins, a string of beads, a piling 

on the edge of a dress. 
KiharuH, cramp. 
Kiherehere (eha moyo\ trepidatk»^ 

palpitation (of the heart> 
Kihindi^ the Indian sort, an Indian 

Ya kihindij Indian. 
Kthoro, sorrow at a loss, fright,. 

Kiini, kernel, the heart of wood; 

Kiini eha yayi^ the yolk of an> 

Kiinimaeho, a conjuror. 

Kiisha or £Ma, afterwards, neit,- 

this being ended. 
Kijakazif plur. vijakasd, a dave girL 
Kijamandot plur. vijamanda, a 

small longHBhapcd box oommonly 

used to carry betel and areea- 

nut in. 
KijanOj plur. vijano^ a yoolhy a 

young man, a complimentary 

epithet, a boy or girl, a aon or 

Kijaluba^ plur. v^dttAot a imaD 

metal box. 
Kijamba, plur. vijaniba, a small loek. 
Kijaraha^ plur. vijaraka^ a small 

Kijaraha eha Jjooni, sores on the' 
ponis, syphilis. 
Kijegoj plur. vijego^ a child whidi. 

cuts its uppeir teeth first' They 

aof) reckoned, unlucky, and i 




the vildcr tribes arc often killed. 

Applied by way of abuse to bad 

JSf).iboko, plur. xijiboko, a little 

Xlijkiho, envy, an envious glance. 
^ijigwuj plur. vtjiguu^ a little leg. 
JSijiko, plur. vijiko, a small spoon, 

a spoon. 
J^iJUi, plur. vijitif a little tree, a 

bush, a shrub, a small pole, a 

piece of wood. 
^iJUon plur. tijito^ a small stream, 

a brook. 
JKiJUo (M.) = Kijiclio. 
J^iJUwa or Kijic^iea, plur. vijitwa, 

a little head. 
JCiJivi^ thievish. 
J^fJogoOj plur. vijogoo, a mussel, a 

kind of shell-fidh. 
J^ijoU^ the slaves belonging to one 

JSiJtmba, SwahiU (M.> 
J^ijonffo s Kigongo, a humpback. 
^ijvkuuy plur. vijuhuu, a great- 
^ijumibej plur. vijurnhe^ a go- 
between, a match-maker. 
JCt/ttflibo, plur. vt/umba, a little 

house, a hoveL 
Sikaango, plur. vikaangoy a small 

earthen pot for cooking with oil 

or fat. 
Sikdkaf over-haste. 
^ikaUt old style, the antique. 

Ta kffcalef of the ancient kind, 
antique, of old times. 
KHcaOf plur. vikao, a seat, sitting, 

KikapUf plur. vikapu, a basket, a 

matting bag. 
KiJearamba^ a very old person (dis- 

KiliUa ^u-, to understand half of 

what is said. 

Haiti hii yantkikisa, I know some 

of the words, but not all. 

Kiko, plur. viko, a tobacco ])ipe, a 

pipe. The native pipes consist 

of a vessel half full of water with 

two stems, one leading to the 

bowl and one to the mouthpiece : 


KikoOy plur. viJtoa. ■ 
Ktjila hikoat to eat at the expense 
of each one in turn. 

Kikofl, the inside of the fingers. 

Kikohozif a cough. 

Kikoi, plur. vikoi, a white loin- 
cloth with coloured stripes near 
the border. 

Kikombe, plur. vilcombej a cup. 

Kikomboy a little crooked thing. 

KikomOy plur. vikomo, end, end of 
journey, arrival. 
Ktkomo eha uso, the brow, es- 
pecially if prominent. 

KHeondoo. See KonHoo, 

Kikongwe, plur. vikongtoet an ex- 
tremely old person, a feeble old 

KikonOf plur. viZcono, the prow of a 
small native vessel. 

KtkonyOy plur. vikonyOy flower and 
fruit stalks, the stalks of cloves. 

Kikorombtoet a cry made into the 
hand by way of signal» a call. 

Ktkosi or Ukon, the nape of the neck. 

KikotOy plur. vtkoto (M.), a plaited 
thong or whip carried by an 
overlooker and used in schools. 

Kikoziy plur. vikozi, a detachment, 
a band, company, division. 

Kikvbay plur. vtZn^, a small packet 




of aromaiio leaves, &c., worn in 
the dress by women. It is com- 
posed of rehani, sprinkled with 
dalia, and tied up with a strip of 
the rnkadi, 

Kihukuy plur. mkuJcu, a bracelet, an 
arm ring. 
Kikuku cha Icupandia frasi, a 

Kikunazi (?), labia (obscene). 

Kupiga hihumhOf to push aside, 
to shove out of the way. 

Kikuta, plur. vtkuta, a small stone 

Kikwapa, the perspiration from the 
armpit. See also Kanzu. 

Kikioij plur. vikwi, a thousand, ten 

KHangOj a narrow entrance. 
Kilango cha haharij straits. 
Kilango cha jaha, the gate of 

KUcy that, yonder. 

Kilejif a round flat wheaten cake. 

KileUt plur. vilele, a peak, a sum- 
mit, a pointed top, a pointed 
shoot in a tree or plant. 

Kilema, plur. vUema, a deformed 
Si vema kucheka kUema, it is 
wrong to laugh at on^ who is 

Ktlemha, plur. vUemha, a turban, a 
customary present at the comple- 
tion of a job and on many other 

Kilembwe^ a great-grandson. 

KileOt plur. vileOf intoxication, an 
intoxicating thing. 

KiUte, plur. vUete, metal rowlocks, 

Kilevu = KidevtL 


Eili/u, plur. vilifu, the cloth-like 

envelope of the young ooooa-nnt 

Kilima, plur. viZtmo, a hill, arisiDg 

ground, a mound of earth. 
Kilimbilij the wrist. 
Kilimia, the Pleiades (?). 
£^iZimo, cultivation, the crop planted. 

Kilimo cha ninif what is the 
crop to be? 
Kilindi, plur. fnlindif the deept, 

deep water. 
Kilinga popo (?), rhenmatiem. 
Kilinge cha maneno^ eha uffanga, 

speaking in a dark manner not 

generally understood. 
KUiOf plur. vUiOf a cry, weeping. 
Kiliza ku'y to chink money. 
KiUa or Kulla, every. 

Killa nendapo, wherever I go, or, 
every time I ga 
Kiluthtty velvet. 
Kimay a monkey. 
Kimaf price, measure. 
Kimajif damp. 
Kimanda^ an omelette. 
KimandUf the piece of wood pat oil 

behind the sill and lintel of a 

door to receive the pivots on 

which it turns. 
Kimanga, a small kind of grain. 
Kimangay of tke Arab eoirt See 


Chui kimango, a full-grown leo- 
Kimashamhaf belonging to the 
country, a country dialect 
Ya kimcuhambay countrified. 
KiiribauTTibaUf a cliameleon. 
Kimhia ku-j to run away, to flee. 
Kimhiza ku-, to make to nm awajt 
to put to flight 




;ta hu-f to make to run away 


'ma. See Merima. 

I, a sparkling, a glitter. 

meti, plur. vimetimeti, a fire- 

, plur. vimia, a circular caat- 

the UTula, an enlarged 

it is or was inside. 
1, one. See McjcL 
roto, nonsense. 
imuri, plur. vimurimuri, a 


ngay a hurricane. 

\ hu-, to be tired, disgusted, 

) cross at having anything to 

mdOj plur. vimwondo^ a mis- 
a shooting star, because they 
said to be thrown by the 
Is at the Jins. 
, silence, perfect stillness. 
vsa htmyahitnya, a still man. 

( «tfi, people like us. 

•juiha haya ya Mna Abddllah, 

sse chests belong to Abdal- 

I's people. 

plur. vinaj a versCf the final 

ble of the lines, which is the 

> throughout the poem. 

hu-f to be content without, 

thhold oneself from desiring, 

3 selfHBatisfied, to revolt at, 


ha ku-f to revolt, to make 

le to eat any more, to take 

' the desire of. 

izi or Kiinamizi, stooping to 


Eo, plur. vinand€tf a stringed 

instrument, applied to nearly all 

European instruments. 
Kinaraf plur. vinara, a little tower, 

a candlestick. See also Kanztu 
Kinaya, self-content, insolence. 
Kinayi hu^ s Kinai %ti-. 
Kinda, plur. makinda^ a very young 

bird, the young of birds. 
Kindaiia hw^ to object to, to stand 

in the way ot 
Kinena, the abdomen. 
Kinga, plur. fdnga, a brand, a half- 
burnt piece of firewood. 
Kinga^ a stop, a limit put to a 

Kinga ku-y to put something to catch 
something, to guard oneself, to 
ward a blow. 

Kukinga mvuat to put something 
to catch the rainwater. 
Kingaja, plur. vingaja, a bracelet of 

Kingalingali, on the back (of falling 

or lying). 
Kingama ku-^ to lie across* 

Mti umekingama njiani^ a tree 
lies across the road. 
Kingamtsha kth^ to block, to stop, 

to spoil. 
Kinge, too little. 

ChaktUa kinge^ too little food. 
KingojOf a watch, time or place of 

Kingozif the old language of Me- 

linda, the poetical dialect, difii- 

cult and ill-understood language. 
Kingubwa, the spotted bysBna. 
Kinika ku-, to be certain or asccr» 

tained about a person. 

Kukata kinjunjuri^ to shave all 
the hair except one long tnft 



Kfnoo, plur, vtnoo, a wlietsione. 
Embe hinoo, a small yellow kin^ 
of mango. 
Kinu, pltir. vinu^ a wooden mortfur 
for pounding and for cleaning 
o(Mm, an oil-mill, a mill. 
Kinu dha Icushindikia, a mill for 

pressing oil. 
Kinu eha moshif a steam milL 
KintM, plur. vinubi, a harp» 

Ya Kinvbi, Nubian. 
Kinufa s= KinyuHi. 
Kinwa, plur. vtntca, a mouth. 
Kinvoa mchuzi, the imperial, the 

place where the imperial grows. 
KinycM^ filth, dung. 
Kinyago, plur. vinyago, a thing to 
frighten people, such as a mock 
ghost, &o., &0, 
Kinyegere^ a small animal, a skunk. 
Kinyemit pleasant, good. 
Kinyenye/u, a tioklmg, a tingling. 
Kinyeti. See KinyoM, 
Kinyi, having. 6ee -inyi, 
Kinytmgaf plur. vinyonga, a chame- 
Kinyoxi, plur. vinyoxif a barber, a 

Kinyuma := Kinyum§» 
Kinyume, afterwards. 
Kinyume, going back, shifting, 
alteration, an enigmatic way of 
•peaking, in which the last syl- 
lable is put first See Appendix I. 
Kinymoibat a kept mistress. 
KinyunycL, plur. vinytmya, a kind 
of oake, a little cake made to try 
the quality of the flour, 
KinguHif plur. vinyvHif a drink, a 

Kinywc^if plur. frinytoa^i, a beve- 
rage, a usual beverage. 


KtMa hu', to contradict,- deny. 
Kioga, plur. viogay a mushroom. 
Kiokosi, pluri viokosip a reward foi^''^ 
finding a lost thing and retomiug' 
it to the owner. 
Kicja, plur. viqja, a curiosity. 
Kionda^ a taster. 
Kionda mtuzi, the imperial, the 
place where the ^perial grows 
Kiongozi, plur. viongoH, a leader, a 

guide, a caravan guide. 
Kumgvfe, plur. viongwCf a donkey 
from the mainland; they axe re- 
puted very hard to manage. 
Kioo, plur. vioOf glass, a glass, a 
looking-glnss, a piece of glass,— 
a fish-hook (M.> 
KiopoOf a pole or other instrument 
to get things out of m well, &&, 
Kiotha ndguut a present made by 
the bridegroom to ih» Jsung^ of 
the bride on the oooaaioii of hi» 
first visit ., . . . ' 

Kiotaf plur. vibto, a hen*8 nest, a 

laying placcj a bird's nest 
Kioto sz Kioto. 
Kupiga kiowe^ to Mream, «ry for 
KiowepUf a liquid. 
Kioza, putricUty. . , . 
Kipa^i^konot a present made by ihe^ 
bridegroom to the bride when he 
fi^. 8^s her faca . 
Kipcui, plur. vipaa, a thatched root 
the long sides of a foot 
KipcM eh^ m&elfl^ the front slope 

of the roof. 
K^paa eha nyuvta, the b«ck skpe 
of the root 
Kipo^e, a kind oimta$im» 




Xipaji, a kind of oosmetlc. See 

JSipaku^ plur. vipdku^ a spot or 

mark of a different colour. 
JSipambo, adommeAi 
Xipande, plur. vtpandd, a piece, an 
instrument, a small rammer for 
beating roofs. 
Vipande vya hupimia^ nautical 

Kipande kilichonona, a pieoe of 
Sipanga^ a large bird of prey, a 

KipangozU a sluggish incurable 

sore on a horse or ass. 
JT^jNira, plur. vipara^ a shaved place 

on the head. 
Kipde^ plur. tipeU^ a pimple. 
Kipendi^ a darling, a favourite. 
Kipena, plur. vipenu^ a lean-to, the 

side cabins of a ship. 
KipenyOf a small place where some- 
thing passes through. 
Kipepeo^ plur. vipepeo, a fan for 

blowing the fire, a butterfly. 
Kipdo, plnr. vipeio, a packet 
Kipi or Kipiay a cock's spur. 
Kipigif a rainbow (?> 
KipiUh ft curlew. 

Nyde za hipilipilij woolly hair. 
Kipindi, a time, a period of time, an 
Kipindi chote^ at every period. 
Kipindi cIm aththuuri^ the houi; 
of noon. 
Kufa hipin^ to die a natural 
death, as Rattle, &o. 
Kiphdupindd^ cholera. 
KipingufOt plur. vipingtock^ a bar. 
Eipinif plna vipini, a hilt, a haft. 

. a handle of the same kind as » 
knife handle, a stud-shaped orna- 
ment worn by women iu the nose^ 
and sometimes in the ears also. 

KipimOf plur. vtpsmo, a measure. 

Kipofut plur. vtpo/ti, a blind pcrw 

KipoUpoU^ a butt^y. 

Ktpooza, paralysis. 

Kipuhuba, dropped early, cast fruit,, 

KipukutSy Kipukwe = Kipukuba. 
Ndizi hipukutey little bananas. 

Kipulij plur. vtptdif a dangling- 
ornament worn by women in the 
ear; they are often little silver 
crescents, flve or six round the 
outer circumference of each ear. 

Kipunguo, plur. vipunguOp defect^ 

KipupwCf the cold season (June and- 

Kipwa, plur. vipwa^ rocks in the sea. 

Kirdka, plur. virakay a patch. 

Kiri ku-, to confess, accept, acknow*^ 
ledge, assert 

Kiriba, plur. viriba, a water-skin. 

Kirthi ku-f to provoke. 

Kirthika ku^^ to be provoked, to be 

Kirihisha Zru-, to make offended, to 

Kirimbct, a cage for wild animals, 
a meat-safe. 

Kirimu Zru-, to feast • 

Kiriihi hth, to borrow, specially to 
borrow money. 

Kiroboto, plur. virdboto, a flea. The 
Hathramaut soldiers are nick- 
named VirdbotOf and their song 
as they march is parodied by, 
KirdbotOy KirclbotOf tia moiOy ti» 




Kirukanjiay a kind of mouse found 

in Zanzibar. 
Kirukiaf a kind of parasite growing 

on fruit trees. 
Kiruuy blind rage. 
JTisa, plur. visa, a cause, a reason, 
a short tale. 
Visa vingi, many afEuirs, a com- 
plicated business. 
Kisa cha koJco, kernel of a stone. 
Kisaga, a measure equal to two 

Kisdhani, plur. visahani, a plate, a 

small dish. 
Kisanduku, plur. vtsandukuj a small 

chest, a box. 
Kisarani, a greedy fellow, a miser. 
KisoMy revenge, retaliation. 
Kisliada, a tailless kite. 
Kishaka, plur. vishaka, a thicket. 
Kisheda, a bunch of grapes, a paper 

fluttering in the air like a kite. 
Kishenziy of the wild people. 
Lugha ya kishenzi, a language of 
the interior. 
Kishiy a chess-queen. 
Kishigino = Kisigino, 
J^ishinda, a small residue left in a 
place or inside something, as 
in a water-jar less than half 
Vuihinda vingapi umetiai How 
many portions (of grain) have 
you put (in the mortar, to be 
cleaned) ? 
^Kishindo, noise, shock. 
KishogOy the back of the head and 
Ahupaye hishogo H mwenzto, one 
who turns his back upon you 
is not your friend. 
*Kisihwara, a loop of rope to haul by 
in dragging a vessel into ot out 

of the water, a loop in the side 

a dhow to pass an oar through 

for rowing. 
Kisi ku-, to guess. 
Kukisi tangOf to shift over a sail 

to the opposite side. 
Kisi, Keep her away t 
KisibaOf plur. visibao, a waistcoat 
with or without sleeves ; they 
are very commonly worn in 

Kisibao cha mikono, a sleeved 

Kisibao cha vikapa or vCewapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat. 
Kisibu (?), a nickname. 
Kisigino or Kishigino, the elbow. 

Kisigino cha mgwa, the heeL 
Kisihi, plur. visiki, a log. Used in 

slang language for a prostitute. 
Kisiki cha rnvna, a rainbow .0^). 
Kisima, plur. visima, a welL' 
Kisinii (obscene), the clitoris. 
Kisitiri, a screen, scredn-wall, 

Kisiwa, plur. visiwa, an island. 
Kisiyangu [Tumbatu] = KizingiH, 

Kisivoiso cha choo chauma^ ocmsti- 
Kishoka, plur. vishoka, a hatchet, a 

small axe. 
Kishtdxika, plur. vishubahoj a smsll 

recess, a pigeon-hole. 
Kishungi, plur. vishungi, the ends of 
# the turban cloth, lappets. 
Kisma, a part. 
Kisomho, a paste made of beanie 

mahogOf &c 
Kisongo, plur. nsongo^ a piece of 

wood to twist cord of rope with. 
Kisozcy a very small bird with back 

blue, and breast yellow. 




^tsUj plur. visut a knife. 

JCisifo, a suit of clothes. 

JKisugtdu, plur. vimguluy a mound 

of earth, an ant-hill. 
JKisungwrckt plur. visungura, a little 
rabbit (»r hare (?). 

SisurumOf gonorrhoea. 

KUunono cha damu, with pnssing 

Kisunono cha uzdhay with passing 

KisunoruTcha mkojoj with constant 

JKisunili, a whirlwind (?) a boy's 

KUttBit plur. mtusiy the hip of a 
roof. The main roof starts from 
the long front and back walls, 
and is called the paa; small 
roofs start from the end walls, 
and are carried to the ridge under 
and within the paa: these are 
the visufi. 

Kiauto =■ Kisutu. 

KinttUt plur. visutu, a largo piece 
of printed calico, often forming 
a woman's whole dress, a cover- 

^inoa = Kisa. 

Kitabu, plur. vitahu, a book. 

KiiagaUfay a small matting bag for 
halwif &c. 

KitakizOf plur. vitakizo, the head 
and foot-pieces of a bedstead. 

KiUiko, sitting. 

Kultaa kitaliOj to sit down, to re- 
main in one locality. 4 

KitdUy plur. vitcde^ a cocoa-nut just 
beginning to grow. 

KUali^ sailcloth. 

Kitalu^ a stone fence, a wall. 

JSitarnhaa^ plur. vitnmhaa, a small 
piece of cloth a rag. 

Kitamhaa cha hufutia mJeonOf a 

Kitarnbaa c^amcza, a tablenapkio. 
Kitambicha hileniba^ a piece of stuff 

for making a turban. 
KitamhOy a short time. 
Kitamirij a kind of evil spirit 
Kitanay plur. vitana, a small comb. 
Kitanday plur. vitanda, a bedstead,. 

a couch. 
Kitanga, plur. vitanga, a round mat 
used to lay out food upon. 
Kitanga cha, mhono^ the palm of 

the hand. 
Kitanga cha mzaniy a scale pan. 
Kitanga cha pepo, the name of a 
Kitanty flax, linen, string. 
Kitanziy plur. titanzi^ a loop, a. 

Kitaowa, the kind proper for »• 
Amevaa nguo za kitaowa, he is 
dressed like a devotee. 
Kitapo, plur. vitapo, a shivering, a 

KitarcLf plur. vitara, a curved sword. 
Kitara, an open shed in a village,, 
where people sit to talk and trans- 
act business. 
Kitasay a box lock, a lock. 
Kitatangi, a cheat. Also a Ter; 
bright-coloured sea-fish with 
spines, a sea-porcupine. 
Kitawiy a kind of weed. 
Kitawi, plur. vitavui, a branch, a 

bough, a bunch. 
Kitei, feeling sure, certaiDty, faith- 
fully (?), affection. 
Kana kite haye, he has no affeo» 

Kupiga kitcy to cry or groan fxonk 
inward pain. 




£iUeflefUy sobbing before or after 

^ite/ute, the obeek, the part of the 
face over the cheek-bone. 

KitehUj a tosser. 

Kitembe, a lisp. 

Kit&nhuji, a thread of flax or fine 

•KitendawHif plur. vitendatotli, an 
enigma. The propounder says 
Kitendamli; the rest answer 
Tega; ho then propounds his 

KitendOf plur. vitendo^ an action. 

JS.iUngenya^ a small bird spotted 
with white, yellow, and rod. 

KUeo, plur. viteo^ a small sifting 

KitesOf a vase. 

Kitewe, loss of the use of the legs. 

.Ki(kiri hn-^ to grow large, in- 
UmeJiithiri liuzaa, it has borne 
more than before. 

•Kitty plur. rt7«, a chair, a seat 
Kiti cha frost, a saddle. 

;KitiTnbi, plur. vitimbi^ an artifice, 
an artful trick. 

Kitinda mimbaj the last child a 
woman will bear; 

JCitindi. See VUindi. 

^ituho, plur. vUisho, fear, a terrify- 
ing thing. 

^ititi, plur. vititi, a hare, a rabbit, 
a little thing (M.). 

^ititi, to the full, entirely, alto- 
gether, all at once. 

Kititi eha hahari, the depths of the 

Kititia^ a child's windmilL 

iKitiujangOf chicken-pox. The 
niitives say an epidemic of Idti- 
tc/mtffa, always precedes one of 

small-pox. Also tiHwanga, 

perhaps tete ya kwanga, 
Kito, plur. vUo, a predoos stone. 
Kitoka (M.) =z Kishoka. 
Kitomoy plur. vitomo, a small roond 

Kitoma, orchitis. 
Kitone, plur. vUone, a diopw 
KitongOf hydrocele (?). 
Kilongqji, a village. 

Kutezama kiiongotongOf to glance 
at contemptuously with half* 
shut eyes.* 
Kitoria, a kind of edible fimit. 
Kitoteo (M.) = Kichoeheo. 
KitotOj plur. ffitoto, a little child. 
Kitovu, plur. vUovUf the navel. ' 
Kitoweo, plur. vUoweo, a relish, a 

something to he eaten with the 

rice or other vegetable food, neh 

as meat, fish, cnrxy, fto. 
KitUj plur. Htu^ a thing, espeoially 
a tangible thing. 

8i JcUuy nothing, worthless. 
KittJM, plur. vitua, the shade of a 

tree, &c. 
KitukOy startledness, fright. 
Kitukuuy plur. wtukfrn^ % gnat 

Kittdizo, plur. vUuUzo, a soothing^ 

quieting thing. 
Kitumhua, plur. ffUumfma, a sort of 

cake or fritter made in Zanilbar. 
KitundOf plur. vitunda^ a ehcss 

Kitundwi^ a water-jar [Tnmbatii}. 
KUunga^ plur. vitunga^ a aniall 

round basket. 
Kitungu (?) a small xoand eailhfli 

Kitwtguley plur. vitungyJe^ a hare mt 

rabbit (?). 




iu, plur. viiunguUf an onion, 
m $omu, garlic. 
ca, a small bird like a 

plur. viluo, an enoampment, 
isting-plaoe, a putting down. 
( kituo, he is always gadding 

plur. vitupa, a little bottle, 

H ya hitiitiaf a boiling sea, 
)p and rough, 
plur. vituKif the head. 
gombaj a Bomersault. 
itijoa, topsy-turvy, 
a, plur. vilwanaiO. slave boy. 

I na hiu, to be thirsty. 
a kittf to feel tliirst. 
»lur. viua, an eyelet hole. •■ 
'ttih, to step over. 
= KiruJcia^ 
plur. viuma, a fork. 
mibugif a small dark-coloured 

, plur. viumbe, a creature, 
)d thing. 

zi, a peculiar way of beating 
[rum; the people sing the 
, Sheitani ndoo tupigane 


, plur. viungay a suburb, the 
skirts of a town. 
jam, near the town, in the 

plur. viungOf a joint, — an 
hing put into the mchuzi. 
'a, the language of Zanzibar, 
ana, the free or geutUmauly 


iungwana, civilized, oour- 
18, becoming a frqo man. 

Maanamke wa hiungwanctf a ladyw 

Kiungulictf plur. viunguliai an eruc- 
tation, a breaking of wind. 

KiunOy plur. viuno, the loins. 

Kiunzay plitir. irittnza, the plank laid 
over the body before the grave 
is filled in. (Coffins are never 

Kiuwaji, murderous, deadly. 

Kivi, the elbow. 

Kivimba^ plur. vMmhiiy the girth of 
a tree, the circumference. - 

Kivimbi, a small swelling. 

Kivuko, plur. invuko,B, ford, a ferry, 
a crossing-place. 

Kivuli, plur. vivtUi, a shadow, a 
shade, a ghost. 

Kivumbazii a strong-stoelling herb 
said to scare mosquitoes: wash- 
ing in water in which it has been 
steeped is said to be a preventive 
of bad dreams. 

Kivumho, lonely (?). 

Ktvumi, plur. vivumi, a roaring, 
bellowing sound. 

Kivyao = Kizao, 

Kivyazi, birth. 

Kitoamh<izay • fdur. vitoambazay a 
mud and sf ud wall. 

Kiwambo, something strained 
tightly over a frame, like the 
skin of a drum, a weaving frame. 

KiwandcL, plur. vitoanda, a work- 
shop, a yard, a plot of land. 

Kiujango, plur. viicango, a number, 
position in the world, duties be- 
longing to one's position, a man'a 

Kiwanja ±= Kitcandti. 

KitDoo, a great feast [Tumbatn]. 

Kiwavii plur. viwavi, a nettle, a bt^a» 

Kiicavu chana (X*\ ribSi . ^ 


Ki vv 


Kiwe, plur. viwe. 

Kiwe c^ tMo, a small kind of 
pimple on the face. 
Ktioele, an udder. 
Kiaembe^ a pocket-knife. 
Kiweo (M.), thigh, lap. 
KiweU^ loss of the use of the legs. 
Kiwi^ moon-blindness, a dazzle. 

Kufanya httoi, to dazzle. 
Kiioi, plur. vtioiy a small stick, a 

piece of wood, a bar. 

Kiwiko cha mJcono, the wrist. 

Kiwiko chd mguu, the ankle. 
Kivoiliunlit the human trunk, the 

body without the limbs. 
Kiyama^ the resurrection. 
Kiyambaza, a bulkhead, partition. 

Also = Kvwamhaza. 
KiyambOt neighbourhood, a village. 
Kiza or CHza, darkness. 

Kutia kizat to darken, to dim. 
Kizao, plur. vizao, a native, one 

bom in the place. 
Kizcui, plur. vizazi, a generation. 
Kizee, diminutive of mzee, gene- 
rally used of an old woman. 
Kizibo, plur. vizibo^ a stopper, a 

KiziOt plur. viziOf half of an orango, 

ooooa-nut, &c 
Kizimbi, plur. vizirnbi, a cage. 
Kizinda, a virgin. 
Kizinga, plur. vizingcit a large log 

half burnt. 
Kizingitiy threshold, the top and 

bottom pieces of a door or window 

frame, bar of a river. 
Kizingot turnings, curves of a river, 

Ac, (?) a burial ground. 
KizingOt sharp shore sand used for 

Kiziufif plur. vizivsi^ deafL 

— 1 

Kizuio = KlxuizL 

Kizuizij plur. vizuizi^ a stop, a ihi^ ^ 

which hinders or stays. 
KizuizOj plur. vizuizot a hindrance -^1.. 
Kizuka, plur. vizukcL^ a kind of er" ^^^ 

spirit, a woman who is stayin ^-— -*. 

in perfect secrecy and quie"***^ 

during the mourning for he 

husband. See Eda, 
Kizungu, a European language. 

Ya kizungu, European. 
KizunguzungUf giddiness. 
Kizuri, beauty, a beauty. 
Kizushi, an intruder. 
Kizuu, plur. vtztftf, a kind of e 

spirit, which kills people at 

order of its master. 
Koy 'ho, -koy where, whither, whenco. *" 

Ko kote^ whithersoever. 
KoOf plur. mo^foo, a.snaiL 
Koa (plur. of Ukoa\ the aUver rin; 

on the scabbard of a swozdy 

plates of metaL 
Kobe, a tortoise. 
Kochey plur. makoehe^ the froit of a 

kind of palm. 
Kodif rent. 
Kodolea ^u-, to fix the eyes upon, 

to stare. 
Kofi, plur. makofiy the flat of the 

Kupiga kofl^ to strike with open 
hand, to box the ears. 

Kupiga makofl^ to olap thehaadik 
Kofiaj a oap. 
Kdfilctf a caravan. 
Kofuoy emaciated. 
Koga = Kuoga. 
Kohaniy a small red fish like e 

KohOf a large bird of prej. 
Kohod, ku-, to cough. 
Kohozi, expectorated mattec» 




Koihoi^ plur. mdkoihoiii a lort of 

evil spirit. 
KojcLj a gold ornamont for the 

Kcjoa Xn^>, to make water. 
Koka = Ku6k(u 
Kdka hthf to set on fire. 
Koko, plur. mahokOf kernelis, nuts, 

stones of frait. 
Koko^ plur. mdkoho,. brushwood, 
, thickets, bushes. 

Mlnoa koko, a homeless dog that 
lives in the thickets and eats 
Kohomaika Zfu-, to vomit, to belch 

out, blurt out 
Kckota ku-i to drag. 

Kukokota roho, to breathe hard. 
KokoUza fttt-, to do anything slowly 

and carefully. 
Kokoto, plur. makokotOy . a small 

stone, a small piece of stone. 
KokwOj plur. malcokwa, nuts, stones 

of fruit. 
KolekoUf a kind of fish. 
KdUa ku-y to become well flavoured, 

to get the right quantity of a 

KcHeo, plur. maJeoleOt tongs. 
Kologa A;u-, to stir. 
JSjmMj plur. makomay a kind of fruit. 
Koma ku-, to cease, to leave off, to 
end a journey, to arrive at a 

Koma uaije I Gome no further I 
Komaa ku-, to be full grown. 
Komaza ku-^ to mock, to make game 

Komba, a galago. 

Koniba kth, to scrape out, to clean 
■'. out. 

Dafu la kukomba, a cocoa-nut in 
which the nutty part is but just 

forming, which is then reckoned 
a delicacy. 

Kukomba mtu, to get all hismoney, 
to clean him out. 
KombamoyOt plur. makomhcmoyo, 

one of the rafter» of a thatched 

Kombef plur. makombe, a large diiih. 

Kombe la mkono (A.), the shoulder- 

Kombe za ptoani, oysters (?X 
cockles (?), sea-shells, 
Kombeka ku-, to be cleaned out, to 

have had all one*s money got from 

K(mbeOy a sling. 
Kombo, plur. makambot scraps, 

pieces left after eating. 
K*ombOy a defect, crookedness. 

Kutoa k'ombot to notice a defect. 
Komboa kvr, to ransom, to buy buck. 
Kamboka kti-, to be crooked. 
Kombokambo, crooked. 
Kcymboroj a bomb, a mortar. 
Kombozij a ransom. 
Kame, plur. mdkome, a pearl 

oyster (?), a mussel (?), a shelL 
Komea ku-, to fasten with a native 

lock (komeo), 
KoTneOt a kind of wooden lock. 
Komesha ku-, to make to cease, to 

put a stop to. 
Komwef plur. rndkomwe, the seeds of 

a large climbing plant abundantly 

furnished with recurved thorns ; 

they are used to play the game of 

bao with. 
Konda ftu-, to grow thin and lean. 
Kcmdavh large beads worn by 

women, as a belt round the loins. 
Kondej a fist. 

Kupiga moyo konde, to takie heart, 
to resolve firmly. 




Kondesha ku-, to make to grow loan. 
JCondOf war (Merima). 
^ondoa,' a ^heej^ [Lin'dl}. 
Kondoo, sheep: ' •' 

Tuafa MhondoOt be di^s ' like' a 
sheepv silently (wMch Is high 
Konga kn», to grow old and feeble. 
Kongod hu-, to draw out nails, &c., 

to take to pieces. 
KongoeOf Mombos: 
Kongoja k»-, to "walk with difllenltj, 

to totter. 
K&ngolewa Xr»-, to be taken to pieces. 
KongomerOf tlirout. 
Eongoni = KungunL 
Kolng*oUij a sort of woodpecker, 

black and yellow. 
Konguaj a slave-stick. 

• Kutoa hongwe^ to lead off the solo 

port of a 8ong, in which others 

join in the chorus. 

'■hongtBe^ over-told, worn out with 


Ktmot a projecting handle, like that 

of a saucepan. 
K(moJcono, a snail. 
Konyeaha hu- = Kontfeza fcu-w 
Konyexa hu-, to make a sign by 

raising the eyebrows. 
Xoruii what can be ghisped in the 
hund. a fUt ftilL 
Knpiga ^-onrf,- to rap with the 
knuckles. ' 

Koo, p\^t- mikoiH a breeding animal 
or bird. 
jfoo ta htkm, a laying hen. 
Ka» 1« ^i*«'» * breeding goat. 

Koo^k?^ plM. nwOwoRde, cnltivatod 
liiMl, «eia«, the piece of a thamha 
•JlnOei to a «Uw Cw bii own use. 

Konyoa ku-^ to break off the cobs oC 

Indian com. 
Sbpd, hearts, in ottrds. ^ 

Kopa, plur. mdkopa, a piece of dried 

muhogoy which baa been steeped. 

and cooked. ' ' 

Kopa ku; to get good^ oneredit for 

the purpose of trading with, to 

cheat, to swindle. 
Kope, plur. of Vkope, the eyelashes. 
Kope, plur. makopef the wick of a 

Kopeta ku'f to wink. 
Kopeaha ku-, to supply a trader' with 

goodfr' on credit, to give on trust. 

to lend. 
Kopo, plur. makoptff a large mistal 

vessel, a spout. 
Kdpoa ku-i to drag out <^ one's 

hand, = Chopoa ku'. 
Kora ktt-f to seem sweet te^ to be 

loved by. 
Koradani, a sheave of a pulley. ' 
iCor(/a, a pucker in sewing. Also, a 
KorjOf a score. [soore. 

Koroanaku'f to steep in water. 
Korqfi^ a bird of ill omen, a 

messenger of bad luck. 
KoroJUha kit-, to ruin a man. 
Koroga ku-, to stir, to stir up. 
£broma, plur. maABoro]iia,aeoooei^nat 

in its last stage but one^ when the 

nut is formed but baa not yet its 

full flavour. It haaeeased to be 

a da/u and is not yet a wuL 
Koroma ktir, to snore. 
KorongOf a crane. 
Korongo, plur. makoronga^ % holb 

dibbled for seed. 
KororOj a created guiaearfewL 
Korosho, plur. tnakoroshOf cashew 

Koru, the waterbuck. 




^ToMi htt-, to err, mistake, miss, go 

wroDg, do wrong, blunder. 
Ko8e7(ana ku-, to be missed, not to 
.'■ be there. 

Kosaha ku>-i to lead astray* . 
Koti^ia ku^ to purpose, to intend, 

Koto, idnr. makota^ the fMka of a 
. kind' of millet which are chewed 
KaUtf i» crook. [like «ngar-eane. 
JKota ku', 

'Kuhota motdf to warm oneself. 
KotamOf a curved knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
£bfe,*all. Bee -ote, 
Kotekote, on every fiide^ 

Kmtpiga koto (M.)j to strike with 
tkb knuckles. • 
KovOf plur. inaJcovo, scar. 

1. The indefinite verbal prefix 
answering to tliere in English. 
- Kurlikuwa, there was. 
Ku-kaianday and there spread. 
. IL The sign of the infinitive. . • 
JSTtf-pt^a, to strike. : 
Kufhenday to go, 
'The infinitive may be used as a 
, * subetantlve answering to the 

English form in -ing, 
.JSufa, dying, the act of death. 
JLwenda, going. 

'The Z;«- of the infinitive is re* 
tained by monosyllabic verbs, 
and by some others in all 
tenses in which the tense 
prefix ends in an unaccented 
. :8. The prefix proper to adjeetives^ 
pronouns, and verbs agreeing 
with infinitives used as sub- 

Ku/a kicetu kicema kutampendexa^ 
our good deaths will please him. 

4. The prefix proper to pronouns 
agreeing witli substantive» in 
the locative case (-ni), where 
neither the being or- goinf^ 
inside, nor mere nearness, is 

Enenda nyugnbani kvoangu, go to 

Zilco kteetn, there are in our pos- 
. session, at our place. 

5. In a few words a prefix signi- 
fying locality jCoromonly so used 
in other African languages, but 
generally represented in Swa- 

. : Iiili by tiie case in -^i* 

Kuzimu, among the dead,' in the 
-fcif-. . [grave. 

1. The sign of the negative past 
always preceded by some negii- 
tive personal prefix. 

Sihujua, I<lid not know» 
ffazikufcuij they were of no use. 

2. The objective prefix denoting 
the second person singular. 

Nakupendoj I love thee, or you. 
Alikupa, he gave thee, or you. : 
Sihihvjua, I did not know you. 

3. The objective prefix referring 
to infinitives of verbs, or to 
kukuy there. 

Kua ku-y to grow, to become large. 
'kvba ox 'kubwa, great, large. 
KvbaU ku, to accept, assent to, 

acknowledge, approve. 
KvJbaMka ku-y to be accepted, to be 

eapable of acceptance. 
KiMUtiha hvhy to make to accept. 
Kuhba^ a vaulted place. 
'kuhuHif large, great, elder, diief. 

It makes kubwa with nouns liko 




Kucha, or Kumekxtcha, the dawn. 

Usiku httchayBLil night. 
Kiiehua ku-, 
Kamba im^ikuchua, the rope has 
worn away, chafed, stranded. 
Kuftili, a padlock. 
Kufuru ^t*-, to become an infidel, 

to apostatize. 
Kufuru ku-i to mock, to deride. 
Kuguniythe haiiobeest (boselaphus). 
Kuke, See -ke. 
Mkano wa kuke^ the left hand. 
Kvheni, on the female side. 
KukOf yonder, to yonder. 

Kwa kvkot beyond, on yon side. 
Kuku, a hen, a fowl, fowls, poultry. 
Kuku nahukUf backwards and fur- 
-Icukuu, old, worn out. It makes 

kukuu with nouns like nyumba. 
Kulahu, a hook to steady work with. 
KuUy there, far off, yonder. 
KuUe, yonder, very far off. As the 
distance indicated increases the 
e is more dwelt on, the voice 
raised to a higher and higher 
KtdekuU, there, just there. 
Kulia kU'y to become great for, to 

become hard to. 
KulikOf where there is or was. 
Kulikonif Where there is what 

= why ? (M.). 
Kuliko, is used in the ordinary way 
of expressing the comparative. 
Mwefna kuliko huyu, good where 
this man is, and therefore 
better than he. Because if a 
quality becomes evident in any- 
tiiing by putting some other 
thing beside it, the first must 
possess the quality in a higher 
degree than the other. 


I KuUa, ofteii pronounced kiUd^eYetf^ 
I each one. 

KululUf nothing at all. 
NikapataktUulu = SikupcUaneiUK 

Kululu, tiger cowries, Oyproa tigria 

Kulungu, a sort of antelope. 

Kuma, the vagina. 

Kuniba ku-y to push against, to tak» 
and sweep off the whole of any- 
thing, e,g. to clear water oat of a 
box, to bale a boat. 

Kumbatia ku-, to embrace, to diasp. 

Kumbatiana ku-, to embrace (of two 

Kunibef What? An expression of 
surprise used especially when 
something turns out otherwise 
than was expected, oomiiumly 
joined with a negative verb. 

Kumbi (Mer.), oircumcision. 
Anaingia kupibinif he is being 

Kumbi, plur. makumbi, eoooa-nut 
fibre, the husk of the eoooa-nut 
and the fibrous mass out of which 
the leaves grow. Also, at Mgao» 
gum copaL 

Kumbtkumbif ants in their flying 

Kumbisha ku-, to push off npon» te 
lay upon some one else. 

Kumbuka ku-, to think of, to remem- 
ber, to ponder over, to reooUeoi. 

Kumbukumbu, a memorial, a men- 

Kumbura, an explosive shelL 

Kumhwiha ku-, to remind. 

Kumbwaya, a kind of drum stand- 
ing on feet. 

Kumekucha^ there if dawn, tbt 

Kumi, plur. makumij ten. 

Kumoja, on one side. 




Kumpuni, plnr. mdkumpunif a per- 
son who has obtained fnll know- 
ledge of his trade. 
JTumunto hu-Qler,), to shake out 

or off. 
Kumunto, a sieve of basket-work. 
Kumutika Xcu-, to desire (?). 
Kumvif husks and bran of rice. 
JTuna, tliere is, 
Kunaye^ depending npon him. 
Kunani f What is the matter ? 
Kuna kwambaje f What do you 
say? [Tumbatn]. 
Kuna ku-, to scratch. 
Xunakucha, there is dawning, the 

Sttfiazt, a small edible fruit 
Kunda ku' (M.) = Kunja ku-. 
KwidOf plur. makunda, a green 

vegetable like spinach. 
Kundaa Xpu-, to be short and small 

of statnre. 
Kundamana ku- = Kunjamana ku-. 
Kunde^ beans, haricot beans. 
Kundi^ plur. makundit a crowd, a 

herd, many together. 
Kundua ku-, to please (?). 
'kundufu, giving pleasure. 
Nyumba ni kundufu, the house 

is commodious. 
Jliuungu ni mkundufu, God is the 
giver of all good things. 
Kundvka ku-, to grow larger, to 
Jlioi/o umekunduka^ he is gratified 
Kunga ku-^ to hem. 
Kunga, cleverness, clever. 

Kazi hai/ai ilia kwa kunga, it 
wants to be done cleverly. 

. Jiungali na mapema Jxido, while 
it is yet early. 

Kungu, mist, fog. 

Kungu manga, a nutmeg. 

Kunguni, a bug. 

Kunguru, a crow, a bird a little 

larger than a rook, black, with 

a white patch on the shoulders 

and round the neck: it feeds on 

Kung'uta ku-, to shake ofi^ to shake 

Kung*uto, plur. mdkung*uto, a sort 

of basket used as a sieve or 

Kuni, firewood. The singular, 

ukuni, means one piece of fire- 
Kunia ku-, to scrape or scratch 

with, or for. 
Kunia ku-, to raise the eyebrows in 

Kuniita, telling me to come. 
Kunja ku-f to fold, to wrap up, to 

Kiikunja uzi^ to wind thread. 

Kujikunja, to flinch, to shrink. 

Kiikunja U80 or Kukunja vipaji, 
to frown, to knit the brows. 
Kunjana ku-, to fold together, to 

dwindle, to wrinkle. 
Kunjamana ku-, 

U80 unakunjamana, his face is 
sad, sour, and frowning. 
Kunjia ku-, to fold for, to wrap ui> 

for, to crease. 
Kunjika ku-, to become folded or 

doubled up, to be creased. 
Kunjua ku-, to unfold. 

Kukunjua miguu, to stretch one's 
Kunjuka ku-, to become unfolded, 

to spread over. 
Kunjuliwa ku-, to be open and un- 




Kunrathi, don't bo olTcihlcd, eisoui^ 
mo, pardoajtto^ . . 

Kunu cUamu, be it known» 

Kunya^kur, to oaie onefielf. • 8m> 

t£Lttnyuto<Xpii^, todraw togethee. i; 
Kujihunyata^ to-dxaw oDeself* to- 
gether, to shrink. .'•;.;'• 

Kunyua ,]eu' .or JC«ny«Za . Ifii^, • Id 
touch secretly (with a soratehAng 
motion) by way of flignalx^r of 
calling attention * t priTately,» > to 
make a scratch on the skiiL- 

Kupaa, &ee ^akupaa. 

Kupe, a tick, a oattle tick. ' 

Kuptia ku; to shake something off 
one'4 dvessy .«ttt of one's'^ihand, 
&c. \ •■" • . 

Kura^WB lot. 

Kupiga kura, to cast ioti.* 

Kuru, a 8pheies«ball. ^ • > . 

Kurvhia Jn^-^ 4o come near to. 
Nalikuruhia^ &c., had a good 
mind:to,:&o. -r • ■* r 

KurwoAiti^ ■ a «mall .yellow, bird, 
very inquisitiTe: 4hey say ifvhe 
sees a man and ^woman< :talking 
togethery he cries,; ".ilf^ uwiatma 
na mume" . 

Kusa ku, to make to grow, < 

KuBanya M£-,rtONCOlleot,> gather, as- 
semble. .. 

Kuaanyana hu^, to gather -togethek^ 

Kuaanyika ku-, to be gathered^ to 
asisemblev: ■ .^ . 

KuahotOf on the left. . ! 
Mkono wa kmhot^y the left hand. 

KuMj the southerly w^ds which 
blow from May till Octob(|r. 
Kttsinif in the dii'cotion. of the 
Kusi, southerly. 

Kmudij plur. makusudi, piurpose, 


I -A 

JTu^ia hu-t to pnrppw, to^iotci^ 
JECnioi piur. of l7M«^..wa^lk,. ;. .. 
Kuta ku'y to meet virith^'V>>M% 
. / find,. to come .^pon..,. \ y\u . ...y 
Kutana ku-, to come toge^i^i^, 

.meeVtoawenjbJ^.fj» ,..,;.,. ^., .; 

KutanikfL h^t tobieoojott a90Qfl^Uec|. 

Kutc^pi^mrjfi^^ to ^^og,tqgeth^»i|> 

assemble. ,.; «..^ i ... r/, 

KutUtTuat . .. I. '.. 

Kuttika 1^^ to. H ; ii^a iil ad» to^ be 

, jwdaeiilj.iErigbteni?4-.. .^ ,., ... 

Ktitusha 7£u-,.to, stftftl^ tQf alarm 

suddenly. v , ,. .a 

-A^tttt, great» cM^f,,9Qb)e,,JSiiii-r«Gn« 

more to figurative, 2»ii&imi. to 

physical .gnea^esai > |t mak^f 

kuu with nouns like fisrtim$a»A 

Ana ma^utt,ih^,i« Taio., 

Kuume, ^riun^»..,; . 

. Mkono wm k^um0i ^e right battft 

Kuumenif on the mafe Mdsk i.* 

Mkono jioa huvuli^th^:jight baofjt 
.^tfUMi, to be, to heoofiikai <?>'.. 1;«« 

Wa, . ,.i ,^i 

Kuwadi, also iraiiKu2i,,A paoQUffM 

(Mu anay««0a<ofi(7oa^ tMl»)*. ... 
KuvsUij twioe over, in. twp 
-A;ttza, large, fuUgn^wB.: 
JETuza X(tt-, to make biggo^ ...^ . . 
A'uzo, to selL 6ee TJmau . 
£ttzi, an earthen water botilekigir 

than a guduwia^ with ji handtot 

or handlea.aud a. narrow nook. 
Kuzikanif a funeral. 
KuzimUf in tha.grav% .wndcr tW 

earth. . j . ■ .. 

£tfl-. See JEW-. > 

Kwa, with,: a» 'an InainiBent,. 

through, to a person, to or «k 

the p!aoe whcrj any «le llfiH 

fot, Qu accouut ciC 




Kfcai'ngi (?)„geiierallj« 
KwH off af^i: T^bs, i^ fiy^ in^ni- 
. tiTe.ji^«f^a^tPoan&l».aD4 ftft^r.lli^ 

«Etcoa hffri to tiiik» the foot,: to 

Kwah^ .ta Jum^ , with, hixn^ to or at 

his or her house;,, his, l^er,^ or 

. it% afteif ^,-^6^^ in the iififinitive 

used as. a .sifbstaatiyet ;0r the 

KwaJcoy to with thee, to or 

. at thy pjaoe, yDiir,,thjr, oj^ thee 
or you, after ^ ^^^ V^ .th|e i;ifiiii- 
titve josed 2^ a norm, aAd a£ter 4he 

.. a«e.itt.ri^i.".*..., . . .■..'", 

KwaXe^ a partr|4g^ (?)r 

Kwama hv^^ to„beooi^e jammed, to 

Kwambttj saying (?), if, as if^ though, 
ya Ai(0(vii&a, that. . [that. 

Kioamisha hu-, to jam, to make to 
s^ick in a yarrow p1^. , 

Swav^ua hi;', tp nnjam, to fre<9, to 

, dear. . 

Ktoangt^^ to^ or at, my house, to, or 
with me, my, of me, after the 
infinitiTes of verbs used as. sub- 
stantives, and after the case in 


Ktoanguf^ huy to scrape up,. to^sci^ape 

one*s shoos, &c. 
Kwani for, beca;use, i^herefare,..for 

why. . 
Kwanwk 2r«-, tp split down, to tear 

down^tpbreak. . , 
KuMknyi^ka. %»-, tp be. split down 

like the boughs and branches of 

a tree, which some one has been 

trying to dimb by them. 
KwanzQft beginning, at first, for- 

Fa kwanm, first,, the fii^t. ... 
, Ngqja huHmiuif wait Si bit. - 
Kwao, piur. wffkuiao, a stumble^ a 

Kwao, to or with them, at or. to 

tlieir place ; their, of th^n, after 

verbs in /the iu^nltive used m 

noun^» and after the ease in .•ne*. 
Kwapa^ plur. meLkwapa^ the i^rm- 

Ktoapanif under the armpit. The 
people, of the Aff loan .coast 
wear their swords by a strap 
over the left shoulder only ; tlie 

. swor(] hfusigs under the armptt, 
and is said to be hwapaM. 
Kwaruz^JfU', tp scrapts along, to slip 

with a scrape. 
Kv}at{i, or Kwato,9. hoof. 

Kupiga. kwa(ia,,to strike the hpol^ 
to strike with the hoof. 
Kwatu, a horseshoe (?). . 
KwayOf a stumbling-block. 
Kwaza ku-, to make to stumble. 

KukiDCLza menojio jar the teeth 
like grit in, food. 
Xicea ku-t to ascend,, go up, climb. 
Kweli, true, the truth. 

Ya ktoeli, true. 
Kwelu — Kvaeu,. 

Kwema, good, well, it is well there. 
Kiceme, the s^ed of a gourd,, very 

rich in oil. 
Kwenda, to go. See ^ndOf going. 
Kwenda, perhaps. 
Kioenu, with you, to 0^, at your 

place, your, of yo^i, after verbs in 

the infinitive used i^ nouns or 

after the case in -nt. 
Kwenyi, till, since, up to the time o^ 

from the time of. 
Kwepa kU'f to start out of the nay. 
Kujeta ku't to raise. 




Kwetu^ to or with tis, to or at our 

place, our, of us, after a verb in 

the infinitive need as a noun, and 

after the case in -ni. 
Kweu, clear. 
Ktoeupe, white. See ^eupe, 

Kuna ktoeupe, grey dawn. 
Kweza hu-, to make to go up, to drag 

up a boat out of the wa^er. 
Kweza ku-, to bid up an article at 
an auction. 

Kuktoeztoa, to have things made 
dear to one by others bidding 
them up. 
KwibcL See Iba hu-t stealing, to 

Kvfibana, robbing one another. 
Kwihwe^ hiccup. 

Kwihwe ya kuliaj sobs. 
Kwisha, See Isha hur^ ending, to 

Kwo^ which. 

L is pronounced as in English. 

L is not dibtinguished from r 
in African languages of the same 
family as SwahilL The distinction 
becomes important in Swahili on 
account of the Arabic words which 
have been incorporated into it. 

Mahali, means a place, but 
Mahari a dowry. 

Waredi means a rose, but Waledi 
a youth. Slaves, however, fre- 
quently confound even these. 

When r can be used for 7, it has a 
light smooth sound, as in English. 

There is a latent I sound between 

every two consecutive vowels in 

Bwabili and at the beginning of 

some verbs, which appears in their 
derivatives and in other African 
languages : thus the common pas- 
sive of kufungua is hufunguUioa. 

So fieur is this disposition to drop 
an I carried, that even huletcij to 
bring, is in old Swahili eta. It is 
characteristic of the Merima dialect 
to retain these Ts. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged. 

Mlango, a door, is vulgarly pro- 
nounced Mioango. 

Ufalme, a kingdom, may be 
written Ufaume. 

In these cases, however, both 
forms are probably contractions 
from Mtdango and Ufalume, 

L becomes d after n, and is some- 
times confounded with d in inexact 

Ndume = Nlume or Nume, male. 

If or Zt-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by 
words in the singular, of the 
class which make their plural 
in ma-. 

La, no. 

La ht't to eat, to consume, to wear 
away, to take a piece in chess, Ac 
The ku', bears ihe accent and Is 
retained in the usual tenses. The 
passive of kula is kulivta, 

Laabu kn-, to play, to sport with. 

Laana^ plur. malaaTui^ a curse. 

Xoant hu-, to curse, to damn. 

Laanisha Z;tf-, to bring a corse npoo. 

Labeka = Lebeka* 

Labuda, perhaps. 

LadUf sweet cakes composed of trea- 
cle, pepper, and fionr or semsem 
seed, made up into balls. 




iioghai^ a rascal. Also Ragai, 
Laika^ plur. mtdailMj one of the 

hairs of the hand or arm. 
Laini, smooth, soft. 
Lainisha fttf-, to make smooth or 

Laiti! Would that I Oh that I 

expressing regret at something 

Lake or XoJSnoe, his, hers, its. See 
Lakl hu-^ to go to meet [-dke. 

Lakinij but, however. 
Lakki, a hundred thousand, a lao. 
LdhOf thy. See aJco. 
Lola ku', to sleep, to lie down. 

Nyumba imelala inehi^ the house 
is fia.llen flat on the ground. 
Laiama ku-^ to confess, to cry for 

mercy; used of extorted confes- 
Ldlamika hu-, to be made to cry 

out, to be quite beaten, to shout, 

to scream. 
Lalika kn-^ to be slept upon. 
LaLtka km- = Alika ku-^ to inform, 

announce to. 
Xamt, pitch or tar. 
Jjana ku-, to eat one another. 
Landa ku-^ to be equal with. 
LangUy my. See -angu, 
LaOf their. See -an, 
Jxumtu ku», to blame. Also Lau- 

Lapa Xnt-, or Eapa ku-, to be ra- 

venously hungry. 
Launif sort, species, form. 
Laumu ku', to blame. 
Latoa kU', to come from (Her.). 
Latoana ku-, to blame, to scold. 
Laza kti-, to lay down, to lay at its 

Kujilaza, to lie down. 
Ldzim, of necessity. 

Lasdmoy surety, bail, necessity. 

LazimiBha ku-, to compel. 

Lazimu ku-, to be obligatory upon. 

-Z6, his, hers, or its. 

Lea ktJhf to bring up. 
Ameieuja vema, he is well bred. 

Lebekciy the humble manner of re* 
plying when oalled, often short- 
ened into Ebbe, or eyen Bee, 

Legea ku-^ &a, &o. See Begea ftf»-, 

Lekea ka-^ to be opposite to, to tend 

Lekeza Xcu-, to put opposite to. 

Eulekeza bunduki, to level a gun 
Lekezana Xcu-, to agree, oome to an 

Lelan^ by auction. 
LelimamOf a dance to the music 

made by beating buffalo horns. 
Lema or DenM, a kind of fish-trap. 
Lemaa, disfigurement. 

Mwenyi lemactf disfig^ured by dis- 
Lemhulca kii-, to be weak, limp. 
Lemea Z;»-, to oppress, to lie heavy 

upon, to overburden. 
Lengelenge^ plur. ftudengelenge, a 

Xentt, your. See -enu, 
Lenyi, See -enyi, 

Bakidi lenyi mayayi, a basin with 
eggs in it 
LeOf to-day. 
Leppe^ drowsiness, dozes, snatches 

of sleep. 
Le8o, a handkerchief. 

Leso ya kuftUia kanuisi, a pocket- 
Leta ku't to cause to arrive at the 

place where the speaker is, to 

bring, to send, to fctAW. 




Leieq hu-^ to bring :0)* send to.cir ior 
a persoDi. ■•>. 
£«i2ei^UJa»t9bavQ ^loiight.oarfesit 
to one. 

Leviikq ku'f tp gojb sojber. , 

Leivya hthr tp fntpi^Awte. - . . 

. KuJUevyt^ J^ i^a^Q- onefielCtin- 

toxicajti:^ tq gi^t. drsnl^ . 
Zfivyalevj/a JSfu*, t9 \)e gi4<l/. 
Xeica Zcu-, to become drunks 
Letpaletcfi^ hth^ to «iiiripg or «way 
about like a drunken man. 


Zt, it i3» , : . 

Z,t- o^ J-,^.thq prefix proper to 
nouns and verbs governed, by a 
, . ,fiii^gi;ilar jiQva^ .o^f ^be olass ,wbich 

makes its plural in mar. . . 
-Zi-, 1. Tbe objective. prefix tepre- 
.. . .fientlng.a spigular nqun of the 
class which jnakeei its plural in 
fwa-, governed, by, the verb to 
which it i4.p;refixed. 
Z.-&S or -ali't Ihe aign of that 
past tense which denote? an 
^cti<^n complete in past time. 
. 3. rli- sofnetlmeis reprei^nts the 
substantive verb» jas i^ aliue, he 
who is ; nikali, and I mn ; qli, 
he is, or he being. 
Lia hu-t to breed C^*)* 
Ida ku; to eat for, &q, 
^ Chumha qha hulia, a room to ent 

Mkono wa "kulia, right hand^being 
. the oijily one ever used to eat 
Lia Jcu; to cry, to. weep, to cry out; 
. applied to th? cries of animals 
generally. Also, to give a 
sound. . 
KuJia ngna, to weep for je ilousy. 
Lialia wazi, it sounds hollow. 

lAehor wbethisr iil^ tlipng^ ■ •->> 

Likanit a cloth oi 9^ pf^ipi 
Xt/atnu, i^hone'/i bit , :. >, b^i^tten) 
, Lika ku't to be eaten, to bQQOi|ii 

worn away, to be eataUe. \ 
Iiihiga ku^ V> dismiss, tOj girfr 

to go, to release. 
Liko, plur. moitZui, « Ittnjdipg^pliico^ 
Liliaku'^ to w^p.for, t^t^ry. 
Lima ku-f to cultivate^ tf hoQ. \^^ ^ 
Lima, the feast made .by. tlici 

groom on the ifirst^day of. 1 

wedding. . . . ? .,i .\j 

LimaOf plur. mqfimao^.f^ lemoxu ,. 
Limaiia &»-, tp de}ayf\tpioLta((A.] 
Limhika ku', to leave till it;.i«i^ 

wait for fruit tiU \\ is ripe, 9^ Jiptr 

wuter till it is colleoted in, ,t|i 

dipping. hple^^tQ put^aside- tQl 1 

is fit. 
Limbuka ku-, to taste the firKt 9C 

new crop.. . ... , 

Limfiuaha ku^, to bring to jb^ ^agtodp 
Limiza ku-j to make to hoe^,&Q. 
Liwilokuja, which is comipg;. . 
Linda ku-f to guard, to. watoihi 

KMida ndegef to scare birds frdi» 
com, &C. 

Lindit p^vur. mdliadif a pi^ a deejf 

LindOf a watching place. 
Linga kvr, to swing thei head xoQnd 

in dancing. 
Linga Aiu-, to make .to match, cor 

be leveL 
Lingana ku-^ to matdi, to be lere^ 

with or like one anpther. 
Lingana ^u-, to call, to invite .(A.)u 
Linganisha 7m-, to make to matftlf^ 

to oom|)are together. 



LUif Vfhettt 

Lipa hu-f 4o pay (a d«bt). 
Lipialnt^ to pay (a person). 
Ldpizd ku-i to cause to be paicL 

K^ipizUj- to take otie*t due, to 
lepay oneselfl ' 
' KtgiUpita lUuaiii to fei^eiige' one- 
self, to take' one's TeVenge. 
LUakii a piece^of elt)tii< ^mt an 
* behind aii opening*, i^'fl^p to 

obviate tlieeffeot^'gapnig at the 

fastening, a tongue; SeeKanKUi 
Xia^ Am'-, to feed. 
Lishisha hu-j to oaase to be fed, to 

cause people to give one fbod. 
Xr<iea]iNi*,io 'be eaten, to-be worn 

away, to be consumed. 
Liwa, a fragrant wood from Mada- 

ga0eBr,-whichf is '^ground tip «ud 

used as a cosmetic, and ' as an 
' «pplication to core prickly heat; 

Madagascar sandal wood. - 
JAwaiit plOT; ma/woZ^ for At Wdli, 
Liza ha-, to sell to. - (a governor. 
Liza Aw-, to make to weep. 
Lizana Am-, to make one another 

weep, to cry together. 
4o^tby, your. *, 

LOf -Ic>-, or -lo, whicli, representing 
ft singular noun of the class 
wliich makes its phnral in mo. 

Xo fofe, whatsoever. 

Makufanya la hte, he has done 
nothing si all (neno under- 
Laa Am-, to get wet with rain, ftc 
£090 Am-, to bewitch, to practise 

magic (Mer.7 
Lo or Loo ! Hollo I An exclamation 

of surprise; the number of 0*8 

increases in proportion to the 

•moaut of surprise. 

Xiole, all. 8ee*<»lis». .^ 

Lo hUf whatsoever* . • 
LoztV an almondk " ... 

LuangOf a kind of birdi 
Luba, a leech. 
Xiii^Aa, languagev ' ■• '^ 
Lulu, a pearl. ! 
Luniba Aei«-, to make a speech. 
Lutnbika Aw-»- to gikther Httle by^ 

little, iOiplolHip tadallpieees ono 

by one. 
Lumbtoi, a Gfti8mel(3on*(?). ■ 
Luththch flavdur, savouh 
Luva^ sandal wood (P). 

M. . 

itf is pronounced as In English. 

M before h generally represetit» 
an n. Mb stands sometimes for 
n&,as nyuniba mhayaf for t^y^rnba 
n-baya; sometiimes'it represents nuo^ 
or 9>9, as mbingu tor n-toingu, 

M is frequently either followed' 
by w or tc, or eljdo has a sort of semi- 
vowel power, as if preceded by a<. 
half-suppressed u. 

The natives of Zanzibar very 
rarely say mu; they change it into* 
urn or rather *m. Even Mioenyiezi 
MuuTigu, Almighty 'God, beoomecp 

It is important to writo 'm, and^ 
not m only, where it represents mu- 
if a & or f0 follow, because otherwise 
the m. might be supposed to coaleitice 
with them. If any otl ler consonants 
follow, it is immaterial, for m must 
then always stand for m«, and be 
capable of being pronounced as a 
sepurato syllable. 

Any verb may be turned into a 
substantive by pTC(hL\t\% *m dt 




to mean one who does, &c., followed 
immediately by the object of the 
verb or the thing done. The last 
letter is sometimes changed into i 
and if Jt is added to the substantive 
it gets the sense of one who habit- 
ually does what the verb signifies. 

if-, 'm, mu'f or tnw-, sign of the 
«eoond person plural prefixed to 

M', 'm, fiii«, or muhf the singular 
prefix of those nouns which 
make their plural in too-, if they 
denote animate beings, or in tnt-, 
if they do not. 

Jtf-, *m-f mu; or tnto-, the prefix 
proper for adjectives agreeing 
with a singular substantive de- 
noting an animate being, or with 
any substantive beginning with 
tnt*-, *m-, mw-j or «-. 

-m-, -'m-, or -miu-, the objective 
prefix referring to a singular 
substantive denoting an animate 

3f-, mu-t or tnw-, the prefix proper to 
pronouns governed by the case in 
-niy when it denotes within or in- 
side of. 

Ma-, the sign of the plural prefixed 

to substantives (and to adjec- 
tives agreeing with them) 
which have either no prefix 
in the singular or begin with j- 

All words intended to denote 
something specially great of 
its kind make their plural in 

Foreign words denoting a person, 
or an ofiice, make their plural 
in ma-. In tlie vulgar dialect 

of Zanzibar nearly all forcigii 
words are made plural by pre- 
fixing mo-. 
Many plural nouns in ma- must be 
translated as though they were 
singulars, the true singular 
being used only to denote some 
one exceptionidly large or im- 
portant instance. 
When followed by an < or e, the a 
of ma coalesces with it and 
forms a long soimd. 
'■ma-. See -me-. 
MaaMm, while, during the time» 

Maadin = Madini. 
Maadin ya hinywa^ what lisei 
into the mouth without inter- 
nal cause, water-brash. 
Maafikano, bargain, estimate, es- 
MadganOf contract, agreement, 

MacLgizOj commission, direetioD, re* 

Maakulif diet, food. 
Maalitm, fixed, recognizable = kUi' 

Mcuina, meaning, reason, cause» 
Kulta nuiananif to zemember, 
think about. 
Ufaandaai, biscuits, oakes, &o., also 

pastry, preserves. 
itfoandtZM), writing, place for putting; 
out food, the act of spreadini; a 
meal, a description, things writ- 
MaandisMf things which are writ- 
ten, put out, set in order, fte. 
McutngulcOf ruin, fall, ruins. 
Maa*mzi, judgment. 
Maarifa^ knowledge. 




MctarAf, understood, I understand. 
Maasit rebellion. 
Maazaly ivhile. 
MaazimOy a loan. 
MaJbayck^ bad. See haycL, 
Mdbakiaf the remliant, what is or 

was left 
Mabichi^ raw. See -bichi, 
Mabitoij heaps, piles of sticks and 

rubbish. See Biwi^, 
Mahovu^ rotten. See -ovu, 
Machaehe, few. See 'Chcuihe. 
MachdcL, a litter, a palanquin. 
MachezOf a game, games. 
Maeiho (ang. Jiehd)^ eyes. 

Tu macho, he is awake. 

Maeho ya vMtu wawtli, or Mcuitoa 
ya vjalu vfowilit dragon's blood. 

Maeho ya Jua, the sim-rising, 
Machuhio, hatred, abomination, dis- 
Maehuja ya jua, the sun-setting, 

MadahOi a graceful manner. 
MadanganyOf deception, trick. 
JlfadaroAfo, arrangements, provision. 
MadefUf beard. 
MadevUf a kind of rice. 
MadifUf the fibrous envelope of the 

cocoa-nut leaves. 
Madini, metal, a mine. 
Madoadoa, spotted. 
Madogovi, a kind of drumming, &o. , 

used in exorcisms. 
MaflehOj concealment 
MafUf detetth, dead things. 

Maji mafu, neap tides. 
Mafwif a chest oomplaint causing 

a ooilgh, a cold in the head, a 

stoppage in the nose. 
MafunUishOi instruction, precept, 

Ma/undo^ cross-beams in a dhow, to- 
steady the mast, &c 

MafungtUia, unfastening. 

. MafunguXia ng*owbe, about 8 A.M. 

Mafupij short. See -fupi, 

Maftuihoy steam from a pot of ma- 
janif used as a vapour-bath im 
fever, &c. 

MaftUa, oil, fat 
Mafuta ya uta, semsem oil. 
Mafuta ya nibaHka, castor oil. 

Mafuu, crazy, cracked. 

Mafya, Monfia. 

Mafya (sing, jt/ya), the three stones 
used to put a pot over the fire 

Magadiy rough soda. 

Magambay scales of a fish. 

Magaiiday peel, husks. 

Magarcua, 8, 9, and 10 in cards 
(not used in playing). 

Mageutzi, changes. 

Maghofira, remission of sins. 

Maghrebbi, or Magaribiy or Ma- 
n^an&t, sunset, the sunset prayers 
of the Mohammedans, the west». 

Maghrib ayuk, N.W. 

Maghrib akrab, S.W. 

Maghvba, the winding of a stream.. 

Mago, See Kago, 

Magongonene, See Kanzu, 

Maguguy weeds, undergrowth. 

Magundalo, an instrument of tor- 
ture, in which the victim is sus- 
pended, and weights being at- 
tached to him, he is jerked up- 
and down. Used for extracting 

Mahaba, love, fondness. 

Mahala or Mahali, place, places. 
Mahali pa, in place of, instead oi 
Mahali pate, everywhere* 




^dhana (Ar ), exceseive worry. 
.Mdharaziy a shoemaker's awl. 
Ma1ian\ dowry paid by the husband 

to the wife's relations. 
Mahatiy a carpenter's tool used for 
' marking lines to a measure. 
Mahaxamu, a shawl worn round the 

Mnhindij Indian corti, maize. 
Mahiri, clever, quick. 
Mdkoka, devil, evil spirits, madness. 
Maishat lifevOontinnance. 

Maisha na milele, now and for 
Jfatft' e= Mayiti, a dead body, a 

MnjdhabOf dock for ships. 
Majana (?), heneyoomb. 
Majanif grass. The singular,Jant, 
means ^ leaf. 

Rangi yamajani, green. 

Majani ya ptcanij gro^B wort, 
samphire (?). 
Mijaribu or Majeribu, trial, tempta- 
J(f o/azo, reward. 
Majengo, building materials. 
Majeribu = Majaribu, 
Majeruhi, wounded. 
Jlajit water, liquid, juice, sap. 

Maji maji, wet. 

Kamamaji, fluently. 

Maji hujaa na kupwa, the tides. 

Maji ya pepo, Maji ya baridit 
Maji matamUf fresh water. 
• Maji ma/u, neap-tides. 

Maji a hdhari^ blue; sea-water 

Maji a moto, hot water, a large 
yellow kind of ant which makes 
its nest in trees. 
Jfcy'f&ii, an answer. 
JKyV/iV^ooming, or mode of coming. . 

MajUipdf revenge. . 

Majira^ time. 

Mdjira^ course of a sMp. 

Majonsi, grief for a* loss. 

Majorij av elder. 

MajutHy B, cake made o£ opVudij Aaif 

very intoxicating. 
MajuttOf regret, sorrow fot wm^ 

thing done. 
MajutOy regret, repentance. • - 
Makaa, ooal, coals, embers. 

Makaa yamiti, charcoal. 
MakdUilao^ oockroacheei ; appUsdiD 

derision to ihe.Malagazy colony 

in Zauzlbar. 
MaJcali, fierce. See -fcoZ^ 
MAkanadili, place» in the (rtem of 
' native craft, the quarter galleriei 

of a dhoWi ; 
Makani, dwelling, dwelling-place. 
MiJcao, dwelling, dwelling-plaDe. 
Makasi, scissors. 

Mcdcatazo^ prohibition, objeotioDft 
Ma^tibuy agreement. 
MakavUf dry. See -kavu, ■ 
Makatif dwelling. 
MaJtengezaj squinting, a squint. 
Maki, thickness. 

Nguo ya rndki,' stout cloth. 
MoJcmbiliOt refuge^ place (anm I& 
Mdkindano, objections. 
Ma^ini, leisure, quietness 
Mdkirif a thumb-cleat in the sida of 

It dhow. 
MakosOf fault, faulta, mlBtakesySina 
Makota (obscene) testicles. '• ' 
itfaZcsat, a bullooky oastratbd. 
Makubwa or Jfo^MMi, • great See 

'ktibwa and -^ti. 
Makukuu^ did. See -7adSw«u 
Mailadif diet. 

Mdkulya^ food [Tumbatu]. ■ 
Makumhi, cccoanut fibre. ; 





mbi ya popoo, areca-nut 


mbi ^ iuaniba, co6ofit-fibre 

ned for teattrieflses, &o. 

,tens. '^ ■ • 

fiU mauftU, twenty. 

a, the Bhearesr at the mast- 

of a dhow, tkrcmgh which 

mza leads. 

nifiko, place of assembly, 


if\ purpose, design, on pnr- 


no^ assemblage. 

leaves of the coooa-Tiui tree . 

ti ya vinngo, leaflets made 

for thatdiing. 

ti ya kumbaf leaTes plaited 

fences. ' 

ti ya pande, half leaves 

tted iorfdndeh or roofs. ' 

the notching and shaping 
9 end of a. polie to reeeite 
all-plate of a honse. 
(- (plur. of Laika% the hair 
» hands and arms. 
I, an angel, angels. A baby 
m called malaika» 
or MaUci, a king^ 
sleeping-place. < 
things to lie upon. 

>& UaraiUe, 
orchilla weed. 
li olianges of the monsoon, 
>f the easterly and westerly 
I. • 

I, a singer. 
)ods, property, riches. Pw- 

a singular noun making 
lange for the- plural, but 
d sometimes as a plural in 

\i^ a dandy. 

MaWci hu-f to begin a building, a 

boat, or a house. 
Malimoy master, navigator. In the 

canoes on the Zambezi the steers- 
man is called malimo, 
MdlimtoengUf business, affidrs, ma^ 

ters of this life. 
JfdfCfuIt, Melinda. 
Malio ya kiliOy the bubbling sound 

of the water when n native pipe is 
' being smoked. 

Maliza ku-, to complete, lo' fihisb. 
Mallei or Mdldkif a king. - 

Afa//cta, a queen. 
Mama, mother. 

Mama toa hambOf stepmother. 
Marnba, a crocodile. 
MamhOj the schles of a ftsh (M.). 
Manibo, circumstances, affiiirs^ 

tl.ings (plur. of Jambo), 
Mamiye (Mer.), his mother. ' 
MamlaJca, power, authority, domi«> 
' nion. 
Mamaja, ones, same. 

Mamoja pia^ it is all one, I don*! 
Mana = Mwana» 
Manamize, a name Ibr a hermit 


Usiku wa manane, the dead of 
Manda^ a loaf. 
Mandasif a pudding. See Moan- 

Manerkane, myrrh. 
Maneno, language, message, busi- 
ness, matters, things (plur. of 

Maneno yafumhafdaxk sayings. 

Maneno ya Kiunguja, &o., tha 
language of Zanzibar, Ae. 
Mangat Arabia. 




Mangaribi, BunEet See Magltrebibi. 

Mangi, many. See •ngt. 

Mangiri or Mankirif a cross-piece 

at the bows of a dhow for fastening 

the tack of the sail. 
Mango, a round hard black stone 

nsed to grind with. 
Mang'ung*um, secretly, in fearful 

Manx (obscene), semen. 
Mani, a weight, about three rattel. 
Mariano, turmeric. 

Bangi amanjano, yellow. 
MarikirL See Mangiri. 
3fano2eo(sing. no^), the ring where 

the blade of a knife issues from 

the handle. 
Manuka, smell, scent 
Manuhato, scent, good smells. 
Manyang'amba, flour balls in a 

sweet sauce. 
Manyiga, a hornet. 
Manyoya, feathers of a bird, hair of 

a goat. 
Mqnyunyo, a shower, a sprinkle. 
Maomboleza, loud wailing. 
Maomvi, begging. 
Maondi, taste. 

Maondoleo, removing, taking away. 
Jlfaongfezi, conversation, amusement. 
Maongo, the back. 
Mamji, tasting, trying. 
Maoteo, growth from old mtama 

Maottoe, Mayotte. 
Mapalilo, hoeing-up time, hoeing 

between the crops. 
Afapano, broad. See -pana. 
Mapatano, agreement, conspiracy. 
Mapwna, early. 
MnpendanOy mutual affection. 
Mapendeti, pleasing things, the 

bving ploaaod. 

Mapendo, affection, esteem. 
Mapenzi, liking, affection, pleasnier 

love, things which are loved. 
Mapepeia, a preparation of immft* 

Mapigano, a fight, a battle. 
Mapiiwa, silliness, dotage. 
Mapoza, remedy, healing things. 
Mapooza, things which do not serv» 

their purpose, fruit which drop» 

MaptUidu, the wilderness. 
Mapumbu, testicles, the scrotum. 
Mara, a time, sometimes, at once. 

Mara mqja, once, at once. 

Mara mhUi, twice. 

Mara ya pUi, the second time. 

Mara nyingi, often. 

Mara kwa mara, firom time to 

Mara ngapif how many times, 
how often ? 
Maradufu, double. 
Marahdba, thanks, very well, wel* 

Marakardka, chequered, spotty. 
Marasharaxihfi^ a sprinkle, sprink* 

Marashi, scents. 

Marashi mawaridi or ya mtdmari, 
Marathi, disease, sickness. 
Marathie, sociable. 

8ina kiburi, maraHhie nUmi^ I a» 
not above firatemizing. 
Marefu, long. See -refu, 
Maregeo, return, reference. 
Marehemu, that has obtained manj'p 

Mart^eo, return. 
Marfua, a desk, book-rest. 
Marhaha = Marahaba, 
Marhnmu, ointment 




It, a large pot. 

nt, red coral, imitation ooral, 

m copal. 

jani ya fethaluka, the true 

1 coral. . 

^ a person of the same age. 

(, Merka, a town on the So- 

i coast * 

ibu = Marikebu = MeriJtebu, 


li, the little flap of beads 

by a string round the loios 
itive women. 
a, shot, small shot. 
away abundance, plenty of 
if material, &c 
buy a spout. 
= Mara, time, times. 
iku, a forbidden thing, pro- 

iga marufuhu, to glYe public 
tioe against. 
jni (M.), biliousness. 
tba, the companions of Mo- 
, purity, 
tty calamity. 

ua (Tao), an encampment 
'Mj or Maskinif or Metkini, 
, % poor person. 
heiri, good afternoon, 
e&o, pardon. 
JO9 wire. 

ifi, a kerchief used for throw- 
»Ter the shoulders, &c. 
V what IS left, remainder. 
fif verses, poetry. 
rij one line of Terse. 
(o, doubts, difficulty. 
nba, tlie country. Plural of 
iba, a plantation. 
X», sediment 
ileiy the cast, easterly. 

Mashendea, rice which is watery 

and imperfectly cooked. 
Mashindano, a race. 

Ktoenda hwa ma$h{ndOf to trot. 
Mashtaka, accusation. 
Mcuhuaf a boat, boats, a launch. 
Matfhiir or Mashvhurf remarkable, 

Mashutumio, reproaches, revilings. 
MashutumUf reviling. 
Mathuzif breaking wind. 

Faihili ya punda ni mcuhuzi = 
You cannot make a silk purse 
out of a sow's ear. 

Ktoenda moHat ^ walk up and 
Manka, the rainy season, f e., March, 

April, and May. 
Masikanif a dwelling. 
Mastkini = MasahinL 
Masingizio, slander. 
Masitoa, the Comoro Islands and 

Matizif grime, soot, Ac, on the 

bottom of cooking pots. 
Maskini = MatakinL 
Masomboj a girdle of doth. 
Maari = Miai, Egypt 
Mcuni/, provisions. 
IfoMio, giddiness. 

Nina maaua^ I am giddy. 
MatukuOf a whet-stone. 
Mantto, reproaches. 
MaiOj bows and arrows, weapons. 
Maiaajabu, wonders, astonishment 
MaiakatifUf holiness, 
Matdko, the seat. 
Matakaoj request, want, desire. 
3fa<ain5aim, the side, a man's sideu 
Nata'mko, pronunciation, 
Matamm, sweet See -Unnm. 




Maiamvua, fringe. 

Matandiko, bedding, hameal^ t. hat 

is spread. 
Matana^ leprosy. 
Matanga, large mats, sails. 

Kvkaa matanga, to keep a formal 
mourning, generally for from 
five to ten days. 

Kwmdoa matanga, to put an end 
to the mourning. 

McUanga hati, wind abeam. 
Matangamano, a crowd. 
Maiaia^ a tangle, an- embroilment. 

Kntia matata^ to tangle. 
MatayOf reproaches, revillngs. 
Mate, spittle. 
MdtegemeOi ptops, » prop» support, 

Mateh<i^ ipoi), booty, prisoners. 
Matemhezij a walk. 
Matengo, the outriggers of a canoe. 
MatesOy afflictions, adversity, 
.^afefo, quarrel. 
Mathahahu = Mathbdh, 
Mathdbuha, a victim, « sacrifice. 
Maihclhabiot Matkhdb^ sect, persua- 
Mathara, mischief, harm. 
Mathbahf an altar. 
MathehebUf manneirs, habits, customs, 

= Mathahabi (?). 
Matilot lift from the after part of a 

yard to the mast-head of a dhow. 
Malindty half-grown Indian corn. 
Matindoy a slaughter-house, a place 

for killing beasts. 

Kvoenda hwamaiitif to trot 
Mattaay the eaat wind. 

MatlcuM ayuk, N.E. 

Mailaa akrah, S.K. 
Matlai = Matlaa, 
J/a/o, eyeB (M.). 

Matoazi, cymbals. 
Matokeo, going-out plaees. 

Matokeo ya ^rt/'pofcs of the 
MatomokOf a custard apple. 
MaiuhwilviMiy mumps. 
MatvkanOy «filthy and insulting ex* 
pressions, Eltich as — 

Mwana kumanyoka, 

Mwana wa haramu. 


Matukio, accidents, things which 

ilfa^ttmamVoonfidence, hope. 
Matumhawi, fresh coral, cut fiom 

below high-water mark: it la 

used for roofs and where lightness 

is an object. 
MatumhOy the entrails. 
Matupu, bare. See '^pu. ^ 
Maturuma, stiffeners put on a door, 

the knees In a dhow, ifbt of ft 

boat, &e. 
Matusu, bad and abusive" language» 
Matuvumuy accusation, -bllitDe. 
Maua (plur. of Z/a), 'flowers. 
Matdizo, questions, questioning. 
Maumiou^ pain. 

MaungOf the book, the boekbooe. 
MauthtMTUy unable. 
Mautif death. 
Mavao, dress, dressing. 
Mavazi, dress, doihes. Phatl of 


Mali, dung. drof^lngSi esereuieot 

Mavi ya ckuma^ dross. 
Mavilio. See Vilio. 
Mavulio, clothes cast off and gifca 

to another, clothes worn bjone 

who is not their owner. 
Macunda^ one who breaks eniy* 

IVau'^ he has to do with. 




Marundcvundef broken, toiitiored 

Mavumi, hum of voices. 
Mavuno, harvest, reaping. 

Maruno ya nyukif honeyoomb* 
Mavuzi (plur. of Vuzt), the haii of 

the pubes. 
Mawazif clear.. See toazi, 
Mawe (plur. of Jiwe), stones, stone. 

¥a mawe, of stonei- 

Mawe ya kusagia, a hand-mill. 

Matoe, a vulgar ejaculation, rub- 
bish ! • 
MawiUf both. 
Mavfimbi (plur. of Wimln), surf, a 

Mawindo, game, pioduoe of hunt- 


Mayayi, See TayL 

Mayitif a dead body. 

Ilaifugwaf a green vegetable cooked 

like spinach. 
MazaOf fruit, prodnoe. 
Maziko, burial-place. 
'Mazinffa 00160, sleight of hand 


Mazingiwaj a siege. 
MazMngombwA, magic, witchcrafts 

MaziAi^ burial clothes^ fomiture, 


Maxima, milk, (plur. of Ziwa) 
breasts, lakes. 

Mazima mabhu, eordled mUk. 

Matiwa jfa «ate w awUi f dragon's 
Jfazoec, custom. 

MciTgexm, habits, eustons» practiee. 
Maznkm, evO spirits. 
Mazmf a kind of banana. 
Mammtfm'wKm, amnsemeniy eonver- 

JV6ati^ far ofl^ separate. 

MbM mbalif distinct^ di&rent 

Pottha mhalil Qo and bo hanged J 
TummdU mbali, let us kill him 

out of the way. 
When used with ^ the applied 
forms of verbs, it means that 
ilie person or tiling is .by that 
means got rU oi^ or put out of 
the way. 

Mhango, a bird with a parrot-liko 
beak, a pevsoa with projecting 

. teeth. 

Mbano, a circumcising instrument. 

Mhau (plur. of Ubau)f planks. 

*Mbau, plur. tnitaa, planking, tim- 

'Mbaruti, plur. miharuUf a weed 
with yellow flowers and thistle- 
like leaves powdered with white. 

Mbasua, giddiness* 

MbaiOf a cocoa-nut which has dried 
in the shell so as to xattU^ witb* 
out being spoilt 

3ibdti, wall-plate. 

Mbavu, ribs, side. 
Mbatuni, alongside» 

Mbawi, wing feathers. See Vhawa. 

Mbayanif clear, manifest. 

Mbayuwayu, a swallow (A.). 

Mbega, a kind of mmikey, black, 
with long white hair om the 

Mhegu, seed, seeds. [shonlders, 

*Mbeja wa kaniy young ssan of 

Mhde, befofe, in front, farther on. 

MMe yo, before, hi front c/L 
Kuenddea mbtU, to go iSt^rward. 
JTbel^i, in the front Thiewofd 
is used in Zanzibar with «a 
obscene senses 

Mheym ^ MbegUy seed. 

MhUo^ plur. wUbibo^ a eashew'ttni 




Mbiehi, fi-esh. See -hiehi, 
Mbigilij small thorns, brien. 
Mbili, two. See -vnli, 

Mhili mbUit two by two. 
MbUitDili, the wrist (?). 
Mhingu^ plnr. of Uwinguy the skies, 

the heavens, heaven. 
MhiOf running, fast. 

Kupiga mbioj to run, to gallop. 
Mhioniba, mother*s sister, aunt. 
Mbiramhi zdko, be comforted. A 
Swahili greeting to one who has 
just lost a relative. 
MbiH, parched Indian com. 
Mbiu, a proclamation, public notice. 
Mhivu, ripe. See -hivu and -toivu, 

Kupiga mbizi^ to dive. 
Mhoga, vegetables, greens. 

Mboga mnancui, a kind of mint. 
*Mhoga^ plur. mihoga, a pumpkin 

MbohOf manure. 
Mbonaf Why? for what reason? 

Used especially with negatives. 
Mboni ya jicho, the apple of the 
MhonOf castor-oil plant (?). [eye. 
Mboo, the penis. 
MhotOf a climbing plant yielding a 

superior kind of oU. 
Mhovu, bad, rotten, corrupt See 

-ortt and 'hotm. 
Mbu = ImhUj a mosquito. 
Jfhuif a buffalo's horn, which is 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Mbujci, a swell, dandy, gracefully. 
Ku8ema mhuja, to say elegantly. 
Jiihulu, a crocodile (?). 
JdhungUf a hurricane (Kishenzt). 
Mbuni, an ostrich. 
Mbuyu, plur. mibuyUf a baobab 
tree, a calabash tree. They are 
generollj looked upon as hauulcd. 

Khuzi^ a goat, gnats. 
Mbuzi ya kukunia nazi, an ixonr 
to scrape coOoa-nut for oookinj^ 

Mhwa, a dog, dogs. 
Mbwa toa mwitu, m jackals- 

Mhtoayi, wild, fieroeb 

Mbuoe, little pebbles, little white^ 
stones larger than changeurawL 

Mhweha^ a fox. 

Mhweu, eructation, belching. 

Mcha^ one who fears. • 
Mcha MunngUf a God-fearing m^iu 

Mchafu, filthy. 

Mchago^ the pillow end of the bed.- 

MchaJcachOf footsteps (?>. 

Mchana or Mtuna^ daylight, day- 
time, day. 

Mchaiiga or Mtangay sand. 

Mchaioif plur. wachawif a wizard. 

Mrhayiy lemon grass. 

Mche, plur. Miche^ a plant, a slip^ » 

Mche^ a kind of wood much used io 

McheJceahaji, plnr. waehekeOu^ a 

merry body, one who is always 


Mchde, cleaned gzain, especially 

Mchelema^ watery. 

Mcheshi, a merry fellow, a laugher. 

McTiezo, plur. miehegOf a giime. 
Mchezo waJce huyu, it is this manV 
turn to play. 

Mehi, plur. michi^ otHDi^ plnr. mUU, 
the pestle used to pound or to- 
clean com with. Also a scnw 
of paper to put groceries in (f). 

Mchicha, plnr. michicha, a ooounott 
spinach-like plant used as fti 




ii, plor. mkhikieki, the 
)il tree. 

plor. michilizi, the eayes. 
plnr. wachirOf a mangouste. 
rOf passage, an opening be- 


= Mehovu* 

ma^ plor. imchongamOf a 

r shrub with white flowers 

small black edible fruit. 

\oro, a rapid writer. 

plnr. wachovUf weary, lan- 

easlly tired, tiring, tire- 

0, a sweetheart, one who 
cs or is sought by another 

ichumb{i, widow (?). 
ulurUf a kind of fish. 
1 (or Mtunga), plur. vxi' 
a, a herdman, a groom, one 
las the care of animals. 
iji, a herdsman, shepherd. 
'4f plur. Wachuruzi, one who 
a sbill, a trader in a very 

or Mtuziy curry, gravy, soup, 
white ants. 

Muda, a space of time, the 
, &c. 

ur. mida (?), a piece of plank 
•ed up to support a frame- 
&c. = 'munda, 
a kind of weed, 
'nti cinnamon. 
uni, an Indian stnfll 

datoart^ the softer Arabic ft, 
) he. 


plur. midtla, a coffee-pot. 
, plur. midomo, the lip. 
no wa ndege, a bird's beak. 

Mdudu^ plnr. wadudu, an insect. 
Mdudii, a whitlow. 
Mdukuo, a push in the cheek. 
MdumUf a mug. 

Me-, see 3fa-. Many words are pro- 
nounced with mo- at Mombas, 
and with me^ at Zanzibar. 
•me-, the sign of the tense which 
denotes an action complete at 
the moment of speaking, an- 
swering to the English tense 
with have. Sometimes it is 
used to denote an action com- 
plete at the time referred to, 
and must then be translated by 
This tense may often be used 
as a translation of the past 
Tu hayi, ao amekufa f Is he 

alive or dead ? 

Most Swahili verbs denoting a 

state Imve in their preseni 

tenso iUt meaning of cnterin^j^ 

that state or becoming, and in 

the -me- tense the meaning of 

having entered or being in it 

In some cases the -me- tense is 

best rendered by another verb. 

Anavaa^ he is putting on, amevaa, 

he wears. 
In soiae dialects the me is pro- 
nounced ma, 
Mea ku-f to grow, to be growable. 
MedUn, tortoiseshelL 
Mega hu-^ to break a piece, or gather 
up a lump and put it in one's 
mouth, to feed oneself out of the 
common dish with one's hand, as 
is usual in Zanzibar. 
Mekameha fcii-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meko (plur. of Jiko), a fireplace. 
MeJconi, a kitehen, in the kitehcn» 




Memetuka hu- (A.), to sparkle; 
Mende, a cockroaich, cockroaobee. 

Also A slang term for aTupee. 
Mengi or Mangi^ many.' See -ngi. 
Meno (pltur. of JiMo), tocth^ i . 
Menomeno^ battlemonts; 
Menya Itu; to shell; to husk, to 
Mmya hu-, to beat (Kiyao). {P^^* 
ilerikehu, a ship, ships; - '/ 

Merikebu ya teriJcalit a ship be- 
longing to the government 
Merikehu ya mizingaor monbiran, 

a man-cf-war. 
Merikebu ya toja, a merchant ship. 
Merikebu ya milingoie mitatu, a 

full-rigged ship. 
Merikebu ya milingoie.fniioili na 

nussUf'o, barque. 
Merikebu ya dohaan or ya moshif 
a steamship. 
Merima^ the mainland of Africa, 
eispecially the coast south of 
Wamerivna, people who liye on 

the coast south of Zanzibar. 
Kimerima, the dialect of Swahili 
spoken on the coast south of 
Merimeta ku-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meshmaa, a candle, candles. 
Mesikt or Meaki, musk, scent 
Me$kiti = Moiskiti, a mosque. 
Metameta^ to shine, to glitter. 
Meihili or Meihaliy like, a parable. 
Meza, a table. ' 
Meza ku^ to swallow. 

Waraka mezavneerehf forgery. 
Mfaa, centre pieoe of a' door. 
M/alme, plur. vjafalme, a king. 
M/anOf plur. mifanOf a likeness. 
Mfano iioa manmo^ a proverb, a 

Mfanyi bicuhara, plot.. wqfa»yi^ i^ 

man who does business» a trader, 

amerchimt. ' ." 5 

M/arijif plar. voafiiriji, Aicomforter. 

M/a^UU, filur. inw/aiftshV'ene ith» 

does kindnesses. 
M/eleJij a water chamDeL 
MfiUsikOt a bankrupt.. 
Mfinangi, plur.: ira^nongirft: potter. 
Mfineesi, plur. mifitteisi^ a jaokiniit 

tree. . . 

Mfiif, plur. wafu, a dead|)er9on. 
Mfua, plur. fixi/isa, a smith, » 
worker in metal. , 

Mfua c^iuvMif n blaoksmijbh. . . 
Mfuafe&iOt &o^ a silyeramitlv&c. 
Mfuasi, plur. wafuoti^ • followier, a 

retainer, a hanger-onu 
M/ukOf plur. mi/ukop .a bag, s 

Mfuma, plur. tm/tima, la weaver, , 
Mfumbaii, plur. m(/ttm&a(f, the side- 

piuocs of a bedstead. 
MfunguOfB, name applied to nine of 
the Arab mouths; 
Mfunguo wa most, is the Arab 

Mfunguo wa pUi^ is the Arab 

Th*il Kaada, 
Mfunguo vsa tatu^ is tlie Arab 
» TVa Eajj, 
Mfunguo wa *nne, is the Aiab 

Moharram» ■ 
Mfunguo wa tono, ia the Arab 

MfuTiguo via sito, is the Arab 

Bahia al aotoal. 
Mfunguo tea ioha^ is the Arab 

Babia al akhr, 
Mfunguo wa nan^ is the Arab 

Jemad aZ ooiwdL 
Mfunguo wa kenda, is tlie Anb- 
Jemad dl akhr. 




X/wtguo ' wa is often lo pro- 
nouDoed as to sound like 
The Giber three months, Bajab, 
Shaabant'iLad JRamalhan, keep 
tlieir Arabic name», 
Jf/'so, plva, mi/uo, a stripe. 

Karateui ya mifuo, ruled paper, 
M/upa, plur. mifupti^ a. bone.* 
M/uto, winning five games oat of 

six at cards. 
Mfifoziy an abusive person. 
Mtjala, plur. wagalat a Galla. 
Mtjanda, plur. miganday a sheaf or 

bundle of rice. 
MgoMgOt plur. toaganga^ a medicine 
man, adoctoK, a dealer in white 
Mgao, a place near Cape Delgado. 
Mgawo, a deal in card-playing. 
Mgeni, plur. Moageui^ a g^est» a 

Mgliadf a horse's canter. 

Kwenda mghad, to canter. 
Mgine = Mvcinginey another, other. 
Mgogwa^ an obstacle in a road, a 
stumbling-block. In slang, a 
nuisance, crubh, worry.. 
Mgoja or Mngoja, plur, wagqja^ one 
who waits, a sentinel. - 
Mgqja mlango^ a door-keeper, a 
Mgombctj plur. migomhOf a banana 

Mgombwef bullVmouth shell. Cassia 

Mgomvi, plur. uagomviy a quarrel- 
some person, a brawler. < 
Mgonda^ fk slaWs clouts 
Myango, plur. miyoiigOf tlie back, 
the backbone. 
Nyuwba ya mgongOf a penthouse 

Mtjonjwa or Myonjua^ plur^ «^a^S: 
J 10a, a sick person, an invalid. • '. 

MgUe ^ MUngote^ 9. muU 

Af^ttfuia, 'Cultivated land. 

Mgunyokj. plur. IFogrtfiiya, a native of 
the country between Siwe and 
the Juba. 

MgurugurUy plor, iffagurugurUf a 
large kind of burrowing lizard.' 

MguUf plur. miguu^ the leg ftmxL tlie 

knee downward, the foot. 

Kwenda hoa miguu^ to wiilk. • 

Mh; See Muh, 

MhaJbori, See Kanxu, 

MJumUiy plur. mihilimi; a girder, a 
beam, a bearing post, a prop. 

MJivlu, a large tree lizard. 

Mhunzi, plur. wahmnzii a black- 

Mi-t plural prefix of substantives;, 
and of adjectives agreeing with 
them, which begin in the singular 
with m-, or 'm-, m«-, or mto-f and 
do not denote animate beings. 

-mt, an objective sufiQx denoting 
tlie first person singular. This 
suffix is poetical» not used in 

Ifto, a hundred. 
MUeeht two hundred. 

Mialamu, the ends of a piece of 

Micuhirif pieces lying fore and aft 
to receive the stepping of the 

Miayo, yawning, a yawn* [mast. 

Miba or Miiba, thorns. 

Mibau, timbers. 

Mi/uo, bellows. 

Mtkaha, marriage» 

Kupiga mikamh€f in bathing, to 
duck down and throw over one 
leg, striking the water with iu 




MiUif a cuBtom. 
Ktoenda milamba, to go ronnd by 
a new road to avoid war or 
some other obstacle, to strike 
out a new way. 
JdtUle, eternity. 

Ya milele, eternal. 
Milhoit jins, which having been 
merely singed, not killed by the 
missiles of the angels, lurk in 
by-places to deceive and harm 
Miltki = Milki. 
Miliki ku'^ to reign, to possess. 
Milkij kingdom, possession, pro- 
MUunibet a speech, an over-long 

Minibat pregnancy. 
Kuwa na miniba or Kuchukua 

mimbot to be pregnant. 
Kuhartbu miniba, to miscarry. 
Minibara, the pulpit in a mosque. 
Mimit I, me. 

Mimina ku-, to pour, to pour over. 
Miminika hw-, to be poured over, to 

be spilt, to overflow. 
Mingi, many. See -ingi. 
Mingine, others. See -ingine» 
Mini (Ar.), right. 

Mini wa tihemalif right and left. 
Minyonoa, a kind of flowering 

Mi(mgoni mtoa, in respect of, as to, 

on the part of, from among. 
Mirdba, muscles. See Mraba, 
Miriaaa, shot. 
Mi»hitharif crooked* 
MiskOf Russia. 
Misri, Egypt. 
Miteen, two hundred. 
Miuniif a whistling. 

MiuH, black. See -eusu 

Miwa (plur. of Mua\ sugar-canes. 

Miwali, midribs of a palm-leaf. 

Mivoaniy spectacles. 

Miyaa, leaves for making mats. 

Miye, me, it is L ' 

Mizani, balances, steelyard, scales. 

Mizif roots (M.). 

Mizizi, roots, rootlets. 

Mja na maji, one who has come 
over the sea, a foreigner. Also, 
a slave. 

Mjahazif plur. wajakcui, a woman 

Mjanga, Bembatooka bay in Mada- 

MJangao, melancholy, silent sorrow. 

Mjanja, plur. wajanja, a cheat, a 
shameless person. 

Mjanif a widow. 

Mjasiri, plur. wajanri^ a bold ven- 
turesome man. 

MJassusi, inquisitive» 

Mjeledif a whip. 

Mjemha, a plough (?). 

Mji, plur. mijiy a town, a eiiy, a 
village, the middle part of a piece 
of cloth. 

Mjif the uterus. 

Mjiariy plur. mijiari^ tiller ropes. 

MJiguu, plur. miJiguUf large long 

Mjinga, plur. wajinga^ a raw new 
comer, a simpleton; applied es- 
pecially to newly anrlved sUTes, 
ignorant, inexperienced. 

MjiHkafiri, a kind of lizard. 
Mjoli, plur. %jDaJoli,& fellowHMrvant 
Mjomhaf plur. wqjomba^ nnde. 
MJugu nycMMf ground-nuts. 
Mjugu maiM, a hard kind ti 




MfuJcuu, plur. ieajuhuUf a oousin, a 

JUjtmbOf plar. wajumba, an nnde. 
MjumbaJcaJca, a Mnd of lizard* 
idjumbe, plur. loajiim&e, a mes- 
Mjume^ a weapon-smith. 
Jifjumu, studded with brass. 
Jljusif plur. ieajuiif a lizard. 

Mjusi wa kanzu. See Karusu. 
• MjuH kafirit ft rough kind of 
small lizard, 

MJuH salanMf a smooth kind of 
small lizard. 
Hfjuvi, plur. vxijuvit a chattering, 

officious person. 
MJuzi, plur. wajuzif a person of in- 
formation, one who knows. 
Mkaa, plur. vfokcui, one who sits. 

Mkaa Jikoni^ Mr. 6it-in-the- 

Mkaa, an astringent wood used 
in medicine, 
iihahala, opposite. 
MkabUf future. 
Mkadif plur. mikadtj the pandanus 

tree; its flowers are valued for 

their smell, 
i£kaidit obstmate^ wilfuL See 

Mkaja^ a doth worn by women, 

given as a present at the time of 

a wedding. 
UkdUf fierce. See -kaU, 
MkamilifUf perfect. 
Mkanuihef plur. mikamshe, a kind of 

wooden spoon, 
Mkandaa, plur. mikandact^ a kind 

of mangrove tree full of a red 

dye much used for roof beams. 
Mkanju, plur, mikanjuf a cashew 

tree (M.). 
Jf%ara^a«o, a strong tobaooo. Also» 

manfully, again and again 

MkaraJcdla, a medicinal shrub. 
Mkasama (in arithmetic), division. 
Mkaaagif a handsome tree, whoso 

wood is useless. Hence the 


UzuH toa mkcuoH, 
UkipaUt, vnyi, boM, 

Mkanri, a tree whose bark is used 

to dye iishing-nets black. 
Mkataba, a written agreement. 
Mkatale, the stocks. 
MkaUj plur. mikate, a cake, a loaf. 

Mikaie ya mqfUf cakes of mtama 

MikaJte ya kusonga, ya kumiminaf 
&c., cakes of batter, Ac. 

Mkate wa tumbako, a cake . of 
MkazOf nipping, pressing tight. 
Mke^ plur. «ToZ^e, a wife, a female. 

Mke aliofiwa na mttmeir0,a widow. 
Mkehe, a pot to burn incense in, a 

drinking pot. 
Mkeka, plur. mikeka, a fine kind of 

mat used to sleep upon. 
Mkeo = Mkewo. 

Mkereza, plur. waJcereza, a turner, 
MJeewe, his wife. 
MkevaOf your wife. 
Mkiay plur. mikia, a taiL 
Mkinibizif plur. wakimMzif one who 

runs away, 
Mkindu, plur, mikindu, a kind of 

palm whose leaves are used to 

make fine mats. 

Mkizif a kind of fish, . i 

Mkoba^ plur, miltoba, a scrip, tk 

small bag. 
Mkoche^ plur, mikochet a kind of 

branching palm with an edible 





fdhtjo, uriae. , 

Mkoko, plur. mtkdko, a mangrpve 

tree. .. 
MlioMo, jpliur. mikohotOi tba xnork 
^ made by. a thing being ;4r^gged 

along. ■ 

Mkoma, plur. mikoma, a large tree 

bearing an edible fruit. 
Mkomhozi^ plur*. waJumbozi, ai 


MJtondo toa majiy s^. current. 
MJiongojo, plur. mikongcjo, an old 

man's staff, for him to lean upon 

as be walks. 
MkonOf plur. mtkono, the arm, es- 
Itecially from the elbow to the 
fingers ; the hand, a sleeve, a 
prqjecting handle like that of a 
aaucepan, a measure of nearly 
balf a yard, a cubit . . 

Ya mkona, handy. 

Chuo cha wkoTio, a handbook. 
jBdkor<^ ill-oiaened. : 
Mkubwa, great, the eldest. See 

. -kubtoa. 
JCfctfcAyo, Magadoxa. . 
Mku/Uf plur. mikufu, a chain, es- 
pecially of a light ornamental 

Mkufunzi, plur. wdkufunzi^ a 

jtf A;ii^, plur. miktike, a spear with 

a sharp point and tiiangular 

Mkuku, the keel of a ship, 
MkuUf a gar-fish. 

Mktdtmaj plur. wajcvlimcty a culti- 
vator, a field labourer. 
Mkfdimanif plur. imkulimanif an 

MkulOf plur. mtkulOf a pottle-shaped 

matting bag to strain tui through. 

Mkumavt, a kind of red wood mnob 

used in Zanzibar. 
ilf^m&t(Mgao.),-gami<x>pal tree. 
3r/cttn^a (?), midwife. 
If/cKTi^, plur. mikunffu^ ih» firoil 

sta^ of the banana. 
Mkungu^ plur. mikungUf a kind of 
earthen pot. 

Mkungu wa kufunihia^ a pot lid. 

Mkungu toa ktdia^ a- dish. 
Mkufif plur. vHikuu, a great man, a 

Mhuu tea a8ikarij.& commanding 

Mkuu wa genzi, a guid^ 
Mkuza^ large, full grown. 
MkvxLwha^ a kind of thoniy riirab. 
Mkwaaij plur. vxikwuif a wealthy 

person, rich. . 
Mkwe, plur. vfakwe^ a &iher or 

mother-in-law, a son or daughter- 
in-law. . 
Mkwemej a climbing, plant .bearing 

a gourd with round .flftt aeeda 

rich in oil. 
Mkwezi, a climber, oi^ who goea 

Mlafi, plur. walafi, a glntton* 
MkUof plur. mUaXot hypluDne» a 

branching palm. 
Mlamba, a dark-coloored bird that 

eats insects, and drives away 

other birds, even tho orowa 
Mlango, plur, miianga, a door, a 

Mlanza^ a pole for earirying things. 
Mlartba^ plur. wdanSbcLy usurer. 
Mle^ there within. .< 
Mlevi, plur. walevi, a drankard, 
Mlezif plur. ucUeti^ a nursai one 

who rears children. 
Mlezoy plur. mUezo, a biToy, 
Mlimot plur. mUinuLf a monntaio. 





MUngoU vmi ludmi or, goimit the 
amall. mizeD-mast-OMrried Ly 
largedhows., ,. i 

MU9§oU vja intfjii tbye.bowsiurit , 
Mlinzis pliir. walwtu a guard. 
MUshi, plur. ijpaliskir it^- feeder^ a 

shepbeid. . . i ^^ 
MluhOf the month Shaaban. . 
Mlizamuy a wajterapoiit 4M»'-a Ix^e. 
Mlde, the comb of aoo<:k. 
IfloTiio, plur. mUomo, a lip.. Also, 
. Jfidomo. 
Mmaja, oue, a certain man. 8ee 

*ifna, there is within. ., 
Mrmda; plur. mifuuZoy atsale» an 

auotioQ. , . 

Mnadi, aq auotioneer, huckstei^. 
Mnadi leu-, to sell by auction. 
Mftafikit plur. toanq^^Haiiypocrite. 
MnaJOf a prophet going to a^ a 

thin^ of Grod. 
Mna^imu, plur. wanq^imu, an as- 
Mnajiiif plur. neanagUi^ a. profane 

person, blasphemer. 
MnarOt plur. mtnoTti, a tower, a 

minaret, a beacon. 
Mnazif plur. minazi, a cocoa-nut 

31 n«fia, one who speaJss. 

ifnena A:toe?i, one who speaks the 
MnenA, stout See -nene, 
Jfii^nt, plur. iranent, a. speaker, an 

eloquent person. 
Mngazidjat plur. ITan^az^'a, a 

native of Great Comoro. . 
Mngwana, plur. wangwcmOitk gentle- . 

man, a free and civilized person. 

MnOf exceedingly, excessively. Mno 

always £dUows the word qualified'^ 

byit, . 
ilf no/u, meatincss, fleshinesB. 
MnonOt fat» See -^wmo. 
Mnunuzi, plur. wanunuzi,.^^ buyer» 

a purchaser, a customer. 
MnyamctvUf plur. wanyamavu, a- 

silent person, still, quiet. 
MnyanQ^afiyi, plur. wanyang'anyi, a 

robber, one who steaJs with vio- 
Mneyo, a tickling, itching, a crcejv 

ing sensation. 
Mnyiriri, plur. minyiriri, the arms- 

of the cuttle-fish. 
Mnyonge^ plur. tcanyonge, an insig- 
. nificaut, mean person. 
Mnyororo, plur. minyororOf or mnyoo,. 

plur. minyoOfdk chain. 
Mnywa, plur. tcanytco, a drinker; 

one who drinks. . 
MOf -mo, or -mo.-, the particle de- 
noting place inside some tin ngr 

Jlfiimo 7mmo, there inside. [fU(».. 
Moalli, Mohilla. 
Mo/ay small round cakes of mtamd' 

Mohulla, a fixed time, a teim. Also* 

Moja, plur. mamoja^ one, same. 

Mamoja pioy it is all one. 
-mqjoLt one. 

Moja moja, one by one. 
Moja haada wa moja^ alternalCiy. 
Mtu mrnqja, a certain man. 
Moja wapOf any o^e. 
Mold, Lord. Used of God. 
Moma, a kind of poisonous snake.: 
Mombee^ Bombay. 
MoriSf Mauritius. 

Kutoka MorUf to score twenty- 
nine or more in a game utf 




Kwenda Marts, to mark less than 
twenty-nino in a game at cards. 
MororOf soft. See '^)roro, 
Moshif plur. mioshi, smoke. 
Mosi, one (in oounting). 

Ya moi^i, first. 
Moskiti, a mosque, the aoe of spades. 
Mote, all. See -ote. 
Moto, plur. mioto, fire, a fire, heat. 

Ya moto, hot 

Kupata moto, to get hot 
Moyo, plur. mioyo or nyoyo, heart, 
mind, will, self. 

Ya moyot willingly, heartily. 
Mpagazi, plur. wapagazi, a caravan 

Mpaji, plur. wapaji, a giver, a 

liberal person. 
Mpaka, plur. mipaka, a boundary, 

Mpaka mmojd, adjacent [limit. 
Mpdka, until, as far as. 

Taiaclieka mpaka Jculia, we shall 
laugh till we cry. 
Mpanibi, plur. wapamhi, a person 

dressed up with ornaments. 
Mpanzi, a sower. 
Mpapayi, plur. mipapayi, a papaw 

Mparamuzi, plur. miparamuzi, a 

sort of tree said to be unclimb- 

Mpatanishi, plur. wapatantshi, a 

peacemaker, one who brings about 

an agreement. 
Mpato, interlaced work, lattice. 
Mpeekwa, plur. wapeehuDa, a person 

sent, a missionary, = Mpelekwa, 
Mpehuzt, plur. teapekuzi, one who 

scratches like a hen, an inquisi- 
tive person. 
Mpelehzi, plur. vjapelelezi, a spy. 
Mpenzi, plur. vxipenzi, a person 

who is loved, a favourite. 

Mpera, plur. mipera, a gnava trea 

'Jl^ia, new. See -pytu 

Mpiga ramli, plur. v)dpiga^ a for- 
tune-teller, one who prognosti* 
catea by diagrams. Formerly 
they did so by throwing sand, 
whence the name. 

Mpiko, plur. mipikOf a pole to carry 
burdens on. 
Kuchuktia mpikoni, to carry on 
a pole over the shoulder. 

Mpingo, ebony. 

Mpini, plur. mipini^ a haft, a 

Mpira, india-rubber, an india-rub- 
ber balL 

MpUhi, plur. wapishi, a cook. 

Mpo/u, plur. toapo/u, the eland. 

Mpotevu, plur. wapotevu, a wasteful 

Mpotoe, plur. wapotoe, perverse, 
wilful, good-for-nothing. 

Mpumha/u, plur. wapurnbafu,tk fool. 

Mpunga, rice, either growing or 

while yet in the husk. 

Mpwngati, plur. mtpungati, a kind 
of cactus. 

Mpuzi, plur. toapuzi, a silly chat- 

Mpwa, the sea-beach (M.). 

Mptoeke, plur. mipvjeke, a ghor 
thick stick, a bludgeon. 

Mpya, new. See -p^ok 

Mrdba, plur. mtVabo, musclesL 
JlfiEtt K» mtra&a minne, a very 
strong man. 

Mrabha, square. 

Mradi, preferably (?> 

Mramma, the rolling of a ship. 

Mrashif plur. miraahi, a long-necked 
bottle, often of silver, used to 
sprinkle scent from; a woman's 




Jfremo, plur. vfaremOf a Portugaese. 

Mrendhttf the thorn-apple plant. 
MrenUy^lxa, Warenuj a Portuguese. 
Mrithi, plur. wirithi, an heir, an 

Mruba^ plur. miruba, a leech. 
Mrungura, people who rob and com- 
mit violence at night. 
MnUutUf sulphate of copper, blue- 
MsaadOf help. [stone. 

Msafara, plur. miaafara^ a caravan. 
Msajiri, plur. woMfiri, a traveller, 

one on a journey. 
Mtdhafu^ plur. mUahafu^ a koran, 
a sacred book. 

Msdhafu waSheitani, a butterfly. 
MBohau, plur. iMMoAau, one who 

forgets, a forgetful person. 
Msaji, teak. 
Jiisala. 8ee Musala, 
Msalaha, a cross. 
Msalitif a betrayer of secrets. 
Msamehe^ plur. K^osameAe, forgiving. 
MsangaOf astonishment. 
Msapata, a kind of dance. 
Mscuu, sandpaper, a shrub with 

leaves like sandpaper. 
Msayara, kind, gentle. 
MsazOf remainder. 
Msdehitha, plur. wasehhiaha, a 

Jisemajif plur, toasemajiy a talker, 

an eloquent person. 
Msemi, plur. toasemt*, a talker, a 

MaetOf a sort of food, a mixture of 

mtama and chodko, 
Maewe, plur. miaewe, a sort of 

Castanet tied to the leg. 
Mahahahoy similar. 
MahcLhara,'plur. mi8hahara,monih\y 

PAJ* wages. 

MahaJcikif small pieces of meat 
cooked on a skewer. 

Mahale or Mahare, plur. miahaU^ an 

MaharikOy plur, vjoaharilui^ a 

IfsAayj = Mchayi, 

Makeheri or Mahehiri, plur. TTasAe- 
Aeri, a native of Sheher in 
Arabia, mapy of whom are settled 
in Zanzibar. The butchers and 
coarse mat makers are almost all 
Sheher men. 

Mahiki^ one who holds. 
Mahiki ahikiOf the steersman. 

Mahindcmi, plur. waahindani, ob- 
stinate, resisting.' 

MahindiOf woof. 

Mahindo (obscene), coitus. 

M»hipay plur. miahipOy a blood- 
vessel, a nerve, any disease affect- 
ing these, hydrocele. 

Mahipavtky plur. u^cu^ipaim, obstt 

Mahipty plur. mWhipU a net, a girdle. 

Mahonif plur. waahoni^ a tailor, a 
Mahani viatUf a shoemaker. 

M^honOy plur. mtahono^ a seam. 

MaJitaka^ plur. mis^to^o, an accusa- 
tion, a charge before a judge. 

Mahtakif a prosecutor. 

Mahukoy coming down, coming away 
fh>m performing one's devo- 
Mahvko wa mfigaribi, about a 
quarter of an hour after sunset. 
Mahuko wa alaairi kaairi, about 

5 p.ic 
Mahuko wa eaha, about an houi 
after sunset, or from 7 till 

8 P.M. 

M»humaa = Meahmaa* 




Miiba, plor. mtstbii, a calamity, a 

grief, mourning. 
MHfvtj a flatterer. 
.Msifu^mnOj plur. wasifu^tnnOf an 
* excessive praiser, a flatterer. 
Mnjana, a bachelor (?). 
MAimamizi, jAuv. teasimamizi, an 
- overlooker, a steward, the head 

man over a plantation, who < is 

nearly always a free man, often 

nvt Arab. 
Msinjii plur. mininji, foundations, 

trench for laying foundations. 
.Msinziy plur^ mt6*in2^ a sort of man- 

grove tree. 
Mfia, a piece of stone to rub liwa 

Msioy a fated thing, what will de- 
stroy or affect a person. See 

Msirij plur. toamn, a confidential 

person, one trusted with secrets. 
Msiiani [Pemba] = Barazani, 
Msifu, a forest. 

MsU» voa milif a thick wood. 
MfiOTnari, plvur. muomari, a nail, an 

iron nail. See Maraehi, 
MsondoyVk very tall drum* beaten on 

special occasions. 
Jlaonyo^ a whistling. 
J/8/adt,. plur. wastadi, a skilful 

workman, a good hand. 
Mistahamili or Mgtdhimili, plur. too- 

ttahimUi, a patient, enduiing, 

long-suffering person. 
MstaJH, plur. wutaJcit tt prosecutor- 
M*tamUi a shoe; a piece of wood 

fixed to the keel, with a hole to 

receive the heel of the mast. 
MbtarU plur. mia^art, a line, a lioe 

Kupiga mstaii, to draw a Une. 
JUif {f/'ele, a oufltard apple. 

Msudki, plur. mUuahi, a tooth stick, 
a little stick of the tambaran 
tree, used as a tooth«brush. It 
is prepared by chewing tl^e end 
until it- becomes a mere. bunch of 
Mnuflj plur. ntttfu/l, a^ tree bearing a 
pod of soft cotton, Eriodendroa 
Msukanij plur. m{8t(i(rani,a> rodder, i 
Maultano, See Keke, 
Meuluhitoa^ a peacemaker. 
Msumari = Jtfsomari. 
MsumenOj plur. mtsumeno, a saw. 
Msurnkulef the name of Lioogo'i 

ilfauno&ar^ fir tree^ deaL 
MmruaJn, plur. miturudki, the 
wooden button which is grasped 
between the toes to hold on the 
wooden clogs commonly woca by 
women and in the house. 
Msuzo, the handle of a millatoiie. 
Mtweni = ifmeni, cholera. 
Mta or Moo, plur. mita^ a district» 
a quarter of a town. 
The mita of Zanzibar, starting 
from the western point and 
going round the outside first» 
and then into the middle, 
aie : Shangani, Baghani, Gere- 
zani, Forthani, Mita ya pwani, 
Kiponda, Mbnyuni, Malindi, 
Funguni, Jungiani». Kokoni, 
Mkunazini, Kibokoni, Kidu- 
iani, Mzambarauni, ^^jmka- 
kuni, Vuga, Mnazimoja, IQi 
mpya, Mtakuja, Jumea, Boko la 
Mahogo, Kajificheiii, MAranl» 
Migomboni, Tiuyani, Bhanu 
Hurumzi, Kutani, MwiivL All 
these are on the peninsulst 
which joins the mainland 0|4y 




«t Mhazi moja. Fanguni is 
on the point where the creek 
•enters, whioh akttost flurrounds 
the town. Orofising the ereek 
by the bridge, there are the 
following mita : — ' Ng*ambo, 
Mehangani, Gnliomv Kwa 
Buki, Yikokotoni, Eisimani 
kwa kema, Mohinjan!, Mwem- 
be mjngn, Eikwajuui, Mkadini, 
and then Mnazi moja again. 
Mtaala e= Mtala, 
IBitaharif credible» 
Mtai, a scratch, a slight superficial 
Kwpiga mtai^ to 8Cratc4L 
JUtahnbOj plar. mUaimbo, an iron 

•bar, a cmwbar. 
Mtajirif plur. vsaJtajiri^tk merchant, 
a rich man. More correctly 
MtaJtasOf the rustling of new or 
clean clothes. ' 
Kupiga mtdkaso, to mstle. 
Mtdla = MtcuUa, practice^ study. 
Mtali, plur. mt7aZi, bangles, anklets. 
Mtama, millet, Gaifre com. 

Mtama mtindif half-grown stalks 

Mtama tete, fully formed but not 
yet ripe. 
Mtamhay plur. mita7nba,2L young she- 
animal whiclt has not yet borne. 
Mtambo, plur. mitavfiboi a si/ring; a 

trap with a spring, a machine. 
MtanoiiLatif a swell, dandy. 
Miandij a loom. 
Jlf]t<mdo, the wdrp in wtoviilg.' 
Mlani, plur. watanij one who bdlOngs 

to a kindred tribe or race. 
MaotcOf plur. tmtooioo, a devout 

Mtaramu, shrewd, wise. 

Mtata^Of a tree or beam thrown 
across a stream. 

MiegOj plur. mitego, a trap. 

Mtendajij plur. watendaji, an activo 

Mtendct P^^^* mitende, a date palm. 

MtepCf plur. mitepSf a kind of dhow 
or native craft belonging chiefly 
to Lamoo and the coast near it. 
Mitepe are sharp at the ' bows 
and stem, with a head shaped 
to' imitate a camel's head, orna- 
mented with painting and tassels 
and little streamers. They carry 
one large square mat sail, and 
have always a white streamer or 
pennant at the mast-head : their 
planking is sewn together, and 
they are built broad and shallow. 

Mtesi, an adversary, a quarrelsome 
litigious person. 

Mtetteshij comic. 

Mteulej plur. toaieule, chosen, select. 

Mthaminii a surety. 

Mthulimu, a cheat, a thief. • 

MH, plur. miti, a tree, pole, wood. 
Mti kaiiy a tall post set in tiie 
ground between a prisoner's 
legs, so tliat when his feet are 
fettered together he can only 
move in a circle round the poet. 

MtUhavifha, a charm of any kind. 

MU^ scrofulous and gangrenous 

Mtihay a darling, a Uxm of endear- 

Mtii^ plur. waiiii obedient 

Jfitmo, heartj chest (old SwahiU 
and Kiyao). 

Mtindi^ buttermilk. 

Mtindo, size, form, shape, pattern. 

Mtini, plur. mitini, a fig tree. 

MtOf plur. miio, u river, a streaiift. 




Mto wa Jcono, a branchiDg river, a 
'MtOt pliir. mito, a pillow, a cushion. 
MtobvoCf a kind of wood of which 

the best halcoras are made. 
Miofaa^ plur. mUo/aOf an apple- 
like fruit. 
Mtcikit a swelling of the glands at 
the bend of the thigh followed 
by fever. 
MtomOf firmness, good building. 
3ftomon(2o,plur. mitomondo^ihe Bar- 
ringtonia ; its fruit is exported to 
Mtondo, the day after the day after 
Mtondo goo, the day after that. 
MtondoOf plur. mitindoOf Callo- 
phyllum inophyllum ; oil is made 
from its seeds. 
Mtongozif plur. toatongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to allure 
Mtoro, plur. watoroy a runaway. 
Mtoto, plur. waiotOt a child. Used 
also generally of anything 
small of ltd kind, when men- 
tioned in connection with 
something larger to which it is 
attached ; e.g. young shoots, 
small boats, &c. 
Mtoto toa watu, a child of some- 
body, haying relations, a woman 
of respectable family as dis- 
tinguished from one of slave 
parentage, a woman therefore 
who has somewhere to go if she 
leaves her husband, or he her. 
Mtoto V3a mezOf a drawer of a 
Mtovu^ without manners, shameless. 
Miu, plur. watUy a person, a man, 
Bomehody, anybody. 

HakunQ. mtu, there is nobody. 
Mtu gani f of what tribe ? 
Mtu tea aerkdli, a man in govern' 
ment employ. 

Mttdinga, plur. mittdinga, the col- 
lar bone. 

MtiUivUf plur. watfdivUf a quiet 

Mtumainij plur. watumaini, san- 
guine, confident 

Mtumba, plur. mitumba, a bale of 
cloth made up for a cajravan. 

Mtumbuizi^ plur. vxUumbuizi, a spy, 
an inquisitive person (A.). 

Mtumbwi, plur. mitumhtoi, a oanoe 
hollowed out from the trunk of 
a tree, distinguished from a 
galawa by having no outriggers, 
and being generally of larger 

Mtume, plur. mitumej an apostle, a 
prophet. Applied especially t» 
Mohammed as a translation of 
his title, Apostle of God. 

Mtumke^ plur. watuwakCf a wooCian» 
a wife. 

Mtumishi, plur. vjotumishi, a 8e^ 

Mtumwd, plur. watttmwa, a slave, a 

Mtundu, mischievous, perverse, 

Mtungi, plur. mitungi, a water-jar. 

Mtupa^ plur. mitupOf euphorbia. 

Mtuptif bare. See 'tupu, 

Mtutu, plur. mitutu (Ar.),^ mul- 
berry tree. 

Mtuzi, cuny, gravy (M.> Alsa 

Mttoangoy plur. mitvHingOf a pestlt 
for pounding and cleaning coni» 

Jftf-. See M; 

Mudiy plur. mt'tra, a sugar-cane» 




MuhalJiarifu, extravagant. 

Muda or Mda, a space of time, tenn. 

Muda wa, the space of. 
Mudu JcU'. 
KuJimudUf to gain a little strength 
after illness. 
Mvhadimu, plvLT, todhadimuj a ser- 
vant, one of the original inhabi- 
tants of Zanzibar. These waha' 
dimu pay two dollars a year for 
-each household to the Munyi 
mhuUy of which Seyed Majid now 
(1870) takes one ; they also work 
for him. They all live in vil- 
lages in the country, and speak a 
lang^ge of which there are at 
least two dialects, materially 
different from the Swahili of the 

Mtiharabu, plur. wdharahUf mis- 
chievous, destructive. 

MuharibivUf plur. waharHnvu^ a de- 
structive person, one who ruins 
himself, destroys his own chances. 

Muhdrwma, a kind of silk handker- 
chief, worn instead of a turban. 

Muhindit plur. Wahiiidi, a native 
of India, especially an Indian 
Mussulman, of whom there are 
two chief sects settled in Zanzi- 
bar, the Khojas and Bohras. 

Muhindiy plur. mihindi, the Indian 
corn plant Also MahindL 

Muhogo^ cassava, manioc 

Muhtasari, an abridgment, a sum- 
mary, g 

MuhullOf time, a fixed period. 

Muhurif a seaL 

Mujiza, plur. miujiza, a wonderful 
thing, a miracle. Also Mvmjiza. 

Mult or MuliOf clever, knowing. 

Mulika Aft*-, to show a light, to 
'. gleam, | 

Mulhi, a kingdom. 

Mume, male. See -ume, 

Mumimi, Azrael, the angel of death. 

MumunyCf plur. mamumunye, a kind 
of gourd resembling a vegetable 
marrow. It often grows of suoh 
a shape that its Iiard rind, whe& 
ripe, oon be used for bottles, 
ladles, and spoons. 

Mumyani, a mmnmy. Mummy is 
still esteemed as a medicament. 

Munda, plur. miundc^ a piece of 
plank to serve as cap to a post 
See also Mda, 

Mundu, plur. miundif, a bill, a 
small hatchet. 

Munyi, a chief, a sheykh. The 
Munyi mkuu is esteemed the true 
Sultan of the Swahili, at least i& 
the island of Zanzibar and tlie 
parts adjacent. He is descended 
from an ancient Persian familv, 
the heiress of which married, 
some generations since, an Arab 
from Yemen. The title is now 
(1874) in abeyance. His chief 
residence is at Dunga, near the 
centre of the island. 

Muomoj plur. tnibmo, the moustache, 
the lip. 

Mmoda, plur. tiiMala, an oval mat 
used to perform the Mohammedan 
devotions upon. 

Mtaama, pardon. 

Musimi^ the northerly winds, which 
blow in December, January, and 
February. The musimi is some- 
times reckoned to extend till 

Musimo = Musimi. 

MustareTiBj enjoyment. 

Mustarifu, with a competeilpgb» 
neither rich nor pooi, ', s v^j 




Mutaabift credible. 

3fu^ui, obedience* . . . 

Muwyi, plar. wauaih a murderer, 
a slayei;. 

Muuguzif plor. waugtui^fk nntae, 
one who nurses sick people. 

Mtnumuihiy plnr. waumiehi, a <;upper. 

Muundi'Vm mguu (A.),- the4»hiD. 

Muungti, God, plar. miungu* The 
Swahili rarely use Muungu or 
*Mun^ alone. They almost 
Blwe^BBAj Mwenyiezi^Mungu, 
. Maahini ^ Muungu, a poor free 

MusdmOf a place where offerings are 
made to some spirit supposed to 
haunt there. Baobab trees are 
generally supposed to be haunted 

Mvi, grey hairs. [by spirits. 

Mvili, the shade of a tree. 

Mvinje, Cassiorinus. 

Mvinyoi strong wine, spirits, wine. 

Jlfvmn^o, round, roundness. - 

Mviia, Mombeff. 

MvivUf idle. See -vitmk 

MvuOj rain, rains. 
Mvua ya mtoafta, the rain which 
falls about August 

Mfmje, assafoBtida. 

Mvuke, vapour, steam. 

J[vukuto, plur. mivukutOf a lever. 

Mvulcmay plur. wavtdana, a young 
man whose beard is just begin- 
ning to grow. 

MvuUi the lesser rains, about 
October or November. 

Mvulini, in the shade. 

Mvurnot plur. mivuma, the borassus 

Mvumilivu, plur. wavumilivu, 
patient, long-suffering: 

Moumo, a rubber, six games won by 
one Bide (in cards). 

Mvunda, or Mvunjoy plur. wavunda^ 
a breaker, a destroyer, one who 
ruins. / 

Mvungut the hollow of a ^tree, a- 
hollow tree^' 
Mvungu wa kitanda, Hm space 
■•:: «mder a bedstead. 
MvuHf plwv wavuvi, a ^hermieuL 
Mw', See Jf-. . ! 

Mwaj of. 

Mtoact, plur. mtwaa, strips of tiie 
leaf, of a tree called tfiJboma (?), 
used to make eoarae mats uid 
Muoafa ku-y to forgive. 
Mwafc^cOf a conspiracy, an agree- 
ment, a bargain. 
Mwaga ku-^ to pour away, to empty 

out, to spill. 
Mwagiak^i to pour upon, to empty 

out for. 
JHwajiti/uni, a self flatterer. 
Mwakaf plur. mtofta, a yeae. The 
yea): commonly used in Zanit- 
bar is the Arab year of twelve • 
lunar months^ There it also 
the Persian year of 865- days, 
^ beginning with the Nairm, 
called in Swahili the SOcu a 
mwaka. From this day the yeir 
is reckoned in deeades^ eadi 
decade being called a mtooa^. 
The year is called fiom the day 
of the week on which it oom- 
mences : MuxUca Juma, Mwakm- 
alhamiai, &c. i 

Mtcakajana, last year. 
; Mwakajuzi, the year before latt 

Mwalca kuHi mwcJca^ yearly. 
MuHtke, his, hers, its. See -ofta 
MtodkOf thy. See -dko, 
MvjaJi, See Mwama «itMrU. 
I Mvcdli, plur. mt'tealt, a sort of pain 




^ith very long and strong leaf 
-italka, which are used for doors, 
ladders, and other purposes. 

Mi0a2t'fiitt, plur. toaaUmUf a teacher. 

Mwamaley treatment, mode of treat- 

Mufamba, plur. miamba^ a rook. 

Mwamba, plur. tniamba^ the wall 
plate in a mud and stud hquso. 

JiwamuOf plur. vjaamua^ a judge. 

iftMimua, husband's brother. 

Iftoanittst, plur. ijoaamuzi, a judge. 

MwarMf the miBtress of the house, 
a matron. It is polite in Zanzi- 
bar to speak of one's own mother 
as mwana. 

JfuMtna, plur. waanct, a son, a ohild. 
MwanangUf my child. 
MwanaOf your child. 
JHhoanatoef his or her child. 
Mioanetu, our ohild. 

Mtoana Adamu^ a child of Adam, 
t*.e., a human being. 

JftMifia f}U](/t, a seaman. . 

Mtocma maua, a sprite represented 
• as a white woman with an ugly 
black husband. 

Jtfimuui mkef plur. wxana ieaJce or 
vjaanadke, a woman. 

Mwana mhe tea hiungwanot a lady. 

Mwana mtii)i«, plur. voaana vMume 
or toaanaume, a man. 
Mwana mtooZi, a young woman 
whose breasts are not yet flat- 
tened, one who has not yet left 
her father's house. 

Mufafiamizi, a soldier crab. 

Mwandikqji, plur. vaandikaji, a 
waiter, a table servant. 

MwandikOf.pha, miaruUkOiek mani^- 
soript, handwriting. 

Mwanduhif plur. waandUhit a 
writer, a clerk, a secretary. 

' Muoanga^ plur. mianga, light, ib 
light, a kind of rice. 

Mwangalizif plur. waangaliti, an 
overseer, <me who overiooks' or 
looks to. 

Mwangasa, plur. miangasa, a light 
hole, the small round holes which 
are often left near the ceilings 
of rooms in Zanzibar. 

Mtoango, plur. mtan(/o, a lamp-stand, 
a piece of wood about eighteen 
inches long, from near the bottom 
of which two small pieces project, 
at right angles,, to hold the com- 
mon clay lamp of the country. 
The mtoango is generally hung 
against a walL 

Mwango = Mlango, 

'MioangOf plur. mitoango, a kind of 

Mwangu, my. See 'ang%, [shrub. 

Mwangioif echo. 

Mwani, seaweed. 

^Mwanzit plur. mifjoanxi^ a bamboo. 
Mitoanzi ya pua, the nostrils (?). 

Mwanzoy plur. inianzoy beginning. 

MuxiOj a worry, bother. 

Mwapuza, a Simpleton. 

Mwashit plur. waatihx^ a masom 

Mtoathitdj one who calls to prayer 
at the mosque, a muezzin. Also 

Mwavuli, plur. mtavtUi, an um- 

Mvoatcazi, the Disposer, a title of 

Mwaya km- s Mwaga ^, t6 pour 

^Mvodiy plur. waweli, a sick person. 

Mvsema^ good. See "ema. 

Mioembamba, thin. Bee •embambom ^ 

Muoembe, plur. m^em&e, a mango tree. 

Mvoendanguu, a great and irre* 
parable loss. 




Mwendoj going, gait, jouruey. 
MvoenendOi going on, behaviour. 
Mwenge^ pliir. mienge, a bundle of 

straw, &o., used to carry a light. 
Mweny^i^ plur. weny^i, a host, a 
person who has a home in the 
Mujenyewe, plur. toenyewet the owner, 
self, myself, thyself, himself, 
Jilbau za mvjenyewe, some one 
else's planks. 
Mwenyif having, possessing. See 
Mvoenyi ezi Muunffu, Almighty 
. God. 

Mioenyi efumgo, a one-eyed per- 
Mwenyi inehif the lord of the 

Mwenyi kioTiaaj a lunatio. 
Mioenyi kuhutubut a preacher. 
Mwenyi kupoozci, a paralytic 
Mtoenyi mali, a rich man. 
Mwenzanguy plur. wenzanguj my 

Mwenziy plur. wenzi, a companion. 
Mtoere, a kind of com or seed like 
linseed, growing on a close spike 
like a bulrush flower. 
MtoerevUf plur. werevUf a shrewd 

person, a man of the world. 
Mwewe^ a hawk, a kite, a kind of 

Mweya ^, to steal. 
*Mweza^ plur. ioaweza, able, having 
power over. 
Mweza mwenyewe^ OQe*t own 
Mwezif the moon. 

ilftoezt, plur. miez^ a month. The 
months in Zanzibar begin on 
the day on which the moon is 

first seen, unless the old month 
has already had thirty days ; if 
•o, the day which would have 
been the 81st, is the 1st of the 
new month. 
Mwezi mpungufu, a month of less 

than thirty days. 
Mwezi mwandamu or muKifipafiiit, 

a month of thirty full days. 
Mtoezi ngapif what is the day of 

the month ? 
Mwezi wa «ito, the 6th day oi the 
Mtoiba^ plur. mti&o, a thorn. 
Mtuibajif plur. webaji, an habitual 

thief, a thievish person. 
MufigOf a sort of large dove with red 
bill, white neck, and black body. 
It cries Kooo I Then one answers, 
''Mvjigor* Kooo!^'*Niagtdier 
Kooo ! — •* Kweima nendako f " 
Kooo! — then one may go on. If it 
answers not, it is a bad omen* 
MioikOf plur. miikOf a spoon, s 
mason's trowel. Alsoameasun^ 
direction, prohibition, especial- 
ly of a medical practitioner. 
Ktuhika mwiko, to live by rale^ is 
live abstemiously. 
MwUii plur. tnttZi, the body. 
Mu}imo, plur. miimo, side piece af 

a door frame. 
^Mwinda^ plur. wawinda, a hunter. 
Mwingajinif a common plant whose 
leaves are said, when rnbbed in, 
to cure the aching of the limbs in 
fever ; a decoction of the roots is 
said to be useful in dysentery. 
Mwingi, much, fulL 
^Mwingi wa maneno^ ftill of 

Mtioinyi = Mwenyif having» wilb 




MuoishOf plur. miUho^ end» condla- 

MioUhi (Patta) = Mwivi. 

MioUo, calling, snmmoin. 

Mwitu, ftyteBi, 
Ya mwitUf wild. 
Mbwa wa mwUu, jaokaU. 
Mwivi, plur. wevi, a thief. 

^MwivUf plur. vfoufioUf a jealous 

Mioizi (A.,) ^ Mwiffi. 

Mwoga^ plur. waogay one who fears, 
a coward. 

Mwokosi, plur. voadkoH^ one who 
picks up anything. 

Mvookozi, plur. 1000^2^ one who 
saves, a saviour. 

Mioombajif plur. vxtomlxyii a beg- 

Mwonibezi, plur. iMom&ett/an inter- 

Mwomo ^MdomcK 

Mwongo, plur. miongOj a decade of 
ten days, used in reckoning the 
nautical or Swahili year, from 
the 9iku a mwaka, 
Mwongo mwangapif in what de- 
cade is it? . 

^Mwongo, plur. toawongo, a liar, a 
false person. 
Simekuioa *mtoongo f am I not a 
liar ? 

MwongofUj plur. waongofu, a con- 
vert, a proselyte. 

Mumjiza, plur. miujizaj a miracle. 

Mzaa, plur. loazoa, a parent. 

Mzaa bibiy a great-grandmother. 

Mzahtbu, plur. mtza&t&u, a vine. 

Mzaka^ sport, ridicule, derision. 
Knmfanyizia mzdhaj to deride 

iMzalia, plur. wazalia, a native, a 
«slave bom jn the oountry. 

Mzalishat plnr. «socal/sAo, a mid- 
MzaramUj a pool of water. 
Mzazif plur. toazagij a parent,fruitful. 

iSi mcoz^ barren. 
JHzM, plur. vHusee, an old person, an 

JUBsembo, plnr. tMumii&e, a careless 

Mzige, a loonst 
Mzigot plur. mizigOf a burden, a 

Mzima, an extinguisher, one who 

puts out. 
Mzima, plur. tmiz^ma, a living or 
healthy person. 

Mtu mzimcL, a grown person. 
Mzimu, See Zimvoi^ Muzimo, 

Mzingoj plur. mizinga, a hollow 
cylinder, a hollowed piece of 
wood used as a beehive, a can- 

RecUe ya mzinga, a pillar dollar. 
Mzingi or Mzinji, plur. fnizingi, 

foundations, trench for laying in 

the foundation. Also Msinji. 
MztngUe mwambijif a puzzle, a 

Mzingo, the circumference, brink. 

Mzingo wa, around. 
MziOf thai which would be deleterious 

to any one ; each person is said to 

have his special mztb— of one it is 

cuttle-fish, of another, red fish, 

and so on. Also Bfsio. 
Mzishif plur. vHizishi, a burier, one 

who will see to one's funeral, a 

special friend, 
MzOf sixty pUkL 
Mzofafa, on tiptoe. 
Mzoga, plur. mizoga^ a dsidbto^^ 

. >«v 




ilzomari^ ' See Marashi = Zomari, 

Mzungu, plur. mtzun^u, a strange 
and Btartiing thing. 

]d[zungu; plur. WoKungu, a Euro- 
pean, one who wears European 

Mzungu vja pUi, queen in cards. ' 

Mzungu vfa taiUi knave in cards. 

Mzungu wa *nnet king in card9> 

MzungukOf plur. mizunguka^ a; wan- 
dering about - 

Mzushij a heretic, an innovator. 

Mzuzif plur. waztLzii a tale-bearer, 
one who reports maliciously or 
untruly the word of others. 

MzuzUt plur. wazuzu, a simpleton. 

MztoeOf used to. 

NU pronounced as in English. 

An i sound is generally connected 
with an initial n. It sometimes 
precedes more or less distinctly, 
and may be written in or *n, making 
the n a distinct syllable. Some- 
times the n flows into the following 
letter, so that the i sound is alto- 
gether lost. Very often it follows 
it as in the common syllable ni or 
ny. It is characteristic of the Zan- 
zibar dialect to make th^ initial i 
sound distinct Thus inchi, a coun- 
try, is at Mombas *nH. 

Ni is often contracted into 'n or 
n, and where n would be dropped 
ni sometimes is so, as in the first 
person of the future tense, niiapenda 
or 'ntapenda or tapenda, 

N cannot be placed before 6, chf 
/, fc, ^,l^r, », «, V, orw. 

Before &, 10, and perhaps v, it be- 
enmea m, and vo changes inlo b. 

B6lurd h^ Py and perhaps I, it is 
dropped, and the consonant 
gets an explosire «omid. 

Before I, r, and perhaps (, the n 
remains, but th^ ot^er eonso- 
nant becomes m d. 

Before oft, j, «n, «» and j^ it it 
merely dropped. ■ , 

N can stand befoie ^d, g, Jt 9, 
and s. 

^before h is in two cases at least 
contracted into h. - 

Hapenda = Nihapendcu 1, 

Hipenda s NikipendcL 

There is a sound in Swahili Which 
is treated as a simple oonsonant,- 
which does not occur in European 
languoges as an initial sound. It 
is very liearly the same with the 
final ng in English, in such words 
as loving, going, &o. ' The sounds jof 
n and g seem both audible, but so 
blended that neither of tfaem can be 
carried on to the following voweL 
It is here written ng\ to distinguish 
it from the common sound ng^ m 
which the g passes on to the follow-^ 
ing vowel. There is some little 
difference in the way in which dif^ 
ferent persons pronounce it ; it has 
sometimes more of a gn sound, and 
might be so written it it be under^ 
stood that the two lettem are so- 
fused together that neither can be 
heard as if it stood alon& It has- 
been sometimes written 4f, which is 
either a mistake <« very miaieadiug. 
That the sound really is ng, may be 
proved by the faot that such words 
as begin with it are treated as words* 
beginning with n, and that when 
other prefixes are applied t^ioyarsr 




treated a84f the root began with g, i 
It is not, howeverj a very oommon 
eoond in SwahilL 
. Theve^^ <is another sound eom- 
pounded of n and £, which is very 
fairly represented by the Spanish H^ 
ot bj«i in sBch English wevdsas 
«ompanion, &0. It is pronouncedi 
perhaps in Swahili with a slightly 
broader and more nasal sound. It 
is Jiere written np^ to distingnish it 
from the oommon syllable m, in 
whioh the i has a vowel sound. 

The ny sound in the dialect of 
I Zanzibar sometimes ref^tents an n 
in more northern Swahili, as in 

Kfinwa othUnytoa, to drink. 

The change from n to ny has la 
many verbs tlie effect of giving a 
causative meaning, as in kupona, to 
get well, kuponya, to make well, toi 


N; or ni-j the sign of the first per-* 
' son singular of verbs; I. 
•n-, or -ni'i the objective prefix 

proper to denote the ^tst person^ 

N- (see ny-). 

1. A prefix frequently occurring 
in substantives which do not 
change to form the plurad. If 
followed by d, g, j, or s, it is 
pronounced with them and does 
not form a distinct syllable. 
Before other consonahts it forms 
a distinct syllable, and may be 
written 'n- or sometimes in-, - 

2. The plural ptefix of substan- 
tiveswhioh begin in the singular 
with «-, followed by a conso- 
nant The u is dropped and n 
prefixed before d, g, J, and z. 

• Before 5, and perhaps «, the n 
changes into iti, before w the nw 
become mb. Before I or r the 
nZ or nr become nd* Before h^ 
p, and tf the n is dropped and 
the other consonant gets an ex- 
plosive or aspirated sound, and 
may be written 1^, p% and f ; 
before cA, /, m, u, and «, the n is 
merely dropped. Where, how- 
ever, dro|iping the u* 'would 
leave the word « monosyllable, 
the tt- is retained^ and ny pre- 
fixed» ' 

N- (see ny*). The prefix ptoper to 
adjectives agreeing with sub- 
' stanti ves of the class whioh docs 
not change to form< its plural 
of whichever number, or with 
plural substantives which tnako 
their singular in u*i, Where the 
simple form- of the adjective 
begins with a vowel, ny- is «pre- 
: .. fixed, except "ema^ good, which 

: .,. makes njema or «tg^vuti The 
changes before a consonant are 
the same as those - given just 
above for the plural nouns in u-. 
Nyurnba whaya, not nbaya, 
^ efiaahef not nahaehie, 
n ndi>go. 

n - f^Ph ^<>i nfupL 
w ng&ma, ^ 

n njema, • 
„ kubwa, not nhAwa, 
„ mqfai not nmoja. 
ff nane, not nnane, 
M panaj' not npana, ' 
^ 'mpyc^ mii npya orpya, 
nde/it\ tkbt'ntefiit, 
tatu, not ntAUg,'' ' 
nibfVi not nwUlrvpup^ 


f* nzufii 

Vv -- 





Ncif and, also, with ; by, of the agent 
of a passive, and with, of the 
sharer in the action of a reci- 
procal yerb. 
Na when joined with a pronoun 
commonly forms one word with 
Nami, and I, or with me. 
Natoe, and thou, or with thee. 
Nao, nayoy nachOf naloj and or 

with them, it, &o., &c., &c. 

Na joined with the verb kuway to 

be, or with the personal prefix 

only, constitutes the verb to 

hare. The object is frequently 

joined with the na, — ana, or 

anazo, anacfio, &c., &o., he has. 

Alicho nacho, which be has 

Alieholcutoa nxLcho, which he had. 

Atakachokuwa na^cho, which he 

will have. 
Atakuioa na^sho, he will have it. 
The verb kuwa na is used some- 
times in the sense of being, as 
Palikuvja na Tntu, there was a 
Hakuna, there is not. 
Kuna, there is. 
ZinazOf they are. 
-^la-, the sign of the present tense 
of a continuing action. 
Anakwenda, he is going. 
Anasema, he is saying. 
This tense has sometimes the 

effect of a present participle. 
Akamioona anakuja, and he saw 

him coming. 
N.B. — ^At Mombas the -na- tense 
is used as a past tense. At 
Zanzibar it is the most usual 
A'o or ^Nna = Nina, I have. 
JVaam or AWam, yes. 

Nabihisha ku-, to exhort 
Nabii, a prophet. 

Nodi ku, to proclaim, to make t 
bid fur a thing, to sell by auction. 
See Mnadi. 
Nddira, rare. 

Nafaka, corn, com used as money. 
Mtanui, or millet, was formerly 
used in Zanzibar as small 
change: it was superseded by 
the introduction of pice from 
India about the year 1845. 
Nafasi, space, room, time, oppcnr- 

NajUUha k%^, to give space, to maks 

Nafsi or Nafusi, self, soul, breath. 
Nafuu, profitable. 
NaJiaUt spelling, grammar. 
Nahma ku, to revenge. 
Nahotha ya maji, water-tank. 
Naif a sort of anvil fixed in a forked 

piece of wood. 
Najisi =z Ne^iSf profane. 
Nakhotha or Nahoza, captain of a 

vessel, master mariner. 
NaJcili ku-, to copy, to transcribe. 
Nakishi, Naksh, or Naktht, carving. 
Kukata naksh, to carve, to orna- 
ment with carving. 
Nakuhivoa ku^ to be carved or in* 

NaJd^ a copy. 
NakOj and it was there. 
Ndkudi, cash, ready money. 
Nama ku" = Inama ku-, to bend 

down, to bow the head. 
Nami, and I, or with me. 
Na^mna or Namuna, sort, pattern* 
Namua kth (Mer.), to take out of • 

trap, to extricate. 
Nana or Na^ana, mint. 
Nana, mistress (N.). 




Nafiazi, plur. mananazi, a pine- 
Nane, ev^ht [apple. 

^nane^ eight. 

Ya nane, eighth. 
NangOy an anchor. 
- Kutia nangctj to anchor. 
Nangonango^ a worm (?)• 
Nanil Who? 

NanigwamuUit a kind of lizard. 
Nao, and they or with them, and it 

or with it 
Naoza = NaJchotha, a captain. 
NapOf and there, and here. 
Ncua ku-f to catch in a trap. 
Na$i hu; to warn. 
N<mbUf luck, fortune. 

Kwa nasibUf by chance, perhaps. 
Natibu ku^ to appoint. 
Nasiha hu-, to suggest 
NcLsihi hu-f to entreat, to beseech. 
N<utdhtba, I see it better, prefer. 
NcLsur, an abscess. 
NcUa ku-, to be adhesive, to stick. 
Natharij choice. 
Nathiri, a look, a glance, a vow. 

Kuweka nalhirit to vow. 

Kuondoa nathirif to perform a 
Nathiri ku-, to glance. 
Natoa, a blemish (?)• 
NauU^ freight. 
Nawa ku-t to wash oneself. 

Kunawa mikono, to wash one*s 
Nazdr, quarrel. 
Nazi, a cocoa-nut, a fully ripe nut. 

Nazi kavu, copra, cocoa-nuts dried 
fit for pressing. 
Naziri = Nathiri. 
Naaiyana ku-, to quarrel. 
Wcha, the point, the end, tip^ a 

strand in cordage. 
Nchi, See Inchi, 

Ndaa (M.), hunger, = Njaa. 
Ndama, a calf, the young of a 

domestic animal. 
Ndani^ within, inside. 
Ndani ya, inside ofl 
Kwa ndani, inner, secret. 
Ndani kwa ndani, secretly. 
Kusema cha ndarahOf to speak a 
secret language. 
Ndefu = NdevUf the beard. Sing. 

ftdevu, one hair of the beard. 
Nde/u^ long. See "refn, 
Ndege, a -bird, birds, an omen. To 
see a woman with a load is lucky, 
and would be called ndege njema. 
To see a man by himself carrying 
nothing is unlucky, and is ndege 

Unga wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Ndewe, a hole pierced in the lobe of 

the ear. 
Ndezi, a kind of animal. 
Ndi', a prefix used with the short 
form of the pronoun to express, 
it is this, this is the one, I am 
he, you are he, &o. 
I, Ndimim 
Thou, Ndiwe, 
He or she, Ndiye, 
It, Ndio, ndiyOy ndtcho, ndiloj 

ndipo, ndiko, ndimo, 
Ton, NdinyC 

They, Ndio, ndiyo, ndivyo, ndizo. 
Ndiyo yalio, that is just it, that 
is how matters stood. 
Ndia (M) = NJia. 
Ndimi^ tongues. See UUmi. 
NdiOt yes. 

Ndizi, banaaasi 



NG- A 

Ndizi Bungala, a thick tweet 
kind of banana. 

Ndizi mjenga^ a 'long kind of 
banana used in cooking. 

Ndizi msusa, a large zidged kind 
of banana. 
Ndoa, marriage. 
NdonyOf a lip-ring, worn by the 

Ndoo and Ndooni (M.) =s Njoo and 

NJooni, oome. . . 
Ndoo, a pail, a bucket 
NdotOf a dream. 
Ntiovu, an elephant. 
Ndugn^ a brother or sister, a «onein, 
a relation. 

Ndugu hunyonya^ a foster brother, 
NdtU, small-pox. [&c. 

Ndulif savage, given to slaying, a 

man wholly without patience. 
Ndume, male, from -lurite or -umtf. 
Ndutij a box. 
Nebii = Nabii, a prophet. 
Neema, gmoe, favour. . 
Neemesha lou-, to enrich. 
Nefii = Nafd = Nafwi, self. 
Negesha ku-, to charge with, <to at- 
tribute falsely to. 

Akamnegesha mioivi^ and he 
called him a thief. . 
Nejjis, or N^isiy.on Najin^ profane, 

NelLii a pipe, a water-pipe. 
Nemboj tribal marks. 
Nena ku-, to speak;, to name, to 

Nenana kthf to talk against 4)ne 

another, to quarreL . . 
-fi«ne, thick, stout, fat, whole, com- 
plete, plump, sleek. 
Nenea ku-, to talk to, of, at, for, or 

against, to blarney to scold, to re- 


Neitepa kvh4 to grow f^t, med «k 

pecially of persons. 
Neno^ plur. maneno, a>word,.« thing» 

Sikufanya neno^Ihaye done no- 
thing.'f iohd kumble, to eon- 
'nenyekeau, humble, oondesoendiog.- 
Nepa ^*,ito sag, to dip in 4b^ 

middle as a long rope docs. 
Neupe or Nyeupe^ whiter ' See -mipe^ 
Netisi or Nymttij black*. / See »eu«L 
•nga' or -nge^^ ihe pzefix of the- 
present oonditioDaltenaak 

Ngadu, land craba. 
-n^cMoa, though.- :.. i 

Ng*aa hjh = Ng*affii ^ni-, to shioA. 
•ngcdi', the prefix of the paat.ooQ-- 

ni-ngali^taOf I should liare re- 
Ngama, the hold of a ship. 
Ng*amha, a hawkshead turtle, ftiom 

which tortoiseshell ia procuzed. 
Ng^ambo, the other aide of • a xiver 

or creek, i 
Ngamia or Ngamiya, a oameL 
Ng^anda, a handful. 
Ngano, a tale, a fable. 
Ngano, wheat. 

AmekvUa nganoj he has been dls> 
graced; that is, having been 
as if in paradise, he hat noir 
to eat the food of osdinaiy 
Ng<Wt a. shield or buckler ; they are 

circular and very, smalj. 
Ngara, the young oob of IndiaD» 

Ng\ara Am-, or Ng^alOf or N^q%^ %y 

shine, to glitter, to be tran^iaiiani». 

to be clear. 




Hf^Hhai a droumcisor» 

2f*gariza ku't to fix the eyes; to gltre. 

Ainenmg*driza mtieho, he glaired 

i.'-atme; • •, < - 
Ngaiea, a civet cat (?). -• 

The ngatod is a largor animal 
than tbe/iui^o. 
Ng^aza ku-^ to make to ehine, or to 
- be brilliant. 
Ngazi, a ladder. 
Ngcaidja^ Great Goknoro. 
•Aflw, a Bcorpion. 

^e-y siga of the conditional pre- 
sent, wonld. 

Y<ikgedumUi they wonld still con^ 
IfgederCfH email black monkey. 
Ngema, goodv See ^-eina» 
Ngeuj ruddle used by carpenters to 

mark out their work. 
^ngi oX'ingU many, much. 
Ngiliza» -See Ingiliza, 
•nginej other, different 

Wangine-'^-^joanginet some— other. 
Ng*oahu', to pull up, to root up, to 

pull out 
^^oa, lust 

Kulia ngocLy to weep for jealousy. 

Kutimia ngoa yakwe^ to satisfy 
his desires. 
Ng^ofu, the roe of a fish. 
Ngoja Jcu^rto wait, to wait for. 
Ngoje^ Angoxa. 

Ngojea ku-, to wait upon, to watdi. 
Ng*oka ku-, to be rooted up. 

Moijo unaning^oka, I was startled 
out of my wits. 
Ngole, rope; 

Ngoma, a drum, a musical perform- 
ance generally. 
Ng*ombe ot Gnonibe, an ox, a oow^ a 
bull, cattle. 

Ng'onibe ndiime, a bull. 

^ ^igromtf, a fort ( " • 
Ng*onda ku'-f io cuxe or dry fish, Aa 

Ana n^<mga(jL,)y he is* inclined 
to Tomit ' 

Ng*(mg*e^ the strips of leaf or fibre 

used lor sewing matting, and for 

tying. , 

Ng*ong*&, the thick edge of a strip 

of matting. 
NgonOt the share of her husband^s 

company which is due to each 

wife. •' . ^ ' ' . ' 

NgoH = NgoZf\ skin. 
Ngozij skin, hide, leather. ' -^ 
Ngtidiiro, a mangouste. Also, a- 

sort of bird' = MMro» • 
Ngumi or Nyamgumii a whale. 

Kupiga ngumi^ity strike with the 
iVjgrtimu, hard. See-^gumu, 
Nguo, calico, cotton cloth, clothes. 

Ifguo fa meea, a table-cloth. 

Nguo ya fnaM, stout ck)th. 
■ Kuienda nguOt to stretch' the- 

threads for wearing. 
Nguri, a shoemaker's tool shaped^ 

like a skittle. 
iVgruftf, a kind of fish. . 
Nguruma hu-^ to roar, to thunder. 
Ngurumo, a roar, distant •rolling- 
Nguruvu, a kind of jackal with a. 

bushy taiL 
Ngutuwe or Nguutoe, a pig, swine. 
Nguruzi, a plug. • 
Nguue'^ Ngwmioe,tkp{g» 
Nguiie, red paint. 
NguvOf a kind of fish. 
Nguvu, strength, power, authority. 

Kwa nguvu, by or with strength^ 
by force, strongly, iankV^« ^ 




NguzOy a pillar, pillan. 
•ngwana, free, civilizecL 
Ngwe. See Ugvoe, 
Ngtocj an allotment or space for cul- 
J^gufena, a crocodile, a seal. 
NgtoirOf a large kind of ant 
Ni, I am, was, is. 
Ni is used to express is or was, for 
all persons and both numbers. 
Ni (M.)» by, with the agent of a 

passive verb. 
Ni-, *N't or N-, I, the sign of the 
first person singular. Before the 
-to- of the future it sometimes 
. disappears. 

•ni' or -n-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person singular. 
-ni, added to substantives, forms a 
sort of locative case, signifying 
in, at, into, to, from, from out 
of, near, by. 
I, When followed by pronouns, 
&c., beginning with 'm or mto, 
this case implies within, inside 
of, or the coming or going to 
or from the inside of the tiling 
H. When followed by pronouns, 
• &c., beginning with p, it signi- 
fies nearness to, or situation at, 
by, before, near. 
"3. When followed by pronouns, 
Ac, in kw^ it denotes going or 
coming to or from, or at, from, 
and in, in a vague sense, or of 
things far off. 
-Tit, added to verbs in the impera- 
tive forms the second person 
plural. It is sometimes suffixed 
to common phrases, as kuaherini, 
good-bye, and iwendezetuni, let us 
go, and is expluiued aa a short 

form for enyi, or nyie^ you! yov 

there I 
•ni, enclitic form for nini, what? 
-ni, enclitic for nyi as an objective 
suffix (N.). 

Nawaaminani, I tell yon. 
Nia, mind, intention, what one has 

in one's mind. 
Nia kuyio have in one's mind, to 

think to do. 
Nikaao, which I inhabit. 
Nikali, and I am or was. 

Nikali nikienda, and I am going. 
NUf blue (for washing). 
Nikwata, the little wall lizard* 
^t7^, I being. 

NUi kali ya kuwa Jum yak^ I 
being on his back. 
Ninctj I have. 
Ninet, mother (N.). 
Ninga, a kind of green bird some- 
thing like a dove, a woman's 

NingHnia ku», to swing. 
Ning*iniza ku-, to set swinging. 
Ninil What! 

Kvja nini, or Ta nini f why ? what 
Ninyi, ye, you. 

Ninyi nyote, all of yon, all to- 
Nipe, give me. See Pa &»-• 
Niroj yoke. 
Nisha, starch (?). 
Njaa, hunger, famine. 
'NJe, outside, forth. 

*Nje ya, outside ot 

Kwa *nje, outwardly, on the oat- 
Njema, good, very weU. See -esMi. 
NJia or Ndia, a way, a path, a road 

Njia panda, cross roads 




Kjirtj a kind of animal 

NJiwa, a pigeon, pigeons. 
Njiwa manga, tame pigeonf • 
Njitoa ya mwitu, a wild pigeon. 

NJombo, a fish barred with black and 

NjoOf oome. 

Njooni, oome ye. 

Njozif an apparition, Tision. 

Njugcif a dog-bell, a small bell 
worn as an ornament. 

Njugu, ground nnts. 
Njugu nyassa, soft gronnd-nnts. 
Njugu mawe, hard ground-nuts. 

Jifjumu, inlaid with silver, inlaying 
work. See Mjumu, 

Njuwa = Njuga. 

Nnaohaaf where I am living, which 
I am inhabiting. 

••n»e, four. 

Ya 'nne, fourth. 

Noa liu, to whet, to sharpen on ft 

NoheTf a servant. 

NaJtoOf the second head man at a 
plantation, generally a slave. 

NoUo, plur. manoleo, the «netal ring 
round the haft where a knife is 
set into its handle. 

Nona hu-f to get fat, applied espe- 
cially to animals. 

N(mg*ona hu-f to whisper, to mur- 

N<mg*oneza fcu-, to whisper to. 

Nmg'onezana hu-^ to whisper to- 

•nonOj fat. 

Nonoa hu- (?). 

Noandot at NondOf a moth. 

Nshi (A-X eyebrow. 

NeOf the kidneys. 

^Nta, wax, bee8*-wax. 

*NU = Inehif land, country, earth. 

Nueie or Nwele = Nyele^ hair. 
Nuia kthf to have in one's mind, to 

Nuha hu-f to give out a smell, to 
Tumhdko ya hunuka, snufil 
NvkatOf plur. manukatOf a good' 

smell, a scent. 
Nvkiza Am-, to smell out like a dog. 
Nukta, a point, a vowel point 
Nuna hthf to sulk. 
Nundu, a hump, a bullock's hump. 
NungUf a porcupine. 
Nungu [Pemba], a cocoa-nut. 
Nung*unCea /m-, to murmur, to- 

Nunua ftu-, to buy. 
Nunidia hu-, to buy for. 
Nunuliufa ku-, to have boughi 
for one. 
Nura ku'f to say the words of an 

Nuru, light. 
Nusa ftu-, to smell. 

Tumha^ ya kunusa, snufil 
Nu88, or Nu8u, or Nussu^ halt 
Nu8uru ku-f to help. 
Ntoa kU' or Nyioa ku-, to drink, to 

Nwdeo, plur. mantoeleOf pores of 

the ^n. 
Nwewa ^u-, to be absorbed, to be 

^1^-, a common prefix to substan- 
tives which do not change to 
form the plural, where the root 
begins with a vowel. 
Substantives in ti- or ti^- followed 
by a vowel make their plural 
by substituting ny^ for the -Hi 
Dissyllables in «- make their 
plural by merely prefixing ny^ 
Ny-f the prefix proper to a^jeottfoi^ 




agreeing with subfiiantives of 
either number of the class 
wliich do not change to form 
their plural, or with the plural 
of subslantives in u-, when the 
root of the adjeetive begins 
with a vowel, except -ema, 
good, which make» tnjema or 
Ifya h^', to fall (of rain) ; the hu- 
bears the accent, and is re- 
tained in the. usual tenses. 
Mvua indkunyayihe rain is fall- 
ing (Zanzibar). 
Mpua 2^an^a, rainfalls (III)* 
NyaOf nails of the fingers (N.). 
^yaJca ^u-, to catoh. 
Nyakua leu-, to snatch. 
I^yala, sheatlis, See Ala, - 
I^yalio, cross pieces put in the 
bottom of a pot to prevent the 
meat touching the bottom and 
I^yamOf flesh, meat, an animali 
anhnajld, beasts, cattle, 
Nyama n^noayi, savage beasts. 
Nyamaa ku-, to continue silent, not 

to speak, to acquiesce, 
-^yamavu, silent 

Nyamaza ku-, to become silent, to 
leave off talking, to oease (of 
Ifyamgumi, a whale. 
2fyanana, gentle. See -anana, 
^nyanydlika, a sort of a. 
Kttu kinyangdlikotf a sort of a 

Mnyangdlika ganif What sort 
of a man U it ? 
Nyanffanya ku-, to rob, to take by 

^yangari, large (spider) shells. 
Nyani, an ape, apea. 

'Nyanya, a siAall red fruit iiaed as a 
vegetable, dec» 

Nyanya ya kimngUf % aort of 
small tomato. 
Nyanyasa ku^ to profanei eonteoui. 
Nyara, booty, 
^ycut, grass, reeds. 
Nyati, a buffalo, buffiadoea. • .. 
Nyatia ku-, to creep up to, to -atalk 

(an animal, &a). 
Nyauka ku-, io dry «p, to' wither, 

NyawBi his mother (M.). 
Nyayo, plur« of uayo. 
Nyea ibt'-,.to cause to itoh, to Itcb 

Imentnyea, I itch 
Nyefua ku-, to devour like a beast 

of prey. 

Kuwa na nyegi, to be in heat 
Nyekundu, red. See -ekundu, 
Nyele, or Nuele, or Nwde, the half,* 
sing. unyeUy one hair. 

NyeU za kipilipiU, woolly hair. - 
.. Nyde za tinga, (Btraight hair. 
Nyembamba, thin. See "embamba, 
Nyemdea ^cth, to go quieUy and 

secretly up to a thing in order 

to seize it. 
Nymni, a great dance. •' < 
Nyenya ku-, to talk a person inito 

telling something. 
Nyenyekea ku-, to be humble. 
Nyenzo, rollers, anything tomak» 

things move. 

Nyepesi, light See -epeti. 
Nyetha ku-, to cause to (alL - • 

Kunyesha mvua, toeaqie il ta 


• • » 

Nyeta ku-, to be teasing, IlKeoii^ 

tioned, never satisfied, 
^yeupe, white. See-eujMk- •• • 
Nyeusi, black. See '^&uH* • 




^yevu, damp. 

^yie m Enyie^ yoa tbeirc, I Bay; 
■ used in calling people at a dis* 
. tanoew . .^ . . 

NyUca^ wildemesBy (Kit grass (A.)« 
2fffima Jcths to jr efuse to, to withhold 

firom, not to give to. ; 
^y^minyitm, into little bits. 
Nyingi, many, much. See -ingi. 
NyinginSf other, another. See 

'ngine, , ... 

Jfying'inia hi$^ tO; sway» swings 

Also Ning*ini€t. - . i 

2^yinyi, you. 
Jfjfinyoro, a bulbous plant. which 

throws up a hurge head of red 

flowers. t 

NyocLy plur. manyook^ a feather, = 

Nyoa Tsu'i to shave. 
Nyoi Q)y a locust. ) 

Nyoka^ a snake, a serpent, snakes. 
Nydka Icu-t to l^ straight, to be 

stretched out. 
2fyond<h temptation,. trial. 
J^yondo, a moth* Also Noondo, 
NyengOi the hip^ 

Nyonga ya sarara (A^,. the. loins. 
NyoTkga ku-f to twiot, to atrangie. 
Nyonganyonga hu-, to go from side 

to side, to wriggle. 
^nyonge, mean, insignificant, vile. 
NyongOt bile, 

Nyong'onyeya hu-, to .ibe weary, 
; languid, to get slaek and power- 
Nyonyaku'fioBVifki.. .. 
Nyonyetha %u-, to suckle, 

^Ma/uta ya fiyon^,. ca/stor oil (?). 
Nyonyoa hi-f to pluok a bird, to 
< pull out feathers. 
Kyonycka = Nyonyotu 

Nyonyota ku-^ to make to smart. 
Nyororo^ soft. See -ororo^ 
Nyosha ku-, to stretch, to straighten» 
to extend. 

Kvjinyoshat to lie down, to take 
a nap. 
NyotOy a star, stars, point of the 

Nyote, all, agreeing with ninyiy you. 

See -ote. 
Nyoya^ plur. manyoya, feather» 
Nyoyo, hearts. See Mi)yo. 
NyuOj plur. of «a, a courtyard, fn* 

Ayu/c^, a bee, bees. 

Asali ya nyukij honey. 
Nyukua kw, to tweflJr, to pinch 

Nyuma, at the back, afterwards 

Nyuma ya, behind, after. 

Nyumaye, after it, afterwards. 

Kurudi nyunui, to go back. 
Nyumba^ a house, houses» . 
Nyumbo, the wildebeest, catoUepas 

Nyumbu, a mule, mules. 
NyundOf a hammer, hammers. 
Nyunif a bird, birds (M.). 
Nyungo, plur. of Ungo, 
Nyungtt, a cooking pot 
NyungunywfigUf sores in. the leg, 

said to be caused by the biting of 

worms bearing the same name. 
Nyunyiza hur, to sprinkle, to 

sprinkle upon. 
Nyunyunika ku-, to murmur (?)r 
Nytuhij the eyebrow. 
Nytoa kH' or Nwa kH^r to drink, 

suck up, absorb. The ku- bears 

the accent and is retained in tho' 

usual tenses. 
Nywea kU', to get veiy ihiff tr 

vasteaway*. , ,.,. 





Nywesha hu-^ to give to drink. 
Nziy plur. manzif a fly. Also Inzt, 
NzigCf a locast. 
Nzigunzigu, a butterfly. 
Nzima, sound. See -ztmo. 
NzitOf heavy. See <ito, 
Nzurif fine. Bee -zuri. 


Ois pronounced a little more like 
aw than is usual in English. 

U before o sometimes becomes a 
w, but very often disappears, as: 
Koga for huoga^ to bathe. This 
word and some others in o are 
sometimes incorrectly conjugated 
as if beginning in ho, 

-o or -0-, sign of the relative, re- 
ferring to substantives in the 
singular which make their plural 
in mi', or to singular substantives 

-o, the short form of uhw, they or 

Oa ku', to many, used of the bride- 
groom. Passive, kuolevoa. 

Oana ku-f to intermarry, to marry 
one another. 

Oawa ku-f to become married (of 
the man). 

Oaza ku', to marry. 

Oga kU'f to bathe, frequently pro- 
nounced koga» 

Ogoflsha ku-^ to frighten, make 
afraid, to menace, to threaten. 

Ogofya ku», to frighten. 

Ogolea %ti-, to swim, to swim about. 

Ogopa ka-f to fear, to be afraid. 

Oka ku'f to bake, to cook by fire 

O^oa kw, to save, to take away. 

Okdka ku-f to become saved, to 
Okota ku'f to pick up. [escape; 
Ohj woe. 

Ole waiigu, wenuj &c., woe uito 
me, unto you, &c. 
Olewa ku-, to marry or to be mar» 

ried, used of the bride. 
Oleza ku'f to make like, to follow a 

Ornba knh, to pray to, to beg dt, to 

Ombea kit-, to intercede for, to beg 

on behalf of, to pray for. 
Oniboleza %u-, to wail. 
Omoj the head of a ship. 

Pepo za omOf head winds (?). 
Ona ku'f to see, to perceive, to feel 

Kuona kiu, to feel thirst 

Kujionay to think oneselt t» 
aflect to be. 

Naona, I think so. 
Onana ku-^ to meet. 
Onda kw (M.) = Onja ku-, to taste^ 

to try. 
OndOy plur. moMido (A.X the kneor 
Ondoa Art»-, to take away. 
Ondoka &11-, to go away, to get np^ 
to arise. 

OMoka mibde yangu^ depart tront 

Kuondoka katika ulimwengu hwn^ 
to depart out of this world. 
Ondokea ku', to rise to^ or out d 

respect to. 
Ondokdea ku-^ to arise and depart 

OnddUa A»i-, to xemoye, to tak» 
away from. 

Kuondolea haxunit to oheer. 
Ondotha ku-^ to make to go away» 

take away, abolish. 
Onea ku-, to see for to antidpatt 

for, to bully, to oppieaik 


Onekana ^, to become visibley to 

appear, to be to be seen. 
Ongea Aw-, to spend time, to waste 

time in talking. 
Ongeza leu-, to make greater, add to. 

Kuongeza urefu, to lengthen. 
Ongezeka Am-, to increase. 
Ongoa hu-^ to convert, to lead 

Ongofya hu-, to deceive by promises. 
Ongoka hu-, to be converted, to be 

led aright, to be healed. 
Ongdkewa hw^ to prosper. 
Ongonga hit-, to feel nansea. 
Ongoza Am-, to drive, to lead. 
Ongua hu-j to hatch. 
OnguUwa hu-^ to be hatched. 
Onguza ku-, to scorch, to scald. 
Onja ku'f to taste, try, examine. 
Onya Am-, to warn, to make to see. 
Onyesha ku-, to show. 
Opoa Am-, to take out, to fish np. 
Opolea Am-, to fish np with, for, by, 

Or/a, or Orofaj or Ghoro/Ot an upper 

•ororo, soft, smooth. It makes /ororo, 

with nouns like kashOf and 

nyororo with nouns like nyuTtiba. 
Osfui Am-, to wash. 
Osheka Am-, to have been washed. 
Osia^ learning of old times. 
Ota ku-f to dream (ktdota, Mer.)« 
Ota Am-, to grow. 

•ate or of 0, all, every one, the 
whole. It varies like the pos- 
sessive pronouns. 

Merikebu zote^ all the ships. 

Merikebu yote, the whole ship. 

Twende Bote, let us go together. 

Tioende wote, let us both go. 

Lo lote, cho choUy &c., whatsoever* 
Clea kth, to lie in wait for. 



'Ovu or -ftotm» rotten, bad, corrupt, 
wicked. It makes mbovu with 
nouns like nyumba. 

OvyOf trash, any sort of thing. 

Owama ku-, to be steeped. 

Otoamisha ku-, to steep. 

Oza Aft»-, to rot, to spoil, go bad. 
Also, to marry (of the parents). 


P is pronounced as in English. 

P, at the beginning of a word, has 
frequently an aspirated or rather 
an explosive sound, such as Irish- 
men sometimes give it. This is 
very marked in the name of the 
island of Pemba or P'emba. Fepo^ 
the plural of upepo, wind, has a 
very strong explosive sound given 
to the first p, but in upepo both p*B 
are smooth, like an ordinary Eng- 
lish p. It is probable that this 
explosive sound represents a sup- 
pressed n. 

P followed by a y sound some- 
times becomes/: ktwgopa, to feai^ 
kuogofya, to frighten; kuapa^ to 
swear, kua/ya, to make to swear. 

Pa- or P-, the prefix proper to ad- 
jectives, pronouns, and verbs 
of both numbers governed by 
maJiaii, place or places. 

The prefix proper to pronouns 
following the case in -nt, when 
it denotes nearness, at, by, near* 

The prefix pa- is often applied to 
a verb in the sense of the 
English there, 

Palina or paXikuwa na^ there was. 
Hapana, there is not. 



It is not quite so indefinite as hu; 
Pa leii', to present wltli, to give to. 

The hu bears the accent; kupa 

cannot be used without a person 

as its object, and the objective 

prefix bears the accent. All- 

kitpa^ he gave you; alCmpa, he 

gave him. The passive is hu- 

patoa or kupewa, and means, to 

have given to one, to receive. 
PaOf a gazelle, a small kind of 

Paa, plur. mapaa, a thatched roof. 

Nyumba ya mapaa manner a roof 
of four slopes. 
Paa Jcu-f to ascend, to go up. 
Paa Jm-f to scrape. 

Kupaa iamakt, to scrape the 
scales off a fish. 

Kupaa iandarusif to clean gum 

Kupaa motoj to take fire and 
carry it on a potsherd, &c. 
Paanday a trumpet. 
Paofage^ a horsefly, a gadfly. 
Paango, plur. mapaango, a oave, 

a den. 
Faaza 7c»-, to make to rise. 

Kupaaza pwnziy to draw in the 
Paaza ku-, to grind coarsely, not to 

make flue meal. 
Pacha, a twin. 

Kuzalitoa pacha, to be bom twins. 

Pacha ya r\je, a child of which 
its mother was pregnant while 
suckling a previous child. 
Pachika ku-, to put an arrow on 

the string, to itick a knife in 

one's girdle, &o. 
Padiri or PadrCy plur. mapadiri, 

a padr^, a priest, a clergyman. 

Paga hu-, to strike hard, io harpoon 

a whale. 
Pagaa kw-i to carry on the shouldeia^ 
to possess (of an evil spirit). 

Amepagauoa fia pepo,. he is po»> 
aessed of an evil spirit. 
Pagaza kur, to make to bear, applied 

to an evil spirit causiug a man to 

fall sick. 
Pagua ku-, to take off, strip off (ai 

boughs and leaves). 
Pahali, in the place, at the place. 
Paja, plur.. mapaja, the thigh. 
Paje, red mtama [Pemba]. 
Paji la U80, the forehead. 
Paka, a cat, cats. 
Paka kw-t to rub in, to «mear on. 
PaJcaa ku- r= Paka ku», . ■ 
Pakaicha, plur. mapakatiha, a basket 

made by plaiting together part 

of a cocoa-nut leaf. 
PaJcaeha, plur. mapaJtacha, peofdc 

who prowl about at night to do 

Paikana hur, to border upon. 
Pakanya, rue. 

Pakasa ku- (Mer.), to twist lopeu - 
Pakata ku-, to hold a child on- the 

lap or in front 
Pake, his, hers, or its, after makali, 

or the case in -ni signifying 

nearness. 8ee -ake, 
Pakia ku-, to load a shipi to be 

loaded with, to cany as caigo^ 

to have on board. 
Pakicha ku-. 

KupaMcha migtm, to cross the legi 
in sitting; Feckoned improper 
in Zanzibar. 
Pakilia ku-, to embark for, to pat 

on board for. 
Pakiza ku-, to stow on board thip^ 





'/Pofto, thy, your, after maJiali, or 
the case in -m* denoting nearness. 
Pdkua hU', to take out of the pot, 

to dish, to lade out. 
Pahuna hu, to seratch. 
•Pakutokecii a plaioe to go out at, an 

PoZe, there, that place, of things 

not very far oflf. 
PalepaU, just there, at that very 

Talia leu-, to hoe. 

Kupalia motOf to pick up for, and 

take live embers to a person. 
KupaXiwa na mate or maji, to 
choke with spittle or with 
what one is drinking, so as to 
«end it into one's nose, ears, 

Talihuwa fMy there was or there 

ralilia ^t»-, to hoe up, to draw the 
earth up round growing crops, to 
hoe between crops. 
Taliliza ku-f to cause to be hoed. 
Paliza ku-j to lift up the voice. 
Palu» plur. mapalu, little cokes of 

sugar, bhang, and opium. 
Pamha, cotton. 

Pamba ltu-<, to adorn, to deck out, 
Kupamba merihehu, to dre^ a 
' Ki/mpamha mayiti, to put cotton 
in ears, mouth, &o. of a dead 
* ' person before burying him. 
iPambaJa &«-, to embrace. 
J*ambana hu-, to meet in a narrow 
place where two cannot go 
abreast; applied to ships it 
' means, to go alongside, to get 
ifoul of one another. 

Pamhanisha hu^, to bring together, 

to compare. 
Pambanua hu-, to distinguish, to 

separate, to discriminate. 
Pambdnulia leu*, to - describe by 

Pamhanya ku-, or Pambanyiza ku-^ 

to overbear by loud talking, &c. 
Pambauka or Pambazuka ku-^ to 

beoome light in the morning. 
PambcLzua ftu-, to speak plainly. 
Pambele, in front. 

Pambo, plur; mapambo, adornment, 

Pambo la n^uTn&a, house furniture. 
Pamojay in one place, together. 

Pamoja na, together with, witb^ 
Pana^ there is or are, was or were. 
'pana^ broad, wide. It makes parM 

with nouns like nyumba, 
Pana ku-, to make mutual gifts. 
Panapana, flat, level, even. 
Panapo, where there is, are, was or 

Panchayat, five head men (Hind.), 

governing council. 
Panda (M.) = Panja, 
Panda, a bifurcation, as where a 
road divides into two, where 
two streams join, where the 
bough of a tree forks, 

Njia panda, cross roods, or where 
three ways meet; there is a 
superstitious custom of empty* 
ing rubbish and dirt at such 
Panda ku-, to mount, to get up, 

ascend, ride, to go on board, to 

go ashore (of a ship). 
Panda tcu; to set aside. 
Panda ku-, to plant, to sow. ■ 
Pandana Z^u-, to lie across 





Pande mhUi, on both sides. See 

Fanditha kth, to make to go up, to 

hoist, to zaise. 
Panga h»-^ to rent, to hire a house. 
Fanga hth^ to pnt in a line, to set 

in order. 
Fanga, plnr. of upanga, 
Fangana hu-, to be in rows. 
Fangine, another place, other places. 
See -ngine, 

Panginepo, elsewhere. 
Fangisha Jcti-, to let a house to. 
FangUha hu-, to make people sit in 

rows or in order. 
Fangu, my. See -angu* 
Fangusa hu-, to wipe. 
Fanja, the forelock. 

Mapanja, the receding of the 
hair on each side of the fore- 
Fanua hthy to widen, to make 

Fantdia kvhf to widen for, to set 

wide apart. 
Fanuha ftu-, to become broad, to 

Fanya^ a rat, rats. 
Fanyamavu, a quiet place, a calm 

spot See -nyamavu. 
Faza ku', to set up, to raise. 

Kupanza mtambo wa lundukt^ to 
cook a gun. 
Fanziy a grasshopper, a kind of 

Fanzi ya nazi, brown rind of the 

cocoa-nut kernel. 
FaJOf their. See aa, 
Fao^ clubs (in cards). 
Vapa^ a shark. 
Fapa Jiapa, just here. 
Papa hu'j to transude, to allow 


Papaya Jctt-, to touch- gently, ^ 

stroke, to feel, to grope. 
Papasi, ticks, especially: those found 

in native huts. 
Papatika 7(u-, to flutter like a bird. 
PapcUua Jcu'f to shell, to husk. 
Papayi, plur. mapapayi^ papaw8,.a 

common kind of fruit 
Papayuka i^, to be delirious,- to 

Papayuza hu-, to make delirious. 
Papia ku-, to eat all one can get» to> 

eat without bounds. 
Papua ku-, to tear. 
Papura &u-, to daw, to seratcUr 

Papuri, thin cakes flavoured with 

Papurika ku-, to be lacerated. 
Papuriana ku-, to pick holes in one- 

another's reputation. 
Para, a scraping, sliding. 
Para^ plur. maparOf cakes of semr 

Parafujo, a screw. 
Paraga kvr, to climb a tree. 
Parahara, a large kind of antelope 
Parapara kvh, to paw the groimd 

like a horse. 
Paruga kth, to be rough and grat- 
Paruza hi-, to grate, to grace, to be 

harsh and rough, to strike a 

Paruzana ku-, to graze (as of two 

boats, &C.). 
Pa8aku-j or Pasha kvh, to eome to 
concern, to beoome a duty. 

ImekupoMJe f What have 70s 
to do with it? 

Imenipasa, I ought. 
Pasha ku-t to lend money to^ t» 
give privately or beforeluttl. 




Kupasha moto, to warm up, to 
set before the fire. 
P-cmi^ a clothes-iron. 

Kupiga pasi, to iron. 
Pasipo, without, where there is not. 
Pcuttoef without there being. 
Pagua ku-^ to cleave, to split, to 

Patuka Teu-f to become rent, to 

burst, to crack, to be split. 
Pcuukapasuha ku-, to be split up, 

rent to pieces. 
Pata, a drawn game at cards where 

each side marks sixty. 
Pata ku-f to get, to reach, to suffer, 
to find an opportunity, to suc- 
ceed in doing, to happen ta 

Kupata is often used with other 
verbs where we use may or 
might : 
Apate kvja, that he may come. 

Kisu ehapata, the knife is sharp. 

Kisu liahiiHiti, the knife is blunt. 

Kiliohompata, what happened to 

Chapataje f What is it worth ? 

Kupata haearaj to lose. 
Pata ku, to make a lattice, as by 

weaving sticks or canework. 
Patana ftu-, to agree, to come to an 

PatanUha ku-, to bring to an agree- 
Patasii a chiseL 
Pathiwa ku-, to be bom. 
Pali, a coloured kind of stu£ 
Patia ku-f to get for. 
Patiala, a great cheat, a thorough 

Patikana Xrti-, to be procurable, to 

be got. 
^atUiza ku-, to visit upon, to re- 
member against. 

PcUOf plur. mapaiOt what is got, 

gettings, income, proceeds. 
Patta, a hinge. 
Patvoa ku-i to be eclipsed. 
Properly, to be got, referring to 
the superstition that a huge 
make has seized the moon or 
Pau (plur. of Vpau\ the purlins 
of a roof, the small sticks tied 
horizontally to fasten the thatch 
to. Also, rafters (?). 
Payo, plur. mapayo^ one who can- 
not keep a secret. 
Payuka kw, to blab, to talk without 

Payuza %it-, to make over-talkative. 
Ternbo limempayuza^ the palm 
wine has made his tongue go. 
Pazia, plur. mapazia, a curtain. 
Pea^ a rhinoceros. 
Pea ^u-, to sweep (M.). 
Pea ku-, to grow to full size, to get 
its growth, to become such that 
there is nothing more to do, to 
reach its limit. 
Pekecha ku-t to bore a hole, to get 
fire by twirling a stick, to trouble 
people by tales and tale-bearing. 
Peketeka ku-, to scorn, to have no 

fear about one. 
Pekee, onliness. 

Wa pekee, only. 
Peke yangut &o., by myself, I alone. 
Peke is never used in Zanzibar 
without a possessive pronoun 
following it, and signifies that 
the person or thing is alone, or 
that it is the only one. 
PekeyetVf by ourselves, or we 
Pekua kU'9 to scratch like a hen. 
Pele, plur. of ^tpele, the itch. 




Vdeka ^u-, to cause to arrive at a 

place distant from the person 

speaking, to send, to take, to con- 
Pelekea hth, to send, take, or conduct 

to a person. 
Fdeleza hvh, to spy out, to look 

curiously into. 
F^embCf horn, comer, ivory. 

Pemibe ya nyoka^ a small white 
horn, esteemed to be a great 

Kmoa na pemibe pembef to have 
corners, to be angular, to be all 

Pemhenif in the comer. 

Pembe za mwaka, the four seasons, 
points of the world. 
PembeOf a swing. 
Pemheleza hu-t to beseech. 
Pemheza hu-, to rock, to lull. 
Penda hu-, to like, to love, to wish, 

to approve, to choose, to prefer. 
Pendekeza A»i-, to make pleasing. 

Kujipendekeza, to ingratiate ona- 
self with, to flatter. 
Pendelea Am-, tp favour. 
PendeleOf plur. mapendeUOf a favour. 
Pendeleza hu', to make another love 

Pendeza h»-, to please, to become 

Pendezewa hu-f to be pleased, to be 

PendOf love. 

Pendo la mcHi^ the love of riches. 
Pengi, many places. Bee •ingi. 
Pengo, a notch, a place where a 
triangular bit is Inroken out 

Ana pengOy he has ^ost a front 
Penu, your, gee -eni». 
Penf/a Jtu-, to penetrate. 

Penytsha htk^ to pierce» to pttt 

through, to cause to penetrate. 
Penyif having (of place), where is 
or was. 

Penyi vUende^ where the date trce- 
Pepa hu-f to stagger. [was- 

Pepea ku-f to fan. i 

PepeOf plur. mapepeo, a fan, a ■crew- 
Peperuka hth, to be blown away. 
Peperusha ftu-, to blow away. 
Pepeea hu-^ to wink. 
Pepeeuka ku^ to totter. 
Pepeta kth, to sift, to toes in a fiat 

basket, so as to separate the chaff. 

and the grain. 
Pepeiua kury to force open. 
PepOf a spirit, a sprite, an evil 

Pepo mbaya, an evil spirit. 

Peponi, paradise, in paradise. 

Pepo (plur, of upgpd), much wind. 

Pepo za chamcheila^ a whirlwind. 

Moji ya pepo, fresh water. 
Pepua kii-f to sift apart the whole- 

from the broken grains. 
Pera, plur. mopera, a guava. 
Pesa, plur. peea or mapeBO, pice, the- 

Anglo-Indian quarter anna, the 

only small coin in Zanzibar; 

sometimes a dollar is worth 140,. 

sometimes only 112. 
Pesa ku' (M.) = Pepesa ku', 
Peta A;u-, to bend round, to make 

into a ring. 
Peta ku' s= Pepda ku»^ 
Petana ku-, to bend round, to be 

bent in a eirelew 
Pete, plur. pete or mapete, a ring. 

Pete ya maaikiOfMi earring. 
Petemana kth, to lie bent round. 
Peto, plur. mapeto, a bundle, a thinjp; 

carried, a large matting bag; 




PetUf imr. See -etu. 
«pevti» Ml grown. 
Pevua h^t to make full grown. 
Kujipevua^ to think oneself a 
Pevuka ku'f to become full grown^ 

to reach ite full dae. 
Pewa huTf to get from some one, to 

be presented with, to receivej 
Pezi, plnr. mapezi, a fin. 
'^ subjoined to the personal sign 
makes the interrogatlTe which ? 
Nitawezapi f How can I P 
•pia or 'pyat new. 
Pta, all, the whole, entirely. 

Pia yote^ completely, utterly. 
Pla, a top, a humming-top. 
Piga ku-t to strike, to beat, to Hap. 
Kupiga na inchi, to strike on the 

Kupiga is used of many actions in 
which the idea of striking does 
not always seem to be implied. 
Kupiga homba, to pump. 

19 Imndukif hastdaf &c., to 
fire a g^un, a pistol, &o. 
M ehapa, to print. 
I, faldkif to prognosticate 

by the stars. 
I, /undo, to tie a knot. 
M kdele, to shout. 
M hengdCf to ring a bell. 
^ hUemba, to wind a cloth 
round the head so as to 
make a turban. 
IP hiowef to scream. 
II koftt to box the ears, to 

^ hura, to cast lots. 
I, makofii to clap the hands. 
IP magotet to kneeL 
n ' mbindcij to whistle. 

Kupiga nbio, to run, to gallop^ 
1^ mbizi, to dive. 
tt miao, miMfno, or fniunzi, 
to make a whistling 
n mtkambe, in bathing, to 
duck under water and 
fling over one leg. 
Kupiga mizinga ya $aiaamUf to 
fire a salute, 
n mskiriy to rule a line. 
M mtahuOf to rustle like 

new elothes. 
n mvuke^ to smoke meat, 
n nyiayo, to gape. [&o, 
9, pad, to iron. 
9» pembe^ to gore. 
n pigo, to strike a blow. 
M puat to snort 
n ramUy to progndsticate 

by diagrams, 
li tandoi to plane. 
,9 te^ to kicki 
„ «nMWM^ to lighten, to 

n uvfinday to draw the ends 
of the loin cloth be- 
. tween the legs and 
tuck them in.^ 
« yowe^ to cry for help, 
n tomari^ kinanda^ &c., to 
play upon the flageo- 
. i let, guitar, &o. 
Pigana hh, to fight ^ 

Kupigana hwa mbavuj to wrestle. 
Piganisha hu-f to make to fight, to 

set on. 
Piganishana hu-, to set on to fight 

PigUia Xrti-, to beat as the stone 
roofs are beaten. Small wooden 
rammers are used, and a great 
number of people areengafr^^ for 




about three days, \vith music and 

songs ; the object of this beating 

is t« prevent the roof cracking as 

it dries, and to consolidate it 

while moist. 
Figiza Jnh, to make to beat. 

Kupigiza tango, to go so close to 
the wind that the sail flaps. 
Pt^o, plur. mapigOf a blow. 
P^ hu-, to cook. 
Pikia ku', to cook for. 

Kuptkiica, to have cooked for one. 
Pt7ao, pillaw, an Indian dish. 
F*ili, a large kind of snake. 
Fibif two (in counting). 

Ta pilif the second. 

Ta pUi yake, the next. 

Yvle wa pili, the other. 

Mara ya pili, a second time, again. 
PMlipUi hoho, red pepper. 
Pilipili manga, common pepper. 
Pima, plur. mapima, a fathom. 
Pimti ku-, to measure, to weigh. 

Kupima maji, to sound. 
Pinda ku-, to bend. 

Kupinda na mgutt, talipes. 
Pindana hu-f to bend together. 
Pindi, plur. mapindi, a twisting, a 

wriggle, cramp. 
Pindi, if, when (?), although. 
Pindo, plur. mapindo, the longer 

edge of a cloth, selvedge. 
Pindua ku; to turn over, to upset. 

Kupinduq kwa damalini, to wear 

Kupindua ktoa goshini, to tack. 
Pindika ku-, to be turned over, to 

be upset 
Pinga kU', to hinder, to block the 
way, to lay a wager. 

Kupinga ehombo kwa shikio, to 
turn a dhow on one side by 
means of the rudder. 

Pingamizi, a meddler, one who in- 
terferes to spoil a bargain, or to 

give trouble. 
Pingia kvr, to fasten a door, ftc, by 

means of a bar. 

PingUi ya mua^ the piece of a 
sugar-cane which lies between 
two knots. 
Pingo, plur. mapingo, a bar. 
Pingu, fetters, consisting generally 

of two rings and a bar. 
Pint, plur. mapini, a haft, a hilt 
Pipa, plur. mapipcif a barrel, tub, 

cask, pipe. 
Pipya, new. See -pya. 
Pirikana ku-, to be strong and well 

Pisha kU', to make to pass, espe- 
cially without intending to do so, 

let pass, make way for. 
Pishana ku-, to pass while going 

opposite ways. 
Pishi, a weight of about 6 Iba. = 4 

Pisho, cautery, marks of cautery. 
Pisi, parched maize. 
Pin = Fist, 

Piswa ku-, to become silly, to dote. 
Pita ku, to pass, surpass, exceL 
Pitisha ku', to make to pass, to 

Po, -po, or -po-, a particle signifying 
where, or when, while, as, if. 

Po pote, everywhere, wherever. 
Poa ku-, to become cool, to become 
Podo, a quiver. [well 

Pofu, plur. mapofu, icom, bubble, 

Pofua ku-, to spoil the eyes, to make 

Pofuka ku; to have the eyes spoilt, 

to become blind. 




Pogo, on one side. I 

Kwenda pogoj to go onosidedly, 
not straight. 
Potntct, the wrist-stitching of a 

Polca ku-f to take suddenly and 
violently, to rob. 
KupohuHif to be robbed. 
Pojcea ku-f to receive, to take from 

some one else. 
Pokelea hw, to receive for or on 

account of another. 
Polcezana kthf to go on with by 

Pohezanya kth, to shift a burden or 
work from one to another as each 
gets tired. 
Pokonya hvhf to snatch away, to 

PoU, a little, slightly. 

Amengua pole, he is not very well. 
PolepoUy gently, moderately,quietly. 
P^mhe, native beer, 
Pomhoo, a porpoise^ 
Pomoica %tt*, to fall in, to cave in. 

See Bovnoka, 
Pomosha A;u-, to cause to fall in. 
P<ma ku-f to get well, to become 

P^mda ku-, to pound, to beat up, to 

Pondeka kth, to be crushed. 
Pondekana kWf to crush and bruise 
one another, as mtama stalks do 
after much rain and wind. 
P<mOt a kind of fish said to be 
nearly always asleep. 
Ana unngizi kama ponOt he is 
never awake. 
Ponoa kU'f to strip off. 
Ponya A;u-, to make well, to cure, 
to save. 
Jipanyel Lookout! 

Ponyeiha hu-f to cause to be made 

well, to cure. 
Ponyoka ku-, to slip off, slip out of 

one's hands. 
Ponza ku't to put in .danger. 
Poopoo, a bullet, a musket ball. 
Pooza^ plur. mapooza, a thing which 

never comes to perfection. 
PoQza ku-^ to become useless, to 
wither and drop. 
Mvsenyi kupooza, a paralytic. 
Poozesha /cu-, to paralyze. 
PopOf a ba^ 

Popoo, the areca nut, commonly 
chewed with betel-leaf, lime, and 
Popotoa ku-t to wring, twist, strain, 

Popotoka kurt to be distorted. 
Pora^ a young cockerel not yet old 

enough to crow. 
Poroa Afti-, to cool, to get thin or 

Poromoka feu-, to slip down a steep 

place. Also Boromoka. 
Posa kt^, to ask in marriage. 
Posha ku', to give rations to. 
PoshOy rations. 
Posoy a demand in marriage. 
Poeoro, an interpreter, a middle- 
Pole, all, of time or place. See 

Potea kthj to become lost, to get lost, 
to perish, to become lost to. 
Kisu kimenipotea, I have lost my 
Potelea ku-, to perish. 

PoteUa mbdlij go and be hanged. 
Poteza ku; to cause to bo lost, to 

cause to perish. 
Potoa ku-f to go crooked, to turn 
aside. See Jipotoa. 



P V S 

-potoe, obstinate, good for notfaingi • 

Potoka ku*f to become crooked» to 
be turned and twisted. \ 

Povtt, scum, skimmings, bubble, 

PovuKa hf^ =s Po/uka ku^ to be- 
come blind. 

Poza hu-, to cure, to cool by lading 
up and pouring back again. 

Ptia, the nose, the apex of an arch. 
Mwami wa puay the division 
between the nostrils, the nos- 

PtM, steeL 

PtM ku-y to shell beans, peas, &o. 

Pugif a very small kind of dove. 

Pujua ku'* 
KuJipuJuOy to cast off all shame. 

Pukusa ku-f to rub the grains off a 
cob of Indian corn» to make to 
fall off, to shake fruit from a tree, 
to throw coins among a crowd, 

Pukute ya vmti, rice so cooked 
that the grains are dry and 

Pukutika ku-, to shed, to drop like 
leaves in autumn. 

Pulika ktihf to hear, to attend to 

Ptdikana fttf-, to hear one another. 

Puliza ku-f to puff or blow with the 
mouth. Also, to let go an auoJior, 
to let down a bucket into a welL 

Ptdiki, a spangle, spangles. 

PuluilUf plur. maptdulUf wilderness, 
waste country. 

Puluni or Pululunif in the wilder- 

Puma kthf to throb. 

Pumba, plur. mapumha, a clod, a 

Pumhaa kw, to be sluggish about» • 
Pumbazika ^ni-, toibecome a fooL 
Pumho or pumbu^ the scrotum. 
MapumbUf or kdka zapunAut or 
mayayi ya pumbo, testicles. 
Pumu; an asthma, the lungs, 
Pumua ku'f to breathe. 
Pttmuzt, breath. 
Kupaaza pumuzif to draw in iSb»- 

breath, to inspire. 
Kvuhiaiha pumuzi^ to breathe ont». 
to expire. ' 
Pumzi = PumwtL 
Pumzika Jku-, to rest, to breath one- 
Pwnzikio, plur. mapumzikiD, % rest* 

Puna ku'f to peel, scrape^ scrape olt 
Punda, a donkey, donkeys. 

Puhda tniZia, a zebm* 
Punde, a little morei 

Mrefu punde, a little l<»igier. 
Punga (sing. Upunga}, the flower- 
and yeiy first stage of the ooooo* 
Punga hu-, to swing, to sway, to- 
wave. Swaying the arms in 
walking is thought to give- 
elegance to a woman's carriage. 
Kupunga pepo, to expel an evil- 
spirit by music, dancing, fta 
Kukunga uptpo, to be &nned by 
the wind, to beat the air. 
Pungia Xni-, to wave to, to bedcon^ 
Kupungia nguo, to ifave a doth 
up and down by way of beckon- 
ing to some one to come. 
P'unguy a kind of fish, a large bird 

of prey. 
Pungua ku-, to dimiTrisb, waste^. 

wear away. 
Punguani, a defect (M.). 




Pungtiha kit-, to become fimaller, to 

fall short 
Pnnguza Xni-, to diminish, to make 
less, to lessen. 

Kupunguza Umgrn^ to ztef a sail. 
Pufya A;tt-, to swindle, to sell a 

little for the prioe of a large 

PtfYi;>, grains of com. 
Piio» nonsense. . . 

Fupa^ eagerness, excessive rapidity. 

KuUk Icwa pupa^ to eat so vora- 
ciously that one's oompanioDs 
get little or none. 
Puputika hu-, to fall in a shower. 
Pura ku-, to beat out com. 
Puruka ku-, to fly o£ 
Purukuilia ku-. 

Kvjipuruktuihcif to refuse to 
attend to, to make light of a 
Puta ku; to beat. [matter. 

Putika ku-f to be well beaten. 
Putwjali, a fowl [Pemba]. 
Puwo, nonsense. 
Puza ku'f to talk nonsense, to 

Puzia kth, to breathe, to blow with 

the mouth. 
Puzika 7:»-, to talk nonsense, to be 

detained gossiping. 
Pwa ku'f to ebb, to become dry. 
Pvoaga &u- = Kupvoaya. 
Pwai ku't to be loose, to waggle 

aboat. See Pwaya. 
Pwanif the shore, on the beach, 

near the shore. 
Pwaya ku^, to give a ^nal cleaning 

to rice by repounding it. 
Pwaya ku-, to ba loose (of clothes). 
Puxiyikakth to be quite clear of 

husks, dirt, and dust 
Pwcua kWf to cook mti^o^o cut up 

into small pieces. 

Pwea Jlctt-, to be dry. , 

SauU imenipweOf I am hoarse. >> 
PweJcee, only, alone (A.).- 
Pwdeka Jlw-, to be dried up, to boi 

left high and dryi i 
Pweum kwf to become or be left 

Kupwewa na iauU, to beoome 
Pweza, a cuttle-fish. 
'•pffOf new, fresh. .It makes 'mpya. 
■ with nouns like nytmba ; jipy<h 
< with nouns like kasha ; andpij^^o,. 

with nouns of plaee. 

. B is pronounced as- in English. 

The Arabic B is much stronger 
and more grating than the English* 
more so perhaps than even the 
Scotch and Irish r. In Arabic words 
it is correct to give the r this strong - 
sound, but in Swahili mouths it 
is generally smoothed down to- 
wards that indeterminate African 
: sound which is frequently written 
as an Z. T.hp Swahili, however, 
often prefer to write and pronounce 
it as a smooth Englisfi r. (See L.) 

Modi, a crack of thunder, crashing 
thunder, thunder near at hand. 

Badu = BadL 

Kajfy the wall at the back Qf a re- 

' cess. 

Bafiki^ plur. rafiki or marafiki^ a- 

Baha^ peace, joy, eas^, pleasure. 

Bahanif a pledge, a mortgage^ 

BafiiH = BakhiH. • 

Bahmanf a chart, a map. 




Sat hu', to put moreels of food into 
a person's mouth ai a mark of 
honour or affection. 

Bajdbut the seventh month of the 
Arab year. It is esteemed a 
sacred month because Moham- 
med's Journey to Jerusalem is 
said to have taken place on the 
27th of it. 

Rakhisi, or Uahist^ cheap. 

Bakhisiaha ^u-, to make cheap, to 

Bakibisha hi-, to put together, to 
set up and put in order. 

RcJctbyueo^ the composition of a 

Ramaihani, the month of fasting. 

BambOf plur. maramba, a piece of 
Madagascar grass cloth. 

Baniba hu", to lick. 

Bambay a chisel-shaped kuife used 
by shoemakers. 

Bamiiy sand (Ar.). 
Kupiga rairdif to divine by dia- 

BammUf sadness. 

BancUiy a plane. 
Kupiga randa, to plane. 

Banda ku-, to dance for joy. 

Bangi, colour, paint. 

Barua hu-, to rend, to tear. 

Bas U maliy chief possession. 

Bashia tm-, to sprinkle. 

Ba8%, head, cape. 

Bdlaha, wet 

Bdtelf or ratli, a weight of about a 

Baihif satisfied, content, g^raoious, 
approving, approval, blessing. 
Kutoa rathif to be satisfied, to be 

content with. 
Nitcie raOif forgive me, excuse 

Kunrathif don*t be offended. 
Baihiana ^u-, to consent, assent 
Baitbu hu; to arrange. 
BaiU = BdUl 
Bami %ti-, to trim a salL 
Bayia, a subject, subjects. 

Bayiat al IngreZf British subjects. 
Be or Beiy the ace in cards. 
Bea or BedUy a dollar. 

BeaU ya GidhabUf an American 
gold 20-dollar piece. 

Beale Fratua or ya KifrantOt a 
French 5-frano piece. 

BeaU ya Sham or Fetha ya Sham, 
black dollars, 
-re/tf, long. It makes nde/u with 

nouns like nyumba. 
Begea ku- = Bejea hu-. 
Begea kU' or Legea ku-^ to be loose, 

slack, relaxed, feeble. 
Begeeha ku- or Begeza ku-', to looseUt 

to relax. 
Behani = Bahani, 

Kuweka rehani^ to pawn. 
Behemoy mercy. 

Behemu ^u-, to have mercy upoiL 
Bei = Be. 

Bejea ku-^ to go back, return, refer. 
Bejeza ku-^ to make to go back, to 

Bekahisha ku-, to put on the top ot 
Bekebu ku-, to ride. 
•remo, Portuguese. 
Bihani, a scented herb, sweet basil. 
,, ya kipata, with notched 

„ ya kiajjemi, with long 
straight leaves. 
Binga kU" = Kulinga^ to sway to 

the tune of a song (only the ehkf 

men may do this). 
Bisasij lead. Also LUaaL 

BisaH ya hundukif a bullet. 




Bisimu A;»-, to make a first bid 

when anythiDg is offered for sale. 
Bithi ku-, to inherit (-th- as in thing). 
Bithia Xnf- {'ih- as in this), to be 

contented with, to acquiesce in. 
Bithika hu-f to satisfy, to content. 
Biza^ a door chain. 
BiziM, necessaries, all that a man 

has need of. 
BobOf a quarter, a quarter of a 

Boho Ingrezctf an English soye- 
Bobota, a packet or parcel of goods. 
Bodoj sheave of a pulley. 
Bofya. ' ' 

Kupiga rofya, to fillip. 
BoTiOy soul, spirit, breath, life. 
BohOt greediness, the throat. 
Bvhani, a pilot, a guide. 
Btidi ku-, to return, to go back, to 

correct, to keep in order. 
Budiana ku-, to object to. 
Budika ku-, to be made to return, to 

be kept in order, to be capable of 

being kept in order. 
Buduha kt^, to make to return, to 

give back, to send back. 
Budufya kth, to double. 
Bufuf, the shelf in a recess. 
Buhtua = Buksa^ leave. 
Buhusa kU' = Bukhusu ku-, to give 
Buka ^rt*-, to fly, to leap. [leave. 
Bulfaruka ku-, to hop. 
Bukia ku'f to fly or leap with, &c. 
Buksa, or Ruhusa^ or Rukhitsa, leave, 
permission, liberty. 

Kupa ruksa, to give leave, to set 
at liberty, to dismiss. 

BuJcsci, you can go. 
Bukhtuu ku- or Buhttsu ku-, to give 
leave, td permit, to allow, to dis- 

Bukhuthu ku-y to mn. 
Bukwa kU', 

Kurukwa na akili, to lose one's 
senses, to be stunned. 
Bungut a dub, a mace. 
Bupia, a rupee. 
Bupta s BdbotOf a bale. 
BusaH = Bisatif lead. 
Btuha kU', to make to fly, to thro'\r 

up or off, to throw a rider, tt> 

splash about. 
Bushia ku'f to throw upon, to splash* 
Bushwa, a bribe. 
ButubOj dampness. % 
Butubika ku-, to be damp. 
Buiubisha ku^, to make damp. 
BuuHuOf a pattern from which any* 

thing is to be made. 
Buztiku kthf to supply with needful' 

things, especially of God provid» 

ing for His creatures. 


8 is pronounced as in Mtfer al, or 
like the ss in German. 

Sh is pronounced as in English,, 
or like sch in German. 

8 and s^ are distinct in Arabic 
and are generally distinguished in 
good Swahili. There are, however,, 
many words in which they are used 
indifferently, and in common talk: 
the $h seems to be rather the more 
common. Many natives seem un- 
conscious of any difference between 

8 is used for the Arabic (ha by 
persons who cannot pronounce th. 

In the Pemba dialect th is ofki^ 
used for ch, 

Mwihungioa = MacJiunffwrn. . . , 




Saa, hour, clock, watch. 

Sua ngapif what o'clock is it? 
■AocordiDg to Arab reckoning 
the day begins at suneet. 'MAd- 
mght U wiku eaa ya tit<t; four 
A.M. taaa kumi; six a.m. <aa 
a thenasharA ; noon, seta a sita, 
8aa! You! I say! Younowl 

Njoo %aa ! Come along, do ! 
•8aa ku»i to remain over, to be left. 
ScMla, plur. masaalay a question. 
Saandct^ a shroud, a winding-sheet. 
JSaba, or /So&a'a, seven. 

Ya iaba^ se^nth. 
^abaa, a stay (in a dhow). 
JSababUf cause, reason. 
- Kioa $dbdbu yOf because of, be- 
iSabainiy seventy, = Sahwinu 
JSabatashara, seventeen. 
JSdbuni, soap. 
Sabuni ku-, to bid, to be in treaty, 

to buy. 
Saburi, patience. 
^aburi kth, to wait. 
^Sabwini, seventy. 

Sadaha^ an offering, an alms, an act 
' of charity, anything done for the 

love of God. 
.Sadiki ku-, to believe. 
Safari, a journey, a voyage, used for 
"time "or "turn." 
Safari hii, this time. 
.Saff, serene. 
Safi, pure, clean. 
\ .Soft 2;ii-, to clean. 
\:SaJidi ku-, to clear up, to make 

smooth and neat. 
.Safihi, rudeness 
^ajika ku-, to be purified. 
iSaJina (Ar.), a vessel. 
^ Miijiri kit- to travel, to set out on a 
joutney, sail, start 

Safirisha hu; to make to iraTcl, to 

see any one off. 
Safisha ku", to make pure or elcan. 
SafUf a row, rows, a line. 

Safu za kaida, regulto rows. 
Safura, biliousness, gtdl, a oodi- 

plaint in which people take to 

eating earth. 
Saga ku-, to grind. 

Kusagwa na gari, to be tun ovelr 
by aoart. 
Sagaiy a spear, a javelin. 
Sagia ku-, to grind with or fbr. 

Matoe ya kusagiOf millstones, a 
mil], a handmlll. T^ro loose 
stones are often used, the upper 
one is called! mioano, and the 
lower manuk 
Sdhani, a dish. 

Saharif checked stuff for turbans. ' 
Sdhau kt^ or Sakao Xfu-, to forget, to 

make a mistake. 
SahauUwa ku^, to be forgotten. 
Sahibf sir. 
SaJiibu, a friend. 

Kutia tdhili, to sign. 
Sahihi, correct, right 
SaJUhi kw, to be correct, to be 

Sabihisha ku-, to correct. 
Saili kiih, to ask, to question* 
Sailia Xfu-, to ask on behalf of. 
Saka ku-f to hunt 
Sakafuy a chunammed floor, a floor 

or roof of stone, covered with 

a mixture of lime and sand, and 

beaten for about three dayi with 

small wooden rammers. 
Sakama kiih, to become jammed, to 
Sakanit a rudder. [stiok ftist 

Saki ^tt-, to come close to, to toi^eb, 

to come home. 

mh K 

s^ li 


'Sdkifu ku'f to make a thunammed 

floor or roof, 
•^ola, prayer, the prescribed Moham- 
medan form of devotion includ- 
ing the proper gestures. 
•ScUaama ^ Salama, 
■SaJaam, or SalaamUf or SalamUt 
' compliments, safety, peace. 
Kupiga mizinga ya ttUatnu, to 
fire a salute. 
JScdahUha ktihy or Sekhuha, or Svltt- 

hishot to make to be at peace. 
SalcUay the meat near the backbone, 

the undercut of meat. 
Salama, safe, safety. 
JSali &tf-, to use the regular Moham- 
medan devotions, to say one's 
^alia ku', to he left, to remain. 
ScUimuku; to salute. 
Salimia ku-f to salute, to send com- 
pliments to. 
£aliti ku't to betray secrets. 
Saluda^ a sweetmeat made of saffron, 

sugar, and starch. 
Sama knh^ to choke, to be choked. 
JSamadi, manure. 
JSamahi, a fish, fish. 
-Samanif tools» instruments, ma- 
^amawatiy the heavens. 
Samatoif blue, sky colour. 
^anihuecif a little pasty. 
Samehe ku-, to forgive, to pass over. 
Samiri kth, to load a gun. 
Sa'ndi, ghee, clarified butter. 
Sana, very, much. It is used to 
intensify any action. 
Sema sana, speak loud» 
Vuta Sana, pull hard. 
Sanamakiy senna. 

^namu, an image, a likeness, a 
statue» a picture, an idol. 

Sandale, sandal wood. 
Scmdanuit gmn copal, gum amint 
ScmdukUf a chest, a box.. 
Saniki ku-, to make excuse. 
8apa kw-^ ta tout for. customers. 
Sara/u, a small coin. 
Sari/a or Swrff exoliange, rate of 
Sari/a gani y^ niji musa f What 
is the curr^t rate of exchange ? 
Sarifu ku-, to use wordst well and 

Sdrufy grammar. 

SarufUf a small gold plate with a 
devout inscription* worn on the 
forehead as an omoment. < 
Sasoy now. 

Scua hivi, directly, ^ once. 
Sataranji, chess. 
SatUu voice, sound, noise. 
SatoOy equal, right, just 
Kilu kUichokuka «atmn naye^ lom^ 
thing unworthy of him. 
Satoanisha ku-f to make |ilike» 

equal, even, &c 
Sawasawa, like, alike, even, all the 

same, level, smooth, equal. 
SawawOf peas (Yao.)* 
Sawaaisha kthf to make equal or 

'Sayara, gentle, quiet, long-sufiering. 
Sayidta ku-, to help. 
Sayili ku- = Saili kth. 
Saza ku; to leave over, to '^lake 

to remain. 
Sazia ^u-, to leave for. 
Sebabu = SdbahUf cause, reason. 
Sebula or Sebule, xeoeption room, 

Sefluti, a poultice. 
Sehemu, part, share, dividend. 
Sekenekoy syphilis. 
Seldha, a weapon. 




Kupa setciha, to arm. 
Selehitha hu- = Suluhisha, to make 

to be at peace, to mediate be- 
SeUm» Am- or SiUim &tt-, to capitu- 
Sema hh, to say, to talk, to speak. 

8ema iamij speak out. 
Semadari, a bedstead, specially of 

the Indian pattern. 
Bemibme, much less. 
Semea hu-, to say about 

KuseTMa puani, to talk through 
the nose. 
Sem^i = ShemegL 
^Ssno, a kind of rice. 
Sengmya kt^, to make secret signs of 

contempt about some one who is 
Senturi, a musical box. [present. 
8er<if a rampart. 

SerhaU or Serikali, the court, the 

Mtu ioa nertkalii a man in go- 
yemment employ. 
Sermdlaf a carpenter. 
Seni^if an Arab saddle. 
8e$emif blaokwood. 
Seta hu-f to crugh. 
Setaseta Asu-, to crush np, to break 

into fragments. 
Setif the seyen in cards. 
Setinka^ &c See Stirika, && 
Settinif sixty. 
Settiriy an iron (?). 
Settiri hu-, or Setiri, or Sitirif to 

coyer, to conceal, to hide, to atone 

Seuze^ much less, much more. Also 

Seyedia^ lordly, belonging to the 

^ Seyidina (Ar.), our lord, your ma- 


SezOy an adze. 

Shaabanij the eighth month of th# 

Arab year. 
ShdbOf copper, brass. 
ShabahOf Bim, 

KutwcM BhabahOf to take aim. 
ShdbahOf like. 

Nyama $hdbaha mbwa^ an animal 
like a dog. 
Shabbu, alum. 
Shabukci, 9k snate, 
ShaddcLf a tasseL See Katmu 
Shahf a chess king. 
ShdhOf the heart of the oocoa-nut 

Shahada, the Mohammedan oonfee» 

sion of faith. Also Uthdhada. 
ShdhamUf fat 
Shahawa (obscene), semen. 
ShaJUdif plnr. nuuhahidif a witnesi^ 

a martyr. 
Shaibu (Ar.), an old person. 

Shaibu lajuzi, exceedingly old» 
Shairif a line of poetry. 

plur. fncuihairit yerses, a poem. 
/S^oAmi, a bush. 

ShdkOf plur. mashdkcif a doubt 

Kuingia na shake ya hulia^ to sok 
Shalif a sbawl. 
Sham, Syria, Damascus. 

Fetha ya Sham, German dollars. 
Shamba, plur. fnaehamba, a planta- 
tion, a farm, a piece of land in 

the country. 
Shamhttlia An»-, to attack. 
Shamua ku-p to sneeze. Also £%«• 

Shangat a town near Melinda, long 
ShangcL [since ruined* 

Mioana tihanga, a northerly wind^ 
not so strong or persistent ai 
the regular ka^axi. 




Shangaa Jbti- or Sangaa ku-, to be 

astonidhed, to stand and stare, to 

stop short. 
Shangaza Aeu-, to abtonnd, to as- 
Shcmgazi^'pXva.mcuihangazitWa. annt. 
Skangilia ^ti-, to make rejoicings 

for, to go to meet with music and 

shouting, to be glad about. 
Bhangwiy triumph, shouting and 

joy, an ornament of gold worn by 

women between the shoulders. 
£%ant,a startling, unexpected event. 
Shanuu, plur. mashanuUf a comb, a 

large coarse wood^ comb. 
SharhUy a moustache. 
Shariy evil, the opposite of Heri. 
Sharia = Sheria, 
Shariki hu-, to share, to be partners 

Sharikia ku-y to share with, to be in 

partnership with. 
Sharikiana ku-, to be partners, to 

share together. 
Sharti, or Sharuti, or Shuruti, or 
Shuti, a contract, of obligation, 
of necessity, must. Also, the 
downhaul of a dhow-suil, a 

Kufanya sharti, to bind oneself. 
Shatorumct, shawl for the waist. 
Shauko, love, exceeding fondness, 

strong desire, will. 
Shauri, plur. mashauri, advice, 
counsel, plan. 

Kufanya «/uiuri, to consult to- 

Kupa thaurif to advise. 
8hawi = TawL 
Shawishi ku-, to persuade, to coax 

Shayirif barley. 
Sliehena, cargo. 

Sheitani, Satan, the devil, a devil» 
excessively clever. 

Shela, a black veil. 

Shelabela, as it stands, in a lot, with 
all defects. 

SJielele ku-^ to run a seam. 

SheUe, plur. maaheile, a shelL 

Slwma (Ar.X bees-wax. 

Shemali (Ar.), the left, the north 
(because to the left of a person 
looking east) ; the Persian Gulf, 
Arabs (because to the north of 
Muscat) ; mist (because it comes 
on in the Persian Gulf with a 
northerly wind). 

Shevribea, a kind of curved knife. 

Shemegi, a brother or sister-in- 

SJtena (Ar.), orchilla weed. 

Sheria, law. 

Sheriz, glue. 

Shetani, plur. mashetani = Sheitani, 

Shetri, the poop of a dhow. 

Shiba ku; to have had enough to 
eat, to be full, to be satisficiL 

SJiUnn or Shibri, a span. 

Shiimha ku-, to fill with food, to 
satisfy with food. 

Shidda, difficulty, distress. 

Shika ku; to lay hold of, to hold 
fast, to keep, to determine. 
Kuahika njia, to take one's way, 

to set out. 
Shika Idko, mind your own busi- 
Shika ras He, steer for that point 

Shikamana ku-, to cleave together. 

Shikana ku-, to clasp, to'grapple, to 
stick together. 

Shikio, a rudder, a thing to lay hold 
of. See Sikio. 

Sliikiza ku-, to prop up. 

ShilamUf the stem leading to th« 




moutbpicoe in a native pipe. 

See Kiko, 
SJiimOf plur. mashimo, a pit^-an ex- 
cavation, a' large hole. 
Shijuiy plur. mashinay a stump, a 

trunk, a main root. 
^a'nda-A'tt-, to overcome, to conquer) 
to stay, to continue at. 

M»ii fothinda, it U half full of 

Amekwenda ehinda, he is gone 
out for the day. 

Akashinda haziy and he went on 
at his work. 
Shindana hu , to dispute, strive 

with, race. 
Shinddnia hu-j to bet, to oppose, to 

object to. 
SlUndanOi plur. mashindana^ a race. 

See Sindano. 
Shindika ku-, or Smdika, to shut, to 
put to, to press in a mill. 

Kushindika mafuta ya nazi, to 
grind cocoa-nuts into oil. 
SJiindikia ku-, to show any one out, 

to escort a person on his way. 

See Sindikiziu 
Sliindilia ku- to press, to load a gun. 
Sliindo, a shock. 
Sliingari, a consort, a dhow sailing 

in company with another. 
Shingctri ku-f to sail in company (of 

Shingoy plur. mashingOf the neck. 
Shinikizo or SinikizOf a press. 
Shiraxiy Shiraz, from Shiraz. Per- 
sian work is generally called 

Shishwa ku'f to be weaned. 
Shitumu ku*y to insult. See ShU' 

' Skoga, a friend ; used only by wo- 

men is speaking of or to one an- 

other. In Zanzibar they rarely 
employ any otheif word. At 
Lamoo shoga means a catamite. 

i67<o^V panniers, a lilrgettiatting bag 
with the opening across the 
middle, so as to form two bags 
when laid across a donkey's back. 

Shot = Shogi, 

Shoka, plur. f/msTioka; an axe. 
Shoka la hapa, an adze. 
SJioka la tiasy an axe (Mer.). 
SJtoka la pwa^ an adze (Mer.). 

Shola, an ear of com, a head of 

Shona ku-, to sew. • [grass.* 

Shonea ku^, to inend for, to sew for» 
with, &c. 

Slionuka kti-, to become unsewn. 

Kwenda tkote^ to go with a mdi.' 


Wa huehobOy left. 

Ana shoto, he is left-handed. 

Shiaki ku-f to prosecute, to charge^ 
to accuse. 

iS^^tta ku; to startle, toticUew Bee 

SJituka hth, to be startled, to stfiui. 

Shua ku', to launch. Pass. ftuMii- 

Shuba, the elders of a town. 

Shitbaka, plur. mathtibakaf a xeee» 
in a wall. 

SJiudu, what is left when the ofl bat 
been ground out of semiem seed. 

ShughuU, business, affairs, occupa- 
tion, engagement. 

Shughulilca ku-, to be occupied, to 
be worried. 

Shughulisha kw-, to occupy, to dis- 
tract attention, to interrupt. ' 

Shuhuda, testimony. 

S.'tuhudia ku-, to bear, witness aboatt 
for, or against. 




^uhudu 7;tf-, to bear wifness; 


ShuhtUi ya kutolea ehanit a small 
piece of -W6od> o^ed bjT shoe- 
' iHtikerfe ^ tn*^ oAtttng strip's of 
ooloured leather. ' • 

■ShuJaOf plur. mashujaoj a hero, a 
brave man. - < 1 -» . ■ 

•Shukai a sheet 

■Shuka ku-f to descend, go down, 

-' oome doWn,' bo let^ down^ to land 
from a ship. 

JShukey the flower of Indian; corn. 

JShvJeranit gratitude.' 

Shiiku ku'y to suspect. 

JShukuru, thanks. 

Shvkuru k»-, to thank. This word 
is very rarely used in Zanzibar, 

■ except in relation to God; and 
Jcubhukuru Muimgu means almost 
4ilways, to take comfort^to' leave 
off mourning;, or to become re- 
signed. '• • 

Shuliwa kthy to be hiutiched. 

Shumua ku-^ to sneeae. 

^^umvt, salt [Pemba].' ^eef Oft^mvi, 

Shunga ku*, to drive away, to «care. 

Shungif a orest, long hair (?). f 
Shungi mbili, a way of diessing 
th6 hair in two masses; >'^ 

ShupatUy plur. maehupatu, ft narrow 
strip of matting. The broader are 
sewn together tomakeftoor mats, 
the narrows are iateslaoed to 
make the native couch or^ bed- 

Shupaza, spades (in eards). 

Shura, saltpetre. 

BhuruU = Shartf, of nieoessity. 

SkuTutiza ku-f to compel, t^foK^e. 
Alishurutizwa ndaniy he * was 
pushed in. 

•Shusha ku', to let down, to make to 

- ' descend, to land goods fiom a 

Kushusha pu^mziy to breatiMr out, 

an expiration. 

Shutumiwi ^tf-^ to be reviled; [sity. 
Shutumu ku^j to revile. - < ' 

Shwali or Shteari, a calm. 
Si, not 
Si venMj not welL 
/S/ ttza, sell not 
Si, is or are not 
Mimi n sultani, I am not a sultan ; 

or. Am I not a sultan ? 
Si yeye, it is not he or him. 
Si-y the opposite of ndi^, expressing^ 
This is not it Is not this it ? 
Stmif SiBtsij 

Siioe, Sinyif 

Stye^ Sie, Hvyo, siyBf 

Sio, nyo^ silOj Sizo, Hmo. 
SichOi sipOy tiko, 
Si; sign of the first person negative. 
' Sikubaliy I do not consent • ' 

Sikukubali, I did not oonisent 
Sitakuhalif 1 shall not consent 
In the present tensis thef final 
letter of verbs in -abeoomeft^-i. 
Sioni, I do not see. 
-n'- Itiserted between the pi^iisonal 
prefix and the verb, is- the sign 
of ' the ^negative irappralive or 
subjunctive, the final lettier of 
verbs in -a becoming An^-^c. 
• Ni9ione,'ih!a,t I may not i^ee, let 
me not see, or - without my 
-fi^, sign of the negative in ex- 
pressing relation. 
"Aiio, he who is or was "not, or 
who will not be. Also AHye, • 
•sipo-y sign of the tense expressing 
not being, *' 




Asipoona^ he not seeing, if he 
does not see, though he does 
not see, without his seeing, 
when he sees not. 

8ia hu-y to give a sentence, to pro- 
nounce as with authority, to de- 

Siafu, a large reddish brown ant, 
that travels in great numbers 
and bites fiercely. 

Siiigiy cream, butter. 

Sibu ku'f to get, to succeed. See 

Sifay praise, character, character- 

Sifara, a kind of rice. 

Si/u hu-f to praise. Pass, kusifiwa. 
Kujidfuy to magnify oneself, to 

Ku8ifu*mno, to overpraise, to 

Sifule (a term of reproach), a med- 
dlesome fooL 

Sifuru, a cypher, a figure of nought. 

Sigizia ku-, to tack (in needlework). 

Sihi lcu'9 to entreat 

Sijafu, the cuff, the hem. See 

Sijambo, I am well. The invariable 
answer to hu janibo f how are 
8i Jambo punde, I am a little 

Sikamo or SUtamoo, for Nashika 
mguu, the salutation of a slave 
to a master. 

Siki, vinegar. 

Sikia ku-f to hear, to obey, to under- 

Sikilia ku-f to listen to, to attend to. 

SikUiana ku-^ to be heard, to be 

Sikiliza ku-, to listen, to listen to. 

Siktltzana ku-, to hear one another. 

Sikio or Shikio, plur. masikioy tha 

Sikittka ^tc-, to be sorry. 

Sikitikia ku-, to be sorry for, to pity; 

Sikitiko, plur. nuuihitiko, sorrow», 

Sikitisha ku-, to make sorry. 

Stkiza ku-, to make to hear, under«^ 
stand, &o. 

Sikizana ku-^ to be mutually intel- 
' ligible, to make one another hear. 

Siku, a day of twenty-four hours» 
from sunset to sunset, days. 
Siku kuUf a great day, a feast. 
The two great feasts are the 
three day» at the end of the 
Bamathan, when every one 
makes preseDts, and three days 
after the tenth of TJiU hajj or 
Mfunguo wa tatu, when every 
one ought to slaughter some 
animal, and feast the poor. 
Siku a fModko' (see Mtoongo^ 
Kigunzi), the Nairuz, about the 
23rd of August, the beginning 
of the Swahili and nautical 
year. The old custom is fot 
every one, but especially the 
women, to bathe in ibe sea 
in the night or morning : then 
they cook a great mess of grain 
and pulse, which is eaten about 
noon by all \N-ho like to come. 
The fires are all extinguished 
and lighted again by robbing 
two piece» of wood together^ 
Formerly no inquiry was made 
as to any murder or violenoe 
committed on this day, and old. 
quarrels used regularly to be 
fought out upon it 
Siku zote, always^ 




^ilihi hu-j to improve, to reform. 

Silihiaha hu-^ to make to improye, 
to reform. 

Silimu %ii-, to become a Moham- 

Simama %ti-, to stand up, to come 
to a stand, to stop, to be erect, 
to stand in, to cost 

Simamia Jiu-, to stand by, to over- 
look workmen, to cost to. 

Simamisha ku-i to make to stand. 

Simanga hu-^ to crow over, boast 

iSimanzt, grief, heaviness. 

Simbaj a lion, lions. 

£imba urangoj a well-known man- 
grove swamp at the mouth of 
the Lufiji. 

£imhalt, a kind of wood brought 
from near Cape Delgado. 

£imey a short straight sword used 
on the mainland. 

Simika ku-y to be erect, to be set 
up, to stand (often used in an 
obscene sense). 

Bimtkia ku-, 
KuHmikia mlango, to set up and 
build in a door. 

Simikuha ku-^ to set up. * 

Simillaj Stmille, Simileni^ probably 

for Bismillah, the common cry 

in Zanzibar, meaning, make 

way, out of the way. 

'SimiUa punda, make way for a 

SimiUa ubau, make way for a 

SimOf I am not in it, am not con- 
cerned, have nothing to do with 

Simo hit si njema^ this event is 
not good. 

Imeingia simo mp^, something 
new has turned up. 
SimUy the electric telegraph. 
Sindano, a needle (or shindano)» 
Sindano, a kind of rice. 
Sindi, a long-tailed weaseL 
Sindikia ku-, to crush. 
Sindikiza ku-, to accompany part of 

the way. 
Sindua Xni-, to open, to set open. 
Singa, hair of an animal. 

Nyele za singa, straight haii^ 
European hair. 
Singa ku-, to scent, to put scent. 
Singizia ku-, to slander, to spread 

false reports about 
Sini, China. 
Sinif no matter. 
SiniOf plur. masinia, a circular tray 

used to carry and set out food 

upon, generally of copper tinned. 
Sinikiza ku-, to press. 
Sinzia ku-^ to doze, to n^, to flicker. 
'Sipo-y sign of the tense signifying 

the case of the thing mentioned 

not being. 
Siriy secrecy. 

Mamho ya siri, secret affairs, 

Kwa sirif secretly. 
Sisi, we, us. Sometimes pronounced 
stoiswiy suisuif or sism, 

Sisi sole, all of us. 

Sisi wote, both of us. 
Sisimia ku-y to sigh (?). 
Sinmiziy ants (?). 
Sisii-lza ku- (M.), to charge strictly, 

to charge to keep secret. 
Sitay six. 

Va sittty sixth. 
Sita ku-y to halt, to go lame (A.), to 

Sitahoy the deck. 




Sitcuhara, sixteen. 
Sitavn hu-, to flourish. 

Ngoma ipiimesitaici, Trhich danoe 
is goiDg best? 
Sitawisha lcu-9 to make to Qpurish. 
JSiti^ wliistle (of a steamer or 
Situ, my lady, lady. [engine). 

• S^UinOf our lady. Applied by the 

Arabs to St. Mary. 
Sivitnojaf different. 
Sicyoy it is not thus. See Si-, 
SiwOj an ivory horn only used on 

g^at occasions. 
Siwezi, I am not well. See Weza ku'. 
£iyOt that is not it, no. See 8i-, 
Siyu or Siu, Siwi, the ch|ef town 

of the district near Lamoo, the 

chief seat of old Swahili learning. 
Soda, lunacy. 
Sado, a woman^s napkin. 
Sqfe^ wQoL 

Soge, 8(>gif Sot, = SJtogi. 
Sogea ku*, t(\approach affectionately, 

to come near to. . . 
Sogeza ku-, to lift to the lips and 

kiss, to bring near to. 
Sogezea ku-, to put ready for, to 

bring for use. 
Sokoy plur. masoho, a market, a 

Kwenda ^okoni, to go marketing. 
Sokota ku-, to twist, to plait, to spin. 
Soma ku'f to read, to perform de- 

iSoma, plur. masoma, a kind of dance. 
Somhela ku-, to work oneself along 

on one's hands and sc^t without 

using the legs. 
Somesha ku-, to teach to read, to 

lead devotions. 
Somo, plur. masomo, something read, 

u»ed as a title of friendship, a 


Sonda hu-y to suck out. r 

Sondo, swelled (?) glaD4ll. . 

Songa ku-, to strangle, -to squeeze, 

to stir together. . 
Songanasongana hu-, to preps against 

one another like sheep ;;in a flocl^. 
Songea ku', to p\ish( . through, to 

shoulder your way through a 
SonjpaJcu-i to wring. , [croi^^. 
Sonya ku- =- Kufyonya. 
SorualL trousers.. , - .: 

Sosonekaku; to be hurt or ache, so* 

as to writhe with pain. 
Sosonesha ku'9 to make to writhe 

with pain. ,. . 

Sole, all ; agreeing with «1», we or 
us. bee -ote, 

Tu 8ot€f we are togetlier. 

Twende sole, let us go togetheri .^ 
Soza kU', to beach a boat or vesacL 
Ssaji or Safi, pure, clean. .. 
Staajahu ku-, to wonder much, to be- 
greatly astonished. 
Staamani ku-, to have confidence, 

to rest trustfully. 
Stiihdbu ku'y to be pleased, to prefes.^ 
StahamUi or Stahimili, patiently. 
StaJii kU', to honour, to have rc|spcct 

for. * . 

Stqhiba ku- (?), to prefer, 8e« 

Stahiki ku-, to. resemble, to be of 

one sort with. 
Stahili ku', to deserve, .to be wor^y 
of, to be proper, to be right and 

Astahili, serves him right. 
Siiiliimili kw, to bear, to enduzet 

Stakahaihi, earaest, fastening penny.. 
Stambulif Constantinople. 
Starehe ku-, to sit still, to be at rost,^ 
to remain quiet. 




Starehe! Doti't disturb yonrst^lfl 
don't get np I 
Sterehisha ku-, to give rest to^ to 

refresh. Also Star^iiha, 
Sliriha ku-, to be oovered, to be con- 
Stiuha kth, to' startle, to spraitt, to 

putont of joint 
Suhanot sinail» pieces of meat roasted 

on two parallel sticks. 
Subanay a thimble. 
Suhiri^ patience. 
Stihfri, aloes. 
Subiri ku-, to wait. 
Suhu ku', to cast in ■ monld. 
Subu ku" or Sihu kur^ to happen to. 
Suhuif morning. 
Subulkheiri, good morning. 
Suhuri, patience. 
Subutu ku- = TlivbiUu kw. 
JSuduku ku-, to ascertain, to know 

the trntli. 
Suf, wooL 

i^ifjIZ, a devotee, a benait. 
Suffuf^ a great variety or nitmber. 
Stfi, woollen. 
Su/uHa, copper. 

Svfuria, plnr. tu/mrla or matu/uria, 
a metal pot 

Smfwria fa dkunui, an inm pot 
fhg*9 amark,^ eaUovs place. AUo, 

obstlnafte, inaemateu 
Swgma km-, to rob, to semb, to 

brofth, to scour. 
Mkei/, south. 
Smi^ an i impw ililc, wncoiiqiier' 

able man. 
Smjmdim hm-^ to pnsfcate oneaelf to, 

S&jm4m km-t to pmatesic omkH^ to 

Sukari guru^ linlfraaila sugnr. 

Sukamtka ku^ to sluike, to agitnttt.. 

Sulce^ plur. ma9uk$ (or thuk^)^ nn 
ear of corn, a head of mtaina, dte. 

Sukua fctt-, to sittoken, to loose. 

Sukuma ku-^ to push, to urge. 

Sukumif a stuersman, qnartoy- 

Sukumiza ku% to put upon another 
person, to say it is his businr'sn, 
to throw cfi from oneself, to punh 
away in anger, to tlm)W (ja thing) 
at a person who wants it Also, 
to avert (by saerifloc, fto.)* 

Stikulua ku'f to rinse out titc moitili, 
to wash one's mouth. 

Sulibi ku-f to crucify: 

SuUbUha kU', to orueify* 

StUlhi kthf to become, to be Dtting 

StUika ku-, to tttm about, become 

Sulimu kU', to salute. 

SuUani, plur. ma$ultani, • saltan, 
a chi«f man. SulUml %i ZnJhyA' 
bar does not mean a king; It is 
used of the bead men of a vil' 

SuUdn Uvm, tbe Sftltsn M Turkty, 

Sulubika In»*, to be iirofigir 

SmMm, etfeogtb, ftnuntsm. 

StduhUka ku'f Ut bring ie ueifif% 
to make pesee htiwHHh 

StduhUf contort 

5if/a^ a eoffew. 

8mm0M lr»> to sway i^wmj^ io iwki 
aod torn ODcaet^ 

Stmhma It»*, to w^vry, to UMtftyf Vt 
g^re tifmkAtf, 

Mbift»>, toplaityto 

k to be kams^ if» ha mm$H%i9L 




SumhuUa Itu-^ to speak sharply to. 
Swmhmha Xcu-, to vex, harass, 

trouble, worry, annoy. 
8umu, poison. 
Sumugh, gum-arabia 
Sungura, a rabbit (?), a hare (?). 
Sunni, adyisable, recommended, a 

tradition, what is advisable or 

veoommended, but not coupul- 
Sunobari, deal wood. [sory. 

Sunza ku-f to search for anything 

with a lighted brand at night. 
. Supaa ku-f to be very hard or dry. 
Supana =: Supcta, 
Surety a likeness, a resemblance, a 

chapter of the Koran. 
SuriOj plur. masuria, a concubine, 

a female slave. 
Swriyama^ bom of a concubine. 
SururUj an insect that lives in 

oocoa-nut trees. 
Swnoaliy trousers. See Soruali, 
8u$t liquorice. 
StuOf a kind of hanging shelf, a 

Bwupaa = SupcM, 
8uta /cfi-, to reproach, to charge a 

man with slander, to slander, to 

seek out a man and ask whether 

he has said such and such things. 
8u*udij or 8uudi njema, salvation, 

8uza ku-f to stir up. Also, to 

8uzia ku'y to turn with (?}• 
8wafi = Safi. 
8walh ft question* 


T is pronounced as in English. 
There are two f s in Arabic, one 
much thicker than the Eng\ia\x t, 

but only very careful speakers dis- 
tinguish them in Swahili. 

T at the beginning of a word has 
sometimes an explosive sound, as in 
l^akoy dirt. It is probable that this 
represents a suppressed n. 

There is a slight difference in 
sound between the f s of totu, three, 
and tanoy five, the former being the 
smoother, but natives do not seem 
conscious of the difference. 

T in northern Swahili frequently 
becomes ch in the dialect of Zanzi- 

Kuleka, to laugh (M.) kwdheka 
(Zanz.). But /ntt6^, to plunder, 
or to draw water, does not 

Kutinda^ to slaughter (M.) kvh 
chinja (Zanz.). 

There is no sound similar to that 
of the English th in the original 
language of Zanzibar. It occurs in 
some dialects of Swahili in place of 
V or s. There are howevef in 
Arabic four Ik's, 1. Tha, pro- 
nounced like the English th in 
thing. 2. Thaly pronounced like 
the English th in this. 8 and i. 
Thad and Tha* or Dthati, which 
are scarcely disting^ished by the 
Arabs themselves, and have a very 
thick variety of the thai sonnd. 
Practically the two English ti^'sare 
quite sufficient, and the ear soon 
catches the right method of employ- 
ing them. 

The Indians and many Aficioans 
pronounce all these as i. Some 
Swahili confuse the various (h'a with 
£, and employ the thai sound for 
words properly written with a i, as 
UDOtKin for tcozin, a vizir. 




4a-, the rign of the future teuMu 
When the relatiye or the par- 
ticles denotmg time and place 
are inserted in the ftiture, the 
prefix regularly heoomes 'tdka; 
It is possible however to retain 
•to- to express a more duflnite 

Atahujaf he will oome. 
Atakayekuja, who will come. 
Atakapohuja^ when he shall 

Atapokuja, when he come, 
or, if he shall oome. 
In the first person singular the 
nt-, which is the sign of tlio 
person, is often dropped, 
Takuja = NUakvjap I shall 
To- at the beginning of Arable 
Tcrbe is the mark of th« fourth 
or fifth coojupdkm» or derinA 
Too, a lamp, cspeeiallj tine •wH 
open caxtiaealaaips waie ift ZaO' 

flbft, a Isi^e knia «of fiai Miu 
Tml, heDca.'dii oswi's feet 

raflbUMi i0»-« «s ttottUb^ ie MHWj. 

doifai, laraidAe. 

riwi^rf* lDit-« i» Heads maniieca. 

Vntffalm hur» 1» wonder, 4fp %»e -aa- 

frnMtfb(,« «siitiiiMie. 

^Tatften ^»^^ tc> timm' tm^fSdlf aUnii. 


ITaUihdh, u auufS^MiK. 

ITftfaMi^ja:!»»»}! CAt^ 

TriMMMwi 1^ la mmUa, 

TaM^ eonstiiutioA, lemp^, tem]^ 

ament« elimata, 
ITal^^a Hm-, to dQete^ 
Tabibii, a physieian, 
TahUti hur^ tt) U»a, to elosa to 09 

upon, to ollng ta as a fWst fri^dt 
Tob^^^ia, to maka to elium. 
TaMri hu-, to foratall, to propUasy. 
Taburudu Uru-, to rafrt^sh. 
Tadariki hU'^ to aaaept tha respon-^ 

sibillty off to gaarantea iha r oniiilft 

TflwW, ?loleneo, hurry» 

KwMnda hvta tadd, to milht to go 
Tadi ku^f to ^Ut with» 
Ta/aJtoH kw^ Uf 40osi4#ri poM^r, 

Ta/4Uud or TaJoiaM^ pUmtmf I \m§ 

TafiU ku'f to i«4( imi mfU^^m 

TV/#M« inf^^ io <ibew^ is» JcsbUW . 


IV$M(a «»^ ^r fV/^»*<> **»«^ <*^ 
; j^#omeone, ie^oMkfMT. 
: So^aa iia-, io aiic»ddle, W wMc 
{ wrifiii «n^'a i«^ Cnr <*pwrt. 

To^.|*lnr.i»ata^, Ww Ib^^orvok^ 

Xii{f!bqfa«t' fctfr,io W <«Cw^ui5ua*il, 




Tcighaiari hu-, to be changed. 
Taghi ku , to rebel. 
Tagua, branches, main branches. 
Tahafi/u, gently, in good time, 
light, thin. 

Ngtu> tdhoflfui thin calico. 
Tahaviuika hu-^ to look up to see 

what is going on. 
Taharahi fcu-, to be troubled, to 

be thrown into confusion. 
Taha/rakUha kw-f to put into a state 

of anxiety, to excite, stimulate. 
Tdharizi, See Kanzu. 
Taharuki %tc-, to be troubled, to be 

anxious, to be thrown into con- 
fusion. Also, Taharakt, 
TahcLtsa ku-, to go on board a ship 

with a view to sailing. 
Tahathari ku-, to beware, to be on 

one's guard. 
TahaiJiarisha ku-^ to warn. 
Tahayari ku-, to become ashamed. 
Tahayarisha ku-, to shame, to make 

Tdhidi ku-, 

Kujitahidit to exert oneself, to 
try hard. 
Tahiri ku", to circumcise. 
Tahsila, farewell, leavo-taking. 
Tot, a large bird of prey, a vulture. 
Taifa, plur. mataifa, a tribe, a 

TajcL, hire. 
Taja ku-f to name. 
Taji, a crown. 
Tajiriy plur. matajiriy a merchant, 

a rich man, a capitalist, a prin- 
"taka-. See -to-. [cipaL 

Taka, dirt. 
Takataka, rubbish, sundries, small 


Tula ku; to want, to wish for, to I 
ask £oT, \ 

Kutaka iSuiuri, to seek adtice. 
TakahdU -feu-, to accept; used of 

God*B hearing prayer. 
Takabalhi Aeu-, to oarry on freig)it 
Takahathuiha A»»-, to pay freiglii 

Takdddam kw-^ to be in advance of,. 

to get before. 
Takalika ftu-, to be vety faint or 

Tiikarimn, gift, largess. 
TaJcasa ku-, to clean, to make cleans 

and clear. 
Takdsiica ku'y to become dcansed. 
Takata ku-^ to become otoim And 

Utnngu umetakata, the sky is- 
'takatifUf holy, cleansed. 
Takhari ku-, to stay. 
Tdki = Chidha. 
TakiUf plur. matdkiaf a large^ 

TaJcOf plur. matakoy the buttocb^ * 
Taksiri, a crime. 
Takura ku', to scratch, to dig with- 

claws or fingers. 
Talaka, divorce. 
Taldasim or Talasimu, plur. mofolo- 

nmu, n talisman, a charm, a 

figure divided into squares and 

marked with magic words and 

Tali ku- or Ta*aU ku-, to stndy. 
Talik = TaHk. 
Taliza ku-, to smooth off, to amootb 

up, plaster, &c. 
Tama, out and out, final. 
Tama ku- (M.) = Hama Aw-, to re- 
Tama ku-, to sit, crouoh (Tao.). 
K\iA\\iUa tama, to lean the heail 




on fho band, reckoned unluoky 
in Zanzibar. 
TamaOf longing, avaarioe, gro«dl- 

Ktikaia iamaOt to despair. 
Tamdlaki ku-^ to be master of. 

KujitamdHaki mwenyewe^ to be 
one*8 own master. 
Tamani fct*-, to long for, to lost 

Tamanika Jew, to be liked, to be an 

object of liking. 
Tamia ktir^ to swagger* 
TauAaa Iru-, to creep, to cmwL 
TamUi, yermicellL 
TamJbo^ a tall man. 
TambotL, testidei. 
Tandma ku , to recognize. 
Tamhtdia kw-, to ondertftand. 
TamXmlikana Im-, to be rt»eogni2- 

TamJmluka Z«-, to Make to neeog' 

nize, to explain. 
TamSmm. betel kaf cU*iwed wUh 

artea anty Mme aad tobacco, 
Tmwimrm In»-, to p«i a new puiut or 

eJge, la weld oa ffcab iim or 

TmmiAM km- (3L) == BamiAii km-. 
TiCmJbm km-, if» yttt^vjuatt, \ 

immm, gvmt, fikuMsari. li aavJUa , 

Umm -«11^ BMUis 3ii3tts ti yuM timm 
Tmamnkm km- = r^^fliEw jh»% 
TcsKTMa, «nidb «r eucu»ii ^ tesWu 

Xjma. » imurikilkit «tf ilasutcutti^ Js. 
HuuHin» «tfl fiUnjQbttiiik ^*^^ 
ggusiWv !hi as lio^- iiinifik. aitC uuik 

tinuoiudy, but in little b roups: 
oaeh group is a to/ia. 
Tano&a^i ^u*, to make up ono'i' 

mind, to know what to do. 
Tana/uti ku't to draw brtatb. 
Tanda ku-f to spread, to be sprcntl' 
out, to bo overcast, to put ropim 
to a natiye bedstead. 
Kt^iiandOf to etrotcb oneself 
Tandama ku» (f), to surround. 
Tandatoaa ku'f to reeliue, to bdl al 

Tandaza ku*, to make Iht 
TandOta ku»^ to spread, Ut Yuy out, 

to saddle. 
Tandut ]tm% slasibee made en tiK'lf 

fuces by Makuaifandolbefs, 
Tandua ku-f to nuse^ldle, U) UUa «/# 

TangOf plnr.nuUatu^ or m/fjitntufa^ 
a jtaiL Th« et^ils ef miUrjMt nuH 
madau Mr*i Ottid^ of umiiiui^, 
Taima vMif ike ees^^^ws oC 

ehaog<^>)e winds, 
UttUtnga hiUU wind eti«si», 

in sign of «M'^vru j» j^ i^y m^mm* 
Tamy^M Iri^, Ka» «e-^ue t/> Ix; k»//w«f/ 
Ttfe^s^eaMSbe Ir» , lo ed/;^», 
rattjKMfrHlte lev-, 4«> 1>e dMi^i^t 
Tfluk^MUMHlie Iqi^, i9 ^;!Uier «^. 
Ttukgitimft^ Aft. <)f.> ^ ^^l*Aii4Vf*t»t^^ 

ZtUtJNOe 1^« io e{«««4MrW« 1^ '(^i.r- 

-cuiU^trtf itutdULi^^euee. 

<tiir It SttrV lAlBidMitkVAl. 




-goiird eaten raw, resembling in 

taste a cucmnber. 
Tangu, since, from. 

Tangu Unif Since when? How 
long ago ? 
TanQua ku-, to annnl, to abolish, to 
separate, untwist, unplait, with- 
draw a promise, &o, 

Kutangiui ndock, to annul a mar- 
riage, to divorce. 
Tnnguka fcu-, to be annulled. 
Tangukana hu-, to separate. 
Tangtdia fcu-, to precede, to go be- 
fore, to go first. 

Nimetangulia kukuamhiaf I told 
you beforehand. 
Tangulifu, advanced. 
Tanij Othman. 

Kwa tani, backward, on his back. 
Tano or Tanu^ five. 

Ya tanoy fifth. 
•tano^ five. 
^antavMwa^ a great bother, a 

Tanua ku^ to expand, to spread out, 

to fund off a boat. 
Tanuka ku-, to lie on one's back and 

spread oneself out, to sprawl. 
Tanura or Tanuu^ a clamp for bum- 

iDg lime, an oven. 
Tanzij plur. matonzt, a noose. 
Tanzia, news of a death. 
Too, plur. mataOf an arch, an 

arched opening, a bay. 
^apa ku-t to shiver. 

Kujitapa, to magnify oneself, to 
make a great man of oneself. 
ITapatapa ku-j to jump about like a 

fish when taken out of the water, 

to shiver, to tremble. 
Tapanya kit-, to scatter, to ihrow 


Tapanyatapanya ku-, to dissipate, 

to waste. 
Tapika 7ctt-, to vomit. 
Tapisha ku', to make to vomit. 
Tapishoy plur. matapiaho^ an emetie. 
Tapo, plur. matapo, a detachment, 

a division, a part of an army 

larger than kikozi, 
Tardbe, side piece of a window, 

door of planks. 
Tarafu^ on the part of. 

Tarafu yoke, on his part. 
Taraja kw, to hope. 
Taraihia ku-, to .persuade In a 

friendly way. 
Taratibu, carefully, gently, orderly. 
TarattbUf orderliness, an order or 

Taraza, an edging, a narrow silken 

border usually woven on to tur- 
ban and loin-cloths in Zanzibar. 
Tarazake, business on a small scale. 
TarcLzaki kU", to trade in a small 

Tarikj a date, year, &a, the clew- 
line or bunt-line of a dhow-saiL 

Kitabu eka tank, a chronicle. 
Tarimbo = Mtaimho, an iron bar. 
Tarizi kur, to weave on an edging. 
Tartibu = Taratibu, 
Tasa, a brass basin. 
Tcua, a game of touch. 
Tasa, a barren animaL 
Tasawari ku-, to do with certainty, 
to be fully able. 

Eatasaufarit it is certain that he 
does not do it. 
Tashihi, Mohammedan beads. 
Tagfida, good manners. 
TashiDUhit doubt 
Tasihilif quickness, quickly. 
Taslimu, ready cash. 




Tata, See Matata. 

Kioenda taicUata, to toddle. 
Tatiiga ku-, to go above or over, to 

cross a stream on a tree. 
Tcttana hu-t to be in a tangle, to be 

TcUanuha hu-f to tangle, to puzzle. 
Tatanya ku-, to unravel, disen- 
tangle, solve a riddle. 
Tatazana ^, td be tangled. 
Taihbirit a merchant. 
Tatia ku-f to wind, to tangle, to 

Tatiza ku-^ to wind. 
tatu, three. 

Ya tatUf third. 
Tatua ku-<f to tear. 
Tatuka ku-, to be torn. 
Taumka ku- = Ta*mka ku-, 
Taunif plague, cholera. 
Tati»i^ peacock. 
Tavu (A.), the cheek. 
TawUy plur. matawa^ a frying-pan. 
Tawaf plur. tatoaf a louse. 
Tawa ku; to live secluded (Tao.), to 

Tawaf a, a candle, candles. 
Tawakali ku-^ to trust in God and 

take courage. 
TawaJtdwaJcatha, manj. 
Tawala ku-^ to govern, to rule. 
Tatoanya ku-, to scatter. 
Tawanyika ku-, to become scattered. 
Tawashu a eunuch. 
Tawasfufy temperance. 
Tawaza ku-^ to make to rule. 
Tawaza ku-, to wash the feet, to 

perform the ablutions. 
Tatoif plur. matawit a branch, a 

bough, a bunch, an ear of millet 
Taya, jaw, jawbone. 
Taya ku-f to reproach. 
Tayarif ready. 

Tayiy obedient. 

TayOf plur. matayo, a reproach, re- 
Tazama ku-, to look. 
Tazamia ku-^ to look out for. 
Tazioit forgery. 
Teende la mguu, Barbadoes leg, 

elephantiasis (?). 
Tefita ku; to reason, to search, to 

throw about. 
Tega ku-, to set a trap or snare, to 

snare. See KUendawUi. 
Tegea ku-, to be lamp. 
Tegemea kth, to lean upon, to be 

propped up. 
Tegerneza ku-, to support. 
Tego, a virulent kind of syphilid 

supposed to be the effect of a 

TegUf plur. mateguj a tape-worm. 
Tegua ku-^ to take a pot off the fire» 

to remove a spell. 
Teka ku- (M.) = CheJca ku-. 
Teka kth, to plunder, to take as 
spoil, to draw water. 

KiUeka *mji, to plunder a town. 

Kuteka ng'ombey to carry off an ox. 

Kuteka maji, to draw water from- 
a well. 
TekCf plur. matf-ke, a kick. 

Kupiga teke, to kick. 
Tekelea Zwi-, to prove true, to come to.. 
Tekeleza ku-y to perform a promise, 

restore a pledge. 
Tekenya ku-, to tickle in the ribs. 
Teketea ku-, to be consumed, to be 

burnt away. 
Teketeke, the soft, something soft. 
Teketeza ku-, to consume, to cause 

to be burnt down. 
Tekewa ku-, to become bewildered. 
Tekeza ku-, to run ashore, to oome^ 

to an end, to die. 




Tekua ku-, to prise op, to toss, io 

throw np out of 6t noie. 
^elCf plenty, abuDduntly, abundnnt. 
Tele, gold lace or braid. 
Ttlea Z»ft-v to come dbwxi) descend, 

land from. 
Tel^ka ku-^ to put a pot on the fire. 
Tdemua ku-, to pull down, to cause 

to Blip down. 
Telemuka ku- or Telemka kvr, to 
' go down a fiteep place, to go 

quickly down in spitid of one's 

self, to blither down. 
Ttlemuko, the bed of a river. 
Teleza ku-, to slip. 
Tema /cu-, to slash as with a sword. 
Tema ku', 

Kutema mate^ to spit. 
Tembe, a hen full grown but which 

has not yet laid. 
Tembea ku-, to walk about, to take 
a walk. 

Moyo. toangu umetembea, my 
^ thoughts are wandering. 
Tevribelea ku-, to walk-about. 
Ten^)eza kt^ to o^Eur for sale by 

auction, to hawk about» ■ 

TembOf palm wine, wine^ 

TeTnbo, an elephant. 

Te*mka = Ta'mkcu 

Temsif filigree work. 

Tenoj afterwards, again, farther. 

Tenda ku-^ to do, to apply oneself to, 

to act. 

Kutenda zema or remo, to behave 

Tenda kaniy a pole across a dhow to 

-fasten the sheet to. 

Tendawala, a kind of bird. 

Tende, a date, dates. 

Tenda halwa or halua^ Arabs 

from the Persian Gulf, who 

steal slaves by tempting them 

into their houses . wifh dates 
and sweetstuff. 
Dmdea ku-fio do to^ io .behave io, 

to treat. 
Tendegu, plur. mata^^Ztf^u^.the^egi 

of a bedstead. 
Tendeha Jiu-, to lie..dpn€u to bo 

doable. , . 

Tcn^a, a sun-fish. . ., .■■ -^ 

Tenga ku-, iQ separate, to. remove. 

Kujitenga, tp'get out of the wa/f 
Ttngea ku-, to be refuly -and ia 
order. ,. . ; ,. 

Duka limetengeot the sl^^ Is all 
ready and open. 
Tengeka ku-, to be put on one aide. 
Tengelea and Tengeleza. r= T^ngenexa 

and Tengenea. 
Tengenea ku-^ to be comfortable, to 

be as it should be. 
Tengeneza ku-, to finish ofi^ to put 

to rights, to touch up., 
Tengezeka ku-, to be established^ 

made right . 
Tengua ku-y to put asi^o^ ... 
Tepukua ku-, to cut away yoiing 

shoots. . 

Tepukuxi, plur. dic^ukvti^ shootf 

from the root of a tree. 
Terema ku-, to be, at efwse^ 
Tesa kthi to afflict 

Kuteswa, to suffei:» to be ftf^ti^^^^ 
TesOf plur. ma^a, affllctioBs, advei^ 

Teta ku-f to oppose, to strive a^iainst» 

to be adverse to, to go to law 

with, to mention disparagingly* 
Tetea ku-^ to cackle like a hen. 
Tetea kur (M.) = Checkea' ku-p te 

walk lame. 
Tete ya kwanga, rubeola. 
Tetema ku-, to tremble, to quivei; 
T€(emea = Chechemea, 




Tet&meica fcn-, to tremble, to shake, 
* to shiyer, to quake (as the earth), 

to chattelrtof the teet)i> ' - 
Teteri, a small kind^f dove. 
l^etcM ku-, to rattle. *' Also, to lead 

a sick person by ttie^liand. 
Teua ku-,' to choose, select, pick 

out = Cliagua ku-, 
Teuha ku-^ to dislotote, to sprain. 
^teule, choice, chosen. 
Teeama and Tezamia ss Tazama and 

Text, a fibrous tumour, goitre. 
fiThabihUf an ofifering, a sacrifice. 
ThabiU plur. mathaJbit^ firm« brave, 
Thahahu, gold. {steadfast. 

Thahiri, evident, plain. '• ' 

HmMri kvr^ to make plain, to 

ThaifUi weak, infirm, bad. 
Thalathay three. Also Thelatha, &c. 
Thalathaicuihard, thirteen. 
Thalathini, thirty. 
ITialiTnUf a fraudulent person, a 

Thalimu ^i»-, to wrong, to defraud. 
Thalili, very low, yerypoot. 
lliamana (th in this), A surety. 
Tliamani (th in thing), a price. 

Ta thamatUf of price, valuable. ^ 
Thambif sin. 
Tlidmifiy surely. 
TJiamini kit, to become surety. 
Tliamiri^ conscience, thought 
Tliani ku-, to thmk, to suppose. 
Thatiiaku-yio think of a person, to 

suppose him, to suspect. 
Tliarau^ scorn. 
TJiarau ku^ to seom. • •' . - 
Tkdruha, (Ar. a stroke), a storm, 
(in arithmetic) multiplication. 

Thdmha maja, at one stroke, 
- suddenly. 

ThaUiUf a kind of jay brought down 

from Unyauyembe* • < 
Thawahtt, a reward; especially re> 

wards from God. 
Thelatha^ &c. See Thala^ai ^c^ 
Thelimu ku-^ to oppress. 
TheWit a donkey's canter. 
Theluth, a third. 
Themaniniy eighty^ , , , 
Themaninif a linen fabric. 
! TAemantosAara, eighteen. 
TAeman^a, eight. ^ 

Themuniy an eighth. 
ThenasharOf twelve. 
TheneeUf two. • 

Thihaka^ ridicule, derision. 
Thihdki ku-^ to ridicule/ to make 

game of. 
Thiliirisha ku», to makQ>clear, to 

TJiii kxi-y to be in distress. . 
Thiikl ku-f to be put to stiuits. 
niili &i*-, to abase. 
Thiraa, a measure of about half a 
yard, from the point of the 
elbow to the tips of the fingers. 

Thiraa konde, from the -point of 
the elbow to the knuckles of 
the clenched fist. 
Thoofika ^u-, to be made weak, to 

become weuk. 
Thoojisha ku*^ to weaken; to make 

Thoumu, garlic. 
ThubuUsJia ku-, to give courage to^ 

to make certain, to convince, to 

Thubutu ku-j to dare, to have 
courage for, to be proved. 

SithubutUf I dare not.- 
Thulcu ku-, to taste. 
TJiukuru ku'j to invoke. 
Thulli, dlstross, mLiery. 




Thulumu, wrong. 

ThtUumu hu-t io do wrong, to per- 

ThvlurUf a kind of sandpiper. 
Thtduth, K ildid. Mao Theluih, 
Thumu hu-t to slander. 
ThurecLf a chandelier. 
Thuru ku-f to harm. 
• Haithuru, no harm, it does not 

Tia hu-t to put, to pnt into. 

Kutia nangaf to anchor. 

Kutia chuonif to put to school. 
Ttdro, a boy's kite. 
Tt&o, a term of ondearment. 
Tibika ^u-, to be cured. 
Tibu hthf to cure. 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
Ttbua hu'f to stir up and knock 

Tifua hu-f to cause to rise like dust 

or a mist. 
Tifuha kw, to rise in a cloud. 
Tii fcu-, to obey. 
Tiisha hu-^ to make to obey, to 

TiJca ku-f or tmkat to put a burden 

on a man's head for him. 
TiMf just like, exactly as. 
Tikia ku-, to reply. See Itikia, 
Tikisa ku-, to shake. 
Tikiti, -plux. matikitij a sort of water 

Tikitika ku-, to be shaken. 
Tikitikif utterly and entirely, to the 

last mite. Also, (M.) into little 

Tikiza ku-^ to have patience with. 
Tilia ku-, to put to, for, &c. 
Tilifika ku-, to waste, to grow less. 
Tiliftsha ku-, to diminish, to make 

to dwindle away. 
Tt'lt/u kU', to ruin, to waste. 

Tililia ku't to darn. 

Timazi, a stone hung by a line, used 

as a plummet by masons. 
Timbi, bracelets. 
Timbuza hu-, to begin to show itself^ 

like the sun in rising. 
Timia ku; to be complete. 
Timilia ku-, to become complete. 
-timiiifu, complete, perfect. « 
Timiliza ku-, to make complete. 
Ttmiza ku-^ to complete, to makfr 

Time, a woman's name. 
Timvi, an ill-omened child. « 

Tinda ku- (M.) = Ckinja ku-, io 

out, to out the throat, to slaughter» 
Tindika ku- (A.), to fall short 
Tindilda ku-, to cease to. 

Imenitindikia, I am out of it, I 
have no more. 
Tindikiana ku-, to be separated, to^ 

be seyered, as friends or relation» 

at a distance from one anotlier. 
Tinge,eL game consisting in imitating 

all the motions of a leader. 
Tint, a fig, figs. 
Tint (M.) = Chini, down. 
Tipitipi, a brown bird, a modking 

Tipua ku^, to scoop out, to dig out^. 

to dip out. 
Tiririka ku-, to glide, to trickle. 
TtVa = TUHa, nine* 
Tisaini, ninety. 
Tisatashara, nineteen. 
TUha k%^, to frighten, alaim, make 

TuBta, nine. 

Tita kur, to tie up together. 
Titd, plur. matita, a faggot, a bundlft 

of firewood. 
Titi, the nipple. 
Tiiia ku-, to shake, to sink ilk 




Also (?) of the sea, when deep 
and rongh, to boU. 
Titika hu-, to carry a bundle of 

sticks, &c 
Titima hu-t to roar and roll like 

TiUtoottgot chicken-pox. Seo KUp' 

Titoo (?), paralysis. 
40y a suffix, denoting goodness or 
propriety, rarely used in Zan- 
Kuvjeka, to put ; 

Kutoehato, to put properly. 
Manuka, smells ; 
ManuJcato, scents. 
Toa ku-9 to put out, to take away, 
give, expel, to deliver, to except, 
to choose out. 
Kutoa meno, to grin, to show the 
teeth, to snarl. 
Toaziy plur. matoazi, cymbals. 
Tcba, repentance. 
Tohoa kthf to break through, to 

break a hole in a walL 
Tdbwef a simpleton, ignoramus. 
Tofact, plur. maJtofaOj a fruit shaped 
like a codling with rosy-coloured 
streaks, = Tomondo, See Mto- 
Tofalit plur. maiofalit a brick. 
Tofauttf difference, dispute. 
Nimeingia tofauti kwa kuwa wee 
umeniibia fetha yangu, I have 
a quarrel with you for stealing 

my money, 
Tofua ku-f to hurt or put out an 

Tofuka ku't to have an eye hurt or 

put out. 
Toga ku-f to pierce the ears. 
Togioa, unfermented beer. 
Toluira, (Hrcumcision. 

Tohara A;u-, to purify by ablutions, 

to perform the Mohammedan 

Tot, a kind of wild goat. 
Tqja kt^, to slash, cut gashes, as a 

means of bleeding, &c 
Tojoj a cut made for ornament, &c 
Toka or Toketi^ from, since. 
Toka ku-f to go or come out or away 
from, to be acquitted, to go 

Kutoha damu, to bleed. 

Kutoka Juirif to sweat. 
Tokana ku-, to go forth from one 

another, to divorce, to be set free. 
Tokea, from, since. See ToJca, 
Tohea hapo, in old time, from old 

Tokea ^u-, to come out to, or from, 

to appear. 
Tolceza ku-^ to ooze out, to project. 
Tokomea ku-, to get out of one's 
Tokoni, the pelvis. [sight. 

Tokono (A.), the hips. 
Tokora ku', to pick one's teeth. 
Tokosa ku^, to boil, to cook by 

TokoseJca ku-, to be well boiled, to 

be done. 
Tokota ku; to become boiled, to be 

cooked by boiling. 
Tolea ku-f to put out for, to olfer to. 

Kutolewa^ to have put out for 
one, or to be put out, to be 
Trnna, orchitis, hydrocele. 
Tomasa feu-, to poke with the fingers, 

to feel, used of examining a 

living creature, as Bonyesha, of 

inanimate objects. 
T(ymha &tt-, to have sexual connec- 
tion with. 
Tomho, a qualL 


T (J»M. 


Tomea hu- (M.) = Cliomea hu-, 
Toinea ku-^ to point by plastering 

over and putting small stones in 

to make the work firm. 
Tomesha Tcu-, to set on (a dog, &o.). 
TomOf dross of iron, &o. 
Tomise = Tomo. 
TomondOf a hippopotamns. 
Tomondo, plur. matomondo = Tofaa, 
Tona ku'f to drop. 
Tona ku; 

Kutona Mna, to lay and bind on 
a pLisler of henna until the 
part is dyed red. 

Kutona godoro, to sew through a 
mattress here and there to con- 
fine the stuffing. 
Tondoo, a small brown nut con- 
taining oil. 
Tonesha ku-y to strike agiu'nst, to 

touch a sore place, to make a sore 

Tone, plur. matone^ a drop. 
ToTieza %u-, to cause to drop. 
Tonga ^u- (M.) = Chonga ku-^ to 

Tongea ku- = Chongea, 
Tongosimhaf a small bird black 

with white neck; it makes a 

great noise in fiying. 
Tongoza ku-, to seduce. 
Tope, mud, plur. matope, much mud. 
Topea ku; to sink iii mire, to be 

Topetope, a custard apple. 
Topeza ku-, to be too heavy for one. 
Topoa kUf to take out, to break a 

spell, to clear for cultivation. 
Tora, plur. matora, a small spear. 
Torati, the law of Moses, the Pen- 
Toroka ku^ to run away from a 

master, from home &o. 


Torosha ku-, to abduct, to indace U 

run away. 
To9a kU', to caus9 to sink, to drown 

Kutosa macho, to spoil the eyea. 
Tosa, plur. matosa, fruit just be- 
ginning to ripen, all but ripe. 
TosTia ku; to suffice, to be enough 

for, to cause to come out. 
Toshea ku-, to be astonished» to be 

Tosheleza ku-, to suffice. 
Toshewa ku-, to be astonished. 
Tota ku-, to sink. 
Totea ku- (M.) = Chockea ku-m 
Toteza macho ku-, to spoil the eyes. 
Totoma ku-, to be lost, to wander. 
Totora ku-, to pick one's teeth. Also^ 

Tooya = CJiooya, 
Towea ku-, to eat at a relish or 

Toweka ku-^ to vanish. At Lamoo 

this word is used for to die. 
Towelea ku-, to eat by mouthfuls. 
Towesha ku-, to ruin, to put out of 

the way. 
Toweza ku-, to pour gravy, &c.| oyer 

the rice. 
Tozi, plur. matozi (M.), a tear. 
Trufu, trump (in cards). 
TUf only, nothing but this, only 

just. The -u of tu is very short ; 

it always follows the word or 

phrase which it qualifies. 
Tu, we are or were. 
Tu or Tw; the sign of the first 

pei-son plural, we, 
-tw or 'tiO', the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person plural, m. 
Tua ku-, to put down, to put down 
loads, to rest, to lialt, to encamp^ 
to set (of the sun). 

Jua likiiuo.^ «it sunset. 





Tua Tcu; to grind by ptislilng a 

stone backwards and forwards. 
Tuama Jcu-, to settle, to cleat itself. 
Tuana hu-^ to settle. 
T^uhia hu'f to repent ot 
Tuhu Jcu-f to repent. 
Tufanuy a storm, a tempest. 
Tw/e, a ball 
Tuliumu ku', to accuse of, to lay to 

his eborge, to suspect. 
Tui (M.) = Chuif a leopard. 
Tui, the oily juice squeezed out of 

the scraped cocoa-nut. 
Tuiliza hu-, to prolong. 
Tuja hu' (M.) = Clitya hu-, to strain. 
TuJia, posts of a verandah or long 

Tuliana ftti-, to use bad language 

to, to abuse, to address with in- 
sulting or indecent expressions. 
TuJcanOf plur. matukanOj bad words, 

insulting or iilthy language. 
TuJcia hu-, &o. (M.) = Chulcidhu'f&o. 
Tukia ku-f to happen. 
Tulcio, plur. matukiOf a thing which 

happens, an accident. 
Tukiza ku-, to project. 
TuJcua ku; Ac. (M.) = Chukua 
'tukufUf glorious, great [fci*-, &c. 
Tukulta ku'y to become exalted, to 

grow great. 
Tuhusa ku; to move, to shake. 
Tukuta ku'f to move about restlessly, 

to shake nervously. 
■Tiikutiza ku- (obscene). 
Ttikuza ku', to exalt, to make great. 
"TuUa ku-9 to become quiet, to settle 

down, to amend from a riotous 

Tulia, don't make a noise. 
TuUa kvr, to grind with. See Taa, 

Jiwe la kutulia, a stone to grind 

TiiWia Tcu-fio be sei^erie and tranquil. 
Tuliliakti^^ to settle down for or in 
regard to. 

Yamekutulilia f have you under- 
stood me? 

TamenitultliOf I have. 
Tulilidna ku-, to come to an agre^ 

TuHza ku-y to calm, to still. 
Tulizia ku-, to calm for. 

Kutalizia rdho, to calm, to console» 
Tuma kn-f to employ, td send about 

some business. 
Tuma ku- (M.) = Chuma ku-, to 
Tumaa ku-^ to hope. [profit. 

Tumai ku- = Tumaa, 

Rolio yatumai, I hope. 
Tumaini ku-^ to be confident, to 

TumainisTui ku-y to make oonfiden^ 

to make to hope. 
Tumania ku-, to hope in, confide in. 
Tumha, a long rice-bag. 
Tumbako, tobacco. 

Kuvuta tumhako, to smoke. 

Tumbako ya kunuica or kunusa^ 
Tumhasiy an abscess. , [snuC. 

Tumbili, a small kind of light- 
coloured monkey. 
Tumbo, plur. matumhoj gut, belly, 
viscera, womb. 

Tumho la kuenenda^ diarrhoea. 

Tumho la kuharadamu, dysentery. 
Tumhua ku-, to disembowel, cut 

open, pick a hole, in, open (an 

Tumbuiza ku-, to soothe, to sing to^ 

to sing by turns. 
Tumhuka ku-, to burst, to be bursty 

&c. See Tumbua, 
Tumhukia ku-, to fall into. 

Ametumhukia, kisimani, he liaft 
got into a scv^s.^^» 




Tumbukiza /ftc-, to throw into, to 

cause to fietll into, to get a person 

into a scrape. 
Tumbulia ku-, 

Kutumbulia rruioho, to stare at 
TuTnbuUt a staple. 
Turribuza ^u-, to disembowel, to 

penetrate, to get through. 
Tume, a messenger. 
Tumia &u-, to employ, to spend, to 

Tumika %t»-» to be employed, to 

Tumikia ku-, to be employed by, to 

serve, to obey. 
Tumu, taste, tasting. 
Tumu, the month Bamfithan. 
Tuna &«-, &o, (M.) = Chuna ku, &o. 
Tuna ku-j to swell, to get cross. 
Tunda, plur. matunda, a fruit. 
Tundama ku-, to gather, to settle at 

the bottom. 
TundVca ku-^ to hang up, to be 

TundUy plur. tundu or matundu, a 
hole, a cage, a nest. 

Tundu ya pua, a nostril. 
Tunduaa A;M-,to stand stockstill in 

wonder at, &o. 
Tunga, a round open basket. 
Tunga ku-, to suppurate. 
Tunga ku-^ to put together in order, 

to string beads, to meike verses. 
Tungama ku-, to clot, to congeal. 
S^ungamana ku-^ to be steady. 
Tungia ku-, to thread a needle. 
Tungua ku-, to let down, to pull 

down, to hook down. 
Tunguka ku-f to be pulled or let 

Tungika ku-, to depend upon, to 

hang from. 
Tungu (M,) = Chungu, ants. 

Tunguja, a common weed, a specie» 
of solanum. 

Tungulia ku- (M.) = Chungxdia ku-^ 
to peep. 

Tunika kw (M.), to lose the skin, to- 
be flayed. 

Tunu, a rarity, a choice gift, a. 

Tunuka ku-, to love excessively, to 
long for. 

Tunukia ku, to make a present to. 

Tunza, plur. matunza, care. 

Tunza ku-, to take care of, to look 
after, to make gifts to. 

Tupa, a file. 

Tupa, plur. maiupa (M.), a^bottle:. 

Tupa kU', to throw, to throw away. 
Kutupa nathari, or macho, to cast 

a glance, to cast the eyes. 
Kutupa mJcoiw, to break off friend- 

Tupia ku-, to throw at, to pelt with. 

Tupiza ku; to pass its proper mea- 
sure or time. 

'tupu, bare, empty. It makes tupu 
with nouns l^e nyumba. See 

Tupua kw, to root out, to pull up. 

Turuhani, tare, allowance for pack- 
age, &c., in weighing. 

Turuma, See Maturuma. 

Turupuka ku-, to slip out of one*s- 

Tushiih, ascriptions of praise, a 
rosary, the beads used by Mo- 
hammedans in praying. Se» 

Tusha ku-, to lower, to make meao 
or low. 

Tushi, plur. matuahi, abuse, bad 
language. See Matusu, 

Tusmra, a picture. 

Tuta^ plur. matuta, a heap of earth» 




« raised bed for planting sweet 
tutu I Leave it alone I Don't touch I 

Used to little ohildren. 
Tutuka hu-f or Tutu*mka or Tutu- 
sika, to rise in little swellings, to 
come out in a rash. 
Tutuma ku-, to make a noise of 

bubbling, to boil up. 
ITutumua ku-, 

Kujitutumua, to gather oneself 
up for an effort. 
Tuza ku-f or Timza &«-, to weep (of 
a wound). 
Kutnta damn (M.), to run down 
with blood, to bleed exces- 
Tuza kU' =r Tunza ku-. 
Kujituzat to make oneself mean 
or low. 
7\izanya ku-^ to come to an agree- 
ment (A.). 

*tW- = -tU', 

Twa ku(M..) = Chvfa ku-* 
Ttoaa ku-f to take. 

Kuiwaa nyara, to take as spoil. 
Twalia kw, to take &om. 
Twaliwa kuh, to be deprived of, to 

have had taken from one. Used 

also in the sense of, to be taken. 
Twana kth or Tuana ku-^ to settle. 
Twana kth = Twazana, 
Twanga ku-, to clean com from the 

husk by pounding it in a wooden 

Twangia kth^ to clean oom for, 

with, eto. 
ITwazana kur, to resemble in face, 

to be like. 
Tweka ku-, to hoist, to raise, to 

take up. 
UTtcesha ^ti-, to go by night to see 


Tioeta kU'f to pant, to strive for 

Twezd ku-t to despise, to hold in 

Twiga, a giraffe, a camelopard. 
Tunka ku-, to put a load on a man's 

head. Also Tika. 


U is pronounced like oo in food. 

ZT* before a vowel takes a conso- 
nantal sound, and may be written 
vj. This change is not so marked 
Before a u as before the other vowels. 
Sometimes both ti's keep their vowel 
sound. U before o is frequently 
dropped : 

jSfo^o = Muoyo. 

The syllable mtt- 'is seldom so 
pronounced in Zanzibar; it becomes 
mw- or *m, or a simple m. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged, as, 

TJfalme or TJfaume, a kingdom. 

Mlango or Mwango, a door. 

Nouns in it- or w- generally lose 
their u- in the plural, most of them 
substituting n- or ny- for it, but 
dissyllable nouns keep the «- and 
prefix ny-. See JV. 

The insertion of a -u- before the 
final -a of a verb reverses its mean- 

Knfunga, to fasten. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. 

There is a suppressed I between 
the u and the a (as always in 
Swahili between two consecutive 
vowels), which appears in the ap- 
plied forms. 

KufunguUa, to unfasten for. 

The passive of the applied forma 




of verbs in -ua is used also as the 
passive of the simple form. 

KufunguliuHi,io be unfastened, or 
to have unfastened for one. 

Kuua, to kill, is irregular, and 
makes its passive by adding -wai 
huuavjct, to be killed. 

U (Ar.), and. 

27, thou art, it is, of nouns in ti-, 
and of those which make their 
plural in mi-. 
27- or W'i the sign of the second 

person singular. 
27- or 10-, the personal prefix of ilie 
third person singular denoting a 
flubstantive in u-, or one which 
makes its plural in mi-, 
-€*-, or -W-, the objective prefis de- 
noting a substantive in u-, or one 
thai makes its plural in mi-, 
27- as a substantive prefix is used 
to form abstract nouns, and also 
to form the names of countries, 
I7n^t^, the Njika oountry ; 
UgaUtf the Galla country ; 
Dzungu, the country of Eu- 
27a hu-9 to kilL 

Passive, kuuawOf to*be killed. 
27a, plur. maua, a flower. 
27a, plur. n^tta,ayard, an enclosure, 
a fence. 
27a wa mabua, an enclosure fenced 

with mtama stalks. 
27a ica makuti,BJi. enclosure fenced 
with plaited cocoa-nut leaves. 
Uandaf'a. court, a yard. 
Uanda = Wanda, 
Uanja = Uanda, 
UapOf plur. nyapo, an oath. 
Z/awa ku', to be killed. 

Uayo, plur. nyayo, the sole of th» 

foot, a footprint. 
JJhakwa^ pap, a soft food for chil- 
TJhafu or Vhami^ plur. mbavu^ a xih» 
• Mbavwniy in or at its side. 
Uhani, incense, galbanunu 
UhaiUif nullity. 
Ubau, plur. mbau, a plank. 
Ubatca, plur. mhawafix wiug feather. 
Ubazazi. • 
Kufanya ubazazif to make a bar- 
Uhdeko, a cloth worn by women, a 
customary present to the bride's 
mother on the occasion of i^ 
Uhishif a joke. 
Uhuyut the infiide of the calabash 

Uehafu or 27c^vtt, filthihess. 
Uchagaa = Vtagaa, ' 
Uchala, a raised stage to put con» 

&o. upon.' 

JJchawi, witchcraft, black magic 
Kufanya udhavoif to practise- 
Uchipuka, plur. cMpuka^ a shoot, a* 

blade of grass. 
UckochorOf a passage, «opening be- 
UchovUf tediousnes& 
UchUt a longing. 
Uchukutif the leafstalk of the oooosp 

nut leaf. 
Uchukuzif carriage, cost of cany*- 

Uchukwi^ a kind of rioeu 
Uchumi S3 THumi, 
UchungUf bitterness, pain, poison^ 
UchungUf bitter. See -diungu, 
Dawa fuhungUf bitter medicinCir 




VdaJia, babbling, telling secretf. . 
UdeffUf plur. ndevut one liair of the 

UdogOf smallness, youth. 
Udongo, clay, a kind of earth used 

to mix with the lime and sand in 

making mortar. 
Ufa hu-f to become cracked. 
Ufa, plur. nyufa, a crack. 

Kulia ufoj to crack. 
UfagiOf plur. /ayio, a brush, a broom, 

a bundle of the leaves of a palm 

used to sweep with. 
VfaJiamu^ memory. 
UfajiH = Alfajiri, 
UfalmeoT C[/attm6,kingdom, royalty. 
UJidiwa, a ransom. 
Ufisadi, vice. 
UfUki, vice. 
Ufito, plur.^to, a thin stick, sticks 

such as those which are used as 

laths to tie the makuti thatch to. 
UJizi, plur.^t, the gums. 
Ufuy death, the state of being dead; 
UfufuLio or Ufufw>t resurrection, 

Uftikaraf destitution. 
Ufuhwey absolute destitution. 
Ufumbi, valley, bottom. 
Ufunga, stone bench, = Kibaraza, 
Ufungu, relatives. 
UfwiguOt plur. funguo, a key. 
Ufuoy sandy beach. 
Ufuta, semsem. 
Ufulhuliy o£Qciousne88. 
Uga, an open space in a town where ■, 

a house has been pulled down, or . 

where a dance could be held. 
Ugali, porridge. 

Ugangoy white magic, medicine. 
UghaibUf the little packet of betel 

leaf, areca nut, lime, and tobacco 

made up for chewing. 

UgOf enclosure, close. 

Ugomviy a quarrel, quarrelsomeness. 

Ugonjvoa, sickness, a sickn^s. 

UgranifA general collection of debts. 

Ugua hu-t to fall sick, to groan. 

Ug-umu, hardness^ difficulty. . . ■ 

Uguza ku^f to nurse, to take care of 

UgwBi string. [a sick person. 

UJuirabiit mischief. 

Uharara, warmth. 

Uhartbiou, destruction, destructive- 

Uhtiijtf want, thing wanting. 

UhurUf freedom. 

Z7tm&o,plur. nyimbOfa, 8ong,aballail. 

Uirari (in arithmetic), proportion, 
division of profits. See WorarL 

Uizi, theft, thieving, 

Ujahili, boldness. 

Ujalifuy fulness. 

I7;a»a, youth. 

C^'oW, tiller-ropeo. ' ■'- 

UJeneif building» : ■ 

Uj% grueL 

UJimOf h^lp of neighbours» assist- 
ance in work. 

UJwga, rawnessy dulness, ignorance. 
' lyio, coming. 

Cg'fr%iiire, mward. 

UJumbe^ chiefdhip, headaliip. 

Ujvvif knowingness, officiousnees, 
pretended knowledge. 

Ujwi, defilement, whatever U re- 
moved by ablutions. 

Uhaang0, phir< J;aan<jfo, an earthen 
; pot lor oooking with oil or fat. 

UJtafu» - 

• Ukafu wa mqjit a babble on 

Ukalii fierceness, sharpness. 
Kufanya ukaliy to scold. 

UJcainbaa, plur. kambaa (M.), cord 




UJeamtlifu, perfectness, perfection. 

Ukanda, a strap. 

Ukao, stay, stopping. 

UkaHmUf generosity, liberality. 

Zncawa, delay. 

Ukaya, a long piece of blue calico, 
often ornamented with spangles, 
worn by slaves and poor women 
in Zanzibar over their heads: 
it has two long ends, reaching 
nearly to the ground. 

VkeleUj plur. helele^ a cry, a noise. 
Akapigiwa tikelele, and a cry was 
made at him. 

Ukemif a call (Mer.). 
Nipigie ukemi, give me a call. 

UkengeU, a sort of knife made in 

TJheto, depth. 

Ukingo^ the brink, a screen, an en- 
closure made with cloths. 

Ukirif plur. kirif a strip of fine 
matting about an inch broad, out 
of which mikeka are made. 

Ukiwctj desolation, solitude where 
people once were. 

Uko or Hukoy there. 

Ukoa, plur. k*oa, a plate of metal, 
one of the rings on the scabbard 
of a sword, &o, 

Vkoga, the tartar and dirt on the 

Vkohozi, phthisis. 

TJkoka, grass cut for fodder. 

VkokOf the rice on the top of the 
pot, which is often dry and 
scorched through the custom of 
pouring away the water when the 
rice is done and heaping live 
embers on the lid of the pot. 
TJkoko (A.), a oough. 
UkologefUf decay. 

Ukoma, leprosy. 

Ukomha, a scraper, a curved knife 
for hollowing out mortars, &c 

Ukonibolewa, a ransom. 

Ukombozi ox, UkoTnboo, a ransom 

Ukonde (wa tende)^ a (date) stone. 

Ukongwey oldness, extreme old age. 

UkonyezOf plur. konyezo, a sign made 
by lifting the eyebrow. 

Ukoo, nastiness, undeanness (?). 

Ukoo, ancestry, pedigree, fSunily 
origin and connections. 

Ukope, plur. kope^ a hair from the 

Ukosi, the nape of the neck. 

Ukubali, acceptance. 

Ukuhwaf greatness, bigness. 

Ukucha, plur. kxuihat a nail, a claw, 
a hoof. 

TJkufi^ plur. kufiy a handful, what 
will lie upon the hand. 

TJkwrMy an apartment at the en- 
trance, a hall, a porch. The 
ukuiM is within a stone house 
and outside a mud house» 

UktmbukOf recollection. 

Ukumhusho, memorial, a reminder. 

Vkumbuu, plur. kumbuu, a girdle 
made of a narrow cloth, a turban 
cloth twisted tightly Into a sort 
of rope such as the turbans of 
the Hindis are made of. 

Ukundufu, pleasingness, ocmmo- 
diousness, liberality. 

Ukungti, mould, mouldiness. 

Kufanya ukungut to get mouldy. 
Ukungu, the first light of dawn. 
Ukunif plur. kunif a piece of fire- 
Ukurasay plur. kuram^ a leaf of a 

book, a sheet of paper. 
UktUOf plur. kutck^ a stone wall. 
UktUi, plur. kuti, a leaflet of the 
cocoa-nut tree. 




WcuUf greatness, size. 
XJhwaju, a tamarind. 
XJkwany wealth, riches. 
Ukwato, plnr. hwaio^ a hoof. 
77Za2o, a tree gs trees cut down so 

as to fall across a river and make 

a bridge over it 
Vlajiy gluttony, 

XUawbiyawbi^ a very young dafu, 
Ulanisii a foul-mouthed person. 
Ulaya or IFtZaya, home; applied 

especially to the home of Euro- 
peans, Europe. 
Ulayitiy European, inferior calico. 

Kamba ulayiti, hempen rope. 
Ule, that, yonder. 
Uledi, a dhow boy, a cabin boy. 
Ulegevu, relaxation, the state of 

being slack. 
Ulia ku-f to kill for, with, &c 

Tumidie mbali, let us kill him 
out of the way. 
Ulilif a couch or bedstead {Kianz- 

Ulimbo, birdlime, gum, resin. 
VUmbwendef dandyism. 
Ulimi, plur. ndimi^ the tongue, a 

tenon, the heel of a mast. 
Ulimwengu, the world, the universe, 
a man's own world or circle of 
duties and pleasures. 

Kuwdko ulimtoBnguni, to be alive. 
Ulingot a raised platform to scare 
Ulio, which is. [birds from. 

Ulitima, the last three cards of the 

Uliza hu-f to ask, to inquire of a 

Kumuliza hali, to ask how he 

Bivoezi kuulizwa utoongo,! oannot 
tell a lie* 

Ulizia ku-f to make inquiries on 

behalf of. 
UlongOf falsehood. See Uwongo, 
Uma, plur. nyumaf a spit, a large 
fork, an awl. 

Umatoa kuokeanyama, a gridiron. 
Uma kn-, to bite, to sting, to hurt» 

to give pain to, to ache. 
Umdhelif ingenuity. 
UmalidcLdiy dandyism. 
Umandey dew, morning air, mist» 

the west wind. 
UmaHkinif poverty. 
UTnatii a multitude, peoplfli 
Umati Isa, Christians. 
JJmati Musa, Jews. 
Umati Muhammad, Mohammedans. 
Umha ku-f to creato, to shape. 
Umba ku-f to bale out a boat For 

Unibaumba ku-^ to sway about like 

a drunken man. 
Umbo, plur. maumbo, form, outward 
likeness, appearance, character, 

Najiona umbo la kutoa kitiwif I 
feel getting deaf. 
UmbUf plur. maumbu, a sister. 
UmbtM ku'f to allege a defect, to 

Umbwa, or better Mbioa, a dog. 
'Ume (or 4ume\ male, strong. It 
makes ndume with nouns like 

Mkono foa kuume, the right hand. 
Umeme, lightning. 
Umia ku-, to give pain to» 
Umika ku-, to cup. 
UmiOf the oesophagus. 
UmitOf heaviness, feeling heavy. 
Umiza ku-, to hurt 
Umka ku-, to swell, to rise when 





Uailcu (?) liu; to call, 
Unto or HumOi there insido. 
Umfja, oneDOss. 
Ufltrt, age. 

TJmri wake apatajef How old 
is he? 
Umua hu', to take honey from the 

Una, you have, thou hast. 

Una ninil What is the matter 
with you ? 
Unazozildka, which you are asking 

Unda hthf to huild ships or hoats. 
UndUf the comb of a cock^ 
Unene, stoutness, thickness. 
rUaenyekeOf humility, abasement» 

Unga^ flour, powder. 

Unga toa ndere^ a magic poison. 
Unga km-^ to unite, to splice, to join; 
Ungamaf a place near Melinda, 

swallowed up by the sea. 
Ungama ku-, to acknowledge, to 

confess of one's own accord. 
Ungamana ku-, to hxing together, 

Ungamoy a^ yellow jdye used for 
r. dyeing matting. 
Z7nganaA;u-, to unite, to join together. 
Unge^i the sign of the second person 
sing, conditional.. 

lUngedumu, you would continue. 

Ungekuica, you would be» 
Ungi, much, plenty. 
Ungo, the hymen (?). 

Kuvun^ ungo, to be deflowered, 
to begin to menstruate. 
Ungo^ plur. maungoy a round flat 

baskflt used in sifting. < , 
Ungua ku-, to be scorched or scalded. 
Uugt^a, Zanzibar. 
Vnguiia ku-, to scorch or scald. 

Unguza ku-, to- scorch or Bcald^ .to 

Ungwana^ the state of being a free 

and civilized man, civilization. 
'Ungwana, civilized, as opposed to 
rshenzi; free,, as opposed to 
. "tumwcu 

Kiungwana, of a civilized kind. 
UnueUt or Unwele, or Unyele, plur. 

nyeU, a hair.. 
Vnyago. See Kinyago. 

Kuchezea unyagOt-^io teaoh wo- 
Unyasi, reed, grass. 
UnyayOy plur. nyaya, the sole of the 

foot, a footprints 
Unyele. See Unude,- 

Kupiga unyende, to cry with » 
feeble thin voice; ' * 
Unyika, the Nyika country.' 
{T^ij/oa, plur. nyoa; a feather» 
Unyofu, straightness^' uprightness. 
tTnyo^ru, idleoeas* ' - 
Unyonge, vileness, meanneBSt 
Unyungu.' •* 

Kupiga unyungu, to strut 4?^^ 

' to show oneself oS, ' ' "' 
Unyushi, plur. nywhi^ h- hair from' 

the eyebrow. * 

Z7o, plur* mauo, a sheath. 
Uoga or Woga, fear. 
U6vu, rottenness, badness, ooYmp- 

tion, malice, evil» ' 
Uozi, martiage. 
Upaa, baldness.- ■ 

Upaa wa kitwa, crown 'of the 
head, baidneiaB. * 
Upaja, plur. paja, the thigh. 
Upajii liberality.' " * 
Upamba, plur. pamba, a bill, a small 

Upana^ width, brcai^|.b 




Upande, pkur. pandef a side, part; 
Upande toa Mvita^ near or about 

Upande wa ehini^ the under side, 

the Ice side. 
Upande wa juu^ the npper sMe^ 
- the weather side. 
Upande toa goshinii the side whcdre 
the tack of the sail is fastened) 
the weather side. 
UpangOy a cock's comb. 
Upanga^ plur. panga, a sword. 

Upanga wa /elegit & long straight 
V . two-edged sword carried by the 
Upanga wa imonit a short »word 

with a kind of cross hilt 
Kuweka upangaf to set up a 
sword on its edge. 
Upao^ plur. paoy one of the small 
sticks used as laths to tie tiie 
thatch to. 
Upapif the outer beading of a door 

Upataji, value. 

UpatOf a round plate of eopper 
beaten a» a musical instrument. 
^ Upaw<i, plur. paujo, a flat ladle made 
out of a cocoa-nut shell, used 
for serving out curry, gravy, &o. 
An upawa differs from a kata in 
being very much flatter and 
shallower : more than two- 
thirds of the shell are cut away 
to make an upaioa ; scarcely a 
quarter is cut off in making a 
Upehecho, the piece of wood used 

to make fire by rubbiug. 
UpeketevUf destruction, harm, quar* 

Upde, plur. peile, a large pimple.. 
PeZe, the itch. 

UpemlOf curved end, -hook, a stifck. 
- to hook down fruit with. ' 
VpendcQi, the habit of liking. 
Upendavyo, as you please. ^ ' 
t7|iciMJeZ«os, favour. 
Upenziy love, affection, liking. ' 
Upeo, plur. peo (M.X a sweepihgr 

brush. • "• 

Upeo, th6 lextiemest point i visible^ 

the extreme*- limit, something 

whiqh cannoi be surpassed. 
UpepeOf plur. pepeo, a faBv 
UpepOy pliir. pepa, a •wind, cold. 

8ee Fepo. The plural iA Us^ to 

denote much wind. 
Upe^t quickly, lightly. 
Upia = Upya, newness. 
Upindiy plur. pindi, a bow. 

Upindi Wa vnma, iliei rfkinhow. 
Upindo, a fold, a hem. * ♦ • 
Upo, a- walter^iipper €ot • < bo^ or 

17^90/11, blindness. •' ' • 
UpogOj a squint 
Upogoupogo, zigzag. 
Upole, gentleness, meekness. 
Up(mdOy plur. pondo, a pold used to 
' propel canoes and small vessels. 
Upfmgoei plur.' pongoe^ the leaf stem 

of a palm tree. 
Upooza, purulybia. . 

Upote^ string, bowstring. ' 
UpotevUf waste, destructivenesa^. 

Upumbtt/Uy folly, 
Upungoj plur. punga^ a flower or 

embryo nut of the cocoa-nut tree. 
UpungufUf defect, defectiveness. 
Upupu, cow-itch. 

Upuzi, nonsense, chatter, silly talk. 
Upweke, singleness, independence. 
Upyay newness. 
Urathi, contentmeut. 




Urefu^ length. 

UrembOf ornament, applied espe- 
cially to the black lines painted 
on tiieir laces by the women of 
Zanzibar by way of ornament. 

Urithit inheritance. 

Ur<mffo= Uwongo» 

UrothOf invoice. 

UrUf diamonds (in cards). 

Usafl^ shaTings and chips. 

Ueaha^ matter, pus. 

Usemi, talk, conversation. 

Ushadh plur. nyushadi, verses. 

Ushcihidif or Ushufiuda, testimony. 

UshambUiOf haste, suddenly. 

UshangOf plur. skanga, a bead. 

Usharikd^ partnership, sharing. 

Ushaufu, deceit 

Ua^ierati, dissipation. Also^s^a^t. 

Uehiy a string-course. 

UshuJaOf heroism, great courage. 

Ushuhura, thanks. 

UshungUf a vegetable poison, used 
to poison arrows. 

UshupafUf perversity, crookedness. 

Ushuru, tax, duty, customs. 

Usia hu-f to leave directions or 
orders, by will, &c. See Wasia, 

UsHcizif bearing, attention, under- 

Um^, night. The plur. «tT^tf is used 
to denote days of 24 hours. Four 
whole nights must be rendered 
giku nne usiku hucha. Four days 
and nights, siku nne mchana na 

Usimangaf mockery. 

XJsimeme^ firmness. 

Usinga, plur. singa^ a (straight, not 
woolly) hair. See Singa, 

Usingizi, plur. nngizi, sleep. See 

Pstn, delay. 

UHwa, on the high seas. 

Uw, plur. nyiMo, face, countenance. 

Ussubui, for Asaubui, in the morning, 

the morning. 
Usubi, a sandfly, a midge. 
Usuflf silk cotton from the mn^ 

Usuhani, plur. suJcanif a rudder. 
Ustdtani, sultanship. 
Ummha, see Makumhi. 
Utd, plur. nyuta or matay a bow, 
Uta, [bow and arrows. 

Ma/uta ya uta, semsem oiL 
Utaat a raised stage to put oom, 

&c. on. 
UtaMbu, medical science, being a 

UUtgaOf a branch of a tvee^ 
Utaji, a veiL 
Utajiri, wealth. 
UtakaehOy what you wish* 
UUikatifu, holiness, purity. 
Utaho (Mer.), keel of a dhow. 
Utambcta, plur. tamhcuif a bandage^ 

a rag. 
UtamM, plur. tamhij a lamp-wiek, a 

piece of stuff for a turban. 
Utambo {wa aufuria, &c.), a swing- 
ing handle like that of a paiL 
Utamvuot end or comer of a turban, 

of a cloth, &c. 
Utandu (A.) = Ukoko. 
Utanduf hymen. 
Utani, a kindred race, the belonging 

to a kindred tribe, familiarity. 
Utanzu, plur. tanzu^ a branch. 
Utaahij desire. 
UtaH, tonguetiedness. 

Kupiga utawif to drink grog to- 
Uie wa yayi, the white of an agg» 




Utelezi, slipperiness. 

Uternbe, the chewed refuse of betel 
leaf, &0. 

Utenzif a poem, especially a reli- 
gious poem. 

Uteo, plur. ieo (M.)» a sifting bas- 

JJtepe, plnr. fepe, a tape, a baud, a 
fillef, a stripe. 

UtepetefUj languor. 

Utesi, strife. 

Uihahitiy bravery, firmness. 

UtliaifUf weakness, infirmity. 

Uthanij weight. 

Uthi ku; to harass, trouble. 

Uihicky bother, noise, uproar. 

Uthia hu^, to harass. 

Uihihajh cheat, deceit, stratagem. 

Vihika hu'y to be harassed. 

VthiUfUt calamity, great trouble. 

Uihwu hu'y to excuse. 

TJti tea maungo, the backbone. 

UtihOf the roof-ridge of a thatched 

Utiriri, a provoking trick. 

Utofu, dull, without amusement. 

Utofut thinness, weakness. 

Utoko, mucus from the vagina. 

Uto wa nyama, fat cooked out of 
meat, dripping. 

TJtonwcLy thick white sap. 

Utondm, small dhows trading about 
Zanzibar, coasters. 

Utosi, the top of the head. 

UtotOy childhood. 

UtufUy fatigue. 

Utvkufu, greatness, exaltation, 

Utide, wretchedness, weakness, un- 

UtulivUf quietness, patience. 

UtumhavUf thickness, swelling, 

UtumhuizOf a soothing thing, verses 

sung during a dance. 
Utume, sending people about. 
Utumi, use, usage. 
Utumo, business, place of business. 
Utumuoa, slavery, employment, en- 

Kutia tUumwanif to enslave. 
Utungu (M.) = Uchungu. 

Utungu, is used in the dialect of 
Zanzibar only for the pains of 
childbirth, Utungu wa uzazi. 
Utupa, a species of euphorbia used 

as a fish poison. 
Uiupu, naked (vulgar). 

Mtu utupu, a naked man. 

Mtu mtupUf a mere man. 
Uuaji, murderousness. 
Uudi, aloes wood. 
Uuza hu. See Uza hur. 
Uvif a door [Tumbatu]. 
Uvlvu, idleness, sloth. 
Uvuguvugu, lukewarmness. 

Maji yana uvugurmguj the watev 
is lukewarm. 
Uvuliy shade. 

Uvumhay incense, galbanum. 
UvundOy a smell of corruption. 
UvurujikOj tendency to crumble, » 

being spoilt and decayed. 
TJvurungUy hollowness. 

Jiw€ la uvurungUy a hollow stone. 
TJvyaziy birth. 
Uwandoy a plain. 
Uioangoj arrowroot 
TJvoangay a sweet dish made of 

wheat, flour, sugar, and ghee. 
Uwanjay a courtyard, an enclosure. 
TJwaiMy masonry. 
Uwaiiy a vesicular eruption on the». 





4Jwanri, the vizirship. 
Uweli, sickness, disease. 

Vweli wa viungo, rheumatism. 
ZfvjezOy power, ability. 

Kwpiga uvsinda^ to pass the ends 
of the loin-cloth between the 
legs and tuck them in, as is 
done loosely by the Banyans, 
and tightly by men at work. 
^UwingUt plur. mbingUf heaven, sky. 
The plural is the form more com- 
monly used. 
UwivUy jealousy. 
•CwongOy falsehood. 

Manenoye yameJcwca uwongo, he 
has become a teller of lies. 
Uyajuapo, if you know them. 
'Uyogay a mushroom. 
>Uyuztj ingenuity. 
■ilyuzi ku; to ascertain. 
4Jza ku'f to ask, to ask questions. 
<{7za ku- or Za hu; to sell. 

The tt in kuuz<i, or rather kuza, 
to sell, is very short and insig- 
nificant : it is possibly only a 
partial retention of the ku-, 
which bears the accent and is 
retained entire in the usual 
tenses. The u- in kuitzaj to 
ask, is much more important, 
as is shown clearly in the ap- 
plied forms. 

Kuuliza, to ask of a person ; 

pres. pcrf. ameulizcu 
Kulizaj to sell to a person; 
pres. perf; ameliza. 
'Uzaiiya /fu-, to be ordinarily sold, 

to be for sale. 
JJzaziy birth. 
•Uzee, old age. 

JUzemhe, indifference, apathy, slow- 

Vzij plur. nyuzi, tiircad, ftring, » 

U'Jki, poverty. 

Uzima, health, heartiness, complete- 
ness, life. 
JJzingizi. &ee Zingtzi And UdngizL 
UzinguOf disenchantment, as from 

the power of the evil eye. 
Uzini or Uzinzi, adultery, fomiea> 

Z7zM), plur. nyuzio, a hedge made in 

the sea to catch fish. 
Uzulia ku'f to depose. 
Uzulu ku-, to depose, to remove firom 
an office. 

Kujiuzulu, to resign, lo give up a 
place or office, to abdicate. 
Uzurt, beauty, fineness, ornament 

Kufanya uzuri, to adorn oneself. 
UzusJii, raising from the bottom, aa 

in fishing for pearls. 
Uzuzu, rawness, greenness (of a 



V is pronounced as in English. 
F, /, and 6, are sometimes a little 

difficult to distinguish accurately in 
the dialect of Zanzibar. This i§ 
probably owing to the want of ft • 
in Arabic 

V and vy change in some diaieets 
into Z-, in others into th-, 

Mwivi, a thief, becomes mwUi at 
Lamoo, and mwiOii at Patta. 
Van kU', to put on, to dress in. 
The past tenses are used in iha 

sense of, to wear. 
Amevaa, he wears. 
Alivaa, he wore. 
^ Valia 7cu-. 




MsJiipi wa Icuvalia nguo, a girdle 
to gird up one's clothes withi 

Vao, plur. mavao, dress. 

Varanga, interrupting and bother- 
ing talk. 

Vazif plur. mavazif a dress, a gar- 

Vemttf well, very well. 

Vema or VyemOf good. See -ema. 

ft- or Fy-, the plural prefix of sub- 
stantiyes (and of adjectives and 
pronouns agreeing with thetn) 
>vhich make their singular in ki- 
or ch', 

Vi' or Fy-, sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs governed 
by nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Vi- or Fy- prefixed to adjectives 
often gives them an adverbial 

-ri-, the objective prefix represent- 
ing nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Via ku-i to stop short of perfection, 
to be stunted in its growth, to 
remain only, half cooked for want 
of fire, &0., &0. 

Viaa ku- = Vyaa ku-. 

Viatii (plural of Kiaiu), shoes, san- 
Viatu vya Kizungu, European 

Viatu vya ngozi, leather sandals. 
Viatu vya mti, wooden clopfs. 

Viazi (plur. of Kiazi), sweet pota- 
Viazi vya Kizungu, potatoes. 
Viazi vikuuy yams. 

Viheriti (plur. of Kiberitt), matches, 

Vidani, collars of gold, &e. 

¥iemhe or Vyemhe^ arrows. 

Vifattf necessaries, useful things. 

97<jru7e, braid, reins. 

Vijinenoj little words, prattle. 
Vika ku'j to clothe, to dress. 
Vile, those yonder. 
Vilevile^ just those things, like 

things, in like manner. 
Vilia ku-i to stop and stagnate, as 

the blood does in a bruise. 
Ft7/b, a stagnation, a stoppage. 

Mavilio ya damu^ bruises, effosioii 
of blood. 
Vimha ku-^ to swell, to thatch. 
Vimhiaha ku-, to overfeed a person. 
Vimhiwa ku-, to be overstuffed, to 

overeat oneself. 
VimOf all of one size. 
Vinga vya moto, firebrands» sing. 

Kinga eha moto. 
Vingiy many. See "ingi. 
Vingine^ others. See -ngine. 
Vinjari ku-, to cruise about, to go 

looking out for something, to 

Vinyavinya &11-, to press and crush 

food for children and sick people. 
Vinyi. See Mwenyi, 
Vinyu = Mvinyo. 
Vioga ku- (M.), to tread. 
Viombo = Vyomho. 
Viote or Vyote, all. See -ofe. 
Vi^pande vya kupimia, nautical in* 

struments, sextants, &c. 
Vipele (plur. of KipeU), small 
pimples, a rash. 

Vipele vya harara, prickly heat. 
Viringa ku-, to become round. 

Imeviringai it is round. 
Viringana kU', to become spherical» 
Visha ku-f to give clothes to. 
Vita\ war. 
Vitanga vya mizani, scales, scale» 

Vliindi vya shaha, brass wire. 
Vituja vitwa, topsy-turvy. 




Vivia hti-i to smoulder. 

Vivi hivif common, just there, just 

80, an jhow. 
•vivUf idle, dull, slow. 

Ki8u ni hivivu, the knife is blunt 
Vivyo, thus, in the way mentioned. 
Vivyohivyo, in like manner. 
Viwimbi (plur. of Kiwimhi), wave- 
lets, a ripple. 
Viza kth, to stunt, to prevent its 

attaining perfection, to interrupt, 

to stop or hinder in work. 
Vizia Jcu; to watch, to spoil one's 

work for one, to hinder one from 

Vizurii fine, finely. See -zuH, 
Vua Zru-, to take off clothes. 
Vua ku-f to save^ to deliver, to take 

Vua hti^ to Anhf to catch fish. 
Vuata hit' or Vwata leu-, to press with 

the teeth, to hold in the mouth. 
Vutua kthf to woimd by striking or 

running into unawares, to out. 
Vugaza ku-^ to put to (a door). 
Vugo, a horn played upon by beat- 
Vuja ku', to leak, to let water, [ing. 
Vujia kfi-, to ooze out 
Ftf^ ku; to cross, to go over, to 

pass a river, to be saved. 
Vuke, steam, vapour, sweat. 
Vukiska ku-, to take across, to ferry 

Vukiza kth, to cause to fume, to 

give oflf vapour. 
VvJcuta ku-j to blow bellows. 
VuktUo, sweat 
Dudu vttZs, an insect living in 
wood, a carpenter bee (?). 
FtiZt, shade. 
Jikono wa kuvuli, the right hand. 

Vidia ku', to catch fish for, or 

Vuma ku-, to blow as the wind, to 

buzz like a bee. 
Vuma ku-, to lose (in card-playing), 
Vumbif plur. mavumbif dust, flue^ 

muddiness in water. 
Vumbika A»f-, to put in under some- 
thing, to stick into the embers, to 

cover with a heap of leaves, &c. 
Vumbiki'a ku-, to put seeds or plants 

in the ground before rain, to get 

them into the g^und. 
Vumbilia ku: 

Kuvumhilia vita^ to get into a 
VumbUf plur. mavumhu, lumps in 

flour, &c 
Vumbua ku-, to find after a search, 

to discover. 
Vumif a noise as of blowing or 

bellowing, often made with a 

Vumilia ku-^ to endure, to tolerate^ 

to bear. 
Vumisha ku-, to win (in card-play- 
Vuna ku-, to reap. 
Vuna ku; 

Kujivuna, to swell up^ to be 
puffed up. 
Vunda^ &c, = Vunja, &o, 
Vunda ku-, to rot 
•vunguy hollow. 

Vunja ku-f to break, to min, to 
spoil, to change a piece of 

Kuvunja JungOj to have a final 
feast, as before Bamathan. 
Vunja jungo or chungu, a mantis 
(Mantis religiosa), so called trom, 
the superstition that a person 
toucliing it wiU break the next 




piece of orookerj or glass he 

Vwnjia hur^ to break for, with, &c 
Vunjika ku-y to become broken. 
Vuruga ku-, to stir. 
Vuny'tka hu-^io break up mto frag- 

mentSf cmmble. 
Vurumiaha ku-y to throw a stone, &c. 
Vusha ku-, to put across, to ferry 

over, to put into the right way. 
Vuta hhi to draw, to pulL 

Kuvuta majiy to bale out water. 

Kuvuta mdkoMa, to row. 

Kuvuta tunibakOf to smoke to- 
Vuvia ^u-, to blow. 
Vuvumka ktht to grow up quickly. 
Vuzi, plur. mavuzi, a hair of the 

pubes. Also, (A.) hair in gene- 

Vy- = F*-. 
Vya, of. 
Vyaa ku-^ to bear children, or fruit. 

Pass, vyawa or vycdiwa, 
Vyake or Vyahwef his, her, its. 
VydkOf thy. . 
Vyakida Q)lur. of Chakula% things 

to eat, Tictuals, meals, provisions. 
Vyaliwa ku-, to be born. 
VyangUf my, of me. See -angu. 
Vyao, their, of them. See -ao. 
Vyetu, our, of us. See -etu. 
Vyenu, your, of you. See -enn, 
*vyo or -vyo; as. 

Upendavyo, as you please. 

UnipendavyOf as you love me, for 
my sake. 

Alivyoagizot as he directed. See 
VyOf 'Vyo, -iTyo-, which. See -o, 

Vyo vyote^ whatsoever. 
VycmAo (plur. of Chomho), vessels, 

household utensils, baggage. 


W is pronounced as in English. 

W is commonly in Swahili a con- 
sonantal ti, and in many wOrds w 
or u may be written indifferently. 
There are other cases, as in ihe 
passive termhiation -tea, where the 
sound can only be expressed by an 
English 117. 

W' = 17-, which see. 
TT-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by substan- 
tives either singular or plural 
which denote animate beings. 
Wa, of. See -a. 
Wa nini, why. 

Eamisi wa Tani, Tani's Hamisi, 
4.e. Hamisi, the son of Ta^i. 
Wa or Uy the Arabic and. 
Wa I an Arabic exclamation. 
War, the plural prefix of substan- 
tives in m-, *m-, or mw- which 
denote animate beings. 
Wa-y the plural prefix of adjectives 
and pronouns agreeing with sub- 
stantives which denote animate 
Fa-, the prefix marking the third 
person plural of verbs governed 
by nouns denoting animate be- 
Where the tense prefix begins 
with an -a- that of the personal 
prefix coalesces with it, so that 
there is no difference between 
the second person singular and 
the third plural, 
-wa- the objective plural prefix 
referring to substantives which 
denote animate being* 




Wa hit; to be, to become (?) : the 
ku- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual cases. 
The present tense of the substan- 
tive verb is generally repre- 
Bented by n^or by the personal 
prefix standing alone. 
The present tense with the rela- 
tive is represented by the syl- 
lable 'li'» Aliye, he who is. 
The present perfect amekuwa, &o. 
has the sense of, to have be- 
come. Was is represented by 
the past perfect tense dlikuwa, 
Kutea na, to have. 
Simekuwa mtoongo f should I 
not be a liar ? 
Waa ku-t to shine much, like the 

sun or the moon. 
TToO, plur. mawaay a spot, a blotch, 

a stain. 
Wahha, cholera. 

Wdboondeif the people living in the 
low country between the sea and 
the Shambala mountains. 
Wadit son of. 
Wadi Mohammedf Mohammed's 
Wadi kU't to complete a tenn. 
Watu wa *' London " wamewadiy 
the (H.M.S.) "London's" com- 
mission has expired. 
Wadia Art*-, to be fully come, to be 

quite time for anything. 
WadinaM for Walad ennas, bom 
of people, that is, of decent 
Waduif enmity, hostility. 
Waflkana A;tt-, to conspire together. 
Wafiki fttt-, to suit, to be suitable 

Waga ku- (Mer.), to kilL 

Wagunya, the SwahUi living north 

of Siwi. 
WaJiadi, plur. nyaha^ (?), fbr 

Ahadif a promise. 
Wdhidf one. 
Wai Am-, to be in time. 
Wainua, verily. 
Wdjib, rightness, it ought. . 
Wc^ihi ku-j to visit, to see (ace to 

Wajihiana ku', to meet fSaee to face, 

to see one another. 
Waka ku-j to blaze, to bun up, to 

Wakattf time, season. 

WaJcati Auu, now. 
Wake or WaJnoet his, her, mr its. 
WaJcf. [See -o/.c 

Kufanya voakfy to dedicate, toset 
apart for holy uses. 
Wakiaf the weight of a silver dollar, 

about an ounce* 
Waki/u ku-t to cost 
Wakifia ku-, to cost to. 
Walcili, an agent, a representative. 
WakOf thy. 
Wakti = Walcati. 

WakH gani nyet at what time 
am I to come ? 
Waiat nor, and not. 

Wala — wala — , neither — ^nor— w 
Where or would be used in 

English after a negative loola is 

used in SwahilL 
Walai or WaUayey the moift obm- 

mon Swahili oath. * 

WalaJcinif but, and however. 
Walao, not even. 
Wale, those yonder. 
Wcdi, cooked grain, especially rice. 

Walt wa mwikuu, what is left 
from some meal overnight to be 
eaten in the morning. 

Wall, » gOTemor. 
Liumli for Jl WaU, the gOTenior, 
U moie oommunl^ used in Zaa- 

Wallo. Sm St/alia. 
WiUio, thef who an. 
ffalimtiKngu, the people «f thia 

WaUx, e. mJat. 

Wama kth, to lie on tba foce. 

Wamba ku; to Uoe in the ropea 

apon the fiame of e kilanda, to 

fill up. 
tPaTobito, attAohmeut. 
Wana, thej have. 

Sauono, they hare Dot. 
Wanda tm-, to get very fat and 

ITanda, plur. nyanda, a finger, a 

Soger's- breadth. 
Wanga fcu- (Uer.), to eonnt, to 

Wiotga, ena «ho osea wltohcraft 

agSiiDst another. 
Wanga, arrowroot. Also Uanga. 
Wanga or Wangiea, a cliOl 
Wangine, otherB, otbcr peoplo. 

Wanglrm — aangtrm—, 8ome — 
Wanfjtt, my. See -anga, 
Wangua ka-, to scoop np. 
Waitgaa, a detert, a bare waste 

WangtBona or Wamigmma, gentry, 

fVee and eiWliied meo. 

Waj^a uo manjpi, antimony. 
Wano, plor. mauntw, the ihalt of 

an arrow or harpoon. 
Wao, they. 
IFoo, their. See -cm. 
IPapit which people f 
Wapit oiapit where r 



Commonly jdiied with the per- 
sonal lign of the uonn. 
F« leapt or Yuko teapi 1 where u 

[he] 7 
^1 impi 01 2if&a uapi f where ar» 
Wapilia lot-, to be ladoc with («ent, 

highly perfumed. % 

Wapo, a gift 
Waradi, or ITaredf, o* WarUU, a 

Iforajhi, plnr. nyorofca, a letter. 
Waria, a clever dliow-buildcr, a 

clever man at any bns^eu. 
IForr, a yard (meaaure). 
Wata, ^liiir. itiyafa, tmnll Btloka to 

fill up betweeo larger onee in a 

wall -or roof. 
Waia ttt-, to cpntrarlict. 
Waiba hti-, to light, to set Bte to. 

fwooiAa miAo, to light np a fire. 
Waaliarali, grent dlaeipation, Itoen- 

Wathtmi, wild people, nnoiviUwd 

Waii, rebellion. Also Pint. 
iraji'n, Bciitence, wil), declared 

opinion. Also Waiia, 
Waaia ku-, to bequeath, to make a 


WaiUi ku-, to arrive, to « 
to, to reach. 

WatUi, reoeipt, credit aide of ao- 
connt, {.a. the left-baud column, 

WatUla kw, to reaoh a person, es- 
pecially of lettersL 

WattliAa ku-, to cause lo reaoh. 

Wa$la, who are not. 

Watio = Waila and Wet<a. 

Wattani, middling, la the middl» 

Waiteat, doubt. 

Wathahittia ku-, to ndve. 

WtUhikl, cairow. ^ 




Watia Jcti-, to sit upon eggs. 

WatUf fenugreek. 

WcUu (plur. of Mtu\ people. 

-a fjoatu, other people's. 
WavUf plur. nyavu, a net to catch 

gazelles, &c. 
Wavn'li, two, two persons. 

Wote vaawiliy both. 
Waya^ an earthen dish to bake 

cakes on. 
Wayawaya ku-t to sway like a bough 

loaded with fruit, to swagger, to 

be bent down and burdened. 
Wayo, plur. nyayo, sole of the foot, 

footprint. Also Uayo. 

Waza kit', to think, consider, reflect. 

WcuaOf progeny , offspring, posterity. 

•'wazif open, clear, manifest. It 

makes toazi with nouns like 


Kitwa kiwazi, bareheaded. 

Panalia wazi^ it sounds hollow. 

Waziwdzi, manifest. 

Ana wazimu, he is mad. 
Waziri, plur. mawaziri, a vizier, a 

secretary of state, a chief officer. 
TFozo, plur. maiDazo, thoughts, 
-toe, his, hers, its, for wake, 
-toe, thee, for weioe, 
Wea ku-, to become the property of. 
Weka ku; to place, to lay, to put 
away, to keep, to delay. 

Nyumha hainiweki, I have no rest 
in the house, I cannot remain 
in the house. 
Wekea ku-, to put away for. 

Kuwekea amana, to entrust to. 

Kuwekea wakf, to dedicate. 

Kuiia tveko, to weld. 
Wekua ku-, to break up, to remove. 
WelehOi a cloth worn by women. 

Wdi, sickness. 

Weli wa ma/cho, ophthalmia^ 
Welti, saintly, a saint. 
Wema^ goodness. 
Wembe, plur. nyembe (?), a razor. 
Wenga ku-, to cause to break oui 

into sores. 
Wengi, many. See -ingi, 
Wengo, the spleen. 
Wenu, your. See -enti. 
Wenzangu, my companions « Wa^ 

enzi wangu, 
Werevu, cunning, shrewdness» 
Weu, a place cleared for planting. 
Weupe, whiteness, clearness, light 
Weupe, white. See -eupe. 
Wevi or Wezi, thieves. See MwvoL 
Wewe, thou, thee. 
Weweseka ku-, to talk and murmur 

in one's sleep. Also WeweUika, 
Weye, you I it is you. 
Weza ku-, to be able, to be a match 
for, to have power oyer, to be 
equal to. 

Siwezi, I cannot, or, I am sick». 

Nalikuwa Hujezi, I was ill. 

Sikuweza, I was not able. 

Amehaujezif he has fallen sick. 
•weza. See mweza. 
Wezekana ku-, to be possible. 
Wezesha ku-, to enable. 
•wi, bad (old Swahili and Kyam- 
Wia kw, to be to. [wezi). 

Niwie rathif don't be offended 
with me. 

2. to have in one's debt. 
Kuwiioaf to bo indebted. 
Wibo, Ibo. 

Wifi, husband's sister. 
WiJca ku-, to crow like a ooek. 
Wilaya = TJlaya, home, Europe 
-wili, two. It makes nMU witli> 

nouns like nyuw^ 




Wimbi, plur. mammhi, a wave. 

Mammbiy surf. 
Wimhit a very small kind of grain. 
Winda hu- or Winga hu-, to chase, 

to hunt 
Wingi = Ungi, plenty, a great 

quantity, muoh. 
Wingu, plur. mawingUf a cloud. 
WinOy ink. 
Wtahvjo, chaff, the husks of rice, the 

flour sifted off along with the 

Witiruy odd, not even. 
Witwa (= Kwitwaf)^ the being 

Wiva hu' = Iva Isws 
•wivu, jealous. 
-vsivu = -bivUf ripe. 
Witoa htiTf to owe, to be indebted 


Mayayi mawiza^ eggs with 
chickens formed in them, hard 
TTo, -too, -fi»-, which, who, whom. 

Wo wote^ whatsoever, whosoever. 
•ICO, thy, = WaJco. 
Wogofya, plur. nyogofya^ a threat. 
Wokom^ deliverance, salvation. 
Wongo, falsehood. Also Tlvoongo, 
Wonyesho, showing, display. 
Worartj rateable division, sharing. 

Ar. Wora, to cast pebbles. 
WostOf injunction, seutence, charge, 

wise saying. Also Wasia, 
Wot6y all, both. 

Twende wote, let us both go. 

Wote wavjilif both. 
Wovisif cool. 
WoweJca hu-f to fioakt 


F is pronounced as in English. 

F is in Swahili a consonantal t, 
and it is often indifferent whether it 
be written i or y. The use of y 
is however important to distinguish 
such words as kimiOj a cast-net, 
and kimyctf silence. 

The insertion of a y sound before 
the final -a of a verb has in many 
cases the effect of giving it a causa- 
tive meaning. See P. 

Kupona, to get well. 
Kuponya, to cure. 

Kuogopa, to fear. 
Kuogo/yOf to frighten 

r = i. 

F-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by singular 
substantives of the dass which 
does not change to form the 
plural, by plural substantives in 
mi", or by plural substantives in 

Ta, of. See -a. [mo-. 

Ya kitovu^ in the naveL 
Ya kuoambOf that. 
Yaninif Why? 

Ya-^ sign of the third person plural 
prefixed to verbs governed by a 
plural substantive in ma-. 

-ya-^ objective prefix denoting 
plural nouns in ma^. 

Yaa hu'^ to sow seeds. 

Ydbis, or Yahisif dry, solid. 

Yai = Yayi, 

Yaika Zeu-, to melt 

Yake or FoftiM, his, hers, its. See 

Yakinif certainly, certainty, it is 

Ydkinia A;ii-, to determine, co ebi 
one's mind upon. 




Takinieha hu-, to make certain. 
TaJco, thy, your. See -aJco. 
Takovoapi, vbeie are they ? 
Takuti, emerald (?). 
Tale, those yonder. 
Taliomo, which are within. 
Tamho = Jamho. 
Yamini, an oath. 
Yarrikini, possibly, possibility. 

Kwa yamkini, possibly. 
Yamkini ku" (?), to be possible. 

Haiyamkini, it is not possible. 
Yamurt deer. 
Yange, See -nge-. 

Yangedumu, they wonld remain. 
YangUt my, of me. See -^ngu, 
Yani = Fa nfm*? for what ? why? 
Too, their, of them. See -ao. 
Yasi, a yellow powder brought from 

India, and used as a cosmetic. 
YatimOj an orphan. 
Yavuyavu, lights, lungi. 
Yaya, a nurse, an ayah. 
Yayii plnr. mayayi, sp. egg, 

Yayi ya pumhuj testicles. 
YeI = JeI Hullol WeUI What 

Ye, -ye, or -ye-, sign of the relative, 
referring to animate beings, 
who, which, whom. 

Ye yote, whosoever. 

Yeekwayee, oommon-pluce people. 
-ye, his, hers, or its, = Yoke, 
Yee or Yeye, he or she, him or her. 
Yet, a child's good-bye, " ta-ta." 
Yemkini = Yamkini. 
Yenu, your, of you. See -enu, 
Yenyi, having. See -enyi, 
Yelu, our, of us. See -^tu. 
Yeyuka ku-, to melt, tu deliquesce. 
Yeyusha ku-, to cause to melt, to 

Yinyi=z Tenyi, 

-yo, thy, = Yako, 
"Yo, -yo, "yo-, sign of the relative^ 
Yo yote, whatsoevec 
Yoe = Yawe. 
Yonga ku-y to sway. 
Yote, all. See -ote. 

Kwa yotcy altogether, wholly. 
Yowe, a cry for help. 

Kupiga yowe, to cry for help. 
Y% he or she is. 

Ftt-, sign of the third person sin- 
gular, referring to an animate 
being. It is used chiefly before 
monosyllabic verbs and in the 
Mombas dialect. 
Yuaja, he comes. 
Yuko, yumoy &a, he Is there, 
within, &o. 
Yule, yonder person, that person. 
Yuma kU', to sway in the wind. 
Yunay he has. 

Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Yuza ku-f to declare, to make clear. 


Z is pronounced at in zany, the 
German s. ^ in some dialects takes 
the place of v or vy in that of Zan- 

Z is used by people who cannot 
pronounce th, for the Arabic ihait 
(hod, and dXha, See T. 

Z- or zi; the sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs which 
are governed by plural substan- 
tives of the class which does not 
change to form the plural, or of 
that which makes its singular 
in tt-. 

Z-, the prefix proper to pronouns- 

Z A 



gOYcmed by plural nouns of the 
class which dges not change to 
form the plural, or of that which 
makes its singular in u, 

Zgj of. See -a, 

Za hu-. See TJza W-, to sell. 

Zaa An»-, to bear, to breed, to beget, 
to bear fruit 

Zdbadi^ civet 

Zabibuy plur. mazahihu (?), grapes, 

Zahidi An»-, to take civet from the 

ZaJbuni ku-, to buy. 

Zahurif the psalter, a psalm. 

Zafarani or Zafrani, safiron, a wo- 
man's name. 

Zagaa Inh, to shine, to glisten. 

Zaidi or Zayidi, more. 

Zdkot tithes. 

Zdke or Zalcuje, his, hers, its. See 

Zakot thy, your. See *ako, 

Zaktda (A.) = Vyahula, victuals. 

Zcdia Inh, to bear to. 

Zdluha hu't to beget, cause to bear. 

ZaUwa h»-t to be bom. 

Zama A»»-, to sink, to dive. 

Zamanif times, long ago. 
Zamani ea kale, old times, long 

ago, anciently. 
Zamani ga Shangoy when Shanga 

Zamani Mzi, nowadays. 
Zamani cefu, our times. 

ZambaraUf a kind of fruit, in ap- 
pearance not nnlike a large dam- 

Zamiaha hn-^ to make to sink. 

ZamUf a turn, turns. 
Kwa tamUj by turns. 

Zangefurif cinnabar. 

ZangUf my, of me. See -angu. 

Zani, adultery. 

Zao, plur. mazao, fruit, produce. 

Zoo, their. See -aa, 

ZaramhOf a spirit distilled from palm 

Zari, a precious kind of stuff, gold 

thread, gold brocade. 
Zaiiti hth, to set in order, arrange, 

prepare for. 
Zaioa ht-f to be bom. 
jSawadif a present, a keepsake, a 

Zaioaridi, a Java sparrow. 
Zayidi, more. 
Zazi (?), afterbirth, 
-ze, his, her, or its, = ZaJce, 
-zee, old, aged. 
Z^bahhy mercury. 
Zege^ a dome. 

Zelahia, a kind of sweetmeat con- 
taining symp. 
Zengea An»-, to seek for. 
Zenu, your. See -entu 
Zenyi. See -enyi, 
Zetu, our, of us. See -«ft». 
Zeze, a sort of lute with three 

Zi' = »-. 
•zi', the objective prefix denoting a 

plural substantive either of that 

class which does not change to 

form the plural or of that which 

makes its singular in u*. 
Ziha hu-, to fill up a hole in a wall, 

&C., to plug up, to stop. 
Zibana An»-, to be stopped up, to stop 

itself up. 
Zibo, plur. mazibo, a plug, a stopper. 
Zibua hiht to unstop, to bore 

Zidi An»-, to inereaie^ la do move 
thanbefora. - • i^-^'y 




ZidUha ^, to make greater, to 
add to. 

Zifurif a cipher, a figure of nought 

Zika hu'f to bury, to inter. 

ZikerezwazOf turnery, turned goods. 
See Kereza, 


• Kanzu ya ziki, worked with 
white cotton round the neck 
instead of silk. See Kanzu. 

Zikika ^Ett-, to be impoverished. 

Zikwi, plur. vikiDiQ^.)y a thousand.' 

Zile, those yonder. 

•zimay sound, whole, healthy, com- 

Zima ku', to extinguish, to put out. 
Ktusima rohoj to faint. 

Zimia ku-^ to put out. 

Zimika ku-, to go out, to be extin- 

Zimiliza &tA-, to rub out 

Zimu, See WazimUf *Mzimu, Ku- 
ftmu, Zimv3U 

Zimua ku-^ to cool hot water by 
adding cold to it. 

Zimvoij plur. mazimvsiy an ogre, 
a ghoul, an evil being which 
devours men, &o. 
Nazi ina zimwi, i.e. the cocoa-nut 
has grown without anything 
inside the shell. 

Zina kU't to commit adultery. See 

Zindika ku-, to hold an opening 
ceremony in, to open for use. 

ZindikOf an opening ceremony. 

Zinduka ku-^ to wake up suddenly 
from a doze with a nod and a 

Zindukana kthf to wake up sud- 

Zinga ku-, to commit adultery (?). 
^/n^a ku', to roll up. 

Zingizif sleep, great sleep. Also 

Zingizi la ku^mkometha mzcusif a 
sleep which is supposed to put 
an end to all further child- 
Zingidia ku-, to reUeye &om the 

evil eye. 
Zini ku'f to commit adultery or for- 
Zira ku-f to hate (M.). 
Zinlci (M.) = lUziki. 
'zitOy heavy, difficult, severe, aad, 
clumsy, thick. 

Asali nzitOy thick syrup, 

Hana gUuOy he never rests. • 
Ziwa^ plur. maziwOf a lake, a pond, 

the breasts. 
Ziziy plur. mazizi, a cow-yard, a 

cattle-fold, a stable, palisading. 
Zizi hizif just these, common. 
Zizima ftu-, to become very calm, 

veiy still, or very cold. 
Zizimia ku-, to sink to the bottom. 
Zo, 'tOy 'zo-f sign of the relative, 

Zo zotCf whatsoever. 
-zOf thy, = ISako. 
Zoa ktJhj to gather into little heaps^ 

to sweep together. 
2^ea ku-, to become accustomed, to 

become used to. 
Zoeza kth-f to accustom to, to make 
used to. 

Kujizoeza, to practise. 
Zomari, a kind of clarionet, a pipe. 
Zomea kth, to groan at 
Zongouonga ku», to wind. 
ZotSy alL See -ote, 
Zua ku-f to pierce, to bore through, 
to innovate, to invent 

Nimemzua, I have sucked hin^ 




dry, I have got all the informa- 
tion I can from him. 
Zuia hu't to hold in, to restrain, to 

Kuzuia pumssif to stifle. 
JiSuiUa hu-t to hold for, to keep off, 

to hold in its place. 
Ztika Jcu-t to emerge» to rise. 
Zulij perjnry. 
ZuHa^ a carpet. 
ZtUia hu't to invent to, to make a 

false exonse to, to say falsely that 

one has snoh and such a message. 
Zuluiha hu^ to make crazy, to 

JjuIu hu-f to be crazy. 
Zurharidf an emerald. 
Zunibilit consolation. 
ZumbtM hu't to flnd. 

Kuzuwbtta paa (A.), to take off 
Zunibukana A;«, to be to be found. 

Zumgu^mza ku-, to amuse, converse 

Kujizumgu^mza, to converse, ta 
amuse oneself. 
Zunguka hu-, to go round, to sur- 
round, to wind round, to revolve, 

to wander. 
Zungukazunguka ku-t to stroll about. 
Zungusha ^u-, to make to go round, 

to turn. 
Zuri ku-j to lie, to swear falsely. 
'Zurif flne, beautiful, handsome. 
2juru kthf to visit. 

Kwenda kuzuru, to go to visit. 

Kuzuru kdburi, to visit a grave. 
Zarungi = Huthurungi, the brown 

material of which kanzus are 

Zuzua ha-, to puzzle a stranger, or 

a greenhorn. 
Zuzuka kthf to be puzzled or be» 

wildered, not to know what to do. 


( 425 > 

Appexi>ix L 


of Kinymne, as written out hj Johari, a natiTe of the 
Bwahfli coast a little south of Zanzibar. The Swahili is in the Blrriini^ 






An ox. 



A goat 



A donkey. 



A cameL 






A sleeping mat. 



A bedstead. 



A door. 



BnildiDgs C?> 



Bed earth. 



A ladder. 



A staircase. 






That wIU da 



A woman. 












I lend. 



I will not give yon. 



I will give you. 



I shall withhold from yoik 






A leg. 



A dub. 










NJara inaniuma 

Banja mainaniu 

I ache with hongotL 






The neck. 

Si hweli 


It is not trae. 



A master workman. 



Not thus. 






A pen* 






Dish up. 

Tioende zetu 


Let US he off. 



I am not goin^^. 






You will go. 




JSamawati (Ar.) 



Arum (At.) 








A free man. 



A slave. 



I dislike IL 









A chest 



A hook. 



A Koran. 

C 427 > 

Appendix II. 

-SpEomnn of Swahili oorrespondence in prose and Tene, oontaininfj^: 
— 1. Two Swahili letters, the one on giving, the other on receiving a 
small present. The forms of address, &o., are those used in all lettensy 
whatever their subject may be. 2. Two specimens of verses sent at 
letters, the first to excuse breaking an appointment, the second sent 
from Pemba by a Mombas man to his friends at home, who upbraided 
him for not returning. This form of writing is a very favourite one. 

Bla Jenib il moh€b rafiki yangu, bwana wangu, bwana mkubwa» 
D. S., salamu sana, ama baada ya salamu, nalikuwa siwezi slku 
nyingi, lakini sasa s^ambo kidogo, ama baadahu, nimekuletea kltoweo 
kidogo tafi&thali upokeoi nao k'uku saba'a, wa salamu, wa katabahu 
Tafiki yako H. bin A. 

To the honourable the beloved, my fHend, my master, the great sir, 
D. 8., many compliments, but after compliments, I was unwell for many 
days, but now I am a little recovered, and after this, I have sent you a 
little kitoweo [i.e, something to be eaten with the rice or grain, which 
forms the bulk of all meals], and I beg your acceptance, tbey are seven 
fowls and compliments, and he who wrote this is H. son cf A, 

nia jenib, il inoh^, 11 akram, in nasih, D. 8., 11 Mwingreil, fnslia* 
Allah salaam aleik wa r^met Allah wa barakitahu; wa )>ttiida, 
nakuarifu haU zangu njema wa (Aama nawe katli^lik ya afia, wa 
zayidi amana yako ulioniletea imefika kwangu, ahsanta, MwenyiezI 
Muungu atakujazi kheiri nkae ukitukumbuka, nasi nyoyo zct'i zinuku» 

428 APPENDIX 11. 


kumbuka sana, tunapenda uje 'nti ya Unguja, wewe na bibi, naye aje 
tumwangalie, naye aje atazame 'ntl ya Unguja, nasi kulla sikn tukilala 
tukia'mka tunakuombea Muungu nje 'nti ya Unguja, tnonane kwa 
afia na ngnvn, nasi twapenda macho yetu yakuone wewe assnbui na 
jiooi, na usipokuja wewe, usitusahaa kwa nyaraka allah alluh. 
Nisalimie bibl mke wako salamu sana. Nasi tanakutamani, kama 
tungalikuwa ndego tungaliruka tukija tukaonane nawe inara moja 
tiikiisha tukarudi. Kyumbani kwangu mke wangu salamu sana. M. 
bin A. akusalimu sana, wa katabahu M. wadi S. 26 mwezi wa mfungua 

To the honourable, the beloved, the noble, the sincere D. S., the 
Englishman, please God, peace be with you and the mercy of God and 
His blessing ; and afterwards, I inform you that my health is good, and 
may you be tlie same as to health, and further, your pledge which yom 
sent me has reached- me, I thank you. Almighty God will satisfy you 
with good that you may continue to remember us, and as for us, our 
hearts think much of you ; we wish you to come to the land of Zanzibar, 
you and the mistress, and let her come that we may behold her, and 
let her come that she may look upon the land of Zanzibar ; and we 
every day when we sleep and when we wake pray for you to Gk>d that 
you come to the land of Zanzibar, that we may meet in health and 
strength, and we, we wish that our eyes should see you morning and 
evening, and if you come not yourself, forget us not by letters, we 
adjure you. Salute for me the mistress your wife with many compli- 
ments. And we are longing for you, and if we had been birds we 
would have come flying to see you once and then return. At home my 
wife sends many compliments. M. son of A. salutes you much, and 
he who wrote this is M. the son of S. 26 of the month Jemad al 


Kala es sha'iri The Verse says. 

Bisala enda kwa hlma Go, message, quickly 

Kwa Edward Istira To Edward Steere» 

Umpe yangu salama Give him health, 

Pamwe na kumkhubira, Together with telling him, 

8iwezi yangu jisima I am ill in my body, 

Ningekwenda tesira I would have gone readily 

Kumtazama padira To see the Padre, 

Pamwe na Edward BUxa. Together with Edward Steera 


Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 

Bimu ya Injili The doctrine of the Gospel^ 

Yuaijua habara He knows how its news 

Pia yote kufasili. To explain,— all of it. 

Ni mnhebbi akhyara He is a choice friend, 

Kwetu sisi aftbali. Especially in our house ; 

Edi ni mtu wa kweli. He is a man of truth. 

Eabbi, nipe tesira. O Lord, give me prosperity. 

Hatukiati kisiwa kwa uvambume na upembe 

Tukaifuasa hawa kulewalewa na ombe 
Ki mpunga na maziwa na kulla siku ni ngombe 

Twalalia kwa jivumbe, lipangine kwa rihani. 

We shall not leave the island for tale-bearing and plotting. 
And follow the fancy to be tossed on the sea. 

Here are rice, and milk, and every day an ox ; 

We sleep among perfumes, and strings of sweet baisil. 

Swahili letters are always written with a string of Arabic compli- 
ments at the beginning, and Arabio words are freely introduced 
throughout. In letter-writing kuarifu is used for to inform^ and 
huwcuUia (not hufikid) for to reach, as in the phrase your letter has 
reached me — waraka vsako vmenitoasUia. Swahili verses are written in 
an obsolete dialect fall of Arabic words and foreign words generally, 
called EingozL It has not yet been studied by any European. Among 
its more remarkable peculiarities is the use of a present perfect made 
by a change in the termination of the Verb, similar to those in use in 
the Yao and in other languages of the Interior. Thus a poet may 
write mbwene for nimeona, and nikomile for nimekoma. Some speci- 
mens of this dialect will bo found in the poetry at the end of the 
** Swahili Tales." 

S F 

< 431- )' 


Appendix III. 

Pabt of a Swahili tale with the prefixes marked and explained. It 
is printed first as in the main it would be written by a native ; next 
the compound forms are marked by hyphens and explained ; and last 
comes an English translation. 

Yule kijana akafuta upanga wake, akanena, mimi nitaingia humo L 

The tale, of which this is a part, is called the HadUM ya Wdridi, II. 
na UredOf na Jindi, na SinSbar, The portion of it here printed begins 
with a yerb in the ha tense, because it is caring on a narration 
■already commenced. The first words of the story are — AKondohea mtu 
iajiri. After this first verb in the li tense the rest are formed with ha, 
unless they are constructed with a relative or particle of time or plaoe^ 
which cannot be joined with ha but only with It 

Yvle, that; demonstrative (p. 115) referring to a singular sub- 
stantive of the first class, kijana being regarded as the name of a 
person. Kt-janct, a young man or woman, here a man. A-ha-futa^ 
and he drew ; a-, sign of third person sing., appropriate to a noun 
of the first class or to any word denoting a living being; -Jko*, 
sign of the narrative past tense; 'futa, draw. U-panga^ a sword; 
a sing, substantive of the sixth class. W-aJce, his; possessive 
pronoun, third person sing.; to-, prefix proper to a pronoun agree- 
ing with a sing, substantive of the sixth class. A-kcHtena, and 
he said ; a- and -ka-f as before ; -nenat speak or say out. Mimif L Ni- 
ta-ingiay I will go in ; n<-, sign of the first person sing. ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense ; •ingia^ go into, enter. Humo, in here ; a demonstmtive 

The youth drew his sword, and said, *' I will go into t.\i\& ^Vt.» V^"?j^<ct.\SS- 

1^ ^ 


1. shimoni, nikafe ao nikapone. Akaingia, akamwona mf oto amefungwa, 
naye mwanamume. Akamwambia, nifungue nlkupe khabari ya 
humo shimoni. Akamfungua, akaona vichwa vingi yya watu. Aka- 

IL proper to the -ni case, when it denotes being, &c., within. Shimo-ntr 
into the pit; shimo-j a singular nonn of the fifth class; -ni, sign oi 
the locative case. Ni-Jca-fe, and let me die ; ni-j sign of first person 
sing. ; -ka- and (p. 141) ; -/e, subjunctive form of /a, die. Ao, or. Nv- 
ka-pone, and let me live ; ni- and -%a-, as before ; •^one, subjunctive 
form of pona, be saved. A-ka-ingia, and he went in; third sing., 
narrative past of ingia, go in. A-ka-mw-ona, and saw him ; a-ka', and 
he did ; -mto-, objective prefix proper to a substantive of the first class 
(mtoto) ; -ona, see. M-toto, child ; sing, substantive of the first class. 
A-me-fungway bound ; a-, sign of third person sing., governed by a 
substantive of the first class (mtotd) ; -me-, sign of the present perfect,, 
which is here used as a sort of past participle : -fungwa, passive of 
/unga, bind. Na-ye, and he (p. 103). Mto-ana-m-ume, a male ; mw-^ 
sing, prefix of a noun of the first class ; m- (for mu-), prefix agreeing 
with a substantive of the first class; -ume, male; the whole word,. 
mwanamume^ is used for a man, or any human being of the male sex. 
A-ka-mw-amhia^ and he said to him ; a-ka-, third sing, narrative past ; 
-mw-i subjective prefix denoting a person {kijana) ; -anMa^ say to. ^t- 
fungue, unbind me ; ni-, objective prefix, first person ; -fungue, impera- 
tive sing, of fungua,* tmbind. Ni-ku-pe, that I may g^ve you ; nt-, 
subjective prefix first person ; -ku-, objective prefix, second person ; -pe^ 
subjunctive of pa, give to. Khabari, news ; sing, substantive of tlie- 
third class. Y-a» of; y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of 
the third class (khdbart), Humo, here in ; a demonstrative agreeing^ 
with the -ni case when denoting toithin» 8himo-ni, in the pit ; -nt, sign 
of the locative case. A-ka-m-fungtuij and he loosed him ; a-, ha-, third 
sing, narrative past ; -m-, objective prefix referring to a substantive of 
the first class (mtoto) ; -fungua, unbind. A-ka-ona, and he saw, third- 
sing., narrative past. Vi-chwa, heads or skulls ; v»-, sign of a plural* 
substantive of the fourth class ; vichwa is in more elegant Swahili vUusi, 
V-ingi, many ; v- or vi-, adjectival plural prefix, marking agreement 
with a plural substantive of the fourth class (vickwd) ; -ingi or -ngiy 
many. Vy-a, of; vy-, marking the agreement with a plural noon of 

m. I die or live." And he went in and saw a boy, and he was bound. And" 
[the hoy^ said, ** Unbind me, that I may tell you about what there is ia 
this pit.'* And he unbound h\m,ftiidfL«ir«Ta3Ma^ human skulls. Andh» 


mwuliza, liabari gaui Mi? Akamwambla, mna nyoka h\imo, kazi L 
yake kola watu, na mimi angalinila, laklni amenifanya mtoto wake, 
miaka mingi nimetoka kwetu. Akamwuliza, sasa yuko wapi nyoka ? 

tlie fourth class (vichwa). Wa-tu, people ; tro-, plural prefix first class. IL 
A-ka-mw-uliza, and he asked him ; a-, ha-, third sing, narrative past ; 
-mw', objective prefix referring to a person (mtoto) ; -uliza, ask or ask 
of. Hdbari or khdbariy news, sing, substantive third class. Gani, 
what sort ? Hit, this ; demonstrative denoting a sing, substantive of 
the third class (hdbari), A-ka-mw-amhiaf and he said to him ; this 
word is of constant occurrence, it means that one person told or said to 
another ; there is no mark of sex or means of distinguishing which 
person of several mentioned before was the speaker, these points must 
be gathered from the context. M-na, there is inside ; m-na is part of 
the verb Jcuwa na, to be with or to have, used as it often is to denote 
mere being (p. 153) ; it answers to the English titer e is; there may be 
represented by hu-fpa-, or m- ; the last is used where the place suggested 
is within something, it refers here to shimonif in the pit. Ny-oha, a 
snake, a sing, substantive in the form of the third class, denoting an 
animate being. Humo, there within, referring to shimoni, Kazi, work 
or employment, sing, substantive, third class. Take, his ; y-, prefix 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third class ; -aJce, possessive 
pronoun, third person sing. Ku-la, to eat ; ku-, sign of the infinitive ; 
'la, eat. Wa-tu, people ; wa-, plural prefix • first class. Na, and. 
Mimi, I or me. A-ngali-ni-la, he would have eaten me ; a-, third sing., 
agreeing with the name of an animal (nyoka) ; -ngali-, sign of the 
past conditional t^nse; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the first 
person ; -2a, eat ; the tense prefix -ngali- cannot bear any accent, the 
word is therefore pronounced dngaXintla, Lakini, but. A-me-nt-fanya, 
he has made me ; a-, referring to nyoka ; -me-, sign of present perfect ; 
ni; objective prefix, first person; -fanya, make. M-toto, child; m-, 
sing; prefix, first class. W-ake, his; tc-, prefix agreeing with sing, 
substfioitive of the first class (mtoto), Mi-aJca, years ; plural substan- 
tive of the second class (sing. mwaJca) ; mi-, plural prefix. M-ingi, 
many ; m- or mi-, prefix, denoting agreement with a plural substantive 
of the second class (miaka). Ni-me-toka, I have left ; ni-, first person 
subjective; -nM-, present perfect; -toka, go out ot Kw-etu^ home; 

asked, << What jbs this ? ** And he said, « There is a snake in it, that eats IIL 
men, and would have eaten me, but that it took me for its own son. It 
U many years sinco Ileft home.^ And he asked, " Where is the sn&k^ 


I» Akamwambia, twende, nlkakuonye mahala amelala. Akamwambia» 
twende. Walipofika, yule kijana akamkata kichwa kimpjc^ akatoa ch» 
pili, akamkata, batta vikatimu saba. Wakarudi, wakaenda zao. 

II, hw-^ prefix agreeiDg witb a substantive (perbaps nywribck) m the cas& 
in -ni ; -etu (our). A-ha-mw-vliza, and he asked him ; a-, third sing. 
Qiijana)\ 'kor, narrative past; -mw-f third sing, objective (mloto)'^ 
'uHzOf ask. Sasa, now. Tu-hOf he is; yu-, sign of third person, 
sing., referring to a substantive of the second class (nyoka); -ko, 
denoting existence in space (p. 154). Wapi^ wh^re ? Ny-oka, snake ; 
sing, substantive. A-ka-mw-arribia, and he said to him. (See ahove^y 
Tw-endCf let us go; tw-, sign of the first person plural; •endey 
subjunctive of eitda, go. Isi-ka-ku-onye^ and let me show you ; nt-, 
sign of first person sing.; -^a-, and (p. 211); -Aru-, objective second: 
person sing. ; '•onye, subjunctive of onya^ show. Mdhala, the place^. 
the place where. A-me-lala^ he is asleep; a-, third sing, animate 
(nyoka) ; -me-, present perfect ; -lala, lie down to sleep, to go to sleep. 
A-ka-mw-ambia, (See above.) Tw-ende, let us go ; tw-, first person* 
plur.; -endcj subjunctive of enda, go, Wa-li-po-fika^ when they 
arrived; too-, sign of third person plural agreeing with substantives- 
denoting persons (kijana and mtoto) ; -li- or -aZt-, sign of the past 
perfect, or of past time generally when joined with a particle of 
relation ; -po-, sign of time when ; 'fika, arrive. YuU, that ; demon- 
strative denoting a person (kijana), Ki-Jana^ youth ; sing, substantive 
fourth class, but denoting a person, and therefore joined as here 
with pronouns and verbs in forms proper to the first dasB. A-ka» 
m-kata, he cut him ; a-, tiiird sing, of a person (kijana) ; -2»-, narra- • 
tive past ; -m-, objective prefix, referring to the name of an animal ■ 
(nyoka) (see p. 112); -kata, cut or cut off. Ki-chioa^ head, sing, sub- 
stantive fourth class. Ki-rnqja, one ; ki-, prefix denoting agreement 
with a sing, substantive of the fourth class (kichwa or kitioa)} 'maja^. 
one. A-katoa, and he put forth ; a-, third sing., referring to] a sub- 
stantive denoting an animal (nyoka) ; -ka-, narrative past ; 'toa, put 
forth. (Jha pili, a second (p. 92) ; cA-, referring to a sing, substantive 
of the fourth class (kichwa). A-ka-m-kata, and he cut him. (See above.) 
JSatta, untlL Vi-katimu, they were complete; vi-, third plural refer- 

ill, now ? " He said, ** Let us go and let me show you where it is sleeping.*^ 
He said, " Let us go.'' When they got there the youth cut off oAe of its 
heads ; it put forth a second, and he cut it off, until he had cat off' 
seven. And they returned, and went on their way. 


Akamwambia sasa twende zetu kwetu, laMni tukifika kwetn L 
wenende we we kwanza kwa baba yanga, ukamwamble Jcana mtoto 
wako nikikuletea utanipa nini? Akikwambia, nitakapa mali yanga 

ring to nouns of the fourth class, here to vtc/^too, heads, plural othichwa ; 11. 
"ka-^ narrative past; -timu, be complete. Sahaf seven. Wa-ka-rudi^ 
and they returned ; toa-, third plural referring to persons (kijana 
and mtoto); -Am»-, narrative past; -rudif return. Wc^ka-^nda s-oo, and 
they went away ; vsa-^ third plural (hijana and mtoto); -7mi-, narrative 
past ; -enda, go ; z-ao^ their (ways) ; z-, a prefix denoting agreement 
with a plural noun of the third or sixth, or in the dialect of Lamoo 
of the fourth class ; -ao, their. Possibly zoo agrees with njia, ways. 
iSee p. 112.) 

A-ka-mvHimhia, and he said to him. Sasa^ now. Tuo-eride z-etu. 
let us go away ; tw-^ sign of first person plural ; -ende^ subjunctive of 
tndoy go; «-, sign of agreement with a plural noun of the tliird or the 
sixth class; -efti,our. (Seedbove,) Kw-etu, home; Xno-, sign of agree- 
ment with the case in -ni-; -elUf our. Lakini, but. Tu-ki-fika, when 
we arrive ; tu-, sign of the first person plural ; -ki-, sign of the partici- 
pial tense (p. 136); -fika, arrive. Kw-otu, home. W-enende^ go; te-, 
sign of the second person singular ; -enende, subjunctive of enenda^ go, 
or go on. WewCf thou. KvoaToa^ first; originaliy the infinitive of the 
verb anza^ begin; kwanza, to begin, beginning, and therefore first. < 
Ktoa, to a person, or to his house. Baba, father. T-angu, my ; i/-, 
sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the third class, used here 
cuUoquially with one denoting a person (haha); -angu, my (p. 109). U" 
kormuhan^nef and say to him; u-, sign of the second person singular; 
'ka-, and; -mu^•, objective sign referring to a noun denoting a person 
(baba); '<imbie, subjunctive of amhioy tell. Kanat it M-toto, child. 
W-ahOt thy ; w-, sign of agreement with a singular substantive of the 
first class (intoto), Ni-ki-ku-Utea, if I bring to you; ni-^ sign of the 
first person singular ; -ki-, sign of the participial tense (p. 136) ; 
"ku', objective prefix referring to the second person singular; 'leteoy 
bring to. U-'ta-ni-pa, you will give me ; «-, sign of second person sing. ; 
'ta-, sign of the future tense ; 'ni^f objective prefix referring io the 
first person singular; -pa, give to. Nini, what? A'ki'kw'ambiot it 
he tells you; a-, sign of the third person singular referring to a 

And [the boy] said, <* Now let us go to my home ; but when we are IXk 
getting near to it do you go first to my father and say to him, * If I bring 
jour son to you, what will you give me ? ' If he says to you, ' I will givo 


1 nussQ kwa nnssu, usikubali, mwambie nataka kofia ja^o uliyo uHvaa 
Qjanani mwako. Atakupa kofia ya thahabu, usikubali, ela akupe 

II. person Q)aha) ; -A^-, sign of the participial tense ; -X;fo-, objeotiye prefix 
referring to the second person singular; -amhiai say to. Ni-torhu^, 
I will give you ; ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense; -ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person 
singular ; -pa, give to. Mali, possessions ; treated sometimes as a noun 
of the third class, sometimes as a plural noun of the fifth elass. 
Y-<mgUi my ; y-, sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the 
third or with a plural noun of the fifth class. jVumu, half! Xtno» 
by. Nu88Uf half. U'Si-huibali, do not accept ; u-, sign of second person 
singular; -«i-, sign of negative subjunctive (p. 147); 'hubaU, sub- 
junctive of hubalif accept. MvO'amhie^ tell him; mva^ objective 
prefix referring to a person (pabcC); 'anibie, imperative of ambiaf 
tell; muh is known to be the objective third person, and not the 
subjective second plural, by the form of the word amhia ; being an 
applied form it must have the object expressed. N-a-taka, I want ; n-, 
sign of the first person singular ; -a-, sign of the present tense ; 'taJcaf 
want. Kofia, cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. Y-akOy thy ; 
y-t sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third dass. 
U-li-yo, which you, or which you are, or were; u-, sign of the second 

* person sing. : -Zi-, used for the substantive verb ; -^o, relative sign 
referring to a singular substantive of the third class (kofia^ U-M» 
vaOf putting on ; u-, sign of the second person singular ; -hi-, sign of 
the participial tense ; -vaa, put on. U-jand-ni^ in youth ; u-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -^U^ sign of the locative case. 
Mw-ako, thy; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning of in, A-ta-ku-^pa^ he will give yon ; 
«-, sign of third person sing, of a person ; -to-, sign of the future ; -Xn»-, 
objective prefix referring to the second person sing.; -;pa, give to. 
KoflOf cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. F-a, of; y-^ sign of 
jigreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. ThahabUf 
gold ; substantive of the third class. U-si-kubali^ do not accept ; «•, 
sign of the second person sing. ; -n-, sign of the negative subjunotiye; 
'kiibaltj subjunctive of kubali, accept. Ela, except. A-ku-pe, let him 
give y^n.; o-, sign of the third person sing., referring to a person; 

HI. you half of all I have,' do not accept that, but say, < I want the cap which 

you used to wear in your youth.* He will give you a cap of gold ; do 

Mot accept it, unless he give yon a cap quite worn out, take that. An^ 



kofla mboyn k^bisa, Hyo pokea. Na mama jangu mwambie nataka I. 
taa nliyo ukiwaaha ujanaQi mwako. Atakupa taa nyingi za thahaba, 
usikubali, eU akape taa mbovumbova ya ohuma, hiyo pokea. 

-Xn»-, objeotiye prefix, referring to the second person sing. ; -pe, sub- IL 
jancti?e of jxx, gi?e to. Kofia, sing, substantiye third class. M-hovu^ 
rotten ; m-, being »- converted into m- by standing before -6 (p. 85X 
sign of an agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (Jcofia). 
KabiiOf utterly. Hiyo, this one; demonstrative denoting a thing 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (kofia). Pokea, receive: imperative sing, of pokea, receive. 
N<i, and. Mama, mother : sing, substantive in the form of the third 
class denoting a person. T-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with 
a sing, substantive of the third class, here used colloquially. Mw-ambie, 
tell her ; muf, objective prefix referring to a person ; -amhie, imperative 
sing, of anibia, telL N-a-taJca^ I want ; n-, sign of first person sing. • 
•a-, sign of present tense ; -taka, want Taa, sing, substantive third 
class. U'li-yo, which you, which you were or are ; -u, sign of the 
second person sing.: Ai-, used for the substantive verb (p. 151); -yo^ 
relative particle referring to a sing, substantive of the third class 
(too). JJ'ki-wuih€L, lighting; «-, sign of second person sing.; -hi-f 
sign of the participial tense ; "Vnuiha, light. U-Jand-ni, in youth ; w, 
sign of a sing, substantive of the sixth class; -n», sign of the locative 
case. Muhoko, thy; muh, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning in, A-tor kU-pa, she will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing., referring to a person ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense ; -^u-» objective prefix referring to the second person sing.; 
'pa, give to. T<ui, lamps ; plural substantive of the third class (shown 
to be plural by the context). Ny-ingi, many ; ny-, sign of agreement 
with a plural substantive of the third class (toa). Z-o, of; s-, sign of 
agreement with a plural noun of the third class. Thahdbu, gold. 
U-ti-kubaU^ do not accept ; second person sing, negative subjunctive of 
kubaU, Ma, except. A-ku-pe, let her give you; a-, sign of third 
person sing., referring to mama; 'kw, objective prefix referring to 
second person sing.; -pe, subjanctive of pa, give to. Taa, sing, 
substantive third class. M-hovn-m-hovu, all spoilt; m- (for n- before 
*&), sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (toa) ; 

«ay to my mother, ' I want the lamp you used to bum in yonr youth.' m. 
She will give yon many lamps of gold ; do not accept them, unless she 
give yon an old worn iron lamp, take that" 

438 APPENDIX 111. 

\, Wakaenda zao hatta walipofika karibu ya mji, yule Jdjana aka- 
mwambia, mimi 'takaa hapa, na wewe enende mjiiu kweiu, jokafanye 
aharati na baba yangu kamma hiyo niliokwambia. . Akaenenda. 
Alipofika akaona injini watu hawaneui, wana msiba mkmu, akanliza, 

n. the adjective is doubled to sbow tborongbneas. T-o, of; fr-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Ch-waia, iron ; 
a sing, substantive of the fourth class ; it is used in the singular of iron 
as a metal, and in both sing, and plur. with the meaning of a piece or 
pieces of iron. Hiyo^ this one ; demonstrative referring to Boxtaething 
mentioned before, and agreeiug with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (toa). Pokea, receive ; imperative sing, of poJcea, 

Wa-kaenda Z'ttOf and they went their way. (See above), Hatta, until 
Wa-li-pa-filMf when they arrived. (See dbove), Kar^ yt^ near to- 
M-jif town ; m-, sign of a sing, substantive of the second class. FuZe, 
that. (See a^bove). iCi-Jana, youth. (See above). A-kormwambiOfBaidio 
him. (See above). Mimi, L *Ta-kaa, will stay; ^a-,sign of the future, 
the prefix of the first person sing, being elided before it ; the sig^ of no 
other person can be so elided. Hajta, here. Na, and. Wewe, thou. 
Enende, imperative sing, of enenda, go, go on, M-Ji-nf, to the town ; 
m-, sign of a sing, substantive second class ; -n^, sign of the locative 
case. Kw-etu, our ; ktO', sign of an agreement with a substantire in the 
locative case. U-ka-fanye, and make ; «-, sign of second person sing. ; 
'ka-, and; -fanye, subjunctive of fanya, make. Shuruti, a covenant; 
sing, substantive third class. No, with. So&o, father. T-angUf 
my. (See above, and p. 112). Kamma, as. HiyOy that ; demonstrative 
referring to something mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, 
substantive of the third class (ahuruti), Ni'li-o-kuhombia, which I 
told you ; ni', sign of the first person sing. ; -li-, sign of the past tense 
whidi must be used with a relative; -o- (for yo), relative particle 
referring to shurtUi (p. 117); -kw-, objective prefix referring to the 
second person sing. A-ka-enenda, and he went on, A-U-^pO'fika, when 
lie arrived. A'ka-ona, he saw. M-Ji-ni, in the town*; m-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the second class ; -ni, sign of tbe locative case. 
WiJhtu, people ; wo-, sign of a plural noun of the first class, ffatoo- 
fMiii, tiiey speak not; hawa-, sign of the third person plural negative 

nr. And they went on till they arrived near the town, when the boy said, 

« I will stay here, and you go on into the town» to our houses and make 

the agreement with my father as I told you." And he went. on and 

Arrived in the city, where he saw the people not talking [bnt]4n great 

" -Hf 


snsiba hna wa nini? W^ikamwambia, mtoto wa Sultani amepot^ siku I. 
njingL Akaulizat nyumba ya Sultani ni ipi, nipelekeni. Wakampe- 
leka watu. Alipofika akamwuliza baba yake, una nioi ? Akamwo- 
mfaia, mtoto wangu amepotea. Akamwambia, nikikuletea utanipa 

agreeing with a plural noun of the first class (watu); -netit', negative. IL. 
present form of nena^ speak. Wcmm, they have ; third person plur. 
present of huwa na^ to have, governed by watu, M-siba, grief; m-, 
sign of a sing, noun of the second clasd. M-huu^ great; m-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the second class (msihd). 
A'horulizaf and he asked. M-siba, grief. JJtiu, this ; demonstrative 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the second class (m«t2ia). TF-a, 
of; 147-, sign of agremeent with a sing, substantive of the second class 
(vmba). Nini^ what? Wa-ha-mw-aimMa, and they said to him. 
M-toto, the child. TF-o, of; w-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub* 
stantive of the first class (mtoto), StUtani, the sultan ; a sing, sub- 
stantive of the fifth class, but when viewed as denoting a person 
constructed with adjectives and pronouns as of the first. A-me'poteay 
is lost; third sing, present perfect of kupotea, to become lost; he has 
become lost, t.6., he is lost. Siku, days; plural substantive of the- 
third class. Ny-ingi, many; ny-^ sign of agreement with a plural 
substantive of the third class (sihu), A-ka-uliza, and he asked. 
Ny-uwhaj house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class. Y-a, of; 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class 
(nyumba), Sultani^ sultan. iVi', is (p. 152). I-pi, which? «-, sign 
of reference to a sing, substantive of the third class (nyumba), Ni^ 
pdekeniy take me; nt-, objective prefix referring to the first person 
sing. ; pelekenif plural imperative of peleka, take. Wa-ka-m-peUkay 
and they took him. Watu, people. A-li-po-fikat when he arrived. 
A'ka-mw-uliza, he asked him ; observe here and elsewhere the use of 
the ka tense to carry on the narration, even where there would be no 
connective employed in English. Bahot father. Y-ake, his. (See 
above), JJ-na ninit what is the matter with you ? u-^ui, second person 
sing, of the present tense of kH-wa no, to have; nini 1 what ? A-ka» 
mw-ambiay and he said to him. M'toto, child. W-angu, my. Ame- 

mourning, and he asked, ** What is this mourning for ? " They told him» III. 
^ The Sultan's son has been a long time lost." He asked, '* Which is the 
Sultan's house? Take me there." And the people took him there. When 
be reached it he asked the boy's father, ** What troubles you ? " He said, 
••My son la lost." Andhesaidtohim,"IfIbringhimtoyou what will. 


I. nini ? Akamwambia, nitaknpa mail yanga nnssn kwa nussiL Aks- 
mwambia, maiahaba, Akaenda akamtwaa, akaja naye. Alipomwona 
babaye na mamaye, ikawa furaha kubwa mjinL Wakapenda sana 
yule kgana kama mtoto wao. 

Hatta alipotaka kwenda zake, yule kijana akamwambia» eneade 
kamwage baba na mama, mwambie akupe kofia na mama akupe taa. 

II. potea, is lost. (See p. 132.) Ji-Tca-mto-amhia, and he said to him. Ni-M- 
Icu-leteOf if I bring to you. (See above), U-Ui-ni-pckf yon will give me. 
(See above'). Nini, what? A-ka-muj-ambiOf and he said to him. JVf- 
torku-poy I will give you. Mali, goods. (See above), Y-angu, my. (£^00 
above,) Nuwu, half. Kwa, by. Nussu, half. A-ka-mw-anibia, and he 
said to him* Marahaba, very good. A-ka-enda, and he went. A-ka- 
m'twaa, and took him. A-ka-ja, and came. Naye^ with him. A-U- 
po-muHmOf when he saw him. Baba-ye, his father; -ye» enclitic form 
of the possessive pronoun proper to the third person; y^^ sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class, used here with 
one denoting a person (p. Ill), ^a, and. Mama-ye, his mother; -ye. 
(See above). I-ka-wa, it was ; %-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the third class (furaha), Furaha, joy ; sing, substantive 
third class. Kubwa, great ; agreeing with furaha ; as ti-, which would 
be the regular sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third 
class, cannot stand before k, it is omitted altogether (p. 85). M-ji- 
ni, in the town ; m-, sign of sing, substantive second class ; -ni, sign 
of the locative case. Wa-ka-penda, aad they (the father and mother) 
loved. Sana, much. Yule, that. Ki-jana, youth. Kama^ like. 
M-toto, child. W-ao, their. 

Haita, at last. A-li-po-taka, when he wanted. Kw-enda z-ake, to go 
away. (See above and p. 112). YuLe, thai Ki-jana, youth. A'-ka-mW' 
ambia, he said to him. Enende, go ; sing, imperative of enendcL, ga 
Ka-mw^e, and take leave of him ; ka-, and ; '■mw-, objective prefix 
referring to a person ; if mw had been the subjective second plur. the 
ka would have followed it; m-ka-age = and do ye take leave; -aye^ 

III you give me ? " He said, ** I will give you half of all I have.'' He Baid, 
'* I am content." And he went and took the boy and brought him. 
When his f&ther and mother saw him, there was great joy thionghout 
the town. And they loved that youth as though he had been their 
own son. 

When at last he wished to go away, the boy said to him, ^ Go and 
take leave of my fathex and mo\i\iQi; \£\\bm tc g^ve yon tiie cap and 

APPENDIX in. 441 

Akaenda, akawaambia, wakampa kofia nyingi, akakataa akamwambia, L 
nataka luyo mbovu, wakampa, na mamaye akampa taa. Akawauliza, 
kofia hii maana yake nini ? ' Wakamwambia, mtn akivaa, haonekani 
na mtiL Akavaa asionekane akafarahi sana. Akatiliza, taa hii 
maana yake nini ? Wakamwambia^ ukiwasha hatta hapa watatoka 

imperative sing, of aga, take leave of. Bahtif father. Na, and. n. 
MamOf mother. MvHirnbie, tell him ; miff-, objective prefix referring 
to a person ; -^rnbie, imperative sing, of ambia, tell. A-hu-pe, that he 
may give yon. Kofia, cap. Na, and. Mama, mother. A'ku-pe, that 
she may give you. Taa, lamp. A'ka-enda, and he went. A-ka-^O" 
awibia, and he told them (the father and mother). Wa-kcMn-pa, and 
ihey gave him. Kofia, caps. Ny-ingi, many. A-ka-kataa, and he 
refused. A-ka-mto-amhia, and he said to him. Na-taka^ I want. 
Hiyo, this one. (See above.) M-bovti, rotten. (See above). Wa-'ka-m-pOy 
and they gave him. Na, and. Mama-ye^ his mother. (See above, 
under babaye), A-ka-m-pa, she gave him. Taa, lamp. A-Jca-wa-uliza, 
and he asked them. Kofia, cap. Hii,. this ; demonstrative referring 
to a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia), Maana, meaning» 
purpose; sing, substantive third class. T-ake, its; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (maana), Nini, 
what ? Wa-ka-mw-ambia, and they said to him. M-tu, person, any 
one (p. 16) ; m-, sign of sing, substantive of first class. A-ki-vaa, if 
he puts on. Ha-onekaniy he is not to be seen ; ha-, negative prefix of 
the third person sing, referring to a person t cnekani, negative present 
form of onekana, Na, by. M-tu, any one (p. 16). A-ka^vaa^ and he 
put on. A'Si'Onekane, that he might not be seen : a-, prefix of third 
person sing, referring to a person (kijana); Tsi-, sign of negative 
subjunctive ; -onekane, subjunctive form of oneikana. A-ka-furahi, and 
he rejoiced. Sana, much. A-kandiza, and he asked. Too, lamp. 
jBtt^ this. Marina, purpose. Y-ake, its. Nini, what? Wa-ka-mw- 
ambia, and they told him. U-ki-washa, if you light. Satta, as far as. 
Hapa, here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out ; toa-, sign of third person 

my mother to g^ve you the lamp.*' He went and told them, and they IH, 
gave him many caps, but he refused and said, *' I want that worn-out 
one ; " and they gave it to him, and the boy's mother gave him the 
lamp. Then he asked, ** What is the object of this cap ? " And they told 
him, ** When a man puts it on, no one can see him." He put it on so as 
to become invisible, and was very glad. *< And he asked, What U the 
•bject of this lamp ? " And they told him, ** If you light it as fur as this. 

442 A'FTBNPI^ I7L 

€. watu wawili wakutilie thahabu nyambani mw&ko nsikn kiioha« ihi 
ukiwasha hatta hapa watatuka watu wawUi waknpige kwa yigo- 
Dgo usiku kucha. Akanena, maiahaba. Akafurahi sana, akaenda 

11. plur. referring to a plural substantiye of the first class (waiu). WoiUf 
people. Wa-toili, two ; wa-, sign of agreement with a plor. substantive 
of the first class (waiu). Wa-Jcu-tilie^ that they may pat for you ; loo-^ 
sign of third person plur. referring to a plar. substantive of the first 
class (waiu) ; -hu-^ objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
'tilie, subjunctive form of tiliOj put for. ThaMbit, gold. Nff^mbd-ni, 
in house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class; -nif sign of 
locative case. Mw-dko, thy ; muj-y sign of agreement with a noun in 
the locative case denoting within. Usikiif night. Ku-cha, dawning or 
€un-rising ; used after usiku, it means all night until the morning 
comes. JVo, and. U-M-wcLslia, if you light Hatta, as far as. Hapa^ 
here. TTo-te-toifea, they will come out. Fa-fu, people. TTo-trtZt, two. 
Wa-ku-pige, that they may beat you ; -jpige, subjunctive form of piga, 
Kwa, with. Vi-gongo, cudgels: vi-f sign of a plural substantive of 
the fourth class ; ki-gcngo is a diminutive (p. 19} of gongo, a staff. 
Usiku, night. Ku-chOj till morning. A-ka-^Mna, and he said. 
Marahaha, thank you. A-ka-furahi, and he rejoiced. Sana^ much. 
A'ka-enda g^Jce, and he went away. 

III. two men will come out and bring you gold into your house all nigfai 
long; but if you light it as far as this, two men wiU'come out and beat 
you with cudgels all night long." And he thanked them, and rejoiced 
very mnoh| and went his way. 

(i 4m ) 

Appendix IV. 



Thb first fifty-four were collected towards a book of oonyersationa, 
which was begun with tbe help of our lamented Mend, Mrs. G. E» 
Drayton; the rest, which are arranged in alphabetical order, were 
noted from time to time, either as likely to be useful in eonyersation, 
or as illustrating some special rule or idiom. 

1. How many fowls have you there ? 

VwM Wvku ngapi f 

2. What do you want for them ? 

Kkui gani undkuza (At how much do yon sell) ? 
8. Have you any eggs? 
Unayo mayayi f 

4. I will not give more than a pice apiece for the eggs. 

Nitdkupa pesa moja tu kununua yayi^ sitatoa zayidi (I will 
give you one pice only to buy an egg, I will not gi?e more)L 

5. I don't understand you, say it again. 

8ema mara ya piU^ sikusikia, 

6. Let me hear it again. 

8ema mara ya ptli, nipaie kusikia (Say it a seoond time^ 
that I may get to understand). 

7. Fetch me a basin for the eggs. 

Letee haJculi nitie mayayi, 

8. Bring the basin with the eggs in it. 

Letee haJeuli lenyi mayayi, 

9. I don't want any to-day, come to-morrow, 

Leo ritoM, njoo keeho, 
to. Are lemons cheap now ? 

MaJimao rahisi sasa f 


11. I won't buy them, tliey are too dear. 

Sttahi hununuaf ni ghali, 

12. What do you want ? 

Wataha nini f 

13. I don't know what you want. 

Sijui uUtdkalo. 

14. Where do you come from ? 

WatoTca toapi f 

15. Don't wait ; I will send an answer immediately. 

Enenda zdkoj uHngoje^ majibu yatakuja stua hivt (Go your 
way ; du not wait for an answer, it i^l oome immediately)). . 

16. Is your master at home ? 

Bwana yupo ? 
. 17. Master is not at home ; he is gone out. 

Bwana haJeo (or hayuko) nyumbani} ameioka. 

18. Where are you going? 

Unahwenda wapi f 

19. I have lost my way. 

NimepoteOy njia sijui (I am lost; the way I don't know> 

20. Will you guide me to the English mission ? 

NataJca unionyeshe mosketini Ingreza f 

21. Can you understand English ? 

Wewe unajua maneno ya Kiingreza f 

22. I cannot speak Swahili [of Zanzibar]. 

Sijui kutema Kiunguja. 

23. Did the water boil ? 

Maji yameche*mka f 

24. Does the water boil ? 

Maji yanache^mka 9 

25. These plates are not clean. 

Sahani hizi zina taka, 

26. Wipe them carefully. 

Futa vema kwa kiiamhaa, 

27. Sweep this room well. 

Fagia vema Icattka chumha hikL 

28. Dust the furniture. 

Panguaa vumhi katiJca vyomhtK 

29. You have cracked that cup. 

Umekitia ufa kikomhe kHe, 

80. Throw it away. 


81. Fetch me the vinegar, the pepper, and the salt 

Niletee siJd, na yilij^iU^ na chumvi* 


82. Don't make to mnch noise. 

TJsifanye uthia. 
33. Put a fresh wick in my lamp. 

Tia hatiica taa yangu utanibi, 
M. Fold up the table-cloth smoothly. 

Kunja vema hitamhaa cha meza^ usihivunje (Fold well the 
cloth of the table ; spoil it not). 

35. When you have swept the room put on clean clothes. 

Kamma umehwisha Jcufagia, vaa nguo safi, 

36. Take this to Miss T. 

C^ukua, upeleJce kwa bibi T, 

37. Tou have put all these books upside down ; turn them. 

UmepindiM vyuo hivi vyoie^ uviuoeke upande mgine. 

38. Leave that alone 1 

Acha ! 

39. Gome here, I want to speak to you. 

Njoo hapa, *nna maneno nitahwamhia (I have words I will 
say to you). 

40. Get ready to go for a walk. 

Fanya tayari upate Icujenda hutemhtcu 

41. Aro you ready ? 

JJm^uwa tayari 9 

42. Which way shall you like to go ? 

NJia gani utakao kupital 

43. How far is it to your sbamba ? 

Kadri gani mhali ya shamba lako hatta kufika (How much 
famess of your shamba till getting there) ? 

44. Not very far ; perhaps an hour's walk. 

8i mbali saTUtj labuda xkipata saa mcja, 

45. Shall you walk, or ride your donkey, or sail ? 

IJtakwenda kwa miguUj ao utapanda pundot ao utakwenda 
kwa mashiia ? 

46. We will go round the town and home by the bridge. 

Tutazunguka katiha mji, halafu turudie darajani (Then let 
UB return by the bridge). 

47. Bring me some hot water after breakfast. 

Niletee maji ya moto, nikiisha kula* 

48. Half a bucket full. 

N%t88 ya ndoo, 

49. Turn the mattress over every morning. 

Oeuza killa siku godoro, chinijuu, 
50. Turn it top to bottom. 

Z^pande huu uweke upande wa pili, 



51. I am very glad to see you. 
Umependa moyo wangu Ituhutazama. 

52. What ship is that? 
Marikebu gani hit ? 

53. Has she cast anchor yet ? 
Imetia nanga f 

51. No, she will come nearer the shore. 

BadOj inakuja karibu ya ptoani, 
53. A good man does not desert his friends when they fall into 

Mtu mwema liavsaaehi raJUii zake wahipatiJca na thiihla. 

56. Are you idle ? 
Ati mviva f 

57. At what time shall I come ? 
Wdkti gani nije; 

58. Did he stay long ? 
Alikaa tana 9 

59. No, he went away directly. 
Sda, alihioenda zalce mara, 

'GO. Does he drink wine ? 

Hunywa divai f 
61. He does not. 

•62. Does this boat leak ? 

Mashua Mi yavuja 9 

63. Do not draw water from the well, the owner forbids iL 
UsiteJee maji hi$imani, mwenyeuoe a^rnbeza, 

64. Don't jerk this rope ; if you do it will break. 
Kamha hii usiihutue, ukikutua italcatlka, 

65. Eat as much as you like. 
Kvla hadri utaJcavyo. 

GQ. Find me a large hen. 

Kanitaftia hoo la 1c*u7cu, 

67. Follow this road. 
Fuata [or andamd] njia hit, 

68. I want you to follow me. 
Nataha unifuate [or uniandame], 

i 69. Give it only to me and not to them. 

f Nipe mimi tu, usiwape wale. 

\ 70. Go and see if the people have collected. 

i' Kaxingalia watu wamekutana, 

/ 71. Go and stop that talking. 

Enenda /.aJfomesTia maneno Tiayo. 


72. Stop this outcry. 

Makelde haya yaJcome (Let these cries cease). 

73. Go away, whoever you are. 

Enda zakoy hadri utalcaokuwa, 

74. Guard yourself, I am going to hit yea. 

Kinga, tahupiga» 

75. Has he a large box ? 

Ana Itaska f 

76. He has. 

Analo kasha. 

77. Have you a pipe at home? 

Kiko kvmko kiko ? 

78. He built a bridge across the river. 

Alijenga honth katikati ya mto, 

79. He built a mosque by the river, and endowed it with a shambu 

near ours. 
Alijenga moskiti ng'amho^ akawekea toakf skamba Jearihu 
ihamba leta. 

80. He described Mombas as it was in early times, as it is now, and 

as it will be a hundred years hence. 
Aliandika Mvita Uivyokuwa kuoanzOf ilivyo ecua, na iiaJca^ 
vyokuwa kwa miaka mia, 

81. He does not believe me though I saw it 

Haniaadiki nirigaioa nimeiona, 

82. He had the toothache. 

Alilcuvoa najino likimtouma, 

83. He has been abroad many years. 

Alikuioa safarini miaka mingL 

84. He has presence of mind. 

Moyo waJce uwajpo. 

85. His mind is absent. Sapo aii, 

86. He is a troublesome fellow' to deal with. 

Ana tcuthu kuingiana naye» , 

87. He is absorbed in his own thoughts ; even if you speak to him he 

takes no notice. 
Yu katikafikara zaktoe; t^aponena nayeiuLwepo, 

88. He is here. 


89. He is not here. 

Hapo hapa, 

90. He is yonder. 

Yuko ktde. ' ; ' 


91. He is not there. 

Hako hule. 

92. He is not yet dressed. 


93. He left us about ten days ago. 

Alitwacha Itadri ya (or J:ama) sihu Icumi, 

94. He ought to be beaten. y 

Aihtaji hupi'gwa, 

95. He pretends to be satisfied, but do not trust hinL. 

Ajifanya Jcuica ratJiiy usimwamini. 
9G. He rose up from his chair. 

AliondoJia Icitini Icwahe. * 

97. He runs as fast as he can. 

AncJiwenda mbio kama aioezavyo, 

98. He says ho will walk on the water ! 

AH atalcwenda mtoni Icwa miguu ! 

99. He that hateth suretyship is sure. 

Mtu asiyekubali kuthamini ni katilta aman{, 

100. He that is not against us is with us. 

Mtu asiyekuwa Juu yetUf hctssi yee pamoja nasil 

101. He that is not with us is against us. 

Anyekuwa pamoja na^i, ha^H huyu juu yetu. 

102. He tried to make himself agreeable, and he succeedod;^ 

Alijipendekeza ndipo akapendeza, 

103. He was changed from a man into a horse. 

Alibadiliwa mtu kuwafrasi, 

104. He was more energetic than his father. 

Huyu alikuwa akiweza zayidi ya hdba yoke, 

105. His non-appearance is unaccountable. 

Kutowekana kwalce haitamhuWcanL 
jtOG. His self-conceit is no good to him. 

Majivuno yoke hayamfai neno, 

107. Hov are your household (i.e. your wife, daughters, &c.) ? 

JI 7mI% gani nyurnbani kioaJco, 

108. How far is it across the island ? 

Kupaiaje mbali waJce hapa hatta ptoani ya pili f 

109. A fast walker would take from s unrise to the middle of the afternoon. 

Akiondoka mtu assuhui hatta dtasiri^ alio hodari kwenda^ 

110. How long has he been ill ? 

Tangu lini hawezi f 
iii. How long ago was his illness ? 

Tangu lini alikuwa liaxoezit 


€12. Howi^easantl 

dl3. How glad you must have been to hear that you were to go homo. 

Fwaha ipi miBalipotikia mwende zenu hwenu, 
€14. I am amusing myself with a book. 

Najizumgumza na chuo, 

115. I am here. Nipo hapa. 

116. I am never without pimples. 

VipeU havinitoka Icahisa. 
il7. I am sleepy. 

Ninao usingizi, 

118. I cannot hold in this horse. 

Stwezi kuzuta frost huyu. 

119. I cannot see so far as you can. 

Sioni mbali, kama waonavyo icetoe. 
120 I don't like his way of tying it. 
Sipendi ginH a/ungavyo, 

121. I don*t see what you show me. 

Sioni ulionyalo. 

122. I don't see it, though he docs. 

Siioni angawa aona. 

123. Take care, though you don't see it. 

Kaangcdia, ujapo hukioni. 

124. I feel myself at home. 

Hujiona niko kweiu, 

125. Make yourself at home. 

Usi/anye hayd, hapa kama kvoako (Feel no modesty, here is 
like your home). 
12G. I gave him good advice, though he would not take it. 
Nimemwonya tUakini hakuonyeka. 

127. I had almost left off expecting you. 

Nalikaribia kiikata tamaa ya kukuona. 

128. I had lost my way, and I came out close to your shamba. 

NaXipotea njla nikatokea shambani kioako. 

129. I have asked him again and again, but he will not tell me. 

Nimemwuliza mara kwa mara lakini hanamhii, 

130. I have gained a hundred dollars. 

Nalipata fayida reale mia* 

131. I have made you my mark, if you step over it, look out (aoommoD 

Nimekupigia mfuo wangu kiuka wangalie, 
t82. I know where he is. 

Narryua mahali dlipo. 


133. I pray God not to tisit it upon me. 

Naomha Mwenyiezi Muungu <mnipaiUize, 

134. I 8aw the flash of the gun, but did not hear the report; 

Nimeona mwanga, lakini sikusUcia mzinga htdia, 

135. I shall go by sea as far as I can. 

Nitakwenda kvca hdliariy hdtta Uakaponifikitha, 

136. I shall go for a walk to stretch my legs. 

Nitakioenda temhea kukunjua miguu. 

137. I thought myself a king. 

Nalikuwa nikiwaza nimekuwa Sidtani, 

138. I will shut the door thit he may not go out. 

Nitafunga mlango asipate kupita. 

139. If he strikes you, hit him again. 

Akikupigay nawe mpiga tena. 
HO. If you had been here he would not have been beaten. 

Kama ungalikuwapo hapa, hangalipigtca. 
14 1« It depends upon his coming. 

Kuna atakapokt^a. 

142. It is Ixid weather. 

Kumekaa vibaya, 



143. It is being hawked about by a salesman. 

Kinatemhezwa kwa dalalL 

144. It is not there, though you say it is. 

HakipOy ungawa wasema kipo, 
14.5. It is time for us to go. 

Imekwjoa wakati Moa svti kwenda zetu, 

146. It is quite time for ub to go. 

Imewadia wakati wetu wa kwenda zeiiL. 

147. It was a secret, but it oozed out. 

Yalikuwa luihari ya siri, ikatokeza, 

148. Let him go. 

Mwacheni enende. 

149. Moslems are forbidden wine. 

Waslimu wameepmhica divai 

150. Much self-exaltation ruins a man's position in the world. 

Mujivuno yakiwa mengi ya*mvunjia mtu cheo, 

151. Nothing I do pleases him. 

Killa nafanyalo halimpendezi (eyerything which I 
pleases him not). 
J£i2. Whatever I do he finds fault with me. 

Jit'lla nafanyalo Imnitia lilialujfini. 


153. Put the water on the fire. 

Kateleka maji. 

154. Sit down. 

Kaa hitaJeo. 

155. Don't get up. 


156. The baobabs are now coming into leaf. 

SiJcu hizi mibuffu inachanua majanL 

157. The fields are flourishing. 

Koonde imesitawi, 

158. The music is first-rate. 

Ngoma inafana, 
159L The news has spread. 

Khahari zimeenea, 

160. Spread the news. 

Zieneza khabari. 

161. The people who went to Bardera are come back. 

Watu waliohwenda Baradera, toamekuja zao^ 

162. The room wants darkening. 

Chumha chataica hutiwa giza. 

163. The top of this mountain is inaccessible. 

Juu ya mlima huu haupandihi. 

164. They [the trees] are almost all dead. 

Karna htoawha iliohufa yote. 

165. They are badly stowed. 

Mapahizo yao mahaycL 

166. They cut the boat adrift. 

WaJtakata hamba ya mashiia ikachuJculiwa na maju 

167. They like giving and receiving presents. 

Hupendelea Jcupana vitu. 

168. They shut themselves up in the fort. 

Wdkajizuia gerezani. 

169. They told me what he had done. 

Walinambia alivyofanya. 

170. They were fighting, and I passed by and separated them.. 

Walihutoa loakipigana, hapita mimi nikawcKsmua, 

171. This chest mustbe taken care o£ 

Kasha hili la htUunzwck. 

172. This has been worn. 

Nguo hit imevaliiDa. 

173. This tree is not so tall us that. 

Mti huu 91 mrefu kama «1«. ' "^ 'iia 


174. Upon join oBlh I 

>75. Vwli me these clothes. 

Niorlice -ng-uo hisi. 
17G. Tlie clothes have been noshed. 

Kgao lineothehi. 
»77. Ihave washodmyBfllf. 


178. Waahmel NoOitl 

179. We ttttiiokod tbam and the; fell Into oonfiiBloa, ^ 

TvtalitBoebambulla, vmka^atailai. 

180. We like liis company 

Kiltao ckaJie chetna (his sitting is good). 

181. What doJouea-rnbytliemoQth? 

Upataje killa vtieezi f 

182. What is become of him ? 

Amekixmaje f 

183. What ia this news about AU ? 

Sabari gani imieikliao la Alt t 
181. What are joatalkioEahout? 
Mantno gani mnmayo I 

185. What will yon ferry me ove» for? 

V^laiiiiniiha liica Jiiaeigani t 

186. When I )iavo seen Mohammeil, I will gira yon an oiuwer. 


187. Whereis theknifolBawyonwithyeBtenloy t 

Eilco tcapi Jiitu tialiduilauma WKhojana t 
188 Where ia the iminl 

XahdU gani panapoama 1 

189. Where is joUr pain f 

Wauma aapi I 

190. WhoiBinthera? 


191. Ton cannot teaoh him anyhow. 

Eadri u'mfuntavyo hajiil. 

192. We do notknow whether he will not lean, or whether he Monot. 

Salujnt ya Jaeamba hataki kujifunta no liana akUl wm 
163. Ton liaTe made this thread too tight, 
Uti Auu umeutia katti mno. 


194. Ton ought to love him very much. 

W<uiah%l% humpenda sana, 

195. Kuamha na hu»engeny<u To talk of a person beliind hi? back, and 

secretly to make contemptuous signs about him when 
present This phrase is often used as a test of a stranger's 
knowledge of Swahili ; what it describes is counted as a 
special sin. 

196. To ask a man his name. 

Oh J Bafihi yangu nawhie jina laJco (Oh I my friend, tell 
me your name). . Wajua, hwana teee, tumeonana mimi 
nawe, jina laho nimelUahau, ta/dthal namhie jina lako 
(Tou know, siTf you and I have met [before], but I have 
forgotten your name, please to tell me your name). 

When you have heard it, say — Inshallali, sitalisahau iena 
(Please God, I shall not^ forget it again). 

197. A polite question and answer at leave-taking. 

Unayo haja iena t (Have you any further desire?) 
Eaja yangu ya kuishi wewe sananafuraha (My desire is 
that you may live long and happily). 

( 455 ) 

Appendix V. 



The following account is based on scattered notices in the late Bishop 
fiteere*8 collections, and on some tables furnished to the Bev. P. L. 
Jones-Bateman by a well-informed servant of the Mission in* 

1. Money, 

The only copper coin in common use in Zanzibar is the Anglo-^ 
Indian quarter-anna, or pice, in Swahili pesa, plur. pesa or mapesa ; 
but the robopesa, or quarter-pice (of which, however, three are equal to- 
one pice), is also current. 

The silver coins current are the Anglo-Indian rupee and, less com- 
monly, the Austrian dollar. The eight-anna (half-rupee), four-anna 
(quarter-rupee), and two-anna pieces are also met with. 

The relative values of these coins and their equivalent in English 
money fluctuate considerably. For practical purposes, it is sufficient 
to remember that an English sovereign may be generally exchanged 
for 12 rupees, English bank-notes, cheques, drafts, &c., being subject 
to a small discount ; that an Austrian dollar is reckoned as equal to 2 
rupees and 8 pice, and that a rupee is worth usually from 60 to 61 
pice. It follows that, though accounts are usually kept in dollar» 
and cents, and 5 dollars reckoned as equal to one pound English, it is. 
more exact to consider — 

f. d. 
1 dollar = 37 
1 rupee s= 1 8 
1 pice = i 

In larger sums, the scale of legal tender is to reckon — 

47 dollars = 100 rupees 
94 „ = 200 „ 

141 ,. = 300 „ 

And soon. 


On the niaiuland, dollars and pice are taken freely on the coast and 
^laln lines of traffic, and rupees are met with ; but elsewhere, silver 
dollars only, and such objects of barter as calico, brass- wire, beads» &c. 

2. Measures of Length, 

There is no exact standard or relationship of measures of length. 
Those in common use are merely taken from parts of the human body, 
viz.: — 

Wanda, plur. nyanda, a finger's breadth. 

Shibiri, a span, the distance between the tips of the outstretched 

thumb and little finger. 
Mdritay a slightly shorter span, from the tip of the thumb to that 

of the fore-finger. 
Thiraa or MJcono^ a cubit, the distance from the finger-tips to the 
elbow joint Of this again, there are two varieties : — 
Thiraa JcamUi, or full cubit, as just described, and — 
' Thiraa honde^ or fist cubit, from the elbow-joint to tho 
ITarit or yard, is one half of the— 

Pimat a man's height, or the distance he can stretch with his 
arms, a fathom. A doti is a measure of similar length. 
The uayo, or length of the foot, Arab khatua, is also used occa- 
sionally, and the English foot, futiy regularly by Indian carpenters and 
in other trades. Approximately, the relations of these measures may 
be tabulated thus : — 

1 wanda = 1 inch. 

8 or 10 nyanda = 1 shibiri hamill = 1 quarter-yard. 

2 shtbiri = 1 thiraa or mhono = 1 cubit or half-yard. 
2 thiraa = 1 wari = 1 yard 

2 wari = 1 pima * = 1 fathouL 

Distance is loosely estimated by the average length of an hoar's walk- 
ing. Punga, which lies almost exactly halfway across the island of 
Zanzibar, at a distance of perhaps twelve miles, is described as a walk 
of four hours, saa *nne ; and Kokotoni, at the north end of the island, 
distant perhaps twenty miles from Zanzibar, as a walk of at least 
six hours, saa sita. On the mainland, a day's march is a common, but 
vague measure of perhaps twenty miles. 

3. Measures of fTeighi, 

For gold, silver, silk, scent, and other, costly articles, the unit is the 
icaliia^ or weight of an Austrian silver dollar, almost exactly an onnoa. 
For the names of fractional paitB ot wa^ UTiit^Boc*' Handbook," p. 93« 


bat the tv eight of a pice is often used as a convenient though inexact 
measure of small quantities. 

For heavy articles, the usual unit is a rdtel^ or rattli, equal to 1& 
wcikia^ and corresponding to one pound. 
16 wdJcia = 1 rdlel, 
3 rdtel = 1 mani, 
6 rdtel = 1 pishi, 

6 pishi = 1 frasila, about 35 lbs. avoirdupois. 
10 frasila = 1 «120. 
Hence, ^frasila or 6| mizo may be regarded as = 1 ton. 

4. Measures of Capacity, 

No fixed liquid measure is used by the poorer classes. Shopkeepers 
sell their oil, treacle, &c., by tin-ladlefuls (JdluynM)^ or by the bottle 
(chupa% or by the tin, t.e. the tins in which American oil is Imported 
to Zanzibar (tanahiy tini, also debe). 

Corn (nafaJcd) or dry measure is, of course, of great importance in a 
country where grain is the staple of food and chief article of commerce. 
The smallest unit is the — 
Kihaha, a measure of perhaps a pint. 
Kibaha cha tele, if the measure is heaped up — the usual pro- 
Kihaha cha mfutOf if cut off flat. 
2 vibaba (vya tele) = 1 kisa^a, ^ 
2 visa^a = 1 pishi, about half a gallon. 
The pishi connects the measures of capacity and weight, and for 
some of the common dry commodities, such as chiroko and kundi, the 
pishi may be regarded as equivalent either in capacity to 4 vibaba, or 
in weight to 6 rattli. 

Grain is sold wholesale by the kanda, or sack of grass-matting, or (if 
from India) by the gunia, a wide sack. The gunia often weighs about 
168 lbs. The kanda varies, both with the kind of grain and the place 
from which it is imported. For instance, while at Kwale, Mgao, and 
Mvita, towns on the Swahlli coast, the kanda of rice at times contains 
10, 11, or 12 pifihiy and the kanda of Indian com 10 pishi, at Pangani» 
Tanga, and Mtang*ata the kanda of rice will contain 15, 16, or 17 
pishi, and the kanda of Indian com 13 or 13j pishi. 

Various other terms are in use for different commodities, e,g. poles 

, are sold by the korja, or score ; stone for bailding by the boma, a heap 

which may weigh 4 cwt. to 5 cwt. ; lime by the tanuu (clamp) or H&opD ; 

calico by the jura, 35 yards ; and various other things by the ^ vaiffn ^ 

or load. 



5. ToinU of ike CompaM, 



K. by E. 

Faragadi Matlai 


Nash Matlai. 

N.E. by N. 

Nagr MatlaL 


Luagr Mntlai. 

N.E. by E. 

Dayabu Matlai. 


Semak IfatlaL 

E. by N. 

Seria Matlai. 



E. by S. 

Sosa Matlai. 


Tiri Matlai. 

S.E. by E. 

T^kadiri Matlai. 


Lakarabu Matlai. 

S.E. by a 

Hamareni Matlai. 


Seheli Matlai. 


Sonoobari Matlai. 



8. by W. 

Sonoobari MagaribL 


Seheli Magaribi. 

«.W. by S. 

Hamareni Magaribi. 


Lakarabu MagaribL 

S.W. by W. 

Lakadiri MagaribL 


Tiri MagaribL 

W. by S. 

Sosa MagaribL 



W. by N. 

Seria MagaribL 


Scmak Magaribi. 

N.W. by W. 

Dayabu MagaribL 


Luagr Magaribi. 

N.W. by N. 

Nagr Magaribi. 


Nash Magnribi. 

K by W. 

Faragadi MagaribL 








(415) 723-1493 

All books may be recalled after 7 days 



.AO^a&C 419^5