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Full text of "A handbook to the Bible, by F.R. and C.R. Conder"

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HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE 



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8POTTI8WOODB AXD CO., NRW-STSBET SQUABB 

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A 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE: 



BEINQ 



A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF THE 
HOLT SCRIFTURES; 



gtrifejei from %mwai Plontinienls anb p[oiient fijepluratian. 



BY 

F. E. CONDEE 

AND 

C. E. CONDEE, E.E. 



DEC !f79 



\ 

\ 



' LONDON: 
LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND CO. 

. 1879. 



All rig Jits reserved. 



PBEFA CE. 

The object of the * Handbook to the Bible ' is to aflford 
to the students of Holy Scripture, in an accessible form, the 
main outcome of those important researches which have 
been carried on during the present century. 

The Chronological arrangement is based on a carefid 
collation of the Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible ; on 
the study of those latent references of Josephus which 
no copyist had any motive for altering; and on a com- 
parison of those Biblical pedigrees which give five, colla- 
teral lines from Jacob to the contemporaries of Moses, and 
four from that generation to the time of David. Such 
long debated questions as that of the period of the abode 
of the Israelites in Egypt are elucidated, by this applica- 
tion of tiie method of the genealogist to the unbroken 
lines of recorded descent ; as it is contrary to experience to 
imagine that as many as fourteen generations can have 
succeeded each other in 215 years. We are thus led to 
infer the greater accuracy, in this matter, of the Hebrew 
text than of the Septuagint reading. 

The comparison of the Sacred reckoning with the 
astronomically determined chronology of Egypt, Assyria, 



yi PEEFACE. 

Greece, Persia, and Eome, brings to light a series of Syn- 
chronisms of great value, and leaves the sequence of the 
Sacred Text only doubtful in a few cases where a double 
statement in the Biblical narrative may still give some 
cause for hesitation ; these only instances are, however, for 
periods not exceeding ten years. 

The account of the Metrology of Palestine is based 
on the comparison of definite statements of the great 
Aramaean and Arabic writers with the weights of existing 
coins, and with the levels and dimensions of the Temple area 
at Jerusalem, and of the Galilean Synagogues, as well as 
with itinerary distances. It is hoped that greater certitude 
has been thus obtained respecting the length of the Cubit, 
the weight of the Shekel, and the contents of the Seah or of 
the Hin, than existed before the materials now compared 
had been collected. Tables of Hebrew Measures are added ; 
and every Coin mentioned by name in the Bible, as well as 
a series of Hebrew Coins, dating probably from the Ponti- 
ficate of Eliashib to the Procuratorship of Pontius Pilate, 
have been carefully drawn from examples now in the 
British Museum and elsewhere. 

The Bitual of the Temple has been illustrated from 
the full details preserved in the Mishna and arranged by 
Maimonidea. A general view of the laws, customs, taxes, 
and imposts, and of the social habits, of the inhabitants of 
Palestine during the reign of the Idumasan dynasty, has 
been given, which will, it is hoped, enable the student 4x) 
understand many references both in the Old and in the 
New Testament, which are often very little comprehended. 
The numerous references to the authorities consulted are 



PBEFACE. vii 

intended to guide the more earnest enquirer, especially if 
acquainted with the Hebrew language, to the standard 
sources of detailed and exhaustive knowledge. 

It has been the main object of the writers as far as 
possible to avoid every expression of opinion, whether their 
own or that of any school of thinkers ; and to supply first, 
facts, and secondly, careful references, by which the cita- 
tion of those facts may be verified, and the inferences 
from them traced by the reader himself to the legitimate 
result. 

The physical and geographical description of the 
country is based on personal observation, and on the 
Trigonometrical Survey and other professional labours 
carried out by the various officers of Eoyal Engineers who 
have conducted explorations in Palestine during the last 
fifteen years. The Maps will be found to contain much 
novel information, and will serve as a guide to the use of 
the large engraved Survey Map now in course of publica- 
tion by the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

The Biblical Grazetteer contains a digest of the Biblical 
discoveries made by the various exploring parties, and by 
the most reliable travellers who preceded them. Such an 
index will also be valuable to the student of the Survey 
Map, as showing the ancient names, which do not appear 
on that document. The Natural History Index contains 
all the positive information to be foimd in the standard 
-works on the subject, together with new details which will 
not be found in those authorities, derived from a com- 
parison of the Hebrew and Aramaic with the modem 
Arabic names. 



Viu PREFACE. 

The General Index has been made an important feature 
of the Handbook, with the object of allowing this volume 
to be used as a Bible Dictionary. 

The eflFort of the authors has been to produce a work, 
founded on monumental research, to which additional in- 
formation may hereafter be added, but from which, it is 
hoped, but little may require to be erased. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Pbepace V 

Contents ix 

List op Illustrations xi 

Hebbew Alphabets ziii 

Table I. Canon op the Hebrew Scriptures . . . . xv 
„ n. List op the Treatises op the Talmud . . xvii 



PAKT I. 

CHAPTEB 

L Chronology op the Bible 

TABLE III, Chronology of the Bible 

Historic Synchronisms . 



n. 



m. 



table rv, 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 



9» 






Dynasties of Egypt 

Ptolemy's Canon of Kings . 

Dynasty of the Seleucidae 

Genealogies 

High Priests of the Jews 

Kings of Israel and Judah . 



The Metrology op the Bible . 

TABLE X. Hebrew Linear Measure 

Measures of Length . 
Square Measure 
Measures of Capacity 
Liquid Measure 
Measures of Weight . 
Measures of Value . 






XI. 

XII. 
„ XIII. 
„ XIV. 
„ XV. 
„ XVI. 



» 



1 
18 

28 

42 
45 
47 
48 
60 
53 

56 

79 
79 

80 
80 
80 
81 
81 



X CONTENTS. 

OHAPTEB PA6X 

rv. The Jewish Year .82 

The Bible Almanack 92 

V. The Hebrew Ri:?ual 105 

VI. The Government of the Hebrews 126 

vn. Taxes, Tribute, and OppERiNas . . . • . 144 

Vin. Art and Science among the Israelites. . . . 163 

TABLE XVII. Jewish Coins 177 

rx. Social Life op the Hebrews 182 



PAKT II. 

I. Physical Description op the Holy Land « . . 206 

n. Palestine before the Conquest 232 

III. Palestine divided by Tribes 262 

rv. Palestine under Judges and Kings . . . . 274 

V. Palestine during the Hasmonean Period . . . 291 

VI. Palestine in the Time op Christ 301 

vn. Jerusalem 328 

Vm. The Temple 369 

List op Towns of Judah and Benjamin. .... 387 
List op Animals and Plants op the Bible . . . . 390 
The Topographical Index or Biblical Gazetteer . , 400 

General Index 429 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Physical Map of the Holy Land . . To face Title-page 

Hbbbew Alphabets On,p,:siii 

Coins— Plate 1 . . To face p, 67 

« 2 „ 69 

9) 3. ....... • )) 73 

« 4 « 76 

Dbsebt of Sinai . „ 238 

Palestine before the Conquest .... „ 240 

The Holy Land, showing the Tbibb Boundabibs „ 262 

SouTHEBN Palestine, showing Joshua's Line of 

Advance „ 264 

Kingdom of Hbbod the Gbeat .... ,, 304 

Ancient Jebusalem „ 334 

Block Plan of Hbbod's Temple .... ,,384 



Errata, 

Page 38, line 4, /or 690, read 600. 

I Kings, ftad 2 Kings. 
457, read 447. 

II Ant. read 14 Ant. 
Chron. 8, rmd Cbron. 7. 
Mao. 14, rtad Mao. 13. 
Wars 2. 84» rmd Ware 2. 4. 
1 Chron. rtad 2 Chron. 
Cant. 4, read Cant. 8. 
Mac. 4. n, read Mao. 1. tl* 
Exod. 25, read Exod. 80. 
Yoma 3. sh '*^<^ Yoma 8. 1. 
Dent. 39, read Bxod. 39. 



M 




>f 


14. 


>f 


»f 


24, 


i> 


11, 


*) 


)> 


26, 


If 


17, 


,f 


»> 


49, 


col. 


6. 


»» 


» 


68, 


line 24, 


f, 


»l 


93, 


» 


24, 


»* 


» 


94, 


>) 


6, 


M 


» 


97, 


)i 


28, 


• f 


>1 


101, 


»» 


84, 


f» 


»» 


105, 


M 


8, 


>> 


>* 


110, 


f> 


6, 


»» 


»> 


231, 


*> 


18, 


f> 



XIU 



HEBREW ALPHABETS. 



lasAJH Stele 
Ann. Sac. 




Coins 




3938 


4375 


4533 


4779 


4 


}0 


^ 




$ 


S 






f 








A 








n 


Y 




3 


Y 




t 




2: 




? 




ff 




B 




K 


=1 


a. 


^ 


y 


^ 




t 


L 


V 


V 




^ 




•3 


!> 


y 


a 


X 


1 


f 


















a 








n 








p 








4 




S 




w 


\ 


\AJ 




X 




X 





SAMARITAIf 


AsHURi, or 
Sacred 




Writing 


ii 


K 


a 


5 


\ 


:i 


s 


T 


^ 


n 


t 


^9 


^ 


t 


«t 


tt 


f 


\9 


flt 


*» 


*;$ 


1^ 


Z 


^ 


^ 


DO 


3 


12 


^ 


D 


V 


y 


:^ 


ffia 


^ 


T? 


? 


P 


^ 


T 


4a 


^ 


A 


n 



HEBREW CANON. 



XV 



TABLE I. 

OANON OF THE HEBREW SORn>TURES. 

(Fbom the <Prologus Galbatus* op St. Jerome, Edition 

OP 1692.) 

Order J.— THORA. The Law. 



K Bbrashith. In the beginning , {Genjesjs) 
^ Vebllb Shbmoth. Now these are 

the names (Exodus) 

J Vaijcra. And the Lord called 

unto Moses .... {Leviticus) 
T Yaiedabbeb. And the Lord 

spake unto Moses . . . (Numbers) 
n Elle Haddebabih. These are the 

words (Deuteronomy) 

Order J/.— NEBAIM. The Prophets. 

■ 

^ losHUE BEN Nun . . . (Joshua) 

J SoPHETiM (Judges) 

(Ruth) 
n Samuel (1 Samuel) 

■j (2 Samuel) 

Melachim: (1 Kings) 

D [2 Kings) 

♦ IsAiAs (Isaiah) 

m 

3 Lbremiab (Jeremiah) 

\ (Lamentations) 

^ EZEEIEL (EzEKIEL) 

Q There Asar .... (The 12 Minor 

Prophets) 

K . . . . (Hosea) 

a 



Latest eyent 
AimoSacro 

2909 



3270 



3270 



3308 






3341 
3679 
3700 
3758 
3788 
3919 
4247 
4108 
4247 
4233 
4247 



\ 



40^ \ 



XVI 



HEBREW CANON. 



Table I. — continued. 



Thekb Asab — continued, 

3 . . . . (Joel) 


Lattist event 
Anno Sacro 

4165 


J 




« 


. (^Af05) 


4046 


T 






. (Obadiah) 


4363 


n 






. (Jonah) 


4035 


1 






. (Micah) 


4122 


T 






. (Nahum) 


4145 


n 






. (Habakkuk) 


4155 


tD 






. (Zephaniah) 


4210 


^ 






. (Haggai) 


4289 


K^ 






. (Zechariah) 


4292 


n^ 






. (Malachi) 


4363 


Order JJJ. E:ETHUBIM. The Scbiphtbes. 


J loB (Job) 




D David : Book 1 


• 


. (PAiXit/ 1-41) 


3799 


Books 


• 


. {Psalm ^-72) 




Books 


■ 


. (Paizm 73-89) 


— 


Book 4 


• 


. (P^XM 90-106) 


— 


Books 


• 


. (P<?^/i3r 107-150) 


4293 


Solomon 


• 


• • ' 


3839 


y MiSLB 


• 


. (PROVERBa) 


4121 


£J OOHBLBTH . 


• 


. (ECCLESJASTES) 


— 


^ Snt Hassibim 


• 


. (SoifG OF Solomon) 


— 


p Daniel . 


• 


. (Daniel) 


4642 


1 Dtbkt: Haiamih 


• 


. (1 Chronicles) 


3799 


'1 • • 


• 


. (2 Chronicles) 


4272 


{^ ESDBAS . 


• 


. (Ezra) 


4363 


r • • 


• 


. (Nehemiah) 


4375 


n ESTJLKK 


• 


. (Esther) 


— 



HEBREW CANON. 



xvu 



TABLE II. 

LIST OF THE TREATISES OF THE TALMUD. 

Shovnng those accompanied hy the Jei'usalemj and those hy the Babylon, 

Gemara, 



Order J.— -ZEI^AIM. Seeps. 




Tract 


Babject 


Chapt^is 


Gemara 


1 


Bbracotji 


. Daily Prayers 


9 


J. 


B. 


2 


Peatt . 


. Comer of Field 


8 


J. 


— 


3 


Demat , 


. B(mbtful Tithes 


7 


J. 




4 


KlLAJLM 


. Commixtures 


9 


J. 


— 


6 


SABnTTf 


. Seventh Year 


10 


J. 




6 


TErMOTH 


. Oblations 


11 


J. 




7 


Maaberoih 


. Tithes 


8 


J. 




8 


Maasbe Sheni . Second Tithes 


6 


J. 


— 


9 


OrTiA , 


. Newly-planted Trees 


3 


J. 


— - 


]0 


Halla . 


. First dough 


4 


J. 




11 


BlCCTJBIM 


. First-fruits 


3 


J. 


Baraitha 


• 


Order JZ—MOET). Feasts. 






] 


Sabbath 


. Sabbath 


20 


J. 


B. 


2 


ERXTBISr 


. Commvmcations 


10 


J. 


B. 


8 


PEiRAKHIRC 


. Passover 


10 


J. 


B. 


4 


YOMA . 


. Day of Expiation 


8 


J. 


B. 


5 


Shexaum 


. Capitation Tax 


8 


J. 


B, =s J. 


6 


SuCCATf 


. Tabernacles 


6 


J. 


B. 


7 


I^BH Hashajtah. ^Vew Year 


4 


J. 


B. 


8 


YOM TOB 


. Festivals 


6 


J. 


B. 


9 


Taanith. 


. Fads 


4 


J. 


B. 


10 


Mbgtt.t.a 


. Book of Esther 


4 


J. 


B. 


11 


KHAQTaATf 


. Sacrifices 


3 


J. 


B. 


12 


MoED Katon . Minor Feasts 


3 


J. 


B. 


Order III, NESHIM. Women. 


1 


YJ£BAMM0TE 


: Bights of Brothers^ Widows 


16 


J. 


B. 


2 


SOTATT . 


. Suspected Wife 

. Contracts of Marriage 


9 


J. 


B. 


3 


Kktuboth 


13 


J. 


B. 


4 


IMedabim 


, Vows 


12 


J. 


B. 


5 


QlTTDf 


. Divorces 


9 


J. 


B. 


6 


Nazik . 


. Nazarite 


9 


J. 


B. 


7 


KmBUSHXN 


. Betrothals 


4 


J. 


B. 



xviii 



HEBREW CANON. 



Table n. — cmitinued. 



Order IV, NEZTKIN. Damages. 




Tract Subject 


Chapters 


G^mara 


1 


Baba Kama. . First Gate 


10 


J. 


B. 


2 


IlABA Mbtsia . Middle Gate 


10 


J. 


B. 


3 


Baba Batfra . Last Gate 


10 


J. 


B. 


4 


Sanhbdein . . Judges 


11 


J. 


B. 


5 


Mazkoth . . Stripes 


3 


2 Chap. 


B. 


6 


Sabbuoth . . Oaths 


8 


J. 


B. 


7 


Aboda Zaka . Idolatry 


6 


J. 


B. 


8 


HoKATOTH . . Documents 


8 


J. 


B. 


9 


PiRTTE Aboth . Fathers 


10 


— — 




10 


Edioth . . Testimonies 


7 


— 




(h'der V. KODASHIM. Holt Thustgs 


• 




1 


Zbbakhim . . Sacrifices 


14 




B. 


2 


Mtnkhoth . 


. Offerings 

. Pi'ofane Things 


13 




B. 


3 


Kholin 


12 


— 


B. 


4 


Biccurim 


. Firstlings 


9 


— 


B. 


5 


Eraouh 


. Valuations 


9 


-_— 


B. 


6 


Tbmttra 


. Svibstitvtion 


7 




B. 


7 


Kekttoth 


. Excisions 


6 


— 


B. 


8 


Met'la . 


. Prevarication 


6 


_ 


B. 


9 


Tamid . 


. Daily Sacrifice 


6 


— 


B. 


10 


MiDDOTH 


. Measureinents 


5 


— 


B. 


11 


Kewnim 


. Nests 


3 


— 


B. 


Order F/.— T AHOROTH. Pubipicatioi 


re. 




1 


Eelim . . Vessels 


80 




MWMW 


2 


Aholoth . Impurities 


18 




— 


3 


Negaim. . L^osy 


14 


— 




4 


Parah . . Red Heifer 


12 






5 


Tahoroth . Minw Impurities 


10 


— 


i— 


6 


MiKBAOTH . Baths 


10 


_ 


. 


7 


NrDDAH . Separation {of Women) 


10 


4 Chap 


. B. 


8 


Makshirin , Rtdes of Purification 


6 


— 


-i^ 


9 


Zabim . Fluxes 


6 


.^ 


m^ 


10 


Tebul Yom . Washed the same day 


4 


_ 


. 


11 


Yadaim. . The Hands 


4 


_ 




12 


Ukeztn . Stalks 


3 


— 





HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE 



PABT I. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 

A CLEAR knowledge of the Chronology of the Bible is an indis- 
pensable requisite for its intelligent study. By this is meant, 
not only the comprehension of that sequence in time which may 
to a certain extent be obtained from a careful collation of the 
Hebrew and Greek texts, but the absolute determination of the 
position of the cardinal events of the Sacied History in astro- 
nomical time. 

The decipherment of the monumental records of Assyria 
and of Egypt, which has of late made such rapid advance, has 
thrown a flood of light on those scanty materials from which 
the great scholars of the eighteenth century endeavoured to 
trace the connection between the history of Palestine and that 
of Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, and Egypt. The regnal years of 
the Assyrian monarchs, between B.C. 909 and b.c. 626, have 
been recovered with actual certitude from calendars which 
denote each successive year by the eponymy, or name of an 
officer, as in the Eoman consular Fasti ; the whole series being 
absolutely fixed in time by the record of the eclipse of June, 
B.C. 763, as occurring in the ninth regnal year of Ashur-dan-an, 
the successor of Shalmanezer III. 

The Begal Canon of Ptolemy, which was the only record 



2 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

known, before recent discoveries, of the Kings of Babylon from 
the era of Nabonassar, is found accurately to agree with the 
Assyrian dates, and has been further verified by the discovery, 
among many others, of contract tablets, bearing date on the 
17th year of Nabonadius, the last king of Babylon. 

The regnal years of the Egyptian kings, so far back as 
B.C. 666, have been absolutely determined by the inscriptions on 
the monumental stelae of the Apis Bulls, in the Serapeum, 
near Memphis, discovered by M. Mariette. These epitaphs not 
only denote the year of the death of each Bull, referred to a 
regnal year, but give the length of the life of the animal, and 
the regnal year of its birth, thus verifying the dates of the regal 
accessions by a parallel and contemporaneous reckoning. 

Of the numerous synchronisms between Sacred and profane 
history which result from the recovery of the latter, two may 
be cited which are irreconcilable with the dates to be found on 
the margin of our English Bibles. These dates were arrived at 
on the assumption that the years of Nebuchadnezzar, quoted 
in the 2nd Book of Kings, were the years of that monarch's 
reign at Babylon. On that supposition, the 14th year of Heze- 
kiah fell B.c. 710, which was five years before the accession of 
Sennacherib; and the 4th year of Jehoiakim (Jer. 46. 2) fell 
B.C. 607, which was eleven years before the close of the reign 
of Necho, king of Egypt, who was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar 
at Carchemish, in the 4th year of the Jewish king, and three 
years before the accession of Nebuchadnezzar himself at Babylon. 
Thus the entire series of synchronisms was thrown out of ad- 
justment, and a painful suspicion was raised as to the existence 
of discrepancies in the two records which prove to be entirely 
imaginary. 

By the simple correction of dating the years of Nebuchad- 
nezzar from the time of his becoming suprcfme in Palestine, the 
Bible dates before that period are brought ten years lower than 
the figures on the margin of the English Bibles, and the course 
of the Sacred Eecord is shown to be in accurate accordance with 
monumental chronology. 

The ancient chronology of profane history usually com- 



THE CHEONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 3 

mences with a mythical or allegorical period, attributed to the 
reign of the gods. It is not until we arrive at the notice of 
some event which is plainly historic, that any ancient document 
comes under the study of the chronologist. In the Pentateuch 
it is not until the time of Abraham that any references, that 
have as yet been distinctly traced, to contemporary history 
occur ; and it is, therefore, with the life of that patriarch that 
the chronicle, or practical detailed chronology, of the Bible 
actually commences. 

With regard to the dates of the Book of Grenesifr, anterior to 
the time of Abraham, the only difficulty that exists as to adopt- 
ing their sum as a measure of through reckoning from a ^ed 
era arises from the imperfect state of the several texts, the 
accordance of which would be conclusive on this point. These 
are, the codices of the Hebrew Scriptures, the two versions of 
the Septuagint translation of the same*, which wasr made, as 
far at least as the Pentateuch is eoncemed, under the reign of 
Ptolemy II., king of Egypt, about 277 B.C., and the works of 
Josephus. It may be advisable also here to refer to the Sama- 
ritan codices of the Pentateuch ; but the most venerable of these, 
which is preserved at Nablous, and which contains a tarikh 
or note (made by the thickening of certain letters in each line), 
to the effect that it was transcribed by the hand of Abishua 
the High priest, the great-grandson of Aaron, has never yet 
been collated by any European scholar. 

There is no doubt that the Hebrew Scriptures, as they ex- 
isted before the time of the * men of the Great Synagogue,' the 
contemporaries and survivors of Ezra, formed the source from 
which the chronological passages occurring in the present copies 
of the Pentateuch, in the two texts of the Septuagint, and 
in the three separate works of Josephus, were originally taken. 
Any variations must have arisen either from error in copying, 
or from a desire — very possibly highly conscientious- on the part 
of the copyists — ^to correct what they thought to be errors. ^ 
There is an ancient copy of Eusebius in existence, in a sort of 
preface to which every future copyist is expressly enjoined to 

correct any errors which he may detect. To this sense of 

b2 



4 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

literary duty, which is entirely opposed to our present views of 
textual exactitude, may probably be attributed the fact that 
nearly all the principal passages in the works of Josephus which 
afford direct chronological statements are mutually inconsistent; 
while nearly all those indirect references to dates, which a copyist 
could have no inducement to alter, are found to be consistent 
and exact. 

With regard to the chronology of the Book of Grenesis, prior 
to the time of Abraham, it is not the province of the chronolo- 
gist to enquire into any but the purely numeric statements. 
Whether the number of yeai-s attributed to the early Patriarchs 
be taken to denote the terms of human lives, of a longevity else- 
where unrecorded; successions, such as those of some of the 
Egjrptian dynasties; or some allegorical teaching, the key to 
which is now lost ; it is clear that we have in the 5th chapter of 
the Book of Genesis, a definite number of years from the era 
of Adam, the father of Seth, and the first recorded progenitor of/ 
the Hebrew and Arab races, down to the birth of Arphaxad. 
This number of years now stands in the Hebrew codices at 
1,658 ; in the Septuagint at 2,244 ; in the Samaritan Pentateuch 
at 1,309 ; while in the Antiquities of Josephus the details 
amount to 1,658 years, but the sum is set down as 2,658 years. 
The epigraph of the 1st book of Antiquities gives an interval 
of 3,833 years from the Creation to the death of Isaac. The 
passages in Josephus which are least direct in their statements 
of successive dates, and which are therefore the least likely to 
have been corrected by the copyist, are to be found in the Pre- 
face to the Antiquities, and in the First Book against Apion ; 
and are to the effect that the Sacred Book contains the history 
of a period of 5,000 years. 

From the birth of Arphaxad to the birth of Abraham there 
is a variation as to period which resembles, and to some extent 
compensates for, the differences remarked before the earlier 
epoch. Josephus is here in accordance with the Hebrew text, 
in giving a period of 290 years. But the details of the lives of 
the Patriarchs, as they stand in the present copies of the Anti- 
quities, amount to 890 years. The deteils of the LXX. agree 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 5 

with those of Josephns, with the insertion of an additional 
name, and an extra term of 130 years. 

Amid this evident confusion of corrections and recorrections, 
much light nay be obtained by the comparison of the relation 
between the successive periods of the length of life, and the 
age of each individual at the time indicated for the birth of his 
successor. This comparison is altogether in favour of the Greek 
text for the first period in question, and of the Hebrew text for 
the second. And this conclusion, at least as far as relates to 
the second period, is rendered almost unquestionable by the 
17th verse of the 17th chapter of the Book of Genesis, where 
the birth of a son to Abraham in the 100th year of his age is 
referred to as a mars'el. According to the Gi-eek reckoning, 
Abraham himself was not bom until his father was 170 years 
old ; and his seven preceding ancestors each had issue first at 
the age of about 130. This may be taken as conclusive for the 
rejection of the 600 years in question after the birth of Arphaxad ; 
while the accord between the through reckoning and the term of 
5,000 years twice cited by Josephus is equally weighty in favour 
of the adoption of the longer term for the first period in debate. 

It is not unworthy of considei'ation that the determination 
thus arrived at, of the lapse of a total period of 2,649 years from 
the ardii or era of the * book of the generation of Adam ' (the 
5th chapter of the Book of Genesis) to the birth of Isaac, forms 
the commencement of a through reckoning which possesses ad- 
vantages fully equal to those of the famous Julian period of 
Scaliger. Whether it be regarded as intentional or uninten- 
tional on the part of the Sacred writers, the fact is undeniable 
that this through reckoning gives a common starting-point for 
the septennial calculation, enforced by the Jewish laws, the 
bissextile cycle of four years, the lunar cycle, which was first 
introduced by Meton, and the Saros, or eclipse cycle, of which 
the value in ancient astronomy was indisputable. To this 
through reckoning, therefore, which is at once so simple and so 
convenient, the dates of the Sacred History ^^il\ be directly re- 
ferred in the following pages under the title of Anno Sacro, or the 
year of the restored sacred reckoning of the Hebrew Scriptures. 



6 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Two modes of reckoning were used by the Jews, at least 
from the date of the Exodus. Of these, the first is that of the 
ordinary decimal notation, which has become almost universal 
among the human family, and which is generally supposed to 
have originated in the use of the ten fingers in counting. The 
other is the septennial division of time into weeks of years. 
It is evident that the concurrence of these two modes of reckon- 
ing, whenever it can be distinctly ascertained, must aflford a 
means of chronological determination of positive exactitude. 
The decimal reckoning is that used for the notation of lengths 
of the reigns of Gentile kings, of intervals between events, of 
the lengths of the lives of Jewish kings or High priests, and 
generally of the sequence of events not connected with the ritual 
observances proper to the separate weeks of the recurring 
septennial period. These observances regarded not only the 
seventh year (in which cultivation of the ground was forbidden, 
so that a regular rotation of fallow was ensured), but also the 
third and the sixth year of the week, in each of which the 
second tithe was paid to the poor; and the fourth year, in 
which there were special regulations with regard to a portion of 
the crop. We shall hereafter refer to the minute directions as 
to these observances which are given in the Mishna. 

An attempt has been made by some writers to show that 
the recurrence of the Year of Jubilee, at the close jof every seven 
weeks of years, or forty-nine years, introduced a new imit into 
the reckoning, and thus made a period of two jubilees coincide 
with a century. Such writers have been unaware of the fact 
that, according to the special provisions of the Law, the Year 
of Jubilee was not conterminous with either the sacred or the 
civil year of the Jews, but commenced on a date peculiar to 
itself, the tenth day of the seventh month ; and thus included 
the latter portion of a seventh, and the former portion of 
a first, or, as it is sometimes called, an eighth, year of the 
week. 

In addition to the revolution of the Sabbatic year, another 
cycle existed among the Jews, which is referred to in both the 
Old and New Testaments, and clearly described in the Mishna. 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 7 

This was the cycle of the orders, or courses, of the priests. The 
division was not peculiar to the sacerdotal body. The whole 
nation was divided into twenty-four Mishmaroth, or orders, cor- 
responding to those established by David for the priests. When 
the period of service of each order arrived, a certain number of 
its members attended the services of the Temple during tbe 
week as the representatives of the whole body of the people. 
Those members of the course in function who were too distant 
from Jerusalem to attend as representative Israelites were 
bound to discontinue their ordinary avocations during the week, 
to attend the synagogues, and to read cei*tain appointed portions 
of Scripture. Thus the revolution of the courses formed an 
integral part of the life of the Jewish people ; and this cycle 
affords an additional means of determining any dates which 
refer to the order of the priests on duty, as on the occasion of 
the vision of Zacharias, and on that of the destruction of the 
first Temple. 

As to this cycle, the words of R. Jose (Erachin, fol. lib, 
and Taanith, fol. 29 a) should be noted. They state that the 
destruction of the first Temple occurred on the 9th day of the 
month Ab, at the end of the Sabbath, at the end of the week, 
and during the function of the course of Jehoiarib. The Levites 
were singing the verse, * They break in pieces thy people, O 
Lord, and afflict thy heritage' (Ps. 94. 6). Similar circum- 
stances, the passage continues, recurred at the destruction 
of the second Temple. The regular revolution of the Mishma- 
roth, or courses, from the 40th year of David, according to 
the accompanying chronology, brings Jehoiarib into course on 
the date fixed, on other grounds, as that of the destruction of the 
first Temple. Scaliger has translated an ancient Jewish poem, 
which refers to the destruction of the Holy House, as follows — 

Die noii& mensis, hor^ vespertind, 
Qanm eiam in vigilio meo, vigilio Jehoiarib ; 
Introivit hostis, et sacrificia siia obtulit ; 
Ingressos est injustua in Sanctuarium Pomini. 

* On the ninth day of the month, at the evening hour, while I 
was in my vigil, the vigil of Jehoiarib, the enemy entered and 



8 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

offered his sacrifices, the unjust entered into the Sanctuary of 
the Lord.* 

The Jews had no astronomical calendar. They were ex- 
pressly forbidden by the Sanhedrin to construct one. They 
had ncJ recorded determination of the solar year ; but a coinci- 
dence of the solar and lunar years (such as that which Meton 
discovered, and which was introduced into Greece in the year 
776 B.C.) was provided for by the rule, that three ears of barley, 
coming from at least two out of the three provinces of the Holy 
Land must be found for the Passover. The first day of the 
month was determined by the actual observation of the moon. 
If on the day on which this was first possible (that is to say, on 
the day following the conjunction) the moon was not seen, the 
day next following was hallowed as the first of the month. 
Those persons who first saw the new moon went up to Jerusa- 
lem to give evidence ; and this testimony, in the cases of the 
first and the seventh months, was considered so important as to 
supersede the law of the Sabbath and justify travelling on that 
day. By this method (as will be found to be the case in the 
entire system of Jewish metrology), while slight error might at 
times occur, cumulative error was rendered impossible. 

Tl)e accordance between the mean course of the lunar year, 
thus fixed by actual observation, and that of the seasons, was 
secured by the introduction of * embolismic,* or intercalated, 
months, as in the case of the Olympiads. But instead of the 
adoption of a fixed rule, such as that of the Enneadecateris, or 
Golden Number of Meton, this intercalation was decided in each 
case by a council of the chiefs of the Sanhedrin. So essential 
to the due performances of the sacred rites was accuracy as to 
the intercalation of this month, called Veadar, or the second 
Adar, held to be, that the High priest for the time being was 
not allowed to be present at this council. The services of the 
great Day of Atonement were extremely trying for the High 
priest, and it was feared that his natural wish that the great 
festival should occur as early in the year as possible, might un- 
duly influence his vote as to the intercalation of a month. 

By this method of determination, while it is possible in 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 9 

some instances to be in doubt as to a date recorded in the 
historic books of the Bible to the limit of a day, or in some years 
of a month, we are able, by the aid of the accurate reckoning of 
modem astronomy, to ascertain any recorded date within that 
limit, and no room occurs for any accumulated misreckoning. 

The commencement of the year, thus always coinciding with 
the visible new moon, was reckoned, for different purposes, to 
fall on different months. A special treatise of the Mishna, 
called * Rosh Hashanah,' is devoted to the subject of the new 
year. In Nisan, or Abib, the lunar month containing the venial 
equinox, the reckoning of the year for the reigns of Kings or 
High priests, and for fixing the festivals commenced. The first 
day of the month Elul commenced the year as regarded the 
tithing of cattle. The month of Tisri, or Ethanim, was the 
time for fixing the intermissions of servitudes, for commencing 
the Jubilee (on the 10th day), and for the new year for plant- 
ing trees and herbs. The fourth *head of the year' was, 
according to the school of Hillel, on the 1st day, and according 
to the school of Shamai, on the 15th day, of Sebat, for de- 
termining the age of trees. In addition to these four ordinary 
divisions of time, an ecclesiastical year (somewhat akin to the 
Advent season of the Christian Church) commenced with the 
new moon of Adar. The sepulchres were whitewashed and 
the roads and streets repaired during this month, and the pro- 
clamation for the payment of the Temple tax of the half-shekel 
-was issued by the Senate. On the 15th day in the provinces, 
and on the 25th day in Jerusalem, the tables were set for the 
collection of this impost, which was due from every male 
Levite,- Israelite, proselyte, and manumitted slave of above 
thirteen years of age. In conne>ction with this observance the 
fLrst Sabbath in Adar was called the first Sabbath ; and the 
first Sabbath in Nisan (as referred to in St. Luke's Grospel, 6. i) 
the * Second First.* 

The principal references of dates in the historic books of 
the Bible are to regnal years. The years of the septennate are 
more rarely indicated. One reference, of great chronological 
value, is found in the account of the proclamation of king Joash 



IT) HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

in the 2nd Book of Kings. The expression that they gave the 
infant king the testimony, refers to a special portion of the 
Temple ritual, which occurred only at the Feast of Tabernacles, 
in the Sabbatic year. The roll of the Law was then handed by 
the High priest to the king in the Temple, and the latter read 
an appointed lesson as pai*t of the service. This is in exact 
accordance with the expression, * And in the year of the 
Sabbath,* in the 4th verse of the 11th chapter, and is one of the 
series of synchronisms which establish the exactitude of the 
computation of the accompanying Tables. 

A Jewish era was established in the 170th year of the 
Seleucidae, 143 B.C., under the title of the First Year of Simon, 
High Priest, and Ethnarch of the Jews. Very few references to 
this era have been traced. Five years later, the right to coin 
money in his own name was conceded, or confirmed, to the 
High priest, by a treaty with Antiochus VII. The coins of the 
Hasmonean princes do not bear dates. The dates on Jewish 
coins, before the time of Herod the Great, never bear a higher 
number than * the fourth year.' There is no room for doubt that 
the years thus indicated are those of the week. Money that could 
be easily distinguished was required for the purpose of pa3dng 
the Temple tax, as well as for the payment of the second tithes ; 
for which it waR necessary to take up to Jerusalem not only a 
fixed sum, but the actual apportioned coins, so that a mode of 
distinguishing the year, dependent on the coin itself, was of great 
ceremonial importance. 

The modes of reckoning referred to in the Bible, other than 
those special to the Jewish people, are as follows. 

Events occurring in the Holy Land after the accession of 
Herod the Great are usually referred to the Boman reckoning. 
This was either by the names of the Consuls, or the eponymy 
of the year (a method also adopted in Assyrian chronology), 
or by the regnal year of the Emperor. Both consular and im- 
perial dates are referred to in reckoning from the date (ac- 
cording to Varro) of the Foimdation of the City of Rome. This 
was 753 years before the Christian era, and these dates are 
usually written A.U.C.^ or Anno Urbia Conditce, To this 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 11 

notation all the chronology of the New Testament, as well as 
that of the Antiquities and Wars of Josephus after the accession 
of Herod, is more or less distinctly referrible. 

The reckoning of the 1st Book of Maccabees, and of the con- 
temporary portion of the works of Josephus, is given in the 
years of the Greek kings of Asia. The era of that reckoning is 
called the Era of the Seleucidae, and dates on the capture of 
Babylon by Seleucus the First, or Nicator, eleven years after the 
death of Alexander the Great, or 313 b.c. This reckoning was 
used for a period of 244 years, down to the close of the Seleucid 
dynasty in B.C. 69. 

The chronological table (which we have translated in Table 
V.) of the kings of Assyria, Persia, and the successive sovereigns 
of the East, including the emperors of Borne down to the death 
of Antoninus, is found in some of the ancient manuscripts of 
the Almagest, and is known by the name of the Begal Canon 
of Ptolemy. It is of the highest historic value, inasmuch as 
it is capable of direct astronomical verification by means of the 
observation of eclipses, which are recorded in the Almagest, and 
which are therein referred to the regnal years of the several 
kings, in whose reigns they took place. This Canon commences 
with what is known as the Era of Nabonassar, 748 b.c. It 
contains a list of 18 Babylonian kings, coming down to the 
conquest by Cyrus. These are followed by eleven Persian kings ; 
and these by the eight years of the reign of Alexander the 
Great ; the close of which, in the year 424 of Nabonassar, is 
called the Philippine era, and commences the second part of the 
Canon. Twelve Greek sovereigns succeed, Cleopatra being 
the last; in the 22nd year of whose reign, or the 272nd of the 
Philippine era, the battle of Actiitm gave the Empire of the 
world to Augustus Caesar. The Canon closes with the 15 th 
successor of Augustus, in the 544th year of the Philippine era ; 
and it is to be noted that short terms of power, such as those of 
Otho and Galba, are omitted, so that Nero is recorded as the fifbh, 
and Vespasian as the sixth Boman Emperor — an observation 
of considerable importance with regard to references to the 
number of the sovereigns. 



12 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The only hesitation which could he felt as to the proper 
determination of the era of Nebuchadnezzar in Palestine, is the 
reference (2 Kings 25. 27) to the year of the accession of Evil 
Merodach, king of Babylon, who is the Ilouaramus of the 
Regal Canon, as coincident with the 37th year of the galuth or 
exile. This word is coupled with the names of Jehoiachin, 
in the Hebi-ew text, but with that of Jehoiachim, in the Sep- 
tuagint. The thirty-seven years cited actually run from the 
overthrow of the Jewish monarchy at the defeat and death of 
Josiah. 

The dates of the Book of Ezekiel are referred to the years 
of the Galuth, dating from the deportation of Jehoiachin, which 
was two years after the epoch of the 70 years' affliction and 
captivity. They are thus identified by the i*eference to the 
destruction of Jerusalem, in ihe 12th year (Ezek. 33. 2l). But 
in the 29th chapter of the Book of Ezekiel, between passages 
dated respectively in the tenth and eleventh years of the or- 
dinary reckoning of the book, occurs a reference to the siege of 
Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar in the 27th year. Allowing for the 
difference of the time of commencing the Jewish and the As- 
syrian years, it will be found that the 27th year of Nebuchad- 
nezzar at Babylon, B.C. 579, coincides with the 11th year of the 
Galuth, as reckoned by Ezekiel, and with the 17th year of 
Nebuchadnezzar in Palestine. Thus what might hastily have 
been taken for an error in the text (although it is in accordance 
with the LXX. version), has really a high chronological sig- 
nificance. 

We have spoken of the Egyptian dates as absolutely de- 
termined only as far back as B.C. 666. But so far back 
as the rise of the great 18th Dynasty, B.C. 1706, there is an 
accord between Lepsius, Bunsen, and Brugsch, to within little 
more than a century ; and there is an almost conclusive verifica- 
tion of the dates we have taken from Isambert to witiiin a 
couple of years, one of which is due to the gain made by the 
vague Egyptian year over the ordinary reckoning. No eariy 
regnal dates of Egyptian kings are to be found in the Bible. 
But it is a very remarkable fact, that the revolution of that 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 13 

ancient measure of time affords confirmation of the two widely 
separated dates of the Exodus and the Crucifixion. 

The vague, or sacred, Egyptian year consisted of twelve 
months, each containing thirty days (cf. Gen. 7. 11-24, and 
8. 4), together with five epagomense, or additional days^ re- 
spectively dedicated to Osiris, Aroueris, Isis, Typli»us, and 
N^he. No intercalation was allowed, and as 365 days are 
nearly a quarter of a day shorter than a tropical solar year, the 
Egyptian year gradually displaced its commencement, or the 
Ist day of Thoth^ with reference to the seasons. Fifteen hun- 
dred and five Egyptian years were thus equal to 1,504 tropical 
years; or, according to the more ordinary, though less scientific 
reckoning, 1,461 Egyptian, were equal to 1,460 Julian, years. 
The latter term would be more correctly replaced by the word 
Augustan. The reform of the calendar introduced by Julius 
Ctesar was so erroneous in its principle, that what is now called 
the Julian year was fixed by Augustus Csesar, in a.d. 9. This 
reckoning was used until its correction by Pope Gregory XIII. 
in A.D. 1582, when it had overrun the true time by ten days. 
The Gr^orian year was introduced into England in 1752, 
"irhen a correction of eleven days was made in the calendar, 
Jnlian time is still in use, under the term Old Style, in Russia. 
The Gregorian rule, that a day be intercalated every four years, 
but that the intercalation be omitted on the first, second, and 
third, to be resumed on the fourth, century, is sufficiently accu- 
rate to need no correction for 4,000 years, when one day has 
again to be omitted from the centennial intercalation. 

The decree of Canopus, dated on the 17th of the month 
Tybi, in the 9th year of the reign of Etolemy Euergetes, king 
of Egypt, ^ shows that the Egyptian chronologists were un- 
aware of, or made no allowance for, the difference in the length 
of the sidereal and of the solar years ; as the rising of Sothis, 
or Sirius, is referred to as advancing one day in four years. 
From the double date upon the Rosetta Stone, which is in 
exact accordance with the dates of eclipses given by Claudius 

* Records oftlie Past, vol. viii. 



14 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Ptolemy in the Almagest in terms of the Egyptian year, the 
tropical date of the 1st day of Thoth, in the vague Egyptian 
year, can be calculated for any period of history. In a.d. 208 
the 1st of Thoth coincided with the 1st day of July of the 
Gregorian;^ style, and in B.C. 650 with the 1st of January. 

The coincidences of the dates of the vague Egyptian years 
with the events before named are as follows. The Exodus, 
which occurred according to the Pentateuch on the 15th day of 
the month called Abib in the Bible, Nisan in later Jewish 
times, and as Josephus mentions, Xanthicus by the Greeks, fell 
in the Egyptian month Pharmuthi (2 Ant. 14. 6, and 15. 2), the 
fourth month of the second tetrameny, or division of the year 
into three. It was also, of course, in the first year of the 
septennial reckoning. These two notes of time coincide with 
the date B.C. 1541, which, on other grounds, has been assigned 
in the restored Sacred reckoning as the date of the Exodus. 
If the late date which some Egyptian scholars assign to the 
Exodus were correct, the 15th of Nisan would have fallen, not 
in the month Pharmuthi, but in Mechir, two months earlier. 

A statement of Clement of Alexandria to the effect that 
the Crucifixion took place on the 25th day of the Egyptian 
month Phamenoth, is cited by Canon Browne, in his work 
called 'Ordo Sseculorum.' In the year 30 a.d. the 25th 
of Phamenoth fell on the 15th of Nisan, which corresponds 
to the 5th of April of the Gregorian style, and which the 
balance of evidence shows to have been the actual date. 

It is generally assumed that the septennial reckoning of 
years commenced at the Exodus. There is little doubt that 
the reckoning of the sevens of sevens, or Years of Jubilee, ran 
from that date. But there is some reason for supposing that 
this method of notation, as well as the existence of the ordi- 
nary week, are as old as the Book of Genesis itself; that is to 
say, as the earlier part of its historic narrative. The through 
reckoning given in the annexed Tables commences with the 
first year of a week which still recurs with uninterrupted r^u- 
larity in the Jewish calendar. The seven years of Jacob's 
servitude to Laban coincide with a week of years. The ex- 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 15 

pression * after two weeks of days/ which occurs in the com- 
mencement of the 41st chapter of the Book of Genesis, in 
reference to the time of Joseph's advancement, is also that 
proper to designate the second year of the septennate, with 
which, B.C. 1981, the year in question actually coincides. Thus 
the septennial reckoning, an exact coincidence with which is 
necessary to the verification of any Jewish date, appears to 
have been used by the author of the Book of Genesis from the 
very commencement of the 5th, or first serial, chapter. 

Slight difficulties in historic synchronisms may arise from, 
the different mode in which different people commenced their 
calendar, as well as from differences in the conventional mean- 
ing of the words they employ. Thus we should naturally 
understand by * after two years * that the third year was im- 
plied, whereas it is the usual Jewish mode of designating the 
second year. We have seen that the regnal years of the Jewish 
kings are stated in the Mishna to have commenced on the 1st 
day of Nisan. The general rule was that the first day of the 
year which fell in a new reign was termed the beginning of that 
reign, whether it was in Nisan, as with the Jewish kings, or 
in Thoth, with the Egyptians or Assyrians. Thus if a king 
acceded on the first day of the year and reigned but a single 
day, that year would be called the first of his reign ; while if 
he reigned for only 364 days, acceding on the second day of 
the year, his name would not appear in the regnal lists. This 
nile is no doubt taken from the practice of the eponymy, or 
naming the year from the king, consul, or other officer, which 
was the case with the consuls at Eome, and with the eponymous 
officers in Assyria. The difference of a year, in reckoning the 
years of Nebuchadnezzar, which exists between the 2nd Book of 
Kings and the Book of Jeremiah, may with great probability 
be attributed to this cause. In the 27th verse of the last 
chapter of the 2nd Book of Kings it is said that ' in the year 
of his reign ' (probably meaning at the beginning) Evil Mero- 
dachy king of Babylon, on the 27th day of the month Adar, 
set at liberty Jehoiachin, king of Judah, in the 37th year of 
the Galuth, or exile. These latter years, as we are aware 



16 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

reckoned from Nisan. It is not so clear from what point the 
Assyrian year reckoned. In an inscription of Assur-boni-pal * 
Mr. George Snuth speaks of the month of Ab as the montib of 
Sagittarius, which is a displacement of the Jewish month quite 
consonant with the statement of Babbi Obadiah de Bartenora, 
that the reigns of foreign kings reckoned from 1st of Tisri. 
But if this occurred immediately on the death of Nebuchad- 
nezzar, at the close of the Jewish year, but in the midst of 
the Assyrian year — the succeeding year, b.c. 562 (a Sabbatic 
year), being the first of Evil Merodach according to the Begal 
Canon — it is easy to see how a difficulty in reckoning might 
arise to the historian. The Thoth of the vague year at this 
time fell on our present 4th of January. The 27th Adar in 
the year in question fell on the 13th or 14th of February. It 
is thus evident that very exact knowledge of local use must be 
possessed in order to arrive at absolutely exact synchronisms. 
With this reserve, as far as modem research has thrown light 
on Assyrian and on Egyptian chronology, its accordance with 
that of the Hebrew Scriptures is exact. 

For any further . chronological details the chapter on Syn- 
chronisms and the accompanying Tables may be conveniently- 
consulted. In one single instance is there a departure from the 
details given in the Authorised Version. This is with refer- 
ence to the length of the rule of Ehud. The Hebrew and 
the Greek concur in putting this at 80 years. And so does 
the text of the Antiquities. But in the commencement of the 
following chapter (5 Ant. 5. l) Josephus states that the servi- 
tude under Jabin, king of Canaan, commenced before there had 
been time to breathe a little from that under Eglon. This ex- 
pression is mconsistent with the lapse of an interval of 80 years. 
Nor is such an interval consistent either with the period of 
300 years from tbe Conquest of Bashan to the time of Jephthah 
(Judges 1 1 . 26), or with that of 480 years from the settlement 
of Palestine to the 4th year of Solomon (1 Kings 6. l). In 
this instance, therefore, and in this alone, in accordance with 

* Assyrian Discoveries^ p. 366. 



THE CHEONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 17 

the views of Dr. Whiston, what appears to be an error of the 
ti*aiiscribers of substituting 80 for 8, has been corrected. The 
case is one in which the minor period is controlled by the 
certain length of the major period which includes it. With 
this exception, almost the only passage of the Old Testament 
which presents any further chronological difficulty is the ques- 
tion to what event the 65 years mentioned in Isaiah 8, 8 may 
be taken to refer. 







18 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



An. Sac. 



2549 
2682 



2624 



2629 



TABLE III. 

CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 

»i< Signifies * death of^ 



\ 



2635 
2648 


4 
3 


2649 
2656 


4 
3 


2709 
2792 
2816 


1 
7 
3 


2829 
2839 


2 
5 


2856 
2909 
8103 


1 
2 
3 


8183 


6 


3186 


2 



Tear of 
Week 



2 

7 



Events and Authorities 



Birth of Abbahah .... 
Obseryations of Eclipses commenced at 

Babtloit, 1,903 years before capture 

by Alexandsb uie Great . 
Abraham leaves Harak, and goes to 

Egypt, where the Fourteenth dynasty 

of Egyptian kings reigned at Xois . 
Battle of Valley of Siddim. Ohedor- 

LAOHER King of Elam 

Birth of ISHKABL 

Destruction of Cities of the Plain. 
Abraham goes to Gerar. Abime- 
LECH, King of Gerar 

Birth of Isaac 

Eclipse of the Sun visible in China. 
The Astronomers Hi and Ho put to 
death for not having predicted it 

Birth of Jacob and Esau 

Seventh year of Jacob's service to Laban 

Sale of Joseph, aet. 17. The Hyksos. 
the Seventeenth dynasty, then reign- 
ing in Tanis . . . 

Second year of week. Gen. 41. i. >i<IsAAC 

Jacob goes to Eoypt, in second year of 
dear& 

^ Jacob 

^ Joseph 

Eighteenth dynasty established at 
Thebes 

^ Thothmes II. Queen Hatasu reigns 
alone 

Birth of MosES- 



B.G. 



2261 



2228 



2186 

2181 
2175 



2162 I 
2161 



2155 
2101 
2018 



1994 
1981 

1971 
1954 
1901 

1707 

1627 
1624 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 



19 



Table HI. — oontmned. 



An. Sac. 



Year of 
Week 



3226 



3269 
3309 



3317 

3324 
3333 

3409 

S427 
^435 



S449 

^452 
S456 

S602 
^542 
3545 

3568 
3690 
3608 

3614 
3621 
3681 
3639 

3679 

3719 

3759 



Evente and Anthoritles 



1 
6 



7 
2 



4 
6 



6 

2 
6 

3 
1 
3 

5 

7 
4 

2 
6 

7 



2 
1 
1 



Ethiopian War. 2 Ant. 4. 2, (Inscrip- 
tions) 

Flight of Moses . 

* Thothmbs IV. AiowopHis III. sue- 
coods ..... 

EXODUS on 15 Nisan = 28 Pharmuthi 

Passage of Jordan. 10 Nisan. 400 
years from death of Joseph. 2 Ant. 
9. 1 ; Acts 7. 6 . . . . . 

Sabbatic year. Rest from war. Josh. 
11. 23 ; 14. 16. First Year of Jubilee . 

Sabbatic year. Best. Josh. 21. 44 ; 28. i 

^ Joshua. 5 Ant. 1. 29 

Ohushan Rishathaim, King of Meso- 

^OiHNiEL . . . [potamia 

Servitude to EaLON King of Moab 

^ Eglok ...... 

it Ehitd. 5, Ant. 4. 3, note by Dr 
Whiston 

Rule of Jabin King of Hazor 

Rahses n. King of Egypt, invades 
Khita 

AsKALON taken by Ramses II. 

^ Sisera ...... 

Rule of MiDIANITES 

Iff Ores. ^ SjEEb 

*b Gideon. Jud. 8. 28 . 

•it Abdcelech King of Shechem. Jud 

9. 22 

* Tola. Jud. 10. 2 . 
»¥« Jair. Jud. 10. 3 . 
Jephtha mad^ Kats^n* Jud. 11. 6, 26 

300 years after conquest of Bashan 
ip Jephtha. Jud. 12; r 
•i* Ibzan. Jud. 12. 9 . 
^ Elon. Jud. ^% 11 . 
^ Abdon. Jud. 12. 14 .. 
Rule of Philistines. Jud. 13. i . 
>£• Samson. Judge for 20 years. Jud 

15. 20 

•ii Eli, Higb Priest, and his Sons 
Anointing of Saul King of Israel 
•it Saul, 490 years from Exodus. .Acts 

13. 20 . . . . • • 

c2 



B.C. 



1584 
1641 

1601 

1493 
1486 
1477 

1401 

1383 

1375 



1361 
1368 
1366 

1308 
1268 

1264 
1242 
1220 

1202 
1196 
1189 
1179 
1171 



1131 
1091 



\ \QSV 



20 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Tablb III. — Gontinned. 





Year of 






An. Sac. 


Week 


Events and Authorities 


B.C. 


8766 


1 


Dayid takes Jsrvralem. 2 Sam. 11. i 


1044 


3776 


8 


Birth of SoLOMOK. . . * . 


1035 


8799 


6 


^ Davjj) 


1011 


3803 


3 


2 Zi£ Temple founded in 480th year 
from Rest, An. Sac. 3324. I Kings 








6.1 ^ 


1007 


3830 


2 


Accession of Twentynaecond dynasty in 








Egypt 


980 


3839 


4 


^ SoLOMOiT. 1 Kings 11. 43 


971 


3844 


2 


Shjshak takes Jsbusalem. 1 Kings 








14.25 


967 


/ 3866 


7 


Sabbatic year. >{< Rbhoboam. 1 Things 




* 




15.1 


954 


3869 


5 


War between Israbl and Judah. 








^ Abijah 


951 


3860 


4 


ifi Jeboboam. 1 Kings 14. 20 


950 


3861 


5 


^ Nadab. 1 Kings 15. 45 . 


949 


3885 


1 


* Baasha. 1 Kings 15- 83 . 


926 


3886 


2 


*b Elah. 1 Kings 16. 8 . . . 
* ZiMRi. 1 Kings 16. IS . 


924 


3887 


3 


^ OiCBi. 1 Kings 16. 28 . . . 


923 


3900 


2 




910 


3901 


3 


ASSYRIAN OANON commences. Bn. 








Anie II 


909 


3918 


6 


•i* A fab. 1 Kings 16. 29. Elijah, 




3919 


7 


prophet 

Saobatic year, ip Abaziah. 1 Kings 


892 






22. 61 


891 


3925 


6 


^ Jehoshaphat. 1 Kings 21. 42 . 


885 


3933 


7 


ii« Jehoram King of Israel. 2 langs 








3.1 


877 






DATE OF MOABITE STONE 






• 


Elish A, prophet .... 
ii« Jehobam Kbg of JtJDAH. 2 Kings 

8. 17 

^ Abaztah. 2 Kings 9. 27 . 




3934 


1 


876 


3940 


7 


Sabbatic year. (Day of Atonement fell 
on Sabbfttb.) * Atttattatt. 9 Kin^a 














11. 4. The King reads the Law m 








tbe Temple 


870 


3945 


6 


Eclipse of the Moon on 26 Mesori, 








(Kamak inscription). 


865 


3952 


4 


Accession of Shaucanezeb II. (Black 








obelisk) 


858 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 



21 



Table in. — e&tUinued, 



An. Sac. 

3954 
3959 



3963 
3967 
3969 



3978 
3980 

3982 

3994 

4009 
4015 



4029 
4034 



4035 
4038 
4045 
4046 
4047 



Year of 
Week 



4055 
4067 

4058 
4061 

4062 



6 



2 
6 
1 



3 
5 



6 
5 



1 
2 



4 

7 
7 
1 
2 



3 
5 

6 
1 

2 



Events and Anthorities 



Sothis rose on 1 Ti/bi, anno 11 of Take- 

LUT II. King of E&TPT 
Eclipse of the Moon. Defeat of forces 

of Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and Palbs- 

TUTE, at Aroer, by Shalmanezer. 

(Black obelisk) . . 

ii« Jehit. 2 Kings 10. 36 

* Besthadai) King of Syria . 
Sha£MA3¥Ezer at war with Hazael, 

King of Syria; receives tribute from 

King of Israel 

*i* Jehoahaz. 2 Kings 13. i 

* JoASH King of Jtjdah. 2 Kings 

X4U* X* • . . » • •■ 

Second Cycle of Assyrian Eponymes 
commences 

ip JsHOASH King of Israel. 2 Kings 
13. 18 

>{( Akaziah. 2 Kings 14. 3 . 

Invasion of Palestine by Assyrians. 
Subjection of MARiBAHKing of I>a- 

MASCTJB . . . . . . 

Accession of Shalmanezeb HE. . 

Ifit year of FIRST OLYMPIAD, be- 
ginning on Full Moon in Cancer. 
Eclipse of Sun recorded in China, on 
27 Aug. 6th year of Yew Wano 

Interregnum. 2 Kings 14. 28 ; cf. ] 5. i 

Assyrians invade Syria and Hadrach . 

Assyrians invade Hadrach 

Accession of Zachariah. 2 Kings 15. 8 

ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, 15 June. 
(Assyrian, records). Cf. Amos 8. 9. 
Tribute firom King of Israel . 

Accession of Shallux .... 

Accession of Mssahem 

Assyrians invade Haicath and Arpab . 

11 Kalends of May. CITY OF ROME 
FOUNDED 

Accession of Pekahiah. 2 Kings 15. 23 

* UzziAH. 2 Kings 15. 27. Accession 
ofPEKAH 

ERA OF NABONASSAR, Ut of 
Thath, fell on 17 Feb. 4062-3 . 



B.O. 



856 



851 

847 
843 



841 
832 

830 

828 

ai6 

801 



795 

781 



776 
775 
772 
765 
764 



763 

755 

753 
752 

749 

748 



22 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Table III. — continued. 



An. Sac. 


Year of 
Week 


4066 


6 


4067 
4077 
4078 
4079 


7 : 

4 
6 
6 


4083 
4086 


3 
6 


4089 


2 


4090 


3 


4091 
4093 
4099 
4106 


4 
6 
6 
4 


4107 


6 


4108 


7 


4121 
4122 
4129 


4 
1 
1 


4140 

• 


4 


4144 
4146 


1 
3 


4166 


6 


4177 
4179 
4184 
4196 
4200 
4206 


6 
1 
6 

4 

1 
6 


, 





Eyents and Authorities 




Accession of Tiglath Pileser II. in 

NUTEVEH 

Assyrian Campaign in Syria. Of. 2 Ki 
^ JoTHAic. 2 Kings 16. i . [16. 29 
Assyrian Campaign in Philistia . 
Interregnum in Sakaria.. 2 Kings 16 

Accession of Shalmanezer IV. . 
Siege of Sakaria commenced. 2 Kings 

17. 3 

Fall of Samaria. Two Eclipses of the 

Moon. (Almoffest.) 
Accession of Saroon. (Khorsabad 

JL6XL1 . . .... 

Eponymy of ' Sargou the King * . 
'^^ Ahaz. 2 Kings 16. a . 
Capture of Ashdod by S argon Is. 20. i 
1st year of Sennacherib at Nineveh 

Interregnum at Babylon . 
Eclipse ot Sun. Sennacherib invades 

Palestine 

Sabbatic year (2 Kings 19. 29), (date of 

Bellini Cylinder) 
Eclipse of Sun .... 
•i« Hezekiah .... 
^ Sennacherib. Esarhaddon succeeds 

him at Nineveh and at Babylon 

(Monuments) . 
Invasion of Egypt Manasseh sends 

tribute . » 

ASSYRIAN EPONYMES End . 

* ESARHADDON. A king of JjJDJEA. 

pays tribute to Ashurbanipal. Cf. 

z Ohron. 28. ii . 
Eclipse of the Sun. Cf. Hab. 3. ii 

End of Great Cylinder, A, of Ashiir 

banifal 

»!• Manasseh. 2 Kings 21. i 

* Ahon. 2 Kings 21. 19 

Accession of Nabopolassar at Babylon 

Great Passover. 2 Chron. 36. 19 . 

Eclipse of Sun .... 

Accession of NEBxrcHADN^zzAR at Baby- 



745 
743 
733 
732 

731 
727 

724 

721 

720 
719 
717 
711 

706 

703 

702 
689 

688 



681 

670 
606 



664 



665 
633 
631 
626 
614 
610 

606 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 



23 



Table III. — oontinved. 




An. Sac. 



4210 



4214 
4215 

4219 



4221 
4222 
4226 

4227 
4232 



4233 



^38 
4247 

4248 
4250 
4254 
4271 

4273 
4279 
4284 
4288 
4289 



4293 
4300 

4332 



1 
2 

6 



] 
2 
5 

7 
5 



6 



4 
6 

7 
2 
6 
2 

4 
3 
1 
6 
6 



3 
3 



Battle of MsGiSDO (2 Kings 23. 29) 

»i* King JosiAH. Deposition of Jeho- 

AHAz by Necho. Era of Galuth, 

used by Jekekiah and Ezseiel . 590 

Battle of Garohemish. *i* Necho. Jer. 

46. 2 696 

1st year of Nebuchadnezzab in Pa- 
lestine. Three yeara of Jesoiakim's 
submission follow .... 595 
Revolt. ERA GF LXX YEARS' 
AFFLICTION. Cf. Jer. 26. 11; 2 

Kings 24. 2 691 

^* Jehoiakim. Gaptivity of Jeconiah 589 

First deportation. 1 Kings 24. le . 688 

Eclipse of the Sun. (Eclipse of 

Thales) . . . . . . 685 

Sabbatic year. Jer. 34. 8 . . . 683 
11th year of Galxtth of Jeconlah 
(Ezek, 29. 17 ; 30. 20) and 27th year of 
Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon. Ezek. 

29. 17 578 

Fall of Jerusalem. Temple burnt on 
Friday, 9 Ab = 1 August. Jehoiarib 
coming into course .... 677 
Third deportation. Jer. 62. so . . 572 
* Nebuchadnezzar, 26 Adar, in 37th 

year from Battle of Megiddo . . 563 
Sabbatic year, and 2l8t Year of Jubilee 562 
1st year of Nerikassolassar (Ganon) . 560 
1st year of Nabonadius (Ganon) . . 556 
Gyrus takes Babylon. Nabonadius 

flies to BoRSiPFA .... 539 
Temple recommenced. Ezra 3. 8 . . 637 
1st year of Gambyses . . . . 531 
Accession of Persian dynasty in Egypt 626 

Ist year of Darius, son of Hystaspes . 522 
END OF LXX YEARS' AFFLIG- 
TION. Gf. Zech. 1. 12; 182 J years 
from 14th year of IIezexiah ; 10 Ant. 

Epigraph 521 

Temple finished on 3 Adar. Ezra 6. 16 517 
FALL OF REGAL POWER AT 

ROME, A.U.G. 244 .. . 510 
Eclipse of the Sun. (Eclipse of Xerxes) 478 



24 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Table m. — contirmed. 



An. Sac. 


.Year of 
Week 


4340 


1 


4344 
4360 


6 
4 

r 
• 


4363 


8 


4375 
4376 


1 
2 


4405 


3 


4474 


2 


4477 


5 


U79 
4486 


7 
7 


4498 


6 


4500 


7 


4505 


6 


4525 


4 


4585 


1 


4591 


6 



Events and Authorities 



Eclipse of the Sun. (Eclipse of Battle of 
Platba.) 

Ist year of Abtaxebxbs LoKeiMANirs . 

EzBA made Governor on 1 Ab. Ezra 
7. 1, 9. Six days of the week are re- 
ferred to in this year in the Book 
of EzBA. The omission of the Sab- 
bath verifies the determination of the 
years 

Nehemiah made Tirshatha. Neh. 
2. 1 

End of Book of Nehemiah . 

ERA OF METONIO OYOLE. New 
moon of Skirrophoreon fell on 1st 
degree of Cancer. Eclipse of the Smi. 
Thucydides, lib. ii 

1 Artaxerxes II. In this year Jesus 
killed his brother Jonathan, and 
BagosEs profaned the Temple. 11 
xV.n X. 1.1. • * . « . 

1 DARIUS III. Capture of Tyre and 
of Gaza by Alexander the Great. 
11 Ant. 8. 4 

Alexander the Great visits Jsrtj- 
SALEM. 11 Ant. 8. 5 

Eclipse of the Moon. Battle of Arbela 

>h Alexander on 28 DcBsius, 253 years 
9 months from destruction of Temple. 
11 Ant. Epigraph .... 

PHILIPPINE ERA 

ERA OF SELEUCID^. 23 Hyper- 
heretcBus « 26 September . 

Sabbatic year. Eclipse of the Sun 
(Agathooles) 

1 Ptolemy, son of Lagus. He takes 
Jerusalem on the Sabbath. 12 Ant. 
1.1 

1 Ptolemy II. PhiladSlphus . 

LXX. VERSION OF THE LAW . 

1 Antiochus the Great Devastation of 
JuDiEA by war. 12 Ant. 8. 3 . 

1 Ptolemy Epifhanes. Scopas de- 
feated by Antiochus at the Springs 
of Jordan. 12 Ant. 3. s . 




470 
466 



460 

457 
435 



434 



405 



336 

333 
331 



324 

312 
310 



805 

285 



210 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 



25 



Tablb in. — eontinued. 



An. Sac. 



Year of 
Week 



Events and Anthoritiee 



B.C. 



4606 
4614 



4627 
4634 



4636 



4640 



4642 


2 


4645 


5 


4647 


7 


4650 
4653 
4657 


3 
6 
3 


4659 
4661 


5 

7 


4667 


6 


4671 
4674 


3 
6 



4675 



7 
2 



1 
1 



Batastea, Samaria, Abela, and Gadara 
subdued. The Jews protected by Ai^- 
TiocHirs. Marriage of AirnocHUs 
with Cleopatra, daughter of 
Ptoleict. Dan. 11. e. Ooblo-Stria, 
Samaria, Jttd jsa, and Phcekicia given 
as her dowry. 12 Ant. 4. i . 

Joseph farms the taxes. 12 Ant. 4. lo 

DATE OF ROSETTA STONE, 18 
Mechir, anno 11 Ptolemy Epi- 
PHAKE8 - 4 Xanthurus 

*b Joseph 

Antiochus Epiphanes invades Jttd^a 
(Dan. 11. 22), and deprives Jesus of 
the Pontificate. Gymnasium built at 
Jerusalem . . . 

Eclipse of Moon, 7 Philometor (Alma- 
gest), Conquest of Egypt. Anti- 
ochus retreats before the Komans. 
Dan. 11. 80 

Sabbatic year. Antiochus takes City 
and Temple. 12 Ant. 5. 4 ; cf. Dan. 
IL 31 . 

Desecration of Temple in second year of 
week. 1 Mace. 1. 30 

Restoration of Temple, 25 Cisleu. 12 
xvn V. f.7. • . . . . 

Sabbatic year. 12 Ant. 9. 6. AirriocHrs 
EirpATOR takes Jerusalem, 414 years 
after Nebuchadnezzar. 20 Ant. 10. i 

* Alcimus 

Temple built at Heliopolis 

ALEXAin)ER Epiphanes occupies Pto- 
LEMAis. Jonathan puts on Pontifical 
robes 

Marriage of Alexander and Cleopatra 

Apollonius invades Ocelo-Syria. 
Temple of Dagon at Ashdod burnt . 

Simon Ethnarch of the Jews. 13 Ant. 
6. 7. Coins extant .... 

Simon takes Akka, or Millo 

ifi Simon and his Sons. End of 1st 
Book of Maccabees .... 

Sabbatic year. 13 Ant 8. i . 



205 



196 
183 



176 



174 

170 
168 
165 



163 
160 
157 



153 
151 

149 

143 
139 

136 
125 



26 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Table III. — oonti/iued. 



An. Sac. 



4696 
4699 
4705 



4706 
4732 



4747 



4766 
4770 
4773 



4775 

4779 



Year of 
Week 



4787 
4799 
4804 



4806 



4809 



4810 
4815 



7 
3 
2 



3 
1 



2 



7 
4 

7 



2 
6 



7 
6 
3 



2 

7 



Events and Anthoritios 



Sabbatic year. Htbcanits establishes 
his independence. Ooins extant 

Sadduc£E8 obtain predominance. Blank 
in Mishna for 33 years 

* IIyrcanus. 471 years, 3rd from 
Captivity. 1 Wars 3. i. Aristobttlus 
assumes the diadem. Ooins extant . 

* Aristobitlfs 

* Alexander. Pharisees regain 
power. Ooins of Queen Alexandra 
extant 

PoHPEY takes Jerusalem on Friday, 
26 Sivan. Ooins of Antigontjs ex- 
tant 

^ Julius 0.£sar on the Ides of March 

Herod made Kin^? by Roman Senate . 

Sabbatic year. 11 Ant. 1. s. Herod 
takes Jerusalem. Ooins of Herod 
extant 

* Aristobulus. End of hereditary 
Hijj^h Priests 

Battle of Actium. ERA OF ROMAN 
EMPIRE. H fllel President of San- 
hedrin; the office thence hereditary 
for 400 years 

Sabbatic year. Famine. 15 Ant. 9. i 

Temple of Herod finished . 

Oourse of Abla. in course of function at 
Feast of Lig^hts. 26 Oisleu = Thurs- 
day, 7 December .... 

* Herod the Great, on 7 Oisleu. 
Eclipse of Moon on 15 Nisan. (Ohro- 
uoastrolabe, p. 119). Tiie NATIVITY 
is supposed to have occurred at this 
time ...... 



VULGAR ERA. 



Archelaus deposed. Ooins extant. 
Otrenius President of Syria, imposes 
the Oensus. Ooponius, procurator of 
JudsBa 



B.C. 

114 
111 



105 
104 



78 



63 
64 
40 



37 
36 



31 : 

J3 ' 

11 



6 



4 
1 



A.D. 



6 



THE CHBONOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 



27 



Table III. — coniintied. 



An. Sac. 

4819 
4822 
4823 

4834 

4838 

4839 

4844 

4847 



4848 
4850 
4863 

4866 

4868 



4861 



4863 
4866 

4868. 

4873 

4874 

4876 

4879 

4883 
4904 

4916 
4924 
4927 
4941 
4943 
4944 



Year of 
Week 



4 

7 
1 

6 
2 

3 
1 



6 

7 
3 

6 
1 



6 
1 

4 
2 
3 
4 
1 

6 
6 

3 
2 

7 
7 
1 
2 



Events and Authorities 



M. AMBirrus, procurator 

AiTNitrs Rdtfus, procurator . 

»& Augustus. Valerius Gratus, pro- 
curator ...... 

Pontius Pilate, procurator 

Power of life and death for three crimes 
taken from Supreme Sanhedrin 

ORUOIFIXION, on Friday, 16 Nisan . 

Pilate recalled. Marcellus, pro- 
curator 

Marullus, procurator. A&rippa re- 
ceives the Tetrarchies of Herod^ 
Philip, and of Ltsanias . 

Antipas banished to Gaul . 

Murder of Caligula. Sablwitic year . 

* Agrippa, jet. 64. Cuspius Fadus, 
procurator 

Tiberius Alexander, procurator 

* Herod King of Ohalchis. Agrippa 
U. succeeds. Ventidius Cumanus, 
procurator 

Batanea, Trachonitis, and Abilene 
given to Agrippa. Claudius Felix, 
procurator 

* Claudius 
PoRCius Festus, procurator. (St. Je- 
rome) .... 

End of the Acts of the Apostles 

First 'Persecution of Christians 

Gessius Florus, procurator 

Jewish War begins 

Destruction of Jerusalem, Temple 

burnt on Friday, 9 Ab 
Fall of Masada . 
Second Persecution. Latest coin of 

Agrippa .... 
Third Persecution 
Sedition of Jews in Cyrene and Egypt 
Fourth Persecution 
Jewish War .... 
Severus sent from Britain to Jud-2Ea 
Fall of Bether. End of War . 



A.D. 

10 
13 

14 
26 

29 
30 

36 



38 
39 
41 

44 

47 



49 



62 
64 

m 

69 
64 
66 
66 

70 

74 

96 
107 
115 
118 
132 
134 
135 



28 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER n. 

HISTORIC SYNCHRONISMS. 

In the preceding chapter the attention of the reader has been 
directed to the sources now accessible for the determination of 
the Chronology of the Bible, as referred to astronomical time. 
It will be of use further, to give some account of the most 
important and instructive synchronisms between the accounts 
given in the Sacred History of those events which are inti- 
mately connected with the history of the surrounding nations, 
and those which are given in the historic monuments of the 
latter. 

By the expression 'Monuments,' when used in a chronological 
sense, is intended in these pages any ancient record which is so 
preserved that no question can arise as to error of transcription. 
It does not, of course, follow that the record is true. But it is 
the case that the most fertile and perplexing cause of error has 
been eliminated. 

Monuments, thus regarded, comprise hieroglyphics, or 
graven inscriptions, on stone, marble, or baked clay; coins; 
and papyri. The stelm in Egyptian temples ; the rock inscrip- 
tions of Behistan ; the Kosetta Stone, which may be seen in the 
British Museum ; the sepulchral papyri, and other relics of 
this ancient and imperishable material, such as the Turin 
papyrus, which first threw clear light on the dynasties of Ma- 
netho, and the magnificent Harris papyrus 133 feet long, which 
has been reproduced mfac-simUe by the order of the Trustees of 
the British Museum ; the basalt and other inscribed stdm and 
cylinders of Syiian and Assyrian kings ; the clay tablets, contain- 
ing contracts, almanacks, syllabaries, and other matter in cunei- 



HISTORIC SYNCHRONISMS. , ., 29 

form script, to the store of wbicli each year makes such important 
additions ; all come under this designation. So also does that long 
series of Jewish coins, extending from the verj* morrow of the 
return from Babylon to the extinction of the Jewish kingdom 
on the death of Agrippa II., which have in the following pages 
been arranged in accordance with the full information to be 
collected from Hebrew writers, alike as to sacred or secular cha- 
racter, as to weight, and as to date. 

The earliest positive date that has yet been recovered by 
Assyrian scholars is that of the capture of Erech by Kudur 
Nan Nundi, king of Elam, An. Sac. ^580. This city occupies a 
site, now known by the name of Warka, on the eastern bank 
of the Euphrates, in between 31° and 32° of north latitude. It 
is mentioned in the Book of Grenesis as one of the capitals of 
Nimrod. The date in question is nineteen years before that of 
the birth of the patriarch Abiuham, and is of value as showing 
the extent, at that early time, of the power of the kings of 
Elam, of which, a century later, we have a notice in the Book 
of Grenesis (14. s). 

It also affords some confirmation of the accuracy of the dates 
of Berosus, as recorded by Syncellus, which place the accession 
of the 2nd, or Medic, dynasty of kings at Babylon in An. Sac. 
2575 ; an epoch which is just ten years before the death of the 
patriarch Terah, in Haran, after his departure with Abram his 
son from Ur of the Chaldeans. The chief importance of these 
dates, as regards Scripture history, is the verification which they 
afford of that early distribution of power in the Western part 
of Asia, as to which no information whatever, except the re- 
ferences in the Book of Genesis, was possessed by modem stu- 
dents, before the commencement of the study of cuneiform 
writing. It is to be hoped that we are only at the commence- 
ment of the recovery of the early history of Assyria and of 
Elam. 

The migration of the patriarch Abraham brings his history 
into relation with that of Egypt. About the year An. Sac. 
2211 (according to Brugsch) the 12th dynasty of Theban kings 
of Egypt came to a close. The old empire, which according 



30 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

to Eratosthenes had then lasted for 1,076 years, was succeeded 
by two collateral and hostile dynasties; one of them the 13th 
Theban line ; while the other was a foreign and invading race of 
sovereigns, who established their capital in the lower Egyptian 
town of Sakhan, or Blhasan, called by the Greeks Xois. This 
dynasty, together with the succeeding dynasty of the Hyksos or 
Shepherd Kings, whose capital was at San, or Tanis, in Lower 
Egypt (the Zoan of the Old Testament), divided the rule of the 
country with the Theban kings of the 13th, 15th, and 16th 
dynasties, for a period extending over rather more than 900 
years. The relations of . Abraham, of Jacob, and of Joseph 
with Egyptian history, and the rise of the * new king over Egypt 
which knew not Joseph,' (Exod. 1. s) are rendered more intel- 
ligible by the accordance of the chronology of the Philistine, 
or foreign, kings of the Delta, with the dates of these early 
patriarchs ; and by the knowledge of the establishment, about 
An. Sac. 3104, of the great 18th dynasty at Thebes, which 
finally expelled the Hyksos, and placed the diadems of Upper 
and of Low^r Egypt upon the same brow. 

Of the reign of the Hyksos Eusebius writes : — (Horwm tem- 
pore ut imperaret Egyptum Josephua apparuit. The dates of 
some of these kings are cited by Josephus ^ from the Egyptian 
historian Manetho. But the most valuable recoi*d concerning 
this time which has yet been discovered, the Turin papyrus, is 
much dilapidated at this part. We can only compare the dates 
of the sale of Joseph into Egypt (An. Sac. 2816), and of his 
death (An. Sao. 2909), with the fact of the contemporary rule of 
the Shepherd kings (whether they were, as Josephus says, 
Phoenicians, or more probably Philistines) in Lower Egypt, and 
note the rise and aggrandisement of the great 18th dynasty, 
and the final expulsion of the Hyksos, as recorded in the 
monuments, about 300 years after the date of the death of Joseph. 

With the 18th dynasty, however, we come into clearer 
historic light. Thothmes the Second, who died on or about 
An. Sac. 3183 (which year is the date of the birth of Aaron),| 
was succeeded on the throne by his sister Hatasout, one of the 

' Cont. Apion, 1. u. 



HISTORIC SYNCHRONISMS. 31 

greatest sovereigns ever known in Egypt. She reigned under 
the title of King Ma-ka-ra. The splendour of her reign is yet 
attested by the remnants of her noble temples and other sculp- 
tured and inscribed works. On one of these, the memorial ef^gy 
of her architect, Semnut, is engraved the inscription * Nen kem 
em an apu.' * * There were not found in writing his ancestors.' 
The synchronism which points out that, in the year of the birth 
of Moses, it was the duty of this magnificent princess to per- 
form the sacred rites connected with the annual rise of the Nile, 
gives a force and beauty to the 2nd chapter of Exodus which 
have hitherto been entirely obscured. We have not here the 
case of an unnamed princess, furtively protecting one of the 
victims of her father's law. The * Bath Pharaoh ' was herself 
supreme. The word translated 'wash herself is stated by 
Gesenius properly only to refer to sacred rites. The bringing 
up of the babe by the queen, and his instruction in * all the 
wisdom of the Egyptians,' were not only matters of sovereign 
order, but were thoroughly consistent with the character of the 
princess. 

The remarkable chapter of Josephus (2 Ant. 10), which de- 
scribes the conduct of the Ethiopian war by Moses, is no less 
accordant with the records of the monuments. Queen Hatasout 
was succeeded by her brother Thothmes the Thii*d, who in the 
earlier part of his reign was associated with his sister on the 
throne. The date of her death is not quite clear ; but that of 
Thothmes III. was in or about An. Sac. 3231, at the close of a 
period, including the joint and the single reigns, of 64 years. 
The temples built and adorned by these great sovereigns are 
full of records of wars in different parts of Asia and of Africa, 
and Nubians are represented as bringing tribute. The account 
given by Josephus, which is not found in the present Canon of 
the Pentateuch, may be regarded as a chapter of Egyptian 
history during the reign of Hatai^ut or of her brother, written 
from the Jewish point of view. 

The dates of this dynasty are not yet so precisely fixed as to 
enable us to determine whether the flight of Moses from Egypt 

^ Bmgsch's Egypt under the Phara4>hi, vol. i. p. 303. 



32 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

occurred before or after the death of Thothmes III. That some 
expectation was entertained, as Josephus states, of the adoption 
of Moses by the childless queen, and even of his succession to tiie 
throne of Egypt, is in full accordance with much of the course of 
Egyptian history. No less probable is the conclusion that he was 
regarded with jealousy by the royal family ; although the ac- 
knowledgment of the regal dignity of Thothmes III. must have 
taken place while the prince, as well as the prophet, was of 
comparatively tender years. The length of the reign of Amen- 
ophis II., the successor of Thothmes III., is as yet undetermined. 
But in An. Sac. 3265 (which a comparison of the characteriBtics 
of the plagues with the revolution of the Egyptian year indi- 
cates as the most probable date of the return of Moses to Egypt), 
the throne of Egypt was filled by Amenophis III., who suc- 
ceeded Thothmes IV. in or about An. Sac. 3264. This king, 
whose great victories in Nubia and the Soudan are commemo- 
rated on the monuments, is represented by the most famous 
portrait-statue in the world, that of the vocal Memnon, which 
is, although seated, 70 English feet in height. He is termed on 
the monuments the * Tamer of the Syrian Shepherds,' and * the 
Pacificator of Egypt' — terms in which the courtly scribes of 
Egypt have probably given their own account of the Exodus. 
The 'Armenian Chronicle,' written at a time when chronological 
research, as we now regard it, was unknown, says of this prince, 
* Hujus cetate Moysea Judceorum Egypto egreaaus dux fuit* 
The often-described tomb of Roschscere, which gives such a 
vivid representation of the toil of a Semitic people in brick- 
making, under the eye and the rod of Egyptian officers, dates 
in the reign of Thothmes IV. The reign of Amenophis III., 
according to Brugsch, extended over 35 years, terminating about 
30 years after the Exodus. It must be observed, that the Pen- 
tateuch does not state that Pharaoh himself was drowned with 
his host ; and that, had such a signal disaster occurred, it could 
not have failed to be distinctly celebrated by the triumphant 
Israelites. 

The next important Egyptian event closely connected with 
the history of Palestine is the expedition of Eamses II. to the 



HISTORIC SYNCHRONISMS. 33 

banks of the Orontes, in his war against the King of Khita, 
which is represented, in sculpture as well as in hieroglyphic 
text, on the walls of the Temples of Abydos and Karnak. 
* Wonderfully rich,' says Brugsch, * is the great battle picture, 
which represents the fight of the chariots before Kadesh, on the 
banks of the Orontes.' The date which, according to Brugsch, 
is about An. Sac. 3449, falls during the reign of that Jabin, 
king of Canaan, who ' had nine hundred chariots of iron, and 
twenty years he mightily oppressed the Children of Israel * 
(Jud. 4. 3). Three years later King Kamses took the fortress 
of Ascalon. Further precision is desirable as to the details of 
the Egyptian, as well as of the Israelitish, record. But it is 
somewhat explanatory of the victory of ten thousand untrained 
men over a captain such as Sisera is described to have been, to 
learn how the power of the great northern Syrian king had 
been shattered by a conflict, just about the date of Barak's rule 
as Judge, with the warlike power of Egypt. 

With the reign of Solomon, and of his son and successor, 
we arrive at another important synchronism with Egyptian 
history. The Biblical chronology gives the date. An. Sac. 3799, 
as that of the accession of Solomon. Within twenty years of 
this date (or at least within twenty years from the commence- 
ment of the building of the Temple in the 4th year of Solo- 
mon), that king had married a daughter of Pharaoh, and had 
been put in possession of the Canaanite city of Gezer, a capture 
of the King of Egypt. Prom An. Sac. 3700 to An. Sac. 3830, 
as nearly as the dates are ascertaineil, the 21st Egyptian 
dynasty, a priestly family which had succeeded the Bamessid 
line, was reigning both at Thebes and at Tanis. Little has 
been yet recovered of the chronicles of this dynasty, but there 
is mention made of war with the King of Assyria ; and there is 
a remarkable ordinance engraved on a pylone in the Temple of 
Amon, at 'K^.mitkj relating to the restoration to a princess Kar* 
am-at, or Mat-ke-ra, of her hereditary possessions in the South 
Country. But at a date which Brugsch approximately fixes 
as An. Sac. 3830, Shashank I., the son of an Assyrian sove- 
reign named Nemaruth or Nimrod, became master of ]ISgypt, 

D 



34 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

and commenced the twenty-second dynasty of Egyptian kings. 
This change of dynasty may explain the change of relation 
between the kings of Judsea and of Egypt, which is indicated by 
the support given by the latter, whose name is given in the Bible 
as Shishak (1 Kings 11. 40), to a fugitive from the former. On 
the death of Solomon, An. Sac. 3839, the division of the Kingdom 
of Israel was followed by an invasion of the country left under 
the rule of the house of David by Shashank. This occurred, 
according to the 1st Book of Kings (14. 26) in the 5th year 
of Behoboam (An. Sac. 3844). On the south external wall of 
the Temple of Amon at Thebes, is a representation of ^ the 
colossal image of the Egyptian Sovereign dealing the heavy 
blows of his victorious club on the captive Jews.' The reign of 
Shashank is approximately dated by Brugsch as extending from 
An. Sac. 3830 to An. Sac. 3851, in his earlier work, and to 
An. Sac. 3863 in his latest volume. 

The next period in which important light is thrown on the 
details of Sacred History by synchronous monumental dates is 
that which includes the fall of Samaria. 

Among the difficulties which have retarded the complete 
interpretation of the ctmeiform records, not the least formidable 
are those which concern the variable value of certain groups of 
expressions. In his 'Expos6 des Elements de la Grammaire 
Assyrietme,' M. Joachim Menant remarks, ^ The signs which 
express complete syllabic values may express several values. 
Thus, for example, the same sign may be read kal, rip, dan, or 
lip. These signs are essentially polyphones.' In other cases, 
unlike signs express the same value. These M. Menant calls 
homophones. ' Thus the expression An-sur-ut indicates an 
ideographic group composed of the signs An, sur, ut, but which 
must not be so articulated. It is known to have been pro- 
nounced Mar-duk.' This extraordinary anomaly may with 
great probability be explained by the hypothesis, that when an 
expression, whether originally phonetic or ideographic, was once 
applied to a country, nation, or dynasty, it was not varied in 
consequence of political changes. It may be doubted whether 
a dynastic name was always maintained, and pronounced in the 



mSTORIC SYNCHRONISMS. 35 

same manner, as in the case of the titles Pharaoh and Abime- 
lecb, or whether the same ideograph was differently pronounced, 
as in the names Omri, Jehu, Pekah, each sovereign being denoted 
by the same group of characters. But when we find on the 
cylinders of Sargon the expression which has been read ' Beth 
Omri ' (or House of Ahab), it is certain that the kingdom, or 
king, of Israel is intended, and that the same term was applied 
to the dynasties of Ahab and Jehu, as well as to the succeed- 
ing usurpers, or kings by right of the sword. 

Bearing this caution in mind, the coincidences of the Scrip- 
tures and the cuneiform records are accurate. The black obe- 
lisk of Shalmaneser II., who acceded An. Sac. 3959, records 
the defeat of the forces of South Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and 
Palestine, at Aroer ; and mentions the king of Israel under an 
ideograph which has been read as * Ahab of Jezreel.* Between 
the coronation of Joash, king of Judah, in the Sabbatic year 
3940, and the death of Jehu, king of Israel, An. Sac. 3961, no 
details of Sacred History are given in the Books of Kings. But 
the oppression of Israel by Hazael and Benhadad, kings of 
Syria, during the reign of Jehoahaz, son of Jehu, is referred to in 
the 2nd Book of Kings, as well as the deliverance from the hand 
of the Syrians (2 Kings 13. 5). In An. Sac. 3969, the Assy- 
rian record mentions a war with Hazael, king of Syria, and 
the receipt of tribute from the King of Israel. After the death 
of Hazael the 2nd Book of Kings records the recovery from 
Henhadad of the cities which had been taken by the former 
king of Syria. 

Early in the reign of TJzziah, who acceded in An. Sac. 4009, 
we find victories of that king mentioned over the Philistines 
and the Arabians (2 Chron. 26. e-s). The prominence of either 
oi the two sister and rival kingdoms of the Hebrews co- 
incides, as a general rule, with the depression of the other. 
Thus in An. Sac. 4015, or the 6th year of Uz2dah, we find in 
the Assyrian records an account of an invasion of Syria and 
North Palestine, and of the subjection of Maribah of Damascus. 
Again, in An. Sac. 4038, the 11th year of Shalmaneser III., 
the Assyrians were ixx Damascus and Hadrach, and a tribute is 

2> 2 



36 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

mentioned &om the King of Israel. The recovery of Damascus 
and Bjamath for Israel by Jeroboam the Second, is in all pro- 
bability connected with what the cuneiform records describe as 
the payment of tribute by the King of Israel to the Ass3n:ian 
monarch. It. may be hoped that further discoveries will clear 
up the vexed question of date (very probably indicating an in- 
terr^num) which has as yet been unsolved. (Cf. 2 Kings 14. 
23 and 15. 8.) 

There can be little hesitation in admitting that the verse of 
the Book of Kiiigs which mentions Pul (2 Kings 15. 19) should 
be read * Pul came from the king of Assyria/ or ' the king of 
Assyria sent Pul.' Shalmaneser III. was succeeded, An. Sac. 
4039, by Ashur-dan-an ; Ashur-anir succeeded him. An. Sac. 
4057; and was followed by Tiglath-pileser II. in An. Sac. 
4065. ^ Despatches have been found written by an Assyrian 
officer who bore the name of Pul.^ ^ The change of a single 
letter in tfhe Hebrew text is enough to bring this verse into 
exact accordance witii the monumental records, which mention 
the presence of the Assyrians in Hamath and Arpad, An. Sac. 
4055, which was three years before the death of Menahem, who 
paid tribute through the hands of Pul. 

Tiglath-pileser II. (as well as Shalmaneser lY.) is named in 
the 2nd Book of Kings (15. 29). From the cuneiform records 
we learn that the Assyrian forces were in Syria, Philistia, and 
Damascus in the 3rd, 11th, 13th, and 23rd years of the 
reign of Tiglath-pileser, and that in the last of these years that 
king defeated Besin, king of Syria, and received tribute from 
Yahu Hazi, king of Israel, in which form it is easy to recognize 
the name of Ahaz. This was in An. Sac. 4078, the year foUow- 
ing the accession of Ahaz. The siege of Jerusalem by Besin, 
and Pekah king of Israel ; the application of Ahaz for aid to 
Tiglath-pileser; the capture of Damascus, and slaughter of 
Besin by the latter; and the meeting of the two kings at 
Damascus, are mentioned in the same book. (2 Kings 16. 

5-10.) 

During the reign of Hezekiah the synchronisms between 

* Aityrian DUooveries, p. 448. 



HISTOEIC SYNCHRONISMS. 37 

the Sacred and the profane records assume extreme importance; 
The Bible date of the accession of Hezekiah is An. Sac. 4095. 
The 1st year of Sennacherib, according to the Eponym list^ 
coincided with An. Sac. 4105. Bearing in mind the possible 
difference in. the convmencement of the Sacred and the regnal 
years, the 14th year of Hezekiah coincides witii the 3rd 
year of Sennacherib. The cylinders of Sennacherib give an 
account of the third campaign of that king, in which he sub- 
jected the- kings of Palestine, took Askelon, and deposed Padi,. 
king of Ekron, and in which the army of Egypt and Ethiopia 
advanced into Judah. The portion of the history containing the 
defeat of the Egyptians has not yet been recovered ; but the text 
contains an account of the siege of Jerusalem, the capture of 
the cities of Judah,. and the payment of tribute by Hezekiah ta 
Sennacherib. The exact dates will, it is to be hoped, be here- 
after recovCTed. The 4th year of Sennacherib, An* Sac. 4108,. 
was a Sabbatic year, according to the septennial cycle ; and' the 
completion of the Assyrian chronicle will show whether the 
year in which the land of Judah remained untilled from fear of 
the invaders was the one preceding or following ihat in which it 
was left untilled in consonance with the Jewish' law. (2 Kings 
19. 29.) 

The date of the capture of Samaria, and the overthrow of 
the kingdom of Israel, as to which the present text of the Books 
of Kings is not clear, wiE probably be exactly determined by 
the complete recovery of the records of Shalmaneser IV. The 
difficulty at present existing is as to the date of the accession of 
Hoshea, which is stated in one passage (2 Kings 15. so) as oc- 
curring * in the twentieth year of Jotham the- son- of TJzziah ; ' 
and in another (2 Kings 17. l) ' in the twelfth year of Ahaz.' 
Jotham only reigned for sixteen years (2 Kings 15. 33) ; but 
the twentieth year from his accession, which was An. Sac. 4081^ 
is ei^t years earlier than the 12th year of Ahaz. It is how- 
ever oonsiBtent with the twenty years' reign of Pekah (2 Kings 
15- 27). The capture of certain places in the kingdbm of Israel 
by Tiglath'pileser is mentioned in the 2nd Book of Kings, and the 
conquest of Pekah, and the appointment of Hoshea to the king- 



I 



38 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

dom by Tiglath-pileser, are named in the inscriptions of that 
monarch.^ These statements all agree, and are in accordance 
with the account of the capture of Samaria by Shalmaneser FV. 
or his successor, in the dth year of Hoshea, which, according 
to their reckoning, was An. Sac. 4089, being the 7th year of 
Shalmaneser. The only difficulty is the reference in a subse- 
quent chapter (2 Kings 18. lo) to the 9th year of Hoshea 
as synchronous with the 6th year of Hezekiah, An. Sac. 4099, 
which fell, not in the reign of Shalmaneser, but in that of his 
successor Sargon. The perplexity as to choice is not between 
the Sacred and the cuneiform record, but between the two state- 
ments in the former, which the full recovery of the latter may 
probably explain. There can be no doubt that Samaria was 
taken by Shalmaneser, An. Sac. 4089. Whether it was subse- 
quently retaken by Sargon is not known. No mention of 
Samaria has been found in the octagonal cylinder, which con- 
tains a long text of the history of the reigk of Sargon.^ But 
in his ninth expedition (which Mr. George Smith dates as 
An. Sao. 4099), that monarch besieged and captured Ashdod, 
and received tribute from *the people of Philistia, Judah, Edom, 
and Moab.* This record gives the historic explanation of the 
reference to the capture of Ashdod in the Book of Isaiah 
<20. l). 

The references to Su, king of Egypt (called So, in the Eng- 
lish version, Sua by St. Jerome, and S^or by the LXX., 
2 Kings 17. 4), to Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia (2 Kings 19. 
9), to Phai-aoh Hophi-a, king of Egypt (Jeremiah 44. so), 
and to Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt (2 Kings 23. 34), are 
all illustrated by the recovery of the names of these kings in 
the monumental records : although the detailed chronology 
of the period has not as yet been recovered with precision. 
The 23rd dynasty of Egyptian kings, reigning at Thebes and 
at Tanis, the 24th dynasty, reigning at Sais and Memphis, and 
the 25th, or Ethiopian, djmasty, the kings of which are spoken 
of first as sovereigns of Ethiopia, and then as kings of Egypt, 
are not yet absolutely fixed as to date. But the regnal years 

* Assyrian Discoveries^ p. 285. « Ibid, p. 288. 



HISTORIC SYNCHRONISMS. 39 

of the kings of the 26th dynasty, i*eigning at Sais, are abso- 
lutely verified by the inscriptions on the stelcB recording the 
deaths of the sacred BuUs. The second king of this dynasty, 
Neku, reigned, according to Brugsch, from An. Sac. 4198 to 
An. Sac. 45^14. The latter year, the 4th year of Jehoiachim, 
son of Josiah, king of Judah, is given by the prophet Jere- 
miah (46. 2) as the date of the overthrow of Pharaoh Necho 
by Nebuchadnezzar at the battle of Carchemish ; and an ab- 
solute synchronism of cardinal importance is thus established 
between the Sacred Kecord and the monumental hieroglyphics 
of Egypt. 

The three Ethiopian kings who constituted the 25th dynasty 
are called by modem Egyptian scholars Sabakhon or Shabak, 
Sebechos or Sethos, and Tarkos or Tirhakah. The recovery 
of their regnal dates, first as reigning in Ethiopia, and then as 
kings of Egypt, must be awaited before it is possible exactly to 
date the Scriptural references to So and to Tirhakah. Of the 
conflict of the latter king with the Assyrian power, a long and 
detailed account is given on a cylinder of Ashurbanipal, the 
successor of Esarhaddon. It may be consulted in ^ Assyrian 
Discoveries,* and occupies a period of time, during which the 
Sacred Eecords are unusually silent, containing the disastrous 
reign of Manasseh. The date ascertained by Mr. Greorge Smith 
for the close of the reign of Ashurbanipal coincides with the 
1st year of Nabopolassar, according to the Regal Canon. The 
accord of the Babylonian, Assyrian, and Egyptian dates with 
those of the Sacred History is here found to be exact and 
absolute. 

In his third expedition Ashurbanipal besieged and took 
Tyre, after having conquered Egypt, and twice taken Thebes, in 
his first and second campaigns. The fourth expedition of this 
king was against the east of Assyria. The fifth, seventh, and 
eighth were against Elam or Susiana ; and the ninth against 
Arabia. There is no account on this cylinder of the captivity 
of Manajsseh. But the details given are those of the campaigns 
personally conducted by the monarchy while the capture of 
Manasseh is said in the 2nd Book of Chronicles to have been 



40 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

made by ^ the captains of the king of Assyria.' Further details 
may be confidently expected from the researches still in progress. 

' The accounts of the double capture of Thebes by Assur- 
banipal/ Mr. Philip Smith remarks, ' are of singular interest 
for the light they throw on the striking allusion to its fate 
in Nahum (3. 8-10) which had no known historical counter- 
part till the discovery of these records.* * It should be added, 
that this discovery shows that the date assigned by Josephus 
(9 Ant. 11. 3) to the prophecy of Nahum, as being 115 years 
before the fall of Nineveh, is erroneous. Thebes was taken by 
Ashurbanipal in his first, and again in his second, expedition.^ 
The dates have not yet been exactly referred to the years of 
the king, but they are posterior to An. Sac. 4142. The date of 
the fall of Nineveh is not absolutely fixed. The attack made 
on it by Cyaxares and his allies was in An. Sac. 4177, according 
to the dates collected from Herodotus, and the capture. An. 
Sac. 4206, according to one calculation, and An. Sac. 4185 
according to another. The earlier year is that of the accession 
of Nabopolassar, and the later that of Nebuchadnezzar. One 
hundred and fifteen years from the earlier date falls on the 9th 
year of the reign of Jotham, which is in accordance with the 
measure of time given by Josephus for the period from that 
king's reign to the destruction of Nineveh. But the reference 
to the destruction of Thebes as a past and well-known event 
cannot have been written until seventy years later than the 
date ascribed to the Book of Nahum on the authority of this 
passage of the Antiquities. 

The period of the seventy years of servitude to the IHrig of 
Babylon, which has involved so much controversy, and with 
reference to which an absolutely incorrect statement is made by 
Josephus, is made perfectly clear by the restoration of the true 
chronology. The year An. Sac. 4215, being the year after the 
battle of Carchemish, was the first year of the supremacy of 
Nebuchadnezzar in Palestine. Jehoiachim submitted to the 
king of Babylon for three years (2 Kings 24. 3) and then rebelled, 

' History of Egypt under th^ PJiaraohs, vol. ii. p. 266, 
*-' Assyrian Discoveries, pp. 323-328. 



HISTORIC SYNCHRONISMS. 41 

which brings us to An. Sac. 4219. Seventy years was the 
period named by Jeremiah for the servitude to the king of 
Babylon (25. ll). In the second year of Darius, An. Sac. 
4289, the indignation is said to have lasted threescore and ten 
years (Zech. 1. 12). The synchronism between the two records 
is perfect. 

One fiuTther illustration of the importance of astronomical 
exactitude may be given. In the fourth month of the fifth 
year of the Galuth, from the twelfth day (Ezek. 1. 1 ; 3. le), 
Ezekiel was laid under a prophetic sequestration for 430 days. 
On the fiffch day of the sixth month, in the following year, he 
* sat in his house ' (Ezek. 8. l). The interval of time was 407 
days, being 23 days too short a period for the accomplish- 
ment of the first command, if the year had been an ordinary one. 
The discrepancy vanishes when it is observed that the year 
4227 was Embolismic, or consisting of thirteen months, so that 
four days elapsed between the close of the period intimated and 
the date of the succeeding vision. 



42 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



TABLE IV. 

THE DYNASTIES OF EGYPT. 

Ahh'eviated from Isambert's ' ItinSraire de L^Orientf the Dates being 

taken from Bitigsch. 



An. Sac. 
365 

608 

910 

1124 

1153 
1216 
1345 
1408 

1606 

1809 
1809 



1955 
1998 



2211 



Mene3 founds Meuthjs, and the First DrNASTT, of eigpht 

IdnfTS, rei^s for 253 years. 
Second Dynasty, reigning at THnas, or This, 302 years 

(Abtdos), nine kings. 
TMrd DynastYj reigning at Memphis, 214 years, nine 

named kings. 
Fourth Dynasty, reigning at Memphis, 284 years, eight 

kings, including : 

2. SoirpHis, or Ohbops. 

3. SoiTPHis n., or Osfhren. 

4. MsNKABA, or Mtcebinbs. 

Fifth Dynasty J reigning at Elbphaijtine, 198 years, nine 

kings. 
Sixth Dynasty, reigning at Memphis, 203 years, ten kings 

and Queen NrTOCRis. 
Seventh Dynasty, lasted only seventy days. 
Eighth Dynasty, reigning at Memphis, 146 years, sixteen 

kings. 
Ninth Dynasty, collateral, reigning at Hebacleopolis, 

100 years. 
Tenth Dynasty, collateral, reigning at nsBACLBOPOLis, 

185 years. 
Eleventh Dynasty, reigning at Thebes, 43 years. 
Twelfth Dynasty, reigning at Thebes, 213 years, of whom 

the fourth king, Sesostris, conquered Ethiopia, the fifth, 

built the Labyrinth, and ^e sixth, made Lake Moeris. 
Thirteenth Dynasty, reigning at Thebes, 453 years, sixty 

kings, eight named Sebek Hotep. 
Fourteenth Dynasty, collateral, reigning at Xois, 484 

years, seventy-six longs, under the last kings of which 

line the Htksos founded a reign of 511 years. 



THE DYNASTIES OF EGYPT. 



43 



Table IV. — continued. 



An. Sac. 

I 2664 
2914 

2695 



3104 
3161 

3231 

3264 
3346 



3622 



3700 
3830 



4000 



4144 
4198 
4214 
4219 
4238 
4282 



Fifteenth DYNASTYf reigning at Thsbes, 260 years. 

Sixteenth DynastYj reigning at Thsbbs, 190 years, five 
kings. 

Seventeenth Dynasty, Htksos, reigning at Tanis, 611 
years, forty-three kings. In the time of these kings, 
according to Eusehiusj Joseph ruled in EexPT. 

SECOND PERIOD.— NEW MONARCHY. 

Eighteenth Dynasty, reigning at Thsbes, 242 years, nine 
kings. 

"Thothmss U. 4th king. 

Queen Ha-ta-sit, or ELltasotjt. 

Thothmes III. Expels Hyksos, 3206. 

Amsnophis II. 

Thothmes IV. 

Amsnophis III. 
Nineteenth Dynasty, reigning at Thebes, 176 years. 

Ramessit I. 

Seti I. 

Ramessit II. Miamttn. 

Menepthah. 

Seven Kings. 
Twentieth Dynasty, reigning at Thebes, 178 years, twelve 
kings. All but the 7th called Ramessit. 

DECLINE OF MONARCHY. 

Twenty-first Dynasty, reigning at Tanis, 130 years. 
Twenty-second Dynasty, reigning at Bttbastis, 170 years. 

Sesonkhosis, Shashank, or Shishak. 

And five kings. 
Twenty-third Dynasty, reigning at Tanis, 89 years. 
Twenty-fourth Dynasty, collateral, reigning at Sais. 
Twenty-fifth Dynasty, — Ethiopian (not fied) : 

Sabaehon. 

Sebekhos. 

Takkos. 
Twenty-sixth Dynasty, reigning at Sais. 

psamtbk i. 

Nbcho. 

psamtbe u. 

OXTAPHBIS (HoPHRA). 

Aahmes. 
psamtek iii. 



44 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Table IV,—eantinned, 



An. Sac. 






Twenty-seventh Dynasty. — Pbksian Ji i ngs : 


4283 


Kambat (Cambyses), 


4289 


Ntakious (Darius). ' , 


4324 


Khesach (Xerxes). 


4345 


Aktakhbrches {Artaxerxes). 


4385 


Khesach II. (Xerxes?). 




S0GT)TAT«^U8. 


4386 


Dakius Nothfs. 


— 


Twenty-eighth Dynasty. 




Amxktjbvs. 


4411 


Twenty-ninth Dy NASTY , reigning at Mejides, four kings. 


4432 


Thirtieth Dynasty, reigning at SEBBinrrrus, three kings. 


— 


Thirty-first Dynasty. Persian. 
Ociius. 


4470 


4472 


Arses. 


4474 


Daritjs III. 


4478 


Conquest by Alexaitoer the Great. 



THE BEGAL CANON. 



45 



TABLE V. 

PTOLEMY'S OANON OF KINGS. 

{From the Almagest : Trandatian.) 



OF THE ASSYRIANS AND MEBES. 



1 Nabonassar 

2 Nadius 

3 Ohozirus and Porus 

4 Jongaius 

5 Mardocempadus .... 

6 Arkianus 

7 First interregnum. 

8 Belibus 

9 ApronadiuB 

10 Kigelwliis 

11 Messimordakus .... 

12 Second Interregnum 

13 ABsaradinus 

14 SaoBducMnus .... 

15 Ohuniladinus .... 

16 Nabopolasaar 

17 NaboKolaasar .... 

18 Eouarodamus .... 

19 Nirikassolassar .... 

20 Nabonadius 

OF THE PERSIANS. 

21 Cyrus 

22 Oambyses 

23 Darius I 

24 Xerxes 

25 AitizeizesL .... 



Yean 
14 

2 
5 
5 

12 
5 
2 
3 
6 
1 
4 
8 

13 

20 

22 

21 

43 
2 
4 

17 



Sum. 

14 

16 

21 

26 

38 

43 

45 

48 

54 

65 

59 

67 

80 

100 

122 

143 

186 

188 

192 

209 



9 


218 


8 


226 


36 


262 


21 


283 


41 


324 



46 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Tablb v. — continued. 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Darius II. . 

Artaxerxes II. 

OchuB .... 

Arogus 

Darius III. . 

Alexander of Macedon . 



Yean 

19 
46 
21 

2 

4 

8 



Sum. 

343 
389 
410 
412 
416 
424 



YEARS OF THE KINGS AFTER THE DEATH OF 

ALEXANDER. 



1 
2 



Philip, after Alexander the Founder 
Alexander Aigos 



7 
12 



7 
19 



KINGS OF THE GREEKS IN EGYPT. 



3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Ptolemy Lagus . 

PhiladelphuB 
Euergetes I. 
Philopater 
Epiphanes 
Pnilometor 
Euergetes II. 
Soter 
Dionysius 

Cleopatra 






20 


39 


38 


77 


25 


102 


17 


119 


24 


143 


35 


178 


29 


207 


36 


243 


29 


272 


22 


294 




KINGS OF THE ROMANS. 



Augustus 
Tiberius 
Oaius . 
Claudius 
Nero . 
Vespasian 
Titus . 
Domitian 
Nerva . 
Trajan. 
Adnan 
Antoninus 



43 
22 

4 
14 
14 
10 

3 
15 

1 

19 
21 
23 



End of Ccmon. 



THE GREEK KINGS OF ASIA. 



47 



TABLE VL 

J)YNASTY OF THE SELEUOIDJE, OR GREEK KINGS 

OF ASIA. - 



.An. Sac. 

4498 

4528 
4647 
4562 
4580 
4585 
4622 
4634 
4646 
4648 
4657 
4664 
4665 
4669 
4672 
4678 
4682 
4684 
4696 
4714 
4721 
4723 

4727 
4741 



Seleucus Nicator^ acceded 23 JIt/perberetceu8 

26 September 
Antiochus (I.) Soter 
Antiochus (11.) Theos 
Seleacus (II.) Kallinicus . 
Seleucus (III.) Keraunius 
Antiochus (III.) Megnas 
Seleucus (IV.) Philopater 
Antiochus (IV*) Epiphanes 
Antiochus (V.) Eupator . 
Demetrius, son of Seleucus 
Alexander Balas 
Demetrius (II.) Nicanor . 
Antiochus (VI.)> ^on of Alexander Balas 
Tryphon .... 
Antiochus (VII.) Sidetes 
Demetrius — restored 
Alexander Sebina . 
Antiochus (VIH.) Gryphus 
Antiochus (IX.) Oyzenicus 
Seleucus (VI.) Gryphus 
Antiochus (X.) Eusebus 
Philip 
Demetrius 
Tigranes . 
Lucullus defeats Tigranes 



B.C. 

312 
282 
263 
248 
230 
225" 
188 
176 
164 
162 
153 
146 
145 
141 
138 
132 
128 
126 
114 
96 
89 
87 

83 
49 



JEnd of Sdeucid Monarchy y after 244 years* 



48 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLR 






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GENEALOGY OF THE PBINOES OF TBIBES. 



49 



O 



3 <j N 



'S 






a fg I I :? t^-g 




•< W OQ 



3 

! 

a 

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00 

a 

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< ^z; S3 W o H8 <t{ 



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^ pq p^ < PQ p cS 



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el 
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00 (Q 



-B-§-;a-a-|-:3-§--2-g-2-§-^-i-1 



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50 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE.' 



TABLE VIIL 
HIGH PKEBSTS OF THE JEWS. 



An. Sac. 


Number 




3270 


1 


Aaron, 

1 


mar. 


Eleasar. Itha 


3317 


2 


Phineas I. 




3883 


3 


Abishua. 




— 


4 


Biikki. 






6 


Uzzi. 






6 


Zerahiah. 




— 


VII. 


Joatluun. 






8 


Meraioth. 






9 


Amariah. 




3679 


10 


Eli. 


3719 


11 


Phineas IT. 


— 


12 


Ahitab. 




13 


Aliiah. 

I 


3803 


XTV. 


1 
Zadoo. Abiatbar. 




15 


Ahimaaz. 


— 


16 


Azariah I. 




17 


Johaxman. 




18 


Azariah 11. 




19 


Amariah. 




20 


Ahitub n. 


3962 


XXI. 


Jeliolada. 




22 


Zechariah. 


— 


23 


Zadoc II. 


>^ 


24 


Zechariah II. 


— 


26 


Azariah III. 


— 


2« 


Urijah. 


— 


27 


Azariah IV. 


— 


XXVIII. 


Zddo. (Odeas). (10 Ant. 8. 6,^ 


— — 


29 


Shullum. 




30 


Hilkiah. 


._ 


31 


Azariah V. 


— 


32 


Serfuah. 





HIGH PRIESTS OF TEE JEWS. 



51 



Table VUL — coTitimted, 



us. 


Number 

33 

34 

XXXV. 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
XTJV. 
45 
46 
47 
4dv 


Josedec. 
Joshua. 
Joiaklm,. 

Kliw^liib. 
Joiada. 

Jonathan.. 11 Ant. T. 8. 
Jaddua (brother of Manasseh. 11 Ant. 8.. 5) 
Onias I. 11 Ant. 8. 7. 
( Simon (the Just). 
i Eleaflar. 

Manasseh (unde of Eleasai). 
OaiM n^ 
Simon II. 
Onias HI. 
Jason. 

Menelaus (Onias). 

JEnd of First Line, 414 YeavB frwii Seraiah, 
(20 Ant 10. 1.) 


7 


49 


AJcimus. 4650. 


7 

r 

2 
3 

I 
) 

> 


L. 
61 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 


(Jonatban IX. 

: Simon III. The Ethnarch. 
Johannan II. (Hyrcanus). 
Judah. (Anstobulus)'. 
Jonathan HI. (Alexander I.) 

(Hyrcanus H.) 
Mattathias.. (Antigonus). 

(Aristobulus IH.). 
JEnd of Second Line, of {Eight) Hereditary 
High Priests. 


JH PRIESTS NOMINATED BY IDUMEAN KINGS OR 
BY ROMAN GOVERNORS. 


) 
3 
i 
3 

3 
i 

3 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Ananelus. 
Jesus ben Phabi. 
Simon ben Boethus* 
Matthias ben Theophilus.. 
Joazar ben Boethus. 
Eleasar ben Boethus, 
Jesus ben Sie. 
Annas ben Seth. 
Ismael ben Phabi. 

Eleasar ben Annas. . 
e2 



48 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLR 






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(<j ;S M 




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GENEALOGY OF THE PBINOES OF TBIBES. 



49 



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o 



® o 









<t{ fS cS -< W en 



9 

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03 

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50 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE.' 



TABLE VIIL 
HIGH PRIESTS OF THE JEWS. 



An. Sac. 


Number 




3270 


1 


Aaron, 

1 




Eleasar. Ithamar. 


3317 


2 


Phineas I. 




3883 


3 


Abishua. 




~— 


4 


Biikki. 




— 


6 


Uzzi. 






6 


Zerahiah. 






VII. 


Joatliaiii. 






8 


Meraioth. 






9 


Amariah. 




3679 


10 


Eli. 


3719 


11 


Phineas II. 


— 


12 


Ahitub. 


— 


13 


Ahiah. 
1 


3803 


XIV. 


1 
Zadoo. Abiatbar. 


— — 


15 


Ahimaaz. 




16 


Azariah I. I 




17 


Johaxman. ^ 


~— 


18 


Azariah 11. 


— 


19 


Amariah. 


~— 


20 


Ahitub n. 


3962 


XXI. 


Jeboiada. 




22 


Zechariah. 




23 


Zadoc IT. 


i.^ 


24 


Zechariah II. 




26 


Azariah III. 


— 


26 


Urijah. 




27 


Azariah FV. 




XXVIII. 


Zddo. (Odeas). (10 Ant. 8. 6^3 


— _ 


29 


ShuUum. 


.^_ 


30 


Hilkiah. 


._— 


31 


Azariah V. 


— 


32 


Seraiah. 





HieH FBIESTS OF THE JEWS. 



51 



Table VUL — continued. 



An. Sac 


Nnmber 






33 


Josedec. 


— 


34 


Joshua. 




xx?cv. 


Joiaklm,. 


_— 


36 


Eliasliib. 




37 


Jbiada. 




38 


Jonathan. 11 Ant. 7. 8. 


— 


39 


Jaddua (brother of Manasseh. 11 Ant. 8.. 5) 




40 


Ouafl I. 11 Ant. 8. 7. 




41 


( Simon (the Just). 




42 


I Eleasar. 


— 


43 


Manasseh (uncle of Eleasar). 




XTIV. 


OBias ZZ^ 




46 


Simon II. 


^— 


46 


(Oniaslll. 




47 


Jason. 


— 


4dv 


IMenelans (Onias). 


~ 




JEnd of Mrst Liney 414 Yean from Seraiah. 
(20 Ant 10. 1.) 


4647 


49 


Alcimus. 4660. 


4667 


L. 


(Jonatban ZZ. 

\ Simon III. The Ethnarch. 


4667 


61 


4672 


62 


Johannan II. (Hyrcanus). 


4706 


63 


Judah. (Aristobulus)'. 


— 


64 


Jonathan HI. (Alexander I.) 


4741 


66 


(HjreaniiR II.) 


4770 


66 


Mattathias.. (Antigonus). 


— 


67 


(Aristobulus III.). 


4776 




End of Second lAnCy of (Eight) Hereditary 






High Priests. 


HIGH 


PKIESTS } 


DOMINATED BY IDUMBAN KINGS OR 




B^ 


r ROMAN GOVERNORS. 


4.776 


1 


Ananelus. 


4.786 


2 


Jesus ben Phabi. 


^604 


3 


Simon ben Boethus. 


-^806 


4 


Matthias ben Theophilus. 


4^09 


6 


Joazar ben Boethus. 


- 


6 


Eleasar ben Boethus. 


-4816 


7 


Jesus ben Sie. 


^«24 


8 


Annas ben Seth. 




9 


Ismael ben Phabi. 


^^33 


10 


Eleasar ben Annas. 
e2 



52 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Table yni,'--eontmued. 



An. Sac. 


Number 




4836 


11 


Simon ben Oamitlms. 


4845 


12 


Joseph Oaiaplias. 


4847 


13 


Jonathan ben Annas. 


4866- 


14 


Theophilus ben Annas. 


— 


3 


Simon ben Boethus (again). 


— 


16 


Matthias ben Annas. 




16 


Alioneus. 


4867 


17 


Joseph ben Oamithus. 


4860 


18 


Ananias ben Nebedeus. 


4864 


19 


Jonathan. 




9 


Ismael ben Phabi (again). 


4871 


20 


Joseph Oabi. 


— 


21 


Annas ben Annas. 




22 


Jesus ben Damilus. 


4872 


23 


Jesus ben Gamaliel. 




24 


Matthias ben Theophilus. 


4879 


26 


Phannias ben Samuel. 






JEnd of the High Priegts, 
A substitute for the High Priest was ap- 
pointed on the Day of A tonement, probably 










in the year of the Nativity. (17 Ant. 6. 4.) 



EmOS Of TSRilgT. ASB JUDAH. 



TABLE IX 
KINGS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH. 



/ais^ 


^r^ 


ber 


^ 




1 


3759 




2 


3709 




3 


5839 

ma 


-^ 


4 
5 


3859 




6 


3860 




- 


3881 




- 


.3886 




- 


S88B 


2 




3800 
3918 


e 

6 


7 


3919 
3936 

■ 8933 


7 
6 
7 


8 
9 



8bu1 . 

DBTld 

Saiomon 
Ahijah 



feG.li . 



Abab. 
Jebosapbat | 

I ( Ahnziah 



1061 
1011 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBIA 
Tablb IX.—emUin.'ued. 



An, Sue. 


^ 


bor 


Kfag. 


B.C. 


_ 


_ 


__. 


Uu. . . . 


_ 


39S4 


1 


— 


JthaUaA 1 


876 


3340 


7 


10 


JoU 


870 


3963 


2 




1 Jehoahaz . . 


847 


3978 


3 




1 _ Jehoasli . 


832 


3080 


5 


11 




830 


3994 


5 






816 


4009 


e 




UMiah . . 


801 


4035 


4 






Ten yenri not cetmied 


775 


4046 


1 


— 




Zacharinb . 


764 


4047 


2 


_ 




Sb°QUiim . 


763 


— 


- 


- 






- 


4058 


6 


_ 




PaLahiai . 


763 


4060 


] 


_ 




Kkah . . . 


750 


4061 


2 


13 


Jotham 


749 


4077 


4 


14 


Aliaz ... 


783 


40»1 






1 Soshea . . . 


729 


4089 






FaU of Samaria. 


731 


4093 


6 


15 


nezekiah 


717 


4122 


1 


Iti 




688 


4177 


6 


17 


Amon 


633 


4179 


1 


18 


JoanU 


631 


4310 


4 


19 


Jehoahae 


60O 


4311 


6 


20 


JoboiBchim 


59» 


4222 


2 


21 




58» 






32 


Zedekiah '.'.'.'.'.'. 




^33 


6 


- 


End of line of Damd, after 47i t/eari . 


67r 


H 


ASMO 


flEAN LINF, OF SAOEEDOTAL ORIGE 


s. 


4705 


2 


1 




lOES. 


4706 


3 


2 


Alexander Janneus .... 


101=- 


4732 


1 


3 


Aleximdra 


7»- 


4741 


3 


3 




6^ 


4770 


4 


4 


ADCigwnus 


4(^ 


- 


_ 


— 







EINOS OF ISRAEL AND JITDAH. 



55 



Table IX. — oontirmed. 
IDUMEAN LINE. FOKEIGN ORIGIN. 



Kings 



Year of 
Week 


Num- 
ber 


7 


1 


6 


2 


3 


3 


2 


4 


5 


— 



Herod the Great 

Herod H. (Archelaus) 
Herod III. Agrippa . 



A|^ppa n. 

End of Idumean Line, 
years 



after 



131 




!. — During 1676 years, from the Exodus to the Fall of Bether, 
tiirty Kings and two Queens reigned for 670 years. 



66 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE METROLOGY OP THE BIBLE. 

The entire system of measures used in the Bible was founded 
upon the average size of certain defined natural objects taken 
from either the animal or the vegetable kingdom. That such was, 
indeed, the general origin of units of measxu^ment, is evident 
from the names still used in different languages, such as grain, 
foot, pouce, palmay pes, and the like. But the exactitude with 
which the Jew was bound to carry out the positive enactments 
of the Law was such as to render necessary for him a more ' 
precise determination of the quantities of water, of oil, of meal, 
and of other substances, as well as a more exact measurement 
of distance, than was usual among contemporary nations. The 
indications of the relations of these definite measurements are 
very widely scattered through the Bible and through different 
tracts of the Mishna; but by exhaustive researches it has 
proved to be possible to recover almost the whole system of 
Hebrew weights and measures. 

The question may arise, in taking such units as the average 
weight of a full grain of barley, the size of an ordinary hen's 
egg, or the length of the human fore-arm (which form three of 
the units of the Hebrew system of weights and measures), how 
far the average size of these objects may have differed, three or 
four thousand years ago, from any that can now be ascertained. 
This difficulty, however, is met by the consideration that the 
mutual relations of dimensions of weight, of length, and of 
capacity are so closely connected, that any change in the average 
length, for example, of a barleycorn, would be detected when 
the same object was used as a unit of weight, because while the 



METROLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 67 

length increases simply, the corresponding weight increases as 
the cube of the length. Thus a correspondence, once fixed, can 
never be lost. 

It must be remembered, indeed, that such accuracy as we 
are now accustomed to attach to the process of measurement is 
entirely of modem growth. The precision attained by the Jews, 
the Egyptians, or any other ancient people, was limited, in a 
considerable degree, by their methods of writing numbers, which 
were rude and simple. The value of place in arithmetic was 
unknown until comparatively modem times. Nor were the 
purposes for which extreme accuracy is now required known in 
the early times described in the Bible. Our chief need of ex- 
treme accuracy as to weight is for the purposes of chemical 
analysis, and of the preparations of prescriptions requiring 
minute portions of very powerful agents. The Jews had no 
such requirements, medical study being discouraged among them, 
and any remedies referred to in their literature being of the 
simplest kind. The next need for accuracy, practically speaking, 
is as to monetary weight. And even here the accuracy required 
was not more than to require that a coin, in order to be legal 
tender, should not have lost the sixth part of its full weight. 
Thus, in reconstructing the tables of Hebrew measures and 
weights we are able to arrive at a degree of precision very far 
superior to that with which we can suppose that the ordinary 
implements for measuring, in any manner, were made in ancient 
times. The Egyptian cubit, in eight different specimens, 
collected by Sir Grardner Wilkinson, varies by more than half 
an inch, no two of the eight being exactly commensurate. 

Li/near Measure. 

The unit of linear measure among the Hebrews was the 
Ameh, or cubit. This was equal to the fourth part of the 
height of a man, or the length of the fore-arm, from the elbow 
to the end of the longest finger. The cubit was divided into six 
palms, and the palm into four finger breadths. The finger 
breadth, we learn from the tract Sopherim, was equal to the 
length of two barleycorns laid endways, or to the width of 



48 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLR 






< 

Q 



W 
P 



o 







Benjamin 


m ^ o 


1 


Gideon 
Uzza 

Abihud 

1 


• 




Joseph 


1 

Ephraim 

Beriah 

Eephah 


1 


Telah 
Tahan 

Laadan 

1 






Judah 

1 


1 
Phares 

Hezron 

Jerahmeel 


-i 


Shamai 

Nadab 

Appaim 








Gershom 

Lioni 

Janath 
1 


"1' 


Joah 
Idclo 

Zerah 

1 




o 

08 

(-8 


— « 


— o — S — o- 

M e M 




Elhanan 
Ebiasaph 

1 


Abrabam 

Isaac 

1 


Esau 

1 


i 


S ^ «, oB 


4^ 


^ <^ o^ • 


^1 

4^ 



GENEALOGY OF THE PRINCES OF TRIBES. 



49 



5 < IS 



•S - ^ o 0? ^ ^ 




08 







o 



• ^ ■ -O Q 



P^ ;^ H 



OS 

3-2-3 

1 QQ "< 



•3 






I 'S 



•c 

OS 



<1 5z; S3 W O H^ <J 



■5 a 

oe g 

— '^ — a 



^ I 2 - •'^ 
« .2 .9 3 -s ^ 



<D — 3 — !S — ':; — 






^ H Ah < PQ P t3 



5 3 1^ 

H Pq CQ QQ 



^ ;^ <: 




-et 
A 



o 
o 

et 
M 



-5 © 
S3 P 






03 

OQ 



I 



g t^ g ^ a s ^ fc ^ a 




a 

H 




CO 
00 

CO 
CO 

• 

O 







05 


a> 


00 


(M 


pH 


t* 


GO 


00 



E 



60 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

has a remarkable simplicity, although when not rightly re- 
garded it has led to error. Thus the verse (Levit. 27. 16), *an 
homer of barley sold at fifty shekels of silver/ which in the 
LXX. reads, 'a kor of barley,' St. Jerome translates, ^land 
sown with thirty modii of barley.' Taking the moditia as the 
translation of the seah, the meaning of the text is thus clearly 
given by the Vulgate. The price is qxiite inapplicable to such a 
quantity of seed com ; but it is appro|Hiate for the annual re- 
turn of a kor of land sown with a kor of barley. In the Book 
of Isaiah (5. lo) the homer of land is referred to as yielding 
only an epha of com, being at the rate of about two gallons 
per acre, or one-tenth of the seed actually sown. The word 
Zemeed, a yoke, occurs in a sense corresponding to the Latin 
jtigum (1 Sam. 14. 14 ; Isa. 5. lo), and is taken to occupy the 
same place in the table of area that is filled by the ^ha in that 
of cubic capacity. A corresponding word, the Feddan, or yoke, 
is used at the present day in Syria, but it contams from 28 to 
40 acres, according to the richness of the soil. 

References to the same system are found in the Book of 
Ezekiel. The measurement of the wall (which was afterwards 
called the Druphax) between the court of the Sanctuary and 
the Chel, is there stated at 500 cubits in length and 500 in" 
width. The tract Middoth states that these dimensions were 
followed by the rebuilders of the Temple. The space enclosed 
is 100 seaim, or fifty times the size of the court of the Tabernacle. 
Again, the Ti'umah, or holy portion of the land, which was 
directed, in the 45th chapter of the same book, to be set apart 
around the 100 seaim of the Sanctuary, was to be 25,000 cubits 
square, divided into three portions (Ezek. 45. 1,3, 6). It was 
thus 250 times the size of the Sanctuary, containing 83,333 
kori of land, or about 275,000 English acres, allotted to the 
priests (v. 4), the Levites {v. 5), and the city (v. 6). This is 
equal to about one-fifteenth part of the area of Palestine, west 
of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. 



METKOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 61 

Measures of Capacity, 

The unit of measures of capacity among the Hebrews was 
the Log ; a measure equal to the contents of six ordinary eggs 
of the domestic hen. Maimonides, in his comment on the tr^t 
Peah (cap. 8. m. 5) expresses the equivalent of this measure as 
four digits, by four digits, by two and seven-tenths digits. But 
he defines the digit here used as being the width of the thumb 
of the hand ; and it is not thus possible to discover the exact 
cubic capacity intended. The Jewish digit of two barleycorns 
gives two small, and the English inch (or p(mce) of three 
barleycorns, gives too large, a result. We are thus led, first to 
estimate the contents of an ordinary hen's egg, and then to 
verify the result by references to the weights attributed by the 
Jewish doctors to definite quantities of known substances. 

The average result of a large series of measurements of the 
eggs of the ordinary hen gives four cubic inches of contents. It 
is very rare to find a^ ^g exceed this capacity by as much as 
five per cent. The log, holding the contents of six eggs, will 
contain on this reckoning 24 cubic inches. Babbi David, the 
sixth from Maimonides, states that the weight of an Anphak, or 
quarter of a log, of water, was 25 drachmae. This is equal to 
the weight of 6,000 grains for a log. Twenty-four cubic inches 
of distilled water, at the temperature of 62° Fahrenheit, weigh 
6,060 grains, which is within one per cent, of the determination 
of Habbi David. This is far within the range of aocuraxjy with 
which a measure of capacity could have been constructed by 
the Jews. 

There is, therefore, not only an extreme convenience in the 
adoption of this exact unit for the measure of capacity used in 
the Bible, but there is, further, a confirmation afforded by the 
above, calculation of the identity of the barleycorn of the 
Hebrew tables with the English long measure barleycorn, and 
the Troy grain. It will be seen that the Bath, an important 
liquid measure, is identical with the English cubic foot. 

The dose correspondence that exists between the Jewish 
TTin and the English gallon^ and the Jewish Seah and the 



i 



62 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

English peck, cannot fail to strike the obseryer. The contents 
of our measures of capacity, as now fixed by Act of Parliament, 
have not been scientifically referred to the imit of linear mea- 
sure. Had that been done, the correepondence of the above- 
named measures would no doubt have been exact It is in the 
highest d^ree improbable that such coincidences should not 
denote a common source. The difference between our own 
measures and the ancient French measures show that it was not 
from Graul that our own were derived. Nor do our measures 
agree with those of Italy or of Germany. The influence o£ the 
Phoenicians may be traced in Spain and in Italy, in the weight 
of the ducat, or silver unit of commerce. Over the whole of 
Europe a Phoenician or Assyrian weight is still used by the 
jeweller, namely, the carat, by which precious stones are weighed. 
There need thus be no surprise excited by the identification of 
the length and weight of the English and the Aramaic barley- 
corn. 

The measures of capacity r^erred to in the Bible will be 
found in the accompanying Table. To the measures thus tabu- 
lated may be added the following, which are found in the 
Talmud : — 

The Kortob equals one sixty-fourth of a log. 
The Toman „ one half „ 

• The Tarcab „ one half of a seah. 

The Letek „ five baths; j " ^ ^^ f«^«^ «« 

L an ass s load. 

The Chitzboh „ nine cabs. 

The capacity of the vessel used for drawing water in the ser- 
vice of the Temple, at the Feast of Tabernacles, was 3 logs. 

The contents of the Tabaliah or bath, required for the 
purpose of purificatian by total immersion, was 40 seaim, or 
81-54 gallons. 

The quantity of water reqxiisite for the purification of the 
hands, before meat, or before and after touching the roll of the 
Law (as to which the earliest authority cited in the Mishna is 
that of Rabbi Jose, a.d. 120 to 140), was an anphak or quarter 
of a log. 



METROLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 63 

Greek measures named in the Bible, and not coincident with 
Hebrew measures, are : — 

The Metretes (John 2. 6), which held 10-32 gallons. 
The Choenix (Rev. 6. 6), „ 1454 pint. 

The epha is frequently spoken of as *the three measures.' 
In Genesis 18. 6, three seaim is the term in the Hebrew ; and 
in both accounts of the parable of the leaven (Matt. 13. 33; 
liuke 13. 9l), three aata is fbund in the Greek. The prohibition 
in Deuteronomy (25. u) is against keeping a large and a 
small epha. The measures of the consumption of the household 
of Solomon (1 Elings 4. 22, and 5. ll) were kori of com and 
baths of oil. The size of the trench dug round the altar of 
Elijah (1 Kings 18. 32) was denoted by seaim. The measures 
named in the parable of the unjust steward (Luke 16. 6) are baths 
and kori. The word modios is used by each of the three 
Evangelists, in the proverbial expression as to not hiding the 
light. The word is no doubt used as the best Greek equiva- 
lent of seah, and peck is a more correct translation than 
bushel. The Latin modius held about one-tenth more than the 
seah. 

Measures of Weight, 

The unit of weight used by the Jews was identical with 
that of the Phoenicians, which was also that of the Assyrians, 
forming part of a system entirely different from that of the 
Egyptians. As silver became employed as the measure of value, 
a weight, a shekel of silver, called in Aramaic a tekel, was 
adopted as a convenient unit; and thus in course of time, each 
weight being distinguished by a stamp, was laid the basis of the 
coinage. 

Under the Jewish kings, we learn from Maimonides ^ the 
Shekel, weight, or unit of silver money, weighed 320 grains 
of barley, which we have seen to be equivalent to grains 
troy. The shekel was divided and subdivided by 2, by 3, 
and by 5, and was multiplied, or carried to account, in the 

> Co-ngtittitianes de SioUs, 1. 3. 



I 



64 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Maneh, mina, or pound; which for different purposes, was 
differently reckoned (Ezek. 45. 12) and in the Ciccar, which has 
been translated talent, which weighed 3,000 shekels, or 166*6 
pounds troy. 

The determination of the weight of the shekel given by 
Maimonides is verified in a very satisfactory manner by the 
existence of the weights from Nineveh, which are now in the 
British Museum. Some of these are in the form of a lion; 
others in that of a duck. Some bear Phoenician, or Aramean, 
others cuneiform inscriptions. As in the case of the dimen- 
sions given in the Talmud, there are two systems of these 
weights, one containing exactly the double of the other; so 
that in using the word * maneh ' it would be requisite to add 
whether it was a maneh of shekels, or of half-shekels, that was 
intended. In both systems 60 manehs go to the ciccar, and 50 
shekels, or 50 bekas, to the maneh. The lion weight which is 
in the best preservation, is marked * 30 manehs,' and now 
actually weighs 233,309 troy grains,^ which is within 3 per cent 
of the full weight of 1,500 shekels, or 240,000 troy grains. 
Considering the great antiquity of the weights, the coincidence 
is remarkably accurate. 

It would probably be more correct to speak of the maneh as 
containing, in each of the above cases, 100 bekas, or half-shekels, 
or 100 zuzas, or quarter-shekels, than 50 whole, or 50 half 
units. In his Commentary on the tract Keritoth, which 
enumerates, in its first Mishna, the 36 capital crimes punished 
with death by the Jewish law, Maimonides describes minutely 
the confection of the holy incense; the unlawful mixing of 
which forms the 33rd of these crimes. In this account he dis- 
tinctly specifies the mina employed as containing 100 dinars ; 
each dinar weighing 6 drachmae; and each drachma, 16 grains 
of barley. The mina thus determined weighs 9,600 grains troy, 
or the hundredth part of the larger ciccar, and a decimal 
arrangement is thus given which adds much elegance to the 
entire Chaldean system. 

After the return from Babylon, Maimonides (Shekalim 5. 6 

1 Madden's JewUh Comaget p. 266. 



METROLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 65 

and 11. 4) states tliat the selah, or selang, which contained 384 
grains, was substituted for the original shekel, of 320 grains, 
being an addition of one fifbh to the weight. The object of 
this change may be conjectured to be the necessity of adapting 
the value of the Jewish coins to that of the money of the 
Persian kings, which had legal currency throughout their 
dominions. Although the old terms were at times applied to 
this heavier currency, others special to its designation occur 
in the Talmud. Thus the half of a selah shekel is called the 
Tebha ; ^ and the 20th part of the selah is called not the Gera but 
the Asper, a word of Greek origin, the exact value of which 
Maimonides says had escaped him, but which is supplied by 
Bartenora.^ The words Assarion and Pondion are transliterations 
of the Latin As and Pondus into Aramaic. The Bigia, or Stater, 
is the Aramaic word for the Hebrew Poles, and is the equi- 
valent of the tridraohm, or three-quarters of the shekel,^ 
The Garmes, another Aramaic word, is mentioned by the same 
writers as equal to the twelfbh part of the shekel. The Maa, 
or Meah, is another Aiamaic word for the 20th part of the 
shekel. It is translated oboltia, and given by Babbi Solomon as 
the equivalent of the Hebrew gera, or agora. As the terms 
which denote weight also denote value, it is impossible altogether 
to separate the two subjects of enquiry. But it is evident that 
in the Hebrew system we have none other than that which was 
common to Assyria as well as to Phoenicia, and that the means 
existed of both a decimal computation of larger quantities, and a 
duodecimal division coming down to extremely minute fractions. 
The relation between the number of gi'ains in the shekel and 
the number of troy grains in a carat form a part of this very 
minute, but perfectly intelligible, system of weights. 

Measures of Value, 

The introduction, or at all events the first general use, of 
what we und.erstand by the expression coined money appears 

» Maimonides in Swlis, 2. 1. ■ Manser Sheni 2. 9. 

■ Buxtorffi sub voce. 
F 



i 



66 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

to have occurred during the period of time covered by the 
Pentateuch. In a tomb at Thebes, which is referred to the 
time of Thothmes III., a little before the Exodus, is a r^re- 
sentation of the weighing of rings of gold or silver against 
weights in the form of animals, resembhng the Assyrian 
weights in the British Museum. Sir Gardner Wilkinson, in 
his work on * The Ancient Egyptians,' states that this, same 
form of ring money is used to the present day in Senaar. That 
coined money was known to the Jews at the time of the insti- 
tution of the Law is inferred by the Mishnio doctors from the 
precept (Deut. 14. 25) to carry the value of the second tithe 
to Jerusalem ; as the use of uncoined money for the purpose is 
forbidden by the oral law (Maaser Sheni 1. 4). The money 
which is here mentioned as unfit is the Pvlsa (Sabbath fo. 
65 a), which was in the form of what we should now call 
'blanks,' pieces in the shape and size of coin, but with no 
impress. The Aaemon was a yet ruder form, consisting of mere 
pieces of bullion. It was also forbidden to pay the Temple 
tax of the half-shekel otherwise than in the appropriate coins of 
pure silver; and the tables of the receivers of this tax were set 
annually on the 15th day of Adar in the provinces, and on the 
25th day of Adar in the court of the Temple, to provide the 
legal coin for the jprescribed payment on the 1st of Nisan. 
Those who were unprovided with the half-shekel or half-stater 
had to pay a kalbon, or agio, to the money changers, of about 
the weight in silver of our present silver penny. 

The most ancient name for a piece, or a sum, of money that 
occurs in the Bible (Job 42. 2 ; Gen. 33. 19 ; Josh. 24. 32) is the 
Kesita. The meaning of this word had been lost by the time of the 
Evangelists. Fi'om its resemblance to a word meaning * lamb,' 
the kesita has been supposed to have some connection with 
the ancient weights in the form of animals (as pecunia has been 
connected with pecua). Kabbi Akiba says in the Talmud 
(Bosh Hashanah 3. 26) that he had heard the name applied to 
a piece of money in Africa. Another obsolete word, agora, 
which occurs in the 2nd Book of Samuel (2. 36) is thought 
by Gresenius to be an old form of the word gera. 



METROLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 67 

No example of aaiy Jewish money of date earlier than the 
!)aptivity is known to exist. Coins purporting to be of an 
earlier date occur ; but the use of square Hebrew letters on the 
ield proves that they are forgeries. A certain variation may be 
iraced historically in the shapes of the Aramaic letters which 
ure found on the real Hebrew coins^ especially in the Aleph 
md in the Yod. The existence of homa in the letter Cheth is 
» be remarked in the earliest types of this writing, as for 
jxample on the Diban Stone, on the Assyrian lion weights, 
md on the inscription of Esmunazar, king of Sidon. The 
brm of the Shin varies from that of a W to that of the small 
jieek om^a, the latter appearing in some of the earliest and 
n some of the latest examples. The termination of the straight 
imbs of the letters by a dot is a fashion that prevailed in some 
»i8es. This mode of finish may be also observed on certain 
jrreek coins, especially on the tetradrachm& of Ptolemy V. and 
VI,, and mtay thus be regarded as a mark of date. It is not 
tbund on either the earliest or the latest dated Hebrew coins. 

The earliest known Hebrew coin is one which we have 
figured (Plate I. ^. 1). It is a copper coin, now in the 
Cabinet du Roi at Paris, bearing on the obverse the sacred 
seven-branched palm tree, around which are scattered the letters 
ivhich form the words * Eliashib the Priest.' They are irregu- 
arly disposed, but not more so than is the case with the letters 
m. some other coins. The form of the lett^s is ardiaic ; dif- 
Bring considerably from the latest dated type of Aramaic^ as 
ound on the coins of Antigonus. A closely similar coin bears 
tie l^end ' Eleasar the Priest,' also disposed on the field on 
iiiher side of the palm tree, but written from left to right. 
Tlie reverses of these two coins are almost identical. Each 
^»r8 a bunch of grapes, and the words ' Shanath Achath 
-•igulath,' * year one — ^for redemption.' The coin of Eleasar also 
taw the word ' Isral.' Silver coins of Eleasar the priest also 
^sdst in which the name is writt^i from right to lefb round a 
^ah, lecythuBy or cenochoe. One of these has the same reverse 
i^ the copper coin. The other bears the word * shemo ' (money), 
"Within a wreath. The only High priest who exercised supreme 

F 2 



4 



68 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

power and who bore the name of Eleasar, after the son of 

Aaron, was the brother and successor of Simon the Just. The 

attempt to attribute these coins to either of the two Herodian. 

High priests, Eleasar the son of Boethus, or Eleasar the son of 

Annas, each 'Of whom held the office of pontiff for only a few 

months (the first being appointed and deposed by Archelaus, 

17 Ant 13. 1, and the second by Valerius Gratus), or to the 

robber Eleasar, who was not a High priest at all, do not call for 

serious consideration. Coins of the dates in question exist 

The types are Greek. Those of Archelaus are not dated, but 

there is a coin of Valerius Gratus the procurator, dated on the 

very year of the pontificate of Bleasar the son of Annas, which, 

moreover, did not fall on the first year of a week. Another 

coin of the same type as the copper coins of Eliashib and 

Eleasar bears letters which ai'e barely legible ; but of which a 

Gheth, a Lamed, and a Yod can be found in the name of no 

sovereign or High priest, except those of Hilkiah and of 

Alcimus. A second Gheth, and a Gimel, also occur — possibly 

indicating thie words * gadol ' (great), and * kheber ' (chief), or 

master^ which alh^o occur on other coins. But the Hebrew 

equivalent of the name of Alcimus is unknown, and this coIa 

must await further elucidation. 

In the 170th year of the Seleucidae (An. Sac. 4667) accord- 
ing to the 1st Book of Maccabees (14. 41 ) the yoke of the 
Gentiles was removed from Israel. This, however, was after a 
submission of only twenty-seven years, Antiochus Epiphanes 
having taken Jerusalem, without fighting. An. Sac. 4640. In 
the latter year Simon assumed the title of High priest, General, 
^nd Chief. About four years later, Antiochus, the son of De- 
metrius, wrote to Simon as ' High Priest and Ethnarch,' and 
acknowledged his right to issue money with his own komma, 
or stamp, in his country. The word 'ethnarch ' is probably most 
faithfully translated into Hebrew by the word Nasi, which is 
common to the Hebrew and the Aramaic dialects, and may be 
rendered prince. In exact accordance with this statement, we 
find coins bearing the legend * Simon Nasi Isral' — Simon, 
Prince (of) Israel. The title of Nasi, in later years, was appUed 



METROLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 69 

to the President of the Sanhedrin, an office which Simon held 
together with the pontificate, and which is probably intended 
by the Hegoumenoa of the text cited. This word is* the 
equivalent of Kheber, or chief, which we find on some of 
the Hasmonean coins, such as those of Judah, Jonatiian, and 
Mattathias, eadi of whom is staled ' High Priest and Chief of 
the Jews.' It will be observed that thefee sovereigns continued 
the use of the title borne by Simon before he was addressed by 
Antiochus as Ethnarch^ 

Coins bearing the name of Simon (independently of those 
which bear the word Shemo, or money) are so numerous in 
proportion to the whole extant coinage, that there seems to be 
no reason for attributing to Simon III. any that do -not bear his 
assumed titles. One specimen (Plate I.) so closely resembles the 
coins of Eliashib in the irregular distribution of the letters on 
the field, that it may probably be with propriety assigned to* 
Simon the Just. Another type bears the vessel called legah,.or 
lecythus, found on some of the- coins of Eleasar; and thus may 
naturally be attributed to Simon II., the broUier of the last- 
named famous pontiff. 

From the time of Simon IIL there is a r^ular sequence 

)f Jewish coins (with the omission only of those of Hyrcanus I. 

vnd of Aristobulus II.), down tO' the death of Agrippa II. 

^ohannan II. or Hyrcanus, and Jehuda, otherwise called Aristo- 

ulus I., are only known to have struck Aramaic coins. The 

ext sovereign introduced the bilinguaL coinage. His coins 

^ the names ^Jehonathan the High Priest' in Aramaic, 

id 'Alexander Basileus,' in Greek, letters. The coiits of 

leen Alexandra, of Alexander II., and of Antigonus, are also 

ingual. 

Greek letters alone were used by Herod the Great, and the 

)ther princes of his house whose coins are known. With 

Ippa II, a pagan type became prevalent ; and a portrait oh 

?oin is thought to be that of Agrippa himself; although the 

m' of the reigning Boman emperor is usually found on 

noney. 

number of specimens of Jewish money exist, which ^ow 



70 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBIE, 

ancient Aramaic types, strack on Roman Denarii or otiher 
•coins, as late as the time of Trajan. Some obscurity attaches to 
these <;oins, which are generally thought to have been re-issued 
during one or other of the great revolts of the Jews. It is, 
however, very remarkable that none of the bilingual or Greek 
coins appear to have been reproduced in this way ; so that if 
these were really struck on behalf of the national defence, the 
object of those who coined them must have been to lead the 
enthusiasm of their followers to dwell on the triumphs of the 
reign of Simon the Ethnarch, or on the earlier memories of 
Jewish independence. 

A peculiar type of Jewish coin, which bears no name of 
High priest or sovereign, was struck probably for the payment 
of the annual poll-tax, which was exacted under pain of exci- 
sion, or cutting oiff from the nation. The provisions of the Law 
are detailed with great minuteness in the tcact Shekalim of 
the Mishna. Each Israelite was bound to offer a silver half- 
shekel ; and if two men proposed to offer a single shekel be- 
tween them, a small additional charge was imposed on them by 
the official money changers, who were appointed in order to 
furnish the proper coins to those who required them. The 
terms of the Law are precise (Exod. 30. 13), demanding half a 
shekel of the * shekel hakodesh,' or sacred money. Of this money, 
which is marked on one side * Shekel Isral,* or * Half Shekel ; ' 
and on the other, ^ Jerusalem Hakodesha,' or ' Kodesha,'' 
numerous examples have been found. (See Plates I.-IV.) They — 
bear on the obverse a kos or goblet, and ©n the reverse a triple*^ 
flower. They also bear a number {-either 1, 2, 3, or 4), some — 
times following the letter Shin, which stands for Shanah, ^ 
year. By these numbers it was possible to identify the year in J 
which the half-shekel was paid. The first four years of the ^ 
week followed on natural order. The fifth year, in which -» 
the observances corresponded with those of the first, might ^ 
again be denoted by the Shin Aleph, without any fear of mis — 
take ; the sixth year by Shin Gimel, and the seventh year, by^ 
Shin Daleth ; the observances of the third and sixth years amL^ 
those of the fourth and seventh, being similar. A means 



METEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 71 

thiis provided for taking an annual census of the people by the 
enumeration of the half-shekels for the year, when collected in 
the Temple. Into the first of the thirteen money chests in the 
Temple (Shekalim 5. 5) were put the new shekels of the cur- 
rent year. The second chest contained the old shekels, or those 
which remained from a former year. The convenience of show- 
ing by the shekels themselves to which year they belonged is 
obvious, and must have been almost indispensable in order to 
prevent any error on the part of the collector, who had to sepa- 
rate the * first oblation ' from the total mass of money in the 
treasury. 

The number of distinct types of Jewish coin on which no 
name occurs, at the time of the publication of Mr. Madden's 

* Jewish Coinage,' without counting those described as illegible, 
was thirteen, to which the half-shekel of the jeaxihss since 
been added. Of the * Holy Jerusalem,' or * Shekel Isral,' 
money, while the types are permanent, the individual dies have 
been as numerous as the specimens of the coins themselves, no 
two of the coins being identical, although they as closely 
resemble one another as copies made by hand are found to do. 
Five types of copper money, figured on pages 47 and 180 of 

* Jewish Coinage ; and on plates 4 and 10 of * E/echerches sur la 
Numismatique Judaique,' bear the word Zion instead of Jerusa- 
lem, three being Galluth and two Kheruth money, hereafter de- 
scribed. (See Figs. 3-18.) On three of these the Shin takes the 
form of the W, and in three, if not in four, may be observed 
that termination of the straight limbs of certain letters by a dot, 
which is so marked a feature on some of the Greek coins. These 
peculiarities may possibly intimate that the coins in question were 
struck for religious use during the thirty-one years for which 
the Greeks were in possession of the citadel of Akra, or Millo, 
on the northernmost hill, surrounded by the wall of Jerusalem. 
It is, however, tolerably clear from the restoration of the Temple 
services on the 25th Chisleu, An. Sac. 4645, that during great 
part, if not the whole, of the term for which the Greeks 
occupied Akra, the Jews held the southern hill ; which Josephus 
calls the upper market-place, and which was the original citadel 




72 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

of the Judaic kings. And that, while Jerusalem was parClj 
under the yoke of the Gentiles, the sacred coinage may have 
been struck with the name of Zion, as still unprofaned, is quite 
in harmony with the Jewish character. No other explanation 
of this variation of legend has as yet been suggested. 

An extraordinary amoimt of light is thrown on the course 
of the Sacred history by a careful study of the Jewish coinage. 
The exact expressions of the Bible, the Talmud, and the books 
of Josephus, are echoed by their mute but faithful witness. 
As far back as any specimens of coined money can be traced, it 
was the function of the sovereign power, whether that of the king 
or that of the state (as in the Greek cities and republics), to affix 
its signature to the coin, whether by name, by symbol, or by 
portrait. The latter mode of authenticating money was for- 
bidden by the Jewish law ; and it is not until the establishment 
of the Eoman power in Palestine that an ' image ' was added to 
the * superscription ' of any coin current among the Jews. The 
Jerusalem Gremara to the tract Sanhedrin (2. s) speaks of the 
money (monetha) of Saul. The same authority, in commenting 
on the treatise Baba Kama, says that the coins of Jerusalem 
had David and Solomon on one side, and Jerusalem, the Holy 
City, on the other. Bereschith Babba (cap. 39) translates the 
words Shemo (Esther 9. 4), Shem (1 Chron. 14. 17), Shemo 
(Josh. 6. 27), and Shemak (Gen. 12. 2), by the word * coin ' ; 
and whatever authority is due to the explanation, it at least 
proves that this use of the word was familiar to Hebrew 
scholars. The ' shekel hakodesh ' (translated shekel of the 
Sanctuary) is mentioned in Exodus (30. 13), in Numbers 
(3. 47), and in several other passages in the Pentateuch. The 
exact expression occurs on those silver coins which bear no 
name of High priest or king, but sacred symbols, with on the 
one side the words Shekel Isral or weight of Israel, and on 
the other Jerusalem Kodeshah, or Ha Kodeshah, Jerusalem 
Holy, or the Holy. Again, in Leviticus (25. 24), it is pre- 
scribed that a redemption for the land should be granted in 
the 49-50th year. The word there used is Gullah, in pointed 
Hebrew : o a l h without the points. The appearance money^ 



METROLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 73 

• 

or 'oblation of vision' (Exod. 23. 15), is said in the tract 
Peah of the Mishna not to be legally defined as to ii» amount 
in the Pentateuch, though a minimum sum was fixed by 
the Sanhedrin; and the distinction between the selaim or 
silver money of the Maaser Sheni or second tithes, and the 
smaller copper money current at Jerusalem is mentioned in the 
tract Maaser Sheni (2. 9 ; 4. n). That distinct types of coin, 
distinguishing the secular currency, or mercantile silver, from the 
money used for the sacred ofiferings and contributions, are in- 
tended by these expressions, is rendered probable by the recur- 
rence of corresponding words on the coins. On a certain group 
occurs the word loalt, I'ead as Ligullath ; and this is generally 
found in connection with a number* On other coins occur the 
word Kheruth, or L'BIheruth, — a word which, in the treatises 
Succah, Sabbath, and Pesachim of the Talmud is rendered 
* palm branches.' The nearest root has the meaning of * to cut/ 
or * to engrave,' in which sense it is applied to the Tables of the 
Law. Some of these Kheruth coins bear on the reverse the 
word Shemo, not a partial imprass of the word Simon, but 
fairly occupying the field. Besides these inscriptions, pointing 
to a ceremonial use, the coins in question bear sacred emblems. 
The palm tree (Canticles 7. 8) and the vine (Pa. 80. 8) were 
associated, in the language of the Sacred writers, with the 
nation of the Jews. The seven-branched palm, the vine leaf, 
and the cluster of grapes are among the most frequently re- 
peated emblems on the Jewish coins. Again, the services of the 
Temple are illustrated or commemorated by the coins. The 
lulab, or bundle of palm, myrtle, and willow (Levit. 23. 4o), 
and the ethrog, or citron, which, according to the Targums, was 
meant by the word translated * boughs ' in the English version of 
the above passage, were borne at the Feast of Tabernacles by 
every Israelite on each day but the Sabbath. We find them on 
the coins. (See Plate III.) Three ears of barley were required 
for the celebration of the Passover, as referred to in the chapter 
on the Jewish year. We find them on the coins of Agrippa. 
Palm branches were borne on the 1st of Nisan. A single palm 
frond is a not unfrequent symbol. It is even found on the coins 



74 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

of the Procurator Claudius Felix. The sal, or woven basket, in 
which the seven species of first-fruits described in the treatise 
Biccurim of the Talmud, were brought up to the Temple to the 
sound of pipes (Biccurim 3. 3-4), one of which baskets Eling 
Agrippa bore on his shoulder into the court in fulfilment of the 
ritual, is represented, under the seven-branched' palm, on the 
same coin. 

Of the vessels and instruments used in the Sanctuary the 
coins present not a few representations. The Cos, or goblet, - 
which is usually found on the Holy Jerusalem money, is one of 
these, being either a sacrificial bowl, or (as these properly had 
no rests or stands), more probably, the golden cup, which was 
carried daily into the Temple for the cleansing of the golden 
lamp. The ancient vase with a. very large cover (Fig. 3) can 
hardly be mistaken as meant for the Kupha ; a golden covered 
vessel, in which, itself covered with a napkin, the incense for 
the morning and evening oblation was borne daily to the altar. 
The legah, or lecythus, found on the coins of Simon and of 
Eleasar, would be an appropriate representation of the golden 
legah in wliich water was brought from the Fountain of 
Siloam for the ceremony of water pouring in the Temple at 
the Feast of Tabernacles. The two silver trumpets, which per- 
formed so important a part of the Temple ritual, occur on 
other coins. A ^pod, sustaining a thurible, on a coin of 
Herod, may be taken as a rude figuration of the golden altar of 
incense ; and the remarkable object on the obverse of the same 
coin has been supposed to represent the Tzel-tzel, an instru- 
ment of percussion (translated Cymbals in our version) which 
was in daily use in the Temple service. A conventionalized repre- 
sentation of the seven-branched candlestick may possibly be 
meant by a symbol which has sometimes been called an anchor ; 
and it is difficult to suppose that the tetrastyle temple, with its 
lofty doorway that is pourtrayed on a coin (Fig. 16) having the 
lulab and ethrog on the reverse, can be intended- for any other 
than the Holy House. Of the kinnurs, or dtharce, of which 
any number might be used in the choral service of the Temple, 



METEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 75 

there are figures on the coins with three, with five, and with six 
strings. 

When it is observed how permanent has been the weight of 
the ancient unit of Phoenician commerce, the Shekel, it will be- 
come apparent that the type of the * Jerusalem money ' may 
well be of extreme antiquity. Down to 1860 the ducat, though 
rare as a coin, was the unit of account of the currency of Naples. 
The silver coin chiefly used in practice was the piastre, which 
contained 120 of those gromi of which the ducat contained 100. 
The Spanish ducat and piastre were of like value. As six 
Neapolitan ducats are the par value of the English sovereign, 
we have here the exact equivalents of the shekel, containing 320 
troy grains, or 120 diamond carats, and of the selah, containing 
384 troy grains. The introduction of the latter unit into 
Palestine, after the return from Babylon, was no doubt adopted 
in order to bring the silver coinage into due relation with 
the golden daric, darkon, or dram, repeatedly mentioned in the 
Book of Nehemiah. The Eginetan drachm of 100 troy grains 
of silver has gradually been reduced in weight, during a period 
of 2,600 years, by the recoinages eflected by successive sovereigns, 
to the English silver penny of less than eight grains, and to the 
denier, or twelfth part of a sous or solidus, in France and 
Italy. During the whole of this time the commercial unit of 
the ducat has preserved its true mercantile value; and the 
Neapolitan peasant now exchanges the francs, originally intro- 
duced by the revolutionary government of France, for the true 
equivalent in weight of the shekel of the Sanctuary, the age of 
which appears only the moi'e venerable, the more successful is 
our research into the records of Assyria and Babylonia. 

We figure a group of the coins specifically named in the 
Bible. We are indebted to Canon Tristram for the means of 
engraving the silver coin, bearing the legend * Shin Beth Isral,' 
around the two trumpets on the obverse, and the word * Shemo ' 
within a wreath, on the reverse, which is the best specimen 
known of the silver quarter-shekel. The coin itself weighs 64 
grains ; but it is not only much rubbed, but has further lost a 
l>ortion of its weight from being pierced, and worn as an amulet 



76 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

or ornament. The full weight of the denomination would be 
80 troy grains. We have thus a very close representation of 
the fourth part of a shekel of silver (1 Samuel 9. 8) which the 
servant of Saul offered to the man of God ^to tell ns our 
way.' 

Although not a Jewifidi coin, the daric, or darkon of the 
Books of Ezra and Nehemiah, also mentioned in the Talmud, 
is represented (Fig. 20) as being specifically mentioned among 
the offerings made for the service of the Temple ; and ako as 
bearing a distinct and important relation ta the silver coinage 
of the Jews after the return from the Captivity^ as is fully de- 
tailed in the Talmud and in the Commentavy of Maimonides. 
It was a change of precisely the same kind as the substitution 
of the piastre for the ducat. It led, as may be seen by consult- 
ing the great Talmudic Lexicon of Buxtorff under the head 
Kigia, to disputes as to the proper unit of the Temple tax ; the 
priests calling for the half-selah, the people sinking as low in 
their estimate of duty as the quarter-selah^ or denarius. At a 
period not stated, a compromise was effected by the l^alisation 
of the tridrachm, or stater, as the Temple shekel, and of the 
half-stater as the legal tribute. All the silver coins of the * Holy 
Jerusalem' money as yet discovered are^ according to their 
weight, either staters or half-staters. 

We are here enabled, with unusual preciseness, to represent 
the stater mentioned in the Gospel (JVbitt. 17. 27) as provided 
for the payment of the didrachm, or Temple tax. The year in 
question was the second year of the week, and we figure the 
Holy Jerusalem stater for the year 2, which is thus far appro- 
priate. The collectors of the tribute, however, demanded sepa^ 
rate coins for each individual, and the payment of one stater, 
instead of two half-staters, made necessary the addition of a 
kalbon or collybus — a small piece of money of which the value 
was fixed at (Shekalim 1.7) half a silver meah, or 8 grains of 
silver, a coin of which no example is extant. The large brass 
coin which is the only representative known to exist of the 
gera was the equivalent in copper money. 

The thirty pieces of silver paid to Judas Iscariot were no 



METROLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 77 

doubt Temple staters. The drachma, mentioned in the parable 
of the lost piece of silver, is the Greek term for the denarins. 

Although called, in the English translation, by the same 
name of tribute, the money demanded for the census must be 
carefully distinguished from the didrachm, half-stater, or Temple 
tax. The Boman census was established, we are informed by 
Joeephus (18 Ant. 1. l), by the senator Cyrenius, after the 
banishment of Archelaus, when Judna was reduced from a 
kingdom to a province, Cyrenius being at the same time sent 
as the first procurator of Judea. The amount payable per head 
appears, from the Gospel of St. Mark (12. 15), to have been a 
denarius. We figure the silver denarius of Tiberius, bearing 
the image and superscription of that emperor, for the 17th year 
of his tribunate, from a specimen in the British Museum. 
The coins mentioned in the Parables of the labourers in the 
vineyard, and of the good Samaritan, are denarii. 

We add representations of two pieces of money, which, 

though low in commercial value, may be said to be in fame the 

very master-pieces of the mintage of History. This is not the 

place in which to remark on the emotions of gratitude and of 

trust which have been awakened for the last eighteen centuries, 

in so many bosoms, by the thought of the two sparrows sold for 

one feurthing, and yet not forgotten before God, or of the two 

mites of the widow. The word translated * farthing ' in the first 

passage was the assarion or quarter-asper, a common Jewish 

coin, of which the one figured (Plate IV.), bearing the palm 

tree and the olive leaf, and the name of one of the BUgh priests, 

called Simon, now weighs 125 grains troy; the original full 

weight of the coin being about 156 grains. The word 'fai-thing' 

is also used, in the English Kew Testament, as a translation of 

the Greek word hodrans. This, however, as occuiring in the 

same Gospel which mentions the assarion (Matt. 10. 29, cf. 

5. 26) cannot be taken to mean the same coin. It is, there can 

be little doubt, the Kontrinek, or kerdenthes, of the Talmudic 

Writers, which was the fourth part of the Issar or assarion, and 

the sixteenth part of the asper. The half of this coin was the 

I^rutha, a weight equal to half a troy grain of silver, and to 



4 



78 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

about 20 grains of copper. That this smallest Jewish coin was 
the lepton, minutv>8, or mite of the parable is rendered more 
probable by the existence of a very tiny coin (Fig. 25), which 
bears on the reverse the Greek word cltalktma, which is almost 
exactly that used in the Gospel (Mark 12. 4i) to describe the 
money thrown into the collecting chest in the court of the 
Temple. Thus we can figiire with considerable confidence the 
coins named in the Gk>spels, from the stater or holy shekel to the 
widow's mite. 



METROLOGY OF THE BIBLE. 



79 



TABLE X. 

HEBREW LINEAR MEASURE. 



SMALLER MEASURE OF LENGTH. 




Corns 


Digits 


FalniR 


Cubits 


Eqnivalents. 
English 




Inches 


Feet 


rcorn . 

(Atzbah) 

(Tupah) 

breadth (Zereth) 

:Sit) .... 

Regol) . 

(Ameh) 




1 
2 
8 
16 
24 
32 
48 


1 

4 

8 

12 

16 

24 


1 
2 
3 
4 
6 


0166 

0-333 

0-50 

0-75 

1 


0-33 

0-66 

2-66 

5-33 

! 8-00 

•10-66 

:i60 


1-33 



TABLE XL 



LARGER MEASURES OF LENGIH, 




Cubits 


Canes 


Fur- 
longs 


Mils 

1 

2 
4 


Tehums 


Equivalents 




Yards 


Milffi 


(Ameh) 
(Keneh) 
Qg (Resah) . 
mile (Mil.) . 
th-day's jour- 
(Tehnm) . 
(Parse) 
course . 
journey 


1 

125 
1,000 

2,000 

4,000 

3,750 

18,750 


1 
31-25 
250 

500 
1,000 


1 
8 

16 
32 


1 
2 


0-444 
1-777 
55'5 
444 

888 
1,777 
1,675 
8,325 


0-252 

0-504 
1-009 
0-905 
4-73 



J 



80 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



TABLE XII. 

HEBBEW SQUARE MEASURE. 





Bebah 


Gab 


Seah 




Zemeed 


Kor 
1 


Eqoivalenta 


GuUtB 


Taxds 




Rebah . 
Cab 
Seah 

Zemeed . 
Kor. 


1 

4 

24 

72 

720 


1 

6 

18 

180 


1 

3 

30 


1 
10 


104*15 
416*6 
2,600 
7,600 
76,000 


20*56 
82-22 
493-33 
1,480 
14,800 


0*33 
3*30 L 



TABLE XIIL 

HEBREW MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



DRY MEASURE, 1 




Quad. 


Cab 


Seah 


Epha 


Kor 

1 


1 
E^uivalente ^ 


Cubic inches 


Denominatioii 


Quadrans 

Cab 

Omer 

Seah 

Epha 

Kor. 


1 

4 

7-2 
24 
72 
720 


1 

6 

18 
180 


1 

3 

30 


1 
10 


24 

96 

172*8 

676 

1,728 

17,280 


0-676 pint 
0*675 quart 
2*415 quart 
1*012 peck 
0*754 bushel 
0*993 quarter 



TABLE XIV. 



LIQUID MEASURE. 




Anphak 


Log 


Hin 


Seah 


Bath 
1 


Equivalents 


Cubic in. 


Denominiitipii 


Anphak . 

Log. 

Hin. 

Seah 

Bath 


1 
± 

4 

48 

96 

288 


1 
12 
24 
72 


1 
2 
6 


1 
3 


6 

24 

268 

676 

1,728 


0-675 glU 
0-675 pint 
1*012 gallon 
1012 peck 
6-036 gallons 



METEOLOGY OF THE BIBLB. 



81 



TABLE XV. 

HEBREW MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 

















Eqniyalenta 




OjLTAfM 


flpra. 


• TlAlra. 


ClhAkAl 


MinA 


(Mmvtr 


















Troy Grs. 


Ounces 




1 






•__ 




3-2 






5 


1 








— 


16 






50 


10 


1 








160 


0-33 


1 . 


100 


20 


2 


1 






320 


0-75 




5,000 


1,000 


100 


50 


1 




16,000 


33-33 

FoandB 


■ 


300,000 


60,000 


6,000 


3,000 


60 


1 


960,000 


166-6 



TABLE XV L 

HEBREW MEASURES OF VALUE. 



SHEKEL SYSTEM. 



Denomination 



(small) 
(large) 



.r 



Troj grains 



Silver 
16 
160 
320 



Sterling 



£ ». d. 

2 

18 

3 4 

8 6 8 

16 13 4 

500 



SELA SYSTEM. 




O 



82 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE JEWISH YEAR. 

The Jewish year consisted of twelve lunar months, the com- 
mencement of each of which was determined by the visible ap- 
pearance of the new moon. Among the Mohammedans of the 
present day the lunar determination of the year is absolute. 
Twelve lunations contain together 354*366 days. A tropical year, 
or return of the sun to the same apparent place in the heavens, 
as referred to the solstitial and equinoxial points, contains 365*242 
days. Thus the lunar year falls short of the solar year by 10*876 
days, or by more than a month in three years. More exactly 
measured, nineteen solar years are equivalent, within 0*086 of a 
day, or 2 hours 27 minutes 50 seconds, to 235 lunations. It 
follows that if seven additional months are added to, or as it is 
called intercalated in, the course of nineteen years, the courses 
of the sun and moon will coincide, within the limit above 
stated, at the close. This discovery, which was made, at least 
approximately, by the Greek astronomer Meton, was regarded as 
of such extreme value for regulating the midsummer full moons 
of the Olympic festivals in Greece, that the place of each year 
in the cycle of nineteen was called the Golden Nimiber. Since 
the adoption of this cycle of Meton, in An. Sac. 4376, that mode 
of fixing the years of intercalation has been in general use 
among people under the influence of Grecian literature or insti- 
tutions. 

To the Jews the construction of a calendar was forbidden ; 
and to this circumstance is due the great precision with which 
it is now possible to recover the chief dates of Sacred histoiy. 
The state of astronomical science was not such, at the date of 



THE JEWISH YEAK. 83 

the foundation of the institutions of the Law, as to allow of 
exact predetermination of cycles, or of dat^es. Simple as such 
learning is made to appear by the study that has produced our 
own Nautical Almanac, it was not till the time of Newton 
that the exact length of the year was known with such pre- 
cision as to allow of the construction of a rule that should work 
for future centuries without error. But intercalation was 
provided for by the rule that three ears of barley must be pro- 
vided for the Paschal feast. The years of intercalation were 
decided, as they occurred, by a council held for that purpose on 
the Ist day of Tisri. As all the reckoning of months and of 
years depended on the actual observation of the moon, and as 
the paschal moon was kept in its season by the reference to the 
productions of the earth, tiie utmost limits of error that could 
arise were as to one day in a month, and one mosth in certain 
years of the cycle of nineteen years. Accumulated error was 
impossible, and the provision for a second passover was such as 
to render an error in the fixing of this festival by no means 
fatal to the regularity of the rite. 

In looking back over the range of Jewish history, it is 
possible by using the Golden Number of Meton, and by applying 
the correction before indicated, which amounts very closely to 
one day in 12 Metonic cycles, or 228 years, to indicate very ex- 
actly the day of visible new moon, and consequently the 14th day 
of the month, or the sacred full moon, at any given date. The 
question of the failure to see the new moon is still open. But as 
careful observation was made throughout Palestine, and intelli- 
gemce of the appearance of the crescent was at once communi- 
cated to Jerusalem, it may be concluded that the occasions on 
which the month was made one day late were but few, nor 
are there any very serious questions that hang on that slight 
incertitude. For the Jews the main importance of the coinci- 
dence was the occurrence of the new moon, which was a festival, 
on the Sabbath, on which all manner of work was forbidden. 

We have described, in another chapter, the seven chief 
solemnities of the Jewish year. During the standing of the 
leoond Temple, two annual festivals, not ordained in the Penta- 

o 2 



84 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

teuch, were instituted by the Sanhedrin. Of these the first is 
the Feast of Purim, on the 14th day of the month Adar, of the 
origin of which an accoUnt is given in the Book of Esther. 
The Megillah, or roll of the Book of Esther is read in the syna- 
gogue on that day ; on which, in the Holy Land, Psalms were 
read in commemoration of the deliverance from Haman. The 
dates mentioned in the Book of Esther have not been identified. 
The word Ahasuerus, which name occurs in the Book of Ezra 
(4. 6) between those of Cyrus and of Darius, is said by Cresenius 
to be the Hebrew form of Xerxes, whose name in the cuneiform 
is rendered, Eiishwershe, or lion-king. But both the L^X- 
and Josephus use the name of Artaxerxes. The Greek version of 
the book contains many chapters not to be found in the Hebrew, 
which are usually termed Apocrypha, and says that, Dositheus, 
who called himself a priest and a Levite, and his son Ptolemy, 
brought the foregoing epistle of Purim, which they declared to 
exist, and to have been interpreted by Lysimachus, the son of 
Ptolemy, who was in Jerusalem, in the 4th year of Ptolemy 
and Cleopatra. This date, if Ptolemy Philometor is intended, 
as is usually held to be the case, is An. Sac. 4633. The 3rd 
year of Xerxes was An. Sac. 4326. The 3rd of Artaxerxes was 
An. Sac. 4346. The Jews regard the Book of Esther with the 
utmost veneration. It is written on a separate roll, the proper 
letters being ornamented with crowns, or horns ; and the names 
of the sons of Haman being written one under the other so as 
to occupy an entire page, or compartment of the rolL No 
light has as yet been thrown on this chronology by modem ex- 
ploration. 

The first notice of the celebration of the Feast of Lights, or 
of the Dedication of the Temple, the second of the additianal 
annual festivals, which was held on the 25th day of the 
month Chisleu, or Casleu, is on the occasion of the restoration 
of the Temple services by Judas Maccabeus, after the desecra- 
tion of the Temple by Antiochus Epiphanes. The date is 
An. Sac. 4645, or within 12 years of the Septuagint date of the 
Book of Esther. It is remarkable that the day of the year is 
the same as that on which it may be collected from the Second 



THE JEWISH YEAR. 85 

Book of Samuel (24. 8, ll, 13, 15, 18) tbe altar wad erected 
by David on the threshing-floor of Araunah. Palms were 
borne by the people on this day, as well as on the 1st day of 
Nisan, the 14th day of Adar, and on the week days of the 
Feast of Tabernacles. 

Two other days of public rejoicing and festivity are noted 
in the Mishna. Rabban Simeon, son of Gamaliel, said, 
(Taanith 4. 8), * There were no such festive days for the Israelites 
as the 15th of the month Ab, and the Day of Expiation, for 
on those days the damsels of Jerusalem went out in white gar- 
ments, and danced amid the vines.' The young men were 
exhorted to go out and choose themselves wives. Bartenora, in 
his note on this Mishna says, that on the 15th of Ab the number 
of those who died in the desert, in the 40th year of the Exodus, 
was completed ; the guards whom Jeroboam the son of Nebat 
stationed to prevent the Israelites from attending the feasts at 
Jerusalem were slain ; those who were slaughtered at Bethel 
were buried ; the wood offering for the altar ceased ; and the 
power of the sun to dry the wood also failed. The rejoicing at 
the close of the Day of Expiation was for the remission of sins 
obtained by the rites of the day, and in memory of the giving 
of the sacred Tables of the Law. The passage from Canticles, 
*Gk) forth, O ye daughters of Jerusalem,* (3. ll) is added in 
the Mishna as applied to this festival. 'Understand,' says 
Kabban Simeon, ' by the day of the gladness of his heart, the 
building of the Holy House, may it soon be restored in our 
days, Amen ! * The Mishna does not identify either of these 
days with the feast of the Lord in Shiloh of the Book of Judges 
(21. 19) ; bnt the coming out of ^ ^e daughters of Shiloh * to 
dance in dances ' is shown, by that passage, to be a festival as 
ancient as the time of the High priest Phineas, the grandson of 
Aaron. 

A festival was instituted in the 170th year of the Seleucidse, 
An. Sao. 4671, on the 17th day of Elul, to commemorate the 
expulsion of the Greek garrison from the fortress on the northern- 
most of the two hills within the ancient walls of Jerusalem, which 
is called Millo in the Old Testament, and Akra by Josephus. 



86 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The day is still commemorated in the Jewif^i almanack, and 
is there also said to be that on which occurred the death of the 
spies (Numbers 14, 37). 

Three solemn fasts, not instituted by Moses, were estabUsbed 
by the Sanhedrin during the time of the first and second Temples. 
They are referred to by the prophet Zechariah (7. 6 and 
8. 19). They fell on the 17th day of Tamuz, on the 9th 
day of Ab, and on the 10th day of Tebeth. On the 17th 
day of Tamuz (Taanith 4. 7) the tables of the Law were 
broken by Moses (Exodus 32. 19); the daily saciifice ceased, 
during the siege of Jerusalem ; the waU of the city was broken 
down ; the Law was burned by the Greek general Apostumus ; 
and an idol was set up in the Temple. It is in dispute 
whether that idol was erected by Manasseh, or, during the time 
of the second Temple, by the Greeks. The events during the 
siege refer to the siege by Nebuchadnezzar. 

On the 9th of Ab (according to the explanation given by the 
Jews of the 14th chapter of Numbers) it was decreed by God 
that the Israelites should not enter the Holy Land ; the first, 
and also the second. Temple were destroyed ; the city of Bethel 
was taken ; and Jerusalem itself was destroyed, and the plough 
driven over its site. 

On the 10th of Tebeth (Ezek. 24. 1) the siege of Jeru- 
salem was commenced by Nebuchadnezzar. 

The 8th of Tebeth is also marked in the Jewish abnanack 
as a fast for the translation of the Law into Greek (the LXX. 
Version) by order of the High priest Eleasar ; and the 8th, 9th, 
and 10 th days of this month are regarded as the anniversaries 
of the three days* darkness in Egypt. On the year preceding 
the Exodus these days of this lunar month coincided with th^ 
30th and 31gt of December and the 1st of January of our pre- 
sent reckoning. 

On the week in which the 9th of Ab fell, it was prohibited^ 
(Taanith 4. 7) to wash, or to shave, except on the 5th day a 
the week, in honour of the Sabbath. On the evening of the" 
9th of Ab it was forbidden to eat of dishes of two kinds, to taste* 
flesh, or to drink wine. 



THE JEWISH YEAR. 87 

The Day of Atonement was a most rigid fast. It was for- 
bidden on that day to eat, to drink, to wash, to anoint, to put 
on shoes, or to offer any conjugal endearments. The king and 
a newly married woman were the only persons pei-mitted to 
wash their faces on that day; the king, because he was always 
to appear beautiful to his people, and the bride, lest her husband 
might take a dislike to her. Children were not to be made to 
fast, but gradually to be instructed in the duties of the day. 
Sick persons were allowed food. In the case of anyone faint 
with hunger, or injured by accident, or by the fall of a wall, or 
by the bite of a mad dog, or a violent sore throat, the rule 
* Danger of life supersedes the Sabbath,* (to which the great 
Hillel is said to have owed his life when a boy) applied to the 
Day of Atonement. 

In addition to these annual fasts, ecclesiastical feists were 
ordered in the case of the failure of rain. An interval of four- 
teen days was fixed by Kabban Gamaliel, from the termination 
of the Feast of Tabernacles to the commencement o£ the prayer 
for rain. If in ten days after that, that is to say by the 17th 
day of Marchesvan, no rain had fallen, a fast of three days was 
ordered; during which it was forbidden to eat or to drink before 
nightfall, but it was allowable to work, to wash, to anoint, and 
to wear shoes. 

If the month of Chisleu commenced without any quantity of 
rain having fallen, the Sanliedrin ordered thi*ee more days to 
be observed, called Fasts of the Church, on the second, fifth, and 
again on the second day of the week. If these passed without 
the desired rain, three more severe fasts were enjoined, in which, 
in addition to food and drink, work, washing, anointing, wear- 
ing shoes, and domestic endearments were forbidden. The 
public baths were closed. If these days expired without rain, 
seven more fast days of a yet more strict character, were en- 
joined, making in all thirteen fasts of the Church. The shops 
were then closed, with the exception of a partial opening at 
nlghtfolL on the second day of the week, and an opening on 
the evening of the fifth day, in honour of the Sabbath. Shophars, 
or comets, were blown in the streets. 



88 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

If the drought still continued, all acts of purobase, sale, 
building, planting, espousals, betrothals, and mutual 8alutati<»iB 
were forbidden. Men were to conduct themselves as under the 
visible displeasure of the Most High. The Ark oontainizig the 
roll of the Law was brought forth into the public place of the 
city, and covered with ashes. The rulers and people oast dust 
on their heads, and the most venerable elder recited the words 
of penitence ; saying, ' Brethren, was it not said of the Nine- 
vites, '' and God respected their sackcloth and their &sting," 
as it is written in the Book of Jonah (3. lo). ''And God 
saw their works, that they ceased from the wickedness of their 
deeds " ? And in Kabbala (that is, in the words of Joel 2. is), 
the precept is written, " Rend your hearts, and not your gar- 
ments." ' The subsequent prayers and lessons are prescribed in 
the treaiise Taanith. 

The chief references to the days of the month which occur 
in the Bible, the Mishna, the Antiquities and Wars of Jose- 
phus, and the modem Jewish Ahnanack, are given in the 
annexed Calendar. 

The incidental references made in the Bible to eclipses of 
the sun or of the moon, although they have not failed to attract 
the notice of scholars, have not hitherto been fully investigated. 
Amongst all ancient people, as amongst many tribes at the 
present day^ the occurrence of an eclipse, especially if approach- 
ing totality, has always been a cause of terror. The care which 
was taken to prevent the study of astronomy by the Jews was 
no datibt induced by a knowledge of the intimate connection 
of astronomical observation with attempts at astrological divina- 
tion and with idolatrous worship. There is thus no doubt 
that among the majority of the inhabitants of the Holy Land 
these phenomena were regarded at once as indications of menace, 
and as, if predicted by a prophet, among the most indubitable 
proofs of his authority (cf. Deut. 13. 2, Mark 8, n, Luke 
11. 16). One of the most remarkable illustrations of this 
view occurs in the Book of Amos (8. 9), of which the date is 
referred to an earthquake as yet unidentified. The last year ci 
the reign of Jeroboam, son of Joash, king of Israel, who is 



THE JEWISH YEAB. 89 

referred to in the verse that dates the book, is not decided, 
because 41 years £tom the 15th year of Amaziah (2 Kings 14. 
2S) gives the date An. Sac. 4035, while the accession of Zach- 
ariah his son who reigned in his stead is given sa in the 38th 
year of Azariah, king of Judah (2 Kings 15. s), which was 
An. Sac. 4046 or 4047. In the latter year, according to a dis- 
covery described in * Assyrian Discoveries' (p. 11), an eclipse 
of the snn which occurred on the 15th of June is recorded in 
the cuneiform inscriptions. 

The earliest records of eclipses which have been usually 
considered as accessible for calculation are those of fourteen 
eclipses of the moon, occurring from An. Sac. 4089 to An. Sac. 
4209, which are treated on at length in the Almagest of 
Ptolemy. This great astronomer, however, mentions the fact 
that records of eclipses reaching as far back as An. Sac. 2600 
had been kept at Babylon^ and that copies of the record 
were in the library at Alexandria. It would have been impos- 
sible to give any attentive study to such a record, after it had 
been in existence fbr one or two centuries, without being struck 
by that remarkable recurrence in the order of eclipses, the 
exact statemeat of which, under the Babylonian name of the 
Saros, is said to have been known to the Greek astronomer 
Thales. 

In a period of 18 solar years, or, more accurately speaking, 
of 223 lunations, seventy-two eclipses occur, visible in different 
parts of the world. Of these there are 27 cenia^, and 16 
partial, eclipses of the sun, and 11 total, and 18 partial 
eclipses of the moon, according to the present relations of the 
planetary elements. At the expiration of the cycle, the series 
reoommences, in the same order, but at a different time of the 
day by about 8 hours. But by taking a period of 54 years, 
or oi 669 lunations, the recun-ence is within 52 minutes of the 
time of the preceding occasion. The exactitude is not absolute, 
and there is a secular change in the form of the cycle. But 
it permitted, in the early state of science, a method of prediction 
of the utmost value ; and a publication of the mode of revolu- 
tion of the Soros^ corrected by the data of modem astronomy, 



90 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

would be a great boon to the historic writer. Tables of visible 
eclipses are given in an old French folio work of value, called 
* L'Art de Verifier les Dates.' The work most full of informa- 
tion to be consulted on the subject of eclipses in the "Rngliah 
language is one entitled the * Chrono-Astrolabe,' by James 
Bowman Lindsay, which was published by Bohn in 1858. 

The relations of the Saros are such as to indicate, from the 
identification of the ancient eclipses, such as that of An. Sac. 
4047, the years of other great eclipses that occurred at nearly the 
same hour of the day, and were visible in neighbouring localities. 
Thus the passage in Habakkuk (3. ll), ^ The sun and moon 
stood still in their habitation;' more literally, *sun, moon, 
stood in their house,' (a term familiarly used in ancient astro- 
logy), probably refers to an eclipse of the sun in An. Sac. 4165 
(cf. Joel 2. lo). The years 4101 and 4107 also witnessed 
visible and important eclipses of the sun. The eclipse of the 
moon which is mentioned by Joseph us (17 Ant. 6. 4) as oc- 
curring on the night before a solemnity, is identified by Mr. 
Lindsay as occurring on March 13 (15 Gregorian), An. Sac 
4806. It is possible that the Passover is referred to, but the in- 
formation is not conclusive. The word nestia, used by Josephus, 
has been translated /a«^ ; but there is no fast in the Jewish 
calendar that falls on the day of the full moon. It is probable 
that much information will hereafter be made accessible as to 
the eclipses of ancient history. 

Since the destruction of the Library of Alexandria, the most 
ancient records of eclipses known to exist are those of China. 
These eclipses (when of the sun) would not be visible in Pales- 
tine ; but their registration is of the utmost value with rd^BreiDce 
to the exact position of the planets at a very remote time. In 
the * Chun Tsin,' a book written by Confuqius (kc. 550-477), 
are records of thirty-six eclipses, all of which, except four, have, 
it is stated by Mr. Lindsay, been verified. The earliest of these 
eclipses was in An. Sac. 4090. But in the ' Shu King,' another 
Chinese work, an eclipse of the sun at the autumnal equinox, 
in the constellation Scorpio, is mentioned, which has been iden- 
tified with an eclipse in An. Sac. 2655. It is further stated 



THE JEWISH YEAR. 91 

that the official astronomers, Hi and Ho, were beheaded for 
having faQed to predict this eclipse. Mr. Lindsay further calls 
attention to a conjunction of the five planets, Mercury, Venus, 
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, in the constellation Shih, or Pisces, 
when the Emperor Chuen Hio made the calendar — a conjunc- 
tion referred to the year An. Sac. 2361. 

Mr. Lindsay further refers to the great saving of calculation 
that may be obtained by the use of ecliptic periods, and mentions 
one combination of the Chaldean period of the Saros, or cycle 
of eighteen years and ten days, before described, which gives 
the nearly similar recurrence of an eclipse in a period of 3,328 
years, 45 days, 3 hours, and 29 minutes. By the use of this 
term an approximate determination of many ancient eclipses is 
nearly attained. It will hence be found that the eclipse of the 
year 4047, taken from the Assyrian records, was the same, in 
its elements and position in the Saros, as the great total eclipse 
of the sun which the Astronomer Royal went to the summit of 
the Superga, near Turin, to observe, on 28th July, 1851 ; and 
that the annular eclipse of the sun, which took place on 25th 
April, 1846, was the recurrence of one visible in Palestine, 
An. Sac. 3311 (Josh. 10. 12). It should be remembered, with 
regard to any ancient reference to these important cosmical 
conjunctions, that the scientific meaning now attached to the 
word * eclipse * was unknown to early writers. To speak of the 
sun as failing or stopping in its functions was the natural lan- 
guage to use. The nearest approach, and it is a very close one, 
to an objective description of these phenomena in the Bible, is 
that which is quoted from the Book of Joel in the Acts of the 
Apostles, as a warning of evil : * The sun shall be turned into 
darkness, and the moon into blood.' 



THE HEBREW ALMANACK. 

!N[ote. — The Lunar Year returns to the same point of commencement, 
in reference to the Solar Year, in the Metonic Cycle of 19 yean. 
Thus 19 different adjustments of the second and fourth colmnns of 
the following Calendar occur ; that proper for each year being a8ce> 
tained by the use of the Golden Number, together with the correction 
of one day for each major lunar cycle of 228 years. The relation of 
the days of the week to those of the tropical solar year are determined 
by the Cycle of 400 years. The earliest date on which the 1st day of 
Nisan could fall was the 6th of March. The OalendHQr which follows 
is that for An. Sac. 4806, the year preceding the Nativitt. 

The first three columns refer to the Gregorian Year, as it is now 
used in our Almanacks ; the fourth and seventh, to the Lunar Year. 
The sixth indicates the revolution of the Cycle of the Courses of th« 
Priests. 

The year consisted alternately of 364 and 366 days ; the 13th 
month, called Veadab, being inserted seven times in nineteen years, 
as in the Metonic Cycle. But the intercalation was fixed by obeervft- 
tion, and not by calendar. No references to days in Veadar are given. 

n and V are used in the modern Jewish Almanacks to denote, 
respectively. Holy, and Defiled or Ill-omened. 



THE HEBREW ALMANACK. 



93 



THE FIRST MONTH. 

Be6. r iLl»i1». Aramaic : If iMim. Macedonian : "Xmuthiewu. Attic: 



itliesterio] 



Day of 

CSBlendar 

Month 



March 

8 



Day of 
Solar 
Year 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
\ 14 
16 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 

21 



61 



62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 

71 

72 
73 

74 



76 



23 76 



Day of 
Week 



D 



E 
F 
G 
A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 

G 
A 
B 





Day of 

Lunar 

Year 



D 



E 



F 
G 
A 
B 

D 
E 
F 

G 
A 
B 

D 
E 



2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 

14 



ErentB 



15 



16 



17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

26 
26 

27 
28 
29 
30 



Messengers may profane the Sab- 
bath. Palms biorne. Wood offering. 
Ez\ 40. 2, 17. Hz, 26. 1 ; 29. 17. Bash 
Hash, 1. 1 ; 4. i. Ezr, 7. 9 ; 10. 27 

^ Nadab and Abihu . 

Dan, 10. 1 



Josh, 3. 2 ; 4. 19. Ezek. 30. 20 
Prodigy. Light seen. 6 Wars 5. 3 

>i( MiBiAM. Lamb set apart for 

Pasque. Josh, 4. 19. Mzek, 40. 1. 

[2 Ant, 14. 6 

JEbr. 8. 31 

Search for leaven. Pasqxte. Ett, 

3. 12. Pesach, 1. 1 ; 5. 1 . 
Prayer for Hain. Ex, 23. 14. 

Roman Gamp pitched. Fight 

in Temple. 6 Wars 2. 84 ; 3. 1. 

Taankh 1. 2 . 
n Unleayened bread. Masada taken. 

7 Wars 9. 1. 2 Ant, 16. 2. 

Khag. 1. 1 . 
n First-fruits. Matt. 28. 1. Mark 

16. 1. Lvke 24. 1. John 20. 1. 

1 Cor, 16. 4 
n Third day of unleavened bread . 
n Fourth „ „ 

n Fifth „ „ 

n Sixth fy ff 

n Seventh „ „ 

Siege of Jbextsalem commenced. 

[6 Wars 7, 2 
Dan, 10. 4 



No. of 
Priests' 
Course 



22 



23 



24 



Day of 
Liuiar 
Month 



1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

13 



\ 



14 



16 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

26 
26 

27 
28 
29 
30 



\ ^\ 



94 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



SECOND MONTH. 

Heb, : SEif. Aramaic : IJar. Macedonian : ArteailsiiM. ^<t»c : Sl»i»M eb^Umk 



Day of 

Calendar 

Month 



April 

7 



8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



14 
15 
18 
17 

18 

19 
20 
21 



22 



23 
24 
26 
2^ 

27 
28 
29 
30 

May 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



Day of 
Solar 
Year 



91 



92 

93 
94 
95 
96 
97 



98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 
104 
105 



106 



107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 

115 
116 
117 
118 
119 



Day of 
Week 



G 

A 
B 

D 

E 



F 
G 
A 
B 


D 
E 
F 



G 



A 
B 

D 
E 
F 
G 
A 

B 

D 
E 
F 



Day of 

Lunar 

Year 



31 



32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



38 
39 
40 
41 
42 

43 
44 
45 



46 



47 
48 
49 
60 
51 
62 
63 
54 

55 
56 
57 

68 
69 



ErentB 



Foundation of Second Temple laid. 
11 Ant, 4. s. Num, 1. 1. 1 Kings 
6. 1. 1 Chron, 3. 3 . 



Dedication of Temple. Outer wall 
taken on 15th day of siege. 6 
Wars 7. 1 



No. of 
PrlestB' 
Ck>iuBe 



Di^of 
Lmnr 
Koatt 



*?< Eli 

Second wall taken, 20th day of 

siege. 6 Wars 8. i . 
JoTAPATA invested. 3 Wars 7. 86 . 

Wilderness entered. Ex, 16. i. 

TiTxrs regains second wall. 5 

Wars 9. 2. Sbcond Pasqub 
Bernice insulted. 2 Wars 15. s. 

War began 4876. 2 Wars 16. 2. 

3 Wars 7. 3 

Lag le Omer. Feast of the School. 



Relief of Jotapata. 3 Wars 7. 8 . 



Acts 1. 8 

* Samuel 

Roman banks complete. 6 Wars 
11. 4 



6 



THE HEBREW ALMANACK. 



95 



THIRD MONTH. 

"eft. and Aramaic : Slvan. Macedonian : Daesius. Attic : Manyclilom. 



of 


Day of 


T\^.» ^4 


Day of 




No. of 


Day of 


dar 


Bolar 


Day 01 


Lunar 


Events 


Priesto' 


Lunar 


th 


Year 


Week 


Year 




Course 


Mouth 


y 


120 


G 


60 


JEx. 19. 1. Ezek. 31. i. Shehdim 












3.1 




1 


r 


121 


A 


61 






2 


J 


122 


B 


62 






3 


) 


123 





63 






4 


) 


124 


D 


64 






6 


L 


126 


E 


66 




7 


C 


3 


126 


F 


66 


n Pentecost. Ex. 23. 16 j 34. 22. 
Deut, 16. 10. 6 Wars 6. 3. Act$ 
2. 1 } 18. 21. Ant, 20. I6 ; 21. 18. 
MegiUah2.b .... 




7 


3 


127 


G 


67 


Second day of Pentecost 




8 


1 


128 


A 


68 






9 


5 


129 


B 


69 






10 


3 


130 





70 






11 


r 


131 


D 


71 






12 


B 


132 


E 


72 




8 


13 


9 


133 


F 


73 






14 





134 


G 


74 






15 


1 


136 


A 


76 






16 


2 


136 


B 


76 






17 


3 


137 


C 


77 






18 


4 


138 


D 


78 






19 


5 


139 


E 


79 


Repulse of Vespasian. 3 Wars 7. 
29 


9 


20 


6 


140 


F 


80 






21 


7 


141 


G 


81 






22 


8 


142 


A 


82 


Est 8. 9 




23 


9 


143 


B 


83 






24 





144 


C 


84 


^ R. Simeon. Japba. taken by 
Titus. 3 Wws 7. 31 . 




26 


1 


146 


D 


86 






26 


me 
1 


146 


E 


86 


V Jeboboam. Jekusaleh taken 
by PoMPBT. 14 Ant, 4. 3. By 
Herod. 14 Ant, 16. 4. Gebizim 


























taken by Romans. 3 Wars 7, 32 


10 


27 


2 


147 


F 


87 






28 


8 


148 


G 


88 






29 


4 


149 


A 


89 






30 



96 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



FOURTH MONTH. 

Hti). and Aramaic : Tamuz. Macedonian : Panemiu. Attic : d^argr^Uoa. 



Day of 


Day of 


T%^-. ^.M 


Day of 




No. of 


Day of 


Calendar 


Solar 


Day 01 


Lunar 


Kvents 


PrieBts' 


TiOnar 


Month 


Year 


Week 


Year 


JLJ T \«&AVS 


Course 


Monti) 


Jone 












6 


160 


B 


no 


JoTAPATA taken. 3 Wars 8. 36 




1 


6 


161 





91 






2 


7 


162 


D 


92 


^ Sabinus. 6 Wars 1. 6 




% 


8 


163 


E 


93 


Vespasian returns to Ptolemaib. 
3 Wars 9. 1. JEzek, 1. 1. An- 
lONiA taken. 6 Wars 1. r. 


11 


4 


9 


164 


F 


94 






5 


10 


166 


G 


96 






6 


11 


166 


A 


96 






7 


12 


167 


B 


97 






8 


13 


168 





98 


Famine prevails in city. 2 Kings 
26. 3 




9 


14 


169 


D 


99 


Men of war fly. 2 Kings 26. 4 




10 


16 


160 


E 


100 




12 


11 


16 


161 


F 


101 


Ezek, 3. 16 




12 


17 


162 


G 


102 






18 


18 


163 


A 


103 






14 


19 


164 


B 


104 






16 


20 


166 





105 






16 


21 


166 


D 


106 


V Five great calamities befel. Zech. 
8. 19. Taanith 4. 4. See p. 86 . 




17 


22 


167 


E 


107 




18 


Id 


23 


168 


F 


108 






19 


24 


169 


G 


109 


Wood offering .... 




20 


26 


170 


A 


110 






21 


26 


171 


B 


111 






22 


27 


172 





112 






23 


28 


173 


D 


113 






24 


29 


174 


E 


114 




14 


25 


30 


176 


F 


116 






26 


July 


176 


G 


116 


Cloister burnt on 80th dav of siege. 






• 








6 Wars 3. 1 . . ' . 




27 


2 


177 


A 


117 






28 


3 


178 


B 


118 


■SfKHKMiAH at Jerusalem on Sab- 












bath. Neh, 2. 12 




29 



THE HEBREW ALMANACK. 



97 



FIFTH MONTH. 

JJefr. and Aramaic : Al». Macedonian : Ma^vm. Attic : Skirropborion. 



jot 

ndar 

nth 



4 



5 
6 

I 



} 



i 
> 

r 
I 

} 
) 



Day of 
Solar 
Year 



179 



180 
181 

182 
183 
184 
185 
186 

187 



188 



189 
190 
191 
192 
193 

194 
196 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
206 
206 

207 
208 



Day of 
Week 



c 



D 
E 

F 
G 
A 
B 


D 



E 



F 
G 
A 
B 


D 
E 
F 
G 
A 
B 

D 
E 
F 
G 
A 
B 


D 



Day of 

Lunar 

Year 



119 



120 
121 

122 
123 
124 
126 
126 

127 



128 



129 
130 
131 
132 
133 

134 
136 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
146 
146 

147 
148 



Events 



* Aaron. Messenger sent to an- 
nounce New Moon. Temple 
burnt. JEzr, 7. 9. Neh. 3. i. 10 
Ant, 8. ff. Itosh Hash. 1. 3. 

Neh, 3. 1 ; cf. 6. 15. Third day of 
week. ELLiSHiB conunencesWall 

"Wood offering. Taanith 4. 5 

[26.8 
Wood offering. Spies sent. '2 Kings 
Two banks completed. 6 Wars 

10. 1 

V Five great calamities. Deut, 4. 

24 read. Jer. 29. 2. Zech. 8. 3 ; 

8. 19. See p. 86 
Wood offering. Ezek. 20. i. 6 

Wars 10. 5-8. Taanith 4. 9. 

MegiMah 3. 6 . 



[14. 13 

Bouphonia. Paul at Lybtra. Acts 

Wood offering. Dance of Virgins. 

Cant, 4. 11. 2 Wars 17. 7. 

[Taanith 4. 8 



Wood offering. 102nd day of siege. 

[6 Wars 8. i 



Day for tithing cattle. Shek. 3. i 



No. of 
Priests' 
Course 




16 



16 



17 



18 



1 
2 

4 
6 
6 

7 

8 







10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

16 
^Q 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 
28 

29 
30 



H 



98 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



SIXTH MONTH. 

Heb. and Aramaic : £lal. Macedonian : Qorpiwmi. Attic : BCecatombCMk 



Day of 


Day of 


T\— . .• ^^ 


Day of 




No. of 


Dsyof 


Calendar 


Solar 


Day Of 


Lnnar 


'Rvenf^ 


Priests* 


Lnmr 


Month 


Year 


Week 


Year 


JJt V \iMAVO 


Coune 


MoDtb 


Aug. 












3 


209 


E 


149 


Messengers sent. New year for 
cattle tithe. Itosh Hash, 1. 1 . 


19 


1 


4 


210 


F 


160 






2 


5 


211 


G 


161 


Ezeh. 8. 1 




3 


6 


212 


A 


152 


2 Warn 17. 8 




4 


7 


213 


B 


163 


TiTTJS takes Jbeusalem. 2 Wars 
17. 9. * High Priest. 6 Wars 
8.4 




6 


8 


214 





164 


Sea-fight on Lake of Gennesaket. 
3 Wars 10. 9. i20th day of siege. 
6 Wars 8. 6 




i 


9 


216 


D 


166 






7 


10 


216 


E 


156 




20 


8 


11 


217 


F 


167 






9 


12 


218 


G 


168 






10 


13 


219 


A 


169 






11 


14 


220 


B 


160 






13 


16 


221 





161 






13 


16 


222 


D 


162 






14 


17 


223 


E 


163 




21 


15 


18 


224 


F 


164 






16 


19 


226 


G 


166 


n ^ spies. Expulsion of Greeks. 




17 


20 


226 


A 


166 


[See p. 86 




18 


21 


227 


B 


167 






19 


22 


228 





168 


Wood offering. Theoxenia. Paul 
at Athbns. Act8\7,n, Taamth 
4.6 




90 


23 


229 


D 


169 






81 


24 


230 


E 


170 


Court of Abeopagus sits, 22, 23, 24 


22 


28 


26 


231 


F 


171 






83 


26 


232 


G 


172 


Hag, 1. 14 


• 


84 


27 


233 


A 


173 


Wall finished. Neh. 6. 16 . 




36 


28 


234 


B 


174 






36 


29 


235 





176 






87 


30 


236 


D 


176 






38' 


31 


237 


E 


177 




23 


39 



THE HEBEEW ALMAHACK. 
SEVENTH MONTH. 

; EtkaBim. Aramak:: Xlarl. MacedonU. 



ffi' 


^J"? 


DbjoI 


E...M 


No. Ot 
PilHta 


ES^' 


T«r 


We* 


Y^ 






HonUi 


288 


F 


178 


Feast of TRukpEre. Mesaeofrere 
may profftne the Sabbftth. Neh. 
7. 78. Ew. 8. 1 (feU on third 
day of week). Rmh Both. 1. 1. 




1 


23ft 


G 


17ft 


iVeA.8.18. Eir.B.M . 




2 


240 


A 


180 


t Oedauab. High priest sepa- 
rated. Yomal.i . 




3 


241 


B 


181 






4 


243 





182 






6 


243 


D 


183 






6 


244 


E 


184 




24 


7 


245 


F 


186 






8 


246 


O 


186 






9 


247 


A 


187 


"i Gkbat Fast. Day of Atone- 

meot. Leo. 16. n. Zeck. %. I». 
^rt«27... roBKipasaim. Tamdth 

4. i-B. Megia<A^.t. See p. 87. 




10 


S48 


B 


188 






11 


249 





189 






13 


260 


D 


IftO 






13 


261 


E 


Iftl 


n FKABt OP TABERNACLBa. Ex. 
23. Ifl. Suecah passim. MegSiah 
2. (. JfM. 8. 18. Eir.S.* 


1 


14 




F 


192 


n Second day of feast . 




15 


253 


Q 


198 


n Third „ „ . . . 




16 


264 


A 


194 


n Fourth ,,„... 




17 


206 


B 


195 


n Fifth „ „ . . . 




18 


266 


C 


196 


n suth „ „ . . . 




19 


257 


D 


197 


n Seventh „ „ . [8. is 




20 




E 


198 


n Talms tenie. Hag. 2. i. Neh. 


2 


21 


269 


F 


199 


Prayer for rain .... 




22 


260 


Q 


200 


n Law finished. Gauau taken. 
4 Wart 1. MO . 




23 


261 


A 


201 


Nih. 9. 1 (on fifth day of week) . 




24 


262 


B 


202 






25 


263 





208 






26 


264 


D 


204 


Cestius encamps on Sooptb. 2 




27 


266 


£ 


205 


\_War»\9.t 


S 


28 


266 


F 


206 






29 


287 


G 


207 


Cestids enters Jerhbalex 




30 



100 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



THE EIGHTH MONTH. 

Hebrew and Aramaic : Bal. Macedonian : INas. AtHc 



Day of 


Day of 


T\a*« aX 


Day of 


Calendar 


Solar 


Day of 


Lonar 


Month 


Year 


Week 


Year 


Oct. 








1 


268 


A 


208 


2 


269 


B 


209 


3 


270 





210 


4 


271 


D 


211 


6 


272 


E 


212 


6 


273 


F 


213 


7 


274 


G 


214 


8 


276 


A 


216 


9 


276 


B 


216 


10 


277 





217 


11 


278 


D 


218 


12 


279 


E 


219 


13 


280 


F 


220 


14 


281 


G 


221 


16 


282 


A 


222 


16 


283 


B 


223 


17 


284 





224 


18 


286 


D 


225 


19 


286 


E 


226 


20 


287 


F 


227 


21 


288 


G 


228 


22 


289 


A 


229 


23 


290 


B 


230 


24 


291 


C 


231 


26 


292 


D 


232 


26 


293 


E 


233 


27 


294 


F 


234 


28 


296 


G 


236 


29 


296 


A 


236 


30 


297 


B 


237 



Events 



Prayer for rain — or on 7th day 



Kuin of Jebttsalem. 6 Wars 8. 4 . 
^ Sons of Zedekiah. Tcumith 1. 3 
Eetreat of Obstiijs. 2 Wars 19. 9. 



Altar in Bethel. 1 Kings 12. 82 . 

Severe fast for .rain, if absent. 
Taanith 1, 4 .. , 



No. of 
Priests' 
Ck>nr8e 



6 



Lu 
Mo 



i 
i 

i 

i 

S 
S 



THE HEBEEW ALMANACK. 



101 



THE NINTH MONTH. 

Hebrew and Aramaic : Cliisleo or Caslea. Macedonian : Apelloem. Attic 

Pjanepsion. 



Day of 


Day of 


T\— — . ^M 


Day of 




No. of 


Day of 


OftlendAT 


Solar 


Day of 


Lunar 


Events 


Priests' 


Lunar 


MJOBth 


Tear 


Week 


Year 




Course 


Month 


Oct. 














31 


298 





238 


Messengers sent. Hosh Hash. 1. 3 




1 


Nov. 














1 


299 


J> 


239 


Taanith 1. 6 




2 


2 


300 


£ 


240 




8 


3 


3 


301 


F 


241 


Fasts for three days, if no rain has 
fallen. Zech. 7. i . 




4 


4 


302 


G 


242 






5 


5 


303 


A 


243 


V 2. Jeexjsalbm burnt . 




6 


6 


304 


B 


244 


►J. Herod. An. Sac. 4806. Baths 
closed, if no rain, and three more 




7 


7 


305 





246 


[days' fast 




8 


8 


306 


D 


246 






9 


9 


307 


E 


247 




9 


10 


10 


308 


F 


248 






11 


11 


309 


G 


249 






12 


12 


310 


A 


250 






13 


. 13 


311 


B 


251 






14 


14 


312 





252 






16 


16 


313 


D 


253 






16 


16 


314 


E 


254 




10 17 


17 


315 


F 


256 




18 


18 


316 


G 


256 


Seven days graver fast, if no rain. 












Shop& closed .... 




19 


19 


317 


A 


257 


2 Sam. 24. 8. Ezr. 10. 9. Wives put 
away.. 11 Ant, 5. 4 . 




20 


; 20 


318 


B 


258 


Wood offering. Taanith 4» 6 


21 


21 


319 


C 


269 






22 


22 


320 


D 


260 






23 


23 


821 


E 


261 


Hag. 2. 10 . 


11 


24 


24 


822 


F 


262 


1 Mac. 4. 22. 12 Ant. 7. 6 . 


26 


25 


323 


G 


263 


n Feast of LIGHTS. Palms borne. 
Megillah 3. 6^ 8. 9 




26 


26 


324 


A 


264 






27 


27 


325 


B 


265 






28 


28 


326 





266 






29 


29 


327 


D 


267 






30 



102 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



THE TENTH MONTH. 

Hebrew and Aramaic : TebetU, Ulacedbnian: ^udjuewM. Attic : 'SS.entmetiwte^m, 



Day of 


Day of 




Day of 




No. of 


Dayd 


Calendar 


Solar 


Day of 


Lunar 


Events 


PriegtB^ 


Lnnar 


Month 


Year 


Week 


Year 




Course 


Moolli 


Nov. 












30 


328 


E 


268 


Ezr. 10. 17. 11 Ant, 5. 4 


12 


1 


Dec. 














1 • 


329 


F 


269 






2 


2 


380 


a 


270 






3 


3 


331 


A 


271 






4 


4 


332 


B 


272 


News of fall of city. Ezek, 33. ai . 




5 


5 


333 





273 






6 


6 


334 


D 


274 






7 




335 


E 


275 


V Fast for LXX. Version of Law. 
Zech, 8. 19 


13 


8 


8 


336 


F 


276 


V Three days' darkness in Egypt . 




9 


9 


337 


G 


277 


V Siege commenced by Nebuchad- 
nezzar. Ezek, 24. i. 10 Ant, 8. 4 




10 


10 


338 


A 


278 






11 


11 


339 


B 


279 


Ezeh, 29. 1 




12 


12 


340 





280 






13 


13 


341 


D 


281 






14 


14 


342 


E 


282 




14 


16 


15 


343 


F 


283 






16 


16 


344 


G 


284 






17 


17 


345 


A 


285- 






18 


18 


346 


B 


286 






19 


19 


347 


C 


287 






20 


20 


348 


D 


288 






21 


21 


349 


E 


289 




15 


22 


22 


350 


F 


290 






23 


23 


351 


G 


291 






24 


24 


352 


A 


292 






25 


25 


353 


B 


293 






26 


26 


354 





294 






27 


27 


355 


D 


295 


n Expulsion of Sadducees. An. 
Sac. 4732 




28 - 


28 


356 


E 


296 




16 


29 

1 



THE HEBREW ALMANACK. 



103 



THE ELEVENTH MONTH. 

tebrew'. Sebat. Aramaic: Asbat. Macedonian: Peritiiu. Attic: Posideon. 



Dt^Ol 


Day of 


TN _ A.A 


Day of 




No. of 


Day of 


3BlendaF 


Solar 


Day of 


Lunar 


Events 


Priests* 


Lunar 


Koath 


Year 


Week 


Year 




Course 


Month 


Dec. 














29 


367 


F 


297 


New vear for trees. Hosh Hash, 1. 1 




1 


30 


358 


G 


298 


• 




2 


31 


359 


A 


299 






3 


Jan. 














1 


360 


B 


300 






4 


2 


361 





301 






5 


3 


362 


D 


302 






6 


4 


363 


E 


303 




17 


7 


5 


364 


F 


304 






8 


6 


365 


G 


305 






9 


7 


1 


A 


306 






10 


8 


2 


B 


307 






11 


9 


3 





308 






12 


10 


4 


D 


309 






13 


11 


5 


E 


310 




18 


14 


■ 12 


6 


F 


311 






15 


13 


7 


G 


312 






16 


14 


8 


A 


313 






17 


15 


9 


B 


314 






18 


16 


10 





315 






19 


17 


11 


D 


316 






20 


18 


12 


E 


317 




19 


21 


19 


13 


F 


318 






22 


20 


14 


G 


319 


League against Bskjahin 




23 


21 


15 


A 


320 


Zech, 1. 7 . , . . • 




24 


22 


16 


B 


321 






25 


28 


17 





322 






26 


24 


18 


D 


323 






27 


25 


19 


E 


324 




20 


28 


26 


20 


F 


325 






29 


27 


21 


G 


326 






30 



104 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



THE TWELFTH MONTH. 

Hebrew and Aramaic : Adar. Macedonian : I^jstciu. Attic : Aegritne^nu 



Day of 


Day of 


T^ _ „ ^A 


Day of 


f 


No. of 


Day of 


Calendar' 


Solar 


Day of 


Lnnar 


Events 


Priesta' 


Lmiar 


Month 


Year 


Week 


Year 




Course 


Month 


Jan. 












28 


22 


A 


327 


•^ Moses. Messengers sent. Ez, 
32. 1 




1 


29 


23 


B 


328 






2 


30 


24 





329 


Ezr, 6. 15. The House finished. 
An. Sac. 4^94 .... 




3 


81 


25 


D 


330 






4 


Feb. 














1 


26 


E 


331 


The first Sabhath. (Anno 4806) 
MegillahS.A . . . . 


21 


5 


2 


27 


F 


332 






6 


3 


28 


G 


333 






7 


4 


29 


A 


334 






8 


6 


30 


B 


336 






9 


6 


31 





336 






10 


7 


32 


D 


337 


MegiUaJi 1. i 




11 


8 


33 


E 


338 


■ 


22 


12 


9 


34 


F 


339 


V Esther. MegiUah 3. e. 9 . 




13 


10 


35 


G 


340 


Feast of Purim. Palms borne. Est, 
9. 21 




14 


11 


36 


A 


341 


Ezek. 32. 17. Shekal, 1. 1 . . 




15 


12 


37 


B 


342 






16 


13 


38 





343 


, 




17 


14 


39 


D 


344 






18 


16 


40 


E 


346 




23 


19 


16 


41 


F 


346 






20 


17 


42 


G 


347 






21 


18 


43 


A 


348 






22 


19 


44 


B 


349 


n Dedication of Temple by Zerub- 
BABEL. 11 Ant, 4. 1 . 




23 


20 


45 





360 






24 


21 


46 


D 


361 


Tables of tax gatherers set in JefUr 
salem 




25 


22 


47 


E 


362 




24 


26 


23 


48 


F 


363 


* Nebtjohadnezzab. 2 Kings 26. 




27 


24 


49 


G 


364 


27 . . . t . . 




28 


26 


So 


A 


366 


Tithes of cattle .... 




29 



105 



CHAPTEK Y. 

THE HEBREW RITUAL. 

Two special and solemn rites, of which the institution is re- 
corded in the Pentateuch, and the most minute details have 
been handed down by tradition, underlay the whole complex 
cycle of the Hebrew Ritual. Of these, the first was performed 
only once in the whole history of the nation, the curse of 
Keritoth, or penal death, being held (Exod. 25. 33) to apply 
to its repetition, even in extreme need. Of the second, that 
of the Sacrifice of the Red Heifer, the treatise of the Mishna 
which describes the performance mentions only eight repetitions 
since the first celebration by Moses ; and the tenth solemniza- 
tion is said to be deferred until the Coming of the Messiah. 
On the first of these rites, the preparation of the holy oil, de- 
pended the consecration of the priesthood, of the Tabernacle, the 
Temple, and the vessels of the Sanctuary, and, from the time of 
Saul to that of Josiah, of the king. As a sequel of the second, 
the removal of that dreaded pollution which was incurred by 
any contact with the dead, thdl:r relics, or their sepulchres, was 
effected, as it became necessary, by water in which had been 
steeped the ashes of the only sacrifice which, after the establish- 
ment of the Temple, it was lawful to offer without its walls. 

The proportions of the ingredients of the holy oil are stated in' 
the Pentateuch ; and the mode of its preparation, as well as that 
of the holy incense, is detailed by Maimonides in his comment 
on the first Mishna of the treatise Keritoth. The High priest, 
his eldest son, and the Messiah Milchama, or deputy High priest 
chosen to accompany the foa:ces in time of war, were anointed 
on the head^ and between the eyebrows, in the form of the 



106 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Greek letter X. The kings of the house of David were anointed 
in the form of a crown on their foreheads. It was not cus- 
tomary to anoint a son of the king during the lifetime of his 
father ; the case of Solomon being regarded as exceptional, and 
as ordered with a view to prevent a disputed succession. The 
holy oil failed in the reign of king Josiah, and the rite of 
unction has not been administered since that time. 

The tract Parah, which describes the ritual of the sacrifice 
on Mount Olivet, is shown by the names of the Tanaim, or 
Doctors of the Law, which occur in the earliest part of it, to 
have assumed its present form not earlier than the end of the 
first, or the beginning of the second, century of our era. Rabbi 
Elieser, with whose name the treatise commences, died A.D. 73. 
Rabbi Joshua was his contemporary ; and Babbi Meir, the third 
Tanaite referred to in the treatise, died a.d. 130. We thus 
learn that the tract is an attempt on the part of these doctors 
and their contemporaries, on the overthrow of the Jewish polity, 
to preserve those exact details of the ritual which, down to that 
time, had not been authoritatively committed to writing. 

The victim for this rite was a virgin heifer of a pure red 
colour. Two black or two white hairs, if growing together (or, 
according to the opinion of some doctors, if found on any part 
of the body of the animal) rendered it unfit for slaughter. The 
age and size were not prescribed. 

In anticipation of the performance of the rite, a womian ex- 
pecting to become a mother was brought into one of the lish^ 
coth, or chambers of the Temple, which was set apart for the 
purpose, and kept there till her child was bom. The child so 
bom was brought up within the sacred precincts, and protected 
from any chance of incurring ceremonial pollution. When the 
time for the rite arrived, this child was seated on a wooden 
litter borne by bullocks, and conducted to the fountain of 
Siloah. There the child descended, and drew water from the 
spring in an earthem vessel, bearing which, he was reconducted, 
as he came, to the Temple. 

A bridge in two tiers, or arcades, the upper piers being bmlt 
on the crowns of the lower arches, was constructed acroas the 



THE HEBREW RITUAL. 107 

deep ravine of the Kedron Valley, which separated the Temple 
from Mount Olivet. The object of this mode of construction 
was to prevent any possible pollution from the contact of any 
mortuary relic with the lower piers of the bridge. Such pollu- 
tion was not supposed to contaminate the arch above by passing 
through the air, though it would pass, according to the tradi- 
tionsd rules, through a continuous wall or pier. The heifer was 
brought into the priests' court, and conducted by the High 
priest, preceded by the elders of the Senate, over this bridge, to 
the sunmiit of the Mount of Olives, which was exactly opposite 
the door of the Holy House. 

A tctbcUiahy or plunging bath, was prepared on the summit 
of Olivet, in which the Pontiff immersed himself, before offering 
the victim. A pile of wood, composed of cedar, ash, fir, and 
branches of the fig-tree, was erected in the form of a tower, open 
towards the west, close by the bath. The victim was bound 
within this hollow pyre with a rope made of rushes, with her 
head towards the south, and her face towards the west. The 
sacrificing priest (who was usually the High priest) stood to 
the westward of the victim, slew her with his right hand, 
caught the blood with his left, and dipping in it the forefinger 
of his right hand sprinkled the blood seven times towards the 
Temple. He then wiped his hand on the body of the victim ; 
and as he left the spot, fire was set to the pile. 

While the body of the heifer was consuming, the High 
priest took cedar, hyssop, and scarlet wool, saying three times, 
' This is cedar ; this is hyssop ; this is scarlet wool ; ' to which 
the assistants responded, ' It is so ; it is so ; it is so.' He then 
bound the cedar and hyssop together with the wool, and cast 
them into the flaming pyre. On the whole being consumed, 
the bones were collected from the ashes, pounded, sifted, and 
divided into three portions. Of these one was kept in the Chel, 
one in the Mount of Olives, and one was divided among the 
twenty-four courses of priests, for use throughout the country. 

Consecrated by hereditary descent from the anointed High 
priest, Aaron, and purified from every ceremonial defilement, the 
priests performed the service of the Sanctuary at Jerusalem. 



108 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The account given in the MishTia applies to the seryice of the 
Second Temple ; but the constant aim of the doctors of the law 
was to show that the order of their riteci had been unchanged 
since the time of Moses. The services may be distinguished 
into Ta/mid, ' the Continual/ or the ritual of the daily sacrifice, 
of which the fullest details are given in the tract Tamid ; the 
celebration of the various festivals and fasts, ordained in the 
law or commanded by the Senate; and the offering of the 
special sacrifices, for sin, for error, or for thanksgiving, of which 
the injunctions are contained in the Pentateuch, and the details 
are described in the Mishna. 

By night the Temple was guarded and patrolled by three 
priests and twenty-one Levites, twenty-four in all; in accordance 
with the passage in the 1st Book of Chronicles (26. 13). The 
priests and Levites of the Miahmar, or course in function, slept 
within the precincts. There was a vaulted apartment, the Beth 
Mokedf partly within and partly without the limits of the 
priests' court, in which the elder priests slept, with the keys of 
the gates in their charge. The younger priests slept on the 
floor, not in the linen vestments proper for the time of worship, 
but in their own attire. If a sentinel was found asleep by the 
prefect on his rounds, the toi-ch-bearer of the patrol set fire to 
his garments, and he was further punished by beating. 

The priest who was chosen to cleanse the altar, rose early, 
and bathed before the arrival of the prefect. It was the duty 
of this officer to arrive not always at the same hour ; he came 
at, a little before, or after, the early cock crow (cf. Mark 13. 86). 
It was forbidden to keep poultry within the walls of Jerusalem, 
and Maimonides says that the hour of cock crow was called in 
the Temple by a priest, who cried in a loud voice, * Let him who 
is bathed go forth.' The unlocking of the gates was performed 
in the presence of the ' Master of the House,' or prefect of the 
Temple. 

Lots were cast in the first place for the distribution of the 
offices of the day. The priests formed in two bands, each of 
which was preceded by the bearer of a lighted torch. The door 
of the principal court was then \inlocked. One turm, or band, 



THE HEBREW RITUAL. 109 

proceeded eastward, the other westward, waUdng around the 
exhedrse; .and the two turns met at the chamber of the maker 
of the sacrificial cake, which adjoined the great eastern gate of 
the Sanctuary, called Nicanor. 

The priest to whom it was allotted to cleanse the altar, first 
bathed his hands and feet with water from the laver. A silver 
thurible, or censer, was left at the foot of the ascent to the altar. 
The priest entered the court of the altar alone, and in silence, 
guiding his steps by the light of the fire on the altar. His 
movements were only made known by the sound of the wooden 
machine used for drawing water. He took the censer, ascended 
the altar, stirred the embei-s. collected the ashes, placed them in 
the thurible, and deposited them in the appointed place, at the 
foot of the Ceheshy or ascent to the altar. 

The other priests then entered, and, after bathing their hands 
and feet, took shovels and forks and ascended the altar. They 
removed the remains of the victims, and collected the embers 
into a heap, which sometimes contained as much as 100 cubic 
yards. They then brought the wood, which consisted of fig 
w^ood, nut wood, and fir wood, and arranged it on the pile. 
The wood of the vine and of the olive were prohibited, on the 
ground, accordingto Rabbi Ache, of not diminishing the product 
of the land of Israel. The ^ wood is explained by Bartenora 
to be that of the wild or sycamore ^ tree (Luke 13. e). The 
pyre was built with apertures like a door and windows. Mai- 
monides says that two fires were always burning on the altar : 
the great one, in which the daily sacrifice was burned; and a 
smaller one, called the pile of incense, from which fire was taken 
in a shovel for the morning and evening incense offering. 

The tract Yoma speaks of the lots drawn by the priests as 
four in number : the first for the decineration of the altar, the 
second for slaying the sacrifice, the third for burning incense, 
and the fourth for carrying the remnants of the sacrifices back 
to the pyre. The sacrifice itself required thirteen priests for its 
performance, according to the statement of Maimonides. The 
third chapter of the tract Tamid describes the distribution of 
the lots, at the invitation of the prefect of the Temple, who 



110 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

also directed the watcher appointed for the servioe to watch for 
the appearance of the dawn. When the man called out * light ! * 
the priests in the court enquired, ' Does it illuminate the whole 
face of the east, as far as Hebron ? * On receiving the reply, 
'It is so,* they proceeded to the sacrifice. On one occasion 
(Yoma 3. 21) the priest was deceived by the light of the moon, 
and the saciifice was slain before sunrise. When the error was 
discovered, it became necessary not only to slay another victim, 
but also to purify the priests from the legal defilement caused 
by the error. 

Six lambs were always kept in a place set apart for the 
purpose within the Temple, ready for the sacrifice. Before being 
slaughtered, the selected victim was carefully examined to see 
that it had no blemish such as would invalidate the sacrifice. 
This examination was made by torchlight for the morning 
sacrifice. The priests then brought ninety-three gold and silver 
vessels from the chamber of vessels, for the service of the day; 
and gave water to the lamb from a golden cup. The place of 
slaughter was to the north of the altar ; where, according to the 
treatise Shekalim, stood eight marble tables for sacrificial use. 
Every detail of the sacrifice is minutely described in the 
Mishna. 

The priest designated by lot for the decineration of the 
golden altar of incense entered the Holy House, which was 
unlocked by means of two keys. He carried in his hand the 
golden vase, called the teni, which would hold 2i cabs (a little 
over three quarts). This he placed on the ground before the 
altar. He then removed the ashes with his hand, placed them 
in the ten% swept and wiped the altar, and retired from t^ 
Holy House, leaving the vase on the floor. 

The golden lamp (called the golden candlestick in the 
Authorised Version) was eighteen palms, or nearly 48 indbes, 
high. A stone stood before it, having three steps, by whidi 
the priest, who entered the Temple for the purpose bearing the 
golden cup called the kos, ascended to trim the lamps. If he 
found the two. eastern lamps still burning, he left them alight, 
and trimmed the remaiidng five. Maimonides says that the 



THE HEBREW RITUAL.' Ill 

lamp nearest the veil was inscribed with the word * one/ and the 
others in order ; number seven being the eastward lamp. If 
numbers six and seven had burned out, the priest cleansed and 
trimmed the eastern lamps, and left numbers one and two until 
after the offering of the morning sacrifice. There is some 
difference of opinion as to the number of lamps that were kept 
.continually alight. The wicks removed from the lamps were 
left in the koa, on tlie second stone step, imtil the morning 
sacrifice had been offered, and the whole of the lamps trimmed ; 
and the teni and the koa were then removed from the Temple, 
There is a minute description given of the golden lamp in the 
3rd book of the Antiquities of Josephus (6. 6, 7), but that of Mai- 
monides is more closely in accordance with the Book of Exodus. 

When the portions of the victim had been duly arranged 
on the altar, together with the sacrificial cake, and the wine ; 
and salt had been put on the flesh, the priests assembled in the 
conclave of stone for the Shema, or morning pi'ayer, so called 
from commencing with the words * Hear, O Israel.' 

The prefect of the Temple first recited the benediction com- 
mencing with the words *By love eternal,' the other priests 
responding. The * Ten Words,' or the Commandments, were then 
read (during the time of the first, but not during the whole time 
of the second Temple). The disuse of the Ten Words was directed 
in order to discountenance the opinion of the Sadducees, to which 
this daily reading had given some apparent sanction, that these 
commands were the only laws which God gave to Moses on 
Mount Sinai. The reading of the * Hear, O Israel,' which 
followed, was succeeded by a lesson from the Law, commencing 
* And it shall be, if thou heai'ken ' (Deut. 28. l). Then followed 
tihe benedictory prayer : * O Lord our God, may the service of 
"^liy people Israel, and the sacrifices of Israe], be acceptable 
"fco Thee. Mercifully accept our prayers. Blessed be He who 
Lath pleasure in the service of His people Israel, because 
re serve Thee in Jerusalem.' The incense offering was then 
"xaoade ; and was followed by the benediction of the priests, pro- 
x^oimoed from the steps of the Temple porch. On the Sabbath 
A blessing on the outgoing course was added in th^ words, 



112 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

' May He whose name dwelleth in this house cause among you 
love, brotherhood, peace, and friendship ! ' 

The burning of the incense was the portion of the service 
of the Temple which was attended with the greatest feeling of 
awe. On the Day of Expiation, on which, and on which alone, 
the High priest entered within the veil to perform this rite, the 
greatest anxiety was felt for his safe return. In his notes on 
the tra^t Yoma (6. l) Maimonides says that many High priests 
had died, in consequence of some failure in the due perform- 
ance of the rite ; and the Mishna cited forbids the High priest 
to tarry long in prayer, lest he should alarm Israel. The in- 
junctions in the Law (Exod.. 30. 38) raised the fear that the 
smelling of incense by the priest might involve danger ; and 
the vessel in which it was taken to the altar was covered with 
a cloth as well as with a lid, to avoid this as far as possible. 
The function of burning incense on ordinary occasions was 
determined by lot among the Hadashim, or young priests, alone 
(Tamid 5. 6) ; as the blessing promised in the prayer of Moses 
was held especially to attach to this office (Deut. 33. 10, li). 
Thus no priest was allowed to draw lots for this duty who had 
already discharged it, unless on an occasion when there were 
none present who had never so done. 

The hupha, or vessel in which the incense was borne into 
the Temple, was a golden vase provided with a cover, and of 
the same capacity as the teni, 

A rare Jewish coin in the British Museimi (figured on. 
Plate I.), gives the representation of a vase which corresponded - 
to the description of the hipha. Only two of the vessels <^^ 
the Sanctuary were provided with a lid ; namely, the hupha and - 
the ten% both of which were used for the sei'vice of the incense ^ 
altar. The figure in question is thus limited to one of these ^ 
two vessels ; and the broad projecting lid would be suitable for -^ 
supporting the cloth which covered the kupha. Within this ^ 
vase was placed a patera, or dish, on which a handful of incense ^ 
was put for the service. The priestly family of Abtines had J 
the hereditary charge of making the incense, and also the ^ 
hereditary secret of the use of a certain herb, by the minglinjpS 



THE HEBREW BITUAL. 113 

of which with the other ingredients the smoke was caused to 
ascend 'in a column like a rod' (Yoma 5. l). The details of 
the mixture are fully discussed by Maimonides (in Keritoth 
1. l) and Rabbi Obadiah de Bartenora says (in Shekalim 4. 6) 
that 368 minae were annually used ; four for the use of the Day 
of Expiation, and one for every other day in the year. The 
mina in question contained twenty ounces troy. 

The priest 'found worthy for the thurible' took a silver 
thurible, ascended the cebesh of the altar, and took pieces of hot 
charcoal from the fire, of which he put three cabs, or about a 
gallon, into the thurible (cf. Isaiah 6. 6). Descending to the 
base of the altar, he transferred three-fourths of this live fuel into 
a golden thurible. As he passed with this between the altar and 
the porch of the Temple, a large golden vessel called the Pesachtar 
was struck, the sound of which was distinctly heard through all 
the courts. The priests and Levites arranged themselves in the 
prescribed order at this signal, and the prefect of the watch 
stationed the lepers, who came to be healed, at Nicanor, the 
eastern gate, that they might be sprinkled with the blood of 
the victim. 

The priest in charge of the teni now re-entei-ed the Holy 
Hoiuse, placed the ashes in the vase, bowed towards the altar, and 
left the Temple. The priest who bore the kos in like manner com- 
pletes the arrangement of the Golden Lamp. The third priest, 
with the thurible, then entered, poured out the live coals on the 
top of the golden altar, spread them over the surface with the 
extremity of the thurible, bowed, and left the Temple. The 
golden altar was 32 inches high and 16 inches square; and the 
quantity of embers taken was enough to cover the surface within 
the corona, or projecting rim, with rather more than 1 inch in 
thickness of live charcoal. The priest who bore the kupha was 
aooompanied by him whose duty it was to remove, and by him 
who had to bum, the incense. The former took the patera 
from within the kupha ; and if any incense was left in the latter, 
it was emptied, together with the contents of the patera, into the 
hand of the officiator. The prefect of the Temple gave the signal 
* Bum !' : when the High priest officiated, the pn^fect said, * Lord 

I 



114 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

High priest, bum ! ' The incense was then spread from the 
hand over the whole surface of the lighted coals, the three priests 
bowed, and left the Temple. While the incense offering was 
being made, the whole company of priests (Luke 1. 2l) retired 
from the space between the altar and the Temple. 

On the completion of the incense offering, all the priests 
took their places on the steps of the Holy House; the five who 
had performed the functions within the Temple being on the 
lefb, bearing in their hands the ^ve vessels, the teni, the cos, the 
thurible, the patera, and the kupha. They raised their hands 
above the head, and blessed the people with one voice, in the 
words, * The Lord bless thee, and keep thee, the Lord make his 
face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee ; the Lord 
lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace.' On 
the Day of Expiation the High priest pronounced in this Benedic- 
tion the sacred name, the Tetragrammaton, of which the sound 
is now lost. On all other occasions the word Adonai, Lord, 
was used instead. 

To the Benediction succeeded the Canticle, or chant of the 
Levites. A special Psalm was proper to each day of the week, 
reference being thus made to the days of creation. On the first 
day the Psalm was (Ps. 24), * The Earth is the Lord's, and the 
fulness thereof; * the i-eference being to the words, * In the be- 
ginning God created the heavens and the earth.* For the 
second day the Psalm (Ps. 48) was ' Great is the Lord, and 
greatly to be praised, in the city of our God, in the mountain of 
his Holiness ; ' the i-eference being to the words, * And Grod 
called the firmament. Heaven.' The Psalm for the third day 
was (Ps. 82), * God standeth in the congi'egation of the mighty.* 
That for the fourth day (Ps. 94), * O Lord God of vengeance,' 
That for the fifth day (Ps. 81), * Sing aloud to God our strength.* 
The creation of man, on the sixth day, was honoured by the 
Psalm (Ps. 93), * The Lord reigneth, he is clothed with majesty.' 
And on the seventh day was chanted the Psalm which still 
bears what in later times was called the rubrick, of * a Psalm or 
Song for the Sabbath day * (Ps. 92), * It is a good thing to give 
thanks unto the Lord ; * a Psalm which, the Mishna adds^ is to 



THE HEBREW EITUAL. 115 

be sung through all time, until the day when the Sabbath shall 
b© unbroken, and rest shall be in eternal life. 

During the chanting of the Psalm of the day, the prefect of 

the Temple stood by the south-west comer of the altar, with a 

linen cloth in his hand. Two Levites, with silver trumpets, 

stood by the marble table, on which the fat of the victims had 

been laid, with Ben Arsa, the hereditary player on the Tad- 

tsd (a musical instrument of percussion), between them. 

Thrice in the Psalm the prefect waved his kerchief, the son of 

Arsa struck the tsd-tsel, and the Levites blew a long blast, a 

tremulous note, and a long blast ; while the body of the priests 

bowed. The word * Selah,' which occurs about sixty times in 

the present codices of the Psalms, is best explained as being a 

musical direction to the cymbal players and trumpeters to raise, 

or * lift up,* the three blasts. 

'This is the order,' the Mishna concludes, *of the daily 
saaifioe, in the ministry of the Temple of God. To Him may it 
be well pleasing that it be speedily rebuilt in one of our own 
days. Amen T 

The tract Tamid does not refer to the variations between 
the morning and evening sacrifice, which must have chiefly con- 
sisted in the substitution of certain prayers. The evening 
sacrifice was ordinarily slain at the eighth and a half hour of 
tbe day, or half-past 2 p.m., and offered an hour later. On the 
Sabbath, it was slain an hour earlier. And if the Passover fell 
on the Sabbath, the evening sacrifice was slain half an hour after 
noon, and the first of the three Paschal lambs an hour after that. 
The use of the silver trumpets in the services of the Temple 
was a matter of great importance in the ritual. The exact note 
that was sounded was matter of distinct prescription. (Rosh 
Hashanah 4. 9). ' They never sounded the trumpets,' says the 
Mishna (Succoth 5), * less often than twenty-one times a day in 
the Temple : thrice at the opening of the gates ; nine times at 
the morning sacrifice ; and nine times at the evening burnt 
offering. When additional offerings were brought, they blew 
^^nae times more. On the eve of the Sabbath they blew six 
tunes more; thrice to interdict the people from work, and 

i2 



116 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

thrice to separate the holy day from the work day. On the 
eve of the Sabbath, during the Feast of Tal^emacles, they blew 
forty-eight times : thrice at the opening of the gates, thrice at 
the upper gate, thrice at the lower gate, thrice at the water 
drawing, thrice over the altar, nine times at the morning sacri- 
fice, nine times at the additional sacrifice for the day, nine times 
at the evening sacrifice, thrice to interdict the people from work, 
and thrice to separate the holy day from the work day.' If the 
eve of the Passover fell on the Sabbath (Bartenora on Erachin 
2. 2) they blew fifty-seven times. The use of the other musical 
instruments in the service will be explained in another chapter. 

On the Sabbath-day the only special addition to the daily 
iervice of the Temple was the offering of two additional victims, 
the sacrifices accumulating if a new moon, or any great fes- 
tival, fell on the Sabbath. The law of the Sabbath also so fax 
ruled the actions of the priests, that the ashes of the altar were 
not to be cast on that day into the sink, or canal, from which 
they coidd have been carried by running water beyond the 
precincts of the Temple. Even if one of the eight unclean 
reptiles were found within the courts, it was not to be removed 
until the following day, but covei-ed with the p^aachtar, or 
large vessel before mentioned. But the kneading, forming, 
and baking the shew bread, though involving three separate 
offences against the Law, was to be performed on the Sabbath 
(Matthew 12. 5), although not the grinding or sifting of the 
flour. 

Six days in the year came under the technical definition of 
Great Festivals, the regulations as to which very clcsely ap- 
proached to those for the Sabbath-day. These were, the Bosh 
Hashanah, or Feast of Trumpets for the new year ; the first and 
seventh days of the Passover ; the Feast of Weeks, or day rf 
Pentecost ; and the first and eighth days of the Feast of Taber- 
nacles. But the most rigorously observed of all solemnitieB 
was the Day of Atonement, — a great Fast which bore much iih« 
flame relation to the six great Festivals that the Sabbath did to 
the other days of the week. The entire welfare of the whole 
nation, and of every individual member of the same^ were held 



THE HEBREW EITUAL. ' 117 

to depend on the exact performance of the rites of that day ; 
'which not only had to be carried out by the High priest in 
person, but which further required a preliminary purification 
of the Pontiff himself for the space of seven days. 

"With regard to the Passover, the special observance of the 

family rite, which is incumbent on all Israelites, within or 

^thout the Holy Land, was distinct from the services of the 

Temple. On the appointed day the devout worshippers began to 

fill the Temple courts soon after midnight, in anticipation of the 

morning sacrifice, and of the addition of the day. The evening 

sacrifice was slain half an hour after noon. This was followed 

by three several sacrifices of a paschal lamb, in obedience to 

the words of the Law (Exod. 12. 6), translated * church,' * congie- 

gation,' and * Israel.' When the inner court was full, the gates 

were shut. The priests stood in rows ; one row holding golden, 

the other silver, basins, made without feet or rests, to prevent 

their being set down, and thus allowing the blood to coagulate. 

An Israelite slew the victim. A priest caught its blood in a 

basin ; and the vessels were exchanged from hand to hand until 

the priest nearest to the altar cast the blood on the foundation 

of that structure. When the sacrifice was completed, a second, 

and in due time a third, company of worshippers were admitted 

into the court ; the first band remaining within the precincts of 

the mountain of the House, and the second within the boundaiy 

called the Cliel (which surrounded the Court of the Women) 

until the last sacrifice had been offered. The hymn sung 

(Mark 14. 26) after each sacrifice consisted of the 113th, 114th, 

115th, 116th, 117th, 118th, and 136th Psalms. At nightfall 

the three bands of worshippers went forth together, and each 

man ate the Passover in the place which he had prepared for 

"the purpose within the walls of Jerusalem. 

The Paschal Feast is distinguished in the Mishna as includ- 
ing the Pasque of Egypt and the Secular Pasque. The former 
consists in the lamb, to be eaten in haste, and of which no 
fragments are to be left unconsumed. The injunctions of the 
t^entateuch as to this rule are carried out far more literally by 
the Samaritans than by the Jews, The Secular Pasque is the 



118 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

eating unleavened bread, involving the banishment of leaven 
from every house for a week. The preparation of the Passover 
superseded the Sabbath. Not less than four cups of wine were 
to be drunk during the supper. Over the first cup was said 
the benediction proper to the day, and also that proper to the 
cup : * Blessed be He who created the fruit of the vine.' When 
the second cup was filled, the son was taught to enquire of his 
father the order and meaning of the rite ; and the section of the 
Law, * A Syrian ready to perish was my father ' (Deut. 26. 6) 
was read. The lamb was explained to be in commemoration of 
the death of the first-bom of the Egyptians, and of the escape 
of the first-born of Israel ; the bitter herbs which accompanied 
it were in memory of the Egyptian bondage ; the unleavened 
bread in memory of the hasty flight. The * Praise ye the Lord * 
was then said, from the beginning of the 1 1 1th to the end ci 
the 114th Psalm. The benediction on the table was uttered at 
the filling of the third cup which was thus designated, although 
between the second and the third it was lawful to drink at 
pleasure. The fourth and last cup was filled at the close of the 
hymn. The * cup of blessing ' is the cup, at this as at any 
other meal, over which the benediction of the Creator of the 
fruit of the vine is said ; that is to say, the first cup. The 
paschal supper is not in abeyance during the absence of the 
Jews from Palestine. It is eaten at sunset on the 14th of 
Nisan, the feast of unleavened bread lasting to the 21st inclu- 
sive. The ofiering of the first-fruits was made in the Temple 
on the 15th, if not a Sabbath. 

The feast called that of Harvest (Exod. 23. 16), of WeeVs 
(Deut. 16. 6), or of Pentecost, is directed to be held fifty djasf^ 
after the wave offering, or day of first-fruits. A question suxr^ 
between the Pharisees and the Sadducees whether the word * ^3«^ 
bath ' in the precept denotes the first day of the festival, or- ^^ 
weekly sabbath. The Sadducees, rejecting the traditional e-^^P^ 
sition, maintained that the latter was the case ; and that *^ 
Day of First Fruits and that of Pentecost were both to be ^:^^^ 
brated on the first day of the week. The prevalence of ^ 
custom of the Sadducees at the time of the Crucifixion is atte^^^ 



THE HEBREW RITUAL. 119 

"by the celebration of the day of Pentecost on Sunday by the 
Christian Church, ever since that time. The festival was for 
one day only. The High priest then wore his golden robes ; 
and the proper sacrifices of the day were offered in the Temple. 
The offering of money made by those who came to Jerusalem 
for the feast might be made on any day in the week following 
the festival. The least offering that was legal at either of the 
three great annual feasts was three maaim, each of which 
in sDver, contained the weight of an English silver twopenny- 
piece of the reign of George III. The victims offered for the 
fixed rite of the day were twenty -six ; and thirty blasts were 
blown on the trumpets. 

The Feast of Tabernacles, the precepts concerning which 
are detailed in the tract Succah, lasted from nightfall on the 
14th, to nightfall on the 22nd, of Tisri or Ethanim, being a day 
longer than the Feast of the Passover. During this time every 
male adult Israelite, being in health, was bound to sleep and 
take his meals in a booth made of vegetable substances, and not 
less than 7 palms square by 10 palms high. Branches of palm, 
mjrrtle, and willow were borne by the people during the Feast 
of Tabernacles. The lulaby which was a young palm branch, 
the top of which spread like the top of a sceptre, and an ethrog or 
a citron, was carried on each day of the feast, except the Sabbath, 
as the ceremony of bearing these branches was .subordinate to the 
law of the Sabbath. The lulah and the ethrog are represented 
on some of the coins. 

The ceremony of pouring water during the Feast of Taber- 
nacles is in accordance with one of the precepts distinguished 
as the * Constitutions of Moses from Mount Sinai,' and is 
referred to in the Psalms and the Prophets (Isaiah 12. 3). A 
golden vase, which would hold three logs, or two pints, of water, 
was filled at the Fountain of Siloah, and borne with solemn 
rejoicings into the Temple. The silver trumpets and the 
shophars, or comets, were sounded on the occasion as before 
described. Two silver basins were placed by the altar, perfo- 
rated at the base, and covering two apertures in the marble 
pavement. Water was poured into the eastward, and wine 



120 HANDl&OOK TO THE BIBLE. 

into the westward, basin ; the priest being enjoined to raise 
his hands high, that the people might see the pouring of the 
water. The Sadducees disregarded the ceremonial, as not or- 
dained in the Pentateuch; and on one occasion a Sadducee 
priest who poured the water over his feet is said to have been 
pelted to death by the people with their citrons. Pipes were 
sounded throughout the festival, except on the first and eighth 
days, and on the Sabbath. 

At the close of the first day of the Feast of TabemadeB, 
great rejoicings were made in the Women's Court of the Temple. 
A golden candelabrum with four branches was there erected ; 
steps were placed by each branch, and four young priests, selected 
from the flower of the sacerdotal order, poured, into the recep- 
tacle suppoi*ted by each branch, oil from a vessel containing 
130 logs, or nearly eleven English gallons. The old girdles and 
other sacred vestments of the priests were torn into shreds, and 
used as wicks for these large vessels of oil ; and the whole city 
was illumined by the light. Men selected for the purpose 
danced before the people with lighted torches in their handsj 
singing the appropriate hymns. The Levites stood on the 
fifteen steps ascendiog from the Coui-t of the Women (to which 
the fifteen Psalms of Degrees were aiTanged to correspond), with 
trumpets, cymbals, kinnurs, nebels, and other instruments of 
music, and accompanied the chant of the priests. Two priests 
stood at the lofty gate of the Court of Israel, with trumpets in 
their hands. At cockcrow, they sounded thrice ; descending to 
the tenth step, they blew thrice ; on arriving at the level of the 
second couii), they blew thrice. Thence they marched, sounding 
as they went, to the eastern gate. Then they turned their 
backs to the East, facing towards the Holy House, and recited 
the Confession, ' Our fathers, in this place, turned their backs 
to the Temple, and their faces to the East, and bowed to the 
rising sun (cf. Ezek. 8. 16) ; but as for us, our eyes are to the 
Lord our Grod.' 

During the Feast of Tabernacles all the 24 Mishmaflroihy 
or vigils of the priests, were engaged in the services of the 
Temple. Each victim was ofiered by a separate band of priests- 



THE HEBREW RITUAL. 12l 

The thirteen bullocks, two lambs, and one goat, which formed 

the additional sacrifices of the first day, were offered by 16 out 

of the 24 bands, and the remaining 14 lambs were offered by 

the remaining 8 bands. On the 8th day of the festival lots 

were again cast for the distribution of the sacerdotal functions, 

as on other great festivals. This equal service of the entire 

priesthood occurred at each of the three annual festivals, when 

each Israelite, Levite, and priest was bound to come up to 

Jerusalem. When a great feast fell on the day preceding or 

following the weekly Sabbath, all the orders had equal shares 

in the distribution of the shew bread. 

On the third day of the month Tisri or Ethanim, according 
to the treatise Yomah, the High priest took up his residence in 
the chamber of the Temple called Pcdhedrin, Dui-ing the en- 
suing week he personally took part in each daily sacrifice. He 
cast the blood of the victims on the foundation of the altar ; he 
trimmed and fed the golden lamp of the sanctuary; and he 
burned the morning and evening incense : the object of this 
duty being to familiarize him with every detail of the service^ 
80 as to prevent any hesitation or error in the performances of 
the rites of the great day. When the High priest perfoimed 
these duties for the first time, it was the duty of the Elders 
of the Sanhedrin to instruct him in all the details of the rite, 
Mid to read to him the order of the ritual. During the seven 
days of purification he was not to fast ; but after sunset on the 
9th of Tisri he was not allowed to eat meat lest he should be 
tbe more disposed to slumber. During that night (between the 
9th and 10th) he was not allowed to sleep. He was to read, 
oj" have read to him, portions of the Books of Job, Ezra, or 
^lonicles. If he appeared drowsy, the younger priests were 
^'^structed to touch him with a finger, and to say, 'Lord 
^h priest, rise, and stand on the pavement ! ' He was thus 
hatched till the time arrived for offering the morning sacrifice. 
The altar, on the Day of Expiation, was cleansed and set in 
oitier immediately after midnight. By cockcrow the courts of 
t»ie Temple were full of worshippers. A linen veil was hung 
**fore the Beth Happarvah, or place of the High priest's bath, 



122 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

to screen the Pontiff from the view of the other priests during 
the five total immersions which he had to undergo in the course 
of the rites of the day. After the first immersion, the golden 
garments, and the crown which (according to Josephus, 8 Ant. 
3. s) had been worn by every Pontiff since the time of Aaron, 
were put on by him ; water was poured over his hands and feet ; 
and he slew the morning victim. He tlirew the blood on the 
altar, entered the Temple, burned incense, trimmed the golden 
lamp, came back to the great altar, and offered the head and 
limbs of the victim, the wine, and the sacrificial cake, himself. 
He was then conducted back to the Beth Happarvahf a^ain 
washed hands and feet, took off the golden robes, immersed 
himself for the second time, came out and put on the four 
white linen garments of the ordinary priest, and again sanctified, 
or bathed hands and feet. 

The High priest then proceeded to the space between the 
altar and the Temple, whither the bullock for his special sacrifice 
was brought. The Pontiff laid both hands on the victim, 
and prayed thus: * I confess, O Lord, that I have failed : I have 
rebelled and sinned against Thee, I and my house : I beseech 
thee, Lord, pardon my trespasses, and rebellion, and sins, 
which I have committed, I and my house before Thee, as it is-ja 
written in the law of Moses thy servant.' The priests re — 
sponded, * Blessed be the glorious name of His Kingdom for -* 
ever and ever.' 

The High priest then went to the north of the altar, and -1 
the western part of the altar court. Two goats were there, and J 
a golden um, in which were two dies of boxwood for the lots, * 
one inscribed with the Divine Name, and the other with the word 
Azazel. The High priest put his hands into the um, and drew 
out a lot in each, the position of the goats indicating which 
belonged to either lot. The Pontiff raised the hand which held 
the better lot, that of sacrifice, and it was held to be a happy 
omen when the * Name,' as the first lot was called, was held in 
the right hand. The priests responded to his act by the bene- 
diction, as before. 

A line of scarlet wool was bound to the head of the goat, 



THE HEBREW RITUAL. 123 

thus designated as the Emissary, or Scape Goat, and the animal 
was led to the spot whence it was to be conducted out of the 
Temple. Another thread was bound round the throat of the goat 
that was to be slain. The High priest then returned to the 
spot where the bullock stood, and again prayed, making special 
mention of the people of Aaron, or body of the priesthood, and 
pleading the promise that the rite of that day should purify the 
whole people from their sins. The priests again responded with 
the ' Blessed be the Name of the Lord.' 

The High priest then himself slew the bullock, and caught 
the blood in a basin, which was handed to a priest who kept it 
in constant movement to prevent coagulation. The Pontiff next 
ascended the altar, carrying a golden thurible, which would hold 
three cabs, which he filled with hot embers, and brought down 
to the court. The kupha was brought, and with the golden 
thurible in the right hand, and the kupha, filled with incense, 
in his left, the High priest entered the Temple alone. He 
advanced to the double veil, composed of two curtains which 
huBg, a cubit apai-t, between the Temple and the Oracle, or Most 
Holy Place. The opening of the outer curtain was on the north, 
that of the inner curtain on the south, so that no glimpse of 
the Most Holy Place could be visible in the Temple. The High 
priest entered within the veil, turned to his right, entered 
within the second veil, turned to his left, and came to the Ehen 
Shatiyah^ or Foundation Stone, on which in the first Temple, the 
Ark stood. In the time of the first Temple the High priest set 
down the thurible between the staves of the ark. In the second 
Temple, he placed it on the Foundation Stone. He threw the 
incense on the embers, until the whole place was filled with the 
smoke, bowed reverently, and retreated backwards from the 
spot. On retiring without the veil he uttered a short prayer ; 
hut he was warned not to tarry in the Temple, even to pray, lest 
the priests should be alarmed at the delay. So much awe 
attended this rite, that it was always a matter of fear that the 
High priest would not survive its solemnisation. The Pontiff 
then took the golden basin containing the blood of the bullock 
from the priest who held it, and returned a second time to the 



124 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE 

Most Holy Place. Dipping his finger in the blood, he sprinkled 
it once upwards, and seven times downwards, filing his eyes 
on the ground, and counting aloud. He then withdrew as 
before, and left the vessel on a golden pillar in the outer 
Temple. 

The goat was then brought to the place of slaughter, and 
slain by the High priest, and the same ceremonial was gone through 
with its blood as that which had been performed with that of the 
bullock. The remaining blood of the two victims was then 
mingled in the same vessel. The High priest then cleansed the 
golden altar of incense, which stood without the veil, sprinkled 
the mingled blood seven times on it, and threw the remainder 
at the foot of the great altar, on the south side, where there 
was an opening in the pavement, leading to a subterranean 
channel to the Kedron. He then returned to the scape goat,, 
laid both hands on it, and repeated the prayer offered over the 
victims. On this occasion he uttered in the prayer the Divine 
Name, at the sound of which priests and people fell on their 
faces, and responded as before. So much dread accompanied 
this uttei'ance that Rabbi Akiba said, that it was rather a sound 
than a name. The scape goat was then led forth over the bridge, 
and passed on from one conductor to another ; huts having been 
fixed at ten stations along the road from Jerusalem to the 
moimtain called Tzuk, where the animal was released, so that 
each conductor should only travel with the goat for a distance 
within the limit of the Sabbath day's journey of 888 yards. 
The High priest then offered on the altar the proper portions of 
the bullock and the goat, and the remainder was carried out 
fi-om the Temple, and burned in the appointed place without 
the city walls. 

The Pontiff then proceeded to the Court of the Women, to 
read the sections of the Law appointed for the day. He read, 
standing, the two sections * Achai-e mot' (Levit. 16) and * Ac 
Beasor * (Levit. 23. 27), and then, closing the roll, placed it on 
his breast, adding ' There is more here than I have read before 
you.' He then recited the 'Beasor' (Numbers 29. 7-11 ), and 
pronounced the Eight benedictions, on the Law, the Ministry, 



THE HEBREW RITUAL. 125 

the Confession, the Remission of sins, the Sanctuary, Israel, the 
Priests, and the Remainder of the service. 

The reading of the Law might be performed either in the 
linen garments, or in the pontifical robes. Having assumed 
the latter, whether before or after the ceremony, after a third 
immersion, and with the customary ablutions, the High priest 
then offered the ram for himself, the ram for the people, and 
the two yearling lambs. He then bathed for the fourth time, 
put on white linen robes, and offered the evening incense in the 
Most Holy Place, with the thurible and kupkaj as the morning. 
Leaving these vessels in the Temple, he bathed for the last time, 
put on his golden robes, returned to the Temple, offered the 
ordinary evening incense on the golden altar, trimmed the 
golden lamp, and completed the services of the day by the tenth 
ablution of his hands and feet. He then resumed his ordinary 
attire ; and was accompanied to his own house by his friends, 
for whom a feast was prepared in celebration of the happy 
completion of the rite of the day. 

The intelligence of the liberation of the scape goat was con- 
veyed to Jerusalem by the waving of kerchiefs from station to 
station. On one occasion the animal made its way back to 
the city, — an event which struck such consternation that it was 
afterwards the custom to push the goat over the precipitous side 
of the hill where it was set free, so that it broke its neck or 
limbs before reaching the bottom. The site of the precipice in 
question has been recovered, on a mountain in the Judsean desert, 
west of the Dead Sea. The name. Tzuk still lingers close by, at 
an ancient well by the old high road from Jerusalem, at a 
distance a little over six miles from the city. 



126 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS. 

The rule and government of the Hebrew people, as laid down 
by its great Lawgiver, were, above all things, hierocratic. With 
the exception of the space occupied by the majestic figure of 
Moses, the High priesthood is represented as the culminating 
dignity of the entire Law, so far as we find it uttered in the 
earlier part of the Pentateuch, or carried out in the firet five 
centuries of Jewish history. But while first in dignity, the 
High priest was not always the supreme judge. The Hebrew 
Senate, or Sanhedrin, of which we learn the regulations from 
the important Mishnic treatise of that name, was presided over 
by a Prince, President, or Nasi, who sometimes was, and some- 
times was not, at the same time High priest. A third func- 
tionary, who is also mentioned in the Talmud, was the Chief of 
the Fathers. Personal weight may, from time to time, have 
varied the relative importance ascribed to the holders of these 
distinct functions. Their origin is traditionally traced back to 
Mount Sinai itself; and the summons of seventy of the Elders 
of Israel to come unto the Lord (Exod. 24. l) is appealed to as 
the Magna Charta of the Sanhedrin. Of the Nasiim of the tribes, 
or * phyllarchs,' * men of name ' (Numb. 1. 16), we hear more in 
the Pentateuch than we do in the Mishna. The division of the 
kingdom probably tended to make the representation of the 
nation by the Senate, to a great extent, replace any purely tribal 
organisation. The Judges in the time before the Monarchy, like 
the Presidents of the Sanhedrin in later times, were sometimes 
High priests, as was Eli, and sometimes men of various tribes, as 
Gideon in later times. Simon the Just was High priest and 



THE GOVEBXMEST OF THE HEBREWS. 127 



Nasi, or presdent of the senate ; Antigonus the Sochean bein^ 
at that tune Chief d the Fathers. Simon was succeeded as 
High priest hy his brother Eleasar, and as President by Rabbi 
Jose ben Joeser. 

The power given to the priesthood, not for ritnal parposc^; 
alone, but also for those of goyemment, is remarkably illustrated 
by the institation of the war priest, or Sacerdos uiictus a<l 
heUum (Sotah 8. l), rrferred to in Deuteronomy (20. 2). Mai- 
monides writes : — * In time of war they appointed a priest 
who should speak to the people in war, and they anointed him 
with the oil of unction. This is he who is called the Messiah 
Milchama.' ^ The presence of the sons of Eli with the Ark in the 
field is consistent with this account of the war priest. The 
differences cited between the priest who was anointed with the 
oil of unction, and him who was clad with many garments (that 
is to say, with the eight sacred garments prescribed for Aaix>n), is 
said by both Maimonides and Bartenora (Megillah 1. 9) to refer 
to the fact, that the sacred oil prepared by Moses was exhausted 
by the reign of Josiah ; and that as it was held to be unlawful 
to reproduce any like it, neither king nor priest has been 
anointed since that date. 

The election of a king, in the 476th year after the Exodus, 
was sanctioned by oracle ( 1 Sam. 8. 7), although denounced by the 
prophet Samuel as the rejection of the Theocracy. The * man- 
ner of the kingdom ' was then prescribed, written in the book, 
and laid up before the Lord. In the Book of Deuteronomy 
(17. l4-20) are found certain laws to regulate the regal function. 
The description of the royal power and dignity which is con- 
tained in the treatise Sanhedrin is said by Maimonides in his 
commentary on the passage, to refer to the kings of the thii'd, 
or Idumsean, djmasty (who were unlearned in the Law). From 
the charge given by the prophet Jeremiah (21. 17) it is 
inferred that the kings of the House of David were members 
of the Sanhedrin. 

The dignity of the King, according to the Mishna, had thirty 

* Hilcluyth Melachin Umilohamay ch. 7. 



128 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

grades, while that of the priest had but twenty-four (Aboth 
11. 5). The eighth chapter of the First Book of Samuel is re- 
feri'ed to as the authority for the first statement. The King, 
according to the treatise Sanhedrin, neither judged nor was 
judged. He did not bear witness, nor was witness to be borne 
against him. He was not subject to the duty of marrying the 
widow of his brother, nor was his own widow allowed to re- 
marry beneath her rank. He was not even allowed to marry a 
widow, unless it were the widow of a king, as to which David 
(2 Sam. 12. s) was cited as an example. When any of his near 
relatives died, he was not to leave the palace. On the funeral 
feast for a king the whole people were to sit on the ground, the 
king's successor alone on a seat. 

In time of war the Eling intervened in the council of the 
senate. He was sole general. He might select what he chose 
from the spoil, not exceeding the half. The legal number of his 
wives was restricted to 18. He was not to keep a large number 
of horses for display (Deut. 17. 16), although the caution did 
not apply to cavalry for military service. He was not to accu- 
mulate gold or silver beyond what was required for the pay- 
ment of his servants and for the business of the kingdom. He 
was to write a copy of the book of the Law, which was to be 
his constant companion. No one might ride his horse. No 
one might sit on his throne. No one might use his staff. He 
was to shave and wash in private. It appears from the tract 
Sabbath (10. 4) that the command of the King in certain cases 
superseded the Law of the Sabbath; Kabbi Judah objected to 
the carriage of letters by the royal runners, or messengers, on 
that day, but Maimonides says that the decision was against 
Er. Judah. This explains the conduct of David, and that of the 
High priest Ahimelech (1 Sam. 21. 2; cf. Matt. 12. 8). The 
aim of the entire code of rules was the maintenance of the royal 
dignity in the sight of the people. 

On one occasion only, except on the occasion of his unction 
or coronation, the King took an officiating part in the rites of 
public worship. No one but a king of the House of David 
was allowed to sit within the Inner Court of the Temple. It is 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS. 129 

an example of the curious irregularity with which the Mishna- 

ioth have been arranged in tracts, that the account of this 

ceremonial is not to be found within the tract Sanhedrin, 

which treats of the royal dignity, or in the tract Suocoth, which 

treats of the Feast of Tabernacles, but in Sotah (7. s), the treatise 

as to the administration of the Water of Jealousy. At the 

close of the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles, in the Sabbatic 

year, a tribune having been erected in the Temple court, the 

King was seated there, the Khatsan brought forth the book of the 

Law, and handed it to the Head of the congregation, the latter 

handed it to the Sagan, or deputy High priest ; the Sagan to the 

Pontiff, the Pontiff to the King.. The King rose to . receive the 

ToU, and then sat to read the appointed lesson, which was from 

the beginning of the Book of Deuteronomy to chapter 6. v. 4, 

followed by six other lessons from the same book. He concluded 

by himself giving the benedictions, which on other occasions 

were uttered by the High priest. 

After the High priest, and the Messiah Milchama (if ap- 
pointed) ranked the Sagan, or vice High priest. If on any occa- 
sion the High priest was incapacitated for performing his func- 
tions, as occurred in the case of Matthias the son of Theophilns, 
on the Day of Expiation in the year of the Nativity (17 Ant. 
6. 4), when he was represented by Josephus the son of EUemus, 
the Sagan was his substitute. Next to the Sagan were two priests, 
called Kethilukin, or Catholociani, the meaning of which name 
is obscure. They were succeeded in dignity by the Amercal, 
or prefect of the Amercalim; a word translated by the title 
Chamberlain. The Amercal was the priest in charge of the 
Ws of the Temple gates, and his function so far corresponded 
*o that of the High Chamberlain at an Imperial or royal 
^^rt, a great officer whose badge of dignity is a golden key. 
^©xt to the Amercal, according to Maimonides, ranked the 
^fect of the Treasury ; then the Prefect of the Guai-d ; the 
■t'^fect of the Fathers ; and, lastly, the Gregarian, or ordinary 
priests, called the laos in St. Luke's Gospel (1. 2l). Under 
^ao Amercal were seven prefects of the gates. The treasureins, 
^^ Puhethim, are said in the treatise Shekalim to be not fewer 

K 



130 HAOT)BOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

than three. It is not clear whether they were different officers 
from the Kethilukin, of whom only two are mentioned in the 
Tosaphta. Under the prefect of the guard, 3 priests and 21 
Levites kept nightly watch in the Temple precincts; and we may 
catch the echo of the tread of the prefect in his nightly rounds, 
and the response of the vigil, in the 134th Psalm. The Prefect 
of the Fathers probably had the command of the fifteen prefects, 
who are mentioned in the treatise Shekalim (5. l), where the 
name of some ancient priest is associated with each function. 
These included the prefects of the vigils, of the offerings, oi the 
lots, of the tiuiile doves, of the sick among the priests, and of 
the fountains and water channels. To these had to be added 
the crier, who announced the time of cockcrow; the {Hiest 
responsible for closing the gates; and the prefect of €agd- 
lation, or provost marshal. There were also distinguished the 
hereditary office of the player of the tsel-tsel, or cymbals, 
the chief of the singers, the maker of the sacrificial cakes, the 
maker of the incense, the guardian of the veils, and the keq)er 
of the vestments. 

The High priest judged, and was liable to be judged. He 
bore testimony, and testimony might be borne against him. He 
was not to marry a widow. He might not follow in a funeraL 
The Sagan was to interpose between the Pontiff and the people. 
If the High priest had to mourn, the people called out * We 
lament with thee.' He replied, * Blessed be ye from heaven.' 
If he gave a funeral feast, the guests sat on the ground, the 
Pontiff on a low stool. 

The Great Sanhedrin consisted of 71 judges. The cases 
of an idolatrous tribe, of an accused High priest, or of a ques- 
tioned false prophet, were reserved for the decision of this 
tribunal. "War was not to be commenced without its authority. 
The limits of the city or of the courts of the Temple could 
only be enlarged by this Senate. The provincial courts, of 
which Josephus (14 Ant. 10, and 1 Wars 6) mentions five, 
were appointed by the Great Sanhedrin. No city could be 
condemned for idolatry without this authority. The Greats 
Sanhedrin sat in the conclave of stone, or Gazyt, within the 



THE GOVERNMExNT OF THE HEBREWS. 131 

court of the Temple.* It was expelled thence, by the Eoman 
authority, and lost its capital jurisdiction, 40 years before the 
overthrow of the Temple, or just before the date of the Cruci- 
fixion. There is no account given of the interference of the 
Roman procurators with any other court, before the outbreak 
of the war, or with the exercise of capital punishment by the 
Jewish magistrates, except for the above ofiTences, which were 
reserved for the judgment of the Senate, but as to which the 
Boman authority was profoundly indifferent^ 

The Bethdin, or smaller Sanhedrin, consisted of 23 judges. 
Capital crimes, which were 36 in number, were decided on by 
this court, with the exception of those above specified. The 
arrangement of the benches for the judges was circular, so that 
th^ could see one another's faces. Two scribes stood before 
thffln, on the right hand and on the left, who wrote down the 
sentence of acquittal or of condemnation. . The witnesses were 
cautioned by the judges before giving evidence, and warned 
that the blood of the culprit would lie on their heads if they 
gave false testimony. Special rules are given in the tract San- 
hedrin for the examination of the witnesses, at first apart, and 
afterwards confronted with each other. If, after the witnesses 
were heard, the judges differed in opinion, the decision of the 
majority was limited by certain rules.. If twelve were for 
acquittal, and eleven for condemnation, the defendant was set 
free. If eleven were for acquittal and twelve for condei^nation, 
two other judges were added ; and in case of need the number 
was successively increased to 71, so as to obtain a majority of 
two. A judge who had voted for condemnation might reverse 
his vote, but not one who had voted for acquittal. 

Witness was not accepted from gamblers, usurers, pigeon 
breeders, or those who traded in, or who eat, the fruits of the 
seventh year. The evidence of relatives and enemies was also 
unacceptable. The former included the brother, the father's 
or mother's brother, the husband of a sister or of the father's 
or mother's sister, the step-father, the father-in-law, the wife's 

' Maimoni^es in MaeeMy 1 . lo. 
K2 



132 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

sister's husband, with his sons and kinsfolk, or the step-son. A 
friend was defined to be such a person as a groomsman. A-n 
enemy one to whom the persons concerned had not spoken for 
•three days, on the ground of hatred. 

Capital punishment was inflicted by four different methods ; 
namely, lapidation, burning, slaying with the sword, and 
strangulation. Lapidation, the most disgraceful of these in- 
'flictions, was inflicted for 16 crimes, specified in the treatise 
Sanhedrin, including blasphemy, idolatry, witchcraft, and the 
breach of the Sabbath. Burning was lunited to two particular 
cases of infringement of the Seventh Commandment. The 
homicide, and the inhabitants of a city given over to idolatry, 
were to be punished by the sword 3 which was also the only 
-capital penalty that it was in the power of the king to inflict. 
Strangulation was the punishment for striking father or mother, 
for kidnapping, for the elder who disobeyed the edict of the 
Senate, for the false prophet, or him who prophesied in the name 
of an idol and for simple breaches of the Seventh Command- 
ment. 

Special provisions apply to the case of the refractory elde^^ 
Three tribunals existed, which successively took cognisance oF 
this offence. Of these the first sat at the gate of the mountain, 
of the House ; the second at the gate of the Court of the Women. ; 
the third in the chamber of hewn stone. These correspond to 
the three grades of judicial decision, by 3, by 21, and by Tl 
judges. An elder accused of false teaching, if liiought guilty by 
•the first court, was sent on by him to the second, and similarly 
by the second to the third. If, after condemnation, he continued 
to maintain his opinion verbally, he was not punished ; but if be 
carried it out in action he was subject to the penalty of it© 
law. 

A Jew was not held to be guilty of blasphemy, unless ^^ 
uttered the Tetragram/maton, or Sacred Name. In the examin*' 
tion of the witnesses, that name was not to be pronounced, 
unless the evidence was so conclusive that it was neoessaiy ^ 
dispel any doubt. The eldest witness was then told * Say 
exactly what you heard.' If he then uttered the forbidden word» 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS. 133 

the judges, who stood erect, rent their garments, which were 
not, in that case, to be mended (cf. Matt. 26. 66). The second 
and the third witnesses then said, 'I heard the same as he.' 

The place of execution was always at some distance from the 
place of judgment. An officer of the court stood at the door 
of the tribunal with a kerchief in his hand, and a man on 
horseback rode to and fro between the court and the place of 
execution. If at any moment before the sentence took place a 
witness in favour of the mminal reached the court, the kerchief 
was waved, and the prisoner was brought back for re-hearing. 
Even if the prisoner asserted that he could produce evidence in 
bis favour, delay was awai'ded, if ho gave any kind of proof. 
When arrived within ten cubits of the place of punishment, the 
culprit was urged to confess (Josh. 7. 8), the meaning of the 
institution being, that confession being made, and punishment 
inflicted, the Law was satisfied, and the future life and happiness 
of the offender were secure. At a distance of four cubits from 
the place of punishment, the clothes of the criminal were taken 
off The place itself was elevated to about the height of a 
nian. One of the witnesses pushed the criminal over, so that 
he might fall on his loins. If he was killed by the fall it was 
^ongh. if not, the other witness had to lay a stone on his breast, 
*Qd if death did not ensue, * all Israel,' that is to say, the by- 
^*&iiclers, had to aid in the lapidation (Deut. 17. 7). If the ex- 
ecution took place for blasphemy or for idolatry, the culprit was 
^^ himg upon a tree (Deut. 21. 23), but the body was not 
honoured by the rites of interment. Two tombs were appointed 
^y the Senate; one for the remains of criminals who had been 
*^ned or burned, the other for those killed by sword or halter, 
'^^r the flesh had perished in these repositories, the bones were 
*^lnoved to private sepulchres. The relatives of the criminal 
^ight lament, but not with a loud cry. 

The account given (Sanhedrin 7. 2) of the infliction of tho 
Ptmishment of burning is so utterly repulsive that we avoid its 
^production, even under the veil of a foreign tongue, and refer 
^hose who wish for particulars to the treatise above cited. As 
to strangulation, the provision that a soft piece of linen should 



134 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

be put round the hard cord used for the purpose, cannot be 
called a very material alleviation of the punishment, if, indeed, 
it was not a provision expressly introduced to make sure of the 
actual strangulation. 

Pecuniary questions were decided by three judges ; to be 
one of whom it was necessary to be either a priest, a Levite, or 
an Israelite of sufficient standing to be able to marry the 
daughter of a priest. Under the head of pecuniary questions 
are grouped together what we regard as criminal and as civil 
questions. Three tracts on these subjects, called the First, the 
Middle, and the Last Gftte, precede the tract Sanhedrin in 
the order Nezikin of the Mishna, which contains the greater 
part of the judiciary institutions of the Jews. Those who 
wish to learn what are offences of the hand, and what offences 
of the foot, will find them' clearly detailed in the three tracts 
in question. 

The treatise Sanhedrin, which contains the law as to 
capital punishment, is followed by the tract Maccoth, which 
deals with crimes incurring minor penalties. Of these the first 
is false witness, which is only a capital crime if it leads to the 
execution of the person accused. The punishment of exile for 
the unintentional homicide is here discussed. Some Mishnaioth 
are devoted to the definition of those who are to be beaten. The 
num'ber of stripes adjudged must be divisible by three. In 
certain cases, a portion of the sentence was inflicted, and after 
the wounds had healed, the remainder. The blows were to be 
given between the shoulders by a scourge made of four folds of 
a leathern strap. The culprit was tied by both hands to a 
column, and the lictor stood behind him on a stone, holding the 
scoiu^ge, of which the handle was to be a palm long, in one hand. 
A crier called out aloud the 58th and 59th verses of the 28th 
chapter of Deuteronomy, atid then the 1st and 2nd verses of 
the same chapter. If the culprit died under the lash the lictor 
was blameless, unless the scourge were not of the correct size. 
In that case the lictor was exiled. 

Any criminal who had committed a capital offence, and 
suftered scourging in consequence, was free from the heavier 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS. 135 

penalty. And this applied, not to the legal infliction of the sen- 
tence alone, but to the renussion of that Divine vengeance 
which was held to apply to crime actually committed, but as to 
which the necessary legal proof, by the accord of the witnesses 
produced, was not forthcoming. The tract Shebuoth (1. 6) 
explains that for all wilful sin, or impurity in the Sanctuary 
and holy things, the blood of the goat that is sprinkled within 
the veil and the Day of Expiation atone. For all other trans- 
gressions the emissary, or scape goat, makes expiation. For 
offences against a brother, compensation had to be made and 
pardon asked (Baba Kama 8. 7l). If the offended party died 
before this had been done, pardon had to be asked at his grave. 
But the treatise Sanhedrin concludes with the affirmation, that 
every Israelite is the heir of eternal life, with the exception of 
those who deny the resurrection of ihe dead, those who deny 
that the Law was given from heaven, and the Epicureans. 
Rabbi Akiba adds those who read foreign books; and Abba 
Schaul, those who pronounce the Sacred Name according to its 
letters. 

The Sacerdotal order of the Hebrew Government endured 
without material change, so far as can be ascertained, for nearly 
490 years, or ten periods of Jubilee, from the Exodus. The 
respective prominence of either the High priest himself, of 
the prophet, or of the judge, whose names are recorded in the 
historic books, appears very greatly to have depended on the 
personal qualities of the individuals. A sort of double head- 
ship was continued after the decease of the great legislator who 
was * Of Jeshurun king ' (Deut. 33. 5). The word Rosh, which 
is used a little later in this verse, whether it applies to the 
Tuembers of the Sanhedrin, or to the phyllarchs, or chiefs of 
the tribes, is frequently repeated in Jewish history in the sense 
of prince. In the Book of Numbers (2. 3 et seq.), the phyllarchs 
are denoted under the title of Nasi, which was borne by Simon 
III., (as appears from the coins), as the equivalent of the word 
Ethnarch ; which is applied to this Pontiff by Josephus, and 
which wag used by Archelaus on his coins. The word Sar is 
applied to the 'captain of the Lord's host,' in the Book of 



136 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE* 

Joshua. Tlie Shuphethim, Sophetim, or Judges, are called by 
Gresenius * leaders and magistrates/ and the word suffetes, applied 
to the chief magistrates of the Carthaginians (who were an 
Aramaic speaking people), is identified by that respectable 
authority with the Hebrew woi'd translated Judges. Abimelecb^ 
the son of Gideon, is called King ; and Jephthah is styled Katzin ; 
a word which, from its root, has probably a true military signi- 
fication ; as the word * captain ' is used, in its highest sense, 
amongst ourselves. These various indications of minor changes 
in the distribution of the executive power appears to be in 
harmony with the original institutions of the Hebrews. The 
first instance of profound modification occurred in the old 
age of Samuel ; and although the * manner of the kingdom ' was 
ordered by that great priest, his own disapproval of the change 
is most distinctly recorded (1 Sam. 10. 25 ; cf. 12. 17). The 
exact year of the anointing of Saul is not positively stated, as 
forty years is allotted to the successive or joint rule of Samuel 
and Saul. Josephus, indeed, makes the reign of Saul extend 
for eighteen years during the lifetime of Samuel, and for 
twenty-two years after his death ; but that distribution allows 
no time, as compared with the clear determination of the same 
period of the history, for the independent rule of Samuel. The 
commencement of the reign of Saul is distinctly attributed 
(1 Sam. 13. 1) to the first year of the week, and the most pro- 
bable date thus falls in An. Sac. 3745. That there had been, 
however, some breach or disturbance in the sacerdotal succes- 
sion, even before the sudden and coincident deaths of Eli and 
his two sons, is proved by the reference (1 Chron. 24. 3) to 
Zadoc, who was made High priest by Solomon, as being or the 
sons of Eleasar ; while Abiathar, whom that king thrust out, 
(1 Kings 2. 27), being a descendant of Ahimelech, and thus of 
Eli, was (1 Chron. 24. 3) of the sons of Ithamar. The conten- 
tion of the Samaritans that Eli was a heretic High priest is so 
far supported by these passages of the Bible, that it is clear 
that some interruption of the succession of the sons of Eleasar 
must have preceded the pontificate of Eli. A change in the 
place of the Tabernacle, or religious centre of the people, is statedl 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS. 137 

in the Mishna twice to have occuiTed within the period of 
sacerdotal rule ; but it does not seem as if this statement was 
founded on any information other than is to be derived from 
references to the several spots named in the Bible. The 
allocation of 14 years to the maintenance of the Tabernacle at 
Gilgal, 369 to its maintenance at Shiloh, and 57 to that at Nob 
and Gibeon, which are the periods given by the Mishna, leaves 
10 years unaccounted for between the crossing of the Jordan 
and the death of Saul, and 17 years between the former date 
and that of the capture of Jerusalem by David. 

With the overthrow and slaughter of Saul, in the Sabbatic 
week which completed the period of seventy weeks of years, or 
ten Jubilees, from the Exodus, the second phase of the Hebrew 
Monarchy, that of the hereditary kingship, commenced. The 
form of regal government then established may be regarded as 
existing for 460 years, down to the commencement of the ser- 
vitude of seventy years to the king of Babylon, An. Sac. 4219. 
But the period of the imdivided rule of any king of Israel was 
but brief. It can only be said with certitude to have endured 
from the death of Ishbosheth, son of Saul, An. Sac. 3766, to 
the death of Solomon, An. Sac. 3839. From the capture of 
Samaria by Shalmaneser, at the end of an independence of 290 
years, An. Sac. 4089, to the extinction of the Hebrew inde- 
pendence by the defeat and death of Josiah at the battle of 
Megiddo, by Neku, king of Egypt, An. Sac. 4210, a term of 120 
or 121 years, is the only period, after the death of Solomon 
during which the House of Judah even pretended to hold the 
hegemony in Palestine. 

The broad Hues which are thus traced by the Sacred his- 
torians afford a bolder and more easily grasped division of the 
history of the government of the Hebrews than do any minor 
events, important though they were to the actors, which circled 
round these cardinal dates. Thus the end of the First Monarchy 
may be, and has been for some purposes, differently dated. The 
battle of Megiddo was the actual close of the Jewish independ- 
ence. The depositions and deportations of kings and people, on 
at least five different occasions ; the eras of revolt and of sub- 



138 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

mission ; and the final destruction of the city, and burning of 
the Holy House, by Nebuchadnezzar, are all referred to ascer- 
tainable dates. So, again, with regard to the return from the 
Captivity, there are different eras of release. The death of 
Nebuchadnezzar, An. Sac. 4247, was the first of these, when 
king Jeconiah was released from the heavier burden of his 
imprisonment. The capture of Babylon by Cyrus, followed by 
the immediate permission to the Jews under Sheshbazzar to 
return to Jerusalem (Ezra 1. l), and by the laying of the found- 
ation of the Temple in the following year (An. Sac. 4273) is 
the second instance of improvement in the condition of the 
Jews. During the remainder of the reign of Cyrus, during 
that of his son Cambyses, and down to the accession of Darius 
the son of Hystapes, the restoration of Jerusalem was arrested. 
But in the 2nd year of Darius, An. Sac. 4289, seventy years 
from the invasion following the revolt of Jehoiakim against 
Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24. 2), the close of the ^indignation' 
was announced by the prophet Zechariah (1. 12) ; the re- 
building of the Temple was resumed ; and the dedication of the 
Holy House followed, four years later, in the 6th year of Da- 
rius, An. Sac. 4293 (Ezra 6. 15). 

An unrecorded period of fifty-five years (during which some 
writers, but not Josephus, consider the events narrated in the 
Book of Esther to have occurred) separate the Passover of the 
year 4294 (Ezra 6. 19) from that in the 6th year of Artaxerxea 
(Ezra 7. 9), An. Sac. 4349, after the lapse of 1,080 years from the 
Exodus. A descendant of Zadoc, Ezra no doubt had the posi- 
tion of chief of the Sanhedrin ; Joiachim, the son of Jeehoa 
(Ezra 10. is) having probably by that time succeeded his father, 
who was High priest in An. Sac. 4289 (Hag. 1. 1). The 
appointment of Nehemiah, as Tirshatha, or governor represent- 
ing the great king, followed, in the 20th of Artaxerxes, An. Sac. 
4363. The wall of Jerusalem wag then closed, during the High 
priesthood of Eliashib the son of Joiachim, the first Pontiff of 
whom any ascertained coins exist. With the close of the Book 
of Nehemiah, An. Sac. 4375 (Neh. 13. 6), the period of transi- 
tion, extending from the death of Nebuchadnezzar, closes, and 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS. 139 

that of a domestk; government, under the High priests and 
Presidents of the Senate, may be taken to commence. 

From at least the time of the 18th, down to that of the 33rd, 
dynasty of Egypt, the position of Palestine left it frequently 
exposed to the inroads of the kings of Egypt and of Syria, in 
their secular struggles for "supremacy. The Sacerdotal Govern- 
ment was not strong enough to hold its own ; and the harshness 
of the Syrian rule, under the 4th and 5th Antiochus, led to the 
national movement headed by Judas Maccabeus ; to the acknow- 
ledgment of his son Simon as Ethnarch of the Jews ; and to 
the assumption of the monarchy by Aristobulus, An. Sac. 4705, 
which date is accurately stated by Josephus as in the 472nd 
year from the Captivity. The Hasmonean line of princes, torn 
by family strife, was displaced by Herod, the Idumsean, who 
was made king by the Senate of Kome, An. Sac. 4770, and 
became master of Jerusalem, An. Sac. 4773. With the death 
of Herod, An. Sac. 4806, in the year assigned with the greatest 
probabiUty as the date of the Nativity, the independence 
of the Second Jewish Kingdom came to an end, after a brief 
duration of a century. Archelaus, the son of Herod, was 
allowed the title of Ethnarch alone, as we find it on his coins ; 
and although the title of King was enjoyed by Herod Agrippa, as 
well as by Agrippa II., the extent of their dominions, no less than 
the sovereignty of their power, were limited by the influence of 
the Roman Presidents of Syria, and of the Procurators of Judaea. 
The destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, An. Sac. 4879, in the 
1710th year from the Exodus, was the virtual close of the 
Jewish polity, although coins of Agrippa were struck as late as 
An. Sac. 4904, twenty-five years after the great catastrophe. 
The hereditary priesthood endured, in the first line (with the 
exception of the break from Eli to Abiathar), for 1,378 years, 
Menelaus, the third son of Simon II., being the 49th High 
priest. The second line, that of the Hasmonean Pontifis, closed 
with the murder of Aristobulus, the 57th High priest, by Herod, 
the husband of his sister Mariamne, in An. Sac. 4775. Thus 
the wh<^e duration of the hereditary High priesthood, including 
the period of 56 years, during which its functions were in abey- 



140 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

ance, was 1,506 years, in which time the pontifical robes were 
worn by 58 High priests. The shadowy Pontifis who were ap- 
pointed and displaced by the Jdumsean kings, or by the Boman 
governoi-s of Palestine, during the remaining term of 104 yeai-s 
for which the Temple was standing, were 26 in number, which 
allows little more than 4 years for the average term of office ; 
while the average time for which the hereditary priests held 
their dignity was about 25 years each. 

Of the Presidents of the Senate, no complete list is in exifit- 
ence. From the time of Simon the Just, who was both High priest 
and President in An. Sac. 4500, to the death of Simon the son 
of GramaUel, in the year of the destruction of Jerusalem by the 
Romans, the names of ten Presidents can be collected from, the 
Talmud, including both of the above-named Rabbis. This 
allows an average time of oflSce of 34 years, which is longer than 
that of the High priests. Among the latter, however, the suc- 
cession passed twice to three, and once to two, brothers ; while 
the great age attained by the famous Rabbis was proverbial. 
During the above term of 379 years the names of five of the 
vice-presidents, or chiefs of the fathers, are also known. Gama- 
liel the younger, the son of Simon ben GramaUel, was the fifth 
of the seven Presidents who wei*e dignified by the title of Rab- 
ban, or Great Master. He was succeeded. An. Sac. 4891, by 
his son Simon, cited in the Talmud as Rashbag, the father of 
the famous Judah the Saint, the codifier of the Mishna, who 
died An. Sac. 4998. Simon III., dying in 5010, was suc- 
ceeded by his gi'andson Gamaliel, the last of the Tanaim, 
or Mishnic doctors. He was established at Tiberias. The title 
of Nasi was borne by the Presidents who followed. And the 
principal rabbis and doctors of the law who were their contem- 
poraries, and who are known by the title of Amoraim, ai-e 
those whose names occur in the Gemara down to the close of 
the Talmud, in An. Sac. 5309. 

The temper and policy of the Sacerdotal Government was 
to some extent varied, from time to time, by the prevalence of 
the views held by one or other of the main schools, or sects, 
of the Jews. Of these three ai*e mentioned in the Gospels, 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS. 141 

four by Josephus, and as many as ten by the Talmudic 
writers. 

Of these, the most ancient was the great party of the Sad- 
ducees, which is traced in the Talmud to certain doctors of the 
name of Sadoc and Baithos, about the time of Simon the Just, 
An. Sac. 4500. Akin to this sect, which guided the counsels 
of the great High priest, Johanan II., or Hyrcanus, for the last 
years of his life, and which maintained supremacy for 33 years, 
was that of the Karaites, whose origin has been by some writers, 
dated as low as the seventh or eighth century, but who are 
mentioned by name in the tract Megillah of the Talmud. In his 
Comments on the tract Rosh Hashanah, Houtingius discusses the 
difference between the Karaites and the Sadducees, referring to 
the strict adherence of the former to the actual observation of 
the new moon. The central principle of these religionists was 
that of adherence to the written Law as the sole guide of faith 
and practice, and the erection of a barrier against those constantly 
multiplying * hedges of the law,* which from the early times of the 
Maccabees were insisted on by the rival party of the Pharisees. 
The reproach which was hurled against the Sadducees as to 
their unbelief of the future life, which may no doubt have ap- 
plied to many of the sect; was incurred by the advocacy of the 
doctrine that the Law give no distinct utterance on this point. 
With regard to this, it should be borne in mind that the reply 
given by Jesus to the question put by the Sadducees as to the 
future lot of the woman who had married seven brothers, did 
not take the form of citing any distinct precept, but was, as in 
the teaching of the Pharisees, made in the way of inference 
from the title given to the Most High as the God of their 
fathers. It is a remarkable fact, that the Jews who embraced 
Christianity are alluded to in the Talmud as Galilsean Saddu- 
cees, notwithstanding the fact that belief in the resurrection of 
the dead was the very central doctrine of their faith. This 
disbelief, as a theoretical opiuion, weighed less with the Phari- 
sees, as a matter to excite objection, than the refusal to adopt 
those outward rules of purification which were not made part 
of the synhedral law until after the introduction of Christianity. 



142 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The sect of the Pharisees, to use the words of the learned 
Abb6 Chiarini, in his French edition of the treatise Beracoth, 
originated in the reaction against the Sadducees and Karaites, 
in the early times of the Hasmoneans. Their main doctrines 
were the observance of the oral Law, the cultivation of tradi- 
tion, and the establishment of fences to the Law, or supple- 
mentary rules, the enforcement of which would render impos- 
sible the breach of any direct precept. To this was added, by 
their opponents, the reproach that they elevated tradition above 
the written law, and ceremonies above morality. The Phari- 
sees, according to the same learned author, consisted of seven 
schools, viz., (1), The Shecamites, or those who bore the Law on 
their shoulders ; that is to say, who were anxious to make a 
parade of their obedience. (2), The Niephes, or borrowers, 
who were in the habit of asking for loans of money to bestow 
on charity, or for religious objects. (3), The Kizeen, or Coun- 
tei-s, who enumerated the number of transgressions. (4), Those 
who pretended to renounce their fortunes in order to consecrate 
it to alms and pious works (as in the case of Ananias and 
Sapphira). (5), Those who asked their neighboims if they had 
done anything which required expiating sacrifice or compensa- 
tion (Matt. 19. 16). (6), Those who did right from the Fear of 
€rod. And, finally, those who, like Abraham, did so from the 
Love of Gk>d. Thus, out of the seven groups, at least five would 
fairly come under the designation of hypocrites. 

At the time of the Evangelists the main division, however, 
of the Pharisees was into the two great opposing schools of 
Hillel and Shamai : the constant opposition of which two cele- 
brated doctors turned on minute points ; and were supported by 
arguments of a character difficult to convey to an English 
reader. The main characteristics might be said to be, that the 
school of Hillel sought to lighten or alleviate, and that of 
Shamai to confirm, or as it was called aggravate, the Law. But 
even as to this, their opinions were sometimes reversed. The 
Hebrew words in question are respectively translated * destroy ' 
and * fulfil ' in the English New Testament (Matt. 5. 17). 

Among the other sects, the Gaulonites or Zealots, who are 



THE GOVEKNMENT OF THE HEBREWS. 143 

mentioned by Josephus, were the opponents of the Herodians, 
named in the Gospel (Matt. 22. 16); the former declaring 
that the Jews could not be the subjects aijd tributaries of any 
King but God ; the latter arguing that it is allowable to sub- 
mit to force in matters of conscience. 

The Hellenists, in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, adopted 
the maxims of the Greek Philosophy, and formed the crest of that 
wave of pagan influence the effect of which may be traced in the 
translation of the Law into Greek (for which a fast was subse- 
quently appointed), and even in the use of the Greek mode of 
writing from left to right, as is seen on a coin of Eleasar. (Plate 1 .) 

The views of the Mehistanites, — a sect dating its origin 
from the return from Babylon, are to be detected in the Talmud 
wherever the dual action of good and evil spirits is referred to. 
They were also addicted to astrological observances. The Mis- 
ramites, — a sect originating about the time of Alexander the 
Great, are betokened by their use of the numeric or graphic 
Cabbala, which is held to be of Egyptian origin. The Essenes 
are characterized by Chiarini as giving an all^orical sense to 
the Law of Moses, and as the authors of a great part of the 
Agada of the Talmud. The Therapeutes were a sect who 
placed supreme happiness in contemplation, and to whom most 
of what is called the Dogmatic Cabbala is attributed. 



144 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER VII. 

TAXES, TRIBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 

The Law of Moses regarded the produce of the soil of Palestine 
as the source of the wealth, and the means of the support, of 
the people. To the law of hereditary ownership, admitting a 
descent to females only in the event of the failure of male heirs, 
were added special provisions as to the reverting of the fee 
simple, of all lands which had been sold, to the representatives 
of the hereditary owner, in the Year of Jubilee (Levit. 25. lo). 

Private rights being thus secured by a special code of insti- 
tutions, the support of the worship of the Temple, the main- 
tenance of the priests and Levites, and the relief and support of 
the poor, were no less carefully provided for by the l^islator. 
Following the order of the treatises of the Mishna, which show 
how the precepts of the Pentateuch were actually carried out, 
we find that the tract Peah, the second treatise of the iPirst 
Ord'er, opens with the statement that no exact measure has 
been prescribed for the corner of the field, the first-fruits, or the 
appearance money, or offering to be made at the chief festivals. 
The first of these items refers to the precept (Levit. 23. 22), to 
leave the comer of the field, in the harvest, for the poor. 
Maimonides notes, that when the Mishna says, 'there is no 
fixed measure,' it is to be understood ' given in the Law,' but 
that according to the decision of the sages the portion thus left 
must not be less than the 60th part of the field. This, then 
may be taken as the first definite charge upon the land which 
was made for the support of the poor. 

The ' comer ' might be in any part of the field. The genei-al 
rule for its reservation was, * that what was edible fruit of the 



TAXES, TRIBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 145 

ep^rth, was watched, and was harvested at one time/ came under 
the law. The cereals and leguminous plants are named ; and 
among trees the fruit of the Caruba, the nut, the almond tree, 
the vine, the pomegranate, the olive, and the palm. It is inci- 
dentally mentioned in the comments on this Mishna that there 
were three quaestors, or officers, who looked after the obligatory 
annual payments. The rightful claims of the poor are detailed 
in this tract, together with the rules for the collection and 
distribution of the alms of the * dish ' and of the * basket.' No 
person had any claim to the comer, to the right of gleaning, or 
to a share in the tithes of the poor, who possessed an income 
of 200 denarii, or zuzse, a year, or who had by him at one time 
50 denarii that could be employed in trading. Who ever took 
alms beyond his actual right or need, would, according to the 
Mishna, be sure to come to beggary. And whoever, being in 
need, did not accept alms, might confidently expect to be able to 
nourish others, at his own cost, before he left the world. 

The rule for the tithe is more general than that for the 
comer of the field ; as it includes all produce of the earth that 
is eaten, and that is guarded, or not wild. The law of the 
first-fruits, of the objects as to which the decimation was 
doubtful, and of the intermixture of crops which might compli- 
cate the questions of proper separation of the portions due to 
the priests or to the poor, are discussed at great length in the 
tracts Trumoth, Demai, Biccurim, and Kilaim. The second 
tithes (Deut. 14. 22) form the subject of the tract Maaser Sheni. 
(Cf. 4 Ant. 8. 22, and Tobit 1. 68). Of these, the rules, as summed 
up by Maimonides, were that they were to be set apart ; that 
their price was not to be laid out in the purchase of anything 
but food, drink, or unguents; that they wei*e not to be eaten in 
a state of impurity, or in mourning ; that the second tithes of 
com, wine, and oil, were only to be eaten at Jerusalem ; and 
that the same rule applied to the fruits of the fourth year of 
the week of years. The second tithes were to be set apart after 
the separation of the first tithe. In the third and sixth years 
of the week the second tithes were given to the poor. 

The tithe of the tithes (Num. 18. 26) which was incumbent 



146 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

on tbe Levites, hss been thonght by some writers to have been 
intended as a provision for supporting the dignity of the High 
priest. Such does not appear to have been the case, at all events, 
in later times. But it was not an additional impost on the 
people at large. 

The minute provisions of the Law show how thoroughly the 
observance of the Week of Years entered into the daily life of 
the Israelites. It was not, as has been frequently assumed, 
merely the compulsory fallow of the seventh year, and the re- 
establishment of the hereditary ownership of the land in the 
49th year, that were enjoined. Each year of the week had its 
special character ; and the adoption of such an institution as 
that of giving the second tithes, on two out of every seven years, 
to the poor was in itself a guarantee for the regular observanoe 
of the cycle. 

The heave offering, or cake of the first of the dough, was 
another charge upon the income of the Israelite (Num. 16. 19), 
which is treated in detail in the tract Halah. Wheat, barley, 
spelt, oats, and rye, came under this obligation ; and it was for- 
bidden to reap them before the Passover. During that festival 
everyone was bound to partake of this cake, unleavened. 
Gleaning, the produce of the comer, and the first-fruits, were 
free from tithe, but were subject to the separation of this cake. 
Rice, millet, sesame, and legumina, and in general all produce 
of the soil that increased less than 20-fold on the seed, were 
free from the heave offering, although subject to tithe. A 
number of minute rules are given by the Mishna for the separa- 
tion of these minor oblations. The Biocurim were the first- 
fruits of the Holy Land, obligatory only while the Temple 
stood. Both the tithes and the Trumoth, or oblation from prepared 
articles of consumption, were incumbent on the Jews residing 
without the confines of Palestine. The former were presented 
in the Temple, the latter given to the priests when convenient. 
Imported fruits were subject to the impost. The quantity 
fixed for the oblation was the twenty-fourth part of the mass. 
But this probably applies only to the first preparation of the 
fruits of the year, as the Mishna states that the first oblation, and 



TAXES, TRIBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 147 

the oblation from tithes, the heave offering, and the first-fruits^ 
amount in all to one per cent. The circumcision of trees and 
vines, due on the fourth year of the week, amounted to one in 
two hundred of the value of the crop. The Biccurim were 
confined to seven species of plants, and were not to be brought 
in before Pentecost. For the minute details which regidated 
the whole observance of this group of duties, the student must 
consult the First Order of the Mishna. It may be estimated 
that the whole proceeds of the first and second tithes, together 
i?^th those specified annual offerings, amounted to a minimum 
of about 22^ per cent, on the net produce of the soil. Of this, in 
round figures, half went to the priests and Levites, one fourth to 
the poor, and one fourth waa devoted to meet the cost of the 
yearly visits to Jerusalem, enjoined by the Law. 

The tithes and oblations already mentioned were first 
charges on the product of the- soil, and varied, to some extent, 
in their incidence,, with the fertility of the year. In addition 
to these charges, a small money offering was obligatory on the 
great festivals, the amount of which was nqt fixed by the Law, 
but was determined by the Sanhedrin at the minimum of two 
percent, on the value of the holocaust brought by the contributor. 
There was a difference between the schools of Hillel and of 
Shammai a&to the exact distribution of the 'appearance money,*" 
and the Khagigah„or Easter offering ; but they are rated together 
at 3 silver maami, or 48 grains of silver, which is a little over 
the weight of an English silver six;pence. 

In addition to the foregoing charges, provision for the annual 
offering of half a shekel by every adult male, was made on the 
15th day of Adar is, the proyinces, o-nd on the 25th in Jeru- 
sal^n. This annual tax, prescribed in the Pentateuch (£xod. 
30. 12), was incumbent on every male adult Israelite on pain of 
death. The very elaborate provisions by which the payment 
was regulated according to the Sy^hedral L^w are to be found 
in the tract Shekalim of the Mishna. 

On the return from Babylon (Shekalim 2. 4), the Temple 
tax waa paid in Danes, or Medic money ; afterwards in Selaim 
(the heavier shekel) j then in Tebhaim (or half Selaim) ; finally, 



148 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the attempt was made by the people to pay only the denariasy 
or drachm. ^ Rabbi said (Buxt. fo. 2199), the common right 
has obtained to give «, tridrachm.^ This is the classic equiva- 
lent of the rigia, or stater, which St. Peter (Matt. 17. 27) 
was bidden to pay to the quaestors of the didrachm, or Temple 
tax, for his Master and himself. Most of the Kodesh money 
now extant is a little under the true weight of the stater and 
of the half-stater, the former containing as much silver as three 
English shillings. Thus the total annual money payment, for 
appearance money, Khagigah, and Temple half-shekel, amounted 
to about the same weight of silver as that contained in two 
English shilHngs. 

Of the civil taxation of the Jews under the Monarchy we 
have far less information than as to the Sacred imposts. From 
the passage in the Book of Samuel (1 Sam. 8. 11 to 18), which 
is appealed to in the tract Sanhedrin, it may be gathered that 
a third tithe was separated for the King. The passage in 
Ezekiel (45. l-s) which speaks of the consecration of a certain 
area of land for the support of the priests, and for that of the 
prince, allots an equal area to each. The income of Solomon is 
stated at 666 talents of gold. If by this is intended gold to 
the weight of so many ordinaiy talents, the value, setting gold 
at ten times the worth of silver, was 3,^30,0002. per annum. 
The number of adult males in tbe Holy Land at the time was 
over 1,300,000 (2 Sam. 24. 9), giving a rate of taxation of 
50 shillings per male, or about 125. 6d, per unit of population. 
The area of the land occupied by the 12 tribes was nearly 
7,000,000 English acres ; so that if reckoned as a land tax the 
sum in question would amount to nearly It)*, per acre. If we 
compare this with the valuation given in the Pentateuch (Lev. 
27. 16), of fifty shekels for the produce of a kor of land sown 
with barley, and allow for the relation then obtaining of between 
10 and 9 to 1 in the respective values of gold and silver, we 
come to an estimated value of from 4:1. 8«. to 41. 1 Ss, for the 
value of the year's produce of an acre ; the tenth part of which 
is close upon the result, as calculated in talents, in the 1st Book of 
Kings. The portion taken by Pharaoh of the produce of the 



TAXES, TRIBUTE. AND OFFERINGS. 149 

land of Egypt is stated in the Book of Genesis (47. 26) at one- 
fifth; the priests there being provided with their own land, 
which was untaxed. 

Thus a compulsory exaction of less than one-fourth of the 
annual produce of the earth, which was instituted under the 
Hierocracy, was raised to a taxation of somewhat more than 
one-third, under the Monarchy ; independent of any abuse of 
power. The diminution of the independence of the nation, 
after the death of Solomon, is strikingly illustrated by this 
estimate of the national income. A compact territory of 
some 7,000,000 acresy yielding a revenue of nearly three and a 
half millions sterling per annum,, was that of a politically 
respectable Power. But when this was divided into two hostile 
States, one containing a third of the area and five-eighths of 
the population of the other,, and each ready to enter into hostile 
, alliances for mutual injury, it is evident how little influence 
could be exerted by the kings of Israel or of Judah, and how 
utterly unable they both were, when thus divided, to resist the 
forces of either Syria, Assyria,, or Egypt. 

It remains to consider those contributions to the support of 
the services of the Temple which were either voluntary, or 
incurred in consequence of some family event, or of some 
violation of the Law ; as well as of that organization of the 
priesthood of which the details are given in the Mishna. 

The most clear and satisfactory account that exists of the 
Jewish Sacrifices is that given by Maimonides in his preface 
to the Order Kodashim of the Mishna. In this he cites both 
the precepts of the Pentateuch, and those of the Mishna, and 
laments that the neglect and ignorance of many of his country- 
men rendered necessary such an abstract of the Law. 

All sacrifices enjoined or permitted by the Jewish Law rank 
under four heads. They were either Holocausts ; Sacrifices for 
Sin ; Sacrifices for Error or trespass ; or Peace Offerings. Again, 
there was a fourfold division of the sacrifices, according to those 
persons on whose behalf they were offered. These were, first, 
public Sacrifices offered for the whole people ; secondly, private 
sacrifices for individuals ; thirdly, those sacrifices for the whole 



150 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

congregation which partook of a private nature ; and, fourthly, 
those private sacrifices which partook of a public nature. 

The victims to be offered were of five kinds : viz. sheep, 
oxen, goats, young pigeons, and full-grown doves. These 
victims, known as Zebahim, comprise all legal sacrifices, in the 
usual sense of the word. The Mincha, or Minchoth in the plural, 
which is usually translated offering, and sometinifis meat ofifeiv 
ing (in an obsolete sense of the word ' meat'), was an oblation 
of vegetable origin, distinct from, though usually accompanying, 
the slaughter of a victim. The term as applied to £our, or 
meal (as with the mola of the Classic writers), toincense, and, with 
the addition of the word nasik, to wine. The Mincha was of 
two kinds; 4ihat which was offered by itself, and thai which 
was offered together with a victim. In the latter case it was 
always accompanied by a libation, or offenng of wine, and so 
called the Mincha Nasikim, or Nesikim. 

The Holocaust (Lev. 1. I to 13) was ofieved either for the 
whole people, or for a private individual ; and consisted in the 
total consumption by fire of either of the legal kinds of victim, 
rams, bullocks, he-goats, or pigeons or doves of either sex. 

The Sacrifice for Sin was of two kinds. In one of these the 
*fat' (which word had a special technical meaning) was burned 
on the altar, and the remainder of the victim was eaten by the 
priests, within the courts of the Temple. In the other case, the 
fiesh was also burnt. Male or female animals were legal for 
this sacrifice. 

The proper victim for the Trespass Offering was a tram, of 
any age. After the fat had been consumed on the akar, the 
flesh was eaten by the priests, within the precincts of the 
Temple. A trespass offering was made for individuak, not for 
the whole congregation. 

The Peace Offering was either for the whole congregation or 
for individuals. In the former case, it was of beasts alone ; in 
the latter, of any of the four species of victims, either male or 
female. In the first case, the priests eat the residue within 
the courts of the Temple ; in the latter, the breast and shoulder 
were given to the priests, and the remainder was eaten, within 



TAXES, TRIBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 151 

the walls of Jerusalem, by those who offered, together with 
their wives. 

Of the public sacrifices, the first was that already described as 
tiie Tamid or ^ continual ; ' being a daily holocaust of two lambs, 
one in the morning and one in the evening, to which nothing 
oould be added, and from which nothing could be omitted ; the 
role being the same on the Sabbath, on the Day of Atonement, 
on the Great Festivals, and on ordinary days. 

On the Sabbath two additional holocausts were made, one 
after the morning, and one before the evening, Tamid. These 
were called the Additions for the day. 

On every new moon there was an addition to each daily 
sacrifice, consisting of two bullocks, one ram, and two yearling 
rams, offered as holocausts, and one he-goat as a sin offering, 
m5>.lring in all twelve victims wholly, and one partially, burnt. 
If the new moon fell on the Sabbath, the sacrifices amounted 
to fifteen in all. 

During the festival of Passover, an addition was made on 
each of the seven days of the feast, of two bullocks, one ram, 
«uid seven lambs, in holocaust, besides a he-goat as a sin offer- 
ing. On the second day, called the Feast of Unleavened 
^read, on which the omer was offered, a lamb was also added 
9IS a holocaust. 

On the Day of Pentecost two additions were made : one of 
^wo bullocks, a ram, and seven lambs, in holocaust, and a he- 
^oat as a sin offering; the other, together with two loaves, 
comprised a bullock and seven lambs in holocaust, a he-goat as 
« sin offering, and two lambs as a peace offering, making in all 
twenty-six victims on this day. 

On the first day of the year, beside the Tamid, and the 
addition for the new moon, was offered a bullock, a ram, and 
seven lambs, in holocaust, and a he-goat for sin. On the Day 
of Expiation the congregation offered nine victims in holocaust, 
and one for sin ; the he-goat in expiation of sin, accompanied 
by the sending forth of the L' Azazel or scape goat ; and a ram in 
holocaust (Lev. 16. s), according to the precept in the Pen- 
tateuch. 



152 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

On the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles there was aii 
addition made to the daily sacrifice of thirteen rams, two bul- 
locksy and fourteen lambs, all in holocaust, and a he-goat as a 
sin ofiering, making in all thirty victims. On each subsequent 
day of the feast the same offerings were repeated, with the ex- 
ception of the rams, the number of which was diminished by 
one daily ; so that on the seventh day of the festival the number 
of victims was reduced to twenty-four. But on the octave, or 
last day of this festival, the additions to the daily sacrifices con- 
sisted of a ram, a bullock, and seven rams in holocaust, and a 
goat as a sin offering. 

The above-named sacrifices are called the Additions, or Acces- 
sories, of the days to which they are proper. They might accu- 
mulate if the Sabbath, or a new moon, or both together, fell on 
a festival. The general itJc for regulating the order of the 
several sacrifices was, that the more common preceded the more 
unusual. 

The above are the sacrifices of the congregation, properly 
so called, from which no deviation was allowable. In so far as 
was necessary for their performance, they all superseded the law 
of the Sabbath. They did not include any peace offerings, 
with the exception of the two lambs at the Feast of Pentecost ; 
or any sacrifices for error. A special ceremonial attended the 
burning of the residue of the goat offered on the Day of Expia- 
tion, in an appointed place without the city wall, which the 
Tosaphta states was on the north of Jerusalem. 

From the above regulations it may be calculated that 1,022 
lambs, 103 rams, and 75 bulls were regularly offered in holo- 
caust in the course of each ordinary year of 12 lunations, 
making a total of 1,200 victims. In the embolismic years, 
containing 13 lunations, the number of victims amounted to 
1,276. All these were wholly burnt on the great altar. Be- 
sides these holocausts, the annual ritual demanded the sacrifice 
of 16 goats, 3 bullocks, and 3 rams, as sin offerings, and 2 
lambs as peace offerings, the flesh of which was eaten by the 
priests within the precincts of the Temple. 

The Second Order of Sacrifices, consisting of those for private 



TAXES, TRIBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 153 

persons, was classified under five heads : — Fii'st, tl\ere were 
those incumbent on every individual on account of anything 
which he had done or spoken amiss. Secondly, those due on 
account of any misfortune which happened to his person. 
Thirdly, those due on account of anything which aficcted his 
property. Fourthly, those proper to stated seasons. Fifthly, 
those incurred by a vow. 

Of the thirty-six capital crimes defined by the Law, and 
enumerated in the tract Keritoth, thirty-three, if committed 
unadvisedly, tuvolved the necessity for a sin offering. If any 
doubt existed as to the fact, a sacrifice for doubtful error was 
substituted. For the three principal offences, of blasphemy, or 
utterance of the Divine Name according to its letters ; of neg- 
lect to prepare the Passover in its season, including the removal 
of leaven from the house ; and of neglect to circumcise a boy on 
the proper day, no sin offering was admitted (Heb. 10. 26); the 
reason, no doubt, being the consideration that these offences 
could not be committed unwittingly. 

In case of a sin offering required for any breach of the law 
M to idolatry, the proper sacrifice was that of a she-goat of one 
year old, whether the offender were the king, the anoin ed 
priest, or one of the simplest of the people. In case of an 
oflfence against the Sanctuary, or the holy things, the appointed 
sacrifice was that of a ewe or a she-goat ; or, in case of poverty, 
of two young pigeons or turtle-doves, one as a holocaust, the 
other as a sin offering. If the offender were too poor to procui-e 
sven these humble victims, the law prescribed the offering of 
SQ omer of flour. In the above cases no distinction of persons 
▼as made. In the case of the remaining twenty-one crimes, 
the sin offering required was, in the case of the In'ng or prince, 
ft he-goat; in the case of an anointed priest, a bullock, which 
was to be burnt, and was called the * bullock offered for all 
pveo^yte ; ' and in the case of those whom the Law calls the 
* peo|^ of the land,' a ewe or a she-goat. 

For a Inreach of chastity with the female slave of another 
man, a ram was offered, under the title of sacrifice for certain 
SRor. For the offence of Maalah, which is translated pre- 




154 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

varication, or defraudal (Mark 10. 19, apostereaes), and which 
means the obtaining of any profit from hallowed things, a ram 
was to be offered, under the title of sacrifice for peshaa mcud, or 
maUah, * trespass of prevarication.' This, however, was only in 
case of an offence committed in ignorance ; as hallowed things 
could not be profaned of set purpose, but continued in i^eir 
sanctity. In case of false witness, if conscious, a ram was re- 
quired; if unconscious, the case was treated as an offence 
against the Sanctuary. 

The second kind of private sacrifice arose on account of acd- 
dents to the person, as in the cases of leprosy, issue, childbirth, 
or pollution of a Nazarite by contact with sepulchral remains. 
After purification from issue, the proper offering was two 
turtle-doves, or young pigeons. After childbirth, the proper 
sacrifice was that of a yearling lamb in holocaust, and a dove, 
or yoimg pigeon, as a sin offering. The leper brought two 
lambs, one as a holocaust, the other as sacrifice for the trespass 
of the leper. In these two cases there was an alleviation on 
the plea of poverty (cf. Luke 2. 24). A holocaust of two doves, 
or young pigeons, was due from a proselyte, after submitting to 
the rite of baptism. 

The third case of private sacrifice regarded property ; as in 
the cases of the first-bom, the tithes of cattle, and the first- 
fruits, each of which involved a peace offermg. 

The fourth case of private obligation arose from the recui^ 
rence of fixed seasons. Thus a holocaust was due from every 
Israelite at each of the three great annual festivals. To these 
were added the Khagigah and the peace offering of gladness, ac- 
companied, as before mentioned, by the two oblations, consisting 
of one and of two maaim. These sacrifices are called sponta- 
neous, and being of a private nature do not supersede the 
Sabbath. 

The fifth ground of private sacrifice arose from vows. The 
Nazarite, on the expiration of his vow, was to offer (Acts 21. 
24) a yearling ram in holocaust, a yearling ewe for sin offering, 
and a ram for a peace offering. Again, there was the vow or 
promise of a holocaust, or peace offering. If it was a particular 



TAXES, TBIBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 155 

am'tnAl that was specified in the vow, the maker of the yow 
was released if the animal happened to die. Lastly, the 
Eacharist was a peace offering of the same nature, intended as an 
expression of gratitude to the Most High. 

The above comprise all the sacrifices offered by private 
individuals. They differed from the public sacrifices, inasmuch 
ss they neither caused pollution, if touched, nor superseded the 
Sabbath. 

The Third Order of Sacrifices comprised those offerings which 
w^ere made after the order of private sacrifices, but on behalf of 
'the whole congregation or representative body of the people of 
Israel. Such a sacrifice was rendered necessary in the event of 
an erroneous decision on the part of the Great Sanhedrin, or 
national Senate ; any error on the part of which, aiiamg from 
ignorance, had thus to be expiated. If the second Sanhedrin 
(of twenty-three members), or the local or tribal courts, obeyed 
an erroneous decision of the supreme court, a sin offering was 
involved. It is explained in the treatise Horaioth of the 
Mishna that these offerings had to be made, severally, on behalf 
of each tribe that had thus ofiend^d. 

In case of idolatry, the proper sacrifice was that of a bullock 
in holocaust, with a he-goat as a sin offering. The goat was to 
be burned in the same manner as the goat on the Day of Expia- 
tion, under the title of the Goat of Aboda Zarah. 

In any other case than one having reference to idolatry, the 
prescribed sacrifice was a bullock as a sin offering, under the 
title of the * Bullock for the hidden offence of the Church ; ' or 
of the ' Bullock which comes for aU precepts.^ In each case 
this kind of sacrifice was incumbent on each tribe severally ; 
and the fiesh of the victim had to be burned in the manner 
prescribed for thasb of the goat of the Day of Expiation. But 
these saerifioes a?esembled those of private individuals, inasmuch 
as they neither superseded the Sabbath, nor caused pollution to 
those who touched them. 

To the Fourth Order of Sacrifices, those which, though offered 
by private individuals, had the character of public sacrifices, 
these two characteristics did apply; in accordance with the 



156 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

general rule that the sa<5rifice of which the time is fixed, supeiv 
sedes the Sabbath. Under this head rank the Paschal lamb, 
which was to be slaughtered on the 14th day of Nisan by every 
head of a house, and to be eaten by every Israelite, whether 
clean or unclean. The others were the bullock in expiation, 
and the ram in holocaust, which were offered by the Bigh priest 
for himself on the 10th day of Tisri. 

The foregoing are all the victims prescribed by the Law and 
comprehended under the name Zebahim, which we translate by 
the general term sacrifice, and which really includes the idea of 
slaughter. The general regulations affecting all these were to 
the effect that no victim could be offered which was blemished ; 
a word of which the technical value has to be sought in the 
Mishna, No priest who was blemished could offer a sacrifice ; 
a rule which led to the mutilation of Hyrcanus the Second, by 
the biting off his ears by his nephew Antigonus (1 Wars 13. 9), 
after the re-establishment of the latter by the Parthians, to pre- 
vent him from again acting as High priest. No sacrifice oould 
be offered unless in the dajrtime ; nor in any spot after the 
erection of the Temple, except^ upon the mountain of the House. 
We have enumerated those victims which, though slain in the 
Temple, were consumed without the walls ; and we must also 
here note the solitary case of the sacrifice of the Parah, or red 
heifer, which was slain and burnt on the summit of the Mount 
of Olives, directly opposite to the great eastern gate of the 
Temple. This, however, would be more properly designated a 
purificatory rite than an offering to the Most High. 

Maimonides fui-ther points out, in his preface to the tract 
Zebahim, that no female animal was offered in any public sacri-f 
fice, or sacrifice partaking of a public nature. The flesh of no 
sin offering was burnt, with the exception of the goat of the Day 
of Expiation, the goat of the Aboda Zarah, and the bullock for the 
liidden offence of the church. On the other hand, in private 
sacrifices, or those partaking of a private nature, only -female 
animals were slaughtered ; with the three exceptions of the 
goat offered by the king, if he required to make a sin offering ; 
>allock for all precepts, offered by the Messiah, or anointed 




TAXES, TRIBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 157 

priest ; and the bullock of the Day of Expiation. Nor, with the 
exception of the two last-named victims, was the flesh of any- 
private sacrifice burned. In all other cases it was eaten. No 
sheep or lamb was offered in expiatory sacrifices for the congre- 
gation ; no goat was offered in holocaust ; and no animal of the 
ox tribe was off^^ed for any private sacrifice ; with the exception 
of the two bulls above specified, of which the flesh was burned. 

It may be observed that, from our present point of view, 
the sacrifices of the Law may be ranked in three main groups. 
These were, first, the holocausts, which may be regarded as of 
the nature of thank offerings, in which the entire victim was 
burnt on the altar, and neither priest nor people derived any 
temporal benefit from the sacrifice. The cost of the holocausts 
was defrayed from the yearly half-shekel tax, or from voluntary 
offerings made in the Temple. Secondly, the sin offerings were 
somewhat of the nature of a fine, imposed for the benefit of the 
priests, to whom the flesh of the victims was given. Thirdly, 
the peace offerings were of the nature of festivities or private 
feasts ; the greater part of the victims being eaten within the 
walls of the city by those who provided the sacrifice. 

We referred to the Mincha, or offerings of a vegetable 
nature, which accompanied the slaaighter of a victim. 0£ these 
the Mincha Nadkim was made both for the congregation and 
for private individuals. It is explained in the book Siphri 
that the holocaust of a bird does not involve a mincha (Num. 
15. 4). From the same passage it is inferred that neither a 
sin offering or a trespass offering requires a mincha. Thus this 
addition is limited to the cases of the holocaust of a beast, of 
the vow, and of the free-will offering or Eucharist. Neither the 
sacrifice of the first-bom, nor that of the Paschal lamb, required 
a mincha ; but the leper's sacrifice, both that for sin and that 
for error or trespass, did require that addition. 

The Mincha Nasikim consisted of flour mixed with oil. 
The libation of wine which axscompanied it was to be unmixed 
with water. The whole addition was frequently called the 
Libation, because flour was never offered without wine, nor 
wine without flour. 



158 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The principal rules for the measure of iihe Mincha were as 
follows : — ^With a goat, or a lamb not more than a year old, an 
omer of flour, mixed with a quarter of a hin of oil, and aooom- 
panied by the libation of the third part of a hin of wine, was 
prescribed. The equivalent quantifies in English measures may 
be easily ascertained by reference to our Tables (See pp. 80, 81). 
This addition was made to each victim. For a ram, the quantity 
of flour was doubled ; that of oil and wine being the same. For 
a victim of the ox tribe, the Mincha consisted of three omers 
of flour, half a hin of oil, and an equal quantity of wine. 

The only exception to the above rules was in the case of the 
lamb'oflbred on the second day of the Feast of Passover 
(Numb. 28. 26) when the omer of first-fruits was brought. 
The holocaust of this lamb required the mincha of an omer of 
flour, mixed with the third part of a hin of ail, and aooom- 
panied by the quarter of a hin of wine. Th» sacrifice of the 
leper required three omers of flour, one for each of the pre- 
scribed victims. 

The Minchoth which did not depend on victims were of two 
kinds, public and private. The former was made on behalf of 
the whole people. There were three cases of public Mincha. 
The first was the * omer of agitation,' or wave offering (Levit. 
23. lo); a handful of which was burnt on the altar, and the 
rest was eaten by the priests. The second was the * two wave 
loaves ' of the Day of Pentecost (Levit. 23. 17). The third was 
the shew bread, which the piiests ate on the Sabbath. This 
consisted of twelve loaves, or cakes, each made from two 
omers of flour. The form of these loaves is described in the 
tract Minchoth or Menahoth of the Mishna. Each of the 
Pentecost loaves was seven palms long, and four palms wide ; 
and the horns of the loaf were to be four digits each. In 
the shew bread the length was ten palms, the width five, 
and the horns seven digits. The kneading and baking of these 
loaves, though not the grinding of the flour for them, supers 
seded the Sabbath. Half of the loaves were given to the High 
priest, and the other half to the remainder of the priests and 
Levites. 



TAXES, TEIBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 159 

The 'private Minchoth were of five kinds. The first of 
these was called the Sinner's Mincha. It was obligatory in the 
esse of anyone who had transgressed the Law in regard to the 
sanctity of the Sanctuary, or of holy things, or by rash swear- 
ing, or by false witness, whether of error or of purpose. If 
the offender was too poor to offer the proper saciifice, he was to 
offer an omer of flour, without oil or frankincense. A hand- 
ful was thrown on the altar, the rest was eaten by the priests. 

In the case of the administration of the water of jealousy, 
an offering was made of barley meal, without oil or incense, 
under the title of the Mincha of Jealousy. 

In the case of the vow to offer an Eucharistic sacrifice, or 
the completion of the vow of a Nazarite, loaves were to be added 
to the victim, but as the word * Mincha ' is not applied to these 
loaves in the Pentateuch, the special law of Mincha did not 
hold. If a priest brought the victim, he ate the accompanying 
loaf. If an Israelite, it was burned. 

The fourth species of private Mincha was that of the priest, 
ci which there were two kinds. The Mincha of the Messiah 
was offered daily, with the morning and evening sacrifices, on 
the part of the High priest. It is called in the Pentateuch (Lev. 
6. 13, in Heb.-14 in A. V.) the Korban Aaron. It was a cake 
compound of flour, frankincense, and oil, containing half an 
omer in measure. Secondly, the priest's Mincha was obligatory 
on every priest, whether the Pontiff or any of his brethren, once 
only in his life, that is to say, on the occasion of his first wear- 
ing the sacred garments. It consisted of an omer of flour, 
^^hich was wholly burnt. A priest was legally admissible to 
the sacred functions on attaining his legal majority, of thirteen 
years and one day. But the custom of the priests excluded 
the younger members of the order from the Temple until they 
attained the age of twenty. Thus we learn from J osephus that 
the last of the Hasmonean line of priests, *the lad Aristo- 
bulus, having attained his seventeenth year, came according 
to the Law to the altar, to perform the sacrifices, having on the 
ornaments of the High priest ' (15 Ant. 3. 3). 

The fifth species of this offering was the free-will offering. 



160 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

or voluntary Mincha. This consisted of meal, either of five 
species mingled with oil, or of two kinds baked as loaves or 
cakes, all of which are described under specific names in the 
Mishna. All these offerings required flour, oil, and frank- 
incense. A handful was burnt on the altar, and the remainder 
eaten by the piiests, unless the person offering was himself a 
priest, in which case the whole was burnt. 

The only remaining offering made in the Temple was 
Incense. Four aromatic substances are named in the Penta- 
teuch as components of the holy incense ; but the tract Keritoth 
of the Mishna names eleven species of perfumes that were to 
be mingled with the salt of Sodom and the amber of Jordan, 
by which is probably meant the rock-salt that is found on cli£& 
of from 200 to 300 feet high to the south of the Dead Sea, and 
the bitumen what floats on the surface of that lake. Of the 
ingredients named in Exodus (30. 34) three are resinous gums. 
The first of these, called nataph, ^ drop,' or gum, is probably the 
juice of the Styrax Benzoini, or gum Benjamin. Galbanum, 
the second, is a resinous gum, brought by traders from the 
Persian Gulf. The English Pharmacopoeia says that the plant 
which produces it is unknown, though seeds are found adhering to 
the gum. G^senius says it is the Ferula galbanifera. Libanum, 
the third ingredient, is known to us as a reddish, or hght yellow, 
gum, the Olibanum of the Pharmacopoeia. It is the product of 
the BosweUia thurifera, and owes its name to its milky white- 
ness when fresh and pure. The fourth ingredient given in the 
Pentateuch is the Shekheleth, or shell, translated Onycha in 
the Authorised Version. It was the operculum, or lid of the 
shell of a species of Strombua, which gives a musky odour 
when burnt, and is still used in the East as a perfume. Maimo- 
nides says, in his notes on the tract Keritoth, that to 60 minse of 
each of the five perfumes named in the Book of Exodus, were 
added myrrh, amber, spikenard, and safGx)n, 16 minse of each; 
9 minse of cinnamon ; and 3 minae of the kelepha, an unknown 
plant (the secret of which was confined to the family of the 
hereditary makers of incense), which is said to have had the 
property of making the smoke ascend *like a stick.* Three 



TAXES, TELBUTE, AND OFFERINGS. 161 

hundred and sixty-eiglit rninse were made in the year ; half a 
mina being daily burned for the morning, and half a mina for the 
evening incense offering ; and three minse on the Day of Atone- 
ment. To make up the specified weight would require the 
addition of 58 minse of the mineral ingredients from the Jordan 
Valley. Thus all the three kingdoms of nature contributed 
their fragrance to the scent of the incense which daily arose 
{rom the golden altar, and stood before the veil of the cella of 
the Temple, or Most Holy Place. 

Two Leskothf or closed chambers, existed in the Temple, one 
of which was called the chamber of hidden things, the other the 
chamber of vessels. In the first was kept the money which 
pious benefetctors put secretly into the collecting chests (Matt. 
6. 3). In the other were kept any objects of value, other than 
money, offered for the service of the Temple. The treasurers 
opened these chambers once a month ; and, selecting any vessels 
"which were suitable for the Temple service, sold the rest, and 
ai^lied the proceeds to the expenditure of the Sanctuary. There 
iirere thirteen different collecting chests, placed in different parts 
jbf the Temple, for different objects. The general receipts were in- 
vestigated thrice in the year: in the week before the Passover, in 
that before Pentecost, and in that before the Feast of Tabernacles. 
The money found was placed in chests, of the capacity of nine 
seawfi each, lettered Aleph, Beth, and Gimel. The priests who 
took the account were not allowed to wear shoes, sandals, phylac- 
teries, or a folded dress, so that they might be under no tempta- 
tion to secrete any of the coins. The money was in the first 
instance applied to the cost of the fixed sacrifices. The cost of 
the bridge which had to be erected for the burning of the red 
heifer, and of that annually raised for leading the scape goat from 
the Temple, are held by Abba Saul to have been defrayed by 
the High priest. Any residue from the offerings after all the 
legitimate costs had been defrayed are said by the Mishna 
(Shekalim 4. 4) to have been devoted to the provision of plates 
of gold for covering the Most Holy Place. 

For the regulation of the voluntary offerings there were 
four KhcUhemtUh, Sigils, or counterfoils used in the Temple, 



162 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLK 

inscribed respectively * bullock/ 'male,' 'goat/ 'sinner.* The 
person who had an offering to make went to the prefect of the 
Sigils, and paid the proper sum for the sacrifice and accompany- 
ing mincha. He then received a sigil, or counterfoil, on the 
production of which the proper officer su^^lied him with the 
victims, the meal, the oil, the frankincense, and the wine, as 
requisite. The institution of the sigils, as well as that of the 
Shot Khcunath, or tables of the money changers (which were 
provided in the Temple on the 25th of Adar, for the purpose of 
supplying every Israelite, who was then unprovided, with the 
proper coin for the payment of the Temple tax), was probably 
at once a matter of necessity for the literal accompUskmeait of 
the precepts of the Law, and an expedient very liable to abose^ 
in the absence of due supervision. Under the rule of a Sad* 
ducee High priest, the punctilious observances of the opposite 
party, the great advocates of tradition and of the unwritten 
Law, may have been so far despised, as to render those entrusted 
with the performance of the duty of aiding all who came to 
offer sacrifices in the Temple liable to the rebuke of turning 
the Holy House into a den of thieves (Matt. 21. is). 



ART AND SCIENCE AMONG THE ISRAELITES. 163 



CHAPTER VIIL 

ABT AND SCIENCE AMONG THE ISRAELITES. 

TfflE question of the state of the Arts, whether Kne or In- 

^strial, among the Israelites, is one to be regarded from tWo 

points of view. We may either enquire into such evidence as 

^ accessible as to the state and development of any branch of 

^ at any period of the Sacred history ; or we may endeavour 

^ estimate the effects lik.ely to> be produced on the secular 

8tt]fwth and development of such branches of art by the idiosyn- 

p^Usy of the Semitic mind, and by the influence of Semitic 

^^titutions. 

Commeneing with the simplest and most universal c^ human 
^■'Mis, that of Speech, it is presented to us in the Hebrew records 
^^ a state of much simplicity ; althoT:^h it is one considerably 
^^moved from the most elementary form, that of a monosyllabic 
clialect, such as we find existing among some of the Turanian 
^Uoes. Of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet the whole 
dumber have not been found together in any- ancient menu- 
luental inscription. The Beth, the Yau, and the Pe, the Zsdxk 
and the Tsadhe^ the Gaph and the Koph, the Samech and the 
Shin, the Teth and the Tau, are so &.r duplicates of one an- 
other, as to suggest the idea that the complete Hebrew alphabet^ 
as it now exists, is a compendium of the several al|phabets of 
different, though cognate tribes : a view which is illustrated 
by the use of the letter Shin by the Gileadites (Jud 12L 6)> in 
place of the Sameoh pronounced by the Ephraimites. Of the 
remaining 16 letters, those regarded as primary (in accordance 
with the Greek tradition as to the earliest number) according 
to Semitic scholars, are all consonants; the difference be- 



•mm «k 



164 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

tween the aspirations of the Aleph and the He, and between the 
-guttural sounds of the Elheth and of the Ain, being such as the 
inhabitants of Western Europe can hardly appreciate, still less 
attempt to imitate. The contrast between a language of con- 
-sonants, differing chiefly in the roughness of its several local 
•dialects, and the rolling music of the Ionic Greek or the 
modern Italian, is very jnarked. But it was not until as late as 
the fourth century of the Christian era that the attempt to 
attach the ten easily distinguishable vowel sounds to the written 
form of the Hebrew language took definite form, by the intro- 
•duction of the Points now used ; and it may be addediihat, without 
the Points, there is very little of what we call grammar in either 
the Hebrew or the Aramaic language. The defective repre- 
sentation of the vowel soimds, both in Arabic and in Egyptian, 
is such as to lead the cautious student to attach very little 
weight to any Hebrew translation or criticism that is dependent 
on the Points. In fact, it is hardly possible to study the Tal* 
mud without coming to the conclusion, that wherever it was 
possible to give a non-natural meaning to the Sacred Text by the 
mode of pointing it, or by some unexpected play on the words* 
there were always doctors to be found who were anxious to 
distinguish themselves by so doing. One instance, and a very 
fiigniflcant one, may be cited from the tract Beracoth,^ where the 
text * Wisdom erieth without,' (Prov. 1. 20) is rendered by the 
Gemarists ' Wisdom crieth like a goose.' 

With regard to Poetry, it is undeniable that there is a total 
absence in the Hebrew language, not only of rhyme (which is a 
late feature iu poetic form), but of any approach to metre. Oc- 
casionally we have a composition in the form of an acrostic. 
There is also the well-known habit of Parallelism, or of mi^lriTig 
the second half of a sentence re-echo the sense of the first, in 
somewhat different words. Neither of these efforts can be 
spoken of as affording any approach to poetic form, as it has 
been regarded by ihe greatest writers on the subject. There \$ 
apparent, indeed, sa has been acknowledged by so elegant a 
critic as Longinns, a wonderful sublimity of thought in many 

* Ze Tahnvd de Babylon^ vol. ii. p. 295. 



ABT AND SCIENCE AMONG THE ISRAELITES. 165 

/Portions of the Hebrew Scriptures. The expression of sublime 

ideas, and of profoundly reverential sentiments, in the simplest 

form of language, may be spoken of as something akin, or even 

Superior, to the highest poetic inspiration ; but it is not properly 

designated as poetry. 

Neither is it possible to admit <^ the existence of music, as 
^^^6 understand the word, combined with such a total absence of 
"^^Xietre, that no motive exists for what we call *^air.' The only 
^Xiethod of chanting unequal portions of prose, like the Hebrew 
I^salms, that was known till a very late date, is that peculiar to 
tilie Fellahin of Syria, and to the Coloni and Marinari of 
Naples ; namely, the continued repetition of a single note, ended 
by a long-drawn and generally very dissonant cry. If this be 
effected by a number of performers^ gifted with the mighty 
lungs that are formed in a life of constant exposure to the 
dements, the effect is wild, imposing, and overpowering ; but 
it is anything but musical. Nor are we left only to draw in- 
ferences from the absence of metre, or from the canto of the 
Mediterranean peasantry of the present day. We have accounts 
of the instruments, of the arrangements, and of the services of 
the Temple, which are inconsistent with any performance of 
what we now regard as music. As to the dcuninant instrument, 
the trumpet, we not only have the representation on the coinsj 
and on the- Ai*ch of Titus, of the long, straight tubes from which 
a single note and its octave are all that could be readily pro« 
duoed, but we have also the exact notation of the sound given 
in the Mishna, in the words Tekia and Twuah. As some doubt 
arose, in later times, as to the legal sound of the second, or 
broken note, a third combination, called Shebarim, was intro- 
duced, together with the former twa Thus the long-drawn 
note, followed by its octave, and then by a broken repetition of 
the same note, is placed on record by unimpeachable authority 
as the trumpet-call of the Temple. This, moreover, was on 
the most solemn occasions accompanied by the Shophar, or ram's 
horn, an instrument which can utter only one dismal and lugu- 
brious sound. 

For a knowledge of the musical instruments used in the 



166 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLB. 

Temple services, we are indebted to various independent 
sources. Certain instruments are named in the Bible. Full 
details of wliat are legal and illegal with regard to the number 
of these instruments, to the provision of cases, and to the permis- 
sion of carrying them into the Temple on the Sabbath, are 
to be found in the Mishna, and in the Commentary of Maimon- 
ides. Josephus (7 Ant. 12. 3) has spoken on the subject at 
some length ; and the monumental representations on the coins 
and on the Arch of Titus supply yet further information. 

The instruments of music used in the services of the Temple 
ranked under the main divisions of Nehiloth, or wind instru- 
ments, and Keginoth, or stringed instruments ; to which was 
added a solitary instrument of percussion. Of the Nehiloth 
tiie first instrument was the silver trumpet, a plain bell- 
mouthed tube, which Josephus says (3 Ant. 12. 6) was a little 
less than a cu^bit in length. Two of these were always used, 
and the number might be increased on festivals up to 120. On 
the new year the players on two trumpets were accompanied 
by two performers on the shophar, or ram's horn, an instrument 
which, for that occasion, was made out of the horn of the ibex, 
or rock goat, and furnished with a golden mouthpiece. The 
performers on the shophars stood between the trumpeters, and 
prolonged their blast after the trumpet note had ceased. On 
fast days the trumpeters stood between the shophar sounders, 
and the note of the trumpet was prolonged. The shophar used 
on fast days was made of a curved ram's horn, with a silver 
mouthpiece. The use of the horn of any animal of the ox tribe 
for a shophar was forbidden, in commemoration, it is said, of 
the worship of the golden calf. 

The haMy or pipe, called a/ulos in the Septuagint, whidi 
was played on in the Temple, has not been found represented 
on the coins. There can, however, be but little hesitation in 
identifying it with the arghiil, or double reed pipe, which is 
played on to the present day by the boatmen of the Nileu A 
pipe of this description is represented on the frescoes of Pompeii ; 
and Eaffaelle has introduced a boy playing on it before the 
altar, in his cartoon of Paul and Barnabas at Lystra. Another 



ABT AM) SCIENCE AMONa THE ISRAELITES. 167 

'ord for a pipe of some kind, the ahuhy is used in the Talmud. 
Bimonides considers that it was a single pipe made of a reed ; 
»ut Bartenora suggests that the abub was the reed mouthpiece 
the halil, and that the latter must, in that case, have been 
K3mde of metaL 

The stringed instruments used in the services of the Temple 
"^w^ere the Kinnur, or Cithara, and the Nebel, or ncM^ of the 
^Septuagint. The Talmud says that one of these instruments 
^oad more strings than the other. Josephus says that the 
csitbara had ten strings, and was struck by a plectrum, and that 
^he nebel had twelve strings, and was played by hand. But 
tihe Book of Psalms (Ps. 33. 2 ; 144. 9) mentions the mbd aaor, 
"which the Septuagint translates as the ten-chorded psaltery. 
Two nebels were always to be played in the daily services of 
the Temple, and the number might not exceed six. But of 
the citharse nine was the smallest number, and any number was 
admissible. The Tsd-tad, an instrument of percussion, the same 
passage states, was only one. In his comment on this passage, 
Maimonides says that the nebel had the form of a bladder, or 
gourd. In the tract KeHm (15. 6) it is said that the nebel of 
the ordinary singer is unclean, but that of the Levite clean ; 
and Bartenoi*a notes on this passage that there was an aperture, 
or resonance box, in the ordinary instruments, both nebels and 
kinnurs, in which the wandering performers were accustomed 
to coUect money in payment for their music ; but that the in- 
struments of the Levites were not so made as to receive money. 
The Ervs and the Bathncm are also mentioned in the Mishna as 
unclean. The former is explained by R. Elieser to be the tam- 
bourine, or ' table of one mouth,' and it is spoken of as a drum 
struck by two sticks in taverns and elsewhere. The hathncm is 
described as a hollow-bodied cithara. The coins represent 
different formed lyres ; one in the shape usually attributed to 
the Greek lyre, having either five or six strings; the other, 
with a longer hollow body in proportion to the length of 
the strings, having only three. The words Shoshannim (Ps. 
45. 1) and Sheminith (Ps. 6. l) may possibly refer to the six- 
gtringed and the eight-stringed cithara or nebel. In the 






168 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. .,.>^.' 

1st Book of Chronicles (15. 21) it is the kinuur thailt^ connected 
with the word Sheminith. Shalishim is another word of the 
same group, which may denote the thii^e-fitringed form ; but 
where it occurs in the 1st Book of Samuel (18. «) it has been 
translated Sistra by St. Jerome, and thus has been generally 
taken to mean a triangle. All that is quite dear is that two 
descriptions of lyre, varying in the number of stiings, one sort 
being struck by a plectrum, and the other twanged by tho' 
fingers, were in constant use in the services of the Temple. The 
kinnur, as intimated in the Book of Numbers (of. Bev. 5. 8), 
must share with the trumpet the title of the chanbcteristic 
instrument of the Levites. 

The Metailthaim (1 Chron. 13. 8), which are translated 
cymbals, are also mentioned in the Mishna (Succah 5. 4) 
among the innumerable instruments of music which were borne 
in the court of the Temple at the Feast of Tabernacles, with 
nebels, cytharse, and trumpets. The taeltadim of 2nd Samuel 
•(6. 6), probably describe the same instrument. In the early 
times of the Judges we read of the company of prophets 
coming down from the High Place (1 Sam. 10. 6) with the 
nebel, the teph, or tambourine, the halil, and the kinnur. 
In the 150th Psalm we find enumerated the ibex-horn, the 
shophar, the nebel, the kinnur, the teph (associated with 
dajicing), the strings (minnim) or stringed instruments, and 
the ugub, or wood instruments. The name of the tsel-tsel is 
twice repeated in this Psalm. 

The outcome of the whole evidence is to the effect that two 
descriptions of lyre or guitar were used in the Temple, and that 
there were different varieties of each description, as regarded 
the number of strings. The sound of these, and of the trumpets, 
horns, and pipes, when the latter were used, was timed by a 
great instrument of percussion, of which it is possible that a 
representation is given in an otherwise unexplained coin of 
Herod the Great, (See Plate II., Figure 10). But on the Feast 
of Tabernacles other instruments, among which the tambourine 
and the cymbals may be enumerated, were allowed to accom* 



Ali# AJp 3CIENCE AMONG THE ISBAELITES. 169 

JE^any the, &JoiciTig which took place, hy the light of the great 
Immps, in thiB Court of the Women. 

Another instniment is named in the Talmud to which no 

^^tinct. reference' has been found in the Bible, and as to which 

^^he accounts of the Cbmara and of the Toeiphta are conflicting. 

TjL'iiis was the Magrepha, which Bartenora says was a large vase ; 

^^^hile Maimonides is of opinion that it was an enormous golden 

^shovel, used for removing the ashes of the altar. In this case 

^t would be the vessel otherwise called the Fesactar, which 

cx)ntained four English bushels. The sound made by a golden 

vessel of this size, when dragged down the brazen ascent of the 

altar, or when drawn empty on the marble pavement, would 

have been most distinctly heard, and entirely different from 

any other produced within the Temple. In the tract Tamid this 

sound is said to have been heard as far as Jericho. * The priest 

who heard it hastened to worship, the Levite knew that he was 

summoned to chant, and hastened to his bench (or gallery), and 

those who had to present themselves for purification hastened 

to the eastern gate of the Sanctuary.' 

With regard to the artistic merit of the sacrificial vessels 
used in the service of the Temple, they are described, both in 
the Bible and in the Talmud, as being formed of the precious 
metals. The actual amount of the wealth thus accumulated, 
from whatever source we draw the estimate, must have been 
very large. It is obvious, however, that some very extraor- 
dinary misstatement — probably the fault of a copyist— must 
have crept into that passage of Josephus (8 Ant. 3. 7) which 
enumerates 10,000 golden tables; 20,000 golden phicdce and 
spondioB] 40,000 silver vessels of the Hke kind; and 10,000 
golden candlesticks. The golden thuribles, or censers, are 
stated in the same passage at 10,000; the silver thuribles at 
50,000 ; the richly embroidered vestments of the High priest at 
1,000 ; the linen garments of the other priests at 10,000 ; and 
the silver trumpets (of which the number of 120 is given in 
the Talmud as the largest used in the music at a high festival), 
at 200,000. If any proof be required as to the enormous exag- 
geration of these figures, it is supplied by the accompanying 



170 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

statement, that of the hin (which we learn from the Mishna 
was a golden vessel made to contain the holy anointixi^ oil, on 
the exhaustion of which it was regarded as tinlawfal to make 
any to supply its place), there were 20,000 examples in gold, 
and 40,000 in silver. 

We may, however, collect from this passage, as well as 
from other parts of the Bible and the Talmud, a general idea 
of the vessels used in the service, and formed of gold, of silver, 
or of electrum, that ancient and beautiful alloy of the two 
metals. These were, chargers to carry the flesh of the victims ; 
bowls or basins, without feet or rests, to hold the blood; 
oinochoce, or rather lekythi, which we may call pitchers or 
cruets, to hold oil and wine for the sacriflces; krath's, or gob- 
lets, into which the wine would be poured before it was thrown 
upon the altar ; and patercB, or similar vessels, in which the 
meal of the meal offering wa^ mingled with the oil. There 
were also the silver thuribles in daily use for the incense offer- 
ing ; the golden thurible used by the High priest on the Day of 
Atonement ; the golden vessel called kos, used for the cleansing 
of the golden lamp; the two vessels called teni and kupha, 
which were the only two in the Temple provided with covers, 
the first of which was used for removing the ashes from the 
altar of incense, and the latter for carrying the incense into the 
Temple for the morning and evening offering. The reason 
why these vessels were covered was the fear entertained by 
the priests lest they should smell the perfume (Exodus SO. 

38). 

With regard to the larger vessels — the incense altar, the 
golden lamp, and the table of shewbread — their positions 
within the Temple were such as to allow them to be seen by 
none, except the priests who drew the daily lot to enter for the 
services which we have in another chapter described ; who were, 
moreover, enjoined to keep their eyes bent on the ground. 
Of the brazen laver and the brazen implements for the service 
of the altar we have little information that can enable us to 
form a just idea. The seven-branched candlestick, the golden 
table, the trumpets, and one sacrificial vase, are represented on 



X&l AJrt) SCIENCE AMON^ THE ISRAELITES. 171 

« 

ihe bas-xeliefe rf the triumphal Arch of Htus, which com- 
memoTttted the oapture of Jerusalem. 

The coins give us the only known representation of any 
others of these sacred vessels. Of these the design is usually 
extremely rude. The cup, or koe, usual on the * Holy Jeru- 
salem * money, has even been thought to represent the brazen 
laver. It is sometimes shown with a projecting flat lip all 
round, sometimes as crowned with a row of balls, and sometimes 
with a foliated lip. The figure of the vessel which, from its pro- 
jecting cover, must have been either the kupha, or the teniy is of 
the quaintest and most archaic shape. The trumpets are plain 
tubes, but seem to have had moveable mouth-pieces, as there is 
some mark of a globular expansion to condense the vapour of 
the breath. A Diota, or two-handled vase, with what we call 
a gadrooned body, shown on a coin figured by De Saulcy 
(Plate X. fig. 1) may possibly be the teni] but it is not clear 
whether the projection of the top is meant to represent a lid. 
In the whole series of coins, the only vessels which evince 
any approach to the elegant outline of Grecian vases are the 
Uktfihi, or pitchers, which are found on some of the coins of 
Eleasar, and of Simon (presumably Simon II.). It would be 
rash to attempt to identify these vessels with the splendid 
ofiEering of King Ptolemy II. to the Temple, in the time of the 
High ^est Eleasar ; the more so because the two chief objects 
of the kind, each 16 inches high, are called krat^s, by Jose- 
phus, «nd the Greek kratSr approaches the form of the 
goblet-shaped vessel which we have called the kos. But the 
oocorrence of reeding, or gadrooning, on these vases should be 
compared with ihe use of the word rahdoais (12 Ant. 2. lo) 
by the Jewish historian. Greek feeling, at all events, is here 
evinced by ^e coins.; and the more regular position of the 
letters, and their inscription, on one coin, in the Greek mode of 
writing from left to right, betoken the same foreign influence. 

With this exception, the only figure on any Hebrew coin 
that evinces any artistic taste, is the vine-leaf, which so fre- 
quently appears on the coins before the time of the Hasmo- 
neans* This emblem is handled with a force and delicacy that. 



172 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

display a high order of artistic merit. It is to a certain extent 
conventionalised, but is treated with much variety. The Jewish 
palm tree, and the bunch of grapes, though less happy in their 
treatment, are of a style far superior to the archaic rudeness of 
the Temple staters. The ears of barley on a little coin of 
Agrippa have a good deal of character in their rendering. 

In regarding these few extant relics of Art among the Jews, 
it must be remembered that the highest school of Art was as 
inflexibly closed to their study as was the pursuit of philosophy 
or of science. It is foreign to the object of this work to enter 
into any debate as to the original intent of any precept of the 
Law of Moses. We have only to regard the institutions of the 
Pentateuch as they were carried out, under the legislation of 
the Sanhedrin, at the period of the completion of the Mishnan 
Thus regarded, the Jew was forbidden (as is the follower of 
Islam at the present day) to poxu^ray in any manner any 
animal form (Exod. 20. 4). Scientific surgery was impossible, 
in consequence of the utter prevention of any study of anatomy 
by the rigid rules that regarded pollution from the touch of the 
dead. Physic was regarded as connect^ed with magic (2 Chron. 
16. 12), and such remedies as a lump of figs for a boil, acid 
held in the mouth for the cure of the toothache, or the wear- 
ing about the person the tooth of a fox, extracted from, the 
living animal, as a preservative from that pain, formed the 
staple of the Jewish pharmacopoeia. The administration of the 
water of jealousy had entirely fallen into disuse at the time of 
the Evangelists. The highest idea that we can form of any 
advance of the Jews in those studies which tend to alleviate 
pain, to counteract disease, and to lengthen human life, occurs 
in an incidental reference in the tract Sabbath of the Mishna 
(6. 3) to the wearing of an artificial tooth. 

Even with regard to a subject in which the Jews have 
from time immemorial been regarded as adepts, namely, the 
manipulation of the precious metals, the analysis made, tinder 
the care of Dr. John Evans, the President of the Numis- 
matic Society of London, of five of the ' Holy Jerusalem * coins, 
denotes the absence of the most ordinary knowledge of the 



AKX AND SCIENCE AMONG THE ISRAELITES. 173 

purity of metoly at all events in the makers of the coins in- 
trusted to that analysis. The specific gravity of four of these 
pieces varied from 10*146 to 10*527 ; and the sample actually 
tested contained 0*676 per cent, of gold ; a preparation which 
is worth more than 10 per cent, of the nominal value of the 
coin. It is by the light of such facts as these that we must 
read the glowing accounts given by such writers as Josephus of 
anything relating to Art among the Jews. 

The earHest dated specimen of Aramaic writing at present 
known, is that on the Diban Stele, or Moabite Stone, which was 
discovered by the Rev. Mr. Klein in August 1868. The iden- 
tification of the King of Moab named on this inscription with 
the Mesha of the 2nd Book of Kings (3. 4) carries back the 
date of this monument to a period anterior to An. Sac. 3933. 
Phoenician letters found, together with cuneiform, on weights 
recovered from Nineveh, are thought by Assyriologists to 
date within 20 yeai*s of this time. The forms of the letters are 
dlosely similar in these two distinct records, the chief difference 
being in the Yod, which on the Nineveh weights has a form that 
oocors on some of the coins. In both these early types the 
horns of the Cheth project beyond the body of the letter, and 
the Shin is in the form of a W. A rounder or more cursive 
character is displayed by the inscriptions of Eshmunazar, 
king of Zidon, dated by the Due de Lu3mes about An. Sac. 
4200, in which the form of the Shin approaches that of the 
small Greek omega. The Cheth retains its horns, but has three 
crossbars instead of two. In the coin which bears the name of 
Eliashib, the Beth, the Yod, and the Shin, more closely resemble 
the Diban types than do those of the later coins. The Zain on 
the coins of Eleasar has a square head, such as is nowhere else 
found, and the Nun on these coins is also a special form. The 
Shin of Eleasar is almost exactly in the form of the Greek 
omega. (See Table of Alphabets) 

The question of the date of the introduction of the bold square 
character, which is now usually called Hebrew, is one that has 
given rise to much discussion. That this character has been 
exclusively used for the transcription of the sacred rolls since the 



174 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

time of £l2sra is the distinct testimony of the Talmud. In the 
Ueuiai^a on the tract Sanhedrin (f. 21. 22) both the Jerusalem and 
the Babylon Talmuds speak of the Sacred or Ashuri character, 
as so called because brought by Ezra from Assyria. But Babhi 
Judah derives this word from a root meaning blessed, in which 
he is supported by the great authority of Maimonides, who re- 
garded the word as implying the sacred character of this mode 
of writing. Such, perhaps, may have been intended by the 
expression Catheb horElohim (Exod. 32. le). The connection 
of the word Ashuri with a root meaning straight, or right (cf. 
Ps. 33. 4 ; Deut. 32. 4) is by no means inconsistent with this 
derivation. The idea that the square letters were in use among 
the Magi, or Chaldeans of Babylon, is one that has long pre- 
vailed, and the Aramaic parts of the Books of Daniel and of 
Ezra are usually spoken of as Chaldee. But the records of 
Nineveh and of Babylon are now known to have been written 
in the cuneiform character, which bears no resemblance whatever 
to any form of Hebrew, Samaritan, or Aramaie ; and the PIub- 
nioian or Aramaic writing found in recent Mesopotamian re- 
searches has been, (with the exception of inscriptions, r^^arded 
as magical, on some terra cotta dishes), of the broken, and not 
of the squai'e type. 

It is not safe to attach much weight to that Jewish tradition 
which identifies the character used on Mount Sinai with the 
square Hebrew by a reference to the special forms of the 
Samech, and of the final Mim, which together recur twenty-four 
times in the Decalogue. On ihe other hand, we are without 
the slightest information, either literary or palseographic, of the 
origin of the square letters, although their forms, with the ex- 
ception of the Ain, are generally such as to allow of their deri- 
vation either from the Aramaic or Phosnician, or from some 
common ancestral, type. But it is little consistent with the 
intense veneration for antiquity which characterised the Semitic 
people to conclude, without some distinct evidence, that at the 
period of the return from Babylon a change ui the character used 
in writing the sacred rolls of the law could have been intro- 
diMed. 



ART AND SCIENCE AMONG THE ISRAELITES. 175 

The date of the Translation of the Law during the High 
T^riesthood of Eleasar is considerably within the time as to 
which we have the distinct testimony of the Mishna that the 
Ashuri letters were used. But it is still not without inter«^ 
to remark, that not a few of the various readings in the LXX. 
version are readily explained as being the results of mistakes 
between two letters which, in square Hebrew, but not in 
Aramaic, are closely alike, such as the Daleth and the Besh. 
A similar remark, which has been made as to the Samaritan 
Pentateuch, has been used as an argument for the theory of 
the late date of this version. It may be regarded, on the other 
hand, as an evidence of the antiquity of the Ashuri writing. 
It should be observed that the word ' Hebrew * in the Mishna 
when applied to writing, always means Aramaic (cf. Acts 21. 40 ; 
John 19. 20). 

Precise rules are laid down in the Mishna as to the method 
of writing the sacred rolls of the Law, and further details are 
to be found in the additional treatise to the Babylonian Talmud, 
called Massiketh Sopherim. The material to be used was not 
to be papyrus, or paper, but either Gebil, which is usually trans- 
lated parchment, but which, from comparison of the existing rolls, 
it appears, would be more correctly called leather, or Khdlaph 
or DttcsfistilSf which is translated vellum, and which is described 
as formed of the inner side of the skin of the sheep. The letters 
were to be of the Atshuri or square form, and written in ink, 
and not in gold or in colours. The minutest directions are given 
as to the special mode of breaking the lines, of writing the 
Divine Name, and of maintaining certain calligraphic peculia- 
rities to which a definite meaning was attached. Among the 
most interesting of these rules are those for the addition to seven 
letters, namely, Beth, Vau, Teth, Caph, Ain, Tsadhe, and Shin, of 
the crowns, or keraice of the Evangelists, as to which it was said 
(Luke 16. 17) that it is more easy for heaven and earth to pass 
away than for one keraia of the Law to fall. 

The final seal to the special character of the philosophy and 
learning of the Jew, as defined by the legislation of the San^ 
hedrin, is imposed by the 1st Mishna of the 11th chapter of 



176 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the judiciary treatise Sanhedrin. Every Israelite, it is there 
declared, is an heir of immortal life ; with the exception of 
those who deny the resurrection, of those who deny that the 
Law was given from heaven, and of the Epicurean. Babbi 
Akiba adds, that he who reads foreign books is included in 
the tremendous exception; and Bartenora explains that the 
foreign books proscribed are those of Aristotle and his followers, 
the chronicles of Gentile kings, and the amatory verses of the 
poets. The injunction of Scripture on the subject was declared 
by another great Babbi from the 2nd verse of the 1st Psalnu 
The man who is there described as blessed is one who n^editates 
day and night in the Law of the Lord. * Find the hour which 
is neither day nor night, and in that you may without o£fenoQ 
study heathen writings.' 



DESCBIPTION OF JEWISH COINS. 177 



TABLE XL 

DESCRIPTION OF JEWISH COINS. PERIOD AN. SAC. 

4376 TO AN. SAC. 4904. 

PLATE I. 

An. Sac. 1. OOPPBR CoiN. 

about 

4375 Gbversei alisb h c h k, . ' Eliashib the Priest,' with palm 
tree. 
Reverse :sifT aht lgult. * Year one, For redemption,* 
with bunch of grapes. Probably a Shemun, or tweKth 
part of an Asper (p. 65), of Eliashib. 

2. Copper Coin. 

4529 Ohv, '.ALOZBHCHN. ' Eleasar the Priest/ with palm 
tree. 
Rev. : SNT AHT LGULT I8R, with bunch of grapes. 
' Year one, For redemption, Israel.' Shemwn of Eleazar H. 

3. Copper Coin. 

Oh). : Kapha, or covered vase, s N t s L tj s. * Year three.' 
Rev. : Vine leaf, hrtjt zitjn. * Stamp, Ziun.' Anony- 
mous Shemun, 

4. Silver Coin (109 grains). 

Obv. : Kos, or goblet, hzihskla. * Half shekel. One.' 
Rev. : Triple flower, irtjslm kdsh. * Jerusalem, Holy,' 

A half Stater of the Temple money. First year of tie 

week. (Shekel of the Sanctuary.) 

N 



178 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



An. Sac. 6. SiLVER GoiJH (49*4 ffrains). 

about 

4629 Obv, : Legah or O Inochoe. al — r hcuhn, ' Eleasar th6 
Priest.' 
JKev. : Within a wreath (hole) M o (for Shemo), ' money.' A 
quarter JElah of Eleasar II. 

6. OoppEE Coin. 

4667 Obo, :8M0tjn(n)sia isbal. ^ Simon, Prince, Israel,' 
•with palm tree. 
Itev, : — HTLeALT ISBAL. * Year one, For redemption, 
Israel,* with vine leaf. Hadi'eSy or third of an -4apcr, of 
Simon the Ethnarch. 



PLATE II. 

7. Copper Coin. 
4700 Chv, : Double cornucopia. 

JR.&), rlHTTKNN HCHN HGDL TTKhBR HIHBIIT. 

* Johanan the Great Priest, and Chief of the Jews.' 
AnikOf or small coin of little value, of John Hyrcanus. 

Note. — The coins of * Jehuda, Great Priest and Chief of 
the Jews ' (Aristobulus) closely resembles those of Hyrcanus. 
Coins of ' Jonathan, Great Priest and Chief of the Jews * of 
type similar to the foregoing exist. Bilingual coins commence 
with this prince as ' Alexander the King.' 

8. Copper Coin. 

4706 Obv, : Golden Candlestick. AAESAN APOY BA2IAEG2 written 
round. * Of Alexander the King.' 
Hev, : Flower, ihttntnhmlk. ' The king Jonathan.' 
Anika of Alexander Jannseus. 

Note. — Bilingual coins of Queen Alexandra and of Alex- 
ander II. exist, of types similar to those of Alexander I. 



DESCRIPTION OF JEWISH COINS. 179 



Date. 
An. Sac. 9. OOPPEE CoiN. 

about 

4770 Obv. :mttih hchn h — hud — . ' Mattathiah the 
Priest (partly obliterated) Jews/ round a cornucopia. 
Itev, : BASIAEflS ANTIPONOY round a wreath. HanitZy or 
sixth of an Asper, of Antigonus. 

10. COPPBE Oons". 

4776 Obv, : Tripod, or incense altar, legend BASIAEI2S HPGAOY. 
* Of King Herod,* with monogram and date, A r, * Year 
three.' 
Eev. : A bell-shaped instrument (possibly the Tsel-tsel), and 
palm branch. Hanitz of Herod the Great. 

11. Copper Oom. 

4810 Obv, : Bunch of grapes. HPGAOY. ' Of Herod.' 

JReo, : Helmet. EeNAPXOY. ' Of the Ethnarch.' Anika 
of Archelaus. 

12. Copper Coin. 

4820 Obv. : Palm branch. HP(GAOY TETPAPXOY. A AP), Year 14. 
Rev. : TIBEPIAS in a wreath. Samtz of Herod the Tetrarch. 

13. Copper Coin, 

4852 Obv.: Umbrella. BA2IAEGS (APPinnA). 

Hev, : Three ears of barley in a yase. A /, Year 6. Shemtm 
of Herod Agrippa. 

Note. — Coins of Agrippa exist of a pagan type, bearing a 
profile, either of Agrippa himself or of the reigning Caesar, and 
a figure of Fortune or of Victory on the reverse. 
4904 Coins of Agrippa H. also bear profiles and Greek legends. 

The latest date found on any of these coins is ETOY EA (of 
the year 35). 



n2 



180 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



PLATE III. 

Date ^^* ^<>^^^^ CoiN. * JTow^rmfiA;,' or sixteenth part of 
An. Sac. an Asper, 

about 

4500 Ohv.', SMOTJNjWrittenboustrophedon, by palm tree. 'Simon/ 
probably Simon the Just. 
Re^, :LnKTJi ibtjs. * For stamp, Jerusalem/ with vine 
leaf. 

15. SiLYSB Coin. ' ZmMy or quarter 8dah, 

4594 Ohv» : s M TTN. * Simon' (with w-shaped Shin) round bunch 
of grapes. (Probably Simon II.) 
Rev, :SB lhe isral. * Year two, For stamp, Israel/ 
round reeded or gadrooned Lekythus. 

16. SiLYEB Coin (212 grains). Rigia or Stater, 

Obv, : A Temple, s M o u N. ' Simon.' 

Rev.: A Lulab and Ethrog, or palm branch for Feast of 

Tabernacles and citron, with legend. SB lhb isbal. 

* Year two. For stamp, Israel' 

17. Copper Coin. 

4669 Obv, rsNTAHTLGALTisB — . ' Yesx one, For redemp- 
tion, Israel,' round six-stringed lyre. 
Rev. : Palm branch within wreath, smotjn — bal. Prob- 
ably Simon, Prince Israel, (round Shin). 

18. CoppBB Coin. 

Obv,i SNT ABBO Hzi. ' Yesx four. Half/ round two Lulabs 

and Ethrog. 
Rev, : Palm tree between two ' Salim/ or baskets, i. e xr L t 

z I V K. ' For redemption, Zion.' 

19. CoppEB Coin of the Pbocubatoe Pontius Pilate. 

4839 Ohv.: TIBEPIOY KAI2AP0Y. 'Of Tiberius Caesar* round 
lituus. 

Rev, : A IZ. ' Year 17.' A coin of Pilate, of the year of the 
Crucifixion. 



DESCRIPTION OF JEWISH COINS. 181 



PLATE IV. 
COINS ESPECIALLY NAMED IN THE BIBLE. 

Gold. 

Date. ^a 

An. Sac. <^VJ. 

aboat 

4290 The Barkon or ' dram ' of Nehemiah. (Neh. 7. 70.) A Per- 
sian Daric. 
Obv. : A king, with bow and spear. 
Hev, : An irregular encused square. 

Silver. 
21. 

The Zuza, or quarter shekel, given by Saul to Samuel. (1 Sam, 

9. 8.) Silver coin found by Canon Tristram. 
Obv, : Two trumpets, sblis — al. * Year two, For Israel.^ 
Hev, : 8 M 0. ' Money,* within a wreath. 

22. 

4839 The 'image and superscription* of Osesar. (Matt. 22. 17.) 
The Denarius of the Census, or Roman tribute coin of 
Tiberius Caesar, in the 17th year of his tribunate. 
Obv. : A profile of Tiberius. Legend, ti caesab divi 

AUGUST. 

Reo, : A quadriga. Legend, T R I pot xvn. Imp vii. 

23. 

4839 'Peter's Penny.' (Matt. 17. 24.) The silver Stater (see 
p. 76), being the annual Temple tribute money for two 
Israelites. ' Jerusalem the Holy. Year two.' 

Copper. 

24. 

4839 The Sparrows Farthing, or Assariony for which two sparrows 
were sold. (Matt. 10. 29.) Coin of Simon. 

25. 

4839 The Widow's Ikfite. (Luke 21. 2.) A Prutha, or half JTon- 
trvnek, the smallest Jewish coin ; legend XALXOYS. 



182 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER IX. 

SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 

The institutions of the Mosaic Law contemplate a condition of 
society in which a^icultural and pastoral pursuits form the 
principal business of the nation. We learn from Josephus that 
as late as the Herodian age this condition of Jewish society was 
almost unchanged (Contra Apion 1. 12), and that, while trade 
was as yet undeveloped, the cultivation of the land, the educa- 
tion of cliildren, and the observance of the Law, were considered 
to be the principal duties of the Israelite nation. 

The conservatism of the Semitic character has moreover 
preserved, even in our own times, a condition of society closely 
resembling that of the ancient period. In describing briefly 
the pursuits of the inhabitants of Palestine, in the early times 
of Abraham or of Joshua, or in the later days of the Herodian 
epoch, we find so close a resemblance to the manners and occu- 
pations of the present Syrian population that we are enabled, 
by the help of modem institutions, to illustrate very fully the 
ancient national life. The customs oi the modem Jews, Kving 
in the holy cities, Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias, and Safed, are 
also traceable to remote antiquity ; and their ceremonies are 
probably conducted in very much the same fashion as those of 
the Biblical period. 

It is proposed, therefore, in the present chapter to illustrate 
the social life of the Israelites from the manners of the modem 
Jews and of the native inhabitants of Palestine. 

There was a very marked division of Hebrew society into 
two classes, between which no intermediate grade existed. The 
priests, the Levites, and the chiefs of pure descent, living in the 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 1 83 

great towns, formed the educated class of the nation. The 
peasantry living in country villages, illiterate agriculturists, or 
semi-nomadic herdsmen, were distinguUhed by language, by 
descent, and we may perhaps say by religion, from the higher 
ranks. Between these two there was no middle or bourgeois 
class, such as in other nations is developed by trade ; for trade 
was non-existent as yet among the Jews, and Jewish literature 
betrays constantly a horror of the sea which is inconsistent 
with the pursuit of maritime commerce. 

The preceding chapters, referring to the religious customs, 
science, art, and government, of the nation, relate fully the 
occupations of the higher classes; and we may confine our 
attention in the present chapter principally to the life of the 
peasantry. It has been shown that although the education of 
children formed one of the most important duties of the Jew, 
that education was almost entirely confined to the teaching of 
the Law. At ^ve years of age a boy was taught the Bible, and 
in later times he learned the Mishna, at ten (Pirke Aboth 5. 2l). 
The interminable discussions on the most minute details of the 
Law and Prophets may be thought to indicate a considerable 
amount of leisure among the higher classes, whose occupation 
consisted principally in the observance of religious customs ; 
thus bearing a close resemblance to the somewhat indolent life 
of the high-born Syrian of the present day. 

The establishment of Synagogues throughout the Holy Land 
tended to the diffusion of such education as was attainable, 
but it is uncertain at what period these buildings were first 
erected. According to Jewish writers, the expression * before 
the Lord,' occurring in the Book of Samuel (1 Sam. 7. 6) im- 
plies such a sanctuary or Keniseh as is called Synagogue in the 
New Testament ; and the disposition of these buildings, so that 
the congregation might face Jerusalem, is inferred from several 
passages of Scripture (Psalm 28. 2 ; 1 Kings 8. 29 ; Dan. 6. lo) 
although the Gralilean synagogues of the 2nd century a.d. are 
built with the main door on the south. Synagogues, according 
to the Mishna, are mentioned in the Book of Esther (9. 2), and 
the system was fully developed in the Herodian period. The 



184 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

elders [Pamaaim) of the Synagogue had the power of excom- 
munication (John 9. 34) which the Jerusalem Rabbis still exer- 
cise with severity. The principal officers were the Shdiah or 
muiister (Luke 4. 20), the Khazzcm, * deacon ' or clerk, who was 
also the local schoolmaster, and ten or more BcUlomim, or ^ idle 
men,' persons whose wealth allowed them to live at leisure, and 
who therefore undertook to be always present as a representa- 
tive congregation at every service. The Synagogue ritual 'was 
modelled on the Temple liturgy. The Shema (Deut. 6. 4) was 
followed by prayer and by two lessons, one {Pa/rcha) from the 
Law, the other [Haphtora) from the Prophets, with a Deresh or 
* exposition ' (Neh. 8. s), which was necessary because the He- 
brew of the Scriptures was not imderstood by the lower classes. 
Special Psalms also formed part of the service. 

At the age of 13 years and one day, a Jewish boy became 
responsible for his own actions ; and the ceremony by which he 
was made a Bar Mitzuahy or * Son of the Covenant,' was par- 
formed. Henceforth he undertook to obey the Law, and bc)gan 
to wear the Talith and the phylactories. On rising in the 
morning, he washed his hands and face and endued the Arha 
Canphothy hereafter described. Thrice a day he was obliged, 
if possible, to visit the Synagogue, when ten religious exercises, 
including those before mentioned, formed the morning service, 
three the afternoon, and eight the evening. 

The ablutions preceding prayer (like those of the Moslems) 
were the washing of the hands and feet (John 13. lo). Before 
morning prayer, a Jew might not enter on any occupation, and 
he might not even salute anyone while on the way to the 
Synagogue. 

Monday and Thursday were called * days of justice,' because 
the tribunals sat on those days, and they were generally chosen 
for fasts. The fifth and seventh days of the week were also 
solemn days in the Synagogue. 

The Jewish attitude in prayer has probably always been 
erect ; and at the present day the swinging motion of the body 
of each worshipper, and the high nasal key of intcmation, are 
distinctive features of Synagc^ue service. 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 185 

While the religious life thus described was led by the richer 
class in the country, it seems probable that the peasant popula- 
tion at every period neglected the Law, much as the more 
ignorant of the Fellahtn now neglect the duties of strict Mos- 
lems; a local superstition taking the place of the creed so 
strictly observed by the higher classes. 

The ffidiut, or ' ignorant,' as they are called in the Talmud, 
were in fact a mixed race. The ancient Canaanite population 
was never exterminated, and the Jews intermanied with Phi- 
listines (Neh. 13. 23), Hittites, Ammonites, and Moabites. 
The children of these marriages spoke a mixed dialect (Neh. 
13. 24), and the language of the lower class was the Aramaic 
(Tal. Bab. Sanhedrin 21 and 22). The dialect now used by the 
peasantry of Palestine approaches so nearly to the Aramaic, 
and the customs of the Eellahin reproduce so closely those of 
the lower class of the ancient inhabitants of Palestine, as de- 
duced from the incidental notices in the Old Testament, that 
we are perhaps justified in looking on the existing race as 
derived from an original Canaanite stock, which has existed 
from the earliest period of Israelitish history. The Israelites 
became, in fact, the dominant race in the country, but the 
hewers of wood and drawers of water were Canaanites ; and 
the prophets predicted a futiu'e restoration of Israel when the 
herdsmen, ploughmen, and vinedressers should still be foreigners 
(Isaiah 61. 5). 

The ancient mythological system of the Canaanites was 
preserved by this population, and idolatrous shrines not only 
survived in the country until the fourth century A.D., but 
may even be said still to exist in the Palestine of our own 
time. In spite of the injunctions of the Law, commanding the 
destruction of all idol altars (Exod. 34. 13 ; Deut. 7. 25 and 26), 
and in spite of the zeal of many of the kings, idolatry kept a 
fast hold on the lower classes of the nation. 

Baal, the Sun-god, was worshipped throughout Palestine ; 
and his name is coupled with that of Baaltis, or Ashtoreth, the 
Assyrian Ishtar, or two-homed * queen of heaven' (Jer. 44. 17); 
whose symbol was the planet Venus, and whose principal sano- 



186 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

tuary was at Sidon (1 Kings 11. 7), though she was also wor- 
shipped as far south as PhUistia (1 Sam. 31. lo). 

The fiery sacrifices of Moloch, described by the Eabbis (Mid- 
rash, Ekha 1. 9), are also supposed to be symbolical of an as- 
tronomical myth. In two passages of the English version the 
name Moloch is rendered ' king ' (Isaiah 30. 33 ; Amos 7. 13). 
In other passages the divinity is called Baal (Jer. 19. 6 and 
32. 35). Among the Carthaginians Saturn was worshipped 
by similar fiery sacrifices of children (Diodorus Siculus 20. 14). 

Ohemosh, worshipped by the Moabites, was, according to 
the Jewish writers, symbolized by a black star (Saturn) ; and 
the god Chiun (Amos 5. 26) was a star, no doubt identical with 
the Ktvjdn of the Arabs, which was also the planet Saturn. The 
Hammomim (rendered 'images' in the English of 2 Chron. 
34. 4), were apparently sun images of Baal. The star Bem- 
phan, and the Lucifer of Isaiah (14. 12) with the Mazzaroth or 
zodiacal signs, were other objects of the astronomical worship 
of the Canaanites. 

The worship of Hadad or Tammuz — the Syrian Adonis — 
was connected with the astronomical myth of the return of 
spring, and resembled the worship of the Egyptian Osiris. 
Tammuz, slain on Lebanon,^ was annually mourned (Ezek. 8. 
14), and his revival (at the time of the vernal equinox) was cele- 
brated with J03rful feasts. St. Jerome informs us that the 
worship of Tammuz still survived at Bethlehem in his own times. 

The worship of the sun, the planets, and the principal fixed 
stars, was the Arab reUgion preceding Islam, and stiU survives 
among certain tribes. But side by side with this astronomical 
cult, there existed a grosser Nature worship, which still cer- 
tainly survives among the Anseiriyeh pagans of Lebanon. 

The licentious rites of the Syrian Venus are mentioned in 
the Old Testament (Deut. 23. 18; 1 Kings 15. 12; 2 Kings 
23. 7) ; and the Prophets inveighed constantly against such prac- 
tices (Jer. 44. 16; Ezek. 8. 3 and 16. 17; Hosea 9. lo). This, 
worship, however, still survived in Ascalon in the time of St. 
Porphyrius. 

' Selden, De Diis Syriis. 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 187 

The principal deity of this class was Baal Peor (Num. 25. 3), 
identified by St. Jerome with the classical Priapus. The 
Asherah (rendered ' Grove * in our version) was also apparently 
a similar emblem, the word being derived from a root meaning 
to make straight or erect (2 Kings 23. 7). 

Among the local deities, Milcom appears to have been iden- 
tical with Moloch ; while of Baal Berith (* Lord of the Cove- 
nant/ Judges 8. 33) we know nothing but the name. Dagon, 
the fish-god, and Derceto, the fish-goddess, were worshipped from 
an early period in the maritime district of Philistia ; and Baal- 
zebub, * Lord of Flies,' in the plains, where every species of fly 
and gnat swarmed in siimmer; while Ashimah was a deity 
symbolized, according to the Eabbis, by a goat (Tal. Bab. San- 
hedrin 63. 6). 

The terms used to define these idols in the Prophetic Books 
are principally contemptuous epithets, such as * vanity,' * filth,' 
* fright,' or * terror.' Other words, meaning * likeness,' * shadow,' 
' statue,' * figure,' and * device,' also occur ; but one word Grillidim 
(Ezek. 30. 13) is explained by Gresenius to refer to * heaps of 
stones.' 

In the Mishna (Aboda Zara 3. 8 and 4. 1) we find notice of 
the existence of this false worship at a late period .; shrines on 
mountain tops, and under sacred trees, being specified (cf. Deut. 
12. 2), and also heaps of stone sacred to the god Markulim (or 
Mercury). At the present day the shrines of local Sheikhs are 
placed under large sacred trees, and on hill tops, and the prac- 
tice of erecting little piles of stone (called Meshdhed, or monu- 
ments,) at places whence famous sanctuaries are first visible to 
the pilgrim, may perhaps be connected with the worship of 
Markulim. The Hebrew word, Makom^ used to designate the 
'places' of the Canaanites (Deut. 12. 2), is still applied under 
the form Mahdm, to the shrines consecrated to local divinities, 
to whom supernatural powers are attributed, and in whose 
honour the peasantry still ofier sacrifices, light lamps, and per- 
form solemn dances. 

The belief in magic, necromancy, and evil spirits, existing 
among the Israelites, is also clearly set forth in the Old Testa- 



188 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

ment ; and the prescriptions of the practical Cabbala are almost 
identical with the charms and methods of divination now in 
use among the Syrians and Egyptians. Innumerable supersti- 
tions are also rife among the Palestinian Jews, and the belief 
in evil spirits is traceable in many passages of the Talmud. 

From the earliest period of Hebrew history we find Pales- 
tine inhabited partly by a settled agricultural population, partly 
by pastoral tribes apparently nomadic. Thus, while the Patri- 
archs lived in tents, and were owners of flocks and herds, the 
families of Hamor at Shechem (Gen. 33. 19), and of Ephron at 
Hebron (Gen. 23. 17) were possessors of landed property. The 
district including Gerar, Rehoboth and Beersheba, in which 
Isaac passed his life, is still inhabited by nomadic tribes, rich 
in flocks, herds, and camels, which find pasturage in a seem- 
ingly bare desert. The Jeshimon, or desert west of the Dead 
Sea, was inhabited by outlaws, with whom the villagers of the 
hills made an agreement for the watching of their flocks, in the 
time of David (1 Sam. 25. 16). And at the present day the 
viUagers in the same way descend into the nomadic districts, 
to temporary settlements called ^Azahdty which they occupy by 
arrangement with the Arabs. 

It is to such settlements that the term Hvzoth or * outer 
places ' (rendered in our Version * fields,' Job 5. lo) probably 
refers. The sheepfold {Mihla or Gederah) was either a cave 
(1 Sam. 24. 3) or a place surrounded by a hedge of thorns. Sheds 
of reeds or rude stone enclosures were also probably used, as 
they now are, for the cattle feeding in the plains ; and towers 
were constructed for watchmen in the desert districts, where 
the flocks were fed (2 Chron. 26. 10). Dogs were also em- 
ployed, as they still are, by the Arabs, to guard the folds (Job 
30. 1) ; and the cattle were fed with a fodder (BelU) speciaUy 
prepared (Job 6. 6). The annual sheepshearing was a time of 
festivity (1 Sam. 25. 2). 

It has been remarked as an apparent paradox, that the 
Israelites in the Sinaitic Desert were constantly in want of 
food, though accompanied by large flocks and herds. It will be 
noticed, however, that in looking back to the good things of 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBBEWS. 189 

Egypt, they speak only of fish and vegetable food (Num. 11. s); 
and those acquainted with Arab life will be aware that the 
pastoral tribes rarely eat flesh, except on the occasion of great 
feasts, milk being the only nutriment derived from the very 
large flocks which they own ; while the wool of the sheep, the 
hair of the goats and camels, and the hides of the cattle, ai*e 
the products most valuable to the nomadic cowherds. There is 
thus no difficulty in understanding the exclamation of Moses, 
' Shall the flocks and the herds be slain for them to suffice 
them'] (Num. 11. 22). 

The agricultural occupations of the peasantry require rather 
more detailed notice. Palestine has been celebrated in all ages 
for three products — com, wine, and oil ; which still continue to 
be its most valuable crops, and might yet form the basis of 
great commercial prosperity. 

Wheat and barley were the principal com crops ; spelt 
(Isaiah 28. 25) and millet (Ezek. 4. 9) are also mentioned. 
Beans, lentiles, and vetches; cummin, melons, cucumbers; 
leeks, onions, garlic ; and * bitter herbs,' including lettuce and 
endive, still retain their old Hebrew names, and are still culti- 
vated in Palestine. Three words rendered * chaff' in the Eng- 
lish Version designate respectively grass (Heb. Haahash, Arabic 
Hashish), chopped straw (Heb. and Arabic Tibn), and chaff 
(Aram. Aur, Arabic *Awdr). 

The recurrence of the seasons will be found mentioned in 
another chapter (Part II., Oh. I.). • From the Talmudic writings ^ 
we learn that cultivation was carried on from the Vernal to the 
Autumnal equinox. The latter half of Tizri (October) was the 
sowing time ; barley was ripe at the Passover ; wheat (Exod. 
34. 22) at Pentecost ; and fruits were gathered in the beginning 
of Tizri (September). The wave-sheaf was sown seventy days 
before the Passover. These seasons are those at which the same 
agricultural operations are carried out at the present day. The 
ploughing was not deep,^ as is specially noted by Pliny, for the 
rich soil scarcely required to be turned. Cross ploughing is 
supposed to be mentioned by Isaiah (28. 24) ; and a harrow or 

* Tosa^hta, Taanith, 1. ' Hist. Nat., 18. 47. 



190 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

thom-bush was employed after the plough. The land was 
cleared of stones and thorns (Isaiah 5. 2), and was allowed to 
lie fallow ; but the rotation of crops would probably have been 
considered an infringement of the Mosaic Law, as to hilaim or 
the mixing of seeds. Manure (Shebiith 3. 2), which is now 
scarcely ever used, is mentioned in the Old Testament (2 Kings 
9. 37, Jer. 9. 22). The burning of stubble, mentioned in Joel 
(2. 5), is perhaps not to be considered an agricultural operation ; 
such fires being now frequent in the dry summ^ from acci- 
dental causes. The use of the goad (Dorbcm), the yoke (Oemed) 
attached to the pole of the plough ; of oxen ; and of two ploughs 
following one another, are also traceable to the practices of 
ancient times. 

The barley harvest commenced on the second day of 
Passover. The com, reaped in armfuUs (Psalm 129. 7) was 
gathered in stacks which appear to have been dome-shaped, or 
like our English haycocks. These small stacks are still used in 
Palestine, and a row of shocks is never seen (E.uth 3. 7). It 
appears clear that the com was removed from the field in carts 
(Amos 2. 13), and in the use of wagons (Gen. 45. 27) and carts 
the ancient inhabitants were in advance of the present natives, 
who employ only beasts of burden. Carts are represented in 
the harvest scenes of Egyptian monuments, and the cart wheels 
were apparently used for threshing (Isaiah 28. 27). 

The threshingfloor (Heb. GoraUy Arabic Jum) was an open 
space (Judg. 6. 37) ; the flat surface of a rock near the village 
generally affording a suitable site. The com laid on the floor 
was trampled by oxen, and threshed with the Moreg (Arabic 
MUrej), a sledge, drawn by a horse or ass, the under side of 
which is fitted with teeth foimed of pieces of basalt let into 
the wood (cf. Isaiah 28. 28, and 41. 16, 2 Sam. 24. 22). The 
gleanings of the fields were separately beaten out (Euth 2. 17). 

The com was winnowed by tossing in the light summer 
breeze with forks and shovels (Isaiah 30. 24), and was shaken 
in a sieve (Amos 9. 9). It was stored in underground granarieSy 
like the MetamfLvy or subterranean stores, now found at every 
village in Palestine (Jer. 41. 8, Joel 1, 17). 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 191 

It is interesting to notice that the institution of the Peahy 
or comer of the field left unreaped for the poor (Levit. 19. 9), 
is still preserved among the Fellahin : they are unable to give 
any account of its origin, beyond the fact that it is a custom of 
great antiquity. 

The irrigation of fields and gardens, which was not lawful 
until the Peah was gleaned (Peah 5. 3), was effected by Pdagim 
or channels which could be stopped with mud to divert the 
stream. It appears that the expression to 'water with the 
foot' (Deut. 11. lo) refers to the damming of such channels, 
with the feet, which is the method now generally adopted. 

Herbs of all kinds, vegetables, and fruit trees (pomegranates, 
figs, apples, apricots, &c.) were cultivated in gardens by the 
springs, and were regularly irrigated (Cant. 4. 16). The MiRhna. 
contains a minute account of the arrangement of the various 
crops, so as to fulfil the Mosaic ordinance which forbade the 
mJTnng of seeds — an interval of at least three furrows being 
required between the different productions (Kilaim 2. 6). 

Grafting was understood (Ezek. 17. 4, Isaiah 17. lo), but 
was apparently regarded as an infringement of the command- 
ment above mentioned. 

The cultivation of the vine was the second important occu- 
pation of the peasantry ; and the existence of rock-cut presses 
in every part of the hills of Palestine shows that this cultiva- 
tion must have been very extensive. The slopes of Lebanon 
and Hermon, the Hebron hills, and the mountains south of 
Samaria, and those in Upper Galilee, still produce good grapes 
in abundance. 

The vineyard was surrounded with hedges and walls 
(Isaiah 5. 5). A tower was built in it for the watchman, and 
a wine-press was hewn in the rock (Isaiah 5. 2). According to 
Pliny ^ the vines were trained on the ground ; but from various 
passages (Micah 4. 4, Psalm 128. 3) we infer that the vine was 
trained on trellises and on the walls of houses. 

The modem vineyards are built up in steps, with retaining 
walls, over which the vine falls ; but at Jericho high trellises 

> Mitt, Nat.y 17. 85. 



192 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

axe employed, and the walls of houses and roofs of courtjrards 
are sometimes covered with vines. 

Near the rock-cut winepresses are often found towers built 
of rough blocks of large size ; the buildings measuring 20 feet 
on each side and the same in height. The rude stone en- 
closure walls still often remain; while the wild growth of 
mastic or oak has covered up the vineyard plot. It is notice- 
able that several large winepresses are found near Jezreel; 
perhaps marking the site of the vineyard of Kaboth. 

The winepress (Heb. Gath, Arabic Ma'aser) consisted of 
two or three square basins. The upper, which was large and 
shallow (Heb. Pura\ was used for treading. A short channel 
led to the second or smaller and deeper basin (Heb. Yeheh), 
into which the wine ran and whence it was strained off into a 
third, and then placed in bottles (Job 32. 19) and pots (Jer. 
13. 12). 

It is clear from the Talmudic writings that the wine used 
was fermented and intoxicating. Sweet wine is mentioned 
(Hosea 4. ll, Micah 6. 15), and strong drink (Isaiah 5. 22). 
The instance of Nabal is also sufficient to show that drunken- 
ness at feasts was not uncommon among the Israelites. 

The olive, which was perhaps the most valuable production of 
the country, required but little cultivation. The suckers spring 
naturally round the parent bole (Psalm 128. 3), and a group of 
young trees takes the place of the decayed tnmk. The olives 
were beaten down with rods (Deut. 24. 20), an injurious prac- 
tice still common ; and the oil was pressed into mills of various 
kinds (Exod. 27. 20, Micah 6. 15). A great portion of the crop 
no doubt served for food. 

The food of the ancient population appears to have closely 
resembled that of the modem peasantry. The use of animal 
food was in great measure restricted to the feast days of the 
year ; though Solomon's table was furnished both with fatted 
oxen and with game (1 Kings 4. 23). Fish were eaten, though 
now held in abomination among the Bedawin; but bread, 
vegetables, and fruit formed the ordinary diet (Judg. 19. fi), 
the bread being of barley (2 Kings 4. 42), made into cakes, 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 193 

and leavened. No doubt it was often dipped in oil, as is now 
the custom ; and the leaves of the marshmallow ai^d figs of the 
syoomore (Amos 7. 14) may be supposed to have formed import- 
ant articles of food for the poorest classes, as at the present day, 
with clarified butter, curdled milk (Judg. 4. 19), and eggs. 

On the question of Dress we are also able to obtain light 
by comparison of modem Syrian costumes with the ancient 
accounts. The extreme simplicity of the peasant, or Aiab, 
garments attests the great antiquity of their origin ; and the 
representations of Semitic captives on Assyrian and Egyptian 
bas-reliefs show costumes closely approaching those now in use. 

The sacrificial dress of the priests consisted of only four 
articles, to which four others were added by the High priest. 

These were, first, a close-fitting garment of linen (Cetonith), 
reaching to the feet, with sleeves tied to the arm; secondly, 
linen drawers, reaching to the thigh (Micnaaim) ; thirdly, a 
shawl {Abnet)f of linen, embroidered in coloin:s (Exod. 28. 39, 
3 Ant. 7. 2), wound round the body several times, the end hang- 
ing to the feet or thrown over the shoulder; fourthly, the 
head-dress was a turban (Mitznepheth), of linen, wound round 
a linen skull-cap (3 Ant. 7. 3) called Mighaah ('bonnet,' Exod. 
28. 40). The two together formed a single head-dress. Both 
priests and congregation were barefoot during the whole of the 
Temple service. 

The four distinctive garments of the High priest were the 
Meil ('robe' in the English Version of Exodus 28. 4), the 
Ephody^Q breastplate {Hoshen), and the mitre plate {Zir), The 
Meil was a seamless robe of blue colour, embroidered in gold 
and other coIouib, with holes for neck and arms, and without 
sleeves. The length is nowhere stated, but the garment pro- 
bably reached nearly to the feet. A border with golden bells 
and pomegranates was made to the Meil, the tinkling of which 
announced the approach of the wearer (Exod. 39. 25). The 
Ephod was a kind of tabard, embroidered with gold and colours, 
and having, according to Josephus, sleeves. On the shoulders 
were fastened two onyx stones; and the breastplate was 
attached by golden rings and a ribbon to its £ront. To the 

o 




194 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

turban of the High priest a golden plate, inscribed ' Holiness to 
the Lord/ was fastened with a lace of blue. Josephus further 
describes a triple crown above the turban; but this is not 
noticed in the Bible, and was probably the diadem given to 
Jonathan the Hasmonean by King Demetrius, together with a 
new Meil (13 Ant. 2. 2). 

The cosuume above described-^ linen shirt, an upper robe, 
an embroidered shawl, linen drawers, and a turban — ^is just that 
now worn by the families consecrated to the service of the great 
mosques, in Jerusalem, Hebron, or Damascus. 

Two articles of dress distinctive of the profession of Judaism 
date back to the time of Christ, and probably earlier. These 
are the Talith, and the ThephiUin or phylacteries. 

The Talith is a shawl worn over the head in prayer, having 
fringes called Tzitzith, consisting of eight threads, each knotted 
five times, and having a symbolic meaning. The Arha Comphoih^ 
or * four comers,* is a similar fringed square, worn under the 
ordinary clothes. These garments are supposed to be men- 
tioned in the Book of Numbers (15. 84) ; and the * hem ' of the 
garment of Christ (Matt. 9. 20) was perhaps the Talith (cf. 
Matt. 23. 5). 

The ThephUlin are worn during prayer, as a literal fulfil- 
ment of a commandment (Deut. 28. 10). They are small 
leather boxes, one bound on the forehead and two others on the 
arms, the latter in four compartments marked outside with the 
letter Shin (Shaddai). They contain passages of the Law 
(Deut. 6. 4-9, and 11. 13-21; Exod. 13. 11-I6, and 13. l-io), 
written on parchment. They are supposed to be the Tetaphoth 
of the Book of Exodus (13. 9-16). 

The materials of the ordinary dress of the Jews were linen 
and goat's, or camel's, hair. The Cetonith and the Meil were 
worn both by men and women : as was the Tzwaiph^ or turban 
(Isaiah 3. 23 and 42. 3). The Cetonith Pasaimy or * coat of many 
colours,* was in the same way worn by both sexes (Gen. 37. 3, 
2 Sam ^3. 18). and may be compared to the long dress of blue, 
with patches of yellow and red, now worn by the peasants of 
Bethlehem, and to the close-fitting striped robe worn by men 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 195 

and women alike throughout Palestine. The shirt or Cetonith 
was so long as to impede the movements, and the loins were 
girt up by passing the skirt between the legs in front, and 
tucking it into the girdle (1 Kings 18. 46). The wearing of 
the Meil seems to have distinguished the rich from the poor, 
who, as at the present day, wore only one garment (cf. Matt. 
10. 10, Luke 9. 3). 

Another garment, the Addereth, appears to have resembled 
the 'Abba or cloak now commonly worn, to which the Meil 
must also have approached in form, if Josephus's description of 
that garment as having no sleeves is accepted. 

The word Addereth comes from a root meaning 'to be 
ample.' In one passage (Zech. 13. 4) an Addereth of hair 
('rough garment' in Auth. Version) is mentioned, and the 
* mantle ' of Elijah was an Addereth (2 Kings 1. 8, and 2. 
13). 

The Bedawin headdress, called Kttfeyeh, is represented on 
Egyptian bas-reliefs ; and from its extreme simplicity — a cloth, 
folded diagonally and bound to the temples — ^is no doubt of 
great antiquity. This headdress is not, however, t^parently 
mentioned in the Bible. 

The leather belt {Ezor) round the waist (2 Kings 1. 8, Matt. 
3. 4) was probably worn by the poorer classes, and a shawl of 
linen by the richer (Jer. 13. i), as at the present day. Shoes 
and sandals were also worn, the latter being a leather sole, 
fastened, by thongs, to a longer thong passing over the heel and 
between the great toe and the second toe. 

Three distinctive articles of female attire were the Tzaif, 
the Mitpahathf and the Maatapha, The first (Arabic Saif) 
was a veil worn by Jewish women in the presence of foreigners 
or strangers, and also by the Arab women (Sabbath 6. 6; 
and comment of Bartenora). The second was a cloth or shawl 
('veil* in Authorised Version, Buth 3. 15) of large size, and 
seems probably to be identical with the head shawl now worn 
by the peasant women in Palestine, hanging down the back 
below the waist. This simple headdress is represented in 
the Assyrian baa-relie& of the conquests of Sennacherib iJ^M| 



196 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Palestine. The word Eaal (* muffler ' in Auth. Yersion, Isaiah 
3. 19) is still used to designate the headdress, including the 
&ce veil and the head veil. In the patriarchal age there is no 
doubt that women were veiled (Gen. 24. 66 and 38. 14). The 
Jewesses of the present day, however, follow the custom of the 
country to which they belong. Thus, the Grerman Jewesses in 
Jerusalem wear no veils, while the Mughrabi Jewesses are 
veiled. The use of the face veil among the Fellahin in Palestine 
is rare; the comer of the head veil being generally drawn over 
the mouth by a woman on meeting a man. The Maatapha (a 
word derived from a root meaning * to envelope ') — a garment 
covering the body, seems to have resembled the Izdr or cloak 
now worn by Syrian women out of doors ; which is sufficiently 
ample to entirely conceal the figure. The women's girdles 
called Kishurim resembled the Abnet of the priests, and the 
feet were shod with shoes of the skin of the Tahash (' badger 
skins,' Ezek. 16. 10) — an animal not certainly identified, but 
probably the porpoise (Arab. Takhash), 

The bonnets called Shehesim, and the ' round tires like the 
moon' (Isaiah 3. 18), are still worn in 8amaria; the bonnet 
being of stuff, and the tire consisting of silver coins, sewn to a 
horse-shoe shaped front, and reaching below the ears on either 
side of the face. 

The practices of tatooing the face, and painting the hands 
with henna, appear also to be very ancient (2 Kings 9. 80). 
The prohibition to shave the head and cut the beard (Levit. 
19. 27) was probably due to the idolatrous custom of shaving 
in honour of various deities, as, for instance, Tammuz (cf. Num. 
6. 1). Herodotus mentions that the Arabs shaved their heads, 
with the exception of one lock (like the tuft now called ShUakeh, 
left unshaven by the Moslems), in honour of Dionysius Orotal. 

Eye-salve is mentioned by Ezekiel(23. 4o) under its modem 

' name Kohel. Scent boxes, musk bottles, false hair, false teeth, 

and a variety of charms and amulets, are noticed in the Mishna 

(Sabbath 6. 3). The jewellery of the Hebrew women (including 

earrings, nose rings, bracelets, anklets, chains, and rings) appears 

resembled that found in Egyptian tombs, which bears a 




SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 197 

close similarity to the native Syrian and Egyptian jewellery of 
the present time. 

It is still more striking to find that the arms and armour 
used in the time of David are the same as those now in use 
among the Bedawin. Groliath was arrayed in a coat of mail 
(Sirion), with a hronze or copper helmet {Kubah), greaves of 
bronze {Mitzhah) on his legs, and a javelin of bronze (Ci<hm) 
between his shoulders ; his spear head alone was of iron (Berzd), 
His squire bore before him a large shield (Tzi/n/nah) ( 1 Sam. 
17. 5). He was also girt with a sword {Hereh), 

The coat of mail is now made long, reaching beneath the 
knees, with loose sleeves to the wrist. The sword is slung over 
one shoulder. The helmet is a sort of bronze skull-cap, with a 
nose-piece and a spike. The spear, or javelin, and the shield are 
not now seen, but were in use as late as the 15th century, the 
latter being a round target with a central spike. The long lance 
now carried by horsemen (Arabic Rv/mh) is mentioned under 
its present name in the Bible (Num. 25. 7, Judges 5. 3, Jer. 
46. 4). The length often exceeds 15 feet; a tuft of ostrich 
feathers is fitted to the cane staff, just below the long knife- 
like steel head; and a spike at the butt allows of the spear 
being set upright in the ground (1 Sam. 25. 7). 

The bow (Kesheth) and sling (Kda) formed important 
weapons of offence among the Hebrews ; and the Arabs are 
still skilful in the use of the latter, while the former has been 
superseded by fire-arms. 

The social customs of the Hebrews next demand a brief 
notice. 

The birth of children was not celebrated by any festivity 
(Contra Apion 2. 26) ; such feasts being, according to Josephus, 
not permitted by the Law of Moses. The modem Jews * in- 
scribe on the walls of the room, when a birth is expected, the 
names Adam and Eve, with the words 'avaunt lilith' (a 
spectre inimical to infants), and below this the names of the 
angels Senoi, Sansenoi, and Samnangelaph. 

On the eighth day, a boy is circumcised, being held by the 

1 See Chiarini, ProUgomenes de la Version du Talmud^ p. 185, 




198 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

godfatlier. The godmother brings the Mohd or officiator. The 
ceremony takes place in the house or in the Synagogue, and 
two chairs are placed, one for the godfather, the other for the 
Prophet Elijah, who is supposed to be present invisibly. The 
name given by the father is bestowed during the ceremony. 
Girls are named by the minister of the Synagogue a month after 
birth. 

At the age of 18, at the latest (Pirke Aboth 5. 21), a Jew 
is bound to marry. The ceremony is very simple, the pair 
being placed on a dais with the Talith spread over them. A 
cup of wine is handed to them by the Rabbi, or the nearest 
relation. The bridegroom places a ring on the bride's finger, 
and says, * Behold, thou art my spouse according to the rite of 
Moses and Israel.' The marriage contract is then read. The 
husband promises to give the dower specified, and to maintain 
and cherish his wife. Mutual congratulations between the 
assembled guests complete the ceremony. 

The position of women, both among the modem Jews and 
Arabs, and in ancient times among the Hebrews, has always 
been inferior to that which they hold among Aryan nations ; 
but the influence of individual matrons continues, even among 
the Arabs, to be at times very considerable, for they axe admitted 
in some cases to the councils of the tribes when celebrated for 
their good sense or tact. Among the Oriental Jews, the women 
are very ignorant and superstitious ; and the extreme facility of 
divorce renders their position precarious, and causes them con- 
stant anxiety and unhappiness. 

The Jew was allowed four wives (on the precedent of Jacob's 
family), but among the lower classes few probably were found 
rich enough to support more than one. The consent of the 
girl was asked in accordance with ancient precedent (Gen. 24. 
57) ; and the marriage having been arranged by the parents, 
sometimes without the bridegroom having seen his bride at all 
(as is still frequently the custom in the East), the MohwTy or 
dowry, was agreed upon, and a betrothal followed (Ketuboth 
5. 2), the term sometimes extending over a whole year (Gen. 
24. 65, Judg. 14. 8, Matt. 1. is). The payment of the Mohar 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 199 

formed, however, the legal bond which united the pair, although 
the marriage occurred later (Deut. 22. 23). 

The principal ceremonies of the wedding-day were the pro- 
cessions of the bridegroom to fetch his bride and that of the 
bride to her new home. The term CaUah (* cro^tned '), applied 
to a bride, was due to the crown which she wore on this occa- 
sion (Ezek. 16. 9-1 i). These proceedings still form the most 
important portion of the Syrian or Egyptian marriage cere- 
monies (cf. Judges 14. 10, Cant. 3. il). 

The feast which followed was sometimes prolonged for seven 
days (Judges 14. 17), and even the gravest elders danced before 
the bride during the festivities (Tal. Bab. Ketuboth 16. 6). The 
use of a signed contract dates back probably to the time of the 
return from exile, or even earlier (Ezek. 16. 8). The wedding- 
day is now generally fixed by the Jews at the new moon, on 
Wednesday or Friday for a girl, and on Thursday for a widow. 
The ordinary age at which girls are married among the Oriental 
Jews is a little over 12 years. 

The funeral ceremonies of the Hebrews were as simple as 
those connected with marriage. Extravagant expense and 
elaborate monuments were not considered lawful (Josephus, 
Contra Apion, 2. 27). The obsequies were performed by the 
nearest relations ; and it was obligatory on passers-by to join 
the funeral procession, and swell the chorus of lamentation. 
From a passage in Jeremiah (Jer. 9. 17), it appears that women 
were hired — ^as is still the custom — ^to wail for the dead ; and 
the shrill cries which such mourners now utter are apparently 
referred to by the Prophet. After the funeral the house was 
purified, together with its remaining inhabitants. The High 
priest was forbidden to defile himself by attending the funeral 
even of his parents (Levit. 21. lo). 

Sepulchres were placed outside the city at a distance not 
less than fifty cubits (Baba Bathra 2. 9). It seems doubt- 
ful whether it was a Jewish custom to visit the sepulchre, 
as is the practice of the Moslems, who often make up a family 
party to pass the day in the cemetery among the family tombs. 
The graves of Simon the Just, of Joseph^ and of Babbi Simon 




200 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

bar Jochaiy tlie Cabbalist, are, however, now annually visited 
by the Jews. 

'When a Jew draws near death,' says Chiarini,* 'he in- 
vites at least ten persons to hear his general confession. He 
asks pardon of all whom he has offended, receives the bless- 
ing of his parents, and gives his blessing to his children and 
servants. Sometimes public prayer is offered for the sick in 
the Synagogue, and the sufferer changes his name as a mark 
of change of life. Those who are present at a death rend 
their clothes, and all the water in the house and about it 
is thrown into the street. The corpse is laid on the ground, 
covered with a cloth, and a lighted candle placed by the head. 
It is then washed, clothed, and put into a coffin, in which it 
is taken to the cemetery, which is called " The House of Eter- 
nity," ' (or in our Version, * long home.' Eccles. 12. 5). 

With regard to the social manners of the Hebrews, the 
limits of the present work do not allow any lengthened disqui- 
sition. The solemn courtesy so distinctive of Orientals was 
inculcated upon them by many ordinances of the Law. We do 
not, however, when comparing these with the ancient Koman 
statutes, find any parallel to the I'everence which was shown to 
Eoman matrons ; though the veneration of the aged is expressly 
enjoined by Moses. 

Hebrew hospitality is implied by the institution of the 
* guest chamber ' (1 Sam. 9. 22), which is still, in every Syrian 
village, kept up at village expense for passing strangers ; and 
by that of the Malon (' a lodging place of wayfaring men,' 
Jer. 9. 2), resembling the modem Khduy or public inn, built by 
some rich and charitab'e person for the use of travellers. In 
the joyous nature of their feasts, not unfrequently ending in 
drunkenness, the Hebrews resembled the ancient Egyptians. 
They had, however, as far as we know, no national sports 
or games ; and the sacred dances of the festivals were probably 
of the same solemn character as those now common among the 
Syrian peasantry ; while the dancing of David (2 Sam. 6. 20) 

* ProUgomhnes du Talmud. 



SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 201 

maj be compared to that of some of the modem Derwishes 
when subject to intense religions excitement. 

We may, indeed, briefly snm up the subject of Hebrew 
social life and manners by the conclusion^ that in the ways and 
customs of Syria at the present day a living picture of the more 
ancient society of Bible times is preserved for our study, afford- 
ing the most minute illustration of the Sacred Volume. 

The question of Jewish Architecture claims, in conclusion, a 
short notice. According to Josephus, the erection of splendid 
monuments was contrary to the Law of Moses ; and we are not 
surprised to And that the exploration of Palestine has brought 
to light scarcely any remains of ancient Jewish architecture 
having pretensions to beauty of structure or detail. 

The earliest habitations of the Israelites were tents, booths, 
%nd caves. The tents were black (Cant. 1. 6), and no doubt 
resembled those of black camel's hair now used by the Bedawtn. 

From the dimensions given of the various curtains covering 
the Tabernacle, and from the description of the * middle bar in 
the midst of the boards * (Exod. 26. 28) it seems clear that the 
Sacred Tent had a ridge and a sloping roof — as have the modem 
Arab tents ; but the description is not sufficiently clear to allow 
of our determining the exact pitch of this roof. 

The distinctive mark of a Jewish habitation was the Mezuza 
(Deut. 6. 9 and 11. 20), a kind of amulet like the phylacteries. 
It consists of a tube of vellum, covered with lead or tin, 
having the name Shaddai written on the vellum and visible 
through a slit cut in the outer covering. Inside the tube are 
scrolls with various texts (Deut. 6. 4-9 and 11. 13-21 ), occa- 
sionally the names of three angels are added. 

Jewish houses were built of mud (Job 14. 19), of sun-dried 
brick (Isaiah 9. 9), and of stone (Levit. 14. 46). The latter 
probably was used in the hills, the former materials in the 
plains. Plaster and mortar were employed (Deut. 27. 4, Ezek. 
13. 10); and the wood of the sycomore (Isaiah 9. 10), cypress, 
acacia, cedar, and even sandal wood (I Kings 10. 12), were used 
for roofs, doors and windows; while the interior was some- 
times painted with vermilion (Jer. 22. 14). 




202 Handbook to the bible. 

The houses were often two storeys in height, the upper 
chamber (Aleya) being mentioned in several passages of Scrip- 
ture (cf. Judges 3. 20, 1 Kings 17. 19, 2 Kings 4. 10, and 23. 12, 
Dan. 6. li). 

Summer and winter chambers are also noticed (Amos 3. 15, 
Jer. 36. 22) ; and the roof, being flat, was used as a sleeping 
place in summer (1 Sam. 9. 26), a custom still common in Syria, 
as is also that of erecting booths on the housetops (Neh. 8. 15). 
The Law of Moses also obliged the Hebrews to surround the 
roof with a battlement (Deut. 22. o). 

The houses were not scattered singly over the country, but 
compactly gathered into walled cities (Deut. 6. lo), open 
towns (Num. 32. 41 ), and villages (Cant. 7. 12). The curious 
expression * daughters' (^villages' in our version, Num. 21. 25) 
seems to refer to suburbs beyond the city walls. The fortresses 
were erected on sites naturally of great strength, and their walls 
often rose above natural precipices or scarps of rock, artificially 
cut, which still remain, though the masonry above hss disap- 
peared. 

Only two important examples of ancient Jewish masonry 
are left to us, namely in the Haram at Jerusalem and in that at 
Hebron. A full description of the character of the former work 
will be found in Part II., Chap. VIII. ; and it is only necessary 
here to note that the Temple of Solomon was the work not of 
Israelite but of hired Phoenician masons, so that the magni- 
ficence of the proportions, and the superior finish of these great 
blocks, can hardly be considered a distinctive feature of native 
Hebrew architecture ; while, from many passages of Scripture 
we may draw the conclusion, that the ordinary habitations of 
the Jews did not far surpass either in strength of material or in 
style those of the modem inhabitants of Palestine. 

The sepulchres of the Hebrews are almost the only Jewish 
monuments of undisputed antiquity now left. The oldest form 
of tomb consists of a square chamber, about 8 feet on a side, 
cut in the rock, and entered from the face of a cliff, through 
a door generally not more than about 2 feet wide and 3 feet 




SOCIAL LIFE OF THE HEBREWS. 203 

From each wall of the chamber a number of parallel 
tunnels are driven, measuring 6 or 7 feet in length, and about 
2 feet in width ; the usual number being three in each wall. 
These tunnels, called Kokim or ^ excavations ' in the Talmud 
(Baba Bathra 6. 8), were intended to hold one body each, the 
head being at the further end where a sort of stone pillow is 
often found. The entrance of each Koka was closed by a slab 
plastered in position. An inner chamber is sometimes reached 
by crawling through one of the Kokim, 

In the late tombs of this class sarcophagi seems to have 
been used ; and the recess becomes sufficiently large to hold 
two sarcophagi side by side, the bodies lying, as before, with the 
feet to the central chamber. This transition style resembles 
that of tombs in the Necropolis of Thebes, and we are thus led 
to enquire whether the Israelites may not have derived the idea 
of the Kokim tombs from Egypt. The Kokim of Palestine are 
not, however, large enough to admit any kind of coffin or 
sarcophagus. 

A second class of Jewish tombs, belonging to the Hasmonean 
and Herodian times, presents monuments of far greater archi- 
tectural pretensions. The influence of Greek art is plainly 
visible in the character of the details ; but the work appears in 
most cases to have been executed by native artists, and often 
presents a curious mixture of classic conventionality, with 
Jewish naturalistic representations of the vine or the palm. 

To this class of tombs belong the sepulchre of Queen Helena 
of Adiabene, north of Jerusalem, and the curious monument 
generally known as Absalom's Tomb (which is probably the 
sepulchre of King Alexander Jannaeus), east of the city. 
Ionic capitals, rosettes, wreaths, and triglyphs, here occur, 
with vine leaves and bunches of grapes, the execution being 
generally rather rude and the measurements irregular. A 
great many such tombs have been recovered by the Survey 
Party in Palestine, and the plan is generally the same. A 
porch or vestibule, some 20 feet long and 10 feet wide and high, 
is cut in the rock ; rock columns, along its front, supporting a 
rock-cut frieze. The small doorway leads from the vestibule to 



204 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLEl 

a chamber, on either side of which is an arched recess {Arcoao- 
Hum), in which a rocky sarcophagus is cut, parallel to the side 
of the chamber, so that the bodies lay sideways, instead of at 
right angles to the direction of the wall. 

A transitional style between the tombs with KoMm and 
those with Loculi or sarcophagi beneath Arcosolia, has already 
been noticed, namely, that in which the sarcophagus lies end on 
to the chamber. The substitution of the sarcophagus, marking 
the influence of Greek or Egyptian customs, certainly took place 
before the time of Christ — apparently during the period of the 
Hellenistic movement preceding the Hasmonean revolt. It is 
interesting to remark, that the Tomb of Christ as described in 
the Grospels muot haye belonged to the class of Loculus tomb ; 
for the description of the two angels sitting, * one at the head 
and the other at the feet, wh^re the body of Jesus had lain ' 
(John 20. 12), could not be reconciled with the structure of the 
Koka. 

It is also interesting to notice that the cylindrical rolling 
stone (Matt. 27. 60), like a millstone or cheese on end, closing 
the entrance of the tomb, is rarely found with Kokim tombs, 
but is commonly used with the late Loculi. The older tombs 
are closed by stone doors, swinging on hinges, or sliding up and 
down ; but the stone rolling in a groove was a comparatively 
late discovery. The weight of these stones is generally about 
6 cwt., and the groove sometimes is so cut that the stone rolled 
down an inclined plane, closing the small door when at the 
lowest point, and requiring to be rolled up hill and there wedged 
up before the tomb could be entered. 

The influence of Classic art is even more clearly traceable in 
the Galilean Synagogues ; but as these buildings belong, accord- 
ing to Jewish authority (Isaac Chelo, A.D. 1334), to the second 
century of our era, they do not require special notice in the 
present volume. 




205 



PART II. 



CHAPTER I. 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OP THE HOLY LAND* 

The limits of the Holy Land, originally assigned by Moses 
(Num. 34), extending from Mount Hor and Kadesh Bamea to 
the ' Entrance to Hamath/ and from the Mediterranean to the 
Euphrates (Deut. 1. 7), embraced an area of more than 30,000 
square miles. This territory included Lebanon and Anti- 
lebanon, separated by the plain which extends to Hamath, 
and which is formed by the rivers Leontes and Orontes, flowing 
south and north. On the south-east it comprised the great 
plateau running for 230 miles from Hermon to Mount Hor, and 
bounded on the west by Jordan, and on the east by the Syrian 
Desert. Finally, it included Palestine proper, from Dan to 
Beersheba, being an area of 6,000 square miles, or about the 
size of the Principality of Wales. 

The Palestine watershed ridge may be generally described 
as a spur of the Antilebanon ; and it runs southward through 
the desert called et-Tih to the triangular peninsula in which 
rises the granite block of Mount Sinai, 250 miles south of 
Beersheba. 

The main mountain features of the regions above described 
are — ^the chain of Lebanon, rising to a height 8,500 feet above 
the sea at Jebel Sannin; the Antilebanon (8,700 at Tal'at 
Miisa) ; Hermon (9,200) ; Jebel Kuleib (* the HHl of Bashan,' 
Psalm 68. 15), about 5,600, forming the eastern boundary of 
the Holy Land ; Mount Hor (2,360) ; and the chain of Moiu]^t^|f 




206 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Sinai, the highest point of which is 8,537 feet above the level, 
of the sea. 

The principal hydrographic features of the country are the 
rivers Leontes and Jordan. The former, rising near Baalbek, 
flows south-west and west, discharging into the Mediterranean, 
about 5 miles north of Tyre ; and has a total length of some 
80 miles. The latter, flowing down from the slopes of Her- 
mon, runs southward for 100 miles, discharging into the Dead 
Sea, which has a total length of over 46 miles more. 

The geological conformation of the country next claims a 
short notice. The Lebanon and Antilebanon ranges mainly 
consist of hard crystalline limestone, with an overlying forma- 
tion of soft white chalk, whence the mountain obtained its name 
Lebanon, or * milk white.' The chalk belongs to the same 
geological period as the European cretaceous deposits, and con- 
tains numerous fossils ; flsh and sharks'-teeth beiug the most 
common. The hard underlying limestone is ascribed to the 
Neocomian peiiod, and is the equivalent of the English green- 
sand. Its principal fossils are numerous ammonites and the 
shells of gastropods. The same hard crystalline limestone 
forms the bulk of the Hermon block ; while the overlying chalk 
is visible on the Antilebanon immediately to the north. 

The same formations occur throughout Palestine west of 
Jordan ; but in the centre of the country, and on the higher 
hills of Upper Galilee traces of nummulitic limestone ascribed 
to the Tertiary period overlie the chalk. About half of the 
height of Mount Gerizim is formed by this limestone, which is 
hard, dark, and full of nummulites. 

South of Hermon the submarine formations are disturbed 
by various volcanic outbreaks, the principal centre of which is 
found in the Lejja district, east of Jordan, where there is a basalt 
field, having an ai*ea of about 500 square miles. The plateau 
of the Jaulan (Gaulonitis), east of Upper Galilee, is also broken 
by volcanic cones and craters ; while the shores of the Sea of 
Galilee, and the plateaux and plains west and south-west of the 
lake are covered with lava. These eruptions have been dated 
as belonging to the early Tertiary period, and the cretaceous 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 207 

formatioiis of Galilee have been all more or less affected by 
them. 

Throughout Palestine proper the chalky formations occur, 
with the hard underlying limestone often appearing denuded 
on the surface. South of Hebron the lower bed disappears, 
and the chalk covors the whole country. The desert of et-Tih, 
south of Beersheba, consists of the softer cretaceous and tertiaiy 
strata, descending in steps towards the Sinaitic desert. North 
of the ridge of the Serbal the nummulitic limestone again 
occurs in large masses. 

An older formation underlies the hard Neocomian lime- 
stone. It appears in Lebanon, and on the east side of the 
Jordan Valley, opposite Shechem, and it forms Mount Hor and 
the hills round Petra. This is the Nubian sandstone, which 
extends south-west across the Arabah, or valley between the 
Dead Sea and the Bed Sea, and appears also in the neighbour- 
hood of Sinai. Igneous formations lie beneath it near Petra ; 
and the chains of Sinai and of the Serbal are formed of different 
varieties of granitic rock. 

The Nubian sandstone, though visible all along the east side 
of the Dead Sea, and in the Arabah, is never seen west of 
Jordan ; and hence it appears most probable that the Jordan 
Yalley is formed by an immense fault running north and south 
from the foot of Hermon. The dip of the strata on the west 
side of the great chasm is invariably directed downwards to the 
east ; and several small supplementary faults are found in pai*t8, 
with a very violent contortion of the chalk formations, showing 
that the subsidence took place later than the ci'etaceous epoch. 

This geological question has some bearing on the Biblical 
narrative. The geological history of the Jordan Valley, and of 
the Dead Sea, can now be traced ; and it is clear that the 
formation of the latter did not take place within historic times. 
In the cretaceous period it appears tolerably certain that the 
Jordan Valley extended to the Red Sea ; but shortly after that 
epoch disturbances, accompanied by the volcanic eruptions above 
noticed, took place. The watershed of the Arabah was then 
raised nearly 800 feet above the sea; and the Jordan Valley 




208 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

formed by a longitudinal fault, sank to a depth of nearly 1,300 
feet below the Mediterranean. A chain of at least four large 
inland lakes was thus formed, the shores and beds of which 
may still be traced. As the evaporation increased, these lakes 
appear to have dried up gradually, leaving raised beaches still 
existing ; so that they are at the present day represented only 
by the small sheets of water known as the Lake of Merom, 
the Sea of Galilee, and the Dead Sea. 

Such being the scientific history of the valley, it is evident 
that the theory — unsupported as it is by the words of Scripture 
— which ascribes the formation of the Dead Sea to the timie of 
the overthrow of the Cities of the Plain is a fallaey ; and that 
those cities were not built on any part of the present bed of the 
great lake. 

The physical conformation of Palestine proper, between 
Dan and Beersheba, the Jordan, and the Mediterranean, re- 
quires a somewhat more detailed description, as being that of 
the principal theatre of Biblical history. 

The area of 6,000 square miles thus included may be 
divided into five districts, which are described from north to 
south. — 

(1), Upper GaMee, has a narrow watershed, rising to an 
avera^ height of 2,800 feet above the sea, immediately west of 
the Jordan Yalley. Several small plateaux, covered with lava, 
exist on the west side of this ridge, and long spurs run down 
to the sea coast, the drainage of the country being mainly 
north-west. Along the coast extends the narrow plain of Phoe- 
nicia. On the north the Leontes flows through a deep and 
narrow chasm. On the south-east the mountains rise into a 
rugged and stony ridge, the highest peak of which (Jebel Jer- 
m^k) is 4,000 feet above the sea; and from this centre the 
spurs radiate like a fan west and north-west. 

(2), Lower Galilee includes several small but distinct dis- 
tricts. A step occurs in the country south of the Jerm^k 
range, and the next block of hills does not exceed about 1,800 
feet in height. The formation is here what is known geologi- 
cally as ' crag and tail^' — ^the northern and western slopes being 




PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF JTHE HOLY LAND. 209 

gentle, and those on the south-east steep and sometimes preci- 
pitous. West of the Sea of Galilee extends a plateau, covered 
with basalt, and having an average elevation of some 909 feet 
above the Mediterranean ; while the fertile plain of the Buttauf 
drains westward from the watershed, and the chalky range of 
Kazareth bounds the Buttauf on the south. 

The maritime plain belonging to Lower Galilee is much 
broader than that of Phoenicia, and has an average width of 
5 miles. The shore line is here indented with the only bay of 
any importance occurring on the coast of Palestine ; namely, the 
Bay of Acre. This is 9 miles long by 3 miles broad, and is 
protected on the south by the promontory of Carmel. The last 
district included in Lower Galilee is the broad Plain of Jezreel 
or Esdraelon, measuring 14 miles north and south by 9 miles 
east and west, and having an average elevation of about 250 
feet above the sea. This plain is Y-shaped, and formed by a 
double anticlinal. It is bounded on the east by the range of 
Gilboa, rising 1,500 feet above the sea, and consisting of white 
chalk; while on the wes^t a long spur runs out at about the 
same average elevation with Gilboa, and trends north-west to 
the ridge of Carmel. The western range consists partly of 
white chalk hills, partly of rugged ridges. Carmel itself is 12 
miles long, 1,740 feet above the sea at the highest point, and 
500 at the north-west promontory. It is clothed with brush- 
wood, and has numerous spurs running out on the west of the 
main ridge. 

The soil of the great plain is a rich basaltic loam, and very 
productive. The drainage is collected at the north-west comer, 
and passes through a narrow gorge between the Nazareth hills 
and Carmel. On the north-east of the plain stands the isolated 
Mount Tabor, an outlier of the Nazareth block of a peculiar 
domed shape, and thickly clothed on the north with oak woods. 
Its height is about 1,850 feet above the sea. 

(3), The HiU Country of SamMJuria amd JudcBa is formed by 
a single anticlinal, the watershed running nearly in the centre 
between the Jordan Yalley and the Mediterranean shore. 
Throughout this part of the country the Biblical divisioi^ 

p 



tf 




210 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

into the three districts — Plain, Shephelah (or low hills), and 
Mountain — ^is distinctly marked. The lower hills, averaging 
about 500 feet • in height, are of soft chalk. The mountains, 
rising to between 2,000 and 3,000 feet above the sea, consist of 
the harder limestone, capped in parts with chalk. They are 
intersected throughout by innumerable ravines, which are 
formed by the winter torrents, but are generally dry through- 
out the greater part of the year. 

The principal elevations along the watershed include Mount 
Ebal, a fine dome-shaped mountain (3076*5) and Mount 
Oerizim, equally bare and rugged (2848*8), standing north and 
south of the fertile vale of Shechem. Ebal forms a most con- 
spicuous object all along the Maritime Plain, rising above the 
general level of the mountain crests. The Samaritans claim 
that Gerizim is the mountain in the land of Moriah (or Moreh 
as their version reads), where Abraham offered Isaac. In 
favour of this view, the fact that it is visible * afar off' (Gen^ 
22. 4), and is about three or more days' journey from Beer- 
sheba, may be quoted ; as also the existence of the plain (or 
oak) of Moreh at its feet (G«n. 12. 6) ; but, on the other hand, 
the Book of Chronicles places Moriah at Jerusalem (2 Chron. 
3. 1). South of Gerizim is Mount Salmon (Jebel Suleiman); 
and east of this block is a small plaui called d-Mvkhnah (' the 
Camp'). About 20 miles south of Ebal is another summit, 
300 feet higher, now called Tell 'As4r, — probably the ancient 
Baal Hazor (2 Sam. 13. 23). This barren mountain, consisting 
of hard grey limestone, guards the entrance pass into JudsBa, 
and from its top Mount Hermon is visible at a distance of about 
100 miles. 

In the neighbourhood of Jerusalem the watershed is lower 
(2,600 feet), and the soft chalk caps the hills — Olivet consisting 
almost entirely of this formation. Farther south, the moun- 
tains again become higher and more rugged, rising to about 
3,500 feet immediately north of Hebron. The western slopes 
are very steep, and valleys, running north and south, almost 
separate the Shephelah from the main ridge. The Shephelah 
lulls consist of chalk, the strata lying nearly horizontally, and 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 211 

unconformably with the hard Neocomian limestone. The 
valleys of Ajalon, Sorek, and Elah, form the main drains of this 
part of Palestine, west of the watershed. 

South of Hebron a step occurs, and the average level of 
the watershed falls to 2,600 feet. A great valley, commencing 
above Hebron, runs southwards for 30 miles to Beersheba, and 
thence north-west to the sea near Gaza, about an equal distance. 
The hill spurs radiate h'om the highest point of the watershed, 
and sink gradually towards the plain of Philistia on the west 
and south-west. On the east side of the great valley is a chalky 
plateau, overlooking the desert which extends we^t of the Dead 
Sea, and falling gradually towards a long chalky ridge, which 
sinks finally into the desert of et-Tih. 

The district thus noticed south of Hebron is called Negeb 
(* dry ') in the Bible, translated * south country ' in our Version 
(Josh. 11. 16). The titles desert (Midbar), low hills (Shephelah), 
mountain (Har), plain (Arabah), and valley (Emek) complete 
the list of names for the main features of the country used in 
the Old Testament (Deut. 1.7). The plateaux on the east of 
Jordan are called Mishor or ' downs.' 

(4), The Maritime Plain (Arabah), south of Mount Carmel, 
forms a fourth distinct district, including the plain of Sharon 
and that of Philistia. This district has been formed partly by 
the denudation of the mountains, partly by the accumulation 
of sand in dunes along the shore. Towards the south the 
width has been gradually increased by the deposit of the Nile 
mud, which is traceable as far north as Gaza. The country 
presents an undulating surface, with low hillocks of semi-con* 
solidated sand. The soil is naturally fertile, and fitted for 
agriculture. Deep gulleys intersect the plain, running west- 
wards to the sea, and carrying down the drainage of the moun- 
tain system. They have generally high earthen banks, and in 
some cases contain perennial streams. The neighbourhood of 
these streams is marshy, especially towards the north of Sharon ; 
and the dunes and marshes together reduce the arable land by 
about one-fourth. The Maritime Plain is some 80 miles long, 
and from 100 to 200 feet above the sea; with low diffe near ^^ 



1^2 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the coast. Towards the north it is 8 miles^ and near Gaza 20 
miles broad. 

(5), The Jordcm VaUey is the fifth district, and physically 
perhaps the most interesting. From the foot of Hermon, at a 
level 1,000 feet above the Mediterranean, the valley falls, in 12 
miles, to sea level at the Huleh Lake (Waters of Merom) ; and 
thence, in 10^ miles, to the level of the Sea of Galilee (682*5 
below the Mediterranean). Thus, in the first section there is a 
fall of over 60. feet per mile. 

The Jordan Valley proper (Arab. Gh6r or * hollow ') is 
reckoned by Josephus only to commence south of the Sea of 
Galilee. Between this lake and the Dead Sea there is a fall of 
610 feet in 65 miles, giving an average of about 9 feet to the 
mile. Thus the ' break down ' of the great chasm may be said 
to occur north of the Sea of Galilee, where the fall is seven 
times as great. 

The Gh6r between the two lower lakes may be divided into 
five districts. For 13 miles the valley is at first less than 5 
miles broad with precipitous cliffs to the east and west. Next 
comes the plain of Beisin (Bethshean), evidently the bed of one 
of the primitive lakes above noticed, where the width increases 
to 8 miles, and where the broad valley of Jezreel runs down 
from the Plain of Esdraelon, and forms the gateway leading to 
Palestine from the east. The chain of Gilboa here forms the 
western boundary of the Jordan Valley, rising nearly 2,000 feet 
above the general level of the BeisUn plain. 

The third district commences 25 miles south of the Sea of 
Galilee, and extends for 12 miles. The Gh6r is here only 2 or 
3 miles wide ; aud on the west it is bounded by a table-land, 
rising with clifls and steep slopes above the valley. 

The fourth district, which appears to be the BibHcal Valley 
of Succoth (Emek Succoth), is again wider ; measuring 8 miles 
east and west, and extending southwards to the plains of Jericho. 
Another broad valley (Wddy Far'ah), running down from 
Mount Ebal, here joins the Gh6r; and the remarkable conical 
mountain called Kam Sartabeh, the Talmudic beacon station 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 213 

of Sartaba,^ rises 2,400 feet above the river Jordan, immedi- 
ately south of Wkdj Far'ah. This valley formed the route 
followed by Jacob in ascending from Succoth to Shalem (S41im), 
near Shechem (Gen. 33. 18). 

The iifbh remaining district is that of the plains of Jericho, 
with the corresponding basin (Gh6r es-Seisab&n, the Biblical 
Abel Shittim or * acacia meadow,') east of the Jordan. This part 
of the valley forms a continuation of the Dead Sea basin, at a 
level about 400 feet higher than the water, and the marks of 
an ancient lake- shore are here traceable all along the foot of the 
western mountains. The district measures 14 miles east and 
west and 8 miles north and south. The mountains on either 
side rise about 4,000 feet above the Gh6r. 

Various terms are used in the Old Testament in describing 
parts of the Jordan Valley. * The plain of the valley of Jericho ' 
(Ciccar Bikath Irecho, Deut. 34. 3). * The plains of Jericho ' 
(Araboth, Josh. 4. 13). * The vale of Siddim (Emek has-Siddim, 
Gen. 14. 3), which is the Salt Sea.' * The valley of Succoth * 
(Emek Succoth, Psalm 108. 7); and *the plains of Jordan* 
(Ciccar, 2 Chron. 4. 17). Of these terms the most important 
is the last mentioned, which is used distinctively as describ- 
ing the Jordan Valley. The word means 'round,' and is 
supposed to be equivalent to the Greek word rendered * region 
round about' Jordan (Matt. 3. 5). The Cities of the Plain 
were cities of the Ciccar, and it is important to notice that 
the term applies at least as far north as the Succoth regioii (2 
Chron. 4. 1 7), and does not simply include the plain of Jericho! 

But one comer of Palestine remains to be noticed — the 
dreary desert which extends between the Dead Sea and the 
Hebron mountains. It is called Jeshimon or * solitude ' in the 
Old Testament (1 Sam. 23. 19), and 'Wilderness of Judsea' in 
the New (Matt. 3. i). It is a plateau of white chalk, 2,000 feet 
lower than the watershed, and terminated on the east by cliffs 
which rise vertically from the Dead Sea shore to a height of 
about 2,000 feet. The scenery is barren, and wild beyond all 
description. The chalky ridges are scored by innumerable 

* Mithruif Rosh'Hashmuih, 2, i. 



# 



214 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

torrents, and their narrow crests are separated by broad flat 
valleys. Peaks and knolls of fantastic forms rise suddenly 
from the swelling downs, and magnificent precipices of ruddy 
limestone stand up like fortress walls above the sea. Not a 
tree nor a spring is visible in the waste ; and only the desert 
partridge and the ibex are found ranging the solitude. It was 
in this pathlefts desert that David found refuge from Saul's per- 
secution ; and the same has been a place of retreat from the 
days of Christ to the present time. 

The hydrographic features of Palestine next claim attention ; 
including its rivers, springs, and winter-torrents with the 
thermal sources of the Jordan Valley. It may here be noted 
that there is no vaHd reason for supposing that any great 
change has occurred in the water supply of the country since 
Biblical limes. The famous springs of Scripture can all be 
identified, and have still a good supply of water. The rivers 
are still perennial, and the * depths * (Dent. 8. 7) are recognised 
in the &ithomless pools from which such streams as the Abana 
(now Barada), near Damascus spring up full-grown rivers, 
almost as broad at their sources as at their mouths. The dis- 
tricts called * dry ' or * desert ' in the Bible (the wildOTnesses of 
Beth-aven or of Judah, for instance) are now as desolate as of 
old, and the porous character of the chalk formation renders it 
a physical impossibility that these regions can ever have been 
fertile or well watered, within the period of man's existence on 
earth. We have no good reason for supposing that any great 
change has occurred in the rainfall of the country ; and we 
have positive evidence that water was scarce in ancient times, 
in the existence of numerous rock-cut cisterns and. reservoirs, 
which date back to the Jewish period, and which are found 
throughout Palestine in the chalk districts where no springs 
occur. 

Palestine has at the present day twelve perennial streams, 
in addition to the Jordan and the Ledntes ; of which four are 
affluents of the Jordan and eight flow into the Mediterranean. 
Before enumerating these, however, some details of the course 
and character of the Jordan itself may first be given. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 215 

The River Jordcm (* the descender ') is formed by the junc- 
tion of three streams. The highest source is that near Hasbeiya 
on Hermon, whence the stream Nahr Hasb&nj flows south- 
wards some 15 miles to the junction. The volume of water in 
this longer feeder is less than that in either of the other two. 
At Tell el-Kady (the supposed site of Dan) are two springs ; 
the one west of the mound being perhaps the largest in. Pales- 
tine. The stream flowing thence is called Nahr Ledd^. The 
third source rises in the grotto at B4ni4sy whence the river runs 
through thickets and canebrakes, falling in cascades, and joining 
the Nahr Ledd4n after a course of about 5 miles. The united 
stream is swelled by that of the Hasb&ny a little farther south. 
By the Jews the spring at B4ni4s has always been accounted 
the true source of the river. 

The stream of the Jordan thus formed is soon lost in the 
swamps which extend north of the Hdleh lake. The river is 
here divided into several channels, and flows through beds of 
the Egyptian papyrus. The Hiileh lake (Waters of Merom) is 
4 miles long ; and south of this the stream runs rapidly, £ftlling 
60 feet per mile, to the Sea of Galilee. 

This famous Sea, in length about equal to our English Win- 
dermere (12^ miles), is pear-shaped, with a maximum width of 
8 miles. It is surrounded with precipices of limestone, except 
on the north, where a shelving slope leads to the shore, from a 
plateau of basalt extending from the foot of the highest range 
of Upper Galilee. The scenery of the lake is bare, and much 
tamer than that of the Dead Sea. The beach is narrow, except 
on the north-west, where the cliflfe recede, leaving a fertile 
plain (Gennesaret), 2^ miles long and 1 mile broad, watered by 
several flne springs. The pebbly open shore on the north is 
broken into numerous bays, and is fringed with dark oleander 
bushes. On the south-eastern side is a palm grove, and a few 
palms dot the western shore. The ruddy cliflfe on the west, and 
the steep slopes on the east, are bare and desolate ; but the 
sweet waters of the lake, in calm weather mirroring the sur- 
rounding hills, and shining in the sun, present a beautiful scene, 
especially in the evening. The Sea is remarkable for its shoals 



4 



216 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

of fish, for the violence of its sudden thunderstorms, iand for 
the hot springs along the shore. The neighbourhood of the 
lake is also peculiarly subject to volcanic disturbances. 

The Jordan leaves the Sea of Galilee at the level of 682*5 
feet below the Mediterranean, and commences to run through 
a trench in the valley, which becomes deeper as the distance 
increases, forming at length a deeper valley (cilled Ztr, or 

* depression,' in Arabic) within the original valley. The Z6r 
becomes a basin over a mile wide, and 200 feet deep, near Je- 
richo ; the sides being formed by cliffe of white marl ; while the 
stream itself in summer occupies a lower channel, and in spring 

* overflows its banks ' (in February and March), and sometimes 
floods the Z6r completely, making a sheet of water a mile in 
width. 

The fall of the stream, after passing the Sea of Galilee, is at 
first over 40 feet per mile. In the neighbourhood* of Beisan 
there are a great number of fords, and in one place a small rapid. 
The stream is generally hidden between thickets of tamarisk 
and willow; and its course is so contorted that in some places 
it flows almost due north. The white clifls project at the 
salients above the water ; but as a rule, there is a small corre- 
sponding flat basin on the opposite side. 

South-west of the Beisin plain WMy M41eh, the first salt 
affluent, joins the river ; and south of the Succoth region salt 
springs and salt marshes occupy the whole of the immediate 
neighbourhood of the stream. The average fall of the Jordan, 
between the Sea of Galilee and the ford of ed-Dameh, opposite 
the Karn Sartabeh mountain, is 10 feet to the mile; below this 
point it is only from 4 to 9 feet per mile. 

The ford of ed-Dameh is probably that by which Jacob 
crossed from Succoth (Gen. 33. 17) on his way to Shechem ; 
and the name probably preserves that of Adam the city * beside ' 
which the waters of the Jordan were heaped on the occasion of 
the passage of the Israelites (Josh. 3. le). 

Below the ford, by which are ruins of a bridge (the fourth 
along the course of the river) the stream becomes deeper and 
broader. The fords are consequently fewer, and the most im- 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 217 

portant one between the D^meh and the Dead Sea is that op- 
posite Jericho. The river in the latter part of its course has an 
average width of 30 yards in summer, and is completely hidden 
in a tamarisk swamp and cane brake until it reaches the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, where it forms a kind of 
oasis of mud and drift wood. 

The Dead Sea, called in the Bible * Sea of the Arabah/ or 
' Salt Sea/ is about 46 miles in length, with an average width 
of 10 miles. The depression may be stated at 1,290 feet below 
the Mediterranean, when the sea is at its fullest, and the dif- 
ference of level between summer and winter is variously stated 
at from 10 to 15 feet. The ancient beaches traceable above the 
water-line and above that of the driftwood brought down by the 
Jordan freshets seem to show a gradual contraction of the area 
of the sea ; but, on the other hand, the ford near the southern 
end, which was passable 50 years since, is said never to be now 
sufficiently shallow even for camels. The Dead Sea is deepest 
towards its eastern shore, where the mountains rise abruptly 
from the water; and the lowest sounding taken is over 1,300 
feet. On the south the Lake is, however, extremely shallow ; 
having an average depth of only 10 or 12 feet. A long low 
bank of marl, called el-Lis4n, * the tongue,' here projects into 
the Lake from the eastern shore. 

In length the Dead Sea is about equal to the Lake of Gre- 
neva, which it is thought to resemble in scenery. The rugged 
chains which rise 4,000 feet on either side, with fine precipitous 
clifis and innumerable water-courses ; the palm groves along the 
eastern shore; and the cane brakes surrounding the larger 
springs on the stony beach, form remarkably wild and sternly 
picturesque scenes, contrasting with the generally tame scenery 
of other parts of Palestine. But the absence of vegetation, as 
well as of animal life, gives an impression of extreme desolation 
to the view. 

The Dead Sea receives the water of the Jordan and its 
affluents, and maintains its level by the excessive evaporation 
which causes a thick haze to hang over the water throughout 
the hot season. The water is extremely salt, containing 26 per 



4 



218 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

cent, of solid matter ; of which half is common salt, and a 
large proportion chloride of ma^esium, giving it a peculiarly 
nauseous taste. The driftwood on the shore is coated with 
white salt, and the pools left by the waves crystallise almost im- 
mediately. These chlorides are collected from the whole basin 
through which the Jordan flows, especially from the lower part 
of the valley, the bed of a former salt lake. 

On the south-west shore is Jebel XJsdum (the medi«val site 
of Sodom), a mountain principally composed of salt. 

The Dead Sea bitumen, mentioned by Josephus and in the 
Mishna, is still found at times on the shore. In Hebrew it la 
called ffemavy translated * slime,' in the English version (Gen. 
14. lo) equivalent to the Arabic word for bitumen (Homr); 
and it has been conjectured that the slimepits (Baroth Hemar, 
or 'bitumen wells*) of the Vale of Siddim were petroleum 
springs, such as are suspected to exist still on the east side of 
the Dead Sea. 

The main affluents of the Jordan are four in number ; two 
east and two west of the river. In addition to these, two other 
main water-courses discharge into the Dead Sea from the east. 
The two western affluents are the Jal^d river, bringing down a 
perennial supply from the fine springs which rise beneath Gilboa 
and in the neighbourhood of Bethshean ; and the Fir'ah, which 
is fed by a long chain of springs rising beneath Mount Ebal and 
along the course of the valley, which probably represents the 
New Testament waters of ^non (John 3. 28). The eastern 
affluents are (1st) the Yermfik or Hieromax, which drains the 
great plateau of the Haur^, and descending through a deep 
gorge of white limestone falls into the Jordan between the Sea of 
Gralilee and Bethshean. (2nd) The Zerka or Jabbok, which de- 
scends from Mount Gilead in the Succoth region of the valley. 
The main streams east of the Dead Sea are (1st) the Zerka 
M'ain, a brook descending a steep gorge, which is clothed with a 
luxuriant vegetation and dotted with palms. (3rd) The Mojib 
or Amon, about the middle of the eastern shore. In the valley 
of the Zerka M'ain are the hot springs of Callirrhoe (142° Fabr.), 
which send forth clouds of steam, issuing between the sand- 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 219 

stone and limestone formations. The neighbourhood of this 
gorge is also marked by a considerable basaltic outbreak. 

Of the remaining perennial streams in Palestine the Kishon 
(Nahr el-Mukatta*) is the most important. It receives the 
drainage of the whole basin of the Esdraelon plain, and has two 
principal sources : the one west of the plain at the ruin of 
Lejjun (ancient Legio) ; the other on the north-east, near the foot 
of Tabor. From the latter a stream runs west about 7 miles, 
and many springs occur along its course. It is joined by the 
southern stream, eight miles long, also fed by the numerous 
smaller springs. The river formed by these two brooks is 
narrow, but almost impassable; the bed being muddy and 
treacherous. Though insignificant in appearance, the Kishon 
proved as fatal to the Turkish troops defeated by Napoleon as 
to the army of Sisera. From the j -mction of the two feeders, 
the Kishon flows north-west for 16 miles beneath the ridge of 
Carmel. At its mouth it is about 20 yards wide, and only 
fordable at the bar formed where it debouches in the sea. In 
summer the mouth is generally closed with sand ; the stream 
being sluggish, and often drying up in places so as to leave only 
a chain of large pools. 

The Belus river (Nahr Nam*ain) near Acre is a smaller 
stream, rising in the marshes, and flowing north for about 5 
miles. A picturesque belt of palms occurs at its mouth. 
North of this, the principal stream is th^ Nahr Mefeh^kh, 
descending from the hills of Upper Gkililee through a gorge full 
of springs. 

The plain of Sharon has five perennial streams flowing 
through it to the Mediterranean. At the north end of the 
plain is the Zerka, or Crocodile river, flowing through cane- 
brakes and papyrus marshes. Next in oi-der come the Akhdar 
* green *), the Iskanderfineh, and the F«ilik or * cloven ' river, 
so named from the ai'tificial passage through the ridge which 
exists near the shore, and which gave the name Hoche Taill^ to 
the same stream in the Middle Ages. The fifth river is the 
largest, being scarcely fordable at the mouth in winter. It 
springs from the fine sources at Bds el-'Ain (Antipatris), an^^Mi 



220 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

flows between high sandy banks. It is now called Nahr eV 
'Auja (* crooked river '), but appears to be the Me-jarkon or 
* yellow water ' of the Old Testament (Josh. 19. 46) — a name 
suiting well the turbid character of the stream. 

From the above description it will be dear that Palestine is 
by no means ill supplied with water. The distribution of the 
supply is, however, very irregular. The Judsean Desert is 
almost entirely devoid of water, except that obtained from wells 
and cisterns, which is generally salt and sulphurous. The 
higher mountains, especially in the neighbourhood of Hebron 
and Shechem, and in Galilee, are well supplied with copious 
springs ; but the low hills of the Shephelah have but very few. 
The junction of the hard and soft strata is the usual place for 
the rise of the water flowing beneath the porous beds; and 
very few springs rise in the Maritime Plain at any distance 
from the hills. The valley of Jezreel round Bethshean ; the 
neighbourhood of Bani^ ; the west side of the Plain of Esdraelon, 
and the vale of Shechem, are the best watered districts in 
Palestine. 

In concluding, this sketch of the hydrographic features of 
the country, the hot springs of the Jordan Valley must not be 
forgotten. In Hebrew the word Hammath is used to denote 
such thermal sources ; and according to St. Jerome the Yemim 
(translated * mules' in the Auth. Ver.) found by Anah in the 
wilderness (Gen. 36, 24) wei*e hot springs. In addition to those 
of CaUirrhoe (142° Fahr.), the most famous hot springs are found 
near Tiberias (137° Fahr.), and east of Jordan at Gadara or 
XJmm Keis, where the water is sulphurous, with a temperature 
107° Fahr. There are many smaller sources round the shores 
of the Sea of Galilee, in the Valley of Jezi^eel, and in Wkdy 
Maleh, varying from 70° to 100° Fahr.; and hot sulphur 
springs are also found on the west shore of the Dead Sea. 

The present account of the main physical features of the 
Holy Land may be supplemented by a sketch of its climate and 
natural productions. The question of ancient and modem 
cultivation has, however, been treated in a former chapter 
(Part I. Chap. IX.). 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 221 

The present climate of Palestine is trying and unhealthy ; 
but this appears to be the result of the neglected condition of 
the country, rather than of any great climatic change. The 
summer heat ranges between 100° Fahr. in the plains and 85° 
Fahr. in the mountains, as a maximum temperature in the 
shade. The winter temperature in the plains does not fall to 
freezing point, though in the mountains frost and snow are of 
frequent occurrence. The hottest month of the year is August ; 
but even in this month there is a range of about 30° Fahr. be- 
tween the midday and the midnight readings of the thermometer, 
except when the wind blows from the Eastern desert. The 
western breeze from the sea renders the heat far less oppressive ; 
and the months of June and July, though hot, are generally 
healthy, as the east wind does not then prevail. The east wind 
is mentioned in Scripture, but it appears to be doubtful whether 
the term ' Kadim ' is to be understood as really indicating the 
direction, or whether it should be rendered as * confronting * or 
'contrary' — a question which bears directly on that of the 
place where Israel crossed the waters of the Red Sea. 

The heavy dews which fertilise the soil in Palestine, and 
which drop like rain from the roofs in early morning, are also 
noticed in the Bible (Cant. 5. 2), as are the snows and frosts 
which yearly occur in the mountains (Psalm 147. 16, 17, Job 
38. 30). The 'former rain' (Deut. 11. 14, Joel 2. 23) and the 
* latter rain in the first month ' are no doubt to be understood 
as being the rains which fall at the autumnal and vernal 
equinoxes, and which commence and terminate the wet season ; 
but storms still occur occasionally in the harvest time (1 Sam. 
12. 17). As to the comparative amount of the rainfall at the 
present day and in the times of the Old Testament we have no 
exact information; but the 18 or 20 inches which now fall 
annually would be quite sufficient for the requirements of the 
country, if stored in the ancient cisterns now allowed to lie in 
ruins. Years of scarcity occur, however, now as of old in 
Palestine. 

From the Mishna (Taanith 1) we gather that the seasons 
are unchanged within the last 2,000 years, an4 that the rains ^^ 



222 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

■« » • • 

occur at the same times as formerly. There is, therefoi'e, w * 
very good reason for supposing that the climate has undergone 
any great change, beyond the gradual increase of miasma, due 
to imperfect cultivation, and to the want of proper drainage • 
and irrigation. 

Earthquakes are of frequent occuri'ence in Palestine, ei^>e- 
ciilly in Qalilee. In 1837 Safed and Tiberias were destroyed 
by a severe shock; and in 1875 even the inhabitants of Jeru- 
salem were alarmed by a slight earthquake (Zech. 14. 6). » 

The Fauna and Flora of the Holy Land may be divided into 
three principal groups. The maritime region is a district the 
productions of which belong to the Mediterranean fauna and 
flora. In the hills the natural products are Oriental, and in 
the Jordan Valley subtropical. We might add to this an almost 
Arctic region, on Hermon and the higher parts of Lebanon ; 
giving a very wide range of species within the smaU area of 
the Holy Land. 

It is not proposed to make any attempt to treat exhaustively 
the question of the Flora of modem Palestine, or to enter into a 
discussion as to the Biblical notices of that of the more ancient 
period. The names of no less than 250 species of plants are 
noticed in the Old Testament ; but many of these are not pro- 
perly identified as yet. A few notes on the more important 
names may, however,, be of value. 

Three words are commonly employed in the Hebrew to 
describe the natural growth of the ooimtry : — JStz, a strong 
tree ; Choresh, a copse ; and Tar, a thicket. There is no title 
which necessarily implies the idea of a forest of timber trees ; 
though the existence of single trees of some size, many of which 
vrere apparently held sacred, is often noticed in the Bible. The 
trees mentioned in the Old Testament are without exception 
trees still found in Palestine. The oak, the terebinth, the fig, 
the olive, the cypress, the cedar, the sycomore, the ac.'icia, the 
pine tree, the box, and the palm, are the principal species. 
Woods of oak of moderate size, with moi*e or less underwood^ 
exist still in the hills west of Nazareth, on the north side of 
Mount Tabor, #and in the plain of Sharon; but the annual 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 223 

destruction of trees for firewood threatens in time to reduce 
these to the same condition with the ancient forest near Jaiik, 
which now consists only of low bushes springing from the roots 
of former timber trees. The cedars on Lebanon are also re- 
duced in number, the young shoots being eaten hj the goats, 
and the older trees sometimes used for fuel. But forests of 
cedar, as yet scarcely visited, exist farther north, showing the 
soil and climate to be still fitted for the growth of the tree. 

The terebinth {Botnim Heb. pi., Butm Arab.) is one of the 
most remarkable trees of the countiy. It is the Fistachio Tere- 
hmthua of botanists, and grows as a single tree about as large 
as a middle-sized oak. Of the oak (Heb. Elon, Aram. Ballutf 
Arab. BaUHt) several species exist in Palestine, from the 
Quercua jEgUopa^ which becomes a good-sized tree, to the 
Quercu8 Infectoria, which is merely a bush. The locust tree 
or Geratonia JSiliqita (Arabic Kharrdb), is also of frequent 
occuiTence ; its pods being supposed to have been the * husks ' 
eaten by the prodigal (Luke 15. 16). The sycomore (Heb. 
Shiknim) is common in the low hills and in the plain ; and the 
tamarisk, willow, hawthorn, ash, elder, plane, and arbutus, also 
occui', with the poplar*, and the wild olive (Arabic ^Azzun, Heb, 
JStz Shemen, Neh. 8. 15), rendered *pine' in the English 
Version. 

The Shittim wood used in the construction of the Tabernacle 
(Exod. 36. *20) appears to have been the acacia or Zizyphvs 
(Arabic, Sv/nt), now common in the Jordan Valley; and a species 
of tamarisk, called Ashal (Arabic, Ithleh), is also mentioned. 
The balm of Gilead and of Engedi is identified with the thorny 
Zakkum {Balanites .^yptiaca), bearing a berry with a stone, 
from which is extracted an oil still considered by the Arabs as 
a specific for wounds. 

The famous vine of Sodom (Deut. 32. 32) seems without 
doubt to be the curious 'Osher {Asclepias procera), now found 
near Engedi, bearing a fruit like a lemon, consisting mainly of 
pith ; while the * Juniper ' of the English Version (Hebrew 
Jiotham) is the beautiful Betem broom {Genista Eetem))^ which 
lights up the desert with its delicate white blossom. Among 





V ■ * 
224 •■ HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the smaller shrubs, the most important is the Gopher (* Cam- 
phire ' Auth.Ver., Cant. 1.14), which is identified with the Henna 
bush {Lawaonia inermis), whence the pink dye used for the 
hands and hair is obtained. . The Caper {Capparis spinosa) is 
also still found ; and the aphrodisiac qualities ascribed to the 
Mandrake in the Bible (Gen. 30. u), are still believed by the 
Arabs to distinguish that plant. * Wild gourds ' (Fak*ath in 
Heb.) are mentioned in 2 Kings 4. 39 ; and the word Fuk^a is 
still in use in Arabic. The word translated * gourd,' in Jonah 
4. 6, is, however, a different one, and there has been much dis- 
pute as to the true meaning of the term * Kikion.' The Jews 
themselves render it by the word * Ker'a,' which is evidently 
the same as the Arabic Ker*a — a species of gourd. Palestine 
is remarkable for the variety of its cucumaceous vegetables, and 
for the greiat rapidity of their growth. 

The hyssop growing on the wall appears to be the plant 
called 'Adhab, or Miriamin, by the Syrians, found generally in 
crumbling ruins, and used for all the purposes mentioned in the 
Bible and Mishna in their references to the hyssop. The Eose 
of Sharon (Heb. Chdbutzaleth ; Chaldee, Na/rkua) is best iden- 
tified with the white Narcissus, which grows abundantly in the 
plains (Arab. Btiseil and Runjus) ; for the rose does not grow 
wild, except on the heights of Lebanon, and is never found in 
the Maritime Plain. The Lily of the Valleys (Shushaneth 
ha-Bmekim) is probably the blue Iris (Arabic, Zemhakiyeh), 
which is also of common occurrence. Finally, th« growth of 
brambles, and thistles of enormous dimensions, recalls the 
imagery of the Old Testament parables (Judges 9. 14 ; 2 Kings 
14. 9). 

Turning next to the Fauna of the country, we may notice 
briefly the more important species mentioned in the Bible, com- 
mencing with the Mammalia. Of the clean beasts eaten by the 
Jews, the ox, goat, and sheep require no special mention, be- 
yond the interesting note, that the * fat of the kidneys ' of rams 
(Isaiah 34. e), is probably to be rendered the * tail * of the rams 
belonging to a peculiar breed having beneath the tail a large 
of fat. Most readers will have heard of the fat-tailed 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAK1>. 225 

Syrian sheep. This part of the animal is still considered a 
delicacy in Palestine. 

The horse, the mule, the ass, the camel, and the dromedary, 
may likewise be passed over with a bare mention ; but the true 
meaning of the terms denoting various wild animals of the bo- 
vine and cervine groups requires rather a more detailed notice. 

First among these comes the Bvm, which appears in the 
English Version as the * Unicom.' By a curiously inverted 
reasoning the existence of this fabulous beast has been supposed 
to be proved by its being mentioned in the Bible ; but it is to 
the Greek translator, not to the Hebrew author, that we owe 
the invention. It has lately been shown by means of the 
Assyrian bas-reliefs, that the £im was a species of wild ox, now 
extinct in Palestine, but which used to be hunted by the Assyrian 
monarchs. One of these animals is sculptured, with the name 
— Rim — written above it in cuneiform characters. In modem 
Arabic the word is now used to denote the fallow deer ; but it 
appears certain that the Rim of the Psalms and the Prophets 
was a species of the bovine family now extinct in Palestine : 
perhaps resembling the buffalo, which though now common in 
certain districts, is not indigenous to the country. 

A second animal of the same group is the To, or * wild bull,' 
(Deut. 14. 5; Isaiah 51. 20), which was also a beast of chase. 
The species is, however, in this case unknown. The Bulls of 
Bashan (Farim) were probably merely a fine breed of domes- 
ticated cattle. 

The * Hart ' of the Authorised Version (Heb. AiyobL) is in 
reality the fallow deer ; for the red deer does not exist in Pales- 
tine, nor is it likely that the country ever presented a suitable 
habitat for this large species. The * Roebuck ' of the English 
la'anslation (Heb. Tzehi) is also generally recognised to be one 
of the two species of gazelles common in the country ; and the 
Pygarg, or * white rump ' (Heb. Diahon) is probably the other 
— possibly the Gazella Dorcas, which presents a broad white 
band on the rump, specially noticeable when seen in flight. 
The roebuck has, however, now been ascertained to exist on 
Carmel, as well as the fallow deer in the woods of Tabor. TliMMH 



226 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

former bears the name Yah/mdr^ which is identical with the 
Hebrew word translated * fallow deer ' in the English Version of 
Deut. 14. 6, and 1 Kings 4. 23. The wild goat of Scripture (Heb. 
Ako\ inhabiting the rocks near Engedi, is evidently the Ibex 
(Arabic Bedn), which is still found in large herds in that neigh- 
bourhood, and also occurs in the gorges above Jericho. The 
Zemer, or * chamois/ is the only member of this group which 
remains unknown : it is clear that the English rendering is 
scarcely a happy one. 

The Swine (Hebrew, Khazir), forbidden to be eaten or kept 
by the Jews, and often mentioned as a wild animal, is evidently 
the wild boar (Arabic, Khanztr), which is so common in Pales- 
tine, and often attains a great size in the marshes of the Jordan 
Valley. The Hare (Heb. Amebeth ; Arab. ^Emehah) is also still 
found ; but the Coney (Hebrew, Shaphan) is not to be supposed 
to be the rabbit, which certainly cannot be described as inhabit- 
ing * rocks.' It is the Syrian Hyrax, called Wahr in Arabic ; 
an animal found in the wilder parts of the country only. Bab- 
bits do not exist in Syria. 

The beasts of prey include the lion, the bear, the leopard, 
the wolf, the hyaena, the fox, and we may even add, the dog. 

Although it is by no means certain that the seven Biblical 
words supposed, according to Talmudic interpretation, to denote 
the Lion at different periods of his life, are exclusively applic- 
able to this animal, and although the lion is now extinct in 
Palestine, there is no reason to doubt that it existed there in 
the earlier historic period, giving its name to various towns, 
as Laish in the north and Beth-lebaoth in the south-west. The 
teeth of lions have been found in bone-caves on the Lebanon ; 
and the Asspian bas-reliefe frequently represent the chase of 
the lion. 

The Bear, Ursus Syriacua (Heb. Doh^ Arab. Dubb), is still 
found on Hermon and the Antilebanon. If we may credit 
the Chronicles of King Bichard, a bear attacked that monarch 
in the Philistine Plain in 1292 a.d. ; but it is not now known 
to exist, except in the cooler regions, and delights especially in 
the snow. 




PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 227 

The Leopard of Scripture (Heb. Namer, Cant. 4. 8) is the 
Arabic Nimr or Hunting Leopard, called Cheetah in India. 
This is still found in the jungle surrounding Jordan, and is said 
also to exist in the Carmel thickets. 

The Wolf (Heb. Zeeh, Arabic, DMb) is rare in the country, 
but is nevertheless found occasionally in every part. The Hyaena 
is much more common, and often attains a great size. In 
Arabic it is called Bhdb^a^ and it is worthy of note that the 
Hebrew word Zehoa, rendered by error * a speckled bird * in 
Jer. 12. 9, is more correctly translated 'hyaena.' The name 
Zehoim in the plural occurs in the Old Testament as that of a 
town and of a valley near the Jordan. 

The Shualim of the Bible, rendered * foxes,* seem without 
doubt to have been really jackals. The Fox is very rarely found, 
the country being as a rule unsuited for its habitat. The 
Shualim are represented as feeding on corpses (Ps. 63. lo), and 
they may be inferred to have been gregarious (Judges 15. 4) ; 
peculiarities which are distinctive of the jackal as compared 
with the fox. Numerous troops of jackals (Arabic Wdwy) still 
infest the wilder parts of Palestine. 

The Dog cannot be considered a domestic animal in the 
East. Living on the outskirts of the town, despised and ill- 
treated, half vulpine in breed, and feeding on garbage, the dog 
still answers to the description of the Psalmist, and its name is 
still commonly used as a term of reproach. 

Among the smaller animals, Jerboa (translated 'mouse,' 
Hebrew ^Akhar), is also very common in the Jordan Valley and 
in the Desert of Beersheba ; and the mole rat (Arabic, KhvM) 
appears to be the Hebrew Kholed, rendered ' weasel ' (Levit. 
11. 29). 

Of the Cetacese the commonest species is the Porpoise, which 
may often be seen on the Syrian coast. It appears to be the 
Hebrew Takhask (Arab. Takhash), rendered 'badger* in the 
English Version (Ezek. 16. lo). 

The Reptiles of the Holy Land include various species of 
snakes, some of which are poisonous ; and an immense variety 
of lizards, ghekkos (Arabic, Ha/rdiln\ and other species of Hitf^/f^ 



228 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Saurian family. The Iguana (Arabic, Warm) is found in the 
desert; and the Chameleon is common in all parts of the 
country; as are also land tortoises and water tortoises, the 
latter especially near Beisan. 

The description of I-eviathan (Job 41) approaches so closely 
to the general appearance and character of the crocodile, that it 
is interesting to note that this reptile still exists in Palestine. 
The river Zerka, south of Carmel, is called the Crocodile River 
by Pliny (Nat. Hist. 5. 19), and retained its name in the 12th 
century. The crocodile (Arabic, Tvmsah) is still occasionally 
caught in it ; and the character of the stream, in which the 
Egyptian papyrus grows luxuriantly, is so well fitted for its 
habitat that there seems no reason to doubt that the crocodile 
is here indigenous. 

The names of Birds mentioned in the Bible are numerous ; 
but it is far more difficult to identify the species than is the 
case with the Mammalia or Reptiles, because the jaatives are un- 
observant, and often give the same title to very different birds. 
The modem nomenclature does not therefore afford much assist- 
ance in discriminating between various Hebrew words. 

Song-birds are extremely rare in Palestine. The bulbul is 
found in the Jordan Valley, and the blackbird and nightingale 
are occasionally seen in the thickets of Gkllilee ; bat the absence 
of song is very noticeable in the country, and the * singing * of 
birds is only once mentioned in the Bible (Cant. 2. 12). 

On the other hand, the species of birds of prey are very 
numerous, and the air is often seen full of vultures, hawks, 
" kities, and kestrels. The raven, jackdaw, and crow ; the magpie 
and Syrian jay ; with various species of owl, from the great 
homed Otus Aacalaphua to the small grey Athene Persica 
found on Lebanon, may be particularised. In the olive groves the 
voice of the Biimeh, a small kind of brown owl, is constantly 
heard, and the bird is held in great veneration by the natives. 

Of the twenty species of unclean birds mentioned in Leviti- 
cus (11. 13-19) and Deuteronomy (14. 12-ls), very few can be 
recognised by their modern names. The eagle, raven, and 
vulture (translated gier eagle) are exceptions ; the Hebrew and 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 229 

Arabic titles being identical. The English words for the re- 
mainder all represent species actually existing in Palestine, 
with the exception of the swan (wild duck according to the 
Tai^im) ; but it is quite another question whether the Hebrew 
words have been correctly translated. 

Among clean birds the partridge was no doubt included. 
Two species of partridge exist, one in the Desert— a small fawn- 
coloured bird [Ammoperdix Heyii, in Arabic Hajl) ; the other 
the large red-legged Grreek partridge {Caccabis saxatilis, Axabic 
Shinndr), In the Jordan Valley and the Southern Desert the 
curious pintail is also found in flocks. It is the Kafa of the 
Arabs and the Pterodea of naturalists. 

The quail is found in Palestine, especiaUy in spring, arriving 
in large flocks. It is called Firreh and Semd/rveh by the natives. 
The woodcock, snipe, redshank, bustard, plover, and lapwing 
are also to be enumerated among the game birds of the coimtry. 

The woods of Lower Gralilee are crowded with the smaller 
species of wild dove {TurVwr JEgyptia,cu8\ called Hamdm ; while 
the larger species {Colwmha Palumhua) appear in pairs, and is 
called Jdzel by the Arabs. 

Other birds mentioned in the Bible and found in Palestine 
at the present day are the stork, the heron, the swallow, the 
sparrow, and the cuckoo, of which there are two species. One 
of the most beautiful and distinctive birds of the country — the 
golden winged black grackle {Amydrus Triatramii) does not 
appear to be noticed in the Sacred books ; nor are the delicate 
sunbirds of the Jordan Valley to be identified with any Scrip- 
tural species. By the Arabs they are known as SHweid, 

No species of Fish are mentioned in the Bible, and only one 
— the Tarith, apparently a kind of tunny — in the Targums. 
Nevertheless, the Sea of Galilee has been always celebrated for 
its fish, and large specimens are caught in Jordan. The Arabs, 
though they eat lizards, will, like the ancient Egyptians, not touch 
fish ; but the inhabitants of the seaside towns are more accus- 
tomed to this kind of food, and some kinds (especially the 
Sultan Ibrahim, which resembles a bream) are much prized. 
The fish are generally caught with a cast-net, thrown by a fisher 



« 



230 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

standing up to his waist in water (cf. John 21. 7). They are 
also occasionally poisoned with a kind of berry when they are 
still considered fit to eat. The £bh called Coradnus by Jose- 
phus^ and said by him to exist in the Nile and also in the 
Fountain of Caphamaum, was long considered fabulous, but 
has been shown by Dr. Tristram to be a kind of Silurus actually 
existing in both the places mentioned by the Jewish historian 
(see 3 Wars 10. 3). 

Among the Insects of Palestine the most numerous and im- 
portant fisimily is that of the Orthoptera. The grasshopper fur- 
oished many similes in the Bible, and is to be found in swarms 
everywhere. The three kinds of locust (Levit. 11. 22) will pro- 
bably never be clearly identified with particular species ; but 
the devastation caused by plagues of locusts at the present day, 
and the use of salted or roasted grasshoppers for food among 
the Arabs, are facts fully agreeing with Scriptural accounts 
(Matt. 3. 4). 

The bee appears as an enemy to man in Deuteronomy 
(1. 44); but the JDaburtm here mentioned are probably the 
Dabbur or wild bees of the Arabs. It is also doubtful whether 
the Hebrew Dabesh, rendered * honey,' may not be the Arabic 
Dibs, a sort of treacle prepared from the grape lees. The 
honey bee (Arabic, Nahl) does however exist in Palestine at 
the present day, and is even hived in mud hives. The honey- 
comb is mentioned in Scripture (Ps. 19. lO; cf. Judges 14. 8), 
and beehives are noticed in the Mishna (Shebiith 10. 7). 

The wasp and the hornet (Tzir'ah) are noticed in the Penta- 
teuch (Exod. 23. 28 ; Deut. 7. 20) as forerunners and allies of 
Israel against their enemies. Numerous traditions of armies 
and individuals destroyed by wasps (Arabic, Sik*a) are commonly 
related in Palestine at the present day. 

The number of flies, midges, gnats, mosquitos, and sandflies, 
found in summer in the plains of Syria, fully explains the wor- 
ship of Baal Zebub, * the lord of flies,' among the lowlanders of 
Ekron. 

The Mollusca require but a short notice. The snail is men- 
tioned by the Psalmist (58. 8), but the Hamat (Auth. Vers. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 231 

' snail/ Levit. 11. 30) was probably a lizard. An edible land snail 
exists in the Holy Land, with other freshwater species. 

The Murex, from which the Tyrian purple was obtained, is 
not mentioned in the Bible ; but the ' abundance of the seas * 
promised to Zebulon (Deut. 33. 19) is held by the Talmudic 
commentators to refer to the Chilzon (Arabic, Halziki or * snail '), 
which was the Hebrew name for the Murex Trunculus, The 
expression * thine head, like Carmel — the hair of thy head like 
purple ' (Cant. 7. 5), they also take to refer to the fishery of the 
Chilzon carried on from a town of that name near Carmel, as 
far north as Phoenicia. The Murex has given its name to the 
present Wady Halz^n, near Acre. 

Without entering into the question of the mythical Shamir 
worm, which, according to the Talmudical scholars, assisted 
Solomon to polish the Temple stones, and which some have sup. 
posed to be a fanciful title for * emery powder,' we may conclude 
this chapter by mentioning that the word * Scarlet ' (ThoFath 
has-Shani, Exod. 39. l) is literally ' scarlet worm,' and that it is 
.thought to refer to the cochineal insect, which (according to 
Volney) would find food in any part of Syria. The culture of 
this insect on the leaves of the prickly pear has, however, been 

attempted unsuccessfully of late years near Shechem. 



tf 



232 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER n. 

PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 

The earliest notice of those inhabitants of the Holy Land who 
were conquered by the Children of Israel derives their descent 
from Ham ; the Jews, through Abraham, descending from 
Shem. It is, however, noteworthy that no great difference 
appears to have existed between the aboriginal language and 
that of the conquerors. Not only is there no mention of lin- 
guistic diificulties between the Hebrew and the Canaanite in 
the time of Abraham or of Joshua, but we now know from the 
Egyptian monuments that the names given by the Canaanites 
to their towns were substantially the same employed by the 
Jews ; such words as Beth (a house), and Ain (a spring), being 
apparently common to the two languages. The same result 
might be deduced from the occasional notices in the Old Testa- 
ment of the change of name in cities rebuilt by the Israelites 
(Numb. 32. 38). 

The group of tribes collected under the common name of 
Canaanites (Gen. 10. 16-18) included six, who were settled be- 
yond the bounds of Palestine proper, and four who afterwards 
appear among the seven nations destroyed by Joshua. The 
whole of these tribes seem to be divided into two groups, under 
the names Sidon and Heth. This is in accordance with the 
results of Egyptian research, whence it appears that the Hittite 
nation extended its domination almost to the coasts of Egypt, 
and agrees with the latest discoveries of the Assyrian archaeolo- 
gists, which seem to show that an extensive Hittite centre 
existed north-east of Palestine. It is now thought that the 



PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 233 

curious illegible inscriptions found at Hamath, and in other 
places fieirther east, will prove to be of Hittite origin ; and it 
will be seen immediately that the Hittites are mentioned in the 
Bible both in the north and in the south of the Holy Land. 

The six northern tribes of Canaan were the Arkites, near 
Arce, in Lebanon, north of Tripoli ; the Sinites, probably rather 
fai*ther south, near Strabo's Sinna; the Arvadites, near Ara- 
dus, now Er-Riiad, an island on the coast, some thirty miles 
north of Tripoli ; the Zemarites, round Simyra, a place inland 
of the last; the Hivites; and the Hamathites, in Hamath. 
With these northern tribes we are not further concerned. 

The Southern tribes require rather a more detailed notice. 
In Genesis four nations, Jebusi, Amori, Girgasi, and Hivi, 
are first mentioned, besides the sons of Heth and the Canaanite 
— the latter word being used with a restricted meaning. At 
rather a later period (Gen. 15. 18) other names are added : the 
Perizzites, the Eephaim, the Kenites, Kenezites, and Kadmon- 
ites. In the time of Abraham, also, the Moabites and Am- 
monites, east of Jordan, are derived from a Semitic stock (Gren. 
19. 37), as were the Edomites, or descendants of Esau, in the 
southern desert (Gen. 36. 19). The Amalekites are also men- 
tioned farther west as early as Abraham's time (Gen. 14. 7) ; 
and the Midianites, inhabiting the Sinaitic desert, were half- 
brethren of the Israelites (Gen, 25. 4). The Philistines are 
mentioned in the Book of Genesis (10. u) as of Egyptian origin, 
and are found settled near Gaza in the time of Abraham. It is 
remarkable, however, that they are not enumerated among the 
tribes mentioned in the Pentateuch. 

From the above resume, it appears that the inhabitants of 
Palestine, at the time of the Conquest, were derived from three 
separate stocks. The Canaanites holding the habitable country 
were not directly allied by blood with the Hebrews. The four 
tribes Moab, Ammon, Midian, and Edom, were of Semitic 
origin ; and the Philistines formed a third group by themselves. 
Before considering, however, the geographical distribution of 
these various tribes, it is necessary to call attention to a yet 
older population, which had been conquered and dispossessed by 



€ 



234 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the nations afkerwards subjugated by Israel, but of whom a few 
survivors are found even as late as the days of David. 

The general title under which these aboiigines are classed is 
that of Bephaim, sometimes rendered ' giants ' in the Authorised 
Version, and their latest descendants were still remarkable for 
their great stature. We are not informed of the origin of the 
Rephaim ; for the * giants ' (Nephilim), * and mighty ' men (Gi- 
borim) of an earlier period (Gren. 6. 4) are not necessarily con- 
nected with them. The Rephaim (or * lofty men ') were found 
in Ashtoreth "Kamaim, south of Damascus, and were known to 
the Moabites as Emim (^fearful,' Deut. 2. il), and to the Am- 
monites as Zamzummim. Another gigantic tribe, the Zuzim, 
lived in Ham, a place quite unknown. The last and most im- 
portant family of giants was that of Anak, whose descendants 
lived in the southern mountains round Hebron, Debir, and 
Anab, and even in Philistia at Gath, Gaza and Ekron (Num. 
13. 33; Joshua 11. 21-22). 

The tribe of Anakim round refage from Joshua in Philistia, 
where their descendants were still existing in the time of David 
(2 Sam. 21. le) ; but the other gigantic races gradually disap- 
peared before the tribes of the Canaanites. 

It would seem possible that the Pentateuch also contains 
traces of a race of dwarfs, reminding us of the manner in which 
giant and dwarf stand side by side in the ancient German folk- 
lore. The Horim or *cave dwellers,' called Troglodytes by 
Joseph us, inhabited the rocky caverns round Petra until dis- 
possessed by the children of Esau and Ishmael (Deut. 2. 12). 
The whole of the southern part of 'Palestine bears evidence of 
the use of caves as dwellings by some primitive people ; and the 
names Haura and H6rS,n applied to ruins in this district may, 
perhaps, preserve the memory of the Horim. According to the 
Talmud, even Beit Jibrin, though considerably farther north, 
was once inhabited by these troglodytes ; but it must not be 
forgotten that the Jews themselves lived in caves, and used 
caves for their sheepfolds as late as the time of Saul and of 
David. 

We may now proceed to notice the probable distribution of 



PALESTINE BEFOEE THE CONQUEST. 235 

the Canaanite tribes in Palestine in the order of their apparent 
importance. — 

(1), The HittiteSy who, as above noticed, appear prominently 
in early Assyrian and Egyptian records, were a nation of moun- 
taineers (Num. 13. 29); they are mentioned in the north appa- 
rently as extending to Euphrates (Josh. 1. 4), but are most 
commonly known as existing in the mountains of Hebron 
(Gen. 23), and apparently as far south as Beersheba (Gen. 27. 
46). Hittites were still to be foimd in the time of David 
(1 Sam. 26. 6 ; 2 Sam. 23. 39), and Hittite wives were even 
admitted to the harem of Solomon (1 Kings 11. i). In Pales- 
tine they have left .their name in two places : (1) Hattin, the 
old Caphar Hittai of the Talmud, above this sea of Galilee ; and 
(2) Kefr Hatta, north of Jerusalem. 

(2), The Canaanites, or * lowlanders,' lived both in the Mari- 
time Plain from Gaza to Sidon, and also in the Jordan Valley 
from Sodom to Lasha (Gen. 10. 19). The expression ^the 
Canaanite on the East and West' (Josh. 11, 3) is thus ex- 
plained. 

(3), The AmoriteSy or ' mountaineers,' are found both east 
and west of Jordan from the north to the south of Palestine. 
The term appears to describe rather the habitat of the people 
thus denominated than their descent. No individual Amorites 
are mentioned in the Old Testament. 

(4), The Ferizzites, apparently * rustics ' living in * country 
villages ' (Heb. Caphrath Ferazi, 1 Sam, 6. 18), are found in 
the centre of Palestine (Gen. 34. 30), and in Lower Gkdilee 
(Josh. 17. 15). They have possibly left their name in the 
present village of Ferasin, north-west of Shechem. 

(5), The ffivite (a word only found in the singular) lived 
in the hill-country immediately north of Jerusalem. The name 
is translated * midlander ' by Ewald, and * villager ' by Gesenius. 
The league of Hivite towns formed to resist Joshua included 
Gibeon, Chephirah, Beeroth, and Kirjath-jeanm (Josh. 9. 17); 
and Shechem (Gen. 34. 2) was also a Hivite city. They first 
appear in history in the time of Jacob ; but the term is also 
applied to inhabitants of Lebanon (Judg. 3. d), and, like thi^^M 



236 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

three preceding, is perhaps rather a denomination than a trad 
tribal name. 

(6), The Jebtisites were inhabitants of Jerusalem, and pro- 
bably of the surrounding mountains, and were in possession of 
the Temple hill and the Upper City in David's time. 

(7), The Girgadtea are a people of whom nothing is known 
beyond their name. 

The seven nations thus mentioned are those generally noticed 
in the Pentateuch as comprising the whole of the Palestinian 
tribes. Most of their names appear to be derived from their 
habitat, and we may perhaps conclude from external evidence 
(as well as from Josh. 1. 4) that the national name was Hitti 
or Ohatti. 

Three other tribal titles occur in Genesis (15. 18), one of 
which can be identified with some certainty. 

(8), The Kenites are mentioned as Hving in a strong fortress 
apparently near the Amalekites (Num. 24. 2l), and the femily 
of Hobab, the Kenite, is again found in the desert of Judah 
and in the Negeb near Arab (Judg. 1. 16) ; finally, the Kenites 
are noticed, with other inhabitants of the southern territory of 
Judah, in the time of David (1 Sam. 30. 29). It seems most 
probable, therefore, that they inhabited the town of Cain (now 
Yekin), situated on the cliffs abovethe Jeshimon — a place which 
would have been easily visible as a prominent object on the 
sky-line from the top of Pisgah whence Balaam addresses the 
Kenites. 

(9), The Kenizzite, and (10) the Kadmomte are known only 
by name (Gren. 15. 19). 

The nation of the Amalekites is not included among the 
tribes of Heth or Canaan. Its genealogy is doubtful, but its 
antiquity is considerable. The Amalekites appear near Kadesh 
as early as the time of Abraham (Gen. 14. 7), although Jose- 
phus derives their descent from Amalek, the grandson of Esau 
(Gen. 36. 12, 2 Ant. 1. 2). At the period of the Exodus 
they are found defending the mountain passes near Sinai 
(Exod. 17. 8) and above Kadesh (Num. 14. 46); and they con- 
tinued to be inimical to Israel even as late as the reign of 




PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 237 

Hezekiah (1 Chron. 4. 43), after having been almost exterminated 
by Saul and David. 

The geographical distribution of the tribes of Semitic 
descent may be brielBy dismissed. The country of the Moabites 
and Ammonites was east of Jordan ; but at the time of the 
Exodus the Amorites from Bashan had encroached on their 
territory. The Moabites were didven southwards until their 
northern boundary was the river Amon (Num. 21, 13-26). 
Heshbon becoming the capital of the Amorite Sihon. The 
Ammonites were obliged to retreat eastwards to the watershed 
(Deut. 2. 37), where they remained in the mountains in a dis- 
trict not annexed by Israel, and in which theii* name is still 
preserved at 'AmmS,n, the ancient Kabbath Ammon (Num. 
21. 24). The Edomites inhabited Mount Seir and the neigh- 
bourhood of Petra, as far south as the shores of the Gulf of 
'Akabah. The Midianites lived in the Sinaitic Desert, and 
their land extended eastwards to an unknown limit. 

One nation alone remains to be noticed, a people never com- 
pletely conquered by the Jews, and retaining heathen worship 
even as late as the fourth century of our era. These are the 
Philistines or * emigrants,' from whom the name Palestine h 
derived. They were of Egyptian origin (Gen. 10. 14), and came 
from Caphtor (Amos 9. 7), a maritime region (Heb. Ai, Jer. 
47. 4), which mediseval Jewish writers identify with Damietta. 
In later times they are also called Gherethim (Ezek. 25. 16), 
and in David's time the Cherethites and Pelethites (or Philis- 
tines) are mentioned together (2 Sam. 20. 7). It is important, 
therefore, to note that one of the principal villages of Philistia 
is now called Keretiya, so that the teim may apply to the 
inhabitants of this town — an ancient Oherith, not mentioned in 
the Bible. This suggestion seems simpler than that of some 
authors, who make the Philistines come from Grete, forgetting 
apparently that they were descendants of Mizraim or Egypt. 

The Philistines are mentioned in Genesis ; and if we may 
judge by the rea{^»earance of the names Abimelech (Father- 
King) and Phicol in the histories both of Abraham and of 
Isaac, they appear to have then had special titles for tba 




238 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. ' • 

kings and military chiefs. It is remarkable tliat the name 
Philistine does not occur in other Books of the Pentateuch, in 
the category of Canaanite tribes ; but in Deuteronomy the inva- 
sion of the Philistine plain by the Caphtorim is noticed (Deut. 
2. 23). The abori^es of this part are there called Avim 
('Awim), dwelling in * enclosures ' (Hazerim), as far as Gaza, and 
have left their name in the ruin now called Beit *Auwa, on the 
edge of the Philistine plain, west of Hebron. In another 
passage of the Pentateuch (Exod. 15. 14) Palestina, presum- 
ably meaning Philistia, is mentioned. 

The Philistines were inimical to the earlier Patriarchs ; and 
it is very remarkable that when the body of Jacob was brought 
from Egypt to Hebron the route taken was not the direct one 
through Philistia, or even that by Beersheba on the borders of 
the Philistine country, but one which led to the east of Jordan, 
like that finally taken by the Israelites after the Exodus (cf. 
Gren. 50. ll). It is clear from the hieratic records that the 
Philistine plain was under the rule of the Egyptians about the 
time of the Exodus and probably later. 

The history of the Semitic immigration into Palestine com- 
mences with the settlement of Abraham in Harran, — a place 
which, if we may judge from the parallel account extracted by 
Josephus from Nicolaus, was near Damascus. The ruin of 
Harrlin in the plain, east of the Syrian capital, may therefore 
very possibly represent the site of the first Hebrew settlement 
in the Holy Land. 

The most important question connected with the topography 
of this early period is that of the Cities of the Plain ; and in 
order to explain fully what is known on the subject it is neces- 
sary to treat the question in detail. 

From the camp east of Bethel, Lot is said to have * beheld 
all the plain of Jordan,' which he afterwards chose for his 
abode (Gren. 13. io). It is evident, however, that the expression 
must not be taken too literally, because there is no mountain 
near Bethel from which more than a small portion of the Gh6r 
can be seen at once, the western side being hidden by the cliflfe 
which rise above it. 





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PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 239 

The word here rendered 'plain' is in Hebrew Cicca/r, and its 
special applicability to the Jordan Yalley from Jericho as far 
north even as Succoth has been already noticed (Chap. I. p. 213). 
The Cities of the Plain, so far as the term Ciccar is concerned, 
should therefore be sought north of the Dead Sea, but may have 
existed as far north as the Jabbok (2 Chron. 14. 17, 'plain ot 
Jordan '). The cities were five in number : Sodom, Gk>morrah, 
Zeboim, Admah, and Bela (afterwards called Zoar). Of these 
two at least were so completely destroyed by the great convul- 
sion mentioned in (xenesis 19 that they disappear from the sub- 
sequent topography. 

In another passage, we find the Cities of the Plain mentioned 
in connection with the Yale of Siddim (Emek has-Siddim), 
' which is the Salt Sea ' (Gen. 14. s). From a very eai*ly period 
this definition has been supposed to imply that the Dead Sea 
was formed after the destruction of the four cities and that they 
were engulphed by its waters. This is the view taken by Jose- 
phus (1 Ant. 10. l) and is the belief of the Moslems, who de- 
nominate the lake Bahr Liit, * Sea of Lot.' It has even found 
adherents among English writers. 

In the previous chapter the great antiquity of the present 
Dead Sea has been explained and, which is yet more important, 
it has been shown that whatever be the geological period to 
which the lake belongs, it was preceded by a yet larger sheet of 
water covering apparently the whole region called Ciccar in the 
Bible. The lake far from having been recently formed, is the 
remains of a yet larger and more ancient sea. It may further 
be remarked, that the Cities of the Plain are described as having 
been destroyed by fire, not by water. Had the author intended 
us to understand that they sunk to the bottom of a lake which 
was formed at the time, he would probably have explained more 
exactly the character of the convulsion. 

It is further noticeable that only Gomorrah and Sodom are 
mentioned (in Genesis) as having been overthrown. Whether 
Admah and Zeboim shared their fate, we are not there told, 
though in the Book of Deuteronomy all four are mentioned as 
having been overthrown (Deut. 29. 23). 



i 



240 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The name Siddim has been a puzzle to scholais. The root 
has the meaning of 'obstruction/ and in modem Aralactlie 
word aidd generally means a dam. It has, however, now been 
ascertained that the same word has a special significHnce among 
the Arabs of the Jordan Valley, meaning a * cHfl^' or * benk.' 
The cliffs of marl along the shore of the Dead Sea and ihoBB 
formed by the streams running to Jordan are called Sidd by tlie 
Bedawin. These marl hills are the most remarkable'featoreB of 
the lower part of the Gh6r. They are occasionally nearly 100 
feet high, and are composed of thinly stratified marls and gravek. 
Sometimes, they form isolated hills surrounded by gullies; some- 
times they occur as long narrow plateaux above the river. If 
then, the Hebrew word has tbe same meaning with the Arabic 
(which is at least probable), the name Yale of Siddim may be 
considered without impropriety as synonymous with the Ciccar 
of Jordan. Thus while geological considerations make it im- 
poHHJble for us to put a strictly literal construction on the words 

* which is the Salt Sea,' we are otherwise left free to search the 
whole valley to a distance of twenty miles north of the lake for 
the site of the Cities of the Plain. 

Another reason for supposing this extension of area, is. that 
no sites suitable for cities are found in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the Dead Sea. There is one large brackish fountain 
('Ain Feshkhah) on the western shore, and the thermal spring 
at Engedi was once surrounded by a town, but no other springs 
of any importance are known. No ruins have been discovered 
near the Dead »Sea which can be considered ancient ; but it is not 
reasonable to expect that the actual remains of cities so com- 
pletely destroyed, and so entirely blotted out of the minute 
topography of the Book of Joshua, will ever be discovered after 
such a lapse of time. 

With regai'd to Sodom, we know that it was near Zoar, and 
therefore, probably east of Jordan, and not far from the Dead 
Sea. Of the position of Gomorrah we have no certain indica- 
tion, nor is the interpretation of its name — variously rendered 

* depression * and * cultivation ' — determined with any exacti- 
tude. 



PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 241 

Of Admah and Zeboim, on the other hand, we find perhaps 
a later notice. The city Adam noticed in the Book of Joshua 
(3. 16) was possibly the same as Admah; and if we may attach 
any force to the order in which the cities are enumerated in 
another passage (Gren. 10. 19), Admah lay farther north than 
Sodom. The Adam of the later period has been identified as 
leaving its name at the DS.mieh bridge and ford immediately 
south of the Jabbok ; and such a site lies, as previously ex- 
plained, within the region of the Ciccar. 

In the 1st Book of Siunuel (13. 18) a valley of Zeboim 
(Gai ha-Zeboim) is mentioned as being * towards the wilderness ' 
(Midbar) east of Michmash, and this is still recognisable in 
Wady Shakh ed-Dub'a. This name may perhaps be connected 
with the site of the ancient Zeboim in the Ciccar. 

The site of Zoar has not yet been determined with certitude. 
The word means * small,' and the proper Arabic equivalent 
would be Saghir, Zoar was not in the mountains, but in the 
plain near Sodom (Gen. 19. 19), and apparently close to the hills 
(Deut. 34. 3). It is mentioned with Heshbon, Beth Nimrim, 
and other places east of Jordan, and seems to have formed the 
western limit of Moab (Jer. 48. 34). Perhaps the best sugges- 
tion yet made for its identification is Tell esh-Shaghur, at the 
foot of the eastern mountains immediately north of the Dead 
Sea, and some 6 miles south of Nimrin. The situation seems 
appropriate, though the name does not strictly represent the 
Hebrew, and has the meaning * sofb soil,' in Arabic. 

A very important addition to the history of Palestine topo- 
graphy has lately been obtained from the walls of the Temple at 
Karnak, near Thebes, in Egypt. The hieroglyphics on the pylones 
of this temple record the victories of Thothmes III., who reigned 
shortly before the Exodus. In the 22nd year of his reign, this 
monarch made an expedition against the inhabitants of Kedeshu 
and Magedi, in Upper Ruten (Palestine), by which names 
Kadesh and Megiddo appear to be intended. The troops were 
assembled in the Land of Sharuana (probably Sharon), and two 
routes are mentioned as leading towards Magedi ; one by Greuta 
(possibly the Samaritan Gitta, now Jett), and by the land of 

B 



242 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 






Aanakft (perkaps the Anakim) ; the other, more difficult and 
.;> direct, 'by the fortress of* Aaruna to Kaina, south of Magedi. 
This latter was the road chosen by Thothmes, against the advice 
of his chiefs, but the expedition was nevertheless successful, 
and Megiddo was taken on the day after the pass of Aaruna 
had been forced.* 

On other pylones of the same temple the list of cities 
conquered during this expedition is given ; and as it is thrice 
repeated, there is no reason for suspecting clerical error in cases 
where the three readings agree. The principal interest of these 
lists consists in the deductions which we may perhaps be en- 
titled to make from them as to the close connection between the 
Canaanite and Hebrew languages. The names of the cities are, 
of course, not Hebrew names, as the period is previous to that 
of the Israelite conquest, yet a large proportion of them are 
at once recognisable as identical with those in the Bible, and 
the differences may very probably be due rather to the diffi- 
culty experienced by the Egyptian writer in reproducing in the 
sounds of his own soft language the various Hebrew gutturals, 
than to any real difference in the Canaanite and Hebrew names. 

The number of towns in the Karnak lists is 119 ; and the 
mention of Damascus and of other places east of the Jordan 
seems to show that the Egyptian monarch pushed his conquests 
far beyond Megiddo. The following selected names are given, 
because they may be easily identified with Biblical places. They 
serve to show the consecutive order which characterises the 
whole list, extending over the Plains of Galilee, Persea, Philistia, 
and the Southern Desert.* 



Nnmlier on 




tlie List 


Egyptian Name 


1 


Kedeshu 


2 


Magedi 


11 


Kerettenau 


13 


Damesku 


t 1^ 


Adara 


15 


AbUa 



Hebrew Name 



Kadesh 

Megiddo 

Kirjathaim 

Damascus 

Edrei 

Abila 



Arabic Name 



Kedes 
Mujedd'a 

esh-Sham 
edh-Dhr^a 
Abil 



* See Becords of the Pasty vol . ii. 

• See Ma/inette's Listes desPylones de Karnak, 



PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 



24a 



Number on 
the List 


Egyptian Name 


Hebrew Name 


Arabic Nama 
el-Hanxmam 


16 


Khemtu 


^amInath 


20 


Madna 


Madon 


Mad in 


21 


Sarana 


Lasharon 


Sardna 


23 


Batzna. 


Bitzaanaim 


Beis^m 


24 


Amashna 


Amathus 


Am&ta ^ 


26 


Kaana 


Kenath 


Kunawat 


28 


Ashtaratu 


Ashtaroth 




30 


Makata 


Maacbath 


1 


31 


Lausa 


Laish 


Banias 


32 


Khatzor 


Hazor 


Hudireh | 


33 


Pa Hurah 


Horem 


Harah 


34 


Oinnaratliu 


Chinneroth 


1 


36 


Adam 


Adami 


ed-Bamieh > 


38- 


Shenam 


Sbunem 


Snlem | 


39 


Ma.8liala 


Misbeal 


M'aisleb 


40 
42 


Acshaph 
Taanac 


Achshaph 
Taanach 


el-Ya8if i 
T'anak 


43 


Iblamu 


Ibleam 


Berameh 


52 


Anukheru 


Anaharath 


en-N'aurah 


57 
J 59 


Nekebu 
Banama 


Nekeb 
Rimmon 


Seiy4deh i 
Rummaneh 


, 62 
64 


Iphu 
Luden 


Joppa 
Lod 


Yafa 
TJdd 


65 


Hana 


Ono 


Kefr »Ana ! 


66 
67 


Aphuken 
Suca 


Aphek 
Sochoh 


Shuweikeh 


68 


Ikhma 


Emmaus 


'Amwas 


75 


Naun 


Naama 


Naneh 


76 


Khudida 


Hadid 


Iladitheh 


79 


Kakata 


Bakkon 


Tell Rakkeit ^ 


80 


Gerara 


Gerar 


Umm el-Jerrar 


82 


Lebau 


Lebaoth 


— 


86 


Ani 


Ain 


— 


87 


Eakhebu 


Kehoboth 


er-Ruheibeli 


89 
95 


Higlaim 
Aina 


Eglon 
Anim 


'Ajlan 
el-Ghuwein 


96 


Oaraman 


Carirel 


Kurmul 


98 
110 


Taphu (na) 
Bet Shara 


Beth Tappuah 
Shaaraim 


Tuff^b 
S^aireh 


113 


An Kanamu 


En Gannim 


Umm Jina 



In the Fourth Chapter it will be shown that a great part of 
the territory indicated by the names of this list waa still under 

B 2 



244 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Egyptian rule as late as the time of the Judges. The inscrip- 
tions agree with the account of the Philistine invasion of the 
southern plain, the Philistines being of Egyptian origin, and 
very possibly remaining Egyptian subjects. The hieroglyphic 
inacriptions in Widy el-Mughdrah further show that the 
western part of the Sinaitic Desert was also inhabited at the 
time of the Exodus by Egyptian miners. Thus as far east as 
Rehoboth, the Desert of Shur, between Egypt and Palestine, was 
under the rule of the Pharaohs, and fresh light is thus thrown 
•on the subject of the Israelite route to the Promised Land. 

The topography of the Pentateuch presents difficulties far 
■greater than that of the later Books of the Bible. The main 
reason is, that we are here dealing with a desert country now 
inhabited by nomadic tribes, which appear to have emigrated 
•at the comparatively late period from Southern Arabia. The 
experience of aU explorers has been that the ancient nomencla- 
ture of the country is very rarely preserved by the nomadic 
Arabs who,have given to the natural features of the country- 
new titles derived from their present appearance. It has also 
been clearly shown, throughout the Holy Land, that the old 
Hebrew or Canaaniie names are preserved at the ruiued sites, 
but that those of natural features are lost. Scarcely a name 
can be cited which preserves the Hebrew title of a spring, a 
mountain, or a valley ; while, on the other hand, the name of 
nearly every village is of Hebrew origin. Thus, in a country 
where no I'uins of great antiquity are found, and where moun- 
tains, rocks, valleys, and springs are the only objects which 
require names, we are not surprised to be unable to recover 
easily the old nomenclature of the district. 

In treating the question of the Desert topography, it is 
important — as, indeed, with all the ancient topography — to be 
very particular in noting the special meaning of the Hebrew 
words employed. The Authorised Version has rendered the 
various terms Ciccar, Arabah, Mishor, Bikath, all by our Eng- 
lish word ' plain ' ; yet each of these words describes a separate 
region. Nachal is translated * brook ' and * river ' ; but means 
properly a winter torrent, as distinguished from a perennial 



PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 245 

stream ; and other instances might he mentioned in which the 
precise and distinctive meaning of the Hehrew is lost in the 
English Version. 

Of the forty-one stations mentioned in the Book of Numbers. 
(33.) between Rameses in Egjrpt and the plains of Abe] Shittim 
east of Jericho, only two have been found to retain their ancient 
names, and only six can be said to be known with any degree 
of certitude. Fortunately these are sufficiently well divided 
along the route to give a good general idea of the direction 
followed by the Israelites ; but all the efforts of experienced 
travellers have not as yet resulted in a more perfect recovery of 
the details of their march. 

The Land of Goshen is pretty clearly identified with the dis- 
trict of Lower Egypt immediately east of the Nile. * The Plain 
of Zoan' (Ps. 78. il) is the country of the famous Egyptian 
city Tzor, Tzal, or Tzan, and the term seems used in the Psalm 
as equivalent to the name Goshen. In the LXX. Version the 
country is called Gosen of Arabia (Gen. 45. lo), the Arabian 
Nome or province of Egypt being thus indicated, the capital 
of which on Egyptian mouments is called Gosem, and is iden- 
tified by Brugsch ^ with the later Phakussa, the present ruin 
of KHs or FakHs, Zoan was the capital of the fourteenth 
Nome- of Lower Egypt; Gosem or Phakussa of the twentieth. 
Zoan was a city of such antiquity as to preserve monuments of 
the sixth Egyptian Dynasty (cf. Numb. 13. 22). It received 
in later times the title of Pi Rameses according to Brugsch, 
and may thus be thought to represent the city of Barneses built 
(or rebuilt) by the Israelites. The exact site is, however, still 
a matter of controversy. 

The second treasure dty built by the Israelites was Pithom, 
which was apparently the city of the God Thom, and is called 
Patumos by Hero<iotus (2. 168). It was in the district of 
Sukot,* and, according to the Antonine Itinerary, about half- 
way between Zoan and Pelusium. As far as the name ie 
concerned, it may be identified with Etham at a distance of 

* Egypt under the Pharaohs^ vol. ii. p. 339. 
^Ibid., voLi. p. 202. 



246 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

two journeys from Eameses (Num. 33. 6) ; the later name 
was, according to Brugsch, Heracleopolis Parva, and the Nome 
of Sukot or TLukot was the eighth of Lower Egypt. The 
name Sukot is, no doubt, the same with the Biblical Suc- 
coth -(Exod. 12. 37) signifying 'tents,' and in common with 
many titles of this part of Egypt is of Semitic derivation ; for 
the district east of the Nile appears from Egyptian records to 
have been inhabited hy races not of Egyptian descent, and even 
the famous city of Zoan was built by strangers. 

The LXX. Version adds a third city to those built by 
the Israelites (Exod. 1. ll), namely, On, the Egyptian Anu or 
Heliopolis, capital of the thirteenth Nome, the site of which is 
fixed near Cairo. Groshen is rendered in the same version by the 
expression * Heroopolis in the land of Barneses ' (Oen. 47. 27). 

Letopolis or the Egyptian Babylon near Cairo is also men- 
tioned by Josephus in his account of the Exodus (2 Ant. 

16. l). 

Thus, although the present condition of Egyptian topo- 
graphy does not allow of our fixing the exact sites of these 
ancient cities, the concurrent testimony of several distinct 
sources of information leaves no doubt that the Land of Goshen 
was a district of Lower Egypt, lying east of the Nile. 

The identification of the Land of Goshen renders it probable 
that the site of ^inai is correctly located where it has always 
oeen shown — at Jebel Miisa, in the Sinaitic Peninsula. Moses 
refers to Sinai, in speaking to Pharaoh (Exod. 5. 3), as being at 
a distance of three days* journey into the Desert ; and from Jose- 
phus we learn that it was ' the highest of all the mountains 
thereabout* (2 Ant. 12. i). The time occupied by the Israelites 
was, indeed, more than three days, and at present it is ten easy 
marches from Suez to Jebel Musa ; but the three days may be 
taken as the shortest time in which the distance of 100 miles 
could be traversed; while the height of Jebel Katarin — the 
principal peak of the Jebel Musa block — is 8,537 feet above 
the sea, and about 100 feet higher than any other summit in 
the district. The crest of the Serbal — once thought to be the 
true Sinai — is 800 feet lower ; and the latter mountain does not 



PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 247 

present the feature which characterizes Jebel Miisa, namely, 
the broad plain (er-Ei-hah) in which the Israelites might pro- 
perly be described as having come near and * stood Qnder the 
mountain' (Deut. 4. ll). 

The sea, which in the English Version (following the Greek) 
we find called * the Red Sea/ is invariably in the Hebrew Yam 
Suf (' sea of weeds ' or * of rushes *), but the translation appears 
to be correct, for we find the Israelites encamped, after three 
days' journey from the place of crossing, once more by the Yam 
Suf (Numb. 33. lo) ; and in another' important passage (1 
Kings 9. 26) Ezion-geber is described as * beside Eloth, on the 
shore of the Yam Suf, in the Land of Edom.' The Eloth in 
question is the later Elath or Aila at the head of the present 
Gulf of ' Akabah, which received the name -^lanitic Gulf from 
this town. It appears from these passages that the term * Yam 
Suf ' is equivalent in meaning to the term by which it is trans- 
lated in our version — the Red Sea. 

The place where the Israelites crossed the Yam Suf will 
probably never be ascertained with any exactitude, and this for 
two reasons : — First, the places which receive in the Book of 
Exodus the names Migdol, Baalzephon, and Pi-hahiroth — the 
first two apparently Hebrew, the last, by its prefix Pa, seem- 
ingly of Egyptian origin — are unknown, and likely to remain 
so. The second reason, of even greater importance, is, that we 
are unable to say exactly what was the condition of the Isthmus 
of Suez at the time of the Exodus. The existence of the Bitter 
Lakes, the bed of which is lower than the sea level, shows that 
at some former time the water of the Gulf of Suez extended 
fai-ther north. The Isthmus has been formed by the constant 
deposit of the Nile mud ; and so rapid has its increase been, that 
in the last half-century the mouth of the Nile has advanced 
northwards four geographical miles. The maps of Ptolemy 
(2nd and 3rd centuries of our era) show the mouths some 40 
geographical miles farther south than at present, and bear evi- 
dence of their correctness in the position they give to the arti- 
ficial channels of the Bolbitic and Phatmic branches. At this 
rate of deposit, Memphis must have been near the coast of the 



248 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Mediterranean in 4455 B.C. ; and its name (Men Nofer) sig- 
nifying ' good haven/ shows it to have been a seaport when 
founded about that period. 

It is thus possible that at the time of the Exodus nothing 
but a marsh separated the Mediterranean and the Bed Sea, and 
that the extent of the Gulf of Suez was very different from 
what it now is. We cannot, therefore, hope to ascertain the 
exact point of the crossing ; but as has been shown, there is suf- 
ficient evidence to indicate that the sea called Yam Suf, crossed 
by the Israelites after leaving the Land of Goshen, was some 
part of the Gulf of Suez, or of the adjoining marshes as then 
existing. 

None of the stations between the point of crossing and 
Mount Sinai are known with certainty. The general route 
followed lay apparently along the eastern shore of the Gulf, for 
the third camp was beside the Yam Suf (Num. 33. lo). The 
brackish springs which occur between the shore and the chain 
of Jebel er-Bi.hah bear modem names ; and as no distances are 
mentioned in the Pentateuch, their identification can only be 
conjectural. The most generally received theory identifies *Ain 
Huw4rah, 50 miles (or about three days* journey) from Suez, 
with Marah ; Wddy Gharandel — which abounds in tamarisks 
and palms near its mouth — with Elim, where were seventy palm 
trees ; and Wkdj Feir4n (preserving possibly the name Paran, 
which applied to the greater part of the Sinaitic Desert) with 
Rephidim. 

After leaving Sinai, the Israelites travelled towards the 
southern boundary of the Holy Land, which they reached in 
about a year's time. The distance is only about 150 miles, or 
eleven days' journey (Deut. 1. 2). On this ix>ute 20 stations 
are enumerated (Num. 33) between Sinai and Ezion-geber — ^a 
distance of only 90 miles ; and although it seems possible that 
Ezion-geber does not here occur in its right order, still, if the 
20 stations are supposed to include the whole distance from 
Sinai to Kadesh, it is evident that a long sojourn in each camp 
is intended to be understood. The Israelites, indeed, inhabited 
the desert as nomads, moving slowly northwards towards the 



PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 249 

well cultivated lands of Palestine ; and the fact that the order of 
occurrence of the stations is apparently sometimes inverted, 
may perhaps be best explained by the supposition that the 
camps were revisited at various periods. The Bedawin have 
their winter and summer camping grounds, each revisited in 
turn, and this might serve to explain why Moseroth (which 
was near Moimt Hor (Deut. 10. 6), occurs long befoi^e Ezion- 
geber in the list of Numbers (33. 3l). 

There are only three points on the route to Kadesh which 
can be considered fixed. The fb^st is the station of Hazeroth, 
the second stage from SinaL This was found by Burckhardt, 
still by some strange chance preserving its name under the 
Arabic form, at the spring of 'Ain Hadra, some 30 miles north- 
east of Jebel M^sa. The second fixed point is Ezion-geber, 
which we know to have been near the head of the Gulf of 
'Akabah (1 Kings 9. 26). The third is Mount Hor, which 
Josephus tells us was situated near Arce, Bekem, or Petra 
(4 Ant. 4. 7), just where it is now shown, with the supposed 
tomb of Aaron on its summit. 

The position of 'Ain Hadra seems clearly to indicate that 
the route of the Israelites lay along the coast, beneath the lofty 
wall of the mountains of et-Tih. This is also confirmed by the 
fact, that the neighbourhoods of Ezion-geber, and of Mount Hor 
were visited both in going to, and returning from, Kadesh ; 
and we are thus led to suppose an advance up the broad basin 
of the 'Arabah, which, though barren and ill supplied with 
water, still formed the natural highway to Palestine, and con* 
tained more springs than could have been found in the more 
difficult desert to the west, which is called Paran in the Bible, 
and et-Tih (* pathless ') at the present day. 

The discovery of a spring bearing the name *Ain Kades — 
identical with the Hebrew Kadesh — has induced many writers 
to suppose a route leading much farther west. It is, therefore, 
necessary to state the reasons for supposing Kadesh Barnea to 
have been situated near the eastern route of the *Arabah. 

Three names of deserts are given in the Pentateuch. Shur 
(' the wall *) extended from Egypt towards Philistia, and the 



250 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Kabbinical writers render it by Khalusah, which is evidently 
the present Elhalasah, the Koman Elusa, south-west of Beer- 
sheba. The Wilderness of Paran lay farther east, and extended 
to Sinai. The Desert of Sin was the farthest east of the three, 
and appears to answer to the present basin of the 'Arabah. 

Now the district of Kadesh lay between the wildernesses of 
Sin and Paran, the place being said in one passage to be in the 
one (Num. 20. l), and in a second in the other (Num. 13. 26). 
The site of 'Ain Kades, which is rather west of the meridian 
of Khalasah, would have been between Paran and Shur rather 
than on the edge of the Desert of Sin. 

In another passage Kadesh is spoken of as a city on the 
border of Edom (Num. 20. 16), and Mount Hor being on the 
same border (verse 23) we cannot place Kadesh very far west 
of that mountain. The Targum of Onkelos indeed identifies 
Kadesh Bamea with * the Valley of Rekem,* that is, with Petra 
below Mount Hor. Kadesh is the first point on the southern 
border of Judah, after ascending the Maaleh 'Akrabbim, which 
led up from the shores of the Dead Sea (Josh. 15. 3). More- 
over, after the defeat of the Israelites in the neighbourhood 
of Kadesh by the Amalekites, the pursuit extended to Seir, by 
which we should probably understand Mount Seir, or the range 
of hills round Petra (Deut. 1. 44). 

It seems pretty certain from the two accounts (Deut. 1 . 44, 
Num. 14. 46) that Kadesh lay at the foot of a pass leading to 
the Amalekite mountains ; and it is noticeable that the Israelites 
were also attacked by the king of Arad (Num. 21. i), which is 
in accordance with the supposition that Kadesh lay on the road 
leading from Mount Hor towards the upland plateau where 
Tell 'Arad is now found. The site of Kadesh is thus in all pro- 
bability to be sought at the foot of the great mountain- wall 
which forms the natural boundary of Palestine on the south- 
east, and to which the road from Mount Hor ascends in the 
neighbourhood of the Wady el- Yemen. The probable site of 
Hezron (Josh. 15. 3) is also in accordance with the position 
thus supposed for Kadesh, as will appear in the next chapter. 

The return route down the 'Arabah was taken with the 



PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST. 251 

intention of passing round the rugged block of Mount Seir, 
through which the Edomites refused to give Israel a right of 
passage (Deut. 2. 8, Num. 20. 16, and 21. 4). Between Ezion- 
geber, thus revisited, and the neighbourhood of Mount Nebo 
and the plains beneath, six intermediate stations occur (Num. 
33. 41-46), in a distance of about 120 miles. Of these only one 
is known, Dibon-Gad, which, from the order of its occurrence, 
appears to be the famous Dibon of Moab, now called Dhib^n. 
These stations belong apparently to the final march on the Pro- 
mised Land, preceding the conquest of the country east of 
Jordan. We cannot determine where the Israelites sojourned 
during the thirty-eight years which they passed in the Desert 
after their retreat from Kadesh, for these camps are not de- 
scribed in the Pentateuch. It has been often assumed that 
they returned a second time to Kadesh, immediately before 
their final march to Mount Hor, Ezion geber, and Moab; but 
Josephus does not seem to countenance this view. It appears 
probable that, the Deserts of Sin and Kadesh were the scene of 
the long period of nomadic existence (Num. 20. I, Deut. 1. 46). 
That Kadesh was the name not only of a town (Num. 20. 16), but 
also of a district, we learn from the Psalm (29. s), and this may 
perhaps account for the discovery of the name so much as 40 
miles west of the probable vicinity of the waters of Meribah. 

The outcome of this examination of the Desert topography 
is, then, that we are able to obtain a very clear general idea of 
the line of march taken by the Israelites, and of the theatre of 
their wanderings ; but that the loss of names which appear to 
be simply descriptive (such as Rithmah, * broom,* or Libnah, 
* white '), and may have been given, only at the time of the Exo- 
dus, to sites the position of which was soon forgotten, renders it 
now impossible to gratify our curiosity as to the details of the 
forty years of wandeiing. 



25^ HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER III. 

PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 

On crossing the torrent Amon the Israelites came into conflict 
with the two kings of the Amorites, with Sihon, king of Hesh- 
bon, and subsequently with Og, a descendant of the Rephaim, 
whose capital was the old Bephaim capital, Ashtaroth Kamaim, 
in Bashan. 

The Amon is known to be identical with the present Widy 
Mojib, east of the Dead Sea ; and the site of Aroer (Deut. 2. 
.36) has been found at 'Ar'air north of the valley, which retained 
its name as late as the fourth century ; in the twelfth century 
also the Samarito- Arabic version renders the name Amon by 
Mojib. South of this limit the Moabite country — principally 
desert — was not taken by Israel, and the mountains east of 
Heshbon as &r north as the Jabbok (Zerka), were also left to 
the Children of Ammon. The kingdom of Sib on included all 
the Mishor or plateau round Heshbon, as far as the Jabbok 
(Num. 21. 24), and this district, or the northern part of it, is 
that afterwards mentioned as ^ half the land of the children of 
Ammon' (Josh. 13. 26), to whom, with the Moabites, the 
kingdom of Sihon had formerly belonged. 

The kingdom of Og, including Bashan and half Mount 
Gilead, was yet more extensive, embracing over 3,000 square 
miles, while that of Sihon was about 1,500 square miles. The 
northern kingdom extended from the Jabbok to Hermon, and 
from Jordan eastwards to Edrei (Edhr4*a), and even to Salchah 
(Salkhad), (Deut. 3. lo). 

The land thus gained was redivided into three portions, and 
given to Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh. The new boundaries 



PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 253 

were, however, not less distinctly marked by nature than those 
of the Amorite kingdoms. The plateau of the Mishor was 
given to Reuben ; Mount Gilead and the Jordan Valley east of 
the river to Gad ; and the broad plains of Bashan to Manasseh. 
Of the fourteen cities of Reuben ^ye are now well known. 
Medeba, Heshbon, Dibon, Beth-Baal-Meon, and Kirjathaim in 
the Mishor district, are identified beyond reasonable doubt. 
Beth Jesimoth in the Jordan Valley is probably the present 
ruin of Sueimeh ; but the position of Jazer ( Y'azer), the boundary 
to\9n between Reuben and G^d, is more doubtful. It is per- 
haps best identified with Beit Z^ra, near Elealah, about four 
miles north-east of Heshbon, in which case the present Wady 
HesbUn was the boundary valley between the tribes. 

The territory of Gad extended from Jazer to Mahanaim — 
a town not yet certainly known either under its present name 
or under the name Ritmos or Rimus, by which it was appa- 
rently known to the later Jews (Midrash Yalkut on 2 Sam. 
17. 24). Ramath Mizpeh, another city on this border (Josh. 
13. 26), is probably the present Remtheh, about 25 miles 
west of Bozrah, and a little south of Yermuk or Hieromax, 
which formed probably the north tribe border. This view is 
confirmed by the subsequent notice of Maspha in connection 
with Bozrah (see Chap. V.). The lot of Gad thus embraced all 
Mount Gilead, the name of which remains unchanged at the 
present day, in the form JaFaiid applying to a ruin not far 
from the mountain called Tell el-Jaludy. It also included the 
Jordan Valley as far north as the Sea of Galilee ; and four 
towns mentioned as belonging to Gad in this valley may be 
identified by the aid of the Talmudic notices of their later 
names. Beth Haran is the present ruin Beit Haran; Beth 
Nimrah, the later Beth Nimrim, is the present ruin Nimrin ; 
Succoth is called in the Talmud * Tar'ala, and the name has 
been lately found almost unchanged at the present Tell Dar'ala 
in the Jordan Valley, about a mile north of the Jabbok. The 
site has been identified, and the name apparently for the first 
time discovered by the Rev. Selah Merril. Zaphon, the fourth 

* Jerusalem Talmud, Shehiith 9. 2. 



254 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

town in the Emek or Jordan Valley (see Josh. 13. 27), is 
identified by the Talmudists with Amathi, the Amathus of 
Josephus, now represented by the ruined site of Am4teh, south- 
east of the Sea of Galilee. 

The territory given to the half tribe of Manasseh was of 
vast extent, being nearly double that of Gad or of Judah, 
although the census taken before the invasion of western Pa- 
lestine shows a population less than half that of Judah and 
only three-quarters that of Gad, for the half tribe of the sons 
of Joseph remaining east of Jordan. It must, however, be re- 
membered that a great portion of Bashan was desert country, 
and included the district of Argob (now called el-Lejja) which is 
a rugged field of basalt, as already noticed (Chap. I., page 206). 
The Maachathites, near the Jordan springs, and the Geshurites 
rather farther east, were also not expelled (Josh. 13. 13); and the 
eastern part of the Haurdn as far as Kenath (Kanaw4t) (Num. 
32. 42), with Argob (Deut. 3. 14), was possibly not conquered 
until a later period (Judges 10. 4). 

At the commencement of the Book of Joshua we find the 
Israelites encamped in the plain now called Gh6r-es-Seisabin 
from Beth Jesimoth (Sueimeh) to Abel Shittim, * the acacia 
meadow' which the • Talmud places 12 miles farther north 
(Tal. Jer. Shebiith 6. l). The plain is still dotted with the acacia 
(Sunt) ; and the rugged summit of Mount Nebo rises abruptly 
4,000 feet above it, and still retains its name, with unchanged 
meaning, in the Arabic Neba, or * height.* The camps of the 
Hebrews were thus placed opposite the main ford of Jordan, 
from which the road led to Jericho along the north bank of the 
Valley of Achor (WAdy Kelt), by Gilgal, of which the name is 
still preserved at the present site of JiljAlieh. 

Following the route of the conquerors, we next find them 
penetrating to the watershed by the road which ascends north 
of the great valley of Michmash, towards Bethel. Ai, the first 
city taken after Jericho, was * beside * Bethaven (Josh. 12. 9) and 
the Hebrew word thus rendered has the meaning ' close to,* for 
which reason the site which appears most likely, and which 
agrees in other respects best with the notices in various passages 



SOUTHERN PALESTINE 




PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 255 

of the Bible, is that of the ruined town of HaiyHn, two miles 
east of Beitin or Bethel. 

Crossing the ridge in pursuit of the defeated Canaanites, 
Joshua approached the Maritime Plain by the descent from 
Bethhoron (Beit 'Ur) and the open valley of Ajalon (YMo), and 
reached the borders of Philistia at Makkedah — probably the 
present village Mogh^r (* caves/) the only place within the dis- 
trict in which Makkedah lay where caves are found (Josh. 10. 17). 
The campaign was next pushed south-east to Lachish and Libnah, 
which lay near the low hills of the Shephelah, and thence to 
Eglon (^Ajlan), rather farther west. Turning due east, the 
conquerors followed the course of one of the principal valleys 
to Hebron on the watershed ; and a diversion southwards was 
thence made into the Negeb hills, where Debir (edh-Dh^heriyeh) 
stood on a flat chalky ridge, about 10 miles from Hebron. Thus 
the hills, and the south (Negeb), the vale (Shephelah), and the 
springs were taken (Josh. 10. 4o), but the plains of Philistia, 
even as far east as the city of the A vim (Beit 'Auwa), were left 
unconquered (Josh. 13. 3). 

In the Septuagint Version, the account of the performance 
of the rites commanded to be observed on Ebal and Grerizim 
immediately precedes this campaign. According to the Sama- 
ritans, however, the conquest of the central portion of the Holy 
Land was undertaken next. Of such a campaign we have no 
mention in the Bible, nor is there any account of the invasion 
of Lower Galilee. After the conquest of Debir, we next find 
the Israelite army encountering the kings of Upper Galilee, near 
the Waters of Merom. On their defeat, Hazor fell into the 
hands of the Israelites — a city which Josephus places above the 
Lake Semechonitis (Merom), where the name still lingers in the 
present Jebel Hadireh and Merj Hadireh (5 Ant. 5. l.). The 
pursuit was prolonged even as far as Mizrephoth Maim (Sara- 
fend), near Sidon, and the country as far as Hermon was at the 
same time overrun. 

In the narrative of Josephus, the building of an altar on 
Ebal follows next ; and it is remarkable that he attributes to 
Joshua the intention of building a temple (5 Ant. 1. 19), 



256 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

whi&h agrees with the Samaritan account of Joshua's having re- 
placed the Tabernacle by a permanent building. 

The historical part of the Book of Joshua closes with the 
burial of the great leader at Timnath Serah in Mount Ephraim, 
and of Eleazar at Gibeah Phinehas, in the same district (Josh. 
24. 30, 33). It may be noted in passing that Jewish and Sama- 
ritan traditions agree as to the position of these tombs. The 
first they place at the village Kefr H^ris, where Neby Lush'a 
has still a sacred place and where Caleb, and Nun the father of 
Joshua (Neby Niin) are held by both Jews and Samaritans to 
have also been buried. The tombs of Eleazar, Phinehas, and 
Ithamar are shown at 'Awertah, which appears to be the site of 
Gibeah Phinehas. Thus with Kefr H^ris on the south, 'Awer- 
tah on the east, and the tomb of Joseph at its feet on the north, 
Mount Grerizim forms the centre round which the great heroes 
of the conquest lie entombed. 

That the country thus invaded was not completely subdued 
by these rapid raids we gather from the frequent notices of 
further conflicts in the Book of Judges. Debir, though de- 
stroyed by Joshua, had to be reconquered by Caleb, and Jeru- 
salem was taken by Judah, but the Jebusites still remained in 
its fortress in David's time. We find, moreover, a statement 
of the districts not subdued at the death of Joshua, and conse- 
quently, not assigned to any tribe (Josh. 13. i-e). Philistia in 
the south, Geshuri under Hermon, the Canaanite lowlands in 
Phoenicia, and the whole of Lebanon to Hamath, were yet un- 
conquered ; and of the 30,000 square miles which are comprised 
in the territory assigned to Israel by Moses Uttle more than 
11,000 were actually possessed. The boundaries of the Holy 
Land at the time of Christ were substantially the same with 
those of the country conquered by Joshua ; and it was only in 
the days of Solomon that the Jewish dream of conquest was 
fully realised, and the Hebrew domination extended from the 
Bed Sea to Euphrates. 

The warlike tribes of Judah and Joseph possessed them- 
selves of the conquered country as far as the border of Galilee 
before any distribution had been made. The territory of Simeon, 



PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 257 

Benjamin, and Dan was carved out of that tlios appropriated ; 
and this explains the mention of Geezer in one pa^ssage as on 
the boundary of Ephraim (Josh. 16. 3) and in another (v, lo) 
as apparently a separate city of this tribe. The children of 
Joseph alone possessed these separate cities, and the reason is 
clearly that they retained possession of certain towns while ceding 
the surrounding territory to the tribes to whom it was allotted 
by Joshua. 

The Tribe qfJudah possessed the largest share of territory 
west of Jordan, and the boundaries are more minutely described 
than those of other tribes. The country which they inhabited 
included five districts : The 'Arabah or Jordan Valley, the Har 
or mountain, the Shephelah or low hills, the Negeb or south, 
and the Jeshimon or Midbar, the desert west of the Dead Sea. 

The chief cities of Philistia, with their dependent villages, 
are also assigned to Judah ; but it is remarkable that none of 
the PhiJistine lords are enumerated with the Kings conquered 
by Joshua (chap. 12), nor are the names of any villages in Phi- 
listia enumerated in the lists of the towns of Judah. Philistia 
was, in fact, never permanently occupied by the Jews at any 
period of their history. 

The south boundary of Judah is described from east to west 
(Josh. 15), and became afterwards that of Simeon. Although the 
points mentioned along the border are not all certainly known, 
there is no doubt that the great mountain wall which extends 
from the Dead Sea to the watershed south of Rehoboth (er-Eu- 
heibeh), formed the natural and recognized boundary of Palestine, 
while the River of Egypt is generally supposed to be the present 
W^dy el-'Arish, the modem boundary between Syria and 
Egypt. The north branch of this valley (Wlidy el-Abiad) 
rises near 'Abdeh (Ebodah), south of Rehoboth, and thus carries 
on the boundary from the mountain rampart. A new identifica- 
tion of importance may be here mentioned, namely, Hezron (Josh. 
15. 3), the next point to Kadesh Bamea on the west side. Ka- 
desh has previously been shown (Chap. II., page 250) to lie 
probably in the neighbourhood of Wady el- Yemen, and imme- 
diately west of that valley is the mountain called Hadireh, a 

s 



258 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

name radically identical with Hezron (the Arabic D4d being 
one of the two equivalents of the Hebrew Tsadi) and the 
form in which the name TLazor is most usually preseryed, as at 
the southern Hazeroth and the Ckdilean Hazor. 

The north boundary of Judah is clearly traceabla It 
started from the Jordan mouth, but did not apparently follow 
the river, as Beth 'Arabah and Beth Hogla ('Am Hajlah), near 
the boundary, belonged to Benjamin (Josh. 18. 22). Passing 
along the Valley of Achor, it left Gilgal ( JiljMieh) on the north, 
and ascended the rugged pass of WUdy Kelt to the * going up of 
Adummim * (Tal'at ed-Dumm), the ancient and modem name 
'bloody' being apparently derived from the brick-red marls 
here found amid a district of white chalk. 

En Bogel, the next known point, being close to Zoheleth 
(Zahweileh) (1 Kings 1. 9), was evidently the present spring, 
'Ain TJmm ed-Deraj, in the Kedron Yalley. Thence the border 
ran across the slope (Cataph), besides the Yalley (Gai) of Ben 
Hinnom (Wfi-dy Rab^by, see Chap. YII.), south of Jebus, and 
thus reached the watershed. It then apparently passed along the 
broad vale (Emek) of Bephaim, which Josephus makes to ex- 
tend towards Bethlehem (7 Ant. 12. 4). The word *Emek' shows 
tiiat this was neither a winter torrent nor a narrow, dry ravine ; 
and it is best identified with its traditional site — ^the shallow 
basin west of the watershed south of Jerusalem, now called 
el-Bukei'a. The line thus indicated agrees with the incidental 
notice (1 Sam. 10. 2) of Bachel's tomb, which was near Beth- 
lehem (Gen. 35. 16, 19, 20), as being on the border of Benjamin. 

The Waters of Nephtoah (M'ain mi-Nephtoah) form the next 
point on the boundary, and we learn from the Babbinical com- 
mentators (Tal. Bab. Yoma 31a) that these were the same as the 
En Etam, whence an aqueduct led to the Temple, and thus 
identical with 'Ain 'At&n, south-west of Bethlehem, which still 
at intervals supplies the Haram Area at Jerusalem with water 
through Pilate's Aqueduct. The fine collection of springs in 
this locality answers to the special meaning of the word M'ain, 
used in reference to Nephtoah. 

From Nephtoah the border was drawn to Kii'jath Jearim, a 



PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 26» 

city which Josephns places near Beth Shemesh (6 Ant. 1. i). 
It appears, therefore, probable that the line followed was the 
shed of a bold spur running westwards from the neighbourhood 
of Bethlehem towards Beth Shemesh ; and here, four miles east 
of Beth Shemesh, on the brink of the valley of Sorek, stands 
the ruin 'Arma, which preserves the later form of the Hebrew 
Kirjath Arim (Ezra 2. 25). Passing along a mountain called 
Seir, the border * crossed over ' some valley (such is the precise 
translation of the Hebrew) to another mountain on the north, 
and passed over its slope or shoulder (Heb., Cataph). The 
second mountain was named Jearim (Hhickets'), and also 
Chesalon ; the latter name is recognizable in the modem Kesla, 
and the ridge on which that village stands is still remarkable 
for the thick copses which cover it. 

The border now reached the foot of the watershed moun- 
tains, and entered the district of the Shephelah. It passed 
down the open com valley of Sorek, beneath the towns of 
Zoreah and Eshtaol, which were so near the boundary as to be 
reckoned in different passages as belongiag to Judah and to 
Dan. Passing by Beth Shemesh ('Aiq Shemes), the line again 
'crossed over' to Timnah (Tibneh), situate in the low hills 
south of the Yalley of Sorek, and thence it extended to the 
shoulder of Ekron (Cataph Ekron) northwards. Another indi- 
cation is here afforded by the identification of Kaamah of 
Judah (Joshua 15. 41 ) with the modem Na'aneh, east of Ekron 
('Aker), and we thus find that the line must have passed dose 
to Gezer (Tell Jezer). From this point, therefore, the terri- 
tories of Judah and of Joseph marched together before the lot 
of Dan had been assigned within that of Ephraim. Shicron 
and Mount Baalah, which followed next to Ekron, on the border 
of Judah, are unknown ; but there is no reasonable doubt as to 
the line indicated, which ran, almost due west, to the stream 
which falls into the Mediterranean near Jabneel (Yebnah), the 
last point on the boundary (Josh. 15. ll). 

The Boundaries of Benjcmhin are given with almost as great 
an amount of detail as those of Judah (Josh. 18. ll-20), and 
the southern border coincides with that of Judah, east of Kir- 

S2 



U60 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

jatli Jearim. The northern line, marching with the final border 
of Ephraim, ran firom Jordan to the * shoulder of Jericho on the 
north/ and ascended through the mountains to the wilderness 
of Bethaven, by which is evidently intended the desert north- 
east of Bethel. Naarath, a place on the borders of Ephraim 
(Josh. 16. 7), probably formed the boundary between the two 
tribes. It is described by Josephus as a yUlage, the water 
supply of which was partly diverted into the plain by Arche- 
laus to water his palm-trees (17 Ant. 13. l); and by Euse- 
bius (in the Onomasticon) it is placed five Koman miles north 
of Jericho. At this distance is still found a ruin — ^now called 
el-Aujeh from the * crooked' valley near it — ^watered by an 
aqueduct which has many branches apparently intended for 
purposes of irrigation. We are thus able to identify the north 
boundary valley separating Benjamin and Ephraim with one of 
the main features of the country, having its head north-east of 
Bethel. Any line farther south would leave several of the 
towns of Benjamin outside the northern boundary line of the 
tribe. 

The border next ran * southward * to Bethel, or Luz, on the 
watershed, and thence to Archi (the modem 'Ain 'Arik), fol- 
lowing one of the main valleys towards the Maritime Plain. In 
the neighbourhood of the Lower Bethhoron a site is specially 
described at the north-west comer of the territory of Benjamin, 
namely, * Ataroth Adar, near the hill that lieth on the south 
side of the neither Bethhoron.' It is interesting to find the 
name ed-D^rieh still applying to a ruin on the west slope of 
the hill in question. 

The west border of Benjamin is not specially described : it 
compassed the west region (Phath Im, rendered * comer of the 
sea' in Auth. Vers.) as far as Kirjath Jearim, running, in fact, 
along the crests of the mountains, above the lower Sbephelah 
hills in which many towns of Dan have been identified. 

From the description of the north boundary of Judah, it 
will be seen that a district south-west of Jerusalem is ascribed 
to Benjamin ; and this is confirmed by the probable identity of 
Eleph of Benjamin with the present Lifta. At a later period, 



PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 



261 



however, when the division between Benjamin and Judah FteemB 
to have been forgotten, the Septuagint translators ascribe to 
Judah a group of towns, many of which can be easily identified 
with places north of Bethlehem and of Eachers tomb. These 
towns, eleven in all, are not mentioned in the English Version, 
and may, therefore, be here enumerated. In the LXX. Version 
they follow Josh. 15. 60 : — 

Theco now TeM*a, in the territory of Judah. 



Ephrata 


jj 


Beit Lahm 


» 


» 


Judah. 


Phagor 


ff 


FaghAr 


99 


» 


Judah. 


^tan 


yj 


'Ain »Atan 


99 


99 


Judah. 


Oulon 


>9 


Koldnia 


99 


99 


Benjamin. 


Tatam 












Soris 


j> 


Saris 


W 


» 


Benjamin. 


Carem 


99 


'Ain Karim 


99 


» 


Benjamin. 


Galem 


99 


Beit Jala 


» 


99 


Benjamin. 


Bether 


99 


Bittir 


99 


99 


Benjamin. 


Mauocho 


99 


Maihah 


99 


99 


Benjamin. 



With regard to the last, it may be noted that it is very probably 
the Manahath of another passage (1 Chron. 8. 6), which was 
inhabited by men of Benjamin firom Geba. 

The Territory of Simeon given up by Judah is described by 
Josephus as * that part of Idumsea which bordered upon Egypt 
and Arabia *^ (5 Ant. 1. 22). In the Book of Joshua it can 
only be recognized by the seventeen towns included in it, one 
of which is Azem, previously mentioned (Josh. 16. 4), as on 
the south boundary of Palestine towards the west. Of the re- 
mainder, the following are identified with places on the edge of 
the southern des«:t, or on the borders of the Philistine plain : — 

Beersheba now Hr es-SeVa. 
Hazar Susah „ Susin. 
Sharuhen „ Tell esh-Sheri'ah. 

Ain Rimmon „ Umm er-Riim&min. 
Ei^m M 'AitAn. 



99 



Conjectures are. possible with regard to xoany others, but the 
northerly. LLi^its of the territory of Simeon are best defined by 



*fl3 



262 HANDBOOK TO THE BEBLE. 

the identification of c^ain towns belonging to Judah, tlie sites 
of which are fixed beyond dispute, including Anab, Jattir, Za- 
noah, and Anim in the hills, Mareshah and Eglon in the She- 
phelah and plain. From the position of these sites we are able 
to see clearly that the division between Judah and Simeon was 
natural — it may be said geological — ^being the line between 
the chalky slopes which fstU to the Desert, and the cultivated 
hills of limestone ; between the arable land of the Fellahin, and 
the untilled waste now inhabited by nomadic Bedawin. 

It is indeed important to notice that all the tribe boundaries 
are as a rule main natural features of the country — deep valleys 
or mountain ridges. Where, as near Kirjath Jearim, the 
natural boundary is for some special reason not followed, the 
line of the artificial border is always traced with special 
minuteness of detail. 

The Territory of Dan was carved out of the country of 
Ephraim. The original border of Ephraim marched with that 
of Benjamin, and ran out to Gezer, whence it coincided with 
that of Judah as far as the sea. The Shephelah below Beth- 
horon, and the Sharon plain near Ja£& were, however, given to 
Dan. No description of the east or south boundaries was 
necessary, because they were those described for Benjamin and 
Judah. The north boundary alone should be specified, and this 
seems to be done very simply by the mention (Josh. 19. 46) of 
* Me-jarkon (" yellow water "), Eakkon, and the border before 
Japho.' 

The recovery of Bakkon, in Tell er^Eakkeit on the shore 
north of Jafia, points to the tui'bid river 'Aujeh as being the 
' yellow water,' and the north boundary of Dan is thus de^ed 
to the foot of the hills. The various towns of Dan all lie 
within this border, and the following of them are recovered 
with certainty : — 

Zorah the present Sur*ah. 
Eshtaol „ Eshu'a. 

Ir Shemesh „ 'Ain Shemes. 

Shaalabbin „ Selbit. 

Ajalon „ Yalo. 



PAIiESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 263 

JetMah the present Beit Tal. 



Ekron 


« 


'Aker. 


Jehud 


» 


el-YehAdiyeh. 


Bene-berak 


>9 


Ibn Ibrak. 


Eakkon 


9) 


Tell er-Eakkeit 


Japho 


» 


yafa. 



The territory ascribed by Josephus to this tribe (5 Ant. 1. 
2l) is much larger, extending to Ashdod on the south, em- 
bracing Jamnia (Yebnah) and Gath (Tell es-Safy), and reaching 
on the north to Dora (Tantiirah), thus including all the Plain 
of Sharon. The southern boundary is, however, not in accord- 
ance with the Biblical account, and no towns of Dan appear to 
have lain north of the 'Aujeh river. That river afterwards 
formed the boundary of Judaea proper, and the plain north of 
it was probably not at first conquered from the Amorites (see 
Judg. 1. 34), and was always considered by the Jews as being 
a district of mbced Jewish and Samaritan population. 

The Territory of Ephraim is somewhat less completely de- 
fined than the preceding. According to Josephus, it extended 
from Jordan to Gezer, and from Bethel to the Great Plain ; 
but it cannot apparently have run north of Shechem, which 
belonged to Manasseh (Josh. 17. 2). The common border of 
Ephraim and Manasseh is twice described, and the points 
recoverable appear to succeed each other in the following 
order : — 

(1), The Brook Kanah (Josh. 17. 9), running into the sea, 
formed the border along its whole course, and the name is still 
found in WMy Kdnah, one of the main drains of the Nablus 
mountains which rises immediately south of Grerizim, and 
faDs finally into the 'Aujeh river. This line agrees, therefore, 
with that previously given as forming probably the north 
border of Dan. 

(2), < The inhabitants of En Tappuah.* This is understood 
by the Greek translators to include two proper names, Yeshebi 
Ain Tappuah, being either one place or two dose together. It 
is remarkable that at the head of the W&dy K^nah is a village 
called Yassdf) which appears in the Samaritan Chronicle an 



264 flAKDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Yeshepheli. There are several springs near it, one of which 
may have been the Hebrew En Tappuah, or * Spring of 
Apples/ 

(3), Asher ham-Michmethah is, according to B^land, 
another double name. The meaning is unknown, but it was 
* in face of Shechem ' and north of En Tappuah (the expression 
*on the right hand,' in Josh. 17. 7, being more correctly 
rendered 'towards the south'). It is possibly the plain of 
Mukhnah which is intended, and which is also the ' Great 
Plain' of Josephus; but it is remarkable that Gerizim is 
not noticed in the account of the boundary which must appa- 
rently have followed the foot of the mountain northwards until 
in sight of Shechem. 

(4), Taanath Shiloh (Josh. 16. 6) was east of the last, and 
is apparently the present ruin of T'ana, on the ridge east of the 
MuMmah plain. The second name Shiloh may possibly be con- 
nected with that of the neighbouring village of S41im — ^the 
Shalem of Genesis (33. is). 

(5). Janohah, east of which the border next passed, is pro- 
bably the present Yiniin, south of T'ana, and we thus trace the 
line as running along the main watei*shed above the Jordan 
Valley. 

(6), Atarotb may perhaps be tHe present Tell et-Triiny in 
the Jordan Valley, close to the hills. 

(7), Naarath has already been noticed in speaking of the 
borders of Benjamin. 

The line is thus traced from west to north, and from north- 
east to south. The Jordan Valley itself does not appear to be 
included, and as this part of the Gh6r is remarkable for its 
salt marshes, it was perhaps not considered woi*th allotting to 
any tribe. 

To complete the description, the western boundary of 
Ephraim should be described, but this is done very briefly by 
the mention of Ataroth Adar (ed-Darieh), Beth-horon the 
Upper, and Michmethah on the north (Josh. 16. 6-6). From 
the notice of certain towns belonging to Dan, and others in 
Mount Ephraim, we may, however, obtaia further details. Of 



PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 265 

these Elon (Beit EM) and Timnatliah (Tibneh) are the most 
important; belonging to Dan, and occurring just at the edge of 
the western crests of the watershed range, half way between 
Beth-horon and the brook KUnaL Kefr Hdj*is, again, as being 
the site of Timnath Heres in Mount Ephraim, affords us another 
limit for the west border ; and it appears clear that the boundary 
in question, like the west border of Benjamin, ran along the 
crests of the western spurs above the low hills of the She- 
phelah. 

The Boundaries o/Mcmasaeh are not described in the Book 
of Joshua ; nor is the south border of Issachar — the tribe 
marching with Manasseh — ^given. It is also very remarkable 
that none of the towns of Ephraim and Manasseh are enu- 
merated, except the separate cities which were in Galilee or 
JudsBa. The only means we have of determining the borders 
of Manasseh and Issachar is by study of the natural divisions 
of the country and the recovery of the names of cities enume- 
rated as belonging to the latter tribe. 

Josephus gives to Manasseh the land from Jordan to Dora, 
and we may infer from his account that Carmel also belonged 
to the sons of Joseph. He gives them also Bethshan as a 
northern limit, a city which subequently formed the boundary 
between Samaria and Gralilee ; and it thus appears that all the 
Jordan Valley, from the plains of Jericho to the valley of 
Jezreel, must have belonged to Manasseh. 

In the Book of Joshua, we find that the sons of Joseph, 
being unable to drive the Canaanites from the Jordan Valley, 
were given in addition, a wooded mountain beyond mount 
Ephraim (Josh. 17. is). It seems clear that the ridge which 
runs north-west from the watershed to Carmel is here intended, 
for this part of the country is still in parts covered with dense 
thickets of oak and mastic, while Carmel is not specified as be- 
longing to any of the other tribes. Moreover, Carmel was 
always considered as part of Samaria, as will-appear in a later 
chapter, and was consequently in all probability part of the 
possessions of Manasseh. The cities of Taanach and Ibleam 
were not in the territory of Manasseh (Josh. 17. il), and we 



266 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

■ 

thus see that the Plain of Esdraelon formed no pari of th&l 
tribe's possessions. 

The Territory of lasctehar included the great central plateau^ 
the north border being partly defined by the description of that 
of Zebulon, partly by the enumeration of its border towns. On 
the east the boundary extended from Tabor to Jordan, and 
there can be but little hesitation in tracing it along the deep 
gorge of W4dy Bireh : for the towns identified south of that 
valley belong to Issachar, and those north of it to NaphtalL 

The towns of Issachar, ' sixteen cities with their viUageBy' 
are enumerated as foUow : — 

Jezreel now the village Zer'in, 

Chesulloth „ village Iksal. 

Shunem ,, village SMem. 

Haphraim „ ruin el-rFarriyeh. 

Shihon 

Anaharath ,, village en-JSTatoih. 

Eabbith „ village Haha. 

Kishion 

Abez „ rmn el^Beida. 

Bemeth ,, village Kameh. 

En Qannim „ viUage Jenin. 

En Haddah „ village Kefr Adan. 

Beth Fazzez 

Tabor „ village Deburieh. 

Shahazimah. 

Beth Shemesh. 

The territory thus indicated includes the whole of the Great 
Plain and the hills east of it. Bemeth, if correctly identified 
with Bameh, might however be considered aa an outlying vil- 
lage within the border of Manasseh. 

The Bowndariea of ZebuUm are given with much greater 
detail than those of the central or Samaritan tribes. They 
are also fortunately easy to follow. 

The south border of Zebulon is traced from a place called 
Sarid westwards and eastwards : Jokneam with the ' torrent ' 
(Nachal) in face of it, may be identified with Tell Xftim^n and 



PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TBIBES. 26? 

the Kishon below it, the course of which was probably followed 
to the sea. The intermediate station Mar'alah may possibly be 
represented by the present village of M'al41. 

Erom Sarid eastwards the line extended to Chisloth Tabor 
(Iksal) and Daberath (Dabiirieh), running up by Japhia (YSfa)i 
In other words, it followed the slope of the Nazareth hills above 
the Great Plain. Josephus draws the line to the Sea of CkJilee, 
but as will be seen immediately, this does not agree with the 
Biblical account of the border of Naphtali. The east border of 
Zebulon ran round to Gath-Hepher (el-Mesh-hed) and thence to 
Kimmon (Kummaneh) leaving a broad plateau on the east in 
which many towns of Naphtali are now identified. The north- 
east comer of the tribe boundary was Hannathon, which may 
be identified with the Ti^lmudic Caphar Hanania (Shebiith 9. 2), 
the modem Kefr 'Anan, at the foot of the mountains of Upper 
Gralilee 

The watershed thus formed the east boundary of Zebulon 
throughout, and its windings coincide with the curving line of 
the border. So also in the case of the border of Judah, and 
in that of Issachar, whenever the boundary runs north and 
south it follows a watershed. In the cases of Benjamin, Dan, 
Ephraim, and Asher, the crest of the hills is taken in the 
same way ; and in all cases where the lines run east and west 
some great natural division of the country appears to have 
been followed. 

The north boundary of Zebulon gives another instance of the 
same law, running along the valley of Jiphthah-el (* opened by 
God '), which is evidently the gorge (Gai) leading to the Mari- 
time Plain from the plain of £4meh, beneath the high mountains 
of Upper Galilee. 

The south boundary of Asher was the north limit of 
Zebulon towards the west. The points mentioned along this 
line are Shihor-Libnath, Beth-Dagon, Beth-Emek, Neiel, and 
Cabul. Of these only the last is known with certainty, and 
the border passing north (Shemal, ' left hand ' in the Authorised 
Version) of this town evidently went along the gorge before 
noticed, south of which the modem village of Kab41 is foimd. 



268 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Neiel (Han-N'aial) is probably the ruin of Y*aii{ii in the same 
valley. Beth-Dagon, the point nearest to the sea, may be Tell 
D'aiik (comparing the Dagon near Jericho now 'Ain D4k), a 
mound near the mouth of the Belus. Shihor-Iibnath (* river 
of glass' ) will in this case be the Belus, where glass was first 
found, and we cannot produce the boundary of Asher farther 
south if Zebulon be understood to have extended to the sea 
(Josh. 19. ll). This remains, however, to a certain extent, a 
moot point, because Asher is said to have reached to Carmel 
'seawards* (Josh. 19. 26). The appropriation of a sandy and 
marshy shore does not appear to have been considered a matter 
of sufficient importance to demand detailed explanation. In 
the blessing of Jacob, however, Zebulon is said to dwell at the 
Haven of the Sea (Huph), which e:^ression has been thought 
to refer to the sea-port of Haifa. 

The towns of Zebulon are for the most part easily identified, 
and may be here enumerated. Jokneam is ascribed to Zebulon 
(Josh. 21. 34). ISTahallal is stated in the Talmud (Tal. Jer. 
Megillah 1. 1) to have been called late Mahlul, and the identifi- 
cation is important as giving another point on the eastern 
Iwrder of the tribe : — 

Jokneam of Garmel is the present Tell E^eim^. 
Dabbasheth. 



Maralah 


ff 


village Ik^alnl. 


Sarid 


yy 


TeU Shadud. 


Japhia 


99 


village Yfilfa. 


Gath Hepher 


ir 


village elrMesh-hed. 


Kazin. 






Einimon 


if 


village Eumm^neh. 


Neah. 






Hannathon 


» 


village Kefr' A naTi. 


Kattath. 






Nahallal 


M 


village 'Ain Mahil. 


Shiraron 


V 


village SemAnieh. 


Idalah (Hirieh) 


J), 


ruin el-Huw«lTah, 


Bethlehem 


f9 


village Beit Lahm. 



It is probable that three of the unknown names are not those 



PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TRIBES. 269 

of towns, for the total given at the end of the verse (Josh. 19. 

is) is only twelve. 

The Towns of Asher at present known are seven in all, out 

of a total of twenty-two. Conjectures are possible with regard 

to many of the rest; but the following are pretty certainly 

fixed ; — 

Achshaph is the present village el-Y&sif. 



Hebron (Abdon) 


» 


ruin 'Abdeh. 


Hammon 


» 


ruin el-Hama. 


Kanah 


» 


village Kanah. 


Tyre 


19 


town es-SAr. 


Hozah 


99 


ruin 'Ozziyeh. 


Achzib 


99 


village ez-Zib. 



The border between Asher and ISfaphtali is defined by the 
cities existing along it (Josh. 19. 26), but of these unfortu- 
nately little is known. The general division appears to have 
been the same observed in the south : ISfaphtali holding the 
higher mountains, Asher the plain and the lower olive-bearing 
hills. Heleph of Naphtali (Beit Lif), Peten of Asher (probably 
el-B*aneh), and Kanah of Asher (Kdnah), are almost the only 
fixed points on the border ; but these serve to show the divi- 
sion to have been the natural one just noticed. 

The Territory of Naphtali alone remains to be noticed, in- 
cluding Upper Galilee and the plateau west of the Sea of Galilee. 
* Their coast was from Heleph, and the plain of Bitzanannim 
and Adami, Nekeb, and Jabneel, unto Lakum, and the out- 
goings were at Jordan.* Such appears to be the correct ren- 
dering of Joshua 19. 33. *And the coast turned to A.znoth- 
Tabor, and goeth out thence to Hukkok, and reacheth to 
Zebulon on the south side, and to Asher on the west side ' 
(verse 34). 

Heleph, as already explained, is probably Beit Lif, at the 
edge of the higher mountains towards the west. Adami is 
the ruin Admah ; Nekeb (the Talmudic Tziidetha, Tal. Jer. 
Megillah 1. l) is the ruin Seiy^deh ; Jabneel (the Caphar Yama 
of the Talmud) is Yemma ; and we are thus induced to identify 
Bitzanannim with Bess^m in the same district — an identifica* 



270 HAKDBOOK TO THE BIBLK 

tion which agrees well with another notice of the Ba;ine place, 
where its name is again connected with that of Tabor (Judges 
4. 11). 

From ' the ears of Tabor ' (Aznoth Tabor) the border went 
northwards to Hukkok (Yak^k), and beyond this point it is 
roughly defined by some of the following towns, most of which 
are now fixed with certainty : — 

Ziddim (Oaphar Hittai) is the village of Hattin. 
Zer. 



Hammath 


yf 


Hammam Tabariya. 


Eakkath 


>y 


town of Tiberias. 


Ohinnereth. 






Ad amah 


9f 


village ed-D4meh. 


Eamah 


99 


village BsLmeh. 


HazoT 


ff 


ruin Hac^reh. 


Kedesh 


99 


village Kedes. 


Edrei 


99 


village V'ater. 


En Hazor 


» 


village Hazireh. 


Iron 


W 


village VarAn. 


Migdal-el 


99 


ruin Mujeidil. 


Horem 


99 


Harah. 


Beth Anath 


99 


village 'Ainatha. 


Beth Shemesh. 







The enquiry which has thus been carried out as to the 
boundaries of the Tribal territories gives several general results 
of interest. 

1st. The boundaries are shown to be almost entirely natural 
— ^rivers, ravines, ridges, and the watershed lines of the 
country. 

2nd. Many of the various tribes are given distinct divisions 
of the country. Thus Reuben had the Mishor, and Manasseh 
the plains of Bashan, separated by Gad occupying the inter- 
vening mountain region. Issachar had the Great Plain, and 
Zebulon the low hills north of it. The sons of Joseph held the 
wild central moimtains, and Naphtali those of Upper Galilee ; 
Dan and Asher occupied the rich Shephelah and Maritime 
Plain ; Simeon inhabited the Desert : while Judah, holding the 



PALESTINE DIVIDED BY TEIBES. 271 

largest share of territorj, had both motmtam, and Shephelah, 
plain, and desert in its portion. 

3rd. The enumeration of towns follows always an order 
roughly consecutive, and all those of one district are mentioned 
together. This is remarkably the case with regard to the 
towns of Judah and Benjamin, which, on account of their 
number, and because they do not add materially to our under- 
standing of the boundaries, have not been noticed in detail in 
this chapter. (See the * Biblical Gazetteer.') 

4th. Taking these various indications together, the topo- 
graphical chapters of the Book of Joshua appear to form a docu- 
ment intended to give a complete geographical account of the 
country actually divided among the Tribes; though it is ap- 
parently imperfect in that part which relates to the country 
afterwards included in Samaria. In what manner the sort of 
survey mentioned by Joseph us had been previously made it is 
not possible to determine, but it is clear that the comparative 
fertility of various districts was duly considered in calculating 
the population assigned to each. Josephus expressly tells us 
that this was the case : ' Joshua thought the land for the tribes 
should be divided by estimation of its goodness rather than the 
largeness of its measure, it often happening that one acre of 
some sort of land was equivalent to a thousand other acres ' 
(5 Ant. 1. 21). 

This statement is fully borne out by a comparison of the 
population of the various tribes, taken from the census made 
before entering the country (Num. 26), with the areas of the 
various territories occupied by them. The Table attached to this 
chapter shows the comparative densities of population thus ob- 
tained, and the result fully accords with the words of Josephus. 

The Book of Numbers, following the custom stiU in use 
among the Moslems, counts only the adult male populatioa 
Allowing four souls per adult male, we obtain a total popula- 
tion of two and a half millions, which is about equal to that of 
modern Syria south of Tripoli. The density in the fertile 
plains of Issachar and Zebulon is, however, more than three 
times the average density for the mountains of Judah or 



272 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Naphtali, while the Desert districts have again less than a ten& 
of the maximum density of population. The ayerages may 
be thus roughly stated : — 

Desert Districts 60 souls per sqr. mile. 

Moimtams 200 „ „ 

Shephelah and Plains 700 „ „ 

The greatest density is thus made almost to equal that of the 
present population of Flanders (718 souls per square mile). 
That of the mountain districts is about the same as in Switzer- 
land ; and the general average of 320 souls per square mile is 
nearly a mean between that of England and Wales (380 souls), 
and that of Italy (225 souls). 

The large number of ancient ruins in the Shephelah district 
as compared with the mountains agrees with this result ; and 
the distribution of the present population appears to follow the 
same law. The general average of the population of Syria is 
now only about 100 souls per square mile, but it is believed 
that several districts would support ten times this proportion. 

It must be remembered that a considerable Canaanite popu- 
lation remained side by side with the Israelite inhabitants. 
The investigation is, however, specially interesting, because it 
shows that the division of the land was made in strict accord- 
ance with the capabilities of the various districts, implying a pre- 
vious general knowledge of the resources of the whole country. 

The new information concerning the tribal topography due 
to the Survey of Palestine has been fuller than could have been 
expected, nearly one-third of the boundary towns being newly 
identified during the course of the work. It is only in the ex- 
treme north — in the territory of Asher — and in the extreme 
south — the desert of Simeon-^that our information remains 
very imperfect. With regard to the former, it is possible that 
the ancient nomenclature has been lost by the Druse and 
Maronite settlers, who form a majority of the population ; and 
in the south it is certain that the Arab immigrants, who now 
occupy the old territory of Simeon have, with few exceptions, 
discarded the old names of the ruined sites, substituting modem 
descriptive titles. 



PALESTINE DIVIDBl) BY TRIBES. 



Tabk showing the Density of Populatio 
of the Triles. 



n the Territories 





BumtaT of 




NumbPTof 






TrilB 




Dedinal 


fiq. mli™ 


f^ 


Bemwb 


Reuben . . 


43,730 


-07 


700 


02 


Mountain district 


Gad . . . 


40,500 


■06 


1,300 


31 






29,280 


■05 


2,500 


11 


Partly desert 


SimeoD . 


22,200 


■04 


1,000 


22 




Judah . . 


7fl,5O0 


■13 


1,400 


56 


Mountain's 


Dan . . . 


fi4,400 


■11 


fiOO 


139 


Plains 


Benjamin . 


45;600 


■08 


300 


152 


see 5 Ant. 1. n 


Eph-U. . 


33,500 


■05 


000 


54 


Mountain 


23,420 


■04 


800 


39 


Wooded mounlaiQ 


rssaehar , 


64,300 


-11 


400 


161 


Rich plaii 


Zebulon . 


60,500 


■10 


300 


202 




Afiher . . 


63,400 


■09 


300 


178 




Napbtali . 


4fi,400 
601,730 


■07 


800 


57 


Mountain 


ToIjlIb . 


I'OO 


10,900 


55 


General average 



Notet.—Ia the territory of Judah, PhiliBtia bag not been included 
(1,000 Bq. milee), nor the uninbabitable JeabimoD Desert (400 sq.miles), 
giving 2,800 eq. miles as the real total of territory for Judab. 

The density of population in tbe tribe of Dan vas probably greater 
than shown, as they did not conquer tbe plain and lived in the 
Sbephelab. 

Benjamin shows a mean between the density for the pluna and 
for the hills, having the Jericho pltun conntrj beeidaa its hill territory. 

The male population should probably be multiplied by four to give 
tbe total number of souls. 



274 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLK 




CHAPTER lY. 

PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KINGS. 

The episodical history of the Book of Judges gives us no system- 
atic topographical account of Palestine. The places mentioned 
in that hook will be found noticed in the * Biblical Gazetteer/ 
and the various stories can now be traced with considerable 
clearness so far as their topography is concerned. The history 
is one of constant fluctuations in the Israelite fqrtunes, of the 
loss and recovery of territory, of resistance to nomadic incur- 
sions, and of the gradual consolidation of the state leading up 
to the establishment of a kingdom. 

The Canaanites who were not exterminated by Joshua held 
their own after his death. Gaza, Ascalon, and Ekron were 
indeed taken from the Philistines (Judges 1. 18), but were soon 
lost again, and the charioteers of the plain country could not 
be overcome. The Jebusites continued to hold part of Jeru- 
salem. Taanach, Dor, Ibleam, Beth-shean, Megiddo, Gezer, 
Kitron, Nahalol, Accho, Zidon, Ahlab, Achzib, Helbah, Aphek, 
and Eebob, Beth-shemesh (of Gfililee), and Beth Anath — all of 
which were towns of some importance, were not captured by 
the Israelites ; and a good part of the territory of Dan, including 
Aijalon, Shaalbim, and Mount Heres which was part of Mount 
Ephraim, was still held by the Amorite mountaineers. 

It is important also to notice that there was during this 
period more than one religious centre in the country. Shechem 
and Bethel had been made sacred in the memory of Israel by 
the altars which Abraham there erected and which Jacob re- 
visited. Shiloh was the resting-place of Ark and Tabernacle 
til the time of Samuel ; and at a later period Nob or Mi^>eh, 



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KINGS. 275 

Gibeon and Kirjath Jearim, became in succession sacred places. 
It is impossible to say at what period the altar of the Lord re- 
paired by Elijah was first established on Carmel; but that 
mountain, together with Tabor, was held sacred at a late 
period of the history of Palestine. The Mishna, speaking of 
* high places ' such as the above, says that they only became 
finally unlawful after the building of the Temple in Jerusalem 
(Zebahim 14. 8). 

The Makom (or sacred place) of Shechem by the plain (or 
oak) of Moreh (G^en. 12. 6) was the site of Abraham's first 
altar. The same place appears to have been probably the site 
of Jacob's altar El-Elohe-Israel (Gen. 33. 20). This latter seems 
also to have been situate by the oak (Elon), where the Teraphim 
were hidden by Jacob (Gen. 35. 4), for at a rather late period we 
find mention of the * oak that was by the Sanctuary of the Lord ' 
(Josh. 24. 26) in Shechem. At this oak Joshua erected a 
monument, which is again noticed (Judges 9. e), ' the oak (A. V. 
plain) of the pillar that waa in Shechem.* In the Samaritan 
Chronicle this Holy oak is noticed under the title Elon Tubah 
*good oak,' translated in the Arabic Shejr el-Elheir *tree of 
grace.' In the Samaritan Book of Joshua — a mediaeval com- 
pilation from older sources — the same site appears under the 
title Bal4ta, derived from the Aramaic word Ballut (an oak). 
St. Jerome connects the site of Balanus near Joseph s tomb with 
the Oak of Shechem ; and we are thus able to trace the site 
in the neighbourhood of the present village of Balata, close to 
Jacob's well and Joseph's tomb, thus placing the altar within 
the parcel of ground bought by the Patriarch. The modem 
Samaritans point to a modem sacred place, called el-'Am&d 
(* the pillar ') rather farther east, but their older tradition is 
naturally to be regarded as more authentic. 

Abraham's second altar was built on the hills east of Bethel 
and west of Ai, consequently close to the former town (Gen. 
1 2. 8). It was possibly the Makom (rendered ' place ' in our 
version), near Luz or Bethel, where Jacob's vision occurred 
(Gen. 28. ll), and where he afterwards built the altar El- 
Bethel. In the time of Phinehas we find the Ark either tem- 

t2 



276 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

porarily or permanently established at Bethel. In our version 
the name is translated * house of God ' (Judges 20. 26-27), but 
Josephus understands the city Bethel to be intended (5 Ant. 
2. lo). AgaiQ, in the days of Samuel we find mention of * three 
men going up to God to Bethel ' (1 Sam. 10. s). 

Bethel having been thus for so long a period a religions 
centre, there ■would have been nothing revolutionary in the eyes 
of the Israelites in its re-establishment by Jeroboam as a sacred 
city. It is, however, possible that the Bethel of this latter 
period was not the well-known town of Benjamin, but rather a 
site near Shechem. In the Middle Ages the tw^o mountains 
Dan and Bethel were shown as being spurs of Ebal and Geiizim. 
Both names are still preserved : Eils el-Kady * hill top of the 
judge ' (Dan) is part of Ebal, and the ruin of L6zeh is the Lnz 
or Bethel of the Samaritans on Gerizim. It may perhaps have 
been this heretical Bethel which was chosen by Jeroboam as the 
site of his Calf Temple, and among other indications pointing to 
such a surmise it may be noted that though Bethel of Benjamin 
was taken and fortified by the kings of Judah, no mention is then 
made of the destruction of the Calf Temple of Bethel which stiU 
existed in the later days of Jehu (2 Chron. 13. 19 ; 2 Kings 
10. 29). 

The Tabernacle established by Joshua in ShiLoh (5 Ant. 1. 
19) remained there until the days of Eli, at which time the Ark 
was also with it (1 Sam. 3. 3). After the death of Eli the 
Tabernacle, according to the Mishna (Zebahim 14. s), was 
taken to Nob ; and from the fact that the shew bread was eaten 
by David at Nob (1 Sam. 21. e) it appears clear that the Taber- 
nacle must have been there standing in his time. It was after- 
wards taken to Gibeon (2 Chron. 1. 3), where was a Ba/mah 
or * high place,* which in the early days of Solomon formed the 
chief religious centre (1 Kings 3. 4). The transference from 
Nob was probably due to the sava^ massacre of the priests in 
that city by Saul. 

The Ark having been taken from Shiloh, and affcer wandering 
through PhiHstia, was brought to Beth Shemesh, to Kirjath 
Jearim, to Perez-Uzzah, and finally to a tent in Jerusalem. It 



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KINGS. 277 

never re-entered the Tabernacle ; but the latter, 'with the Ark, 
was finally brought to the Temple at Jerusalem (1 Kings 8. 4 ; 
1 Chron. 9. 19; 2 Chron. 1. 4). 

Another centre of gathwing for Israel was Mizpeh, which is 
described in the Hasmonean period as being * over against Jeru- 
salem,* and as the place * where they prayed aforetime in Israel ' 
(1 Mace. 3. 46). 

In Mizpeh the Israelites gathered from the time of Phinehas 
(Judges 20. l) to that of Samuel (1 Sam. 7. 6) ; and from the 
expression ' before the Lord ' used in the latter passage, and 
also used in reference to Shiloh (1 Sam. 1. 12), it seems probable 
that the Tabernacle was in Mizpeh at the latter period. The 
best explanation of this apparent difficulty seems to be that 
Nob and Mizpeh were the same place. The names have ^ 
similar meaning, ' height ' and * watch tower.' Nob was on the 
main north road, apparently in sight of Jerusalem (Isaiah 10. 
32) ; Mizpeh is thought to be the Sapha of Josephus (11 Ant. 
8, 5) which occupied the same site ; and, as above noticed, the 
words of the First Book of Maccabees also indicate the same 
position for Mizpeh, which belonged to Benjamin (Josh. 18. 26 ; 
1 Mace. 3. 46). Nob and Mizpeh are never mentioned in the 
same passage, and the later name Nob does not occur in the 
topography of the Book of Joshua. 

A gradual change is to be marked during the period of the 
Judges in the relations between the Isi-aelites and the other 
Semitic settlers of the country. The Jewish possessions east of 
the Jordan appear to have gradually extended (Judges 10. 4), 
and the prohibition to annex the land of Ammon and Moab 
(Deut. 2. 9 and 37) was disregarded affcer a dispute had arisen 
on the question (Judges 11). From this time onwards the 
Ammonites are reckoned in the same category with the Canaan- 
ites as enemies of Israel. 

External light of great value is thrown on the topography 
of this period by the discovery of a hieratic MS. of the time 
of Rameses II., giving an account of the travels of an Egyptian 
officer, called a Mohar, in Palestine^ He is described as 
journeying in a chariot, and his route lay therefore presumably 



278 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

in the plains. From the fact that he notices the neighbourhood 
of the Sea of Gralilee as being a place of meeting for Mohars, 
we may perhaps conclude that these officers — apparently reyenue 
collectors — were employed in levying taxes on the Canaanites. 
We may compare the mention of his chariot, and the fact that 
he journeys through the plains of Sharon, Esdraelon, Philistia^ 
and Phoenicia, with the Biblical statement, that the Canaanites 
who lived in the plains and had chariotsof iron were not driven 
out by the IsraeHtes (Josh. 17. 16). The period of the Mohar^s 
'oumey appears to precede the time of the servitude under 
Midian ; and it seems that the country conquered by Thothmes, 
which has been shown, in the last chapter, to have lain in the 
plains of Lower Gralilee and in the Philistine and Negeb 
districts, still remained under Egyptian .rule at the time of the 
Mohar's journey. 

The document is divided into five sections,* and the places 
most easily identified may be mentioned briefly as follows : — 

In the first section the general scene of the Mohar's travels 
appears to be defined : including the country of the Elheta 
(EQttites) and the Land of Aup, which seems to have been in 
the north of Palestine. Tzal of Sesostris (Zoan or Tanis) and 
a Kodesh of doubtful locality are also noticed with the Shasus 
and Shua mountain tribes which inhabited, according to Egyp- 
tian scholars, the deserts of Idumsea. 

The second section contains the names of the principal 
Phoenician towns : Kapaon (Gebal), Berytus (Beiriit), Sidon, 
Tjrre, Sarepta (Surafend), and a river Kazana, apparently the 
Leontes. 

La the third section the journey down the coast is continued. 
Pa-Kana-na is apparently Kanah of Asher (the Pa and Na 
being an Egyptian a£&x and sufiix). Aksap is the Aksapu of 
Thothmes III., the Biblical Achshaph (el-Yasif ). Hazor and 
Hamata follow, the latter as appears from the subsequent route 
being the Biblical Hammath, situate by the hot springs, south 
of Tiberias, from which springs its name was derived. The 
Hazor of the narrative seems probably represented by the 

* See Records of the Past, vol. ii. 



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KIKGS. 279 



present ruin Hazziir, on the direct route by the broad valley of 
er-Edmeh, from Achshaph towards the Sea of Galilee. Tar- 
kaal, which follows Hammath, is probably Tarichese, an im- 
portant city at the south end of the Sea of Gulilee (as described 
by Josephus and Pliny), which is represented by the present 
large ruin of Kerak. The last name in the section is Mataimim, 
which has caused some difficulty to translators. Mat appears 
to mean ' land/ and the word Yemimy as has been remarked in 
a previous chapter, really signifies ' hot springs ' (as noted by 
St. Jerome in Gen. 36. 24). Nothing can be more appropriate 
than the description of the Jordan Valley between Tiberias and 
Beth-shean as the ' land of hot springs.' 

The fourth section of this interesting document appears to 
commence with a notice of another district, prefaced by the 
remark, ' I will speak to thee of towns other than the preceding.' 
Eleven names follow, all being cities of the Land of Takhis, 
except the last. The district cannot be said to be positively 
identified, since some authorities have placed it in the south of 
Palestine ; but the last town of the list is said to be on the 
frontier of the Land of Aup, which was a northern district. 
Takhis is mentioned in the time of Thothmes III.,^ apparently 
as situated in the north of Palestine. The following are the 
towns of the Land of Takhis, with the identifications which 
appear most probable : — 



Egyptian 


Hebrew 


Arabio 


1. Opphar Marron 


^_^ 


Meirftn 


2. Tamena 


.*— 


Tibnin 


3. Kodesh 


Kadesh Naphtali 


Kedes 


4. Dapul 


Diblath 


Dibl 


5. Atai or Ajai 


— 


— 


6. Har Nemniata 




_ 


7. Kariath Anab 


— 


— 


8. Beth Tuphar 


— 


— 


9. Aduram (or Adulam) 


Edrei 


Y'ater 


10. Tziphoth 


Seph 


Safed 


11. Khauretza (in Aup) 


Harosheth 


el-Harathiyeh 



* See Records of the Past, vol. ii. p. 62. 



280 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

If the above identifications be correct, the district indicated by 
the name Takhis lay immediately north of the Mohar's route, 
in ihe mountains of Naphtali, while Aup appears t6 have been 
part of Lower Galilee; and the episode thus follows naturally 
on the account of his journey to Hammath. 

The narrative of the journey is taken up again with the 
words * Come then to Pasta Sina ' (* image of Sina ' — ^an Egyp- 
tian god); and the names of Bohob, Beith-Sheal, Kanathal, 
Jordan (or Jelden), and Megiddo follow ; clearly indicating a 
route southwards, from Taricheas to Beth-shean, near which is 
Tell er-Eeh&b, the Roob of the fourth century ; while the river 
forded is either Jordan, or more probably Wddy Jaliidy running 
from the spring of that name, as there is no notice of a second 
passage of any river between Megiddo and Joppa. In the 
Book of Judges a portion of Gilboa also appears to be intended 
by the expression * Mount Gilead* (Judg. 7. 3), showing the 
name Jaliid to be very ancient. 

The travels of the Mohar are continued from Megiddo 
across a rugged country with a deep ravine, in which his chariot 
is damaged. It appears that he must have crossed the water- 
shed ; and the fact that this is the only portion of the narrative 
which records any difficulty from the nature of the country 
seems clearly to show — ^as does the identification of the places 
visited — that his route lay generally in the plains. 

The Mohar next arrives at Jaffa, his chariot is repaired, and 
he thence returns to Tanis. In the last section various places in 
the extreme south of Palestine are mentioned, including Atzion 
or Hazion (Mount Casius), Rehoboth, Paphia, and Gaza. 

Such is a brief account of this interesting document, which 
appears in all its details consistent with the Biblical accounts 
of Palestine under the Judges. 

The Books of Samuel contain several knotty points of topo- 
graphy; but the reader is referred to the Biblical Gazetteer, 
as affi)rding all the reliable information obtainable on these 
subjects. The romantic history of David may be also rendered 
distinct by following the line of his wanderings on the map. 
It is not, however, until the time of the consolidation of the 



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KINGS. 281 

Jewish Kingdom under Solomon that any further important 
questions of general geography in the Holy Land arise. * 

The kingdom inherited by Solomon had been carved by the 
sword of David. The Philistines had been driven back to 
their plains, retaining, however, the strongholds of Gath and 
Gezer at the edge of the hill country. The capital of the 
Ammonites — Kabbah — ^had been taken, and the census em- 
braced all the Holy Land, from Beersheba to Sidon, ruled by 
the King at Jerusalem. In the time of Solomon G^zer was 
taken by the Egyptians and given as the dower of his Egyp- 
tian wife (1 Kings 9. 16). Hamath was conquered (2 Ghron. 

8. 3, 4); and the whole of the country west of the river 
Euphrates (Heb. Nahar) as far as Graza on the south was 
reckoned as being subject to Solomon (1 Kings 4. 24, 2 Chron. 

9. 26). The land of the Philistines is not, however, included, 
and the Canaanites were not exterminated, but reduced to pay 
tribute (2 Chron. 8. 7). 

The population of Jewish origin at this time numbered 
1,300,000 fighting men {% Sam. 24. 9), which represents a total 
of 5,000,000 souls, or double the population of the time of the 
Conquest. This represents an average of about 500 souls per 
square mile, or more than the present population of Switzerland. 
The present population of the same extent of country is sup- 
posed not to exceed 650,000 souls. 

At this period of Jewish history we first find mention 
of seaports. The cedar rafts from Lebanon were brought to 
Joppa (2 Chron. 2. 16), and the fleets of Solomon went yearly 
from Ezion-geber at the head of the Gulf of Akabah (1 Kings 
9. 26). 

The city of Tadmor in. the Syrian Desert, founded by 
Solomon, is identified by Josephus (8 Ant. 6. l) with Palmyra, 
which is still called Tadm6r by the Damascenes. Hazor, 
Megiddo, Bethhoron, Gezer, and Baalath (of Dan) were also 
among the cities fortified during this period. 

The dominions of Solomon were divided into twelve pro- 
vinces, each with an officer appointed over it. A very slight 
examination shows that these twelve divisions corresponded 



282 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

ronghly to the tribes of Israel, without counting Simeon and 
considering the two halves of Manasseh to be separate tribes. 
The first province (1 Kings 4. 7) was Mount Ephraim. The 
second, including Shaalbim, Beth-shemesh, and the plain oi 
Beth Hanan (Beit 'An4n), corresponds apparently to the terri- 
tory of Dan. The third district, called Aruboth, is denomi* 
nated by Josephus, ' the toparchy of Bethlehem ' (8 Ant. 2. s), 
and included the Shephelah of Judah, near Sochoh, and the 
land of Hepher, apparently near Hebron (Josh. 12. 17) ; liie 
toparchy was therefore coextensive with the land of Judah. 
The fourth province, * the r^on of Dor,' corresponds to the 
land of Manasseh. The fifth, including Taanach, Megiddo, 
Beth-shean, Zartanah (Tell es-SSrem), JTezreel, and on the south 
Abel Meholah ('Ain Helweh), was equivalent to the tribe ter- 
ritory of Issachar, or, as Josephus states, to ' the Great Plain ' 
and ' all the coimtry as far as Jordan.' The sixth province^ 
including the towns of Jair, the land of Argob, and Bashan, 
corresponds to Manasseh beyond Jordan, or, according to Jose- 
phus, included Gaulonitis and Gilead. The seventh had its 
capital at Mahanaim, and corresponded to the tribe of Gad. 
The eighth province was Naphtali. The ninth was Asher, with 
its capital at Aloth ('Alia). The tenth, though called Tssachar 
in the Biblical account, included apparently only the northern 
part of the territory of that tribe, and also embraced the terri- 
tory of Zebulon. Josephus renders it * Mount Tabor and 
Carmel and Gulilee as far as the river Jordan.' The eleventh 
province was Benjamin ; and the twelfth * the cities of Sihon, 
king of the Amorites,' corresponded no doubt to the land of 
Reuben. 

It is remarkable that the name of Simeon, as a tribe, does 
not occur in this passage, nor was the territory of Simeon made 
into a separate province. There are, however, indications that 
the tribe of Simeon had either become extinct about this 
period ; or, living a nomadic life, in the Negeb Desert appor** 
tioned to the tribe, had become fused with the Edomitee, and 
no longer belonged to the Hebrew nation. On the division 
of the Kingdom after Solomon's death * ten tribes ' revolted 



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KINGS. 283 

(1 Kings 11. 3l), and only Judah and Benjamin remained loyal 
to the House of David. It seems, however, difficult to suppose 
that Simeon in the extreme south is to be counted among the 
ten, as it could scarcely have formed any part of the Northern 
Kingdom. 

In another Biblical passage we find the cities of Simeon 
mentioned as belonging to that tribe ' unto the reign of David ' 
(1 Chron. 4. 3l) ; while at a later period they are enumerated 
as belonging to Judah (1 Kings 19. 3, Neh. 11. 25). The 
'strangers' of Simeon are noticed as assisting King Asa (2 
Chron. 15. 9) ; and the prophecy of Jacob seems thus to have 
been accomplished in the case of Simeon : ' I will divide them 
in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel ' (Gen. 49. 7). In the 1st 
Book of Chronicles (4. 27-48) we find an account of various 
migrations of the tribe of Simeon, some of whom established 
themselves in Mount Seir, while others wandered apparently 
towards Egypt. 

The division of the Kingdom on the accession of Kehoboam 
did not exactly agree with the geographical boundaries of the 
tribes. Zoreah and Aijalon, fortified by the King of Judah, 
were towns of Dan beyond the border of Benjamin, and th% 
frontier on the north was, on the other hand, within the old 
north border line of the last -mentioned tnbe. 

From the list of the border fortresses established by Eeho-* 
boam, we may gather the boundaries of the Kingdom of Judah 
in his time. 

On the north-west was Aijalon, and on the west the border 
was protected against the Philistines by the forts of Zorah, 
Azekah, Gftth, Shochoh, Adullam, Lachish, Adoraim, and 
Mareshah ; Hebron and Ziph were on the border of the Edom- 
ites; and the defences against the desert tribes were Bethle< 
hem, Tekoa, Etam (near Bethlehem), and Bethzur on the 
watershed. The area thus enclosed was about 2,300 square 
miles. 

The northern boundary was formed by the strong valley of 
Michmash, dividing the land of Benjamin in two. Even in 
the time of Josiah, Geba, on the south bank of this valley, 



284 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

formed the north limit of the Kingdom of Jadah (2 KinUa 23^ 
8), and the same boundary is referred to at the time of Ezra 
(Zech. 14. lo). 

The town of Eamah, close to Geba, was fortified by Baasha, 
king of Israel (2 Chron. 16. l), but was soon destroyed; Mizpeh 
and Geba being built from its ruins (verse 6). The fuM extent 
of the land of Benjamin was apparently only held by Abijah, 
when Bethel, Jeshanah ('Ain Sinia), and Ephrain (Taiyibeh) 
were taken from Jeroboam (2 Chron. 13. 19). 

While the capital of Judah remained fixed at Jerusalem, 
the poKtical capital of the Northern Kingdom was constantly 
shifted. The palace of Jeroboam was at Shechem (1 Kings 12. 
25), but his native town was Zereda (1 Kings 11. 26), probably 
the present Surdeh, in Mount Ephraim, a city mentioned se- 
veral times in an inserted passage of the Septuagint Version 
(1 Kings 12. 24-26). 

The capital of Baasha was at Tirzah (1 Kings 15. 33), where 
the earlier kings of Israel appear to have been buried. Tirzah, 
is probably the modem Teiasir, near Thebez (TubUs), a village 
with numerous ancient rock sepulchres. 

Samaria, the third capital, was bought from Shemer by 
Omri (1 Kings 16. 24), and eight kings were buried there. The 
necropolis of Samaria remains, however, still to be discovered. 
« Hamah seems at one time to have been intended for a royal 
residence before the choice of Tirzah as a capital (1 Kings 
15. 2l). 

In the time of Rehoboam the topography of Palestine is par- 
tially elucidated by an Egyptian inscription recording the con- 
quests of Shishak, who took Jerusalem and the fenced cities of 
Judah in the 5th year of the son of Solomon. A great number 
of the places mentioned are still unidentified ; and the barbarous 
spelling of the Hebrew names by the Egyptian scribe, together 
with the impossibility of distinguishing the hieroglyphic letters 
L and R, K and G, T and D, makes the certainty of translit- 
eration less than could be wished. The following, however, 
appear to be the most certain : — 



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KINGS. 285 



Egyptian 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


Eabatu 


Rahbiih 


Baba 


Taanaca 


Taanach 


T'anmik 


Shenema 


Shunem 


Sulem 


Bath Shanlau 


Beth Shean 


Beisan 


Eahaba 




Tell er-Kehab 


Haphurima 


Jbiaphraim 


el-Farriyeh 


Keb'a-na 


Gibeon 


el-Jib 


Bath Am*en 


Beth Horon 


Beit 'Ur 


Aiulen 


Aijalon 


Yalo 


M'aceda 


Makkedah 


el-Moghar 


Adira 


Ataroth Adar 


ed-Darieh 


Yudah M'alek 


Jehud 


el-Yehudiyeh 


Haanem 


Beth Hanan 


Beit 'Anan 


Bath Ahneth 


Alemeth 


'Almit 


Shauka 


Shochoh 


Shuweikeh 


Bath Tapha 


Beth Tappuah 


Tuffuh 


Aauzama 


Azmon 





It will be remarked that two of the frontier fortresses of Re- 
hoboam — Shochoh and Aijalon — appeal* certainly in this list, 
and others may be suspected in the less perfectly translated 
names. The territory included in the list is, however pretty 
much the same as that conquered by Thothmes III., and 
visited by the Mohar, namely, the Plains of Sharon and Es- 
draelon. The name Yudah M'alek was originally rendered 
* Kingdom of Judah' by Champollion; but its occun-ence among 
the towns of Dan — Aijalon, Beth Hanan, and others, seems to 
point to the greater probability of its representing the town of 
Jehud in their immediate neighbourhood. 

Ajiother list, belonging to Assyrian history contemporarj- 
with the reign of Hezekiah and referring to towns in the same 
district, is that of Sennacherib's victories.* In this the names of 
Beth Dagon (Beit Dejan, near Jaffa) ; Banai-Barka, the Biblical 
Beni-Berak (Ibn Ibrak) ; Al Taku, evidently Eltekeh of Dan 
(Beit Likia) ; and Timna, or Timnatha, of Dan (Tibneh), occur 
with a Hazor, which is possibly Yaz4r, near Jaffa. These 
towns must have been taken during Sennaxsherib's advance on 



Assyrian DiscoverieSt pp. 802-30S. 




286 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Lachish and Libnah, farther south. The 'plains of AUaka' 
are mentioned in the text, which agrees with the positiQn d 
Beit Likia, on the edge of the broad vale of Aijalon, at the foof 
of the mountains. In this same inscription, Zidon, Zavephath^ 
Hozah, Achzib, Accho, Samaria, Ashdod, Ascalon, Ekron, and 
other seaside towns, are also mentioned. 

The later history of the two Kingdoms is a gloomy record oi 
continual loss of territory. The country east of Jordan wae 
overrun by the Moabites and Ammonites, who appear as ene 
mies of Israel, and no longer as nearly connected by deaoeni 
from a common ancestor. They even advanced by the southen 
shores of the Dead Sea to Engedi and the cliff of Ziz (Has^sah), 
but were defeated by Jehosaphat, south of Bethlehem, near the 
frontier fortress of Tekoa (2 Ohron. 20. 20). 

The southern port of Ezion-geber remained in the hands oi 
the Jews as late as the time of Uzziah (2 Chron. 26. 2), and an 
unsuccessfid naval expedition thence is recorded in the time d 
Jehosaphat (2 Chron. 20. 36) ; in the time of Ahaz, however, 
the town appears to have been lost (2 Kings 16. 6), being taken 
by the Syrians, and never afterwards recovered. 

The seaport of Joppa was also in all probability lost : for the 
Philistine encroachments gradually not only swallowed up the 
Maritime Plain and the Negeb, but in the time of Ah&z they 
had so completely overrun the Shephelah (rendered * low 
coimtry * in our version) that even the frontier fortress of Sho- 
choh, built by E;ehoboam as a last line of defence on this side 
of his kingdom, had fallen into their hands. Bethnshemesh 
(*Ain Shemes), and Grederoth (Jedireh), in the territory of 
Judah were also taken ; Aijalon (Ylilo), Timnah (Tibneh), and 
Gimzo (JimzA), in the territory of Dan (2 Chron. 28. is). On 
the south the Edomites also encroached on the unhappy king- 
dom, and the extent of country ruled by Ahaz did not probably 
exceed the small area of 300 square miles — a sad contrast to the 
30,000 square miles of Solomon's Kingdom. 

Before speaking of the later period after the Captivity, 
a few words may be devoted to the site of a town of some 
importance in Jewish history, namely, Megiddo. It has been 



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KINGS. 287 

generally assumed that the site of the Byzantine Legio (Lejjiin), 
west of the Great Plain of Esdraelon, and near Taanach, is that 
of the eai'lier Megiddo. The only reason appears to be that the 
site is important and well watered. No ancient author notices 
any connection between the two towns Legio and Megiddo, 
although it may be likely that the frequent mention of Taanach 
and M^ddo together shows that they stood near each other. 

Megiddo was apparently situated near a mountain (Har 
Megiddon), and a plain was named from it (Hebrew Bikath 
Megiddo). There was also a stream by the city — * the waters of 
Megiddo ' (Judges 5. 19), and from this last passage a proximity 
to Taanach (now T'^nuk, west of the Great Plain) might be 
inferred : the term Bikath also is strictly applicable to the 
Great Plain, and to no other feature of the district. On the 
other hand, the name Megiddo appears still to survive at an 
important ruin in the plain of BeisS.n, at the foot of Gilboa. 
The site is that of a large and ancient town, and the modem 
name Mujedd'a preserves a final guttural which is often inter- 
changeable with a final Nun in Hebrew. There are fine springs 
at the site, with a stream which might well represent the 
* waters of Megiddo.* The plain to the east might be the 
Bikath Megiddo, though it would more strictly be called Emek 
from its depression ; the rugged mountain behind would be the 
Har Mageddon. It is also worthy of note that Jezreel and 
Beth-shean occur with Megiddo in all the passages except 
one (Judges 5. 1 9), where Taanach is mentioned. 

The Egyptian and Assyrian records do not as yet cast much 
light on this subject. The Megiddo of Thothmes and of the 
Mohar might have been either east or west of the Great Plain. 
The question is therefore at present incapable of determination ; 
but the recovery of the name is a matter of considerable im- 
portance. 

The territory reoccupied by the Jews under Nehemiah is 

clearly indicated by the names of its various towns (Ezra 2. 

21-36, Neh. 7. 24-38, Neh. 11. 25-36). None of the places there 

mentioned were north of the old boundary at Bethel, but many 

cities of Dan and Simeon were included. The children of 



^^fela 



288 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE, 

Judah repeopled the land, from Jerusalem to Beeroheba and 
from Jericho to Lachish. The Benjamites reoccupied the whole of 
their old tribe territory, and part of that properly belonging to 
Dan including the districts Lod (Lydda), Hadid (Haditheh), Ono 
(Kefr 'Ana), and Zareah (Sur'ah). The towns of Simeon, re- 
populated by Judah were Moladah, Hazar-Shual, Beersheba 
(Bir es-Seb'a), Ziklag, and En-Eimmon (TJmm er-Rum&min). 

Of the forty-nine cities reoccupied no less than fourteen 
have names which do not appear in the topography of the 
earlier books of the Bible, and these towns were possibly not so 
old as those mentioned in the Book of Joshua. Many of the 
more recent towns can be easily identified : Hariph is probably 
the ruin Khariif in the Hebron district. Netophah is XJmm 
Toba near Bethlehem. Nebo is probably Niiba farther south; 
Elam (Beit 'Al&m), and Harim (Beit Kheir^) are in the She- 
phelah west of Hebron, and Jeshua near Beersheba is no doubt 
the ancient ruin of S'awi, east of Bir es-Seba*. In the countiy 
of Benjamin, Ananiah is the present Beit Hanina, Hazor is 
the ancient ruin of Hazzur near the last, and Charashim is the 
ruin of Hirsha east of Lydda. The town of Azmaveth (Hizmeh) 
is also only noticed in the topographical lists of Chronicles, £2znL 
and Nehemiah (1 Chron. 8. se). 

The country thus indicated had an area of about 2 000 
square miles — a district about equal to the whole kingdom of 
Judah at its most prosperous period. Philistia remained as 
ever unconquered, but the Idumseans seem to have been driven 
back to their deserts. It is worthy, finally, of notice that in the 
time of Nehemiah the Arabs are for the first time enumerated 
among the enemies of the Jews, with the Ammonites, Sama- 
ritans, and Philistines of Ashdod (Neh. 4. 7). 

In conclusion of this chapter a few words on the topo- 
graphy of the Book of Judith will not be out of place* for 
whatever be the real character of that work, it cannot be 
doubted that the author was intimately acquainted with the 
country lying between Shechem and the Great Plain of Es- 
draelon, and that the places mentioned occur in their proper 
tive position. 



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES AND KINGS. 289 

The whole of Galilee and Philistia, the neighbourhood of 
Damascus, and the country east of Jordan are represented in 
this book as having been conquered by Nebuchadnezzar ; and 
the army of Holophemes advanced from the north on the hill 
country of Samaria and Judaea. The cities fortified against his 
advance occupied the main strategic lines of march. Beth- 
horon guarded the usual line from the plain of Sharon to Jeru- 
salem. Belmen (BePameh) was on the main north road, at the 
entrance from the Great Plain to the Samaritan hills. Jericho 
lay on the route from the east, Choba (Mekhobbi), Esora 
('Asireh), and Salem (Silim) were on the line of advance from 
the Jordan Valley to the watershed near Shechem (Judith 4-. 4). 
Bethulia and Betomestham {v. 6), both ' over against Esdraelon^ 
towards the open country near to Dothaim,' require a more 
particular notice ; but, with the rest, they were fortified as 
posts, to protect * the passages into the hill country.* 

Betomestham is probably recognizable in the ancient ruin of 
Massin occupying a strong position on a rugged hill west of 
the little plain of Bi.meh, about 5 miles south-west of Dothan 
(Tell Dothan). The position guards an advance on Shechem, 
by either the route leading past Dothan, or by that from the 
Maritime Plain on the west. 

The town of Bethulia has been sought in very various di- 
rections. The Crasaders placed it north of the Sea of Galilee, 
and modem authorities have placed it near Jezreel. Yet its 
position is very clearly indicated in the Book of Judith. It 
guarded the entrance to the hills near Dothan, and was situate 
on a hill, with a higher mountain near it, and a plain or valley 
with springs below. Just such a site may be found in the vil- 
lage of Mithilia, about 4 miles south-east of Tell DothlLn ; and 
the change from B to M is so easily made in Hebrew (as in the 
well-known case of Jabne or Jamnia) that the transformation 
from Bethulia to Mithilia might naturally occur. 

The village stands on a hill slope which rises south of it 
into a higher knoll (' the top of the hill,' Judith 6. 12). It is 
surrounded with olive groves, and on the north is a plain. From 
the ridge on the south-west, over which the main road from 

u 



290 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



^ Shechem to Jenin now passes, the first view of the Great Fli 

is obtained. 

The army of Holophemes stretched over the Great Plain 
far as Cyamon (Tell Keimun), and reached from Dothaim 
the west to Belmain (Berameh) immediately north of Bethu 
on the east. It appears to be intimated that from the nei^ 
bourhood of Bethulia the Assyrian host was visible (Judj 
7. 4), which would have been quite possible from the hills nc 
Mithilia. 

The advance of the children of Esau south and east from. I 
than mentioned in the same chapter (Judith 7. 18) was direct 
against Ekrebel, near Chusi, on the Brook Mochmur. Th( 
places are best identified with 'Akrabeh, Kuzah, and W&dy 
Ahmar, south and south-east of Shechem, within a day's mai 
of Tell Dothdn. The Cola mentioned in Judith 15. 4 is vi 
possibly the ruin of K4'un in the Jordan YaUey, on the re 
from Chobai (Mekhobbi) northwards. 

The most remarkable peculiarity of this topography, a 
whole, is tliat all the places thus noticed lie within the limite 
Samaria, but that the towns are nevertheless said to have \m 
fortified by order of Joachim the High priest in Jerusal 
(Judith 4. 6). 




291 



CHAPTER V. 

PALESTINE DURING THE HASMONEAN PERIOD. 

Palestine having passed peacefully from the control of the 
Persians to the Greek Monarchy was ruled under the Seleucidss 
by governors appointed by the king at Antioch. It seems pro- 
bable that at the time of the Hasmonean revolt the Greek 
capital was placed at Shechem, for Appollonius advanced from 
Samaria on the first appearance of the rebel army under Judas 
(1 Mace. 3. lo). 

The scene of the first outbreak — the home and burial-place of 
the Hasmoneans — was a town not previously noticed in Jewish 
topography. Modin was in sight of the sea (1 Mace. 1 3. 29), and, 
according to the Talmud, was at least fifteen miles from Jerusa- 
lem (Tal. Bab. Pesakhim, 36. 935). In the fourth centxuy it is 
described by St. Jerome as * a village near Diospolis (Lydda), 
whence were the Maccabees, whose tombs are still shown there.' 
(Onomasticon, s. v.) We can have but little hesitation there- 
fore in identifying the town with the present village of el- 
Medyeh, about sixteen English miles north-west of Jerusalem, 
^ye miles west of the Lower Bethhoron, and about seven miles 
east of Lydda. From the remarkable knoll immediately south 
of the village the sea is plainly visible, and remains of rock-cut 
tombs are still found there. On the ridge west of the village is a 
necropolis of tombs, which from their plan are probably of the 
early Christian period. They are now called KahUr d-TekUd, 
* tombs of the Jews.' On the same ridge a little farther north 
is another tomb of good masonry, with a tesselated floor, having 
on it a well-defined Latin cross. This tomb was, until lately, 

supposed to be that of the Maccabees, especially because it is in 

u2 



292 HA2a>B00K TO THE BIBLB. 

foil view of the sea. It is, howeyer, evidentlj Ghzistuuiy but 
the fomth-oentnrr tradition maj be thooght to be reproBented 
bj the lingering title of the neighbonzing necropolis. 

Modin has been at Tarious times supposed to be identical 
nith yarioiis sites farther sonth, bat the whole history of the 
Hasmonean straggle is best explained br the position of the site 
now recovered. The repeated battles at Bethhoron and in its 
immediate neighboarhood were no doabt dae to the gathering 
of Jewish forces at the native town of the Hasmoneans ; and the 
new fortress of Adida erected by Simon served to protect Modin 
from Greek invasion. 

The first campaigns ondertaken against Jadas had far their 
object the capture of the mountains round Jemsalein ; and 
the three unsuccessful attempts of the Greek generals were 
directed against the three main roads which led to the Jerasa- 
lem watershed, from the north-west, west, and south-west. On 
the first occasion Seron the militaiy commander from Coele- 
Sjrria advanced to the ascent of Bethhoron, the shortest route 
from Sharon, passing by Modin, and reaching a steep paai^ 
where there is an ascent of 560 feet in less than half a mile. 
Such a position was easily defended by a small force, especially 
as the Greek general was probably taken by surprise. 

The second battle was fought near Emmaus-Nioopolis, and 
the line of advance was directed along the ancient west road 
from the plain to Jerusalem. The counter attack of Jndas's 
force was delivered from the south (1 Mace 3. 67), the Jewish 
army having by a long night march passed by the Greeks, ad- 
vancing into the hills by a more northerly route. The surprise 
was again complete, and the pursuit of the defeated forces was 
followed up towards Crezer, Azotus, and Jamnia in the Philis- 
tine plain south-west of Emmaus. 

The third attempt made by Lysias to penetrate to the water- 
shed was from the south ; and the narrow pass at Bethsura, 
defended by the Jews, was a position naturally of great strength, 
as the enemy, ascending from the Yalley of Elah, were unable 
to obtain any footing on the higher ground. These throe passes 
formed the defence oi Jerusalem throughout the history of 



PALESTINE DUEING THE HASMONEAN PERIOD. 293 

Hasmoneans, and almost the only suocesEful advance made on 
the city was that of Bacchides along the watershed from 
Samaria. 

The history of the earKer period of the War of Independ- 
ence is that of a succession of attempts to relieye the Greek 
garrison in the tower at Jerusalem. This was twice successfully 
accomplished, once by Lysias after the battle of Beth Zacharias, 
once by Bacchides after the defeat and death of Judas at 
Berzetho. In the first instance, the Jewish forces were engaged 
in besi^ing the citadal, and the Greek advance was so rapid 
that the southern pass of Bethsura (Beit Siir) had been seized 
and the city suiTounded before Judas had time to occupy this 
important position. He thus lost the military advantage of 
* interior lines,' of which he usually made good use, and was 
forced to take up a less favourable position at Beth Zacharias 
(Beit Skiria). This second line of defence had, however, the 
advantage that it commanded a very narrow and dangerous 
pass where the road ran on the east, beneath the mountain, and 
above a precipitous ravine, while the line of retreat was easy 
for the defending force and the country immediately in rear 
open and well supplied with water. The panic caused by the 
first appearance of the elephants was probably the main cause 
of the Jewish defeat. The retreat to Jerusalem appears how- 
ever to have been conducted in good order (1 Mace. 6). 

The advance of Bacchides from Samaria was met by a flank 
attack from Bethhoron, where probably Judas was expecting to 
see the Greeks approaching by their former route. Eleasa, the 
place where Judas collected his forces (1 Mace. 9. 6), was 
probably the present Il'asa immediately north-west of Beth- 
horon, where the ground is more open than in the higher 
moTintains. The advance of Bacchides was from Galilee (or 
Gkilgala); and the Masaloth (or * caverns ') of this episode are 
supposed by Josephus to be those near Arbela (12 Ant. 11. l)^ 
Berea, the place towards which the Greeks marched, is no 
doubt the Biblical Beeroth (Bireh) ; and Berzetho or Bethzetho 
(12 Ant. 10. 2 and 11. l) is the modem village of Bir ez-Zeit, 
on the hills immediately west of the narrow pass through which 



294 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the Greeks ascended towards Bethel. The * Motmt Aaotos' ci 
the same episode (1 Mace. 9. 15) is probably the mountain of 
Berzetho, for the adyance of Bacchides being from CkJilee it is 
impossible to suppose the neighbourhood of Ashdod to be here 
intended. 

While the adyance along the watershed thus proved saocees- 
ful, the attempt made hj Nicanor to form a junction with an 
army again approaching by the Bethhoron Pass proved dis- 
astrous. The battle of Adasa was one of the most brilliant 
victories gained by Judas. The site is still connected with a 
tradition of some great slaughter; for the ruin of 'Adasah 
stands above the valley called Widj ed-Dumm, * the Vall^ of 
Blood.' It is about a mile east of Gibeon (el-Jib), and on the 
main road from Jerusalem to Bethhoron just where it leaves 
the watershed. Judas thus posted himself directly on the line 
of Nicanor's return to the capital, and the surprise of the Greeks 
was followed by a pursuit which is said to have extended *a 
day's journey' as far as Gazara or G^zer (1 Mace. 7. 45). This; 
notice agrees well with the respective positions of the sites of 
Adasa and G^zer, the ruin of 'Adaseh being about seventeen 
miles east in a straight line from Tell Jezer. 

The successful campaigns conducted by Judas in Idonuea 
and beyond Jordan are worthy of notice, as showing the con- 
temporary condition of the country. The term * Idumaea ' re- 
ceives in the Hasmonean annals a very considerable extension on 
the former Biblical Edom. Bethsura, only fifteen miles from 
Jerusalem, was the border fortress between Jews and Idumseans 
(1 Mace. 4. 6i), and Gazara appears also to have been near the 
Idumsean plains (1 Mace. 4. 16). Two campaigns were made 
by Judas in this direction. In the first he attacked the 
nomadic tribes in Acrabattene (1 Mace. 5; 12 Ant. 8), by 
which we should probably understand the neighbourhood of the 
ascent of Acrabbim at the south end of the Dead Sea (Josh. 
15. d); in the second, Hebron was taken from the Idumseans 
(12 Ant. 8. 6), and at the same time Marissa (Mer'ash), which 
is apparently the ' Samaria ' of 1 Mace. 6. 66, was recaptured 
from the Philistines in a raid which extended even to Ashdod. 



PALESTINE DUBING THE HASMONEAN PERIOD. 295 

The first campaign undertaken by Judas, east of Jordan, 
was directed against the Ammonites ; and Jazer the old border 
town of Reuben and Gad was then taken. The retaliation of 
the Ammonites on the Jews east of Jordan led to the second 
campaign. The district where the massacre took place was called 
the land of Tob or Tobie (1 Mace. 5. is), and was, no doubt, the 
same ' good land ' (such being the meaning of the Hebrew), 
which was the abode of Jephthah (Judg. 11. 3). The Mizpeh, 
where Jephthah's house stood (Judg. 11. 84), is presumably the 
same as Kamath Mizpeh on the north boundary of the land of 
€rad (Josh. 13. 26), and this indication agrees with the Tal- 
mudic explanation of Tob as being the coimtry belonging to 
Hippos, a town on the south-east side of the Sea of Galilee 
(Tal. Jer. Shebiith 6. 2). 

The name Tob, under its Arabic form Taiyibeh (' good '), is 
still in existence, at a site about 12 miles south-east of the Sea 
of Galilee, in the same latitude with Eamath Mizpeh. This 
identification of the land of Tob with the southern part of 
Bashan agrees perfectly with the description of the route taken 
by Judas after crossing the Jordan. 

The object of his march was the relief of the Jews who 
had fled to the fortress of Dametha (or Dathema), possibly the 
present Dameh in the Lejja district, which must have been a 
place of considerable strength. After three days' march into 
the Nabathean desert, the city Bosora was reached and 
taken (1 Mace. 5. 28), and the distance thus traversed points 
to the famous town of Bozrah, about 60 miles from Jordan as 
identical with Bosora. 

Thence Judas ' turned aside ' to Maspha, which is no doubt 
the ancient BAmath Mizpeh, and which may thus be very well 
identified with the present B<emtheh, on the Haj road, 25 miles 
west of Bozrah, and dose to the probable north-j9ast comer 
of the territory of Gad. Casphom (or Casphor), Maked 
(Maged, or Mokor), Alema, and Raphon (probably Baphana of 
Decapolis), taken at the same time, are not now known ; but 
the fiinal advance led still farther north to Camaim) probably 
the ancient capital of Og called Ashtoreth Camaim in the 



296 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Bible— a city which appears to have been known in the fourth 
century as being four Roman miles from Edrei (edh-Dhr'a). 
In the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Succah 2 a) Ashtaroth is said to have 
been situated between two mountains, the shadow of which 
covered the town. The Samaritan Version of the Pentateuch 
renders Ashtaroth Camaim by the names Simamein and 
Aphnith, the first being the present Es-Sunamein, 28 nules south 
of Damascus, the second the later Phenutus or Phsenos, 11 miles 
north-east of es-Sunamein. 

The dty Ephron taken in the return journey to the neigh- 
bourhood of Beth-shean (or as it was called at this period Scytho- 
polis), is also unknown at present ; but it will appear froni the 
preceding paragraphs that enough is now ascertained to allow 
of our understanding the general direction and objects of 
Judas's campaign. 

The expedition made at the same time by Simon the Has- 
monean into Galilee was equally successful. The heathen were 
driven to the sea coast; but the Jews both in Galilee and 
beyond Jordan were attracted to the new centre forming round 
Jerusalem, and concentrated in the more secure hills of the 
south, deserting the unprotected regions in the north of the 
Holy Land. A crowd of emigrants followed Judas and Simon 
on their return to Jerusalem, and the influx of population into 
the little Judsean state, which gradually became consolidated 
among the Jerusalem hills, no doubt added materially to its 
strength and national impoi-tance. 

It is remarkable that in his account of this episode J'ose- 
phus appears to apply the name of Galilee to the country east 
of Jordan as well as that west of the river. This is no doubt 
in accordance with the expression in Isaiah ' beyond Jordan in 
Cralilee of the nations ' (Isaiah 9. l), which must apply to the 
country east of the river. In the Talmud the same extension 
of the term is found, the country north of Gadara being 
reckoned as part of Galilee, including the towns of Ckunala 
(Khurbet el-Hosn), Csesarea Philippi (Binias), and Susitha, or 
Hippos (Tal. Bab. Megillah 6 a). 

The death of Judas was followed by a period of depreasioa 



PALESTINE DURING THE HASMONEAN PERIOD. 297 

in the Hasmonean fortunes. Jonathan and Simon his brothers 
fled to the 'wilderness of Thekoe' — ^the aucient Jeshimon^ 
which had sheltered David from Saul. Here they abode first 
by *the pool Asphar,' a place not yet certainly identified 
(1 Mace. 9. 33). Possibly the mountain called Safra es-San'a^ 
or Safra 'of the cistern,' may preserve the name in the 
southern part of the desert ; but Josephus, on the other hand, 
says that Jonathan had pitched his camp ' among the lakes of 
Jordan' (13 Ant. 1. 3), and here by the 'marsh of Jordan' 
(1 Mace. 9. 4s) Bacchides attacked him. The Bethbasi, which 
rather later formed a stronghold for the Hasmoneans (verse 62), 
is identified by Josephus with Bethagla (13 Ant. 1. 5), and is 
very probably the ancient Beth-Hoglah ('A in Hajlah). . Thence 
Jonathan ventured into the hills above Jericho, and established 
himself as a native chief in the town of Michmash. 

It is instructive to note that the fortresses erected by 
Bacchides to protect Judsea against the Hasmoneans, and after- 
wards garrisoned by the latter against the Greeks, were the 
same as those fortified by Solomon and Behoboam. The Shephe- 
lah district was not, however, included, and the state seems to 
have been reduced to the minimum of 300 square miles ruled 
by Ahaz. On the east Jericho formed the boiindary ; on the west 
Emmaus-Nicopolis ; on the north Bethhoron, Bethel, Timnatha 
(Tibneh), and Pharathon — ^the position of which is doubtful. 
On the south-west Gezer formed the outpost against Philistia, 
and on the south Beth sura was the frontier fortress against 
Idumsea (1 Mace. 9. 50, 5l). 

These fortresses fell into the hands of Jonathan on the 
accession of Alexander Balas, with the exception of Bethsura, 
which was taken later by Simon (1 Mace. 11. 65); and of 
Gazara, which fell at a time not specified (14. 7). 

The first important accession of territory extracted by 
Jonathan from the Seleucidse consisted of the three governments^ 
Apherema, Lydda, and Kamathem, ceded to Judssa from the 
Samaritan district (1 Mace. 11. 34); these towns are supposed 
to be the Biblical Lod, Kamathaim-Zophim, and Ephrain ; and 
the Jewish border was thus advanced northwards and west- 



298 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

wards, though it was still south the boundary line as reoognued 
in the time of Christ between Judsea and Samaria. 

As the power of the SeleuddaB diminished and that of the 
Haamoneans increased the scenes of confyict aie removed 
fiirther from the Jewish capital. Joppa was retaken, and a 
(.)rtM>k army in Jamnia was defeated and pursued to Ajshdod, 
which was for a second time burnt (1 Mace. 10. 76^83). Aacalon 
was tt\ken peaceably. Ekron was also given to the Jews at this 
time by King Alexander, and the whole of the plain of Shanm 
was thus apparently recovered to the Hebrew kingdom. 

In the succeeding reign of Demetrius II. the limits of the 
new state were still farther extended. Simon was appointed 
captain of Syria from the Ladder of Tyre (EUs en-Nak&ra) to 
the borders of Egypt (1 Mace. 11. 59), a definition which would 
indicate the whole of western Palestine as boimded in the time 
of Christ. Gaza was conquered at this time (verse 61), and a 
successful battle was fought near the plain of Hazor (Meij 
Hadireh), after which Jonathan pursued the Greeks to Oadei^ 
or Kadesh Naphtali (verses 67-7d). In a subsequent campaign 
the scene of contest was removed still farther north to tibe 
district of Hamath (Amathis, 1 Mace. 12. 25), and the pursuit 
reached to the River Eleutherus (Nahr el-Kebir), north of 
Tripoli, about 120 miles from Antioch, but double that distance 
from Jerusalem. 

It was at the same period of national prosperity that the 
new fortress of Adida (the present Haditheh) was erected in 
the Shephelah (1 Mace. 12. 38), and its position near Lydda 
indicates that it may have been specially intended to bar the 
main road below Modin, which had been previously undefended 
on all occasions when the Bethhoron route had been used by 
the advancing Greeks. 

The cupidity of Jonathan resulted in a temporary check of 
Jewish prosperity. Lured by the promise of receiving the 
town of Ptolemais or Accho, he fell into a trap prepared for 
him, and was taken prisoner by Trypho, who marched down 
the plain of Sharon and attempted to reach Jerusalem from 
neighbourhood of Adoraim (Durah), near Hebron. An 




PALESTINE DUEINa THE HASMONEAN PERIOD. 299 

easy ascent here led to the mountains, but the distance from 
Jerusalem was double that of the old route leading to Bethsura, 
and the extension of the country consolidated into the Judsean 
state since the time of Judas may be judged by the alteration 
in the line of attack. Trypho's attempt to surprise Jerusalem, 
by a cavalry force sent across the watershed and through the 
Jeshimon desert, having failed, he retreated to Coele-Syria, and, 
thence to Gilead, where he put an end to the unhappy Jonathan 
(13 Ant. 6. 6). 

The succeeding reign of Simon, the last of the five sons 
of Mattathias, was a period during which the process of con- 
solidation continued. The citadel in Jerusalem was starved out, 
the fortress of Gezer was garrisoned by the Jews, and Joppa be- 
came once more a Jewish seaport (1 Mace. 14. 5). These three 
places were, indeed, claimed by the King of Antioch (15. 28), 
but the attempt to enforce the demand was unsuccessful. In 
his extreme old age Simon was again obliged to undertake a 
war against the Greeks, and his sons conducted an army from 
Modin against Cedron (Katrah), near Jamnia (Yebnah), (1 
Mace. 16). The brook at which this battle took place is no 
doubt the present 'Nahr Kdbin, which even in summer is still 
full of water. 

The history of the 1st Book of Maccabees closes with the 
murder of Simon at Docus (Diik), above Jericho, and with the 
fortunate escape of Hyrcanus, then at Grazara. The territory thus 
recovered and made free by the Hasmoneans was substantially 
that recognised in the Herodian period as forming the limits of 
the Holy Land, though the south boundary of Samaria appears to 
have been again curtailed at the later period. The northern 
towns of Philistia were for a time in the hands of the Jews, 
and the tide of nomadic invasion was rolled back towards the 
Southern Desert. The reign of Hyrcanus presents probably the 
summit- of Jewish prosperity, the extent of free country being 
larger than at any period since the time of Solomon. The in- 
tegrity of the kingdom was, however, materially affected by the 
existence of a heretical and ungovernable central province ; and 
the Jewish hatred of Samaritans, which caused them in the 



SOO HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

time of Christ to avoid even the mention of Samaria — a 
district which formed no part of the ' Land ' then considered 
H0I7 — had no doubt arisen before Hasmonean times^ and had 
been fostered hy the assistance given on various occasions to 
the Greeks by the Samaritans. 

In an important passage of the Antiquities (13. 15. 4), Joae- 
phus gives a list of the outlying towns possessed by the Jews in 
the later Hasmonean period. Along the coast they had occu- 
pied Strato*s Tower (afterwards Caesarea), Apollonia (Ars^, 
Joppa, Jamnia, Ashdod, Gaza, Anthedon, Baphia (er-Raf&h), 
and Khinocolura (near the mouth of Wddy el-*Arish). On the 
borders of Idumsea they held Adora (D4ra), and Marissa (Me- 
r'ash). On the north border of Samaria they possessed Mount 
Carmel, Mount Tabor, and Scythopolis (Beisin), with Qadan 
(Umm Keis) east of Jordan. In Gaulonitis (the pres^it dis- 
trict of Jauldn) they had taken Seleucia (possibly Salkhid), 
and Gabala (Gamala). In Moab they held Heshbon and 
Madeba, with the unknown towns Lemba, Oronas, and Geli- 
thon. Zara, in Moab, also possessed by the Jews, was no doubt 
the present Beit Zdra. Bella was probably the city of that 
name belonging to Decapolis fSarther north. 

From this account it is also evident that Samaria formed 
no part of the Hasmonean kingdom ; and it appears that the 
country east of Jordan was principally in the hands of the 
mixed Greek and native population, which we find inhabiting 
it during the Herodian period. 



301 



CHAPTER VI. 

PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST. 

Concerning the boundaries and divisions of Palestine in the 
Herodian period, we have many notices in the works of Josephus, 
and in the Ea.bbinical books. Several important points of topo- 
graphy are also elucidated by the writings of Pliny and Strabo, 
and we are thus able to obtain a more minute picture of the 
country at the time of Christ than is possible in any of the 
earlier periods, excepting perhaps the time of the conquest by 
Joshua. 

In the Mishna (Hallah 4. 3, Shebiith 6. l) three grand 
divisions of the Holy Land are noticed : — First, the country 
occupied by those who came back from Babylon, the limit of 
which is Chezib (ez-Zib). Secondly, the country from Chezib 
towards Amana (near Hermon, cf. Cant. 4. s) and Euphrates, 
possessed by those who came from Egypt. Thirdly, the country 
beyond Amana and Euphrates. The first division is called * the 
Land,' * the Land of Israel,' or * the Land of Canaan,' by the 
Babbinical writers; the second they termed Suria or Syria; 
the third appears to be the country occupied by the Jews who 
did not return with Zerubbabel, but who formed in later times 
a distinct community under the Prince of the Captivity, in 
Mesopotamia and Chaldsea. 

The countries surrounding the Holy Land are called by 
Jewish writers Phoenicia, Arabia, and Philistia or Palestine ; 
but the country conquered by the Hasmoneans in the Philistine 
plains is included within the Talmudic boundaries of 'the 
Land of Israel,' properly so called. 

Palestine, south of Chezib, is again divided in the Mishnft 



M 



302 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

into three provinces, and each of these provinoeB into three 
subdivisions (Shebiith 9. 2). The three provinces are Jadsea; 
^ beyond Jordan ; ' and Galilee ; the latter term including, as 
noticed in the preceding chapter, part of the country ea^ of the 
Sea of Galilee, as well as the province generally understood by 
that name west of Jordan. 

The three subdivisions of Gralilee were Upper Galilee, Lower 
Ga-lilee, and the Valley. The first was bounded by the village 
of Hananiah (Kefr 'AnS.n) ; the second included all that part of 
Galilee in which the sycomore would grow ; the third was the 
neighbourhood of Tiberias. 

The same distinction was observed in Judsea, the three sub- 
divisions of that province being Mountain, Shephelah, and 
Valley. The Judsean mountains are called throughout the Tal- 
mudic writings, Har-ham-Melek, or * King's Mountain.' The 
Shephelah is explained to be the * lowlands ' of Lydda, and of 
Daroma. The valley was the Jordan Valley from Jericho to 
Engedi. The Plain of Sharon, according to the Jerusalem 
Talmud, was included in the Shephelah, since the Mib Iith^ had 
stated that * from Bethhoron (at the edge of the mountain) to 
the sea is one province.' But Kabbi Johanan gives in the same 
passage (Tal. Jer. Shebiith 9. 2) a division which accords better 
with the natural features of the country. * From Bethhoron to 
Emmaus is the mountain country (i,e, those are its western 
limits) ; thence as far as Lod is Shephelah ('' low land ") ; and 
from Lod to the sea is Valley.' 

The same natural subdivision of the land was observed east 
of Jordan, and the Jerusalem Talmud commenting on the above- 
mentioned passage of the Mishna gives the following details : — > 

* The mountain country is Makaur (Machserus, now Mekaur), 
Gador (Gadara, now Umm Keis), and others ; the Shephelah is 
represented by Heshbon, with all its towns in the plain (corre- 
sponding to the Mishor district of the earlier Biblical books), 
such as Dibon (Dhib&n), Bamoth Baal, Beth Baal-Meon (M'ain), 
and others; the Valley is Beth Haran (Hardn), Beth Nimrah 
(Nimrin), and others ' — ^that is to say, it corresponded with the 
Jordan Valley. 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST. 303 

It is to be observed that throughout this description com- 
plete silence is preserved with regard to Samaria, which formed 
no part of the Land of Israel at this period, and which is in- 
deed scarcely mentioned in the Talmud. 

We may now proceed to consider more in detail the bound- 
aries of the various provinces thus indicated as composing the 
Holy Land. A very detailed account of these boundaries is to 
be found in the Talmud of Jerusalem, dating about 300 a.d. 
It is apparently derived from the Tosiphta, a Commentary of 
antiquity almost equal to the Mishna, and dating between the 
2nd and 3rd centuries of the Christian Era. The same list is 
also found (with variations) in the Midrash called Siphri — 
a Commentary on the Books of Numbers and Deuteronomy — 
and it is thence copied in the Yalkut, a summary of older com- 
mentaries of the 13th century. A comparison of these various 
texts with existing sites leads to the conclusion, that the readings 
in the older works — ^the Tosiphta and the Siphri — ^are the most 
correct, and that the later lists are as a rule only to be received 
when they are in accordance with the former. 

The description commences with the ' environs of Ascalon,' 
the town itself not belonging to the Land. In another passage 
of the Rabbinical writings (Tosiphta, Oholoth 18), the exact 
border line near Ascalon, is defined as marked by Yagur (evi- 
dently the modem el-J4rah, just outside the old city, with Gub 
aud Tarin (*the gates'), while on the south was Hhe great 
tomb.' 

Next to Ascalon the wall ol Csesarea is noticed, the city 
itself being also excluded from the Land. The third place 
mentioned is Dor (Tanturd) ; tho fourth is the ' wall of Accho,' 
a city also belonging to the outside world (Aboda Zara 3. 5). 

As a guide to the subsequent line of the border, we must 
remember that Achzib is spoken of as a frontier town in the 
Mishna already quoted, and in other passages (Tal. Bab. Gittin 
76). Following, therefore, tho order of the two oldest texts 
(Tosiphta and Siphri), we find the next place to be ' the waters 
of G'atin ' ; and we can have no hesitation in identifying these 
with the springs of the great valley called Kahr Mefshukh, on 



i 



304 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the side of which is the present ruin of J'ath^n. Kabartha, 
-which follows next is probably the present K&bryy a village 
immediately north of the same valley; and Achzib is thtis 1^ 
just outside the Holy Land, which agi*ees with the opinion of 
the Rabbis, who did not admit it to be on the inside of the 
border (Hallah 4. 8). Beth Zanita, the next place on the line, 
is the present Zueinita, near the head of the same valley, 
about 8 miles from the sea coast. The border is thus brought 
to the neighbourhood of M'alia, which is very probably the 
Melloth which formed the west boundary of dalilee, acoca-ding 
to Josephus. 

Katzra of Gelil follows next in order according to three 
out of the four texts under consideration, and is probably to be 
recognised in the modern Jelil, about two miles north-west of 
M*alia. The name of the tenth point mentioned appears in 

• four variations, the Tosiphta reading KuVaia of Hathin, and 
the Siphri reading Kaniia of Aiya. The latter is perhaps the 
more correct, and refers apparently to the town Kanah of Asher, 
and to the neighbouring ruin of *Aiya, about two miles south- 
east of it. In this case the border ran along the crests of the 
hills of Upper Galilee for 14 miles northwards, leaving a strip 
of Shephelah and plain, about 6 miles broad, belonging to Phce- 
nida. The towns of Berii, Terii, Tiphnis, and Siphneta follow, 
and the first three seem plainly recognisable in Beri4s, Tir^ 
and Tibnin, showing that the border now followed the spur of 
mountain which runs east, from Kanah, to Tibnin near the 
watershed. 

From this point, the difficulty of tracing the line increases, 
by reason of the variations in the four texts ; and out of the 
14 names west of Jordan which next occur, only five can be 
fixed with any degree of certitude. These are Aulshitha (pro- 
bably ' Atshith), Aulem (*Ahn6n), Migdol Kherub (el-Kiiurbeh), 

* the chasm of 'Aiyiin ' (no doubt the deep valley of the Merj 
'Ayun); and, lastly, Tomegola (perhaps a clerical error for Tor- 
Taiga 'snowy mountain,' which is the Babbinical name of 
Hermon in the Book Siphri and in the Targums), the site of 
Tomegola being described as situated above Kisrin or Ottsarea 



I 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST. 305 

Philippi. The line thus appears to have ruimorth as far as 
the Leontes, and thence eastwards to the sources of Jordan at 
Banias. 

East of the Jordan, the description of the boundary is more 
clearly explicable. 

The first point mentioned beyond Kisrin is Beth Sucath, 
which is probably the present Shuka, the earlier Saccsea, under 
the north-west slopes of Jebel ed-DrAz (' the hill of Bashan *). 
This is followed by Kanath, evidently the Biblical Kenath, now 
Kanawdt about 11 miles south of Shuka. It is thus made 
clear that the boundary corresponds with that of the kingdom 
of Og and of the possessions of Manasseh beyond Jordan. 

* Tarakina in the neighbourhood of Bozrah,* is the next 
name on the border, the first word being no doubt the Kabbi- 
nical form of the district name Trachonitis, while Bozrah is the 
famous city of that name south of Kenath. Jegar Sahadutha, 
the next point, preserves the name of Jacob's monument (Gen. 
31. 47), also called Galeed and Mizpah. The site is perKaps to 
be identified with Bamath-Mizpeh of Gad, on the borders of 
Gilead, which has been noticed in preceding chapters as being 
probably the present Kemtheh, 25 miles west of Bozrah. 

* The fortress of Zerka,' which follows next, is no doubt 
Kal'at ez-Zerka, north-east of Babbath Ammon, and at the head 
of one of the main branches of the Yibkah or Jabbok ( WUdy 
ez-Zerka), which follows immediately in the list. Heshbqn 
and the brook Zered come next in their proper order, and we 
thus reach Rekem Giah, or ' Rekem of the ravine,' evidently 
the present Petra, called Rekem by Josephus. The two last 
names on the list do not seem to follow in their proper order, 
for we no doubt should read first * the high road to the wilder- 
ness,' and afterwards ' the gardens of Ascalon ' — ^the original 
starting point. 

The border which has been thus followed includes all the 
Holy Land properly so called and also embraces Samaria. The 
eastern boundsuy agrees with that originally laid down by 
Moses for the trans^ordanic tribes, and the full limits of the 
territory divided by Joshua are only curtailed on the south 

X 



306 HANDBOOK TO THE BEBLE. 

(where a portion of Philistia is excluded) and on the north-west 
where the whole of Phoenicia, in fact almost all the territory of 
Asher, is left outside the boundary. This is in accordance with 
the descriptions of Josephus and of the Jerusalem Talmud 
which speak of Phoenicia as a country bordering on Gralilee 
(3 Wars 3. i). 

The fact that the Cralilean border must be drawn along the 
western crests of the hills is also evidenced by the names of 
certain cities which were just beyond the limits of the Holy 
Land and in the territory of Tyre (as recorded in the Tosiphta, 
and in the Jerusalem Talmud, Demai 2, l). Among these, 
several are easily recoverable, such as Bitzath (Bassa), and 
Hanuta (Han4ta) immediately north of the boundary stream 
(Nahr el-Mefshukh) ; Amun, probably the Biblical Hammon 
(Hama) rather farther north ; Metzubeth (M'as&b) north-east 
of ez-Zib ; and Beth Bedia (Bedids) north-east oi T^io:©. 

The extreme limits of the country embracing about 10 000 
square miles having thus been defined, we may proceed to con- 
sider the Hmits of the various provinces which were included 
in it. 

Judaea was of course the first in the estimation of the 
Rabbis, and its limits were considerably larger than those of 
the ancient kingdom of the sovereigns of Judah. The line of 
the north border adjoining Samaria is nowhere described in de- 
tail, but there is sufficient information available, in various 
scattered passages, to enable us to lay down the boundary with 
great exactitude. 

Josephus informs us that the village of Anuath * belonging 
to' (or, according to Whiston's translation, identical with) 
Borceos, was the border town between Judsea and Samaria 
(3 Wars 3. 5), and that the Acrabbene Toparchy was part of 
Judaea (sect. 4). In another passage he mentions the town of 
Corea as standing close to the same boundary on the Judsean 
side (1 "Wars 6. 5). 

We learn from the Onomasticon that Anuath was fifteen 
Roman miles south of NeapolLs or Shechem, and at this distance 
-east of the main watershed road, is a ruin and spring called 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST. 307 

' Aina, wliile on the road itself is the site of an ancient village 
bearing the name of Berkit, evidently the Borceos of Josephus. 
Corea is the present KeriyAt about two miles south-east of the 
last, and the capital of the Acrabbene Toparchy was the present 
'Akrabeh about seven miles north-east of Corea. 

The line thus traced leaves the main watershed at the 
southern extremity of the Mukhnah Plain, and follows the 
course of one of the longest valleys in Palestine, which has its 
head at 'Akrabeh, and runs down to the Plain of Sharon, de- 
bouching from the hills close to the important ruin of E;4s el- 
'Ain — ^the site of the ancient Antipatris. The valley becomes 
extremely deep and rugged after leaving the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the watershed, and is one of the most formidable 
natural barriers in this part^of the Holy Land. 

From the Talmud we obtain other details which confirm 
the view that the great valley thus indicated — now called W4dy 
Deir Ballut from the ruined village of Ddr Ballut on its north 
bank — is the old south boundary of Samaria. In the first 
place, Antipatris was a border town of Judea (Tal. Bab. Gittin 
76 a) ; it is noticed as on the west boundary of that province 
(Tal. Bab. Sanhedrin 94 6) in opposition to Geba (Gibeah of 
Benjamin), and also as being on the south boundary of Samaria. 

In addition to this, we find mention made in the Mishna of 
certain towns the wine of which was allowable for Jewish use, 
and which were consequently not within Samaria (Menakhoth 
9. 7). Among these were BethEima (the present Beit Bima), 
Beth Laban (Lubben), and Keruthim (probably Corea), all of 
which places lay immediately south of the boundary valley 
above noticed. Shiloh, moreover, was thus included in Judsea, 
as well as Patris (Budrus), at the entrance of the King's Moun- 
tain (Tosiphta, Demai 1). 

The southern boundary of Judsea has been already noticed. 
It is drawn in the Tosiphta from Petra to Ascalon, through the 
Desert, and thus included a great part of Idumsea, which ex- 
tension of territory is easily explained by the fact that the, 
Idumseans had been conquered by John Hyrcanus, and forced 
nominally to embrace Judaism (13 Ant. 9. l), 

x2 



308 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE, 

Within the limits thiis determined Judsea was subdiirided 
into eleven Toparchies, of which Jerusalem was the capital. The 
names of the eleven chief cities are given both by Josephus and 
by Pliny (Hist. Nat, 5. 14), viz. 1, Acrabatta ('Akrabeh), 2, 
Thamna (Tibneh), 3, Crophna (Jufna)^ 4, Lydda (Ludd), 6, 
Joppa (Ydfa), including the district of Jamnia (Yebna), 6, 
Emmaus-Nioopolis ('Amw&s), 7, Jericho (Rfha), 8, Herodium 
(Jebel el-Fureidis), 9, Engedi ('A in Jidy), 10, Idumiea, and 
11, Bethleptepha. 

In addition to this ofQcial division of Judsea, certain natural 
districts were also distinguished ; their names as well as those of 
the toparchies remaLned in use as late as the time of St. Jerome, 
and they are frequently mentioned by the Eabbinical writers. 

These districts were called Daroma, Sarona, Creraritica, 
Shephelah, and Grebalene. The first word Daroma, meaning 
* dry,' is the equivalent of the old Hebrew Negeb, and in the 
Targum of Onkelos is substituted for it (Deut. 34. s). The 
Negeb district was known as Daroma in the fourth century 
A.D., but the Talmud distinguishes an upper and lower province 
of Daroma (Tosiphta, Sanhedrin 2, and Jerusalem and Baby- 
lonian Talmuds on the same treatise). Upper Daroma extended 
even to Lydda, and the town of Caphar Dhikrin was included 
in it (Midrash, Ekha 2. 2), as was also apparently the famous 
city of Jamnia. While therefore Lower Daroma represented 
the Negeb, Upper Daroma was that part of the Maritime Plain 
Ijdng between Lydda and the present village of Dhikrin. This 
district is principally sandy, and that part of it which lies 
between Ekron and Jamnia still retains the name DeirSn or 
' dry,' equivalent to the ancient title Daroma. 

The district of Geraritica included the southern parts of 
Philistia beyond the limits of the Holy Land, and took its 
name from Gerar, south of Gaza. In the Talmud, under the 
form Grerariku, it is made to extend to the River of Egypt 
(Wady el-'Arish), and is considered as a Gentile country (Tal. 
Jer. Shebiith 6. l) ; Gaza alone being inhabited by Jews. The 
Targum of Jonathan (Gen. 20. l) also renders G«rar by the 
same term Gerariku. 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST. 309 

Sarona or Sharon was the third division of the plain 
country, extending north of Daroma. The word itself means 
^ plain/ and is applied in the Bible to the plateau west of the 
Sea of Galilee, and to the land of Gad east of Jordan (I Chron. 
5. 16), as well as to the Maritime Plain between Lydda and Car- 
mel. The latter is noticed in the New Testament (Acts 9. 35), 
as well as in the Prophets (Isaiah 33. 9). In the Talmud it is 
mentioned as a pastoral district. 

The proper restriction of the term Shephelah or * lowland ' 
to the low hills between the plain and the watershed-mountains 
has been already noticed. The name still exists under the form 
Sifleh, applying as an adjective (meaning ' low ') to many places 
in the neighbourhood of Adullam and Mareshah. 

The district of Gebalene is stated by Eusebius (Onomasticon) 
to have been part of Idumsea, and the Jerusalem Targum 
and Samaritan Version render Mount Seir (which was part of 
Edom or Idumsea) by Gebala (* mountains *). Thus the ia.ve 
districts above noticed lay beyond the bounds of the eleven 
toparchies, and included^ with the exception of Daroma and 
Shephelah, country beyond the bounds of the Land of Israel. 

Samaria, or the Land of the Cuthim (Tal. Jer. Shekalim 1 . 
6), occupying the centre of Palestine, was, according to the 
Talmud, no part of the Holy Land. It is briefly noticed as 
a district between Caphar Utnai, and Antipatris (Tal. Bab. 
Gittin 76 a) ; but ^m Josephus we obtain further indications 
of its limits. The two questions most important to settle are, 
first, whether it is to be considered as having reached to the 
Mediterranean ; and, secondly, whether it extended to Jordan. 

As regards the first question, Josephus claims that all the 
maritime towns as far as PtolemaJs (Accho) belonged to Judsea 
(3 Wars 3. 5), and in a political sense they no doubt did. The 
seaside towns, together with the palm and balsam groves of 
Jericho, were given by Mark Antony to Cleopatra (15 Ant. 
4. l), but on her death Jericho, Samaria, G^iza, Anthedon (south 
of the last), Joppa, and Csesarea, were handed over to Herod 
the Great, with Hippos and Gadara east of the Jordan. It is 
noty however, wiiAi the temporary political distribution of cities 



310 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

and provinces that we are now concerned, but with the national 
divisions of the country recognized by the Sanhedrin at Jerusa- 
lem ; and it seems clear from various passages in the Talmud 
that the Plain of Sharon was reckoned as part of the country of 
the Cuthim. We have already seen that Csesarea (a city con- 
taining a Temple dedicated by Herod to Augustus) was excluded 
from the Holy Jj^d, like Ascalon, which contained the Temple 
and sacred Lake of Derceto. In the New Testament also 
Osesarea is mentioned as not being in Judsea (Acts 12. 19 ; 21. 
lo), and in the Talmud the maritime cities in general are ex- 
cluded from the list of those in which certain religious cere- 
monies pecuHar to Judsea were to be performed. The rule of 
Demai (* pagan people ') for the Samaritans, we read (Tal. Jer. 
Demai 2. 2) * is obligatory from Fondeka (Funduk west of 
Shechem) to Caphar Saba.' The latter place is the modem 
village of Kefr Saba in the Plain of Sharon north of Antipatris/ 
and the village gave its name to a district surrounding it (16 Ant. 
5. 2). Another indication is also afforded in the north by 
the statement that the heathen inhabited Kastra (Midrash, 
Ekha 1. 17), a place near Haipha, evidently the later Kalamon 
or Castra Samaritorum, the present Kefr es-Samir, at the foot 
of Carmel in the Maritime Plain* 

From Josephus (3 Wars 3. l) we learn that Carmel itself 
belonged to the Tynans (by whom he may mean the Samaritans 
whom he calls Sidonians), and we are justified at least in re- 
garding the Sharon Plain as inhabited by a mixed race, and as 
forming, strictly speaking, no part of Judsea. 

The question whetiber Samaria extended to Jordan is more 
difficult because less is recorded on the subject. The mountain 
of Sartaba (Kum Sartaba), where the Jewish beacon was 
lighted, must have been within Judsea (Kosh Hashshanah 2. »), 
and Samaria cannot, therefore, have extended farther south 
than the Great Wady F&r'ah, beneath that mountain. We 
hear, however, that the oil of Regueb (Riijib, east of Jordan, 
a little north of Wady F4r*ah) was rendered impure on its 
journey to Jerusalem, by passing through part of the Land of 
the Cuthim (Tal. Jer. Hagigah 3. 4). A glance at the map will 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST. 311 

^how that the direct road troia Eegueb would have crossed the 
south-east corner of Sam'aria if the land of the Cuthini ex- 
tended along the Fdr'ah to Jordan, but not otherwise, Beth- 
shean, again, in the Jordan Valley, was at one time part of 
Samaria, and was built and inhabited by heathens ; and a ruin, 
called Es-Samriyeh, *the Samaritan ruin,' still exists imme- 
diately south of Beis^n. Wady Far'ah appears therefore to 
have formed the boundary between Judaea and Samaria in the 
Jordan Yalley. 

The above notes illustrate incidentally the New Testament 
history. In order to reach Judsea without passing through 
heathen territory, it was necessary to cross Jordan above Beth- 
shean, and to pass along the valley east of the river as far as 
the north end of the plains of Jericho — which was the route 
followed by Christ (Mark 10. l); and on the other side of 
the coimtry we find Peter hesitating to go to the Gentiles of 
Caesarea, and are clearly told that on leaving the mountains to 
enter the plain of Sharon, Judaea also was left behind. 

The north boundary of Samaria was the south boundary of 
Galilee. Although no special description of the border exists, 
we have in this case also sufficient incidental information to 
enable us to draw the line. 

On the east it started from Beth-shean ; and the village of 
Ginaea (Jenin) was on the Samaritan border (3 Wars 3. 4), 
showing that the Galilean territory extended to the south ex- 
tremity of the Great Plain of Esdraelon. Caphar Utnai, the 
next point mentioned (Gittin 7. 7), appears to be the modem 
Kefr Ad&n, noHh-west of Jenin, and this indicates that the 
border ran at the foot of the hills west of the Great Plain. 
Carmel did not belong to Galilee in the time of Josephus ; but 
the towns of Haipha and Shikmonah (Sycaminon) apparently 
did, and lay at the foot of the mountain towards the north. 

The border thus traced corresponds with that which may 
be deduced from the Old Testament as separating the territory 
of Manasseh from that of Issachar and Zebulon. The names of 
the two tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh, take the place in the 
earlier Biblical books (Psalms 78. 9-67, 2 Chron. 30. lo) of 



312 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Samaria, as noticed in the late Jewish times (Amos 6. I, Ecde- 
siasticus 50. 26). It is thus natural that the boundaries of 
Samaria should coincide with the territory of the sons of Joseph, 
which was apparently the case on the north, and practically so 
on the south, as the increase in the territory of Judea on that 
side was obtained (Chap. V., p. 297) by the appropriation of three 
Samaritan Toparchies (Lydda, Eamathem, and Ephron), which 
lay within Mount Ephraim. The result of the investigation of 
the north border of Manasseh (Chap. III.) will be found to agree 
with the present account of the north border of Samaria., and 
the two separate results thus serve to confirm one another. 

The divisions of the northern province of Galilee are easily 
understood, because the natural divisions of the country are 
well marked. We have already seen how simply the Mishna 
states the matter by a reference to the growth of the sycamore, 
which flourishes only in the plains and low lands, and does not 
grow in the high mountains. The name Galilee, as referring 
to a special province of Palestine, is as old as the days of Joshua 
(Josh. 21. 32), and was in use in the time of Solomon (1 
Kings 9. ll), including both Upper and Lower Galilee, and 
that district close to the borders of Zebulon and Asher which 
was given to Hiram, king of Tyre, and called by him Cabul. 
In this cession of the lower hills, north of Accho by Solomon, 
we no doubt find the origin of the later contraction of the 
Galilean border, which has been already noted. 

Galilee is again mentioned at the time of the Assyrian con- 
quest of Samaria (2 Kings 15. 29), and the term was in use as 
referring to the north of Palestine during the Hasmonean 
period (1 Mace. 5. 17). 

The word * Galilee' comes from a Hebrew root, meaning 'to 
roll.' In the plural it is used of a place or district near Jericho 
(Josh. 18. 17), and it is also employed to designate the Philis- 
tine plains. It is generally rendeied * circuit,' but as it applies 
in each case to rolling country may, perhaps, be thought to 
have the more distinct meaning of * downs.' 

The term Galilee of the Goim (' Gentiles ' or * nations,' Isaiah 
9. 1, 1 Mace. 5. 15, Matt. 4. 15) should be understood probably 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHEIST. 313 

as applying to the outlying districts — on the one hand that part 
given to the Tynans, and on the other that lying east of Jordan. 
In two of the passages it is spoken of as * beyond Jordan/ and 
we have already seen that cities east of the Sea of Gralilee are 
included by Rabbinical writers in Galilee. There is no good 
foundation for the supposition that the population of Galilee in 
general was mixed. Had it been so the district would have 
been included under the ban which attached to the centre of 
the country where heathen were settled, and to such cities as 
Ascalon, Csesarea, Accho, and Beth-shean, the latter apparently 
built by the Scythians during their invasion of Palestine, dnd 
hence named Scythopolis (Herodotus 1. 205). But Galilee was 
not considered as heathen territory ; and although the Talmudic 
scholars speak with contempt of the Galileans, and mention the 
confusion of the letters, Cheth, Ain, He, and Aleph, which was 
one of the vulgarisms of their dialect (Tal. Bab. Erubin 53. 6 ; 
compare Mark 14. 70), they do not say anything which would 
lead to the supposition that the Galileans were less orthodox 
than the inhabitants of Judaea ; and indeed in the observance of 
the Sabbath their rules were stricter. 

On the other hand, many cities on the north-west border 
were (as has been shown) excluded from Galilee proper, and 
the inhabitants of certain towns etist of the Sea of Galilee (such 
as Gerasa, Gadara, and Hippos), were undoubtedly of Greek 
origin. This may serve, perhaps, to explain the term * Galilee 
of the Gentiles * as distinguishing the outskirts of the country 
from the Jewish Galilee, which lay within the borders of the 
Holy Land. 

The town of Caphar Hananiah, which divided Lower from 
Upper Galilee, was no doubt identical with the present Kefr 
'AnSn, at the foot of the high range of Jebel Jermdk. The 
other towns mentioned by Josephus (3 Wars 3. 1), are not all 
easily recognizable. 

Lower Galilee extended east and west from Tiberias to the 
town of Zabulon (or City of Men), which may possibly be the 
present Sh'ab, for Josephus apparently excludes the plain of 
Ptolemais ('Akka) from Gralilee (2 Wars 18. 9). He also re- 



314 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

stricts the term on the south, so as not to include the Great 
Plain, though we know from his own statements in the same 
chapter that it formed no part of Samaria. Xaloth, the south 
boundary of Lower Galilee proper, was no doubt the Hebrew 
Chesulloth (the modem Iksil), at the foot of the Nazareth hills. 
Bersabe, the northern limit, is as yet unknown. 

Upper Galilee ext-ended from Melloth — probably IVI'alia — to 
Thella, a village near Jordan, possibly represented by one of 
the mounds called Tell in the Jordan Valley. The northern 
limit was the village of Baca (or Batatha, according to another 
MS.), on the Tyrian frontier, a town also unknown. The eluci- 
dation of the boundaries from the Talmudic accounts renders, 
however, these indications of Josephus less important. 

The province of Peraea remains to be noticed, with its various 
subdistricts and confederate towns. The name, signifying 
* beyond,' is the Greek e:iuivalent of the Hebrew Ah&r^ * over.' 
In the Talmud the province is always called Aber-ha-Yerden, 
' beyond Jordan,' the same term employed in the Bible (Josh. 
1. 14, 15). 

The east border of Persea has already been indicated in de- 
scribing the east boundary of the Holy Land. Josephus makes 
its width to extend from Jordan to the district of Philadelphia 
(Babbath Ammon), and to Gerasa (Jerish), beyond which was 
Arabia. On the south it included Machserus (Mekaur), and 
on the north it extended to Pella. 

The position of Pella thus becomes a matter of some interest. 
Josephus speaks of a Pella lying apparently north-west of 
Damascus (14 Ant. 3. 2) ; and we might at first suppose that it 
was to this place that he refers in the passage now under 
consideration (3 Wars 3. 6), but immediately after he alludes 
to the vaiious districts of Bashan as distinct from Persea. 
Pella, a city of the region of DecapoUs, is frequently noticed by 
Josephus with other cities east and south-east of the Sea of 
Galilee, such as Gerasa (Jerash), Gamala (el-Hosn), Golan, &c. 
It was inhabited by foreigners (13 Ant. 15. 4), and had, accord- 
ing to Pliny, an abundant supply of water. There seems no 
reason to doubt that it is the Phahil of the Talmud mentioned 



PALESTINE m THE TIME OF CHRIST. * 315 

with Neve (Nawa), Derei (Edhr'a), and Bozrah (Bnsrah) (Tal. 
Jer. Shebiith 6. l), and as having hot spring^ (Hammatha)> 
Pella is, however, chiefly famous as the refuge of the early 
Christian Church, flying from Jerusalem before the great siege, 
and its site seems to have been well known in the fourth cen- 
tury. Eusebius notices that Arbela (Irbid, south of the Hiero- 
max river) was in the district of Pella. All these indications 
seem to point to the site of FHhil in the Jordan Valley, op- 
posite Beisin, a ruin standing on a Tubakah^ or ' terrace ' of the 
same name. Ancient rock-tombs show it to be an old site, and 
there is a stream near it which is probably theimal, like all the 
other springs in the district. 

Persea, being bounded by the town of Pella and contiguous 
to Bashan, was thus apparently conterminous on the north with 
Batanea, and on the south with the Mishor of E«uben. We 
have, however, to consider several other districts east of Jordan, 
namely, Gaulonitis, Trachonitis, Aurahitis, Bethanea, Itursea^ 
Decapolis, and Abilene. 

The first three terms are easily explained. Golan, or 
Gaulonitis, was the present Jauldn district, extending immedi- 
ately east of Jordan and of the Sea of Galilee. Trachonitis Was 
a Greek name meaning * rugged,* and we have already seen that 
Bozrah was in the neighbourhood of this district. It probably 
also included the Lejja country, with its rugged hiUs and 
ravines of basalt. Auranitis is the Biblical Hauran (Ezek. 
47. 16-1 s), which preserves its name to the present day, apply- 
ing to the flat country north-west of Bozrah. The root from 
which the word is derived means 'hollow,' and the district 
receives in Arabic a second title — en-Nukrah — which also 
means * hollow.' 

The position of Basanitis, or Bethania, is less easily defined ; 
but according to the most probable position it was on the south- 
west of the last-mentioned district. Bethania, or Batanea, is 
.the Aramaic form of the Hebrew Bashan, meaning * soft level 
ground,' and Josephus uses the word as equivalent to the older 
form (4 Ant. 7. 4). The Targum of Jonathan (Deut. 33. 22, 
Psalm 68. 22) in the same way substitutes the later form 



316 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Bothenin for Bashan, and the fTerusalem Targum (Deut. 32. 
14) reads Batheniya. The Samaritan Pentateuch also reads 
Batanin for Bashan throughout. 

In other passages, however, Josephus makes Batanea a 
separate province bordering on Trachonitis (17 Ant. 2. i ; 1 
Wars 20. 4), and in the fourth century it is mentioned as in- 
cluding Golan and Ashtaroth. It seems, therefore, pretty cleor 
that the district intended is the present district of el-Battein, 
Bouth-^ast of the Sea of Galilee ; and as we have already deter- 
mined Fersea as bounded by Bella, it appears that Batanea pro- 
bably extended (as held by the learned Beland) ^ to the Jordan, 
south of the Sea of Galilee. 

Itursea, the fifth province of this district, which Pliny 
places north of Bashan, appears evidently to be the present 
district of Jedur, extending from Hermon towards the Lejja. 
Thus, with exception of the foreign name Trachonitis, all the 
districts of Bashan still retain their Aramaic titles unchanged. 

Decapolis, or the district of * ten cities,' was partly indaded 
in Bashan. Pliny, in enumerating them by name,^ says that 
different towns are given by different authorities. The foUow* 
ing are the cities variously stated to have been included in what 
appears to have been a confederation of towns inhabited by 
Greek or heathen settlers : — 





Greek 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


1 


Scythopolis (the capital) 


Beth-shean 


Beisan 


2 


• • • 


Gadara 


Umm Keis 


3 








Gerasa 


JeriUh 


4 








Canatha . 


Kanawat 


5 








Ahila 


Abil 


6 








Eaphana . 


— 


7 


Hippos . 






Susitha 


— 


8 


Dion 










9 


Pella 






Phahil . 


Fahil 


10 


Capitoliafl 






— 




11 


Philadelphia 






Babbath A m mon 


Kabbah 


12 


— 


Damascus . 


esh-Sham 



Cf. Palettina TUtigtrata, p. 108. 



« Mgt, Ifat. 6. 18, 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OP CHRIST. 317 

'It will be remarked that the Semitio names have sur- 
vived, while the Greek ones have been lost — ^an invariable rule 
in Palestine. Beoapolis appears in the Gospels as a district 
distinct from Persea, but situated east of Jordan (Matt. 4. 25 ; 
Mark 5. 20, 7. 3l). . 

The district of Abilene, finally, remains to be noticed. In 
the New Testament (Luke 3. l) Lysamas tetrarch of Abilene, is 
mentioned, and the name appears to have been a fainily one 
among the princes of that province. It is not the Abila of 
Decapolis which is here intended, for that town lay in Batanea, 
but another city farther north. A Lysanias, who was ruler of 
the tetrarchy of Abila (20 Ant. 7. 1 ; 2 Wars 11. 5), was the 
son of Ptolemy, son of Menneus, who died 36 years before 
Herod the Great. Ptolemy was ruler of Chalcis under Lebanon 
(14 Ant. 7. 4), and of the country near Damasctis (13 Ant. 
16. 3). This district was afterwards caUed the 'House of Ly- 
sanias,' and was seized by a robber named Zenodorus, who 
called his new kingdom (which included also part of Tracho- 
nitis) the House of Zenodorus (15 Ant. 10. 8; 1 Wars 20. 4). 
We can, therefore, have no hesitation in identifying the Abila 
of Lysanias with the town of that name which existed in 
the Anti-Lebanon, 11 miles east of Chalcis. The remains of 
its ancient tombs, aqueducts, and roads still exist : the tradi- 
tional tomb of Abel is shown close by, and a Latin inscription 
cut on the live rock relates that one. of the roads was made in 
the time of Aurelius and Lucius Yerus (middle of the second 
century) by the inhabitants of Abila. The district of Abilene 
was given to Herod the Great and afterwards to Agrippa (15 
Ant. 10. 8 ; 20 Ant. 7. i). 

The provinces of the Holy Land thus described in detail 
were distinguished by different capabilities for cultivation, and 
their characteristic productions may be noticed briefly. Judsea 
was famous for its com, espedally the neighbourhood of Mich- 
mash, where there are still open com vales. Galilee produced 
abundant olives, and the soil of its plains was remarkable for 
fertility. Persea was the most rugged and unproductive ; but 



318 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the palm was found in its valleys, and the ravines were fuU of 
perennial springs. 

The population of Galilee was denser than that of the 
other districts (3 Wars 3. 2) ; and at the present day the num- 
ber of inhabited villages is greater in Upper Galilee than in 
any other part of Palestine. The fertility of Samaria is not 
noticed by Jewish writers ; but no one who has visited the 
country west of Shechem and the hills of Manasseh can doubt 
that in com, wine, and oil Samaria must have vied with 
Galilee and probably surpassed Judaea. 

On the death of Herod the Great, his dominions, which had 
gradually extended, were divided among his sons (17 Ant. 
11. 4). Archelaus became governor of Judsea, Idumsea, and 
Samaria; Philip ruled Galilee and Peraea; and Antipas had 
Auranitis and part of the * House of Zenodorus,' or Abilene. 
Gerasa, Gudara, and Hippos, as Greek cities, were made part of 
Syria ; Jamnia, Ashdod, and Ascalon, with Phasaelis in the 
Jordan Yalley (FusMl), were given to Salome. 

This account is in accordance with that in the New Testa^ 
ment (Luke 3. 1), and explains why Joseph retired to Galilee 
through fear of Archelaus (Matt. 2. 22). At a later period the 
divisions were rearranged, and Agrippa obtaiued the Tetrarchy 
of Philip, with Trachonitis and Bathania, and part of Abilene, 
not including Chalcis. 

The Herodian period was a great building epoch. Im- 
portant works were erected at Jerusalem, Csesarea, Samaria^ 
Antipatris, Ascalon, Phasaelis, Archelais (Kerdwa), Jericho, Ma- 
sada (Sebbcrh), Herodium (Jebel Fureidis), and in other places. 
These however have almost entirely disappeared at the present 
day. It now only remains to give some account of the places 
specially connected with the journeys and ministry of Christ 
which, as being the most interesting among the cities of Pales- 
fine to the student of this period of Jewish history,, require 
rather a more detailed notice than can be given in the Biblical 
Gazetteer. 

Nazareth, the early home of Christ, is principally remark- 
able for its secluded situation. It stands on the brow of a 



PALESTINE m THE TIME OF CHRIST. 319 

hiU, 1,800 feet above the sea, with a hollow platea.u on the east 
and a rugged gorge to the south. On the north the ascent from 
the plains of Sepphoris is also difficult, and on the west the 
hills fall rapidly to a lower level. The town, thus situated in a 
mountain with open plains on all sides, was not on any of the 
great highways of the country, and is not mentioned in the Old 
Testament or by Josephus. The main roads from Gralilee to 
Jerusalem led east and west of the block of hills : one over the 
plateau extending above the shores of the Sea of Galilee ; the 
other from Ptolemais, rimning to Sepphoris, and thence by 
Simonias to Legio on the west side of the Plain of Esdraelon. 

The expression (Matt. 4. 13) *in the borders of Zabulon and 
Nephthalim,' was supposed by the early Fathers of the Church 
to mean that Capernaum stood on the border between these 
tribes. It has been shown, however, that the plateau west of 
the Sea of Galilee belonged to NaphtaH. Nazareth, on the 
other hand, was in Zebulon, and the full force of the passage is 
thus obtained : * And leaving Nazareth, He came and dwelt 
in Capernaum.' The prophecy being fulfilled by the connection 
of both towns with the history of Christ — ^Nazareth, in one 
tribe and Capernaum in the other. 

The site of the baptism of Christ, is not mentioned in the 
Gospels. It is generally, however, assumed that Bethabara, which 
was the place where John was baptizing about that time, and 
which was soon after visited by Christ, is the place where 
the events jw-eceding the Temptation must have occurred. The 
first retreat of John the Baptist was in the Judsean desert 
(Matt. 3. l), but he afterwards visited * all the country about 
Jordan ' (Luke 3. 3), and Bethabara was beyond Jordan in 
PersBa. The name signifies house of the * crossing over,' and 
suggests the vicinity of one of the Jordan fords. Bethabara 
was within a day's journey of Cana in Galilee (John 2. l), and. 
cannot therefore have been more than about 20 miles from 
that village. This fact renders it impossible to accept the 
traditional site near Jericho, and it is more natural to look for 
Bethabara in Gulilee where Christ was brought up. The name 
has been recovered in that of 'Ablkrah, one of the main Jordan 



:i20 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

fords, a little north of Beis^n ; and the distance froin the most 
probable site of Cana is 22 miles. 

In the ^naitic Manuscript of John 1. 28, the name Be- 
thania stands instead of Bethabara ; the Vatican and Alexan- 
drine texts have the same reading. Origen ^ says that in his 
time (186-253 a.d.) most of the ancient manuscripts read Be- 
thania, nevertheless he himself adopts the present form Beth- 
abara. St. Chrysostom (347-407 a.d.) accepts the latter, though 
referring to the older reading; while St. Jerome (340-420) i^ads 
Bethabara only. We can scarcely suppose the present reading 
to be a late invention ; but it is not difficult to reconcile the 
two, if the site of the 'Abilrah ford be accepted, for Bethania 
beyond Jordan is evidently the province of Batanea, already 
described as extending from Pella to the Sea of Galilee ; and as 
the ford now discovered is north of Pella, it leads into Batanea, 
where the village of Bethabara would have stood. 

Another place where John baptized requires a brief notice, 
namely, -^non, near Salim, where there was much water (or 
rather * many waters,' John 3. 23). The word *j3Enon, is evi- 
dently a proper name, being an Aramaic plural of the word En 
(* spring ') introduced in a Greek book. It seems to apply to a 
district from the use of ' in ' instead bf * at,' and it is to be 
sought either in the wilderness of Judaea or in the Jordan "Valley. 
There is only one place where all these indications concur and 
where abundant water is found near an ^non and a Salim. 
This is W^dy F&r'ah, running from Mount Ebal to -Jordan — an 
open vale, full of springs. S41im, three miles south of the 
valley, would represent the Salim of the fourth Gospel, and the 
name of the district of -^non ling^:^ at the village of 'Ainiin 
foin* miles north of the waters of the F4r'ah. The valley itself 
probably formed, as has been already noted, the boundary 
between Samaria and Judsea. 

With regard to Sychar near Jacob's Well (John 4. 6), the 
position of the village of *Askar — ^the Samaritan name of which 
is Ischar, leaves no reasonable doubt that it is the place men- 
tioned in the Gospel. The village of Cana in Galilee, visited 

* In Evan JohcmnUy torn. 8. 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OE CHRIST. 321 

by Christ after his return to Bethabara, has been placed at two 
sites, the first north of the Buttauf plain (K4nah), the second 
(Kefr Kenna) south of the same plain. The first name accu- 
rately represents Cana, the second does not ; but the position of 
Kefr Kenna appears to be the most suitable, both because it is 
nearer Bethabara, and because it lies on the road from Naza- 
reth to Tiberias (compare Luke 7. 1, with John 4. 46). By 
Josephus the place is only mentioned as a village in Gkdilee 
(Vita 16), and in the Talmud it is not noticed at all, nor does the 
name occur in any part of the Bible, except the fourth Gospel. 
The northern site at K&nah was that recognised by the Chris- 
tians of the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries, but in the earlier 
travels Cana seems to be noticed as on the way from Nazareth 
to Tiberias. 

The next scene of the New Testament history is laid on 
the shores of the Sea of Galilee. In the Gospel of Matthew 
Christ is said to leave *his own country' (13. 54) and, depart- 
ing, by ship, went into the desert (14. id). In this desert the 
5,000 were fed, and the disciples subsequently crossed the lake 
to the land of Gennesaret (v, 34). In the second Gospel, the 
name Bethsaida occurs (Mark 6. 45) as being that of a place 
opposite the desert, and to which the disciples were directed by 
Christ to proceed by ship ; but their actual course took them 
to Gennesaret (v, 5d). By Luke, the desert place is specified 
(in our version) as * belonging to Bethsaida,' but this reading 
does not occur in the Sinaitic manuscript, and the omission is 
of the greatest importance as serving to make the topography 
more easily understood as a whole. 

In the fourth Gospel the disciples are said to have gone, not 
to Bethsaida, but towards Capernaum (6. 17). The Sinaitic 
manuscript in this latter passage reads 'Tiberias which was 
nigh unto the place where they did eat bread,* (v. 23), but this 
is plainly contrary to the statement that the desert in which 
the 5,000 were fed was on the side opposite to Crennesaret 
(Matt. 14. 34), and the present reading Hhere came other 
boats from Tiberias nigh unto the place, <Ssc.' seems preferable. 
Students who have a right to speak with authority have denied 

Y 




322 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

the value of such variatioiis in the Sinaitic maDuscript, because 
many of the peculiar readings agree in a suspicious manner 
with the known opinions of Eusebius, while the date usuaUy 
assigned to the text aUows of the possibility that it may be one 
of the copies prepared by Eusebius at the desire of the Emperor 
Constantine. The reading under consideration also makes the 
account of the fourth Gospel inconsistent with itself. 

The second miracle of feeding the 4,000 is only mentioned 
by the first two Evangelists, and Mark makes it foUow on 
the visit of Christ to Decapolis (7. 31, 8. l). After the event, 
the disciples crossed over to Magdala (Matt. 15. 39), or Dalma- 
mitha (Mark 8. lo), and it thus appears that the scene of feed- 
ing the 4,000 was al^o in the desert, east (and in this case 
apparently south-east) of the Sea of Galilee. From Magdak 
Christ proceeded to Bethsaida on his way to Caesarea PhOippi 
(Mark 8. 22-27). 

The most difficult point in this topography is the notice of 
Bethsaida in a single passage (Mark 6. 45), in such a manner as 
to lead to the impression that it was in or near Gennesaret : 
such a position of Bethsaida does not agree with that subse- 
quently noticed in the Gospels, and cannot be reconciled with 
the description by profane authors of the town so called. 

Bethsaida (perhaps meaning * the house of fushing ') is no- 
ticed by Josephus as having received fix)m Herod the name 
Julias (18 Ant. 2. l), and as having been near to where 
Jordan enters the Sea of Tiberias (3 Wars 10. 7). It was 
in the Tetrarchy of Philip, and according to the expre^ state- 
ment of Pliny ^ Julias was on the eastern shore of the Sea of 
Galilee. 

The learned Reland first noticed the apparent difficulty, and 
suggested that there was a second Bethsaida, in the land of 
Gennesaret — a district which is identified through the descrip- 
tion by Josephus (3 Wars 10. s) with the oasis of el-Ghuweir 
(* the Httle hollow '), immediately north of Magdala (Mejdel). 
This theory is, however, open to objections, and a simpler ex- 
planation is perhaps possible, if we suppose the Sinaitic manu- 

• Hitt. Nkt. 15. 19. 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHEIST. 323 

script to be right in omitting the definition (Lake 9. lo) of the 
desert where the 5,000 were fed as 'belonging to the city 
called Bethsaida.' The omission is, of course, doubtful, because 
it is necessary for the other reading in the same text which 
makes this miracle to have occurred near Tiberias ; but if the 
desert in question was really situated at the south-east comer 
of the Lake, the whole topography is easily understood. 

The country of Gadara and Decapolis was visited at least 
twice by Christ (Luke 8. 37, Mark 7. 3l) ; the miracle of feeding 
the 4,000 evidently occurred in this district ; and there is nothing 
but the one doubtful reading to forbid our supposing that the 
first miracle occurred there also. 

If such was the site of the miracle the disciples would have 
set out to go northwards to the opposite end of the lake where 
Bethsaida Julias stood. They encountered a storm, and found 
themselves close to the north-western shore. They landed, not at 
Bethsaida, but at Capernaum in the land of Grennesaret, and it 
seems clear that they were thus driven out of their intended 
course. The whole of the subsequent account of the journeys 
of Christ, His second crossing of the lake, His second return 
to the land of Gronnesaret, and His final journey to CsBsarea 
PhiHppi is eaaUy understood, and the Bethsaida mentioned as 
on the route from Dalmanutha, or Magdala to C^esarea, is evi- 
dently the Julias of Josephus and Pliny, being described as on 
' the other side ' from the towns, which were near Grennesaret 
(Matt. 16. 6, Mark 8. 13-22). 

The scene of the feeding of the 5,000 was shown, from the 
fourth to the twelfth century, immediately north of the plain 
of Glennesaret, and since the fifteenth it has been placed near 
Tiberias. The suspicious reading in the Sinaitic MS. (John 6. 
23) agrees with such a theory, but as it renders the account in 
the fourth Gtospel, not only plainly inconsbtent with those of 
the first two, but also self-contradictory, it may safely be dis- 
carded, together with the ecclesiastical traditions which have 
caused such confusion in the topography of the Gospels. The 
desert which was the scene of the first miracle (feeding the 
5,000) may also perhaps be safely assumed to have been the 

y2 



324 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

same as that of the second (feeding 4,000), which was 80uth-«ast 
of the Sea of Galilee, and we are thus able to trace the whole 
of the various voyages without having recourse to the clumsy 
expedient of supposing a second Bethsaida, of the existence of 
which there is no independent proof. 

The exact site of Bethsaida Julias is yet undetermined. 
The modem and insignificant ruins of el-Tell seem scarcely 
likely to be those of the city built by Herod, and the site of 
the ruined village of Mes'aidiyeh, suggested by "Vandevelde, 
seems more probably to represent Bethsaida ; but in that case 
the word must be translated ' House of good fortune/ or the 
corruption both of the A to a guttural and of the S to a softer 
letter (Tsadi to Shin) must be supposed. The site is, moreover, 
rather too far south. 

Of the other cities surrounding the lake, Magdala (Mejdel) 
and Chorazin (KerS,seh) are fixed. Tiberias, mentioned only in 
the fourth Gospel (6. 1. 23), was built by Herod Antipas (18 
Ant. 2. 3), and was thus a new city in the time of Christ 
According to the Talmud, it occupied the site of the ancient 
Kakkath (Josh. 19. 35), which from its name must have stood 
on a * shore' (Tal. Jer. Megillah 1. 1), and the older title sur- 
vived until the fourth century. 

A second city of importance equal to that of Tiberias ex- 
isted in the time of Christ on the shores of the Lake, but is 
not mentioned in the New Testament. This was TarichesBy the 
name of which seems to have been in existence in the time of 
Rameses II. (see Chap. IV.). Pliny states that it was at the 
south end of the lake, which was sometimes named from it.* 
Josephus tells us that it was 30 stadia from Tiberias (Vita 32), 
at the bottom of the mountain, fortified, washed by the sea, 
and with a plain in front (3 Wars 10. l). We also deduce ! 
from his account of Vespasian's camp, which was at the hot 
baths south of Tiberias (4 Wars 1. 3), and between Tiberias 
and Tarichese (3 Wars 10. l), that Josephus also places the 
latter town south of the former. The large ruined site of 

» Higt. Nat. 16. 15. 



t 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHEIST. 325 

Xerak agrees exactly in position and in distance witb the 
accounts of Pliny and Josephus. 

Last, but not least; we have to consider the site of Caper- 
naum. There is no reasonable doubt that from the fourth 
century downwards the site shown to Christian pilgrims was at 
the ruin of Tell Hum, which is exactly the distance from 
Chorazin mentioned by Jerome as that of Capernaum. Eccle- 
siastical tradition cannot, however, claim to settle such a matter, 
and we must turn to the Gospels, the Talmud, and Jewish tra- 
dition as the true sources of reliable information. 

All that c«vn be gathered from the Gospels is the probability 
that Capernaum stood in the land of Gennesaret (compare John 
6. 17, and Mark 6. 63), and that the place was Christ's * own 
city ' (Matt. 9. l). From Josephus we learn that the Fountain 
of Capernaum watered the plain of Gennesaret (3 Wars 10. 8). 
These indications are irreconcilable with the site of Tell Hum, 
which has no spring, and is 2^ miles from Gennesaret. 

Capernaum is no doubt the Caphar Nahum of the Talmud 
(Midrash, Koheleth 7. 17). Commenting on the words *the 
sinner shall be taken by her ' (Eccl. 7. 26), the Eabbis say that 
the word Huta (* sinner ') means a son of Caphar Nahum ; and 
they also explain the same word to be equivalent to the word 
Minai (Koheleth 1. s), a term by which they understood various 
heretical sects, including the Christians. We see, therefore, 
that the reason why they connected the town of Capernaum 
with the Minai was probably because it was a favourite resort 
of Christ and the home of Peter (Matt. 8. 14). 

A valuable Jewish Itinerary of the year 1334 a.d., by 
Rabbi Isaac Chelo, contains the following passage : — 

* From Arbela (Irbid) one goes to Caphar Nahum, men- 
tioned by the wise (may their memory be blessed !). 

* It is a village in ruins, where there is an ancient tomb of 
Nahum the Old (a Eabbi mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud) 
Beracoth 7. 48). Formerly there were in this village many 
Minim.' 

There is thus a connection between the €dte of Capernaum, 
and the name Minai which dates back to the early centuries of 



326 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

our era, and which is founded on indigenous (because Jewish) 
tradition. The ruin visited by Isaac Chelo was on the way from 
Arbela to Ke& 'Anlbi, and this precludes the idea that he means 
Tell Hum. The ruin of Mini eh at the north end of the plain of 
Grennesaret is more probably the village of the Minai, the 
Arabic word being radically identical with the Aramaic and 
having the same meaning ; and it is at the ruin of Minieh, 
therefore, that Jewish tradition places Capernaum. 

The remaining sites of New Testament interest are Bethany 
(el-'Aziriyeh), Bethphage, and Emmaus. The two latter re- 
quire a few words of notice. , 

It appears clear from a number of passages in the Talmud 
(Menakhoth 11. 2) that Beth Fhagi marked the Sabbaticallimit 
East of Jerusalem. This limit was called the ' wall of Beth- 
phagi ' (Tal. Bab. Menakhoth 78 5), and the position thus in- 
dicated would be 2,000 cubits from the east wall of Jerusalem. 
The distance measures to the present village of Kefr et-Tor 
(named from the mountain) on Olivet, which M. Clermont 
Granneau thwefore proposes to identify with Bethphage. 

The village of Emmaus (Luke 24. 13) was, according to our 
Version, 60 furlongs from Jerusalem, and according to the 
Sinaitic 160. Ths latter distance measures to 'Amwds — Em- 
maus-Nicopolis — with which Eusebius identifies the New 
Testament village ; but this seems too far (30 miles) for the 
double journey of the two discijdes, and the village intended 
was more probably that Emmaus mentioned by Josephus as 
being 60 stadia from Jerusalem (7 Wars 6. 6). The place has 
been identified with a variety of sites, but the name has only 
lately been recovered. Emmaus is a corruption or later form 
of the Hebrew Hammath, * a hot spring,' and Emmaus-Nico- 
polis possessed medicinal springs according to the Talmud 
(Midrash, Koheleth 7. 7). A ruin with a spring fine exists in a 
.valley 8 miles south-west of Jerusalem. An ancient road lead- 
ing from the capital to Beit Nettif, passes along the ridge above 
the site ; the valley contains five good springs within about a 
mile of the ruin ; the name of the place is Khamasa, which is a 
natural corruption of the ancient Hammath, or Emmaus. Thi« 



PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST. 327 

place, which from the rock-cut tombs near it is evidently an 
ancient site, may probably therefore be the Emmaus of the 
New Testament, and the place mentioned by Josephus as 60 
stadia from Jerusalem. 

In conclusion of the summary thus attempted of New 
Testament topography, it may be noted as a curious fact, that 
the towns noticed in the Grospels — excluding the large cities, 
such as Jerusalem, Tyre, Sidon, <fec. — ^are almost all places not 
mentioned in the Old Testament. Nazareth and Capernaum, 
Bethany or Chorazin, are names never occurring in the Hebi-ew 
Scriptures ; and the scenery of the life of Christ lies as a rule 
apart from the centres political or religious, which reappear 
again and again in the earlier episodes of Jewish history. 



328 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



CHAPTER VIL 

JERUSALEM. 

Jerusalem first begins to play a part in Jewish history after 
the, conquest of the city by David. The Salem of Melchisedek 
is, however, identified by Josephus with the Holy City (1 Ant. 
10. 2), and this inference is rendered probable by the notice of 
the * King's Dale ' (Gen. 14. 17) as the meeting place of Abra- 
ham and Melchisedek, the valley so called being the same 
probably in which Absolom afterwards erected a * hand * or 
monument (2 Sam. 18. is), and which was, according to 
Josephus, two furlongs from Jerusalem (7 Ant. 11. s). 

In the time of Joshua and the Judges, Jebus is spoken of as 
a city allotted to Benjamin (Judges 1. 2l), but inhabited by the 
Jebusites (Judges 19. 10, ll), and the name of Jerusalem already 
occurs as synonymous with the Canaanite title of Jebus. 

The meaning of the later name has been a subject of dis- 
pute, but Gesenius has established that the true translation of 
the word is * Habitation of Peace.' To enter into a discussion 
of the fanciful derivations of the Talmudic doctors, or of the 
Fathers of the Church, would therefore serve no good purpose. 

Before proceeding to give any account of the toj>ography of 
Jerusalem, and its gradual growth during the period before the 
Captivity ; at the time of Nehemiah ; and in the Hasmonean, and 
Herodian ages, it is necessary first to obtain a distinct idea of 
the natural site of the city ; of the names of its surrounding 
valleys ; and of the position of the springs and reservoirs named 
in the Bible. 

The topography of Jerusalem has been the subject of con- 
tinual controversy, and there is probably not a single detail of 



JERUSALEM. 329 

its antiquities which has escaped criticism, nor a single natural 
feature, the position of which has never been disputed. The 
climax of theory was probably reached by the bold writer who 
undertook to prove that the Jerusalem of the Bible was really 
to be sought at Hebron, but several other paradoxes, almost as 
absurd, might be quoted. 

Within the last fifteen years, however, a great deal of definite 
and valuable information has been obtained. The first correct 
survey of the city was made by Captain (now Colonel) Wilson, 
E..E., in 1864. The explorations by Colonel Warren, K.E., 
during 1867-70 settled many disputed points concerning the 
Haram area; and in 1872 a map was constructed which shows 
the level of the surface of the rock, beneath the present surface, 
in about 200 places lying within the area of 210 acres which is 
enclosed by the present walls of Jerusalem. Seventy-five of 
these observations are within the Temple area ; several in the 
city extend over distances of 100 to 300 feet, and, fortunately, 
they are most numerous in those parte concerning which the 
principal controversies have arisen. We are thus able to base 
the present account of the ancient topography of the city on' 
data more exact and positive than any previously acquired, and 
to read the ancient historic accounts by the light of ascertained 
facte, instead of guessing at probabilities by the aid of descrip- 
tions which, however carefully written, are still, as all written 
descriptions must be, vague where the student most requires 
exactitude, and deficient where he most wishes for details. 

The watershed of Judaea passes west of Jerusalem, and the 
city stands on spurs which run out of the main ridge towards the 
east. Two principal valleys enclose the site and form a junction 
on the south-east of the town : the first, on the east, being the 
Kedron, dividing Olivet from the Temple hill ; while the second, 
west and south of the city, appears to be the Biblical Gre Ben 
Hinnom. Both of these valleys are deep and narrow, with 
steep, and in places precipitous, sides. The torrent beds are 
about 500 feet below the hills on which Jerusalem is built, and 
at the junction they are 660 feet below the watershed. 

Three words are used in the Bible to distinguish the valleys 



330 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

round Jerusalem, The term Naehal — a torrent bed — is applied 
invariably to the eastern valley, called Kedron (' black '). The 
term Gai or * ravine ' is used for the Valley of the Son of Hin- 
nom ; and the word Emek — meaning a broad vale — is used of 
the Valley of Rephaim, the position of which has been sdready 
described (Chap. III.). 

The Ge Ben Hinnom appears, as above stated, to have been 
the narrow waterless ravine bounding the site of Jerusalem on 
the south and commencing on the west as a shallow delL Not 
only does the line of the border of Judah, which followed this 
valley and ran south of Jerusalem (Josh. 16. 8), presuppose 
such a position, but the situation of Tophet in the VaUey of 
Hinnom points to the same conclusion. Tophet was the sc^ie 
of the Worship of Moloch, and the high pla«e of that idol is 
mentioned (2 Kings 23. is) as 'on the south of the Har-ham 
Mashekhith, which is probably the same as Har ham-Meshe- 
khah, or Mount of Anointing' (Tal. Jer. Taanith 4. s), by 
which name the Eabbis denominate the Mount of Olives. The 
term Gai can only apply to a narrow trench or ravine, and the 
above-noticed indications of position preclude the possibility 
that either the Kedron Valley west of Olivet, or the Tyropoeon, 
which ran through, and not south, of Jerusalem, can be intended 
by the name G^ Ben Hinnom. 

Several other valley names are mentioned in the Old Testa- 
ment, such as the Valley of Decision (Emek Jehosaphat, Joel 3. 
2, 12), the VaUey (Emek) of Dead Bodies (Jer, 31. 40), and the 
Valley of Shaveh already mentioned, but no indication of the 
position of these places is given, and they have no topographical 
importance. The fields (Shedemoth) of Kedron were, no doubt, 
situate in the lower part of the Nachal, where it broadens 
towards its junction with the Gai. These two terms Nachal 
and Gai so often used, and to all appearance never confused, 
are valuable, as serving to indicate the position of places named 
in connection with them. 

Within the parallelogram formed by the boundary valleys, 
the hill spurs were divided by another valley of a different 
character — ^a broad flat-bottomed depression swelling out at the 



JERUSALEM. 331 

head into a round dell bounded by steep slopes. This valley is 
called the Tyropoeon by Josephus, and the word is translated to 
mean ' cheesemakers ' (5 Wars 4. ]). No successful attempt 
has yet been made to discover this title in the Old Testament, 
nor does the valley appear to be mentioned in the Talmud. It 
formed, however, a very important feature in the topography of 
the city. 

The direction, depth, and width of the Tyropoeon Valley 
have been fairly well determined by various observations of the 
level of the rock in its bed. In one of the great cisterns of the 
Abbey of Ste.-Marie la Grande, in the centre of modem Jerusa- 
lem, the rock was bared in 1873 for about 50 feet, and found to 
be at a level about 2,429 feet above the Mediterranean, descend- 
ing gradually eastwards. Two other observations, south-west 
and north-west of this point and 400 feet apart, gave respec- 
tively levels of 2,478 and 2,462 feet. At 200 feet north-east of 
the first point, a section north and south in aiiother cistern has 
been obtained over a length of nearly 160 feet, with levels 
giving a fall of 20 feet southwards in that distance, the highest 
point being 2,440 feet above the Mediterranean. Again, 200 
feet farther east, the bottom of the valley has a level of 2,400 
feet : and by these observations it is clearly shown both that the 
valley bed falls eastwards, and that the breadth of the basin 
north and south is much greater than was supposed, before 
these observations were made ; for the debris over this part of 
the city has a thickness of from 40 to 60 feet, and the true 
contour has been concealed by it. 

The head of the Tyropoeon is separated from the head of the 
Grai or Valley of Hinnom by a narrow shed running north and 
south. The level of this shed has been determined by about 
fifteen distinct observations of the rock, and averages about 
2,500 feet above the sea. The Tyropoeon runs eastwards from 
this ridge for a distance of about 500 yards, and then sweeps 
suddenly round southwards. A steep, and in places precipit- 
ous, slope exists on the right side of the valley at this comer, 
the position and height of which (more than 100 feet above 
the valley bed) have been determined by another set of six 



332 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

observations of the rock, at levels varying from 2,457 to 2,427 
feet above the Mediterranean. 

At the angle another branch joins the Tyropoeon, running 
directly north-west and south-east. This is a longer and a 
narrower valley, having its head close to the main 'watershed. 
From the junction the united valleys run southwards and fall 
into the Nachal Kedron just above its meeting with the €re 
Ben Hinnom. 

The careful tracing of the Tyropoeon has been the work of 
many years. The bed has been laid bare in various places from 
time to time, the levels and the direction of the fall have been 
noted, and the result of the combined observations enables us 
to speak with tolerable certitude as to the width, depth, and 
direction of the valley. The recovery of this important feature 
is the key to the right imderstanding of the original site of the 
city ; and the description of Josephus can easily be foUo'wed now 
that the actual levels of the various hills have been fairly well 
determined. 

Joseph us (5 Wars 4. l) describes two lulls on which the ori- 
ginal city stood, and a third on the north-east afterwards covered 
by the new city, and extending to the ridge of the Temple. The 
hill of the upper city was the highest and the largest ; that of the 
lower city (Akra) was crescent shaped : the third hill, opposite 
Akra, was still lower, and separated from it by a deep valley, 
which was filled up with earth by the Hasmoneans, who reduced 
the height of Akra. The Tyropoeon separated the upper and 
lower city, and extended to Siloam. 

The narrow ridge which has been described as separating 
the Gre Ben Hinnom from the broad flat valley running through 
modem Jerusalem, forms an isthmus joining to the watershed 
ridge, a hill which is bounded by the two valleys. This 
hill is the largest of any of the spurs on which Jerusalem stands, 
and it is also the highest. It measures 600 yards east and 
west, and about 1,000 north and south. The plateau at the 
top beiug about 2,540 feet above the Mediterranean. We can, 
therefore, have no hesitation in identifying this with the first 
hill mentioned by Josephus. 



JERUSALEM. 333 

Within a radius of 250 feet round the present Chapel of the 
Holy Sepulchre about a dozen observations of the rock have 
been obtained. It results from the levels that the Eotunda of 
the Church and the Chapel of Calvary stand on a knoll at about 
2,480 feet above the sea ; and that the gi'ound falls on north, 
south, and east, with a steep slope, while on the west the knoll 
is joined to the isthmus which connects the larger southern hill 
with the watershed. The head of the Tyropoeon is thus found 
to be crescent shaped, and the knoll north of it forms the eastern 
horn, while the isthmus forms that on the south-west. The 
description given by Josephus of Akra thus appears to be ful- 
filled, and we can have little hesitation in identifying that hill 
with the knoll of the present Sepulchre Church. 

The third hill, on which Bezetha, or the New City, stood, 
was north of the Temple (5 Wars 4. 2) ; and the vaUey which 
separated it from Akra, and which was filled up by the Has- 
moneans, was therefore that already described as joining the 
Tyropoeon. Ten observations have been made along its course, 
and the depth of debris in the bottom proves to be from 40 to 
50 feet. 

The hill of Bezetha is described by Josephus as * imturMy ' 
lower than Akra, and that part included in the ancient city is 
not more than 2,500 feet above the sea. Akra was originally 
so much higher than the Temple as entirely to command the 
Holy House, but its height was reduced by the Hasmoneans, 
although actual survey shows that its top is still above the 
highest point on the Temple ridge. The latter was a long spur, 
gradually narrowing southwards, and forming the continuation 
of the Bezetha hill, bounded by the Nachal Kedron on the east, 
and by the Tyropoeon on the west. The surface was artificially 
modified, and a ditch, cut across the narrowest part of the ridge, 
separated the Temple hill from Bezetha. The extreme south 
end of the spur was called Ophel (* the swelling ground '), and 
sank gradually towards the boundary valleys. The eastern 
slope above the Kedron was extremely steep, and that on the 
west more gradual. 

Such being the orographic features of the site, we may next 



334 HANDBOOK TO THE BERIE. 

« 

direct attention to the water supply, which was extremely defi- 
cient. Jeinisalem possesses only one spring, which wells up 
with an intermittent action from beneath Ophel, in the nar- 
rowest part of the Kachal Kedron. Theq) is nothing to lead 
us to sup]X)se that any other supply of living water existed at a 
former period, and indeed there is much which points to a con- 
trary conclusion. On the west of Jerusalem rock-cut reservoirs 
existed : on the north, siuface channels conveyed the rain-water 
to an aqueduct which led to the Temple hill. That mountain 
itself was honey-combed with gigantic reservoirs, and an aque- 
duct from Kephtoah (or Etam) was constructed by Pilate, also 
with the object of bringing water to the Temple. Other reser- 
voirs within the city are noticed by Josephus, and it thus ap- 
pears clear that Jerusalem never had any good natural water 
supply. 

The Pool of Siloam is filled from the spring before noticed ; 
and though Josephus calls it a fountain, it does not appear to 
have any source of its own, although the drainage of the Tyro- 
pceon basin makes its way into it. Whenever, therefore, we 
find terms used in Scripture which imply a spring of Kving 
water, it is to the spring uiider Ophel that reference would seem 
to be made. A single exception may be noted, however, in 
respect to this statement, for the Dragon Well (Hebrew En 
hat-Tannin * snake spring ') appears to have been west of the 
city ; but even to this place Josephus gives the title Pool, and 
the reservoir intended will be shown to have been probably a. 
rock-cut tank. 

Two names occur in the Old Testament applying to the 
spring of Jerusalem. The first of these is En Eogel (*the 
fuller's spring '), which was close to the stone Zoheleth (1 Kings 
1. 9). The name of this stone (or rock) is still well known to 
the natives (as first discovered by M. Clermont Ganneau), under 
the Arabic form Zahweileh, applying to the cliff on which the 
modem village of Siloam or Silw^ stands. En Bogel, there- 
fore, was clearly identical with the spring which is now called 
'Ain Umm ed-Deraj (spring the mother of steps); known to 
Christians as the Virgin's Well. 



;^ji 



JERUSALEM. 335 



*\ 



In t&e same passage above quoted the name Gihon (or moT% 
correctly 'the Gihon') first appears (verses 83 and 38). The^i' 
word is derived from a root meaning * to burst forth.' It is , 
not strictly' speaking a proper name, but should be rendered 
'the spring-head,' or, according to Josephus, the 'fountain' 
outside the city (7 Ant. 14. 6). The Targum of Jonathan ren- , 
ders it by Siloam, referring possibly to the village oppo0ited| 
which certainly existed before the Targum was written (Ltike * 
13. 4). Solomon, therefore, when crowned at the spring-head^ 
of En Rogel, was in full view of Adonijah and his supporters^ 
standing on the cliff of Zoheleth, only about 100 yards distant. ** 

The name Gihon occurs again in the time of Hezeldah, who 
stopped * the stream (Mozah) of the upper spring (Gihon), and 
brought it down straight westwards to the city of David,' such 
being, according to Keil and other authorities, the proper trans- 
lation of the passage (2 Chron. 32. 30). The stream in question 
flowed in the Nachal (compare verse 4), and the Gihon or" 
spring hero called the 'upper,' as contrasted with the lower 
supply artificially formed by the aqueduct which Hezekiah con- 
structed, was thus apparently the same with the Gihon in the 
valley (Nachal) mentioned a little later (2 Chron. 33. u). It 
appears, therefore, that in each of the three passages in which 
the word Gihon occurs, the spring intended is that of which 
the true name was En Eogel, identical with the present spring 
opposite Silwdn. 

The name Siloah signifies, according to Gesenius, 'sent,' 
with the meaning of artificial direction through an aqueduciA 
In the Old Testament Siloam is called a pool (Heb. and Arab; 
Bvrkeh)y but by Josephus a fountain (Neh. 3. 15, 5 Wars 10. 4.) 
In the New Testament the later form Siloam occurs, but th^ 
translation ' sent ' connects it with the original Siloah ( Johi^ 
9. 7). Josephus uses the later form, nor does the Arabic Sil- 
w4n retain the Hebrew guttural. 

The waters of Siloam are said to have been sweet (5 Wars 4. 
1). In the twelfth century, however, William of Tjrre (8. 4) 
says that they were unsavoury ; and at the present time they are 
brackish. The reason of the change appears to be that the 



336 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

main drain of Jerusalem now leads out into the Tyropcoon im- 
mediately above the pool. 

By the preceding sketch of the physical topography of the 
site of Jerusalem, we are now prepared for the consideration of 
the monuments and fortifications which belong to its various 
historic epochs, and these may be described during four periods : 
First, from David to the Captivity ; secondly, during tiie time 
of Nehemiah ; thirdly, in the Hasmonean period j and, fourthly, 
in the Herodian age. 

First Period — David to the Captivity (467 Tears), 

As early as the time of David we find a lower city and a 
citadel at Jerusalem (7 Ant. 3. l). The former can be shown 
to have been the same quarter afterwards called Akra ; and the 
latter, the citadel, is expressly stated by Josephus to have been 
the same as the Upper City of his own time (5 Wars 4. i). In 
the Biblical accoxmt (2 Sam. 5. 7-9; 1 Chron. 11. 6—8) the 
citadel is called * the Moimtain-castle or Acropolis of Sion,' and 
appears to have been surroimded with a fosse (Tzinnor) or ditch 
(7 Ant. 3. l). Others have understood the word to mean an 
aqueduct, along which Joab crept into the interior ; but sudi 
was not the view of either Josephus or the Greek translators, 
and as traces of a rocky scarp surrounding the Upper City exist 
on the east, on the north, and on the south-west, while at tiiie 
latter comer there are remains of a fosse, the first-mentioned 
explanation appears to be the most probable. 

The name Zion is in this passage given to the citadel or 
Upper City, and the same place (* the fort,* Heb. Metzad) is 
said to have been called, after its capture, the City of David. 
From the fourth century downwards the name Zion has in- 
variably been applied to the larger southern hill of Jerusalem, 
but there are passages in the Bible which seem to give a wider 
application to the term. In the poetical books the name is 
used as synonymous with Jerusalem, or, indeed, as applying to 
the district roimd the city. The * mountains of Zion ' are 
mentioned (Psalm 133. 3), and in the 1st Book of Maccabees 
the term Mount Zion, if applied to any particular part of the 



JERUSALEM. . 337 

city, must be taken to' mean the Temple hill (1 Maoc. 4. 36-39 ; 
7. 33). The modem Arabic Sahyun is the correct equivalent 
of Zion according to Gresenius — ^^the meaning of the word being 
* simny ' — and a valley called Sahyiin now exists 1^ miles west 
of the present city wall. It is also remarkable that the word 
Zion does not occur in the works of Josephus, who invariably 
replaces it by the name Jerusalem in his version of events re- 
lated in the historical books of the Old Testament. 

The name City of David is in the same way not restricted 
to the hill of the Upper City. Millo was in the City of David 
(2 Chron. 32. s), and the Ark was brought up to the Temple from 
the City of David (1 Kings 8. l), whence it appears that the 
Lower City was included in the term. The name Zion may 
therefore be considered to apply to the whole site of Jerusalem 
in its original condition ; and the City of David was the city as 
existing in David's time. 

A single passage has often been quoted in support of the 
view that David's town was on Ophel, south of the Temple. 
The Authorised Version (2 Chron. 32. 30) speaks of Hezekiah's 
aqueduct from the Gihon as leading to the ' west side of the 
City of David/ which should in such a case be placed on the 
hill pierced by the rock-cut channel. It has, however, been 
already noticed that the natural translation of the words ac- 
cording to competent authority is ' westwards to (Marabah al) 
the City of David,' which would indicate the hill of the Upper 
City towards which the channel leads. 

It is highly probable that at different times and by different 
writers the terms Zion and City of David were used in different 
senses ; but the rare occurrence of the first term in the historical 
books, and its frequent use in the Psalms and by the Prophets, 
shows it to have been a poetical title for Jerusalem, p^hile it is 
clear that the application of the latter term cannot be restricted 
to the limits of the Upper City. 

The first Jewish fortifications erected at Jerusalem embraced 
a place called Millo in the City of David. The word is always 
used with the article in the Hebrew, and comes from a root 

z 



•> V 




338 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLK. 

meaning * to fill.' The Greek translation invariably reii< 
by Akra, and as this is the most ancient known indicatioii of \ 
the position of ' the Millo/ it must be regarded as the beitr 
evidence we possess. Josephus in the same way paraphraaef - 
the passage concerning David's wall round Millo by the descrip- 
tion of * buildings roxmd about the Lower City ' (7 Ant. 3. 2.) .'* 
which he identifies with Akra (5 Wars 6. i). The House oif 
Millo is mentioned (2 Kings 12. 20) in the time of Joash as 
near the ' descent of Sillah/ which may, perhaps, be the same as 
the * steps from the City of David * (Neh. 3. 16), for the word 
Sillah means ' steps * (Scala, Gesenius), or, according to others, 
* a causeway' ; or Sillah may be identical with the ^causeway of 
going up' leading to the west side of the Temple (1 Chron. 26. 
16). In either case the identification of Millo with Akra is 
confirmed. 

The references to the walls of Jerusalem before the time of 
Kehemiah are scanty and vague. After the building epoch of 
David and Solomon, no change appears to have occurred for 140 
years, until Uzziah built towers at the Comer Gate, the Valley 
Gate, and the turning of the wall (2 Chron. 26. 9). About half 
a century later Jotham began a wall on Ophel (2 Chron. 27. 3), 
and nearly a centiuy later, again, Manasseh continued this work, 
and carried it round to the Fish Gate on the north of the ci^ 
(2 Chron. 33. u). The position of the various places thus 
noticed is best understood by the description of their relative 
positions at the time when Nehemiah restored the work of the 
later Kings of Judah. The general direction in which the dty 
appears to have spread was towards the east and the north-east, 
probably because of the proximity of the Temple enclosure, and 
also because the west side of the city was less easily defended, 
the groimd being flatter and the approach easier than on the 
easfc. 

Before the Ophel spur had been enclosed the spring of En 
Rogel was left 400 yards outside the city wall. This was, how- 
ever, by no means an imusual occurrence in ancient cities. The 
spring of Shiloh was distant three-quarters of a mile from the 
town, and Keilah stood on a hill at a distance from the 






JERUSALEM. 339 

■ . >^\ . 
'/:fa^ruigs which supplied it gi'eater than that from En Eogel to 

JTerusalem. 
V In the time of Hezekiah, however, about 50 years after the 
- Ophel wall had been commenced, it was determined to form a 
communication from the city to the spring, and to close up the 
outlet of the latter so as to prevent its being used by an enemy 
from without (2 Chron. 32. 4-30). Hezekiah's conduit led 
"westwards from the Gihon to a pool which was hewn at the 
same time (2 Kings 20. 20). The conduit i*emains, still convey- 
ing water to the Pool of Siloam ; and a rock-cut shaft from 
the neighbourhood of the old waU on Ophel leads to the Gihon. 
The latter is probably the work intended by the Son of Sirach, 
who says, * Ezekias fortified his city, and brought in water into 
the midst thereof* (Ecclus. 48. 17). 

An older pool appears to have existed close to that made by 
Hezekiah at Siloam. It is apparently that called Solomon's 
Pool by Josephus (5 Wars 4. 2), and Isaiah speaks of *the 
reservoir for the waters of the old pool * made in the time of 
Hezekiah (22. ll). 

An old pool still exists in ruins immediately below the Pool 
of Siloam and this appears to be the one intended, for in the 
passage just quoted {y, 9) Isaiah speaks of the gathering together 
of the waters of the lower pool. A rock-cut channel leads from 
Siloam to the larger and older reservoir, and this is perhaps 
* the conduit of the Upper Pool,' (Isaiah 36. 2), beside which 
Kabshekeh stood in the highway of the fuller's field, for the 
word used for highway is the same which occurs in connection 
with Millo and the Temple. 

It seems, at all events, clear that Siloam was the pool hewn 
by Hezekiah at the west end of his aqueduct from the Gihon, and 
that an older reservoir had previously existed near the jimction 
of the Tyropceon with the Nachal Kedron. 

As early as the 14th century the sites of what were termed 
Upper and Lower Gihon were placed on the west side of Jeru- 
salem at the two great tanks now called Birket Mamilla and, 
Birket es-Sult4n. The term Gihon cannot, however, be ap- 
plied to a rain-water tank, as the word means a spring hea4. 

z 2 



340 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Birket Mamilla (said to have been named from St. MamiDa, 
whose church existed near it in 867 A.D.), is possibly the Beth 
Mamela of the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Erubin 51 b, Sanhedrin 24 a\ 
As regards the Birket es-Sultdn, we find it stated in the Cites 
de Jherusalem (dating a little after 1187 a.d.) jthat it was 
constructed by the Grermans. In the Cartulary of the Holy 
Sepulchre under date 1177 a.d. it is called Lacus GermanL In 
accounts of the city written before the 12th century it is never 
mentioned, and we may safely conclude that it formed no part 
of the water supply system of ancient Jerusalem. 

The Eoyal Palace and the Tombs of the Kings of Judah next 
require a short notice; the position of both having been a 
matter of much controversy. 

Solomon's Palace was a large building, containing a judgment 
hall, a harim or women's apartment, a portico, and other 
structures. It was situated above and outside the City of David 
(1 Kings 9. 24, 2 Chron. 8. 1 1). We can hardly doubt, therefore, 
that it is the same place called afterwards the King's High House 
by the court of the prison (Neh. 3. 26), which is mentioned as 
situate south of the Temple. A gate called the Higher Gate 
led apparently from this palace to the House of the Lord 
(2 Chron. 23. 20) ; and the Horse Gate, or entrance by which 
the horses came into the king's house (2 Kings 11. 16), was im- 
mediately outside the Temple. 

Both the High Gate of Benjamin and the Horse Gate are 
noticed in such a way as to make it clear that they were on 
the east side of Jerusalem (Jer. 31. 40, Neh. 3. 28, Zech. 14. lo), 
and Josephus places the latter by the Yalley of Cedron (9 Ant. 
7. s). By Ezekiel also the proximity of the royal palace to the 
Temple is indicated (43. s) ; and as the Horse Gate was south of 
the Temple (Neh. 3^ 28), we have Httle difficulty in determining 
the general position of the royal palace as standing on the 
Temple mountain south of the Holy House. 

It is not known at what time this palace was finally de- 
stroyed ; but it is never mentioned by Josephus in the later 
period of Jewish history, and the royal cloister of Herod's 
Temple enclosure appears to have occupied its site^ 



JEBUSALEM. 341 

The neighbourhood of Siloam seems to have become the 
royal quarter of Jerusalem. The King's Garden was by the 
-wall of the pool (Neh. 3. 16). The king's wine presses were appa- 
rently in the same locality (Zech. 14. lo), and a place of sepul- 
ture, *the field of burial of the kings' (2 Chron. 26. 23) ap- 
pears to have been within the royal garden of TJzzah (2 Kings 
21. 26), which was no doubt the same place as the King's 
Grarden (Jer. 39. 4). Thus at a later period we find the sepul- 
chres of David, mentioned in the same connection, and ap- 
parently situated on Ophel above Siloah (Neh. 3. 16); these 
cannot, however, be the royal tombs mentioned so frequently 
as being within the City of David. 

It appears, in fact, pretty certain that two royal cemeteries 
existed, one within Jerusalem and one outside near Siloam. In 
the former, nine famous monarchs were entombed, namely, 
David, Solomon, Rehoboam, Abijam, Jehosaphat, Amaziah, 
Jotham, Hezekiah, and Josiah, In the other cemetery, Uzziah 
and Manasseh were buried, in a garden outside the city belong- 
ing to the royal palace. This place is called * the field of burial 
belonging to the kings ' (2 Chron. 26. 23). 

It is most interesting to enquire where the nine more famous 
kings were entombed ; but of this we have no exact indication 
in the Bible, though the place was apparently well known as 
late as the time of Christ (Acts 2. 29, 16 Ant. 7. l.) 

From the Talmud we learn that all tombs were outside Je- 
rusalem, except those of the family of David, and that of the 
prophetess Huldah (Tosiphta, Baba Bathra, chap. 1) although 
it was not considered certain whether some *tomb of the depth ' 
or hidden sepulchre might not exist unknown beneath the sur- 
face (Parah 3. 2). 

It is remarkable that one undisputed Jewish tomb still 
exists in sudi a position as to have been certainly within the 
City of David, because it stands almost on the top of the knoll 
of Akra or Millo. This is the so-called tomb of Nicodemus, 
immediately outside theKotunda of the Holy Sepulchre Church ; 
and it is yet more remarkable that in its original condition, before 
it was partly destroyed, this tomb must have been just made to 



342 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE, 

contain nine bodies, placed in Kohim or graves cut according to 
the oldest arrangement employed by the Jews. Josephus also 
mentions as a peculiarity of the tombs of the kings that some 
of the coffins were buried, beneath the surface, so as to be un- 
seen even by those standing within the monument (7 Ant. 15. 3). 
Just such an arrangement exists in the tomb under considera- 
tion, the floor of which is sunk so that the graves on one side 
are oh a lower tier. 

It seems, therefore, quite possiUe ^at the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre preserves the monument of the nine chief 
kings of Jerusalem : ^r the tradition which places their tombs 
on the hill of the upper city is of late origin, nor have any 
indications of ancient tombs be^i d&covered in that locality. 

One or two scattered notices of places in Jerusalem occur in 
the earlier books of the Old Testament, which may be briefly 
noticed. 

The Gate Sur (2 Kings 11. 6) was apparently in the Temple 
enclosure, as was also the New Gate (Jer. 26. lo), which was 
apparently the same as the High Gate already noticed (Jer. 36. 
lo), which formed the royal entry from the palace. It is also 
called the High Gate of Benjamin ( J^. 20. 2, see also 2 Kings 
15. 35, 2 Chron. 23. 20, 27. 3). 

A place called Mishnah, rendered 'college' and 'second' 
(2 Kings 22. 14, Zeph. 1. lo), also existed in Jertisalem, and 
seems to have been probably a quarter of the city. The Prison 
was close to the Royal Palace. The Bakers Street (Jer. 37. 2l), 
and the ' graves of the common people ' (Jer. 26. 23) are also 
mentioned, but their positions as well as that of the ' third 
entry ' (Jer. 38. 14) are quite unknown. 

Second Period — The Restorations of Nehemidh (407 Years). 

The topographical chapters of the Book of Nehemiah are the 
second, third, and twelfth. The building of the city waU is 
described from the north-east, westwards, southwards, east- 
wards, and northwards. The various points enumerated are 
as follows : — 



JEEUSALEM. 343 

(1), TJie SJieep Gate "was probably that by which the sacri- 
fices were bTX)xight to the Temple. 

(2), Towers of Meah cmd Hwrwmed, These may probably 
have formed part of the castle north of the Temple, which was 
afterwards rebuilt under the name Antonia. Hananeel is 
noticed in another passage (Zech. 14. 10), apparently as marking 
the north-east comer of the wall of Jerusalem. That a fortress 
did exist on the Temple hill at this time is to be inferred from 
the mention of *the palace' {Birah, more correctly castle) 
* which appertained to the house * (that is to the Temple), and 
which formed part of the fortifications of Jerusalem (Neh. 2. «). 
At a later period the name Baris is noticed by Josephus as 
applying to the citadel replaced by Antonia (1 Wars 3. s), and 
the word Birah is used in the Talmud apparently with the same 
meaning (Middoth 1. 9, Tamid 1. 1, Zebakhim 12. s). 

(3), The Fish Gate, according to a Targum (2 Ohron. 33. 
14), was a gate where a fish-market existed. It was, no doubt, 
on the main road to the sea, which in the ancient times left 
Jerusalem from the north (cf. Neh. 13. 16). 

(4), The Old Gate was between the last and the next, as is 
shown by another passage (Neh. 12. 39). 

The name Yeshanah (* old ') is very probably connected with 
the name Mishnah (Zeph. 1. lo), which is also noticed in con- 
nection with the Fish Gate. 

(5), The Gate of Ephraim was 400 cubits from the Corner 
Gate (2 Chron. 25. 23). 

(6), TJie Broad WaU. 

(7), The Tower of the Funvaces (or Ovens), 

(8), The Gate of the Valley (Gai). The Hebrew name indi- 
cates its position as being the gate leading to the Ge Ben Hinnom. 
It is also mentioned (Neh. 2. 13) as facing the Dragon's Spring, 
and we can have little hesitation in supposing that the Dragon's 
Spring, or Well (En), is the same place called the Serpent's 
Pool by Josephus (5 Wars 3. 2). The latter reservoir was close 
to certain monuments erected by Herod, and we learn from the 
account of Titus's wall of circumvallation that Herod's monu- 
ment lay westwai*ds of the place called the Camp of the 



344 HA]ST)BOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Assyrians, which was north-west of Jerusalem, and not fiir from 
the wall of Nehemiah (5 Wars 7. 2). It is possible that the 
present Birket Mamilla may be the Dragon's Well, or that the 
spring or reservoir (whichever it was) is now buried, and was 
closer to the city. It is not possible, however, to place either 
the Dragon's Well or the Gate of the Gai (Valley) very fiar 
south of the line of the present road entering the Jafi& Crate. 

(9), The Comer Gate. Is mentioned by Jeremiah as being 
on the side of Jerusalem opposite to Hananeel (31. 38), the 
two places indicating the extreme breadth of the city. By 
Zechariah it is called the First Gkite (Zech. 14. lo). The most 
probable position is shown on the Map. 

(10), The Dung Gate was distant 1,000 cubits from the 
Valley Gate (Neh. 3. 13). This distance measured along the 
west wall of Jerusalem from the Jaffii Gate in the direction of 
the ancient rock scarp with towers, which marks the old south- 
west comer of the city, reaches as far as the road which now 
leads up from the valley. The place called Bethso by Joseph us, 
which is best rendered ' House of Dung * (Bethzua), must have 
been in the same locality, being between Hippicus and the 
south-west comer of the waU (5 Wars 4. 2). 

(11), Gate of the Fountain {or Spring), probably was named 
from the Valley of the Foimtain (5 Wars 12. 2), and we are 
thus brought to the south-east comer of the city. 

There is some reason for supposing that two walls existed 
in the neighbourhood of Siloam. Josephus says that Manasseh 
* added another wall to the former ' (10 Ant. 3. 2), and this 
fortification is spoken of in the Bible as * outside the city of 
David ' (2 Chron. 33. u). At the time of the siege of Jeru- 
salem, by Titus, Siloam was so far outside the city walls that 
the Romans were able to obtain water from it (5 Wars 9. 4), 
and the line of fortification ran on the hill above the pool 
(5 Wars 4. 2). The gate between two walls, and the ditch be- 
tween two walls (2 Kings 25. 4, Isaiah 22. ll) were in this 
same vicinity, and the * Wall of the Pool of Siloah ' (Neh. 3. 
16), might even be thought to enclose that pool. 

The various descriptions are too vague to allow of our 



JERUSALEM. 345 

tracing the Une very accurately in this part; but it seems not 
improbable that a lower wall close to the pool, and an older 
line of fortification higher on the hill, existed in the time of 
Nehemiah. And, indeed, before the city fortifications were 
extended eastwards to include Ophel, the ancient ramparts 
•would most probably have run along the crest of the western 
hdll, instead of descending towards Siloam in order to cross the 
Tyropoeon Yalley. 

(12), The Stairs from the City of Damd probably descended 
the side or bed of the Tyropceon, leading from the lower city ; 
for the wall ascended near them from the Fountain Grate, and 
trended eastwards towards the next mentioned gate (Neh. 
12. 37). 

(13), The Turning of the Wall was apparently the place 
where the wall began to run northwards, and seems to have 
been near the next point. 

(14), The Water Gate was no doubt situated near the rock 
tunnel, which descends from the hill of Ophel to the interior of 
the spring of En RogeL 

(15), The Projecting Totoer, The foundations of this tower, 
with portions of the ancient wall of Ophel, were discovered by 
Captain Warren north of the rock-cut channel just noticed. It 
is most interesting to note that the wall was not founded on 
live rock — as are the rampart walls of the Temple enclosure — 
but built on clay, some 3 or 4 feet above the rock. The stones 
also appear to have been previously used, and about 20 feet of 
the lowest part of the wall is made of rough rubble. These 
details seem to indicate the hasty reconstruction of the time of 
Nehemiah. 

(16), The Prison Gate (Neh. 12. 39) was probably by Hhe 
Court of the Prison,* which was near the Royal Palace (Neh. 3. 
25). It may be supposed that this gate led out eastwards, from 
the enclosure which contained at that time the Temple and the 
Palace. 

(17), The Gate ofMiphkad (' i-eview, meeting, or muster*). 

(18), The Corner, probably the north-east comer of the 
Temple enclosure, near the Sheep-gate. 



346 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The eleven gates thus enumerated are all wluch seem cer- 
tainly to have belonged to the outer walls, and they may all be 
identified as on the lines of existing paths. There were several 
others not mentioned by Nehemiah, such as the High Gate of 
Benjamin, and the Horse Gate, both of which have been already 
noticed as belonging to the Koyal Palace. The gate Harsith 
(rendered * dung,* or * pottery,* or * east *) is also mentioned by 
Jeremiah (19. 2) in connection with the Ge ben EEinnom. 

Without the assistance of existing ruins, or without the 
plainer description of the course of the city walls by Josephos, 
it would be impossible to lay down the course of Nehemiah's 
wall with any accuracy. But Josephus tells us that the walls 
of the Upper City were very ancient, and we have no reason to 
suppose that those erected by Nehemiah had been destroyed 
before the time of Herod. The line described by Josephus was 
probably the same restored by Nehemiah, and was that origin- 
ally built by the kings from Solomon to Manasseh. The rock 
scarps on which it stood are still visible in places, and on the 
hill of Ophel the wall itself, buried beneath debris, is still stand- 
ing to a great height. The only place where the line cannot be 
very clearly followed is in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Siloam, where further exploration is much needed. 

Third Period — The Hasmoneana (133 Years), 

Considerable alterations in the topography of Jerusalem 
were made by the Hasmonean princes. Simon built a wall in 
the midst of the city to exclude the market-place from the gar- 
rison (13 Ant. 5. 11, 1 Mace. 12. 36). Its exact position is 
nowhere described, but it is possible that the same wall is after- 
wards described by Josephus as the north quarter of the first 
wall. 

John Hyrcanus bmlt or more probably repaired Bans (18 
Ant. 4. d) ; and duriog the Hasmonean period the Akra citadel 
was demolished, and the ground on which it had stood was 
levelled, the valley east of it being filled up with the debris 
(13 Ant. 6. 7, 5 Wars 4. l). This was a work of considerable 
magnitude, and three whole years were occupied in completing 



JERUSALEM. 347 

it. The object was to make it impossible for any fortress built 
on Akra again to command a view of the interior of the Templid 
courts. 

The Palace of the Hasmoneans in the Upper City will be 
noticed later. 

Fourth Period — TheHerodicm Age (108 Years). 

Of the condition of the city in this later period we have 
numerous accounts in the works of Josephus and in the Talmud. 
We may consider in order the walls, the quarters, the palaces, 
the public buildings, and the tombs of the city, with the water 
supply as existing at the time of the great siege. 

The position of the three Royal Towers, Hippicus, Phasae- 
lus, and Mariamne, is the key to Josephus's account of the walls 
of Jerusalem. They were on the north side of the First Wall, 
and adjoined to the Royal Palace (5 Wars 4. 4). They were in 
the Upper City (6 Wars 9. i), as was Herod's Palace (1 Wars 
21. l) ; and the latter was near the west quarter (6 Wars 8. l). 

The Upper City, as we have already seen, was that part of 
Jerusalem standing on the higher southern hill. The Royal 
Towers were in the north-west angle of this hill, and the present 
citadel of Jerusalem occupies the same site. Hippicus must 
apparently have been fai*thest west of the three, because the 
Third Wall also started from it ; and tiie western tower of the 
citadel (measuring 40 by 50 feet) may, perhaps, represent the 
site. Phasaelus was the largest of the three (40 cubits, or 
about 53 feet, square); it stood on a solid base of equal height, 
and had an outer cloister, or covered way, 10 cubits above the 
base. The description applies in a remarkable manner to the 
great tower called David's Tower in the modem citadel, the 
base of which is solid, and now covered with a sloping scarp, 
apparently Crusading work, above which is a breastwork cover- 
ing a passage which loins round the tower outside. David's 
tpwer measures 55 feet north and south, but on the west it is 
joined to other buildings. The sloping scai*p rises from a fosse, 
partly filled with rubbish. 

The third tower, Mariamne, was the smallest and least lofty^ 



348 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBtB. 

f 
b^ing only 20 cubits square, and 30 high ; its exact position is 

not now recognisable. 

From the description given by Tacitus * of Jerusalem, we 
learn that the towers situated on rock scarps or crags were only 
half the height of those on level ground. In the south-west 
comer of ancient Jerusalem the rock scarps on which the towers 
once stood are still in existence, and we may naturally suppose 
that the solid bases of the Royal Towers were also of rock. BKp- 
picus and Phasaelus were of equal height (50 cubits), but their 
bases were respectively 30 and 40 cubits high. Mariamne was 
30 cubits high, with a base of 20 cubits. It seems most pro- 
bable that the tops of the towers were on one level, and that 
the slope of the rock caused these differences in the heights of 
the bases. 

Josephus calls the fii*st wall of the city * the Old Wall,' and 
attributes it to David and Solomon. From Hippicus it ran to 
the west cloister of the Temple, reaching the Xystus, or Gym- 
nasium, and the Council House, the position of which will be 
discussed later. On the west side the wall ran through Bethso, 
(probably the Dung Gate of Nehemiah), to the Gate of the Es- 
senes, and thence to Siloam. The south-west comer of the city is 
defined by the existing remains already noticed of a strong rock 
scarp with projecting tower bases, which were fully explored in 
1874-5. The rock wall is about 50 feet in height, and the 
towers 40 feet square and 400 feet apart, with flights of rock- 
hewn steps, and cisterns, as described by Josephus (5 Wars 4. 3). 
Immediately east of the south-east tower is a rock-cut fosse, 
which seems to have led to a gate, but further excavation is 
here needed. From the north-west tower the scarp extends 
northward in the same line with the present west wall of 
Jerusalem. 

Above the fountain of Siloam the old wall bent and ran to 
Solomon's Fool, where it bent again and reached to Ophel and 
the Eastern Cloister of the Temple. This description is, how- 
ever, imfortunately vague, and without further excavation it is 
impossible exactly to lay down the line in this part. The 

1 AnnalSf Book 1, Chap. 11. 



JERUSALEM. 349 

Ophel wall was traced by Captain Warren for about 700 feet 
from the south-east comer of the Temple enclosure, when no 
further traces could be found. It is possible that the rocky 
scarp immediately west of the Pool of Siloam, and about 100 
feet above it, may have formed the foundation of the ancient 
line of fortification ; but the point where the south-east comer 
e^ted can only be fixed by determination of the position of 
Solomon's Pool, and as to this we cannot at present feel certain. 
Solomon's Pool is very probably the King's Pool of Nehemiah 
(2. 14), which seems to have been the Old Pool below Siloam. 
It is difficult to conceive that the city walls can have been 
brought so near the level of the valley beds, and not easy to 
understand where the wall can have crossed the deep Tyropoeon ; 
at the same time the * going up of the wall * from the neigh- 
bourhood of Siloam to the Water Gate on the east, is distinctly 
mentioned by Nehemiah (12. 37), and even at the lowest point 
it would have been from 40 to 80 feet above the valley. 
Josephus in another passage also appears to indicate a low 
position for the wall (5 Wars 6. l), and says that it extended 
eastwards from Siloam. 

The course of the Second Wall may be considered the prin- 
cipal subject of controversy in Jerusalem topography, and the 
reason is that but little information on the subject is available. 
It began at the Gate Gennath, belonging to the First Wall ; it 
only surrounded the north quarter of the city, and curved round 
(such is the strict meaning of the Greek) to Antonia. 

The north quarter here mentioned is presumably the lower 
city ; and as the position of Akra has been fairly determined, 
the line of the wall should be drawn so as to include that hill. 
Another indication may be obtained from the proportion of the 
number of towers on the wall. The First Wall had 60 and the 
Second 14. We do not, however, know whether the distances 
apart were uniform. 

The Gennath Gate has been variously explained to be the 
' garden gate,' leading to Herod's palace or the Grehennah gate, 
leading to the valley so named, and thus identical with the 
Valley Gute of Nehemiah. In either case it. would be near 



350 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Hippicus. The tracing of the Tyropceon bed, and tihie discovery 
of its unsuspected width and depth, render it impossible to 
place the starting point of the Second Wall very far east of 
Hippicus, for it is, from a military point of view, impossible to 
suppose that the wall crossed the deep valley, leaving an isthmus 
of high land unprotected immediately outside. The natural 
course would have been along the ridge of the isthmus and so 
west of Akra ; and the narrowness of the shed limits the poeitioii 
of the wall to the immediate neighbourhood of the Boyal Towers. 

The indications afforded by the rock levels are in accordance 
with many incidental references to the wall by Josephus, whicl^ 
may be briefly summed up. 

On the west side of the city, opposite a postern which led 
from Hippicus, was the monument of John Hyrcanua the High 
priest (5 Wars 6. 6, 7. 2.) It was here that the 15th Legion 
made its attack, directed against the Upper City (5. 9. 2) and 
the palace of Herod (6. 8. i). The pool Amygdalon (or * tower 
pool ') was 30 cubits from the High priest's monument and ba« 
in the * north quarter* of the city the 10th Legion made its 
banks, assisting the 15th in their attack on the Upper City. We 
can have little hesitation in identifying Amygdalon with the 
large rock-cut pool north of the present citadel, and now called 
HanmiS.m el-Batrak. 

John's monument was, therefore, apparently some 40 feet 
west of the pool so identified, and the three walls of Jemsalem 
seem to have passed near the monument (5 Wars 6. 2). The 
starting point of the Second Wall is thus to be sought not fiur 
from the tower Hippicus, and the Gennath Gate may possibly 
be the postern by which an aqueduct came in to the towers 
(5 Wars 7. 2), of which aqueduct remains still exist near the 
present Jaffa gate. In this case the Amygdalon pool was inside 
the Second Wall, which agrees with its not being noticed in 
the accoimt of the great siege before the Second Wall was taken. 

If the line thus indicated for the Second Wall be correct, 
the present site of the Holy Sepulchre and the ancient tomb near 
it, jdready described, lay within the city at the time of Christ 
The existence of this ancient tomb has been sometimes taken as 



JERUSALEM. 351 

HI 

evidence for another course of the wall, because the Mishna 
(Baba Bathra, 2. 9) says that ' corpses, and sepulchres, and 
tanneries are separated from the city fifty cubits.* 

Such an argument would have force as showing that a 
monument of late date, like that of the High priest John, was 
probably outside the city; but the Jews were by no means 
certain that more ancient tombs did not exist hidden beneath 
the surface inside the walls of Jerusalem, and they took many 
precautions foimded on such a supposition(see Parah 3. 2). 

Yet further, it has been shown that the ancient sepulchre in 
question has some claim to be considered that of the nine kings 
of Judah ; and its existence, instead of militating against the 
supposed line of the wall, th\is adds to its likelihood ; for the 
Tosiphta (Baba Bathra, 1) states that the tombs of the family 
of David were within tiie walls of Jerusalem. 

A question concerning which various authorities have main- 
tained such contrary views, can only be settled by the actual 
recovery of the wall. It is to be feared, however, that the 
desire to establish the genuineness of the Holy Sepulchre on 
the one hand, and the wish to disprove it on the other, have 
been active motives in most of the controversies which have 
been carried on regarding the course of the Second Wall. 

The Third Wall of Jerusalem was commenced by Agrippa, 
and finished just before the great siege. It was consequently 
not in existence in the time of Christ ; but the new city which 
it enclosed (when built only 10 years later) must have been 
already spreading as a suburb at the time of the Crudfixion, 
and the place of public execution would no doubt have been 
outside it. The line of the Second Wall has not therefore, in 
reality, the amount of importance attributed to it in connection 
with the site of Calvary, although the existence of any ancient 
wall dating from the time of Christ, and indodng the present 
traditional site, is fatal to its claims. The suburb of the new 
city extended principally north of the Temple ; but the large area 
enclosed by the Third Wall to the west and north-west of the 
Holy Sepulchre Church shows that this site was probably sur 
rounded by buildings as early as the time of the Crucifixion. 



352 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The Third Wall began at Hippicus, and reached to the octa- 
gonal tower Psephinus, which stood at the north-west comer of 
the wall (5 Wars 4. a), and on very high ground, connnanding 
a view of the mountains of Arabia. It is probable that the 
high ground near the present Bussian Cathedral is thus in- 
dicated ; whence the mountains south-east of Petra are 
distinctly visible when covered with snow. The statement that 
the Mediterranean could also be seen from it is, however, an 
error on the part of Josephus, for the sea is not visible horn 
any place near Jerusalem. 

From Psephinus, the Third Wall ran eastwards until opposite 
the monuments of Helena, Queen of Adiabene, which were about 
three furlongs from the city (20 Ant. 4. s). A gate and towers, 
called the Women's Towers, existed at this point (5 Wars 2. 2). 
Helena's monument is mentioned by St. Jerome (Epit. Pauls) 
as situated east of the great north road from Neapolis ; and Pau- 
sanias ^ mentions the rolling stone of the door. It seems pro- 
bable, therefore, that the monument intended is that no-w called 
Kabur es-Salatin (Sultan's tombs), or Kabur el-Moluk (Tombs 
of the Kings), a monimient which is dated by architects as 
belonging to the 1st century of our era. In this monument, 
the sarcophagus of Meleka Sarah (Queen Sarah) was discovered 
by M. de Saulcy, with an ioscription in letters approaching 
square Hebrew. The system of tomb chambers seems to have 
belonged to the royal family of Adiabene, several of whom be- 
came converts to Judaism. 

From the Women's Towers the Third Wall extended to the 
Royal Caverns, and passed throibgh or over them. The great 
quarries, whence the Temple stones were hewn, seem here to 
be intended by Josephus; and the line of the wall thence 
to the Tower of the Comer, where it turned south towards 
the Temple, seems to have coincided with that of the great 
rocky scarp with its outer ditch, which forms the foundation of 
the modem city wall. 

The number of towers on the Third Wall was 90, and they 

* Qreda DescHpt, 8. le. 



JERUSALEM. 35S 

were 200 cubits apart, according to Josephus. This would give 
a length of 8,000 yards for the whole of the wall; but the 
circuit of Jerusalem, according to Josephus, was 33 furlongs, or 
6,600 yards. The two statements are evidently inconsistent^ 
and some exaggeration or error has probably occurred in the 
ease of the Third Wall. The measurements given by Josephus 
are, however, rarely very exact, and generally (as in describing 
Csesarea, Samaria, and Jotapata) they err on the side of over- 
statement. They were probably not based on actual measure- 
ment in the first instance : they were written down in Bome — 
those in the Wars about a.d. 76, those in the Antiquities as 
late as a.d. 93. They have sufiered much in the hands of 
copyists ; and thus, even without accusing him of intentional 
exaggeration, they must be considered of little value when they 
disagree with actual measurement of existing monuments. 

No possible plan of Jerusalem, in accordance with the de- 
scription by Josephus, will give a circuit much over 5,700 
yards, or 28 furlongs. And the length of the Third Wall 
appears to have been actually about 2,500 yards, or not much 
more than three-tenths of that given by Josephus. The line of 
the wall of circumvallation by Titus (5 Wars 12, 2), which was 
no doubt made as short as possible, seems to have had a total 
length of about 6,200 yards, or 26 furlongs ; but by Josephus 
it is stated at 39 furlongs. Actual survey at Jerusalem, as in 
other places in Palestine, seems thus to show the inaccuracy of 
Josephus's measurements. 

The city was divided into quarters, as already described. 
The term Tipper Market, applying to the Upper City, is also 
found in the Talmud (Shekalim 8. l), audit is there said to have 
been inhabited by heathen fullers. The Lower Market (Suk 
hat-Tahtun) in also noticed (Tosiphta, Sanhedrin 14) and 
appears to have been in the Lower City ; and two places or 
quarters, called the two Bezain (or Bezin. Tosiphta, Sanhe- 
drin 3) are mentioned, but without any indication sufficient to 
£x their position. Nor can we say where the market of the 
wool-merchants and that of the fatteners were placed (Erubin 
10. 9). 

A A 



354 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The population of Jerusalem is stated by Josephus to have 
been 3,000,000 during the siege, and by Tacitus it is given as 
600,000, whereas the present population is only 22,000. The 
average area of house room in the city is now about 7 square yards 
per soul. The area of the ancient city was less than 2,000,000 
square yards, and from this we must take perhaps half for the 
Temple, the streets, and the public places, gardens, palaces, and 
orchards within the walls. The city could thus easily have held 
300,000 souls as an ordinary population, and the estLmate of 
600,000 given by Tiax^itus ^ as that during the siege seems to be 
within the bounds of probability, whereas the higher number 
quoted by Josephus appears most probably exaggerated, repre- 
senting more than half the total population of Palestine at the 
time of David. 

The public buildings of the city next claim attention, 
among which the Xystus may be noticed first. This place was 
probably the same as the Gymnasium which was established bj 
the High priest Jason before the revolt (1 Mace. 1. 14, 12 Ant 

5. l). It was situated in the valley under the west wall of the 
Temple enclosure (6 Wars 6. 2), and had gates above it in that 
wall. It appears to have been not far from the great Tyropaxm 
bridge, and was evidently north of it. It seems probable that 
the Hippodrome mentioned in other passages (2 Wars 3. l) 
may have been the same place. The remains of the XysfcoB 
are perhaps connected with the ancient chamber discovered bj 
Captain Wai-ren near the pool el-Burak, north of the Jews' 
wailing place. 

Among other public buildings a theatre, erected by Herod 
in Jerusalem (15 Ant. 8. l), is mentioned; and the Oouncfl 
House and Archives are also noticed (6 Wars 6. s), both appa- 
rently in the Lower City, and the first near the Xystus (5 Wars 
4. l). In the Lower City also, not far above Siloam, was the 
palace of the royal family of Adiabene (5 Wars 6. i, 6 Wan 

6. 8). 

It appears that the Hasmonean princes built themselves a 

* Hut. 6. 13. 



JEKUSALEM. 355 

pedace in the Upper City towards the east. This was afterwards 
enlarged by Agrippa, It was above and in sight of the Xystus 
and close to the Tyropceon bridge. It was at such a height as 
to command a view into the Temple, and must therefore have 
stood near the top of the mountain (20 Ant. 8. 11,2 Wars 16. 8). 
Herod's palace in the Upper City near the Boyal Towers was 
distinct from the one thus described, and the Upper City had 
thus two palaces ; while the fortress of Antonia — ^the Praetorium 
of Pilate — formed a third royal residence. 

The principal sepulchral monuments of the city included 
the royal sepulchres of the kings of Judah, inside the city ; the 
monument of the High priest John outside, on the west ; the 
tomb of Helena on the north, at a distance of 3 furlongs ; the 
monument of King Alexander (Janneus), apparently on the 
east, and very probably to be identified with the Tantur Far'6n, 
or Absolom's Tomb (5 Wars 7. 2) ; and the monument of the 
Fuller near the north-east comer of the city. The tomb of the 
Prophetess Huldah also existed inside the city, and that of 
Simon the Just was probably the same now shown in the valley 
called "W4dy el-J6z, north of Jerusalem. The monument of 
Ananus the High priest is also noticed on the south of the 
city (5 "Wars 12. 2). It is not easy to understand what is in- 
tended by Herod's monuments (5 "Wars 3. 2 ; and 12. 2). 
Herod the Great was buried at Herodium, and Heix>d Agrippa 
died at Csesarea. The position of the monument also forbids us 
to suppose that it was the one erected by Herod over the 
entrance to the Tombs of the Kings. 

The main 'cemetei7 of Jerusalem at this period appears to 
have been on the north. A great number of Jewish tombs 
exist on that side of the city, while those on the east and south 
are principally Christian. It is on the north of the city per- 
haps that we should look for the true site of the Tomb of 
Joseph of Arimathsea, in a garden such as those which are 
noticed by Joseph us as existing on the north (5 "Wars 2. 2). 

The place of public execution also appears to have been 
situated north of the city. It was outside the gate (Heb. 13. 
12), and yet *nigh unto the dty' (John 19. 20). In the 

▲ A 2 



356 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Mia^Tift it is called Bet-has-Sekilah, ^House of Stoning/ 
and is also placed outside the city by a reference to Lieyiticiis 
(24. 14). It is said to have been ' two men high ' (Sanhedrin 
6. l). The Jews of Jerusalem still point out the site at the 
cliff, north of the Damascus gate, where is a cave now called 
< Jeremiah's Grotto.' This site has therefore some claim to be 
considered as that of the Crucifixion — ^the place called Grolgotha 
or Calvary. It is within 200 yards of the wall of Agrippa, 
but was certainly outside the ancient city. It is also close to 
the gardens and the tombs of the old city, which stretch north- 
wards from the cliff; and it was close to the main north road^ 
in a conspicuous position, such as might naturally be selected 
for a place of public execution. 

The water supply of Jerusalem requires a short notice in 
conclusion of this account of the city. The reservoirs in the 
Temple enclosure are noticed by Tacitus, with the pools and 
cisterns and the one perennial spring.^ Josephus mentions that 
many of the Jews took refuge in the subterranean caverns be- 
neath the Temple and elsewhere (6 Wars 8. 5 ; 7 Wars 2. l), 
and the Mishna explains that Jerusalem and the courts of the 
Holy House were foimded on caverns to secure the sanctify of 
the buildings above them by interposing a hollow space between 
the upper surface and any unknown grave beneath (Parah 3. 2). 
The caverns themselves were not held to be part of the sacred 
or pure area. 

It has been already mentioned that the great reservoir west 
of Jerusalem (Birket es-Sultdn) was not in existence in the 
time of Josephus : and from his silence on the subject it may 
be inferred that the yet larger tank called Birket Israil, nortii 
of the Temple, was also not then built : for so important a 
feature in the topography could hardly have otherwise escaped 
notice in the history of the siege. A ditch existed at the time 
on this side, and has been partly closed over to form the Twin 
Pools at the north-west comer of the Temple enclosure. The 
masomy of the Birket Israil has the appearance of Byzantine, 

* Sigt. 5. 12 



JERUSALEM. 357 

or even later work, and no distinct reference to the pool is 
found before the twelfth century. 

The remaining pools and springs noticed by Josephus are 
seven in all, as follows : — 1. The Serpent's Pool, on the west, 
outside the city. 2. Amygdalon, which, as before noticed, 
appears to be the present Pool of the Bath (Kamui4m el-Batrak). 
3. Struthius, close to Antonia (5 Wars 11. 4). 4. The Foun- 
tain of Siloam. 5. Solomon's Pool, apparently the old pool 
below the last. 6. The fountain in the valley of that name 
(5 "Wars 12. 2), in which we may perhaps recognise the present 
Bir Eyiib, which was rediscovered by the Christians a,d. 1184, 
and which still overflows annually in early spring. 7. Gihon, 
or En Bogel. 

In addition to these, we find the Pool of Bethesda, 
mentioned in the fourth Gospel as near the 'sheep place/ 
The Sinaitic MS. reads Bathzatha amd the Alexandrine reads 
Bethsaida. In the fourth century the site was shown at 
the Twin Pools north-west of Antonia. In the twelfth it 
was supposed to be a cistern near the Church of St. Anne, and 
since the fourteenth it has been identified with the Birket Israil. 
None of these reservoirs have any supply of living water, and 
none can well be supposed to have had any intermittent rise and 
fall such as we might understand by the ' moving of the waters ' 
(John 5. s). Unfortunately, we do not know whether the 
Probatica or * sheep place ' was a market, a gate, or something 
else ; and the word does not, therefore, assist in fixing the posi- 
tion of the pool. There are two other sites which may be re- 
garded as possible for Bethesda, the first being the spiing of En 
Rogel, which has an intermittent ebb and flow, and which is 
still frequented by the Jews who bathe in it to cure various 
diseases. The other is the curious well immediately west of the 
Temple enclosure, now called Hamm&m esh-Shefa * the Healing 
Bath.' A long reservoir, reached by a shaft nearly 100 ft. deep. 
It is, however, impossible to speak with any certainty on the 
question. 

Three aqueducts supplied Jerusalem with water. On the 
south, the conduit constructed by Pontius Pilate ^18 Ant. 3. 2) 



358 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

brought water from the spring of Etam (*Ain 'Atfi.ii) where 
Solomon's gardens had been formerly made (Tal. Bab. Yoma 31 o, 
8 Ant. 7, s). The aqueduct has been traced yet farther south 
to the springs of Widj Arriib and to 'Am Kueiziba, the total 
length of the line being forty-one miles, though in a straight 
line the head spring is only thirteen miles from Jerusalem. 
The water was conducted to the Temple enclosure. 

Another aqueduct from the same source is traceable in the 
direction of Jerusalem, but is lost on the Plain of Hephaim. It 
seems probably to have run to the Birket Mamilla (perhaps the 
Serpent's Pool), and a conduit thence led, probably on the line 
of the present channel, from that reservoir to the cisterns under 
the tower Hippicus (5 Wars 7. 2). 

The northern aqueduct is not mentioned by Josephus, and 
its discovery was quite unexpected. It can be traced from the 
neighboxn-hood of the present Dam'ascus gate to the Twin 
Pools, and thence southwards to the Temple wall, w^hich has 
been built across it. A cistern exists inside the eilclosure op- 
posite the end of the aqueduct, and was probably supplied by ii 

Another channel connected with two cisterns, and also cut 
across by the west wall of the Temple enclosure, was discovered 
by Captain "Warren running northwards from the Tyropceon 
bridge towards the Hamm^m esh-Shefa. It seems not unHkelj 
that this is also part of the northern aqueduct which would thus 
have been continued towards Siloam, the KammS,m esh-Shefit 
beiog perhaps one of the wells supplied by it. 

The supply of this last aqueduct appears to have been ob- 
tained from rain water. A deep trench exists outside the scarp 
of the old city wall on the north, just where the channel begins, 
and beyond this trench on the sides of the hill of Jeremiah's 
Grotto there are several surface channels converging towards 
the trench. The levels of the ground in this part forbid us to 
suppose any connection with the southern channels or with the 
western aqueduct. 



359 



CHAPTEE VIIL 

THE TEMPLE. 

The following account of the Temples of Solomon and Herocl in 
Jerusalem is based on the comparison of ancient descriptions 
with the results of the explorations made on the site during the 
last twelve years by Colonel Wilson, R.E., Colonel Warren, 
II.E.. and Lieutenant Conder, R.E., including the survey by 
the first-mentioned officer, and the seventy-five observations of 
the rock levels, which are now recorded within the area of the 
Haram esh-Shenf or ' High Sanctuary.' 

The great enclosure of the Haram is a quadrangle, with un- 
equal sides. In the north-east and south-west comers the walls 
are at right angles ; the south-east comer has an angle 92^ 30^ 
The west wall measures 1,601 ft., the south 922, the east 1,530, 
and the north 1,042 ffe. The area included is thirty-five acres. 

The rampart walls which enclose this site have a height of 
from 30 ft. to 170 ft. above the rock, and an aveiuge thickness 
of about 8 ft. The ground on the interior is artificially but 
rudely levelled, the surface being partly of rock, partly of 
banked-up earth, and partly supported on vaults of masonry. 
The rock rises at the north-west comer of the Haram to a 
level 2,462 ft. above the Mediterranean, and the surflEu^e is here 
equalised by excavation, leaving a scarp 42 ft. in height. The 
rock is lowest in the south-east comer of the area (2,278 above 
the sea), and by help of observations made in cistern-mouths 
and in other places where the rock is visible, the watershed of 
the mountain has been traced from the north-west comer to a 
point about two-thirds of the length of the south wall from the 
south-west comer, where it has a level 2,378 ft. above the sea. 



360 HA]!n)BOOK TO THE BIBLR 

The Sakhrah or * rock ' standing under the present Dome of 
the Sakhitkh is the highest point on the ridge south of the scarp 
ah*eady mentioned, having a level 2,440 ft. above the sea. 

The eastern slopes of the ridge are the gentlest, and can be 
traced over the whole area, except towards the north-east, where 
the present surface is low, and where the rock is neither seen 
above ground, nor visible in the tanks and vaults. The exca- 
vations made by Colonel "Warren showed that a valley bed tiscosa/ea 
the north-east part of the enclosure, at a depth of 160 fb. below 
the Sakhrah. 

The western slopes are less easily determined ; but the ob- 
servations obtained all indicate a steeper dip than on the east. 
The rock at the foot of the west wall has been traced on the 

* 

outer side, and it seems clear that on the interior it must fall 
with a continuous slope ; first, because the wall would not have 
been bidlt at the bottom of a cliff if it could have stood on the 
top ; secondly, because no traces of rock are found in the pas- 
sages leading from the wall eastwards ; and, thirdly, because the 
angle of the slope observed in two or three cases points to the 
foot of the rampart walls. 

The Sakhrah, or (Holy) Rock, is a ledge of natural limestone, 
having a scarp 4 feet 9 inches high on the west, and falling 
eastwards with a dip of 12°. The western scarp is in three 
steps, the lowest measuring 3^ feet in height. Its general 
direction is due north and south, and its length is about 39 feet. 
The mean breadth of the Sakhrah is about 40 feet, and its area 
is thus 1,600 square feet or rather less. A cave, entered from 
the south-east, and occupying an area of about 500 square feet, 
exists under the south-east portion of the rock. The cave is 
from 6^ to 8J feet high, and a shaft about 3 feet in diameter 
and 7 feet deep is sunk through the roof from the face of the 
rock. 

The Sakhrah and the Dome which encloses it stand on a 
platform of modem construction, having an area of about 5 
acres, and rising some 15 feet above the groxmd outside. In 
the north-west quarter of this platform the rock is visible on 
the surface; and its general level, including a drop of 12 feet at 



THE TEMPLE. 361 

one place, is well determined. On the north-east and east the 
observations show a fall of about 10^. On the south-east the 
rock is found extending, with a flat surface about 20 feet lower 
than the top of the Sakhrah, outside the platform ; and it falls 
rapidly on the south-west, where no traces are visible in the 
vaults which support the platform. 

The general result of these measurements is that the ridge 
of the hill is found to be both wider and flatter in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Sakhrah and of the platform to the east than 
in any other part of the enclosure : while the scarps which exist 
on the north-west indicate some kind of terracing round the 
Sacred Eock, also traceable, though less distinctly, on the other 
sides as wiU be easily seen by consulting the contoured plan. 

The rampart walls and the numerous vaults next demand 
notice. The maaonry of the west, south, and east walls is of 
one character, and the excavations have in every case shown the 
part examined to extend to the rock and to be apparently in 
situ. The more ancient masonry is of great size, the stones 
averaging about 3^ feet in height, and attaining a length in one 
instance of 38 feet 9 inches, and in another of 23 feet 8 inches. 
Each block is surrounded with a sunk channel, or draft, and 
the face (projecting about ^ inch) is beautifully dressed. The 
foundation courses are let into the rock, and are generally as 
well dressed as those near the top of the wall. On the east 
wall, near the south, letters are painted in red on the face of 
the stones, and appear to mark the course for which each block 
was intended. 

The drafted masonry has been examined on the west wall 
close to the rock scarp at the north-west comer of the enclosure, 
and again about the middle of the wall near the pool called el- 
Burak. At the south-west comer many shafts were sunk by 
Colonel "Warren to determine the span of the great arch here 
starting from the wall ; and the west pier was also examined. 
The dressing of the bridge voussoirs is the same as that of the 
masonry on the walls, and, as it is extremely distinctive, there 
can be little doubt that the wall and the bridge belong to one 
building epoch. 



362 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The pavement beneath the bridge having been broken 
through, the fallen vonssoirs of a yet older arch were fonnd 
by Colonel "Warren, in a rock-cut channel 20 feet lower down. 
The masonry of the west and south walls, for about 200 feet 
from the south-west comer, is roughly dressed up to the pave- 
ment level, and it seems therefore probable that the wall, when 
first bmlt, was not intended to be visible below that level. 

The south wall of the enclosure is principally remarkable 
for a course of double height, extending 600 feet westwards 
from the south-east comer, and still visible for about 25 feet on 
the east wall. The bottom of the course is immediately above 
the rock on the watershed, at a level of 2,378 feet above the 
sea ; but the course is not built quite horizontally throughout. 

The south-west comer of the enclosure is built across the bed 
of the Tyropoeon, and the rough-faced masonry appears to have 
been intended to fill up the hollow. In the same way a vaUej 
runs across the north-east comer of the Haram ; and here again 
the foundation courses of the wall rising from its bed are rou^y 
faced up to the general level of the ground outside the eastern 
ramparts. In this latter case, however, the masonry is rougher 
than in other parts of the enclosure ; the chiselling is less care- 
fully done, and the quality of stone is poorer. The east wall 
does not terminate at the present north-east comer of the 
Haram, but runs northwards beyond it without any break. 
The rough masonry probably extends south as far as the closed 
gateway called the Golden Gate, where the level of the top 
course coincides with that of the rock surface. 

The rock scarp at the north-west corner of the Haram forms 
the boundary of the enclosure for 350 feet along the north side. 
The remainder of the wall to the north-east comer has not 
been examined by excavation ; but the present face is compara- 
tiv^y modem, and the cisterns immediately within the wall are 
twelfth-century work. The wall appears, therefore, to be later 
than the others, and tl^e old north boundary -of the enclosure 
was probably built south of the valley which now crosses the 
east wall of the Haram. 

The masonry standing above the drafted stones has no 



THE TEMPLE. 363' 

interest in connection with the study of the Jewish Temple, 
It is of two kinds : first, a fine nndrafted Ashlar, of size inferior 
to the older work, and dating probably about the sixth century; 
secondly, a patchwork of later restorations, due to the repeated 
destruction of the ramparts by earthquake. 

The vaults within the walls are of greater interest. Thirty- 
five of these in all have been examined, and the large majority 
appear to be ancient. Most of them are excavated in rock, 
with manholes in the rock roofs, and these were no doubt 
originally intended for cisterns. One in the north-west comer 
has a circular flight of rock steps, resembHng the ancient cisterns 
near Mareshah in the lowlands of Judah. The largest is on 
the south (No. 8 Ordnance Survey), and has many mouths, of 
which three are now in use. It is 43 feet deep, and has an 
area of 11,000 square feet. It would therefore hold nearly 
3,000,000 gallons of water. The roof is supported by columns 
of rock. 

The most interesting of the rock excavations are, however, 
those which appear to have be^n originally passages, and not re- 
servoirs. The south wall has in it two gateways leading to 
two such passages, which are equidistant respectively from the 
east and west walls. The gates were originally double, and 
great lintel stones 25 feet long rest on the piers, and span the 
openings. On the west wall are two similar passages running 
eastwards, and the southern one of these leads to a single en- 
trance, now like the others closed. North of the present Dome 
of the Rock is another passage (No. 1 Ordnance Survey), 130 
feet long, running north and SQuth in the same line with the 
western passage from the south wall. This vault is 40 feet 
deep, and the north end is blocked by a rude wall, apparently 
added at a more recent period. The ancient entrance was pos- 
sibly farther north, where the line of the vault, if produced, 
intersects the prolongation of another passage (No. 2 Ordnance 
Survey). 

These galleries are mentioned in various passages of the 
Mishna (Parah 3. 3, Middoth 1. 8, Tamid 1. l) and it is ex- 
plained that the sanctity of the courts was supposed to be 



364 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

secured by the existence of sucli excavations beneath them. The 
altar, however, had no hollow place underneath it (Zebakhim 
68 a), 

Such briefly enumerated are the principal antiquities of the 
Haram enclosure. We may now proceed to enquire their rela- 
tion to the ancient Temple : the first question being that of the 
situation of the Holy House itself; the second that of the ex- 
treme limits of the outer enclosure at various times. 

It appears to be certain that the site occupied by Solomon's 
Temple and Altar was the same as that occupied by the Holy 
House and Altar in the times of Zerubbabel and of Herod. Jose- 
phus states that Zerubbabel built the altar ' on the same place 
where it had formerly been built,' (11 Ant. 4, l); ajid *It 
is a constant tradition,' says Maimoiiides, ' that the place in 
which David and Solomon built the altar in the threshing-floor 
of Araunah is the place in which Abraham built an altar, and 
bound upon it Isaac ; and it is the place which Noah built when 
he went out of the Ark ; and it is the altar upon which Cain 
and Abel offered, and upon it the first Adam offered.' 

With regard to the exact spot, we have several indications 
of sufficiently definite character. Josephus says that the Temple 
was built on a ridge, and that the * topmost plateau ' (such 
being the exact translation) barely sufficed for the Holy House 
and the Altar (5 Wars 5. l). It is also evident that the general 
plan of the Temple courts descending in terraces round the 
Holy House requires that the Temple and Altar should have 
been on the top of the hill. 

In the Mishna, moreover, we find that the High priest, stand- 
ing on the summit of the Mount of Olives, * looked straight 
into the door of the Sanctuary ' (Middoth 2. 4). The line was 
so carefully observed that if the blood of the red heifer was not 
sprinkled * straight in front of the door ' the sacrifice was un- 
lawful (Parah 3. 9 ; 4. 2). In order to obtain any parallelism 
between the centre line of the Temple and the outer walls of 
the enclosure, it is necessary that it should pass through the 
present Sakhrah or Holy Rock ; for such a line, if produced, 
strikes the sxmimit of Olivet, 



THE TEMPLE. 365 

It appears thus clear that the Sakhrah represents the ^ben 
Shatiyeh or ' stone of foundation,* which existed in the Holy of 
Holies (Yoma 5. 2). On that stone the Ark stood, and it was 
supposed to be the original foundation of the world. The Tal- 
mudic commentaries make it clear that the Eben Shatiyeh was 
a rock rather than a stone (like the Eben Zoheleth, which is also 
a rock now called Zahweileh) : the cave beneath the Sakhrah 
may perhaps have been excavated for the reason assigned in the 
Mishna for the existence of the other vaults, namely, to insure 
the purity of the surface on which the Ark stood. 

Moslem tradition still points to the Sakhrah as the site of 
the Temple, and as the foundation of the world ; and the same 
traditions existed in the 12th and 13th centuries. Foucher of 
Chartres (about 1100 A.D.) says that the Ark was, in his time, 
supposed to be hidden in the sacred rock, while Jaques de 
Vitray (1220 a.d.) speaks of it as the place where the angel 
appeared to David. The Lapis Pertusus or 'pierced stone, 
which the Jews used to anoint in the 4:th century,* is also pre- 
sumably the present Sakhrah, pierced as it is by a vertical shafb. 

Araunah's threshing-floor must have been a level area of 
some size, situated in a position where even the lightest breezes 
of summer might be felt ; for such is the situation now chosen 
for a threshing-floor in Palestine. The rock levels show a flat 
area immediately round the Sakhrah, suitable for such a pur- 
pose, while to the south and north the ridge is narrow and its 
slopes steeper. 

The position, then, of the Holy House, according to the 
Mishna, to Josephus, and to the Bible (Ezek. 43. 12) was on 
the * top of the mountain ' ; and the mention of the Stone of 
Foundation in the Mishna (Yoma 5. 2) as projecting three 
finger-breadths from the floor of the Holy of Holies, gives us a 
valuable datum 2,440 feet above the sea, to which to refer the 
levels of the courts. 

With r^ard to the limits of the area enclosed by the ram- 
part walls of the Temple, it is stated by Josephus that a bridge 
led from the Temple to Agrippa's palace (15 Ant. 11.6), and this 

' Itinera/rvum Bii/rdigala Hierosolymam, cap. 4. 



366 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

bridge was broken down during Pompey's siege (14 Ant. 4. 2.), 
and repaired by Herod. It is also stated that the Ophel wall 
* joined the eastern cloister of the Temple ' (5 Wars 4. 2), and 
that the tower Antonia occupied a rock at the north-west 
comei' of the Temple enclosure (5 "Wars 5. s), and was divided 
from Bezetha by an artificial trench (14 Ant. 4. 2, 5 Wars 
4.2). 

The existence of a ruined bridge at the south-west comer 
of the Haram ; the discovery of the Ophel rampart joining the 
east Haram wall at the south-east comer, and of a rock scarp 
with an outer trench at the north-west comer, allow of our 
identifying these angles of the present Haram enclosure with 
the corresponding angles of Herod's Temple area. 

The north-east comer remains undeterminated ; but from 
Josephus we learn that the area in its final condition was ap- 
proximately a square (6 Wars 5. 4) ; and a rock scarp of un- 
known height has been found, running east and west in a line 
which cuts the point where the change in masonry of the east 
Haram wall appeal's to occur, at 1,070 feet from the south-east 
comer — a length about equal to that of the north wall of the 
Haram. It is, therefore, probable that this scarp represents 
the original north boundary of Herod's enclosure, fix>ni which 
the fortress of Antonia projected on the north-west. The east 
wall with its rougher masonry north of this line may be ascribed 
to the time of Agrippa, forming part of the Third Wall of 
Jerusalem. 

The existing masonry of the Haram, as already stated, is 
apparently of the same date with the great bridge, judging from 
the dressing of the stones. The older fallen voussoir beneath 
this bridge may probably belong to the viaduct destroyed in 
Pompey's time; and this seems clearly to indicate that the 
drafted masonry and the later bridge belong to the time of 
Herod the Great. The discovery, at the base of the east wall, 
of letters having the older forms of Hebrew writing might be 
thought to show that this wall was the work of Solomon, but on 
the other hand, the Aramaic character was in use as late as 
the time of Herod. 



THE TEMPLE. 367 

The area enclosed by Herod was double that of Solomon's 
Temple, and the outer cloisters were rebuilt by him from their 
foundations (1 Wars 21. l). The original eastern wall and 
cloister were built by Solomon, probably on the present line ; 
and other kings gradually enlarged the plateau by adding banks 
of earth (5 Wars 6. l). The north wall of Solomon's time 
was broken down at a later period, and an additional area in- 
cluded on that side. By the time of Pompey, the west wall 
appears to have stood on the same site with that of Herod's 
western rampart, judging from the remains of the two bridges, 
one above the other. That this wall was of comparatively late 
date is indicated by the fact that it cuts across an ancient 
aqueduct intersecting it in two places. (See Chap. VII., p. 368). 
It seems, therefore, that the east wall with its Aramaic letters — 
joined as it is to the Ophel rampart reconstructed by Nehemiah 
— may be the oldest part of the enclosure. 

Such indications of the limits of the area are more reliable 
than the measurements recorded by ancient writers. The cor- 
ners of the Temple enclosure are determined by the existence at 
the present time of buildings described in corresponding positions 
by Josephus. The area is thus seen' to have been a rough ap- 
proach to a square, the east wall 1,070 ft. long, the south 922, 
the north 1,000, and the west 1,160 ft., measuring outside. 

The question whether the measurements given by Josephus 
for the Temple area are to be considered accurate is one quite 
apart from that of the reliability of his general description. 
While the appearance and general arrangement of the sacred 
buildings would remain stamped on the mind of anyone who 
had once seen them, the estimated dimensions written down in 
Home twenty-three years after the destruction of Jerusalem 
could scarcely fail to be inaccurate unless they represented 
actual measurements taken by Josephus and preserved in his 
notes. 

He does not claim, however, any such minute accuracy, and 
he estimates the area roughly as being a square of one stadium 
(about 600 ft.) side (15 Ant. 11. s). The south cloister, how- 
ever, ran ' from the east valley to that on the west, for it was 



368 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

impossible it should reach any farther' (sect. 5). It extended 
from the Ophel Wall to the Tyropoeon Bridge— a distance of 
922 ft. — ^but it is nevertheless estimated by Josephus to have 
been only a stadium in length. 

When we proceed to consider other measurements noticed 
by the same author, the inaccuracy of his statements is further 
made clear. In one passage (5 Wars 5. 6) he makes the altar 
to have been 50 cubits square — a dimension impossible^ because 
greater than the total width of the altar court— and in another 
he gives the size at 20 cubits square (Contra Apion 1. 22) ; in 
the first case he makes the height 15 cubits ; in the second he 
agrees with the Mishna, and gives it as 10 cubits. The other 
measurements do not in either case agree with those of the tract 
Middoth. 

A considerable exaggeration also appears to occur in his 
estimate of the height of the eastern wall, to which he gives a 
maximum of over 300 cubits (5 Wars 5. l), whereas even the 
bottom'of the Kedron Valley was only 270 ft. below the top of the 
Temple wall. In other passages (8 Ant. 3. 9 ; 20. 9. 7) he gives 
a yet higher estimate of 400 cubits for this height. 

The dimensions of the Temple stones are also greatly exag- 
gerated by Josephus. In one account he makes them 40 cubits 
long, or nearly twice the length of the longest known to exist 
(5 Wars 5. 1 ) ; in a second, he gives the length at 20 cubits, 
but the height at 6 cubits (20 Ant. 9. 7), which is greater 
even than that of the stones in the master course. 

Inconsistency, inaccuracy, and exaggeration are thus plainly 
discoverable in the measurements given by Josephus. In 
some cases he agrees with the Mishna, as, for instance, re- 
specting the height of the wall of separation in the Priests' 
Court, that of the Temple foundation, the lengths of the Holy 
House and Oracle, the total height of the Temple fa9ade, and 
the number of steps to Nicanor, and to the Great Grate of the 
House itself. In other instances, the measurements of Josephus 
do not agree with the Talmud ; notably in the case of the Altar, 
and also with respect to the dimensions of the Temple door, the 



THE TEMPLE. 369 

width of the Holy House, the number of steps to the Women's 
Court, and the height of the outer partition wall. 

It is not too much to say that wherever the Mishna is not 
in accord with Josephus, the measurements of the latter are un- 
trustworthy. The writers of the Mishna made a special study 
of the Temple measurements ; they calculated the height of the 
Altar by a most complicated series of dimensions, and the 
various results agree to a handbreadth. They are careful to 
notice the height and width of every step, the thickness of the 
walls, and the main architectural details. They quote the re- 
collections of men who served as Levites in Herod's Temple, 
and their descriptions are so systematic that we have no diffi- 
culty in constructing a block plan from their measurements. 
The general description of Josephus agrees with the general 
description of the Mishna; but the accuracy of the latter in 
matters of detail and of measurement is far beyond that of the 
Jewish historian writing in Rome. 

The Mishna, unfortunately, refers only to the Temple of 
Herod, 'The building which Solomon built,' says Maimonides, 
* has been already described in the Book of Kings, and the 
building to be built in the future, although it is written in 
Ezekiel, is not fully described and explained. The men of the 
second house (which they built in the days of Ezra) built it like 
the building of Solomon, and in some things like the explanation 
of Ezekiel.' 

The Biblical accounts of Solomon's Temple give only the 
measurements of the Holy House itself, which was divided into 
the Temple (Hecal), the Oracle (Debir or 'back'), and the 
Porch (Aulam), with the surrounding chambers (Yetzua), of 
which there were three tiers, and the total number of which 
was thirty according td Josephus (8 Ant. 3. 2). 

The plan measurements given in the two accounts (1 Kings 
6 ; 2 Chron. 3) do not appear to include the thickness of the 
walls ; and the size of the original Temple was probably the 
same as that of Herod'sj the dimensions being double those of 
the Tabernacle. As regards the height, we have various ac- 
counts. In the 1st Book of Kings it is given as 30 cubits; 

B B 



370 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

in Chronicles as 120 ; Josephus divides it into two storeys of 
60 cubits ; and the total height of the three tiers of chambers 
was 15 cubits. In later times it was intended to add 20 cubits 
to the height of Herod's Temple, in order to give the full height 
believed to have been that of Solomon's (see 5 Wars 1. 5). 
A building only 40 cubits wide at most can, however, scarcely 
have been 120 cubits high, and the description in the Ist Book 
of Kings, giving 30 cubits for the main building and 15 for 
the chambers, seems the most reliable, imless, indeed, a larger 
pylone was raised in front as some have supposed, after the 
fashion of an Egyptian Temple. 

The courts (Hazeroth) of the original Temple appear to have 
been two in number. The Court of the Priests was suiTonnded 
by a partition wall called Gison (7 Ant. 3. 9). The outer or 
great court (1 Kings 7. 12) was a quadrangle. On the east out- 
side this was a cloister founded on a bank retained by the ram- 
part wall : there were no cloisters on the other sides, nor was the 
surface banked up to a level, except on the east (5 Wars 5. l). 
We may conjecture that the courts were originally double 
the dimensions of the Court of the Tabernacle ; but beyond the 
measurements above noticed, we know nothing of Solomon's 
Temple. The second Temple erected by Zerubbabel was, ac- 
cording to Josephus, only half the height of Solomon's — 60 
cubits (15 Ant. 11. l), and it appears to have been in every 
respect inferior to the first building (Ezra 3. 12; 11 Ant. 4. 
2). Hecateus of Abdera gives the dimensions of the courts as 
500 ft. in length, and 100 cubits in breadth (double the width 
of the Com-t of the Tabernacle), and the size of the altar as 20 
cubits square and 10 cubits high. Hecateus lived about 150 
B.C., so that it is evidently to the Second Temple that he refers. 
(See Josephus contra Apion, 1. 22). 

The descriptions of the Third Temple built by Herod are far 
more complete. The Talmudists generally call this also the 
Second Temple, because the work of Zerubbabel was enlarged 
and perfected by Herod ; but Josephus says that the old found- 
ations were taken away (15 Ant. 11. 3), and that the area was 
considei'ably enlarged. The general dimensions of the courts and 



THE TEMPLE. 371 

their respective levels may now be noticed, and the details of 
the various buildings in the sacred area will then be discussed. 

* The Mountain of the House/ says the Mishna (Middoth 
2. l), * was 500 cubits by 500.' It is, therefore, first necessary 
to define the length of the cubit used in the Third Temple. 

Eabbi Mayer (Kelim 17. 9) says that all the cubits of the 
sanctuary were medium cubits, except those of the Golden Altar 
and the circuit and foundation (of the great Altar). Babbi 
Judah said * the cubit of the building was six handbreadths, 
and that of the vessels five ' (Tal. Jer. Menakhoth 97 a). Two 
standard examples of the two cubits in question were preserved 
at the gate Shushan (Kelim 17. 9). The cubit in the following 
pages is taken as being 16 inches (see Part I. Chap. III. p. 58). 

It appears probable that the area of 500 cubits side men- 
tioned in Middoth was that of the Temple within the Soreg, or 
wall of partition which separated Jew and Grentile. 

* The mountain,' says -Abarbanel, * was indeed much larger 
than 500 cubits would contain either way, but outside this the 
sanctity did not extend.' The * 500 by 500 ' mentioned in 
Ezekiel (42. 2o) coincided with the 'separation between the 
sanctuary and the profane place ' (compare Rev. 11. 2). In the 
LXX. Yei-sion this measurement is given as 500 eubits, but in 
the Hebrew no unit is mentioned. 

According to the Mishna the Holy House was not set in 
the middle of the area, which was 500 cubits square. The 
greatest space was on the south, the least on the west. The 
Tosephoth Yom Tob (a work of the twelfth century) gives the 
exact measurements in two directions as follows : — 



Section North and South, 

Cnbits 

Northern outer space . .115 
Width of court . . . 136 
Southern outer space . . 250 

500 



Section East and West, 

Cubit 

Western outer space . . 100 
Length of court. . . 187 
Eastern outer space . . 213 

600 



The authority of these measurements is not, however, given, 
though it is very improbable that so definite a statement should 
be a mere guess without ancient authority. 

B B 2 



372 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The outer cloisters, whicli ran along the ramparts of the 
Temple hill, were double according to Josephus, and 30 cubits 
in width (5 Wars. 5. 2). In the Talmud they are also said to 
have been double (Tal. Bab. Beracoth 33 b). The booths of 
the money changers (Hanaioth) were set up in these covered 
arcades (Shekalim 1. 5; Matt. 21. 12). 

The Royal Cloister on the south side was triple, with 162 
pillars (15 Ant. 11. 5). The epistylia must consequently have 
had a length of about 22 feet ; but there is no difficulty in sup- 
posing so great a span as the existing lintel-stones above the 
ancient entrance-gates measure 25 feet. The pillars oould 
hardly be spanned by three men, and two shafts of dimensions 
which accord with this account (beijig about 6 feet in diameter) 
still exist — one in the vaulted chamber at the Double Gate, still 
supporting a roof which was probably erected by Herod ; the 
other, half buried, outside Jerusalem : the latter is 41 feet 
long. It appears, therefore, that the pillars of the Eoyal 
Cloister had an intercoliminiation of 2^ diameters. The width 
of the Royal Cloister was 105 feet, the nave being 45 feet broad. 
These dimensions agree very closely with the position and width 
of the Tyropceon bridge, which led to the nave. The side walks 
were 50 feet high, the nave 100 feet. Josephus uses the Greek 
foot, instead of the cubit, in giving these dimensions. 

The Mishna gives only five gates to the great enclosure, of 
which the two on the south, called Huldah, or * mole gates,' 
were no doubt the two gates with subterranean passages already 
noticed, on the south wall of the Haram. The western of these 
— now called the Double Gate — has an inner porch, roofed with 
four domes, supported by two monoliths. The porch measures 
40 feet (30 cubits) in width, and the roof is ornamented with 
vine tracery, cut in low relief, and is attributed by Mr. Fer- 
gusson, the well-known architect, to the time of Herod. The 
eastern portal is now triple, but only partly ancient, and ap- 
pears to have been also originally double, as is the passage 
which leads from it. The lintel stones of the gate have disap- 
peared, and are replaced by arches. The roof within is also 
comparatively modem. 



THE TEMPLE. 373 

The gate Shushan opposite the Holy House on the east ram- 
part wall, has not been yet recovered, and the site of the northern 
gate called Tadi ('obscurity,') which was apparently subter- 
ranean, is also unknown. The Arabic name of a gate in the 
present north wall of the Haram (Bab Hitta) preserves the 
meaning of the name 'obscurity,' but Tadi seems more probably 
to have been situated at the point where the two long passages 
north of the Sakhrah (already described) would meet if produced 
beyond the massive walls which now close their northern ends. 

One gate only is noticed by the Mishna in the west rampart 
wall, and is called Kipunus, or * descent.' Respecting its posi- 
tion, we must bear in mind that ' they did not make two gates 
opposite one another' (Tal. Jer. Beracoth 54). Josephus 
(15 Ant. 11. 5) mentions four gates on this side, one at the 
bridge (possibly the * Beautiful Gate,' Acts 3. 2), two others 
leading to the suburbs, or Proasteiorby and one, with steps, lead- 
ing to the * other city.' 

It has been shown already that two passages pierce the west 
Haram wall north of the bridge ; and the position of the fourth 
gate may perhaps be indicated by the name Bab el-Hadid, 
* iron gate,' preserving that of the gate leading from Antonia to 
the city (Acts 12. 10). Which of these gates is to be identified 
with Kipunus it is not now possible to say. 

The arrangements and the levels of the inner Temple courts 
have often been described; but the comparison with the existing 
levels of the rock has only lately been studied. The plan 
measurements given in Middoth are as follows (Midd. 5. l) :-^ 

Measureniefid East and West, 

Cubits 

Ohel (outer rampart or terrace) . . . .10 
Court of the Women . . . . . . 136 

StandlDg place of Israel 11 

Standing place of the Priests . . . .11 

The Altar 32 

Steps to the Temple 22 

The Temple 100 

Space behind the Temple 11 

Total . . . . 332 



374 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



Measurement North and South, 

The ascent and the Altar 
From the Altar to the rings . 

The rings 

From the rings to the tables . 
From the tables to the dwarf columns 
From the dwarf colunms to the wall 
Between the ascent and the south wall 

Total . 



Cubits 

62 
8 

24 
4 
4 
8 

25 

135 



As regards the levels of the courts, we have the important 
statement that the steps were all half a cubit (8 inches) high 
(Middoth 2. 3) ; and taking for a datimi the level of the floor of 
the Temple (2,440 feet above the Mediterranean) as already 
determined, we thus obtain the actual level of the courts with 
exactitude, as below : — 





steps 


Ottbits 


Feet 


Levd 

1 


Outer Court . 
Court of the Women 
Court of Israel 
Court of the Priests 
Temple floor . 



12 
16 


12 



6 

^ 

6 




8 

10 

3 

8 


2,411 
2,419 
2,429 
2,432 
2,440 


Total . 




22 


29 





The ground outside the limits of the courts was apparently 
uneven. Josephus says that the gates north and south of the 
Priests* Court had only 10 steps, while that on the east had 15. 
In this case the ground north and south had a level about 
2,425 feet above the Mediterranean. Josephus explains that 
the cloisters being built on the hill slope, the height appeared 
gi-eater outside than in (5 Wars 5. 2), but the difference which 
he gives (15 cubits) appears to be too great. 

The existing levels of the rock round the Sakhrah agree 
with most remarkable accuracy with those above determined, 
as will be seen by consulting the plan. 

An observation which comes within the limits of the Temple 



THE TEMPLE. 375 

itself gives a level 2,432, equal to that of the Priests' Court, thus 
allowing a solid masonry foundation of 6 cubits for the Holy 
House, as described by Josephus (5 Wars 5. 5). The present 
surface of the platform is slightly higher (2,435), but the rubbish 
and flagging occupy about 3 feet where visible in one of the 
vaults. Outside the platform the rock is visible on the north- 
east and south-east, at levels 2,420 and 2,419, the latter being 
exactly the level of the Court of Women, which occupied this 
part of the enclosure. Farther east the level is 2,409 and 2,406 
in the very part where the descent of 8 feet should occur from 
the Women's Court to the outer part of the enclosure. North 
and south of the Priests* Court the rock has a level 2,427 and 
2,425, thus allowing for 10 steps, instead of 15. These coin- 
cidences are too numerous to be merely accidental; and the 
determination of the general levels of the present surface toge- 
ther with the fact that vaults exist on the south and west sides 
of the platform, and on the east in that part where the old level 
was lower than that of the present pavement, render it impro- 
bable that the results already obtained should be liable to con- 
tradiction by further exploration. The exactness with which 
the levels deduced from the Middoth fit the ground shows that 
the determination already obtained by independent means of 
the exact position of the Holy House in the present Haram 
enclosure must be correct. 

We may now consider the various details of the plan of the 
Temple and its courts included within the Soreg, or boundary 
dividing Jew and Gentile. 

The Soreg was a wall 10 palms high, with 13 openings. 
The word means * interwoven,* according to Buxtorf. Square 
pillars were erected at intervals above this barrier, with in- 
scriptions in Greek forbidding strangers to enter. One of these 
inscriptions was found in a building north of the Haram, and 
the Sor^ in this Greek text receives the name Druphax, by 
which Josephus also designates it (5 Wars 5. 2). The recovered 
inscription threatens death to the intruder. 

The Ghel (or Hil) was a terrace above the first steps outside 
the cloisters of the Sacred Courts. The word comes from a 



376 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

root meaning *to surround.' It is the same word rendered 
'profane phice' in Ezekiel (42. 20). The Chel was 10 cubits 
wide, and the 12 steps had a rise of 6 cubits. The Chel is 
moutioned on the east and north, and probably existed on the 
oUior sides ; but it is not certain whether the width was the same 
on all sides, and the existence of what appears to be the founda- 
tion of a gate at the level, 2,419 (that of the Women's Court), 
^uth of tlie present platform, seems to indicate a greater width 
for the Chel on the south. This is, however, an undetermined 

question. 

The Court of the Women was so called, not because exclu- 
sively set apart for their use, but because they were not allowed 
to enter into any enclosure nearer the Temple (Kelim 1. 8, cf. 
Oontm Apion 2. 8). The Court measured 135 by 135 cubits. 
The women had a gallery above the cloister (Succah 5. 2, Com- 
ments of Maimonides). Josephus agrees with the Mishna in 
making this court ' four square ' (5 Wars 5. 2), and states that 
the cloisters surrounding it were 10 cubits broad. The gallery 
(Citzutzra) was erected at a late period ' that the women might 
look from above, but the men from below, lest they should be 
mixed ' (Middoth 2. 5). The court was at first occupied by both 
sexes, and the crowding at the Feast of Tabernacles originated 
the change. There were four chambers (Lishcoth) in this court 
(compare Ezek. 46. 21) : — 

1. The chamber for the Nazarites . . .in the S.E. corner 

2. „ for picking wood for the Altar „ N.E. „ 

3. „ for lepers . . . . „ N.W. „ 

4. „ for oil „ S.W. „ 

These appear to have been 40 cubits square, and were open 
above, having no roofs. 

The great eastern gate of this court was the largest in the 
Temple (15 Ant. 11. 6, 5 Wars 5. 2, 6. 5. 3), and was covered 
with gold. Josephus makes it 50 cubits high and 40 broad. 
There were also two gates, one on the north, the other on the 
Bouth side of this court (5 Wars 5.2). 

The Court 0/ Israel was reached by 15 steps from that of 



THE TEMPLE. 377 

the Women. The flight was circular, * like half a threshing- 
floor' (Midd. 2. 5). The fifteen songs of degrees (Psalms 120 
— 134 inclusive) were sung on the steps. The gate Nicanor 
stood above these steps (Maimonides, Beth Habbech 5. 6, and 
Midd. 1. 4), named from its donor, and made of Corinthian 
brass. Beneath the Court of Israel were vaults opening to the 
Women's Court, and these were necessitated by the slope of the 
rock, which had a level, in this part, only slightly higher than 
the floor of the Court of the Women (see Midd. 2. 6). The 
musical instruments were kept here. 

The Court of Israel was merely a platform measuring 10 cubits 
east and west by 135 north and south. Only men specially puri- 
fied might enter into this enclosure (Contra Apion 2. 8), and the 
sanctity was considered intermediate between that of the two 
comts between which it was placed (Kelim 1. 8). This enclo- 
sure was appropriated to the * standing men,' or representatives 
of Israel, who visited Jerusalem with each order of priests, and 
like the Batlanim of the Synagogue worship formed a represen- 
tative congregation at every Temple service during the week of 
their visit to the capital (Taanith 4. 2). For this reason it is 
called in another passage (Midd. 5. l) *the place of the footing,' 
or the standing place of Israel. 

The Court of Israel, thus devoted to the representatives of 
all Israel, had probably no cloister or columns, for they would 
have obscured the public view of the Temple service. There 
was, however, a chamber on either side of the gate Nicanor. 

The Court of the Prieata (also called Kodesh or Sanctuary) 
was 2^ cubits above the last, the wall being 1 cubit high, with 
3 steps above it. A balustrade or pulpit of wood (called Do- 
can) appears to have stood on the wall, whence the priests 
blessed the people (see Neh. 8. 4, Midd. 2. 6, Tal. Jer. Sotah 38 h). 
The same name Docan is given in modem Synagogues to the 
bench whence the blessing is pronounced. There was, there- 
fore, no direct communication between the Court of Israel and 
that of the Priests, which was shut off by the wall, 16 inches high, 
called Shopeth, or in Greek Thrigcos, which separated people 
and priests (5 Wars 5. 6). The priests were, however, able to 




378 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

enter the lower court apparently through the side chambers of 
the gate Nicanor (Succah 5. 4). 

The Court of the Priests measured 135 cubits north and 
south, and 176 cubits east and west. It had three gates on the 
north, three on the south, and one on the east. The northern 
and southern had * steps of five cubits ' (5 Wars 5. 2), leading 
up from the Chel. 

The names of these gates, given in the Middoth, are as 
below (Middoth 1. 4), making a total of ten gates for thjB courts 
within the Soreg (cf. 5 Wars 5. l) : — 

1. S.W. gate Dalak ('flaming') 



2. 


S. „ Oorban (* gift ') 


3. 


S.E. „ MimC water*) 


4 


E. „ Nicanor 


5. 


N.E. „ Nitzotz (' prominence ') 


6. 


N. „ - 



7. N.W. „ Moked C hearth ') 

The lintels of all the gates were flat, except in the case of 
Tadi, where two blocks, laid against one another, formed a kind 
of triangular pediment — an arrangement also found in gateways 
of the Galilean synagogues built in the second century a.d. 
(see Middoth 2. 3). 

The general dimensions of these entrances given by Josephns 
(5 Wars 5. 3) are 30 cubits high, with doors 15 cubits broad, 
and towers of 40 cubits above. The chambers were supported 
on pillars, 12 cubits in circumference. These gate-houses were 
therefore of the same size with the Huldah Grates, which have 
been already described as 30 cubits (40 ft.) wide, and with 
pillars of about 16 ft. or more (12 cubits) in circumference. 

The gate-house Moked was, however, apparently still larger, 
and projected beyond the line of the cloister wall, half its 
width being outside and half inside the Priests' Court. This 
building was the guard-house of the priests who kept watch 
round the fire, whence its name was derived. Accoixiing to 
Bartenora it would seem to have had no steps, the ground 
outside being presumably higher than in other parts of the 
enclosure. Four chambers opened into the central porch or 



THE TEMPLE. 379 

Teiuklin, two being within the Kodesh, or Sanctuary, two in 
the Chel or * profane place/ The roofs were vaulted, and stone 
benches ran round the walls. In the south-west chamber the 
lamb for the daily sacrifice was kept during the night. The 
north-west chamber had in it a winding stair descending to a 
vault beneath, which ran under the Chel to the gate Tadi. This 
gallery communicated with a Bath-house used by the priests, 
and is mentioned as running under the Bireh, by which some 
commentators understand Baris or Antonia to be intended. 

The gallery thus described seems clearly to be the existing 
vault which runs northwards from the wall of the Priests' Court, 
according to the present restoration of the Temple. We are 
thus able to fix the exact position of Moked ; but the winding 
stair appears to have been destroyed, the vault having now no 
entrance, except a manhole in the roof. 

The north end of the gallery (No. 1 Ordnance Survey) is 
now blocked by a rude wall, but the roof is seen to run behind 
this wall, and the gallery seems probably to extend farther. If 
it reaches as far as the present north wall of the platform, its 
entrance from Tadi at that point would require only a rise of 
1 7 ft., whereas at the south end the floor is 50 ft. below t£e present 
surface. The curious vault west of this gallery (No. 3) is also 
closed with a modem wall, and very possibly runs farther north, 
in which case it would join No. 1, and might be identified with 
the Bath-house reached by the subterranean passage from Moked. 
The supposition that portions of these galleries still remain to 
be discovered is confirmed by the fact that a wall has been built 
across the passage leading from the ancient western gate just 
north of the Tyropoeon Bridge in a precisely similar manner, 
and by the fact that the sides of the galleries Nos. 1 and 3 are 
of rock, while the walls at the north ends are apparently of 
masonry down to the floor of the vaults, and are not at right 
angles to the lines of the galleries; in No. 1, as already stated, 
the voussoirs of the roof run apparently beyond the wall. 

The identification of the gallery under Moked thus gives 
additional confirmation to the general correctness of the present 
restoration of Herod's Temple. 



380 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

The name of the gate Nitzotz indicates that it was also k 
kind of outstanding tower in the north-east comer of the Priests' 
Court. The Mishna states that it was ' in shape an exhedra/ 
with a huilding above and with an entrance to the Chel. We 
may, perhaps, identify this gate-house with the 'northern 
exhedra ' mentioned by Josephus (6 Wars 2. 7). In another 
passage (Tamid 1,3)' eastern and western exhedrse ' are noticed 
on either side of Moked. 

The Water Grate was so named because the water used at 
the Feast of Tabernacles was brought through it (Succah 6. 4). 
'There were no cisterns within the court, and the altar was 
'joined to the earth,' having no excavation under it. The 
present plan places Uie Court of the Priests in such a situation 
that none of the numerous cisterns of the Haram area come 
within its boundaries. 

Above the Water Gate was a chamber called Aphtinas (Tal. 
Jer. Yoma 1), whei-e the incense was made. There were also 
three chambers north of the Court and three south, resembling 
perhaps the little vaults under the present platform which open 
to the outer court, for their roofs are said to have been level 
(MiddotK 5. 2), probably meaning level with the floor of the 
Priests* Court. Two other chambers (Lishcoth) also existed on 
the west. The most important of these magazines or stores in 
which wood, salt, and other necessaries wei*e kept, were two. 
First, the Chamber of Hewn Stone (Gazith), or of Pavement 
(Balutin, Tosiphtah, Yoma 1), where the Sanhedrin sat. It 
was on the south, and, according to Maimonides, near the 
west, half in the Holy Place, half in the profane (Tal. Jer. 
Yoma 25 6). Secondly, the Chamber of the Draw Well, whence 
water was suppled to the whole court. This was next to the 
preceding, on the south side of the Sanctuary, and its position is 
no doubt fixed by the well-mouth communicating with the great 
vault, which runs to the south wall of the Priests' Court. This 
second indication on the south thus agrees perfectly with that 
already noticed respecting the position of Moked on the north. 

The Altar is very minutely described, being the most im- 
portant feature of the Sanctuary. It was made solid, and con 



THE TEMPLE. 381 

sisted of stones dug from virgin earth found near Beth Cerem 
(Middoth 3. 4). Stones from the seaside were also permissible, 
and these were poured into a wooden frume and mixed with 
lime, pitch, and lead, the frame being withdrawn when the 
building was complete (Beth Habbech 1). In other words, 
the Altar was made of a kind of concrete. 

It was whitewashed at intervals, and a line of red paint was 
drawn round it, at a height of 29 handbreadths from the bottom. 
The appearance of this structure must, therefore, have been 
much ruder than that of the usual representations. 

The Foundation of the Altar measured 32 cubits north and 
west, and was 1 cubit wide and high. On the south and east, 
this lowest step was wanting. The Circuit, a square of 28 cubits, 
was 5 cubits high, and was the place where the priests stood 
during the service. The third step was 3 cubits high and 26 
cubits square. The horns were cubes of 1 cubit. The Hearth 
between the horns was only 24 cubits square, leaving a path 
between it and the horns 1 cubit wide for the priests. Three 
fires were lighted on the Altar, and the path between the horns 
were used in making them up. The Circuit and Foundation 
are said to have been measured by emiall cubits of 5 hand- 
breadths, and we thus obtain the following total of 58 hand- 
breadths, or 10 cubits, which is said to have been also the 
height of Solomon's Altar : — 

Cubits Hand-breadths 

1 Foundation . . 5 

6 Circuit . . .30 

3 Place of horns . . 18 

1 Horns . . .5 

Total 10 Total 58 

The red line was thus in the middle of the height. 

The sloping ascent (Cebesh), on the south side of the Altar, 
was 30 cubits long, and led up to the hearth or 9 cubits in 
height. It waa 16 cubits wide. A side ascent led from it to the 
Foundation on the left, and another to the right led tothe Circuit. 
A brass netting covered the upper part of the Altar to the red 



382 



HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



line (Tal. Jer. Zebakhim 62 a). The ascent did not join the 
Altar, but had a small division to insure the throwing of the 
limbs on to the altar (Tamid 8. s). In the ascent was a cup- 
board, where certain portions of the offerings were placed. 
Between the horns of the Altar was a parapet, and in the Foun- 
dation on the west were small holes communicating with canals, 
which conducted the blood to the drains which ran out to 
Kedron (Middoth 3. 2, Yoma 5. 6, Succah 4. 9). On the south- 
west was a manhole, by which to descend into this canal. 

The tables, rings, and dwarf pillars north of the Altar, were 
used in the preparation of the sacrifices. To the west of the 
ascent was the Laver and the spouts made by Ben Kattin. 

TJte Temple (Hecal). The plan of the Temple itself is thus 
given by the Mishna : — 

West to East, 



^wall 



Aulam or porch 



porch . 
wall 
Hecal, OP Holy Place 
Teraklin (interval) . 
Kodesh ha-Kodeshim (Holy of Holies) 20 

6 
6 
6 

Too 



Wall 

Chamber (Tha) 
Wall 



Total 

North and South. 
Wall 

Staircase (Masiba) 
Wall 

Chamber (Tha) 
WaU 

Holy Place 
Wall 
Chamber . 
Wall 

House of descent of water 
WaU 

Total 



CnbitB 
5 

11 

6 
40 

1 



6 
3 
6 
6 
6 
20 
6 
6 
5 
3 
5 

70 



THE TEMPLE. 383 

The fa9ade of the Temple was a square of 100 cubits, the 
Aulam extending north and south a total width of 15 cubits 
beyond the body of the Temple on either side. The fa9ade was 
gilded. 

The entrance (Phatakh) of the Temple was 20 cubits wide 
and 40 high. The only ornamentation consisted of 5 oak 
beams above, each 2 cubits longer than the one immediately 
below, the lowest being 22 cubits long, the topmost 30 cubits. 
Each beam was built alternately with a course of stone. 

The Golden Vine which was fixed over this entrance (Mid- 
doth 3. 8), but, as Josephus says, * under the crown work' (15 
Ant. 11. 3), was very probably supported by nails driven into 
these beams. It is clear that the vine was not a bas-relief, as 
has sometimes been conjectured, because bunches could be given 
as votive offerings, and were then hxmg on to the golden stem 
(Midd. 3. 8.) 

The crown work appears to have been a cornice more spe- 
cially noticed in the Mishna. 

The elevation of the Temple was as follows : — 

Cubits 

Foundation 6 

Lower storey 40 

String course 1 

Gutter (* house of dropping ') . .2 

Beams ...... 1 

Plaster 1 

Upper storey 40 

Stringcourse 1 

Gutter 2 

Beams 1 

Plaster . . . . .1 

Battlement 3 

Scarecrow 1 

Total . . .100 

The upper storey had no small chambers (Thaim), but there 
were 38 in three tiers round the lower storey, 15 to the north, 
15 to the south, and 8 on the west, reached by a staircase on 
the north side of the Temple (Middoth 4. 5). These chambers, 



384 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

like those of Solomon's Temple, were 5 cubits wide in the lowest 
tier, 6 in the second, 7 in the third, the outer walls heing re- 
duced in thickness apparently by stepping back on the interior. 

The Holy House was entered from the porch by a gate 20 
cubits high, 10 cubits broad. The doors were double, opening 
inwards and outwards. An entrance from the porch into the 
side chambers communicated with another in the wall between 
the inner and outer doors of this gate, which had also two 
wickets in it (Middoth 4. 2, cf. 5 Wars 5. 4). A veil hung 
before this gate of equal dimensions with its doors. 

The entrance into the Holy of Holies was passed only by 
the High priest. There was here a double veil (see Part I., 
p. 123). The space of 1 cubit between these two veils is 
called Teraklin in the Middoth (4 7). 

Such are the details preserved of the arrangement and 
dimensions of the Temple. There are still points not capable 
of determination, such as the level of the ceiling of the Holy of 
Holies, which had a second storey above it (Middoth 4 6); but 
we have no authority for adding to this simple record any 
fanciful details of architectural ornamentation. Had the Temple 
been beautified by cornices, pillars, or mouldings of rich appear- 
ance, those writers who have so carefully described its minutest 
details of construction would scarcely have failed to record 
anything which could increase the reader's conception of the 
magnificence of this loved and venerated edifice. 

The allusions to the Second Temple in the New Testament 
are few and not very important. The scene of the Purification 
must have been the gate Nicanor, to which Jewish women 
were brought for that ceremony. The Doctors of the Law are 
mentioned as sitting on the steps of the Temple Courts (Tal. 
Jer. Sanhed. 2. 2) to teach their disciples, and it was no doubt 
in the precincts of the court devoted to the Jewish congregation 
that Christ was found by his parents * hearing them and asking 
them questions' (Luke 2. 46). The booths of the money- 
changers set up in the cloisters of the Gentile Court are also — 
as before noticed — mentioned in the Mishna (Shekalim 1. 5, 
Matt. 21. 12). 






BJ V As \ 






ill 






\'*\H ""^"""^ \ 



\ a 



BLOCK PLAN or HERODS TEMPLE 

Li^velt ahave Sra. tiiul Bxastiiio remains jihewri' iit hlafh 
Rextirtaiilm Ui.ral. 



THE TEMPLE. 385 

Solomon's Porch, we gather from Josephus (6 Wars 5. l), 
was the eastern cloister of the Outer Court. The Beautiful 
Gate (Acts 3. 2), where the cripple was cured by St. Peter, was 
in all probability the entrance from the Tyroposon Bridge to 
the beautiful southern cloister built by Herod. 

Antonia, the castle or fortress which protected the Temple 
on the north, alone remains to be noticed. It seems probable 
that the * Birah which (belonged) to the (Holy) House ' (Neh. 
2. 8), and the Birah of the Mishna, which seems to have been 
a place north of the Temple (Middoth 1. 8), is the same as the 
Baris or * Castle* of Josephus (1 Wars 3. 3). This fortress, 
arranged by John Hyrcanus for a residence (18 Ant. 4. 3), was 
enlarged by Herod. It was situate at the north-west comer of 
the outer cloisters (5 Wars 5. 8), and had four distinct towers 
with a large interior space. 

A deep ditch divided Antonia from Bezetha (6 Wars 4. 2), 
and the view of the Temple from the north was concealed by 
this fortress. A hidden passage led from Antonia to the Tem- 
ple (15 Ant. 11. 7), and the entire compass of the Temple was 
incr^used two furlongs by Antonia (5 Wars 5. 2). It seems 
clear from another passage that the fortress formed a projection 
on the north-west beyond the Hmits of the quadrangle of the ' 
Temple cloisters (6 Wars 5. 4). 

The general result is such as to leave little doubt that the 
fortress occupied the great scarp at the north-west comer of the 
present Haram, and the broad interior space noticed by Jose- 
phus may naturally be identified with the flat court imme- 
diately below this scarp on the south. It would, however, be 
of the highest interest to discover the foundations of the comer 
towers, the exact position of which cannot now be indicated 
with certitude. Excavation in the northern portion of the 
Haram enclosure would probably result in important discoveries 
respecting the extent and shape of the citadel of Antonia, but 
this is \mfortunately at present impossible. 

It is beyond the scope of this work to pursue the account of 
the Temple into greater detail, or to notice any of the numerous 

c c 



386 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE 

former attempts to restore the sacred buildings here described. 
With the aid of the plan, the reader will be able to judge for 
himself of the B&iaah/cstory manner in which the relative position 
of various buildings may be determined, by careful observation 
of the levels, scarps, and existing remains, and in strict accord- 
ance with the most authentic accounts of tlie structure. 



387 



LIST OF TOWNS OF JUDAH AND BENJAMIN. 

JUDAH (Josh. 16. S1-S9). 
In Edok. 



Hebrew 


Arabic 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


1. Kabzeel 






19. Beth Palet 




2. Eder (Adar) 






20. Hazar Shnal 




3. Jagur 






21. Beersheba 


Bir eS'Seb'a 


4. Kinah 






22. Bizjothjah 




6. Dimonah 






23. Baalah 




6. Adadah 




'Ad^adah 


— Tim 




7. Kedesh 






24. Azem 




8. Hazor 






26. Eltolad 




9. Ithnan Ziph 






26. OhesU 




10. Telem 






27. Hormah 




11. Bealoth 






28. Ziklaj? 




12. Hazor Hadattah 




29. Madmamiah 




13. Kerioth Hezron 


Jlvdireh 


30. Sansannah 




14. A mam 






31. Lebaoth 




15. Shema 






32. Shilhim 




16. Moladah 

17. Hazar Gaddah 






33. Ain Rimmon 


t Umm er- 
\ Rumdmin 


18. Heshmon 












In iue Si 


lEFHELAH. 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


1. Eshtaol 


Eahu'a 


11. Azekah 




2. Zoreah 


Sur^ah 


12. Sharaim 


^aireh 


3. Ashnah 




13. Adithaim 




4. Zanoah 


Zanu'a 


14. Gederah and 


Jedireh 


5. En Gkumim 


Umm Jina 


Gederothaim 


6. Tappiiah 








7. Enam 


'AUin 


1. Zenan 




8. Jarmuth 


elrYermuk 


2. Hadashah 




9. Adullam 


'Aid d-Md 


3. Migdalgad 




10. Socoh 


Si 


huweikeh 


4. Dilean 





c c 2 



388 



HANDBOOK TO THE BtBLE. 



List of Towns -eantmued. 



Hebrew 


Arabic 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


5. Mizpeh 

6. Joktheel 


KuUdneh 


1. Libnah 

2. Ether 


dr^Atr 


7. Lachish 




3. Ashan 




8. Bozkath 

9. Eglon 
10. Oabbon 


'Ajldn 


4. Jiphtah 
6. Ashnah 
6. Nezib 


BeitNuah 


11. Lab mam 


d-Lahm 


7. Keilah 


KUah 


12. Kithlish 




8. Achzib 


'Ain Kezbeh 


13. Gederoth 


Katrah 


9. Mareshah 


Mer^ash 


14. Beth Dagon 

15. Naamah 


Beit Dejan 
Nc^aneh 


Ekron 


'Aker 


](5. Makkedah 


d-Moghdr 


Ashdod 


EsdOd 






Gaza 


Ohiizzeh 


In thk Motjntainb. 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


1. Shamir 


Sowerah 


4. Juttah 


Yuttah . 


2. Jattir 


'AUir 


6. Jezreel 




3. Socoh 


Shuwetkeh 


6. Jokdeam 


1 


4. Dannah 


Idhnah 


7. Zanoah 


Zanuta 


6. Debir 


edh-Dhdheriyeh 


8. Cain 


Yekin 


6. Anab 


'Anab 


9. Gibeah 


Jeb'a 


7. Eshtemoh 


eS'Semu'a 


10. Timnah 


Tibna 


8. Anim 


el'Ghuwein 






9. Goshen 




1. Halhnl 


HalhiU 


10. Holon 




2. Beth Zur 


Beit Stir 


11. Giloh 


Jdla 


3. Gedor 


Jiedtir 






4. Maarath 


Beit Ummar 


1. Arab 


er-Rabiyeh 


6. Beth Anoth 


Beit ^Ainun I 


2. Dumah 


Ddmeh 


6. Eltekon 




3. Eshean 








4. Janum 


Beni Nairn 


1. Kiriath Jearim 

2. Kabbah 

1. Beth Arabah 


^Artnah 


6. Beth Tappuah 

6. Aphekah 

7. Humtah 


TuJPih 


R%Ma 


8. Hebron 


elrKhcdU 


2. Middin 




9. Zior 


S'air 


3. Secacah 

4. Nibshean 


Sikkeh 


1. Maon 


M'ain 


5. Airham-Melakh 


Tdl el^MUh 


2. Oarmel 


Kurmul 


6. Engedi 


*Ain Jidy 


3. Ziph 


Tell ZAf 







LIST OF TOWNS OF JUDAH AND BENJAMIN. 389 



List of Towns — continued, 
BENJAMIN (Josh. 18. 21-28). 



Hebrew 


Arabic 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


1. Jericho . 


^Ain es-Svltdn 


1. Gibeon 


d^ib 


2. Beth Hoglah 


^Ain Hajlah 


2. Hamah 


ef'-Bdm 


3. Emek Keziz 




3. Beerotfa 


Bireh 


4. Beth Arahah 




4. Mizpeh 


SKafdt 


5. Zemaraim 


Samrah 


5. Ohephirah 


Kefireh 


6. Bethel 


Beitin 


6. Mozah 


Beit Mizzeh 


7. Avim 




7. Rekem 




8. Parah 


Fdrah 


8. Irpeel 


Bdfdt 


9. Ophrah 


Taiyibeh 


9. Taralah 




10. Cephai>-haam- 




10. Zelah 




monai 




11. Eleph 


Lifta 


11. Ophni 




12. Jebusi 


d-Kvds 


12. Gaba 


JeVa 


13. Gibeah 


JeW^ 






14. Kirjath 


Kuriet d-^Anah 


(Neh. 11. 31-35). 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


Hebrew 


Arabic 


Michmash 


MukhmdB 


Bamah 


er^Rdm 


Aija 


Haiydn 


Gittaim 




Bethel 


BeiUn 


Hadid 


Haditheh 


Anathoth 


Andta 


Zeboim 


1 


Nob 


Sh'afdt, 


Nehallat 


Beit Nehdla 


Ananiah 


Beit Hanma 


Lod 


Iddd 


Hazor 


lictzzuv 


Ono 


Kefr 'Ana 



390 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



THE ANIMALS AND PLANTS OF THE BIBLE. 

Giving the correct Translatum of the original NameSj when knonm, and 

the scientific Name of the Species. 



MAMMALIA. 

Apes (Hebrew Eopliim). 1 Kings 10. 23. 2 Ohr. 9. si. The word 
is identical with the name of the monkey in Tamil. 
(1). (Heb. Hamor), Arab. Hamdr. A he-ass. 
(2). (HeKAthon). She-ass. 
(3). (Heb. 'Ayir). A colt. 
(Wild). (1). (Heb. 'Arod). Asinvs Hemtppua. 
(2). (Heb. Pere). Job 39. 6-8, &c. 
Badgrer (Heh. Takhash), Probably the porpoise. See p. 227. 
Bat (Heb. 'AtaHaph. ~ ' The night flier.') Lev. IL i»-20. Deut. 14. 

18, includes a great number of species of bat found in Palestine. 
Bear (Heb. Dob). Arab. DiM. Ursus Syriacus, 
Bebemotb (Heb. Behemoth. ^ The beast.') Job. 40. 15-S4. Hippo- 
potamus amphUbius^ 
Boar (Wild). (Heb. Khazir). Arab. Khaandfr, Stts scrofa. 
BoU (Wild). (Heb. To). Possibly the Bubale, Alcephalus BuhaUs, 

Arab. Bakr el-Wahash, * Wild Cow.' 
Camel (Heb. Gbmal). Arab. Jemd, Camdus Drofnedarius, 
Cat. Barueh 6. 22. 
Cattle (1) (Heb. Behemah). Arab. Behimeh, ' Beasts.' 

(2) (Heb. Bakar). Arab. Bakr, Cattle generally. 

(3) (Heb. Shor). Aram. Thor. Arab. Th&r, ' Bull.' 

(4) (Heb. Par, fem. Parah). Young bull and young cow. 
(6) (Heb. 'Aigel, fem. 'Aigleh). Arab. 'Ajely 'Ajleh. < Oalf.' 

CliamoU (Heb. Zemer. *The leaper.') Probably the wild sheep. 

Arab. Kebesh, Ovis Tragdaphtis, 
Coney (Heb. Shaphan). Arab. IFaJr and Thofen, Hyrax Syriacus. 
Bogr (Heb. Celeb). Arab. Kelh, 



THE ANIliALS AND PLANTS OF THE BIBLE. 391 

Bromedary (1) (Heb. Bicrah). A blood camel. Isaiah 6(X 6. 

(2) (Heb. Becesh. < Swift beast.*) Esther 8. lo, Micah 
1. 18. 

(3) (Heb. Beni Bammak. ' Sons of mares.') Arab. 
Ramkah, A mare. Esther 8. lo. 

aiaybaiit (Heb. Shen Habim. < Teeth of elephants.') 1 Kings 10. 
n. In Tamil the elephant is called Habba. On the Assyrian mo« 
numentS; Habba. 
Vallow Beer (Heb. Yakhmor). Arab. Yahmur» The roebuck. 
Varret (Heb. Anakah). Leyit. 11. 80. Probably a lizard. 
Fox (Heb. Shual). The jackal. {Canis aureiut), which is a fruit- 
eater (cf. Cant. 2. w). See p. 227. 
CkMit (1). (Heb. Ez). Arab. Md'az, a goat. 

(2). (Heb. Tzaphir). Dan. 8. 5. An old he-goat 
(3). (Heb. S'air. 'Hairy.') 
(4). (Heb. 'Athud). He-goat. 
(6). (Heb. Tayish). Arab. TewA. 'The butter.' 
Ckiat (Wild) (1). (Heb. Yael. < The climber.') Anh.Bedn. The 

IbeX; Capra JBeden, 
(2). (Heb. Atko). Deut. 14. s. Probably the same. 
(3). (Heb. Yaelah). Prov. 5. 19. The wild she-goat. 
arejrboiuid (Heb. Zarzir Mathnayim. ' Girt in the loins.') Prov. 

80. 31. Unknown. 
Bare (Heb. Amebeth). Arab. ^JSmebah, Includes five species of 

hare. 
Bart and Bind (Heb. Aiyal, fem. Aiyalah). Probably the fallow 

deer. Cervus Elaphus, 
Borne (1). (Heb. Sue). Arab. Htadm, 

(2). (Heb. Parash). Arab. Faros. Bendered ' horseman * in 
Auth. Ver. Gen. 60. 9, &c. The word in Arabic means 
generally a ' mare ' ; in the Bible always a chariot horse. 
leopard (Heb. Namer). Arab. Nimr, Fdis Jvhata, 
Uon (1). (Heb. Arieh). General term for a lion. 
(2). (Heb. Oephir). A young lion. 

(3). (Heb. Labi, fem. Labiyah). A full-grown lion and lioness. 
(4). (Heb. Laish). An old lion. 

(6). (Heb. Gur). A whelp. Gen. 49. 9. Not of the Hon ex- 
clusively (compare Lam. 4. 8). 
(6). (Heb. Shakhatz). Job 18. 8. Doubtful. 
(7). (Heb. Shakhal). Job 4. lo. ' The brayer.' 
Mole (1). (Heb. Tinshemeth). Probably a lizard. Lev. 11. so. 



392 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Mole (2). (Heb. H^phor-Peroth). Doubtful Isaiah 2. 20. 
Mouse (Heb. Acbar). Arab. *Akber. The Jerboa. Levit. 11. 89. 
Mnle (1). (Heb. Pered). Arab. Baghl. 2 Sam. 13. 29, &c. 

(2). (Heb. Becesh). Esther 8. 10. See Dromedary. 
PSTffargr (Heb. Dishon). Deut. 14. s. A ' white rumped ' animal, 

probably Gazdla Dorcas, See page 225. 
Boebnok, See (Heb. Tzebi, fem. Tzebiyeh). Probably the gazelle. 

GazeUa Arabica, 
SBtyrm (Heb. Seirim. 'Hairy ones.') Isaiah 13. 31. Rendered de^. 

Lev. 17. 7. 
Sbeep (1). (Heb. Tzon.) A flock of sheep. 
(2). (Heb. Seh). A sheep or goat. 
(3). (Heb. Ayil). A ram. 
(4). (Heb. Eakhal). An ewe. 

(6). (Heb. Oebes, fem. Oebesah). Arab. Kehesh, A lamb. 
(6). (Heb. Taleh). A young lamb. 
(7). (Heb. Oar). A lamb. 
Sow. (Heb. Ehazir.) See Boar. 

Swine. (Greek Eoiros.) Domestic pigs. Of. Luke 8. 32-34. 
Vnioom (Heb. Rim). The Aurochs. Bos primigmius. See page 
* 226. 
"Weasel (Heb. Kholed). Arab. Khtdd, The mole-rat. Spdax 

TypJdus, 
iKTbale (Heb. Tannin. * Monster.') Including the various species of 
Cetacea (cf. Lam. 4. 3). The Crocodile (Isaiah 27. 1). Serpents 
(Ex. 7. 10). Dragons (Deut. 32. 33). 
"Wolf (Heb. Zeeb). Arab. DMb, Cams Lupus, 



BIRDS. 

Bittern (Heb. Kippod). Isaiah 14. 23, 34. 11, Zeph. 2. m, A water 

bird. 
Crane (Heb. Sis). Arab. /S?« = the swift. (Ct/pselus afflnis), Isaiah 

38. 14, Jer. 8. 7. 
Cormorant (Heb. Shalak. 'Diver*). Lev. 11. 17, Deut. 14. 17. 
Cackow (Heb. Shakhaph). Levit. 11. I6, Deut. 14. 15. 
Bove (Heb. Yoneh). Arab. JSzel. Columha Palumbus, C, ScMmperi, 

C. Livia, C, CEnas are found in Palestine. 



THE ANIMALS AND PLANTS OF THE BIBLE. 393 

Baiple (Heb. Neshr). Arab. Nusr, Includes the griffon yulture 

(GypaftUviui), the golden eagle, &c. 
aier Baffle (Heb. Rakham). Arab. JRakhmeh, The Egyptian yulture 

(Neophron percnopterua). Lev. 11. 18, Deut. 14. 17. 
Olede (Heb. Eaah). Deut. 14. is. Unknown species. 
areatOwl (1) (Heb. Yanshuph. ' Twilight bird '). Lev. 11. 17, Deut. 

14. 16, Isaiah 34. ii. Probably Otns Ascedaphus. 
Great Owl (2) (Heb. Kippoz). Isaiah 34. is. Unknown species. 
Bawk (Heb. Netz). Job 39. 26. Apparently a migratory raptorial 

bird (Lev. 11. le, Deut. 14. is). Probably includes many species of 

hawk (Arab. Ntbseir). 
Beron (Heb. Anaphah). Lev. 11. 19, Deut. 14, 18. A generic term. 
Xite (Heb. Ayah). Lev. 11. 14, Deut. 14. 13. Probably the kite 

which has remarkably keen sight (cf. Job 28. 7), MUims regalis, 

Arab. Shuh and Hedaiyeh, 
Kapwingr (Heb. Dukipath). Lev. 11. 19, Deut. 14. 18. The Syriac 

name for the Hoopoe ( Upupa JEpops), 
Uttle Owl (Heb. Ous) inhabiting ruins. (Psalm 102. e). Probably 

Athene Persica. Ajrab. Kuka or Bumeh, 
vu;nt bawk (Heb. Takhmas. ' The face-tearer.') Lev. 11. le, Deut. 

14. 18. 

Ostricb (1) (Heb. Y'anah). Evidently the ostrich. Lam. 4. 3. 

(2) (Heb. Ranan). See Peacock. 
Ossifragre (Heb. Peres. ' The breaker.') Probably the Lammer-geier 

(Gyp€Btu8 Barbatus), which drops its prey to split the bone or shell. 

Lev. II. 13. Deut. 14. 12. 
Osprey (Heb. 'Azniyeh). Lev. 11. 13, Deut. 14. 12. 
Owl (Heb. Bath harY'anah. ' Daughter of greediness.') Probably the 

same as T^andh (Lam. 4. s), the Ostrich. 
Partrldgre (Heb. Eore. ' The caller,') includes the species Caccahie 

saxatUis (Arab. 8hinndr)y Ammoperdix Heyi (Arab. HcqI), and 

probably the francolin, Francoliwus vulffaris (Arab. Khudt-y)^ and 

the Sand Grouse, Pterocles Senegalensis (Arab. Kat^a), 
Peacock (1) (Heb. Tucciyim pi.). A Tamil word Tokei means pea- 
cock. (Of. 1 Kings 10. 22). 
(2) (Heb. Ranan), Job 39. 13, probably the Ostrich, as the 
Peacock is not a native of Palestine. 
Pelican (Heb. Kaath. 'The vomiter.') Rendered Oormorant in Isaiah 

34. 11, includes P. Onoci'otalus and P. Crispvis, 
Qnail (Heb. Selau). Arab. Sedwah, Cotwmix vulgaris, Exod. 16. 

11-13. Ps. 78. 27. 



394 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



(Heb. Oreb). Arab. Qhwrdb, the Haven. Corona Corax, 

Soreeob Owl (Heb. Lilith. ' Night monster.') Isaiah 34 14. 

Sparrow (Heb. Tzippor). Arab. Asfur, any gmaU bird, but espe- 
cially the Sparrow. 

Stork (Heb. Khasida). Lev. 11. 19. Deut. 14. is. Probably Ciconia 
alba. The Stork is very common in Palestine in spring. 

Swauow (1) (Heb. Deror). Ps. 84. 8. ' Free bird.* 
(2) (Heb. 'Ajur). Isaiah 38. h. Jer. 8. 7. 

Swan (Heb. Tinshemeth, Ajam. But), Probably the wild Dock. 
Arab. BtUt. Lev. 11. is. Deut. 14. i6. 

Turtle Bove (Heb. Thor Yoneh), includes the species Turtur 
aurituSy T, BisoriuSf T. Senegalensis, Arab. Hamdm, 

Vulture (Heb. Dayah). Isaiah 84. 15. Lev. 11. u, Deut. 14. is. 



REPTILES. 



Adder (1). (Heb. Pethen). Ps. 68. 4, Ps. 91. 13. See Asp. 

(2). (Heb. Shephiphon). Gen. 49. 17. Probably Arab. Shifun, 

Horned Snake. Cerastes HcmelquisUu 
(3). (Heb. Akhsub). Ps. 140. 3. Unknown species. 
(4). (Heb. Tziphoni). Prov. 23. 32. See Cockatrice. 
Asp (Heb. Pethen). The Egyptian Cobra, Naja Haje. Of. Ps. 91. 13. 
Cbameleon (Heb. Coakh). Lev. 11. 30. Unknown species. 
Cockatrice (Heb. Tzephoni). Unknown species. 
Bragron (1) (Heb. Tan). Job 30. 29. Probably a mammal. 

(2) (Heb. Tannin). See Whale. 
Ferret (Heb. Anakah). Lev. 11. 30. Unknown species. 
Frogr (Heb. Tzephardea). Ex. 8. The translation is undoubted. 
leviathan (Heb. Leuiathan). The Cetacea generally. Ps. 104. 26. 

The Crocodile. Job 41. 
Uzard (Heb. Letaah). Lev. 11. 30. The translation is imdoubted. 
Serpent (Heb. Nakhash). A general term for serpents. 
Serpent (Fiery) (Heb. Saraph). Num. 21. 6, the LXX. reads 

'deadly.' 
Snail (Heb. Khomet). Lev. 11. 30. Apparently some kind of lizard. 
Tortoise (Heb. Tzab). Lev. 11. 29. Arab. Ddbb, A large lizard. 

Urommtix Spimpes, 
Viper (Heb. Eph'eh. * The hiaser.') A venomous serpent, of. Job 
20. 16. 



THE ANIMALS AND PLANTS OF THE BIBLE. 395 



INVERTEBRATE ANIMAia 

Ant (Heb. Nemalah). Arab, yaml. The Aitt 

Bald &ooast (Heb. Sal*am). Lev. 11. sis. Aceording to the Talmud, 
a species of locust with a smooth head. 

8ea (Heb. Deborah). Arab. Dathur, See page 230. 

Baafle (Heb. Khargol). Lev. 11. ss. Some species of locust. 

Cankarworm (Heb. Yelek). Joel 1. 4^ Ps. 105. 34. Some species 
of locust. 

CaterpUlar. (Heb. Ehasil. ' The Devourer.*) Isaiah 33. 4. Pro- 
bably the larva of the locust. 

CMmson (Heb. Thola'ath hash-Shaui). The Cochineal {Coccus 
llicis). See page 231. Exod. 39. i. 

Flea (Heb. Par'osh). Arab. Baraghuth, Pulex irritans, 

nies (1) (Heb. *Arob). Ex. 8. si. 

(2) (Heb. Zebub). Eccl. 10. i. Arab. Dhibm. ' Flies.' 

dnat (Greek Konops). Matt. 23. 24. 

Orassliopper (Heb. Khagab). Lev. 11. 23. Probably a general 
term for the Orthoptera (cf. 2 Ohr. 7. 13 and Num. 13. 33). See 
Locust. 

Bornat (Heb. Tzir'ah). See page 230. 

Bomeleeoli (Heb. 'Alukah). Arab. ^Alak, Hoemopia Sangmsuga, 

&ioe (Heb. Ehinnim). The translation is undoubted. 

&ooiuit (1) (Heb. Tzelatzal). Deut. 28. 42. Unknown species. 

(2) (Heb. Gob). Isaiah 33. 4, Amos 7. i, Nah. 3. 17. The 
species is imknown. 

(3) (Heb. Arbah). Lev. 11. 22. Unknown species. 
Motb (Heb. 'Ash). Isaiah 50. 9. The clothes moth (Tineid€e) is 

apparently always intended. 
Palmar IVorm (Heb. Gazam^ ^The cutting insect ')• Joel 1. 4, &c. 

The species is imknown. 
Scorpion (Heb. 'Akrab). Arab. *AkrcA. The scorpion. 
SnaU (Heb. Shablul). Ps. 58. 8. See page 230. 
Spider {1) (Heb. Accabish). Job 8. 14. Isaiah 59. 5. Is evidently 
the Spider. 
(2) (Heb. Semamith). Prov. 30. 28. Unknown. 
m^orm (1) (Heb. Sds). The caterpillar of the clothes moth. Cf. 
Isaiah 51. 8. 

(2) (Heb. Eimmah). Job 24. 20. The translation is undoubted. 

(3) (Heb. Thole'ah). Applies to worms (Isaiah 14. 11) and 
to caterpillars. Deut. 28. 39. 



396 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



PLANTS AND TREES. 

Algrnm Tree or Almur Tree. (1 Kings 10. ii. 2 Ghron. 2. 8). 

Unknown. 
Almond (Heb. Shaked). Amygdahis communis. 
Aloes (Heb. Ahalim). Num. 24. 6. Ps. 46. 8, &c. Unknown. 
Anise (Greek Anethon). Matt. 23. 23. Anethum graveolens, 
Apple (Heb. Tappuakh). ' Ajab. Tuffuhj the apple. It is doubtful 

what tree is intended. 
Asb (Heb. Oren). Isa. 44. 14. LXX. renders pine. The Arab. 

^Aren is a kind of ash. 
Balm (Heb. Bosem and Tzori). Possibly the Opobcdsamum, or the 

Balanites ^gyptiaca, see p. 223. 
Barlejr (Heb. Shorah). Ajrab. SKair, barley. 
Bajrtree (Heb. Ezraldi). Ps. 37. 35. Unknown. 
Beans (Heb. Phol). Arab. Ful. 2 Sam. 17. S8. ( Viciafaba), 
Bitter Herbs. Ex. 12. 8, included Lettuce^ Endive^ Chicory^ Horse- 
radish; and Coriander. (Pesakhim 2. e). 
Box Tree (Heb. Teasshur). Isa. 41. 19. Ezek. 27. 6. Probably the 

Box. Arab. Buks, (Buxus longifdia). 
Bramble (Heb. Atad and Khoakh). The species are unknown. 
Bnlnub (Heb. Gome). Probably the Papyrus. {Cyperus Papyrus). 
Bumingr Basb (Heb. Seneh). Ex. 3. 2-4. Arab. Sunt, the Acacia 

NUotica. 
Calamus (Heb. Keneh Bosem). ' Balsam Gane.' Ex. 30. 23. Gant. 

4. 14. Ezek. 27. 19. A foreign aromatic cane. 
Campbire (Heb. Gopher). Arab. Henna, See p. 224. 
Cane (sweet), (Heb. Kaneh Hattob). Ltaiah 43. 24. Jer. 6. 20. 

Probably the same as Galamus. 
Cassia (1) (Heb. Kiddah). Ex. 30. 24. Cinnamonum Cassia, 

(2) (Heb. Ketzioth). Ps. 45. 8. Unknown. 
Cedar (Heb. Erez). Arab. Arz. Cedt*us Libani. 
Cbestnnt (Heb. 'Armon). Gen. 30. 37. Ezek. 31. 8. Probably the 

Plane. Platanus orientalis. 

Cinnamon (Heb. Kinamon). Ex. 30. 23. Cinnamonum Zeylanicum. 

Cookie (Heb. Baoshah. * Stinking weeds.') Job 31. 40 and Isaiah 5. 2-4. 

Coriander (Heb. Gur'and). Ex. 16. 31. Corinndmm sativum, 

encumbers (Heb. Kishuim). Num. 11. 5. Cucumis chate and . 
sativus. 



THE ANIMALS AND PLANTS DF THE BIBLE. 397 

Cnminlii (Heb. Gammon). Arab. Kamm&n, Ouimnum sftthmm. 
Cypress (Heb. Tirzah). Isaiah 44. 14. The species is doubtful. 
Bbony (Heb. Hobnim). Ezek. 27. 15. Diospyms JEbentu, 
(Heb. Elah). Hos. 4. 13. The Terebinth. 
(Heb. Tinah). Arab. Tin, Funis carica, 

(Heb. Berosh). Arab. Sindbar, includes the species Pinus mari- 
tmuif P. HalepensiSf P. Cat'ica. 
Fltehes (1). (Heb. Ketzakh)« NigeUa sativn, Isaiah 28. 25. 

(2). (Heb. Oussimeth). Ezek. 4. 9. = Spelt. See Rye. 
Flag: (!)• (Heb. Akhu). Gen. 41. 2. Job 8. ii. Species unknown. 

(2). (Heb. Suph). Ex. 2. 3, &c. See p. 247. 
Flax (Heb. Pishtah). Linum sativum, Ex. 9. 31. 
Frankincense (Heb. Lebonah). Boswdlia serrata. See page 160. 
Galbanom (Heb. Halbanah). Ex. 30. 34. Gdhanum officinale, 
Oall (Heb. Kosh). Unknown. See Hemlock. 
Cktrllc (Heb. Shum). Arab. Thiim, Allium sativum. 
Gopher wood (Heb. Gopher). Gen. 6. 14. Unknown. 
Gourd (Heb. Kikayon). Jonah 4. 6. See p. 224. 
Ctoard {wild). (Heb. Pakk'auth). See p. 224. 
Grass (1). (Heb. Tered). Num. 22. 4 = herbage. 

(2). (Heb. Desher). Gen. 1. ii - grass. 
Hay (1). (Heb. Khatzir). (Arab. Khudr, * green.') « grass. 
(2). (Heb. Khashash). Arab. Hashish = cut grass. 
(3). (Heb. Tibn). Arab. Tibn ^ chopped straw. 
(4). (Aram. Aur). Arab. ^Awdr = chaff. 
Haael (Heb. Luz). Arab. L6z, The Almond. Gen. 30. 37. 
Heatb (Heb. 'Ar'ar). Arab. ^Ar'ar = juniper {Juniperus Sahina). 
Hemlock (1). (Heb. Il6sh). Hos. 10. 4. 

(2). (Heb. La'anah). See Wormwood. 
Hyssop. See p. 224. 
Juniper (Heb. Rothem). Arab. Betem, Genista Reetam, 1 Bangs 

19. 4. Ps. 120. 4. Job 30. 4. 
&eek (Heb. Khatzir, ' green.*) Allium Porrum, 
Kentlles (Heb. 'Adashim). Arab. ^Adas, Ermm Lens, 
Kily (Heb. Shushan). The species is doubtfuL See page 224. 
MaUows (Heb. Malluakh). Job 30. 4. Possibly Mdva, Arab. 

Khohheizeh, 
Mandrake (Heb. Meduda, ' love plant ^. See p. 224. 
Mastlck Tree. Susannah verse 64. Pistacia Lentiscus, 
Melons (Heb. Abattikhim). Arab. Batikh, Many species exist in 
Palestine. 



398 HANDBOOK. TO THE BIBLE. 

BUllet (Heb. Dokhan). Arab. Dokhn : including Paimcum MSiacmm 

and Sorghum mUgare (Arab. Dhurrah). 
BCint (Greek Eduosmon). Matt. 23. 38. 
MnlberrT' (Heb. Becaim). 2 Sam. 5. 88. Unknown species. 
Mustard Tree (Greek Sinajd). Sinapis nigra, 

(Heb. Mor). Arab. Murr. Bdlsamodendron Myrrha, 
(Heb. Hadas). Arab. Hadas, Mgrtus communis. 
Vettles (1). (Heb. Eimmosh). Isaiah 84. 18. Probably Urtica iV- 
hdifera, 
(2). (Heb. Ebarul). Zeph. 2. 9. Unknown. 
Vats (I). (Heb. Egoz). Arab. J^. Cant. 6. ii. Walnut. Jugkm 
regia, 
(2). (Heb. Botnim). Gen. 43. ii. (Of. Arab. Butm.) No 
doubt the pistachio nut. Arab. Fistuk, Pistacia vera. 
See Terebinth. 
Oak (I). (Heb. Elon, Allon, El, Han), includes three species, Quer- 
CU8 pseudo-coccifera (Arab. Bcdlut), Q. jEgUcps (Arab. 
Sindidn), Q, ir^ectoria (Arab. MaUtU and Afs), 
(2). (Heb. Elah). See Terebinth. 
Oil Tree (Heb. Etz Shemen). Isaiah 41. i9. Rendered 'pine branches,' 
Neh. 8. 16, * olive tree.' 1 Kings 6. 28. Arab. ^Azzun. The Oleaster, 
Eleagnus angustifdlius, 
Olive (Heb. Zait). Arab. Zeitun, Olea JBuroptsa. 
Onions (Heb. Betzalim). Arab. Busl. Allium Cepa, 
Palm Tree (Heb. Tamar). Arab. Tumr and NukJUy the date palm. 
Pannaff (Heb. Panna^). Ezek. 27. 17. Unknown. 
Paper Reeds (Heb. 'Aroth). Isaiah 19. 7. Arab. ^Ara^ 'herbage. 
Pine (Heb. Tidbar). Isaiah 41. 19. Unknown species. 
Pomegrranate (Heb. Bimmon). Arab. Rummdn, Punica grana- 

turn. 
Poplar (Heb. Libneh. * White tree.*) Probably the Poplar. 
Pulse. Dan. 1. 12. (Heb. Zer'aim). Arab. Zw-'a, *seed.* 
Rose of Sharon (Heb. Khabutzaleth). Arab. Buseil or Bunjtu. 

(Aram. Narkus). Narcissus Tazetta, 
aue (Greek Peganon). Luke 11. 42. Gquxxa Rutacece, Four species 

in Palestine. 
Rye (Heb. Oussemuth). Ex. 9. 32, &c., probably spelt (as in Auth. 

Vers, margin), Triticum Spelta, 
Saffron (Heb. Karkom). Arab. Kurkum, Crocus sativus. Cant. 

4. 14, only. 
Sbittab Tree (Heb. Shittah, pi. Shittim). Arab. Seiydl, Acacia Seyal. 



THE ANIMALS AND PLANTS OF THE BIBLE. 399 

Staote (Heb. Nataph/ 'Drop/) Styrax officinalis. Arab. ^Abhar. 

See p. 160. 
Syeamine (Gr. Sukaminos). Luke 17. 6. The Mulberry, still so 

called in Greece. Moms nigra. 
Sycamore (Heb. Shikmin). Ficua Syeomorus, 
Tares (Greek Zizania). Arab. 2jawdn, Zolium Temvlentum, 
Tell Tree (Heb. Elah). Isa. 6. 13. See next. 
Tereblntli (Heb. Elah. Greek Terebinthos). Arab. Butm. Pigta- 

cia Terehintkus, 
Tblstle and Ttaorn. Nine Hebrew words occur, none of which are 

properly identified. 
Thylne UTood (Greek Xulon Thuinou). Bey. 18. 13. Cdllitris 

quadrtvcdvtSf not a native of Palestine. 
Vine (Heb. Gephen). Arab. Jufn, Vitis Vinifera, 
Vine {of Sodoni), perhaps the Oolocynth. OUruUus CciocynthuB : the 

fruit is nauseous, and when ripe full of dust. Of. Deut. 32. 32. The 

Apple of Sodom (Of. 4 Wars 8. 4), is probably the ^ Other tree. 

Asdepias Procera, 
vnieat (Heb. Khittah). Arab. Kumh, 
VTlUow (1). (Heb. 'Arabim). Lev. 23. 40. 

(2). (Heb. Tzaphtzaphah). Ezek. 17. 6. Arab. Sufsdfy 

includes four species of Salix, 
VTormwood (Heb. La'aneh. Greek Apsinthos), probably the 

Wormwood. Arab. Shih, Genus Artemisia, including six 

species. 

The standard source of more detailed information is Oanon Tris- 
tram's ' Natural History of the Bible.* 



400 HANDBOOK TO THB BIBtE. 



TOPOGEAPHICAL INDEX 

OB 

BIBLICAL GAZETTEER, 

Giving the Names of Places in the Holy Land mentioned in the OHd 
and New Testaments^ and in the Apocrypha, 

The names of 840 places in the Holy Land, mentioned in 
the Old and New Testaments and in the Apocrypha, will he 
found in the following Index ; and the modem name is added 
in cases where the site has been recovered. 

All the more important Biblical places as yet identified will 
be found marked on the accompanying Maps. The references 
to position with relation to well-known places will guide the 
reader in comparing the Maps and the Index. The Biblical 
references given in the latter are either the earliest in which 
the name occurs, or else those which most clearly indicate the 
position of the ancient site. 

The identifications, as indicated in the Gaj»tteer, depend 
either on the survival of the ancient name in an Aramaic or 
Arabic form at the present day at the site, or on the accordance 
between measured distances and those given by the authorities 
cited, including the works of Josephus, the Talmud, and the 
Onomasticon of Eusebius. 

Out of 840 sites, 500 have been recovered either with cer- 
tainty or with great probability, and of these 140, marked by an 
asterisk (*), are not shown on previous maps. Most of the places 
marked 'unknown' are to be sought either in the Sinaitic 
Desert or east of Jordan. 

The references to pages in the Handbook will guide the 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 401 

reader to the detailed information contained in the body of the 
work respecting the most interesting places. 



Abana (Eiver). 2 Kings 5. 12. The Arabic yersion renders it 

Barada : a river rising north of Hermon and flowing to Damascus. 
Abarlm (Mountains)^ i.e. ' Mountains beyond Jordan/ the range of 

Nebo. Deut. 32. 49. (Reuben.) 
Abdon. Josh. 21. 30. Now a ruin named ^Abdeh, (Asher.) 
Abel ZSetli Maaotaa or Abel Malm. 2 Sam. 20. is. Now a village 

Ahdf west of Banias. (Naphtali.) 
Abel Ceramim. Judg. 11. 33. 'Plain of the vineyards.' Unknown. 
*Abel Metaolali. 1 Kings 4. 13. Jerome places it ten miles south 

of Scythopolis; or at the present Ain Hdweh. 
Abel Staittlm. Num. 33. 49. -Shittim. 
Abel Mizralm. Gen. 50. ii. Unknown. 
*Abez (' white '). Josh. 19. 20. Probably the ruin d-Beida, 'white/ 

at north limit of the Plain of Esdraelon. (Issachar.) 
Abilene (District). Luke 3. 1. See Chapter 6, page 317. 
Acotao. Judg. 1. 31. The modem town of ^Akkah. 
Aceldama (Chaldee Hakel Dama, 'field of blood.') Acts 1. 19. 

The traditional site, since the fourth century, has been shown at 

Sak d-Dummf opposite Sion, on the south. 
Aolior (Valley). Now Wddy Kelt See Chap. 3, p. 258. 
*Aolisliapli. Josh. 19. 25. The present village d-Yasif, (Asher.) 
Acbzlb. Josh. 15. 44. See Ohezib. 

Aetazlb. Josh. 19. 29. The present town of ez-Zib. (Asher.) 
Adadab. Josh. 15. 22. The present ruin Ad'adah, in the desert 

south-east of Beersheba. 
Adam (' red earth '), a city beside Zaretan. Josh. 3. 16. The name 

is probably preserved at the present ford of ed-Ddmieh. See 

Ohap. 2, p. 241. 
Adamab. Josh. 19. 36. The present village ed-Ddmeh, west of the 

Sea of Galilee. 
*Adami. Joch. 19. 33. The present ruin Admah, south-west of the 

Sea of Galilee. 
Adar. Josh. 15. 3. Unknown. 
*Ada8a. 1 Mace. 7. 40. Was 30 stadia from Bethhoron. 12 Ant. 

10. 6. The present ruin of Adasah, See Chap. 5, p. 294. 
Adida. 1 Mace. 12. 38. On an eminence (13 Ant. 6. 4) in the She- 

phelah. The present village Haditheh, close to Lydda on east. 
Adittaaim. Josh. 15. 36. Unknown. 
Admab. Gen. 10. 19. See Ohap. 2, p. 241. 

D D 



402 HANDBOOK TO THE BJBLE. 

Adoralm. 2 Ohron. 11. 9. The present village of DurOf west of 

Hebron. 
*Adallaiu. Josh. 12. 15. Eusebius places it ten miles east of 

Eleutheropolis. The present ruined fortress of *Aid el-Ma. 
Adnmmim (' going up of). Josh. 15. 7. Now called TaTat ed-Dumm, 

See Ohap. 3, p. 258. 
Aenon (' springs '). John 3. 23. Now *Ainun. See Ohap. 6^ p. 320. 
Ablab. Judg. 1. 31. Talmudic Gush Halab, now d-Jtsh, (Naph- 

tali.) 
*Ai C ruins '). Josh. 12. 9. Called by Josephus Aina, was ' close to ' 

Beth Avon. The present ridned town Haiydn. See Chap. 3, p. 264. 
iUJaloii or AJalon. Josh. 19. 42. The present village Ydlo, (Dan.) 
iL^alon. Judg. 12. 12. Unknown. 
Aln. Josh. 15. 32. Probably should read En Eimmon. 
iLkrabbim, Ascent of. Num. 34. 4. See Chap. 3^ p. 241. 
Alammelecta. Josh. 19. 26. Unknown. 
iLlemetta. 1 Chron. 6. 60. The present village ^Almit, north-east of 

Jerusalem. (Benjamin.) 
Allon Bachatb, (^ oak of weeping'). Gen. 35. 8. Beneath Bethel 
Almon — Alemeth. 

Almon Diblattaaim. Num. 33. 46. Unknown. 
Alotta. 1 Kings 4. 16. Probably ^Alia, east of Achzib. (Asher.) 
iLlusb, Num. 33. 13. Unknown. 
*Amad. Josh. 19. 26. Probably the present ruin el-Amud, north of 

Akkah. 

Josh. 15. 26. Unknown. 
(Mountain). Cant. 4. 8. See Chap. 6, p. 301. 
Ammab (Gibeah), * hill of the aqueduct.* 2 Sam. 2. 24. Unknown. 
*iLnab. Josh. 15. 50. Now the ruin ^Andh, west of Debir. ( Judah.) 
*iLnaliaratb. Josh. 19. 19. Now the village enrN^aurah, north of 

Jezreel. (Issachar.) 
.A.naniali. Neh. 11. 32. The present village Beit Hanina, near 

Gibeon. 
.A.natbotb. Josh. 21. is. Now the village ^Andta, (Benjamin.) 
*Anem. 1 Chron. 6. 73. Probably the modern village ^Anin^ west 

of the Plain of Esdraelon. 
*iLner. 1 Chron. 6. 70. Possibly the modern ^AUdr, in the hiUs 

south-west of the Plain of Esdraelon. 
.A.iiim. Josh. 15. 50. Now a ruin called Ohuweirtf near Eshtemoa. 
iLntipatris. The distances given in various Itineraries fix this site at 

the large ruin of Rds el^Ain, See Chap. 6, p. 307. 
iLptaek. Josh. 12. 18. Unknown. 
Apbek. Josh. 19. 30. (Asher.) Unknown. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 403 

Aptaek. Josh. 13. 4. Probably Afha, on nortb-west slope of 

Lebanon. 
*Apliek. 1 Sam. 4. i. Possibly the present ruin of JBeUed d-Foka 

(* upper town '), near Gath. (Judab.) 
*iLptaek. 1 Sam. 29. i. Possibly the modem village Fukffa, on 

Gilboa. (Issachar.) 
iLpbek. 1 Edngs 20. 26. A walled city in the Mishor (verse 25 A.V. 

' plain '), probably the village Fik, east of the Sea of Galilee, 
Aptaekali. Josh. 15. 53. Unknown. 
Aptaerema. 1 Mace. 11. 34. Probably » Ephraim. 
At (of Moab). Isaiah 15. i = Rabbath Moab. 

*Arab. Josh. 15. 62. The present ruin er-Habii/eh, south of Hebron. 
Arabattene (in LXX. Acrabatdne) » Acrabbim (Ascent of). 1 

Mace. 5. 3. 
Arad. Josh. 12. u. Now the large ruin Tell ^Ardd, east of Beer- 

sheba. , 

iLrbattis. 1 Mace. 5. 23. Unknown. 
iLrbela. 1 Mace. 9. 2. The present ruin Irhid, west of the Sea of 

Galilee. 
*Arcbi. Josh. 16. 2. The present village ^Ain ^Arik, See p. 260. 
iLrgrob (District), in Targum of Jonathan, is rendered Ternkuna, 

Probably the present L^'a^ or Trachonitis. 
Arimattaeear Matt. 27. 67, &c. Unknown. 
Armaireddon. Eev. 16. le. ' Mount Megiddo.' 
Amon (River). Now Wddi/ Mojtb. See Ohap. 3, p. 252. 
Aroer. Deut. 2. 36. Now the ruin ^ Affair, on north bank of W. 

M&jib. 
Aroer. Num. 32. 34. Unknown. 
Aroer. 1 Sam. 30. 28. The ruin ^Ar^arah, twelve miles east of 

Beersheba. 
Ambotb. 1 Kings 4. lo. See Chap. 4^ p. 282. 
Ammab. Judg. 9. 41. Unknown. 
Asban. Josh. 15. 42. Unknown. 

Asbdod or Azotas, now the large village Esdud, in Philistia. 
Asbdotb Plsgrab, ' streams of Pisgah.' Deut. 3. 17. Apparently the 

springs now called ^Ayun Musa^ under Mount Nebo. 
Asber bam-Miobmetbab. Josh. 17. 7. See Ohap. 3, p. 264. 
Asbkelon. The present ruined city ^Askcddn, on the coast of Phi- 
listia. 
Asbnab. Josh. 15. 33. Unknown. 
Asbnab. Josh. 15. 43. Unknown. 
Asbtarotb. Deut. 1. 4. Probably the same as the next 
Aabtarotb Xarnalm. See Chap. 5, p. 296. 

n D 2 



404 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Aspbar (Pool or Lake). 1 Mace. 9. 33. Unknown. See p. 297.. 

iLtarotb (Num. 32. 3), or iLtrotb. Num. 32. S5. Unknown. 

*iLtarotli. Josh. 16. 7. Perhaps Tell et-Truni, See Ohap. 3, p. 264. 

*iLtarotli iLdar. Josh. 18. 13. Now the ruin ed-Ddrieh, See p. 260. 

iLtbacta. 1 Sam. 30. 30. Unknown. 

Aven ('naught'). Hos. 10. 8. «=Beth Aven. 

iLvltb. Gten. 36. 35. Unknown. 

iLzekab. Josh. 15. 35. Unknown. 

Azem or Szem. Josh. 15. 29^ &c. Unknown. 

iLzmavetb. Ezra 2. 24. Now the Tillage Hizmeh, north-east of 

Jerusalem. 
Azmon. Num. 34. 4. Unknown. 

iLznotta Tabor. Josh. 19. 34. ' Ears of Tabor.' See Ohap. 3, p. 270. 
Azotiia (Mount). 1 Mace. 9. 15. The hill of the present village 

Btr ez-Zeitf north of Bethel. (Of. 12 Ant. 11. 8.) 
Deut. 2. 23. « Gaza. 



1 Ohron. 4. 33. Unknown. 
Baalab. Josh. 15. 9. » Earjath Jearim. 
Baalab (Mount). Unknown. See Ohap. 3^ p. 259. 
Baalab (Josh. 15. 29) « Balah (Josh. 19. 3) == Bilhah. (1 Ohron. 4. 

29.) Unknown. 
*Baalatb. Josh. 19. 44. Perhaps the modem village BeTain, and 

identical with the town in 1 Kings 9. 18. 8 Ant. 6. 1. 
Baalatb Beer. Josh. 19. 8. = Eamath Negeh. 
Baal Gad. Josh. 11. 17. Unknown. 
Baal Hamon. Oant. 8. 11. Perhaps » Amana. 
Baal Hazor. 2 Sam. 13. 23. The name is found in the present 

mountain Tell ^Asur, near Ephraim {TaiyibeJi), See Ohap. 1, p. 210. 
Baal Hermon (Mount). Judg. 3. 3. == Hermon. 
Baal Meon. Num. 32. 38. The present ruin Wain* 
Baal Perazizn. 2 Sam. 5. 20. Unknown. 
*Baal Sbalisba. 2 Kings 4. 42. Prohahly the present village Kefr 

Thilthy in the territory of Ephraim. 
Baal Tamar, Judg. 20. 33. Jewish tradition identifies the site 

with the large ruin ^Attdra, near Gibeah of Benjamin. 
Baca (Valley). Ps. 84. 6. Unknown. 
Baburizn. 2 Sam. 16. 5^ &c. The Targum of Jonathan reads 

Almon. i^Almit,) 
Sajitb. Isaiah 15. 2. Unknown. 

Bamotb Baal ('Altars of Baal'). Josh. 13. 17. Unknown. 
Bascazna. 1 Mace. 13. 23. Unknown. 



TOPOGEAPHICAL INDEX. 406 

See Ohaps. 3 and G, pp. 254, 315. 
Bath Zactaarlas. 1 Mace. 6. 32. The present ruined Tillage of 

Beit Skdriaj south-west of Bethlehem. 
Bealotli (pi. fern, of Baal). Josh. 15. 24. Unknown. 
Beer ('well'). Num. 21. 16. Unknown. 
^eetm Judg. 9. 21. Unknown. 
Beer Slim. Isaiah 15. 8. Unknown. 
Beer &al&al Bol. Gen. 16. 14. Between Bered and Kadesh. 
Beerotb. Josh. 9. 17. The present village Bireh* (Benjamin.) 
Beerotli Bene Jaakan. Deut. 10. 6. Unknown. 
Beersheba. The present ruin Bir e»-Seb^a, with three wells. 
Beesliterali. Josh. 21. 27. « Ashtaroth. 
Bela « Zoar. 

Belmalm or Belmen. Judith 4. 4, and 7. a. See p. 289. 
Bene Berak. Josh. 19. 46« The present Tillage Ilm Ibrah 
Boon. Num. 32. s. Unknown. 
Beraoliab (Valley). 2 Ohron. 20. 26. The present Wddy ^Arrub, 

aboTe which is the ruin Breikut, 
*Berea (1 Mace. 9. 4) « Beeroth. 
Bered. Gen. 16. 14. The Targum of Pseudo-Jonathan reads Kha- 

lutza = KMlasa, South of Beersheba. See p. 250. 
Berotbab. Ezek. 47. I6. Berothai. 2 Sam. 8* 8. Probably the 

modem city Beii*ut. 
Besor (Brook). 1 Sam. 30. 9. Perhaps should be Bi Skur, i.e, near 

the wilderness of Shur. 
Betane. Judith 1. 9. Possibly Beit ^Aintin, or Bethany. 
*Beten. Josh. 19. 25. Eusebius places Bebeten eight Boman miles 

east of Ptolemais. This indicates the Tillage d-B^aneh, 
*'Betbabara or Betbany. The present ford ^Abdrah, See p. 319. 
Betb iknatb. Josh. 19. 38. The present Tillage ^Ainatha, (Naph- 

tali.) 
Betb Anotb. Josh 15. 59. The present ruin Beit ^Ainiin, north- 
east of Hebron. 
Betbany. The present Tillage elrAzh-iyeh, on OliTet. 
Betb Arabab (' house of the plain '). Josh. 15. 61. Unknown. 
Betb ikram « Beth Haram. 
Betb Arbel. Hos. 10. 14. Unknown. 
Betb Aven. Josh. 7. 2, &c. See Chap. 3, p. 260. 
Betb Barab. Judg. 7. 24. Unknown. 
Betb Bast. 1 Mace. 9. 62. Identified by Josephus (13 Ant. 1. 6) 

with Beth Aglah, probably Beth Hoglah. 
Betb Biret. 1 Ohron. 4. 31. Unknown. 
Beth Car. 1 Sam. 7. 11. Unknown. 



406 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

zsefh DaiTon. Josh. 15. 41, The present village Beit DtQonj near 

Jaffa. 
*Betli Dagron. Josh. 19. 27. Probably TeU jyauk. (Zebulon.) See 

Ohap. 3, p. 268, 
ZSetbeL The present village BeUin, (Benjamin.) 
Bethel B Bethul. 

Seth Bmek (' house of the Yale ^. Josh. 19. S7. Unknown. 
Setber (Mountains). Probably the hiUs round Btttity west of 

Bethlehem. Cant. 2. 17. 
8etbe«el. Micah 1. ii. Unknown. 
Betb Gader. 1 Chron. 2. 61, Probably « Gedor. 
Beth Oamul. Jer. 48. sa. la the Mishor (Auth. Vers. 'plains- 
Unknown. 
Betb taac-Cerem (Neh. 3. u), 'house of the vineyard/ Unknown. 
Betb Haran, Num. 32. 36. The present ruin Beit Hardn, east ef 

Jericho. 
Setb Hogriali. Josh. 18. 21. The nun of *Ain Hajlah, See p. 268. 
Setbtaoron, Upper and Lower. These two towns are the two 

villages Beit ' Ur^ the Upper and Lower. See Ohap. 3, p. 260. 
Befli Jesimotli. Num. 33. 49. The present ruin of 8iieimehy near 

the Jordan mouth, 
Betb Ziebaotb. Josh. 19. 6. Unknown. 
Setblebem (of Judah). The present town Beit Lahm, 
Betblebem (of Zebulon). Josh. 19. 15. The present village Beit 

Lahm, 
Setb Maroabotb. Josh. 19. s. Unknown. 
Setb Wimrab. Josh. 13. 27. The present ruin iVtwiHn. (Gad.) 

See Ohap. 3, p. 263. Ohap. 6, p. 302. 
Betb Palet. Josh. 16. 27. Unknown. 
Setb Pazses. Josh. 19. 21. Unknown. 
Setb Peer. Deut. 3. 29. Unknown. 
*Betb Pbagre. See Ohap. 6, p. 326. 
Setb Sapba. 1 Ohron. 4. 12. Unknown. 
Setb Sebob. Judg. 18. 28. Unknown. 
Betb Saida. See Ohap. 6, p. 322. 
Setb Sbean. Josh. 17. 11. The present ruined town Beisdn, (Is- 

sachar.) 
Betb Sbemesb (of Judah). Josh. 16. 10. The present ruin 'Ain 

She7nes, See Ohap. 3, p. 269. 
*Betb Sbemesb (of Issachar). Josh. 19. 22. Possibly *Ain esh-Shefn- 

siyeh, in the Jordan Valley, near Beisan on south. 
Betb Sbemesb (of Naphtali). Judg. 1. 83. Unknown. 
Setb Sbittab. Judg. 7. 22. Unknown. ' 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 407 

8etb Tappnali. Josh. 15. 53. The present village Tuffuh^ west of 

Hebron. 
Bethul. Josh. 19. i. Unknown. 

*Setliiilia. The present village Mithilia, See Ohap. 4, p. 289. 
Bethmur. Josh. 15. 68. The present ruined town Beit Sur, noilih of 

Hebron. 
*Setomesttaaiu. Judith 4. 6. Probably the present ruin Mamn, 

See Ohap. 4, p. 289. 
Betonlm. Josh. 13. 26. Unknown. 

ek. Judg. 1. 6. Probably the present ruin Bezkah, south of 
Lydda. 

1 Sam. 11. 8. The present ruin Ibzik, north-east of Shechem. 
ler (in the Midbar). Josh. 20. 8. Unknown. 
lefb. 1 Mace. 7. 19. Possibly » Bezetha at Jerusalem. 
Slieam (1 Ohron. 6. 70) ■- Ibleam. Josh. 17. ii. The name is still 

recognisable in Wddy BePameh, near Jenin. (Manasseh.) 
Sirsavitb. 1 Ohron. 7. 31. Unknown. 
Sitliroii (' broken ground '). 2 Sam. 2. 29. Unknown. 
Bij^ot^Jali. Josh. 15. 28. Unknown. 
Bochliii (' the weepers '). Judg. 2. i. Unknovm. 
Boliaa (stone). Josh. 15. «. Unknown. 
Sosor. 1 Mace. 5. 26. Unknown. 

Bosora. 1 Mace. 5. 26. Apparently « Bozrah, east of Bashan. 
les. 1 Sam. 14. 4. The north cliff of the valley of Miehmash. 



Cabbon. Josh. 15. 40. Unknown. 

Cabul. Josh. 19. 27. The present village K<xbul, east of Akkah. 

(Zebulon.) 

Csesarea. Acts 8. 40. The present ruined city Kaisdtiehf north of 

Ceesarea Pbliippi. Matt. 16. is. Ooins of Osesarea Paneas identify 

this city with the present village Bdnids at the Jordan springs. 
Cain. Josh. 15. 57. The present ruin Yekin, south of Hebron. 
Calvary. Luke 23. 33. » Golgotha. See Ohap. 7, p. 356. 
Camon (in Gilead). Judg. 10. 6. 5 Ant. 7. 6. Unknown. 
Caaa (of Galilee). John 2. i. Probably the present village Kefr 

Kennoj north of Nazareth. 
bapemaum. See Ohap. 6, p. 325. 
Capbar Salama. 1 Mace. 7. 31. Possibly the present village 

Selmeh, near Joppa. 
Capbenatba. 1 MacC. 12. 37. Unknown. 
Carmel (Mount). Josh. 19. 26. Now Jebel Kurmid, See Ohap. 1, 

p. 209. 



408 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Carmel (of Judah). Josh. 16. 55. The present ruined town Ktirmulf 

south of Hebron. 
Caspbon, or Casptaor. 1 Mace. 5. 26. Unknown. 
Cedron. 1 Mace. 15. 39. The present village Katrahj Dear Jamnia. 
*Cliarasliim (Valley). lOhron. 4.14. Near Lod and Ono. Neh. 11. 

85. The name is preserved at the ruin Hirshay east of Lydda. 
Ctaellos. Judith 1. 9. Unknown. 
Cliepliar Haammonal. Josh. 18. 24. Unknown. 
Cbepliirab. Josh. 9. 17. The present ruin Kefireh, (Benjamin.) 
Cbesalon. Josh. 15. lo. The present village Keda, See p. 259. 
CbesU = Bethul. 

Cbesuilotb. Josh. 19. 18. The present village Iksdl, See p. 267. 
*Cliezlb. Gen. 38. 5. The name appears to linger in that of ^Ain 

Kezbeh,iieai Beit Nettif, 
Ctaidon. 1 Ohron. 13. 9. » Nachon. 2 Sam. 6. 6. Unknown. 
Cbinneretli. Josh. 19. 35. The Talmud (Tal. Jer. MegHlah 70a) 

renders the name by Gintzer, 
Cbinneretb (Sea of ) « Sea of Galilee. 
COiislotli Tabor = Ohesulloth. 
*<nioba, or Cbobal. Judith 4. 4. The present ruin d-Mekhdbbtf, 

east of Jenin. 
Cborasban. 1 Sam. 30. 30. Probably » Ashan. 
Cborazin. The present ruined town Kerdzeh, See Ohap. 6, p. 824. 
*Cbozeba. 1 Chron. 4. 22. Possibly the present ruin KueinShaj 

north-east of Halhul. 
*<niii8i. Judith 7. 18. The present village Kuzah, south of Shechem. 
Cyamon. Judith 7. 8. The present ruin Tdl Xetmu7i = Jokneam. 

Dabbasbetb. Josh. 19. ii. . Unknown. 

Daberatb. Josh. 19. 12. The present village Deburieh, under Tabor. 

Dalmanntba. Mark 8. 10. Unknown. 

Damascus. The present city Demesk esh-Shdm* 

Dan. Gen. 14. 14. Josephus (8 Ant. 8. 4) places it near the springs 

of Lesser Jordan. The name lingers in that of the stream called 

Ledddn, 
Dan Jaan. 2 Sam. 24. 6. The present ruin Ddnidn, north of 

Achzib. (Asher.) 
*Dannab. Josh. 15. 49. Probably the present village Idknahy west 

of Hebron. 
Datbema or Dametba. See Ohap. 5, p. 295. 
*Debir (' back '). The present village edh-Dhdhei'iyeh (' back *), on a 

ridge, south-west of Hebron. Josh. 15. 49. 
Bebir. Josh. 15. 7. Unknown. 



TOPOGEAPHICAL INDEX. 409 

Debir. Josh. 13. 26. Unknown. 

Oecapolis (District). See Chap. 6, p. 316. 

Dedan. Jer. 49. 8. Unknown. 

*]Mblatb, Ezek. 6. 14. Apparently the present village Dibl, 

(Naphtali.) 
Oibon. Num. 32. 3. The present ruin Dktbdn, (Reuben.) 
Dibon Gad » Dibon. See Chap. 2, p. 251. 
Dilean. Josh. 15. 38. Unknown. 
Dimnab « Kimmon (1). 
Oimon (Waters). Isaiah 15. 9. Unknown. 
Olmonab. Josh. 15. 22. Unknown. 
Oixabab. Deut. 1. 1. Unknown. 
Bopbkab. Num. 33. 12. Unknown. 
Oor. Josh. 12. 23. Jerome places it nine miles from Caesarea, on the 

road to Ptolemais. The ruins of a city here exist near the modern 

village Tantura, 
Ootban. Gen. 37. 17. The present ruin TeU Dothdn, north of 

Samaria. (Issachar.) 
Bmnab. Josh. 15. 52. The present ruin Domeh, south-west of 

Hebron. 

ZSbal (Mount). Now called Jebel Edamiyeh, See Chap. 1, p. 210. 

*ZSbenezer : Jerome places near Bethshemesh; probably intending the 
site of the present village Deir AhdUj east of ^Ain Shemes, 

Sbronab. Num. 33. 34. Unknown. 

ZSd (Josh. 22. 34) 'witness* (Altar of). Unknown. 

Bdar. Gen. 35. 21. (tower) Jerome places 1,000 paces from Bethlehem. 

ZSder. Josh. 15. 21. Unknown. 

Sdrei. Num. 22. 33. Apparently the large ruined town Udr'a, on 
the south-west border of the Lejja district in Bashan« 

*zsdrel. Josh. 19. 37. Probably the present village Y^ater, (Naph- 
tali.) 

ZSgrlon. Josh. 15. 39. The present ruin ^Ajldn, in Philistia. 

ZSkrebeL Judith 7. 18. The present village *Akrabeh, See p. 290. 

Bkron. Josh. 13. 3. The present village ^Aker^ in Philistia. 

mab (Valley). 1 Sam. 17. 2. The present Wddy es-Sunt See 
Chap. 1, p. 211. 

Blatb. Deut. 2. 8. The present Aila, See Chap. 2, p. 247. 

zaealab. Num. 32. 3. The present ruin el^^AI, near Heshbon. 
(Reuben.) 

*Bleasa. 1 Mace. 9. 6. The present ruin ITasa^ near Bethhoron. 

*BIepb, Josh. 18. 28. The present village Idfta, west of Jerusalem. 

sum. Ex. 15. 27. See Chap. 2, p. 248. 



410 HANIiBOOK TO THE BIBLB* 

ZUkosli. Nah. 1. 1. Unknown. 

*zsioii. Josh. 19. 43. Probably the present village Beii EUo, (Ban.) 

*ZSloii Beth Hanan. 1 Kings 4. 9. The present village Beit *AnAi, 

in the low hills east of Lydda. 
*ZUteketa. Josh. 19. 44. Probably the present Beit Likia, (Dan.) 
Eltekon. Josh. 15. 69. Unknown. 
Eltolad. Josh. 15. so. Unknown. 

Bmmaus, Luke 24. 13. See Chap. 6, p. 326. Probably the ruin 
Khamasa, (Judah.) 

(Nicopolis). 1 Mace. 3. 40. The present village ^Afnwd», 
. Josh. 15. 34. Possibly the present ruin ^AUin, near Zoreah. 
Sndor. Josh. 17. ii. The present village JEndur, 
ZSgrlaim. Ezek. 47. lo. Unknown. 
Gannlm (of Judah). Josh. 15. 34. The present ruin Unun 
JinUf west of Beth Bhemesh. 

Gannlm (of Issachar). Josh. 19. 21. The present town Jenin, 
(Issachar.) 

Gedi. Josh. 15. 62. The present ruin and spring ^Ain Jidy^ on 
the west shore of Dead Sea. 

Haddab. Josh. 19. 21. Probably the present village JBj§fr Addn, 
See Chap. 3, p. 266. 

(* Spring of the crier '). Judg. 16. 19. See Lehi. 
. Josh.' 19. 37. The present Hazireh, by Wddy el-'Ayitn. 
(Naphtali.) 
asisbpat a Kadesh. Gen. 14. 7. 
ZSn Simmon. Josh. 15. 32 and 19. 7. Neh. 11. 29. The present 

ruin Umm er-Bumdmin, north of Beersheba. 
ZSn Sogrel. See Chap. 7, p. 334. 
Sn Sbemesb. Josh. 15. 7. Apparently the present ^Ain Haud, east 

of Jerusalem. 
ZSn Tappuali. Josh. 17. 7. . See Chap. 3, p. 263. 
Sptaes Dammim. 1 Sam. 17. 1. Unknown. 
ZSpbraim. 2 Sam. 13. 23. John 11. 54. Apparently ^ Ophrah of 

Benjamin. 
sspliratali =» Bethlehem (of Judah). 
ZSptaron. 1 Macc. 5. 46. Unknown. 
ZSpbron (Mount). Josh. 15. 9. Unknown. 
fisdraelon — Jezreel. 
ZSsek (Well). Gen. 26, 20. Unknown. 
ZSsctaol. Num. 13. 23. Unknown. 

*ZSsliean. Josh. 15. 52. Possibly the ruin es-Simia, near Dumah. 
ZSsbtaol. Josh. 15. 33. Probably the present village Eshii'a, close to 
Zorah. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 41 1 

Bshtemoa. Josh. 15. so. The present Tillage es-Semffaj south of 
Hebron. 

*Bsora. Judith 4. 4. The present village ^Adreh^ near Shechem, on 
the north. 

*atam. 1 Ghron. 4. 32. The present ruin ^Aitunj south-west of 
Hebron. 

Btam. 2 Ohron. 11. 6. The present village Urfds, south of Beth- 
lehem^ near which is the spring called ^Ain ^Atdn» 

*Btam (Bock). Judg. 15. 8. The present rock and Tillage JBsit 
'Atdb, west of Bethlehem. 

*ailier. Josh. 15. 4S. Probably the ruin d^'Atr, near Beit Jibrin, 

Bmel (Stone). 1 Sam. 20. 19. Unknown. 

Bmem « Azem. 

Sslon Oel>er. See Chap. 2, p. 247. 



(Mount). Josh. 24. so. Unknown. 
Cktdara. Mark. 5. i. Luke 8. 26. Near the Hieromax (Pliny, 

Hist. Nat. 5. le)^ sixteen Roman miles irom Scythopolis and from 

Tiberias (Onomasticon)^ now the ruined city Umm Km, See 

Ohap. 6, p. 816. 
Galeed. Gen. 31. 47. See Ohap. 6, p. 305. 
aalyala. 1 Mace. 9. 2. Probably - Gilgal (2). 
CtaUlee. See Ohap. Q, p. 312, and Ohap. 1, p. 208. 
*Oallim. 1 Sam. 25. 44. Isaiah 10. so. Possibly BeU JMa, near 

Bethlehem. 
Ckureb (HiU). (' Plantation '). Jer. 31. 39. Unknown. 
Gatta (Josh. 13. s), &c. : five Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, on 

the road to Diospolis (Lydda)^ according to the Onomasticon. This 

points to the fortress of Tell e»-Sdfi, 
Gatb Hepber. Josh. 19. is. Oontaining the tomb of Jonah (Ono- 
masticon. Of. 2 Kings 14. 25), now the village d-Mesh-hed (' the 

monument '), with the tomb of Neby Yunas, 
Oaxik Simmon (' lofty Gath '). Josh. 21. 24. Probably - Gath. 
Gaza. Gen. 10. 19. Now the city Ohazzeh, in Philistia. 
Gasara. 1 Mace. 9. 52. ~ Gezer. 
Ctoba (' hill ') (1) of Benjamin (Josh. 21. 17) » Gaba. Josh. 18. 24. 

Now the Tillage Jeb^a, near Michmash. 
Oeba (2). Judith 3. 10. Now Jeb'a, north of Shechem. 
Gebim. Isaiah 10. si. Unknown. 
*Gederab. Josh. 15. 36. The Gedor of the Onomasticon^ ten miles 

from Eleutheropolis^ on the road to Diospolis, now the ruin 

Jedireh, 



412 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

*aederab, of Benjamin. 1 Ohron. 12. 4. Now Jedireih, nortk of 

JerusaJem. 
*Oederotb. Josh. 15. 41. Apparently the present village Knftrah* 
Gederofbalin. Josh. 16. ae. According to LXX. was part of 

Gederah. 
Gedor. Josh. 16. 58. « Geder. Josh. 12. 13. The present village 

Jedur, in the Hebron mountains. 
Oebenna » Valley of the Son of Hinnom. See Chap. 7, p. 330. 
Gelilotb. Josh. 18. 17. Probably means ' downs.' 
Ctonnesajret (Sea.) Now Bahr Tdbariya. 

Gerar. Gen. 10. 19. Now the ruin tfmm d-JerrdVy south of Gaza. 
Gerffesenes. Matt. 8. 28. Sinaitic MS. reads Gazarenea; and 

Vatican MS. Gadarenes^ agreeing with Mark 5. i. Luke 8. 36. 
Geiisim (Mount). Deut. 11. 29. Now called Jebd et-T&r, See 

Ohap. 1, p. 210. 
Gesbur, Deut. 3. 14. Part of Bashan. See Ohap. 3, p. 254. 
Getbsemane (' oil-press '). Mark 14. 32. Unknown. 
*Geser. Josh. 12. 12. Four Roman miles northwards from Nico- 

polis (Onomasticon). Now the large ruin TeU Jezer, 
Gtab (' ravine '). 2 Sam. 2. 24. Unknown. 
*Gibbetbon. Josh. 19. 44. Probably the present village Kibhiakj 

west of Timnathah (TibneK), (Dan.) 
Gibeab. Josh. 15. 57. Now the village JeVa, west of Bethlehem. 
*Gtbeab. Josh. 18. 28. Now the ruin of JeMa, east of Emmaiis 

Nicopolis. 
Gibeab of Saul, or of Benjamin. A district including Geba and 

Kamah. Of. 1 Sam. 14. 2, and 22. 6. 
Gibeab in the Field. Judg. 20. 31. Part of Geba (1). 
*Gibeab Pbinebas. Josh. 24. 33. Now the village ^Awertah, See 

Ohap. 3, p. 266. 
^Gibeab ba-Blobim. 1 Sam. 10. 5. A garrison of the Philistines 

= G^ba, also a Philistine garrison. 1 Sam. 13. 3. 
Gibeon. Josh. 9. 3. Now the village el^ib, north of Jerusalem. 
Gidom. Judg. 20. 45. Unknown. 
Gibon =« Siloam. See Ohap. 7, p. 335. 
Gilboa (Mount). 1 Sam. 31. 1. The name survives in JeSbon^ a 

village on the ridge east of the Plain of Fsdraelon. See Ohap. 1, 

p. 209. 
GUead (Mount) (1). See Ohap. 3, p. 253. 
Gilead (Mount) (2). See Ohap. 4, p. 280. 

*Gilgral (1), east of Jericho. Josh. 4. 19. Now the ruin JUjulia, 
Gilgral (2). 2 Kings 2. 1. Now the village JUjUia, north of 

Bethel. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX, 413 

Gtlgral (of the Qoim) (8). Josh. 12. 23. Probably JUjuiieh, in the 
plain of Sharon, north of Antipatris. 

*Gilob. Josh. 16. 61. Probably the ruin Jdla, in the Hebron moun- 
tains. 

Gimso. 2 Ohron. 28. 18. Now the village Jirmu, east of Lydda. 

Gittaim. 2 Sam. 4. 3. Neh. 11. 33. Unknown. 

Goatb. Jor. 31. 39. Unknown. 

Gob (* pit '). 2 Sam. 21. 18. Unknown. 

Golan. Josh. 21. 27. In Gaulonitis. Unknown. 

Golgrotba » Calvary. See Chap. 7, p. 356. 

Gomorrab (or Amorah). See Chap. 2, p. 240. 

Gosben. Josh. 10. 41, and 11. 16. A district unknown. 

Gosben. Josh. 15. si. A town unknown. 

Gudgrodab - Hor Hagidgad. 

Gup (probably * hollow '). 2 Kings 9. 27, Unknown. 

*Hacbtlab (Hill), south of the Jeshimon. 1 Sam. 23. 19. Apparently 

the ridge now called d-Kolah, east of Maon. 
Hadad Riminon. Zech. 12. ii. Jerome (Comm. in Zach.) makes 

this » Maximianopolis, or the present village Mummdnehf west of 

the Plain of Esdraelon. 
Hadasbab. Josh. 15. 37. Unknown. 
Hadattab. Josh. 15. 25. Unknown. 
Badid. Neh. 7. 37. Now Haditheh » Adida. 
Balak (Mount). Josh. 11. 17. Unknown. 

Balbul. Josh. 15. 58. The present village Halhul ynorth. of Hebron. 
Hamatb. Num. 34. 8. The present city Hdina^ north of Damascus. 
Hammatb (i.e. 'hot baths'). Josh. 19. 35. The site was probably 

at the Emmaus of Josephus, south of Tiberias, the present Hammdm 

Tahariya, 18 Ant. 2. 3. 4 Wars 1. 3. 
*Hammon. Josh. 19. 28. The present ruin HamOy south-east of 

Tyre. 
Hammotb Dor. Josh. 21. 32. Probably » Hammath. 
*Hannatbon. Josh. 19. 14. The present village Kefi* ^Andn, See 

Chap. 3, p. 267. 
*Hapbraim. Josh. 19. 19. Probably the present ruin Farriyeh, 

west of the Plain of Esdraelon. (The site of AfTarea, 6 miles 

north of Legio, Onomasticon, s. v. Haphraim.) 
Haradab. Num. 33. 24. Unknown. 

*Haretb (thicket of). 1 Sam. 22. 6. LXX. reads ' city' = the pre- 
sent village Khards, in the Hebron mountains. 
*Harod (Spring). Judg. 7. i. Possibly the present ^Ain d-Jemm^ain, 

or ' Spring of two troops,' near Bethshean. 



414 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Harosbetb. Judg. 4. 2. The present village d-Harathtyeh^ above 

the Kiflhon, near Garmel. 
Baslunonab, Num. 33. so. Unknown. 
Hanran. Ezek. 47. 16. The present district of Haurdn, See 

Chap. 6, p. 315. 
Havotb Jair (Num. 32. 41), i.e., ' villages of Jair.' 
Hasar iLddab. Num. 34. 4. •Unknown. 
Hasar Bnan. Num. 34. 9. Ezek. 47. 17. Unknown. 
Hasar Gaddali, Josh. 16. 27. Unknown. 
Hasar Hattikon. Ezek. 47. 16. Unknown. 
Hasar Sbnal. Josh. 15. 28. Unknown. 

Hasar Siisab (Josh. 19. 5), or Hazar Susim. 1 Ohron. 4. 31. Pro- 
bably the ruin Susirif south of Beit Jibrin. 
Haserotb. Num. 11. 35. The present ^Ain Hadrahy north of Mount 

Sinai. See Chap. 2, p. 249. 
Haseson Tamar. Gen. 14. 7. 2 Ohron. 20. 2. «= Engedi. Com- 
pare Ziz (Cliff of). The name is probably preserved in that of the 
tract called Hasdsah (' pebbles '), near 'Ahi Jidy. 
*Hasor (1). Josh. 11. i. The name survives in Jebel Hadireh, near 
Kedes in Upper Galilee. See Chap. 3, p. 255. 
(2). Josh. 16. 23. Unknown. 
(3). Neh. 11. 33. The present ruin Hazzur, near Beit 
Hanina. (Benjamin.) 
Hebron (1). The present town d-Khalil. 
Hebron (2). Josh. 19. 28, Probably - Abdon. ' 
Helbab. Jud. 1. 31. Unknown. 
Belbon. Ezek. 27. 18. The present village ffelbon, in the mountsdns 

near Damascus. 
Helepb. Josh. 19. 33. The present village Beit Lif, (Naphtali.) 
Helkatb. Josh. 19. 25. Unknown. 

*Helfcatb Hassurim (^ field of strong ones '). 2 Sam. 2. 16. Pos- 
sibly Wddy el-'Askary near Gibeon. 
Hepber. Josh. 12. M, and 1 King^ 4. lo. Unknown. 
Hermon (Mount). Deut. 3. 8. Now called Jehd esh-Sheikh. 
Hesbbon. Num. 32. 3. Now the ruined city Sesbdn, (Reuben.) 
Hesbmon. Josh. 15. 27. Possibly » Azmon. 
Hetblon. Ezek. 47. 15. Unknown. 

*Hesron. Josh. 15. 3. Now Jebd Hadtreh, See Chap 2, p. 267. 
Htlen. 1 Chron. 6. 68. = Holon. 

Hinnom (Valley). Now Wddy er-Rabdheh, See Chap. 7, p. 330. 
Holon (1). Josh. 15. 51. Unknown. 
Holon (2). Jer. 48. 21. Unknown. 

(Mount). Now called Jd>d Nehy Harun, See Chap. 2, p. 249. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 415 

Boreb B Sinai. 

*Horeiii. Josh. 19. 38. The preAent ruin Hdrah, in Upper Galilee. 
Xor Haertdffad. Num. 33. 83. Unknown. 
Hormab, or Zephath. Judg. 1. 17. Unknown. 
Horonaim. Isaiah 15. 6. Jer. 48. 3. Unknown. 
*Bosali. Josh. 19. 29. Probably the present ruin 'Ozzty<?A. (Asher.) 
Xakkok. Josh. 19. 84. The present village Ydkuh (Naphtali.) 
1 Ohron. 6. 75. Unknown, 
Josh. 15. 54. Unknown. 



Zbleam. Judg. 1. 27. See Bileam. 

Zdalab. Josh. 19. is. Later name was Hirii (Tal. Jer. Megillah 1). 

Zim. Josh. 16. 29. Unknown. 

Zim. Num. 33. 46. Or Ije Abarim. Num. 21. ii, 33, 44. * Ruins of 

the regions beyond Jordan.* Unknown. 
*ZJon. 1 Kings 15. 20. Probably Khiydm, in the plain of Merj 

'Af/un, 
Zr Wabasb. 1 Ohr. 4. 12. Possibly Deir Ndkhds, near Beit Jibrin. 
Zron. Josh. 19. 38. The present village Ydrun. (Naphtali.) 
*Zrpeel. Josh. 18. 27. Probably the present village Rdfdtj near 

Gibeon. 
Zr Sbemesb, Josh. 19. 41. The present ruin ^Ain Shemes, west of 

Jerusalem. 
Ztbnan. Josh. 15. 23. Unknown. 
Zttab Basin. Josh. 19. 13. Unknown. 
Ztursea. Luke 3. 1. See Chap. 6, p. 316. 

Jaakan. Deut. 10. 6. Unknown. - Beeroth Bene Jaakan. 

Jaaser, sJazer. 

Jabbok (River). Deut. 3. 16, &c. Between Gerasa and Philadelphia 
(Onomasticon), the present Wddy Zerka, See Chap. 1, p. 218. 

Jabesb Gilead. 1 Sam. 11. 1. Six Roman miles &om Pella on the 
road to Gerasa (Onomasticon). The name survives in Wddy d- 
Ydbis. 

Jabneel (1). Josh. 15. 11. The present town Yebnah, in Philistia. 

*Jabneel (2). Josh. 19. 33. The present ruin Yemma, See p. 269. 

JaiTur. Josh. 15. 21. Unknown. 

Jabas. Num. 21. 23, &c. Unknown. 

Jamnia. 1 Mace. 4. 15. ^ Jabi;eel. 

* Janoab. 2 Kings 15. 29. The present village Yanuh, in the moun- 
tains of Naphtali. 

Janobab. Josh. 16. 6. Now Ydnun. See Chap. 3, p. 264. 



416 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

*Jaiiiiiii. Josh. 15. 53. The present Tillage Beni Nairn, east of 

Hebron. 
JapUa. Josh. 19. 12. Now Ydfa, south of Nazareth. (Zebulon.) 

See Chap. 3, p. 267. 
Japbletl. Josh. 16. 3. Unknown. 
Japbo. Josh. 19. 46. The present town Ydfa, (Dan.) 
Jarmutb (1). Josh. 16. 35. The present ruin d-Yermuk. (Judah.) 
Jarmiitti (2). Josh. 21. 29. Probably » Eemeth. 
Jattir. Josh. 15. 48. The present ruin ^Attir, north-east of Beer- 

sheba. 
*Jazer. Josh. 13. 26. Probably the ruin Beit Zdra, See p. 253. 
Jearlm (Mount). See Ohap. 3, p. 259. 
Jebns = Jerusalem. 

Jegrar Babadntba (* heap of testimony '). Gen. 31. 47. See p. 306. 
Jebosbapbat (Emek). Joel 3. 2. The name lingers at Sh^afdt, a 

village immediately north of Jerusalem. 
Jebad. Josh. 19. 45. The present village d^Yehudtyeh, (Dan.) 
Jertobo. Num. 22. i. The ancient site was probably at '-4tn e»- 

Svltdn. 
Jemel (Midbar). 2 Ohron. 20. le. Part of the Jeshimon. 
Jerusalem. Now called eIrKuds esh-Sheiif. 
*Jesbanab. 2 Ohron. 13. 19. The present village ^Ain Sinia, north 

of Bethel. 
Jesbimon. Num. 21. 20. 1 Sam. 23. 19. The desert west of the 

Dead Sea. See Ohap. 1, p. 213. 
*Je8bua. Neh. 11. 26. Probably the present ruin STarvi, east of 

Beersheba. 
*Jetblab. Josh. 19. 42. Probably the present ruin Beit Tul. (Dan.) 
Jesreel (1). Josh. 19. is. The present village ZeiHn, (Issachar.) 
Jezreel (2). Josh. 15. 56. Unknown. 
Jtpbtab. Josh. 15. 43. Unknown. 
Jipbtbab-el (Valley). See Ohap. 3, p. 2&7, 
Jogrbebab. Num. 32. 35. Judg. 8. ii. Unknown. 
Jokdeam. Josh. 15. 56. Unknown. 
Jokmeam. 1 Ohron. 6. 68. Possibly = Kibzaim. 
Jokneam (Mount Oarmel). Josh. 21. 34. The present ruin TVfl 

KeimuTij south of Mount Oarmel. 
*Joktbeel. Josh. 15. 38. Possibly the present ruin Kutldnehj south 

of Ekron. 
Joktbeel (Oliff of). 2 Kings 14. 7. - Selah. 
Joppa. 2 Ohr. 2. 16. The present town Ydfa. (Dan.) 
Jordan (River). Now called Nahr esk-SherVah. See Ohap. 1, p. 215. 
Jotbab. 2 Kings 21. 19. Unknown. 



TOPOORAPHICAL INDEX. 417 

Jotbatb. Deut. 10. 7. Num. 33. 33. Unknown. 

XndflDa. See Ohap. 6, p. 306. 

Xnttab. Josh. 16. 65. The present village Yuttah, south of Hebron. 

Xabseel. Josh. 15. 21. Unknown. 

Xadesb Barnea. See Ohap. 2, p. 249. 

Xanab. Josh. 19. 28. Now the village Kdnah, south-east of Tyre. 
(Asher.) 

(Nachal). Now Wddt/ Kdnah, See Ohap. 3, p. 263. 
Josh. 15. 8. Unknown. 
Judg. 8. 10. Unknown. 

Xartab. Josh. 21. 34. Unknown. 

Xartan. Josh. 21. 32. Unknown. 

Kattatb. Josh. 19. is. Unknown. 

Xedemotb. Josh. 13. 18. Unknown. 

*XedeBb (1). 1 Ohr. 6. 72. Possibly TeU Abu Kadeia, near Lejjun, 
west of the Plain of Esdraelon. 

Xedesb Vapbtalt (2). Josh. 19. 37. Now the village Kedes, 

*Xedesb (3). Judg. 4. ii. Near Bitzaananim. Possibly the ruin 
Kadishy on the shore south of Tiberias. 

Xebelatbab. Num. 33. 22. Unknown. 

Xeilab. Josh. 15. 44. Now the village Kilah, in the Hebron moun- 
tains. 

Xenatb. Num. 32. 42. The ruined town Kanawdt, east of Bashan. 

Xeiiotb Hesron. Josh. 15. 25. Possibly « Hezron. 

Xerlotb. Jer. 48. 24. Probably » Kiriathaim. 

Xesis (Emek). Josh. 18. 21. Unknown. 

Xibrotb Battaavab. Num. 11. 34. Unknown. 

*Xtbsaim. Josh. 21. 22. Perhaps TeU el-Kahus, near Bethel. 

Xtdron (Nachal). Now Wddy en-Ndr, See Ohap. 7, p. 330. 

XinJeOi. Josh. 15. 22. Unknown. 

XIr Barasetb (2 Kings 3. 25), and Kir Haresh (Isaiah 16. 11) and, 

Xlr Beres. Jer. 48. 31. Probably the same as the next. 

XIr of ncoab. Isaiah 15. 1. Targum reads Kerak. 

Xirlatbaim. Jer. 48. i. Ezek. 25. 9. Probably the present ruin e^ 
Kureiydt, between Dibon and Medeba. 

Xlrlotb. Amos 2 2. = Kerioth. Perhaps not a proper name. 

*XirJatb. Josh. 18. 28. The present village Kuriet eU-^Anahj which 
is more generally called only Kurieh, (Benjamin.) 

Xlijatbaim. Num. 32. 37. ^ Kiriathaim. 

XUJatb Arba » Hebron. 

XU^Jatb Arim. Ezra 2. 25. == Kirjath Jearim. 

Xtrjatb Baal. Josh. 15. 60. ^ E^ath Jearim. 

E E 



418 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Kiijatb Hnsotb. Num. 22. 39. Unknown. 

*KlfJatb Jearlm. Josh. 9. 17. Prol)aH7 the present ruin ^Arma. 

See Ohap. 3, p. 269. 
^Uxjatb Sannab (Josh. 15. 49) and Kirjath Sepher (Jud. 1. 11)^ other 

names of Debir. 
Kisbion. Josh. 19. 20. Unknown. 
Sisbon (Nachal). Judg. 4. 7. Now Nahr d-Mokatfa, See Chap. 

1, p. 219. 
Xifbltsb. Josh. 15. 40. Not known. 
Xitron. Judg. 1. 30. The Tal. Jer. (Megillah 1. x.) reads Tzippori^the 

town Seffut*ieh, (Zebulon.) 

Kaban. Deut. 1. 1. Perhaps = Libnah (2). 

*&aobi8b. Josh. 10. 3. Possibly Tdl d-Hesy^ near Eglon. 

Kabal Sot (WeU). Gen. 24. 62. Unknown. 

*&abmaiii. Josh. 15. 40. Possibly the ruin d-Lahm, near Beit Jibrin. 

Katsb. Judg. 18. 7. Leshem. Josh. 19. 47. = Dan. 

Kabuiii. Josh. 19. 33. Unknown. 

Kasba. Gen. 10. 19. Unknown. 

^Kasbaron. Josh. 12. 18. Probably the present ruin Sardna, west 

of the Sea of Galilee. 
Lebanon (Mount). Now called Jebel Libndn, 
Kebaotb. Josh. 15. 32. Unknown. 
&ebonab. Judg. 21. 19. The present village Lubban, west of Shiloh. 

(Ephraim.) 
lebl(^jaw'). Judg. 15. 9. Unknown. 
Kibnab. Josh. 10. 29. Unknown. 
Ubnab. Num. 33. 20. Unknown. 

&od. 1 Chr. 8. 12. Lydda. Acts 9. 32. The present Ludd, (Dan.) 
Kubitb. Isaiah 15. 5. Jer. 48. 5. Unknown. 
&az (1). Gen. 28. 19. = Bethel. 
*&iis (2). Judg. 1. 26. Perhaps the ruin Lueizeh, near Banias. 

BCaacab (District). Deut. 3. 14. Josh. 12. 5. 2 Sam. 10. 6. See 

Chap. 3, p. 254. 
Maaleb ikcrabbim. - Akrabbim. 
*lM[aaratb. Josh. 15. 69. The present village Beit Ummar, north of 

Hebron. 
Macbpelab (* the divided* or 'double'). Gen. 23. 17. ProbaUy 

the cave beneath the Haram at Hebron. 
*lM[adxnannab. Josh. 15. 31. Possibly the ruin Umm Deimnekf north 

of Beersheba. 



TOPOaHAPHICAL INDEX. 419 

Madmen, Jer. 48. 2. Unknown. 

Madmenali. Isaiah 10. 31. Unknown. 

'^BKadon. Josh. 11. 1. Possibly the ruin Madin, west of the Sea of 

Qfllilee. 
MaiTdala. Matt. 15. 39. The present village Mefdd, north of 

Tiberias. 
Mabanalm. Gen. 82. 2. Josh. 13. 26. Possibly the present Maneh, 

12 miles north of Gerasa. 
*Biaiianeb Dan (camping place of Dan). Judg. 18. 12. West of 

Kirjath Jearim, and (Judg. 13. 26) ' between Zoreah and EshtaoL' 

Apparently Wddy Serdr, 
Makas. 1 Kings 4. 9. Unknown. 

BCaked. 1 Mace. 5. 26. Maged. 1 Mace. 5. 36. Unknown. 
BCakbelotb. Num. 33. 25. Unknown. 
*BIak.kedali. Josh. 10. 10. Probably the present village d-Moghdr, 

See Ohap. 3, p. 265, 
asamre. Gen. 23. 17. Unknown. 
*BIanaliatb. 1 Chron. 8. 6. Probably the present village Malhah^ 

south-west of Jerusalem. 
Maon. Josh. 15. 55. The present ruined town Ii€<dn, south of 

Hebron. 
Marali. Exod. 15. 23. See Ohap. 2, p. 248. 
*BIaralabp Josh. 19. 11. Possibly the present village M*alul, west of 

Nazareth. 
Maresbali. Josh. 15. u. The present ruin Mer^ashj close to Beit 

Jibrin. 
Marotb. Micah 1. 12. Perhaps = Maarath. 
IMEasalotli. 1 Mace. 9. 2. See Chap. 5^ p. 293. 
Maspba (1). 1 Mace. 3. 46. » Mizpeh (5). 

Maspba (2). 1 Mace. 5. 35. » Kamath Mizpeh. See Ohap. 5, p. 295. 
Massab. Exod. 17. 7. Psalm 95. 8, ^ temptation.' » Meribah. 
*BIearab. Josh. 13. 4. Probably the village Mogheiriyeh, north of 

Sidon. 
Medeba. Num. 21. 30. The present ruin Medeba. (Reuben.) 
*aiefflddo. See Ohap. 4, p. 287. 

Mejarkon. Josh. 19. 46. See Ohap. 3^ p. 262, and Ohap. 1, p. 220. 
*aiekonab. Neh. II. 28. Probably Mechanum, 8 Eoman miles 

from Eleutheropolis (Onomasticon), the present large ruin Mekenna, 

north of Beit Jibrin. 
Bf eonenim (Elon). Judg. 9. 37 (J oak of soothsayers '). Probably 

= Moreh. 
Mepbaatb. Josh. 13. 18. Unknown. 
Meribab (Ex. 17. 7) and Meribah Eadesh (Deut. 32. 51). See p. 249. 

E E 2 



420 HAin)BOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

aierom (Waters). Josh. 11. 6. Now Bahret eUHuleh, See Ohap. 

1, p. 216. 
*aieronatb. 1 Ohron. 27. 30. Possibly the ruin Marrinaj in the 

Hebron mountains. 
aieros. Judg. 5. 23. Unknown. 

attclimasli. 1 Sam. 13. is. The present village Mukhmds, (Ben- 
jamin.) 
Miclimetbali. Josh. 17. 7. See Ohap. 3, p. 264. 
BUddin. Josh. 16. 61. Unknown. 

Migrdal-el. Josh. 19. 38. The present Mujeidd in Upper Galilee. 
Migrdal Gad. Josh. 16. 37. Unknown. 

atierron (' precipice '). 1 Sam. 14. 2. Isaiah 10. 28. Unknown. 
aiinnitli. Judg. 11. 83. Four Boman miles from Hesbon^ on the 

road to Philadelphia (Onomasticon). 
*aiUlieal. Josh. 19. 26. Probably the present ruin M^tMek. 

(Asher.) 
aitsrepliotb Maim. Josh. 11. 8. Probably the present village 

Sarafend (Sarepta), near Sidon. 
Mitbcali. Num; 33. 29. Unknown. 
aUzar (Hill). Psalm 42. 6. Unknown. 

Mizpeb (1). Gen. 31. 49. See Ohap. 6, p. 296. -Kamath Idlzpeh. 
Mizpeb Moab (2). 1 Sam. 22. 3. Unsown. 
MUspeb (Land) (3). Josh. 11. 3. And Mizpeh (Bikath). Josh. 11. 8. 

Apparently the present plain el^BukeCa, west of Hermon. 
Mizpeli (of Judah) (4). Josh. 16. 38. Unknown. 
Mtspeb (of Benjamin) (6). Josh. 18. 26. See Ohap 4, p. 277. 
atoobmur (Brook). Judith 7. 18. See Ohap. 6, p. 290. Probably 

Wddy eJrAhmar, 
atodin. 1 Mace. 13. 25. The present village Medyeh, See p. 291. 
aioreb (Oak or Plain). Gen. 12. 6. See Ohap. 4, p. 276. 
Moreb (Hill). Judg. 7. l. Unknown. 
Moresbetb Gatb. Micah 1. u. Unknown. 
Moriab (Land). See Ohap. 1, p. 210. 

Mosera. Deut. 10. 6. Moseroth. Num. 33. so. Unknown. 
*M[osab. Josh. 18. 26. Tal. Jer. Succah 4. 6, calls it Oolonia. 
Near Kddnia, west of Jerusalem, is the ruin Beit Mizzeh, 



. Josh. 16. 41. The present village Nd^aneh. 
1 Ohron. 7. 28. Probably the same as the next. 
Vaaratb. Josh. 16. 7. See Ohap. 3, p. 264. 
*Vaballal. Josh. 19. 16. Tal. Jer. (Megillah 1. i) renders it by 

Mahlul. Probably -4m* MakU, north-east of Nazareth. 
Vabaliel. Num. 21. 19. Unknown. 



TOPOGBAPHICAL INDEX. 221 

Vaioth (' habitations/) 1 Sam. 19. 18. Unknown. 

Vasor (Plain). 1 Mace. 11. 67. Josephus reads Asor (13 Ant. 6.7), 

The present Merj Hadirehy west of the Hnleh Lake. 
Vasaretb. The present town Nasrah. (Zebulon.) 
Veab. Josh. 19. 13. Unknown. 
Veballat. Neh. 11. 34. The present village Beit Nebdla, north-east 

of Lydda. 
Vebo (Mount) (1). Now Jebd Neba. See Chap. 3, p. 264. 
Vebo (2). Num. 32. 3. Perhaps on the mountain. 
*Vebo (3). Ezra 2. 29. Perhaps Nuba, a village south of Jerusalem. 
*Vetel. Josh. 19. 27. Now the ruin Y^anin, See Chap. 3, p. 268. 
*srekeb. Josh. 19. 33. TaL Jer. (MegiUah 1. i) reads Tziaidathah. 

The present ruin Seit/ddah, inmiediately west of the Sea of Galilee. 
*Vepbtoab (Waters). Josh. 16. 9. Now *Am ^Atdn, See p. 268, 
Vetopbab. Ezra 2. 22. The present ruin Umm Toba, north of 

Bethlehem. 
Veaib. Josh. 16. 43. The present ruin Beit Nusib, north-west of 

Hebron. 
Vibsban. Josh. 16. 62. Unknown. 
Vtmrab. Num. 32. 3. The present ruin Nvmrin, (Gad.) 
Vimrim (Waters). Isaiah 16. 6. Jer. 48. 34. Springs near the last, 

in the Jordan Valley. 
srob. 1 Sam. 22. 11. Neh. 11. 32. Isaiah 10. 32. See Ohap. 4, p. 277. 
Vobab (1) « Kenath. Num. 32. 42. 
srobab (2). Judg. 8. 11. Unknown. 
Vopbab. Num. 21. 30. Unknown. 

Obotb. Num. 21. 10. Unknown. 

Odna. Judith 2. 28. Probably » Accho. 

Olives (Mount). Zech. 14. 4. Now called Jebel et-Tdr, 

Ono. 1 Ohron. 8. 12. The present village Kefr 'Ana, near Lydda. 

Opbel. See Chap. 7, p. 333. 

Opbnt. Josh. 18. 24. Unknovni. 

Opbrab (1). Josh. 18. 23. Five Eoman miles east of Bethel (Ono- 

masticon). This appears to point to the present large village 

Taiyibeh, 
*Opbrab of the Abi-ezrites (2). Judg. 6. ]i. Probably the present 

village Ferdia, near Shechem, the old name of which was Ophrah 

(Samaritan Chronicle). 
Oreb (Rock of). Judg. 7. 26. Isaiah 10. 26. Unknown. 



Josh. 18. 23. The present ruin Fdrah, south-east of Mich- 
muAu 



422 HAJI^DBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 



(Desert). See Chap. 2, p. 260. 
Peniel. Gen. 82. so. Fenuel. Judg. 8. 9. Unknown. 
Peor (Mount). Num. 23. 28. Unknown. 

(Mount). Isaiah 28. 31. Unknown. 
(River). 2 Kings 6. 12. Probably Nahr el-Auwctfj south 
of Damascus. 
*Piratbon. Judg. 12. 16. Probably the present village Fer^dn, west 

of Shechem. Pharathoni (1 Mace. 9. so) is possibly the ^sane, 
Ptsgali (Mount). Deut. 34. 1. Apparently = Mount Nebo. 
Pnnon. Num. 83. 43. Unknown. 

*Ra1>bab. Josh. 15. 60. Possibly the present ruin HiMa, in the 

hills near Beit Jibrin. 
Sabbatb iLmmon. Deut. 3. 11 ^ &c. The present ruin *Ammdn, 

(Gad.) See Ohap. 2, p. 237. 
Sabbatb Moab. The present ruin Rahha, north of Kerak. 
*Rabbitb. Josh. 19. 20. The present village Rdha, on the watershed 

south of Gilboa. 
Rakkatb (' shore '). Josh. 19. 35. The old name of Tiberias. See 

Ohap. 8, p. 270 ; Chap. 6, p. 324. 

I. Josh. 19. 46. The present Tell er-Rakkett, . See p. 262. 
(1). Josh. 18. 25. The present village er-Rdm. (Benjamin.) 
(2). Josh. 19. 36. The present yillage Rdmeh, in Lower 

Galilee. 
Samab (3). Josh. 19. S9. The present village Rdmeh, in Upper 

Galilee. 
Hamatb &ebi. Judg. 15. 17. Unknown. 
*Rainatb Mizpeb. Josh. 13. 26. Possibly the present Remtheh. 

See Ohap. 3, p. 253 ; Ohap. 6, p. 295. 
Hamatb ZTegreb. Josh. 19. 8. Unknown. 
Samatbaim Zopbtm. 1 Sam. 1. 1. Unknown. 
Samatbem. 1 Mace. 11. 34. Probably the same as last. 
Ramotb. 1 Ohron. 6. 73. The present village Rdmeh, south of the 

Plain of Esdraelon. 
Ramotb Gllead. Deut. 4. 43^ &c. Fifteen Roman miles from Phil- 
adelphia (Onomasticon). The site is unknown. 
Rapbon. 1 Mace. 5. 37. Unknown. 

Rebob (1). Num. 13. 21. Probably « Beth Rehob, near Laish. 
Rebob (2). Josh. 19. 28, Unknown. 
Rebob (3). Josh. 19. 30. Unknown. 
Rebobotb. Gen. 26. 22. The present ruin Ruheibeh, south of Beer- 

sheba. 
Rekem. Josh, 18, 27, Unknown. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 423 

Remmoii. Josh. 19. 7. « En Rimmon. 

Semmon Methoar. Josh. 19. 13. (Oorrectly ' Eemmon stretchiog 

to Neah.') The present village Rummdneh, north of Nazareth. 
Repbaim (Emek). Josh. 15. 8. Now d-Bukei^a. See Ohap. 8. p. 

268. 
Sepbidim. Num. 33. 14. See Chap. 2, p. 248. 
Rtbiab. Num. 34. ii. Prohably the same in 2 Kings 23. 33. The 

present EiUah, on east bank of the Qrontes^ 35 miles north-east of 

Baalbek. 
Rimmon (1). 1 Ohron. 6. 77. = Eemmon Methoar. 
Rimmon (2). Josh. 15. 32. » En Rimmon. 
Rimmon Pares. Num. 33. 19. Unknown. 
Rimmon (Rock). Judg. 20. 45. The present rock and village Matn- 

mdn, east of Bethel. 
Rissab. Num. 33. 21. Unknown. 
Ritbmab. Num. 33. 18. Unknown. 
River of BiTirpt (Nachal Mizraim). Num. 34. 5. Probably the 

present Wddy et-Arish, See Ohap. 3, p. 257. 
Roffelim. 2 Sam. 17. 27. Unknown. 
Rumab. 2 Kings 23. 36. Perhaps the present ruined village JRumehy 

north of Nazareth. 

Salobab. Deut. 3. 10. The present large town Sdlkhdd, east of 

Bashan. 
Saloab. Josh. 12. 5. The same as the last. 
Salem. Gen. 14. 18. ~ Jerusalem according to Josephus. See 

Ohap. 7, p. 328. 
Salim. John 3. 23. The present village Sdlim, east of Shechem. 
Salmon (Mount). Judg. 9. 48. Psabn 68. 14. The present Jebd Sheikh 

Suleimdn d-Fdrsi, immediately adjoining Mount Gerizim. See 

Ohap. 1, p. 210. 
Salt (Oity of) {Air hamrMelakh). Josh. 15. 62. Probably the present 

large ruin Tdl d-Milh, east of Beersheba. 
Salt (Valley of) {Gia MdaM), 2 Sam. 8. 13. 2 Kings 14. 7. Un- 
known. 
Samaria. 1 Kings 16. 24. The present village Sebastieh, west of 

Shechem. 
Samaria. See Ohap. 6, p. 309. 
Sansannab. Josh. 15. si. Unknown. 
Sapbir. Micah 1. 11. Probably the present village Sudfir, near 

Ashdod. 
Sarepta. Luke 4. 26. « Zarephath. 
*Saria. Josh. 19. 10. The Syriac version reads Asdod, and the LXX* 



424 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Seddouk (Vat. MS.). Perhaps Tell Shadud, on the north udeof the 

Plain of Esdraelon, south-west of Nazareth. 
ScythopoUs* Judith 3. lo. 2 Mace. 12. 29, and in LXX. of Judg. 

1. 27. » Bethshean. 
*Seeaoali. Josh. 15. 61. Perhaps the ruin SiJ^teh, east of Bethany. 
*Seebii. 1 Sam. 19. 22. Probably the present ruin Suweikeh, immedi- 
ately south of Beeroth. 
Seir (Mount) (1). Gen. 14. 6. The mountains round Petra. 
Selr (Moimt) (2). Josh. 16. 10. See Chap. 3, p. 269. 
Setratta. Judg. 3. 26. Unknown. 
Selab. 2 Kings 14. 7. (' The rock.' Judg. 1. 36.) LXX. reads 

Petra. 
Sela bam-BCalilekotti^ ' cliff of divisions.' 1 Sam. 23. 88. The 

present Wddy Maldky, east of Maon. 
*8eneb (Rock). 1 Sam. 14. 4. Means Hhom' (cf. 'Valley of Thorns/ 

6 Wars 2. 1). The name seems to survive in Wddy Suweinit, * Valley 

of the little thorn tree.' 
Sepbelab. 1 Mace. 12. 38. - Shephelah. See Chap. 6, p. 302. 
Sbaalabbin. Josh. 19. 42. Probably the present village SeUdt, south- 
east of Lydda, near Aijalon. 
*8baaraim. Josh. 16. 36. Probably the ruin STaireh, west of Beit 

'Atab. 
Sbalem. Gen. 33. 18. The present village Sdlim, east of Shechem. 
Sbalim (Land) i.e. * of caverns.' 1 Sam 9. 4. Probably = Shual 

(Land). 
Sbalisba (Land). 1 Sam. 9. 4. Perhaps connected with Baal Sha- 

lisha. 
^Sbamtr (1). Josh. 16. 48. Probably the ruin Somerah, west of 

Debir, 
Sbamlr (2). Judg. 10. 1. Unknown. 
Sbapber (Mount). Num. 33. 23. Unknovm. 
*8barubeii. Josh. 19. «. Probably the large ruin Tell esh-Sheri'ahj 

north-west of Beersheba. 
Sbaveb (Emek). Gen. 14. 17. See Chap. 7, p. 328. 
Sbaveb Xiriatbaim. Gen. 14. 5. Unknown. 
Sbeba. Josh. 19. 2. Probably » Shema. 
Sbebam. Num. 32. 3. = Sibmah. 
Sbebarim. Josh. 7. fi. Perhaps means ' precipices.' 
Sbecbem. Gen. 12. 6. The present city Ndblus, 
Sbema. Josh. 16. 26. Unknown. 
Sben. 1 Sam. 7. 12. Unknown. 

Sbenlr. Deut. 3. 9. Senir. 1 Chron. 6. 23. « Hermon, 
Sblbmab. Num. 32. d8« » Sibmah. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 425 

Sbioron. Josh. 16. ii. Unknown. 

Sbibor. Josh. 13. 2. 1 Ohron. 13. 3. 'Dark.' Apparently the 

Nile. 
Sbibor Kibnatb. Josh. 19. 26. See Chap. 3, p. 268. 
Sbilbim. Josh. 16. S2. Unknown. 
Sbiloab (Waters). Isaiah 8. 6. » Siloam. 

Sbilob. Josh. 18. 1. The present ruined village SeUun, (Ephraim.) 
Sbimron. Josh. 19. 15. Tal. Jer. (Megillah 1) reads Simnnieh. The 

present village Simunieh, west of Nazareth. 
Sbimron Meron. Josh. 12. 20. Probably the same as the last. 
Sbtttim (' acacias ^. Num. 26. i. = Abel Shittim. See .p. 264. 
Sbopban. Num. 32. 36. Unknown. 
Sbnal (Land). 1 Sam. 13. 17. Near Ophrah. Unknown. 
Sbunem. Josh. 19. 18. The present village StUetn, north of Jezreel. 
Sbur (Desert). Gen. 16. 7. See Ohap. 2, p. 260. 
Stbmab. Josh. 13. 19. Hardly 600 paces from Heshbon (Ono- 

masticon). 
Stbraim. £zek. 47. 16. Unknown. 
Siddim (Emek). Gen. 14. 3. See Ohap. 2, p. 239. 
Sidon ~ Zidon. Gen. 10. 15. The present town Saida, 
Siloab. Neh. 3. 15. Siloam. See Chap. 7, p. 336. 
Sin (Midbar). Num. 33. ii. See Ohap. 2, p. 260. 
Sinai (Mount). See Ohap. 2, p. 246^ now called Jebd Musa, 
Sion. See Ohap. 7, p. 336. 
Sipbmotb. 1 Sam. 30. 28. Unknown. 

Sirab (Well). 2 Sam. 3. 26. The present ^Ain Sdrahy near Hebron. 
Sirion. Deut. 3. 9. Psalm 26. 6. » Hermon. 
Sitnab (Well). Gen. 26. 21. Unknown. 
Sodom. Gen. 10. 19. See Ohap. 2, p. 240. 
*Sorek (Nachal). Judg. 16. 4. Probably the present Wddy Surdr, 

on the north side of which is the ruin Surik, 
Succotb. Gen. 33. 17. See Ohap. 3, p. 263. 
Snr. Judith 2. 38. Unknown. 
Syobar. John 4. 6. The present village 'Aakar, See Ohap. 6, p. 

320. 

Taanaob. Josh. 12. 21. The present ruin T^dnak. (Manasseh.) 
Taanatb Sbilob* Josh. 16. 6. The present ruin Tana, See 

Ohap. 3, p. 264. 
Tabbafb. Judg. 7. ss. Unknown. 
Taberab. Num. 11. 8. Unknown. 
Tabor (Mount). Josh. 19. 22. Now called Jebd et-Tor, See Ohap. 

1, p. 209. 



426 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Tabor (Elon). 1 Sam. 10. 3. Apparently e^J?uA^''<i^ the plain south 

of Jerusalem. 
Tadmor = Palmyra. See Ohap. 4, p. 281. 
Tabatti. Num. 33. 26. Unknown. 
Tabtlm Hodsbi (Land). 2 Sam. 24. 6. Unknown. 
Tamar. Ezek. 47. 19. Unknown. 
Tapbon. 1 Mace. 9. so. Perhaps « Beth Tappuah. 
Tappuab (1). Josh. 15. 34. Unknown. 

Tappuab (2). Josh. 16. 8. « En Tappuah. See Ohap. 3, p. 263. 
Tarab. Num. 33. 27. Unknown. 
Taralab. Josh. 18. 27. Unknown. 
Tekoa. 2 Ohron. 11. 6. The present ruined village Teku^a, south of 

Bethlehem. 
Telaim. 1 Sam. 15. 4. Telem. Josh. 15. 24. Unknown. 
Teman. Jer. 49. 20. Unknown. 
Tbamnatba. 1 Mace. 9. 60. » Thimnathah. 
Tbebez. Judg. 9. so. The present Tvhds, north-east of Shechem. 
*Tbimnatba. Josh. 19. 43. Probably the ruin Tihneh, north-east of 

Lydda. 
Tiberias. John. 6. 1. The present town Tabariyn, on the Sea of 

Galilee. See Ohap. 6, p. 324. 
Timnab (1). Josh. 15. lo. The present ruin Tibneh, west of Beth 

Shemesh. 
*Tiinnab (2). Josh. 15. 57. Probably the ruin Tibna, near Jcft'a, 

west of Bethlehem. 
*Tiinnatb Beres (or Serah). Josh. 24. 30. Judg. 2. 9. According to 

Jewish tradition the present Keft' Hdris, south of Shechem. 
*Tipbsab. 2 Kings 15. 16. Probably the present ruin Tafsah, south 

of Shechem. 
*Tirzab. Josh. 12. 24. Probably the present village Teidsir, See 

Ohap. 4, p. 284. 
Tob (Land). See Ohap. 5, p. 295. 
Tooben. 1 Ohron. 4. 32. Unknown. 
Tolad. 1 Ohron. 4. 29. Unknown. « El Tolad. 
Topbel. Deut. 1. i. The present TufUeh. 
Topbetb. 2 Kings 23. lo. See Ohap. 7, p. 330. 
Traobonitis. Luke 3. i. See Ohap. 6, p. 315. 
Tyre. Josh. 19. 29. The present town Sur, 

*Vmmab. Josh. 19. 30. Perhaps the present ruin ^Alma, north of 

Achzib. 
*irzzen Sberab. 1 Ohron. 7. 24. Perhaps the present village Beit 

Sira, south-west of Bethhoron. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 427 

*Zaanaiiii (Elon) (Judg. 4. ii) and Zaanannim (Josh. 19. ss). More 

correctly Bitzanaitn, according to Tal. Jer. (Me^lah 1) and Tar- 
gums. The plateau (in Targum Miskoi' = Elon) west of the Sea of 

Galilee, near the present village Besmm, 
Zaanan. Micah 1. ii. Probably » Zenan. 
*Zalr. 2 Kings 8. 21. Perhaps the ruin Zueirahy on sputh-west shozes 

of the Dead Sea. 
Zalmon (Mount). Judg. 9. 48. Probably = Salmon. 
Zalmonab. Num. 33. 41. Unknown. 
Zanoali (1). Josh. 16. 34. The present ruin Zanu'a, south of Beth 

Shemesh. 
Zanoali (2). Josh. 15. 56. Probably the ruin Zanuta, near Eshtemoa. . 
*Zaplioii. Josh. 13. 27. s *Amdteh. See Ohap. 3, p. 253. 
Zarepbatb. 1 Kings 17. 9. The present village Sara/end, south of 

Sidon. 
Zaretan. Josh. 3. 16. A city beside Adam. 
Zaretb Sbabar. Josh. 13. 19. Probably the ruin Zdra, on east 

shore of the Dead Sea. 
*Zartanab. 1 Kings 4. 12. Perhaps the present ruin TeU Sdrem, near 

Beth Shean. 
Zartban. 1 Kings 7. 46. = Zaretan. 
Zebolm. Gen. 10. 19. See Ohap. 2, p. 241. 
Zebolm (Valley). 1 Sam. 13. 18. Probably Wddi/ Shakh ed-Dub'a, 

a valley north of Jericho. 
Zedad. Ezek. 47. 15. 
Zeeb (Wine press) {Yekeph Zeeb, ' hollow place of the wolf). Judg. 

7. 26. Unknown. 
Zelab (correctly Tzel'a). Josh. 18. 28. Unknown. 
Zelxab. 1 Sam. 10. 2. Unknown. 
Zemaralm. Josh. 18. 22. Probably the large ruin Samrah, north of 

Jericho. 
Zemaraim (Moimt). 2 Chron. 13. 5. Unknown. 
Zenan. Josh. 16. 37. Unknown. 
Zepbatb. Judges 1. 17. = Hormah. 

Zepbatbab (Gia). 2 Ohron. 14. 10. Unknown ' at Mareshah.' 
Zer. Josh. 19. 35. Unknown. 
Zered (Nachal). Deut. 2. 14. Unknown. 
*Zereda. 1 Kings 11. 26. Probably the present village Surddh, west 

of Bethel. See Ohap. 4, p. 284. 
Zeredatbab. 2 Ohron. 4. 17. For Zarthan. 1 Kings 7. 46. 
Zereratb. Judg. 7. 22. Unknown. 
Zlddim. Josh. 19. 35. Tal. Jer. (Megillah 1) reads Oaphar Hittai. 

Apparently the present village Hattin, west of the Sea of Galilee. 




428 HANDBOOK TO THE BIBLE. 

Zidon » Sidon. 

Zlklaff. Josh. 16. si. Unknown. 

Zlor. Josh. 16. 64. Probably the village S^air, north of Hebron. 

Zipb (1). Josh. 16. 24. Unknown. 

Zlpb (2). Josh. 16. 55. The present ruin TeU Zif, south of Hebron. 

Zipbron. Num. 34. 9. Unknown. 

Zlx (Ascent of). 2 Chron. 20. 16. Probably » Hazezon Tamar : the 

name surviving in the tract near Engedi, now called Haadaah. 
Zoar. Qen. 14. 3. See Chap. 2, p. 241. 
*Zobeletb (Stone). 1 Kings 1. 9. The present cliff ZahweUeh, See 

Ohap. 7, p. 334. 
Zopblm (Sadeh) ' field of views.' Num. 23. u. On Pisgah. 
Zorab. Josh. 19. 41. The present village Surd'L (Dan.) 
Znpb (Land). 1 Sam. 9. 6. Unknown. 



GENERAL INDEX. 

Including Words and Names not ocowrring in the Biblical Gazbtteeb. 



AAN 

AANAKA, Land of, 242 
Abel, Tomb of, 317 
Abila, ruins of, 317 
Abraham, 29 
Absalom's hand, 328, 355 
Accuracy of ancient measurements, 57 
Acrabb^e Toparchy, 306 
Acrostics, Hebrew, 164 
Addereth, Mantle, 195 
Additions, sacrifices, 151 
Agriculture, Hebrew, 189 
Agrippa, coins of, 69, 179 

— Wall of, 351 
Ahab of Jezreel, 35 
Aiya, Site of, 304 
*Aiyun, Chasm of, 304 
Akra, Millo, 333, 338 
Alexander Jannaeus, Coin of, 178 

Tomb of, 855 

Almanack, Jewish, 92-104 
Alms, 145 

Altar, Site of, 364 

— Measurements of, 380 
Amalekites, 236 
Ameh, Cubit, 57, 79 
Amenophis III., 32 
Amercalf Chamberlain, 129 
Ammonites, 237 
Amoraimj Rabbis, 140 
Amorites, 235 

Amun, Site of, 306 
Amygdalon, Pool, 350 
Anakim, 234 
Anika, small coin, 178 
Annus Sacer, A.S., 5 
Anointing of kings, 106 
Antigonus, Coin of, 179 
Antonia, Citadel, 385 
Anuath, BorceoSy 806 



AUL 

Aphtinas, Chamber, 112, 380 
Apis Stelae, 2, 39 
Appearance Money, 147 
Aqueducts to Jerusalem, 357 
Aramaic Language, 185 

— Writing, 173 
Arha Canphoth, 184, 194 
Archelaus, Coin of, 179 

— dominions of, 318 
Architecture, Jewish, 201 
Area of Haram Enclosure, 359 

Holy Land, 205 

Jerusalem, 329, 354 

■:— Measures of, 80 

— of Palestine, 60, 208 

Platform in Haram, 360 

Temple, 60, 366, 371 

Tribal Territory, 273 

Arkites, 233 
Armour, Hebrew, 197 
Art, Hebrew, 163 
Arvadites, 233 
Asher, Territory of, 269 
Asherahy Grove, 187 
Ashimah, Idol, 187 
Ashtoreth, Idol, 185 
Ashurbanipal, 39 
Ashuri, Character, 174 
Asper, l-20th Sela, 65 
Assarion, Weight, 65, 77, 81, 181 
Assaying Coins, 172 
Assyrian grammar, 34 

— history, 11, 29, 85 

— letters, 174 

— weights, 64 
Atonement, Day of, 121 
Atzion, Mt. Casius, 280 
Aulem, Site of, 304 



430 



GENERAL INDEX. 



ATIP 

Aup, Land of, 278 
Auranitis, District of, 315 
Avim, 238, 255 
Azazel, Goat of, 122 



BAAL, Sun-god, 186 
— Peor, 187 

— Zebub, 187 
Bacchides, 292 
Badger skin, 196, 227 
Balin of Gilead, 223, 396 
Baptism, Scene of the, 319 
Baris, Antonia, 343, 346, 385 
Barleycorns, Size of, 67, 79 
Bar Mitzuah, 184 

Bath of High Priest, 121, 125 

— House in the Temple, 379 
Bathnan, Lute, 167 
Batlanim, of Synagogue, 184 
Bay of Acre, 209 

Bear, 226 

Beautiful Gate, 885 
Bee, 230 
Belus River, 219 
Benedictions, 111, 114 
Benjamin, Land of, 269 
Berii, Site of, 304 
Berosus, Dates of, 29 
Bethania, 315, 320 
Beth Bedia, 306 

— Din, small Sanhedrin, 131 
Bethesda, Pool, 357 

Beth Hap Parvah, 121 

— Laban, 307 

— Moked, 108, 378 

— Omri, 35 

— Rima, 307 

— So, 344 

— Sucath, 305 

— Zanita, 304 
Bezetba, 333 
Bible Coins, 75, 181 
Birah, Baris, 385 

Birds of the Bible, 228, 392 
Birket Israil, 356 

— Mamilla, 840 

— es-Sultan, 340 
Birth, Ceremonies, 197 
Bitumen, 160, 218 
Bitzath, Site of, 806 
Blasphemy, Punishment of, 132 
Bonnets, 193, 196 

Booths, 119, 202 
Borceos, Anuath, 306 
Boundaries of the Holy Land, 205, 
301 



CLA. 

Boundaries of the Tribes, 253-270 

Galilee, 311 

Jud»a, 283, 806 

Peraea, 314 

Samaria, 809 

Bread, 192 

Bridge to Olivet, 106, 124, 161 

— Tyropoeon, 862 

Building materials, 201 

Burning, Death by, 183 



CABBALA, 143 
Calf Temple, 276 
Callirrhoe, 218 
Calvary, 356 
Camphire, Henna, 224 
Canaanites, 232, 235 
Canaanite My thology, 185 
Canon of Old Testament, ix 

Ptolemy, 1, 11, 45 

Caphar Hananiah, 313 

— Utnai, 309 
Caphtor, 237 
Capitals of Israel, 284 
Carts, 190 

Cave of Makkedah, 255 

Cebeshy of Altar, 113, 381 

Cedars of Lebanon, 223 

Census, Roman, 77 

Chaff, 189 

Chalcis, District, 317 

Chamber of the Draw-well, 380 

Hewn Stone, 380 

Chambers, Lishcoth, 376, 380 

— Thaim, 382 

— Yetzua, 369 
Chamois, Zemer, 226, 890 
Chel or Hil, 375 
Chemosh, 186 
Cherethites, 237 
Chilzon, Murex, 231 
Chinese Eclipses, 91 
Chiun, Saturn, 186 
Chronology, Assyrian, 1, 12 

— of Authorised Version, 16 

— Egyptian, 12 

— of Genesis, 3, 4 

Joseph us, 4 

Septuagint, 3, 4 

Ciccar, District, 213, 239 
Circumcision, 198 
Cities of Herod, 318 

— of the Plain, 238-241 
City of Men, 318 
Ci\iil punishments, 134 
Classes of Society, 182 



GENERAL INDEX. 



431 



CLI 

Climate of Palestine, 221 
Cloisters of Temple, 872 
Coat of mail, 197 

— of many colours, 194 
Cock crow, 108 
Coinage, Assaying of, 172 
Coins of the Bible, 76, 181 

— described, 177 

— Hasmonean, 69, 178 

— Herodian, 69, 179 

— Jewish, 67-74 
College in Jerusalem, 342 
Coney, Hyrax, 226 
Coracinus, Fish, 230 
Coreae, village, 806 

Comer of Field, Peak, 144, 191 
Court of Israel, 376 

Priests, 377 

women, 376 

Crocodile, 228 

— River, 219 
Crops, 189 
Crucifixion, Date of, 14 

— Scene of, 356 
Cubit, Ameh, 57, 79, 371 
Cultivation of Holy Land, 189, 317 
Cuneiform Characters, 34 

Cup of Blessing, 118 
Cycle Bissextile, 5 

— Julian, 6, 13 

— Lunar, 5 

— Metonic, 82 

— Sabbatic, 6 

— Saros, 89 

Cymbals, Metzdihaimy 168 



DAGON and Derceto, 187 
Damieh Ford, 216 
Dan, Territory of, 262 
Dancing, 200 
Darkon, Coin, 181 
Day of Atonement, 87, 112, 121 
Davs of Justice, 184 
David's Siege, 336 
Dead Sea, 217 
Death, Customs at, 200 
Deer, Species of, 225 
Denarius, 77, 181 
Dew, 221 

Dialect, Aramaic, 185 
— Galilean, 313 
Dogs, 188, 227 
Doves, 154, 229, 892, 894 
Dowery, Mohary 198 
Dragon Well, 334 
Dram, Darkon, 181 



Drawers, 3ficnasimy 193 
Dress, Hebrew, 193 
Drought, Fasts for, 88 
Drum, Erusy 167 
Druphax, Soreg, 375 
Dynasties of Egypt, 42 
Seleucidse, 47 



EAGLE, 228, 393 
Earthquakes, 222 
East Wind, 221 
Eben Shatiyeh, 123, 365 
Eclipses, 1, 88 
Edomites, 287 
Education, Jewish, 183 
Egg, Capacity of, 61 
Egyptian Cubits, 57 

— Dynasties, 29, 42 

— History, 2, 12, 30, 34, 39 

— Money, 66 

— Territory, 244 

— Year, 13 
Ehud, Date of, 16 
Eleazar, Tomb of, 266 
El Bethel, 275 

El Elohe Israel, 275 

Eleutherus, River, 298 

Eli, 137 

Eliashib, Coin of, 67, 177 

Embolismic month, 8 

Emim, Giants, 234 

Enemy, Definition of, 132 

Ephraim, Territory of, 263 

Epicureans, 176 

Era of Galuth, 12, 23, 41 

— — Nabonassar, 11, 21 

— Philippine, 11, 24 

— of Roman Empire, 10, 26 

• Seleucidae, 11, 24 

Simon, 10, 25 

Eratosthenes, Dates of, 30 
Essenes, 143 

— Gate of, 348 
Ethiopian War, 31 
Ethrog, Citron, 73, 119, 180 
Eucharist, 155 

Evil Merodach, Date of, 12, 16 
Execution, Four modes of, 132 
Exhedra, in the Temple, 380 
Exile, Punishment by, 134 
Exodus, Date of, 14, 19 



FALLOW DEER, 225 
False Prophet, Punishment of, 
132 



432 



GENEEAL INDEX. 



FAB 

Farthing, 77, 181 

FastH, Jewish, 86 

— for rain, 87 

Fasting, rules for, 87 

Fauna and Flora of Holy Land, 222 

Feasts, Jewish, 84 

Feast of Lights, 84 

Passover, 117 

Tabernades, 119 

Weeks, 118 

Feeding 6,000 and 4,000, 321 
Fields of Kedron, 830 

Huzoth, 188 

First Fruits, 146 

Fish, Fishing, 229 

Fodder, Belil, 188 

Fondeka, 310 

Food of the Hebrews, 188, 192 

Fords of Jordan, 216 

Fox, 227 

Frankincense, Libannh, 160 

FreewUl Offering, 160 

Friend, Definition of, 132 

Funerals, Jewish, 199 



GAD, Territory of, 253 
Galilean dialect, 313 
Galilee, Boundaries of, 311 

— of Nations, 296, 313 

— Population of, 318 

— Physical features of, 208 
Galbanura, Halbanah, 160 
Galuth, Era of, 12, 23, 41 
Gamaliel, 140 

Gardens, 191 

— Kings, 341 
Garmes, weight, 65 
Gate, Beautiful, 385 

— Corban, 378 

— Comer, 344 

— Dalak, Flaming, 378 

— Dung, 344 

— East, 346 

— Ephraim, 343 

— of Essenes, 348 

— Fish, 343 

— Fountain, 344 

— Gennath, 349 

— Harsith, 346 

— High, 340 

— Horse, 340 

— Huldah, 372 
-- Iron, 373 

— Kipunus, 373 

— Minhkad, 345 

— Mim, Water, 378 



Gate, Moked, 378 
~ New, 342 

— Nicanor, 377, 384 

— Old, 343 

— Prison, 846 

— Sheep, 343 

— Shushan, 373 

— Sur, 342 

— Tadi, 378 

— Valley, 343 

— Water, 345 

Gates of Jerusalem, 343 

Temple, 372, 878 

Gatin, Site of, 303 
Gaulonites, or Zealots, 142 
Gaulonitis, District of, 315 
Gazelle, 225 

Gazith, Chamber, 130, 380 
Gebalene, District of, 309 
Genealogy, Table VII., 48 
Genesis, Chronology of, 8 
Geologj' of Holy Land, 206 

Jordan Valley, 207 

Grera or Agora, Coin, 65, 66 

Geraritica, District of, 808 

Gerizim, Mount, 206, 210, 256 

Ghdr, Jordan Valley, 212 

Giants, 234 

Gier Eagle, 228 

Gihon, Spring, 339 

Girdle or Shawl, 193 

Girgasites, 236 

Goad, 190 

Golden Candlestick, 110 

— Number, 82 

— Robes, 119, 122 
Golgotha, 356 
Goliath, Armour of, 197 
Goshen, Land of, 246 
Gourd, Jonah's, 224 
Government of Hebrews, 126 
Grafting, 191 

Granaries, 190 
Grove, Asherahy 187 
Guards of the Temple, 108 
Guitar, 168 



JTADA8HIM, Young Priests, 112 
■^^ Hadresy l-3rd Asper, 178 
Haipha, 268, 311 
Halbanahy Galbanum, 160 
Halily Pipe, 166, 168 
Hamathites, 288 
Hammanim, Images, 186 
Hanaueei, Tower, 843 
Handbreadth, 7W/miA, 58, 79 



GENERAL INDEX. 



433 



HAN 

Hanitz, l-6th Asper, 179 
Hanuta, Site of, 806 
Haram at Jerusalem, 359 
Hare, 226 

Har hatn-Mashekhah, 830 
Harp, KinnoVj 167 
Harran, Position of, 238 
Harris Papvrus, 28 
Hart, 225 
Harvest, 190 
Hasmonean Coins, 69 

— Kings, 54 
Hatasout, Princess, 31, 43 
Hazael, 35 

Heads of the Year, 9 
Heave Offering, 146 
Hebrew (Aramaic) writing, 175 
Hellenists, 143 
Helmet, Kuhah^ 197 
Henna, Camphire, 224 
Hen's Egg, Capacity of, 61 
Hermon, Mount, 206 
Heresy, Punishment of, 132 
Herodian Architecture, 203 

— Sect, 143 

Herod, Cities built bv, 318 

— Coins of, 69, 179 " 

— Tetrarch, Coin of, 179 

— Kingdom of, 318 

— Palace of, 347 
Hezekiah's Aqueduct, 339 
mdiut, * Ignorant,' 185 
Hieromax Kiver, 218 

High Gate of Benjamin, 340 

— House, King's, 840 

— Phices, 276 

— Priests, bath of, 121 

list of, 50 

dress of, 193 

duties of, 130 

succession of, 136 

Hillel and Shammai, 142 
Hippicus, Tower, 347 
Hittites, 238-236 
Hivite, 235 
Holocaust, 150 

Holy Cities, 182 
— * Land, 205 . 

— Sepulchre, 204, 850 
Homer or Kor, 69, 80 
Honey, 230 
Horites, 234 
Hornets, 230 

Horse Gate, 340 
Hot springs, 218, 220 
Houses, Jewish, 201 
Haldah Gates, 372 



JTJD 

Huldah, Tomb of, 355 
Huleh Lake, 215 
' Husks,' 223 
Huta^ Sinner, 325 
Huzoih, Fields, 188 
Hyena, 227 
Hyrcanus, 299, 350 
— Coin of, 178 
Hyssop, 224 



TDUMiEA, 307 
i- Idumaean Kings, 55 
Images, 186 
Insects, 230 
Incense, Altar of, 113 

— burning of, 112 

— making of, 106, 112, 160 
Isaachar, Territory of, 266 
Isthmus of Suez, 247 
Iron Gate, 373 

Itur«a, District, 316 



TABBOK River, 306 
J Jackals, 227 
Jebusites, 236 
Jegar Sahadutha, 306 
Jerboa, 227 

Jeremiah's Grotto, 356 
Jerusalem, Area of, 364 

— Buildings of, 354 

— Gates of, 343 

— Name of, 328 

— Population of, 354 

— Quarters of, 353 

— Walls of, 338-352 

— Water supply of, 356 
Jewels, 196 

Jewish Reckoning, 6, 8, 9 

— Sects, 140 

— Tear, 82 

John's Monument, 350 
Jonathan, the Hasmonean, 298 

— Coins of, 178 
Jordan Valley, 207, 212 
Josephus, Chronology of, 4 

— Measurements oi, 363, 367 

— Statements of, 169 
Joshua, Tomb of, 266 
Jubilee, Tear of, 6 
Judaea, Boundaries of, 806 
Judah, Kingdom of, 283 

— Territory of, 267 

— The Saint, Rabbi, 140 
Judas Maccabaeus, 292, 293 
Judges, of Sanhedrin, 181 



F F 



434 



GENERAL INDEX. 



JTJD 

Judges, Sophetim, 135 

Judith, Topography of Book of, 288 

Julias, Bethsaida, 322 

Juniper, 223 



KABARTHA, Site of, 304 
Kadesh ou Orontes, 33 
Kadmonites, 236 
Karaites, Sect of, 141 
Kamak, Lists of Temple, 242 
Kastra, Site of, 310 
Katzra of Gelil, 304 
Kefr et-T&r, Bethphage, 326 
Kenisehf Synagogue, 183 
Kenites, 236 
Kenizzites, 236 
Keraiaiy Tittles, 175 
Keruthiin, Site of, 307 
Kenta, Money, 66 
Kethilukin, 129 
Khatemuthf seals, 161 
Khazzatiy clerk, 184 
Kheruth Money, 73 
Khita, Land of, 33, 278 
Kidneys of Rams, 224 
Kilaim, Rules of, 190 
Kings, Assyrian, 45 

— Egyptian, 42 

— Greek, 47 

— of Judah and Israel, 53 

— Hasmohean, 54 

— IdumsBan, 55 

— Duties of, 128 

— Garden of, 341 

— Privileges of, 127 

— Tombs of, 341 

— Winepresses of, 341 
Kingdom, Institution of, 136 

— Duration of, 137 
KinnoTy Harp, 167 
Kipunus, Gate, 373 
Kizin, Sect of, 142 
Kodesha Money, 70 
Kodrans, Fartnicg, 77 
Kohel, Eyesalve, 1 96 
Kokim, Tombs, 202 
Kor, or Homer, 59, 60, 80 
Kos, Cup, 113, 171 

Kudur Nan Nundi, King, 29 
Kupha, Vase, 112, 113, 171 



LAMP, Golden, 110 
Lance, Rumh, 197 
Language, Aramaic, 185 
-— Canaanite, 282 



HEA 

Language, Galilean, 313 

— Hebrew, 168 
Lebanon, ^6 
Leopard, 226 
Letters, Hebrew, 178 
Levels of Haram, 359 

Jerusalem, 329 

Temple, 374 

Leviathan, 228 

Lihanahj Frankincense, 160 
Lily of the Valleys, 224 
Linear Measures, 57, 79 
Lion, 226 

— Weights, 64 

Little Chambers, 369, 383 
Loculi in Tombs, 203 
Locusts, 230 
Log, capacity of, 61, 80 
Lower City, 337 

— Pool, 339 

Lvlab, Palm branch, 73, 119, 180 
Lyres, 168 
Lysanias, 317 
Lysias, 292 



MAA, Meah, 65 
Maccabees, Tombs of, 291 
Magrepba, instrument, 169 
MaS Armour, 197 
Magic, 187 
Makom, * place,' 187 
Mahn, inn, 200 

Manasseh, Territory of, 254, 265 
Mandrakes, 224, 397 
Maneh, Weight, 64 
Manners of Hebrews, 200 
Manure, 190 
Maritime Plain, 211 
Markulim, Mercury, 187 
Marriage Ceremonies, 198 
Masonry of the Haram, 861 

— Jewish, 202 
Master of the House, 108 
Mataimim, Land, 279 
Mazzalothy Zodiac, 186 
Meah, Tower, 843 
Measures of Area, 59, 80 
Capacity, 61, 80 

— Dry, 80 

— Linear, 57, 79 

— Liquid, 80 

— of Value, 65, 81 

Weight, 63, 81 

Measurements of Altar, 881 

Haram, 359 

Temple, 373, 382 



GENERAL INDEX. 



435 



K&A. 

Meat 0£fering, Minha, 150, 157 

Medicine, Jewish, 172 

Mehistaniies, Sect, 143 

MeUy Robe, 193 

MeUoth, Site of, 304 

Memphis, 248 

Messiah Milhama, 127 

Metzilthaim, Cymbals, 168 

MeUubetb, Site of, 306 

Mezuza, 201 

Midianites, 237 

Migdol Kherub, Site of, 304 

Milcom, 187 

Millo, Akra, 337 

Minai, Sect of, 325 

Mincha, or Minha, 150, 157 

Mishnah, CoUege, 342 

Mishmaroih, Orders of Priests, 7, 120 

Mite, 78, 181 

MUznepheth, Turban, 193 

Mizraim, 237 

Mizraimites, 143 

Moabites, 237 

Moabite Stone, 173 

Mobar, Travels of a, 277 

Moked, House, 108, 378 

Molocb, 186, 330 

Money, Egyptian, 66 

— Jewish, 66, 81 

— Tribute, 77 

— Changer's Tables, 162, 872, 384 
Monument of Alexander, 355 
Helena, 352 

Herod, 855 

John, 350 

Monuments, Sepulchral, 199, 351 
Moreg, Threshing Sledge, 190 
Morning Sacrifice, 108, 115 
Mountains of Holy Land, 205 

Judsea and Samaria, 209 

Mourners, 199 
Mouse, 227 
Muffler, Raaly 196 
Music, Hebrew, 165 
Mythology, Canaanite, 185 



NAHUM the Old, Tomb of, 325 
Naphtali, Territory of, 269 
Narcissus, Rose of Sharon, 224 
Nasi, Prince, 126, 178 
Nebel, Psaltery, 167 
Nebuchadnezzar, 2, 12 
Necho, 38, 39 
Negeb, District, 211 
Neginothy Stringed Instruments, 166 
Nehemiah's Wall, 342 



P 



FHA 

Nehiloth, Wind Instruments, 166 

Netcqth, Stacte, 160 

New Moon, 8, 83 

Nicanor, Death of, 294 

— Gate, 377, 384 

Niephes, Sect, 142 

Nitzotz, Gate, 380 

Nomadic Districts, 188 

Nubian Sandstone, 207 



OAK of Shechem, 276 
— Forests, 222 
0^, Kingdom of, 252 
Oil, Preparation of Holy, 105 
Old Pool, 889 
Olive, Wild, 223 
Olives, 192 
Omer, 59, 80 
Onycha, Shekheleth, 160 
Ophel Wall, 345, 349 
Orders of Priests, 7 
Orientation of Synagogues, 188 
— of Temple, 120, 364 



PA-KANA-NA, 278 
Palace of Agrippa, 355 

Hasmoneans, 354 

Helena, 854 

Herod, 347 

Solomon, 340 

Palestine, Area of, 208 

Palestina, 238 

Palhedrin Chamber, 121 

Papyri, Harris and Turin, 28 

Parallelism, Poetic, 164 

Parchment, 175 

Pamcuim, Elders, 184 

Partridge, 229 

Passover, 117, 118 

Patris, Site of, 307 

Peace Offering, 160 

Peak, Comer of Field, 144, 145, 191 

Pelethites, 237 

Pella, Site of, 314 

Pentecost, Feast of, 118 

Persa, District, 314 

Perizzites, 236 

Pesactar, Instrument, 118, 116, 169 

Peter's Penny, 181 

Petra, 249, 806 

Pharaoh Hophra, 38 

— Necho, 88 

Pharaoh's Daughter, 31 

Pharisees, 142 

PhasaeluB, Tower, 847 

f2 



436 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Phenutus, Site of, 296 
PhUistia, 267 
Philistines, 237, 257, 286 
Phiylactories, ThephUlin, 184, 194 
Pilate, Aqueduct of, 357 

— Coin of, 180 
Pine, Wild Olive, 223 
Pipe, Double, 166 
Pithom and Rameses, 245 
Place of Stoning, 133, 356 
Plain of Esdraelon, 209 
Ploughing, 189 
Poetry, Hebrew, 164 
Points, Vowel, 164 
Pondion, Weight, 65 
Pool, Amygdalon, 350 

— Lower, 339 

— Old, 839 

Population, Density of, 272, 281 

— of Galilee, 318 

Jerusalem, 364 

Syria, 271 

Porpoise, 227 
Praver, attiturle in, 184 
Prelects of Priests, 130 
Presidents of Sanhedrin, 140 
Priests, Dress of, 193 

— Orders of, 7, 120 
Private Sacrifices, 153 
Prutha, half-Kontrinek, 78, 181 
Psalms, in Temple, 114 
Psaltery, iNefte/, 167 
Psephinus, Tower, 352 
Fuhethiniy Treasurers, 129 

Pul, 36 

Punishments, Civil, 134 
Purim, Feast of, 84 
l*ygarg, 225 



QUAIL, 229, 393 
Quarters of Jerusalem, 353 



RABBIS, Names of, 140 
Rabbit, Hyrax, 226 
Rachel's Tomb, 258 
Rain, Fasts for, 86 

— Former and Latter, 221 
Rameses, Town, 245 
Ram's Horns, 166 
Rashbag, 140 

Raven, 228, 394 

Red Heifer, Sacrifice, 106 

— Sea, 247 
Refractory Elder, 132 
Regueb, Oil of, 811 



SEL 

Rehoboam, Fortresses of, 283 
Rekem, Petra, 249, 305 
Religious Centres, 276 
Rephaim, Giants, 234 
Reptiles, 227 

Reuben, Territory of, 263 
Revolt, Hasmonean, 139, 292 
Rigia, or Stater, 65, 81, 180 
Rim, Unicom, 225, 392 
Rivers of the Holy Land, 206 

Palestine, 214 

Rock Levels, Jerusalem, 329 
Roebuck, FaAfn^r, 225 
Rolling tomb doors, 204 
Rolls of the Law, 175 
Rose of Sharon, 224 
Royal Caverns, 352 

— Cloister, 372 

— Towers, 347 



SABBATH Day's Journey, 58, 79 
Sabbatic years, 6, 10, 14 
Sacrifice, Morning, 108, 115 

— of Red Heifer, 107 
Sacrifices, Four Orders of, 149 
Sadducees, 141 

Sagan, Vice High Priest, 129 
Sahyutij Zion, 337 
Sakhrah, Rock, 360, 365 
Salt Springs, 216 
Samaria, Boundaries of, 309 

— Capture of, 37 
Samaritan Pentateuch, 3 
Sanctuary, Court of the Priests, 377 
Sanhedrin, Great, 130 

— Presidents of, 140 

— Small, 131 
Sargon, 88 
Sarona District, 309 
Saros, Cycle of, 89 
Sartaba, Mountain, 212, 310 
Saul, Date of Reign of, 136 
Scapegoat, 123 

Scarlet, Tholath hash'Shasni,2^i 
Scenery of New Testament, 327 
Scourging, Law of, 134 
Sea, Dead, 217 

— of Galilee, 215 

— Ports, 281, 286 
Seasons, 189, 221 
Seah, Measure, 59, 80 
Second First Sabbath, 9 
Sects, Jewish, 140 
Second Tithes, 145 
Secular Pasque, 117 
Sela, or Selang, 65, 81 



0ENERAL INDEX. 



437 



SEL 

Selcihf Meaning of the Word, 115 
SelucidflB, 11, 24, 47 
Siknnacherib, 37, 285 
Septuagint, 86, 175 
Sepulchres, Form of, 202 

— Law of, 199, 351 
Service of Synagogue, 184 

— of Temple, 108 
Seron, Defeat of, 292 
SheUishim, Sistra, 168 
Shalmaneser II., 35 

— IV., 36, 38 
Shammai, School of, 142 
Shamir, Worm, 231 
Sharuana, District, 241 
Shasus, Tribe, 278 
Shaving the Head, 196 
Shecamites, Sect of, 142 
Sheepfolds, 188 
Shekel, 63, 75, 81 
Shekhdeth, Onycha, 160 
Shema, * Hear, Israel,' 111 
Shemo, Money, 67, 72 
ShemuHf l-12th Asper, 177 
Shephelah, District, 302, 309 
Shepherd Kings, Hyksos, 30 
Shewbread, 158 
Shibboleth, 163 
Shikmooah, Site of, 311 
Shishak, 34, 284 

Shittim Wood, 223 
Shophar, Horn, 165, 166 
Shopeth, Wall, 377 
Shoshannim, Instrument, 167 
Shua, Tribe, 278 
Shushan, Gate, 373 
Sihon, Kingdom of, 252 
Siloah, 119, 335 
SUlah, Steps, 338 
Silver Trumpets, 115 
Simeon, Dispersion of, 282 

— Territory of, 261 
SimoD, Coins of, 68, 178 

— the Hasmonean, 299 
Sin Offering, 150, 153 
Sinites, 233 
Siphneta, Site of, 304 
Slime Pits, 218 
Snail, 230 

So, King of Egypt, 38 
Solomon's Districts, 282 

— Income, 148 

— Kingdom, 281 

— Palace, 340 

— Porch, 385 

— Temple, 369 
~ Wife, 83 



THE 

Song, Hebrew, 165 
Sophetim, Judges, 135 
Soreg, Wall, 875 
•Speckled Bird,' Hyaena, 227 
Springs, 220 
Square Hebrew, 173 
Stacte, Netaph, 160 
Standing Men, 377 
Stoning, Death by, 132 

— Place of, 133, 356 
Strangling, Death by, 134 
Struthius, Pool, 357 

Sun Images, 186 

— Worship, 120 
Swine, 226 
Sycomore, 223, 399 
S^Tiagogues, 183, 204 



TABERNACLE, 201 
— Sites where fixed, 276 
Tabernacles, Feast of, 119 
Tabret Timbrel, Toph, 168 
Tadi, Gate, 373 
Tadmor, Palmyra, 281 
Tahum, Limit, 58, 79 
Takhis, Land of, 279 
Talith, Shawl, 184, 194 
Tatnid, * continual,' 108, 151 
Tammuz, Worship of, 186 
Tanaim, Rabbis, 140 
Tanis, Zoan, 30, 245 
Tarakina, District, 305 
Taricheae, 279, 324 
Taxation, 148 
Taxes, Sacred, 144 

— Civil, 148 

Tehha, half-Shekel, 65, 81 
Tell Hum, 325 

Temperature in Palestine, 221 
Temple, Hecal, 382 
-- of Solomon, 369 

Zerubbabel, 370 

Herod, 370 

— Guards, 108 

— Music, 166 

Xax 147 

Ten Words, 111 

Teni, Vessel, 110 

Tents, 201 

Terebinth, 223 

Testimony, Law of, 131 

Tetragrammaton, 114, 132 

Thebes, Capture of, 40 

TheUa, Site of, 314 

T/uphillin, Phylactories, 184, 194 

Tberapeutae, Sect of, 143 



QEftSRAL INDEX. 



THI 

Thirty Piece* of Silver, 77 

Thistl«,224 

Tliathines III., SI, 341 

Threabiaic, 190 

Tiglatli Pileaer IL, S8 

Timbral, TopA, 168 

Tiphnis. S04 

Tires, Head Drait, 1 98 

Tirbak»h, Kinft, 38, 89 

Tirii, aile of, 304 

Tith«<,146 

— Sflcond, 145 

Titlea of Hebrew Rolen, 185 

Tittla. Keraia. 175 

Tb, Wild Bull, 225, 890 

Tomb of Aluxsodcr Jaoiueiu, 3tS 

Aduiiu, 356 

Eleuu-, S56 

Hdena, 35G 

Herod, 856 

Huldfth, 365 

Ubamer, 266 

John, 350 

JoMph, 199,550 

Joseph of ArimBthiBS, 866 

Joshnn, 258 

Nttbum, 325 

Nicodcrou?, 841 

I'hinelias, 256 

Simon the Juat, 199, 865 

Simoon Bar .loiilwi, 199 

Tombs of the Kings, 341 
Tnparchies of Judsa, 808 
r«jA, Timbrel, lliS 
Tornegola, Site of, 304 
Trathonitis, District, 316 ■ 
Treasure Cities, 245 



Trislm Hebrew, 131 
Tribe Bouodttries, 862 
Tribute Mouey, 77, 181 
Tnmah, Oblsliou, 60 
TruTimth. Oblstiooa, 146 
Trum pets. Silver, 115 
— Notes of, 165, 166 
1\pa/i, Handbreadth, 58, 79 



Tyrupo»m Bridge, 303 
— Valley, 331 
Tiellael, Iiutrument, 167 
Tzuk, MountaiD, 134, Hi 



VAGUE Etn-ptian Year, II 
ValeofSiddiin,a89 
Valley of Blood, 394 
Taulta of Haram, 368 
VeadiT, Montb, 8 
Vofoiiablea, 191 
Veils, Women's, 195 
— of tlie Temple, 



170 



in of, 186 

.'eaaels of tlie Templi 
r'ictims, Zebabhin, Ibu 
Tine Culture. IHI 
- Golden. 883 

of Sodom, 223, S99 
VinByll^d^ 191 
" ■ nic formations, 206 
re, 228, 393, 394 



TTADY FAR'AH, 213, 810 
iV Wagons, 190 
Wall, First, 848 



-Neb. 



s,342 



— Ophel, 345 

— Second, 349 

— Third, .851 

Walls of the Harsm, 861 

Jerusalem, 33S 

Wnnderinga, Desert of the, 241 
"■" 'r of Jealousy, 159, 172 



- Pourii 



lie 



- Sopplv of jBrasalem, 334, 856 

Palestine, 214 

iVaterini' with the foot, 191 

iVidfiwa-Milp. !«1 
Witd Cloat, 22H. 391 
— Olive, -223 
Wilderness of JndKa, 213 
Wind, 221 
Wine, 192 



Witt 



B, 131 



WiTe^ Jewish, 198 
VVolf, 237 

a. Dress of, 195 
— Position of, 198 
Women's Towers, 362 



GENERAL INDEX. 



439 



zoi 



XOIS, 30 
Xystus, 364 



■yAM SUF, Sea of Reeds, 247 
-^ Year, Egj-ptian, 18, 14 

— of Jubilee, 6, 9, 14 

— Lunar, 8, 14, 82 

— Sabbatic, 6, 10 

— Sidereal, 13 

— Solar, 13, 82 
Yemim, Hot Springs, 220 
Yoke, Zenuxd, 60, 80, 190 



ZJJZ 

ZAMZUMMIMS, 284 
Zealots, 148 
Zebulon, Territory of, 266 
Zemarites, 233 
Zemeedy Yoke, 60, 80 
Zenodorus, 317 
Zerka, Site of, 305 
Zoau, Tanis, 30, 245 
Zovj Jordan bed, 216 
Zuza, Quarter Sela, 81, 145, 180 
Zuziin, 234 



LOHOoir t pftnrTBD bt 

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AND PARUAMBZrT STBSKT 



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Keller's Lake Dwellings of Switzerland, by Lee. 2 vols, royal Svo. 42*. 
Eirby and Spenoe's Introduction to Entomology. Crown Svo. 6*. 
Lloyd's Treatise on Magnetism. Svo. 10*. 6d. 

— — on the Wave-Theory of Light. 870. 10*. 6d. 
Loudon's Encyclopaedia of Plants. Svo. 42*. 

Lubbock on the Origin of Civilisation & Primitive Condition of Man. Svo. 18*. 

Macalister's Zoology and Morphology of Vertebrate Animala Svo. 10*. 6d. 

Nicols' Puzzle of Life. Crowa 8vo. 3*. 6rf. 

Owen's Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Vertebrate Animals. 8 voiLi. 
Svo. 73*. 6d. 

Proctor's Light Science for Leisure Hours. 2 vols, crown Svo. 7*. 6d. each. 

Bivers's Bose Amateur's Guide. Fcp. Svo. 4*. 6d. 

Stanley's Familiar History of Birds. Fcp. Svo. 3*. Gd. 

Text-Books of Science, Mechanical and Physical. 

Abney's Photography, small Svo. 3*. 6d!. 

Anderson's (Sir John) Strength of Materials, 3*. Gd, 

Armstrong's Organic Chemistry, 3*. Gd, 

Barry's Bailway Appliances, 8*. Gd, 

Blozam's Metals, 3*. Gd. 

Goodeve's Elements of Mechanism, 3*. Gd. 

— Principles of Mechanics, 3*. Gd, 
Gore's Electro-Metallurgy, 6*. 
Griffin's Algebra and Trigonometry, 8*. Gd, 



London, LONGMANS & CO. 



General Lists of New Works. 



Text-Books of Science— conrmuecj. 

Jeokin's Electricity and Magnetism, d*. 6d. 

Maxwell's Theoiy of Heat, Ss. Bd. 

Meniflehl's Technical Arithmetic and Mensmration, Zs. Bd, 

Miller's Inoripuiic Ohemistry, 84. 6d. 

Preeoe & Siyewrlght's Telegraphy, 3«. 6(2. 

Bailey's Stady of Rocks, 4s, 6d, 

Sheilas Workshop Appliances, Zs. Bd. 

Thom6*8 Stmctoral and Physiological Botany, Bs, 

Thofrpe's Qoantitatiye Cheinical Aiialysis, 4*. Bd, 

Thorpe & Moir's Qualitative Analysis, Zs. Bd. 

Tilden's Chemical Fhiloeophy, Zs. Bd, 

Unwln's Machine Design, Zs. Bd. 

Watson's Plane and Solid Gleometiy, Zs. Bd. 

Tyndall on Sonnd. Grown Svo. 10s. Bd, 

— CkmtribDtions to Molecular Physics. Svo. IBs, 

— Fragments of Science. New Edit. 2 vols, crown Svo. [In the press. 

— Heat a Mode of Motion. Crown Svo. 

— Lectures on Electrical Phenomena. Crown Svo. Is. sewed, Is. Bd. doth. 

— Lectures on Light. ' Crown Svo. 1*. sewed, 1*. Bd. doth. 

— Lectures on Light delivered in America. Crown Svo. 7s. Bd. 

— Lessons in Electricity. Crown Svo. 2s. Bd. 
Yon Gotta on Bocks, by Lawrence. Post Svo. 14s. 
Woodward's Geology of England and Wales. Crown Svo. 14s. 
Wood's Bible Animals. With 112 Vignettes. Svo. 144. 

— Homes Without Hands. Svo. 14f. 

— Insects Abroad. Svo. 14s. 

— Insects at Home. With 700 Hlustrations. Svo. 144. 

— Out of Doors, or Artides on Natural History. Crown Svo. Is. Bd. 

— Strange Dwdlings. With 60 Woodcuts. Crown Svo. 7s. Bd. 

CHEMISTRY 8c PHYSIOLOGY. 

Anerbadi's Anthraoen, translated by W. Grookes, F JEI.S. Svo. 12s. 

Buckton's Health in the House ; Lectures on Elementary Physiology. Fcp. 8to. 2s. 

Orookes*s Handbook of Dyeing and Calico Printing. Svo. 42«. 

— Sdect Methods in Chemical Analysis. Crown Svo. 12^. Bd, 
Eingsett's Animal Chemistry. Svo. IBs, 

— History, Products and Processes of the Alkali Trade. Svo. 12^. 

Miller's Elements of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical. 8 vols. Svo. Part I. 
Chemical Physics, 1 Bs. Part II. Inorganic Chemistry, 24^. Part ni. Organic 
Ohemistry, New Edition in the press. 

Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry. 7 vols, medium Svo. £10. IBs. Bd. 

— Third Supplementary Volume, in Two Parts. Pabt I. ZBs. 

THE FINE ARTS 8c ILLUSTRATED EDITIONS. 

Bewick's Select Fables of .£sop and others. Crown Svo. 7s. Bd. demy 8yo. IZi, 
Doyle's Fairyland; Pictures from the Elf- World. Folio, 16s. 
Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art. 6 yds. square crown Svo. 

Legends of the Madonna. 1 vol. 21s. 

— — — Monastic Orders. 1 vd. 21*. 

— — — Saints and MarfTrs. 3 vols. Zls. Bd. 

— •— — Saviour. Completed by Lady Eastlake. 2yoIs. 43«. 



Londor, LONGMANS & CO. 



8 General Lists of New Works. 



Longman's Three Oathedrals Dedicated to St. Paul. Square crown Svo. 71m. 
Maeaulay's Lays of Ancient Borne. With 90 Illustrations. Fcp. 4to. 21«. 
Macfarren's Lectures on Harmony. Svo. ISs. 

Miniature Edition of Maeaulay's Lays of Andent Borne. Imp. 16mo. 10«. 6d, 
Moore's Irish Melodies. With 161 Plates t^D.Madise^BJL Snper^royal8r6.81«. 

— Lalla Bookh. Tennid's Edition. With 68 Illustrations. Fcp. 4to. Us. 
Northcote and Brownlow's Boma Sotterranea. Pabt I. Svo. 2ii. 

Perry on Qreek and Boman Sculpture. Svo. [/n preparation. 

Bedgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the English School. Sro. 16<. 

THE USEFUL ARTS, MANUFACTURES See. 

Bourne's Oatechism of the Steam Engine. Fcp. 8yo. 6s. 

— Examples of Steam, Air, and Gas Engines. 4to. 70s. 

— Handbook of the Steam Engine. Fcp. Svo. 9s. 

— Beoent Improvements in the Steam Engine. Fcp. Sro. B*. 

— Treatiseon the Steam Engine. 4to. 42«. 
Gresy's Encydopesdia of Civil Engineering. Svo. 42«. 
Oulley*s Handbook of Practical Td^raphy. Svo. 16s. 

Eastlake's Household Taste in Furniture, &o. Square crown Svo. Us, 
Fairbaim's Useful Information for Engineers. 8 vols, crown Svo. Zlt. Bd. 

~ Applications of Cast and Wrought Iron. Svo. 16«. 

— Mills and Millwork. 1 voL Svo. 25s, 
Gwilt's Encyclopeedia of Architecture. Svo. 62s. 6d. 
Hobson's Amateur Mechanics Practical Handbook. Grown Svo. 2s, 6d, 
Hoskold's Engineer's Valuing Assistant. Svo. Zls. 64. 
Eerl's Metallurgy, adapted by Grookes and BOhrig. 8 vols. Svo. £4. 19«. 
Loudon's En<7clop8Bdia of Agriculture. Svo. 21s. 

— — — Gardening. Svo. 21*. 
Mitchell's Manual of Practical Assaying. Svo. Sis. 6d. 
Northcott's Lathes and Turning. Svo. IBs. 

Payen's Industrial Ghemistry, translated from Stohmann and Engler's Gterman 

Edition, by Dr. J. D. Barry. Edited by B. H. Paul, Ph.D. Svo. 42*. 
Stoney's Theory of Strains in Girders. Boy. Svo. 86*. 
Thomas on Coal, Mine-Gases and Ventilation. Crown Svo. 10*. 6d. 
lire's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, & Mines. 4 vols, medium Svo. £7. 7*. 

RELIGIOUS 8t MORAL WORKS. 

Abbey & Overton's English Church in the Eighteenth Century. 2 vols. Svo. 36*. 
Arnold's (Bev. Dr. Thomas) Sermons. 6 vols, crown Svo. 5*. each. 

Bishop Jeremy Taylor's Entire Works. With Life by Bishop Heber. Edited by 

the Bev. C. P. Eden. 10 vols. Svo. £6. 5*. 
Boultbee's Commentary on the 89 Articles. Crown Svo. 6*. 
Browne's (Bishop) Exposition of the 89 Articles. Svo. 16*. 
Conybeare & Howson'sLife and Letters of St. Paul :— 

Library Edition, with all the Original Illustrations, Maps, Landscapes on 
Steel, Woodcuts, &c. 2 vols. 4to. 42*. 

Intermediate Edition, with a Selection of Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts. 
2 vols, square crown Svo. 21*. 

Student's Edition, revised and condensed, with 46 Illustrations and Maps. 
1 vol. crown Svo. 9*. 

Oolenso's Lectures on the Pentateuch and the Moabite Stone. Svo. 12<. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 



Oeneral Lists of New Works. 



Ck>lenso on the Pentatoadx and Book of Joehna. Grown 8to. 6s, 

— — Paht VII. completion of the larger Work. 8vo. 24*. 
D'Aubign^'s Beformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin. 8 vols. 8to. £6. 12«. 
Dmmmond's Jewish Meesiah. Svo. 16s. 

Ellicott's (Bishop) (Commentary on St. Faol's Epistles. 870. Gkdatians, Ss. Sd. 

Ephesians, Ss. 6d. Pastoral Epistles, 10s. 6d. Philippians, Goloesians, and 

Philemon, 10s. 6d. Theesalonians, 7s. Sd. 
Ellioott's Leotm»i on the Life of our Lord. 8yo. 12«. 
Bwald's History of Israel, translated by Carpenter. 5 rols. Sro. BZs, 

— Antiquities of larael, translated by SoUy. 8to. 12s. M, 
GoMziher's Id^^ology among the Hebrews. 8to. 16s, 
Jnkes's Typei of Genesis. Grown 8yo. Is, M, 

~ Second Death and the Beetitntion of all Things. Grown Svo. 8«. 6d. 

Ealisdi's Bible Studies. Part I. the Prophedes of Balaam. 8yo. 10s. ed. 
— — — Pabt n. the Book of Jonah. 8yo. 10«. 6d. 

Keith's Bvidenoe of the Truth of the Christian Beligion derived from the Fulfil- 
ment of Prophepy. Square 8vo. 12«. M, Post 8vo. 6s, 
Euenen on the Prophets and Prophecy in IsraeL 8yo. 21«. 
Lyra Germanica. Hymns translated by Miss Winkworth. Fcp. 8vo. 6s, 
Manning's Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost. 8vo. 8s. 6d. 
Martinean's Endeavours after the Christian Life. Grown 8vo. 7s, 6d, 

— Hymns of Praise and Prayer. Crown 8vo. 4«. 6d. 82mo.l«.6d. 

— Sermons; Hours of Thought on Sacred Things. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 
Merivale's (Dean) Lectures on Early Church History. Grown 8vo. 

Mill's Three Essays on Beligion. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Monsell's Spiritual Songs for Sundays and Holidays. Fcp. 8vo. 6s, 18mo. 2s, 

MttUer's (Max) Lectures on the Science of Beligion. Grown 8vo. 10s. 6d, 

Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

0'Ck>no!r's New Testament Commentaries. Crown 8vo. Epistle to the Bomans. 

3s. 6d, Epistle to the Hebrews, is, 6d, St. John's Gospel, 10s. 64, 
One Hundred Holy Songs, &c. Square fcp. 8vo. 2s, 6d, 
Passing Thoughts on Beligion. By Miss Sewell. Fcp. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 
Sewell's (Miss) Preparation for the Holy Communion. 82mo. 3s, 
Shipley's Bitual of the Altar. Imperial 8vo. i2s. 
Supernatural Beligion. 8 vols. 8vo. 33s. 
Thoughts for the Age. By Miss Sewell. Fcp. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 
Yaughan's Trident, Crescent, and Ooes ; the Beligious History of India. SY0.9s.6d, 
Whately's Lessons on the Ohristian Evidences. 18mo. 6d, 
White's Four (Gospels in Greek, with Greek-English Lezioon. 82mo. 6s, 

TRAVELS, VOYAGES &c. 

Ball's Alpine Guide. 8 vols, pest 8vo. with Maps and Illustrations :— I. Western 
Alps, 6s. 6d. n. Central Alps, 7s. 6d, m. Eastern Alps, 10«. 6d, 

Ball on Alpine Traveling, and on the Gtoology of the Alps, Is. 

Baker's Bifle and the Hound in Ceylon. Grown 8 vo. 7s, 6d, 

— Eight Years in Ceylon. Chrown 8vo. 7s. 6d, 

Beat's Freak of Freedom, or the Bepublic of San Marino. Crown 8vo. 
Braseqr's Voyage in the Yacht * Sunbeam.' Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d, 8vo. Us, 
Edwards's (A. B.) Thousand Miles up the Nile. Imperial 8vo. 43«. 



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10 



General Lists of New Works. 



Kvans'8 Illyrian Letters. Port 8vo. 7#. 6<f. 

Grohman*8 Tyrol and the Tyrolese. Crown Sro. 6«. 

Indian Alps (The). By a Lady Pioneer. Imperial 8yo. 43s, 

LoCroy's IHsooyery and Early Settlement of the Bermuda Islands. 3 Tola, 
royal 8to. 60». 

Miller and Skei-tchley's Fenland Past and Present. Boyal Svo. 3l«. 6d. Large 

Paper, 60*. 

Noble's Cape and South Africa. Pep. Svo. Ss. M, 

Padke's Guide to the Pyrenees, for Mountaineers. Crown Svo. 7#. Bd. 

The Alpine aub Map of Switzerland. In four sheets. 43s, 

Wood's Discoveries at Ephesus. Imperial Svo. 63s, 



WORKS OF FICTION. 

Becker's Charides ; Private Life among the Andent Greeks. Port Svo. 7s, M, 
— Gallus ; Roman Scenes of the Time of Augustus. Port Syc 7s, M, 

Cabinet Edition of Stories and Tales by Miss Sewell :— 



Amy Herbert, 2s. Bd. 
Cleve Hall, 2s, 6d. 
The Earl's Daughter, Ss, M, 
Experience of Life, 2s, M, 
Gtertrude, 2s. Bd, 



Ivors, 2s. Bd, 

Katharine Ashton, 2«. Bd, 
Laneton Parsonage, 9s, Bd, 
Margaret PerdvaL, 9s, Bd, 
Ursula, Zs, Bd, 



Novels and Tales by the Right Hon. the Earl of BeaoonsfieLd, E.G. CMrfnrt 
Edition, complete in Ten Volumes, crown Svo. price £3. 



Lothair, 6s. 
Coningsby, Bs, 
Sybil, 6*. 
leered, 6s, 
Yenetia, 6s. 



Henrietta Temple, 6«. 
Contarini Fleming, Bs, 
Alroy, Ixion, Sic Bs, 
The Young Duka, ^tcBs, 
Vivian Grey, Bs,. 



The Modem Novelist's Library. Each Work in crown Svo. A Single Volume, 
complete in itself, price 2s. boards, or 2s. Bd, cloth : — 



By the Earl of Beaconsfield, E.G. 

Lothair. 

Coningsby. 

Sybil. 

Tancred. 

Venetia. 

Henrietta Temple. 

Contarini Flendng. 

AJroy, ladon, &o. 

The Young Duke, &o. 

Vivian Qrey. 
By Anthony Trollope. 

Barchester Towers. 

The Warden. 
By the Author of ' the Rose Garden.' 

Unawares. 

Lord Beaconsfield's Novels and Tales. 



By Major Whyte-Melville. 

Digby Grand. 

General Bounce. 

Kate Coventry. 

The Gladiators. 

Good for Nothing. 

Holmby House. 

The Interponter. 

The Queen's Mfuries. 
By the Author of ' the Atelier da Lys.' 

MademoiseUe Mori. 

The Atelier du Lys. 
By Various Writers. 

Atherstone Priory. 

The Burgomaster's Ftamily. 

Elsa and her Vulture. 

The Six Sisten of the Vallej. 

10 vols, cloth extra, gUt edges, ZBs. 

Whispers from Fairy Land. By the Right Hon. E. H. Enatdibcill*Huge8Mn 
M.P. With Nine Illustrations. Crown Svo. 3*. 6d. 

Higgledy-Piggledy ; or, Stories for Everybody and Everybody's Children, fiy 
the Right Hon. E. M. Enatchbull-Hugcseen, M.P. With Nine lUastrations 
from Designs by R. Doyle. Crown Svo. 8*. 6d. 



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Oeneral Lists of New Works. 



11 



POETRY & THE DRAMA. 

Ball^'s Festns, a Poem. Grown Svo. 124. Bd. 

Bowdler's Family Shakspeare. Medium 8yo. 14«. 6 vols. fop. Svo. 21i, 

Brian Bora, a Tragedy, by J. T. B. Crown 8to. Ss. 

Cayley'B Iliad of Homer, Homometrically translated. Svo. 12«. 6(2. 

Conington's iBneld of Virgil, translated into English Verse. Crown 8to. 9s, 

Cooper's Tales from Euripides. Small Svo. 

Edwards's Poetry-Book of Elder Poets. 16mo. 2s. 6d, 

— Poetry-Book of Modem Poets. 16mo. 2s, 6d, 

IngdoVs Poems. First Series. Illustrated Edition. Fcp. 4to. 21s, 
Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Home, with Ivry and the Armada. 16mo. Zs, Bd. 
Petrarch's Sonnets and Stanzas,translated by C. B. Cayley, B.A. Crown BYO,10s,6d. 
Poems. By Jean Ingdow. 2 vols. fcp. Svo. 10*. 

First Series. ' Divided,' ' The Star's Monument,' &c. 5*. 

Second Series. * A Story of Doom,' ' G-ladys and her Island,' Sic, 6s, 
Southey's Poetical Works. Medium Svo. 14«. 
Yonge's Horatii Opera, Library Edition. Svo. 21s. 

RURAL SPORTS, HORSE 8c CATTLE MANAGEMENT &c. 

Blaine's Encydopsedia of Bural Sports. Svo. 21s, 

Dobson on the Ox, his Diseases and their Treatment. Crown Svo. 7s. Bd, 

Fitzwygram's Horses and Stables. Svo. 10s. Bd, 

Francis's Book on Angling, or Treatise on Fishing. Post Svo. 16s, 

Malet's Annals of the Road, and Nimrod's Essays on the Boad. Medium Svo. 21s. 

Miles's Horse's Foot, and How to Keep it Sound. Imperial Svo. 12«. Bd, 

— Plain Treatise on Horse-Shoeing. Post Svo. 2s. Bd, 

— Stables and Stable-Fittings. Imperial Svo. 15s, 

— Remarks on Horses' Teeth. Post Svo. Is. Bd, 
Nevile's Horses and Riding. Crown Svo. Bs. 
R^ynardson's Down the Road. Medium Svo. 21s. 
Ronalds's Fly-Fisher's Entomology. Svo. lis, 

Stonehenge's Dog in Health and Disease. Square crown Svo. 7s. Bd, 

— Greyhound. Square crown Svo. 16s, 
Yonatt's Work on the Dog. Svo. 12s. Bd. 

— — — — Horse. Svo. 6*. 
Wilcocks's Sea-Fisherman. Post Svo. 12s. Bd, 

WORKS OF UTILITY 8c GENERAL INFORMATION. 

Acton's Modem Cookery for Private Families. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 
Black's Practical Treatise on Brewing. Svo. 10s. Bd, 
Buckton's Food and Home Cookery. Crown Svo. 2s. 
Bull on the Maternal Management of Children. Fcp. Svo. 3s. Bd, 

Bull's Hints to Mothers on the Management ot their Health during the Period of 

Pregnancy and in the Lying-in Room. Fcp. Svo. 2s. Bd, 
Campbell- Walker's Correct Card, or How to Play at Whist. 8Smo. St, Bd, 
Crump's EngUsh Manual of Banking. Svo. 16s, 
Cunningham's Conditions of Social Weil-Being. Svo. 10s, Bd, 
Handbook of Gold and Silver, by an Indian Official. Svo. 12*. Bd, 
Johnson's (W. & J. H.) Patentee's Manual. Fourth Edition. Svo. 10s, Bd, 
Longman's Chess Opea^ngs. Fcp. Svo. 2s. Bd, 



London, LONGMANS & 00. 



4 



12 Oeneral Lists of New Works. 



Madeod's Economics for Beginners. Small crown 8to. 2«. 6d. 

— Theory and Fractioe of Banking. 2 vols. 8vo. 26t, 

— Elements of Banking. Fonrth Edition. Oown 8yo. 6s, 
M'Culloch's Dictionaiy of Commerce and Commercial NavigaticHi. Svo. 63^. 
Mannder's Biographical Treasnry. Fcp. Svo. 6^. 

— Historical Treasnry. Pep. 8yo. 6*. 

— Scientific and Literary Treasory. Fcp. 870. 6t. 

— Treasury of Bible Knowledge. Edited by the Rev. J. Ayre, M JL Pep. 

Svo. 6*. 

— Treasmy of Botany. Edited by J. Lindley, P.B.S. and T. Mooie, P ^.S. 

Two Parts, fcp. Svo. 12*. 

— Treasory of G^graphy. F<^. Svo. 6s. 

— Treasury of Eiiowledge and Library of Beferenoe. Fcp. Svo. 6«. 

— Treasory of Katoral History. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Pereira's Materia Medica, by Bentley and Redwood. Svo. 25s. 

Pewtner's Comprehensive Spedfler ; Building-Axtifioers' Work. Conditions and 
Agreements. Crown Svo. 6s. 

Pierce's Three Hondred Chess Problems and Studies. Fcp. Svo. 7*. 6d. 

Pole's Theory of the Modem Sdentiflc Game of Whist. Fq>. Svo. 3«. 6d. 

Scott's Farm Valuer. Crown Svo. 6s. 

Smith's Handbook for Midwives. Crown Svo. 5s. 

The CaUnet Lawyer, a Popular Digest of the Laws of England. Pep. 8to. 9s, 

West on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. Svo. ISs. 

Willich's Popular Tables for ascertaining the Value of Property. Post Svo. 10#. 

Wilson on Banking Reform. Svo. 7s. 6d. 

— on the Resources of Modem Countries 2 vols. Svo. 24*. 

MUSICAL WORKS BY JOHN HULLAH, LL.D. 

Chromatic Scale, with the Inflected Syllables, on Large Sheet. Is. 6<f . 

Card of Chromatic Scale. Id. 

Exercises for the Cultivation of the Voioe. For Soprano or Tenor, 3s. 9d. 

Grammar of Musical Harmony. Royal Svo. 2 Parts, each Is, 6d. 

Exercises to Grammar of Musical Harmony. Is, 

Grammar of Counterpoint. Part I. super-royal Svo. 2s. 6d, 

Hullah's Manual of Singing. Parts I. & n. 2s. 6d. ; or together, 5s. 

Exercises and Figures contained in Parts I. and n. of the Manual. Books 
I. ii n. each 8(2. 

Lai^ Sheets, containing the Figures in Part I. of the Mannal. Nos. 1 to 8 in 
a Parcel. 6s. 

Large Sheets, containing the Exercises in Part I. of the Manual. Nos. 9 to 40, 
in Four Parcels of Eight Nos. each, per Parcel. 6s. 

Large Sheets, the Figures in Part II. Nos. 41 to 62 in a Parcel, 9s, 

Hymns for the Young, set to Music. Royal Svo. Sd. 

Infant School Songs. 6d. 

Notation, the Musical Alphabet. Crown Svo. 6d. 

Old English Songs for Schools, Harmonised. 6d. 

Rudiments of Musical Grammar. Royal Svo. 8*. 

School Songs for 2 and 8 Voices. 2 Books, Svo. each 6d. 

Time and Tune in the Elementary School. Crown Svo. 2s, 9d, 

Exercises and Figures in the same. Crown Svo. Is. or 2 Parts, 6d each. 



London, LONGMANS & CO. 



l^ottiswoodR A Co., PKntert, Nea<strcei 8q;yM»r«^1i(maLQiiA.« 



*<* 



•">*.