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Full text of "A handbook of the Yao language"

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^5 5'.»o|.g' 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



LIBRARY 

OP THE 

PEABODY MUSEUM 

GIFT OF 

JOHN B. STETSON, Jr. 

(Class of 1906) 
OF PHILADELPHIA 



DEPOSITED IN THE COLLEGE LIBRARY 



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k 



A HANDBOOK 



YAO LANGUAaE 



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A HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



YAO LANGUAGE 



BY THE REV. 

ALEXANDER HETHERWICK, M.A., F.RG.I 

OP THB CHURCH OF SCOTLAND'S MISSION 
BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED 



SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE 

LONDON: NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.a 
1902 



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Z,-L.\r. lOl.i 



Joim E. ^tt.tscn. jr. 
June 7, le^OO 



RiCQARD Clay h Sons, Limited, 
London & Bungay. 



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PREFACE 



Since the first edition of this work appeared in 
1889, the Yao country has been the sphere of con- 
siderable developments, both from a missionary as 
well as from a commercial and political point of view. 
The country around Blantyre is now under British 
protection, ruled by a vigorous Administration in 
the name of His Majesty's Government. A number 
of successful and enterprising commercial establish- 
ments have been for some years prosecuting their 
interests, and in no small measure aiding the develop- 
ment of the country and the civilization of the natives 
under our rule. The Church of Scotland Mission has 
been consolidating and extending its work among the 
Yaos of the Shire Highlands, Zomba and Mlanji. 

To the East of the Lake the Yao country has been 
divided into two by the German and Portuguese 
Governments, whose mutual boundary is the great 
river of Yao-land, the Rovuma. The Grermans are 
firmly administering the country to the North of tha^ 



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VX PREFACE 

river. Within their sphere the Universities Mission 
has for many years carijied on missionary operations 
among the Yao tribes in the Masasi districts. 
Portugal, on the other hand, has only within the last 
year conceded rights to a commercial company which 
has dispatched an expedition from tHe coast t/O Lake 
Nyasa through the great Yao centres, and made 
preparations for effective occupation. In their terri- 
tory on the Highlands eastward of the Nyasa, the 
Universities Mission has opened up several new 
stations in the Yao districts, and is preparing for a 
further advance among the Yao population north of 
the Lujenda River and along the densely peopled 
Lujenda Valley. All this points to further develop- 
ments among the Yao-speaking peoples of East Central 
Africa. 

The Yaos of British Central Africa proved themselves 
at first bitterly hostile to the British Administration 
on its establishment in 1891. Under native rule 
their villages had been for long the centres of the 
slave traffic, and in consequence their chiefs and 
headmen looked with little favour on the advent of a 
power that threatened their old privileges. The early 
difficulties experienced by the Administration occurred 
for the most part in territories under the jurisdiction 
of such chiefs. These have in great measure been 
overcome, and the Yao people — ^a race physically 
and intellectually the most powerful in East Central 
Africa — ^have given various tokens of their acceptance 
of the rule of a civilized power. Numbers of the tribe 

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PBEPACe • Vll 

have entered the service of the Administration as 
interpreters, policemen, etc., while a large proportion 
of the soldiers belonging to the native regiment have 
been enrolled from that tribe. 

During the past twelve years the Mission presses 
at Blantyre and Domasi have produced a supply of 
educational works for the use of their schools, while 
the British and Foreign Bible Society has completed 
their version of the New Testament in Yao. For 
some years the first edition of this handbook has been 
out of print, and as applications for it have been 
frequent, it has been deemed advisable to re-issue it 
in a new and enlarged form. The growing interest 
in the country shown by the increasing developments 
of the missionary and commercial enterprises, makes 
the study of the native language a matter of duty 
on the part of all whose occupation brings them in 
contact with native life. 

Almost no alterations have been found necessary 
in Part I. beyond a few additional illustrations of 
points in grammatical structure that seemed to require 
further elucidation. 

In Part II. various additions and alterations have 
been made, enlarging the scope of the vocabulary, 
and modifying the meaning of not- a few terms. 
Several omissions, natural in a first edition of a 
vocabulary of any language, have been supplied, and 
the work thus rendered more complete. 

Part III., the English- Yao vocabulary, is entirely 
new. For the basis of it I am indebted to the Domasi 



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viix PRBFACfi 

Mission Press, which compiled from the first edition 
of this work a vocabulary for the use of their schools. 
For this valuable assistance I owe my thanks. The 
addition of this Part III. will supply a want much 
felt by a student of the Yao tongue. 

Since the first edition of this handbook was pub- 
lished, the study of African languages has been greatly 
facilitated by the publication of the "Comparative 
Grammar of South African Languages," by the Rev. 
J. Torrend, S.J. of the Zambesi Mission. This work 
has replaced, though it has in no way superseded, 
Bleek's monumental work on the same subject. The 
field of Bantu languages has been so vastly widened 
since the latter work was produced, that the student 
of Comparative Bantu Philology has now a much 
larger field on which to make his observations and 
elucidate the results of his researches. Father 
Torrend has laid all students of Bantu languages 
under a deep obligation for the aid to their linguistic 
labours which his erudite researches have afforded 
them. The path of any pioneer in the still unexplored 
territory of Bantu language is now made compara- 
tively easy, while no future work on any of these 
tongues can be satisfactory without reference to 
Father Torrend's Grammar. 

In his classification of the Bantu languages Father 
Torrend places Yao in a division by itself. Further 
on he adds in a note on page 17, "that most of the 
peculiar features of Yao have their counterpart in 
the languages of the Chwana-Mozambique-Mpongwe 



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PREFACE IX 

group.** While agreeing with Father Torrend as to 
the distinctive character of the Yao language pre- 
venting its being classed along with any of the usually 
defined groups of Bantu speech, I am inclined to 
believe that its affinities will be found to lie with the 
varieties of language lying to the north and north- 
west of Yao-land, among the tribes of North Nyasa- 
land. However, our still limited knowledge of the 
languages of that region forbids any decision being 
arrived at on this point, 

Aberdeen, 

WhUsunday 1901. 



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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 



The following pages contain the result of five years' 
study of the Yao tongue. The outlines so admirably 
drawn by Bishop Steere, in his ** Collections foi: a 
Handbook of the Yao Language," have been filled 
in, and the principal features in the structure of 
the language have now been reduced to systematic 
form. 

The Yao tongue was first presented to the student 
in the vocabularies of Salt. He was followed by 
Krapf, and afterwards by Koelle in the " Polyglot ta 
Africana," who each give lists of words which they 
believed to be spoken by the Yao tribe. Bleek also, 
in his edition of " The Languages of Mozambique/' 
gives a limited vocabulary. But, with these excep- 
tions, nothing was known of the language till, in 
1871, Bishop Steere increased his magnificent 
linguistic gifts to Africa by the publication of the 
"Collections." From the Yao boys in the mission 
schools at Zanzibar he made his first acquaintance 



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Xll PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 

with their mother-tongue. Afterwards a Yao f reed- 
man, who knew Swahili also, enabled him to test 
and correct the knowledge he had obtained from other 
sources. The result of his researches he published 
in 1871. 

In 1876 the mission of the Church of Scotland in 
East Africa was first started at Blantyre, on the 
Shir^ Hills. There the members of the mission 
found themselves in the midst of a branch of the 
Yao tribe which had come from the country round 
Mangoche Hill, and had settled in that district, 
from which they had first expelled the original 
Mang'anja possessors. In 1878 the Rev. Duff Mac- 
donald, B.D., was appointed head of the mission, 
and before his retirement in 1881 he was enabled 
to publish a selection of Scripture passages in Yao, 
together with a small collection of native stories 
for use in the mission schools. 

These, together with Bishop Steere's work, formed 
the whole literature of the subject when I joined 
the staff of the mission in 1883. With the aid of 
Walani, one of the mission boys, I was enabled to 
make use of these materials and to extend the know- 
ledge of the grammar and structure of the language. 
I availed myself largely of native " literatui-e," in 
the shape of legends and folk-lore stories, which 
almost every native is familiar with. Many of these 
I wrote down from the lips of different individuals, 
and in this way enlarged my vocabulary and my 
knowledge of grammatical forms and idioms. No 

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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xiil 

better material for acquiring an insight into the 
genius of any African language could be found than 
these native stories. In them we see the language 
as the native speaks it, and not as he adapts it to 
any foreign • idioms or expressions he may have 
picked up. A raw native from the " bush/' who 
has never been in contact with Europeans, is by far 
the best guide in the study of a native language, as 
he usually speaks it in its purity. Natives who 
have been under tuition are very apt to adopt the 
expressions and phraseology of their teachers, and 
thus often to make sad havoc of the pure idiom of 
their mother-tongue. 

From these sources the following pages have been 
compiled. Simultaneously with their completion 
there have been issued from the press of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society translations of the Gospels 
and the Acts of the Apostles in the Yao language. 

I must acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. John 
Buchanan, head of the firm of Buchanan Brothers, 
planters, Zomba, H.B.M. Acting-Consul for Nyasa, 
who gave me copious additions to the vocabulary, 
and at various times has made valued suggestions 
regarding many points in these pages. To the 
Rev. Duff Macdonald, B.D., late of Blantyre, minister 
of South Dalziel parish, I also must ascribe my thanks 
for his generous assistance in correcting the proof- 
sheets of this work. 

The compilation of this grammar and vocabulary 
has been the work of intervals in the midst of the 



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XIV PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 

varied occupations of a missionary's life in Africa. 
It is put forth as a contribution to the knowledge of 
a linguistic field that every year is growing wider 
and wider with the progress of Central African 
missions. It is intended more especially as an o^id 
to my fellow-workers in acquiring the language of 
the people about them, and, I trust, may in this 
way assist in extending the kingdom of our Blessed 
Master. 

Alexander Hbtherwiok. 

Aberdeen, Easter 1889. 



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CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 


PAGE 




Preface ..... 


V 




Preface to First Edition . 


xi 




Introditction .... 


. xvii 




PART I 




I. 


Sounds and Sofnd-Modifications :— 






1. The Alphabet 


1 




2. Accent .... 


4 




3. Elision and Coalition of Vowels . 


5 




4. Syllables .... 


6 


II. 


The Concord .... 


6 


III. 


The Substantive :— 






1. Noun Classes .... 


12 




2. Possessive Relation 


17 




3. Formation of Nouns . 


. 18 


IV. 


The Adjective:— 






1. Proper Adjectives , 


21 




2. Nouns used as Adjectives 


. 24 




3. Verbal Adjectives . 


24 




4. Comparison of Adjectives 


. 25 


V. 


Numerals .... 


26 


VI. 


The Pronoun :— 






1. Personal Pronouns 


. 80 




2. Possessive Pronouns 


84 



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VII. 



YJII. 



CONTENTS 




R 


PAGE 


3- Reflexive Pronouns 


35 


4. Demonstrative Pronouns 


. 35 


6. Relative Pronouns 


39 


6. Interrogative Pronouns 


. 41^ 


7. Other Pronouns . . . 


42 


The Vekb .... 


. 44 


1. Voices .... 


45 


2. Indefinite Tenses 


. 47 


3. Imperative Mood . 


48 


4. Infinitive Mood 


. 49 


5. Indicative Mood . 


50 


6. Conditional Mood 


. 63 


7. Contingent Mood . 


65 


8. Subjunctive Mood 


67 


9. Potential Mood . 


69 


10. Participles 


. 70 


11. Other Verbal Forms 


72 


12. Auxiliaiy Verbs and Copula . 


. 73 


13. Verbal Formation . 


78 


14. Continuative Suffixes, -gay -je^ and -pe . 81 


The Advekb, Preposition, Conjunct] 


[ON, AND 


Interjection : — 




1. Adverbs .... 


83 


2. Prepositions . 


. 91 


3. Conjunctions 


93 


4. Interjections . 


. 93 



PART II 

Yao-English Vocabulary . 



95 



PART III 

English-Yao Vocabulary 



339 



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INTRODUCTION 



The Yao tribe, whose language is described in the 

following pages, inhabits the lofty tableland lying 

between Lake Nyajga and the coast. The region over 

which it is spoken extends from near the coast on the 

east to the eastern shore of Lake Nyasa on the west, 

and from the latitude of the Eovuma sources on the 

north to the Lujenda river on the south. Lately, 

however, a large district in the centre of this region has 

been devastated by the ravages of the Magwangwara, 

a powerful raiding tribe, whose home lies to the north 

of the Kovuma river. Isolated villages and districts 

where the language is spoken are to be found on the 

western shore of Lake Nyasa and in the country lying 

interior to it. About 1860 one branch of the tribe 

forced its way down into the Shir6 Hills, where now 

the mission stations of the Church of Scotland are 

situated, while another smaller offshoot established 

itsdf east of Mount Mlanji, on the trade route to the 

coast at Quillimane. 

b 



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XV1^ INTRODUCTION 

The name of the tribe appears under various forms 
in the record of African discovery — Wahiau, Waio, 
Hiau, Veiao, Adsawa, Adsoua, Mudsau, Mujao, Ajawa, 
Achawa, Wayao. This last is the form in which the 
people speak of themselves, while Ku-Yao or Kwi-Yao 
is the name applied to their country, and Chi-Yao to 
their language. By the name Ajawa or Achawa they 
are know to the river people, and by this name we 
find them alluded to in Livingstone's book on the 
" Zambesi and its Tributaries." 

The Wa-Yao, or, to drop the prefix, which is the 
sign of personality, the Yao, are an agricultural 
people. They have no cattle, and only a limited 
number of sheep or goats. In their original home 
there were no large rivers or lakes, hence theii* 
language is poor in the nomenclature of objects of 
river life. Most of the names of fishing implements 
they have borrowed from the Mang'anja, their nearest 
river neighbours. Their agricultural methods are of 
a very rude type — ^just such as one would expect in a 
people living in a country where the soil is poor, where 
the cultivator has no fixity of tenure, and where large 
traots of virgin soil lie ready to hand. Their habits 
and customs will be found admirably described in 
^* Africana," by the Rev. Duff Macdonald, B.D., and 
in " The Shir^ Highlands as Mission and Colony," by 
Mr. John Buchanan, planter, Zomba. 

Lying within easy reach of the coast, the territory 
inhabited by the Yaos has always been a favourite 
huntingrground of the slave-trader. The tribe supplies 

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INTRODUCTION xix 

large numbers of porters to make up the caravans 
that start from the coast for the lake regions of the 
continent. Thus the people have for long been, and 
are still, imder the influence of Arab and Swahili 
ivory and slave-traders. Hence the existence of a 
wider world and of a higher civilization has long been 
known to them, and many new ideas have permeated 
the old native life. A few additions have been made 
to their vocabulary from the Swahili language of the 
coast ; but traces of this influence are to be found 
only in the districts most ' frequented by the coast 
trader. 

The Yao has a fondness for travel. Almost every 
young man has made one or more journeys to the 
coast, while some are described as Iwendolwendopey 
wanderers. The different branches of the tribe have 
in this way been frequently brought in contact 
with each other, and we find but few instances of 
dialectic variety. Such as do occur lie chiefly in 
accent or idiom : there are no traces of variety of 
grammatical structure. Five different divisions have 
been pointed out, corresponding to the different 
branches of the tribe: (1) the Amakale, near the 
sources of the Rovuma ; (2) the Mwembe people, near 
Mataka's Town ; (3) the Masaninga, near the south 
end of Nyasa ; (4) the Machinga, on Mounts Chikala 
and Zomba ; (5) and the Mangoche, in the neighbour- 
hood of Blantyre. 

The language is classed by Gust in the southern 
sub-branch of the great group of languages, to 

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XX INTRODUCTION 

which the name Bantu has been applied; but the 
division of this great family into its various branches 
has never yet been satisfactorily accomplished, nor can 
this be done till the characteristics of each language 
have been more fully ascertained. Yao must be 
classed in the same group to which Swahili belongs, 
and has more affinity with this group than with the 
great Zambesi-Nyasa group, which lie immediately 
to the westward of it. Its nearest relation is the 
language of a small tribe lying between the Yaos and 
the Swahili, called the Makonde. Geographically 
speaking, its neighbours may be described as follows : . 
on the east the Swahili and Makonde ; on the north 
the Magwangwara, a Zulu-speaking race ; on the west 
the lake pec^le, called Mang'anja, or Wa-Nyanja; 
and on the south the Makua, or Lomwe. 

Several characteristics at once arrest the attention 
of the student. 

The excessive number of euphonic changes is at 
first a source of difficulty. No harsh combinations of 
consonants is allowed ; the one or the oth^ is modified 
so that the articulation of the sounds may be made as 
easy as possible. Of two consonants in combination 
one must always be a nasal, while the nasal n causes 
extensive modification in the sounds combined with 
it. The result of such changes is that a peculiar 
softness is given to the language, causing it to stand 
in its relation to the neighbouring languages of the 
Bantu group, as Italian stands to its European neigh- 
bours. From the same cause, also, words are so 



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INTRODUCTION XXI 

modified in the process of grammatical construction 
as to be almost unrecognizable by a beginner. Thus 
fr(»n hulekat " to leave," we have ndesile, " I have 
left 'j " where the e adone remains of all the letters in 
the simple stem. Again, from hipa, " to give/' we have 
cmbde^ ** he gave me " 3 where not a single letter of the 
original has been retained. Such changes are at first 
exceedingly puzzling to a foreigner. 

In additicm to these euphonic changes, the Yao 
verb presents a}so a variety of terminal modifications 
that is seen in none of its neighbours of the same 
language-group. Thus, in forming the' past tenses, 
we have such changes as kagwUe fiom kagula^ tasUe 
from toga, weni from wona, etc. The rules laid down 
in the Grammar are a sufficient guide in determining 
the formation of the past tenses; yet, as Bishop 
Steere well remarks, " such changes are more easily 
felt than described." In Part II., for the convenience 
of the learner, the past tense of most of the verbs is 
appended to the simple form. 

Like the others of the East African languages, Yao 
is exceedingly vivid in its descriptive and demonstra- 
tive application. The speaker seems to look upon 
every scene or incident as present to his eye, and 
every successive detail is depicted as if it were pass- 
ing in a show before him. Hence the use of the 
demonstrative pronoun is more frequent in Yao 
than in English, and hence, too, a peculiar con- 
struction of the infinitive, which reduces all actions, 
past or future, to the present time. A native has been 

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XXU INTRODUCTION 

• 

heard to say, Aji nguo *ji ja cheni ajiji ? " Whose 
cloth is this?" where the demonstrative 'ji occurs 
four times, where " this " in English occurs but once. 
The simple demonstrative in Y&o appears under ten 
different forms, divided into three different classes, 
according to the situation of the object indicated. 
The pitch of the voice also modifies the distance, so 
that whether present or arbsent, near or distant, the 
object is distinctly presented to the listener's mind. 

In the following chapters, the chief characteristics 
of the language are unfolded, and the principal laws 
that guide its structure are explained. As far as 
possible^ examples are given of every form of con- 
struction explained in the text. 

Part II. contains the Yao-English vocabulary. It 
is necessarily far from being complete at the present 
stage of the study of the language. Words were daily 
being added, and it is only after several further years 
of acquaintance with the people that anything like 
a complete dictionary of their language can be 
attempted. The present list of words will form a 
contribution to such an undertaking. 



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PART I 



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A HANDBOOK 



YAO LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER I 

SOUNDS AND SOUND-MODIFICATIONS 

1. Tlie Alplwhet, 

The sounds of the Yao language may all be repre- 
sented by the letters of the Boman alphabet ; those 
in use being the five vowels, a, c, t, o, u, the fourteen 
consonants, 5, d, f^ g^ y, h^ I or r, m, w, jo, «, t, w, y, 
together with three compound consonants, ch, ng\ 
and ny» 

Vowels. — ^The vowels are pronounced as in Italian. 

A has the sound of a in father ; in certain cases, 
however, somewhat opener and flatter. The vowel 
may be long or short. 

E has the sound of e in there. A closer modifica- 
tion is sometimes heard^ the pitch of the voice being 
lower,' 

K in combination A; or ^ is followed by e, the Tc or 
g becomes ch orj. 

I has the sound of ee in keep. In a very few 

B 



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i SOUNDS AND SOUND-MODIPICATIONS 

instances :th* sound approaches more to that of the 
i in sick, 

has always the open sound of o in door, never 
the o of only. 

U has the sound of oo in moon. Followed by 
another vowel, the u becomes w. 

Note. — There are no diphthongs in Yao. The 
nearest approach to a diphthong is the sound of au 
in jaula ; but in this instance the two vowel-sounds 
are distinct, the accent resting on the a. 

Cofisonanis. — ^The consonants are pronounced as in 
EDglish. 

B is the EngKsh h. When n is prefixed to 5, p, 
or w, the two become m6, as arnhutUe for cmputUe, 
humhona for kunwona. 

D is the English d. When n is prefixed to t or ly 
it forms the combination nd. 

F occurs only in a few words, and these intro- 
duced from neighbouring languages. As a rule, the , 
y of a cognate tongue becomes a jt? in the mouth of 
a Yao. 

G is always pronounced hard, as in the English 
gate. Before e and i, g becomes y. 

\H occurs nowhere in Yao. ** Arabs, when they 
speak the Yao language, insert an h between two 
consecutive vowels'' (Steere, "Collections").] 

J" as in English. N' before j makes ny ; n before 
ch makes nj. 

K as in English. K followed by e or i becomes 
ch. The combination of n with k forms n^. 

L, R. L approaches the English I, but the exact 
sound must be caught from a native^s lips. Except 
when it stands at the commencement of a word, 
I may be interchanged with a slightly trilled r. 
Gerego is more common than gelego, but both are 
admissible. 



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SOUKDS AND SOUND-MODIFICATIONS 3 

Between two vowels I is often dropped, and the 
consequent vowel-coalition takes place. We have 
jegxmgo for ja ligongo; kupikana for hlpUikafm. 

After 71, I becomes d, or is dropped altogether ; as 
cmdinde or aninde for ardinde, 

R never occurs at the commencement bf a word. 

M is prbnounced as in English. M before h is 
generally ft modified ft; mb may stand for wp, nw, 
mw. N is always dropped before m. 

j^. The Yao n has the sound of an English n. 
It is the cause of a large number of changes among 
the other consonants. The following list sho^s the 
various changes tdiich it cituses in combination : — 



n before b becomes mb ; 


as mbaUdich& 


For nbalaliche. 


n 




ch 


» 


nj 


„ njapile 


,, nchapile. 


n 




J 


» 


ny 


„ nyigele 


„ Ti/i^eZe. 


n 




k 


>> 


ng 


„ nganile 


„ nka/iiUe. 


n 




I 


» 


norndy, aninde 


„ anlinde. 


n 




m 


>> 


m 


„ hum'Tnanya 


,, hinmanya. 


n 




n 


>> 


n 


„ natvile 


„ nnawile. 


n 




P 


>> 


mb 


„ kwrnba 


„ kunpa. 


n 




s 


)> 


s 


„ 808ile 


„ noodle. 


n 




t 


» 


nd 


„ kundola 


„ kuntola. 


n 




i 


)> 


i 


„ Hiche 


,, niiche. 


n 




u 


yy 


u 


„ *uu8ile 


„ nuusiU. 


n 




w 


» 


mb 
or mbu 


„ leumhona 
>„ cmibweni 


„ kanwona. 
„ anvjeni. 



Hencb, whferfever \^e fihd — 

7w5 it may staiid for m6, wft, njo, or nt^?. 



■rtu/ 




IMJU 


y yftt', ux 


ng 




ng 


or wA; 


nj 




nj 


or Tic^. 


ny 




ny 


or n;. 


n 




n or TiZ. 



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4: SOUNDS AND SOUND-MODIFICATIONS 

F is pronounced as in English. N before j) 
becomes mh, 

S may have the sound of s in risCf or of s in sun. 
In many instances either may be used as mtm, mesi, 
etc. 

T is the English /. iV prefixed to t becomes nd, 

W has an open vocalic sound formed by keeping 
the lips well apart during the pronunciation of the 
vowel. iV prefixed to w becomes m5 or mbw, 

Y is the English consonantal y in yeL 

Compov/nd Consoncmts. — There are three compound 
consonantal sounds, represented by c/*, ng\ and ny. 

Ch is pronounced as ch in church, N before ch 
becomes nj; k followed by e or t becomes ch, 

Ng* is pronounced as ng in singing. iV simple 
before g has its ringing sound as in finger, 

Ny is the Spanish n or Portuguese nh. It re- 
sembles the ni of com'panion, only it is somewhat 
more nasal. • 

2. Accent* 

In Yao the accent usually falls on the penultimate 
syllable {majumba), more rarely on the antepenult 
(wdngalij waichile), never on the final syllable. 
When a suffix is appended to a word, the accent 
sometimes shifts so as to be on the penult (kumpili- 
kdna, ku/mpUikanUa) ; sometimes it remains on its 
original syllable {waiclie, waichile). The addition of 
the enclitic syllables -je^ -ga, always draws forward 
the accent {waicheje, wata/mdga). The demonstrative 
and personal pronouns, when the vowel is elided, 
are looked upon as forming an enclitic to the word, 
and so serve to draw forward the accent. Thus we 
have nyumba aji, but nyumbd ^ji; nguti une, but 
nguti 'we. Elision of a vowel or consonant always 



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SOUNDS AND SOUND-MODIFICATIONS 5 

draws the accent to the syllable where the elision 
takes place. 

3. Elision and Coalition of Vowels, 

Elision often takes place of the vowel at the be- 
ginning of a word when the word before it is closely 
connected with it. This occurs most frequently in 
the case of the demonstrative and personal pronouns ; 
as nyumba 'jo for nyumba ajo, ahimbHanga ^ne for 
akunMla/nga wne, wandu 'wala for watuhi awala. 
When stress' is laid on the pronoun no elision takes 
place. In such cases as ajU* ako for ajile ako, and 
TnsejeUr ako for tnsejelele ako, the e is dropped, being 
the weaker vowel, while at the same time stress is 
laid upon the demonstrative. 

When, by combination or by elision of the con- 
sonant l^ the vowels a and e, a and i, a and u come 
together, ae becomes e, ai becomes e, and au becomes 
o; as lyesiwha for lya lisimbaf yeswela for ya isivela, 
wojumu for wa ujv/mu. 

After ch and j, i is dropped before a following 
vowel ; as cha for chi-a, chose for chiose, 

I followed by a has the sound of ya, 

4. Syllables. 

In Yao all syllables end in a vowel. This vowel 
must be preceded by a sihgle consonant, which, again, 
may be preceded by a nasal m or n, or followed by w 
or y ; as ha, mha, mhwa. 



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CHAPTER II 

THE CONCOBD 

The grammatical structure of the Yao language, as 
of all thQ Bantu group, depends on the principle 
of what has been called Concm^d. All nouns are 
divided into a certain number of classes, according 
to their initial syllables. Every word in the 
sentence, which is in agreement with the noun, 
takes this syllable, or a modification of it, as its 
characteristic or significant syllable. JAwago a\i 
lili Ijangu, nginiXijasiha, lje7iu *\ila lijasiche, This 
axe is mine, it is not lost, your one is lost. Here 
the li of liwago appears as the characteristic syllable 
of every word in the sentence agreeing with it. 
Again, M.a.wago aga, gsbli gdmjgu, ngomagSijasika, genu 
'gsbla gsijasiche, These axes are mine, tlaey are not 
lost, your ones are lost. Here the ma of ma/wago has 
as its characteristic syllable ga, which appears as 
the characteristic syllable in all the other words in 
agreement with it. Thus the language is to a 
great extent alliterative, and the grammatical con- 
nection of the various parts is at once apparent. 
This principle, which runs through all the Bantu 
family, has been called the Concord, and the signi- 
ficant or alliterative syllables of the various classes 
may be called the Cha/racteristic. 



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THE OONCOBP 



The various characteristics or coocord parts, 
arranged according to the noun classes, are as 
follows : — 



Class. Sing. 


Plnr. 


I. JU. 


WA. 


II. u. 


JI. 


III. JI. 


SI. 


IV. QUI. 


I. 


V. LI. 


GA. 


VI. LU. 


SI. 


VII. KA. 


TU. 


VIII. KU. 




FA. 




MU. 





There is no doubt that these cojicord-pharacter- 
Istics are themselves the remains qf obsolete 
primitive nouos. According to Pr. BJeek, there 
are eighrteen of thei^ to be found throughout thp 
Bantu family. Fifteen of these ocpur in Yao. 
They are evidently of great antiquity, and form the 
foundation on which the structure of the language 
has been built up. 

4-t one time these cl^aracteristips may have had 
each a definite meaning, whereby the various root- 
ideas of the language were classified. At pr^sent, 
however, no such definite meaning can be attached 
to the syllables separately. It is only >vhen we 
come to cpnsider the various classes of the noun 
that we can venture to say what m^-y bave been 
the idea represented by each characteristic syllable. 
Thus JU, or, as it; appears in the noun prefii, MU, 
expresses personality ; ^/, greatness or mass ; CHI, 
instrumentality or individuality ; and KA, littleness. 
Yet such classification is applicable only to a very 
hmited extent. 



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8 THE CONCORD 

Starting from this conception of the original 
meaning of these prefixes, it is easy to see how the 
constant recurrence of the significant syllable gives 
definiteness and preciseness to the meaning of the 
sentence. This, and not a mere desire for allitera- 
tion, seems to be the origin of the system of con- 
cordant speech. Bantu speech is remarkable for its 
vividness. The speaker has always his subject 
prominently before his mind, and by his constant 
use of the demonstratives he points out the various 
objects in his field of thought. The frequent 
recurrence of the characteristic syllable helps to add 
to this vividness, and has the effect of keeping the 
subject-idea always prominent. There is thus never 
any difficulty in seeing to what part of a sentence 
any other part refers. 

It will thus be easily seen how the characteristic 
has come to be used as a demonstrative, as a relative 
pronoun, and as a personal pronoun of the third 
person. In reality there is in Yao no such thing 
as a pronoun. Its use in the language is replaced 
by the class-characteristic, the same characteristic 
serving as the significant syllable of the demon- 
strative, and of the other parts of speech in agree- 
ment with the substantive. Thus, Ksbnache 'kkngu 
aka iLsdwasile, IsiSiposile soni, The child, my little one, 
the little one here was ill ; the little one has recovered 
again. Here the idea of littleness, expressed by the 
kay runs through the sentence, and the ka, associated 
with that idea, stands in place of our demonstrative, 
i-elative, and personal pronouns. Again, the sen- 
tence, JJ chimrvene wokulungwa ws,ngu *ula nlimkv/mala, 
may be translated, " The kingc^om, the great dorrij my 
donif that dom, (dom) is coming to an end," where the 
u of uchimwene may be expressed by the -dom of 
kiTigdom. 



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THE CONCORD \) 

The following sentences illustrate the changes 
produced by the principle of concord operating in 
the various noun classes : — 

Class I. AfWAnache aJU AH JUangu, nganAjasika, 
JUenu 'JUla AJasiche. This child is 
mine, he is not lost, your one is lost. 
WAnache aWA AH WAngUj nganAjasika, 
WEnu ^WAla Ajasiche, These children 
are mine, they are not lost, your ones are 
lost. 
II. Mtela all UH WAngu, ngunUjasika, WEnu 
^Ula UjasicJie. This tree is mine, it is 
not lost, your one is lost. 
Mhela aJI JIH JAngu, nginiJIjasika, 
JEnu *JIla Jlja^che, These trees are 
mine, they are not lost, your ones are 
lost. 

III. NYundo aJI Jlli JAngu, nginiJIja»ikay 

JEnu ^Jlla Jljasiche. This hammer is 
mine, it is not lost, your one is lost. 
NYundo aSI SIH SYangu, nginiSIjaaika, 
SY&nu *SIla Sljasiche, These hammers 
are mine, they are not lost, your ones 
are lost. 

IV. CHIaoti aCHI CHIH CUAngu, nginiCUI- 

jasika, CHEnu 'CHlla CHJjasicJve. This 
cap^is mine, it is not lost, yoiu' one is 
lost. 

Isoti aYI lU YAngu, nginiljaaika, YEnu 
*Ila Ijasiche. These caps are mine, they 
are not lost, your ones are lost. 
V. Llwago aLI LIH LYAngu, nginiLIjoMka, 
LYEnu *LIla LljasicJie, This axe is 
mine, it is not lost, your one is lost. 

MAwago aGA GAH GAngu, n^anaGAjasika, 



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10 THE CONCORD 

GEnu *GAla GAjasiche. These axes are 
mine, they are not lost, your ones are 
lost. 
VI. LUpeta aLU LTJli LUangu, ngumiLUjasikay 
LUenu ^LUla LUjasicke. This basket is 
mine, it is not lost, your one is lost. 
MBeta aSI Slli Siangv,, nginiSIjasikay 
SYenu ^Slla Sljasiche, These baskets 
are mine, they are not lost, your ones 
are lost. 

VII. KAThoche aKA KAli KAngu, nganaKAjasiche^ 

KEnu 'KAla KAjasiche. This little child 
is mine, it is not lost, your one is lost. 
TWanache aTU TUli TWangu, ngunuTU- 
jasika, TWErm ^TUla TVjcmcbe. These 
little children are mine, they are not lost, 
your ones are lost. 

VIII. KUlemha aKU KUti KWAngu, ngunuKU- 

jasika, KWEnu 'KUla KUjasiche. This 

writing is mine, it is not lost, yours is 

lost. 
FAKtUemba aPA PAli PAngu, ngcmaPA- 

jasika, PEnu 'PAla PAjasiehe. This 

writing place is mine, it is not lost, yours 

is lost. 
MUkfidemha aMU MUli MWAngu, ngunu- 

MUjasika, MWEnu 'MUla MUjadche. 

This place for writing in is mine, it is 

not lost, yours is lost. 

In these sentences the variable prefixes of the 
noun classes and the class characteristics which 
depend on them are in capitals. 

In comparing the various initial syllables of the 
noun classes with the concord-characteristics of the 
same classes, it will be seen how far the one differs 



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THE CONCORD 11 

from the other. Thus the initial .of the first class is 
MU^ while the characteristic is JU ; the plural of the 
fifth class is MA, while the characteristic is GA. 
The analogy of other branches of the Bantu family 
would lead us to infer that, though differing at 
present, both have had an original common form. 
It has been suggested that the original class- 
characteristic of the first class may have been 
NGUA, which in thp first syllable of the noun has 
been modified into MU, and in the class-character- 
istic into JU, But it is manifest that only a wider 
and fuller knowledge than we possess at present of 
the various branches of this family tree will show 
us with certainty what all those original forms may 
have beei^ whose modifications have come down to 
us from remote ages. 

The different aspects of this great principle of 
concord will be be^t presented in relation to tjie 
various parts of speech. 



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CHAPTER III 

THE SUBSTANTIVE 

1. Noun Glasses, 

The substantive in Yao consists of two parts — the 
prefix and the stem or root itself. The prefix con- 
sists of the class-characteristic or a modification of 
it, and upon its form depends the classification and 
concord of the substantive. Thus in munduy chinduy 
kandu, the -ndu is the stem or root signifying objed, 
while mu- chi-, and lea- are the significant prefixes 
signifying personality, neutrality, and smallness. 

All Yao nouns are divided into classes according 
to the form of the prefix. There are two numbers, 
singular and pliu^al, distinguished by the change in 
the prefixes. 

I. To the first class belong all proper names and 
words beginning with mu-, m-, or mw-y denoting living 
beings, names of persons, relations, and offices. The 
plural is formed by changing the m-, niu-, or mw- into 
wor, Or, acha-y or achi-. Sing, mundu, a person, pi. 
wandu; mwcmache, a child, pi. wariache; rrdongOy a 
relative, pi. achalongo or ahngo; msawiy a witch, 
pi. wdsawi; mchomda, a youth, pi. achanda or dcfw,* 
chomda; rrdcmiu, a brother-in-law, pL cdamu; rrduJcpsi/Oy 
a freeman, pi. wahikosyo; mriasi, an acquaintance^ pL 

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THE SUBSTANTIVE 13 

anasi ; mputi, a counsellor, pi. aputi; mhalUf an elder, 
pi. ahulu and achakulu; rrdendoy a stranger, pi. alendo 
and acludendo. Several nouns in this class, chiefly 
nouns of respect, are used almost entirely in the 
plural form : such as atati^ father ; weae^ father ; 
aaonogo^ a wife or husband. When used in the 
plural they take the form aclior, as, achatatif ochiweBe^ 
fathers ; achasono wangu^ my wives. 

Mchimwene^ a chief, takes the plural form achi- 
mwena, but this has been so customarily employed 
in the singular nimiber as a title of respect that it 
has lost the plural significance, and a new plural 
form has come into general use, waimwene, chiefs. 

A few other nouns belong to this class ; as — 

Sing. Plur. 

Singano, a needle. Achasingano. 

Kaliwo, a pipe. Achakaliwo, 
Sona, tobacco. 

Tambala, a cock. Achatambala. 

Katwnduy a load. Achakatundu, 

Biduy a donkey. Achabtdu. 

Kavalo, a horse. Achakavalo, 

Kalata, a letter. Acliahalata, 

Seta, tin. Achaseta, tins. 

Foreign names introduced are sometimes put into 
this class. 

The class-characteristics are — sing. JL^, pi. WA, 
II. To the second class belong nouns in m-, mu-, 
or mw', not included in the first class ; also all 
abstract nouns in Vr, and nouns in u- which admit 
of no plural. The plural is formed by changing 
the prefix m-, mu-, or mw- into mi-. Sing, mtela, a 
tree, pi. mitela ; uchcmday boyhood ; uhma, beer ; 
mchiga, a root, jpl, michiga ; mchila, a tail, pi. michila ; 
mkono, an jarm, pi. mikono ; maeo, a wide hoed road, 



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14 THE SttbSTANTIVE 

pi. fniseo ; mtimd, st hfeart, pi. mitima ; inpikUj a pot j 
pi. fJiipihi ; mud, a tillagb, pi. fniH / fHwiiod, ^ thbrii, 
pi. iniioa ; malt, potridgb ; ugtinja, friendship ; ujitBt, 
beggary ; vkungvyiy skill ; umi^ healthy life j vlwrne^ 
mahhood. 

Note. — Noiitid in mb (the iti being a niodified n) 
gfehet^Uy belong to Class III. 

The class-characteristics are — sing. 17, fll. JL 

III. To the third class belong nOuns iti n- befoi'e a 
bonsonant, or ny- befbre a vowtel. Thfe plural Ustxn. is 
the same as thia singular. Sing. nyAmba, a ilbuse, 
J)l. nyumha ; ndala/fjia, money, pi. ndalama; ndeu, a 
bearc^ pi. ndeu; ngoma, a drum, pi. ngonta; fijati, a 
buffalo, pi. njati; njuwa, sL dove, pi. Hjuwa; iiguku, 
a fowl, pL nguJcu; nyama, flesh or game, pi. nywma,; 
nguo, cloth, pi. nguo. 

Nouns in 7vg^ belong to this class, as ng^omhe, an 
ox, pi. ng^omhe; ng^aso, a furnace, pi. ng^asoi rtg^ando, 

play- 

Note. — Words beginning with mb- (where m is a 
modified n) generally belong to this class ; also words 
in «-, u-y or *-, where an n has been dropped before the 
8, u, or i. Mbusi, a goat, goats ; mhaliy a side, pi. 
mhcdi; mbale, a plate, pi. mbale; mbepo, wind, pi. 
mbepo; mhindi, a joint, pi. mbindi; mboni, a witness, 
^1. mhoni; mbttgu, a hole, pi. mhugu; mbwtx, a dog, 
pi. TTihwa; inga, rations, pi. inga; uti, a gun, pi. uti; 
uuliy white hait, pi. v/uU; Baka^ an open shed, pi. sajca; 
sapatOf a boot or slippei', pi. eapcUo (also dchasapato) ; 
8oni, shame ; sUiya, sheeting (also ctchdsiUya) ; via, 
rain, pi. t^fe; 8ala, hunger. 

Thfe class-characteristics are — sing. JI, pi. SI, 

IV. To the fourth class belong words commencing 
with chi-. The plural is forfaied by changing cAi- into 
i-. Sing, chitindo, a watchhouse, ph^lindo; chijuni, 
a bird, pi. ijuni; chikoi, a ladle, pL ikoi ; chUu, the 



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THE StJBStANTlVE IS 

body, jpl; ilu ; cMrhangd, maize, |)1. im^angra; cliigoti, a 
lash made of d Hippo hide, pi. i^oti; chipanje, wealth, 
pi. ipanje; chAsyano, iron, pi. isycmo; chisima, a well, 
pi. isima; chisisa, a fireplace, pi. isisa; chisui, a 
lfeot)ard, pi. isui, * 

Nouils ill ^hor formted from a coriibination 6i chi- 
diid -Or ihake their plurals in ya-: as chaka^ a year, 
jiL ydka; chaia, a finger, pi. yala; ckaso, an elephant's 
trtink, pi. yaso. feimilarly nouns in c/w)- and chu- 
fbi-m theii* pliirals in yo- and yu-. Ckomey a black 
cat, p\, poifie; choU, the toiich-hole of a gun, pi. ycle; 
chmnM, si. huihp on An animal's back, pi. yumJbi ; chuhuy 
the rainy season, pi. yuha. 

The class-characteristics are — sing. (7i77, pi. /. 

Y. To the fifth fclass belong words in li-, Thi3 
plural is fol^med by changing Zi- into ma,-. Sing. . 
lisimba, a lion, pi. masiniba ; liganga, a stone, pi. 
ma/gcmga; lijani, a baboon, pi. majcmi; lijela, a hoe, 
pi. majda; likuga, a herd, pi. onakuga; lilowe, a word, 
pi. fnalowe; Undcmda, an eggy pi. rminddnda; linOy a 
lobth, pi. rtieno {maim) : liso, an eye, pi. meso {maiso) ; 
lUwmbi, a mountain, pi. matumhi; lUcUa, a road or 
pEtth, pi. ntatala; liwago, an axe, pi. mawago. 

The class-charactetistics are — sing. Z/, pi. GA, 

A few nouns in u- form their plural by prefixing 
rhor-y (or changing u into ma-; as ukwnjey d bow, pi. 
makunje; wato, a canoe, pi. mawato; ugono, a mat, 
pi. magono; uhloy a bridge, pi. mauUdo; vJLusi, thread, 
pi. TTialusi; vluwaj a flower, pi. maluwa; utope, mud, 
pi. matope; v/wigo, a game fence, pi. mawigo. 

These nouns hslve their characteristic}^ — sing. U-, 
pi. aA: 

Note. — Properly speaking, these words shbuld 
belong to Jt special class which in other kindred 
languages of the Banttt class has its singular prefix 
BU- aiS its |)liiral prefix MA-. The number of such 



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16 THE SUBSTANTIVE 

words, however, in Yao is very limited, and it is 
undesirable to multiply classes. It has, therefore, 
been deemed more advisable to include them as a 
variation of this li- mor class. 

VI. To the sixth class belong words in lu-. The 
plural is formed by changing lu- into n- before a 
consonant or ny- before a vowel. Before 8 the n is 
dropped. The n- prefixed causes the usual phonetic 
changes. Sing, lupeta, a sifting basket, pi. mf>eta; 
luao, a net, pi. nyao; litsaso, firewood, pi. saso; luambiy 
a branch, pi. nyamhi; lujili, a course, pi, nyili; luko- 
ngohj a leg, pi. ngongoh; lukwiy a piece of firewood, 
pi. ngwi; Ivlimi, a tongue, pi. ndimi; Iv/pyo, a kidney, 
pi. mhyo; lusasa, a partition wall, pi. scMa; hiaetiga^ 
dregs, pi. 8&nga; lusichi, a post in the wall of a house, 
pi. sichi; IvmUo, a stream, pi. siUo; luumbo, a hair, 
pi. umbo ; luwcdatiy a rib, pi. mhalati. 

The plural of lumtdi, a torch, is dmuli. 

The class-characteristics are — sing. LU, pi. SI. 

VII. To the seventh class belong all diminutive 
nouns which are formed from the original by changing 
the noun prefixes singular and plural into kor and tvr. 
Thus from ffiwcmacliey a child, we have kanacJie (for 
kaanache), and from the plural wanadie, children, we 
have twanache (for tuomacJie) ; from mtela, a tree, we 
have katela, a little tree, pi. tutela, little trees ; kasulo, 
a little stream, from lusvlo, pi. tu8ulo; kasoti, a little 
cap, from chisoti, pi. tusotL 

The class-characteristics are — sing. KA, pi. TU, 

VIII. To the eighth class belong the infinitives of 
verbs used as nouns, and locatives in ku- or kwa-^ mvr 
or m/wa-, and/^o-. These admit of no plural. Kuuwa, 
death, the infinitive of the verb kuuwa, to die ; kuku- 
tama, mukutmruiy kwakutama, mwakuta/may pakutamay 
a dwelling-place, a place to stay in or at. 

The class-characteristics are — KU^ MUy PA^ 



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THE SDBSTANTIVB 17 



2. Possessive Relation. 

There is no inflexion in Yao to express the possessive 
or genitive relation. Its place is supplied by the 
preposition -a, of, with the class-characteristic pre- 
fix^. The chiefs slave (the slave of the chief), 
mkapoloju-a {jua) mchimwene; the woman's axe (the 
axe of the woman), liwago li-a (lya)jtbamkongwe; majela 
ga mpwanga, my younger brother's hoe ; wanache wa 
mlendoy the stranger's children. 

With the -a affixed, the two characteristics chi- and 
ji- drop the -i- and form the particle of genitive 
relation in cka- and jor. Thus chisoti cha mchanda, 
the boy's cap ; nyumha ja atati, the father's house ; 
mhusi ja mlendo, the stranger's goat. 

The preposition of purpose, for, is also expressed in 
the same way. Liganga lya uti jangu, a flint for my 
gun ; mam,yasi ga nyumha^ grass for the house. 

With the addition of the preposition kvr the relations 
to and from are sometimes expressed by the same 
relative particles, jua, wa, etc. Thus vlendo loa ku- 
m/usi, a caravan to or from the village ; mesi ga ku- 
chisima, water from the well ; litope lya hurlisugulu, 
clay from the ant-heap ; njirwa sya ku-nyumba, bricks 
from or for the house. 

The following table shows the preposition -a, with 
the class-characteristics prefixed : — 

I. jua, wa, VI. lua^ sya, 

II. wa, ja. VII. ka, tma. 

III. ja, sya, VIII. kfwa. 

IV. cha, ya. vnwa. 
V. lya, ga. pa. 

When the possessor is a person of dignity to whom 



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18 THE SUBSTANTIVE 

respect is shown, the strengthened form, -aha, is 
sometimes substituted for -a; as uti jaJca mchimtoene, 
the chief's gun; lyuwa lyaha MvlungUy God's day, Le, 
Sunday. 



3. Formation of Nouns, 

As has already been stated, the noun consists of 
two parts — the prefix and the stem or root itself. 
In certain cases, the prefix determines the meaning 
to be attached to the noun ; in others, especially in 
the names of natural objects, we cannot now at this 
stage in the history of the language trace any con- 
nection between the prefix and the significance of the 
word. In other words, the original meaning of the 
prefix has been forgotten. Thus, in mjigomyOf teacher, 
from hmgcmya (hu,jiganya\ to teach, the m- signifies 
personality ; and in chitela^ a block of wood, the chi- 
has the significance of individuality. But in such 
cases as mhcdoy lijela, chisui, etc., the prefix gives no 
clue to the meaning of the word. 

When, however, we come to consider substantives 
formed from verbal roots, we find that nouns may be 
formed of various significance, depending upon the 
class-prefix employed. Thus from the root -tumba, 
manifestly an older form of the verb tupa, to swell, 
we have mtitmba, a truss of calico (in Mang'anja, a 
bag) ; chi^m^o, the belly ; ndumba (for ntymba)y the 
corner of a house (i. e. the swollen-out part) ; \itumbi, 
a hill; lutumho or maiumhoy the gut or intestines. 
Thus, by means of these various class-prefixes, we 
have a series of different nouns formed from the same 
verbal stem. 

The m- or mvr of the first or personal teacher, pre- 



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THE SUBSTANTIVE 19 

£bced to the stem of the verb, with or without change 
of the final -a, signifies the agent. Thus, mjiganyo, a 
teacher, from hujiganya (kwiganya), to teach ; mlanga, 
a shepherd, from kuianga, to herd. In actual use, 
the relative forms, juahmganya, jv>ahdcmgay are more 
frequently employed. 

In the second class, with the prefix m-, or ^^-, we 
have the abstract idea conveyed by the verbal stem. 
Thus vlinda signifies watching, or the act of watching, 
from hdinda, to watch ; utoii, theft, from kwiwa, to 
steal; mboni, testimony, from kuwona, to see. By 
changing final -a of the verbal stem into -e'and pre- 
fixing U-, method or manner of doing a thing is denoted ; 
as tUtiwe, plan of building ; upcmganye, mode of making ; 
tUende, mode of doing. 

To Class III. belong most animals and large game 
that go in herds. 

Effect or instrument is sometimes denoted by the 
prefixes chi-, li-, lu-^ with or without change of the final 
vowel. From Jcupima, to measure, we have chvpimOy 
a measure ; chUindOy a watchhouse, from kulindoy to 
watch. From huwcma, to squeeze between two sticks, 
we have various forms ; as liwani, a skewer or spit ; 
liwa/noy a trap of split bamboo ; Iwwano, an erection 
for drying flesh or fish, a fish split up and spread out 
between two small sticks. 

When anything is spoken, of as particularly large 
it is put into the li class, by substituting li- and mor 
for its ordinary singular and plural prefixes ; as uhunjey 
a bow, likimjey a large bow ; ujusi, begging, lijvM, 
persistent begging. 

Words are made diminutives by being put into the 
ka class ; as mwanache, a child, kanache, a little child ; 
liwagOy an axe, kawago, a little axe. 

Foreign words introduced into the language are 
usually put into the first, or mu, class, but in the 



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20 THE SUBSTAFTIVE ^ 

plural they frequently take the prefix two-, with its 
corresponding characteristic. Thus we have Imku 
jiumgu, my book, while we have acliabuku wangu, or 
mabuku gangu, my books. In some cases foreign 
words take the u- prefix ; as ttauhdUf from school. 



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i 



aHAPTER IV 

THB ADJECTIVE 

The number of proper adjectives in Yao is very 
small. Their place is supplied either by participial 
forms of the verb, or by nouns. 

The adjective is always placed after the object 
qualified. 

1. Proper Adjectives, 

The adjective proper consists of a stem, which, by 
taking the class initial syllable, forms a substantive 
of the same class as tne substantive it qualifies. 
By means of the preposition -a, of, this substantive 
is brought into adjectival relation with the qualified 
word. Thus the stem -ktdungica signifies the attri- 
bute of greatness. By prefixing the m- of the first 
class the stem is brought into agreement with any 
noun of that class. Prefixing now the preposition 
-a, with its proper class-characteristic jvr, we have 
mundu jua mkulungwa (or, as we prefer to write it in 
one word, juamkulungwa), a man of greatness, a great 
man. The stem 4coto signifies the attaibute of 
beauty; by prefixing chi- the stem is brought into 
agreement with a noun of the fourth class ; and so 
we have, by the use of the preposition -a, of, chipende 
21 

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22 THE ADJECTIVE 

cha chikoto (or chachikoto), a skin of beauty, a beau- 
tiful skin. 

This use of the relative particles in addition to 
the pronominal prefixes is not common in Bantu 
languages. Most, as Swahili and Kaffir, merely 
prefix the 4)ronominal prefix. (See Torrend's " Com- 
parative Grammar," page 147.) 

In the third class the stem may prefix the class- 
characteristic instead of the noun prefix, showing 
that these both, though now different forms, are 
merely modifications of an original form. We have 
nyumha jcmgukmgway as well as nyurnhajajikulningwa. 

The following table shows the adjectival stem 
hdungwa, in agreement with the various classes of 
the noun: — 

I. Mundu juarnkidungway a great man. 

Wandu wakulimgwa (not wawahulungwa)^ great 
men. 
II. Mtela wokulwngwa (for wa uhdungwa), a great 
tree. 
Mitela jamikvlungwa, great trees. 

III. Nywmha jcmgvlungway or jajikiUungwa, a great 

house. 
Nywmha sycmgukmgwa, or syasikulungway 
great houses. 

IV. Chindu chachikulungwa, a great thing. 

Indu yekulungwa (for ya ikulungioa), great 
things. 
V. Lisimba lyalihulungwa, a great lion. 
Maaimba ga/makvlungwa^ great lions. 
VT. Lupeta lualuhdungwa^ a great basket. 
Mheta syasikidungwa, great baskets. 
VII. Kanache kakakulungwa, a large baby. 
Twanache twatukulungwa^ large babies. 



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THE ADJECTIVE 23 

YIII. Kulima hvakfuhul/ungwa^ a great hoeing. 

Pahdima pajpahdungvxi, a large hoeing-place. 
MwahuUma mwamvukakmgwa^ a large hoeing- 
place. 

The following list contains most of the adjectives 
proper : — 

Beautiful, 'hoio. Living, -jumi. 

Black, -piliyu. Little, -mmdL 

Difficult, -nonono. Long, -leu. 

Dry, -jumu, Male, -lume. 

False, -ncmd. Many, -jinjL 

Female, -kongwe. Old, -chekuhi. 

Fresh, -wisi. Red, -chejeu. 

Great, -kulungwa. Short, -jipi. 

Heavy, -sito. White, swela. 

Examples ; — Nguo jorji-piliyu^ hlack cloth ; masengo 
gorrmirTunumo, hard work ; lijela lyorli-sito (contracted 
lyegito), a heavy hoe ^ nyama ayasijumi, living game ; 
^uma chchchi-chejeuy red beads ; toandu toa-jipi, short 
people. 

The following simply prefix the class-charac' 
teristic : — 

All, -086, 

Every one, ■<ma -ose, -oaepe. 
Other, -ine, 

-ose in the singular has the meaning of " the whole. '* 

In chi-ose and ji-oae the -i- is dropped and the 
particles become chose and joae. In the same way we 
have wane and hone for worine and ka4ne. 

All the houses, nyumha eyose; every one of the 
houses, nyumha eyana syose or nyumba ayoaepe / the 
whole house, nyumba joaepe ; mowa goae, motva goaepe 
or mowa gana goae, every day, always ; lyuAJoa lyoae, 



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24 THB ADJECTIVE 

the whole day ; wamdu wose, all the people ; mmidu 
jvme, another man ; wcmdu wane, other men. 

Note. oae with the singular has also the meaning 

of " any." Thus lyuwa lyase may also mean any day. 

2. Nouns used as Adjectives, 

The noun may be employed as an adjective by the 
use of the preposition -a ; a stone house, nyumba ja 
magcmga; a long road, litala lya uleu (as well as 
litala lyalUeu), 

-Mbone, goodness, and -mnono littleness, are really 
nouns, and are used as such ; a good man, fmiTidu 
jimmhone ; a small axe, liwago lyamnono. 

In the case of abstract nouns, -ana is frequently 
used as a strengthened form of -a / a lazy man, 
mundujua/na uhsi ; a tall tree, mtela wa/na uleu, 

3. YerhaZ Adjectives, 

{a) Adjectives with an active meaning are formed 
by prefixing the preposition -a to the infinitive form, 
of the verb ; mkalo waJcutema (wa kiUema), a sharp 
knife ; mundu juakuhdamvka, a clever man ; nyama 
syakuutuka, running game. 

The negative of the indefinite tense is used in the 
same connection (see page 47). Wandu wanga- 
manyUUa, ignorant people ; mikalo jangatema^ blunt 
knives. 

(6) Adjectives with a passive meaning are foimed 
by changing the final a of the verbal stem into e, 
and using thi« form as the adjectives proper. Frcwn 
hijbuwa, to die, we have mwndu juarwuwe {juarWruwe)^ 
a dead man ; nyanmt sya^siutoe {syorsi-wwe), dead game; 
from hwmaia^ to finish, we have mcuengo gamamale 
(ga-mchmale), a finished work ; from ktUemeJca, to bo 



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THE ADJECTIVE 25 

broken, we have, Tnhcdo wotemeche {worit-temeche), a 
broken knife. 

(c) As will be seen under the Adverb, an adjectival 
form is obtained from the use of -ati, it says, with the 
class-characteristic and the adverbial onomatopoetic 
forms (see page 88). Thus ngiM jorti bi, black cloth, 
lit. cloth which says bi (black) ; rm/ao worti choti, a full 
cup ; lyuwa lycb-ti mbe, a bright clear day. 

4. Comparison of Adjectives^ 

There is no inflexion for the comparison of adjec- 
tives. Objects may be compared by the use of the 
simple adjective followed by nay with ; Nywmha aji 
jUi jc^ikultrngtva na jojo, This house is bigger than 
that ; Manda/nda gen/u gcUi gmnawisi ni gam/gu^ Your 
^gs are fresher than mine. 

The superlative degree is expressed by the use of 
the simple adjective ; Kcbsisi cUi mchvmwene jtumiku- 
lungwa m'chdambo *muno, Kasisi is the great chief 
(i. e. the greatest chief) in this country. 

The verb hupwnda, to excel, may be used in com- - 
parison ; Mitela aji jose jili jamhone, au nambo 
vpu/ndiie. All these trees are good, but this one is the 
best (t. e. excels). 

, The adverb Trmope may be used ; perepo no penani 
mnqpe, that is the highest point. 

Uhulu, greatness, unandi, smallness, winji^ a great 
many, are also employed as in the following instances ; 
Au mtela 'u vkuhi^ ao nambo unandi, This tree is too 
big ; but that one is too small ; Ai loinji, These are 
too many ; Chwma ^chila unandi, Those beads are too 
lew 



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CHAPTER V 

NUMERALS 

The Yaos count on their fingers, commencing with 
the little finger and stretching out each finger that is 
counted, keeping the others closed over the thumb. 
When five is reached, all the fingers are closed over 
the thumb. When the number exceeds five, the 
fingers of the completed hand are closed over the odd 
fingers of the other hand, which are extended as in. 
the case of numbers below five. Thus, in counting 
seven, the four fingers of, say, the right hand would be 
closed over the thumb together with the little finger 
and its neighbours of the left hand. Ten or tens are 
denoted by clapping together the closed fists or the 
extended palms according to the niunber indicated. 
In denoting twenty-eight, a Yao would first clap his 
hands twice, close the fingers of one hand over the 
thumb, then insert into the folded fingers the three 
last digits of the other hand, at the same time repeat- 
ing the various parts of the numeral, likumi, lUcv/miy 
maano, ndi itatu. 

Notation in Yao is quinqual, consisting of additions 

of fives. Numeration does not go beyond ten tens, or 

one hundred. No word in the language denotes one 

hundred ; mwcmdaf which in our translations has been 

• 26 

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NUMERALS 27 

adapted to that meaning, is applied to any large 
number, and expresses inability to be counted. 

Only the first three numbers, (me, twOy threey are 
inflected and take the class-characteristics of the 
objects they enumerate. 

Mvohdujvrwo, one man ; nyund>a jirmo^ one house. 

Wamdu wa-toili, two people ; nyuwha ai-toili, two 
houses. 

Wandu wa-tatu, three people ; nyumba sirtastUy three 
houses. 

Wandv, mcheche, four people ; nyumha mcheche, four 
houses. 

In simple "counting on the fingers" the charac- 
teristics cMr ir of the fourth class are used, probably 
taking the characteristic from chodaf ycda, finger, 
fingers \ as chimo^ iunli, itatu, etc. 

The cardinal numbers are as follows : — 



1. -mo. 






2. -mil. 






3. -tatu. 






4. mcheche. 




5. msa/no 






6. msano na \ 




or „ 


hupcmbvla J 


-mo. 


or „ 


mbambu i 


or „ 


kivisa ) 




7. „ 


9f 


-wUL 


8. „ 


» 


-tatu. 


9. „ 


» 


mAiheche, 


10. IVcumi 






11. „ 


na -mo. 




12. „ 


„ wUi, 




13. ,. 


„ 'tatu. 




u. „ 


„ mcheche. 




15. „ 


„ maa/no. 





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28 KUMIBRAL8 

16. likfU/ini na msano ni -mo, 

17. „ „ „ „ -vnli, 

18. „ ,„ „ „ -Uttu, 

19. „ „ „ „ mohechs. 

20. mahamii gawili, 

21. „ „ rd -mo. 
30. makumi gatatu. 



40. 


>» 


mcheclie. 


50. 


j> 


mscmo. 


60. 


» 


„ ni limo. 


70. 


» 


„ „ gawili. 


80. 


99 


„ „ gatatu. 


90. 


99 


„ „ meheche. 



100. mahmii Ukumi, 

It will be observed that the "tens" take the 
concord of liktrnii, the units that of the substantives 
they qualify. 

Examples : — Ninety-nine sheep, ngosa mahumi msa/no 
na mcJieche ni msano ni meheche ; eighty-eight houses, 
nyumha mxikwmi msamjo ni gatatu kwisa msa/no ni 
sitatu; thirty-seven leopards, isui Trmhwmi gatatu ni 
msano ni ivnli; one hundred and forty-six people, 
wa/ndu makwmi Ukumi kwisa m>checlie kwisa msano ni 
jwmo. 

The adverbial numerals, once, tttrice, thrice, etc., are 
expressed by the use of the prefix ka-. 

Once, kamo. 

Twice, kawilL 

Thrice, katatu. 

Four times, kacheche. 

Five „ kasano. 

Six „ „ ni kamo. 

Ten ,, kakumi, etc. 

In this instance the use of large numbers is rarely 

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9 NUMERALS 29 

heard ; kamo kamOy rarely, hawUi katmli, very often, 
ai*e generally substituted. 

Ordinal niunbers are expressed by the use of the 
preposition of with the plural of the object indicated. 
The Lyuwa lya gawil% the second day; mvmdujua 
likumi na wavnlL 

Another form of the ordinal in less frequent use 
is the substitution of the adverbial numeral for the 
plural in the above instance; Lyuwa lya kawUi, the 
second day. 

First is expressed by the verb hatcmda, to begin ; 
mundu jvxihuta/rida, the first man. 

Last is expressed by the use of the verb kumala or 
kimwZichisya, lyvwa lyahtmncdichiBya^ the last day. 
Last in order is expressed by hunywma or munyuma ; 
mundujua hunyuma, the last man. 



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CHAPTER VI 

THE PRONOUN 

1. Personal Pronouns, 

The characteristic of the various classes, except the 
first, is used as the third person of the personal pro- 
noun. The first and second persons, and the third 
person of the first class have distinct parts. 

Fvll Form, — ^The full forms of the first and second 
persons when not in combination are — 

Une, I. Uwe, we. 

Ugwey thou. Umwe, ^Mwe, you. 

There is no pronoun of this form corresponding to 
our third person. In cases of special emphasis, its 
place is supplied by the demonstrative pronoun of 
the corresponding class. Thus, for he, they, we may 
use aju, atoGf or c^o^ awo, as the case may be. 

A stronger form of the pronoun is obtained by the 
addition of the suffix -ju or -ji, 

Unejij I. Utoeji, we. 

Ugweji, thou. Umweju, Umwejiy ^Mwej% you. 

-Self is expressed by reduplication of the last 
syllable. 

Unene, I myself. Uwewe, we ourselves. 

Ugtoegwe, thou thyself. Umwemwe, you yourselves. 
30 

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THE PRONOUN 31 

-Self is also expressed by the use of -ayene with 
the characteristic of the third person of all classes 
except the first, in which case and in the case of the 
first and second persons the subjective form of the 
pronoun used in combination is employed. 

Namisy&M^ myself. Tusyem or Twaayene^ ourselves. 

Wasyene, thyself. Mtvasyene, yourselves. 

Msyene, him- or Asyene or Achimsyene, them- 

herself. selves. 

Class II. Usyene, itself. Jisyene, 

„ III. Jisyene. Siayene. 

„ IV. Chisyene. layene, 

„ V. lAayerie, Gasyene, 

„ VI. Lusyene, Sisyene, 

„ VII. Kasyene. Tusyene, 
„ VIII. Kusyene. 

Musyene, 

Pasyene, 

The second person singular of the pronoun is rarely 
used. Its place is usually taken by the more polite 
form of the plural. Very frequently the third person 
plural is used in this instance, so that one person 
may address another as " They." 

The preposition ni or na, with, is combined with, 
a shortened form of the pronoun. 

yone^ with me. ' Nowe, with us. 

N'ogwe, with thee. Nomwe and Kamwe, with you. 

In the third person, ni or na is combined with the 
demonstrative a/o, ao, ajo, acho, etc. , and pi. awo, ajoy 
asyo, etc., forming, najo, nao, najo, nachoy etc., nawo, 
najo, nasyo, etc. 

The prepositions, ku, mu, pa, to, in, at, are joined 
to the possessive form of the pronoun. 



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32 THE PRONOUN 

Sing. Kwor, Mwor^ Pa^ngune, to, in, at me. 

„ Kwor, Mwory Pa- hOy to, in, at thee. 

„ Kwck-^ Mwor, Par kwe, to, in, at him. 

PI. A'toe-, Mwe-, Pe-tuwe, to, in, at us. 

„ Kwe-, Mwe^ Pe-nurmmy to, in, at you. 

„ Kwor^ Mwa^ PorO, to, in, at them. 

Such forms as hwa wne, hvoa wwe, are rarely if 
ever used for " to me," " to us." The above forms 
kwangime, kwetuwe, are ahnost invariably employed. 

Connective Form — Stibjective. — ^When the pronoun 
is combined with the verb as subject, a shortened 
form is used for the first and second persons, and for 
the third person of the first class. 

ni-^ or n-, I. tu-^ we. 

w-, thou. m-, mvr, or mu?-, you. 

a-, he or she. a or wor^ they. 

For the third persons of the other classes the 
ordinary form is employed. 

Vry ji-f chi-, etc. ji-y si-, t-, or yi-, etc. 

Thus in combination with the verb ku-tama, to 
stay, in the present tense, the pronouns take the 
following forms : — I stay, ngtUama for n-kutama ; 
m-hutama, you stay ; a-kutama, he stays ; it (the ox, 
7tg*ornhe) ste-ys, ji-kutama; they (the oxen, ng*omhe) 
stay, si-kutama ; we stay, tu-hiUarrui ; they (the people, 
wandu) stay, wa-ktUama ; it (the lion, lisimba) stays, 
li'kutama ; they (the lions, ma^mha) stay, gakutama ; 
it (the leopard, chisui) stays, chikutama; they (the 
leopards, isui) stay, ikutamia. 

Connective Form — Objective. — When combined with 
the verb in the objective case the pronoun is inserted 
immediately preceding the verbal stem, and takes the 
following forms : — 



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THE PRONOUN 33 

-n-j me. -tu-y us. 

-hur^ thee. -m-, you. 

-w*-, him, or her. -a- or -wd-y them. 

In the third person of the other classes the char- 
acteristic is used in the ordinary course. 

-Vry -ji', -chi-y etc. -ji-y -8i-y -i-y otc. 

Thus in combination with the perfect tense of the 
verb kuhUby to see, cUQUte, he saw, we have the pro- 
nouns in the following forms : — ^He has seen me, 
andolite for a-n-loUte ; he has seen us, artvrlolite ; he 
has seen you, Orm-lolite : he has seen them (the cattle, 
ng*ombe)y Orai-lolite ; he has seen it (the house, 
rvgwmba^y orjirloUte ; he has seen it (the hoe, li-jela)y 
Or-lirlolite ; he has seen them (the hoes, majela), Orga- 
lolite ; he has seen it (the basket, lupeta)y a-lvrlolite. 

The full form of the pronoun may be used together 
with the contracted form in cases of special emphasis. 

NdoliUy I saw, but TJ'M ndolite may be translated. 
As for me, it was I who saw. 

The following examples illustrate the use of the 
pronouns : — 

"Nalitoeni nywmba, I saw the house. 

Wsdc&e hmctagidUa liso. He came to tell me 
yesterday. 

Mwasitoeni nyama *8ila ? Did you see those game % 

'Na/weni Ujoka, I saw a snake. 

NaUweni lijoka 'lUa soni, tu^^^uwe, I saw that snake 
again, we shall die. 

WagedeTTienye mahinje gcmguy They broke my bows. 

TiMchituluma uwe lijoka 'lUay That snake will bite 



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34 THE PRONOUN 



2. Possessive Pronouns. 



The possessive pronoun, like the adjective, is 
always placed after the substantive denoting the 
thing possessed. 

The simple forms of the possessive pronoun are as 
follows : — 

-angu, my. -etu, our. 

-ako^ thy. -enu^ your. 

-akwey his, her, its. -ao, their. 

To these parts are prefixed the characteristics of 
the various classes of nouns ; mtela wangu, my tree ; 
majela getu, our hoes ; nyama syao, their game ; 
mikono jetu, our arms ; luhdala Iv^ngu, my basket ; 
nguhi syahwe^ his fowls ; your sorrow, chcmasa dvenu ; 
ridalama syao, their money ; umbo syakwe, her hair. 

My own, thy ovon, etc., are expressed by adding the 
final syllable of the personal pronoun as an enclitic. 

-angune, iily own. -etuwe, our own. 

-akogwe, thy own. -enumwe, your own. 

etc. etc. etc. etc. ' 

An enclitic form of the pronominal suffix is fre- 
quently used in the case of proper and personal 
names and names of relations. 

-Tvgu and -gwangu, my. -gwetu, our. 

-gwaho, thy. -^fwenu, your. 

-gwe, his, her, its. -gv)a0y their. 

Mwwiiangu, my child, as well as inwanofche jucmgu ; 
mlumhugwangu, my sister ; mwanagwao, his son ; 
mhujegwenu, your master, as well as mbuje juenu ; 
7nchihuh(/gwe, his mother; rnchikulugwcio, their 
mother; alamugwangu, my brother-in-law. 



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THE PRONOUN 35 

3. Reflexive Pronouns. 

The verb is made reflexive by inserting -li- before 
the stem of the verb. Tinga-li-tUaje, I will kill my- 
self ; A4i'8wmile yakulya^ Let them buy food for 
themselves ; ng^omhe sya4ir808ele manyasiy the cattle 
searched for grass for themselves; mcmmba gorli- 
kamvUh ngosa, the lions caught sheep for themselves ; 
tvtVrHrgawe ni mkcdo, we will cut ourselves with a 
knife. 

This form is made more definite by the use of the 
pronoun substantive -syene ; as tingotrli-ulaje namsyene, 
I will kill myself ; a-li-gaunle msyene, he cut himself. 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns, 

The demonstrative pronoun in Yao is divided into 
three classes according as the object indicated is near 
at hand, at some distance, or remote. 

The demonstrative, like the adjective, follows the 
substantive indicated. It may, however, precede 
the substantive, in which case it is also repeated after 
it. In most cases the first vowel of the demonstra- 
tive is elided after the final vowel of the substantive. 
Mundu ajuy or mvmdu ^ju, this man ; aju mvmdu ^ju, 
this very man ; womdu awcUa, or wcmdu ^wala^ those 
men ; awdlxi wandu ^wala, those very men ; nyama 
^sila, those game ; alila liwago ^liZa^ that very hoe, or, 
that hoe yonder. 

1. To the first or near class belong those forms of 
the demonsti^ative which indicate objects near at 
hand. A-, prefixed to the representative syllable, 
corresponds to the English this^ these. Mundu a-ju, 
this man, by elision, mundu ^ju; majela a^a^ or m^jela 
^ga, these hoes; litumhi 7e, this hill. Reduplication 



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36 



THE PRONOUN 



of the characteristic adds preciseness to the demon- 
strative ; mundu ajuju, this very man ; nywrnha asisty 
these very houses. By adding the suffix -no to the 
simple demonstrative the idea of proximity seems to 
be strengthened, corresponding to the English, ** This 
. » . here ; " rmmdu aju^no, this man here ; matumbi 
aga-nOy these hills here ; somba aainOy these fishes here« 

Two other forms of this class also occur ; -«, with 
the class-characteristic preceding the substantive 
followed by the simple form of the demonstrative, 
as ju-e mundu ^juy this man ; we wandu 'wa, these 
people ; we mtela \ this tree ; and -ele-, with the 
class-characteristic as prefix and suffix ; as, mundu ju- 
. eh'ju, this man ; miela w-ele-Uy this tree ; majela gele- 
ga (for ga-ele-ga), these trees. This form chiefly 
occurs in the case where the demonstrative stands 
alone, as in the English "this one," "this is the 
one. 

The following table illustrates the various forms 
of the demonstrative : — 



Class 




1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


I. 


Sing. 
Plur. 


aju, 
moa. 


ajwno, 
awano. 


we.. 


.'wa. 


jv>eleju. 
welewa. 


IL 


Sing. 


au. 


cmno. 


we. 


.'u. 


weleu. 


III. 
IV. 


Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 


aji. 
aji. 
asi. 
achi. 


ajino. 
ajino, 
asino. 
dchino. 


je... 
je.. 
sye. 
che. 


..'si. 
..'chi. 


jdeji, 
jdeji. 
syelesi. 
chelecki. 


V. 


Plur. 
Sing. 


ai, 
ali. 


aino. 
cdino. 


ye., 
lye. 


..'li. 


yelei. 
lyeleli. 


YI. 


Plur. 
Sing. 


aga, 
alu. 


agoMO, 
alv/rw. 


ge.. 
lue. 


.'ga. 
..'lu. 


gelega. 
lueldu. 


VII. 


Plur. 
Sing. 


asi. 
aka. 


asino. 
aka/rvo. 


sye. 
ke,. 


..'si. 
.'ha. 


syelesi, 
keleka. 




Plur. 


atu. 


atuno. 


twe 


..Hu- 


tweletu. 



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THE PRONOUN 


^i 


Class. 1. 

VIIL Sing, ahu, 
amu, 
a/pa. 


2. 3. 
ahino. kwe..,*hi. 
amufio, mwe . . . 'mu, 
apano. p6..Jpa, 


4. 
hweUku, 
mwelemu, 
pelepa. 



Example : Aji ngtu> *ji, jacheni ? This calico here, 
whose is it ? Jus mundu 'ju ngongum ^manya^ [As for] 
this man, I don't know him. 

Chipeta achi angati chenumwe ? Ngwamha ! namho 
cherechi, This sif ting-basket, is it not yoiu^s ? No ! but 
this one [is mine] ; Ajinjile m* nyurnha ajino, elo, 
ajincjino, He entered this house here, yes, this very 
one here. 

2. To the second or middle class belong those 
demonstratives which indicate objects at some 
distance. A-o, combined with the simple class-char- 
acteristic, has the meaning of the English " that " ; 
as, mundu ajo (for orjuro), that man ; nyumba ajo (a- 
ji-o), that house ; liwago alyo {orli-o), that axe. 

This form of the demonstrative is in many cases 
used where in English the definite article " the " 
would occur. 

Two forms occur similar to those in the first class ; 
-6, with the characteristic preceding the substantive, 
followed by the simple form of the demonstrative, as 
jvre Tthundu ^o, that man ; ge matuTnhi ^go, those hills ; 
and -ele-i preceded by the characteristic and followed 
by the simple demonstrative of this class ', as, mundu 
jurele^jo, that man ; chitundulima c/ielecho, that low 
hill ; yala yeleyo (i-ele-yo)y those fingers : pelepo (pa- 
ele-po), that [place]. 

The following table gives the various forms of the 
demonstrative belonging to this class : — 

Class. 5. 6. 7. 

I. Sing. ajo. jue,..\jo. juel^o. 

Plur. awo, we.,. 'wo, welewo. 



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38 






THE PRONOUN 




Class 




5. 


6. 


7. 


n. 


Sing. 


ao. 


we..,'o. 


weleo{oTwelewo^ 




Plar. 


ajo. 


je.,,'jo. 


jelejo. 


IIL 


Sing. 


ajo. 


je„:jo. 


jehjo. 




Plur. 


asyo. 


8ye..,'syo, 


aydesyo. 


IV. 


Sing. 


acho. 


cJve..,'cho, 


chelecho. 




Plur. 


ayo. 


ye,.,*yo. 


yeleyo. 


V. 


Sing. 


cdyo. 


lye,.:iyo. 


lyeldyo. 




Plur. 


ago. 


9e..:go. 


gelego. 


VI. 


Sing. 


aluo {or alo). lue,,.^lv^ 


lueleluo. 




Plur. 


asyo. 


Bye.., 'ayo 


aydesyp. 


VII. 


Sing. 


ako. 


he..:ko. 


kdeko. 




Plur. 


attw. 


tue.,.*tuo 


tueletvx). 


VIII. 


Sing. 


ako. 


kwe.,,*ko 


kwdeko. 






amo. 


mwe,,,'mo 


. mwelemo. 






apo. 


pe...'po 


pdepo. 



Example : Mkatagidile juamkongwe ^jo ajise, Tell 
that woman to come here. 

Ajo nguo *jo jUi jangtme, That calico there is mine ; 
Ngrw japiy aji? Ngwamha! jer^o^ Which calico, 
this? No! that. 

Natavnle nywptha^ ngondo namho jaiche, nyumba *Jo 
Tiekumala, myu I I built a house, but war came, and 
the house was completely destroyed. 

3. To the third or remote class belong those forms 
that indicate objects at a remote distance or objects 
not present to the eye, but known and understood 
when alluded to. The simple form of this class is 
a4a ; as, muvdu Orju-la^ that man, yonder man ; ma- 
gomho a-^a-la, those banaaas. 

Other forms are -e . . . a-la, -e-la ; &8,jtire munda a- 
ju'lay mundu ju-e-ju-lay yonder man ; lye litumbi Hila, 
litumhi lyelila, yonder hill. 

The following table gives the various forms of the 
demonstrative belonging to this class : — 



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THE 


PBONOUN 


39 


Class 


8. 




9. 


10. 


I. 


Sing, ajula. 




jfie.,,'jula. 


juejtUa. 




Plur. awcda. 




we.,,'wala. 


wewala. 


II. 


Sing, aula. 




tve...*ula. 


weula. 




Plur. ajUa, 




je,..\jUa. 


Jejila. 


III. 


Sing. ajUa, 




je...'jUa. 


jejUa. 




Plur. aaila. 




8ye...*8ila, 


syeaila. 


IV. 


Sing, achila. 




clie..,'chila. 


chechila. 




Plur. a/Ua. 




ye...'ila. 


yeila. 


V. 


Sing, alila. 




lye,.J'lUa. 


lyelila. 




Plur. agcUa. 




ge,.:gala. 


gegcUa. 


VI. 


Sing. a/t«^. 


(Zi*«) Zii?e . . . *lula. {lue) IwdvXti , 




Plur. flwi^. 




8ye.,,'8ila, 


ayesUa^ 


vn. 


Sing. aJcalfi. 




ke\.,kala. 


kekala. 




Plur. a««^. 


{tue)twe..,Hula, 


twetula. 


VEIL 


Sing. a^;t«^. 


(kue)ktoe...'kula. 


kwehda. 




amula. 


(mue) mwe . . . ^miUa 


mwemvla 




apala. 




pe,..*pala. 


pepakb. 



Example : Mhani masengo 'gdUi soni, Give me that 
work again ; Pasyeto petumbi 'pala pana mseso, On the 
other side of that hill there is a forest. 

Pepala Maungu agunle, apanopano wa^murile, Over 
there the European fell, here at this place he rested ; 
Ge inowa *gala wandu nganasuma loanduy In those 
days people did not buy slaves. 

In the second and third classes still greater distance 
is indicated by raising the pitch of the voice, and the 
more it rises into falsetto the greater is the distance 
indicated. 



5. Relative Frorumna, 

The relative pronoun is identical with the char- 
acteristic syllable of the various classes. 



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40 





THE 


PRONOUN 




Class. Sing. 




Plur. 


I. ju { 
II. u, 

III. ji. 

IV. chi. 


[andjwa). 


toa. 

si, 
i. 


V. IL 
VI. lu. 






si. 


VII. A;a. 






tu. 


VITI. A;i^. 








mu. 








pa. 









^EiXample : Nyuwha ji jagwHe liso jipile moto, The 
house which fell yesterday has been burned [with] fire. 

Chipemhere chi twachiuleje liso chimasHe rmUan/Uf The 
rhinoceros which we killed yesterday has been eaten 
up by hyenas. 

Mundu ju {ov jv^a) twmnbweni liso aioile, The man 
whom we saw yesterday is dead. 

lAsirnba li lyacJie Pwcdiuleje, The lion which came we 
killed. 

Lukalala lu ttoalujasile luwoneche soni, The basket 
which we lost has been found again. 

The relative may be made more definite in its 
reference by the addition of the demonstrative pro- 
noun. In this case the demonstrative follows the 
verb, or is placed at the end of the clause, if it be 
not thus too far separated from its corresponding 
relative. Mundu jua twagamfibaga Uso julcc^ That man 
^e were talking about yesterday; Twaaosaga fnar- 
sengo ga mwatutanjile mLujigu wa liso *galay We were 
wishing the work that you showed us last week. 

The relative in Yao is used to introduce an ad- 
verbial clause in English. Lisaka^sa lyakugona (or 
lyahagonela) wanachsy The grass shed where the chil- 
dren sleep. 



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THE PRONOUN \ 41 

When the relative is used with the definite sense 
represented by the English definite article, the 
objective fotm of the persong^l pronoun is inserted 
where the sense admits. Without the use of the 
objective form the reference is less pointed, and may- 
be expressed by the English indefinite article. 
Nywmba ji twaweihi liso, A or the house which we 
saw yesterday; Nywmba ji twajiweni lisoy The house 
which we saw yesterday; Lipanga li nalohwete liso 
Ujasichey The spear I picked up yesterday is lost. 
Lipanga lyapi ? Which spear 1 Li nalUokwete liso 
'I'da, The one^I picked up yesterday. 

6. Interrogative Pronouns. 

Interrogatives are introduced by the interrogative 
ana ? as, Ana wa/ni ? Who? Anakwapi? Where? 
Who? is expressed by nduni, pi. wani. Ana wani 
(umwe, Who are you ? Lina lyenu wani, What is your 
name? 

**What?" and "which?" are expressed by -api, 
with the class-characteristic prefixed, and chi ? Which 
hou^e ? Nywmha japi ? or, Nymmha chi ? What man ? 
Mundu juapi ? or, Mwadu chi ? What is the matter ? 
Ana chi ? or, Ana chichi ? What do you say ? Mkuti 
vli? (literally, *'How do you say?") What is it 
like ? GhisoAi chakwe chichi ? 

What sort of? What kind of? are expressed by 
-achi, or -a chi, with the class-characteristic pre- 
fixed. MkaXo wachi ? What kind of a kilife ? An 
idiomatic use of the verb kuti, to say, has a similar 
significance. To the form -ati uli are prefixed the 
cbarafcteristics in the usual manner. Mkalo wati tdi? 
What kind of a knife ? Chisau c/iakwe chati uli ? What 
is it like? 

"Whfen?" is expressed by cliakachi {chaka chi), 



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42 THE PRONOUN 

lyuwa chiy literally, What year? What day] What 
time ? 

The interrogatives "where?" "whither?" 
" whence ? " are expressed by kwapi, or, shortened 
form, hwa, Alt kwapi ? Where is he ? Kwapi 
aumile ? Whence did he come 1 Ajih hwa ? Where 
did he go to ? 

"Where?" "wherein?" are expressed by papi, 
mwapiy with the shortened formaf pa, mwa. AkiUama 
papi? Where does he dwell? Maomali vli mwa? 
Where is the nail ? 

**How many?" is expressed by 4ingwa, with the 
cori'esponding characteristic. Wandu walingwa ? How 
many people ? Makau galingwa mwagaweni mwitala 
'mula ? How many footprints did you see in the path 
yonder ? 

" How ? " is expressed by tUi f How did he fall ? 
Wagwile vHi? In several instances the English 
"what?" is represented by vM? Arm mhui vM? 
What do you say ? Anibiy tindende tdi f Now, what 
shall I do? 

" How often ? " kalingwa ? palingwa ? 

7. Other Pronouns. 

"Whatever" is expressed by -o«e, with the char- 
acteristic. M^nywmba jose mu mktvinjila, Into what- 
ever house ye enter. 

"Whoever," "whosoever," are expressed by -ana, 
'086, Juana juose juahaaoaa hwoAda, Whoever wishes 
to go away. If the pronoun is followed by a verb in 
the future tense, the future of the verb hiway to ife, 
is used instead of -anfia, Jua tavje jtbose tc^'aiUe vlendo 
tapochele mhjoa/mba. Whoever will go on the journey 
shall receive a fathom ; Chi tichiwe chose chi tumjuje, 
tumpochele, Whatever you ask for you will receive. 



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THE PRONOtJN 43 

The present tense of the verb " to be," -all may be 
used in the place of -ana in the above form. vThus we 
have jv4di juose ah/sosa kwauLa^ as well as, juana 
juose akusoaa kwaula; juali juose tajinjils amunOy 
whoever will go in here. 

"Any" is expressed by -o«6, with the singular. 
Lyuwa lyoaey any day. ** Any " is also expressed by 
the present tense of the verb " to be " with -ow, as, 
lyuwa lili lyose, any day ; nyimbo jili jose^ any song ; 
gali gose, any (hoes). 

** Another," "other," are expressed by -ine. Mwndu 
juine^ another man; mowa gane, katema kaney at 
another time. " One after another " is expressed by 
-me ni -ine, Nyumha jine ni jine, one house after 
another. 

" Certain " is also expressed by -ine. Lyuwa liney 
on a certain day. 

-alaJcwey with the characteristics of the first class, 
is frequently used in the sense of "this person," 
"he," " those persons," "they," and maybe used as 
representing the third personal pronoun. Anu wa/ni 
ajiwUe ? angati juaUihwe ? Who stole ? Was it not he 1 



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CHAPTER YII 

THE VERB 

The verb in Yab always ends in -a. The simplest 
form is to be found in tbe second person of the 
imperative mood, as, 

Jenda, go. 
Taway bind. 
Sumha, leap. 

The other parts of the verb are formed from this Jjy 
means of prefixes, suffixes, and by modification of the 
verbal stem. Thus, from hutawa^ to bind, we have 
watcmile, they bound, wheKe, to form the perfect tense, 
the -a of the simple form has been changed into -4le, 
and the personal pronoun, wa, of the plural has been 
prefixed. 

All prefixes and suffixes combine with the stem of 
the verb to form one word. 

The prefixes consist of (1) the tense prefix, (2) t\e 
modal prefix, (3) the subjective personal pronoun, 
(4) the objective personal pronoun. The suffixes and 
suffix-changes consist of (1) the tense suffix, (2) the 
modal suffix, (3) qualitative suffixes denoting com- 
pletion or continuity of action. The objective personal 
pronoun always precedes the verbal stem, aud stands 
next to it; the other parts occur in various order. 
44 

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THE VERB 45 

In najiiodvile, I bpund it {i, e, an animal, nyama)^ we 
have tlie n- of the first personal pronoun, -a- denoting 
the past tense, -ji- the objective pronoun of the third 
class, and the suf&x Me of the past tense. In 
sachindawdga^ He will be tying me, we have S'-ohi-f 
denoting the future tense, -a- the subjective personal 
pronoun, -n- the objective personal pronoun, modify- 
ing the t of tawa into d, and the -^a of continuous 
action. 

In the formation of the various parts of the verb 
the five following steps have to be noted : — 

1. Find the tense prefixes, suffixes, or modifications 
of the verbal stem. 

2. Insert or prefix the subjective pronoun. 

3. Insert the objective pronoun immediately before 
the verbal stem. 

4. Note the euphonic changes. 

5. Add the qualitative suffix. 

There is a negative as well as an affirmative con- 
jugation which distinguishes persons, moods, and 
tenses in the same way. 

The simple form of the verb is inflected for voice, 
mood, tense, person, and class. The voices are the 
active and the passive. The moods are the indica- 
tive, subjunctive, potential, conditional, contingent, 
imperative, and infinitive. There are also participles 
corresponding to the present and past tenses of the 
indicative mood. 

The various parts of the verb are illustrated by the 
example of the verb hUawa^ to bind. 

1. Voices. 

The passive voice in Yao is not of frequent occur- 
rence. A native usually gives his sentences an active 
form. Instead of saying, " He was killed by light- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



46 THE VERB 

ning," he would rather say, " The lightning killed 
him." 

The passive voice in Yao may be formed by 
changing the terminal a of the simple stem into 
'Wa or -ilwa. 

Kukamulaf to seize. Ktikamtdwa, to be seized. 
Kutawa^ to bind. Kutaunlwa, to be bound. 

A neuter or stative form which has also a quasi- 
passive meaning is formed from the stem of the active 
verb (1) by changing the final -a into ika, or -eka if 
the preceding vowel be 6 or o, (2) by changing a 
final -ula into -uka, or (3) by changing a final -sya 
into syika, or syeka if the preceding vowel be e or o. 

This form has two distinct meanings, (1) a state 
or condition of the subject as actual without any 
reference to the agent, (2) a state or condition as 
possible or capable of being accomplished. 

Kusicfiita, to cut. Kusichitikay to be cut, or cut- 
able. 

Kutama^ to sit. Kutamika^ to be set down. 

Kapapula, to tear. Kupapuka^ to be torn, or tear- 
able. 

Kupasula^ to ravage. KwpaBuka,^ to be ravaged. 

Kutyosya, to remove. Kutyosyeka, to be removed, or 

romovable. 

As a rule the difference between these two forms is 
that the former in -wa or -ihoa supposes a personal 
agent or external cause, while the latter in -ka supposes 
that the condition is natural or the product of an 
internal cause. Thus kukasilwa or kuhaswa would be 
used when the actual agent was being spoken about, 
while kukaaika would denote simply that the subject 
was broken or breakable. 



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THE VERB 



47 



2. Indefinite Tenses. 

An indefiDite or relative tense is formed by placing 
a before the infinitive form of the verb, and prefixing 
the relative pronoun. It has the adjective meaning 
of " who " or " whfch binds." 



Class. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 


Juakatanjoa, 


Wakutawa, 


n. 


Wcdeutawa, 


Jahutawa, 


Jii. 


Jahutawa, 


Syakutawa, 


IV. 


ChahUawa. 


Yakutawa, 


V. 


Lyahitawa, 


Gakutawa, 


YI. 


Luahatawa, 


Lyakutawa, 


VII. 


Kakutawa. 


Twakutawa, 


VIII. 


Kwakutawa, 
Mwakutawa, 
Pdkutawa, 


% 



Example : Wa maseyigo wakugvmba njerwa, Work- 
men who make bricks. 

Mwitala ^mo mwana maganga gakupoteka m'masajoy 
On the path there are stones which hurt the feet. 

Auleje isui yakuJcamiUa wandu. He killed leopards 
which catch people. 

The negative of this tense is formed by putting 
-anga before the verbal stem, and prefixing the pro- 
noun corresponding to the various classes. It has 
the meaning of "who does not bind/' or ** which does 
not bind." 



Class. Sing. 

I. Jitangatawa. 
II. Wangatawa. 

III. Jangatawa, 

IV. Changatawa, 
V. Lyangatawa. 



Plur. 
Wangatawa. 
Jangatawa. 
Syangatawa. 
Yangatawa. 
Gangatawa. 



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48 TBraS VBBp 

Class, Sing. Plur. 

VI. LuangatoMja. Syangatawa. 

VII. Kangatawa, Twangatawa. 

Vni. Kwangcmtawa, 
Mtvav^gatavxi, 
Pangatawa. 

Mkalo au vxtrigatema^ This knife is one which does 
not cut. ' 

Perepo pangapita wcmdu^ People do not pass there. 

MundujuangwpangaiMfa masengo ngapochelA modipilo, 
A man who does not work will not receive a wage. 

Ikoko 'yo yangakcurmda wandu, Those wild beasts 
are not the kind which catch people. 

Both these forms are used in a quasi-objective sense, 
as in the following instances : aji nyami^ji jahulya 
wandu, this is meat which people eat ; ajo nyania'jo 
jangalya wandu, that kind of meat people do not 
eat. 

3. Imperative Mood, 

The imperative mood is the simple form of the 
verb. 

Sing. ToAJoa. 
Plur. Tawani, 

In the plural, the continuative suffix ga may be 
appended together with the plural suffix ni, 

Tawa-gorni, Go on binding. 

The subjunctive forms, mtatoe^ mkatawey together 
with the third persons, atawe, akatawe, are very 
often substituted for the stronger imperative. These 
frequently have an obligatory sense, which may be 
represented by our English " must." 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE VEEB 49 

When in English two imperatives are coupled by 
"and," in Yao the **and" is omitted. 

Mjiae mta/me apano, Come and sit here. 

Mjende mkawilanje che Matope^ Go and call Matope. 

Other forms used as imperatives are — 

Nim-tawe, 
Na-tawe. 
Kum-tawe. 
Ka-tawenL 

There is no proper form of the negative imperative. 
The negative form of the subjunctive mood is always 
used for the negative imperative. 

Mkortaway Don't bind. 
Mkagwaf Don't fall. 

Vkdkwela a/pa, mwana^he ugwe. Don't climb there, 
you child. 

4. Infinitive Mood, 

Ku is the sign of the infinitive mood, and is pre- 
fixed to the simple form of the verb, 

Kutawa^ to bind. 

If the verbal stem commences with y, the j is 
dropped, and in the subsequent combination of 
vowels, u has the sound of w. Thus, hujasika, 
hujenday kujiganya, becomes kwasika, kwenda, kwi- 
ganya. If the vowel following j be o, the u is also 
dropped, as koga for kujoga, konga for kujonga. 

In the case of verbs of intention or purpose — 
especially after the verbs *Ho go " and " to come " — a 
sort of double infinitive is in use, as apite kukuteka 
mesif he has gone to draw water ; waiche ku musi 
hikutola nyama, he came to the village to fetch game ; 
wautv^chUe kunganya kukusdla maloaay he ran to the 

E 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



50 THE VEEB 

courtyard ta report bad news. Properly speaking 
the first hi is the locative hi of direction, making 
the rendering to run, he went to the drawing water. 

A use of the infinitive in narration is of constant 
occurrence. By prefixing the conjunction na, and, 
or its forms, we, m, 7m>, vai^ to the infinitive, the verb 
'takes the time, action, and subject of the preceding 
verb. In this way the intricate process of verbal 
formation is much simplified, and' the cumbrous re- 
currence of the same prefixes, tense formations, and 
pronouns is avoided. 

Example : Ml&ndo waiche hi musi, ne- higana, 
hmdavn ne- hmmuka, ne- hvatda, A traveller arrived 
at the village, and slept [there], next day he rose, and 
went away. 

Malawi tajise nehitawa nyvmbajine, To-morrow he 
will come and build another house. 

Mkakweh samham) Tiehigopola migoji ^jo, Olimb up 
now and untie that rope. 

Ula nehinya nehitusisimya^ Rain fell and made us 
very cold. 

Note. — Certain verbs commencing wjth ^ or ^ in 
this instance drop the hi, so we have nekola, negona, 
negopola, nekana, for nehikola, nehigona, nehigopola, 
nehihvna. 

The infinitive may precede any other part of the 
verb, the effect being to emphasize the idea conveyed 
by the verb. 

Kwisa akwisa, Coming it is, he is coming. 
Kupagwa napagwile, As for my birth, I was bom. 

5. Indicative Mood, 

Present Tenses, — ^The simple present is formed by 
prefixing the subjective form to the infinitive. It 
has the meaning of " I bind," " thou bindest," etc. 



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THE VERB 



51 



Plur. 
Tuhitawa. 
Mkutmva: 
Wa-, or A-hitawa, 
Jikutawa. 
Sikutawa, 
Ikutawa. 
Gahutawa, 
Sikutawa. 
Tukutawa, 



Class. Sing. 

I. 1. NgutoAJoa (N-ktirta/wa). 

2. Ukutawa. 

3. Akutawa, 
II. Ukutawa. 

III. Jikutavja. 

TV. Chikutawa. 

V. Likutawa. 

VI. Lukutawa. 

VII. Kakutawa. 

VIII.* Kakutawa, 

Mukutawa, 

Pakutawa. 



The negative of this tense is formed by prefixing 
the syllable nga- to the positive form. Nga may 
assume any of the forms nge, ngi, ngo, or ngu, the 
vowel usually being assimilated to the vowel of the 
pronoun. It has the meaning of " I do not bind/' 
etc. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Ngenguta/wa {Nge-rv-kutatna), Ngutukutawa, 

2. JNguukutawa^ Ngumkutawa. 

3. Ngakutawa (or Akahuiawa), NgakutoAva, 
II. NgwukatOAJoa. ^gijikutawa. 

III. Ngijihatawa. Ngisikutawa. 

IV. NgicfdkutaAJoa, Ngixkutawa, 
V. NgUikutoAJoa. NgagakutOAJoa. 

VI. Ngrdukutawa. N 

VII. Ngakakutawa. iV 

VIII. Ngukukutawa. 
NgwmuhatoAjoa, 
NgapaJcutawa. 

A present imperfect tense is formed 1 
the present tense of the verb "to be," 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



52 



THE VERB 



the euphonic -m-. It has the meaning of '*I am 
binding," etc. 



Class 


Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 


1. NdAlimhuMwa {NdUirm- 
kutawa). 


Tvlimhitawa, 




2. UlimTcutawa, 


MuHmkutawa. 




3. Alimkutawa. 


Alimkutawa. 


II. 


Ulimkutawa. 


Jiliifyikutdhjoa, 


III. 


JUimkutawa. 


Silimkutawa. 


IV. 


Chiliitikutawa, 


IlimkvMtfuoa. 


Y. 


LUimkutawa, 


Gdlimkutawa. 


VI. 


Lidimkutawa, 


SilimkutauHi. 


VII. 


Kalirrikutawcb. 


Tulimkutawa, 


VIII. 


Kvlimkatawa. 
Mulimkutawa. 
PalimkutoAJoa, 





Another form of the present imperfect is obtained 
by the use of the auxiliary verb kutenda, to do. 
This form has the meaning of " I am in the act 
of binding," etc. 



Class 


Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 


1. Ndenda kutawa {N- 
tenda k.). 


Tutenda kutawa. 




2. Utenda kutawa. 


Mtenda hu/ta/wa. 




3. Atenda kutawa. 


Atenda kutawa. 


II. 


Utenda kutawa. 


Jitenda kutauHi, 


III. 


Jitenda kutawa. 


fSitenda kutawa. 


IV. 


Ghitenda kutawa. 


Itenda kutawa. 


V. 


Litenda kutawa. 


Gatenda kutawa. 


VI. 


Lutenda ktUawa. 


Sitenda kutawa. 


VII. 

^III. 


Katenda hitawa, 
Kutenda kutawa. 


Tutenda kutavx/j 




Mutenda kutawa. 


y 




Patenda kutawa. 





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THE VERB 



53 



In a few verbs the ku is dropped, as atenda kana, 
he refuses, for atenda hikana. 

An habitTial present is formed by prefixing -kTisa- to 
the verbal stem. It has the meaning of **I am 
accustomed to bind," "I am in the habit of bind- 
ing," etc. 



Class 


Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 


1. Ngusatawa {N-husa- 
tawa). 


Tvkvsatawa, 




2. UkvsataAjoa. 


Mhaaaianjoa, 




3. Akuaatawa, 


War or A-kuaatawa. 


n. 


Ukusatawa. 


Jikusatawa. 


III. 


JikuscUawa, 


Sikuaatawa, 


IV. 


Chikusatawa. 


Ikuaata/wa. 


V. 


^Likuaatawa, \ 


Gakusatawa. 


VI. 


Lukmatawa. 


Sikusatawa. 


VII. 


Kakusatawa. 


Tukusatawa. 


vni. 


Kukuaatawa, 
Muhaaatcma, 
Pakusatawa. 





The continuative suffix -ga may be appended to 
any of the present tenses. 

Perfect Tenses. — The present perfect tense in Yao 
answering to the English " have " is formed by pre- 
fixing the subjective pronoun, and modifying the 
termination. 

The nature of the change in the termination may 
be explained in a few general rules, to each of which, 
however, several exceptions occur. 

(a) Verbs not included under any of the follow- 
ing rules change the final -a of the simple verb 
into 'ile. 

KutoAJoa^ to bindj -tawile, 

Kurnenycif to beat, -fnenyile. 



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54 THE VERB 

If the consonant preceding the final a is g^ the 
modification of -a into -He changes g into^. 

Kulangay to say farewell, -lanjUe, 

{b) Yerhs ending in a... a change a,., a into e..,e. 

Kuwomdikana, to be near, -wandikene. 

Xupanganya, to make, -pangenye, 

Kwvmboda {ha- jimhoda), to be stout, -jimbeU, 

(c) Verbs ending in o...a change o...a into we.,.e. 
If the final consonant is -k, it becomes -ch by the 
change of the a into e. 

Kukopoka, to go out, -kopweche. 

Kukomoka, to faint, -komweche, 

KukokoUb, to gather up, -kokwele. 

(d) Verbs iiiu...a change w...a into wi...e. If the 
last syllable is -ka, the k is modified as in the above. 

KvJcagula, to follow, -kagwile. 

Kupatuka, to fall down, -patvnclis. 

(e) Most verbs of two syllables ending in -ga or 
-la change the -ga or -la into -sUe, 

Ktda^a, to be miserable, -lasUe. 

Kuloga, to bewitch, -losHe. 

KwTialay to finish, -masile, 

Kuwola, to rot, -wosile, 

Kmda, to groan, -uusUe, 

XtimUa, to swallow, -misUe. 

Kv/mda^ to grow, -mesUe, 

(/) Verbs ending in -^ change -A:a into -c^. 

Kupotekay to hurt, -poteche. 

Kupachdka, to hang up, -pachiche. 

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THE VERB 



55 



{g) Verbs in -ila of more than two syllablies change 
the final -a into -e or -He, 



Kuichilay to arrive at, 
Xujisila, to come for, 
Kujinjila, to enter, 



-ichUe, 
'jiaile. 
•jinjUe, or jinjilile. 



ye, 
'istsye, 
-kcmiaye. 



(h) Yerbs of two syllables ending in -sya change 
-sya into -sisye ; in other cases -a becomes -e. 

Kukusya, to make larger, 
Kuisydy to sigh, 
' Kukcmiayay to forbid, 
KupUccmichisya^ to hear well, 

The following are a few of the more common ex- 
ceptions to the above rules : — 

Kuaichita, to cut, 

Kupita, to pass, 

Kukotay to possess, 

Kutenda, to do, 

Kuwala, to wear, 

Kuweclitty to clothe, 

Kujenda, to go, 

Kupa, to give to, 

KiUola, to see, 

Kvmna (for ku-jima), to stand, -jimi. 

Kutamou, to sit or stay, -temi. 

The paradigm of the present perfect tense is as 
follows. It has the meaning of, " I have bound,*' etc. 



-sichite. 

-jpite, 

-kwete, 

-tesile. 

-wete. 

-wechiche. 



'pele. 
'lolite. 



Class. Sing. 

I. 1. Ndawih {N'tawile), 

2. UtawUe. 

3. Atawile. 
II. Uta/wUe, 

III. JitawUe. 



Plur. 
TutawUe. 
MtawUe. 
A- or Wortawile, 
Jitawile, 
JSitawUe, 



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56 


THE VERB 


Class. Sing. 


Plur. 


IV. ChitawUe, 


Itawile, 


V. Idtawile, 


GatavMe, 


VI. Lutavnle. 


SitawUe. 


VII. Katcmile, 


TutavrUe 


VIII. Kutcmik. 




Mutcmile. 




Fatavdle, 





The 'use of th,e auxiliary verb Icutenda gives the 
following form, with the meaning of "I hav6 bound 
once and for all," ** I have really bound," etc. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Ndesile hitawa, TtUesUe kutawa, 

2. Utesile kutawa, MtesUe kutawa, 

3. Atesile kutawa. A- or Wa-tesile kutawa. 
II. Utesile kutawa. JitesUe kutawa. 

III. Jitesile kutawa. SitesUe kutawa. 

IV. Chitesile kutawa. ItesUe kutawa. 
V. LitesUe kutawa. Gatesile kutawa. 

VI. LutesUe kutawa. SitesUe kutawa. 

VII. Katesile kutoAJoa. TutesUe kutawa. 

VIII. Kutesile kuta/wa. 
MutesUe kutawa. 
Fatesile kutanva. 

A contracted form of kutenda is also used, with a 
similar meaping. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Nde kutawa. Tute kutawa. 

2. Ute kutawa. Mte kutawa. 

3. AtekutoAva. A- or Wa-te kutatpa. 
II. Ute kutuwa, etc Jite kutawa, etc. 

The pa>8t imperfect tense is formed from the simple 
stem by putting a before the stem, prefixing the 



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THE VERB 



57 



pronoun, and adding the continnative suffix -ga, 
has the meaning of " I was binding/' etc. 



It 



II. 



Y. 
VI. 



Plur. 
Twatawaga. 
Mwatawaga. 
Wa-, or A'tawaga. 
Jatawaga. 
Syatawaga, 
Yatawaga, 
Gatawaga. 
Syatawaga, 
Twataiodga, 



Class. Sing. 

I. 1. Natmjoaga {N-a-tawa-ga), 

2. Watawaga, 

3. Atawaga. 
Watawaga, 

III. Jatawaga. 

IV. Chatawaga, 
Lyatawaga, 
Luatawaga. 

VII. Katawaga, 
VIII. Kwatawaga, 
Mwatawaga. 
Patawaga. * 

The negative of this form is obtained from the 
simple negative by adding the continuative suffix 
-ga, Nginindawaga, "I was not binding," etc. 

The past perfect tense is formed from the present 
perfect by inserting a between the pronoun and the 
verb. It has the meaning of " I bound," or ** I 
had bound," 



Class. Sing. 

I. 1. NatawUe {N-a-tawih). 

2. Watawile. 

3. AtawUe. 
II. Watawile. 

III. Jatawile. 

IV. ChatawUe. 
V. Lyatawile. 

VI. Luatawile. 
VII. Katawih. 
VIII. Kwatawile. 
MwatawUe. 
Patawile. 



Plur. 
TwatawUe. . 
Mwatawih. 
Wa-y or A-tawile. 
Jatawile. 
SyatawUe. 
Yatatoile. 
Gatawile. 
SyatawUe. 
TwatawUe, 



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58 THE VERB 

A cjontinuative meaning is given to this form as 
well as to the present perfect by the addition of the 
suffix 'JBy which is probably a modification of the 
suffix -ga. 

The auxiliary verb hutenda gives the, form of the 
past perfect tense, Natesile kutawa, as well as its 
contracted form, ^ate kutawa. It has the meaning of 
" I bound once and for all." 



Class. 


Sing. - 


Plur. 


I. 


1. Natesile kutawa. 


Twatesile kutawa. 




2. Watesile kutawa. 


MwatesUe kutawa. 




3. Atedle kuta/wa. 


War, or A-tesile kutawa. 


II. 


WatesUe kutawa, etc. 


Jateaih kutoAjoa, etc. 


Class 


Sing. 


Hur. 


I. 


1. Nate kutawa. 


Twate kutawa. 




2. Watekatawa, 


Mwate kutawa. 




3. Ate kutawa. 


War, or A-te kutawa. 


II. 


Wate kutawa, etc. 


Jate hata/wa, etc. 



The negative of these two tenses is formed by 
prefixing ngana- to the simple stem, interposing the 
subjective pronoun. The vowels of the prefix are 
usually assimilated to the vowels of the pronoun 
as in the present negative. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Nginindawa {N'gini-n'tawa). Ngunututawa. 

2. Ngunuutawa. Ngwnumtawa. 

3. Nganatawa. NgamMdwa. 
II. Ngunuutawa. Nginijitawa. 

III. Nginijitawa. Nginisitawa. 

IV. Nginichitawa. Nginiitawa. 
V. NginUitawa. '- Nga/nagatawa. 

VI. Ngunulutawa. Nginisitawa, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



,THB vicaB 59 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

YII. Nganakatawa. NgunututoAJoa. 

VIII. Ngunvkutawa. 
Ngunwmutawa, 
Ngariapatawa. 

Another form of the past negative is obtained 
from the above by changing the final a into e. It 
has the meaning of '* I have not bound/' or " I have 
not yet bound." 

Another form, with the meaning of " I had not yet 
bound," is also obtained by placing kana before the 
verbstl stem, prefixing to this and to the verbal stem 
the subjective pronoun, and changing final a into e. 
As in the simple negative, the vowels of the prefix 
kcma are assimilated to the vowel of the pronoun. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Nginindawe{N-kin'irn-tanjoe). Tukunututawe, 

2. Ukfunutawe, Mhunumtawe, 

3. Akanatawe. Akanatcuwe. 
II. Dkunutawe. Jikinijitawe. 

III. Jikinijitawe. Sikinisitawe. 

IV. Chikinichitawe, Ikiniifawe. 

V. Likimlitawe. Gakomagatawe. 

VI. Lukunvlutawe. Sikinisitawe. 

VII. Kakanakatawe. Tukunututawe. 

VIII. Kukunukutawe. 
Muhwwwmutawe, 
Pakomapatawe. • 

An idiomatic use of this form, to represent the 
English adverb " biefore," is of very frequent occur- 
rence iii Yao. Its construction will be seen in the 
following examples : — 

Akanaiche Wasungu uwe twasumaga wandu, Before 
the Europeans came, we used to trade in slaves ] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



60 THE VERB 

Tutvmtcde masengo getu, tukunutugone, "We will finish 
our work before we sleep ; Kwende tuutitche, tukaiche 
kumangwetu, jihinijitusimcme via 'ji, Come, let us run, 
and reach home before the rain overtakes ns ; Mhi- 
nv/myiche rrudawi uwe tupite. Before you arrive to- 
morrow, we shall have gone. 

Frequently in actual use the first subjective pro- 
noun is omitted, and the negative assumes the 
following forms, Nkmindawe, Uhu/nutawe^ NganMawey 
etc Nhunututawe, MkunumtOAJoey etc. 

Future tenses. — ^There are three future tenses in Yao. 

1. The^ra^, or immediate, future is formed, by pre- 
fixing tor, or its equivalent forms, -ti, tur, interposing 
the subjective personal pronoun, and changing the 
final a into e. This form is used of immediate action 
or result, and is expressed by the simple future, " I 
shall or will bind,*' etc. 



Class. Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 1. Tindawe (Ti-n-tawe). 


Tututawe, 


2. Tuutawe. 


Tumtawe. 


3. Tatawe. 


Tatawe. 


II. Tuutawe. 


Tijitawe. 


III. TijitoAJoe. 


Tisitawe. 


IV. Tickitawe. 


Tiitawe. 


Y. TUitawe. 


Tigatawe. 


Vi. Tvlutawe. 


Tisitawe. 


VII. Tahata/we. 


Tututawe. 


VIII. Tuhutawe. 




TvmutoAJoe. 




Tapatawe. 





2. The second, or middle^ future is formed from the 
first by inserting -kor between the pronoun and the 
verbal stem. It is used of actions done at some 
little time or distance, and may be represented by 
"I will go and bind," etc, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE VERB 



61 



class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Tingatawe (Ti-n-ka-tawe). Tutukatawe. 

2. Tuukatawe. Tumkatawe. 

3. Takatawe. TakatoAJoe. 
II. Tuukatawe. Tijikatawe. 

III. Tijikatawe. Tisikatawe. 

IV. Tichikatawe, Tiikatawe. 
V. Tilikatawe. Tigakatawei 

VI. Tulukatawe, Tisikatawe. 

VII. Takakatawe, Tutukatawe. 
VIII. Tutukatawe. 
Tumiukatawe. 
Tapakatawe. 

Both of these tenses express simple futurity. By 
changing -ta^ -ti, etc., into -sa, -si, a form is obtained 
which expresses necessary consequence or obligation. 
Mjende mkatagulile Che Malunga saiche akurw malawi, 
Go and tell Che Mahinga that he must come here to- 
morrow; Eh, taiche, Yes, he will come; NarnJcugu- 
TYiula apa, meai, sigapite, If you break down [the bank] 
here, the water will escape. 

To both of these forms a continuative sense is 
attached by adding the suffix -je ; Tindaweje, I shall 
be binding, etc. 

3. The third, or distant, future is formed from the 
simple stem of the verb by prefixing the two 
syllables ti-chi-, or si-chi-, interposing between them 
the subjective pronoun. It is used of actions done 
at some distant tjme, or regarding the performance 
of which there is some doubt. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Tinjitawa {Ti-n-chirtawa), Tutuchitawa, 

or Sinjitawa, or Sutuchitawa. 

2. Tuuchitawa. Tumchitawa. 

3. Tachitawa. ^ Tachitawa. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



62 THE VEBB , \ 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

II. Tuuchitawa. Tijichdtawa, 

III. Tijichitawa. Tisichitcuwa. 

IV. Tichuihitawa. TUchitawa. 
V. Tilichitawa. Tigachitawa. 

^ VI. TuLuchitawa. Tisichitawa. 

Vn. Takcbchitawa. Tutvjchitawa. 

VIII. Tukuchitawa. 
. Twmuchitawa. 
TapachitoAJoa. 

A continuative sense is attached by the use of the 
suffix -ga ; 

Tinjitawaga, I shall be binding, etc. 

The negative of the simple future is formed by 
prefixing ngor to the simple stem of the verb, inter- 
posing the subjective pronoun. As usual, the vowel 
of the ngor is assimilated to the vowel of the pronoun. 
It has the meaning of " I will not bind." 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Ngindanjoa (N^gi-n-tawa). Ngututawa. 

2. Nguutawa. Ngumtawa, 

3. Ngatawa, Ngatawa. 
II. NgvAitawa, Ngijitawa. 

III. Ngijitawa. Ngisitawa. 

IV. Ngichitawa. Ngiitawa. 
V. Ngilitmjoa. Ngagatawa, 

VI. Ngvlutawa, Ngisitawa, 

VII. NgakatoAJoa, * Ngututawa, 

VIII. Ngukutawa, 
Ngumutawa, 
Ngapatawa. 

A stronger form of the above is obtained by sub- 
stituting ngasa-f ngisi-, etc., for nga-^ 'n>ffi-f etc. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THe VERB 



63 



Class. Sing. 

I, 1. Ngisindawa, 

2. Ngvsuutawa, 

3. Ngasatawa, 
II. NguBuviaway etc. 



Plur. - 

Ngvsuiutay^a, 
Ngusfu/mta/wa, ^ 
Ngasata/wa, 
Ngiaijitamay etc. 



6. Conditioned Mood, 

A present, or future, conditional mood is formed by 
pie^xing the conjunction nor, if, followed by the 
personal pronoun, and appending the suffix -ga. It 
has the meaning of **If I bind," "If I shall bind,'* 
etc. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Nindawaga {Ni-n-taworga). Natutawo/ga. 

2. Nuutawaga. Namtawaga. 

3. N'atawaga, Natawaga. 
II. NvAJutawaga. Najitawaga, 

III. Najitawaga, Nasitawctga, 

IV*. Ndchitawa^a, Nmiawaga. 

V. NaLitawaga. Nagatawa^a, 

VI. Nalutawaga. ^asitawaga, 

VII. Nakatawdga. Natutcuwaga, 

VIII. Nakutwwaga, 
Namutawaga, 
Napatanvaga. 

The conjunction na, with the simple infinitive, has 
a meaning similar to the above tense. 

Norkwika ngondo} If war come. 
Norji-ikorga ngondo, If war come. 

A past conditional mood is formed by prefixing the 
subjective pronoun, followed by the syllable -nga, and 
changing the final a into e. It has the meaning of 
" If 1 had bound," etc. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



64 



THE VERB 



Class. Sing. Plur. 

, I. 1. Ningata/we (^Ni-nga-tawe), TuTiga/tawe, 

2. Ungatawe. Mungatawe. 

3. Angatawe, Angata/we, , 
II. UngcUa/uje, Jingatawe. 

III. Jingatawe, Singcbtawe, 

IV. Chingatawe. IngcUatoe. 
V. Lingatawe, Gangatawe, 

VI. Lungatawe. Singatawe, 

VII. Komgatawe. Tungatawe. 
VIII. Kwngatawe, 
Mungatawe, 
Pangatatoe. 

The negative of this mood is formed by prefixing 
the personal pronoun followed by the syllable ka, 
and adding the suffix -ga. This form has the mean- 
ing of " If I do not bind," or, **If I had not bound," 
etc. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Ngatawaga (N'-kortawa-ga), Tukdtawaga. 

2. Vhai,awaga, Mkatawa^a, 

3. Akatawaga, Akatawaga, 
II. Ukatawaga, Jikata/waga, 

III. Jikatawaga, Sikatawaga, 

IV. Chikatawaga. IkatoAJoaga. 
V. Likatawa>ga. Gakatawa>ga, 

VI. iMkatoAJoo/ga. Sikatawaga. 

VII. Kakatawajga. Tukatawaga. 

VIII. Kiikatawaga, 
Mukatawaga, 
Pakatawaga, 

Another form of the above is obtained by using the 
same prefixes, but changing the final a into e, and 
adding the suffix -je. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE VERB 

Class. Sing. 

I. 1. NgdtoAJoeje {N-Jcortawe-je). 

2. Ukataweje, 

3. Akataweje, 
II. Ukataweje, etc. 



65 



Plur. 
Tuhdtaweje. 
MhUaweje. 
Akataweje. 
Jikata/weje, etc. 

In both of these cases stress is laid on the accentu- 
ation of the ka, to distinguish them from the sub- 
junctive, which has the same form. 



7. Contingent Mood. 

A present contingent mood is formed by prefixing 
the subjective pronoun, followed by -nga, and append- 
ing the suffix -^a. It puts the results of a condition 
as present, and has the meaning of "I should be 
binding " (i. e. if something else had happened). 



Class. Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 1. Ningatawaga {Ni-nga-tawa- 


Tungatawaga, 


ga). 




2. Uhgatawaga. 


Jingatawaga. 


3. Angatawaga. 


Angatawaga. 


II. Ungatawaga. 


Jingatawaga. 


HI. Jingatawaga. 


Singatawaga. 


IV. Chingatawaga. 


Ingatawaga. 


v. LingatoAJoaga. 


Ga/ngatawaga. 


YI. Lungatawaga. 


Singatawaga, 


VII. Kangatawaga. 


Timgatawaga. 


VIII. Kwngatawaga. 




Mmigatawaga, 




Pcmgatawaga. 





A past or futwre contingent mood is formed by 
prefixing the pronoun, followed by the syllable -nga, 
and making the terminal change as in the perfect 
tenses. It supposes something else to have happened 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



66 



THE VEBB 



or to be about to happen difPerent from the actuality, 

and may be expressed by the English, " I should hav^ 
bound," or "I should bind." 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. JVingatawile {Ni-nga-tawUe). TungatawUe. 

2. Ungatawile. Mungatawile. 

3. Angatawile. Angatawile, 
II. Ungatawile. JingatawUe, 

III. JingatawUe. Singatawile. 

IV. Chingatawile. Ingatawile. 
V. LingatawUe. Gangatawile. 

VI. Lungatawih. Singatawile. 

VII. Kangatawile, Tungatawile. 
VIII. KungatawUe. 
MungatawUe. 
Pangatawile. 

A negative of this mood is formed by prefixing 
ngingini; or ngihini-^ to the simple form of the verb, 
interposing the subjective pronoun. It has the mean- 
ing of " I should not have bound " (i. e. if something 
else had been the case), etc. 
Class. Slug. Plur. 

I. 1. Ngin^inindawa {Ngingini- Ngukunututawa. 
n-tawa). 





2. Ngukunuutawa. 


Ngukunumtawa. 




3, Ngakanatawa. 


Ngakanatawa. 


II. 


Ngukunuutawa. 


NgiMnijitawa. 


III. 


NgiMnijitawa. 


Ngikinisitawa. 


IV. 


Ngikinichitawa. 


Ngikiniitawa. 


V. 


Ngikinilitawa. 


Ngakanagatawa. 


VI. 


Ngukunidutawa. 


Ngihinisitawa. 


VII. 

^III. 


Ngakanakatawa. 
Nguhumukutawa. 
Ngukunwmutawa. 
Ngakana/patawa. 


Nguhinututawa, 



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THE VERB 67 

The following examples illustrate the use of the 
conditional and contingent moods : — 

Angaiche sing^anga ngakanauwa mpwanga, If the 
doctor had come, my younger brother should not 
have died. 

Jikdicheje via rrudavn tutvjiae, If rain don't fall 
to-morrow we shall come. 

Najiikaga ula lelo tutugone aq)cmopcmo^ If rain fall 
to-day we shall sleep in this place here. 

Akdihaga liao taiche lelo, If they did not come 
yesterday they will come to-day. 

Akdkarmdaga lukonji angagwile, If he had not seized 
hold of the rope he would have fallen. 

Amcmgwetu/ ningagwUe, Dear me ! I almost fell. 

TungcUa/wile kundawipe, nginginijitusimana ula 'ji. 
If we had started early in the morning this rain would 
not have overtaken us. 

8. Subjunctive Mood. 

The subjunctive mood is formed by prefixing the 
pronoun to the simple form of the verb, and changing 
the final a into e. It expresses an action which is the 
consequence or result of another action, and may be 
expressed by the English, "That I may bind," or 
" Let me bind," etc. It is also used as an imperative 
(see Imperative Mood). 

Class. SiDg. Plur. 

I. 1. Ndawe {N-tawe), Tutawe, 

2. Utawe. Mtawe. 

3. Atawe. Atawe 
II. Utawe, Jitawe, 

III. JitoAJoe, Sitawe. 

IV. Chitawe, Itctme. 
V. lAUmjoe. Gatawe, 

VI. LutoAJoe, Sitawe, 



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68 


THE VERB 




Class. Sing. 




Plnr. 


VII. Katawe, 




Tutawe. 


Vill. Kutawe. 






Mutawe. 






Fatawe, 







When emphasis and directness of action are implied, 
-kob^ is inserted between the pronoun and the stem ; 
also when the action is to be performed at some 
distance. 
Class. Siag. Plur. 

I. 1. Rgatawe {N-kortawe), Tukatawe, 

2. TukatOAJoe, etc. MkataKje, etc. 

This form in -ka- occurs where a simpile future 
occurs in English. Ana 7igatende ai ? Shall I do 
these things ] 

The negative of this mood is formed by prefixing 
the pronoun to the simple form of the verb, inter- 
posing the syllable -ka-. It has the meaning of 
"That I may not bind," "Lest I bind,'' etc. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Ngatonjoa (N-kortawa), Tvkatawa, 

2. JJkatawa. Mkatanva, 

3. Akatawa, Akatawa, 
II. TJkatawa, Jikatawa. 

III. JikatoAJoa. Sikatawa, 

rV. Chikatawa, IkxUawa, 

V. Likatawa, Gakata/wa. 

YI. Lukatawa, Sika^tOAJoa, 

VII, KakatoAJoa, Tvkatawa, 

VIII. Kukata/wa. 
Mukatawa, 
Fakatawa, 

A stronger form of the negative is obtained by 
substituting -kaaa- or -kaja- for ka-. 



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THE YEBB 69 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Ngaaatawa (^N-kasa-tawd), TukascUawa, 

2. Ukasatawa. Mkaaatawa. 

3. Akasatawa. Akasatawa. 

II. Ukaaatawa, etc. Jikasatawa^ etc. 

Continuative meanings are attached to the positive 
form by appending the suffix -je-y and to the negative 
form by appending the suffix -ga. 

The subjunctive mood has very frequently an 
obligatory meaning almost corresponding to our 
English "must." Ngengupakornhola kwika lelo, ngajavie 
ku magambo, I cannot come to-day, I must go to the 
court. " Must " or " ought '' in the sense of duty are 
better rendered by the verb kuwajUay or kuwajUwa, 
to be fitting, to behove. 

Example : Ndawi ; jijise, [I have] a conundrum ; 
let it come. 

Ngahwele kwitwmhi ngaloh kanga jipite ngondo. Let 
me climb the hill that I may see whether the war has 
gone. 

Mtagviile Che Chitde akoUsye moto, Tell Che Chi- 
tele to light the fire. 

Mjime chiri kuti Tnlole pachanya pakwe. Stand 
straight up that you may look at the top. 

9. Potential Mood. 

The potential mood is formed by putting ta- before 
the infinitive, and prefixing the subjective pronoun. 
It implies permissibility as well as possibility. The 
meaning is expressed by the English, " That I may 
bind," " Lest I bind,'' etc. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. NdxihatoAjoa [N-ta-kutawa), Tutakutawa, 

2. Utdkutatoa, Mtakutwwa, 

3. Atakutawa. AtaJcutawa. 



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70 THE VERB 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

II. Utahutawa. JitaJcutcuwa, 

III. Jitakutawa. Sitahatawa, 

IV. Chitahutawa. Itakutawa, 
V. Litahutawa, Gatdkuta/wa^ 

VI. Lutdkutawa. Sitakutawa, 

VII. KatakutoAva, Tutakutawa, 

VIII. Kutahutmjoa. 
Mutakutawa, 
Patakutawa, 

Example : Mhxv/jvh humlcmgo atakurinjUa, Open 
the door that he may come in. 

MkaugaU hmdango atakwinjUa, Shut the doQr lest 
he come in. 

Mka/mulUe mwanache *chenene ataJcugwa, Take hold 
of the child carefully lest he fall. 

Na/mhisaka, doy mtakutenda sai, If you wish, yes, 
you may do so. 

By appending the suflSx -ga, a peculiar meaning is 
attached of discontinuing for the present and resum- 
ing again at a future time. Mtaknpanganyaga masengo 
sambano, na/mho ligvloy Leave off your work just now, 
but [resume it] in the evening. 

10. Participles. 

There is no complete form of the present participle 
in Yao. Its place is supplied (1) by the definite 
tenses present or past, (2) by the use of the infinitive 
with the prepositions pa and mu^ (3) by the conjunc- 
tion nay and, with the addition of the suffix -pe, 

(1) Example : Twamfisvmene (dvmhukvoemha scma^ We 
found him smoking. 

Alimkwangala wakuwele pa chisichi, Skipping about, 
he stumbled on a stump. 



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THE VERB 71 

Tvnngamibile hu/msimcma apite, You will only find 
him gone. 

(2) The second form is used only in the case of 
participles in agreement with the subject of the 
sentence. 

Example : Fakulinga uti wasomUe mjakwe, Trying 
the gun, he shot his companion. 

Mkutyoka wangalijvxiktdongolela wasokonochde mwi- 
tala, Starting without a guide, they strayed from the 
path. 

(3) The thwd form is used in a similar construction 
to the second. Na-tawa-pef Tying ; On tying ; Having 
tied. 

Example : Naikape ku muai walaliche wa ulendo 
wose, Arriving at the village, he called for all those 
[who had agreed to go] on the journey. 

Natamho/pe pa ugono wakomweche, Sitting down on 
the mat, he fainted away. 

(4) A fcmrih form of the present participle occurs 
in connection with verbs of motion or action which 
describes the second of tw(^ concurrent actions, as 
when we say. He went away crying. In the case of 
the three personal pronouns of the first class this 
form is made up of the subjective personal connective 
proi^oun with the auxiliary -chi- prefixed to the verbal 
stem ; generally the continuative -ga is added. 

Njitawaga, (I) binding. Tuohitawaga, (we) bind- 
ing. 

Uchitawaga, (thou) bind- Mchitawaga, (you) bind- 
ing, ing. 

Achitawaga, (he, she) Achitawaga^{\hey)hm^- 

binding. ing. 

In the other classes the mchi- is simply prefixed to 
the verbal stem and is the same for all classes. 
Naiche nnutukaga, I came running. 



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72 THE V^BEB 

Mwapite mchilokotaga ndahmay You went away 
picking up money. 

Tujuile Puchiseclheleibagay We have come rejoicing. 

Nyama jipite mchisfmihiigay The game has gQn^ off 
leaping. 

The pa8t participle is formed by changing the final 
a of the stem into e, and adding the prefixes as in the 
proper adjective, 

-tawe, bound. 

Twasimene ndemho jajiuwe^ We found the elephant 
dead. 

. The finite form of the verb in the past perfect tense 
is also used to represent the participle. 

Twasimene ndemho jivnle, We found the elephant 
dead. 

Twajiweni nywmba jipHe, We found the house 
burned. 



11. Other Verbal Forms. 

(a) By inserting -pa- *before the verbal st^m, a 
meaning is obtained that may be represented by the 
English "able." 

Ngvrpa'toAJoa, I am able to bind. 
Ngongw-parichilay I am not able to reach up to. 

(6) By changing the terminal a into ile^ or efe, and 
prefixing chi-y a form is obtained which, used with 
the verb "to be," has the meaning of "I am still 
binding," etc. 

NdUi chi-tatuUe, I am still binding. 

Ali chigonele, He is still sleeping. 

Waliji chikanUe^ They were still refusing. 



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THE VERB 73 

(e) The above form used alone has the meaning of 
"Since I bound," etc. 

Chi'tawUe nyumha janguy Since I built (bound) my 
house. 

ChitcmdUile kultoala, nganajimuka, Since he took 
ill, he has not risen [out of bed]. 

OhiichUe ngininimhona, Since he came, I have not 
seen him. 

This form may take a substantive construction, and 
be qualified by adjectives, pronouns, etc. 

ChavlUe (chi-javlile) clisnu ^chUa, Since you went 
away. 

(d) By prefixing the relative pronoun, followed by 
ana, to the verbal stem, and adding the suffix -pe, a 
form is obtained which marks the action of the verb 
as simply completed. 

Mwariache jucma-pa/gworpe, A child just born. 
Masengo gana-Trialarpe, A work just finished. 

(e) By reduplicating the stem and changing the 
final -a into -e the continuative action of the verb is 
denoted. This reduplicating may go on to any length, 
often accompanied by some action of the speaker's 
hand or body descriptive of the meaning of the word 
or phrase. WcUisile tUetUe, He fled and continued 
fleeing; Sinjiwelecheta wechetewechete au utende^u, I 
will speak and go on speaking in this way. f 

12. Afiodliary Verbs cmd Copula. 

The verb hU% to say, is used as an auxiliary verb 
in its past tenses, -chite or -tite. It is used in con- 
junction with the subjimctive form of the principal 
verb. The suffix -je may or may not be appended. 

The present perfect tense has the meaning of "I 
would bind/' " I am about to bind/' etc. 



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74 THE VEBB 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1 . Njite ndatoe (or Njiteje ndawe). Tuchite tutawe. 





2. Uchite utawe. 


Mchite mtawe. 




3. Achite atawe. 


Achite atawe. 


IT. 


Uchite utawe. 


Jichitejitawe. 


III. 


Jichitejitawe, 


Sichite sitawe. 


IV. 


Chichite chitawe. 


Ichite itawe. 


V. 


Lichite Utawe, 


Gachite gatawe. 


VI. 


Luchite lutawe. 


Sichite sitawe. 


VII. 


Koichite katawe. 


Tuchite tutawe. 


VIII. 


Kuchite hutawe, 
Muchite mutawe, 
Pachite patawe. 





The past perfect tense has the meaning of " I would 
have bound," " I was about to bind," etc. The form 
of the past tense -tiji is employed, as well as -chite 
and -tite. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. N^achite a.ud Natiji ndawe. Twachite smd Twa- 

tiji tutawe. 

2. WoKihite and Watiji ndawe. Mwachite and Mwa- 

tiji mtawe. 

3. Achite and Atiji atawe. Wachite and Watiji 

atawe. 
II. Wachite and Watiji Utatjoe^ etc. Jachite and Jatiji 

jitanve, etc. 

In the future tense and subjunctive mood ktUi 
takes its forms as from a verb kujila, to say. Thus 
we have tinjUe, I will say, tuujiie, thou wilt say, 
tajUcy he will say, etc. This form takes also the 
second and third futures in due order, tingajUe^ etc., 
and ainjijila, etc., I will say. As auxiliaries to the 
verb these forms give it the meaning of "I will be 
about to bind." 



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THE VERB 75 

Similarly the subjunctive form is in use mjile, and 
the continuative mjileje. 

The negative parts of the verb kuti are rarely 
heard. Those in use are ngakuti, he does not say, and 
ngancUiy he did not say. The negatives of kujUa are 
more frequently heard, as, Tigtjmv/mjilay you did not 
say, ngtmutujilOf we did not say, ngusiUujila, we will 
not say, etc. 

A part of the negative of kut% ngatif is used as a 
general negative of the copula (see page 78). 

Kuwa, to be. 

The verb kuwa has peculiar forms in its present 
and past tenses. The remaining pdrts in use follow 
the usual formation. 

The present tense has the meaning of " I am," etc., 
denoting mere existence. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Ndili, Tidi. 

2. Uli, Mull 

3. AH. All 
II. Uli, JUL 

III. JUL SUL 

IV. ChUL EL 
V. LUL GalL 

VI. LvlL SUL 

VII. KcdL TulL 

VIII. KvlL 
MvZL 
PcdL 

The past tense has the meaning of ** I was," etc. 
Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. NcdijL TwalijL 

2. WcUijL MwalijL 

3. Waliji (Aliji), Waliji, 



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76 



THE YSBB 


Class. Sing. 


Plur. 


II. WalijL 


Jaliji, 


III. Jaliji. 


SycUiji. 


IV. Chcdiji. 


Ycdiji, 


V. LyalijL 


Galiji. 


VI. I/iudiji, 


SyalijL 


VII. Kaliji. 


Twaliji. 


VIII. Kwaliji. 


% 


Mwcdiji. 




FcUiji 





When being in or at a place is denoted, the pre- 
positions ku^ mUy pa, are combined with the verb " to 
be.*' With hu and pa the combined form has the 
meaning of " I am at," etc. 



Class. Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 1. Nihdi. 


Tukndi. 


2. Uhuli. 


Muhdi, 


3. Ahuli. 


Wahdi, 


il. Ukul% etc. 


JHculi, etc. 


Class. Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 1. Nipali, 


Tupali. 


2. Upali, 


Mupali. 


3. ApalL 


WapalL 


II. UpaZ% etc. 


Jipali, etc. 


III. Jipali, etc. 


Sipali, etc. 


h mu, the combined form has the mean 


in," etc. 




Class. Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 1. Nimuli, 


TumvlL 


2, Wamuli. 


MumvlL 


3. AmvlL 


Wamuli, 


II. UmvU, 


Jimvli, 


m. Jimuliy etc. 


Simvli, etc. 



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THE VERB 77 

The past tense of these forms is obtained by in- 
serting a between the pronoun and the preposition. 
Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. 1. Nahdi. Twahuli. 

2. WahulL Mwahvdi, 

3. Ahdi. Wahdi, 
II. WoJculi, etc. Jakidi^ etc. 

The remaining parts in use follow the usual form. 
These are — 

1st Future, Timhe or Timhwe for {Tinwely etc. 

2nd „ Tir^gcme, etc. 

3rd „ Sinjiwa, etc. 

Subjunctive, Mhe^ Uwe, etc. 

Conditional, Nmgawe^ etc. 

Contingent, Ningcdiji, etc. 

Imperative, Mbcmi, etc. 

The negative parts of kuwa are formed in the 
usual way. 

Present negative, Nginimha, etc. 
Past negative, Nginimha, etc 
Future negative, Ngisvmha^ etc. 
Negative Imperative, Mkosomha, 
Indefinite Negative, Juang(d% etc. 

Kutefnday to do. 

As has already been f)ointed out under the various 
tenses, the verb kut&nda is used as an auxiliary, giving 
in the present tense the verb (which is in the infini- 
tive) the meaning of, I am in the act of doing, and 
in the perfect tenses the meaning of, I have actually 
or really done, or I have done once and for all. The 
forms have been already noted undet the various 
tenses. 



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78 THE VERB 

Tfte Co]9iUaf Na, N'e, My No, iVe, Kdi, Ndo, 

While the verb "to be " -li occasionally bears the 
force and has the use of the copula, the true copula, 
L e, that which actually denotes the identity of the 
two substantives, is expressed by^the conjunction 
iVa, JV^e, M, No, Nu, Ndi, Ndo, On the other hand 
the verb " to be " in its various forms (see page 75) 
is used in those cases where the connection is that of 
description or classification. Thus the Yao \ says, 
Lisimba no chikoko, the lion is a wild beast ; Muaa ndi 
mclwbuda, Moses is a boy ; Tidi une, it is I ; chicid 
cherecho, what is that ; ndi makau ga mbtva, it is 
a dog's footmarks. When, however, he wishes to 
describe or classify, he uses the verb "to be " as in 
English. Thus Muaa ali juakalamuka, Moses is 
clever ; nyama^jo aambano jili ndu / that animal is 
now out of sight. 

The negative of the copula may be expressed by 
the negative form of the verb " to be " (see page 75). 
Generally this negative is rendered by ngati, which is 
doubtless a negative of either the present or the 
future of the verb huti, and is used for all classes, 
persons, and numbers of the substantive ; ngati ajo 
nambo aju, it is not that one but this ; ngcUi wajinji 
nambo anamdwpe, not many but let them be few. 

When connected with the demonstratives ajo, ao, 
etc., the copula is joinjed to them, making ndijo, it is 
he, or, that is the one, ndilyo, it is that one. 

13. Verbal Formation, 

The root-idea of the verb is capable of undergoing 
several modifications of meaning. These are ex- 
pressed by modifications of or additions to the verbal 
stem. In this way, six different forms, in addition 
to the simple form, are obtained. 



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THE VERB 79 

1. Applied Form. 

2. Causative and Permissive Form. 

3. Intensitive Form. 

4. Beflexive Form. 

5. Reciprocal Form. 

6. Reversive Form. 

1. What is called the applied form is used in cases 
where, in English, a preposition would be employed 
to connect the verb with its object. The paucity of 
prepositions in Yao brings this form into constant 
use. It is obtained by changing the final -a into -Ua 
or -ela. The termination -Ua is used when the vowel 
of the preceding syllable is a, i, or u, and -ela when 
it is e or o. 

Kujigala^ to carry. Kujigalila, to carry for. 

Kuuja, to turn back. KuujUa, to turn back at. 

Kviua, to flee. Xutilila, to flee to. 

Kutola, to bring. Kutolela^ to bring for. 

Kwenda, to go. JCwendela, to go for. 

Kuwelecheta, to speak. Kuwelechetela, to speak for ; 

to speak against. 

The same modification is also expressed in some 
instances by changing the final -a into 48ya, -ichisya, 
or -esya, -ecliesya, 

KtLgalavka^ to turn. Kugalauchisya, to turn to. 
KutUTnay to send. Kutumichisya^ to send for. 

2. A verb is rendered causative or permissive by 
changing the final -a into -isya or -esya^ or by 
changing the final syllable into -sya. 

Kutenday to do. Kutendesya, to cause to do ; 

to allow to do. 
Kukmmda^ to seize. KuTcamvUsya^ to cause to 

seize ; to allow to seize. 



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80 



TH* yBRB 



Kvsauka, to sufffer. 
Kuhdupuka^ to escape. 



Kuscmsyaj to cause to suffer; 

to punish. 
Kuhikupusya^ to save; to 

allow to escape. 

A stronger form is obtained by substituting -chisya 
or -cheaya for -sya ; as kukornivXichiayay Icuhdupuchisya 
for kukamvlisya, kuhdupusya. 

With this form the objective personal pronoun is 
always used as distinguished from the following 
intensitive form. 

T'ivo verbs hutama and hujima (hvima) make their 
causatives in ka ; hitamika, to set down ; kujimihij to 
cause to stand. 

3. The meaning of the verb is intensified by making 
the same modifications of the verbal stem as in the 
above form. With this form the objective personal 
pronoun is never employed. Thus kuwelechetesya 
means to speak much, but kumbelechetesya, to cause 
him to speak ; kugumilisya, to cry aloud exceedingly, 
but kmngumilisya, to make him to cry aloud. 

4. A verb obtains a reflexive meaning by prefixing 
li- to the stem. 

KuaumHa, to buy for. Kvlisumila, to buy for one's 

self. 
Kugawa^ to wound. KtUigawa, to wound one's 

self. 
KvAJoaUmga^ to plead. Kuliwalanjila, to plead for 

one's self. 

5. The reciprocal form is obtained by changing the 
terminal -a into -ana, 

Kunonyda^ to love. KunonyeUma^ to love otife 

another. 
Ku6wmdy to trade. Kuawmanay to trade With 

one another. 



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THB VEBB 81 

In certain vetbs, where the idea of multitude is 
conveyed, -ctm^cma, may be substituted for -ana. 

Kusonganay to come together. Kvsongangcma, to come 

together (of a great 
number). 

Xwika, to arrive. Kwikcmganay to arrive 

all together. 

A causative meaning is assigned to the above by 
changing -a/na into -anya. 

Kusonganay to come together. Kusongam,ya^ to gather 

together. 

6. Many verbs have their action reversed by chang- 
ing the final -a into -uhda or -ihda, 

Kvsyenfiga, to twine. Kusymvguhdat to untwine. 

Kul/vmibay to join. KvlumbvJeula, to detach. 

In some cases the action is reversed by changing 
'ilea into -uhula, 

KuuniJca, to cover. KvAinuhda, to uncover. 



14. Continuative Suffioces, -ga, -je, and -pe. 

By adding the suffix -ga to all verbal formations 
ending in -a, and -je to all formations ending in -e, 
a continuative meaning is given to them. This has 
been already pointed out under the various moods 
and tenses. 

The enclitic -pe has the same significance. Alimkvr 
tawaqye^ he continues to bind, he is still binding. 

The same -pe has also the effect of postponing the 



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82 THfi VBRfi 

action of the verb till some fatui^ time. Thus- 
tingalemhepe may mean, I will go on writing; but it 
may also signify, I will write afterwards, not just 
now. This latter form ie probably not originally a 
Yao idiom. In all likelihood it has been borrowed 
from the neighbouring Chinyanja tongue. 



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CHAPTER VIII 

THE ADVERB, PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, AND 
INTBBJECTION 

1. Adverbs. 

The adverb in Yao follows the word it qualifies. 

Mhekchete 'chenene. Speak distinctly. 
Wambone mnope. Very good. 

Several verbs form adverbs by prefixing kwa and 
2/a to the infinitive. 

Kwahulimba, Strongly. 
Yakulimba, Strongly. 

Sometimes the ku of the infinitive is omitted, as 
Ya kcmgomiha, Forceably. 

Cha and ya followed by a noun are also used 
adverbially, as 

Cha machUi, Strongly. 

Ya chanaaa, Sorrowfully. 

Cha lunda, Wisely. 

Cha mhone, Well. 

Ya mtega, Vainly, foolishly. 

Many English adverbs may be translated by the 
83 

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84 THE ADVERB, PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, 

adverb mnopey which intensifies the action or quality 
expressed by the word which it governs; others 
by richenene, ickenene, or ^cheneney which has the sig- 
nificance of our English well, nicely. Other adverbs 
again are expressed by the intensitive form of thk 
verb. 

Mnyanyicfie mnope, Speak loudly. 
MJcakweie mnope, Climb far up. 
Akuwelecheta 'chenene, He speaks distinctly. 
Mtendeje 'chenens, Do it carefully. 
Solesycmi, Dig deeply. 

The following examples illustrate the use of the 
adverbs, when, where, whence, whether, wherein : — 

1 . ** When,'' po, pe, po. . .'po, pe.,.^pala, po,,.^paUi, 
Po taiche, When he comes. 

Po wajawUe ^po, When he went away (alluding to 
some known event). 

Po wajawile ^pala, When he went away (alluding 
to some still more distant event). 

Pe twapanganyaga masengo ^pala, angati twakanjUe 
mitela msano na v/moy When we were working that 
time, did we not fell six trees ? 

The adverb always immediately precedes the verb 
of the adverbial clause, and the principal clause may 
or may not be introduced by the conjunction nipoy 
or nay ne, ni, no, nu, or the verb of the clause may 
be in the infinitive with ne, as in the following 
forms : — 

When the war was over the chief returned, Pe 
japite ngondo wausUe mchimwene ; Pe japite ngondo 
nipo wausile mchimwene ; Pe japite ngondo W) wausile 
mchimwene ; Pe japite ngondo nekuuja mchimwene, 

2. "Where," po, hu, po,..*po, po...*pala, ku...^ko, 
^hu...^kula. 



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AND INTERJECTION 85 

Nwmhweni (dimhwima po watawile nytmiha jakwe, I 
saw him standing where he built his house. 

Nambweni ali/mkxjoimapo watawile nyuwha 'po, I saw 
him standing where he built the house (referring to 
some definite spot). 

Na/mhweni alimkwima po watawile nyumha 'pala (re- 
ferring to some remote definite spot). 

Ngongumanya kwali (hi ali), I don't know where 
he is. 

NarnhsUe ku twamsimene *hda, I left him yonder 
where we met him. 

3. "Whence," "whither," ku, ku..:ko, ha..:hala, 

Wauaile ku waumile ^ko, He returned whence he 
came. 

Ngongumanya ku wajHe, I don't know whither he 
went. 

4. " Wherein," mu, mu . . . 'mo, mu. . . ^muLa, 

M'hokosi mu wawiaUe nguo 'mula tumbone mIesOy In 
the box in which he placed the cloth you'll find a 
handkerchief. 

The following list contains most of the adverbs in 
common use : — 

Abroad, pa^a, kusa. 

Across, chamchitipa, chcmichipingula. 

Afterwards, panyuma, kanyuma. 

Again, soni ; the second time kaunli. 

All together, jtwmo. 

Aloft, penam>y pachanya. 

Alone, jikay jikape. 

Always, mowa goaepe. 

Apart, jxichisyepela, kundundumala. 

Backwards, hanywma. 

Directly, aambano *jino. 



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86 THE ADVERB, PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, 

Down, downwards, kusiy pasi. 

Early in the morning, kundatvi, hundaudpe, before 
cockcrow, huwasihasxhwjpe. 

Every wjaere, j)08epo8e, pana/pose, posepe. 

Far away, kwanaitlay kwakutcdika. 

Fast, chitema. 

Finally, pa mbesi. 

Forwards, pcmjo, kujnbujo. 

Further, kupv/nda. 

Gently, mbolembole. 

Gratis, Ivlele. 

Hereafter, panyuma pano. 

Immediately, sambcmo, scmibario *Jino. 

Inside, mhati. 

Lengthwise, chcmichUeu, 

Little, a, pcmcmdi. 

Merely, pe. 

More, hupunda. 

Much, kwakujinji, mnope. 

No, ngwamba. 

Not: is it not so] eti? is it not, ngati? it is not, 
ngati, angati ; it is not here, he is not here, huxmgaii ; 
nothing, ngechipcdi; he is not here, nganakugwa ; it 
is not he, ngcmali ^wo. 

Now, samhano, sambano pano, sambano ^jino. 

Often, kavnli kawili, kwakujinji. 

Once, krnno, komipepe. 

O ! mwa. O chief, mwa ^chimwens. 

Outside, kusa, pasa. 

Pairs, in, -loUi -wili. 

Privately, pa mhali, pa^hisyepela. 

Quickly, chitema, chitema. 

So, sai, iyoyo, aii. 

Sometimes, kamokamo. 

Soon, sambano. 

There, akuno, ako, akula, apano, pepano, apo, apala. 



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AND INTBBJECTION 87 

Throughout, 'paae. 

Thus, m.% aai, inoino. 

To-day, Ido, lelo ^jino, Ido [/t. 

Together, pcumoy pampepe. 

Well, ueken&nsy ichenene^ ^cheneney hu>ambone. 

Within, m^mhatiy pakati. 

Without, pasay hdsa. 

Yes, do. 

Enclitic -tu gives an intensive force to all verbs 
and other parts of speech to which it is affixed. 

** Before " is expressed by the negative past of the 
verb in -e. (See page 59.) 

" After" may be expressed by the word panyvma or 
panywma paJcwey after or afterwards. More generally 
the verb kumcday to finish, is used in the past perfect 
tense jtw wamasile, or pcmuiaUey when he had finished, 
or in the form v^cmudapey immediately on finishing. 
Po wamiasile kutmoa nywmha wajawUey when or after 
he had built the house he went away. NcmuUape 
hidya watisUey after he had eaten he ran away. 

Certain words onomatopoetic in their character 
may be classed as adverbs. They represent the 
action or the idea referred to, and may be used with 
or without the descriptive verb ; thus chwm ^signifies 
the sound of falling into water, like our English 
**splash"; Wcbgwile m^Twes*,* chum I He fell into the 
water, splash. MyUy with the fingers drawn across 
the lips, or accompanied by a peculiar motion of the 
hands one over the other, signifies completion ; 
Ngondo jaicfie nehvmicda wandu myu ! The war came 
and the population was completely destroyed. 

An idiomatic use of the verb kutiy ** to say," is used 
in conjunction with such words. To the form -ati is 
prefixed the characteristic or pronoun of the object 
described, and joined with the onomatopoetic has the 



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88 THE ADVERB, PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, 

force and application of an adjective. Nguoj(Ui pyu. 
Red cloth (literally, the cloth which says pyu^ or red). 
Nah, ngope jakwe jati bi, Look, his face is black {i.e. 
he is angry). 

The following list comprehends the chief onoma- 
topoetic words with the ideas they are expressive 
of:— 

£i, blackness, anger. 

Chcdichali, elastic. 

Chena, splitting open. 

Chirif standing upright. 

Ckotif fulness. 

Chwm, falling into the water. 

Chwa, dryness. 

Chwe, fizzing, as hot iron causes on being immerged 
in water ; aching pain. 

Chwiy abundance, great numbers. 

JDedede, sound of drumming. 

Z)^, di...y sound of two-legged animal running or 
walking. 

Gau, soft, like porridge. 

Gowoy hanging limp and loosely. 

Gvmiu^ falling of plaster off a wall. 

Gundvlij lying on the bare floor. 

Gwa, rigidly. 

Gwagwcda gwagwala, bare upright objects. 

Gwahita^ sprouting. 

Gwere, disappearing. 

Gwesigwesi, going round and round about a thing. 

GwUi, swallowing. 

Jwwa^ lightly. 

J% invisibility. 

Jijiri jijiri, disorder. 

Jqjqfojo..,f water trickling down, rain falling. 

Juu, quite still. 



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AND INTERJECTION 89 

Kachi, puff of smoke. 

Kapi, lapping of water. 

KaPu, gnawing. 

Kee^ cutting or tearing. 

KohtOy squeezing. 

Kuy falling. 

Ku<t objects scattered about. 

Kuhwiy water lapping on the sides of a vessel. 

Kuputu kupiUu, sound of four-legged animal 
running. 
* Kwala, basking in the sun. 

Kwapu, running off in haste. 

Kwehwere, dragging along the ground. 

LapUy flash, as of gunpowder. 

Lcmy crouching. 

Lelu, whiteness. 

Lyolyolyo,..y sweetness. 

Jf 6e, whiteness, brightness. 

Mhuy whiteness, brightness. 

Mhwi, leaping. 

Mbwe, scatteriilg about. 

MhyUy thin above and thick below. 

MuLirrmlly shining. 

Mvhi, crowding together. 

Mway coming up suddenly into the open. 

MunmOf standing. 

Mya, smoothness, softness, quietness. 

MyOy diving. 

MyomyOj sucking. 

MyUf completion. 

Myuy being startled. 

Nde, fulness. 

Ndi, strength, firmness. 

Ndindindiy full to the brim. 
. Ndondondo, falling of drops. 

Nduy invisibility. 



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90 THE ADVBRB, PKEP08ITI0N, CONJUNCTION 

Ndwa, face to face. 

Ndyay fineness or beauty of finish. ' 

Nga, pungent tast^> 

Ngoy congregating together. 

Nj% strength. 

Njo, prominence. 

Njonjonjo...^ steadily running. 

Nyonjenyonje, gnawing of hunger. 

Pe, completeness. 

Pee, quietness, stillness. 

Fese, falling into the water. 

Peta^ waving in the air. 

Pete, completion. 

Pihuy falling over. 

Pipipi^ wrapping up anything. 

Piringu piringu, disorder. 

Powa, soft, juicy. 

Pvlika pulika, running blindly. 

Pupulu, extinction. 

PivcUUf tripping up. 

Pwemwe, protruding. 

Pya, redness. 

PyalUf tripping up. 

Pye, splashing in water. 

PyeSf pushing in a hot iron into wood. 

jSapif water running. 

Si, coldness, saltlessness. 

JSiif emptiness, silence. 

Sililif invisibility. 

Site, smoothly. 

SupUf being startled. 

Syo, turning back. 

I'vririri, smoothness, softness. 

Tititiy cutting. 

To, fulness. 

Tqjo, being startled. 



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AND INTEBJBCTION 91 

Tola J in a heap. 

Tonyu, poking into a hole. 

Tu<3d^ rising up of a column of smoke. 

Tu8u, smashing. 

Tutvmhu, pulling up out of the ground. 

Tuti4u, people going in " Indian file." 

TwCf scattering. 

TtirL piercing. 

Tvntu, coming into view. 

Tya^ flatness. 

Tyatya, marking, writing. 

UnvJm, opening up. 

Waka, falling off. 

Waaa, water spouting up from below. 

Weluwelu, softness, smoothness. 

WewewBy soft. 

WUiwUi, black, blue. 

Winu, overleaping. 

Witukuy falling ii\to a trap. 

Wiyjiwif throbbing. 

Wowowo, noise of people talking. 

2. Prepositions, 

There are very few prepositions in Yao. Their 
place is usually supplied by the applied form of the 
verb (see p. 79). Many are expressed by a noun, or 
by the relative preposition -a. Some English preposi- 
tions have no Yao equivalent. " From " is an example. 
It must be expressed by kutyohiy "to start," if it 
refers to place, and by kttkmda, "to begin," if it 
refers to time. 

iVa, **with," **hy," may assume any of the forms 
Tie, ni, no, nu. Ni mpeni, with a knife. It is joined 
to a contracted form of the pronoun (see p. 31). 

Ku, to. It expresses motion towards, but is also 



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92 THE ADVERB, PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, 

used in the sense of *'at." When connected with a 
proper name hur becomes kwa. 

Mu, in. It expresses position within the object or 
action conveyed by the substantive or verb. 

Pa, at. It denotes position at the object indicated. 

Mpaka, mpaka ku^ mpikay denote "as far as," 
"until," "up to." TwajesUe mpaka hwitvmM, We 
went as far as the hill. It is used also of time; 
Mpaka leiof Until to-day. 

The following list contains most of the prepositions 
in common use : — 

Above, penaniy pena/ni pa,' pachanya, pachanya pa. 

According to, mpela»ga, mpela, malinga ni. 

After, panyuma pa, mv/nyuma mwa. 

Among, jKi, pakati pa. 

Before, pa/ajo pa, pa mbujo pa. 

Behind, panyvma pa. 

Beside, rrvgulugyZu, pa mbali pa. 

Between, pa chilikati pa, pakati pa. 

By, ni, na. 

Except, akaweje. 

Instead of, m'malo mwa. 

Into, m\ mu. 

On, pachanya, pa, mwa. 

To, ku. 

Under, poM, pasipa, husi, kusi kwa. 

With, ni, -na (with relative particle). 

Within, m^mkati mwa. 

Without, paaa pa, -ngali (with relative particle). 

Note. — In Yao ** before" and "after" bear a 
significance different from that they bear in English. 
This applies both to time and place. Where in English 
we would say, The day after to-morrow, the Yao 
would say, The day before to-morrow. His attitude 
is that of one standing with his face turned forwards, 



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AND INTERJECTION 93 

• 

and hence all that lies in the future is " before ** all 
that lies ** after/' and so with events of the past. 
The same holds good as regards his attitude towards 
things in space. " Before " is that which lies in front 
of what he is looking at, where in English we would 
most frequently say "after." This idiom must i)e 
noted in a native's description of events both as 
regards time and place. 



3. Conjunctions, 

JVa, ne, ni, no, nu, "and," is used to couple sub- 
stantives, adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs; nipo, 
" and," is used to couple verbs, except in the case of 
the infinitive mood, when ne is used. 

Namboy but, now, nevertheless. Namho has fre- 
quently the meaning of "rather," "but rather," 
"rather would I have," etc. Nguo ajo husalal/i, 
nguaaha aji rumtbo, That cloth is pretty, but I would 
rather have this. 

Namwno, Nachiwa/nvwno, Nam^se, although. 

iVa, Nawaga, Naga, if. "If" is more generally 
expressed by the conditional mood of the verb. 

Komga, perhaps. 

Kut% that, in order that. "That," "in order 
that," is also expressed by the subjunctive mood of 
the verb, with or without the use of the kutL 

Men/ema, therefore, consequently. 

Panjipa, perhaps. 



4. Interjections. 

Many natives use a great deal of action, joined 
with half -articulate sounds, to express their meaning, 
and, as a rule, these vary with the speaker. The 



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^94 INTERJECTIONS 

following list contains the interjections in common 
use with the ideas or meanings they represent : — 

Ugwi ! sur|)rise, wonder. 
Amangtoetu ! Dear me ! 
Ngondol surprise. 
Ea! wonder. 
Amao ! grief, sorrow. 

Mi ! Did you ever hear the like ! The idea of such 
a thing ! 

M* ! (with a shrug of the shoulders) dislike. 
Sa! impatience. 

There is no vxyrd in Yao to express thanks, but a 
gift is properly received with both hands, the recipient 
saying at the same time ** Ea, Ea^ 

The Yao salutation is " TwagonilSf^ We slept. In 
those districts frequented by the Arab and coast 
trader, the expression NaaVccmm^ for NaahUca miguu, 
**I embrace your feet," is used by an inferior to a 
superior, who in response uses the Arabic form 
Ma/rahahay Thank you, or Welcome. In parts 
reached by English influence, a European receives 
the salutation " Moni,'^ which to the native mind is 
a phonetic representation of " Good morning." 



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PART II 

YAO-ENGLISH VOCABUI 



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k: 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULAKY 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS 

In the following vocabulary only words in actual 
use have been inserted. With its system of prefix 
and suffix changes, Yao lends itself very readily to 
the formation of new words. By the use of the 
various class prefixes every verbal stem may be 
made the basis of a large number of substantives, 
whose meaning varies according to the class prefix 
employed. In this way large additions to the exist- 
ing vocabulary may be made. The following list, 
however, contains only such words as are embraced 
in the language as spoken at present. Few foreign 
words are incorporated, and those only which have 
already been naturalized, such as kaaa, a box, hdata^ 
a book, from the Portuguese kmha, cha/rta. Thus, 
60 far as it is complete, the vocabulary represents 
the terminology of the Yao tribe at its present stage 
of development. 

As the formation of the past tenses is the chief 
source of difficulty in obtaining a knowledge of the 
verb, the stem of the perfect tense, omitting pro- 
nominal prefixes, has been inserted after very many 
of the verbs. After each stem are given most of its 
derivatives in actual use, and where there is any 
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98 



YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



diversity from the usual passive, intensitive, etc., the 
meaning is appended. 

In searching for a word in the vocabulary, it is 
necessary first of all to find the stem by clearing it of 
all adventitious syllables, and to correct any changes 
which have been made in the stem during the process 
of grapimatical construction. The following list of 
the principal prefixes may be useful : — 



Substantive 


Prefixes, 






Chi', 


KVr, 


Mu-, 


U-, 


/-, 


Li-, 


N-, 


Wa-, 


Jir, 


Lu-, 


Pa; 




JVr, 


Ma-, 


Si-, 


, 


Ka-, 


Mi-, 


TU; 




Adjectival Prefixes. 






Chxichi-, 


Juam-, 


Lualu-, 


Twatvr, 


Gcmvor, 


Kaka-, 


Mwamu-, 


Wa-, 


Jaji-, 


Kwahu-, 


Papa-, 


Wo-. 


Jami-, 


Lyali-, 


Syasi-, 




Pronominal Prefioces. 






A-, 


Jua-, 


M-, 


JSi-, 


Chi', 


Ka-, 


Mu-, 


TVr, 


Go-, 


KVr, 


Mw-, 


U-, 


/-, 


Li., 


^', 


War, 


Ji^, 


Lu-, 


Par, 




Verbal Prefixes, 






^-, 


KVr, 


Ngana-, 


Tir, 


Chi-, 


-hUr, 


Ngisir, 


Ti-kor, 


Ka-, 


Kwm-, 


Nim-, 


TVr. 


-KOr, 


Nga., 


Sirchir, 




'Kanor, 


-Nga-, 


Tar, 




-Kasa-, 


Ngahoma-, 


-Tahor, 





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A has the sound of the a in " father.'* It is perhaps 
somewhat opener and flatter, especially in the 
case of the syllable wa. 
Ay followed by u, has the tendency to coalesce 
with it into an o sound. This is true of every 
case of combination of a and u in inflection ; as 
wojumu for wa ujwmu. In words such as hvoavla 
the sounds remain distinct. 
Ay followed by i, coalesces with it into e, as 
lyesimha for lyaisimha, from lya lisimha. 

A, sign of third person singular, prefixed to verbs 
agreeing with a substantive of the first class. 

-A, with the syllable of concord prefixed, denotes the 
prepositional relation, of, for. When the con- 
cordant syllables chi, ji, are prefixed to -a, the i 
is dropped, forming chuy ja. Lira, si-ay become 
lya, sya, 

-A-, prefixed to the stem of the perfect tense, trans- 
forms it into a past tense. Lijela lijasichsy the 
hoe has been lost ; lijela lyajasichsy the hoe was 
lost. 

Abwana, master, sir (Swahili). 

AcHAJBTU, pi. of mjetu, our friends ; companions. 
Achajenu, your friends. 
Ackajao, their friends. 

AcHAKONGWE, pi. oi juomlcongwe, females ; wives. 
99 

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100 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

AoHALENDO, pi. of wlendOf travellers ; strangers. 
AcHALONGO, pi. of mloTigo, relations. See Mlongo. 
Aghambumba, pi. of juandyumba^ shortened form 

dchamhay women. 
Achanasi, Anasi, acquaintances ; neighbours. 
AcHAPWANGA, pi. of mpwanga^ my younger brothers. 

See Mpwanga. 
Achapwenu, your younger brothers. 
AchapuxiOf his younger brothers. 
-ACHENi, with the syllable of concord prefixed. 

Whose 1 "Whom ? Nyumba aji jackeni f Whose 

house is this? AjUe kwacheni? To whom did 

he go] 
-ACHi, what for. Nyumha jachi 9 What is this house 

for? 
AcHiKATEMU, axos used in killing game. 
AcHiKULU, AcHiKULUGO, mother, used in speaking of 

her. The term used in addressing her is ammo. 

Achikuhiwcmgu, my mother. 
AcHiMSYENE, pi. of msyene, themselves, the owners. 

Achvmsyene migunda, The owners of the gardens. 
AoHiMWENE, pi. Waimwenb, chief, king. A polite 

form of address is achimwene, in the sense of 

"sir." 
AcHiNAKALANAKALA, the old people who are supposed 

to be conversant with all national customs and 

habits. 
AcHiNAMGAGADA, a tribe which uses a special axe 

(katemu), with a long straight tang and a half- 
moon-shaped head at the end of it. 
AcHiNASALA, pi. of MnoscUa, the coast traders, 

generally Swahilis. The Swahili language is 

called Chi-N'aaala, 
AcHiWANA, AcHiwANAGO, pi. of mwanogOf children ; 

subjects. A chief calls his slaves achituanangu 

or achiwana wangu, jnj children. 



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YAOENGLISH VOCABULARY 101 

Ai, thus; literally, these things. Mtende at, Do it 
in this way. 

Ajangu, Ajako, Ajakwb, etc., pi. of mjcmgu, etc., my 
friends ; my companions. 

Akawe, Akaweje, but ; except. Wandu wcmgalya 
akatoe ku/natoa kaje, People do not eat without 
first washing their hands. 

-AKO, with the concordant syllable prefixed, repre- 
sents the second person singular of the possessive 
pronoun. It is rarely used, the more polite 
plural -enu being in general use. 

Ako, Akoko, there ; at some little distance. Ajmjilile 
ctkOf He disappeared in there. 

Aku n'aku, here and there. 

Akula, Akulakula, there ; at a distance, or at some 
place previously alluded to. Auaile akulakula, 
He has returned to that same place. 

Akulu, Akulugo, older brother. 
Ahdu waOy his older brother. 
AchahduwaOf his older brothers. 

Akuno, here ; Akunokuno, close at hand. 

-AKWE, with syllable of concord prefixed, his, its. 
Idioago lyakwe, his axe. 

Akwego, father-in-law; mother-in-law. In reality 
it denotes the relationships that exist between 
parents and their children-in-law, and hence is 
used by a man in speaking of his son or daughter- 
in-law, as well as vice versd. 
AhwegwomgUy my mother-in-law. 
AhwegrjoaOy his mother-in-law. 

Aewelume, maternal uncle. A man is heir to the 
name and possessions of his maternal uncle. 

-ALAKWE, with concordant syllable corresponding to 
first class prefixed, he ; this man. 

Alambi, pi. of rrUambi^ subjects who acknowledge the 
chieftainship of a chief. Although there is no 



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102 YAO-BITGLTSH VOCABULARY 

such thing among the Yaos as tribute in our 
sense of the word, yet the alamhi make frequent 
payments to the chief (lUmnbi) in acknowledg- 
ment of his authority. 

Alamu, brother-in-law; sister-in-law. Alambangu^ 
aUrnnbemiy cUamhaOf my brother-in-law, etc. 

Alolaga, he deserves it. Alolaga a/voUef he deserves 
to die. 

Amao, or Amawo, mother. A grown-up person usually 
speaks of his mother as achikuluwangu, 

Ambiri {Chi-Nya8a)y under chiefs or headmen of 
villages. 

Ambosanga, pi. aclmmhosiomga^ friend. 

Ambuje, Achambuje, pi. of Mhuje, master; grand- 
father ; grandmother. 

Amkawa. See Ankawa. 

Amwali, Achiwali, pL of mwali, girls who have 
passed through the unyayo ceremony, but have 
not borne children. 

Amwene, friend. 

Amwenye, chief. 

Amwenye, the Banian traders. 

Anganga, friend, lover. 

Angati, '^gati, Is it so ? Is it not so ? It is not so. 
An^ati waiche liso ? Did he not arrive yesterday 1 
Angati liao^ namho lijiisi, Not yesterday, but the 
day before. Ngwcmba, ngaU awowo. No, it is 
not those people. 

Ankawa, Amkawa, perhaps. 

-ANGU, with syllable of concord prefixed, my. Liwago 
lyan^u, my axe. 

-ANGUNE, with syllable of concord prefixed, my own. 
Mleso wangune cm. This handkerchief is my own. 

-AG, with syllable of concord prefixed, their. Chilambo 
chao, their country. 

Anyono, any one, so-and-so. 



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YA0-KNQLI8H VOCABULABT 108 

Apa, Apapa, here ; close at h^nd. 

Apala, Apalapala, there ; at a distance. 

Apali, he is there, there is. Apcdi wanduy there are 
people. 

Apano, Apanopano, here ; in this place here* 

-AP1 1 which ? Which house 1 Nyww^a japi f 

Apo, Apopo, there ; at some little distance. 

Apwitichisi, the Portuguese. 

AsiWANi, pi. of Trmwani, cousins ; children of mother^s 
brother, or father's sister. ^ 

AsoNO, AsoNOGO, wife; husband. A man speaks of 
his betrothed as Aaono wcmgu, 

AsYACHi, the owner. 

AsYBNB, owner. Asyene GhUambo, The owner of the 
country. Asyene must, The headman of the 
village. 

-ASYENE, with concord syllable prefixed, another's. 
MkcUo cm wasyene, This knife belongs to another. 

Atati, pi. aohatati, father. The term is used as a 
title of respect, and is frequently used in address- 
ing women, although in their case cmuw is the 
general term. 

Atelesi, the instructress who performs the cere- 
monies at the commencement of the women's 
unycigo. 

-ATI ULi % what like, what kind of. 

Atujao, let's have a little. 

AuTUSi, the runners in a race. 

AwELA, the plural of myela. 

AwENi, he deserves it. Aweni awUe, he deserves to 
die. 

AwiLO, AcHAWiLo, plural of mbUo, the parties who 
perform the last services at the grave. Some- 
times also they ofEer the sacrifices that usually 
accompany the burial rites. 



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104 TAO-ENGLISH VOCABULABY 



B. 



B has the same sound as in English. 
Balala-balala, hither and thither; in confusion; 

helter-skelter. 
Balalika, ku (-balaliohe), to be scattered in different 

directions. 
BakUisya, ku, to scatter. 
BakUikangana, ku, intensitive. 
BcUalikcmgcmya, ku, causative and intensitive. 
Bambala, ku (-bambblb), to lie flat as a crocodile does 

on its belly. 
Bandukuka, ku (-bandukwiche), to open out ; to gape. 
Bangula, ku (-bangwile), to roar as a wild beast ; to 

give a shout. (A chief on rising in the morning 

gives a shout, that people may know he is out.) 
Bata, calm. Kugwile hata, It is very calm. LigioUe 

lata pa nyasa. The lake is calm. 
Bebedula, ku (-bebedwile), to break off a piece ; to 

divide off so as to give to another. 
Belubelu, expressive of unsteadiness. 
Bbluka, ku (-BELwiOBaj), to be unsteady as a canoe, or 

as a drunken man walking. 
Bendula, ku (-bendwile), to chip off, to take a bite 

of. 
Benyula, ku (-benyuwilb), to chip off little by little. 
Bi, expressive of blackness or anger. Ngibo ja H, 

black cloth. Ngope ja Ntehe jUi bi, Ntebe's face 

has an angry look. 
BiMBi, a man possessed by the spirits (masoka) who 

foretells by dreaming. The word is not in 

common use. 
BiNDiGHiLA, KU (-bindiohile), to stay in the house and 

not come out frequently, to stay a long time in 

one place. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 105 

BoDOLA, KU (-bodwile), to break bread with ; to give 
another a share of what one is eating. 

BoEOLA, a walking-stick. BoholajcmgUy my walking- 
stick. 

BoNGOMA, KU (-bongweme), to be useless and foolish 
(Scottice feckless) ; to lack backbone. 

BuLUNDWE, a species of lizard. . 

BuNYULA, KU (-bunywile), to be blunt ; to blunt. 

BwALiso, a shelf for drying fish, game, etc. Bwaliso 
wa somba. 

BwANA, master, sir. A Swahili form of address. 

BwASiRA, KU (-bwasire), to be raving drunk. Bwor 
siriaya^ Ku, intensitive. 

BwASYA, KU (-bwasisye), to leap (of fishes). 

BwATA, KU (-bwatile), to crouch down. 

BwATATALA, KU (-bwatatele), to be low and flat ; to 
crouch down. 

Bwerezere, minnows. 

CH. 

Ch has the sound of the English ch in ** cheer." 

Cha, of, used with the singular of nouns of the fourth 
class. Cha cheni ? Cha nduni ? Whose 1 

Cha, KU (-chele), to dawn ; to clear up (after rain) ; 
to burst open (of leaf buds). Kuchele, hwende 
tujavle. It is clear, come let us be going. Fe 
hwachehi At dawn. 
Chekoa hu^ used of the position of the moon in the 
sky at sunset. Pa hwinjUa lyuwa, kuchelwa 
pakati mtrvBy The moon is overhead at sunset. 

Chachambuka, KU, to boil up ; to become angry ; to 
be sour-tempered ; to rise as yeast. Liponda 
lya^hachamhwiche m' mpika, The relish boiled up 
in the pot. Che Nyono achaohambwiche, kala 
waXiji juahungvl/aka, Mr. So-and-so has become 



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106 YAO-BNGLISP VOCABULARY 

sour-tempered, hitherto he was one who was 

pleasant to talk to. 
Chac^ingana, anything ; such and such ; something. 

Wajigde chachingana chachingcma, He brought 

such and such articles. 
Chaigala, anything ; something ; such and such. 
Chaila, response in singing. AmbichUe chaila, give 

me a response, 
Chaka, a year, coimting from the time of planting the 

crops ; a season ; time. 
Chaka chvne^ Chaka hwa. Pa chaka, next year. 

MwaoheaOy last year. Mwachejud, the year 

before last. MwacMjud aula, some years ago. 
Chaka muchikwpitila, year by year. 
Chakachi] When? What time? 
Chakama, ku (-ohakbme), to step lightly. 
Chakapula, ku, to be disobedient ; to refuse to listen 

to advice ; to dig up ground as for rice ; to begin 

a quarrel. 
Chakulya, food. Mham chakulya, Give me something 

to eat. 
Chala, finger; toe. 

Chala oha chikongo, thumb ; great toe. 
Chala cha TnianjilUo, first finger. 
ChoZa cha sUikatit middle finger. 
Chala cha nyonje, little finger ; little toe. 
Chalachatika, ku (-ohaohatiohe), to be swift of 

foot; to flit about. 
Chalamandala, ku, to be tough; to be stiff anS 

unpliable, as an unprepared skin ; to be obsti- 
nate ; to be stubborn. 
Ohalang'alang'a, rebounding, as a hoe does off hard 

soil; finding a thing won't go straight or even, as 

in bending a basket into shape. 
Chalb, heeac fermented after the fiirst night's fer- 
mentation. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABUXiARY 107 

Chaliohali ! elastia. 

Chalu, insolence. 

Cha lugali, backwards. ' 

Chaluka, a kind of bean. 

CHAliU&A, impudence. 

Chalumo, Yalumo, the same ', at the same time. 

MkaUmgaaie nao, mkoMe ohalvmio^ Accompany 

him, and arrive at the same time. Mtende 

umwe chdkumo na ^jyju, Do the same as this 

man. 
Chalusi, impudence ; insolence ; irreverence. 
Chalubyo, (Usrespect. 
Chaluwa, light blue cloth. 
Chamba, Indian hemp. 
Chamba, pa, Kujigdla Tnwwnache pa chambay to carry 

a child astride on one's haunches, supporting it 

with the arm. 
Cha mbote, as a prize ; as a reward. 
CpAMBUJU, in front. 
Chamchileu, lengthwise. 
Chamohipingula, crosswise. 
Chamchitipa, crosswise. 
Chamilwa, ku (-chamilwb), to stick at anything, to 

come to a dead stop. 
Cha mtbga, nothing, a thing of, no consequence. 
Chanachb, derision; joking; Sungula nekwmiendela 

chcmachd lisimba, The rabbit played a trick on 

the lion. Mkwete chcmachd umwe^ You are 

joking. 
OhanasAi pity ; mercy. 

Chanasa, Ku kola, to have pity. 
Chanasat Ku tenda, to show mercy. 
Ngwete chanasa na 'jvju, I have pity on this man. 
Chanasi, acquaintanceship. 
Oha npungu, backwards. 
Chanoala^a^ hair on the ohest. 



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108 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Changalama, kcj, to be stiff and unpliable; to be 

strong ; to be stubborn. 
Changalamana, ku, intensitive. 
Chang'anda, a handsome man. 

Changula, sound of wind blowing through the trees. 
Chanja, ku, to rebound, as a ball does. 
Chanja, ku gomba ghanja, to clap the hands in token 

of assent or agreement. 
Chanjamula, ku, to tilt up one end or side ; to lever 

up. 
Chmtjamuha kuy to be tilted up. 
Chanjamusya, ku (-chanjamWisyb), to swell out; to 

puff out. 
Chanya; teeth growing irregularly one over the 

other. 
Chanyanda, ku, to smash up. 

Chcmyandika kuy passive. 
Cha nyuma, backwards. 
Chaola, a deadly pestilence ; black death ; bubonic 

plague. 
Ohapa, ku, to wash clothes; to take a pinch of 

snuff. 
Ckapika hi, to be washed. 
Chapacha, ku (-chapachichb), to speak at great 

length. 
Chaso, trunk of an elephant. 
Chati chati, such and such ; so and so. Mtenga 

watemi pakati pa nganya, nekugombelesya chati 

chati, The messenger sat down in the middle of 

the courtyard, and declaimed in such and such a 

way. 
Chati sai, such and such; so and so; thus, MjHe 

chati sai, chati sai, Say so and so. Mtende chati 

sai, Do it in this way. 
Ohau, the hot season, lasting from August to 

November. During this season native gardens 



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YAO-ENOLISH VOCABULARY 109 

are hoed, the grass and trees are cut and burned 

for manure, and all is made ready for sowing the 

crop as soon as the first rains have fallen. 
Cha ulokosto, like a chief or freeman; ^Mike a 

gentleman/' 
Cha usakwa, dirtily. 
Cheobb, Ku 8itma cheche, to buy little by little, or 

piece by piece. 
Chbghbluka, ku (-ghechelwighb), to cause to delay. 
Cheohbma, ku, to give a rustling noise, as white 

ants do when disturbed ; to swell up, as a corpse 

sometimes does, causing the wrappings to crack 

or rustle. 
Cheqhena, kwasama chechena, to grin and show the 

teeth. Liwanga lyatipe chechenay a gaping 

wound. 
Chechekukuka, ku, to crack ; to gape. 
Chegheta, ku, to rubble. 
Cheohjjla, ku (-ohechwile), to tear a strip oS calico ; 

to pierce below the skin ; to cut a slice o£E 

anything. 
Chechuka ku, passive. 
Chejela, ku, to be red. 
Chejeaya kuy to redden. 
ChejdtBya ku, to be of a deep red colour. 
-CHEJEU, red. ^dalama jajichejeu, gold. 
Oheka, ku (-ohechile), to cut with a sawing motion. 

See Licheka. 
-OHEKULU (-ohekulupe), old, aged. JuajnchehdUf an 

old man. 
Chekulupa, ku (-chekulwipe), to be old. 
Chela, ku, to castrate, to clean cotton. 
Chbleoa, ku (-chelejile), to cut ; to gnaw ; to carve. 
Chelenyekdula, ku, to take a piece off the end ; to 

remove a little from the top. 
CheUnyenduka ku^ passive. 



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110 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

CheIibula, ku (-cherbwilb), to shave the head in 

patches. 
Chereusta, ku (-cherewisyb), to cause another person 

to loiter. * 

Chbmba, ku, to take a small part of. Aehembe sona, 

achimwene, Take a pinch of snuff, sir. 
Chehbbhbb, hair on the arms and chest. 
Chembesya, ku (-chembbsyb), to bear the first child. 
Chembulusya, ku, to be disrespectful. 

Ghembuluka ku, to be treated with disrespect. 
Chemwali, a girl, used in speaking of or to any girl. 

ChemwaM umwe, twoffcmi, You girl there, keep 

on pounding. 
Chena ! splitting open. 

Chenama, ku, to be quarrelsome ; to be fierce. 
Chbnga, ku, to dazzle, as the sun does when one 

looks at it ; to roof a house. 
Chenjeka ku, passive. 
CflENGULANYA, KU, to interfere and stop a quarrel. 
CHEibECHESYA, KU (-chenjechesye), to iuterposo, as 

when one frightens game which another is try- 
ing to shoot ; to spoil a bargain by interf erihg 

between buyer and seller regarding the price; 

to help one against another. 
Ohenjbla, ku, to interfere and stop a quarrel. 
Chenjerbre, soot hanging in threads from the roof 

of the house. 
Chenuka, ku, to tumble down. 
Chbrenga, ku (-chbresile), to go fast ; to be in a 

hurry. 
Cheresya ku, to quicken ; to hasten. 
Cherera, ku, to carve or scoop out with an iron 

chisel (njeldo). 
Cherereka, ku, passive. 
Chereresya, ku, to hollow out deeply, as in making 

a powder box (mtete). 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 111 

CHlstiBREKA, KU, to finish off nicely a piece of work ; 
to cause another person to wait a long time for 
one. 

Cheresya, ku, to draw away one's attention ; to cause 
to delay. 

Cherbwbka, ku, to draw off the attention. 

Ohbrewbsya, ku, to draw away one's attention. 

Chbsa, ku, to wash the feet so as to render them 
white) to whiten by rubbing. 
Cheeeka ku, to be white (of the feet) ; to be with- 
out eyelashes. 
Chesela ku, to whiten by rubbing with a stone. 

Chese ! natipe chese / when maize gives evidence of an 
abundant crop. 

Chesula, ku (-chbswile), to dye. 
Chesuka ku, to ferment, to be dyed. 

Chesya, ku (-chesisye), to be awake the whole night. 
Kuchesya chilo ne kwina, to spend the whole 
night dancing. 

Cheta, ku (-chetile), to make oneself a favourite ; to 
curry favour. 

Chete, silently. Kutomia chete chete ckete, to sit 
silently. MjUe chete, Be still. 

Cheuchila, ku, to look over the shoulder. 

Cheuje, hair on the body. 

Cheuje, dust of grain ; chaff. 

Ch«uka, ku (-chewiohb), to look over the shoulder. 

Chi forms the characteristic and prefix to nouns of 
the fourth class. When nouns are formed from 
verbs by prefixing chi, and modifying the final 
vowel, the substantive thus formed gives the 
result or instrument of the action denoted by 
the verb. 

When any noun prefix is changed into chi, 
the form obtained denotes the object in its 
singularity or its individuality. The same 



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112 YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULARY 

operation also denotes increase or enlargement 
of the object alluded to. 

V When prefixed to tribal nouns chi denotes 

the kind of, the sort of. Chi Mang^anja, the 
Mang'anja kind. Nguo ja chi Ngeresiy English 
cloth, t.6. cloth of the English kind. Used 
alone, the form generally refers to the language. 
Thus, mtela wa chi Yao means medicine of the 
Yao kind, while chi Too, used alone, as a rule, 
signifies the Yao language. 

-CHil Whati Which? Mtela wachi? Which treel 

Chi] What? Which V Lihmibi chi? Which hill? 
Mundu chi? Which man? 

Chibaba, a tiny basket. 

Chibani, a fish split up. 

Chibaningwa, the rind of a gourd cup; a plank or 
board. 

Chighanda, a boys' sleeping-house; a youth's neat- 
ness of personal appearance. 

Chichi? What? Ana chichi? What is the matter? 
Ligongo chichi ? Why ? Kwa chichi ? For what 
reason? Chichi mkutenda? What are you 
doing ? 

CuiCHiCHiSYA, KU, to compel assent to; to strike a 
path; to support in an upright position. 

Chichirichisya, ku, to support ; to prop up. 

Chichisi, the upright bamboos in a plaited basket. 

Chidokomilo, the larynx, the gullet of a fowl. 

Chidulo, water that has been strained through ashes 
of banana leaves and used as salt to be put in 
the relish. 

Chidunda, a large person ; large game. 

Chiduswa, a small piece cut off anything. 

Chifunde, beer or food that has lain for some time 
and so has become bad. 

Chifwende, a bad-smelling scent of an animal. 



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YAO-ENOLISH VOCABOLABT US 

Chioaga, great ftstonishment. KuLola chigciga, .to 

look with fixed eyes. 
Ohioajioaji, Kutota chigajigfajiy to darn. Thffy d^rn 

by sewing round the hole until the sewifig 

meets in the centre. 
Chioamba, a patch. 
Chiganja, friendship. 
OfliGASA, the palm c^ the hand. 
Chigogo, Chigogo chikundenda, I am unable to say 

anything. 
Chigogo, a woodpecker. 
Chigolya, the gourd hancjle. 
Chigologolo, a gag ; a leading string. 
Chigombe, a bracelet made of plaited grass. 
Chigom BELO, a stick for beating the floor smooth. 
Chioongono, the elbow. 
Chigongolomwa, a clod. 
Chigono, a sleeping-place on a journiey ; a camp. 

The length of a journey is estimated by the 

number of camps on the way. 
Pakwaukb ku mar^a igono ilingwa mwitala2 On 

going to the coast, how often do you sleep on the 

road? 
Chigopola, Chigopolelo, explanation. 
Chigoti, a switch or whip made of hide, chiefly of 

hippopotamus or rhinoceros. 
Chigugumisi, a rumbling or humming sound. 
Ohigulaka, a fibrous |xlant used in making cord. 
Chigumuchilo, a landslip. 
Chigungulukutu, dry, hardened skin. 
Chigungumila, an indistinct rumbling sound. 
Chiguniya, thick strong cloth. 
Chigwagwa, scandal; gossip; chattering. Chigwa,gwa 

wewcUa akwete. That man is a chatterbox. 
Chigwembele, want of strength ; helplessness. 
Chigwenembe, a rat-trap made of the stem of a tree. 

I 

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114 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULABY 

Chigwesi ! KUTBMA CHiGWESi, to be Donplussed at 

anything. 
Andemile chigwesi, he mystified me completely. 
Chigwindilo, a stout man. 
Chigwiri, a short stump left of a hoe or axe, or of a 

gun-flint. 
Chiiga, the thigh. 
Chiisya-umi, something that lasts till very old, and 

does not fail. 
Chiiya, a swelling, as after the bite of a poisonous 

animal or a blow. 
Chij AiiA, jua chijama, one who flits about from place 

to place. 
Chijangu, friendship ; companionship. 
Chijani, a running knot ; left-handedness. 
Chijao, a beer feast made for those who have been 

doing work for one. Kvlima cMjao, to hoe for 

beer. The beer is spoken of as uhana wn 

kvlima, or ukana wa manyasi, etc., according 

as it is given for hoeing or carrying of grass. 
Chijbghelo, a place for laying anything. 
Chijbjb, the cheek. 
Chijbtb, salt earth. 

Chijewajewa, a restless, wandering disposition. 
Chijiwajiwa, confirmed thieving. 
Chijiwilo, stealing. 
Chijosola, a cricket. 
Chuumba, the cover or net which catches the bird in 

the trap. 
Chuungu, a pot with a narrow mouth, used generally 

as a water-pot. 
Chijuni, a bird. 
Chikalakala, paper, especially that in which beads 

are wrapped ; the cocoon of the caterpillar. 
Chiealakasa^ the skull. 
Chikalasa (Swahili), a small tusk. 



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YA0-UKGL1S& VOCABULAEY ll5 

Chikalawesa, the nail of the finger or toe. 

Chikalulilo, meaning ; explanation. 

Chikamba, a tying of bark rope. 

Chikambi, a quid of tobacco. When not being chewed 

it is usually carried behind the ear. 
Chikamulila, doing a thing against one's will. 
Chikanga, a forest or thicket. 
Chikanga, swollen glands in the neck. 
Chieango, a mark on the face. 
Chikapula, the broad strips of soil hoed for planting 

rice, beans, or ground nuts. 
Chikasa (Portug.), a box. 
Chikasu, a species of ginger, used as a condiment 

with fowl. 
Chikata, a bundle of bark rope. 
Chikata, moisture ; a wet soft place. 
Chikau, an astringent taste in the mouth. 
Chikawo, plucking fruit. 
Chikengelb, a rattle carried at the waist-belt, which 

tinkles as the wearer walks ; a small bell. 
Chiko, a ford in a river ; a landing-place for canoes. 
Chikoi, a large wooden spoon or ladle, used for 

dividing out ugali. Chikoi cha kwine kwine, a 

double ladle. 
Chikojowa, nakedness. 
Chikoko, a wild beast ; weeds ; a mote in the eye ; 

a poisonous plant; any foreign substance. 
Chikokolupya, the first rains. 
Chikokomo, sound of rainfall or waterfall. 
Chikokowu, loitering. 
Chikola, a small yellow bead; beans, after being 

husked by steeping ; bark cloth prepared by 

boiling. 
CfliKOLE, a small verandah room ; a pledge. 
Chikolokoswa, an egg-shell after the chicken has 

been hatched. 



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116 YAO-BNaLISH VOCABULARY 

Chikololo, a tobacco pipe. 

Chikolongo, Chikolongwb, a hippopotamus spear, 

consisting of an iron head with a rope attached, 

into which is fitted the wooden shaft. When 

the animal is struck, the shaft becomes detached 

from the spear4iead, leaving the spear-head in 

the wound. 
Chieolosa, a part of a house separated from the rest 

by a low partition and generally used as a^sleeping- 

place ; a verandah room. 
Chikolowa, the eyelid ; the chaff of sorghum grain. 
Chikolowondo, a whirlpool in a stream. 
Ghikombe, the shell of a bivalve moUusc, used as a spoon. 
Chikombwa, an egg-shell ; shell of tortoise ; rind of 

gourd. 
Chikomo, hwuAJoa ckUcomo, to die suddenly. 
Chikongo. See Chala. 
Chikongo, the dottle of a pipe. 
Chi KONG WE, female qualities. 
Chikongwe, a granny knot. 
Chikongwb, Kw&nda chikongtce, to walk slowly ; to 

loiter. Ku welecJieta chikongwe, to interrupt in 

speaking. 
Chikono, the limb of an animal. 
Chikonyo, the top of a pumpkin. 
Chikopa (Chinyasa), a shield ; a skin. 
Chikope, the eyelid. 
Chikopela, a crab's hole. 
Chikopiya, a close-fitting white cotton skull-cap, 

usually worn by the coast traders. 
Chikopoko, Lyuwa lya chUcopoko, the last day of 

finishing up the women's miyago, 
Chikosi, the bunch of grass tied to mark the limit of 

a garden. 
Chikosomola, a cough. 
Chikotope, beautifully; well; nicely. 



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YAO-KNGLISH VOCABULARY 117 

Chikotwa, the lioof of an animal. 

Chikowe, a leather belt. 

Chikuku, measles. 

Chikukulu, a mass of pig iron ; a dry, hardened 

skin. 
CsiKULA, small ant-hill. 

Chikulukutu, strong calico ; unprepared skin. 
Chikululu, adultery. 
Chikulundine, a marriage agreement made with the 

people of the village where the woman stays. 

Ku tawa ehihuluTidine, To make the agreement. 
Chikulungwa, greatness ; the qualities of a chief or 

elder. 
Chikuluwangu, my relationship to my older brother. 
Chikumba, a flood. 
Chikumbanguluwe, raking up the past — as an old 

name or an old magambo. 
Chikumbu, the handle of a knife. 
Chikumbukumbu, memory. 
Chikungu, brass ; copper. . 
Chikuni, the tail of a bird. 
Chieunje, a small bundle of grass or firewood. 
Chikupa, a string of beads worn ove^ the shoulder 

and under the arm. 
Chikusa, a disease of the gums. 
ChiKusilo, grass gathered into heaps for burning in 

the garden as manure {see Kusa, ku); a stick, 

used in taking off the bark of a tree in the 

operation of making bark cloth. 
Chikuti, a framework made of reeds for storing 

food in. 
Chikuti, a mode of preserving grain by placing it in 

a pot and covering it over with a thick layer of 

plaster so as to render the vessel air-tight. 
Chikutumu, splashing with one hand in the water ; 

stirring up water from the bottom of a pocd so 



/ 



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118 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY 

that it jinakes a dull sound as it bubbles to the 

surface. 
Chikuwo, shouting. 
Chikwaku, robbery. 
Chikwakwa, a hook for cutting grass, usually made 

of a knife £xed in a wooden handle at right 

angles. 
Chikwakwata, a sandal fastened on the foot when 

the skin on the sole is cracked, and when walking 

is thus rendered painful. 
Chikwalb, a fowl laid open and fixed with a spit. 
Chikwapatile, under one's arm. 
Chikwau, a small cap, worn on the back of the head. 
Ohikwe, a soft whistle made by a man when climbing 

a hill with a heavy load. 
Chikw£EW£, a heap. 
Chikwelu, a whistle. 
Chikwenta, intense cold and shivering. 
Chiewesta, a steep ascent. 
Chikwbtekwbte, a piece sewn to the side of a breadth 

of calico to make it broad enough to wear. 
Ohikwili, bark cloth that refuses to be stretched. 
Chikwindi, Chingwindi, a short, stout person. 
Chikwisaulo, a small crocodile. 
Chilagu, medicine ; a charm. 
Chilaja, an old axe or hoe fixed in the end of a 

bamboo for digging holes in the ground. 
Chilala, drought. 
Chilala, old grass of last year. 
Cbilambo, country ; territory ruled by a single chief. 

Ku kaaa chUombOy to ravage a country. Ku 

pasiUa chUambOy to lay waste a country. 
Chilandamlima, Lelo ttigonile chUandcmdima pcmgali 

ineaiy To-day we slept without water. 
Chilanga, a song sung by people at work ; a chant 

l^ung by one of t^e audience ^hile a speal^er is 

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YAO-ENGLIBU VOCABULARY 119 

addressing a ma^cmho ; an agreement between 

two parties. Kugomba ohilanga, to sing the 

accompaniment. 
Chibanoali, a large fire lit the first night of the 

waya/go^ round which the friends of the boys 

dance all night. 
Chilangano, an agreement. Ku Icmga chilangcmo, to 

make an agreement. Ku leka chilangano, to 

break an agreement. 
Chilapo, wonder ; admiration ; praise. 
Chilasya, likeness ; resemblance to parents. 
Chilawa, a mountain mouse. 
Chile^ so as to be in readiness. Tawani ndvmdu 

syenu lero chiles kundatoipe rrvwanja. Tie your 

loads to-day, so as to be ready for a start early 

in the morning. 
Chilbga ku (-chilejile), to cut a notch in a stick so 

that it may be tied round with a string. 
Ohileka, a large hoe. 
Chilemba, a cloth tied round the head leaving the 

ends sticking out in front ; a fashion of shaving 

the head. 
Chilendo, the manner of a stranger. Cha chilendoy 

strangely. Kwenda chilendo, to behave as . a 

stranger towards one's neighbours. Naweni 

chilendo pa mvsiy I saw something strange at 

the village. 
Chilengwa, a mysterious thing ; a " wraith." 
Chilenje, slenderness. Mundujua chilenje, A man of 

slender build. 
Chileu, lengthwise. 
Chilewalewa, the dewlap. 
Chibewani, a striped scarf. 
Chilbwe, a song, with chorus and dance, accompanied 

by clapping of hands. Kwina chilewe, to dance 

the chUewe dance. 



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120 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABUliARY 

Chiri, expressive of being tipvight. Wernck^ watemi 

perepo chiriy The people sat there tipright. 
Chirichira, ku, to add a condiment to the relish. 
Chirichira, ku (-chirichirile), to prop np or suppoHi; 

to give help in a case at law. 
CniRiGANrA KU (-chirigenye), to treat any one well ; 

to act fairly towards each of two parties. 
Chilika, ku, to place medicine round a village; to 

strain salt from burnt banana ; to stand upright 

in a row ; to stick to work. 
Chilikati, the middle ; the centre. Pa ohUiha4% in 

the middle. See Pakati, Silikati. 
Chirikula, ku, to jwrop up ; to lift out of its place 

with a lever. 
GJwrikuha^ ha, passive. 
Chiriri, expressive of standing upright. 
Chilili, a raised platform of clay for sleeping on ; a 

raised seat in a verandah ; a sand-bank or mud- 
bank in the middle of a stream. 
Chililo, i^. malilo, weeping. 
Chilimba, the ear fin of a fish ; the i^ur of a cock. 
Chirimula, ku, to dear one's throat. 
OfiiLiNDiwo, thunder. 
Chilindo, a hut in the midst of a garden where a 

watch is kept for thieves, wild animals, etc. 
Chilingo, materials for work. 
Chirisi, a grave, usually of some one of importance, 

hung round with doth. Off^ings to the dead 

are all placed here. 
Chiliso, the hollow bamboo in the centre of the arrow 

reed into which the iron head of the arix)W is 

fixed. . 
Chiliuka, ku (-chiliwiche), to avoid; turn aside 

from ; to change one's attitude towards another. 
Chiliwa, the house where a man has Aiedi which has 

been burnt or taken down. "^ 



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tAO-HNGLlSH VOCABULARY 121 

Chiliwaliwa, forgetfuliiess. 

Chiliwata, a trap which catches by the legs. 

Chilo, night. Pakati chilo, midnight. ChUo mnope, 

at dead of night. 
Chilolo, the ends of one's caKco fastened round one's 

waist into which articles are carried. 
Chilondole, a rap with the fingers ; a clucking it^oise 

made with the tongue. 
Ohilongo, a tobacco pipe. 
Chilongowato, stifE ckyey soil, used in plastering 

up holes in canoes. 
Chilongwe, tax for crossing a ferry ; pay for work ; 

a due. 
Chilokje, a wedge-shaped piece cut out of a tree ; a 

piece of meat cut from a larger piece. 
Chiloosi, generosity ; openheartedness. 
Chilopb, the traces of murder supposed to be seen in 

the eyes of the guilty party. 
Chilowa, a bamboo needle. 
Chilu, steadily looking in one direction. 
ChiIjIT, the body. Kwmbuoeteka pa chilu pose, I am 

sore all over my body. 
Chilulu, shouting, as women do on expressing joy. 
Chilumbilwa, ku, to be in perplexity. 
Chilumbo, a knot ; repeating a name often in praise 

or in song. 
Chilumbu, a musical instrument consisting of a 

single string stretched over the mouth of a 

gourd. 
Chilumelume, a reef knot. 
Chilumblume, manliness ; bravery. AtesUe ehihtme, 

ajimnjile ngondo. He gained the victory and 

repelled the attack. 
Chilumi, rheumatism ; neuralgia. 
OHtLtjwbVKDVf dumbness ; constipation. 
Chilungo, malt, prepared by steeping the maize for 



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122 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

two days, then covering it in a pot till it 

germinates, then drying it. 
Chilungu, an earthquake. 
Chilupa, skill in hunting. 
Ohilwele, a disease ; sickness. 
Chilyelye, fornication ; adulterous conduct. 
Chima, ku, to hate ; to treat badly. 
Chimaje, a small double-edged knife. 
Chi;malamasi, a large water crab that transforms 

itself into various articles, and seizes people 

who attempt to pick them up. 
Chihamo, a wonderful thing ; a mystery. 
Chimanga, maize. 

Chimango, m/u/ndu jua chiimingo, a man who under- 
stands everything. 
Chimanyililo, a token by which anything is known ; 

a credential — a gun, or shirt, or other article — 

which a chief gives to his messenger that he 

may be known. 
Chimasika, ku, to groan. 
Chimasya-lunda, a startling thing ; something which 

puts one at one's wits' ends. 
Chimatilo, a pot for storing food. 
Chimatule, a rodent ulcer. 
Chimbakdi, unyago wa chimbandi. See LiTiwo. 
Chimbandingwa, a large-mouthed cup. 
Chimbanga, a hawk. 
Chimbatamila, a woman's dance. 
Chimbeleta, a gap or opening in a fence or wall of a 

house. 
Chimbeta, a flute made out of a reed. 
Chimbichisya, ku (-chimbichisyb), to honour ; to 

reverence ; to do obeisance to. 
Chimbichika ku, passive. 
Chimbichiya, ku (-chimbichiyb). See Chimbichisya, 

KU, 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOOABULAEY 123 

Chimbiku, a small piece of wood used in setting a 
trap. 

Chimbonano, disrespect ; insolence. 

Chimbondogolo, mucus in the nose. 

Chimbuli, a pot with a narrow mouth. 

Chimbulimbuli, ha, tila chimhdimhdi, to run away 
without looking hehind. 

Chimbulumbundtandya, a blunt-pointed knife. 

Chimbunde, a grass fence built round a house. 

Chimbunga, a whirlwind. 

Chimbuwila, a large species of ground nut. 

Chimbwibimbwinda, a girl who is with child before 
passing through the nnyago ceremony; rain 
which has fallen before the usual period for the 
rainy season to commence. 

Chimbyoko, a kind of calico. 

Chimelele, something which grows of itself without 
having been planted. 

Chimeme, kwwdecheta chimeTne, to speak with a 
stammer ; to speak with hesitation. 

Chimenya, a fierce thing. 

Chimiko, a black dye. 

Chimiogo, expressive of finishing; completion. Wo- 
sepe wamaaile chimiogo^ All were killed. Mesi 
m^chisima chimiogo^ The water in the well is 
finished. 

Chimpango, an agreement; a choice made of any- 
thing. 

Chimula ku (chimwile), to rattle ; tinkle. Fahmna 
masewe gakv^chiimUa, The rattles tinkle in 
dancing. 

Chimwembe, a cloth folded round the loins and reach- 
ing nearly to the ankles. 

Chimwemwe, laughter ; mirth ; joy. 

Chimyulamtima, the beating of the heart on receive 
ing a surprise. 



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124 YAO-ENOLISH VOCABULARY 

Ohinambalala, seattering. 
Chinamile, cUi cJdnamUe, he is stooping. 
Ohinasi, neighbourhood ; aoquaintaneeship. 
Chinawilo, pi. MANAWiLO, a finger ring. 
Chindalangwisa, a wonderful thing, a strange thing. 
Chindanda, a bedstead (movable). 
Chindang'anda, a kind of harp with one string. 
Chindelo, a place to which one goes because one has 

friends. 
Chindende, the heel. , 
Chindende, extreme nervous fear such as paralyzes 

a man. 
Chinbichi, two or three women potmding in one 

mortar. 
Chinbima, being unconscious of anything, as in pass- 
ing a village unrecognized. 
Chinbimba, a feast, with dancing. 
Chinboko (Swahili, chidogo), syphilis ; gonorrhoea. 
Chinbola, ku, to cry " cluck '* with the mouth. 
Chinbola, a swampy place. 
Chinbomwa, eating or drinking apart by one^s self ; a 

break in a piece of work. 
Chinboinba, the direction in which a place lies ; the 

neighbourhood of a place. 
Ohinbu, a thing ; anything ; something. Kwangali 

chindu, There is nothing. 
Chinbulisi, carrying a thing at two relays. 
Chinbumba, a small seed, like uaanje. 
Chinbunbamwa, corpulence. 
Chinbunbumuli, a protuberant part of the body; a 

hunchback. 
Chinbunji, meeting with another person accidentally; 

coming across another. Mwa chinduvje, directly, 

accidentally. 
Ohinbna, the pit of the stomach ; the upper part of 

the abdomen. 



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YAO-ENOLISH VOCABULABY 125 

Chinga ku, to herd ; to traiu up ; to lead to (of a 
path). 
Chvnjika ku^ passive. See Ohin/ixa, ku. 
Chingimgana ku, to meet on the path. 

Chinoaumba, spur of a fowl ; tooth of an arrow-Jiead. 

Chingamila ku (-chingamile), to go out and jneet on 
the road. 

Chingamisya ku, to send anything out so a$ to pneet 
one on the way. 

Chinganda, bracelets made of fine brass wire twisted 
round a core. 

Chingaitga, a small drum. 

Chinganga, a necklace of beads. 

Ching'ang'a, ill-nature ; teeth chattering. * 

Chingangalima, a prominent ^emum caused by 
emaciation. 

Ohingonda, a stalk of Kafiir corn. 

Chingongo, " longwindedness " in speaking a ma- 
gambo. The speaker goes over all the remarks 
of the previous speaker b^ore beginning his 
own. Hence the time occupied by the viurious 
speakers in a case is unwarrantably long accord- 
ing to our ideas. 

Chingongo, looking steadfastly at anything. 
" Chingongoli, the crest of fowl or guinea-fowl. 

Chingongome, green maize ground on the stones and 
cooked. 

Chingongomwe, porridge cooked hard. 

Chingongondo, steadily looking in one direction. 
Kvlola chmgongondo, to look fixedly in one 
direction. 

Ohingonje, plenty; prosperity. 

Chinguli, a whipping top. 

Chingulumuno, although ; or. 

Ohingulungulu, a blue bead. 

Chingulungundyandya, a blunt-pointed knife. 



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126 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULABT 

Chingungulu ! going into a crowd. 

Chingusa. When one painty has been compelled to 

drink the mwai poison and vomits it, he may 

compel his accuser to drink it in turn either 

himself or by substitute ; this is called kutenda 

chinguaa, 
Chingwamba, the big leaf of the dwarf palm. 
Chingwengwb, a large hollow lip-ring. 
Chingwindi. See Chikwindi. 
Chino'anda, copper. 
Ching'ang'a, madness ; rabies. 
Ching'aning'ani, a flash of lightning. ' 

ChingVenyeng'wenya, a violin,, with a single string 

sti^tched over the mouth of a gourd. 
ChiningViningVi, explaining any matter distinctly. 
Chiniko, a black dye made with oil. 
Chinila ku (-chinile), to have a strong desire for 

anything. 
Chinjeranjeea, a water beetle. 
Chinjichiea, ku, to catch anything that is trickling 

down. Ku chinjichira mkono, to shake the fist 

in threatening any person. 
Chinjika, ku, to support ; to prop up ; to catch what 

is falling. See Chinga, ku. 
Chinjinika ku, to hold firmly to what one has 

said. 
Chinjinikano, harmony. 
Chinjiriohisya, ku, to catch anything in falling that 

it may not be lost ; to catch up a person's words 

so as to prevent some one else from replying ; to 

guard one's person as with a shield ; to refuse a 

person repeatedly ; to strike a path while passing 

through the bush. 
Chinjirichiti, expressive of striking a path while 

passing through the bush ; meeting one another 

suddenly face to face on the road. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 127 

Chinjieima, ku, to work steadily without being tired ; 

to hold firmly ; to be firm in one's opinion. 
Chinong'onong'o, a sweet substance. 
Chinumbi, a shallow basket plastered over with a 

kind of gum so as to render it water-tight. 
Chinyago, a picture or image. Refers primarily to 

the figures drawn by the "doctor" when he 

is finishing up the unyago ceremony. 
Chinyakapya, soft damp ground. 
Chinyalakato, disgust. Ghakulya cushi chindenda 

chinyalakato, This food disgusts one. 
Chinyama, any large game. 
Chinyama, one of the breadths in which a garden is 

hoed. 
Chinyangu, a caterpillar. 
Chinyela, Bright's disease. 
Chinyblele, a kind of mouse. 
CHiNYELomTBLo, an unripe pumpkin. 
Chinyelu, the Brycteropua (Swahili, Kinugere), 
Chinyengo, cheating ; deceit. 
Chinyenyelo, spices or pieces of pumpkin cut to put 

into the pot. 
Chinybsi, damp soil; the wet ground where water 

has been spilled. 
Chinyinda, ku, to knock lightly; to tie the end 

threads of cloth. 
Chinyindila, ku, to pack tightly, as in filling a bag 

with articles. Achinyindile lisugulu kuti sikopoche 

ngmmMj Beat the ant-hill, that the fiying ants 

may come out. 
Chinyindikay ku, to be packed tightly. 
Chinyong'onyo, blue cloth (Swahili, EaniM), 
Chinyusu, the crest of a fowl ; a patch of hair left 

unshaved on the crown of the head ; a patch 

in a garden left unhoed ; the hump on the 

shoulders of cattle, such as are found among 



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128 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

the WaNkond© at the uorih end of Lake 

Nyasa. 
Chinyuwinyuwi, a smail white kind of bead. 
Chiombuluku, mould on an article tiiat has lain a 

long time in one place. 
Chipago, any deformity or peoaliarity that a person 

is born with. 
Chipagwilo, nature, manner born with oae ; char- 
acteristic. 
Chipaka, a platform or raised shelf for storing things. 

Ngwete chipaka^ I have other work to do. 
Chipala, a forge. 
Chipalagwb, poor soil. 
Chtpalamandu, a chip ; a piece of bark that has 

become detached from the tree and fallen to 

the ground. 
Chipalangundwa, poor soil. 
Chipalangwiso, a fowl's foot ; a ciear space in the 

bufi^ where the guinea-fowls have scraped; a 

kind of dance. 
GfiiPALAPALA, the first hoeing of a garden. 
Chipala WE, a sandy country. 
Ohipalbpale, dirt on the body. 
Chipalepale, hoeing without raising the ground into 

heaps. 
Chipalilo, shaving ; scraping. 
Chipamba, kupita Wbchvpamnha^ to pass by the side. 
Chipanda, a flat gourd used in drinking beer. 
Ohipanda, a peg in the wall (usually. a branch of a 

tree left sticking out) for hanging articles on. 
Chipandb, a chip. 
* Chipandu, a small splinter. 
Chipandwa, a chip ; a splinter. 
Chipandu, danger ; any fearful object. 
Chipanga, the outlying villages of a chief. 
CniPAKGOy a gumboil ; examining a tree to see if the 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 129 

bark would form good bark cloth; an appoint- 
ment ; mumps. , 
Chipanje, goods; riches. Jua chipanje^ a rich 

man. 
Chipanjiso, placing a branch of a tree on game that 

one has killed as a token of ownership ; a test 

placed on anything to see if any one meddles with 

it in the owner's absence. 
Chipapiko, a wing of a bird. 
Chipaso, a bamboo for cleaning grass. 
Chipasupasu, devastation made by war. 
Chipata, a gate. 

Chipata, a disease that passes from husband to wife. 
Chipata, medicine for preventing theft from the 

garden ; a gate or entrance ; a pass between 

mountains. 
Chipato, a chip. 
Chipato, irreverence. 
Chipbmba, great hunger and thirst. 
Chipembbbe, a rhinoceros. 
Chipbndo, the omens taken before commencing any 

undertaking. Kupenda chipendo^ to test the 

omens as before a journey. 
Chipenb, fierceness ; ill-temper ; crossness. 
Chipengule, an old worn basket (chiselo). 
Chipeperu, paper. The word has also come to be 

used for any book or writing. 
Chipebe, beans husked and boiled until soft, used as 

mboga. 
Chipesa, a piece of calico, about 16 yards. 
Chipewa, a hat with a brim. 
Chipi, darkness. 

Chipi chakandapala, thick darkness. 
Chipi c/iakwepepalay slightly dark. 
Chipi totoloy deep darkness. 
Chipichiti, a small piece of anything. 

K 

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130 YAO-ENGLISH VOOABULART 

Ohipikanano, mutual respect and obedieiKje. 

Chipiku, the stick that supports the stone of a rat- 
trap. 

Chipiringu, people passing and repassing. 

Chipiliqo, a kind of grass bracelet. 

Chipimbi, a squirrel. 

CflrprMO, a measure. 

Chipinde, a kind of dance danced by boys. 

Chipindupindu (I.), a pestilence. 

Chipindupindu (II.), fickleness. 

Chipini, the nose-pin worn by the Machinga women. 
It is usually made of lead, and the point is 
transfixed tlm>ugh either of the oUb of tie nose. 

Chipintasi, a short, stout person. 

Chipiri, war; famine, or other disturbance, such as 
scatters the population of a country ; a floating 
island of grass, sudi as are occasionally seen on 
the Shire river. 

Chipisya, a fragment ; a piece of anything. Saturday 
is sometimes called Lywwa lya chipisya, because, 
on the stations among the Shire and Shirwa 
hills, work is stopped at noon. 

Chipiti, old maize. 

Chipolopolo, a bullet, usually made of iron. Non 
mlembwej a conicalnshaped bullet. Njevma, a 
spherical bullet. 

Chipomela, a humming noise. 

Chiponda-mtengo, pay for seeking medicine in the 
bush. 

Chipondwa, a mat woven of reeds. 

Chipongolomwa, a lump in flour or salt; a piece of, 
wood removed from between two wedge-shaped 
incisions in a tree; a splinter. 

Chipongwb, derision; making fun of; plajdng practical 
jokes on one. Sungvla omitesile liaimba chipongwe^ 
The rabbit played a trick on the lion. 



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TfAO-Ul^GLlSH VOCABULARY l3l 

CfliPOTB, a long string of beads wound round a core 

of bark cloth to form a necklace. 
Chipoto, a trap made of the stem of a tree for 

catching field rats. 
Chipowo, a hole ; a rent. 
Chipuqo, foolishness. 
Chipugwe, foolishness* 
Chipuka, injuring another without cause ; a sore 

that has commenced without previous flesh 

injury. 
Chipukuso, fresh green beans cooked and stirred in 

the pot by twirling the stirring-rod between the 

hands. 
Chipukusu, a small wood-boring insect. 
Chipula, a single-edged knife. 
Chipuli, strands of a rope. 
Chipululuchisya, a running knot. 
Chipulxtputwa, a butterfly ; a moth. 
Chipululu, name of a small animal. 
Chipuluwe, a little swelling as from a bite. 
Chipumulisi, a resting-place on a journey. 
Chipundi, the chin. 

Chipupu, a boil or abscess in the finger,, a whit- 
low. 
Chipusapusa, a man who has nothing of his own and 

lives on others. 
Chip OTA, pa, Twaiche pa chiputay We arrived and 

found he was not there. 
Chiputiputi, a bat. 
Chipwa, a sister's son. The sister's son is usually 

the heir according to native habit. 
Chipwa, relation of uncle and nephew. 
Chipwanga, the relationship of a younger brother or 

sister. 
Chipwenbme, a fat man's way of walking. 
Chipwisa, emission of air from the bowel. 



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132 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Chipyepyb, the tail of a fish. 

Chka, ku, to trim (the beard, or grass in eaves of 
houses). 

Chisaowa, a bunch of bananas. 

Chisajilt, a scaffolding or shelf for drying food. 

Chisakasa, a kind of harp used by the A-Wisa, made 
of threads stretched on reeds. 

Chisalamwiko, something wonderful. 

Chisamba, the iron head of an arrow. 

Chisambilo-liwble, a large green caterpillar. 

Chisambula, a tassel or tuft of anything. 

OmsANDO, the death struggle of a man or an animal. 

Chisanga, the sternum. 

Chisang'asang'a, a litter made of bamboos for carry- 
ing sick people. 

Chisangaulo, a species of iguana. 

Chisango, the divining instrument. Ku londcla 
chisango, to divine. Ali m* chisango, He is 
reading the divining instrument. AjUe ku 
chisango, He has gone to consult the divining 
oracle. Chisango chamkamwUe Che Nyonyo, The 
oracle has fixed on So-and-so. 

Chisanu, frost ; intense cold. 

Chisapo, a bag used for carrying food, usually made 
of bark cloth. 

Chisasi, a vessel for holding oiL 

Chisasiko, want of respect towards one's elders. 

Chisasiko, the sediment of malt mixed up, boiled, 
and eaten. 

Chisato, hwm/puta chisato, to beat the wrong person. 

Chisau, like ; likeness. Chisani chakwe chichi ? What 
is it like? Chisau mtela, Chisau mti mtela, 
Chisau m/pela mtela, like a tree. Chikoko chisau 
c^kwe chati mpela lisirnba, a wild beast, like a 
lion. 

Chisejela -nyuma, kwenda, to walk backwards. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOOABULAEY 133 

Chisbko, laughter. Akwete chiseko, He is continually 

laughing. 
Chiselo, a small shallow basket, generally a food 

basket. 
Chisbmbwele, lust. 

Chisena, the funnel-shaped opening of a fish basket. 
Chisbnga, a curved knife or hook. 
Chisengule, a species of mountain mouse. 
Chisbngwb, sidefwise; squintwise. Kwenda m^chiae- 

ngiue, to be wilful. Kuvnka m^chisengwe^ to 

place anything not in its proper position. 
CniaEPULE, the tail of a fish. 
Chisiano, iron ; an iron instrument or weapon. 
Chisichi, a stump of a tree ; a root sticking up in the 

path. 
Chisiohirisi, wealth. 
Chisieu, loitering. 

Chisijiula, a mode of cuttifag^ the hair. 
Chisijo, a red dye. 
Chisila, ku, to rest one's foot against anything, as 

when lifting a heavy load. 
Chisilu, foolishness. 

Chisima, a well. M'chisima twagonUe, We slept with- 
out fire. 
Chisimba, slag; a man's private property which he 

does not sell. 
Chisimba, the active property in medicine ; the essence 

of anything that gives it its virtue. 
Chisimopia, the first rains of the season which usually 

put out the grass fires. 
Chisimu, really, truly. 
Chisinde, stubble of grass. 
Chisindi, a large cap or hat. 
Chisindo, a charge of gunpowder. 
Chisinga, a small stump left of a log of firewood. 
Ohisingwindi, a small stump left after cutting. 



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134 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 

Chisinje, oil plastered on the hair. 

Chisinjino, the elbow. 

Chisipe, what has been chewed and spit out again. 

Chisipo, a muddy hole. 

Chisisa, a fireplace, usually made by scooping out a 

shallow hole in the fioor and placing round it 

three stones for the pots to rest on. 
Chisisili, a bottle made of bamboo basket-work, 

plastered over with ngunga so as to render it 

water-tight. 
Chisisimbepo, a cold place. 
Chisisimusya, Chisisimuchisya, a surprise. Akwete 

chisisimvsya, He has been startled. 
Chisisiba, damp ; cold. 
Chisiula, a kind of diarrhoea or dysentery. 
Chisiwa, a birth-mark. 
Chisiwanb, cousinship by the mother's side. 
Chisiwilo, a stopper ; cork. i 

Chisogosi, fruit ; a seed. 
Chisokasoka, a mantis. 
Chisoma, any sharp stabbing pain in chest or back ; 

a prickly fruit, used as medicine for this pain. 
Chisonde, a cob of maize after stripping ofE the 

seeds; an interruption in a magcmibo, 
Chisondo, a small razor, carried stuck amongst the 

hair. 
Ohisonqo, a stake planted in the ground to hurt 

the feet of a thief or war party attacking the 

village. 
Chisongolo, fierceness. 
Chisopo, a fish-hook. 

Chisosochi, a weed called " cobbler's pegs." 
Ohisosola, Ku gona chisoaolay to sleep with the feet 

to the fire. 
Chisoti, a cap or hat of any kind, 
Chisoto, a small hole. 



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YAO-BNGLISff VOCABULABY 135 

Chisou, the navel; a sjcrew, generally of the kind 

used in gun manufacture. 
Chisu, a red dye got from trees (mseje). 
Chisubao (Swahili, Ki8ubao\ a small coat or jacket. 
Chisugugu, a small gnat. 
Chisui, a leopard. 

Chisukulu, a grandchild ; a generation. 
Chi^xjkusuku, the olecranon process; the knee-cap; 

any prominent joint in the hody; ankle-joint. 
Chisukwasukwa, the stand of a drum ; the tail of a 

bird ; the end of a hoe or spear that goes into 

the handle. 
Chisula, ku (-chiswile), to kick with the foot ; to try 

to excel any one ; to get rid of a rival. 
Chisulusyo, a straining basket. 
Ohisumbukutb, a boil or abscess. 
Chisijndi, a large number of people standing in one 

place. 
Chisungula, sterility. 

Chisungumbe, strong grass used in thatching. 
Chisungupute, a pimple. 
Chisungusya, puerperal after-pains. 
Chisunsasunsa, (UyoaUe chisunsasimsa, he went away 

without telling any one. 
Chisupundu, a knot in a tree. 
Chisupusya, a surprise. 
-Chisusi, a bird's nest. 
Chisutulila, lying head downwards; sleeping with 

the buttocks raised. 
Chiswamba, man-stealing. 
Chiswani, withered leaves ; rubbish. 
Chiswela, interrupting another party in speaking by 

answering for another. Akwete chUwela^ He 

makes an interruption. 
Ohiswenene, a small species of frog. 
Chiswbnene, persistence ; perseverance ; zeal. 



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136 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Chisya, ku, to urge on people while at work. 

Chisiha, ku, passive. 
Chisyano. See Chisiano. 
Chisyasyano, " tit for tat." 
Chisyasyo, resemblance. 
Chisyeu, loitering. 
Chisyo, good eyesight. 
Chisyo, the state of those newly come to stay in a 

place. 
Chisyowb, friendship ; fellowship. 
Chisyowolb, all of them. Ku mala chisyowoley to be 

finished completely all of them. 
Chisyungula, an impotent man. 
Chisydngusyungu, giddiness. 
Chitaba, great thirst. 
Chitaka (I.), thieving medicine, the possessor of 

which is able to lull the senses of any person 

sleeping in the house, and so is enabled to steal 

without detection. 
Chitaka (II.), food a year old. 
Chitako, the buttocks. 

Ohitakulo, a loin-cloth reaching below the knees. 
Chitalaka, a kind of red bead with a white eye, 

much prized by the Yao. 
Chitambala, a small piece of fringed cloth worn 

round the head. 
Chitambala, a large fiat rock. 
Chitandano, being at variance with one another. 
Chitando, the commencement; the width of a web 

of calico. Nguo ja chitcmdo chachincmdiy narrow 

cloth. 
Chitani, a sweet sap got from certain trees; honey 

found deep in the ground. 
Chitapwila, a muddy pool. 
Chiteleka, bark cloth which has been made white 

by boiling. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 137 

Chitblbtele, a crate for carrying fowls. 

Chitbma, quickly. LitcUa lia chitema^ The shortest 

way to a place. 
Chitbmangu, an elongated red bead. 
Chitbmangu, a species of caterpillar. 
Chitemanje, unripe beans. 
Chitbndbwelb, prosperity. 
Chitbngu, a stool ; a chair. 
Chitenjb, a load of firewood. 
Chitete, drawing back from a thing after pr 

to do it. 
Chitete, grasshopper. 
Chitetbmba, change of purpose. Akwete chii 

He is always changing his mind. 
Chitetete, masengo ga chitetetey work all day 1 
Chitima, ku, to rush down a hill. 
Chitimatima, yolk of an egg ; marrow of a boj 

pith of a tree. 
Chitingo, nausea after food. 
Chitinjitinji, a bog or quagmire. 
Chitipa, width ; breadth. M'chUipa mwakwe 

wise. Mkcdo om wcma chitipa^ This knife 

broad. 
Chitipula, a garden of ground nuts. 
Chititi, yolk of an egg ; pith of a tree ; marr< 

bone. 
Chititila, a whirlpool in a deep part of a strei 
Chitiwa, plaited hair. 
Chitiwi, water in which husked maize ha 

washed ; beer which has stood three da; 
Chitolilo, a flute made of a reed. 
Chitolokoso, the buccal bags in fowls (wattles 
Chitolomiko, the larynx. 
Chitomoni, saliva trickling from the side 

mouth; sap trickling from a tree. 
Chitonga, calico worn by fastening the end 



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138 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 

piece round the waist in the form of a waist- 
belt, and passing the other end between the 
legSy suspending it from the waist-belt in 
front. 

Chitopa, a pestilence. 

Chitopole, calico worn down to the ankles. 

Chitopole, the crescent-shaped tribal mark of the 
waLomwe. 

Chitopotopo, things whose use is not understood; 
magic. 

Chitoto, a drinking-cup made of a leaf. 

Ohitotolo, a large species of hawk. 

Chitotosi, dung of fowls and birds. 

Chitqwe, a wraith. 

Chitukululu, kwenda, to walk backwards.' 

Chitukuta, heat ; perspiration. 

Chitulo, the apex of the roof of a house. 

Ohitulutulu, an abscess or boil in the finger. 

Chitumba, a calabash ; salt. « 

Chitumba, a bud. 

Chitumbalala, a death in childbirth. 

Chitumbili, a monkey. 

Chitumbo, the abdomen. Juamkongwe aju akwete 
chitwnibo, This woman is pregnant. 

Chitumu, a small bag-net for catching rats. 

Chitumundu, a protuberance or swelling of the body. 

Chitundilo, the bladder. 

Chitundu, a coop or house for fowls or doves ; a 
small basket. 

Ohitundulima, a low hill; a mound; an ascent in 
the path. 

Chitunga, a large chiselo. 

Chitungulu, the bamboo tied round the roof of a 
house. 

Chitungula, a creeper whose fruit tastes like a yam. 

Ohitupa, a small door at the back of the hou;3e not 



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YAO-ENGUSH VOCABULABY 139 

in general use, but always made as a way of 

escape ; a bulbous root ; stubble. 
Chituti, the smell of animal decomposition. 
Chitutu, the ashpit ; dunghill. 
Chitutulb, a small bundle. 
Chitutumba, a bow that has become too bent and, 

therefore, useless. 
Chituwa, a brass ear-ring. 
Chitwana, a stoutly built person. 
Chitwklo, a pestle. 

Chitwesime, a patch of white hairs in a child's head. 
Chiujilantuma, backwards. 
Chiukala, the first stomach in animals. 
Chiukula, diarrhoea ; dysentery. 
Chiula, a frog. 
Chiulawinji, the duodenum of animals ; the second 

stomach or honeycomb bag. 
Chiula WE, a large bamboo. 
Chiula WE, a large stone, used as a sledge-hammer by 

blacksmiths. 
Chiuu, the small back-door of a house used as a way 

of escape. 
Chiuli, deafness. Jui chiuU, a deaf man. 
Chiulo, froth ; scum ; surf of sea. 
Chiulu, a grey cat. 
Chiuluck), a pot used in making ugali, 
Chiululu, a small glass roof erected over an ant- 
hill to catch the flying white ants (ngtmibi), 
Chiulusi, calico worn round the breasts. Women 

wear calico thus during pregnancy. 
Chiumbuohilo, a sudden appearance. 
Chiumo, the narrow mouth of the fish basket (msipu). 
Chiundo, a knot. Kvlimhikanya chiundo, to tie a 

knot. 
Chiundo, instruction. 
Chiundo, a caterpillar. 



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140 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Chiungwaungwa, a large round house. 

Chiunichilo, a cover ; a lid. 

Chiwalama, the Klipbok or Klipspringer {Nano- 

tragus oreoVragua). 
Chiwalawala, a scorpion. 
Chiwalo, the thigh. 
Chiwalo, a limb of an animal or fowl, especially the 

hind leg. 
Chiwalula, a headache. 
Chiwamba, a seedling grown in the verandah and 

afterwards transplanted. Native tobacco is 

grown in this way. 
Chiwamba, cold and shivering ; sleeping uncomfort- 
ably. 
Chiwando, a newly-hoed garden. 
Chiwasa, higono lua chiwasa, the first sleep. 
Chiwata, a flat piece of ground. 
Chiwawb, bark cloth prepared by scorching before 

stripping it off the tree. 
Chiwawilb, smell of burning. 
Chiwela, still there ; in the same condition. Alt 

chiwela. He is still there ; he is still in the same 

condition. 
Chiwelegheto, what a man speaks ; language ; 

speech. 
' Chiwewe, a skipping-rope swung round and round by 

holding one end. Wcmache cdimJcuyuya chiioewe, 

The children are swinging the skipping-rope. 
Chiwewe, smell of burnt hair or wool. 
Chiwiga, a pot or vessel of any kind. The various 

kinds of pots are, Chivlugo, *Chijvmgu, Mpika, 

Chimbvli, Luido, Mtala, Litdeko, 
Chiwilili, a shadow. The Yaos think of a man's 

soul (Lisoka) as connected with his shadow. 
Chiwilili, a likeness ; a picture. 
Chiwjliwili, the thorax. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULABY 141 

Chiwilo, derision ; laughter. AtesUe chivnlo ajaOy^e 

made fun of his companions. 
Ohiwisa (I»), plaited hair. 
Chiwisa cha mgongo (II.), a vertebra. 
Chiwisa (III.), old calico. 
Chiwisiwisi, soft damp ground. 
Chiwisuku, high fever. 

Chiwombolo, the sum paid in redeeming a person. 
Ohiwonoo, wetness and dampness on the ground, as 

after heavy rains. 
Chiwuko, a small bag closing at the mouth with a 

string. 
Chi¥?ukuta, the forge where . hoes are made ; the 

furnace where iron is smelted. 
Chiwunga, a night- jar. 
Chiwuta, garden of ground nuts. 
Chiwuta, a large ^^ that forms one of the pictures 

at the wnyago, 
Chiyelb, polygamy ; story-telling ; gossip. 
Chochola, ku (-ohochwele), to break up the bush in 

preparing to hoe a garden. 
Chogweye, a fearsome thing. 
Chokola, ku (-chokwele), to make a beginning of 

anything ; to go ahead with anything ; to go on 

ahead. 
Chokopola, ku, to dig a hole with a stick ; to extract 
• the charge of a gun. 
Chohopoka, ku, passive. 
Chokotola, ku, to dig out a hole in the ground ; to 

excavate. 
Chola, ku (-TE kuchola), to overdo a thing. 

ChoUka, ^w, to be overdone. 
Chole, the touch-hole of a gun. 
Cholima, ku (-CHOLIME), to go far away ; to hoe 

deeply. 
Cholochoteka, KU,to run away, and not be seen again. 



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143 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Cholochoteityai ha^ to drive away. 
Cholowana, ku, to fail in the middle of an oration ; 

to speak confusedly ; to fail in finishing any- 
thing properly. 
Cholowanya, ku, to speak confusedly. 
Choma, ku (-chomilb), to stamp with an iron tool, as 

in marking figures on a leather belt ; to fill up a 

dish full. 
Ghomboto, an epidemic which may attack men as well 

as animals. 
Ohombwa, a game played almost universally over 

Africa. It is somewhat like draughts, and is 

played on a board with four rows of holes, or on 

the ground. 
Chombwb, an epithet of reproach. 
Chomb, a black cat. 
Chonde, Please } The Yao commences his prayers to 

the spirits with, CJionde, chonde^ Mul/angu, 
Chondelela, ku, to supplicate ; beg. 

OhoTideleka, ku, to be the object of supplication. 
Chondola, ku, to speak disrespectfully of (to make a 

clucking noise with the tongue). 
Chongochbee, kwima chongochere, to stand upright. 
Ohonjosya, ku, to " laugh " (of rats). 
Chopa, ku (-chopile), to stamp with an iron tool, as in 

marking a leather belt. 
Chopa, ku, to probe with a stick. •. 

Chopera somba, ku, to probe with a pointed stick or 

spear among the reeds by the river-side so as 

to frighten the fish and drive them into the net. 
Chosi, a fibrous plant used in making string. 
Chosirira, ku, to be very old. 
Choteka, ku, to plant without hoeing the ground. 
Chotechera, ku, to do anything without thinking ; 

to do amiss. 
Choti! packed full. 



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YAOENGLISH VOCABULARY 143 

t 

Chuamasika, a species of wild grape. 
Chuambepo, a gay-coloured cloth-like handkerchiefing. 
Chuamsaoaja, a species of beetle used as gun medicine. 
Chuamsaeaja, a gay-coloured cloth-like handker- 

chiefing. 
Ohuchu, a game consisting of guessing what another 

has hid. 
Chitku, the rainy season from December to March or 

April. It is the season for growing the crops, 

and the native population is usually busied in 

hoeing and clearing their gardens of weeds. 
Chuluka, ku (-chulwiche), i;o be many ; to be too 

many. 
Ckuluya, ku (-ehiUioiye), to increase the quantity ; 

to make or put in too many. 
Chululit, a drenching. 
Chum, expressive of falling into the water. AgwUe 

m^mesi, chum ! He fell splash into the water ! 
Chumba, a crane. 
Chumba, a room in the verandah of a house ; a trap 

for animals made with a falling door (Swahili). 
Chumbi, the hump on the shoulders of cattle. 
Chumbu, lead for bullets. 
Chumu, lyuwa tetetete ckumu^ all day long until 

sunset. 
Chumuchila, ku (-chumuchile), to set (of the sun). 
Chundu, anything ; something. 
Chunja, ku, to rebound; to fail to reach one's 

destination. 
Chuuka, ku (-ohiwiche), to come out (of the water). 
Chwula, hi^ to take out of the water. 
Chuukula, huy to steep in water. 
' Chuukuha, hi, to be steeped in water. 
Chuwa, ku, to cut grass at the root; to taste food 

while it is in the pot on the fire. 
ChtMJoika, kuy passive. 



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144 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Chuwi, a cupping horn. 

Chuwika, ku (-cmwiCHE), to dip in water. 

Chuwilisi, a place for lying in wait. 

Chuya, ku (chuiye), to dip in water for an instant. 

ChuyUca, ku, to be dipped in water. 
Chwe-b-b, expressive of burning with a hot iron, or 

of quenching a fire with water ; also of an aching 

dull pain, such as that of weariness. 

D. 

D is pronounced as in English. Except in a few 

instances, it never stands alone in Yao, only 

combined with n, when it represents frequently 

a modified t or I. 
Dandaula, ku (-DANDAWiLBf), to grumble; to be 

vexed. 
Dcmdaulira^ ku^ to grumble at ; to be vexed with. 
Dande, the slime from a snail. Kungcurauaya dande^ 

to leave me only the fragments. 
Db ! DB ! DB I the sound of drumming. 
Dblela, ku, to grumble at receiving too little. 

Beleleka, ku, to be grumbled at. 
Deletu, good. Gerego no ga deletu. That is very 

good. 
Dendechera, ku, to balance on the head. 

Dendechereka ku, passive. 
Di I Di ! Di ! expressive of the sound of walking. 
DiDiDiDi..., expressive of the sound of running. 
DoDOLOKA, KU (dodolweche), to be greedy. 
DoDOMA, KU (-dodweme), to hesitate and be «low at 

doing anything ; to stutter in speaking. 
DoNDOOHESYA, KU (-dondochesye), to pour a little in ; 

to pour in drops. 
Dudulusya, ku (dudulwisyb), to put carelessly on 

the ground; to pull along the ground. 



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TAO-ENOLISH VOCABULABY 145 

DuLusi, Ku tamo, dul/asi, to live comfortably. 
DuNJB, comfortably. 

E. 

E has the sound of the English ai in " chair." In 
certain words the sound is flattened. When, 
by the elision of an interposing I, a and i are 
combined, the two together take the sound of e. 
Lyehdungwa stands for LyaMhdungwa^ chesimba 
stands for cha lisimba, 

E, yes. 

Elo, yes. 

-ENU, with concordant syllable prefixed, represents 
the second person plural of the ' possessive 
pronoun your. Lijela lyenu, your hoe ; rruijela 
genu, your hoes. ' 

-ENUMWB, your own. 

Eti? Is it not sol (expecting the answer "Yes *'). 

Eti! an exclamation of surprise, answering to our 
English " Did you ever hear the like ! " ** Such 
an idea ! '* It implies disgust or dislike. 

-ETU, with concordant syllable prefixed, represents 
the first person plural of the possessive pronoun 
our. Lijela lyetu, our hoe ; majela getu, our Hoes. 

Btu ! (Mang'anja), Yes, indeed it is so ! 

-ETUWB, our own. 

Eya, yes, that's it. 

F. 

The sound of / occurs very rarely in Yao, and in 
that only in the case of words of foreign origin. 
Generally an / of foreign origin becomes a p 
in the mouth of a Yao, as, palasvra from the 
Swahili yroM^, 35 pounds weight. 



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146 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

FuMA, N.E. wind (Swahili). 

FuNDisYA, KU, to teach. 

FwAMBA, KU, to steal people (see Swamba). 



G. 

G has the sound of the English g in "get," never 
that of j. When the vowel following g becomes 
6 or ^, the g is modified intoy. 

Ga, the class characteristic of the plural number of 
the fifth class, of which the substantive prefix 
is ma, 

Ga, of, the preposition belonging to plural nouns of 
the fifth class. It is used to express the posses- 
sive relation of two substantives, as Mapanga ga 
mfundi, The craftsman's spears. 

Gadama, KU (-gademe), to lie on one's back; to 
stretch oneself back. 
Gadamika, ku, to place anything on its back. 

Gagacheya, KU (-gagacheye), to fasten lightly 
together. 

Gagada, KU (-gagadile), to hack. 

Gagambala, stumpiness. 

'Gala, for agala by elision; the demonstrative (distant) 
of the plural number of substantives belonging 
to the fifth class. 

Galagata, KU, to tumble about on the ground. 

Galagatika, KU (-galagatiche), to tumble about on 
the ground ; to act a double part ; to do any- 
thing quickly. 

Galambula, KU (-galambwile), to turn over ; to fold 
over. 
Gala/mhuka, ku, passive. 

Galamuka, KU, to stand up quickly. 
GalwmuBya^ hu, causative. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 147 

Galauka, ku (-galawiche), to be turned round; to 
be overturned; to be changed. 
Godauaya, ku, to turn. 
GcUauckisya, ku, to turn round for. 
Galauchila, ku, to turn round upon. 

Galawinda, ku (-galawindilb), to be restless ; to roll 
about on the ground. 

Galuka, ku (-galwiche), to crack ; to commence to 
shown signs of a bad crop. 

[Gamba, ku] (I.) (present in actual use -kuxjbmba^ 
Per/, -gambUe, or gaile, or gawUe), represented 
by the English " only.'* Akuoamha kutama, He 
is only sitting (t. 6. he is doing nothing else). 
Agcumbile kuwdecheta, He was only speaking. 

[Gamba, ku] (H.), to speak of ; to talk about. Mundu 
jvAi twa/g<m^)aga ^jtUa, The man we were speaking 
of. Chichi wagamfd)(tga Chenrdumhe? What was 
Chemlumbe talking about. 

Gambatukula, ku (-gambatukwile), to open up some- 
thing shut. 

Ganda, ku, to be very lean. 

Gandasi^a, ku (-gandasiche), to be very lean and 
thin. 

Ganga, ku (-ganjile), to gut and lay open. 

Ganoalama, ku (-gangaleme), to be strong ; to have 
good health ; to be sturdy. 

Gangasya, ku, to split open. 

Gangasika, ku, to be split up ; to crack. 

Ganisya, ku (ganisisyb), to think. 

Gcmichiaya, ku, to think of ; to be in doubts about. 

Gau ! the taste of anything soft as porridge. 

Gawa, ku, to cut ; to cut up for dividing. 
Gawanya, ku, to divide. 
Gawikanya, ku, to divide. 

Genu, possessive pronoun of the plural number second 
person of nouns belonging to the fifth class. 



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148 YAO-BNGLISH VOOABULAtlY 

Getf, possessive pronoun of the plural number first 

person of nouns belonging to the fifth clads. 
Geya, ku (-geyiye), to belch. 
GoBA, expressive of cloudiness. Kwiwnde kwati goha, 

the sky was overclouded. 
GrOGO, a male goat. 

GoGODA, KU (-gogodilb), to beat ; to knock. 
GoGODiOHiLA, KU (-gogodichile), to make false accusa- ~ 

tions against a person. 
GoGOGO, Ku tamna gogogo, to sit alone silent. 
Gojo, an impotent man. 

GoLOKA, KU (-golweche), to be straight. Mitela 
jahu^fcloha, or Mitela jagolokaf straight trees. 
Goloayay ku, to straighten. 
GoLOKWA, a poor crop last reaped in a garden. 
GoMA, KU, to be baffled ; to be convicted ; to lose in 
a magambo. Magamho ga/mgomeley The case was 
• decided against him. 

Gomeka, ku, to be convicted ; to be found guilty. 
Wagomeche pa uwii ^pala, He was found guilty 
of that theft. 
GoMBA, KU (-GOMBILB, sometimes -gowile), to beat ; 
to weave; to play on an instrument. Kugo- 
TThba vJcali, to show fierceness. Ku gomba lilo- 
Tnbalomba, to toll a bell. Kv>gomba uti, to fire 
a gun. 
Gombeka, ku, passive. 
Gomhelwa, ku, passive. 
Gomhda, ku, to shoot at. 

Gomhdesya, ha, to speak strongly; to give warn- 
ing ; to dilate on any subject. 
GoMBOKOLA, KU (-gombokwble), to Untie ; to break an 
agreement ; to return a bargain. 
Gomhokoka, ku, to be untied. 
Gomhokokmya, ku, to explain. 
GoMBWA, KU (-gombwile), to be ** dead beat." 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 149 

GoNA, KU (-GONiLBf, to lie down ; to sleep. 
Kugona lugcdi, to lie on the back. 
Ky^gona mdkuku, to lie on the belly. 
Goneka, ku, to lay down. 
Gk)NDA, KU (-gondilb), to spoak a case in a proper way 

in a court of law. 
GoNQOMALA, KU (-gongomble), to be crooked. 

Gongomattyay ku, causative. 
GopoLA, KU (gopwelb), to Untie. 
Gopoka, ku, to be untied. 
GopoUla, ku, to explain to. 
Gopolanya, ku, to untie what has been fastened 

together ; to explain. 
GopoUmika, ku, to be imbound. 
GosA (-gosilb), to refrain from anything; to taboO 
anything or any person. Agosile pa mud, he 
keeps clear of the village. 
Goseka, ku, to be forbidden. 
Ligosa, ku, to refrain one's self frcwn. 
GoWA ! hanging limp and loosely. 
Gowo ! wearied out. 

GowoLA, KU (-gowele), to pull the heads of maize in 
reaping. 
Gowaka, ku, to be reaped. 
Goya, ku (-goiye), to bend down a tree with one's 
weight. 
Ligoya, hi, to strike against a tree while going 
along the path : to interfere in a magambo and 
so cause it to be turned against one's self. 
GuBUDUKA, KU (-gubudwiohe), to roll down. 

Gubuduaya, ku, to cause to roU down. 
GuDULA, ku (-auDwiLE), to cut SO as to leavo a 
stump. 
Gruduka, ku, passive. 
GUDUMII.A, KU, to boil up so as to cover what is in the 
pot. 



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160 YAO-lBNGLISH VOCABULARY 

GuDUMUKA, Ku (-gudumuka), to roU down; to be 
startled and run away. 
Gudumusyat hu^ to startle. 
GuGUDA, KU (-gugudilb), to beat; to pound; to 
stamp. 
Gugusya^ hu (-gv^gwisT/e), to knock at. 
GuGUDiLA, KU (-GUOtJDiLB), to drink up all and leave 

none in the cup. 
GuGUDULA, KU (-gugudwile), to cut the beard short. 

Gugudukoy hi^ to be cut short. 
GuGUNDA, KU (-gugundilb), to shiver. 
GuGUNDALA, KU (-gugundele), to shiver with cold. 
GuGUSi, knocking (at the door). Atesile guguai pa 

mlcmgo, He knocked at the door. 
GuGUNGUNGU, shortness of stature. 
GuGusiKA, KU (-gugusiche), to get away fast. 
GuGUSTA, KU (-gugwisyb), to knock lightly. 
Gdlugusta, ku (-gulugwisye), to be mischievous. 
GULUKA, KU (-gulwiche), to fly. 

Chduaya^ huy to allow to fly away. 
GuLUPANYA, KU (-gulupenye), to be wild and fierce ; 
to be stubborn and obstinate ; to pay no heed to 
anything that is said to one ; to be quarrelsome. 
GuMA, KU, to bark (of a dog). 
GuMBALA, KU (-gumbele), to be full. 
Gumhasya, ku, to fill. 

GumhalUay hu, to be very full ; to overflow. 
Me&i gagumhalUe trCnyasa namiyaka, The lake is 
quite full of water this year. 
Gvmbalichisya, ku, to fill too full ; to be very full. 
GuMU ! falling off as of plaster off a wall. 
GuMULA, KU (-gumwile), to break down the plaster 
of a wall, or the earth from the side of a hole. 
Gmnuka, ku, to fall down ; to crumble down. 
GuNDiMA, KU (-qundime), to work hard ; to be stout. 
GuNDULi ! lying on the bare floor. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 151 

GuNDULiLA, Ku (-gundulile), to chew tough meat ; to 

force one's way through long grass ; to give a 

false report of what another has said. 
GuNGULUMA, KU (-gungulwime), to rumble (of the 

intestines). 
GuNGULUMYA, KU (-gungulwimye), to scurry away (as 

rats do) ; to rush about. 
GuNGUMiKA, KU, to come together; to meet by 

chance ; to beat a big drum de I del del 
GuNGUMiLA, KU, to give out a dull hollow sound. 
GuNGULA, KU (-gungwile), to gather in food from the 

garden; to bring cloth that has been spread 

out to dry into the house; to go and fetch a 

person from a distance. 
GuNGUSYA, KU (-oungwisye), to knock lightly. 
GuTA, KU (-gutile), to shout ; to cry. 
Gwa! rigidly; firmly. 
GwA, KU (-qwile), to fall. MalUo gagwile pa ma- 

ngwenu, There is a mourning at your home. 
Ghviaya, ku, to cause to fall. 
GtoUika^ ku, to fall upon. 
GwAGULA, KU (-gwagwilb), to Strip off (as the bark of 

a tree or the skin of an animal). 
Gwaguka, ku, passive. 
GwAQWASUKA, KU (-gwagwaswiche), to be very thin 

and lean ; to be torn off by force. 
GwAOWASULA, KU (-gwagwaswilb), to tear off by force. 
Gwajilisya, ku (-gwajilesye), to pass over quickly 

(of a shower). 
GwALA, KU (gwasile), to disappear; to hide; to go 

away secretly. 
Gwasya, ku (-gwasiaye), to stow away out of sight. 
GwALATA, sprouting up. 
GwAPULA, KU, slash with a knife. 
GwAwiLiLA, KU, to track game; to follow people, 

keeping at a short distance so as not to be seen. 



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152 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 

GwEBKDE, expresidve of the sound made by any 
^ object failing on the ground. 

GwBBEDESYA, KU (-gwebbdesyb), to gTope about seek- 
ing for anything. 

GwEDELA, KU (-gwedelb), to be loose, as a nail in its 
hole. 
Gtoeddesya, kuy to slacken (a nail). 

GwEBE, expressive of disappearing. 

AgwasUe mwitinji gwere^ He disappeared into the 
bush. 

GwESBLA, TLU, to nod on account of sleepiness. 

GwESiMA, KU (-GWBSiMio;), KU, to be Ufeless and 
foolish; to go round about a thing; to be dull 
in the understanding. 

GwEsiowESi ! going round and round about a t^ing. 

GwiLi ! swallowing. 

GwiNDiMALA, KU (-qwindihble), to be hard and 
compact. 

Gwiso, father ; master. 



I has the sound of the English ee in " feeL" Before 

a vowel i generally becomes y. 
I, the class characteristic of the plural number of 

nouns belonging to the fourth class. 
'I, for a^, these things, pi. of <ichi, 
IcHo! Let me pass! Let me inl used in seeking 

admittance. 
Ika, KU (-ichb), to arrive at ; to reach. 

(jl&ndo uiche ku manga, A caravan has reached the 

coast. 
IchUa, hi, to arrive at ; to reach to. 
Ikangana, ku, to come together (of a large number). 
Ikam.gam.ya, ku, to gather a great number together. 
PaichUa, ku, to be able to reach up to. 



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YA0-BKGLI85 VOCABULARY 153 

Ikambilo, the part of sugar-cane or maize-stem that 
is spit out after chewing. 

Ilaila, the same things. 

iLiuiiiA, the Pleiades, so called because their appear- 
ance in the evening is the sign that the planting 
seasoh is at hand. 

Imango, a coloured cloth. 

Imba, ku, to swell. PaimhUe pa mkono pcmgu posey 
My whole arm is swollen.^ 

Ihbo, bark cloth worn at the unyago, 

Imo, together. Tujende imo. Let us go together. 
Wagcmisisye imo, They thought the same thing. 

Ina, ku (-inile), to dance; to pass through the 
tmyago ceremony. 
Inigwa, ku (-inigtve), to have passed through the 
unyago, 

Inda, ku (-indile), to swell up as dry seeds do when 
steeped in water ; to be stained from being wet. 

Inoa, food for a journey. Asoie inga ayenu chile, 
malatoi kundawipe mwcmja Seek for food so as to 
be ready, to-morrow early in the morning we 
start. 

Inoalamula, ku (-ingalamwilb), to roll on the ground. 

Ino 1 just now, at once, quickly. 

Ipichibisi, the cord fastened round the notch of an 
arrow to prevent it being split up by the bow- 
string. 

IsANGO, a coloured cloth. 

Isiif A, ku taga, to do honour ta 

IsiRisYA, a iibre plant, used as cord in basket-making. 

IsoTO, small holes. 

IsYA, ku (isisye), kwisya mtima, to sigh. 
Isisya, ku, to sigh deeply. 

Itinisi, cinders; sl^g. 

Itula, ku (-itwile), to fire a gun ; to set off a trap. 

Itunguwi, onions. 



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164 YAO-ENOLISH VOCABULAEY 

Itungwani, haze in the dry season arising from gi'ass 

fires. 
IwALA, a species of locust. 
Iyoyo, so; thus. Mkuti 'yoyo wctgwasUe mwitinj% 

Speaking thus he " bolted " into the bush. 

J. 

J has the sound of the English j in " jar." After n, 
ch becomes y, while after the same sound j itself 
becomes y. 

Ja, of; the preposition agreeing with the plural 
number of substantives belonging to the second 
class, and to the singular number of substan- 
tives belonging to the third class. It is also 
used to express the possessive relation between 
two nouns of this class. 

Ja, ku (-jile), to go. Akyja leu rrmsi, He goes to the 
village. Ana kwapi ajUe mlendo ^julaf Where 
did the stranger go to? 
JUa, kuy to go for. 

Jaoama, ku (-jageme), to walk about " gingerly," as 
when one is sore of foot. ^ 

Jajawala, ku (jajawble), to float. 
Jajawcbsya^ ku^ to cause to float. 

Jala, ku (-jasile), to lay in order side by side. 

Jaluka, ku (-jalwiche), to be light; to be of low 
character; to be light-headed. 
Jalusya^ hi (-jalvnsye), to make light of; to dis- 
honour; to lighten. 

Jalukula, ku (-jalukwile), to remove one by one; 
to remove the top layer of anything. 

Jamba, ku, to lay the open palm upon anything. 
Jambanya, ku, to pass the firs^ thread of a reed 
mat; to commeuce weaving or sewing a palm- 
leaf mat. 



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YAO-ENQLISH VOCABULARY 155 

Jambvchila, ku, to cross over; to infect (of a 
disease); to leave one's own and seek that of 
another. 
Jambula, ku (-jambwile), to overhear what two people 

are saying. 
Jambulila, ku, to seek for the scent, as a dog does 

by snuffing all over the ground. 
Jamila, ku (-jamisilb), to scream. 
Jamuka, ku (-jamwiche), to rebuke ; to scold. 
Janga, ku, to catch (as a ball) ; to give an answer ; 
to be set on fire ; to catch fire accidentally. 
Janjila, kuy to reply to. 
Jangala, ku (-jangble), to dance about. 
Jangata, ku (-jangetb), to carry in one's arms. 

Jangatika, ku, to be carried in the arms. 
Jangalusya, ku (-jangalwisye), to pay no heed to 

what is told one ; to finish a thing off quickly. 
Janguya, ku (-jangwiyb), to make haste. 

Jcmgunsya^ ku, to cause to hasten. 
Janika, ku (janiche), to spread out to dry. 

Januhula, ku, to gather up what has been spread 

out. 
Jwrmkuka, hi, to be gathered up. 
Janichika ku, to be spread out to dry. 
Japuka, ku, to ease one's self. 

Jasa, ku (-jasile), to throw away ; to lose ; to 
bury. * 
Jasika, ku (-jasiche), to be lost ; to be buried. 
Jasama, ku (-jasebie), to gape. Kwasama mwaju, to 

yawn. 
Jasima, ku, to lend ; to borrow. Munyaaime uti jenu, 
mjende mkajaaiine jine kwa Mchimwene, Lend me 
your gun and go and borrow another from the 
chief. 
Jaavmika, ha, to be ready to lend ; to be lendable. 
Jatusya, ku (-jatwisye), to dry before the fire. 

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156 YAO-BNOUSH VOOABULABT 

Jatuaika, ku, to be spread out before the &:e to 

dry. 
Jaula, ku (-jawile), to go away. 

Javsya, ku (-jatmsye), to let go away ; to send away. 
Jawa! lightly. 
Jawalawa, floating. 
Jawalika, ku, to do work badly. 
Jawaluka, ku, to leap up ; to start off. 
Jebwe, gentleness and quietness of manner. 
Jegama, ku (-jegeme), to lean against. Uti jijegeme 

mwifmpa^ The gun was leaning against the wall. 
Jegwniihoby ku^ to lay against. 
JegcmivJcuIa, ku^ to lift up what has been leaning 

against something else. 
Jejeka, ku, to lean against. Ajejeche ukunje pa Tntela, 

He leaned the bow against a tree. 
Jejekula, ku, to lift what has been leaning against 

something. 
Jejema, ku, to shake. 
Jelajela, ku, to float ; to run on the surface of the 

water as water insects do. 
Jelejesya, ku (-jelejbsye), to be quarrelsome ; to talk 

loud so as to be heard far away. 
Jeluka, ku, to burrow underground close to the 

surface ; to be shallow (of a river) ; to be level. 
Jelusya, ku, to advise. 
Jembechbya, ku (-jbmbbcheye), to wAit; to have 

patience. 
Jembujembu, thinness. 
Jembula, ku, to remove the inner part of a split 

bamboo; to remove what lies on the surface. 
Jemhika, ku, passive. 
Jekda, ku (-jesilb), to go. Zero tujesile, To-day we 

have gone (a long distance). 
Jesyay ku, to convey ; to give goods to another to 

trade with. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 157 

Jendajenda, ku, to walk about. 
Lijesya, ku, to behave well. 
Jenbla, ku, to cover completely ; to be understood 
by all ; to be sufficient for. Mpika ukasiehe meai 
nehwenela moae mnyvmba, The pot is broken, and 
the water has spread all over the house. Inga 
aji jijenele tUendo, This food is enough for the 
journey. 
Jenesya, ku, to spread the report of anything ; to 

proclaim ; to suffice ; to satisfy. 
Jenechesya, ku, to satisfy. 
Jenga, ku (-jenjilb), to cook out oil as the natives 

do from castor-oil seeds and ground-nuts. 
Jenjetukula, ku (-jenjetukwilb), to take off the 

surface layer ; to skim off the surface of oil. 
Jbpepala, ku (-jepbpele), to be thin. Ngtto aji 
jijepepde, This cloth is too thin. 
Jepepa^ya, ku, to make thin. 
jEPtLA, KU (-jepwilb), to scrapo together the surface 

soil. ^ 
Jesambula, ku (-jesambwile), to graze ; to touch in 

passing. 
Jesbmula, ku (-jesemwile), to sneeze. 
Ji, class characteristic of the plural of substantives 
belonging to the second class, and of the singular 
of substantives belonging to the third class. 
JiOALA, ku (-jigele), to Carry ; to carry away. 
Jigaltoa, ku, Jigalilwa, ku, to be carried. 
Jigaaya, ku, to make to carry. 
Jigasyana, ku, to carry two and two. 
JiGANA, ku (-jigene), to find. 
Jiganya, ku, to teach. 
Lijiganya, ku, to learn. 
Jika, Jjkape, alone. WajawiU jikape, WajawUe pa 

jika, WajawUe pa ji. He went away alone. 
JiKUTA, KU (-jikwite), to be satisfied ; to have eaten 



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158 * YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

enough. The expression Tujikwite^ We are 
satisfied, or Nyikwite^ I am satisfied, is some- 
times used to express thanks. 
Jikutisya^ hi, to satisfy. 
JiLA, KU, to say. Used rarely except in Future and 
Imperative. Mjende mjile 8a% Go and say thus. 
Tutujile tUi ? What shall we say 1 
JiLANA, KXJ (-jilene), to agree together; to he on 
friendly terms. 
jilanya, ku, to reconcile. 
JiLiJiLi, rattling of leg rattles. 
JiLiLA, KU, to be short of stature. 
JiRiJiTiKA, KU (-jibijitichb), to quivor, of any part of 

the body. 
JiLiusYA, KU (-jiliwisye), to Startle. 
JiLULA, KU, to remove what lies on the surface. 
JiMA, KU (-jime); to stand ; to refuse. 
Jimika, ku, to set upright. 

Jimiya, ku, to refuse ; to cause to refuse. Maungu 
atujimisye or atujimiye masengo, The European 
refused us work. 
JirniUilay ku, to stand near. 
JiMBA, KU (-jimbilb), to Sing. Ktoimba nyimbo, to sing 

a song. Kwimba ndcmo, to tell a story. 
Jim BALA, KU (-jimbblb), to be fat ; to be stout. Ate 
kwimhalila kuno, He has become stout (by stay- 
ing) here. 
JiMBULA, KU (-jimbwile), to skim off the surface. 
JiMUKA, KU (-jimwichb), to rise up ; to get up. 

Jimusyay ku {-jimwisye), to raise. 
JiNA, KU, to dye black by steeping in mud. 

Jinika, ku, to be dyed black. 
JiNAMA, KU (-jineme), to stoop ; to bend down. 
Jincmiika, ku, to be bent down. 
Jinamuhula, ku, to lift one's self up after stooping. 
Jinarmda, ku, to lift up after being bent down. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 159 

Jinamuka^ kuy to rise up ; to straighten one's self up. 
Jinamukuka, ku, to rise up. 

Jina/mukusyay ha, to lift upright what has been 
bent down. 
JiNOALAMULA, Ku, to roU along the ground. 

Jingalamiuka, hu, to be rolled. 
JiNiCHiLWA, KU (-jinichilwb), to prosper; to have 
good fortune. 
JinichUa, ku, to make prosperous. 
Jinilwa, ku, to prosper. 
JiNiKANA, KD (-jinikenb), to agree ; to be on friendly 
terms with. 
Jinikanya ku, to reconcile. 
-JiNJi, many ; much. Wandu wajinji, many people. 

Nguo syasijinji, much cloth. 
JiNJiLA, KU (-jinjile), to enter. KwinjUa majttmba, 
to inherit. KwirijUa Una, to succeed to another's 
name and position. 
JvnQvmyih, ku, to appoint a successor. 
JinjilUa, ku, to go in the direction of. AjinjUile 
ako. He went in that direction. AjinjilUe litcda 
*lyo. He went along that road. 
JiNJiLANOA, KU (-jinjilnajile), to make an attack on 

a village or caravan. 
-JiPi, short. Mitela jamijipi, short trees. 
JiPiPA, KU (-jipipb), to be short. 

Jipipisya ku, Jipipiya ku, to shorten. 
JiPUKA, KU (-jipwiche), to be startled as game. 
JiTA, KU (-jitilb), to pour out. 
Jitika, ku, to be poured out. 
JitUa, ku, to irrigate. 
Jitika, ku, to answer on being called. 

JUichisya, ku, to consent ; to say yes ; to answer to 

one's name. 
Zijitichisya, ku, to confess. 
JiTULA, KU (-jitwile), to anneal iron. 



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160 YAO-EITGLISH VOCABULARY 

-JIU, ripe. Isogosi yejiu, ripe fruit. 

JiULA, KU (-jiwile), to ripen ; to curdle (of milk). 

JiWA, KU (-jiwile), to steal. 

JiwiKA, KU (-jiwiche), to be easily stolen. 

'Jo for AJO, demonstrative (middle) of the plural of 

Class II., and the singular of Class III. 
JocHA, KU (-jochIlb), to bum ; roast. AjochUe moto 
nyumhajakwe myu^ He set fire to his house (and 
it was) completely (burned). 
JoGA, KU (-josile), to bathe. 

Jojela, ku, to dress for (a dance). 
Josya, ku, to bathe. 
JoGOPA, KU (-J0GWEPE), to be afrdid. 

Jogoya, ku (-jogweye), to frighten ; to be terrible ; 
to be fearsome ; to be dangerous. Perepo kogoya, 
that there is a terrible place. 
JoJA, KU (-JOJILE, -TE kujoja), to make a noise in 

talking. 
JoKOLA, KU (-jokwelb), to take out of the fire as they 
do roasted potatoes. 
Jokokaj ku, to be taken out of the fire. 
JoLOWA, KU (-jolwbwe), to be soft. 

Joloya^ ku {-jolweye), to soften. 
JoMBOKA, KU (-jombwechb), to cross over. 

Jombosya, ku (-jombwesye), to ferry over. 

JoNANGA, KU (-jonasile), to spoil ; to destroy. 

Jonasika, ku (-jonasiche), to be destroyed. 

JONGA, KU (-JONJILE), to SUCk. 

Jongosya, ku, and Josya, ku, to suckle. 
Janjeka, ku, to be suckled. 
JoNGOLA, KU (-jongwele), to straighten; to stretch 

out. 
Jongoka, ku, to be straightened. 
Jongosya, ku, to straighten. 
Jongolela, ku, to steer a canoe straight; to open 

out a straight road. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 161 

Jonjolo8ya^ ku, to scare game. 

LijoTigola, ku, to stretch one's self out; to straighten 

one's limbs by a walk. 
JoNGOLOMYA, KU (-jongolwemyb), to Startle game 

which another is stalking ; to give premature 

notice of a magambo. 
JoNJECHESYA, KU, to make an addition to. Nyonje- 

chesyomi, chindcmdi chuma achi, Give me more, 

these beads are too few. 
JosoGHELA, KU, to become less in bulk so as not to 

fill the receptacle, as a newly-filled grave. 
Josochesya, ku, to lessen. 
JoTA, KU (-jotile), to Warm one's self at the fire. 
Jotda, kuy to warm one's self in the sun. 
Lijotela, ku, to warm one's self at the fire or in the 

sun. 
JowETA, KU (-jowetile), to make an attack on a village 

or caravan. 
Ju, class characteristic of the singular number of 

the first or personal class. 
JuA lYOYO, an impotent man. 
JuAWii, (pi. WAWii), a thief. 
JuGA, KU (-jusile), to beg from. Mjende mkajuje atcUi 

ycbkvlyay Go and beg some food from your father. 
Jujika, ku, to be easily begged from. 
JuGA, a game of cards introduced from the Arabs — 

a game played entirely for gambling purposes. 
JuQUWALA, KU (-juguwelb), to riso as the skin of a 

blister; to swell up. 
JujULUKA, KU, to have an acid taste. 
JuKULA, KU, to strip the bark ofE a tree. 
JuMANA, KU (-jumene), to quarrol and fight. 
-JUMU, dry. Juamjxmiujuamkongwe, a barren woman. 
JuMULiLA, KU, to dry up; to grapple with. Mesi 

gajumUUe m*Chi7VJoa namiyaka. The water has 

dried up in Lake Chirwa this year. Wako- 

M 

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163 YAO-BNGLISH YOOABULAPY 

pwecJie nehmijvmUila jiuxvni, He went out and 
grappled with the thief. 
JuMULA, KU (jumwile), to be dry ; to be h^xd. 

Jurrmsya, ku, to diy. 
JuNDA, KU, to be wet and tasteless (of potatoes and 

cassava). 
JuNDA, KU (-jundile), to be lean and thin. 
JuNGUYA, KU (-junowiye), to beat the water ; to wash 

one's mouth with water. 
JuTULA, KU (-jutwilb), to jerk. 
Juu ! quite still. 

JuuLA, KU (-juwilb), to take out from a hiding-place ; 
to take the bark oft* a tree ; to reveal (a s^ret). 
Juuka, kuj passive. 
JuwA, KU, to hide; to take shelter from. Tujuwe 
ula. Let us seek shelter from the rain. 
JuudlUa, ku, to lie in wait for. 

K. 

K is pronounced as in English. Before e or % k 

becomes ch. 
Ka, the class characteristic and diminutive prefix of 

the seventh class. 
Ka, of, preposition agreeing with the singular 

number of nouns belonging to the seventh class. 

It is also used to express the possessive relation 

of nouns belonging to that class. 
Ka-, prefix of a form of the imperative mood, as, 

Kataweniy KcUendeni. 
Kachi, expressive of explosion with a puff of smoke. 
Kachilila, ku, to be industrious at one's work. 
Kachula, ku (kachwile), to split up ; to tear up ; to 

remove from one place to another. , 

Kdchukay hu, passive. 
Kachukfida, hi, to imtie ; unfasten j to pull to 



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TAO-ENGLISH VOCABUI4ARY ' 163 

pieces. Mkal^a^^hvhule manyasi pepupa, nipcmiande 

rmoipenu, Untie the grass on the wall and bind it 

on the verancU^h. 
Kachukuka, ku^ to be untied ; to be puUed to 

pieces ; to split open (of dry wood) • to burst. 
Kadiaumbe, a species of wild grape. 
Kadumba, a round-headed arrow. 
Kapwambila, the bowl of a bhang pipe. 
Kagula, ku (-kagwilb), to follow; to reply to 

another's arguments; to catch up the thread 

of one's story. 
Kajfkajb, really ; in very truth. Mchimwene msyene 

kajekoQe no McUemya, A real chief is Malemya. 

Mhulwisye kajekaje^ You have really paissed. 
Kakaula, ku (-kakawile), to feel one's skin creepy. 
Kakawala, jua Imkawala,^ a strong man. 
Kakolong'ombe, a small tusk of ivory. 
Kala, long ago. 

-a kalay old ; ancient. 
'Kala, for akcda^ there (of a remote distance). 
ELA.LAKALA, old ; loog ago. Mwndu jua halahalay an 

aged person. 
Kalakatala, ku (-kalakatble), to be dry and 

withered. 
Kalalisya, ku, to be cruel-hearted. 

KalaMckisya, hi^ to be cruel to. 
Kalamala .(-kalamele), to be stiff, as when one 

cannot move one's neck. Kalamala lukosi, 

stiff-necked. 
Kalamuka, ku (-kalamwiche), to be clever; to be 

smart; to be wise. 
KalamuchiUiy ku, to be too clever for one. 
Kalanga, ku, to fry ; to scorch in a potsherd, ^s the 

people do maize. 
Kalawila, ku (-kalawile), to soil or spoil, as when 

one touches anything with dirty hands. 



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164 YAO-ENGLtSH VOCABULARY 

Kali, Awelechete pa kali ^po. He told lies ; he spoke 

aside from the point. 
Kaligoselo kalagu, a charm from witchcraft. 
Kalilolb, a mirror. 

Kalilombe, a large species of chameleon. 
Kalingwa? How often? 
Kalipila, ku (-kalipile), to scold. 
Karipa, a small comh. 
Kaliwo, a tobacco-pipe. 
Kalula, ku (-kalwile), to split up into two ; to tear 

in two; to explain; to separate the thighs; to 

go through the bush and strike a path ; to hoe 

as far as the boundary of another's garden. 
Kalume, one hundred (1). 
Kalusele, dwarfishness. 
Kamata, ku (-kamete), to make up a substance into 

balls. 
Kambanjule, a rascal. 
Kambilenjb, a species of kingfisher. 
Kambila, ku, to speak of. Twagamhile kumkarnbila 

che Nyono^ We were only speaking of So-and-So. 
Kambula, a small kind of cannon about a foot long, 

filled with powder, and fired by applying a 

match to the touch-hole. 
Kamo, once. 
Kampepe, once. 

Kamula, ku (-kamwile), to seize ; to take hold of. 
KamvlUaf ku, to hold in one's hands. 
KamiUwa, ku (-kamwUioe), to be seized. 
Kamusya, ku, to help. Kwangamusye, Help me. 
Kamwa, Fa kamiway m^kamwa, the mouth. Anga^i 

malotoe ga pa kamwa penu ? Are they not your 

own words? 
Kandapala, ku (-kandapelk), to be thick. N^gtio ja 

kandapala, strong calico. 
Kandapaaya, hi, to make thick. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 165 

Kan A, KU (-kanile), to deny; to refuse. Utijikanile 
moto, the gun flashed in the pan. 
Kanisya, ku ; Kanya, ku, to forbid. 
Kanichisya, ku, to persuade ; to compel. 

Kanbnbga, shortness of clothing. 

Kaxoa, a kind of print cloth. 

Kanga, ku (-kanjile), to hew down ; to draw the 
pictures at the Unyago, 
Kanjika, ku, passive. 
Kangcma, ku, to quarrel 
Kangemichisya, ku, to compel ; to persuade. 

Kanga, whether; either; perhaps. Kanga taiche 
leloj kcmga malawi. Perhaps he may come to-day, 
perhaps to-morrow. MtusalUe kanga achi mkuaosa 
kanga acho, Tell us whether you wish this or that. 

Kangaohiya, ku (-kangachiyb), to doubt. 

Kangala, ku (-kangblb), to be strong ; to be un- 
wearied. 

Kangamala, ku, to go quickly ; to do a thing quickly. 

Kanganauka, ku (-kanganawiche), to gape ; to open 
out. 

Kangula, ku (kangwile), to cut open the breast of 
an animal. 

Kang'a, expressive of catching hold of a wild animal. 

Kang'anda, ku, to cut crosswise. 

KakgVa, pa, at the mouth. Kuwdecheta pa kang'wa 
pe, to speak empty words. 

Kanganjenganje pe, anything very thin. Amhde 
aabuni kxmganjenganje pe, He gave me soap, a 
very thin piece. Mwesi wa kanganjenganje pe, 
the new moon. 

Kanichisya, ku. See Kana, ku. 

Kanilila, ku (-kanilile), to be fast shut ; to refuse 
to open. 

Kanjema, a small baboon which acts as sentry while 
the others are eating. 



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166 YAO-BlTGLtStt VOtJAteULARY 

Kakjesa, a spebies of wild date palm. 

Kanjula, ku (-kanjwile), to open out. 

Kanundu, a cigarette. 

Kanyata, ku (-kanyete), to smash up. 

Kanyenda, a bamboo needle for sewing mats. 

Kanula, ku, to separate ; to bend open. 

Kapa, ku (-kapile), to grow stout ; to make a slash 

in. 
Kapa, a stout person. 
Kapeko, a fire-stick. A notch is ikiade in a piece of 

dry wood, and in this is placed the end of a 

short cane which is twirled between the hands ; 

a piece of dry bark cloth is used as a match, 

and when it has caught fire it is placed in a 

bundle of dry grass and fanned into a flame. 
Kapi ! lapping of water. 
Kapichila, ku (-kapichIle), to lap against the sides 

of a vessel (of water). 
Kapilila, ku, to set (of sun) ; to dive into the water. 
K APOLo, a slave. Kapolo jua cheni aju ? Whose slave 

is this? 
Kapukapu, gladness ; luxuriance of growth. 
Kapula, ku, to hoe deeply, as for planting rice. 
Kasa (pi. achikasa), a box (Portug.). 
Kasa, ku, to break; to smash ; to ravage. 

Kasikaj hi {-kasiche), to be broken ; to be wasted. 
Kasanya, ku, to break up for division. 
Kasalika, plentifulness. 
KasaMusi, jua kasamusi, one who drives away all the 

people from a village. 
Kasapuli, a tale-bearer. 
Kasawa, in great numbers. 

Kasichila, ku (kasichilb), to be in great variety. 
Kasipa, varicose veins. 
Kasopela, a round-headed spear; a small boy; a 

small ramrod. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 167 

Kata, kit, to Cut (Swahili). 

KATAlPUtA, KtJ (to remove lumps of any soft sub- 
stance, as clay, and throw them on the ground) ; 
to hoe deep in soft ground. 

Katasi, some time ago. Katasi ^kala, that last time. 
Katasipe, a little ago. 

Kateqo, a kind of dance. 

Katondo, red 6layey soil. 

Katoto katoto, often. 

Katu, gnawing. 

!Katula, ku (-kaiwile), to break off ; to chip off ; to 
nibble ; to gnaw. 

KaTUNDU (pi. ACHtKATUNDXJ, NDUNDU), a load. 

Katundu, a small basket ; a small fowl coop. 

Katungwe, a swing. 

Kaula, bitterness or sournesss of taste. Nyama aji 

kmda rr^hcmvwa^ This meat tastes sour in the 

mouth. 
Kausi, an otter. 

Ejlusi (dim. of mbtm), a small goat. 
Kawa, ku (-kawilb), to pluck (fruit). 

Kawika, kuy to be plucked^ 
Kawa, ku, to delay ; to be late. 

Ka/wisya, kuy causative. 
Kawalo, a horse (Portug.). 
Kawili, the second time. Mvmdu jua kawU% the 

second man. 
KawUi kavnlif often. 
Kee I tearing ; cutting (the soimd of). 
KooHESYA, KU (-kochesye), to come to anchor; to 

reach the siiore. 
KoDOLA, KU, to cluck with the tongue; to beckon 

with the hand. 
KoKOLA, KU, to gather up; to gather together in a 

heap. 



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168 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

KoKOMESYA, KU, to do Lonour to; to religiously 
adhere to a thing; to be attached to a thing. 
KoEOMOKA, KU (-kokomweche), to be gluttonous. 
KoKOSA, lying dead or flat on the ground. 
KoKOTA, KU (-kokwete), to scrapo together ; to scrape 

off. 
Kokoteka, ku, passive. 
KoKOWA, KU (-kokwewe), to loiter ; to linger. 
KoKOYA, KU, causative. 

Kola, ku (-kwete), to have ; to get ; to possess. 
Koaya^ hi {-kosisye), to cause to have. Kumhosya 

mundu umi, to heal a man. 
Kolela, hi, to have for. Kumkolela clianasay to 
have pity on. 
Koleka, ku, to hang up ; to suspend ; to prove in the 
wrong. 
Kolehjoa, hi (-kolehve), to be suspended; to be 
proved in the wrong ; to be caught by a thorn. 
Kolekcma, hi, to be entangled. 
Kolekcmya, hi, to hook together ; to set at variance. 
KoLELA, KU (-kolele), to burn ; to make drunk ; to 
put salt in the mhoga; to tie a string round a 
pot for carrying. Chiselo cha h)lela, the basket 
which receives the chaff in winnowing. 
KoUlwa, hi (-kolelwe), to be drunk. 
Koleaya, hi {-kolesisye), to light (the fire). 
Koliga, ku (-kolijile), to finish a thing well. 
KoLOGANYA, KU, to stir about. 

Kologcmihi, hi, passive. 
KoLOJELA, KU (-kolojele), to put the malt in the 
newly-mixed flour in brewing. This is done on 
the fourth day of the process of beer-making. 
KoLOKOLA, KU, to take dow^ what has been hung up. 

Kolokohi, hi, passive. 
KoLOKOTi, staying in the house. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 169 

KoLOKOMBOLA, Ku, to remove from a height by means 

of a long pole (ngolokoTnbo). 
KoLOLA, KU, to hawk up spittle.; to scrape a hole so 

as to find water ; to rebuild a village which has 

been destroyed. , 

KohUclieka, hu, passive. 
KoLOMA, KU (-kolweme), to givo a snort ; to bellow ; 

to snore. 
KoLOMBANA, KU, to be interlaced ; to overlap ; to be 

variegated in colour ; to be thrown down in 

confusion. 
Kolovnham/ya^ h% causative. 
KoLOMBOKA, KU (-kolombweche), to come out with a 

rush ; to shout loud in dancing. 
Kolonq'ondola, ku (-kolong'ondwele), to scrape ; to 

dig out. 
KoLOPOKA, KU (-kolopweche), to spring forward. 
KoLOPOLA, KU, to snatch away from ; to dip a stick 

into oil for the purpose of besmearing one's 

self. 
KoLOSA, KU, to scrape up ; to go into the eye (of a 

splinter, or point of a branch). 
KoLOTOKA, KU, to be startled and run away; to be 

knocked out (of the eyeball). 
Kolotola, kUf to knock out the eye ; to startle. 
KoLOTOLA, KU (-kolotwele), to squoeze. 
KoLOTO ! squeezing out. 

KOLOWOLA, KU (-KOLOWELb), to SCOOp OUt. 

KoMA, KU, to strike ; to beat. 

Komela, hi, to hammer in. 

Komya, ku ; Komesya, ha, to make at variance. 

LUcomya, ku, to make foolish. 
KoMANGA, KU, to give a dying animal the coup de 

grdce. 
KoMANGALA, KU, to be big and full grown. 
KoMASYA, KU (-komasisyb), to greet ; salute. 



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170 YAO-BlJOLtSH VOOAfiULARY 

KoMBA, KU, to lick up with the finger what rettiains 

in a pot. 
KoMBOLA, KU (-kombwele), to be able. Achikombiiyele 
achi, He is ablie to do this. 
Pakombola, ku, to be able. 
Komboleka, huy to be possible. 
Ngeihmboleka, it is not possible. 
Tiikomboleche, it will be possible. 
KomblA, eu, to snore during sleep. 
KoitBLA, KU, to strike a man so that he becomes 
unconscious ; to water plants in the hot sun so 
as to do them harm; to ripen. 
Kamoka, hsit, to faint ; to become unconsciousi 
KoNA, Ali konahma, He goes alone. 
KoKDOGANYA, KU (-kondogbnye), to splesh Water 

about. 
KoNDWESYA, KU, to go frequently to a place as on 

terms of great friendship. 
KoNDWA, KU (-kondwilwe), to be happy. 
KoNGA, KU (-konjile), to sprinkle with water. 
KoNGOLA, KU (-kongwelb), to slackeh a noose ; to det 

free game from a net. 
KoNGOLA, KU (-koi^gwele), to borfow goods for twtd- 

ing ; to hire. « 

f Kongosya, hi, to lend goocls for trading; to hire 
out. 
Kongoleka, hi, to be easily borrowed from. 
KoNGOLEKANYA, KU, to gather together into a heap. 
KoNGONDEKA, KU, to cacklc (of a fowl) ; to chattel^. 
KoNGONECHELA, KU, to fit an ftrrow on the bow-string ; 

to clasp between the legs. 
KoNGONGOLi, a cackling of a fowl. 
KoNGONOKA, KU (-kongonweche), to grow up quickly. 
-KONGWE, female. 

Kong'onda, KU (-kong'onimle), to tap. 
Kcmg'ondde, ku, to ta|>. 



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YAO-EltGLISfi VOCAfeULABt 171 

Kong* ondeka, ^t^, to be tapped. 
KoNi, take this, used in offering anything to another 

person. 
KoNiAJiLA, Ali koniajila, He walks about. 
KoNJANYA, KU, to bring together things at a distance ; 

to reconcile. 
KoNJESYA, KU (-konjesye), to go often in a path. 

Konjechesya, ku, to go often in a path. 
KoNyoLA, KU, to break off a fruit at the fend of the 
stalk. 
Konyokdy ku, passive. 
KoPA, KU, to lave out ; to entice away. 

Kopesya, ku, to entice away. 
KoPOKA, KU (-kopwechb), to comc ; to go out. 
Akopweche m' nyumba, He went out of the house. 
Kopochda, ku, to come out to. 
Kukopochela kusa, to come outside. 
Wakopockele pa musi, to arrive at the entrance to 

a village. 
Koposya, ku (-kopwesye), to put outside. 
KosA, KU, to stab ; to poke in a hole with a stick ; 

to pick the teeth. 
Koso Koso Koso, expressive of coughing. 
KosoLA, KU, to smash up the bones of any animal ; 

to husk beans ; to pound to pieces. 
KosoLiGO, in large numbers or quantity. Ndondwd 
kosoUgo, stars in large numbers; ku toga njete 
kosoligo, to put in a large quantity of salt. 

KOSOMOLA, KU, to COUgh. 

KosYA, KU (-K0SI8YE), to re-heat ; to care for. 

-KOTO, beautiful ; good. 

KoTOKA, KU, to shrug the shoulders in refusing. 

Kotochesya, ku, to shrug the shoulders at. 
KoTOPA, KU (-kotwepe), to be well ; to be beautiful. 
KotOPO, knocking under the chih. 
KoTOPOLA, KU (-kotopwbpk), to poke into with one's 



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172 TAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

finger ; to dab into ; to knock under the chin in 

an insulting manner. 
KowA, KU, to scrape up sand or mud in handf uls. 
Kowanga^ ku^ to scrape up wet sand or mud in 

handfuls. 
Kowela, Icu, to plant in wet soil. 
Ku, sign of the infinitive mood. 
Ku, to ; at. Ali ku rrmsi, He is at the village. Ajile 

ku musi, He went to the village. 
Kuu ! side by side in a row ; in great confusion. 

Yosepe natipe kuu, everything in confusion. 
Ku ! sound of falling. 
KuBWi, sound of lapping of water on the sides of a 

vessel. 
Ku GHILUME, to the right. Juamkongtoe aju akuweleka 

ha chilwfiM pe, This woman bears only male 

children. 
Ku LUPYANDA, to the left. 
KtJ MCHiJi, to the left hand. 
Ku MKULi, up-hill J up-stream ; on dry land. Wa- 

kocheaye ku mkuli, They reached the shore. 
Ku MLYO, to the right hand. 
Ku MPOTO, the north. 
Ku MWELA, the south. 
Ku NGULO, the throat. 

Ku NYUMA, behind. Kwnyurrva kwakwe, after him. 
KucHiLA, KU, to cover up the embers ; to fill in a 

hole ; to heap up. 
KujiYA, KU (-kujiyb), to be hidden. 
KujUKA, KU (-kujwiche), to be soft and pulpy. 
KuKUJiLA, ku, to call her chickens (of the hen). 
KuKUMA, KU (-kukumile), to hum with a dull sound ; 

to rumble like distant thunder ; to make a noise 

like a waterfall or the sea roaring. 
KuKUMiKA, KU, to covor a rent with a patch ; to 

cover over the hut at a grave with calico. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 173 

KuKUNDEMBO, a turkey. 

KuKUPULA, KU (-kukupwilb), to overhear. 

KuEUSiOELE, a word often used by a speaker to 
denote a pause in his thought, answering some- 
what to our " In the next place.'* 

KuKUSYA, KU (-kukusisyb), to Call her chickens (of a 
fowl); to gather together from different places 
one's people who have run away. 

KuLA, KU (-kusile), to grow ; to pull out. Samhano 
juamhtde aju, He is full grown now. Akvsile 
lijda m*mpini, He pulled the hoe out of the 
handle. This is usually done by tapping the 
end of the handle on a tree. 
Kulika, ku, to come out of the handle. 
Kuaya^ ku {-kvsiaye), to make large. 

KuLiKA, KU, to attach one's self to a party of people. 
Kulikcma, ku. See Kulikana, ku. 

KuLiKANA, KU, to como together. Mgamho 'gala 
malatoi, wana wose akahdikane pa nganya, To- 
morrow the case (will be spoken), let all meet 
at the court. 

Kuluchisya, ku, to inflict an injury unintentionally. 
Kulusya, ku, to miss. See Kulusya, ku. 

Ku LUCHiLA, towards the tail. 

KuLUKUTA, KU (-kulukwitb), to scrapo off the top. 

KuLUKUTALA, KU (-kulukutble), to be hard and stiff, 
as cloth with batter. 

KulUkutika, ku, to be old; to sit a long time in 
one place. 

KuLULUKA, KU, to slip down, as beads off a string, 
or calico out of the hand ; to become unfastened, 
as a bow-string ; to become slack. 

KuLUMBANA, KU, to miss ono another. 

KuT.UMisYA, KU, to cause to make haste. 

Kulwmichika, ku^ to make haste ; to be finished 
quickly. 



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174 YAO-HNGIilSH VOCABULARY 

KuLUMCLA, KU, to rub the body in bathing ; to dress 
another person well; to wash a corpse prepa^i^toyy 
to burial. 
Kulumuka, ku, passive. 

KULUMUNGUNYA, KU (-KULUMUNGWINYE), tO ToU l^bout 

in the mouth as when one sucks a s^eet. 
KuLUSYA, KU (-kulwisyb), to miss ; to make a mistake. 
Kulusika^ ku {-hulvsiche), to be missed. 
Kuluayaruij ku, to miss each other. 
KuMASiKusiKU, very early in the morning, before the 

cock crow. 
KuMBA, KU, to hoe up loose soil ; to rake together ; 
to sweep before it (as water does the rubbish 
along a road). 
Kumhanya, ku, to rake together into a heap. 
KumhUiia, ku, to gather grass and branches into a 
heap for burning as manure. 
KuMBATiLA, KU (-kumbatile), to embrace in a conjugal 

position. 
KuMBEKUMBE, calico worn so long as to sweep along 

the ground ; water that carries away articles. 
KuMBUCHiLA, KU, to remember ] to think over. 
Kumbusya, ku, to remind. 
Kumhuchisya, ku, to remind. 
KuMiKA, KU, to hem in * to £nd a man eating v/gali 
and sit down to eat with him; to attach one's 
self to a party of people. 
KuNDA, KU, to rub the body in bathing. 
Kundika, ku, passive. 

KundamvJcaka, ku, to be washed off (of dirt on the 
body); to speak of old times and things (as 
garrulous old men do). 
Lihtrnda, hi, to rub one's body. 
KuNDA, KU, to consent ; to allow. 

KUNDAMUKUKA, KU. See KuNDA, KU. 

KuNDAWi, in the morning. 



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YA0-BNGU8H VOCABULABY 175 

Kundawi hvakwe, next morning. 
Kundawipey early in the morning. 

KuNDUNGU, the back of the head. 

KuNGA, Ku (-kukjile), to net over. 

KuNGA, KU, to string a bow. 
Kunjika, ku^ passive. 

KuNGANA, KU, to meet together. 

KuNGULA, KU (-kungwile), to take off one's calico 
and lay it aside; to gather up what has been 
spread out; to gather up the flour that has 
been ground on the stones; to gather the fruit 
off a tree. 
Kunguka, ku, passive. 

KuNGULUKA, KU (-kungulwiche), to converso. A 
Yao, when he bids good-bye, says, Tukunguluoihe 
malomi, Let us talk to-morrow. The reply 
usually is, Ajendeje, nowe tv^igde. Go, we stay 
behind. 

KuNGUNA, KU, to stoop in passing under anything. 

KuNGUNUKUKA, KU, to revive, as one does after being 
unconscious. 

KuNGUSUKA, KU (-kunguswiche), to be cleared away 
as clouds with the wind. 

KuNGUNUKUKA, KU (-kungunukwile), to unloosen. 

KuNGULUSYA, KU, to welcome. 

KuNGWANA, friendship made up between two parties 
after a magamho. 

!Kung'unda, ku (-kubtg'undile), to shake out; to 
dust ; to beat the dust out of anything ; to beat 
the dew off the grass. Kurvg^midika, ku, to be 
dusted ; to be beaten ; to be stiff with cold. 

KuNJiLiLA, KU (-kunjilile), to net over pots so as to 
prevent them being broken. 

KuNJUKULA, KU, to pull to pieccs. 
Kunjukuka, ku, passive. 

Ktjpa, ku (-kupile), to stir any thin mixture, as 



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\ 

( 
176 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

porridge. Amao, amkupile mwanache likokay 
ngakupahomhola hutauna ; Mother, stir up some 
gruel for the child, he cannot chew [anything]. 
KuPANJiLA, KU, to lave water over ; to throb (of the 
heart). 
LikupanjUa, ku^ to lave water over one's body. 
KupiLA, KU (-kupilb), to wink. 

KuPULA, KU, to beat dew off the grass ; to fan ; to 
beat off flies. 
Likwpula, ku^ to fan one's self. 
KuPULA, KU, to have a bad scent. 
KuPULA, KU, to abrase the skin. 
KupUTUKUPUTU, expressive of a four-legged animal 

running. 
KusA, outside. Kuaa kuno^ the world below. 
KusA, KU (-kustle), to gather together in a heap 
(usually applied to gathering the grass in the 
gardens previous to burning). 
Kusika^ ku, to be gathered together. 
Kuaikcmyaj ku^ to bring together. 
Kusi, down ; on the ground. 

Kuai kwitumbi, at the foot of the hill. 
Kusi, the place below the grain store. 
KusuLA, KU, to empty out ; to finish off a magambo. 

Kvsuka, ku^ passive. 
KusYA, KU, to lay aside. 

Kuchisya, ku, to lay aside for one. 
KusYETO, the head wife ; from ayeto, the other side, 
and the locative ku, literally, on the other side of 
the fence that surrounds the women's quarters. 
KuTA, KU, to rasp ; to polish ; to tie up tightly. 

Kutika, kuy passive. 
KuTALiKA, distant. Chilambo cha kwakutalikay a 

distant country. See Talika ku. 
KuTANGULA, KU (-kutangwile), to jerk; to pluck a 
person^s garment so as to attract his attention. 



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YAOENGLISH VOCABULARY 177 

KuTULA, KU, to bi^ak ; to snap (a rope). 

Kuhikay ku, to be broken ; to be snapped. 
KuwA, KU, to hem. 

KuwAJiLA, KU (-kuwajile), to omit ; to pass over. 
KuwALA, KU (-kuwela), to stumble over anything in 
the way. 
Kuwasyay ku^ to make to stumble. 
KuwiLA, KU (-kuwile), to come upon anything un- 
expectedly. ChenyoTio akuwile wandu petinji 
nekwoQigalUa humcmgwao, So-and-so found people 
in the bush, and took them home with him. 
KpwiTA, KU, to thrash ; to beat. 
KuYA, KU (-kuwiye), to pursue. 

KwA, to ; for ; from ; at ; used only in proper names. 
Kwa Malemyay at Malemya's. 
Kwa chichi ? why 1 
KwAKUJiNJi, often ; much. 
KwAKULA, KU (-kwakwile), to snatch away ; to 

rob. 
KwALA ! lying basking in the sun. 
KwALAMASiKA, KU (-kwalamasiche), to become very 

lean. 
KwAMBA, KU (-kwambilb), to carve out the inside of a 
drum. 
Kwamhilisya, kUy to scrape up the i 

little ball of ttgcUi {mbmrm^ 
Kwambanya, ku, to pick up several ar 
KwANAULA, far away. Chtlambo cha 
distant country. Apite kwananda^ 1 
a lon^ distance. 
KwANGU^iA, KU, to drink up what rei 
vessel. 
Kwam/guka^ ku^ to be all drunk up. 
Kwang'wandula, KU, to seize. 
KwANGWASYA, KU, to sharpen. 
\Kwcmgwasika, ku, passive. 



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178 YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULAKY 

KwAPA, KU (-kwapilb), to draw in the stomach. 

KwAPATA, KU (-kwapbtb), to caxTj Under the arm. 
Kwapatika, hi, passive. 

KwAPi? where? whither] whence? 

KwAPU ! running off in haste. 

KwAPULA, KU (-kwapwile), to let off a trap. 

KwASULA, KU, to eat something nice and tasty, with- 
out eating any ugcdi along with it. 

KwASWELB, PE, at sunset. 

KwATA, KU (-kwatilb), to cock a gun; to clap the 
hands. 

KwATiLA, KU (-kwatilb), to clap the hands towards 
another in a dance. 

KwAWA, KU (-kwawilb), to crawl. 

KwAGA, KU (-kwajilb), to deceive. 

KWAIYA, KU (-KWAIYe), to toUch. 

KwAWiLA, KU, to crawl stealthily along as in follow- 
ing game. 

Kwekwbbb ! dragging along as an unwilling animal. 

Kwekwela, KU (-kwekwebe), to drag along. 

KwBKWBBENYA, KU, to drag. 

KwELA, KU (-kwesilb), to climb ; to rise. 

Kwesya, ku, to lift up ; to raise ; to exalt ; to 

honour. 
Kwdana, ku, to have intercourse. 

KwELEGULA, KU (kwblegwile), to be talkative; to 
joke ; to raise a laugh. 

KwEMBA, KU (-kwembilb), to suck out, to smokc. 
Kwembeka, ku, passive. 

KwENYA, KU (-kwenyile), to gather up one's loin- 
cloth; to pucker in hemming; to keep things 
to one's self ; to be close-tisted. 

KwENDUSYA, KU (-kwendwisye), to place a thing 
obliquely? 

KwENGWENDUKA, KU (-kwbngwbndwiche), to stumble 
so as nearly to fall. 



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TAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 179 

KwENGWENDUSYA, Ku (-kwengwendwisyb), to drag 

along. 
KwENYBKWENYE ! curled up. 
KwEPA, KU (-kwepilb), to be drawn in (of the stomach 

with hunger). 
KwEPULA, KU (-kwbpwile), to winnow with the chipeta 

basket, to shake out of a heap. 
Kwesambula, ku (-kwesambwile), to strip off leaves 

or bark. 
Kwesambuka, ku, passive. 
KwBTB, expressive of meeting together, or of being 

placed close together. 
Kwetemula, ku (-kwetemwile), to pull to pieces. 

Kwetemuka, ku, to fall in piec^. 
KwEWA, ku (-kwbwile), to curdle. 

Kwewcma, ku, to curdle ; to congeal. 
KwiDULA, ku (-kwidwile), to twist one's mouth in 

derision. 
Kwikwilika, ku (-kwikwilichb), to poke anything 

into a soft substance as a stick into mud. 
Kwikwitika, ku, to sob after crying. 
KwiNANi, above ; on the top ; heaven. 
Kwinomi mnope, the highest point. 
Kwinani kwitwnihi, the top of the mountain. 
Imamibi Iv^ kwinani, the topmost branch. 
KwiNAMBUKA, KU (-kwinambwiche), to rush forward. 
KwiNDA, KU, to tuck up the loin-cloth firmly round 

the loins ; to " gird up one's loins." 
KwiNDiMALA, KU (-kwindimele), to be stiff; to be 

hard; to be firm. 
KwiNDiKWiNDi, rolling up. 
KwiNYA, KU, to tuck up one's calico. 
KwiNYALA, KU (-kwinyele), to be shrivelled up; to 

hav^ hollow cheeks. 
KwiPUKA, KU (-kwipwichb), to be startled (of game). 
KwiRA, KU (-kwirile), to hem. 



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180 TAO-ENGLISS VOCABULARY 

EwisiSA, KU, to put firewood on the fire. 
KwiWANDA, downhill ; down the stream ; downwards. 
KwiwoGO, the direction in which the feet are turned 
in sleeping. 



L is pronounced as in English. In Yao the sound of 

r is interchangeable with the sound of ^ except 

at the beginning of a word when r never occurs. 

The sound of r is that of a very slightly trilled 

English r, and in mav^y cases can hardly bjB 

distinguished from I. 
After w, I is either dropped or becomes d. 
Lachilwa, ku (-lachilwb), to be choked by rea&on. of 

food going down the wrong passage. 
Laoa, ku (-lasile), to suffer; to be miserable; to be 

poor; to have trouble. Ajvju atenda kfdwoiay 

tuttUaje naju rmmtala, This man is iU ; we will 

have trouble with him on the road. 
LajUa, ku, to suffer from. 
Lagala, ku (-lagele), to be dry and crumbjy ; to dry 

up. Samhcmo nda/geU tindahuley I am dry now, 

I shall put on my calico. 
Lagulila, ku, to spy out ; to sea»rch for. KvUfogulala 

pakutamfw, pwmhone, to search for a good place to 

stay at. 
Lagusya, ku, to give a present. 

Laguchiayay k% to present. 
Laiya, ku (-LAIYE), to ask for m«vny different things ; 

to be hard to please. 
Ijljisya, ku (lajisye), to give to another per^cm to 

sell. 
Lakalaka, ku (-lakalakachilb), to long for ; to try 

out for. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 181 

Lakanta, ku, to make a dii^turb&nce. 
Lakasa, ku (-lakasile), to cough on accotint of some 
foreign substance in the windpipe; to have an 
acrid taste in the throat. 
Laeatika, ku (-lakatiohe), to fall down one after the 
other, as leaves of a tree, or ripened fruit; to 
trickle down. 
Lakatula, ku (-lakatwile), to be talkative. 
Lala, ku (-labile), to be worn done (of any iron 

instrument, as a hoe or axe). 
Lalata, ku (lalatile), to taiint ; deride. 

LalatUa, ku^ to taunt; deride. 
Lalika, ku, to gather an army ; to gather a caravan. , 
Lalikanya, ku, to place one on the top of anoUier. 
Laluka, KU) to long for ; to cry out for. 

Lalv^hUa, ku, to long for ; to cry out for. 
Lalulila, ku, to fill up what anoth^ has said by 

adding to it. 
Lama, ku (-lamile), to recover ; revive ; to be in 
good estate ; to return in safety from a journey ; 
to be soft and smooth. 
Lomiiayay ku, causative* 
Lamya, ku, causative. 
Lamba, ku, to pay tribute; to lick. Ghe Mlumhe 
alambile Ma/ngane^gala, Mlumbe has paid tribute 
to those Mangone. 
Lambula, ku, to make tidy round one's house ; to put 

a fM/gambo aright. 
Lambusya, ku (-lambwisye), to tell lies ; to deceive. 
lAxmbuchisya, ku, to make a pretence of ; to give a 
false report ; to tell lies to. 
Lamukwa, ku, to ripen quickly. 
Landa, ku (-landite), to be like ; to resemble. 
Lwndoma^ ku, to resemble. 
Lcmdanichiaya, ha, to compare. 
Laaya (4a8isye), to resemble one's parents. 



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182 YAO-ENGLISH VOOABULAKY 

Langa, ku (-lanjile), to keep tame "animals ; to say 
farewell. 
LangaTiay hi, to make an agreement with. 
LanjUa, ku, to point out. 

I/ANGUOHiLWA, KU (-languchilwe), to have an en- 
lightened look on one's face. 

Languka, ku, to shine ; to be clear ; to be free from 
trees and bush. 
Lcmgusya, ha, to shine upon ; to clear away trees 
and grass. 

Lanji, glue ; wax. 

Lamula, ku (-lamwile), to decide a Tnagambo, 

y LarmdUa, hi, to command ; to give orders to. 
LmnulUwa, ku, to be commanded. 

Lapa, ku (-lapile), to go and report any piece of 
news ; to confess anything ; to admire ; to won- 
der at ; to be astonished. 
Lapila, hi, to praise ; to thank. 
Laipilila, hi, to care for ; to mind. 

Lapita, ku (-lapite), to lick. 

Lapu, expressive of the flash of an explosion. 

Lapula, ku, to take a taste of ; to flame up. 

Lasima, ku (-lasime), to crouch down. 

Lasya, ku (-lasisye), to be bare of grass. 

Lasya, ku (-lasisye). tSee Landa, ku. 

Latula, ku, to make thin ; to be very sharp. 

Lawa, ku (-lawile), to start early in the morning. 
TutvloAmle maZawi hi mgwfida. We shall start early 
to-morrow for the garden. 

Lawalawa, ku (-lawalawile), to move irom place to 
place. 

Lechela, ku, Kv/mUchda imundu m!rm»i, to throw a 
person into the water. Kundecltjela juine mor 
gongo, to leave one's quarrels to another, or in 
another's hands. See Leka, ku. 

Lejela, ku (-i^ele), to be loosely ti^d ; to be easily 



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TAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 183 

abrased (of the ekin) ; to be easfly detached 
from the stem (of bark cloth); to be pursed (of 
the skin). 
Leka, ku (-lesilb), to leave ; to let alone ; to spare ; 
let go ; allow. 
Lechekci, ku, to be left. 

Lechela, ku, to leave for ; to leave at ; to pardon. 
Lechesya, ku, to hand to (especially used of handing 

the cup in drinking). 
Lekwa, ku, to be left. 
Lela, ku (-lblitb), to train up ; to nurse. 
Lelecheya, ku (-lelecheyb), to balance on the head ; 
to suspend ; to fit loosely (as a bracelet). 
Leleya, ku, to balance ; to suspend ; to fit on 
loosely. 
Lblemba, ku, to suspend. 
Lelemuka, ku, to be faint ; to be thick-lipped. 
Lelo, to-day. 
Leh^ji, this day. 

Lelo^jino, LeWlino, this very day. 
Lblu ! whiteness. 

Lelula, ku (-lblwilb), to be white and clear. 
Lema, ku, to be too difficult; to be impossible; to 
prove in the wrong; to puzzle. 
Lemwa, ku {4emim8yd), to err ; to sin against. 
Lemwechesya, ku, to sin against. 
Lemala, ku (-lemele), to be deformed ; to be rough 

and difficult to walk in ; to be steep. 
Lemba, ku (-lembile), to mark ; write. 

Lemhelela, ku, to mark out (the foundation of a 

house). 
Lemheka, ku, to be written. 
Lemwecheka, ku, to fail in one's hands. 
Lbnda, ku (-lbndile), to be gluey ; to be sticky. 
Lenjela, ku (-lenjele), to be pure ; to be fortunate. 
Lbpela, ku (-lepele), to fail ; to be unable for. Twa- 



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184 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULAKY 

^alepde masengo^goy We were not able for that 

work. 
LepeleUiy hu, to leave unfinished. Mnndepekie cha- 

Icub^a chamTionOy Leave a little food for me. 
Lepetala, ku (-lepbtble), to be weaJc ; to be feeble ; 

to be friable ; to be easily torn. 
Lesa, kt; (-lesile), to be drunk and disorderly. 
Lbsya, ku, to cut into thin strips ; to speak cleaiiy. 
Leteka, ku, to be soft-hearted; to be feeble; to 

speak in low tones. 
Letuka, ku, to run quickly from place to place* 
Leupa, ku (-lewipb), to be long. 
Leuya, hi, to lengthen. 
Leupisya, ha, to lengthen. 
Lewalewa ! swinging. 
Lewa, ku (-lewile), to err ; to commit a crime. 

Lewda, hu^ to sin against. 
-Li-, prefix denoting reflexive action of verb. 
Li-, class characteristic and prefix <£ substantives 

belonging to the fifth class. 
LiAiYA, a kind of dance danced only by women. 
LiAJA, the jack fruit. 
LiBANi>A, a gabled house wiiere the verandah extends 

down only two sides of the house. 
,LiBATA, a duck. 
LiBETi, a leather pouch worn on the belt for carrying 

bullets, wads, etc. 
LiBONGOLOMWA, a lump of dry flour in pco-ridge. 
LiBOSA, slander ; quarrelsomeness. 
LiBULUKUTULA, KU, to stumble and fall so ^s to do 

one's self injury. 
LiBULUMWA, a clod. 
LiBUSA, a gun wad. 
LiBWBTA, a box. 

LicHEKA, a bracelet of ivory or hide. 
LiGHEKO, a lai^e eland. 



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YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULARY 185 

LiofisLA, the foot of the hill. Kwickda, down the 

hill. LUctla lyBohela, the paUi aloog the foot of 

the hill. 
LiGHEMBA, a hill slope. 
LiCHEMWE, using high words. Umtoeje mkwete lichemwe 

chichi? You, what are you using high words 

for? 
LiCHENGA, a species of fish. 
LicHENJE, a deep descent ; a precipice. 
LiOHETE, the weaver bird. 
LiOHiKA, a mat formed oi maize stalks laced together 

witii cord. 
LicHiLE, the grime on a pot. 

LiCHiLU, a species of monkey with a very bushy tail. 
LiCHiNGA-usiKU, the milky way. 
LiCHiNGA, a kraal for animals. 
LiCHiNJi, a bat. 
LiCHiTiKA, Ku (liohitiche), to sound as of a crowd in 

passing. 
LiCHiYA, KU (-liohiyb), to be talkative, 
LiCHOCHOLOLO, a cock's comb. 
LiDOLiLO, the pomum Adami. 
LiDOTiLO, a goitre. 

LiGAJA, a plaited bag, such as salt is often carried in. 
LiGALAGASYA, KU (-ligalagasye), to roll one's self 

about on the groimd. 
LiGAMBA, KU, to be sorry for; to be penitent; to 

repent. 
LiGANGA, a stone ; a gunflint. 

LiGANIGANI, thoughts. 

LioASA, the palm of the hand. 

LiGOMBO, a banana. 

LiQONDO, the iguana. 

LiGONDOLA, a coloured blanket or rug. 

Lt€K)NBLO, the sheath of a knife. 

LiGONGO, because ; a reason ; enmity. Mangene go- 



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186 YAOENGLISH VOCABULABY 

jombochele akuno ligongo Malemya wawilusUe, The 

Mangone crossed over here because Malemya 

called them. 
Ngondo jejongo, a war brought by some enemy. 
Juamiagongo, an enemy. 
Ligongo pakuwa, because. 
Ligongo chicid ? Why ? 
Ligongo lyahvoe, the reason of it. 
Ngondo japcbsvnlepamusi pa Kumtajay ligo7igo lyakwe 

walyaga wandu wa Malemya, The war destroyed 

Kumtaja's village, the reason being that he was 

gathering to himself {liU eating) Malemya's 

people. 
LiGONGOLO, a centipede. 
LiGONGWA, the pincers of a crab. 
LiGOSA, Ku. See GosA. 
LiGUGU, marsh grass. 
LiGULO, the evening ; in the evening ; the afternoon. 

Liguto'linOy this evening. 
LiGULU, a platform in the house, on which food is 

often stored. 
LiGULUWE, a pig. 
LiGUMBWA, the stock of a gun. 
LiGUMi, a toad. 
LiGWA, KU. See Lya, ku. 
LiGWAGULiLO, a snake slaugh. 
LiiCHiLA, KU, to pass one's self off as a rich man. 
LiiGA (pi. maiga), a stone for supporting the pots on 

the fire. There are usually three of these 

forming the fireplace. 
LiiMBACHiGA, swollen lymphatic glands in the groin. 
LiiMBAPA, boils. 
LiiNDO, a field-mouse. 
LiiPATO, a charge of powder. 
Luanda, ku, to wear calico thrown over one's 

shoulders. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 187 

LiJANDE, one half of a pumpkin. / 

LiJANi, a baboon. 

LiJANi, a running knot. 

LiJALE, one side of anything split in halves. 

LiJASA, KU (-lijasile), to come to a village seeking 
to stay, having run away from another place. 

LiJEGO, a molar tooth. 

LiJEJE, the cheek. 

LiJELA, a hoe. 

LiJELE, an egg. 

LiJEMBUJEMBU, the inner part of the thick end of a 
split bamboo, which is generally removed before 
the bamboo is made Use of. 

LiJESYA, KU, to behave well. See Jenda, ku. 

LiJiGANYA, KU, to learn. See Jiganya. 

LuiLA, KU, to lie in wait. 

LwrricHisYA, ku. See Jitika. 

LiJOKA, a snake. 

LiJONGOLA, KU. See Jongola. 

Lijusi, the day before yesterday. The word is often 
applied loosely to any of the past few days. 
Lijusi alyo^ Lijusi 'lila, two days ago. 
Majvsi 'gala, some days ago. 

XiiKAKAKA, a species of weasel. 

LiKAKALA, a fishing weir ; stopping a man in speak- 
ing ; a mat made of maize stalks. 

LiKAKU, dirt on the body. 

XiiKALAMBWE, a scorpion. 

LiKALANGULO, intense thirst. 

LiKALAWA, a large canoe. 

LiKALE, level open country. 

LiKAMAMBO, native cloth ; sackcloth ; canvas. 

LiKAMATU, any soft substance pressed into a ball with 
the hand. 

LiKAMBi, a quid of tobacco. 

LiKAMBiLO, what is spit out after chewing. 



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\ 



188\ YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

W 

LiKAikBALB, a species of fish found in Lake Sbirwa. 

LiKArDi, a newly-born cliild. 

LiKAi^A, the fibre plant. 

LiKANOiiOA, A strong reed that grows on soft damp 

soilX 
LiKANGALitv a bracelet or anklet; a tnat made of 

maize stalks. 
LiKANGATA, lying with the buttocks upwards; a 

pumpkin lying on its side. 
LiKAPA, a red cloth of thick, strong texture; a red 

blanket. 
LiKASA, a box. 
LiKASi, an egg-shell. 
LiKATA, old bark cloth. 
LiKATiYA, flour stirred in cold water. 
LiKAU, the sole of the foot ; a footprint, 
LiKAWAMBA, a ground of a quarrel which will give 

rise to a magambo. 
LiKOKA, a large grass shed bmlt by travellers. 
LiKOKA, a large drag-net. 
LiKOKA, thin p(HTidge for children. 
LiKOKOTO, the scrapings of the pot ; burnt bits of 

porridge. 
LiKOLA, the lower part of the stem of a tree. Pekola 

mtekif at the foot of a tree. 
LiKOLEKO, four cobs of maize tied together two and 

two so as to form a bundle. 
LiKOLO, flour of green maize in its first stage of 

grinding. 
LiKOLOMiLo, the gullet. 

LiKOLONGO, the larynx and trachea ; the gullet. 
LiKOLOTO, a scorpion. 

LiKOMBWA, an egg-shell ; a shell of mollusc. 
LiKOMB, a pavilion-roofcKi house, with a verandali all 

round. 
LiKONDE, the bush. 



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VAO-ENGLlSH VOCABULARY 18^ 

LiKONDO, a path. 

LiKONGWA, a slave stick. 

LiKONGjONDA, an egg. 

Likong'oxdela, a necklace composed of several coils 

of rc^ covered with beads, and fitting closely 

round the neck. 
LiKONJA, KU (-likonjile), to throw one's calico over 

one's shoulders. 
LiKONOKONO, a snail. 

LiKONYA, KU (-likonyile), to be forgetful. 
LiKOSA, a large ivory bracelet. 
LiKOSWE, a rat. 

LiKOTi, green maize wrapped in leaves and pounded. 
LiKOWA, the bark of a tree ; the husk ; the pod. 
LiKOWELA, KU, to get mixed up in a quarrel. 
LiKOWi, a blow on the cheek with the hand. 
LiKOYO, the shoulder. 
LiKUGA, a crowd ; a herd. 
LiKUKA (-likwiche), to Overturn; to lever up; to 

tilt up. 
LiKULA, KU, to overturn ; to uproot ; to lay at length 

on the ground. 
Zikuka, ku, to be uprooted. 
LiKULE, a jackal. 
LiKULiLA, KU, to wear calico fastened round the waist, 

and passing between the legs (chitonga). 
liiKULU, the prow of the boat. 
LiKULU, relationship of elder brother. A ku likiduy 

the children of older brother or sister. 
LiKULUWANGU, large strong grass used for the walls 

of houses. 
LiKUMBi, a cloth passed between the legs and fastened 

with a string round the waist. 
LiKUMBO, a track ; a spoor. 
LiKUMi, ten. 

Makvmii ga/mliy twenty. 



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190 YAOBNGLISH VOCABULABY 

Makumi Ukumi, one hundred. 
LiKUNAMi, the skin. 
LiKUNDA, a large drum. 
LiKUNDB, disappointment ; failure to keep one's 

promise; a false promise of anything. 
LiKUNGtJ, ill-luck ; misfortune. 
LiKUNGULU, a raven. 
LiKUNGWA, the hark of a tree ; a bark canoe. 

LiKUPANJILA, KU. See KUPANJILA, KU. 

LiKUPULA, KU. See Kupula. 

LiKUSA, a stinging plant. 

LiKUSiKA, KU, to fold the arms across the chest, the 

hands resting on the shoulders. 
LiKUTA, a rough shed made of grass. 
LiKUTi, a gun wad. 

LiKUTU, a piece of calico 64 yards long. 
LiKUTWB, a large creeper plant. 
LiKUTWB, a small grain like semsem. 
LiKWAMBALA, a strip of bark rope. 
LiKWANJiLA, KU, to be dirty and neglectful of one's 

person. 
LiKWANYA, the cowitch plant. 
LiKWATA, a dance without drums, engaged in only 

by women. 
LiRWATi, leaf of banana or maize. 
LiKWBKWB, a noose. 
Li K WEND A, a species of fruit, whose leaves are also used 

as relish. 
LiKWBNJE, a war drum. 
LiKWBSA, a knife with a ragged edge used as a 

saw. 
LiKWiNJiLi, an iron bracelet. 
LiKWiTA, an iron armlet or leglet. 
LiLA, KU (-lisilb), to cryj to mourn. 

LUUay ku, to cry for ; to mourn for. 
LiLAMA, pride j jeering ; triumph over another. 



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yao-english vocabulary 191 

LiLAMBA, the flame of flre. 

LiLAMBO, a plain ; a marshy piece of ground where 

only grass grows. 
LiiiANGUKA, light ; openness of view. 
LiLAULAU, a species of pumpkin. 
LiLBMBE, a grave. 

Ku mobUnibey a cemetery. The words are used as 

an oath. 
LiLBSA, a conical-shaped trap for field rats plaited of 

strips of sorghum stalks. 
LiLiCHiKA, KU, to be eatable. 
LiLiMA, EU (-lilimile), to make a roaring sound as 

water in a rocky stream, or a bush fire. 
LiLiMUKA, KU, to have the body covered with a rash. 
LiLiWA, a flat stone used as a rat-trap; the flat 

bottom of a caiioe. 
LiLOLiLO, watering of the eyes; sap or gum oozing 

from a tree. 
LiLOMBE, a large drum. 

LiLOMBBSYA, KU, to Seek in marriage (of a woman). 
LiLOMBOLA, beads plaited among the hair. 
LiLONDB, a lump of any soft substance made up into 

a ball with the hands. 
LiLONJE, the fruit of the baobab hollowed out and 

used to hold salt in. 
LiLOWE, a sound ; a word ; a voice. 
Liiovye lyenandi, a low note. 
LUowe lyehdungwa, a high note. 
LiLOYA, KU, to seek for a husband. 
LiLUNGO, the knee. 
LiLUSA, a foetus. 
EiLUWiLi, a heap. 
Lima, ku, to hoe ; to cultivate. 

Limisya, ku, limiya, ku, to hoe for. Kwende kwa 

Aaungu tulimiye ngvo, Let us go to the Europeans 

and hoe for calico. 



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J 



192 YAO-INGLISH VOCABULARY 

. LiMASA, eczematous spots on the skin after eating tke 

fiesh of certain auims^la. 
LiMBA, KU, to be strong ; to be hard. 

Liniba mtima, ku, to be brave ; to be unkind 

to. 
LimbUa, ku, to press home ; to speak strongly ; to 

speak boldly. 
Idmhika, ku, to be strong ; to fasten the door 

firmly; to encourage. 
lAmhukuka, ku, to tumble. 
Limhangana, ku, to be very strong. 
Limbichila, ku, to wrestle hard against. 
LiMBALAMBALA, thin porridge or gruel. 
LiMBULA, KU, to taste the first-fruits of the new crop, 
after the offering of first-fruits is made. 
Limhuka, ku, passive. 
LiMBNYANGA, KU (-menyasile), to do oue's Self an 

injury. 
LiMiNYULA, KU, to stretch one's self ; to twist, one's 

body. • 

LiMUKA, KU (-limwichb), to be startled and run off. 
LiNA (pi. mbna), a name. 

Lina lya ku wcmache, the name given in infancy. 
Lina lya ku uki^ngwa, a name given in man- 
hood. 
LiNAMiNiLA, KU, to tell lies about one's seH. 
Linda, ku (-lindite), to watch ; to wait ; to wait for. 
Nindomi, Wait for me. 
lAndUUa, ku, to keep watch. 
KulindUila pa mgunda, to watch the garden. 
LiNDALA, a glass ; a mirror. Generally used in ^ural 

MandaXa>, 
LiNDANDA, an Qgg, 
LiNDANDAMBULi, a spider's web. 
LiNDBYA, a dance in which women alone engage. 
LiNDiMU, a lemon. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 193 

LiNDONDO, a drop. 
LiNDUTU, a pop-gun. 
LiNGA, a stockade. 

LiNGA, KU (-linjile), to try ; to measure ; to tempt. 
Idr^ika, ku, passive. 

Linga/na, ku, to be arranged ; to be in order. 
LmgavA/a, hu^ to arrange ; to put in order. 
Ling'andu, the shoulder-piece and trigger-guard of a 

gun ; a flat bracelet of iron or brass. 
LiNQANJi, the rind of cane. 
Lingong'Ajolb, any wild beast. 
LiNGULAy KU (-lingwile), to peer in at. 
LiNGULUNGULU, a small lip-ring. 
Lino (pi. meno), a tooth. 
LiiNOLO, whet-stone. 
LiNYAMANGULA, KU (-linyamangwile), to stretch one's 

self. 
LiNYEMYA, KU (-linyemiye), to move along quietly; 

to pass one's self carefully through a narrow 

opening. 
LiNYENYA, KU (-linybnyile), to keep one's self in good 

humour. 
liiNYENYENBLE, a weevil. 
Linybnyeu, the humble-bee. 
LiNYOLOLo, a relish of a stiff consistency eaten usually 

by women. 
LiNYOMWA, a hurried council held apart. 
LiNYUNYA, a wing feather of a fowl. 
LiNYUSU, the crest of a fowl. 
LiPA, KU (-lipile), to pay. Kulipa magambo, to settle 

a lawsuit by payment. 
lApikby huy to pay to. TattUipile chichi ? What will 

he pay us 1 
liiPACHE, a large flat drinking-cup used in drinking 

beer. 
LiPALO, the shoulder-blade. 





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194 YAO-ENOLISH YOOABULABT 

LiPALASi, the bamboo stem of a pipe ; the bamboo by 
which the loop of a noose trap is formed. 

LiPALAMANDU, a scale of a fish ; a chip adzed off. 

LiPANANOA, light (as the glare of a camp) ; an open 
clear space. 

LiPANDA, a forked stick. 

LiPANDE, a split gourd used as a cup for beer-drink- 
ing ; a chip. 

LiPANGA, KU (-lipanjilb), to take the ** pet " and go 
o£E by one's self ; to go ofE and stay by one's self 
at a distance. 

LiPANGA, a spear. 

LiPAPATi, a flat bracelet ; a patch plastered on as over 
a hole. 

LiPAPiKO, a wing of a bird. 

LiPATA, a weir ; the lower part of the stem of a tree ; 
the large end of a maize cob. 

LiPATO, a chip. 

LiPAWA, the pleura. 

LiPE, cleaned grass, used for walls of a house or 
fences. 

LiPEMA, a bad smelL 

LiPENGA, a horn, or bugle. 

LiPESA, an opening ; a space ; room. 

LrpiLA WAMBA, avarice ; covetousness. 

LiPiLi, a viper. 

LiPiLiKANiLO, the ear. 

LiPiNDA, KU (-lipindile), to sleep with the feet drawn 
up under the body. 

IiPiNGWE, a bullet of a large size. 

LiPiPA, a large keg of powder. 

LiPiPi, a small black ant. 

LiPiSYA, a string of beads. 

LiPOGOLo, a noose. 

LiPOLWB, ugali that has lain over night. 

LiPOMBo, a deep gully or ravine ; a steep rough piece 



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TAOENGLISH VOCABtJLAET 196 

of country. Mapomhomapomho, rough and steep 
country. 

LiPOMBOTi, unripe maize or corn. 

LiPONDO, the stock of a gun. 

LiPONGO, a foetus. 

LiPONJi, a ball of fat for smearing the body with. 

LiPUJE, breath ; vapour ; steam. 

LiPUJUNGU, steam ; the heat that radiates from a fire. 

LiPUKA, KU (-lipwiohe), to be slightly fevered (of a 
child). 
Lipuchilwa, ha^ to be fevered (of a grown person). 

LiPUEUy a field rat. The names of the various 
species are, Lindo^ Lipanyo, LUende, Chingowe, 
LitUwa, Livluku8% NgwoAJci, Nalyelye, Chinyerere, 
ChiselaguLa, Toh, Lichambiri, Libmnbo, Liayeta- 
lambanga, Chitvluai, Nmgalwe^ Sunje, 

LiPXJKU, the biceps muscle. 

LiPUKUSi, a small bundle like a purse. A large 
bundle is mtambala. 

LiPULA, beeswax. 

LiPULiPULi, a small bat. 

LiPULUMUNDU, a large spider. 

LiPULUMWA, a lump of dry flour in porridge. 

LiPULUWA, a boilj the scar left after tattooing; 
lumps of dry flour in porridge. 

LiPUMBE, the closed fist. 

LiPUNDA, a string of beads worn over the shoulder 
and passing under the arm. 

LiPUNQU, advice. A headman often gives advice to 
parties in a magamnbo what to do before the 
chief gives the decision. The chief may cor- 
roborate the advice, or reject it, or accept it as 
a basis of decision. 

LiPUNGWB, unfilled grain. 

LiPUPA, the wall of a house. 

LiPUPB, a small beetle that feeds on the pumpkin. 



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196 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Lipusi, the husk of grain, chaff. 

LiPUTE, a boil. 

LiPUTi, a species of long grass. 

LiPWAPWA, a confluence of two streams. 

LiPWAPWA, a flat side. 

LiPYOMBYO, a reed pipe. 

LisACHE, the threshed ear of sorghum ; a bundle of 

ears tied up to form a sweeping brush ; a 

sweeping brush 
LisAGALA, a withered branch of a tree. 
LiSAOAMiLO, a dream. 
LiSAKASA, a grass shed or temporary hut made of 

grass or branches. 
LisALA, an old garden hoed again. 
LiSALA, KU (-lisasile), to spoak for one's self; to 

plead one's cause in a magambo ; to excuse one's 

self. See Sala, ku. 
LiSALU, firewood split up for burning. 
LisAMBALA, a kind of dance. 
LiSAMULO, a comb. 
LiSANDA, a white cloth worn on the head by a 

chief. 
LiSANDi, a tree cut down ready to be burned for 

manure. 
LisASi, a bunch of leaves. 
LiSEGA, the honeycomb. 
LiSEKWE, a species of wild duck. 
LisEHBELEEA^ a kind of millet. 
LisEMBELEPETB, a hive without honey. 
LiSBSENGULE, a worthlcss person. 
LiSEWE, a sporran. 
LisiAGO, the under millstone. 
LisiCHiNi, an intestinal worm. 
LisiLU, a crack on the sole of the foot. 
LisiLWA, a top ; a float of a fishing-line. 
LisiMBA, a lion. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 197. 

LisiMBA, a toy used by children to make a howling 

noise known as the " bull roarer." 
LisiMBO, a hole in the ground. 
LisiNDA, an amount of grain that may be pounded at 

one filling of the mortar. 
LisiNGA, Eu, to be content ; to make the best of the 

circumstances. 
LisiSYA, an addled egg left in the nest after the 

others have been hatched. 
LisiuoHiLA, an indolent sore. 
Liso, yesterday. 
Liso (pi. MBSo), the eye. 
M'meso hu tola, openly. 
PamiesOy before ; in front of. 
Pameso pakwe, before his eyes. 
LisoGO, a wild dog. 
LisoEASOKA, a mantis. 
LisoEOONDO, the mark left in the ground by a 

mortar. 
LisoMWA, the tunnels formed by the white ants. 
LisoNGOLOMEMBE, a Canine tooth. 

LiSOPOLOLA, KU (-LISOPOLWELB), tO put OUo's SOlf 

straight ; to tidy one's dress or person. 

LisuGULU, an ant-hill. 

LisuNDO, a horse-leech. 

LisuNGU, a heap. 

LisuNGULo, a beer-strainer, usually made of basket- 
work. 

LisuLU, a ferret. 

LisusA, a growing person. 

LiswAji, the head of a corn-stalk without grain. 

LiswALULUSWALULU PE, anything well-nigh finished 
or useless. 

Libya, eu (-lisisyb), to feed. See Lya, eu. 

LiTA, EU, to be finished up (of a magambo) ; to be 
burned out (of a fire). 



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198 YAO-ENGLISH VQCABULARY 

LiTAGALA, KU (-litagelb), to Spread out one's legs 
before the fire. 

LiTAGANDAGA, a litter. 

LiTAJi, an egg. 

LiTAKA, a piece of cloth measuring about 32 yards. 

LiTAKO, a single handkerchief. See Matako. 

LiTALA, a path. 

LiTANDA, a pool of water. 

LiTANDASYA, KU, to Walk Carefully. 

LiTAPA, KU, to boast ; to pride one's self in anything. 

LiTAPANJiLA, KU (-litapanjile), to boast idly. 

LiTATO, a plaited mat. 

LiTAWALE, a pool of Water. 

LiTBKENYA, the jigger (Fidex penetrans). 

LiTELEKO, a large pot for making beer in. 

LiTEMBA, a blow on the side of the head; a small 
fish somewhat less than a sardine. 

LiTEMBE, a young cock. 

LiTEMANYA, KU (-litemenye), to Walk proudly. 

LiTENDBU, a wasp ; a hornet. 

LiTENDYA, a rash on the skin. 

LiTBPo, the spot where the seed is planted ; the birth 
ground of a tribal group. 

LiTEsi, a toad. 

LiTETE, a reed. 

LiTETE, the stem of the mouth-piece of a pipe. 

LiTiCHiTi, the water melon. 

LiTiKA, KU, to be unfilled. 

LiTiKA, a vessel not filled to the brim. NajigeU meat 
ga litika, I have brought the vessel of water not 
quite full. 

LiTiMALiKA, KU (-litimaliohe), to be of peaceful dis- 
position. 

LiTiMBA, unripe maize or corn. 

LiTiMBWE, a green kind of grass, a large drum. 

LiTiNDiSYO, troublesomeness. 

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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 199 

LiTiNDLA, KU (-litinwilb), to stretch one's self as after 

awakening. 
LiTiTA, a sheaf of grass, or grain. 
LiTiTA, KU, to pound the coarse grains of maize. 
LiTiTEMBWB, the green fresh shoots of a plant ; an 

animal not yet reached maturity. 
LiTiMUKO, full moon. 
LiTiwo, a plait; a roll of tobacco plaited after the 

native fashion. 
LiTiwo, a ceremony of initiation passed through by 

a woman when she is pregnant with her first 

child. The ceremony gets its name from a 

plaited charm which is placed round the woman's 

neck. The ceremony is also called Unyago wa 

chimbcmdi. 
LiTOGA, the liver. 
LiTOLOMiKo, the larynx. 
LiTONDOLO, a halter ; a tether. 
LiTONGA, a large lip-ring made of the hard rind of a 

tree. 
LiTONGo, the testicle. 
LiTONJi, cotton ; thread. 
LiTOWA, KU (-litowile), to do anything too much. 

Atuponisye mgoji *o ; Umweju, mUsile hulUowa, 

Throw us that bark rope ; oh, you have thrown 

it too far. 
LiTUKU, a blister. 
LiTULi, a mortar formed out of the hollowed stem of 

a tree. 
LiTUMBA, full moon ; a bud ; long grass where the soil 

is good. 
LiTUMBELA, a wave. 
LiTUNBi, a mountain. 
LiTUMBO, the stomach ; the intestine. 
Matwmho, the bowels. 
Akwete litwmho^ She is pregnant. 



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200 YAOENGLISH V6OAB0LARY 

Kumbioeteka m'matumho mcmgaha 'go, Those cucum- 
bers have given me indigestion. 
LiTUMBUSi, a vulture. 
LiTUNDA, a grave-mound. 
LiTUNGUWE, a large stone or rock. 
LiTUNU, a hyena. 
LiTUSA, a blister. 
LiTUTiLi, a heap of earth thrown up as by water or a 

mole. 
LiTUTO, the heap of soil scraped together round the 

roots of maize. 
LiTWANJiLA, KU, to Spread false reports about one's 

self. 
LiTWELO, a runner shooting out from any trailing 

plant. 
Liu, ashes. 
LiuGHA, a house of a dead man pulled down, and the 

materials left on the spot. 
LiucHiSYA, KU (-liuohisyb), to take vengeance on any 

one. 
LiUGU, an opening ; a mouth ; a loop. 
LiuGUGU, a deep hole in the ground; a hole in a 

tree. 
LiUGUUGU, the place in a mouse-hole where the nest 

is. 
Liuji, a bent tree which forms the spring of a trap. 
LiuKA, a new-comer. 
LiUKUSi, a species of wild rat. 
LiUKUTU, a shrub. 

LiuLA, KU (-liwilb), to roof a house. 
Liulika, hu^ to be sufficiently pounded. 
LmlUa, hij to pound the fine grains that have 

almost reached the stage of flour. 
LiULA, KU (-liusile), to cast off the slough. 
LiULi, the unmarried state. Jvsvlij a bachelor or 

spinster. 



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YAOENGLISH VOCABULARY 201 

\ 

LiULi, the sacrum 

LiULUULU, a troublesome person, one who causes 

strife. 
LiULWA, a species of mouse that lives near the 

water. 
LiUMBi, an egg. 

LiUMiLA, frequent coming to a placa 
LtUNDA, a young pigeon. 
LiUNDB, a cloud. Kimwadef the sky. 
LiUNDi, an owl. 

LiUNDiKA, bronchitis ; a cold j a cough. 
LiTJNDU, an old garden. 
LiUNGA, a goat's beard worn round the head in 

dancing. 
LiUNGA, KU (-liunjilb), to swing from side to side ; to 

turn back on the way (of an army marching to 

an attack) ; to fail of one's purpose. 
LiUNGO, a smell. 
LiUNGir (pi. MONGu), a pumpkin. 
LiUNGUTWA, the fruit of the Tnhuv/gul/wa tree. 
LiUNiKO, a lid. 

LiUNJiLi, a heap ; a crowd ; a herd. 
LiuPA, a bone. 

LiuPULU, a cutting, or green branch of a tree. 
LiUTO, a place ; a lair. KwangcUi liuto kiuereko, There 

is no room there. 
Liuwu, a species of snake. 
Liuwo, the crown of the head; the fontanelles. 

Feiiwo, on the crown of the head. 
LiWAGO, an axe. 
LiWALANGWANGWA, a flat bone in the body, such as 

the scapula. 
LiWALA, a spot. 

LrwALANGULO, a species of locust. 
LiWALB, a pledge given to another person, consisting 

of a small piece of stick or straw j the piece of 

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202 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

straw first thrown in the divining gourd (ehi- 
8(mgo) to ascertain whether the person consult- 
ing has been at another diviner previously. 

LiwALE, a half of a cooked pumpkin. 

LiwALiLA, Ku (-liwalilb), to forget. 
ZitocUichika, ku, to be forgotten. 

LiWAMBA, a ground of a quarrel which will give rise 
to a magambo. 

LiWAMBAy roasting a maize cob only on one side, and 
eating it before roasting the other side, lest it 
get cold and hard. 

LiwAHBA, a fish-scale. 

LiwAMBWE, a flood in the river. 

LiwANDA, a foetus. 

LiwANDAMA, the spleen. 

LiWANDE, a track ; a spoor. 

LiwANGA, a sore 3 a wound. 

LiWANGULA, a beating. 

LiwANi, a split stick for fastening anything, or carry- 
ing anything. 

LiWANiWANi, resemblance. ^ 

LiwANO, the hem put round a mat to keep it from 
being torn. 

LiWANo, a bird-trap made of a split bamboo. 

LiwASA (pi. mawasa), the different houses belonging 
to one man inhabited by his different wives. 

LiwAsi, a flat piece of waterless country. 

LiWATA, KU, to tread ; to trample on. 
Liwatika, hi, to be trampled on. 
LiioatUa, kuy to hide one's self. 

LiWATA, a duck. 

LiwELA, lead (used for making the nose-pin). 

LiWELE, the breast. 
Mawele, milk. 
Kmninya mawehf to milk. 

LiWELEOHELO, the placenta and its membranes. 

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YAOENGLI8H VOCABULARY 203 

LiWELENJE, the stubble of grass that remains after 

burning. 
LiWENDA, a blow on the side of the head. 
LiWENGWA, a powder-horn. 
LiwEWB, a rumour ; a large fire. 
LiwiKA, KU, to come to a village to stay. 
LiwiLA, the second hoeing. 
LiwiNDA, the refuse of oil-seeds after the oil has been 

extracted by boiling. 
Liwiwi, the ear ; a chicken. 
LiwoGO, the inner side of the hut where the owner 

sleeps. 
LiwoKOTo, the leg-bone of game. 
LiwoLO,-the penis. 
LiwoNDO, bark cloth. 
LiwuMBi, an egg, 
LiwuNGU, a caterpillar. 

LiYA, KU (-liyiye), to be firm ; to be obstinate. 
LoGA, KU (-lojile), to bcwitch. 

Logwa, hi {-logwile), to be bewitched. 
Logo, sliminess of fish. 
LoKOTA, KU (-lokwbte), to pick up; to find by 

chance. 
Lokoteka, ku, passive. 
LoXiA, KU (lolite), to look ; to see ; to be turned 

towards. Agonile makongolo gakwe galolite ku 

moto, He lay down with his feet turned towards 

the mre. 
LoUsya^ ku, to look steadily. 
Lolesya lohsya, ku, to look all round. 
LoUchesya, ku, to look well at ; to take care. 
Lolda, ku, to look for ; to look after. 
LoLOSYA, KU (-lolwesye), to dangle a child on the 

knee so as to quieten it. 
LoHBA, KU (-lombble), to marry. 

Kuulomba Mulvm^u, to worship God. 

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204 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Lombela, ku, to marry. 
Lilombesyaj ku, to marry (of a woman). 
Lombekcmya, ku, to arrange a marriage. 
LoNDA, KU, to follow after; to speak straight on 

without forgetting anything; to keep watch. 
LoTidongana, ku, to be placed at intervals ; to agree 

with a former speaker. 
Londongcmya, ku, to place at intervals. 
LoNDOLA, KU (-londwele), to consult the divining 

instrument (Ghiscmgo) or augury. See Chi- 

SANGO. 

LoNDOLONDO ! following after. 

LoNGA, KU (-lonjile), to place articles together into 

a vessel or basket; to gather grass and weeds 

into heaps in the garden. 
LUonga, ku, to embark in a canoe. 
LoNGANA, KU (-longbne), to accompany ; to go to- 
gether. Kwende tuUmgavie, tuwe wa/wUi, Come, 

let us go together, let us be two. Tcdongane najo 

Tidwrvii Who will accompany him ? 
LoNGOLA, KU (-longwble), to go before. 
Longolela, ku, to lead ; to guide. 
Juahdongolda, a guide. 
LoNGOLOKOLA, KU (-longolokwblb), to remove things 

that have been arranged from their place one by 

one. 
LoNGOLOLA, ku, to be always grumbling and speaking 

in an ill-natured tone, to nag. 
LoNGOMAKYA, KU (-longomenye), to spoak Well a case 

in the court, to speak to the point. 
LoNGOSOLA, KU (-longoswele), to arrange in order. 

LoTk^oBoka, ku, passive. 
LoNJELA, KU (-lonjelb), to tarry; to stay for some 

time. 
Lonjelesya, ku, to stay for a long time. 
LoNYA, a rash on the head after shaving. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOOABULABY 205 

LooKA, KU (-lowbohb), to go to Stay at the husband's 

home. 
Loosya, ku (loweaye)^ to bring home a wife. 
LooEOEA, EU (-looewechb), to come with speed. 
LooKOLA, EU (-lookwelb), to lift out of a hole. 
LoPA, EU, to be uncooked ; to be badly rendered (of 

a song) ; to be badly finished. 
LopoLO, nervelessly; weakly. 

LopoTOEA, EU (lopotweche), to be helplessly feeble. 
Lose lung, all this time ; even up to this time. Lose 

luno nganoAije, Up to the present time he has not 

come back. 
Lososo, catarrh of the nostrils and discharge arising 

therefrom. 
LosYA, EU (losiste), to show. See Lola, eu. 
LoTOEA, EU (-lotweche), to be foolish. 
LoTOMALA, EU, to be stupid ; to be bashful. 
LoTOTOU, Jua lototou, one who can't bear pain. 
LowBEA, eu\(-lowechb), to steep. 
LowBLA, EU (-lowelb), to be foolish. 

Lowetela, ku, to be lost sight of. 
LuAMBi (pi. NYAMBi), a branch. 
LuAU (pi. NYAu), a net. 
LucHANAMiLA (pi. njanamila), a Verandah post of a 

house. 
LuoHBCHE, Jim htcheche, a crying peevish child. 
LucHESA, a kick. 
LucHiMBi, politeness. 
LucHiNJi, the part of an iron instrument that is fitted 

into the handle. 
LuoHOCHOLA, EU, to run away very fast. 
LuGA, a crack. 
LuGAGAWi, niggardliness. 
LuGALAMBUTi, wild asparagus. 
LuGANGA, a crack. 
LuGOMBA, a boundary. 



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^ 



206 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 



LUGOMO (pi. MGOMO), a Up. 

LuGONGOLiMA, an elevation. 

LuGONO, sleep. AU mHugono^ He is asleep. 

LuGULU, Jua higvhi^ a man who takes good care of 

his things so that they last a long time. 
LuGULU, the faculty of imitating what one has seen 

another doing. 
LuGWA, a crack. 

LUGWALAGWASULA, KU (-LUGWALAGWASWILB), to bolt ofP 

at full speed. 
LuGWANDULA, KU (-lugwandwile), to run off at full 

speed. 
LuJANGA, a ramrod. 
LuJBMo, the lip. 

LuJENJE, the torn end of a piece of calico. 
LuJiLi, a course \ a ^yer ; a line. 
LujiNGA, a pole for carrying two loads, one tied to 

each end. 
LujiPi (pi. NJiPi), a louse. 
LuJONDo, a confluence of two rivers. 
LuJONDOy a turn in a stream ; a backwater. / 
LuJUCHi (pi. NJUCHi), a bee. 
LuJWAJWA, a detour made by a party sent out from 

the main body ; a party of skirmishers sent out 

from the main body of an army. MkcUende hywajwa 

mpUepambaliy'MjakkQ a detour and go past the side. 
LuKA, KU (-luchilb), to weave (basket-work). 
LuKALA, KU (-lukele), to be fierce and ravenous. 
LuKALALA, a large basket woven of split bamboos. 
LuKALi, the moon when it is four or ^ve days old. 
LuKANDA, a plaited basket plastered over with a kind 

of gum, so as to render it water-tight. 
LuKOi, a slap. 
LuKOKA, a trap made by suspending lengthwise over 

a path a large log of wood, the path being lined 

on either side by bamboos. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABT 207 

LuKOEOLA, KU, to run away very fast. 

LuKOKOsi, a belt of string for suspending one's calico. 

LuKOLE, a room in the verandah of a house. 

LtJKOLOKOMBO, a long pole used to take anything 
from a height. 

LuKOLOMA, a trench. 

LuEOLOMO, something supposed to be in the throat of 
the lion that makes it roar. 

LuKOLOPiNGO, a pole used for carrying a single load 
over the shoulder^ 

LuEOMBELOy a plaited trap for catching field-mice. 

LuEONGA, a handle of a cup. 

LuEONGOLO (pi. MAEONQOLo), a leg ; a spur of a hill. 

LuEONJi (pi. NGONji), a rope. 

LuEOSE (pi. ngose), a claw ; a finger-mark. 

LuEOSELOy a stick used for poking in a hole ; a tooth* 
pick ; a ramrod. 

LuEOSi, the neck. 

LuEOSO, a stick for poking in a hole with. 

Ldeosyo (pi. NGOSYo), members of the same tribal 
family. MlukoayOy a freeman. Ngoayongosyo, dif- 
ferent kinds, Lukosyo lumpepey the same family. 

LuEowo, desire for good things to eat. 

LuEULA, EtJ, to spit out food ; to nuninate. 

LuEXJMBi, a meeting ; a council. 
Kutawa lukumbi, to hold a council. 

LuEUMBUEUMBU, a good memory. 

LuEUNDu, the anus. 

LuEUNULA, EU (-lueunwile), to run awAy. 

LuEUPi, being unobserved. 

LuEUTA, EU, to rub ; to scrape. > , 

LuEWAEU, robbery. 

LuEWAMBALA (pi. ngwambala), a Tope made of mlaza 
palm leaf. 

LuEWANGULO, a razor. 

LuEWESO, bloody urine. 



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208 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

LuKWi (pi. NGWi), a piece of firewood. Katemeni 
ngvn sya chiutugo^ Go and cut firewood for our 
ugali pot. 

LuKwiMBi, the upper eyelid. 

LuLA, KU, to froth up, of beer after the malt has been 
put in ; to ferment. 

LULA, KU (-LUWILB), to toU. 

LvlUa, hvt^ to tell ; to command. 
LuLANDA, resemblance ; likeness. 
LuLANOA, sunshine, a part lit up by the sunshine. 
LuLASi, baldness (of old age). 
LuLASi, a scar. 
LuLASTA, resemblance. 
LuLELE, gratuitously; empty-handed. A'piU liUele, 

He went away empty-handed. 
LuLi, the hut used for a woman in confinement. 
LuLiLA, a herding-place for feeding cattle or other 

animals. 
LuLiLWA, KU, to over-eat one's self. 
LuLiMBA, a musical instrument made of vibrating 

tongues of wood or iron fixed on a board. 
LuLiMi (pi. NDiMi), a tongue. 
LuLO (pi. MALULo), a water-pot. 
LuLUKA, KU, to become tasteless. 
LuLUMALA, KU, to swell up from over-eating (of the 

stomach). 
LuLUSi, Kugomha Ivlusi, to whistle. 
LuLUSYA, KU, to swing round the head ; to interrupt 

persons in speaking. 
LuLUSYA, KU (-luluisyb), to strain water through 

ashes of burnt banana leaves for the sake ^f 

the salt; to boil and throw away the first 

water. 
LuLUTA, KU, to shout, as the women do on an occasion 

of rejoicing. 
LuMA, KU (-lumile), to bite. 



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YAO-BNGLISH YOCABULABY 209 

LuMALO, a method of tying a bundle with rope by 

knotting it at each turn of the rope. 
LuMANGANYA, KU (-lumangenye), to Set the teeth 

firmly together. 
Lilumomganya, kuy to gnash the teeth ; to bite the 

tongue. 
LuMANGU, the lower stick in the pair of fire-sticks 

used in making a fire native fashion. 
LuMBA, KU, to invoke ; to crack (of a falling tree). 
LvmbUa^ ku^ to invoke ; to swear by. 
LwrMkanya, ku, to fasten together. 
Lwmhukulay ku, to unfasten. 
I/umba/njUa, ku, to invoke one*s ancestors, or chief, 

when one has fired a shot at game. 
LuMBANA, KU (-lumbbne), to be good; to miss one 

another. Mtela au wangalvmbana^ so, No, this 

medicine is not good. 
Lumbapa, a thin gruel made by stirring flour in hot 

water. 
Lumbili, fame; character; renown. 
-LUME, male. Juwwhmae, a man. 
Lumenya, ku (-lumenyile), to run away. Wati^i 

akajiwe^ Wcdv/menyile kwndoAmpe, He was about 

to steal, He ran away early in the morning. 

(A native song sung over a slain baboon.) 
LuMiKA, KU (-lumiche), to bleed by cupping. 
LuMiLA, KU, to taste the flesh of an animal one has 

killed before any others have tasted it ; to warn 

another of what the decision of his magamho 

would be. 
LuMiNiNGA, KU, to run fast. 

LuMULi, a bunch of grass used as a light ; a fire- 
brand. 
LuNDA, wisdom ; sense. 
LuNDA, KU (-lundilb), to make an addition to ; to 

lengthen by attaching another piece to the end. 

p 



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210 lYAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

LuNDAMiLA, KU (-lundamile), to fire the second shot 

at a wounded animal. 
LuNDANGA, a good memory. Wewala lundcmga, That 

man has many things to say. 
LuNDBWA, a species of strong grass. 
LuNDUKA, KU (-lundwisye), to fit badly ; to be unsuit- 
able. Jiiejula kurrdunduka chipanje cfiakwe 'cho, 
That wealth of his does not become that man 
well. 
LuNDUMBiLWA, KU, to be at a loss what to say ; to be 

nonplussed ; to be in perplexity. 
LuNDUNGA, KU (-lundunjile), to draw one's self 

together. 
LuNDUSYA, KU, to treat shamefully (another). 

Lundukwa, ku, passive. 
LuNGA, KU, to roll up in a ball ; to smooth a plate by 
rubbing it with a stone ; to tie firmly. 
Lunjika, ku^ to be well finished. 
Litala lyakulunjika^ a straight road. 
Lungama^ ku, to go in a straight line. 
Lungamika, ku^ to go in a straight line. 
LuNGANGAMA, the red oxide of iron. 
LuNGULA, KU (-lungwile), to pass through. 

Lungusya, ku, to deliver a verbal message as it was 
told. 
LuNGUMBisi, indistinctness of vision. 
-LUNGWANA, good. CMndu chilungwanay a good thing. 

Mundu mlungwanci, a good man. 
Lung'wanu, miserly pleasure in one's possessions. 
Lungwe, a species of swallow. 
LuNJESA, the young foliage on the forest trees ; 

springtide. 
LuNJisYA, KU, to finish off nicely. 
LuNYAWANYA, a dctour made by a party sent out 
from the main body ; a part stretching out from 
the main body of an army. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 211 

LuNYANYU, a species of caterpillar causing intense 

itching. 
LuNYAMBATi, a kind of creeping plant. 
LuNYBLENYBLB, a wet place. 
LuNYiLiLi, small grains of any substance, such as 

sand or gunpowder. 
LuNYWANYWA, a Strip of hoed ground. 
LuPAJiLiPB, the first thing in the morning. 
LuPALAKASULA, KU, to run away at full speed. 
LupALALA, baldness (of shaving). 
LtJPALASA, KU, to run away at full speed. 
LuPAMBA (pi. mbamba), a small ant. 
LupAMBATi, Jua lupambati, a slender man. 
LuPANDB (pi. malupande), a yard of cloth, measured 

from the tip of the fingers to the breast-bone ; a 

split calabash used in drinking beer. ^ 

LuPANGA, a large knife ; a sword ; a shuttle. 
LuPASO, a gong. 

LuPATA, KU, to follow Up a trail. 
LuPATULA, KU, to rim away at full speed. 
LuPECHB, a grain of corn ; a single bead. 
LuPECHESO, a fire-stick, used in getting a light. 
LuPELELE, the lip-ring. 
LuPENOo, small iron spoon, used in cleaning the 

nostrils or in scraping perspiration off the body. 
LuPETA, a shallow sifting basket. 
LuPiNDA, a bag of salt. 
LupiNGA, a long handle fixed into a cup, used for 

drawing water from high banks or where the 

river is infested by crocodiles. 
LuPiYA, a red fez. 
LuPLANO, a snuff-box. 
LuPOPOLA, KU, to run away at full speed. 
LuPOTA, the threads of cloth. 
LuPULA, the nose. 
Mbula, the nostrils. 



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212 YAO-ENQLISH VOCABULAEY 

LuPUNDO, a belt of twine by which the loin-cloth is 

suspended. 
LupuNGULO, an iron used for unfastening the screws 

of a gun ; a screw-driver. It is carried slung to 

the waist-belt. 
Lupuso, ill-will, envy, malice, spite. 
LuPWALA, the scrotum. 
. LuPWAPWA, flat sides. 
LuPWAWALB, anything with flat surfaces. 
LuPTA, the bush where the grass has been burnt down. 
LuPYO, a kidney. 
LusA, KU, to be fierce and ill-natured ; to prowl about 

the villages seeking for prey. 
LusAMBA, green-coloured. 

LusANJE, rattles held in the hand while dancing. 
Lus4SA, a partition wall in a house. 
LusASU (pi. SASu), a small piece of firewood. 
LusAUSYO, punishment ; misery. 
LusELE, of small size. Ndemho sya luaeU^ small 

elephants. 
LusBMBA, a thief who has medicine to keep people 

from seeing what he is doing. 
LusBNGA, dregs. 

LusBNYBNDA, KU, to run away at full speed. 
LusESE, dwarfishness. 

LusEso (the point of a bamboo), a thicket. 
LusiCHi, the poles in the walls of a house. 
LusiMBi, the long feathers of a cock. 
LusoMO, the pain inflicted by a thorn. 
LusoMO, a night attack on a village. 
LusoNGO, a point ; a pointed stick. 
LusoNGOLA, the kernel ; a grain. 
LusoNJO, the shin. 
LusoNYONDA, KU, to run swiftly. 
Lusoso, the narrow end of any pointed thing ; the 

first blade that appears above ground. 



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YAO-ENGLTSH VOCABULARY 213 

LusuGULi, the small piece of wood into which the 

arrow-head is fixed before inserting it into the 

reed. 
LusuLA, KU (-luswile), to boil the flour on the first 

day of beer-making. 
LusuLO, a stream. 
LiUTA, spittle. 

IjUTama, covetousness ; lust. 
LuTAMBWiCHi, a brass chain of small-sized links. 
LiUTANDO, a watershed. 
LuTATAWANO, Contradicting one another in a case at 

law. 
LiUTAU, the saliva that trickles from the edges of the 

mouth during sleep. 
Lute, a conical-shaped trap for field-rats plaited of 

strips of sorghum stalk. 
LuTENJE, a fence, especially a grass fence. 
LuTEPA, a fishing-rod. 
LuTiNDiGA, walking on one's knees. 
LuTiNDi, being difficult to please. Werewo aJcwete 

hitindi, ambi tindende uli? That man refuses 

everything I have offered, what am I to do ? 
LuTOGOLO, damp. 
LuTONYO, a toothpick. 
LuTYOKOLA, a walking-stick. 
Luu, a wild dog. 

LuuLO, a large pot for carrying \^ter. 
LuuMBO (pi. umbo), a hair. 
LuuNDE, cloudiness. 
LuuNDU, dust. 

LuuNO, a newly-built village. 
LuwAGALA, a stockade ; a strong fence. 
LuwALA, an open space. 
LuwALATi (pi. mbalati), a rib. 
LuwALAWANDULA, KU, to run off at a great rate. 
LuwALE (pi. mbale), a slice of pumpkin. 



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214 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

LuwANDANGULA, KU, to run at great speed. 

LuwANDALi, expressive of fulness. Agumhde luwan- 
dali, He has filled it perfectly full. 

LuwANDO, a garden. 

LuwANDO, the primary council held regarding the 
cause of death. 

LuwANGU, the short piece of dry wood in which the 
fire-stick is twirled. 

LuwANi, a space between two things. 

LuwANi, a verandah room of a house. 

LuwAso, accuracy in shooting ; frequent abortion. 

LuwEJEWEJE, a steep precipice, or very deep hole. 

LuwEMBE, a razor ; the sight on a gun. 

LuwiLA, the second time of hoeing. 

LuwiLA, KU (-luwile), to fasten the bamboo rim of a 
basket. 

LuwiLA, an old disused path. 

LuwiLANGO, encouragement. 

LuwiLO, a race. 

LuwiMULA, KU, to run away at full speed. 

LuwiNiNGA (pi. mbininga), a short stick used to throw 
at anything. 

LuwoLAWOLA, the sting of a bee. 

LwALA (pi. malwala), a rock; the pan of a flint- 
lock. 

LwALA, KU (-lwasile), to be ill. 
Lwaaya, Jcu, to nurse. 

LwANYA, KU (-lwanyile), to be boisterous and 
talkative. 

LwASi, the blood of a murdered man, which is sup- 
posed to blind the eyes of the murderer. 

LwENDO LWENDo PB, Jua Iwendo Iwendo pe, one who is 
always wandering about. 

LwESA, KU, to curse. 

LwESB, cock's comb. 

LwESi, moonlight. 



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YAOENGLISH VOCABULARY 215 

LwiSYA, Ku (-lwisisye), to find great difficulty in 

accomplishing anything. 
Lya, ku (-ule), to eat. 
Ltsisya, ku, to over-eat. 
lAsya^ ku {-lisisye), to feed. 
Lyalyay ha, to be greedy. 
Ligwa, ku, to be edible. 
Lyalyasya, ku (-LYALYASI8YE), to be double-faced ; 

to be smooth-tongued ; to be deceitful. 
Lyolyolyo..., expressive of sweetness. Naqxisisye 
ucM nekwpikcma ly6ly6lyo..,,il tasted the honey 
and felt it to be sweet. 
Lyolyopbla, ku, to taste sweet. 



M. 

M is pronounced as in English. M before h gener- 
ally represents w. Mh may stand for rH), np, 
nw, 

M-, MU-, or MW, the class prefix of the singular of 
nouns of the first and second classes. 

M' for rmjb ; in, at. 

Ma-, the class prefix of the plural of nouns belonging 
to the fifth class. The singular prefix is Li, 
Many nouns of foreign origin form their plural 
in ma, as mdboyo, boys ; mahokoai, boxes. 

Mabulu, clods. 

Mabwala, nonsense. 

Mabwimbwi, bubbles rising off water. 

Machaka, a slug of iron ore ; refuse. 

Machakala, a large shell used in making swakala, 

Machakapitu, a species of blackbird. 

Machakapitu, Ahnjele rnxtcJuUcOfpitu, He stayed many 
years. 

Machawi, haste ; diligence ; quickness of speech. 



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216 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Macheka, bracelets made of the skin of an elephant's 

foot. 
Machela, a net fixed in the water by means of 

stakes; pointed bamboos put round the garden 

as a fence for pigs. 
Machbpebe, the skin of a stout person hanging in 

folds on his sides. 
Maohila, the price of redemption ; a palanquin. 
Maohili, strength. 
Machisu, jealousy ; envy. 
Madandausi, grumbling. 
Made, the squares made in weaving basket-work ; the 

crossing of the threads in weaving. 
Maele, expression of astonishment. 
Mapumbula, a witch detective {Chinyasa), 
Magadi, salt made from banana leaves. 
Magajawisa, old clothes. 
Maganigani, eggs. 
Maganyiganyi, thoughts. 
Magawagawa, a rodent ulcer. 
Magawa, Jcu tenda magawa, to hem in. 
Maguo, clegs that infest the marshes in the rainy 

season about the month of January. 
Magwandulule, tribal marks passing from the fore- 
head in front of the ears and down over the 

shotdders. 
Magwengwe, periodic madness. 
Maindo, a species of field-rat. 
Mainoino, secretly. Kumkunula fnundu mainomo, 

to kill a man in such a way that the murder will 

not be foundjout. 
Majanga, the young men who go out to war. 
Majbbijebi, a small light red bead. 
Majemba, a fashion of head-dress in which patches of 

hair are shaved off. 
Majemba, lines or stripes in cloth. 

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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULABY 217 

Majina, kutaga majina^ hutenda majina, to respect ; to 

reverence ; to honour. 
Majinia, lice eggs. 
Majita, irrigated ground. Ima/nga ya majita, maize 

com grown on irrigated ground. 
M AJUGUJA, long white beads. 
Makala, charcoal used in forging and smelting. 
MakaTiALILO, the long wing feathers of a fowl. 
Makalamuko, cleverness. 
Makalanje, a large dark red bead. 
Makalangulo, the sides of the throat. 
Makambilo, the chewed bits of sugar-cane. 
Makani, a dispute ; a disagreement. 
Maeasa, a species of pumpkin. 
, Makasi, scissors. 
Makata, old worn-out bark cloth. 
Makokoohesi, the rubbish that gathers on the side of 

a stream washed up by the water. 
Makokoto, the scrapings of a pot. 
Ma£0L0WBLE, a sprout of ma^pemba which shoots up 

after the stalk has been cut down. 
Makombe, a species of spurious india-rubber. 
Maeombo, scrapings. 

Makuku, hu, gona malcuku, to lie on the belly. 
Makunami, lyuwa Vya makuncum% the second day of 

finishing up the women's wnyo/go, 
Makupbte, a bundle of bamboos suspended in the 

garden by a thread. On the thread being broken 

by pigs or other animals prowling about, the 

bamboos fall with a crash, thus scaring the 

thieves away. 
Maeuti, gun-wads. 
Makutu, the vagiiia. 

Makwati, the leaves of maize, or sorghum, or banana. 
Maewelblo, a ladder. 
Maewemba, the leaves of maize, or sorghum, or banana. 



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218 YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULARY 

Makwinyato, wrinkles. 

Mala, ku (-masilb), to finish. AchimasUe chi Yao, He 

can speak Yao fluently. 
Malaka, tattoo marks on the body. 
Malangano, an agreement. 

Kvleka mcdangano, to break an agreement. 
Kvlcmga makmgcmoy to make an agreement. 
Malango, understanding; cleverness. 

Kumpanga malango, to make an agreement with 

any person. 
Malawi, to-morrow. Mwesi wa malavdy next 

month. 
Malekano, a meeting-place of two roads. 
Malengolengo, a species of quince. 
Malile, a boundary. 

Malilima, sound of rushing water or of the wind. 
Malilo, a motmiing. Kumcmgwetu kwoma mcdilo, 

There is a mourning at our home. Malilo gagwUe 

pa mtisi, A death occurred at the village. 
Malilolilo, gum oozing from trees ; watering of the 

eyes. 
Malilwe, the completion. 
Malimba, a calico; a small piece of c^co passing 

between the legs and fastened by a narrow 

waist-belt. 
Malindi, treachery ; plots. 
Malinga, like ; according to. 

MaUnga ni, like to. 
Malic, eatables. 
Malipo, Malipilo, pay. 
Mabisao, small shot. 
Malo, a place ; room. Kwangali malo akuno, There 

is no room here. 
Malombo, tails of calico hanging down ; the comers 

of a piece of cloth; strings of beads hanging 

down from the head. 



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YAO-ENGLI8H VOOABUIiARY 219 

Malonda, things for sale. Mkwete Tnalonda chi ? 

What have you got for salel 
Malopa, the first pieqe tasted of an animal newly . 

kiUed. 
Malosa, giving information of a death to the chief 

of the country, the message usually heing 

accompanied by the present of a fowl; bad 

news. 
Malota, a long shirt reaching to the ankles. 
Malukwi, a large kind of beads. 
Maluli, accuracy of sight. TutesUe mwa malvliy We 

have found it just as it was reported. 
Maluma, a joint or splice. 
Malumbo, kwmtenda mcdwmbo, to praise a man by 

mentioning his name in a song. 
Malundblundb, more than one seed in the husk, as 

ground nuts. 
Malundunguli, intestinal pains. 
Malungo, knees. 
Malungwi, heaps of anything. 
Mamasa, large boils ; spotted leprosy. 
Mamatila, ku, to stick to. 
Mamboko, watering of the eyes ; matter oozing from 

the eyes. 
Mambula, beans boiled whole. 
Mambwimbwi, bubbles on the surface of water. 
Mamila, mucus in the nose. 
Mandisa, taste; neatness. 

Kutaga mandisa, to finish tastefully. 
Mandindili, cramp ; " pins and needles.'' Yala yam>gu 

kund&nda mandindUi, My fingers are cramped. 
Mandunji, kuavmana rrvandimji, to meet face to face. 
Manbmba, the spirits of the dead. 
Mang'ana, so and so. Mam/g'amxib gala aga, There's so 

and so coming. 
Manganingani, considering ; doubting. 



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220 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Mangawa, a debt, something lent to another. 
Mang'omba, the short feathers of a fowl ; the hair of 

animals. 
Manguku, lying on one's belly. 
Mangungu, husked maize boiled and eaten. 
Mang'unung'unu, a heedless person. 
Mangwbngwe, periodic madness. 
Manulilo, prominent bones in the body. 
Manumbinumbi, prominent bones in the body. 
Manunu, madness; idiocy. 
Manya, ku (-mantile), to know ; to recognize. 

Manyilila, ku (^mcmyiUle), to know ; to understand. 

Manyika, huy to be understood. \ 

Manyiaya^ huj to make to understaud. 
Manyasi, grass. 
Manyeeanyera, sparks that fly from the anvil; 

cinders; slag. 
Manyi, excrement. 

Manyongolosi, round intestinal worms. 
Manyunya, feathers of a fowl. 
Manyunyuwa, sitting on/one's heels. 
Mapalamba, tribal marks on the temples. 
Mapalapatwa, scrapings of wood. 
Mapalasi, stones in the bed of a stream. 
Map ALE, fragments of a broken pot. 
Mapali, a ladder. ■ 
Mapalilo, scrapings. 

Mapapiko, Mapapilo, the wings of a fowl. 
Mapebemapebe, hjoenda maperemapere, to pass right 

through without stopping. 
Mapemba, sorghum. 
Mapepulilo, the chaff of sorghum. 
Mapeto, a secret magambo, 
Mapepetelo, the husks of grain. 
Mapbtwa, bird traps. 
Mapipi, a species of black ant. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 221 

Mapipi, a small black bead. 

Mapogolo, the meshes of a net. 

Mapomboti, unripeness. 

Mapotemapote, unevenness ; roughness. 

Mapundi, a quarrelsome disposition. 

Mapupu, lungs. 

Mapusi, the chafE of sorghum. 

Mapwblblo, perplexing troubles. 

Mapweni, apite m/mapweni, he went past the side ; he 

went out of the path. 
Mapwetbohelo, tomatoes. 

Masachilo, the feathers on the head of an arrow. 
Masalb, a quivering or throbbing spot on the body ; 

the pulse. 
Masame, a deserted village. 
Masangalanda, rejoicing ; joy. 
Masanje, a game played by children, in which they 

build mimic houses and act as grown-up people. 
Ma SANG, a man's principal wives. 
Masapi, coarse bran ; maize husks. 
Masauu, an agreement. 

Kutawa mascmU, to make an agreement. 

Ku UtoAJoiUla TnasauUy to make up one's mind to a 

certain course of action. 
Masausyo, troubles; punishment. 
Masawasa, the croton plant. 
Masema, madness. 

Masese, skipping, half walking half running. 
Masbte, maize husks. 

3IASEWE, rattles worn on the ankles in dancing. 
Masije, the houses of a dead man. Jua masije, a 

widow. 
Masika, the end of the rainy season, when food is 

plentiful; the harvest season. 
Chaka cha masika^ a year of plenty. 
Masikwbkwe, a thief finally caught. 



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222 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Masilisili, stains. 

Masimanichisyo, a meeting-place. 

Masimanilo, a joint ; a splice ; a meeting-place. 

Masimano, a joint ; a splice ; a meeting-place. 

Masindamilo, meaning, explanation, completing any- 
thing to one's satisfaction. 

Masinilo, a meeting-place. 

Masiyuohilb, eruptions. 

Masoea, wa rnaaoka, mad people; akwete maaoka, he 
is mad, he is ^'ofE his head.'' 

Masokolikoeo, the ohafE of rice. 

Masongolomembb, the front teeth. 

Masosoghe, the young men who go out to war. 

Masulila, a chief's inferior wives. 

Masungu, like; likeness. 

Masuso, obstinacy; stubbornness. 

Masutetute, mischievousness. 

Maswaswa, mucus in the nostrils. 

Masyonga, peristaltic motions in the bowels. 

Mata, spittle. 

Kuauna mata, to spit. 

Mata, eu, to smear; to put on the first coating of 
mud on the walls of a house. 
Matika, hi, passive. 

Mataeo, the buttocks. 

Mataeope, nakedness. Jua matakotako pe, a naked 
person. 

Matambaliohilo, ku matambalichUo, the direction in 
which the feet are turned in sleeping. 

Matambwa, skins worn round the waist in dancing. 

Matamilo, a suitable place to stay in. Nginingola 
mataffnUo, This is no place to stay in. 

Matana, leprosy. 

Matapwata, rags ; worn-out calico. 

Matapwata, patches hoed at intervals in the bush. 

Mate, sense; wits. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 223 

Matemba, a species of small fish. 

Matemanya, long beads red or white. 

Matbpa, small lumps of pig iron. , 

Matbte, native cloth woven in fine threads. 

Matichita, secrets. / 

Matimba, newly-pounded husks. 

Matindili, a soft mash of pounded green maize. 

Matolilo, unripe njamia beans. 

Matomematome, stains. 

Matope, mud; clay. 

Matula, ku (-matwile), to peel off, as skin ofE a 

blister, or plaster off a wall. 
Matuka^ ku, to be peeled off. 
Mauja, a return journey. TuPurrdoh m^mauja, We 

shall see you on our return. 
Maundi, an wnyago dance, in which the girls wear 

head-dresses of plaited maize stalks. 
Maundulb, grass trampled down, as where an animal 

has lain. 
Maungo, envy ; jealousy ; evil-speaking. 
Maupaupapb, leanness. 
Mauteutb, a marked spot, as where a fight has taken 

place. 
Mawagala, calico worn over the shoulders. 
Maw ALA, spots. 

Nguoja mawala mawcbla, spotted cloth. 
Mawamba, scales of fish or sei'pents. 
Mawambangoma, the diaphragm. 
Mawawa, bitter weeds ; a drizzle of rain. 
Mawengu, the facial expression which a child takes 

on when beginning to cry. 
Mawilo, taking one's revenge on a guiltless person. 

Kv/mwilUila Tnundu mavnlo, to put out one's 

spite on a third party who has done you no 

wrong. 



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224 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Mawingu, watery fluid vomited by a person who has 

drunk the poisoned ordeal, the poison still being 

retained on the stomachw 
Mawuwuto, treading down corn or grass as cattle do. 
Mbagwilo, traits of character, natural habits. 
Mbakamieo, a narrow opening between two objects. 
Mbakanyiko. See Mbakamiko. 
Mbako. See above. 
Mbalalb, a man who has not passed through the 

unyago ceremony; a place where no people 

dwell. 
Mbalambala, a fowl which has laid eggs. 
Mbalambanda, kuchde rnMLambbanda^ it h%s dawned 

brightly. 
Mbalapi, the sal)le antelope {Hippotragua Niger), 
Mbalasi, kumtendela rn/wndu mhalasi, to do an injury 

to an innocent person. 
Mbalasilo, walking on one's toes. 
Mbalati. See Luwalati. Mu mbalati, in the side. 
Mbalaungo, a caterpillar. 
Mbale, a plate. 

Mbali, the side. Fa^mbcUi pa moto, near the fire. 
Mbamba, small black ants. 
Mbambu, in addition to. Mscmo mbambu siioili, 

seven. 
Mbamu, a small lump of ^l>g<di rolled between the 

fingers ready for putting into the mouth. 
Mbanaiiga, between the thighs. 
Mbande, a large round white shell worn on the arm 

as an ornament. 
Mbando, a bit of anything broken ofE. 
Mbanga, a space between two largo rocks; a cave. 
Mbango, a wart hog. 
Mbangwe, an old antelope bull. 
Mbanje, a new garden. 



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YAOBNGLISH VOCABULARY 226 

Mbapani, dog ticks. 

Mbapata, refusing to give a person his own ; covet- 

ousness. 
Mbasa, scales ; scurf ; dandrufE. 
Mbatata, sweet potatoes. 

Mbawala, the bushbuck (TragetapJma aylvaticus). 
Mbawe, a manis. 
Mbe, expressive of whiteness. 
Nguojati mbe, white calico. 
Mbeju, a seed ; a seedling. 

Mbbko, a fire-stick (the one twirled by the hands). 
Mbeba, a rhinoceros. 
Mbebe, the seeds in the heart of a fruit. 
Mbelb mjaewe. See Myele. 

Mbblemba, a ohiselo basket with a finely finished rim. 
Mbelemende, a species of bean. 
Mbeletb, shining through. 
Mbbndu, a polecat. 
Mbenjb, a joker. 

Mbbnya, the space left after a tooth has come out. 
nMbepesi, ofEerings made to the spirits of the departed. 
Mbepo, cold; wind. 
Mbepulo, the chaff of sorghum. 
Mbesi, the end. Fambesi, at the end. ^do mbesi, 

That is all. j^do rrCmbesi mwahwey That's the 

end of it. 
Mbeto, heaps of cut millet. 
Mbeu, a cockroach. 

Mbiko, food laid aside after being cooked. 
Mbilisi, indistinctness. 
Mbilisi, fame. 

Mbirichira, the turmeric plant. 
Mbilo, the friend who performs the biu'ial rites. 
Mbirimo, haste; diligence; obstinacy in following 

.one's own will. 
Mbibiwiri, a large drum. 

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226 YAO-ENQLISH VOCABULARY 

Mbimbinyongo, roughness, unevenness. 

Mbindi, a joint. 

Mbindingu, double-facedness ; backbiting. 

Mbindombindo, windings. 

Mbingu, the omens taken before a journey is com- 
menced. 

Mbinjika, kugona rnhinjika, to sleep with the feet to 
the fire. 

Mbio, pi. of Lupio. 

Mbisi, a wooden plate. 

Mbisu, maggots. 

Mbisyambisya, one after the other. 

Mbito, the new moon during the days on which she 
is not visible. 

Mbitu, small dark blue beads. ^ 

Mbitu, a snake with head at both ends. 

Mbobo, a species of snake. 

Mboea, a marsh grass whose root is dug up and used 
as a scent. 

Mboka, pride. 

Mbolb, addled eggs. 

Mbolelo, dark blue beads. 

Mbolbmbole, gently ; steadily. 

Mbomondo, a stick. 

Mbonda, a calabash ; a round ball of tobacco. 

-mbonb, good. MwridAijuamhonet a good man. ChmdM 
chamhone, a good thing. Maiowe gaTnbone, good 
words, i.e. true words as opposed to m^owe 
gamancwniy lying words. 

Mboneko, mhoTieko rmjoa rmvesi, the new moon. 

Mboni, witness; testimony. Mboni aiioili, two 
witnesses. 

MbONJI, pi. of LUPONJI. 

Mbonji, torn end of a piece of calico. 

Mbonongwa, pounded cassava leaves eaten as^a relish. 

Mbopo, a large knife used as a bill-hook. 



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i 



YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 227 

Mbota, threads. 

Mbote, hire ; wages ; pay. 

Mbotole, bee-br€«^. 

Mbu, expressive of whiteness, or brightness, or pro- 
minence. Nywmba ^syo angati sikuwoneka mhu ? 
Are not those houses very plain ? 

Mbu, freckles. 

MBuaALiLO, the cross-bar that fastens the door in the 
inside. 

Mbugu, a hole in a tree ; the eye of a needle. 

Mbuje (pi. AMBUJE, achambuje), master; grand- 
father; grandmother. 

Mbujo, the front. 
Pa mbujOf in front. 

Mbujuju, boiled maize. 

Mbula, the nostrils. 

Mbulb, a bead waistband. 

Mbulili, shade. 

Mbulilo, kwwika mhvUlo^ to give notice or warning. 
Kumtagila mbulilo, to give him previous warning. 

Mbulu, intestinal dropsy. 

Mbulukwanda, a large species of lizard. 

Mbulula, unstrung beads. 

Mbululu, the cries of women expressive of joy. 

Mbululu, a tadpole. 

Mbulundwa, a lizard. 

Mbulusi, a European. 

Mbulutu, a species of red ant. 

Mbulutu, the dawn of early morning. Kulmikucha 
mhviutu^ it is beginning to dawn. 

Mbumba (pi. achambumba), a woman. 

Mbumu, breathing; gasping; asthma. Maaku ugvr 
mhele mbumu, The sack is full of air. 

Mbuna, a game pit. 

Mbunda, a zebra. 

Mbungo, the wind. 



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228 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 

Mbungulo, a key (Chinyasa, Fungvlo), 

Mbunju, an eland. 

Mbunumbu, a tuskless elephant. 

Mbusa, pa mbvsa, a spare one. Wa pa mhuaa wawiUy 

two spare ones. 
Mbusi, a goat. 

Mbuta, a small fish found in Shirwa. 
Mbuto, a quarrelsome, ill-tempered person ; a meddle- 
some person. 
Mbutu, small bundles of grass which form the lower 

row of a grass roof; the bundles of grass tied 

to the lintels of a door. 
Mbwa, a dog. 
Mbwaju, Mbwaji, carelessness. 

Kuimha mhvKiju, to put down carelessly. 
Mbwani, the coast near Kilwa. 
Mbwe ! scattered about. 
Mbwela, plants grown of their own accord without 

being planted. 
Mbwepwa, an abortive fruit. 
Mbwesb, unstrung beads. 
Mbwi, expressive of jumping. 
Mbwinya, sulkiness. 
Mbyo (pi. of LUPYo), the kidneys. 
Mbyu ! thin above and thick below. 
Mbyu, a swelling-up of the stomach. 
Mghagala, the stem of the cassava plant. 
Mohanda, a youth. 
McHANJO, a mound of earth or grass; a spur of 

a hill running out from the 'main body of the 

hill. 
McHECHB, four. 

Kacheche, four times. 
MoHBNJE, a quiver made out of a calabash. 
McHESB, an eunuch. 
McHESBLA, disgrace ; shame. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 229 

KuUtesya mchesela, to disgrace one's self. Ku- 

mtendela mchesela^ to put another to shame. 
McHiOA, a root. 
McHiJi, the left. Kupopotola kwmchiji, to twist to 

the left. Kvmchiji, to the left. Kuponecheaya 

kumohiji, to throw with the left hand. Mkono 

wa mchiji, the left hand. 
McHiLA, the tail of an animal. 

JtM michUa^ the head instructor of the boys* 

unyago, 
McHiNGA, a shepherd. 
McHiLBU, lengthwise. Ku wika mchileu, Ku vdka 

chamchilm, to lay lengthwise. 
McHiRiNoo, a prosperous person. 
McHiMBA, excrement. 
Mghimbo, an old baboon. 
McHiSBQAMBALi, kuwika mchiaegambaU^ to place on 

the edge ; kulola mchisegamhaliy to look sideways. 
McHisBNQWB, sideways. 
MoHiUNO, the waist. 

McHOCHOLBLO, a garden hoed in bits here and there. 
MoHOKOTA, Ukonde h/a mchokwe, hoeing the first time. 
MoHOKOTO, a bamboo used for digging in the ground. 
McHOKWE, maize ready prepared for pounding. 
McHOMA, a barrel of gunpowder ; a small drum 

beaten while holding it against the breast. 
McHULUSi, one who does a thing much or often. 
Mdala, a gun-cover made of a skin. 
Mdalanga, a kind of dance not in fashion now. 
Mdangwe, the top and bottom cords of a net. 
Mdbndenga, aioete mdendenga^ he is scantily clad. 
Mdulanyanja, a wind which blows across a lake or 

river. 
Mdumba, a round-pointed arrow. 
Mdumu, a china cup. 
Mdusundusu, imanga ya mdusundusu^ unripe maize. 



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230 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Mela, ku (-mesile), to grow (of plants). 

Mela, a young sprout. 

Mble, Melepe, on purpose. WaukasUe mgao mekpey 

He broke the cup intentionally. 
Melembnda, ku, to fall steadily (of rain) ; to glitter. 
Membe, a house-fly. 
Membna, ku, to gnaw. 
Membsa, ku (-memesilb), to nibble. 
Membsya, ku (-memesisye), to cry after the other sex. 

MbNO, pi. of LINO. 

Menya, ku (-mbnyilb), to beat. 

Menycmay ku, to fight. 
Menye, a cry used in setting dogs on game. 
Menyeka, ku, to be stout of heart ; to follow up a 

scent well (of a dog). 
Menyula, ku (-menywile), to nibble. 
Mesa, fragments left after a meal. 
Mesa, ku (-mesile), to pluck (a fowl). 
Mesi, water. 
Meso, see Liso. 
Pa meso, before. 

M'meso kukla, openly ; before all people. 
Mbsya, ku (-mbsisye), to brighten up after rain ; to 

flash. 
Meta, ku (-metile), to shave. 

Metelela, ku, to shave round the edge of the hair. 
Mbtbka, ku, to throw mud on anything. 
Mgao, a cup. 
Mgogoso, a lean person. 
Mgoji (pi. MiGOJi), the fibre-bast of the bark of certain 

trees used as rope, or twisted into twine. The 

trees that furnish the best mgoji are Mjomho and 

Chisumhuti, 
Mgomba, a crossbeam. 
Mgonblo, the evening meal. 
Mqongo, the back ; the backbone. 



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YA0-BNGLI8H VOCABULABY 



^231 



Mgongondo, the sound of beating bark cloth. 
Mguju, the sound of walking. » 

Mgulugulu, near ; close to. 
MgulAigulu moto, near the fire. 
Mgukigukb lusuloy near the stream. 
Mgwanda, calico worn reaching only to the knees. 
Mi-, class prefix of substantives belonging to the 

plural of the second class. 
MiiNJOLi, a constant dripping rain. 
MiKANGANiLA, EU, to gather in great numbers. 
MiKULi. See Mkuu. 

MiEUMBU, beans cooked and afterwards husked. 
MiLA, KU (-misilb), to swallow. 

Mikoa, ku, to be choked ; to drown. 
MiRALA, beer that has' stood over-night. 
MiLANYE, a species of banana. 
MiLicmxA, KU (-milichitile), to hum. 
MiLiMisiKA, KU (-milimisiohe), to bend the waist on 

dancing. 
MiLO, MiLU, expressive of disappearing under-water, 

or of drowning. 
MiMiNA, KU (-miminilb), to pour out into another 

vessel. 
MiNALA, KU (-minelb), to be satisfied (used in a derisive 

meaning like our own " stuffed '*). 
MiNANGUKA, KA, to over-eat one's self. 
MiNANGULA, KU (-minangwile), to bend and break 

across. 
MiNiGASYA, KU (-minigbsye), to bring a matter to a 

head; to finish a magambo by refusing to put it 

off any longer. 
MiNiKA, KU (-miniche), to hem. 

Minichika, ku, passive. 
MiNiNGA, KU (mininjilb), to beat a small driun at a 

dance by holding it against the breast and beat- 
ing it with both hands. 



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252 ' YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 

MiNiNGULA, KU, to Snap across. 

Minmguha^ ku, to be snapped across. 
MiNJOLi, tufts of hair here and there on the head. 
MiNYA, KU, to squeeze ; to wring. 

Ku minya ma/u?ele, to milk. 

Minyika ku, passive. 

Minyikomya ku, to check ; to overpower. 
MisA, KU (-misile), to scatter. 

Miscmga ku, to spend. 
MiSAGO, ku misago, the direction in which the head is 

turned in sleeping. 
MiSANGA, dry sandy soil. 

MiTALA, polygamy. Jtui mitcUa, one with more than 
a single wife. Akcma mitcUa, he refuses to 
marry more than one wife. See Mtala. 
MiULB (pi. of mbulb), a waistband. 
Mjalajala, a man who moves about from place to 

place. 
Mjalo, the web of thread in weaving. 
Mjangu, my friend ; my companion. 

Mjenu, your friend. 

Mjahwe, his friend. 

Mjetu, our friend. 
Mjembele, a woman who has borne children. 
Mjembo, an axe for hollowing out a drum of mortar. 
Mjengwe, m^mj&ngwe on the bank ; on the shore. 
Mjenjemeso, ku tola mjenjemeso, to look steadily. 
Mjina, short hairs. 
Mjina, a fresh growth of hair. 
Mjinga, one who cannot express his ideas on any 

matter; a stupid person. 
Mjinga, rain at a distance. 
Mjiri, nature; likeness. 
Mjitila, irrigation. 
Mkaju, the cashew-nut tree. 
Mkakatuku, something hard and stiff. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY 233 

M'kali'mo, aweleckete m'kali'mo, to speak away from 
the point ; to give a different version of a story. 

Mkalo, a knife. 

Meambako, a male. 

Mhusija mkcvmhakoy a male goat. 

Mkamwini, a man who comes with proposals of 
marriage. 

Mkano'anda, cutting all round the edge of the hair. 

Mkang'wa, jua tnUccmg^wa^ a talkative person. 

Mkapa, maize half grown. 

Mkapwb, a small hrick-coloured bead. 

Meati, inside. Wmkati mwakw^y in the inside of 
it. 

Mkoba, a bag woven of palm-leaf fibre. 

Mkoka, game dragged through the bush leaving a 
track. 

Meoeaeoeape, leanness. 

Mkoeomoeo, a greedy man. 

Meolo, a female. Mbvsija rnkolo, a female goat. 

Meolombisu, a stick used in carrying a load over the 
shoulder. 

Meolwa, an old female. 

Meoma, the first green blade that appears above 
ground. 

Meombelo, the bamboo rim of a chiselo basket. 

Meohelo, a mallet for hammering bark cloth. 

Meondo, green maize. 

Meonga, a bunch of bananas ; a corner of one's loin- 
cloth hanging down. 

Meongo, the lump made in tying one's calico round 
one's waist. 

Meong'ondo, slander. 

Meono, the arm ; a cubit measured from the elbow- 
joint to the tip of the middle finger. 

Meopoea, pa mkopoka, the spot where the corpse is 
laid down on the road to the grave. 



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234 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Meoso, the stick used in pressing threads together in 

weaving. 
Meota, the sweet stalk of millet. 
Meota, a grass shed. 
Mkucha, two days after to-morrow. 
Meuli, the high ground. 

Ku mkvZiy up the stream ; on the high ground. 
MikvM, the hunting ground. Ajile rn!mikv2i ja 

ndembo, He has gone to hunt elephants. 
Meuli, the distance between one place and another. 
Meulugo, elder brother. MkbUugwcmgu, my elder 

brother; akulizwenUf mkalugwerm, youi* elder 

brother. 
Meumba, a well-trodden path. 

Meungulu, a disease of the eyes in which the eye- 
lashes drop out. 
Meunqusa, a species of cedar. 
Meuni, a stink ; the scent of animals. 
Meuo, rust. Uti jikamwUwe mkuo, The gun has 

rusted. 
Meupulilo, a switch for beating off the dew ; a fan 

used in fanning the body. 
Meuse, eu uja, to recover one's courage and return 

to attack one's pursuers. 
Meute, ugali that has lain over-night. 
Meuti, when; as; for; concerning. Mkuti waiche 

hvb vmisi, When he came to the village. Mkuti 

a/vooAJoa ngengwamianya, As for these I do not 

know them. 
Meutu, a piece of calico about 64 yards in length. 
Meuwa, copper. 

Meuwi, an old person ; an old animal.' 
Mewala, blunt-pointed wooden arrows used for 

shooting birds; a beaten path made by game. 
Mewalula, going on ahead. Ku weUch&ta mkwaltUa, 

to go on speaking. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 236 

Mkwandala, a leather belt worn round the waist to 

which pouches for powder, bullets, etc., are 

attached. 
Mkweche, an old animal. 
Mkwesa, the rim of grass or bamboo round the 

bottom of an ngokwe store. 
Mkwesu, the tamarind tree. 
Mkwinyimbi, an old bull or leader of a herd ; a stout 

old man. 
Mkwita, an iron anklet. 
Mkwiya, semsem. 
Mlaka, a piece of india-rubber put on the skin of a 

drum to make it sound. 
Mlala, second day's beer. 
Mlamba, a by-path. 
MlambE; the baobab tree. 
Mlamq, a brother-in-law. 
Mlangali, red calico. 
Mlanguka, a small light -blue, half - transparent 

bead. 
Mlapika, a wonderful thing ; chindu cha mlapika. 
Mlasi, a bamboo. 
Mlekano, white unbleached calico. 
Mlela, a nurse. 

Mlelembe, Fa mlelembe, the sky, the firmament. 
Mlbndebe, oratory ; an orator. 
Mliea, a watershed. 
Mlili, small-pox. 

Mlimba, a strip of calico worn by a child. 
Mlimbo, a stick for shutting the door. 
Mlingo, a measure. 

Mliwi, a deep place in a stream or pool. 
Mlonda, a watchman. 
Mlongo, a relation ; a member of the same lukosyo 

or tribal family. 
Mlongola, a guide. 



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236 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULA.RY 

Mlooka, a bridegroom who takes the woman to his 

home. 
Mlowe, maize steeped for pounding. 
Mluchu, a truss of calico. 
M*LUGK)MB0, the edge or boundary. 
Mlukosyo, a freeman. 
Mlumika, a cupping apparatus. 
Mlusu, beer after the first day's brewing. 
M'malo, Ngondo jomuisile wandu m^malo^ The war 

destroyed all the people completely. 
M'malo, a small drum. 
M'mbwela, great hunger. 
M'misibi, a craftsman. 
Mnaka, the crushed castor-oil seed with which they 

smear the inside surface of the drum skin. 
Mnanqu, an ornamental cup much prized by the 

Machinga chiefs. 
Mnasi, an acquaintance ; a neighbour. 
M'ng'andu, the morning star. 
Mngogo, a log of wood. 
Mnqoli, a cocoa-nut tree. 
Mnong*o, a nice taste. 
Mnou, flesh. 

Mnunji, a kind of Kaffir corn. 
Mnyalo, shamefacedness. 
Mnyanga, a tu^k. 
Mnyanto, a slope ; an ascent. 
'mo, for oTTio, in there. 
MoGA, KU (-mobile), to shave. 

Ku moga hipala, to shave the head bald. 
MoMBA (pi. miyomba), a fish spear ; a long pole used 

for frightening the fish into the nets. 
MoMOLA, KU, to pluck out the hair. 

Momokaj ku, to fall out (of the hair). 
Mong'onyobla., ku, to be chipped. 
MoNi, the common salutation in British Central Africa. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 237 

It is derived from the EngKsh " good morning," 
and is manifestly the native attempt to reproduce 
the sound of these two words. 

MoNJE, a new pot. 

MoNTOKA, Ku (monywbchb), to be chipped. 
Monyola^ ku^ to chip. 

Mopo, green fresh grass. 

MosE, MOSBPB, everywhere. 

Mose mkajende, although you may go. 

MoTO, fire. 

MoTOKA, KU, to be peeled off. 
Motola, hi, to peel off. 

Mpachempache, putting the blame on another. 

Mpaqo, nature. Mpago wmo, all of one kind. 

Mpaka, a long bundle of fish. 

Mpaea, as far as; until. Mjendeje arn/vmomuno 
mpaka ku musi, Go in this path as far as the 
village. Watemi apalapala mpaka kuwwa Tnchi- 
mwene, Watemi apalapala mpaka po wavnle 
mchimwene, He stayed ii^ that place until the 
chief died. 

Mpaeanisi, the leg of game given to the man who 
finds an animal caught in a trap, or the man 
who fires the second shot at an animal in a 
hunt. The dead game belongs by right to the 
man who fires the shot which first wounds the 
animal. 

Mpalapala, what comes frequently. 

Mpalapala, the roan antelope {Hippotragua leur 
cophcBus). 

Mpalb, ku uja, to recover one's courage and come 
back on one's pursuers. 

Mpalu, a hunter. 

Mpama, a kind of creeper, with a root like a yam. 

Mpamba wa meno, a barbed arrow. 

Mpango, a belt of cloth. 



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238 YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULARY 

Mpapa, a species of field-rat. 

Mpata, a pass ; a road between two hills. 

Mpatila, a small skin bag fastened round the waist. 

Mpela, Mpelboa, like ; as ; as if. 

Mpelo, a blunt-pointed wooden arrow for shooting 

birds. 
Mpendeka, shaving one side of the head. 
Mpepe, a breeze. 
Mpepela, a driving rain. 
Mperewere, fourth day after to-morrow. 
Mperebe, the float on a fishing-line. 
Mpesi, maize stalks. 
Mpichi, a cane. 
Mpika, a pot. 

Mpika, a border ; a boundary. 
Mpiko, a pole used by two persons carrying a heavy 

load. 
Mpindo, a cloth worn between the legs and fastened 

by a string tied round the waist. 
Mpingo, the ebony tr/ee. 

Mpingo, a party on a journey, going in a line. 
Mpingu, an evil omen. 
Mpingusi, an evil omen. 
Mpini, the handle of a hoe or an axe. 
Mpita, a track. 

Mpolo, a foetus bom at an abortion. 
Mpololo, tattoo marks on the forehead. 
Mpomolo, maize newly husked. 
Mponjblo, the yucca tree. 
Mpoto, the north wind. 
Ku mpoto, the north. 
Mpukuso, a rod for stirring beans twirled in the 

hands. 
Mpuli, a castrated man or animal ; an eunuch. 
Mpumbulu, a loin-cloth tied round the waist. 
Mpunga, rice. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 239 

Mpupulusi, famine. 
Mputi, a counsellor at a magcvmho, 
Mputo, anything used to beat with. 
Mpwanga, my younger brother in the tribal family. 
Mpwenu, your younger brother. 
Mpwakwei his younger brother. 
Mpwao, their younger brother. 
MsAGALA, a branch torn off. 
MsAEASA, the grass roof of a house. 
MsAEULA, a hunter who hunts with dogs. 
MsAEULO, firing many guns at one time. 
MsAMiLO, a pillow. 

MsANOA, a bundle of grain tied up in grass. 
MsANGA, sand. 

MsANGA, a long drum beaten at both ends. 
MsANGU, desire ; lust ; a habit, or characteristic. 
MsANO (pi. WAASANo), a head wife. 
MsANO, five. Jtm macmo, the fifth. Makumi msa/no, 

fifty. 
MsAPALA, whiskers. 
MsAPULO, a stem of maize or sorghum used in stirring 

beer. 
MsAsiMANGA, the croton oil plant. 
MsATi, the central pole supporting the roof of a 

house; the pole or frame-work on which the 

calico is tied at the grave ; a flagstaff ; the mast 

of a ship. 
MsAUSYA, an annoying person. 
MsBCHE, a grass basket ; a kind of dance. 
MsECHE, speaking of a person in his absence. 
MsEELA, the grass edging of a roof. 
MsEBA, a line. 
MsELB, boiled rice. 
MsEMO, price of malonda ; a habit. 
MsENGA, a pink-coloured bead. 
MsBNGO, a horn. The charms used by the waaawi 



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240 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

are said to be put into horns, hence the word 

misengo is often used in the sense of witchcraft. 
Msec, a broad hoed path. 
MsESB, fornication. 
MsESB, strips of meat cut up. 
MsESELA, the slimy track left by a snake ; the track 

of game dragged through the bush. 
MsESO, a clump of trees, a forest. 
MsEULA, a kind of bean. 
MsBWA, a foolish person. 
MsiCHiRi, the stump of a hoe. 

MsiKA, a place where a crowd is accustomed to gather. 
MsiKU, scrapings of bamboo. 
MsiLiLA, covetousness. 
MsiLO, black loamy soil. 
MsiLiT, an object that causes fear, or disgust, or 

nausea. 
MsiMA, nynmba msima, a round house. 
MsiMBi, the long feathers of the wing of a bird. 
MsiNDO, the sound of heavy footsteps, or of women 

pounding. 
Ulaja msmdo, heavy rain. 
MsiNDO, a large charge of gunpowder. 
MsiNGA, a bark stripped off a tree and used as a 

fowl-house or pigeon-house; a cannon. 
MsiNGU, height ; size. 

MsiNJiLi, a grudge against any one ; " the pet.*' 
MsiPU, a fish-trap of bamboo basket-work with a 

narrow mouth; mouth caHed ^shisera. 
Msisi, the raised threshold of a door. 
MsiWANi, cousin by the mother's side. 
MsiYA, a stupid person. ^ 
MsoKOLO, husked grain prepared for steeping. 
MsoKOTO, a stick used in digging holes. 
MsoLOLA, a bottle weir. 
Mbololo, a long hoed piece in a garden. 



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YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULABY 241 

MsoMAU, a nail ; a wooden pin. 

MsoMBi, the Uttle strip of unhoed ground left between 
two gardens; the spur of a hill; a back reach 
of water in a stream; a deep gulf in a lake 
shore; the angle at the meeting of two roads 
or two streams. 

MsoMELO, a ladle. 

MsoMOKA, KU KOPOKA MSOMOKA, to come to the front 
in anything. 

MsoNDB, a species of grass. 

MsoNOA, an arrow without barbs. 

MsoNGOLO, a boy. 

MsoNOGO, husbaiid, or wife. Msovhogwcmgu^ my hus- 
band, or wife. 

MsoNOGWB MWBSi, the evening star. 

MsoNTO, smacking the lips in scorn. 

MsoPELA, a ramrod. 

MsoPBLO, the piece of cloth produced first in com- 
mencing to purchase, and laid apart while the 
bargaining is going on ; it is added to the price 
paid when the bargain has been concluded. 

MsoTi, a young fowl. 

MsuKUNYA, a weasel. 

MsuEWA, the part of a hoe that fits into the handle. 

MsuLi, a red fez. 

MsuLU, a ferret. 

MsuLUSO, asking for more. 

MsuNJE, flour mixed with water used as a drink or 
poured out as an offering. 

MsusA, kutama msuaa, to sit on one's heels. 

Msusi, gravy. 

MswAOHi, a tree whose very fibrous wood is used by 
the natives to make a kind of tooth-brush. 

MswAGA, maize stalks. 

MswENBNE, perseverance ; persistence in anything. 

MswESWE, cotton down prepared for spinning. 

B 

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242 YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULARY 

MSTENE (pi. AOHASYBNE, ASYBNE, ACHIMSYENe), the 

owner. Msyene musi, the head of the village. 
Msy&JM (Mmnhoy the chief of the countty. 

MsYENE, himself ; he himself. 

Mtajili, a rich man. 

Mtala, a pot for carrying the water used to wash 
the hands. Women are sometimes spoken of as 
wa mitcUa, i.e. those who carry the washing- 
pots. 

Mtala WANDA, the tree frbm which hows are made. 

Mtalya, a small hahoon which acts as guide. 

Mtambo, a battle-field. 

Mtambulo, remaining still in one place. Nginingola 
mtambvlo, I have not far to go. 

Mtanda, a basketful of ugalL 

Mtanda, a hut in the bush where people accused of 
witchcraft are kept in custody. 

Mtanda, humtomila mtcmda, to come persistently 
demanding payment due to one. 

Mtandasya, a cassava flour ; glueyness. 

Mtanga, a hobgoblin. 

Mtang'anda, a long distance away. Ku BUmtyre 
kwana mtang^anda^ It's a long way to Blantyre. 

Mtapasya, leaves boiled and pounded. 

Mtapo, a hank of thread. 

Mtapo, iron ore. 

Mtasi, nerves j blood-vessels ; tendons. 

Mtau, persistence ; perseverance ; frequent recur- 
rence. 

Mtawanga, a mischievous person ; a person of evil 
disposition. 

Mtechetu, brittleness; friableness. 

Mtboa, wrong ; useless. Mpamba upite pa mtega, The 
arrow went wide of the mark. 
Fa mtega, uselessly ; aimlessly. 
Fa mtegatega pe, quite uselessly. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOOABULABY 243 

Jua mtega — MbUaaUe jua mtega, You have called 

the wrong person. 
Mtbla, a tree ; medicine. 

Mtela wakutema, healing medicine. 
Mtelesi, chief instructress at the women's unyctgo. 
Mtembe, a wooden image. 
Mtembelo, a crate for carrying fowls. It is carried 

by two people slung on a pole. 
Mtbmbo, a corpse. 
Mtemela, a previous arrangement which must first 

be completed before anything else can be done. 

Mtemela tukaiche ku Blantyre^ soni tukapelenganye"' 

pakuja kwa KvutuThga^ Let us first go to Blantyre, . 

and then pass on to Katunga's. 
Mtendere, peace ; quiet. 
Mtengo, price ; payment. 
Mtengo, a custom ; a habit. 
Mtepa, the end. Pamtepa, at the end. 
Mtbpesi, a gathering at a funeral. 
Mtesa, ground-nuts. 
Mtetb, a large village. 
Mtetb, a small bamboo box for carrying snufE or 

powder. 
Mtiko, a rod used in stirring ugaM, 
Mtima, the heart. Mtima idi mJirhyasi^ The heart is 

at rest. Mtima vli pasi, The heart is comforted. 
Mtimatusya, gently. 
Mtimbulilo, a drum-stick. 

Mtina, a blunt-pointed arrow, used in shooting birds. 
Mtindiso, a staff. 
Mtindo, change. 

Mtinga, kukola mtmga, to be with child. 
Mtisa, a large black bead. 
Mtiti, a shoot. 

Mtojimanga, a kind of cotton shrub. 
Mtojinyano, rivalry. 



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244 YAO-BNGiiiSH VOCABUtiABY 

Mtolanjb, a bamboo with a large-sized bore. 

Utija mtolanje, a long-barrelled gun. 
Mtolilo, the leaves of the potato plant. 
Mtolo, a bundle of bamboos, sugar-cane, etc. 
Mtomoni, the white sap of a tree. 
Mtonga, an eunuch. 
Mtoo, a species of wild plum. 
Mtoto mtoto, often. 
Mtula pa, resting-place where the body is put down 

on the road to the grave. 
Mtulo, a present brought by some one. 
Mtuluko, the commencement of the rainy season. 
Mtumba, a truss of calico. 
Mtumba, a gourd cup without a handle. 
Mtumbo, a close-fitting necklace. 
Mtumwa, a servant ; a messenger. 
Mtundajililo, a walking-stick ; a crutch. 
Mtundula, a load of meat. 
Mtundusi, a creeper. 
Mtungwi, a covered basket. 
Mtunjerbrb, a peaceful disposition. 
Mtutu, a species of legumen whose pods are used as 

a fish-poison. 
Mtutu, a gun-barrel. 
Mtuwa, a young bamboo. 
Mtwe (pi. mitwe), the head. 
Mtwbtwetwbpe, empty-handed. 
Mu, in. 

Mu'kweti, in the thick bush. 
'mula, for amula, in there (of a remote distance). 
MuLi MULi, shining. 
MuLiKA, KU (-muliche), to lighten. 

Ku mulika m'nyumba, to light up the house. 
Ku mvliGhila mwitaUif to light up the path. 
MuLUMUNYA KU (-mulumunyile), to suck with the 

mouth things that cannot be chewed. 



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YAOENQLTSH VOCABULARY 245 

MuMUNYA KU (-mumunyilb), to twist the mouth from 

side to side. 
M'uMBo, the west wind, because it comes from Umbo, 

the country of the Ambo, 
MuNDU (pi. WANDu), a porson. Wandu, people. 

Wcmdu wa/mhele, somebody gave it me. 
Mdng'unya, ku (-mung'winye), to twist the mouth, as 

one does in sucking anything, or in rinsing it 

out. To twist the mouth at a person is con- 
sidered an insult. 
'muno, for a/muno^ in here. 
MuNYU, mica. 
Musi (pi. misi), a village. Msyene musi, the head-man 

of the village. 
Musi, the day-time ; noon. Tmimsimane musi ^unOy I 

shall meet you to-day at midday. Ngutupaika 

muai nambo chilo, We cannot reach by daylight, 

but at night. 
MusuNDi, a small grain, like semsem. 
MuuNGU (pi. MiUNGu), a load. 
Muwanji, a wealthy person. 
MuYANYO, an ascent in a path. 
MvuLE, a girdle of beads. 
MvuNDB, old beer. 

MwA, coming up suddenly into the open. 
MwA KU (-mwilb), to whifE or puff. 
MwA KU (-mwble), to drink, to be drunk. Amweh leloj 

He is drunk to-day. Kumwa na/wo, to drink with 

a person. 
MwACHESO, last year. 

Mwaohejusiy two years ago. 
MwAFULi, an umbrella (Swahili). 
MwALi (pi. WALi, ACHiWALi), a girl who has been at 

the unyagOy but who has not born children ; a 

girl who is attending the unyago, 
MwAMJiNji, much ; often. 



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246 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULABY 

MwANAMBiLiJA, the clay bowl of a pipe. 
MwANASi (pi. ANASi, ACHANASi), a neighbour. 
MwANDA, a great number, too large to be counted. . 
MwANJA, going away. Samhcmo mwcmja. Now I ajn 

going away. Atenda mwanjay He is going off. 
Mwanja'mwe, you there. Mwanja!wOy he there. 

Miyanja!jUa^ they there. 
MwAPULO, the fore limb of an animal. 
MwASYA, KU (-mwasisye), to Scatter about. 

Mwasika, ku, passive. 
MwAYi, the poison ordeal. 
'mwe, for v/mwe^ you. 'Mwemwe, you yourself. 
MwELA, the south wind. 

Xiomwela, the south. 
MwELA, KU (-mwesile), to splash water. 
MwELESYA KU, to be very drunk. 
MwEMULA, in there (of a remote distance). 
MwEMUNO, in there (of a near distance). 
MwBNYA, master, lord, owner. 
MwENYE, a Banian trader. 
MwEREMO, in there (of middle distance). 
MwESi, the moon. 

Mwesi wa kcmganjengcmjepe, the new moon. 

Mwesi wa malawiy next month. 

Mwesi wa syeto, the month after next. 

Mwesi u tmuwoneche, next month. 

Mwesi wana woneha, next month. 
MwESYA, KU, to make to drink. Ku mwesya mutxdu 
mwai, to give a man the poisoned ordeal to drink. 
MwETULiLA, KU (-mwbtulile), to smilo. 
MwiLiLT, in the shade. 
MwiMO, standing. 
MwiNA, a pitfall. 

Nyv/mhaja mwrna, a square house. 
MwiNJiLO, a long white shirt (Swahili, kcm^, 
MwiNo, a friend. Mwino jakwe, his friend. 



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TAO-ENGLIBH VOCABULARY 247 

MwiPWA, a nephew — a aister's son. 

MwipwenUy your nephew. 
Mwisi, the pestle. 

Mwisiy the other side. , 

MwisiCHANA, a girl who has not been to the unyago, 
MwisTA, a hole made by a burrowing animal. 
MwiWA (pi. miwa), a thorn. 
Mta, expressive of quietness and stillness. 
Myalala, ku (-myalblb), to be quiet. 

Mydlaaya, ha, {-^mycUcmaye), to soothe. 
Myasi, blood. 

Mtvma tUi m^myaai, the heart is at peace. 
Myata, eu (-myatilb), to be smooth-tongued; to 

smooth down an angry man; to smooth the 

surface of anything, as l^e porridge in the dish. 
Myatika, ku (-myatiohe), to be soft ; to go gently 

and softly so as to come on one unawares. 
Mysle, MYELE-iiJAKWE, ono's f oUow ; generally 

applied to the other wives of a husband. The 

plural is aioela ajanioo, 
Myo ! diving. 
Myo ! MYO ! sucking. 
Myu, expressive of completion. Irrumga imaaUe myu, 

The maize is completely finished. The meaning 

is still farther intensified by drawing the hand 

over the lips. 
Myuka, ku (-myuchile), to feel anxiety. 

N. 

N is pronounced .as in English. The changes pro- 
duced by the combination of n with . other 
consonants are fully explained in Part I. 

Na, and its varieties of form Nb, Ni, No, Nu, and ; 
with. As a conjunction it is employed to join 
nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and demonstra- 



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248 TAO-BNOLISH VOOABULABT 

tives. Nipo is generally used to connect the 

various parts of the verh. Contracted forms of 

the personal and demonstrative pronouns are 
, employed in comhination with the conjunction ; 

as none for na une; nomwe for na wmwe; vMsyo 

for na asyo ; nago for na ago. 
As a preposition it has the sense of with, Wamao- 

mile ni Tnkalo^ He stabbed him with a knife. 

Sometimes the preposition is omitted ; as, AmJcur 

mde moto, Burn him with fire. 
Na, Naga, Nawa, Nawaga, if. 

Na kwiha ngondo, Nawaga tijiiche ngondo, Naga 

tijiiche ngondo^ Na tijiiche ngondo, U war come. 
Naohambo, clay for maldng pots, or the clay pipe 

used in the forge, white clay. 
Nachiwamuno, Namuno, Natimuno, although ; even ; 

either; or, not even. Ngonguaaka, ngwamnba^ 

nachiwamiuno Tnchimwene tinimka/nUe, I don't 

want it ; no, I will refuse even the chief. 
Nakagongolo, a species of mushroom. 
Nakana, ku (-nakbnb), to be fat. 

Nalcam.ya, hu^ to besmear with fat. 
Nakasou, a species of mushroom. 
Naeatalaea, red seed beads. 
Kakoma, a small basket with a broad bamboo rim. 
Nakunbnybna, a large caterpillar ; the queen of the 

white ants. 
Nakwb, Namkwe, Nimkwe, Numkwe, let me see it ; 

give it me ; let me speak ; give me a chance. 
Naligwandi, a very lean person. 
Nalugumbo, a species of hornet. 
Nalukata, a poorly-clad person. 
Naluku^uti, a species of snake. 
Nalukukuti, a small snake. 
Nalumbapala, a nightjar. 
Nalupisu, a large house-fly like a blue-bottle. 



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YAO-ENGLIBH VOCABULARY 249 

Nalwii, a chameleon. 

Nalyelte, the small ant-eater. 

Namandelengwa, a long-legged person. 

Namanila, ku, to spread false reports. 

Lvncmumila, hu, to tell lies about one's self. 

Namasamba, a green-coloured snake. 

Namasani, fasting (Swahili, Rambathomi), 
Mweai wa Namaaani, the Ramadan month. 
Nmrvaaani^ ku tmoa, to keep the Ramadan. 

Nambalala, vxigonile nambakda, they slept each by 
himself. 

Nambamba, a species of blackbird. 

Nambo, but. The word is used also to denote 
preference or excellence. Ghs Mcmyenje akwete 
uti jambone nambo ja Mtembwe, Manyenje has 
got a good gun, but that of Mtembwe is far 
better. The word in every instance expresses 
great contrast. 

Nambuliuli, a senseless person. 

Nambuta, a short-legged fowl. 

Nambwimbwi, the duodenum. 

Namiyaka, this year. 

Nwraiyakaljh Namiyaka! jmo^ this very year. 

Namkopoka (pi. achinamkopoka), a boy who has just 
passed through the unyago ceremony. 

Namlembwe, a bullet of a conical form. 

Namlukuwewe, a mysterious object, answering to oar 
spectre, goblin, etc. 

Namose, even although, perhaps. 

Nampakunga, an overseer ; a manager ; a governor. 

Nampapwala (pi. achinampapwala), a pouch for 
holding ammunition. 

Nampompo, a lizard. 

Namsongolb, a kind of bearded grass like wild wheat. 

Namsonjo, a long-legged person. 

Namtindi, many ; much. 



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250 YA0-BN6LI8H VOCABULAEY ^ 

Namtowb, a swallow. 

Namtundila, a large species of cricket. 

Namuno. See Naohiwamuno. 

Nanambuka ku (-nanambwiche), to be sticky ; to be 
elastic. 

Nanda, ku, to be sticky. 

-NANDi, small; few. 

-nandmcmdi pe, only a very little. 

Nandoli, a species of grasshopper. 

Nandumbo, a man with a large stomach. 

Nandupa, ku (-nandwipb), to be small ; to be few. 
Chitimandupile, We have little of it. 
N^anduya, ku {-^namdwiye), to make few ; to make 
too few ; to give too few. 

Nanoa, expression sometimes used in receiving any- 
thing. Thanks is indicated by receiving the 
article in both hands, at the same time saying 
Ea ! rarely Ea I nanga I 

Nang'amula, ku (-nang'amwilb), to laugh. 

Nang'amula, ku, to joke. 

Nangilomwinyo, a small species of sparrow. 

Nangula, an anchor. 

Nanguli, a whipping-top. 

Nangulo, Nangulomuno, either ; or, although ; 
even ; not even. 

Nangumi, Namungumi, a large fish, the pcture of 
which is drawn on the ground by the head 
instructor of the unyago on the day of sending 
the boys back to their homes. 

Nangwindi, bark cloth that refuses to be stretched 
after being beaten. 

Nantamba, a panic. 

Nanu, pa nanuy at dawn. 

Nasika, ku (-nasighb), to show fierceness as a wild 
beast does when disturbed while eating its prey. 

Natama, a steadfast person. 



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TAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 251 

Natimuno. See Nachiwamuno. 
Nawa, ku (-nawilb), to wash the hands. 

Navnka^ Tm^ to have the hands washed. 
Nawaga, if. 

Nawanga, a man who files teeth. 
NcHiLiLO, an iron used for boring holes on wood by 

heating. 
Ndaea, a swelling of the body and limbs that takes 

place unless the widow bathe and wash herself 

with a certain medicine after her husband's 

death; dropsy. 
Ndakanyo, tracks. 
Ndakatulo, joking ; jeering. 
Ndalama, money. 

Ncdama ayasiswela^ silver. 
Ndcdamxh aycbsickeju, gold. 
Ndale, iron ore. 
Ndambuka, ku, to run down, as plaster or whitewash, 

off a wall. 
Ndamo, nature, disposition; habit; custom. Jua 

ndamo, a person who continues for a long time 

in one place or in one habit or occupation. 
Ndamuka, ku (-ndambwiohe), to be elastic and rebound 

as a ball. 
Ndamundamu, the back of a hill. 
Ndandagasi, bad eyesight. 
Ndandala, a koodoo (Strepsiceros kudu), Ku gona 

ndandcda, to sleep in the open air, two and two, 

with a fire burning between each pair. 
Ndandanda..., in line. Wcmdu ajimi ndcmdanda,.., 

The people stood in a line. 
Ndanga, a mat woven of strips of wild date-palm 

leaf. 
Ndangula, a joker. 
Ndangulu, high jumping. 
Ndao, a house where a man accused of witchcraft 



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262 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

is kept prisoner until the poisoned ordeal is 

administered. 
Ndataa, stillness of a bird flying as when seen from 

a distance. 
Ndawalawa, a ladder. 
Ndawi, jbhe distance between two places. 
Ndawi, a conundrum. 
Ndb, expressive of fulness, or firmness. Ajigale lukor 

Icda nde, Bring a basket quite full. Atavnle mgoji 

nde, He tied the cord firmly. 
Ndegolbgo, running a risk. Kusitcmda ndegolego, 

to tempt Providence. 
Ndela, the notch of the arrow, 
Ndble, the green fungus that grows on the bank of 

a stream just above the water-line. 
Ndema, Ndema sya ndasi, the times of long ago. 
Ndembe, a young cock. 
Ndembo, an elephant ; a tusk of ivory. 
Ndendela, whirling round and round. 

KvJtemda ndendda, to whirl round and round. 
Ndendelbje, all round. Wcendu watemi ndendeleje, 

The people sat all round about. 
Ndenga, the long feathers of a fowl. 
Ndenguma, ku (-ndengwime), to be tossed about ; to 

quiver ; to sway from side to side. 
Ndenya, slight spoiling of anything, as if one takes 

a chip out of a cup or a glass. 
Ndenya, a flaw in iron. 
Ndeo, a quarrel. 

Ndepa, the stakes that keep a net in position. 
Ndepete, wetness. UgcUi wa ndepete, wet ugalL 

Matope aga gatesile ndepete, This clay is too wet. 
Ndesi, a tumour. 
Ndete, sparks. 
Ndete, two bamboos used in carrying a load tied 

firmly between them. 



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YAO-BNGtiSri tOdAAULAAt 263 

Ndetbmo, an alarm. 

Ndbu, a beard. J^^deu ja imcmga, the male flower of 

the maize plant. 
Ndikatiea, crumbs falling on the ground. 
Ndikwi, small drums beaten while holding them 

against the breast. 
Ndime, a hoed piece of ground. 
Ndindindi, full to the brim. 
Ndinu, a porcupine. 
Ndiopb, indeed ! dear me ! 
Ndogolo, a water buck (Gobus ellipdprymimM), 
Ndokonybla, a place difficult to reach. 
Nbolola, a hole for an ear-ring. 
Ndombchela, shooting game at a close distance. 
Kdonde, a grasping, ambitious disposition. 
Ndondo, sound of falling rain. 
Ndongo, the testicles. 

Ndonya, a lip of land as where two rivers meet. 
Ndopb, a reed buck (Cermoapra a/rvmdinouiea), 
Ndoto, a species of nut. 
Ndotosi, fowl dung. 

Kdu, expressive of absence, invisibility or quietness. 
Wandu apite, nduf The people went away, and 

we have not seen them again. 
Ndukutila, ku seka nckiMuUa, to smile ; to laugh in 

one's sleeve. 
Nduli, a large piece of flesh cut out in a lump. 
Ndulo, belching. 

Ndqlu, the purr of a cat or the growl of a lion. 
Ndulu, the gall bladder. 
Nduluko, the source of a stream. 
Ndumba, the corner of a house; the gourd containing 

the articles of divination used in the chiscmgo, 
Ndumba, a barbless arrow. 
Ndumbuchila, a flood completely filling the banks of 

the stream. 



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254 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Ndumbuchisya, the flour that is added to the beer in 

brewing. 
Ndumbulisi, a flood in the river. 
Ndumbwi, a fish-trap placed openly in a pool without 

building a dam. 
Ndumetume, a servant or attendant ; a messenger ; a 

herald. 
Nduna, Nduka, Ndwinya, ku mwUa ndunaj to take 

revenge on an innocent person. 
Ndunda, hisimana ndunda, to meet face to face. 
Ndundi, the cicatrix left after a bum. 
Ndundu, a bamboo pipe used in smoking bhang. 
Ndundu, pi. of Katundu. 
Ndunduli, expressive of piling articles one above 

the other, or of standing still. Waiche ni ngcdaia 

ndvmdyZiy He came with the baskets piled one 

above the other. TtoagambUe kuti ndtmdtdi. 

We simply stood still. 
Ndundulika, ku (-nduitduliche), to be brought to 

a standstill; to be at a loss what to do; to 

reach one's farthest. 
Ndundumala, ku, aside ; apart. 
Ndungatunga, the flower of banana. 
Ndungo, bamboo rafters of a house. 
Kdungu, kundungu, the occiput. 
Ndunji, litala lya ndunji, a road coming straight on 

a thing. Mwa ndimji, accidentally. 
Ndunji ni ku Zomha, close past Zomhe^ in the 

neighbourhood of Zomba. 
Ndunjika, young plants. 
Nduta, a bank of sand or a platform of earth. 
Ndutu, maize roasted so that the grain all bursts. 
Ndutumba, the gizzard of a bird or fowl. 
Nduu, expressive of height and prominence. 

Litvmbi lycmatipe nckm, a lofty hill. 
Ndwa ! face to face. 



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YAO-BNQLtSH VOOABtJLABY 255 

Ndwelo, pumpkin seed. 

Ndwinya. See Nduna. 

Ndta, expressive of neatness. 

Ndtochelo, reason for setting off. 

Nembo (pi. of LuLEMBo), the tribal marks. 

Nemeka, ku, to make a show in false promises. 

Nemela, ku (-nemelele), to look to some one to 

take one's part. 
Nenbchbya, ku, to balance. 

Nenecheka, kuy to be balanced; to hold on by a 

shred. 
Nenemba, ku (-nenembilb), to balance anything. 
Nenembela, ku, to be almost broken off. 
Nbng'a, pa, in a prominent place. 
Nenganenga, anything very constricted in the middle, 

as a hornet, a very small needle. 
Nbng'bna, ku, Nenyena, ku, to cut off the heads of 

millet in reaping. 
Nenyenula, ku, to tie a cloth tightly round the waist 

in dancing ; to break across. 
-NGA, the negative syllable in the Yao verb. 
Nga, expressive of breaking. 
Ngaanga, calico worn with one end tucked up so as to 

give ease in walking. 
Ngaohi, a species of euphorbia tree. 
Ngala, a fresh-water crab. 
Ngalanganduka (-ngalamgandwiche), to be startled 

and set off quickly. 
Ngalawango, a ferret. 
Ngalawesa, finger-naila 
Ngalekale, a bivalve mollusc found in fresh water, 

whose shells are used as spoons. 
Ngalilo, the notch of an arrow. 
Ngalio % It is not he ? 
Ngalu, a species of stork ; the crested crane. 
Ngalwe, ill-nature ; bad temper. 



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256 TAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Ngama, oxide of iron used a4S a dye. 

Ngamba, cooked rice. 

Ngamba, flour mixed with water and eaten raw. 

Ngamo, a large-bladed spear. 

Ng'amwita ku (-ng'amwitile), to be quarrelsome. 

Ng'anamula ku (-ng'anamwile), to speak to a person aa 

as to cause strife ; to be double-tongued. 
Ng'anang'ana, unsteady of eyesight. 
Nganga, beer after the first steeping. 
Nganga, a guinea-fowl. 
Ngangala, ripe bamboos. 
Ngani, a saying ; a remark. 

Ng' ANYANG' ANYA KU (-NG'aNYANG^ANYILB), tO look 

round and round about one as a thief does when 
about to steal. 

^GASi, the upper millstone. 

S^GATi. See Angati, 

Ngavi, a paddle. 

Ngo, expressive of being gathered together into a heap. 
Indu Hi ngo, The things are in a heap. 

Ngochesi, eddying of water in a stream. 

Ngokwe, a grain storehouse, made of bamboo basket- 
work and roofed with grass. 

Ngolengolb, friendship, ** chumminess." 

Ngolokolo, stone in the bladder. 

Ngolokombo, a pole used to take down anything 
from a height. 

Ngolokombwa, small-sized maize ; maize gleanings. 

Ngololo, hollow quills. 

Ngolombb, two sticks beat together while the poisoned 
ordeal is administered to a fowl or dog. 

Ngolombwe, a male gemsbok. 

Ngolongondi, kvlola ngolongondi, to look on the 
ground. 

Ngolopingo, a yoke for carrying a load over the 
shoulder. 



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TAO-ENGLISH VOOABULABT 257 

NooMA, a drum. 

Ngomaulo, food eaten while at work or on a journey. 

Nqondi, looking down. 

Ngondo, war. Ngondo jcUanjUe pa nrnsi, The village 

was attacked. Ngondo! is a frequent exclama- 
tion of wonder or surprise. 
NooNGO, a staff ; a stick. 

Ngonqole, anything hired from another person. 
NooNGONDO, ku tola ngongondo, to look steadily. 
Ngongongo, constantly talking. 
Ngong'o, a tortoise. 
Ngongwa, a white stone. 
Ngonokono, a snail. 
Ngosb, a hartebeest {Alcelaphua caama), 
Nqotamilo, a lintel of a door ; stooping down. 
Ngowo. See Nduna. 
Ngueu, a fowl. Ngtiku ja mkolo, a hen ; tcmibalay a 

cock. 
Ngulembe, a gad-fly. 

Ngulbngule, expressive of shaking or shivering. 
Ngxjlo, ku ngiUOf the throat. 
Ngulukutu, a mischievous person. 
Ngulungo, a polishing stone used in smoothing 

plates ; a pebble. 
Ngumbwa, a mollusc found in the Lujenda lakes, 

whose shell is burnt to make the lime chewed 

with tobacco. 
Nguna, ku (-ngwine), to stoop in passing under 

anything. 
Ngunyok^ ku, to cause to stoop. 
Ngunda, a pigeon. 
Nqunga, an eel. 
NouNGA, deceit; fraud. 
Nqunga, a plant whose root is used in smearing 

baskets, so as to render them water-tight. 
Ngungulukuku, mould. 

9 

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258 YAO-ENGLISH YOOABULABY 

Ngungulupya, the ashes of burnt grass left on the 
plain. 

Ngungumila, ku, to shiver ; to be small of stature. 

Ngungungu, littleness of stature. 

Ngunguni, a bug. 

Ngungusi, a species of marsh pig. 

Ngung'usta, what remains over from one meal un- 
cooked and is eaten at the next. 

Ngungwa (pi. of Likungwa), the bark of a tree 
stripped off entire and used in making canoes, 
fowl pens, troughs, etc. 

Nguo, calico ; cloth. 

Ngupu, a track of a person or animal recognized by 
the grass bein!g bent in one direction. 

Nguta, a tendon. 

Ngwala, a long feather stuck in the hair. 

Ngwala, expressive of sitting in a prominent position. 
Kajuni katemi ngwakby A bird sat where it was 
ea^y seen. 

Ngwalangwa, the Borassus palm. 

Ngwalb, a species of bird resembling a partridge. 

Ngwambala, plaited cord made of palm leaf. 

Ngwambo, a small flat spoon for cleaning off perspira- 
tion; a bent knife used for hollowing out a drum. 
It has usually two handles, one at each end. 

Ngwanda, hi sivncma ngwcmda^ to meet face to 
face. 

Ngwapa, the armpit. 

Ngwasi, the fish eagle. 

Ngwasuka, ku (-ngwaswichb), to have a piece torn out 
of or off. 

Ngwb, a kind of green parrot. 

Ngwelete, clear through ; right through. 

Ngwembule, a large hoe. 

Ngwena, a crocodile. 

Ngwenembb, cotton thread. 



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YAO-ENGLISH V00A3ULABT 259 

Ngwenembo, a large hoe or axe, or tool of any kind. 

Ngwenya, ku (-ngwbnyile), to show the teeth. 

Ngwesa, a species of cactus tree. 

Ngwikwi, hiccough. 

Ngwimbi, eyelashes. 

Ngwinyata, wrinkles, 

Ngwiya, ku (-ngwiye), to wash out the mouth with 
water. 

Ng' has the sound of rig in longing, singing. It is 
written ng^ to distinguish it from the common 
sound of ng, when the g passes on to the follow- 
ing vowel as in 72^ of longer. 

Ng'akala, ku, to he fierce and cruel. 

Ng'ala, ulceration of the cornea. 

Ng'ambila, ku, to swim. 

Ng'ambula, ku, to parry. 

Nq'anang'ana, ku; to look at (Chi Nyaaa), 

Ng'anapuka, ku, to be startled. 

Ng'anda, ku (-ng*andile), to play. 

Ng'ando, play. 

Ng'anima, ku, to flash. 

Ng'aso, a furnace for smelting iron. 

Ng'olong*ondokola, ku, to pick off the hardened sur- 
face of anything, as the scurf of a healed wound. 

Ng'ombe, cattle. 

Ng'ombeja mkolo, a cow. 
Ng^omheja mkambako, a bull. 

Ng'ong'ondala, ku, to shrivel up ; to contract. 

Ng'ulung'unda, ku, to scrape off what sticks to the 
side of a pot or other vessel which has contained 
food. 

Ng'ung'una, ku (-ng'ung'wine), to clean out. 

Ng'unq'usya, ku, to talk to one's self. 

Ng'unula, ku (ng'unwile), to nibble off the end of 
anything so as to leave a stump. 

Ng'unulila, ku, to look from side to side. 



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260 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Ng'wa, ku (-ng'wblb), to drink. Ang^ioele klo, He is 
drunk to-day. 
Ng^wecheaya, ku, to give to drink. See MwA, KU. 

Ng'waga, ku (ng'wajile), to scratch. 

Ng'wang'wasya, ku, to be quarrelsome ; to be ill- 
tempered. , 

Ng'wbla, ku (-ng'wele), to splash water ; to be mis- 
chievous and quarrelsome. 

Ng'wbndambula, ku, to draw along the ground. 

Ng'weng'wb, two cross branches* that make a screech- 
ing sound by rubbing against each other. 

Ng'weng'wesya, ku, to give a screeching sound, as 
two cross branches ; to pull along the ground. 

NgVenya, ku, to eat green maize, tearing it off the 
cob with the teeth. 

Ng'wesula, ku, to abrase the skin. 

NgVinambuka, ku (-ngVinambwichb), to show fierce- 
ness ; to come forward with a rush as when an 
animal is disturbed while eating its prey. 

Ning'a, ku, to be almost cut through. 

Ning'ana, ku, to be almost cut through. 

Ning'winichisya, ku, to stir round the grain in the 
mortar with the pestle while pounding it ; to 
relate plainly ; to cut off short without leaving. 

Njalale, war and plunder. 

Njalanjala, constantly moving about ; vagabondage. 

Njama, a species of ground bean ; an iron bullet of a 
rounded form. 

Njanda, little children. 

Njanjandala, ku, to be tough. 

Njasi, lightning. 

Njati, a buffalo. 

Njawachawa, a kind of water-fowl. 

Njawi, a bag of plaited palm leaf with a cover. 

Njechere, a coney. 

Njelelo, a bent chisel, used for hollowing out the 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 261 

inside of wooden articles ; an iron for stripping 

green maize off the cob. 
Njelengo, a joking talkative, person. 
Njblbngo, insight or keenness ojF vision ; good under- 
standing. 
Njembele, a married woman who has borne children. 
Njbmbo, a water-bucket. 
Njbnjelbka, atesUe njenjeleka^ he has chosen the 

worst one (out of many things offered to him). 
Njbnjbnjbngwb, hugona njenjenjengwe^ to sleep bailly. 
Njerbsa, kaolin. 
Njbtb, salt. 
Njbto, an arrow-head with two barbs; holding or 

gripping fast. ^ 

Nji, expressive of silence. 
Njijo, ku wika njijo, to forbid ; to put a prohibition 

on anything. 
Njilisi, a charm worn round the neck. 
Njilu, mischievousness ; ill-will. 
Njinga, the small reels used as distaffs. The word 

is applied to a wheel from the analogy of its 

rotatory motion. 
Njinji, a ball of tobacco. 
Njinjirichisya, ku (-njinjirichisyb), to meet a person 

accidentally ; to " come across any one " ; to 

strike a path in passing through the forest or 

bush. 
Njipi, lice ; sing. Lujipi. 
Njo, expressive of prominence, erectness. 

Litumbi lyati njo, a conspicuous hill. 
Njojo, a distant hum of a crowd of people ; the rattle 

of drums at a distance; the distant sound of 

dancing. 
Njombi, hair tied in long tufts as the Angoni do 

theirs. 
Njombwa, a kind of draughts. 

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262 "YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Njominjo, kwenda njominjo, to hop on one foot. 

Njonjola, ku (-njonjwele), to run (of birds). 

Njota, thirst. Njota jingwete^ Njota jingamioUe, I am 

thirsty. 
Njunjunduka, ku, to stumble and hurt one's self 

without abrading the skin; to be in a bod 

humour. 
Njusi, a serval. 
Njuwa, a dove. 
Nokola, ku (-nokwele), to knock off the head of 

anything. 
Nokosoka, ku (-nokoswechb), to snap across ; to fall 

in torrents (of rain). 
N^okosola, ku, to break across. 
NoLA, KU (-nolele), to sharpen. 
NoMBO, the fibres of bark cloth. 
NoNANONA, expressive of climbing. 
NoNBLA, KU (-nonele), to climb ; to talk at great 

length. 
NoNOCHEiTA, KU, to speak in loud tones ; to do any- 
thing in a pronounced manner. 
-NONONO, hard ; difficult. Masengo gamanoncmo, hard 

work. 
NoNOPA, KU (-nonwepe), to be hard ; to be tiifficult. 
NoNOYA, KU (-nonwbye), to harden. 
NoNYELA, KU (-nonyele), to like ; to love. 
Nonyelana, ku, to love each other. 
Ku nonyelobna ni mjetu, to love our friend. 
NosYA, KU (-nosisye), to take heed. 
NowA, a poor crop that is last reaped. 
Nsisi, the raised threshold of the door. 
Ntalya, a large sentinel baboon. 
Ntapo, iron ore. 

Ntolilo, the leaves of sweet potatoes. 
Nu, expressive of silence. Wandu ali nu, The people 

are silent. 



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TAO-BNQUSH VOOABULABT 263 

NuKU I breaking across. 

NuKULA, KU (-ndkwile), to break across. 

NtjMKWE, Let me see it. 

NuNA, KU (-nunilb), to cut a little of anything that 

is too long. 
NuNALA, KU, to protrude. 
NuNDO, a strand of a rope. 
NuNGA, KU (-nunjilb), to smell badly. 
NuNGUNUNGU, a very hot time of the hot season. 
NuNJiLA, KU, to smell sweetly. 
NuNUKA, KU, to be very clever ; to be over-boiled ; to 

be tasteless. 
NuPUKA, KU (-nupwichb), to be old and easily broken ; 

to be frail ; to break off in pieces. 
NuPULA„ KU, to break or tear any old rotten sub- 
stance; to pluck out the long feathers of a 

fowl. 
Nusu, a piece of calico less than the cubit. 
Ny has a sound compounded of n and i, in which, 

however, neither of the sounds can be separated. 

It is represented by the Spanish ^, as in the 

word compam,ion.' 
Nya, KU (-nyblb), to fall (of rain). Tijinye lelo. There 

will be rain to-day. 
Nyakala, KU (-nyakele), to be bad (in the sense that 

one does not like it). 
Nyakanyaka, small rain falling. 
Nyakapala, KU (-nyakapblb), to be wet (of the 

ground). 
Nyakula, KU (-nyakwilb), to raise. 

Nyahukay ku^ to be raised. 
Nyala, KU (-nyasilb), to wither. 
Nyala, KU, to cut the leaves of wild date palm into 

thin strips for weaving mats. 
Nyalangunduka, KU (-nyalanqundwiche), to open; 

to split open. 



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264 TAO-ENGLISH VOCABUI^ABY 

Nyalapa, ku (-nyalapilb), to be squeamish at any- 
thing J to be dainty ; to feel disgust. 
Nyalaya, ku (-nyaleye), to disgust. 
Nyaluka, ku, to spring to one^s feet. 
Nyalula, ku, to stir up one's anger. 

NyahiJca, hi, to become angry. 
Nyalula, ku, to tease cotton down. 
Nyama, flesh ; animals used as food. 
Nyamanguka, ku, to jump up. 
Nyamba, ku, to be sticky. 
Nyamhatila, hu^ to stick to. 
NycmibatiUma, ku, to stick together. 
Nyamula, ku, to raise. 

Nycmiuka, ku, to be raised up. 
Nyanduka, ku (-nyandwichb), to be startled ; to feel 
sore at heart over anything ; to be ** pricked at 
heart." 
Nyang'anyika, ku (-nyang'anyiche), to be discon- 
tented with one's place in the village and to fail 
to find another. . 
Nyanga, a vulture. 
Nyangala, a wooden arrow. 
Nyang'anya, ku, to be bitter. 
Nyangata, a spider. 

Nyango, roots and nmners of creeping plants. 
Nyanya, ku, to be itching. 

Nyanyama, ku, to project ; to be elevated ; to be sour 
(of beer). Perepo panyanyeme, There is an 
elevation there. 
Nyanyamilila, ku, to reach up to something on a 

height. 
Nyanyata, ku (-nyanyatilb), to be indifferent to any- 
thing ; to be careless. 
Nyanyi, walking slowly. 

Nyanyika, ku, to raise the voice j to place anything 
on a high place. 



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TAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 265 

Nyanyula, ku, to stir up one's aoger. 

Nyanyukay hniy to become angry. 
Nyasa, a large river; a lake. The Shire is called 

Nycbsaja mpomgo, the Belt river. 
Nyata, ku (-nybtb), to be sticky. 
Nyela, ku (-nyelb), to eat to excess. 
Nyblenyenduka mtima, ku, to be sore at heart. 
Nyelenybndula, ku, to melt. 

Nyelenyendvjsya, hiy to melt. 
Nyelbnyesya, ku (-nyelbnybsisyb), to tickle. 
Nyelwa, ku (-nyelwilb), to be soft and wet with 

heavy rain. 
Nyema, ku (-nybmilb), to cut or pick off a little bit 

of anything, as a piece of bread or a lump of 

porridge. 
Nyemba, a trap formed of a falling log of wood in 

which a pointed weapon is fixed. 
Nybmya, ku (-nybmisyb), to bring a person into a good 

mood. 
Nyenga, ku (nybnjilb), to cheat. 
Nybnjbebra, ku, to be too clever for one. 
Nybnya, ku, to pare and then cut into small pieces ; 

to tear up into shreds. 
Nybnybka, ku, to be smashed up as the fruit at the 

bottom of a basket ; to melt. 
Nyenybla, ku (nybnyelb), to run away (of a slave 

from his master). 
Nyenyblela, the fringe on birds' necks ; tufts of hair 

on a goat's neck. 
Nyenyesya, a centipede. 
Nyepetala, ku (-nybpbtbla), to be soft. 
Nybsa, ku, to split up ; to tear into strips. 

Nyesya^ Aw, to beat. A woman says, kunyesya ; a 

man says, hukunvla, 
Nybsima, ku (-nybsimb), to glitter. 
Nybsinybsi ..., expressive of glittering. 



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266 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Nyetula, ku (nybtwilb), to twinkle ; to flash about 

as the fireflies do } to vibrate, as objects seem to 

do when the air becomes very much heated. 
Nyichisya, ku (-nyichisyb), to lay anything upon 

the top of another. 
Nyiea ! pressing on. 

Nyikanyika, ku (-nyikanyichb), to shake about. 
Nyikata, ku (-nyikete), to compress ; to crush down. 
Nyikula, ku (nyikwilb), to lift up ; to raise up one 

side. 
Nyihukaj kuy passive. 
Nyililika, ku (-nyililiche), to be arranged in rows. 
Nyinamilo, the lintel of a door. 
Nyinda, ku, to reprove. 
Nying'ulila, ku, to nod the head in assent. 
Nyinya, ku (-nyinyilb), to deny ; to forbid. 
Nyinyilika, ku, to grumble; to be displeased, to 

take offence at anything. 
Nyinyisika, ku (-nyinyisiche), to hum a song or 

tune. 
Nyinyita, ku, to talk to one's self ; to mutter. 
Nyinyitika, ku, to speak indistinctly, as people at 

some distance. 
Nyisya, ku, to try the weight of a load. 
Nyochola, ku, to pluck up. 
Nyodogola, ku (-nyodogwrle), to be conceited and 

despise others. 
Nyodola, ku (-nyodwelb), to despise; to express 

disgust. 
Nyokotola, ku (-nyokotwelb), to snatch away one 

thing out of a large number; to dig a small 

hole in the ground. 
Nyolenyole, gently. 
Nyolola, ku (-nyolwele), to be stunted; to be 

choked with weeds. 
Nyoloaya, hi, to choke. 



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YAOBNGLISH VOCABULARY 267 

Nyolola, ku, to be sticky ; to be elastic ; to be 

adhesive. 
Nyonga, ku (-nyonjile), to gnaw of hungw ; to twist 

or be twisted ; to wring out. 
Nyongo, gall ; a very bitter kind of salt. 
Nyongolela, ku, to mix up the grain in the mortar, 

that it may all get pounded; to clean one*s 

mouth with one's tongue. 
Nyongohchesya^ ku, to tie one's calico firmly, passing 

it between the legs. 
Nyongonyeka, ku (-nyongonyechb), to be utterly 

tired out. 
Nyonjenyonjb, the gnawing of hunger. 
Nyonyola, ku (-nyonywelb), to pluck out (as hair or 

feathers). 
Nyonyoha, hu, passive. 
Nyonyoloka, ku (-nyonyolokwbchb), to break into 

pieces; to come to bits. 
Nyonyomala, ku (-nyonyomelb), to bend down by 

bending the knees and sitting on the heels. 
Nyonyomwa, ku (-nyonywemwb), to get startled and 

run away, as on hearing of danger. 
Nyonyondala, ku (nyonyondble), to shrink. 
Nyopola, ku, to break easily. . 

Nyopoka, ku, to be easily broken because not strong. 
Nyosola, ku (-nyoswble), to treat with contempt. 
Nyosomala, ku (-nyosomele), to stoop down by bend- 
ing the knees and sitting on the heels. 
Nyosya, ku (-nyosisyb), to be disobedient and refuse 

to listen. 
Nyoto, expressive of cloudiness ; dimness ; mistiness. 

Kwiunde lelo nyoto. The sky is overcast to-day. 
Nyowa, ku (-nyowewb), to be wet. 
Nyoweaya^ ku, to wet. 
Nyoya, ku {-nyoyiye), to make wet. • 

Nyoweka, ku (-nyowbche), to bend to one side. 



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268 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Nyoya, ku (-nyoyiye), to bend down the branches of 

a tree. See Nyowa, ku. 
Nyuchi, bees. 
Nyukula, ku, to raise the eyebrows ; to vomit ; to 

retch. 
Nyulunyunda, ku, to fall in a light shower (of 

rain). 
Nyulunyusya, ku (-nyulunysisye), to sprinkle. 
Nyumba, a house. 

Nywmha msima, a round house. 
Nyumbu, a fibrous root with the taste and flavour of 

potatoes. 
Nyundo, a hammer. 

Nyundu, a hump on the back of an animal. 
Nyung'unta, ku (-nyung'winye), to be sour. 
Nyungwa, an elephant without tusks. 
Nyunya, ku, to sprinkle a little flour on the surface 

of water or in the pot that it may boil all the 

more speedily. 
Nyutuka, ku, to jerk. 



P has the sound of the English p. It never has an 
aspirated or explosive sound such as it frequently 
has in Swahili, Makuwa, and Mang'anja. 

After n, p always becomes b. P in Yao is made to 
represent an / in a foreign language. 

Pa, at. 

'pa for apa, there (of near distance). 

Pa prefixed to the infinitive forms the participial 
tense. 

Pa, and its varieties of form, Pe, Pij Fo, P% when. 

-PA-, prefixed to the stem of the verb to denote ability 
or possibility. Ngengupaichila, I am not able to 
reach up to. NgupaMmay I can hoe. Tiipako- 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 269 

mhoUche, It is possible. Ng&ipdkomboleka, It is 

not possible. 
Pa ohaka, next year. 
Pa chanya, on the top ; the summit. 
Pachanya pa, above ; on the top of. 
Pa CHiiLU, on the body. Ali pa chiilu, S 

child. 
Pa ohilieati, in the middle. 
Pa chisyepela, apart ; aside. 
Pa ,^ika, alone. Sometimes contracted into 
Pa mbali, at the side ; near. 
Pa mbesi, at the end. 
Pa mtima, the chest ; the cardiac region. 
Pa nganya, the village meeting-place, nsi 

the chief's hut, or under a tree in the 

a village. 
Pa, ku (-pble), to give to. Amhele nrikcdo 

me a knife. Mkasipe whusi chvracmga 

goats maize. The objective form of th 

pronoun is always prefixed to the verb 
Pacha, ku (-pachile), to refer a matter tc 

to put the responsibility on another. 
Pachika, ku (-pachichb), to put on a h 

hang up. 
Pachila, ku, to fasten a door on the inside 

a gun ; to plaster or smear with. 
Pachisya, ku, to place alternately. 
Pachisya, ku, to allow one to taste. See I 
Pachuka, ku (-pachwichb), to break off f 

companions. 
Pachula, ku, to pull apart ; to split up. 
Pachula, ku (-pachwilb), to separate t^ 

fighting. 
Pag ALA, KU (-pagele), to tie bamboos on tl 

walls of a house preparatory to ths 

filling in the walls with grass. 



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270 TAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Pagwa, ku (-pagwile), to be bom; to be present. 

Nganfiapagwaf He is not here. Pcmgapagwa petala 

perepOy There is no path there. 
Paka, ku (-paohilb), to smear ; to paint. 
PaJcala, ku, to smear one's self with oil. 
Fakasya, ku, to smear another with oil. 
Paeama, ku (-paeeme), to be stuck fast, as in the 

branches of a tree; to be confined to one spot, 

as from ill health. Ana vli mkivisa akunokrmo 

hauovri kouwiri kuhnjuga, ana nde kupakama ? 

How is it that you come here so often to beg % 

am I stuck up here [merely to be begged from] 1 
Paeamika, eu, to put aside on a raised place; to 

set apart a woman whom one will afterwards 

marry. 
Paeamula, eu, to fall down from a height. 

Fakammkfula, ku, to take down from a height. 
Paeamwa, the mouth. 
Paeana, eu, to threaten. 
Paeanila, eu (-paeanile), to find the game in a trap, 

or to fire the second shot at an animal and wound 

it the second time. Such an one gets a limb of 

the dead animal as his perquisite. 
Paeasa, eu (-paeasile), to plait ; to plait the strips 

of date-palm leaf used in making mats. 
Paeata, eu (-paeete), to carry a child in the arms. 
Paeati, in the middle ; in the centre. 

Pakati chilo, midnight. 
Pakatiea, ku, to shed leaves, to trickle down ; to 

fall down one by one. 
Paeombola, eu, to be able; to be able for. See 

KoMBOLA, KU. Ahupakombola chiNgeresi aambanoy 

He can speak English now. 
Paeueawa mnope, long afterwards. 
Paeula, eu, to take the cooked ugali out of the pot 

and place it in the baskets or plates — this is 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 271 

done with the chikoi (ladle); to pick out and 

set aside a person out of a number. 
Pakuti, PakutI *po, since ; because ; seeing that. 
Pakuwa, becausa Pahuwa mchimwene ngahdima. 

Being a chief, he does not hoe. 
lAgongo pahMjoa, because ; on account of being. 
Pakwe pakwe, in different places. 
Pala, ku (-pasilb), to scrape ; to take fire from the 

hearth; to follow the female sex; to go to 

converse. 
Palagula, ku, to carry off anything without the 

owner's leave. 
Palakula, ku (-palakwile), to take off a patch of 

wood; to remove a piece of the bark of a 

tree. 
Palalila, ku, to harrow ; to roughen the surface of 

grinding stones by grinding sand with them ; 

to give warning. 
Palamandukula, ku, to cut a chip out of a tree ; to 

cut in two places and remove the part between. 
Palamula, ku (-palamwile), to give rise to a ma- 

gambo ; to give offence. 
Palanda ! with eyes wide open. 
Palangwisa, ku (-palangwisile), to scrape, as a fowl 

does. 
Palapata, ku, to scrape off the surface. 

PdlapcU/ula, hi, to scrape. 
Palasa, ku (-palasilb), to paddle a canoe ; to beckon 

with the hand ; to scrape the ground with the 

feet in expressing thanks, as the Chikunda 

tribes do. 
Palasila, 35 lbs. weight (Swahili,/ro«iZ^). 
Palasya, ku (-palesye), to shell peas or beans. 
Palatula, ku, to slash a string or cord. 

Falutukat ku, passive. 
Palawandula, ku, to take a chip out of a tree. 



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272 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Palila, ku, to plant before the rainfalls ; to hoe the 

weeds in the garden. 
Palula, ku (palwile), to split up. 

PcdvJca, huy passive. 
Palula-mbso, eu, to look fiercely at a person. 
Palusya, ku, to deflect the course of a stream or alter 

the line of a road. ^ 

Pamakda; ku, to tie grass on the walls of a house. 
Pamanyiohb, openly ; plainly. 
Pamba, ku, to dip the handful {mhcmm) of ugcdi in 

the sauce or relish (mboga) ; to light a lamp or 

torch. 
Pambai 1 walking unsteadily as a child does. 
Pambalila, ku (-pambalilb), to get accustomed to do 

anything. 
Pambanula, ku, to enlarge an opening by stretching 

or otherwise. 
Pambcmibkula, ku, to enlarge an opening. 
Pambighila, ku, to add to the price. Mtwpcmbichile 

pancmdi, Give us a little more. Ambambichile 

hcbguOf cttati, Give me in addition a little cloth, 

father. 
Pambukula, ku, to remove a part from the top. 
Pambula, ku, to be in addition to (used in numera- 
tion). Macmo hupamhida chimo, six. 
Pambwawale, flat-sidedness. 
Pamo, Pampepe, together in one place ; all at once. 
Pamtulo, the place where the corpse is put down on 

the way to the grave. 
Pamula, ku, Pamulila, ku, to throw a lump of clay 

or any other moist substance on the ground. 
PA^fDA, KU, to plant. 

Fcmdichila, ku, to transplant. 
Pa/ndika, A^, to be planted. 
Pandamula, ku (-pandamwilb), to slap with the hand. 
Pandu, a place (Steere) ? 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY ' 273 

Pandula, ku (-pandwilb), to take a chip out of any- 
thing. 
Pane, sometime^ ; at some place. 
Pane ni pane, here and there. 
Panga, ku (-panjilb), to fix: a day. 
Ku panjUa lyuwa^ to fix the day. 
Famjila, ku, to extract the india-rubber; to remove 

a little of the bark of a tree to see if the bark is 

good. 
Pangakawa mnopb, soon afterwards. 
Pangali, there's none, he's not there. 
Panganya, ku, to make. 

Panga/nyika, ku, to be made. 

Pcmgam^chiaya, ku, to prepare to make for ; to make 

ready for. 
Pangula, ku, to cut out a doorway in the wall of a 

house; to enlarge the mouth of a calabash; to 

add more water in brewing ; to open up a road ; 

to gut game. 
Panjipa, perhaps. 
Panulila, ku, to hoe away the grass on the side of a 

path ; to give a false account of anything. • 
Panya, ku, to notch. 
Panyuma, behind ; afterwards. Panyvmia penu*pala^ 

After you went away. 
Papajila, trying to do a thing. 
Papalala, ku (-papalblb), to flutter wings as a bird 

does. 
Papaluka, ku (-papalwiche), to be ill-conditioned, to 

be lean. 
Papamba, ku, to be excited and in a hurry. 
Papasya, ku (-papasisyb), to grope in the dark ; to 

feel all over. 
Papila, ku (-papilb), to drink ofE the whole of what 

is in a vessel. 
Papula, ku, to tear ; to burst. 

T 

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274 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Papuka, huj to be torn ; to burst. 
Pasa, eu, to clean the grass used in thatching. 
Pasa, outside. 

Paaa pa, outside of. Ali pasa pa nyumba, He is 
outside the house. 
Pasi, on the ground ; down. 

Fasi pa, beneath. Pasi petumbi, at the foot of the 
hiU. 
Pasya, ku (-pasisye), to taste. 

Pachiaya, ku, to give another to taste. 
Pasyunguliche, difficult ; puzzling. Perepo paayvr 

ngidiche, That is a difficult matter. 
Pata, ku, to insult one's elders; to rub down; to 
pick up something so as not to return empty- 
handed. 
Pati 'ii, in this way. 
Pati sai, in this way, in that way. 
Pati 'yoyo, in that way. 

Patika, ku (-patiohe), to come upon a path ; to get 
rubbed off ; to mend a rent by a patch. 
Patikana, ku, to meet together (as two people on 

the same road, or two roads that run into one). 
Lipatika, ku, to join one's self to a company. 
Patipo, since; because. 

Patukula, ku, to cut in two places and remove the 
pieces between ; to take off a patch that has been 
put on. 
Patula, ku (-patwile), to knock down from a height ; 
to chip off. 
Patuka, ku, to tumble down from a height ; to be 
chipped off. 
Patulapatula, ku, to chip off in different places ; to 

remove patches of hair. 
Paujo, in front ; before. 
Paujopa pcbkwe, before him. 
Pcmjo ^po, in front there. 



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YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULARY 275 

Pausyo, the forehead. 

Pe, when. 

Pb, expressive of completion. Nguo jimasUe pe, The 

calico is quite finished. 
Pb, only. Twakungulukaga pe, We were only con- 
versing. Najigeh mongu pe, I have brought only 

pumpkins. 
Pechbsya, ku (-pechesye), to accompany. 
Pee, still ; silently. Atemipee, He sat still. 
Pbka, ku (-pechile), to drill or bore, as they do in 

getting fire native fashion by twirling one stick 

on another with a boring motion. 
Pbla, ku (-pesilb), to suppose ; to be like ; to be 

tired. 
Peleganya, ku, to distribute; to send messages all 

round. 
Pebegula, ku (peregwile), to bore the upper lip and 

stretch it for the reception of the lip-ring; to 

enlarge the mouth of a cup. 
Pelela, ku (pelele), to refuse to return what has 

been given to one; to come to a stop. McUile 

gahupelela amo. The boundary stops here. 
Pblembela, ku (-pelembele), to be insufficient; to 

fall short (of one of two things brought into 

comparison). 
Pelenganya, ku (-pelengenye), to pass on ; to pass 

right through. 
Pblenyendula, ku (-pelenyendwile), to bore through. 
Pelepeta, ku, to be too large, as a ring or string of 

beads meant to fit closely ; to be faint-hearted ; 

to be irresolute. 
Pbrepo, there (of near or middle relations). 
Peleta, ku (-pelete), to pass through ; to penetrate. 
Pembeka, ku, to soothe ; to appease. 

Pemheaya, ku, to soothe ; to appease. 
Pembendu, scantily clad. 



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276 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Pbmbeneka, ku, to open up slightly. 
Pbmbenula, ku (-pembenwile), to open up a little way. 
Pemhenukulay ku, to open up a little way. 
Pemhewakukaf ku, to be opened up a little way (as 

buds at commencement of opening, or as eyes of 

an animal when they first begin to see). 
Pemelela (-peme'lelb), to sniff, to snort. 
Pemendela, ku (-pemendele), ku pemendela mtela, to 

apply medicine to a part of the body by chewing 

it and sprinkling it over the part. 
Penani, on the top. Penani petunM, the summit of 

the hilL 
Penda, ku, to try the omens before starting on a 

journey. 
Ku penda umi, to escape from danger. 
Pendama, ku, to slant to one side. 

Lyuwa lipevdeme, ttoende, kusioele sambano, The sun 

has slanted considerably, come, it will be dark 

presently. 
Pbndbka, ku, to turn over to one side. 

Pendechela, ku, to turn the ear to one so as to hear. 
Penupenupb, alone by yourself. 
Penyula, ku (-penywile), to open up the eyes as one 

does who is trying to keep awake. 
Pepa, ku, to sink towards setting (of the, sun). 
Pbpala, there ; in that place. 
Pepano, here ; in this place. 
Pepasigelb. See Kukusigblb. 
Pbpela, ku, to blow with the mouth. 

Ku pepela moto, to blow the fire. 
Pbpelbla, ku (rPEPELELE), to burn a hole in wood with 

a hot iron. 
Pepbluka, ku, to stumble from side to side, as a 

drunken man does. 
Pbpbte, nibbling. 
Pbpula, ku (-pbpwile), to winnow in the basket. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 277 

Pesa, ku (pesil?), to make a gap. 
Pese ! sound of falling splash into the water. 
Pesigwa, ku (-pesigwile), to be perplexed. 
Pesya, ku, to follow up to the end. Tupesisye pahn- 
lima, kwe tvleche, We have reached the limit of 
our hoeing, let us stop. 
Pesya, ku (-pesisye), to offer sacrifice. 
Peta, expressive of a breeze blowing, or a puff of 

wind. 
Peta, ku, to sift the grain from the husk ; to mark 
figures with flour on the bark cloth of the 
unyago; to weave patterns on a mat of date- 
palm leaf. 
Petapeta ! waving in the air. 
Pete, expressive of completion. 
Petele, Wandu ali 'pomgomya petele, A crowd of 

people have come to the ngcmya, 
Pbtenga, ku, to look all over. Awcda aJcupoka lelo, 
ahdipetengapetengaj He is proud to-day ; he goes 
on looking at himself all over. 
Petula, ku (-petwile), to bend with the wind, to cut 

a way through the bush. 
-PI, which? what] Mundu juapi. Which mani 

Nywmhajapi? Which house? 
Pi, black. 
Pichikulana, ku (-pichikulene), to wrestle with one ; 

to argue. 
PiCHiRA, KU, to twine beads round the cord to form 
a necklace; to pass one's cloth between one's 
legs in wearing. 
PiOHiRA KANUNDU, KU, to roll a cigarette. 
PiCHiLiKA, KU (pichilichb), to interlace; to intertwine, 

as weaving or plaiting strips of bamboo. 
PiCHiRiRA, KU, to tie the head of the arrow to prevent 

it from splitting. 
PiCHisiKA, KU, to move from place to place. 

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278 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

PiGANYA, KU, to be industrious ; to do work well. 
PiKA, KU, to twist a thread of beads round a cord so 

as to form a necklace. See Pichira., jku. 
PiKA, KU (-pichile), to Carry a load slung on a pole 

between two persons. 
PiKiNiCHiSYA, KU, to push through. 

Lipichdnichisya, ku, to force one's way through. 
PiKU ! falling over, overturning. 
PiKULA, KU (-pikwile), to ovortum. 
Pikuka, ku, passive. 
Fihisya, ku, to turn upside down. 
PiLA, KU (pilile), to wink. 
PiLA, KU (-pilile), to desiro strongly. 
. PiLiKANA, KU, PiKANA, KU (pilikene), to hear ; to 
feel ; to understand. Ana mkupilikcma, Do you 
hear? Ana mkumMkana, Do you hear mel 
Napikeae chiilu, I felt my body, i. e. I felt pains 
all over my body. Napa^sye mikali napikene 
kulyolyopela, I tasted the sugar and found it 
was sweet. 
PUikcmUa, ku, to listen to. 

PUikanichisya, k/a, to hear well ; to give good heed 
to ; to obey ; to believe. 
PiLiLA, ku, to be black. 

PilUisya, ku, to blacken. 
PiLiMA, KU (pilimile), to go right off; to go far away. 
PiLiMiNDA, KU, to roll about ; to wriggle about. 
PiLiPiTA, KU, to wriggle about. 

KupUipita mtima, to be at variance with. 
-PiLiYU, dark-coloured ; black ; blue. 
PiLUKA, KU, to lurch to one side, as a pot on the fine. 
Pima,' ku, to measure ; to be uncooked. 
PiMBiTALA, KU, to be bent ; to be crooked. 
PiMiCHisYA, KU (-pimichisye), to remind one on whom 
some misfortune has fallen that it was foretold 
and forewarned. 



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TAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 279 

PiMiLiLA, KU (-pimililb), to endore ; to be long- 
suffering; to stick to a thing stubbornly. 
PiMiNDiKA, KU (-pimindiohe), to interfere in an en- 
gagement between a man and a woman ; to entice 
a wom^n away from her husband; to bind to 
secrecy. 
PiMiSYA, KU, PiMYA, KU, to entice away a woman' 
from her husband ; to put a big price on articles 
for sale so as to get them one's self. 
PiNDA, KU, to bind ; to fold. 

Ku pinda malanda, to trade ; to gain ; to profit by 

anything. 
Ku pmda wanduy to deal in slaves. 
PinduUi, ku, to bend round. 
Findtika, ku, to he bent round. 
Kupinduka mtma, to change the mind. 
Lipindvia, ku, to change one's clothes. 
PiNDiNGULA, KU, to twist another's words. 
PiNDUOHiLA, KU, to change one's attitude towards 

one. 
PiNGULANYA, KU (-pinqulbnye), to lay crosswise. 

PinguUma, ku, to lie crosswise. 
PiNJiKA, KU (-pinjiche), to go round the side of 

anything. 
PiNJiKANYA, KU, to lay crosswise. 

Finjikcma, ku, to cross each other. 
PiNJiRi piNJiRi, in disorder. 
PiNYASiKA, KU (-pinyasiche), to get short. 
PiPiLiSYA, KU, to give a hint, as by speaking to one 
what is meant for another to hear ; to talk in a 
mysterious way so that others present may not 
understand what is being talked of. 
PiPiPi, expressive of wrapping up anything or cover- 
ing it up. 
Pisa, ku, to blunt. 

Fisika, ku, to he blunted. 



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280 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

PisuKA, KU (-piswiohb), to lurch to one side so as to 

spill the contents, as a pot does when it falls on 

the fire. 
PisuKA, KU (-piswichb), to rufl9e up. 
PiSYA, KU (-pisisyb), to allow to pass; to hand on. 

AmbUye, Let me go past. 
Pisycmgaruiy ku, to pass each other, as of a number 

of people in a dance. 
Pita, ku (-pitb), to go on ; to pass by ; to go away. 

Sigalagcmi, scmbcmo rnbite, Good-bye, I am going 

away now. 
Pitikula, ku, to turn over ; to turn round. 
Pitikuhiy ku, to turn round. 
Pitikuayay ku^ to turn over ; to turn round. 
FitiktUila, kuy to turn down the upper edge of one's 

loin-cloth; to gather the soil round the stems 

of maize. 
PiTiPiTi, running away. 
PiTULA, ku, to place on the shoulder ; to twist the 

mouth from side to side ; to roll the eyes. 
Po, when, where. 
PocHELA, KU (-pochelb), to receive ; to relieve another 

at work ; to reply to another in singing; 
Pochdeka^ hi^ passive. 
PojOLA, KU (-pojwble), to make one's way through 

the bush. 
PoKA, KU (-P0CHILE), to be proud. 
PoKASYA, KU (pokasisye), to remove anything from 

the grasp of another; to interfere and put a 

stop to a quarrel. 
PoKOLA, KU (-pokwble), to come to one's assistance. 
Pokolo/nyay hu,^ to interfere, and put a stop to a 

quarrel between two parties. 
PoKOSA, KU (pokwesb), to make a noise in conversation. 
Pokosola, ku (-pokoswble), to break off a little bit. 
PoLA, KU (-powblb), to pierco ; to bore. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOOABULABY 281 

Fohoay ku, to be pierced. 
PoLA, KU (-posile), to be healed; to become cold. 
Med gaposUe, The water has become cold. 

Posya^ ktv {jpoaiaye)^ to heal ; to cool. 
PoLOLA, KU (polwele), to abort. 

POLOMOKA, KU (-POLOMWECHB), to slip off. 

PoLOMONDO, a kind of lizard. 

PoLONGANYA, KU, to interlock ; to interweave ; to put 
side by side. 
Polongcma, ku, to go together ; to follow each other 
(of a line of people). 

PoLOPOTEKA, KU (-polopoteche), to be unfit for any- 
thing (of a man) ; to fail to grow (of seeds) ; to 
be useless. 

PoLOSYA, KU (-polwesye), to bring forth a dead off- 
spring; to abort. 

PoLOTA, KU (-polwetb), to be pulpy (as over-ripe 
fruit). 

PoMBONGANYA, KU (-pombonqenye), to be baulked in 
doing a thing. 

PoiiBOTOLA, KU (-pombotele), to get bent. 

PoMOLA, KU, to husk maize; to abrase the skin. 
Fomoka^ ku, to be abrased. 

PoMONDA, KU (-pomondile), to strike with the fist. 

PoNDA, KU, to pound any soft substance. 

PoNDOGOLA, KU (-pondogwelb), to trample all over. 

PoNGOLWA, KU, to be drenched; to be full of hard 
uncooked lumps of flour (of porridge). 

PoNGWB PONGWE PE, niggardliness. 

PoNYA, KU (ponisye), to throw ; to throw at; to 
throw to. 
Pimisya^ ku, Ponecheaya, ku, to throw at ; to 
throw to. 

PoNYOKA, KU (-ponyweche), to break off ; to chip, off 

Pool A, ku (-powele), to bore. 

Pooka, ku, to be pierced ; to have a hole in it. 



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282 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

PoPELA, KU (-popesilb), to pray ; to pray to. 

Fopelesi/a, ku^ PopeMa, ku, to pray to ; to pray for ; 

to pray with. 

PoPOLA, KU (-popwelb), to knock down anything from 

a height; to slash down the long grass in the 

' hush with a hig knife; to beat the grass in 

hunting. 
Fopoleka^ ku, passive. 
Fopoka, ku, passive. 
PoposYA, KU (-poposisye), to clap both hands together 
or to clap one hand on the thigh, as in seeking 
admittance or in approaching a chief. 
PoPOTOKA, KU, to change one's destination; to be 

bent. 
PoPOTOLA, KU, to twist. Ku popotoh, nguku^ to wring 

the neck of a fowl. 
Pose, Posbpb, everywhere. 

PoTA, KU (-potilb), to Spin thread ; to twist by rub- 
bing along the thigh ; to commence to bud (of 
sorghum and maize) ; to twist round. 
PoTBKA, KU (-poIpeche), to be pained ; to pain. Chcb- 

hlchi cidkumboteka, This finger pains me. 
PoTOLA, KU, to pound green peas so as to remove the 
husk ; to twist round, as in tearing leaves or 
, pieces of paper. 
Fotoka, ku, passive. 
PowA, -a powor, soft and pulpy. 
PowA, soft, juicy. 
PowANA, KU (-powbne), to be soft and smooth ; to be 

pulpy. 
Poya, ku (-poiyb), to pound malt ; to be peevish and 

difficult to please. 
PucHiLA, KU, to injure another without a cause. 
PuGA, KU (-pujile), to blow (of the wind) ; to sift 
any two substances in a basket, such as chaff 
and grain, so as to separate one from the other. 



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YAO-KNGLISH VOCABULABY 283 

PuJiKA, KU (-pujichb), to shuffle along. 

PuKUNYA, KU (-pukwinye), to shake the hea^ ; to 

wag. 
PuKUSA, KU (-pukusilb), to mash beans by twirling 

the stirring rod between the hands. 
PuKUSWA, KU (-pukuswile), to be bored by insects, as 

most kinds of woods are liable to. 
PuKUTA, KU (-pukwite), to wipe ; to shed leaves. 

Pukutika, ku, to be wiped ; to be bare of leaves. 
PuKUTULA, KU, to strip the grains off the maize 

cob. 
Fukutuka, kuy passive. 
PuKWA, KU (-pukwile), to hasten. 
PuKWiLA, KU (-pukwile), to hasten; to get ready 

quickly. 
PuLANA, KU, to close up (as a box or umbrella). 
PuLiCHiLA, KU, to be stupid. 
PuLiKA, KU, to be stupid. 
PuLULA, KU (-pulwile), to strip off (as leaves off a 

tree, or bead6 off a string). 
Putvlvkaf ku, passive. 
PuLUNDWA, a kind of lizard. 
PuLUPUTA, KU, to wriggle about. 

Pulupusya, kfu^ intensitive and causative. 
PuLUWA, KU (-pulwiwe), to be foolish. 
Puma, ku (-pumilb), to roar ; to shout. 
PuMASiKA, KU (-pumasiche), to breathe heavily. 
Pumula, ku (-pumwile), to breathe ; to rest. 
Pumvlisyay ku, to rest well. 
PwmulUay hu, to rest one's self at ; to cease to 

pain. 
PuMUNDA, KU (-pumundile), to knock off the plaster 

off the wall. 
PuNDA, KU (-pundile), to surpass ; to go beyond \ to 

excel. Lelo apundUe, He has done specially 

well to-day. Apvmdih na ^chimjao, He excelled 



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284 YAOENGLISH VOCABULARY 

his companions. Apundile pa muai^ He went 

'beyond the village. 
Pv/ndcma niy hu^ to surpass. 
Pundanganya, hu^ to overdo. 
PuNDULA, KU (-pundwile), to maim. 

PundvJca^ ku, to be maimed or deformed. 
PuNGULA, KU (-PUNGWn^), to pour out of one vessel 

into another. 
PuNGWA, KU, to fail to reach maturity. 
PuNiLA, KU (-punile), to come together (of a man 

and woman in the dance). 
PuNJA, KU, to use filthy language to. 
PuNYO, putting things into one's mouth. 
Pupa, ku, to wriggle about in the throes of death. 
PupuJiLA, KU, to flutter the wings. 
PupuLi-PUPULi, blindly ; foolishly. 
PupuLiKA, KU (-pupuliche), to Walk as a blind man, 

not knowing how to find one*s way. 
PuPULU, expressive of completion. Masengo gati 

pupiilu, The work is finished. Wcmdu vxmuisile 

pupvlu, The people were all destroyed. 
PupuLUSYA, KU, to sct fire to green grass so that it 

does not burn properly ; to roast green maize. 
PusYA, KU (-pusisye), to ovorhoar anything that is 

being said. 
PuTA, KU, to strike ; to beat. UlajaputUe pa nytmiba, 

The rain dashed against the house. 
PuTUKULA, KU, to strip off the grains of a maize cob. 

Putukitka, kuj passive. 
PuTULA, KU (-putwile), to dance about, as a wounded 

animal does, or a man in a great rage. 
PuTULA, KU, to hoe deeply, as in preparing ground 

for beans. 
Putuka, kuy passive. 
PuwA, KU, to wither and become distorted. 
PvAJDcma^ hu, to wither and dry up. 



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YAP-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 285 

PwA, KU (-pwele), to sink down, as water in a pool 

draining into the soil, or the loose earth in a 

hole. 
Pwela, kUf to dry up (of tears on the cheek). 
FwAGUKA, KU, to be decimated with war. 
PWAGULA, KU, to husk rico or sorghum; to rupture 

the hymen at the unyago. 
PwALAPWATASYA, KU (-pwalapwatesya), to fail to finish 

a magambo properly. 
Pwamila, KU, to ease one's self. 
Pwamula, KU -(pwamwile), to beat ; to strike. 
Pwanya, KU (-pwanyilb), to be disobedient. 
PwAPWATA^ KU (-pwapwete), to hammer out iron so as 

to render it flat. 
Pwata, expressive of flatness. 
PwATATA, KU (-pwatatile), to be flat down ; to lie flat 

down. 
PwATATALA, KU, to be low and flat (of a hill). 
PwBLELA, KU, to be frightened ; to be anxious ; to be 

distressed about anything. 
Fwelesya, ku, to frighten. 
PwELEMBWESUKA, KU, to be feeble ; to slip ojff the spit 

(of fish spitted before the fire to dry) ; to be 

placid. 
PwEMWE ! protruding (as a bowel at a wound). 
PwEMWE, chaff and husk of beans. 
PwETECHBLA, KU, to be stuck fast in the mud ; to fall 

down between the stones that support it (of a 

pot on the fire). 
PwETEKA, KU (-pwbteche), to be pained; to pain. 

Nd&nda humhweteha lelo pa chiUu apa, I am pained 

to-day in my body here. 
PwBTULiLA, KU (-pwbtulile), to make much out of 

little. 
PwiLiNGANA, KU (-pwilingenb), to disperse ; to separate 

(as a crowd). 



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286 TAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Ftoilingcmya, ku, to scatter ; to disperse. 
PwiNYA, KU (-pwinyile), to go ofE alone by one's self ; 
to take the "huff" and leave; to be in the 
" sulks." 
PwiNYA, KU (-PW1NYILB), to blunt ; to turn the edge 

of a cutting instrument. 
PwiPWiGANYA, KU, to startle game so as to drive 

them away. 
PwisA, KU, to pass wind from the bowels. 
PyA, ku (pile), to be burned ; to be cooked. 

Ulendo upUe, The caravan is ready to start. 
Pyachisya, ku (-pyachisyb), to talk at a person in- 
directly; to turn the eyes to the side so as to 
avoid seeing any one. 
Pyajila, ku (-pyajilb), to sweep. 
Pyalu, expressive of being tri{j>ed up. 
Pyalula, ku, to point one end ; to pull out the foot 
so as to make anything fall ; to trip up. 
Pyaluka^ ku, to have one end carried away with the 
stream ; to be tripped up. 
Pyambani>ula, ku (-pyambyandwile), to trip up ; to 

knock the feet from under one. 
Pyapyaluka, ku, to run qmckly from place to place ; 

to flit about. 
Pyatangula, ku, to trip up. 

Pyatanguhay ku, passive. 
Pyatata, falling down flat on the ground. 
Pyatilila, ku (-pyatilile), to have suspicion. 
Pyb ! splashing in water. 
Pyee ! pressing a hot iron into wood. 
Pyetechesya, ku, to push down. 
Pyokonyola, ku (-pyokonywele), to sprain or twist. 
Pyombyo, a hollow reed. 
Pyonyola, ku, to sharpen. 

Pyonyoka ku, passive. 
Pyopyokola, ku (-pyopyokwele), to twist off. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 287 

Pyopyolosya, ku (-pyopyolwesye), to make light of ; 

to scorn. 
PyuuI red. 

R. 

The letter R is rarely heard in Yao, almost always it 
is softened into the liquid L. Not unfrequently, 
however, after the vowel i the sound of I 
approaches that of r. Thus for any words 
which may seem to have their stem commencing 
in r, look under L 



S. 

S has two sounds in Yao — that of s in sea and of s in 
rise — but the distinction between these sounds is 
not a fixed one. In many cases either may be 
employed. When s stands at the beginning of a 
word it has always the firmer sound of the s in 
sea, 
S in Yao represents an sh or a th, or an h in 
any foreign language. 

Sabalisya, ku, to destroy ; to disarrange ; to threaten ; 
to use bad language. 

Sabola, red pepper. * 

Sabuni, soap. 

Sachila, ku (-sachilile), to put the feather into the 
arrow. 
ScLchisya, ku^ to put into another person's care. 

Saoama, ku (-saqeme), to be stuck fast on a height ; 
to be stranded on a sandbank in a river. 
/SagamUa, ku^ to dream. 

Saoamisi, dreaming. 

Sagamula, ku (-segamwile), to take down from a 
height. 



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288 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Saga/mvJca, hi, to tumble down from a height. 
Sagamuhulay ku, to take down from a height ; to 
tell one*s dream ; to interpret a dream. 
Sagula, ku (-sagwilb), to choose out. 

Sagukay hi, to be chosen. 
Sai, thus ; in this way ; in these circumstances. 
Saiapi, how? in what circumstances? 
JSai inomOf at this time ; about this time ; in these 

circumstances. 
Sai UaUay at that time ; in these circumstances. 
Sajika, ku (-sajiche), to place on the top. 

Sajikcmya, kuy to place on the top of the other. 
Sajika/na, ku, to lie one above the other. 
Sajvkula, hu^ to remove one off the top of the 
other. 
Saka, an open shed or roof without walls, used for 

cooking in. 
Saka, ku (-sachile), to wish ; to wish for ; to want. 
Sakala, ku (-sakele), to be bad. 

Sakasya, ku {sakesye)^ to make bad ; to defile. 
Sakalawb, stone ground; especially ground covered 

with small sharp stones. 
Sakalika, ku (-sakaliche), to be tired; to be 
troubled. 
Sakcdiaya^ ku (sakalisi/e), to weary ; to trouble. 
Sakama, ku (-SAKEBfE), to shinc ; to loop up ; to hang 

up or carry by a hookl 
Sakamula, ku, to take down from a height. 
Sakmmikay ku, to fall down from a height. 
Sakamwa, ku (-sakamwile), to be choked. 
Sakata, a reptile of the iguana type. 
Sakatilwa, ku (-sakatilwe), to come to the end of 
one's resources; to faU completely; to be non- 



Sakatula, ku (-sakatwile), to make a pretence of 
seizing anything. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 289 

Sakula, ku, to beat the bush so as to frighten the 

game into the net. 
Sala, ku (-sasile), to say ; to proclaim ; to relate. 

Scdila, h^, to tell. 
SIla, hunger. Jingwete sala, I am hungry. 
Salalilo, a little of anything offered as payment of 

the whole. 
Salamanda, ku (-salamandile), to be firm and tough. 
Salamanda, ku, to wriggle about on' the ground. 
Salanga, a fowl with feathers all awry. 
Salasya, ku (-salasisye), to lay aside ; to store up. 

Salachikay huy to be laid aside. 
Salau, red ants. 

Salima, ku (-salimile), to be strong and fierce. 
Sama, ku, to change one's abode. 

Samnya, ku, to remove one to another abode. 
Samala, ku, to take care of ; to pay respect to, 
Samani, strong drill-cloth. 
Samba, ku, to expel wind from the bowels. 
Sambano, now. 

Sambano *ji, just now. 

Sambano pano, just now. 

-a sambano, new. Utija samibano, a new gun. 
Sambo, small brass wire. 
Samila, ku, to ram a gun. 

Samisya, ku (-samisye), to overheat iron in the fire. 
Samula, ku, to comb. 

Sand a, ku (-sandile), to struggle in the death agony. 
Sandamula, ku, to tease; to commence a quarrel 
without cause. 

Sandamuha, hu, passive. 
Sandula, ku, to cut off the branches of a tree or the 

limbs of an animal. 
Sanga, ku, to leap from tree to tree, as a monkey 

does. 
Sangambe, maliciousness. 

u 



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290 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Sango, a kind of snake. 

Sangula, ku, to finish up the unyago. 

Sangusana, ku, to rail at another. 

Sanja, a scaffold or hut raised above the ground for 

watching the gardens and paring the birds 

away. 
Saijja, ku, to sharpen a blunted hoe by jiamipering ; 

to lay trees or branches side by side, as in 

making a bed or a tressel bridge. 
Sanjila, ku, to cut close to the roots and lay in heaps 

on the ground, as in reaping sorgbup. 
Sanjo, a kind of tailor-bird. 
Sani, a plate of delft ware. 
Sang, the head wife. 

Sanyanda, ku, to lop off the branches of a tree. 
Sapa, ku, to tease the cotton down. 
Sapangana, ku, to be disordered- 
Sapanganya, ku, to disarrange. 
Sapangula, ku, to unfold. 
Sapanguha, hiy passive. 
Sapi, sound of water rushing. 
Sapula, ku, to take a part of anything. 

Sapuicma, ku, to divide out among each other. 
Sapuli, brass. 

Sasajika, ku (-sasajiche), to test a thing ; to try. 
Sasawanya, ku, to spUt up any game or ^sh along the 

backbone and open it out for drying. 
Sasawila, ku (-sasawile), to swell up ; to expand ; ifO 

rise (of a stream). 
Sasika, ku, to behave in a boisterous way. 
Sasula, ku, to finish up a dance or magc^bo; to 

remove the material of an old house. 
Sdsuka, ku, passive. 
Sato, a python. 

Sauka, ku (-sawichb), to suffer ; to be miserable. 
Sauaya, hi, to punish ; to trouble ; to ^^ar^ss. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 29 X 

Saula, ku (-qawilb), to wash (cloth). 
Saulika, hu, passive. 

Sawa, ku (-sawile), to be wet and tasteless (of po- 
tatoes or cassava); to send out many branches 
or runners (of plants in good soil). 

Sawa, indifference, carelessness. Akamvjile sawa, He 
took hold of it carelessly. 

Sawaji, swelling up. 

Sawalika, ku (-sawaliohe), to do anything badly. 

Sawe, children's arrows made of grass. 

Sejela, ku (-sejblble), to move to a side. Asejele^amo, 
ngatame, Move to the si^e, let me sit down. 
Sejesya, ku, to move to one side. 

Sejelesejele, going to the side to make way for any- 
thing. 

Seka, ku, to laugh ; to laugh at. 

Sechdelay ha, to rejoice; rejoice over; to welcome 
gladly. 

Sera, a large flat white bead ; wax. 

Selenje (pi. achaselenje), a small keg of powder. 

Sebebeka, ku (-serereche), to slip down; to slide 
down. 

Selewenda, ku (-selewendile), to fit loosely, as a nail 
in its hole. 

Seluka, ku (-sblwiche), to be in large quantity or in 
great numbers. Wamdu wa masengo waselwiche^ 
ku Mlunguzi, There was a great number of 
workpeople at Mlunguzi to-day. 

Seluka, ku, to come of one's own accord without 
being called for. 

Selula, ku, to vomit. 

Sema, ku (-semile), to adze. 

Sembana, ku, to miss each other. 

Sembendula, ku, to glance oS (as an arrow off the 
object fired at). 

Sembula, ku, to peel or scrape off the surface (as the 



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292 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

bark of a tree). Mpamba vsembwile, The arrow 

just grazed the skin. 
Semuchila (semuchile), to boil over ; to froth over ; 

to cover over as a cloud does. 
Semula, ku, to gather the soil into heaps for plant- 
ing ; to begin to boil ; to ferment. 
Senda, ku, to peel off the outer rind ; to remove the 

sheath of the maize cob. 
Sendekula, ku, to put upright a thing which has 

been tumbling over. 
Sendekuka, ku, passive. 
Senga, coarse grains of flour ; the dregs in a cup ; the 

strainings of beer. 
Sengula, ku, to cut close to the roots. 

Senguka, ku, passive. 
Senyenda, ku (-senyendile), to sift the coarse grains 

of flour from the fine. 
Sepa, ku (-sepile), to chip the bark off a tree. 
Sepuka, ku, to turn aside ; to avoid. 
St'puBya, ku, to deflect. 
Septichila, ku, to avoid. 
Sepula, ku (-sepwile), to break open ; to break 

through. 
Seb-, see Sel-. 
Sesa, ku, to scrape off. 

Sesewala, ku (-sesewele), to be of worthless character. 
Seta (pi. achaseta), a tin plate. 
Seuka, ku, to overflow. 

Seusya, ku, to fill too full. 
Si-, class characteristic of the plural of substantives 

belonging to the third and sixth classes. 
SiA-, see Sya-. 

SiCHiLA, KU, to be rich and prosperous. 
SiCHiNA, KU (-sichinile), to hum. 

SiCHITA, KU (-SICHITE), tO CUt. 

Sichitika, ku, to be cut. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 293 

iSichituka, ku, to be cut or broken into two. 
Sichitila, ku, to make a short cut to meet a person. 
SiGA, Ku (-sijile), to cut carefuUy ; to trim the face 

of a cut. 
Sijilika, ku, to shave round the edge of the hair. 
Sii, emptiness, silence. 
SiKA, KU (-sichile), to place a log of wood between one 

and the fire, that one may not be burned. 
SiLA, KU (-silile), to grumble and ask for more. 
SILA1.A, KU (silele), to die away and go out (of the 

fire). 
SUasya, ku, to scatter the embers. 
Sile, ashes of a certain tree used as medicine. 
SiLiA, strong sheetiDg-cloth. 
SiLiKA, KU (-siliche), to destroy the medicine after 

recovering health. 
SiLiKATi, the middle. Fa silikatijakwe, at the middle 

of it. 
SiLiLA, KU (-silile), to cover up ; to give grudgingly ; 

to covet. 
SiLiLi, apite aUUiy He went away and has not been 

seen again. 
SiLiwiNDi, a species of heron or stork. 
SiLUKA, KU, to be foolish. 
SiMA, KU, to put out ; to go out (of a fire or light). 

Simasya, ku (simasisye), to obliterate; to rub out. 
SiMAMBALA, KU, to over-eat one's self. 
SiMANA, KU (-simene), to meet ; to find. 

Simanya, ku, to cause to meet. 
SiMBO, a staff or cane. 
SiMBULA, KU, to cut grass and trees close to the roots; 

to know a person well. 
SiMBWA, KU (simbwile), to bohave in a boisterous way. 
SiMBWisYA, KU (-simbwisyb), to be indifferent to 

danger ; to be regardless of consequences. 
SiMiKA, KU, to fix upright in the ground. 



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294 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Simichtka, ku, passive. 
SiMiLiLA, KU (-similile), to disap|)ear ; to go out of 

sight ; to die. 
SimUiaya^ ku, to bury. 
SiJdONGA, KU (-simonjilb), to be puzzled by. N^gengu- 

chimanyilUa cherecho, nguchiaimonga, I don't 

understand that, I am puzzled by it. 
Simongway ku, to be puzzled. 
Simosya, ku, to puzzle. 
Simonjeka, ku, to be puzzled. 
Simula, ku (-simwile), to try a new pot for the first 

time by boiling something in it. 
SiNDA, KU (-sindile), to eat a great deal of anything ; 

to pare the nails; to stick fast on a sand-bank — 

of a canoe. 
SiNDAMiLA, KU (-sindamile), to " soo through" the 

meaning of a thing. 
SiNDi, ku tama smdi, to sit silent and sad ; staying in 

the house a long time ; lying spread out as corn 

in a field. 
SlNDicHiSYA, KU, to accompany a stranger out of the 

village on his way.^ 
SiNDiKULA, KU, to cut a tree by the roots ; to take the 

whole, or large part of anything to one's self 

without dividing it amongst others. 
Sindimuhula, ku, to uproot ; to dig deeply. 
SiNDUKA, KU (-sindwiche), to go down-stream. 
SiNDULA, KU (-sindulilb), to pouud the last part of 

the grain that remains in the bottom of the 

mortar. 
SiNGA, KU (-sinjile), to twist thread; to cut the 

throat. 
SiNGALiLWA, KU (-singalilwe), to be auxious and 

troubled ; to be at a loss what to do. 
SiNGANGA, KU (-singanjilb), to make a noise or dis- 
turbance. 

/ 

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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 295 

SiNGANA, KU, to meet ; to find. 
SiTigcmila, hu, to meet with. 
SiNGANO (pL AOHASiNGANo), a needle. 
SiNGWA, a grass ring used as a pad for the head when 

carrying a load. 
SiNiYA, wrinkles. 
SiNJi, small iron wire. 
SiNJiLA, KU, to splice. 

SiNJiLiLA, KU (-sinjilile), to give a false feport of 

what a person has said ; to slander or exaggerate. 

SiNJiNiKA, KU (-sinjiniche), to be determined on doing 

a thing. 
SiNJiNo, the elbow. 
SiNKA, KU (-sinchile), to be ill with worms in the 

intestines. 
SiNYA, disgust. 

SiPUKA, KU, to sprout ; to put forth leaves. 
SiPUKWA, KU (-sipukwile), to Spring into one's mind. 
SiSA, KU, to hide. 
Sisika, ku, to be hid. 
Lisisa, ku, to hide one's self. 
Si, expressive of cold. 
-sisisi, cold. Mesi gamasisisi, cold water. 
SisiMA, KU (-sisime), to be cold ; to have a fresh taste, 

as certain kinds of cassava root. 
SisiMUKA, KU, to be startled ; to revive after fainting ; 
to become a convert to Mahommedanism. 
Sisimusya, ku^ to startle. 
SisiMYA, KU, to quench one's thirst. 
SisiNA, KU (-sisine), to closo the eyes. 

Sisinukibka, ku, to open the eyes. 
SiSYA, KU (-sisisye), to begin to hoe a new garden ; to 

contradict. 
SiTA, KU, to smooth down cloth as one does in ironing. 
SiTiSYA, KU, to place a log of wood between one and 
the fire. 



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296 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Site, smoothly. 

-8IT0, heavy. 

SiTOPA, KU, to be heavy. 

Sitopelioa, ku, (-sitopelwe), to be heavily burdened. 
SiULA, KU, to hollow out ; to remove the intestines 

without cutting up. 
SiWA, KU (-siwile), to close up ; to dam ; to shut up. 
Xu siwa pa meso, to cover the eyes. 
Sivnka, ku, passive. 
Siwikcmya, ku, to hem in. 
SiwiLWA, KU (-siwilwile), to be deaf. 
SiYA, a steinbuck (JVanotragus tragvlvfs), 
SiYASiYA, swaying from side to side as a man does 

when carrying a heavy load. 
So, Soto, no. 
SocHELA, the sap of a certain tree which, on entering 

the eye, causes blindness. 
SocHELA, KU, SocHELELA, KU, to Wander ; to go astray. 
SocHEYA, KU (-socheyb), to be disrespectful ; to speak 

rudely to or about a person ; to blaspheme. 
SoGODA, KU (-soqwede), to speak of one in his absence. 

Sogodeka, ku, passive. 
SoGOLA, KU (-sogwele), to bear fruit. 

Sogosya, hi, to grow (of the planter). 
SojiGA, KU (-sojijile), to carve or scoop out with an 

iron chisel. 
SoKA, KU (-aochilb), to pile up a load ; to fill up to the 

top. 
SoKOKA, KU (-sokweche), to go deep ; to be deep ; to 

be famous ; to excel. 
SoKONi, far away. Pa Zomha no pa sokoni, Zomba is 

far away. 
SoKONYOLA, KU, to dig out with a pointed stick ; to 

clean the teeth. 
SoKOSO, a noise. 
SoKOTA, KU, to carve. 



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YAOENGLISH VOCABULARY 297 

\ 

SoKOTiMA, a projection of tho navel. 
SoKOTOLA^ KU (sokotwele), to hoe badly or carelessly. 
Sola, ku (-sosile), to dig. 
Solesya, hu^ to dig deep. 
SoLOKOTA, KU, to entice a man away from his home. 
SoLOLA, KU, to pull out (as out of a tied bundle) ; to 

hoe in a long strip. 
SoLOLOKA, KU, to fall out ; to become thin and long 

(as of one's fingers in disease). Luhwi lusolo- 

Iweche m^chitenje mwenu 'mo, A lump of firewood 

has slipped out of your load. 
SoLOSOLO, one by one, in a line. 
SoLOTA, KU, to go on before one's fellows. 
Soma, ku (-somile), to pierce; to stab; to strike with 

a missile. 
Someka, ku, passive. 
SoMBE, locusts. 
SoMBOLA, KU, to snatch away ; to rob. 

Somholeka, ku, passive. 
SoMECHESYA, KU (-somechesyb), to sot dogs on game. 
SoMELpLA, KU (somelele), to come to one's assistance 

in speaking, and put the matter in a better 

form. 
Somola, ku (-somwelb), to extract a thorn ; to start a 

song ; to take a first taste of. 
Somongoka, ku (-somongweche), to be well dried and 

ready for thrashing (of reaped sorghum). 
Somongoka, ku (somongweche), to rush forward. 
SoMYA, KU (somiyb), to articulate badly. 
SoNA, tobacco ; snuff. 
Kulya 8ona, to smoke. 
Kunusga sona, to take snuff. 
SoNA, KU (-sonile), to sound. 
SoNDOKOKA, KU, to fall to ouo side. 
Sonelela, KU (-sonelele), to patch. 
SoNGANA, KU, to come together (of people). 



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298 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Songcmya^ kuy to gather (people) together. 
Songangana, hw, to come together (of a great number 

of people). 
SoNGANDEO (pi. ACHASONGANDEo), a trigger of a 

gun. 
SoNGOLA, KU (-songwele), to point. ' 

Songokay ku, to be pointed. 
SoNGOLO, a male slave, a boy. 
SoNGOMALA, KU (-songomele), to be tall. 
SoNi, again; then. Mtendeisoni, Do it again. Wa~ 

kungvZwiche pcmandi, soni nipo wajinjile TmUnyu- 

mba, They talked a little, and then went into 

the house. 
SoNi, shame. Jikundenda soni, I am ashamed. 
SoNJO, a war drum ; the calves of the leg. 
SoNYA, KU (-sonyile), to smack the lips in angei* or 

scorn. 
SoNYONDOKOLA, KU, to pick the teeth. 
SoPA, KU, to peck. 
SoPELA, KU, to ram a gun. 
SopoLA, KU (-sopwele), to hollow out. 
SoPOLOLA, KU, to pull out to its f uUost extent what 

has been contracted or wrinkled. 
SosA, KU, to search for; to want. Ngortgusosa, I 

don't want to; I don't want it. Chichi mkur 

808a f What do you want % Ngechipali chi ngu- 

808a, I don't want anything. 
SosoLA, KU (-S0S0SILB -soswble), to hatch. 
SosoLiMA, KU (sosolime), to riso up quickly and riish 

towards a thing. 
SoTOLA, KU (sotwele), to pierce through. 
SoWA, KU, to be without. Chituaowile churna. We 

are without beads. Ngwa/mha, kusowa chuTnay 

atatiy No, I have no beads, father. 
Sowela, KU, to be liberal-hearted. 
Sowosowo, the moon two days befote new moon. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULAKY 299 

Soya, ku (soyiyb). to do wrong, to make a mistake. 

SucHi, a species or bearded grass. 

SuGA, KU, to snort. 

SuGU, a species of earth bean ; the secret parts. 

SuJiLA, KU (-sujisile), to swim. 

SuKA, KU (-suchile), to wash. 

SuKA, KU, to be niggardly. 

SuKUNYA, KU, to loosen anything firm so as to remove 

it; to frighten another by threats or evil 

xreports. 
Sukuna^ ku, to be frightened. 
SuKUSA, KU, to be addled. 
SuKUSULA, KU, to wash the face. 
SuLUCHisYA, KU (-suluohisyE), to Sprinkle. 
SuLUKA, KU, to fade; to change colour, as print cloth 

on being washed ; to be strained (of salt brine) ; 

to be tasteless ; to be insipid. 
SuLukLy kuy to trickle down ; to leak. 
Svlusya^ ku, to strain; to boil and wasb several 

times so as to remove all bitterness of taste. 
SuLUMUNDA, KU, to be sifted ; to trickle through (as 

flour through the meshes of a basket) ; to be 

faint-hearted. 
SuMANGA, KU, to eat ugaliy without relish. 
SuMBA, KU, to leap. 

SumhUay to leap over. 
SuMUCHiLA, KU, to sink almost wholly out of sight, 

as the sun in setting, or as a man falling into 

a deep hole; to change to new moon (of the 

moon). 
SUNA, KU, to sj)it out. 

Ku suna matay to spit. 
SuNGULA, KU, to strain beer. 
SuNGULUMUKA, KU, to regain one s senses, as after a 

drunken fit or fainting. 
SuNGULUMUSYA, KU, to Touse to one*s senses. 

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300 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

SuNGUNUKUKA, KU, to ferment (of beer); to be 

melted ; to be all extracted (of oil from seeds). 
Sungunuta^ ku, to melt. 
SuNJiLA, KU (-SUNJILE), to beg, to sit in hope of 

getting something. 
Supu, expressive of being startled. 

Mtima wangu watite supu, My heart beat fast. 
SupULA, KU, to get one's calico web; to abraze the 

skin. 
Supukaj ku, to be startled; to have one's skin 

abrazed. 
SusA, KU, to prove another in the wrong, as in a 

magambo ; to go on in advance; to lift up a 

child carried on the back. 
Susila, ku, to go farther on ; to increase the length 

of calico measured off. 
Suaanya, ku, to heap up firewood on the fire. 
SusuKWA, KU (-susukwile), to be greedy. 
SusuLA, KU (-susulwile), to eat early in the morning. 
SusuLicHisYA, KU, to give fuller details of what 

another has spoken. 
SusuLiLA, KU, to be greater than another ; to make a 

long march ; to rest on the march without taking 

food. Mundu aju asusulUe, This man is taller 

(than another). Ulendo wa liso wasusutile, The 

caravan of yesterday went on without taking 

food. 
SusuwA, a wart. 
SuwA, the fist. 

Ku twanga suwa, to strike with the fist. 
SuwA, KU (-suwile), to have thin hollow cheeks. 
SuYA, KU (-suyiye), to overlook ; to pass over; to 

give no heed to. 
SwA, KU, to set (of the sun). Samhcmo kuawele, It is 

getting dark now. 
Fekwaswele lyuwa, at sunset. Sa/nibcmo kwende 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 301 

kuttoswela, Come on at once, darkness will over- 
take us. 
SwAJi, the male flower of maize corn. 
SwAKALA, shell lime eaten with tobacco. 
SwAKANYA, KU, to make a crashing noise in the long 

grass or brushwood of the bush. 
SwALA, the Roy Buck (Aepyceros melamjms). 
SwAMBA, KU, to steal people. See Fwamba, ku. 
Sw AND ALT, expressive of filling quite full. Agumba- 

syeje swandcdif Fill it up quite full. 
SwANYA, KU, to smash ; to crush in pieces. 
SwANYANDA, KU (-swanyandile), to smash anything 

up completely. 
SwAswAGULA, KU, to tell the whole story. 
S WAS w ATA, KU (-swaswatilb), to treat softly. 
SwEJELA, KU (-swejele), to be whit^. 
Swewsya, ku, to whiten. 
Swejeka, ku, to be made white. 
Swekula, KU (-swekwile), to pull out (as a knife out 

of its sheath). 
Swekukay ku, passive. 
-swela, white. N'guo jajiswela, white calico. 
SwELA, KU (-swelele), to be white. 
SwBNGA, KU, to give out sap as green firewood 

does. 
SwiNYALA, KU (-swinyele), to shrivel up as withered 

leaves do. 
SwiPULA, KU (-swipwile), to pull out of one's grasp ; 

to pull out of a tied-up bundle. 
Sya, of, the preposition corresponding to the plural 

of the third and sixth classes. 
Sya, about. Mwapilikene sya che Nyono ? Did you 

hear about so-and-so ? 
Syalisya, ku (-syalisye), to confirm a testimony ; to 

clench an argument. 
Syana, ku (-syanile), to hammer. 



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302 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Syangandala, ku, to live happily. 

Syasya, ku (-syasyaga), to imitate ; to repeat words 

after another. 
Syasyajila, ku, to plaster with sand, as in giving 

the final coat to the plastering of a wall. 
Syenga, ku, to coil round and round. 
Syenjehay hu, to be coi}e4 up. 
Syenjehda, ku, to uncoil. 
Syenjehuha, hi, to be uncoiled. 
Syengo, an armlet or anklet of many coils. 
Syereuka, ku (-syerbwicqe), to cause another to 

delay. 
Syetela, ku, to go to the other side. 

Mkasyetde nyumha, Go to the other side of the 
house. 
Syeto, the side. 

Syeto ajUa, that other side. 
Syeto ajino, this side. 

Fa syeto petumbiy on the other side of the hill. 
Syilila, ku (syilile), to have the hair shaved round 

the edges. 
Syo ! turning back, 
Syoka, a blow with the closed fist. 
Syoka, ku (-syochile), to turn round. 
Syombotasya, ku (-syombotesye), to twist a thing in 

speaking ; to bend anything. 
Sygsya, ku (-syosisye), to change a load fropi one 
shoulder to the other; to hitch up a load on 
one's shoulder. 
Syosyotana, ku (-syosyotenb), to hurt one another in 

a fight. 
Syowekana, ku (-syowekbne), to be on terms of 

friendship with another. 
Syowereba, ku, to be accustomed to. 
Syowola, ku (-syowele), to dry up. 
Syowoka, hu, to be dried up. 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 303 

Syudula, ku (-syudwile), to turn one's face away 

from another in disgust or derision. 
Syuka, ku (-syuchile), to be changed ; to be trans- 
formed ; to revive after being unconscious. 
KuayyJca lisimba, Kusyuka nekv/u;a lisimhay to be 

transformed into a lion. 
Syusya^ ha, to change. 
Syula, ku, to wipe up ; to dry up. 

Syidika^ ku^ passive. 
Syulula, ku, to show disgust with a person. 
Syungula, ku, to go round about. 
Syungusya^ ku^ to put round. 
Nyumba jakusyungusya^ a round bouse. 
SyUngulika, ku, to cause astonishment by doing what 
not many are able to do. 



T is pronounced as in English. 

Ta, ku (-tele), to name. Tinwite mwanangu Utui lya 
Msungu, I will give my son the European's 
name. 
Telwa, kuj to be named. 
Tachila, ku, Tachilwa, ku, to be sick of some 

dangerous disease. 
Taga, ku (-tasile), to place. 

Ku taga mhepesi, to place an offering to the spirits 

of the dead. 
Tajila, ku^ to lay (eggs). 
Tagala, ku, Litagalay ku, to spread out one's legs, 
as in warming one's self by the fire; to lean 
against. 
Tagaluka, ku, to step over ; to spring over. 
Tajula, ku (-tajwile), to kick out one's feet. 
Takanya, ku, to spread (of an ulcer). 



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304 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Takataka, ku (-takatechb), to be restless ; to move 

about. 
Talala, ku, to become hard and firm, as meat after 
boiling or maize after roasting. Chilamho achi 
chitalele, Trade is difficult in this country. 
T ALAS A, KU (-talese), to put threads along the ends 

of cloth so as to strengthen it. 
Talawana, ku (-talawene), to contradict one another. 
Talika, ku (-talichb), to be distant. 

Chilamho cha kwaktUalika, a distant country. Kvr 

mangwenu kutcUiche, Your home is far away. 
Talikanganay ku, to be far away from each other. 
Talikanganyay ha, to place at a distance from each 

other. 
Talichisya, ku, to put very far away. 
Tama, ku (-temi), to sit ; to stay. 

Tcumika, ku (-tamiche), to set down. Kutcumika 

mtima pasi, to console. 
Tamilisya, ku (-tamUisye), to stay a long time in 

one place. 
Ta/milichika ku, to sit on the buttocks (not on the 

heels) ; to stay a long time in one place. 
Tamukula, ku, to remove from its place. 
Tamba, ku, to send out runnel's on shoots. 
Tambcda, ku, to send out runners or shoots. 
Tambalika, ku, to stretch out, as the arm or 

leg. 
Tcmihalukula, ku, to lay at length on the ground. 
Tamhalalok, ku, to roam about. 
Tambala (pi. Achatambala), a cock. 
Tambala, ku. See Tamba, ku. 
Tambasukula, ku. See TamhalukuLa, hi, 
Tambula, ku, to go a long distance. 
Tambwale, a fickle, unstable man. 
Tanda, ku (-tandite), to begin ; to tease ; to com- 
mence a quarrel. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULA|ty §fi5 

TandUilay hu, to repeat. Kv/mhanga atekwaUmdi-' 
lila soni, Kumbanga is sick again. 
Tandajila, ku (-tandajile), to leap from branch to 

branch. 
Tandalika, ku, to lay down straight. 

Tandalichika, ku, passive. 
Tandika, ku, to spread out. 

Tandukula, ku, to fold up what has been spread 
out. 
Tanga, ku, to speak of many things. 

TanjUa, ku, Kutanjila itagu, to speak in parables. 
Tangawala, ku (-ta]^gawble), to speak at g?:*eat 

length. 
Tanjila, KU (-tanjile), to be caught; to ]3e waged 
(of war). Ngondo jitavjile pa musi, War was 
made on the village. 
Tanjisya {-tanjisye), to catch. 
Tanjika, ku, to be attacked. Pa musi ^po pata- 
njiche ni ngondo, That village was attacked. 
Tanuka, ku (-tanwiche), to give way. 
Tanyula^ ku, to kick out the feet. 
Tapa lunda, ku (-tapilb), to look well ^t anything, 

so that one may be able to iiipitate it. 
Tap ana, ku, to become infectied wit)h a disease. 
Tapasya, ku (-tapbayb), to break down ; to crufla|)le 

down. 
Tapika, ku (-TAPiqHB), to vomit. 
Tapisya, ky,, to give an emetic. 
Tapu, expressive of stickiness. 
Tapuka, ku, to sink in the mud. 
Tapula, ku, to be smeared ^ith filth ; to bje ipfected 

with a disease. 
Tapula, ku (-tapwile), to scrape the surface in 

hoeing. 
Tasya, ku (-tasisye), to refvise to iqprease the pyjcp pf 
malonda. 



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306 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Tatamala, ku, to be rich. 

Tatanukula, ku, to open the eyes; to split open 

anything. 
Tatasika, ku (-tatasiche), to throw out sparks. 
Tatawana, ku, to dispute. 
Tauohisya, ku, to repeat again and again ; to force ; 

persuade. 
Tauna, ku (-tawine), to chew. 
Taunika, ku, to be chewable. 
Tauwa, ku (-tawilwe), to wish for something tasty 

to eat. 
Tawa, ku, to tie ; to build ; to bind. 

Ku tawa lukumhi, to hold a council ; to engage in 

conversation (of a number of people). 
TatvUisya, ku, to stay long in a place. 
LUaurUila, ku, to commit suicide; to fasten one's 

self to anything. 
Tawikanya, ku, to tie together. 
TawUila, ku, to fasten to. 
Tawana, ku, to bind hand and foot. 
Tawandawana, ku, to be interlaced (of the branches 

of a tree). 
Tawanya, ku, to ill-treat without any reason. ^ 

Tawikanya, ku. See Tawa, ku. 
Tbbwb, peace. 
Techbtula, ku, to snap across. 

Techetuka, ku, to be friable ; to be brittle. 
Tega, ku (-tesile), to set a trap ; to put a gun on 

fuU-cock; to cast a net. 
Tegula, ku, to take a pot off the fire ; to take the 

pounded grain out of the mortar. 
Tbjbka, ku (-tejechilb), to fold up what has been 

spread out, as an umbrella. 
Teka, ku (-techile), to draw water. 
Tekuteku, by little and little. 
Teleka, ku (-teleohb), to cook ; to brew (beer). 

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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 307 

Telekdka, ku, to begin to enlarge again (of a healing 

wound). 
Telekwa, ku, to be unable to walk. 
Telesya, ku, to be slippery. 
Tema, ku, to cut. 

Temeha, ku^ to be cut ; to be broken (of wood). 
Temanya^ ku^ to break. 
Temangvla, ku, to break across. 
Temandemanya, ku, to pass through the bush for a 
distance ; to interfere. 
Tembeta, ku (-tembete), to carry a load two and 
two. 
Temheteka, ku, to be carried, or carriable, two and 
two. 
Tembwela, ku (-tembwelb), to take a walk for 

pleasure. 
Temela, ku, to place a green branch on game which 

one has killed, as a sign of ownership. 
Temela, ku, ku temela mcUonda, to price an article of 

trade. 
Temula, ku, to do anything very early in the morning ; 

to take off the top surface. 
Temulila, ku, to make a short cut to meet a person ; 

to run to meet. 
Tenandenya, ku, to sway from side to side ; to toss 
about. 
Tenandena, ku, to be tossed about. 
Tbnda, ku (-tesilb), to do. 

Ku tenda kapolo, to make (him) a slave. 
Ku tenda soni, to be ashamed. 
Xu tenda chanasa, to have pity. 
Ku tendela, to do (anything) to (another). 
Tendegula, ku, to cut out an opening in commencing 

to scoop out a cup. 
Tenega, shortness of calico. 
Tbnga, ku, to put up a load of firewood ; to flourish : 



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308 TAO-BJNGLI^H VOCABULABV 

to tie the first ban^bops qn a l^ouse whicji keep 

the rafters in their place. f 

Tenganya, ku (-tengenyb), to shake. 

Temganyiha^ huy to be shake^. 
Tbngula, ku, to pull herbs for relish; ^o sing the 

short stanzas at the end of a song. 
Tenguka Tcu^ to be powerless; ; to be Jielpless ; to be 

languid. 
TENpJLA, KU, to flqiwish ; to be prosperous \ to shoot 

out leaves in great abundance. 
Tbnjebbmula, ku, to level down whaji has been 

heaped up. 
Tepana, ku, to be slender and easily bent. 
Tepana, ku, to sway from side to side ; to be frail ; 

to be weak ; to be slender and easily bent. 
Tepanya, ku^ causative. 
Tepela, ku (-tepele), to become faint-hearted very 

quickly. 
Tependala, ku (-tependble), to be sqf t and flabby ; to 

hang loosely together ; to be gentle. 
Tepeta, ku, to be wet. 

Tepetesya, ku, to be too vf&t. 
Teremuka, ku, to abprt ; to slip. 

Teremusya, ku, to cause abortion. 
Teta, ?:u, to give warning. 

l^etela, ku, to give warning ; to cackle. 
Tbteka, ku, to boil and wash so as to i:emoye all 

unpleasant taste. 
Tetehda, ku, to take off what lies on the top ; to 

pour water off anything in a pot. 
Tetemela, ku, to shiver ; to tremble. 
Tetbmta, ku (-tetbmyb), to work tjie y^l^ple day \ to 

be much startled. 
Tetesya, ku, to speak slowly ; to hixc^^ opqn (of ripe 

fruit) ; to quiver in the breeze ; to bob up and 

down (of a float on a fishing line). 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Tetechesya, ku, to speak slowly. 

Teteseka, ku, to burst open (of ripe fr 
Tetetete, lyuwa tetetete, all day long. 
Tetewala, ku, to be soft and pliable; 

and mild in temper. 
Teteya, ku, to appease ; to soften a ski: 
Teuchila, ku, to be late in starting. 
Tewa, Ku, to stoop down. 
Teya, ku (-teye), to go to one side so i 

missile. 
TicHiTA, Ku (-TtcttitE), to rub. 

Tichitisya, ku, to rnb heavily ; to ticl 

Tichitika, ku, to be rubbed ; to be tic 
TiKA, KU, to teinpt ; to make an apps 

anything and then draw back. 
TiKAMA, KU, to be unfilled. 

Tikamisya, ku, to leave unfilled. 
TiKULA, KU, to expose the body in danci 
TlKusiLA, KU (-tikusile), to be hard oi 

and soft underneath. 
TiLA, KU (-tisile), to run away; 

Kutila ku musi, to run away from th< 

Ku tilUa hi musi, to run to the villa^ 

Tisya, ku (tisisye), to drive away. 
Tiletile, spreading all over the surface 
as the water of a stream in a flood 
TiLiLiLi ! smoothly. 
TiLiwiTiLiwi, walkiiig in soft mud. 
TiMALiKA, KU. Litimalika, ku, to refrai 
TtMBA, KU, to strike with the open banc 
TiMBANYA, KU (-timbenye), to mix two th 
TiMBiLiSYA, KU, to splice rope ; to plu 
into the water. 

Timhitila, ku, to splice i-ope. 
TiMBULA, KU (-timbwilb), to pound the s 

Timhuka, ku, to run away ; to be poii 



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310 YAO-ENGLTSH VOCABULARY 

TiMBWiNYA, KU (-timbwinyilb), to poke a person in the 
side so as to cause him to laugh. 

TiMBYAJILA, KU (-TIMBYAJILe), tO limp. 

Tina, ku (-tinile), to tie tightly. 

TiNDANA, KU (-tindene), to miss one another ; to be 

different from ; to be at variance with. 
, Tindanya, ku, to interchange. 
TiNDiGALA, KU (-tindigele), to Walk concoitedly and 

proudly. , 

TiNDisYA, KU (-tindisye), to do a thing repeatedly ; 

to make trial of a thing several times before 

purchasing. 
TiNDiWALA, KU, to kneel. 
TiNDiwiKA, KU, to dip a cup into the water. 
TiNiKA, KU, to be scorched. 

Tinisya, ku, to scorch. 
TiNiNGULA, KU, to break right across. 

Tininguka, ku, passive. 
TiNJiNYA, KU (-tinjinye), to make a rustling noise in 

the grass. 
TiPASYA, KU (-tipesye), to rub over ; to stroke. 
TipiLA, KU (-tipile), to be clean and smooth as a 

man's skin when washed and well oiled. 
TiPiTi, soft ; smooth. 
TiPiTiLA, KU, to be rubbed with oil. 

Tipitika, ku, to be free from dust or dirt. 
TiPiTiNA, KU (-tipitinile), to be soft and smooth as a 

man's skin when washed and well rubbed with 

oil. 
TiPiTisYA, KU (-tipitisye), to do one a friendly action 

so as to get something from him. 
TiPULA, KU, to hoe deeply and break up the ground, 

preparatory to planting ground-nuts. 
TiTiLA, KU (-titile), to tum ; to swing round and 

round. 
TiTiLiKA, KU, to push anything into the ground. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 311 

TiTiMA, KU (-titimile), to give a rumbling sound, as 

water falling over rocks. 
TiTiMiKA, KU, to push anything into T 

of sight. 
TiTiMUKA, KU, to rise up into view. 
TiTiTi, sound of cutting. 
TiRiRiRi, expressive of smoothness an( 
TiWA, KU, to plait. 
TiwALiKA, KU (-tiwaliche), to Hve 

circumstances. 
TiwiLA, KU, to drive ; to sink ; to b 

water. 
TiwisYA, KU (-tiwisisye), to immerse. 
TocHiMASYA, KU (-tochimaste), to weai 

so that it has the appearance of ] 
TocHOMALA, KU, to be weak and feeble 
ToGANDOGA, KU, to flit from place to p 
ToGOLALA, KU (togolele), to Spread 

centre. 

TOGOLELA, KU (-TOGOLELE), to givo OXpi 

joy. 
TojiMA, KU (-tojime), to be startled ; t 
Tqjimya, ku {-tojimye), to startle ; t* 
To JO ! expressive of being startled. 
ToKONYA, KU, to entice a person away 

to tease. 
ToKOSA, KU, to entice away ; to poke. 

Tokosyaf ku, to entice away. 
ToKOTA, KU (-tokwete), to be boiling 

kote, boiling water. 
ToKOTOKO, sound of boiling water. 
Tola, ku (-tosile), to bring ; to fete 

imitate the customs of anpther pi 
Tohlay kuj to fetch for. 
ToLO ! in a heap. 
Tolola, ku, to wear an ear-ring. 



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312 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

ToMA, KU (-tomile), to make choice of beforehand ; to 

lend out an animal, as for Breeding purposes. 
ToMASYA, KU (-tomesYe), to palpate ; to try a thing if 

it is hard by feeling it all over with the fingers. 
ToMBA, KU, to have intiercourse (used ohly or 'the 

male). 
ToMBOLESYA, KU, to run out of a spur of a hill or a 

deep bay stretching far inland ; to hang down, 

of a corner of one*s calico. 
ToMBOSiYA, a stupid person ; a kind of bead. 
ToMELA, KU, to make choice of ; to betroth. 

Tomesya, ku {-tomesisye), to betroth to another. 
Tomelwa, hu {-tomelwe), to be betrothed.' 
ToMOKOLA, KU, to taks a piece Out of anything ; to eat 

away, as an ulcer does. 
Tomokoka, ku, to peel off ; to fall to pieces (as old 

rotten calico) ; to jump right over. 
ToNA, KU, to pinch ; to scratch. 
ToNDE, a male goat. 

ToNDESYA, KU, to be of a grasping, ambitious disposi- 
tion. 
ToNDOWA, KU, to be slackened ; to lull (of the wirid). 
Ku tondowa mtima, to be easy-tempered. 
Tondoya, ku, to slacken. 
Tondowela, hi, to forgive. 
ToNGOLA, KU, to give voice; to shout; td t-oar ; to 

bellow. 
Tonya, ku, to poke. 

ToNYu ! expressive of pokihg into ^ hole. 
ToPA, KU, to be wearied out. 
TOPOLA, KU, to drive away ; t6 wear one*s loin-cloth 

reachihg down to the feet. « 

ToPOTOPO, abundance. 

Via ja topotopo, heavy rain. 
TopWANA, KU, to be feeble ; to be weak. 

TOTA, KU (-TOTILE), to sfe^. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 313 

Kutola chi^cmha, to sew on a patch. 
Ku tola lijela, to rivet a piece on to a hoe. 
Totokola, huy to unpick sewing ; td tear asunder. 
ToTEKA, KU (-TOTECHe), to SOW in unhoed ground. 
ToTiLO, kwavla totUo, to go on without resting. 
ToTOCHBLA, KU (-totochele), to be poor. 

Totochelway hu, to be choked ; to be at a loss what 
to do; to be unable to take action in any 
matter. 
ToTOGANVA, KU (-totogenye), to repeat again and 

again. 
ToTOKWA, KU (-totokwile), to be in nervous haste 

to eat. 
ToTOLA, KU (-TOTwisLB), to puU oiit in patches, 

i^otoha, hfUy t6 come out in patches (of hair, by 

reason of disease of the scalp). 
Totosya, ku, to knock ; to click with the tbfague. 
ToTOLi, expressive of being firmly fixed together. 
ToTOLO, CHiPi TOTOLO, thick darkness. 
Totomeka, ku (-totomeche), to transfix. 

TotoTTiecheka, ku, passive. 
TowA, (-A towA), soft and pulpy. 
TowANYA, KU (-TO wen ye), to feel all over with Ihe 

fingers. 
TowASYA, KU (-towasisye), to fihd out SL ^ierson's 
disposition ; to feel all over. 
TowajUa, ku, to feel all over. 
TowELELA, KU, to be firmly rooted in ground. 
Tu, class characteristic of the plurdl numbet of sub- 
stantives belonging to the seventh or diminutive 
class. 
Tu TU TU, expressive of going in a line one after the 

other. 
Tu, intensitive participle, used after nouns and verbs. 
JElo, ngonguwelecheta gamomami, ^masHe tu, Yes, 
I don't speak lying wotds: I have finished it. 



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314 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

TucHi, expressive of giving out volumes of smoke, as 

a fire of damp firewood does. 
TuGALA, KU, to walk quickly. 

TuKA, KU (-tuchile), to rise up in a cloud (of smoke). 
TuKANA, KU, to use filthy language to. 
TuKUKA, KU, to get out of the way. 

Tukusya^ hi, to remove out of the way. 
TuKUNYA, KU (-tukwinye), to pulsate ; to be heaved 
up, as the surface soil when a mole is burrowing 
underneath. 
TuKUTA, KU (-tukwite), to bubble up in boiling ; to 

become rotten. 
TuKUTiLA, KU, to cover up a pot on the fire, or any- 
thing roasting in the ashes ; to burro w^ into the 
flesh (of an abscess or ulcer) ; to laugh "in one's 
sleeve. "^ 
Tula, ku (-tusile), to put down a load ; to alight (of 
a bird). 
Tasya, ku, to cause to put down. Kutusya mtima, 
to comfort. 
Tula ndulo, ku, to belch wind from the stomach. 
Tulala, ku, to be meek and mild tempered. 
Tuli, tuli, tuli, expressive of calmness. 
Tuluka, ku (-tulwiche), to descend. Ula jitulKnche 
liso, Rain fell yesterday. 
Tuluaya, ku, to take down. 
TuLUMA, KU, to growl (in a low tone) ; to purr of a 

cat. 
TuLUMBALA, KU, to be swollen up and inflated, as a 
bladder or a bag filled to the mouth. 
Tuiumhasya, ku, to inflate ; to fill a sack quite full. 
TuMA, KU, to send. 

Tumika, ku, to serve ; to act as servant. 
Tumwa, ku, to be sent. 

Tumichisya, ku, to send or cause to send (intensive). 
Tumisya, ku, to send ; to send for. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 315 

TwmichUa, hu^ to serve. 
TuMBiLA, KU (-tumbilb), to be angry. 

TumbUila, ku, to fee angry with. 
TtjMBUCHiLA, KU (-tumbuchile), to flood ; to fill up 

completely. 
Tumbicchisyay ku, to put into water; to put the 

fermented beer into the thin gruel in the last 

stage of brewing; to place one thing within 

another, as a small pot within a large one. 
TuMBUCHiLWA, KU, to sink ; to have used up all one's 

goods ; to have nothing more that one can do. 
TuMBULA, KU, to gut ; to Open an abscess. 

Tumhuka, hi, to be burst open ; to be gutted ; to 

be cut open. 
TuMBULUKANYA, KU, to cross right over a hill ; to pass 

right through a village. / 

TuMULA, KU, to make a noise in the water when 

bathing. 
TuNDA, KU, to urinate. 

Ku tunda makweso, to pass bloody urine. 
TuNDAJiLA, KU, to limp. 
TuNDUKA, KU, to behave maliciously. 
Tundusya, hu, to treat maliciously. 
TuNDUMALiLA, KU, to be placed behind, or at one's 

back. 
TuNDUMUKULA, KU, to Open up ; to lift anything so 

that it may be in line with something else. 
Litwndumuhda, ku, to behave without self-respect ; 

to act contrary to one's own interest. 
TuNDUMUSYA, KU, to show one end of anything, such 

as of an object sticking out of the water. 
TuNDUNUKA, KU, to project. Perepo patundunwiche, 

There is an ascent there. 
TuNDUNYA, KU (-tundunisye), Litundunya, ku, to re- 
move to a worse place than one was in before. 
TuNGA, KU, to string beads. 



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316 yAi>ENGLISH vbCABULAEY 

TuNGALA, KU, to be deformed by leprosy. 

TuNGATA, KU, to be of mild tempet* . 

TuNGULULB (pi. achatungulule), a long mat woven 

6i reeds. 
TuNGULUMULA, KU, to roll down ; to caiise Abortion ; 

to snort. 
Tungnlumuka, ku^ to abort. 
TuNGULUWANYA, KU, to drive away all the people from 

a village; to divide tip anything ainon^ many 

differeht pei^sons. 
IMungvluwanya, hi, to givfe away largely in 

presents. 
TuNGUNYA, KU (-tuNGUNisYE), to drite aWay a b^i-son 

to another country; to pass the first thread 

through the reeds in sewing a inat. 
TuPA, KU, to swell up ; to be many. Wdngasaka ma- 

lond'a, lelo gatupilsj (We) don*t want any incdofidd 

to-day, we have got a great deal. GMtumbo cha- 

kwe chitupUe ndaka, Her belly has swelled up 

with the ndaka disease. 
TupuLA, KU, to pull up by the roots. 

Tujpuka, ku, passive. 
Tusu, expressive of Smashing up. 
TuSULA, KU, to smash up. 

Tusuka, ku, to be smashed up; to have the eye 

injured so that the vitreous humout Escapes. 
TuTA, KU (-tutile), to push away ; to biiri'O'VV' linder 

the ground, and throw up the earth in a heap, as 

a mole does. 
Ku tuiUa m^nyasa, to launch a boat. 
TuTUGANA, KU, to scatter in different directiohs. 
TuTULiKA, KU (-tutuliche), to leap up as i-oaisted 

maize grains in a pan. 
TUTULUSYA, ktj, to drag along the ground ; to make 

stiff ahd hard so as to be hard to ch6w ; to burst 

(of maize roasted in a potsherd). 



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YAO-EJ^GLISH VOCABULARY 317 

TuTUMA, KU (-tutwime), to bubble up as boiling 
water ; to give out volumes of smoke. 
Tutumya, ku (-tutwimye), to send out volumes of 
smoke. 

TuTUMBA, KU (-tutumbile), to puU up by the root?. 

TuTUMBU, expressive of pulling or taking out of the 
ground. 

TuTUMBUKA, KU (-tutumbwiche), to Overturn. 

TuTUMBULA, KU, (-tutumbwile), to pull up by the 
roots. 

Tutumbwa, ku (-tutumbwile), to split or crack. 

TuTUSYA, KU (-tutwIsye), to sprout. 

TuTUTA, KU, to card cotton down ; to hoe the burnt 
bush. 

TuTUTU, a crowd moving in a line. 

TuuNGULA, KU, to expand ; to inflate. 
Tuv/nguka, ku, passive. 

TuYANA, KU, to engage in rivalry, or in striving for 
the mastery. CJie Malemya akutuyarm lelo ; wa- 
gomhile uti likumi ni msano, che Kawinga namho 
wapikaniche likumi pe. Malemya tries to be the 
big man to-day ; he fired fifteen guns while |Ca- 
winga was heard to fire only ten. 

TwA, KU (-twble), to pound in a mortar. 
Tweka, ku ; Tweleka, kuy to be pounded. 

TWAMULA, KU, to bcUoW. 

TwANGA, KU, to beat with the fist ; to be talkative. 
Litwanjila, ha, to talk a great deal about one's 
self. • 

TWANGULA, KU, to SUOrt. 

TwATWAJiLA, KU, to have much to say. 

Litynnya, ku, to fall and bruise one's nose. 
TwE ! scattering. 

TWE9EL4, KU, to make false statements. 
Tvf 1 1 piercing ; pricking. 

TWICHILA, KU. 0<pe TWIKA, KU. 



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318 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

TwiKA, Ku, to put a load on the head. Andvnchile, 

Put the load on my head. 
TwiNYA, KU, to wear away, as the end of a staff ; to 

meet with a repulse. 
TwiTU ! coming into view. 
Tya ! expressive of flatness. 
Tyaka, ku, to light the grass in several places. 
Tyakalasya, ku (-tyakalesye), to put a thing down 

carelessly. 
Tyakula, ku (-tyakwile), to stir round first to one 

side and then to the other, &s. one does in cooking 

porridge in native fashion. 
Tyala, ku (-tyasile), to skip about; to "duck," 

as in avoiding a missile; to shrink from a 

Tnagamho. 
Tyalambuka, ku, to slip. 

Tyalamhusya, ku, causative. 
Tyangatyanga, ku, to flit about from place to place ; 

to make false promises. 
Tyatya..., expressive of marking. 
Tyatya, expressive of flatness. 

Msakasa wa/natipe tyatya, a flat roof. 
Tyatyaganya, ku (-Tyatyagenye), to keep the bigger 

share of anything for one's self. 
Tyoka, ku (-tyosile), to start ; to go away. Atyosile 

hindawi. He started in the morning. Atyosile pa 

rrmsi, He has gone away from the village. 
Tyosya, ku (-tyosiaye), to remove. 
Tyochesya, ku (-tyochesye), to .take away from ; to 

start away from. 

U. 

U is pronounced as oo in " fool.*' Before a vowel u 
has a consonantal sound, and may be written w. 
Before o or u the w is sometimes dropped. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 319 

U-, the class characteristic of the singular number of 
substantives belonging to the second or m (in- 
animate) class. 

XJ-, the class prefix of certain nouns belonging to the 
second class which have no plural, or form their 
plural by means of the plural prefixes of other 
classes. 

XJbelubelu, staggering about from side to side ; loaf- 
ing about and living ofE other people by begging. 

XJbwinya, pus. 

TJcHANDA, youth ; boyhood. 

UcHECHE, the white ant. Jua uchecJie^ a niggardly 
person. 

TJcHEMA, palm wine. 

UcHENENE, nicely; well. 

UcHETE, the cutting edge of a knife. 

XJcHi, honey. 

XJcHiLiLA, KU (-uchilile), to be smoked. 

XJcHiLi, strength. 

TJcHiMWA, ill-nature ; ill-temper. 

XJcHiMWENE, chieftainship ; the state and habits of a 
chief ; the chief dom. 

XJcHisu, the ambition or rivalry that leads one to get 
rid of one's fellows. 

UcHULUSi, abundance. 

XJdandausi, grumbling; discontent. 

XJdiesi, greediness. 

Ugaga, niggardliness which makes one give away 
things in small quantities. 

Ugagala, handlessness. 

Ugala, ku (-ugele), to shut. See Ugula. 
UgalUa, ku, to shut out ; to shut in. 

Ugali, porridge made of flour stirred (wuga) into a 
thick paste, and eaten with some kind of meat 
or relish (mhoga), 

Uganja, friendship. 



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I 
320 YAOEN6LISH VOCA^ULiy|tT 

Ku 8y(ywehana uganjay to live on terms of friend- 
ship. 

Ugogodi, making false charges about others ; turning 
" king's evidence." 

Ugoma, conviction in a Tvmgamho, 

XJgono (pi. MAGONo), a sleeping-mat made qf split- 
reeds sewn together. 
Avyih ugono^ He died a natural death. 

XJgula, Ky (-UGwiiiE), to open. 

Ku ugida pa rrdango, to open the door. The Yao 

idiom has " To open or shut at " (ku, pa, v^u^, 
Ugvlila, ku, to let out ; to let in. 

XJgulilo, the posts at side of door by which the door 
is kept fastened on the inside. 

Ugwalata, the stocks, generally a ho}e in a vejrapdah 
post through which a limb of the culprit is 
passed and fastened. 

Ugwembwele, unfitness for work, as fron^ sickness or 
laziniBss. 

XJjA, KU (usile), to return. 

Ujila, hu, to turn back on the way. Wai0iLe pa 

Mhmguzi, He turned back e^t the ]\Ilungv^zi. 
Usya, ku, to restore ; to put back ; to leave a 4por 

half ajar. 
Uchiaya, ku, to restore; to pu^) b^ck; tq leave a 
door half ajar. 

XJjA MPALE, KU, to recover courage and come b«^^ on 
one's pursuers. 

XJjANGANYA, KU, to go to a place an4 return the same 
day. 

Uje, the sharp edge of a cutting instrument. 

Ujila, payment made for any work done; payment 
made to the head of the caravan for permission 
to accompany it ; interest paid on a loan. 

ITjila, ku (-ujile), to throw dry food in one's n^outh. 

IJjusi, begging persistently. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 321 

Uk:a, ku (-uchile), to have one's skin covered with' 

dirt. 
Ukadili, making false reports about others ; turning 

" king's evidence." 
Ukaka, niggardliness ; toughness ; firmness. 
Ukali, fierceness ; sternness ; bravery. 

Ku gorriba ukcdi, to be fierce. 
Ukama, a kind of honey. 
XJkambingu, backbiting; doublefacedness. 
Ukambitiku, back-biting. 
TJkana, beer. (Swahili pombe,) 
Ukanduluma, self-reliance; self-conceit. 
CTkanga, long hairs on the tails of animals. 
Ukanganjili, miserliness. 
Ukani, disobedience ; obstinacy. 
Ukapa, stoutness. 
XJkapangapanga, advice. 
XTkapglo, slavery. 
Ukaserengo, slander. 
Ukau, an astringent taste in the mouth after eating 

unripe fruit. 
Ukawamba, a ground of strife ; a cause of a magambo. 
XJkolechb, giving offence to another so as to com- 
mence a quarrel. 4 
Ukomu, teasing. 
Ukongwe, womanhood. 
Ukopi, enticing a peison away from any place, or 

from any work or bargain on which he may be 

intent. 
Ukoti, green maize or sorghum, ground on the stones 

and cooked by being tied up in leaves and boiled. 
XJkoto, beauty. 
Ukujukuju, looking suspiciously from side to side, as 

a thief does. 
XJkula, KIJ, to re-dig ; to rake up a quarrel of long 

ago; to uncover what has been buried. 



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322 YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Ukulu, greatness ; size. Mtela am ukulu^ This tree 

is too big. UTcuLu wakwe wati vli? How big 

is it? 
tTKUNGWi, skill ; taste. 
Ukunje (pi. makunje), a bow. 
Ukusikusi, cunning ; deceit. 
Ukuta, ku, to blow the bellows at the forge or 

furnace. 
Ukwesu, the tamarind tree. 
Ukweti, a dense bush or forest. 
XJkwi, kugwa ukwi, to fall at random. 
Ukwibi, niggardliness. 
Ukwibi, bark-cloth that won't stretch. 
XJla, rain. Ula tiji/nye lelo, It will rain to-day. 
Ulaga, ku (-ulbje), to kill. 
lUajUwa, ku, to be killed. 
XJlala, ku (-ulble), to be hurt. 

Ulasyay ku, to hurt. 
Ulala, sharpness; cleverness. 
Ulalo, a flat form or bridge made by laying cross 

trees on two long sleepers; a shelf for drying 

meat. 
Ulamba, deceit. 
Ulanda, poverty; misery. 
Ulasi, a species of mushroom. 
Ulasi, killing. 
Ulawili, a flea. 
XJlembe, arrow poison. 
XJlendo, a journey ; a caravan. Ulendo wopile, The 

caravan is ready to start. Ali mu Hendo, He is 

on a journey. 
Ulbsi, laziness. 
Uli? How? 

Ana mkuti uti ? What are you saying 1 

Apite uli ! Where did he go to ? 

WoAJbkaaUe uli mgao'o ? How did he break that cup % 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 323 

Uliesi, covetousness ; greed. 

Ulika, ku, to come above-ground; to ooze through 

the eoil. 
Ulika, ku, to burst (of maize roasted in a potsherd). 
TJlikwi, a species of flying white ant. 
XJlili, a sleeping-mat made of split reeds sewn 

together ; a shade. 
Avnle ulUi, He died a natural death. 
XJlinda, watching. AU mu tUinda, He is in the 

watch-house (at the garden). 
Ulinje, so-and-so. Ulinje 'aula ao.^ There's so-and-so 

coming. 
Ulisi, much crying. ^ 

TJlitemanye, conceit ; pride. 
Uliwa, water oozing out of the ground. 
Ulombela, marriage. 
Ulonda, watching. 

Ulu, haze from grass fires in the dry season. 
Ulukusa, faecal matter in the intestines of animals ; 

dung. 
XJlukuta, ku, to move restlessly. 
Ulula, ku, to glean what has been left in the 

gardens. 
Ululu, poison. 

Ululu, teeth " standing on edge " ; itching. 
Ululuka, ku, to be blown away with the wind. 

UlvZusya, ha, to pour grain from a height that the 

dust and chaff may fly away ; to winnow. 
Ululuta, ku, to shout, as women do in token of 

rejoicing. 
Ulume, manhood. 
Ulumula, ku, to remove a number of things from 

one place to another one by one; to pull or 

scrape a number of things towards one. 
Ulunga, ku, to make into a round mass. 
Ulvmjikay ha, passive. 



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324 \ YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 

Ulusi, thread. 

TJlutula, ku, to stab m the abdomen ; to remove a 

number of articles one by one ; to repeat one'$ 

words of long ago. 
Ulutuka ku, to be stabbed ; to burst open (of the 

abdomen of a dead animal). 
Uluulu, roundness. 

Uluumba, eu, to roll about on the ground. 
Ulutisya, ku, to lay anything in the dust. 
Uluuta, ku, to be uprooted or trampled down (as of 

the grass where an animal has lain); to speak 

indistinctly. 
Uluwa (pi. maluwa), a jflower. 
XJlwblb, sickifbss ; disease. 

XJlyalya, deceit; putting off ; procrastination ; delay- 
ing with intent to cheat. 
XJmani, quarrelsomeness. 
Umanyilisi, understanding ; wisdom. 
Umba, medicine placed at garden for increasing the 

supply of food. 
Umbala, secrecy ; thievishness. 
XJmbala, ku, to pass through the wnyago or ceremony 

of initiation. 
TJmbata, ku (-umbete), to close the fist ; to close the 

fingers tightly over anything. 
Umbusya, ku, to follow up the trail of ga,me. 
XJmi, health ; life. 

Kuinkoaya wmi, to heal. 
Kukola v/m% to be well. 
Umika, ku (-umiche), to place firewood on the fire. 
Umwe, TJmweju, you. 
Umwemwe, you yourself. 
Umwe pe 'mwe, you alone. 
XJmya, ku, to remove. 
Una, ku, to reap, by cutting off the ears of the grain, 

as they do in reaping rice. 



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YAO-BNGLTSH TOCABULAftY 325 

Unandi, littleness. Mtela an unandi, This tree is too 

little. 
Undanda, cheating one out of one's property by false 

promises or by keeping out of the owner's way. 
Undika, ku, to ripen artificially by covering in a pot 

or by hanging up in the verandah. 
Undukida, hi, to remove what has been thus 

ripened. 
Undukuka, ku, passive. 
Unduka, Ka, to run away temporarily as a protest 

against some wrong received. 
Undula, jku, to hoe on a large scale ; to pound bran. 
Undulila, ku (-undulile), to splash about water so 

as to mix anything in it such as fish poison. 
Une, Uneji, I ; me. 
Unene, I myself. 
UnepenSy I alone. 
Unga, ku, to gather earth into a heap in hoeing. 
Unganya, ku, to gather many things together. 
Ungcmaj ku, to be gathered together. 
Ungolengole, a cause of trouble. 
XJngoswb, the intermediate party or parties in a 

bargain or marriage. 
Ungulumya, ku (-ungulwimyb), to go about seeking 

for anything. 
TJngwe, very old age. 
Ung'asi, a dance. The various kinds of dances are — 

Mhangvla, Chikwe, Chiput% Misiyu, MsecTie, 

Chipinde, Mlawcmda, Likwata, Mdalxmga, Mha- 

8via, Mascmihala, Ulombef Chindimba, Mangaka, 

Mckama, Liyaya. 
Unikanya, ku (-unikenye), to shut two things to- 
gether, as the two halves of a pumpkin. 
XJnjika, ku, to gather together into a heap. 

Unjikana, ku, to gather many things together into 

a heap. 



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326 YAO-^GLISH VOCABULARY 

Uhjikana, ku, passive. 
Unonono, hardness. 
Unuku, expressive of opening. 
Unya, a kind of gruel uncooked. 
Unya, ku, to stir together, as flour and water. 
"C[nyago, the ceremony of initiation which all Yao 

boys and girls undergo. 
Unyago wa ndagala, boy^s ceremony. 
Unyago wa chiputu, girl's ceremony. 
Unyago wa chimha/ndi, Unyago wetiwo {wa litiwo), 

the ceremony passed through by a woman on 

being pregnant with her first child. 
XJnyolo (pi. NYOLo), a chain. 
Unyunyu, whiteness; cleanliness. 
Upa, ku, to give something to the performers at a 

dance; to pay the friend who attends the 

children at the unyago; to reward. 
Upagwe, nature. 

Upagwe unWf all of one piece ; all of one kind. 
Up ALA, sound of rushing water. 
XJpALU, skill in hunting. 
Upandb, cow itch. I 

XJpANDU, a dangerous occurrence. 

-na upandu, dangerous. 
IJpANGANYE, method of doing a thing. 
IJPAPA, niggardliness. 
IJpASANi, trade. 
TJpATE, a kind of gong. 
Upele, the itch. 
TJpiLE, good luck. 

TJpiLiLiYU, foolhardiness ; heedlessness of consequence. 
TJpo, a collection made at a dance. 
Upupa, itch. 

XJpupi, advice especially an a magamba, 
Upwawale, anything with flat surfaces or flat sides 

on it. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULAB' 

Upya, the bush where the grass has b 
IJpYATA, great cleverness which enabl 

one^s fellows. 
TJsAKALiYU, fatigue. 
UsAKWA, filth ; dirt ; defilement. 
TJsALALBNE, backbiting. 
UsALiLi, a kind of red cloth. 
Us AM A, kugona uscmia, to sleep badly. 
XJsANGWALi, a bedstead or platforn 

forked sticks driven into the gi 

poles laid from the one to the o 

a number of thin rods or bambo< 

crosswise. 
UsAU, a shelf where meat or fish are 

underneath. 
UsAu, likeness; appearance. 
UsAUCHi, raggedness ; poverty in drej 
UsAWi, witchcraft. 
UsEPA, a cloth to carry a child. 
UsESE, ku gona usese^ to sleep lying oi 
UsEWA, foolishness. 
UsiGALA, staying alone. 
XJsiLE, covetousness. 
TJsiLU, stupidity. 
UsiMBWA, small-sized beads. 
UsiNDO, the sound of walking. 
XJsiNiNi, the gums. 
XJsiYA, stupidity. 

UsoMBA, ku gona usoniba, to sleep on 
UsoNGOLO, youth. 

UsoNGOsoNGO, Collecting one by one. 
UsuLi, the flower of pumpkin. 
XJsuMA, Ugcdi wosuma {-wa usuma) 

relish. 
UsuNGO, the semen. 



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328 YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

UsuNGULA, hu gona usunguUiy to sleep with one eye 

open. 
XJsYA, KU (-usisye), to ask. 

Uchisya, hu, to plead. 
UsYA, KU, to tie the mouth of a bag. 

Usyika, ku, passive. 
UsYA, KU. See XJja, ku. 
UsYANUKULA, KU, to go to a place and return the 

same day. 
Uta, KU (-utile), to pull. 

Utika, kuy to be stretched. 
Utala, ku (-utele), to be overgrown with grass. 
TJtale, iron ore. 
XJtama, ku, to stoop down. 
XJtama, ku (-uteme), to crouch down. 

Utamila, kuy to sit upon eggs. 

Utamilichika, kuy passive. 
Utambwi, the webfoot of a duck. 
Utandi, flour. 
TJtapa, using fair words. 

XJtasya, demanding a higher price for mahndck. 
Utawb, plan of building. 
XJtbnde, way ; manner ; circumstances. 

Au utende 'u, in this way. 

Auno utende ^uno, in this way ; by this time ; in 
these circumstances. 
XJtetb, calico carried thrown over the shoulder. 
Uti, a gun. Kugomha uti, to fire a gun ; ku sopela 
utif to ram a gun ; kutega uti, to cock a gun ; 
kukwata uti, to present a gun. 
XJtila, flight. 
Utilili, gog sticks. 
Utolilo, making fun of anything. 
XJtombo, coitus. 
XJtomoni, to ooze out (of the sap of a tree). 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABtJLARY 329 

XJtope, mud ; clap. 
XJtdchi, scrapings of wood. 
Utuka, ku (-utwiche), to run. 

Ku utuka lu'wilo, to run a race. 

Utuchisya ku, to run fast. 

UtuckUa ku, to run to ; to run for. 
XJtukutu, maize roasted and pounded. 
Utula, ku, to cut close to the roots ; to cut the hair. 
XJtuli, a white lip-ring. 
XJtulwa, a sweet kind of beer. 
Utumwa, service. 
Ututu, the brain. 
UtyaTyatya, flatness. 
XJuLA, KU (-uusile), to groan ; to moan. 
UuLi, white hair. 
XJuTA, KU (-uutile), to rub and soften a skin. * 

Uutika, ku, passive. 
UwA, KU (-wile), to die ; to become cold, as a pot on 
the fire. 

JJwila, ku, to die for ; to tie lightly at first, intend- 
ing to tie firmly afterwards. 
UwASi, a mushroom. 
UwB, UwEJi, we ; us. 

Uwewe, we ourselves. 

Uwe pe *we,\we ourselves. 
TJwELESi, child-bearing. 

Jua uwelesi, one who has borne children. 
UwBNDE, blood for boiling. 

UwiGO, a fence made of trees and branches, made to 
stop the flight of game and drive them in one 
direction. 
XJwiLA, KU (-uwile), to tie lightly, to fasten loosely in 

the first instance and afterwards to tie firmly. 
UwiLisi, prosperous condition ; fame. 
XJwiLO, a burial. 
UwiLO, joking. 



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330 YAOENGLISH VOCABULAKY 

Kumtenda uvnlo, to make jokes at another. 
UwiMi, niggardliness. 
TJwoNASi, waste ; destruction. 
UwuLU, haze. 
UwuNGA, the warp. 

Uya, ku (-wiye), to half-cook any article, that it may 
be laid aside. 

Uyika, ku, passive. 

W. 

Wa, ku, to be ; to become. See Grammar. 
Wa, ku (-WILILE), to hem. 
Wachi ? what ? what for 1 
Wagula, ku, to be ominous of evil. 

Wagtdilwa, ku, to meet an evil omen. 
Wajila, ku, to be fitting; to be suitable for; to 
become. 
WajUwa, ku, to be worthy of ; to be fit for. 
Wajisya, ku (-wajisye), to make a thing to fit. 
Waka ! falling off. 
Waka, a scent of game. 
Wakanya, ku, to make a rustling noise amongst the 

grass. 
Wala, ku (-wasile), to shine. 
Wala, ku (-wete), to put on clothes ; to wear. 

Wecka ku {-weMche), to clothe. 
Walagana, ku, to be placed at intervals. 

Walaganya, hi, to place at intervals. 
Walama, ku, to be scarce; to cease to be seen so 

frequently as before. 
Walanga, ku (-walasile), to count ; to read. 

Liwalanga, ku, to speak for one's self; to plead 

one's cause ; to justify one's self. 
Wcdcmjika, ku, to be able to be counted ; to be few 
in numbers. 



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YA0-ENGLI8H VOCABULARY 331 

Walawalila, ku, to tie bamboos on a house ; to be 

sparse. 
Walawandula, ku, to go out of a straight line, as in 

hoeing. 
Walawanduka, hi^ to appear ; to be visible. 
Walawasya, ku, to put a small quantity of grass 

on the roof of a house; to beat a drum 

heavily. 
Wali, boys and girls who are at the unyago ceremony ; 

girls who have been through the unyago cere- 
mony. 
Walika, ku, to throw out sparks of firewood; to 

split up (of ripe fruit) ; to pierce right through. 
Walula, ku, to split up. 

Walukay ku, passive. 
Wamba, Kwenda warribapey to go aimlessly ; to go 

through bad places. 
Kwapa wandu wamba, to give away to people 

promiscuously. 
Ku mmga wamba, to taste badly. 
Wamba, ku, to roast one side of a maize cob ; to 

stretch out ; to extend. 
KuwambUila ngom^, to stretch the skin over the 

mouth of a drum. 
Wambukvla, ha, to remove what has been stretched 

out. 
Wambala, ku (-wambele), to take something from the 

edge of a number or heap. 
Wambalala, ku (-wambalele), to go round about a 

thing; to stroll round and round. 
Wana, ku, to squeeze between two pieces of wood, or 

bind between two pieces of wood. 
Wam>ika, ku, passive. 
Wanaka jumo, of one family. 
Wanda, ku, to clear a path by beating down the 

grass on either side ; to be common or general. 



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332 YAO-EKGLISH VOCABULAKY 

Wandika, ku, to be near. 

Wandichila, hvb, to be near to. 
Wcmdikanaj ku, to be near each other. 
Wandikanya, ku, to bring near each other. 
Wandu (pi. of MUNDu), people. Wandu amhele achiy 

Somebody gave me this. 
Wandula, ku, to hammer an edge on any instru- 
ment. 
Wanga, ku, to file a notch in the teeth ; to chip the 
edge of a gnn-flint, so as to sharpen it; to 
commence to hoe a new garden; to trade. 
lAwanga, ku, to join one's self to a crowd. 
Wanganya, ku, to mix. 

Wanganichisya, ku, to be in doubts about. 
Wangawanga, a miscellaneous collection of things. 
Wangula, ku, to split open ; to open out a path. 

WaNI (pi. of NDUNi), Who? 

Lina lyenu wani ? What is your name ? 
Wanichisya, ku, to be in doubts about. 
Wanukula, ku, to lower ; to bring to the ground ; 
to open up what has been squeezed together. 
Kujiwarmhda uti, to lower a gun after presenting. 
Wanula, ku, to make a circuit ; to let anything fall 
out of the hand from a height. 
Wanuka, ku, to fall down. 
Wanwa, ku (-wan wile), to be stuck fast between two 

sticks. 
Wasa ! water spouting up from below. 
Wasa, ku, to take out from a store. 

Wasika, ku, passive. 
Wasasi, waste. 
Wasya, ku (-wasisye), to think over ; to fall slightly 

(of rain). 
Watama, ku (-wateme), to be level and flat. 

Watcmiichisya, ku, to lie down flat on the ground. 
Watika, ku (-watiohe), to sharpen by rubbing.^ 



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YAO-BNGLISH VOCABULARY 333 

WATiLAt KU (-watile), to scrape the threads on the 
loom with a blunt-pointed piece of bamboo. 

Wato (pi. MAWATo), a canoe. 

Waula, ku (-wawile), to burn the bush so as to be 
able to hoe it; to singe. 

Wawa, ku, to be bitter; to be acid; to be strong 
(of beer) ; to pain (of a wound). 

Wawanya, ku, to steal openly. 

Wawata, ku, to be improperly ripened. 

Wecha, ku (-wechiche), to clothe. See Wala ku. 

. Wecheka, ku, to be clothed. 

Wejeka, ku (-wbjechb), to lean against. 

Welecheta, ku, Wecheta, ku (-wblechete), to 



Welechetela, ku, to speak for; to bring an accusation 
against. 
Weleka, ku (-weleche), to carry ; to bear children. 
Welechela, ku, to bear children to. 
Welekula, ku, to come to maturity (of maize). 
Welekulanya, ku, to divide an animal into two ; to 

put a matter right between two parties. 
Welbnjesya, ku, to postpone. 

Welenjeka, ku, to be postponed. 
Weluka, ku, to finish work. 

Welusya, ku, to set free from work. 
Weluwelu, expressive of softness. 
Wenda, ku, to stalk (game) ; to go about searching 

for beer. 
Wenga, ku, to produce an eruption of eczema on the 
skin, as certain kinds of flesh are said to do. 
Wengwa, ku, to be covered with eczema. 
Wengana, ku, to be at variance with one another. 
Wenjewenjb, the mane of a lion. 
Wbsani, a measure. 

Wesk, father. Wese wangu, my father. , Wesegwe, his 
father. PI. AcMweae, 



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334 YAOENGLI8H VOCABULARY 

Weseka, ku, to change one's intention, so as not to do 

what one resolved on. 
Wbsi, the other side of the fire from the raised 

sleeping place. 
Wed wohdungwa, the side where the sleeping-mat 

lies. 
Wesi wonandi, the opposite side from the sleeping 

side. 
WETEKupTA, KU, to make "faces at a person in 

anger. 
Wewa, ku (-weWile), to be still and quiet. Ldo 

kuwewUe, It is a quiet day to-day. Mundu 

juahawewa mtima, a quiet man.' 
Wbwela, ku, to be very thin ; to be soft. 
Wewbta, ku, to rave, as a dreamer does in making 

the revelations. 
Wewewe ! soft. Nguo jili wewewe. The calico is 

soft. 
WiCHiLA, ku (-wichile), to hide a portion of one's 

food in one's hand. 
WiGA, niggardliness. 
WiGA, KU (-wisile), to tie an uwigo fence ; to rain at 

a distance. 
WiGULA, KU (-wigwile), to Start (of a caravan). 
WiiNA, an orphan. 

WiJiKA, ku (-wijiohe), to draw off one's at;tention. 
WiJiKANYA, KU, to be interlaced ; to be crowded ; to 

crowd round. 
WiJiKU, a fat man's manner of walking. 
WiKA, KU (-wisile), to put ; to place. 
Wichikay ha, to be placed. 
WichUa, ku, to place for (another). 
WiKA, KU (-wichile), ku wika ma/garribo, to fix on a 

place where a mo/gamho is to be spoken. 
Wila, ku (-wilile), to take revenge on a third party 

who is not the offender. KurmoUUa mundM 



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YAOENGLISH VOCABULARY 335 

maunlOf to put out one's spite on a third party. 
The noun is mawilo, 

WiLANGA, KU (-WILASILE), to Call. 

Wilanjika, ku {-wilanjiche), to be called. 

WiLicHiLA, KU, to surpass. 

WiRiGA, KU (-wirije), to wrap up. 
WUijilUa, kuy to wrap up in. 
Wirigcma, ku^ to come together, of a crowd ; to be 

all gathered up into a ball. 
LiwUijUilay kuy to enshroud one's self in. 

WiRiGANA, KU, to roll up into a ball. 

WiUKU, stooping down. 

WiLiKULA, KU, to boil up, as water at the foot of a 
waterfall ; to roll up in masses (of clouds) ; to 
come in volumes. 

WiLiNGA, KU, to make into a ball. 

WiLiSYA, KU (-wilisye), to repeat. 
Wilichikay ku, to be repeated. 
Wilingala, hi, to repeat in close succession. 

WiLiwiLT, black ; blue. 

WiLiwiTALA, KU (-wiliwitele), to be black or blue. 

WiLiwiTULA, KU (-wiliwitwile), to ruu away fast. 

WiLULA, KU (-wilwile), to vomit up food. 

WiLUSYA, KU (-wilwisye), to bolch up wind from the 
stomach, as from a feeling of nausea. The 
Angoni do this intentionally as a polite indication 
of having been satisfied. 

WiMBA, KU, to thatch. 

WiMULA, KU, to unthatch. 

Wind A, ku, to defend a garden by means of medicine; 
to make a place which one has chosen for one's 
garden ; to bum the bush so as to drive the 
game in a certain direction ; to follow up the 
trail of an animal and then surround the place 
where it lies with a net ; to cease shaving (as a 



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336 YAOBNGLISH VOCABULA.BY 

woman does when her husband is on a journey) ; 

to chew a large mouthful at a time. 
WiNDiKA, KU, to fix upon One for one's wife ; to refrain 

from shaving, or putting oil on one's self, while 

one's husband is on a journey. 
Windikida, ku, to return to the wife whom one has 

left. 
WiNGA, KU (-winjile), to drive away; to chase and 

catch a fowl. 
Winjika, ku, to be driven away. 
WiNGAMU, expressive of rolling over. 
WiNUKA, KU, to go over the top. 

Winmycbt ku, to put over the top. 
WiBiMA, KU, to flow fast (of water); to be bitter; to 

give a loud report (of a gun). 
WiRiMALA, KU, to be of rounded form. 
WiSALA, KU (-wisele), to be old and worn out, 
-wisi, fresh ; green ; new. Nguo jajiwisi, new cloth. 

Manyom gamawiai, green grass. leogosi yevnsi, 

unripe fruit. 
WisiKALA, KU (-wisikele), to be green and fresh ; to 

be new ; to be damp. 
WisiKASYA, KU (-wisikesye), to screw the face as a 

child does in beginning to cry ; to show signs 

of rain ; to assume a friendly attitude towards 

one. 
WisuBLi, KU (-wisuchile), to be highly fevered. 
WiSYA, KU (-wisisyb), to half cook anything and lay it , 

aside. 
WisYAWlSYA, KU, to screw the face (as a child does in 

beginning to cry) ; to show signs of rain. 
WiTA, KU, to throb. 

WiTUKO, expressive of falling into a trap. 
Wiu, jealousy; more especially jealousy between 

women. 



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YAO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 337 

WiwiLA, Ku, to blow with the mouth. 

Wiwiwi I throbbing. 

WoGA, fear. 

WoJOLA, KU, to force one's way through the tangled 
bush. 

WoMOLA, KU (-womwele), to take a piece out of any- 
thing. 

WONA, KU (-WENi), to SOO. 

WoTveka, hu,iohQ seen ; to appear. 

Wonechelay ku, to be visible. lAtvmfihi samhano liwo- 

nechele, The hill now is visible. 
Wonegana, ku, to be on good terms with one 

another. 
WoNDOKOSO, stupidity, such as is produced by bhang 

smoking. 
WoNGA, gunpowder. 
WoNJBLA, KU, to tie firmly what has become loosened ; 

to be mild and placid in temper ; to tarry a long 

time in a place. 
WoTOKA, KU, to continue using strong language. 
WowocHELA, KU, to slip down ; to sink down. 
Wowowo, sound of a great many people talking or 

chattering. 
WuGA, KU (-wujile), to cook ugali. The word has 

reference to the method of stirring the thick 

porridge paste, which is done by drawing the 

stirring-rod towards one, not stirring it round 

and round {Kologanya). 
WuKUTA, KU (-wukutile), to blow the bellows. 
WuLuwusYA, KU (-wuluwisye), to smother with 

dust. 
WuMUKA, KU (-wumwiche), to be rotten and smell 

badly. 
WuNDA, KU, to begin to rot ; to teach the customs of 

the people ; to be thrown into the water by the 

overturning of a canoe. 

z 

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338 YAQ-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Wundisya, ku, to overturn aii4 spill (of a capoe) > 

to leave to rot ; to teach. 
WuNDiKA, KU (-wundiche), to ripen artificially. 
WuNDiKA, \v (-wundiche), to fill tl^e mouth with 

water ; to hold anything such as stones in the 

mouth. 
WuNDUKULA, KU (-wundukwile), to uncover. 
WuwuLi, dulness of senses. 
WuwuTA, KU (-wuwutile), to tread dowi^ grass. 

Y. 

Y, is pronounced as the y in " yet." It is a conso- 
nantal i. 

Ya, of, the preposition belonging to the plural of 
substantives belonging to the fourth class. 

Ya kanganika, strongly. 

Yakulya, food. 

Yalo, the private parts of man or woman. 

Yalumo. iSee Chalumo. 

Ya meso, the truth. 

Yamula, going on ahead. 

Ya ngonera, anything old. 

Ya soni, shamefully. 

Yatangula, ku, to collapse ; to loosen the spring of 
a trap that it may not assume a bent form and 
BO become useless. 

Ye-, for ya i^. 

Yeybka, ku, to bind loosely. 

YoNDA, ku, to suck with the lips ; to be very lean. 

Yui^iLisi, lying in wait for. I^ale manyasi wande- 
womde, yuwilisi perepct/. Look at the grass all 
trodden down, people were lying in wait there. 

YuYA, KU (-yuyiye), to swing the skipping-rope ]|:*oi:^id 
and round one's head. 



by Google 



PART III 

ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 



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This vocabulary is not meant in any way to give an exhaust- 
ive list of English words rendered into Yao, but only those in 
common use, to facilitate the acquirement of the language. It 
should be used, therefore, only in connection with the Yao- 
English vocabulary in Part II. 



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ENGLISH- YAO VOCA 



Abandon, leka. 

Abdomen, chitumbo ; (above the navel 
Abide, tania sigcda. 
Able, pa komhola ; ability, lunduf uki 
Abode, kumangwao ; to change, sama 
Abound, chuluka, tupa ; full of, gwmhi 
About, ya, sya. 

Above, kwinani, j^enani, pachanya. 
Abbase, koola {-kowele). 
Abscess, chUonda ; lipute ; finger, chitt 
Absence, sowa. 

Abundance, vnnji, uchvlusi, topotopo. 
Abuse, tunduka. 

Acclimatised, syowerera m^chilambo. 
Accompaniment of song, chilanga. 
Accompany, pechesya^ longana nao, sin 
Accomplish, mcUisya. 
According to, malinga ni, mpdagay c) 
Account, to give false, namanilaf / 
Recount, kwangali kandu, ya 7nteg 
Accuracy, sight, maltUi ; shooting, lu 
Accusation, mawdechetelo. 
341 



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342 ENGLISH- YAO VOCABULABY 

Accuse, welechetda ; falsely, gogodochela. 

Accustomed, syowerera. 

Ache, poteka. 

Acid, jujuluka ; wawa (bitter). 

Acquaintance, mnasi (pi. cmcLsi). 

Across, to lie, pingvlana, pinjikaria (of two things 

crossing each other) ; to lay, pinjikanyay pingu- 

lanya \ to go, jomhoka (river). 
Action, chitendo (pi. matendo). 
Add, pcmibichila, jonjechesya ; lunda (length) ; wala- 

nga (number). 
Adder, lipiri. 

Addition, in, mhcmihu, pambida, kwisa. 
Addled, sukusa. 
Adhesive, nyamhatUa, 
Admiration, chilapo. 
Adult, juamJcule. 

Adultery, chisembweh, chihdutu, diitote. 
Advance, go in, longolela, svsila. 
Advice, malowe gakwelusya, lipungu. 
Advise, jelusya, peleJca lipungu. 
Adze, sema (-seinile) ; an, chipininjila. 
Afar, kwanaula. 
Affair at Law, mctgambo. 
Affection, chinonyelano, chinonyelo. 
Affinity, ulongo (relationship). 
Afflict, chima, saiosya. 
Afraid, jogopa {-jogwepe) ; make, jogoya. 
After, munyv/ma, pcmyuma ; one after another, juine 

nijuine (persons). 
Afternoon, ligvlo. 

Afterwards, panyuma ; soon, pangakawa mnope. 
AOAiN, saai. 
Age, old, ungwe, ucJiekidu ; aged, -ckekulUy -a kcUa ; 

ages, ndala. 
Ago, long, hcda ; a little, katasi. 



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ENGLlSti-YAO VOCABULARY 343 

AoBBE (on friendly terms), jUana, jinikana; (consetit), 

kunda. 
Agreement, chilango, lilangrzno, masauli ; to make, 

langana malangano, hatawd mdsauti; to break, 

hvlekd malangano, 
AtM at, intention, hlela ; ti^ith gun, jandikd. 
Aimlessly, to go, kwenda wamhape, 
Aik, mhepo (cold). 
Ajar, pemb&neka, kwangauchisya. 
Alarmed lest some sin be foilnd out, litetemuka. 
Alive, -jumi (with prefix). 
Alike, yalumope. 
All, -086 (with class prefix). 
Allow, kunda, leka, (-lesile), kundisya. 
Alter, tivdanya, lekanya, pinduckila. 
Alternately, to place, pachisya. 
Although, TuichiwamunOy nctngulo, natimuno. 
Ambition, uchisu, ndonde. 
Ambitious, to be, tondesya. 
Amiss, to do, ckotochera, socJiehla. 
Amongst, pa^hiliJcati. 
Amulet, njilisi (cloth-bag with medicine); ckipala 

(horn with medicine). 
Amuse, sechelesya, sdngaidsyd. 
Amusement, ung'ando. 
Ancestors, achatati. 
Anchor, kochesya. 
Ancient, -a kola (with class prefix). 
And, na, ni, nipo. 

Anger, lutumbUo ; stir up, nyanyula. 
Angry, tumbila, nyanyuka, nyaluka, chachamhuka ; 

angry with, tumhilila, nyinda; makie angry, 

nyanytda. 
Animal, nyama (for food) ; wild, chikoko. 
AifkLte, chisukusuku. 
Anklet, mkwita (iron); likangald (brass). 



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344 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Anneal iron, jitula. 

Anoint, pahay pahasya. 

Another, juine (person). 

Answer, jitika, janga ; to one's name, jitichisya. 

Ant, white, ucheche ; red, salau ; brown, mbamba ; 

black, mapipi ; nfftimbi (in flying stage) ; queen, 

nakunenyena, 
Antelope, sable, mbcUapi; gemsbok, ngolomhwe; eland, 

mbunju; hartebeest, ngose; koodoo, ndandcUa; 

bushbuck, mbawala ; reedbuck, ndope ; roybuck, 

swakt. 
Ant-hill, lisugvluy chikula (small) ; tunnels, ma- 

somwa. 
Anus, luhundu. 
Anxious, singalUway pwelda. 
Anything, chaigala, chindu, chirigaTia, 
Apart, pachisyepela, kundundvmala, pambcUi, 
Ape, lijanL 
Apex of roof, chituLo, 
Apostle, jv/mdiumetv/me. 
Appear, woneka^ kopocheki. 
Appearance, uloUy chisau^ uivoTiecIie, 
Appease, ieteya, pembesya, ivlasya. 
Appetite for meat, lukowo; for something dainty, 

tauwa. 
Appoint, kolanga ; a day, panga. 
Apprehend, komirday manyilila, jogppa. 
Approach, wandichUa. 
Arab, Mnasala. 
Argue, kutenda makani, 
Arise, jimuka. 
Arm, mkono. 
Armpit, ngwapa. 
Army, to gather, lalika. 
Arrange, Jcolosya (tidy) ; jala (dispose) ; liiiganyay 

longosola (in order). 



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ENGLISH- YAO VOCABULARY 

Abrive, iha ; at, ichila. 

Arrow, mpamha (iron) ; mkioala (wooden) 

chiscmiba. 
Artery, mtctsi. 

Articulate badly, somya (somiye). 
As, as far as, mpaka ; as if, 7npela. 
Ascend, kwela. 

Ascent, cMtundulima (in path) ; chikwesya, m 
Ashamed, tenda soni, kola soni. 
Ashes, liu. 
Ashpit, cJiitutu. 
Aside, ku nduvdumcda, pa chisyepela, pa mhal 

aside, aepuka ; lay, salasya. 
Ask, uaya (-usisye); ask ior^juga. 
Asleep, gona m'lugono, hiwa w/lvgono. 
Ass, bulu. 

Assemble, ikangana, ungana, songana. 
Assembly, lukumbi, 
AasBNT, jitichisija, kunda, chichichisya. 
Assist, kamusya. 
Assistance, to render, pokold. 
Associate, syowekaiia. 
Assuage, pwa (river). 
Asthma, mhumu. 
Astonished, to be, simongma, nyonyomioa ', 

simosya. 
Astonishment, chigaga, chisimongo. 
At, mu, pa, ku. 
Atone, pemhecJvesya. 
Attack, tanjUa (war) ; ulasya (person). 
Attain, ika. 
Attempt, linga. 
Attend, pikana. 

Augment, chuLvya^jonjeckesya, pamhichila. 
Aunt, amao wa/naTidi, akwelume. 
Authority, ulamusi. 



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346 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULAKT 

Autumn. See Season. 

Avarice, udiesi. 

Avoid, chiliuka, aepuchila, ligosa. 

Await, lindUila, 

Awake, kuwa metope ; all night, civesya. 

Away, to go, tyoka ; fair away, kwcmavla, kutalika. 

Axe, chipininjila, liwago, 

B. 

Babe, likandi, kanache. 

Baboon, lijdni ; old, Tftdhimbo ; youtig, mtcdyai 

Bachelor, jueuU, 

Back, mgongo; at one's, munyuma] to lie oti, gona 

higaii ; tuirn oiie's back on, tuTidumddila ; walk 

backwards, kvjenda chitukululu. 
Backbiting, mbindingu, ukamhindingu, uscMene; to 

backbite, sogoda. 
Bad, be, sakah, ; kwdngalumhana, nyahald ; to make^ 

sakasya. 
Baffled, goma (-gomile); dingdlilwa, lundumbilwa. 
Bag, msaku ; for food, chisapo ; of salt, lupinda ; for 

powder, msopelo ; plaited, ligaja. 
Baggage, ndundu, 
BAit, nyambo. 
Bake, pwngcmya mkato. 
Balance, wesani (scales); On the heM, mrvecheyay 

dendechera, hleclieya. 
Baldness, of old age, lidaai ; of shAving, lupala. 
Bale, kopa, teka. 

Ball, mpira ; make into, kamata ; of string, cMpilwa. 
Bamboo, mlasi ; young, mtuwa ; large solid, ngangcUa; 

large hollow, chiulawe. 
Banana, ligombo; butich, mkongai a sirigle clusterj 

chisctgwa; leaf, likwati; flower, chitungaturhgd. 
Banish, winga, topola. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 347 

Bank of river, njengwe ; sand, chilili ; opposite bank, 
list line. 

Baobab, mlambe. 

Baptize, taga mesi, bdtisa. 

Bar of door, mbugcdUo, 

Barb of arrow, lino. 

Bare of \Q2i.vQ% pukutika; bare body, joa chiluchilupe. 

Bark of tree, likowa, lihungwa ; bark cloth, liworido, 
likata (old) ; bark rope, mgoji ; bundle of bark 
rope, chikata; to bark (of dog), guma; to strip 
bark from tree, gwagvla. 

Barrel of gun, mtutu ; of powder, lipipa, selenje. 

Barter to, suma ; to go in search oi, jesya ; to give 
out goods for, lajiaya. 

Base of hill, kwichela, kwiwaiida ; of tree, likola, 
lipata ; person, juakusakala mtima. 

Bashful, lotomala. 

Basin, mbaU. 

Bask, in sun, jota pa lyuwa. 

Basket, small, chitundu, c/melo; large, lukalala, 
chitunga ; with lid, intungwi ; fish-trap, msipu ; 
sifting, lupeta; long-shaped, mtambala ; for 
carrying fowls, chiteletele. 

Bat, lichinji; small kind, chijmtiputi. 

Bathe, ^'o^a; (trans. )yo«ya, kidumula. 

Battlefield, pa mtambo. 

Bawl, gurmla. 

Be, wa. 

Bead, general name, cliwrrm\ string of, lipisya', small 
bunch, msweta; large bunch, chitalakdsi ; neck- 
lace, chinganga; head-dresS of beads like wig, 
chikwawo ; beads tied on to the hair, chitunga ; 
worn round waist by women, miule, mitumbo; 
bracelet, ipiliga. 

Beak, ngoma. 

Beam, ingoinba. 



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348 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Bean, more common varieties, njama, nguTtde, mtesa, 
mbelemendef ngwingvnau, mbtoanda. 

Bear, children, weleha ; fruit, aogola ; pain, pimilila ; 
one who can't bear pain, jtm lutotou; carry, 
jigcUa. 

Beard, 'ndeu, mtisa ; long, msalapa. 

Beast, cliikoko^ chichene. 

Beat, with fist, puta, hunuLa^ kortia, kuwita ; on head 
with knuckles, twanga ; the floor, guguda, beat 
out iron, nyuLvla, syana ; a drum, gomba ; beat 
the bush, aahda ; of heart, pumiaaika ; of pulse, 
wita. 

Beating, liwangula. 

Beautiful, -koto, kusalala; beauty, ukoto; beauti- 
fully, chikotope. 

Because, patipo, pakuwa, ligongo. 

Beckon, kodola, pdUisa. 

Become, wa ; change into, syuka, gcUauka, 

Becoming, to be, wajila. 

Bedstead, movable, chindanda; fixed, uaangwcdi; 
mat, ivgono, lichika ; raised platform for sleeping 
on, chilili. 

Bee, 7iyuch% lenyeny&u ; bee-bread, mhotola ; beeswax, 
lipiUa. 

Beep, nyama, mnou. 

Beer, ukana ; sweet, msunje ; spoiled, ipa ; old, 
chifunde; beer feast, as pay of work, chijao. 

Beetle, water, chinjeranjera. 

Before, paujo, pa rneso ; beforehand, chile. 

Befriend, sungana. 

Beg, juga, chondelela. 

Beget, weleka. 

Begging, ujusi. 

Begin, tanda; beginning, tidando, chitando. 

Beguile, nyenga, kalmrbuchUa. 

Behalf of, in, ligongo lya. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 349 

Behave, ligosa, lijesya ; behaviour, tijende, utame, 

wende. 
Behead, singa. 
Behind, panywma, munyv/ma. 
Behold, lola. 
Belch, geya {-geyiye). 
Believe, pikanichisya ; in, kulupilila. 
Bell, lilomfihcdomha, chikengele. 
Bellows, misaku, chiprxla; to blow, uJcuta ; to bellow, 

twamida, hangula, tongola, koloma. 
Belly, matumbo, chitvmbo. 
Below, past', here below, pasipano. 
Belt, leather, chihowe, mkwandala; cloth, mpango. 
Bend, pinda ; down, jinama ; round, pirula ; a bend, 

mbindo. 
Beneath, past. 
Benediction, chijinicliilo. 
Benefit, chxtkukomiusya. 

Bent, pitidika, pimhitala ; easily bent, ku tepana. 
Benumbed, be, tenda mandindili, jumulay chwe. 
Beseech, chonddda. 
Beside, jm mhcdi. 
Besmear, pakcda; with fat, Tiakanya; besmeared 

with, pachila. 
Betray, pereka ni moMndi, lanjila. 
Betroth, tcmiela; betroth another, tomesya; be 

betrothed, windika; a betrothed, asono. 
Between, pacMUkati, jKikati, 
Beware, lolechesya. 

Bewilder, simosya ; be bewildered, siniongwa. 
Bewitch, log a (-losile). 
Beyond, kupunda. 
Bhang, chamha. 
Biceps, lipuku. 
Bid, farewell, langa ; tell, hdila. 



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350 ENGLISH-TAO VOCABULARY 

Big, -hdungwa ; be, kiUa {-ktusile) ; great, korrumgcda. 

Bile, nyongo. 

Bill, of bird, ngomo ; paper, kalata. 

Billow, litumhela. 

Bind, tawa ; loosely, yeyeka ; to secrecy, jnmindika. 

Bird, chijuni; bird-lime, tUimboUmho ; bird-trap, 

lipetwa, liltwa ; bird-cage, chitundu. 
Birth, hwpagwa. 

Bit, chipiaya ; a bit added to payment, rmsu. 
Bite, Ivma ; bite off, ng'wenya, katida ; of leeches, 

suThdidUa. 
Bitter, wwwa, nycmg'anya^ wirima ; sourness, kanda. 
Black, -piliyu, pilila ; make, pilisya ; blackness, hi ; 

to dye, jina. 
Blacksmith, jtca chipala, juakiisyaiia. 
Blade, of knife, chisamba ; grass, soso. 
Blame, ukawamba ; to blame, weclietela. 
Blanket, ligondolo (coloured) ; likapa (red). 
Blaspheme, soc/ieya, lalata. 
Blaze, kolela ; a flame, lilamba. 
Bleed, sulula ; by cupping, lumika. 
Blend, wanganya. 
Bliss, cause to prosper, jhiichila. 
Blind, tatala; blind man, juakutatala. 
Blindly, pupidipupvM, 
Blister, juguwala ; a blister, litusa., Utuhti. 
Blood, ir^yasi. 

Blood-vessel, msindo, mtc^i. 
Bloom, sipuka. 

Blot, sakasya ; blot out, simasya. 
Blow, of wind, puga-y with mouth, pepela, vdwUa; 

the fire, pepela moto ; the bellows, ukuta misaku ; 

the nose, penga ; be blown away by wind, lukbka ; 

with fist, puta. 
Blue-stone, mlututu. 



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BNGLISH-YAQ VOqABULARY 351 

Blunder, lemwa. 

Blunt, to, jnsa'y to ]3e, -ngatemay chunja', turn t;he 

edge, hunyvla. 
BoA^iD, litahwa. 

Boast, Ukwesya mtima, tenda matapa, tenda lila/ma. 
Boat, wato. 
Bobbin, rijinga. 
Body, chilu. 
Bog, lukcmgangama. 
BoHj, chisy/agupute ; group of boils, mmyuchila \ to 

boil water, teh^a ; to be boiling, tokQta^ tutimdla^ 

chachmnhuka ; begin to boil, semula. 
Boisterous, Iwanya {-Iwcmyile), 
Bold, juakutirnha mtima, juangajogopa. 
Bondage, ukapolo. 
Bone, liupa, liwalcmgwangwa. 
Book, kalata, chikalata. 
Boots, ikwakwata. 

Border of country, mpika ; cloth, mkago, mhali. 
Bore, poola (powele) ; of insects, pukuswof. 
Born, pagwa. 

Borrow, jasima ; goods for barter, kongola. 
Bosom, pa mtima. 
Both, wana wawili. 
Bother, sakcdisya^ tanda. 
Bottle, lisolosolo ; basket-work, chisisUi. 
Bottom, pasi pakwe. 
Bough, Ittambi. 
Boulder, Iwala, litunguwe. 
Bounce, rebound, cliam^a. See Boast. 
Bound, sumha ; of ball, chanja. 
Boundary, m^lile, mpika. 
Bow, ukunje (pi. mxikunje) ; rainbow, ukunje ; string 

a bow, hung a j bowstring, lusinga. 
Bowel, matumho. 
Bowl, mhale. 



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352 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Box, libweta, haaa. 

Boy, maongolOf mclianda ; boyhood, uchanda. 

Bracelet, iron, likwtnjUi ; plaited grass, ckigombe ; 
ivory, liJcosa ; elephant hair, lusinga ; flat, lipa- 
pati. 

Brain, tUiUu, 

Bran, masete, niatimba ; coarse, inasapi. 

Branch, hiamhi (pi. nyamhi\ 

Brass, chikungu. 

Brave, limba mtima ; ukcUi ; bravery, chilttmelume. 

Bread, mkato. 

Breadth, chitipa ; of cloth, chitando. 

Break, temeka ; to pieces, haaa ; across, temangida^ 
noko8ola ; string, kutula ; break through, sotola ; 
break off, pemUa, nujnda ; break easily, nyopo- 
la ; break down a wall, gumula ; break an agree- 
ment, hka. 

Breakfast, yahilya ya kundawiy susula. 

Breast, liwele ; of animals, chidali. 

Breath, lipase. 

Breathe, pumula; heavily, pumasika^ breathing, 
mhtmiu. 

Breed, to, p<yngola. 

Breeze, mpepela, mhungo. 

Brew, kolojda. 

Brick, njerwa. 

Bride, rrdooka. 

Bridegroom, mlomhela. 

Bridge, built, ulalo (pi. malalo); a single tree, 
ugogo. 

Bright, mbe ; after rain, mesya {-mesisye), 

Bright's disease, chinyda. 

Brim, lukomo. 

Bring, tola (-tosile), ika ni — , jigala ; bring back, 
v^hisya. 

Brink of river, njengwe. 



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ENGLISH -YAO VOCABULARY 353 

Brittle, techetuka, pokosoka ; brittleness, mtechetu. 

Broad, chana chitipa. 

Broken, of the voice, wecheta mcdendere. 

Bronchitis, liuiidika. 

Brook, kasulo. 

Brother, his, akvZu ; her, mlumhu ; his younger 

mpwao ; brother-in-law, alamu ; kinsman, mlongo. 
Brow, pausyo. 

Bruise, chunyunday kanyata. 
Brush, pukuta ; a brush, lisache. 
BtBBLE up, tutuma, tokota ; bubbles, mambwimbtfn. 
Buck. See Antelope. 
Bud, chitumba. 
Buffalo, njati. 
Bug, 'iigunguni. 
Bugle, lipenga. 

Build, ta/wa ; a large house, livla. 
BuLB^ chitupa. 
Bulge, nvmiba. 
Bull, ng^ombe ja mkambako. 
Bullet, chipolopolo, conical, Ttamlembwe -, spherical, 

njamia. 
Bunch, grass for thatch, mbutu ; of maize, likoleko ; 

of beads, maweta ; of bananas, mkonga. 
Bundle, chitutiUe, lipukusiy msigo ; grass, litita ; 

sticks, chitenje ; bark -rope, chikata. 
Burden, ndundu ; to be burdened, sitopelwa. 
Burial, uwUo, 
Burn, joch ; to burn, kolela ; be burned, pya {-pile) ; 

burned out (of a fire), silalay lita; smell of, 

chiwaunle. 
Burrow, sola paai ; close to surface, jeluka ; a burrow, 

mwisyo, uUmga, 
Burst, of a gun, kwetemula ; of seam, totokuka ; of 

cloth, papuka ; of buds, clia, gopola, aipuka ; of 

abscess, tuinbuka ; of bubbles, pwa. 



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354 ENGLISH-TAO VOCABULARY 

Bury, jasa, similisya. 

BuRYiNG-GROUND, malemhe, 

Bdsh, likoTide ; a plant, liukuUt ; dense, ukweti. 

Business, masengo. 

But, namhoy akawe. 

Butt, of spear, chisopi. 

Butterfly, chiptdi^ptUwa. 

Buttocks, matako. 

Button, libutao. 

Buy, aumuy sumana ni. 

Bypath, mlamba. 

Byre, lichinga. 

C. 

Cackle, kongondeka, tetda, kukujila. 

Cage (coop), chUundu ; for carrying fowls, ahUeletele, 

Calabash, chitumha, mhonde. 

Calf, mwcma che jica ng^omhe ; of leg, Ivsonjo, 

Calico, Tiguo ; white, mlskano ; red, rrUangali ; blue, 

chinyong* onyo. 
Call, wilanga {-wUasile) ; give name to, ta (-tele) ; 

call upon (invoke), kolanga ; summons (workers), 

lalika. 
Calm, ha/ta ; of heart, tula paei. 
Calumny, mseche. 
Camel, ngamila. 
Camp, on journey, chigono. 
Canal, hikoloma. 
Candle, nyali. 
Cane, mpicJii, aimbo ; sugar, mlungu ; bamboo, 

mlasi. 
Cannon, msinga. 
Canoe, ingcdaway wato (pi. mawato)^ likurvgwa ; bottiom, 

lUvwa ; large, likalfiwa. 
Canvas, likamiambo ; chiguduli. 



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ElNGlilSH-YAO VOCABULARY S56 

Cap, cloth, chisoti ; beads, chikwao ; fez, msidi ; large, 

chisindi ; white cotton, chiJcopiya. 
Gaptiye, jiM m^miJcole. 
Caravan, wa vnHuteiido. 
Cabe, heed, lolechesya ; take care of, sa,mcdila ; put 

into another's care, sachisya ; carelessness, 

mbwaju; sawa. 
Carry, jigala ; in the axma, jangata ; carry on the 

back, weleka munyuTna', under the arm, kwa- 

pata ; two together, jigasyana ; carry a load on 

a pole, kunga. 
Cart, gareta. 
Carve, lernba, sokota ; on stick, siga ; hollow out with 

chisel, cherega, sojiga {-sojijile). 
Cassava, chinangwa ; cassava flour, mtaThdasya. 
Case of, in, mtemela. 
Cask, of powder, lipipa ; small, serenji. 
Cast, ponya ; a net, tega. 
Castor-oil, mhcdika ; crushed^ mnaka. 
Castrate, chela. 

Cat, black, ckome ; grey, chiulm. 
Catarrh, loaoso. 
Catch, a ball, janga ; fish, tanjiaya, loposya ; what is 

falling, chinjika ; sight of, kvlola pisya ; up in 

speech, pyatangula. 
Caterpillar, liuTigu, 
Cattle, ng^ombe. 
Cattle-shed, lichinga. 
Cause, for acting, ligongo ; of quaa^rel, lika/wamba ; 

to cause to do, tesya. 
Cave, mhanga. 
Cease to do, leka ; cease work, welvJca ; come to end, 

mala. 
Centiped, njelenyenye, lijongolo. 
Centre, chUikati, 
Certainly, eti tu. 



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356 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Chaff, niatimha \ maize, masapi ; mapemba, mapusi ; 

rice, masokolikoko. 
Chain, unyolo (pi. nyolo), lutambiche. 
Chair, chitengu^ kandea. 
Chamber, chikolosa. 
Chameleon, ncdwii. 
Change, thidanya ; transform, syuka ; one's mind, 

pitikvJcay weseka, pinduka mtima ; one's abode, 

sama ; one's clothes, lipindvXa. 
Chant, chiranga. 
Character, nature, upagwe, mhagwilo ; fame, lu- 

mbili. 
Charcoal, inakala. 
Charge, of powder, msindo ; take charge of, lindilila, 

samalUa. 
Charm, chilagu, njUisi, 
Chase away, vnnga, topola. 
Chat, kungvluka. 
Chatterbox, chigwagwa. 
Chattering, of teeth, chinganga. 
Cheap, changali mteivgo, changanonopa. 
Cheat, ny&nga^ Uiwhusya ; a cheat, jua vlamha, 
Cheatery, chingengo, vlamha. 
Check, of finger, likanyata. 
Cheek, pa chijeje. 
Cherish, nonyela, sakichisya. 
Chest, pa mtinia. 
Chew, tauna (-taunne) ; chewed sugar-cane, mswaga ; 

chew tobacco, lya chikambi. 
Chicken, liwiwi, kakuku. 
Chide, kalipa, jamiuka. 
Chief, mchimweiie^ amwenye, msyene; chieftainship, 

icehi7nwe7ie. 
Child, mwanache, mwana ; newly-born, likandi ; child- 
bearing, uwelesi. 
Chill, chisisila. 



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BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 357 

Chin, chipunde. 

Chink, chipowo, lipesa. 

Chip, lipato, chipalamandu ; to chip, moni/olcf^, penyula 

{'penyuwile) ; chip off, pattda. 
Chisel, njelelo. 
Choke, of weeds, nyolosya. 
Choose, sagtUa ; a wife, torna ; a site, lagulila. 
Chronic, of disease, pimilUa. 
Chyle and fseces in intestine, tduhusa. 
Cicatrix from burn, ndundi. 
Circuit, to make a, wanula. 
Circumcise, umhcda, sichita. 
Circumstances, in these, w;e utende ^wo; sai ino ino ; 

in what circumstances 1 saiapi ? 
City, miosis msinda. 
Clap the hand, gomha w!yala> ; hwata (-Jcwatile) ; in 

token of agreement, gomha clianja ; cl^^ping the 

hands, lukoi. 
Class, kind, lukosyo. 

Claw, lukose (pi. ngose) ; of crab, ligongwa. 
Clay, utope ; black, msilo ; red, katondo ; to tramp 

clay, ponda. 
Clean, awejeaya^ pukuta ; teeth, sokonyola ; grass, 

pasa ; cotton, chela ; a gun, kvAila ; cleanliness, 

uswejelo ; whiteness, unyunyu. 
Clear, mbe, languka ; water, lenjda ; clear up, cha ; 

the path, petula, wanda ; the ground, chochola ; 

one's throat, chirimula. 
Cleave, walida, sala; cleave to, nyamhatila. 
Cleg, liguwo. 
Clench the fist, umbata. 
Clever, kalamuka, punda ; cleverness, vlala^ makala- 

muko. 
Cliff, lichenje. 
Climb, kwela (-kwesUe) ; nonela (-anonele) ; climbing, 

nona. 



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358 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Clod, litupi. 

Close, shut, ugala ; fist, umbata ; eyes, sisina ; close 

up (box), pidana ; stop up, siioa ; close to, mgu- 

lugulu. 
Closet, chikolosa. 
Cloth, nguo, likamamho ; bark, liuoondo ; blue, chi- 

nyoTig'onyo ; red, mlangali ; old bark-cloth, lika- 

ta ; old calico, masanjcUa ; Arab cloth, chirewcmi. 
Clothe, wecha {-weckiche) ; put on clothes, v^cda 

(-wete) ; take off, ula {-usUe) ; clothes, ycCkuwcdUa ; 

change clothes, lipinduia ; old clothes, matapvxUay 

mdsanjala, wiadla^ rrniga^'wisa. 
Cloud, liundc; cloudiness, nyoto, luunde. 
Club, chimhonga. 
Cluck, with tongue, kodola. 
Clump of trees, mseso. 
Coal, majpala. 

Coast, the, kumanga, mpika. 
Coat, malaja, mcdota ; waistcoat, chisubao. 
Cob, chisonde. 
Cobweb, lundcmdcmihuli. 
Cock, tamhala ; young, ndembe ; cock a gun, tega ; 

cock's comb, lichocholoh, chingongongoli ; spur, 

chingalimba ; crow of, kongondeka, tangola. 
Cockroach, mbeu, 
Cocoanut, Ungole, 
Cocoon, chikalakala. 
Cohere, nyamhatila. 
Coil round, sye^nga, wiriga. 
Cold, mbepo, chisisira, sisima ; intense, chikwenya ; 

cold place, chisisimhepo ; a cold, liundika ; become 

cold, pola ; coldness, si ! usisimu. 
Collapse, yatangula. 
Collect, unganya, ikaiiganya, songanya ; into a heap, 

kola ; of persons, songana. 
Collide, gomhana. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULAEY 359 

Coma, komoka, 

Ck)MB, lisamulo. 

Combat, menyatia, umana. 

Combustion, pya, upyo. 

Come, ika, jisa, jenda) from, uma', out of, hopoka; 

near, wandichila ; together, songarm^ sonffcmgcma, 

kulikana ; to one's assistance, pokola. 
Comely, kuscdala. 
Comfort, tv-sya mtima, tttlcLsya, 

Comfortable, duliisi ; live comfortably, tama dultisi. 
Command, lamvlila, Itdila; commandment, lilamtdo, 

lUa/musi. 
Commence, tcmda ; commencement, chitcmdo. 
Commerce, mcUonda, 
Commiserate, tendela chcmasa. 
Common, wcmiha, wanda. 
Common-sense, mate. 
Communion, chisymjoe. 
Compact, lilangano. 
Companion, mj — (with person, suffix). 
Company, liunjUi, mpingo, likiiga. 
Compassion, chanasa. 
Compel, kanichisya^ kcmgcmichisya. 
Complain, dandaula. 
Complete, malisya; completely, myu, pe, puptdu, 

chimiogo. 
Comprehend, mcmyilila. 
Compress, nyikata, kmiyata, chinyindila. 
Conceal, sisa-, one's self, Usi8a,juwa. 
Conceited, 2^oka, likwesya. 
Concerning, mkut% ya, kwamhaga. 
Conciliate, citengulanya. 
Conclude, mala. 
Condemn, gomeka. 
Condition, utame, upagwe. 
Conduct, to, longolela ; behaviour, utam$. 



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360 ENGLISH- YAO VOCABULARY 

Coney, njechere. 

Conference, luhwmhi, magamho* 

Confess, lijitichisya. 

Confide in, kulupilUa ; confidence, vXiitMo, uLivibe. 

Confirm, limhika. 

Conflict, wengana. 

Confluence, hijondo. 

Confound, susa, simonjesya. 

Confuse, hcdalisya, aanihcvrvganya ; in confusion, haXon 

lor-haMa, ku ; speak confusedly, cliolowcma. 
Congeal, kwewana. 
Conscience, mtima, vmfianyUis^l, 
Consent, jitichisya, kunda. 
Consider, ganisya. 
Console, tamika, tusya mtima. 
Conspicuous, njo. 
Conspiracy, malindi. 
Constantly, jpangcdekakka. 
Constrain, kanichisya. 
Consult the oracle, londola. 
Consume, ^:w/a. 
Contemn, to, nyosya. 
Contend, teyida makcmi, menyana. 
Content, jikuta, lisinga. 
Contentious, jua masuso, juagvlvgiisya. 
Continue, pe, wirisya ; continually, jpangaleka. 
Contort the mouth, mung'unya. 
Contract, ng^orig^onddla^ iiandvpa, awinycda ; contract 

speech, wecheta chidtde. 
Contradict, sisya, susa. 
Contrite, ligamha. 
Conundrum, ndawi. 
Converse, kungvXuka. 
Convert, galausya. 
Convey, jigala, jesya. 
Convict, m<igamho, gomeka, susa ; conviction, ugoma. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 361 

Cook, teleka ; porridge, wuga {-vmsile) ; cooked ready, 

pya ; cook out oil, jenga ; half cook, uya. 
Cool, to be, sisima ; to cool, pola. 
Coop, hen, chitundu. 
Copper, chikungUf mhuwa. 
Copse, maeso. 
Copy, syasya, lolela. 
Cord, lukoiije. 
Cork, (stopper), chisiwilo. 
Corn, wheat, trigu ; Indian, chinianga ; Kaffir, rtia]^- 

mba ; semsem, mkwiya. 
Corner, ndumha, mtepa. 
Corpse, mtembo, 
CoRKECT, jongolela, goloaya. 
Corrode, ligwa mkuo. 
Corrupt, wola, sakaaya. 
Cost, mtengo ; costlj, kula mtev^o. 
Cotton, lut07ije ; prepared for spinning, msweswe. 
Cough, kosomola ; coughing, koso koao. 
Council, lukumhi, magambo ; councillor, mpungu, 

mputi. 
Counsel, liputigu ; to counsel, jon^olela. 
Count, walanga {-walasile). 
Countenance, ngopCy pa vieao. 
Country, chilambo ; outside of village, mlaga. 
Courage, chiaongolo, mtima wakulimba. 
Course, e. g. of bricks, lujili, pi. nyili. 
Court, of village, panganya ; of a house, kuayeto. 
Cousin, maiwani (pi. aaiwam) ; -ship, chiaiwajii. 
Covenant, mcUangano. 
Cover, unichUa ; up, as with earth, ailila ; cover the 

eyes, aiwa ; gun-cover, mdala. 
Covet, piloby ailila ; covetousness, mailili, ulieai. 
Cow, Tig^ombeja mkolo. 
Cowardice, woga, uailu. 
Crab, nyala ; hole of a crab, chikopela. 



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362 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Oraok, ekechenukuka, ycmgoBika, gaia, galuka ; a ciaek, 

Ittga ; crack in bottle, lugcmga ; sole of foot, 

lisilu ; crack, of falling tree, lumba. 
Crackle, tatasika. 

Craft, skill, ukungwi, umisiri ; deceit^ tdamha. 
Cramp, mandindili. 
Crane, chumha. 
Cranium, chikalakasa. 
Crate for fowls, chitdetele. 
Crawl, kwctwa. 
Creature, creeping, chikoko cha kwawchkwauoa ; flying, 

cha gvluka-gulvka. 
Credential, chvmam.yilUo, 
Creep, kvoawa ; of plant, tambala ; a creeper, nUv^ 

ndusi. 
Crest of fowl, chingongongoli, chinyuau. 
Cricket, chijosolo. 
Crime, vl&mwa. 
Crisp, of hair, wewa. 
Crocodile, ngioena. 

Crooked, gongomalaf pimbitala, jnndika. 
Cross, a river, jomboka; a road, tctgcUttkanya ; each 

other, of sticks, pinjikana, pingtdcma ; crosswise, 

m*chitipa mwakwe, chamchitipa ; cross-road, mor 

lekano ; crossr-beam, mgomba ; to be cross, kaUpila, 

gomba ukali, 
Croton-oil plant, msismicmga. 
Crouch down, utama, lasima. 
Crow, likunguiu. 
Crowd, liunjUi, likuga ; crowd round, wijikanycL, so- 

ngangana. 
Crown, head-cloth, lisanda, nduwUa ; of head, peuwo. 
Crucify, pctchika pa Tngomba, wamba pa mgomba. 
Cruel, to be, kalalisya^ rvg'akala ; yaa wanga. 
Crumble down, gv/muka ; as inside of dry potato, 

lagala. 



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BNGLI&H-YAO VOCABULARY 363 

Crumbs, ndikatika. 

Crumple, as of cloth, hwemfibekanya. 

Crunch, ng^ung^una. 

Crush, hanyata ; in pieces, swcmya ; down, nyikata^ 
pyetechesya, chinyindila. 

Crusty, to be, cJialamcmdald. 

Cry, lUa, gumila, guta ; out for, laluka, lakalaka ; of 
beast or bird, tongola ; mourning, mcdilo \ joy, 
luluta ; war-cry, chikuwo. 

Cubit, mkono. 

Cucumber, liaakaka, lingaka. 

Cud, yakvlya ya kvhikvZa, 

Cunning (skill), ukungvyi ; be cunning, kalamtcka. 

Cup, mg<w ; china, mdAJumu ; cupping-horn, cJmioi ; at 
end of stick, luwiriga. 

Curdle, chesuka, vmnda, kwewa, kwewcma. 

Cube, poUiy poaya. 

Curiosity, chakvlapisya. 

Curl, of a leaf, swinyaZa ; of hair, wirigcma. 

Current, vyirima. 

Curse, Iwesa ; curses, maliveso. 

Curve, jnnda. 

Custard apple, Uposa. 

Custom, mtengo, mayungu ; according to custom, mpela 
kusyowerera. 

Cut, sichita, tema, kcUa ; divide, gawanya ; carefully, 
siga ; close to roots, sengula, siniMa, utula, chu- 
wa ; fell, kanga, kang'anda ; branches of tree, 
sandula ; of shades of setting sun on tree, kapUa ; 
a slice, chechvla ; into strips, hnga ; into pieces, 
katanyakatcmya ', almost through, ning^ana'y 
crosswise, kan^gamda ; open, turnhda ; patterns 
on head, sijilUa chUeTnba; the hair, nyonyola', 
the throat, ainga ; a cutting, mheju. 



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364 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

D. 

Dab, tomeka. 

Dagger, mkcdo, chipvZa^ chimaje. 

Dale, litiwi, chiwata. 

Dam, aiwa. 

Damp, chisisira, chinyesi. 

Dance, ina {-inile) ; about, jangcda ; a dance, ung^asi, 
chindimba. 

Danger, upandu ; dangerous, -na upandu ; be danger- 
ous, jogoya. 

Dangle, Uleya, 

Dark-colourbd, -pUiyu ; darkness,* chipi ; thick dark- 
ness, chipi totolo ; to become dark, kuswa. 

Darn, iota chigajigaji. 

Date, time, lyuwa, katema ; tree, kanjesa 

Daughter, mwanache juamkongwe ; daughter-in-law, 
akwego. 

Dawn, to, cha (-chele). 

Day, lyuwa ; daybreak, kucha ; daytime, mitsi ; all 
day long, lyuwa tetetete ; daily, mowa gosepe ; 
after to-morrow, mtondo; two days after to- 
morrow, mkucha ; three days after to-morrow, 
msinga. 

Dazzle, nyesima, chenga. 

Deaf, -ngapika/na ; deafness, chiuli. 

Dear, price, -na, mtengo ', dear me ! ndiyojpe. 

Death, chiwa, kuuwa. 

Debt, mangawa, magongo, ngongole. 

Decay, wola {wosUe). 

Deceit, vlamha, ngunga, chinyengo, vlyalya. 

Deceive, lambuaya, tenda ulamha, kwaga {-kwajile). 

Decide, a magambo, lamula magamho. 

Decompose, wola. 

Deep, kwendesya, sokoka (sokweclie) ; deep water, 
mlivn. 



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ENGLISH- YAO VOCABULARY 365 

Deer, ndandala. 

Defeat, topola, witiga. 

Depend, liwinjila. 

Defile, aakaaya ; defilement, usahwa. 

Deflect, sepuka. 

Deformed, lemala, punduka ; by leprosy, tungcda. 

Delay, kawa, kokowa ; cause to delay, kawisya^ che- 
resya, cJiec1ielu8y§L, syereusya. 

Den, rr^anga. 

Dense, overgrown, utala. 

Deny, kana, jima. 

Depart, tyoka. 

Depth, kwendesya. 

Derision, cliaiiache, chiwilo, chipongwe; to deride, 
lalatUa. 

Descend, tuluka ; steep descent, lichenje. 

Desert, lipululu ; deserted village, masame. 

Desire, sosa, saka^ pUa ; a desire, rmangu, lukowo. 

Desolate, to be, -jika. 

Despise, nyosya, nycdapa. 

Destroy, jonomga (-jonasile), paaula, sahalisi/a; de- 
struction by war, cMpasupasu. 

Detain, sigasya, kawasya. 

Devastate, pasuh, ; devastation, cMpasupasu, 

Dew, Tnangamie; dewlap, chilewalewa; beat off dew, 
kupida. 

Dexterity, in shooting, luwaso. 

Dhow, chombo. 

Diaphragm, mawamba-ngoma, 

Diarrhcea, chisiula, chiuhida. 

Die, uwa {-wile), similila ; die out of fire, ailala ; die 
suddenly, uwa chikomo. 

Differ from, lekana, tindana; make difference 
between, tindanya ni- ; in different places, pakwe 
pakwe ; for there is no difference, pakuti pangale- 
kana. 



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356 ENOLI8H-1PAO VOCABULARY 

Difficult, nonopa (-nonwepe), -nonono ; too difficulty 
lem<i ; to please, tindisya. 

Dig, sola (sosile) ; dig deep, solesya, kapula, sindimu- 
kuLa ; dig out, chaJcapula ; unoover, ukiUa ; dig a 
hole with stick, chokopola. 

Diminish, nanduya, pungiUa. 

Dimness, nyoto ; of sight, ngungUy ndandagasi. 

Dip, pamba ; in water, chuwika, chuya. 

Dirt, usakwa ; to dirty, pilisyay sakasya ; be dirty, 
likwanjila. 

Disagreement, makani. 

Disappear, gwoda {-gwasile), similila ; b^iind some- 
thing, winuka ; sudden disappearance, gweregvyere, 
ndu. 

Disarrange, aahalisya, sapanganya. 

Discontent, udandausi. 

Discover, to, simcmay sirbgcma. 

Discuss, tatawcma, wecheta. 

Discussion, Tnagambo. 

Disease, chilwde. 

Disgrace, mchesela ; disgrace one's self, liienda mcke- 



Disgust, chinyalakato. 

Dish, mbcUe. 

Dishonour, jaluaya. 

Dislocate, kulunyvkiika. 

Disobey, kana ; be disobedient, pwanya ; disobedience^ 

ukani. 
Disorder, in, ku, pinjiripinjiri ; to be disordered, 

sapangana. 
Disperse, purilingana, pwilinganya. 
Displeased, nyilUika. 
Disposition, upagwe. 

Dispute, makani ; to dispute, tenda makani. 
Disrespectful, to be, chembtUzcsya, jakisya ; towards 

neighbours, chvmbonaTW, 



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EN<SLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 367 

Distant, talika ; from each other, tcdikanyana. 

Distinctly, wecheta ichenerve^ speak. 

Distress, hvlaga ; be distressed, aakalika. 

Distribute^ peleganya, sapulanya. 

Disturbance, make, lakanya. 

Ditch, lukoloma. 

Dive, tiwila, kapila. 

Divide, goAjoanya ; a fowl, hachulanya ; divide out, 

sapulanya. 
Divine, londola chisango, wewetu. 
Divining instrument, chisango. 
Dizzy, tenda luTngumbisi, chisyungusyungu. 
Do, teTida {-tesih) ; do work, panganya masengo. 
Dog, mbwa; wild, lisogo. 
Dominion, uchirmjoene. 
Donkey, irulu. 
Door, litanga ; doorway, pa mla/ngo ; small back door, 

chitupa ; door fastener, mbv^^Uo. 
Double-faobdness, mbindingu. 
Doubt, be in, wanickisya, kangachiya ; doubting, ma- 

gamigam,^ liwamhoa/ni. 
Dove, njuwa, 
Down, pasi ; down-hill, kwiwanda^ kwichda ; of bird , 

cheuje. 
Dragon-fly, atomholomho. 
Draw, uta ; water, teka ; write, lemba ; along the 

ground, kwekweremya ; one's knife, swekula ; 

teeth, umya^ twpula. 
Dream, lisaga/mih ; to dream, sa^amila ; interpret a 

dream, saga/mukula. 
Dregs, senga. 

Drenched, be, nyowa ; of animal, pongolwa ; drench- 
ing, chululu. 
Dress, cliakuwalila. 

Drink, ng^wa, mwa ; give to drink, mhchesya. 
Drive away, tiaya, wi/nga, topola. 



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368 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Drizzle, melemenda, ula jati wawawawa, jati inerime- 

rimeri. 
Drop, lindondo ; to drop, of water, kusidula ; let fall, 

kylu2m8ya. 
Droppings (dung), mchimba. 
Dropsy, Tidaka; intestinal, mhulu, jimhan/gana. 
Drought, chircda. 

Drown, to, twinichisya ; to be drowned, mUwa. 
Drum, ngoTna ; large, lilomhe, likunda ; small, njoma, 

chinganga ; war drum, sonjo ; stand for drum, 

chisukasuka ; to drum, gomha ngoma. 
Drune, koMwa ; disorderly, leaa ; drunkard, mlevi ; 

drunkenness, ulevi. 
Dry, -jumu ; jumula, lagala (-lagele) ; dry up, of dew, 

pukuta ; to dry in the ^wa^janika ; dry at fire, 

jatusya ; dry land, kumkuli ; of tears, pwela ; dry 

season, chau. 
Duck, libata, liwata, 
Dulness of senses, wuumli. 
Dumb, juangapawecJieta. 
Dung, utogole, vlukuaa ; of birds, chitotosi ; dunghill, 

chitutu. 
Duodenum, chiulawinji. 
Dusk, to be, swa, kuswele. 
Dust, luundu ; shake . out dust, kung'unda ; to dust, 

pukuta ; lay in the dust, vluusya. 
Duty, niasengo, chakwmbajUa mundu. 
Dye, to, chesida, jina. 
Dysentery, chiukiUci, chisiula. 



E. 

Each of them, wosepe juirie juine. 

Eagle, the fish-, ngwasi ; large hawk, nyanga. 

Ear, lipUikanUo, liioiwi ; of corn, liscbche. 



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ENOLISri-TAO tOCABULiHY 369 

Earring, brass, chituwa, ndolo ; to piercei the ear, 

tolola, 
EartS, litaha. 
Earthquake, chilurvgu. 

East, ku likukopoka lyuwa, hu likuUma li/uwa. 
Easy, -nganonopa. 
Eat, lya (-lile) ; eat to excess, susukwa^ nyela, sinda, 

simambala. 
Ebony tree, mpingo. 
Echo, ncmialowe. 
Edge, of knife, uuji ; cloth, mJcago ; t6 placet on edge, 

vnka mchisegambali. 
Edible, ligwa. 
Eel, ngunga. 
Egg, lindanda, litaji, lilcong' onda, Ujele, liwumhi ; egg- 

shel>, liJcasi, likohwa ; addled egg, lisisi/a. 
Either, na/muno, nachiwamuno, kcmga. 
Eland, mhunju ; large, licheko. 
Elastic, namhuka, nyohmhoka. 
Elbow, chisinjino. 
Eldest of family, juamtasi. 
Elephant, ndembo. 
Elevated, to be, nyanyama. 
Elsewhere, kwine. 
Embank, lUonga. 
Empty, to, kusvla ; empty-handed, lidele, yalape, 

mtwetwetwepe. 
Enclosure for women's "huts, kusyeto, kuchimbundi. 
Encourage, chisya. 
End, mtepa ; at the, pambesi ; pioint, lusonga ; end of 

a house, Tidumba jc^inandi. 
Endure, last, twmilisgay pimilila. 
^HEM.Y, jiuimagongo. 
Enjoin, lidila, salUa, 
Enough, jenela ; not enough, penembela. 
Entangled, to be, kolekaTia. 

b b 

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370 ENGLISH- YAO VOCABULARY 

Enter, jinjila. 

Entertain, aamaliiay aechelela. 

Entice, nyenga, Jcopa ; entice from his home, Jcomya, 

tokosa, nyenyeaya. 
Entrance, gateway, chipata ; to village, chikomo. 
Entwine, syenga. 
Envy, maungo, uohiau. 
Epidemic, chitopa. 
Epilepsy, mjilinjUi, 
Err, lemway Uwa, soya. 
Escape, kvlupuka. 
Especially, munomwiio. 
Espoused, tomdwa. 
Euphorbia, ngv^esa. 

Even, nanguloy nachiwamuno ; even although, namose. 
Evening, ligvlo. 
Everywhere, posepe, mosepe. 
Ewer, luulo. 
Exalt, kwesya. 
Examine, linga, lolechesya. 
Example, chisyasyo. 
Exceed, litowa, pundanganya. 
ExCELL, sokoka, punda. 
Except, akawe. 

Exchange, tindanya, stumarui ; slaves, womholesyana. 
Excited, papamba. . 
Excrembmt, inanyiy medimbi. 
Excuse one's self, liscUa ; an excuse, pakuLiscda, 
Exhort, chisya. 

Exile, an, jiumibinjiche, jucmitopolwe. 
Expand, tuungvla, sasawHa, chachambuka. 
Expect, lolela. 
Expel, winga, topola. 
Experience, mate. 
Explain, gopolela, gopolanya] explanation, chigopo- 

lelo. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 371 

Extend (stretch), wamba, leuya. 

Extinguish, aima. 

Extract a thorn, somola ; indiar-rubber, pcmyila. 

Eye, liso, pi. meso; of needle, mhugu] eye disease, 

ng^ala] without eyelashes, chesekay eyebrows, 

nguwiJeuwi ; eyelash, lukioimbi; eyelid, chikohwa ; 

to close eyes, sisina; open, siaifiukuka ; poor 

eyesight, vdandagaai, 

F. 

Face, ngope, pa meso ; face to face, ngwcmda. 

Fade, of cloth, svluka ; of flowers, nyala. 

Fail, hpela. 

Faint, komoka ; be faint, lelemuka. 

Faint-hearted, lepetala. 

Faith, chikulupi. 

Fall, gwa ; cause to, gwisya ; down, of wall, gwmuka ; 
in pieces, kwetemula; from height, pakamuka, 
aakamuka; one by one, pakatika; fall out, of 
hair, momoka ; to one side, sondokoka. 

Fame, lunibili, uvnlisi. 

Family, lukosyo ; of one family, wanakajumo. 

Famine, mpupvlvsiy chipiri. 

Famous, to be, sokoka. 

Fan, kupula. 

Fancy, lingalira. 

Far as, as, mpaka. 

Far away, kwcmatda^ kutcdika ; to go, cholima ; to be 
far from, talikangana ', put far away, talichisya. 

Farewell, bid, langa. 

Farther, to go on, susila. 

Fast, to, tawa namasani ; make fast, Ivmhika. 

Fasten, to, tawa^ lumhikanya ; door, pachila pamlar 
ngo. 

Fat, kapa, nakana, jimhala -, oil, mauta. 



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372 bnglish-Vao Vocabulary 

Father, atatiy toese; his wesegwe; father-in-law, 
akwego. 

Fault, to find, jamuka ; faults, yaktieoya, mdgongo ; 
faultless, wangasoya. 

Fear, woga ; to iesir,jogopa. 

Feast, dancing, mangaka, chindimba; matriage, chi- 
kidundine; after work, chijao. 

Feather, long, ndenga ; short, mang^omba ; of wing, 
msimbi, linyunya. 

Feeble, to be, topwana, lep&tcUa, hpotoka, tochomdla. 

Feed, lisya. 

Feel, pilikana ; all over, papasya^ tomasyai powaayd. 

Fell, kariga, tema, tuktdd. 

Fellowship, chisyowe. 

Female, -kongwe. 

Fence, lutenje ; strong, luwagala ; of grass, chiinhuiidi. 

Ferment, lula, chesuka, semula ; beer, stmgunukukai 

Ferret, ngodawango. 

Ferry over, jomhosya. 

Fertile ground, chajUa. 

Fetch, tola (-tosile). 

Fever, chiimsuku ; to have fever, Ikmkat 

Few, -nono, -nandi; to be, rujmdupd; to make, na- 
'fiduya, 

Fez, msidi, 

Fickleness, chipindwpindu. 

Fierce, jogoya, luaa, chinama, gomba ukali ', fierce- 
ness, chisongolo, ukali. 

Fig, Ivkuju ; fig-tree, mkvju. 

FiQtct, menyana^ wmourm. 

File, twpa ; to file, kuta ; fill in, sUikl). 

Fill, gumbasya, tulwmbasya ; be full, gurribala. 

Filter salt, chilika. 

Filth, usakwa. 

Fin of fish, chUimba. 

Finally, pa mbeai. 



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BNGfilSH-YAO VOCABUI.ARY 373 

Find, shigana, sigcma^ jigana, stTnuna. 

Finger, cluda ; first, cka rrdcmjUo ; second and third, 

cka pahati ; little, chc[> nyonje. 
Finish, mala; finish work, toelvJca; well, cJierereka, 

koliga; quickly, hvhmiichika ; a ceremony, sa- 
i nguia. 

Fire, rrioto ; kindle, kolesya ; fire a gun, gomha, itvia. 
Firebrand, Ivmuli, 
Firefly, chmyetanyeta. 
Fireplace, ohisisa. 

Firewood, piece, IvJcwi, luaasu ; bundle, chitenje. 
Firm, %a, liTnha, kmndimala; in one^s opinion, 

chinjirima. 
First, jv>akutcmda. 
Fish, somha ; fishhook, chisopo. 
Fist, suwa ; to strike with, twanga. 
Fit, loosely, jyelepeta; tightly, kcmgcmika; fitting, 

kuwajila. 
Fix, {e.g. with pin) totomeka; upright in ground, 

simika; fix a day, panga. 
Flame, lilamha. 

Flash, mesya, ng^cmvma^ l^pu, koKihi ; of gun, kana. 
Flat, to be, watcmia ; of ground, pachiwata. 
Flatter, kwaga. 
Flea, utitUi, idavnlL 
Flee, tUa ; flight, utila. 
Fleet, to be, chachuka. 
Flesh, mnou ; game, nyama. 
Flit, somia ; from place to place, tyangatycmga, toga- 

ndoga, pya/pyaluka ; flit things, sa/mya. 
Float, jajawala, jelajda ; a float, kamMlombilo, 
Flood, chikumba, liwamhwe ; on river, ndumhulisi. 
Flour, utandi ; of casava, mtandaaya. 
Flourish, tenga tenjela ; put forth leaves, vmihukuttda, 



Flow, jirkna. 

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374 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Flower, ulua (pi. malua). 

Flute, chitolUo. 

Flutter of wings, pupujUa, 

Fly, to, gvXuka ; housefly, menibe ; hippo, liguo. 

Foetus, lUusa. 

Fold, galambiUa ; fold up, pinda, tandukvla. 

Follow, kagula, kuya, londa. 

Food, chakidya ; for journey, iv^a. 

Foolish, pugwa, sUuka, pvluwaf lowela ; foolish 
person, rmewa ; foolishness, tLsewe, chisilu ; fool- 
ishly, wamhape, pupvli, mwdkulowela. 

Foot, lusajo, lukongolo; foot-mark, likau; of tree, 
pekola ; of hill, kwichela. 

Forbid, lekaaya^ sisya, ka/nisya. 

Force, to, kanichisya. 

Ford, pachiko. 

Forehead, pcmsyo. 

Forest, mseso ; dense, ukweti. 

Forge, chipala, chiukuta, 

Forget, liwalila ; forgetf ulness, chUiwaliwa. 

Forgive, tondowela. 

Forked stick, lipanda. 

Fornication, chilyelye. 

Forsake, Uka. 

Fortunate, Unjela ; good fortune, upile ; bad fortune, 
likimgu. 

Four, mcheche. 

Fowl, nguku ; trussed, chikwcUe. 

Fox, likule. 

Fragments, after meal, makombo, mesa; of wood, 
chipisya. 

Frail, nupuka, tepana. 

Fraud, ulyalyay uUrniba^ ngunga^ chinyengo. 

Free, to, gopola ; a bird, gtUusya ; from work, wdvr 
sya ; freedom, vlukosyo \ gratuitously, lulele. 

Freeman, miukosyo. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABUL/ 

Fresh, -wiai ; of grass, wisikcda. 

Friable^ techetuka. 

Friend, ambosa/ngaf mjangu. 

Friendship, be in, syowekaiui ; chisy 

FBiQB.TEN,jogoya ; get a fright, supu> 

Frog, chiula, naUonda, 

Front, pa mhujo, paujOf pa msso ; g( 

longohla. 
Frost, chiaanL 
Froth, chiulo. 

Frown, tenda sinya, ayuhda. 
Fruit, chisogosi; bear fruit, sog 

sogoaya. 
Fry, kalanga ; frying-tin, lujonjo, lu 
Full, to be, gumbcda. 
Fun of, make, tenda chipongwe. 
Furnace for iron, ng'aso^ chiukuta. 
Furrow in ground, kolola ; in wood, 

G. 

Gall, nyongo. 

Gall-bladder, Tidtdu, 

Game, ngamia ; play, kung*anda. 

Gap, lipesa, mlmgu. 

Gape, jasanuiy chechenukuka. 

Garden, mgunda, chiwando; addi 

mbanje. 
Gate, chikomo, chipata. 
Gather together, of men, aongana^; 

unganya, lokptela, kongolekanya 

kawa, konyola, 
Gemsbuck, male, ngolombwe. 
Generous, to be, sowela. 
Gentle, tvlcda; gently, mtimatv^sya, 
Get, tolay kola ; get out of way, tuki 



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376 BNGL?SP-YA0 YpOABULABY 

Giant, mtanga. 

Giddiness, lusyungusyungu. 

Gift, rrvtuka, mttdo. 

Ginger, chikasu. 

Gird one's self, kwinda. 

Girl, mwali. 

Give, pa^ pdeka ; a present, lagtichisi/a ; a thing ^o be 
vended, lajiaya, • 

Gizzard, Tidutumha. 

Glad, to be, kondwa, sechdela. 

Glance off, to sembenduka ; glance ^t^, lolc^ chikaT^L 

Glean, ulvia. 

Glimpse, to catch a, kulola kwanatipe pisya. 

Glitter, nyesima; glittering, nyeainy^i. 

Glue. See Gum. 

Gnash the teeth, lUuma^r^anya. 

Gnat, small, chiavg'^gu. 

Gnaw, to, memena. 

Go, jenda, javXa, ja ; away, mwanjay tyoka ; round 
about, syungida; out, kopoka; over the top, 
winuka'y to the other side, syetela; beyond, 
punda; past, pita; fast, chelenga; together, 
longana; in front, lotigolek^, ausUa. 

Goat, rnhusi ; male, tcmde. 

Goblin, ncmdukuwewe. 

Gold, ndalama^ syasichejeu. 

Gong, lupaso. 

Gonorrhoea, chindoko. 

Good, -mhone, lumbaria, 

GooD-BYE, to person going away, ajende; to person 
remaining, a$igale; to ta^e leave, langa. 

Goods, chipanje, 

Grace, chisowelo. 

Grain, hisongolo; steeped for pounding, m$ohoio 
W/chokwe. 

Grand-child, chimkuLu ; -father or -mother, vnhuje. 



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BNGLISH-YAO VOO^BULABY 377 

QliASP, kamitla ; grasping dispositioi^, suka. 

G^ASS, mq^nyasi] marsh, ligugu; fresh green, mopo; 

strong, chisugumbe ; long, liputi ; last year's, 

chilakii over-grown with, utala; unburnt, ma- 

mbala. 
Grasshopper, chitete. 
Gratuitously, liUele. 

Grave, lilemhe ; mound, litvmiha ; house, chirisi. 
Gravy, msuai. 
Greatness, ukvXu, 
Greediness, udiesi] greedy, dodoloka, sv>sv>kwa, liU- 

sya. 
Green, -wUi ; of grass, wisikcdq^. 
Greet, to, komasya. 
Grieve, lila rrCmtima, dandaida. 
Grime on pot, lichUe, 
Grin, chechena ; of skeleton, cltecJienala. 
Grind flour, siaga ; knife, kwangwasya, watika. 
Grindstone, linolo. 
Groan, uvlay chimasika. 
Grope, 'po/poLsya, 
Ground, the, jniBi ; fertile, chajila ; stony, sakaiawe ; 

of quarrel, liwamha^ likawaMxi. 
Group, standing, liunijUi; moving, likuga. 
Grow, kvla ; of plants, mela ; of planter, aogoayqk. 
Growl, tuluma. 

Grumble, dandaiUa, delela^ nyinyilika. 
Guard one's person, e. g, with shield, lichinjUickiaya. 
Guess, a, ndam. 

Guide, longolela ; a guide, ndongola. 
Guiltless, juangali ulemwa ; to be found guilty, go- 

meka ; to prove guilty, gomela. 
Guinea-fowl, Tiganga. 
Gullet, likolongo. 
Gum, malilolUo ; gums, usinini. 
Gumboil, lipute. 



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378 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Gun, tUi; gunbarrel, mtiUu; hammer, chikongoh\ 
stock, lipoiido ; touch-hole, chole, pamhcde ; -cover, 
mdala; flint, liganga. 

Gunpowder, wonga; a charge, msindo ; barrel, li- 
pipa. 

Gut, to, tumhula ; fish, ganga. 

Gutter, lokoloma, 

H. 

Habit, mtengo, msyungu. 

Hail, mataMa. 

"QjiiSL^luurnho (pi. umbo) ; on chest, changcdcmia, che- 

mbembe; hair on body, cheuje; short hairs, 

njina; white hair, uiUi; plaited hair, chiwisa; 

of animals, man^gomba. 
Half, litika. 
Halter, litondolo. 
Hammer, komda, kong^onda, syana; a hammer, nyu- 

ndo. 
Hand, palm of, ligasa ; left handedness, chijcuni. 
Handkbrchibfing, rrdeso ; one piece, litako. 
Handle, of knife, chikumbu; of hoe or axe, mjyini; 

of cup, hikonga ; handless, ngagala. 
Hang up, koUka, pachika. 
Happen, to, woneka ; happen to, wonechela, 
Happy, be, kondwa, sechelela, sangalalay togolela. 
Harass, saiisya, sakalisya, chima. 
Hard, -nonono ; to be hard, nonopa (-nonwepe\ lifnba, 

kwindimala; of skin, chalamandala ; hardness, 

^monono. 
Harden, nonoya ; harden the heart, limbika. 
Harshness, uchimwa, 
Hartebeest, ngose. 
Harvest season, masika. 
Haste, to make, janguya {-jcmgwiye), hulumichika, 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 379 

chachuka, kangamiala; to cause to make haste, 

kuhimisya, cheresya. 
Hat, of stiuW, chipewa ; of cloth, chiaoti ; cap, chisi- 

ndi. 
Hatch, 808ola(-808wele), 
Hate, chima, tindana ni. 
Haunch, chiiga. 
Have, kola (-kwete). 
Hawk, chimhanga ; small, chitotola. 
Haze, in wet season, lipundugvhi ; in dry season, 

uuhi. 
He, this man, jualahwe. 
Head, mtwe ; of spear, chisamfiba ; back of, kundungu ; 

top, peuwo. 
Headman, aayene mirn. 
Heal, posya, ko8ya umi ; (in trans.), pola. 
Health, umi; be healthy, kola umi. 
Heap, ckikwekwe^ liswngu, liluwili; to heap, unjika, 

hwmhiUla ; of stones, longa. 
Hear, pilikana. 

Heat, chitukuta ; of fire, lipuju/ngu. 
Heavy, -8ito ; be heavy, sitopa {-8itwepe). 
Heed to, piUkana ; give no heed to, suya. 
Heel, chindende. 

Height, of person, msingu ; of things, uleu. 
Help, kmausya ; to be helpless, tenguka. 
Helter-skelter, halala halala. 
Hem, to, uwa (-uurile), minika ; hem in, kumika. 
Hemp, Indian, chamha. 
Hen, nguku. 
Henhouse, chitundu. 
Herbage, ma/ukutu. 

Herd, to, chinga, langa ; a herd, likuga. 
Here, akuno, apa ; here and there, pane ni pane. 
Hesitate, dodrnna {-dodweme). 
Hiccough, ngwikwi. 

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380 BNGLISH-YAO VOOABUJJLRY 

Hide, sisc^; one's self, lisisa^juwa. 

Hill, liiumhi. 

Hint, to give, pipiltsya ; with eyes, kupila. 

Hippopotamus, ndomondo. 

Hire, mbote ; to hire, kongola ; hire out, kongosya. 

Hit with stick, puta, kumma; with stone or gun, 

soTna. 
Hob, lijela ; large, ngwemhule, chileka ; to hoe, livyn ; 

hoe for, limya ; in dry season, chochola ; deeply, 

papula, cholima. 
Hog, mbango. 

Hold of, to take, kamvla ; firmly, chinjirirfui. 
Hole, in cloth, chipowo ; in ground, lisimbo ; in tree, 

mhugu ; in rock, mbanga. 
Hollow of plate, msimbo ; to hollow out, cJierpga, 
Home, kumangwao. 
Honey, ^«cA^ ; honeycomb, lisega. 
HoNOUp, to, chimbichisya ; luchimbichiya. 
Hoof, chikotwa. 
Hook (fish), chisopo. 
Hop, jenda njolinjo, 
Hope, lolela. 
Horn, msengo; bugle, lipenga; po\7derhor^, Hwe- 

ngwa. 
Hornet, litendeu. 
Horse, kavalo (Portuguese). 
Horse-leech, lisundo. 
Hot, tukuta, kola mtukuta. 
House, nyumba; round, nyumba msirtia; sq^^are, 

likome; with gables, libanda. 
Hover, syunga. 
How? tdi, saiapi. 
Huff at, to take, tenda mairyilL 
Humble, litimalika. 
Humour, be in bad, nyunyunduka. 
Hump on cattle, chwmhi. 



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EKGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 381 

Hundred, makumi likumi, mwanda (Ht. a gteat 
number). 

Hunger, sola. 

Hunt, to, ulaga nyama ; with dogs, syutusya ; hunt- 
ing-ground, m,^man% mikidi; hunter, mhipa, 
mpahi. 

Hurry, cherenga, janguya, kangamala. 

Hurt one's self, ulala ; another, ulasya. 

Husband, asono, cmyumha ; of two wives, jiui mitala. 

Husk maize, to, pomola ; rice, pwagukt ; ground-nut, 
wcmgula ; sorgham, wita ; beans, kosola ; husks, 
makowa ; of maiz^, mctsete ; hiisky voice, lilowe 
lyelale. 

Hut, nyumba ; watchman's, chilindo. 

Hy^na, litunu. 

Hypocrisy, chinyengo. 



I, une. 

Idiocy, Tnanunu. 

If, na, naga, nawa, mtemela. 

Ill, Iwala {-Iwasile) ; illness, chilwele. 

Ill-luck, likwagu. 

Ill-nature, ngalwe, uchimwa ; ill-Will, lupuso ; to 

have, lusa, tunduka. 
Ill-treat, tawanya, kalaUsya, tundusya, chima, 
' Imitate, landa^ syasya. 
Impudence, chipongwe, chahu, chanache. 
In, mu. 
Increase {tra.ns.), chiduyajjonjechesya; (intrans.), c?bU' 

hika. 
Indeed, ndiope. 
Indistinctness, mbilisi. 
Industrious, kachUila, j^^'^yct- 
Infect, ja/mhuchUa ; be infected, tapula. 



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382 ^ ENGLISH-YAO VpCABULAEY 

Inflate, tuunguka ; be inflated, tuhjumhala, ' 

Inherit, Jiryt^ majumba. 

Injure, lculuchi8ya,puchila ; one* s self, Ivmenyeaya, ulala. • 

Insect, chikoko. 

Inside, mkati. 

Instantly, chitema, \ 

Instinct, Iwnda Vwa chikoko. 

Instructions, to give, lajisya. 

Insufficient, penembela. 

Insult, tukcma^ puvja. 

Intentionally, rmUpe. 

Interchange, tindcmya ; places, pisyorngmia. 

Interfere in quarrel, pokasya, chengulanya. 

Interlaced, kolombikcma ; of branches, tawandawana. 

Interlock, pohnganya. 

Interpret a dream, sagamukula. 

Interrupt, in speaking, temandemanya ; in magambo, 

chisonde. 
Intervals, place at, walaganya. 
Interweave, pichirika. 

Intestines, matumho. ^ 

Invoke, hmibila, kolanga. 

Iron, chisiano ; ore, utcde, mtapo ; iron oxide, ngaina. 
Irreverence, chalusi. 
Island, chirumha', floating, chipiri. 
Isolate, tukusya. 
Itch, upere ; to itch, nyanya. 

J. 

Jackal, likvh. 

Jacket, malota. 

Jamb, to, linyikata. 

Jaw, chipundi. 

Jealousy, wiuy machisu, maungo. 

Jeer, kUatila, 



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BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 383 

Jerk, nyupuka. 

Join a company, lipatika ; together, himbikanya. 
Joint, lupind% makmia ; ankle or wrist, chisukusuku. 
Joke, kwelegula, nang*mnula ] joking, chanachei rribe- 

nje, chipongwe ; joking person, njelengo. 
Journey, tdendo (pi. mcdendo). 
Joy, lukondwa, s 

Judge, to, larmda ; a judge, mputL 
Jump, sumba; jump up, nyamanguka; jumping, 

mbwL 
Jungle, likonde, kvntinjL 
Just now, samfihano, aambano^pano. 
Justify one's self, liwaUmjUa, lisala. 

K. 

Kaolin, njereaa. 

Keep (animals), langa; a custom, kwrnhuchUa rmyu- 

ngu. 
Kbq of powder, lipipa, selenje. 
Kernel, hisongolo. 
Key, liugulilo. 

Kick, a, hicheso ; to kick, chisida. 
Kidnap, chiswamba. 
Kidney, lupio (pi. mbio). 
Kill, ulaga ; a wounded animal, komanga. 
Kind (sort), hikosyo, upagwe; to be kind, tenda 

chanasa. 
King, mchimwene. 
Kingdom, uchimwene. 
Knee, lilungo. 
Kneel, tindiwala. 
Knife, mkalo; single edge, chipula; double edge, 

chirrtaje, mkalo wakutema ku/wiU; handle, chi- 

kumbu. 
Knock, totosya; at door, guguaya) ^oYfn^ patvla. 



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384 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Knot, chilumho, chiundo ; running, chipuluhtchisya ; 

reef, chilumelume; granny, chikongioe; in tree, 

chisupundu. 
Know, manya, manyilUa, 
Kraal (animal), lichinga. 



Laddbk, mdhvoehlo. 

Laden, to be, sitopehoa. 

Ladle, wooden, chikoi ; ladle out, pakula, teka. 

Lair, liuto. 

Lake, nyasa. 

Lame, pundukay lemala ; temporarily, ulala. 

Land, chUambo; dry land, kumkuli; landing-piace, 

pachiko. 
Language, chiwecketo; use bad langiia,ge, sahalisya, 

tukana. 
Languid, tenguka, sakalika. 
Large, -kulungwa ; make, kttsya. 
Larynx, likolongo, Utolomiko. 
Last, to be, Trudichisya ; of duration, gona. 
Late, koAva, ko kowa. 

Laughter, chiseko ; chimwemtoe ; to laligh, seka. 
Lave out, e. g, sand, kopa. 
Lay against, e. g. a wall, jejeka, jegamika ; down, htkty 

goneka ; at length on ground, tamhaluhda ; 

crosswise, pinjikcmya ; lay aside, scUasya, kusya ; 

lay in dust, uLuusya ; a layer, lujUi ; lay eggs, 

tajUa ; lay the grass, wewa, wanda. 
Laziness, vlesL 
Lead, liwela, chumhu. 

Lead, to, longolda ; to lead to (of path), chinga. 
Leap, lisamha ; withered leaves, iswani. 
Leak, sulula. 
Lean, to be, ganda ; over, jinamfiila ; agaiiist, jegctrria. 



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lyi 



ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 385 

Leap, smnha ; of fish, hwasya ; from tree to tree, 

sangasanga. 
Learn, lijigcmya. 
Leave, leka ; leave off, weluka ; take, langa, leave of, 

work, Icmga, 
Left hand, mkono wa mchiji ; to the left, ha mkono 

wa mchiji. 
Leg, lukongolo ; hind-leg, chiiga ; hind-legs, mako- 

Tigolo gakwiiga. 
Leisure, lipesa. 
Lemon, lindimu. 
Lend, jasvma, kongola. 
Length, uleuy length vdse, rrHchUeUf to lengthen, 

leuya; at length, pa mbesi. 
Leopard, chisui, 

Leper, jua matana ; deformed by leprosy, tungala. 
Less, to be, nandupa; to lessen, nanduya, josoche- 

sya. 
Let alone, leka ; let out for hire, kongosya. 
Letter, kalata, bedtia. 
Level ground, to, mwasya, jasasya ; to be level, vm- 

ta>ma, jeluka ; level gun, jandika. 
Lever up, ch/mjamula, nyakula. 
Liberal hearted, to be, sowela. 
Lick, lapita, lamba. 
Lid, chiunichilo. 
Lie down, gona; crosswise, pingidana; in wait, 

jmoilUa. 
Lies, to tell, lamhusya, tenda u/nami. 
Life, umi. 
Lift, nyakvla, nyamula, kwesya ; lift load to head, 

twichila ; lift pot from fire, tegula. 
Light, lilanguka; to light a fire, kolesya; a lamp, 

pamba; make light of, jalusya] to be light, 

jaluka; lighten, mvlika. 
Lightning, njasi, 

c c 



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386 ENGLISH- YAO VOCABULARY 

Like, mpela, chisau ; likely, mpela *ila ; ta like, 710- 
nyela ; to be like, landana, pela ; likeness, cMwi- 
lUiy chisau. 

Limp, tundajUa, timbajila. 

Line, msela, lujUi ; in line, ndandanda. 

Linger, kokowa, kawa. 

Lintel, mapali. 

Lion, lisvrnba. 

Lip, lugomOf lujemo ; lip-ring, Iwpelde, 

Listen, pilikanila. 

Litter, litagandaga* 

Little by little, panandi, panandi; littleness, utiot 
ndi. 

Live, kola umi ; happily, tamfia didusi ; living, -jumi. 

Liver, litoga. 

Lizard, pulundwa, nampopo. 

Load, ndwndu, msigo ; place on head, tmchUa ; load 
gun, sopela. 

Locust, sombe. 

IjOIN, m!chiwfio ; loin-cloth, Mtonga. 

Loiter, kokowa, kawa. 

Long, -Uu ; to be, hupa ; to make, leusya ; long for, 
pUay lakalaka; long ago, kaZakaZa; long after, 
pakvJcawa mnope; long-su&ering, pimUUa ; long- 
legged person, jiia sonjo. 

Look, lola ; for, lolela ; well at, lolechesya: 

Loop, liugu. 

Loose, to be, ywedela, pelepeta, swekena. 

Lose, jasa ; one's way, aokonechela. 

Loss, to be at a, singalilioa, totochelwa, hindumbilwa. 

Louse, I/ujipi (pi. njipi). 

Love, nonyela ; each other, nonyelana. 

Low, of hill, pwatatala. 

Lower, to, tulusya. 

Luck, good, upile ; bad, likungu. 

Lull, tondowa. 



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J 



BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 387 

Lump, of sugar, lipongoloniwa ; of ngali, mtanda, 
mhamu ; in flour, chipongolomwa ; of clay, litupa. 
Lungs, mapupu, 

M. 

Mad, to be, kola lisoka ; kola manunu. 

Maggot, mhisu. 

Maize, chimanga ; core, chisonde ; leaves, makwati ; 

stalk, mpesi, mswaga ; unripe, litimbay litindUi. 
Make, pangam,ya ; ready, panganichisya. 
Male, -lu7ne ; (animal), mkamhako. 
Malice, wanga ; treat with, tundusya. 
Malt, chUungo, 
Man, mundu^ juamlume ', manhood, vlume ; manliness, 

chUumelume, 
Mane, Iwese, 

Manner, utende ; in this manner, we utende'wo, 
Man-stealing, chiswamha. 
Mantis, lisokasoka, ngaka. 
Many, -jinji; be, chtduka, tupa. 
Mark, lemba ; site of a house, lemhelela. 
Marrow, chititi, chitimatima. 
Marry, lomhela (intrans.), hmba (trans.) ; of a woman, 

lilombesya; marry a woman into one's village, 

lowosya ; arrange a marriage, lomhekanya ; mar 

riage, ulombela. 
Marsh, chisipo, chitapwila, 
Marshgrass, ligugu. 
Mast, msati. 
Master, amhuje. 

Mat, mkeka, ugonOy ndanga, lichika,' 
Materials for building, chilingo. 
Matter (pus), uwou. 
Me, une. 
Meaning (sense), mate, chigopolelo, mahimho. 



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38^ ftlJOLISH-YAO VOCABULARV 

Measles, chikuku, lilvmuka. 

Measure (length), mlingo ; (quantity), chipimo ; scales, 

wesani ; to measure, linga, pima. 
Meat, nyarrui ; craving for, lukowo. 
Meddle with, ng*andila. 
Medicine, mtelaf chUagu ; thieving, chitaka. 
Meek, tvlala. 

Meet, singana, simana; on the path, dfdngamtla, 
chingangana ', face to face, simana mandunji; 
meeting-place, 7nasvmanUo. 
Melt, nyenyeka, nyelenyenduka, 8tmgumda» 
Memory, lukumbukumbu. 
Mercy, chcmasa. 
Meshes of net, mapogolo. 
Messenger, mtenga^ mtv/mwa. 
Metal, mtapo. 
Micturate, tunda. 
Middle, pachilikati, mkati. 
Midnight, pakati chUo. 
Mild in temper, tetewcUa, tiUala. 
Milk, mkaka ; to milk, minya. 
Millet, usanje. 

Millstone, under, lisyago ; upper, ngcm. 
Mimic, syasya. 
Mind, mtima. 
Mirror, kaUlole. 
Mirth, chimioemwey chiseko. 
Mischief, wanga, chanaclve. 
Miserable, laga {-lasile), sauka ; misery, nlanda. 



Misfortune, likungu. 

Miss, to, kulvsya ; one another, kidtmibcma, Undana, 

Mist, lipunduguhi, ndcmdagasi. 

Mistake, to make a, kuTtgachisya, kulusya, soya, 

lemwa. 
Mitigate, tondowd. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 389 

Mix, wanganya^ timhanya ; mixed, of words, or seeds, 

wmigawanga, 
MoAK, uula {-VMsile). 
Mock, aocheya, UdatUa, 
Mole, uko. 

Mollusc shell, Ukomhwa. 
Money, ndalaTna, 
Monkey, chitumhiU, 
Month, mwesi; this month, mwesi uwonecke; next 

month, mwesi wa malam, mwesi wine. 
Moon, mwesi ; full moon, Utumha, moonlight, Iwesi. 
Morning, Jmndawi ; very early, kum^sikusiku ; next 

morning, kundanjoi kwakwe. 
Mortar, lituU, 
Mosquito, njenjema, ususu. 
Moth, liptckoputwa. 
Mother, amaoy achikulugwe, kusyeto ; mother-in-law, 

akwego. 
Mould, fungus, ngunguhokuku ; to mould, gumba; 

a mould, chikombole. 
Mound, chitundulimay chikwesya; at grave, Utunda; 

for potatoes, Ututu, • 
Mountain, litwmhi. 

Mourn, lila (-lisHe) ; mourner, ^t^ m'malilo ; a mourn- 
ing, waMlo. 
Mouse, tolo (pi. achitoh) ; field-mouse, lipuku, liindo. 
Mouth, pa komiwa ; of river, pandago. 
Move, a thing, tenganya ; move one's self, tenganyika ; 

about, takataka ; restlessly, uhikuta ; from place 

to place, lawalawa, pichisika ; to one side, sejela. 
Mow, sengvla. 
Much, -jinji, mwcmjinji ; to be, chuluka ; make much, 

chuluya. 
Mud, utop^ ; sink in mud, tapuka ; cover one's self with 

mud, likowerera. 
Multitude, Uunjili. 



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390 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

MuRDBtt, ulasi. 

MuRMURj grumble, dandavla^ nyinyisika. 
Mussel, ngale% 

Mysterious thing, chilengwalengwa, chimamOj chaku- 
lapisya. 

N. 

Nail, msoniali ; of finger, chikalawesa ; to pare, sinda, 

lengtda. 
Naked, makonope, matakope. 
Name, Una (pi. meria) ; to name, ta, jya Una ; adopt 

name, Uia Una, 
Narrow, -a chitipa. 
Native, -a ndamo. 
Nature, mhagwUo, upagwe. 
Navel, chiaou. 
Near, mgvZugulu, pa mhali ; be near to, wamUkana ; 

come near to, wandichila ; bring near to, wandi- 

kanya. 
Neatly, cha mandisa. 
Neck, lukosi. 

Necklace, of beads, chinganga. 
Need of , to be in, aowa, lajila. 
Needle, singano ; of bamboo, chilowa \ for magono, 

kasinje. 
Neighbour, mnasi (pi. achanasi). 
Nephew (sister's son), rmoipwagwa^. 
Nerve, mtasi, msindo. 
Nest, chisusi. 

Net, luau (pi. nyau) ; to east, tega ; to drag, kwetamiula. 
Neuralgia, chilumi. 
New, -a sanibano, -wiai ; to be, wisikala. 
Next week, mlungu wine. 
Nice, to be, lumhana, salala ; nicely, ichervene. 
Niggardliness, mpongioepongwe pe, ukaka, upapa ; be 

niggardly, ^uka. 



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ENGLI8H-YA0 VOCABULARY 391 

Night, chUo ; dead of night, chilo mnope, pakati chilo. 

No, ngwamba, so. 

Nod, in sleep, gwesela ; beckon, kodola. 

Nonplussed, lundumbilwa, singcUilwa, 

Nonsense, ya mtega. 

Noon, mitsi. 

Noose, lipogolo. 

North, kunipoto. 

Nose, lupula -, nose-pin, chipini. 

Nostril, lupula (pi. mhula). 

Notch, panya^ patvla. 

Now, samfihano. 

Number, winji wao. 

Nurse, to, Ula, sunga. 

O. 

Oath, lilumbilo, liwale. 

Obey, pilikana. 

Object, kcma. 

Obliterate, simasyff,. 

Obstinacy, ukani^ masuso ; be obstinate, liya, chalor 

mandala. 
Occiput, kundungu. 
Odour, pleasant, mnunjilo. 
Offend, palamvla. 
Offer sacrifice, taga mbepesi, pesya. 
Often, kavoUi kawUi, mtoto mtoto ; how often 1 kali- 

ngwa ? 
Old, -a kola kola ; -chekulupe ; to be old, chekulupa ; 

worn out, wisala. 
Omen, an evil, mpingu ; to see an omen, wagulilwa. 
Omit, hka, liwalila. 
Once, karno. 
Onions, itunguwi. 
Only, pe ; he only did, agamhih ku tenda. 



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^. 



392 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Ooze through soil, ^Uika, 

Open, ttgula ; an abscess, tvmhula ; a book, sapangvla ; 
the eyes, sisinihika ; a door slightly, pemheneka ] 
an opening, lipesa ; openly, ffCmeso kulola. 

Opportunity, lipesa. 

Oracle, chisango. 

Orange, mlalcmje. 

Orator, rrdendele. 

Order, lamula, sola ; put in order, linganya^ kolosya. 

Orphan, Jua wiifia. 

Otter, kausi. 

Ought, wajilwa. 

Outside, pasa, kusa. 

Overdo, pundanganyay chola^ litowa. 

Overeat, liUsya, 

Overflow, gumhalila. 

Overgrown with grass, utaki. 

Overlap, pwndmiganya. 

Overlook (omit), kupisya, knluchisya. 

Overthrow, pasula. 

Overturn, of canoe, windisya ; a bpttle, j^dkula, lihda, 
gcdausya. 

Owl, liundi. 

Owner, msyene, 

P. 

Pack, longa ; tightly, chinyindila. 
Paddle, ngavi ; to paddle, poddsa. 
Pained, to be, poteka, pweteka ; a pain in side, chi- 

soma. 
Paint, utoto ; to paint, paka. 
Palm (borassus), mgwalangwa ; (date), kanjesa^ uchi- 

ndu ; raphia, miwale ; palm of hand, ligasa. 
Palpitate, gugvsya, wita. 
Paper, kalata, chipeperu. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULAI 

Pardon, tondowela, lechela. 

Pare off, leriga ; the nails, sinda. 

Parent, mnangolo (pi. wanangolo). 

Part, to take away, sapula. 

Partition-wall, lusasa. 

Partly — partly, jjane — pane. 

Pass, a, mpata ; to pass, pita ; h 

through a village, pelenganya, j 

pass through unyago, umbala. 
Paste on, mamatika. 
Pasture, pa IvlUa, 
Patch, chigamba ; to patch, tota chigc 
Path, litala, likondo ; crossing of tw< 

no ; bye-path, mUmiba ; strike a ] 

sya. 
Patient, to be, jemhecheya. 
Paw, chikarribato. 

Pay, TnalipUo, mhote ; to pay, lipUa. 
Peace, mtendere ; make peace, chengiU 

able, litimalika. 
Pearl-shell, ngcdekale. 
Peas, sawawa. 
Pebbles, ngvlungo. 
Peck, to, aopa. 
Peel off, of skin, tomokoka, gwaguka } 

tvJcuka, 
Peer at, lirtgula. 

Peg on wall, chipanda^ chikomboli. 
Penis, liwolo. 
Penitent, ligosa, ligamba. 
People, wandu. 
Pepper, red, sabola. 
Perch, tula. 
Perfect, to, mxdisya. 
Perhaps, kanga, ankawa. 
Permission, to give, kundisya. 



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394 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Perplexed, to be, lundumhUwa. 

Persecute, sakalisya, sausya ; persecution, Ivsausyo. 

Persevere, pimilila ; perseverance, mtau. 

Perspiration, chitukuta. 

Persuade, kanichisya, chisya. 

Pestilence, chipindupiiidu, mpupvXusi, chitopa 

Pestle, mwisi. 

Piece, chipisya ; piece by piece, chechecheche. 

Pierce, soma ; a tin, poola. 

Pick-axe, rigwang'wa. 

Pick up, lokota. 

Picture, chiwUili. 

Pig, ligvluwe ; pig-iron, chikukvlu. 

Pigeon, ngu7ida. 

Piled up, ndundidi. 

Pillow, msamUo. 

Pimple, chilonda ; from insect bite, lipvlumwa. 

Pin, of slave-stick, mchililo, 

Pincer of crab, ligongwa. 

Pinch, to, tona. 

Pineapple, Tianasi. 

Pipe (tobacco), kaliwo, chikololo, chilongo. 

Pit, lisimho ; pit-fall, mwina. 

Pith of tree, chititi. 

Pity, chanasa ; to pity, tenda chatvasa. 

Place, malo, liuto ; to place, vnkoi, ; in different places, 

pakwe pakwe ; to place alternately, pachisya ; in 

order, jala ; on top, aajika. 
Placid, tetewcUa, 
Plague, chipindupindu, chitopa. 
Plain, lUamho. 

Plait, a, litiwa ; to plait, tiwa, pakasa. 
Plant, panda; transplant, pandichila; a plant, liii- 

kutu, mbeju. 
Plaster, to, paka ; the first coating, inata ; the second . 

coating, syasyajUa. 



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ENGLI8H-YAO VOCABULARY 395 

Plate, mbale. 

Play, to, Tig'a/nda ; an instrument, gomha. 

Plead for one's self, liwalanga, lisala. 

Please, to, sechelesya ; be pleased, sechdela. 

Pleura, lipawa. 

Pliable, to be, tepana, tetewala. 

Plight, to be in a, laga. 

Plot, malindi. 

Pluck up, tupula ; a fowl, mesri ; fruit, kawa ; out 

hair, nyonyola. 
Pod, likowa. 
Point, lusonga ; to point at, lanjila ] sharpen a point, 

songola. 
Poison, chaola, ulembe; ordeal, mwayi, 
Pole of hut, central, rnsati, 
Pole-cat, mhendu, 
Polish, to, kuta. 
Polite, to be, chimbichisya. 
Polygamy, kulombela mitala. 
Pool, litanda. 

Poor, lagay totochelwa ; poverty, ulanda. 
Porch, lipenu. 

Porcupine, ndinu ; bristles, mipamha. 
Porridge, ugalif likoko, lumbapa. 
Possess, kola. 
Possible, komholeka. 
Post of wall of house, lusichi (pi. sichi); of verandah, 

luchanamUa (pi. nja/namilii) ; central post, msati ; 

door posts, ugvlilo ; forked post, lipa/nda. 
Postpone, wehnjesya, jembechesya. 
Pot, mpika, chivnga ; for ugali, chiulugo ; narrow- 
mouthed, chijun^u'y potsherd, lujonio) potter, 

mgumbi. 
Potato, mbatata ; leaves, mtolilo ; to pare, senda, 

tnenya. 
Pouch, for bullets, nampapwcdaj chibeti. 



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396 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Pound, to, dry mapemba, twa (-twele), dry imanga, po- 

mola ; steeped imanga, timhvla ; bran, undula ; 

earth, guguda ; fresh leaves, panda. 
Pour out, jita, pu/ngulUa, 
Poverty in dress, usauchi, zdanda. 
Powder, wonga; a small charge, liipato', large charge, 

msmdo. 
Power, machUi ; be powerless, tenguka. 
Praise, chUapo ; to praise, lapa ; in song, lumha. 
Pray, popela. 
Precious, -wa mtengo. 
Precipice, liohenje ; be precipitous, lemala. 
Prepare, panganichiaya. 
Pretty, salala^ lumha/na. 
Prevent, lekasya. 
Prey, to seek, Ivsa, 
Price, mtengo. 

Press down, twinichisya, chinyindila. 
Present, mtulo, mtuka ; to, laguchisya. 
Pride, lilama. 

Priming of gun, vxmga wa pa chikomhe. 
Prisoner, juaantoAJoe, 
Probably, mpela ila. 
Probe, with stick, tonya. 
Proclaim, lulila, aala, lungusya. 
Project, to, nycmywma^ tundumukay nwmha. 
Prominent, njo. 

Promise, langana ; break promise, leka lila/fi^ano. 
Prop up, chingay chinjirichiayaf chinjika. 
Propitiation, chipeinbesyo. 
Proprietor, asyene. 
Prosper, jinichilwa, sichUa, tenjela ; prosperity, uwi- 

Usi. 
Prqtuberance, chindundumtdi. 
Proud, to be, poka, likweaya. 
Provoke, tcmdila. 



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El!^GLIStt-VAO VOCABULARV -^^7 



Prow, of boat, likuho. 

Prune, to, tungulu. 

PuGMiLL, mortar, lituli. 

Pull, uta ; apart, pachula ; out, si 
solola ; along ground, dudulusyc 
chula, kunjukula, kwetemula ; a 
up, tupula. 

Pulpy, soft, -a povm, Iowa. 

Pulsate, tukunya, vnta. 

Pulse, kuwita myasi. 

Pumpkin, liungu (pi. monyu) ; flower 
leaves, ndwelo. 

Punish, aausya (savnsye) ; punishme 

Pure, lenjela ; purify, lenjesya. 

Purpose, change of, chitetemha ; on p 

Purr, tuluma. 

Pursue, kuya (-knyiye), kagula. 

Push, ^^*^a ; down j2^y^tecliesy a; thror 

Put, mka {-wisile) ; back, uchisyc 
longa ; down a load, tula ; thro 
2yisya ; outside, koposya ; out a 
the top, winusya ; round, 8yung\ 

Puzzle, simosya ; be puzzled, simong 

Python, sato, 

Q. 

Quantity, to be in large, chuluka^ sei 

Quarrel, to, kcmgana, jumana; to < 
nda, songa, clutkapula', cause c 
quarrel, ndeo ; quarrelsomeness 
to be quarrelsome, ng^wcmg^waay 
pcmya^ cJienama. 

Quartzstonb, white, ngonjiwa. 

Question, chiusyo. 

Quick, chitema ; to quicken, cherenga 
quickly, kangamcda. 



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} 



398 ENGLI8H-YAO VOCABULARY 

Quid of tobacco, chUcamhi. 

Quiet, ^e, my a] to be, myalala; quieten, to, niyala- 

sya. 
Quiver, jirijitika, 

R. 

Rabies, ching^ang^a. 

Race, hiwilo ; people, lukosyo. 

Rafters, bamboo, ndumgo ; wooden, sopo. 

Rage, to, tumbUa, 

Raggednbss, usavjchi, mattqywata, iwisci. 

Rain, ul-a ; steady, miumbi ; driving, nipepela ; to 
rain, nya; rain lightly, nyulunymida, melenie- 
nda ; rain heavily, nokosoka ; rainy season, chu- 
ku y first rains, ckisimopya ; beginning of rains, 
mtuluko ; after harvest, ngumhcduwala ; sound 
of rain, chikokomo. 

Raise, jimusya^ kwesya, nyamula, nyakula ; raise one 
side, nyikula ; be raised up, nyanyama. 

Rake together, kumha. 

Ram a gun, samila^ sopela ; ramrod, lujanga. 

Ransom, a, chiwomholo. 

Rash, litendya ; rashness, changu. 

Rat, of house, likoswe ; of field, lipuku. 

Ratfle, a, chikengele. 

Ravage, to, pasula, kasa. 

Ravel, to, vnriga. 

Raven, likungulu. 

Razor, luwembe^ lukwangido^ lumeta ; small, chisondo. 

Reach, ika, ickUa, 

Read, walanga {-walasih). 

Readiness, in, chile. 

Ready, of food, pya (-pile) ; make ready for, panga- 
nichisya. 

Really, kajekaje, chisimu*cho. 



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BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 399 

Reap, gungukt ; maize, goola ; millet, sanjila, nenyena \ 

rice, una. 
Reason, ligongo, ngwesa ; the reason of it, ligongo 

lyakwe, I have two reasons, ngwete ngwesa 

pawili. 
Rebel, panduka ; against, panduchila. 
Rebound, to, chanja. 
Rebuke, to, jamuka. 
Receive, to, pockela. 
Recognise, to, manyilila. 

Reconcile, chen/gulanya, jilanya, konganya, jinikanya. 
Recover health, laTna. 
Red, -chejeu, pyu ] to be red, chejda ; deep red, dieje- 

lesya. 
Redeem, wombola ; redemption money, chiwombolo. 
Re-dig, ukula. 
Reduce, nanduya. 
Reed, litete ; reed of grass, masale. 
Reel, of head, tenda lusyungusyun^u. 
Refrain, ligosa ; refrain from doing, ligosa kutenda. 
Refresh, lamya, sisimusya. 
Refuse, kana; a person, ^ima. 
Regret, ligamba. 
Reheat, kosya. 

Rejoice, seclielela, sangalaki, togoUla. 
Relate, sola, lun^uaya. 
Relation, mlongo (pi. achodongo). 
Remember, kumhuchUa. 
Remind, kmnbusya, kuwbuchisya. 
Remove, umya, tyosya-, flit, sama] o^ 

tukusya. 
Renown, lumhUi, 
Rent, a, chipowo. 
Repeat, wirisya, tandila, tauchila; o\ 

words, after one, ayaaya-y in cl 

wilinganya. 



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400 RNGLI8H-YAO VOCABULARY 

Repent, galaukay ligamiba, pitikuka. 

Reply, ja7vgat jitika. 

Report, sola ; spread report, jenesya. 

Resemblance, chisau, lukomday chUasya. 

Resemble, landana \ one's parents, laaya. 

Resolve, to, wcUiji (with future of verb). 

Respect, chimbichisya, samala, tenda inajina ; 

Rest, to, pumida. 

Restless disposition, chijewajewa; be restless, takct- 

taka, ulukuta. 
Restore, vsya, uchisya ; to health, lamya. 
Resume, tandUa. 
Retch, nyikula» 
Return journey, a, mauja. 
Return, uja {-tmle). 
Reveal, juula (-juwile). 
Revenge, liuchisyo. 

Reverence, to, chimbichisya^ tenda majina. 
Revile, socJieyay lakctila. 
Revive, lama, jimuchUa ; after faint, jimuka, aisimu- 

ka, syuka. 
Reward, to, upila. 
Rheumatism, chilumi. 
Rhinoceros, mbera, chipemhere. 
Rib, luwalati (pi. mbalati). 

Rice, mpunga ; boiled, msele ; pounded, ngamba. 
Rich man, mtajili; to be rich, sichUa, tatamala; 

riches, chipanje. 
Ridge, of roof, namfiungumi. 
Right, what is, cliagoloka ; fitting, vsajUa \ put right, 

lingan^a ; to the right, kwmlyo. 
Ring for finger, chinawila (pi. inaioila) ; brass for 

ankle, likangala ; for lip, chingwengwe, lupekU ; 

to ring a bell, gomba. 
Rinse, saula. 
Riotous, gulugusya. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULiiRY 401 

Ripe, of boil or fruit, jiida ; of maize, komala ; of 

sorghum, cha. 
E.ISE, jimuka ; of sun, kopoka ; of stream, sasawUa. 
River, nyasa, himlo. 
Road, mseo. 
Roam about, tambalala. 
Roar, of man, twarnivla^ gwmila ; of animal, tongola ; 

of lion, koloma ; of fire, kuma. 
Roast, jocJui^ kalanga ; of fowl, wanika. 
Rob, sonibola, kwahula ; a robber, jua chikwaku. 
Rock, Iwala^ litunguwe. 
Roll away, ingalamida^ gudumulay tungulumula ; 

roll about on ground, vluwmha^ pilvmhida ; a 

roll of tobacco, etc., chisingwa. 
Roop, grass, lisakasa ; rafters, chipdgala. 
Room, nyumba ; space, liutOy malo, lipesa. 
Root, mchiga ; stump, chisicki ; root up, tupvla, noko- 

. sola; rooted firmly, towehla. 
Rope, lukonji (pi. ngonji) ; of palm leaves, lukwa- 

mhcda. 
Rot, to, wwrula, wola. 

Rough, Unuda ; of sui*face, kola makakasiamhe. 
Round about, nd&ndeleje ; go round, syungtda ; turn 

round, syungusya. 
Rouse to one's senses, sungvlumusya. 
Row, to lay in a, jala ; in a row, ndandanda. 
Rub with hand, tikita ; down, pata ; out, siimusya. 
Rubbish, iawani, ikoko. 
Rude, to be, chembtdtisya. 
Rug, coloured, ligondolo ; red, likapa. 
Ruins, masame. 
Run, utuka ; away, tUa (-tisUe), nyenyela, timhuka ; 

fast, tyatyatika, luimmiUa; from place to place, 

pyapyaluka ; 
Rush about, gungvlumya ; of wind, kuma ; down-hill, 

chitima. 

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-402 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULA»Y 

Rust, mkuo ; to rust, ka/mula mkuo. 

Rustle (amongst grass), tcakanya ; oi ants, chedisrMi, 

S. 

Sack-cloth, chvjudvlif likamaruho. 

Sacbifice, Ttibepesi ; to offer, ta>Q(i mhepesi. 

Sacrum, livli. 

Safe, to be, sunjika. 

Sale, things*for, mcdonda. 

Saliva, mata. 

Salt, njete ; bad, tiisonibi \ £^ bag of, lupinda ; to 

strain, chilika. 
Salute, komasya. 
Same, chcdvmo \ same man, Jt^Jojo ; the same as before, 

chiwela. 
Sand, msanga. 
Sandal, chikwakwata. 
Sap, mesi. 

Satisfy, jeneaya, jikutisya ; be satisfied, jikuta, 
Saturday, lyuwa lya malenga, lyuwa lyakumalisya 

masengo. 
Save, kvZupusya ; saviour, mkulupusyQ. 
Saw, cheka, wcdvla. 
Sawdust, utuchi. 
Say, jUa, sola ; a saying, ngani. 
Scaffold, to build a, aanja. 
Scales, weighing, wesani ; of fish, 'rmw(^^o, ; sgifff 

of human skin, mhasa. 
Scar, liwasi. 
Scarce, to be, wcdarrui, 
Scatteji, misa ; of people, balalisya, pwilinganya, 

tyokangana-, of thipgs, mwasya^ samhai^anya] 

in confusion, hi! 
Scent, odour, mnu^tji ; of anipaals, liungo, mkuni ', to 

scent, jarnhvlilay tola waka. 



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BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULABY 403 

Scissors, makasi (swahili). 

ScoiSD, jcmiuka, kalipila. 

Scoop, sokola, kolowolc^ 

Scorch, tinika, tinisya. 

Scorpion, likololo, Ukalamhwe, 

Scramble, of many fighting, mpimbUima,, 

Scrape, paJa {-pasile), palapaia, hdcuta, koJcota^', of 

tree, aesa ; scrapings of foo(i, mdkomho. 
Scratch, mwaga, tona ; deeply, ng^wasula. 
Scream, jamilaf gwmila, 
ScRBW-DRiVBR, Vupungvlo, 
Screw-nail, msomcUi wa m^singa. 
Scum, chivlo. 
Seam, lutoto. 
Search, sosa, lolechea^fa. 
Sea-shore, ku njengwe. 
Season, katemaf ndawi ; harvest, masika ; dry, chau ; 

rainy, chuku ; spring, lunjeaa ; begiiining, of 

rains, mttUuko ; first rains, chisimaupyQ,. 
Second, kawilL 
Secrecy, matichita ; secretly, ya matichita ; to bind 

to, pimindika. 
See, loia, wona ; seeing that, pakuti. 
Seed, mheju ; in fruit, mbere. 
Seem, woneka. 
Seize, kamula. 
Seldom, kamo kamo. 

Sell, siima ; to give a man goods to sell, lajisya. 
Send, tuma ; away, jausya. 
Sense, Tnate, lunda. 
Separate, lekanya. 
Serval, njvsi. 
Servant, mtmnika. 
Serve, tumika ; service, lUvmwa, 
Set down, toika, tiUa, tamika; of sun, jiriQila, pepa, 



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404 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

kapila ; a trap, tega, wigana ; set ofE, tyoka ; set 

ofE an ulendo, vngtda. 
Sevbn, mscmo ni iwili. 
Sew, tota. 

Shade, in the, mwUiU ; a shadow, chiwUUi, 
Shake, jejema, tetemeta, tenganya ; out dast, kwng^u- 

nda ; the head, pukunya. 
Shallow, to be, jelvica. 

Shame, smii, mchesela ; treat with, lundtisya. ' 
Share food with, gawana ni. 
Sharp, -hutema ; to be, latvla ; sharpen, nola (-Twaile)^ 

kwangwasya ; to point, aongola. 
Shave, moga ; make bald, moga lupcUa, 
Sheaf, litita. 

Sheath of knife, ligonelo; to sheathe, sweka. 
Shed, grass, lisakasa ; shed leaves, pukuta. 
Shelf (for drying fish), luaau ; for food, lisajUi ; in 

house, ligvlu. 
Shell, chikombwa ; to shell peas, aenda. 
Shield, chikopa. 
Shin, luaovjo. 

Shine, wala (-wcmle), languka. 
Shiver, tetemela ; with cold, ndundumUa ; shivering, 

chiwamha, chikfwenya, ngvlengvle. 
Shoot a gun, gomba ; game, gombela. 
Shore, njengwe ; to reach, kocheaya. 
Short, -jipi ; to be, jipipa, jilUa ; come short of, peTie- 

mbela; shorten, jipipisya. 
Shot, small, malisawe. 
Shoulder, likoyo ; look over, chevlUa. 
Shout, gumila, twamula ; to weep, guta ; shout with 

joy, hihbta (-hUutile), shouting, chibdu, chikuwo. 
Show, losya. 

Shrivel up, svnnyala, ng^ong^ondala. 
Shrub, liukutu. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 405 

Shrug shoulders, kotoka. 

Shut, ugala ; shut up, siwa. 

Sickness, chilwele. 

Side of hill, on this, ayeto ajino ; on other side, syeto 
ajila ; of river, lisi alino ; at other side, lisi 
cUila ; to go to other side of, syetela ; the side, 
pamhali ; in the side of person, mu mbalati ; on 
one side, kwmpepe ; on both sides, kuwUi ; side of 
house, ndumba jajihidungwa ; fall to one side, 
sondokoka ; put side by side, jalanya. 

Sift corn, peta. 

Sigh, isya {-isisya). 

Sight, to be in, woneka, kopoclida ; go out of sight, 
8imilila. 

Sign, by travellers on road, chipanjiso. 

Silence, chete, pee,ji, ndu ; to be silent, myalala. 

Silver, ndalama syasiswela. 

Simpleton, juangali mate. 

Sin, to, lemwa, lewa, soya. 

Since, patipo, pakuti. 

Sing, jirnha ; loudly, nyanyika. 

Singe, waula {-^awile). 

Sink, tivnlay titimila, kapila ; down, wowocliela ; of 
water, pwa ; of sun, pepa. 

Sister, rrdumbu ; sister-in-law, alamu 

Sit, Ucma (-temi) ; on eggs, utamila. 

Six, msano ni chimo. 

Size, msingu, ukulu. 

Skewer, liwani. 

Skill, ukungwi. 

Skin, lipende, likunami ; dry hard, chi 

Skip about in dance, tyala ; skipping-i 

Skull, chikalakaaa. 

Sky, kwiunde, kwinami. 

Slacken, tondowa. 

Slander, to, ainjilila^ naminila ; sland 



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406 - ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Slant, 'perndamm. 

Slap, to, timha lutemha. 

Slash, kapa, gwayula. 

Slave, mkapolo ; slavery, ukapolo ; slave stick, liko- 

ngwa. 
Sleep, to, goim mHugono', first slieep, lugono Iwa 

chiwasa ; badly, gona usama. 
Slender, tepana ; person, jufi chilenje. 
Slide down, serereka, seretna. 

Slip down, serereka, tyolamhuka ; slip off, polomoka. 
Slippery, to be, teUaya. 
Slope, galika ; a slope, rrmyanyo. 
Slow, to be, kawa, kokowa. 
Small, -nandi ; to be small, naiidupa ; make small, 

ncmduya. 
Smallpox, mlil% nduwi. 
Smart, to be, kalamuka. 

Smash, kasa, swanya, tusula, chanyanda, kanyata. 
Smear, paka. 
Smell sweetly, to, nunjila; badly, nunga; a smell, 

liungo. 
Smile, mwetulila, seka. 
Smite, kunula. 

Smoke, Uosi ; to smoke, kwemha, lya sona. 
Smooth, to be, tiririka, tiririri, tyatyatyatya ', mya- 

tika; make, tiririsya. 
Snail, ngonokono. 
Snake, lijoka. 
Snap, of rope, kutula; snap across, nokosoka, mini- 

Tiguka. 
Snatch away, sumula, kwakula, kolopola, somhola. 
Sneeze, jesemula. 
Snore, komela {-koniesile). 
Snort, suga. 
Snuff, to, nusya ; snuff, sona ; take a pinch, chapa ; 

snuff-box, luplano, mtete. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 407 

So, iyoyOf sai. 

Sob, hwikwitika. 

Soft, tiri/rika, jolowa (-jolwewe), tiririri; soft with 

moisture, nyepetala ; and dry, lepetala ; and 

pulpy, -a powa, -a towa ; and pliable, tetewala ; " 

to soften, johya {-jolweye). 
Soil, good, chajila. 

Soldier, jua namatangay jiLa majanga, asihali. 
Sole of foot, hisajo (pi. masajo). 
Somebody, Tnundu. 
SoMETHii^G, chinduj c/iaigala. 
Sometimes, pane. 
Son-in-law, akwego. 
Song, nyimboy chilanga. 
Soon afterwards, pangakawa mnope; as soon as, 

pati. 
SooT, ckenjerere. 

Soothe, myalasya, pembesya, tondosya. 
Sore, liwanga. 
Sorghum, mapemba. 
Sorry, kola clutnasa, ligamba. 
Sort, lukosyo ; of every, ngosyongoayo, 
Sound, lilowe ; to sound, sona. 
Sour, nyimg^unya {-nyung^winye)^ kaula ; of beer, ipa ; 

sour tempered, chachambuka. 
Source of stream, panduhjbko. 
South, ku mwela. 
Space, lipesa ; open, htwala. 
Spare, leka. 

Sparks, manyelanyela, ndete ; throw out, tatasika. 
Sparse, to be, walawalawala. 
Speak, wecketa ; strongly, gombelesya, limbila ; slowly, 

tusya', indistinctly, nyinyitika; in low tones, 

nong'ona ; with hesitation, wecheta chimene ; 

back, pindtda ; for one's self, liwalanga, lisala ; 

speak of, gamba. 



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408 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Spbab, lipa/iiga ; fish, Tnoinha (pL myomha) ; hippo, 

chikolongo, 
Spegtbe, namlukuwewe. 
Spices, yahumunjUa, 
' Spider, nyangata ; web, lundandanibtUi, 
Spill water, jita ; solids, jasa. 
Spin thread, pota ; bobbin, njinga. 
Spinster, jueuli. 

Spirits of dead, misimu, manunu. 
Spit, suna mata ; spittle, niata. 
Splash! chwml 
Spleen, liwandama. 
Splice wood, syenjelela ; of thread, timbilila ; a splice, 

Tnalwrribo. 
Splinter, of stone, chipongolomwa ; of wood, chipalor- 

mandu ; of grass, chikasi. 
Split up, wahda, wangvla, palula. 
Spoil, jonanga, aakasya. 
Spoon, chikoi. 
Spoor, likumbo, liwande. 
Spots, mawala. 
Sprain, tininguka. 
Spread out, tandika ; in sun, janika ; false reports, 

naminila ; of ulcer, tokanya. 
Spring, sumba ; over, tagahika ; water, uliwa. 
Sprinkle, konga, misa ; with water, toga. 
Sprout, mela, sepuka. 

Spur of hill, hikongolo ; fowl, chiTigalimba, 
Spy out, lagulUa. 

Squeeze, minya ; between two sticks, wana. 
Stab, soma, kosa. 

Staff, aimbo, ngongo, chimbonga ; long, mtindiso. 
Staggering gait, ubelubelu. 
Stains, matomematome, masilisili. 
Stalk (game), wenda, gwawilila. 
Stammer, wecheta chimeme. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 409 

Stand, jima ; upright, chirika. 

Star, ndondwa;^ morning star, mng^andu; evening 

star, msonogwe mwesi. 
Start, tyoka ; early, lawa ; get a start, supuka, tojiina. 
Startle, tojimya, sisimusya; be startled, sisimuka, 

supuka, tojima. 
State, condition, utwme. 
Stay, tama, lanjela ; a long time, tamilisya. 
Steadily, look steadily, hla ngongondo. 
Steal, jiwa ; openly, wawcmga ; people, swamba. 
Steam, lipuje. 

Steep, to be, lemala ; steep in water, joloweka. 
Steer, jongolela. 
Steinbuck, siya. 

Step upon, Uwata ; over, tagcduka. 
Sterility, chisungula. 
Sternness, ukcUi, 
Sternum, chisanga. 
Stick, chimbonga, ngongo, stirring, mtiko ; to stick, 

nyambatUay kcmilila ; in the ground, simika ; in 

throat, pakama ; to be sticky, nyolola, nyata, 

tapuka, nyamha. 
Stiff, limba ; of skin, kwindimala ; with cold, ju- 

TYiula, 
Still, quiet, pee, mya^ chete ; to be still, mycdala. 
Sting to, ln/ma ; a sting, luwolawela. 
Stink, mkuni. 

Stir, to, kologanya^ kupa ; together, imya, wanganya. 
Stockade, luwagcda, linga. 
Stocks, ugwalata. 
Stomach, chiukala. 
Stone, ligcmga ; large, litunguwe. 
Stool, chitengu. 
^Toov, jhvama J kungv/iia, tewa. 
Stop, to end, pehla. 
Stopper, chisiivilo. 



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410 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Store up, salcisya, kusya, • 

Stork, chumha. 

Storm, rnbuTigo, mpepela. 

Stout, kapa^ jimhaUiy gangcdama. 

Straight, to be, jongoka, goloka; stand straight, 

jima chiri ; straighten, joTigosya, golosya. 
Strain beer, sungula ; salt, chirika. 
Strands of rope, chijndi. 

Stranger, mlendo ; strange news, iTidu ya chUertdo, 
Stray, sokonechda, aockelela. 
Stream, Ivsvlo, 
Strength, machili. 
Stretch, e, g. skin, wamba ; one's self, lijongola^ limi- 

nyula, litinvla ; one's arms, tambcdukida. 
Strife, umani. 
Strike, puta ; with hand, timba ; with fist, twanga 

suwa ; with knife, kosa ; with spear, soma. 
String, hokonji; to string beads, tunga; a bow, 

kunga. 
Strip, to, wangida ; strip ofE bark, gwugvZa ; leaves, 

pulida ; cut into strips, lenga ; strips, malenga. 
Strong, to he,limbika; of heart, pimililaf kangala] 

of beer, wawa. 
Struggle with, kamulana. 
Stubble, chisindi. 

Stubborn, to be, chalamandala ; stubbornness, TiiasiMO, 
Stumble, kuwala. 
Stump, chisichi. 
Stunted, nyolola: 
Stupid, to be, lowela^ pttgwa, pvZika, lotomala ; person, 

msiya, mjinga; stupidity, usUu, usiya. 
Sturdy, gangalama. 
Stutter, dodoma. 
Subjects, achiwwna^ cdamibi. 
Subside of water, pwa ; of earth, ivowocliela. 
Succeed, punda, pakombola. 



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ENGLISH- YAO VOCABULARY 411 

Such and such, ckatichati. 

Suck, yowiay joiiga ; draw a pipe, kwemha. 

Suffer, sauka {-sawiche), taga (-tasile). 

Suffice, jenesya ; be sufficient, jenela, jeiianila. 

Suitable for, wajila. 

SuLKiNEss, mhwhiya. 

Summit, pa chanya, penani. 

Summons, e. g, workers, laliJca. 

Sun, lyuwa ; sunrise, pakucha ; at suaset, pakicswa ; 

sunshine, lulanga. 
Sundry, ngosyongosyo. 
Supplicate, chondeUla. 
Support, chinga^ chinjika, chinjirichisya. 
Suppose, pela ; he supposed, vmtiji. 
Surety (in marriage), imgoswe; intermediary, ungoswe. 
Surly, to be, chachambuka. 
Surname, Una lya kupambichila. 
Surpass, punda^ wilichila. 

Surprise, chilapo ; be surprised, simongwa^ jengwa. 
Suspend, koleka, leleclieya. 
Swallow, mila (-misile) ; bird, chiwalei 
Sway, to, tepana, tenandenya. 
Swear, by, himbila. 
Sweep, pyajila. 
Sweet, lyolyopela, nong^a. 
Swell, imha, tupa, sasawila. 
Swift, chachatika, tyatyatika. 
Swim, ng*amila, sujila. 
Swing, a, katmigwe ; to swing, liunga ; 

to and fro, tenganyika. 
Switch, 7npichi. 
Sword, hipanga. 
Syphilis, chindoko. 



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412 BNGLTSH-YAO VOCABULARY 



T. 



Tail of bird, chikuni) of animal, mchUa; of fish, 

chipyepye ; of elephant, ukcmga. 
Take, tola (-tosUe); away, tyosya, umya; down, tvlu- 

ay a, kolokola ; off clothes, tda (-usUe) ; out of 

water, chutUa ; out of basket, juula ; a part of, 

sapula ; take in from sun, kimgula, janukula. 
Talk, wecheta ; to one's self, nyvnyisika ; be talkative, 

twanga, hjoanya, hJcatvia ; humorously, kwere- 

gtUa ; a talkative person, njelengo. 
Tamarind tree, mkwesu. 
Tan, uuta. 

Tap, kong^onda; at door, gugusya. 
Tarry, hnjela, kawa. 
Taste, to, paaya^ laptUa ; badly, nunga ; well, nong'a ; 

bitter, wawa ; tasteless, lukuka. 
Tatoo, to, chokola ; tatoo marks, nembo. 
Tax, maongo ; for ferry, chilongwe. 
Teach, jiganya, wundiaya. 
Tear, papula^ totokola ; into strips, nyesa ; into two, 

kahda ; a tear, maoai. 
Tease, tatida, sandamula ; cotton, aapay nyalula ; rope, 

potokola. 
Tell, aala, hila ; a story, jimha ndano. 
Temper, bad, wanga^ ngalwe. 
Tempt, linga, tikci. 
Ten, likumL 
Tendon, nguta^ mtaai. 
Terrible, jogoya. 
Terror-stricken, hindumhilwa. 
Thank, lapila. 

Thatch, wimba ; unthatch, immula. 
There, ako, kwereko. 
Thick, to be, kandapala (of cloth). 
Tni^F^juawii', thievishness, uwii. 



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BNGLI8H-YA0 VOCABULARY 413 

Thigh, chiiga, 

Thin, wewepala ; make thin, wewepasya. 

Thing, chindu. 

Think, ganisya ; think over, wasya ; thoughts, ngani- 

ayo. 
Thirst, njota] intense, likalangtdo ; be thirsty, kola 

^ njota. 
Thorn, mwiwa (pi. mitoa) ; to extract, somola. 
Thread, litonji, uvsi, mbota; twist, singa; thread 

string, pisya, peresya. 
Threaten, pakana. 
Thresh corn, kuwita. 
Threshold, pa msisi. 
Throat, pa ngtdo. 
Throb, wita. 

TuKOWyponya; Aw&jy jam, jita. 
Thumb, chala elm chikongo. 
Thunder, chUindimo ; to thunder, lindima. 
Thus, iyoyo^ sai. 
Tickle, tikinya, nyelenyesya. 
Tidy, kolosya, linganya. 
Tib, tawa; tightly, kuta; loosely, kjela; together, 

tawikanya ; a knot, lumhikcmya. 
Tighten, limhika. 
Tilt up one end, chanjamula. 
Time, space, ndawi ; occasion, katema ', leisure, lipesa ; 

at this time, sai inoino. 
Tip, mtepa, lusonga. 
Tip-toe, to stand on, nyanyamilila. 
Tired, sakalika, pela. 
To, ku. 

Toad, Ugvmii, litesi. 

Tobacco, sona ; a quid, chikambi ; roll, chisingwa. 
To-day, lelo. 
Toe, great, chala cha chikongo ; little, chala ch/i nyo- 

nje; toes, yala ya kusajo. 



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414 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Together, pampepe. 

To-morrow, makiwi. 

Tongue, lulimi (pi. ndimi). 

Tooth, /iVm) (pi. vneno)', ca.nme, lisongolamembe', molar, 

lijego ; of arrow-head, chingalimba. 
Tooth-pick, lukoselo, lutonyo. 
Top, a, njengo ; summit, pencmi, pachanya ; go over 

the top, winuka ; place on top, sajika ; lf%j one 

on top of other, nyichisya. 
Torch, lumvZi (pi. sirmdi). 
Tortoise, ngo7ig^o ; shell, chikolwa. 
Toss ABOUT, ponyaponya. 
Touch, kwaya (-kwaiye). 
Tough, to be, nja/njandala, cltalamandala. 
Track of animal, likumhoy liwcmdcj mpito^ ; to track, 

wendawenda, gwalila, lapata. 
Trade, to, pinda mcdonda, wcmga ; trade, upasq^m. 
Train up, leUiy chinga. 
Trample, liwata ; tramp clay, 2)onda. 
Transfix, totomeka. 
Transform, syuka. 
Trap, flat stone, liliwa ; snare, lukonji, lukoka ; fish- 

trap, msipu, msolda ; rat-trap, lUesa ; or field 

rats, chipoto ; for game, mapetwa. 
Traveller, mlendo. 
Treachery, malindi, 
Treadj liwata. 
Treat badly, chima. 
Tree, mtela. 

Tremble, tetemela ; a tremor of skin, masale. 
Trench, lukolomu. 
Tribe, lukosyo. 

Tributary to, to be, laniba ; tribute, tdambi. 
Tricb^, to play a, tenda c/ujmache. 
Trickle of water, svlvia. 
Trigger, chisongamdeo ; trigger-guard, ling*andu. 



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BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULABY 415 

Tbim beard or eaves of house, chisa. 

Tbip, to, pyalulcc, fyatangvla, 

Tbouble, sakalisya ; be troubled in mind, singalilwa. 

Tbunk of elephant, chaso ; of tree, lipataf chipicJiiti. 

Truss of calico, wluchu^ mtumha. 

Trust in, ktUupUUa. 

Truth, umbane. 

Try, linga. 

Tumble, gwa, limhukuka ; about, galagaiika ; from 

height, patuka ; of wall, gumuka. 
Tumour, ndesi. 
TuBN, to, pitikuka, galauka ; aside from, sepuchilaj 

chiliuka ; over to one side, pendeka ; round, syo- 

sya ; one's back upon, tundimiala; in turns, 

pachisyay tindcmya. 
Turtle, ngasi. 

Tusk, mnyanga ; of ivory, ndemho. 
Twenty, makumi gawili. 
Twine, to, syenga. 
Twinkle, nyetula. 
Twist, string, syenga ; neck of fowl, popotola, nyonga, 

U. 

Ulcer, liwanga ; rodent, chimatule. 
Uncle, father's brother, atati ; mother's, akwelu7ne. 
Unclean, -a usakwa, 
Uncoil, syenjekvla. 
Uncooked, to be, lopa. 
Underneath, pasi pakwe. 

Understand, manyUila, kochehcheaya^ pilikana ; un- 
derstanding, umanyilisi. 
Undo, kachulanya. 
Undone, to be, pela. 
Undress, to, ula. 
Unfasten, gopola^ lumbukula. 



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416 BNGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Unfilled, to be, tikama ; unfilled, -a litika. 

Unfold, sapanguUiy pindikvla. 

Unpick sewing, totokola, 

Unpliable, changalama. 

Unripe, -wisi. 

Unsteady, heluhelu. 

Unthatch, vnmula. 

Untie, gopola, lumhukula. 

Until, mpaka. 

Untwist, syenjekula. 

Unwearied, kangala. 

Up-hill, kumkvli. 

Upright, to stand, chirika. 

Uproar, ungido. 

Upside down, turn, pikusya. 

Urge to work, chisya. 

Urine, makweag. 

Use of a thing, masengo gakwe ; useless, -mtega ; n^e- 
lessly, pamtega, wambape ; to be useless, polopo- 
teka ; useful, jtoana samani, juana masengo, 

V. 

Vain, in, pa mtega. 

Valley, litiwi. 

Value, mtengo ; to value, temela. 

Vapour, lipuje. 

Variance with, wengana^ tindana ; make at, komya. 

Variegated, kolomhana. 

Vegetables, liponda. 

Vein, m,ta8i msindo ; varicose, kasipa. 

Vengeance, mauchisyo. 

Verandah, mwipenu ; post, luchanamUa (pi. tijana- 

mila) ; room, lukole. 
Verily, chisimu'cho. 
Vessel, for oil, chisasi ; ugali, chiulugo. 



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EN6LISH-YA0 VOCABULARY 417 

Vexbd, to be, laga. 

Vibrate, guiigwmila. 

Village, musi (pi. misi) ; large, mainda, mtete ; out- 
lying, mlaga ; meeting-place, pa7ig(mya. 

Violin, ching^wenyetig^wenye. 

Viper, lipiH. 

Visible, wonechda, walawanduka. 

Voice, lUowe\ broken, lUowe lya nicdenderef weclieta 
rncdemha malemba ; loud, Uloioe lyekuVaiigwa, 

Vomit, tapika, sehda, nyukula. 

Vows, mcdcmgaTw, 

Vulture, nyatigaj litvmbuai. 

W. 

Wad of gun, lihicsa, lilmti. 

Wag of hesid, pukunya. 

Wage war, tanjila ivgondo ; wages, inhotey malipilo. 

Waist, m*chiuno. 

Waistcoat, chisubao. 

Wait, liiida,jembecheya ; lie in wait for, juwiUli, cliere- 

reka ; place for lying in wait, chiuwUisi, 
Waken a person, jimuaya. 
Walk, jenda; slowly, jenda chikongwe; quickly, tvr 

gala ; backwards, jenda chitukvlulu ; carefully, 

lita/ndaaya ; unable to, telekwa. 
Walking-stick, cfiimh(ynga. 
Wall, Upupa, 
Wander, sokonecltela ; wanderer, juakoendolwetido ; 

wandering disposition, chijewajewa. 
Want, soaa, saka, pila ; be in want of, sowa* 
War, ngondoy chipiri, njakde. 
Warm one's self at fire, jota ; in sun, lijotela. 
Warn, tetela. 
Warp, the, unga. 
Wart, ausuwa, 

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418 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULABT 

Wash, mha-, clothes, chapa\ the face, aukumlAA', 

hands, nawa ; body, jonga \ feet, chesa. 
Wasp, lUendeu. 

Watch, UndiMla ; house for, vMnda. 
Watbr, mesi; salt, chidulo ; bucket tor, njembo; 

waterfall, matiti ; sound of waterfall, chikokomo ; 

water-pot, hiulo ; watershed, mliUy lu^ndo. 
Wave, litvmhda ; to wave in wind, tengana. 
Way, litala ; in this way, we tUende 'wo ; get out of, 

tukuka. 
Weak, kpetala, topvoana, tochomah; weakness, chi- 

givembde. 
Wealth, vsichirisif ipanje. 
Wear, wala {-wete) ; loin-cloth, takula ; wear away, 

kUa, 
Wearied, sakalika. 
Weave, basket, luka ; cloth, gomba. 
Web, spider's, hindandambuli. 
Web of foot of duck, utamhwe. 
Weed, to, tv/pula ; a weed, chikoko. 
Weep, lUa ; weeping, chililo (pi. moMlo). 
Welcome, komasya. 

Well, icheneiie, chikotope ; a well, chisima. 
West, ku likwinjila 1/yuwa. 
Wet, ngowd, tepeta; of ground, nyakapala] damp 

ground, chinyesi ; wetness, iidepete, 
WhatI chichi? 

When 1 chaka chi ? ndawi chi ? 
Where 1 kwapi ? 
Whether, — or, kanga, — kav^a, 
Whjctstone, Unolo. 
Whip of rhinoceros hide, chigoti. 
Whirling round, ndendela. 
Whirlpool, chititUa ; whirlwind, chimbunga. 
Whiskers, msalapa. 
Whisper, songona. 



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ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 419 

Whistle, to, gomba hdusi ; a whistle, chikwehiy chi- 
pydele. 

White, mhu, -swela ; to whiten, stvejesya ; by rubbing 
chesa ; whiteness, unyunyu. 

Who 1 nduni ? rvani ? 

Whose] -cheni? 

Why ] ligo7igo chidii ? 

"WiDoyfijua ma'»ije. 

Width, chitipa ; of cloth, chitando. 

Wife, msonogo. 

Wilful, to be, sengwa. 

Wind, mhungOy mbepo ; south, mwela ; west, m'umbo ; 
north, mpoto ; sound in trees, changula ; a whirl- 
wind, chimbwnga ; windings, mhindo mhindo. 

Wing, lipapiko. 

Wink, to, kupila. 

Winnow, ululn^/a. 

Wipe, puhuta. 

Wisdom, lunda. 

Wise,, to be, kah/muha, kola kinda. 

Wish, aosa, saka^ pila (-pilile). 

Witchceaft, tbsawi; witch, msawi, lisawi. 

With, ni. 

Wither, nyala {^lyasile)^ jtmiula; and crumple, j?o- 
wana. 

Without, to be, sowa 

Witness, mboni. 

Wits, mate. 

Woman, juamkongwe ; women, < 
woman, mkolwa (pi. mikolwa). 

Wonder, chilapo ; to wonder at, la^ 

Wood, mteh, ; forest, mseao ; a piec 

Word, lihwe. 

Work, to, panganya masengo; hard 
piganya; steadily, chinjirima ; 
leave off work, weliika. 



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420 ENGLISH-YAO VOCABULARY 

Worm, Unymigolosi, 

Worn out and old, wiscda. 

Worship, lomba, tindiwalila. ♦ 

Worthy, to be, wajUwa, 

Wound, liwanga ; to wound, tdala^ gawa. 

Wraith, chilengwa. 

Wrap up in, wilijilila^ wiriga. 

Wriggle about, puhiputa, ^n7i)n7a, salamanda. 

Wring out, nyonga^ minya ; wring neck of fowl, 

popotolay pota. 
Wrinkles, ainya^ makwinyata. 
Wrist-bone, chisukusuku. 
Writhe, pilinyinda. 
Wrong, -a mtega ; do wrong, lemwa, soya ; prove in 

wrong, Busa ; wrongly, pamtega, wamhape, 

Y. 

Yard, Ivpande, 

Yawn, tenda mwaju. 

Year, chaka ; this year, c?iaka *chi7io, namiyaka ; next 

year, c?iaka chine ; last year, mwacheso ; year 

before last, mwachejusi ; year by year, cliaka 

chaka. 
Yeast, chilimgo. 
Yes, elo. 

Yesterday, liso ; day before, lijttsi. 
Yield, kunda. 

Yoke, lujinga, iigolopingo^ likongwa. 
Yolk of eggy chitimatima, chititi, -i 

Youngest of family, juamnung^una. * 

Youth, a, msongolo, mchaiida ] youth, uchatida, uso- * 

ngolo, 

Z. 
Zebra, mhmda. 



Richard Clay <V *'o««, Limited^ London 4- Bungay, 



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