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Full text of "A Handbook of the Swahili Language, as Spoken at Zanzibar"

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Unrveraity of Virginia Library 

PLe702 .37 1906 



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{niversity 
of virginia 

CHARLOTTESVILLE 

LIBRARY 



V. 



A HANDBOOK 



OP THE 



SWAHILI LANGUAGE, 



AS SPOKEN AT 



ZANZIBAR. 



EDITED FOR THE UNIVERSITIES' MISSION TO 
CENTRAL AFRICA 

BY 

The late EDWARD STEERE, LL.D., 

MISSIONARY BISHOP POK CBNTKAL AFRICA* 



REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

A. C. MADAN, M.A., 

SENIOR STUDENT AND FORMERLY TUTOR OF CH. CH. OXFoRO. 



EIGHTH EDITION 



LONDON: 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.Cj 

43t QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, B.G. 

i9o8» 



: 3 7 



PEEP ACE TO THE FIEST EDITION. 



There is probably no African language so widely known 
as the Swahili. It is understood along the coasts of 
Madagascar and Arabia, it is spoken by the Seedees in 
India, and is the trade language of a very large part of 
Central or Intertropical Africa. Zanzibar traders pene- 
trate sometimes even to the western side of the conti- 
nent, and they are in the constant habit of traversing 
more than half of it with their supplies of Indian and 
European goods. Throughout this immense district 
any one reaUy familiar with the Swahili language will 
generally be able to find some one who can understand 
him, and serve as an interpreter. 

This consideration makes it a point of the greatest 
importance to our Central African Mission that Swahili 
should be thoroughly examined and well learnt. For 
if the members of the Mission can go forth from Zan- 
zibar, or, still better, can leave England already well 
acquainted with this language, and provided wiih 
books and translations adapted to their wants, they 
will carry with them a key that can unlock the secrets 
of an immense variety of strange dialects, whose veiy 
names are as yet unknown to us. For they will not 

a 2 



iv Fit EF ACE. 

only be able at once to communi'.'afco with new tribes, 
but in mastering this really simple and far from 
difficult language they will have learnt how to set 
about learning and writing all others of the same class, 
since they agree with Swahili in all the chief respects 
in which it differs from our European tongues. 

The work, then, which is here begun is not to be 
regarded as though its ntility were confined to the 
islands and the narrow strip of coast of which this 
language is the vernacular, but much rather as the 
broad foundation on which our labours in the far inte- 
rior must for many years be built up. As there is no 
way by which those inner lands are so ordinarily or can 
be BO easily reached as from Zanzibar and the coast 
dependent on it, so neither is there any way by which 
we can make ourselves so readily intelligible, or by 
which the Gospel can be preached so soon or so well as 
by means of the language of Zanzibar and its. dependen- 
cies, to which this work is intended as an introduction 
— a language which, through its Arabic relations, has 
a hold on revealed religion, and even on European 
thought while, through its negro structure, it is 
exactly fitted to serve as an interpreter of that re- 
ligion and those thoughts to men who have not yet 
even heard of their existence. 

When Bishop Tozer arrived in Zanzibar at the end of 
August 1864, the only guides we had to the language 
were the grammar and vocabulary of Dr. Krapf, and his 
translation of part of the Book of Common Prayer. 
During Bishop Tozer's visit to Mombas in November, 
be made a copy of a revised vocabulary belonging ta 



rREFACE. f 

tho Bey. J. Eebmann. However, although one cannot 
estimate too highly the diligence and linguistic ability 
displayed by Dr. Krapf and the' patient sagacity of Mr, 
Rebmann, we soon found that, owing partly to the fact 
of their collections having been made in the dialect of 
Mombas, and still more to the confused and inexact 
style of spelling adopted unfortunately by both, their 
works were of scarcely any use to a mere beginner. 
- I soon after procured copies of the manuscript voca- 
bularies collected by Mr. Witt and Mr. Schultz, then 
representing the firm of O'Swald and Co. in Zanzibar, 
and with such help as I could procure from any quarter, 
I began in July 1865 to print the first pages of my col- 
lections for a "Handbook of Swahili as Spoken in 
Zanzibar." When I had proceeded as far as page 33, 1 
made the acquaintance of Hamis wa Tani and of his 
son Mohammed, both of them well acquainted with 
English and French, and of pure Swahili exti-action. 
To the disinterested kindness of Mohammed, who, 
while confined to his house by sickness, allowed me to 
spend every Saturday morning in questioning him 
about his language, I owe all that is best in toy know- 
ledge of African tongues. With his help and revision I 
completed the list of substantives^ and found my way 
through the intricacies of the adjectives and pronouns. 
Qf how much importance an accurate guide in these 
matters would be may be seen from the " Table of 
Concords," first printed in Zanzibar, in a form sug- 
gested by Bishop Tozer, and now reprinted as part 
of this volume. 

Mohammed's sickness increasing about the time that 



vi fuefacl. 

I had begun to print the conjugation of the verb, I was 
unable to continue my visits, and completed the " Col- 
lections" from Dr. Krapf, with the help of the voca- 
bulary collected by the late Baron von der Decken 
and Dr. Kersten, and of that collected by the Eev. 
Thomas Wakefield of the United Methodist Free 
Churches* Mission, both of which I was kindly allowed 
to copy. 

After Mohammed's partial recovery I continued my 
visits to him, and went through the verbs, making first 
a list of useful English verbs from a dictionary, and 
entering all the words contained in the collections of 
which I had copies. I thus checked and supplemented 
what others had already done, and obtained a tolerably 
complete insight into that branch of the vocabulary. 
Before I could get much beyond this, Mohammed was 
so far recovered as to be able to sail for Bombay. I 
have always much pleasure in acknowledging how 
much I owe to him. 

Meanwhile I had begun my collection of short tales 
in Swahili, the first of which were printed in Zanzibar 
with an interlinear version, under the title ef " Speci- 
mens of Swahili," in March 1866, and reprinted in 
an early number of " Mission Life." I also began to 
use my Swahili to a practical purpose by making the 
collectionB for a handbook of the Shambala language, 
the first draft of which was completed in May 1866, 
These collections were made with a view to the mission 
since commenced in that country by the Eev. C. A. 
Alington; they were revised by the help of another 
teacher, and printed in Zanzibar in the year 1867. 



PREFACE. vtt 

Finding the Swahili tales most valuable as well to 
myself as to those who were studying with me, I pro- 
ceeded to print a further collection, with the titlo 
" HaMthi za Kiunguja" in Swahili only. For the tales 
then printed I was mainly indebted to Hamis wa Eayi, 
a very intelligent young Swahili, who always compre- 
hended better what a foreigner wanted to know, and 
explained more clearly what was difficult, than any one 
else I met with while in Zanzibar. 

At the same period I had begun and carried on from 
time to time the investigation of the Yao or Acbowa 
language, one peculiarly interesting to us, as that of' 
nearly all the released slaves under Bishop Mackenzie's 
charge, and as having now supplanted the Mang'anja 
in the country where our Mission was originally settled. 
From this study I first gained a definite notion of the 
wonderful efiect the letter n has in African languages, 
and so came to understand the origin of several appa- 
rent irregularities in Swahili. 

I had begun even before Mohammed bin Ehamis left 
Zanzibar to make some essays in translation, the best of 
which are embodied in a pamphlet printed in Zanzibar, 
with the titles" Translations in Swahili : " it was com- 
pleted in January 1867. 

I was then getting help from many quarters, and on 
explaining to some of our native friends our wish to 
make a complete translation of the Bible into their 
language, one of them. Sheikh *Abd al 'Aziz, kindly 
volunteered to translate for me the Arabic Psalter into 
the best and purest Swahili. I found, before long, that 
not only did his numerous avocations prevent any rapid 



rifi PBEFACE. 

progress^ but that his language was too learned to EOiii 
exactly our purpose in making the version ; it did not 
therefore proceed further than the Sixteenth Psalm. \ 
printed these as at once a memorial of his kindness 
and a specimen of what one of the most learned men 
in Zanzibar considers the most classical form of his 
language. 

I cannot but mention at the same time the name of 
Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali, a man of the greatest 
research, to whose kindness I was indebted for a copy, 
made by his own hand, of some very famous Swahili 
poetry, with an interlinear Arabic version ; he also 
revised for me a paraphrase of it in modem language, 
for which I was chiefly indebted (as for much other 
help) to Hassan bin Yusuf, whose interest in our doc- 
trines and teachings has always been most marked. 
The verses and translation are both printed in the 
*' SwahiU Tales." 

At the end of 1867 I printed a translation of Bishop 
Forbes' little primaiy catechism, chosen as being the 
shortest and clearest I could find to begin upon. 
Though very imperfect, I am glad to think that it 
has been found of use. 

"When I had completed the Tao collections, I went on 
to the Nyamwezi language^ as being that of the largest 
and most central tribe with which there is constant and 
tolerably safe communication. 

In November 1867 I lost, by the sadly sudden deaths 
of the Kev. G. E. Drayton and his wife, most useful 
helpers, who were beginning to be able to give me sub- 
stantial assistance. Their places were, however, well 



PREFACE. ix 

supplied by the Sev. W. and Mrs. Lea, wlio arrived 
opportunely just before the time of our bereavement. 
I was then engaged in preparing the translations of 
St. Matthew's Gospel and of the Psalms, as well as in 
beginning to put in order tho materials for the present 
work. To Mr. Lea I was indebted, amongst other 
things, for the first version of the 119th Psalm, and to 
Mrs. Lea for the arrangement of the Swahili-English 
Vocabulary. The last thing I printed in Zanzibar was 
a ti-anslation of the Easter and Advent Hymns, and of 
Adeste Fideles, which I had the pleasure of hearing 
the girls of the Mission Orphanage sing most sweetly 
to the old tunes just before I left. 

I ought also to mention that, having been often under 
great obligations to the French Bomanist Mission, I 
had the pleasure of printing for them a Catechism in 
French and Swahili, which was indirectly valuable to 
me as showing how the great truths we have in 
common were rendered by a perfectly independent 
student of the language. I know not how sufficiently 
to regret that the excellent compiler, P^re Etienne 
Baur, should have been content to use the jargon (for 
it is nothing better) commonly employed by Indians 
and Europeans, and should have adopted an ortho- 
graphy adapted only to a French pronunciation. 
, Only three weeks before leaving I had the advan- 
tage of consulting two large manuscript dictionaries 
compiled by Dr. Krapf, and brought to Zanzibar by 
the Bev. B. L. PennelL I was able to examine about 
half the Swahili-English volume, with the assistance 
of Hamis wa Cayi, enough to enrich materially my 



t PBEFACE. 

previous collections, and to show how far even now 
I fall sliort of my first predecessor in the work of 
examining and elucidating the languages of Eastern 
Africa. There remains for some future time or other 
hand the examination of the rest of Dr. Krapf's 
dictionary, as well as the collation of what will no 
doubt deserve to be the standard Swahili lexicon, on 
which the Rev. John Eebmann has been for nearly a 
quarter of a century labouring unweariedly. Even 
then there Will remain many dialectic variations, and 
many old and poetical words and inflections, so that 
for many years one who loves such studies might find 
employment in this one language. 

Since my arrival in England, at the end of November 
1868, 1 have been able to superintend the printing of 
the Gospel of St. Matthew in Swahili, liberally under- 
taken by the Bible Society, of translations of the 
Church Catechism and of their Scriptural Reading 
Lessons out of the Old Testament, kindly undertaken 
by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
For the Central African Mission I have carried through 
the press this work and the collection of Swahili 
Stories with an English version, published by Messrs. 
Bell and Sons, of which those previously printed at 
Zanzibar form a small part, and besides these a number 
of small pamphlets, including translations of the Books 
of Ruth and Jonah, and some slight specimens of the 
Oindo, Zaramo, and Ngazidja languages. There remain 
the Psalms, which the Bible Society has promised to 
print for us, and the collections in the Yao and Nyam- 
wezi languages, all which I should like to get through 



PREFACE. xi 

tlio press in the course of this year. I wish there were 
a chance of the Rev. John Eebmann's Swahili version 
of St. Luke's Gospel, of which I have seen a large part, 
being printed at the same time. 

This handbook is arranged on the principle of sup- 
plying with each portion of it such ^rules as are re- 
quired for the practical use of that portion. In the 
first part, after some introductory observations. Sub- 
stantives, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs have each 
a separate section, containing first the rules which 
govern their inflection and employment, and then an 
alphabetical list of the Swahili equivalents of our 
English words belonging to each part of speech. For 
the mere finding of words one genei-al alphabet would 
perhaps have been more convenient ; but as the object 
of this work is not merely to tell what the Swahili 
words are, but also how to employ them correctly, it 
seems better so to group them as to bring the rules of 
grammar and the words which they control into as 
close a connection with one another as possible. The 
Editor has done what most readers would have had to 
do— sort out first the word and then the grammatical 
rules which must be observed in using it. The minor 
parts of speech are indexed together to avoid a multi- 
plicity of alphabets, except the Interjections, which 
cannot be said to have exact equivalents in any other 
language. The part ends with a section on the forma- 
tion of words, which may be of use where the other 
alphabets fail to give a satisfactory rendering, and 
may also be useful as a guide in turning Swahili into 
English, in the case of the many words which igno- 



xii PREFACE. 

ranee or some oversight in preparing tlie second part 
may have caused to be omitted. The rales and hints 
prefixed to the second part are intended to enable any- 
one who sees or hears a Swahili word to ascertain the 
material part of it, so as to be able to use the dictionary 
which follows. It is evident that there must be great 
difficulties at first in either using or arranging an 
alphabetical list of words which may begin with, in 
some cases, nine or ten different letters, according to 
the grammatical position they hold in each case. 
However, the difficulty is greater in appearance than 
in practice. 

The Appendices contain some curious or useful 
matter which could not well find a place in the body 
of the work. The first contains a specimen of a curious 
kind of enigmatical way of writing and speaking called 
Kinyume. The second gives a specimen of the forms 
used in letter-writing, both in prose and verse. The 
third is part of a Swahili tale, with all the prefixes 
separated and the grammatical forms explained, in- 
tended as a guide and introduction to the art of 
reading, and through that of writing the language. 
The fourth Appendix consists of a smalt collection of 
phrases, some of them such as are wanted in ordinary 
conversation, some of them useful in illustrating the 
idiom or peculiar constructions used by natives. This 
collection might have been very much increased had 
it not been carefully confined to phrases actually met 
with in conversation with persons roputed , to speak 
wrrectly. 



PliEFACE. xiii 

The name of the language — Swahili — ^is beyond all 
doubt a modified form of the Arabic SatodhU^ the plural 
of Sahil, a ooast. The natives themselves jestingly 
derive it from Sawa hila, which a Zanzibar interpreter 
would explain is ** All same cheat." 

LiUle SUeping, May 1870. 



p. 



( ^v ) 



ADVERTISEMENT TO SECOND EDITION. 



Thb First Edition having been at the last sold out 
with unexpected rapidity, I have not been able to add 
so much as I should have wished to this. The chief 
novelty is the omission of what I called the second 
class of Substantives, which proved to be only the most 
common instance of the general rule, that Substantives 
of any and every form denoting animate beings are 
constructed with Adjectives and Pronouns in the forms 
proper to the first class. Some words have been added 
to the Yocabularies and a few mistakes corrected. 
! During the last four years the work of translation 
and collection has been going steadily forward, Swahili 
preaching has been going on, and some Elementary 
School-books printed in Zanzibar for our yemacular 
schools. The great work of evangelizing Africa seems 
to gr^w in magnitude the more one understands what 
is required for it ; but our hopes still grow with the 
growth of our knowledge. 

Edwabd Steers. 

IfCndonf January 1875. 



( *^ii ) 



ADVEETISEMENT TO THIED EDITION. 



This Edition may be taken to represent substantially 
the final form which the Handbook assumed in the 
hands of its compiler, the late Bishop Steere. No 
estimate can be attempted here of his services to 
philology in general, and the student of .Afriean 
languages in particular, stiJl less of their bearing on 
the spread of Christianity in Central Africa. What- 
ever the relative purity of the dialects of Mombasa and 
Zanzibar, and however great the debt Bishop Steere 
undoubtedly owed to his distinguished predecessor in 
their study. Dr. Krapf, the broad fact remains that 
Bishop Steere took the language as he found it spoken 
in the capital dty of the East Coast, reduced its rules 
to so ludd and popular a form as not only to make it 
accessible, but easy to all students, and finally made a 
great advance towards stereotyping its forms and ex- 
tending its use by embodying it in copious writings 
and translations. 

Some of the last hours of his life were apparently 
spent in preparing this Handbook for a new edition. 
Those who were familiar with the many cares and 
anxieties then pressing on him, will not be surprised 
that there were signs of haste and pressure in his 

b 



xvlll PHEFACK 

revision. With Part I., however, he seems to have 
been satisfied. The corrections of the text were few 
and nnimportant, and though the Lists of Words might 
have been largely added to, he seems to have preferred 
leaving them as they were, in view of the strictly 
practical purpose of the whole book. 

With Part II. (the SwahiU-English Vocabulary, &a) 
the case is rather different. With the aid of various 
members of the Mission, the Bishop had made some* 
what large collections in order to expand and complete 
it. Probably from the pressure of work before alluded 
to, he had only prepared a selection of them for this 
Edition. It has been thought better, however, to in« 
corporate all the words found in his notes and added 
with his approval. But it must be remembered that 
the Bishop never regarded Part 11. as ranking as a 
Dictionary, even in embryo, but rather as a tolerably 
full list of words to serve as a useful companion to 
Part I. Even with this reservation, there remain 
many traces of imperfection in arrangement, spelling, 
and interpretation of words, which would doubtless 
have been removed if he had been allowed time to pass 
the whole list under revision finally. 

This final revision no one is in a position adequately 
to supply* Minor corrections and additions have been ' 
cautiously and sparingly made. One Appendix (No. V.)» 
likely to subserve the practical aim of the whole, has 
been added, with the Yen. Archdeacon Hodgson's ap* 
proval. There still remain among the Bishop's notes 
fiome miscellaneous specimens of Swahili verses, pro- 
verbs, riddles, &c., which might have formed another. 



PMEFACK lix 

It is fiionglit best, however, to leserve them, and leave 
the whole book, as far as possible, as the Bishop left it. 
Subsequent editoi*s may find something to add. They 
probably will not find much to alter. 

A. C. M. 

P.S. — ^Dr. Krapf s great Dictionary of the Swahili 
Language, in its printed form, was in the Bishop's 
hands too short a time to allow of his making any use 
of it for this Edition of the Handbook. 

Zanzibary Chrisknae^ 1882. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART r. 

Introdaetion ••• 

The Alphabet ...• 

Substantives : — 

Grammatioal rules 

List of Sabstiintives 
Adjectives :— 

Gmmmatical rules 

Irregular Adjectives 

Comparison of Adjectives 

Numerals 

List of Adjectives ••• 
Pronouns : — 

Personal Pronouns 

Possessive Pronouns 

Reflective Pronouns 

Demonstrative Pronouns ... 

Relative Pronouns 

Literrogatives, &o. ••• 

Verbs :— 

Conjugation ••• 

Irregular Verbs 

Auxiliary Verbs 

Derivative Verbs 

List of Verbs ... 



rxQv 
1 



16 
2i 

83 
8G 
87 
89 
91 

102 
109 
112 
113 
117 
122 

125 
149 
155 
157 
165 



CXll 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions 

List of Adverbs, &o, 

Interjections 

Formation of Words 

Table of Noun Prefixes in nine languages 
Table of the Preposition -a in four languages 



PAQC 

209 
212 
221 
226 
. 231 
235 



PART 11. 

Preliminary Observations ••• ... ••• 239 

Swahili -English Vocabulary ,„ 245 

Appendices: — 

L Specimens of Enyume '. ... ... 425 

II. Specimens of Swahili Correspondence 427 

III. Part of a Swahili Tale^ with the Prefixes marked 

and explained 431 

IV. Useful and Idiomatic Phrases ... ... ... 443 

V. On Money, Weights and measures in Zanzil)ar •«, 455 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK* 



PAET I. 

The SwaUli language is spolien by the mixed race 
of Aral^ and Negroes who inhabit the Eastern Coast 
of Africa, especially in that part which lies between 
Lamoo and the neighbouring towns on the north, and 
Cape Delgado on the south. 

It is classified by Dr. Bleek as one of the Zangian 
genus of the middle branch of the Bantu languages. 
That is to say, it belongs to one of the subdivisions of 
that great family of Negro languages, which carries on 
the work of grammatical inflexion by means of changes 
at the beginning of the word, similar to that whereby 
in Kafir, umuntUy a man, becomes in the plural ahantii^ 
people. All these languages divide their nouns into a 
number of classes, which are distinguished by theii 
first syllable, and bring their adjectives, pronouns, and 
verbs into relation with substantives by the use of 
corresponding changes in their first syllables. None 
of these classes denote sex in any way. Dr. Bleek, in- 
his comparative grammar of South African languages, 
enumerates eighteen prefixes which are found in one 
Qf other of the languages of this family; but it must 

9 



2 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

be remembered tliat lie reckons by the form of the 
prefix only, so that the singular and plural forms of 
most words count as two, while the same form will 
sometimes answer to two or more forms in the other 
number. Dr. Block's arrangement is the most conve- 
nient for his purpose, which is the comparison of the 
formatives used in different languages ; but I have not 
followed it in this work, because I think that for practical 
purposes such a classification should be used as will 
enable the learner who sees or hears the noun in the 
singular at once to put it into the plural. Prefixes 
may be counted up separately ; but in practice we have 
to do with nouns, not with prefixes, and a noun cannot 
be put into a different class when it becomes plural 
or singular without great risk of confusion. Thus in 
Fredoux' Sechuana grammar, 4 and 6 are the plurals 
of 3, 10 and 6 are the plurals of 11, and 6 alone is the 
plural of 5 and 14. Can this be a ^jlear arrangement ? 

I have very little doubt that Dr. Bleek is right in 
regarding these classes as substantially the same with 
the genders in most of the European languages, which 
are even now only sex-denoting to a very limited 
extent. There is a distinction in Swahili as to words 
which denote limiig beings, called by Dr. Krapf, not 
very happily, a masculine gender, though it has no 
relation to sex, but to life only. 

It is very puzzling to a beginner, accustomed to 
languages which change at the end, to find the be- 
ginnings of words so very uncertain. Thus he hears 
that ngema means good^ tu^ when he begins to apply 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

biB knowledge he finds that natives use for the English 
word good^ not only ngema^ but mwema^ wema^ mema. 
f^ema^ jema^ pema^ chema, tyyema^ and hwema. Again, 
yangu means my, but he will hear also, wangu^ zangu^ 
changuy vyangu, langu, pangu, kwangu, and mwangu. It is 
necessary therefore to get at the very first a firm hold 
of the fact that in S wahili it is the end, and not the be- 
ginning of a word, which is its substantial and unchang- 
ing part. The beginning of the word when taken to 
pieces denotes its number, time, and agreements. 

The " Table of Concords " prefixed to the section on 
Adjectives, shows at one view -the variables of the 
language ; and when that has been mastered, the diffi- 
culties for an English student will be over. The 
various forms will be explained, and the nicer distinc* 
tions mentioned in the grammatical parts of the book. 
In the preliminary observations prefixed to the second 
part will be found an account of all the changes which 
may occur at the end of a word, changes which in 
practice are very soon mastered, relating as they chiefly 
do to a few points in the conjugation of the verb. 

There is a broken kind of Swahili in use among 
foreigners,' Indian as well as European, which serves 
for very many purposes, though it is of course utterly 
useless when one has to speak with exactness, or on 
subjects not immediately connected with the ordinary 
affairs of life and commerce. Its rules may be briefly 
laid down as follows : — If you are in doubt about how 
to make a plural, prefix ma, or use nyingi, i.e, many. 
In conjugating the verb, always put the subject 

b2 



4 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

before and the object after it, for the present tense 
prefix wi-^ for the past ma-^ for the fdtare tor. For no 
or not^ use hoAuna. It is wonderful how intelligible 
yon can make yonrself by these few rules ; bnt it is 
just as wonderful what absurd broken stuff can be 
made to do duty for English. 

Let any one, however, who really wishes to speak 
the language get the Table of Concords weU into his 
head, by any means he finds best for the purpose, and 
he will have no need to resort to broken and incorrect, 
ways of talking. 

Swahili, like all languages of the same family, is 
very rich in Verbs, and poor in Adjectives and Prepo- 
sitions. There is nothing corresponding to the English 
Article, the word when standing alone implying the 
indefinite article, while the definite article can in many 
cases be expressed by the use and arrangement of the 
Pronouns, but still must often be left unexpressed. 
Though the Verb is etymologically the most important 
part of speech, it is the Substantive which determines 
the form of all .the variable syllables. The Substan* 
tive will therefore be first considered, and next the 
Adjective, which very dosely resembles it. The Pro- 
nouns wiU come next, as it is by their help that the 
Verb is conjugated, then the Verb itself, and after that 
the minor parts of speech. Adverbs, Prepositions, Con- 
junctions, and, last of all, the Interjections. A sketch 
of the grammar of each part of speech, which aims at 
being sufficient for ordinary and practical purposes, is 
first given, and after that a list of words belonging to 



tNTBODUOTIOlf. t 

that part of speech, thus forming a combined grammar 
and English-Swahili dictionary. The second part con- 
sists of a Swahili-English vocabulary, and so completes 
the work. 

Th^ Swahili language has been hitherto but little 
written by those who speak it, and they know and use 
only the purely Arabic alphabet. There are copies of 
religious and secular verses, and possibly other works, 
composed in the old or poetical dialect, which is not 
now, and I believe never was, thoroughly understood 
by the mass of the people. The modem dialect is used 
in letters ; but they have always a string of Arabic 
compliments at the beginning, and Arabic words and 
phrases freely interspersed throughout. 

Any one who tries to read a letter or a poem written 
in Arabic characters, will at once see why it is impos* 
sible to adopt them as the standard Swahili alphabet. 
It is absolutely necessary to have a good idea of what 
you are to read before you can read at all. The reason 
is that Swahili has five vowels, Arabic only three, and 
of Swahili consonants the Arabic supplies no means of 
writing c%, ^, jp, or v, nor can consecutive consonants be 
written without shocking Arabic notions of propriety. 
Thus the Swahili are driven to write the ha for jp and 
for mh as well as for h ; the ghain for g, ng^ and ng\ as 
well as for gh ; the fa for v and wr, as well as for /; 
the ya for ny as well as for y; the zhin for ek as well as 
for 9% ; and to omit altogether the n before i, /, ^, and ar. 
Initial vowels and consecutive vowels are only to be 
expressed by hemzat or 'aim. Is the first piece of 



6 BWAHILI EANPBOOK. 

written Swahili I ever posseesed (the Story of the 6t 
and the Ass) the words ng^omhe and punda were written 
ghube and buda» It will ho easily seen how imperfect 
and ambiguons a means of writing Swahili the Arabic 
character mnst be. An instance occnrred while J was 
in Zanzibar of a letter written from Eilwa with the 
account of a fight, in which it was said that one of 
the principal men, ameJeufa, had died, or amevuka^ had 
got away, and which it was no one conld certainly 
tell ; the last two consonants were fa and qaf with 
three dots over them. If two of the dots belonged 
to the first letter, the man was dead ; if two belonged 
to the next letter, he was alive : bnt the dots were 
so equally placed that no one coxdd tell how to divide 
them. If the Arabic had possessed a v, there could 
have been no mistake. It would no doubt be possible 
to express Swahili sounds by using letters with addi- 
tional dots and affixing arbitrary sounds to the letters 
of prolongation, as is done in Persian and Hindi, but 
the result would puzzle a genuine Swahili and could 
never be quite satisfactory in any respect. 

There seems to be no difficulty in writing Swahili 
in Soman characters, there being no sound which does 
not so nearly occur in some European language that 
the proper way of writing it can readily be fixed upon, 
and illustrated by an example. When this is the case 
there is no need to look for anything further. I think 
those who try to settle the alphabets of new languages 
are too apt to forget how essential simplicity is to a 
really good alphabet. If the Boman alphabet can be 



tNTRODVaTlON. 9 

made to distinguish all the sounds used in that Ian* 
guage, it does all for it that it does for any. To at- 
tempt to distinguish the sounds used in that language, 
from the sounds used in another, or to mark all the 
varieties of tone which occur in speaking, is always 
useless and embarrassing^ and not one man in a thou- 
sand has sufficient accuracy of ear to do it properly. 
It is practically easier to learn to attach a new 
sound to a known letter, than to learn a new sound 
and a new letter too, especially when the new letter 
has to be printed and written, and the learner is en^^ 
tangled in a maze of italics and letters with a point 
below and a point above, or a line through them, or 
some Greek letter which has not the sound one gives it 
in Greek, or some new invention which will fit well 
neither into printing nor writing, and looks at its ease 
neither as a capital nor a small letter. It generally 
happens that the sounds of a language, though not 
identical with those of another, correspond with them 
sufficiently to make the corresponding letters appro- 
priate symbols. Thus an English and a French t are 
not identical; but which nation would or ought to 
submit always to put a dot somewhere about its t to 
show that it is not the i which it never will want to 
use, and never did, and could not pronounce, if it met 
with it ? Or, to take a stronger instance, ought Ger- 
mans, Englishmen, and Spaniards always to cross the 
tails of their /s, or print them in italics, or deform their 
books with new symbols, merely because they do not 
pronounce their /s as Frenchmen do theirs? 



6 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



THE ALPHABET. 

The Yowelfl are to be pronounced as in Italian, the 
Consonants as in English. 

A 1=1 a in father. 

B = 5 in hare. 

Ch=± cli in eft^rry. Italian c before i or «. 

"D — dxjxdo, D occurs very frequently in the Mombas dialect 

where J is used in that of Zanzibar. 
£ = al in eJuiir, 
F =/ in fine. German «. 
G = gr in gate, neyer soft as in genius* 
H = ft in hat 
I = ee in feet. 
J ssj in Joy, Sometimes more like dy or di In cordial. French 

di, German d^, Italian gi. 
K = 2e in halendar. 

L = Zin long. L and r are generally treated as the same letter. 
M = m in man. 
N = n in no. 

O s= o in hoy, more like au than the common English o. 
P ^pinpainL 
B = r in raise. An English, not a Scotch, Irish, German, or 

French r. See L. 
6 s f in sun.* German ss. It Is never pronounced like a i or 

the English s in arise. 8 and th are commonly used for 

one audther indiscriminately. 
T d in ten. T frequently occurs in the dialect of Mombaa 

where eh is used in that of Zanzibar. 



TBE ALPHABET. 9 

tJ ? ooixiiooL 

y = V in very, Gennan t^. 

W = 10 in win. French <m. It is merely a ti pronounced aa % 

consonant. 
Y ss y in yonder, German/. It is merely an t* pronounced as a 

consonant. . Y is frequently used in the Lamoo dialect 

where j' occurs in that of Zanzibar. 
Z s f in zany, Gennan «. Z frequently occurs in the dialect of 

Lamoo where « is used in that of Zanzibar. 

There are several Bonnds introduced from the Arabic 
which do not occur in purely •African words. 

Gh =s the Arabic ghaxn ; it is a guttural g^ resembling 
the Dutch g. It may be obtained by pro- 
nouncing a ^ (as nearly as it can be done) 
with the mouth wide open. Most Europeans 
Imagine, the first time they hear it, that 
there is an r sound after the g^ but this is a 
mistake. 

Eh s the Arabic hha ; it is a very rough form of the 
German c%, the Spanish/, or the Scotch ch in 
loch. It resembles the sound made in trying 
to raise something in the throat. It may 
always be replaced in Swahili by a simple A» 
but nef^er by a h. 

Th » the four Arabic letters e&a, tAal, fhod, and ihah. 
The first of these is the English ih in (itni^ 
the second that in they. The third and fourth 
are thicker varieties of the second sound. In 
Swahili they may all be replaced by a z. No 
attempt is ever made to distinguish the last 
three letters; but as the first is generally 



10 8WAB1LI HANDBOOK. 

marked in pronunciation, it is in tlie -first 
part of this handbook marked by printing 
the th in italics wherever it is to be pro- 
nounced as in the English word tMnk. The 
sound of the English fh in (hat occurs in 
some Swahili as a dialectic variation for z. 
In vulgar Swahili z is not merely put for 
the Arabic th^ but th is also put for the 
Arabic «, as wathiri for waziri, a vizir. 

There are several compound consonantal sounds 
which require notice. 

Ch, a very common sound, representing what is 
sometimes a t and sometimes hi — ^in other 
' dialects. C is not required for any other 

sound, as it can be always represented by h 
when hard, and by 8 when soft. It would 
probably be an improvement always to write 
the ch sound by a simple c. 

Gn, see ng'. 
' Kw represents the sound otquin queer, 

M frequently stands for mil, in which cases it is pro- 
nounced with a half-suppressed u sound 
before it, and is even capable of bearing the 
accent of the word, as in mtu, a person, where 
the stress of voice is on the w, which has a 
dull nasal semivowel sound, not quite um. 
Where m occurs before any consonant except 
h or to, it must have this semivowel sound. 



TBS ALTSABET. l\ 

If, standing for fm^ has generally its semi* 
vowel sound before u. Before a or « it 
becomes mur, and before o it frequently loses 
the « altogether, and is pronounced as a 
simple m* 

N has frequently a nasal semivowel sound, a half- 
suppressed f being suggested by it. N has 
always this semivowel sound where it is 
immediately followed by ch^ /, i, w, n, or s. 

Ny has the sound of the Spanish n, the French and 
Italian g% the Portuguese n^, and the English 
nt in ccmj^nion^ only a little thicker and 
more nasal. 

Ng' is a peculiar African sound, much resembling 
the -ng which occurs at the end of many 
English words. If we could divide longing 
thus, lo-nging, without at all altering the 
pronunciation, it would come very near 
the African sound, which is never a final, 
because all Swahili syllables must end in a 
vowel. Some prefer to write this sound gn-^ 
as it resembles the sound given by Germans 
and others to those letters when they occur 
as initial letters in Greek. This sound must 
be distinguished from the common sound of 
n^-, in which the g distinctly passes on to 
the following vowel, as in the English word 
engage; in n^'- both sounds are heard, but 
neither passes on to the vowel. 

Sh is the Arabio Mn^ the English «&, the French ci| 



12 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

the Qerman m&. 8k and $ ai^ commonly 
treated as identical. 

Ft T, E, and possibly some other letters, have occa- 
sionally an explosive or aspirated sound, 
such as an Irishman will often give them. 
This explosive sound makes no change in 
the letter, but is an addition to it, probably 
always marking a suppressed n. Thus upepo 
is a tmmi, with both jp's smooth as in English ; 
but the plural, which should regularly be 
npepo, is jp'epo, with a strong explosive sound 
attached to the first letter. This explosive 
sound may be marked by an apostrophe ; it 
is, however, very seldom necessary to the 
sense of a word, and is noticeably smoothed 
down or omitted by the more refined and 
Arabized Swahili. 

There are other niceties of pronunciation which a 
fine ear may distinguish; but as they are 
by no means essential, and are seldom noticed 
by the natives themselves, it is not worth 
while here to examine them particularly. 

As a rule, the vowels are all pronounced distinctly, 
and do not form diphthongs. When, however, a for* 
mative particle ending in -a is placed before a word 
beginning with e- o)r •-, the two letters coalesce into a 
long e sound. It is not, however, even in such a case 
as this, always incorrect to pronounce the two vowels 
distinctly^ though it is not usually done. The instances 



TEE ALFEABET. 13 

of and rules for this union of sound will be found 
where the several prefixes whioh give occasion to it 
are dealt with. 

When two vowels come together at the end of a 
word, they are often to the ear one syllable, and have 
the sound of a diphthong ; they are really, however, 
two syllables of which the former bears the accent. 
This is at once apparent in the Merima dialect, in 
which an 2 is put between the vowels. Thus "kufaa^ to 
be of use, which sounds as if written Jbi/d, is in the 
Merima dialect Icufala. The shifting of the accent 
sometimes shows that the vowels are really separate. 
Thus a common fruit tree is called mzambarau^ in which 
word the last two vowels apparently unite into a 
sound like that in the English word liow ; but when -n i 
is added, making Mzambarainit at the zamhardu tree — 
the name of one of the quarters of Zanzibar — the u is 
quite separated from the a, and the last two syllables 
are pronounced like the English •oony. 

It may be assumed in all cases in which two vowels 
oome together that an I has been omitted between 
them, and will appear in some modification of the word 
or in its derivatives. 

The shifting of the accent above referred to takes 
place in obedience to the universal rule in Swahili, 
that the main accent of the word is always put upon 
the last syllable but one, a rule which often changes 
the sound of a word so materially as to baffle a beginner 
in his endeavour to seize and retain it. The syllable 
nt is the chief disturber of accents; and words which 



14 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

end in it may be always ifugpected of being plural 
imperatives if they are verbs, or of being in what is 
known as the locative case if they are nonns. There 
are only a very few words which end in -m in their 
simple forms. 

The formation or division of syllables is so closely 
connected with the powers of the letters, that this will 
be a proper place to mention it. The rule is that all 
Swahili syllables end in a vowel, and that the vowel 
must be preceded only by a single consonant, or by 
one preceded by n or w, or followed by w or y. 

There are a few half-assimilated Arabic words in 
which double consonants occur ; but there is a strong 
tendency in all such cases to drop one of the consonants 
and attach the other to the vowel which follows them. 

W can be placed after all the other consonants, 
simple and compound, except perhaps F 
andV. 

Y can follow P, N, and V. . 

These two letters are used in the formation of Verbs, 
-«?- being the sign of the passive, and -y- being used to 
give a transitive meaning. In several cases -fy- stands 
for 'py- ; -py- occurs in one word only, 'mpya^ new. 

N can be placed before D, G, J, Y, and Z. 

M can be placed before B, and perhaps Ch and V. 

M in these instances represents an n- used as a sub- 
stantival and adjectival prefix. Used in this way, n 
before h becomes m ; before I or r it changes the I or r 
into d, making nd- instead of nU or nr- ; before w it 
changes into m, and the t^ becomes &, making wb^ 



THE ALPHABET. 15 

instead of nw-. It is ourious that w oan be m&de to 
follow n without any change, bnt that n cannot be put 
before w. Before A;, jp, and <, the n is dropped, and 
they become A;',jp', and <*; before the other letters cK 
/, ^, w, », and «, it is merely dropped. 

The resulting syllables are not always easy of pro- 
nunciation to a European, as, for instance, nywa in hi* 
nywa, to drink, nor is it very easy to pronounce ngu ox 
nda; but to a native such sounds present no difficulty, 
whilst he can scarcely pronounce such a word as hlach 

Instances of the division of syllables will be found 
in the specimen of Kinyume, which forms Appendix I. 
Kinyume is made by taking the last syllable from the 
end of a word and putting it at the beginning, bo that 
each instance is a specimen of the native idea as to 
what letters belong to the final syllable. Some Swahili 
are very ready at understanding and speaking this 
enigmatical dialect. 

At the head of each letter in the second part will 
be found some observations on its use and pronun- 
ciation. 



16 . 8WAHIL2 HANDBOOK, 



STJBSTANTIVES. 

Swahili notms have two numbers, singular and plural, 
which are distinguished by their initial letters. Upon 
the forms qC the 'Substantives depend the forms of all 
Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs governing or governed 
by them. It is, therefore, necessary to divide them 
into so ma^y classes as there are different forms either 
of Substantiyes or of dependent words, in order to be 
able to lay. dpwn .rules for the correct formation of 
sentences. !For this: purpose Swahili Substantives may 
be conveniently divided into eight classes. 

I. Those ®!fgKnSig with Jf-, 'JMT-, JMTf*-, or Jfw-, in 
Ihe singular, and which denote living beings. They 
make their plural by changing Jtf- &c. into TTo-. 

'^^* HkS^ man ; watu, people. 

The singular prefix represents in all its forms the 
syllable JMtt-, which is itself very rarely heard. Before 
a consonant nf is almost always pronounced as a semi- 
vowel m, with the tt^ound before rather than after it. 
Before a and e the « becomes a consonant, and the 
prefix appears as muh. Before a^and u ihe u is very 



SUBSTANTIVES. 17 

frequently dropped, and the m alone is heard, llie 

pn^fix is treated as a distinct syllable when followed 

by a consonant, bnt very rarely so when followed by 

a Tow.el. 

Mchawif a wizard; wcuihaud, wlzaida» 

MJuti, a lizard ; tvajtui, lizards, 

Mtoanot a son ; ncaanOf sons. 

HfwogOf or mogcL, a coward ; vtaoga, cowards. 

Muunmhit or mumMt, a cupper; waumUSU, cuppers. 

When the plural prefix wa- is placed before a word 
beginning with «-, the two a's run together, and are 
aeldom distinguishable by the ear alone. When tro- is 
placed before a word beginning with c- or t-, the -a 
flows into the other vowel and produces a long e sound* 

Mwenzit a companion ; tcemi, companions. 
Micivh a thief; wevi, thieyes. 

11. Substantives beginning with JUT-, *if-, ifu-, or 
Mw'^ which do not denote living or animate beings* 
They make their plural by changing M- <&o. into Mu^ 
MUf a tree ; mitt, trees. 

The same observations apply to the singular prefix 

in this class as in Class I. 

Mfupoy a bone; mt/upo, bones. 
Mwanzoy a beginning ; mianxo, beginnings. 
Jfioembe, a mango tree ; miemhet mango trees. 
Jftffi&a, a thorn ; mti&a, or mt^a, thorns. 
Jfoto, a fire ; mioio^ fires. 

The names of tre^ belong to this class. 

ITT. Those which do not change to form the pluraL 

iiTyttmia, a house ; nyuniba^ bouses. 
i 9 



18 8WAEILI EANDBOOK. 

The simple description of nouns of this class is thai 
they begin with n, followed by some other consonant. 
It is probable that ^t- is the ground form of the prefix 
of this class, since it always appears as ny- before % 
voweL The singular powers and antipathies of the 
letter »- very much affect the distinctness of this class 
of nouns. As n must be dropped before c)l, /, ^, A;, jp, «, 
or t^ nouns beginning with those letters may belong to 
this class;* and as n becomes m before &, r, and tr, 
nouns beginning with mb or mv may belong to it. There. 
is a further complication in Swahili, arising from the 
fact that foreign words, except only foreign names of 
persons and offices, whatever their first letters, are 
correctly placed in this class. The popular instinct," 
however, refuses this rule, and in the vulgar dialect 
classes foreign words according to their initial letters, 
regarding the first syllable as a mere prefix, and treat- 
ing it accordingly (see also p. 20). In some cases words 
are handled in this way even in polite Swahili ; thus the 
Arabic Kiidhu^ a book, is very often made plural by 
treating the lei- as a prefix, and saying Ftto&u, for books. 

JETam^a, a rope ; hmboy ropes. 
MbegUf a seed; wbegu, seeds. 
Nyumiba, a boom ; nyuveiba^ honseSi 
Meza, a table ; meza^ tables. 
Bundukif a gun ; hundukif guns. 
Ndizif a banana ; ndizi, bananaa. 
Nji<h a road ; njict, roads. 



* There is nothing to show whether nouns beginning with these 
letters belong to this class or to the fifth ; but it is always safest in 
cases of doubt to treat them as belonging to this class, unless t 
special largeness is intended to be intimated concerning them. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 19 

IV. Those which begin with Ki- before a ponsonant 
or Oh- before a vowel. They form their plural by 
changing Xi- into Ft- and C&- into Fy-, 

Xt'ftf, a thing; vtfu, things. 
ChombOf a vessel ; vyonAo, vessels. 

Substantiyes are made diminntives by being bronght 
into this class. 

Mltma, a mountain ; KUiriMt a hilL 
Buoet^, a box ; kibu>eta, a little box. 

If the word stripped of all prefixes is a monosyllablOt 
/j- must first be prefixed. 

Mti, a tree ; hijiti, a shrnb. 

Mtoiko, a spoon ; IHjiko, a little spoon. 

Words beginning with Ki- may be turned into 
diminutives by inserting -jt- after the prefix. 

Kitwa, a head ; hijU'wa^.dk little head. 

Kiboho, a hippopotamus ; kijiboko, a little hippopotamus. 

In regard to animals, the use of the diminutive has 
a depreciating efiect. 

JBfbuti, a goat ; hibuzi, a poor little goat 

V. Those which make their plural by prefixing mo-* 

Katika^ a chest; mahcuihctt ohests. 

Nouns are generally brought into this class by re- 
jecting all prefix in the singular. If, howevei^ the 
word itself begins with a vowel, J- is prefixed ; if it be 
a monosyllable, Ji- is prefixed. The j- or jf- is regularly 

c2 



20 BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

omitted in the plural, but may be retained to avoid 
ambiguity, wbere the regular word would haye re« 
sembled one formed from another root, 

Jam^bo, ftn affair; mam5o, affairs, 

Jicho, an eye ; machOj eyes. 

Jombo, a lurgo Teasel ; majambo, large vosaels. 

If the word begin with »- or e-, the -a of the plural 
prefix coalesoes with it and forms a long -e-; this 
distinguishes dissyllables with /• prefixed from mono- 
syllables with jf- prefixed. 

Jino, a tooth ; meno (not mano\ teeth. 

Foreign names of persons and offices belong to this 

class. 

Wazirif a vizir; mavxusiri^ vizirs. 

In the vulgar dialeot of Zanzibar all foreign words 
whioh have a first syllable that cannot be treated as a 
prefix, are made to belong to this class, and met- is 
prefixed to form the plural (see p. 18), 

Anything whioh is to be marked as peculiarly large 
or important is so described by bringing the word into 
this class. 

Mfuhot a bag ; fuko, a very large bag. 

Mtut a man; jito, a very large man. 

^fyumbot a Louse ; Jum^ a large house. 

If % word is already in this class, it may be described 
as larger by prefixing /»-• 

ttakmga, sails ; mijiianga^ great saOl. 



BUB8TANTIVEB. 21 

Uapi water, JKa/ufa, oil, and other notms In {hat 
form are treated as plurals of this class. 

VI. Those which begin with D^ in the singular. 
They make their plural by changing TJ- into Ny- befora 
a vowel, or N- before a oonsonant. 

XJiaiho, a song; nyimboy songs. 
""^ I7(20in«, aluurof thebeard; iMltfVtf, h&irsOf thdbetid. 

This class is not a large one ; but the formation of 
its plural is full of apparent irregularities produced by 
the letter n* 

1. All nouns of this class, which are in the singular 
dissyllables only, retain the u- in the plural, and are 
treated as beginning with a voweL 

Vfa^ a crack ; hyufa^ crackst 
Uto, a face ; nytuo^ faces. 

2. Words in which the U- is followed by J, g^j^ or «, 
take N^ in place of IT-. 

3. Words in which the XJ- is followed by I or r, take 
N'<i but change the t or r into d. 

XJliihiy a tongue ; ndtmt', tongues. 

4. Words in which the U- is followed by 5, t>, or w, 
take n-, but change it into m-, and their first letter is 
always (• 

VhaUy a t>lank ; «iW, planks. 

Uwingu, a heaven ; rnbinguf the heavens* 

0* Words in which the U- is followed by ii p, or I, 



2S BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

drop tlio 17*, and give an explosivo sound to the first 

letter. 

Upepo^ a wind ; jfepo^ winds. 

6, Words in which the tT- is followed by eft, /, J, n, 
or «, merely drop the CT-. 

Ufunguo, a key ; funguo, keys. 

Nouns of this class are so few in Swahili that it Is 
scarcely worth while to notice these distmctions ; they 
are, however, important as explaining what would 
otherwise seem anomalies, and represent influences 
which have a much larger field in other African 
languages* 

Abstract nouns generally belong to this class* 

YII. The one word Mdhali, place or places, which 
requires special forms in all adjectives and pronouns* 

VIII* The Infinitives of Verbs used as Substantives* 
All Infinitives may be so used, and answer to the 
English Verbal Substantives in 4nf. 

Kufa, to die = dying. 
Kwiba, to steal s stealing. 

All Substantives of both numbers may be put into 
what may be called the locative case by adding -nt. 
This case has three great varieties of meaning, which 
are marked by dififerences in all dependent pi^mouns. 

' 1. In, within, to or from within. 
2. At, by, near. 
& To, fiom, at ^of places far ofl)i 



BUBBTANTiVES. 23 

Kyumbani mwangut in my houaa^ • 
Nyunibani panguj near my house. 
Nyumbcmi hwangut to my house. 

Mtoni, by the river. 

Njiani, on the road. 

VyombonifiD. the vesselfl^ 

K%tu>anif on the head. 

Mbingunij in heaven. 

Kuangukani^ in faUing^ 

Tlid possessive case is expressed by the use of the 
Proposition -a, which see. The objective or acoiisative 
is the same as the subjective or nominative. 

In the following list of Siibstantiyes the plural form 
is given in all cases in which, if commonljr used, it if 
not the same as the singular* 



24 



8WAEIL1 HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF SUBSTANTIVES 

The letters in parentheses denote the several dialects : (A.) Kiamn, that of 
Lamoo ; (M.) Eimvitai that of Moxnbas ; (Mer.) Eimeiima, that of the main* 
land opposite Zanzibar; (N.) Kingoisi, the poetical dialect; (Ar.) Arabic 



A what-U-ily a iking ihe name of 
which you do not know or can* 
not recaUj dude, pi, madude. 

Such-a-oncj a person whose name is 
not hnoum or is immaterial, 
fullanL 



AbasemenU nnenyekca 
Abhorrence, machukio. 
Ahilityt nwezo. 
Abridgment, muhtasari. 
Abscess, tumbasi, nasnr. 
Abundance, wingi, imgi (M.)* mari* 

tliawa. 
Abyssinian, Habeshia* plL Maba* 

besbia. 
Acceptance, ukiibali. 
Accident, tukio, pi, matukio. 
Accounts, hesabtt. 

Account book, dafbari. 
Accusation, matUvumu. 
Accusation (before a judged, mshta* 

ka, pL mishtaka. 
Ache, maUmiTn, uchungu. 
Action, kitendo, pi, vitendo) amalL 
Addition (in arithmetic), jumla. 



Address (of a letter), anwani. 
Adornment, kipambo, pL vipambo^ 

pambo, pi* mapambo. 
AduUery, zani, iizini» uzinzL 
Advantage (profit), fayida. 
Adversity, mateao, ahidda* , 
Advice, shaurl, pL mashauiL 
Adze, sboka la bapa, sezo. 
Affair, jambo* 

Affairs, mambo, shnghuli, iili« 
mwengu. 
Affection, mapenei, mapendo. 

Mutual affection, mapendano 
Affliction, teso* pi* mat^. 
Age, umri. /^^ 

Old agCf tt2ee» 

Uxtreme cUd age^ nkongwe. 

Equal in age^ hirimu moja. 

Former ages, <amani za kale. 
Agent, wakUi, pi, mawakilL 
Agreement, maagano, makatibil| 

mwafaka, mopataliO) sharfci. 
Aim, shabaha. 
Air, hawa, hewa, npe^x?. 

For change of air, kubadili hawi^ 
Almond, lozi,jp2. maloAi. 
Alms, tsuii&kA, 



BtTBSTANTimS. 



25 



iUbe^8iibiri,8Ubiii 

Aloe» wood, uudi. 

AUoTy mathbah, mathabahn. 

JJum^ shabbu. 

AnibergriBf ambari. 

Amuletj talasimu, jpl. matalasimn. 

AmfuemanJt^ mazomgumzo, mao- 

ngezL 
AncetioTs^ babu, wazee* 
Anchor^ nanga» baara. 
Ancle («M AnJdeU), kiwiko eba 

mgnti, ito la gnu (A.). 
Angel, malaika. 
Anger, hasiia, gbathabu. 
Angle, pembe. 
Angoxa, Ngoje. 
Animdly nyama* 

The ifoung of a domeetie animal, 
ndama. 

A young ehe^nmal (hat haa not 
yet borne, mtamba,|72. mitamba. 

Native animals. See under their 
eeveral namee :^- 

Bnkii, a very large kind of roL 

Toi, a hind of toUd goat* 

Buga(?> 

Ndezi (?). 

Njiri (?). 
Anklets {eee AneU), mtali, pt mitali, 

fnnrnga, pL niaftmmgiL 
Annoer, nujibu, jawabiu 
Antelopee, See Gazelle. 

BaiOp Heleobagus arundinaeeue, 

Bondoro, DyJcer^e aittdope* 

Koru, waier hueh. 

Kuguni, haartebeeeL 

Mpofu, pi, Wapofti, dand* 

Kymnbo, unldibeeet, 

Parahanu 

Kulungo. 
Antimony, wanja wa manga. 
ifi<0,cbiixiga,timgii (M.),8i6imizi(?). 



Siafii, a large ^rotin hind, 

Maji a moto, a yeUow hind whi^ 
Hves in tret*. 

White ants, mchwa. 

Ants in their flying stage, knmbi- 
kttmbi. 

AnthiU, kisngnlii, pi vistigiilii. 
AnuSj mknuda, fapa. 
AnvH, fuatre. 
Ape, nyanL 

Aposde, mtumt?, pi, mitiune. 
Appearance, umbo^ pi. maumbOi 
Arab, Mwarabu, pi, Waarabu.' 
Arab from Sheher, Mahihiri, pL 

Washibiri. 
Arab from the Persian Chdf, Mahe- 
mali, pi. Waahemali, Tenda 
balna. 
Arabia, Arabuni, Manga. 
Arabic, Kiaittbtu 
Arbitrator, mpataniBhi. 
Arch, tao, pi, matao. 
Areca nut, popoo. £^00 BetoL 
Arithmetic, heaabn. 

Addition, jumla* 

Subtraction, baku 

Multiplication, tharaba. 

Division, mkaaama. 

Pfoportion, or division of profits. 
Arm, mkono, pL mikono. [uirarL 

Under the arm, kwapani. 
Armpit, kwapa, pi, makwapa. 

Perspiration of the armpit, 
kikwapa. 
Arrangements, madaraka. 
Arrival, kifiko, kikomo. 
Arrogance, gbnruri. 
Arrow, ma^le^ pi, miabale, ob€inl«^ 

pi yyembe (N.). 
Arrowroot, uwanga, kanji. 
Artery, vein or nerve^ mabipa, pi. 
misbipa. 



26 



BWAStLI SAJfDBOOK. 



Artifice, kitimbi, pi, vitimbL 
AtcripUoni ofpruUej tasbiih. 
Aihet^ jifu, pL majifa, ivv, pL 

maiTn (M.). 
■Ai9t pmida. 
AssafcBtidct, mviije. 
Amembly, jamaa, jomaa, makutano, 

xnakusaDyiko. 
Plaee of cusembly, maknsanyiko. 
Asthma^ pumiu 

Aitontshment, mataajabo, msangao. 
Astrologer, mnajimn, ph wanajimxL 
Astronomyy falaki, falak. 
Attachment^ wambiso. 
Auction, mnada, pi, minada* 
Awtioneer, dalali. 
Aunty shaagazi, piL mashangad. 
AuQiority, ngUTii, mamlaka, hu- 

kouiii*' 
Avarice, choyo, bakhili, tamaa. 
Awl, uma, pi, nyuma. 
Avming, chandaliia. 
Axe, sboka, pL maahoka. 



Baby, mtoto mcbanga, Mtoto 

kicbanga, malaika. 
Back, mauDgo, mgoDga 
Back of (he head and necX;, ki- 

sbogo. 
Backbone, uti wa mauDgo. 
B<idne8Bf ubaya, novu. 
Bag, mfuko, pi, mifuko» fuko, pi, 
mafuko, kifuko, pi, vifoko. 
Mkoba, pi, mikoba, a terip, 
Kibogosbij pi vibogoshiy a trnaU 
bag made of shin. 
^'Matting hags, 
Kikapu or Ghikapn, pi, yikaptu 
E^apu, pi. makapa, very large, 
Kanda, pL makanda, long and 
narrow, broadest at the bottom. 



Junia, used for riee, ^e„ gunki 
Kigunni, used for dates, sugatf 

Eifiimbo, pi, vifambo, very large., 
used for clovee. 
Baggage, yyombo. 
Bail, leizima/ 
Bait, chambo, pi, yyambo. 
Baking place for pottery, Ae,, Joko. 
BalanceSt mizaiiL 
Baldness, upaa. 
A shaved plaee on the head, kipai, 
pi, vipaa. 
BaU,iviie, 
India-rubber haU, mpira, plL 

mipira. 
Any smaU round ifiing, doDgc^ pi, 
madonge. 
BaUast, faromi. 
Bamboo, 'mwanzi, pL mlwanzL 
Banan<u, ndizi. 
Banana tree, mgomba, pi, mi* 

gomba. 
BuncMets of fruit, tana, pt 

matana. 
The fruit stalk, mkungu, pi. mi« 
kungu. 
Band (stripe), utepe, pi, tepe. 
Band (of soldiers, &c.), Mkoei, pk 

vikosL 
Bandage, ntambaa, pL tambaa. 
Bangles, See Anklets, 
Bank (of earth, sand, Ae,), fUngii, 
pi. mafuDgiL 
Bank of a river, kando. 
The opposiie hank, ^g'amba 
BaobaJh See daldbash. 
Barber, kinyozi^ pi. vinyozi. 
Bargain, mwafaka, maafikano. 
Bargaining, ubazazL 
Bark of a trie, gome (hard), gandW 
(soft). 



BUB&TANTtVM8. 



27 



Barley, thairi (Ai.). 

Barque (a ship), merikebn ya mili- 

ngote miwili na nuss. 
Barrel, pipa, jpL mapipa. 
BcMut, baknli, jpl mabakulL 

A srnaU baein, kibaba. 

A hr€U8: bann, tasa, pi, matasa. 
SeeBoufl, 
Baslcet See Bag. 

Ghikapti, pL vikapn. 

Pakacha, ph mapakacha, made 
-' ' of eocoa-hut leaves plaited Uh 



Dohani, a verytaU narrow basket 
made of slips of wood sfipple- 
mented by cocoornut leaves. 
Twnga, a round open basket. 
VngOj pi, maiingo, or nteo, pL 
teo (M.), a round flat basket 
used for sifting. 
Kiteo, pi, viteo, a very smaU one. 
Kunguto, piL makungutp, a 
basket used as a colander, 
■ Jamanda, pi, majamanda, a round 
basket of thick work, with a 
raised lid. 
Satf popo. 

Bo^AeZor, msijana (?). 
Bath, birika, chakogea. fw^w \ 
Bath room, choo, pL yyoo. See 
.' Privy, 

Ftihlie baths, hamainL 
BaUle, mapigano. 
Battlements, menomeno. 
Bay, ghubba. 
Beach, pwani, mpwa (M.)» 
Beads, uahanga, pi, shanga. 

Kondayi, pi. makondavi, a large 

kind worn by women. 
Xrosary), tasbiih. 
Beak, mdomo wa ndege. 
dparrofibeahfrnbemgi^ 



Beam, mH, pZ. miti, Boriiiy mhimili, 

pi. mihimilL 
Beans, kuunde. 
Ghooko, a very small green kind: 
B'iwe, gtow on a climbing plant 

with a white flower. 
Baazi, grow on a bueh something 
like a loiJbumumi 
Beard, ndevn, maderti. 

One hair of the beard, udevu. 
The imperial, the tuft of hair on 
the lower lip, kinwa mchuzi, 
kionda mtuzi (M.). 
Becuit, nyamtk. 
Beauty, uzuri. 

A beauty, kiznri, pi, viznri, haiba. 
Bed (for planting sioe^ potatoes), 

tuta, pi, matnta. 
Bedding, matandiko. 
Bedstead, kitanda, pi, vitanda. 
The legs, tendegu, pi, matendega 
The side pieces, mfumbaii, pL 

mifumbati. 
The end pieces, IdtaLkmo, pL vita- 

kizo. 
The head, mchago* 
The space underneath, mvnnga 
kitanda. 
nyuki. 
Beehive (a hoUow piece of wood), 

mzinga, ^Z. mizinga. 
Beggar, mwombaji, pi, ^vaombajL 
Begging, maomyi. 
Beginning, mwanzo, pi. mianzo. 
Start in speaking or doing, fell, 
pi mafeli. 
Behaviour, mwenendo. 

Oood behaviour, kutenda vema. 
HI behaviour, kutenda vibaya, 
BeK, kengele. 
Njuga, a smaU bed worn as an 
ornament, a dog belL 



i<^ ^See, 



^8 



BWAHILI BANDnoOS. 



BeUowing, Idvumi, vmnL 
Jiellows, mifuo, miYokuto. 
Jkllyt matambo. 
Bend, piado. 
The arm Uiffened in a hetUform, 
kigosho cha mkono. 
Bemhatooka hayy Mjanga. 
Betel leaf, tambuo. It U chewed 
with areea nui, lime, and to- 
hacco folded up in it, and givee 
its name to the wlioU, 
Beverage, kinywaji, pt viny wajL . 
Bhang, bangi. 

Bieepe muscle, tafu ya mkono. 
Bier, jeneza, jenaiza. 
Bifurcation, panda. 
Bile, nyongo. 
BUiousnees, safuia (Ax,), marungu* 

(M.). 
BiU, See Beak 
(account), hesabti, banuk 
Bin of tale, ankra. 
{chopper), inandu, pL mianda; 
upamba, pi, pamba* 
Bird, ndege, nyuni (M.). 

Young of birds, kiuda, pi, ma- 

kinda* 
Birds of the air, ndege za angn. 
Bird of ill omen, korofi, mkorofl. 
Native birds, 

Pngi, a very smaU kind of dove, 
Korongo, crane, 
Mbango, a bird with a hooked 

beak, 
Kinga, a green dove, 
Zawaridi, a Java sparrow, 
Mbayuwayu, a <7iKi22ot0. 
Sfundl, an owl, 

Luanga— pungu — tendawala (?). 
Birth, uzazi, uvyazi, kizazi, kivyozL 
Biscuit, biskwitL 
A very thin kind, kakL 



Bishop, aakafn (Af.). 

A chess bishop, khand. 
Bit (a horse*s), lijamu. 
Bitterness, uchnngu, nkalL 
Blabber of secrets, payo, pi mapayO. 
Blacksmith, mfua chuma, pL wafua 
' chuma, mhunzi (Mer.), plL 
i¥ahunzi. 
Blackwood, sesemi. 
Bladder, kibofa, pi vibofo. 
Blade, keDgea. 
Blade of grass, uchipuka, pi, ebi* 
piika. 
Blame, matnvtimtu 
Blanket, bushutL 
Blemish, ila, kipunguo. 
Blessing, beiaka, mbaraka, pit, fnl- 

baraka. 
Blindness, Upofu (loss of tight)* 

chongo (loss of one eye). 
Blinders (used for camels when 
grinding in mitts), jamanda (of 
basket work), kidoto (of doth). 
Blister, lengelenge, pi moleiige- 
lenge. 
A vesicular eruption of the skin. 
Block, See Pulley. [awatL 

A block to dry skuU caps upon^ 
faroma. 
jB2oo(2, damn. 

Blood-vessel, msbipa; pi ndshlpo. 
Blotcli, waa, pZ. mawaa. 
Blowing and bellowing noise (oftel^ 

made with a drum), Yumi 
Blue vitriol, mrututu. 
Board, nbatt, pi mbao* 

Piece of board, kibao, pi. vibait. 
Boat, mashua. 
Body, mwili, pi miili. 

The human trunk, kiwiliwilL 

A dead body, mayiti. 

The body of soldiers, d:e,, jamii 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



29 



Boilj jipo, pi, majiptL 

J^anibf kombora. 

Bombay, Mombee. 

JBoMt mfapa, pL mifupa, ftipa, pL 

mafupa (very large). 
Booh, chao, pL \jxio, kitabu, pi, 
yitabii. 
A tacred hook, msaliafa, pi misa- 

liaftu 
An account hook, dafUurL 
Booty, mateka, nyara. 
Border (poundary), mpaka, pL mi- 
paka. 
An edging vooven on to a piece of 
doth, taraza. 
Bother, uthia, huja. 
BoUle, obnpa, pi, jnaobupa, tnpa 
(M-X pL matiipa. 
A long-neeked bottle for sprinkling 

tcmts, mrasbi, pi mirasbi. 
A little hotth, a phial, kitupa, pi, 
vitupa. 
Bottom, cbioL 
Bough, kitawi, pi vitawi 
Boundary, mpaka, pi, mipaka. 
BoWf Tipindi, pi, pindi, nto, pi 

mata, or cyuta. 
Bowl (wooden), faa. See Basin. 
Bowsprit, mlingote wa majL 
Box, bweta, pi mabweta, ndusi, 
kisandakuy pi Tisanduku. 
8mdU, kibweta, pi, vibweta. 
Large, kasba, pi makasha, ean- 

diiko. 
8maU metal box, kijaluba, pi 
• Tijaluba. 

SmaU, long-shaped metal box, often 
wed to ke^ betel in, kijamanda, 
pi yijamanda. 
SmaU paper bo^ kibnmba, pi 
vibumba. 
Boy, kijana, pi vijann. 



Bracelet, kekee (flat). 

Kikuku, pi vikuku (round). 

Kingaja, pi vingaja (of beads). 

Baiiagiri(omamenfo<2 with points), 

Timbi. 
Braid, kigwe, pi vigwe. 
Brains, bongo, mabongoi. 
Bran, ohachn, makapi 

Musks of rice, kumyL 
Branch, ia,^i„pl matawi, atanzu, 

pi, tanzQ, 
Brand (apiece of toood partly bumt\ 

Mnga, pi vinga. . 
Brass, ihaba, nuh^ (Ar.). 
Brass wire, mazoka (?> 
Bravery, ushujaa, lU/tabiti 
Brawler, mgoxnvi, pi wagomvi 
'Bread (loaf or oake), mkate. 
Breadth, upana. 
Break. See Orcuik, Notch. 
Breakfast, chakula cha subui, 
Mfungua kanwa, cha'msba 
kanwa. 
Breaking wind (upward), kiungulia, 
pi. yiungulia. 

^^ffeumu^arcQ, Jamba, |>2. majamb% 
masbuzi 
Sreast, kifua, kidari, mtima.^ 

Breasts, maziwa, sing. ziwa. 
Breath, pumzi, nafusi, roho. 
Bribe, rushwa. 
Bride, bibi barusi. 
Bridegroom, bwana harusL 
Bridle, hatamu (halter, reins, (£0.)^ 

lijama (bit). 
Brink, iikingo, mzingo. 
Brook, kijito, pi yijito. 
Broom, ufagio, pi fagio. 
Brother, ndugu, ndugu mume^ 
kaka (Eihadimu). 

Foster brother, ndngu kunyonyiw 

Brother-in-lawt sbemogi. 



30 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



fftuband^B brother^ mwamua. 
Wife's hrriher, wifi. 
Brow, kikomo cha uso, kipajL 
Bn$Ue, Tilio la damu, alama ya 

pigo. 
Brush (see Broom), bnrushL 
BrushiooodjkokOf makoko. 
Bubble, povn, pL mapovo. 
Bucket, ndoo. 
BucMer, ngao. 
Buffalo, nyalL 
Bug, kunguni. 
Building, jengo, pi, majengo. 
Building materials, majengo. 
Firm and good building, mtomo. 
Bull, fahali,|>L mafaliali, ng'ombe 

mume or ndume. 
Bullet, poopoo, risasi ya bandukL 
Bulloch, maksai 

Bunch, tawi, pi. matawi, kitawi, pi, 
vitawi, kichala, pL vichala. 
TJie bunch is said to be of the 
tree and not of the fruit, 
Tawi la mtende, a bunch of dales, 
Kiohala oha mzabibu, a bunch of 
grapes. See Bananas. 
Bundle, peto, pi. mapeto, mzigo, pi. 
mizigo. 
In a cloth, bindo, furushi, ki« 

furushi 
Of straw, mwenge, pH. mieDge. 
Of sticks, titi, pi. matUL 
Buoy, chilezo, pi. vilezo, mlezo, pL 

niilezo. 
Burden, mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Burial-place, mazishi, maziko. 
Burier (i.e. a special friend), mzisbi, 

pL wazi&hL 
Btish, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 

Bushes, koko, pi. makoko. 
Business, shughuli, kazi. 
Urgent busiT%ess, amara. 



A eomplioaJted lusinMs^ vim 

vingi. 
His business, amri yake. 
I have no business, Ac, sina amri|^ 
&o. 
Butter, siagL 

Clarified butter (ghee), samli. 
BuJtlermilk, mtindi. 
Butterfly, kipepeo, pL vipepeo. 
Buttocks, tako, pi, mataka 
Button, kifungo, j)Z, yifango. 
Button hop, kitanzi, pL vitanzL _ 
Button by which the ujooden clogs 
are held on, msuruake,pL xni« 
suruake. 
Buyer, mnunuzi, pi. wauimuzL 

0. 

Cabin (9ide\ kipeniL 

Cable, amara. 

Caffre corn, mtama. 

Cage, kizimbi, pi. yizimbi, tanda, 

pi, matundu. 
Cake, mkate, pL mikate. 
Cake of mtama meal, mkate wa 

mofu. 
Cake of tobacco, mkate wa tu* 

mbako. 
Bumnnda, pi. mabumunda, a soji 

of dumpling or soft cake, 
Eitumbua, |>2. vitumbua, a eaiki 

made lilce a fritter. 
Ladu, a round ball made of 

semsem seed, spice, and sugar. 
Kinyunya, pi, vinyunya, a Utile 
cake made to try the quality of 
the flour, 
(hlabath, bnyn, pi, mabnyn. 
Inner part of the calabash fruity 

ubuytu 
Calabash used to ^ draw wattr^ 
kibuyu, yibuyiu 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



81 



Calah<uh tree or hadbah, mbuyu, 
pL mibuyu. 

A pumpJiin shell used to hold 
liquidsy dundu, pi. madundu. 
Calamity f masaibu, msiba, j>2. misiba. 
CaJico, See Cloth. 

Finey bafta. 
Cciff, ndama, ndama wa ng'ombe. 
Call (callingX mwito, pi, miito. 

(a cry)y nkelele, ukemi 

Kikorombwe, a eigndl cry. 
Calm, shwali. 
Calumba root, kaomwa. 
Camel, ngamia. 
Camehpard, twiga. 
Camphor, karafumayiti, kafuri. 
Candle, tawafa, meshmaa. 
Candlestick, kinara, ph yinara. 
Cannabis Indica, bangi. 
Cannon, mzinga, pi, miziuga. 
Canoe, galawa {with outriggers), 
mtumbwi, pi, mitumbwi (with' 
ovJt outriggers), hori, pL mabori 
{vsith raised head and stem). 
Canter, mghad (of ahorse}, 
, Thoith {of an ass). 
Cap, kofia. 

A cap hlodk, faroma. 

A gun^sap, fataki. 
Capacity, kadri. 
Cape^ {headland), rasi. 
Captain, nakhotba, naoza, kapitani. 
Caravan, msafara, pi, misafara. 

Caravan porter, mpagazi, pi, wa- 
pagazi 
Carcase, mzoga, pi. mizoga. 
Cards (playing), karata. 
Cardamoms, iliki. 
Care, tunza, pi, matunza, 

^eauiiony, hathari 
Cargo, sbehena. 
Carpenter, sermala, pi, masenuala. 



Carpet, znlia. 
Carriage, gari, pi. magaiL 
A gun carriage, gurudumo Ift. 
mzinga. 
Cartridge, kiass oha boadnki. 
Carving, nakeh, nakisht ^ 

Case or paper box, kibumba, pL 

vibumba. 
Cashew nut, korosho, pJ. makorosho 
Immature nut, dunge. 
Cashew apple, bibo, pi, mabibo^ 

kaoju (M.), pi. makanju. 
Cashew nut tree, mbibo, pZ. mibibo 
mkanju (H.)> pi* mikanju. 
CksTc, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Casket, kijamanda, pi. vijamanda. 
CkLssava, mubogo. 
Apiece of the dried root, 'kopa,pl» 



Castte, gereza, ngome. 

A chess ccutle, fil (Ar. d^hant). 
Castor oil, mafuta ya mbarika, 

mafuta ya nyonyo (?), mafuta 

ya mbono (?). 
Castor oil plant, mbarika, pi, mi- 

barika, mbono (?), pi, mibono. 
Cat, paka. 
Catamite, haniti, hawa, hawara, 

shoga (A.). 
CatUe, ng'ombe, nyama. 

(kiltie fold, zizi,pl, mazizi. 
Caudle made on the occasion of a 

birth, of rice, sugar, and spicCf 

and given to visitors, fuka. 
Caulking, khalfati. 
Cause, sababu, kisa, asili, maana. 
Cautery and the marks of it, pisho^ 
Caution, bathari. [pZ. mapiflbo..' 
(kive, paango, pi mapaango. 
Censer, a small vessel to bum incense^ 

in, ohetezo, pi vyetezo, mkebe^. 

pi, mikebe. 



32 



SWAHILI EANDBOOK. 



Centipede, taandu. 
Certainty, yakini, kite. 
Chaff, kapi, pi, makapL 
(of rice), kumvi. 

(^an and crushed grains), wishwa. 
ChaiUf mkufa, pL mikufa, mnyo- 

xoro, pi, minyororo, silesile, 
Door chain, riza. 
Chair, kid, pi viti 
Chalk, chakL 

Chameleon, kinyonga, pH, vinyonga, 
Chance, nasibu. Qumbwi (?). 

Chandelier, thurea. 
Change or changing, geuzi, pi, 

mageuzi. 
Clmpter, sura, baK 
Character, sifa. 
Characters, berufu. 
Charcoal, makaa ya tnitL 
Charm (talismaiC), talasimu, pi. ma- 

talasimu. 
Chatter, upuzL 
Chatterer, mpuzi, pi, wapuzL 
CheaJt, ayari, ihjanja, pi, wajanja. 

A great cheat, patiala. 
Cheek (the part over the cheek-bone)^ 

kitefnte, pi, vitefute. 
(The part over the teeth), cbafu, 

pi, macbafu, tavu (A.), pi* 
Cheese, jibini. [matavu. 

Chess^ sataranji. 
Chest {of men), kif ua, pi, Yifaa. 
(of animals or men), kidari. 
(a large box), kasba, pi, makasba, 

Eandukn. 
Chicken^ faranga, pU mafaranga, 

kifaranga, pi yifaraoga. 
(JJiief, mfalme, pi wafalme, jumbe* 

pL majumbe, manyL 
Chieftainship, ujumbe. 
Child, mtotcv |>Z. watoto, kitoto, pl^ 

Titoto, mwana, pH waacn. 



A child which cuts its upper tedh 
first, and is therefore considered 
unlucky, kigego, pi vigego. 
Childhood, utoto. 
Chimney, dohaan. 

Chin, kideyu, pL videyu, kioTU 
(A.), pH' vieyu. 
Omament*hanging from the veil 
below the cJiin, jebu, pi ma- 
jebu. 
Chisel, patad, cbembem 
Juba, a mortice chisel 
Uma, a smaU chisel 
Choice, hiari, biyari, ikhtiari, nv 
tbarL 
Tour choice, upendavyo (as you 
like), 
(cholera, tanni, \rabba, kipindu* 

pinda. 
Church, kanisa^ pi makauisa. 
Cinders, makaa. 
Cinnabar, zangefiirL 
Cinnamon, mdalasini* 
Cipher (figure of nought), sifuni, 

zifurL 
Circle of a man^e affairs, Ac, uli- 

mwenga wake. 
Circumcision, tobara, kumbi 

(Mer.)(?). 
Circumference, kivimba, mzingo. 
Circumstances, mambo. 

A dreumstanoe, jambo. 
Cisterji, birika. 

Citron, balungi, pi mabaiimgl 
Civet, zabadi. 
Civet oatj fuDgo, ngawa (a largm 

animal than the fungo). 
Civilization, ungwana. 
Civilized peopHe, wangwana. 
Clamp for burning lime, tanuu, 
Clap of thunder, radi* 
Claretf dirai* 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



as 



CUub/ot ttudyy darasa. 
davoy nkuoha, pL kucha. 

{of a crah)f gando, pi, magando. 
Clay (?), udongo. 
Clearness, weupe. 
CSerik; karani 
Clergyman, padre or padiri, pl» ma- 

padiri, khatibn. 
Cleverness, hekima. 
Climate, tabia. 
Clook,asa, 
Whai o'doekisU^ Saa ngapi? 
Aeeording to the native rea^con' 
ing, noon and midnight are at 
the sixth hour, saa a fiita; six 
o^doeh is saa a (Aenafihara. 
Clod, pnmba, pi, mapombA. 
Cloth (toooUen), joho. 
{Cotton), ngno. 

{American sheeting), amerikano. 
{Blue calieo), kaniki 
Cloth of gM, zarL 
A loin doth of chout two yards, 

8hiika,doti. 
A loin cloth with a ooioured border, 

kikoi, ph vikoi 
A turban cloth, kitambi, plL vi- 

tambL 
A iJDoman*s doth, kisuto, pi. vi- 

fiUtO. 

A doth twisted into a kind of rope 

used as a girdle, and to malce 

the turbans worn by the Hindis, 

tikmnbaii, plL kumbuQ. 

Clothes, ngno, migao, mayazi, mav^o. 

Cloud, wingu, pi. mawingu. 

Sain cloud, ghubari, pi. maghu- 

bari. 
Broken scattered douds, mavn- 
ndeynnde. 
Cloves, garofiiu, karofuu. 
Fruit-stalks, kikonyo,|>l. vikoziyo. 



Club,nnffh 

CoaZs, makaa. 

Coast, pwani. 

Coat, joho (a long open coat ef 

broaddoth worn by the Arabs). 
Coib of Indian com, gUBzi, piL ma- 

g^unzi. 
Cock, jogoo^t majogoo, jogoi, jimbL 
A young ooeherd, not yet Me to 

crow, pora. 
A oodt's comb, npangs. 
A cocVs waiUes, ndeftu 
Coddes, kombe za pwani (?> 
Cockroadi, mende, makfdalao (Ma- 

lagazy). 
Coooaynut, nazL 
Cocoa-nut tree, nmazi, pL minazi 
Heart of the growing shoot, used as 

salad, &c., kichilema, shaha. 
Cloth-like envdope of young leaves^ 

kilifn. 
Leaf, kuti, pi. makuti 
Midrib of leaf, uchukutif ph 

chukuti. 
Leasts, ukuti, pi. kuti. 
Leaf plaited for making fences, 

makuti yiv.kiiinba. 
Half leaf plaited togeUier, makuti 

yapaude. 
Leaflets made up for thatching, 

makuti ya viungo. 
Part of a leaf plaited into a 
basket, pakacha, pL mapakacha. 
Woody flower sheath, karara. 
Bunch of nuts, tawi la mnazi. 
Flower and first forming of nutSf 

upuDga, pi. punga. 

SrnaU nuts, kidaka, pi. vidaka. 

Half -grown nut, kitale, pi. yitale. 

FuU-grown nut before the nutty 

part is formed, dafu, pi. 

madafu. In this stage the thdl 



84 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



4$ perfectly full of the milk or 

juice (maji), ai^ the nui8 are 

often gaihered for drinking. 
Half -ripe nuty when the nutty part 

is formed and the milk begins to 

wathle in (he tfteU, koroma, pi. 

makoroma. 
Bipe nuf, nazL 
A nut which heu grown fuU of a 

white spongy substance without 

any hoUow or milk, joya, pi. 

majoya. 
A nut which has dried in the iJieU 

so as to ratUe in it without 

being spoilt, mbata. 
The fibrous case of the nut, cocoa' 

nut fibre, makmnbi. 
(Jocoa'-nutfibre thoroughly eHeaned, 

Qsmnba. 
A stick stuck in the ground to rip 

off the fibre, kifuo, pi, vifuo. 
The shell, kifun, pi vifuu, H- 

fnfu (M.). 
Instrument for scraping the fresh 

nut for cooking, mbuzi ya ku- 

kunianazi 
Oily juice squeezed out of the 

scraped cocoa-nut, tuL 
A smaU bag to squeeze out theixd 

in, Wrsmhu, pi, Tifumbu. 
The scraped nut after the iai has 

been pressed out, ohicha. 
Copra,the nut dried and ready to be 

pressed in theoil mtU, nazi kanu 
Coeoormtt oH, mafuta ya nazi 
Coffee, kohawa, (plant) mbunu 
Coffee berries, buni. 
Coffee pot, mdila, pi. midila. 
Coin (a coin), sarafu. See Dollar^ 

Bupee, &c. 
Colander {in batiket work), kuDguto, 

pi, makanguto/ 



CM, baridi. 
Baridi and apepo are often used 
to mean wind or eM tadiffet* 
ently. 
Cold in the head, mafua. 
I have a cold in the head, Giwal 



CoUar-bone, mtaHnga, j)2. mitnlinga. 
Colour, rangL 
Colours are generally described by 
reference to some known euh^ 
4tanee : rang! ya kabawa, cqfee 
colour, brovm ; rangi ya majani, 
leaf colour, green; rangi ya 
tni^ti, colour of the dry cocoa* 
nut leaves, grey. 
Comb, kitana, pi. vitana, ehanuu, 
pi. mashanuu (a large wooden 
comb)* 
A coek*s comb, upanga. 
Comfort, faraja. 
Comforter, mferiji, pi wafarijL 
Coming (arrival), kifiko, ph yifiko. 
(Mode of coming), majilio. 
Coming doum or out from, inshuko, 
pL mishuko. 
Command, amrL 

Commander, jemadari, pi. majema« 
dan, mkuu wa asikari. 
Second in command, aMda. 
Gommissiont agizo, pi. maagizo» 
Comoro Islands, Masiwa. 
QreaJt Comoro, Kgazidja. 
Com^iro'men, Wan'gazidja.- 
Johanna, Anzwabi; 
Mayotte, MaotwO; 
MohiOa, MoaUL 
Companion, mwenzi, pi, wenzi. 
Company, jamaa. 
Compass (marinet's), dira. 
Completeness, unma, nkamilifti, 
«tiinili|ni 



BUBBTANnVES. 



8& 



(hmjilimenUi salaamtL 
CompotiHon (of a word\ rakibyneo. 
CompoHtion for a murdett mon&y 

paid to iove one*9 lifoy dia* 
Ooneealmenil^ nciafleho. 
OtmeltMum, mwiabo, hatima. 
ConcMne, suiifl, pi maauria, 

Bwn of a concMne^ suriyama. 
Condition (ttate), hali, jawabu. 
(A thing neoeisarily implied)^ 

kanuni, 
Coi^fidencey matmnainL 
Confidential servant^ m8iii,|)lwa8irL 
O9fMetietio0,thainirirmoyo. . 
Conspiracy, mapatanob mwafaka. 
Comtipation, kufunga choa 
ComtHuUon, tabia. 
Contentment, uiathi 
Continent, merima. 
Continuance, maiaha. 
Contract, maagano, aharU. 
Conoerioiion, maznrngmnzo, mao- 

ngezi, lueini. 
Convert, mwongofu, pi, waongofa. 
Cook, mpishi, pi wapishi 
Cooked grain, eepeeiaUy rice, mJi. 
Cooking pot {metal), fiufuria, pi 

masnfuria, Idsnfana, pi, visu- 

fniia. 
(earthen), nyango, ohanga, pi, 

Tyangn. mkunga, pi. mikungu* 
(apotioeook meat in with fat, to 

hraze meat InJ, kaango, pi, ma- 

kaango, ul^aaDgo^ kikaango, pi, 

inkaango. 
A pot Ud, mkunga wa kofonikia. 
Three itonee to set a pot on over 

the fire, mafiga, sing, flga, 

mafya, ting, jifya. 
Croae pieces pui im^ to keep ihe 

meat from touching the bottom of 
.. ike pot and bu^inngt Bjf alio^ ^ 



Coolie, hamalii pi, mahamalf * 
Copal, sandarosL 
Copper, shaba, sufaria. 
Coral (red), m^ani ya fefiialnka 
(marijani alone does not always 
mean (he true red eorafy 
Firesh coral f&r bmUding, cut from 
below high^water mark, matu 
mbawL 
Cord, ugwe, ukambaa (M.)» pL 

kambaa, kigwe, pi Tigwo.^ 
Cork, kizibo, pi. yizibo. 
Com, nafaka (formerly used am 
money), 
Mnhindi, Indian cam, ' 

Mtama, miUei (fks mod esmmon 

grain), • ^ 

Mweie, very smtM grains growing' 
in an upright head something^ 
like the flower of the Mrvaft, 
Wimbi. 
Kimanga. 
Comer, pembe. 
Corner of a tlotk, tamTtia, uto* 
mviia. ' 

Corpse, mzoga, pi mi20ga, maykt 
Corpulence, unene. 
Corruption, TOorailaozBu 
Cosmetics, 
Dalia, a yellow composition, 
Yasi, a yeUow powder from India. 
Liwa, a fragrant wood from 

Madagascar. • 
Kipaji. 
(Jotton, pamba. 
Couch, kitanda, pi, TttgocUL 
Ct>tt^^, kikohozi. 
Council, baiaza, 4iwaili. 
Councillor, diwaoi« pL madiwanL 
Counsel, ahauri. 
Countenance, uao, pi i^yuao.. 
Country, inobi, uti(M.> The i 

9i 



m 



8WAEILI BANDBOOK. 



of eourUries aih made from the 
name of the people by meant of 
the prefix XT-. 
Uiiyika^ (he country of Vie Wa- 

nyika. 
Ugala, the eduntry df the Wagala. 
UzUngUi the country of the Wa- 

zangu, Europe. 
In the country, mashamba. 
' A country dialed^ lugha ya ki- 

mashamba. 
Courage, ushujaa, ufAabit, moyol 
Goufie iof a sfttp), mdjira. 
Courtesy, jamala, adabu. 
Courtyard {enclosure), tia, pL nyna, 
tianda or uat^'a.' 
Court within a house, beh6wa,kati. 
Goiuin, mjuknu, pt. wajukuiu 
Covenant, maagano, shartL 
Cover (a lid), kifuuiko. 
A dish cover made of straw and 
often profusely ornamentedf 
kawa. 
Ahoohcaver,jeihdBif. 
Covetousness, tamaa, bakhilH 
CoWf Dg'ombe mke, pi. ng'ombe 

wake. 
Coioard, mwoga, pH. waogat 
Cowardice, uoga. 
Cowry, kauri, kete. 
Crofc, fcia. 

CracJi, Ufa, pi. nyufap 
Cramp, kibarusi. 

A cramp, gango, ph magatigo. 
Crayfish, kamba. 
Cream, siagi. 
Creed, imani. 
Creek, bori. 

Creet, sbungi (used oho for a way 

of dressing the hair in iufo large 

m/asses). 

QreWf bahario.- 



Crime, takeiri. 

Crocodile, mamba, mbulu (?). 

Crooh, kota. 

Crookedness, kombo. 

A crooked thing,'kSkombo. 
Cross, mflalaba, pi. misalaba. 
Cross roads, njia panda. 
Crossing place, kivuko, pi vivuko. 
Crow, kunguru. 

Crowbar, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
Crowd, kundi, pi, makundi, ma- 
kutano, matangamano, umaati. 
Crovm, taji. 

Crown of the Ikead, upaa, ntosi 
Crumbs, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 
Crutch for oars, kilete, pi. vilete. 
Cry, kilio, pi. vilio, ukelele, pL 
kelele, ukemL 
(for help), yowe. 
(of joy), hoiboi, kigelegele. 
Cucumber, tango, pL matango. 
Cubit (from tliC tip of the middU 
finger to the point of the elbow\ 
tbiraa, mkono, pi. mikono. 
(from the point of the elbow to th& 
knuckles when the fist is dosed\' 
tbiraa konde* 
Cultivation, kilimo* 
CuUivaior, mkulima, pi. wakulima. 
Cunning, oberevu, werevu. 
Cup, kikombe, pi. vikombe. 
Cupboard, sandukn. 
Cupper, mumishi, pt waumishL 
Cupping horn, cbuku< 
Curiosity (rarity), kioja, pi. vioja, 

bedaya, tunu. 
Curlew, sululu, kipila. 
Current, nikondo wa majL 
Curry, mcbuzi« mtuzi (M.). 
A sm/oU seed used in making U, 
bizari« 
I An (icid thing put into U, klungo, 



StfJiBTANTirM 



B7 



.0i»rM, laana, pi malaana. 
Curtain^ pazia, pL mapazuL 
Cttrve, kizingo. 
fkitihion, mto, pi. mito. 
A large euthton^ takiSk pL ma- 

Custard apple^ topeiope, mstofole, 

konokono, matomoko. 
OMtom, destari, mathehebu, ada^ 
Oiwtom-AcmM, fortha. 
Ctuttonu^ duties^ ashur. 
Ou^, a ahort cut, njia ya kiikata. 
Cutting Qtreaking off)^ kato, pi. 

makata 
CutUe^flth, pweza. 
2lntw 0/ the euttle-JUht mnyiriii, 

pi minyirirL 
CuttDcUer of a dhow, banamtu 
Cffpher, See Cipher, 
CymbaU, matoazi, $ing, toazL 



Dagger, jambia (the curved dagger 
generally t^om). 

Dama8eu8, Sham. 

Dance, mchezo, pL michezo» 
Names of dancee, gangn» msapata, 
hanzua, kitanga cha pepo, 
soma. 

Dandy, malidadi 
MtoDgozi, piL watongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to attract 
wmen. 

Danger, hatari, khofu, Moha 

Darkness, kiza, giza (fhese are only 
two ways of pronouncing the 
same word, but the first is some' 
times treated as though the M- 
were a prefix and it belonged to 
the fourth class, whUe the second 
• is taken as belonging to the fifth ; 
U is probably, however^ most 



correct to refer (hem hdth to the 

fourth). 
Dark saying, fnmbo, pH mafumbo, 

maueno ya fmntMu 
Darling, kipendi, pi. vipendL 
Dates, tende. 

Date-tree, mtende, pL mitende. 
Daughter,\AnUimioU} mke, mwana, 

kijana. 
Daughter-in-law, mkwe, pt wo* 

kwe. 
Dawn, alfajiri, kQoha. 
Day {of ttoenty'four hours, reckoned 

from sunset to sunset), sikii. 
(time of daylight), mcbana, mtana 

(M.). 
AU day, mcbana ktttwa. 
Day labourer i kibarua, pL ylbarua 

(80 cdUed from the ticket giffch 

to workpeople^ which they give 

up again when paid). 
Daylight, mcbana, mtana (SI.). 
Dtuizle, kiwL 
Deal (i0ood}, snnobari. 
Death, kufa (dying), mauti, ufu, 

mafcL 
D^t, denL 
Deceit, bila, madanganya, udanga^ 

nifa, badaa, awongo. 
Deck, sitaha, dari. 
Deep water, kilindi, pi vilindl. 

Cheat depths, lindo, pi malindo. 
Defect, upangufu, ila, kombo, kl* 

ptmgno, pH vipangno. 
Deficiency, kipimguo, uptragufu. 
Defilement, tgusi. 
Ddiverance, wokovti. 
Demand in marriage^ poao, pi 

mapoBO. 
Dependant, mfuasi, pL wafuasl. 
Depth, kwenda, chini, uketo. 
Derision, mzaha, thihaka^ 



88 



SWASm SAKPSOOK. 



I^tff^ kttsiidi, |)1 maknradi, nia. 
Detoenif mshuko, pL miahako. 
DeMti, wangwa, jangwa, pL ma- 

jangwa. 
DeBdatian, ukiwa. 
Destruction, koharibika, kupotea. 
VednteUvenesSj uliaribivii, npotevo. 
DetadmetU (ofgoldien, 4te.)f kikoei, 

ft vikosi. 
Debtee, hila, shauii, pL mashauri. 
DevUj flhetani, pL mashetaiii 
Devotesj intaowa,|>{. wataowa. 
Dew, umandd. 

Dhow inative craft), obombo, pL 
vyombo; v^ioavery lar^ jombo, 
j^ majombo. 

Kinde ef dhowe:-^ 

Dwi, jii rnadau, q emaU open 
«eM6l 9karp at the $tem,wiiha9quare 
matting . sotZ. They belong to the 
original inhabitants of Zanzibar, 
and are ehii^y employed in bringing 
firewood to the town. 

Mtepe, pi., mitepe, a large open 
vessel sharp at the slemtwith a large 
square matting sail; the prow is 
made to resemble a eameTs headland 
is ornamented with painting and 
UtUe streamers. The planks are] 
sewn together. There is alujays a 
white pennon at ihe masthead. These 
vessels belong chiefly to Lamoo^ and 
the country near it. 

Betela, the common dhow of Zan* 
£ibar : U has a square stem, with a 
low poop and a head mw^ like those 
of European boats, 

B^igala, pt mabiigalay large dhows 
with very high square stems and taU 
poops, and long prqjeeting prows. 
The Indian dhows are mostly of this 
class i they have very often a wmSL 



second mast rising from Uie poop 
(mlingote wa kalmi). 

Ghangi, they resenMe the Bi- 
galas except in not being so high in 
the poop or so long in the prow, 

Batili, a low vessel with a long 
prqjeeting prow, a sharp stem, afid 
high rudder-head. They have often 
a flying poop and a second masL 
They belong to the piraUodl Arabs 
from the Fersian Oulf, 

Bedeni, a dhow with a sharp stem 
and high rudder-head, and a per* 
pendieular cutwater ; there is often a 
piece of board attaehed to U, making 
a kind of head; when this is cAsent 
the vessel is an Awesia. Beiene 
may easily be distinguished among 
other dhows by their masts being 
upright ; in aU other dhows the masts 
incline forward. They belong to the 
coast of Arabia, especially that on the 
Indian Ocean. 

Dhow sail, dumni 

Prow, gubetL 

Poop, shetri. 

(Quarter gaUeries, makanadiH. 

Joists of deck, danuneiL 

Chunamfor bottom, debeid. 

Place fat stowing things likely i$ 
be soon wanted, feidt 
Dialect, maneao, Ingba. 

Dialects and languages are usually 
eat^pressed by prefixing Id- to the 
name of the place or people. 

Eiimgnja {for Maneno ya Kia* 
Dgiga), the dialeot of Zanzibar 
(Unguja), 

KimTita, the dialect of Mombas 
(Mnta). 

Kiamo, the dMect of Lamo6 
(AmnX 



eUBBTASTIVEB, 



Klazabu, Ara5tft 
Eiga]a,<&« QdUa language. 
Kimftwhainba, g ooumbrp diaket 
Kiahenzi, ihe talk of wme tmettfll- 

ixednaUcn. 
Kiungwana, a eivHixed language. 
KizuDgd, the hnguagee tpoken by 

Hftropeane, 
JHamondi almasL 
JHarrhcea, tumbo la knenenda. 
iMef, maakuli. 
JHffarenoey tofauti, sivimoja. 
Difficulty y 8hidda, ugam!i,maBhaka. 
DiwMT {mid-^y)j ohakula dia 

mohaiuu 
DireeHon (fddding)^ ftrndisho, pL 

mafondiaho, agizo^ pi, maagizo. 
Dirt,^e3EBL. 

P/«0a8^ maiathi, aweU, ngoi^wa. 
Disfigurement^ lemaa. 
Diegraeej aibn, ari, fetheha. 
Disgust^ machukio. 
Ditiky sahani, kombe, pL makombe, 

mkoDga wa knliay bnngtiy 

kitunga, pL yitunga (fhe first 

is ihe utwd word for European 

dishes^. 
An earOien disk to hake eakee on^ 

waya; 
Disorder (confusion^ ft^a Bee 

Disease, 
Display, wonyesbow 
Disposalj amri. 

To put at his disposal^ knmwamria. 
Dispute, masbindano, tofautL 
Disquiet, fiatbaa. 
DissipaUon, asberaii, vasberati, 

usberatL 
Pistortion (by disease), lemaa. 
Distress, sbiddaytbidliy-atbia, xnsiba^ 



District ofaioum, mfa» jpL ndta. 
For (he distriets of Zantibar see 
PaHII.,p.2aO. 
DisUubanee (rM), fitina. 

(trouble), kero. 
Diteh, bandaki, sbimo, pi maabimo. 
Diffine service, ibada ya Munngn. 
Division (arithmeticci), mkasama. 
Divorce, talaka. 
Dock for ships, gadi. 
Doctrine, eUrnn, ibn, mafhhab. 
Document, kbati. 
Dog, mbwa. 

Very large, jibwa, pi miy ibwa. 
Bize, a toUd hunting dog. 
Mbwa wa koko, the housdess do^ 
ouiside Zanzibar. 
D6U, mtoto wa bandia. 
Dollar, ledle, rea^ 
Spanish Pillar doUar, reale ya 

mizinga. 
Blaek dollars, reale ya Bbani. 
American 20-(2oKar piece, reale ya 

ibababtu 
French silver h-frane piece, reale 

yaki&ansa. 
For the parts of a doUar see in the 
oecHon en Adjectives under 
Numcrale-^fraetions, p. 93. 
Dome, zege. 

Dominion, mamlaka, bnkumtt. 
Donkey, punda. 
Donkey from the mainland, kk)- 
ngwe, |)Z. viongwe. 
Door, mlango,pI. milango (^ordgarly^ 
mwango, pi. miango). 
Leaf of door, uban, pL mbatL 
CenJtre piece, mf aa. 
Door-keeper, mgoja miango. 
Door chain, riza. 

Doorframe, top and bottom pieeet, 
kizingiti,|»{. vizingitL 



4© 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Side pieces^ mwimo, miimo. 

Outer beadingj tipapL 
Dotage^ mapiswa. 
Doubt, shaka, pL mashaka, tasbwi- 

flhi, waswas. 
Dove, boa. See Pigeon dt Birds. 
Dotery, paid by the hwhartd to the 

unfe*B friends, maharL 
Dragon-fly, kerin^ende. 
Dragon^s blood, maziwa (or maolioX 

ya watn wawili. 
Dream, ndoto. 
Dregs, chembe. 
Dress, nguo, mavazi, mayao, nTao. 

Slaves and very poor men wear 
generally an ngao only, that is, a 
loin doth of white or blue calico. 
Women wear a klemto, or hng cloih 
of blue, or printed, or cdlowred eaJtieo 
wrapped tightly round the body 
immediately under the arms, and on 
the head an ukaya, a piece of Uue 
calieo with two long ends; it has a 
string passing under the chin, to which 
H silver orriamettt, jebn, is attached. 

Well-dressed men wear a hm cloth 
90ith a coloured border, kikoi, a hng 
9hiri4ike garment in white calico, 
kanzn, a shawl, amaza, twisted 
round the waist, a waistcoat, kisibao, 
and a hng loose coat, ^oho. OntTieir 
heads Viey wear a red or white skuU' 
eap^ kofia, and twisted round it a 
turban, kilemba. Their feet are 
slipped into sandals, viatiL 

Women wear trousers, sonxali, a 
kanza of coloured materials and a 
kofia (pap) adorned with gdd and 
spangles, or more commordy a silk 
handkerchief, dasamali, folded and 
fastened on the head so a* to hide the 
hair. They also wear sometimes a 



kiflibao (embroidered waisteoai). And 
nearly always a mask, barakoa. 
When they go out they throw over aU 
a large square of Uaek sUk, lebwani. 
On their feet they carry wooden dogs 
held by a button (msnniake) grasped 
between the toes. 
Dressing of calieo, donda 
Drill, keke. The iron is called 

kekee ; the wood it is fixed in, 

mtnkano ; the handle in which it 

turns, jiTQ ; and the bow, nta. 
Drink, kinwa (or kiny wa), pL Tinwa, 

kinwaji, pL yinwaji. 
Drinker, mny wa, pL wanywa 
Dripping (fat cooked out of meat), 

nto wa nyama. 
Drop, tone, ^. matone, kitone, pL 

Yitone. 
Droppings (dung), mavL 
Dropsy, istiska. 

Drowsiness, leppe, leppe ia nzinglzL 
Drum, ngoma. 
CbapQO, a small drum. 
Knmbwaya, a drum upon feet. 
Msondo, a very tall drum, beaten 

on special occ<uions. 
The skin of a drum, or anyOiing 

stretched like U very tighUy, ki- 

wambo, pL riwambo. 
Drunkard, mleyi, pi. walevi 
Duck, bata, pi mabata. 
Duryan, finessi la kizungn. 
Dust, Tombi, pi. (mueh dust) ma- 

TninbL 
Dust and sand on a road, tifiitifiL 
Duties. See Customs. 
Duties of one's position, kiwango^ 

pL viwango. 
Dwarf, kibeti, pi. vibetL 
Dwelling, makao, makazi, makani. 
Dye, ran£^ [masikani 



BUSsTAjfririss. 



41 



Mkasiil, a tree uSiim hark 4$ wed 
io dye fMng-ntlU and Unee 
Uack. 
UDgamo, a ydl^ dye need to dye 
matting. 
Dytenieryy tambo la kuhaiia damtu 



Eagemen (fxceetive haite\ pupa. 
Eagle (?) koho, firkomba, tai, pu- 
ngQ, kipanga (oQ (heee ioords 
»eem to denote §ome large bird of 
prey). 
Ear, Bikio» pL maslkia 
Bole pierced in the lower lobe of 

fJbe ear, ndewe. 
Ear omaTnente, a large round 
ornament in the lower lobe, 
jil8Bi,|»Z. majassi. 
Ornaments in the upper part of 
the ear 9 if dangling, kipali,|>2. 
Tipuli ; if shaped like a stud, 
kipini, pIL Tipini. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ear of com, soke, jp2. nuurake. 
See Bunch, Cob. 
Earnest money, arabuni, stakabathi. 
Earth, inohi, ndongo. 

The earth, inohi, ulimwengu, 
£u0,zaha. [donia. 

After pain, fiftiaja. 
East vsind, matlaa, 
Etivee, mohilizi, pIL michilJzi. 
Eaioesdropper, dukizi (or daad), pL 

madukizL 
Ebony, mpingo. 
Edho, i]|iwangwL 
Edge {of a predpiee), nkingo. 
(0/ a piece of cloth), pindo, piL 
mapindo. 
Edging woven into a piece of doth, 
taraza. 



Ettort,ixihv^hidil. 

EffMon {of blood), vilio (!« damn), 

pL mayilio. 
Egg, yayi, pi mayayi. 
White of egg, tite wa yayi 
Tdtk of an egg, kiini cha yayL 
EggsheU, ganda la yayi 
Empty eggsheU, kaka. 
Egypt, Misri, Masri, Mtoara. 
Elbow, kisigino, pi. yisigino, kiTi 

pi Tivi 
Elder, mzee, pi. wazee, iheki, pL 

mafibeki. 
Elegance, jamala. 
Elephant, tembo, ndovn. 
Elephantiasis (leprosy), jethamn. 

{Barbadoes leg), teende. 
Embarrassmient, matata, ntbia, ma- 

shaka. 
Embroidery, almaria. 
(stitehing), darizi 
lpiping)i kigwe, pi vigW6. 
Embroilment, matata. 
Emetic ia,p\Bho,pl matapisho, dawa 

la katapika. 
EmpHoyment, kazi, ntumwa. 
Emulation, bidii 
Encampment (of a caravan), kittio» 

pi vituo. 
Enclosure, uanja, ua, pi nyna. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 
coooornut leaves, tia wa nta* 
kuti 
Enclosure made by a fence of 

mtama stalks^ ua wa mabna. 
Enclosure with a stone fence, 
}diaXu,pi. vitalu. 
End, mwiflho, pi miisho (finishing), 
hatima, kikom(H pi vikomo 
(leaving off), 
of a journey, \aSko, pi. viflkA 
of a piece of doth, mialamii. 



42 



BWABtLl BANDBOOK. 



End or e&mers of a Mban dothj ^«., 

tamvna^ kiahungi, pL vudiniigi. 
Snemy, adui, pL adai or maadui. 
Engagement, shagholi, ntamwa. 
Enigma, kitendawili, pL yitenda- 

wili 
Enmity f wadm, adawa, khnatmUL 
Entrails, matombo. 
Entrance, kuingia^ pakningilia, 

mlango. 
Entfy, hasidi, kijicho, kijito (If.). 
EpiUpey, kifafa. 
Equal {in age), hirimu, marika. 
Equiwdent,\Md£kiA» 
Error, koaa, makosa. 
Eructation, kiangulia, j>Z. Tiungnlia. 
Escape, wokovu, kuokoka. 

(other course), biiddL 
Esteem, mapendo, maafikano. 
Estimate, maafikana. 
Eternity, milel& 
Eunuch, tawaahi, maksai 
Euphorbia, mtiipa, pi mitupa. 
Europe, Ulaya, Wilaya, UzungQ. 
European (or any one wearing a 

European dress), Mzunga, pH. 

WazuDgo. 
Eve, Hawa. 
Evening, jionL 
Event {stariUng), shaaE 
EvU, iiovu. 

Exaltation, ntakufu, athama. 
Example, mfano, pi. mifaiio» 
Exerement, man. 
Expense, gharama. 
EsUinguisher, mzima (a person), pi, 

wazima, kizima (a thing), piL 

Tizima. 
Eye, iiobo, pL maoho, jito(M.),i>2. 

mato. 
Lose of an eye, chongo. 
Eyebrow, nyushi, nshi (A.). 



Eyetask or Eyelid, kopti 
A stye in the eye, ohoohea. 



FahU, ngano. 
Faee, uao^ pt nyvao* 
Fmees,m&YL 
Faggot, tita, pi, mailta. 
FaUhfimBm. . 
JPoJZ, maangako. 
Falsehqpd, uwongo. 
FamiUarity, mazoeEO* 
Family, jamaa^ ndngcu 
Famine, njaa> ndaa (liL). 
JPoflt, upepeo pi pepeo, pepeo, pL 
mapepeo, kipepeo, pi vipepeo. 
Fare, nanli. 
Fast, foDga. 

Fasting month, BamathanL 
Fatf shahamn, mafttfa. 

A piece of fat, kipaade kilicho- 
noiuu 

Fat cocked out of meat, nto wa 
nyama. 
Fate, ajaU. 
Faiher,h&\M. 

In speaking of omfs own father U 
is polite to caU him bwana. 

Stepfather, baba wa kambo. 

Faiher^n-law, mkwe. pi ynkw^ 
Faihom, pima, pH, mapimak 
Fatigue, utnfu, nlegoTiL 
FatUng, kinono, pi Tinono. 
FauU, batiya, koaa, pi makosR* 
Favour, npendeleo. 

A favour, f afhilL 
Favourite, kipendi, pL vipendia 

mpenzi, pi wapenzi. 
Fear, kbofii, iioga» kitishOy pL 

yitisho, IdobOy pi, yichtK 
Fea8t,\aMmJL 

Feast day, siku kmi* 



SUBSTANTirsa, 



48 



FeMeff nnyoa, pL nyoa, nyoa (lar 
nyoyaXpL manyoya. 
A wing feaiher^ nhawt^ pL mhtkym. 
Feeder^ ndiahi, pL waliahL 
FeUouhienaatj mjoli, pL wajolL 
J^tmce, na, pL nyoa. 

SUmefenee^ kitala, |)L vitalo. 
Fenn^rrMl;) watn. 
i^eny » kivuko, pL nvnkOi 
JTetterf, pingu. 
FeMf, homa. 
StedUng of (he glandi of the groin 

foUovoed hg /evert mtoki. 
Dengue fever, kidinga popo. 
IVeUy koonde, pi makoonde, mgn- 

nda (Yao). 
FiM labourer t mknlima, pL waku- 

lima. 
Fttfroenett, nkalL 

Fig4reey mtini, |)2.4aitini 
Fight, mapiganow 

Figu/re of speech, mfano wa maneno. 
Fdagree work, temsi. 
File, tapa. 

FiUet, ntepe, |>L tepe. 
FtZ^ nohaTQ, janaba^ 
.F^ peai, jpZ. mi4[>e8i. 
Fine for a murder, dia. 
Fineness, jamt ' 

Finger, kidole, pL yidole, kidole cha 
mkoQO, ohanda (M,),pl. Tyanda. 
Fire, moto, pt mioto. 
Pieces of wood to get fire bg iioisl' 

ing, npekeeho. 
Firewood, koni, one pieee, ukuni. 
A half 'burnt pieee of firewood, 

kinga, |)2. vinga. 

The ttet of pushing the wood further 

into the fire, or an instrument for 

do^iig «^kiohocheo,kitoteo (M.). 

Fireplaee, jiko^ pL meko, meko, 



jil. mieko, hmce hUtihen, jikonl, 
mekoni. 
Three stones to set a pot over (he 
fire upon, jlfya, pi mafya, flga, 
pi mafiga. Jifya is the word 
most used in the town, figa that 
used in the country, 
Fir^y, kimnrimuri, pZ. Timnrimurl, 

kunetimeti, pL vimeiiiaeti. 
Firmam/ent, anga (?). 
Firmness, usimemei uttabiti, (fn 

huHding) mtomo. 
JVaA, samaki. 
Dagaa, very smaUy smdUfry* 
Kjombo, barred with black and 

yellow. 
Taa, a very large fiat fish. 
Pono, a fish scud to be nearly 

always asleep. 
Other hinds, Ghafl, Ghangn, 
Ohewa, KtiDga,Mchambiilcini, 
Mkizo, Mwewe, Mzia, Ngum, 
Ngayn, Ponzi, Pungn. The 
varieties of fish are exceedingly 
numerous. 
Ohiniui, a kind of fish or evC 
spirit never seen, but which is 
supposed to seize men and hold 
them under water until they are 
drowned, 
Fish-irap, dema, lema, ema. 
Fislh poison from a species of 
Euphorbia, ntapa. 
Fisherman, mvuTi, pL wavntL 
Fist, konde, pi. makonde. 
Fits, kifafa. 
Flag, bandera. 
Flat (of a sword, Ac.), bapa. 
Flatterer, msifd, pi. moAhi, nunfa- 
mno. 
Self'flatterer, mwajisifimL 
Flattery, kasifo. 



44 



BWJLHILl SANMOOS. 



Flawurt Intktha, tiunn. 

Flax, katani, kitani 

Fleet, kiioboto, pL viroboto, 

Flesh, nyama. 

Fle$htnes8, mnofti. 

Flint ^n, bundaki ya gamegame, 

J'Zood, gharika. 

Floor, chini. 

Ckunammed floor, sakafiL 
Upper floor or roof, don. 
Flower, ua, pL maua. 
Flue, vambi, pi (much) mavumbL 

A flue, dohaan. 
Mute, filimbi, pi mafilimbL 
Fly 9 inziy pi mainzL 
Foam, povu. 

Fog, umande, kongn, shemalL 
FM (ofeloth), upindo. 

CatiU'fold, zizi, pi mazizi. 
Foliage, majani. 

FoUower, mfuasi, pi wafaad, cbo- 
kora, pi maohokora (a hanger^ 
on). 
Folly, npumbaftt. 
Fondness, mahaba. 
Food, cbaknla, makuli (Ar.)» kaade 
(Mer.). 
Food saved from an evening meal 
to he eaten in the morning, wall 
\m inwikuQ, bariyo (A.). 
BokobokO) a dish made of toheai 

and meat, 
Bumbwi, rice flour pounded up 

^fUh eoeoarnut, 
Pilao, an Indian ptUaw. 
BirinzL 
Fool, mpumbafa, pL wapumbafii. 
Foot, zngan, pL miguu, gun, pi 
magan, mjigaii, pi mijiguu 
(Uirge), kijiguu, pi vijigun 
(smaU). 
Footprint, uayo, pi nyaya 



Footing—4o maJee him pay his fooU 

ing, kumahika hakalu 
Forbidden thing, haramn, marafakii. 
Force, nguvu. 
Ford, kivuko, pi Tivuko. 
Forehead, paji la uao. 

Brow, kikomo eha nso. 
Foreigner, mgeni, ph wageni, mja 

na maji, i^L.waja na maji {from 

over seas). 
Forelock, panja. 
Foreskin, govi mbo. 
Forest, mwito, .msitiL 
Fork, kioma, pi Tiuma. 
Forking of a road, tree, Ac, panda. 
Form {outward shape), umbo, pi 

maumbo. 
Fort, gereza, ngome, busuiiL 
Fortune, babati, nasibu. 
Fortune'teiller(by means of diagrams), 

mpiga T9Soli,pl waplga ramli. 
Foster brother or sister, nduga 

kunyonya. 
Foundation, msingi or mainji, pi 

mifiingL 
Fowls, k'ukn. 
Fox, mbweba. 

Fraud, badaa, tnadanganya. 
Freedom (from, slavery) bum, (per* 

mission) ruksa, nihuaa. 
Freight, nauli. 
Friday, Jumaa. 
Friend, rafiki,i>Z. rafiki or marafikf» 

BcJiibn, pi as'babu, shog* 

(amongst women, and in Zami- 

bar only. See (jatamite). 
Fright, khofa, woga. 

(a start), kituko. 
Fringe, matamyna. 
Frog, chula, pi yyula. 
Fruit, tunda, pi, matunda, 8io, pi 



8UB8TANTIVE8. 



4$ 



S^gn, pL mal^nngu, abovit ihe 
iize of a medlar^ m^ a Gdek 

Hazn, a kind of banana, 
Zambaraii, lik6 a large damson. 
ChokcAriiioko, a red prickly $kin^ 
. a large kernel^ and white pulp, 
Ennaziy iomeihing Uke a doe, 
Eitoria, pL vitoria. — ^Eoma, pL 
makoma. -* Fuii» pi, mafau. 
— ^Mtofaa. 
Fruit which drope prematurdyy 

pooza, pL mapooza. 
Fruii-stalkf (of cloves) kikonyo, 
- pi, Tiko&yo, (of hanaiwM) mku- 
sgn, pi. mikuDgu. 
Frying-pan^ (metaX) tawa, pL 
matawa, (earthen) kaango, pL 
makaango. 
Fugitive^ mkimbizi, pL wakimbizi. 
Fume^ azma, fukizo. 
Fun^ mohezo, mzaba. 
Funeraiy kuzikani. 
Furnace (for melting mekX)^ kalibn. 
Furniture^ pambo la nymnba, 
Tyombo. 

O. 
OaiUy fayida. 
GaiU mwe&do. 
Galagoj komba. 
GaJbanumt ubanL 
CroUy saf lira. 

Gotta, Mgala, pi. Wagala. 
GamCj (produce of hunting) mawi- 
ndo, (amusement) mcbezo, ma- 
cbezo. 
Bbuo, played on a hoard with thirty- 

two holes in U, 
Maliyandimu, a game in which 
one holds doum his head^ some 
: other knocks it, and he guesses 
lefto struck him. 



Tiabu, played by throwing up 
sticks, dtCf and watching their 
faU. 
Dama, played on a board l{k§ 

chess, 
Taaa, d game of touch, 
Tmge,a game consisting in fcUouh 
ing ihe movemenis of a leader. 

Garden, bugtani, shamba. 

Gate, xnlango, pL milango. 
Gale of Taradise, kilango dm 
jaba. 

Gazette, paa. 

General, jemadajri, pi. majemadari 

GenerctHon, kizazi, pi, yizazL 

Generosity, ukarixnu. 

Genius, Jini, pi, Majini. 

Oeh^fomanyinngwana, pZ.wangwana. 

Gentleness, upole. 

Georgian woman, Jorjiya. 

Gettings, pato, pL mapato. 

Ghee, samli. 

GlioU, kivTili, pi, vivnli. 

Ghoul, zimwi, pi mazimwi. 

Giddiness, masna, mbesua, kiza« 
nguzungn* 

Gift, zawadi (a keepsake), tunn (a 
choice ^tn^),basbisbi (largess), 
ada ((SusUmary gift), kilemba 
(gift on the completion of a work 
or to the bride* s father)^ vapo. 

Ginger, tangawizi. 

Giraffe, twiga. 

Girder, mhimili, pi, mibimili 

GirdU, msbipi, pi, misbipi, masombo 
(of doth), maazama (a shawl), 
kibobwe, ph vibobwe (a piece 
of cloth tied round (he body 
during hard work). 

Girl, kijana, pi, yijana. 
Slave girl, kijakazi, pi. vgakaat 

Girth, iaviBoha, 



4ft 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK 



Oizxardf firigid. 
Gladne$$, furaha. 
Qlanoey nathiri. 
Glare, anga. 
Glass, kioo. 

Locking-gUuSf kioo, pL Yiatk 

DrinhingghMSt bilauri. 
GUUety kimeta. 
GUyry, sifa, fakhaii, utokuftu 
Ghie (or gum)j embwe. 
Glutton, mlafi, pi walafi. 
Goatf mbuzi. 

A strong he^oat, bebera (Ar.). 
CMfetween, kijumbe, jtI. vijumbe. 
GOD, MUUNGU, li miungii. 
Chitre, tezi 
Chid, thahabu. 
Goldsmith, xnfua tbahabn, piL waf aa 

thahabu. 
Good luck, ghanuua, jaha. 
Goodness, wema. 

Goods, mail (possessions), vyombo 

(fUensils), bithaa (merehandise), 

Gooset bata la Bukini, piL mabata 

ya Bokini. 
GonorrhcBO, kisunona 
Gourd, See Pumpkin, 
Oouf»joDgo. 

Governor, wall, liwali, pt maliwalL 
Government, serkali, daulatl 

An qffleial, mtu wa serkalii 
Chain, See Com. 

Cleaned grain, mchele* 

Cooked grain, walL 

Grains of com, punje, ohembe. 
Grandchild, mjukaUy pi. wajukun. 

Great-^andchild, kijukuu, pi. 
yijukun, kitukuu, ph yitukuu, 
kilembwe, pi. yilembwe. 
* Cheat-^eai^andchild,ldDhxgiiA, 

pi yiningina. 
Grandfather, babtL 



Chrandmother, bibL ^^ 

Great-grandmotker, nusaa bibL 
Chammar, B&ruL 
Grapes, ssabibu. 
Chratitude, shiikratii. 
Grass, nyaej* majani, nyika.' 

grass cut for fodder, ukoka* 
Grasshopper, panzi, pi mapanzL 
Grave, kaburi, pi makaburl. 
In the grave^ after death, ahera, 
kuzimu. 
Chreatness, nkubwa, nkun, utukufo. 
Greediness, chojo, loho, tamaa. 
Grey haurs, mvi 
Gridiron, uma wa kuokea nyama, 

pi nyuma za^ kuokea nyama. 
(7n«/, sikitiko, kaBarani, msiba, 
hnzani, hamu, simanzL 
(for a loss), majonzi. 
Chime (on a pot), masizL 
Grit (smaU stones), changaiawi 
Groom, mohunga, pH. wacbungft, 

mtuuga (M.)> 1>^ uTatunga. 
Ground, ohini, inchL 
Ground nuts, mjugu nyasa, (a Itard' 

round hind) mjugu mawe. 
Grudging person, hiana. 
Gruel, ujL 

CJ'uarcI, mlinzi, |)Z. walinzi 
Guava, mpera, pi. mapera. 

Guavortree, mpera, pi, mipera. ' 
Guest, mgeni, pi, wageni. 
Cruide, rubani, kiongozi,|)2. viongozi, 
mkuu genzi. ^ 

Guitar, kmanda, pi, vinanda 
Guinea fowl, kanga. 

(a crested kind), kororo. 
Crum (birdlime, Ac.), ulimbo. 
Gum (of the teeth), u^zi, pi. fizL 
Gum Arabic, haba, snmugh. 
Gum Amini or Copal, sandarusL 
,(run, bunduki 



BUBSTANTTVEa. 



47 



FUrU ^n^bnndnki ya gi]m6gum& 

Oun-harrd, kaslba. 

Nipple, Wa, pi, ^9iiA. 

Giin-cap, £fttaki. 

Ounloek, mtambo, pIL mitamba 

(panntm), nndiiga^ pi misdn^ 

0Mn-earriag4, gurudumo la 
mzinga. 
Ounpowder, barutL 
Chdf tumbo, pi. matumbo. 

H. 
H. The guUural Arabic h, ha ngoe. 
The Bofter Arabic h, he mdawari. 
Habits, mazoezo, mathehebiu 
Hssmorrhoids, bawasir. 
E^ftj mpini, pi mipini, kipini, pi 

yipinL 
Hair, nyde (or nwele), ting, unyele. 
(of (he heard), ndevti, sing, udevu. 
(of the body, especially of the 

pubes), mavnzi, sing, Yuzi. 
(jb/ the eyebrow), nynshi, sing. 

onyushL 
(of (he eyelash), kope, sing, nkope. 
(of (he hand and arm), malaika, 

sing, laika. 
(of an animal), singa. 
Straight hair, nyele za singa. 
WooUy hair, nyele za kipilipili 
Half, nuso. 
A half orange, eoooorntU, d:e,,laxio, 
pi Tizio. 
Halyards, henza. 
Bopes passing (hrough the pulley 
of (he halyards, jarari* 
Hammer, nyundo. 
Hand (or arm and hand), mkono, 
pi mikono. 
Palm of (he hand, kitaoga cha 
jxkkoDOfpl vitangavya mikono. 
Front of thehand, kofi, pi majcofl. 



^iside of the fingers, klkofi, pi 
vikofi. 
Handftd {that maiie<>n(he hand)f 
uknfi,|>Lkufi. 
(that Ufhich wjU lie on the two 

^n^), chopa, pZ. machopa. 
((hat can be grasped in (he hand), 
koDzi, jpZ. nObkonzL , 

Handkerchief, leso. 
Pocket handkerchief, leso ya ka- 
futia kamasi. 
Handle (fike a hnife'handle),mpini, 
pi mipini, kipini, pi yipini. 
(projecting like that of a sauce- 
pan), kono, mkono, pi mikono. 
(bowed like (hat of a bucket), 
ntambo, pi tambo. 
Handtoriting, khati, mwandiko. 
J7anger-on,. chokoxa, pi, macbokora. 
Happiness, foraha, furahani, raha. 
Harbour, bandari, bundari* 
Hardness, ugumu. 
Hare, See Babbit. 
Harm, mathaia. 
Harness, matandiko. 
Harp, kinnbi, pi vinubL 
Harpoon, ohnsA, pi vyusa. 
Harvest, mavuno. 
Haste, haraka, hima. 
Hat, ohapeo. 

HatcM, klshoka, pi. vishoka, kitoka 
(M.). pi vitoka, np&xnba, ph 
pamba. 
Haired, machukio, buothn. 
Hawk,mvieyie, 
Hawker, dalali. 

Head, kitwa (or kichwa), pL 
yitwa. 
A Utile head, kijitwa, pi yijitwa. 
Head of a iMp, omo. * 

Head winds, pepo za omo. 
Head cloth fcorn. by tvomen, vkajm 



48 



8WAE1LI SANDBOOK. 



(of htm' oali6o)t duBamuli (of 
nOc). 
Headship, njambe. 
MeaMng things, mapoEa. 
SeaUh, nzima, afla, hali (state). ' 
Seapy fimgiiy j>2. mafungn, 
chtingu. 
of sUmeSf boma, pi. maboma. 
of wood and sticks, biwi, pL 

mabiwi, kichaka, piL vlchaka. 
of earth, kisu^u, pi Tisnguliu 
(a raised hed), tuta, pi, matuta. 
Me<urt, moyo, pi. mioyo, or nyoyo, 

mtima, pi. mitima. 
Heat, moto, hari (sweaC)^ harara 

(jpriMy heat). 
Heaven, mbingu, sing, nwingn, 

samawati (Ar.). 
Heaviness (weight), nzito. 

(sorrow), hamn. 
Hedge, ua, pi. nyua. 
Hedge made in the sea for taking 
fish, uzio, pi nyuzio. 
Heel, kifnndo (or kisigino) oha 

mgutt. 
Heifer, mtambai pi mitamba. 
Heir, mri^i, pL vftaUhi, 
Help, msaada. 
Hem, upindo. 

Hemp. See Cannahis Ifidica. 
Hempen rope, kambia ulayitL 
Hen, k'uku. 
Laying hen, koo, pi. makoo. 
Hen, fuU grovm, hut that has not 
yet laid, t^embe. 
Henna, hina. 

Herd, kimdi, pi maknndi 
Herdsman, mohunga, pi waohnnga^ 
ttitanga (M.), pi wattmga. 
* Wero, shujaa, pi. mashnjaa, fabali, 
pi juafiGibalL 
Beroism, ushigaa. 



Hesitation, msaxigBto. 
(in speaking), kubabaika. 

Hiokup, kwikwe. 

Hidden thing, f umbo, p2. maf umba 

Hide, ngon. ' 

£tZ2, kilima,i>{. vilima. 
A rocky hiU, jabali, pi. maja- 
bali. 

Hilt, kipini, pi vipini. 

Hindrance, kizmio, kiznio, kizaizi. 
It is said that Dr. Krapf, being 
on one occasion delayed from 
day to day, in oibedienoe to 
superior orders, said to those 
who delayed fttm:— Eeeho na 
keslio ni madanganya, ao ni 
fiiakatazanya. '* To-morrow 
and to-morrow is deceiving or 
forbidding ;** to which they re^ 
plied'. — ^Si madanganya vala 
81 makatazanya, ni mazuiza- 
nya. ** It is not deceiving, and 
it is not forbidding, it is delays 
ing:' 

Hinge, patta, bawaba. 

Hip, nyonga (?), tokono (A.)* 

Hippopotamus, kiboko, pi. vibok<H 
tomondo. 

Hire, taja, ijara, njira. 

'Hiitory, hadithi. 

Hoarseness, kupwewa na Banii. 

Hoe, jembe (or gembe), pi mA- 
jembe. 

Hoeing-up time, mapalilo. 

Hoid (of a ship), ngeanak. 

Hole, tundu, pi. matundu. 
(through anything), kipenyo, pH 

vipenyo. 
(dibbled for seeds or plant{), ko- 

rongo, pi. mak6rongo. 
Hole to give light and air, mwH" 
ngaza,|>Z. miangaasa. 



SVBSTANTirES 



49 



Sole in ihe lower kbe oj the ear^ 

ndewe. 
Holiness, atakatifu, niatakatifa. 
IffoOow ipf a tree), mvungu. 
HoUoumess, avnrungu. 
Mome^ kwangu, kwako, kwa^e, 

kwetUi kwenii, kwao, according 

to the person whose home it is. 
I have some at home, iko kwango. 
Honey, asali ya nyuki. 
Honour, beshimai ukarimu, nta- 

kufu. 
Hoof, ukwato, pi, kwato, kwata. 
Hooh (flsh'hooh), doana. 
(used to steady worh toiih), 

kulabu. 
ffopcy matumaiui. 
Hordeolum, olioke^, 
Horn, pembe, pi, pcmbe or nuu* 



An antelope^B horn used as a 
trumpet, baragumu. See 
Musical InstruTnents. 
Horse, farasi, fras. 
Host (army or mttUitude), jeshi, pi, 
majesbi. 

Host (entertainer), mwenyeji, pi, 
wenyejL 
Hostility, wadui, adawa. 
Hour,BBA. 
House, nyumba. 

(large), jumba, pi, majumbft. 

{smaU), kijumba, pi. yljumba. 
Household of slaves, kijolL 
Hum, mavprni. 
Humility, unenyekeo. 
Hump (of an ox), nundu. 

{of a humpback), kigoago. 
Hunger, njaa, ndaa (H.)» 
Hundred, mia. 

Two hundred, miteen. 
ffunfer^ mwmda» pi* waw|)ida, 



Hurry, baraka. 

Husband, mume, pi, wanme* 

Hushj ganda, pi, maganda. 
Husk and bran of rice, kumv}, 
HusJc of the cocoa-nut, i^akuQibi. 

Hut, kibanda, pi, yibanda, 

Hysena, fid, pisi. 
Spotted hyxna, kingubwa. 

Hydrocele, msbipa, pumbo» kito* 
nga(7) 

Hypocrite, mnafiki, pi. wauafik}. 



Ibo, Wibo. 

Idiot, bayawani 

Idleness, uviviu 

Idolater, kafiri. pi, maka^ 

Ignorance, lyingfi, 

Image, sanamu. 

Imperial. See Beard. 

Imprecation, apizo, pi, maapizo. 

Imprisonment, kifungo. 

Incense, bubud, ubani, uviunbai 

nudL See Censer, 
Income, pato. 
Independence, upweke. 
Indian (heathen), Banyam, pi. Ma» 

banyani. 
Indian {Mdhommedan), Mubitidi, 

pi. Wabiadi 
Indian rubber, mpim, 
Indian com, muhiadi. See USaize^ 
Infection, kuambukiza. 
Infidel, kafiri, pi, makafiri. 
Infirmity, ntbaifii. 
Information, hahoxu . • > 

Ingenuity, uyuzi, umaheli . 
InJieritanoe, xaithi. 
Inheritor, mrUhii pl» wivrifAi, 
Ink, wino. 

Ivkstarhd, kidau oba wino. 
Inlaid worhf njomtL 



so 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Innovation, mzuzi, j>2. miznzL 
Innovator, mzoshi, pt waznshi 
Jn»ect, mdudu, pi, waduda. 

Paange, gadfly. 

Hanyiga, hornet 

Pudu rale, a boring hornet 

Bunsi, pi, mabunzi, a stinging 

fly- 

Ytinja jungo, a manH$, 
Boroshoa, a long-shaped hlaek 

insect found in dust-heaps. 
Insolence (sdf-sufficieney), kinaya. 
Instruction, mafandisho. 
iMtruments (nautical), yipande Tya 

kupimla. 
Insult, tukano, pL matukano. 
Intellect, aMli {generally treated as 

a plural noun of Class III.). 
Intention, nia, kasicU. 
Interpretation, tafsiri. 
Interpreter, n^limani, pi, Trakali- 

mani, posoro. 
Intestines, matumbo. 

SmaU intestines, chango. 
Interruption, kizuizo, pi. vlzuizo. 
Intoxicating thing, kileo, pi, Tileo. 
Intoxication, kileo, knlewa. 
Intruder, kizuahi, pi, vizusbi, fisadi 

(one who enters a house wOhout 

lawful purpose). 
Invalid, mgoujwa, pi, wagonjwa. 
Iron, chuma. 

A piece of iron, ohnma, pi, vyuina. 
Iron har, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
Island, kisiwa, pi. visiwa. 
Itch, upele, pele. 
Itching, mnyeo. 
Ivory, pembe. 
a large tush, hxuL 



/ackal, mbwa wa mwihi. 



Jaohfruit, finesi, pi. maflnerf, 

Jachfruit free, mfinesi, pi. mi- 
finesi. 
Jar (for carrying wUer)^ mtungi, 
pi. mitungi. 

Jar (large), kasikL 
Jasmine, jasminL 
Jaw, taya. 
Jealousy, uwivn. 

Jealous anger, gheirl 

To weep for jealousy, kidia ngoa; 
Jewel, johari. 
Jin, jini, pi. majini. 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Joint, kiTmgo,|)L viuiigo. 

(in a cane), fimdo, pi. mafundo. 

(piece between tioo joints in a 
cane), pingilL 
Joist, boritL 
Joke, ubishL 
Journey, safari, mwendo. 

Tujo day^ journey, mwendo wa 
sikumbilu 
Joy, furaha. 

Judge, kathi, pi. makatLi, mwa- 
muzi, pt waamuzi, mwamua, 
pi. waamua. 
Judgment, hukumn, moamuzL 
Jug, kopo, pt makopo. 
Juice, majL 
Justice, hakL 

K. 

Kul, mknkxi, ntako (Mer.). 
£emeZ, kisa, pt visa. 
KetUe, kanderinya. 
Key, ufunguo, pt fangna 
Kick, teke, pt mateke. 
Kidney, nso^ figo (M.). 
Kind, namna, ginsi, aina.- 
Kind, sort or style is expressed by 
kL 'prefixed to the place, thing^ 



BUBBTAKnrSS. 



51 



€r people, Eibindi, ^ Jndlan 
tort Eizanga, the European 
wrL 
Tiata yja Kiluiidi, i^oee like 

ihoee worn by the Indians, 
Yiasi yya Kizimga, meeei poUUoee 
of (he JEwropean eori, ie. potatoes, 
Mavazi ya kifaume, robee of the 
kingly eort, royal rcbee* 
Kindneesj wema. 
Every kindneee^ killa jambo la 

wema. 
AMndnese^foihrn. 
Kindredy vdugn, jamaa. 
Utani, ^ belonging to a kindred 

raee. 
Mtani, pi watani, a pereon of a 
kindred raee. 
King, mfalme, pL wafalme, malki, 
maliki. 
CheseMng^BheiL 
Kingdomy ufalme, Tifalnme, nfanme, 

milki, mulki. 
Kinmany ndnga, jamaa. Bee 

Kindred. 
XTtM, basQ. 

Kiieheny jikoni, mekoni 
Kite (bird\ mwewe. 

itoy\ihin. 
Kneoy gote^ piL magote, ondo^ pi 

maondo (A.). 
Knife, kisn, pi visa. 
(large), jisu, pi majisn. 
Kotama, a curved knife wed in 

getting palm wine, 
Shembea, a kind of cwrved knife. 
Knight (eheea), frasL 
Knot, fondo, pL mafando. 
Knowingnese, ujnvi, njazi, wereyiL 
Knowledge, maarifa, elimn, heUma. 
Koran^ korani, ftuakanu, msahafii. 
It ie divided into thiHy jnzuu, 



whieh together nuxke a khitima 



Labour, kttd. 
Labour paine, nifmffou 

Lao (100,000), lakki 

Ladder; nfpoL 

Ladle made out of a eoeooHnut, kata, 

pi raakata {deep, wed to dip 

up water with); npawa, pi, 

. pawa (ehaSaw, wed for gravy, 

curry, 4te,), 

Lady, hihi, mwana mke wa kin- 
ngwana. 
Lady of the houee, mimna. 
Ladylove, mchnmba. 

Lake, ziwa la maji, pi maiiwa^ 

Lamoo, AmxL 

Lamp, taa. 
Lampstand, apiece of wood with 
two flat piecee projecting ai 
right anglee on which the lamp 
ie placed, miraDgo^ pi miango. 
Lampwich, ntatabi, pi tambL 

Land, ioohi, nil (IIL). 

Landing-piace, diiko, pi madlko, 
liko,|)2.iiialika 

Language^ Ingba^ manttia. The 
language of a place or nation- 
ie expreseed by the we of the 
prefix ki-. Maneno ya Kin- 
nguja or Eiimgaja,^ language 
of Zanzibar, Einyamwezl, the 
language of the Kyamwezl 
tribe. SeeDiaJeO. 
Filthy and ineuUing language^ 
matakano. 

Languor, ntepeteyo. 

Lantern, fairasi, kandill, pi ma* 
kaudilL 

Lappet, ki8haiigi,|»I.'«ii|iiuigL 

b2 



52 



BWAHJLJ HANDBOOK. 



Xtarge$$, takarima, bastuBhi 

Lathe, keozo. 

Laughi chekOjpL macheko, kioheko, 

pL yioheko. 
Lawj flheria, huknintu * 
Xeod, risasi, rusasi. 

(for 9(mnding\\Mdi, 
Leader, kiongozi, pi, yiongozL 
Leaf {of a tree% jani, pL majanL 
(0/ a oocoa-fttft tTe6\ knti, pL 
- makuti. 

Leaf (of a hoQk\ ixkurasa, pL 
kurasa. 
Lean-tOj kipenn, pi Tipeim. 
Learning, ellmu. 
A man of leamingt mvana wa 
chuonL 
Leathm', ngozi, ngoyi. 
Leave, ruksa, ruhusa. 

To take leave, kuaga. 
Leaven, obaohu, hamira. 
Lee side, npande wa chinL 
Leech, mruba, pH, miruba, mdndu 

afyonzaye damm 
Lefthandedness, sbota 
Leg (or foot), mguu, pi migau. 
(qf a native bedstead), tendegu, 

pi, matendegu. 
Loss of the use qf the legs, kitewe, 
kiwete. 
Leg ring. See AnJcUL 
Legend, badltbi. 
Leisure (private time), fiiragba, 

makini. 
Lemon, limao, pi, malimao. 
Length, urefo. 
Leopard, chui, tul (M.)* 
Leprosy, ukoma, balanga, jetbamu, 

matana. 
Letter, waraka, pi nyaraka, baraa, 
kbati. 
Letieir (oj fte alphabefi^ b^rufu* 



Lever^ mvnkuto, jpl. mivukuto- 
Liar, mwongo, pL wawooga 
Liberality, ukarimu. 
Licentiousness, wasberati. 
Licoriee, was. 
Lid, kifu]uko,|>Z. yifuniko, kibia, pL 

vibia, mkungu wa kufimikia. 
Lie, wongo, uwoDgo. 
Life, uzima (JieciUh), maisba (oon- 

tinuanoe), robo (souC), 
Light, nura, veupe, mwanga, pi 

mianga, anga, pi maanga 

(glare), 
Lighthole, mwangasa, pi mia* 

ngazat 
Lights (of an animal), yayuyavn. 
Lightning, umeme. 
Like (similar thing), kifani, pi 

yifanl 
Likeness, mfano, pi, mifano, kifano 

pi, yifano, sanamn, sura. 
Lime, ohokaa. 
Lime (fruit)* dimu. 
Stoeet lime, dimu tamu. 
Limit, mpaka, pL mipaka (houn* 

dary), kinga (Jylock), upoo 

(what eaMtot he surpassed). 
Line, mstari, pl^ mistari (dravm), 

fiafn (roto), ugwe (cord), sbairi 

{line of terik). 
Linen, kitani. 
Lining of a kanzu round the throaii 

kaba. 
Lion, simba. 
Lip, mdomo, mlomo, or mwomo, pi, 

midomo, milomo, or miomo. 
Lip-ring, ndonya. 
Liquid, mc^i, Moweyn. 
Lisp, kitembe. 
Litter (carried by four men), 

macbera. 
Idtile pieces, yi4ogo, sfng, kidqga 



SWSBTANTttES. 



68 



iAvef^ bi, pL niaini 
Hzardy mjosi, pt wajusL 
Large water lizard, kenge. 
£f fufo of Utards, mgoruguni, pL 

vaguragara— • goroiig'ondwtt— 

Idiima mbuzi—mjumbakaka— 

mjisikafiri. 
Load, mzigo, pL mizlgo. 
Loaf, mkate, pL mikate. 
Loariy maazimo^ karatha. 
Lock, kitasa, pi vitasa (box lock), 

komeo or gomeo (a native 

wooden lock), kufuli, j>2. maku- 

ftOi {padhek). 
Ziooust, mzige, pZ. wazige, nzige. 
J^»gogo»ptmagogo. 

(nau^tcaZ), tatli. 
Loin dothf nguo, doli, kikoi, pL 

vikoi (im7A a «<np6d border). 
Loins, kiimo, pZ. Tinno. 
Longing, nchtt, tamaa, Iiawa. 
XooA;, natharL 

Lpohing-glasSi kloo^ j^Z. vioo. 
Loop, kitanzi, pi, vitanzi. 
LoSps to hatd up a 6oa< hy, 

kkhwara. 
Lose, hasara. 
Lots, kura. 
Lome, chawa, iawa. 
lA)ve, Bliauko, mapenki, habba, 

mababu, pendo, mapendo. 
Luck, bahati, nasibn. 

Messenger of iU luck, korofl. 
LukewarmnesSi uvtigairugi]. 
Lumbrici, chango. 
Lump, f ango, pi toafungo, fttmba, 

pL mafdmba. 
Lump {as in flour), kldonge, pZ. 

vidonge, vtiinbii, pZ. mavttmbii. 
Lump (of meat), chinyango. 
Lunacy, kicbaa, soda. 
Lunatici mwenyi kiohaa. 



Lungs, pafb, pmnn, yaTuyayn (of 

an animafy 
Lust,h&vnu 

Mace (tpiee), basbaaL' 

Machine, samani, mtambo, pZL mi* 

tambo. 
Madagascar, Buki, Bnkini 
Madness, wazimo, mahoka (ootintry 

' dialect). 
Magadoxa, Mkuchyo. 
Magic, uchawi (black magic), 

uganga (white magic). 
Maggot (funza). 
Magnesia (sulphate of), obumvi ya 

halulL 
Maiden, mwana mwalL 
Maize (pZanQ, muhindL 
half-grovm, matindl. 
(com), inahlndL 
(com cob), gunzi, pi, magtttizL 
(yowng ooh), ngara. 
(parched com), mbisi. 
Majesty, enzi, ezi. 
Malice, novu. 

Man (person), mtu, pZ. wattt. 
(male), mWanamame, pZi waft* 

nanme. 
.(human being), mwana Adainu, 

bin Adamu (Ar.). 
A very large man, jitu, pi. majitu. 
A young man whose beard is 
beginning to appear, mvuktha, 
pi, wavulana. 
Man of tJhe world, mtu mwereVtt: 
Mango, embe, embe (M.), pZ. ma*> 
embe. Embe ka dodo^ targe 
mangoes* 
Mango-tree, mwembe,pZ. midmbt 
Mangouste^ moiiiro, pL wachira 
Mangrove, mkoko, pi mikoka. - 



64 



BVTAEJLl HANDBOOK. 



JlfaMMr» giniL 

An eUgatU manner ^ mada h a. 
ManntrSy desturi, mathehdbu. 

Oood mannersy adabn, taafida. 
MantU, Yimja juiigo. 
Manure^ samadi 
Manmaeripif mwandiko, pL mia- 

ndiko. 
Mark, alanuL 
MarJcs made hy dragging antfthing 

alongy mkokoto» j>{. mikolcoto. 
Tribal marh^ nemba. See Spotf 
Blaidi. 
Market^ Boka^pL masoko. 
Marriage, ndoa, mikahik 
(the eeremony\ hariuL 
(intermarriage), kuoana. 
Marrow, bongo. 
Martyr, ahahidi, pL mashahidL 
ilfas^ barakptt. 
Maeon, mwashi, pi, waashL 

Maeon^B trowel, mwiko, p^ miiko. 
Maes, the mau of, jamii ya. 
Matt, mlingote, pL milingote^ 
iiigote,|>2.migote. 
Small mizen^mast, mlingote wa 
kabni or galmi 
Matter {of a haute, or of etaves), 
bwana. 
Matter (of a tchooIX mwalimt], pi. 

waalimu. 
Matter's son, bwana mdogo. 
Master workman, fundi 
One's own master, *mweza mwe> 
nyewe. 
Mat (coarse matting), Jamvi, pi 

majamTL 
. Sleeping mat, mkeka, pi, mikeka. 
Sleeping mat made like a hag with 
^ one side open, fomba. 
Oval prayer matt miu3ala> pL mi* 
salSit 



Bound mat on whidh food ie laid 

out, kitanga» pL Titanga. 
Strips of palm leaf for pUUHng 

fine mats, myaa, pi miyaa. 
Strips of pahn leaf for plaiting 
coarse mats, mwaa, pi miwaa. 
Narrow strips ready To he sewn 
together to make coarse matSf 
Bhapata, pi maahnpato. 
Strips for making fine mats, 

iikiri,|)2.kirL 
The ihieik edge of etrips of 

matUng, ng'ong'o. 
Busati, a sort of matting hrought 
from Muscat. 
Makihmaker, kijumbe, pZ. Tyumbdi 
Matches, yibeiitL 
Matter (pua), nsaha. 
A matter, Jambo, jawabtL 
What is the matter f Eunanini? 
What is (he matter with youf 
Una ninL 
Mattress, godoro, pi, magodoia 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
Meal (food), chaknla. 
First meal after a fast, AitoiL 
Meal (flour), unga. 
Meaning, maana. 
Meanness, tmyong«^ 
Means, njia. 
Measles, churawa. 
Measure, kadri, kiaai, obeo» kipima 
A measure, kipimo, pi Yi|>imo, 
Meaewing rod, line, dw,, ohenesob 

pi yyeneso. 

See Cubit, FaXhom, Span, Weight 

The weights are usedas measures 

for such a capacity ae would 

contain that weight of miUet 

Meat, nyama. [ (mtama).- 

SmaU pieces cooked on a skewer^ 

mshakiki, pi mi»bakiki. 



SUBSTANTtVES. 



106 



Pieee$ cooked on two paralld 

OiekSj subana. 
Meatiness, oinofiL 
Meddler f pingamizL 
Mediator (j)eac6-ma^),in8e!()bisba, 

pL waselehisba, msuluhlBha, 

pL vasulahisha, mpatanishiy 

pL Trapatanishi 
Medicine, dawa, pi, dawa or madawa. 
(medieal knowledge\ utabibn, 

Qganga. 
Medicine man, mganga, pL wa- 

ganga. 
Meekness, updo. 
MdanchcHy, buzuni, bamiL 
Memorandum (ynriUen), kbatL 
Memorial, kumbukumbn, ukii* 

mbusbo. 
Memory, vkomlmka, ufabamu, 
MeMtruation, betb. 
Mention, kumbukunibia. 
Merchandise, bitbaa. 
Merchant, mfanyi biashara, pi, wa- 

fiEuiyi biasbara, tajiri, pL ma- 

tajixi (d rich man), tat^biri, 

bazazi (huckder)^ 
Mercury, zebakb. 
Mercy, rebema, bununaw 
. Merit, BiaxA, 
Merka, Marika. 
Message, maneno, babaii 
JHessenger, mjumbe, pi. wajambe, 

mtume, ph watiime, tume« 
Ketol, madinL 
MiddU, katL 

Middle of a piece of doth, mjL 
Midge, tisubL 
Midnight, usiku saa a sita, kati ya 

xuSka, Tisiku wa manane. 
Midwife, mzalisba, ph wazalisba. 
JIftZefetff, kawa. 
. MUk, mazlwai 



(hurdled miOc, masiva mabim 
Buttermilk, miindL 
MtU, dinn, pi, nnu. 
Steam mUl, kinu cba mosbL 
on mUl, kinii cba kusbindikia. 
Hand mill, mawe ya kusagia 
{this last only is used for grind* 
ing com, Einn is properly a 
ioooden mortar, and the comm/on 
oU mills consist of a lever turned 
in a mortar by camels). 
Millipede, jongoo. 
Millet, miama. 
fully formed hut unripe^ mtama 

tete. 
MiUet staUes, mabua, sing. bua. 
kinds of miUet, kibakuli, kipaja 
Mind, moyo {heart), akili (wits). 
Mine, madini [nia (intention). 
Mint (herb), nana, fidina (?)• 
Minute, dsJdka. 

Miracle, mwiijiza,|>L miigiza, ajabiL 
Miscarriage, kubaribu mimba. 
Mischief, matbara, ubaiabu* 
Miser, bakbili, cboyo. 
Misery, sbidda, tbulli 
Misfortune, mfiiba,|){. misibay taabo. 
Missile, kimwondo, pL zimwondo 
(used to mean shooting stars, 
because said to be cast gJt the 
Jins by the angels). 
Missionary, mpeekwa, pi. wa- 

peekwa. 
Mist, knngu, umande, sbemali 
Mistake, kosa, makoso. 
Mistress (of slatfes), bibL 
(of the house), mwana. It is 
reckoned good manners in 
Zanzibar to speak ofone*s own 
mother as mwana. 
Mistress (kept woman), kinynmba. 
Mistress (sufeetheart)^ mcbumba» 



SB 



SWASiti SANDSOO& 



Mhen-madf mlingote wa kalmi or 

galmi 
Mockery^ usimangft. 
Moderation^ kadri» kiosL 
Modesty, haya. 
MoMla, MoallL 
MoU, foko^C?). 
'MoTtiibas^ Mvita. 
Monday, Juma a tatiL 
Money, fetha. 
Monfioy Mafya. 
Monkey, kima. 
Tumbili, a smaZZ tighi^coloured 

monkey, 
Kgedere, a small hlacik monkey. 
Mbega, ^Z. 'wabega, a hlacik 
monkey with long white Jiair on 
the shoulders. 
Monsoon (northeiiy winds), mttsimL 
Month, mwezi, pi miezi. 
TJie months of (he Arab year are 
determined by the sight of (he 
moon, or by the lapse of thirty 
fuU days. The months praeti- 
cally begin from the end of the 
fasting month, and are called 
Mftmgno wa mosl,— wa piU,— 
wa tatti,— wa'nne,— wa tano, — 
wa Bita,— wa saba,— wa nane, 
•— wa kenda, Kajaba, Shaabani, 
Bamathani. See Time, 
A month of less than thirty days^ 

mwezi mpungnfo. 
A month of thirty fvU days, mwe- 
zi mwangamti. 
MonOdy pay, mshaaftk 
Moon, mwezL 
Moonblindness,'kM* 
Moonlight, bala mwezL 
Morning, subtii, assubtd, tissilbid. 

Morning air, muandet 
Morocco, MaghariW. 



Morsdi kidogo, pi vidogo. 
Mortar for pounding and deanifif 
grain, &c, kino, pL vinu. 
Mortar for thromng shdls, ko« 

mbora. 
Builder's mortar, chokaa. 
Platters used as mortar boardSf 
chano, pL vyano. 
Mosque, meskiti, moskiti, mesjid. 
Mosquito, imbiL 
Moih, noondo. 

Mother, mama. R is polite in Zan» 
zibar to speak of one^s own 
mother as mwana. 
Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
Mother-in-law, mkwe, pL wakwft. 
Mould, kalibu. 

im^mldiness), ukungtt, kawfl. 
Movnd (of earth), klstigulu, pL vl- 

Mound (of stones), boma, pi, ma- 
boma. 
Mountain, mllffla, pi. milima. 
Mourning (grief), msiba. 
To make a formal moumingf 

kukaa matanga. 
To finish a formal mourning^ 

kuondoa matanga. 
To live very privately during 
mourning for a hwhand, ku- 
kaliaeda. 
The feast with which a mourning 
concludes, hitimu. 
Moustache, mnomo, pi, n^omo. 
Mouth, kinwa, pi, yinwa, kanwa, pL 

fiiakanwa. 
Mucus (from the nose), kamasL 

(from the vagina), utoko. 
Mud, tope ; much mud, matope. 

Muddiness in water, vmnbi. 
Mule, nymnbn, bighida. [ruba* 
Multiplication (arithmetical), th&« 



l^ifiSTAtrTirEd. 



6t 



MHiude^ mokntauo, knndi, pL 
makundl, jeehiy pL majeshi, 
nmaati 
Idummyf iniim3raiiL 
MungooBe, mohiio, pL wachiro. 
"Murderer, unnwaji, pi wauwaJL 
KtMcZtf, taf a. 

Mushroom^ kioga, pi vloga. 
Musie, ngoma. 

Muiical ImtfumenU, See Drum. 
Baragumu, a ipiral antelopes 

horn wed aa a trumpet, 
Eayamba, n sort of rattle, 
Einanda, pL vinanda, a stringed 
instrumerdj used of European 
instruments generally, 
Kinnbi, a hdrp, 
Matoazi, sing, toazi, eymbats, 
Mbui, a huffdlo^s horn played by 

heating, 
Paanda, a trumpet 
XJpato, a plate of copper sounded 

by heating. 
Tugo, a large horn sounded by 

heating. 
£eze, a three-stringed lute, 
Zomari, a sort of clarionet 
Muski mesiki, meski 
Mussel (shell fish), kijogoo,|)Z. vljo- 

goo, kome, pi makome. 
Mustard, kharadalL 
Myriad, kikwi, pi vikwi or sikwL 
Myrrh^ manemane. 

N. 
Kail {finger), iikucha, pi kuclia. 
(}rtm), msomari, pi misotnarL 
iTaTiw, jina,|)Z. majiba. 

Whai is your name f Jina lako 
nani? 
Kamesahe, somo, pi masotno. 
Nape oftheneckf ukoeiy kikosL 



Naphin, kitambaa, j)t yitambaa. 
Table napkin, Mtambaa cba 
meza. 
Narcotic, kileo, pi vlleo. 
Nation, ied&k^pl mataifa. 
Native, mzalia, pi wazalia, kizao, 

pi vizao^ kiyyao, pi yivyao. 
Nature, asill, tabia. 
Nautical instruments, Tipande yyft 

kupimia. 
Navel, kitovo, pi vitovu. 
Necessaries (especially as supplied 
hy God^s providence), riziki, 
ziriki (M.). 
(useful things), vifaa. 
Necessity, farathi, lazima, nkwaseftt. 
Neck, shingo, pi masbingo. See 

Back, Nape, 
Need, nhtaji, kutaka, matakwa. 
Needle, fiindano. 
Neighbour, jiranL 
Neighbourhood, upande wa, ki* 

yainbo(?). 
Nest, tmida, pi matmidTL 

(a laying place), kiota, pi viota. 
Net, mshipi, pi misbipi. 
used to take gazettes, Ac, wavtl, 

pi nyavu, cbavu, pi vyaviu 
Stake net, hedge made in the sed, 

uzio, pi nyuzio. 
Hound casting net, kimia, pi 

vimia. 
Seine made of European cordage, 

jarifa (or jarife), pi majarifa. 
Seine made of cocoa-nut fibre, 

juya,|>Lmajuya. 
Fish trap made of basket vsork, 
dema. 
NeiUe, kiwavi, pi viwavi (used also 
News, babarL [o/ sea-nettles). 

Night, usikii. 
All nightf nsiku kuobOr 



68 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Four whole nighUf Biku nne nmkxL 

kacha. 
Four days and nightSf siku nne 
moliana na nsiku. 
Nightmare^ jinamisL 
NippUf chuohu ya ziwa, tiii, 
bubu (A.). 
of a gun^ kifa, pL yiSsk, 
2^ohody, si mtu. 
There is nobody^ hapana (or 
hakuna) mta. 
Noise^ eautL 
of voieeSf kelele, pL makelele, 

uthia. 
See BeUow, BoaVf Hura^ Cky» 
NomeMey npuzi, puo. 
^0071, athuuri, joa kitwanL 
Noote, tauzi, pL matanzL 
Norths kibula, kaskazini 

Northerly windsy kaskazL 
Nose, paa» ph pua or mapua. 
^ose ornament shaped like a siud, 

kipini, pL vipioL 
Nose ring, azama. 
Nostril, tundn ya pua, 'mwanzi wa 

pua (?). 
Notch, a place where a triangular 

piece is broken out, pengo. 
Note, bama, khati. 
Number, hesabu, kiwango. 
Nurfe, yaya (dry nurse), 'inlezi, pt 
walezi (of a child), muguzi, pi, 
wauguzi (of a sick person). 
Nut, kokwa, pL makokwa. See 

Ground, Cashew, d:o. 
Nutmeg, kungmnanga. 

O, 

Oar, kasia, pt makasla. 

Oath, uapo, pL nyapo, kiapo, pL 

viapo, yaminu 
Hhedienoe, mutia. 



ObjedUonSy makindano, makataOt * 

OocupaUon^ shnghnlL 

(Esophagu»,xasno, 

Qferingy eadaka (gif€), thabiha 

(sacrifice kafara (a sajorifice to 

avert calamity ; U is buried or 

thrown away). 
Officer, akida, mkuu wa asikarL 
Officiousness, futhnli, ufathuli^ 
Offspring, mzao, pi, wazao. [ujuyi 
OH, maf uta. 
Castor-oil, mafuta ya mbarika. 
Semsem-oil, mafuta ya uta. 
Ointment, marhamo. 
Old age, uzee, ukongwe (extreme). 
Old person, mzee, pt wazee, ki- 

koDgwe, 1^ Tikongwe (mb- 

tremely old). 
Omelette, kiwanda, kimanda. 
Omen, fialL 
Omnipresence, eneo la Muunga (</<« 

spread of God), 
Onion, kitunguu, pL vitungau. 
Cjpen place, kiwanja» pi, Tiwanja, 

wangwa, wanda. 
piece of waste ground in a iawi^ 

uga. 
Opinion, wasia* 
Opium, afyuni 
Opportunity, nafaei 
OphOudmia, well wa machOi 
Orange, ohungwa, ph macbungwfl» 

cbungwa la kizungu, danzi la 

kizung^. 
Bitter or wHd oranges^ danzi, ^ 

madanzL 
Mandarin oranges, kangaja. 
(a larger sor€), chenza, ohenza za 

kiijjemi. 
Order, See Command, 
(regularity, or a tegular order), 

taratibu. 



SUJBSTANTnrjBB. 



50 



OrdeoZ, Idapo, pt vlapa 
Origin, asili, €bimbiiko» mwanxo. 
Ornament, pombo, pL mapambo, 
kipambo, pi. yipambo, 
Ddia, a yeUow eosmetic 
Kdonya, lip-ring worn by (he 

NyasM vfomen, 
Sorafa, a nnaU gold piate worn 

on the forehead. 
Shangwi, an ornament worn 
' between the thoulders. 
XJrembo, Uack linee painted upon 
the face, 
' Vzwit oowuHc appUeaUone. 
Vidani, etMare of gold or ether. 
Bee AnkleU, Bracelets^ Ear, Note. 
Orphan, yatima. 
Oe coecggie, kifondugtL 
Oitridiy buni. 
Otto of roeee, hal ir^adL 
Outlet, pakutokea. 
Outrigger (of canoes), matengo. 
OuteMrte of a toum, kiunga. 
Oven, tanua, tanura. 
Over-looker, msimamizi, pL waai- 
mamizi, mwangalizj, pL waa- 
ngalizL 
Owl, bundi 
Owner, mwenye^re. 
iOt, ng^ombe or gnombe, maksaL 
Oyeter, cheza, kome (?), pL ma* 
kome, kombe za pwani 

taee, mwendo. 

Package, padcet, or parcel, robofa, 
gora (of eloih), peto^ pi. ma- 



StiMll packet, kipeto, pi, vipeto. 
tad of graee, ^c, ueed to carry a 
: load on tiie head upon, generally 
twisted into a ringt kata. 



Pad used as a saddle for donkeys, 
khoij. 
Paddle, kafl, pi, makafl; 
PtikOoe^ knfulL ' 
Pail, ndoo. 

Pain, maumiYUy uohtuigii» kutimai 
Paint, rangi. 

Pair, joasi, jura, jeozi, jausd* 
Palace, jumba. 
Palanquin, macbera. 
Palate, kaaka, kaa la kinwat 
Palisading, zizi, kizizi. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
mkono, pi, vitanga vya mikono. 
A sailmaket's palm, dofra, pi, 
mado&a. 
Palm-tree, See Coeoornut, Dale. 
Leaf'Stem of a palmrtree, upongoe^ 

jpl. pongoe. 
Mkoohe, has an edible fruit 
Mlala, hyphasne, branching palm. 
M?iima, borassus palm, 
Palm-oU tree, mcbiMchi, jH ndclli* 
kichL 
its fruit, chiMobi, pi maobikiohL 
the email nuts contained in the 
fruit, kiohikiobi, pL Tiohikichi. 
Palm-wine, tembo. 
Spirit made from palm^ne, 

zarambo. 
Palm-^mne syrup, asali ya tembo. 
Palmar abscess, kaka. 
Palpitation of the heart, kiberehete 

cba moyo» 
Panniers, sboi, sbogi. 
Pap, nbabwa. 
Papaw, papayi, piL mapapayL 

Papavhtree, mpapayi, pIL mipa* 
Paper, karatasi. [p&yi 

Parable, metbili, metbali^ mfatto^ 

pi, mifano. 
Paradiscp peponi* 



^^0 



SWABtLt HANDSOOZ 



. Oaie of pamdiie, kilongo cha 

jaha. 
Paralyiis, kipooza, tiwo (?). 
Paralytie^ mwenyi kupooza. 
Parched maizes mbisi 
Pardon, aratbi, mnsama, masameho, 

hisa. 
Parent, mzaa» ph vazaa, mzazi, pi. 

wazazi, mzee, pL wazee. 
Part, fnngu, pi mafungu, sehemu, 

upande, ph pande, kisraa. 
Partner, msharika, pi, washarika. 
Partnership, ushaiika. 
PaHridge, kwale (?). 
Kering'ende, the red-legged par- 

tridge. 
Party (faction), aria. 
Paae, or passport, cheti, ph vyetL 
Passage (by), pito, ph kipito. 
(through), kipenyo, ph vipenyo. 
A very narrow passage, kicho« 

ohoro, ph vichochoro. 
Patch (in doth), kiraka, pIL viraka. 

(in planking), hasho. 
Path, njia, pito, ph roapito. 
Patienoe, sabiiri, subiri, UYumiliyii, 

QtuUytL 
Pattern, namna. 

(to work from) kielezo, ph vielezo. 
Pauper, kibapara, ph vlbapara (an 

insulting epithet), 
Paion (chess), kitunda, ph vitunda. 
.Pay, ijara, njia, faritha, mshahara 

(monthly). 
Pea, dengu {they dre not groum in 

Zanzibar, butt are broitghl dry 

from India), 
A small pea4ike bean, chooko, 

chiroko. 
.Peaoe, amani, salamu. 
Peace-maker, mpatanishi, fiuiele« 

hialiay mf uluhiBha* . 



Peacock, iausL 

Peak, kilele, ph yfleldi. 

Pearl, lulu. 

Pebble (very smaU), mbwo. 

(or small piece of stone), kokot(H 
pi, makokoto. 
Peel, ganda, ph maganda. 
Peg, chango, ph vyango. 
Pelvis, tokoni 
Pen, kalamu. 

Seed pen, kalamu ya 'mwatizL 
Penis, mbo. 
People, watu. 

People of this toorld, walimweugtL 

Other people's, -a watu. 

People like us, kiua sisi. 

AbdaUah^s people, Mna Abdallafa. 
Pepper, pilipili manga. 

Red pepper, pilipili hoho. 
Percussion cap, fiitaki. 
Perfection, ukamilifu, utimilivu. 
Perfumes, mannkato. 
Period (or point of time), kipindl, 

ph vipindi. 
Perjury, azilr, zuli. 
Permission, ruksa, ruhusa. 
Persia, AjjemL 

Persian Oulf, Bahari il 'all 
Person, mtu. 

A grown person, mtu mzima. 8ed 
Old, &c. 
Perspiration, iiari, jasbow 
Pestilence, tauni, wabba. 
Pestle, mchi (or mti), pL miobl, 

mtwango, ph mitwango* 
Phantom, kivuli, pi. tItuIL 
Phlegm, belghamu. 
Phthisis, ukobozi. 
Physic, dawa, ph dawa or madatea. 
Physician, tabibu, mtabibu, piL 
watabibtt, mganga. pk wa« 
ganga. . 



BVBBTANTJVEB. 



61 



P^, pesa, pL peta or mapesa. 

Pickle, achari. 

Pidure, taswira, sura, sanamo. 

Pf000, kipande, pi Tipande. 
Piece of Madagtuoar gixu$ chihf 

ramba, piL maramba. 
Piece let in by way of patch (in 
plla$iking),hQsiko, See Firewood, 

Pig, ngoruwe, nguuwe. 
Jivi, a Wild hog. 

pigeon, njiwa, ndiwa QIL\ 
^ Tame pigeon, njiwa manga. 
WUd pigeon, njiwa wa mwitn. 

PUe of sticks, ike,, for burning, biwi, 
1>2. mabiwL 

PUes Quemorrhoids'), bawasir. 

Pilgrimage, haj. 

PiU, Mdouge, pi, yidongo. 

Pillar, ngnzo. 

PiUow, mUij pi, mito. 

Wooden head rest, msamilob pi 
misamlK 

pilot, rubonL 

Pimple, kipele, pL vipele, npele, j>l. 
pele Qarge), kiwe,p{. viwe (a 
smidU kind). 

Pincers, koleo. 

PincHLppU, nanasi, pL mananaBL 

Pinna (sheUrfish), Isayt^pl makaya, 
panga, pi, mapanga. 

Pipe (water), nellL 
(clarionet), zomari. 
(tobacco), kiko, pi viko. The 
native pipe consists of a bowl 
(bora), a stem (digali) leading 
from the bowl into a small vessel 
of water, which last is properly 
the kiko ; the stem from the kiko 
to the mouth is the shilamn. 
The bubbling of the water when 
it is being smoked is the malio 



Piping, kigwe,i>L vigwo. 
Pirate, haramia. 
Pistol, bastola. 
Pit, shimo, pi, mashimo. 
Pitch or Tar, ]smL 
Pity, hunxma. 
P2ak^ mahali, pahalL 
Place may often be expressed by 

the prefix ps^, 
Ponyamavu, a quiet plaee. 
Pakutokea, a place to go out at, 
Fanginepo, elsewhere, 
or by the use o/penyL 
Penyi mti, the place where the 

tree is, or was. 
An open place, kiwanja, pi 

Tiwanja. 
A clear spcue in a town, uga, 
A place where offerings are made 
to propitiate spirits suppose to 
haunt it, mzimvifpl muEimUt 
Plague, imm. 
Plain, uwanda. 
Plan, Bh&vaifpl masbatui 
Plane, randa. 
Plank, ubau, pi mbau. 
Planking, mbau. 

A plank laid over the body before 

the earth is filled in, kiunza,p2. 

PUnt, mbegu, mbeyu. [viunza. 

A young plant, mobe, pH micba, 

ohipukizi, pi yipukizi 
Upupu, cowitch, 
Mbaruti, a (histMUce plant with 

a yellow flower, 
Nyinyozo, a bulbous plant ihraw- 

ing up a head of red flowers, 
YmiQijungi, the blue water-lily, 
Afu, (he wUd jasmine. 
Kirukia, a parasite on fruit trees. 
Mpungati, a kind of oac^ 
Plai^ins^ n4i^ 



63 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Flantalton^ thamba, $L mashamba. 
FUtUf kisabani, pi. vifiahani. 

A plate of metdl^ bamba, pi. ma- 
bamba. 
Plcttter of tooodf chano, pL vyana 
JPleasure, anasa, furaha. 

PUaHng things, mapendezL 
Pledge, rahani, amani, kabatbL 
J^leiade$f kiliiuia. 
Plenty, wingi, tmgi (M.), mari- 

tbawa. 
Plumb-line (a itone hung by a strip 

of banana leaf), timazi. 
Plug, ngumzi, zibo, pi. maziba 
Plummet, ohubwL 
Poeket, mfoko, pH. mifako. 

Poeket'handkerchief, leso. 
Poem, mashairi, ntenzi (religious). 
Poet, mttuiga mashairi, pi watuDga 

masbairi. 
Poetry , mashairi. 

One line of poetry, shairL 
Point, ncha. 
Poison, sumn, uchangik 

Fish poison, utupa. 
PoUf mti, pi miti. 

for carrying burdens on, mpiko, 
pi mipiko. 

for propelling a oanoe, iipondo,|)l. 
pondo. 
Politeness, adabu. 
Pomegranate, kamamanga. 
fomeloe, fanmgu, pi maforanga. 
Fond, ziwa, pi maziwa. 
Pool; ziwa, pi maziwa. 

Pooi left by the retiring tide^ 
kidimbwi, pi, vidimbwL 
Poop, shetri. 
Foot free man, maskini ya Muu- 

ngu. 
Porcupine, nungn. 
PoreSf nweleoy matdceo ya harL 



Porpoise, pomboo< 
Porridge, ugali, nji, foka^ haaid*. 
Porter. See Doorkeeper, 
(carrier), hamali, pi mahamali - 
(in a earatfan"), mpagazi, pH, wa> 
pagazL 
Port Dumford, Burikao. 
Position in lAe vforld, oheo, kiwa 

ngo. 
Possessions, mali, milki. 
Possessor, mwenyewe. 
Possessor of, dc, mwenyi, &o., ph 
wenyi, ic. 
Post, mti, pi. mitL 
Bearing post, mhimili, pil mihi* 
milL 
Posterity, wazao. 
Pot. See Coohing'poi, Censen 

A lobster^t, dema. 
Potash (nitrate of), ahura. 
Potatoes, Yiazi yya kizimga. 
Sweet potatoes, viazi, sing, kiazi. 
Raised beds for planting Tiazi, 
iuiA,pl matuta. 
Potsherd (broken piece of pottery or 
glass), kigai, pi yigai, gai,i>J. 
magai (a large piece), kige* 
lenyenza, pi. vigerenyenza (a 
very smdU piece, a splinter). 
Potter, mfioangi, pi wafinangi, mfi* 
nyanzi, wafinyanzi. 
A place to bakepottet'stoorkfjdko. 
Poultry, k'nku. 
Poverty, timasikinL 
Powder, unga. 

Gunpowder, baniti 
Power, uwezo, ngavn, mamlaka, enzL 
Practice, mtaala, mazoezo. 
Praise, dfa, hamdL 
Prattle, vijineno. 
Prayer (foorship), ibada. 
(entreaty), kuomba. 



8UB8TANTIVESL 



68 



' iHe preioribed formsit ealA. The 
regular Mohammedan Hme$ of 
prayer are, Magaribi, direcUy 
after eutuet; Esha, an hour er 
two later; Al&jiri, before «i»n- 
Hee; Athmul, at noon ; AJasiri, 
about half-way between noon 
andeunseL 

Preaeherj mwenyi kukhntubiiy or 
knayithi 

Preeepti mafimdishoi 

Pregnaney, mimba. 

Present (tee Oift), zawadL 

Ckutomary present^ ada, Idlemba. 
Cuetomary preaente at a wedding ; 
to the brides father, niahaii, 
Mlemba; to the brides mother^ 
mkiy'a, abeleko ; to the brides 
hungu, kiosba mi^a, kifanua 
xnlango; to the bride hereeff^ 
kipa mkono. 

Preee or Preeeure, ahinikhift. 

Prey, mawinda 

Priee, kima, tftamani 

Prickly heai, yipele yya habanu 
A medicament for U, liwa. 

Pf^kibnri. 

Prieet, kahini, pL makahini {need 
in ihe eenee of eoothsayer). 
^Chrietian), kadsi, padie or pa- 
diri, |>L mapadiri. 

Prison, Mfimgo, gereza* 

Privacy, faragba. 

Privy, choo. 

Proceeds, paio^ pi mapato. 

Produce (fruit, seed, dtc), asao, pi 
mazao. 

Profit, fajrida, ghanima. 

Progeny, mzao, pi, wazaa 

Progress, kiendeleo. 

Prohibition, makatazo. 

Promise, ahadi, wabadL 



Promissory note, avala. 
Pronunfiation, mata*mka 
Propi mbimlli, ph mihimili, mato- 
gemeo. 
A prop to heep a vessel upright 
when left by the tide, gadi 
Property, mali, miUd. 
Prophet, nabii, mtmue, j>L mltume. 
Prosecution, mstaki, pi mistakL 
Prosfilyte, mwongofn, pL waongofo. 
Prostitute, kababa, pi, makahaba. 
Protection, bami, bamaya. 

Under British protection, fi ba* 
mayat al Ingrez (Ar.). 
Proverb, mfauo wa maneno. 
Provision, madaraka. 
Provisions, vyakula. 
Provocation, ekerahi 
Prow, gabetL 
of a amaU vessel, kikono, pi 

vikono. 
(head), omo. 
Prudence, busara, fikira. 
Pulley, kapi, pi, makapi, gofia. 
Pulpit, mimbara. 
Pump, bomba. 
Pumpkin, boga, pi maboga. 
plant, mboga, pi miboga. 
sheU used to carry Uquids 4n 

dondu, pi madundn. 
Mamunye, pL mamumuiiye, 

sort of vegetable marrow. 
Tango, pi, matango, eaten raw 

like eueumber, 
Kitomo, pL vitoma, a sma 

round sort 
TiMU, pi, matikiti, a nmnd k nd 
of water-melon, 
Pttfie^, keke. 

Purehaser, mnnntizi, pi mokxaaaL 
Purgative, dawa la kubara. 
Purity, nuwafl, utakatifu 



64 



BWASILI HANDBOOK. 



Purpo$ef kosudi, pL xnakusadi, 

kasidi, nia. 
Pune^ kifuko cba kuiilia fetha, 
'Pu8h in the cheeky mdukuo. 
Putridity, kiosa. 
Pufty^ cbakl. 
Python, obatiL 



Quail, tombo, tomboroko. 
QuaUty, tabia, giosi, jud, aino. 
Quantity, kiaai, kadiri, obeo 

{meoMurement). 
Quarrel, mateio, to&uti, nazar, 

ugomvL 
QuarreUomenesi, ugomvi 
Quarter, roba 

Three-quarters of a doUar, kassa 
roba 

Quarter of a town, mta, pi mita. 
Queen, malkia. 

(chew), kisbi 
Question, maulizo, swalL 
Quieting ^tn(;r,kitulizo,i>2.Yitulizo. 
Quietness, utulivn, makini, kimya. 
Quiver, podo. 



Itdbbit, Bungura, kisungura, pi 
yifiangara, kitungule, pi Titu- 
ngule, kititi. 
Bace, maahindano. 
Bafter, boriti (for a stone roof), 
kombamoyo, pi makomba- 
moyo (Jor a thatched roof), 
pao, pi, mapao (very thin). 
Bag, kitambaa, pi Tltambaa, 

utambaa, pi tambaa. 
Bain, myna. 
Bain cloud, ghubari, pH maghu* 
Bainy season, masika. [bari. 

lasser rains, mvua yf^ mwi^ 



Bairibow, upindi wa mvua, kuiki 

oha mYua (M.). 
Bammerfor heaiing roqfs, kipimde, 

pH Yipaude, 
Btimpart, boma, lera. 
Bank, daraja, oheo. 
Bansom, kombozi, pH makombozi, 

ukomboo, ukombozi, fidia, 

ufidiwa, ukombolewa- 
Barity, i'mm, hedaya. 
Bash (small piv^pHes), Yipele, 
i2a<,panya, 

a very large kind, bqkii. 
Bations, poeho. 
Baumess (of mecU, ^e.), ubichi 

(dtdness), lyingfu 
Bazor, wembe. 

Beason, maaua, eababn, hiija, nkili 
Beasoning, hnja. 
BebeilUon, maasi 
Beeess, kidaka, pi Yidaka, k!slm« 

baka, yl Yishubaka (a pigeon^ 

hoU). 
WaUattheJ)aekofareeess,nSL 
Becommendation, maaguso. 
Beetitude, adili 

Bed eordl, marijani ya fetbalukat 
Bed Bea, Bahari ya Sham. 
Bedeemer, mkombozi, pH wako- 

mbozL 
Beed, imyasi, pi nyad, 'mwaiud, pli 

miwanzi. 
Beferenee, marogeo« 
Befuge, makimbilio. 
Begret, majutia 
BegvXarity, kaida. 
Beign, ezi, enzL 
Bein, kigwe, p2. Yigwo. 
Bqjoieing, ftiraha, sbangwL 
Belations (relatives), akraba, ndngiii 

jamaa. 
A near revive, karibn. 



SUBBTANTirES. 



65 



Edaxalion (Joo8en%ng\ nlegevu. 

Hdigion, dini, dua. 

Jtdish (something to he eaten toiUi 

riee or porridge)y kitoweo. 
Bemainder^ msazo, masazo, mabakia. 
Remedy^ dawa, niapoza. [baki. 

Beminder, ukumbu&ho. 
Remission (of tins), magbofira, ma- 

ondoleo. 
Bemnanty mabakia. 
jRentj iJBLm. 

'Repentance, toba, majato. 
Representative^ wakiU. 
Reprocushes, matayo. 
Reprobate, baa, pL mabaa. 
ReptiU (?). 
Kenge, a monitor (7), a very large 

slender lizard, 
P'ili, a large snaJes, 
Gkatu, a python. 
See Snake, Crocodile, <t*0. 
Request, baja, matakwa. 
Residue. See Remainder, 
A little left in ajar, Ac, kisbinda. 
pt vishinda. 
Resin, nlimbo. 

Respiration, katanafosi, kushusba 
Rest, raha, pmnziko. [pumzi. 

Resting-plaee, pumzikio^ kituo, pi. 

zituo or yituo. 
Restlessness, fatbaa. 
Resurrection, afufuo, nfufulio, ki- 
yama ((he general resurrection). 
Resuscitation, (actively) kufufua, 
kuhuisba, (neu^) knfufuka, 
kuhuika. 
Retainer, xnfaasi, pL wafoasi. 
Retaliation kasasi, kisasi. 
Return, maregeo, marejeo kuja 

zaOf&c 
Revenge majilipa. 
Reverence, xmenyekco. 



Reviling, mashuiumii, maabuiomio, 
matayo. 
Revival, See Resuscitation. 
Reward, ijara, ujbra, roajazo, thai* 
waba (espedaUy from God). 
Reward for finding a lost ihing^ 
kiokosi, pH^ viokosi. 
Rlieumatism, baridiyabis, nweli w» 

viungo. 
Rhinoceros, kifaru, pi, vifaru, pea. 
Rib, ubanu, pL mbavu, kiwaya 

obana (A.)* 
RiQe, growing, or yet in the hush^ 
mpunga. 
cleaned from (he husk, mchele, ' 
cooked, wali. 
watery, and imperfectly cooked 

mashendea. 
cooked so thai (he grains are 
dry and separate, pukute ya 
wall. 
scorched in ike cooking ukoko, 

iitandu (A.). 
left from overnight to he eaten in 
the morning, wall wa mwikuu. 
Kinds of rice, sena, buDgala, 
sbindano, garofuu, kapwas ki- 
fango, madeva, mwanga, siFara, 
uchukwi 
Riclies, mali, utajiri, ukwasi. 
Rich man, tajiri, pi. matajiri, mwe« 
nyi mali, nkwasi^pL wakwasi. 
Ridicule, mzaba, tbibaka. 
Right, haki, wajib, adilL 
Righteousness, baki 
Rind, ganda, pi, maganda. 
Rind of a lemon, Ac, after the 
inside has been squeezed or 
extracted, kaka. 
Ring, pete, pi. pete or mapete. 
Rings on the scahbard of a sword, 
die iikoa, pi. koa. 



66 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Jt'iig icl^ere (he hlade enter» the 

liofty noleo, pi. manoleo. 
Ear-ring, pete ya mitsikio. 
Ming'Wormf choa. 
Bipplsy Tiwimbi. 
JiUkf in iradingy jukit. 
RiverymU>,pl. mito. 
^Boady njia. 
Boar, ngununo, vninl 
BMety mnyang'anyi, jiL wanya- 
ng'anyi, haramia. 
Feople vcho wander about atnighiy 
robbing and oommitting violenee, 
mrungura, mpakacba. 
Boeky mwamba, pi. miamba. 

A tmaU rocky kijauiba, pi. >i* 
\ Jamba. . ' 

in the «ea, kipwa, pi. vipwa. 
BoUing of n shtpy mramma. 
Booff dari, sakafu (stone roof or 
floor), paa, pi. mapaa (thatched 
roof)» The thatched roofe eon- 
sid generally of a front and 
hack «Zope,kipaa cha mbele and 
kipaa cha nyuma, and hips for 
• ^ ihe endiy which are can'ied up 
under and within the main 
elopee; these hips are eaUed 
visusi, sing. kisiisL 
A lean-tOy kipeno, pi. Yipeniu 
The roof over a vjotching-plaoe in 
the fields, dangu, pL madungu. 
Booh (chess), fil. 
Boom {space), nafasi. 
(apartment!), ohumba, pt Tynmba. 
Uliambi, liaU or porch ;Uis within 
a itone fiouse, but outside an 
'■' earthen- one. 
ScTjule or sebula^ parlour, recep- 
tion room. 
,* Orfa, >di!ofa, or gbdrof% an upper 
rcom. 



Gh'dla, a darh room on the ground" 
floor, a store-room. 
Boot, shina, pH. masbina. 
Bootlets, mizizi, mizi (M.). 
Bope, kamba, ngole (Mer.). 

Hempen rope, kamba, ulayiti' 
Bosary (Mohammedan heads), tas- 

biib. 
Bose, waradi, waridi. 
Otto of roses, hal wdradL 
Bose-water, marasbi mawaridi. 
Bose apple, darabi, pi. madarabl 
Boundrieee, xnyliinga 
Bovo (line), safu. 
Boio (noise), nthia, kero. 
Boyalty, kifaume, ufaame. 
Bubbi^ (from old buildings)^ ftisi, 
kifuai. 
(smaU articles), takataka. 
Budder, sbikio, eakani, msukani, ph 
misukani, u8ukaiii,|)L sukani. 
Buddie, used by carpenters to marh 

out their work, ngeu. 
Budeness, safihi. 
Buin or Buins, maanguko. 
Bunaway (from a master, home, dtc), 
mtoro, pZ. watoro. 
(from a fight, d:c.), mkimbizi, pi, 
wakimbizi. 
Bupee, rupia. 
Bupia or any gimilar skin disease, 

buba. 
Bust, kutu. ^ 

Bustling, mtakasa 



Sahre, kitara, pi vitara. 

iS^acn^e, sadaka (an offering), fidia 
(giving tip), thabibii (sacrifice 
ing), matJiabuba (the victim^ 
kafara (an animal or thinq 
offered but not eaten). 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



67 



Saddle, kiti clia frosi, matandiko, 
aeruji (an Arab saddle), khorj 
(the pad used for a donkey). 
Sadness (see Grief ), rammiL 
Safety, salamn, Balama. 
Saffron, zafarani. 
Sail, tanga, pi matang^k 

Dhouhsail, duumi. 

Saa-cloth, kitalU 
Sailor, baharia. 
Saint, It alii. 
Sake, ajili, hiija, maana. 

For my sake, anipcndavyo (as you 
love me). 
Sale (a^ct^on), ronada. 
Salesman, dalalL 
Saliva, mate. 

SaJt, chumvi, mnnyo (A.). 
Saltpdre, shnra. 
Scdute (fired), mizinga ya salamu. 

(salutation), Balamu. 
Salvation, wokovu, suudi, njcma. 
Salver, sinia, pi, masliiia. 
Sanction, ithini 
Sand, mchanga, mtanga (M.), 
Sandals, viatu, sing, kiatn, viatu 
Tja DgozL 

strap of a sandal, gidam. 
Sandalwood, liwsk (7). ^ 

Sandfly, usubi. 
Sap, maji. 

Saturday, Juma a mosL 
Saucepan, sufuria. * 

Saviour, mwokozi, pL waokozi. 
Savour, lathtlia, tamn. 
Scab, kigaga, pi. ylgaga. 
Seahbard, ala, pi. nyala. 

The metal rings on a scdbhard, 
ukoa, pt koa. 
Scaffold (for building), jukwari. 
Seal f ft (of a fisJi), magamba, mamba 



Scales (balances), mizaiiL 

Scale pans, yitanga vya mizaaL 
Scar, koya, pL makoTU. 
Scarf (often worn round the wais(), 

deulL 
Scent, harufu, manuka, nukato, pL 
mannkato, meski, maraslii (a 
scent for sprinkling). 
Tibu, a hind of scent. 
See Rose, Ambergris, Aloes wood. 
School, ohuoni. 
Scissors, makasi. 
Scoop. See Ladl*j. 
Score (20), korja. 
Scorn, tharatt, thihakai 
Scorpion, nge. 
Scraps left after eating, makoipbo, 

sing, kombo. 
Scrape (slide), paitu 
Scratch, mtai, pi. mif ai. 
Scream, kiowe, pi. viowe (cry for 
Jidp), kigelcgele, pi. vigeleg3le 
(a trilling scream raised as a 
«ry of joy). 
Screw, parafujo. 
Scrip, mkoba, pi. mikoba. 
Scrofulous and gangrenous sores, 

mti. 
Scrotum, pumbo, mapumbu. 
Scull, kitwa, pi vitwa, fuvu or 

bupuru la kitwa. 
Scum, povu» mapoTU. 
Sea, babari. 
A sea, mawimbi, wimbL 
A seaman, mwana maji. 
One from beyond seas, mja na 

majL 
Seaweed, mwanL 
Seal, muburi. 
Seam, mshono, pL roisbono, band 

(packed), iipindo (a hem). 
Season, wakati. 

F 2 



68 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



The principal seasont in Zanzibar 
are: — Musimi, the time of the 
northerly winds (kazkazi), that 
is^ DecernbeTj January, and 
February, For March, April, 
and May, the rainy eeaton, 
masika; after that, the cold 
time, kipupwe ; then, about the 
end of August, demani, or 
mwaka. The southerly winds 
(knsi) begin to drop in October, 
and in the intervals between 
them and the northerly winds 
come the times of easterly and 
westerly winds,malelezi or tanga 
mbili. 

Seasoning. See Belish. 

Seat, kikao, makazi. 
The stone or earth seat near a 
door, baraza, kibaraza. 

Secrecy, siri, faragha. 

Secrets, mambo ya siri. 

Secretary, inwandi8hi,|)Z. waandishi, 
khatiba, karani. 
Secretary of State, waziri, pi. 
mawaziri. 

Sect, mathhdb, mathehebu. 

Sediment, masbapo. 

Seed, mbegu, mbeyu. 

Seedling, mohe, pi. miche. 

Self, mojo, nafsi, nafusL 

Self-content, kiuaya. 

Semen, shabawa, mannL 

Semsem, uf ata. 
Semsem oil, mafuta ya uta. 
What is left after tlie oU has been 
pressed out, fihudu* 

Senna, sanamaki. 

Sense, Skkili. 

Sentinel, mngoja, pi. wangoja. 

Servant, mtumisbi, pi. watumisbi, 
mttttuwa, pi watmuwa, noker. 



One who serves at iaMe, mwf^ 

ndikaji, pi. waandikaji 

In a ^amha there are generally 

three chief servants. I. Msi* 

inaroizi, generally a free man, 

2. Nokoa, the chief slave. 3. 

Kadamu, tlie second head slave. 

Service, utmnwa, hudumu, hidima. 

Setting-out, things set out or the place 

for them, maandiko. 
Shaddock, furungu, pi. mafurunga. 
Shade, iivuli, Tuli, mvuii, mvili, 

kivuli, kitua. 
Shadow, kivuli, pi. vivuli 
Shame (disgrace), aibu. 
(modesty), haya. 
(a thing causing confusion), ari, 

fetheba, hezaya. 
having no shame, rojanja, pL 
wajanja. 
Shape, kiasi, kalibn,namiia. 
Share, fungu, pi. mafungu, semcbq, 

kisma. 
Sharing, usbarika. 
Sliarht papa. 
SJiarpness, ukali. 
Shaving (of wood), usafl. 
Sliawl, sball. 

worn round the waist, mahazama. 
*Sheaf, or bundle of cut rice, mganda, 

pi, mlganda. 
Sheath, no, pL mauo, ala, pi. nyala. 
Sheave (of a pulley), roda, koradani. 
Sited, banda, pL mabauda, kibaiula, 

pi. vibanda. 
Sheep, kondoo. 
Sheet, sbiika. 
of a sail, demani. 
of a booh, gombo, pi. magorobo. 
o/ paper, vikux9S&,pl. korasi^ 
Shelf, kibau, pi. vibau. 
in a recess, rufiif. 



smafAiaftfMa. 



(id 



ingMlf. 
Shell («ea «ft«K8),s1ielle, pi, inoshelle. 
Qiuak), ganda, pL maganda. 
{empty shelly fuYu, pU mafuvn, 
bapuru, piL mabupuru, kaka. 
Shepherdf mlishi, pi, walishi, mchu- 

nga, pi wachunga. 
Sherd. SeePoUherd. 
Shield^ ngao. 

Shiny muiindi wa gnu (A.). 
Shipj merikebu, marikabu, jahasi. 
Man-of-voaTy manowari, mdrikeba 

ya mizioga. 
Men^fd ship, merikcqu ya taja* 
Steam ship, merikebu ya dohaaoi 

merikebtt ya moshL 
Ship belonging to the government, 

merikebu ya serkali 
FuU-rigged thip, merikebu ya 

roilingote mitatu. 
Barque^ merikebu ya milingoto 

miwili na nuss. 
Native craft, chombo, piL vyombo. 
Shirty kanzu. 
Shivering, kitapo, kutetema, ku- 

tetemeka. 
Shoal (hank), fungu, pi mafungu. 
Shock, shindo. 

Shoe, kiatu cha kizungu or cha 

kihiodi, pL viatu yya kizuugu. 

Shoemaker, mshoni Tiatu, pi wa- 

8honi viatu. 
Shoot, cbipukiei> ucbipuka, pi 
obipuka. 
A pointed shoot like that contain" 
ing a spike of flovoer, kilelc, pi 
Yilele. 
Shop, duka, pi, maduka. 

Shops with warerooms, bokhari. 
Shot (smaU), marisaa. 
Shot-helti betL 



Shoulder, bega, pi mabega, fuzi, pZ. 

mafuzi (A.). 
Shoulder-blade, kombe la mkono. 
Shout, ukelele,|)2. kelelo, keleley|>l 

makelele. 
Shower, manyunyo. 
Showing, wonyesho. 
Shrewdness, werevu. 
Shroud, saanda. 
Shrub, Idjm, pi yijitL 
See Thorn, 

MwaDgo, pi, miwango (?). 
Sick person, mgoT\jwA,pl magonjwa, 

mweli, pi waweli. 
Sickness, ugonjwa, uweli, marathi. 
Side, nptkude, pi pande. 
Side of the body, mbavu, mata- 

mbavu. 
The other side of a river^ Ar., 

ng*ambo. 
Siege, mazingiwa. 
<9^6«e,kiyamba. 
Siftings of rice after pounding, 

wishwa. 
Sighing, kuugua. 
Sign, dalili. 
Signal, ishara. 
XJkonyezo, pi konyezo, a sign 

made by raising the eyebrows* 
Eikorombwe, a kind of signal cry 
Silence, nyamavu, kimya 
SiUc, hariri. 
Silliness, mapiswa, pua 

SiUy talk, upuzL 
Silver, fetha. 
Silversmith, mfua fetiiOi pi waPua 

felha. 
Simpleton, mjinga, pt wajinga. 
Sin, thambi, pi, tbambi or ma- 

tbambi, makosa, takairi. 
Singleness, upweke. 
Stp, fundaCO* 



70 



SWABILI BANDBOOS. 



Sir J Bwanal 

Stster, nmbn, pi. maiimbu, ndngo, 
ndnga mke. 
As a term of endearment, dada. 
FodeT'eister^ nduga kuuyonya. 
Sifter-in^w, shemegi. 
Sitter, mksuktpl, 'wakaa. 
Sitting, kikao, pL vikao, kiiako, pL 

Titako. 
Siie, vkavL, nkubwa, kiasi, kadiri, 

chco. 
Skeleton, mzoga (?) . 
Skilful workman^ mstadi, pL wa- 

BfadL 
SkiUed or matUf-worhman^ fundi. 
Skin, DgozL 
Sky, uwingiL 
Slacknett, ulegeviL 
Slander, masingpzio^ fitina (sowing 

of discord). 
Slaughter-house, matiudo. 
Slave, xntumwa, pi, watumwa, mn- 
hadimu, pL wabadimii^ miwana^ 
pL watwana. 
A slave hoy, kitwana, pi. vitwana. 
A slave girl, kijakazi, pL vijakazi. 
A tlave woman, mjakazi, pL wa- 

jokazi; 
A concubine slave, suria, pL ma- 

suria. 
A slave horn in the house or 

country, xnzalia, pi. 'wazalia. 
A runaway slave, mtoro, pi, wa- 

A fellow slave, mjoli, pi. wajoli. 
A' household qf slaves, kijoli, pi. 

vijolL 
Piece of land allotted to a slave 
for Jiis own use, koonde, pi. 
makoonde. 
Slavery, ntumwa. 
Sleep, uzingizi, zingizL 



Sleeping plaee,mBia\o. 
Things to sleep upon, malazi. 
Sleeve, mkono, pi, mikona 
Sling, kcmibeo, pL makombeo. 
Slip of a tree, Ac, mcbe, pi, micho. 
A slip which hae put forth IcaveSt 

mche nliochanna. 
One fjchich has made a new sJtoot^ 

mche nliochipnka. 
Slipperiness, utelezL 
Sloth, uviYU. 
Slovenliness, fujofuja 
SmaUness, udogo. 
SmaU-poz, ndtd. 
SmeU, hartifu, manuka, azroa. 
Smith (worker in metal), mfua, pt 

wafua. See Blacksmith, &c 
Smoke, moshi, pi. mioslii. 
Snail, koa, pL makoa, konokono. 
Snake, nyoka, joka, pi majoka 

(large). 
Ghattt, python^ 
Fill, cobra (?), 
Snare, shabnka. 
Sneezing, chafya. 
Snoring, kiikoroma. 
Snuff, tumbako ya kunuka, or 

kunnsa. 
Snuff'hox, tabakelo. 
Soap, Babuiii. 
Soda, magadi. 
Solder, lihamik 
SMier, asikari. 

Sole (of the foot), uayo, pi nyaa 
Solitude, upekee, nkiwat 
SomauU Coast, Banada. 
Somebody, mtu. 
Some one else*s, -a mwenyeWe. 
Child of somebody, i.e., of respect' 

aHe parents, mtoto wa i\atU| 

mwana wa wata. -; 

Somersault, kitwangomba. 



BtlSSTANTIVES. 



It 



$m, mwana^ pL waana^ Idjana^ 
mtoto mume. 
Wodi Mohammed, Mohammed't 

ton. 
Bin AbdaUah (Ar.), Abdallah*$ 

son. 
Hamisi wa Tani, EanUii Vie son 

of Tani (^Oihman). 
Soninrlaufy mkwe, pL wakwe. 
fion^, nimbo, pL nyimbo. 
Soot, kaa moshi, makaa ya moshi 
Soothing things kitulizo, pi. vitulizo. 
Soothsayer, kahini, pL makahini. 
Sore, donda, pi, madonda, kidonda, 
pi. vidonda, jeraha. 
Sores in the leg^ nyungmiyangn, 
mtL 
Sorrow, kasarani, hnzuni, sikitiko, 
matnkio. 
Sorrow for a loss, majonzL 
Sorrow for somdhing done, ma- 

jntia 
Excessive sorroto, jitimai 
Sort (kind), ginsi, namna, Skvaeu 
The sort is often expressed hy 
the prefh ki-. Kizrm^, the 
European sort, kifamne, tlie 
kingly sort 
Sota,ioho. 
Sound, sauti. 
Soundness, uzima. 
Source, asili, chimbnko. 
£butA, kuaini, fittbelL 
Southerly wind, kusi.. 
Sovereign, mwenyi ezi, mwenyi 

inchi, mwenyi mji. 
, (coin), robo Ingrezi 
Sovereignty, ezl, enzL 
Space, nafasL 
(of time), mnda. 
(open space), uwanda, nga. 
Spade, jembe la kizungtu 



Span, futoii, shibiri, shifarL 

Spangles, pnluki. 

Spark, chechi, pi macbeohL 

Sparkle, kimeta. 

Speaker, mneni, pt waneni, mflemi, 
pi nt'asemi, maemaji, pL wa- 
Bemaji. 

Speaking, knsema, knnema. 
A dark obscure way of speaking^ 

kilinge cba maneno. 
An enigmatical way of speaking, 
in which the last syUabU is^ 
taken from the end, and made 
to begin ^ word, kinyume, 
kinyuma. (See Appendix L) 

Spear, fumo, .pL mafumo (JlaU 
Haded) mkuke^ pH, mikuke,- 
(three-edged) sagai, pi. masagai ' 

Spectacles, miwanL 

Speech (spajiking),'kxmQrak. 
(oration), matagnao, milnmbe. 

Spider, bnibni. 

Spinal column^ nU wa inaimgo. 

Spirits, mvinyo. 
Evil spirit,' pepo. 
Kinds of spirits, jini, pi. majtni, 
milboi, mahoka, dungnmaro,- 
kitamiri, kiznn, kizuka, koikoi, 
mwana maoa, &a 

Spit, mna, pi nynma. 

Spittle, mate. 

Spoil, mateka. 

Spleen, wengo. 

Splint, gango, pi magango, banzi, 
pi, mabanzi. 

Splinter (of wood), kibanzi, pL 
. Tibanzi. 
(of glass or earthenware), kige- 
renyenza, pi vigerenyenza. 

Spoon, mwiko, pi miiko, kijiko, pi 
vijiko (a tea-spoon), ndiamsbe,' 
pi mikamshe (a wooden spoon). 



72 



BWASiLt MANDsaoK. 



Spirt y rncheZO. nizaha. 

Spot, waa, pi, mawaa, kipakn, pt 

yipakiL 
Spout (^from a roof), kopo la 

nyumba, marizabu. 
Sprain, kuteuka. 
Spread, eaeo. 

Spreading a meal, maandiko. 
Spring, xntambo, pi, mitambo. 

ofviaJter, chemohem, jicho la maji. 
Sprinkle, manytmyo. 
Sprinkler (for ecents), mrashi^ pt 

mirashL 
Spur of a eoek, kipi, Mpia, pL vipia. 
Spy, mpelelezi, pi. wapelelezi, 

mtumbnizi (A.). 
Square, mrabba. 
Squint, makengeza. 
Stable, banda la frasi, faja la frasL 
Staff, gongo, pi. magongo, mkongo- 

jo, pL mikongojo. 
Stagnation, Tilio, pL mavilia 
&ain, waa, pL mawaa. 
Stairs, darajay ngazL 
Upstairs, jun, darinL 
Down-stairs, chinL 
StdUts, of mtama, boa, piL mabiia. 
of a Mnd of millet chevoed like 

sugar-cane, kota, pL makota. 
of cloves, cfcc, kikonyo,jpI. vikonyo. 
StaU keeper, mchurazi, pi. wa- 

charuzL 
Stammering, kigngmnizL 
Stamp, muhmi, chapa. 
Staple, pete, pi, mapete, ttunbnu. 
Star, nyoia. 
Falling stars, nyota zikishuka. 
Shooting stars, kimwondo, pi. 
Timwondo. 
Starch, kanji, dondo. 
Start {fright),lntako. 
{beginning), fell, pi, umfelL 



Startling thing, mzungti, pi ml* 
zungiL 
A thing to frighten people^ klnya- 
go, pi. vinyaga 
8taie,h9]L 
Statue, sanamo. 
Stealing, kwiba. 
Steam, mvnke. 

A steamship, merikebu ya mosbi. 
Steel, feleji, pua. 
Steelyard, mizani. 
Steersman, mshiki sbikijO. 
Stem of a tree, shina, pi mashina. 

of mtama, bna, pi, mabua. 
Step (stepping), batua. 

{of stone, Ac), daiaja. 
Step-father, baba ^a kambo. 

Step^mother, mama wa kambo. 
Steward, maimamizi, pZ. wasimamizL 
Stick, fimbo, ufito, pi fito (piin), 
bakora (a tealking'^ick toith a 
handle bent at right angles). 
A short heavy stick, kibarango, 
pi. yibaiango, mpweke, pi. mi- 
pweke. 
A staff, gongo, pi magongo, 
mkongojo, pi. mikongojo (an 
old man*8 staff), 
StiUness, kimya. 

Stirrup, kikuku cha kupandia frasL 
Stocks (for the feet), mkatale. 
Stomach, tambo. 
Pit of the stomach, chembe cha 
moyo (A.). 
Stone, jiwe, pi mawe or majiwe. 
A stone house, nynmba ya mawa 
SmaU stones or pieces of ttone, 

kokoto, pi makokoto. 
Very small stones, not larger than 

an egg, mbwe. 
Very mall grit, changarawL 
Fresh cored, matnmbawi 



BV^SfANTlYEa. 



73 



PreetouB stones^ kito, pL vito, 
joharL 

Stones of fruity kokwa, pL ma- 
kokwa. 
Stooping^ kiinamizL 
Stop (end), kikomo, kinga. 

(stopping), kizuizo, kizuizi, kizuio. 
Stoppage in the nose or wind-pipe^ 
mafaa. 

(stagnation), vilio, pL mavilio. 
Stopper, zibo, pi. mazibo, kizibo, pi, 

viziba 
Store (put by), akiba. 

Store-room, gbala. 
Storm, tbiraba, tufaniL 
Story, baditbi, babarL See TaU, 
Stoutness, anene. 
Strainer, kungnto, pL makiinguto 

(of hasket-noorh). 
Straits (distress), sbidda. 

(narrow seas), kilango oba babari. 
Strands of a cord, meno, ncba. 
Stranger, mgeni, pi wageni. 
Strap, iikanda. 
Stratagem, bila. 
Stream, mto, pi mito, kijito, pi 

vyito. 
Strength, nguvu. 
String, ugwe, uzi, katani. 

String of beads, kigwe, pi vigwe. 
String-course, nsbi. 
StHp, See Mat. 
Stripe (line), uzi, pi nynzl, znftto, 

pi mifuo, utepe, pi tepe, 
S^udy, mtaala. 
StuvMe, kwao, j>Z. makwao. 
Stumbling-hhck, kwao, pi makwao. 
Stump, shina, pi madbina. 
Stupor, kurukwa na akili 
Stye in the eye, chokea. 
Style (of writing), dibaji, o good 
style* 



Subject, rayia. 

Substance, asilL 

Subtlety, busara, wenmL 

Subtraction (arithmetical), baki 

Suburbs, kiiinga. 

Sugar, snkaii. 

Sugar-cane, mua, pH, miwa. 

Suit of dothes, kisua. 

Sulphate of copper, mratatu. 
of magnesia, cbnmvi ya balulL 

Sulphur, MberitL 

Saltanship, nsultanL 

Sum, jnmla. 

Summary, mubtasarL * 

Summit, kilele, pi vilele (used of 
any sharp-pointed top or peak, 
of the centre shoot of a cocoa- 
nut tree as weU as of the peak 
of a mountain). 

Sun, jua^ pi majiia. 
The coming out of the sun after 
rain, kianga. 

Sunday, Jama a pilL 

Sundries, takataka. 

Sunset, magharibi, mangaiibL 

Supercargo, karaDi. 

Superciliousness, Mtongotongo. 

Superintendent, mwangalizi, pi wa« 
angalizi, msimamizi, pit, wasi* 
mamizi. 

Supper, cbaknla cba jioni 

Suppuration, kutunga. 

Surety, mtbamini, tbimio, thamana, 
lazima. 

Surf, mawimbL 

Swallow (bird), barewai, mbili- 
wili (?), mbayuwayu (A.). 

Sweat, hari, jaaho, vukuto. 

Sweetheart, mcbumba. 

Sweet lime, dimu tamu. 

Sweetness, tamu. 

Sweet potatoes, yiazi, sing. kiazL 



74 



BWAEILl RANDBOOK. 



SwindUry tbalimiL 
Swing f pembea. 
Swinej ngaruwe, ngnuwe. 
Switeky nfito, pi fito. 
Swardy npanga, pL pango. 
curved tword^ kitara, pi. vitara. 
straight t%o<hedged tword without 

any guard, upanga wa felejL 
with a tmaU cron hUt, upanga 
wa imauL 
Syphilis, sekeneko, kijaraha oha 
xnboni, tego (a virtdent hind 
supposed to be Vie resuU of a 
charm). 
Syria, Sham. 
Syrup, asali. 



TabU, 

Tahle^loth, nguo ya mezo. 
. Table -naphini kitambaa cha 

xneza. 
Tack of a sail, gofihi. 
Talking {sewing), baodL 
Tail, n^da, pH. mikia. 
Tailor, mshoni, pL wosbonL 
Taking away, maondolea 
Tale, hadithi, kisa, ngano. 
Tale-bearer, mznzi. 
Talipes, kupinda na mguu* 
Talk, usemi^ 

SiUy talk, nptizL 
Tulker, msemaji, pi, wasemaji 
Tamarind, ukwajo. 

Tamarind tree, rnkwaju, pL mi- 
Tangle, matata. [kwajui 
Tap, bilula. 
Tape, utepe, pL tepe. 
Tar, lami. 

Tartar on the teeih, iikoga. 
Taste, tamu, tamu, luthtba, nyonda, 
maondif maonji 



Tatter, mwonja, pL waonja, mWO» 

nda (M.)) pi waonda, kionja, 

pL Tionja, kionda (M.), pL 

vionda. 
Tea, cliayi, cha. 
Teacher, mwalimn, pi. waalimn, 

rokufunzi, pL wakufunzL 
Teaching, mafaadisbo, elimu. 
Teak, msaji. 

Teapot, bull, pi. mabulL 
Tear, chozi, pi. maobozi, tozi (M.), 

pi. matozi. 
Teaxing, tbihaka. 
Tediousness, ucUotq. 
Teleseope, duiabini; 
Temper, tabia. 

Temperar^ce, tawasauf, kadirL 
Temple, hekalu (a great thing, ike 

temple at Jerusalem), banija 

(a building, the temple at 

Meeca% 
Temptation, majaribn, nyondft. 
Ten, kvatd, pi. makumi. 

a decade, mwongo, pi, miongo. . 
Tent, khema, hcma. 
Testicles, mapumbu, tamboa. 
Testimony, ushahidi. 
Thanks, sbukurn, ushukura, aalamiii 

ahsanta, maiababa. 
Hiatch, makuti (of cocoa-nut leaves). 
Thin sticks used to tie the makuti 

to, Tipau, pi. pan 
See CoisoarnuL 
Theft, nizL 
Thicket, kichaka, pL vichaka, kok(H 

pi. loakoko. 
Thickness, nnene. 
Thief, mwivl, pL wevi, mvribaji, pi 

webaji. 
Thieving, kwiba, uizi, wibaji. 
Thigh, upaja, pi paja, paja, pi. nmr 

paja. 



BVBSTAiTTlVMa. 



75 



fhimJtiUy sobaniL 
SaUmakei's jpdLm, dofra, pL ma- 
dofra. 
Tiling J kitn, pL vita (a thing of tlte 
tenses), ncno, jambo, mambo 
(things of the intellect). 
J have done nothing, sikufanya 

*Dcno. 
J see nothing, doni kitu. 
A kind tiling, jambo la wema. 
Strange things^ mambo mageoL 
TJiird (a tJiirdpart), (Aeluth. 
Tliu-st, kio. 

Tliom, mwiba, pL mliba or miba. 
Mchoiigoma, |72. roiehongoma, a 

thorny shrub used for hedges, 
Hkwamba, jpZ. mikwamba, a 
^ thorny shrub. 
Thought, wazo, pL mawazo, fikara, 

tl;amiri, nia. 
Tliousand, cUu,pL elfu or alafu. 
a thousand or myriad, kikwi, |>2. 

zikwi or vikwL 
a hundred thousand, lakkL 
Thread, uzi, pZ. nynzi, katauL 
Threat, wogofya, tisho. 
Throat, koo, jpL makoo. 
!rAtt]n&, kidole cha gumba. 
tliunder, radi (near)^ ngurumo 

(distant). 
Thursday, AlhamisL 
tuiket, kibarua, pi vibania. 
Tickling or tingling, mnyeo, kiuye- 

wyefiL 
Ticks, papasi (in houses), kupe (on 

oatOe), 
Tide, maji kujaa na kupwa. 
Spring tides, bamvna. 
Neap tides, maji mafu. 
Tiller, kana, gana. 

TiUer ropes, mijiari, sing, mjiari. 
Timber, miti, mibau. 



Time, \rakati, wakti, majim. 
(sufficient), nafasi 
(Aotfr), saa. 
(leisure), faragha. 
(first, Ac\ mara. 
(fixed term), mobulla. 
Times (age), zamani. 
Space of time, miida. 
Period of time, kipindL 
A short time, kitambo. 
Tin^ in muUiplicaiion, fi. 
Six times eight, sita & tlio- 
manya. 

DiyisiOKB or Timb. 

There are two yean in nso in 
Zanzibar; that which is most com* 
monly heard of is the Arab year of 
twelve lunar montlis. It cannot be 
more than about 355 days long, and 
has therefore no correspondence to 
the seasons. The months are de- 
termined by the sight of the new 
moon, or by the expiration of thirtyr 
days since the beginning of the 
previous month. It happens some* 
times that some of the coast towns^ 
will begin their months a day before 
or after what was taken as its first 
day in Zanzibar. A gun ia usaally 
fired from one of the ships when 
the month begins. Practically the 
Bamathan is treated as the first 
montli, and the rest are reckoned 
&bm it; the word by which they 
are denoted seems to mean not 
fasting, as though the SamaOian 
being the month ot fasting, the rest 
were the first, second, third, &Cy 
of not fasting, until the montlis of 
Sajab and ffiauhan, which have 
both a special religious character 



70 



BWiEiLt SAitbnooK. 



The following are tho names of the 


Arab months, with their Swahili 


equivalents: 




AtAB. 


SWAHIU. 


Mohanutk 


Hftingw) a 'line. 


8afr. 




Babia al aowal. 


Mfungao a slta. 


BabUalakhr. 


Mfangao a saba. 


Jemad al aowal. 


Mfangxto a nane. 


Jemadalakhr. 


Mfunguo a kenda. 


RiSiab. ^ 


Ri^aba. 


Shaalan. 


Shaabanl. 


P*mathfliL 


Ramathan!. 


Shaowal. 


Mfunguo a mod. 


Th'U ka'ada. 


HfongQoapiU. 


Th'UhiOiAb. 


MfungnoaUto. 



The two great Mohammedan 
feasts are held on the first of 
Shcunoal, when every one gives pre- 
sents, and on the tenth of Th*il 
hajjah, ivhen every one is supposed 
to slaughter some animal and feast 
the poor. 

The other year in use among the 
Bwahili is the Kautical and Agri- 
cultural year ; it is roughly a solar 
year, having 865 days. It is 
reckoned to begin fh>m the 8iku a 
mwdka (answering to the Persian 
Nairuz), which now occurs towards 
the end of August The last day 
of the old year is called Kigunzi, 
and the days are reckoned by 
decades, called miongo, sing, miro- 
ngo. Thus — Muxmgo wa mia con- 
sists of the days between 90 and 
100. Mvoongo wanyapif asks which 
decade it is. The Siku a mtoaJea is 
kept as a great day, and formerly 
had a number of special observances 
oonnected with it. In the night or 



early in the morning every oiie tlscd 
to bathe in the sea; the women are 
particularly careful to do so. They 
afterwards fill a large pot with 
grain and pulse, and cook them. 
About noon they serve out to all 
friends who come ; all the fires, are 
extinguished with water and lighted 
again by rubbing wood. Formerly 
no inquiry was made as to any one 
killed or hurt on this day, and it is 
still the custom to go armed and 
to be on the guard against private 
enemies. It used to be a favourite 
amusement to throw any Indians 
that could be caught into the sea, 
and otherwise ill-use them, until 
the British Government interfered 
for their protection. The year is 
called after the day of the week on 
which it began; thus, in 1865 it 
began on Thursday and was 
Mwdka Alhamisi; in 1866 on 
Friday, and was Mwaka Jwna, and 
so on. 

The seasons will be found briefly 
mentioned under that word. 

The week has been reconstructed 
on the Arab week, retaining only 
the Arab names of two days, AUia* 
miti and Juma (Thursday and 
Friday), which answer to our Satur* 
day and Sunday for Mohammedan 
religions purposes, and are the days 
which slaves in the country are 
generally allowed for their own 
recreation or profit. Juma is so 
named from the assembly held on 
that day for public woreliip; the 
Arab names of the rest are merely 
those used by English Quakeni^ 
first, second, third, &c. 



BUB8TANTIVEB. 



77 



Ekqusb. ABAua 

Sanday. Al <had. 

Monday. Ath tAeneen. 

Tuesday. AM tAelntb. 

Wednesday, Ar robua*. 

Tharsday. Al khamlf . 

Friday. Jama'. 

Sfttordaj. Assabt 



SWARILI. 

Jama a pill. 
Jama a tata. 
Jama K 'mie. 
Jama a tano. 
Alhamlat 
Jama. 
Jama a mosL 



The day begins at sunset ; tonight 
therefore in the mouth of a Swahili 
means what an Englishman would 
call Vut night. As the days are of 
ft very nearly uniform length there 
is little practical incorrectness in 
taking sunset as six o'clock in the 
evening and reckoning the night 
first «ad then the day from it, hour 
by hour. Thus, seven, eight, and 
nine are the first, second, and third 
of the night (jkm a kwanzay a pUi, 
a tatu ya usiku). Midnight is the 
sixth hour, saa a sita. Five in the 
morning is the eleventh hour of the 
night, KM a edhaskara. Nine 
o'clock in the morning is the third 
hour of the day, ioa a tatu. Twelve 
at noon is the sixth hour, aaa a iita, 
and four and five the tenth and 
eleventh hours, saa a kumif aaa a 
edhatihara. Sunset. is determined 
by observation, and a gun is fired, 
and tha Sultan's fiag hauled down 
to mark it. During the JRamathan a 
gun is fired at half-past two in the 
morning to warn every one of the 
approach of morning, that they may 
get their cooking and eating over 
Defore dawn. This gun-fire is called 
daakuu. 

There is another way of marking 
the time by reference chiefiy to the 
hours of prayer (lee Prayw); the 
following are th« chief points 



Magaribi, summC 

Mshuko wa magaribi (coming out 

from 8un8«t prayers)^ about 

hal/'poit six. 
Esha or Isha, from half-ptut Hx 

to oighL 
Mshuko wa esha, aibout hoUf-an^ 

hour later, 
Nuss ya usikn« midnight 
Earibu na alfajiri, between three 

and four in ihe morning. 
Alfajiri mkuu. rising of the mom' 

ing star, about four, 
Alfajiri mdogo, dawn, 
Assubui, the momingy f .«., after 

sunrise, 
Mchana, the day from assubui to 

jioni. 
Mafungulia ng*ombe (letHng out 

of cattle), about 8 A,u. 
Mafungulia ng'ombe makuu, is 

earlier, mafungulia ng'ombe 

madogo, is later than eigJU 

o*clock, 
Jua kitwani, noon, 
Athuuri or Azuuri, noon, and 

thence tiU three o*doek. 
Awali athuuri, bettoeen twelve and 

one. 
Alasiri, about half-past three, or 

from three to five. 
Alasiri kasiri, about five, or thenoe 

to half-pasL 
Jioni, evening, from about five ot 

half-past tiUsunseL 



Tin, bati 

Tiv ncha, nta (Ti.> 
Tithes, zaka. 
Tobacco, tumbako 
To'dayt leoi 



78 



BWAUILI HANDBOOK. 



Toe, kiJolc, pt vidole, kidole eha 

xnguiu 
Token, dalili, buruhanL 
Tomb, kaburi, jd. xnakabiirL 
To-morrow, kesha 

ihe day after, kesbo kutwa. 

the day after ihnt; mtondo. 

after that, mtondo goo. 
Tongs^ koleo, pi, makolea 
Tongue, ulimi, pi, ndimL 

A piece of cloth, dc, to lie under 
an opening, lisanL 
Tool, samanl 

Carpenter*$ tool far marlHng lines, 
xnaliatL 
Tooth, jiao, pL mena 

cuspids, choDge. 

Dirt on the teeth, ukoga. 
' He h(u lost a frond tooth, ana 
pengo. 

Tooth stick or brush, msuaki, pi 

Top, juu. 

{the toy), pia. 
Torpor, utepetcftu 
Tortoise, kobe. 
Total, jumla. 

2WeZ,kitambaa cba kaAitiaugOy'&c. 
Tower, mnara, pi minanu 
Toum, mji, pi miji 
Trace, dalili 
Track, nyayo. 
Trade, biasbara. 
Trader, mfanyi blashara. 
Traitor, kbainL 
Trap, mtego, pi mitego, 

(with a spring), mtambo, pi mi- 
tamba 
Traveller, msafiri, pi wasafiri 
Tray, sinia, pi masinia. 
Trcocfo, asali ya mua. 
Treasure, bazina, kanzi, khazana. 



Treatmetd, mwamale. 
Tree, mti, pi mitL 

Mkadi, Pandanus. 

Mtomondo, Barringtmia, 

MU>ndoo,CalophyUum inophyUum, 
Trench, bandaki. 

Trench for laying in foundations, 
malDJi, msiDgL 
Trial, majaribu. 
Tribe, kabila, taifa, pi mataifa. 

(taifa is larger Hian kabila). 

Of what tribe are you i Mtu gani 
wee? 
Trick, bila, obereTH, madanganya. 
Trot, xnasbindo (of a horse), matiti 

(of an ass). 
Trouble, taabn, utbia. 
Trousers, soniali 

Trowel (mason^s), mwiko, pi ndiko. 
Trumpet, paanda. 

Trunk, sbina, pi masbina, jiti, pi 
majiti 

(cut down), gogo, pi magogo. 

(Ute human trunk), kiwLiwili 
Truth, kweli, 

A truih teUer, msemi kwclL 
Trying, maonji, majaribu. 
Tub, pipa, pi mapipa. 
Tuesday, Juma a nne. 
Turban, kilemba, pi. vilcmba. 

A turban doth, utambi, pi tambL 

ends of turban cloth, utam\nm, pi 
tamvua, kisbungi* 
Turkey, bata la xnziDga, pi mabata 

ya mzinga. 
Turmeric, manjaaa 
Turn, zamn, pL mazamiu 

By turns, kwa zamu. ' 
Turner, xnkeieza, pi wakcreza, . 
Turnery, zikerezwazo. . 
Turtle, kasa. 

EawJcshead turfie^ from which 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



70 



iortoiseshell is obtained, ag'a- 

niba, giiamba. 
Turtle dovCf husL 
Twin, pacha. 
Ttcist, pindi, pi, mapindi. 
Type (for printing j^ cliapa, pi, ma- 

obapa. 

U. 

Vdder, kiwele. 
UlcerSf donda ndugu. 
Umbrella, mwavuli, pi, miavnli. 
Native umbrelUi^ dapo, pL ma- 

dapo. 
UneUanneu, janaba, ucbavu. 
Unde, mjomba, pL wajomba, baba 

indogo (mother'e brother), amu 

{faihere brother). 
Undergrotdh, ma^ngo. 
Understanding, akili (p2.). 
Underwood, makoko. 
Unity, umoja. 
Univeree, ulimwcngn. 
Uproar, fujo,kelele, makelele, uthia, 

keio. 
Urine, mkojo. 
Use, kutumia, kufaa. 

(habit), mazoezo. 
Useful things, >iraa. 
Usurer, mlariba, pi, walariba. 
Usury, iriba. 
Utensils, vyombd. 
Uterus, mjL 
Uvula, kimio. 



Vagabond, bana kwao (homeless). 

Vagina, kuma. 

Valley, boonde, pi, boonde or ma- 

boondo. 
Value, kima, ^^amani, kadin^ kiasl, 

upataji, iithani 



What is it worth? Gbapatajo? • 
Vapour, mvuke/fukizo. 
Vapour bath, mvuke. 
Vault, or vavUedplaoe, knba, kabba. 
Vegetables^ mboga. 
Dcdoki, pi madodoki, a long 

many^angled seed pod, 
Fijili or figili, a large white 

radish. 
Jimbi, pl» majimbi, a root very 
much like a hyaeinth root. 
Vegetable marrow^ mttmanyo, pi 

Veil, utaji, shela. 
Vengeance, kasasi 
Verses, mashairi. 

Utenzi, religioue verses, 

Vimnhvdzo,verses sung at a dance. 
Vesicular eruption on the skin^ 

uwatL 
Vial, kitupa, pi vitiipa. 
Vice, uovu, ufisadi, ufiski 

(the toot), jiliwa, pL majiliwa, 
iriwa. 
Vicegerent, kaimo, jiL nukkaimu, 

nayibu, kalife. 
Victim, mathabuha. 
Victftals, vyakula. 
Vigil, kesba, pi makeslia. 
Village, mji, pi miji, kijiji, pi Yijiji 
Vine, mzabibu, pi mizabibu. 
Vinegar, siki. 
Violence, jeuli, nguva. 

Kwa nguvu, by violence. 

Ana jeuri, he attacks people wan' 
tonhj. 
Virgin, bikiri, kizinda. 
Viscera, matumbo. 
Vizir, waziri, pi. ma^YarTi 
Vizirahip, uwaziii. 
Voice, sauti. 
Vow, nathiri, naziri 



80 



6WAHILI EASDBOOK. 



Voycujef safari 
Vxdturef taL 

W. 

Waget, ujira. 
monihly^ mshahara. 
sailors', halaso. 
Wailing, maombolezo. 
Waitstcoatf kisibau, pi. visibau. 
deevedt oha lakono. 
sleeveless, kisioho xnkono or clia 
vikapa. 
Walk, mwendo. 
A walk, matembezL 
to go for a walk, kwenda tembea. 
Wall, iikuta, pi, knta, kikuta, ph 
vikuta, kitalu, pi, vitalu {of ar^ 
enclosure), kiyambaza (mud 
and stud). 
WaU-plate, mbati, mwamba, pi. mi- 

amba. 
Walnut, jori. 
Wandering about, mztiDi^o, pi. 

mizuDguko. 
Want, uhtaji, upimgufu, kipunguo. 

(poverty), sbidda, umasikini 
War, vita, kondo (Mer.). 
Wareroom, ghala. 
Warehouse and shop, bo^bari, 
bohari. 
Warmth moto, uharara. 

Lukevjarmness, uvuguvugo. 
Wart, chunjua. 
Washerman, dobi. 
Waste, upotevu, uharibivu. 
Waster, mpotevu, pi, wapotevn, 

miibaribivii,|>Z. wabariblvu. 
Watch, saa. 
(vigil), kesha, pi. makesba. 
(time or place of watching), ki- 

ugojo. pi. vingojo. 
(watMng- place), lindoi 



Water, maji. 
FresJi water, maji matamn, maji 

ya pepo. 
Water-closet, choo, chiro. 
Water cooler (earthen hottls), 
guduwia, gudulia, knzl (a 
larger kind witli handles and 
spout). 
Water jar, mtungi, pi. mitungi. 
Water melon, battikh. See 

Pumpkin. 
Water skin, kiriba. 
Wave, wimbi^ pi, mawimbL 
Way, njia. 

the shortest way, njia ya kukata. 
Wealmess, utbaifu. 
Wealth, mail meogi, utajiri, nkwasi. 
Weapon, selaba, mata (weapons, i.e.^ 

hows and arrows). 
Weather, wakati. 
Weather side, upande gosbini* 
upande wa juu. 
Weaver, mfuma, pL wafuma. 
Wedding, harusi. 
Wedge, kabari. 
Wednesday, Juma a tano. 
Weeds, magugu. 
KiTids of weeds, kitawi, mdagot 
gugu mmtu, mbaruti. 
Week,}mnaA. 

Weight (see Measure\ utbani. 
Eouj much does it weigh f Yapata 

kassi gani utbani wake ? 
Nativb Weights : 
Wakia, the weight of a sUcer 

dollar, about one ounce. 
Battel, sixteen wakia, about om 

pound, 
Kibaba, pL yibaba, one rattel ami 

a half 
Mani, wo rattel and thre^ 
quarters. 



SUBSTANTIVES, 



ei 



PiBlii,/otir Tibabft, or 9ix rattel. 
Frasila, thirty-five rattel, or twelve 

mani. 
Farra ya mti, seventy-two rattel, 

or twelve pishi. 
Well, kisima, pL viaima. 
Weeping, kilio. 
West, maghribi. 

West wind, ninande. 
Wet, rataba, maji. 
Whale, Dyamgami, ngumL 
Wheat, ngano. 
Wheel, gTumdunm, pZ. magnrn- 

diimu. 
Wheeled earriage, gari, pi, ma- 

garL 
Whetstone, Mnoo, pt vinoo. 
Whip, mjeledi, pL mijeledL 
A plaited thong carried by over- 

lookers and schoolmasters, ka- 

mbaa, kikoto (M.). 
Whirlwind, kisiuuli, pepo za cha- 

roohela. . 
WhisUing, msonyo, miunsL 
IVhite ants, mohwa. 
White of egg, ute wa yayL 
Whiteness, weupe. 
Whitening, cliaki. 
Whitlow, mdudo. 
Wick of a lamp, ntambi, pi, 

tambi. : 
• of a eandle, kope, pi, makope. 
Widow, mjani, mjaani, mko uliofi- 

wa na miimewe. 
Width, upana. 
Wife, mke, pL wake, mtumke, pL 

watuwake, mwanamke, pi wa- 

anaake. 
Wilderness, bara, nyika, unyika. 
WUd people, washcnzi. 
Wild animals, nyama za mwitn, 

oyama mbw^yi, oy^ma wakaUt 



WUl (mind), moyo, uia, kiwudi. 

(testament), wasio. 
Wind, upepo, much wind, pepo. 
See Oold, Whirlwind, Storm, East 

West. 
Northerly Winds,which blow from 

December to March, kaskazi. 
SotUherly winds, which blow from 

April to November, kusi. 
Head winds, pepo za omo (also 

stern winds). 
Wind on the beam, matanga katL 
Winding, kizingo, pi, vizingo. 

of a stream, magbubft. 
Windlass, duara. [dirisha. 

Window, dirisha, pi. dirisba or ma- 
Wine, mvinyo (strong wine), divai 
Wing, bawa, pL mabawa. [(claret). 
A wing feaiher, ubawa, pL mbawa. 
Wink, kupepesa. 
Wire, masango, nzi wa madinL 
Wire-^rawev's plate, cbamburo. 
Wisdom, b^ima, bnsara, akUi 
Fti, ujuvi (?). 

Witch, mobawi, pL wacbawi. 
Witchcraft, ucbawi. 
One who uses witeheraft against 
another, wanga. 
Witness, fihabidi, pi, masbabidL 

(testimony), u&babidi. 
Wits, akili. 

Wizard, mchAwi^ pi wacbawL 
Woe, msiba. See Grief, 
Woman, mwanamke, pi, waanaake 
or waanawake. 
A young troman, kijaDa,pZ. yijana. 
A young looman who has not yet 
left her father^ s house, one whose 
breasts are not yet flattened^ 
mwanamwalL 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pL wa- 
^ Person, Ql^t Slqve. [j£.kazu 





8a 



SWAHILi HANDBOOK. 



WanA^ tiimix), matombo, mjL 
Wander, ajaba. 

Wonderst mataajaba. 
Woodf mti. See Firewood, Timber. 
A wood, msitn va miti. 
A pieee of wood, kijiti, j)l. vijiti. 
Kinds of wood. 
FiiiesBi,^^ wood of the Jaeh-fruit 

tree; Ukata yeUow colour, 
H^e, a reddish wood much used 

in Zanzibar, 
Hkomayi, d red wood, 
Msaji, teaJe, 
Mtobwe, Ihe wood of whitA the 

he$t bakora are made, 
^esead, Indian black wood, 
Simbati, a hind of wood brought 
from near Cape Delgado, 
^'Sunobaii, deal. 
Wooden clogs, viatu vya mti. 
The button which is grasped by 
the toes, mstiruaki, pi, misu- 
rttaki. 
WooUen cloth, jobp (broadcloth). 
Thick wodUen fabrics, blanketing, 
hmkuiL 
Word, neno, pL mancno. 
Bad words, matakano. 
Work, kazi. 

Workman, mtenda kazi. 
(skiUed),fandi. 

Iskifful, a good hand), mstadi, pL 
wastadL 
Workshop, kiwanda, pi, viwanda, 

kiwanja, pL viwauja. 
r7orld, nlimwengo, dunia. 
Peopileofthisworld,yn!iimweiigvL 
Worldly affairs, malimwengn. 
Wo^ nangonango, chango, 

mnio (?). 
Worth, kima. See Vahte. 
IFoimd, jeraba, dond^i pi madonda. 



kionda, pL vionda, Mdonda, pi. 

Tidooda. 
Wraih, gbatbabu. 
Wriggle, pindi, pH. mapindL 
Wrist, kiwiko cha mkono. kilimbilL 
Writer, mwandishi, pZ. waandishi, 

akatabao, piL wakatabao (writer 

of a letter). 
Writings, maandiko, maandiahL 
Writing-desk, dawati. 
Wrong, tbulumn, sivyo. 

y. 

Tarn, kiazi kikuu, pi, yiazi viknn. 

A kind of yam like a hyacinth 
root, jimbi, pL majimbi. 
Yard (of a ship), foramali. 

(an enclosure), uanda, uanja, ca, 
Yaum, miayo. [pi, nyua. 

Year (see Time), mwaka, pL miaka. 

Last year, mwaka jana. 
. The year before last, mwaka juzt,' 
Yesterday, jana. 

The day before yesterday, juzL 
Yc9k of an egg, kiini cba yayi. 
Young of birds, kinda, pU makinda^ 

See Chicken, do. 
Youth, ujana, udogo. 

A youth, kijana, pZ. vijaua. 

Z. 

Zanzibar, Ungnja. 
The language or dialect ofZanzi^ 
bar, Eiunguja. In Zanzibar, 
Eiswahili is understood to mean 
eliiefty tlte language used on tlie 
coast north of Mombas, 
The original inhabitants of Zanzi' 
bar, Muhadimu, pZ. Wahadimu. , 
Their euUan is the Munyi 
Zeal (effort), juhudu [mkuit 

(jealousy), uwiyiu 
^e&ro, panda mili^ 



of Cotttj 

n the first syUablitlie eight following Classes. 



ijg m- • IV. Thaanging ki- or ch- into vi-. Kitu 

Ungs, killings : vyombo vingi, many dhows. 

first V. Th(5 one chest: makasha mengi, many 

^izir : chi 

VI. Thau- is omitted in the plural. If 

Iliging folny-. TJkncha mmoja, one claw : 

kno nyingi, many songs. 

in.|nany VII. Thc^ngi, many places. 

VIII. Ver^ dying. 

i 
Tl tives. When it imins begin with k- ; if it expresses 



Mbuzi w-el(undu, red goats/ 



2 



Tounk^ jo^^ doQ^ fl madonda. | Zebra^ panda mili^ 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS, 



Adjectives. 
Adjectives always follow the Substantives they 

agree with* 

Miu mwema^ a good man. 

Begular Swahili Adjectives are made to agree with 
the Substantives they qualify by prefixing to them the 
initial syllables proper to the class of their Substan-* 
tives, in the singular or plural, as the case may be. 
The minor rules laid down in regard to the prefixes of 
Substantives are applicable to Adjectives and their 
prefixes. The following instances will illustrate the 
ordinary application of these rules : 

Clasb L M'tu 'm^yOf a bad man. 

Wo'tu waAmya^ bad men. 
M-tu 'ttvuheupe^ a white man. 
Wa-tu vheupe^ white men. 

Substantives of whatever class denoting living beings 

may have their Adjectives in the forms proper to the 

first class* 

IfWrlm-Ani&wa, a large goat. 

3fbKn' t47a-2;u&t<7a, large goats 
Wmzi muMikundUy a red gont. 

Jtfi&tta;< ir-eftw»dfi*, red goats/ - " 

2 



84 BWAEILl B4NLB00S, 

Wazifi mwema^ a good vizir. 

Mawaziri wema^ good viziii, 
Kijana mwema, a good youth. 

Vijana toema, good youtbs. 

Class II. M-ti m-zuri, a fine tree. 

Mi-ti mUzurif fine trees. 
M'ti mir-ema, a good tree. 

Mp-H n^i-efmot or m-ema, good tices^ 
Class IIL Nywumha ti'Zuri, a fine house. 

Ny^umba n-zuri, fine honses. 
Ky*uf^ ny-eupe, a white house. 
Ny^ni)a ny-euj^e, white houses. 
Class IV. KUu hi-refu, a long thing. 

Vi-tu tfi-re/u, long thingSi 
Ki-tu ch-^pesit a light thing. 
Vitu vy-^peii, light things. 
Class Y. Kasha xiio, a heavy chest. 

Mo'lcaiha ma-eito, heavy ohests. 
Kasha j'eJcundUj a red chest 

Ma-hasha m-^hundu, red chests. 

Class YL U-imbo m-zuri, a beautiful song. 

Ny-imbo n-zurij beautiful songi^ 
JJ'^au m-refu, a long plank. 
M'hau n-defu, long planlcs. 

Class YII. Mdhali pa-pana^ a hroad place, or broad placet. 
MaJiali p-eusi^ a black place, or black placeSi 

Class YIII. Ku-fa hu-zuri, a fine death. 

Ku-/a hw-ema, a good death. 

It will be Been at once from the above examples hovf 
to make the Adjective agree with its Substantive in 
ordinary cases. The following rules must be remem- 
bered in order to avoid mistakes : — 

1. Adjectives beginning with a vowel require pre- 
fixes which end in a consonant, wherever possible, as 
in the above instances, mweu^ef m^^hun^u^ mwWQ^ 
chef €9%^ Ic^ma* 



ADJECTITM AND NUMEtiALS. 



m 



2. Adjectiyes beginning with a vowel must liave j- 
prefixed when they are made to agree with nouns lik(^ 
hasha^ as in the instance given above of kcuiha jehundu^ 
a red chest. Monosyllabic adjectives prefix jif as in 
hcuihajipya^ a new chest. 

3. Prefixes ending in -a, when they are put before 
adjectives beginning with e-, merge the a into the 
first letter of the adjective, as in the instances, weupe^ 
wekunduy mehundu^ peusi. This suppression of the a is 
more noticeable in Adjectives than in Substantives, 
and occurs even in the few Adjectives which begin 
with *o*; -a before «- coalesces with it and forms e. 



Weu8i =s fjoa-eusi, 
Pema ^ pa-ema. 
Wengi^ toa-ingi. 



Meupe s ma-eupe, 
Mororo ^ fOCHWwk 



4. Adjectives beginning with a consonant are subject 
to the same rules when n is to be prefixed as Substan- 
tives of the third class and plurals of the sixth. The 
rules are given at length under Glass YI. of Substan- 
tives. The following instances will show their appll- 
cation to Adjectives : 



Nyuviiba 

Mbau 

Ngimbo 



nt)rcfixo4 



nd4>go, little 

ngetU, strange 

nzurif fine 

nd^u, long— r becomes di 

tnbovUf rotten — n becomes nk 

mbUi, two— iito becomes m&. 

kubvoOj great 

nenet thick 

jMino, broad 

tamUf sweet 

ehaehe, few 

/tfpi, short 



n 8upt>ireaa^ 



86 8WAEILI BANDBOOK. 

Besides the many apparent irregularities in these 
n formations, there are two or three really irregular 
forms. These are ngema or njema (not nyema), good, 
and ^mpya (not pya), new. 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel are, like the cor* 
responding Substantives, regularly formed by prefixing 
ny-y as in the instance given, nyeujpe^ from -ewpe, white. 

Instances are given in the list of Adjectives where 
there is likely to be any practical difficulty in knowing 
what form to use. 

, 'Ote, all, and -enyt, or -inyiy having or with, are not 
treated as Adjectives, but as Pronouns. Instances 
illustrating their changes will be found under each. 
On the other hand -w^^opt, how many? is treated as an 
Adjective. 

IrREUTTLAB ADjklTIVES* 

Although Swahili is rich in Adjectives wheii com* 
pared with other African languages of the same family^ 
it is very poor in comparison with English. The place 
of the English Adjective is supplied — 

1. By Arabic words which are used as Adjectives 
but do not vary. 

Bdhisi, cheap. Lainii smooth. 

2. By a verb expressing generally in the present 
imperfect to hecome, and in the present perfect to be^ 
possessed of the quality denoted. 

Fimbo imenyoha^ the stick Is straight 

Fimho iliyonyoka, a straight stick f 

, Fimho imepotolia, the stick is crooked. 
Fimbo iliyopoiolcaf a cit)oked stick. 

Mtungi um(gaa, the jat is fulL 
Mtungi uliojaa, a fall jaf» . 



ADJECTIVES AND NUM^ALS. 87 

8. By a Substantive connected Tntb the thing qiiali« 
fied by the particle -a, of. 

- Jtfttf tea c&oyo, a greedy person. . . . d 

Mtu wa akili^ a man of understanding, a wkq man^ 

If it is wished to predicate the quality of any person 
or thing, the verb huwa na^ to have, must be used. 

^tea e^^o, he is greedy. 

Kina takcif it is dirty^ ' \ 

4. By the use of the word -enyi or -tnyt, which may 
be translated by haviTig or with, 

i^ifu ffitoenyt q/fo, a healthy person. 
Kitu ehenyi mviringo, a round things ' 
JEuonn&a tenyt tigruvic^ strong ropesi 
JE^m&6 ^enyt fiuv^ a juicy manga 

When -enyi is followed by a Verb in the Infinitive, 
it answers to our participle in -ing. 

Mwenyi hupenda, loying. 

6. By the use of Adjectival Substantives which 
change only to form the plural. 

Kipofity blind, or a blind person, pL Vipofu, blind, or blind peoples 

Where in English a special stress is laid upon the 
Adjective, in Swahili the relative is inserted. 

Jiwe hiibwa, a large stone. 

Jiu3e lililo kvbway n large stone, literally) a siono that i§ larga 
JfiEtt loa ^oXri, a just man. ,. , .. 

Mtu dliye wa haJciy t^Just man. 

Tub Comparisoji oi' AcJiECTiyfcS* 

There are not, properly speakingi any degteos of 
comparison in SwahilL ' - ' 



88 hWABlLt HAND^OO^. 

The CoMPARATiYE degree as it exists in Englisli is 
represented in several ways. 

1. By the use of hdiho^ where there is, the idea being 
that when the two things are brought together one of 
them is marked by the possession of the quality men- 
tioned, whence it follows that it must possess it in a 
more eminent degree than the other. 

8aa hit njema htiltko iUj this watch is good (or the best) whero 

that is, t.6., this watch is better than that 
Tamu kuUko <ualt, sweeter than honey. 

2. By the use of xayidi ya^ more than, or of pande^ a 
little more. 

Vnguja mji mkuhiBa zayidi ya Miiita, Zanzibar is a large town 
more than Mombas, t.e., Zanzibar is a larger town than 
Mombas. 

Kitu hirefu pundef something A little longer. 

8. By the use of hvpila^ to pass or surpasid* 

SaUmu ampita AhddUahi Salim is better than AUiillaii. 
Ndiyo iamu yapiia asalif it is sweet, it passes hone^, t.e., it is 
sweeter than honey. 

4. Comparison of one time with another may be ex- 
pressed by the use of the Verbs kuzidit to increase, 
lupunguat to diminish. 

Mti umezidi kuzaa, the tree has borne moie fruit than it did 
previously. 

The SuPMLA-nvifi may be denoted by the use of the 
Adjective in its simple form, in an absolute sense. 

Mananasi mema ya wapi i Where ar6 the best pines ? 

Ndiyo memcty these are the best. 

Ni yupi alio mwema f Who is the best of them ? 

When this fotm is used of two only, it is mow 



ADJECTIVES AND UttlMMRALS. 



89 



Cotrectly Englished by the Comparative than by the 
Superlative. So conversely where the Comparative 
forms are so used as to apply to many or all, they 
must be translated by Superlatives. 

8aa hit njema huliho zote, this watoh ia the best of all. 

Alt awapita wote^ All surpasses them all, or, is the best of alL 



Ndmerals. 

There are two sets of numerals in use in Zanzibar ; 
one is properly Swahili, the other Arabic, but in a 
Swahiliized form. 

The numbers from one to ten are as follows : 



English. 


SwAmix 


ARABia 


One 


MoH 


Wdhid 


Two 


Pili 


Iheneen 


Thiee 


Tatu 


ThdaOM 


Four 


*Nne 


*Aroba 


Five 


Tand 


HamH 


8ix 


Sita 


Sita 


Seyen 


Saha 


Saba 


EigHt 


Nane 


Ihemanya 


Nine 


Kenda 


Ti88a or Tis9ia 


Ten 


Kumi 


'Aahara 



It will be seen that for 9ix and seven there are only 
the Arabic names. The other Arabic numbers under 
ten are not very commonly used, but for numbers above 
ten the Arabic are more used than the purer Swahili. 



English* 


BwAmiiL 


ABABia 


Eleven 


Kumi na moja 


Sdashara 


Twelve 


Kumi na mbUi 


Ihenaahara 


Thitteen 


Kumi na tatu 


Thda^ataifiara 


Fourteen 


Kumi na 'nne 


Anhatashara 


Fifteen 


Kumi na tano 


Hamstcuhara 


Sixteen 


Kumi na iita 




Beventcen 


Kumi na $aha 


Sahatashara 



00 



8WASILI BANDBOOK. 



SIbglibb* 


SWAHIIX 


Arabic. 


Eighteen 


Kumi na nane 


Tli&manyata^ara 


Nineteen 


Kumi na henda 


TissatasJtara 


Twenty 


Makumt matoUi 


Asharini or Iskrin 


Thirty 


Mahumi matatu 


ThelaGnni 


Forty 


Mahumi manne * 


Ardbaini 


Fifty 


Mahumi matano 


Hamsini 


Sixty 


MaJcumiHta 


Settini 


Seventy 


Mahumi $dba 


Sahwini 


Eighty 


Malcumi manane 


Themanini 


Ninety 


Makumt henda 


Tisaaini 



The intermediate nnmbers are expressed in the pure 
Swahili by adding na moja^ na mhilij &c. Thus forty- 
one is mahumi manne na moja ; forty-five is malcumi manne 
na tano^ and so on. In the Arabic, the smaller number 
precedes the larger. Twenty-one is wahid u iahriny forty- 
five is TMmsi u arohatn. The mode of counting most 
nsual in Zanzibar is to employ the Arabic names for 
the larger numbers, but to follow the Swahili order, 
thus — 



Twenty-one 

Twenty-two 

Twenty-three 

Twenty-fonr 

Twenty-five 

Twenty-six 

Twenty-seven 

Twenty-eight 

Twenty-nine 

Thirty-one 



Asharini na moja 
. Atharini na nibili 
Asliarini na tatu 
Asharini na *nne ■ 
Afliarini na tano 
Asharini na sita 
Asharini na sabct- 
Asharini na nane 
Asharini na henda 
Thelathm na moja 



There is no negro word in us6 for a hundred; the* 
Arabic mia is universally employed, and for several 
hundreds the numeral follows it, as mia tatu, threa 
hundred. If the Arabic numerals are used they pre- 
cede the word mia, thelaiha mia = three hundred. The 



ADJEGTtVM AN]) NVMEBAL8. 91 

Arabic dual miteen is very commonly used to express 
two hundred. 

There is a Swahili word for a^ thousand, hikwi, but it 
is very rarely used except in poetry. The common 
word is the Arabic elfu. This is used in the same way 
as mia ; thus, elfu tatu is three thousand, elfu tano^ five 
thousand, &c. The Arabic dual elfeen^ two thousand, 
is more common than elfu mhUu If the Arabic nu- 
merals are employed the small number comes first, the 
plural form aldf is employed, and the final of the small 
number is heard, thus theUthU aldf is three thousand, 
hhdmset (Mf five thousand, and so on. 

Lahki is used for ten thousand, and the word m%ly6n 
is known, but is rarely employed,«and perhaps never 
with exactitude. 

FungcLte occurs for seven, as denoting the days spent by 
the bridegroom in his bride's company after marriage. 

MuDongOy plur. miongo, occurs for a <en or a decade^ in 
reckoning the nautical year. 

Both these words occur in cognate African languages 
as cardinal numbers. 

^When used in enumerating actual things, and not 
in mere arithmetical computation, six of the Swahili 
numbers are treated as regular Adjectives, the other 
four remaining unchanged. The following table will 
show the forms proper to each class of Substantives. 

Mt0 Mti Ntumba Kitu 

1. mmoja mmoja moja kimoja .. 

"Watu Mm Nyumba Vitu 

2. wawili . miwili mbili viwili 
8. watatu mitattt tatu . vitatq 



92 



St^ASlLI SAIt3iOOS. 



WattJ 



Mm 



Ktumba 



Vint 



4. wanne 


minne 


'mie 


vinne 


5. watano 


Tnitftnft 


tano 


vitano 


6. sita 


Bita 


Bita 


Bita 


7. saba 




saba 


saba 


8. wanane 


minane 


nane 


vinane 


9. keada 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


10 kumi 




kumi 


kumi 


Kasha 


• UmBO 


Mahali 


KUFA 


1. moja 


mmoja 


pamoja 


kmnoja 


Makasha 


Kyihbo 


Mahali 


KuFA 


2. mawili 


mbiU 


pawili 


kuwili 


8. matata 


tatu 


patatu 


kutatu 


4. xnanno 


'nne 


panne 


kunne 


5. matano 


tano 


patano 


kutano 


6. 8lta 


8i|^ 


Bita 


Bita 


7. saba 


Baba 


Baba 


saba 


8. manane 


nane 


panane 


kuuane 


9. kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


10. kumi 


kumi 


kumi 


kumi 



The nnmber always follows the Substantive. 
One man, mtu mnujQO, 
If an adjective is employed, the numeral follows the 
adjective, thus exactly reversing the English order. 
Two good men, vtatu toema vfawUL 

The Ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of th« 
variable particle -a. (See Prepositions.) 

The thiid maui mtu too tatu. 
The fourth house, nyumba ya *nn$> 
The fifth chair, hiti cha tano. 



The Ordinal numbers are : 

FirBt, -a tnoM, Or mote com- 
monly -a hwangOi 
Bcoondy Hipilu 



Third, •a tata. 
Fourth, -a 'nne. 
Fifth, -a tano. 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMEBAL& 93 

8ixtli, -a sitct. Tenth, -a kumi, 

Seventh, -a sabcu &o. &o. 

Eighth, -a nane. Lost, -a micuho. 
Ninth, -a kendo. 

Once, twice, &c., are denoted by the use of marra^ or 
mara^ a time. 

Once, ffuira mqjct. 

The first time, mam ya kwanxtu 
Twice, mam trMi, 

The seoond time, mara ya pUU 
How many times ? Mara ngapi f 
Often, mam nyingi, 

rRAcnojrs may be expressed by the use of fungu^ a 

part, aa 

Fungu la ihelaihini^ a thirtieth. 

The only fractions in common use are the parts of a 

dollar, which are thus expressed in forms borrowed 

from the Arabic : 

One-sisteenth — Nus$ ya themuni. 

One-eighth — Themuniy or Themnl, or Ze*mni, 

Thiee-sixteenths^Thamtfni na nues ya themuni. 

One-fifth — Zerenge. 

One-quarter— .Bo&o. 

Five-sixteenths — Bdbo na nuss ya ihemunL 

Three-eighths — Bdbo na ihemuni. 

8even>sixteenths — Bdbo na themuni na nuss ya themunl. 

One-half— ^U88. 

Kine-sixteenths — Nusb na nus$ ya themuni. 

Five-eighths— ^tt«« na ihemuni. 

Eleven-sixteenths — Nusa na themunt* na nuss ya tliemunt 

Three-quarters — Kassa rdbo [i.e., a dollar less by a quarter} 

Thirteen-sixteenths— -KoMo rdbo na nuss ya themuni. 

Seven-eighths — ^JTo^^a ihemuni. 

Fifteen-sixteenths— JTaMa nuss ya themun^. 

Numbers treated as Substantives make their plurala 
by prefixing mo-: 

Mahumi maunli^ t wo tens, t.6., twenty. 
Vcmoja ^, ^11 o^es, f,e„ ftU thp s^no, 



94 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK, 



LIST OP ADJECTIVES. 



Those words to which no hyphen is prefixed do not^take any rariable syllable 



A quality for which one cannot find 
a word, a sort of a» -nyang6« 
lika. 

Kitu kiny£ngilika gani? What 
tort of a hind of thing is thisf 

A. 

AhUf havifig ahtlity for, or power 

over, mwezcu 
Abortive (fruit, drc), -pooza. 
Active, -tandaji. 
Adjacent 
Mpaka mxnojo, having a common 

boundary, 
Eutangamana, to adjoin, 
Alilce, sawasawa, -moja. 
Alive,)iQ,yL 

AU, -ote, or -ot*e, varying cu a pos- 
sessive pronoun and not as an 
adjective. 
Class i. wote. 

„ II. sing, mote, pi, yote. 



M 


III. 


» 


yote, „ zota 


n 


IV. 


M 


chote, „ vyote, 


n 


V. 


M 


lote, „ yote. 


tt 


VI. 


» 


wote, M zote. 


» 


vn. 


»» 


pote. 


9 


vm. 


tt 


kwote. 



-ote has special forms after the 
particles of time and place, 
po pote, whensoever, 
ko kote, whiiliersoever, 
mo mote, whereinsoever. 
Also after the first and second 

persons plural, 

aisi Bote, we aU, 
ninyi nyote, you aU, 
Sote has the meaning of together. 

tu 6ote, we are together, . 
Wote has the meaning of both. 

sifiL wote, both of us, 
2. Fia, the whde, ail of it or 

them, 
8. JamiL 
Jamii wa asikari, all the soldiers* 
Almighty, mweza vyote. 
Alternate, moja bado wa moja. 
Ancient, -a kale, -a zamani, -a 

kwaoza. 
Angular, 
Kuwa na pembepembe, to have 
comers. 
Antique, -a klkale, of the old style. 
Artful, -a vitimbi. . .' 

Awake, macho. 
Jle is aufn^e, ya maclio. 



LIST OF ABJEGTIVE8. 



95 



B. 

JJacf, -bays, maldng xnbaya with 
nouns lihe nyumba or nyimbo. 
•oyu or -bovu, making mbovu 
vdlh nouns lihe nyumba or 
nyimbo. -oyu expresses rather 
corruptness than mere badness. 
Utterly had, baa, ph mabaa. 
Good for very little, thaifu. 
Bare, «tupu, mdking tupu with nowns 
like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Bareheaded, kitwa kiwazi. 
Barren, of land, kame. 
of animals, tasa. 
of persona, si mzazL 
Beautiful, -zuri 
Bent, of persons, kibiongo, pi, vibi- 

ongo. 
Best, bojra (pre-eminent). 
Bitter, -ohungu (-tungu (M.)), 
making uchtmgu mth noiir^ 
lihe nyumba, nyimbo, or kasha. 
Dawa uohungu, hitter medicine, 
Tunda uohungu, hitter fruit. 
Black, -enm. Sometimes forms occur 
as if from -usi, such as wausi 
for warm, mausi /or meusi, and 
viusi for vyeusi or veusi. It 
makes nyeuai toith nouns lihe 
nyumba or nyimbo, and jeusi 
with nouns like kasha. 
Blind, kipofu, J7Z. vipofu. 
Blue, samawi (siky colour), 

Maji a bahari (sea-water colour). 
Blunt, -vivu (see Idle), 

Kisu hakipati, the knife is hlunt 
Bold, -jasiri, shujaa, pi, maslmjaa. 
Breeding (of animals), koo. 

Koo ]a mbuzi, a breeding goat. 
Broad, -pana, making pana with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 



a 

Careless, -zembe. 
Castrated, maksaL 
Certain, yakinL 

A certain man, mtu mzAOJa. 
Cheap, rakhisi, rahisi. 
(Checkered, marakaraka. 
Chief bora, -knu. See Great, 
Choice, -teule, aalL 
A choice thing, hedaya, tunu« 

hikaya. 
Civilized, -ngwana, -a kiungwana 

(of the civilized sort). 
Clear, safl, fasihi, -eupe (see White), 
Clear, kweu, mbayani, tbahiri 

(manifest), -wazi (see Open). 

-eupe (see White), 
Clever, hodarl, mahirl, -a akili 
Clumsy, -zito (see Heavy). 
Coloured, -enyi rangi. 

Of one uniform colour, -takatiftL 
Comic, -chekeshaji, -testeshL 
Common, yiyi hivi, zizi hizi, &o., 

yee kwa yee, &c. (see Pronouns), 
A common thing, jazi. 
Complete, kamili, -kamillfn, -timi- 

livu. 
Confident, -tumaini. 
Confidential, -siri. ^ 

Consecrated, wakf. 
Cool, wovisi. 
Correct, sahihi, fasihi 
Countrified, -a kimashamba. 
CoveUms, bakhili, -enyi choyo^ -enyi 

tamaa.- 
Orafty, -a hila, -erevu. 
Crazy, mafuu. 
Credible, mutaabir, -tabari. 
Crooked, kombokombo, mshithari. - 
Cross, -kali (see Fierce), 

Cross roads, njia panda. 
Cwnning, -ereyu, -a hiJa. 



96 



8WABILI HANDBOOK. 



Dampt kimaji. 
Daring, -jasiri. 
Darle, -a giza (of darhness), -ensi 

(m0 Dlaok). 
Deadj -fa. 
One whose mother U de<id^ Mtv 
aliofiwa na xnamaye. 
Dea/t kiziwi, pi. yuuwL 
'Dear, ghali. 
Deeeaeed, marehemo. 
Deformed^ kilomai pL yilema. 
Dedruetivet -barabu, •baribimx. 
Devout, -taowa. 
Different, -ingine (see Other)^ mba- 

limbali, ilitilafa. 
Difficult, -gumn (see Sard), *zIto 

(see Heavy). 
Ditfigured by disease, -enyl lemaa. 
Disobedient, aasi. 
Distinct, mbalimbali 
Double, maradufiu 
Dressed-4ip, -pambL 
Drunken, -levi. 

Dry, -kayu, making kava toUh nouns 
like nyumba or Dyimbo, 
yabifl. 
DuU, •viyu. See Idle. 
Dumb, bnbu, pi. mababu. 

E. 

Easy, -epesi. See Light 

Elder or Eldest, -kubwa. See Ckeai. 

Eloquent, -semaji, -semi 

Empty, •taptu See Bare. 

Equal, sawa, sawasawa, 

Eternal, -a milele. 

European, Ulayiti, -a EizoDgiL 

Even (level), sawasawa. 

(not odd), kamili. 
Every, killa or kalla. It always 
precedes its substantive^ 



Killa mtu, every man, 

Eilla niendapo, whenever I go, 
or, every time J go. 
Evident, tJiahlri, -wazi. See Open. 
Extravagant, mubatbarifu, 

P. 

Fat, -n<mo. 
Faithful, amini 
Feeble, tbaifu. 
Female, •ko. 

On the female eide, kukeni. 
Few, haba, -cbache, malHng cbaobe 

with nouns like nyumba or 

Dyimbo. 
Fierce, -kali, making kali with nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Filthy, -chaviL 
Final, iamsL. 
Fine, -zuri. 
Firm, imara (of things^ IhMi (of 

persons). 
Fixed (certain), maalum. 
Flat, sawasawa, panapana. 
Foolish, -pumbafu. 
Foreign, -geni. 
Forgetful, -sahau. 
Forgiving, -sameba 
Former, -a kwaDza. 
Fortunate, beri, -dnyi babali, -a 

beri. 
Free, buru, -ngwana. 
Fresh, -bicbL See Raw. 
Fresh water, maji matamu, maji a 

pepo. 
Full, kujaa, to become full 
FuU to the brink, fal1^ farafara. 
FuU of words, mwingi wa ma- 

neno. 
FuU groum, 'PGr% 
Future, mkabil. 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



97 



o. 

€hneTWU^ karimu, -paji 

GenUe^ •anana. 

Olorunuy •tukufn, -enyi fakhari. 

GlutUmouSf -lafl. 

Croodf -ema, making njema or ngema 
vfith nouns like nymnba or ny- 
imbo, and jema with nouns like 
kasha. 
The idea of goodness may he ex- 
pressed by the suffix 40, 
Manuka, smeUs, 

MaDukato, good smeOs. 
Kuweka, to put. 
Kuwekato, to put properly. 

Greedy^ •enyi roho, -enyi tamaa, 
-enyi choyo. 

Great, bora, -knu and -kubwa or 
«kuba, making kua and kubwa 
wWh nmins like nyumba or 
nyimba ILvlu is used preferably 
of moral or figurative greatness, 
Kubw-a, of physical size. 
Great, when applied to anything 
not material, is uxuaUy rendered 
hy -ingi. 

Green, chanikiwiti, rangi ya majam. 
{Fresh, or unripe), -biohi. See 
Baw, 

H, 

Bandsome, •zuri. 

Hapdy, -a mkono. 
A handbook, chuo oba mkono. 

Happy, -a hen, f urahanL 

Hard, -gumu. 

Having, with, being with, or who or 
which has or have, -enyi or 
•inyL It varies like a possessive 
pronoun, as in the following 



Class I. Mtu mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) mali, a rich 



Watu wenyi mali, rich people. 
Class II. Mti mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) kuzaa, a tree in bearing. 

Miti yenyi (or yinyi) kuzaa, 
trees in bearing, 
HI, Nyumba yenyi (or yinyi) 
dirisha, a house with windows. 
Nyumba zenyi (or zlnyi) 
dirisha, houses with windows. 
TV. Elkapu chenyi (or kinyi) 
Dguvu, a strong baskeL 

Yikapu vinyi nguvu, strong 
baskets. 
V. Nenolenyikweli, a true word, 
Mabakuli yenyi mayayi, 
basins toith eggs in them. 
VL Upindi wenyi nguvu, a 
strong bow. 

Pindi zenyi nguvu, strong 

bows. 

YU. Hahali'penyi mtende, the 

place where tiie date-tree stands 

Healthy (of persons), -enyi afia,-zima 

(of places, Ac), -a afia. 
Heavy, -zito. 
High, -refu. See Long, -kubwa 

See Great. 
HoUow, -a uvurungu, -wazL Se4 
Open, 
A hollow stone, jiwe la uvu< 

rungu. 
It sounds hollow, panalia wazi. . 
The hollow or open space in ot 
under anything, mvuugu. 
Holy, -takatiiu. 
Hot, -a moto. 

Iamhot,miitkhaxL 
Hot-tempered, harariL 
Human, -a mwana Adamu, -a bina> 

damu, -a mtu. 
Humble, -nenyekevu. 
Humpibacked, -enyi kigongo. 



98 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Idle, -vivTi. 

Ignorant (Jtike a nmpleion), -jinga. 

Idrcmened, *korofi. 

lU'tempered, -kalL See Fiem$» 

Immature, •changa. 

Infirm, ihsdfa, 

Ingenioue, -juzL 

Inquieiiive, -pekuzi, -jasmi, -pele- 

Insignifieant (mean), -nyonge. 

(unimportant), khafifo. 
Innpid, -dufu. 

J. 

Jealous, -wivTL 

Juicy, -enyi maji. 

Just, sawa, -a haki, ^enji hakl 



Kind, -ema. See Good, 

(doing hindnesaes), -fathili 
Knowing, -erevn, -juzi 

L. 
Languid, -iepetevn, -choviL 
J!^rge,.*kabwa or -knba. See Great 

(vaeOrgrown), -kuza. 
Lawful, halali 

Lawful to you, halili yako. 
Laying (of birds), koo, pi, makoo. 

Eoo ]a k'nku a laying hem. 
Lazy, See Idle. 
Lee, -a damalini, -a cbiuL 
Left (Jiand, Ae,), -a kushoto, -a kuke. 
.Level, sawa, sawasawa. 
Liberai, karimu, -paji. 
^dgU (not dark), -eu^ See White. 
(not heavy), -epesi, making nyepesi 
fioith nouns like oyumba or 
nyimbo, and jepeed wUh nouns 
like kasha. 
(unimportaMS^ khafifo. 



Lined (of clothes), . bitana. 

LitUe, -dogo, katiti (A.> -ch«cL« 
(few). 
Little water, maji maohache. 
(Maji and other similar nouns 
being treated as plurals, and 
therefore requiring few and not 
smaU as their adjective.) 
Eidogo, pi yitlogo, is uoed as a 
substantive for a little or a little 
piece of anything. 

Living, hayi, -zinia. 

Long, 'teSa, making ndefd with 
nouns like nynmba or nyimba 

Long-steering, -TnmiliviL 

Lukewarm, -enyi UTnguvngo. 

M. 

Mad, -enyi wazimu, -enyi mahoka 

(Country diaUet). 
Male, -ume, making mume or ndume 
(as from -Irnne) with nouns of 
the second doss. 
On the male side, knumeni 
Manifest, thahiri, waziwazi, mba- 

yaoi, -wazL See Open. 
Manly, -ume. See Male. 
Bebera (a strong he-^oal), 
Fahali (a buU). 
Many, -ingi or -ngi, making nyingi 
with nouns like nyumlA or 
nyimbo, and jingi with nouns 
like kasha. 
Eathdwakatha. 
Maternal (on the mother's side), -a 
kukeni* 
(motherly), -a mama. 
Mean, -nyonge. 
Merry, -chekeshaji 
Middling, kadirL 
Mischievous, -harabn, -tondit 
Moderats^k^^^ 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



m 



Much, -ingi (ue Many), tele. 
Murderous, kiuwaji, ndulL 

N. 

Naked, -tnpn, uchi See Bare, 

Narrow, -embamba, making ny emba- 
mba with nouns like nyumba or 
oyimbo, and jembamba with 
nouns like kasha. 

Neeessary (unavoidable), lazim» fa- 
rathi 
(indispensahle), kanani 

New, -pya, making *mpya with nouns 
like nyumba or nyimbo, jipya 
with nouns like kasha, and 
pipya with nouns of place, 

NobU, bora, -kaa. See ChreaL 

Notable, mashuhur, mashur. 

Nice, -exna (see Good), «tamu. See 



Nipping(pressing dosely andtightty), 
*kftSE(X 



Ohedient, tayl, -tii 

Obligatory, farathL 

Obstinate, -kaidi, -shindvii, -shi- 
pavo. 

Odd (not even), witira. 

Officious, -futhuli, -juvL 

Old (of ihinge), -kukun, maldng 
kiikuu with nouns like nyumba 
or nyimba Eukau implies 
being worn out Where mere 
antiquity is to be expressed see 
Ancient. 

' (of persons), '^»^ 
Extremely old, -kongwe. 
How old is he % Um^ Wf^^e 
apataje? 

One-eyed, -enyi chonga 



Only, -a pekec, pelvo yake, (&o» 
Open, -wazi. 
Other, -ingine or -ngine. 
Class I. Mgine or mwingine. 

wangine. 
n. Mwingine or mgine. 

miugine. 
IIL Nyingine (sing, and pi >. 
IV. Kingine or chingino. 

▼ingine. 
v. Jingin& 

mangine or mengine. 
YI. HwiDgine or mgine. 

nyingine. 
VIL Papgine or pingin& 
(The) other, -a piU. 
Other people* s, -a watu. 
Another person's, -a mwenyewe. 
(not the same) is expressed by 

adding the rdativs particle (sue 

p. 117). 
panginepo, etsexchere, other places. 

P. 

Paternal (on tlie fathei's side), -a 
kunmeni. 

(fatherly), -a baba. 
Patient, -stahimili, -vumilivn. 
Perfeet, kamili, -kamilifu, -timilifu. 
Perverse, -potoe, -tundu. 
Plain (evident), thahiri, -wazi. 
Pleasant, -tamu (see Sweet), -a ku* 

pendeza. 
Plenty, tela 
Polite, -a adabn. 
Poor, masikini, fulnra, fakiiL 

wretchedly poor, thalili. 

utterly destitute, hohe liahe. 
Printed, -a ohapa. 
Profane, -najist 
Pure, safl, fasihi, -takatiftu 

H 2 



J 00 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



QtMrreUome, -gomvi. 
Quickj -pesi. 

Quiet, -tulivu (siiU), -nyamavu 
(MZenQ. 

R. 
BarBt nadira, -a tuna. 
BaWf -bichi, making mbiclii mih 

wmns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Bichi M wed for raw, unripe, 

underdone^ fresh, or any state 

which wiU or might change hy 

keeping or cooking, 
(mexpenenced), -jiDga. This word 

is specially applied to newly 

arrived slaves. 
Beady, tayari. 

(quick), -pesi, mahiri. 
BebeUious, aasi. 
Bed, -ekundu, making nyekundu 

with nouns like nyumba or 

nyimbo, and jeknudu with 

nouns like kasha. 
Begular^ -a kaida, taratibu. 
Safu za kaida, regular rows. 
Mtu taratibu, a person of regular 

habits, 
Bemarkdble, mashuhur, masbur. 
Rich, -enyi mali, -kwasi, tajiri, pi. 

matajifi. 
.121^72^ (hand, Ac), -a kulia, -a 

kuume, -a kuvuli. 
Bipe, -bivu, making mbivu with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Bivu is used as the contradictory 

of bichi. Bee Bavo. 
Botten, -ovu or -bovu. See Bad, 
Bough, knparuza, to he rough and 

grating. 
Bound, -a mviringo. 
Boyal, -a kifaume. 



Safe, salama. 
Same, mqja, pi mamoja. 
Sanguine, -tumaini. 
Satisfied or content, ratbL 

Sdf 'Satisfied, -kinayi. 
Savage, -kali (see Fierce), mbwaL 

Very savage, ndulL . 
Second, -a pili. 

A second in command, akida. 
Secret, -a siri, ndani kwa ndani • 
S^araie, mbali. 
Severe, -zito. See Heavy, 
Shallow, [maji] haba, [maji] ma- 
Sharp, -kali See Fierce, [chache. 
Short, -fupi, making fupi with noune 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Shrewd, -erevu, -enyi busara. 
Sick, -gonjwa, -welL 
Silent, -nyamavu. 
A silent man, mtu wa kimya« 
kimya. 
Slim, -embamba. See Narrow, 
Slender, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Sleek, -nene. See Stout. 
Slow, -vivu. See Idle, 
Smooth, lain! 

Soaked (with rain, d:c,), cbepechei)e. 
Soft, -ororo, making nyororo with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 
and joTGio with nouns like kasha, 
-anana, laini 
the soft, teketeke. 
Solid, yabisL 

Some, baathi ya, akali ya. 
Some — others — , wangine— wa- 
ngine — , 
Sound (healthy, living, entire), -zitna. 
Sour, -kalL See Fierce, 
Spotted, madoadoa, marakarakf. 
Square, mrabba. 
Steadfast, IhMt, 



lt8T OF ADJECTtVEB. 



101 



Sleepy -a knsimama. 

BUUi -anana, -tulivn (quiet\ -nya- 

mavu (siZanQ, -zizlma (very 

HiU wcUert Ac), 
Stout (plumpt thick), -nene. 
Strange (foreign, surprising), -geni 
(startling), mzungu, pi mizuugu. 
Strong, hodari, -enyi nguvu, -ume. 
Sweet, -tamu, making famu with 

nouns like nynmba or nyimbo. 

TaU, -lefo. See Long. 

A very taU man, -tambo. 
Thick, -nene. 

Thick syrup, asali nzito. See 



Thievish, hijUi, pi vljivi, mwibaji, 

pi, webaji. 
Thin, -embamba (see Narrow)i*epesL 

See Light, 
Tiresome, -chovu. 
True, -a kweli, hakika yako, &c, (it 

ts true of you, d:c), yakini 

(certainly). 
Trustworthy, aminL 
Truthful, -a kweli, -neni kwelL 



VncivUiud, «a kishenzL 

Uncultivated, -gngu. 

Underdone (half -cooJied^j'hiohi, See 

Haw, 
Unhealthy, -welL 
Urdawfvl, haramn. 
Unripe, -bichi See Raw. 
Usual, -zoea. 
We are used to him, tuna mazoea 
naye. 



V. 

Vain, ana maknu, he is vai». 
Valuable, -a /Aamam. 
Vigilant, macho. See Awake, 

Wasteful, -potevu. 
Watery, obelema. 
Weak, thaifo. 
Wealthy. See Rich. 
Weary, -chovu. 
Weather, -agoshini, -a juu. 
Well, SeeHeaUhy. 
WeU done (cooked), -bivn. See 

Ripe. 
Wet, majimaji, rdtaba. 
Wfiite, -eupe, making nyeupe toiih 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 

and jeupe with nouns like 

kasha. 
Very white is expressed hy putting 

a strong accent on the last 

syUahle, and sometimes raising 

the voice on it into a sort of 

falsetto. 
Whole, -zima. See Sound. 

pia, pia yote, zote, &o. 
Wide, -pana. See Broad, 
Wild (of plants), -gugu. 

(of animals), -a mwitu. 
Willing, -epesi, -pesi. 
Worn out, -kukuu (of things), -ko- 

ngwe (of persons). See Old. 



TeUow, rangi ya manjano. 

Young (immature), -oLanga, making 

mchanga with nouns like 

nyumba or nyimbo. 
Younger, youngest, -doga 



102 BWAEILl MANDBOOS. 



PRONOUNS. 

Personal Pbokouns. 

The full forms of the Personal Pronouns are^» 

I, MimL We, Sisi or Swuwu 

Thou, Wewe. You, Nyinyi or NvsinfL 

He or she, 7ey«» They, Woo, 

The second and third persons singular are often con- 
tracted into Wee and Tee. The second person singular 
18 always used where one person only is to be denoted. 

There are no special forms for it and they when 
referring to inanimate things. If any special emphasis 
makes it necessary, the Demonstrative Pronouns 
agreeing with the nouns referred to must be used. 
Similarly, for he or she %nd iheyy the Demonstrative 
Pronouns proper to the first class may be used, when 
any special emphasis is to be expressed. 

The objective cases, me, thee, Mm, %er, tw, them^ are 
expressed by the same forms as those given above for 
th^ subjective case, J, (hon, <&c. 

The possessive case, of me, of thee^ of hhn, &c., is 



pnomtrm. 103 

generally expressed by the Possessive Pronouns (which 
see, p. 109); there is thus no distinction between of me 
and minCy of thee and thine, &o. 

Eabari mngu, my news, or news of me. 

The Possessive Pronouns proper to animate beings 
may be used of inanimate things also ; -aJce, its, and 
'Oo, their, being used for of it and of them, in reference 
to all nouns of whatever class they may be. 

The possessive case may bo regarded as an instance 
of the Personal Pronouns in a special form subjoined to 
the variable preposition -a, of. 

The Preposition na, with or and, is commonly joined 
with short forms of the Personal Pronoun to express 
and or toith me, and or with you, &c. &c. 

Nami, and or with -me. Nasi or Naswi, and or with oa 

Natoe, and or with yon. Nanyi or Nanwi, and or with you. 

Naye, and or with him or her. Nao, and or with them. 

Nao, Nayo, Nacho, Nolo, Napo, Nao, Nayo, Naxo, Navyo, Napo, 
Nako, and or with it and or with them. 

The above forms maybe used for either the objective 
or subjective cases after and. Nami = and I or and me, 
Nawe = and thou or and fhee, &c. &c. 

It win be seen that in referring to animate beings 
the latter half of the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
is suffixed to the na-, and in referring to inanimate 
things the syllable suffixed is that which denotes the. 
relative (see Eelative Pronouns, p. 117), a syllable 
which occurs also as the final syllable of those Demon- 
strative Pronouns which refer to a thing mentioned 
before. 

OtherPrepositions, that is to say, hwa and Icatika, are 



lOJfe SWAEILJ: tiANDBOOR. 

constructed with the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
referring to animate beings, and with the Demonstra* 
tive Pronouns, where necessary, referring to inanimatQ 
things. This rule distinguishes the preposition Jcwa, 
for, by, &c., from the form of the variable -a required 
by substantives of the eighth class and sometimes by the 
case^in -»t. 

Kwa mimi, for me. Ktoangu^ of me or my, to my [house]. 

The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark 
the subject and object may bo regarded as shortened 
forms of the Personal Pronouns. The objective and 
subjective cases are denoted by slightly different forms. 

It will be most convenient to take the prefixes de- 
noting animate beings first, as they alone can be used 
in the first and second person. The following are the 
subjective or nominative forms : — 

1, Ni'OrN'. We, Tu- or Tuf-. 

Thou, U' or W'. You, Mu-, 'M-, or 3fi©.. 

He or she, A- (or Fu-)* They, Fa-. 

The rule for applying these prefixes is that the forms 
ending with a vowel are used when they are to be im- 
mediately followed by a consonant, and those ending 
in a consonant are used before a vowel. In the third 
person, both singular and plural, the vowel remains 
unchanged before o ox «, it coalesces with e and % 
into an e, and merges in%o an a, so as to be no longer 
distinguishable. Thus, where the verb or tense prefix 
begins with o, the third persv>n singular is apparently 
without prefix and the third person plural is marked 
only by a w-. Examples of and further observations on 
these prefixes will be found under Yerhs^ as playing an 



PB0N0UN8. 105 

important part in their conjugation. The form yu- ifi 

but seldom nsed for the third person singular, and 

very rarely with any but monosyllabic verbs. 

The syllables which stand for the objective or accu- 

sative case of the Personal Pronouns denoting animate 

beings, when they are connected with Verbs, are — 

Me, -nt- or -n-. Us, -<u- or -^«r-. * 

Thee, -ku- or -ftio-. You, -itck 

Him or her, -to- or -mio-. Them, -tea-. 

The same rules as above app'y to the use of forms 
ending*in a consonant before a vowel, and forms ending 
in a vowel before a consonant. 

As the forms proper to the first class of Nouns denote 
animate beings, there remain seven classes denoting 
inanimate things, each of which has its appropriate 
subjective and objective pronominal forms when con- 
joined with a verb. The subjective pronominal prefixes 

are — 

Class II. sing, II- or W* plut. I- or Y-. 



» 


III. 


» 


I- 


» Y- 


99 


Zi- 


>» 


Z*. 


M 


IV. 


>» 


Ki- 


„Ch. 


ft 


Vi. 


)» 


Vy-. 


9* 


V. 


»» 


Li- 


„L- 


W 


Ya-. 






W 


VL 


>» 


U- 


„ w. 


M 


Zi- 


» 


z-. 


» 


va. 


i> 


Pa- 


„P- 


W 


Pa- 


»» 


p.. 


n 


VIII. 


»> 


Ku- 


„ Kw- 


>» 


Ku- 


>» 


Kw- 



Here also the forms ending in a vowel are used 
before a consonant, and the forms ending in a conso- 
nant are used before a vowel. Examples of their use 
will be found in the sections on the conjugation of the 
Verb. 

Therey used as the subject of a verb, is expressed by 
fcw- or jpa- employed as personal prefixes. Ku- is the 
more indefinite of the two. On«, theyf or j^eople used 



106 8WAH1LI HANDBOOK. 

to denote what is oustomary, are expresaed by the 
prefix &tf-. 

The ohjective forms in reference to inanimate objects 
are very similar to the snbjectives. 



LU 


» n. 


9ing. 


-U- 


plur. 


-K 


ft 


IIL 


n 


-i- 


»> 


-zi-. 


n 


IV. 


n 


-ki- 


w 


.▼i-. 


n 


V. 


»> 


-li. 


n 


-ya^ 


n 


VL 


>» 


-n- 


» 


-zi-. 


>» 


VIL 


» 


-pa- 


»» 


-pa-. 


» 


VIIL 


» 


-ku- 


n 


-ku-. 



In these forms also u becomes to, and % y, before rowels. 

The following examples will illustrate the use of the 
objectiye syllables : they are parted off from the rest of 
the word by hyphens. Instances are given of both 
vowel and consonantal verbs. 

Class L A^ni'^penda, he loves me. 

A-nwrnhiOy he tells me. 
A'hu-penda^ lie loves you. 

A-hvo-amhiOt he tells yoo. 
Na-m-penda, I love him. 

Na^rnvHrnbia, I tell him 
Adurpenday he loves us. 

A'tw-ambia, he tells ns. 
A'wa-pendaj he loves you. 

A-wa-ambia, he tells you. 
A-ioa-penda, he loves them. 

A'WCKimbiat he tells them. 
Pf II. A-u-penda, he likes it Qmti, a trco)k 

A-^iHma, he sees it 
A-t-penda, he likes them (miU, trees). 

A^y^ma, he sees them. 
f, III. il-t-pendo, he likes it (nytfm5a, a house). 

A-y-OHOt he sees it 
A'Zi-penda^ he likes them (nptmba, houiscs). 

A-Mi-inw, ho sees them. 



PB0N0UN8. ' 107 

Olasb IV. A'ht-penda, he likes it (kiiuj a thing). 
A''hi-<mctf he sees it. 
A-id^^pendci, he likes them (vitUj things). 
A-ifi-ona, he sees them. 
,» y. A4i-penda, he likes it (hUhOy a ohest). 
J.-2i-ofta, he sees it 
A-^a-pendOy he likes them (mo^MuTia, chests). 
A-yoHmay he sees them. 
99 YL ii-tf^pencla, he likes it (uittAoy a song). 
A'UHma, he sees it (ti&ati, a plank). 
A-xt-pendOy he likes them (nytiii5o, songs). 
A-ei-cncty he sees them (mhauy planks). 
ff TIL il-;pa-pen(2a, he likes it or them (place or places). 

A-pcHmOj he sees it or them. 
„ VIIL A'hurpendoy he likes it Qtwibay stealing). 
A-ku-onOf he sees it 

In all cases the Pronominal Syllable representing tlie 

Bnbject is the first prefix, and therefore the first syllable 

of the word ; and the syllable representing the object 

is the last of the prefixes and immediately precedes the 

verb. 

A4cJcapO'hHmay when he shall see yon. 
WorlipoJci-Tn-penda, when they loved him. 
A'hi'kvhitfi, if he calls you. 

It is quite allowable for the sake of emphasis to nse 
the full forms of the Personal Prononns as well as the 
subjectiye and objectiYe syllables. 

Mimi naJcupenda wewe^ I love yon. 
Wevoe wanijpenda mimiy yon love me. 

When so nsed, however, a very strong emphasis is 
put upon the persons loving and loved, and unless such 
an emphasis is intended the full forms ought not to be 
used. The above phrases might be better translated 
by — ^For myself I love you the best; and, It is you 
who love me* 



108 • 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

In poetical S wc^xiH an objectiye suffix is nsod as well 
as the objeotive prefix. The syllables used as a suffix 
are the same as those given before with na (see p. 103). 
The suffixes are not used in the dialect of Zanzibar. 

U-ni4iifa(hi-m{9 do thou preserve me. (Both the -ni- and the 

-mi represent the object of the verb.) 
Akorti-angiuihchgo^ and he threw them down, (Both the •zi' and 

the-ro represent the object of the verb.) 
NcMfftHimbta-ni, I tell you. 

The nse of the objective prefix implies a reference to 
some ascertained object : it is therefore properly used 
wherever in English the object would be expressed by 
a Pronoun. Where in English the object would not be 
expressed by a Pronoun, the objective prefix has the 
effect of a definite article, and its omission that of an 
indefinite article. 

Nataka hununua nyumba (no objectivo prefix being osed), I want 

to bny a house. 
Naiaka kuinunua nytmba (the objective prefix -4^ bemg uscd)^ 

I want to buy tiie house. 
Naona nUu^l see somebody. 
Namwona mtu^ I see the man. 

Where a Demonstrative Pronoun is used with the 
object, the objective prefix must always be used* 

N(Uaka huinunua nyumba hii^ I want to buy this house. 
Namvjona mtu ytile, I see that man yonder. 

The objective prefix is used where anything about 
the person or thing is about to be stated. 

Norm-jiM aliko [l know of him where he is], I know where he ii. 
NaU-mrthania amekufa [I thought of him, he had died], I thought 

he was dead. 
Aka-m-haia Ttitvoa [and he cut of him the head], and he cut off 

his head. 



PBONOUNS. 100 



Possessive Pronouns. 

The Possessive Pronouns are always placed after the 
Substantive denoting the thing possessed, and vary 
according to its Class and Number. 

The unvarying parts of the Possessive Pronouns are : 

Hy, ^ngu. Ova, -ehi. 

Thy, '^Ito, Your, -enn. 

His, her» or its, -ahe. Their, -ao. 

The same forms are used for its and their, of what- 
ever class the thing possessing may be. 

In many dialects of Swahili the form of the third 
person singular is -aJcwe, and in some that of the second 
is -akwo. 

The above forms may be used as enclitics, and fre- 
quently are so with some common words, such as haha, 
father, mama, mother, mwana, child, mwenzi, companion, 
&o. When the final letter of the substantive is -a, -e, 
or -t, it merges into the first letter of the possessive 
suffix. 

Mwanangu, my child. 

Hwenzangu, my oompanioib 
Mwanako, thy child. 

Mtoenzaho, thy oompanion. 
Mwanake, his or her child. 

Mwenzdke, his or her companion. 
MvjanetUj our child. 

MwenzetUj our companion. 
Mwanenu, your child. 

Mwenzenu, your compenioiL 
Mwanao, their child. 
Mwenzao, their companion. 



110 BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The initial lettors proper to eaoh olasB of Substan- 
tives are : 



Class I. tin^. w- plur, w-. 


Class V. $ing. 


1- plur, y-. 


„ n. .„ w- „ y.. 


« VL „ 


w- „ a-. 


„ IIL „ y. „ z-. 


n VII. „ 


P- >» P-. 


„ IV. „ ch- „ vy.. 


„ VIIL „ 


kw- „ kw». 



Besides these forms proper to the several classes, 
Suhstantives in the locative case in -nf require special 
forms of the Possessive Pronouns according to the 

meaning of the case. These forms are the same for 

« 

all Substantives, of whatever class or number they 
maybe. 

1. When the case denotes hdng mthin^ or /o, or from 
unthiUf the Possessive Pronouns must begin with muh. 

2. Where the case denotes mere nearness, and can be 
translated at, hy, or near, the Possessive Pronouns must 
begin with |)-, 

3. For all other meanings the Possessive Pronouns 
must begin with kvh. 

The following instances will show how all these rules 

are applied ; — 

Class I. Mtu wangu, my man. 

Watu tcdko, thy men. 
Mbuzi wake, his or her goai . 

Mbuzi wetu, our goats. 
Waziri toake, his vizir. 
Mawaziri wake, his vlzirsL 
„ II. Mti toenu, yovLT tree, 

MUi yaOj their trees. 
f^ III. Nyumba yangu, my house. 
Nyurnbo zako, thy houses. 
n IV. Kiti choke, his chair. 

Viti vyetu, our chairs. 
IP y. Kasha lenu, your chest. 

Mdkasha yao', their chests* 



PBONOUNS. Ill 

Class YI. Uimho toangu, my song. 
Nyimho zdko, thy songs. 
„ VII. Mahali pake, his, her, or its place or places. 
9 VIIL Kufa hoetu, our dying. 

1. Nytmbani miomu, in your house or houses. 

2. Nyumbani pao, near their house or houses. 

3. Nyuinbani kwangUf to my house. 

All the Possessive Pronotms wiU be foiind in the 
Table of Concords (p. 82), arranged under the classes 
to which they are appropriate. The Personal Pronouns 
may be added to give emphasis. 

Kuu changu mimi^ my own knife. 
Vyangu mimif they are mine. 

The Possessive Pronoun is used for the preposition 
-a, of, where it is intended to mark particularly the 
person whose the thing is. 

.Kiti eha suUani, the sultan's chair, or a sultan's chair. 

KiH duike niUanif the sultan's own chair, or this sultan's chair. 

There is another and short enclitio form for the 
Possessive Pronouns of the second and third persons 
singular, which is much used with some common 
words, such as mume, husband, mke, wife, ndugu^ brother 
or sister, &c. They consist of -o for the second person 
and -e for the third, with the appropriate initial letters 
for eadf class as given above (p. 110). 

MuTnetoe, her husband. 

MkewOf or nikeo, thy wife. 
Mioenziioe, his companion. 

Jindlo, thy name. 
Shogaye, her friend. 

It will be seen from the above tables that there is 
absolutely nothing to distinguish the singular and 
plural of Substantives in the form of the third class 



112 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

wliioh denote animate beings, when joined with Pofl- 
Bessive Pronouns. It is probably for this reason, and 
to avoid ambiguity, that they are frequently treated as 
ordinary Substantives of that class. 

Ndugu yangu, my brother. 

Nduguye or Ndugu yoke, his brother. 
Nduguzo or Ndugu z(iko, thy brothers. 
' Mbuzi Metu, our goats. 

Possessive Pronouns are sometimes used in English 
where Personal Pronouns are used in Swahili. 

Waka-m'funga mikono nyuma [and they^tied him hands behindl 

and they tied his hands beliind him. 
AU'mrhata hitwa [he cut him head], he out off his head. 

After verbs of coming and going Possessive Pronouns 
beginning with a- (or in other dialects with vy- or th-) 
are used somewhat as — ^his way, &c., were used in old 
English. 

Amekwenda Make, he has gone away, or he has gone off 

Ttoende tetu, let us be going. 

Wamekuja §ao, they have oome home, or they have come away. 



Eeflectivb Pronouns. 

The Swahili verb is made reflective by prefixing -jt-, 
ibs if it were a pronoun in the objective form. 

Norjirfendoy I love myselt 

Self may be translated by the Arabic word, nefn^ 
nafel, or nafuai; or by the word mayo^ a heart, plux. 
mayo or nyoyo. 

Nafs^yangu, or moyo toangu, myselt 
N^fH geiUf or nyoyo setu, ourselrcCt 



FR0N0UN8. 118 

Itself, themselyes, &c,, may also be expressed by the 
word -enyewe with the proper prefix. 

Class I. JOti mwenyewe^ the man himself. 

Waiu vjenyeioey the people themselves. 
Mbuzi mvoenyewe^ the goat itself. 

Mbuzi wenyewe, the goats themSjBlves. 
Waziri mtoenyewe, the vizir himself. 

Mawaziri wenyewe^ the vizirs themselves. 
^ II. Mti mtoenyewe, the tree itself. 

MUi yenyewCy the trees themselves. 
II IIL Nyumba yenyewe, the house itself. 

Nyumba zenyetoe, the houses themselves. 
f, TV. Kitu ehenyewe, the thing itself. 

Vitu vyenyewBy the things themselves. 
I, y, Kasha lenyewey the chest itself. 

Mdkasha yenyewe, the chests themselves. 
I, YI. Uimbo mwenyewe, the song itself. 

Nyimbo zenyewe, the songs themselves. 
„ YII. Jfa^a2»2)en^eti^6, the place itself. 

Mwenyewe may be used for myself and thyself y as well 
as for himself or herself 

Wenyewe may be used for ourselves and yourselves^ as 
well as for themselves. 

By myself, by ourselves, &o., are expressed by fehs 
with the appropriate Possessive Pronoun. 

FeTce yangu, by myself, or I only. 
Peke yetuy by ourselves, or we only. 

Demonstrative Pbonouns. 

There are three Demonstrative Pronouns. 1 , denotin g 
objects at no great distance. 2, denoting objects pre- 
viously mentioned. 3, denoting objects at a distance. 
They have each forms proper to the several classes of 
Substantives and to the three meanings of the case 
in -ni, 

1 



114 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

1. TUa or thU^ these or fta96/of objects at no great 

distance. 

OUM L Jfitf ftuyti, this man. 

WcUu hawa, tliese pe^^ple. 
Mbwi huyUf this goat. 

Jlf&wEt hatoa^ these goats. 
Waxiri huyu, this vizir. 

Matocuiri Aawo, these yizirfl^ 
,, n. 3fi(« ftttif, this tiee. 

Mitt hiif these trees. 
ff m. ^yum&a ^m, this house. 

Nyumba hizi, these houses. 
,, IV. Kitu hCd, this thing. 

Fi^tf hivi, these things. 
. M V. Kcuha hUi, this ohest. 

Mdkasha haya, these chests, 
M ^'I. l7t'm&o Auu, this song. 

Nyinibo hizi, these songs. 
9, YII. Mahali hapa^ this place. 
„ YIII. Xtt/a ^u/(u, this dying. 

1. Nyuvnbani humo (humu (?) ), here, in the house. 

2. Nyumhani hapa, here, by the houss. 

3. Nyumbani hukUf here, to the house. 

It will be observed that the second syllable of each 
of these Demonstratives is the pronominal syllable 
given at p. 105, and that all begin with A-, followed by 
the vowel of the pronominal syllable. 

2. Tkis or tJuU^ theae or those, referring to something 

mentioned before. Both the other forms can also be 

used in this sense. 

Class L Mtu huyo, that man. 

Watu hao, those people. 
Mbuzi huyo, that goat 
Mbuzi hao, those goats. 
I, II. Mti hiu>f that tree. 

iliti Myo, those trees, 
n In. Nyumba Tiiyo, that house. 

Nyumba hizo, those houses. 



PBONOUNS. 115 

Glass IY. Kitu hicko, that thing. 

Vitu hivyo, those thingg. 
M y. Kcuha hUOf that chest. 

Makcuiha TiayOy those chests. 
n YL Uimbo huo, that song. 

Nyivibo hizo^ those songs. 
n YIL 3faftaZ« hapo, that place or those placci. 
II YIII. £u/a ^tfZfo, that dying. 

1. NyumbarU humo, in that house. 

2. Ayufn&am hapo, by that house. 
8. Nyumbani hvko, to that house. 

3. That and </b«6 or yonder^ referring to things at a 
distance. 

Class L Mtuyuletyonderman, '"" 

Watu wale, those people. 
Mbuzi yvle, that goat. 

Mbuzi tpdUf those goats. 
n II. Mti ule, that tree. 

Mitt iUy those trees. 
t, III. Nyuniba He, that house. 

Nijumha zde, those houses. 
I, IY. jECi7u hile or e^fla, tlial thing. 

Vitu vile, those things. 
„ Y. Kasha lile, that chest. 

Makasha yale, those chests. 
„ YL Uimbo ule, that song. 

Nyimbo «ife/ those songs. 
^. \II. Mahali pale, that place or those places. 
„ Yin. Kufa hule, that dying. 

1. Nyumbani rale, in that house. 

2. Nyumbani pale, by that house. 
8. Nyumbani huLe^ to that house. 

It will be seen that these last Pronouns are made 
by adding -le to the second, syllable of the first set of 
Demonstratiyes. Sometimes the whole of the first form 
is retained, making huytde^ hawale, liuule, hiilei hizile^ 
hihile^ UmUy hilile^ hayale, hapaUf huhule, 

I 2 



116 SWABILI HANDBOOK. 

An increase of distanoe is denoted by a stress on the 

final syllable. 

Mli^ yule, that man yonder. 
Tulee, that one farther off. 
TuUee, that one still further. 

The more stress is laid on the final syllable, and the 
more the voioe rises into a falsetto, so much the greater 
is the distance denoted. 

When the substantive is mentioned the demonstra- 
tive always follows it. 

The demonstratives are frequently doubled, and then 
have the meaning of just this^ that very, 6co* 

Fdlepale, just there. 
Mti uleuU, that very tree. 
Maneno yaleyale, just those words* 

With the first set of demonstratives the final or true 

pronominal syllable is doubled and prefixed to the usual 

form. 

Papdhapa, just here. 

Vioihivi, just these things, 
Zizihizi, those very, &c 
Kukuhuhu, just to this place. 

These forms are also used to denote that there is 
nothing special about what is mentioned. 
Zizihizif just these and no more. 

Huyo is often used when people are chasing a man 
or an animal. 

Huyo I Huyo/ = There he is I There he isl 

There are other forms which ought probably to be 
regarded as demenstratives, as they have the force of, 
Thip ip it, and, Thip U xiot it 



rSONOUM. 117 



Class L ndimi, it is I. 

ndiwe, it is thou. 
ndiye, it is he. 



ndiH^ it is i*e. 
ndinyi, it is you. 
ndio, it is they. 



,, n. ndiOf this is it ndiyo, these are they. 

I, IIL ndiyo, ndizo, 

,t rV. fufie^ ndivyo, 

n V. ndt2o. ndtyo. 

„ YI. n(2to. nd/^a. 

99 VII. ndipo. 

n VIIL fwit^o. 

ndimOf it is here, or it is there, 

ndipo. 

ndiko. 

The negative is made by substituting w- for ndu 

8iye^ it is not he. StcJio^ Ac Ae*, this U not it. 

Both forms may be used interrogatively. 

Ndiyef Is it he? Siyef Is it not he? 

Other demonstratives may be used with these for the 
sake of greater emphasis or clearness. 

RELAttVE pRONOtmS. 

The Relative Pronouns have special forms appropriate 
to the several classes of Substantives and the three 
meanings of the -ni 6a.se. 

Class L Who and TF/wwi, Hng. ye or yee, plur, oorvro, 
„ it. Which, nng. o or wo, plur. yo. 



»» 


III. 


t> 


*> 


yo 


»> 


zO. 


if 


IV. 


h 


» 


cho 


i9 


vyo. 


» 


Y. 


99 


» 


lo 


>» 


yo. 


»> 


VI. 


99 


»f 


6 or wo 


» 


zo. 


M 


VIT. 


99 


n 


po 


»> 


po. 


M 


VIIL 


99 


» 


ko 


N 


ko. 




1. 


Wlierein 


»> 


mo 








2. 


Whereat 


»i 


po 








8. Whereto 


» 


kDw 







118 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

These relatiyes occur most frequently in their 
simple forms in connection with -o<e, all. 

yee yote, wo vooUy whosoever or whomsoeyer. 

ICO wote, yo yote^ to zote, cho chote^ vyo vyote, lo loU^po pote^ what* 

soever. 
wio mote, whereinsoever, inside everything. 
po poUf wheresoever or whensoever. 
ko hole, whithersoever or whereeoever. 

When connected with the substantive verb, to be» 
that verb is represented by the syllable -Zt-. 

Glass 



I. aliye^ [he] who is. 


woZm), [they] who are. 


IE fdio, [it] which is. 


fZiyo, [they] which aie. 


III. ilitjo. 


iilixo. 


IV. UlicluK 


ffilivyo. 


V. lUilo. 


yalfyo. 


VI. ulio. 


zUizo. 


VII. palipo. 


palipo. 


VIII. Imliho. 




1. mulimo, wherein there is 




2. palipo, where there is. 




3. liulikoy where there is. 





There is a disposition in Zanzibar to make «() the 
general relative. Thus one very often hears alio for 
aliye, lilio for lililoy and ilio for iliyo, 

"When joined with the verb the syllable denoting the 
relative follows the sign of the tense if there is one. 

The relative may be joined with the verb to form the 
present, or rather, an indefinite tense, without the use of 
any sign of time whatever. It is made precisely as in 
the examples given above of the use of the relative 
with the verb, to be, only substituting the particular 
verb for the syllable -Zt-. 

[he] who loves, ap^daye, 
tthey] who love, wap&iidae^ 



pmmvNs. 119 

[the tree] which &U8, iiaiH)r«&ao. 

[trees] which grow, imeayo. 
[the house] which falls, yanguhayo. 

[houses] which fiftU, zianguhcuso. 

Where the relative is the object of the verb the same 
form may be used, only introducing the objective prefix 
proper to the substantive referred to, and changing the 
personal prefix* 

[fruit] which I love, nilipendalo, 4v- and 4<h being the syllables 
appropriate to tunda^ a fruit, and other nouns of the Fifth 
Class. 

When taken to pieces the word is seen to be, m-, I, 
•K-, it, -jpenda-^ love, -fo, which. 

Eelatives are rarely used in Swahili with any tenses 
except the present imperfect (the -na- tense), the past 
perfect (the 4%- tense), and a peculiar form of the future 
(the 'tdka^ tenBe)^ The following instances will show 
the way in which the relative is expressed with these 
several tenses both as subject and object. 

Olass t. [the man] who is coming, ana^erht^a* 

,9 who came, ali-ye-huja.^ 

„ who wiU come, atuka-^e-kuja, 

„ whom he is striking, anorye-mpiga. 

,, whom we loved, tuli-ye-mpenda, 

[the men] who will beat us, v)ata1ca-o4upiga. 

„ whoni we will beat, tutdka-o-toapigcu 

[the 01] which is eating, anory^-Jcula, 

„ which we shall eat, tutahorye-^nla, 

Pf IL [the tree] which fell, uli-ihangulca. 

,f which he cut down, aIi'-<MA7eata. 

[the trees] which were visible, t2i-^o-one/Kina. 

„ which we saw, tulp-yihiona. 

^ III [the house] which fell down, tli^o-angukcu 

p, which I bought, niH*y<y4nunua^ 



120 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

OuM III. [the houses] which fell down, HU-sso^nguka, 
„ which I hought, ntH-zo-zinuntuu 

„ TV. [the knife] which cat me, kiU-ch(Hiikata. 
„ which I took, niU-cho-Mttoaa, 

„ which I gave yon, nUi-cho-hupiU 

[the knives] which fell down, viU^<Hinguka» 
„ which I gave yon, nU%^vy<hhupa, 

19 y. [the chest] which is nnfastened, lili-lo-funguha. 
„ which I unfastened, nili-h-lifungita, 

[the chests] which were carried, ^oZi-s^o-c^u^ttZtioa. 
„ which they carried, wdU-^(hyacihukiM. 

M VI. [the song] which pleased me, uli*<H^ipendexcu 
„ which I liked, nUv^'upenda, 

[the letters, nyardka] which I wrote, nili-zo-giandika, 
„ which I sent to you, ntli-zo-Jcupeleheat 

„ which reached me, tili-zo-niwiisilia, 

„ yil. [the place] which I live in, nina-po-paJeacu 
[the places] which I saw, ntli-po-paona. 

The particles of plaoe and time) mO) po^ ko^ are treated 
as relative particles* 

cdimOi where he is (within)* 
aiipo, where he is (if near). 
alikof where he is (far off), 
anapohwendoy when he is going. 
anakojcijoenda, whither he is goingf* 
alimohjoenda, wherein he went* 
dUpohwendOj when he went. 
dlikohuoenda, whither he went. 

There is one amhiguity which cannot be avoided 
where both subject and object are of the same class. 
Aliyempiga may mean, who beat him, or, whom he beat ; 
kilichokikaia may mean, which cut it, or, which it cut, 
supposing Hsu, a knife, to be one substantive, and Jcitu^ 
a thing, to be the other. 

The negative is combined with the relative by the 



PBONOUNS. 121 

ttfie of -W-. There is but one negative tense, and it 
embraces all times, past, present, and future. 

oiiffe, [he] who is not, who will not be, who was not 
wioangiikOf [the tree] whioh falls not, whioh is not falling, which 

did not fall, or, which will not ML 
ninehohujfa, [the knife] whioh 1 did not give yon, do not gire 

yon, or, shall not give yon. 

Where the relative is used in English with a prepo* 
sition, the relative particle is sometimes joined with the 
verb and also with the preposition ; but more commonly, 
the force of the preposition being contained in that of 
the Swahili verb, no special form is required. See 
Derivative Verbs, p. 157. 

The man whom I went with, nUu natt-o-heenda naye. 
The man I went to, mtu nali-(Hnwende(u 
Where 1 came from, nUi-pO'toka, 
Where I am going to^ nin<i-1co-kwendct. 

As the Swahili has no proper word for to have, but 
uses for it huwa na, to be with, cases of double relatives 
are very fi^equent where having is mentioned. 

The knife I have, Jdsu nilicho fuuiho. 
The houses yon havd, nyumba ulizo nazo. 
The knife I had, tUsu nCichohuwa nacho. 
The houses you had, nyumba ulizokuwa muo. 

The relative is used in some oases in which it is not 
employed in English. 

Who went by ? l^ani aXi-^e^pUa (who is he who passed) > 

He likes this fruit, tunda hilt ndUo alipencUilo (this fhiit is it 

which he likes). 
The boy is going, hyana aendao. 
Whosoever may come, yee yote atdkay^kuja. 

There is another way of expressing the relative by 



122 SWAMtLl SAmBOOK. 

means of amhaye or ambaye hwambcL^ though not ns^l 
in Zanzibar. When it is employed the final syllable of 
amhaye changes according to the roles giTon above, 
making ambao^ aaibaeOf ambaehOf awbaoyOf &o* 

Sometimes' an English relative can be expressed by 
the use of mwenyi^ &o^ having. 

The vatk whose hooae it U, nUu mwenyi nyumba. 



Interrooativs akd other PrOKOUK3. 

There are four Interrogatives which are not variable* 

Nanif Who? I • Ninif What? 

Unif When? ] Ganif Whataort? 

Oani always follows the substantive it is connected 

with. 

Mtu ffonif What man ? What lort of man ? 
KUugamii What thing? What sort of thmg ? 

What? is sometimes expressed by the syllable 'tit 
suffixed to ^ verb. 

Atapatanif What will he get? 

Amefanyani f What has he done ? 

Kunanil What is there? What is the matter? 

Kina ninif What has it? What is the matter with it? 

Wanmif What have they? What are they at ? 

What o'clock is it ? is rendered by 8aa ngapi f How 
many hours ? 

The interrogative Which? is expressed by -pi pre- 
ceded by the appropriate syllable, which is the same as 
that used as the subjective personal prefix to verbs* 
It always follows the noun it refers to. 



FB0N0UN8. 123 

Olabs I. Which [man] Yupi^ \]BaBa\ Wapii 

„ n. „ [tree] Upf [trees] Ipit 

^ III. „ [house] Ipif [houses] Zipi'i 

„ IV. „ [thing] Kifif [things] Vipif 

„ V. „ [chestp] Lipif [chests] Foptt 

„ VI. „ [song] CTjpt? [songs] Zipif 

„ VII. „ [place] Pajpif [place*] Papil 

The Interrogative, if followed by a verb, requires a 
relative with it. 

Mtu yupi apendaye hwenda ? Which [or what] man likes to go ? 
Nyumba ipi ikupendexayo f Which house do you like ? 

Nani f who ? is also generally followed by a relative. 

Nanidliopomtangonif Who is at the door ? 

It is, however, allowable to say nani yupo ndangoni^ 
which is a literal translation of the English. 
The interrogative Where? is toapif or apif 

Wenda toapif Where are yon going ? 

When referring to a substantive wajpi must always 
be preceded by the syllable which is the proper sub- 
jective personal prefix for that substantive. This prefix 
very probably represents the substantive verb, and may 
often be translated by i« it f or are they f 

Class L ting, Yu wapi? plur. Wa wapi? 



n. 


tt 


XJwapi? „ 


I wapi? 


in. 


» 


I wapi? „ 


Zi wapi? 


IV. 


fl 


Kiwapi? „ 


Viwapi? 


V. 


>l 


Li wapi ? „ 


Yawapi? 


VL 


9f 


Uwapi? „ 


Ziwapi? 


VII. 


99 


Pa wapi ? „ 


Pa wapi? 



A fuller form to represent where is it f or where are 
ihey f is made by adding -ho to the personal prefix. 
Yukoioapil Where ia he? ZUcowapif Where are they ? 



124 SWAHlLt HANDBOOK. 

The noun referred toibllows this interrogatiYe. 

I toapi merikebu ? Where is the ship ? 

How? is expressed by the syllable -je suffixed to the 

verb. 

NitakipaJtajt^ How Bhalll get it ? 

Chalifanywaje i How was it made ? 

Vlipendaje^ cto hupihay ao hichi f How do you like it, cooked ot 

raw? 
Aumaje ? [How does he talk?] What does he say ? 
Urefu vxike yapataje i How long is it ? 
Umri waJee apcOaje f How old is he ? 
Kwenda ehini kwake chapataje [hi9ima]f How deep is it [a 

well]? 

The use of hupata^ to get, in these phrases must be 
noticed. There is no direct way of attaching the how f 
to the adjective ; they say therefore, '* His age, how 
gets he it?" 

How many? is expressed by -n^opt, which is treated 

as an adjective. 

How many people ? Watu vjangapi f 
How many goats ? Mbuzi toangapi or ngapi f 
How many trees ? Miti mingapi ? 
How many houses ? Nyumha ngapi i 
How many chairs ? Viti mngapi ? 
How many chests ? Makctsha mangapi f 
How many planks ? Mhau ngapi i 
How many places ? Mahali pangapi f 

How? is in some cases expressed by the use of other 
phrases. 

How long ago ? Tangu lini f [since when 7] 

How much ? Kadfi ganij or KiasH ganif [what quantity 7] 

How often ? Marra ngapi f [how many times ?] 

The exclamatory What I is rendered by the inter- 
rogative pronoun in •^'. 

Furakaipil What joy I , 



( 125 ) 



VEEBS, 

Begular Swaliili verbs always end in -a, as, hupcndOf 
to love, hupiga, to beat. 

Verbs derived from the Arabic may end in -«, -i, or -tt, 
as, husameAe^ to pardon, Tcusafiri^ to travel, hihanbuy to 
destroy. Verbs in this form do not change the final 
vowel, where verbs in -a regularly do so. 

The simplest form of the verb is nsed in Swahili, 
as in English, for the second person singular of the 
imperative. 

Fenda! Lovet Figa! Strike! 

Samehel Pardon! eafiri! Travel! 

Earibul Destroy! 

The second person plural imperative is made by 
adding -nt. All the other tenses and moods are made 
by prefixing syllables to the simple form, except that 
verbs in -a change -a into -e in the present subjunctive, 
and into -t in the present negative, and a -to- is inserted 
to mark the passive. 

There is a negative as well as an affirmative con- 
jugation, in which the tenses and persons are also dis* 
tinguished by prefixes. 

The various prefig^es fonn in pronunciation 09^^ word 



126 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

with the Torb, and when taken to pieoes denote its 
person, number, tense, mood, sabject, and object. 

Amekwanibia s A-^ma-hvHjmhia s He-has-you-tell s He has told 

you. 
Walij^ipenda s Tra-Zt-jMMift-|>eiuIa = They-did-when^me-loye 

= When they loved me. 
NUaJcaehohupa s Ni-tahcHihO'ha^a ss I-fihall-which-you-giye-to 

= Whidi I shall give to you. 
Ningalimwona,^ Nir^alt^avhona s I-should-have-him-flee s I 

should have seen him. 

The syllables nsed as prefixes have not the same 
meaning standing separately as they have when com- 
bined with the verb in their proper order; for this 
reason, therefore, as well as to show the proper pro- 
nunciation, they with the verb must all be written as 
one word. 

Lists of the several prefixes will be found at the end 
of the preliminary observations to the second part of 
this handbook (p. 237). "The personal prefixes will be 
found described under Pronouns (p. 104), and seen 
arranged under their appropriate classes of Substantives 
in the Table of Concords, p. 82. 

Indefinite Tenses. 

!• Customary actions are expressed by prefixing ftu- 
to the verb. In this form there is no distinction of 
number, person, or time. 

Hu-e7u2a, one goes, they go, everybody goes, he used to go. 
Mu-penda, one likes, they like, one would like. 

2. The relative may be joined with the verb without 
any sign of time. The personal prefix only is put 
before the verb, and the relative sign sufiixed to it. 



VEBB8. 127 

Sfng. Class L Ni-pendorfe, (T| who loy& 

U-pendc^e, [thou] who lovest 
A-penda^e, [he] who loves. 
„ n. l7<-an^2»i-o, which falls. 

yy Y. Li-angukorlOf 

f, YL U-angvktHf, 

„ TU. P-afi^r«XM»-;po, where &Ih. 

„ Yin. Kvhonguka'^Of whither falls. 

Flur. „ L Tu-pendoro, [we] who love. 

M-penda-Of [yovi] who love. 
Wa-pendcH), [they] who love. 
fi n. I^ngvJca-yo, or, T-anguka-yo, which fall. 

„ III. 2t-angr»^*zo, 
„ lY. Vy-anguka-^fnfo^ 
„ Y. F-an</ttA»-yo^ 

„ YI. Zi^anguka^o^ 

The relative may represent the object of the verb, 
but in that case the objective sign (pp. 105-6) ought to 
be inserted between the personal prefix and the verb. 

Class L Ni-m-penda-ye, [he or she] whom I lovo. 
Ni-hu-penda-ye, [thou] ,. „ „ 

Ni-ioa-penda-Oy [you or they] „ >, m 
Sing, „ n. Ni-^i-penda-o [it] which I love, 

„' ni. Ni-i-'pendoryOy 
' ' ,) lY. Nv-hi'pendorckOf 
„ Y. Ni44'pendarlOf 

„ YI. Np^trpendOrO^ 
. . „ YIL Ni^porpendorpOj 
„ YIIL Ni-ltu-penda'TtOy 

Flur, „ n, ^t-t-penda-yo, [those] which I love. 

„ III. Ni-zi-penda-zo, 

n TV. Ni-vi-penda-vyo^ 

ff - Y. Ni-ya-pendoryot 

M VI. Ni'Zi-penda-zo, 

8. The negative form, expressing Who, or which does 



128 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

not, ifl made by the personal prefix, the syllable -«- 
[not] and the relative sign, followed by the verb. 

Sing. Class I. Nisi^&^^enda, [T| who love not 

U'-si-ye-pendcLf [thou] who lovest not. 
A-ti^e-lpendaf [he or she] who loves not 

ff n. Usi^thangukat which falls not. 

„ III. I-8i-y(Hmguhaj 

„ lY. Ki-si-cho-angtika, 

„ V. Li'St'la-cmguhat 

„ VI. JJ'Si^-angrika^ 

n VII. Porsi-piHinguTca, where falls not. 
Ku-su-hthangiikc^ whither falls not, 
Mu-si-mo^tnguha^ wherein falls not. 
Plur, M L Tu-si-o-penda, [we] who love not. 

M-^i-a-penda, [you]. 
Wa-si-o-penda, [they]. 

M n. I-8i-y(hanguka, which fall not. 

„ III. Zi-si-zfhanguha, 

I, rV, Vusi-^thanguhaf 

„ V. Ya-$i-y<Hinguha, 

„ VI. Zi'ii-zo-anguka, 

Where the relative is the object of the verb, it is 

expressed as in the afiSrmatiye tenses, by the form of 

the relative particle and the insertion of the objective 

prefix. 

Ni-ai-'Mo-zi'pendaf which I do not like. 

This negative tense may be applied with equal pro- 
priety to past, present, or future time, amounting in 
effect to a negative of the relation at the time and under 
the circumstances implied in the context. 

The application of the relative to the definite affir- 
mative tenses is explained under Pronouns (p. 119). 

The diflference between — ^which I like — ^^nd — I who 
like it — is to be found in the form of the relative 
particle. 



VERBS. 129 

[Nywaibckl nili-yo^ipenda, [the bouse] which I liked. 
nili-ye ipenda, I who liked it. 

IKUu] nUi-eho-htpenda, [the thing] which I liked. 
nili-ye-kipendaf I who liked it. 

Definite Tenses. 

The important part of each tense is the tense prefix^ 
It is preceded by the personal sign of the subject, and 
may be followed directly by the verb. If any signs o£ 
relation are used they are suffixed to the tense prefi]^, 
and the objective prefix (if any) must always imme- 
diately precede the verb. The tense prefix is the same 
for all persons and both numbers. The personal prefix 
is the same for all tenses, except the slight changes 
dependent upon the question whether the first letter of 
the tense prefix is a vowel or not. 

In order therefore to construct the proper form of 
verb, it is necessary first to ascertain the proper personal 
prefix, next the proper tense prefix, then the particles 
of relation and objective prefix, if they are required, 
and then to finish with the verb. Thus, to say, A house 
has fallen down. A house is nyumha, a word of the third 
class ; the proper personal prefix for a singular noun of 
the third class is -t, the tense prefix for the present 
perfect is -we-, the verb to fall is fat - anguka (the ku" 
being the sign of the infinitive : we have therefore — 

- Nyumha tmeanguha = a house has fallen down. 

If we wished to say, Six houses have fallen down ; we 
find that nyumha being of the third class keeps the same 
form in the plural ; sita is six, and must follow its noun ; 
the subjective prefix proper to plural nouns in the third 



130 BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

class is xi'i the teuse prefix and ihe verb remain the 
same. 

Nyumba '»ila Mimeanguka, ax houses have fallen down. 

To take one more complicated example, I saw the 
knife, which yon gave him. The personal prefix for 
the first person is m- or fi-, the tense prefix of the past 
perfect is -ab-, to see is ku-ona^ knife is hisu, a substantive 
of the fourth class. As some particular knife is intended 
we must use the objective prefix, and that for a singular 
substantive of the fourth class is -hU, As the tenso 
prefix begins with a vowel we must use the personal 
prefix which ends in a consonant. We have therefore-^ 

NcUikiona Msu s I saw tlie knife. 

• Which you gave him.* The relative referring to a 

singular noun of the fourth class is -cha-. It must 

follow the tense prefix, which is -aZt-, as before, for the 

past perfect. The sign of the second person singular 

is tt- or to- ; the verb, to give to, is hu^a. The object 

of the verb is him, the objective prefix for nouns of the 

first class is -mu- or -m-. Putting these together wq 

have, 

Which 70Q gaTC him, waiieho^pa. 

And the whole sentence, 
I saw the knife which yon gave him, naltkiona hUu walichompa. 

It must not be forgotten that hi- and pa- may bei 
used for there in an impersonal sense. 

Kulikutca or Palihuway there was or there wex^ 
Kuhapiqa^ dce.^ and there struck, 4c 



VEBB8. 



131 



Indicativr Tenses. — ^Present. 

There are in the language of Zanzibar two Presents, 
one Indefinite and one Imperfect. 

1. The Indefinite Present answers to our common 
English present, I come, I love, (&o. It is made by 
prefixing -a- to the verb. 



iV- 1 




I love. 


TT- 




Thou lovest. 


•^ 




He or she 


IT-, r-, C%-, X-, TT-, P-, ICw- 


> Orpenda < 


loves. 


Tvh 


It loves. 


Mio- 




We love. 


TT- 




You love. 


r-,^,ry-,r.,z. J 




They love. 



NU \ 




Iftin 


cr. 




Thou art 


A',U',I',Ki;Lt;U' 




He, she, 


Pa^, Ku- 


na-penda. 


or it is 


Tw 




We are 


'if. 




You are 


TTo., I-, Zi-, ns Fa-, Z> 




They are 



2. The Present Imperfect answers to our tense with 
am, I am coming, I am loving, &o. It is made by pre- 
fixing 'TM-' to the verb. 



loving. 



In the first person the m-is often contracted into 'n-, 
and sometimes altogether omitted. This tense used 
after another verb may be translated by an English 
present participle. 

Nctmwohcty or NalimtDona andkuja, I see him, or, I saw him 
coming. 

In the dialect of Mombas this ^na^ tense is used of 
past time. In Zanzibar it is the more usual form of 
the present. 

K 2 



132 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Present Perfect. 

The Present Perfect is made by the prefix -me- : it 
denotes an action complete at the time of speaking, and 
therefore answers to the English tense with have. 



Ni" 
U- 
A- 

r-, I-, Ki- 

Li', Pa-, Ku- 
Tu- 
'if. 
TFa- 



hpenda 



I have 
Thou hast 
He or she haa 
It has 
We have 
You haye 
,They have 



loved. 



■In verbs denoting a state or the possession of a 
quality the present has the meaning of to enter npon, 
to acquire, or to become, what the verb denotes. The 
-me- tense must then be translated by to have, or to be, 
&o. (p. 86). 

Inajaa, it is getting fulL 

Inutfaaf it is full. 
Jnapasuka, it is being torn. 

Imepaguka, it is torn. 
Inapoieoy it is becoming lost 

Ime^^oteo^, it is lost 
Anavaa, he is putting on. 

Amevaa, he has put on, therefore^ he wears. 

When the -me- tense occurs in a narrative, it denotes 
an action complete at the time referred to, and must 
generally be translated by had. 

Nikamwona ameu/ungua mUmffo^ and I saw that he had 
unfiastened the door. 



The -me tense may sometimes be translated as a past 



VEnsa. 



133 



participle, Bignifying a state arriyed at at the time of 
speaking or at the time referred to. 

Yu hayi ojo cmekufa ? Is ho alive or doad P 
Zalikuwa ttmepotea^ they were lost 

In this sense it may he used to form compound tenses, 
somewhat as the past participle is in English. 

In some dialects of Swahili the prefix is pronounced 
•mo- rather than -me-. See the end of Ajppendix H. 



Fast F£rfbct. 

The Past Perfect tense is made by the prefix -If- or 
«aZt-: it denotes an action complete in past time. It 
must sometimes be translated in English by the tense 
with had^ but more commonly it represents the indefinite 
past, which usually ends in -ei. 



N" ^ 










TT- 




IF-, r-, Ch', Ir- 




P'.Kw' 


> aH. 




Tio- 






Mio- 






T 1 




W- 






Thou 




r.,z:,ry.,r-J 






He or 8be 








penda It 


loTei 


Ni' 1 




We 




U- 




You 




A' 




^Tbey J 


17-, I-, Ki" 






Id-, Pa-, Kvr 


U- . 




Tu' 




M' 




TTo- 




j.,«-.rt.,ra-. 




When it is 


intende( 


1 to deu 


ote the ( 


miction as a 



1S4 



SWAfflLI BANDBOOK. 



continuous one, the syllable -Z»- may be inserted aftci 
the tense prefix. 

N-ali'hi-mpencUif I loyed him [not (mce bni oontinuously]. 
W-ali-papendana, when they loved one anoilier. 
W-ali-po-hi-pendana, wliile they loTed one another. 



Narrativb Past. 

In telling a story it is ttsnal to begin with one verb 
in the -Zt- tense, and then to put all that follow in a 
tense made by the prefix -ha-* This tense includes in 
itself the power of the conjunction and. It can never 
properly stand at the beginning of a narrative, but ho 
other past tense can properly be used for any verb 
except the first. It may occasionally be used after 
another verb, where the time being indefinite would 
in English be represented by a present. 



loved. 



Ntka- is frequently contracted into JSTo-. 

HamiDona = Nikamwona = And I saw him. 

The -kor of this tense is often pronounced -it- in rapid 
or careless talking. 



Nv- 






U' 




'And I 


A- 




And then 


r-, I-, Ku 




And he or she 


Li', Ta-, Kw 


ha-penda -^^^^it 


Tw 


And we 


M' 


And you 


Wa- 


. ^ And they 


I^^Zi^Vi'^Ta-i 







VESB8. 



135 



Future. 
The Future Tense is made by the prefix -to-. 



Nu 






17- 




I Bhall 


A" 




Thou wilt 


r-, J., »- 




He w she will 


Li'^Pa-jKu- 


ta-penda ' 


ItwiU 


Tu- 




We shall 


JJf- 




You will 


TTa- 




They will 


I^Zi-, Ft-,ra.J 







lova. 



In the first person the prefix Ni- is often omitted. 
Tapenda s Nitapenda =. I shall loye. 

When particles of relation are introduced the prefix 
'iO' is very rarely used ; the tense prefix stands almost 
always as -iakor. 

AtakayekujOf [hej who will come. 

With particles of relation the difference between the 
present, indefinite, and future times is much more care* 
fully observed in Swahili than in English. 

NUdlapOt when I sleep, <.«., in the case of my sleeping. 

NinapolaJa^ when I sleep, ^.e., at the time when I am sleeping. 

NitakapolcUa, when I sleep, <.«., when I shall be sleeping. 

JIRu aendaye^ the man who goes (at any time). 

Mtu anayekwendoj the man who is going (now). 

Miu aJtakayekwendOy the man who goes (at some future time). 

Thus, if it is intended to send a man somewhere and 
pay him afterwards for his trouble, where it might bo 
said in English — Tell the man who goes that I will 
pay him when he comes back — ^the Swahili verbs must 
all be in the future, Mwambte yule (Uakayehwenda hwamba 



ISQ 



SWAEILt EANDBOOS. 



atdkajporudi nitandipia. Where it is the fact and noi 
the time, person, or thing, that is the important element 
of the idea, it is better not to use the particles of rela- 
tion, but to employ the 'hi- tense, which see* 

' Conditional Tenses. 

There are four tenses which may be called Con- 
ditional. The first, made with -H-, expresses a state of 
things as supposed to be existing. The second, made 
with -japo-, expresses a state of things supposed as 
possible. The other two refer to contingencies ; one of 
them, made with -nge- or -nga-^ expresses what would 
now be happening, and the contingency on which it 
would depend regarded as existing; the other, made 
with -Ttgali'y expresses what would have happened, and 
the contingency on which it would have depended 
regarded as no longer existing. 

Actual Conditional or Participial Tensb. 

This tense is made with the prefix -K-, and may be 
translated by the English present participle, or by as, 
if, when, since, though, or any other words by which 
the idea of a state of things can be introduced and con-^ 
nected with the rest of the sentence. 



loving. 



Ni' N 






r- 




ri 


A' 




Thou 


V', I-, KU 




He or she 


X«S Fa-, Ku- 


hi-penda 


It 


Tu- 




We 


M' 




You 


Wa- 


\ TLey 


I- Zi' Vi' Ya - 







VEBBB. 137 

Tlie prefix NUci- may be contracted into Hi-. 

Hifukuza =• Nikifuhuza = As I was driving. 

Viewed as a present participle, the -M- tense can bo 
nsed to form compound tenses, especially a past im- 
perfect. 

Altkuwa dkiogolea, he was swimming aboui 

The following are a few examples of tbe use of this 
tense : — 

Nitafurahi niktkuonoj [seeing you I shall rejoice] I shall be 

glad to see yon. 
Ahija Ahddllah mtoambia, [Ahdallah coming, tell him] Tell 

Ahdallah when he comes. 
Nihiwa nacho, [I having it] If I have it*— when I have it— if 1 

should have it — in case of my having it — since I have it. 
AUpotea akizunguka kwa Hku nMi, [He was lost wandering 

for two days] He loet his way and wandered about for two 

days. 
Majivuno yakiwa mengi, [PuflSngs up being many] Much self- 
exaltation. 
(Jpepo ukitoa moto hutantiOi [Air being hot] Air expands when 

it becomes heated. 
Alcisema kweli, hasadiMufi^ [Telling the truth, he is not believed] 

If he should tell the truth, he would not be believed. 

In this instance the use of the -H- tense and of the 
negative present are both remarkable. It will be seen, 
however, upon examination, that there is no real con- 
tingency in such a sentence as this. It affirms a fact 
in a state of things, not a contingency upon a supposed 
state of things ; it is not his telling the truth which 
prevents his being believed. 

A corresponding past tense may be made by the -K* 
tense with the relative particle -jw)-. 

Walipopendai when they loved, being that they then Icved. 



138 



BWAHILl HANDBOOK. 




Possible Ck)NDiT[ONAL. 
This tense is made by the prefix -/opo-, and puts a 
case; it generally implies that the case is an extreme 
or unlikely one. It may be translated by even if. 
NU 
U- 
A- 

r-, I-, Ki' 

Li-f Pa^f Kth )japo-penda9 even if \^^ ) lora 

Tw 

M- 

Wa- 
I',Zi',Vi-,Yar] 

The prefix seems to be formed from huja^ to come, 

and -ipo, the particle denoting when or where; so that 

ujapo may be translated. When you come, and so with 

the other persons; this will give the force of the tenso. 

Wajapdkupigctf when they come to beating yon, fe., eyen if 
they beat yon. 

Japo with the personal signs may be used alone in 

the sense of^even if. 

UJapo huhionif even if yon do not see li 

Present Contingent. 
This tense is formed by the prefix -nge" or -ngory and 
puts a condition and its results as present. It necessarily 
implies that neither are in existence. 



A' 
CT-. I-, Ki' 
lA'yTa'.Kth 

Tur 

if- 

TFo- 
J., ZtS Ff-, Ya- 



\nge-penda 



' I should, or if I did 
Thou wonldest, or if then 

didst 
He, she, or it wonld, or if 

he, she, or it did 
We should, or if we did 
Yon wonld, or if yon did 
They wonld, or if they did 



lova 



VEMB8. 



139 



The Hi^«r-. form is need with monosyllabic verbs — 
angawa — though he be, or he would be. 

The two branches of the contingency cannot in 
English be represented by the same tense, as they are 
in Swahili. The pcdr would stand in English, (1) If I 
did— (2) I should, &o. (1) K it were— (2) it wonld 
be, &0. Or they might stand, (1) Though I did — 
(2) yet I should, &o. 

The second branch is sometimes represented in 
English by a past tense ; sometimes both are. 

Kama ungekuwa no dkili, mali yaJco ungedumu nayo, [If you 
were with wits, your property you would continue with itj 
If you were a man of understanding, your property would 
be (or would have been) yours still. 

Past Contingent. 
This tense is made with the prefix -ngdlu. It 8np« 
poses something at a past time, and concludes that 
something else would then have happened, also at a 
past time. It represents the English — If this had 
happened, that would have happened. It supposes that 
neither condition nor contingency did ever in fact 
occur. In English a past tense is often used to express 
a present contingency, but the Swahili seem to dis- 
tinguish them more carefully. 

Had I, or I should have 
Hadst thou, or thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, or he, 
she, or it would have 
ngali-penda { Had we, or we should ) loved, 
have 
Had you, or you would 

liave 
Had they, or they would 

L 



U- 

A' 
V', I-, Ku 
Li', Pa-. Ku- 

Tw 

Fa- 
J., ZiS Ft-, Fa- 



have 



140 SWAHILl HANDBOOK. 

There is always an aooent on the personal prefix and 

none on the tense prefix, thus {mgalih&jay dngaliSna^ &q. 

Kama ungdlikuwapo hapa^ ndugu ffangu angdHpona^ If you 
had been here, my brother would haye got well 

The Imperative. 

It has been mentioned above that the simplest form 

of the verb may be nsed for the Imperative as in 

English. The final letter of verbs in -a is frequently 

changed into e-. The plural is made by adding -nt. 

Penda^ or PendCf loye thon. Pendant, or Pendent, love ye. 

TwaHf or Twae, take thou. Ttoaant, or Ttoaeni, take ye. 

8ifu, praise thon. Bifuni, praise yo. 

Fihirit consider thoo. Ftkirini^ consider ye. 

The form ending in -e is the more commonly nsed in 
Zanzibar. The other persons are supplied by the use 
of the Subjunctive. 

Ka- may be prefixed to the Imperative to connect it 
with a preceding verb. 

Kajiflcheni, and hide younelyei. 

The SuBJUNcnvB. 
The Subjunctive is made by prefixing the personal 
sign, and when the verb ends in -a changing that 
letter into -e. It may be translated into a variety of 
English forms. It may be used as an imperative or 
jussive, and is the only form that can be so used in the 
first and third persons. 

Nipende, let me lovo. 

When used with an interrogative it may be translated 
—am I to — is he to, &c. 

K^any^*et ^¥2iat am I to doF 



VERBB. 



141 



It is the proper form to express purpose or object — that 
I may, &e. — ^and must be used in many cases where in 
English the infinitiye is employed. 

Mtoambie ahusayidU^ tell him to help you, or speak to him 
that he may help yoiu 

Where no purpose is implied the infinitive is used as 
in English. 

I want to sleep, natdka hultikL 

The force of the conjunction and may be expressed 
by inserting -ha- after the personal prefix. And is used 
in English in many cases where the second action is 
more or less the object with which the first is to be 
done, as in — try and find, &c. In such cases -ha- must 
not be used, but only the subjunctive in its simple 
form. 



may loyo. 



Verbs which end in -t, -c, or -m, kieep the same final 
letter in the subjunctive. 



U' 




I 


A',U-,I^ 




thou 


Ki', Li', Pa- 




he or she 


JBTtt- 


pende, That 


it 


Tu- 




we 


Jtf. 




you 


Fa-, I-, Zi- ' 




they 


Ft-, Fa- 







The iNnNinvB. 
The Infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing -ku. 

KthpendOy to loyOi 
KtHma, to see. 



142 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

The -11- booomes -l(^- before a, e, and «\ and often 

disappears before o« 

Xf0-amMa, to ielL 
Kto-endoy to go. 
£i<Ni8J^ to finish. 
K''Oga, to bathe. 

The Infinitive may always be used to express the 
action denoted by the verb. 

Kwenda, going. 

Ku/a, dying. 

Kupendaruif matn&i loving. 

[There are two idiomatic uses of the Infinitive Mood, 
which are common, and may be mentioned here, the 
one a logical, the other a grammatical, contrivance. 

Any finite form of a verb may be preceded by the 
infinitive of the same verb, the effect being rather to 
particularize and give prominence to the idea conveyed 
by the verb, than to emphasize the mode of an action. 

Thus hufa utaJcufa^ as to dying, you will die. Dying, 
that is what will happen to you. Not, you will 
certainly die. 

Again, when any finite form of the verb, and espe- 
cially a long form, would be closely followed by another 
verb in the same form, connected with the former verb 
by (at most) the simple copula * na,* the second verb 
may be put in the infinitive mood. By this device the 
cumbrous repetition of a series of personal and other 
prefixes in a number of successive verbs is neatly 
avoided. 

Thus, '* anayeahudiwa na Jcutuhuzwa^*' for anayetuhuzwct^ 
" who is worshipped and glorified."— A. C. M.] 



: YERB8, 143 

Participles. 

There are properly no Participles in Swahili. The 
present participle in -ing may be represented by the 
'^nor- tense of an incomplete action, by the -A;»- tense 
of a state of continued action, or by the use of the 
relative. 

The man sitting yonder, miu aJcaaye hale. 

The past participle may be represented by the -W6- 
tense of a completed action, or by the relative when 
used adjectivally. 

NimekioTta hisu hiUchcypotea^ I liaye found the lost knife. 

The Negative Conjugation. 

All Swahili verbs may be employed with negative 
prefixes to denote the reverse of their affirmative 
meaning. It must be observed that the negative forms 
do not simply deny the affirmative forms but rather 
reverse them. 

Napenda hwenda^ I like going. 
Natdka hwenda, I want to go. 
Sipendi hwenda^ I dislike going, 
Sitahi hwenda^ I want not to go. 

In English I do not want is not so strong as I do not 
like, but in Swahili sitaki is stronger than eij^endu 

The negative tenses are formed by negative personal 
prefixes, which, except in the first person singular, are 
made from the affirmative forms by prefixing ha-. 

For the negative combined with the relative, see 
p. 120. 



144 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 




love not 

or 

do uot love. 



NEaAtivB Present. 
In this tense verbs ending in -a change that letter 
Into -•; other final letters remain nnchanged. 

Si' 

Eu- 
Ha', HaU', Hat- 
Hahi; Hdli-, Hapa* 
Hakw pendi 

Hatu- 

Ham' 
Hatoa-, Hat', Hazi- 
Havi-f Hayor 

This tense is a more general negative than the 
English do not tense. It is used for both past and 
future wherever the negative depends upon some cause 
which is not affected by the time referred to. 

The -I of si' in this and other tenses often disappears 

before a vowel. 

Sogopif 1 do not feai; 

Negative Past. 

There is one negative form referring to past time 

generally ; it is made by the negative prefixes followed 

by 'kvr. 
^ Si- 

Hu- 
Ha-, HaU', Hat* 
Hdki'y Hali- 
Hapa-, HaJtu- 

Haiu- 

Ham- 
Hawa-f Hat', Eazi- 
Havi'f Eaya* 

In a few rare instances negative prefixes may be 
followed by -me- or -Ze-. 

Simekuvoa mwongo 1 Have I not become a liar ? 





I 

Thou 
He or she 


did not lo?e 


hu-penda 


It 
We 

You 
.They 


or 
have not lovfd. 



VERBS. 



145 



The not yet Tense. 
There is a negative tense made by the use of the 
negative prefixes followed by -^a-, which is a sort of 
negative present perfect, denying the action up to the 
time of speaking. 

Si- ^ 

Hu- fl 

Ha-y Eau-, Bai" Thou 

Haki'f HcUi' He or fihe 

Eapa-j Edkth Ja-penda I* haye not yet loved. 

Eatu- We 

Earn' You 

Eawa-f Eai'f EatU They 

Eavi', Eayc^ J 

The word hado is often used with this tense where 

it is intended rather to imply that what has not yet 

happened will some day come to pass. 

Eajajoj he is not yet oome, he is not come even now. 
Eajaja hado, he is not come, at least not yet. 

The -a- of -Ja- coalesces with i and e into a long -e- 

Bound. 

Eaje^ha = Eajaisha =; He has not yet finished. 

Negative Future. 
The negative future is made from the affirmative 
future by merely using negative instead of affirmative 
personal prefixes. 



Si- 

Eu- 
Ea-, Eau-, Eai- 
Eaki; EalU 
Eapor, Edkvk' 

Eatu- 

Earn" 
Eawar, Eai-y Uaxi- 
Eavi-f Eayor 



ta-penda < 



I shnll not 
Thou wilt not 
He, she, or it 

will not 
We shall not 
You will not 
They will ^ot 



lovtt. 



146 



SWAHILI EANDBOOK. 



Conditional Tenses. 

The case of not being or not doing is put by a tenu€ 

formed "by the affirmative prefixes followed by -«tpo- ; 

it may be translated by the presoQt participle with a 

negative, or by as, if, when, though, since, or any other 

word by which the case of not heing^ having^ or doing^ 

may be introduced. 

Ni- 
U- 
A', U', I-, Ki- 

sipo-penda i 



n 

Thou 
He or she 
It 
We 

You 
^They 



not loYing. 



X*-, Par, Ku- 

Tu- 

M- 
War, I-, 7t-, F»- 

Ya 

This tense may be also used to translate an English 

affirmative preceded by cxce;pt or unless. 

Asipojua, unless lie knows. 
Afipohuwa AbdaUaht except Abdallalu 



Contingent Tenses. 
The negative contingent tenses, present and past, 
are made from the affirmative forms by merely using 
negative instead of affirmative personal prefixes* 

Did I or I should 



8i' 

JTo-. Hau-, HaU 
Hokis Hali" 

Hatth 

Ham- 
JTawcb-, Hai'f Hcusi- 
Havi-f Haya^ 



nge-penda 



Didst thou or Thou 

wouldest 
Did he, she, or it, 

or He, she, or it 

would 
Did we or We 

should 
Did you 

would 
Did they or They 
. would 



Of you 



not lova 



VERBS. 



147 



JTtt- 

Haki-, Halt' 
napa-, Hdkti' 

JTalu- 

Ham' 
Havsa't Hat' 
Hazi'f Havi' 
HayOf 



ngdli'j^ula\ 



Had I or I shouli} 

hayo 
Hadst thou or Thou 

wouldest havo 
Had he, ehe, or \\, 

or He, she, or it 

would have 
Had we or We should 

have 
Had you or You 

would have 
Had they w They 

would have 



I not loved. 



Negative Imperative. 

The negative imperative is made by the use of »i 
(not), with the affirmative forms. 



5| |)6nda, love not 
Si n/tf, praise not. 



Sipendenif love ye not 
Si w/unt, praise ye not 



The negative STibjunctive is more often used in this 
sense than the imperative form. 



Negative Subjunctive. 

The negative subjunctive is made from the affirma- 
tive form by inserting -«- between the affirmative 
personal prefix and the verb. 



' not lova 



Ni- ^ 






U- 




I may 


A',U',I' 




thou mayest 


Kir, Li', 




he, she, or 


Fa-^Ku- 


M-pende^l^Bi 


it may 


Tw 




we may 


Jtf. 




you may 


Fa-, J-, Zi- 




they may 


Vi', YOr 







1.2 



148 BWAHILI EANDBOOK. 

The -t of -fit- often disappears before a vowel, 
aaende, that he may not go. 

The negative subjunctive may be Englished in 
several different ways. It maylse used as above of a 
purpose fwt to do, or it may be used of a purpose to do 
which fails. 

Ahamtafuta asimvxme, he looked for him, but did not see him 
or, without seeing him. 

This form is commonly used for the negative 
imperative. 

Niwnde, let me not go. If tender don't go. 

A form of subjunctive connected with the not yd 
t^nse is made by the use of -fit/e- with the affirmative 
prefixes. 



not haye already 
loved. 



This tense may often be translated by hefore. 
Utampata astjelala, you will oatch him hefore he goes to sleep. 

'Sije with the personal prefixes may be used as a 
complete word followed by the -Jca- tense. 

Ni$iie nikafa, that I may not I^ already dead, or, that I may not 
4i9 before, &o. 



N^ 






U- 




I may 


A-,U-,I' 




thou mayest 


Ki-, Li- 




he, she, or it 


Par, Ku'f 


sije^enda, That 


may 


Tw 




we may 


Jtf. 




you may 


Tra-,J-,Z»- 




they may 


FiS Va. 







VMS8. 149 

Nkqativk Infinitivb. 

The negative infinitive is made by the use of kutoa 
(to put ottt), often contracted into kuto- and used as a 
prefix, 

Kutoa Jcupendoy or KutopendOj not to loye, or not loving, to 
dislike, or dislUdng. 

The Passive VofcE. 

The Passive is made from the Active by merely 
inserting -»- before the final voweL 

Napenda, I love. Napendvoa^ I am loved. 

Sipendi, I do not love. Sipendwi^ I am not loved. 

NimependOf I have loved. Nimependwa, I have been loved. 

Kupendoy to love. Kupendioat to be loved. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often use the passive of 
their applied form. See pp. 151, 161. 

The Passive is used in a sort of impersonal way to 
denote what is intended to be done. 

Maji yame7:tD€nda htdetipa, some one has gone to get tmtcr. - 
Peta ximehwenda huvunjvoa^ some one has gone to get pice in 
exchange for silver. 

AuxiLURT AND Irbegulah Verbs. 

As the Auxiliary verbs are mostly also irregular, it 
will be best to speak of their irregularities first, and 
afterwards of their use in making compound tenses. 

MonosyUabio verbs and most dissyllabic words be- 
ginning with a vowel, retain the hi- of the infinitive 
in those tenses in which the tense prefix ends in a 



150 BWAMLt BAttDBOOK. 

syllable incapable of bearing the accent. These tense 
prefixes are -na-y -ame-^ -aZ«-, -fa-, -japo-j -nge-^ -ngdli'^ 
and -«ye-. The other prefixes, -a-, -A»-, -K-, -n^o-, -it*-, 
•^a-, -«i-, are capable of bearing the accent, and the leu- 
is not retained when they are used. The personal 
signs, both subjective and obgective,. can bear the 
accent, the relative signs cannot. 

Thus, from hija^ to come, we have :— 

Naja^ I come. Ninakuja, I am eomiflg. 

Nikaja,B.Jid I came. Nimekuja, I have come* 

Nikija^ I comlDg. Ndltkuja^ I came. 

iSt/t, I como not. Niiahuja, I shall come. 

SHcujiii I did not come. Nijapokuja, even if I come. 

SiJaJa^I am not yet come. Ningekuja,! should come. 

^m)'e, let me not come. ^ingoZtTfu/a, I should haye come. 

Nisijekujaj before I come. 

M/e, let me not come. Nisipokuja^ when I come not. 

Ajaye^ he who comes. Aliyekuja, he who came. 
Nijaycj I who come. 

It is shown that this irregularity depends upon the 
power of certain syllables to support the accent by 
the changes which occur when an objective prefix is 
inserted. 

Amektda, he has eaten. 
' Ame'mla^ he has eaten him. 

The verb hipa, to give to, is peculiar in always re- 
quiring an objective prefix, and therefore never having 
occasion to be irregular. 

With dissyllables beginning with a vowel it is gene- 
rally indifferent whether the /cw- is retained or not. 

AmekvoUha or Ameisha, he has finished. 
AmeJivoanM, or AmeanzOt he has begun. 



VERBS. 151 

Many verbs occur with or without a «?-, which seems 

to be a relic of the -hk-. 

Kuiva or Kuwiva^ to ripen. 
Kuaza or Kuvxiza, to consider. 

The word kuja, to comci stands alone in having an 
irregular imperative. 

NjoOf come. NJooni, come ye. 

Monosyllabic verbs and some dissyllables mate their 
passives in a more or less irregular way. The follow- 
ing is a list of the monosyllabic verbs with their 
passives : — 

Kucha^ to fear. Kuehwa, to be feared. 

KulOy to eat. Ktditoci, to be eaten. 

Kunyway to drink. Kunyioewcij to be drank. 

KupOy to give to. Kupatoa or Kupetoctf to receive. 

Kucha is used in the dialect of Lamoo for to fear, the 
word used at Zanzibar being kuogopa. Kucha means 
at Zanzibar to rise (of the sun), and huchwa (or, in the 
dialect of Mombas, hutwa^ means to set. The other 
monosyllabic verbs, hufa, to die, kuja, to come, hunya^ 
to fall like rain, Icuvoa^ to be, being neuters, do nol: 
make a passive. 

Two dissyllabic verbs make their passive by merely 

adding -wa to the active form. 

Kuua, to kill. Kuuawa, to be killed. 

Kufuotf to beat Kufuawa, to be beaten. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often insert an -I- ic 
making their passive. See under Applied Forms, pp. 
158-159. 

Kuzc^ to bear. Kuzawa or Kuzaliwa^ to b^ bore 

Kulcomhoa, to ransonL KuJcomboletoa, to be ransomed, 

Ku/ungiiOf to open. Ku/unguli%0€^ tQ be opened* 



152 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

The origin of this use lies probably in the difficulty 
of pronouncing distinctly the regular passive forms* 
Verbs ending in -e make their passive in -eiwa. 

Kusamehe, to pardon. KusameheiDa, to be pardoned. 

Verbs ending in -i make their passives in -iwa, 

Kuhiri, to oonfesa. Kuhiriwa, to be confessed. 

Verbs in -u generally make their passive in -iwa. 

Kuharibu, to destroy. KuJiaribiwa, to be destroyed. 

Where the -u is preceded by a vowel the passive is 
made in -uliwa. 

Kutahau, to forget. KuadhauUtoa, to be fotgotten. 

The verb huwa, to be» has several peculiarities. The 
Present tense is very seldom used in its regular form. 
For the Present tense ni (or, in the negative, si) may 
be used for all persons and both numbers, or the per- 
sonal prefix appropriate to the subject of the verb may 
stand alone. Ni is apparently preferred where being 
is the important part of the idea ; the personal prefix 
is used where the being of that particular thing is 
intended specially to be noticed. 7u (not A) is used 
for he or she is. 

8i hweli, ni kunfu <tf, it is not true, it is only flattery. 
l\i tayari, we are ready. 

When joined with a relative the regular form has 
the meaning of who may he. 

Atoaye yote^ whoever it ba 

Where no stress is intended to be laid on the heingy 
the verb to be, when joined with a relative pronoun, is 



VEBBa.^ 153 

represehted by the syllable -Zt-. See Belatives, p. 118. 
Li is used, though but rarely, with the personal signs 
to form a tense with the meaning— continuing to be. 
A narative past is also formed with it in the sense of — 
I have continued to be. 

NUi hali ya kuwajuu yake^ I being on his back, 
Nikdli nikipotea, and I go on wandering. 

In many cases where the verb to he is used in English 
merely to connect the parts of the sentence it is in 
Swahili omitted altogether. 

Kioa nini uoeye hutoa Jcuonekana hizi siku nyingii why [have] 
you [be^ inyisible, 4,6., Why have you kept out of sight so 
long? 

Tupi mkuu tooof who [is] their chief? 

Nyama ya kifaro ngumu mnoy rhinoceros meat [is] very tough. 

The Present Perfect has the meaning of has become. 

Manenoye yamekuvja uuxmgo, his words are become false. 
The Past Perfect must be used to translate woe and 

were. 

NUipokuwa SuUani, when I was Sultan. 

The English has or have been must be translated by 
B present. 

Nijpo hapa siku nyingi^ I have been here many days. 
The Imperative is used with an t prefixed. 
Iwe, be thou. Itcenit be ye.* 

In the negative present and with relatives si is used 
as ni and -Zt- are in the affirmative tense. The regular 
forms are also used, though but rarely. 

* The subjtmctive forms uwe, mwe are commonly preferred In 
Zanzibar.— A. C. M. 



154 8WAH1LI HANDBOOK. 

The verb to he is used in English sometimos to 
denote existence viewed as an ultimate fact, sometimes 
to denote existence in place and time, sometimes to 
denote existence as tiie x>osse8sor of certain qualities, 
or the doer or sufferer of certain acts. In Swahili these 
three uses are distinguished by the employment of 
different forms. 

The simple form of the verb is used only to denote 
existence as the possessor of qualities, or the doer or 
sufferer of acts. 

Existence merely in place and time, whether the 
place and time are in English expressed or no, is 
denoted in Swahili by the addition to the verb of -^o^ 
-mo, or -fco, as the case may be. See Belatires, p. 120. 

He is at my house, Yuko kwangu. 
He is here, Yupo hapa. 
He is in the house, Yumo nyumhani. 
When he was liere, Alipokuwapo Itapck. 
Where are they ? Ziko wapi f 

Existence viewed as a fact in itself is denoted by the 
addition of na to the verb, being the same form as is 
used for the verb to have, Na is joined to the personal 
prefixes to make the present tense, in all other tenses 
it is treated as a separate word, and has generally the 
appropriate relative sign suffixed to it. 

Kuna mtu, there is a man. 
Kidikuwa na mtu, there was a man. 
Zinazo, they are. 
ZUikuwa nazo, they were. 

In Swahili there is properly no verb to have. Thty 
employ for it kuwa na, to be with. 



fEBBS. 16S 

Mno, I have. 
NalihutBa no, I had. 
Nitakuvoa na^ I shall haye. 
Niwe nOf that I may have. 

Where the objective prefix would be used with an 

ordinary verb, the appropriate relative particle must 

be suffixed to the na as well as to the tense prefix. 

NifMzo^ I have them. 
Aliyekuwa neuro, who had them. 
Alizokuvoa nazo, which he had* 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

The Verbs used as Auxiliaries are, iuwa^ to be, hUoaf 
to take out, kuja, to come, hwisha^ to come to an end. 

Can is represented by the appropriate tenses of 

huwezay to be able. Must is expressed by sharti^ of 

necessity, or by the negative tenses of hiwa na huddi^ 

to have an escape from. 

Sina htiddif I must 

Asitoe na huddi, that he may be obliged. 

After huwa na htddi either the infinitive or subjunc- 
tive may be employed. 

Ought may be represented by the tenses of hupasa, to 

concern, or, to come to concern. Should is expressed 

in the same way when it implies obligation, and by the 

contingent tenses when it expresses a contingency. 

Imenipasa hvenda^ it concerns me to go, t.e., I onght to go. 
Imenipata niaende, it concerns me that I go not, t.e., I ought no( 
to go. 

Kupaaa is also used as follows : — 

Haikunipasa mtW, it is no business of mine. 
Imekupatani ? What have you to do \i itli it ? 
Amenipaaa mtrnt, he is a connection of mine. 



156 BWAEILl EAmBOOK. 

May and might may be represented by huweza wliete 
they imply power, by halalij lawful, where they imply 
lawfulness, and by the subjunctive where they imply a 
purpose. 

The use of hija as an auxiliary has been mentioned 
under the -japo-j -ja-^ and -^je- tenses, pp. 138, 145, 143. 

Kutoa is used to convey a negation in cases where 
the regular negative tenses cannot conveniently be 
used. 

With the infinitive it is frequently contracted into 
"to-, and used as a mere formative. 

Kutoa huja, or KutoJsuja, not to come. 
Kutoa kupenda, or Kutopenda, not to lova 

The meaning of these negative infinitives may be 
given as, putting out coming, barring coming, coming 
not happening. A transitive form may be made by the 
use of hutosha, to make to go out. 

Kutosha humwulizOf to exclude asking him. 

In many cases kutoa may be translated by, to forbear, 
or, to neglect. 

Ametoa huja, he has neglected coming, he hns not come. 
Nihitoa huja, if I forbear from coming, or, bo long as f do not 
come. 

The negative tenses do not furnish a true present 
perfect. The past, hahujay is, he did not come; the 
present, haji, implies rather that he never will, that 
coming is not to be predicated of him at all. Tho 
difference between nisipohuja and nihitoa iuja is repre- 
sented in English by that between, if I come not, and, 
while I come not. In all cases the use of toa connects 



VEBBS 167 

tlio negation with the tense only ; the negative tenses 
imply that the opposite of the verb might be affirmed. 
Kwiaha may often be translated by already. 

Amehwisha huja, he has already come. 
NimekwUha htUa, I have done eating. 

It is used to strengthen the present perfect, convey- 
ing the meaning that something is not merely done, 
but fully done and over. 

A somewhat similar effect is produced on the present 
by using hatiha Jewisha, 

Ni katika kwuha kula, I am finishing eating, I am just leaving 
off, I have very nearly done. 

Kuvoa^ to be, is used in Swahili very much as it is in 
English, the -&»- and -me- tenses of the principal verb 
being used as present and past participles. 

Nili nikiendc^ I continuing to be going. 
Nikali nikienda, and I am still going. 
Nikiwa nikienda^ I being going, while going. 
Kikiioa nimekuoenda, I being gone, having gone. 
Nikiwa niinekwisha kivenda, having already gouo 
Nalikuwa nikienda^ I was going. 
Ncdikutoa nimekwenda^ I was gone, I had gona 
Nalikuioa nimekunaiha kwenda, I had already gone. 
Nitakuwa nikienda, I shall be in the act of going. 
. Nitakuwa nimekwenda, I shall be gone. 
Nitakuwa nimekwitHia kwenda, I shall have already gone. 
Nitakuwa niliokwenda, I shall be who has gone, I shall have 
gone, I shall have gone to or been at. 

Kuwa na, to have, is not used as an auxiliary. 

Derivative Verbs. 

There are four derivative forms which may be con- 
structed out of any Swahili verb, where in English 



158 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

we mufit use either another verb or some oompotind 
expression. 

1. What may be called the applied form is nsed in 
cases where in English a preposition would be em- 
ployed to connect the verb with its object. By the use 
of this form verbs which have things for their objects 
may be made to apply to persons. 

This form is made by inserting • or e before the final 
-a of the simple verb. I is used when the vowel of the 
preceding syllable is a, t, or u. ^ is used when the 
vowel of the preceding syllable is e or o. 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyia, to make for. 

KuUta, to bring. Kuletea, to bring for. 

Kunkiitkay to be borj. Kustkitihia, to be sorry for, to pity 

Kuokoy to bake. Ktwheaj to bake for. 

Kuanguha, to fall down. Kuanguhia^ to fall down ta 

Where the simple verb ends in two vowels the sup- 
pressed I appears in the applied form. 

Kuzaa, to bear. KuzaUa^ to bear to. 

KukweeL, to dimb. Kukwelect, to climb for. 

KunJcta, to hear. KusiJcilia, to listen to. 

KukoTnhoay to redeem. Kukoinbolea, to redeem for. 

Kununua, to buy. Kununulia, to buy for. 

The following is a list of the monosyllabic verbs 
with their applied forms : — 

KuekOy to fear. KucJuHeOj to fear for. 

Kufa, to die. Kufia, to die to. 

KuJOy to oome. KujiOy to come to. 

KuUl^ to eat KtUia, to eat with. 

Kunya, to fall (like rain). KunyeOf to fall upon. 

Kunywa, to drink. KunyweOy to drink with. 

KuwOy to be. KtitDiOj to be to. 

Kuza, to sell, makes Kuliga^ to sell tOb 



VERB 8. 159 

£tfpa, to give to, liaving already an applied meaning, 
has no applied form. There is a difficulty in expressing 
what would have been the meaning of the simple form. 
Kutoa is used for to give, in the sense of parting with. 
Such expressions as, which was given you, must be 
rendered by a change of person — uUopewa^ whioh you 
had given to you, or, which you received. Which he 
gave me, is very commonly rendered niliopewa naye, 

Yerbs ending in -t and -i« make their applied forms 

in -ta. 

Kufasiri, to explain. KufcuiricL, to explain to. ' 

Kukaribu, to destroy. Kuharihia, to destroy for. 

The great paucity of prepositions in Swahili brings 
the applied forms of verbs into constant use. The 
only difficulty in their application lies in the exact 
discrimination of the meaning of the simple word. 
Many Swahili verbs imply in their simple form what 
can only be expressed in English by the use of a pre- 
position. Whenever a really good dictionary shall have 
been compiled it will supply all the necessary informa- 
tion. The applied form may be rendered by inserting 
any preposition which will suit the context. Thus, 
Jcushuhudia is, to bear witness about, for, or against, as 
the case may be, and ibtnenea, which means to speak 
about, may have to be translated by, to recommend, or 
to decry, to scold, or to describe. The simple word 
nena has in itself the force of to mention, so that it is 
not necessary to use the applied form as a translation 
of to speak of, where it means no more than to 
mention. 

Sometimes the shape of the word will be a useful 



160 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

reminder to foreigners of its exact meaning; thus, 
hupotea, wldoh may be roughly translated to lose, is in 
the shape of an applied form, and really is one, its 
exact meaning being, to become lost to. If, therefore, 
we want to say, I have lost my knife, the construction 
must be altered into, my knife has become lost to me 
(hisu changu himenipotea), the subject and object having 
to change places. 

Where in English a preposition connected with the 
verb can stand by itself at the end of the sentence, the 
applied 'form must be used in Swahili. 

A knife to cut ivith, hisu cha JcuJcatia, 

Stones to grind wheat with, matoe ye Jcusagia nganth 

A place to come out at, mdhaU pa kutohea, 

A bag to put money in, mfuko tea hutilia fetha. 

In these sentences the use of the possessive particle 
-a for the English /o, denoting a purpose or employ- 
ment, must be observed and remembered. This particle 
turns what follows into a sort of adjective in this, as 
in all other cases in which it is followed by a word 
which is capable of denoting a quality. It is somewhat 
like the English expressions, a man of sense, a building 
of great solidity, dc. 

When an applied form is followed by mbali it conveys 
the idea that as a consequence of the action denoted by 
the simple verb something is put out of the way, or 
got rid of, 

AJUe, or Afie mbcdiy that he may die out of our way. 
Tumvmlie mbdlit let us kill him and done with it. 
Fotelea Tnbdlit perish out of my way = go and be hanged. 

The passive of the applied form has a meaning which 



VEEBS. 161 

it requires some attention to remem'ber and apply 
rightly, thoTigh it is strictly according to the rule that 
the object of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive voice. 

KfiUiecLy to bring to. KuLetewa^ to have brought to one. 

KufanyiOf to make for. Kufanyitoa, to have made for one. 

It is often difficult in English to express this passive 
without using an altogether diflferent word. What 
suggests itself at first to an English ear, that the 
passive of to hring to would be to he brought to, is wrong, 
and must be carefully avoided. Sometimes a change 
of prepositions will suffice to render the passive cor- 
rectly ; hupa may be translated to present to, and then 
hipewa is not to he presented to, but to he presented with. 

Passives made in 4iwa and -lewa are used as the 
passives of both the simple and the applied form. 
KufunguUwa may be used as the passive of hifungua^ 
meaning, to be unfastened, or as the passive of kufun' 
gulia, meaning then, to have unfastened for one. It 
can never mean, to be unfastened for. If it is necessary 
to express a passive in that form it must be done by 
changing the construction. 

A cry was made at him, altpigiwa ukeUHe [he had made at him 

aery]. 
The door was opened for him, alifungtdiioa mlango [he had 

opened for him the door]. 

2. The Causative form is made by changing the final 
^d into -8%a or -za. 

Kupungua, to grow less. KupungtUOy to make to grow less. 
Kttzidi, to grow greater. Kuxidisha, to make greater. 

M 



162 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

When the final -a is preceded by a oonsonant the 
general rule is to use the applied form as the basis of 
the causative. 

KupendOj to like. Kupendexct, to please. 

Ku/anyck, to make. Kufanytza, to cause to make. 

Kupanda, to go up. KupandUhct^ to make to go up. 

Verbs which end in the simple form in -ta end in 
the causative form in ^sa. 

Kviakata, to be dean. Kvtaka»a, to make dean. 

Verbs which end in -lea may be turned into oausa* 
tives by changing -fta into -sha. 

Kuwaka, to be on fire. Kuwasha^ to set on fire. 

Kulainika, to be soft. KtUainUhaj to make soft. 

KuiokcL, to go out Kutothot to make to go out 

KtuJmkay to go down. Kutihmha, to let down. 

The causatives of verbs ending in -e^ -i, or -u are 

constructed on the applied form. 

Kukaribuy to oome near. KuJcaribiaha^ to make to oome near. 

3. The Neuter, or quasi passive form is made by 
changing the final -a into -ha, 

Kufungua^ to unfasten. Kufunguha, to be unfastened. 

Kuohoa, to 8ay& Kuokohiy to be saved. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
neuter is constructed from the applied form. 

Kuvunjay to break. Kuvunjika, to be broken, 

Kukata^ to cut Kukatika, to be out, 



VEBBS. 163 

Causatives in -tiha may be turned into neuters by 
duuiging 'Sha into -lea. 

Kustutiha, to 8tartl& Kustuka, to be startled. 

Verbs in -«, -i, and -u, construot their neuters on tUo 
applied forms. 

Kmamehey to forgive. - KusamehekOy to be forgiven. 

Kufaiiri, to explain. KufasirtkcL^ to be explained. 

Kvharibut to destroy. KtthariJbtlta^ to be destroyed. 

The 'lea form is used (like the English passive) to 
denote what is generally done or doable. 

KvUka^ to be eaten, or, to be eatable. 

4. Beoiprocal forms are made by changing -a into 
•ana, 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendana^ to love one another. 
KupigOy to beat. KupiganOf to beat one another, to fight 

Verbs in -«, -i, and -u construct their reciprocals 
upon the applied forms. 

Kukarihu, to come near, KuJcaribianaf to come near to one 
another. 

The reciprocal form of the -ia form may be tranalated 
by to be to be, &o. 

KupatikatMy to be to be got. 

KiytdikaTMt to be to be known, to be knowablo, 

Kuoekana, to be to be seen, to be visible. 

The derived forms are oonjugated and treated in 
©very way as though they were original words, and 
x)ther derived forms may be made from them to any 
/extent that may be require4* 

■ ■ ' ^ ' ' ' ' ¥2 



164 



8WAEILI SANDBOOK. 



The applied form of an applied foiin generally sig- 
nifies to do a thing to or for a person for a pnrpofie. 
Doubling the verb gives an idea of thoroughness. 



Kukaia, to cut. 
Kfiiafuta, fo seek. 
Kwihafuka^ to be in a mess. 

Kupuuka, to be torn. 

JjMot Aoi to be cut 



Kukaiakaia^ to ont up. 

JSTtf to/tftoto/ti^ to seek all about 

Kuchafukachafvka^ to be all in a 

mess. 
Kupagttkcupatuka^ to be torn to 

shreds. 
KvSiaUkakcAika^ to be aU out 

about 



( 165 ) 



LIST OF VERBS, 



As it is necessarj to put to before the English Verb to make the Infiuitive, 
so it b necessary to prefix Ate- to make the Infinitire in Swahili. Before 
Monosyllabic Verbs the ku- bears the accent, and is retained in several of 
the tenses. See p. 149. 



Ahasey thilL 

Ahhor^ chukia. 

be AbUy weza. 

Abolish, batili, tangua, ondosha. 

Abound toith, jaa. 

Absorb, nwa, pass, nwewa. 

Abstain from, epuka, epushwa (to 

be kept from). 
Abuse (by words), tukana. 
Accept, kabali, takabali, pokea (ro 
oeice), 

he acceptable or accepted, kuba- 
lika. 
Accompany, faatana na, andamana. 

(part of the way), sindikiza, aJi 
Accuse, tuhumti, shtaki. 
Accustom, zoeza. 

become accustomed, zoea. 
Ache, mna. 

My head aches, kitwa chauma or 
kinaniuma. 
Acknowledge, ungama, kubali, kirL 
Acquiesce, nyamaa, ritbia. 
Acquit, acha. 

be acquitted, toka. 



Act, tenda. 

Adapt, fanya. 

Add to, ongeza, zidLsba. 

Add up, jumliaha. 
Adjoin, tangamaua. 
Adjourn, akirisba. 

stand over, akin. 
be Adjudged, fetiwa, 
Adjure, apisha. 
Admire, penda. 

I admire him, ameni^endezai 
Admit, ingiza, acha kuiiigia. 
Adorn, pamba. 

Adorn oneself, fanya uzuri. 
Adtdterate, ghoshi. 
commit Adultery, zini, zinga. 
Adcanee, endelea mbele. 

Advance money to a trader, ko- 
pesha. 
be Adverse, gomba, teta. 
Advise, pa shaurL 
Adze, ohonga. 
Affect to be, jifanya, jionA. 
Afflict, tesa. 

be Afraid, ogopa, clia (A.)t 
Agitate, sukasaka. 



166 



8WAHILI nANDBOOK. 



Agree (oome to an agreement)^ patana, 
afikana, tuliliana, lekezanya, 
tnzanya (A.). 

(he mutually satisfied), rathiana. 

(be alike), elekea, lingana. 
Aim^ twaa shabaha. 
Alamnf ogofisha, ogofya, tisha. 

he alarmed [kii-]wa na kliofii, 
iugiwa na khofn. 
Alienaie, farakisha. 

he alienated, farakanai 
AUege a defect in, umbua. 
AUat amongst many, awaza. 
AUotffj achik, pa ruksa, rahusu. 
Alter, (neuL) badili, badilika, geoka. 

(act.) geiiza, badili 
Amaze, ajaabisha. 

he amazed, tosbea. 
Amendy fanyiza, tengeneza* 

(of a person reforming), tulia. 
Amuse, zumgjimza. 
ATiehor, tia nanga. 
Anger, tia hasira, gbatbabisha. 
he Angry, [kil-]wa na hasira, gba- 

thabika. 
he Angular, [krf-]wa na pembe- 



Announoe, hnbirL 

Annoy, rambtta, gumbiisba, taa- 

bisha, hatiki (A.). 
Annul, fangaa, batili, ghairl 

he Annulled, tangtika. 
Answer, jibn. 

Answer when ciUed, itika, itikia. 
Anticipate for, onea. 
he Anxious, tabaruki, taabika. 
maJee Anxious, taliarakisba, taa- 
bisba. 
Apostatize (become an tnjidel), kn- 

fura. 
appear, onekana (become visible), 
tokea (come out to> 



Apply oneself to, tenda. 

Appoint^ nasibo, aini, chagua of 

teua (select). 
Approach, karibia, jongea. 
Approach one another, karibiana. 
Bring near, jongeza, karibishal 
Approve, kubali, penda, rathi. 
Argue, jadiliana, flhindana (dispute 

together). 
Arise, ondoka* 
Arm, pa selaha. 

Arm oneself, twaa selaha. 
Arrange, panga, andika, pangisha, 

ratibo, fanya. 
he Arrogant, ghurika. 
Arrive, fika, wasili. 
arrive at one^s destination, koma. 
make to. arrive, fikisha, wasilisha. 
reach a person, fikia, wasilia. 
Ascend, paa, kwea, panda. 
Ascertain, hakiki, uyuzL 
be ascertained, kinika. 
he Ashamed, ona haya, tahayarf. 
malce ashamed, tia haya, lahaya- 
riBha. 
Ask, uliza, uza, eailL 
Ask for, taka. 
Make inquiries on behalf of any* 

one, nlizia, tiiizia, sailia. 
Ask how one does, uliza halL 
Ash in marriage, posa. 
Assemble, (act) knsanya^ kutanisha. 
(neut.) kutana^ knsanyika, kusa- 
iiyana. 
Assent, kubali, itikiza, afikana, ra- 
thiana. 
Assert, sema. 
ffe asserts thai he saw a ship^ 

kamma aliona jahasi. 
Ee asserts that he walked on iJie 
water, kamma alikwenda mioni 
kwa mguQ. 



LIST OF VEBBa. 



167 



Moni^ ajabisha, taajabisha. 

be adonuhed^ toshea, shangaa, 
taajabika, toshewa, staajabm 
Astound, shangaza. 
Atone far, setiri 

Attach, gandamia, gandamiza, am- 
bisa. 

be attached, ambatana (of things), 
ambisaBa (of people), 
Attaek, sbaznb^ftia. 

Attack people wantonly, [kii-]wa 
na jeurl. 
Attend (wait upon), ngojea, faata. 

Attend to, sikia, pulika (A.), si- 
kilia. 

not to attend, gbafalika. 

refuse to attend, jipurtikiisba. 
be Audible, fiikiliana, sikizana. 
Avail, faa. 
Avoid, epuka, 

get out of the way of, epa. 

be avoidaible, epeka, epukika. 
Avow, kiibali. 
Awake (neuL), nrnka. 

foaJeen (act), axnsha. 



Saclcbite, chongeleza. 
Betray, kbinL 
Bake, okiL 

(pottery), tomea, chomca. 
Bale out water^ TUta maji, teka 

maji. 
Banish, fukaza (drive away), ondo- 

sha (make to go away), bamisha 

or tamisba (M.) or gurisba (A.). 

(to make to remove)^ 
Bar (a door), pingia* 
Bargain^ fanya ubazazi. 
Bark (like a dog), lia. 
Barter^ badili, avithi 



Batter (bruise), cbnbaa^bnbna. 
be battered (like an old eoppet 

pot), ohubukacbubiika. 
Bathe, oga. • 

5c, wa. SeeIrregtaarVerb9,pA52. 
(to stay), kaa. 
be on on^'s guard, [kil-]wa na 

bathari. 
be offone^s guard, tagbafali. 
Bear (fruit, children, &e.), zaa, 

vyaa. 
(carry), cbnkua» hixnili. 
(tolerate), vnmilia, stahimili. 
bear with another person, cbiiku* 

liana. 
Bear with me, niwie rathi 
bear witness, shuhudu. 

about, for or against, shubudia. 
Beat, piga, puta, monya (Kiyao). 
Beat up together, funda. 
Beat to pieces, ponda. 
Beat a roof or floor, pigilia. 
be well beaien, pntika. 
be beaten upon (as a wreck by the 

waves), fiiawa. 
See Conquer, Thresh. 
Beckon to, pungia ngno. 
The usual sign to beckon a person 

to come is to wave a eHoth up. 

and down. 
Become (befitting), snlibi. 
Kimekawa, I am become^ 
Simekuwa, am I not become. 
The act of becoming is generally 

expressed by the present tense of 

the verb expressing ike being in 



Become a fool, pnmbazika. 
Beg, omba, bembeleza. 

(entreaJt), sihi, nasihi. 

I^o/yoM, tafathal 
Beget, ISA. 



168 



SWAEILI BANDBOOK. 



Begin upon, anzifizfw 
Btgin a work, maliki 
i?eftave,«tenda. 
Behave welly tenda vema. 
Behave tU, tonda vibaya. 
Behave like an invalid, jigo- 
njweza. 
Bdch, oDgnlia. 

BeUh oiUy kokomoka. 
Believe, sadiki. 

Beliete in, aminL 
Bend, (ad,) pinda, (neut.') pindana. 
Bend round, {acL) peta, (jneuJt.) 
petaDa» petemana. 
y ^enddot4m,(ae<.)inainislia,(netff.) 

inama. 
Benumb, fiiganza. 
Bequeath, vasia, achia. 
Besiege, husnra (Ar.). 
Bet, ^indania. 
Beware, angalia, pni-]wa na ha- 

tharL 
BewUder, tekea. 

Bewitch, fanyia uchawi, loga (Mer.). 
Bicker, papuriana. 
Bid, See Command, 

Make a first bid, riBimu. 
Bind, funga. 
Bind hooks, jelidL 
Bind oneself, fanya shartL 
Bind round (as when a tHclc is 
sprung), ganga. 
Bite, uma. 
Blah, payuka. 

Blame, laumu, tia hatiyani, nenae 
(seold), patiliza (viHt upon\ 
karipia (eaU out at). 
Blaze, waka. 
Bleed, toka damn. 
(eopiou8ly),chxiiVLt!ika damn, tu£a 
damu (M.). 



Bless, bariki (see Copulaie), bariki% 

jalia. 
Blind, povna. 

become blind, povuka. 
Block, kingamisha, pinga. 
jB2oMom,toa mana (put/orthflovfers\ 

f uniika (to open). 
Blow (as the wind), viima, ynvia. 
(with the mouth), pnzia, puliza. 
(a hom^ dtc), pigif^omari, Sco, 
(the nose), futa kamaai. 
(beUows), Yukuta. 
Blow away, pepemsha. 
Blunder, kosa. 
Blunt 
The knife is blunt, kisa hakipati, 
kisu ni kivivu (A.). 
Blurt out, kokomoka. 
Blush, geuka (change colour^ 

put to the blush, hizika. 
Boast, jisifu, jigamba, tamba. 
Boil (bubble up), ohe'mka, tuttmuL 
cook by boiling, tokosa. 
be cooked by boiling, iokotek, 
be weU boiled, tokoseka. 
boU over, furika. 
Bore through, zua, pekeclia {used 
also of boring with talk), 
with an awl, didimikia. 
Border, pakana. 
be Bom, zawa, vyawa, zaliwa, vja- 

liwa, pathiwa. 
Borrow, azimwa, kirithi 
Bother, STimbua, hatika (A.). 
Bow, (act) inamisha, (neuL) inama. 
Box the ears, piga kofi. 
Braise, kaanga. 
Bray (Wee an ass), lia 
pound in a mortar, ponda. 
clean com by pounding, twanga. 
Break, vimja, yunda (M.), (neut,) 
Tunjika, katika. 



ttsT OF rmss. 



169 



IBrealc] throughy toboa. 

into fragments, setaseta. 

by bending, ekua. 
to be sprung, ekuka. 

qff the eobs of Indian com, goboa, 
konyoa. 

doum the branches of a tree, kwa- 
una, pass, kwanyiika. 

wind, Jamba, ongulia. 
Breathe, pumua, piizia, tanafnsi. 

inspire, paaza, pnmzi. 

expire, shnsha pnmzi. 

hard, kokota roho, tweta (panf), 

breathe oneself (rest), pumzika. 
Breed, zaa, lia (M.). 
be Bi-iUiant, ng'ara. 
Bring, leta. 

to or for, letea. 

BriTig up, lea. • 

Bring together, pambana. 

Bring near, jougeza. 

Bring to an agreement, patanii«ba. 

Bring to life again, fafua, huisha. 

Bring another! Ka ije ngine 1 
Brighten (acL), katua. 

be bright, katuka (polished),ng;'arek 
(glistening). 
Bruise, cbubua. 

be bruised, chubnka. 

(batter), obubnacbubua. 
Brush (dean), siigna. 

Brush off, epua. 
BvMe up, cbe'mka, tutuma. 
Bud, chupuza (spring), obaniia (put 

forth leaves), mea (grow). 
Budd, joDga. 

in stone, aka. 
to point by putting in STnall 
stones, tomea 

(ships), unda. 
BuUy, onea. 
be a Burden f o. lemea. 



Bum, waka (to be on fire), teketea 
(to be consumed), washa (to set 
on fire), teketeza (to consume), 
choma or cbomea (to apply fire 
to), ongnza (to produce a feding 
of burning, to scorch). 

Burrow, fakuafukua. 

Burst, pasuka, tumbuka. 

Burst out, bubujika. 
Burst into tears, bubujika ma- 
chozL 

Bury, zika. 

Buy, nunua, zabunL 
Purchase for, nunulia. 
Buy bach, komboa. 

Buzz, like a bee, vuma. 

a 

(Jackie, like a hen, teiea. 
CaU, ita, nena, taja (name), amkua 
(invite), lingana (A.). 
daU out to, pigia ukelele, pigia 

ukemi (Mer.). 
CaUforhdp, piga yowe. 
Call to prayers, atliinl* 
become CdUous, faganza. 
Calm, tuiiza. 

be very calm, zizima. 
Can (kuweza, to be able), 
Siwezi, I cannot, 
Naweza, I can. 
Canter (of a horse), kweuka kvca 
mgbad ; (of a donkey) kwenda 
kwa thelth. 
Capitulate, selimti, sellim. 
Care (take care), angalia [kil-]wa 
nahathari 
take care of, tnnza. 
consider, waza, tafakarl. 
be careless, [kif]wa mzembe. 
I donH care, haithuiu, mamoja 
pia. 



170 



aWAEILl HANDBOOK. 



Carry, cbukno. 

for, chukuUa. 

en a pole over ihe shoulder^ chii> 
kua mpikouL 

on the head or ehovMere, pagaa. 

o child on (he hack, beba. 
attride on the hip or haek, eleka. 
in front or on the lapy pakata. 

in a hundU or faggot^ titika. 

off a$ ipoU, teka. 

as cargo, pakia. 

on freight, takabathL 
Carve vfood, Ac, kata nakshi 

chora (adorn with caa-ving), 

he oarvedf nakishiwa. 
C<i8t, tupa. 

upon or ai, tupia. 

a glance, tnpa n^thiiL 

one*$ eye$, tupa macho* 

(in a motdd), ita. 

off aU shame, jipujua. 

cast lots, piga or &tnya kura. 
Castrate, hasi. 
Catch, daka, pjaka. 

in a trap, nasa^ tegft, 

fii^ Tna samaki. 

put someUiing to catch rain-water, 
kingamYua. 

(see one who thinks himself unseen), 
fathehi, gnndua. 

he in time to meet with, diriki 
CauUc, kalafatL 
Cave in, pomoka^ 
Cease, koma. 

make to cease, komeshftb 

taXkimg, nyamaza. 

(of pain), nyamaza. 
Cense, fukiza (audi, &0.). 
he Certain about, kinika, tasawarL 
C%an^«,(a<rf.) geusha, geuza, badili, 
badillsh% (jMut:) geuka, badi- 
likat 



50 ehangeaklU, badilibadiU, bao 

change on^s mind ahout, gbairl 
change (a piece of money), Tunja. 
Charge (direct), agiza, sisltiza (M.> 
Cluue, vinda^ winga. 

away, f ukaza. 
Chastise, atblbiL 
Chatter, jpuzsk, 

(oftheteeth),ieiemeki^ 
Cheapen, rakhisigba. 
Cheat, dangauya^ hadaa, gbusubu. 
he cheated, danganyika, badaika. 
Cheer, ondolea, huznni 
Chew, tafuna. 

Chirrup (as to a hird), fion ja. Both 
word and thing are used in 
Zanzibar to express contempt. 
Choke (throyle), kaba, sama. 
choke oneself with drinker spittle, 

palia na mate, &c., &c. 
irritate the throat, kereketa. 
Choose, chagua, teua, khitari, penda, 
ioa (send)* 
as you choose, ikhtiari yako, upe* 
ndavyo. 
Chop, chanja (cut up), chiigpi or 
(M.) tinda (cut), tema (slash), 
ebonga or tonga (cut to a point), 
katakata (chop up smalfy 
Circulate (intdligence), tangaza. 
Circumcise, tabirL 
Claim, dai. 

Clap ihe hands, piga makofi. 
CUisp in the hand, sbikana, kamata. 
in the arms, kumbatia^ kumba* 
tiana. 
Claw, papura. 

Clean, takasa, fanya safl, safisha. 
he clean, takata, safika, takasika* 
clean com hy pounding, twangfk 
clean a second Hme, pwaja. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



171 



[Clean] he ^ite clea/r of hwhs and 
dirty pwayika. 

cotton^ dovesy Ac, chambua. 

oocoa-mtUs from the hushf foa. 

by Beraping^ paa. 

cleanse by ceremonial ablutions^ 
toliara. 

dean out from toithin a eheU^ 
komba. 

dean out a man (get aU his 
money\ komba. 

50 cleaned out (Z>m aU ont^$ 
money\ kombekr- 
Cleanee, See Clean. 
Clear. See Clean. 

the sky is c2ear,uwiDgu umetakata. 

(rnake clear or plain% eleza, yuza, 
fafaniia, fafantilia. 

(pe elear)f elca, fafanuka, fafanu- 
kia. 

ground in a forest, fieka mmtn. 
Cleave, (split), pasua, chenga. 

cleave to, gandama, ambatana. 
Click, alika, (act.) alisha. 
Climb, panda, kwea. 

a tree, paraga. 
Cling, ambata. 

together, gulana, ambatana, fa- 
ngamana, shikamana. 
Clip, kata. 
Close the eyes, Ac, famba. 

(he fist, fumbata. 

a door, shindika. 

a book, funika. 
Clothe, Yika. 
Coagulate, gandamana. 
Coax into, shawishi. 
Code (a gun), panza mtambo. 
Coddle, engaenga. . 
Cohabit with, ingiliza. 
Cold. See Cool. 

be very cold, aiziiua. 



I have a cold in (he head, siwesd 

kamasi* 
CoUect, knsanya, jamaa, (neut.) kih 

fianyika, kutana. 
Comb, ohana, chauia. 
Come, ja, imp. njoo, pi. sjoonL 
by,for,to,&c,}\&. 
to a person on a business, jilia. 
(arrive), fika, wasili. 
out, toka. 
tn, ingia. 

upon (meet with), kiita. 
near, karibu, karibia, jongea, fl« 

kilia. 
Come near I or Come in! KaribI 
Come no further I Koma usi je I 
dose to, wasili, 'wasilia. 
together, > See Assemble, 
to life again, fiifuka^ hui, buika. 
to an end, isha, kpma, tekeza. 
befuUy come (of time), wadia. 
eome to light, fanuka> fumbuka. 
come to nothing (of plants, fruit, 

Ac), fifia, pooza. 
come apart, katika. 
come out in a rath, tutnka, tutu* 

mka, tatnsika. 
Comfort, fariji, tulizia roho (calm 

the soul), ondolea huzuni (take 

away grief). 
Phrases used by way of comfoit" 

ing ;— 

Shukara Muunga, thatik God, 

Hemdi Mumigu, praise God. 

Itoe huzuni, put away sorrow. 

XJsiwe na huzuni, don*t grieve* 
be comforted, farajika, shukura 

Muungu, pendezewa, tawakaii 

(trust in God and taJce courage), 
be Comfortable, tengenea. 

J cannot be comfortable in tk§ 

house, nyumba hainiweki. 



172 



8WAHIL1 SANDBOOS. 



Command^ a*mni, ambia (telQ, 
Commission^ agiza. [amriaha. 

CkmmiL See Adtdtery. 
Compare^ angalia kwamba ni eawa, 
pambanisha (bring together), 
pAmhaaua (distinguith), liDga- 
nisha (rnat^)f fafanisha (make 
like). 
Compel, jubnru, lazimisba. 
Complete, timiza, timiliza, khati- 
miflha, maliza (finish), 
eomplete one^e education, hitimn. 
he complete, timia, timilia, isha 
(end). 
Comprehend. See Understand. 
joa (know). 
kutana (take in), 
he comprehended in, ingia. 
Conceal, setiri, fioha. 

he concealed, Btirika. 
Concern, pasa. 
ConcUiaie, pataniaha. 
Condemn, laani (damn). 
Amefedwa kuuawa, lie was ad- 
judged to he kiUed. 
Imempaaa kuuawa, he ought to he 
hiOed. 
Condescend, nenyekea. 
Condole, hana (join in a formal 

mourning). 
Conduct, peleka, leta, chukua. 
Confess, Mri, ungama, lalaina. 
he Confident, tamainl. 

have confidence, Btaamani. 
Confide in, amini, tumanla. 
(Jonfound, cbanganya (mix), batili 
(anntiS). 
he in Confusion, fathaika (of 
persons), ohafuka (of things). 
Confuse, changanlsha. 
put into confusion, fathehi* 
hecome confused, fathaika. 



Congeal, gandamana. 
Congratulate, faraliiBha, sliangilla. 
Connect, fangamana (tie together), 

ungaDa, ungamana. 
Conquer, shinda. 
Conseorcde, fanya wakf. 
Consent, kubali, rithia, peuda, ra* 

thiana. 
Consider, fikiri, tafakari, waza. 
Console (see Comfort), taliza, tulizia 

roho. 
Conspire, wafikana. 
Construct, jenga, jenzi. 
Consult, taka shauii (ash advice), 

fanya shauri (consult togeOier), 
Consume, la, teketeza (hyfire). 
he consumed^ isha, lika, teketca 

(hyfire). 
Contain, chukua (contain as a hag 

does rice), 
he contained in,mgiA, [ku-]wam<\ 

'mua (it is contained in it). 
Contend with, shiadauanayhusumu. 
Content, rithika. 

he content, [kii-]wa rathi, kinayi 
Continue, dumu, kaa, shiuda (stay^ 

at vaorh, &c,). 
make to continue^ dumiflha. 
Contract, punguza (lessen), fupiza 

(shorten), fanya ndogo (ma7v« 

smaXI), kaza (press together). 
Contract, fanya sharti (make a con' 

tract), fan} a ubazazi (make a 

hargain). 
Contradict, kanya wasa. 
Control, at/iabitisha, zula. 
Converse, zumgumza. 
Convert, geuza, fanya. 
Mwenyiezi Muungu amemwo* 

ngoa, Crod has turned him from 

his evil way. 
to he converted, ongolca. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



173 



Convince, ^Jiubutisha, tumalnislia. 

become convinced, tuixiainL 
Coohf pika, andaa. 

cook vnthfat, kaanga. 

eooJc withautfat, oka. 

oooh muhogo cut into small pieces^ 
pwaza. 

1o become cooked enotigJi, iva. 
Coolf (netff.) poa, poroa, (act.) poza 
(to cool by pouring backward 
and forward), zlmna (cool hot 
water by pouring in cold). 
Copulate, jami, tomba (vulgar). 

for (he first time, barikL 
Copy, nakili, fanya nakL 

copy from, twaa ya. 
Correct, eahihi, sahihisha, radL 
Correspond (write to one another), 

andikiana. 
Corrupt, haribu. 

go bad, oza, haribika. 
Cost, wakifu, simama. 

cost to, wakifia, simamia. 
CougTi, kohoa. 

Count, hesabu, wanga (Mer.), ba- 
- Cover, funika, setiri. [zibu. 

as with a flood, funizik& 

cover, with leaves, put into embers, 
<fec.), Tumbika. 

be covered, stlrika. 
Covet, tamani. 
Crack, tia ufa. 

as tJie earth does in dry weather, 
atuka. 

become cracked, afa. 
Crash, fanya kishindo. 
Crawl, tambaa. 
he Crazy, zalm 
Crease, kuDJia. 

be creased, knnjlka. 
Create, nmba. 

be created, hulukiwa. 



Creep, tambaa. 

Crinkle up, finyana. 

be Crooked, potoka, kombokik 

Cross (lie across), pandano. 

(cross a river), vuka, kweiida 
ng*ambo ya pili. 

(cross a room), kwenda upande 
wapili 

get cross, vuna. 

be cross at having anything to do^ 
kimwa. 
Crow, wika. 

Crucify^ sulibi, sulibisha. 
Cruize, vinjari. 

Crumble, (acL) fikicba, (neut.) fu- 
Crush, seta, ponda. [jika. 

erush and bruise one another, 
pondekana. 

crush up, setaseta. 

crush in, (<iet) honjedm, (neut.) 
bonyeka. 
Cryt lia. 

cry about, lilia. 

cry out at, pigia, iikelele, karipiai 

cry for help, piga yowe, 

cry for mercy, lalama. 
Cultivate, lima. 
Cup, umika. 
Curdle, gandamana. 

curdled milk, maziwa mabivu. 
Cure, ponya, poza, ponyesba. 

make better, fanya ashekalL 

be cured, poa, pona. 

cure fish, &c., ng'onda. 
Curse, laani, tukana. 
Cut, kata. 

cut obliquely, kata banamu. 

cut for, cut out for, katia. 

cut up, cbanja, chenga, 

ciA to shreds, pasukapasnka. 

be cut off from one another, U* 
ndikiana. 



174 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Daby chaohaga. 
Damage, haribn. 
Damn, laani, laanisha. 
Dance, cfacza. 

danee for joy, raiida. 
Dare, thabvLia, weza, josirisha. 
Darken, tia giza. 
Dam, tililia. 
Dcuht ohtipia. 
Daub, paka. 
Daum, 

kuna kwonpe, to he grey dawn. 

pambazaka or pambauka, become 
ligTU. 
Dazzle, choma.. 

the eyes are dazzled,mBcho yam&- 
fanya kiwi. 
Deal in (trade in), fanya biashara 
ya,&o. 

Deal cards, gawa karata. 
Decay, baribika, oza. 
Deceaee, fariM. 
Deceive, danganya, padaa. 

deceive by promises, ongofya. 

be deceived, hadaika. 
Decide, kata maneno. 
Deck out, hamba. 
Declare, thihirisba, ynza. 
Decoy, patia or twalia kwa cbe- 

revu. 
Decrease, pungua, pungaza, pu- 

Dgnka. 
Dedicate, fanya or wekea wakf. 
Defeat, vanja, kimbiza (put to 
flight). 

to be defeated, ynnjika, kimbia. 
Defend, linda. 

guard oneself, kinga. 
Deflower, bikiri, vunja ungoi. 
Defraud, thalimiL 
Deign, kubali, neDyckca. 



Delay, (neut.) kawia, kawa, fawitL 

(aeL) weka, kawisha. 
be Delirious, papaytika. 
DeUver, okoa, vua, toa. 

be delivered, yuka, okokiw 
Demand, taka. 

demand in marriage, posa. 
Demolish, TUDJa, haribiL 
Deny, kana» kanisha. 

deny to a person, nyima, hinL 

(refuse), kataa. 

deny aU credence to, katalia. 
Depart, ondoka, toka, enda zanga, 
zako, &c 

Depart from me! Ondoka mbcle 
yangul 

depart from (be alienated from)^ 
farakana. 
Depend upon, [kii-]wa na. 

Eunaye, depending upon him. 

fangamana na, be connected witJ^. 

fuata, be a dependant 

tuDgikwa, hang from. 
Depose, uzalu, uzolia. 
Depreciate (act.), khasbifd, umbua. 
Deprive of, twalia. 
Deride, obcka, chekea, kufui-Uf 

fanyizia mzaba. 
Descend, sbuka. 

Describe, andika,fafanulia(&^7t^'6n- 
ing), pambanulia (by distiw 
Desert, acha, bujurtL [jguisMng. 
Deserve, atahili. 

deserve well of, fathilL 
Desire, taka, ipa, tamani (long for j^ 

penda (like). 
Desolate, vmija, haribtu 
Despair, kata tamaa. 
Despise, tweza, tbarau (pass, iha« 

raaliwa), hakirisha. 
Destroy, liaribu, Yonja. 

be destroyed, baribika, Tunjika. 



LIST Of VERBS. 



17a 



Jkiaiuy kawisha, ireka. 

Detety kataza, zuia. 

Jkiermine^ yakinia» £zimii, kasa. 

determine a maUer, kata maneuo. 
Devise^ fanya iihauri. 
Die, fa, fakiri, ondoka katika uli- 
mwengc, toweka (A.)> tekeza. 
make to die, fisha. 
lose by death, fiwa na. 
Di'g, chimba. 
dig out or away, ohimbna. 
fakna, cut a small hole fit to 
receive a poet. 
Dignify, tukuza. 
beoome dignified, or he raised to 
dignity t tukuka. 
DUute, tla maji 
Dim, tia giza. 

Diminish, (neut,) pangna, pnngoka, 

tllifika, (act,), pangmsa, tilifi- 

Dip, chovya. [aha. 

dip and leave in, ohoyeka. 
Direct, agiza (commission), ambia 
(tell), amuru (order), fondisba 
(instruel), Yuaha, (put into the 
right way). 
Disagree, gombana, tatana. 
Disappear, toweka. 

(as a soar, &c), fifia. 
Disarrange, chafaa. 
DiscJuirgefrom an obligation, feletu 
Discover, yiunbua. 
Discriminate, pambanaa. 
Disembovoel, tumbua, tumbuza. 
Disgrace, aibisha, hizika. 

be disgraced, zSkiOsSk. 
Disgust, ohakiz& 

be disgusted, ebukiwa. 
Dish up, pakua. 

When you wisha meal lobe served 
you should say, not pakua, but 
|ete cbakola. 



Dislocate, teiika. 
Disquiet, &tbaisba. 

be disquieted, &tbaika. 
Dismus, likiza, ondoa. 
50 dismissed^ tolewa. 
Disobey, 9itL 

Disorder (pvt (kings in disorder)^ 
cbafaa. 
put an army in disorder, fathaislia. 
be in disorder or dishdbUle, cho^ 

fuka. 
be aU in disorder, chafnkachafukak 
Dissipate, tampanyatapanya. 
Distinguish, pambanua. 
Distort, popotoa. 

Distress (put in low spirits), kefya- 
kefya. 
be in distress, ^tM, 
Distribute, gawanya. 
Disturb, 

DorCt disturb yourself I Starebe! 
Disunite, farakisba. 
be disunited, epukana, &rakiana, 
acbana. 
Dive, zama. 
Divide, tenga, gawa, gawanya, kata, 

bnssii. 
Divorce, acba, tokana, tangoa ndoa. 
Do, fanya, tenda. 
I have done nothing, sikufanya < 

ueno. 
He has done nothing at all, baku« 

fanya lo lotc. 
be done or doable, tendeka. 
do (be of use), faa. 

It won't do, baifai. 
do anything slowly and carefully, 

kototeza. 
do wanton violence, Husadu, fanya 

jeturL 
be done (finithed), isba. 
be done (cooked), lyo. 



176 



8WAEIL1 HANDBOOK. 



Vote, piswa. 
DoMcj radufya. 

Doubtf &nya tashwisM, [kii-^wa na 
fihaka. 

There is no doubt, hapana shaka. 
Dote, sinzia. 

wake up suddenly from a dozOf 
zinduka, zindukana. 
JhcLg, kokota, borara (hatd ahng). 

drag out of one* 9 hand, ohopoa, 
kopoKa. 
Drain out, ohunikiza, chnruzika. 
Draw^ vuta. 

Draw water, teka majL 

Draw together, kunyata. 

Draw near, karibu, karibia, kari- 
biana. 

Draw a line^ piga mstari. 

Draw out nails, &o., kongoft. 

Draw breath, tanafusL 

Draw in the breatJi, paaza pmnzL 

Draw up the earth round growing 
erop«, palilia. 

Draw the end of the loin doth 
between the legs and tuck it in^ 
piga uwinda. 
Dread, ogopa, ogopa nmo. 
Dream, ota. 
Dress, vika. 

Dress tn, yaa, jitia. 

Dress up, pamba, jipotoa. 

Dress ship, pamba merikebiL 

Dress vegetables for the marlcet, 
cbambua. 
Drift, ohukuliwa. 

Drink, nwa, or nywa; pcus, nwewa. 
Drip, tona. 
Drive, ongoza (lead, conduct), chu- 

nga (as a shepherd), fuknza 

(drive away), fukuzia (drive away 

from), kimbizia (tndke to run 

away from). 



Drop (down), (neui,) anguka, (act.) 
angusha. 
into, (neut) tambakia, (act,) turn- 

bukiza. 
(}ike leaves in autumn), pnkutika. 
(faU in drops), tona. 
drop from, little by little, dondoka. 
Drown (acL) tosa, (neut.) tota, fa 

maji 
be Drunken, lewa. 

Dry, (neut.) kauka, nyauka, (aeL) 
kaiisba. 
become dry by water leaving it, 

pwa» pwea, pwewa. 
be left high a7^d dry, pweleka. 
put out to dry, anika. 
dry or cure fish, ng'onda. 
Dupe, danganya. 
Dust, fata yumbi 
DweU, kaa» kaa kitako, keti (IVI.). 
Dwindle, "kxaijana, pnnguka, anga- 

mia (go down in the world). 
Dye, tia rangi. 
kutona bina, to lay on henna so 
as to dye the part red. 

E. 

Earn, pata. 

Ease, fariji, sterehisba. 
become easy, farajika. 
Ease oneself, kimya. 
Eat,ld^ 
in, with, for, (fee, lia. 
be eaten or eatable, lika. 
have eaten enough, shiba. 
eat at the expense of each one in 

turn, la kikoa. 
eat where each contribuies some* 
thing to the feast, la kwa kit- 
obanga. 
eat all the food away from oXh^m^ 
ima. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



177 



Ametmma, he Juu eaten it aU up 

before we came, 
overeat oneself, vimbiwa. 
males a person eat too mueh, 

vimbisha. 
eat toiihout hounds, papia. 
eat over vorcLciously, la kwa pupa. 
Ebb, pwa. 
be Eolipsedy patwa. 
Educate, fuiida, fundisba, alimisha, 

adibu, or tia adabu (teach good 

manners), lea (bring up). 
Elongate, ongeza arefiL 
Embalm, tia madawa asioze. 
Embark, panda (go on board), ta- 

hassa (go on board with the 

intention of sailing). 
Embrace, pambaja, kumbatia, kn- 

mbatiana. 
EwkbroU, tiu matata. 
Emerge, zuka. 
Employ, tuma (send about), tumia 

(make use of), tumika (be 

employed). 
Empty out, mwaga, mwaya. 
Endbie, wezesha, jalia. 
Encamp, tua (put down loads). 
Encourage, tia moyo, ^/mbutisha. 
End, (neut,) isha, koma, (act,) mali- 

za, komeslia, kbatimisha. 
Endow with, wekca wakf. 
Endure, ishi (last), vumilia (bear 

with), stahimili. 
Enervate, thoofisha. 
Engage, afikana, twaa, fanya sharti. 
Engender, zaa, vyaa. 
Enjoy, f urahi, ona raha, f orabi wa na. 
Enlarge, ongeza, zidisha. 
Enlist (act.), tia asikari 
he Enough, tosba, toshelea. 
It is enough, bassi. 
have had enough food, Qbiba. 



Enquire, uliza (ask), boji (091711 « 
into), bakiki (maJce sure about)t 
nlizia (enquire on account of^ 

Enrage, ghatbabisba. 
he enraged, gbathabikai 

Enrich, pa utajiri. 

Enslave, tia utmnwant 

Ensnare, tega. 

Entangle, tia matata. 

Enter, ingia. 

Entice, Tuta kwa cberevu, twaa kwa 
wereviu 

Entreat, omba, sibi, nasibi. 

Entrust, wekea amana, amini mtu 
nakittu 
he equal to (an undertaking, &c,\ 



EqudUze, flawanisba, sawazisba, 
fanya sawasawa, lingani^ilia (by 
measurement), 

Ereet, simikisba. 

Err,ls.o8A, kwenda bapa na bapa 
(wander). 

Escape, okoka (be delivered), pona 
(to get well), viika (to get across), 
kimbia (run away), fiatuka (to 
escape as a spring, to get free). 

Establish, tengezeka (?). 

Estimate, kadiri, kisi« 

Evaporate, uwewa. 

Exalt, inua (lift), tiikuza, atbhmsha. 
he exalted (great), tukuka, aQii* 
mika. 

Examine, onja (taste), tafiti, fatiiubif 
sayili (by questions). 

Exceed, pita. 

Excel, pita. 

Except, toa, tosba. 

Exchange, hfidiXL ' 

Excite, taharrakisba, fitini 
he excited, bangaika. 

. Exeuse^ uthmn, samebe (pardpn), 
9 



178 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Exercise^ zoea. 

exereiae aulhorily over, hukniniL 
Exert oneself^ fanya juhudi, jitahidL 
Exltorty onya, cabihislia. 
Exorcise hy music^ (fee, punga. 
JShspand, tainia, kunjua (unfold)^ 

zidi (inereate)^ ftumka or 

kunduka (heeome open). 
Expect, ngoja, ngojea, tumaiiil. 
Expel, toa, f iikuza. 
expd an evil spirit hy mutie, &e., 

punga pcpo. 
Expend upon, be ai (he expense of^ 

gharimia* 
Explain, eleza, pambanua, fasiri, 

tafdiri, fumbulia, pambanulia 

(explain to), tambulMa (make 

to recognise). 
Explode, pasidca (pursf), waka 

(plaze). 
Explore, fatiislii, jasisi, aDgalia. 
Export, toa. 
Express, tbahiri, bainL 

(press out), kamna. 
Extend, (act,) nyosha, (neut,) fika 

(reaeih to), kunjuka, enea (he 

spread over), 
Exterminate,ng*oo, pia yote (root up 

utterly). ' 
Extingui^ zima, zimia. 

to go out, zimika. 
Extort, pokonya. 
Extol, sifu. 
Extricate Jrom, toa na, namua 

(Mer.). 
Exvlt, farahL 

P. 

Fade, fa, kauka, fifia (pine ateay), 
pukutika (wither and drop), 
thoofika (grow weah and thin), 

Fa^pungoka.' 



Faint, zimia roho. 
Fall, anguka. 
fiiU like rain, nya. 

cause rain to fall, nyeslia. 
faU into, tumbukia. 
let/aU into, tuinbuklza. 
faUflat on tke ground, lala iadii 
fall in (cavk in), pomoka. 
faU short, punguka, tindika (A.)b 
faUsicik,VigUA, 
Falter, Bhanghaa, sita. 
Fan, pepea. 
Fancy, kumbuka, fikin. 

fancy oneself, jiona. 
Fast, funga. 
break a fast, or eat after a fast^ 
futurn. 
Fasten, funga. 
Fatten (get fat), nona (of animals), 

nenepa (of men). 
Fatigue, chosha, taabisha. 

be fatigued, ohoka, taabika. 
Favour, pendelea. 
Fear, ogopa, cha (A.), [kil-Jwa na 
khofu. 
be fearless, peketeka. 
Feast, kerimu. 
Feed, lisba. 
cause to be fed, lishisha. 
put morseils into a friend* s mouth, 
raL 
Feel, ona (perceive), papasa (touch). 
Feign, jlfanya. 
FeU, kata. 
Fence, fanya ua. 
Fend off a boat, tanua mashua. 
Ferment, obaoha. 

Ferry over, yusha, vukiska, abirisha. 
Fetch, leta. 
FiglU, pigana. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigaol- 



LIST OF VERBS. 



179 



Ft7?,jaza. 
fiU in [a hole], fiikia. 
heeofM fuUf jaa. TJie pastiw U 

used for being filled mth tome 

extraneoue evbttanee. Mtung^ 

umejaa maji, the jar ie full of 

wUer, huiy maji yamejawa na 

dudu, the water is ftdl of 

ineeeti, 
be half ftiU (by remaining), fihi- 

nda» maji yashinda ya mtangi, 

the Jar is luUffuU of water* 
fill up, jaliza. 
fiU with food, shibigha. 
to be fuU, to have had enough, 

shibfL 
Find, ona, zumbua, ynmbua, pata, 

knta. 
be to be found, zumbukana, paii- 

kana. 
find out in a trick, fathehi, 

guudua. 
be found out, fetheheka. 
flndfauU toiUi, tia hatiyanL 
Finish, (oeL) maliza, (neutJ) isba, 

koma. 
finish off, tengeneza, tengelessa. 
finish a Journey, koma. 
finish a schdar, bltimisha. 
,Fire (set on fire), tia moto, wasba 

moto. 
(apply fire to in any way), oboma. 
a gun, d:e,, piga bnnduki, &c. 
Fish, vna samaki. 

fish a spar, dx., ganga, tia gango. 
Fit, fsA (do weU). 
Ni kiassi changu kama naliki^ 

tiwa mimi, it fits as though it 

had been made for me. 
J\x, kaza. 

fix (he eyes upon, kodolea. 
Flame, wftka» toa ndimi za moto^ 



Flap, plga 

make a sail flap by going too near 
ihe wind, pigiza tanga. 
Flash (lighten), pigsk mneme. 
Flatten, tandaza. 
Flatter, sifu, sifu mno, jipendekeza 

(ingraUaie oneseif with). 
Flavour, to get the right flavour 
Flay, chnna, ttma (M.). [kolea^ 

lose (he shin, cbunika, tnnika (M.). 
Flee, kimbia. 

be Flexible, pindana, [kif-]wa laini. 
Flicker, Binzia. 
Flinch, jikmija, nika. 
Fling, tapa. 
Float, elea, ogolea. 
i^.piga. 

Flood, gbariki8ba,f urika,tawanyika, 
funikiza. 

be flooded, ghariki. 
Flourish, sitawi, fana, fanikiwa. 

make to flourish, sitawisba. 
Flow, pita (Jlow by), toka (flow - 
out), bubujika (to burst and 
bubble out). 
Flower, toa matia. 
Flurry, zulisba. 
Flutter, papatika. 
Fly,xvk9^ 

fly off, puruka. 
Fold, kmija. 

fold together, knnjaua. 

fold in the arms, knmbatia. 
FoUow, fuata, andama (M.)* 

foUow a pattern, oleza. 
become Foolish, pmnbazika. 
Forbid, gombeza, kataza. 
Force (see Compel), tia nguvit, lik 
zimisba. 

So was forced to ao, alikvrenda 
kwa nguvu. 

Force open, pepetna. : ! 

n 2 



180 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



ForeM, agua, labiri, basUiri. 

How has 1hi$ year been predicted 
off Mwaka huu umeagiiH- 
waje? 
Forfeit^ lazimiBbwa. 

be forfeited by, potea. 
Forge tron, dte., fua chuma, &o. 

ijoeid on a new point or edge, tarn- 
bnza. 
Forgely saban. 

he forgotten, sabanliwa. 
Forgive, samehe, achilia, mwafa. 

Forgive me, niwie rathi. 
Foreake, aoba. 

Fwtify, tia boma (jwrf a rampart), 
Foster, lea, lisba. 
Free (from slavery), weka or acba 

- htUTL 

(from prison), acha, fungua. 

he set free (from prison), tokana. 
Freeze, ^nda, gandamana. 
Freight, 

pay freight for, takabathislia. 

carry on freight, takabatliL 
Frighten, ogofya, tia khofu, ogo- 
figba, khofisba, tisba. 

hecome frightened, ingiwa na 
kbofu. 

startle, stnsha, kutosba. 
Front, kabili, lekea. 

put in front of, lekeza. 
Frown, kanja uso, kunja vipaji. 

JJe has a frowning facet uso una- 
kunjamana. 
Frustrate, batili, vunja. 
Fry, kaanga. 
Fuljil, timiza, timiliza. 

fulfU a promise, fikib'za abadL 
Furl sails, kunja matanga. 
Furnish a house, parob^ ny mnba. 



Gain, pata, pata faylda, 
CMlop, piga mbio. 
Crape, piga nyayo, funua kinwa. 
Garble copal^ <fetf., obagua sand*- 

ruBi, &0, 
(father (fruit), cbuma 
into a heap, zoa. 
together (act.), knsanya, kutanl- 

sba, jamaa, jamiisba. 
together (neui.), kusanyika, kuta- 

nika. 
up into a smaU space, fioyana. 
oneself up for an effort,iiiuinmua. 
little by little, luxnbika. 
up one*s courage, piga moyo 
koDde. 
Geld, hasi 
he Genial (good-humoured and 

merry), cbanga'raka. 
Get, pata. 
get better, pona. 
get a little better, [ktf->a asbc 

kali. 
get drunk, lewa, jilevya. 
get dry, kauka. 
get fire by working one stick 

against another, pekecba 
gel for, patia. 

get fotd of one another, pambana. 
get goods on credit in order ic 

trade with them, kopa. 
get into, ingia. 
get into a well, a scrape, Ac, (act) 

tumbukiza, (neut.) iumbukia. 
get into a passion (neut.), ingiwa 

na gbatbabu or liasira. 
get into a quarrel (act), vumbllia 

vita. 
get [seeds'] into the ground, vu^ 

mbikia. 
1^ motUdy, fl^nya nl^unga. 



LIST OF VEtiBB. 



181 



pel oii<, toka. 

ffetoutofUie way, jltenga. 
Out of the way! Simillat 
get out of ont^$ sights tokomea. 
get palm wine, gema. 
get ripe, iva. 

ffet thin and ufotery, poroa. 
get through, (neut.) pouyo, (aet.) 

penyeBha. 
get up, ondoka. 

rise to (a person), ondokca. 
get up or upon, panda. 
get weU, pona, poa. 
he Giddy, levyalevya. 
GM, chovya. 
Give (a thing), toa. 
(to a perton), pa, pass, pewa, to 

receive, 
give a complaint to, ambukiza. 
give a taste^ an inkling, or a little 

specimen, dokeza. 
^1176 bach, rudisha. 
give into (he hand, kabithi 
give leave to, pa rnksa or rahusa, 

rukhusu. 
give light to, tia mwangaza. 
give mutual gifts, pana. 
give presents to, tunza, tunukia. 
! give rations to, posba. 
give room or space, nafisisba. 
give to drink to, nywesba. 
give to eat to, lisba. 
give trouble, taabisba, fanya Inda, 

snmbua. 
give way under one, bonyeo. 
Give way (row) I Vuta ! 
Glance, natbiii, tupa macbo or na- 
thari (cast the eyes or a glance). 
Glare at, ng'ariza. 
Gleam, mulika, Dg'ara. 
Glide, tiririka, teleza. 
Glisten^ zagoa. 



Glitter, meiameta, mekameka, me* 

rimeta, mulika. 
Glorify, tukuza, sifo. 
Glow, ng'ara. 
Gnaw, guguna. 
Go, enda, enenda. 
you can go, ruksa. 
go after or for, endca. 

(foUow), fuata. 
go alojigside, pambana. 
go ashore (of a ship), panda. 
he left high and dry, pwoleka, 
pwewa na maji. 
go ashore (of a person), sbuka. ' 
go away, enda zangu, zako, zake, 
zetu, zenn, zao, according to 
the person, 
toka ondoka. 
go away from, acba, toka. ; 

go hack, rudi, regeo. 
go backward, endelea nynma. 
go had, oza. 
go before, tangulia. 
go before a judge, entla kwa 

katbL 
go behind, fuata. 
go by, pita. 

go crooked, patoa, potoka. 
go forward, endelea mbele. 
go free, toka. 
go into, ingia. 
go marketing, enda sokoni 
go off (like a spring), fiatnka. 
go on (not to stop), fuliza, fuza, 

folnliza. 
go on (with a work), sbinda. 
go on board, panda. 
go on board in order to sail, te- 



go on loiih by turns, pokezana. 
goout,idk&, 
(like a candUi)^ zimika» 



182 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



He has gone out for the day, 
amekwenda eliinda. 
go over, vuka. 
go pastj pita. 
go guicldy down a steep jpZoee, 

tele'mka. 
go running^ enda mbio. 
go io expense about or upon, gha- 

rimia. 
go to meety laki. 
go to meet with shouting and joy, 

shangilia. 
go to law with, teta. 
go up (neuU)t P&a. 
(act.) kwea, panda. 
he Good of its hind, fana. 
Gore, piga pembe. 
Govern, tawala, miliki. 
Grant to, pa, jalia, ruzuku. 
Grapple, kamatana, sbikana. 
Grasp, shika, fumbata. 
Grate, paruga, paniza. 
Graze, paruga, kwaniza. 

graze one another, panizana. 

become Great (of a person), tnknka. 

become great to or hard for, kulia. 

be Chreedy, [kii-]wa na robo or 

choyo, fanya tamaa (be greedy 

for)' 
Cheet, salimu, Balimia, amkua, ba- 

rikia. 
Grieve, (act.) siMtisba, iia huznni. 
(neuL) sikitika, ingiwa na buzimi. 
Chin, toa meno. 
Grind, saga. 

grind coarsely, paaza. 
Groan, ugua. 

groan at, zomea. 
Grope, papasa. 

Chow, ota (of plants), kua (to become 
large), mea (of plants, to grow 
mr he grotoahle). 



Whaiistobe grown here f KUl 
mo oha nini ? 

grow to its fuU size, pea. 

beeomefuU-ghwn, pevnka, komaa. 

grow up quicldy, vnvumka. 

not to grow (of seeds), fifia. 

grow large enough to bear fruity 
auka.', 
. grow fat, nenepa (of persons)^ 
nona (of animals). 

grow thin and lean, knnda. 

grow larger, kua, kithiii. 

grow less, pungua, tilifika. 

make to grow large, kuza. 
Growl, nguruma. 
Grudge, bini. 

grudge at, husudn. 
GruiMe, nung'unika. 
Grunt, guna. 
Guarantee payment of a dM, ba- 

o resuU, tadarikL [wilL 

Guard, linda, tunza, baml, ngojea. 

guard oneself against a Uow^ 
kinga. 
Guess, babatisba, kisi, tbanL 
(hiide, onyesba njia (show Uic way), 

peleka (talce). 
Gulp, gugumiza. 

gulp down, ok'ia. 

H. 

Halt, tua (put down burdens), ei- 
mama (stand), sita (go lame, or 
to stop), obecbemea {to put one 
foot only flat on the ground). 

Hammer, gongomea {hammer in\ 
fua pass^ fuawa (beat as with a 
sledge-hammer). 

Hang, angika (as against a wall)f 
tungika (be suspended), tu*. 
ndika, aliM. 
(strangle), nyonga, songa. 



LIST 0^ VBttBa. 



183 



Happen, takia. 

Which happened to himy kilicho- 
mpata. 
ffaraesj snmbna, nthi, nihia, cho- 
koza, snmbusha. 
he harassed, sumbuka, uthika. 
Harm, thuru, hosara. 
• No harm ! Haithuru I 
Harpoon^ paga. 

Ilasteny (jaet.) harakisha, himiza. 
I (neuL) fimya hima, hiuuka. 
Hatch, ongoa, zaliwa, ongaliwa (be 
hatched), <|iiguA (break the 
sheU). 
EatCj olmkia, buothu, zira (M.)* 
Have, [kif-]wa na (see p. 15:1). 
(possess), miliku 
on board, pfikia, 
power over, weza. 
in one^s debt, wia. 
To have things done for one, is 
expressed by the passive of the 
applied form (see p. 161). 
Hawh about, tembeza. 
Heal, poza. 

be healed, poa, pona, ongoka. 
H^p up, kusanya, fanya fungiL 
Hear, sikia, pulika (A.). 
hear one another, sikilizaiia, pu- 

likana. 
be to be heard, sikilikana. 
Hearken, sikiliza, pulika. 
Heat (get hot)p pata moto. See 

TTomi. 
Heave the log, tia batlL 
he Heavy. See Weigh down. 
Help, sayidia, aunL 
Hem, kunga. 

Hesitate, shangaa, sita, inglwa na 
shaka (get into doubt), 
in speaJcing, babalka. 
Eide^ ficha, seUiri, dta (A.). 



You have hid the eap from me, 

umenificha kofia. 
Tou have hid my cap, muenifi- 
chia kofia. 
Hinder, zuia, pinga, fawilL 
Hint, dokeza. 

Hire, ajiri, panga (to rent). 
Hit, piga, pata. 

foith a spear or arrow, fuma. 
Hoard, weka, weka akiba. 
be Hoarse, pwelewa sautL 

lam lioarse, sauti imenipwea. 
Hoe, lima. 
hoe upt palia. 

cause to be hoed, palililiza. 
Hoist, tweka. 

Hold, sbika, kamata, fumbaia 
(grasp), zuia (hold in), zuilta 
(hM off from), 
hold in Gie mouth, yuata. 
hold one^s dofhes or hands he* 

tween oni^s knees, fiata. 
hold a public audience^ or council, 

barizi. 
hold up (not to ratn),.anuka. 
hold in contempt See Scorn, 
HdUow out, fukua. 
Honour, hesbimu, pa hesbiiua, 

jalL 
Hop, rukaruka. 

Hope, taraja, tumaioi (feel eon- 
fident). 
I hope, roho yatumaL 
HunMe, tbili, bakiil 

be huwJble, nenyekca. 
Hunger, [kii-jwa na i\jaa. 
he ravenously hungry, rapa, lapa. 
I am very hungry, njaa inauiu* 
ma. 
Hunt, winda, winga, gaka. 
Hurry, haraka, himiza. 
Hurt, uma, umia, umiza. 



184 



BVtAAtLl EANl)MOS. 



Stuk (IndUn *4ro), menya, ambna 
(M.). 
(eoeoa-nuU), fua. 
(flr theU), papatua. 



he Ttl or unwell, lUness U expressed 
by the use of the negative present 
of the verb kuweza, to he ahle, 
Siwezi, I am ilL Hawezi, he is 
iUy Ae. Nalikuwa siwezi, I 
was ill, Alikuwa hawezi, he 
was ill, Ae, 
I have been iU for two months* 
siwezi yapata miezi miwili 

Imitate, oleza, iga, fuata.. 

Immerse, zamisha, chofya. 
Implore, pembeleza. 

le Impossible, toa kufanyika. 
It is impossible, haiyamkini. 

Imprecate against, apiza. 

Imprison, tia gerezani, funga. 

Improve, tcngelcza, silihi, sitawisba. 

iTuiLine, (iieuL) inama, (act) ina- 
midlia. 
incline to Qihe), penda. 

Increase, (act.) ongeza, zidisba. 
(neut.) ongezeka, zidi, kitbiri. 

he Indebted to, wiwa na. 

Indulge in, zoeza, jizoeza. 

Infect, ambukiza. 

Inform, arifu, bubiri, pa babarL 
In Utter-writivg arifu is always 
employed, on other occasions 
kupaia or kuwa na habari is 
generally used for to he in^ 
fwxMd^ and ambia (^0 for to 
inform. 

Ingratiate oneself j jipendekeza. 

Miabit, kaa, ketL 

Inh&rit, rm. 



Injure, hasira, basiri, hasirbbi 
he injured, basirika. 

Innovate, zua. 

he InguisiHve, tafitL 

Inspect, kagua. 

Instruct, fundisba, funza, elexnlsba. 

InsuU, sbituma, tukana, obokoza. 

Intend, kusudia (purpose), azimu or 
azimia, or yakinia (resolve), 
nia, or ania, or nuia (have in 
one's mind). 

Inter, zika. 

Intercede for, ombea. 

Interpret, fasiri, tafsirL 

Interrupt, znia, katiza, bamkiza, 
nthia (bother). 

Intoxicate, levytL 
become intoxicated, lewa. 

Intrude, fumania. 

Going into another person's house 
for an unlawful purpose (ku- 
fisidi), or without lawful pur^ 
pose (ku-fumaniana), bars by 
the law of Zanzibar any daiin 
on the part of Ihe intruder in 
respect of any assault or injury 
while titers. 

Inundate, gbarikisba, furika (swell), 
tawanyika (spread). 

Invade, sbambulia. 

Invent, buni, zumbua. 

Invite, iia, alika. 
invite to come in, knribisba. 

Irrigate, tia maji, nywosba. 

Irritate, tia basira, gbatbabi&ba, 
kasiiiaba, cbokoza. 

^ch,--cause to itch, nyea. 
I itch, imeninyca. 



Jam, kwamisba. 
become Jammed, kwama, sakama. 



iiSf OP rMsM 



185 



Jar Ae tee(h, Itke grit in food^ 

kwaza meno. 
Jerky katua. 
Jeat, fanya nbishi or mzaha, thi- 

haki. 
Joiriy (act) unga, (fieu^)anganana. 
Judge, hukamn, hukumia, amna. 

The original meaning of amua 

is to teparate, and it is tued of 

separating two persona who have 

been lighting. 
Jumble together different languages 

or dialects, goteza. 
Jumpf ruka. 

E. 

Keepy weka or cheleza (put away\ 
tunza Qalie oare of), linda 
(guard), hifatbi (preserve), shi- 
ka (hold), fuga (Jceep animals), 
>veka or kawisha (delay), 

he Icept gossiping, puzika. 

he kept tame or in a cage, fugika. 

It cannot he kept, i.e., it wHl 
either run away or die, hafu- 
giki. 

keep awake, (neut.) kesha, (aot.) 
kesheza. 

keep from, epusha, zuilia. 

keep in order (a person), rudi 

he kept, or capable of heing kept, 
in order, rudika. 

keep on at, shinda. 

Keep your distance I Eomausije! 
Kick, piga teke. 

Kill, ua, pass, uawa, waga (Mer.), 
fisha (to eaiMe to die). 

kill with, Ac, nlia. 

kill for food, chinja, tinda (M.). 
he Kind, tenda mema. 

do a kindness to, fathili. 
KitidU, washa, tia moto. 



Kiss, bustL 

Uft to the tips and kisi, sogeza. 
Knead, kanda. 
Kneel, piga magote. 
Knit the brows, kunja vipajl 
Knock, gonga, gota, piga. 
at a door, or to cry Hodi! if ihe 
door he open, bisha. 
Know, jua. Enjiia is often used in 
the sense of to know of, about, 
how, &e. 
I know where he is, namjua aliko 

(I know of him, where he is). 
I know how to speaJc the language 
of Zanzibar, najua knsoma kiu* 
nguja. 
lean dc blacksmith* s work, najua 

kufua chnma. 
(to recognize), tambua. 
be knowdbU, julikana. 
make to know, julisha, juvlslia. 
become Icnoum, tangaa. 
know what to do, tanabaliL 



Lace in the rope or matting across a 
native bedstead, tanda, wamba. 
Lacerate, papura. 

5e 2acerato({, papurika. , 
he Lame, tegea, ohechemea, tetea, 
kwenda chopi, tagaa (walk with 
the legs far apart). 
Land, (neut.) ehuka, (act.) shusLa. 
Last, ishi. 
Laugh^ cheka. 

laugh at, chekelea. 
Launch, &hua, pass, shuliwa 
Lay, tia, weka. 

lay a wager, pinga, shindania. 

lay by, weka akiba. 

lay down^ laza* 



18(3 



BWASILl BANDBOOK. 



ln^f €ggif fttamia, or zaa, or nya 
mayayi 

lay Md of, aLika. 

lay open, fimua, weka ^azi. 

lay out, andika, taudika, toa. 

lay 0ui money, gharimu, gharimia. 

lay ike heame of a roof, ikiza. 

lay the table, andika meza. 

lay upon the tdble, weka mczani 

lay to anyoM^s charge, tuhuma. 

lay upon some one dee, kumbisha. 
he Lazy, [kil-]wa mriyiL 

to he cross at having anything to 
do, kimwa. 
Lead, ongoa, ongoza, pcleka, 6kisha 
(make to arrive), 

lead astray, "koBeahsL 

lead devotions, somesha. 
LeaJc, viija, fu'mka (to open at the 

seams). 
Lean upon, tegemea, egemea. 

lean upon a staff, jigongojea. 

hecome lean, kouda. .• %\* 

malce lean or thin, kondeslia. 
Leap, ruka. 
Learn, jifunza, pata kujua. 

learn manners, taadabiil 
Leave, acba, ata (M.), toka. 

leave by death, fia. 

leave to (Jbequeaih), acbia. 

leave go of, acba. 

Leave off I Wacbal. .Basal 
Somal 

leave off fasting, fungua. 

leave tiUfit or ready, limbika. 

leave (cause to remain), saza. 
he left (remain), saa, salia, baki. 

isk leave, taka, ruksa. 

give leave, rnhusn, pa rakaai. 

give leave about, amria. .» . 

take leave of, aga. . \ 

take leave of one another, agana. 



1(600011, ehaoha. 
Lead, azima, kiritbi 
Lengthen, ongeza ureftu 

make long, ftmya mrefiL 
Lessen, (aeL) pungoza, (neuL) pa« 

ngaka. 
Let (permit), acha, ptk nkm, kabali, 
kubaliaba. 
let alone, acba. 

let a house, pangiaha nyomba. 
let down, abusba, fna. 
let down a bucket, puliza ndoo. 
let free a spring, fiatna, fiatnaba. 
let go an anchor, puliza. 
let loose, fuDgua. 
let on hire, ajiridba. 
let watoTf ynja. 
Level, fieuiya aavasawa, tandaza, 
tengenoza. 
he level with, lingana na. 
make level with, linga, linga- 
niaba. 
hvel a gun ai, lekeza bnndoki 
he Liberal to^ keiinm. 
Liberate, fdngua, pass, ftmguliwa. 

from slavery, woka, or acba buru. 
Idck, ramba. 

Lie (teU lies), aema nwongo 
(to be), kaa, [ki(-}wakob 
Ue across, kingama. 
a tree lies across the road, mti 
nmekiDgaiDa njianl. 
lie across one another, pandana. 
lie dawn, jinjoaha, jllaza* lala, 

tandawaa. 
lie heavy on, lemea. 
lie on the face, wama, fuama (M.), 
lie on the side, junika. 
lie on iheibousk, lala kwa taiiL 
lie in wait for, otea. 
Lift, iwm, Iweka. 
I lift up the voice, paliza aantl. 



LIST OF VESBSL 



187 



Ifighty wasba^ tia moto. 

he lights angaza. 

show a lights mulil^a. 
Lighten (Jtighten%ng\ piga timeme. ^ 
Like^ penda. 

h€ an object of liking^ tamanika. 
Likeuy fafanisha. 
JdmiL 

reach its Ztmtt, pea. 
Linger, ka\7ia, kawilia. 
Lisp, [kii-]wa na kitembe^ 
Listen^ dMliza, pulikiza. 

listen secreUffy dukiza^ 
Live, kaa (stay or he), iahi (continue), 

* [kt[-]wa hayi (be aUve), [kil-] 

^vako ulimwenguni (pe in Hits 

Load, ohukuza. ftrorZd). 

aj}6r«>ii, twika., 

a slnp, paMa. 

a gun, sumiri, shindilia. 

he laden ujith, pakia (of a ship), 
chukua (carry)^ 
Loch, fanga. 

with a native lock^ gomea. 
Loiter, kawilia. 
Loll, tandawaa. 
Long for, tamanL 
Look, tazama. 

look out, or look carefully, angalla. 

Look out I Angalia I Jiponye I 

look out for, tazamia. 

look for, tafuta. 

look after, tunza. 

look over a property, ana. 

hok up to see what is going on, 
tahumaka. 
Loose, fuDgna. 

he loose, regea. 
Loosen, regeza. 
Lose (money), pata hasara. 

potea (to he lost to). [nipotea. 

I have lost my knife, kisu kime 



lose by kavinfi ttihen from ene^ 
twaliwa. 

hse by death, fiwa na. 

lose on^s senses, rukva na akilL 
Love, penda, ashiUd. 

50 loved by, kora. 
Lower, shnsha, tua. 
LuO, pembeza, tombuiza. 
Lurk for, otea. 
Lfut after, tamani 

M. 

Magnify, knza, tuknza. 

magnify oneself, jitapa. 
Make, faoya, fanyiza. 
make to do or he. Seep. 1G2. 
make a floor or roof, sakifu. 
make a pen, chonga kalamu. 
make a eign to, ashiria. 
make a wiU, wasia. 
make another love one, pendeleza. 
make briUiant, ng'aza. 
make cheap, rakliisisba. 
make clear, thihirisba, eleza, weka 

vazi 
make confident and hopeful, tu- 

mainuho. 
make crazy, znlisha. 
make dear, ghalisha. 
make deliriousy papayuza. 
make equal, like, &c,, sawanisha, 

Bawazisha. 
make for, fanyia. 
make [doOi^s^for, katia [ngno]. 
make game of^ thihaki, fanyizia 

mzaha. 
make haste^ ianya liuua» euda 

hima. 
make iU, gonjweza. 
make into a ring, peta. 
make lawful, halilisha. 



188 



BWAMtLl SANDBOOK. 



wake light of a maUety jipnra- 

kusha. 
make like, oleza. 
make metal things, faa» f alia. 
make over talkative, payoza. 
make pattry, andaa, andalia. 
mdlce peace between, suluhifiha. 
make plain, thahiri, deza, thihi- 

risha^ weka wazi. 
make pottery, finyanga. 
make raw, ohubua. 
make room for, nafisisha. 
make sorry, sikitisha. 
make sure, YiakikL 
make to agree, pataniBha. 
make to he at peace^ suluhislia. 
make to enler, ingiza. 
make to go up, pandisha, kweza. 
make to grow lean, kondcsha. 
mdke to hear or understand, sikiza. 
make to weep, liza, lizana. 
make unlatoful, Larimii, hara- 

miflha. 
make up afire, chochea moto. 
make up one's mind, tanababi 
make verses, ttmga masbaui. 
mxLke vtater, kojoa. 
make weak, tboofisba. 
make weU, ponya, ponyesba. 
Don't make a noise I Tulia 1 
Manage, amili, fanya. 
Mark, tia alama. 
Marry, oa (of tlie husband), olewa 

(of the wife), oana (of the 

eoupU), oza (of the parents). 
^ ask in marriage, posa. 
Master, ghelibu, sbinda. 

he master of, weza, tamdlakL 
Match, lingana 
mdke to match, linga, lingaiiisba. 
50 a match for, weza. 
Mean, taka, nia, kusudia. 



Measure, pima, twaa cbda 

measure together, enenza. 
Mediate between, selebisba. 
Meditate, tafieikari, waza. 
Meet, onana, kutana, kutanika, ka« 
aanyika. 

meet with, kuta. 

go to meet, laki. 
Melt, (neut.) yeyuka, ayika, (act.) 

yeyuflba. 
Mend, fanya, fanyiza. 

(sew up), sbonca. 

(dam), tililia. 

(Jbind up), ganga. 
Menstruate, [ktfiwa na heth. 
Mention, nena, taja. 
Mess. 

be aU in a mess,, cbafukacbafuka. 

make a mess of one*s work, buro- 
ngaboronga. 
Mercy (have or show), rebcmu. 
Mildew, fanya kawa. 
MiUc, kama. 

Mind, tunza (take care of), angalia 
(take care), kumbuka (hear in 
mind). 

Never mind, haitburu, tusitie 
sbugulL 

Idon*t mind, mamoja pia. 
Mingle, changanya. 

he mingled, cbanganyika. 
Miscarry, baribu mimba. 
Miss, kosa. 

(to go near to vnthout touching), 
ambaa. 

(not to go direct to), epea. 

to be missed (not found), kosekaniw 
Mislead, poteza, koBesba. 
ilfwtafte, koBa. 
Mix, obanganya. 

mix up by knocking and beating^ 
baraga, f unda. 



LIST OF VEBB8. 



im 



Moeky iga, thihaki, komaza, kofuru. 
he Moderate, [ku-]wa kadiri. 
Molest, sumbua, chokoza, haslrifrha. 
Mould (cast in a mould), ita, fanya 
kwa kalibu. 
grow mouldy, fanya ukangu. 
Moulder, fnjika, furijika, haribika. 
igo into lumps like spoilt flour)y 
fanya madonge. 
Movnt, panda, kwea. 
Mourn (in a formal manner), koa 
matanga. 
Join in a formal mourning, 
hana. 
Move, (neut) jongea, (aet.) jongQZ&, 
Move into ihe shade, jongea 

rnvnlinL 
(as a carpet does wlien a mouse is 

under it), funiknta. 
(shaJce), tukasa, tiki&a, sukasuka. 
(change place of dwelling), hama, 

tama (M.), gura (A.). 
cause to remove, hamisha, iamiaka, 
gurisha. 
Multiply, (ad,) zldiBha, ongeza, 

(neuf .) zidi, ongezeka. 
Murder, na, pass. nawa. 
Murmur, nung'unika. 
Must, lazimn, sharti, bana bnfldi 

8eep,lb6. 
Mutilate, kata. 

N. 
Kame, taja, nena, ita, pa jiua (give 

a name to). 
Need, taka, ihtaji, ibtajia. 
Neglect, ghafilika (not to attend to), 

acbilia (leave undone). 
Nihhle, tafuna. 
Nod, sinzia (doxe),SiBhin& kwa twaka 

(as a signal). 
Notice, ona, angajia, natbin. 



notice a defect, toa kombo. 

take no notice, taghafali. 
Nourish, lisha. 
Nurse (a child), lea, lisba. 

(a sioh person), uguza. 

O. 

Obey, tii, faata, fidkia, tumikia. 
Object to, kindana, shindana, rudi- 

ana. 
Oblige (compeil), laziinisha, juburu, 
jozia. 
he obligatory upon, lazimn. 
hold under an obligation to do, 

&o., juza. 
(by hindness\ftkiMli, tcndca zena. 
Observe, angalia. 
Obstruct, kataza, pinga. 
Obtain, pata. 

Occupy (keep enjaged), fawiti. 
Offend, chnkiza, tia gbairi, tia 
basira. 
he easily offended, [kii-]na na 

chuki. 
not to be offended, ku-wa ratbi. 
don*t be offended with me, niwie 

ratki, kunratbi. 
I am not (U aU offended, ratbi 
Sana. 
Offer to, tolca, jongeleza (bring neat 
to), 
offer for sale by auction, tembeza 
make a first bid, l-issimu. 
Omit, acha. 
Ooze, tiririka. 

ooze out, Yujia, tokesa, tokea. 
Open (act) funua (uncover), fungaa 
(unfasten), panna (make wide), 
fumbua (unclose the eyes, Ac), 
sindua (set open a door), pcpe^ 
tua (force open), 
(f^eut.) p£ii-]wa w(wa (to lie cUaT% 



190 



8WAHILI BANDBOOK. 



foniika or kunduka (to open 
like a floioer), panuka (become 
tnde\ fdnguka (to get un- 
fattened). 
Oppose^ gomba» khalifo^kataza, teta, 
shindania, ingia katL 
he opposite, lekea, kabili, elekea, 

clckeana, kabilia. 
put opposite, lekeza, kabilishai 
elekeza. 
Oppress, onea, lemea, fhelimtu 
Order, emixra^ amrisha, ambia, 
agiza (eomwisswn), 
arrange in order, panga^ tonga. 
p^ into good order, fiuiyiza, 
tengezieza, ganga. 
Ought See p. 155. 

iht^jia, taka, pasa. 
Overbear, by loud talking, ^, pa- 

mbanya, pambaayiza. 
Overburden, lemea. 
be Overcast, tanda [wingn]. 
Overeat oneself, vimbika, vimbiwa. 
Overfeed, vimbisha. 
Overflow, miminika» tawanyika, 

gbaiiki, f arika. 
Overtetf, rimamia, aDgalia. • 
Overturn, pindua. 
• be overturned, pmdnka. 
Overtake, pe,\A, 
Overwhelm, gharikisba. 
Otoe, wiwa. 
J owe him, aniwia. 
to have in on^s dM, wia. 
Own, miliki (possess), kiri (confess), 
ungama (aeknowledge'). 



Taek up, ftmga. 

Paddle, vuta kwa kafl or kapi. 

PaliH umay umia* 



Faint, tia rang! 

Fant, tweta. ^ 

Faralyse, poozesha. 

be paralysed or paralytie, pootx ^ 
Pare, ambua. 

Fardon, samchc, afn, gbofira, gho« 
firia. 
Forgive me^ nipe bisa yanga. 
Ash mutual pardon and so take a 
last farewell, takana burlani 
Parry, bekna. 
Fart out, gawa, gawanya. 
Pass, pita, pisba. 
make to pass, pitisba. 
pass going in opposite directions^ 

piBhana. 
pass through, penya. 
pass over (a river), vuka. 

(afault),tichili9k. 
pass close to without touching, 

ambaa, 
be passable, endeka. 
Pasture, cbunga, lisba. 
Patch (thatch, Ac), cboraelea* 
be PaticTU, vnmiUft, subiri. 
Pate [the ground], parapara. 
Pay, lipa. 
pay^ to, lipia. 
cause to be paid, lipiza. 
pay freight for, takabatbisbSi 
Peck, dona, dondoa. 
Peel, ambaa, puna. 
Peep, cbungulia, tungulia (M ). 
Pelt, tupia. 
Penetrate, penya. 
Perceive, ona, sikia, fahamtL 
Perfect, kamilisba. 
be perfect, kamilika. See Comt 
plete. 
Perforate, zna, zoa tundn. 
Perform a promise, fikiliza abadL 
ablutions^ tobaia. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



191 



devoiiotit, sali. . 

a vow, ondca nathiri. 
Ferishy fa, potca, potelca, baribika. 
Perjure onetelf, apa uwongo^ shu- 

budia 2nli or aztir. 
rermit, rubnsu, pa ruksa, acba. 
PerpetuctUy dumiBha. 
PerplesDf tia matata, cbangaDyisha. 
become perplexed, ingia matata, 
tanganyika. 
Per$ecuie, fukuza, tbnlamtL 
Persevere, dumu, dumia, dawamii. 
Perapirej taka ban. 
Persuade, sbawishi, kinaisba, pa 

Bhaaii 
Pieli {as tcith a knife pointX 
cbokora. 
(gather), cbumo. 
etalJcs, d:o., from doves, Ac., cbo- 

mbua. 
pick out (sdeoi), ohagua, tena. 
pick up, okota. 
pick up hit hy hit, dondoa, lum- 

bika. 
pick holes in one another s cha- 
racter, papuriana. 
Pickle, fanya acbari. 
Pierce, zua, penyesba, penya. 
Pile up [plates, 4rc.], andikanya. 
Pinch, finya. 

be pinched up, fiayana. 
Pine away, fifio. 

Pity, burumia, sikitikia, rebomu. 
Place, weka. 
an arrow on the siring, a knife in 

the belt, d'c, paobika. 
TJtere is no plaoe f^r me in the 
house, nyumba baiaiwokL 
Plait, tmkck, sokota. 
Plane, piga randa. 
Plant, panda. 
Plaster^ kandika. 



prepare a KoUfor the white plaster 
by smooOUng it and tapping in 
email stones, tomea. 

put on a pldder, bandika. 
Play, cbeza, laabu. 

play the fool, peketeka. 

play upon an instrument, piga 
zomari, &o. 
PZease, pendeza, foiabisba. 

(like), penda. 
as you ple€L8e, upendavyo. 

Please! Tafatbalil 

he pleased, pendezewa. 

make pleasing, pendekcza. 
Pledge, weka i-abani 
Pluck, obuma (gather), nyakua 
(snatch), nyonyoa (pick off 
feathers). 

pluck up a courage, piga moyo 
Plug up, ziba. [konde. 

Plunder, teka, twaa nyara. 
Po/7i(, cbonga; fanya 'ncba. 

point out, onyeslu^ ainisba. 
Poison, pa fiumu. 
Poke, cboma. 
Polish, katna. 

Ponder, fikiri, waza, tarakari. 
Possess, miliki, [fai-]wa na. 

(of an evil spirit), pagaa. 

he possessed hy an evil spirit, 
pagawa na pepo. 
he Possible, [kii-]wa yamkiui, weze- 

kana, fanyiko, tendeka. 
Postpone, akiiisba. 
make Pottery, finyanga 
Pound, ponda, funda. 

clean com by pounding, twanga. 
Pour, mimina. 

pour away, mwaga, mwaya. 
have Power over, weza. 
Practise, jizoeza, taala. 

practise witohcraft, fanya uobawi 



192 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Praise, sifti, hemidL 

praue oneself, jisifa, jigamba. 
Prate, puza. 

Pray, omba, sail (perform (he fixed 
devotions)^ abadn (worship). 

pray for, taka (ask for), ombea 
(i«<ercedfl/or). 
Prea/^, khntuba, ayiUii 
Precede, tangulia. 
be Preeipitous, chongoka. 
Predict, agua, bashiri, tabirL 
Prefer, penda, khitari, stahiba. 
he Pregnant^ chukna inimba,hamili 
Prepare, weka tayart 

food, andaa, andalia. 
Present to, tunikia, pa. 

maJce presents to, pukusa, pa 
bashishi, tunza. 
Preserve, hifathi, afu. 

he preserved, hifathika, 
Press, kaza, sbindilia, sinikiza. 

press out, kamna. 

press upon, kandamiza. 

press heavily upon, lemea. 

press with the teeth, vuata. 

make an impression (as with (he 
fingers), bonyesha. 

press and crush food for invalids 
or children, vinyavinya. 

press against one another, like 
sheep in a fiook, songanaso- 
ngana. 
Pretend to he, jiPanya, 
Prevent, zuia, kataza. 
Prick, ohoma. 
Pride oneself, jisifu. 
Print, piga chapa. 
Prize up, tekua. 
Proceed, enenda, fuliza. 
Proclaim, tangaza, hubiri, nadi. 
Procure for, patia. [^^eza. 

bp procy^rahle, paUkan«. 



Profess, UDgama. 

Profit, pata fayida, fayidi, oliumi^ 

tnma (M.). 
Prognosticate, bashirL 

hy the stars, piga falakL 
Prohibit, kataza, gombeza. 
Project, tokeza, tukiza. 
Prolong, ODgeza urefu, tuiliza, en* 

deleza. 
Promise, ahidi, toa aliadi. 

give a promise to, pa ahadu 
Pronounce, ta'mka. 
Prop up, tegemeza, ^hikiza. 
he propped, tegemea. 
prop up a vessel to prevent its 
falling over when left hy the 
<u2e,gada. 
Propose, nena, toa fihauri. 
Prosecute, shtakL 
Prosper, fanikiwa, Bitawi, kibali, 

jaliwa. 
Prostrate oneself, sujuda. 
before^ to, d:c,, sujudia. 
Protect, hami, linda, hifathi, kinga 

(u>ard off). 
Prove, t^ubutifiha. 

he proved, t/iubutu. 
Provide, weka akibo. 
Provoke, kirihi, kirihisha, tia IiasiiHi 

ghathabisha. 
Prune, chenga, feka. 
Pry, dadisi, fatiishi. 
Puff, pnliza. 
be puffed up, tuna, fora, Jctca, 
jivnna* 
Pull, vnta. 
puU out, ng'oa. 
he pulled out, ng oka. 
Moyo nnaning^Qka^ my heart has 
jumped into my throat, used of 
a person much startled, 
pull out feathers, nyonyoa. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



193 



pvXl, out of one^s hand, obopoa. 
puU up [roots], ng'oa. 
Fumpf piga bomba. 
Funishj atbibu, athibisha, tesa 
(affiiei)y snmbusha (give annoy- 
ance to), patiliza (visit upon). 
Purify, takasn, safisha. 
hy ceremonial ablutions, tohara. 
he purified, safika, talrasika. 
Purpose, knsudia, ania. 
Pursue, fuata (foUow), wlnda 
(chase), fukuza (drive away), 
tafiita (seek for). 
Push, suknma.* 
push against, kumba. 
push aside, piga kikumbo, 
push off upon, kumbisha. 
Put, tia, weko. 
put across [a river'], vnsha. 
put a pot on the fire, teleka. 
put an end to, komesha, ghalri. 
put avjay, weka. 
put dovm, tua. 
put forth leaves, chanua. 
put in a line, panga. 
put in order, tunga. 
put in under anything, vumbika. 
put into, tia. 
Tia motoni, put it in the fire. 
Tia moto, set it on fire, 
put into tlie right way, vusha. 
put off, akirisha. 
put off upon another, sukumiza. 
put on [clotlies], vaa. 
ptit on his guard, tahathin'sha. 
put on a turban hy winding the 
doth round (lie head, piga 
kilemba. 
put out, toa. 

put out Ifire], zima, zimia. 
put out of Joint, shtusha, ahtua. 
ffut ready for use, so^ze%. 



put ropes to a native bedstead 
tanda wamba. 

put to (shut), shindika. 

put tofiight, kimbiza. 

put to rights, tengeiieza, tongeloza 

put to straits, thiiki. 

put through, penycsha. 
Putrify, oza. 
Puzzle, tataoisha. 

he puzzled, tatana, f atazanA. 

Q. 

QuaJee, tetemeka, tctema. 
QuarreJ^ gombana, nenana, nazi- 
yana. 

with, teta, gomba. 
Quarry [stone], chimba, vunjai 
Quell, tulizo. 
Quench, zima. 
Quicken, liimiza (inahe quicJcer). 

he quick enough (Jbe in time), 
diriki. 
Quiet, tuliza. 

become quiet, tulia, nyamaza, 
tulika. 
Quit, acha, toka. 
Quiver, tetema. 



Bace, shindania. 
Hain, nya. 
It rains, mvua inakunya, mvaa 

yanya (M.). 
cause it to rain, nyesha. 
leave off raining, anuka. 
JRaise, inua (lift), paaza (make to 
rise), tweka, kweza, pandisha, 
Imisha. ' 
raise the eyebrows by way of sign^ 
konyeza. 



194 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



raise Vie eyebrowB hy way of wnf 
tempt, kuuia. 
Bange together, pangana. 
Ban8(m, komboa, fidi (of the price), 

fidia (of the person), 
Map with the knucMes, piga konzL 
he made Baw, chubuka. 
Beach. See Stretch. 

(arrive at), lika, wasili, pata. 

reach a person, fikia, wasilia. 

cause to reach, fikiijha, wasilisha. 

put wiHiin his reach, [mw-]eneza. 

reach its limit, pea. 
Bead, soma, fyoma (M.). 

teach to read, somesha. 
Beap, Yuna. 

(hreah off the heads of Indian 
com), goboa. 
Bear [a child}, lea. 
Beason, tefua. 
Bebel, asi, khalifu, tagbi. 
Behuke, nenea, lamnu, Jawana. 
Behut, dakuliza. 
Beceive, pokea, pewa, twaa. 

(a^ccep€), kubali, takabali. 

receive for some one else, pokelea. 

receive a stranger, kaiibisba. 
Beclcon, hesabu, wanga. 
Becite, karirisba. 
Becline, jinyosba, tandawaa, pa- 

mzika. 
Becognize, tambua, tambalia, fafa- 
nua. 

he recognizable, lambulikana. 
Becollect, kumbuka, fabamu. 
Becommend, nenea, ngiza, arifu, 

pelcka. 
Bwohcile, patanisha, selebisha. 
Bedeem, komboa, fidia. 
Beduce, punguza. 
Beef a sail, pupguza tanga. 
Befer to, regea. 



Beflect (thinh), kumbuka, waz«« 

fikiri. 
Beform, silibi, Bilihisha, sabibi, 

sahibisba. 
Befresh, biiradisha, gterebiBha, tar 

burndu. 
Befuse, kataza, kataa, iza. 
refuse to, nyima, hini. 
refuse to hdieve, katalia. 
Befuie, batili. 
Begret, juta, sikitika. 
Behearse, karirisba. 
Beign, jsnliki, tawala. 
Beject, kataa, kania. 
Bejoice, (neut.) furahi, fnrahiwa. 
rejoioe in, furabia. 
maJte to rejoice, furabisba. 
shout and triumph, sbangilia. 
Bdate, baditbia, nena, toa, p% 
BeUix, regezii. 

he relaxed, regea, 
BeUase, acba, likiza. 

from an obligaiion, feleti, 
Belish, ona tamn, ona lutbtbai 
Bely upon, fungamana, jetea, 
Bemain (stay), kaa, kaa kitaka^ 
keti (IVI.). 
he left, saa, salia, baki. 
remain awalce, kesba. 
remain quiet, starebe. . 
to remain as he wishes, kumkalia 
tamu. 
Bemedy, poza. 
Bememher, kumbuka, fahamii. 

remernber against, patiliza. 
Bemind, kumbusba, fahamigba. 
Bemit [sins']* gbofiri. 

remit to, gbofiria, ondolea. 
Bemove, ondoa, tenga, ondolca. 

from an office, uzulu. 
Bend, rarua, pasua. 
he rer4 to pieces, pasukapasuka^ 



LIST OF VEBBS. 



195 



Renounoey acha, kana. 

JUiit, panga (hire\ pangisha (ZeQ. 

Repaify fanyiza, fanya. 

Bepay, lipiza. 

Bepent, tubiu 

repent of, tubia. 
Beply, jiba (gftvfi an an8ioer)y itika 

(an«u^er ti^ften oaUed), 
B^pf^Vf regeza, lipa. 
Reproach, shutamn, kamia, faya. 
Requestyi&kek. 
Rescue^ toa knnako hatari, toa 

mnamo liatari, okoa. 
ResembUf fanana na. 

make to reseniMe^ fananisha. 
Resent, fanya gbalhabu, ingiwa na 

ghathabu. 
Resign, jiuzalu, jitoa katika. 
Resist, khalifu. 
Resolve, yakinia, ilzimn. 
Rest (neuL) pumzika, tulia, btarebc. 

(act,) pmnzisha. 

He never rests, hana zituo. 

I cannot rest in the house, nyumba 
hainiweki. 
Restore, rudisha, rejeza. 
Restrain, zuia. 
Resuscitate, fufua, buiaba. 
Retaliate, twaa kasasi, lipia sawa, 

jUipiza. 
Retire (jgo hack), endelea nyuma. . 
Return, (neut.) rudi, regea, 

(act) rudisha, rcgcsba. 
Reveal, funua. 
Revenge, nahma, lipia maovu, toa 



revenge oneself, jilipiza (or lipia) 



Reverence, nonyekea. 

Reverse^ pindua. 

Revile, sbutumu. 

Revive, (neuL) fufaka, bul, buika. 



Revive, as a plant in water, obupnza. 

(act) fufua, buisba. 
Revolt (disgust), kinaisba. 

revolt at, kinai. 
Reward, jazi, jazilia, lipia, fatbiU 
Ride upon, panda. 
Ridicule, fanyizia mzaba, tbihaki 
Ring a heU, piga kengele. 
Rip, pasua. 
Ripen, ivti. 
Rise (ascend), paa. 

(get up), ondoka. 

(stand up), simama, inoka. 

(rise to, or out of respect for), 
ondokea. 

(come to the top of the toater), 
zuka. 

(of the sun), [kd-]cba. 
Roar, lia, nguruma, fanya kisbindo 

(make a crash). 
Roast, oka. 
Rob, ihia (steal from), nyang'anya. 

(take by force), poka. 
Rook, pembeza. 
RoU, (act.) fingirisba. 

(neut) fingirika. 

(of a river, time, Ac), pita. 
Root out, ng-'oa. 
Rot, 0Z&, 

be Rough, paruga» paruza. 
be Round, Yinngfi, 

(spherical), viringana. 
Rouse from sleep, amsba. 
Row, vuta makasia. 

be in rows, pangaua. 

put in a row, panga. 
Rub, sugna. 

the skin off, chabna, tuna* 

ruh to pieces, fikicba. 

rvb in ointment, Ac, paka. 
Ruin^ angamisba, poteza> yuna 
korofiflbab 

2 



196 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



le ruined, angamia, tilifu, fliisika 
(he sold up), 
Bute, tawala. 

rule a line, paga mstarL 
Jtuminate, teuka. 
Tlufiy piga mbio, rukhuthtk 
run a risk, hatirisha. 
run against^ fulia. 
run atray, kimbia 
make to run avcay^ kimbiza. 
run away from a master, home, 

&e,, toroka. 
run ashore, panda, tekeza. 
run dovm, like tcater, or like a 
person down a steep place, to- 
Icm'ka. . 
run dovm with hloodt ohuruzika 

damu. 
run hord, kaza mbia 
run over, furika. 
run loith a shuffling noise Wee a 

rat, gaguioisha. 
run (in sewing), piga bandi. 
Bush along, enda kassi. 
Bust (neut), ingia kiito. 
Bustle, piga mtakaso. 

& 
Salute, salimii, sulimn, amkua, 
amkia, salimia. 
Jtre a salute, piga mizinga ya 
ealamu. 
Salve, bandlka. 
Sanction, toa ithini. 
Satisfy, ritbika. 
be satisfied or content, [ku-]wa 

rathi. 
9atisfy with food, sliibisha. 
he satisfied, sbiba. 
he never satisfied, nycta. 
he self -satisfied, kinal 
he enough, tosba. 



he of use to, faa. 
satisfy Zusf, timia ngoa. 
Save, okoa, pcmya, vusba. 
he saved, okoka, pona, vuka. 
(put away), weka. 
Saw, kata kwa mauincno, kereza. 
Say, sema. 

say to, ambia. 
Scald, onguza, trngnza, 

he scalded, nngua. 
Scare, fukuza, tia kbofu. 
seare birds from com, &e,, linda 
ndege. 
Scaiter, tawanya, tapaoya (M-X 
farakisha. 
he scattered, tawanyika. 
scatter about, tawanyatawanya, 
tapanyatapanya (M.). 
Scent (jput scent to), singa. 

smell out, nukiza. 
ScoM, fanyizia ukali, nenea, laumu, 

karipia. 
Scoop up, wangua. 
Scorch, unguza, onguza. 

he scorched, ungua, ungiilia. 
Scorn, tbarau, tweza, peketeka. 
Scour, sngua. 
Scrape, kuna. 
scrape along, kwarnza. 
scrape for, wit^, d:o,, kmiia. 
scrape into a coarse meal, paaza. 
scrape off, puna. 
scrape off hark, dirt, scales, Ac, 

to dean hy scraping, paa. 
scrape on the ground, para. 
scrape out, komba. 
scrape up, kwangua. 
Scratch, kuna, kunyua. 
(make a scratch), piga mtai 
scratch deeply, papura. 
scratch like a hen, pekua. 
Scream, piga kiowe, piga yowe. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



197 



Scnihy sngtia. 

Search for J tafuta, tefua. 

search aXL dboutf tofututafata. 
Seal, tia muhuri. 
Seduce women, tongoza. 
See, ona. 
he seen, or visible, onekaiia. 
see any one off, safirislia. 
Seek, taka. 
seek advice, taka shaurL 
seek out, hnji. 
seek for, tafuta, zengea. 
seek otUfor, look ouifor, tafutia. 
Seem. 
It seems to me, naiona. 
seem sweet to, kora. 
Seize, kamata, guia, sliika. 
seize for deU, filisi. 
go quietly and secretly up to a\iy- 
thing in order to seize it sud' 
denly, nyemelea. 
Select, chagua, teua. 
Sell, uza. The u- of this word is 
very unimportant, it is generally 
merged in the -u of kn-, the 
sign of the infinitive, which is 
retained in most of the tenses, 
sell to, liza. 

he ordinarily sold, uzanya. 
Sendt peleka, leta. ^ 
to a person, pelekea, lefca. 
cause to reach a person, wasi- 

lisha. 
send away, ondosha, toa. 
send hack, rudisha, rejeza. 
send upon some Imsiness^ tuma. 
Separate, ieng&, weka mbali. 
(leave one another), achana, atana 

(M.), tokana. 
(alienate), furakisha. 
lecoTne alienated, farakana, ta- 
ngukana. i 



separate people icho are fighting^ 

amua. 
(distinguish), pambanua. 
he cut off from one another, Ulce 
friends separated hy great dis" 
tances, tindikiaua. 
he Serene, [ku-]wa saff, tulika, 
kunduka. 
Moyo wake umekunduka, his 
heart is at peace. 
Serve, tumikia, hadumia. 
he a servant, tumika. 
serve for, faa kwa. 
Set, weka. 
(plant), panda. 
(of the sun), chwa, twa (SL), 
The sun is not yet set,jua hali* 

jacliwa. 
set a dog on one, tomesha mbwa. 
set a trap, tega. 
set aside, tangua, ondoa. 
set fire to, tia moto, vasha, koka 

cboma. 
set in order, panga, tunga. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 

Bbana. 
set open [a door"], sindua. 
set out on a Journey, safiri, shika 
' njia. 
set the teeth on edge, tia ganzi la 

meno. 
set up (put upwards)^ panza, 
(make to stand), simikisba. 
set wide apart, panulia. 
Settle, (neui,) tuana. 
settle an affair, kata maacno. 
settle down, tulia. 
settle in onis mind, yakinia. 
Sew, sbona. 
seio through a mattress to confine 
the stuffing, tona godoro. 
Shade, tia uvuli. 



198 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Skakey (act,) tildsa. 

(neut) tikiidka. 

%hdke ofy epua, knpna. 

9hdke outf kung'uta, komnnta 
(Mer.). 
hecome ShaJloWy panguka. 
Shame, tia haya, tabayarisha. 

he put to shamey fetheheka, aibika. 
Bhampooy kanda. 
Shape, umba. 
Share, gawanya. 

part out in iharef, gawa, husstL 

he partners in, shariki, sharikiana. 
Sharpen on a stone, noa. 
Shave^ nyoa. 

shave round the head, leaving hair 
on the crown only, kata denge. 

shave xxU save one long tujt, kata' 
Shed, pukutika. [kinjunjnrL 

SheU, pnpatua. 

shea heans, Ac, pna boazi, &c 

sheU nuts, Ac, hy heating, banja, 
menya. 
Shelter, tia kivolL 
Shift a hurdenfrom one to another, 
pokezanya. 

shift over a sail to the other side, 
kisi tanga. 
Shine, ng'aia, zagaa, mekamcka. 
Shiver (neut.), tapatapa, tetema, 

tetemeka, tapa. 
Shoot [mth a gun"], piga [kwa 
bunduki]. 

(as a plant), chnpuka, chnpmsa. 
Shorten, fupiza. 

he short and small, knndaa. 

faU short, pnnguka, tindika (A.). 
Shout, piga kelele. 
Shove out of the way, piga kikumbo. 
Show, onyesha, onya. > 

show a light; mulika. 

show one's teeth, toa mcna 



hecome Shrewd and knowing, &» 
make Shrewd, eievtisha. [vuka, 
Shriek, piga kiyowe. 
Shrink (hecome smaUer), pnngna. 
(from something), jikunja. 
shrink up, jikunyata, fingaiia. 
Shrivel (neut), nyauka, finyana, 

kunjana. 
Shrug the shoulders, inua mabega« 
Shudder, tetemeka. 
Shun, epuka. 
Shuffle along, gugnnisba. 

shuffle cards, tanganya karate. 
Shut (put to), shindika. 
(fasten), funga. 
(close), f umba. 
shut against, fungisha. 
he Sick or ill, ugtia, [kri-]wa mwtii, 
[kil-]wa hawezi, «&c See III 
and Vomit 
He feels sick or sea-sick, moyo 
wamcbafuka, moyo nmemwelea 
(M.), ana ng'onga (A.). 
Sift, cbunga (hy shaking), peta or 
pepeta (&y tossing), pepua 
(separate large and smaU, whole 
and hrolcen grains). Sifting i$ 
ahjuays done hy tossing aaid 
sihdking in a round flat hasket. 
Sigh, ligna, k^kota roho (draw 

hreath with an effort). 
Silence, nyamazisba. 
hecoTne sHent, nyamaza. 
continue silent, nyamaa. 
he Silly, piswa. 
Sin, fanya thambi, kosa. 
Sing, imba, tmnbniza (2tt2Z). 
Sink (act), zamisba, tosa (drcwn), 
didimisha (into a solid sulj- 
stance), 
(neui^, zama, tota (drown), didi* 
mia (sink into a solid substance). 



LIST OF VERBa, 



199 



Bipi nywa funda (f to take in by 

gulps). 
Sit, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (IL), 
Take a seat, kaa kitako. 
sit like a hen, atamia. 
Skin, chuna, tuua (M.)* 
Slander, siogizia, fitiui, amba, tha* 

mu. 
Slap, piga kofi. 
Slash, tema. 

Slaughter, chinja (to kill by euUing 
the throat), tinda (M.). It is 
not lawful to eat any meat that 
has not been so killed. 
Sleep, lala. 
Sleep weU 1 Lala unono I 
doxe, siDzIa. 

I am sleepy, ninao uzingizi. 
he slept upon, lalika. 
Slide, telcza. 
Sling, tupa kwa kombeo. 
Slip, telcza. 
It is slippery, pana ntelezi. 
slip down a steep plaoe, poromoka, 

telem'ka. 
slip away grain by grain lilce 

sand or corn, dondoka. 
slip off, or out of one*s hand^ <i^o., 
chopoka, ponyoka. 
Slit, pasua. 
iSZojpe, inama. 
be Sluggish, pumbaa. 
Smart, waka. 

make to smarts nyonyota. 
Smear on, paka. 

SmeU (emit a smell), nuka, nnsa. 
I smed ambergris, ioaninuka 
ambari {avpJbergris makes a 
smell to me). 
Bo you not smeU itf Huifiikii 
ikiiiuka ? (Do you not perceive 
it making a smell i) 



SmeU at, nuklza* 

Smile, tabassam, <)lieka, kunja 

luldomo. 
Smokef toka moslu. 

smoke tobacco, vuta tumbako. 

smoke (meaf^ d:c.), piga mvuke. 
Smoothe, lainisha. 
Smoulder, vivia. 
Smuggle, iba iishnnu 
Snap, olika (neuL), alisba (acL)k 
Snare, tega. 
Snarl, toa meno. 
Snatch, nyakua, pokonycu 
Sneeze, chafya, shamua, enda or 

piga chafya. 
Snore, koroma, piga mlsouo (make 

a whistling sound). 
Snort, piga pua* 
Snub, kemea. 
SoaJc, woweka. 
Sob, Ingia na shake la knlift. 
Sober^ levusha. 

become sober, levuka. 
Soften, lainisha. 
Solve, wathaiaba, weka Wazi 

eleza. 
Soothe, tnliza, pembeza, ttuubuiza. 
be Sorry, eikitika, kosiiika (60 
vexed), juta (regret). 

lam sorry for it, sioni vema, 
Sound, pima majL 

It sounds hollow, panalia ivazi. 
Sow seeds, panda, yaa (A.). 

sow discord, fitini. 
Sparkle, merimeta, mekameka, me* 

metiika (A.)* 
^^k, nena, sema (8ay)i tamka 
(pronounce), ambia (say to). 

speak about, at, for, or against^ 
ncuea. 

speak against, amba. 

speak distinctly, pambazaa. 



200 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Speak out ! Sema sana I 

make a speech^ taguaa, lumba. 

tpeaJc Arabic, sema Kiarabn. 

^^7c a Jumble of different Ian- 
guagei or dialects, goteza. 

not to apeak, nyamaa. 
Spell, endeleza. 
Spend, tumia, khdrij. 

epend upon or abotU, harijia, glia- 
rimia. 

epend time, ongca. 
SpiU, mwaga, mimina. 

be epiU, miminika. 
Spin, sokota. 
Spit, tema mate. 
Splash, (act,) rusliia. 

(neuL) nikia, tawonya. 
Splice [a rope], unga. 

la spar], gauga. 
Split, (act.) pasTia. 

split up, (neut) pasukapasuka. 

split down (branches), (aeL) 
kwanua. 

be split down, as when any one has 
been trying todimb up by them^ 
kwannka. 
Spoil, haribu, vunja. 

(neut), haribika, oza. 
Sport toilh, laabu. 
Spout out, ruka. 

TJie whale spouts, nyamgumi 
anatoamofihi 
SpratTi, shtuaha mshipa, tenka. 

be sprained, shtuka mshipa. 
Spread, (neut.) enea, farishi. 

(act.) eneza. [ka. 

be opened and spread over, kunju- 

spread a cloih or a bed, tandika. 

spread out, tanda. 

spread [news'], taligaza. 

(become known), tangaa. 
Sprifildet nyunyiza. 



Sprout, mea^oliupuka, tokeza (skoiB 
itself)^ cbanua (put forth 
leaves). 
Spy out, peleleza. 
Squabble, bishana, gombana. 
Squander, fuja, tapanyatapanya. 
Squeak,\\&, 
Squeeze, kamua. 

(grasp), fumbata. 

squeeze together (act.), songa. 

(neut.) songaua. 

squeeze oneself into a hedge w 
ojgaind a waJiX to let others pass^ 
jibanza. 
'Squint, [ki!-]wa na makengcza. 
Stab, choma. 
Stagger, pepa. 

be staggered, toshea, shangaa. 

(astonish), shaugaza. 
Stain, tia waa, tia madoadoa (spot). 
Stalk [an animaX}, nyemelea. 
Stammer, [kd-]\va na kigagumizu 
Stamp, piga ohapa. 
Stand, Bimama, kaa. 

up or stm, simama (of persons), 

make to stand, aimaiuisha, simiki- 
fiha. 

stand aghast, ghumiwa. 

stand by, Bimamia. 

stand in the way of, kindana. 

stand ovei', akiri. 

stand staring, Bhangna. 
Stare ai, kodolea. 
Start (be startled), shtuka, gutaka. 

(set oul), ondoka, safiri 

start out of tJie way, kwepa. 
Startle, shtua, stusha, kutusha. 
Starve, (neuL) £a kwa njaa. 

(act.) fisha kwa njaa. 
Stay, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.)* 

He stayed all day, aliBhinda 
kutwa. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



201 



(ff^atQ, Dgoja, snbiri. 
(hotter), kawia, kawiiia. 
{remain over longX hajirika. 
(8top) (act)y zuia. 
be Sieadi/y tungamana, tulia. 
Steal, iba, jepa (A.). 

steal from, ibia. 
Steep, choveka, owamiBlia. 

he steeped, owama. 
Steer, shika shikio. 
Steer northwards, sliika mdjira ya 

jaa. 
[a vesseQ, andika. 
Step over, kiuka, kla. 
Stick, (neut,) shika, gandama^ a- 
mbata. 
(act.) ambatiza, ganda. 
tticJc together, ambatana, ganda- 

mana, guiana (Mer.). 
9tich/ast, kwama, sakuma. 
Btich into [iJie efmbers to he roasted], 

vumbika. 
slich out, (neut.) tokeso. 
(act) benua. 
Stifle, zuia pumuzi. 
Still, tuliza, nyamazlylia. 

he very still, zizima. 
Stimulate, tabarrakisha. 
Sting, uma. 

Stinh, nuka, nnka vibaja. 
Stir, boruga, vuruga, kologa. 
ftir up and knock ahout, tibua. 
stir up, turn over, and press 

together, songa. 

stir up (fire, strife, Ac), chocbe- 

Stoop, inama. pezea. 

Stop, (act.) zuia (hold in), koinesba 

(ma/ire to cease), kingamisha 

(hhch). 

(neut.) simama (stand), koma 

(leave qff). 
slop and stagnate, yilia. 



slop short of its purpose or pef 

fection, via. 
stop up, zibsu 
Store up, weka akiba. 
Stow, pakiza. 
Straddle (walk with the legs far 

apart), tagaa. 
Straighten, nyosba. 

he straight, nyoka. 
Strangle, nyongac; songa. 
Strain (a liquid), cbuja, tuja (M.). 
See Sprain, popotoa. 
(make a violent effort), kakamuka. 
Stray, potea, zunguka. 
Strengthen, tia nguvu. 
Stretih, nyosba. 
stretch up to reach anything, chu- 

cbumia. 
stretch one*s legs, kunjua miguiL 
stretch the tlireads for weaving^ 

tenda nguo. 
Uretch across an opening (act»)y 
tanda, wamba. 
Strew, mwagia, nyunyiza. 
StriJce, piga. 
strike on the ground, piga na ncbL 
strike (he foot against anything, 

kwaa. 
strilce with the hoof, piga kwata. 
strike oui (in writing), futa. 
strike a sore place, tonesba. 
String (beads, <fcc.)» tunga. 
Strip off, ambua, pua, menya, 
babua. 
(branches, leaves, Ac), pagua. 
Strive with, sbindana na, teta, ho* 
sumu. 
(maJie an effort), fanya bidii or 

jubutli. 
strive for breath, t\reta. 
Stroke, papasa. 
StroU about, zungukazungoka. 



202 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



be Strong ami tedl-hnU, pirikana, 

kakawana. 
Struggle^ fanya juhudu 
Study, taali. 

meet in a cUusfor sludyi dnnuL 
StumbUy jikwaa. 

make to stumble, kwaza. 
Stun. 

he stunned, potea na akili, rukwa 
na okili 



t viza. 
be stunted, via. 
Stutter, [kii-]\va na kigugumizi, 

babaika. 
Subdue, tiisha, shinda. 
Submit to. Hi, fuata. 
Succeed (Jddow), ja mahali pake. 
Suck a one succeeded him, boada 

yake alikuja na fullani. 
(prosper), fanikiwa, kibali. 
eucceed in doing, pata kufanya. 
Suck, nyonya, amwa (M.), fycmda, 
fyonza. 
9uck up, nwa. 
euck out, sonda. 

I have sucked him dry (got aU the 
information, Ac, I can out of 
him), nimemzua. 
Suckle, nyonyesha, amwisha (M.). 
Sue for (at law), dai. 
Suffer, teswa, taabika, nmwa. 
what he suffered, mambo yalio- 

mpata. 
euffer loss, pata hasara. 
Suffice, toska, toshelezo, kifo. 
Suggest, ndsiha. 

Suit, faa (he of use to), lingana 
(match), wafiki (he suitable to). 
Sum up, jumlisha. 
Superintend, simamia, angalia. 
Supply, dwini, nizuku (used etr 
peeiaUy of God), 



eupply a trader with goods an 
er&dit, kopeska. 
Support, t^iemeza, himili, cbukoa. 
he supports his parents, awachn- 
kua wazee wake. 
Suppose, thani (think), thania (think 

of), kiai (guess). 
Suppurate, toa uzaba. 
become Surety, thamini. 
Surpass, pita. 

Surprixe, toshea, taajabieba. 
be surprized, taajabu, toshewa. 
(eom£ upon suddenly), fumnmay 
gundua. 
Surrender, sellim. 
Surround, zangnka, tandama (?X 

darn. 
Survey, aua. 

Survive, Lkii-]wa hayi baada ya. 
Suspect, tbania, tuhnmu. ingiashaka. 
Swagger, tamba, wayavraya. 
Swallow, meza. 
Sioay, punga. 
sway about, like a drunken man, 

lewa1ewa» tunbaamba. 
sway backwards and forwards^ 

tangatanga. 
sway like a tree loaded with fruit, 

wayawaya. 
sway about in tJie wind, ynniba. 
Swear, apa. 
su>ear at, apiza. 
make to swear, afya, apislia, 
Sv>eat, toka hari, fanya jasho. 
Sweep, fagia, pea (M.). 
sweep together, zoa. 
su)eep away aU there is, knmba. 
SweU, fura, vimba, tuna, vana. 
rise into litUe swellings, tutukai 
tutumka, tntusika. 
Swim (of a man), ogolea. 
(float), elea. 



LIST OF VBttBS. 



203 



moyo unaelea (M.)* J fed dig- 

turhed in my inside, 
(make tofioat\ elezo. 
ifwindle^ punja. 

Stoing. See Sway (neut,\ ning^adA. 
(act.% ning^iniza, bembesha. 
ncing the amu, which is reckoned 

an elegance in a woman^s car' 

riage, punga mikono. 
swing round the head in dandng, 

linga. 

T. 

Tach (in sewing), piga bandi. 

(in sailing), piudua kwa goahlnu 
Take, twaa. 
(receive), pokea, pewa. 
(to a person), pelekea. 
(to a place), peleka, chukua, fikiza. 
take a portion from the dish in 

eating, mega, ambua. 
taJce a piece in chess, la. 
take a walk, tembea, enda tembea. 
take across, vna, yukisha, vusha. 
take as spoil, teka, 
take away, ondoeha, toa. 
take away from a person, twalia. 
take aioay from, or off from, epua, 

okoa. 
take away the desire of anything 

more, kmaisba. 
take hyforcCt nyang'anya. 
take care, angalia. 
take care of, tunza. 
take civet from the ngawa, zabidi. 
take courage, tawakali, piga moyo 

konde. 
take down, angua. 
take leave of, aga, agana na. 
tdke off (clothes), vna. 

(the fire), ipviSi, 
take one's due, jilipizc. 



take one's revenge, jilipiza kisasL 

take out, opoa, ondosha, too. 

take otU of a trap, namua (Her.). 

take out of the sun or rain, atiiia. 

taJce out of the pot, pakna. 

taJee suddenly and violently, poka. 

take Hie reeponsibility, tadariki 

take to pieces, kongoa. 

take up, tweka. 

talie up a litUe at a time^ chota, 

dokoa. 
take upon oneself the dbligations 

of another, hawilL 
TaVc, nena, sema, jizumgumza. 
talk about, to, of, at, for, or against^ 

nenea. 
talk against one another, nenana. 
talk a person over into doing or 

idling something, nyenya. 
taJk and murmur in om^s sleep^ 

weweseka. 
taJJi English^ dte^ sema EiiDgrezi, 

d-c. 
talk nonsense, puza, puzika. 
taUc scandal about, amba» izara. 
talk through the nose, semea puanl, 

[kiC-]wa na kingVmg'o. 
Tangle, tia matata, tatanisha. 
he tangled, tatana, tatazana. 
Tap, gota, gonga, chapa. 
Tarry, kawa, kaa. 
Taste, onda» onja, thuku, limbuka 

(taste a new erop, &c,, for Oie 

first tiine). 
Tax, fanya ushura (?). 
Teach, fnndislia, fauza, fnnda, elo- 

misha (instruct),ynj9^ juvisha 

or julisha (make to know). 
Tear, raraa, babua, papua, papura. 
he torn, raruka, babuka, papuka. 
tear down [branches, &c.], kwft" 

nua. 



204 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



he torn down and hrolceny kwa- 

nyuko. 
Teaze, chokoza, kefyakefya. 
Fellf ambia. 
teU a taley hadithi, Ladithia, nena 

or toa hadithi. 
tell tales ah<mt, chongeleza. 
Tempt, jaribu (try), shawiabi (per- 

iuade). 
Tend to, lekea. 
Tend (sheep, d:e,\ cbunga, tunga 

(M.), liflha. 
Terrify, ogofya, tiaha, kboflsba. 
Testify, shubudu, sbubudia, sema 

uslmbuda. 
Tether, funga. 
TJianh, ambia asanti, shuknni (very 

seldom used except of €hd). 
Tliank you, assant, marababa 

(this last is the proper answer 

to a slaveys salutaiioh). 
Thatch, vimba, ezeka. 
Think (consider), aza, fikui, tafa- 

kari, kumbiika. 
(suppose), tbani, tbauia. 
think oneself, jiona. 
think oneself a man, jipevua. 
think of, tia maanani, kumbiika 

(remeniber), nia, ania, or nuia 

(have in one^s mirtd). 
Thirst, ona kiu (feel UUrst), [ktC-] 

\7a na kiu Qiave thirst), 
threaten, ogofya, ogofiaha, kboflsba, 

kamia (?). 
Tliresh, piga, pura (beaJt out com), 

fikicba kwa miguu (tread out), 

fikicba kwa mikono (rub out). 
Thrill, tetema. 
lltrive, sitawi, fanikiwa (of persons 

ordy). 
Tlirdb, puma. 
Tliiottle, kaba. 



Throw, tupa. 

throw a rider, rusba. 

{hrow a stone, Ac, yurumisba. 

throw about, tawanya, tapany* 
(M.), cbafua, tefua (M.). 

throw at, tupia. 

throw away, tupa. 

throw down, angusba. 

throw overboard, tosa. 

throw up, or off, rusba. 

throw a burden off the shoulder, 
&c., bwaga. 
Tliunder, Piii-]wa na ngurumo (dis- 
tant), piga radi (near). 
Thwart, balifu. 

Tickle in the ribs, tekenya, sbtua. 
Tie, fuDga. 

tie a knot, piga fai)do. 

tie up into a bundle or faggot, 
tita. 
Tighten, (act) kaza, tia kassi, (neut,) 

kazana, kazika. 
Tingle, ona kinyenyefu. 
Tip off ttie head, shoulder, Ae^ 

bwaga. 
be Tipsy, lewa, jilevyfc 

make tipsy, levya. 
Tire, cbosba, taajazL 

become tired, cboka. 

be tiresome, refuse to be pleased. 
Toast, oka. [deka. 

be Together. 

We are Together, tu sote. 
Tolerate, stabimili, vumilia. 
Torment, atbibn, utbi, atbibisba. 
Toss, rusba. 

Totter, tetem^a (tremble), pepe- 
snka (be shaken), kongoja 
(totter in ojie's walk), 
Touchf gusa. 

touch gently, papasa. 

touch up, tengeneza. 



LIST OF VEBB8. 



205 



Touifor custom^ Ao., sapa. 
Totff, fungaea. 
Tracks fuatu nyayo, 
Trade^ fanya biashara. 

irade iri a small way, Jceep a BtaU, 
ohuraza. 
Train up, adibn, lea. 
Trample, finyanga, kauyaga. 
Transcribe, nakili. 
Transform, geuza, badilL 
be Transparent, ng'ara. 
Transgress, taghi, halifu. 
Translate, tafsiri, fasui, geuza. 
Trap, tega. 
Travail (of a woman), shlki^a na 

utnngu. 
Travel, safiri. 

Tread, kanyaga, vioga (^I.), finya- 
nga (trample). 
Treat, tendea. 

he treats me badly, hanltendea 
vibaya. 

he treats meweU, hunitendca zema. 
Tremhle,ietemtk, tetemeka,tapatapa. 
Trichle, tiiiiika. 
Trim, tengeneza. 

trim vegetables, &o., for sale, cha- 

trim (sail), rausi. [mbna. 

Triumph, shinda, fanya shangwi. 
Trot, enda mashindo (of a horse), 

enda matiti (of an ass), 
TrovhU, taabisha, sumbna. 

be troubled, taabika, siunbuka, 
Bhughulika. 

be troubled in mind, fathaika. 
Trust in, amini, jetea, tumania. 

entrust to, aminisha, weka, amini. 

(have confidence), tumaini. 

trust in God and take courage, 
tawakali. 
Try, jaribu, onja (taste). 

try hard, jitahidi, fanya bidii. I 



Tuck into the girdU, &e,, fulika. 
TufMe, angnka, pomoka. 

tumbnkia (faU into). 
Turn or turn into, (act.) geuza, geua. 
(neut) turn, turn into, turn itself, 

geuka. 
turn over, or the other way, 
pindua (act.), pinduka (neut.). 
twn round something else, zu- 
nguka (neut), zungusha (act.). 
He turned round, aligenka. 
T?ie river turns, mto unaznnguka. 
The ship turned, merikebu ilipi* 
nduka. 
turn (prevent its going on in the 

same direction), pinga. 
turn aside (neut.), potoa, potoka. 
turn bottom upwards, f udikiza. 
turn in a latJie, kereza. 
turn out weUfor, fanikia. 
Tweak, nyukna. 

Twist, (act) nyonga, songa, popotoa. 
(neut) potoka. 

[a rope"] sokota, guka, pakasa 
(Mer.). 

U. 

Unclose, fumbna. 

he Uncomfortable, taabika, Bumbuka, 

toa kuona raha. 
Uncover, funua. 
Unfasten, fangua. 
Understand, sikia, jua, fafanna, 

tambua (recognize). 
I understand, yameuiolea, yamc- 

nitulilia. 
niake to understand, sikiza. 
to be mutually intelligible, maht 

one another understand, siki- 

zana. 
Undertake, tbamaini, jilazimibba 

tadarlki. 



£06 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Dnderwdue, rakhifiisba. 
Undo (unfasten), fungmt 

untie a hnot, fundua. 

(ruin)^ poteza. 
UndreiB, vua nguo. 
XlnfMy kuujua. 
Unite, nnga, iingana. 
Unpick or Unrip, fumiia. 

become unteum, f umuka. 
Unroof, ondoa sakafu (take off a 
stone roof), ezua paa, or zu- 
mbDa paa (A.), (take off thatch). 
Unsew, fumua. 

come unseton, fumiLkft. 
Unthatdh, ezua, zumbua (A.) 
Untie, fuDg^a. 

a knot, fundua. 
Upbraid, nenca, tuhumu, taya. 
Upset, pindua. 
Urge, sukuma, kaza. 
Urinate, kojoa. 
Use (make use of), tumia. 

To have been used for something, 
kolikuwa na kilu. 

be of use, faa. 

be of use to one another, faana. 

use had language to, tukana. 

use words well and correctly, 
garifu. 
Use (accustom), zoeza. 

become used to, zoea. 
Utter, ta*mka. 



Value, tia kima (put a price upon), 
penda (like), 
be valuable, faa, faa sana, [ku-] 
wa na manfaa. 
Vanish, toweka, toa kuonekana, 
potea, tokoinea (gel out of one's 
sight). 
€h and hide yourself J Tokomea 1 



Venture, hatiiisha, ^ubatiL 
Vex, kasirisha. 

be vexed, kaslrika, chnkiwa. 
be Visible, onekaoa. 
Visit, enda kuangalia, kutazama^ 
or kuzuru, jia (come to), endea 
(goto). 

be visited, jiwa. 

visit upon, patiliza. 
Vomit, tapika, kokomoka (beldt otiQ. 

maUe to vomit, tapiaha. 
Void, tangua, batilL 

be made void, tanguka. 
Vow, weka nathiri (make a vowX 
perform a vow, ondoa nathirL 

W. 

Wail, omboleza. 

Wait, or wait for, ngoja, saburi, 
Bubiri. 

Wait a bit, ngoja kwanzai 

wait upon, ngojea. 
Wake, (neut.) a'mka. 

(acL) a*msha. 

remain awake, kesba, angoia. 

be awake, [ku-]wa macbo. 

wake up suddenly with a starts 
zinduka, zindukana. 
TTaZe^alia. 
Walk, enda, enda kwa migun. 

(of a horse or ass), enda delki. 

walk about, tembeloa. 

talce a walk, tembca. 

walk up and doum, enda masia. 

toalk lame, cheohea, enda chopL 
Wander, zunguka, potea. 

in mind, papaynka. 
Want (need), taka, ihtajia, ihtajL 

(wish to have), taka,'ipa. 

be wanting, ihtajiwa, pungnka. 
Ward off, kioga (receive on some^ 
thing), bekua (knock off again) 



LIST OF VEBD8. 



207 



Warm ttp, kangn moto, pasba moto. 
Warn^ onya, ambia, nasi, liatha- 

risha (pu< on one's guard). 
Warp, benuka (as wood does in 
Wash, osha. Idrying), 

wofh clothes, fua; by ddbbing 

gently only, ohachaga. 
oneself, nawa. 

wash on^s hands, nawa luikono. 
Waste, (act,') tilifu, tilifisha, fuja, 
tbii, haribu, tawanya, tapanya 
(M.). 
(neut) piingua, tilifika. 
Watch, (act.) vizia, ngojea, angalia. 
he^ watches, ngojea kwa zamu. 
watch over, linda. 
(not to sleep), kesba, angaza. 
Water, tia maji, nywedia maji 

make water, kojoa. 
Wave, (act.) punga. 

(neut,) tangatanga. 
Waver, shangaa. 
Waylay, otea. 
Wedlcen, thooflsha, toa nguvn. 

become weak, tboofika. 
be Weaned, aoba ziwa (leave the 

breast), gbisbwa. 
Wear, — the past tenses of kuvaa, 
to put on, are used to express 
ioearing. 
He wears, amevaa. 
He wore, alivaa. 
Wear away, (neut.) lilok pungua, 
pnngnka. 
(act,) la, punguza. 
Wear out, (neut.) obakaa (by age or 
use). 
He wore out my patience^ alinonde- 
lea saburi. 
Wear ship, pindua kwa dain^^inL 
Weary, chosha. 
become weary, choka^ 



Weave, fuma. 
tenda nguo, to strdch (he threads 

ready for weaving, 
tarizi, weave a border on to a piece 
of doth. This is the only hind 
of weaving done in Zanzibar, 
Weed (hoe up weeds), boruga, pali« 
Weep, lia. [iia, 

weep together, lizana. 
burst into tears, bubujika inachozi. 
Weigh, pima. 

weigh down, lemea, topeza. 
Weld on a piece of steel or iron, 

tambuza. 
Wet, tia maji, ohofya majini (dip in 

water). 
Whet, noa. 
Whisper, nong'ona, noog'onezana, 

nong'onia. 
Whistle, piga mbinda, miunzi, mi- 
fiono, or miao. Most, if not aU, 
of these refer to an involuntary 
whistttng sound; to whisUe 
voluntarily is regarded in Zan^ 
tibar as profane. 
Widen, panna (act.), panuka (pass.). 
WiU, taka, penda. 
If God will, insballab, Muungu 
akinijalla ('/ God gives me the 
power). 
Win, pata. 

Wind (neui.), zongazonga, zungu- 
kazunguka. 
wind thread, kunja uzi. 
Wink, kopesa, pepesa, pesa. 
Kukonyesba, to raise (he eyebrows ; 
this is a sign used as winking 
is in England, 
Wipe, futa, pangusa. 

ioipe the nose, futa kamasf. 
With, taka, penda. 
Wither, nyaiika, fa, fifi^ 



208 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



WiOiholdfromf ii3-in:a, liini 
WUriesSj ona («ea). 

hear toitnesB, shuhudu. 

witne$$ about, for or againat, shu- 
hudia. 
Wonder, taajabn, staajabn. 
Worky fimya kazi, tenda kozL 

work in metal, f na. 

{ferment), chacha. 
Worry^ Bumbua, sumbTisha. 
Wortiiip, abudu, abudia. 
be Worth, pata kima (get a price). 

What is it worth f Chaimtaje ? 
Woundy umiza. 

be wounded, jcrnhL 

wound by striding or piercing un- 
awareif 7uaza» 



Wrap, kimja. 
IFrec^ Ynnja. 

be wrecked, Tnnja, Tuiijika. 

go on aJiore, panda. 

be on shore, pweleka. 
Wrestle, pigana kwa mbayo. 
Wriggle, nyonganyonga. 
Wring, soDJoa, kamna, popoton. 
Wrinkle, nyeuka. 

become wrinkled, knnjana. 
Writhe (like a wounded 6nak€)t 
Write, andika. [fingirika 

Wrong, thulmniL 



Yawn, cTida, or piga miayo, Tuiiua 
kiQwa, 



( 209 ) 



ADVERBS, 
PEEPOSITIONS AND OONJUNCTIONa 



AdVEPvBS, 

A dverLs in Swahili follow the words they qnalify. 
Sema sanay speak out. NJema sana, Yery good. 

Adjectives may be used as Adverbs by prefixing vi* 

or vy-. 

Kunuka vibaya, to smell badly. 

Verbs in the Infinitive and Substantives generally 
may be made to serve as Adverbs by the use of the 
Preposition hwa. 

Kwa uwongo, falsely. Kwa Jcujua, knowingly. 

Many English Adverbs may be translated by sana 
(very), which intensifies the action or quality expr^ssccl 
by the word to which it is subjoined, 

Vtita Bana ! Pull hard ! 
Sluhasana! Hold tiglitl 
Endasanal Go fast I 

Prepositions. 

There are in Swahili very few Prepositions. Indeed 
there are scarcely more tJifi^n four, na, ya^ "kwa, and hatiha* 



210 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Kaiika lias the same force as tlie case in -ni^ it denotes 
locality in nearly every form in which locality can 
require to be expressed. Kwa denotes instrumentality 
and object. Na is and or wiih^ and hy of the agent after 
a passive Verb ; in this last sense m is used at Hombas 
and in other dialects. Fa, or rather -a with a variable" 
initial letter, denotes possession ; it is treated as a pos^ 
Bessive pronoun, and changes its first letter according 
to the class of the noun which precedes it, that is of the 
person or thing possessed ; it can very nearly always 
be translated by of. Its forms appropriate to each class 
of substantives are : — 

Class V. siiig. la, plor. yo. 
„ VI. „ wra, „ «a. 
„ Vn. „ fa, „ |)a. 
„ YIIL „ "kvca^ n haa. 

Bee p. 209 in original. 

Many of our Prepositions are expressed by a Noun or 
Adverb followed by -a. Many others are expressed by 
Verbs in their simple or applied forms (p. 169). Some 
can scarcely be expressed at all. The Preposition from 
seems to be almost wholly wanting in Swahili. It is 
sometimes implied in the Verb, as in Icutoha, to come or 
go from, or to come or go out of, but generally it is 
marked only by hatiha or the case in -ni, which denote 
merely the locality in which the action commenced. 
From, of time, may be translated by tangu, or by toha^ 
or tokeuy which do not seem to be used of space or deri- 
vation, but to be best tranalated by since or beginning 
from^ 



Class I. dng. 


tea, plur. tea. 


V **• »> 


V!a, „ ya. 


„ in. „ 


ya, „ za. 


It lY« •» 


c/*a. „ vya. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 211 

Until tOy as far as, of time and space, are frequently 
translated by hatta, and (less elegantly) by mpdka^ 
followed by a substantive. 

Conjunctions, 

Conjunctions are often dispensed with by tbe use of 
tbe tenses with -ha-. And, but, or any other mere con- 
nective in a narrative, is unnecessary where the -ha- 
tense is employed, as in all ordinary cases it must be. 
The Imperative and Subjunctive may also have -Jfco- 
prefixed with the force of the Conjunction and^^ 

Katupa ! And throw it awny. 

Enenda sokoni Iccdeta ndizi I Go to tho market and fetch some 

bananas. 
Uone, ukasadiJci, that you may see and believe. 

If and other Conjunctions introducing a state are 
generally expressed by using the -K- tense of the Verb 
(see Verbs, p. 136). 

In order that is generally expressed only by putting 
the Verb which expresses the purpose into the sub- 
junctive. 



pa 



212 



BWAEILI EANDBOOK. 



LIST OF ADVEEBS, PEEPOSITIONS. AND 
CONJUNCTIONS. 



A. 

AhouU (near) karibu no, kama. 
(in the neighhourhood of), upande 
wa. 
Above, (adv.) jnu. 
(p-c|).)juuya. 
Abundantly y tele, sana. 
After, (adv.) nyuma, baada. 
(prep.) nyuma ya, baada ya. 
Nyuma ia more correctly used of 

plaee, and baada, of time. 
After this, akiiaha (lie finishing), 
akaisha (and he finished). 
Afterwards, nyumaye, baada yako, 
baadaye, tena, kiisha, halafu, 
pindi. 
Again, mara ya pili, tcna. 
Against, juu ya. Against is com- 
monly expressed by (he we of 
the applied form of the verb. 
Ago. 
long ago, zamani za kale, zamaui, 

kwanza. 
How Jong ago ? Tangu lini ? 
ten days ago, loo siku kumi, kwa 
giku kumi, tangu siku kumi 



AllJce, sawasawa, ginsi mojo, ma* 

moja. 
Almost, karibu na. 
Alone, poke yake, &c. (by himself, 

&c.), tu (only). Tu alwayn 

follows the word or phrase 

qualified by it. 
Along, kandokando ya. 

along with, pamoja na. 
Alongside, mbavuni. 
Aloud, kwa sauti kubwa. 
Already, mbele (before), sasa (noio). 
He is already gone away, ame- 

kwisha kwenda zoke (p. 155). 
Also, na, tena. Ka always precedes 

wluit it is connected wUh. 
AWiough, kwamba, ikiwa. 
Altogether, pia yote, kabisa. 
Always, sikuzote, dayima, abadun, 

kipindi, milele (for ever). 
Amidst, katikati ya. 
Among, katika. 

among themselves, wao kwa wao. 
Anciently, zamani za kale, kwanza. 
And, na. 
^And he, and I, ^e. See p. XO^t 



ADVERBS, PREFOSITIOm, Ac 



213 



And U very often expressed hy the 

use of the -ka- tense. See p, 134 

and p, 141. 
And followed hy a negaUve must 

he translated hy wola. 
Avd so, and then, d;c., bassi. 
Any is expressed hy using Vie fwrd 

absolutdy. 
Anywhere, po pote. 
1 don*t see anything, sioni kito. 
Anything whaieverfkitvL chocliote. 
Apart, mbali. 

Around, pande zote, mzlngo wa. 
As (when, or if), -po-, -ki-. Seep, 136. 
(as if), kama, kana, kwamba. 
(like), -vyo, -vyo-, added to or 

insert in the verb. 
As you please, upendavyo. 
As it was formerly, yalivyokuwa 

kwanza. . 
As followed hy 9La is generally 

omitted. 
As hig as a house, kubwa kama 

nyumba. 
As it stands, slielabela. 
Ashore, pwani. 
go ashore, panda (of a ship), sliu- 

kA (of a person), 
he ashore (of a ship), pwelowa. 
Aside, kando. 
At, kwa, katika ; case in *^m,folU)wed 

hy pronouns in p-, when it <2e- 

notes nearness only, hut hy pro- 

nouns in kw- when it is inde^ 

terminate* 
At first, awali, kwanza. 
At home, kwangn, kwako, kwake, 

kwetn, kwenu, k wao, nynmbani. 
Be is not at home^ hako. Ilaynko 

is commonly used hy slaves in 

Zanzibar, hut is wholly incorrect. 
At Icwi^ mwisho, hatima, hatta. 



At length, hatta, Latima. 
At night, usiku. 
At once, mara, mara moja. 
At the top, juu. 
At the hottom, chinL 
Auiay, 
go away, enda zangu, zako, &c., 

according to the person going, 
come away, ja zake, &c. 
He is away, hjoiko, 

B. 

Back, nyuma. 
He went Uusk, alirudi nynma. 
upon the hack, kwa tani, chali. 
Bacikwards, kingaligali (M.). 
Because, kwa sababu. 
because of, kwa sababu yo, kwa 
ajili ya, kwani (for). 
Before^ (adv.) mbele, kwanza. 
(prep.) mbele ya or za, kabia ya. 
Kabla is useU preferably of time^ 
mbelo of place. 
To go before, tangulia. 
Before he goes to sleep, asijclala. 
Before I die, kabla sijafa. 
Behind, (adv,) nymna. 

(pr^.) nyuma yo. 
Below, (adv,) chim. 
(prep.) chini ya. 
Beside, kando la, kandoksndo ya, 

zayldi ya (more than). 
Besides, tona, zayidi; na (dlso),pre' 

ceding the thing mentioned. 
Better, afathali, beri or kheiiL 
You had better go, afathali uene- 

nde, u heri uenende. 
Afathali is preferably, heri mean$ 
it would bo a good thing. 
Between, katikati ya, beina. 
Beyond, (adv.) kwa kuko. 
(prep.) zayidiya, juu ya. 



214 



BWABILt HANDBOOK. 



beyond (of flaee)y Qpande wa 
pili wa. 

Both — and"-^ na — ^na, 

Both of them, wote \niwili, sote 
mbili, &o., &0. 

Butf lakini, wallakinl (and however), 
iUakini (except however), ilia, 
boli iA many easee but may 
he best translated hy (he we of 
the -ka- tenee of the verb. 

By (after a passive verb), na, ni 
(M.). 
(of an instrument), kwa. 
(near) katika), ease in 'in followed 
by pronouns in p-. 



Certainly, yokini, hokika, hnpana 

shaka. 
You eertainly^ d'C, Hakika yako, 

&c 
ChohefuO, tobtob. 
Ckmstanily, abadan, dayima. 
Crookedly^ kombokombO|mifiliiiliari, 



BaUy, killa sikn, siku kwa sikiL 
DlrecUy, See Now. 
Distinctly, kiada. 
Doum, chini. 
During, wakati wa. 
During his journey, alipokuwa 
akifiafiri, akiwa akiiiafirL 



Early, mapema. 

JSasUy, u^su 

EHher—or—, ao — ao— , ama— 

ami^— . 
Elsewltere, panginepo. 
Entirely, pia, kabisa, yote, pia yote. 
Ere, kabla ya, mbele ya. See B^ore, 



Even, batta. 

Even if, -japo. Bee p, 138. 
Ever, sikuzote, dayima» kipindL 

for ever, milele. 
Everywhere^ mahali pote. 
Exactly, halisi, khasaa, bawaba. 
Exceedingly, 'mno subjoined to ^ 

word qualified, eaua. 
Except, ilia, ela (M.). Exoept may 

often be expressed by the use 

of (lie tense wi(h -sipo. See 

p. 146. 
except by, billa. 
Excessively, 'mno subjoined to (he 

word qualified, cbapa, obapank 

F. 

Far or far off, mbalL 
First, kwanza, mbe1e» 

to go first, kutangulia. 
FluenUy, kama majL 
For, (conj.) kwani 

(prep.) kwa. For is generally 
expressed by the use of (he op- 
pliedform of the verb* 

(in the place of), mahali pa. 

for (he space of, muda wa. 

for the saJce of, kwa ajili ya. 

for my sake, unipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Formerly, kwanza. zamani, 
Fordi, 'nje. 

to go forth, kutoka. 
Forward, mbele. 

go forward, endelea mbele. 
Forwards (upon (he face), fulifuli, 
fuUifudi, kwa kufahamia (M.). 
Frequently, mara nyingi. 
From, katika, case in -ni 

from among, miongoni mwa. 

from time to time, mara kwa mara. 

(since), tangu, toka, tokea. 



ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, <fcc. 



215 



I had it from (of) the Sheikh, 
nalipokea ya Slieikh. 
Further, tena. 
Further <m, mbele. 

G. 

Gently, polepole, taratibu, taliafifu. 

Gladly, furaha. 

Gratis, burre^ attia, Lilasbi, 

H. 

Hard, kassi. 

to work hard, kutenda kazi 8ana« 

to run hardy kaza mbio. 
Hastily, hima, kwa baraka. 
Here, bapa, huku. 

He ii here, yupo. 

lam here, mimi bapa. 

Here and there, bapa na bapa. 
Hereafter, baadaye. 
Hither, batta bapa, bapa. 

Hither and (hither, kukn na 
buku. 
Hitherto, batta leo, batta sasa. 
Howf -je tubjoined to the verb. 
See p. 123. 

kamaipi? Kwaje? 

How is itf Ginsi gaoi? 

How often ? Mara ngapi ? 

How muchf Kassi gani ? Kadri 
gani? 
How, ginsi with -vyo^ joined with 
the verb ; ginsi is often omitted. 

How he was, d-c, gin&i alivyo- 
knvra, &c 
However, lakiui. 



If, kana, kwambo, kama; -ki- or 
-po- inserted in the verb. See 
pp. 136, 146. 



Immediately, mara, mara moja. 

now immediately, sasa bivi. 
In, katika, case in -ni followed by 
pronouns in m-. 
in the shoulder, ya bega. 
in front, panibele, mbele. 
[J] in going, nikienda, nikiwa 

nikienda. 
in good time, at its proper time, 

tabafifu. 
in heaps, obnngu cbungu. • 
tft order thai, illi. See p. 14L 
in place of, mabali pa. 
in the middle, katinakati, kati, 

katikati. 
in the middle of, kati ya, katikati 
in the morning, assuboi [ya. 
Indeed, knsema kwelu 

great indeed, kubwa sana. 
Inside, ndani. 
inside of, ndani ya, ccue in -nl 

foUouoed by pronouns in m-. 
He is inside, yumo ndani. 
Into, katika, ease in -ni followed by 
pronouns in m-. 



Just, see p. 116, baliri. 
That is just it, ndiyo yalio. 



Lastly, kwa mwisbo, mwislio. 

cU last, batima, mwiabo. 
£a/e,kasiri. 
Less, duoL 

to become less, knpttngua. 

Less by, kaasa. 
Like, kama, metbili, besabti ffk» 

People like us, kina slsL 
Littte, kidogo. 

a Utile moret pnnde. 

a little longer, -refu pUndd* 



216 



8WABILI HANDBOOK. 



M. 

Merely, iu^haasi. Both worde foUow 
Vie word or phrase they qualify* 
Moderately, kadirL 
More, zayidi. 
more than, zayidi ya. 
a little more, pundo. 
Moi'eover, tena, na. 
Much more, or much lees, sembusc, 
Bcuze. 

N. 

Near (adc.^, karibu. 

Near to, kaiibn na, karibu yn. 

Nearly, karibu na or ya, kadri ya. 

Necessarily, of necessity, kamini la- 
zim, ukwascfu. 

Neither — nor — , wala— wala— . 

Never, kabisa (with a negative pre- 
ceding), kamwi (M.). 

Next, -a pili yake, kiisha. 
next to, -a pili ya. 

No, ahaa, hahda, la, siyo, bakuna, 
bapana, haiona. Tliese last 
three words mean, tbcro is not, 
or there ia none. 
No, hy no means, baslia. 

Nor, wala. 

Not, si. See Negative Tenses of Verhs, 
p. 143. 

Not only — , Imt also — ; si — bassl, 
— lakinl tena ; si — to, ilia—. 

Not yet, bado, asitasa, haitassa, &c. 
(]yj.). These words are used to 
denote incompleteness, whatever 
the subject referred to may he* 
Not yet may generally he ex- 
pressed hy the negative tense 
with -ja- (seep, 145), after which 
tense bado is generally added. 

Now, sasa, leo (to-day), wakati bun 
(iU this time), zamani kizi (in 



these times), samani 2eta (in our 
times), siku hizi (in these days). 
Now directly, sasa bivL 



Ohliqudy, banamiL 
Of, -a, with a first Utter varying 
according to the class of tlie 
preceding word, that is of the 
thing possessed, 
z. Mtu wa Ali, Alt's man. 
Watu wa Ali, AlCs people* 
Mbnzi wa Ali, All's goat^ 
Mbuzl wa Ali, Ali^s goals* 
II. Mnczi wa Ali, Al€s cocoa*^ 
nut tree, 
Blinazi ya All, Al€s cocoOr 
nut trees, 
in. Nyumba ya Ali, Alt's house, 
Nyumba za Ali, Alt's 
houses, 
IV. Kisu clia Ali, Ali^s knife. 

Visu vya Ali, AlCs Jcnices, 
Y, Kasha la Ali, Ali^s chest. 
Makasha ya Ali, All's 
cliests. 
VL Uimbo wa AH, Ali^s song. 

Nyimbo za Ali, Ali^s songs, 
\n. Mahali pa Ali, AKs place. 
VIII. Kufa kwa Ali, Al€s dying,' 

1. Nyumbani mwa Ali, in AlCa 

house, 

2. Nyumbani pa Ali, hy Alts 

house, 

3. Nyumbani kwa Ali, to Alts 

Iwuse, 
Ya is sometimes pronounced a. 

saa a sita, twelve o'clock. 

Where it is intended to mark specially 

the individuality of the poesessbr 

tJie possessive pronoun may he 

used instead ofthepreposition • a. 



AL VERBS, PBMFOSITIOMS, Jke. 



217 



Kiti chake Sultani, means the 
chair in which no one hut the 
Sultan sits, or the Svltan'a own 
chair. 
Of is included in some words which 
are therefore not followed hy -a. 
Kina Abdallah, Ahdalld!i*8 peoplcy 

or people like Abdallah. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed^s 

son. 
Binti Mohammed, Mohammed^s 

daughter. 
In some common phrases -a is 
omitted apparently for shortness 
only, 
OfteUy mara nyingi. 
On, juu }a,'the case in -ni. 
Put it on the tabUy weka mezani. 
Put it on the top of the tahle, weka 

juu ya mcza. 
on both sideSf pande mhili* 
on every side, kotekote. 
on foot, kwa miguu. 
on one side, onesidedly, pogo. 
on purpose, makusudi. 
on the part of, miongoni mwa. 
Once, mara moja. 
at once, mara moja, mara, 
once only, mara moja tu. 
Only, peke yake, &c. (by itself, 
alone), tu, hassi, both following 
the word or phrase qualified. 
Orderly, taratibu. 
Out, nje. 
out and out, tama. 
Speak out, sema saua. 
Outside, nje, kwa nje, 

'outside off nje ya. 
Outwardly, kw^ nje. 
Over, juu ya (of place), aayidi ya 
(of quantity). Oyer in the sense 
of excess may be expressed by 



kuplta^ to pas9 ;.and in tlie sense 
of finished, by kuisha, to come 
to an end. 
The batUe is over, mapigano ya- 

mckwisha. 

P. " 

Patiently^ stahimilL 

PerJiaps, labuda, hwenda, kwenda, 
kwa nasibu, inshallah. 

Perpetually, dayima, abadan. 

Possibly, labuda, yamkini (it is pos- 
sible), kwa yamkini (by possi- 
bility). 

Presently, halafu. 

Properly, vema, halisi, bawaba. 
-to, used as an enclitic subjoined 

to verbs and substantives. 
Amejiwekato, he lias placed him- 
self properly. 



QuicJdyi hima, himahima, kwa ha- 

raka, upesi, mbio (runniitg). 
Quietly, taratibu, polepole. 
Quitey kabisa, pia hdlisL 

B. 

liather, zayidi (m,ore)i afathali (pre- 
ferahly). 
much racier, scmbuse, seuze. 



Secretly, kwa 8irl,ndanl kwa ndanl. 
Side by side, kandokando. 
Silently y kimyakimya. 
Since, tangu, toka, tokea. 
Slowly, polepole, taratibu, kiada. 
So, when followed by as is generally 
omitted, when standing alone it 



218 



8WABILI HANDBOOK. 



may he expreised by ginsi, and 
-Tyo inserted in the verb. 
He ia not to taU as you are, si 

mrefu kama wewe. 
J did not know he was so tdUj si- 

kmnjua ginfii alivyo mrefu. 
80 far (u/hatta. 
Sometimes, mara, mara kwa mara. 
Sometimes he laughs, sometimes he 
cries, mara hucheka, mara hulia. 
Soon, sasa Mvi (immediately), upesi 
{quickly), bado kidogo (yet a 
litUe), karibit (near), 
Stia, tena, hatta leo. 
Strongly, kwa nguvu. 
Suddenly, gh^fala, mara moja, tkd- 
ruba moja. 



Utat (how that), kwamba, ja kwa- 
mba. 
(in order (hat), nil Seep.Ul. 
Then, is often expressed by the use of 
the -ka- tense, or by the verba 
kwisba, to finish, or, kwenda, 
toga, 
Akiislia akatoka, having finished 
this, he went out = then he went 
out. 
Akaenda akamkamata, and he 
went and seized him = then he 
seized him. 
(after this), baadaye, baada yake, 

nyumaye, nyuma yake. 
(then ii was), ndipo. 
(in (hose days), zamani zUe, siku 

zile. 
(at that time), wakati ule. 
There, pale, huko, kule. Pale 
points to what is nearest, kule 
to what is farthest off. 
Therefore, kwa eababu bii. 



Though, kwamba; the -ki- tense^ 
p, 136, wlien the case is put as 
an existing one ; the -nge- tense, 
p. 138, where the case is put 09 
not existing. 

Though he is, akiwa. 

Though he be, angawa. 

(even if), -japo, p. 138. 
Thus (in this way), hm, bivya 

just thus, vivi hivi, vivyo hivya 

(in (he same way), Tiyyo. 
Tillj batta, mpaka wa. 
To (as (he sign of the infinitive), 
ku-; the u becomes w beforeii,e, 
or i, and is often omitted before 
and XL 

Kwisba =s ku-isba, tafinish. 

Ewenda = ku-enda, to go. 

Koga = kuoga, to bailie. 

To before a verb where it expresses 
the purpose or the object aimed 
at, is expressed by (he use of (he 
subjunctive. 

I stood up to look, naliaimama 
nione. 

TeO, him to help you, mwambja 
akusayidie. 

I want him to go, namtaka aende, 

I want to go, nataka kwenda. 
(In such cases as (his the verb 
in the infinitive is used as a 
substantive,) 

(unto) is generally contained in 
(he verb, kiipa = to give to (not 
to give). If not contained in 
(he meaning of (he original verb, 
it may be expressed by (he use of 
(he applied form. Jbi (he few 
eases in which to cannot be 
brought into the meaning of (he 
verb, it must bo rendered by 
kwa. 



ADVEBB8, PREPOSITIONB, &e. 



219 



(<M/ar as), hatta. 
(to the house of), kwa. 
Together, pamoja, wote. 

Whenjoined toithpersonB together 
M ezpr€M6(2 by forme of -ote, 
022. 

twende sote, letuego together. 
mwende nyote» go together, 
vende wote, let them go together, 
hoth together, wote, wote wawili. 
Tapsy-turvy, kitwakitwa, vitwav!- 

twa. 
TotaUy, kabisa, pia. « 

Truly, kweli, hakika, jakini, inna. 
Twice over, kuwili. 

^* 
Unawares, gbdfalo. 
Under, chini ya. 
Until, hatta. 
Up, juu. 

Upon, juu ya, case in -ni. See On. 
Upwards, juu. 
Utterly, kabisa, pia yote, tikitikl 

V. 

Vainly, burre. 

Very, sana. Sana always follows 

the word qualified by it. 
Vigorously, kwa nguvu, sana. 
Violently, kwa nguvu, kassi. 

W. 

Well, vema, sana, -to. See Properly, 
Whatf See p. 122. 

What do you want ? Wataka nini ? 

WJiat tree is it f Mti gani huu ? 

What man f Mtu yupi ? 
What = that which. See Relatives, 

p. 117. 
Whenf Lini? 

When (if, as soon a$, etc), the *ki 
(e3ut6,|>. 136. 



(at the time when), -po, treaied as 

a relative particle and joined 

with the verb, p. 119. 
(duririg the time), wakati wa. 
when it rains, wakati wa mvua. 
When the ?Mrvest comes, wakati 

wa kuvuna, [wa]vunapo. 
(even if), -japo, p. 138. 
Whenever, wakati wote, killa -po. 
Whenever I go, killa nendapo. 
Where ? Wapi, api, p. 123. 
Where are you going 1 Wenda 

wapi? 
WJtere, po, ko, mo, treated as relative 

particles and Joined with the 

verb. Fo implies nearness, and 

mo the being inside. 
I don't know where he is, simjui 

alipo. 
I don't know where I am going, 

sijui ninapokwenda. 
I donH know wJiere I came from^ 

sijui ninakotoka. 
Where the tree is (or wcu), penyi 

mti. 
Wherever, po pote, ko kote, mo mote. 
Wherever I go, killa nendako. 
WJierever I enter, killa ningiama 
Wherever I am, killa nilipo. 
Wherefore, kwa sababu hii or biyo. 
Whether — or — , ao — ao— , 
Whether it be, licha. 
(if), kwamba. 
While, maadam, maazdl. 
While, is generally expressed by 

tlie use of -ki- prefixed to the 

verb, p. 136. 
While it is yet early, kungali na 

mapema bado. 
Wliyf Mbona? Kwani? Kwa 

nini? Ya nini? Kwa sababu 

gani ? Ginsi or G issi gani ? 



220 



SWABILt EANDSOOS. 



Wiihj na, pAmdjn ta. 

(a« an imtrumeni)^ kwa. 

(coniaining, having), -^nyL See 
p. 97. 
Within, ndaiiL 
Without, nje. 
Fi'i/wtt^ QwepOi pMipo (w^c (Acre 

TTt^Aottf IS generally expressed hy 
Hie -Bipo- (enM (p. 146). It 
ma^ be represented hy a simple 
negative. 

lie is without shame, hana Laya 
^ he has no shame, 

Wiawui, foUowed in English hy 
the participial or verbal in -ing, 
may be rendered by the negative 
sui(junctive of the verb. 

Without seeing him, asimwone. 

Without there being, pasiwo. 
Wonderfully, ojfbf ajabu. 



Yearly, mwaka kwa mwakA. 
Tes, Q^e, e6e, na'am, vexna, njcma, 
yakini, ndio, kwelL 
Ewaa or Ee wallah are often used 
by slaves or inferiors to express 
a willing assent 
Inshallali is used as a promise to 

do something, 
Lebeka or Labeka, contracted 
into lebA, ebbe or even be, is 
used by inferiors as an answer 
»when called, Superiors or 
equals generally use naam, Vie 
Arabic yes. 
Ndiyo yalio, that is just it. 
Yonder, kule, kulee,|>. 115, 116. 

Z. 

Zigzag^ upogoupoga 



( 221 ) 



INTEBJEOTIONS. 

There are in Swahili, as in all languages, some 
scarcely articulate Interjections, and many of the natives, 
especially of the lower class, use a great deal of action, 
often joined with half-articulate exclamatory sounds, 
to illustrate and enforce their meaning. The following 
are the most usual Interjections, and those which can 
best bo written. The words used for Yes and No are 
given in the preceding list, pp. 216 and 220. 

The ordinary salutations are in practice a sort of 
Interjections, not being very easily explained under 
any other head. 

A slave addressing a superior says Sihamoo or Nasika^ 
woo, for naahika miguu^ I embrace your feet. The 
superior replies MaraJidba, thank you, or welome, the 
word being originally an Arabic form of congratulation 
and well-wishing. 

Equals very commonly say when they meet Jambo or 
yiambo, to which the reply is Jamho or Jarribo sana. There 
is a playful or very affectionate way of continuing the 
dialogue thus — Jamho, Jamho, Jamho sana. Jamho sana, 
Sana 9am* Sana sana. Kama hlu (like pearls), Kama 



222 8WAH1LI HANDBOOK. 

manjani (like coral), dc.^ Ac. The more correct exprcs* 
sions are — Hu jambo f Are you well ? and the answer. 
Si jamho, I am well. It is difficult to explain these 
phrases intelligibly. Bu Jamho f is literally, Are you 
not a matter or affair? or still more strictly, Are you 
not a word ? The meaning is very nearly that of the 
English, Is nothing the matter with yon? Sometimes 
ffa jamho is used to express. He is^well, or Ha jartibo 
kidogOf He is not very ill, or He is a little better. One 
may ask, U halt gam f What state are you in? i.e.. How 
are you ? to which a proper reply is, Njema^ hemd il lUahi, 
Good, praise be to God. The Arabic Sahalkheirj Good 
morning, and Maaalkheir^ Good afternoon, are often 
heard. The more elegant forms are Suhahk AUdh WZ/c- 
heir and Masah Allah hilkheir. It is not usual to inquire 
about the health of a wife or of the women of a house- 
hold, unless among very intimate friends, or for some 
special reason. When necessary, one should say, fli*- 
Jambo nyumhani f or U hali gani nyumhani f How are 
you in the house, i.e.. How are your household, or 
those in your house ? It is proper, if you are asked 
how you are, always to answer, well, for the sake of 
the omen ; and similarly if you are asked ffahan ganif 
What neAYs? to answer Njema, good, and then after- 
wards to give a true account of the matter. 

In Swahili Interjections a final h is often distinctly 
heard. It requires much practice to enable a European 
to make this sound properly. 



( 223 ) 



LIST OF INTEEJECTIONa 



Ah! An exclamation of mingled 
grief and surprize. The final 
h must be distinctly sounded. 

Ahadnt or asanti, thank yon. Ah- 
sdnt is an Arabic word mean- 
ing, You have done well. It is 
sometimes used profusely by 
way of mere compliment. 

Amifuu Amen, used at the end of 
a prayer. 

Aiil Look you! I say! It is 
used generally as a means of 
calling attention to what has 
been said, or is about to be said. 
It is a sort of vocal note of 
admiration. 

B. 
Basil ! or Bom! That will do I 
Enough ! Stop ! No more I 



Clivih! An exclamation of impa- 
tience and contempt; the ch 
is the sound most heard, tlie 
vowel being very short and in- 
significant. 



Eel O! The interjection of in*^ 
vocation. 

Ewel plxa, Enyi! Ton there I A 
rather contemptuous way of 
demanding attention. It is 
used for Hi I I say ! and any 
exclamation merely meant to 
atti-act notice. It must not be 
used to a superior and rarely 
only to an equal. It is custo- 
mary to call to them Bwana I 
ie., Master! The answers 
will be found in the previous 
list, p. 220, under the word 
Yes. 



Haya! An exclamation borrowed 
from the Arabic; it means, 
give your attention to this, go 
on with it. It is used where 
we say, Gome, along I Look 
sharp! Be quick! Go on I 
If it has been proposed to do 
anything, Haya! means, I^et 
us set about it Haya! is 
oommonly used by a master ov 



224 



SWAHILI BANDBOOK. 



overlooker to hasten men about 
their work. 

Mima ! Quick I Be quick I l^Take 
haste I -Often doubled, Eima 
himal 

U6dil with a great stress on the 
0. It is not right to enter any 
house or room (not your own) 
without first crying Eddil and 
waiting for some one to come, 
or at least to answer, Kdrib, 
Come in I 



Je! or Tel Hullo I What nowl 
Weill What is it? 



Kdrtb I i.e., come near I It is used 
to invite people into a house, 
to join a party, or to sit down 
and put themselves at their 
ease. Kdrib! may generally 
be translated, Come and sit 
with us 1 and a common answer 
is, Nimelcaa hitaJw, I am set 
down. 

Kijulel An exclamation of con- 
tempt. 

Kuaheril Good-bye! Farewell! 
Sometimes a plural is made, 
Kuaherini, though it seems to 
be an incorrect form. 

Sometimes a special friend 
adds, Ya kuonana, as much as 
to say. May we soon meet again. 

Kumhel Whatr What then 1 An 
expression of surprize, espe- 
cially used when things turn 
out not to be as they were 
jeprosented to bo. 



LaHi! Oh that! Would thatl 
An exclamation of regret, a 
wish that things had been 
otherwise. 

Looo I An exclamation of surprise ; 
the o is more dwelt upon in 
proportion to the amount of 
surpriae. 

MaraJiaha! Thank you! It is 
well ! used by way of acknow- 
ledging a gift or a compliment 

Miije ! Me I I ! I am the one ! 

Micenyewe I You did it yourself I 



out An exclamation fort boding 
eviL Woe ! Ole wenu 1 Woe 
unto you! Ole wanguf Woo 
is me! 



Sda! You! I say! It is put 
after a word to give emphasis 
to it. NJoo 8aa I Come on, do ! 

Salaam I Peace ! Hail ! It is 
used as a salutation by the 
Indians. The regular Arabic 
Salaam aleiJmml Peace be 
with yon I and the answer, Wa 
aleik salaam! And with you 
peace! is not very commonly 
heard. Salaam is often used 
in the sense of compliments : 
Salaam Bihi! With the mis- 
tress* compliments, — said in 
presenting anything. 

Similla! Out of the way! Ori- 
ginally, as it is said, Bismillah, 
In the name of Gpd. It U »ow 



LIST OF INTEEJECTIONa. 



226 



fho common cry by which people 
are warned of eomething com- 
ing. SirniUa punda! Hake 
way for a donkey! SimiUa 
ubaul Take care of the plank ! 
Two servants frequently go 
before a great man to dear the 
way for him, and call out to 
any one in the road, SimiUa I 
SimiUa! 

A plural SimiUenil is some- 
times made as though it were 
tho imperative of a verb. The 
more correct plirase for Gel out 
of the way I iaJitengel 
BUirehel Don't disturb yourself! 
When a new-comer enters, the 
rest rise to do him honour, 
which he tries to prevent by 
laying, 5tore&0 / StareheJ It 



is properly used to deprecate 
any trouble or disturbance on 
the speaker's account 

T. 

Tendenil Go on! Let us go! 
Probably tho imperative of ^u- 
tenctaj to do or to be employed 
about. 

Tutu! Don't touch! Used to a 
child meddling with what ha 
had better leave alona 



Vemal Very well! 
That will do! 



So be it! 



Weyel You I 
It'syoal 



W. 

You are the one 1 



228 8WAEILI BANDBOOK. 



POBMATION OP WOEDa 

The formation and introduction of new words go on 
BO freely in SwaMi, that no guide to the language 
would be complete without a section on the subject. 

Foreign words are adopted in a shape as nearly like 
their own as the rules in regard to Swahili syllables will 
allow. At first indeed a word may be used in its crude 
original shape, but it soon has vowels introduced into, 
and subjoined to it, so as to bring it into a regular form. 
Arabic words seldom present great difficulties when 
once the gutturals have been toned down. Thus Ichabar 
(news) softens into hahdri, wakt (time) becomes first 
wdkti and then waMti, Jcahr or gahr (a grave) is softened 
and expanded into Jcahuri, It is seldom that an Arabic 
word presents so much difficulty as did these three. 
Portuguese has furnished some words, as kcLsha (caxa), a 
large box ; meza, a table ; mvinyo (vinho), wine. Prench 
gives a few, as hweta (boite) a box; divai (du vin) 
claret. An instance of English adaptation occurs in 
manowarif which is the current designation of an Englisli 
man-of-war. 



FORMATION OF WOBDS 227 

Verbs. 

Some rules have been given at the end of the section 
on Verbs for the formation of several derived forma 
(p. 157). Verbs in the cansative and neuter forms may 
be made from other parts of speech, especially from 
foreign Adjectives, by changing their final syllable 
into -dsha or -esAa, -^ka or -eJto, as though they had been 
originally Verbs. 

Ghdlif dear. KttghcUisTta, to make dear. 
Laini, smooth. KtUainUhOf to make smooth. 
Ktdadnikctf to be made smooth. 

Beside those formations which are in daily use, it is 
a great help to the understanding of the language to 
bear in mind the traces of formations not now ordinarily 
employed. In regard to Verbs it is a constant rule that 
those ending in -aa reverse the meaning of similar verbs 
ending in -a only. 

Kufunga, to fasten. Kufungua, to nnfasten. 

KvfuJcOf to fill in a hole* KufulnuLf to clear out a hole. 

Several verbs show traces of a rule, which prevails in 
some other African languages, that the change of -a into 
-ya gives the Verba causative meaning. 

Kuponct, to get welL KuponyOf to cure. 
KnogtypOy to fear.' Kuogofyct, to frighten. 

There are many questions about the form of Verbs 
which need much more investigation. What is the rule 
by which some causatives are made in -aha and some in 
'Za f Has the -aha termination the effect of to make to 
hCy and -za that of to make to dof What is the explana- 
tion of the apparently neuter form of some active Verbs, 

q2 



228 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

Buch 03 Icufunika^ to cover? What is tho offcct of the 
terminationB -ma and -/a, as in hiungama and htfumhata f 
What dialect did they originate in? What are the 
rules for the termination -anya^ which seems to be 
QonunoQ in the most northerly Swahili? j 

It has been shown in the section on verbs how some 
tenses are formed by the use of an auxiliary, and some 
by a tense prefix which has no independent meaning. 
An example of the transition between the two is sup* 
plied by the three forms of the negative infinitive : 1. 
hUoa hupenda; 2. hutoa penda; 3. hutapenda. In the 
first form both words have a substantial independence ; 
in. the second the principal verb, penda^ is already 
drawn out of its proper form, and depends for its 
meaning upon the first verb, ioa^ as upon a prefix ; in 
the third it has swallowed up the final of the first verb 
and appropriated its prefix hih. The form of the future 
prefix which is used with relatives points to taka as the 
original form, and the verb hutaha is so like our own 
word to toill that one can hardly be wrong in supposing 
that in both cases the change from a verb expressing 
volition to a mere sign of tense expressing futurity has 
proceeded in a similar manner. Now, if the tense pre- 
fixes were ever independent words, the principal verb 
must have been in the infinitive ; and, if so, the presence 
of tho hi- before monosyllabic verbs, wherever the accent 
requires it, is fully explained ; it was dropped wherever 
it served no purpose, and retained where it was con- 
venient to retain it. Th^ original independence of the 
tense prefix and of the principal verb would also go to 
account for the way in which the objective prefix clings 



FOJ^MAfiON OF WO^Pa. 229 

to the principal verb; it would then have originally 
followed the ku-, and so been severed by it from all the 
other prefixes. The only cases in which the natives 
separate the prefixes from the verbs in writing seem to 
be where a particle of relation is joined with the 'na-^ 
•Zf-, and 'tdka- prefixes, and in the past conditional or 
'ngali' tense. It is curious to have in such a word as 
atakayelmja the same letters exactly used to form a 
tense prefix and to express an independent verb. Ata- 
Jcaye huja means, who desires to come, atdkayeJeuja, who 
will come, in the sense of a simple future. 

Adjectives. 

Adjectives are made from Verbs in correct Swahili by 

substituting -vu or fu for the final -a. Where the final 

is preceded by a consonant the Adjective is made from 

the applied form. 

KunyamaOf to remain silent. -nyamavUy siteni 
Kuharibu, to destroy. "haribtfuy destructlTO* 

Verbs that end in ^ha change this into -vu in making 
the Adjective. 

KucliolMt to become tired. -ehotUf tired. 

These forms do not now appear to be freely made Of 
Used in the common dialect of Zanzibar. A somewhat 
gimilar meaning may be expressed by the use of the 
variable Preposition -a followed by the Infinitive of the 
Verb. 

SuBSTANTIViS. 

Substantives may be freely made by prefixing to the 
simple form of the Verb the initial letters proper to the 
first, or to the fourth cla»s, according to whether it is 



230 BWAEILI HANDBOOK 

a living being or a thing which does what the Verb 
expresses. It must be observed, that this form is so 
purely verbal that it takes an object after it just as a 
Verb would. 

Mfanya hiashara, a trade maker, f e., a mcrcihaiit 
VifcM, things which are of service, necessaries. 
Ki/ungua mHango^ the door opener. 

The final letter is sometimes changed into -t, and the 
word ceases to govern an object. 

Msemi, a speaker. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a -&- it becomes -l^-• 

KunbOy to steal. Mmvt\ a thief. 

KugonibOj to quarreL Mgomvif a quarrelsome person. 

Where the above rales wonld produce a common 
word with another meaning, the hu of the Infinitive is 
retained. 

KvUmOy to cultivate. Mkulima, a cultivator. 

BnimOy a moontain. 

There are a few traces of a formation of verbals by 
changing the last letter into -6, as in -ieulet chosen, from 
iu/eu[Z]a, to choose. 

The habitual doer of an action may be denoted by 
adding -ji to the simple form of the Verb and prefixing 
the initial letters proper to the first Class. 

Kuomboy to heg, Mwombajij a beggar, 

Kuiba, to steaL Mwibajif an habitual thiefl 

Another way of denoting a person who does what the 
Verb expresses is formed by changing the final letter 
into -My -ehif or -;i», and employing the usual prefixes. 



FOBMATION OF W0BD8. 231 

When the Verb ends in -Jfea the -ia becomes shi; wheie 
the Yerb ends in -to the -ta beoomes -st. 

Kuokoa, to savd. Mwckotij a savionr. 

Kutwnua^ to buy. JKrnunteft, a poichofier. 

Kuakot to build (in stone). Mwashi, a mason. 

KufwUOy to follow. M/uaH, a follower. 

The result of the action denoted by the Verb may be 
expressed by changing the final -a into -o and using 
some appropriate prefix. 

Kuzaoj to bear. Mazaoj fruit, produce. 

KtUendOf to da KUendo, an action. 

KwendOy to go. MuDendo, a journey, or going. 

Of the Substantival prefixes those of the fourth (Ki-) 
Glass are most often used. 

The same forms especially in the fifth Class are used 
to express the place where an action is generally done* 

KuokOy to bake. Joko, a baking place. 

KtikuMnyikay to be assembled. MokuMnyOcOf a gathering place, 

cr an assembly. 

Words of similar meaning are also made by the termi- 
nations -«t -eM, -8t. See above. 

Jfavoo, or Mavaxi, dress, garments. 
Kizaoy or Kizatif birth, a generation. 
PendOf or Pettsi, love. 

Where the Verb and Substantive are both borrowed 
from the Arabic, it is useful to remember that the Sub- 
stantive has generally a where some other vowel occun 
in the Verb. 

Kuahuduy to worship. Ibadaj worship. 

Kuiofirif to traveL Safari, a journey. 



282 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

Sometimes both the Arabic and the Swahili forms 
occur. 

KuJibUf to answer. Jaioahu and majHm, on answer. 

Verbs joined with relatives, or with the particles of 
place or time, may be treated as Substantives. 

Wenddko Tcote, whithersoever thou gocst 
Killa nendapo, every time I go. 
Zikerexiocuo, turnery, turned goods. 

Substantives of place may be made from Adjectives 
by putting them into the form required by Mdhaltf 
place (Class VII.). 

Panpamamt a quiet plaoa 

The place whero Bomething is may be expressed by 

penyL 

Penyi mtende, where the date tree is, or was. 

The place for doing anything may be expressed by 
pa followed by the Infinitive of the Verb. 

FaJ(uto1eea, a place to go out at, an outlet. 

Abstract Substantives are ordinarily formed by means 
of the prefix U- or IF-. 

Karimu, generous. UJcaHmUf generosity, 

-cttpe, white. Weupe, wliiteness. 

Mwizi, a thief. I7m, thievishness. 

Muuaji, a murder. Uuaji, murders. 

Waxiri, a vizier. Uvfozirif viziership. 

An instance in which both Arabic and Swahili forms 
are used occurs in the word for enmity, 

Aduit an enemy. Wadui or Adaufa^ enmity. 

Nations, their country and language, are regularly 



FOBMATION OF WORDS. 233 

expressed by the prefixes of the first, sixth, and fourth 
Classes. 

Jlff/olo, a Galla. JJgcHa^ Galla land. Kigala, the Galla 

language. 
Mzunguy a European. Uzungu, the native country of the 

Europeans. Kizungu, the language which Europeans 

speak. 

It is to be observed that the U- form would also 
express the being a Galla, European, &e., and that the 
Ki' form denotes the sort or kind of anything, not of 
language only. It is seldom used absolutely except of 
the language, but when preoeded by -a (of) its true 
meaning becomes evident. 

Mavao ya Kizungu, European dress. 
Viazi vya Kizungu, potatoes. 

The Ki' form may be made from other substantives. 

Mavao ya Mfaume, royal robes (form mfaumef a king, and 
u/auvM, kingdom or kingship). 

The formation of Adverbs and Prepositions has been 
described in the section on the smaller parts of sp eeoh. 



( 284 ) 



i! 



st 



I 
I 



« 3 
I 



I 

g 

H 



1^1 



i 

Hi 



d 






* -i. 






illliii^^i^^l)! 



tVlli^!^!^^^ I I 






3!^e£i:S 



t^ik4'^ 



hJ iz; > M 



S 



►^^ 



I 






l^tii^i^^i^ il 






^1 



t^S^l^t^ 



'^ r'S •^ rS •& nS •& rS .2 •£ •£: .JS 



II 



" "^ a t; ^ f! g^g 



( 235 ) 





Table of the PfiEPOsmoBr -a (of) 








in foui 


LaDgoages. 




L 


Plur. 


SwAmu. 

Wa 
Wa 


Sqahbaiju 

Ywa 
Wa 


NrAsnrKZX. 

Wa 
Wa 


Yao, 
Wa 


IL 


Sing. 
Plur. 


Wa 
Ya 


Wa 
Ya 


Gwa 
Ya 


Wa 
Ja 


III. 


Sing. 
Tlur. 


Ya 
Za 


Ya 
Za 


Ya 
Za 


Ja 

Bya 


IV. 


Sing. 
Plur. 


Cha 
Vya 


Kya 
Vya 


Cha 
Fya 


Cha 
Ya 


V. 


Sing. 
Plur. 


La 
Ya 


Ja 
Ya 


Lya 
Ga 


Lya 
Ga 


VL 


Sing. 
Plur. 


Wa 
Za 


Lwa 
Za 


Lwa 
Za 


Lwa 
Sya 


VIL 




Fa 


Ha 




Pa 


vm. 




Kwa 


Kwa 


Kwa 


Kwa 


(TX.) 


Sing. 
Plur. 




Ka 
Vya(?) 


Ka 
Twa 


Ka 
Twa 



END OF PART I. 



HANDBOOK OP THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE 

AS SPOKEN AT ZANZIBAB. 

Part II. 
BWAUILI-ENGLISU VOCABULAUY. 



239 ) 



PBELIMINABT OBSEEVATIONS. 



Iv using the following Vooabnlory it is necessary to lemember that 
Swahili words change very much at the beginning and not often at 
the end. 

In searching for the meaning of a word, which is not to be found 
exactly as written, it is well to examine first the final syllable, so as to 
correct, or remove, any termination or enclitic which may be attached 
to it These are as follow :~ 

1. The passive of the verb is made by changing -a into -wa. Verbs 
ending in two consecutive vowels frequently use as their passive the 
passive of the applied form which ends in 'liuja or -tetoa. 

Kupenda,io love. Kupendux^ to be loved. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufungtdiwa, to be unfastened. 

Kfizaa, to bear. Kuzalitoa, to be bom. 

KuTeomXHM, to buy back. KukombotewcL^ to be bought back. 

2. Verbs ending in -a change the -a into -0 in the subjunctive and 
imperative, and into -4 in the negative present. 

Pende, love thou. 
Apende^ that he may love. 
Hapendi, he does not love. 

The change of the final vowel distinguishes hapendi, he does not 
love, firom hapendOf a contracted form of nikapendoy and I loved. 

a The plural of the imperative is made by adding ^ni to the 
singular. 

Pendani or Pendeni, love ydi 
Si/unif praise ye. 
FikiHniy consider ye. 

B t 



240 PBELIMINABY OBSEBVATIONS. 

4. SubatantiTOf form the locative case by adding -iif. 

NytLifAani mtoanguy inBide my house. 
Nyumbani hwanguy to or at my house. 
Nywmbani pangu, by or near my house. All from Nyumb<i. 

5. -ni may stand for nini 9 What ? 

Watahani 9 What do you want ? 

€. Jef How? is subjoined to the verb expressing the action in- 
quired about 

AMmaje f How does he speak ? i.«.» What does he say ? 

7. mnOy exceedingly, always follows the word it qualifies, and may 
be treated as an enclitic. 

8. -to, which, however, rarely occurs in the dialect of Zanzibar, 
denotes goodness and fitness. 

Kuweka, to place. KutoekcUot to place properly. 
Moknukat smells. Manukaio^ scents. 

9. The relative signs and the particles denoting time and place are 
subjoined to the verb when there is no tense prefix, otherwise they 
follow the tense prefix. 

Tulala-pOy when we sleep. 
Tuna-po-ldla, while we are sleeping. 

The particles denoting time and place are, 

-j)o, when or where, 
-fco, whither or whence. 
-^7110, wherein. 

These preceded only by the personal prefix imply the substantive 
verb to he, 

YupOy he is there, not far off. 

ZipOy dtc.y <fe§., they are there, not far off, &c., &o. 
Yuko, he is there, far off. 

• ZiJiOy &c.y &c.y they are there, far off, &c., &o. 
YumOy he is there inside. 

ZimOy Ao.y &e.^ they are there inside, &c., &o. 

The relative signs are, '<fhOy -2o, -o, -po, -»yo, -wo, -y«, -yo, -zo, ' 
These syllables with na prefixed have th^ me^ining of and, pr toitl 
Urn, her, it^ or tfien^ 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 241 

10. The possessive pronouns may be used in enclitic forms. 

Thy, or your,. may be expressed by subjoining, according to tlio 
class of the substantive, -chOt -lOy -o, 'pn -vyo^ -too, 'yo^ or -zo. 

HUi hen^ or tto, may be expressed by subjoining -cA^, -0, -le, -pe^ 
rye, -tw, -ys, or -xe. 
Other enclitic forms of the possessive pronouns are,— 

•n4(tt, or 'angiif my. -efu, our. 

-kOf or -akOi thy. -enu, your. 

'he, or -akey his, &o. -oo, their. 

The final letter of the substantive generally merges into the initial 
of Iho pronoun. • 

Mufanangu, my child. MwanetUj our child. 

Mwanako, thy child. itfu^anenut your child. 

Mvsanake, his child. Mvoanao, their child. 

11. New verbs may always be formed when wanted by changing the 
final vowel into -to or -eo, Aia or -lea, to make the applied form; into 
'Za ist '€ha, -iza or -eea, -uha or *68^, to make a causative form ; into 
•ana, to make a reciprocal form^ and into -%a, 'ikOf or -ekd, to make a 
neuter or quasi-passive form. 

12. In old and poetical Swahili the object of the verb is suffixed as 
well as prefixed, as in U-ni-h^fathi-mif Bo thou preserve me ; where 
both the ni and the mi denote the object of the verb. 

The syllables thus used are »eho, -to, -ni, -nyiy -o, -po, -st, -tffOt -wc^ 
-iro, -ye, -yo, -20. 

Having cleared the word of all adventitious terminations it \ii\ 
probably be found at once ; if not, look for the first syllable, and so 
on, taking syllable by syllable until the word, its number, person, and 
tense, will all have been explained. It must, however, be borne in 
mind that nouns in u- or w- generally drop the initial letter in the 
I)lural and frequently^ substitute for it n- or «y-. 

Verbs and adjectives are here' indexed under the fii'st letter of the 
simplest form, or of that to which the prefixes are joinecL 

Kupenda will be found as Penda 7(u>, to love. 
Mabaya will be found as 'haya, bad. 

Words wliich may be used as adjectives or as substantives, but from 
their nature can hatrdly be applied to any but animate beings, will be 
found under m- or mic-, n^ they can very rarely in the singular take 
any other prefix. . 



242 FBELIMINABY OBSERVATIONS. 

SabetantiveB are indexed by the prefix with which they are generally 
used. It mnst be remembered, however, that the use of particnbur 
prefixes may be nearly always varied to suit any particular shade of 
meaning, so that if tiie word is not to be found under one, it may 
happen that its meaning oan be found under some other. - 

Where no plural is mentioned, it is to be understood that the plural, 
if used at all, Iei in the same form as the singular. 

The following table of prefixes may be found useful. The use of 
each will be explained in the Vocabulary. 

SUBSTAKTIVAL PREFIXES. 

Oh- Ki- Ha- Mw- U- W- 

J. Ku- Mi- N- Vi- Wa- 

Ji- M- Mu- Ny. Vy. 

AdJEOTIYAL PBEFIXE8. 

Oh- Ku. 'M- Mu- Ny. VI* 

J- Kw- Ma- Mw- P- Vy. 

Ki- M- Mi- N- P*. \Va- 

Pbonomikal pbefixes. 

Oh- Ku- Li- Mw- Vi- Y- 

I- Kw- M- Pa- W- Z- 

Ki. L- Mu- U- Wa- Zi- 

Verbal pbefixes. 

1. Personal or subjectlYe prefixes, which take precedence of all 
others. 



A- 


•Ki- 


•Mw- 


Si- 


•Vy- 


Yu. 


•Ch- 


♦Ku- 


N- 


♦Tu- 


•W- 


♦Z- 


Ha- 


•L- 


Ni- 


♦Tw- 


♦Wa- 


♦Zi- 


Hu- 


♦Li. 


♦Pa- 


•U- 


•Y- 




♦I. 


♦M- 


•P- 


♦Vi- 


•Ya- 





2. Tense prefixes which precede all ^cept the signs of person. 

-a- -japo- -ku- -na- -si- -ta- 

-ali- -ka- .11- -ngali- -sije- -taka- 

-ja- -ki- .me. -nge- -sipo- 

• Theee may all be preceded ^y JSTo, to form negatlre teneee lo the IndicattTe moodi 
md peiBonal prefixes followed by -fi- make negative enttfunctives. 



PBELIMINABY OBSERVATIONS. 213 

3. Particles of place, time, and relation, which follow the tense 
prt. fix, or, if there is no tense prefix, are «nbjoined to the verb. 

•oho -iBO -wo 

-ko -o -ye 

-kwo -po -yo 

^jk> -vyo -zo 

4. Objective piefixes, which always immediately precede the verb. 

-1- -mw- -u- 

-ki- -n- -vi- 

-ku- -ni- -wa- 

-li- -pa- -ya- 

-m- -ta- -zi- 

A suppressed Z or r always exists between two consecutive vowels. 
It is often heard in the Merima dialect, and frequently appears where 
otherwise three or more vowels would follow one another. However, ' 
the more dassioal the Swahili, the less tolerant it is in any case of ar 
I between vowels, or even as an initial letter. 

heee = Mets, ete = lete. 

The following letters are interchanged ; 

2 and r, s and ah, and vulgarly hi and M, and th and i. 

Zanzibar ch = t (M.). 

„ e = a (M.). 

^ h = kh (Ar.). 

^ j =d(M.),y(A.)(N.> 

„ t = oh (Ozi.). % 

^ V =z(A.). 

H E = V (Mer.), th (Patta and Ozi.), j (vulgar). 

The letterrenclosed in parentheses denote the various dialects. 
(H.) = Mombas (kimvita). (Mer.) = Southern Coast dialect 

(kimerima). 
(A.) = Lamoo (kiamu). (Ar.) s Arabia 

(N.) = Poetical Swahili (kingozi). 



SWAHILI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



The sound of a in Swahili ro- 
aemblcs that of a in the English 
word "father." It is, perhaps,— 
except when doubled — somewhat 
sharper and lighter. 

When the final a of any prefix— 
except the negative prefix ha — ^is 
brought by composition to precede 
immediately either e or ^ it coalesces 
with them and produces the sound 
of a long e. 

JJca-enda is pronounced dkenda, 

Akawa-ita is pronounced aJcatoeta, 

A and ti have a tendency to 
coalesce into an o sound. 

Arabic substantives incorporated 
into Swahili have often been mode 
by changing -i- in the verb into -a- 
in the substantive. 

Kvbarizif to hold a public 
audience. Bar<iza, a public 
audience. 

Kutafirij to travcL Safari^ a 
journey. 

A occurs in some dialects whecc e 
\B used in Zansibar. 8ce E, 



A-KG 

A 3 yO, of. ; 

-a with a varying initial letter, 

of. -a is used in such phrases 

as the following for in: Unitie 

wa machoy put it in my eyes. 

Akamchoma ya hitovu, and he 

stabbed him in the naveL 
A', the sign of the third person 
singular prefixed to verbs when 
governed by substantives which 
denote animate beings— he, she^ 
or it 

Where the tense prefix begins with 
a, one of the a*s disappears. 

The following are instances of the 
way in which this a occurs. 

A^penda (for a-a-penda), he loves. 

A-na-pendOf he is loving. 

A-m-penda, he has loved. 

A'li-penda (for a-aU-penda), he 
loved. 

A-ka-pendctj and he loved. 

A'ta-pendOy he will love. 

A-H-pendOy he being in the con- 
dition of lomg. 

A-nge-penda^ ho would love. 



246 



A-NG 



AHI 



A-ngal{'pend€Ly he would have 

loved. 
A'japo-pendoL, even if he loyes. 
A-Hpo-prndOj he not loving. 
A-pende, let him, or that he may 

love. 
A-H-pendCy let him not, or thai 
he may not Imfo, er without hia 
loving 
•a-, the sigu of the present in- 
definite ; it follows the, prefix 
denoting the person of the 
subject or nominative, and 
precedes that denoting the 
object or accusative. 
N'O-m-pendoy I love him (I do 
him love). 
Aalif choice, good. 
Aatiy disobedient, rebellious. 
Ahadan, otdbadxy always, constantly. 
Ahiri Xw-, to pass over, go across (a 
Ahirioj passengers. [river, &c.). 
Ahiriiha hu-y to put across, to ferry 



Abtidia Xw-, to give worship to. 
Abtidisha ku-t to cause to worship. 
Almdu Jcu-, to worship. 
Acha hu; to leave, leave alone, let 

be, let go, allow, acquit, divorce. 
Achanahu-fto leave one another, to, 

separate. 
t^chari, pickle, a relish made of 

lemon-juice and red pepper. 
Achia Artf-, to leave to or for, to be- 
queath ta 
AjchiUa hu-f to pass over what a 

person has done, to forgive, to 

neglect. 
Ada, a custom, espedaUy acustomary 

gift. 
Adabu, good manners, politeness. 

KtUia addbu, to make polite, to 
teach good manners. 



Adamu, Adam. 

Mwana Adamu, or Bin Adamm, « 
human being, a vmm. 
Adawcif ewadij, 
Adi Jm-f toMoompany a person part 

of his way. 
Adibu ku't to educate, to teach 

manners. 
AdiUy right, right conduct 
AdHihu-, to learn to behave rightly. 
AdilUha ktihf to teach to behave 

rightly. 
Adui, plur. AdtU or maadut\ an 
Aee, Tes. [enemy. 

A/a, plur. tnaafa, an enemy. 
A/cUhdUj rather, better of the two, 

beat, preferably. 
Afla, health, good health. 
Aflkana hu-f to come to an agree- 
ment, agree. 
Afiunif opium. 
Afu, wild jasmine. 
Afu hi-, to save, to deliver, to par* 

don, to preserve. Also^ to get 
A/ya. See Afia, health. [welL 
A/ya hu', to make to swear. 
Aga kU', to take leave of, to agree 

with. 
Agana hu-, to take leave of one 

another, to make an agreement 
Agga hu-, to be lost, to perish. 
Agiza hu; to commission, direct, 

give in charge, appoint to. 
Agizo, plur. maagizo, oommissioiv 

charge. 
Agua kvk', to predict 
Aguiia ha-, to predict o£ 
Ahaal No I 
Ahadi (vulgarlytiKiJiadt), a promise, 

promises. 
Ahadiana hu-, to promise mutuallyi 

agree. 
AMij £unily, relatkmfl. 



.AHE 

JherOf in tho grav6,ander the earth, 
After death, at the end of the 
world. [Ar. dkhr, the other.] 

AMdi ku'f to promise. 

AJudnij or AhtanH or A$anti, 
thanks I thank you! 

Aibika hu-, to be disgraced, to be 
put to shame. 

AibUiha ku'f to disgrace, to put to 
shame. 

Aibti, a disgrace, a reproach. 

AhM^MoA. 

Aini hu'j to appdnt 

AiwUha hu-, to show, point ont 

AititodlOt pronounced EtiwdU)^ what 
he is wanted (or called) for, o- 

AJabisha hn-, to astonish, amase. 

AJabu, a wonderful thing, wonder- 
fully. 

AJalif fate, death. 
Kwalimika ajali, to be altogether 
oome to an end (to be saluted 
by its fate). 

4;ara, merit. 

Aj<bl or'AjaH Wonderful I Won- 
derfully. 

Ajili, or dfili, sake, cause. 
Ktoa aJUi ya, because of, for the 
sake of. 

Ajiri hu; to hire. 

Ajiruha &«-, to cause to hire, to let 
on hire. 

*ASJemii Persian. 

Aka ibti-, to build in stone, to do 
mason's work. 

Akaliy some few, some. 
Akali ya icafu, ya vitu^ &o., some 
few men, things, &c. 

Htke, or Hikwe, his, her, or its, of 
him, Sco. 
Htke yeyet his own. 

AkendOf for AkaencUh a&d he went 



AL 



217 



Akhera = Ahera. 
AkhtUaf, to quarrel. 

Atafanya aJdUUaf, she will scold. 
Akia hu-^ io build for. 
AJ^ia fa*-, to swallow, gulp down. 
AkibcL^ store, a thing laid by. 
Kuweka akSbOy to lay up, to put 
by. 
Akida^ an officer, a second in com- 
mand. 
Ahida voa otikaH^ an army officer. 
Akidi ku-y to suffice. 
■ 4WM>g or AhUhoy then, he hsnng 

finished this business. 
Akikay a funeral feast for a child. 
AkiUy intelligence, wits, under- 
standing (generally treated as a 
plural noun). 
Akmoy you— addressed to young or 
inferior persons. AMna Jnwma 
young sirs. Akina hUbi^ my 
young ladies. 
Akiri ktk-y to stand over, to remain 

behind. 
Akiruha ku-y to adjourn, put ofl» 

make to stand over. 
<^9 thy, your, of thee. 
-ako wewe, your own. 
Akrabay relations. 
Akraba ya kuumeiUy paternal 

relations. 
Akraba ya kukeni^ maternal 
relations. 
Aly the Arabic article Os. It is 
retained in many words derired 
from the Arabic, as Alf ajiri for 
Al Fairy the dawn. Sometimes 
its form is varied, as lAwaU for 
Al Waliy the governor. 
In Arable phrases the definite 
article prefixed to the second of 
two nouns is the sign of the 
possessive case, as Bayiat <>' 



248 



ALA 



AMB 



Iiigr^, a subject of iho finglish, 
i.e.f a British subject. 
Ala, plur. madia or nyala, asheath, 

a scabbard. 
^AUika^ a tusk of ivory. 
Alafu, thousands. 
dlamat a mark, marks. 
Alanrif ono of tho Mohammedan 
hours of prayer, about half-past 

3 P.M., afternoon. 
Albunseyidi (Ar.), of the sons of 

princes. 

Al/ = Elfuy a thousand. 

Alfajiri, the dawn, the earliest Mo- 
hammedan hour of prayer, about 

4 A.M. A stress on the second 
syllable denotes very early dawn. 

Alfia. 

Kofia alfia^ a chiefs cap. 
AlhamiHy Thursday. 
-aZi- or 'li'y the sign of that past 
tense which denotes an action 
complete in past time. 
Ai or 'li' sometimes stands for 
the verb to he, as in a-li-ye, he 
who is, or merely, who. A-U, 
he is, or, he being. Nika-Uj 
and I am. 
Alia Xftt-, to make a mark by striking, 

to wale. 
Alifu, AUf, the first Arabic letter, 

the alphabet. 
Alika hu-f to invito, to call, to call 
invited guests to a wedding, to 
inform, to split, to click, to give 
a crack, to snap. 
Alihwa hu-s to go through a certain 
. course of medicine, consisting 
chiefly ofvarious fumigations and 
a very strict regimen. 
Aliki ku; to hang. 
Aliko, where he is, or was. 
Alimuha ku-^ to instruct 



AliomOy wherein he is, or was. 
Alita, a dancing place, a house o^ 

amusement. 
Alieha ku-, to cause to snap. 

Kualisha mtambo wa Imndukiy tc 
click the lock of a gun. 
AUah (Ar.X God, more reverently, 

AUah ta^ala, God the most high. 
Allah AUahf without delay or pre- 
tence. 
AUah hiUcheirf may God make it 

good. A common answer to the 

usual morning and afternoon 

salutations. 
AlvMLiia, embroidery. 
Almasi, a diamond. 
Ama — ama, either— or. 

Ama mjo ? Isn't it so ? 
Amali, an act, a thing dona 
Amaliy a kind of amulet. 
Amarna (Ar.), a turban ? 
Amana, a pledge, a thing entrusted, 

a deposit,a present sent by another 

person. 
Amanif peace. 
Amara, urgent business. 
Amara (ya nanga\ a cable. 
Amha ku-, to speak against, to talk 

scandal, to speak, to say. 
Amha. Bee Anibaye. 
Amhaa ku-, to go near to without 

touching, not to reach, to leave 
Amhart, ambergris. [unhurt. 

Amhata ku-j to attach, to stick. 
Ambatana ku-, to cleave together^ 

to be mutually attached. 
Amhatiza ku-, to moke to stick. 
Amhaye or Amhaye kwamba^ who. 

The final syllable is variable, 

making ambazo, amhayo, &©., 

which. 
Amhaza ku-, to cause to pass near 

without touching. 



AMB 



AND 



249 



Jimbia Jcu-, to tell, io say to. 

Pass. Kuambiwaf to be told, to 
have said to one. 
Ambika hu-, to put (or be put ?} 

firmly together. 
Arnbilika ku-,iohe spoken to. 
Ambiaana ku-y to be cemented to- 
gether, to stick together. 
Ambisha hu; to make to hold to- 
gether. 
Ambua ku-j to peel, to huak, to toko 

a morsel in eating. 
Amhukiza hu-f to give a complaint 

to, infect. 
Amdelhan, a silky kind of stuff. 
AmerikanOt Ameri&n sheeting, best 
cotton cloth used in trading in 
the interior. 

NJia, &c., ya AmeriJtano, the best 
Amili ku; to manage. [way, &o. 
Amina, Amen. 
Amini ku', to believe in, trust. 

Kuamini mlu na kitu, to trust a 
man with something, to entrust 
something to some one. 
Aminif or Aminifu^ trustworthy, 

faithful. 
Aminisha ku-, to entrust to, have 

perfect confidence in. 
Amtri, plur. maamiri, an emir, an 
AmJia ku't to awake. [officer. 

Amkia ku-, to salute. 
Amktia ku-, to invite, summon (?). 
Amratci, a dipping line, made fast 

to the foremost yard-arm. 
A nrif order, command. 

Amri ya Muungu, a matter in 
God's hands. 

8ina amrif &o., I have no busi- 
ness, &c. 
Amria ku-, to put a thing at one's 

disposal, to give leave concerning 

something. 



Amrisha lu-^ to cause to be ordered, 

order. 
Amru kth, to order, .command. 
Amtha ku-y to waken, cause to 

awake, rouse. 
Amu, Lamoo. 

Kiamu, the dialect of LamoOi of 
the Lamoo kind, 
Amu, father's brother. 
Amua ku-f to judge, to separate two 
people who are fighting. 

Passive, Kaamtttoa, to bejudged. 
Amuka ku- = Amka ku-, 
Amuru ku- = Amru ku-. 
Amusha ku- ^ Amsha kU', 
Amwa ku-j to suck (M.). 
Amwisha ku-, to suckle (M ). 
Anttf he has. 
Anakotoka, whence he is coming, 

where he comes from. 
'anancLf gentle, soft. 

Upepo muHinana, a soft breeze. 

Maji fiiananaf clear, quiet water, 
Anapokufenda, whither he is going. 
Anapolalaf while he is sleeping. 
Anasa, pleasure. 
Andaa ku-, to prepare for cooking, 

to make pastry, &c. 
Andalia ku-, to prepare for, to make 

made dishes for. 
Andama ftu-, to follow (M.). 

Mwezi umeandama, the month is 

up — the now moon has begun. 

Andamana ku-, to accompany (M.). 

Andika ku-, to put in order, to lay 

out, to describe, to write, to steer 

a vesseL 
Andikanya ku% to put things one 

upon another, as plates in a pile. 
Andiliia ^m-, to write, to lay out, 

&c., for or on account of. 
Andikiwa ku-, to be written, laid 

out, &c., for. 



zSO 



AND 



ASH 



Andikiana Jnh, to write to cme 

another, to correspond. 
Anfu, knowing, ingenious. 
AngOj a great light, the firmament. 

Ndege za angoj birds of the air. 
Anga Vu-, to jnmp or danoe about 

liko a wizard. 

Angatka ftii-, to be in a great bustle. 

Angalia ku-, to look • attentively, 

regard, take notice, obserre, be 

careftil, beware of. 

Angama hu-^ to be caught in falling 

(as by the boughs of a tree). 
Angamia ku-, to be ruined, to fall, 
come to poverty. 
utaangam4a mwituni^ you will be 
lost in the jungle. 
Angamuha 2n»-, to ruin. 
Angaza Xpu-, to be light, to be bright, 
to remain awake, to keep watoh. 
KtUia mwangazct,io give light to. 
Angia ku-, to bewitch by dancing 

and jumping about. 
Angika ku-^ to hang up, to hang 

against a wall. 
•angUf my, of me. 

'Wigu mimi, my own. 
Angua ktt-, to take down, to hatch 
Anguka ku-, to fall down. [eggs. 
Angukia hu-, to fall down to, or 

before. 
Angutiha ku-, to make to fall down, 

throw down. 
Ania iM'f to purpose, think of doing. 
Anika ku-, to spread out to dry. 
AnkrOj a bill of sale. 
Anna ku-t to take out of the sun or 

rain. 
Anuka Ini-, to leave off raining. 
AnuHiniy the address of a letter. 
Anza ku', to begin. 
The ku- is frequently retained, as 
Alikioanza for AUanzcu 



AntUiza ku-, to make a beginning. 
Anzwani, Johanna. 
Ao, or. 

Ao-HxOf either— or. 
'OOf their, of them. 
Apa ku-, to swear. 
ApendcUOf what he liket. 
Apif where? 
The a sometimes is so run into 
the final a of the preceding 
word as to be scarcely separable 
ih>mit. 
Apia ku-f to swear to, or about 
Apisha ku'f to make to swear, to 

adjure. 
Apiza ku-, to swear at, to imprecate 

against, to wish bad luck to. 
Apizo, plur. nuMpizo, an imprecation. 
Arabuni, Arabia, in Arabia. 
Arahunii earnest money. 
Arathi, pardon. 
Arha'ctf four. 
^Ari, a thing to make one blush a 

disgraceful thing, 
ilrid,. following, party, faction. 
Ariaaf lower I let out the rope I 
Arifu, knowing, ingenious. 
Arifu ku-f to inform. 
Ardbaini, forty. 
Ardbatathara, foxuieoL 
Ata ku-^ to forbid. 
Aiali, syrup. 
AtoLi ya nyuki, honey. 
AjmU ya mua, the boiled juice of 

the sugar-cane, treacle. 
AmU ya tembOf fresh palm wine 
boiled into a syrup. 
^Asharoj ten. 
Asharini, twenty. 

AdiekaUt better in health during 
siclmess. 
Kuwa cuihekaJi, to improve. 
Kufanya (uihekaUf to make better 



ASH 



AZM 



251 



Asherati, dissipation, a dissipated 
person. 

Ashiihi hu-, to love, to love ex- 
ceedingly. 

Ashiria %ti-, to make a sign to. 

Js^ih*, customs duties. 

An hu', to neglect one's duty to, to 
rebel, to be disobedient. 
KfMsi nikeioef to quarrel with bis 
wife, and not do his duty by 
her. 

AsQcari^ plur. asikari, or waasiharh 
a soldier. 
Kutia asikari, to enlist. 

AsUif origin, nature, source. 

Asisha fcti-, to cause to leave, to 
cause to cease. 

Adtata, not yet. 

Assubuiy in the morning. 

Aiusa, that which assuages bitter- 
ness or pain, takes away an un- 
pleasant taste. Also Azuza. 

Ataj Aiana, Atia, Atilia^ (M.) = 
Aehcby Aehana, &c. 

Atamia fcu-, to sit on eggs, to hatch 



AtamUha Jcu-, to put under a sitting 

Atgvl, average. [hen. 

AthabattBha hu-, to oontroL 

Athama, highness. 
Mtoenyi aihama, the Most High. 

A{haH = Eaihari. 

Athibu JcU', to chastise, to punish. 

Athibisha hu-, to punish. 

Athima = AtJiama. 

Athimika Xrti-, to be exalted. 

Athini hu-,io call to public prayers. 

Athuurt\ noon, one of the Moham- 
medan hours of prayer. 

AH I look you I I say I 

Atihu, a fragrant herb used in the 
composition of Itikuha, 

Attia, gratuitously, for nothing. 



Atuha ku', to crack as the earth 

does in very dry weather. 
Atta kthy to make a survey of, to go 

over and look at 
Auka ku-, to grow large enough to 

bear fruit 
Auni ku'y to help. 
Avya ku-^ to produce, to spend, to 

giveaway. 
Atpa kn-y to go out or away (Mer.). 
Awaloj a promissory note. 
Atoali or Aotoali, first, almost* 

nearly. 
Awaza kvh^ to dispose, to allot to 

each his share. 
Atoesia, a kind of dhow like a hederU 
(which see), without any prow or 
head, with merely a perpendicular 
cutwater. 
Awini kt^, to help, to supply. 
Aujithi kth, to barter. 
Ayari, a cheat. 
Ayari,^ pulley, the stay of a dhow*» 

mast 
Ayati, a sort of grass. 

Aycui ya shohaf brass wire. 
Ayika ftii-, to dissolve, to melt 
Ayithi Vu-, to preach. 
Aza ku- = Waza ku-f to ponder, 

think. 
Azama, a nose ring. 
Azima, a charm used to bring back 
a runaway slave and to drive 
away evil spirits. 
Azima ku; to lend. 

Azifmea ku-, to borrow. 
Azimia ku-^ to make an tLzima 

against 
Azimia kn-^ to resolve. 
Azimu ku-f to resolve (generally 

pronounced dzimu). 
Azizi, a rarity, a curiosity. 
Azmat scent, fume. 



252 



AZU 



BAJ 



Azur, perjury. 
JUwKi^ See Asusa, 



B has the Bame Bound as in 
English. 

N changes into in before 6, as 
fn^aya for n-baya, bad. 
mJnoa for n-hwa, a dog or dogs. 

Nw also becomes mb, 
mbingu {oTn-toingu^ the heavens. 
Bttf a shortened fonn of bwana. 
Baa, evil 
Baa, plor. mahaa, a worthless 

person, an nttcr reprobate. 
Baada, afterwards. 

Baada ya, after (used preferably 
of time). 

Baadaye, or haada yoke, after it, 
then, afterwards. 
Baathi, some. 

Baathi ya watu, some persons. 
Baazi, a sort of pea growing on a 

small tree somewhat resembling 

laburnum. 
Bah (Ar.), a gato, chapter. 

Bab TJlaya^ goods for the Euro- 
.pcan market. 

Bah Kaoiii, goods for the Gutch 
trade. 
Bab U amana, something cntrastedy 

lent to one. 
Baba, father. 

Baba mdogo, mother's brother. 

Baba toa hanibo, stepfather. 

Babatvawaana, > ^n owl. 

Baba toa toatoto, y 
Babaika ku-, to hesitate in speaking, 

to stutter, to talk in one's sleep. 
Babata ku-, to pat, to tap, to flatten 

out 
Babu, graud&ther, ancestors. 



Babtia ku-, to strip ofll 

Babuka ku^, to tear, to become torn. 

Badala or Badali, a thing given in 

exchange for something else, an 

equivalent 
Badani, Soo Karuu, 
Badili kth, to change, exchange, 

alter, become changed. 
Badiltka ku-, to be changed, to bo 

changeable. 
Bado, not yet, used generally to 
express that the matter in educa- 
tion is as yet incomplete. 

Bado kidogo, soon. 
Bafe, a kind of snake. 
Bcifla, a sort of flne calico. 
Bagala or Bdgala, a buggalo, a 

large kind of dhow square in the 

stem, with a high poop and a 

very long prow. Most of the 

Indian trading dhows are of this 

build ; they have generally a 

small mizcn-mast 
Bdghala, a mule. 
Bagua ^tf-, to separate. 
Baguka ku-, to be separate. 
Bagukana ku; to be in hostilily, to 

be on two sides. 
Baharif sea. 

Bahari iVaJi, the Persian Gulf. 

Bahari ya Sham, the Bed Sea. 
Bahatia, a sailor, sailors, the crew. 
Bahasha, a square bag or pocket 

with a three-OQrncred flap to ti 

over the opening, frequent)^ 

used to keep books in. 
BahaiiorBdkhii, luck, good fortune. 

Bakhti mtu^ that depends on the 
BdkaiUka ku-, to guess. [person. 
Baini, &o. See Bayini, &c 

Baini ya, between. 
Bajia, small cakes of gronnd b^n^ 

and pepper. 



i)AJ 



BAO 



253 



Bajuni = Mgunycu 

Bakdku, to dispute, to argue. 

Bahhili, a miser, covetous, miserly. 

JkJdUi. BeeBahati. 

Baki, the remainder, what is left. 

BaM (in arithmetic), subtraction. 

Baki ftu-, to remain, to be over, to 
be left. 

Bdkora, a walking stick with the 
top bent at right angles to the 
stem. The best are made of a 
white, straight-grained wood 
(mtob we), which will bend nearly 
double like a piece of lead without 
breaking or returning. 

Baksha, a packet, of clothes, &c. 

Bakulif plur. mdbdkiLli, a basin. 

Bakwia &tt-, to snatch out of the hand. 

Balaa^ sorrow. 

Balamvoeziy moonlight, moonshine. 

Balanga, leprosy. 

Bahm, a large kind of water jar. 

Bali, but 

Balighif a boy who is a virgin, a youth. 

Balungi, plur. mdbalungtf a citron. 

Bambct, plur. mabamba, a plate, a 
flat thin piece. 

Banibo, an instrument like a cheese- 
taster thrust into a bag to draw 
out some of its contents for ex- 
amination. 
MahambOf large mats for beating 
out mtama upon. 

Bamvuttf spring-tides. 

Bana ku-y to squeeze, press as in a 
vice. 

Banada, the Somauli coast 

Banajiri or Banagiriy a kind of 
bracelet ornamented with points 
or blunt spikes, much worn in 
Zanzibar. 

Banda, plur. mo&amla, a large shed. 
^anda la/rasi, a stable. 



Bandarij a harbour. 

Bandera, a flag, red stuff the colour 

of the Arab flag. 
Bandi, a seam. 
Kupiga bandi (in sewing), to 
tack, to run, to baste. 
Bandia. 

Mtoto wa bandia, a doll. 
Bandika ku-, to put on a plaster or 

any medicament. 
Bandita ku-, to strip off, to peel off. 
Banduica /;u-, to peel off, to come 

out of its shell, to be peeled. 
Bangiy bhang, Indian hemp. 
Banika ku^, to roast on a spit over 

the fire. 
Baniya, a temple, a buildin°:, 

especially that at Mecca. 
Banja ku-, to crack nuts, Ac, to 
break off the shell or husk by 
beating. 
Banyani, plur. mahanyani, used in 
Zanzibar as a general name for 
the heathen Indians who come 
as traders from Gutch. 
Banza, 
Kujibanza, to squeeze oneself 
against a wall or into a hedge 
to allow some one else to pass. 
Banzif plur. mabanzi, a small thin 

piece of wood, a splint 
BoQ, the tiller of a small craft (A.). 
Bao, a game in card-playing. 
Mabao »ita = Mvumo, 
Kutia baOf to mark, in card-play- 
ing. 
Bao or Bao la komwe, a board with 
thirty-two small holes, each 
about the size of a teacup, for 
playing a very favourite game 
also called 6ao, with komwe^ or 
with pebbled. The holes are 
9o;iielimes merelv scooped out 



254 



BAP 



in the ground, and any email 
things used to play with. 
Kueheza hdo, to play at the above 
game. 
Bapciy the flat of a sword, &o, 
Kupiga hapa, to strike with the 
flat of a sword. 
Baroj a species of antelope (Helgo- 

bagus arundinaceas). 
Bara or Barra^ wild country, coa^t. 
The Arabic name, Z^njibarr, is 
compounded of this word and 
ZenJ or Zanjy e^negro : hence the 
Zanguebar and Zanzibar of our 
maps mean only the negro 
coast. The Swahili name for 
Zanzibar is inyariably Unguja: 
Barr Fans, the piece of Persian 

coast belonging to Oman. 
Barr SwdhU, the Swahili coast. 
Baraha, proper, just, exactly. 
Barabara^ a broad open road. 
Bara/Uf ice. 

Baragutnoj a spiral horn used as a 
musical instrument ; it is blown 
through a hole at the small end. 
Baraif an after brace carried on the 
Ice side to steady the yard of a 
dhow. 
BardkOf a blesrang. Also common 

as a proper namel 
Barakoat a mask reaching down to 
the mouth, universally worn by 
the women of Oman and Zan- 
zibar of the upper class. 
BaraiU a disease. 
Barathtdif an idiot, dupe, simpleton. 

Also harazuli. 
Baravjai, a swallow. 
Baraza, a stone seat or bench table, 
either outside the house or in 
the hall, pr both, where the 
master sits In public and receives 



BAT 

his friends ; hence the durbar, of 
public audience held by the 
sultan, and the council then held. 
Baridij cold, wind. 

Majt ya haridi, fresh water. 
BaridiyabiSf rheumatism. 
Bariki Au-, to bless. 
N.B. — Young people are said in 
Zanzibar to bariki, when they 
flrst have connection with the 
opposite sex. Girls are thought 
old enough between nine and 
ten. 
Bartkia hu-, to give a blessing to, 

to greet 
Bariyo (A.), what is left from the 
evening meal to be eaten in the 
morning. 
Barizi ku-j to sit in haraxa, to hold 

a public reception. 
Barra, See Bara, 
Barua or BdrtM, a summons from a 

judge, a bill, a letter. 
BanUi, gunpowder, 
Barzulu a fool. 
Basbasif mace, the inner husk of 

the nutmeg. 
Bashire kheril may it be lucky ! 
Bashiri Aru-, to prognosticate, to 

foretell by signs. 
BanihisM or BakhshidU, a gift, a 

largess. 
Batiri ku-, to foresee. 
Bass or Bassi, enough, it will do. 
When it begins a sentence it 
means — ^well, and so, and then. 
When it follows a word or phrase 
it means— just this and no more. 
Bastola, a pistol. 
Bata^ plur. mabata, a duck. 
Baia la bukini, a goose. 
Baia la mzinga^ a turkey. 
Batela, the common dhow of Zon* 



BAT 



BIA 



255 



sibar ; it hai a square stem and 
an ordinary boat-liko head. 

BcUi, tin, block tin. 

Bata. Soo Betili. 

Batili hu-, to annul, to abolitb, to 
reduce to nothing. 

BaiUy the log (nautical). 

Batobato, plur. ma-, various colours 
and marks on an animal. 

Bau, a i^izard*s fortune-telling 
board. 
Kupiga hau, to divine. 

Baura, a European anchor. 

Bavuniy alongside, at the side. 

Batoa, plur. mahaway the wing of a 
bird. Also, the scales of a fish. 

Batcciba^ a hinge. 

^atoa&t^ahouse-porter, door-keeper. 

Bawasir^ haemorrhoids. 

'^yuy bad. It makes mbaya with 
nouns like nyumba, 

Bayini ku-t to recognize, to know. 

Bayiniica 7£^^>, to be notorious, to be 
well known. 

Bayinuha ku-y to distinguish be- 
tween, separate distinctly. 

Bazazi, a trader, especially a cheat- 
ing, over-sharp trader, a huck- 
ster. 

Beba ^-, to carry (a child) on the 
back in a cloth. 

Behera, a he-goat given to covering, 
strong, manly. 

Bedarif the fixed lower pulley for 
hoisting a dhow sail and yard, 
bitts to which and through which 
ihejirari are passed and secured. 

Bedeniy a kind of dhow with a per- 
pendicular cutwater, or merely a 
piece of board by way of prow, a 
sharp stem, and high rudder head. 
The mast of a bed^ni is f er- 
|>ondicular; in o^her dhpws it I 



bends forward. They come from 
tho Arab coast. 

Bee, a bargain, a trade, transaction. 

Beehf for IjebeJca, 

Bega^ plur. mabegay the shoulder. 

BehewOj the inner court in a stone 
house. AH large houses in Zanzi- 
bar are built round an inner 
court 

Beina, between. 

Beina yalio nini f what do you know 
about it? Compare Bayini, 

BeJcua hu-^ to parry, to knock off a 
blow. 

Belghamu, phlegm. 

Bembe, food and confectionery 
cooked by a woman for her lover, 
and sent to him during the 
Bamathan, 

Bembeleza hu-, to beg. 

Bembeaha ku-, to swing. 

Bembeza ku- \ to beg, to caress, to 

Bembeleza A;t*- j pat. 

Benua ku-, to put forward, to stick 
out 
Kvhenua kidariy to walk with the 
chest thrown forward. 

Benuka ku-, to warp. 
Kubenuka kiko kwa kiko, to warp 
and twist this way and that. 

Besa^ vulgar Arabic for pesa, Bes- 
teen = Pesa mbili, 

Besera, canopy of a bedstead. 

Betela = Batela, 

Betty a pouch for shot or cartridges. 

Beti (Ar.), a house, a line in verses. 

Betili or Batil, a dhow with a very 
long prow, and a sharp stern 
with a high rudder head. They 
generally belong to the Shemali, 
or Persian Gulf Arabs. 

Beyana, legible, clear. 

Bia, 

s2 



256 



BIA 



Kula Ua, to subscribe to a meal 
in common, to go shares in a 
meaL 

Biashara, trade, commeroe. 
Kufanya hicuihara^ to trade. 
Mfanyx hioitharai a trader, a mer- 
chant. 

Bibi\ grandmother. It is used as a 
title answering to my lady, and 
for the mistress of slaTes. 

Bibot plur. mahibo, a cashew apple. 

-WcAi, fresh, green, unrijre, raw, 
under-done. It makes mhichi 
with nouns like mpimha. 

Bidiif effort to surposs, emulation. 

BiHrOy a virgin. 

Bikiri Xru-, to deflower. 

BUaskiy gratis, for nothing. 

Bilauri, ft drinking glass. 

Bildiy the lead (nautical). 

BUisi = Iblicj the devil. 

BUla, except by. 

BUula, a tap. 

Bima, insurance. 

Bima ftu-, to insure against acci- 
dents. 

Binadamuy a human being (a son 
of Adam). 

Bindo, the loin-cloth held up to 
receive or carry things, a bundle 
in a cloth. 
Kukinga hindOf to hold up the 
loin-cloth to receive things. 

Bingway shrewd, knowing. 

Binti, daughter. Women in Zan- 
zibar are generally mentioned by 
their father's name only, as, Binti 
Mohammedf Mohammod*s daugh- 
ter. 

Birtka,p\\a, ma5irt7;a,a large vessel 
for holding water, a cistern. 

Birimf, a dish composed of meat, 
rice, pepper, &o. 



BOM 

Bisha ku, to knock or cry Hodi! at 
a door to attract the attention of 
the people within. It is held 
very wrong to go beyond tho 
entrance hall of a houae unless ' 
invited in. 
Bisha hU'y to work in sailing. Also^ 

to make boards. 
Bishana ftt*-, to squabble, to quarrel. 
BisharOy a sign, a good sign. 
Bisho, tacking, working to the wind- 
ward. 
Upepo wa hisho, a foul wind. 
Bisi, parched Indian corn. 
BitancLy lined, double, used of clothes 
wherever there are two thick- 
nesses. 
Bilhaa, goods, merchandise. 
'hivu or "VjipUy ripe, well done. It 
makes fMvu with nouns like 
nyumbcL 
Bim, plur. moMtoi, heaps of garden 

rubbish, leaves, wood, &o. 
Bizari, a small seed used in making 

curry. 
Bize, a wild hunting dOg. 
Bizima, a buckle. 

•bofu or -oouy rotten, bad, malicious. 
BogOy plur. mahoga, a pumpkin. 
Boga is used as a general word 
for edible vegetables. 
Bogi = Pombe, 

Bogoa ku-, to strip off leaves, to tear 

apart, to chop away wood in 

making a point? 

Bohari or Bokhari, a storehouse, a 

house with a shop and warerooms. 

Boko, a buffalo (?). 

BokobokOf a kind of food made of 

wheat, meat, &o. 
Bokioa, jack fruit [Tumbatu]. 
Boma, plur. maboma, a heap of 
I stones, a rampart. 



BOM 

Bombat a pump. 

Bomboromoka, plur. mci: 6eo Boro- 
moha, 

Bomoa Teu-y to make a hole through, 
to break down. 

Bomoka Aru-, to have a hole broken 
through it, to be broken down. 

Bongo, plur. mahongo, brains, mar- 
row. 

Bonth, a bridge, a pier. From the 
French pant 

Bonyea ku-, to give way, to crush 
in. 

Bonyesha ku; to press so as to sink 
in, to m^ike an impression with 
the fingers. 

Bonyeza ku-, to examine by feeling 
and pressing. See TomcLsa, 

Boondcy a valley, a hollow place. 

Bora, great, very great, noble, best, 
most. 

Boriy the bowl of a native pipe. 

Boriti, a rafter, thick poles cut in 
the mangrove swamps and laid 
flat to support the stone roofs. 

BoroTioa, a dish made of pounded 
pulse with flavourings. 

Boromoka ku-^ to fall down a preci- 
pice. 

BoTomoka, plur. ma-, precipices, pre- 
cipitous places. Also 6oin6oro- 
moka, plur. mar. 

Borongaboronga ku-yto make a mess 
of one's work. 

Borosihoa, a long-shaped black in- 
sect found in dunghills. 

Boruga &«-, to stir, tocut up weeds. 

-bovu or -ovtf, rotten, bad. 

Boza, a narcotic made by mixing 
bhang with flour and honey. 

Bozibozi, idle, dull. 

Bramini, an agent (working for two , 
per cent commission.) | 



BUN 



257 



l?t/a,p1ur. ma&ua, the stem of millt t. 
Bvha, rupia, applied to various skin 

diseases. 
Bubu, (A.), a teat. 
Bvbu, plur. mahubuy dumb. 
Bubujika ku; to bubble out, burst 
forth. 
Kuhubujtka m<iehozi,to burst into 
tears. 
Buhur (M.), dumb. 
Buddi, escape, other course. 
8ina buddi, I have no escape, t>., 
I must. 
Bueta, a box. Also bweta, (From 

the French, hoite.) 
Buga, a hare (?). 
Bughuthu ku'j to hate. 
Buhuri, incense. 
Buihui, a spider. 
Baki or Bukini, Madagascar. 
Buki, a kidney. 
Buku, a very large kind of rat 
Buli, plur. mahuli, a teapot. 
Bumbuazi, perplexity, idiotcy. 
Kupigwa na hurnbuazi, to become 
confused and abashed, so as not 
to be able to go on with one's 
business. 
BumbtDi'jTice flour pounded up with 

scraped cocoa-nut. 
Bumiaj sternpost. 
Bumunda,^hiT, mabumundOf a sort 

of soft cf^e or dumpling. 
Bundit a native bird, an owl. Owls 

are thought yery unlucky. 
Bunduki, a gun, a musket. 
Bungala, a kind of rico. 
Bungoy plur. mdbungo, a kind of 

fruit something like a medlar. 
Bungu, plur. mahungu, a dish. 
Bungu la kupozea uji, a saucer to 

cool gruel in. 
Buni, raw coffee, coffee-berriot. 



258 



BUN 



Buni, an ostrich. 

Bunt, (Ar.X sons, the sons of. 

Buni kU't to hogiD, to be thefintto 

do a thing, to iavent. 
Bunju, a poisonoas fish. 
Bunzif plur. mabunzif a atinging 

fly. 
Buoihu 7cu-f to hate. 
BupurUf plur. mahupurUf an empty 
shelL 

Bupuru la hittoa, a sknlL 
BuraTigenif of two colours, neither 

black nor white ; also painted of 

different ooloars, as a dhow with 

a white stripe. 
Buratangi, a whirring kite. 
Burdu. 

Marcuhi ym Burdu, eau-de- 
Cologne. 
Buriy large-sized tusks of ivory. 
Burianif a final furewell» asking 
a general forgiveness. 

KutaJcana buriani, to ask mutual 
pardon and bo take a last fare- 
well. 
Burikao, Port Durnford. 
Burre, for nothing, gratis, in vain, 

for no good. 
Buruda, a book of the prayers used 

over a dying person. 
Burudika hu-, to be refreshed. 
BurudUha hu-, to cool, to refresh. 
Buruga kth, to mix up, to knock 

together. 
Buruhanij token, evidenoe. 
Burujif battlements. 
Burura hu-, to drag, to haul along. 
Busara^ prudence, subtlety, astute- 



BusaU, a kind of matting made at 

liluscat. 
Buihcuhiy a thin sort of stufll 
BushUf tow, a gun-wad. 



Bushuti, woollen stufT, blanket^ 

Bustaniy a garden. 

Btuu, a kiss. 

Busu hu-t to kiss. 

Buu^ plur. ma&tiif, maggots ic me&t 

(M.). 
BuyUy plur. ma(uyt«,a calabash, the 
fruit of the baobab tree, used 
to draw water with. 
Buzi, plur. mo&ttxf, a yery large 

goat 
Baaga hw, to throw down what 
one has been carrying; to tip 
off ohe*s head, &c.; to rest by 
throwing down one's burden. 
Kubwitga nazi, to throw down 
cocoa-nuts. 
Bwana, master of slaves, master of 
the house, lord, sir, used politely 
inspcaking of one's own father, 
Bwana mdogo, master's son. 
Bicanda =s Gvoanda. 
Bujara, 
Seeds ya &trara, c dollar under 
full weight, a 5-frano piece. 
Bweta, See Bueta, 



C is required only in writing the 
sound of the English e^ or of the 
Italian c before t and e. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar ch 
frequently stands for the t of more 
northern Swahili, as— - 

ChupOf a bottle (Zanzibar) = 
Tupa (Mombas). 

Kuckeha^ to laugh (Zanz.) s 
Kuteka (Momb.). 

Clii, in the vulgar dialect, and 
amongst the slaves in Zanzibar, 
stands for ^t in the more correct 
language, f^evcrol of the tribes in 



.0 



CBA 



259 



the interior follow the same mle as 
the Ilallau in always pronouncing 
the same root letter e^ before i and 
e, and k before a and o. 

Thus slaves commonly say, Cliitu 
c1iidogo,A little tiling, for Kituhi- 



Ab a rule, in all Swahili where 
the prcformative lii has to be pre- 
fixed to an adjective or pronoun or 
tense prefix beginning with a vowel, 
it becomes c^, thus — 

Xt«tt c^an<Yu, my knife, not KUu 
hiangu. 

Kim (iaJcaia, the knife cuts, not 
Kisu JciahatcL. 

KUu chema cho choie, every good 
thing whatsoever, not KUu 
Iciema Tito hiote. 

Where ch represents 7«, as the 
initial sound of a substantive, the 
plural is made by chaugiiig ch into 
ry. 

C^ornlK), a vessel, FyomlK), vessels. 

But where e^ stands for t, the 
plural is made by prefixing mcL, 

Machupa, bottles. 

Machungwaf oranges. 

The Arabs confound in their 
pronunciation ch with «%, though 
the sounds are in Swahili perfectly 
distinct. 

It would perhaps be an improve- 
ment to write all ch^a which repre- 
sent M by a simple c, which has 
been used for this sound in Sechuana, 
and to write all cA's which repre* 
sent i by <y, which has been used 
for this sound in writing Zulu. But 
both are here represented by c^, 
because at least in the infancy of 
our studies it is puzzling to have 
two signs for one sound, and neither 



way of writing might be quite satis* 
factory in all cases. 

There is little doubt that the 
northern t becomes ch by the addi- 
tion of a 2^ sound, as the same sort 
of change takes place with d, which 
becomes dy or j, and sometimes 
with n, making it ny or the Spanish 
ii. The same sort of chango in 
English vulgarizes nature into 
nachuTf and Indian into Injun, 

Ch' = hi; which see. 
Ch; a prefix required by sub- 
stantives beginning with hi- or 
ch' representing Z:f-, in all pro- 
nouns and adjectives beginning 
with a vowel, and in tenses of 
the verb where the tense prefix 
begins with a vowel. 
Cha, of. 
Many quasi-substantives may be 
made by prefixing cJia to a 
verb, hitu being understood, as 
didkula (a thing), of eating, 
food. 
Clia or Chayi\ tea. 
Cha kU', to fear [A.] (the ku* bears 
the accent, and is retained in the 
usual tenses> 
Cha ^tf-, to dawn, to rise [of the sun] 
the ku- bean the accent, and 
is retained in the usual tenses. 
Kumekucha, the dawn (it has 

dawned). 
Kunakucluif the dawning. 
UHku huchay all night till dawn, 
all night long. See Chvoa, 
Chaanzuy the beginning of a piece 

of uA'tW. 
Chacha ku'f to ferment, leaven, 

work. 
Chaehaga ftu-, to wash clothes by 



260 



-CHA 



dabbing them gently on a siond 

or board, not to beat them so hard 

as is implied in the more common 

word hufua, 
'chache^ few, liltte, not many or 

much. It makes chache with 

nouns like mywmba, 
Chaehia Jcu-, to come with a press, 

to come much at once, to burst 

upon one. 
Chachu, bran, leaven, ferment. 
Oiaji, a kind of fish. 
Chafi. 

Chafl cha mguUj calf of the leg = 
tafu, 
ChafUf plur. machafUf the cheek, 

especially that part which is over 

the teeth. 
Chafua leu-, to put in disorder, 

disarrange. 
Chafuka Im-, to be in disorder, in 
dishabille. 

Moyo umechafuka, (I) feel sick. 
Chafukachafuka ku-, to be all in a 

mess, to be all tumbled about 

and in confusion. 
ChafuOf a poisonous horse-iiy. 
Chafya ku-y or kupiga chafya^ or 

kwenda chafya^ to sneeze. 
Chagaa = Tagaa. 
Chago, land crabs. 
CJiago, the place where the head is 

laid (on a kitanda, etc.)< 
Ckagua, ku-t to pick out, select, 

garble. 
Chaiy or Chayi, tea. 
CJiaJcaa ku-, to become worn out, 

to become good for nothing 

through age or use. 
Clialtey or eliakwe^ his, her, its. Bee 

-ake» 
CJiakiy chalk, whitening, putty. 
Chako, thy. See -ako. 



Chakogea = IKitu] eha hu-ogea^ A 
thing to bathe in, a bath. 

Chdkula, something to eat, food, a 
meal. 
Cliakula cha tubui, breakfast. 
Chdkula cha mcliana, dinner. 
Chakula chajioni^ supper, which 

is the chief meal of the day. 
Plur. vydktda, victuals. 

ChalCf a cut or gash made for orna- 
ment. 

Chaliy backward, on hiB back. 

ChamOf a club, guild, band of 
people. 
Waana chama, members of it 

Chamha cha jicho, a white film over 
the eye, 

Chamho, plur. vyamboj a bait 

CJiambua ku-, to dress, clean, pick 
over, as to pluck off the outer 
leavesof vegetables when sending 
them to market, to pick the 
sticks and dirt out of cotton, to 
pick cloves off their stalks, 
&o. 

CJiambulia ku-t to clean up, to dress 
up work or things. 

Chamburo, a plate for wire drawing. 

Chamchela, 
Pepo za chamchelat a whirlwind. 

Cha^msha kanwa (something to 
wake the mouth), something 
eaten first thing in the morning. 

Ghana = Tanti. 

Cliana ku-j to comb. 

CJianday plur. vyanda (M.), a finger, 
a toe. 

Chanddlua, an awning, a mosquito 
net 

'Changay young, immature. 

Changa ku-, to sift away chaff and 
husks. 
Kula kua kuchanga, a feast 



OHA 



GHB 



2G1 



wliero each contributes some- 
thing to the entertainment. 
Changa*mka hu-^ to be genial, to be 

Jieart jT and pleasant. 
Changamusha hu-, to cheer up. 
Changanya hu-, to mix. 
Ghanganyika hu-^ to be mixed. 
Changanyitha hu-y to perplex. 
Changarawtf girt,little white stones 

like those in ooarse sand. 
Changoy plnr. vyangOf a peg to hang 

things npon. 
Ckango, small intestines, round 

worms. 
CliangUy a kind offish. 
Changuy a tribal mark (?). 
ChangUf my. See -angyi^ 
Chant = Tant, on the back, back- 
ward. 
Chania %ii-, to comb for, fto. 
ChanikiwUif green. 
Chanja ku-, toout up [firewood, &c.]. 
Chanjiwa ♦'';.*-, nduij to be cut for 

small-pox, tio be vaccinated. 
Chano, plur. vyano, a large wooden 

platter, a mortar-board. 
Chanua ku-, to put forth leaves. 
Chaot their. 8ee 'OO, 
ChapOj plur. machapaf a stamp, 
-a ehapa, printed. [type, 

Kupiga chapa, to print. 
Chapa ku-f to beat, to stamp. 
Chapachapaf wet through, all 
dripping. 
Chapeo, a hat. From the French 

ehapeau (?). 
Chappa or Chapparay excessively. 
CJiapuOy a sort of small drum. 
CliatUf a python, a crocodile (?). 
ChavUy plur. ffyavu, a net. 
•chavu, filthy, unwashed. 
Chawa, a louse. 
Cfiayi, tea. 



Chazaf an oyster. 

ChazOf a sucker fish. 

Cheche, a small box (such as a 

lucifer-box). 
C%6cA6, a brown mangouste. Also = 

chechi, 
Qiecliej a spark. 
Chechea ku-y to walk lame. 
Checheley an absent person, one who 

goes far beyond where he in- 
tend ed to stop through inattention . 
ChecJiemea ku-y to be lame. Also, 

to reach up, stretch up to. 
Chechiy plur. machechiy a spark. 
Chegua ku-y to choose. 
CJieka ku-y to laugh, to laugh at. 
Chekdea ku-y to laugh at, because of. 
ChekOy plur. machekOy a laugh, a 

loud laugh. 
Ckelea ku-y to fear for, about, &o. 
Chelemay watery. 

Chelewa kuy to be overtaken by 
something through thought- 
lessness, to wake up and find 
it broad daylight, to be struck 
foolish, to be dumbfounded. 
Also, to be too late. 

Sikulcama wala sikuchdeway I 

did not delay, and I was not late. 

CJieleza ku-y to keep, to put on one 

side, to put off. 
Chelezea ku-, to keep or put aside 
CJielezo = CJiilezo. [for. 

Ckemhey a grain, grains. 
C7tem&e,plur. vyembe (K.), an arrow, 

the head of an arrow oraharpoon. 
Chembe cha moyo (A.), the pit of 

the stomach. 
Chemheu, a chisel. 
CJiemchemy a spring of water. 
CIie*mka ku-y to boil, to bubble up. 
ChenezOy plur. vyenexoy a measuring 

rod, line, &o. 



262 



OHfi 



Chenga &«-, to cleave, to cut wood, 

to prune. 
Chenge ehenge, small broken bits. 
Chenja = Chenza, 
Chenttj your. See -enu. 
Ckenyif having, with. See -enyu 
Ckenza, a large kind of mandarin 
orange. 

Chenza za kiajjemif Persian, i.e,y 
good chenzas. 
CheOf plur. vyeo, measurements 

measure, length, breadth, &c., 

position in the world, station. 
Chepecliepef wet, soaked with rain, 

wetted. 
Chepuka hvr = Chipuka, 
Cherawij a well-known mangrove 

swamp in the island of Zanzibar. 
Cherecj a grindstone. 
Ckerevu, cunning, subtlety. 
CherhhanOj machine. 

Cherkhana cha kiuihonat a sewing 
Cheruwa, measles. [machine. 

ChetezOy plur. vyetezo, a censer, a 

pot to fume incense in. 
Cheii, plur. vyeti, a pass, a passport. 
Chelu^ our. See -etu. 
CJievoat a kind of fish. 
Cheza fct*-, to play, to dance, 

Kucheza gwaridi, to be drilled 
in European fashion. 

Kucheza komart, to play for 
Cheza, a kind of oyster. [money. 
Cheza ku-j to play with, 

Kuchezea unyago, to deflower a 
virgin (?). 
Chi = Ki'. 
Chieha, the scraped cocoa- nut after 

the oil has been squeezed out. 

It is sometimes used to rub on 

the hands to clean them of grime, 

but is generally thrown away as 

lefose. 



CHI 

Chichiriy a briba 

Chikapo = Kikapu, a basket. 

Chikichij plur. machikichi^ the fruit 
of the palm-oil tree. 
Kichikichi, plur. tfichikichi, the 
small nuts contained in the 
fruit of the palm-oil tree, 

Chilezo, plur. Htezo, a buoy. 

Chimba kn-, to dig (M. titnha). 

Chimhia /ft*-, to dig for (M. timhia). 

Chimhia /fu- = Kimhia Aru-, to run 
away. 

Chimbua Arw-, to dig out or away. 

Chirnbuko, origin, first beginning, 
source. 

Chini, down, bottom, below. 
Tuko chini, he is down stairs. 
Chini ya, under, below. 

Chinja ku-, to cut, to slaughter 
animals by cutting the throat, 
which is the only manner allowed 
by the Mohammedan law, hence 
generally to kill for food (M. 
kutinda). 

Chinki,9L small yellow bird kept in 
cages. 

Chinusi, a kind of water sprite, 
which is said to seize men when 
swimming, and hold them un- 
der water till they are dead, (?) 
cramp. 

Chinyango, a lump of meat 

Chipuka, &c. = Chupuka, &c. 

Chipukizi, a shoot, a young plant 
See Tepukuzi. 
Chipukizi ndio mH children will 
be men in time. 

Chirikif a small yellow bird often 
kept in cages. 

Chiro, chironi = ChoOf choont 

Chiroko = Chooko, a kind of pulse. 
Chiti = Cheti, a note of hand, a rote 
of any kind. 



OHO 



GHO 



263 



Cho, -cRo, -«fto-, vhich. 
Cho chote, whatsoever. 

C%oa, ring .^orm. 

Chocha hu', to poko cut from, out 
uf a hole. 

Cfhochea hu-^ to make up a fire, to 
turn up a lamp. 

Chochelezea ku-, to stir up and in- 
crease discord, to add fuel to the 
fire. 

Chofya hu^. See Chovya, 

Choka hu-f to become tired« 
Nitnechoka, I am tired. 

Chokaaf lime. 

ChokeOy a stye in the eye, hordeolum; 

Chokoa ku', to clear out, to free 
from dirt, enlarge a small hole. 

ChokoehokOy a Mod of fruit with a 
red prickly rind, white pulp, and 
a large kernel. 

Chokora ku-^ to pick (with a knife, 
&c.). 

Chokora, plur. matHiokoray a hanger- 
on, a follower, a dependant. 

Chokoxa &«-, to teaze, to irritate. 

Chole, a place on the island of Zan- 
Eibar famous for cocoa-nuts ; also, 
the chief town of Monfia. 

Choma ktt-f to stab, to stick, to 
prick, to dazzle. Vulgarly in 
Zanzibar — ^to use fire to in any 
way, to bum, to roast, to parch, 
to fire, to apply cautery, to bake 
pottery. 

ChombOf plur. vyombOf a ressel, a 
pot, a dhow. 
Vyombo is used for household 
utensilS; things used in a 
house, goods. 

Chomea ku-. See Choma Aru*. 

Chomeka ku; to be stuck into, to be 
set on fire. 

Qiomdea /ru-, to take out a bad 



piece of cloth, thatch, fto., and 

put in a new one. 
Chomoza ku-^ to be hot 
Chonga ku-, to cut, to adze, to hollow 
out, to out to a point. 

Kuehonga kalamnj to make a pen. 
Change, canine teeth, cuspids. 
Chongea ku-, to cut for, or with. 
Chongea ku-, to do a mischief to, to 

get (a person) into trouble, to 

inform against 
Chongeleza ftu-, to carry tales, to 

backbite. 
Change, loss of an eye. 

Kuvsa na ehongo, to have lost an 
eye. 

Mwenyi ehongo, a one-eyed person. 
Chongoka ku-, to be precipitous. 
Choo, plur. vyoo, a privy, the bath- 
room, which always contains one. 
Chooko, a small kind of pea, very 

much resembling the seeds of 

the everlasting pea of EnglLih 

gardens. 
Chopa, plur. maefiopa, such a quan- 
tity as can be carried in the two 

hands. 
Chopi, 

Kwenda ehopi, to walk lame in 
such a m&nner as tha( the lame 
side is raised at every step. 
Chopoa ku-f to drag out of ono*s 

hand. 
Chopoika &tf-, to slip out of the hand. 
Cliora ku-, to carve, to adorn with 

carving, to draw on a walL 
Choroehoro, scratches, marks.^ * 
Choropol:a ku-, to slip out of one's 

hand. 
Choveka ](«># io put into water, to 

steep. 
Chovya ku-, i^ dip, to gild. 
Chosha kur, to tiie, to make tired. 



2G4 



CHO 



CHtT 



Chosi = Kisoze. 

Chota ku'f to make np a little at a 

Choie, all. See -ote. [lime. 

Chovu, weary, tired. 

Choyo, greediness, avarice. 

Mwenyi choyoj a miser. 
Chozi, plur. maehozi, a tear, a tear- 
drop. 
CJiub! sht! noDsenso! 
Chvbua Jcu-t to take the skin off, to 

bruise. 
CJiubuaehuhua hu-, to bruise about, 

to batter. 
Chubuha kw, to be raw, to be 

bruised. 
Chuhud, a plummet. 
Chuchu ya ziwa^ a teat 
Cliuchnmia hu-, to stretch up to 

reach something. 
CJiui, a leopard, leopards. 
Chuja ku-y to strain. 
Chujuka ku; to have the colour 

washed out. 
Chuki, the being easily disgusted 
or offended. 

Ana ehuki huyu, he is easily put 
out. 
CJtukia ku; to be disgusted at, to 

abhor, to hate, not to bear. 
Chukiwa ^-, to be offended. 
Chukisa ku-j to disgust, to offend. 
Chtikizieha ku-y to make to offend. 
Chukuy a cupping horn. 
Cliukua ku'^ to carry, to carry 
off, to bear, to support, to sus- 
tain. 

Kuchukaa fntm5a, to be pregnant 
Chukulia ku; to carry for a person. 

Pass, kuchukuliwa, to be carried 
for, to have carried for one, to 
be borne, to drifb. 
Chukuliana ku-, to bear with one 

imother. 



Chukuza ku', to make, to carry, to 

load. 
ChtUa or Chur(ij plur. vyula, a frog. 
Chuma, plur. vyumoj iron, a pieco 

' of iron, 
Chuma ku-<, to pluck, to gather, to 

make profit 
Chumba, plur. vyujnha, a room. 
Chumvij salt 

Chumvi ya haluli, sulphate of 
Chuna ku, to flay. [magnesia. 

Chunga , ku-^ to pasture, to tend 

animals. 
Chunga ku-^ to sift. 
ChungUf plur. vyungu^ an earthen 

cooking pot 
Clmnguy ante. 
ChungUf a heap. 

Chungu ehungu^ in heaps. 
'Chungu, bitter (ucHiungu, the 

quality of bitterness). 
ChnngtUia ku-j to peep. 
Cliungwa, plur. macJiunjgtpa, an 
orange. 

Chungwa la kizungn, a sweet 

orange. 

Chuntka ku-^ to lose the skin, to be 

ChunjucLy a wart [flayed. 

Chunuka ku-y to love exceedingly, to 

long for. 
Chunuzi = Chintui, 
Chunyu, an incrustation of salt, as 

upon a person after bathing in 

salt water. 
Chuo, plur. vyuOf a book. 

Chuoni, school. 

Mwana wa chuoni, a scholar, 
learned man. 
Chupa^ plur. maehupOy a bottle. 
Chwpia ku', to dash. 
Chupuka ku' or Chipuka ku-, to 

sprout, become sprouted, to shoot, 

to spring. 



CHU 



DAM 



265 



Chupuza hu', or Chipuza ku; to 
sprout, to throw out sprouts, to 
^oot, to spring. 
Churukiza Xni-, to drain out. 
Chururika ku- = Churuzika ku; 
Churutoaf measles. 
Churuza ku-, to keep a stall, to 

trade in a small way. 
Churuzika ku-, to run down with. 
Kuchuruzfka damu^ to bleed 
freely. 
GftiiMO, plur. vyusHtt a harpoon. 
Chuuza = Churuza. 
Chwa ka-y to set (of the sun). The 
kii' bears the aocent and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mchana kuehwa, or kuttoa, all 
day till sunset, all day long. 



D. 

D has the same sound as in 
English. It occurs as an inltal 
letter chiefly in words derived from 
the Arabic. 

X or r and t become d after an 
n. Be/Uy long, makes kamba nde/u, 
a long rope, not nre/u, 

Kanitafuiiat and seek out for me, 
when pronounced quickly becomes 
Kandaftia, 

D in the dialect of Mombas be- 
comes J or dy in tiiat of Zanzibar. 

Ndoo! Come (Momb.). I^jool 
(ZflCnz.) 

See C and /. 

Daba, a small tin box. Also, a fool. 

Dacha ku, to drop. 

Dadat sister, a term of endearment 

among women. 
D H ku-f to pry into things, to 



ask impertinent and unnecessary 
questions. 

Dajina, a hidden treasure. 

Daftariy an account book. 

Dafuy plur. madafu^ a cocoa-nut 
fully grown before it begins to 
ripen, in which state it supplies a 
very favourite drink. When the 
shell has begun to harden and 
the nutty part to tlucken,it ceases 
to be a Dafu and becomes a 
ILoroma, 

Dagaa^ a kind of very small fish 
like whitebait. 

Dagghif a short coat 

Dai ku-f to claim, to sue for at 
law. 

Daka ku-^ to catch, to get hold of, 

Dakika, a minute, minutes. 

Daku, the midnight meal during 
the Bamathan. A gun is fired 
from one of the ships at Zanzibar 
about 2 A.M., to give notice that 
the time for eating is drawing to 
a close. The name is said to be 
derived from the saying : — 

** Leni upest, kesho kuna ndaa Jeuu.'* 
**£at quickly, to-morrow there will 1)6 
great hunger." 

Dakuliza ku-f to contradict, to deny 

formally, to rebut. 
Ddlalh a salesman, a hawker, an 

auctioneer. 
Dalittj a yellow composition much 

used as a cosmetic : it is said to 

give softness and a sweet smell 

to the skin. 
Dalili, a sign, a token. 

Haita daim^ anytliing at all, even 
a trace. 
Dama^ a game played on a board 

like chess. 
Damani = Demani, 



2C6 



DAM 



DEU 



Damn, blood. 

Danga ku-, to tako up carefully, as 
they take up a little water left 
at the bottom of a dipping place 
to avoid making it muddy. 

Danganika ftu-, to be cheated. 

Danganikia ku-, to put to confusion. 

DanganUha ku-, to confuse. 

Danganya ku-, to cheat, to humbug, 
to impose upon. 

Danzi, plur. madanzt, a bitter, 
scarcely eatable sort of orange. 
The Danzi is reputed to be the 
original orange of Zanzibar. The 
name is sometimes applied to 
all kinds of oranges, and sweet 
oranges are called madanzi ya 
Ktzungu, European (Portuguese) 
oranges. 

Dao. See Dau, 

JDapOf ' plur. madapo, a nalire 
umbrella. 

Darabif plur. fnadarahi^ a roed 
apple. 

DarajOf a step, a degree, a rank, a 
staircase, a bridge, a league. 

Daraaa^A class for reading, a regular 
meeting for learning. 

Dart, a roof^ an upper floor. 
Darini, up-stairs, or, on the roof. 

Darizi, embroidery, quilting. See 
also Kanzu* 

Darumetif part of a dhow, inner 

planking. 
Da«ilif a detergent powder made 
of the dried and powdered leaves 
of the mkunazi, 
Daaturi. See Desturi, 
Dau, plur. madau^ a native boat 
sharp at both ends, with a square 
mat sail. They are the vessels 
of the original inhabitants of 
Zanzibar, and chiefly bring fire- 



wood to the town from the fouth 
end of the island. 
Daulati, the government 
Dawa, plur. dawa or madawG, a 
medicine. 
Dawa ya kuhara^ a purgative. 
Davsa ya kutaptlcaf an emetic, 
Dawamu ku-y to persevere. 
DatoaUf a writing desk. 
Dayima^ always, perpetually. 
Dayimara = Dayima, 
Debe, tin can. See Doha, 
Deheni, lime and fat for chunam- 
mtng the bottoms of native craft. 
Deheni ku-j to chunam the bottom 

of a dhow. 
Deka ku-^ to refuse to be pleased, 

to be perverse, to be teazing. 
Ddki, a donkey^s walk. 
Kwenda delki, to walk (of a 
donkey). 
Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Demani, the sheet of a saiL 
Demani, the season of gentle 
southerly winds, beginning about 
the end of August. It is applied 
less coiTCctly to the whole season 
of southerly winds from April to 
the end of October. 
DendarOf a sort of dance. 
Denge. 
Kukata denge, to shave the hair 
except on the crown of the head. 
DengUype&B, split peas. Tliey are 
not grown in Zanzibar, but are 
brought dry from India. 
Denty debt, a debt, debts. 
Deraye (?), armour. 
Desturiy a sort of bowsprit, to carry 

forward the tack of a dhow-sail. 
Desturiy custom, customs. 
Deuliy a silk scarf worn round the 
waist. 



PEV 



DUA 



267 



Devaif olaret, light wine. 

I>ta,^composition for a man's life, 
fine paid by a murderer. 

J>ibaji, elegance of composition, a 
good style. 

Bidimia Jcu-, to sink. 

JHdimikia in-, to bore with an awl, 
fto. 

Didimisha hu-^ to sink, to cause to 
sink. 

Vigdli, part of a native pipe, being 
the stem which leads from the 
bowl into a vessel of water 
through which the smoke is 
drawn. 

Viko, plur.wiaii&o, a landing-place. 

Dimu, a lime. 
Dimu tamu, a sweet lime. 

J)ini, religion, worship., 

JHra^ the mariner's compass. 

Dirihi Art*-, to succeed in one's pur- 
pose by being quick, to bo quick 
enough to catch a person, to be 
in time. 

DirMa, plur. madtmRa, a window. 

Ditcanif plur. madiwani, a council- 
lor, a title of honour among the 
coast people. 

Doana, a hook. 

Dobiy a washerman. 

/)o(7a A;tt-, to drop. • 

Dodo. See Erribe, 

Dodohi, plur. madodoki, a long 
slender fruit eaten as a vege- 
table. 

Dodoa ku; to take up a little at a 
time. 

Vo/ra, plur. mado/ra, a sailmaker's 
palm. 

'dogoj little, small, young, younger. 

Vohaan, Dokhaan, or Dohanif a 
chimney. 
Marikebu ya doltaan, a steamship. 



Hence Dopant, or Dokliani, a sort 
of tall basket in which fruit 
is brought on men's heads to 
market. The foundation is 
made of sticks about two feet 
long, loosely tied together, 
which are supplemented with 
plaited cocoa-nut leaves, until 
the whole becomes perhaps six 
feet high and firteen to twenty 
inches in diameter. These 
dohani are often decked with 
flowers and green leaves. 
Dokaa ku-, to nibble. 
Dokeza ku-, to give a little part of 

anything, to give a hint 
Dokra, a cent 
Domo, 
Kupiga domo, to tell a person in 
confidence. 
Dona ku; to peck. 
DondOj plur. madonda^ large sores. 
Donda ndugu, malignant ulcers. 
Dondo, pi. madondo, a tiger cowry. 
Used to smooth down seams with. 
i>ondo, starch, the dressing of calico. 
Dondoa kii-, to pick up small frag- 
ments, to pick up rice, &c., to 
pick up bit by bit 
Dondolca ku-, to drop from little by 
little. 
Mbegu zimenidondoka, the seeds 
dropped from my hand one by 
one. 
Dondoro, Dyker's antelope. 
Donea ku-, to flutter like a bird. 
Donge^ plur. madonge^ a small round 

thing, a ball. 
Donoa kw, to peck, to sting. 
Doti, a loin-cloth, a piece of cloth a 

little less than two yards long. 
Doya ku-y to go as a spy. 
Dwff worship, theology. 



268 



DUA 



E 



DuarOf a windlass, anything found. 

Dude, plur. madudey a what-is-it ? 

a thing of wbioh you don*t know 

or ha?e forgotten the name. 
Duduj plur. maduduj an insect, 

insects. 
DuduvtUe, a kind of hornet which 

bores in wood. 
'dufUf insipid, tasteless. 
Daka, plur. maduka, a shop. 
Dvkiza Jcu-y to listen secretly. 
Vukiziy plur. madukizi, an eaves- 
dropper, a tale-bearer. 
Dumbuza, a plant having big yellow 

flowers with dark centres. 
Dumia ku-, to persevere. 
DamUha ku-^ to make to oontinue. 
Dumu, a jar (?). 

Dumu ku', to continue, to persevere. 
Dun, a fine. 
Dundu, plur. madundu, a large 

pumpkin shell used to hold 

liquids. 
Dunge, the green skin of the ca- 
shew nut, an immature cashew 

nut. 
Dunguj plnr. madungu, the roof 

over the little stages for watching 

corn, &c. 
DumgumarOt a kind of spirit, also 

the drum, &o., proper for expelling 
Dunif below, less. [htm. 

Jhinia, the world, this world. 
Durahiniy a telescope, an eyeglass. 
Kupiga durdbini, to use a glacss, 

telescope. 
Duru ku-t to surround. 
DuruH ku; to meet in a regular 

class for study. 
Dtuanialiy a striped silk scarf or 

handkerchief worn upon the head 

by women. 
Duumij a dliow sail 



Duzi, plur. maduzif one who de* 
lights to find out and proclaim 
secrets and private matters. 

E. 

J^has a sound between those of a 
in gato and of at in clmtr. 

In the dialect of ZanzilAr it is 
often substituted for the a of more 
northern Swahili, ebpecially as re- 
presenting the Arabic /s£Via. 

Merikebttj a ship, is in the 
Mombas dialect Martkabu, and iu 
the Arabic Markab. 

The sound of e often arises from 
the fusion of the final a of a prefix 
with an e or i which follows it, as — 

AJienda fqr A-ka-endct, and he 
went. 

Akaweta for A-ka-wa-Ua^ and he 
called them. 

Some of the cases in which e in 
the Zanzibar dialect stands for a in 
northern Swahili may bo explaiiictl 
by the substitution at Zanzibar of 
in for a mere *», as iu the word for 
" land " or country," which is *nil 
at Mombas, with so mere an '» that 
the vowel of the preceding word may 
be run into it, as in the saying — 

** Mvunddntit mtoandnti.*' 
♦*A country can be ruined only by its own 
children." 

Whereas in Zanzibar, besides the 
usual change of t into c/*, the first 
syllable has generally a distinct i 
bound, and may be better writtou 
inehi. 

Thus at Mombas the root of the 
adjective ** many »' seems to be wgrt, 
nialving the substantive " plenty," or 
** a large quantity," ungi, and with 



EBB 



END 



269 



the proper prefix "many people," 
wa-ngu But in Zanzibar " plenty " 
is w-ingi, and ♦*many people*' toengi, 
as if toa-ingi. 

El/he, for Lebelca. 

Fbu! Eebol well then! comofhen! 

ma. 

Ku Italia eda^ to remain in ex- 
treme privacy and quiet for five 
months, as is usual by way of 
mourning for a husband. 
Edashara, eleven. 
Eel 0! 
Ee Waa ! or Ee WaVah ! the common 

answer of slaves and inferiors 

when called to do something, a 

strong assent. 
Eema (M.) = DaTno, a kind of fLah- 

trap. 
Egemea ku-, to lean. 
E/iee I Yea \ 
EheraJiij a provocation, an irritating 

word or thing. 
EJcua hu; to break by bending. 
Ehuha ku'i to be sprung, to be 

broken. 
"ckunduy red. It makes Jehundu 

with nouns like Icasha, and 

nyekundu with nouns like ny- 
Ela (M.), except. lumha. 

ElafUf thousands. 
Elea hu'j to float, to become clear. 

Moyo toamwelea, he feels sick (M.) 

Yantekutleaf Do you under- 
stand ? Have they (my words) 
become clear to you ? 
Eleka ku-y to carry a child astride 

on the hip or back. 
Elekea ^u-^to be right, to agree, to 

be opposite to. 
fJlekeana ku-, to be opposite |o one 

ftnother. 



Elemltha ku-y to teach, instruct. 
Eleza ku-y to make to float, to swim 
a boat, to make clear, to explain. 
Elfeen or Elfain, two thousand. 
Elfuy a thousand. 
Elimtsha ku-, m instruct, to make 

learned. 
Elimu, or dimu-y learning, doctrine, 
-ema, ^ood, kind. It makes j^tna 
with nouns like kashay and njema 
or ngema with nouns like nyutnba, 
-embamhay narrow, thin, slim. It 
makes jem5am&a with nouns like 
X:a«/ia,and nijembaniba with nouns 
like nyumha. 
Embcy a mango. In Mombrs the 
plural is Maembey in Zanzibar it 
is Embe, 
Embe dodo, or Embe za dodo, a 
very largo kind of mango, so 
named from a plantation in 
Pcmba, where they first grew. 
Embe kinooy a small kind of 
mango which is very sweet. 
Embwe, glue, gum. 
Embwe la tibuyUy a kind of paste 
made from the fruit of the 
calabash tree. 
Enda kw-y to go. The kw- is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. . 
Kwenda is often used merely to 
carry on the narration without 
any distinct meaning of going. 
Sometimes it is employed as 
an auxiliary, nearly as we say 
in Englibh, he is going to do 
it, Bomeiimes it expresses 
an action merely, as Kwenda 
ehafyay to sneeze. Kwenda an 'I 
Kupiga used in this way can 
not be exactly translated. 
Kwenda ktoa mguu, to walk. 
Jiwendc^ tembea^ to go for a walk 



270 



END 



ESH 



Kwenda mghad, &o., to go oanier- 

IDg, &c. 
Kwenda zangu, zciko, zaJce^ &o.^ in 
other dialects, vyangu, vyake^ 
&o., and ihangu, tJuike, &o., to 
go away, to go, to go one's way, 
to depart 
Imekwenda ttodliwart they have 
gone to fetch it 
Endea hw-, to go for, to, or after. 
Endeha hw-f to be passable, to be 
capable of being gone upon, to 
be gone npon. 
Endelea kw-, to go either forward 
or backward. 
Kwenddea mbeU, to advance. 
Kwenddea nyuma, to retire. 
Enddeza ku-, to spell, to prolong. 
Enea ku-, to spread, to become 

known. 
Enenda ku-, to go, mostly in the 
sense of to go on, to proceed, to 
go forward. 
Enenza ku-^ to measure together, to 

try which exceeds the other. 
EneOf the spread, the extent covered. 
Eneo la MuungUf Qod's omni- 
presence. 
Eneza ku-, to spread, to oanse to 
spread, to cause to reach. 
Muungu amemweneza kiUa m(u 
riziki zake, God has put within 
the reach of every man what 
is necessary for him. 
Engd ku-, to split mahogo for 

cooking. 
Engaenga ku-y to coddle, to tend 

over carefully. 
Engua ku-^ to skim. 
-enut your, of you. 

-enu ninyi, your own. 
Enyi or Enyie, You there! Ton 
there, I say I 



-enyiy having, possessing, with. It 

makes mwenyi^ toenyit yenyi, 

zenyit lenyi, dienyi^ vyenyi^ and 

penyiy which see. 
Enza ku', to ask news of a person. 
Enzi, or Ezi, sovereignty, dominion, 
mnjesty. 

Mwenyi ezi, the sovereign, he who 
is supreme. See Ezi. 
Epa kU', to endeavour to avoid (a 

stone, stroke, &o.) 
Epea ku'f not to go direct to, to 

miss a mark, not to shoot straight 

(of a gun). 
Epeka ku-^ to be avoidable, to be 

what can be got out of the way of. 
-epesi, light, not heavy, easy, quick, 

willing. It makes jepeH with 

nouns like kasha, and nyepesi 

with nouns like nyumha. 
Epua ku; to brush or shake off, to 

take away. 
EptJia ku-j to be kept from, to avoids 

to abstain from. 
EpvJcana ku-, to be disunited. 
Epukika ku-, to be evitable. 

Haiepukikif it is inevitable. 
Eptuiha ku; to make to avoid, tc 
keep from. 

Eptishwa ku-y to be kept from, to 
be forbidden something. 
-erevu, subtle, shrewd, cunning. 
Eremtka ku-, to become shrewd, to 

get to know the ways of tho 

world, to grow sharp. 
Erevusha ku-y to make sharp and 

knowing. 
Eria ku-, to ease off, let down. See 

Ariaa, 
Esha, the latest Mohammedan hour 

of prayer, which may be said to 

be from half-past 6 to about 

8 p.m. 



ESB 



FAH 



271 



Egse (?), a screw, 
•e/tt, our, of ug. 

-^u tisi, our own. 
Eua kU'f to sprinkle with wtticr 

after praying by way of charm 

against a disease. 
-eupe^ white, clear, clean, light- 
coloured. It makes jeupe with 

noons like luuiha, and nyeupe with 

nouns like nyumboh 
-eupee, very white. 
'etm, black, dark-coloured. It 

makes jeusi with nouns like 

hashaj and nyeusi with nouns like 

nyumbct. 
Ewaa = Ee Waa, 
Etce! You there I Hi I I say, you 1 

plur. Enyi. 
Exa ku'9 to measure. 
Ezeha ku-, to thatch, to cover with 

thatch. 
Ezi = Enziy sovereignty. 

Mvsenyi ezi Muungu^ or Mwenye* 
zimngut Almighty God, God 
the Lord, representing in Swa- 
hili the AUah ta^ala, God the 
Host High, of the Arabic 
Eztut hu-f to uncover. 

Kuezua paa^ to strip a root 



F has the same sound as in 
English. 

J^and V are confounded by the 
Arabs, though in Swahiii perfectly 
distinct, thus ; — 

Ku'faa means--to bo profitable to. 

Ku-vcM means — to put on. 

There is, however, in some cases 
a little indistinctness, as in the 
common termination f/u or tp«; the 



right letter is probably in all cases 
a V. 

The Arabs, in talking Swahili 
tump's into/s, and Boyfunda for 
pundaf a donkey ; and conversely, 
some slaves from inland tribes turu 
fa into j>*s. P, however, does some- 
times become / before a y sound, 
as httogopOf to fear, huogofyc^ to 
frighten. 

There is a cnrious/y sound used* 
in some dialects of Swahili, which 
is rarely heard in Zanzibar. 

Fa JcH-y to die, perish, cease, fade 
away. The ku- bears the ac- 
cent, and is retained in the usual 
tenses. 

Faa ku-, to-be of use to, to avail, 
to be worth something. 
JEFaifai, it is of no use, it won't do. 

Faana ku-^ to be of use to one an- 
other, to help one another. 

FafanUha ku-, to liken. 

Fa/anua ku-f to recognize, to under- 
stand. 

Fafam^a ku-, to become clear. 

Fafanukia ku-^ to be clear to. 

Fafanulia ku-y to make clear to. 

Faganzi ku-, to become callous. 
Mguu teatigu umenifaganzi, my 
foot is asleep. 

Fagia ku-, to sweep. 

Fahali, plur. mafahali, a bull, used 
of men in the sense of manly, 

Fafiamia, [ttrong. 

Kwa kufcihamia{'M.), on the face, 
forward. 

Fahamiiha ku-, to make to under- 
stand, to remind. 

Fakamu ku-, to understand, to re- 
member. 

Fahari = Fakhari, glory. 

72 



272 



FAJ 



FAT 



Kufanya faJiarif to live beyond 
one*8 means and station. 
Faja lafrasij a stable. 
Fake/a, generous,a generous person.^ 
FcLkhaiij glory. 
Fcikiri, poor, a poor person. 
Fala kU'^ (Mer.) = Faa ku-. 
FaJakif or fdlak^ astronomy. 
Kupiga falaki, to prognosticate 
■ by the stars. 
Folly an omen, omens. 
Fana ku-, to be very good of its 

kind, to become like (?). 
Fanana An-, to become like, to 

resemble. 
Fananisha ku-, to make to resemble. 
Fanikia ku; to turn out well for. 
: Kufanikiwaf to prosper. ' 
Fanusif a lantern. 
Fanya ku-, to make, to do, to adapt, 
to mend. 
KujifanycL, to make one's self, to 

pretend to be. 
Kufanya kum, to oast lots. 
Ku/anya shaurif to take counsel. 
Fanyia ku-j to do or make for or to. 
Mkufanyiejei What am I to do 
with you ? 
Fanyika ku-t to be made or done, 

makable or doable. 
Fanyiza ku-, to amend, to mend. 
Fanyizika ku-y to be very good, to 

be well done. 
Fara or Farafarct, brimful, full to 

the brink. 
Faragha, privacy, secrecy, leisure. 
FarajOf comfort, ease after pain. 
Farajika ku-, to be comforted, to 

be eased. 
Farakarui ku-, to be alienated. 
Farakiana kw, to be alienated in 

regard to one another. 
FarahUha hit-f to alienate. 



Farangoj pi. mafaranga, a chicken, 

a young fowl. 
Farasi or Frasif a horse, in Arabic 

a mare. 
Fariji ku-, to comfort, to console. 
Fariki ku-y to become separated, (o 

decease. 
Fdrine, a kind of rice and milk 

gruel. 
Farishi ku-, to spread. 
Faritha, pay. 

FaromOj a block to put caps on 
after washing them, to prevent 
their shrinking. 
Farrathi, necessity, obligation, obli- 
gatory. 
Farrathif a place one habitually 
goes to. 
The th of tliis word is the Eng- 
lish th in that, the th of the 
preceding word is a little 
thicker. 
Farumi, ballast. 
Fashi/ashif nonsense. 
Fashini, the sternpost of a dhow. 
Fasihi, correct, clean, pure. 
Fasili, spreading. 
Huna diili, wala fdstlij you have 
neither root nor branches, i.e., 
neither good birth nor great 
connections. 
Fasiri ku-f to explain, to interpret, 
Fasiria Ai*-, to explain to, to intt r- 

pret to. 
Faidki, a percussion cap, a gun cap. 
Fatlma, restlessness, disquiet. 
FathaiJta ku-, to be troubled, dis- 
quieted, thrown into confusion. 
Fathali=Afaihnli, preferably. 
Fathali=Fathil{. 

Fathehi ku-, to put to confusion, 
to find out a Person fe a \x\fikt 



FAT 

Pathtlij a favour, a kindness, kind- 
nesses. 
Falhili hu-^ to do a kindness, to 

deserve well. 
Fatiha, a Mohammedan form of 

prayer. 
Fatiithi hu-, to pry, to be over 

curious. 
Fauluku; to get past, to get through, 

to weather. 
Faioiti ku-j to delay, to occupy, to 

hinder. 
Fayida, pibfit, gain, advantage, 

interest. 
Fayidi leu-, to get prof t 
Fayiti ku-, to delay. 
Fayitika ku-, to be delayed. 
FazacLy trouble, confusion, anxiety. 
Feka ku- = Fieka kw^ to clear 

forest lands. 
Ftle/dey an inferior kind of millet. 
Feleji or Ftlegi, a choice kind of 
steel. 

Upangawafelejty along straight 
two-edged sword, used by the 
Arabs. 
Feleii ku-, to discharge, to release 

from an obligation, to release. 
Felif plur. ma/eli, a beginning of 

speaking or doing. 
Fer^i, a channel, a drain. 
Ferusaji = Fortadi. 
Fefha, silver, money. 
Fethaluka, Marijani ya fetJuilukaj 

the true red coral. 
Feiheha, a disgraceful thing, a 

fihame. 
Feiheheka ku-, to be found out in a 

disgraceful thing, to be put to 

sbame» 
Fetiuja ht^, to be condemned or 

adjudged to [a punishment]. 
Feivfa ku-f to give judgment on 



FItt 



273 



ft question of Mohdinmedan 

law. 
Feuli, the place in a dhow where 

they stow tilings which may be 

wanted quickly. 
Ft, by. 

Sabafl sahay seven times seven. 
Fia kw, to leave behind, to die to. 

Pass. Kufiwa noy to lose by 

death. 
Fiata ku-, to hold one's hands oi 

one's clothes between one's legs. 
Fiatika ku-, to be kept back, to be 

delayed. 
Fiatua ku-, to allow a spring to 

escape, to let off. 
Ftatuka ku-, to escape (as a spring) 
Ficha ku-, to hide. 

Kunificha kofia-, to hide a cap 
from me. 

Kunifichia kofla, to hide my cap. 
Fidi ku'f to ransom (of the price 

paid). 
Fidia, a ransom, a sacrifice (giving 

up). 
Fidia ku-, to ransom (of the person 

paying). 
Fidina, mint (?). 
Fieka ku-, to clear. 

Kufieka mwitu, to clear ground 
in a forest. 
Fijia kw, 1o disappear, to oease to 

be visible (as a scar or a mark ; 

it does not imply motion), to 

pine away, (of seeds) not to 

come up. 
Figa, plur. mafiga, the three stones 

used to set a pot over the fire 

upon. See Jifya, 
Figao, a movable fireplace. 
Figili, a kind of large white radish. 
Figo, kidney (M.). 
Ff^ ku-, to arrive, to reach, to come. 



274 



t*itt 



i^on 



Fikaroj thought. 
Filsia hu', to reach a person. 
Fikicha A;«-, to crumble, to rub to 
pieces, to rub hard, to thresh 
corn. (Used also obscenely). 
Fihilia hu-, to come to a person on 
busiuess of his, to arrive and 
return without delay. 
Fikiliza ku-, to cause to arrive for. 
Kufikiliza dhadi, to fulfil a ]jro- 
mise. 
Fikisha ku-, to make to arrive, to 

lead, to take. 
Fikirat thought, consideration. 
FiJciri ku-y to consider, to ponder. 
Fil, a chess castle or rook (in 

Arabic, an elephant). 
Fila kU' = Fia ku-, 
AJile mbdliy that he may die out 
of the way. 
FUimhiy a flute. 
Filid ku-, to take away a man's 

property, to seize for debt. 
Filuika Att-, to come to want, to 
have been sold up, to have run 
through all one's money. 
Finibo, a stick. 
Fine$H, plur. mafinesn, a jack fruit. 

FinesH la kizungu, a duryan. 
Fingirika ku-, to joU along, to bo 
rolled, to writhe like a wounded 
snake. 
Fingirisha ku-, to roll, to make to 
Finya ku-, to pinch. [roll. 

Ftnyana ku-, to be pinched to- 
gether, to be gathered up small. 
Finyanga ku-, to do potter's work, 
to make pots, to tread and 
trample. 
Fionya ku-, to chirp, to make a 
chirruping noise with the mouth, 
to do so by way of showing con- 
tempt. 



Fira ku-, to commit sodomy. 
Firana ku-, to commit sodomy to- 
gether. 
FirigUi, the gizzard. 
Finnghi = FirigiH. 
Firkomba, an eagle (?). 
Firuzi, a turquoise. 
Fisadi, one who enters other peo- 
ple's houses for a wrongful pur- 
Fisha ku; to cause to die. [pose. 
Fid, a hysBua. 

Fisidi ku-, to enter other people's 

houses for a wrongful purpose, 

to commit an offence in another 

man's house. 

Fithuli = Futhuli, officious, over 

talkative. 
Fiiina, slander, sowing of discord, 

a disturbance. 
Fitini ku-, to slander, to tow dis- 
cord. 
Fitiri, alms and presents given at 

the end of the Itamathan. 
Fito (plur. of uftto), lung slender 

sticks. 
Fiwa ku-, to be died to, to lose by 
death. 
Mwanamke dliofiwa na mumetee^ 
a widow. 
Fiwe, a sort of bean growing on a 
climbing plant with a white 
Fofofu. [flower. 

Kufafofofu, to die outright 
Fola, a gift expected from those 
who first touch a new-born baby, 
paying your footing. 
Foramali, a ship's yard. 
Formash, 

Dateati ya formash, a workbox. 
Foreadi, a small kind of edible 

fruit, mulberries. 
Fortlia, a custom-house. 
Forthani, at the cu6tom-Uou8Q« 



FBA 



FUM 



275 



Fra«, Frcuif or Farasi, a horse, a 

mare. 
Frosty a ohess knight 
-/tt, dead. 

Mqji mafu, neap tides. 
Fuot a wooden bowl. 
Faa kthj to beat (?), to wash clothes, 
to clear the husk from cocoa- 
nuts, to work in metal, to make 
things in metal. 
Kufua chumoy to be a blacksmith. 
Ku/uafetha, to be a silversmith. 
Ku/tM (haJ4abti, to be a goldsmith. 
Kufua hieu, &c., to forge a knife, 

&C. 

Fuama hw, to Ho on the face 
(Momb.). 

Fuata hu; to follow, to Imitate, to 
obey. 

Fuatana ku-^ to accompany, to go 
with. 

FtujUanUha leu-, to make to accom- 
pany. 

Fuawa ^u-, to lie on the side and 
be beaten by the waves, as when 
a vessel goes ashore broadside on. 
Pass. of/«a(?). 

Fuawe, an anvil. 

Fucha = Futa, 

Fudi/udiy on the face (of falling or 

lying)- 

Fudikiza fct*-, to turn bottom up- 
wards, to turn cards backs upper- 
most. 

Fafua ku-j to cause to revive, to 
resuscitate. 

Fufulta kvry to revive> to come to 
life again. 

Fufuliza 2ctt-, to cause to come to 
life again for some one. 

Fafumonye, in tlie kitchen (Pemba). 

Fuga ku', to keep animals cither 
tome or in captivity. 



Fugiica ku-, to be capable of being 
kept, to be capable of domesti- 
cation, not to die in captivity. 

Fuja ku-y to waste, to squander, to 
leak. See Vujcu 

Fujika ku-, to moulder, waste awny. 

Fujoy disorder, uproar. 

Fujofujo, slovenliness, laziness. 

Ftikat a kind of thin porridge. 

Fuku ku-y to All in a small hole. 

Ftika moshi ku-^ to throw out smoke, 
to fume. See Vuke. 

Fukara, very poor. 

Fufcia ku', to fill up a small hole. 

FtHiiza ku-, to cense, to put the 
fuming incense-pot under a per- 
son's beard and into his clothes, 
by way of doing him honour* 

FukixOf vapour, fumes. 

Fuko (?), a mole. 

FukOy plur. mafukOf a large bag. 

Fukua ku'y to dig a small narrow 
hole, such as those to receive the 
posts of houses; to dig into a 
grave so as to get at the body ; to 
dig out, to dig up. 

Fultuafukua ku-^ to burrow. 

Fukuta ku-, to blow with bellows. 

Fukuza ku; to drive away, to chase. 

FuJcuzana ku-, to chase one another. 

Fulcuzia ku-f to drive away from. 

Ftdia ku-, to work in metal for, to 
make things in metal for. 

Fulifultj on the face, forwards. 

Fuliza kU', to go on, not to stop ; 
also, to blow upon, to kindle. 

Fullani, such a one, such and such 
men or things. 

Fululiza ku-, not to stop or delay 
to go on fast. 

Fuma ku, to weave. 

Fuma ku-, to liit with a spear, to 
shoot with arrows. 



270 



FUM 



vv.v 



Fumania hu-, to oome suddenly 
upon, to surprise, intrude. 

Fumaniana ht-, to intrude into 
people's houses mthout reason- 
able cause. Those who do so 
have no remedy if they are beaten 
or wounded. 

Fumatitif an owl (?). 

Fumha Tcu-^ to close, to shut (used 
of the eyes, the mouth, the 
hand, &c.). 
Maneno yafumbu, a dark saying. 
Mdkuti ya fumba^ cocoa-nut 
leaves plaited for making en- 
closures. 

Fumha, a lump. 

Fumbcij a kind of sleeping mat, 
which is doubled and sewn to- 
gether at the ends, so as to make 
a large shallow bag. The sleeper 
gets inside, and draws the loose 
edge under him, so as to be com- 
pletely shut in. 

Fumbata kti-, to close the fist, to grasp. 

Funibatika 7m-, to be grasped. 

Fumbia Jcu-, to talk darkly. 

FumbOf plnr. mafumbOf a dark say- 
ing, a hidden thing. 

Fumbua hti-, to unclose, io open the 
eyes, &o. 

Fumhuka hu-, to oome to light 

Fumhulia hu-, to lay open to, to 
explain.. 

Fumi, a kind of fish. 

Fu*mka hu-t to become unscwn, to 
open at the seams, to leak (of a 
boat). 

Fumo, plar. ma/umo, a flat-bladed 
spear. 

FumOt a chief (Kingozl and Kyassa). 

Fumua ku-, to unrip, to unpick. ' 
Kftfumua moto, to draw out the 
pieces of wood from a fire. i 



Fumuka hu- = Fu^nika ku-* 

Funda, a large mouthful making 
the cheeks swell out, a sip {?)t 
a draw at a pipe. 
Kupiga fundcL, to take large 
mouthfuls one by one. 

Funda ku-, to beat up, to mix by 
beating, to pound. 

Funda ku-, to teach. 

Fundi, a skilled workman, a master 
workman, a teacher of any handi- 
craft. 

Funduha ku-, to teach, to instruct. 
Kvjifundisha, to learn. 

Fundisho, plva. mafundishOtmBiTVLO 
tion, direction, teaching. 

Fundo, plur. ma/undo, a knot 
Kupiga fungo, to tie a knot 

Fundua ku-, to untie. 

Funga, a civet oat 

Funga kw, to fasten, to tie, to bind, 
to imprison, to fast 
Kufunga choo, to become ooufiti- 
pated. 

Fungamana ku-, to cling together, 
to connect, to tie together, to rely 
upon. 

Fungana ku-, to bind, to stick 
together. 

Fungaaa ku-, to tow. 

Fungate, a period of seven days 
after the completion of the wed- 
ding, during which the bride's 
futher sends food to the bride- 
groom and his friends. 

Fungiaha ku-, to shut against 

Fungo, a civet cat 

FungUt plur. ma/ungu, a bank, a 
shoal, a heap, a part, a week. 

Fungua, See M/unguo. 

Fungua ku-, to unfasten, to open, 
to let loose, to leave off fast- 
ing. 



VUK 



FVO 



277 



Pungvka Jcu-, to become nnfaAtened, 

to be unfastenable. 
Funguliwa hu-, to have unfastened 

for one, to be unfastened. 
Funguo (plur. of Ufunguo), keys 
Funguza ku-, to present with food 

during the Bamathan. 
Funika hu-, to cover (as with a lid), 

to close a book. 
Funikiha kw^ to become covered. 
Funikixa ku-, to cover (as with a 

flood). 
Funoj a kind of animal. 
Funita ku-, to lay open, to uncover, 
to open a book, to unpick sew- 
ing, to show cards. 

Kvffunua ma4sho^ to open one*s 
eyes. 
Funuka ku-, to become opened, to 

open like a flower, &o. 
Funza, a maggot. 
Funza ku-, to teach. 

Kujifunzoy to learn. 
FwpOf plur. mafupot ^ l&rge bone, 

the anus (?). 
'fupi, short It makes fuj^ with 

nouns like nyumbcu^ 
Fupiza ku; to shorten. 
Fura ku; to swell, to be puffed up 

from the effects of a blow only. 
Furahoy gladness, joy, pleasure, 

gladly. 
Furahani, with gladness, happiness. 
Furahi ku-, to rejoice, to be glad. 
Furahia ku-, to rejoice in. 
Furahisha ku-, to make glad. 
Furdhitoa ku-, to be made glad, to 

be rejoiced. 
Furijika ku-, to moulder away. 
Furika k%ir, to run over, to boil 

over, to inundate. 
FuruhUa ku , to more, as of sonic- 
thing moving under a carpet. 



Furumi, ballast. 

Furungu, plur. mafurungu, a large 

citron, a shaddock, a kind of 

anklet. 
Furwhi, a bundle tied up in a 

cloth. 
Futfus or Fu89us, precious stones. 
Fust, rubbish. 
Futa ku-, to wipe. 

Kufuta kamasif to blow the nose. 
Futa ku; to draw a sword (=imto?). 
Futari, the first food taken after a 

fast 
Futi, plur. mafutif the knee (A.) 
FuthtUi, officiousness. 
Fuiika ku-, to tuck into the girdle 

or loin-cloth. 
Futua ku-, to open out a bundle, 

take out<what was tucked in. 
Futuka ku', to get cross or angry. 
Futukia ku-, to get cross with. 
Futuri, a span. 
Futuru kU', to eat at the end of a 

fast, to break a fast 
Fuu, plur. ma/uu, a small black 

fruit 
Fuvu, plur. mafuvu, an empty shell. 

Fuvu la kUvoa, a skulL 
Fuza kU', to go on, not to stop. 
Fuzi, plur. mafuzi, a shoulder 

(A.). 
Fioata ku- = Fuata ku; 
Fyoa ku; to answer abusively. 
Fyolea ku-, to answer a pisrsou with 

abuse and bad language. 
Fyenda ku- oi Fyor^a Au-, to suck 

out 
Fyonya ku-, to chirrup. See 

Fionya, 
Fyonza ku-, to suck. 
Fyoma ku-, to read (M.). 
Fyuka ku-, to go off, to drop, to 

escape like a spring. 



278 



GAA 



GAB 



O. 

O is always to be pronounced 
hard, as in ''gate." Much con- 
fusion arises from the way in which 
the Arabic letters Jim and kaaf or 
qaf are pronounced by different 
Arabs. Jim is properly an English 
;, and is so used by the Swahili, 
and qaf is properly a guttural kj 
but most Arabs in Zanzibar pro- 
nounce either Jim or qaf as a hard 
g. This must be remembered in 
M-riting or looking for many Swahili 
words. 

The Arabic Chain is retained in 
many Swahili words borrowed from 
the Arabic, and a sunilar sound 
occurs in African languages also. 
It is here written gh. Most Euro- 
peans think it has something of an 
r sound, but this is a mistake ; it is 
a hard gratiug gr,*made wholly in the 
throat It resembles the Dutch g, 
and the German g approaches it 
BeeN. 

Gaagaa Xeu-, to turn over restlessly, 

to roll like a donkey. 
Gabri. See Kaburi, 
Gadiy a wooden prop to keep a 

vessel from falling over when 

left by the tide. 
Gadimu hur^ to put gadu 
GagcLf plur. magaga, rubbish, dirt 
Gaij plur. magai, a large piece of 

potsherd. 
Galme, See JBiaZmtf, the small mizcn 

mast of a dhow. 
GalatDat a canoe, a small canoe 

with outriggers. Galawas are 



hollowed out of the trunk of a 
tree, and have two long poles 
tied across, to the end of which 
pieces of wood pointed at both 
ends are attached, which serve 
to prevent the canoe upsetting. 
These outriggers are called 
matengo. See MtumbwL 

Gamba. See Jigamba. 

GatMy the tiller, the rudder handle. 

Ganda, plnr. maganda, husk, rind, 
shell, hard bark. 
Ganda la tatu, the three of cards. 

Ganda Aw-, to stick, to freeze. 

Gandama %»-, to cleave, to stick. 

Gandamana hu; to cleave to- 
gether, to coagulate, to curdle, to 
freeze. 

GandarAia hu-f to stick to, to cleave 
io. 

Gando, plur. magando, the claw of 
a crab. 

Ganga Zru-, to bind round, as wlien 
a stick U spruAg to bind it 
round with string, to splice, to 
mend, to cure. 

Gang€f a soft white limestone. 

Gango, plur. magangoj a cramp, a 
splint, something which holds 
other things together in their 
right place. 

Gani! What? What sort of? 
The name of the thing queried 
about always precedes the word 
gani. 

Ganzi, 
Imekufa ganzi, it has lost all 

feeling. See Faganzu 
Kutia ganzi la menOf to set th^ 
teeth on edge. 

Gari, plur. magariy a carriage, a 
wheeled vehicle. 

Garofuu^ cloves. Also, a kind of rice. 



GAU 



GHU 



279 



Ckiuza, Gaukctf ele. See Qeuza^ 

Getika, etc. 
Gaioa kuy to divide, to part out 

Kttgawa karata, to deal cards. 
Gatoanya ku*, to divide, to share. 
Gaya kw, to change one's mind, 

to Tacillate. 
Gayami, a post \riih a cleat at the 

fiide of the poop, to fasten the 

sheet of a dhow sail to. 
GayogayOf a flat flsb, (?) a sole. 
Gema /fu-, to get palm wiue. They 

cut the immature flowering shoot 

and hang Eomething under to 

catch what flows from the wound, 

which is the tembo, or palm wine. 

The cutting Ib renewed from 

tune to time to keep up the 

flow. 
GembCf plur. magenibef a hoe. See 

Jenibe, 
•geni, foreign, strange. 
Genzi. 

Mkuu genzij one who knows the 
roads well, a guide. 
GerezOf a fort, a prison. 
Geua ku-, to turn, to change (Mer.> 
Geuka ^u*, to hecome changed, to 

turn, to change. 
Geuza ku- or Gewiha ku- (?), to 

cause to change, to turn, to 

change. 
Geuzif plur. mageuzif a change, 

changes. 
Ghdfala, suddenly. 
Gha/dlika ku-j to he imprudent, not 

to attend to, to neglect. 
Ghd/tda = ghdfala, 
GhaiH ftu-, to annul, change one's 
mind as to, put an end to. 

Kulia ghairif to offend, to irri- 
tate. 
Ghalat a wareroomi a store place, 



especially the rooms on the 
ground-floor of Zanzibar houses, 
which have generally no win-' 
dows, but merely a few small 
round holes (miangaza) near 
the ceiling. 

Ghali, dear. 

Ghalime, See Gdlme, Kalme 

GlMlUka ku-t to make dear. 

Ghangi^ a kind of dhow resembling 
a bigala, except that it has not 
so long a prow. 

Ghanima, good luck, profit. 

Gharama, expense, payment to a 
native chief by a caravan. 

Gharika, a flood, the flood.^ 

Ghariki ku-, to be flooded, to bo 
covered with water. 

Gharikieha kn-^ to flood, to over- 
whelm. 

Gkarimia Xni-, to go to expense 
about, to be at the expense of. 

Ghasi, a measure of about a yard. 

Ghaai, rebellion. 

Gkoii ku-, to bother, worry. 

Ghasia, bother, coming and going, 
want of privacy. 

Ghathahtka ka-f to be enraged, to 
be angry. 

Ghathdbiaha ku ^ to cbrage, to make 
angry. 

Ghathahu, anger. 

Ghelibu ku-^ to master. 

Gheiri, jealousy, jealous anger. 

GMana, an aggravating person. 

Ghofira, plur. maghofiraj pardon. 

Ghofiri ku't to forgive sins ; used of 
God only. 

Ghofiria ku-, to forgive a person. 

Ghdrofa, an upper room. 

Ghoshi ku', to adulterate. 

Ghvba (?), a sheltered plaoe, a 
screen. 



280 



GHU 



GUM 



Ghubari, plur. maghuhari, a tain 

cloud. 
Ohubhaf a bay. 
GJiumiioa hu^j to be startlod, to 

stand aghast 
Ghurtka ku-j to be arrogant 
Ghururit arrogance. 
Ghuihi htk* = Ghoshi ku-, to adul- 
terate. 
Ghuaubu ku-, to cheat, to swindle. 
Gidam, the strap of a sandal, 

passing between the toes. 
Ginsif sort, kind. 

Gimi iUvyokuwa njema, &o., it 
was so good, &c 

GinH gani f or GisH gatU f 
Why? How is it? 
Giza or Kiza, darkness. 
Gnamha or Ng*ambaf a hawkVhead 

turtle. 
Gnanibe or Ng^omhe, an ox, cattle. 
Goa, See Goo. 
Gohoa ku-f to break off the cobs of 

Indian com. 
GodorOt plur. riMgodorOt a mattress. 
GoftOi a pulley. 
G^o<yo, plur. magogo, a log of limber, 

the trunk of a tree when felled. 
Gomha kur, to be adverse to, to 

oppose, to quarrel with. 
G(mbana &tt-,to squabble, to quarrel. 
Gombeza ku-j to forbid. 
GmnbOf plur. magombOf a sheet of a 

book. 
Gome, plur. magomey bark of a tree. 
Gomea ku-, to fasten with a native 

lock. 
G(nneOj a native lock. 
Gonga ku-, to knock. 
Gonjweza ku-, to make ill. 

Kujigonjweza^ to make oneself 
out an invalid, to behave like a 
pick man. 



Gongo, plur. magongoj a largtt 

stick. 
Gongqjea hi^. 

Kujigongojea, to prop oneself with 
a staff, to drag oneself along by 
the help of a stick. 
(rongomea kit-, to hammer in. 
Goo, See Mtando goo, 
Gora, a piece of cloth, a package of 

cloth. See Jura, 
Gorong^ondvacti a kind of lizard. 
Goshi, the tack of a sail. 

Upande wa goshinif the weather 
side. 

Kupindua kwa goshini, to tack. 
Gota ku-f to tap, to knock. 
Croie, plur. magote, the knee. 

Kupiga magote, to kneel. 
Goteza ku-, to jumble together 

different dialects or languages. 
Govi nibo, uncircumcised. 
Gtibetif prow of a dhow. 
Gubitif barley-sugar (?). 
Gudif a dock for ships. 
Gudulia or Guduwiciy a water-cooler, 

a porous water-bottle. 
Gugu, plur. magugu, undergrowth, 
weeds. 

Gugu niwitUt a weed resembling 
com. 
-gugiij wild, uncultivated. 
Gugumiza 7cu-, to gulp, to swallow 

with a gulping sound. 
Guguna kti-y to gnnw^ 
Guguruslia ku-, to mn with a 

shuffling noise like a rat, to drag 

along with a scraping noise. 
Guia ku', to seize (Mer.). 
Guiana ku-, to cling together. 
GuUgule, a dolphin. 
Guniba, 

Kidole cha gumbaj the thumb. 
Gumegume* 



-GUM 



HA- 



281 



Bunduhi ya gumegumej a flint gun. 

fjumu, hard, difficult. 

Guna hu-t to grunt, to make a dis- 
satisfied noise. 

Oundua hu-, to see one who thinks 
himself unseen, to discover un- 
awares, to catch. 

Gunga ku-, (1) to warn tigaiKst 
doing something, (2) to refuse 
temptation. 

Gunguy a kind of dance. 

Gungu la hufundoj danced by a 

single couple. 
Gungu la huliucaa^ danced by two 
couples. 

Gunia, a kind of matting bag. 

Gumif plnr. magunxh a cob of 
Indian com. 

Gura ku'f to change one's place of 
residence (A.). 

GurUha JcU', to make to remove, to 
banish (A.). 

Guru, 
Sukari guru, half-made sugar. 

GurudumOf plur. magurudumo, a 
wheel. 
Gurudumo la mziiigaf a gun- 
carriage. 

GurugurUf a large kind of burrow- 
ing lizard. 

Gusa ku-, to touch. 

Gutulea ku-, to start, to be startled. 

Guu, plur. muguu, leg (A.). 

Gioa ku; to fall [Tumbatu]. 

Guoanda, a very short kanzu, 

Gwia ku' s Guia ku-, 

Gwiana ku* = Guiana kU', 



H. 

H hag the same sound as in the 
English word •* hate." 
. There arp w Ayfthic two distinct 



Vs, one wholly made in the throat, 
the other somewhat lighter than th» 
English h. In Swahili there is only 
one h sound, which is used for both. 

The Arabic kh is pronounced a^ 
a simple h in all words which are 
thorougLly incorporated into Swa- 
hili. The kh is used by Ambs and 
in words imperfectly assimilated. 
Some people regard it as a mark of 
good education to give tho proper 
Arabic sounds to all words of Arabia 
origin. 

In Arabic a syllable often ends 
with hj which is then strongly pro- 
nounced ; but in Swahili the h ig 
generally transposed so as to pre* 
cede the vowel. 

KuihHimUy to finish one's educa- 
tion = Kuhitimu. 

H'f sign of the negative in the 
second and third persons sin- 
gular. 

H'upendij thou lovest not. 

H-apendi, he lovest not. 
XTa-, sign of the ihird person sin- 
gular negative when referring 
to animate beings, and of the 
negative when prefixed to 
the affirmative prefixes in the 
plural, and in tho third person 
. singular when not referring to 
animate beings. 

Ha-lupendi\ we love not. 

Ha-mpendi, you love not 

Ha^apendif they love not 

Ba^fcUy it is of no use. 

The final a of this Aa- never 
coalesces with the following 
letter. * 
Ha-, a contraction for n{ka» 

Mamwona^ and I eaw him. 



282 



HAD 



HAL 



The third person singular present 
oegativo is distinguished by 
the final i. 
Hamwoni, he doos not soo him. 
JIaha, little, few, shallow. 
Hahdbif my lord. 

JJabari, news, information, message, 
story. 
Udbari zangu ziUzonipatat an ac- 
count of what had happened to 
me. 
JIahushia, plur. mahahwHn'af an 
Abyssinian. Many Galla women 
are called Abyssinians, and the 
name is sometimes used for a con- 
cubine of whatever race. 
Hadaa, deceit, cheating. 
Hadaa ku-, to cheat. 
Eadaika Xru*, to be cheated, to be 

taken in. 
Hadidij the semicircular ornament 
to which Arab women attach the 
plaits of their hair. 
HadimUj a servant, slave. See Mu» 

hadimu. 
Hadithi, a tale, a story, especially 
one bearing upon Mohammedan 
tradition. 
HadiUiia hu-, to relate to. 
Hafi/u, light, in&ignlficant. 
Hafithilta Zru- = Hffathika At*-, to 

be preser\*ed. 
BaJiithaioaheiha (Ar.X these and 

these. 
Haiba, a beauty, not beauty gene- 
rally, but one good point. 
Hat; sign of third person singular 
negative agreeing with nouns 
which do not change to form 
the plural. 
Sign of the third person plural 
negative agreeing with nouns 
in mi". 



Hal = Hayi, alive. 
HatTia, it is not, there is not 
Hattassa, not yet. 

Haithuru, it does not harm, it is of 
no consequence, never mind, it 
would be as well. 
EaJ, the pilgrimage to Mecca. 
Haja^ a request. 
Hana hajay ho is good for no pur- 
pose, he has no occasion. 
Hajiri fcu-, to go to live elsewhere. 
Hajiriha ku-, to remain overlong, 

delay. 
Hakali, 
Kumshiica haJcalif to require a 
stranger who goes upon work- 
men's work to pay for his in- 
trusion, to make him pay his 
footing. 
ndlii', sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns in ki- or ch-, 
Haki, justice, right, righteousness. 
Eakikay true, certain, certainly. 
Hakika yakoy, it is true of thee, 
Ihou certainly. 
Hakiki ku-, to make sure, to ascer- 
tain, to prove. 
HaJciri ku-t to humble. 
Hakirisha ku-, to despise. 
Hako, he is not there. 
HakUf sign of the third person 

negative indefinite. 
Baku-, sign of the third person 
singular of the negative past, 
referring to animate beings. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the final lettci 
of the verb, which is -i in the 
indefinite and -a in the past tenso. 
Hakuna, there is not, it exists not. 

no. 
Bal tcdradi, otto of rosea. 



HAL 



HAP 



283 



ITalaf Mkithib, perjury. 
Ilalafu, afterwards, presently. 
Ilolali, lawful. 
JJalasa^ sailors* wages. 
IJnli, state, condition, health. 
U Kali gani f How are you ? 
Wa kali gani ? How are they ? 
Amehtwa halt ya kioanea^ he is 
reduced to his former condition, 
he is as he used to he. 
It is also used as a kind of con- 
junction, heing, if it be, when 
it is, supposing, so it was. 
JTali for AhaH, family, connections. 
Hali'f sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns which make their plural in 
ma-. 
Haliluha ^u-, to make lawfuL 
BdliU yakoy at your disposal. 
Halisi or Hdlist, exactly, without 

defect or variation. 
Hcdua, a sweetmeat made of ghee, 
honey, eggs, arrowroot (?), and 
spice. 
Haluli, 
Cliumvi ya hdluli, sulphate of 
magnesia. 
Ea*m-f sign of the second person 

plural negative. 
Huma I'U; to change houses, to 

move. 
HamcUiy plur. nta/uimaZt', a porter, 

a coolie. 
ITamami, a public bath. There are 

now public baths in Zanzibar. 
Eamaya, protection. 
Fi hamayctt al Ingrez, under 
British protection. 
ITamdij praise. 
Hami, protection. 
JTami Ate-, to protect 
Jlamili ku; to be pregn^ini 



Hamiraf leaven, ma<le by mixing 
flour and water and leaving it to 
turn sour. 
Hamisha ku-, to cause to remove, to 

cause to change oue*s place of 

residence, to banish. . 
JETa'mna, there is not inside, not 
JETamo, he is not inside. 
HamHy five. 
Hamsinii fifty. 
Eamstashara^ fifteen. 
JTamu, grief, heaviness. 
Hamwiwhi f Don't you sing ? 
Hanay he has not 
Hana ^u-, to mourn with, to join 

in a formal mourning. 
Hana kwao^ he has no home, a 

vagabond. 
JETanamu, obliquely. 
JTanamtf, the cutwater of a dhow. 
Handaki^ a dry ditch, a trench. 
Hangaika ku-^ to be excited. 
Hangoey the guttural Arabic A, the 

lihct. See MdawarL 
Hanikiza Xnt-, to interrupt people, 

to talk so loud and long as to 

prevent other people from doing 

anything. 
Hanisi, a man sexually impotent. 
Hanitiy a catamite, a sodomite. 
Hanzuttj a kind of dance. 
Hao, or Hawo, these or those beforo 

mentioned, referring to animate 

beinga 
Hapa-f sign of the third person 

negative, agreeing with mahdli, 

place or places. 
Hapa, here, this place, in this place. 
Hapanciy there is not, no I 

Mapana refers rather to a par- 
ticular place, Uakuna is gene* 
ral. 
Hope, here, this or that time. 



284 



HAB 



HAT 



Tangu hapot once upon a time. 

Hapo kale, in old times. 

Tokea hapo, ever bo long. 

Toha hapo i get away 1 get out of 
thisl 
ITara ku-, to be purged. 

HaMia ku-, to act as a drastic 
purgative. 
Hardka, haste. 
JTaraka ku-, to make haste. 
HarakUha ku-, to hasten. 
JIaramia, a pirate, a robber. 
ITaramu, unlawful, prohibited. 
llarara, prickly heat, heat, hot 

temper. 
JlararOf quick-tempered. 
Uararii, hot-tempered. 
Ilari, heat, perspiration. 

Kutoka harit to perspire. 
Eartbika ku-, to be destroyed, to 

spoil. 
Haribu ku-, to destroy, to spoil. 

Kuharihu i»t*m2»a, to miscarry. 
Harijia ku-^ to spend money, to lay 

out money, to provide (a feast), 

&o. 
HarimUha kU', to make or declare 

unlawful. 
Harimu kU' = HwrimUka ku-. 
Harioet a cry raised on seeing a 

dhow oomo in bight (M.). 
Hariri, silk. 
Harufu, Harufl, or Herufu, a letter 

of the alphabet, letters, cha- 
racters. 
Harufu, a scent, a smell of any kind. 
Harusi, a wedding; vulgarly, tlje 
bride. 

Btoana harusi, the bridegroom. 

Bibi liarusi, the bride. 
Hasai s= Maksai, castrated. 
Hasara, loss. 

J\upata Juwurat to 1qp§, 



Hasara ku-, to spoil a thing so thai 

its value is gone. ' 
Hatha, not at all, not by any means, 

a very strong negative. 
Hcuiho, a patch in planking, a piece 

let in. 
Hasi ku- or Kliasi ku-, to geld, to 

castrate. 
Hastbu ku-, to count. 
Easida, a kind of porridge. 
Hasidi, envy. 
Hasira, anger. 

Kuuoa na hasira, to be angry. 

KiUia hasira, to make angry. 
Hasira ku-, to injure. 
Easiri ^fi*-, to vex, to do harm 

to. 
Hasiiika ku-, to be injured, to be 

grieved. 
Easirisha ku-, td injure. 
Hassa, exactly. 
Hata, Beo Eatta. 
Eatamu, a bridle. 
Eatari, danger, fear. 
Eathari, caution, aire. 
Kuwa na hafhan, to beware, to 

be on one's guard. 
Ktifanya hathari, to become care- 
ful, to become anxious. 
Edtff, an angel. 
Eaiiki ku-, to bother, to annoy 

(A.). 
Eatima^Khatima, end, conclusion, 

at last. 
Eatirisha kth, to venture, to run 

the risk. 
Eatiija = Khatiya, fault. 

Kutia hatiyani^ to find fault with. 
Mujenyi haiiya nami, who has 
done me wro.ig. 
EaUa, until, so far os, to, at length, 
when a certain time had ar- 
med. It iQ used to intro4i|0g 



HAT 



HEB 



285 



the time ivhen Bomething fresh 

happened. 
Hatta iiku moja^ one day. 
SaUaatiubuif in the morning, 

but in the morning. 
ffaUa haada ya mtoezi kupita, and 

when a month had passed. 
llaUiOf for nothing. 

* HaJUiya = Hatiifa, 

Batu-j sign of the first person plural 
negative. 

* EatiMy a step, steps.. 

Eau-, sign of the third person 

singular negative agreeing with 

nouns in m- or mto-f not denoting 

animate beings,or with those iQ u-. 
Eavi't sign of the third person 

plural negative agreeing with 

plural nouns in vt- or «^. 
Eawa-f sign of the third person 

plural negative. 
Eatoa-^ Eve. 
EatoOj these, referring to animate 

beings. 
Eawa or Eewtt^ air. 
Eawa or Eawat, longing, lust, 
loving. 

Unfanye hatoa nafn, don*t be 
partial, don't show favour. 
Eatoa or JETatraro, a catamite, a 

paramour. 
Eaiodla, transfer of a debt, bill of 

exchange. 
Eatoezii he is ilL See Weza kw. 
Eawit be is not. 
Eawili hu't to lake upon onoself 

what was due from another, to 

guarantee a debt, &a 
Eaya-f sign of the third person 

plural negative agreeing with 

plural nouns in mo-. 
Eaya, these, referring to a > plural 

si^bstantive in 



Eaya^ shame, modesty. 
Eana haytt^ he is shameless. 
Kvona haya, to feel ashamed, to 

be bashfuL 
Kutia kayo, to abash, to make 
ashamed. 
Eayal Work awayl Be qulokl 

Gome along 1 
Eayale^ those, those things. 
Eayamhini, it is impossible. 
Eayaxeanit a man without his 

proper senses, an idiot 
Eayi^ plur. looAayt (?), alive. 
Eayo, these or those before men- 
tioned, referring to plural sub- 
stantives in mo-. 
Eayuko, vulgarly used in Zanzibar 

for hako^ he is not there. 
Ha2»-, sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or with those 
which begin in the singular with 
I*-. 
UcLzUm kth = Eeadbu ku-* 
Eazinat a treasure. 
Eazitassti^ not yet 
Eedaya, a choice thing, a tale. 
EejojBi^ the E^wi in Arabia. 
Eekalu, the temple at Jerusalem, a 

great or famous thing. 
EekimOf wisdom, cleverness. 
Eekimiza ku-, to make a man under- 
stand, to put him in possession of 
knowledge. 
Eemidi fcu-, or Eamidi ku-, to praise. 
Eenza, halyards. 
Eenzarani, cane-work. 
Eeri = Kheirif happy, fortunate, it 
is welL • 
KiheH,l had better, it wUl be 

well for me. 
Kua heri, good* bye. 

V 



286 



HEB 



Hiy: 



Mtu wa heri, a fortunate man. 
EeriOf a cry raised on first seeing a 

dhow coming. Compare ITanoioe. 
Herimu = Mariha. 
Heiro, a wooden platter. 
lleru/u or JIaru/u, a letter of the 

alphabet. 
He$ahu, accounts, an account. 
Hesahu lew, to count, to reckon. 
Heshimaf honour. 
IMiimu hu-t to honour. 
Jleth, menstruation, menses. 

Kuioa na hethf to menstruate. 
Hetimom [ancestors. 

Kuiovm hetinuty to pray for one's 
Jlewa or Hawa, air. 
Hezayaf a shame, a thing causing 

confudion. 
Hi', for Niki'. See -Jci-, 
Hiana, a grudging person, one who 

withholds things. Compare 

Ghiana, 
Hiari, choice. 

Hibaj property left after death. 
JlidimOy service. 
Hifathi hu', to preserve, to keep. 
Jli/aihika ku-, to be preserved. 
Jlifuhuza = Nikifuhuza, 
Hit, this, referring to singular 

nouns which do not change to 

form the plural ; these, referring 

to plural nouns in mi-. 
HiUej that, those. 
Jlikaya = Hedaya, a wonderful 

thing. 
liiki, this, referring to singular 

nouns in ki- or ch-, 
JTikiley that, yonder. 
SiUif a device, a stratagem, a deceit. 

Mtu wa hUa^ a crafty man. 
Jit7«, this, referring to singular 

nouns which make their plural 

in 



irt7o, tliis or that before mentioned, 
referring to singular nouns which 
make their plural in ma-, 

Hirhay haste, hastily, quickly. 

Himahimal be quick I 

BimUi ku'y to bear, to support. ^ 

nimiza ku-,^ to hasten. 

Ilinay henna, a very favourite red 
dye, used by women to dye the 
palms of their hands and the solea 
of their feet, often used to dye 
white donkeys, &c., a pole rod 
brown. 

Eihi lew, to refuse to give, to with- 
hold. 

Hiri/ti, a written ofanrm worn on the 
side. 

Hirimu, an equal in aga 
Eirimu mojaj of the same ag^ 

Bisa, pardon. 
Nipe hUa yangu, pardon me. 

Eitari ku-, to prefer, choose. 8ce 
IklUiari. 

Hitimaf the feast which concludes 
a formal mourning. 

Bitimu kU', to finish one's learning, 
to leave off school, to know onu*8 
trade. 

Bitimisha ku-, to finish a scholar, to 
bring to the end of his learning ol 
whatever kind. 

Bivi, thus, these, referring to plural 
nouns in t?«- or «y-, 

Bivile, those. 

Bicyo, after which manner, these 
mentioned before, referring ta 
plural nouns iu v»- or vy*. 

Biyari, choice. 

Eiyo^ this mentioned before, re-^ 
ferriiig to singular nouns which 
do not change to form the plural ; 
these mentioned before, referring- 
to plural nounf |^ mt- or in mi^ 



HIZ 



HUJ 



287. 



Hizi, these, referring to plural 
nouns wLioU do not change to 
form the plural, or which begin 
in the singular with u- or to-. 

Silcu hizi, some days ago, some 
days hence, now. 
Hizi hU'^ to treat with contumely, to 

groan at, to cry out against. 
Hizile, tliose. 

Hizika h'U'j to be put to the blush. 
Bdbe ! now go on, be off. 

Kwenda hobe, to go wherever it 
may be. 
Hohxi, grandchild. 
ffodari, strong. 
Hodi! a cry made by way of 

Inquiry whether any one is within. 

No one ought to enter a house 

nntil he has received an answer. 
JSogera hU'y to perform a particular 

washing customary after oix^ 

cumcision. 
Hagoy plur. mdhogo, a very large 

root of cassava. 
Mohe liahCf a phrase used to denote 

extreme poverty and destitution. 
Soho. 

Pilipili hoho, red pepper. 

Mhate wa hoho, a cake made with 
fresh palm-oil. 
Hoja = Huja, 
Homa, fever. 
Hongo, a present demanded by a 

local chief for liberty to pass 
' through his country. 
Jlongua, a Comoro dance. 
Morarit clever (?). 
Hon, or Khori, a creek, a small arm 

of the sea. 
Uoriy plur. mahori, a kind of canoo 

with a raised head and stem. 
ZTm-, a quasi -personal prefix de- 
noiing a customary actiop. |t 



applies to all persons and both 
numbers. 
Hunijibu, it is in the halit of 

answering me. 
Huenda, he, &c., commonly goes. 
JHttsemo, they say. 
Hu' = h-w, the negative prefix of 
the second person singular. 
This form is distinguished from. 
the preceding by the termina- 
tion of the verb. 
Huenda, people go. 
Huendiy you do not go« 
Him, a dove. Thoy are said to cry. 
Mama aJeafa, Baha dkafa, nime- 
salia mimi, tu, tu, tu, tu, tu, My. 
mother is dead, my father is 
dead, I am left alone — lone— lone 
— lone. Another cry of the same 
class of birds is explained as; 
Kuku m/upa mtupu, mimi nyama 
tele tele tele, A fowl is bare 
bones. I am meat plenty, plenty, 
plenty. 
HvhbOy love, affection. 
Hubiriy to announce, to give news. 
Hudumia ku-, to serve. 
Hudumu, service. 
Hui kii'^io revive, to come to life 

again. 
Huika ^tt-, to be brought to life 

again, to live again. 
Huisha hu-, to revive, bring to life 

again, resuscitate. 
Huja or hoja, sake, account, con^ 
cernment, reasoning. 
Kina hvja nyingi, it is full of 

bother, it is troublesome. 
Hahina huja, it is all clear, it is 
plain sailing. 
Hujambo ? Are you well ? 
Euji hU', to inquire into, seek out 
Hujuru J(u-, to desert. ^ 

u 2 



288 



HUK 



Euko, thoie, at a distance. 

Hvko na hvko, hither and thither. 
Evkvkj here, there, near. 

Hvku na hvkut this wxj and 
that 
nukumu, judgment, authority, law. 
Hukumu Ja^f to act as judge, to 

have Bupreme authority over. 
Eukumia fcu-, to judge, to exercise 

authority upon. 
Etdukiwa fcti, to be created, to be 

a creature. 
HumumOf plur. ma^f a man iRrho 

knows no religion. 
JTtifld^ a draft, a bill of exchange, 
iltio, this or that before mentioned, 

referring to singular nouns in 

«- or vhf or which make their 

plural in mi-. 
HurUf free, not a slave. 

Kuweha or Kttcuiha ftum, to set 
free from slavery. 
Hurtt, plar. mahuruj a freed man. 

Mahuru tea Baiyozi^ or Partm, 
slaves freed by the British 
consulate. 
BurUf diamonds in cards. 
Hurtmui, pity. 
Eurumia fcu-, to pity, to have pity 

upon. 
Eu89u hti-t to divide into shares, to 

put each one's share separate. 
Eusudu hu-f to do wanton violence, 

to grudge at, to envy. 
Eusumu ku", to strive, to oontend 

with. 
EuBuni, a fort. 
Euturu &tt-, to besiege. 
EtUhuria hu-y to be present 
fTutt, this, referring to nouns in 

the singular which make their 

plural in mi-, or to singular nouns 

beginning with i»- qx fth. 



EuuU, that 

J7ttyo, this or that before mentioned, 

referring to an animate being:. 

In chasing a man or animal, any 

one who sees him cries out, 

Euyo! huyo! huyo! Here he is I 

EuyUy this, this person, this one, . 
referring to an animate being. 

EuytHe, that. 

Httsttni, grief, heaviness. 

Ewendaf perhaps. 



I is pronounced like ee in feel. 

I before a vowel generally be- 
comes y. It is in many cases im- 
material whether i or y be written, 
but where the accent would other- 
wise fall upon it, its consonantal 
character becomes obvious. 

An unaccented i is often inter- 
changed with a short « sound 
Thus the word for lead may be pro- 
nounoed either risaH or rtuan. 

N has generally an i sound im- 
plied in it It is sometimes ex- 
pressed following the «, as in the 
prefix ni. The final i of ni- disap- 
pears in rapid pronunciation, and in 
the first person of the future, as n 
cannot coalesce with ^, both letters 
are often omitted. When n is foK 
lowed by a vowel, or by d, g, J, 
or f , the i sound is lost When n 
is followed by other consonants it 
eit]ier disappears altogether or the 
i sound is more or less distinctly 
prefixed, so as to moke the n a syl- 
lable by itself. The t sound is more 
distinct in the dialect of Zanzibar 
than in more northern Swab ill. 
' Where t follows the final a of <) 



t^i 



289 



preilz (except the negative prefix 
hd) it ooalesces with a into the 
sound of a long e, . 

i, is or was, goTcmed by a singular 

' noun of the class which does 
not change to form the plural; 
are or were, governed by a 
plural noun in mi-, 

T-, or before a voweVy-,the personal 
prefix used with verbs whose 
subject is a singular noun of 
the class which does not change 
to form the plural, or a plural 
in mi'f it or they. 

W-, the prefix representing the ob- 
ject of the verb when it is a 
singular noun of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, or a plural noun in mi-, 

•J-, the reflective prefix in Ktng*oz% 
(and in Nyamwezi), selt 

Iba huh (thA kuh is frequently re- 
tained in the usual tenses), to 
steal, to take surreptitiously. 

IbadOf worship. 

Ihia hw; to rob, to steal from. 

Idadi. 
Eayana idadi, there is no count- 
ing them. 

Idtli = AdUif right conduct 

IdUi ku-, to learn right conduct 

Idilisha hu-f to teach right con- 
duct 

Iftahiy bringer of luck. 

Iga kU't to mock, to imitate (M. 
igiza), 

Ih'. See Hi'. 

Ihtahidi fctf-, to strive. 

Ih*tc^i fttt-, to be wanting. 

Ih*tajia ku-, to want, to be wanting to. 

IhHUafu, different Also a fault, 
difference. 



IhHimu hu', to flnidi learning, to 
complete one's education. 

IJarct, pay, hire, rent 

JJaza, a reward. 

^aza hu-f to grant permission for 
worship. 

IkMiari, choice. 

IkUiari ftti-, to wish. 

Iklza Icu-^ to lay the beams of a 
roof. 
Kuku ya kuikizat a fowl cooked 
with eggs. 

Iko, there is, it is there. 

2Za, a defect, a blemish. 

lUf that yonder, referring to a 
singular noun of tho class which 
does not change to form its 
plural; those yonder, referring 
to a plural noun in mi-. 

Hi = mi, 

Htkit cardamoms. 

Iliokoy which is, or was there. 

Hiopandana^ the composition of a 

word. 
llizij a small round thing held 

to be a great charm against 

lions. 
ItlOt except unless, but 
Kkikini, but 
JKt, in order that 
Hmu, learning. 
Ima — ima, either— of. 
Ima fttt-, to stand up (King*ozi and 
Too). 

Njia pa hwima, a straight road. 
Ima ktt-f to eat up food provided 
for other people. 

Ametuima, he has eaten our share 
as well as.his own. 
Tmani, faith. 
Imara, firm. 
Imha kuf', to sing. 
Imbu, mosquito, mosquitoes- 



290 



IMl 



ITA 



Imuha ku'9 to set up, to make to 

stand.,. 
Tmma. 

Wa tmma, to a certainty. 
Inaj it has, they have. 
Inama hu-, to bow, to stoop, to bend 

down, to slope. 
Inamiiha hu-, to malce to bend 

down, to bow. 
Inang'ara, it is bright See ng^aa, 
Jnehij land, country, earth. 
Jnda, 

Kufanya inda, to give trouble. 
Jnga A-u-, to scare away birds. 
'ingu many, much. It makes Jingi 

with nouns like hcLsha, and 

nyingi with nouns like nyumba, 
Ingia hu-^ to enter, to go or come 

itito. 
Ingilia hu-, to go or come into, for, 

or to. 
Ingtliza hu-, to cohabit with. 
ingine, other, different. It makes 
mgine or mtoingine with nouns 
like mtu and mti ; Jingine with 
nouns like hasha ; ngine or nyi- 
ngine with nouns like nyuniba; 
and pingine or pangine with 
nouns of place. 

Wangine — tDan^/ne,8ome — others. 
Ingiza hu-, to make or allow to enter. 
Jnt*, plur. mainiy the liver. 
Inika hu-, to hang down, to lay upon 

its side. See Jiinika, 
Jnnoy truly. , 

JnshcLUdht if God will, perhaps. It 

is used as a general promise to do 
as one is asked to do. 
Inta - Nta, 

Inua ku-^ to lift, to lift up, 
Jnuka ku-f to be lifted, to become 

raised. 
Jnya, mother (A.}« 



'inyi = -en^t, having, with. It makes 
mtoinyi, tMfi^*, yinyi, zinyi^ linyi 
kinyi, vinyi, and penyi, 

Inzif plur. tnatnzt, a fly. 

Jpa ku', to want, desire to have. 
Kuipa roho mbde, to long for 
everything one sees, to have 
unrestrained desires. 

Kupiga tpt, to elap (N.). 

Ipif what? 
Kama ipi f how ? 

Ipua kiO't to tiike off tlie fiia 

Iriba^ usury. 

Irivea^ a vice (the tool). 

Itha kwy to finish, to come to an 
end. The kuh is retained in 
the usual tenses, but sometimes 
the t0 is dropped, as ajnekidia 
for amektBishOy he has done. 
Kuneha is commonly used as an 
Auxiliary : thus, Atnekwi$ha 
kuja^ he has cume already. 
AUpokvoidM htQo^ when he 
had come. 
Akaiiha, or Akeska, after that, 
when ho had done this. 

Ishara, a sign, signal. 

Iski ktt-f to last, to endure, to live. 

Isimu or lamu, name, especially the 
name of God. 
'Ma imtak (Ar.)? What U your 
name? 

Islaray a curtain. 

laliska, dropsy. 

Ita kw-y to call, to call to, to name, 
to invite. The kvo- is fre- 
quently retained. 
Kwitwa^ to be called, is sometimcB 
constructed as if it were hm, 
fjoitfjoa. 

Ita ku»f to cast in a mould. 

Italaeai, satin. 



ITH 



J A A 



291 



.MhM, tonctioh. 

Kutoa Wiint, to easkciifm. 
Ithneen, two. 

Mia Jcu', to dall for some pnipose. 
Ittka 2rtt-, to answer when called. 
Itikia ftw-, to reply to, to answer a 
t person when oalled ta 
Itikiza Jcu-f to assent to. 
Jto la guu (A.)> the ankle. 
Ira kf*- or Wiva ku-y to heoome ripe, 

to bi csoine completely cooked, to 

get done. The kU' is frequently 

retained. 
Jvtt, plur. maivuj ash, ashes (M.). 
Iwapif where is it? 
Jza ku'f to refns^. 
Izara kti-yio tell scandal abont, to 

make things publio about a 

person . improperly. 

J. 

J, The correct pronunciation of 
this letter, and especially that of 
the Mombns dialect, is a very pecu- 
liar one. The most prominent sound ^ 
is that of y, but it is preceded by 
hnother resembling d. The French 
di is perhaps the nearest European 
representative. The Swahili write 
it by the Arable /tnt, which is ex- 
actly an English/. 

in the more northern dialects and 
in the old poetical Swahili the J is 
represented by a pure y. 
• Mitya =: mqja, one, 

Mayi = tno/t, water. 

A d in the dialect of Mombas 
very commonly becomes a J in that 
of Zanzibar. 

Ndia (M.), a road, NJia (Zanz.). 

Kutiiida (M.), to slaughter ; £u- 
ehinja (Zanz.). 

Ilony words ifrhich are properly 



8pelt with a • are vulgarly pro- 
nonnoed with &J in Zanzibar, as, 

Kanju, for kanzu, 

Chenja, for chenza. 

This is only carrying to excess the 
rule that a s in the neighbouring 
mainland languages becomes a j 
in Swahili. 

The Arabs and some Swahili 
confuse J with g. Thus the bite 
ruler of Zanzibar was often spoken 
of as Bwana Mag^di, his proper title 
being Seyid Mdjid. 

/-, a prefix applied to substantives 
and adj^tivcs in the singular of 
the class which make their plural 
in ma-f when they begin wilh a 
vowel. Seeji'. 
Ja, like. 

Ja kit- (the ku- carries tlie accent 
and is retained in the usual 
tenses), to come. The impera- 
tive is irregular, Njoo, come. 
Njooni, come ye. 
Ja is used to form several tenses. 

1. With -po- added, meaning even 
if; wa-Japo-kupiga, even if they 
beat you. 

2. With negative prefixes mean- 
ing not yet ; ha-ja-ja^ he is not 
yet come. 

3. With negative prefix and sub- 
junctive form. Asi-Je-lalaj be- 
fore he goes to sleep, or that he 
may not have already gone to 
sleep. 

Jaa kU'^ to become full, to fill, to 

abound with. 
Maji yanajaa, the tide is coming 

in. 
Mtungi umejaa majit the jai is 

full of water. 
See Jawa ku-. 



293 



JAA 



JAB 



Shika mdjira yajaa^ steer north- 
wards. 
Jaoy a dost heap, 
Jabali, plur. majdbalij a rocky hill. 

Also see Kanza, 
/o^ari, absolute ruler, a title of God. 
JadUiana ku-, to argue with. 
Jahot good luck, unexpected good 
fortune. 

KUango eha Jaha^ the gate of 
Paradise. 
Jahaxi, a vessel, a ship. 
Jahili ku-y to dare, not to fear. 
Jalada, the cover of a bound book. 
Jali hu-t to give honour to. 
Jalia hu'j to bless, to enable, to 
grant to. 

Muungu akinijaHa, God willing. 
Jcdiwa htt-y to be enabled, to have 

power, &c., given one. 
Jaliza ^,to fill up, used of vessels 

which have already something in 

them. 
JamaOy family, assembly, gathering, 

society, company. 
Jamaa A:ti-, to collect together, 

gather. 
Jamaai (Hind.), a council of elders. 
Jamaloy courtesy, good manners, 

elegance. 
Jamanda, plur. majamanda^ a solid 

kind of round basket with a lid. 
JamhOf breaking of wind down- 
wards. 
Jamba ku-f to break wind down- 
wards. 
Jdmhioy plur. maJamUa^ a curved 

dagger always worn by Muscat 

Arabs. 
Jambo, plur. manibo (from kuamha,) 
a word (?), a matter, a circum- 
stance, a thing, an affair. 



Akanitenda kiOa Jambo la loema, 
and he showed me all possible 
kindness. 
Jamho for d Jambo^ hu Jawibo, ha 
JanibOf Ac, I am well, are yoa 
well ? he is well* &c., &o. 

Jambo Sana, I am very well, are 
you very well ? &o. 
Jami ku-f to copulate, to have con- 
nection with. 
Jamiiy many, a good collection, the 

mass, the company of, the body of. 
JamiUha ku-, to gather. 
Jamvi, plur. majamvi, a coarse kind 

of matting used to cover floors. 
Jana^ yesterday. 

Mvoakajanoy last year. 
JannOf paradise. 
Janaba, filth, undeanness. 
Janga, punishment. 
Jangwa, plur. majangwa, a large 

desert 
Jani, plur. majan% a leaf. Majani 

is commonly used for any grass 

or herbage. 
Janvia = Jambia, 
'japo'f sign of a tense signifying 
even if. 

UJapofika, even if you arrive. 
Jarari, the ropes passing tlirough 

the pulley attached to a dhow's 

halyards. 
Jaribu ku-, to try. 
Jarifa, plur. majarifa, a seine or 

drag-net made of Eurdpean cord- 
age. See Juya, 
Ja$ho, sweat 

Kufanya jasho,^ sw3at 
Jasirisha ku-, to dare. 
Jcuisi kU'f to explore. 
Jcumini or Jasmin, jasmine. The 

flowers are sold in the streets of 

Zanzibar for their scent 



JA8 



JIB 



293 



Jatti, plur. majasH, the ornamelit 
in the lobe of the ear. It is 
generally a silyer plate about an 
inch and a half across. 

JaUiari^ take oare ! 

Jawa, a coarse kind of Indian 
eurthenware. 
Kikamibe eha JawOy a cup of coarse 
Indian ware. 

Jatoa hu't to be filled with, to be 
fall of: nsod of something 
which ooght not, or could not 
be expected to be there. 
Maji yam^awa dudu^ the water 
is full of insects ; bnt tatungi 
unujaa majif the jar is full of 
water. 

Jaujalnt, an answer, a condition, a 
matter. 

JawaJur (Ar.), jewcLai 

Jaza Xctt-, to fill. 

Jazi, a corombn thing, a thing which 
is abundant. 

Jazi ktt'j to supply, to maintain. 

JcuUia ku-, to reward. 

/6/HulloI Weill What now I 
-/0f how? 

Jebu, an ornament worn by women, 
hanging nnder the chin. 

JekundUj red. See -eiS^uTidii. 

Jdidi Iktf-, to bind books. 

Jema, good. See •emo. 

Jemadarif plur. nu^emadari, a com- 
manding officer, a general. 

Jembambc^ narrow, thin. See 
-embambiJL 

Jemhe^ plur. me^enAe, a hoe. 
Jemhe la ftinmytc, a spade. 

Jenaiza. or Jenexa^ a bier. 

Jenga ifcu-, to construct, to build. 

Jengea ifcu-, to build for, or on ac- 
count of. 

/engo, plur. majengo^ a building. 



Mdjengo, building materials. 

Jenzi kthf to construct 

Jepa hu- (A.), to steal. 

Jepeai, light, not heavy. See -e^si, 

Jerdha, a wound. 

Jeribu Km- = Jaribu Xnt-, to try. 

Jeruhi fttt-, to be wounded. 

Jeski^ plur. majeshi^ a host, a great 
company. 

Jetea ku-^ to be puffed up, to be 
over proud, to rely upon, to 
trust in. 

JethamUf a leprosy in which the 
fingers and toes drop off, ele- 
phantiasis (?> 

Jeuli or JeuW, Tiolcnce. 
Anajeuli, he attacks people wan- 
tonly. 

Jeupe, white. See "eupe. 

Jeusi, black. See etui, 

Ji; a syllable prefixed to substin- 
tiyes which make their plural 
in mo-, if they would otherwise 
be of one syllable only. This 
syllable is sometimes inserted 
after a prefix to give the idea 
of largeness, or to prevent con- 
fusion witl 1 some other word. Be- 
fore a vowel it becomes/- only. 

•ji', an infix giving a refiective 
meaning to the verb. 
KupendOf to love. 
JCtt/tpefuZo, to love oneself. 

Kuponya, to save. 
Jiponye^ save yourself, look out t 

Jia ku-f to come for, by, to. 
Njia uliyojiaf the road you come 
by. 

Jibini, cheese. 

Jibiwa Aru, to receive on answer, be 
answered. 

Jibu ku»^ to answer, to give an 
answer. 



294 



JIB 



JOM 



JtbtoOf'pXia.maJihwa^ikA exceedingly 

large dog. 
Jicho, plar. mac/uty the eye. 

Jicho la maji^ a spring of water. 
Ji/tt, plur. majifuy ashes. 
Jt/ya, plur. mafya, one of tlirce 

stones to support a pot over the 

fire. Mafya is the usual word 

in the town, nutfiga is commonly 

used in the country. 
Jigamba 7ctt-, to boost, to praise one- 

. self. 
Jiinika Jnhj to lie on the side. 
Jiko, plur. meho, a fireplace, one of 
the stones to rest a pot on (?). 

Jikoni, in the kitchen, among the 
ashes. 
J ilia feti-, to come to a person on 

some business. 
JUiwat plur. majiliwa, a vice (the 

tool). 
Jimbif a cock. 
Jinibi^ Allocasia edulis. Both 

leaves and root are eaten : (a sort 

of Arum). 
Jimbo, plur. maJimho,9k place a part 

of the country (Old Swahili). 
Jimbo. 

Ktmha najiwibo, to wash a new- 
bom child with water and 
medicine. 
Jina, plur. majina, a name. 
Jina toko nantf what is your 

name ? 
Jina la hupangvoa^ a nickname. 
Jinamisi, nightmare. 
Jingi, much. See -tngi. 
Jingine^ other. See -ingine, 
Jinif plur. majtni, jins, spirits, genii. 
Vtno, plur. meno, a tooth, a twist or 

strand of rope, or tobacco, Ac. 
c Kamba jfa meno matatUf a cord of 
three strands. 



Jionif OTcning. 

Jipu, plur. maJipUf a boil. 

Jipotoa Iktf-, to dress oneself a|» 
excessively. 

Jipya^ new. See -pyo. 

Jiraniy a neighbour, neighboniB. 

Jisif quality. 

/istf, plur. nu^tiUt a very large 
knife. 

Jttenga kn-, to get out of the way. 

Jiti, plur. majiti, a tree truuk. 

JUimai, excessive sorrow. 

Jito, plur. maio = Jieho, tlie eye (M.)* 

Jittt, plur. malu or majUuy a grc;it 
large man, a savage. 

Jituza Km-, to make oneself mean or 
low. See Tuza. 

Jivari, purchase (of a dhow hal- 
yards). 

Jivif a wild hog. 

Jivu = Jifu, 

Jiwa ku', to be visited. 

Jiwe, plur. mawe, a. stone, a piece 

of stone. Plur. majiwej of very 

large pieces of stone. 

Jitoe la mafk/o, apiece of freestone. 

Nyumha ya matoe, a stone house. 

Jodari, a kind of fish. 

Jogai = Jogoo. 

Jogoo, plur. majogoo, a cook. 

Johari, a jewel. 

Joho, woollen cloth, a long loose 
coat worn by ^Ue Arabs. 

Jo/iro, plur. maJokOf a very large 
snake. 

JoliOt a place to bako pots in. 

Jokumj charge, responsibility. 

JombOf plur. nWi/om&o, an exceed- 
ingly large vesseL 

Joiigea ku-y to approach, come near 
to, move. 
Jongea mvulinif move into the 
ehade. 



JON 



JTT2 



295 



JongeUza hur^ to bring near to, to 

offer. 
Jongeza %«*-, to bring near, move 

towards, mo?e. 
JongOf gout 

Jongoej a large kind of fish. 
Jongoo, a millepede. 
. Jofjiyay a Georgian, the most valued 

and whitest of female slaves. 
JororOj soft. See -ororo. 
Josh, a voyage, a cruize. 

= Goshi, Luff I 
Jotojoto. 

Kupata jotoJotOf to grow w«rm. 
JoyOf plur. majoyat a coeoa-nut 

which is filled with a white 

spongy substance instead of the 

usual nut and juice. They are 

prized for eating. 
Jozi, Jeozif or Jauzt, a pair, a pack 

of cards. 
Jozi, a walnut. 
/tta,.plur. majuat the sun. 

Jua hUwantf noon. 
Jua 7cU', to know how, to under- 
stand,^ to know about, to know. 

Namjua aliko, I know where he is. 

Najua hiungujaj I understand the 
language of Zanzibar, 

Najua kufua chuma, I know how 
to work in iron. 
Juba, a mortice chisel. 
Jvhuru ku; to compel. 
Jugo, ground nuts. 
JuJiudu an effort, efforts. 

Kufanya jvhudi, to exert oneself, 
/fi/tf, plur. maJt^Uf a fool. 
Juhuy risk, a word used by traders. 
Jukwarif a scaffold, scaffoldiog. 
Julia hu-, to know about, see to. 
Julisha ku-, to m^e to know. 
JumOj Friday, a week. 

Jwma a most, Saturday. 



Juma a pUi, Sunday. 

Juma a tatu, Monday. 

Juma a *nnej Tuesday. 

Juina a tano, Wednesday. 
Juma, small brass nails used for 

ornamentation. 
JumaOj ai^ assembly. 
Jumba, plur. majumha, a large house. 
Jumhe^ plur. majumbe, a chief, a 

head-man, a prince, a sultan. 
Jumla, tlie sum, the total, addition 

(in arithmetic). 
JumUsha hu-, to add up, sum up, 

put together. 
Junta, a kind of matting bag. See 

Qunia. 
Jura, a pair; a length of calico, 

about thirty-five yards, 
/ten. 

Haijun, it is unfitting. 
JtU Kdsam (Hind.), perjury." 
Juta &«-, to bo sorry for, to»regret. 
Juu, up, the top, on the top. 

Yuko ittii, he is up-stairs. 

Juu ya^ upon, above, over, on the 
top of, against. 
JuvUha ku-, to make to know, to 

teach. 
Juvya ku; to make to know. 
Juya, plur. majuya, a seine or drag* 

net made of cocoa*nut fibre ropo. 
Juza, obligation, kindness. 
Juza ku', to make to know.- 
Juzi, the day before yesterday. 

Mivakajuzi, the year before last, 

Juzijuzi, a few days ago. 
Juzia ku; to compel, to have power 

to compel. 
Juzu, necessity. 

Jawibo lajuzu, a necessary thing. 
Juzu ku-, to oblige, to hold bound, 

to have under an obligation to do 

something. 



296 



JUZ 



KAfi 



Jttztitt, a seoiion of the Eohtn. 
There are in all thirty, which are 
often written out separately. All 
the Junm together are Khitima 
ngima* 



K is prononnoed as in EDglish. 

The Arabs have two k% one, the 
kef or leaf, a little lighter than the 
English kj and one, the kahf or 
qafj made wholly in the throat, and 
confounded by many Arabs with a 
hard g. There is a onrions catch in 
the throat between the preceding 
vowel and the qaf, Tory hard to 
explain, but easy enough to imi- 
tate. Although the correct pronun- 
ciation of these two I^b is an ele- 
gance, it is not necessary nor very 
commoBly observed in speaking 
8wahili. 

Ki is very commonly pronounced 
M in Zanzibar, especially by slaves 
of the Nyassa and Yao tribes. 

Kh, the Arabic kha, occurs only 
in words borrowed from the Arabic, 
and subsides into a simple h so soon 
as the word is thoroughly natu- 
ralized. 

Khabari or Hdbari, news. 

Kheiri or Heri\ well, good, for- 
tanate. 

Ka-, -Kd-, a syllable prefixed to or 
inserted in the imperative and 
subjunctive of verbs, with the 
force of the conjunction " and." 
•JS»-, the sign of a past tense, used 
in carrying on a narration ; it 
includes the force of the con- 
junction •• and.* 



Akamwambicif and he laid Ut 
him. 

Nika- is often contracted into Ao-. 
Kaa Xw-, to sit, to dwell, to stay, t€ 
live, to be, to stand, to remain, 
to continue,. to live in, or at 

Kiikaa kiUiko, to sit down, to re- 
main quietly. 
KaOf plur. maJeao^ a piece of char- 
coal. 

Makaa, coals, charooal, embers. 

Kaa la moshi or Makaa ya moshi^ 
soot 
Kaa^ a crab. 

Kaa makokOf small mud crabs 
with one large claw. 

Kaa la kinwOf the palate. 
Kaaka or KaaJcaa, the palate. 
Kaanga &!»-, to fry, to braze, to cook 

with fat. 
KaangOf plur. makaango^ an earthen 

pot to cook meat in. 
Kaba &!»-, to choke, to throttle. 
Kaha la kanzu, a sort of lining round 

the neck and a short way down 

the front of a ftaJisn,, put in to 

strengthen it. 
Kahari, a wedge. 
Kdbibuy narrow. 
KabUay a tribe, a subdiyision less 

than taifa. 
Kahili ftu-, to be before, to be op- 
posite. 
KabUUiha ^, to put opposite, to set 

before. 
Kabita^ utterly, altogether, quite. 
KdbUhi %tf*, to give into the hand. 
KaUa, before, antecedently. 

Kahla ya, before (especially of 
time). 
Kabulh acceptance. 
Kabulif pillaw. 
Kaburi, plur. maftaiuf I (pionounoed 



EAD 



KAL 



297 



hj xnany Arabs Gahri)^ a graye, 
a tomb. 

KadamuyA serrant, the lowest of 
the three chief men usually set 
over the slaves on a plantation. 
On the Zambezi the man who 
stands at the head of the canoe 
to look out for shoals is called 
K<idamo. 

Kadiri or Kadri, measure, modera- 
tion, capacity, middling, mode- 
rate, about, nearly, moderately. 
Kadri gcmif how much? 

Kadiri ya, as, whilst 

Kadiri ku-y to estimate. 

Kadri = Kadiri. 

Kafara, an offeriDg to avert evil, a 
sacrifice of an animal or thing to 
be afterwards buried or thrown 
away, a charm made of bread, 
sugar-cane, &c., thrown down in 
a cross-way. Any one who takes 
it is supposed to carry away the 
disease, misfortune, &o. 

Kofi, plur. mdkafl, a paddle. 

Kafiriy plur. makafirU an infidel, an 
idolater, one who is not a Moham- 
medan. 

Kafuriy camphor. 

Kaga fcu-, to put up a charm to 
protect something. 

Kagoy plur. mago, a charm to pro- 
tect what it is fastened to. 

Kagua hu-, to go over and inspect. 

Kciiabay plur. malsahabay a prosti- 
tute. 

Kdhatoay coffee. 

Kahinij plur. mdkaJiinit a priest, % 
soothsayer. 

Kai hu-y to fall down to, embrace, 
the knees. 

Kaida, regularity. 
Ya JcaidOf regular. 



'Icaidi, obstinate. 

Kaimu, plur. mdkaimuy a vice- 
gerent, a representative.' 
Kalca, a lemon after it has been 

squeezed, the rind of a lemon, 

the shell of an egg, &o, 
Kaka, a brother {Kihadimu, see 

Mukadiihu), 
Kcbkot a disease with swelling of 

the hand and opening into sores. 
KakakakOy very many. 
Kakamiay hard of heart 
Kdkamia hu, to be longsuffering, 

slow to be affected. 
Kahimuka ^u-, to make an effort, 

to strain (as at stool, or in 

travail). 
Kdkavxma hu-, to be strong, capable 

of great exertion, well-knit and 

firm in all the muscles. 
Kahiy a very thin kind of biscuit or 

cake. 
Kdla/ati ftti-, to caulk. 
Kalamika Aru-, to prevaricate in 

giving evideuee (?), to cry from 

pain caused by medicine (?). 
KaJa*m3ca hu-, to be sharp, to have 

one*s eyes open. 
KalcCmkia 2;u-, to outdo, to be too 

sharp for. 
Kalamu, a pen. The pens for 
writing Arabic are made of 
reed, and the nibs are cut 
obliquely. 

Kalamu ya mwanzi, a reed pen. 
Kalamuzi, cunning, crafty. 
Kalasia, little brass pots. 
Kcde, old time, formerly. 

-a kale, old, of old time. 

Zamani za kale, old times. 

Uapo kale, once upon a time. 
Kalfati or KaJafati, caulking. 
'kaV, sour, shfirp, keen, s«^va^ 



298 



KAL 



cross, severe, fierce. It makes 
hali with nouns like nyumha. 

JxM hali, a hot snn. 
Ka?ta 7ftt-, to remain for. 

Ku'mkalia tamu, to remain as he 
would wish. 
Kaltbu, ft mould, a furnace. 
Kama, Kammat Kana, or Ktmmha, 

as, as if, like, if, supposing. 
Kama kii-, to milk, to squeeze. 
KamamangOy a pomegranate. 
Kamalh a game played by chucking 

pice into a hole. If only one 

goes in they say "JtfoZwa," and 

the player throws a flat stone on 

the one that is out. 
Kanuui, mucus from the nose. 

Kufuta hamasi, to blow the nose. 

Bitoezi kamasi, I have a cold in 
my head. 
Kamata hu-, to lay hold of, take, 

seize, clasp. 
Kamatana hUf to grapple, to seize 

one another. 
Kamaiii balls of wheat-flour lca< 

vened with ternbo. 
Kambaj a crayfish. 
Kambaj rope. 

Kainba ulayiti, European or 
hempen rope. 
KaTnbaOt plur. of ukanibaa, cord, 
string (M.). 

Kanibaay a plaited thong or whip 
kept by schoolmasters and 
overlookers in Zanzibar. 
Kamhali, plur. maJcarnbali, a cat- 
fish living in fresh water. 
Kamharau, a forebrace carried to 

the weather side to steaily the 

yard of a dhow. 
Kaimhi, plur. malcamhi, a circular 

encampment, a place where a 

caravan has hutted itself in. 



KAN 

Kamho, 
Baha-uoa kamha, stepfather. 
Mama wa Icambo, stepmutber. 

Kame^ quite dried up, utterly 
barren. 

Kami, a bulbous plant with largo 
head of red flowers. 

Kamia hu-, to reproach. 
Kujikamia, to reproach oneself. 

KamUi, perfect, complete. 

-kamUifu, perfect, wanting nothing. 

Kamilika hu-, to be perfect. 

Kamilisiha hth, to make perfect. 

Kamua hu-, to press, to press 
out. 

Kamusi, an Arabic lexicon. 

Kamwe (M.), not at all, never. 

Kamwi = Kamwe, 

Kana, a tiller. 

Kana^ if, as. See Kama, 

Kana hu-, to deny* 

Karida, plur. mahanda, a long nar- 
row matting bag, broader at the 
bottom than at the mouth. 

Kanda hu-, to knead dough, to 
knead the limbs, to shampoo. 

Kandamiza hu-, to press upon. 

Kande, food (Mer.). 

Kanderinya, a kettle. 

Kandika ku-, to plaster. 

Kandili, plur. makandili, a lantern. 

Kando, side, aside. 
Kando ya or Kandokando ya, 
beside, along by the side. 

Kanga, a guinea fowl. 

Kanga, a dry stem after the cocoa- 
nuts have been taken off. 

Kanga ku-, 
Kukanga moto, to warm. 

Kangaja, a small mandarin orango. 

Kania ku-, to deny a person. 

Kaniki, dark blue calico. 

^ani^a, plur. makanisii, a ohurcl^. 



KAN: 

Kanulia lu-, to deny, to make to 

deny, • . 

Kariji^ starch, arrowroot. 
KanJUf plar. mdkanju, a cashew 

apple (M.). 
Kanju, vulgarly used for Kanzu. 
Kanuni, a thing implied, a neces- 
sary condition, of necessity. 
Kanwa, plur. mdkanway the mouth. 
Kanya hu-, to contradict* 
Kanyaga ^hu-, to tread, to tread 

upon, trample on. 
Kanyassa ku-, to scold. • 

Kmzi, a treasure. 
Mmzuy a long shirt-like garment 
worn both by men and women 
in Zanzibar. Men's 1canzu$ 
are white or of a brown yellow 
colour, with ornamental work 
in red and white silk round 
the neck and down the breast; 
they reach to the heels. Wo- 
men's kanzu8 are generally 
shorter, and are made of every 
variety of stuflf, frequently of 
satin or brocade, but are always 
bound with red. 
. Parts of a Kanzu (men's) : 
Tao la IcanzUj bottom htm. 
Magongo nene, seams. 
Badani, front and back pieces. 

Also Kimo. 
Tahatizi, side pieces. 
Sijafu, pieces turned in at the 
wrists, to receive the darizi, 
Vih'tcapa, gores. 
Luani^ flap under the opening 

in front. 
Jahalif red line across the back. 
Mhalborii lining at the back of 

tbe darizi in front. 
Kaabay lining of thp nccj? and 
shouUlers. 



KAR 



299 



Sliada, tassel at the neok. 
Kitanzi^ loop opposite the tassel 
- , in front 

Kazi ya shingo, the elaborately 
worked border round the 
neck, including — 
Tihij red sewing over of the 

edge of the neok. 
Mrera^ lines of red round 

the neck. 
Vibolio^ small zigzag orna- 
ment in the middle of the 
neck-border. 
Vinara^ small spots forming 
Iho outer edge of the 
border. 
Darizi f lines of silk worked 
round the wrists and down 
the front. 
Hijuzi (Ar. 8hararaJ€)f orna- 
ment at the bottom of the. 
strip of embroidery in front. 
JUAt'a ira mjuzij line of silk 
running up the front from the 
mjuzi, 
Vipajif or viguu^ four little 
projections on the sides of 
the wjazi, 
Kanzu ya ziki, worked with white 
cotton round the neck instead of 
red silk. 
Kaoleni, one whose words are not 
to be trusted, a double-tongued 
man. 
Kaomtoaj calumba root 
Kapt^ plur. makapif a pulley. 
Kapi, plur. makapij bran, husks. 
Kapiana hu' (miJwno), to shiike 

hands. 
KapUf plur. maJcapu, a large basket 

or matting bag. 
Kapwaij a kind of rice. 
Karafati hu- = Kaia/ati. 



300 



KAB 



KAT 



Karafu mayiU, camphor. 
KaratiM, a Bpecial gift of God, an 

answer to a holy man*s prayer, 

an honour. 
Karamu, a feast 
Karanif a secretary, a clerk, a 

supercargo. 
Karanif tucks. 
Kararaf the woody flower-sheath of 

the cocoa-nut tree. 
KaraiOy playing-cirds. 
Karaihoy a loan of money. 
Karaiasi, paper. 
Karibf near, come near, come in. 
Karibia Aru-, to approach, to draw 

near to. 
Karibiana kth^ to be near to one 

another. 
Karihulia, to make to come near, to 

invite in. 
Karihut near, a near relative. 

Karibu na or ya, near to, near. 
Karimuj liberal, generous. 
Karipia hu-, to cry out at, scold. 
Kariribha ku-, to recite. 
K<uat a turtle. 
Kcuarani, sorrow, grief. 
Kascuif retaliation, revenge, ven- 
geance. 
Kasha, plar. maktuhOf a chest, a 

large box. 
Kashifu ku-, to depreciate. 
Kcuhmir^ the ace of spades. 
Kasittf plur. mali-asia, an oar. 

KuvtUa makcLna, to row. 
Kadba, a gun barrel. 
KasidU intention, purpose. 
Kcui/a, inquisitireness. 
Kasi/u ku-f to be inquisitive. 
KcLgiki, a large earthen jar for ghee. 
Kasimde, the juice of grated cocoa- 
nut before water is put to it. 

Tui la kaUmde. See TuU 



Tui la kupopoha, the same afler 
mixing with water, and strain- 
ing again. 
Kasiri, towards the end, late. 
Kasirika Arti-, to become vexed. 
Kasiritha kw, to vex. 
KomH kv^y to hurt, vex. 
Kaskazij the northerly wind whiob 
blows from December till 
March. 
Kaskazinif in a northerly dlrco* 
tion. 
Eaton, less by. 
KnsBci, less by. 
K€uta nbo, three-quarters of a 
dollar. 
Ka$8i, BeoKiaari, 
Kasi^ hard, with violence. 
Kwenda kaasi, to rush along, 
KiUia kassi, to tighten. 
Kammba, a preparation of opium. 
Kataa ku-, to refuse. 
Kata, plur. mdkata, a ladle made of 
a cocoa-nut, only about.a third of 
the shell being removed. A kata 
holds from a quarter to half a pint. 
Kaia, a ring of grass or leaves put 
on the head under a water-pot or 
other burden.^ 
Kaia ku-, to cut, dip, divide. 
Kvjikaia, to cut oneself. 
Kukata hananu, to cut obliquely. 
Kukata maneno, to settle an affair, 

to decide. 
Kukata naktM, to ornament with 

carving, to carve. 
Kukata tamcui, to despair. 
NJia ya kukata, a bhort cut, the 
nearest way. 
Kdtaha ku-, to write. 
Katakata ku-, to chop up. 
Katalia ku-, to deny all credence^ 
to r^fitse to ^e convinced. 



KAT 



KAZ 



801 



Kutanit flax, thread, string, cotton- 
thread. 
Kafaza hu-, to prohibit, to detor. 
KcUhdlilcat in like manner. 
KcUhdvDcikaiha, many, many more. 
Watu kaikatDakathOf such and 
such jieoplc. 
Kalki, plur. maJsathi, a judge, a 
, cadi. 
Katij inside, midiUe, the court 

within a house. 
Katia ftti-, to out for. • 
KuhatiuDct, to have out, or out out 

for one. 
Ni hian changu Icama nalikatiwa 
mimi, it fits as though I had 
been measured for it. 
KafikOf among, at, from, in, about 
KatiJca implies nearness at leieust 
at the beginning of the action ; 
it has very nearly the same 
moaning as the case in -ni, 
KaWca tafari vdef during that 
journey. 
Katika ku-t to come apart, to be out, 

to break, to be decided. 
Katikati, in the midst 
Katikati ya, &o., in the midst of, 
between. 
KatUi, ft murderous, bloodthirsty 

person, an infideL 
Katinakati, in tiie middle. 
Jfoti/t (A.), little. 
Kaiiza ku-^ to put A stop to, to 

break off, to interrupt 
Koto, plur. makaiOy a cutting, a 
' breaking off. 
Katu^ a kind of gum chewed with 

betel. 
KcduvL ^-, to polish, to brighten. 
Kaiuka ku'f to be polished, to be 

bright 
Kauka ku't to get dry, to dry. 



Sauti imekaukoj I am hoarse. 
Katdij a word. 
Kaurt\ a cowry. 

Kausha kth, to make dry, to dry. 
"kavtt, dry. It makes kavu with 

nouns like nyumiba, 
JTaifo, a conical dish-cover of 
plaited straw, often ornamented 
with spangles, &q, 
Katoa, mildew, spots of mould. 
Ku/anya kawa, to get mildewed 
or mouldy. 
Kawa ku-t to be delayed, to tarry, 

to be a long while. 
Kawadi (a term of reproach), a bad 

man. 
Katoaidaj necessity, custom. 
Kawe^ a pebble, a small stone (M,). 
Kawia ku-^ to delay. 
KaioiUa ku-^ to loiter about a busi- 

cess. 
Katcuha ku-, to keep, to delay, to 

cause to stay. 
Kaya, plur. mdkayci, a pinna, a kind 

of shell-fish. 
Kayamb€L, a sieve, a sort of rattle. 
Kaza few-, to fix, to tighten, (of 
clothes) to fit tightly, to go 
hard at anything. 
Kukaza kwiwhoy to sing louder. 
Kukaza mhiot to run hard. 
Kazana ku-, to fix one another, to 
tighten together, to hold together 
tightly, to be robust 
Kazi, work, labour, employment, 
business. 
Kdio kazi yoke, that is what he 

always does. 
K<izi mbi H mtezo mwema? Is 
not poor work (as good as) gooil 
play (mbi for n-wi) ? 
Kazika Xrti-, to become tight, to 
become fixed. 



302 



*KAZ 



KHE 



'Icazo, nipping, pressing tight 

•'he, female, f jminine, the weaker. 

Kee = KdeU (N.). 

Keezo, a lathe* ft machine for tam- 
ing. 

Kef vie I an exclamation of con- 
tempt. 

Kefyahefya Xni-, to teaze, to put in 
low spirits. 

Kelie^ a drill. The onrpenters in 
Zanzibar always ose drills, which 
are much better suited to the 
native woods than gimlets are. 
The iron is called kekee, the wood 

■' in which it is fixed maukano^ the 
handle in which it turns Jicuy 
and the bow by which it is turned 
Via. 

Kekee, a kind of silver bracelet 

KeUUi plur. matteltUf noise, uproar, 
shouting. 

K&m ( Ar.), How mudi? How many ? 

Kemea An-, to rebuke, to snub, to 
• scold. 

Kenda = Kwetida and Kaendoi 

KendOj nine. 

- Ya Jcenda, ninth. 

Kendapi f for htoenda wapi, going 
where, i.e., where ore you going ? 

Kenge^ a large water-lizard with 
s<ender body and Ipng limbs and 
tail. 

JCenflfea,the blade of a sword, knife, 
&c. 

Kengele, a bell. 
Kupiga Jcengele, to ring a bell. 

Kera ku-, to worry, to nag at 

Kerani = Karani. 

Kerekeia ku, to irritate the throat, 
to choke. 

Kereza ku-, to saw, to turn, to cut 

.a treo half through, and Jay it 
down, 80 ae to mal^i^ a fenoo* « 



Kerimu ku', to feast, to be liberal to. 

Kcring^ende, a dragon-fly> the red- 
legged partridge. 

Kero, trouble, disturbance, uproar^ 

Kesfia, a watch, a vigil. 

Ke$7ia ^-, to watcli, to remain 
awake, not to sleep. 

Ketlteza Aiu-, to make, to watch, to 
keep awake. 

KeiliOy to-morrow. 
Keslio kutwa or kuchwaf the day 
after to-morrow. 

KeU, a eo\wy> ... 

Keti fcii-, to sit down, stay, live (M.). 

KJtaharif news, information. 

KhadaOf fraud. 

KhafifUi light, unimportant 

Khainiy a traitor. 

Khalds, the end, there is no more. 

Khdlifu A'u- or Halifu ku-, to resist, 
oppose, rebel against 

KhalUi ku', to deliver. 

Khamiy a chess bisbop. 

KJiamaiy fire. 

IQiamxinU fifty. 

Khamstasjuira, fifteen, 

EJiaradali^ mustard. 

KhdriJ A*u-, to spend. 

Kliashifu An- = KcuHiifu /»tt% 

Kliatari, danger. 

EJiatij a note, letter, document, 
memorandum, writing, hand- 
writing. 

Kliatilmf plur. makluitibu, a secre- 
tary, a preacher. 

Khatima, end, completion. 

KJiaiimisJia 7m-, to bring to an end, 
complete. 

KJiatiya, fault See Ilatiya, 

Khazc^nck, a treasure. 

Khema, a tent. 

Kheiri = //«r*, well, fprtunate, 
happy, good. 



KHI 



KIA 



303 



Mlu wa hheiri, a happy man. 
Kwa kheirit for good. 
Ni kheiriy I had better. 
Khini Jcu-y to betray. 
Khttari ku-, to choose. 
Khitima nzirrui^ a complete copy of 

the Koran. Bee Juzuu, 
KhoJUha ku-, fo frighten. 
Khofut fear, danger. 
Kutoa na hhofu, i to become 
Kuingivoa na khofu, S afraid. 
Kutia kJiofUy to frighten. 
Khorj, a pad used as a saddle for 

donkeys. 
Khoshi (?), paint, oolonr. 
Khvbiri ku-, to inform, give news. 
KhusumUf enmity. 
Khutubu ku-9 to preach. ' 
Kkuzurungi or Suthurungi, a stnif 
of a brown yellow colour, of which 
the best men's kanzus are made. 
Ki-f a prefix forming a diminutive. 
It becomes eh- before a vowel, 
and in the plaral it beoomesvt- 
and vy-9 or in other dialects zi' 
or thi'. 
Ki' as a prefix also means (es- 
pecially if prefixed ta proper 
names), such a sort ; and when 
used alone, words of such a 
sort, i.e. such a language. 
Mavazi ya kifaume, royal robes. 
Viati vya hizungu, European 

potatoes. 
£uira&tf, Arabia 
Kiyao^ the Yao language. 
Ki' or dh', the adjectival and pro- 
nominal prefix proper to words 
' agreeing with substantives of the 
above forms. 
Ki' or ch'^ the personal prefix of 
verbs having substantives of th© 
obove form as their subject, 



-7ii-, the objective prefix of verbs 
having substantives of the above 
form as their object 
•lU; the sign of that tense which 
expresses a state of thiDgs* 
heing that, which may be trans- 
lated by the help of the words, 
if, supposing, when, while, or 
be treated as a present parti- 
ciple in 'ing. 
Niki' may be contracted into hi-. 
AUkuwa akiogolea^ he was bath- 
ing. 
Akija, if he comes, or when ho 

comes. 
The syllable -H- is inserted in 
the past perfect tense to de- 
note a continuing action or 
state. 
FaZipo-H-pemtowa, when or while 
they loved one another. 
Kia^ plur. via^ a piece of wood, a 

kind of lateh, a bar. 
Kia kU', to step over. 
Kiada, slowly, distinctly. 
Kialio, plur. vialiOf cross pieces 
put in a cooking pot to prevent 
the meat touching the bottom 
and burning. 
Kianga, the coming out of the sun 

after rain. 
Kiapo, plur. viapo, an ordeal, an 

oath. 
Kiardbu, Arabic. 

7a kiarahu, Arabian. 
Kiasi = Kiassi, 
KiasB cha bunduki, a cartridge. 
Kiassi, measure, moderation. 
Kiassi gani f or Kassi gani f How 
much? 
KiatUf plur. vtafu, a shoe, a sandal. 
Viaiu vya mtiy a sort of tall 
wooden cjog worn in the house, 
«3 



304 



KIA 



KIO 



and especially by women. They 
are held on by grasping a sort 
of button (rmuruakt) between 
the great and second toe. 
Kiazi, plnr. vicLzij a sweet potato. 

Kiazi kikuu, plnr. viazi vHcuUf a 
yam. 

Kiazi tena^ with white skin. 

Kiazi hindoro, with red skin. 
Kha haJuli, a knot of maUuti to 

light a pipe with. 
Kibaha, a measure, about a pint 

basin full, a pint basin, about a 

pound and a half. 
Kibdktdi, a kind of mtama, 
KtbaU hu'f to prosper. 
Kibanda, plur. vibandct, a hut, a 

hovel, a shed. 
Kibanrif plur. vibanzi, a splinter, a 

very small piece of wood. 
KibaOf plur. vibaOf a shelf, a small 

piece of plank. In Tumbatu a 

chair is called hibao, 
Kibapara, a pauper, a destitute 

person (an insulting epithet). 
Kibarango^ a short heavy stick. 
Kibaraza, plur. vibaraza^ a small 

stone seat. 
Kibartta, plur. ffibarua, a note, a 

ticket. Kibarua is now used 

in Zanzibar to denote a person 

hired by the day, from the 

custom of giving such persons a 

ticket, to be delivered up when 

they are paid. 
Kiberitij sulphur. 

Vtberiii, matches. 
Kibeti, a dwart 

Kuku hibetit a bantam* 
Kibia, plur. ri&id, an earthen pot-lid. 
KibiongOf plur. vibiongoy a person 

bent by age or infirmity. 
Kibqbwe, plur. vibobwe^ a piecp of 



cloth tied round the loins during 

hard work. 
KibofUf plur. vibofu, a bladder. 
Kibogoahi, plur. tibogo8ht\ a small 

skin bag. 
KibokOf plur. ri&o&o, a hippo* 

potamus. See also Kanzu, 
Kibuaj a small fish. 
Kibueta, plur. vtbuetn, a box. 
Kibida; the keblay the point to 

which men turn when they pray. 

Among the Mohammedans the 

hibvla is the direction in which 

Mecca lies, which is in Zanzibar 

nearly north. Hence IcibtUa is 

sometimes used to mean the 

north. 
Kibula /;»-, to point towards^ to be 

opposite ta 
KibumbOj plnr. vtbumba, a small 

paper box or case of anything. 
Kiburi, pride. 
Kiburipevnbe, a native bird. 
Kidioaj lunacy. 

Mwenyi kichaa, a lunatic. 
Kichahat plur. vichaltOy a thicket, a 

heap of wood or sticks. 
KichaUij plur. vichala^ a bunch. 

KuHiala cha mzabibti, a bunch of 
grapes. 
Kicheko, plur. vicheko, a laugh, a 

KichiJcicM, plur. vichihichij the 
small nuts contained in the fruit 
of tho palm-oil tree. 

Kichilemay plur. vichilema^ the 
heart of the growing part of 
the cocoa-nut tree, which is 
eaten as a salad, and in varioua 
ways. 

Kicho, plur. vicho^ fear, a fear. 

KichocheOf the act of pushing wood 
further info t}ie fire, ^n instn^- 



&I0 



Klj? 



305 



inent for doiDg«»it, exciting words 

to stir up a quarrel. 
Kichochoro, plur. viekochoro, a very 
• narrow passage, such as is gene- 

irally left between the houses in 
' Zanzibar. 
KichwOf plur. vichvoa, for Kitwa, the 

head. 
Kidaka, plur. viddka, a recess in 

the wall. 
Kiduka^ plur. vidaka, a cocoa-nut 

when just formed. 
Kidaka tonge^ the uvula. 
Kidanga, a very small fruit, before 

it gets any taste. 
Kidarif the chest : ktdari is used of 

both men and animals, kifua of 

men only. 
KidaUf plur. vidau, a small vessel. 

Kidau cJui toinoy an inkstand. 
Kidevu, plur. videvu, the chin. 
Kidimhwi, plur. vidimbwi, a pool 
. left on the beach by the falling 

tide. 
Kidinga popot the dengue fever. 
Kidogo, plur. vidogo, a little, a very 

little, a little piece, a morsel, a 

crumb. 
Kidoko, 

Kupiga kidoko, to click with the 
tongue. 
Kidcle, plur. vidcHe, a finger, a toe. 

Kidole cha gumba, the thumb. 
Ktdonda, plur. vidoiuia, a sore, a 

small sore, a wound. 
Kidonge, plur. vidonge, a very small 

round thing, a lump in flour,a pill. 
Kidoto, plur. vidoto, a small piece of 

cloth tied over a camel's eyes 

while turning an oil press. 
KidexOf plur. tieleto, a pattern, 

something to make SDmething 

^e clear. 



Kievu (A,) = Kidevu. 

KiendelezOf progress. 

Kifa, plur. trt/a, the nipple of a gun. 

Kifa uwongo, the sensitive plant. 

Ki/afa, epilepsy, fits. 

Kifafa, plur. vifafa^ sparks and 

crackling of damp firewood. 
Kifani, plur. vifani^ the like, a 

similar thing. 
Kifano, plur. mfano, a likeness. 
Kifaranga, plur. vifaranga, a 

chick, a very small chicken. 
Kifaruy plur. mfaru, a rhinoceros, 

a small rhinoceros. 
Kifaumef royalty, a royal sort. 

Ya kt/aumCf royal. 
Eifiko, plur. vifiko, arrival, point of 

arrival, end of journey. 
Kifu ku'y to sufQce. 
Ki/u nduguy the os coccygis, the 

bone which the Mohammedans 

say never decays. 
Kffua, plur. vifua, the chest, the 

bosom. 
Eifufu, plur. vifufu, the shell of the 

cocoa-nut (M.). 
Eifuko, plur. vi/uko, a little bag, a 
pocket, a purse. 

Kifuko cha kutUia feGia, a purse. 
Kt/umbu^ plur. viftmbUy a small 

round basket or bag for squeezing ' 

scraped ooooa-nut in to get out 

the tut, 
Kifumbo, plur. vifwnbOf a very large 

kind of matting bag. 
Kifundo. cha mguu, the ankle. 
Kifando clia mkonOf the wrist 
Kifungo, plur. vifungo, anything 

which fastens, a button, prison, 

imprisonment, a kind of rice. 
Kifungua^ an unfastener, an opener. 

Ki/ungua kantoa, early food, 
brecJcfast. . 



306 



KI9 



Ki;r 



Kifungua nilangOf a present made 
by the bridegroom to the kungu 
of the bride before she allows 
him to eater the bride's room, 
on the occasion of his first 
visit to her. 
Kifuniko, plur. vifuniko, a lid, a 

cover. 
KifuOf plur. vifuo, a stick stuck in 
the ground to rip the husk off 
cocoa-nuts with. 
Kifurushif something tied up in the 

comer of a cloth. 
Kifusi, rubbish, rubbish from old 

buildings. 
Ki/uuj plur. vifuut a cocoa-nut 

shell. 
Kigaga^ plur. vigcufOy a scab. 
Kigai, plur. vigah a piece of broken 

pottery or glass, a potsherd. 
Kiganda cJiapili, the two of cards. 
Kigaogaoj the Pemba name for a 
chameleon, meaning changeable. 
Kigego = Kijego. , 
Kigerenyenzaj plur. vigerenyenza, a 
very small piece of broken pottery 
or glass, a splinter. 
KigelegeUf plur. vigelegeley a shrill 
trilling scream much used as a 
sign of joy, especially on the 
occasion of a birth. 
KigogOf a little block of wood. 
Kigogo cha JcusJumea, a small 
oblong piece of wood used by 
shoemakers. 
Kigongo, the hump of a humpbacked 
person. 
Mwenyi higongo^ a humpback. 
Kigonot plur. vigono (Yao), a sleep- 
ing place. 
Kigodio, a bend. 
Kigosho cha mkonOj an arm that 
cannot be straightened. 



Eigugwnizi, stami^ering, a 8tamm«r> 

KigulUf lame. 

Kigunni^ plur. fngunni, an oblong 

matting bag of the kind in whiok 

dates are brought to Zanzibi^. 
Kigunzi, the day before the Sih$ a 

mvDoIca. 
Kigioe, plur. vigwCy a plaited cord, 

reins, a string of beads, a piping 

on the edge of a dress. 
Kiharusif cramp. 
Kiherehere (cha moyo\ trepidation, 

palpitation (of the heart). 
Eihindiy the Indian sort, an Indian 
language. 

Ya hihindi, Indian. 
Kihoro, sorrow at a loss, fright, 

homesickness. 
Kiinif kernel, the heart of wood. 

Kiini thayayi^ the yolk of an 
egg. 
KiinimacliOt a conjuror. 
Kiitiha or Kuhoy afterwards, neit, 

this being ended. 
Kijakaziy plur. vijakazi, a slave girl. 
Kijamanda^ plur. vijamcmda^ a 

small long-shaped box commonly 

used to carry betel and areca- 

nut in. 
Kijanaj plur. vijana^ a youth, a 

young man, a complimeniiry 

epithet, a boy or girl, a son or 

daughter. 
Kijaluba^ plur. vijalubot a small 

metal box. 
Kijambaf plur. vijamba, a small rock. 
Kijaraha, plur. tfyardha, a small 
wound. 

Kijaraha cha haoni, sores on the 
penis, syphilis. 
Eijego^ plur. tfijegot a child which 

cuts its upper teeth first They 

arc reckoned unlucky, and among 



KIJ 



KIK- 



307^ 



tiie ^iUer tribes are often killed. 

Applied by way of abuse to bad 

children. 
KiJibokOf plor. vijtboho, a little 

hippopotamus. 
Kijicho, envy, an envious glance. 
KijiguUf plur. vijiguu, a little leg. 
KijikOy plur. vijiko^ a small spoon, 

a spoon. 
Kijiti, plur. v(/tVt, a little tree, a 

bush, a shrub, a small pole, a 

piece of wood. 
KiJitOj plur. v^itOf a small stream, 

a brook, x 
Kijito (M.) = EiJicJio» 
Kijitwa or Kijichwai plur. vijitwOy 

a little head. 
Kijivif thievish. 
Kfjogoo, plur. vijogoo^ a mussel, a 

kind of shell-fidh. 
Eijdif the slaves belonging to one 

master. 
Kijornba, Swahili (M*). 
Kijongo as KigtrngOf a humpback. 
Kiju1:uu, plur. vt/ii^uu, a, great- 
grandchild. 
Kijumbe, plur. vijumbet a go- 
between, a match-maker. 
Kijuniba, plur. rf/ttm&a, a little 

house, a hoveL 
Kikaango^ plur. vikaango, a small 

earthen pot for cooking with oil 

or fat. 
Kilidka^ over-chaste. 
Kikale^ old style, tho antique. 

Ya HkaU^ of the ancient kind, 
antique, of old times. 
KikaOf plur. viAroo, a scat, sitting, 

dwelliDg»pIace. 
KikapUf plur. viJcapUf a basket, a 

matting bag. 
Kikaramha^ a very old person (dis- 
respectful). 



Kikita hu'f to understand half of 
what: is said. 
Haiti hit jfanikikiaat I know some 
of the words, but not all. 

KtlcOf plur. vikOf a tubacco pipe, a 
pi^e. The native pipes conaistT 
of a vessel half full of water with 
two stems, one leading to tho ■ 
bowl and one to the mouthpiece : 
tho water vesstl is properly tlie 
kiko. See hori, digali, mcUio, and 
8hilamt$. 

Kikooy plur. vikoa, 
KtUa kikouj to eat at the expense, 
of each one in turn. 

Ktkofi, the inside of the fingers. 

Kikohozi, a cough. 

Kikoi, plur. vikoi, a white loin-* 
cloth with coloured stripes near 
the border. 

Kikonibef plur. ttkombe^ a cup. 

Kikomba, a Uttle crooked thing, v 

KikomOy plur. vikomot end, end of 
journey, arrival, T 

Kikomo eha uao, the brow, es«. 
pccially if prominent. 

Kikondop. . See Kondoo, 

Kikongwe, plur. tikongioe, an ex- 
tremely old person, a feeblo old, 
woman. 

Kikono, plur. vOcano, the prow of a 
small native vessel. 

Kikonyo, plur. vikonyo, flower and 
fruit stalks, the stalks of cloves. : 

Kikorombwe, a cry mado into the 
hand by way of signal, a call. • 

Kikosi or Ukoaiy the nape of the neck. 

Kikoto, plur. vHcolo (M.), a plaited, 
thong or whip carried by an. 
overlooker and used in schools. 

Kikozi, plur. wkozi, a detachmen]^:. 
a band, company, division. 

Kikubaf plur. viktiba^ a small packet: 



308 



KiK 



Kl^ 



of aromalio Ic^aves, &e., worn in 
the dress by women. It is com- 
posed of rehdnif spriokled with 
daliat and tied up with a strip of 
the mhadi. 

Kikiiktt, plnr. vikuku, a bracelet, an 
arm ring. 
Kikuka cha hupandia frasi^ a 
stirrup. 

Kikunazi (?), labia (ob6oene> 

Kikumbo, 
Kupiga kikumbo, to push aside, 
to shove out of the way. 

Kiktda, plur. vikuta^ a small stone 
wall. 

Kikwapa, the perspiration from the 
armpit See also Kanxu, 

Kikun, plur. viktoit a thousand, ten 
thousand. 

Kilango, a narrow entrance. 
Kilango cha hdkari, straits. 
Kilango dui JaJia, the gate of 
raradiBC 

Kile, that, yonder. 

Kilefi, a round flat whcaten cake. 

Kilele, plur. vHeUf a peak, a sum- 
mit, a pointed top, a pointed 
shoot ID a tree or plant. 

Kilemaf plur. viietna, a deformed 
person. . 
Si tema lueheka liHema^ it is 
wrong to laugh at one who is 
deformed. 

Kilemha, plur. vHemhctj a turban, a 
customary present at the compk- 
tlon of a job and on many other 
occasions. 

KUembwe^ a great-grandson. 

KiUo, plur. vileo, iiitoxicatio.i, an 
intoxicating thing. 

KiUie, plur. vUeie^ metal rowlocks, 
erutchei. 

Kiletu = Kidevu, 



KUi/u, plur. viU/u, the oloih-liite 

envelope of the young ooooa-nut 

learea. 
KHima, plur. vtTJma, a hill, arising 

ground, a mound of earth. 
KUimbm, the wrist 
Ktlimia, the Pleiades (?). 
£tZtmo,cultivation,the crop planted. 

KUimo cha ninif what is the 
crop to be ? 
KUittdi, plur. vUiudi, the deeps, 

deep watLT. 
KiUnqa popo (?), rheumatism. 
Kilinge ^a maneno^ tha uganga^ 

speaking in a dark manner not 

generally understood. 
KUio, plur. rtVfo, a cry, weeping. 
KUiza ku-, to chink money. 
Killa or KuUa, every. 

KUla nendapoy wherever I go, or, 
every time I ga 
KUuthUf velvet 
Kima, a monkey. 
Kima, price, measure. 
Ktmaji, damp. 
Kimanda, an omelette. 
Kvnandu, the piece of wood put on 

behind the sill and lintel of a 

door to receive the pivots on 

which it turns. 
Kimanga^ a small kind of grain. 
Kimanga, of the Arab sort, ^ee 

MangcL, 
Kimango, 

Cliui kimango, a full-grown leo- 
imrd. 
Kimas/wmhaj belonging to the 

. country, a country dialect 

Ya kimtuHtamba, countrified. 
KiinbaumbaUy a chameleon. 
Kimhia Au-, to run away, to flee. 
Kimhiza ku-, to make to run away, 
. to put to flight 



KtH 



Kt^ 



309 



Kinibizia ftii-, to make to run away 

from. 
Kimtrima, See Merima. 
KimetOj a sparkling, a glitter. 
Kimetitneti, plur. vimeiimetiy a fire- 

fly. • 

KimiOj plur. vimia, a ciicolar cast- 
ing-net. 

Kimio, the nviila, an enlarged 
uvula. 

Kimo, it is or wot inside. 

Kimojay one. Bee M<^ 

Kimporoto, nonsense. 

Kimurimuri^ plur. vimmimuri, a 
fire-fly. 

KimvungOf a hurricane. 

Kimwa ktt-^ to be tired, disgusted, 
to be cross at having anything to 
do. 

Kimwondo, plur. vimtwindo, a mis- 
sile, a shooting star, because they 
are said to bo thrown by the 
angels at the Jins. 

Kimyoy silence, perfect stillness. 
Mtu vsa himyahimyay a still man. 

Kin€L 
Kirut nn, people like us. 
MakiuJta luiya ya'hina Ahdallahf 
these chests belong to Abdul- 
lah's poople. 

Kinat plur. vina^ a verse, the final 
syllable of the lines, which is the 
same throughout the poem. 

Kinai &11-, to be content without, 
to withhold oneself from desiring, 
to bo self-satisfied, to revolt at, 
to nauseate. 

KinaUka Xctt-, to revolt, to make 
unable to eat any more, to take 
away the desire of. 

KifianAxi or Kiinamixi^ stooinng to 
one's work. 

Kinandoy pl<ur* vinanda^ a stringed 



instrument, applied to nearly all 

European instruments. 
Kinara^ plur. vtnaro, a little lower, 

a candlestick. See also Kamiu 
KinayOj self-content, insolelice. 
Kinayi ku- ^ Kinai 2ru-. 
Kinda, plur. mahinda, a very young 

bird, the young of birds. 
^indana Au-, to object to, to stand 

in the way of. 
Kinenaf the abdomen* 
Kingay plur. vingti, a brand, a half* 

burnt piece of firewood. 
Kinga, a stop, a limit put to a 

thing. 
Kinga kti-, to put something to catch 
something, to guard oneself, to 
ward a blow. 

Kukinga mvua, to put something 
to catch the rainwater. 
Kingaja, plur. vingaja, a bracelet of 

beads. 
Kingalingcdi, on the baek (of falling 

or lying). 
Kingama htt-, to lie across* 

Mti umehingama njiani, a tree 
lies across the road. 
Kingamuiha Xn»-, to block, to stop, 

to spoil. 
Kingej too little. 

Chakula kinge, too little food. 
KingoJOf a watch, time or place of 

watching. 
Kingozi, the old language of Me- 

linda, the poetical dialect, difli- 

cult and ill-understood language. 
KingubtoOy the spotted liyiena. 
Kinika Xm-, to be certain or ascer- 
tained about a person. 
Kinjunjuri. 

Kukata kinjunjuri^ to shave all 
the hair except one long tuft. 
Einono, plur. vinono^ a futling. 



aiO' 



Klir 



KIP 



Kinoo, plar. vinoOy a wbetston^. 

^m5« kinoo^ a small yellow kind 
of mango. 

Kinuj plur. vtnu, a wooden mortar 
for pounding and for cleaning 
com, an oil-mill, a mill. 
Kinu cha hushindikia, a mill for 

pressing oil. 
Kinu cha mosliij a stenm milL 

Kinvhh plur. vinubi, a harp* 
Ya Kinuhi, Nubian. 

Kinwa = Kinywa, 

KinvtOt plur. vinwa, a mouth. 

Kinwa mchuzij the imperial, the 
place where the imperial grows. 

Kinyaat £Ub, dung. 

Kinyago, plur. vinyago, a thing to 
frighten people^ such as a mock 
ghost, &o,f &0. 

Kinyegere, a small f^nimal, a skunk. 

Kinyemi, pleasant, good. 

Kinyenyefu, a tickling, a tingling. 

Kinyezi. See Kinyaa. 

Kinyif having. Bee -inyi, 

Kinyonga, plur. vinyoiiga, a chame- 
leon. 

Kinyozi, plmr. vinyozi, a barber, a 
shaver. 

Kinyuma = Kinyume* 

Kinyume, afterwards. 

KinyuvMy going back, shifting, 
alteration, an enigmatic way of 
speaking, in which the last syl- 
lable is put first See Appendix I. 

Kinyumba, a kept mistress. 

Kinyunya^ plur. vinyunya^ a kind 
of cake, a little cake made to try 
the quality of the flour. 

Ktngwaf plur. vinywa^ a drink, a 
beverage. 

Kinywaji, plur. vinyieaji, a beve- 
rage, a usual beverage. 



Kinza &«-, to contradict, deny. 
Kioga, plur. vioga, a mushroom. 
Kioho9if plur. viokosif a reward for 
finding a lost thing and returning 
it to the owner. 
Kioja, plur. vtq/a, a curiosity^ 
Kionda, a taster. 
Kionda'mtuzh the imperial, ^ba 
place where ihe imperial grows% 
(M.). 
Kiangozi, plur. viongazi, a leader, a 

guide, a caravan guide. 
KiongiMj plur. viongwe, a donkey 
from the mainland; they are re-, 
puted very hard to manage. 
KioOy plur. viody glass, a glass, a 
looking-gluss, a piece of glass, — . 
a fish-hook (M.). 
KiopoOf a pole or other instrument 
to get things out of a well, &c.; 
with. 
KioaJM rm'guUi a present made by 
the bridegroom to the kungu of 
Ihe bride on the occasion of his- 
first visit 
Kioia, plur. vtbto, a hen*8 nest, aV 

laying place, a bird's nest 
Kioto = Kioto. 
Kioiee. 
Kupiga liioice, to scream^ cry for 
help. 
Kiowevuy a liquid. 
Kioza^ putridity. 

Kipa mkono, a present made by tliO'. 

bridegroom to the bride when bo 

first sees her face. 

Kijpaa, plur. vipaa, a thatched roof, 

the long sides of a roof. 

Kipaa cha mbdef the front slope 

of the roof. 
Kipaa cha nyuma, the back slopo't 
of the roof. 
Kipajey a kind of mtama, . .V 



KIP 

Kipaji, d kind of cosmetic. See 

also Kanzu. 
KipdkUf plur. vipaJcUy a spot or 

mark of a different ooloor. 
Kipambo, adornment 
Kipande, plur. vipande, a piece, an 
instrument, a small rammer fur 
beating roofs. 

Vipande vya kupimia^ nautical 
instruments. 

Kipande Icilu^ioTumaj a piece of 
fat. 
Kipanga, a large bird of prey, a 

horse-fly. 
Kipangozty a sluggish incurable 

sore on a horse or ass. 
KiparOf plur. i«para,.a shaved place 

on the licad. 
Kipde, plur. tipehf a pimple. » 
Kipendtf*Q. darling, a favourite. 
KipenUy plur. tipenu, a lean-to, the 

side cabins of a ship. 
Kipenyoy a small placo where some- 
thing passes through. 
KipepeOf plur. vipepeot a fan for 

blowing the fire, a butterfly. 
Kipeto, plur. vipeto, a packet 
Kipi or Eipiaj a cock's spur. 
Kipigit a rainbow (?). 
KipUa, a curlew. 
KipiltpiU* 

Nyele za MpiUpilt, woolly hair. 
Kipindi, a time, a period of time, an 
hour. 

Kipindi clwte, at every period. 

Kipindi clui aththuarij the hour 
of noon. 
Kipinda. 

Kufa hipindoj to d|e a natural 
death, as cattle, &e. 
KipifidupindUf cholera. 
Kipingvxt, plur. vipingtoc^ a bar. 
Ki^nif plur. vipini^ a hilt, a haft^ 



KIB 



311 



a handle of the same kind as a 
knife handle, a stud-shaped orna- 
ment worn by women in the nose, 
and sometimes in the ears also. 

Kipimo, plur. vipimOf a measure. 

Kipofth plur. vipofUf a blind per- 
son. 

KipolepcHe^ a butterfly. 

Kipooza, paralysis. 

Kipuhuba, dropped early, cast fruit, 
etc. 

KipuktOe^ Kipuhuse = Kipukuba. 
Ndizi hiptdcute^ little bananas. 

Kipuli^ plur. viptdiy a dangling 
ornament worn by women in the 
ear; they are often little silver 
crescents, five or six round the 
outer circumference of each ear. 

Kipunguo, plur. vipunguo, defect, 
deficiency. 

Kipupufe, the cold season (June and 
July). 

Kipwaf plur. vipwa^ rocks in the sea. 

Kiraka^ plur. viraka^ a patch. 

Kiri ku-^ to confess, accept, acknow- 
ledge, assert 

Kiriba, plur. vtn&a, a water-skin. 

Kirthiht-t to provoke. 

Kirthika ku-^ to be provoked, to be 
offended. 

Kirtliuha ku-, to make offended, to 
aggravate. 

Kirvmboy a cage for wild animals, 
a meat-safe. 

Kirimu ku-, to feast 

Kirithi hu-, to borrow, gpecially to 
borrow money. 

Kirdboto, plur. viroboiOt ft flea. Tho 
Hathramaut soldiers are nick- 
named : Virdboto, and their song 
as they march is. parodied by, 
Kirdboto, Kirdboto^ Ha motOf tit^ 
mpto, , I 



312 



KIB 



Kl6 



Kirukavjiay a kind of mouse found 

in Zanzibar. 
Kirukia^ a kind of parasite growing 

on fruit trees. 
Kiruu^ blind rage. 
Ki$a, plur. wo, a cause, a reason, 
a short tale. 
Vita ffingi, many affairs, a com- 

plicated business. 
Ki»a cha koho^ kernel of a stone. 
Kisaga, a measure equal to two 

Kibabas. 
Kisahani, plur. viadhanif a plate, a 

small dish. 
Kisandiiku, plur. vtsandtt^ a small 

chest, a box. 
Kisaranij a greedy fellow, a miser. 
Xmom, revenge, retaliation. 
XisAo^ a tailless kite. 
Kishdka, plur. vuhaka, a thicket 
Kisheda, a bunch of grapes, a paper 

fluttering in the air like a kita 
Kuihenziy of the wild people. 
Lugha ya kisJienzi, a language of 
the interior. 
Kishi, a chess-queen. 
KUikigino = Kisigino, 
Kishinda, a small residue left in a 
place or inside something, as 
in a water-jar less than half 
fulL 
Vuihinda vingapi umetiaf How 
many portions (of grain) have 
you put (in the mortar, to be 
cleaned) ? 
KishindOf noise, shock. 
Kislwgo, the back of the head and 
neck. 
Ahupaye hishogo H mwenziOf one 
who turns his back upon you 
is not your friend. 
Kiahwara^ a loop of rope to haul by 
in dragging a vessel into or out 



of the water, a loop in the side of 

a dhow to pass an oar through 

for rowing. 
Kisi liu-j to guess. 
Kukki tangay to shift oyer a sail 

to the opposite side. 
JBTiw, Keep her away I 
KisibaOf plur. vuibao, a waistcoat 
wiUi or without sleeves; they 
are very commonly worn in 
Zanzibar. 

Kieibao cha mxkonOy a sleeved 
waistcoat. 

Kinbao eha vikapa or tikwapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat 
Kisibu (?), a nickname. 
Kisigino or Kitihigino, the elbow. 

Kuigino c/^ mguu^ the heel. 
Kisikif plur. vUikiy a log. Used in 

slang language for a prostitate. 
Kinki cha fnvuo, a rainbow (M.). 
Kisima, plur. viHma, a well. 
KiHmi (obscene), the clitoris. 
Kmtiriy a screen, screen-wall, 

parapet. 
Kisiwa^ plur. viaiwaj an island. 
Kisiyangu [Tumbatu] = Kizingiti. 
Kiniciso. 

Kisiwuo cha choo cliauma, consti- 
pation. 
Kishoka, plur. vuiholea, a hatchet, a 

small axe. 
Kishtibaka, plur. vishubaha, a small- 
recess, a pigoon-hole. 
KUhungi, plur. vishungi, the ends of 

the turban cloth, lappets. 
Kiamai a part 
Ki8omlo, a paste made of beans, 

mahogOy &c. 
KisongOt plur. vtsongo^ a piece of 

wood to twist cord or rope with. 
Kuoze, a very small bird with back 

blue, and breast yellow. . « 



KXS 



KIT 



313 



KisUy plur. visu, a knife. 

Kistuit a suit of clothes. 

Kisjigulu, plur. msttgulu, a mound 
of earth, an ant-hill. 

Kiswngurck, plur. visungura, a little 
rabbit or hare (?). 

Kisunono, gonorrhcaa. 
Kimnono eha damu, with passing 

blood. 
Kisunono eha uzaJia, with passing 

matter. 
Kisunono eha nikoJOf with constant 
micturition. 

Kisusuliy a whirlwind 0) a boy's 
kite(?). 

Ktsmi, plur. . vimsi^ the hip of a 
roof. The main roof starts from 
the long front and back walls, 
and is called the paa; small 
roofs start from the end wulls, 
and are carried to the ridge under 
and within the paa: these are 
the visusi, 

Kisuto = Kisutu, 

KisutUf plur. tiautUf a large piece 
of printed calico, often forming 
a woman's whole dress, a cover- 
lid. 

Kistea = Kisa, 

Kitabt^ plur. vitdbu, a book. 

KitagdUfa^ a small matting bag for 
haluOf &o. 

Kitahizo, plur. mtaJcizo, the head 
and foot-pieces of a bedstead. 

Kitako, sitting. 
Kukaa kitaJco, to sit down, to re- 
main in one locality. 

KitdUf plur. viUde, a cocoa-nut just 
beginning to grow. 

Kitali, sailcloth. 

Kitaluj a stone fence, a walL 

Kitambaa, plur. vitavribaa^ a small 
piece of cHh i^rag. 



Kitainbaa eha hu/utia mhonOf a 

towel. 
Kitambaa eha meza, a tablenapkin. 
Kitambi eha kilemba, a piece of stuflf 

-for making a turban. 
KttamhOf a short time. 
KitanUrij a kind of evil spirit 
Kitana, plur. viianOf a small comb. 
KUanday plur. vitanda, a bedstead, 

a couch. 
Kitanga, plur. vitanga, a round mat 
used to lay out food upon. 
Kiianga eha mkono, the palm of 

the hand. 
Kitanga dia mzaniy a scale pan. 
Kitanga eha pepOf the name of a 
dance. 
Kitanif flax, linen, string. 
Kitanziy plur. tifanzi, a loop, a 

button-loop. 
Kitaotoa, the kind proper for a 
devotee. 
Amevaa nguo za kitaotoa, he is 
dressed like a devotee. 
Kitapot plur. vitapo, a shivering, a 

shiver. 
Kitara^ plur. vtVara, a curved swords 
Kitaray an open shed in a village, 
where people sit to talk and trans- 
act business. 
Kiteuta, a box lock, a lock. 
Kitatangiy a cheat. Also a very 
bright-coloured sea-fish with 
spines, a sea-porcupine. 
Kitawit a kind of weed. 
KitatDt, plur. vitavoi, a branch, a 

bough, a bunch. 
Kite, feeling sure, certainty, £Eiith* 
fully (?), affection. 
Kana kite haye, he has no affec* 

tion. 
Kupiga kite, to cry ojr g;roan f|Qm 
iflwajrd paiq. 



314 



KIT 



KIT 



Kitefiefu, sobbing before or after 
crying. 

Kitefutej the oboek, tbe part of the 
fdoeover the cheek-bone. 

Kf'tekuy a tosaer. ^ 

KUembe, a lisp. 

Kitemhfet, a thread of flnx or fine 
grass. 

KitendawiH^ plur. vitendatetli, an 
enigma. The propounder says 
KitendawVi; the rest answer 
Tega; he then propounds his 

- enigma. 

Kitendo, plur. vitendo, an action. 
Kilengenyaj a small bird spotted 

- with white, yellow, and red. 
Kiteo, plur. vt7eo, a small sifting 

basket 
KitetOy a vase. 

Kitewe, loss of the use of the legs. 
Kithiri few-, to grow large, in- 
crease. 

Umehithiri Tiuzaa, it has borne 
more than before. 
Kiti, plur.'riVt, a chair, a seat 

KUi chafragi, a saddle. 
Kitimbiy plur. vitimbi^ an artifice, 

an artful trick. 
Kitinda minibay the last child a 

woman will bear; 
Kitindi. Bee Viiindl 
Kituho, ]f)lur. vUiiiho, fear, a terrify- 
ing thing. 
KUiti, plur. vftitiy a hare, a rabbit, 

a little thing (M.). 
Kititiy to the full, entirely, alto- 

gether, all at once. 
Kititi cha haMfi, the depths of the 

sea. 
Kititlay a child's windmill. 
KitiioangOy chicken-pox. The 
" natives say an epidemic of hiH- 

ieanga, always precedes one of 



small-pox. Also titiwanga, and 

perhaps iete ya hwanga. 
KitOy plur. vitOy a precious stone. 
Kiioka (M.) = KishoJcd. 
KitovMLy plur. vitoma, a small round 

pumpkin. 
Kitomoy orchitis. 
Kitoney plur. vitone, a drop. 
Kitongay hydrocele (?). 
Kiiongojiy a village. 
Kitongotongo. 

Kuteiama hitongotongoy to glance 
at contemptuously with half- 
shut eyes. 
Kitoria, a kind of ediblo fruit 
Kitoteo (M.) = Kichoeheo, 
KitotOy plur. vitoto, a little child. 
KitovUy plur. vitovuy the navel. 
KUoweOy plur. vitoweOy a relish, a 

something to be eaten with tho 

rice or other vegetable food, such 

as meat, fish, curry, &o. 
KitUy plur. vUuy a thing, especially 
a tangible thing. 

Si UiUy nothing, worthless. 
Kituay plur. tituay the shade of a 

trec,.&c. 
Kitulcoy startledness, flight. 
Kitukuuy plur. vitukuuy a groat 

grandchild. 
KitidizOy plur. vitulizo, a soothing, 

quieting thing. 
Kitumhua, plur. vitumhua, a sort of 

cake or fritter made in Zanzibar. 
Kitundoy plur. tfitnnday a chess 

pawn. 
Kitundwiy a water-jar [Tumbatu]. 
Kitungoy plur. xitunga, a small 

round basket 
Kitungu (?) a small round earthen 

dish. 
kitunguUy plur. vitunguley a hare ot 

rabbit (?).. 



KIT 



KIW 



S15 



KUunguUf plur. viticnguytf an onion. 
K&unguu somu, garlic- 
Kitungica^ a small bird like a 

sparrovr. 
JCituOf pinr. viluo^ an encampment, 
a regting:plaoe, a putting down. 

nana hituo^ he is always gadding 
about. 
Kitapa, plur. vitupa, a little bottle, 

a viaL 
Kitutia. 

Bahari ya hitutiaf a boiling sea, 
deep and rough. 
Kitioa, plur. vitwa^ the .head. 
KitwancfombU, a somrrsault. 
KUvoafiitvoat topsy-turvy. 
Kitwana, plur. vUioana^a slave boy. 
iCitt, thirst. 

Kuwa na kiu, to be thirsty. 

Kuona kiUf to feel thirst. 
Kiua, plur. viuay an eyelet hole. 
Kiuka hu'9 to step over. 
Kiuhia = Kiruhia. 
Ktumaf plur. viuma, a fork. 
Kiuma nUmzif asmalldark-ooloured 

lizard. 
Kiumbcy plur. tiumbey a creature, 

created thing. 
Kiumhizif a peculiar way of beating 

the drum; the people sing the 

while, Sheitani ndoo tuptgane 

fimho, 
Kiunga, plur. viunga, a suburb, the 
outskirts of a town. 

Kiungani, near the town, in the 
suburbs. 
Kiungo, plur. viuivgOf a joint,— an 

acid thing put into the mchuzi, 
J^iunguja, the language of^anzibar. 
kiungwana, the free or gentlemanly 
sort 

Ya Jciungwana, civilized, cour- 
teous, becoming a free man. 



Mtcanamhe wa Jcitmgwana, a lady. 

Kiunguliay plur. viungulioj an eruc- 
tation, a breaking of wind. 

KiunOy plur. vtuno, the loins. 

Kianza, plur. viunza, the plank laid 
over the body before the grave 
IS filled in. (Coffins are never 
used.) 

Kiuwajiy murderous, deadly. 

Eivit the elbow. 

Kivimlyay plur. viviiriba, the girth of 
a tree, the circumference. 

Kivimbif a small swelling. 

KivuJi'O, plur. vivukoy a ford, a ferry, 
a crossing-place. 

Kivtdit plur. vivuliy a shadow, a 
shade, a ghost. 

Kicumlazi, a strong-smelling herb 
said to scare mosquitoes: wash- 
ing in water in which it has 1)een 
steeped is said to be a preventive 
of bad dreams. 

KivunibOy lonely (?). 

Kivumt, plur. vivumi, a roaring, 
bellowing sound. 

Kivyao = Kizao, 

Kivyaziy birth. 

Kiwambazoy plur. viwambazay a 
mud and stud wall. 

KiwamhOf something strained 
tightly over a frame, like the 
skin of a drum, a weaving frame. 

Kiwandoy plur. viwanda, a work- 
shop, a yard, a plot of land. 

Kiujango, plur. viicangOy a number, 
position in the world, duties be- 
longing to one's position, a man*s 
placa 

Kiwanja = Kiiranda, 

Kiwao, a great feast [Tumbatu]. 

Kiwdviy plur. t^'irari, a nettle, a sea- 
nettle. 

Kiieavu chana (A«)» ribs. 



316 



KI W 



KOII 



Kiwe, plnr. viioe, 

Kiwe eha uso, a nnaU kind of 
pimple on the face. 
Kiuodey an udder. 
KitoeniMy a pocket-knife. 
Kiweo (M.), thigh, lap. 
Kiweie, loss of the use of the legs. 
Kiufif moon-blindness, a dazzle. 

Kufanya Jnwiy to dazzle. 
Kiwi, plur. viud, a small stick, a 

piece of wood, a bar. 
Kitnko, 

Kiwiko elut wkono, the wrisi 

KiwOco eha mj/uu, the ankle. 
KiwUiwiUj the human trunk, the 

body without the limba. 
Kiyama, the resurrection. 
Kiyawhaza, a bulkhead, partition. 

Also = Ktwambaza. 
Kiyambo, neighbourhood, a Tillage. 
Kiza or Gizti, darkness. 

Kutia ftt'zo, to darken, to dim. 
KizaOf plur. vizao, a native, one 

bom in the place. 
Kizazif plur. vizaxit a generation. 
Kizee, diminutive of mgeSj gene- 
rally used of an old woman. 
Kizibo, plnr. vizibo, a stopper, a 

cork. 
Kizio, plur. mzio, half of an orange, 

cocoa-nut, &o. 
Kizimbi^ plur. vizimbit a cage. 
KizindOf a virgin. 
KizinjOy plur. vizinga^ a large log 

half burnt. 
Kizinjitit threshold, the top and 

bottom pieces of a door or window 

frame, bar of a river. 
Kizingo, turnings, curves of a river, 

&c., (?) a burial ground. 
Kizingo, sharp shore sand used for 

building. 
Kiziin, pluTt viziwit <leaf^ 



Kizuio s Kizuizl 

Kixuizit plur. vizuizi^ a stop, a thing 

which hinders or stays. 
Kizuizo, plur. vizuizo, a hindranoo. 
Kizuka, plur. viztika, a kind of evil 

spirit, a woman who is staying 

in perfect secrecy an<l quiet 

during the mourning for her 

husband. See Eda, 
Kizungu, a European language, 

Ya kizungu, European. 
KizunguzungUf giddiness. 
Kizuriy beauty, a beauty. 
Kiztuhij an intruder. 
Kizuu, plnr. vmtf, a kind of evil 

spirit, which kills people at the 

order of its master. 
Ko, 'ho, 'ho, where, whither, whence. 

Ko kote^ whithersoever. 
Koa, plur. mdkoa, a snail. 
Koa (plur. of Uhoa), the silver rings 

on the scabbard of a aword, dEC, 

plates of metaL 
Kobe^ a tortoise. 
Koehe, plur. mo^oo/M, the fruit of a 

kind of palm. 
Kodi, rent. 
Kodolea Xrtf-, to fix the eyes uxx>n, 

to stare. 
Kofi, plur. nujJcofi, the flat of the 
hand. 

Kupiga kofi, to strike with open 
band, to box the ears. 

Kupiga makofi, to clap the hands. 
Kofia, a cap. 
KfSfilOt ft caravan. 
KofuOf emaciated. 
Koga = Kuoga. 
Kahani^ a small zed fish like a 

mullet 
Kcha, a large bird of prey. 
Kohoa, ku-, to cough. 
Kchovit expectorated matter* 



KOI 



KON 



317 



Koikoi, plur. mdkoiko^t a sort of 

evil spirit. 
Koja^ a gold ornamont for the 

nedk. 
Kqjoa ku; to make water. 
Koka = Kuoka. 
Koka ku', to set on fire. 
Koko, plur. mdkoko, keroelis, nuts, 

stones oi fruit. 
KokOf plur. mdkoko, brushwood, 
thickets, bushes. 

Mbuoa koko, a homeless dog that 
lives in the thickets and eats 
carrion. 
Kokamoka fttf-, to vomit, to belch 

out, blurt out 
Kokota ku-t to drag. 

Kukokota rohoy to breathe hard. 
Kokoteza ku-, to do anything slowly 

and carefully. 
KokotOf plur. mdkokoto, a small 

stone, a small piece of stone. 
Kohaa, plur. mcLkolcwOf nuts, stones 

of fruit. 
KolekoUy a kind of fish. 
KoUa ku-y to become well flavoured, 

to get the right quantity of a 

condiment. 
KoUot plur. mcikoleoy tongs. 
Kologa A;u-, to stir. 
Koma, plur. mdkomoj a kind of fruit. 
Koma ku-, to cease, to leave off, to 
end a journey, to arrive at a 
destination. 

Koma usijel Gome no further 1 
Komaa ku-^ to be full grown. 
Komaza ku-, to mock, to make game 

of. 
Komba^ a galago. 

Komha kuh, to scrape out, to clean 
out. 

Vafu la kukoTnhaj a cocoa-nut in 
irhich the nntty part is but just 



forming, which is then reckoned 
a delicacy. 

Kttkomba mtu, to get all his money, 
to clean him out. 
Komhamoyo, plur. maJcomhamoyOf 

one of the rafter* of a thatched 

roof. 
Kombe, plur. makombet a large ditih. 

Konibe la nikono (A.), the shouldtr- 
blade. 

Kombe ta ptoanij oysters (?), 
cockles (?), sea-shells. 
Kombeka ku-f to be cleaned out, to 

have had all one's money got from 

one. 
Kombeo, a sling. 
Komboy plur. makomho^ scraps, 

pieces left after eating. 
K*ombo, a defect, crookedness. 

Kutoa k*(miboy to notice a defect. 
Kamboa &tt-, to ransom, to buy back. 
Komboka kur^ to be crooked. 
KombokombOt crooked. 
Kombora^ a bomb, a mortar. 
Kombozij a ransom. 
Kome^ plur. makome^ a pearl 

oyster (?), a mussel (?), a shell. 
Komea ftu-, to fasten with a native 

Iock(&o7n6o). 
Komeo, a kind of wooden lock. 
Komeaha kw, to make to cease, to 

put a stop to. 
Komwej plur. makomtoe, the seeds of 

a large climbing plant abundautly 

furnished with recurved thorns; 

they are used to play the game of 

boo with. 
Konda ku-, to grow thin and lean. 
Kondavlt large beads worn, by 

women, as a belt round the loins. 
Konde, a fist. 

Kupiga moyo konde, to take heart, 
to resolve firmly. 

T 



818 



KON 



KOB 



Kondesha ku-, to make to grow lean. 
KondOf war (Merima). 
Kondoa, a sheep [Lindi]. 
KondoOy sheep. 

Yua/a hikondoOf he dies like a 
sheep, silently (which is high 
praise). 
Konga hn-^ to grow old and feehle. 
Kongoa ku-^ to draw out nails, &o., 

to take to pieces. 
Kmigoea, Momhas. 
Kongoja ku-, to walk with difficulty, 

to totter. 
KongoUwa ku-, to be taken to pieces. 
KongomerOf throat. 
Kongoni s Kunguni. 
Kofig^oUif a sort of woodpecker, 

black and yellow. 
KongwOy a slave-stick. 
Kongwe, 

Kutoa kongwcy to lead off the solo 
part of a song, in which others 
join in tho chorus. 

"kongwe^ oyer-old, worn out with 
age. 
K(mOf a projecting handle, like that 

of a saucepan. 
KonohonOf a snail. 
Konyesha ktt^ = Konyeza hi: 
Kanyeea ku-^ to make a sign by 

raising the eyebrows. 
Kanzif what can be grasped in the 
hand, a fist full 

Kupiga konzi^ to rap with the 
hiuckles. 
JToo, plur. mdl£00, a breeding animal 
or bird. 

Koo la hiku, a laying hen. 

Koo la mbuzij a breeding goat. 
KoOf plur. nuLkoo, throat 
KoondCy plur. maJcoonde, cultivated 

land, fields, the piece ofeLsJiamha 

allotted to a slaye for b{s own ufe. 



Konyoa kt^, to break off the ooba ol 

Indian com. 
Kopa, hearts, in cards. 
KopOf plur. maJwpa, a piece of dried 

muhogOf which has been steeped 

and cooked. 
Kopa ku-f to get goods on credit for 

the purpose of trading with, to 

cheat, to swindle. 
Kope, plur. of Ukope, the eyelashes. 
Kope, plur. mdkope, the wick of a 

candle. 
Kopesa ku-^ to wink. 
Kopesha ku-, to supply a trader with 

goods on credit, to give on trust, 

to lend. 
Kopo, plur. maJiopo, a large metal 

vessel, a spout. 
Kopoa ku', to drag out of one's 

hand, = Chopoa ku", 
Kora ^u-, to seem sweet to, to be 

loved by. 
K<yradani^ a sheave of a pulley. 
Korija, a pucker in sewing. Also, a 
Korja^ a score. [score. 

Koroana ku', to steep in water. 
Koroflf a bird of ill omen, a 

messenger of bad luck. 
KoroJUiha %u-, to ruin a man. 
Koroga ku-, to stir, to stir up. 
£oroma,plur. makoromay a cocoa-nut 

in its last stage but one, when the 

nut is formed but has not yet its 

full fiavour. It has ceased to bQ 

a dafu and is not yet a nazL 
Koroma Itu-^ to snore. 
KorotigOf a crane. 
Korongo, plur. makorongOt a hole 

dibbled for seed. 
KororOy a crested guinea-fowl. 
KorotihOf plur. makorosho, cashc^ 

nuts. 
JSbrtf, th^ waterbuck. 



KOS 



-KUB 



319 



Kosa hu', to err, mistfiko, miss, go 

wrong, do wrong, blunder. 
Koseleana hth, to be missed, not to 

be there. 
Kotesha Jcu-, to lead astray. 
Kotudia htt^^ to purpose, to intend, 
— Ktuudia. 
Kola, plnr. malcotaf the stalks of a 

kind of millet which are chewed 
Kota, a crook. [like sugar-cane. 
Kota Aru-. 

Kuhota moto, to warm oneself. 
Kotamay a curved knife Uiied in 

getting palm wine. 
Koie^ all. See -ote, 
Kotekote, on every sidcu 
Koto. 

Kupiga koto (M.), to strike with 
the knuckles. 
KovOy plur. makovo, scar. 
Ku- or Kuo-, 

1. The indefinite verbal prefix 
answering to tliere in English. 
Ku-ltkuwa, there was. 
Ku'katanda, and there spread. 

2. The sign of the infinitive. 
Ku-piga, to strike. 
Kio-endaj to go. 

The infinitive may be U80<1 as a 
substantive answering to the 

• English form in -ing, 

Kufa, dying, the act of death. 

Ktoenda^ going. 

The ku- of the infinitive is re- 
tained by monosyllabio verb?, 
and by somo others in all 
tenses in which the tense 
prefix ends in an unaccented 
syllable. 

3. The prefix proper to adjectives, 
pronouns, and verbs agreeing 
with infinitives used as sub- 
ftantives. 



Ku/a kioetu kwema kutampendeza^ 
our good deaths will please him. 

4. The prefix proper to pronouns 
agreeing with substantives in 
the locative case (-nt), wbero 
neither the being or going 
inside, nor mere nearness, is 
meant. 

Enenda nyumbani ktcangut go to 

my house. 
Ziko kwetUf there are in our pos* 

session, at our place. 

5. In a few words a prefix signi- 
fying local ity,commonIy so used 
in other African languages, but 
generally represented in Swa- 
liili by tiie case in -ni. 

Kuzimn, among the dead, in the 
'ku'. [grave. 

1. The sign of the negative past 
always preceded by some nega- 
tive personal prefix. 

Sikujua, I did not know. 
Haziku/aa^ they were of no use. 

2. The objective prefix denoting 
the second person singular. 

Nakupenda^ I love thee, or you. 
Alikupa, he gave thee, or you. 
SikvJctyua, I did not know you. 

3. The objective prefix referring 
to infinitives of verbs, or to 
hukUf there. 

Kua ku-, to grow, to become largo. 
"kuba or -kubuta, great, large. 
Kuhali ku, to accept, assent tb, 

acknowledge, approve. 
Kuhalika ku-, to be accepted, to be 

capable of acceptance. 
KubcUitha ku-f to make to accept 
Kutiba^ a vaulted place. 
'kubtca, large, great, elder, chief. 

It makes kubwa with nouns, like 

nyumba. 

Y 2 



320 



KUO 



Kucha, or Kumekucha, the dawn. | 

Usiku hudha, all night 
Kuchuakth, 
Kamba im^ikuchua, the rope has 
worn away, chafed, stranded. 
Kufuli, a padlock. 
Kufuru &!»-, to become an infidel, 

to apostatize. 
Kufuru ku', to mock, to deride. 
KuguniA^ hartebeest (boselaphus). 
Kuke, Bee-ke. 
m<mo wa kvJce, the left hand. 
Kukeni, on the female side. 
Kuko, yonder, to yonder. 

Kwa kukOf beyond, on yon side. 
K'vlcu, a hen, a fowl, fowls, poultry. 
Kuku na huku, backwards and for- 
wards. 
-ZfttJktttt, old, worn out. It makes 

kukuu with nouns like nyumba, 
Ktildbu, a hook to steady work with. 
KuUj there, far off; yonder. 
KuUe, yonder, very far oflf. As the 
distance indicated increases the 
4 is more dwelt on, the voice 
raised to a higher and Ligher 
falsetto. 
KulekuU, there, just there. 
KuLla hu-y to become great for, to 

become hard to. 
Kuliko, where there is or was. 
Kulikonif Where there is what 

= why? (M.). 
KulikOyiBnsedm the ordinary way 
of expressing the comparative. 
Mwema huLiko huyu, good where 
this man is, and therefore 
better than he. Because if a 
quality becomes evident in any- 
Uiing by putting some other 
thing beside it, the first must 
possess the quality in a higher 
degree than the other. 



KUM 

KuUa, often pronounced fttWa, every, 
each one. 

Kululu, nothing at all. 
Nikapatahdulu = Sikupata neno. 

Kululu, tiger cowries, Cyprsea tigris. 

Kulungu, a sort of antelope. 

JELuma, the vagina. 

Kujnba ^u-, to push against, to take 
and sweep off the whole of any* 
thing, e,g. to clear water out of a 
box, to bale a boat 

Kumbatia fet*-, to embrace, to clasp. 

Kurhbatiana ku-^ to embrace (of two 
persons). 

Kumhei What? An expression of 
surprise used especially when 
something turns out otherwise 
than was expected, commonly 
joined with a negative verb. 

Kunibi (Mer.), circumcision. 
Anaingia kmnhinif he is being 
circiundsed. 

Kunibi, plur. makumhi, cocoa-nut 
fibre, the 'husk of the cocoa-nut 
and the fibrous mass out of which 
the leaves grow. Also, at Mgao, 
gum copal. 

Kumbikumbi, ants in their flying 
stage. 

Kumbisha hu-, to push off upon, ^ 
lay upon some one else. 

Kumbuka ku-, to think of, to remem- 
ber, to ponder over, to reoolleol. 

Kumbukumbu, a memorial, a men- 
tion. 

Kunibura, an explosive sbelL 

Kumbwiha ku-, to remind. 

Kumbwaya, a kind of drum stand- 
ing on feet. 

Kumekucha, there it dawn, tU 
dawn. 

Kumi, plur. makumi, ten. 

Kumojo, on one side* 



KUM 



KUN 



821 



Kumpuni, plw. mdkumpuni^ a per- 
son who has obtained full know- 
ledge of his trade. 
Kumunta iht-(Mer.), to shake out 

or off. 
Kumunto,tk sieve of basket-work. 
Kumutiha htt-, to desire (?). 
Kumvif husks and bran of rice. 
Kuna^ there is, 
Kutiaytf depending npon him. 
Kunanif What is the matter ? 
Kuna kwambaje f What do you 
say? [Tumbatu]. 
Kuna hu-f to scratch. 
KundkuchOf there is dawning, the 

dawning. 
Kuruui, a small edible fruit. 
Kunda ku- (M.) = Kunja hu-, 
KundOf plur. makunday a green 

vegetable like spinach. 
Kundaa Xrti-, to be short and small 

of stature. 
Kundamana htk- = Kunjamana ku-, 
Kunde^ beans, haricot beans. 
Kundif plur. makundif a crowd, a 

herd, many together. 
Kundua %u-, to please (?). 
•kundufu, giving pleasure. 
Nyumha ni kundufUf the house 

is oommodious. 
Muungu ni mkundufa^ God is the 
giver of all good things. 
Kundvka ku-^ to grow larger, to 
open. 
Moyo umekundukd^ he is gratified 
(N.). 
Kunga ku-, to hem. 
KungOf cleverness, clever. 
Kazi hai/ai ilia kwa kunga, it 
wants to be done cleverly. 
Kungali, « 

Kungali na mapema hadOf while 
it is yet early. 



Kungtt, mist, fog. 
Kungu manga, a nutmeg. 
Kunguniy a bug. 

Kunguru, a crow, a bird a little 
larger than a rook, black, with 
a white patch on the shoulders 
and round the neck : it feeds on 
carrion. 
Kung'ida kU', to shake ofS, to shake 

out. 
Kung'uio, plur. fnakung*uto, a sort 
of basket used as a sieve or 
strainer. 
Kuni, firewood. The singular, 
ukuniy means one piece of fire- 
wood. 
Kunia kth, to scrape or scratch 

with, or for. 
Kunia A;u-, to raise the eyebrows in 

contempt. 
Kuniitdj telling me to come. 
Kunja ku; to fold, to wrap up, to^ 
furL 
Knkunja uxi, to wind thread. 
Ktyikunjoy to fiinch, to shrink. 
Kukunja two or Kukunja vipajt, 
to frown, to knit the brows. 
Kunjana ku-, to fold together, to 

dwindle, to wrinkle. 
Kur^amana ku', 

Uao unakunjamana, his face is 
sad, sour, and frowning. 
Kunjia ku-, to fold for, to wrap up 

for, to crease. 
Kunjika %u-, to become folded or 

doubled up, to be oreased, 
Kunjua ftu-, to unfold. 
Kukuniua m^uii, to stretch one's 
legs. 
Kunjuka ku-, to become unfoldetl, 

to spread over. 
Kunjuliwa ku-, to be open and un* 
folded. 



822 



KUK 



RIVA 



Kunraihif don't be ofTeudecl, excuse 
mCf pardon mo. 

Kunu alamu, bo it known. 

Kunya leu-, to ease oneself. 8co 
Nya, 

Kunyata 7:u; to draw together. 
Kujikunyata, to draw oneself to- 
gether, to shrink. 

Kunyua leu- or Kunyula hu , to 
touch secretly (with a scratching 
motion) by way of signal or of 
calling attention privately, to 
make a scratch op the skin. 

Kupaa, 8ee Mahupaa, 

Kupe, a tick, a cattle tick. 

Kupua hu'^ to shake something off 
one*s dress, out of one's hand, 
&c 

Kura^ the lot 
Kupiga hura, to cast lota. 

Kuril, a sphere, a ball. 

Kurtibia ku-^ to come near to. 
NcUikurubiat &c., had a good 
mind to, &o. 

Kurumhizi, a small yellow bird, 

very inquisitive : they say if he 

sees a man and woman talking 

together, he cries, " Mtu anasema 

. na mume** 

Kusa hu, to make to grow. 

Kusanya hu-y to collect, gather, as- 
semble. 

Kutanyana ha-y to gather together. 

Kusanyika hu-, to be gathered, to 
assemble. 

Kushotoi on the left 
Mkono wa hwhoto, the left hand. 

JTim, the southerly winds which 
blow from May till October. 
Kusinif in the direction of the 
Kuiiy southerly. 

KuBudi, plur. mahuaudiy purpose, 
design. 



Kn9ttdia hu-, to purpose, to intend. 

KutGy plur. of Ukuta, walls. 

Kuta 1cu-y to meet with, to see, to 

find, to come upon. 
Kutana Xru-, to come together, to 

meet, to assemble. 
Kutantka Jcu-^ to become assembled. 
KutanUha /;»-, to bring together, to 

assemble. 
Kutu, rust 
KuivJca Zftt-, to be startled, to be 

suddenly frightened. 
Kutuiha hu-, to startle, to alarm 

suddenly. 
'kuuj great, chief, noble. Kuu refers 
more to figurative, kvhwa to 
physical greatness. It makes 
^tt with nouns like nyumha. 

Ana makuu, he is vain. 
Kuilme. Bee -time. 

MJcono wa huume^ the right hand. 

Kuumenif on the male side. 
Kumdu 

Mkono wa kuvidi, the riglit hand. 
Kuwa, to be, to become (?> Gee 

Wa. 
Kuwadif also Kawadi, a procuress 

{Mtu anayewatongoiha watu). 
Kutoili, twice over, in two ways. 
•kuzaf large, full grown. 
Kuza ku'f to make bigger. 
Kuzoj to sell. 8ee Uza, 
Kuzi, an earthen water bottle larger 

than a guduwia^ with a handle 

or handles and a narrow neck. 
Kuzikanif a funeral. 
Kuzimu, in the grave, under the 

earth. 
Kw; See ^tt-. 

Kwa, with, as an instrument, 
^ through, to a person, to or at 

the place where any one lives; 

for, on account o£ 



KWA 



ItWE 



323 



Ktoa *ngi (?), generally. • 

Ktooy of, after verbs in the infini- 
tive nsed as noons, and after the 
case in -ni. 

Kufoa ku-f to strike tjie foot, to 
stumble. 

Kwajef how? 

Kwahe, to him, vrith him, to or at 
his or her house; his, her, or 
its, after a verb in the infinitive 
nsed as a snbstantive, or the 
ease in -ni, 

KiDahOf to thee or with tbee, to or 
at thy place, yonr, thy, of thee 
or you, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used as a noun, and after the 
case in -ni, 

KwaUf a partridge (?). 

Kwama Am-, to become jammed, to 
stick. 

Ktxfambay saying (?), if, as if, though, 
Ta hwamiba, that [that. 

KioamUha hu-f to jam, to make to 
stick in a narrow place. 

Kwamua h^^ to unjara, to free, to 
clear. 

KwangUf to or at my house, to or 
with me, my, of me, after the 
infinitives of verbs used as sub- 
stantives, and after the case in 
-ni. 

Kwangua few-, to scrape up, to scrape 
one's shoos, &c. 

Kwani for, because, wherefore, for 
why. 

Kwanua ku-, to split down, to tear 
down, to break. 

Kioanyuka Ten-, to be spilt down 
like the boughs and branches of 
a tree, which some one has been 
trying to climb by them. 
Kioanza, beginning, at first, for- 
merly. 



Ta hjoanzoy first, the first. 

Ngoja htoanza^ wait a bit. 
KtoaOf plur. tnakwaOf a stumble, a 

stumbling-block. 
KtoaOf to or with them, at or to 

their place ; thoir, of them, after 

verbs in the infinitive used as 

nouns, and after the case in -ni. ' 
Ktcapa, plur. mahwapa^ the arm- 
pit. 

Kioapanif under the armpit The 
people of the African coast 
wear their swords by a strap 
over the left shoulder only; the 
sword hangs under the armpit, 
and is said to be kwapani, 
Ktoaruza ku-, to scrape along, to slip 

with a scrape. 
Ktoatctf or KwalOt a hoof. 

Kupiga kwata, to strike the hoof, 
to strike with the hoof. 
KwatUf a horseshoe (?). 
KwayOi a stumbling-block. 
Kvxua ku; to make to stumble. 

Kukujoza menOf to jar the teeth 
like grit in food. 
Kwea ktt; to ascend, go up, climb. 
Kioeli, true, the truth. 

Ya kweli, true. 
Kwelu = Kweu, 

Ktoema, good, well, it is well there. 
Ktoeme^ the seed of a gourd, very 

rich in oiL 
Kwenda, to go. See Enda^ going. 
Kwendaf perhaps. 
Ktoenuj with you, to or at your 

place, your, of you, after verbs in 

the infinitive used as nouns or 

after the case in -ni, 
Kwenyit tiU, since, up to the time of, 

from the time of. 
Kwepa ku'i to start out of the way. 
Kw^ ^tt-, to raise. 



324 



KWH 



tAt> 



KtoetUt to or vith us, to or at otit 

place, our, of ns, after a verb in 

the iDfinitive used as a noun, and 

after the case in -nt 
Ktoeu, clear. 
Kweupe, white. See -eupe. 

Kuna hweupe, grey dawn. 
Kweza ^it-, to make to go up, to drag 

np a boat ont of the water. 
Kwtza hu'^ to bid np an article at 
an auction. 

Kukwezvoa^ to have things made 
dear to one by others bidding 
them up. 
KwUm, See Iba Icwj stealing, to 

steaL 
KwibaMij robbing one another. 
Kvoikwe^ hiccup. 

Ktnkwe ya kuliay sobs. 
J^wUha, See LTia ht^f ending, to 

end. 
KwOj which. 



L is pronounced as In English. 

L is not distinguished from r 
in African languages of the same 
family as SwahilL The distinction 
becomes important in Swahili on 
account of the Arabic words which 
have been incorporated into it 
Thus— 

MaTialit means a place, but 
Mcihari a dowry. 

Waredi means a rose^ blit Waledi 
a youth. Slaves, however, fre- 
quently confound even these. 

When r can be used for 7» it has a 
light smooth sound, as in English. 

There is a latent I sound between 
every two consecutive vowels in 
Bwahili and at the beginning of 



some irerbs, which appears In theft 
derivatives and in other African 
languages : thus the common pas- 
sive of hufungua is hufunguHvoa, 

So fieff is this disposition to drop 
an I carried, that eyen kuleta, to 
bring, is in old Swahili eta. It is 
characteristio of the Merima dialect 
to retain these Ts. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged. 

Mlango, a door, is vulgarly pro- 
nounced Mwango, 

U/almet a kingdom, may be 
written Ufaume, 

In these oases, however, both 
forms are probably contractions 
from Mtdango and Ufcdume. 

L becomes d after n, and is some* 
times confounded with d in inexact 
pronunciation. 

Ndume = Nlume or NumCf male. 

If or li'f the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and yerbs governed by 
words in the singular, of the 
class which make their plural 
in ma-, 

La^ no. 

La kd't to eat, to consume, to wear 
away, to take a piece in chess, &o. 
The h%^, bears the accent and is 
retained in the usual tenses. T£e 
passive of hula is hvliica, 

Laabu ku-, to play, to sport with. 

Laana, plur. malaanaj a curse. 

Laa;ni /ru-, to curse, to damn. 

Laanisha hu-^ to bring a curso upon, 

Laheha s Leheka. 

LaXmda, perhaps. 

LadUf sweet cakes composed of trea- 
cle, pepper, and flour or semsem 
seed, made up into balls. 



LAG 



LET 



825 



Laghaif a rascal. Also Ragai. 
Laikctf plur. malaikOf one of tho 

hairs of the hand or arm. 
Lainif smooth, soft. 
LaintBha hu-^ to make smooth or 

soft. 
Laitil Would that I Oh that I 

expressing regret at something 

past. 
Lake or Xa&toe, his, hers, its. See 
LaJei hu-, to go to meet [-ake. 

Lahini, but, however. 
Ldkki, a hundred thousand, a lac. 
LakOf thy. See ako. 
Lata A»^>, to sleep, to lie down. 

Nyumba imelala incht, the house 
is fallen flat on the ground. 
Lalama hu-^ to confess, to cry for 

mercy; used of extorted confes- 
sions. 
Lalamika ku-, to be made to cry 

out, to be quite beaten, to shout, 

to scream. 
Lalika ku^^ to be slept upon. 
Lalika ktn- s Alika km-^ to inform, 

announce to. 
Lamif pitch or tar. 
Lana Aru-, to eat one another. 
Landa %;»-, to be eqaal with. 
LangUf my. See -angu, 
Lao, their. See -ao, 
Laomu ku-^ to blame. Also Lau- 

Lapa kU'y or Eapa kU'^ to be ra- 
venously hungry. 

Launiy sort, species, form. 

Lavmu kU'^ to blame. 

Lawa ku-, to come from (Mer.). 

Zaimxna ku-, to blame, to scold. 

Laza ku'f to lay down, to lay at its 
length. 
Kujilaza, to lie down. 

tdzim, of necessity. 



Lazima^ surety, bail, necessity. ' 
Lazimisha ku-y to compel. 
Lazimu fti»-, to be obligatory upon. 
-Z0, his, hers, or its. 
Lea ftii-, to bring up. 

Amelewa vema, he is well bretl 
Leheka, the humble manner of re- 
plying when called, often short- 
ened into Ebbe^ or even Bee. 
Legea ku-, &o., &a See Regea /cu-, 

&c., &0, 
Lekea ftu-, to be opposite to, to tend 

to. 
Lekeza ku-, to put opposite to. 

Kuhkeza bundiiki, to level a^gun 
at. 
Lekezana kw, to agree, come to an 

agreement. 
Lelam, by auction. 
LelimamOf a dance to the music 

made by beating buffalo horns. 
Lema or Demo, a kind of fish-trnp. 
Lemaa, disfigurement. 

Mwenyi Umaa^ disfigured by dis- 
ease. 
Lembttka ku-, to be weak, limp. 
Lemea fct*-, to oppress, to lie heavy 

upon, to overburden. 
Lengdenge, plur. malengdenge, a 

blister, 
LenUy your. See -enti. 
Lenyi, See -enyi, 

Bakulilenyi mayayif a basin with 
eggs in it 
Xeo, to-day. 
Leppe, drowsiness, doses, snatches 

of sleep. 
Lesoy a handkerchief. 

Leeo ya kufutia ^ama^t, a pocket- 
handkerchief. 
Leta ku'f to cause to arrive at the 

place where the speaker is, to 

bring, to send, to fetch. 



326 



LET 



LIN 



Leteaht-j to bring or send to or for 
a person. 
Kfdeteujafioh&re brought or sent 
to one. 
LetUf eur. See -etu. 
Levttka hu-, to get sober. 
Levya ^, to intoxicate. 
KujUevya^ to make oneself in- 
toxicated, to get drunlc. 
Levydlevya hu-, to be giddy. 
Leuja Icu-f to become drunk. 
Leioalewa Xm-, to swing or sway 
abont like a dranken man. 
• Xt^itis. 
Li-^T 1-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by a 
singular noun of the class which 
makes its plural in mar. 
4i't 1. The objective prefix repre- 
senting a singular noun of the 
class which makes its plural in 
ma-f governed by the verb to 
which it is prefixed. 
2. 4i'9 or 'dli', the sign of that 
past tense which denotes an 
action complete in past time. 
8. 'li- sometimes represents the 
substantive verb, as in aliije, he 
who is; nUtali, and I am ; alt, 
he is, or he being. 
Lia hu-f to breed (M.). 
Lia hu; to eat for, &c. 
Chumha cha hulia^ a room to eat 

in. 
Mkono wa kulia, right hand, being 
the only one ever used to eat 
with. 
JAa ^tt-, to cry, to weep, to cry out; 
applied to the cries of animals 
generally. Also, to give a 
sound. 
Kulia ngoa, to weep for jealousy. 
Incdia teazt, it sounds hollow. 



Ltbasif clothc& 

Lieha, whether it be, though. 

Lihamu, solder. 

LthanijA cloth of a particular 

Lijamu, a horse's bit. [pattern. 

Lika ku-t to be eaten, to become 

worn away, to be eatabl& 
LiJciza hu-, to dismiss, to give leave 

to go, to release. 
Liko, plur. maliko, a landing-place. 
Ltlia ku'f to weep for, to cry about. 
Lima ^-, to cultivate, to hoe. 
Lima, the feast made by tlie bride- 
groom on the first day of the 

wedding. 
lAmaOy plur. malimao, a lemon. 
Limatia fta-, to delay, to loiter (A.). 
Limbika hu-, to leave till it is fit, to 

wait for fruit till it is ripe, or for 

water till it is collected in the 

dipping hole, to put aside till it 

is fit 
Limbuka ku-y to taste the first of a 

newerop. 
Limhusha ku-, to bring to be tasted. 
Limiza ku-, to make to hoe, &e. 
Linalokuja, which is coming. 
Linda ku-. to guard, to watch, to 
keep. 

Kulindn ndege^ to scare birds from 
com, &0. . 
Lindif plur. moZtndt, a pit, a deep 

place. 
Lindoy a watching place. 
Linga ftu-, to swing the head round 

in dancing. 
Linga ku-, to make to match, or to 

be level. 
Lingana ku-^ to match, to be level 

with or like one another. 
Lingana ku-, to call, to invite (A.). 
Linganuhaka-t to make to matcli, 

to compare tof[ethec» 



LIK 



M 



327 



tinif "Whenf 

Linyi = Lenyi, 

Lipa hthf to pay (a debt). 

Lipia hu'f to pay (a person). 

Lipiza ku-f to cause to be paid. 
KuJUipizay to take one's due, to 

repay oneself. 
Kujilipiza hctsoHj to avenge one- 
self, to take one's revenge. 

Lisanij a piece of cloth put in 
behind an opening, a flap to 
obviate the effect of gaping at the 
fastening, a tongue. See Kanzu. 

Lisha fttt-, to feed. 

Lishisha 7cu-, to cause to be fed, to 
cause people to give one food. 

lAwa ku-f to be eaten, to be worn 
away, to be consumed. 

Zt'ira, a fragrant wood from Mada- 
gascar, which is ground up and 
used as a cosmetic, and as an 
application to cure prickly heat; 
Madagascar sandal wood. . 

LiieaZi, plur. maliwali, for Al Wali, 

Liza Ica-f to sell to. [a governor. 

Liza ku-, to make to weep. 

Lizana hu-, to niake one another 
weep, to cry together. 

•lo, thy, your. 

io, "h-, or 4b, which, representing 
a singular noun of the class 
wliich makes its plural in mo. 
Lo Icte, whatsoever. 
Eakufanya lo lote^ he has done 
nothing at all (neno under- 
stood). 

Loa fcii-, to get wet with rain, &o. 

Loga ku-f to bewitch, to practise 
magic (Mer.). 

Lo or Loo I Hullo 1 An exclamation 
of surprise; the number of o*s 
increases in proportion to the 
amount of surprise. 



LoUj all. 8ee -ofe. 

Lo lote^ whatsoever. 
Lozif an almond. 
Luanga^ a kind of bird. 
Xtt&a, a leech. 
Lugha, language. 
Lulu, a pearl. 

Lumba £»-, to make a speech. 
LumhUta ht-, to gather little by 

little, to pick up small pieces one 

by one. 
Lumhvoij a chameleon (?). 
Luththoy flavour, savour. 
Luva, sandal wood(?). 



M is pronounced as in English. 

M before h generally represents 
an n. Mb stands sometimes for 
n&,as nyumba mbaya, far nyumha 
n-baya; sometimes it represents nw 
or »v, as mbingulot n-wingu, 

M is frequently either followed 
by 10 or «, or else has a sort of semi- 
vowel power, as if preceded by a 
half-suppressed «• 

The natives of Zanzibar very 
rarely say fnti; they change it into 
«mor rather 'f». Even Mwenyiegi 
MuungUy Almighty God, becomes 
*Mnyezimngu, 

it is important to write 'm, and 
not m only, where it represents mu 
if a 6 or u; follow, because otherwise 
the m, might be supposed to coalesce 
with them. If any other consonants 
follow, it is immaterial, for m mubt 
then always stand for mu^ and bo 
capable of being pronounced as a 
separate syllable. 

Any verb may be turned into a 
substantive by prefixing 'm or mw 



828 



MAA 



to mean one who docs, &c., followed 
immediately by tho object of the 
▼erb or the thing done. The last 
letter is sometimes changed into t 
and if ji is added to the substantive 
it gets the sense of one who habit- 
ually does what the yerb signifies. 

M'j 'm, mu-f or mi0-, sign of the 
second person plural prefixed to 
verbs. 
Af-y 'm, mil, or mie-, the singular 
prefix of those nouns which 
make their plural in ira-, if they 
denote animate beings, or in mi-, 
if they do not 
M-j 'm-t mu; or mvh, the prefix 
proper for adjectives agreeing 
with a singular substantive de- 
noting an animate being, or with 
any substantive beginning with 
tnt*-, *m-, mt«-, or «-. 
•m-, -*m-, or -mie-, the objective 
prefix referring to a singular 
substantive denoting an animate 
being. 
M', fRtt-, or muf', the prefix proper to 
pronouns governed by the case in 
-niy when it denotes within or in- 
side of. 
Ma-f the sign of the plural prefixed 
to substantives (and to adjec- 
tives agreeing with them) 
which have either no prefix 
in the singular or begin with /- 
orjfV-. 
All words intended to denote 
something specially great of 
its kind make their plural in 

Wtt', 

Foreign words denoting a person, 
or an ofilce, make their plural 
in mo-. In the vulgar dialect 



of Zanzibar nearly all foreign 
words are made plural by pro- 
fixing mO', 
Many plural nouns in ma- must be 
translated as though they were 
singulars, the true singular 
being used only to denote some 
one exceptionally large or im- 
portant instance. 
When followed by an t or e, the a 
of ma coalesces with it and 
forms a long e sound, 
-fna-. See -we-. 
Naaddmf while, during the time, 

when. 
Mctadin = 3Sadini, 
Maadin ya hinywa^ whnt risea 
into the mouth without inter- 
nal cause, water-brash. 
Maaflkano, bargain, estimate, es- 
teem. 
MaaganOt contract, agreement, 

covenant. 
Maagizo^ commission, direction, re* 

commendation. 
Maahdi^ diet, food. 
Macd^m^ fixed, recognizable = htlu 

chotambidikana, 
Maana, meaning, reason, cause, 
sake. 
Kutia maanani^ to remember, 
think about 
Maandasi, biscuits, cakes, fto., also 

pastry, preserves. 
3faa?u7tA», writing, place for putting 
out food, the act of spreading: a 
meal, a description, things writ- 
ten. 
Maanduihi, things which are writ- 
ten, put out, set in order, &e. 
Maangvko, ruin, fall, ruins. 
Maa*mziy judgment. 
Maarifa, knowledge. 



MAA 



MAH 



329 



Maantf, understood, I understand. 
Mcuui^ rebellion. 
Maazaly while. 
MatuimOf a loan. 
Mabaya, bad. See baya, 
MabcJeia, the remnant, what is or 

was left. 
Mahichi, raw. See 'biehi, 
MaMwif heaps, piles of sticks and 

rubbish. See Biud', 
MdbovUf rotten. See -ovu. 
Machadhe, few. See -ehache, 
Machela, a litter, a palanquin. 
Macheto, a game, games. 
Macho (jAng.jichd), eyes. 

Yu machOf he is awake. 

Macho ya watu wavnli, or Mazivoa 
ya watu waufili, dragqn*s blood. 

Macho ya Jua, the sun-rising, 
east. 
MachuJciOf hatred, abomination, dis- 
gust. 
Machwa ya jua, the sun-setting, 

west 
Madahtit a graceful manner. 
Madanganyctf deception, trick. 
Jlf(u2ara^a, arrangements, provision. 
MadefUf beard. 
Madevu, a kind of rice. 
Madi/u, the fibrous envelope of the 

cocoa-nut leaves. 
Madiniy metal, a mine. 
Madoadoa^ spotted. 
Madogovi, a kind of drumming, &a, 

used in exorcisms. 
Maflcho, concealment. 
Mafu, death, dead things. 

Maji mafa, neap tides. 
Mafuoj a chest complaint causing 

a oough, a cold in the head, a 

stoppage in the nose. 
Mafundisho, instruction, precept, 

direction. i 



MafundOy cross-beams in a dhow, to 
steady the mast, &o. 

Mafunffulia, unfastening. 
Ma/ungulia ng^ombe, about 8 a.h. 

Ma/upi, short. See -JfupL 

Mafusho, steam from a pot of ma - 
janif used as a vapour-bath in 
fever, &c. 

Mafutay oil, fat. 
Mafuta ya uto, semsem oil. 
Mafuta ya mharikaf castor oil. 

MafuUf crazy, cracked. 

Mafya, Monfla. 

Ma/ya (sing, jifya\ the three stones 
used to put a pot over the fire 
upon. 

Magadif rough soda. 

Magamhat scales of a fish. 

MagandOf peel, husks. 

Magarcuaj 8, 9, and 10 in card^ 
(not used in playing). 

Mageuzif changes. 

Maghofira, remission of sins. 

Maghrebbit or Magaribiy or Ma- 
n^ari&t, sunset, the sunset prayers 
of the Mohammedans, the west, 
Morocco. 

Maghrib ayiik, N.W. 

Maghrib akrab, S.W. 

Maghuba, the winding of a stream. 

Mago. See Kago. 

Magongonene. See Kanzu, 

MagugUf weeds, undergrowth. 

MagundaJOf an instrument of tor- 
ture, in which the victim is sus- 
pended, and weights being at- 
tached to him, he is jerked up 
and down. Used for extracting 
evidence. 

Mahaba, love, fondness. 

Mahala or Malmli, place, places. 
Mahali pcL, in place of, instead ofl 
Mahali pote, everywhere. 



830 



mAh 



MAK 



Mdhana (At,), excessive worry. 
Maharazi, a shoemaker's awl. 
Maharif dowry paid by the liusband 

to the wife's relations. 
MahcUif a carpenter's tool used for 

marking lines to a measure. 
MahazamiA, a shawl worn round the 

waist. 
Mahindif Indian com, maize. 
Mdhiri, clever, quick. 
Miihokay devil, evil spirits, madness. 
Mauihaf life, continuanco. 

Maitiha na mtlele, now and for 
ever. 
Maiti = MaytU, a dead body, a 

corpse. 
MajahabOf dock for ships. 
Majana (?), honeycomb. 
Majanif grass. The 8ingular,jani, 
means a leaf. 

Bangi ya majani, green. 

Majani ya puani^ grass wort, 
samphire (?). 
Majaribu or Majeribuy trial, tempta- 
tion. 
MaJcuOf reward. 
MaJengOf building materials. 
Majaribu = Majartbu. 
Majertthi, wounded. 
Maji, water, liquid, juice, sap. 

Maji majU ^'6t. 

Kavna maji^ fluently. 

Maji kujaa na kupwa, the tides. 

Maji ya pepo^ Maji ya baridi, 
Maji matamu, fresh water. 

Maji ma/u, neap-tides. 

Maji a bahari, blue, sea-water 
colour. 

Maji a moto, hot water, a large 
yellow kind of ant which makes 
its nest in trees. 
Majibu, an answer. 
MtyUin, coming, or mode of coming. 



MaJUipa, revenge. 

Majira, time. 

Mdjirctf course of a ship. 

MajonH, grief for a loss. 

Majorif an elder. 

Majuniy a cake made of opium, &e., 

very intoxicating. 
Majutio, regret, sorrow for some- 
thing done. 
MajutOf regret, repentance. 
Mdkaa, coal, coals, embers. 

Makeui ya miti, charcoal. 
Makalalao, cockroaches ; applied in 
. derision to the Malagazy colony 

in Zanzibar. * 
Makali, fierce. 8ee -kali. 
MakanadUi, places in the stern of 

native craft, the quarter galleries 

of a dhow. 
Mahani, dwelling, dwelling-place. 
MahaOf dwelling, dwelling-place. 
MahaBi, scissors. 

MdkatazOf prohibition, objections. 
Makaiibut agreement. 
MakavUf dry. See 'havu. 
Makazi, dwelling. 
Makengezaj squinting, a squint. 
Mdki, thickness. 

Nguo ya tnaJeif stout cloth. 
Makimbilio, refuge, place to run to. 
MahindanOf objections. 
Making leisure, quietness. 
Mdkirif a thumb-cleat in the side of 

a dhow. 
MaJcosOf fault, faults, mistakes, sins. 
Makoza (obscene) testicles. 
Makmiy a bullock, castrated. 
Maikubwa or Makuu^ great See 

'hvJbwa and -A;u«. 
Makukuu, old. See -hukuu, 
MaJctdif diet. 

MaJculyttf food [Tumbatu]. 
Makumbif cocoa-nut fibre, 



MAK 



MAN 



331 



Mahumbi ya popoo, areca-nut 

husk. 
MaJeumbi ya usumha, coooa-fibre 
cleaned for mattresses, &o. 

MaJcumi^ tens. 
Mahumi maunlij twenty. 

lUahupaa, the tiheaves at the mast- 
head of a dhow, through which 
the henza leads. 

MahusanyihOf pUce of assembly, 
assembly. 

Mdkuiudi, purpose, design, on pur- 
pose, designedly. 

MakutanOy assemblage. 

MaJcuti, leayes of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Makuti ya viungOf leaflets made 

up for thatching. 
MaJcuii ya humba^ leaves plaited 

for fences. 
Makuti ya pande, half leaves 
plaited for fences or roofs. 

AfaX^i^a, the notching and shaping 
at the end of a pole to receive 
the wall-plate of a house. 

Malaiha (plur. of La%ka\ the hair 
on the hands and arms. 

Malaikay an angel, angels. A baby 
is often called malaika* 

Malaki or MaXkiy a king. 

Mdlalo, sleeping-place. 

Malazit things to lie upon. 

MaJazie ^ Marathie, 

ifalcle^ orchilla weed. 

Malelezi, changes of the monsoon, 
time of the easterly and westerly 
winds. 

Malenga, a singer. 

Mali, goods, property, riches. Pro- 
perly a singular noun making 
no change for the plural, but 
treated sometimes as a plural in 
ma-, 

fialidadif a dandy. 



Maltki ku-9 to begin a building, a 
boat, or a house. 

Malimo, master, navigator. In the 
canoes on the Zambezi the steers- 
man is called maJimo, 

Malimioengu, business, affairs, mat- 
ters of this life. 

Malindiy Melinda. 

JtfaZtb ya hikOf the bubbling sound ~ 
of the water when a native pipe is 
being smoked. 

Maliza &»-, to complete, to finish. 

Malki or Malaki, a king. 

MaXkiOy a queen. 

Mamat mother. 
Mama wa kamhoj stepmother. 

Ma-sfiha, a crocodile. 

Mam^ the scales of a fish (M.). 

Mavriho, circumstances, afiairs, 
tilings (plur. of Jambo), 

Mamiye (Mer.), his mother. 

ManddkOy power, authority, domi- 
nion. 

Mamqja, ones, same. 
Mamoja pia, it is all one, I don*i 
care. 

Mana = Mtoana. 

Manamizef a name for a hermit 
crab. 

Manane, 

Usiku tea manane, the dead of 
night. 

Manda^ a loat 

MandaH, a pudding. See Moan- 
doii. 

Manemane, myrrh. 

Manenoy language, message, busi- 
ness, matters, things (plur. of 
Neno). 
Maneno yafumha, dark sayings. 
Maneno ya Kiungiya, Ac, the 
language of Zanzibar, &c. 

Manga, Arabia. 



332 



MAN 



MAB 



Manffaribif sunfiei See MaghrehbL 

Mangi, many. See 'tigi. 

Mangiri or Mankiri, a cross-pieoe 

at the bows of a dhow for fastening 

the tack of the sail. 
MangOf a round hard black stone 

used to grind with. 
Mang'ung'um, secretly, in fearful 

expectation. 
Hani (obscene), semen. 
Mani, a weight, about three rattel. 
lianjano, turmeric 

Bangi a tnanjano, yellow. 
Mankiri. See Mangiri, 
JlfanoZeo(8ing.noZeo),the ring whore 

the blade of a knife issues from 

the handle. 
Manuka^ smell, scent 
ManukatOf scent, good smells. 
Mamjang^amha, flour balls in a 

sweet sauce. 
Manyiga, a liomet. 
Manyoya^ feathers of a bird, hair of 

a goat. 
Manyunyo, a shower, a sprinkle. 
Maomholezay loud wuiling. 
Maomviy begging. 
Maondiy taste. 

MaondoleOy removing, taking away.- 
3/aon{7ezi,conver8ation, amusement. 
Maongo, the back. 
Maonjit tasting, trying. 
MaoteOf growth &om old nUama 

stools. 
Maotioey Mayotte. 
Mapalilot hoeing-up time, hoeing 

between the crops. 
Mapanay broad. See -pana. 
MapatanOy agreement, conspiracy. 
Mapemaj early. 
Miipendano, mutual affection. 
Mapendeziy pleasing things, tho 

being ploased. 



MapendOf affection, esteem. 

Mapenziy liking, affection, pleasure, 
love, things which are loved. 

Mapepetot a preparation of imma- 
ture rice. 

MapiganOf a fight, a battle. 

Mapiawa, silliness, dotage. 

Mapozay remedy, healing things. 

Mapoozaf things which do not servo 
their purpose, fruit which drox>g 
prematurely. 

MaptUulUf the wilderness. 

Mapumbu, testicles, the scrotum. 

Mara, a time, sometimes, at once. 
Mara moja, once, at once. 
Mara mhilit twice. 
Mara ya pUi, the second time. 
Mara nyingi, often. 
Mara ktoa mara, from time to 

time. 
Mara ngapi 1 how many times, 
how often ? 

MaradufUf double. 

MardliahcLy thanks, very well, wel- 
come. 

Mardkaraka, chequered, spotty. 

Marcuharcuha, a sprinkle, sprink- 
ling. 

Maranhi, scents. 

Marashi mawaridi or ya mzomari, 
rose-water. 

Maraihh disease, sickness. * 

Marathie, sociable. 
Siiia kiburi, marathU mimiy I am 
not above fraternizing. 

Marefu, long. See ^^refu. 

MaregeOf return, reference. 

MareJiemu, that has obtained mercy, 
deceased. 

MarejeOf return. 

Mar/tM, a desk, book-rest. 

Marhaba = Marahaba. 

Marhamu, ointment. 



MAR 



MAT 



833 



Marigeli, a large pot. 

Marijanified coral, imitation coral, 
gum copal. 
Marijani ya fethalukat tlio truo 
red coral. 

Marikay a person of the same age. 

Martha, Merka, a town on tlie So- 
mauli coast 

Marikahu = Marikebu = MeriJcehu, 
a ship. 

Marindi, the little flap of beads 
worn by a string round the loins 
by native women. 

Marisaa, shot, small shot. 

Marithawa, abundance, plenty of 
space, material, &o. 

Marizdbu, a spout. 

Marra = Mara, time, times. 

Maru/uJcUf a forbidden thing, pro- 
hibited. 
Kupiga marufukuj to give public 
notice against. 

Marungu (M.), biliousness. 

Masdhabaj the companions of Mo- 
hammed. 

Masafi, purity. 

MasaibUf calamity. 

Matakasa (Yao), an encampment. 

Masahinif or Maskini, or Meskini, 
poor, ft poor person. 

MasaVcheiri, good afternoon. 

MasameliOf pardon. 

Maaango^ wire. 

Masanufly a kerchief used for throw- 
ing over the shoulders, &c. 

MasazOf what is left, remainder. 

Mashairif verses, poetry. 
Shairiy one line of verse. 

Maahahaj doubts, difficulty. 

Maahambaf the oountiy. Plural of 
Shambaf a plantation. 

MashapOj sediment. 

Washarilit tlxe ci^st, ej^terljr. 



Maskendea, rice which is watery 

and imperfectly cooked. 
MasliindanOy a race. 
Mmldndo. 

Kwenda hwa mashindo, to trot. 
Mashtaka, accusation. 
Mashua^ a boat, boats, a launch. 
Mashitr or Mashuhurf remarkt;ble, 

notable. 
MaaJiuiumio, reproaches, revillngs. 
Mashutumu, reviling. 
Mashuzi, breaking wind. 

Fathili ya punda ni ma«7iuzi = 
You cannot make a silk purse 
out of a sow's car. 
Mana. 

Kwenda masia, to walk up and 
down. 
Manka, the rainy season, i.e., March, 

April, and May. 
Masikani, a dwelling. 
Masikini = Maaakini. 
Masingizio, slander. 
Masiwa, the Comoro Islands and 

Madagascar. 
Maaizif grime, soot, &o., on the 

bottom of cooking pots. 
Maskini = Masakini, 
Masomboj a girdle of cloth. 
Masri = MUri, Egypt. 
MasrUff provisions. 
MaatMj giddiness. 

Nina mcwiwr, I am giddy. 
MoBukuo, a whet-stone. 
MasutOf reproaches. 
Mata, bows and arrows, weapons. 
Mataajdbu, wonders, astonishment. 
Matakatifu, holiness. 
MatakOy the seat. 
Matakwa, request, want, desire. 
MatanibavUf the side, a man's side. 
Mata^mko, pronunciation. 
Matamu, swc^t. See • famu. 



334 



MAT 



MAY 



Matamvua, fringes. 
Matandiico, bedding, harueii, ^'hat 
' is spread. 
Matana, leprosy. 
MatangOf large mats, sails. 
Kukaa matanga, to keep a formal 
mourning, generally for from 
five to ten days. 
Ktiondoa matanga, to put an end 

to the mourning. 
Matanga kati, wind abeam. 
Matangamanot a crowd. 
MatcUOj a tangle, an embroilment 

Kutia matataf to tangle. 
Matayoy reproaches, revilings. 
Maie^ spittle. 
MaiegemeOf props, a prop, support, 

protection. 
Mateha^ ipoil, booty, prisoners. 
Maiembezif a walk. 
MatengOj the outriggers of a canoe. 
Mateio, afl9iotions, adversity. 
Mateto, quarrel. 
Mathabahu = Mathbah, 
Mathdbvha, a victim, a sacrifice. 
Mathdhabi or MatKhdb, sect, persua- 
sion. 
Matharaj mischief, harm. 
Maihbah, an altar. 
Mathehebu, manners, habits, customs, 

= MathaJidbi (?). 
MatUo, lift from the after part of a 
yard to the mast-head of a dhow. 
Matindif half-grown Indian com. 
Maiindoy a slaughter-house, a place 

for killing beasts. 
Natiti. 

Kvoenda Icwa mdiiti, to trot. 
MaJUaOy the east wind. 
Mailaa ayuky N.E. 
Matlaa dkrah^ S.E, 
MaUai = Matlaa, 
MaiQ, eyes (M.). 



Maiqaziy cymbals. 
Matokeo, going-out places. 
Mdtokeo ya hari^ pores of the 
skin. 
NaUymoliOy a custard apple. 
MatvhwUubtoi, mumps. 
MatvJcano, filthy and insultlDg cx« 
pressions, such as^ 
Jdtoana humanyoho. 
Mwana toa haramu, 
Kazodliozoa, 
Kumanina. 
Matuldo, accidents, things which 

happen. 
Matumaini, confidence, hope. 
Maturnbawij fresh coral, cut from 
below high- water mark: it is 
used for roofs and where lightness 
is an object 
MatumbOf tlie entrails. 
Matupu, bare. See -tuptt, 
Maturuma, siifieners pat on a door, 
the knees in a dhow, ribs of a 
boat, &C. 
MaiusUf bad and abusive language. 
Matuvumuy accusation, blame. 
Maua (plur. of Ua), flowers. . 
MatUizo, questions, questioning. 
MaumivUi pain. 

Maungo, the back, the backbone. 
MauthurUf unable. 
Mautif death. 
MavaOf dress, dressing. 
Mavazij dress, clothes. Plural of 

Vazi. 
Mavi, dung, droppings, excrement 

Mavi ya chuma, dross. 
MavUio, See Vilio. 
MamdiOf clothes cast off and given 
to another, clothes worn by one 
who is not their owner. 
Mavunda^ one who breaks every- 
thing he has to do with. 



MAT 



MDI 



S35 



Uavundeoundef broken, scattered 

clouds. 
Mavumi, hiun of voices. 
Mavuno, harvest, reaping. 

Matuno ya nyv^if honeycomb. 
Mavuzi (i^ur. of Vttzi)^ the hair, of 

the pnbes. 
Mawaziy clear. See wizi. 
Mavoe (plur. qiJ%we\ stones,. stone. 

X<i mawe, of stone. 

Mawe ya kusagia^ a hand-mill. 

liaioet a rnlgar ejaculation, mb- 
bisht 
MaufUi, both. 
Mamnibi (plur. of Wimbi), surf, a 

sea. 
Maidndo, game, produce of hunt- 

Mayayi. See YayL 
Mayiii, a dead body. 
MayugvfOt a green vegetable cooked 

like spinach, 
MasMOf fruit, produce. . 
Mdziko, burial-place. 
Mazinga cmbOp aldght of hand 

(Comoro). 
flazingiwat a siege. 
Mazingomfnoej magic, \vitchcraft. 
Mazithif burial clothes, furniture, 

&o. 
Maziwdf milk, (plur. of Zitod) 
brcasls, lakes. 

MaziuKLtnahivu, curdled milk. 

Maziioa ya watu waioili, dragon's 
blood, 
jtfo^o^a, custom. 

MazcezOf habits, customs, practice. 
Mazoha, evil spirits. 
MazUf a kind of banana. 
ilazumgu*mzo9 amusement, conver- 
sation. 
libalit far off, separate. 

Mhali mhali, distinct, difiereni 



Potelea mbali! Go and be hanged ! 
Tumwulie vfhbali^ let us kill him 

out of the way. 
When used witli the applied 
forms of verbs, it means that 
tlie person or thing is by that 
means got rid of, or put out of 
the way. 

Mbango, a bird with a parrot-like 
beak, a person with projecting 
teeth. 

Mbano^ a oircvmoising instrument. 

Mbau (plur. of Ubau\ planks. 

'3f 6atf, plur. mibaUf planking, tim- 
bers. 

^MharutU plur. mtbarvii^ a weed 
with yellow flowers and thistle- 
like leaves powdered with white. 

MhattMj giddiness. 

MbtUa, a cocoa-nut which has dried 
in the shell so as to rattle, with- 
out being spoilt. 

Mbaiiy wall-plate. 

Mbavtif ribs, side. 
Mbavunif alongside. 

Mbatoat wing feathers. See Ubawa. 

Mbayani^ clear, manifest 

MhayuwayUf a swallow (A.). 

Mbega, a, kind of monkey, black, 
with long white hair on the 

itf £€(711, seed, seeds. [shoulders. 



*Mbeja vja hani, young man of 
strength* 
Mbele, before, in front, further on. 
d£'}ele yoj before, in front of, 
Kuendelea mbde, to go forward. 
Mbeleni, in the froiit. This word 
is used in Zanzibar with an 
obscene sense. 
Mbeyu =: Mb^gu^ seed. 
MbUo, plur. mibibOf a cashew-nut 
tree. 



3S6 



HBI 



UGH 



Mbiehi, fresh. See -hieJti, 
Mbigtlij small tborne, bricri. 
Mhili, two. See -trt/t. 

MMi mbili, two by two. 
MbilivjUi, the wrist (?> 
Mbingu, plur. of Uinngu, the skies, 

the heavens, heaven. 
Mbio, running, fast 

Kupiga mliOf to run, to gallop. 
Mhiowixi, mother*s sister, auut. 
Mlnramhi tako^ be comforted. A 
Swahili greeting to one who has 
just lost a relative, 
^f 6£rf, parched Indian com. 
Mhiu, a proclamation, public notice. 
MMvu, ripe. See -bivu and nrtim. 
Mbizi. 

Kupiga mbiz{y to dive. 
Mhoga, vegetables, greens. 

Mboga mnanaa, a kind of mint 
'MhogOf plur. miboga, a pumpkin 

plant 
Mboleo, manure. 
Mbonaf >Vhy? for what reason? 

Used especially with negatives. 
Mboni ya Jicho, the apple of the 
Mhono, castor-oil plant (?). [eye. 
MboOf the penis. 
MbotOf a climbing plant yielding a 

superior kind of oiL 
Mbovu, bad, rotten, corrupt See 

-ovu and -(ovu. 
Mbu = Imlm, a mosquito. 
Mbuit a buffalo's horn, which is 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Jf 6ii/a, a swell, dandy, gracefully. 
Eutema mhuja, to say elegantly. 
MbtdUf a crocodile (?). 
MbungUf a hurricane (Kishenxi). 
Mtmnij an ostrich. 
Mbuyu, plur. mibwju, % baobab 
tree, a calabash tree. They are 
jfeuerolly looked upon as haunted. 



Mbuzi, a goat, goats. 
Mbuzi ya IcuJcunia nazi, an iron 
to scrape cocoa*nut for cooking 
with. 
Mbtca, a dog, dogs. 
Mhioa wa tnwilu^ a jackal, 
jackals. 
Mbtoayif wild, fiercot 
Mbwe, little pebbles, liiilu white 

stones larger than changaratoi, 
MbtoehOf a fox. 
Mbioeu, eructation, belching. 
Mcha, one who fears. 

Mcha Muungu, a G od-fearing man. 
MoJia/u, filthy. 

Mchago, the pillow end of the bed. 
MckakaehOf footsteps (?). 
MchatM or Mtana, daylight, day. 

time, diiy. 
Mchanga or Manga, sand. 
Mchawif plur. wachawi^ a wizard. 
Mckayi^ lemon grass. 
Mche^ plur. Miehe^ a plant, a slip, a 

seedling. 
MfikBf a kind of wood much used in 

Zanzibar. 
Mckekeshaji, plur. wacheJieshaJi, a 
merry body, one who is alw^js 
laughing. 
McheUf cleaned grain, especially 

rice. 
Mchdema, watery. 
Mcheshi, a merry fellow, a laugher. 
MehexOf plur. michezOf a game. 
Mchezo wake huyu, it is this man's 
turn to play. 
Mehi, plur. michi, oxMH, plur. mHi^ 
the pestle used to pound or to 
clean com with. Also a screw 
of paper to put groceries in (?). 
MchichOt plmr. michicha^ a common 
spinach-like plant «se4 a9 • 
vegetable. 



MCH 

Mchikiclii, plur. michikidht, thd 

palm-oil tree. 
Mehilizi, plur. michilizi, the eaves. 
Mchiro, plur. toocAiro, a mangouste. 
MchocTiorOf passage, an opening be- 
tween. 
Mchofu = Mdhovn. 
Mchongoma, plur. michongomOt a 
thorny shrub with white flowers 
and a small black edible fruit. 
Mchorochoro^ a rapid writer. 
Mchovu, plur. wachovu, weary, Ian- 
guidf easily tired, thing, tire- 
some. 
Mchumbaf a sweetheart, one who 
seeks or is sought by another 
in marriage. 
Mke mekuinbc^ widow (?). 
Mchumbtduru, a kind of fish. 
Mchunga (or Mtunga\ plur. imi- 
ehunga^ a herdman, a groom, one 
who has the care of animals. 
Mchungaji, a herdsman, shepherd. 
McJiuruziy plur. Wachuruzi, one who 
keeps a stall, a trader in a yery 
small way. 
Mchuzij or Mtuzi, curry, gravy, soup. 
Mchieay white ants. 
Mda or Muda, a space of time, the 

space, &o. 
Mda, plur. mida (?}, a piece of plank 
propped up to support a frame- 
worl^ &0. = *mund<u 
Mdago, a kind of weed. 
Mdcdasinif cinnamon. 
Mdarahani, an Indian stufll 
Mdaioari, 
He mdavoartf the softer Arabic ft, 
the 7ie. 
Jlf(ZeZ» = AfJt2a. 

Mdilct, plur. midilOy A co£Ebe-pot. 
Mdomo, plur. midomOt the lip. 
lf(2anio toa ndegCf a bird's beak. 



MEK 



337 



MdudUfpha. toadudu, an insect. 
Mduduy a whitlow. 
MduJeuo, a push in the cheek. 
Mdumu, a mug. 

-ftfe-, see Ma; Many words are pro* 
nounced with ma- at Mombasi 
and with me- at Zanzibar. 
-me-t the sign of the tense which 
denotes an action complete at 
the moment of speaking, an- 
swering to the English tense 
with Jiave. Sometimes it is 
used to denote an action com- 
plete at the time referred to, 
and must then be translated by 
had. 
This tense may often be used 
as a translation of the past 
participle. 
Tu hayi, ao ameku/af Is he 

alive or dead ? 

Most Swahili verbs denoting a 

state Imve in their present 

tense this meaning of enterin;? 

that state or becoming, and in 

the -me- tense the meaning of 

having entered or being in it. 

In some cases the -tne' tense is 

best rendered by another verb. 

Anavaa, he is putting on, amevai, 

he wears. 
In some dialects the me is pro- 
nounced nuu 
Mea hu; to grow, to be growablc. 
MedUn, tortoiseshell. 
Mega hu-i to break a piece, or gather 
up a lump and put it in one*8 
mouth, to feed oneself out of the 
common dish with one's hand, as 
is usual in Zanzibar. 
Mekameka ku-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meko (plur. of Jtko), a fireplace. 
Mekoni^ a kitchen, in the kitcheiL 



338 



MEM 



MFtT 



MemMka Jbt- (A.), tcr sparkle. 
Mende^ a oockroaeh, cockroaebea. 

AlflO a alang tenn for a rupee. 
Mengi or Nangiy many. 8ce -nffi, 
Meno (plur. of JtnoX teoth. 
Menomeno, baUlement& 
Menya JSw-, to ebel], to husk, to 
Menya hu-^ to beat (Kiyao) . [peel. 
MerikebUf a ship, sbips. 
Merikihu ya ierihaUt a sblp be- 
longing to the.gOTernment; 
Merikebu ya mUinga or manowart, 

a man-of-war. 
Merikebuya i<ya,B, merobant ship. 
Merikt^ ya.milingoU mitaiu^a, 

fuU-iigged ship. 
Merikebu ya mUingoU mMli na 

nu$8U, a barque. 
Merikebu ya dohaan or ya vunhi, 
<: a steamship. 

Merima, the mainland of Africa, 
espeoially the ooast south of 
Zanzibar. 
Wamerimat people who live on 

the coast south of Zanzibar. 
Kimerimat the dialect of Swahili 
spoken on the coast south of 
Zanzibar. 
Merimela ku-, to glitter, to sbino. 
MeihrnaOf a candle, candies. 
Mesiki or Meskiy musk, scent 
Meekiti = Moskitip a mosque. 
Metametay to stiiue, to glitter. 
MetJiUi or MeViul^ like, a parable. 
MezQj a table. 
Meza ku't to swallow. 
Mezaunoereh. 

Waraka mezawjoeTeky forgery. • 
itf/oo, centre piece of a door. 
Mfalme, plur. toa/oZiae, a king, 
itf/ono, plur. mi/ano, a likeness. 
Mfano wa maneno, a proTerb, a 
(arable. 



M/anyi biatharay plur. wafanyt, a' 

man who does business, a trader, 

a merchant 
M/arifiy plnr. tra/srC/i, a comforter. 
MfathiU, plnr. wafathUif one who 

does kindnesses. 
Mfelefiy a water channeL 
Mfilitikay a bankrupt 
Mfinangi, plnr. i^o/ffMUi^ a pott(». 
Mfineeeiy plur. in(^ftes8<, a jack fruit 

tree. 
Mfu, pbir. wo/ttf, a dead person. 
if/iMi, plur. im/im, :a smith, a 
worker in metaL 

Mfua ekwML^ a blacksmith. 

JH/ua/eMo, &c., a silversmithf &e. 
Mfuaei, plur. loa/tuu^ * follower, a 

retains, a hanger-on. 
Mfvkoy plur. mifukOf a bag, a'. 

pocket. ' 
MfumOy plur.. tsa/uma, a weaver. > 
M/umhatif plur. mifuinbaU\ the side- 
pieces of a bedstead. . 
M/ungua, a name applied to nine of . 
the Arab months. 

Mfunguo vm moei, is the Arab 
SkaowaL 

M/unguo wa pUi, is the Arab 
Th'UKaada. 

Mfunguo wa tatuy ia the Arab 

Mfunguo toa *nne^ is . the Arab 

Md^arram, 
Mfungvbo wa fono, is the Arab 

8afr. 
Mfunguo wa sitOf is the Arab 

Haina al aowal, 
Mfung^'wa fobOy is the Arab 

Babia al akhr. 
Mfunguo wa nune,. is the Arab' 

Jemad al aowdt 
Mfunguo wa /csitdd, is tlie Arab 

Jemad al akhr. 



MFtT 



MIE 



839 



Mfungue wa is often eo pro- 
noimood as to Bound like 
Fungiia, 
The other three monfhB, Bajdbf 
Shaabany and BamaOianf keep 
their Arabic names. 
M/tio, plur. mi/uOf a stripe. 

KartUoH ya mifuo^ ruled paper. 
Mfupa, plor. tni/upaf a hone. 
M/tUo, winning five games out of 

six at cards. 
Mfyoziy an abusive person. 
MgdUif plur. toogoZa, a Galla. 
Mganda, plur. tnigandaf a sheaf or 

bundle of rice. 
MgangOf plur. waganga, a medicine 
man, a doctor, a dealer in white 
magic 
MgaOf a place near Gape Delgado. 
Mgatoo^ a deal in card-playing. 
Mgeniy plnr. wageni, a guest, a 

foreigner. 
Mgliadf a horse's canter. 

Ktoenda mghad, to canter. 
Mgine = Mmnginej another, other. 
MgagwOf an obstacle in a road, a 
stumbling-block. In slang, a 
nuisance, crush, worry. 
Mgqfa or Mngqja, plur. toagofa, one 
who waits, a Sentinel. 
Mgqja vdango^ a door-keeper, a 
porter. 
MgofoAa^ plur. migomha^ a banana 

tree. 
Ugomhwef buUVmonth shell, Oassia 

rubra. 
Mgomvif plur. vfogomvit a qnarrel- 

some person, a brawler. 
Afjgrondo, a slave's dout. 
MgongOf plur. migango, the back, 
the backbone. 
Nyuffiba ya mgcngot a penthouse 
tooL 



Mgwijwa or Mgonjua, plur. wagon- 
JUKI, a sick person, an invalid. 

'If ^ofo = Wingate^ a mast 

Jlfgumla, cultivated land. 

Mgunyaf plur. TTo^unya, a native of 
the country between 8iwe and 
the Juba. 

Mguruguru, plur. vfoguruguru, a 
large kind of burrowing lizard. 

Mguuj plur. miguu^ the leg from tlie 

knee downward, the foot 

Ktoenda kwa miguu, to walk. 

Mh: See Muh. 

MhaJbori, ' See Kanxu. 

MhimUif plur. mihilimi, a girder, a 
beam, a bearing post a prop. 

MhtUUf a large tree lizard. 

Mhunzi^ plur. todhunzij a black- 
smith. 

Mi't plural prefix of substantives, 
and of adjectives agreeing with 
them, which begin in the singular 
with m-, or 'm-, mn-, or mti;-, and 
do not denote animate beings. 

-mif an objective sufQx denoting 
the first person singular. This 
sufiSx is poetical, not used in 
Zanzibar. 

Mia, a hundred. 
MiUen, two hundred. 

MidlamUf the ends of a piece of 
doth. 

MiashM^ pieces lying fore and aft 
to receive the stepping of the 

Miayo, yawning, a yawn. [mast 

Miba or Miiba, thorns. 

Mibau, timbers. 

MifuOy bellows. 

Mikaha, marriage. 

Mikarnbe, 
Kupiga mtkawibef in bathing, to 
duck down and throw over one 
leg, striking the water with it 



340 



MIL 



MJtJ 



Mila, a ciistom. 
Milamb€L 
Kwenda mUambii, to go ronnd by 
a new road to avoid war or 
aome other obstacle, to strike 
out a new way. 

if tlele, eternity. 
Ta mUdey etemaL 

Milhaif jins, which having been 
merely singed, not killed by the 
missiles of the angels, lurk in 
by-places to deceive and hann 
people. 

Mmhi = MOhi. 

Miliki i!ctf-, to reign, to possess. 

MUkif kingdom, possession, pro- 
perty. 

MUumbet,% speech, an over-long 
speech. 

Mimba, pregnancy. 
Euwa na mimha or Kudhukua 

mimba, to be pregnant. 
. KuJiaribu mimbaf to miscarry. 

Mimbara, the pulpit in a mosque. 

Mimi, I» me* 

Mimina ku-y to pour, to pour over. 

Miminika Xfu-, to be poured over, to 
• be spilt, to overflow. 

Mingit many. See -ingi. 

Minginef others. See -ingine. 

Mini (Ar.), right. 
Mini wa shemaliy right and left. 

MinyonoOf A kind of flowering 
. acacia. ; 

Miongoni mneaf in respect of, as to, 
on the part pf, from among. 

Miraha, muscles. See Mrdba, 

Mirisaay shot. 

Mithiihari, crooko^. 

MiskOf Russia. 

Murif Egypt. 

Miteen, two hundred. 

Miumif a whistling. 



MiuH, black. See -atisl. 

Mitoa (plur. of Mua)^ sugar-canci. 

Miwali, midribs of a palm-leaf. 

Miioani, spectacles. 

Miyaa, leaves for making mats. 

Miye^ me, it is L 

Mizani, balances, steelyard, scales. 

Miti, roots (M.). 

Mizizif roots, rootlets. 

MJa na maji, one who has come 
over the sea, a foreigner. Also, 
a slave. 

MjaJcazif plur. wajdkazi^ a woman 
slave. 

MJanga, Bembatooka bay in Mada- 
gascar. 

MjangaOf melancholy, silent sorrow. 

MJanjOf plur. wajanja, a cheati a 
shameless person. 

Mjani, a widow. 

Mjanri, plur. vxLJatiriy a bold Ven« 
turesome man. 

Mjassusiy inquisitivei 

MjeUdi, a whip. 

Mjemba, a plough (?). 

3fli, plur. mt/t, a town, a city, a 
village, the middle part of a piece 
of cloth. 

Mji, the uterus. 

Mjiari, plur. mijiari^ tiller ropes. 

miguu, plur. myiguu, large long 
legs. 

minga, plur. trajinga^ a raw new 
comer, a simpleton; applied es- 
pecially to newly arrived slaves, 
ignorant, inexperienced. 

MjiUkafiri, a kind of lizard. 
Mjoli, plur. waJolifB. fellow-servant. 
MJombaf plur« wajomba^ uncle. 
MJugti. 
MJugu nyassa, ground-nuts. 
MJugu matM^ a hard kind of 
ground-nut 



MJtf 



MEO 



S41 



Mjuhuu^ plur. wajukuu, a Oousin/tll 

grandchild. 
Mjumba, i^ur. wajumba, an uncle. 
MJumbctkcJca^ a kind of lizard. 
MJumbet plur. wajumbef a mes- 
senger. 
MJumef a weapon-smith. 
Mjumuy studded with brass. 
Mju$% plur. toqjusif a lizard. 

J(;tf M 1MI X^njstt. See Kanzu. 

MJuai hafiri, a rough kind of 
small lizard. 

Mjusi salamcif a smooth kind of 
small lizard. 
Mjuvij plur. vMJwfif a chattering, 

officious person. 
Mjuzif plur. vHijuzty a person of in* 

formation, one who knows. 
Mhaa, plur. todkaa, one who sks. 

MJccLa Jikoni^ Mr. Sit-in-the- 
kitchen. 

Mkcuif an astringent wood used 
in medicine. 
Mkabaloy opposite. 
Mkabil^ future. 
Mkadif plur. mikad^ the pandanus 

tree; its flowers are valued for 

their smelL 
Ukaidiy obstinate* wilful. See 

'kaidu 
Mkaja, a cloth worn by women, 

given as a present at the time of 

a wedding. 
Mkali, fieroe. See -haU. 
Mkamilifu, perfect. 
MkamshCf pint, mikam^, a kind of 

wooden spoon. 
MkandcMf plur. mikandcutf a kind 

of mangrove tree full of a red 

dye much used for roof beams. 
Mkanju, plur. mikat^u, a cashew 

tree Ql.). 
If Xrara^a«o» a strong iobaooo. Also, 



manfully, again and again 

(slang). 
Mkarakalaf a medicinal shrub. 
Mkcuama (in arithmetic), division. 
Mkatoiit a handsome tree, whose 

wood is useless. Hence the 

proverb, 

UsuH wa mhuoHt 
Vkipaia, maji, basi. 

Mkasiri, a tree whose bark is used 

to dye fishing-nets black. 
Mkatflbckf a written agreement. 
Mkatdle^ the stocks. 
MkaUf plur. mikatCf a cake, a loaf. 

Mikate ya mo/Uf cakes of mtama 
meaL 

Mikate ya hwongay ya humimina^ 
&c., cakes of batter, &o. 

MkaJU wa tumbako^ a cake of 
tobacca 
Mkazo, nipping, pressing tight 
Mke, plur. wake, a wife, a female. 

Mke aUqfiwa na m«meti76,a widow. 
Mkebe, a pot to burn incense in, a 

drinking pot. 
Mkeka, plur. mikeka^ a fine kind of 

mat used to sleep upon. 
Mkeo ss Mkewo, 

Mkereza, plur. toofterdzai a turner* 
MJeewe^ his wife. 
Mkevfo^ your wife. 
Mkiaf plur. mikia, a tail. 
Mkimbigif plur. tfiakinibizif one who 

runs away. 
Mkindu, plur. miktndUf a kind of 

pahn whofo leaves are used to 

make fine mats. 
Mkixi^ a kind of fish. 
Mkciba, plur. tnifcofta, a scrip, a 

small bag. 
Mkoche, plur. mtkochei a kind of 

branching palm with an edible 

fruit. 



342 



MRO 



MLI 



MkojOf urine. 

Mhohoy plur. rndtoko^ % nuuigroTe 

tree. 
MhikatOf plur. mOcoMo^ the mark 

made by a thing being dragged 

along. 
Mhoma^ plnr. mOcoma, a large tree 

bearing an edible fruit 
Mhoniboxi^ plur. voak(yfaiihozi, a 

redeemer. 
Mhondo, 

Mkondowamafl^ a current. 
Mkongcjo, plur. mtkongajot an old 

man's staff for him to lean upon 

as he walks. 
MkanOf plur. mikanot the arm, es- 
pecially from the elbow to the 
fingers ; the hand, a sleeve, a 
projecting handle like that of a 
saucepan, a measure of nearly 
half a yard, a cubit 

Ta mkono, handy. 

C%tto eha tnhmOf a handbook. 
Mkarcft, ill-omened. 
MJcvbwoj great, the eldest 'Bee 

Jdkuchyo, Magadoza. 

Mkufu, plur. mikufUf a chain, es- 
pecially of a light ornamental 
Mnd. 

Jlikufumif plur. wdku/unz^ a 
teacher. 

Mhukey plur. mtftuAee, a spear with 
a sharp point and triangular 
blade. 

Mkuku, the keel of a ship. 

if X;iiZe, a gar-fish. 

Mktdimaj plur. tcdkulima, a culti- 
vator, a field labourer. 

MhuHmanif plur. waktUimani^ an 
interpreter. 

Mkulo, plur. mtX;u2b, apottle-sbaped 
matting bag to strain tut through. 



Mhumavi, a kind of rsd wood muob' 

used in Zanzibar. 
NkutM(iSgao,), gum-copol tree. 
Mkunga (?), midwife. 
Jtf^fi^ plur. mikungUf the fruit 

stalk of the banana. 
Mkun^, plur. mikungu, a kind of 
earthen pot 

Mkungu wa kvfunikia^ a pot lid. 

Mhmgu voa htilia, a dish, 
ibr ^ti, plur. too^tt, a great man, a 
chief. 

Mkuu voa asikatif a oonmianding 
officer. 

Jtf fttttt tea ffenzi, a guide. 
Mkuzay large, full grown. 
Mkwamba, a kind of thorny shrub. ' 
MkuHuit plur. wdkwui^ a wealthy 

penon, rich. ... 

Mktee, plur. uaJcioe, a &ther or 

mother-in-law, a son or daughter- 

in-hiw. 
Mkwemej a climbing plant bearing 

a gourd with round flat seeds' 

rich in oiL 
Mkwexif a climber, one who goes 

up. 
Mlafl, plur. toolo/t, a glutton. 
MUda^ plur. mtJoZd, hyphane, a 

branching paluL 
ilf2ani5a, a dark-colonred bird that 

eats insecti^ and drives away 

other birds, even the crows. 
Mlango, plur. iuiUango, a door, a 

gate. 
MlanzOt a pole for oanying things. 
Mlariba, plur. imZar^ osnrer. ' 
MUf there within. ' . . 

Mlevi, plur. wdlevt^ a drunkard. > 
Hflest, plur. walezif a nuiise, on* 

who rears children. 
MlezOy plur. milezo, a broy. 
liUvM, plur, mUima, a mountoiar 



MLl 



liOB 



343 



Mlinffote, plar. milingotej A liiast. 

MKngoie wa halmi or gahniy the 
small miseD-mast carried by 
large dhows. 
MlingoU tva maji^ the bowsprit 
Mlinziy plur. voaHnti^ a guard. 
MUshi, plur. vxMki, a feeder, a 

shepherd* 
Mlishf*^ the month Shaaban. 
Mlizamuj a waterspout on a house. 
'MloU, the comb of a code. 
MUrnio, plur. mtZomo, a lip. Also, 

Mdomo, • . 
Mmcjot one, a certain man. See 

*Mna^ there is within. 

MnadOy plur. mtnacZai a sale, an 
auction. 

Mnadi, an auctioneer, huckster. 

Mnadi hu-, to sell by auction. 

Mnafikit plur. wanq/Uci^fi hypocrite. 

Mnaja, a prophet going to ask a 
thing of Qod. 

MnajimUt plur. toaiui/tnitt, an as- 
trologer. 

MnaJUif plur. wanajUi, a profane 
person, blasphemer. 

Mnara, plur. minaroi a tower, a 
minaret, a beacon. 

Mnazif plur. minazi, a cocoa-nut 
tree. 

MnenOf one who speaks. 
IffMfui hwelif one who speaks the 
truth. 

JIfnene, stout See -fiene. 

JUheni, plur. tixitieni, a speaker, an 
eloquent person. 

Mngtuidjoy plur. Wangazidiai a 
native of Great Comoro. 

Mngwana, pliir. loan^toanaja gentle- 
man, a free and civilized person. 

Mnio (?). 

ITao, exceedingly, excessively. lf»o 



ilways follows the woird qualified 
by it 

Mno/Ut meatineas, fleshineai. 

dSnono, fat See -fumo. 

Mnunuxit plur. teanunuzi^ a buyer, 
a purchaser, a customer. 

MnyamaWy plur. toanyamatUf a 
silent person, still, quiet 

Mnyang*any%, plur. wanyan^anyi, a 
robber, one who ateiUs with vio- 
lence. 

Mneyo, a Udding, itching, a creep- 
ing sensaticm. 

Mnyiririf plur. minyiriri, the arms 
of tlie cuttle-fish. 

Mnyonge^ plur. ieanyonge, an insig- 
nificant, mean p^son. 

Jlfnyororo,plur. iRtn^^ororo^ or mnyoo^ 
plur. mihyoot a chain. 

MnytnOj plur. wanytM^ a drinker, 
one who drinks. 

Mo^ .mOb or -nuh^ the particle de- 
noting place inside something 
JIfttmo humo, there inside, [else. 

MoaUi, Mohilla. 

jfo/o, small round qakea of mtama 
meal. 

JfoAulZa, a fixed time, a term. Also 
itftt7*u2fa. 

MoJOf plur. mamqfa, one, same. 
Mamqja pia, it is all one. 

'•mcja, one. 
ifo/a mq/a, one by one. 

Moja haada v>a mq/o, alternately. 

Mtu mmqjaf |k certain man, 

Moja wapOf any one. 

ilfo2a,Loid. Used of God. 

Momot a kind of poisonous snake. 

Momhetf Bombay. 

Mor{8f Mauritius. 
Kutoka Morfyf to aoore twenty- 
nine or more. in a game at 
card^ 



34.1 



HOtt 



MtlA 



Kto€fnda Mor<8, to mark less than 
twenty-nine in a game at cards. 
M&roro, soft. See -aroro. 
Moshi, plur. mioshi, smoka 
Jtfbn, one (in counting). 

Ta mo9i, first 
Motkitiy a mosqne, the aoe of spades. 
MoUy alL See -ote, 
Moto, plur. mto^o, fire, a fire, heat. 

Ta moto^ hot 

Kupata motOj to get hot 
Moyo, plur. mioyo or nyoyot heart, 
mind, will, self. 

Ya moyOt willingly, heartily. 
Mpagazif plur. loapagazif a caravan 

porter. 
Jtfpof/t, plur» wafaji, a giver, a 

liberal person. 
Mpaka, plur. m/pafta, a boundary, 

itfpoto mmqfa, adjacent [limit 
Mpdkci, until, as far as. 

Tuidcheka mpaha Iculia, we shall 
latigh till we cry. 
Mpambi, plur. wapamhi^ a person 

dressed up with ornaments. 
Mpanziy a sower. 
Mpapayi, plur. mipapayi, a papaw 

tree. 
Mparamuzi, plur. mfparamu^i*, a 

sort of tree said to be unclimb- 

able. 
Mpatanishit plur. wapatanUhi, a 

peacemaker, one who brings about 

an agreement 
Mpaio, interlaced work, lattice. 
Mpeekwa, plur. wapeehway a person 

sent, a missionary, = MpeUkwa, 
Mpehuif plur. wapdcuzi, one who 

scratches like a hen, an inquisi- 
tive person. 
Mpdelezi, plur. vfapeleUzi, a spy. 
Mpenzif plur. wapenzif a person 

who is loved, a favourite. 



Mpera, plur. mipercL, a guavA ire^ 

'iUpta, new. See -|>^a. 

Mpiga rarnlif plur. wapiga, a for- 
tune-teller, one who prognosti* 
cates by diagrams. Formerly 
they did so by throwing sand, 
whence the name. 

Mpiko^ plur. mipikOf a pole to carry 
burdens on. 
Kuchukua mpiJconifio carry on 
a pole over the shoulder. 

Mpingo, ebony. 

Mpintt plur. miptni^ a haft, a 
handle. 

Mpira, india-rubber, an india-rub- 
ber ball. 

Mptshiy plur. vfapUhi^ a cook. 

Mpofuj plur. wapofu, the eland. 

MpotevUf plur. toapotevUf a wasteful 
person. 

MpotoBy plur. wapotoe, perverse, 
wilful, good-for-nothing. 

Mpuniba/Uf plur. wapumba/Uf a fool. 

Mpunga, rice, either growing or 
while yet in the husk. 

Mpungaii, plur. mipungati, a kind 
of cactus. 

Mpuzii plur. wapuzi, a silly chat- 
terer. 

Mpwa, the sea-beach (M.). 

Mpwekef plur. mipweke^ a slior 
thick stick, a bludgeon. 

ATpya, new. See -pya. 

Mrahoy plur. miraha, muscles. 
Mtu ioa miraha minne^ a very 
strong man. 

Mrahbii, square. 

Mradi, preferably (?> 

Mrammoi the rolling of a ship. 

Mrashiy plur. miraslUy a long-necked 
bottle, often of silver, used to 
sprinkle scent from; % woman*8 



M H B 



MSH 



345 



Mremo, plnr. vtaremo, a Portugaese. 

Also Mrenu. 
Mrenahaj the thorn-apple plant 
Mrenu, plur. Warenu, a Portuguese. 
Mrithij plur. Vfarithi, an heir, an 

inheritor. 
Mruba, plur. tnt'nt&o, a leech. 
Mrungura, people who rob and com- 
mit violence at night. 
MrututUf sulphate of copper, blue- 
Msaada, help. [stone. 

Msafara, plur. misafafo^ a caravan. 
Msafirif plur. vxisajiri, a traveller, 

one on a journey. 
Msdkafu, plur. misdhafUf a koran, 
a sacred book. . 

Mmhafu teaSheitanirtk butterfly. 
MsahaUf plur. toamihau, one who 

forgets, a forgetful person. 
Msajif teak. 
Msala. Bee Musdtct, 
MsalabOf a cross. 
MsaiiUj a betrayer of secrets. 
Msamehef plur. wcuameike, forgiving. 
MsangaOf astonishment. 
MsapcUa, a kind of dance. 
Msasa, sandpaper, a shrub with 

leaves like sandpaper. 
Msayara, kind, gentle. 
Msazo, remainder. 
MsdehUha, plur. waaelehisha^ a 

peacemaker. 
lisemaji, plur. wasemaji, a talker, 

an eloquent person. 
Msemif plur. wasemif a talker, a 

speaker. 
MselOf a sort of food, a mixture of 

mtama and <^iooko, 
Msewey plur. misewej a sort of 

Castanet tied to the leg. 
M8hahah€Li similar. 

pay, wa2:ei. 



Mshakiki^ small pieces of meat 
cooked on a skewer. 

Mshdle or Mshare^ plur. miahale, an 
arrow. 

Msharihi, plur. vmkarxka^ a 
partner. 

Jlf«Aa2/* = Mchayi. 

Mtheheri or Mshehiriy plur. TFa<Ae- 
Aeri, a native of Sheher in 
Arabia, many of whom are settled 
in Zanzibar. The butchers and 
coarse mat makers are almost all 
Sheher men. 

Mshikij one who holds. 
Mshiki shikiOf the steersman. 

Mshindanif plur. VHuhindani, ob- 
stinate, resisting. 

M^hindio, woof. 

Mshindo (obscene), coitus. 

Mshipa, plur.. mishipa, a blood- 
vessel, a nerve, any disease affect- 
ing these, hydrocele. 

Mshipawif plur. tDOshipavu, obsti- 
nate. 

Mshipij plur. mishipi, a net, a girdle. 

Mslioni, plur. vsashoni^ a tailor, a 
sempster. 
Mshoni viatUf a shoemaker. 

^LhonOf plur. mishono, a seam. 

Jlf^Ato^o, plur. mishtdka, an accusa- 
tion, a charge before a judge. 

Mshtahi, a prosecutor. 

MshukOy coming down, coming away 
from performing one's devo- 
tions. 
Mshvko vsa magaribi, about a 
quarter of an hour after sunset. 
Mshxiko tea alasiri kasiriy about 

5 P.M. 

MehvJco toa esha^ about an hour 
after sunset, or from 7 till 
Sp.k. 
Meihumaa ^ MeahmaOt 



346 



msi 



MTA 



Miiba, plnr. mistbOf a ealaqiiiy, a 

grief, mourning. 
ATm/m, a flatterer. 

Mn/u^mnOf plnr. wiii/u*mno, an 
■ excessiTe praiser, a flatterer. 
Mtijana, a bachelor (?). 
MnvMnnizi^ plun vfoHmamizif an 

overlooker, a steward, the head 

man over a plantatioD* who 1b 

nearly always a free man, often 

an Arab. 
MnnjU plur. mUinih foundations, 

trench for laying foundations. 
Msinziy plur. muinti, a sort of man- 

grove tree. 
JtfM'o, a piece of stone to nib Uwa 

on. 
Msia, a fated thing, what will de> 

stroy or affect a person. See 

Mtiri, plur. wuiriy a confidential 

person, one trusted with secrets. 
Msitani [Pemba] = Barasani, 
Msiiuj a forest 

ilfM7tt 100 mitif a thick wood. 
Msomari^ plur. misomarif a nail, an 

iron nail. See Mar4uhu 
MsondOj a very tall drum, beaten on 

special occasions. 
MaanyOf a whistling. 
Mstadif plur. vtaUadi, a skilful 

workman, a good hand. 
Mtftahamili or Mitdhimili, plur. toa- 

gtahimUi, a patient, enduring, 

long-suffering person. 
MstaJcif plur. wattckkit a prosecutor* 
Mstamu, a shoe; a piece of wood 

fixed to the keel, with a hole to 

receive the heel of the mast 
dUiarit plur. mictori, a line, a line 
ruled. 

Kupiga mttarif to draw a line. 
MttlqfeUt a custard apple. 



M$uakii plur. mituaki^ a tooth stick, 
a little siick of Uie sawbaran 
tree, used as a tooth-brush. It 
is prepared by chewing the end 
until it becomes a mere bunch of 
fibres. 
Mmfiy plur. mini)!, a tree bearing a 
pod of soft cotton, Griodendron 
anfroetuQSum. 
Jfimikani, plur. mitukanU a rudder. 
Msukano. See Keke. 
Mtvluhivoa^ a peacemaker. 
MmmaH s Jtfsomari. 
MiumenOi plur. mimoMfto, a saw. 
MmvQetde^ the name of Liongo's 

sword. 
M»um^ri^fit tree, deal. 
Mswvdki, plur. muwwikit the 
wooden button which is grasped 
between the toes to hold on the 
wooden clogs commonly worn by 
women and in the houso. 
Jffttzo, the handle of a millstone. 
Mtioeni = Mni/enit cholera. 
Mta or MtcMy plur. mita^ a district, 
a quarter of a town. 
Tho miiok of Zanzibar, starting 
from the western point and 
going round the outside first, 
and then into tho middle, 
are : ShaQgani, Baghani, Qero- 
ssani, Forthani, Mita ya pwani, 
Kiponda, Mbuyuni, Malindf, 
Funguni, Jungiani, Eokoni, 
Mknuazini, Kib<^oni, Kidn- 
tani, Mzambarauni, Kijoka- 
kuni, Vuga, Mnazimojo, Mji 
mpya, Mtakuja, Jumea, Soke la 
Hahpgo, Kajificheiii, Mfuuni, 
Migpmboni, Tinyani, Sham, 
Huruinzi, Kutani, Mwavl. All 
these are on the peninsula^ 
which' joins the mainland only 



at Mnazi mqja. Funguni is 
on the point where the crock 
enters^ which almost surxounds 
the town. Qrossing the creek 
bj the bridge, there are the 
following mita: — Ng*ambo, 
Mohangani, (Srolioni, Kwa 
Biiki, Vikokotoni, Eisimani 
kwa kema, Mchlnjani, Mwem- 
be mjugu, Kikwajuui, Mkadini, 
and then Mnazi moja again. 
Mtaala = MtaUu 
Utabari, credible. 

Mtai, a scratch, a slight superficial 
cut. 
Kupiga nUai^ to scratch. 
MtaiinbOf plur. mitaiinba, an iron 

bar, a crowbar. 
Mtajirif plur. toaiajiri^ a merchant, 
a rich man. More correctly 
Tajiri. 
MtdkasOf the rustling of new or 
clean clothes. 
Kupiga mtdkaso, to rustle. 
Mtala = Mtaajat practice, study. 
Mtalh plur. mitcdif bangleSf anklets. 
Mtama, millet, Gaffre com. 
Mtama mtindi^ half-growu stalks 

of mtama. 
Mtama teste, fully formed but not 
yet ripe. 
Mtamhaj plur. mitamba^tk young she- 
animal which has not yet borne. 
MtambOt plur. mitamboy a spring, a 

trap with a spring, a machine. 
Mtanashati, a swell, dandy. 
MtancUf a loom. 
Mtqndoy the warp in weaving. 
Mtam\ plur. watani, one who belongs 

to a kindred tribe or race. 
MtaowOf plur. VfaiaowOf a devout 

person. 
Mtaramu, shrewd» wiaob 



MTO 



347 



Mtatago, a tree or beam thrown 
across a stream. 

MlegOf plur. mitego, a trap. 

Mtendaji, plur. ioatendaji^ an active 
person. 

Mtendey plur. mitendey a date pnlm. 

MtepCf plur. mttepe, a kind of dhow 
or native cmft belonging, ohiefiy 
to Lamoo and the coast near it 
Mitepe are sharp at . the bows 
and stem, with a head shaped 
to imitate a camel's head, orna- 
mented with painting and tassels 
and little streamers. They carry 
one large square mat sail, and 
have always a white streamer or 
pennant at the mast-head : their 
planking is sewn together, and 
they are built broad and shallow. 

Mtesi, an adversary, a quarrelsome 
litigious person. 

Mtestethi, comio. 

Mteule, plur. waieule, chosen, select. 

Mthamini, a surety. 

Mthtdimu, a cheat, a thief. 

Mti, plur. mith a tree, pole, wood. 
Mti hotly a tall post set in tlie 
ground between a prisoner's 
legs, so that when his feet are 
fettered together he can only 
move in a circle round the post. 

Mtishamhay a charm of any kind. 

Mti, scrofulous and gangrenous 
sores. 

Mtiba, a darling, a term of endear- 
ment 

Mtii, plur. watii, obedient 

Miima, heart, chest (old Swaliili 
andEiyao). 

Mtindiy buttermilk. 

Mtindo, size, form, shape, pattern. 

Mtiniy plur. mitinij a fig tree. 

Mto, plur. mito, a river, a stream- 



S48 



MTO 



MUA 



Mto toa hmOf a brftnching river, a 
delta. 
JIfto, plur. miiOf a pillow, a cushion. 
IdUhwe^ a kind of wood of whioh 

the best hakorca are made. 
Mtofaa^ plnr. mUofcM^ an apple- 
like fruit. 
Mkiklt a swelling of the glands at 
the bend of the thigh followed 
by fever. 
MlomOj firmness, good building. 
IftomondOyplur. mitomondojihe Bar- 
ringtonia ; its fruit is exported to 
India. 
Mtondo, the day after the day after 
to-morrow. 
MUmdo goo, the day after that. 
Mtondoot plur. mittndoot Callo- 
phyllum inophyllum ; oil is made 
from its seeds. 
Jdlongozif plur. watongozit a man 
who dresses himself up to allure 
women. 
MtorOf plur. waiorOf a runaway. 
MtotOy plur. waioto, a child. Used 
also generally of anything 
small of its kind, when men- 
tioned in connection with 
something larger to which it is 
attached; e.g. young shoots, 
small boats, &c. 
Mtoto vsa waiUy a child of some- 
body, having relations, a woman 
of respectable family as dis- 
tinguished from one of slave 
parentage, a woman therefore 
who has somewhere to go if she 
leaves her husband, or he her. 
Mtoio wa meza^ a drawer of a 
table. 
Mtovu, without manners, shameless. 
iliUf plur. icatUy a person, a m^q, 
somebody, anybody. 



Hahuna mtu, there is nobody. 
Miu gani f of what tribe ? 
Mtu wa terkalit a man in govern- 
ment employ. 

MluHng<i, plur. mituUngay the col- 
lar bone. 

MtulivUf plur. wattdivUf a quiet 
man. 

Mtumatni, plur. watumainit san- 
guine, oonfldeni 

Mtumbiij plur. mitumha, a bale of 
cloth made up for a caravan. 

Mtumbuisi, plur. watumhuizif a spy, 
an inquisitive person (A.). 

Mlumhwif plur. mitumhwi, a eanoo 
hollowed out from the trunk of 
a tree, distinguished from a 
galawa by having no outriggers, 
and being generally of larger 
size. 

Mtume, plur. mitume, an apostle, a 
prophet. Applied especially lo 
Mohammed as a translation of 
his title. Apostle of God. 

Mtumhe^ plur. watuwaket a woman, 
a wife. 

Mltmuhit plnr. waiumishi, a ser- 
vant 

Mlumtoct, plur. watumtva^ a slave, a 
servant 

Mlundtt, mischievous, perverse, 
troublesome. 

Mtungi, plur. mitungi, a water-jar. 

MtupOf plur. mitupa, euphorbia. 

MtupUf bare. See -/upu. 

MtutUy plur. mittUu (Ar.), a mul- 
berry tree. 

Mtuzi, curry, gravy (M.). Also 
Mchun. 

Mttoango, plnr. mittoango, a pestle 
for pounding and cleaning com, 

Mu-. See M-. 

Mtia, plur. miwa, a sugar-cano. 



HUB 

MubaOuiri/u, extravagant. 

Muda or Mda, a space of time, term. 

Mada loa, the space of. 
Mudu ku-, 
KuJimudUjio ga.m a little strength 
after illness. 
Muhadimu, ^\nr, vfahadimu, a ser- 
vant, one of the original inhabi- 
tants, of Zanzibar. These toaha- 
dimu pay two dollars a year for 
each household to the Munyi 
mkuuj of which Seyed Majid now 
(1870) takes one ; they also work 
for him. They all live in vil- 
lages in the country, and speak a 
language of which there are at 
least two dialects, materially 
. different from the Swahili of the 
town. 
Muharabu^ plur. waharahUf mis- 
chievous, destructive. 
Muharibicu, plur. tcaharil/ivu, a de- 
structive person, one who ruins 
himself, destroys his own chances. 
Muhdruvtia, a kind of silk handker- 
chief, worn instead of a turban. 
MuhindU plur. Wahindi, a native 
of India, especially an Indian 
Mussulman, of whom there are 
two chief sects settled in Zanzi- 
bar, the Ehojas and Bohras. 
Muhindi, plur. mihindiy the Indian 

corn plant. Also Mahindi, 
MuliogOj cassava, manioc. 
Muhtasarif an abridgment, a sum- 
mary. 

ilfttftttZ^ time, a fixed period. 

Muhurij a seal. 

Mujiza, plur. miujiza, a wonderful 

thing, a miracle. Also Mwujiza. 
Muli or Mulia, clever, knowing. 
Mulika Jcu't to show a light, to 

gleam. 



MUS 



349 



MulJcij a kingdom. 
Mume, male. See -ume, 
Mumimh Azrael, the angel of death. 
Mumunye, plur, mamumunyej a kind 
of gourd resembling a vegetable 
marrow. It often grows of such 
a shape that its hard rind, when 
ripe, can be used for bottles, 
ladles, and spoons. 
Mumyanij a mummy. Mummy is 

still esteemed as a medicament 
Munda, plur. miunda, a piece of 
plank to serve as cap to a post 
See also Mda. 
Mundu^ plur. miundUf a bill, a 

small hatohet 
Munyi, a chief, a sheykh. The 
Munyi mJcuu is esteemed the true 
Sultan of the Swahili, at least in 
the island of Zanzibar and the. 
parts adjacent. He is descended 
from an ancient Persian family, 
• the heiress of which married, 
some generations since, an Arab 
from Yemen. The title is now 
(1874) in abeyance. His chief." 
residence is at Dunga, near the 
centre of the island. 
Muomoj plur. mibmo, the moustache, 

the lip. 
Musala, plur. misala, an oval mat 
used to perform the Mohammedan, 
devotions upon. 
Musama, pardon. 

Musimif the northerly winds, which 
blow in December, January, and 
February. The musimi is some- 
times reckoned to extend till. 
June. 
Musimo = Munmi, 
Mustarehe, enjoyment 
MustarifUf with a competency, 
neither rich nor poor. 

2 A 



350 



MUX 



MWA 



Mtdaabir, credible. 

Mutter obedieoce. 

Muvaju plur. vxiuaji, a murderer, 

a flayer. 
Mwuguzij plur. uaugwii^ a nurse, 

one who nurses sick people. 
Muumulnf plur. wawniehi, a cupper. 
Muundi wa mguu (A.), the shin. 
Muungu, God, plur. miungu. The 
Swahili rarely use Muungu or 
'Mungu alone. They almost 
always say Mioenyiezi 'Mungu, 
Maskini ya Muungut a poor free 
person. 
MuzimOf a place where offerings are 
made to some spirit supposed to 
haunt there. Baobab trees are 
generally supposed to be haunted 
Mvij grey hairs. [by spirits. 

Mvilh the shade of a tree. 
Mnnje, Gassiorinus. 
Mvinyo, strong wine, spirits, wine. 
Mviringot round, roundness. m 

MvUa, Mombas. 
Mvivu, idle. See -vivm, 
'Mffuoj rain, ndns. 

Mvua ya mwakaf the rain which 
falls about August 
Mvuje, assafoBtida. 
Mvuke^ vapour, steam. 
JIvukuto, plur. mivukutOy a lever. 
MvutanOf plur. wavulana, a young 
man whose beard is just begin- 
ning to grow. 
MtmUj the lesser rains, about 

October or November. 
Mvulinit in the shade. 
MwrnOf plur. mtvumo, the borassus 

palm. 
MvumUivu^ plur. foavttmt7tnf, 

patient, long-suffering. 
Mvumo, a rubber, six games won by 
one side (in cards). 



Mtrnnda^ or Ifrun/a* plur. toatundaf 
a breaker, a destroyer, one who . 
ruins. 
Mvungu, the hollow of a tree, a 
hollow tree. 
Mvungu wa kUanda^ the space 
under a bedstead. 
Mvuvi, plur. fcavuvtf a fisherman* 
Mw', See If-. 
JtftMi, of. 

3ftMxa, plur. miwaa, stripa of the 

leaf of a tree called mkoma (?), 

used to make coarse mats and 

baskets. 

Mtoafa kthf to forgive. 

Mwafakot a conspiracy, an agree* 

ment, a bargain. 
Mwaga ku^^ to pour away, to .empty 

out, to spill. 
Mwagia ^, to pour upon, to empty 

out for. 
Mwajisifunif a self flatterer. 
Mtoaka^ plur. miaka^ a year. The 
year commonly used in Zanzi- 
bar is the Arab year of twelve 
lunar months. There is also 
the Persian year of 365 days, 
beginniug with the Nairuz, 
called in Swahili the SiktL a 
miodka. From this day the year 
is reckoned in decades, each 
decade being called a mwongo. 
The year is called from the day 
of the week on which it com- 
mences : Mwdka Juma, Mwaka 
aViamiiif &o, 
Mwaka jana, last year. 
Mtoakajuzif the year before last 
Mujaka kwa mwcJca, yearly. 
Mwake^ his, hers, its. See -dke, 
Mioako, thy. See -qko, 
Mwali. See Mwana mtoali. 
Mwali, plur. mitoalh a sort of paln^ 



MWA 



MWB 



351 



with very longhand strong leaf 
Btalkg, which are used for doors, 
ladders, and other purposes. 

Mujolimtt, plur. toaciUmu, a teacher. 

Mwamaie, treatment, mode of treat- 
ing. 

MtDamb<if plur. miamhaf a rock. 

Mioambcf^ plur. mianibay the wall 
plate in a mud and stud houso. 

MwamuOy plur. waamua, a judge. 

Mwamuat husband's brother. 

Mtcamuzi, plur. toaamuzh a judge. 

Muoana^ the mistress of the house, 
a matron. It is polite in Zanzi- 
bar to speak of one's own mother 
as mwana. 

Mwana^ plur. wcumOf a son, a child. 
MuoanangUy my child. 
Mioafiao, your child. 
Mwanawe^ his or her child. 
MtoanetUy our child. 

Mtoafia Adamu, a child of Adam, 
i.e., a human being. 

Mioana tmyi, a seaman. 

Mtoana maiM, a sprite represented 
as a white woman with an ugly 
black husband. 

Mioana mhe, plur. teaana toaJee or 
waanadke^ a woman. 

Mwana mke wa Mungwana, a lady. 

Mwana munie, plur. waana waume 
or toaanaumef a man. 

• Mwana mtodli^ a young woman 
whose breasts are not yet flat- 
tened, one who has not yet left 
her father's house. 

Mwanamizi, a soldier crab. 

Mwandihyif plur. waandihajiy a 
waiter, a table servant. 

MicandikOf plur. miandiko^ a manu- 
script, handwriting. 

Mwandiahi^ plur. vmanduhif a 
writer, a clerk, a s(xsretarjr. 



Mwanga, plur. mianga, light, a 
light, a kind of rice. 

Mwangalizit plur. vaaangalizi, an 
overseer, one who overlooks or 
looks to. 

Mwangaza, plur. miangaza, a light 
hole, the small round holes which 
are often left near the ceilings 
of rooms in Zanzibar. 

MuoangOj plur. mian^o,a lamp-stand, 
a piece of wood about eighteen 
inches long, from near the bottom 
of which two small pieces project 
at right angles, to hold the com- 
mon clay lamp of the country. 
The mtoango is generally hung 
against a walL 

Mtoango = Mlango. 

*Mtoaaigo, plur. miwango, a kind of 

Mwangu, my. Se^ -angu, [shrub. 

Mwangwif echo. 

Mioaniy seaweed. 

*Mtoami, plur. miioanzi, a bamboo. 
Miwanzi ya puOj the nostrils (?). 

MwanzOi plur. mianzo, beginning. 

Mioaa, a worry, bother. 

Mwapuzdy a simpleton. 

MwatMt plur. toaashif a mason. 

Muoaihini, one who calls to prayer 
at the mosque, a muezzin. Also 
Mueththin, 

Mwavulif plur. miavulif an um- 
brella. 

MwawazU the Disposer, a titlo of 
God. 

Mwaya ku- = Mwaga hh^ to pour 
away. * 

'Mweli, plur. toawelif a sick person. 

Mweina, good. See -ema, 

Mwembarnba, thin. See "embamba, 

Mwembe, pliir. mtem&e, a mango treo. 

Mwendanguuy a ^reipit and irre- 
parable loss, - 



852 



MWB 



Mtoendo, going, gait, jouruey. 
Mioenendoy going on, behaviour. 
Mioengej plur. mimge^ a bundle of 

straw, &c., used to carry a light. 
Mtoeny^i, plur. wenyejh a host, a 
person who has a home in the 
place. 
Mtoenyetoe, plur. twnyetw, the owner, 
self, myself, thyself, himself, 
&o. 
Mbau za mwenyewe^ some one 
else*s planks. 
Mwenyif having, possessing. See 
'•enyi. 
Mufenyi ezi MuungUy Almighty 

God. 
Mwenyi ehongo, a one-eyed per- 
son. 
Mwenyi inehi, the lord of the 

country, 
Mwenyi hickaa, a lunatic. 
Mwenyi hvhutvbu, a preacher. 
Mwenyi hupooza, a paralytic 
Mw&nyi vMUy a rich man. 
MwenzangUf plur. wenzangu, my 

companion. 
Mtoenxif plur. wenzi, a companion. 
Muoere, a kind of com or seed like 
linseed, growing on a close spike 
like a bulrush flower* 
MwerevUf plur. werevu, a shrewd 

person, a man of the world. 
Mumoef a hawk, a kite, a kind of 

fish. 
Mweya hi-^ to steal. 
*Mwez€tt plur. waweza, able, having 
power over. 
Mtoeza mwenyewe, one's own 
master. 
Mwezi, the moon. 
Mvoezi, plur. miezi, a month. The 
months in Zanzibar begin on 
the day on which the moon is 



first seen, uAle&s the old month 
has already had thirty days ; if 
so, the day which would have 
been the 31st, is the 1st of the 
new month. 
Mioezi mpungufUf a month of less 

than thirty days. 
Mtoezi mwandamu or mwan^mu^ 

a month of thirty full days. 
Mtoezi ngapif what is the day of 

the month ? 
Mtoezi wa sita, the 6th day of the 
month. 
Mtotba, plur. mtt&a, a thorn. 
Mwibaji, plur. fwfta/i, an habitual 

thief, a thievish person. 
Mtoigo, a sort of large dove with red 
bill, white neck, and black body. 
It cries Eooo ! Then one answers, 
'*Mtoigor KoooI^'^Niagtdie! " 
Kooo I — ** Ktoema nendako f " 
Xooo/— then one may go on. If it 
answers not, it is a bad omen. 
MtvikOf plur. miikOf a spoon, a 
mason's trowel. Also a measure, 
direction, prohibition, especial- 
ly of a medical practitioner. 
Kuehiha mtoiko, to live by rale, to 
live abstemiously. 
Mwilij plur. miUi, the body. 
Mtoimo, plur. miimOf side piece of 

a door frame. 
*Mtoinda, plur. watoindOf a hunter* 
Mtoingajinit a common plant whose 
leaves are said, when rubbed in, 
to cure the aching of the limbs in 
fever ; a decoction of the roots is 
said to be useful in dysentery. 
Mtoingi, much, full. 
Mwingi wa maneno, fall of 
words. 
Mtoinyi = Mwenyi, having, with. 
See -enyt. 



MWl 



MZO 



353 



MwUho, plur. miuho, end, conolu- 
sion. 

Munihi (Patta) = Mwivi. 

Mwito^ calling, sammoxia. 

Mwitu, forest. 
Ta mvfitUt ^'^^^ 
Mbuja toa miritu, jackals. 
Mioivi, plur. vjevi^ a thief. 

*Mm9U, plur. iMiiWvti, a jealous 
person. 

Mmzi (A.) s Mwivi. 

Mujoga, plur. toaogaf one who fears, 
a coward. 

MwokoH, plur. vjaokoBt, one who 
picks up anything. 

MiooTeozi, plur. waoikozi^ one who 
saves, a savionr. 

Mioombaji, plur. looom^aj^ a beg- 
gar. 

Mtoomhezi, plur. waombesi^ an inter- 
cessor. 

iftoomo = Jlfciomo. 

MicangOf plur. miongot a decade of 
ten days, used in reckoning the 
nautical or Swahili year, from 
the nku a mioaka, 
Mhoongo mvoangapi, in what de- 
cade is it? 

*Mioongo, plur. wawongOj a liar, a 
false person. 
Simekuwa 'mtoongo ? am I not a 
liar? 

MiDongofUy plur. waongofu, a con- 
vert, a proselyte. 

Mwujizat plur. miujiza^ a miracle. 

Mzaoy plur. tocuaa, a parent 

Jlfzaa&t&i, a great-grandmother. 

Jtfzo&ibtt, plur. mizahibut a vine. 

Mzahaj sport, ridicule, derision. 
Kumfanyizia mzahaj to deride 
him. 

Mzcdiat plur. wazaHa^ a native, a 
slave bom in^he country. 



JfzaZts/^, plur. waealieAo, a mid- 
wife. 
Mzaramuy a pool of water. 
Mzttzi^ plur. wozcu^ a parent,fruitful. 

8i mzcui, barren. 
Mzeej plur. toazee, an old person, an 

elder. 
Mzew^ plur. tMtrtfm&0, a careless 

person. 
Ifsii/tf, a locust 
Mzigo^ plur. mizigo^ a burden, a 

load. 
ilf^tTno, an extinguisher, one who 

puts out. 
Mzima, plur. wazima^ % living or 
healthy person. 

Mtu mzimoy a grown person. 
Mzimu, See Zimwif Muzimo, 

Kuztmu. , 

MzingOf plur. mizinga, a hollow 
cylinder, a hollowed piece of 
wood used as a beehive, a can- 
non. 
• Heide ya mzinga, a pillar dollar. 
Mzingi or Mzinji, plur. mizingt^ 

foundations, trench for laying in 

the foundation. Also Msinji, 
MzingiU mtoambiji^ a puzzle, a 

labyrinth. 
MzingOj the circumference, brink. 

Mzingo way around. 
Mzio, that which would be deleterious 

to any one ; each person is said to 

have his special mzto— of one it is 

cuttle-fish, of another, red fish, 

and so on. Also Msio. 
Mzishi, plar. tcazishi^ a burier, one 

who will see to one's funeral, a 

special friend. 
itf::o, sixty pishi, 
Mzofafa^ on tiptoe. 
Mzoga, plur. mizoga, a dead body, a 
carcase. 



354 



HZO 



MwmaH. See Marashi = ZomaH, 

Mzungu, plur. mizungu, a strange 
and startling thing. 

Mzungu, plur. Wazungu, a Euro- 
pean, one who wears European 
clothes. 

Mtungu tea pilif queen in cards. 

Idzungu tea tatu, knave in cards. 

Mzungu tro 'njw, king in cards. 

MzunguJco, plur. mizunguJco, a wan- 
dering about. 

Mzushif a heretic, an innovator. 

Mzuzi, plur. wazuzi, a tale-bearer, 
one who reports maliciously or 
untruly the word of others. 

ilfzwEtt, plur. waztuu, a simpleton. 

Uzwea^ used to. 



N is pronounced as In English. 

An t sound is generally connected 
with an initial n. It sometimes 
precedes more or less distinctly,' 
and may be written in or 'n, making 
the n a distinct syllable. Some- 
times the n flows into the following 
letter, so that the i sound is alto- 
gether lost. Very often it follows 
it as in the common syllable ni or 
ny. It is characteristic of the Zan- 
zibar dialect to make the initial i 
sound distinct. Thus inchit a coun- 
try, is at Mombas *nti. 

Ni is often contracted into 'n or 
fi, and where n would be dropped 
ni sometimes is so, as in the first 
person of the future tense, nitapenda 
or 'ntapenda or tapenda. 

N cannot be placed before 6, ch, 
/, TcJ, p, r,i,t,v, 01 w. 

Before 6, w, and perhaps v, it be- 
comes m, and w changes into h. 



N 

Before ^ p, and perhaps i, it is 
dropped, and the consonant 
gets an explosive sound. 

Before 2, r, and perhaps <, the n 
remains, but the other conso- 
nant becomes a d. 

Before ch, J^ m, n, and $, it is 
merely dropped. 

N can stand before d, g, j, y, 
ands. 

^before h is in two cases at least 
contracted into h. 

JIapenda = Nikapenda. 

Hipenda-s^ Nikipenda, 

There is a sound in S wahili which 
is treated as a simple consonant, 
which does not occur in European 
languages as an initial sound. It 
is very nearly the same with the 
final ng in English, in such words 
as loving, going, &c. The sounds of 
n and g seem both, audible, but so 
blended that neither of them can be 
carried on to the following vowel. 
It is here written ng\ to distinguish 
it from the common sound ng, in 
which the g passes on to the follow- 
ing vowel. There is some little 
difference in the way in which dif- 
ferent persons pronounce it ; it has 
sometimes more of a ^ sound, and 
might be so written if it be under- 
stood that the two letters are so 
fused together that neither can be 
heard as if it stood alone. It has 
been sometimes written ^, which is 
either a mistake or very misleading. 
That the sound really is ng, may bo 
proved by the fact that such words 
as begin with it are treated as words 
beginning with n, and that when 
other prefixes are Applied Uioy are 



K- 



K- 



855 



treated as if the root began with g. 
It is not, however, a rery common 
•onnd in SwahilL 

There ia another sonnd com- 
poonded of n and t , which is very 
fairly represented by the Spanish fly 
or by ni in snch English words as 
oompanioD, &c. It is pronounced 
perhaps in Swahili with a slightly 
broader and more nasal sonnd. It 
is here written ny, to distinguish it 
from the common syllable n», in 
which the t' has a vowel sound. 

The ny sonnd in the dialect of 
Zanzibar sometimes represents an n 
ill more northern Swahili, as in 

Kiinvoa or kdni/wa, to drink. 

The change from n to ny has in 
many verbs the eifeot of giving a 
causative meaning, as in huponay to 
get well, huponyaf to make well, to 
savOi 

N'j or ni'y the sign of the first per- 
son singular of verbs, I. 
•»-, or -n»-, the objective prefix 
proper to denote the first person, 
me. 
N' (see ny*), 
1. A prefix frequently occuning 
in substantives which do not 
change to form the plural. If 
followed by c?, gr, J, or «, it is 
pronounced with them and does 
not form a distinct syllable. 
Before other consonants it forms 
a distinct syllable, and may be 
written 'n- or sometimes in-. 
' 2. The plural prefix of substan- 
tives which begin in the singular 
with «-, followed by a conso- 
nant. The u is dropped and n 
prefixed before d, g, J, and s. 



Before 5, and perhaps «, the n 
changes into m, before to the nw 
become mb. Before { or r the 
td or nr become nd. Before h, 
pj and ^, the n is dropped ami 
the other consonant gets an ex- 
plosive or aspirated sound, and 
may be written %', p', and f ; 
before ch, /, m, n, and s, the n is 
merely dropped. Where, how- 
ever, dropping the «• would 
leave the word a monosyllable, 
the tt- is retained, and ny pre- 
fixed. 
N- (see ny). The prefix proper to 
adjectives agreeing with sub- 
stantives of the class which does 
not change to form its pliu^al 
of whichever number, or with 
plural substantives which make 
their singular in «-. Where the 
simple form of the adjective 
begins with a vowel, ny is pre- 
fixed, except -ema, good, which 
makes njema or ngema. The 
changes before a consonant are 
the same as those given jnst 
above for the plural nouns in «-. 
Nyumba mbayct, not nbaya. 

„ chachey not nchtiche. 

„ ndogo. 

„ fupiy not nfupL 

ff ngema, 

ff njetncL, 

„ htibwOy not nlcvhioa, 

^ mojay not nmoja, 

„ naney not nnane, 

„ panOy not npana, 

„ 'mpyay not npya or pya. 

„ nde/u, not nrefu, 

„ to/u, not ntatu, 

„ mhUi, not nwill or npili 

9> nturi. 



356 



NA- 



KAir 



Ao, and, also, with ; by, of the agent 
of a passive, and with, of the 
sharer in the action of a reci- 
procal verb. 

Na when joined with a pronoun 
commonly forms one word with 
it. 

Nami, and I, or with me. 

NayXf and thou, or with thee. 

Nao, nayo^ nacfio, nalOf and or 
with them, it, &o., &c., &c. 

Na joined with the verb kutooy to 
be, or with the personal prefix 
only, constitutes the verb to 
have. The object is frequently 
joined with the na, — ana, or 
anaxOj anachot &o., &o., he has. 

Alielio nacho, which he has 

AlicTiohuwa nacho, which he had. 

Aiahachokuvoa naehOf which he 
will have. 

Atahuwa naeho, he will have it. 

The verb kutoa na is used some- 
times iu the sense of being, as 
Palikuwa na mtu, there was a 
man. 

Hakana, there is not 

Kuna^ there is. - 

ZinazOf they are. 
-na-j the sign of the present tense 
of a continuing action. 

Anahjoenda, he is going. 

Anoiema, he is saying. 

This tense has sometimes the 
effect of a present participle. 

Ahamwma anakuja^ and he saw 
him coming. 

N.B.— At Mombas the -no- tense 
is used as a past tense. At 
Zanzibar it is tliC most usual 
present. 
A a or ^Nna = Nina, I havOi 
N(Mm or Na^antf yes. 



NabiJiitha W', to exhort 

Nahii^ a prophet. 

Nadi ku, to proclaim, to make • 

bid fur a thing, to sell by auction. 

See Mnadi. 
Nddira, rare, 

NafaJca, com, com used as money. 
.Mtama, or millet, was formerly 
used in Zanzibar as small 
change: it was superseded by 
the introduction of pice from 
India about the year 1845. 
Nafasi, space, room, time, oppor- 
tunity. 
Nafisisha 7ctf-, to give spaoe, to make 

space. 
Nafsi or Naftuij self, soul, breath. 
Nafuu, profitable. 
Nahau, spelling, grammar. 
Nahma JcUf to revenge. 
Nahotha ya m^ji, water-tank. 
Nai, a sort of anvil fixed in a forked 

piece of wood. 
Najin = Nejjis, profane. 
Nakhotha or Na^oza, captain of a 

vessel, master mariner. 
NakUi ku-t to copy, to transcribe. 
Naktshij Kdlcsh, or NaJcthi, carving. 

Kukata nakth, to oarve, to orna- 
ment with carving. 
NakUhiwa feu, to be carved or in-^ 

laid. 
Nakl^ a copy. 
NakOy and it was there. 
Ndkudij cash, ro^dy money. 
Nama ku- = Inama ku-, to bend 

down, to bow the head. 
Nami, and I, or with me. 
Na^mna or NamunOf sort, pattern. • 
Namua kth (Mer.), to take out of a 

trap, to extricate. 
Nana or Na*an(i, mint 
Nana, mistress (N.). 



NAN 



NDI 



857 



Nanazif pltur. mananazi, a piiid- 
Nane^ eight. [apple. 

-fiane, eight 

Ya nane, eighth. 
Nanga, an anchor. 

Kuiia nanga, to anchor. 
Nangonango^ a worm (?). 
Nanil Who? 

Naniguoanzulay a kind of lizanl. 
Naoy and they or with them, and it 

or with it. 
Naoza = Ndkhotha, a captain. 
Napo, and there, and here. 
Nasa ku-f to catch in a tmp. 
Nasi hU', to warn, 
NasibUf luck, fortane. 

KuHi nasibu, hy chance, perhaps. 
Nattbu ^tt, to appoint. 
Nagiha hu-, to suggest. 
Nasihi hu-, to entreat, to beseech. 
Nastahiba^ I see it better, prefer. 
Nasur^ an abscess, 
^ato hu-, to be adhesive, to stick. 
Natharij choice. 
NcUkirif a look, a glance, a vow. 

Kuweka nathiri^ to vow. 

Kuondoa nathirif to perform a 
vow. 
NaViiri Au-, to glance. 
Natoa, a blemish (?)• 
Natdi, freight. 
Nawa hti; to wash oneself. 

KurMwa tnikono, to wash one's 
hamls. 
NazdTy quarrel. 
Nazi, a cocoa-nut, a fully ripe nut. 

Nazi havUf copra, cocoa-nuts dried 
fit for pressing. 
Naziri = Nathiri. 
Naziyana ku-, to quarrel. 
'Nchcif the point, the end, tip, a 

strand in cordage. 
Nchi, Sec Inchi: 



Ndaa (M.), hunger, = Njaa. 
Ndama, a calf, the young of a 

domestic animal. 
Ndaniy within, inside. 

Ndani ya, inside of. 

Kioa ndani, inner, secret. 

Ndani hvoa ndani, secretly. 
Ndaroho. 

Kusema cha ndardbo, to speak a 
secret language. 
Ndefu = Ndevu, the beard. Sing. 

udevu, one hair of the beard. 
Ndefu, long. See -refu. 
Ndege, a bird, birds, an omen. To 

see a woman with a loud is lucky, 

and would be called ndege njema. 

To seo a man by himself carrying 

nothing is unlucky, and is ndegd 

mhay<i, 
Ndere, 

TJnga wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Ndewe, a holo pierced in the lobe of 

the ear. 
Ndezi, a kind of animal. 
Ndi', a prefix used with the short 
form of the pronoun to express, 
it is this, this is the one, I am 
he, you are he, &o. 

I, Ndimi, 

Thou, Ndiioe. 

He or she, Ndiye, 

It, Ndio, ndiyo, ndicho, ndtlo, 
ndipo, ndiltOt ndimo. 

We, Ndisi. 

You, Ndinyi. 

They, Ndio, ndiyo, ndivyo, ndizo. 

Ndiyo yalio, that is just it, that 
is how matters stood. 
Ndia (M.) = NJia. 
Ndimi, tongues. See Ulimi, 
Ndio, yes. 

Ndiwa (M.) or Njitpa, a pigeon. 
Ndizi, bananas, plantains. 



358 



NDl 



ng'a 



Ndizi JBungala^ a tliick iweet 
kind of bacana. 

Ndizi mjenga, a long Mnd of 
banana nsed in cooking. 

Ndizi msusat a large ridged kind 
of banana. 
Ndoa, marriage. 
Ndonya^ a lip-ring, worn by the 

Nyassa. 
JVdoo and Ndooni (M.) = JV;oo and 

NJoonif oome. 
Ndoo, a pail, a bucket. 
Ndoto, a dream. 
NdovUf an elephant. 
Ndugu, a brother or sister, a oonsin, 
a relation. 

Ndugu kunyonyOj a foster brother, 
Nduiy small-pox. [&e, 

Ndulif savage, given to slaying, a 

man wholly without patience. 
Ndume, male, from -lurite or -^me. 
Ndusi^ a box. 
Nehii = Nabii, a prophet. 
Neemay grace, favour. 
Neemeeha hu-y to enrich. 
Nefsi == Nafn = NafuH, self. 
Negesha ku-, to charge with, to at- 
tribute falsely to. 

Akamnegesha mwivit and he 
called him a thief. 
Nejjisy or Nejin, or Najini^ profane, 

blasphemous. 
NeUiy a pipe, a water-pipe. 
Nefttihoy tribal marks. 
Nena Xru-, to speak, to name, to 

mention. 
Nenana ku-, to talk against one 

another, to quarreL 
-neney thick, stout, fat, whole, com- 
plete, plump, sleek. 
Nenea ku-, to talk to, of, at, for, or 

against, to blame, to scold, to re- 
commend. 



Nenepa ku-, to grow fat, ued ei* 

pecially of persons. 
JVefio, plur. manenOf a word, a thing. 

Sikufanya nena^ I have done no> 
thing. 
Nenyekea Aitt-, to be humble, to con« 

descend. 
"uenyekevu, humble, condescending. 
Nepa ku-y to sag, to dip in the 

middle as a long rope does. 

Neupe or Nyeupe, white. See -eupe, 

NeuH or NyeMt, black. See •eun. 

-ngo" or -nge-, the prefix of the 

present conditional tensa 

ni-nge-kwuDOy I should be. 
NgadUy land crabs. 
-ngawciy though. 

Ng*aa ku- = Ng*ara kvh, to shine. 
-ngcili'y the prefix of the past con- 
ditional. 

ni-ngaJi-kataaf I should have re- 
fused. 
Ngamcty the hold of a ship. 
Ng^awibay a hawkshead turtle, horn. 

which tortoiseshell is procured. 
Ng'amboy the other side of a river 

or creek. 
Ngamia or Ngamiyoy a cameL 
Ng^anda, a handful. 
NganOy a tale, a fable. 
NganOy wheat. 

Amektiia ngano, he has been dis- 
gmced; that is, having been 
as if in paradise, he has now 
to eat the food of ordinary 
mortals. 
Ngaoy a shield or buckler ; they are 

circular and very small. 
NgarOy the young cob of Indian 

com. 
Ng'ara /;«-, or Ng^ala, or Ng^aa^ to 

shine, to glitter, to be transparent, 

to be clear. 



NGA 



NGtr 



859 



Ngariha, a dronmcisor. 

ITgariza ku-, to fix the eyes, to glare. 

Amening'ariza machoy he glared 
at me. 
Ngatoa, a civet cat (?). 

The ngawa is a larger animal 
than the /an^o. 
Ng'cLza hu-f to make to shine, or to 

bo brilliant. 
Ngazi, a ladder. 
Ngazidja, Great Oomora 
'Ag«, a scorpion. 

-nge-j sign of the conditional pre- 
sent, would. 

Yangedumu^ they would still con- 
tinue. 
Ngedere, a small black monkey. 
NgemOy good. See •-ema, 
Ngeut ruddle used by carpenters to 

mark out their work. 
-ngi or -ingi, many, much. 
Ngiliza* See Ingiliza, 
. -ngine, other, different 

Wangine — wangtne^ some— other. 
Ng'oa kur, to pull up, to root up, to 

pull out 
Ngoa, lust. 

Ktdia ngoa, to weep for jealousy. 

Kutimia ngoa yahtoe, to satisfy 
his desires. 
Ng*ofu, the roe of a fish. 
Ngoja litt'y to wait, to wait for. • 
Ngqje^ Angoxa. 

Ngqjea ku-, to wait upon, to watch. 
Ng*oka ku-, to be rooted up. 

Moyo unaning'^oka, I was startled 
out of my -wits. ^ 
NgoUy rope. 

Ngoma, a drum, a musical perform- 
ance generally. 
Ng^omhe or Gnombey an ox, a oow^ a 
bull, cattle. 

N^ombe ndume, a bulL 



Ngomet a fort. 

Ng*onda ku-^ to cure or diy fish, &o. 

Ng'onga. 

Ana ru^onga (A.), he is inclined 
to vomit 
Ng*07ig*e, the strips of leaf or fibre 

used for sewing matting, and for 

tying. 
Ng*ong*o, the thick edge of a strif 

of matting. 
Ngono, the share of her husband's 

company which is due to each 

wife. 
Ngooi = Ngozt, skin. 
Ngoziy skin, hide, leather. 
Nguchiro, a mangouste. Also, a 

sort of bird = Mehiro, 
Ngumi or Nyamgumi, a whale. 
Ngumi, 

Kupiga ngwni, to strike with the 
fist 
Ngumu, hard. See -gumu, 
NguOj calico, cotton cloth, clothes. 

Nguo ya meza, a table-cloth. 

Nguo ya maki, stout cloth. 

Kutenda nguo, to stretch the 
threads for weaving. 
Nguri, a shoemaker's tool shaped 

like a skittle. 
NgurUf a kind of fish. 
Nguruma ku-, to roar, to thunder. 
Ngurumo, a roar, distant rolling 

thunder. 
Nguruvu, a kind of jackal with a 

bushy tail. 
Nguruioe or Nguuwe, a pig, swine. 
Nguruzi, a plug. 
Nguue = Nguruioe, a pig. 
Nguue^ red paint. 
Nguva^ a kind of fish. 
NguvUf strength, power, authority, 

Kwa nguviif by or with strength, 
by force, strongly, rankly. 



860 



NGU 



NJI 



Nguzoy a pillar, pillan. 

rftytmina, free, civilized. 

Ngwe, See Ugwe. 

Ngwe, an allotment or space for cul- 
tivation. 

Ngwenoj a crocodile, a seal. 

Ngvnro^ a large kind of ant. 

Ni^ I am, was, is. 
Ni is used to express is or was, for 
all persons and both numbers. 

Ni (M.)> by, with the agent of a 
passive verb. 

Ni^ *N', or -Y-, I, the sign of the 
first person singular. Before the 
-to- of the future it sometimes 
disappears. 

•ni- or -n-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person singular. 

-nt, added to substantives, forms a 
sort of locative case, signifying 
in, at, into, to, firom, from out 
of, near, by. 

1. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., beginning with *m or mtr, 
this case implies within, inside 
of, or the coming or going to 
or from the inside of the thing 
named. 

2. When followed by pronouns, 
&o., beginning with p, it signi- 
fies nearness to, or situation at, 
by, before, near. 

8. When followed by pronouns, 
Ac, in kw, it denotes going or 
coming to or from, or at, from, 
and in, in a vague sense, or of 
things far off. 
-fit, added to verbs in the impera- 
tive forms the second person 
plural. It is sometimes suffixed 
to common pliroses, as huaherini, 
good-bye, and twendezetuniy let us 
go, and is explained as a short 



form for enyit or nyU^ yon ! you 

there I 
-n«, enclitic form fcf ntnt*, what ? 
-nt', enclitic for nyi as an objective 
suffix (N.). 

Nawaan^iani, I tell yoiL 
Nia, mind, intention, what one has 

in one's mind. 
Nia ku, to have in onc*s mind, to 

think to do. 
Nikaao, which I inhabit 
Nikal% and I am or was. 

Nikali ni7a«nda, and I am going. 
NH, blue (for washing). 
Nikwata, the little wall lizard. 
NUi, I being. 

Nm hali ya kuwa Juu yoke, I 
being on his back. 
Nina, I have. 
Nina, mother (N.). 
Ninga, a kind of green bird some*> 

thing like a dove, a womans 

name. 
NingUnia kit-, to swing. 
NingHniza ku-, to set swinging. 
Ninil Whati 

Kioa nini, or Ya nini ? why ? what 
for? 
Ninyi, ye, you. 

Ninyi nyote, all of you, all to- 
gether. 
Nipe, give mo. See Pa ku-. 
Nira, yoke. 
JVwftfi, starch (?). 
Njaa, hunger, famine. 
*Nj^j outside, forth. 

*Nje yat outside of, 

Kvja *nje, outwardly, on the out- 
side. 
Njema, good, very well. See -ema. 
Njia or Ndia, a way, a path, a road 
means. 

Njia panda, cross roads 



NJI 



NY- 



361 



Kjiriy ft l^ind of animal. 
Njivoa^ a pigeoD, pigeons. 

Njiwa manga., tame pigeons. 

Njiwa ya mwitu, a wild pigeon. 
NjombOj a fish barred with black and 

yellow. 
Njooj come. 
^joonif come ye. 
NJozif an apparition, vision. 
Njuga, a dog-bell, a small bell 

worn as an ornament. 
Njtigu, ground nuts. 

Njugu nycusa, soffc ground-nuts. 

Njiigu mawey hard ground-nuts. 
^jumut inlaid Nnth silver, inlaying 

work. See Mjumu, 
Njuwa = Njuga. 
Nnaohaa, where I am living, which 

I am inhabiting. 
•*»nfl, four. 

Ya '»n«, fourth. 
Noa hut to whet, to sharpen on a 

stone. 
Koher, a servant 
Noliooy the second head man at a 

plantation, generally a slave. 
NoleOj plur. manoleo, the metal ring 

round the haft where a knife is 

set into its handle. 
Kona hu', to get fat, applied espe- 
< cially to animals. « 

N(mg*ona ku-t to whisper, to mur- 
mur. 
NoTufoneza hu-, to whisper to. 
Nong*onezana ku-, to whisper to- 
gether. 
-nona, fat 
Nonoahu^O). 
NoondOf or NondOy a moth. 
Ntihi (A.), eyebrow. 
Nso, the kidneys. 
'Ntaj wax, bees'-wax. 
*NU s Ineiii, hind, country, earth. 



Nuele or Nwele = Nyele, hair. 
Nuia kth, to have in one's mind, to 

intend. 
Nuha ku-f to give ont a smell, to 
stink. 
Tumhako ya kunuka, snuff. 
NukatOf plur. manukato^ a good 

smell, a scent. 
Nukiza ku-, to smell out like a dog. 
Nuktaj a point, a vowel point. 
Nuna ku'y to sulk. 
Nunduj a hump, a bullock's hump. 
Nungn, a porcupine. 
Nungu [Pemba], a cocoa-nut. 
Nung*unika ku', to murmur, to 

grumble. 
Nunua kth^ to buy. 
Numdia ht-^ to buy for. 
Nunuliwa /cu-, to have bought 
for one. 
Nura kU't to gay the words of an 

oath. 
Nuruy light 
Nusa ku'f to smell. 

Tumhako ya kunuaa, snuff. 
Nu88, or Nusu, or Nusau, half. 
Nusuru kth, to help. 
Nioa ku- or Nywa leu-, to drink, to 

absorb. 
NweUo, plur. manwdeo, pores of 

the ^n. 
Nuoewa ku-^ to be absorbed, to be 

drunk. 
Ny-j a oommon prefix to substan- 
tives which do not change to 
form the plural, where the root 
begins with a vowel. 
Substantives in w- or w- followed 
by a vowel make their plural 
by substituting ny^ for the -u. 
Dissyllables in «- make their 
plural by merely prefixing ny-. 
Ny-f the prefix proper to adjectiveii 



362 



NYA 



NYB 



agieeing with subBtanlivcs of 
either nnmber of the class 
which do not change to fonn 
their plural, or with the plural 
of substantives in tt-, when the 
root of the adjective begins 
with ft vowel, except -€iiia, 
good, which makes njema or 
n(jema. 
Nya fcrf-, to fall (of rain) ; the kw 
bears the accent, and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mvua inakunya, the rain is fall- 
ing (Zanzibar). 
Af ma yanya, rainfalls (M.). 
Nyaa, nails of the fingers (N.). 
Nydka 2(u-, to catch. 
Nyakita hu-, to snatch. 
J^yalOy sheaths. See Ala. 
Nyaliot cross pieces put in the 
bottom of a pot to prevent the 
meat touching the bottom and 
burning. 
Nyatna, flesh, meat, an animal, 
animals, beasts, oarttle. 
Nyama mbicayit savage beasts. 
Nyamaa hu-, to continue silent, not 

to speak, to acquiesce, 
-fiyamavu, silent 

NyamcLza kw, to become silent, to 
leave off talking, to cease (of 
pain). 
I^yamgwni, a whale. 
Nyanana^ gentle. See -anana. 
'fiyangdliha, a sort of a. 
Kitu kinyangdUka, a sort of a 

thing. 
Mnyangdlika ganif What sort 
of a man is it? 
Nyatn^anya Ant-, to rob, to take by 

force. 
Nyangah, largo (spider) shells. 
Nyani, an ape, apes. 



Nyanya, a small red fruit used as a 
vegetable, &o. 

Nyanya ya kizungu, a sort of 
small tomato. 
Nyanytua ku-, to profane, contemn. 
Nyara, booty. 
Nyasi, grass, reeds. 
Nyati^ a bufEalo, buffaloes. 
Nyatia ^u-, to creep up to, to stalk 

(an animal, Ac). 
Nyauka A-u-, to dry up, to wither, 

to shrivel. 
Nyawe, his mother (M.). 
NyayOf plur. of uayo. 
Nyea kw, to cause to itch, to itch 

Imeninyea,! itch 
Ifye/ua feu-, to devour like a boast 

of prey. 
Nyegi, 

Kutoa na nyegi, to be in heat 
Nyekundu, red. See -ekundu. 
Nyele, or NueU, or Nwde, the hair, 
sing. unyeU, one hair. 

Nyde za kipHipili^ woolly hair. 

Nyele za iingaf straight hair. 
Nyembamba^ thin. See -embamha, 
Nyemelea kvhj to go quietly and 

secretly up to a. thing in order 

to seize it 
Nyemif a great dance. 
Nyenya ku-, to talk a person iuto 

telling something. 
Nyenyekea hu-, to be Immblo. 
Nyenzo, rollers, anything to make 

things move. 
Nyepesi, light See "epesL 
Nyetha ku-, to cause to (all.. 

Kunyesha mtfua, to cauao it to 
rain. 
Nyeta ku-, to be teasing, ill-condi- 
tioned, never satisfied. 
Nyeupe, white. See -eupe. 
Nyeusif black. See -et»f 



-NYB 



NYW 



363 



*mfevUf damp. 

Nyie or Enyie, jon there, I say; 

used in calling people at a dis- 

tanoe. 
Nyika, wilderness, cut grass (A.)* 
Nyima Jim*, to refuse to, to withhold 

from, not to give to. 
Nyiminyimiy into little bits. 
Nyingi, many, much. See -ingi. 
Nyingine^ other, another. See 

•'tigine, 
}k^ying*inia hu-^ to sway, swing. 

Also NingUnia, 
Nyinyi, you. 
Nyinyoroj a bulbous plant which 

throws up a large head of red 

flowers. 
NyoOf plur. manyoa^ a feather, == 

Nyoya. 
Nyoa ku'9 to shave. 
^yoi (?)» a locust 
Nyoha^ a snake, a serpent, snakes. 
Nyoha fcti-, to be straight, to be 

stretched out 
Jfyonda, temptation, triaL 
Nyondo, a moth. Also Noondo, 
Nyongay the hip.. 

Nyonga ya earara (A.), the loins. 
Nyonga ktt-, to twidt, to strangle. 
Nyonganyonga ku-, to go from side 

to side, to wriggle. 
•nyonge, mean, insignificant, vile. 
Nyongoj bile. 

Nyong'onyeya ku-, to. be weary, 
' languid, to get slack and power- 
less. 
Kyonya kw, to suck. 
Nyonyesha ktb-^ to suckle. 
Nyonyo. 

Mafuta ya nyonyoy castor oil (?). 
Nyonyoa ku-, to pluck ^ bird, to 

pull out feathers. 
Kyonyoka = Nyonyoa^ 



Nyonyota ku-, to make to smart. 
NyororOf soft See -ororo. 
Nyosha A;u-, to stretch, to straighten, 
to extend. 

Kujinyoshat to lie down, to take 
a nap. 
Nyota, a star, stars, point of the 

compass. 
Nyote^ all, agreeing with ninyi, you. 

See -cte, 
Nyoya, plur. manyoya, feather. 
Nyoyoy hearts. See Moyo. 
Nyuoj plur. of tea, a courtyard, en- 
closure. 
Nyvkiy a bee, bees. 

Aioli ya nyuki, honey. 
Ny\tkwi ku't to tweak, to pinch 

sharply. 
Nyumay at the back, afterward? 

Nyuma ya, behind, after. 

Nyumaye, after it, afterwords. 

Kurudi nyumo, to go back. 
NyumbOy a house, houses, 
Nyumhoy the wildebeest, catoblepas 

gorgon, 
Nyuwhu, a mule, mules. 
NyundOy a hammer, hammers. 
Nyum\ a bird, birds (M.). 
Kyungoy plur. of Ungo. 
Nyunguy a cooking pot 
Nyungunyungitf sores in the Icg^ 

said to be caused by the biting of 

worms bearing the same name. 
Nyunyiza kt^, to sprinkle, to 

sprinkle upon. 
Nyunyvoiika hu-y to murmur (?)• 
Nytuhiy the eyebrow. 
Nytjoa kit' or Nwa kit-y to drink, 

suck up, absorb. The ku- bears 

the accent and is retained in the 

usual tenses. 
Nywea &«•, to get very thin, ir 

•jrasteaway.. 



364 



NYW 



ONE 



Nyweslia hu-, to give to drink. 
Nziy plur. manzif a fly. Also Inzi, 
Nzige^ a looast 
Nzigunzigti, a butterfly. 
Nzima, sound. See -ztmo. 
NzitOf heavy. See 'zito, 
Nzuri, fine. See -Muri, 



O. 

Ois pronounced a little more like 
aw than is usual in English. 

U before 6 sometimes becomes a 
Wj but very often disappears, as: 
Koga for kuogat to bathe. This 
word and some others in o are 
sometimes incorrectly conjugated 
as if beginning in ka, 

-o or -o-, sign of the relatlye, re- 
ferring to substantives in the 
singular whieh make their plural 
in mt-, or to singular substantives 
in «-. 

-o, the short form of woo, they or 
them. 

Oa hu-, to marry, used of the bride- 
groom. Passive, kuoleioa, 

Oana lew, to intermarry, to manry 
one another. 

Oawa ku-f to become married (of 
the man). 

Oaza ku-f to marry. 

Oga ku-, to bathe, frequently pro- 
nounced koga. 

Ogoflslia ku'f to frighten, mako 
afraid, to menace, to threaten. 

Ogofya Au-, to frighten, 

bgolea Jiu-t to swim, to swim about. 

Ogopa ku-f to fear, to be afraid. 

Oka kw, to bake, to cook by fire 
•only. 

Okoa ku't to f ave, to take away. 



Okoka ku; to become saved, to 
Okota ku-, to pick up. [escape. 
Ole, woe. 

Ole wangut toenti, &o., woe unto 
me, unto you, &c. 
Oleioa kWf to marry or to be mar- 

ried, used of the bride. 
Oleza A'tf-, to make like^ to follow a 

pattern. 
Omba Aru-, to pray to, to beg of, to 

beseech. 
Ombea kvh^ to intercede for, to beg 

on behalf of, to pray for. 
Omboleza kw, to wail. 
OmOf the head of a ship. 

Pepo za omo, head winds (?). 
Ona ku-f to see,' to perceive, to feel. 

Kuona kiu, to feel thirst 

Kujionaj to think onotelt to 
aflect to be. 

NaonOf I think sOb 
Onana ku-, to meet. 
Onda kw (M.) = Onja ku-, to taste, 

to try. 
Ondo, plur. maondo (A.), tlie knoe. 
Ondoa ku-, to take away. 
Ondoka kw^ to go away, to get np, 
to arise. 

Ondoka mbeU jfangu^ depart from 
me. 

Kuondoka katika uHmioengu /mti, 
to depart out of this world. 
Oi^olcea kth, to rise to^ or out of 

respect to. 
OadokeUa kw^ to arise and dcparf 

from. * 
Ondolea ku-^ to remove, to take 
away firom. 

Kuondolea huzuni, to cheer. 
Ondoslia ku-, to make to go away, 

take away, abolish. 
Onea Xm-, to see fur to anticipate 

for, to bully, to opprew. 



ONE 

Onehma W-, to become visible, to 

appear, to be to be seen. 
Ongea ku-, to spend time, to waste 

time in talking. 
Ongeza Am-, to make greater, add to. 

Kuongeza ure/Uf to lengthen. 
Ongezeha Xni-, to increase. 
Ongoa &tt-, to convert, to load 

aright 
Ongqfya Aju-, to deceive by promises. 
Ongoka Am-, to be converted, to be 

led aright, to be healed. 
Ongdkewa kft-y to prosper. 
Ongonga Am-, to feel nausea. 
Ongoza Am-, to drive, to lead. 
Ongua ku-, to hatch. 
OngulitM Am-, to be hatched. 
Onguza Apu-, to scorch, to scald. 
Onja ku'f to taste, try, examine. 
Onya Aw^, to warn, to make to see. 
Onyetha ku-, to show. 
Opoa ku't to take out, to fish np. 
OpoUa Am-, to fi^h up with, for, by, 

Or/a, or Orofaf or Ghoro/a, an upper 

room. 
•ororOf soft, smooth. It makes jororoj 

with nouns like ArosAo, and 

nyororo with nouns like nyumiba, 
Oiha Am-, to wash. 
Osheka Acv-, to have been washed. 
Otia, learning of old times. 
Ota Am-, to dream (ktUota, Mer.). 
Ota Am-, to grow. 

•-ote or *o<*e, all, every one, the 
whole. It varies like the pos- 
sessive pronouns. 

Merikebu zote, all the ships. : 

MeHkebu yote, the whole ship. 

Twende iote, let us go together. 

Twende toote, let us both go. 

Lq lUe, eho ehoiej &o., whatsoever* 
C£00 hw-$ to lie in wait fox. 



PA 



365 



-otm or -ftotm, rotten, bad, corrupt, 
wicked. It makes in5ot;u with 
nouns like nyumha, 

Ovyo, trash, any sort of thing. 

Otoatna ku-j to be steeped. 

Oufamiiha A:ii-, to steep. 

Oza Am-, to rot, to spoil, go bad. 
Also^ to marry (of the parents). 



P. 

P is pronounced as in English. 

P, at tho beginning of a word, has 
frequently an aspirated or rather 
an explosive sound, such as Irish- 
mon sometimes give it This ig 
very marked in the name of tho 
island of Pemba or P'emba. Fepo, 
the plural of upepo^ wind, has a 
very strong explosive sound given 
to tho first p, but in upepo both p*B 
are smooth, like an ordinary Eng- 
lish p. It is probable that this 
explosive sound represents a sup- 
pressed n. 

P followed hj a y sound some* 
times becomes/: kuogopa, to fear, 
kuogofya, to frighten; kuapa, to 
swear, kuafya^ to make to swear. 

Pet- or P-, the prefix proper to ad- 
jectives, pronouns, and verbs 
of both numbers governed by 
mahalh place or places. 

The prefix proper to pronouns 
following the case in -nt', when 
it denotes nearness, at, by, near. 

The prefix pci' is often applied to 
a verb in the sense of the 
English (here, 

Palina or paltkuwa no, there wag. 
EofanOi there is not 
2b 



366 



PA 



PAK 



It is not quite so indefinite tut hu-, 
fa Jsii', to present with, to give to. 

The fttt bears the acoeut ; hupa 

cannot be used without a person 

as its object, and the objective 

prefix bears the accent Ali' 

Icitpa^ he gave you; Mmpa^ he 

gave him. The passive is Irti- 

pavoa of hupetoa^ and means, to 

have given to one, to receive. 
Paat a gazelle, a small kind of 

antelope. 
Faa, plur. mapcuLfek thatched roof. 

Nyumha ya mapaa manne, a roof 
of four slopes. 
Paa ^tt-, to ascend, to go up. 
Faa Jbu-, to scrape. 

KupcM iamdki, to scrape the 
scales off a fish. 

Kupaa 9andaru8it to dean gum 
copal. 

Kupaa motOj to take fire and 
carry it on a potsherd, Ao, 
Paanda, a trumpet. 
Paangef a hoiselly, a gadfly. 
Paangot plur. mapaangOf a oave, 

a den. 
Paaza kwy to make to rise. 

Kupaaza pumzif to draw in the 
breath. 
Paaza ku-, to grind ooarsely, not to 

make fine meaL 
Father a twin. 

Kuzaliwa pacha, to be bom twins. 

Pacha ya lye, a child of which 
its mother was pregnant while 
suckling a previous child. 
Poehika hu-^ to ptU an arrow on 

the string, to stitk a knif« In 

one's girdle, &o. 
Padiri or Padre, plur. fnapadiri, 

a paiir^, a priest, a clergyman. 
Fa/t^ lungB. 



Paga Jcu-, to strike hard, to harpoon 

a whale. 
Pagaa hu-, to carry on the shoulder8» 
to possess (of an evil spirit). 

Amepagawa na pepo, he is pes* 
acssed of an evil spirit 
Pagaza ku-, to make to bear, applied 

to an evil spirit causing a man to 

fall sick. 
Paguaku-, to take off, strip off (as 

boughs and leaves). 
Pahali, in the place, at the place. 
Paja, plur. mapaja, the thigh. 
Paje, red mtama [Pemba]. 
Paji la U80, the forehead. 
PaJca^ a cat, cats. 
Pdka /ill-, to rub in, to smear on. 
Pcikaa kur = Pdka kvr, 
Pdkaeha^ plur. mapakadha, a basket 

made by plaiting^ together part 

of a cocoa-nut leaf. 
PdkacUMf plur. mapakaolia, people 

who prowl about at night to do 

mischief. 
PaJcana ku-, to border upon. 
PaJcany€i, rue. 

Pakasa ku- (Mer.), to twist rope. 
Pakata ku-, to hold a child on the 

lap or in front 
Pake, his, hers, or its, after mahalif 

or the case in -m signifying 

nearness. See -a&e. 
Pakia ku-, to load a ship, to be 

loaded with, to carry as cargo, 

to have on board. 
Paldcha kur, 

Kupakieha migun^io cross the legs 

in sitting; reckoned improper 

in Zanzibar. 

PakUia ku-^ to embark for, to put 

' on board for. 

Pakiza ku-j to stow on b«^ ship, 

&0. 



PAK 



PA^ 



367 



Pdko, thy, your, after mahali, or 
the case in -ni denoting nearness. 
Bee 'aho, 
Fakua leu-, to take out of the pot, 

to difih, to lade out. 
Vcikuna ftu, ta scratch. 
Fakutokea, a place to go out at, an 

ontlei 
Palet there, that place, of things 

not very far off. 
Pal^pahf just there, at that very 
. spot 

Palia ku'f to hoe. 
Kupalia moto, to pick up for, and 

take live embers to a person. 
Kupaliwa na mate or tnajiy to 
choke with spittle or with 
what one is drinking, so as to 
send it into one's nose, ears, 
&o. 
PaWcuvfa no, there was or there 

were. 
PaUlia hu'f to hoe up, to draw the 
earth up round growing crops, to 
hoe between crops. 
Paliliza ku-, to cause to be hoed. 
Paliza ku-f to lift up the voice. 
PoZtt, plur. mopoZii, little cakes of 

sugar, bhang, and opium. 
Pamha, cotton. 

Pamha ku-y to adorn, to deck out, 
furnish. 
Kupamba merikehUf to drees a 

ship. 
Ku'mpamha maifUi, to put cotton 
in ears, mouth, &o, of a dead 
person before burying him. 
Pambaja %«-, to embrace. 
Pambana kit-, to meet in a narrow 
place where two cannot go 
abreast; applied to ships it 
means, to go alongside, to get 
£oul of one another. 



Pambaniaha ku-, to biing together* 

to compare. 
Pambanua ku-, to distinguish, to 

separate, to discriminate. 
Pamhanulia ku-, to describe by 

distinguishing. 
Pambanya ku-, or Pambanyiza &u-, 

to overbear by loud talking, &c. 
Pambaiika or Pambazfika ku-, to 

become light in the morning. 
Pambazua ku-, to speak plainly. 
Pam&e2e, in front. 

PamhOf plur. mapanibo, adornment, 
dressing. 
Panibo la nyum5a, house ftimiture. 
Pamqja, in one place, together. 

Pamoja na, together with, with. 
Pana, there is or are, was or were. 
'pana, broad, wide. It makes pana 

with nouns like nyumba, 
Pana kti-, to make mutual gifts. 
Panapana^ flat, level, even. 
Panapo, where there is, are, was or 

were. 
Panchaijat, five head men (Hind.), 

governing council. 
Panda (M.) = Panja, 
Panda, a bifurcation, as where a 
road divides into two, whero 
two streams join, where the 
bough of a tree forks. 
Njia panda, cross roads, or whero 
three ways meet; there is a 
superstitious custom of empty* 
ing rubbish and dirt at such 
places. 
Panda ku-, to mount, to get up, 
ascend, ride, to go on board, to 
go ashore (of a ship). 
Panda Icti-, to set aside. 
Panda ku-, to plant, to sow. 
Pandana . /fti-, to lie across <me 
another. 

2b2 



868 



PAN 



Fands mbUif on both Bides. 8oe 

Upande. 
Pandisha ku-^ to make to go np, to 

hoist, to ndse. 
ranga Am-, to rent, to hire a house. 
Panga ku-^ to put in a line, to set 

in order. 
Panga, plur. of upanga, 
Pangana ku-, to be in rows. 
Pangine^ another plaoe, other places. 
See -ngine, 

Panginepot elsewhere. 
Pangisha ku-j to let a house to. 
Pangisha ku-, to make people sit in 

rows or in order. 
Pangu, my. See -anj/tt. 
Panguea ku-, to wipe. 
Panja, the forelock. 

Mapanja, the receding of the 
hair on each side of the fore- 
look. 
Panua kihf to widen, to make 

broad. 
Panulia hu-, to widen for, to set 

wide apart 
Panuka ku-, to become broad, to 

widen. 
Panga, a rat, rats. 
PanyaToavu, a quiet place, a oalm 

spot. See 'Uyamavu, 
Paza ku', to set up, to raise. 

Kupanza mtambo %oa bunduki, to 
cock a gun. 
Panzi, a grasshopper, a kind of 

fish. 
Panzi ya nazi, brown rind of the 

cocoa-nut kernel. 
Poo, their. See ao, 
Pao, clubs (in cards). 
F*apa, a shark. 
Papa hapa, just here. 
Papa ku', to transude, to allow 

transudatiou. 



PAS 

Papasa kv-, to touch gently, td 

stroke, to feel, to grope. 
Papasi, ticks, especially those found 

in native huts. 
Papatika ku-, to flutter like a bird. 
Papatua ku-, to shell, to husk. 
Papayi, plur. tnapapayi, papaws, a 

common kind of fruit. 
PapayvJca ku; %o be dolirious, to 

wander. 
Papayuza ku-, to make delirious. 
Papia ku-, lo cat all one can get, to 

eat without bounds. 
Papua kU', to tear. 
Papura ku-, to claw, to scratch 

deeply. 
Papuri, thin cakes flaTourod with 

asafoetida. 
Papurika ku', to be lacerated. 
Papuriana ku-, to pick holes in one 

another's reputation. 
Para, a scraping, sliding. 
Para, plur. mapara, cakes of scm« 

sem. 
Parafujo, a screw. 
Parana ku', to climb a tree. 
ParaJiara, a large kind of antelope. 
Parapara ku-, to paw the ground 

like a horse. 
Paruga ku*, to be rough and grat- 
ing. 
Paruza ku-, to grate, to graze, to bo 

harsh and rough, to strike a 

match. 
Paruzana Jcu-, to graze (as of two 

boats, &c.). 
Pasa ku-, or Pasha kU', to come to 
concern, to become a duty. 

Imekupasajef ^yhat have you 
to do with it? 

Imenipa^a, I ought 
Pasha ku; to lend money to, to 
give privately or beforehand. 



PAB 



t>fiL 



369 



Kupasha moto^ to warm up, to 
set before the fire. 
Pcui, a clotbes-iron. 

Kupiga past, to iron. 
Pastpoy without, where there is noi 
PcuivjCf without there being. 
Pasua ku-y to cleave, to splifc, to 

rend. 
Pasulca X;tf-, to become rent, to 

burst, to ciack, to be split. 
PatuJcapasuJca /cu-, to be split up, 

rent to pieces. 
Pato, a drawn game at cards where 

each side marks sixty. 
Pata ku; to get, to reach, to suffer, 
to find an opportunity, to suc- 
ceed in doing, to happen ta 

Kupata is often used with other 
verbs where we use may or 
might : 
Apate hujaf that he may come. 

Ki8U chapata, the kuife is sharp. 

Kisu hahipati^ the knife is blunt. 

KUichompata, what happened to 
him. 

Chapataje f What is it worth ? 

KupcUa hasara, to lose. 
Pata &tt, to make a lattice, as by 

weaving sticks or canework. 
Patana kit-, to agree, to come to an 

agreement. 
Patanitha ku-, to bring to an agree- 
ment. 
Pataait a chisel. 
Puthitoa kw, to be born. 
Patij a coloured kind of stufiCl 
Patia ku'9 to get for. 
PatialOf a great cheat, a thorough 

rogue. 
PaUltana ku-^ to be procurable, to 

begot 
Vatiliza ku; to visit upon, to ie» 

member against. 



PatOf plur. mapato, what is got, 

gettings, income, proceeds* 
PaltOj a hinge. 
Patioa hi-f to be eclipsed. 
Properly, to be got, referring to 
the superstition that a huge 
snake haa seized the moon or 
sun. 
Pau (plur. of Upau\ the purlins 
of a roof, the small sticks tied 
horizontally to fasten the thatch 
to. Also, rafters (?). 
Payo, plur. mapayo^ one who c;in- 

not keep a secret. 
Payuka kur, to blab, to talk without 

thinking. 
Payuza ku-, to make over-talkative. 
Tembo limempayuzaf the palm 
wine has made his tongue go. 
Pazia^ plur. mapazia, a curtain. 
Pea^ a rhinoceros. 
Pea ku-, to sweep (M.). 
Pea ku', to grow to full size, to get 
its growth, to become such that 
there is nothing more to do, to 
reach its limit. 
Pekecha ktt-^ to bore a hole, to get 
fire by twirling a stick, to trouble 
people by tales and tale- bearing. 
Peketeka %«-, to scorn, to have no 

fear about one. 
Pekee, onliness. 

Wa pekeCf only. 
Peke yangut Ac, by myself, I alone. 
Peke is never used in Zanzibar 
without a possessive pronoun 
following it, and signifies that 
the person or thing is alone, or 
that it is the only one. 
Pekeyetu^ by ouiselvesy or we 
alone. 
Pekua ku'^ to scratch like a hen. 
PeZe, plur. of iipele, the itch. 



370 



PEL 



PET 



Feleica ku-, to cause to arrive at a 

place distant from the person 

speaking, to send, to take, to con- 
duct 
Pelekea Ini-, to send, take, or conduct 

to a person. 
VddeziK ^-y to spy out, to look 

curiously into. 
P'embe, horn, comer, ivory. 

Pembe ya ntfoka, a small white 
horn, esteemed to be a great 
medidne. 

Kuwa na pembe pembey to have 
corners, to be angular, to be all 
comers. 

Pemhenh in the comer. 

Pemhe ta mtoaka, the four seasons, 
points of the \rorld. 
PembeOy a swing. 
Pemheleza Jeth, to beseech* 
Penibeza ku-, to rock, to lull. 
Penda ku-, to like, to love, to wish, 

to approve, to choose, to prefer. 
Pendekeza Xm-, to make pleasing. 

Kf^ipendekezOf to ingratiate one- 
self with, to flatter. 
Pendelea ku-, to favour. 
PenddeOfplm.mapendeUo, a favour. 
Penddeza kvh, to moke another love 

one. 
Pendeza ku-, to please, to become 

pleasing. 
Pendezewa ku-, to be pleased, to be 

glad. 
PendOf love. 

Pendo la moli, the love of riches. 
Pengif many places. See 'ingi, 
Pengo, a notch, a place where a 
triangular bit is broken out 

Ana pengo, he has lost a frcbt 
tooth. 
Penu, your. See -enn. 
Penya ht-^ to penetrate. 



Penye$ha Xw-} to pierce, to pat 

through, to cause to penetrate. 
Penyif having (of place), where is 
or was. 

Penyi ndende, where the date tree 
Pepa fct*-, to stagger. [was. 

Pepea ku-, to fan. 
PepeOj plur. mapepeo, a fon, a screw 

propeller. 
Peperuka ku-, to be blown away. 
Peperusha ku-, to blow away. 
Pepesa Xni-, to wink. 
Pepetuika ku-^ to totter. 
Pepeta Ini-, to sift, to toss in a flat 

basket, so as to separate the chaff 

and the grain. 
Pepetua Aru-, to force open. 
Pepo, a spirit, a sprite, an evil 
spirit 

Pepo nibaya, an evil spirit. 

Peponi, paradise, in paradise. ' 

Pepo (plur. of upepo\ much wind. 

Pepo ta chamchela^ a whirlwind. 

Maji yapepo, fresh water. 
Pepua ku-, to sift apart the whole 

from the broken grains. 
Pero, plur. mapera, a guava. 
PeM, plur. peta or mapem, pice, the 

Angio-Indian quarter anna, the 

only small coin in Zanzibar; 

sometimes a dollar is worth 140, 

sometimes ouly 112. 
Pe$a kn- (M.) = Pepesa ku-, 
Peta ku-, to bend round, to make 

into a ring. 
Pete fctt- = Pepaia Zftt-. 
Petana ku-, to bend round, to bo 

bent in a circle. 
Pete, plur. pete or mapete^ a ring. 

Pete ya masikio, an eaning. 
Petemana ku-, to he bent round. 
Peto, plur. mapeto, a handle, a thing 

carried, a large matting bag. 



PET 



pta 



S71 



Peiu, our. See -etu, 
-^pevu. Ml giown. 
Pevua hh, to make fall grown. 
KuJipemMf to think oneself a 



Pevuka hn-, to become fnll grown, 

to reach its full size. 
Petea Arte-, to get from some one, to 

be presented with, to receive. 
Pezif plnr. mapeti, a fin. 
•^ subjoined to the personal sign 
makes the interrogative which ? 
^oeApi. 
Nitawezapi f How can I P 
-pia or -pyo, new. 
Pioj all, the whole, entirely. 

Pia yoU, completely, utterly. 
Plo, a top, a hnmming-top. 
Piga kwt to strike, to beat, to flap. 
Kupiga na inehi^ to strike on the 

ground, 
Kupiga is nsed of many acffons in 
which the idea of striking docs 
not always seem to be implied. 
Kupiga hamba, to pump. 

„ hundtddy haOclat &c., to 
fire a gun, a pistol, &o. 
,, ekapoy to print 
„ faiaki, to prognosticate 

by the stars. 
„ fundOf to tie a knot. 
„ hdeUy to shout 
„ 2E09i£r6{0, to ring a bell. 
^ hilemha, to wind a cloth 
lonnd the head so as to 
make a turban. 
^ hiowdy to scream. 
ff hoflt to box the ears, to 

slap. 
^ hurOj to cast lots. 
^ mdkofl, to clap the hands. 
^ tnagote, to kneel. 
„ nibinda, to whistle. 



Kupiga m&tit>, to run, to gallop. 
,, mbizif to dive. 
»9 miaOt miaonOf or miunziy 
to make a whistling 
noise. 
» mikambe, in bathing, to 
duck nnder water and 
fling over one leg. 
Kupiga mizinga ya saJaamUy to 
flra a salute. 
„ mriari, to rule a line. 
n nUdkoMy to rustle like 

new clothes. 
t, mvuke, to smoke meat, 
,» nyiayOf to gape. [&a 
M JXM1, to iron. 
„ pembey to gore. 
M |>^o, to strike a blow. 
» l»tta, to snort 
„ ramlif to prognosticate 

by diagrams. 
9 ranc^o, to plane. 
M <e^, to kick. 
„ umemey to lightcnj to 

flash. 
„ uwinda^ to draw the ends 
of the loin cloth be- 
tween the legs and 
tuck them in. 
f, yowCf to cry for help. 
» tomari^ hinanda^ &c., to 
play upon the flageo- 
let, guitar, ftoi 
Pigana hh, to fight 

Kupigana hwa mbavu, to wrestle. 
Piganitha h^j to make to fight, to 

set on. 
Piganiahana hu-^ to set on to fight 

together. 
Pigilta %u-, to beat as the stone 
roofs are beaten. Small wooden 
rammers are used, and a great 
number of people are engaged tat 



872 



pia 



POF 



about throe days, with mnsio and 

songs ; the object of this beating 

is to prevent the roof cracking as 

it dries^ and to consolidate it 

while moist. 
Pigiza Xpu-, to make to beat. 

Kupigiza tanga, to go so close to 
the wind that the sail flaps. 
PigOf plur. maptgo, a blow. 
Ptka 7m-, to cook. 
Pihia ku', to cook for. 

Kupikiway to have cooked for one. 
PUao, pillaw, an Indian dish. 
i^t7t, a large kind of snake. 
Pibi, two (in counting). 

Ta pilit the second. 

Ta pili yoke, the next 

Tide wa piUy the other. 

Mara ya pUi, a second time, again. 
PhUipili liohOf red pepper. 
Pilipili mangaf common pepper. 
Pima, plur. mapima, a fathom. 
Pima fctt-, to measure, to weigh. 

Kupima majif to sound. 
Pinda ku-, to bend. 

Kupinda na mguu, talipes. 
Pindana hw, to bend together. 
PiTidi, plur. mapindi, a twisting, a 

wriggle, cramp. 
Pindi, if. when (?), although. 
PindOf plur. mapindot the longer 

edge of a cloth, selvedge. 
Pindua 7m-, to turn over, to upset. 

Kupindua kwa damalini^ to wear 
ship. 

Kupindua kwa goshini, to tack. 
PindtUca ku-, to be turned over, to 

be upset. 
Vinga 7m-, to hinder, to block the 
way, to lay a wager. 

Kupinga chombo kwa shikio, to 
turn a dhow on one side by 
mean* of the rudder. 



Pingamizi, a meddler, one who in- 
terferes to spoil a bargain, or to 
give trouble. 

Ptngia kt^, to fasten a door, &c., by 
means of a bar. - 

PingUi, 
Pingili ya fima, the piece of a 
sugar-cane which lies between 
two knots. 

Pingo, plur. mapingo, a bar. 

Pingu, fetters, consisting generally 
of two rings and a bar. 

Ptnt, plur. mapiniy a haft, a hilt. 

Pipa, plur. moptpo, a barrel, tub, 
cask, pipe. 

Pipya, new. See -pya, 

Pirikana ku-, to be sti-ong and well 
knit 

Pisha ku-, to make to pass, espe- 
cially witliout intending to do so, 
let pass, make way for. 

PishaHa ku-, to pass while going 
opposite ways. 

PitfAt, a weight of about 6 lbs. = 4 
vibaJm. 

Puho, cautery, marks of cautery. 

Pisiy parch^ maize. 

Pisi = Fiat. 

Pistoa ku; to become silly, to doto. 

Pita ku, to pass, surpass, excel. 

Pitiaha ku; to -make to pass; to 

PHSS. 

Po, -po, or -po-, a particle signifying 
where, or when, while, as, if. 

Po pote, everywhere, wherever. 
Poa ku-, to become cool, to become 
Podo, a quiver. [well. 

Po/u, plur. mapo/u, scum, bubble, 

froth. 
Po/ua ku-, to spoil the eyes, to make 

blind. 
Pofuka ku-, to have the eyes spoilt, 

to become blind. 



poa 



1>0T 



373 



Poffo, on one sule. 
Ktoenda pogo, to go onosideclly, 
not straight. 
rotntOf the vrist-Btitching of a 

coat. 
Poka ku-y to take suddenly and 
violently, to rob. 
Kupoktoa, to be robbed. 
Fokea Xm-, to receive, to take from 

some one else. 
Pokelea ku-, to receive for or on 

account of anotlicr. 
^okezana feu-, to go on with by 

turns. 
PoJcezanya ku-, to shift a burden or 
work from one to another as each 
gets tired. 
Pokonya Xn»-, to snatch away, to 

extort 
Pole, a little, slightly. 

Amengua poU, he is not very well. 
Polepole, gently, moderately,quiet1y. 
Pmnhe, native beer. 
Pfmhoo, a porpoise. 
Pomoka ku-, to &11 in, tO cave in. 

See BomokcL, 
Pomosha ku-» to cause to full in. 
Pona ktt'f to get well, to become 

safe. 
Ptmda ku-f to pound, to beat up, to 

crush. 
Pondeka ku-, to be crushed. 
Pondekana /!ru-, to crush and bruise 
one another, as mtama stalks do 
after much rain and wind. 
PonOt a kind of fish said to bo 
nearly always asleep. 
Ana utingizi kama pono, he is 
never awake. 
Ponoa kif-t to strip off. 
Ponya 7ai-, to moke well, to cure, 
to save. 
Jiponyel Lookout! 



Ponyeska ftu-, to cause to be made 

well, to cure. 
Ponyoka kth, to slip off, slip out of 

one's hands. 
Ponxa ku', to put in danger. 
PoopoOy a bullet, a musket ball. 
Poozcty plur. mapooza, a thing which 

never comes to perfection. 
Pooza ku-j to become useless, to 
wither and drop. 

Mfoenyi kupooza^ a paralytic 
Poozesha ku'^ to paralyze. 
Popo, a bat 
Popoo, the areoa nut, commonly 

chewed with betel-leaf, lime, and 

tobacco. 
Popotoa ku-j to wring, twist, strain, 

distort 
Popotoka hi-, to be distorted. 
Pora, a young cockerel not yet old 

enough to crow. 
Poroa ku't to cool, to get tliin or 

wateiy. 
Poromoka ftu-, to slip down a steep 

place. Also Boromoka, 
Pom ku't to ask in marriage. 
Posha ku'j to give rations to. 
PoBhoy rations. 
Po8o, a demand in marriage. 
Posoro, an interpreter, a middle* ' 

man. 
PoU, all, of time or place. See 

-o<e. 
Potea ku^y to become lost, to get lost, 
to perish, to become lost U>. 

Kiiu kimenipolea, I have lost my 
knife. 
Potelea ku-, to perish. 

Potdea mbali, go and be hanged. 
Poteza ku't to cause to be lost, to 

cause to perish. 
Poloa Jfett-, to go crooked, tci turn 
aside. See Jipotoa* 



874 



• POT 



-pofoe, obetmate, good for nothtef . 
Poteka ku-f to become oiooked* to 

be turned and twisted. 
Povtt, Bonm, skimmmgs, bubble, 

froth. 
Potnika fa*- = Pofuka fai-, to be- 

oome blind. 
Poga fai-, to cure, to eool by lading 

np and pouring back again. 
Puo, the nofle, the apes of an arch. 

Mwanzi toa pua, the diviBion 
between the nostrilB, the nos- 
triL 
PiMt steel. 

PtM ku-, to shell beans, peas, &0. 
Puyt', a very small kind of dove. 
Pujua ku', 

Kujipujuot to cast off all shame. 
Ptikusa hi-9 to rub the grains off a 

cob of Indian com, to make to 

fall off, to shake fruit from a tree, 

to throw coins among a crowd, 

Pukuie. 
Pukwte ya %DdH rice so cooked 
that the grains are dry and 
separate. 

Pukutika &«-, to shed, to drop like 

leaves in autumn. 
' Pulika hm-f to hear, to attend to 
(A.). 

Ptdikana h^, to hear one another. 

Puliza ku-, to puff or blow with the 
mouth. Also, to let go an anchor, 
to let down a bucket into a well. 

Ptdiki, a spangle, spangles. 

PuZnItt, plnr. maptdulu, wilderness, 
waste country. 

Pvibmi or Pvlulunit in the wilder- 
ness. 

Puma ku-f to throb. 

Pumhay plur. ntapttmha, a clod, a 
lump. 



PumbcM kur^ to be sluggish about. - 
Pujnbatika ibi*, to become a fooL 
Pumho or pumbu, the scrotum. « 
MapumbUf or kciko za pifmbii, or 
mayayi ya pumbOy testicles. 
Pumuy an asthma, the lungs. 
PumtM ku'f to breatho. 
Pumuziy breath. 
Kupaaza pumuziy to draw in the 

breath, to inspire. 
Kuihusha pumuzi, to breathe out, 
to expire. 
Pumzi = PumtuL 
Pumzika fai-, to rest, to breath one- 
self. 
Purnzikioy plur. mapumzikij, a rest- 
ing-place. 
Puna kWf to peel, scrape, scrape ofll 
Pttnda, a donkey, donkeys. 

Punda mUiay a zebra. 
Pundcy a little more. 

Mrefu pundcy a little longer. 
Punga (sing. Upungd), the flower 
and very first stage of the cocoa- 
nut 
Punga ku-^ to swing, to sway, to 
wave. Swaying the arms in 
walking is thought to give 
elegance to a woman's carriage. 
Kupunga pepOy to expel an evil 

s|mt by music, dancing, Ac 
Kukunga upepoy to be fanned by 
the wind, to beat the air. 
Pungia ku-, to wave to, to beckon 
to. 
Kupungia nguo, to wave a cloth 
up and down by way of beckon- 
ing to soQQie one to come. 
P*unguy a kind of fish, a large bird 

of prey. • 

Pungua ku-^ to diminish, waste, 

wear away. 
Punguanif a defect (M.). 



tUN 

Punguka Jcth, to become smaller, to 

fall short. 
Pnnguza ku-^ to diminish, to make 
less, to lessen. 

Kupunguza tango, to reef a sail. 
Punja hu-^ to swindle, to sell a 

little for the price of a large 

quantity. 
Punje, grains of com. 
PftOf nonsense. 
Pupa^ eagerness, excessive rapidity. 

Kvla hwa pupa, to eat so vora- 
cionsly that one's companions 
get little or none. 
Puputika ha-, to fall in a shower. 
Pura Aju-, to beat out com. 
Purvka Xw-, to fly ofL 
Purukuska ku-, 

Kujipurukmha, to refuse to 
attend to, to make light of a 
Puta ku', to beat [matter. 

Pulika ku-, to be well beaten. 
Putugali, a fowl [Pemba]. 
Puwoy nonsense. 
Ptiza kWf to talk nonsense, to 

chatter. 
Puzia ku-, to breathe, to blow with 

the month. 
Puztka hu-f to talk nonsense, to be 

detained gossiping. 
PtDa fttt-, to ebb, to become dry. 
Pwaga ku- = KuptDaya, 
Pwai faft-, to be loose, to waggle 

aboat. See Pvoaya, 
Pwani, the shore, on the beach, 

near the shore. 
Pvoaya kur, to give a final cleaning 

to rice by repounding it. 
Pwaya ku-, to bo loose (of clothes). 
Pwayika Xni- to be quite clear of 

husks, dirt, and dust. 
PwuM ku-f to cook mukogo cut np 

into small pieces. 



BAH 



375 



Ptoea ku-, to be dry. 

8auH imenipioea, I am hoarse. 
Pwekee, only, alone (A.). 
PweUka ku-, to be dried np, to be 

^left high and dry. 
Pwewa ku-p to become or be left 
dry. 

Kupwewa na $auti, to become 
hoarae. 
Pweza, a cuttle-fish. 
-pya, new, fresh. It makes *mpya 

with nouns like nyumba ; jipyOf 

with nouns like kasha ; and pipya, 

with nouns of place. 



B. 

B is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabic B is much stronger 
and more grating than the English, 
more so perhaps than even the 
Scotch and Irish r. In Arabic words 
it is correct to give the r this strong 
sound, but in Swahili mouths it 
is generally smoothed down to- 
wards that indeterminate African 
sound which is frequently written 
as an L The Swahili, however, 
often prefer to write and pronounce 
it as a smooth English r. (See L.) 

Badi, a crack of thunder, crashing 

thunder, thunder near at hand. 
Badu = BadL 
Baffj the wall at the back of a ro- 



Bafiki^ plur. rcfiki or marafiki, a 

friend. 
Baka, peace, joy, ease, pleasure. 
Baliani, a pledge, a mortgage. 
Bahisi = BaJchiH, 
Bahman, a chart, a map. 



876 



BAl 



BIS 



Bai ku't to put morsels of food into 
a peraon'g mouth as a mark of 
honour or affection. 

Bajabu, the seventh month of the 
Arab year. It is esteemed a 
sacred month because Moham- 
med's Journey to Jerusalem is 
said to have taken place on the 
27th of it 

BdkhiHf or Ilahisi, cheap. 

Mdkhisisha &«-» to make cheap, to 
undervalue. 

BakSbuha ftu-, to put together, to 
set up and put in order. 

BakSbyuM^ the composition of a 
word. 

BamaJQiani^ the month of fustin<;. 

Bamba^ plur. marawha^ a piece of 
Madagascar grass cloth. 

Bawha fttt-, to lick. 

BavdtcL, a chisel-shaped knife used 
by shoemakers. 

Bandiy sand (Ar.). 
Kupiga rairdit to divine by dia- 
grams. 

Bammu, sadness. 

BancUiy a plane. 
Kupiga randa, to plane. 

Banda hu-, to dance for joy. 

Bangif colour, paint 

Barua hu-, to rend, to tear. 

Bos U moZt, chief possession. 

Bashia ftu-, to sprinkle. 

Basif head, cape. 

Bdtabaf wet 

Bdtel, or raUi» a weight of about a 
pound. 

Baihif satisfied, content, gracious, 
approving, approval, blessing. 
Kuioa rathi, to be satisfied, to be 

content with. 
Niufie raihij forgive me» excuse 



KunraOiiy don*t be offendc^d. 
Bathiana Xni-, to consent, assent. 
Batibu ku-, to arrange. 
BaiU = BdteL 
Bau9i ku-y to trim a saiL 
Bayia^ a subject, subjects. 

Bayiatal Ingrez, British subjects. 
Be or Beif the ace in cards. 
Bea or Bealcj a dollar. 

Beale ya ihahabu, an Ameiican 
gold 20-dollar piece. 

Beale Fransa or ya Kifransa^ a 
French 5-franc piece. 

Beale ya Sham oiFetha ya Sham^ 
blade doHars. 
•refut long. It makes nde/u with 

nouns like nyumba. 
Begea ku- = Bejea ku^, 
Begea k^ or Legea &tt-, to be loose, 

slack, relaxed, feeble. 
Begesha ku- or Begeza ftu^, to loosen, 

to relax. 
Uthani = Bahani. 

Kuioeka rehani, to pawn. 
Behemoj mercy. 

Behemu ku-, to have mercy upon« 
JBet =i Be, 

Bejea ku-, to go back, return, refer. 
Bejega ku-, to make to go back, to 

repay. 
Bekahuha hu-, to put on the top of. 
Belcebu ku-, to ride. 
•remot Portuguese. 
BUmni, a scented herb, sweet basil. 
„ ya hipata, with. notched 

leaves. 
M ya kiajjemi, with long 
straight leaves. 
Binga kU" = Kulinga, to sway to 

the tune of a song (only the chief 

men may do this). 
Bisaei, lead. Also Lieaei, 

Biioei ya hunduki, a bullet. 



RIS 

RUivm hu-^ to make a first bid 

when anything is offered for sale. 
Uiilii Aju-, to inherit (-^»- as in thing). 
Itii]i%a hu' {'th- as in this), to be 

contented with, to acquiesce in. 
Jlithika hu'9 to satisfy, to content 
Jiiza, a door chain. 
Rizihi^ necessaries, all that a man 

has need of. 
BobOy a quarter, a quarter of a 
dollar. 

Boho Lvgreza^ an English sore- 
reign. 
lidbotat a packet or parcel of goods. 
lioda, sheave of a pulley. 
HqfycL 

Kupiga rofyoj to fillip. 
JlohOf soul, spirit, breath, life. 
Jioho, greediness, the throat. 
Jiubanit o. pilot, a guide. 
Pudi ht-, to returu, to go back, to 

correct, to keep in order. 
Budiana ku-, to object to. 
Rudika hu-, to be made to return, to 

be kept in order, to be capable of 

being kept in order. 
Ruduha ku-, to make to return, to 

give back, to send back. 
Budu/ya ku-^ to double. 
Bufuft the shelf in a recess. 
Jluhiua = Buksa^ leave. 
BuJiuaa ku- = Bukhu8u ku-^ to give 
Buka ku-t to fly, to leap. [leave. 
BuKaruka ku-, to hop. 
Bukia ku', to fly or leap with, &c. 
BukM, or Buhusay or BukhuMf leave, 
permission, liberty.* 

Kupa rukm^ to give leave, to set 
at liberty, to dismiss. 

Bukta^ you can go. 
Bukkuiu &fi- or Buhutu ^u-, to give 

leave, to permit, to ^Uow, to dis- 



8 377 

Bukhuihu ku; to run. 

Buktoa ku-, 
Kurukvja na ak%l% to lose one's 
senses, to be stunned. 

Bunguy a club, a mace. 

BupiOf a rupee. 

Bupta =s BobotOy a bale. 

Bu8€ui = Biscuiy lead. 

Busha ku-y to make to fly, to throw 
up or off, to throw a rider, to 
splash about 

Bmhia ku-^ to throw upon, to splash 

BushwOi a bribe. 

Butuha, dampness. 

Butvbika hk-, to be damp. 

Butvbiaha ku-y to make damp. 

JBuiMwa, a pattern from which any- 
thing is to be made. 

Buzuku ku-y to supply with needful 
things, especially of God provid- 
ing for His creatures. 



8 is pronounced as in 9tteraly or 
like the m in Gorman. 

Sh is pronounced as in English, 
or like sch in German. 

8 and th are distinct in Arabic 
and are generally distinguished in 
good Swahili. There are, however, 
many words in which they are used 
indifferently, and in common talk 
the ih seems to be rather the more 
common. Many natives seem un« 
conscious of any difference between 
them. 

8 is used for the Arable tha by 
persons who cannot pronounce ih» 

In the Pemba dialect ih is oftct 
used for e&. 

Moihungtoa ^ MaehuriQwn 



378 



SAA 



SAK 



Sattf hour, clock, watch. 

Saa ngapil what o'clock is it? 
According to Arab reckoning 
the day begins at sunset. Mid- 
night is imku saa ya sita; four 
A.H. ioa a kumi; six am. 9aa 
a ihenashara; noon, Baa a sUa. 
Saa! You! I say! You now I 

Njoo 9aa / Come along, do ! 
Saa kt^f to remain over, to bo left. 
Sacda, plur. masaalckf a question. 
SaandOj a shroud, a finding-sheet. 
Saba, or Saha'a, seven. 

Ya saboj seventh. 
SabaOj a stay (in a dhow> 
Sahabu, cause, reason. 

Kwa idbabu ya^ because of, be- 
cause. 
Sabainiy seventy, s SabioinU 
SabaiasharOf seventeen. 
Sabuniy soap. 
Sabuni ku-, to bid, to be in treaty, 

to buy. 
Saburi, patience. 
Saburi k^-, to wait. 
Sabwinif seventy. 
SadaJca, an offering, an alms, an act 

of charity, anything done for the 

love of God. 
Sadihi hur^ to believe. 
Safari^ a journey, a voyage, used for 
•♦tune" or "turn." 

Safari hit, this time. 
Saff, serene. 
Safi, pure, clean. 
Safi 2ni-, to clean. 
Safidi 2»»-, to. dear up, to make 

smooth and neat. 
Safihi, rudeness 
Safika kvh, to be purified. 
Safina (Ar.), a vessel. 
Safiri ku- to travel, to set out on a 

journey, sail, start 



Saflrisha /fu-, to make to travel, to 

see any one off. 
Safisha ku-^ to make pure or tslcan. 
Safu^ a row, rows, a line. 

Safu za kaidctf regular rows. 
SafurOf biliousness, gall, a oom« 

plaint in which people take to 

eating earth. 
Saga ku-, to grind. 

Kusagtoa na gari, to be run over 
by a cart. 
Sagai, a spear, a javelin. 
Sagia ku-, to grind with or for. 

Mawe ya huagiOy millstones, a 
mill, a handmill. Two loose 
stones are often used, the upper 
one is called mwanop and tlie 
lower manuu 
SaMnif a dish. 

SahaHy checked stuff for turbans. 
Sdhau kip- or Sahao 2;u-, to forget, to 

make a mistake. 
Sd!iauUu>a ktihf to be forgotten. 
Sahib, sir. 
SahibUf a friend. 
SahUi. 

Kutia 8(ihtli, to sign. 
Sahthi, correct, right. 
Sdhihi ku^t to be correct, to be 

riglit. 
SaMhUha X^n-, to correct. 
Saili Xm-, to ask, to question. 
SaUia ku-^ to ask on behalf of. 
Saka ku-^ to hunt 
Sakafu, a chunammed floor, a floor 

or roof of stone, covered with 

a mixture of lime and sand, and 

beaten for about three days with 

small wooden rammers. 
Sakama ku-, to become jammed, to 
Sakani, a rudder. [stick fast 

Saki Aftt-, to come close to, to touch, 

to come home. 



8 AK 



BEL 



379 



Sdkifu &W-, to make a ehunammed 

floor or roof. 
£^Za, prayer, the prescribed Moham- 
medan form of devotion includ- 
ing the proper gestures. 
Sdlaama = Salama, 
SaJaam^ or Sataamu^ or Salamu, 
compliments, safety, peace. 
Kupiga mizinga ya Kdamu, to 
fire a salute. 
Sahhisha Jcu-, or SekJiisha^ or Sidu- 

hishOf to make to be at peace. 
Salala, the meat near the backbone, 

the undercut of meat 
Salama, safe, safety. 
Salt ku-p to use the regular Moham- 
medan devotions, to say one's 
prayers. 
Scdia ku'f to be left, to remain. 
Salimu ku-^ to salute. 
Salimia ftu-, to salute, to send oom- 

pliments to. 
Saliti hV', to betray secrets. 
Saluda^ a sweetmeat made of saffron, 

sugar, and starch. 
Sama hth, to choke, to be choked. 
Samadi, manure. 
Samaki, a fish, fish. 
Samanif tools, instruments, ma- 
chine. 
Samawati, the heavens. 
Samawif blae, sky colour. 
Sanibusaf a little pasty. 
Samehe ku-, to forgive, to pass over. 
Samiri ku-^ to load a gun. 
8a*mUj ghee, clarified butter. 
SanOf very, much. It is used to 
intensify any action. 
8ema sana, speak loud. . 
Vuta saTia, pull hard. 
Sanamakif senna, 

^namUf ari image, a likeness, a 
etatucy a picture, an idol. 



SandaUy sandal wood. 
SandaruH^ gum copal, gum amiui. 
Sandvkup a chest, a box. 
Saniki kii-, to make excuse. 
Sapa ku-t to tout for customers. , 
Sarafu, a small coin. 
Sari/a or Sarf^ exchange, rate of 
exchange. 
Sari/a gani ya niji tasa i What 
is the current rate of exchange ? 
Sari/u kth^ to use words well and 

correctly. 
Sdrufp grammar. 

Sarufup a small gold plate with a 
devout inscription, worn on the 
forehead as an ornament 
Sasa, now. 

Sasa hiviy directly, at once. 
Sataranji, chess. 
SatUi, voice, sound, noise, 
8aiD<i, equal, right, just 
KUu kisiohokuka sawa naye, some- 
thing unworthy of him. 
Sawanisha ku-y to make alike, 

equal, even, &o. 
Sawasatoa^ like, alike, even, all the 

same, level, smooth, equal. 
Sawatoa, peas (Yao.). 
SawazUka kuf^ to make equal or 

alike. 
'Sayara, gentle, quiet, long-suffering. 
Sayidla fct*-, to help. 
Sayili kti- = Saili kvh* 
Saza ku-f to leave over, to make 

to remain. 
Sazia ku-, to leave for. 
S^mbu = Sababu, cause, reason. 
Seibula or Sebule, reception room, 

parlour. 
Seflutif a poultice* 
Sehemu, part, share, dividend. 
SekenekOj syphilis. 
Selaha, a weapon. 



380 



BEL 



dUA 



Kupa selcLhoif to arm. 
Selehuiha htit- = Suluhisha, to make 
to be at peace, to mediate be- 
tween. 
Selimu hu- or SiUtm htt-^ to capitu- 
late. 
Sema ku-t to say, to talk, to speak. 

Sema sana, speak out. 
Semadariy a bedstead, specially of 

the Indian pattern. 
Sembuse, much less. 
Semea fcu-, to say about 
Kusemea puani, to talk through 
the nose. 
Sem^i = Shemegi, 
/Sbia,akiDdofrice. 
Sengenya /«»-, to make secret sijms of 
contempt about some one who is 
Senturi, a musical box. [present. 
Sera, a rampart 

Serhali or Berikali, the court, the 
government. 
Mtu tea tterikalij a man in go- 
vernment employ. 
SemdUif a carpenter. 
iSertt/i» an Arab saddle. 
Seaemif blackwood. 
Seta ku'f to cruch. 
Setaaeta ht$-, to crush np, to break 

into fragments. 
Seiif the seven in cards. 
Setirika, &o. See Stirika, &0. 
Stttitih sixty. 
SeUiri, an iron (?). 
SeUiri fct*-, or Setiri, or 5i«n', to 
cover, to conceal, to hide, to atone 
for. 
Seuze, much less, much more. Also 

Sembuu. 
Seyedioy lordly, belonging to the 

Seyed. 
Seyedina (Ar.), our lord,* your ma- 
jesty. 



Sezo, an adze. 

Shaabanif the eighth month of the 

Arab year. 
Shaba, copper, brass. 
Shabaha, aim. 

Kuiwaa shabaha, to take aim. 
ShabahOf Uket 
Nyama shdbaha mbwot an animal 
like a dog. 
ShdbbUy alum. 
Shahuka, a snare. 
ShaddOf a tassel. See Kantn, 
Shahj a chess king. 
Shaha, the heart of the ooeoa-nui 

tree. 
SJiahada, ihe Mohammedan confos* 

sion of faith. Also Ueliahaila, 
Shahamu, fat 
Shdhatoa (obscene), semen. 
ShaJUdi, plur. moihdlwli, a witncsi, 

a martyr. 
ShaQm (Ar.), an old person. 

Shaibu lajuxi, exceedingly old. 
Shairi, a line of poetry. ^ 

plur. mashairi, verses, a poem. 
Shako, a bush. 

ShakOf plur. vfuuihaka, a doubt 
Shake, 

Kuingia na thake ya kidia, to sob. 
Shali, a shawl. 
Sham, Syria, Damascus. 

Fetha ya Sham, German dollars. 
Shamba, plur. mashamba, a planta- 
tion, a farm, a piece of land in 
the country. 
Shambtdia ku-, to attadc 
Shamua ku^ to sneeze. Also 8hw 

mtuu 

Shafiga, a town near Melinda, long 

Shanga, [since ruined* 

MiMna ahanga, a northerly wind, 

not so strong or persistent ap 

the regular kaskwsi. 



gHA 



SHI 



381 



BhangoA ku* or Sangcta 2;u-, to be 

astonished, to stand and stare, to 

stop short. 
Bhangaza &ff-, to astound, to as- 
tonish. 
Shangazi, plnr. mcuihangazi, an annt. 
ShangUia lewy to make rejoicings 

for, to go to meet with music and 

shouting, to be glad about 
Shangwif triumph, shouting and 

joy, an ornament of gold worn bj 

women between the shoulders. 
Shanijtk startling, unexpected event. 
Shanutiy plur. nuM^antfu, a oomb, a 

large coarse wooden oomb. 
Sharbu, a moustache. 
Sharif evil, the opposite of Eeri. 
Sharia = ShericL 
Shariki Am-, to share, to be partners 

in. 
Shankia hu-^ to share with, to be in 

partnership with. 
Sharikiana hu^, to be partners, to 

share together. 
Sharti, or Sharutij or ShurtUij or 
Shutij a contract, of obligatioUt 
of necessity, must Also, the 
downhaul of a dhow-sail, a 
truss. 

Kufanya aharti, to bind oneself. 
ShaiorumOt shawl for the waist 
ShavkOf love, exceeding fondness, 

strong desire, will. 
Shaurit plur. nuuhaurif advice, 
counsel, plan. 

Kufanya thauri^ to consult to- 
gether. 

Kupa ihaurif to advise. 
Shawi = Tawi, 
Shawithi kn-, to persuade, to coax 

over. 
Bhayiri^ barley, 
^eieno, cargo. 



Sheitanit Satan, the devil, a devil, 
excessively clever. 

SheUt, a black veil. 

ShdaJbklOf as it stands, in a lot, with 
all defects. 

ShdeU Xrt»-, to run a seam. 

SheOsy plur. mashelle, a shell. 

Shema (Ar.X bees-wax. 

Shefoali (Ar.X the left, the north 
(because to the left of a person 
looking east) ; the Persian Gulf, 
Arabs (because to the north of 
Muscat) ; mist (because it comes 
on in the Persian Gulf with a 
northerly wind). 

Shembea, a kind of curved knife. 

Shemegi, a brother or sister-in- 
law. 

Sfiena (Ar.), orchilla weed. 

SheriOt law. 

SheriZt glue. 

Shetanif plur. masheiani = Sheitani, 

Shetrif the poop of a dhow. 

Shtba ku-f to have had enough to 
eat, to be full, to be satisfied. 

Shibiri or Shibri, a span. 

Shibitha Am-, to fill with food, to 
satisfy with food. 

Shidda, difficulty, distress. 

Shtka ku-, to lay hold of, to hold 
fast, to keep, to determine. 
Kwihika njia, to take one's way, 

to set out 
Shika lakoy mind your own busi- 
ness. 
Shika ras (U, steer for that point 

Shikamana ku-, to cleave together. 

Shtkana ku-, to clasp, to grapple, to 
stick together. 

Shikia, a rudder, a thing to lay hold 
of. See Sikio. 

Shikiza kur, to prop up. 

$hUamUf the stem leading to the 
20 



382 



8HI 



8HU 



mouthpiece in a native pipe. 

SeeKiko. 
Shimo, plur. mcuihimOf a pit, an ex- 
cavation, a large hole. 
Shina^ plur. mashinaf a stump, a 

trunk, a main root. 
ShindakU'tio overoome, to conquer, 
to staj, to continue at. 

M€0i yathinda, it i« half full of 
water. 

Ameliwenda thindOf he is gone 
out for the day. 

Akcuhinda katiy and he went on 
at his work. 
Shindana hu-f to dispute, strive 

with, race. 
Shindania ku-, to bet, to oppose, to 

object ta 
ShindanOf plur. mashindanOf a race. 

See Sindano, 
Shindika kth^ or Sindika, to shut, to 
put to, to press in a mill. 

Kutihindika mafuta ya nozt, to 
grind cocoa-nuts into oil. 
SIdndikia ku-, to show anj one out, 

to escort a person on his way. 

See SindikizcL, 
Shindilia ku- to press, to load a gun. 
Shindo, a shock. 
Shingari, a consort, a dhow sailing 

in company with another. # 
Shingari ku-, to sail in company (of 

dhows). 
ShingOf plur. mashingo, the neck. 
Shinikizo or Stnikizo, a press. 
Shircui^ Shiraz, from Shiraz. Per* 

sian work is generally called 

shircuu 
Shishwa ku^^ to be weaned. 
Shitumu hh, to insult See SIiu- 

tumu, 
ShogOf a friend ; used only by wo- , 

men in speaking of or to one an>l 



other. In Zanzibar they rarely 

employ any other word. At 

Lamoo shoga means a catamite. 
Shogi^ panniers, a large matting bag 

with the opening across the 

middle, so as to form two bags 

when laid across a donkey's back. 
Shoi s Shogi, 
SJioka, plur. mcuhoka, an axe. 

Shoka la hapa, an adze. 

Slioka la tias, an axe (Mer.). 

Slioka la pwa, an adze (Mer.). 
Shola^ an ear of corn, a head of 
Shona ku; to sew. [grass. 

Shonea kwt to mend for, to sow for, 

with, &o. 
SJtonuka leu-, to become unsown. 
Sliote. 

Ktoenda shote^ to go with a rush. 
Shoto, 

Wa kwihoio, left. 

Ana shoto, he is left-handed. 
Shtaki /«:«-, to prosecute, to ohar^ 

to accuse. 
Shtua ku'y to startle, to tickle^ 809 

Stwiha, 
Shtuka ku-f to be startled, to start 
Shua ku-f to launch. Pass, kushu^ 

liuja. 
Shuba, the elders of a town. 
Shubaka, plur. mashubaka^ a rcoesa 

in a wall. 
ShudUy what is left when the oil has 

been ground out of semsem seed. 
Shughuli, business^ affairs, occupa- 
tion, engagement 
ShughuUka it*-, to be occupied, to 

be worried. 
Shughulitha ku-, to occupy, to dis- 

tmct attention, to interrupt 
Shuhuda, testimony. 
Shuhudia ku-, to bear y^itness abou^ 

for, or against. 



SHU 



-SIP 



383 



Shtihudu hWf to bear witnesi. 

Shuhuli. 
Shuhuti ya hUoUa ehanit a small 
piece of wood used by shoe- 
makers in cutting strips of 
coloured leather. 

Shujactf plur. maihujodi, a hero, a 
brave man. 

Shuka, a sheet 

Shuka hthf to descend, go down, 
come down, be let down, to land 
from a ship. 

Shuke, the flower of Indian com. 

Shukranif gratitude. 

Shuku 2(tt-, to suspect. 

Shukuru, thanks. 

Shukuru hu-t to thank. This word 
is very rarely used in Zanzibar, 
except in relation to God; and 
hushuJcuru Muungu means almost 
always, to take comfort, to leave 
off mourning, or to become re- 
signed. 

Shuliwa ku'f to be launched. 

Shumua ku-, to sneeze. 

Shumviy salt [Pemba]. See Chumvi, 

SJmnga kthf to drive away, to scare. 

Shungif a crest, long hair (?). 
Shungi mbiU, a way of diessing 
the hair in two masses. 

ShupatUf plur. mcuhupatu, a narrow 
strip of matting. The broader are 
sewn together to make floor mats, 
the narrower are interlaced to 
moke the native couch or bed- 
stead. 

Sliupcuaf spades (in cards). 

^urOf saltpetre. 

Shuruti = Sharti, of necessity. 

Shurutiza ku-^ to compel, to force. 
AlishwnUizwa ndani, he was 
pushed in. 

ShwJ^ Jf^-^ \o let down, to make to 



descend, to land goods from a 
ship. 
Kushusha pu*mtif to breathe out, 
an expiration. 
Shuti or Shuuti = Sharti^ of neces- 
Shuiumiwa ku-, to be reviled, [sity. 
Shutumu ku^f to revile. 
Shwali or Shwari, a calm. 
Si, not. 
Si vema, not wclL 
Si uza, sell not. 
£^t, is or are not. 
itfimt n ndtani, 1 am not a sultan ; 

or. Am I not a sultan ? 
^t yeye, it is not he or him. 
Si-f the opposite of ndt-, expressing. 
This is not it Is not this it ? 
Simif Sisisif 

Sitoef Sinyi, 

Stye, Sio, Hvyo, nyo^ 

Sio, Hyo, sUoj Sizo, nmo, 
Sicho, npo, nko. 
Si-, sign of the first person negative. 
Sikvhali, 1 do not consent 
Stkvikubali, 1 did not consent 
Sitakvbali, 1 shall not consent 
In the present tense the final 
letter of verbs in -a becomes -t. 
Sioni, I do not see. 
-«<- inserted between the personal 
prefix and the verb, is the sig^ 
of the negative imperative or 
subjunctive, the final letter of 
verbs in -a becoming an -e. 
JVtraona, that I may not see, let 
me not see, or without my 
seeing. 
'H', sign of the negative in ex- 
pressing relation. 
Asia, he who is or was not, or 
who will not be. Also Asiye. 
•npo; sign of the tense expressing 
not being, 

2 2 



384 



SIA 



SIK 



AtipootM, he not seeing, if he 
does not see, though he does 
not see, without his seeing, 
when he sees not. 

8ia Itu-y to give a sentence, lo pro- 
uounoe as with authority, to de- 
clare. 

Siafu, a large reddish brown ant, 
that travels in great numbers 
and bites fiercely. 

Siagi, cream, butter. 

8ibu hu-f to get, io succeed. See 
8ubu. 

Bifa, praise, character, character- 
istic. 

Si/araf a kind of rice. 

8ifu hu-f to praise. Pass, htsifitett, 
KuJisifUf to magnify oneself, to 

boast. 
Ku8i/u*mnOf io overpraise, to 
flatter. 

SifuU (a term of reproach), a med- 
dlesome fooL 

Si/uruy a cypher, a figure of nought 

Si^ia ktht to tack (in needlework). 

8ihi ku-t to entreat 

Sijafuy the cuff, the hem. See 
Kanzu. 

Sijambo, I am well. The invariable 
answer to hu Janibof how are 
you? 
8i Janibo punde^ I am a little 
better. 

SHcamo or SikamoOt for Naahika 
mguu, the salutation of a slave 
to a master. 

9(kif vinegar. 

Sikia ku-t to hear, to obey, to under- 
stand. 

Sikilia Xni-, to listen to, to attend to. 

SikUiana Xrt»-, to be heard, to be 
audiblei. 

SikiHza /cu-, to listen, to listen to. 



StkUizana ku-, to hear one another. 

Bikio or Shikio, plnr. madkio^ the 
ear. 

BikUika ku-, to be sorry. 

Sikitikia ^, to be sorry for, to pity. 

StkitikOf plnr. moHkittkOf sorrow, 
grief. 

SikitUha kthf to make sorry. 

Stkiza kth, to make to hear, under- 
stand, &0, 

Sikizana ^u-, to be mutually intel- 
ligible, to make one another hear. 

SUtUt a day of twenty-four hours, 
from sunset to sunset, days. 
Siku huu^ a great day, a feast 
The two great feasts are the 
three days at the end of the 
Bamathan, when every one 
makes presents, and three days 
after the tenth of Thil hajj or 
Mfunguo wa tatu^ when every 
one ought to slaughter some 
animal, and feast the poor. 
Siku a mwaJca (see Mwongo^ 
Kigunzi), the Nainu, about the 
23rd of August, the beginning 
of the Swahili and nautical 
year. The old custom is for 
every one, but especially the 
women, to bathe in the sea 
in the night or morning : then 
they cook a great mess of grain 
and pulse, which is eaten about 
noon by all who like to come. 
The fii«s are all extinguished 
and lighted again by rubbing 
two pieces of wood together. 
Formerly no inquiry was made 
as to any murder or violence 
oommitted on this day, and old 
quarrels used regularly to be 
fought out upon it 
Siku wU^ always. 



SIL 



81T 



385 



Stlthi hh, to ImpiOYO, to reform* 

SUihUfha hWf to make to improve* 
to reform. 

Silimu hthf to. become a Moham- 
medan. 

Simama ku-, to stand up, to come 
to a stand, to stop, to be erect, 
to stand in, to cost 

Simamia hu-, to stand by, to oyer- 
look workmen, to cost to. 

Simamisha 2;u-, to make to stand. 

Simanga kth, to crow over, boast 
against. 

Simanzij grief, beavincsi. 

Simbci^ a lion, lions. 

8imba uranga, a well-known man- 
grove swamp at the mouth of 
the Lufiji. 

Simhalit a kind of wood brought 
from near Gape Pelgado. 

8ime, a short straight sword used 
on the mainland. 

Simika hu-j to be erect, to be set 
up, to stand (often used in an 
obscene sense). 

Simikia kih, 
KuHmihia mtango^ to set up and 
build in a door. 

Simikiaha ku-^ to set up. 

Simillaf Simille^ SimUeniy probably 

for BiimiUah, the common cry 

in Zanzibar, meaning, make 

way, out of the way. 

Similla punda, make way for a 

donkey. 
SimiUa ubau, make way for a 
plank. 

8im6y I am not in it, am not con- 
cerned, have nothing to do wilh 
it 

8imo, 
Simo hit H njema, this event is 
not good. 



Imeingia simo mpya^ something 
new has turned up. 
Simu, the electiic telegraph. 
Sindano^ a needle (or ahindano). 
SindanOf a kind of rice. 
Sindi, a long-tailed weaseL 
Sindikia Aru-, to crush. 
Sindikiza kit-t to accompany part of 

the way. 
Sindua ku-^ to open, to set open. 
Singa, hair of an animal. 

Nyele za Hnga, straight haii^ 
European hair. 
Singa ku-^ to scent, to put scent 
Singizia kth, to slander, to spread 

false reports about 
Sinif China. 
Sinty no matter. 
Sinict, plur. masinia, a circular tray 

used to carry and set out food 

up^Qy generally of copper tinned. 
Sinikiza Xnc-, to press. 
^nzia ku-j to doze, to nod, to flicker. 
sipo-^ sign of the tense signifying 

the case of the thing mentioned 

not being. 
Siri, secrecy. 

Mamho ya Hri, secret affairs, 
secrets. 

Kioa «tr*, 'secretly. 
Sui, we, us. Sometimes pronounced 
stoiswif misuif or stnci, 

8iH toUf all of us. 

Sisi wote^ both of us. 
Sisimia feu-, to sigh (?). 
Shimizif ants (?). 
SisiUza ku- (M.), to charge strictly, 

to charge to keep secret 
8ita, six. 

Va Hta, sixth. 
SUa ku-f to halt, to go lame (A.), to 

hide. 
Sitaha, the deck. 



886 



SIT 



8TA 



Sitashara^ Bixteem, 
Sitavoi hu'i to flourish. 

Ngoma ipi imesUavoiy which dance 
is going host? 
Sitanoisha hu-^ to make to flourish. 
Sitij whistle (of a steamer or 
Sittit my lady, lady, [engine). 

S<Uina^ our lady. Applied by the 
Arabs to St. Mary. 
Sivimqja, different. 
Sivyo, it is not thus. See 8i'. 
SiwOj an ivory horn only used on 

great occasions. 
Siioeziy I am not well. See Weza hu-, 
SiyOf that is not it, no. See Si-, 
Siyu or 8iu, Siwi, the chief town 

of the district near Lamoo, the 

chief seat of old Swahili learning. 
Soda, lunacy. 
Sodo, a woman's napkin. 
SofCf wool. 

Soge, Sogt, Soi, = Shogi, 
Sogea ku', to approach affectionately, 

to come near to. 
Sogeza ku-, to lift to the lips and 

kiss, to bring near to. 
Sogezea hw, to put ready for, to 
' bring for use. 

Seiko, plur. masohot a market, a 
bazaar. 

Kwenda toTeoni, to go marketing. 
Sokota hih, to twist, to plait, to spin. 
Soma JcU'f to read, to perform de- 
votions. 
Soma, plur. meuamaf a kind of dance. 
Somhela hu-, to work oneself along 

on one's hands and seat without 

using the legs. 
Someaha hu-, to teach to road, to 

lead devdlions. 
Somo, plur. masomo, something read, 

used as a title of friendship, a 

namesake. 



Sonda hu-, to suck out. 

Sondo, swelled (?) glands. 

Songa ftu-, to strangle, to sqneeie, 

to stir together. 
Songanatongana hu-, to press against 

one another like sheep in a flock. 
Songea hu-, to push through, to 

shoulder your way through a 
Sonjoa hu', to wring. [crowd. 

Sonya hu- =• Kufyovt/ya, 
Somali, trousers. 
SoBoneha hu-, to be hurt or adte, so 

as to writhe with pain. 
SowneBha hu-^ to make to writhe 

with pain. 
Sole, all ; agreeing with iUi, we or 
us. See -of e. 

Tu 8oli, we are together. 

Twende tote, let us go together. 
Soza hu; to beach a boat or vessel. 
Ssafl or Safi, pure, clean. 
Staajabu hu-, to wonder much, to bo 

greatly astonished. 
Staamani hu-, to have confidence, 

to rest trustfully. 
Stahabu hu-, to be pleased, to prefer. 
Stahamili or StahimUi, patiently. 
Stdhi hu-, to honour, to have respect 

for. 
Stahiba hu- (?), to prefer. See 

Stahabu. 
Stahihi hU', to resemble^ to be of 

one sort with. 
Stahili hf§', to deserve, to be worthy 
of, to be proper, to be right and 
fitting. 

Attahili, serves him right. 
StahimUi hu-, to bear, to endure^ 

tolerate. 
Stahabathi, earnest, fastening penny. 
Stambuli, Constantinople. 
Starehe hu-, to sit still, to be at rest, 
to remain quiet 



STfi 



SUM 



387 



Btarehe! Don't disturb yoarselfl 
don't get np 1 
SterehUha hu-^ to giro rest to, to 

refresh. Also Starehitha, 
Stirika hu-f to be oovered, to be oon- 

cealed. 
Stw^ Jm-f to startle, to sprain, to 

put out of joint 
Subanoj small pieces of meat roasted 

on two parallel sticks. 
Subana, a thimble. 
Subiri, patience. 
Subtri, aloes. 
Svbiri ku-, to wait 
8ubu ku-f to cast in a mould. 
Subu Jktt- or Sibu ftt*-, to happen to. 
Svbuiy morning. 
Subidkheirit good morning. 
Suhuri, patience. 
Svbutu kth = ThvhtUu ku'. 
Suduku kU'9 to ascertain, to know 

the truth* 
Suffy wooL 

Suffi, a devotee, a hermit 
Suffuf, a great yariety or number. 
Suifi, woollen. 
Safuria, copper. 

Su/uria, plur. tufyria or masufuriay 
a metal pot 

Sufuria ya chumaf an iron pot. 
8uguy amark, a callous place. Also, 

obstinate, insensate. 
Sugua ku; to rub, to scrub, to 

brush, to scour. 
Suheli, south. 
Sui, sn irrepressible, unconquer* 

able man. 
Sujudia ku-9 to prostrate oneself to, 

to adore. 
Sujudu ku-f to prostrate oneself, to 

bow down. 
Stiica ktL-, to plait, to dean. 
Sharif sugar. 



Sukari guru, half-made sugar. 
Sukoiuka ku, to shake, to agitate. 
8uke, plur. mamke (or shuke), an 
ear of com, a head of mtama, &o. 
Siikua ku-, to slacken, to loose. 
Sukuma ku-, to push, to urge. 
Sukumi, a steersman, quarter- 
master. 
Sukumiza ku-f to put upon another 
person, to say it is his business,, 
to throw off from oneself, to push 
away in anger, to throw (a thing) 
at a person who wants it Also, 
to avert (by sacrifice, &o,), 
Sukutua ku-, to rinse out the mouth, 

to wash one's mouth* 
SuJtbi ku-j to crucify. 
SulihWha ku-^ to crucify. 
Stdihi ku-, to become, to be fitting 

for* 
Sulika 7;tt-, to turn about, become 

giddy. 
Stdimu ku; to salute. 
SuUanit pliur. masuUani^ a sultan, 
a chief man. SuUani at Zanzi* 
bar does not mean a king; it is 
used of the head men of a vil* 
lage. 
Stdtdn Bum, the Saltan of Turkey. 
Sulubika ku-, to be strong. 
Stduhu, strength, fimmess. 
Suluhisha &ff-, to bring to accord, 

to make peace between. 
Stduhut concord. 
SuiulUf a curlew. 
Sumba 2»»-, to sway away, to twist 

and turn oneself. 
Sumbua ku-, to worry, to annoy, to 

give trouble. 
Sumbuana ftu-, to worry one an* 

other. 
Sumbtika ku-, to be put to trouble^ 
to be harassed, to be annoyed. 



388 



0tM 



iSftiii5tiZta iM-f to speak sharply to. 
Sumbutha hu-^ to vex, harass, 

trouble, worry, annoy. 
Sumuy poison. . 
Sumugh, gum-arabio. 
Sunguray a rabbit (?), a hare (?). 
Sunnif advisable, recommended, a 

tradition, what is advisable or 

recommended, but not compul- 
Sundbari, deal wood. [sory. 

Sunza ku-, to search for anything 

with a lighted brand at night. 
8upaa ku-t to be very hard or dry. 
Supana = Supaci, 
SuTOy a likeness, a resemblance, a 

chapter of the Koran. 
SuricLy plur. matuHc^ a concubine, 

a female slave. 
SurtyamOf bom of a concubine. 
Suruntj an insect that lives in 

cocoa-nut trees. 
SurwaJif trousers. See Sorualt. 
StUy liquorice. 
SusOf a kind of hanging shelf, a 

hammock. 
Bumpaa = Supaa. 
8tUa ku-y to reproach, to charge a 

man with slander, to slander, to 

seek out a man and ask whether 

he has said such and such things. 
Su^udij or Suudi njema, salvation, 

felicity. 
Suza kur, to stir up. Also, to 

rinse. 
Suzia ku'f to turn with (?}. 
Swafi = Safi. 
Stoali, a question* 



T. 

2* is pronounced as In English. 
There are two fa in Arabic, one 
much thicker than the English t. 



but only very careful speakers dis- 
tinguish them in Swahili. 

T at the beginning of a word has 
sometimes an explosive sound, as in 
falca, dirt It is probable that this 
represents a suppressed n. 

There is a slight difference in 
sound between the fa of tatu^ three, 
and tono, five, the former being the 
smoother, but natives do not seem 
conscious of the difference. 

Tin northern Swahili frequently 
becomes eft in the dialect of Zanzi- 
bar. 

Kuteka, to laugh (M.) kttcheka 
(Zanz.). But kuteka^ to plunder, 
or to draw water, does not 
change. 

Kutinda, to slaughter (M.) ku- 
ckinja (Zanz.). 

There is no sound similar to that 
of the English th in the original 
language of Zanzibar. It occurs in 
some dialects of Swahili in place of 
V or c. There are however in 
Arabic four Wa, 1. 2%a, pro- 
nounced like the English th in 
thing. 2. Thaly pronounced like 
the English (h in this. 8 and 4.' 
Thad and Tha* or JHhau, which 
are scarcely distinguished by the 
Arabs themselves, and have a very 
thick variety of the thaX sound. 
Practically the two English Cft's are 
quite sufficient, and the ear soon 
oatehes the right method of employ- 
ing them. 

The Indians and many Africans 
pronounce all these as s. Some 
Swahili confuse the various th*a with 
s, and employ the tkai sound for 
words properly written with a s, aa 
voaXhiri for vsazirif a vizir. 



-TA* 



TAG 



389 



4a-, the sign of the future tense. 
When the relative or the par- 
ticles denoting time and place 
are inserted in the future, the 
prefix regularly hecomes 'taha-. 
It is possihle however to retain 
-to- to express a more definite 
sense. 
Atakuja, he will come. 
Atakayekujaf who will come. 
Atakapokt^iip when he shall 

come. 
Atapolcuja^ when he come, 
or, if he shall come. 
In the first person singular the 
fit-, which is the sign of the 
person, is often dropped. 
Tahuja = NUahuJOf 1 shall 
come. 
Ta- at the beginning of Arabic 
yerbs is the mark of the fourth 
or fifth conjugations or derived 
forms. 
Taa, a lamp, especially the small 
open earthen lamps made in Zan- 
zibar. 
Tact, a large kind of flat fish. 
Taa, beneath one's feet. 
TaMka ku-^ to be troubled. 
TaabUha ku-, to trouble, to annoy. 
SToabtt, trouble. 

Taadabu ku-^ to learn manners. 
TaajdbUiha 2;u-, to make to wonder, 

to astonish. 
Taajdbu ikn-, to wonder, to be as- 
tonished. See StcMJahu, 
Taaiati knh^ to tire. 
Ta'cM ktk-^ to study. 
Taandu^ a centipede. 
Taaiaa ha-^ to throw oneself about. 
Tabakoy lining. 
Tahakdo, a snuff-box. 
TiOnivia^ a pistol (Ar.). 



Tahd89am kfi-^ to smile. 

To&ta, constitution, temper, temper- 
ament, climate. 

TcMna ku-^ to doctor. 

Tabib^ a physician. 

Tabiki ku-^ to line, to close to or 
upon, to cling to as a fust friend. 

TaJlnkizay to make to cling. 

Tabiri Ant-, to foretell, to prophesy. 

Taburudu ku', to refresh. 

Tadariki ftu-, to accept the respon* 
sibility of, to guarantee the result 
of. 

Tadi, violence, hurry. 
Kwenda ktoa tadif to rush, to go 
tumultuously. 

Tadi ku-f to fight with. 

Tafakari kth^ to consider, ponder, 
think. 

Tafdthal or TafatJialiy please, I beg 
of you. 

Taftti kthf to seek out matters 
secretly, to be over-inquisitive. 

Tafgiri kth^ to explain, to interpret 

TafHri, interpretation. 

TafHria ku-t to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 

Tafu (M.) =s Chafu, cheek. 

Ta/uy gastrocnemio muscles. 
Tafu ya mkono, the biceps muscle. 

Tafuna Afu-, to chew, to nibble. 

Ta/uta ku-f to look for, seek, search 
for. 

Tafutatafuta ku-t to search all 
about. 

TqfuUa kft- or Ta/tia, to seek out 
for some one, to look for. 

Tagaa kn-j to straddle, to walk 
with one's legs far apart 

Tage^ plur. matage, bow legs, crook- 
edness. 

Taghafali &»-, to be off one's guard, 
to forget to take notioe. 



390 



TAG 



TAM 



Taghaiari Am-, to be changed. 
Taghi fttf-, to rebel. 
Tagua, branches, main branches. 
Tahafl/Uy gently, in good time, 
light, thin. 

Nguo tahofifu, thin calico. 
Tahamaka ku-, to look np to see 

vhat is going on. 
Tahardki hu-^ to be troubled, to 

be thrown into confusion. 
TdharaJeisha ku-^ to put into a state 

of anxiety, to excite, stimulate. 
Taharizi, See Kanzu, 
Taharuki ftii-, to be troubled, to be 

anxious, to be thrown into oen- 

fusion. Also, Taharalcu 
Tahasia Ini-, to go on board a ship 

with a yiew to sailing. 
Tahaihari ku-^ to beware, to be on 

one's guard. 
TahaOtaruha ku-, to warn. 
Tahayari ku-, to become ashamed. 
Takayaruiha ku-, to shame, to make 

ashamed. 
Tdhidi ku-. 

Ktyitdhidi, to exert oneself, to 
try hard. 
TaUri ku*, to oiroumoise. 
TahtUoj farewell, leayo-taking. 
Taif a large bird of prey, a yulture. 
Tai/tij plur. matai/<if a tribe, a 

nation. 
Tc^'o, hire. 
Taja ku-f to name. 
Taji, a crown. 
TajiHf plur. matajiri, a merchant, 

a rich man, a capitalist, a prin- 
"iaka-. See -io-. [cipaL 

Takch dirt 
TakatakOf rubbish, sundries, small 

articles. 
Tnka ku-, to want, to wish for, to 
ttskfor. 



Kutaka shauriy to seek advice. 
TakahaK ku-^ to accept; used of 

God's hearing prayer. 
Takabathi ku-, to carry on freight. 
TakalxUhhha ku-, to pay freiglit 

for. 
Takdddam ku-, to be in adyance of, 

to get before. 
TakalilM ku-, to be very faint or 

tired. 
TakcLrimUt gift, largess. 
Takiua ftu-, to dean, to make clean 

and clear. 
Takcuika ftu-, to become cleansed. 
Takata Ant-, to become clean and 
clear. 

Uwingu umetakata, the sky is 
clear. 
'takcUi/u^ holy, cleansed. 
Takhari ku-, to stay. 
Taki = Chicha. 
Takiaf plur. matakicif a large 

cushion. • 

Tako, plur. matakOf the buttock. 
Takairif a crime. 
Takura Am-, to scratch, to dig with 

claws or fingers. 
Talakcij divorce. 
Taldssim or TaIa$imUf plur. nuUala' 

nmUf a talisman, a charm, a 

figure divided into squares and 

marked with magic words and 

symbols. 
Tali kw or Ta'aU Acti-, to study. 
Tcdik = TaHk, 
Talisa Am-, to smooth off, to smooth 

up, plaster, &c 
TavMi, but and out, final. 
Tama ku- (M.) = Hama Arti-, to ro» 

move. 
Tama ku-9 to sit, crouch (Tao.). 
Tama. 
Kushika tama, to lean the head 



TAM 

On the hand, leckoned nnluokf 
in Zanzibar. 

TamaOf longing, avarice, greedi- 
ness. 
Kukata tamaa, to despair. 

Tamdlaki fcw-, to be master of. 
Kvjitamdlaki mioenyewe, to be 
one's own master. 

Tamani fci*-, to long for, to lust 
after. 

Tamantka Jcu-, to be liked, to be an 
object of liking. 

Tamba fci*-, to swagger. 

Tambaa hu-t to creep, to crawl. 

Tawln, vermicelli. 

Tambo, a tall man. 

Tamboa, testicles. 

Tambua fct*-, to recognize. 

Tambtdia Aru-, to understand. 

Tambulikana fctt-, to be recogniz- 
able. 

Tarnbutuiha ku-, to make to recog- 
nize, to explain. « 

Tam&ttif. betel leaf chewed with 
areca niit, Ume and tobacco. 

Tambtua ku-, to put a new point or 
edge, to weld on fresh iron or 
steeL 

Tamuha kw- (M.) = Hamisha ku-. 

Ta^mka &«-, to pronounce. 

Tamuy sweetness, flavour, taste. 

•tomtc, sweet, pleasant It makes 
tamu with nouns like nyumba, 

Tamuka ku- = Tc^mka ku-, 

Tamvua, ends or comers of turban 
cloth, &c 

Tana ku-, to divide, to slit, to comb, 
to part 

Tanatana ku-^ to divide up into 
. little bits. 

Tana, a bunchlet of bananas, &c. 
Bananas and plantains grow 
spirally in a large bunch, not con- 



TAN 



391 



tinuously, but in little groups: 

each group is a tana, 
TanahaM ku^, to make up one's 

mind, to know what to do. 
7Vi7ia/tim ibi-, to draw'breath. 
Tanda ku-, to spread, to be spread 
out, to be overcast, to put ropes 
to a native bedstead. 

Kujilanda, to stretch oneself 
across. 
Tandama ku- (?), to surround. 
Tandawaa ku-^ to recline, to loll at 

one's ease. 
TandcLza ktt-, to make flat. 
Tandika Jku-, to spread, to lay out, 

to saddle. 
TandUf long slash^ made on theix 

faces by Makuas and others. 
Tandua ku-y to unsaddle, to take oiT 

harness. 
Tango, plur. matanga or majitanga, 
a sail. The sails of mitepe and 
tnadau are made of matting. 

Tanga mbili, the seasons of 
changeable winds. 

Matanga kati, wind abeam. 

Kukaa matanga, to sit at home 
in sign of mourning, to mourn. 
Tangaa ku-, to come to be known. 
Tangamana ku-, to adjoin. 
Tangamuka ku-, to be cheerful. 
Tangamtuha kn-, to cheer up. 
Tanganya, &c. (M.) = Changanya, 

&c., to mix, to shuffle Oards. 
Tangaianga ku-, to go backwards 

and forwards, to wave. 
Tangawizi, ginger. 
Tangaza ku-, to spread news, to cir- 
culate intelligence. 
Tange^ the trees and rubbish cleared 

off a new plantation. 
TangUha ku-, to make evident 
Tango, plur. matangoy a sort of 



392 



TAN 



TAB 



gourd eaten raw, resembling in 

taste a cacnmber. 
Tanguy since, from. 

Tangu linii Since when? How 
long ago ? 
Tangua 2;u-, to annul, to abolish, to 
separate, untwist, unplait, with- 
draw a promise, &c. 

Kutangua ndoa, to annul a mar- 
riage, to divorce. 
Tanguka ^tf-, to be annulled. 
Tanguhana 2:tf-, to separate. 
Tangidia ^u-, to precede, to go be- 
fore, to go first. 

Nitnetangtdia kuhuambiaf I told 
yon beforehand. 
TanguUfu, advanced. 
Tanij Othman. • 
Tani. 

Kwa tani, backward, on his back. 
Tano or Tanu, five. 

Ya tanOf fifth. 
•tanOf five. 
TantanbettDO, a great bother, a 

woiryi 
Tanua ku, to expand, to spread out, 

to fend off a boat 
Tanuka ku-, to lie on one's back and 

spread oneself out, to sprawl. 
Tanuru or Tanuu^ a clamp for burn- 
ing lime, an oven. 
Tanzi, plur. matanzi, a noose. 
Tanzia^ news of a death. 
Taoy plur. tnatao, an arch, an 

arched opening, a bay. 
Tapa ^u-, to shiver. 

Kujitapa, to magnify oneself, to 
make a great man of oneself. 
TapcUapa ku-^ to jump about like a 

fish when taken out of the water, 

to shiver, to tremble. 
Tapanya 2m-, to scatter, to throw 

about. 



Tapanyatapanya ku-^ to dissipate. 

to waste. 
Tapika ku*, to vomit. 
Tapisha Xn»-, to make to vomit. 
TapisliOf plur. matapishot an emeUo. 
Tapo, plur. matapo^ a detachment, 

a division, a part of an army 

larger than kUcozi, 
Tardbef side piece of a window, 

door of planks. 
TarafUf on the part of. 

Tarafu yoke, on his part. 
Taraja Xni-, to hope. 
Taraihia ku-, to persuade in a 

friendly way. 
TaralUm, carefully, gently, orderly. 
TarattbUf orderliness, an order or 

form. 
TarcLzcL, an edging, a narrow silken 

border usually woven on to tur- 
ban and loin-cloths in Zanzibar. 
TarcLzakej business on a small scale. 
TarazaJU ftu-, to trade in a small 

way. 
Tank, a date, year, Ac., the clew- 
line or bunt-line of a dhow-sail. 

KUabu eka tank, a chronicle. 
Tarimbo = Mtaimbo, an iron bar. 
Tarizi kth, to weave on an edging. 
Tartibu = Taratiba. 
Tasa, a brass basin. 
TatOf a game of touch. 
Tcua, a barren animal. 
Tcuawari ka-, to do with certainty, 
to be fully able. 

HcUcuawari, it is certain that be 
does not do it. 
Tcubihiy Mohammedan beads. 
TasJUUi, good manners. 
Tcuhwuihi, doubt 
TasihUif quickness, quickly. 
Taalimut ready cash. 
ToBM = Tata, 



TAT 



TEK 



393 



Tata. See Matata. 

Ktcenda tatatata^ to toddle. 
Tataga ku-, to go above or over, to 

cross a stream on a tree. 
Tcttana hu-, to be in a tangle, to be 

puzzled. 
Tatanuha ku-^ to tangle, to puzzle. 
Tatanya ftu-, to unravel, disen- 
tangle, solve a riddle. 
Talazana ku-f to be tangled. 
Ta^Aiin, a merchant. 
Tatia ^u-, to wind, to tangle, to 

complicate. 
Tatiza kur, to wind. 
tatUf three. 

Ya tatu, third. 
Tatua ku-, to tear. 
Tatfika ku-^ to bo turn. 
Taumka ku- = Ta^mka hu-. 
Tauni, plague, cholera. 
TauH^ peacock. 
Tavu (A.), the cheek. 
Tawa^ plur. matawa, a frying-pan. 
TauMi, plur. tawOf a louse. 
Tawa ku-t to live secluded (Tao.), to 

tie. 
Tawafa, a candle, candles. 
Tawakali ^u-, to trust in God and 

take courage. 
TawaJtdwakatha, many. 
Tateala ku-, to govern, to rule. 
Tawanya ftu-, to scatter. 
Tatoanyika ku-, to become scattered. 
TavHuihi^ a' eunuch. 
Tavjassuf, temperance. 
Tawaza Xn»-, to make to rule. 
Taioaza Xm-, to wash the feet, to 

perform the ablutions. 
Tawiy plur. matawiy a branch, a 

bough, a bunch, an ear of millet 
Taya, jaw, jawbone. 
Taya ku-, to reproach. 
TayaH^ ready. 



Tayi, obedient 

Tayo, plur. matayo, a reproach, re- 
viling. 
Tazama ku-, to look. 
Tazamia ku-t to look out for. 
Taztoi, forgery. 
Teende la mguu^ Barbadoes leg, 

elephantiasis (?}. 
Tefiia ku'f to reason, to search, to 

throw about. 
Tega ku-^ to set a trap or snare, to 

snare. See Kitendamli. 
Tegea ku-^ to be lame. 
Tegemea ku-, to lean upon, to be 

propped up. 
Tegemeza ku-^ to support. 
TegOf a virulent kind of syphilis. 

supposed to be the effect of a 

charm. 
Tegu, plur. mategUj a tape- worm. 
Tegua ku-, to take a pot off the fire, 

to remove a spell. 
Ttka ku- (M.) = Cheka ku-. 
Teka ku-^ to plunder, to take as 
spoil, to draw water. 

Kuteka *mji, to plunder a town. 

Kuteka ng*omhey to carry off an ox. 

Kuteka maji, to draw water from 
a welL 
Teke^ plur. mateke, a kick. 

Kupiga teke, to kick. 
Tekelea ku-^ to prove true, to come to. 
TekeUza ku-, to perform a promise, 

restore a pledge. 
Tekenya ku-, to tickle in the ribs. 
Tekelea ku-, to be consumed, to be 

burnt away. 
Teketeke^ the soft, somethmg soft 
Ttketeza %tf-, to consume^ to cause 

to be burnt down. 
Tekewa ku-, to become bewildered. 
Tekeza ku-, to run ashore, to < 

to an end, to die. 



394 



TEK 



Tekua ftu-, to priie ap, to toss, to 

throw up out of a noie. 
Tde, plenty, abundantly, abundant. 
Tele, gold laco or braid. 
Telea 2rtt-, to oome down, descend, 

land from. 
Teleha ku-^ to put a pot on the fire. 
Tdemua fctt-, to pull down, to cause 

to slip down. 
Telemuha ku- or Tdemka ftu-, to 

go down a steep place, to go 

quickly down in spite of one's 

self, to slither down. 
TtUmuko, the bed of a river. 
Teleza ku-^ to slip. 
Tema ku-, to slash as with a sword. 
Tema ku-. 

Kutema matey to spit. 
Tembe, a hen full grown but which 

has not yet laid. 
Temhea ku-j to walk about, to take 
a walk. 

Jlfo^o tDangu umetembea, my 
thoughts are wandering. 
TemheHea ku-, to walk about. 
Temheza ku-, to offer for sale by 

auction, to hawk about. 
TemhOf palm wine, wine. 
Tembo, an elephant. 
Te'mJca = Ta*mha, 
Temsif filigree work. 
Tena, afterwards, again, further. 
Tenda ku-, to do, to apply oneself to, 
to act. 

KtUenda xema or vetruif to behave 
well 
Tenda kani, a pole across a dhow to 

fasten the sheet to. 
Tendaufdla, a kind of bird. 
Ttnde, a date, dates. 

Tenda halwa or haluay Arabs 
from the Persian Gulf, who 
ateal slaves by tempting them 



TET 

into their houses with datea 
and sweetstafll 
Tendea ku-, to do to, to behave to, 

to treat. 
Tendegu, plur. matendegu^ the legs 

of a bedstead. 
Tendeka ku-, to be done, to be 

doable. 
Tengoy a sun-fish. 
Tenga ku-^ to separate, to remove. 

Kujitenga, to get out of the way. 
Tengea ku-, to be ready and in 
order. 

DuJca limetengeay the shop is all 
ready and open. 
Tengeka ku-^ to be put on one side. 
Tengelea and Tengeleza = Tengeneza 

and Tengenea. 
Tengenea ku-, to be comfortable, to 

be as it should be. 
Tengeneza fcu-, to finish off, to put 

to rights, to touch up. 
Tengezeka ku-, to be established, 

made right. 
Tengua ku-, to put aside. 
Tepukua ku-, to cut away young 

shoots. 
Tepukuzi, plur. Matepukuzif shoots 

from the root of a tree. 
Tcrewio &«-, to be at ease. 
Tesa ku-f to afflict 

Kuteetoaf to suffer, to be afflicted. 
TeaOf plur. mateso, afflictions, adver- 
sities. 
Teta ku-f to oppose, to strive against, 

to be adverse to, to go to law 

with, to mention disparagingly. 
Tetea ku-^ to cackle like a hen. 
Tetea kw (M.) = Chechea fca-, to 

walk lame. 
Tele ya kujanga, rubeola. 
Tetema ku-, to tremble, to quiver^ 
Tetemea = Cftediemea, 



TBT 



THU 



395 



Teiemeka ilw-, to tremble, to shake, 
to shiver, to quake (as the earth), 
to chatter (of the teeth). 
Teterif a small kind of dove. 
Teteza hu-, to rattle. Also, to lead 

a sick person by the hand. 
Teua ku-j to ohoose, select, pick 

out = Chagua hu-. 
Teuha hu-, to dislocate, to sprain. 
•tetdej choice, chosen. 
Tezama and Tetamia = Tazama and 

Tazamia* 
Ttziy a fibrous tumour, goitre. 
Thabihu, an offering, a sacrifice. 
ThahU, plur. mathabitt firm, brave, 
TlmhahUf gold. [steadfast. 

Thahirif evident, plain. 
TkaMri Xpu-, to make plain, to 

express. 
ThaifUf weak, infirm, bad. 
^Thoio^ three. A\ao Thdaika, Bcxi. 
ThdlaihaicLshara, tliirteelL 
.ThcHaihinij thiity. 
ThaUmu, a fraudulent person, a 

swindler. 
Thdlimu Xm*, to wrong, to defraud. 
Thalili, very low, very poor. 
Thamana (th in this), a surety. 
Thamani (ih in thing), a price. 

Ya ihamanit of price, valuable. 
27tam&t, sin. 
Thdmin, surety. 
Thamini huj to become surety. 
Thamiri, conscience, thought. 
Thani Aw-, to think, to suppose. 
Tkania Jm-, to think of a person, to 

suppose him, to suspect. 
Tharau^ scorn. 
Tliarau ku-, to scorn. 
JTidruhaf (Ar. a stroke), a storm, 
(in arithmetic) multiplication. 
Thdniba mnjc^ ^i one stroke, 
suddenly. 



TJtathu, a kind of jay brought down 

from Unyanyembe. 
Thatcahu, a reward; especially re- 
wards from God. 
ThelathOf &a See ThalaOM, &c. 
Thelimu ku-^ to oppress. 
Thellh, a donkey's canter. 
Thdidh, a third. 
Themaninif eighty. 
Themaninij a linen fabric. 
Themanioihara, eighteen. 
T/iemanya, eight. 
Themuni, an eighth. 
TheruuharOf twelve. 
TheneeUf two. 

Thihaka, ridicule, derision. 
Thihaki ku-, to ridicule, to make 

game of. 
Thihin'iha ku-^ to make clear, to 

declare. 
Thii ku't to be in distress. 
Thitki ht-^ to be put to straits. 
Thili ku^, to abase. 
Thircu^ a measure of about half a 
yard, from the point of the 
elbow to the tips of the fingers. 
Thiraa konde^ from the point of 
the elbow to the knuckles of 
the clenched fist. 
Thoofika ku-, to be made weak, to 

become weak. 
ThooJUha ku', to weaken, to make 

weak. 
Thoumuj garlic 

Thubutisha ku-, to give courage to, 
to make certedn, to convince, to 
prove. 
Thubutu ku-, to dare, to have 
courage for, to be proved. 
SithubfUu^ I dare not. 
ThvJcu ku-f to taste. 
Thtikuru ku-, to invoke. 
ThtfUif 4Jstres8, miseiy. 



THU 



TIT 



Thulumu, wrong. 

Thtdumu hu-f to do wrong, to por- 

seoate. 
Thtduru, a kind of sandpiper. 
Thiduth,& third. Also Thtluth. 
Thumu ku-y to slander. 
Thureoj a chandelier. 
Thuru kn-f to harm. 

Haithuru, no harm, it does not 
matter. 
Tia ku-, to put, to put into. 

Kutia nanga^ to anchor. 

Kutia ehuoni, to put to schooL 
Ttdra, a boy*8 kite. 
TibOj a term of ondeorment. 
Tibika &«-, to be cured. 
Ttbu ku-t to cure. 
Tibu, a kind of scent 
Tibua ku-t to stir up and knock 

about 
Tifua kthf to cause to rise like dust 

or a mist. 
Tifuka fttf-, to rise in a cloud. 
Tii fcu-, to obey. 
Tiisha ^u-, to make to obey, to 

subdue. 
Tika Znf-, or twika, to put a burden 

on a man's head for him. 
Tiki, just like, exactly as. 
Tikia &«-, to reply. See ItikicL 
TikUa ku-t to shake. 
Tikiti, plur. matikiti, a sort of water 

meloq. 
Tikitika %tt-, to be shtiken. 
Tikitiki, utterly and entirely, to tlie 

last mite. Also, (M.) into little 

bits. 
Tikixa ku-, to have patience with. 
TUia ku-, to put to, for, &o. 
TUifika ku-, to waste, to grow less. 
Tilifisha kit-, to diminish, to make 

to dwindle away. 
TU^u hi-f to ruin, to wastes 



Ttinia ku-, to daru. 

Timazi, a stone hung by a line, used 

as a plummet by masons. 
Ttm&t, bracelets. 
Timbuza ktt-, to begin to show itself, 

like the sun in rising. 
Timia &«-, to be complete. 
Timilia ku-^ to become complete. 
'timUifUy complete, perfect 
TimUiza &«-, to make complete. 
Timiza Xw-, to complete, to make 

perfect 
Time, a woman's name. 
Timviy an ill-omened child. 
Tinda htk- (M.) = Chinja ku-^ to 

cut, to cut the throat, to slaughter, 
Tindika hi- (A.), to fall short 
Tindikia %«-, to cease to. 

Imenitindikia, I am out of it, I 
have no more. 
Tindikiana %»-, to be separated, to 

be severed, as friends or relations 

at a distance from one another. * 
Tvnge^dt, game consisting in imitating 

all the motions of a leader. 
Tiniy a fig, figs. 
Tini (M.) = Chini, down. 
Tipitipif a brown bird, a mocking 

bird. 
Tipua ku-f to scoop out, to dig out, 

to dip out 
Tiririka kti-, to glide, to trickle. 
Ti8*a = Tissia, nine. 
Tiiaini, ninety. 
Tisataahara, nin^tcen. 
TUha ku-, to frighten, alarm, make 

afraid. 
2%Mta, nine. 

Tita fctt-, to tie up together. 
Titay plur. matHa, a faggot, a bundle 

of firewood. 
Titij the nipple. 
TUia kw^ to shake, to sink in. 



TIT 

Also (?) of the sea, when deep 
and rough, to boil. 
TitiJca ku-y to carry a bundle of 

sticks, &c 
Titima ku', to roar and roll like 

•thunder. 
Titiwaitgcif chicken-pox. See Kiti" 

wangcL 
Titoo (?), paralysis. 
40f a suffix, denoting goodness or 
propriety, rarely used in Zan • 
zibar. 
Kutoelmy to put ; 

Kuwekato, to put properly. 
Manuka^ smells ; 
Manukato, scents. 
Toa ku; to put out, to take away, 
give, expel, todeliver, to except, 
to choose out. 
Kutoa meno, to grin, to show the 
teeth, to snarl. 
Toazi, plur. matoazi, cymbals. 
Tobay repentance. 
Tohoa kth, to break through, to 

break a hole in a wall. 
Toliioe, a simpleton, ignoramus. 
Tofcuif plur. maiofaat a fruit shaped 
like a codling with rosy-coloured 
streaks, = Tomondo. See Mto^ 
mondo, 
Tofali, plur. matofaliy a brick. 
Tqfauti, difference, dispute. 
Nimeingia tofauti kwa kuwa wee 
umeniibia fetha yangu, I have 
a quaiTcl with you for stealing 
my money. 
To/tta ku-t to hurt or put out an 

eye. 
Tofukaku'9 to have an eye hurt or 

put out 
Toga ku-t to pierce the ears. 
Togwa, unfermented beer. 
Tnharat oircumcisioi^. 



TOM 



397 



Tohara ku-y to purify by ablutions^ 
to perform the Mohammedan 
ablutions. 
Toi, a kind of wild goat. 
Toja ku-y to slash, cut gashes, as a 
. means of bleeding, &c. 
TqjOy a cut made for ornament, &c. 
Toka or toJeeOj from, since. 
Toka ku't to go or come out or away 
from, to bo acquitted, to go 
free. 
Kutoka damu, to bleed. 
Kutoka hart, to sweat 
ToJiana ftu-, to go forth from one 
another, to divorce, to be set free. 
ToJcea, from, since. See ToJca, 
Tokea hapo^ in old time, from old 

time. 
Tokea A;u-, to come out to, or from, 

to appear. 
Tokeza Aitt-, to ooze out, to project. 
Tokomea Am-, to get out of one's 
ToJconi^ the pelvis. [sight. 

Tokono (A.), the hips. 
Tokora ku", to pick one's teeth. 
Tokosa fttf-, to boll, to cook by 

boiling. 
Tokoseka ku-, to be well boiled, to 

be done. 
Tokota ku'y to become boiled, to be 

cooked by boiling. 
Tolea kU', to put out for, to offer to. 
KutolewOf to have put out for 
one, or to be put out, to be 
dismissed. 
Toma^ orchitis, hydrocele. 
Tomasa fc»-, to poke with the fingers, 
to feel, used of examining a 
living creature, aii Bonyesha, of 
inanimate objects. 
Tomba ku-, to have s 'xual conneo* 

tion with. 
J'omho, a qnall. 



398 



TOM 



Tomea Jcu- (M.) = Chomea ku*. 
Tomea hu-, to point by plastering 

over and putting small stones in 

to make tlie work firm. 
TomeOM &»-, to set on (a dog, &o.> 
Tamo^ dross of iron, to 
Tamiie s T<mo, 
Tomondo, a hippopotamus. 
Tomondo, plur. matomondo s Tofaa* 
Tona hu-f to drop. 
Tona ku'. 

Kutana hina, to lay and bind on 
a plaster of henna until the 
pari is dyed red. 

Kutona godoro, to sew through a 
mattress here and there to oon« 
fine the stuffing. 
Tondoot a small brown nut con- 
taining oil. 
Tonesha ^u-, to strike agiiinst, to 

touch a sore place, to make a sore 

run. 
TonCf plur. maUmB^ a drop. 
Tonexa ku*, to cause to drop. 
Tonga ft«- (M.) = Chonga fcu-, to 

cut 
Tangea ht- s Chongea. 
TongoHmha, a small bird black 

with white neck; it makes a 

great noise in flying. 
Tongoza ku-, to seduce. 
Tope, mud, plur. matope, much mud. 
Topea ku'^ to sink in mire, to be 

stogged. 
Topetopcj a custard apple. 
Topeza &tt-, to be too heavy for one. 
Tapoa ku-f to take out, to break a 

spell, to dear for cultivation. 
Tora^ plur. matorcit a small spear. 
Torati, the law of Moses, the Pen- 
tateuch. 
Toroka ku-, to run awiiy from a 

master, frnm home &a 



TUA 

Torosha feu-, to abduct, to induce ti 

run away. 
Tosa ku-, to cause to sink, to drown 

Kutosa macJiOy to spoil the eyes. 
Tosay plur. matosa^ fruit just be- 
ginning to ripen, all but ripe. 
Tosha ku; to suffice, to be enough 

for, to cause to come out. 
Toshea ku-, to be afltonished, to be 

staggered. 
ToiheUza &«-, to suffice. 
Toshewa Xm-, to be astonished. 
Tota ku; to sink. 
Totea kit- (M) = Chochea fcu-, 
Toteza maclio ku-, to spoil the eyes. 
Totoma ku-^ to be lost, to wander. 
Totora fci*-, to pick one's teeth. Also, 

Tokora, 
Tooya = Chooya, 
Towea ku-^ to eat as a relish or 

kitotoeo. 
Toioeka &«-, to vanish. At Lamoo 

this word is used for to die, 
ToweUa ^ii-, to eat by mouthfuls. 
Towesha fcu-, to ruin, to put out of 

the way. 
Toweza ku% to pour gravy, &c., over 

the rice. 
Tozij plur. matozi (M.), a tear. 
Trufut trump (in cards). 
Tu, only, nothing but this, only 

just The -t» of tu is very short ; 

it always follows the word or 

phrase which it qualifies. 
Tu, we are or were. 
Tu or Tw; the ^ign of the first 

person plural, tee, 
'tu- or 'tW', the objective prefix do- 
noting the first person plural, ma, 
Tua ku-9 to put down, to put down 
loads, to rest, to halt, to encamp^ 
to set (of the sun). 

Jua likitua, at sunset 



TUA 

Tua Tcu-t to grind by pushiDg % 

stone backwards and forwards. 
Tuama ku-^ to settle, to oleor itselt 
Tuana hu^f to settle. 
Tubiahu't to repent ofjt 
Tabu Jeu-f to repent. 
TufanUi a storm, a tempest 
Tufe, a ball 
Tuhumu &tt-, to aooose of, to lay to 

his charge, to suspect. 
Tui (M.) = Chuij a leopard. 
Tuif the oily juice squeezed out of 

the soraped cocoa-nut 
TuUiza ku', to prolong. 
Tuja ku- (M.) = Cliuja kv-, to strain. 
Tuka, posts of a verandah or long 

eaves. 
Tukana ku-, to use bad language 

to, to abuse, to address witii in- 
sulting or indecent expressions. 
TukanOj plur. matukanOf bad words, 

insulting or filthy language. 
Tu/tia /£tt-,&c.(M.) = Chukiaku-,&c, 
Tukia kth, to happen. 
Tukio, plur. matukiOf a thing which 

happens, an accident. ' 
TukUa ku't to project 
Tvkua ku-t &o. (M.) s Chukua 
•iukufu, glorious, great [%u-, &o, 
Tukuka Jsu-, to become exalted, to 

grow great 
Tukuaa ku-y to move, to shako.. 
Tukuta kU', to move about restlessly, 

to shake nervously. 
Tukutiza ku- (obscene). 
Tukuza ku-f to exalt, to make great 
Tultaku-, to become quiet, to settle 

down» to amend from a riotous 

life. 
Tulia, don't make a noise. 
TuUa ku-, to grind with. See Taa, 

Jiioe la kutulia, a stone to grind 
with. 



TUM 



899 



TuUka ku-y to be serene and tranquiL 
Tulilia kwy to settle down for or in 
regard to. 

Tamekutuliliai have you under* 
stood me? 

TameitUultlioy I have. 
Tuliliana ku-, to oome to an agree* 

ment 
TuHza ku-y to calm, to stilL 
Tultzia ku-f to calm for. 

Kutalizia roho, to calm, to console. 
Tuma ku^y to employ, to send about 

some business. 
Tuma ku- (M.) == Chuma ku-y to 
Tumaa ku-^ to hope. Q)rorit. 

Tumai ku- = Tumaa, 

Roho yalumaiy I hope. 
Tumaini ku-y to be confident, to 

hope. 
Tumainiiha ku-y to make oonildent, 

to make to hope. 
Tum^inia ku-, to hope in, confide in. 
Tuvfibay a long rice-bag. 
TuwkbakOy tobacco. 

Kuvula iumbakoy to smoke. 

Tumbako ya kunvka or kunwoy 
TumhaMy an abscess. [snuff. 

TumUliy a small kind of light- 

coloured monkey. 
Tumhoy plur. maiumhoy gut, belly, 
viscera, womb. 

Tumho la kuenenday diarrhoea. 

Tumbo la kuharadamuydyseuicry. 
Tumhua ku-, to disembowel, cut 

open, pick a hole in, open (an 

abscess). 
Tumhuiza Am-, to soothe, to sing to, 

to sing by turns. 
Tumbulta ku-y to burst, to bo burst, 

&0. See Tumhua, 
Tumlttkia ku-y to fall into. 

Amelumhukiay kisimaniy he has 
got into a scrape. 

2 p2 



400 



TUM 



TUT 



TumbMxa ftti-, to throw into, to 

caiue to fall into, to get a person 

into a scrape. 
Tumbulia Xru-. 

Kutumfmlia nyuiho, to itare at 
Tumbuuj a staple. 
Tumbuza Anc-, to disembowel, to 

penetrate, to get through. 
TttiRtf, a messenger. 
Tumia ku-, to employ, to spend, to 

use. 
Tumika k»^ to be employed, to 

serve. 
Tumiki'a Anc-, to be employed by, to 

serve, to obey. 
Tumuy taste, tasting. 
Tumtt, the month Bamathan. 
Tuna hu-t Ac (M.) = Chuna hu^ &o. 
Tuna ku-, to swell, to get cross. 
TundOj plur. maiunda, a fruit. 
Tundama Xrai-, to gather, to settlo at 

the bottom. 
Tundika ku-, to hang up, to be 

suspended. 
Tunduy plur. iundu or matundu, a 
hole, a cage, a nest. 

Tundu ya pua, a nostril. 
Tunduaa ku-, to stand stockstill in 

wonder at, Ac. 
Tungoj a round open basket 
Tunga ku-, to suppurate. 
Tt^nga %«-, to put together in ordor, 

to string beads, to make verses. 
Tungama ku-, to clot, to congeaL 
Tungamana ku-, to be steady. 
Tungia ftv-, to thread a needle. 
Tungua ku-, to let down, to pull 

down, to hook down. 
Tungvka %»-, to be pulled or let 

down. 
Tungika ku-, to depend upon, to 

hang from. 
Tungu (H.) = Chungu, anti. 



Tungujay a common weed, a speoiet 

of solanum. 
Tungvlia ku- (M.) = Chungtilia ^u-, 

to peep. 
Tunika ku- ^.)» to lose the skin, to 

be flayed. 
Tunu, a rarity, a choice gift, a 

present. 
Tunuka ku-^ to love excessively, to 

long for. 
Tunulcia ku^ to make a present to. 
Tunzot plur. matunea, care. 
Tunga ku-f to take care of, to look 

after, to make gifts to. 
Tupa, a file. 

Tupa, plur. maiupa (M.), a bottle. 
Tupa ku-, to throw, to throw away. 

Kutupa naihariy or macho, to cast 
a glance, to cast the eyes. 

Kutupa mkono, to break off friend- 
ship. 
Tupia ku-, to throw at, to pelt witlu 
Tupiza ku-, to pass its proper mca- 
. sure or time. 
'tupUj bare, empty. It makes tupu 

with nouns lUse nyumba. See 

Utupu, 
Tupua ku'f to root out, to pull up. 
Turuhani, tare, allowance for pack- 
age, &c., in weighing. 
Turuma. See Maiuruma, 
Turuptika ku-^ to slip out of one's 

hand. 
TusUihf ascriptions of praise, a 

rosary, the beads used by Mo- 
hammedans in praying. See 

TaOnh. 
Tutha Xm-, to lower, to make mean 

or low. 
Tuahi, plur. mattuhi, abuse, bad 

language. See Matuau. 
TuiwirOf a picture. 
Tuta, plu?. ma/tfto, a heap of eiirlbv 



UtJt 



401 



i talsed bod for planting Bweet 

potatoes. 
Tutu! Leave it alone I Don't touch I 

Used to little children. 
Tutuka ku; or Tutu*mka or Tutu- 

tika, to rise in little swellings, to 

come out in a rash. 
Tutuma hu-^ to make a noise of 

bubbling, to boil up. 
Tutumua hu-. 

Kujitutumua^ to gather oneself 
up for an effort. 
Tuxa hu-f or Tmza fti*-, to weep (of 
a wound). 

Kutnza damu (M.), to run down 
with blood, to bleed exces- 
sively. 
Tuxa kU' = Tunza ku-. 

Kujituza^ to make oneself mean 
or low. 
Tuzanya ku-^ to come to an agree- 
ment (A.). 
"tuh = 4w, 

fwa Ani(M.) = Chwa kth. 
Twaa ku-, to take. 

Kutwaa nyara^ to take as spoil. 
Twcdia &»-, to take from. 
Twaliwa ^, to be deprived of, to 

have had taken from one. Used 

also in the sense of^ to be taken. 
Ttoana ku- or Tuana ku-^ to settle. 
Twana kth = Twazana, 
Twanga ku-f to dean com from the 

husk by pounding it in a wooden 

mortar. 
Ttoangia ku-^ to clean com for, 

with, etc 
Twazana ku", to resemble in fSotce, 

to be like. 
Tweka ku-t to hoist, to raise, to 

take up. 
Ttceiha ku-^ to go by night to see 

anyone. 



fhoeta ktt-f to pant, to strive for 

breath. 
Tufeza ftu-, to despise, to hold in 

contempt. 
Twiga, a giraffe, a camelopard. 
Twika kU', to put a load on a man's 

head. Also Tika. 

V. 

U Is pronounced like oo in food. 

U before a vowel takes a conso- 
nantal sound, and may be written 
w. This change is not so marked 
before a u as before the other vowels. 
Sometimes both w's keep their vowel 
sound. U before o ia frequently 
dropped: 

Moyo = Muoyo, 

The syllable mti- is seldom so 
pronounced in Zanzibar: it becomes 
mw- or 'm, or a simpler m. 

L and u are sometimes appa* 
rently interchanged, as, 

Ufalme or Ufaume, a kingdom. 

MUingo or Mvcango^ a door. 

Nouns in tf- or to- generally lose 
their u- in the plural, most of tliem 
substituting n- or ny- for it, but 
dissyllable nouns keep the n- and 
prefix ny^. See N, 

The insertion of a -»- before the 
final -a of a verb reverses its mean- 
ing. 

Knfunga, to fasten. 

Kufttngua, to unfasten. 

There is a suppressed I between 
the u and the a (as always in 
Swahili between two consecutive 
vowels), which appears in the ap« 
plied forms. 

Kufungtdia, to unfasten for. 
I The passive of the applied forms 



402 



t 



tJOH 



of verbs in -ud k used also A» tho 
passive of the simple fonn. 

Kufun^iioa,io be unfastened, or 
to have unfastened for one. 

Kuua, to kill, is irregular, and 
makes its passive by adding -tea, 
I'ttuawa, to be killed. 

U ( Ar.)> and. 

Ui thou art, it is, of nouns in u-, 
and of those which moke their 
plural in mi-. 
U- or io-t tlio sign of the second 

person singular. 
U- or 10-, the personal prefix of the 
third person singular denoting a 
substantive in u-, or one wliich 
makes its plural in mi-. 
•U-, or -10-, the objective prefix de- 
noting a substantive in u-, or one 
that makes its plaral in mi-. 
U- as a substantive prefix is used 
to form abstract nouns, and also 
to form the names of countrie% 
as, 
Unyiica, the Kyika country; 
Ugala^ the Galla country ; 
DzungUf the country of Eu- 
ropeans. 
Va ku-, to kill. 

Passive, huuawa, to be killed. 
Ua, plur. maua, a flower. 
Ua, plur. nytio, ayard, an cnclusure, 
a fence. 
Ua toa mo&ua, an enclosure fenced 

with miama fetalks. 
Ua tea mahuti^eLik enclosure fenced 
with plaited cocoa-nut leaves. 
Uanda^ a court, a yard. 
Uanda = Wanda, 
Uavja = Uanda, 
UapOf plur. nyapo, an oath. 
XJavoaiu; to be killed. 



VayOf plur. nyayo, the sole of the 

foot, a footprint 
UbabwOf pap^ a aoft food for chil- 
dren. 
Uhafu or UhavUt plur. mbamtf a rilx 

Mbavuni, in or at its side. 
Uhani^ incense^ galbanum. 
Uhaldi, nullity. 
UhaUy plur. mbau^ a plank. 
Ubawa^ plur. VRJbawa^dk wiug feather. 
Uhazazi, 
Kvfanya vhaxazi^ to make a bar- 
gain. 
Ubdeko, a cloth worn by women, a 
customary present to the bride's 
mother on the occasion of a 
wedding. 
Ubi8hi,9kioke. 
UhuyUf the inside of tho calabash 

fruit 
Ucha/u or UcJiavu, filthinets. 
Uehagaa = Utcujaa, 
Uchcda, a raised stage to put corn 

&c. upon. 
Uchauii, witchcraft, black magic 
Kufanya uehawt\ to iiraclise 
witchcraft 
Uchi, nakedness. 
Udiipnluiy plur. ehipuJca, a shoot, a 

blaile of gmss. 
UchocliorOf a passage, opening be- 
tween. 
Udiovu, tedionsnets. 
Uchu, a longing. 
Uchukuti, the leafstalk of the ooooi^ 

nut leaf. 
Uchvkuzif carriage, cost of carry* 

ing. 
UdiuJewi, a kind of rice. 
Ucliumi = Uttttni, 
UehungUf bitterness, pain, poiaoo. 
Uchunguy bitter. See 'Chungu, 
Davoa uchungu^ bitter mediciQ6b 



tJDA 



UKA 



403 



UdaJcOt babbling, telling sooreft. 
Udevu, plur. ndevu^ one hair of tbe 

beard. 
UdofjOy smallness, youth. 
Udongo, clay, a kind of earth used 

to mix with the lime and sand in 

making mortar. 
Ufa kti-, to become cracked, 
rz/a, pliir. nyufa, a crock. 

Kutia Ufa, to crack. 
UfagiOy plur. fagio, a brush, a broom, 

a bundle of the leaves of a palm 

used to sweep with. 
VfahamUf memory. 
Ufajiri = Alfajiri, 
Ufalmeoi l7/attme,kingdom, royalty. 
Ufidiwa, a ransom. 
Vfisadi, vice. 
XJfUkt, vice. 
VfitOt plur. fiiOy a thin stick, sticks 

such as those which are used as 

laths to tie the mdkvti thatch to. 
IT^za, plur. j2«, the gums. 
JJfu, death, the state of being dead. 
Ufufulio or VfufuOt resurrection, 

revivaL 
TJfuharay destitution. 
Ufuhtoe, absolute destitution. 
Ufumhi, valley, bottom. 
UfungOf stone bench, = KibarazcL 
IJfungUj relatives. 
Ufunguo, plur. funguOf a key. 
Ufuo, sandy beach. 
Ufuta, semsem. 
Ufuihulif ofBciousness. 
Uga^ an open space in a town where 

a house has been pulled down, or 

where a dance ooidd be hield. 
Ugali, porridge. 

Vganga, white magic, medicine. 
UghaibUy the little packet of betel 

leaf, areca nut, lime, and tobacco 

made up for chewing. 



UgOf enclosure, close. 

Ugomvif a quarrel, quarrelsomeness. 

Vgor^wat sickness, a sickness. 

Ugmni, a general collection of debts. 

Ugua ku-, to fall sick, to groan. 

Ugumu, hardness, diflSculty. 

Ugtkza ku-f to nurse, to take care of 

Uguoe^ string. [a sick person. 

Uharabu, mischief. 

Uharara, warmth. 

Vharibivu^ destruction, destructive- 
ness. 

TJhtajiy want, thing wanting. 

UhurUf freedom. 

UimbOf^lva. nyimbo,B. song, a ballad. 

Uirari (in arithmetic), proportion, 
division of profits. See Worari. 

Vizi, theft, thieving, 

TJjdhtliy boldness. 

Ujalifu, fulness. 

TJJana, youth. 

Vjari, tiller-ropca. 

Ujenzit building. 

Uji, gruel. 

Ujima, help of neighboui8» assist- 
ance in work. 

Ujinga, rawness, dulness, ignorance. 

Ujio, coming. 

UJira, hire, reward. 

Ujurnbey chiefship, headship. 

Ujuvif knowingness, officiousness, 
pretended knowledge. 

rz/tMt, defilement, whatever is re- 
moved by ablutions. 

Ukaangoy plur. kaango, an earthen 
pot for cooking with oil or fat. 

JJliafu. 
Ukafu wt mq/t| a bubble on 
water. 

Ukali, fleroeness, sharpness. 
Kufanya ukali, to scolJ. 

Ukamhaa, plur. kambaa (M.), oord 
line. 



4.01 



UKA 



tJ&tJ 



Ukamilifu, perfectnefls, pearfeotioni 

Ukanda, a strap. 

Uhao, stay, stopping. 

UkarimUf generosity, liberality. 

UkawOj delay. 

UkayOf a long piece of blue calico, 
often ornamented with spangles, 
worn by slaves and poor women 
in Zanzibar over their heads: 
it has two long ends, reaching 
nearly to the ground. 

VhdeU, plur. "keUle, a cry, a noise. 
Akapigitoa ukelele^ and a cry was 
made at liim. 

UJcemi, a ball (Mer.). 
Niptgie ukemi, give me a calL 

Ukengele, a sort of knife made in 
Zanzibar. 

UhetOt depth. 

Uhingo, the brink, a screen, an en- 
closure made with cloths. 

Ukirif plur. WW, a strip of fine 
matting about an inch broad, out 
of which mikeka are made. 

UMwOy desolation, solitude where 
people once were. 

Uko or Etiko, there. 

Ukoa^ plur. k^oa^ a plate of metal, 
one of the rings on the scabbard 
of a sword, &c. 

Vkoga^ the tartar and dirt on the 
teeth. 

Ukohozi, phthisis. 

Ukoka, grass cut for fodder. 
Ukoko, the rice on the top of the 
pot, which is often dry and 
scorohed tlirougb the custom of 
pouring away the water when the 
rice is done and heaping live 
embers on the lid of the pot 
Ukoko (A.), a cough, 
Ukologefu, decay, 
Ukomct, leprosy. 



UkombOj a scraper, a curved knife 

for hollowing out mortars, &c 
UkombdleuHi, a ransom. 
Ukomhozi or Ukomboo, a ransom 
Ukonde (10a tende)^ a (date) stone. 
Ukongwe^ oldness, extreme old age. 
Ukonyezo, plur. konyezo, a sign made 

by lifting the eyebrow. 
UkoOf nastiness, undeanness (?). 
17^00, ancestry, pedigree, family 

origin and connections. 
Ukope, plur. kope, a hair from the 

eyelash. 
Ukoiif the nape of the neck. 
Ukubalit acceptance. 
UkubwOf greatness, bigness. 
Ukuchctf plur. kucha, a nail, a claw, 

a hoot 
Ukufl, plur. kufij a handful, what 

will lie upon the hand. 
Ukumbif an apartment at the en- 
trance, a hall, a poroh. The 
■ vkumhi is within a stone house 

and outside a mud house. 
UkumbukHf recollection. 
UkumbushOf memorial, a reminder. 
Ukumhuu, plur. kumbuu, a girdle 

made of a narrow cloth, a turban 

doth twisted tightly into a sort 

of rope such as the turbans of 

the Hindis are made ofl 
Ukundufu, pleasingness, oommo* 

diousness, liberality. 
UkungUf mould, mouldiaess. 

Kufanya ukungu, to get mouldy 
Ukungu, the first light of dawn. 
Ukuni, plur. kuni, a piece of fire* 

wood. 
Ukurasa^ plur. fturosa, a leaf of a 

book, a sheet of paper. 
UkuUi, plur. kutOj a stone wall. 
Ukuti, plur. kuti, a leaflet of the 

oocoa-nut tree. 



tJKU 



tTME 



405 



Vkuu, greatness, size. 

Ukwaju, a tamarind. 

Ukwatefuy nece88ity,havlngnotMng. 

Ukwasif wealth, riches. 

Uhtvalo, plur. kwcUo, a hoof. 

Ulalo, a tree or trees cut down so 

as to fall across a river and make 

a bridge over it 
Ulojh gluttony. 

Ulambiyamhij a very young dafu, 
Ulanisii a foul-mouthed person. 
Ulaya or WilayOy home; applied 

especially to th6 home of Euro- 
peans, Europe. 
Ulayitif European, inferior calico. 

Kamha vXayiti^ hempen rope. 
Ufo, that, yonder. 
UUdi^ a dhow boy, a cabin boy. 
UlegevUf relaxation, the state of 

being slack. 
Ulia ku-j to kill for, with, &o. 

Tumtdie mbaliy let us kill him 
out of the way. 
UlUi, & couch or bedstead (Kianz- 

teani). 
Ulimho, birdlime, gum, resin. 
Ulimbtoendef dandyism. 
Ulimi, plur. ndimi, the tongue, a 

tenon, the heel of a m»st. 
VUmtoengUf the worlds the universe, 
a man's own world or circle of 
duties and pleasures. 

Kuwako ulimwengunif to be alive. 
Ulingo, a raised platform to scare 
Ulio, which is. [birds from. 

VUtimOy the last three cards of the 

pack. 
Vlim fctt-, to ask, to inquire of a 

. person. 

Kumuliza hali^ to ask how he 
does. 

Sitoezi kuuliztca utvongOf I cannot 
ieU a Ue, 



Vtizta hu*^ to make inquiries on 

behalf of. 
Ulongo, fjEdsehood. See Uwongo, 
Umat plur. nyuma, a spit; a largo 
fork, an awl. 

Umawa kuokeanyama, a gridiron. 
Uma ku-f to bite, to sting, to hurt» 

to give pain to, to ache. 
Umdheli, ingenuity. 
Umalidadif dandyism. ' 

Umande, dew, morning air, mist, 

the west wind. 
Umankinif poverty. 
Umatif a multitude, peoples 
UmcUi J«a, Christians. 
Umati Musa^ Jews. 
Umati Muhammad, Mohammedans. 
Umba ku-f to create, to shape. 
Umba ku-p to bale out a boat For 

Kumha. ' 

Unibaumba ku-, to sway about like 

a drunken man. 
Umbo, plur. maumbo, form, outward 
likeness, appearance, character, 
species. 

Najiona umbo la kuvsa ktzivoi, I 
feel getting deaf. 
Umhu, plur. maumbu^ a sister. 
Umbua ku-, to allege a defect, to 

depreciate. 
Umbtoaf or better Jilbwa, a dog. 
'Ume (or -Zume), male, strong. It 
makes ndume with nouns like 
nyumha, 

WconO wa kuume, the right hand. 
Umeme, lightning. 
Umia ku-f to give pain to. 
Vmika ku-, to cup. 
Umio, the OBSophagus. 
ITmito, heaviness, feeling heavy. 
Umiza ku-, to hurt 
Umka ku', to swell, to xise when 

leavened. 



406 



UMfi 



tJPA 



Unihu (?) ku-, to call. 
Umo or Humo^ there insldo. 
Umqja, oneness. 
I7tiirt,age. 

Umri fBoke apatajet How old 
is he? 
Umua ku', to take honey from the 

Lire. 
Unci, yon have, thou hast. 

Una ninif What is the matter 
with you? 
Unazozitaliaf which you are asking 

for. 
Unda %tt-, to build 'ships or boats. 
Undu, the comb of a cock. 
Unene, stoutness, thickness. 
UnenyekeOf humility^ abasement, 

reverence. 
Ungoj flour, powder. 

Unga toa ndere, a magic poison. 
Unga ku-, to unite, to splice, to join. 
Ungama, a place near Melinda, 

swallowed up by the sea. 
Ungama ku-y to acknowledge, to 

confess of one*s own accord. 
Ungamana ku^ to bring together, 

connect 
Ungamoy a yellow dye used for 

dyeing matting. 
C&iOfa7iaXn»-, to unite, to join together. 
Unge-, the sign of the second person 
sing, conditional. 

UngedumUf you would continue. 

Ungekuwa, you would be. 
Ungi, much, plenty. 
UngOy the hymen (?> 

Kuvunja ungo, to be deflowered, 
to begin to menstruatt?. 
Ungo, plur. maungo, a round flat 

basket used in sifting. 
Ungua ku-^io be scorched or scalded. 
Uuguja, Zanzibar. 
Ungtdia ku-, to scorch or scald. 



Unguza ku-, to scorch or scald, to 

bum. 
Ungaana, the state of being a freo 

and civilized man, civilization. 
-ungwana, civilized, as opposed to 
'Shenzi; free, as opposed to 

Kiungtoanaf of a civilized kind. 
Unudcy or Unwele, or Unyele, plur. 

nyele, a hair. 
Unyago, 8ee Kinyago. 

Kuchezea unyagOt to teach wo- 
manhood. 
UnyoM, reed, grass. 
UnyayOf plur. nyayo, the sole of the 

foot, a footprint 
UnyeU, See UnueU, 
Unyende, 

Kupiga unyende, to cry with a 
feeble thin voice. 
UnyikOj the Nyika country. 
Unyoa, plur. nyoa, a feather. 
Unyofu, straightness, uprightness. 
UnyogotfUj idleness. 
Unyonge, vileness, meanness. 
Unyungu, 

Kupiga unyungu^ to strut about, 
to show. oneself o£El 
ITnytw&i, plur. nytulii, a hair from 

the eyebrow. 
Uof plur. mauo, a sheath. 
Uoga or Woga^ fear. 
UovUf rottenness, badness, oorrup- 

tlon, malice, eviL 
Uozi, marriage. 
Upaa, baldness. 

Upaa ioa kiitea, crown of the 
head, baldness. 
Upajat plur. paja^ the thigh. 
Upaji, liberality. 
Upamba, plur. pantbaf a bill, a small 

hatchet 
Upana^ width, breadth 



tPA 

tTpande, plar. pande, a side, part. 
Upande wa Mvita^ near or about 

Hombas. 
Upande vfa diini, the under side, 

the lee side. 
TJpande wa Juu, the upper side, 

the weather side. 
Upande wa gosltiniy the «ide where 
the tack of tlio sail is fastened, 
the weather side. 
Upanga, a cock's comb. 
Upanga, plur. panga, a sword. 
Upanga wafelegiyA long straight 
two-edged sword carried by the 
Arabs. 
Upanga wa imanit a short sword 

with a kind of cross hilt. 
Kuweka upanga, to set up a 
sword on its edge. 
Upao, plur. pao, one of the small 
stickis used as latlis to tie the 
thatch to. 
Upapi, the outer beading of a door 

frame. 
Upataji, yalue. • 
Upato, a round plate of copper 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Upatca, plur. j?atra, a flat ladle made 
out of a cocoa-nut shell, used 
for serving out curry, gravy, &o. 
An upawa differs from a Icata in 
being very much flatter and 
shallower: more than two- 
thirds of the shell are cut away 
to make an upatca ; scarcely a 
quarter is cut off in making a 
kaia. 
Upelcechoj the piece of wood used 

to make fire by rubbing. 
UpekelevH, destruction, harm, quar- 
relling. 
UpeU, plur. pde^ a large pimple. 
Fde^ the itch. 



tRA 



407 



Vpentdto, curved end, hook, a stick 

to hook down fruit with. 
Upendaji, the habit of liking. 
Upendavyo, as you please. 
UpendeltQ, favour. 
Upenziy love, affection, liking. 
Upeo, plur. peo (M.), a 8wee]>ing 

brush. 
Upeo, the eztremest point visible, 

the extreme limit, something 

which cannot be surpassed 
Upepeo, plur. pepeo, a fan. 
Upepo, plur. pepo, a wind, cold. 

See Pepo, The plural is used to 

denote much wind. 
UpeHy quickly, lightly. 
Upia = Upya^ newness. 
Upindi, plur. pindi, a bow. 

Upindi wa mvua, the rainbow. 
Upindo, a fold, a hem. 
Upo, a water-dipper for a boat or 

dhow. 
Upofuy blindness. 
Upogoy a squint. 
Upogoupogo, zigzag. 
UpoUf gentleness, meekness. 
Upondo, plur. pondo, a pole used to 

propel canoes and small vessels. 
Upongoe, plar. pongoe, the leaf stem 

of a palm tree. 
Upoozay paralysis. 
Upote^ string, bowstring. 
Upotevu, waste, destructivencsa, 

wastefulness. 
Upumbafu, folly. 
Upunga, plur. punga, a flower or 

embryo nut of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Upungufu, defect, defectiveness. 
Upupti, cow-itch. 

Upuzif nonsense, chatter, silly talk. 
Upweke, singleness, independence. 
Upya^ newness. 
Urathi, contentments 



408 



tRfi 



tf fi 



Ure/tt, length. 

Uremboy ornament, applied espe- 
cially to the black lines painted 
on their faces by the women of 
Zanzibar by way of ornament, 

Urithit inheritance. 

Ur<mgo= Utoongo. 

Urothaj invoice. 

UrUf diamonds (in cards). 

Usaflt shavings and chips. 

I7«i7u7, .matter, pus. 

Usemij talk, conversation. 

Ushadiy plur. ntfushadi, verses. 

Ushahidi, or Uakiiftuda, testimony. 

UthambUiOf haste, snddenly. 

Uthang<iy plur. shanga, a bead. 

Utharika, partnership, sharing. 

Ushau/u, deceit 

l7sAera<t, dissipation. AlaoAtherati, 

UtKiy a string-course. 

UihuJaOf heroism, great oonrage. 

Ushukuraj thanks. 

Usliungut a vegetuble poison, used 
to poison arrows. 

UthupafUf perversity, crookedness. 

Uthuru, tax, duty, customs. 

U»ia Xctt-, to leave directions or 
orders, by will, &o. See Wasia. 

Uatkizi, hearing, attention, under- 
standing. 

l/«t%«, night The plur. si%« is used 
to denote days of 24 hours. Four 
whoU nights must be rendered 
nku nne unku kucha. Four days 
and nights, iiku nne mchana na 
usiku. 

Usimangaj mockery. 

Usimeme, firmness. 

Usinga, plur. nnga^ a (straight, not 
woolly) hair. See Singa, 

Usingizi, plur. nngizi^ sleep. See 
Zingizi. 

Wri, delay. 



UntoOt on the high i 

UdOf plur. nytuo, face, countenance. 

Ussubuif for Asnibui, in the morning, 

the morning. 
Uwbiy a sandfly, a midge. 
U$ufij silk cotton from the nuufl 

tree. 
Uiukanif plur. ntkani, a ruddt-r. 
UsuUant, sultanship. 
UsuTnba^ see Makumhi, 
Uta, plur. nytUa or maia, a bow. 
Uta. [bow and arrows. 

MaftUa ya uta, semsem oil. 
Utaa, a raised stage to put corn, 

&c. on. 
TJtabtbuy medical science, bein<; a 

doctor. 
UtagaOf a branch of a tiee^ 
Utaji^ a veil. 
Utajiri, wealth. 
Ut<ika(Ao, what you wish. 
UtaJcatifu, holiness, purity. 
Utako (Mer.)t keel of a dhow. 
UtamhcMf plur. tambaa^ a bandaget, 

a rag. 
Utambi, plur. tamhi, a lamp-wick, a 

piece of stuff for a turban. 
Utambo (tea su/uria, Ac), a swing- 
ing handle like that of a pail. 
Utamvua, end or corner of a turban, 

of a cloth, &c. 
Utandu (A.) = UkohK 
Utanduf hymen. 
Utaniy a kindred race, the belonging 

to a kindred tribe, familiarity. 
UtanzUf plur. tanzu^ a bninoli. 
Uiashij desire. 
Utati, tonguetiedness. 
JJlawi, 

Kupiga tttotot , to drink grog to- 
gether. 
UU, 
Ute wa yayif the white of an egg^ 



UTK 

Utelezi^ slipperincss. 

Utemhe, the chewed refuse of betel 
leaf, &o. 

Utenziy a poem, especially a reli- 
gious poem. 

Uteo, plur. teo (M.,), a sifting bas- 
ket. 

Utepe^ plur. tepe, a tape, a baud, a 
filler, a stripe. 

UtepetefUy languor. 

Utesif strife. 

Uihabili, bravery, firmness. 

Uthai/Uf Treakuess, infirmity. 

Uthani, weight. 

Uthiku-, to harass, trouble. 

UthiOf bother, noise, uproar. 

Uthia Anc-, to harass. 

Uthibajit cheat, deceit, stratagem. 

JJthtka ^tt-, to be harassed. 

Uthilifu, calamity, great trouble. 
- Uthuru hu-t to excuse. 

Utu 
Uti wa maungo^ the backbone. 

Utiko, the roof-ridge of a thatched 
house. 

Utiririf a provoking trick. 

Utofu, dull, without amusement. 

Utofu, thinness, weakness. 

UtokOf mucus from the vagina. 

Uto. 
Uto wa nyama, fat cooked^ out of 
meat, dripping. 

Utxmvoa^ thick white sap. 

TJtondwi^ small dhows trading about 
Zanzibar, coasters. 

XJiosi, the top of the head. 

Utoto, childhood. 

Utufu, fatigue. 

TJlvkuftk, greatness, exaltation, 
glory. 

VtuUt wretchedness, weakness, un- 
fitness. 

JJiuUm^ ^uietneffs, patlonoe. 



UWA 



409 



Utumhavu, thickness, Bwelling, 

rising. 
UlumbuizOf a soothing thing, verses 

sung during a dance. 
UtumCf sending people about. 
Utumi, use, usage. 
Utumo, business, place of business. 
Utumica, slavery, employment, en- 
gagement. 

Kutia utumwantf to enslave. 
Utungu (M.) =s Uchungu, 

Utunguy is used in the dialect of 
Zanzibar only for the pains of 
childbirth, Utungu toa uzazi, 
Utupa, a species of euphorbia used 

as a fish poison. 
Utupu, naked (vulgar). 

Mtu utupUf a naked man. 

Mtu mtupu, a mere man. 
Uuajh murderousness. 
Uudif aloes wood. 
Uuza hu. See Uza lew. 
Uvif a door [Tumbatu]. 
Uvfvut idleness, sloth. 
Uvuguvugut lukewarmness. 

Maji yana uvuguvugu^ the water 
is lukewarm. 
UvuU, shade. 

Uvumhay incense, galbanum. 
'Uvundo, a smell of corruption. 
Uvurujika^ tendency to crumble, a 

being spoilt and decayed. 
Uvurunguj hollowness. 

Jitoe la uvurungUf a hollow stone. 
Uvyazif birth. 
Utoanda, a plain. 
Uujangot arrowroot 
Utoanga, a sweet dish made of 

wheat, flour, sugar, and ghee. 
Uicanjaf a courtyard, an enclosure. 
Uwashi, masonry. 
Uwaiij a vesicular eruption oq the 

skin. 



410 



UWA 



Utoaziri, the vizirship, 
Uweli, sickness, disease. 

UtoeU toa viungo, rhcomatisnu 
Uwezo^ power, ability. 
Uwinda. 
Kupiga uvfinda^ to pass the ends 
of the loin-doth between the 
legs and tuck them in, as is 
done loosely by the Banyans, 
and tightly by men at work. 
Uwingut plur. mbingu^ heaven, sky. 
The plural is the form more com- 
monly used. 
Uwitu^ jealousy. 
Vwongoy falsehood. 
Manenoye yamekuwa uwongo, he 
has become a teller of lies. 
Uyt^uapo, if yon know them. 
TJyoga, a mushroom. 
JJyuzi^ ingenuity. 
TJyuzi iSw-, to ascertain. 
JJza i!w-, to ask, to ask questions. 
Uza fctt- or Za ^u-, to sell. 
The « in huuzoj or rather Icuza^ 
to sell, is very short and insig- 
nificant : it is possibly only a 
partial retention of the Itu-, 
which bears the accent and is 
retained entire in the usual 
tenses. The ti- in hwiza^ to 
ask, is much more important, 
as is shown clearly in the ap- 
plied forms. 
KuuUtOt to ask of a person ; 

pres. perf. ametdizcu 
Kfdtzoy to sell to a person ; 
pres. perf. amdiza* 
Uzanya 2ni-, to be ordinarily sold, 

to be for sale. 
Uzazi, birth. 
Uzee, old age. 
Uzemhe, indifference^ apathy, slow- 



VAL 

Vzt, plur. nyuzi, thread, string, a 

stripe. 
Uzikt, poverty. 
Uzimat health, heartiness, complete* 

ness, life. 
UzingUi. BeeZin^m^VtingitLr 
Uzinguo, disenchantment, as from 

the power of the evil eye. 
Uzini or Uzinzi, adultery, fomloa. 

tion. 
Uito, plur. nyuzio, a hedge mode in 

the sea to catch fish. 
Uzulia hn-t to depose. 
Uzfdu &tt-, to depose, to remove firom 
an office. 

KujiuzulUf to resign, to give up a 
place or office, to abdicate. 
Uzurij beauty, fineness, oniament 

Kufanya uzuri, to adorn oneself. 
Uztuhi, raising from the bottom, as 

in fishing for pearls. 
Uzuzu, rawness, greenness (of a 

simpleton)^ 



F is pronounced as in English. 

r,/, and 6, are sometimes a little 
difficult to distinguish accurately in 
the dialect of Zanzibar. This is 
probably owing to the want of a » 
in Arabic 

V and vy change in some dialects 
into Z't in others into th-. 

Mujivi, a thief, becomes mwUi at 
Lamoo, and mujWii at Patta. 
Vcta Zftt-, to pat on, to dress in. 

The past tenses arc used in the 
sense of, to wear. 

Amewuiy he wears. 

Alivaa, he wore. 
Valia hu-. 



VAO 



VIT 



411 



Mshipi fjoa huvalia nguo, a girdle 
to gird up one's clothes with. 

Vao, plur. mavao, dress. 

Varanga, interrupting and bother- 
ing talk. 

7a2t, plur. mavati, a dress, a gar- 
ment 

Fcwia, well, very w^l. 

Vema or Vyema, good. See -ema. 

Ft- or Vy-f the plural prefix of sub- 
stantives (and of adjectives and 
pronouns agreeing with them) 
which make their singular in hi' 
or eh', 

Vi' or Vy-t sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs governed 
by nouns in vi- or tnj; 

Vi' or Vy" prefixed to adjectives 
often gives them an adverbial 
sense. 

•vt-, the objective prefix represent- 
ing nouns in vi- or t^-. 

Via ku-y to stop short of perfection, 
to be stunted in its growth, to 
remain only half cooked for want 
of fire, Ac, &o. 

Viaa 7cu' = Vyaa Jcu-, 

Yiatu (plural of Kiatu)^ shoes, san- 
dals. 
Viaiu vya Kizungu^ European 

shoes. 
Viatu vya 11(7021,, leather sandals. 
Viaiu vya mti, wooden clogs. 

Viazi (plur. of Kuui), sweet pota- 
toes. 
Viazi vya Kizungu, potatoes. 
Viazi vi^tttt, yams. 

Viberiti (plur. of Kiberiti), matches, 
lucifers. 

Vidaniy collars of gold, fte. 

Viemhe or Vyenibe^ arrows. 

Vifaa, necessaries, useful things. 

Vigvje, braid, reins. 



ViJinenOf little words, prattle. 

Vika ku-f to clothe, to dress. 

VHe, those yonder. 

Vileviley just those things, like 
things, in like manner. 

Vilia ku-y to stop and stagnate, as 
the blood docs in a bruise. 

VUi4}, a stagnation, a stoppage. 
MavUio ya damUf bruises, effusion 
of blood. 

Virnha ku-, to swell, to thatch. 

Vimbisha kth, to overfeed a person. 

Vimbiwa ku-^ to be overstuffed, to 
overeat oneself. 

VimOf all of one size. 

Vinga vya moto^ firebrands, sing. 
Kinga eha moto. 

Vingiy many. See 'ingi, 

Vingine^ others. See -ngine. 

Vinjari ku-, to cruise about, to go 
looking out for something, to 
watch. 

Vinyavinya Am-, to press and crush 
food for children and sick people. 

Vinyi, See Mwenyi. 

Vinyu = Mcinyo, 

Vioga feu- (M.), to tread. 

Viovtiho = Vyaaiiba, 

Viote or Vyote^ all. See -ote. 

Vipandevya kupimia, nautical in- 
struments, sextants, &o. 

Vipde (plur. of Kipele), small 
pimples, a rash. 
Vipele vya harara^ prickly heat. 

Viringa A'u-, to become round. 
Imeviringay it is round. 

Viringana kth, to become spherical. 

Viska ftti-, to give clothes to. 

Vita, war. 

Vitanga vya mizani^ scales, scale- 
pans. 

Vitindi vya shctbay brass wire. 

Vittca vitway topsy-turvy. 



412 



viv 



VUN 



Vivia ku't to smoulder. 

Vivi hivi, oommoQ, just there, just 

80, anyhow. 
•Wvti, idle, dull, slow. 

Kiiu ni kivivu^ the knife is blunt 
(A.). 
Vivyot thus, in the way mentioned. 
Vivychivyo, in like manner. 
Viudmbi (plnr. of Kiwimhi), wave- 
lets, a ripple. 
Viza kn-^ to stunt, to prevent its 

attaining perfection, to interrupt, 

to stop or hinder in work. 
Vizia Anc-, to watoh, to spoil one's 

work for one, to hinder one from 

working. 
Vizuri, fine, finely. See -turi, 
Vua h%h, to take off clothes. 
Vua fctt-, to saTib to deliver, to take 

across. 
Vva ku-f to fish, to catch fish. 
Vuata ku- or Vwata ku-^ to press with 

the teeth, to hold in the mouth. 
Vuaza fctt-, to wound by striking or 

running into unawares, to cut 
VugcuM hh, to put to (a door). 
VugOf a horn played upon by bcat- 
Vt^ja kU', to leak, to let water, [ing. 
Vt^ia ku-t to ooze out 
Vuka ku-f to cross, to go over, to 

pass a river, to be saved. 
Vuke, steam, vapour, sweat 
Viikuka ku^, to take across, to ferry 

over. 
Vvkiza ku*, to cause to fume, to 

give off vapour. 
Vukuta Xpu-, to blow bellows. 
VvkutOf sweat 
VuU. 

Vudu vulSf an insect living in 
wood, a carpenter bee (?). 
Vulif shade. 

Mhono wa kwmlh tUe right band* 



Vtdia ku-f to catch fish for, or 

with. 
Vuma ku-, to blow as the wind, to 

buzz like a bee. 
Vuma fcu-, to lose (in card-playing). 
Vumbi, plur. mavum&t, dust, flue, 

muddiness in water. 
Vurnbika A»f-, to put in under some- 
thing, to stick into the embers, to 

cover with a heap of leaves, &e, 
Vumhikia ku-, to put seeds or plants 

in the ground before rain, to get 

them into the ground. 
Vumbilia %tf-. 

Kuvumbilia vita, to get into a 
quarrel. 
Vumbu^ plur. mavunibu, lumps in 

flour, &0, 
Vumhua kth, to find after a search* 

to discover. 
Vumi^ a noise aa of blowing of 

bellowing, often made with a 

dr*vn. 
Vumilia kth, to endure, to tolerate, 

tobCiOr. 
Vumisha ku-, to win (in card-play 

ing). 
Vunaku', to reap. 
Vufiaktt', 

Kujivunat to swell up, to be 
puffed up. 
Vundcty Ac. = Vunja, &c. 
Vunda ku-, to rot 
-vun^ti, hollow. 

Vunja ku-, to break, to ruin, to 
spoil, to change a piece of 
money. 

Kuvunja Jungo, to have a final 
feast, as before Bamathan. 
VunJa Jungo or ehungu, a mantis 

(Mantis religiosa), so called ftrom 

the superstition that a person 

touching it will bre^ \]\e qp^| 



VUN 



-WA- 



413 



piece of ozookeiy or glaas ha 

handles. 
Vunjia kw-, to break for, vith, fto. 
Vunjtka Anc-, to become brokexu 
Vuruffa Anc-, to stir. 
Vurujtka A»c-,to break up into frag- 
ments, cmmble. 
Vurumuha Am-, to throw a stone, &o. 
VuduL Aftt-» to put across, to ferry 

over, to put into the right way, 
Vuta Aptf-» to draw, to pnlL 

Kuvuia majif to bale out water. 

Kuvuia mdkoHa, to row. 

KuvtOa tumbahOf to smoke to- 
baoca 
Vuviakthy to blow. 
Vuvumha Aru-, to grow up quickly. 
Fuct, plnr. mavuzi, a hair of the 

pubes. Also, (A.) hair in gene- 
ral. 
Vy- = F^. 
VyOy of. 
Vyaa Am-, to bear children, or fruit. 

Pass, vyatoa or vyaliioa. 
Vydke or Vydkwe, his, her, its. 
FyaAfo, thy. 
VyaJcida (jfiur. of CJMkuld), things 

to eat, victuals, meals, provisions. 
Vyalitoa Aw-» to be bom. 
Vyangu, my, of me. See -angu. 
VyaOy their, of them. See -ao, 
VyetUf our, of us. See -etu. 
Vyentty your, of you. See -enu, 
•vyoot-vyo-t as. 

Upendavyo, as you please. 

UnipendavyOt as you love me, for 
my sake. 

Alivyoagiza, as he directed. See 
ginti. 
Vyo^ -vyo, -vyo-, which. See -o. 

Vyo vyoUf whatsoever. 
Vy(ynibo (plur. of Chombo)^ vessels, 

household utensils, baggage. 



TFis pronounced as in English. 

W is commonly in Swahili a con- 
sonantal If, and in many words w 
or « may be written indifferently. 
There are other cases, as in the 
passive termination -twi, where the 
sound can only be expressed by an 
English t9. 

IF- as U'f which see. 
W'f the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by substan- 
tives either singular or plural 
which denote animate beings. 
Wa, ot See -a. 
Wa niniy why. 

Hamui wa Tani, Tani's Hamiei, 
i.e. Hamisi, the son of Tani. 
Wa or 27, the Arabic and, 
Wa ! an Arabic exclamation. 
IFa-, 4he plural prefix of substan-^ 
tives in w-, 'm-, or mw- which 
denote animate beings. 
IFo-, the plural prefix of adjectives 
and pronouns agreeing with sub- 
stantives which denote animate 
beings. 
Tfo-, the prefix marking the third 
person plural of verbs governed 
by nouns denoting animate be- 
ings. 
Where the tense prefix begins 
with an -a- that of the personal 
prefix coalesces with it, so that 
there is no difference between 
the second person singular and 
the third plural, 
-too- the objective plural prefix 
referring to substantives which 
denote animate being* 
2 B 



414 



WA 



Wa fciT-, to be, to become (?) : the 
hh bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the nsnal coses. 

The present tense of the substan- 
tive Terb is generallj i-epre- 
Mnted by nior by the personal 
prefix standing alone. 

The present tense with the rela- 
tive is represented by the syl- 
Jable*2w i4%*, he who is. 

Tho present perfect amdcuiBCty &o. 
has the sense of, to have be- 
come. WoM is represented by 
the past perfect tense cUkuwa^ 

XtitMi fto, to^have. 
^iR^^tfla fMwmgo f should I 
notbealiev? 
Waa Icu-t to shine intioh, like the 
. sun or the mocnu , 
TToAt plnr. matooO} a spot, a blotch, 

a stain. 
1Fa&5a, cholera. 

Waboondeii the people living ip. the 
low country between the sea and 
the Shambala mountains. ■ 
Wadi, son qf. 
Wadi Mokammed^ Mohammed's 
son. 
Wadi hu't to complete a term* 
Watu foa ^ London " toametrodt, 
the (H,M.S.) "London's" com- 
mission has expired. 
Wadia ku-, to be fully come, to be 

quite time for anything. 
Wadituui for Wcdad enna«, bom 
of people, that is, of decent 
family. 
Waduii enmity, hostUity. 
Wafihana ftu-, to conspire together. 
W^fiM bu-, to suit, to be suitable 

to. 
Waga ku- (Mer.), to kill. 



WAL 

Wagunya^ the Swahill living north 

of Siwi. 
Wahadiy plur. nyahadi (?)» ^^ 

Ahadiy a promise. 
Wdhid^ one. 
Wai Jcu'y to be in time. 
Wainua, verily. 
Wdjtby rightness, it ought. 
Wajihi leu-, to visit, to see face t6 

face. 
Wajihiana hu-^ to meet face to face, 

to see one another. 
Wdka Jeit-f to blaze, to bum np, to 

bum. 
WdkaH, time, season. 

Wdkaii huuy now. 
Wake or Wdkwe, his, her, or its. 
Wdkf. [See -ahe. 

Kufdnya vaakfy to dedicate, to set 
apart for holy uses. 
Wakioy the weight of a silver dollar, 

about an ounce. 
Wakifu fcw-, to cost 
Wakifia ku-, to cost to. 
Wakili, an agent, a representative. 
Wdkoy thy. 
Wdkti = Wakatl 

WakH gani nijef at what time 
am I to come ? 
Wold, nor, and not 

WaHa — wala — , neither — ^nor — w 
WJiere or would be used in* 

English after a negative vfala is 

used in SwahilL 
Walai ot WaUayey the most com- 
mon Swahili oath. 
WalaJciniy but, and 1 owever. 
WaJaOf not even. 
TFaZe, those yonder. 
Walt, cooked grain, especially rice. 

Wall wa mwikmuy What is left 
fei wn . e eme meal overaight to he 
eaten in the morning. 



WAL 

Wali, a governor. 

Liwali for Al Waliy tlie governor, 
is more commonly used in Zan* 
zibar. 
Walio. See Nyalio, 
WaZio, they who are. 
Walimioengu, the people of this 

world. 
WaUt, a saint. 

Wama ku^t to lie on the face. 
Wamha icu-^ to lace in the ropes 

upon the frame of a Idtanda^ to 

fill up. 
WavMsOt attachment 
Wana, they have. 

Bawana^ they have not. 
Wanda hu-^ to get very fat and 

strong. 
WaruUiy plur. nyanda, a finger, a 

flnger's-breadth. 
Wanga ku- (Mer.), to count, to 

redcon. 
Wanga^ one who uses witchcraft 

against another. 
Wanga, arrowroot. Also Uanga^ 
Wanga or Wangwa, a cllffl 
Wangine, others, other people. 

Wangine — wangine—^ some — 
others — . 
WangUf my. See -angu. 
Wangua hu-^ to scoop up. 
Wan/fwa, a desert, a bare waste 

place. 
V/angioana or WaungioanOf gentry, 

free and civilized men. 
Wanja, 

Wanja wa manga, antimony. 
Wano, plur. maioano, the shaft of 

an arrow or harpoon. 
Wao, they. 

Wao, their. See ^ao, 
tf^optf which people? 
Wapif orapif whejrp? 



WAT 



415 



Commonly joined with the per- 
sonal sign of the noun. 
Yu wapi or Yuko toapif where is 

[he]? 
Zi wapi or Ziko wapif where are 
[they]? 

Wapilia A;u-, to be laden with scent, 
highly perfumed. 

Wapo, a gift 

Waradij or Waredi, or Waridi, a 
rose. 

WaraJca, plur. nyaraka, a letter. 

Waria, a clever dhow-builder, a 
clever man at any business. 

Warr, a yard (measure). 

Wasa, plur. nyasa, small sticks to 
fill up between larger ones in a 
wall or root 

Wasa fttt-, to contradict 

Washa hu', to light, to set fire to. 
Kuvoasha moto, to light up a fire. 

Washarati, great dissipation, licen- 
tiousness. 

Washenzij wild people, undvilized 
men. 

Wad, rebellion. Also JJan. 

Wasia, sentence, will, declared 
opinion. Also Wosia. 

Wasia &tt-, to bequeath, to make a 
will. 

Wagili Icii-, to arrive, to come close 
to, to reach. 

Wasili, receipt, credit side of ac- 
count, i.e, the Jeft-haud column. 

WasUta Icu', to reach a person, es- 
pecially of letters. 

Wanli$ha hu-, to cause to reach. 

Wasio, who are not. 

Wash = WaHa and Wosia, 

Wagtani, middling, in the middle 

WasuHM, doubt 

WoGiahisM hu-, to solve. 

WatWcu najFTOw. 

2 E 2 



416 



WAT 



-Will 



Waiia ftti-, to sit upon eggs. 

W<UUf fenugreek. 

Waiu (plur. of Mtu\ people. 

-a toatiif other people's. 
WoiVUf plor. nyami, a net to catch 

gazelles, &c. 
Waujilit two, two persons. 

Wote wawUif both. 
Waya, an earthen dish to bake 

cakes on. 
Wayawaya hu-, to sway like a bough 

loaded with fruit, to swagger, to 

be bent down and burdened. 
WayOf plur. nyayo, sole of the foot, 

footprint Also Uayo. 

Waza Arti-, to think, consider, reflect 

Wazao, progeny , ofispring, posterity. 

^icazif open, dear, manifest. It 

makes vjozi with nouns like 

nyutnba, 

Kitioa kiwazif bareheaded. 
. Panalia tooxi, it sounds hollow. 

Wazitocui, manifest. 
Wazimu, 

Ana watimUf he is mad. 
Wcuirif plur. mawaziri^ a vizier, a 

secretary of state, a chief officer. 
WazOf plor. mauxizo, thoughts, 
•rtiw, his, hers, its, for wdke» 
-u«, thee, for toeioe, 
Wea hu-9 to become the property of. 
Weka ku-f to place, to lay, to put 
away, to keep, to delay. 

Nyumba hainkoekij 1 have no rest 
in the house, I cannot remain 
in the house. 
Wekea hu'^ to put away for. 

Kuwehea amana, to entrust to. 

Kuwekea wik/^ to dedicate. 
Weho. 

Kutia weko, to weld. 
Wekua hn-^ to break up, to remove. 
Weleko, a cloth wcm by women. 



Wdi, sickness. 

Well wa machot ophthalmia. 
Weliif saintly, a saint. 
Wema, goodness. 
Wembe^ plur. nyembe (?), a razor. 
Wenga fcu-, to cause to break out 

into sores. 
Wengi, many. See -ingu 
Wengo, the spleen. 
TTenu, your. See -enu. 
Wenzangtit my companions ^ TTo- 

enzi wangu, 
WerevUf cunning, shrewdn^ws. 
Weu, a place cleared for planting. 
Weupe, whiteness, clearness, light 
Weupe^ white. See -eupe. 
Few or Wezi^ thieves. See Mmvi, 
We/we, thou, thee. 
Wevsueka ^u-, to talk and munr.ur 

in one's sleep. Also Weuoeteka, 
Weye, you I it is you. 
Weza ku-f to be able, to be a match 
for, to have power over, to be 
equal to. 

SiwezU I cannot, or, I am sick. 

Ndlikuwa siwezi, 1 was ilL 

Sikuweza, 1 was not able. 

Amehawexij he has fallen sick. 
'weza. See mweza, 
Wezekana ku-, to be possible. 
Weze$lM Jcu-t to enable. 
-wt, bad (old Swahili and Nyam- 
Wia ku't to be to. [wezi). 

Nitoie raihif don't be oifendcd 
with me. 

2. to have in one^s debt 
Kuwiioa, to bo indebted. 
Wibo, Ibo. 

Wifly husband's sister. 
Wika kn-f to crow like a cock. 
Wilaya =: Ulayat, home, Europe 
-tot7t, two. It makes mhUi Avith 

nouns like nyumha^ 



Wimbit plur. maioimhi, a ward. 

Matoimhi, surf. 
TTfmW, a very small kind of grain. 
Winda kw- or Winga A;u-, to chase, 

to hunt. 
Wingi = Ungi, plenty, a great 

quantity, much. 
Wingu, plur. maioingut a cloud. 
TTtno, ink. 
TTts^ii^a, chafi; the husks of rice, the 

flour sifted off along with the 

husks. 
TTt/fru, odd, not even. 
Wittoa (= Kmtioaf)t the being 

called. 
Wiva ku- = Iva hm-% 
•toivu, jealous. 
HctVtt = -bivu, ripe. 
Wiwa hth^ to owe, to be indebted 

to. 
Wiza. 

Mayayi matDtzoy eggs with 
chickens formed in them, hard 
set. 
Wo, -wo, -too-, which, who, whom. 

Wo wote, whatsoever, whosoever, 
-iw, thy, = Wako, 
Wogofya, plur. nyogofyay a threat. 
TroA:ovu, deliverance, salvation. 
Wongo, falsehood. Also Utoongo. 
Wonyesho, showing, display. 
Worari, rateable division, sharing. 

Ar. WorOf to cast pebbles. 
TToMO, injunotiot), sentence, charge, 

wise saying. Also Wasia. 
Wote, all, both. 

Tuende vooie, let us both goii 

Wote ^tanjilif both. 
Woffin, cool. 
Woweka ku-, to soak. 



YAk 

I 

Y. 



417 



r is pronounced as in English. 

r is in Swahili a consonantal i, 
and it is often indifferent whether it 
be written • or y. The use of y 
is however important to distinguish 
such words as kimia^ a cast-net, 
and kimyOf silence. 

The insertion of a y sound before 
the final -a of a verb has in many 
cases the effect of giving it a causa- 
tive meaning. See P. 

Kupona, to get well. 
Kuponyoj to cure* 

Kuogopiiy to fear. 
Kuogofya, to frighten 

r = i. 

r-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by singular 
substantives of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, by plural substantives in 
mi-, or by plural substantives in 

Fa, of. See .-a. [tna-. 

Ya kitovu, in the naveL 
Ya kwamba, that 
Yanfrnt Why? 

Fa-, sign of the third person plural 
prefixed to verbs governed by a 
plural substantive in ma^. 

-ya-, objective prefix denoting 
plural nouns in ma^ 

Yaa kth, to sow seeds. 

Ydbis, or Yahisi, dry, solid. 

Yai = Yayi. 

Yaika ^, to melt 

Yofttf or Ydkwe, his, hers, ita. See 
-ofce. 

Yakini, certainly, certainty, it is 
certain. 

Yakinia h^, to determine, xo t>\>i 
one's mind upon. 



418 



YAK 



Yahinitha ku-, to make certain. 
Yako, thy, your. See -dko. 
Yahoioapi, where aie they 7 
Ydkutij emerald (?). 
Yale, those yonder, 
Yaliomo, which are within. 
Yanibo = Jamb0, 
Yamini, an oath. 
Yamlcinif possibly, possibility. 

Ktoa yamkint^ possibly. 
Yamkini ku- (?), to be possible. 

Haiyamkinij it is not possible. 
Yamur, deer. 
Yange, See -nge-. 

Yangedumu, they would remain. 
YaTigu, my, of me. See 'ungu, 
Yani = Ya tdnif for what? why? 
Yaot their, of them. See -ao, 
Yost, a yellow powder brought from 

India, and used aa a cosmetic 
rafinia, an orphan. 
Yavuyavu, lights, lunga. 
Yaya, a nurse, an ayah. 
Yayit plur. mayayi^ an egg. 

Yayi ya purn^^ testicles. 
re/ = Je/ HuUol Weill What 

now? 
Te, -ye, or -ye-, sign of the relatiTe, 
referring to animate beings, 
who, which, whom. 

Ye yoUt whosoever. 

Yeekwayee, common-place people, 
-ye, his, hers, or its, =s Yake, 
Yee or Yeye, he or she, him or her. 
Yet, a chUd's good-bye, " ta-ta." 
YemMni = Yamkini, 
Yenu, your, of you. See -enti. 
Ycnyl, having. See-enyi. 
Yelu, our, of us. See -etu, 
YeytJca hu-,io melt, to deliquesce. 
Yeyusha ku-, to cause to melt, to 

melt 
Yinyi s Yenyi. 



-yo, thy, = Yaho. 
Yo, -yo, -yo-, sign of the relative, 
which, 
Yo yote, whatsoever. 
Yoe = Yoioe, 
Yonga ku-^ to sway. 
YoUf all. See -ote, 

Kfjoa yote, altogether, wholly. 
roti7e, a cry for help. 

Kupiga yowe, to cry for help. 
Tit, he or she is. 

Yu-9 sign of the third person sin- 
gular, referring to an animate 
being. It is used chiefly before 
monosyllabic verbs and in the 
Mombas dialect. 
Yuaja, he comes. 
YtJco, yumOf &o., he Is there, 
within, &o. 
YuUt yonder person, that person. 
Yuma ku; to sway in the wind. 
Yuna, he has. 

Yungiyungij the blue water-lily. 
Yuza kU'f to declare, to make dear. 



Z. 

Z is pronounced as in zany, the 
German s. Zin some dialects takes 
the place of v or vy in that of Zan- 
zibar. 

Z is used by people who cannot 
pronounce thj for the Arabic (half 
thodf and dtha. See T, 

Z* or zi; the sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs which 
are governed by plural substan- 
tives of the class which does not 
change to form the plural, or of 
that which makes its singular 
intt-. 

Z-f the prefix proper to pronouns 



governed by plural nouns of the 

class Tfhich does not change to 

form the plura.1, or of that which 

makes its singular in ti. 
Za, ot See -a. 
Za htt-. See Uza hu-^ to sell. 
Zaa hu-y to bear, to breed, to beget, 

to bear fruit 
Zqbadi, civet 
Zabibuy plur. mazdbihu (?), grapes, 

raisins. 
Zdbidi ku-, to take civet from the 

ngatca, 
Zdbuni 7v*t*-, to buy. 
Zaburiy the psalter, a psalnL 
Tkifarani as Zafrani, saffron, a :wo« 

man's name. 
Zagaa Uu-y to shine, to glisten* 
Zaidi or Zayidi^ more. 
ZaJcOt tithes. 
Zdke or Zahwe^ his, hem, its.. See 

-dke. 
Zdko, thy, your. See •aJco, 
Zahula (A.) s Vydhula, victuals. 
ZaJia hwy to bear to. 
Zalisha feu-, to beget, cause to bear. 
2jaUwa Xni-, to be bom. 
Zama hur^ to sink, to dive. 
Zamaniy times, long ago. 

Zamani za kdU, old times, long 
ago, anciently, 

Zamani ta Shanga, when Shanga 
flourished. 

Zamani hizi, nowadays. 

Zamani zetUj our times. 
Zamharaii^ a kind of fruit, in ap- 
pearance not unlike a large dam-' 

son. 
Zamuha ^, to make to sink. 
Zam-Oy a turn, turns. 

Kwa xamu, by turni. . 
ZangefuHy cinnabar. 
Zangiit my, of me. See <4ifigti. 



. ZID 



fl9 



Zani, adultery. 

ZaOy plur. mazaOy fruit, profuoeb 

Zsto, their. See -oo. 

ZarambOf a spirit distUled firom palm 

wine. 
Zari, a precious kind of stuff, gold 

thread, gold brocade. 
Zatiti hu-, to set in or^er, furran|;e, 

prepare for. ' 
Zaioa kuy to be born. 
Zaujadit a present, a keepsake, a 

rarity. 
Zawaridif a Java sparrow. 
Zayidi, mate, 
Zazi (?), afterbirth, 
-M^ his, her, or its, s?, Zak9* 
'ZWj old, aged. 
Zebaleh, mercury* 
Zegct a dome. 
ZeXabia^ a kind of sweetmeat orn- 

taining syrup. 
Zengea X;u-, to seek folk 
Zi9nti,your. See-enii,. 
ZenyU See-enyi. 
Zsftf, our, of us. See -etti. 
Z(800, a sort of lute with ihieo . 

strings. 
Zi- 5= «-. 
*ci., the objective prefix deooti^.a 

plural substantive either of that 

class which does not change to 

foi^m the plural or of that which ^ 

makes its singular in u-^ 
Ziha ku', to fill up i» hole in a wall, , 

&C., to plug up, to stop. 
Zibana hu-, to be stopped up, to stop 

itself up. 
Ziboy plur. maztZK^ a plug, a stopper. 
Zibua ku-t to unstop, to bore 

through. 
Zidi ku', to increase, to do more 
than before. 

Kuzidi kujua, to know more. 



420 



2tD 



20 A 



Ziduha k»^ to make greater, to 
add to. 

Zifuri, a cipher, a flgnie of nought 

Zika W>, to bury, to inter. 

ZikeretwuOf turnery, turned goods. 
See£9re»i. 

ZikL 
Kamzu ya Hki, worked with 
white cotton round the neck 
instead of silk. See Kanzu. 

Zikika kn-^ to be impoverished. 

Ztktoiy plur. d%fi^(N.), a thousand. 

ZUe, those yonder. 

-2tma, sound, whole, healthy, com- 
plete. 

Zima hu-, to extinguish, to put out. 
Kuzima roho, to faint 

Zimia ftu-, to put out 

Zimika &«-, to go out, to be extin- 
guished. 

ZimiUza hu^ to rub out 

Zimu, See Watimu^ *Mtimu^ £ti- 
•<m«, ZimwL 

Zimua &»-, to cool hot water by 
adding cold to it 

Zimwij plur. mazimwif an ogre, 
a ghoul, an evil being which 
devours men, &o. 
^Niui ina tknwi, Le. the cocoa-nut 
has grown without anything 
inside the sbelL 

Zina ku-^ to commit adultery. See 
Zt'ni. 

Zindika &«-, to hold an opening 
ceremony in, to open for use. 

Zindikot an opening ceremony. 

Zinduka ku-, to wake up suddenly 
from a doie with a nod and a 
start. 

Zindukana ku-, to wake up sud- 
denly. 

Zinga ku-, to commit adultery (?). 

Zinga ku-, to roll up. 



ZingUiy sleep, great sleep. Also 
UHngizi, 

Zingizi 2a ktCmkomei^ msoet, a 
sleep which is supposed to put 
an end to all further child- 
bearing. 
Zingulia ku-, to relieve from the* 

evil eye. 
Zini ku'f to commit adultery or for- 
nication. 
Zira &tf-, to hate (M.). 
ZtrikiQUy^BizikL 
'zitOf heavy, difficult, severe, sadi 
clumsy, thick. 

Asdlt nzito^ thick syrup. 
Zituo. 

Hana sifno, he never rests. 
Zitro, plur. mazitea, a lake, a pond, 

the breasts. 
Ziz% plur. mazizi^ a cow-yard, a 

cattle-fold, a stable, palisading. 
Zizi hiz{j just these, conunon. 
Zizima ^, to become very calm, 

very still, or very cold. 
Zizimia ht-, to sink to the bottom. 
ZOf »tOf -«o-» sign of the relative, 
which. 

Zo (ote, whatsoever, 
-so, thy, = Zako, 
Zoa fttf-, to gather into little heaps^ 

to sweep together. 
Zoea &tf-, to become accustomed, to 

become used to. 
Zoeza &tt-, to accustom to, to make 
used to. 

KujizoezOy to practise. 
Zomariy a kind of darionet, a pipa 
Zom^ Apu-, to groan at 
Zongazonga ku*^ to wind. 
Zote,9X\, See-ofo. 
Zua ^ to pierce, to bore through, 
to innovate, to invent 

NirMfiMsua, I have sucked him 



dry, I have got all the informal 
tlon I can from him. 
Zuia hu-, to hold in, to restrain, to 
hinder. 

Kuzuia pumHf to stifle. 
Zuilia hu-t to hold for, to keep off, 

to hold in its place. 
ZuJta hu-, to emerge, to rise. 
Zulij perjnry. 
Zidia, a carpet 
Zulia fttt-, to invent to, to make a 

false excuse to, to say falsely that 

one has such and such a message. 
Zuluika 2m-, to make crazy, to 

flurry. 
Zulu ku», to be crazy. 
Zumaridf an emerald. 
ZunMif consolation. 
Zumbua hu-, to find. 

Kuiunibua paa (A.), to take off 
thatch. 
Zumhukana &«, to be to be found. 



Z02 



421 



Zumgu*mza hu-t to amuse, converse 
with. 

Kujizumgu^mzot to converse, to 
amuse oneself. 
Zunguica ku-, to go round, to sur- 

round, to wind round, to revolve, 

to wander. 
Zungukazunguka ku-^io stroll about. 
Zungusha ku-f to make to go round, 

to turn. 
Zuri ku'^ to lie, to swear falsely. 
-zurif fine, beautiful, handsome. 
2kiru ku-, to visit. 

Kwenda kuzuru, to go to visit. 

Kuzuru kabuH, to visit a grave. 
Zurungi = Huthurungi, the brown 

material of which kanzus are 

made. 
Zuzua kU', to puzzle a stranger, or 

a greenhorn. 
Zuzuka ^u-, to be puzzled or be- 
wildered, not to know what to da 



APPENDICES. 



( 425 ) 



Appendix L 



fipBomnf of Kin3nime, as written out by Johari, a native of the 
fiwahili coast a.little south of Zanzibar, The Swahili is in the Merima 
iialect 



BWAHILL 


EiNYUMB. 


English. 


N^tmbe 


Mhencfo 


An ox. 


Mbuzi 


Zimbu 


Agoai 


Punda 


Ndapu 


A donkey. 


Nyamiya 


Yangami 


A cameL 


Nyumba 


Mhanyu 


A house. 


Mkeka 


KamJce 


A sleeping mat 


Kitanda 


Kdakita 


A bedstead. 


Mlango 


Ngomla 


A door. 


Mijengo 


Ngomije 


Buildings (?> 


Udtmgo 


Ngoudo 


Bed earth. 


Ngazi 


Zinga 


A ladder. 


Daraja 


Jadara 


A staircase. 




Nomane 


Words. 


JBoii 


Siba 


That will da» 




Kemioanamu 


A woman. 


Uxingizi 


Ziuzingi 


Sleep. 


Samaki 


Kisama 


Fish. 


Kvodi 


Likwe 


Truth. 


Nazima 


Maruui 


I lend. 


Sikupi 


Tisiku 


I will not give you. 


Ntakupa 


Fantahu 


I will give you. 


Ntdkunyima 


Mantakunyi 


I shall withhuld from yook 


Macho 


Choma 


Eyes. 


Mguru 


Bumgu 


A leg. 


Rungu 


Nguru 


A dub. 




Mbanahuo 


I pray yoiL 



26 


APPENDIX 1. 


SwAHnx 


KiNTXJMB. 


Ehqubb. 




Ranja mainaniu 


I ache wiih hungce. 


Ftdob 


Lwido 


Fingera. 


Shingo 


NgoBki 


The neck. 


Si kwdi 


Lisikwe 


It is not trae. 


Fjmdi 


Ndifu 


A master worlopaii. 


Sivyo 


Vyosi 


Not thoB. 


KaraUui 


Sikarata 


Paper. 


Kalanm 


Mulsala 


A pen. 


Wino 


Nowi 


Ink. 


Pakura 


Rapahu 


Dish np. 


Tweade zetu 


Tutwendeze 


Let ns be off. 


Senendi 


Ndisene 


I am not going. 


ChaJctda 


Lachaku 


Food. 


Utakwenda 


NdaiUakwe 


Yon will go. 


Mehanga 


Ngamelia 


Sand. 


Samatcati (Ar.) 


Ti$amawa 


Heaven. 


Arum (Ai .) 


Tkiaru 


Earth. 


Mutu 


Tumu 


Man. 


Mungwana 


Namungvoa 


A free man. 


Mtumwa 


Mtpamtu 


A slave. 


Sitaki 


KiHia 


I dislike it 


Meza 


Zame 


A table. 


Bweia 


Tabwe 


A box. 


Sanduiiu 


Kuaandu 


Aohest 


KUahu 


Bukita 


A book. 


Mealia/u 


Fumtaha 


A Koran, 



( 427 ) 



Appendix II. 



SPEcniENB of Swtthlli correspondence in proee and Terse, containing. 
— 1. Two Swahili letters, the one on giving^ the other on receiving a 
small present The forms of address, &c., are those used in all letters, 
whatever their subject may be. 2. Two specimens of verses sent as 
letters, the first to excuse breaking an appointment, the second sent 
from Pemba by a Hombas man to his friends at home, who upbraided 
him for not returning. This form of writing is a very favourite one. 

L 

Ilia jenfib il mohA raflki yanga, bwana wangn, bwana.mkubwa, 
D. 8n salamu sana» ama baada ya salamu, nalikuwa siwezl siku 
nyingi, lakini sasa sijumbo kidogo, ama baadohu, nimekuleteakitoweo 
kidogo ta£&thali upokee, nao k'uku saba'a, wa salamu, wa katabahu 
rafiki yako H. bin A. 

To the honourable the beloved, my friend, my master, the great sir, 
D. S.,many compliments, but after compliments, I was unwell for many 
days, but noif I am a little recovered, and after this, I have sent you a 
little kitoweo [t.e. something to be eaten with the rice or grain, which 
forms the bulk of all meals], and I beg your acceptance, tbey are seven 
fowls and compliments, and he who wrote this is H. son cf A^ 



nia jenab, il moh^, il akram> in nasih, D. S., il Mwingrezi, insba' 
Allah salaam aleik wa r^met Allah wa barak&tahu; wa baada, 
nakuarifu hali zangn njcma wa <Aama nawe kathilik ya afia, wa 
zayidi amana yako ulioniletea imefika kwangu, ahsanta, HwenyiezI 
Muungu atakujazi kheiri ukae ukitukumbuka, nasi nyoyo zeta zinaku- 



428 APPENDIX IL 

knmbuka sana, tiinapenda uje 'ntl ya Unguja, wewe na bibi, caye aje 
tumwangalie, naye aje atazame 'nti ya Unguja, nasi kuUa siku tukilala 
tukia*mka tunakuombea Muungu nje 'nti ya Unguja, tnonane kwa 
afia na nguvu, nasi twapenda macho yetn yakuone wewe assubui na 
jioui, na usipokuja wewe, usitnsahan kwa nyaraka allah allah. 
Nisalimie bibi mke wako salamu sana. Nasi tunakutamani, kama 
tungalikuwa ndege tungallruka tukija tukaonane nawe mara moja 
tiikiisba tukarudi. Nyumbani kwangu mke wang^ salamu sana. M. 
bin A. akusalimu sana, wa katabahn M. wad\ S. 26 mwezi wa mfunguo 
kenda. 

To the honourable, the beloved, the noble, the sincere D. S., the 
Englishman, please God, peace be with you and the mercy of God and 
His blessing ; and afterwards, I inform you that my health is good, and 
may you be the same as to health, and further, your pledge which you 
sent me has reached me, I thank you. Almighty God will satisfy you 
with good that you may continue to remember us, and as for us, our 
hearts think much of you ; we wish you to come to the land of Zanzibar, 
you and the mistress, and let her come that we may behold her, and 
let her come that she may look upon the land of Zanzibar ; and we 
every day when we sleep and when we wake pray for you to God that 
you come to the land of Zanzibar, that we may meet in health and 
strength, and we, we wish that our eyes should see you morning and 
evening, and if you come not yourself, forget us not by letters, we 
adjure you. Salute for me the mistress your wife with many compli- 
ments. And we are longing for you, and if we had been birds we 
would have come flying to see you once and then return. At home my 
wife sends many compliments. M. son of A. salutes you much, and 
he who wrote this is M. the son of S. 26 of the month Jemad al 
aklur. 



n. 

Eala es sha'irL The Verse says. 

Risala enda kwa hima Go, message, quickly 

Kwa Edward Istira To Edward Steere, 

Umpe yangu salama Give him health, 

Pamwe na kumkhubira. Together with telling him» 

Siwezi yangu jisima I am ill in my body, 

Ningekwenda tesira I would have gone readily 

Kumtazama padira To see the Padre, 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steera 



APPENDIX II. 429 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 

nima ya Injili The doctrine of the Gospel— 

Yoaijua habara He knows how its news 

Pia yote knfasili To explain,— all of it. 

Ni mnhebbi akhyara He is a choice friend, 

Ewetu sisi afthalL Especially in onr house ; 

Edi ni mta wa kwcli. He is a man of truth. 

Babbi, nipe tesira. O Lord, give me prosperity. 



Hatukiati kisiwa kwa uvambume na upembe 

Tukaifuasa hawa kulewalewa na ombe 
Ki mpunga na maziwa na kulla siku ni ngombe 

Twalalia lEwa jivumba^ lipangine kwa rihani. 

We shall not leave the island for tale-bearing and plotting, 
And follow the fancy to be tossed on the sea. 

Here are rice, and milk, and every day an ox ; 

We sleep among perfumes, and strings of sweet basi]. 



Swahili letters are always written with a string of Arabic compli- 
ments at the beginning, and Arabic words are freely introduced 
throughout. In letter-writing htutri/u is used for to inform^ and 
huxooKilia (not hufikia) for to reaeh, as in the phrase your letter ha$ 
reached me — wardka waho vmeniwasilia, Swahili verses are written in 
an obsolete dialect full of Arabic words and foreign words generally, 
called Eingozi. It has not yet been studied by any European. Among 
its more remarkable peculiarities is the use of a present perfect made 
by a change in the termination of the Verb, similar to those in use in 
the Yao and in other languages of the Interior. Thus a poet may 
write nibwene for nimeona, and nikomtle for nimehoma. Some speci- 
mens of this dialect will be found in the poetry at the end of the 
"Swahili Tales." 



1 r 



( 431 } 



Appendix IIL 



Part of a Swahili tale with tiie prefixes marked and explained. It 
is printed first as in the main it would be written by a native ; next 
the oomponnd forms are marked by hyphens and explained; and last 
oomes an English translation. 



Tule kijana akafuta upanga wake, akanena^ mimi nitaingia humo I. 



The tale, of which this is a part, is oalled iheHadUki ya WnHdi, II. 
na Uredoi na Jindi^ na SirUbar, The portion of it here printed begins 
with a yerb in the ha tense, beoause it is canying on a narration 
ahready oommenoed. The first words of the story axe^Aliondokea tatu 
iajiri. After this first verb in the li tense the rest are formed with ha, 
unless they are constructed with a relative or particle of time or place, 
which cannot be joined with ka bat only with li, 

Ytiie, that; demonstrative (p. 115) referring to a singular sub- 
stantive of the first olaSs, hijana being regarded as the name of a 
person. Ki-jana, a young man or woman, here a man. A-ka-ftUa^ 
and he drew; a-, sign of third person sing., appropriate to a noun 
of the first class or to any word denoting a living being; -%a-, 
sign of the narrative past tense ; -futa, draw. U-panga, a sword ; 
a sing, substantive of the sixth class. TT-a^ his; possessive 
pronoun, third person sing.; W', prefix proper to a pronoun agree- 
ing with a sing, substantive of the sixth class. A-kattenct^ B,nd 
he said ; a- and -^, as before ; -nena, speak or say out. Mimi, L ^t'- 
ta-ingia, I will go in ; «<-, sign of the first person sing. ; -fa-, sign of the 
future tense; -ingia, go into, enter. Mumo, in here ; a demonstrative 



The youth drew hia sword, and said, << I will go into this pit, whetiier IIL 

2 F 2 



432 APPENDIX IIL 

1. fihimoni, nikafe ao nikapone. Akaingia, akamwona mtoto amefdDgwai 
naye mwanamume. Akamwambia, nifangue niknpe khabari ya 
humo BhimonL Akamfnngna, akaona viohwa vingi Tya wain. Aka* 



IL proper to ihe -n< case, when it denotes being, &c., within. Skimchni^ 
into the pit; s%t*mo-,a singular nonn of the iifth class; -ni, sign of 
the locative case. Ni-ka-fe, and let me die ; m'-, sign of first person 
sing. ; 'hO' and (p. 141) ; -/s, subjunctive form of /a, die. Aoy or. Ni- 
Icorponef and let me live ; ni- and -2mi-, as before ; '■pone^ subjunctive 
form of poMk, be saved. X-^-ln^^ and he went in ; third sing., 
narrative past of ingia^ go in. A-ka^mtD-onOf and saw him ; orha-, and 
he did ; -mto-, objective prefix proper to a substantive of the first class 
(nUotd); "Ona, see. M-iotOf child; sing, substantive of the first class. 
A.'me^fungvMi^ bound ; a-, sign of third person sing.^ governed by a 
substantive of the first class (mtoto) ; -me-, sign of the present perfect, 
which is here used as a sort of past participle : 'fungtoOj passive of 
/unga, bind. Na-ye, and he (p. 103). Jlfto-ana-m-umtf, a male ; mto-^ 
sing, prefix of a noun of the first class ; m- (for mu-^^ prefix agreeing 
with a substantive of the first class; 'ume, male; the whole word* 
mwanamumef is used for a man, or any human being of the male sex. 
A'ha-mw-amhUtt and he said to him ; a-ka-y third sing, narrative past ; 
•ifii0<, subjective prefix denoting a person (hijana) ; -amMo^ say to. Nu 
fungWy unbind me ; m'-, objective prefix, first person ; -fungue^ impera-' 
tive sing, oi fwnguay unbind. Ni-ku-pe^ that I may give you; m*-, 
subjective prefix first person ; -Xm-, objective prefix, second person ; -pe^ 
subjunctive of pa, give to. Khaba/n^ news ; sing, substantive of the 
third class. F-o, of; y-^ sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of 
the third class (klMbari), Bumo, here in ; a demonstrative agreeing 
with the -nt case when denoting toUhin, 8himo-nij in the pit ; -n^ sign 
of the locative case. A-ka-m-fungva, and he loosed him ; a-, ka-^ third 
sing, narrative past; -m-, objective prefix referring to a substantive of 
the first class (mtoto) ; -fungua, unbind. A-ka-ona^ and he saw, third 
sing., narrative past Vi-ohwa, heads or skulls ; vt-, sign of a plural 
substantive of the fourth class ; vichwa is in more elegant Swahili vitwa, 
V'inqi^ many; v- or m-, adjectival plural prefix, marking agreement 
with a plural substantive of the fourth class (viohuMi); 'ingi or -ngi^ 
many. Vy-a, of; vy-t marking the agreement with a plural noun of 



in. I die or live.*' And he went in and saw a boy, and he was bound. And 
[the boy] said, ** Unbind me, that I may tell you about what there is in 
this pit/' And he unbound him* and saw many human skulls. And he 



Aprmmx in. 433 

mwnlka, hatxuri gUni hii? Akamwambia, mna nyoka hnmo, kazi L 
yake kola wain, na mimi angalinila, lakini amenifanya mtoto wake, 
miaka mingi nimetoka kwetu. Akamwuliza, sasa yuko wapi nyoka ? 



the fourth class (pichnod). Wa-tu, people ; tm-, plural prefix first cIosf. U 
A-ha-fMo-uUzcL, and he asked him ; a-, ha-, third sing, narrative past : 
-mw-t objective prefix referring to a person (mtoto) ; 'tdizc^ ask or ask 
of. Hdbari or hhabari, news, sing, substantive third class. Oani^ 
what sort? Hit, this; demonstrative denoting a sing, substantive of 
the third class (hahari). A-ka-mw-amhiaf and he said to him; this 
word is of constant occurrence, it means that one person told or said to 
another ; there is no mark of sex or means of distinguishing which 
person of several mentioned before was the speaker, these points must 
be gathered from the context. M-na, there is inside ; m-na is part of 
the verb hutoa no, to be with or to have, used as it often is to denote 
mere being (p. 153) ; it answers to the English there is; there may be 
represented by hu-fpa-, or m- ; thelast is used where the place suggested 
is within something, it refers here to shimoni, in the pit Ny-oka, a 
snake, a sing, substantive in the form of the third class, denoting an 
animate being. JETttmo, there within, referring to shimoni. Kazi, work 
or employment, sing, substantive, third class. Y-aJte, his ; y-, prefix 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third class ; -aJcej possessive 
pronoun, third person sing. Ku'l<h to eat; ku-, sign of the infinitive ; 
•2a, eat Wa-iu, people; wa-, plural prefix first class. Na, and. 
Mmi, I or me. A-ngali-ni-Uiy he would have eaten me ; a-, third sing., 
agreeing with the name of an animal (nyoka) ; -ngali-, sign of the 
past conditional tense; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the first 
person ; -2a, eat ; the tense prefix -ngali- cannot bear any accent, the 
word is therefore pronounced dngaUn{lcL Lakini, but. A-me-ni-fanya, 
he has made me ; a-, referring to nyoka ; -fii«-, sign of present perfect ; 
• fit'-, objective prefix, first person; -fanya, make. M-toto, child; m-, 
ting, prefix, first class. W-ake, his; to-, prefix agreeing with sing, 
substantive of the first class (mtoto), Mi-aha, years ; plural substan- 
tive of the second class (sing, mtoaka) ; mi-, plural prefix. M-ingi^ 
many ; m- or mi-, prefix, denoting agreement with a plural substantive 
of the second class (mxdka), Np^e^toka, I have left ; nt-, first person 
subjective; ^me-^ present perfect; 4ok€i, go out of. Kvo-etu^ home; 



asked, «< What is this ? " And he sald» ** There is a snake in it, that eats HL 
men, and would have eaten me, but that it took me for its own son. It 
is many years sincf) I left home.'' And h e asked, '^ Where is the snake 



434 APPENDIX in. 

h Ak^iuwainbift, tw^nde^ pikaknonye mahala amelala. Ak^mwasibifl^ 
t^e^def Walipofika, yule kijana akamkata kichwa kimoja, akatoa oha 
pU^ Akaj9akfft%( ];iatta vikatimu saba. Wakarudi, wakaenda zao. 



tl^ kto-f pi^efix ogxeeiog with » Bulsstantive (perhaps nyumha) in the caaa 
in -nt ; -6<tt (our). A-kchmw-uliza, Si,nd he asked him ; a-, third sing. 
(Jeijana); -2ki-, nanratlve past; -mto-, third sing, objective (tntoto); 
'vUzOf ask. &ua, now. Tu-Ico, he is; yti-, sign of third persox^ 
sing., lefenring to a substantive of the seooud class (nyoka); -koj 
denoting.fxi^tenoe in space (p. 151). Wapiy where ? Ny-oha, snake : 
sing, substantive. A-ha-mw-amhicL^ and he said to him. {See ahove,^ 
Tw-eitde^ let us go; ,tt^-, sign of the. first person plural; -ende^ 
subjunctive of tndo, go. Ni-ka-ku-onye, fuid let me show you; n»> 
sign of first person sing. ; -^, and (p. 211); -Aru-, objective second 
person nng. ; -oo^«, subjunctive of onya^ show. MahaJaf the place^ 
the place inhere. A-me-lcdOy he is asleep; a-, third sing, animate 
(nyokd); -me*, present perfect ; -ZaZa, lie down to sleep, to go to sleep, 
A-kti-mto-aTiMju {8e$ above.) Tw-ende, let us go ; tw-^ first person 
plur.; -tndfij subjunctive of enda^ ga , Wa-U-po-fika^ when thejr 
. arrived; «^, sign of third person plural agreeing with substantives 
denoting persons (kijana and mtoto) ; -It- or -aZt-, sign of the past 
perfect, or of past time generally when joined with a particle of 
relation ; -po^ sign of time when ; -Jikat arrive. Ttile, that ; demour 
strative denoting a person (kijana). Ki-jana^ youth ; sing, substantive 
fourth class, but denotiog a person, and therefore joined as here 
with pronouns and verbs in forms proper to the first class. A-ka- 
m-kaia^ he cut him ; a-, tiiird sing, of a person (kijana) ; -kor, narra- 
tive past; ^m-, objective prefix, referring to the name of an animal 
(fiyoka) (soe p. 112); -Ztato, cut or cut off. Ki-chioa, head, siiig, subr 
Btantive fourth class. Ki-riK^ay one ; H-, prefix denoting agreement 
with a slug, substantive of the fourth class (kichvca or kitwa) ; -moja^ 
one, A-ka-txia^ and he put forth ; a-, tliird sing., referring to' a sub- 
stantive denoting an animal ijiifoka) ; -ka-y narrative past ; -toa, put 
forth. Cha pUil a second (p.. 92); ch-, referring to a sing, siibstantiv^ 
jpf the fourth class Qiidliwa). Arka-m-kataf and he cut him. (See abqj:>e*) 
Motto, untiL Vi-katimu, they were cooiplele ; w-, third plural refer- 



Ill, now ? " He said, ** Let us go and let me show you where it is sleeping." 
; He said, "Let ufi go." Whenthey got there the youth out off oucofii 
heads; it put forth a second, and he cut it off, until 'he had oiit ol 
fieveu. And they returned, (vnd went on their way. 



4Fi^rmix III ft35 

Akamwaoibia eam tweucie tBtuk kwetn, laldni - tnkiiftft : k veta If 
wononde wewe kwanza kwA bab» y»nga, ukamwambid kana mioto 
wako nikiknletea utanipa nini ? Akikwambia, nitakapa mali yangu 



ring to nouns'of the fourth class, here to vichtoc^ beads, plural ^fhiokwa ; It 
r^-y uarratiye past; -timu, be oomplete. Saba, sev^ W^koffudii 
aud they ^turned ; ;toa-, third plural referrix^ to persons (hijana 
and mtoto) ; -ha-t narrative past ; -rudij return. Workcb-enda jHMq* an4 
they wont away ; ^oo-, third plural (Jcijana and mtoto)\ •^o-, narrativo 
past ; -enda, go ; c-oo, their (ways) ; £-, a prefix denoting agreement 
with, a plural noun of the thiM or sixth, or in the dialect of Lamoo 
of the fourth dass; -oo, their. Possibly zc» agrees with f^'ia, ways, 
(5fe6p.ll2.) 

jL-ha-nwHinAia^ and he said to hhn. Somcl, now. TiJMnde x-«<tu 
let us gQ away ; iw-, sign of 4rst person plural ;..-6»^, tubjuuctive of 
tndoy go ; I-, sign of agreement with a plural noun of the, tldrd or. tht 
sixth class; -etuyonr. (S^.ahovfi,) iC«0-6<t», home ; &t0-,aiga of agree? 
ment with the case in -nir; -f^ our. Lakinu but. T^-ki^jSkOf wlten 
we axrive; iu-, sign of the first person plural ; -hi", sign of the partici- 
pialtense(p. 13Q); ;/2^, arnve. Knp'^u, home. W-eMnde^^go; 14^>« 
sign of the second peeson singular ; -enende, subjunotiTe of eneitdo, go^ 
or go on. Wewe, thou.. Kwanza, firs^; originally the infinitive of .the 
verb anza, begin; hioanzcij to begin, beginning, and therefore firsts 
Ewa, to a person, or to his house. Haba, father. Y-angu^ my ; ^ 
sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the third class, used here 
cuUoquially with one denoting a person Qiaba)\ -an^jru, my (p. 109). H" 
JkorfTM^Him&itf, and say to him; u-, sign of the second person singular; 
•^-, and ; -ntt^, objective sign referring to a noun denoling a person 
(jMiiba); "ambie, subjunctive of ambia, telL £0710, if. M-toto^ child* 
W-^thOf thy ; to-, sign of agreement with a singular substantive of this 
first class Qmioto). Nt-hi-hu^leUa, if I bring to yon ; .fti-« sign of the 
first person singular; -/n-, sign of the participial tense Cp*.13€>; 
'ku-f objective prefix referring to the second persc^ .singular ; •letea, 
bring to. l/'/Sa-nt-pa, you will give me ; m-, sign of second person sing. ; 
'4a- f sign of tbo future tense ; -ni-, objective prefix referring to ike 
first person singular ; -pa, glvo to. Nini, what? A-ki-kw^anibiaB if 
1^ tells you; a-, sign of thA third person sipgulac ^errin^ to a 



And [the boy] said, ** Now let n? go to my hoipc ; bpt when we arc HI 
. gettiDg near to it do you go first to my father and say U> him, .' If I bhug 
your son to you, what will you give me ? ' If he says to you, * I will give 



486 APFUmiX m. 

I. noma kwa muin, tudkalwli, mwambie naiaka kofla yakO tdijro nkiVali 
tyanani mwako. Atakupa kofia ya thahabii» luikabali* ela akupe 



tt. person (baba) ; -2p^, sign of the participial tense ; 'huh^ objective prefix 
referring to the second person eingnlar; -am^io, say to. Nl-torhu^paf 
I will give you ; ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; '^td', sign of the 
fntnre tense; "ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person 
singular ; '■pet, give to. Mali, possessions ; treated sometimes as a nonn 
of the third class, sometimes as a plural noun of the fifth class. 
Y-angUf my ; y-, sign of an agreement with a singular noun of tho 
third or with a plural noun of the fifth class. Nusiu^ half. Kwa^ 
by. NuBitt^ half. U'SP-httbali, do not accept ; «-, sign of second person 
singular; -«t-, sign of negative subjunctive (p. 147); 'kubali, sub* 
jiiDctive of teubaliy accept. Ma-afMe^ tell him; mtl^>, objective 
prefix referring to a person (bdba); "ambiet imperative of ambiat 
tell; mto- is known to be the objective thurd person, and not the 
subjective second plural, by the form of the word ambia: being an 
applied form it must have the object expressed. N-a-taka, I want ; n*. 
sign of the first person singular ; -a-, sign of the present tense ; -tdka, 
want. Kofia, cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. Y-ako, thy ; 
y-t sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. 
U'li-yOf which you, or which you are, or were ; «-, sign of the second 
person sing.: -2i-, used for the substantive verb; -yo, relative sign 
referring to a singular substantive of the third class (kofia). U-ku 
vaOf putting on ; «-, sign of the second person singular ; -H-, sign of 
the participial tense ; 'vaa^ put on. U-jand-ni, in youth ; m-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -nt-, sign of the locative case. 
Mw-ako^ thy; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative ease with the meaning of in, A'ta^ku-poj he will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing, of a person ; -to-, sign of the future ; .^-, 
objective prefix rererring to the second person sing.; -pa, give to. 
Kofia, cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. F-a, of; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Thahabu^ 
gold ; substantive of the third class. U'H-kubali, do not accept ; «•, 
'sign of the second person sing. ; -si-, sign of the negative subjunctive ; 
-%u6al«, subjunctive of kubali^ accepi J?2a, except. A-kthpe, let him 
f;ive y^ii; «., sign of the third person sing., referring to a pers(m; 



III. youbalf of all Ihave,' do not accept that,but say,* I want thecap which 
you used to wear in your youth.' He will give you a cap of gold ; do 
Aot accept it, unlesa he give you a cap quitQ worn out, tak^ that» Anj(> 



APPEtfbtX III. 437 

kbta mbovn kabiaa, hiyo pokea. Na mama yanga mwamUe natalca L 
t&a ullyo vkiwaaha lyanaDi mwako. Ataknpa taa nyingi za thahabut 
nsikubali, ela akape taa mboyumboya ya ohama, hiyo pokea. 



-Xm-, objeotiye prefix, referring to the second person sing. ; -pe, sub- tL 
Junctlve of pa, give to. Kofla, sing. Bubstantfye third class. lf-6oi^ 
rotten ; m-, being n- converted into m- by standing before -b (p. 85), 
sign of an agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (kofla), 
Kabisoy nlterly. Eiyo, this one; demonstrative denoting a thing 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (kofia), Pokea, receive : imperative sing, of pokea, receive. 
Na, and. Mama, mother : sing, substantive in the form of the third 
class denoting a person. Y-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with 
a sing, substantive of the third class, here used colloquially. MvHmbie^ 
tell her ; mto-^ objective prefix referring to a person ; -awibie, imperative 
sing, of avMoi^ telL N-a-taka, I want ; ti-, sign of first person sing. ; 
-a-, sign of present tense ; -taka, want Taa, sing, substantive third 
class. TJAi-yo, which you, which you were or are ; -», sign of the 
second person sing. : -7i-, used for the substantive verb (p. 151); -yo, 
relative particle referring to a sing, substantive of the third class 
(foo). U-ht-washa, lighting; «-, sign of second person sing.; -ki-^ 
sign of the participial tense ; -vnuha^ light. U^Jand-ni, in youth ; ti-, 
sign of a sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -nt, sign of the locative 
case. Mw-aJco, thy ; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning in. A-ta- kit-pa, she will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing., referring to a person ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense ; -^ti-, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
'pa, give to. Taa, lamps ; plural substantive of the third class (shown 
to be plural by the context). Ny-ingi, many ; ny-, sign of agreement 
with a plural substantive of the third class (taa), Z-a, of; s-, sign of 
ap:reement with a plural noun of the third class. Thdhahu, gold. 
U-ai-kvibalU do not accept ; second person sing, negative subjunctive of 
hvbalL Ela^ except A-ku-pe, let her give you; a-, sign of third 
person sing., referring to mama; -^u-, objective prefix referring to 
second person sing.; -pe, subjunctive of pa, give to. Too, sing, 
substantive thiid class. M-hovu-m-lovu, all spoilt; m- (for »- before 
•&), sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (toa) ; 



lay to my mother, ' I want the lamp you used to bum in your- youth.* ui. 
Bhe will give you many lamps of gold ; do not accept them, unless she 
give you an old worn iron lamp, take that" 



488 APJ'BNX>IX IIL 

Wakaenda sao hatta walipofiktf kanlm ya mji, jrul^ I^Jana aloM 
mwadibia, mimi 'takaa kapa» na weve en^ade Q\jini kwieiii« ukafai^e 
■huruti na baba yanga kanmw. hiyo niliokwambia. AkaeneiKto. 
Alipofika akaona ngini wata hawaneni, wana mfiiba mkun, akaulizay 



11. the adjeotive is doubled to «how tboroughneiM. T-dt of; ff-, sign of 
agreement with a fling, aubstantive of the third class. Ch^ma, iron ; 
a sing, substantive of the fourth class ; it is used in the singular of iron 
as a metal, and in both sing, and plur. with the meaning of a piece or 
pieces of iron. Hiyo, this one ; demonstrative referring to something 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third] 
elass (too). Pokea, receive ; imperative aUig. of polcea. 

Wa-haenda z^o, and they went their way. (See above), Eatta, untiL^ 
Wa-U'jHhfika, when they arrived. (See above), Karibu ya^ near to- 
M-jh town ; in-, sign of a sing, substantive of the second class. Yule^^ 
that (^ above). Kt-jana^ youth. (See above), A-ka^mw-ambiaf said to 
hiuL (See above), Mimi, L *Ta-1eaxi, will stay; ta->sign of the future, 
the pirefix of the first person sing, being elided before it ; the sign of no 
other person can be so elided. Hapa^ here. Na^ and. Wewet thou., 
Enendey imperative sing, of enetidUf go^ go. onl M-ji-nu to the town ; 
m*, sign of a sing, substantive second class ; rni» sign of the locative 
case. Kto-etUf our ; hvj', sign of an agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case. TJ-lta-fanye, and make ; if-, sign of second person sing. ; 
-^Mk, and; 'fanye, subjunctive of /anyo, make. Shuruti, a covenant; 
sing, substantive third class. Na^ with, Baba^ father. T-angu^ 
my. (See above^ and p. 112), KammOy as. ^iyo, that ; demonstrative^ 
referring to something mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing.^ 
substantive of the third class (shurtUi), Ni-U-o-lcvo'a'mbia^ which I 
told you; m-, sign of the first person sing.; -Zt-, sign of the past tense 
which must be used with a relative ; ro- (for yo), relative particle 
referring to ehwnUi (p. 117); -%io-, objective prefix referring to the 
second person sing. Ahorenenda^ and he went on, A-li-po-Jika, when 
he arrived. J-/(a-ona, he saw. JIf -jt-nt, in the town; m-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the second class ;-nt, sign of the locative case. 
Wa-tuj people ; wa-, sign of i^ plural noun of the first class. ' Maioo' 
nenif liiey speak not; /tatoa-, sign of the third person plural negative, 



III, And they went on till they arrived near the town, when the boy said, 

' /* I will stay here, and you go on into the town, to our hovse^ and make 

tibe agreement with my fSathei^ as I told you," And he went <»i and 

arrived in the city, where he sa\r therpeople not talking [but] in peeX: 



APPENDIX III. i39 

maSHi^ hao w» luni? WakamwAmbia^ mtoto wa Saliani amepotecBika L 
myingL Akauliza« nyumba ya Sultanl ni ipi, nipelekeni Wakampe-^ 
ld» wata. AUpofika akamwuliza baba yake» nna moi? Akamwa- 
mbia, mtoto wanga amepotea. Akamwambiai nikikuletea utanipa 



agreeing with a plural noun of the first class (watu) ; -neni, negative IL 
present form of nena, speak. Wa-na, they hare ; third person plur. 
present of kuvta no, to have, governed by vjatu. M-nba^ grief; m-, 
«^ of a sing, noun of the second class. Mhuu, great; m-, sign of 
agreement .with a sing, tubatantive of the second class (ntei&a). 
A'ka'tdixa^ and he .asked. M-siba^ grief. Euu, this; demonstratiye 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the second class (nuiba}. TF-a, 
of; tr-, sign of agremeent with a sing, substantive of the second class 
(iMibd), Nini, YfhAi? Wa-ka-mw-ambia, and they said to him.. 
M'totOy the child. W-cb^ of; uh, sign of agreement with a sing, subr 
stantive of the first class (mtoto), SyXtaniy the sultan ; a sing, sub- 
stantive of the fifth class, but when viewed as denoting a person 
constructed with adjectives and pronouns as of the first. A-tne-poteOf 
is lost; third sing, present perfect of kupotea, to become lost; he has 
become lost, t.6., be is lost. 8iku, days ; plural substantive of the 
third class. Ny-ingif many; ny-, sign of agreement Yrith,. a plural 
substantive of the third class ($iku)» A-ka-idiza^ and he asked*; 
Ny-unibaf house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class. T-u, of;, 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive) pj^ the third class 
(nyumba), Stdtani, sultan. Ni, is (p. 152). I-pi^ which? i», sign 
of reference to a sing, substantive of tlie third class (nyumba). Ni- 
pelekeniy take me ; m'-, objective prefix referring to the first person 
sing.; peUkenif plural imperative . of j>efe/<a, take. Wa-ka-m-peUka, 
and they took him. Wa-tu, people. A-li-po-filta, when he arrived., 
A'ka-mw-uliza, he asked him; observe here and elsewhere the use of 
the ka tense to carry on the narration, even where therp would be no 
connecti7e employed in English. Babih father. , T-oie, his. (See 
above), U-nanim, what is t]{ie matter with yo^ ^.u-na, second person 
sing, of the present tense of kil-wa na, to have; ninii what? A-ko" 
mw-amhiaf and he said to him. M-totOy child. W-angu, my. A-me- 



mourning, and he asked, " What is this mourning for ? " They told him, ► III. 
** The Sultan's son has been a long time lost.|' He asked, «' Which is the . 
Sultan's house? Take me there." And the people took him there. When, 
he reached it he asked the boy's father, *' What tronblesyou? " . He said, 
^ My son is l(«t." An4 he said to him^ *< If ]^ bring him to you what wiU» 



440 APPHilDtX tlL 

L nini? Akamvambia, nitakapa xnali yanga niusa k^a ntisfltL Aka* 
mwambia, marahaba, Akaenda akamtwaa, akaja naye. Alipomwona 
babaye na mamaye, ikawa furaha kabwa mjinL Wakapenda aana 
yule kijaiia kama mtoto wao. 

Hatta alipotaka kwenda zake, ynle kijana akamwambia, enende 
kamwage baba na mama, mwambie aknpe kofia na mama akupe taa. 



II. potea^ is lost. (8^ p. 132.) il-la-mto-am&ta, and he teid tohim. Ni-lti- 
ku-leteOf if I bring to you. (See above). U-ta-ni-pct^ yon will give me, 
(See above), Nint, what ? A'ka'miO'ambiai and he said to him. Nu 
ta-2:«-pa, I will give you. Mali, goods. (See above), Y-angu^my, (See 
above.) Ntusu, half. Kiuaf by. Niusu, half. A-ha-mw-ambia, and he 
said to him. Marahaba, very good. A-ka-enda, and he went. A-kO' 
m-ftooo, and took him. A-ka-ja, and came. Na-ye^ with him. AAU 
po-muHmOj when he saw him. Baha^ye, his father; -ye, enclitic form 
of the possessive pronoun proper to the third person; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class, used here with 
one denoting a person (p. 111). Na, and. Mama-ye, his mother ; -ye, 
(See above). J-ka-wa, it was ; i-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the third class (furaha). Furaha, joj; sing, substantive 
third class. Kubwa, great ; agreeing with furaha ; as n-, which woald 
be the regular sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the thinl 
class, cannot stand before ^ it is omitted altogether (p. 85). 3f-jt- 
ni, in the town ; m-, sign of sing, substantive second class ; -nt, sign 
of the locative case. Wa-ka-penda, and they (the father and mother) 
loved. Sana, much. Yule, that Ki-jana, youth. Kama, like. 
M'tato, child. W-ao, their. 

HaUa, at last A-li-po-tdka, when he wanted. Kw-enda t-dke, to go 
away. (See above and p. 112). Yule, that Ki-Jana, youth. ^-JbMnto- 
anibkif he said to him. Enende, go ; sing, imperative of enenda, gu. 
Ka-mvHxge, and take leave of him ; ka-, and ; -mto-, objective prefix 
referring to a person ; if into had been the subjective second plur. the 
ka would have followed it; m-ka-age s and do ye take leave; -aye, 



III. 7^^ ^^® me ? ** He said, *" I will give you half of all I have." He said, 
. *' I am content** And he went and took the boy and brought him. 
When his father and mother saw him, there was great joy throughout 
the town. And they loved that youth as though he had been their 
own son. 

When at last he wished to go away, the boy said to him, ''Go and 
take leave of my father and mother; tell hun tc give you thet»ipand 



APPENDIX JIL 441 

Akaenda, ainwaambia, wakampa kofia nyingi, akakatea akamwimibiay J* 
nataka hiyo mbovn, wakampa, na mamaye akampa taa. Akawaoliza, 
kofia hii maana yuke nim ? Wakamwambia, mta akivaa, haonekani 
na mtu. Akavaa asionekane akaforabi sana. Akauliza, taa bi\ 
maana yake nini? Wakamwambia, ukiwasha batta bapa watatoka 



imperative sing, of ago, take leave of. Baha^ fatber. Noj and. II. 
Mama, motber. MuHimbiey tell bim ; mt0> objective prefix referring 
to a person ; •ambie^ imperative sing, of ambia, telL A-ku-pe^ tbat be 
may give you. Kojfia^ cap. Na, and. Mama^ motber. A-hu-pe, tbat 
abe may give you. Taa, lamp. A'ka-endat and be went. A-ka'toO' 
ambia^ and be told tbem (tbe fatber and motber). Wa-hcHn-pa^ and 
they gave bim. Kofia, caps. Ny-ingi, many. A-hn-kataa^ and be 
refused. ^-^micKKm&ta, and be said to bim. Nartaka^ I want. 
Ctj/o, tbis one. (Seeahow,) if-bovu, rotten. (^See above), TTo-^-m-pa, 
and they gave bim. Na^ and. Mama-ye^ bis motber. (fiee above, 
under habaye), A-ha-m-pa, sbe gave bim. Too, lamp. A-ha-wa-uliza, 
and be asked tbem. Kofia, cap. Hii, tbis ; demonstrative referring 
to a sing, substantive of tbe tburd class (kofia), Maana, meaning, 
purpose; sing, substantive tblrd class. Y-ake, its; y^, sign of 
agreement witb a sing, substantive of tbe tbird class (maana), Nini, 
what ? Wa^kct-mw-awbia, and tbey said to bim. M-tu, person, any 
one (p. 16) ; m-, sign of sing, substantive of first class. A-ki-vaa, if 
be puts on. Hcnmekani, be is not to be seen ; ha-, negative prefix of 
tbe tbird person sing, referring to a person ; onekani, negative present 
form of onekana, Na, by. M-tu, any one (p. 16). A-ka-vaa, and be 
put on. A'ti'Onekane, tbat be migbt not be seen : a-, prefix of tbird 
person sing, referring to a person (kijana); -si-, aign of negative 
subjunctive ; -cnekane, subjunctive form of onekana, A-ka-furahi, and 
be rejoiced. Sana, mucb. A-ka^iza, and be asked. Taa, lamp. 
Hii, tbis. Maana, purpose. T-ake, its. Nini, wbat? Wa-ktMnw* 
ambia, and tbey told bim. U'ki-ioaaha, if you ligbt. Halta, as far as. 
Hapa, bere. Wa-tortoka, tbey will come out ; toa-, sign of tbird person 



my motber to give you tbe lamp.** He went and told tbem, and tbey III 
gave bim many caps, but be refused and said, *' I want tbat wom^iut 
one ; "and tbey gave it to bim, and tbe boy's motber gave bim tbe 
lamp. Tben be asked, ** Wbat is tbe object of tbis cap ? ** And tbey told 
bim, '* Wben a man puts it on, no one can see bim." He put it on so as 
to become invisible, and was very glad. ** And be asked, Wbat is tbe 
•yect of tbis lamp ? " And tbey told bim, " If yon ligbt it as fur as tbis, 



442 APPENDIX III 

L wata wawill -wakntilie thahabu nyumbani mwako mika kueha, aa 
vkiwasha hatta hapa watatoka watn wawili waknpigd kwa yigo* 
ngo Qsikfi kaoha. Akattena, mavahaba. iLkafaxaki sana, akaenda 
sake. 

II. plor. referring to a plural BubstantlYe of the first class (waf u). Fa^/ii, 
people. Wa-wili, two ; 117a-, sign of agreement with a plur. substantive 
of the first class (focdu). Wa-ku'ttlief that they may put for you ; toa-, 
sign of third person plur. referring to a plur. substantive of the first 
class (wain) ; -kn-f objective prefix referring to the second person sing. : 
•ft2i0, subjunctive form of tUiOf put for. Thdhabuj gold. Ny-wnbd-ni, 
in house ; ny-t sign of Substantive of the third class ; -n^ sign of 
locative case. Mw-ako, thy ; tnto-, sign of agreement With a noun in 
the locative case denoting vnthin, UiikUf night. fti-()Aa,. dawning or 
sun-rialng ; used after usikuj it means all night uniQ the morning 
comes.' N(i, and. U'ki-washa^ if you light. ffaUct^ as fiur as. Sapti^ 
here. Wota^dka^ they will come out. TTa-iti, people. WorvsiH^ two. 
Wa-hu-pige, that they may beat you ; -pige, subjunctive form of piga, 
JSTfca, wi^. Vi-gongo, cudgels: vi-, sign of a plural substantive of 
the fourth class; ki-gongo is a diminutive (p. 19) of gongo, a static 
Unki^ night Ku-ckaf till morning. A-kcHnena, and he said* 
Marahaba, thank you. A-ka-furahi, and he rejoiced. Sana^ much. 
A'kcL-enda t-ake, and he w'ent away. 



III. i^o ^^^ ^"^ ^^^ o^^ &^<^ bring you gold into your house all night 
long; but if you light it os far as this, two men will come out and beat 
you with cudgels all night long.'* And he thanked them, and rejoiced 
very miioh| and went his way* 



( 443 ) 



Afpbhdix iy« 



USEFUL iKB IDIOMATIO PHRISBS. 

Tbb first fifty-four were collected towards a book of oonversationa, 
which was begun with tbe help of oui^ lamented friend, Mrs. G. E. 
Drayton; the rest, which are arranged in alphabetioal oi^der^ were 
noted from time to time, either as Ukdly to be useful in conversation, 
07 as illustrating some special tnle or idiom. 

1. How many fowls have you th^re? 

Unao h'uku ngapif 

2. What do yon want for them ? 

Kiad gani undhuza (At how much do yon sell) ? 
8. Have you any eggs? 

Unayo mayayit 
i. I will not give more than a pice apiece for the eggs. 

Nitahupa peaa mcja tu hunumua yo^ ntaloa wayidi (I will 
give you one pice only to buy au egg> I will not give more). 

5. I don't understand you, say it again. 

8ema mara ya pili^ nkuttkia. 

6. Let me hear it again. 

8ema mara ya piliy nipate hudkia (Say it a second time, 
that I may get to understand). 

7. Fetch me a basin for the eggs. 

Letee haktdi nitie mayapL 

8. Bring the basin with the eggs in it 

Letee hahuli lenyi mayayi, 

9. I don't want any to-day, come to-morrow. 

Leo tUdki, njoo ketho, 
10. Are lemons cheap now ? 

Mdlifnao rdfM^mM f 



444 APPENDIX IV. 

11. I won't buy them, tbey are too dear. 

Bitaki hunuma^ rU ghalL 

12. What do yon want? 

Watcika nini t 

13. I don't know what yon want 

Sijui vlitdkalo, 

14. Where do you come from ? 

Watdka wapit 

15. Don't wait ; I will send an answer immediately. 

Enenda zahoy uHngcje^ majibu yatahuja sasa hivi (Go your 
way ; do not wait for an answer, it will oome imme<liately> 

16. Is your master at home? 

Btoana yupo f 

17. Master is not at home ; he is gone out 

Bwana haJco (or haifukd) nyumbani; amddka. 

18. Where are you going? 

TJndltwenda toapi t 

19. I have lost my way. 

NimepoteOj njia njui (I am lost; the way I don't kiiow> 

20. Will yon guide me to the English mission ? 

Nataha unionyeshe mosketini Ingreza t 

21. Oan you understand English? 

Wewe unajua fnaneno ya Kiingreza f 

22. I cannot speak Swahili [of Zansdbar]. 

SiJui kiuema Kiunguja, 

23. Did the water boil ? 

Maji yameche^mlca f 

24. Does the water boil? 

Maji yanache*mkaf 

25. These plates are not clean. 

Sahani hizi zina takct, 

26. Wipe them carefully. 

Futa vema huja hiianibaa, 

27. Sweep this room well. 

Fagia vema hUika chtmba hikL 

28. Dust the furniture. 

Pangtua tmmbi Tcatika vyomba, 

29. Ton have cracked that cup. 

UmekUia ufa hihonibe hiU. 

80. Throw it away. 

Katup<h 

81. Fetch me the vinegar, the pepper, and the salt 

NUetee iHd, na ftUpili, na dhumvL 



APPENDIX IK 4J5 

82. Don't make lo much noise. 

Usifant/e uthia. 

83. Put ft fresh wick in my lamp. 

Tia hatika taa yangu utamhi, 
^. Fold up the table-cloth smoothly. 

Kunja vema Ititamhaa cha meza, usihivunje (Fold well the 
cloth of the table ; spoil it not). 

85. When yon have swept the room put on clean clothes. 

Kamma umeJcioisha hufotgiay vaa nguo $afi, 

86. Take this to Miss T. 

Chukua^ upeUhe hwa hibi T. 

87. You have put all these books upside down ; turn them. 

Umepindua vyuo hivi vyote, uviweJce upande mgine, 

88. Leave that<alone I ^ 

Achal 
.89. Come here, I want to speak to you. 

Njoo hapa, *nna maneno nitaJncamhia (I have words I will 
say to you). 

40. Get ready to go for a walk. 

Fanya tayari upate Inoenda leutemhbch 

4 1 . Arc you ready ? 

Umekuwa tayari f 

42. Which way shall you like to go ? 

Njia gani utakao hupita f 

43. How far is it to your shamba ? 

Kadri gani mlaXi ya sJtamha lalio liatia hufilca (How much 
famess of your shamba till getting there) ? 

44. Not very far ; perhaps an hour's walk. 

Si mhdli eana, labuda ildpata saa mcja, 

45. Shall you walk, or ride your donkey, or sail ? 

Utahwenda kua miguu, ao utapanda punda, ao utdktoenda 
Ictoa mashua ? 

46. We will go round the town and home by the bridge. 

Tutazunguka Jcatika mjiy halafu turudie darajani (Then let 
us return by the bridge). 

47. Bring me some hot water after breakfast. 

NiUtee maji ya tnoto, nthiisha htUa. 

48. Half a bucket fuH 

Nuis ya ndoo. 
\0. Turn the mattress over every morning. 

Oeuza kiUa siku godoro^ ekinijuu. 
50. Turn it top to bottom. 

Vpande huu xiwek$ t^pande wa pili. 

9a 



446 APPENDIX IV. 

51. I am very glad to see you. 

JJmependa moyo wangu 7(vJ(utazama. 

52. What ship is that? 

Marikehu gani hii f 
58. Has she cast anchor yet ? 
Imetia nanga f 

54. No, she will come nearer the shore. 

BadOt inctktj^a haribu ya pwani, ' 

55. A good man does not desert his friends when they fall into 

difficulties. , 

"Mtu mvaefmoL hawaeuihi rafiki zake wahipatiha na thidda, 

56. Are you idle ? 

Ati mvivu f 

57. At what time shall I come ? 

Wdkti gani nije ; 

58. Did he stay long? 

Alikaa sana f 

59. No, he went away directly. 

HdOf alikwenda zahe mam. 

60. Does he drink wine ? 

Hunywa divai t 

61. He does not. 

Hanytoi, 

62. Does this hoat leak ? 

Mashua hii yavuja f 
62f. Do not draw water from the well, the owner forbids it 
Usitelce maji kinmani, mwenyewe agomheza, 

64. Don't jerk this rope ; if you do it will break. 

Kaniba hii usiikuttiCf ukikutua itdkatika, 

65. Eat as much as you like. 

Kula kadri utakavyo. 

66. Find me a large hen. 

Kanita/tia koo la Vuku, 

67. Follow this road. 

Fuata [or andama'] njia hii, 

68. I want you to follow me. 

NataJca uni/uate [or uniandame]. 

69. Give it only to me and not to them. 

Nipe mimi tu, usitoape tcale. 

70. Go and see if the people have collected. 

Kaangalia watu wamekutana, 

71. Go and stop that talking. 

Enenda kakomesha matheno haya. 



APFENDIX IV, 447 

72. Stop this outcry. 

Mdkdde haya yaJcome (Let these cries oease)b 

73. Go away, whoever you are. 

Enda zako, hadri utdkadkuwa. 

74. Guard yourself, I am goiug to hit you. 

Einga, iakupiga, 

75. Has he a large box ? 

Ana kasha f 

76. He has. 

Analo kasha, 

77. Have you a pipe at home ? 

Etko htcaJco kiko ? 

78. He built a bridge across the river. 

Alijenga honih kaiikati ya nUo. 

79. Ho built a mosque by the river, and endowed it with a shamba 

near ours. 
Alijenga moskiti ng^ambo, dkatoekea wakf shamha karibu 
shawha letu, 

80. He described Mombas as it was in early times, as it is now, and 

as it will be a hundred years hence. 
Aliandika Mvita ilivyoJeuwa kwanzay ilivyo «(Ma, na itaka* 
vyokuwa kwa miaka mia. 

81. He does not believe me though I saw it. 

Hanisadiki ningawa nimeiona, 

82. He had the toothache. 

Alikuwa na Jino likimtouma. 

83. Ho has been abroad many years. 

Alikuwa safarini miaka mingL 

84. He has presence of mind. 

Moyo waJce utoapo, 

85. His mind is absent. Hapo ati, 

86. Ho is a troublesome fellow to deal with. 

Ana taahu kuingtana naye, 

87. He is absorbed in his own thoughts ; even If you speak to him he 

takes no notice. 
Tu katikafikara ssdkwe; ujaponena naye hawepo, 

88. He is here. 

Yupo hapa» 

89. He is not here. 

ffapo hapa, 

90. He is yonder. 

Yuko kule. 

2 G 2 



448 APFENDIX IV. 

91. He IB not there. 

Hdko liuU. 

92. He is not yet dressed. 

Hajavaa. 

93. He left us about ten days ago. 

Alittoacha kadri ya (or Jcama) aihu liumi, 
91. He ought to be beatdn. 
Ailiiaji liupigwa. 

95. He pretends to be satisfied, but do not trust him. 

AJifanya huwa rathi, usimwamini, 

96. He rose up fix)m his ohair. 

Aliondolca hitini hwaJce, 

97. He runs as fast as he can. : ' . 

Andkwenda rnbio hama aioezavyo, 

98. He says he will walk on the water ! 

Ali atahtoenda mtoni Jcwa miguu ! 

99. He that hatoih suretyship is sure. 

Mtu asiyekuhali Jcuthamini ni hatika amani, 

100. He that Is not against us is with us. 

Mtu atiyehuwajuu yetu, hassi yee pamqja nasi, 

101. He that is not with us is against us. 

Asiyehuwa pamoja nasi, basn huyujuu yetu, 

102. He tried to make himiself agreeable, and he suooeedcd. 

Alijipendeikeza ndipo dkapendeza, 

103. He was changed from a man into a horse. 

Alibadiliwa mtu huwa f rati, 
101. He was more energetic than his father. 

Huyu alihuwa aJciweza zayidi ya haha yoke, 
105. His non-appearance is unaccountable. 

Kutowelcana kwake liaitambulihani, 
KOG. His self-conceit is no good to him. 

Majivuno yoke hayamfai neno, 

107. How are your household (t.«. your wife, daughters, &c.)? 

U hali gani nyumbani kwako. 

108. How far is it across the island ? 

Kupatcje mbali wake hapa hatta putani ya pili f 

109. A fast walker would take fromsunrise to the middle of the afternoon. 

Akiondoka mtu assvhui hatta alasiri, alio hodari ktoenda^ 
kufika, 

110. How long has he been ill ? 

Tangu lini hawezi 1 

111. How long ago was his illness ? 

Tangu IM alikuwa hawezi 9 



APPENDIX IV. 440 

111 How pleasant t 

Imependexa. 

113. How glad you must have been to hear that you were to go home. 

Furaha ipi mvsaliponUia mwende zenu hwenu, 

114. I am amusing myself with a book. 

Najizumgumza na chuo. 

115. I am here. Nipohapa, 

116. I am never without pimples. 

Vipele liavinitolia Jcahisa* 

117. I am sleepy. 

Ninao usingizi. 
lis. I cannot hold in this horse. 

Siwezi huzuiafroH hwju. 

119. I cannot see so far as you can. 

Sioni mbali, kama waonavyo icet06» 
120 I don't like his way of tying it. 
Sipendi ginH afungavyo, 

121. I don't see what you show me. 

Sioni fdionyalo. 

122. I don't see it, though he doos. 

Siioni angawa aona. 

123. Take care, though you don't see ii» 

KaangcMa^ ujapo huhioni. 

124. I feel myself at home. 

Hujiona niho hwetu. 

125. Make yourself at home. 

Usifanye haya^ liapa Imma Ttwako (Feel no modesty, hero is 
like your home). 

120. I gave him good advice, though he would not take it. 

Nimemwonya iUaJcini hahuonyeJca. 

127. I had almost left off expecting you. 

NaliJcaribia kukata tamcM ya kukuona. 

128. I had lost my way, and I came out close to your shamba. 

Nalipotea njia nikatokea sharnbani kvoako, 

129. I have asked him again and again, but he will not tell me. 

NimenmvMza mara kwa mara lakini hanamhii, 

130. I have gained a hundred dollars. 

Nalipata fayida reale mia, 

131. 1 have made you my mark, if you step over it, look out (a common 

defiance). 
Niinekupigia mfuo wangu hiuJea wangalie, 

132. I know where he is. 

Nanyua VMhcdi atipo. 



450 APPENDIX IV. 

138. I pray God not to tisit it npon me. 

Ntuymha Mwenyiezi Muungu oHnipaitUze, 

134. I saw the flash of the gun, but did not hear the report 

Nimeona tmoangOf Idkini siJcunkia mzinga Jculia, 

135. I shall go by sea as far as I can. 

NUdkwenda hwa haJiarit hatta itaJcaponifikuha. 
136.- 1 shall go for a walk to stretch my legs. 

Hitakwenda temhea huhunjua miguu. 
187. I thought myself a king. 

Nalikuwa nihiwaza nimeliuwa StUtani. 

138. I will shut the door that he may not go out 

NUafunga mlango asipate kupiia, 

139. If he strikes you, hit him again. 

Akikupigat natre mpiga tena. 

140. If you had been here he would not have been beaten. 

Kama ungalikuwapo hapa, hangdHpigtoa, 
141 • It depends upon his coming. 
Kuna aJtakapokvja, 

142. It is bad weather. 

Kumekaa vibaya, 

Hakvcendeki, . . 

Batokeki. 

143. It is being hawked about by a salesman. 

Kinatembezwa kioa dalall. 

144. It is not there, though yon say it is. 

HaJcipo, ungatoa toasema kipo, 
115. It is time for us to go. 

Imekuwa wakati toa mi ktoenda zetu. 
liG. It is quite time for us to go. 

Imevoadia wakaii wetu tea kwenda zdu, 

147. It was a secret, but it oozed out. 

Talikuwa luibari ya girt, %kat6keza» 

148. Let him go. 

Mtoacheni enende. 

149. Moslems are forbidden wine. 

Wculimu wameeptuhwa divai 
, 150. Much self-exaltation ruins a man's position in the world. 
Majivuno yaJciwa mengi ya^mvunjta mtu dieo, 

151. Nothing I do pleases him. 

KiUa fMfanyialo haiimpendezi (eyerything which I da 
pleases him not). 

152. Whatever I do he finds fault with me. 

Killa nafanyaJo hunitia khaiiyani. 



APPENDIX IV. 45] 

153. Put the water on the fire. 

KaUUka mnji. 

154. Sit dowlL 

Kaa kitaiko. 

155. Don't get up. 

Starehe. 

156. The baobabs are now coming into leaf. 

8iku hizi mibuyu inachanua majani, 

157. The fields are flourishing. 

Koonde imesitatoi, 

158. The musio is first-rate. 

Ngoma inafana, 

159. The news has spread. 

Khahari zimeenea. 

160. Spread the news. 

Zieneza khabaru 

161. The people who went to Bardera are oome back. 

Watu voaliokwenda Baraderay teamekuja xaa> 

162. The room wants darkening. 

Chwnba ehatdka kutiioa giza. 

163. The top of this mountain is ioaceessible. 

Jau ya nilima huu liaupandiJci. 

164. They [the trees] are almost all dead. 

Kama hwamba Uiokufa yoie* 

165. They are badly stowed. 

Mapakizo yao mdbayc^ 

166. They out the boat adrift. 

Wakakata katnha ya matJiua ifcachuhxUtca na maji, 

167. They like giving and receiving presents. 

Hupenddea kupana vUu, 

168. They shut themselves up in the foft, 

Wakajizuia gerezani, 

169. They told me what he had donai 

Walinambia alivijofanya. 

170. They were flghtmg, and I passed by and separated them. . 

Walikuwa wakipigana, MpUa mimi nikawaamua, 

171. This chest must-be taken care o& 

Kasha hUi la htUunztoa* 

172. This has been worn. 

^I^tio Mi imevalitoa, 

173. This tree is not so tall as thai 

lUi huu n mrefu kama vh. 



452 APPENDIX IV. 

17 i. Upon your oath ! 

Utaapa ! 
175. Wash me these clothes. • 

Nioshee nguo hizi. 
170. The clothes have heen washed. 

Nguo zimeosheha. 

177. I have washed myself. 

Nimenamkct. 

178. Wash me! Noshet 

179. We attacked them and they fell into confusion* 

Twaliwcuihambuliaf voakafazaiha, 

180. We like his company. 

Kiltao chdke chema (his sitting is good> 

181. What do you earn by the month? 

Upataje Icilla mwezi t 

182. What is become of him ? 

Amekuwaje ? 

183. What is this news about All ? 

Hahari gani tuzisikiazo za Ali f 

184. What are you talking about ? 

Maneno gani mnenayo t 
Mulctathaganif 
Mnenani ? 

185. What will you ferry me over for? 

Utanivusha hwa hiasi gani ? 

186. When I have seen Mohammed, I will give you an ansWet 

Nilfiisha mwona Mohamadi, nitdkupa jaicahu, 

187. Where is the knife I saw you with yesterday ? 

KiJco wapi Jcim nalichokuona nachojana f 
188 Where is the pain ! 

Mdhali gani panapouma f 

189. Whei-e is your pain ? 

Wauma vsapi t 

190. Who is in there? 

Mna nani f 

191. You cannot teach him anyhow. 

Kadri u*mfunzavyo hajui. 

192. We do not know whether he \yiil not loam. Or whether he cannot 

Eatujui ya htoatnba hataki Icuji/unsa ao hand altili za 
htjifunza. 
103. You have made this thread too tight. 
Uzi huu umeutia hatH mno. 



APPENDIX IV. 45 J 

194. You ought to love him very muoh. 

Wattdhtli kumpenda sana. 
105. Kuamba na ktuengenya. To talk of a person behind his back, and 
Becretly to make contemptuous signs about him when 
present This phrase is often used as a test of a stranger's 
knowledge of Swahili ; what it describes is counted as a 
special sin. 
19C. To ask a man his name. 

Oh ! Itafilii yangu namhte jina Idko (Oh I my friend, tell 
me your name). Wajua^ bwana wee^ tumeonana mimi 
natoBf jina Idko nimelieahaUf tafdthal nambie jina lako 
(You know, sir, you and I have met [before], but I have 
forgotten your name, please to tell me your name). 
When you have heard it, e&y—ImhaUah^ ntaUtdhau tena 
(Please God, I shall not forget it again). 
197 A polite question and answer at leave-taking. 

Unayo haja tena f (Have you any further desire?) 
Eaja yangu ya kuiaki noewe sana na furaha (My desire is 
that you may live long and happily)i 



( 455 ) 



Appendix V. 



OH MONET, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES IN ZANZIBAR. 

Tub foUowiDg account ia based on scattered notices in the late Bishop 
Bteere*s collections, and on some tables famished to the Rev. P. L. 
Jones-Bateman by a well-infurmed serrant of the Mission in 
Zanzibar. 

1. M(mey. 
The only copper coin in common use in Zanzibar is the Anglo- 
Indian quarter-anna, or pice, in Swahili peso, plur. pesa or mapesa ; 
but the rdbopesaf or quarter-pice (of which, however, three are equal to 
one pice), is also current. 

The silver coins current are the Anglo-Indian rupee and, less com- 
monly, the Austrian dollar. The eight-anna (half-rupee), four-anna 
(quarter-rupee), and two-anna pieces are also met with. 

The relative values of these coins and their equivalent in English 
money fluctuate considerably. For practical purposes, it 19 sufficient 
to remember that an English sovereign may be generally exchanged 
for 12 rupees, English bank-notes, cheques, drafts, &c., being subject 
to a small discount ; that an Austrian dollar is reckoned as equal to 2 
rupees and 8 pice, and that a rupee is worth usually from 60 to 64 
pice. It follows that) though accounts are usually kept in dollars 
and cents, and 5 dollars reckoned as equal to one pound English, it is 
more exact to consider — 

s. (i. 
1 dollar ==3 7 
1 rupee =18 
1 pice = i 

tu larger sums, the scale of legal tender is to reckon — 
47 dollars = 100 rupees 
94 „ = 200 „ 

141 ,. = 300 „ 

Und soon. 



456 APPENDIX V. 

On the maiDland, dollars and pice are taken freely on the coast and 
main lines of traffic, and rupees are met with ; but elsewhere, siWer 
dollars only, and such objects of barter as calico, brass- wire, beads, Ac. 

2. MeoMureB of Length. 

There is no exact standard or relationship of'measuro4 of length. 
Those in common use are merely taken from parts of the hnman body, 
viz. : — 

Wanda, plur. nyanda^ a finger's breadth. 

ShiMri, a span, the distance between the tips of the outstretched 

thumb and little finger. 
Mdfita, a sligl^y shorter span, from the tip of the thumb to that 

of the fore-finger, 
Thiraa or Mkono, a cubit, the distance firom the finger«tip8 to the 
elbow joint. Of this again, there ore two yarieties : — 
Thiraa Icamiliy or full cubit, as just described, and-— 
ITiiraa honde, or fist cubit, from the elbow-joint to tho 
knuckles. 
Wari, or yard. Is one half of the— 

Pima, a man's height, or the distance he can stretch with hia 

arms, a fathom. A doti is a measure of similar length. 

The uayo, or length of the .foot, Arab khatua, is also used ocon- 

bionally, and the English foot,/u^i, regularly by Indian carpenters and 

in other trades. Approximately, the relations of these measures may 

be tabulated thus : — 

1 tcanda s= 1 inch. 

8 or 10 nyanda = 1 ehibiri hamUi s= 1 quarter-yard. 

■ 2 shibiri = 1 VUraa or rnhono = 1 cubit or half-yard. 

2 thiraa ss 1 wari = 1 yard 

2 wari =: 1 pima = 1 fathom. 

Distance is loosely estimated by the average length of an hour's walk* 
iiig. Dunga, which lies almost exactly lialf way across the island of 
Zanzibar, at a distance of perhaps twelve miles, is described as a walk 
of four hours, saa *nne; and Eokotoni, at the north end of the island, 
distant perhaps twenty miles from Zanzibar, jas a walk of at least 
six hours, iaa sita. On the mainland, a day's march is a common but 
vague measure of perhaps twenty miles. 

8. Mecuurei of JTeiglU, 

For gold, silver, silk, scent, and other costly articles, the unit is the 
wakia, or weight of an Austrian silver dollar, almost exactly an ounce. 
For the names of fractional parts of any unit, see « Handbook," p. 93 ; 



AFPENDIX y 457 

but the weight of a pioe is often used as a convenient though, inexact 
measure of ismaH quantities. 

For heavy articles, the usual unit is a rdtd, or rattlif equal to 16 
waJiiOt and corresponding to one pound. 
IG walcia = 1 rdlel. 
3 rdtd ^ 1 mani; 
6 rdttl 3= Ipuhi. 

6 pishi s 1 frasila, about 35 lbs. avoirdupois. 
lO/rasila = 1 mzo. 
Hence, 64 frasila or 65 mizo may be regarded as 3= 1 ton, 

4. Measures of Capacity, 

No fixed liquid measure is used by the poorer classes. Shopkeepers 
soil their oil, treacle, &c., by tin-ladlefflls (kihonibe), or by the bottle 
{chupa)y or by the tin, t.e. the tius in which American oil is imported 
to Zanzibar (tanahiy iinif also debe). 

Corn (na/dka) or dry measure is, of course, of great importance in a 
country where grain is the staple of food and chief article of commerce. 

The smallest unit is the — 
Kihaba, a measure of perhaps a pint. 
Kibdba cha tele, if the measure is heaped up— the usual pro- 
ceeding. 
Kibaha cha mfutOt if cut off flat. 
2 vihaba (vya tele) = 1 kisaga, 
2 visaga = 1 pishi, about half a gallon. 

The pishi connects the measures of capacity and weight, and for 
some of the common dry commodities, such as chiroko and kundi, the 
pishi may be regarded as equivalent either in capacity to 4 vtbaha, or 
in weight to 6 rattli. 

Grain is sold wholesale by the kanda^ or sack of grass-mattiug, or (if 
from India) by the gunia, a wide sack. The gunia often weighs about 
168 lbs. The kanda varies, both with the kind of grain and the place 
from which it is imported^ For instance, while at Kwale, Mgao, and 
Mvita, towns on the Swahill coast, the kanda of rice at times contains 
10, 11, or 12 pishi, and the kanda of Indian corn 10 pishi, at Pangani, 
Tanga, and Mtang'ata the kanda of rice will contain 15, 16, or 17 
piahi, and the kanda of Indian corn 13 or 13j pishi. 

Various other terms are in use for different commodities, e.g. poles 
are sold by the korja, or score ; stone for building by the boma, a heap 
which may weigh 4 cwt. to 5 cwt. ; lime by the tanuu (clamp) or kikapo ; 
calico by the^um, 35 yards ; and various other things by the " mzigo " 
or load. 



458 



APPENDIX r. 


5. Points 


of the Compasi, 


North 


Jan. 


N. by E. 


Faragadi MatlaL 


N.N.E. 


Nash Matlai. 


N.E. by N. 


Nagr Matiai. 


.N.E. 


Lnagr Matlai. 


N.E. by B. 


Dayaba Matlai* 


E.N.E. 


8emak MaUaL 


E. by N. 


Seria Matlai. 


East 


Matlai. 


E. by S. 


Sosa Matlai. 


E.S.B. 


Tiri Matlai. 


S.E. by E... 


Lakadiri MatlaL 


S.E. 


Lakarabu Matlai. 


8.B. by 8. 


Hamareni Matlai. 


S.S.E. 


8eheU Matlai. 


S.byE. 


8onoobari Matlai. 


South 


Eutubu. 


8. by W. 


8onoobari Magaribt 


S.8.W. 


Seheli Magaribi. 


8.W. by 8. 


Hamareni MagaribL 


8.W. 


Lakarabu MagaribL 


S.W. by W. 


Lakadiri MagaribL 


W.8.W. 


Tiri MagaribL 


W. by 8. 


6osa MagaribL 


West 


MagaribL 


W. by N. 


6eria MagaribL 


W.N.W. 


8emak MagaribL 


N.W.byAV. 


Dayabu MagaribL 


N.W. 


Luagr MagaribL 


N.W. by N. 


Nagr MagaribL 


N.N.W. 


Nash Magaribi. 


N. by W. 


Faragadi Magaribt 



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