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-r, «■.,'. wtL- 



A HISTORY 



OF 



ADAMS COUNTY, OHIO 



FROM ITS EARLIEST SEHLEMENT TO THE 

PRESENT TIME 



INCLUDING 



Character Sketches of the Prominent Persons Identified with the First 

Century of the County's Growth 



AND 



Containing Numerous Enjravinjs and Illustrations 



BY 



NELSON W. EVANS AND EMMONS B. STIVERS 



WEST UNION. OHIO 

PUBLISHED BY E. B. STIVEKS 

1900 



/ 



7 /'■ /-. •^'' 



PREFACE 



The history of Adams County properly dates from the month of De- 
cember, in the year 1790, when Nathaniel Massie and his little band of 
hardy frontiersmen began the erection of the Stockade at the Three 
Islands on the present site of the town of Manchester. This was the 
"pioneer corps" in the Virginia Military Reservation, in the Northwest 
Territory, and was the beginning of the third permanent white settle- 
ment in the State of Ohio. 

This settlement was begun at a time when the Indian denizens of the 
region were waging the most cruel and most relentless warfare in the 
history of the country, against the border settlements of Virginia and 
Kentucky; and, it was maintained by its brave and vigilant founders, 
w-ithout Federal assistance, until the close of hostilities at the Treaty of 
Greenville in 1795. 

From the Stockade as a base of supplies, and as a place of refuge in 
case of attack, these daring adventurers explored by stealth the remotest 
parts of the Reservation, and entered and surveyed the most desirable 
lands of the region. They prepared the way for those patriots of the 
Revolution who came with their families to establish their future homes 
here, and to lay, ultimately, the foundation of one of the greatest States 
of the Union. 

To preserve in hook- form the history of the founding of Adams 
County and of the growth and development of its resources; to preserve 
for future generations the story of the lives of the pioneers and their de- 
scendants, that their virtues may be emulated and their achievements 
appreciated, is the intended mission of this volume. To what extent 
the Compilers have succeeded in the accomplishment of their designs, 
must he determined by the reader. 

The volume is composed of four books: 

A (iKNERAL History of Adams County; The Township Histories; 
Character Sketches oe the Pioneers: and, Biographical Sketches. 
A feature of the volume is the very complete Index. 

Grateful acknowled.e^ement is hereby made to the public-spirited 
persons, both residents and non-residents of Adams County, who by their 
kindly offices greatly lightened the task of the Compilers in collecting and 
preserving the matter for this volume. 

E. B. S. 
N. W. E. 
October 30. Kpo. 

(Ill) 




^n 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PART 1. 

HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 

Chaptkk I. 

PAGE. 

Outline Sketch of Adams Couiitv •? 

ClIAPTKR II. 

GeologA' and Mineralogy lo 

Chai'TEk III. 
The Mound Builders 20 

Cha]»ti-:r W. 
The Indians 28 

Chapter V. 
The Virginia Military District 36 

Chapter V'I. 
The Pioneers 50 

Chapter VII. 
Conflicts and Adventures with the Indians 63 

Chapter VIII. 
Civil Organization in the Northwest Territory yy 

Chapter IX. 
The Territorial Courts 81 

(V) 



VI HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

Chapter X. 

PAGE. 

Organization of tl>e Townships 98 

Chapter XI. 
Commissioners' Early Proceeding's 104 

Chapter XII. 
Public Roads and Highways 114 

Chapter XIII. 
The Early Taverns and Old Inns 124 

Chapter XIW 
Coimty Affairs 133 

Chapter XV. 
The Courts Under the Constitution 168 

Chai'TER X\'I. 
Politics and Political Parties 234 

Chapter X\'II. 
Military History 330 

Chapter XVIII. 
Miscellaneous 365 

PART II. 

TOWXSHIP HISTORIES. 

Chapter I. 
Bratton Township 413 

Chapter II. 
Franklin Township 415 

Chapter III. 
Greene Township 4- 1 



TABLE OF CONTExNTS vii 

Chapter IV. 

PAGE. 

Jefferson Township 428 

Chapter V, 
Liberty Township 434 

Chapter VI. 
Manchester Tow nship 437 

Chapter VII. 
Meigs Township 445 

Chapter VIII. 
Monroe Township 449 

Chapter IX. 
Oliver Township 453 

Chapter X. 
Scott Township 457 

Chapter XI. 
Sprigg Township 461 

Chapter XII. 
Tiffin Township 468 

Chapter XIII. 
Wayne Townsliip 485 

Chapter XIV. 
Winchester Townsliij) 492 

PART III. 

noXEER SKETCHES 501 

PART IV. 

15IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHP:S 674 



VIII 



fflSTORY OF ADAMS CXDUNTY 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PORTRAITS. 



PAUL. 

BeUi, Major John 522 

Bunn, Dr. James W 750 

Burgess, Rev. Dyer 514 

Campbell. Hon. Alexander 279 

Campbell, Judge John W 301 

Campbell, John 534 

Campbell, Joseph R 712 

Coikerill, Gen. Joseph R 31L 

Collings. Hon. George 179 

Collins, Rev. John 606 

Darlinton, Gen. Joseph 251 

Donalson, Israel 66 

Dobbins, Rev. Robert 606 

Dunbar, David 730 

Edgington, Dr. Charles W 740 

Ellison, William 459 

Enochs, Gen. William H 326 

Evans, George C 217 

Evans, Nelson W 746 

Evans, Edward P 206 

Hamilton, Robert 913 

Holmes, John 763 

Hook, James N 459 

Kirk, Albert D 485 

Kirker, Gov. Thomas 82 

Lafferty, Joseph W 750 

Lafferty, Dr. Nelson B 750 

Lodwick, Col. John 581 

Massie, Gen. Nathaniel 51 

Mason, Judge John W 232 

McCormick. Dr. George D 823 

McCauslen, Hon. Thomas 628 



PAGE. 

Meek. Rev. John 606 

Meek. William M 485 

McDill. Rev. David. D. D 821 

MoGovney. Crockett 485 

McSurely. Rev. William 818 

Miller. Dr. Flavins J 750 

.Murphy, Capt. David A 312 

Pollard, Hon. John K 273 

Quarry. Rev. William P 459 

Ramsey. Rev. William W 485 

Rothrock. Judge James H 615 

Russell, Hon. William 363 

Sh river, Hon. Joseph A 867 

Sinton, David 618 

Smith, Hon. Andrew C 293 

Smith. Hon. Joseph P 855 

Sparks, Charles S 865 

Spring. Rev. John W 581 

Steen. Aaron 606 

Steen. Rev. Moses D. A S68 

Stivers, Hon. Emmons B 854 

Thomas, James Baldwin 629 

Thomas. James S 885 

Truitt, Samuel B 437 

Truitt. Mary 437 



Van Dyke, Rev. John P 



459 



Wamsley, William M 654 

Wykoff. Cyrus W 227 

Wilson. Hon. John T 318 

Willson. Dr. William M 437 

Willson. Jerusha 437 



VIEWS. PAGE. 

Bird's-eye View of West Union 470 

County Jail 482 

Court House 136 

Great Serpent Mound 24 

Miller and Bunn Building, West Union 780 

Public School Building, Manchester 442 

Old Stone Court House. West Union. PYontispiece 

Residence of Dr. James W. Bunn 690 

Residence of Dr. George F. Thomas 446 

Residence of Dr. Flavins J. Miller ^08 

Residence of James H. ConAor 717 

Rock Spring, West Union 12 

Scene on the Ohio 421 

The Scion Office. West Union 479 

The Old Treber Tavern, Lick Fork 126 

Twin Rocks, Cedar Fork 16 

The Wilson Children's Home 77 



PART I. 

HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



By EMMONS B. STIVERS 



la 



HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY, OHIO 

By N. W. EVANS AND E. B. STIVERS 



CORRIGENDA 

Adams Connty in Congress, p. 296. 

On February 14, 1892, the State was divided into six Congressiona^ 
Districts.— For ••'1892" read "1812." 

Ezekiel Arnold, p. 679. 

In sixth line from bottom of page read *'Miss Nora Tarlton" for 
'*Miss Mary Tarlton/' 

For "Garmon" in the fifth line from bottom of same page read 
'*Garman." 

Present Members of Bar, bottom page 198. 

"M. Scott" in line thirty-eight should read "Henrv Scott." 
"S. N. Tucker" in fifth' line should read "Arthur Tucker."^ 
'*W. E. Foster" in same line should read '*\V. S. Foster." To this 
list of names should l)e added R. C. Vance and W. C. Coryell at West 
Union: Dudley 1>. Phillips and William I^. Stephenson at Manchester; 
and J. R. B. Kessler at IVebles. 

David Beckett, p. 392. 

The poetry at the head of the page should read, 

''Seasons return, but not to me return" 

"Day, or the swe^-t approach of even or morn." 



Albion Z. Blair, p. 226. 

On p. 227 where it reads, "he is a member of the IVesbyterian 
Church." read "he is an attendant of the Presbyterian Church." 

Brnsh Creek Fnrnace, p. 403. 

This Henry Massie was not the brother <^f (leneral Nathaniel ^lassie. 
Major Henrv Alassie, brother of General Massie, never resided at Marble 
Furnace and never had any children. He died in 1830 and his widow sur- 
vived till 1 87 1. She is buried at Oxmore, eight miles from Louisville, 
Kentucky. 

Bnrbage Family, p. 657. 

Page 658, paragraph 2, last sentence : Strike out the repeated 
words, *'of whom he was more identified with the Karl of Leicester's 
players of;" so that the sentence will read as follows: 

"But from his first coming up ( to London ) it seems clear that he was 
more identified with the Earl of Leicester's players of whom his energetic 



2 niS'l\)HY OF ADAMS COrXTY 

follow townMiian. Janus lUirba^c, was the head, than any other group of 
actors." 

Page (\^w, tirst line at top (»t the pa^e. i«r "iUirliage." read "Bur- 
bages." 

Tage 059. paragraph 3. tirst line: — Wr "i^jj' read *'i8j2." 

Tkomaft W. CommoUey, p. 702. 



Paragraph one. line three. Kur "Klewn and Sarah Burhage/* read 
"Levin Duncan and Sarah H. LUirba^e." sj a> to agree with the two 
names as thev appear in the arliole ■ji\ page '.'^' — "Th.e t'Urbage Family." 

Jokn. Campbell, p. 53-&. 

Charles Canipbeli. the lli.>i:oriaii <.•£ \ irginia. an<l his sun William, 
the l\e\v!ntM'nary i^'n^nera'. were n^A Iti the direct l:iie .-f t!"'e ancesC'-rs «:'t 
the >uh;ecL hut were c^ llaiera'.s. The aix^ve najTied Charles Campbell, 
ail' I Ch.ar!e> ^\. !;;ran«.ltatlier -.i liie >iii\;ecr ■■ eacii. TTi^rried a Mary Trot- 
ter. Cliarle'^ Canipbeil. ^raii«i father ■■:" t'^c ^'.:i\:ecr. -iert't-i near Staunt'.^n. 
\'iri;in'a. ab«ait F* >rt IVhance mi -.•v be:""rL if^-"^. He came :"r'.:m :iie norrii 
of h\;a:)d ant] wa.> a -ie.-cen«ia;it ■.. :* Duncan Campi)ell. Tiientii.nL'd at the 
opening ■ f the sketcli. Mis >• n. William Cam|>hell, !<'catL-d in :3ourb<.m 
coiinix in rjic >;iate ■.i Kentucky . in i7»>o. hi ;7w<S. 'le :"Cated in the 
\«.'rthwe>: TerritL-ry in wiiat was arierwards Atiams C -unty. au'l is n';»\v 
in ]h*».>wn C'.'univ. He married HHzai)eih W liisi-n. -:-ter i "A illiam Will- 
son, »'ne <.>t the first minisier.> in f.iie .-1«1 St«. ne Churcii. -u F«irr Dehance. 
near Staunton, X'irginia. Hi> unc'e, lUirgL^c- W iilson, wa^ prominent in 
politics, being r»urge.s> f«.T tweni\ -seven \ears. 

Charles Camj)bell. '.'Ue oi Wiliiam CampbelTs -on>. and :.:ran»i father 
i}i the subject <.f this sketch, in !aier ^ ^.ar^ movetl rr. Iliin«.i> .in«i iiefi leav- 
ing a valuable estate. He tuarried Flizal'eih I'weed an«: ''.e and "n> wife 
lived until about 1S7!. wIku *hv.\ die'! at :iie age "L ai><.>ut '/,^ }ear<. 

David Duj&bar, p. 730. 

l'\ir *'i8ju.*' read "iS^u." « 'n ;>^ge 7,^1, in -ec^nu varagrapli :or 
**i82<.y." date «jt his ^irtli, rea/i "iSji,-." 

Edward Frederick William Erdbrink, p. 744. 

b\>r rhv. date lU" his parents' -nar-iaiie rt-ad "'S^;." in>iirad "f "!Sf">^." 
Date «if his marnai^ie <iiouid read "lune 2^1. :Sij"' instead -i "faiiuarv, 

Edvrard EvaAS, p. 06O. 

In rile :a>t paragraj'ii • n tiur page :!io \eiir "'.^ij" ^;:i-ul-i rea«l "I'>8j." 

D. C. Eylar. p. 742. 

He re-^ignc'l ;u< 'position a^ ca^iiier ■ i -'le 'ank -ri "■■SSJS" ni.»t in 

« 

I. M. t 'ireenl\'ium -lied \\\ :'\.'i>ruar;. . '".Nkn" "i.i n ■'>^S7. ' 

A. W. [-Ivlar in -cc nd .mr- . i -er.-nd y-aragrapn -.:i'Uid readi, "A. R. 

Plylar." 

"Mis^ .\lict* Hemil.>e\>" in nr>t line . f tiiird paraLirapii :iiii-uld read 

"Miss .Mice H«>rnberger." SfC-n*.! ime ■ f -anic ;>aragrai>ii "-ix months" 

^hi.iuld read "sixteen nn nths." 



CORRIGENDA 3 

DaTid Shafer Eylar, p. 736. 

For "Manchester" in first line, read "Winchester." In bottom Hne 
on same page read "1852" for "1832.'' 

John W. Fristoe, p. 746. 

This name should read John R. Fristoe. 

James Hood, p. 568. 

For "acted" in the second paragraph read "had lieen." 

General William Kendall, p. 285. 

For ^'Central Park" in fifth line from bottom read "central part." 

"W. B. Lang, p. 791. 

"Two daughters. Martha and Lillie" in the last line should read, "one 
son and one daughter — Martin A., born January 3, 1890, and Lillie, born 
May 30, 1894." 

Hon. Thomas MoCanslen, p. 268. 

The title to this sketch reads "McClauslen." The name correctly 
reads "McCauslen." 

Jndge Samnel MoClanahan, p. 603. 

Leave out the phrase "and died March 5, 1882," in line four on this 
page. 

James H. McCoy, p. 916. 



Was born "May 27th" instead oi "May 17th." "William McCoy" 
in second line should read "William A. ^IcCoy." 

James McCoy, grandfather of the subject, served in the War of 1812. 

The eighth line of this sketch should read, "James McCoy married 
Susannah Tones of Pike Countv." 

The ninth line should road, "William A. McCoy moved to Sinking; 
Spring" etc. 

Subject's father, Wm. A. !McCoy, died June 13, J8^>7, at the age of 
thirtv-seven. 

Subject is a Past Master in the IVebics. Ohio. ^Tasonic Lodge. 

Samnel McCnllongh, p. 597. 

Before coming to Adams County, and after leaving Rockbridge 
County, \'irginia, Mr. McCullough did business in what is now Point 
Pleasant, W'est Virginia, so he nuist have come fn)m Point Pleasant, West 
Virginia, to Adams Comity. 

Silas Dyer Mclntyre, p. 802. 

The children of his second marriage were Pearl, aged 2H, wife of Dr. 
E. F. Downing, of Peebles. r)hio; Jennie I'ay. aged 26: Anna L., aged 24; 
Carl Herbert, aged 2t^: Wilber Andrew, age<l 21; and Jlomer ^Iarlatte, 
aged 20. The last f\\'Q reside at home. 



4 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

Judse 'Wm, McKendree Meek. 

The name "Judge W'ni. ^McKcndree," iiiuler the portrait opposite 
page 485, should be "Judge Wni. McK^ndrec Meek." 

Henry Harrison Mechlin, p. 803. 

He traveled through the South and Southwest until 1882 instead of 
"1885/* He was married April 18, 1882. instead of "1886." 

John Clinton Milner, p. 190. 

In the next to the last line of the third paragraph, '*fifth district" 
should read "seventh district." 

Miscellaneons, page 408. 

In the second paragra])h for Col. "Marshall" read "Thompson." For 
Judge James H. ** Marshall," read "Thompson." 

Oldest House in Ohio, p. 386. 

In second line from bottom of first i)aragraph read "February 21, 
1815," instead of February 31, 1815. 

George Washington Pettit, p. 223. 

In the second paragraph read "Dunkinsville*' for "Dukinsville." 

Joseph Rises, p. 262. 

At the opening of the sketch the name of the wife of Stej>hen Riggs 
is given as "Annie.'' On her tombstone in Sardinia cemeterv it is 
'*Elizabeth." 

Rev. M. D. A. Steen. 

The title under portrait opi)osite page 868 should read, "Rev. M. D. 

A. Steen.'' 

Charles Lnther Swain, p. 876. 

For "Agnes X. C. Heberling." third line, read "Agnes W. C. Her- 
berling." For "Miss Anna X. lUirkett," in next to last line of first para- 
graph, read "Miss Anna M. Burkett." 

Subject was admitted to bar on "May 30, 1893," instead of "March 

30- 

Jane Smith 'Williamson, p. 638. 

In fourth line from the top read, Mrs. S. R. Hempstead, for Mrs. D. 

B. Hempstead. 

John T. IVilson, p. 318. 

The last line of the first coui)let quoted should read: "Dead? we 
may clasp their hands in awe." 

James A. Tonng, p. 908. 

In thirteenth line from top of the page, read Miss Sallie Planck for 
Planch, as printed. For Clarence Planch in the last line of the first para- 
graph on page 908, read Planck. 



HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



CHAPTER I. 

OUTUNE SKETCH OF ADAMS COUNTY 

Adams County is one of the oldest in Ohio. It was formed July lo, 
1797, by proclamation of Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory. The elder Adams was then President of the United States, and 
St. Clair named the county in his honor. The civil organization of the 
county was effected Tuesday, September 12, 1797, at Manchester, the site 
of the first white settlement in the Virginia Reservation, and the third in 
Ohio. There were three counties organized in Ohio before Adams, 
namely : Washington, Hamilton, and Wayne. 

Adams County lies on the majestic Ohio, and borders Highland on the 
north, Scioto on the east, and Brown on the west. Pike joins at the north- 
east angle. The form of the county is rectangular, its longer sides being 
its eastern and western boundary lines, and it contains six hundred and 
twenty-five square miles of surface. The original boundaries of the 
county included the greater portion of the Virginia Reservation. On the 
hydrographic charts of the state, Adams County is classed in the Scioto 
Valley section, but it is properly designated an Ohio River county. Its 
system of drainage empties directly into the Ohio, except a small area in 
the northeastern part drained by Scioto Brush Creek, a tributary of the 
Scioto River. 

Few counties of the state surpass Adams in the number and size of 
its fine streams and creeks. The largest of these is Ohio Brush Creek, a 
magnificent stream that flows through the central portion of the county 
from the north and empties into the Ohio River. From the village of 
Newport at the junction of its west and east branches to its mouth at the 
Ohio, it traverses a distance of nearly forty miles, and for the greater por- 
tion of its course attains the magnitude of a small river. In the days of 
the old iron furnaces their products were transported a portion of the year 
in barges from **01d Forge Dam" to the Ohio. A system of slackwater 
navigation on Ohio Brush Creek was at one time contemplated by the state 
when the iron furnaces were in operation there. In an article in the WEST- 
ERN' Pioneer George Sample states that in 1806, he loaded two flat boats 
with flour at his residence on Ohio Brush Creek and took them from there 
to New Orleans. Hundreds of rafts of logs used to be floated from the 
vicinity of the Sproull bridge during good stages of water, while the lower 
course of the creek could be used almost the entire year. 

Next in size and importance to Ohio Brush Creek is the West Fork, 
really the parent stream, which takes its source near Bernard in Eagle 



4 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX)UNTY 

Township, Brown County, and flows southeasterly, entering Adams 
County at the northwest, crossing Winchester and Scott Townships and 
uniting with the East Fork at the village of Newport on the western border 
of Meigs Township. It receives from the north the waters of Little West 
Fork which drains the. northern part of Winchester. T9wnship; and Buck 
Run and Georges Creek which dfkiri' Scott Tov^h^hfp. 'From the south- 
west it receives Elk Run on the western border of Scott, and Cherry Fork, 
•^ fine stream that drains Wayne and the western portion of Oliver Town- 
ship. 

The East Fork takes its source at tlie junction of the "Three Forks," 
Baker's, Middle and West, in the northern portion of Bratton Township. 
It is a beautiful stream nearly br quiteas larg^ as the West Fork, but 
differing from it in that its channel is cut in the flinty limestone while the 
former is furrowed deep in the blue limestone. It flows from the north- 
east across Brattoil Township and the northwestern portion of Meigs, and 
unites with West Fork at the village of Newport. Its principal tributary 
from the east is Crooked Creek which rises in Franklin Township, while 
from the west it receives the waters of Little East Fork, the source of 
which is in the eastern portion of Scott Township. 

Scioto Brush Creek, the waters of which drain the eastern portion 
of the county, is a fine stream and one of the most picturesque^ It rises 
in Jefferson Township near the center, flows north and then east entering 
Scioto County and thence the Scioto River near Rushtown, a few miles 
north of Portsmouth. The principal tributary of Scioto Brush Creek in 
Adams County is Blue Creek which rises on the border of Greene Town- 
ship within si'x miles of the Ohio River and flows north receiving the 
waters of Chum Creek near Blue Creek postoffice in Jefferson Township. 
Near this point it unites with Burley's Run and forms Scioto Brush Creek. 
Turkey Creek rises near Steam Furnace in Meigs Township, flows south- 
east and unites with Scioto Brush Creek in Jefferson Township, near 
Wamsleyville. 

The North Fork of Scioto Brush Creek rises in Franklin Township, 
flows southeast receiving the waters of Cedar Fork and unites with Scioto 
Brush Creek in Scioto County. Lower Twin Creek rises on the southern 
border of Jefferson Township and flows south into the Ohio River near 
Rockville. Stout's Run is a .small stream that rises ih the hills of Jeffer- 
son Township and enters the Ohio at the village of Rome in Greene; town- 
ship. The west central portion of Adams County is drained by the East 
Fork of Eaglie Creek which rises near West Union and flows southwest 
receiving from the north Hill's Fork and from the south Kite's Fork, in 
Liberty Township, and thence crosses the Brown County line and unites 
with thie West Fork of Eagle Creek at Stevenson's Mill in Byrd Town- 
ship. Big Three Mile and Little Three Mile each rise in Sprigg Township 
and flow southwest into the Ohio River. Lick Fork of Ohio 
Brush Creek rises near West Union and flows northeast uniting with the 
latter near Dunkinsville. Beaslev's Fork has its source near that of Lick 
Fork, courses to the southeast across Monroe Township and enters Ohio 
Brush Creek. 

The surface of Adams County is diversified. In the west central and 
northwest it is flat or gently undulating. In the central and northern 
portions it is more broken, the hills are more lofty, their tops being gently 



OUTLINE SKETCH OF ADAMS COUNTY 6 

rounded or spread out in broad table lands. In the east the surface is very 
broken, there are high ridges and lofty hills, with many knobs reaching 
an elevation of a thousand feet, and some nearly fourteen hundred feet 
above the sea level, as for instance, Peach Mountain in the southeast corner 
of Meigs Township and Greenbriar in Jefferson Township. On the top 
of the former is a large farm in a fine state of cultivation. In the south 
bordering the Ohio River is a range of beautiful hills, some almost attain- 
ing the altitude of mountains, affording a stretch of scenery far more beau- 
tiful and picturesque than any view along the highlands of the Hudson. 
The valley of Ohio Brush Creek far surpasses in beauty, and equals in fer- 
tility of soil that of either the Miami or Scioto, while along its principal 
tributaries are some of the finest farms in the state. Along Scioto Brush 
Creek and its tributaries, the valleys are deep and narrow but very fertile ; 
and the neat farms with comfortable homes nestling under the shadow of 
the emerald-capped hills, present a most delightful picture of rural life. 
Being in the sandstone region the water of the streams is soft and very 
clear, appearing in the deeper pools to be a deep azure blue. 

The lands of Adams County, from an agricultural stand, are generally 
considered poor by those unfamiliar with its soils. But this impression is 
erroneous. While there is some poor or unproductive soil throughout the 
county, and especially in the hilly portions, yet there is a very great deal 
of good lands in every section. In pioneer days the eastern part of the 
county lying within the Waverly sandstone section was considered as of no 
value except for the timber and tanbark it afforded ; and the scattered in- 
habitants were spoken of as a "vagrant class*' of "coon hunters and bark 
peelers" by an early historian of the state, whose statements are copied by 
many of the succeeding writers of Ohio history down to the present time, 
just as some geographers yet place the old town of Alexandria at the 
mouth of the Scioto on their maps. But today this section contains many 
fine farms. The valley lands are rich, and many of the hillsides produce 
goods crops of hay and corn, while some of them grow crops of fine, white 
burle>' tobacco. In fact this is the tobacco section of the county. And the 
inhabitants instead of being a vagrant class of "coon hunters" are generally 
an industrious, intelligent and prosperous people. It is true, ignorance 
and poverty exist there, as in all communities. The western portion of 
the county, including all of Winchester Township and a portion of Scott, 
Wayne, Liberty and Sprigg, lies within the blue limestone belt and the 
soil is fairly productive of crops of wheat, oats, com, and in the valleys, 
tobacco ; and the entire section when properly cared for produces excellent 
crops of timothy and clover hay. Some of the most productive farms of 
the county are on the uplands in the cliff limestone section in the south 
central part of the county, while the coves in Tiffin, Monroe, Wayne 
and Scott Townships have long been celebrated for their productiveness. 
The central portion of Adams County with its numerous streams and 
never failing springs affords the finest grazing lands in southern Ohio, 
and the sheep and cattle industry is the chief source of wealth in this 
section. 

The thickly grown virgin forest that once clothed the county 
contained a great variety of the most valuable timber. In the west 
there were extensive tracts of level lands heavily timbered with the finest 
specimens of hickory, white oak, beech and white maple. Recently a 



6 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

white oak tree was felled in Liberty Township, which measured over seven 
feet across the stump. In the southwest and along the Ohio River grew 
the largest specimens of buckeye, red oak, black walnut, red elm and black 
maple. In the cliff limestone region, especially about West Union in 
Tiffin Township and on Gift Ridge in Monroe Township, grew the gigantic 
yellow poplar, and the largest specimens of black maple, with areas in- 
terspersed with hickory, white oak, ash and black walnut. Along the 
waters of the West Fork of Ohio Brush Creek and its tributaries were 
forests of black maple, red oak, dogwood, and in the coves and rich loams, 
the largest growths of wild cherry and black walnut, while in the bottoms 
on the borders of the streams grew enormous sycamores with their 
whitened trunks resembling columns of Carrara marble. On the hillsides 
and ridges in the section east of Ohio Brush Creek and extending to the 
Waverly sandstone regpion of Scioto Brush Creek were forests of white 
oak, chestnut oak, black oak, chestnut, spruce and cedar. The eastern 
section on the hills and knobs grew spruce, cedar and chestnut ; and in the 
coves and valleys beech, maple, oak and yellow poplar. There were many 
specimens of yellow poplar in this region that measured over eight feet in 
diameter. On the farm of Finley Wamsley near the Wamsleyville 
bridge over Scioto Brush Creek was a yellow poplar tree which measured 
ten feet in diameter. When felled and cut into eighteen-inch stove wood 
it made thirty-eight cords, which would equal thirteen cords of wood of 
one hundred and twenty-eight solid feet to the cord. On the farm of 
Phillip Kratzer on Johnson's Run in Jefferson Township, stood an oak 
tree which measured nearly seven feet in diameter and made three thou- 
sand staves. A sycamore at the mouth of Cedar Run on the farm of 
William Moore was large enough to drive a horse into and turn it around 
within it. 

Adams County has the best and most extensive system of macada- 
mized roads of any county in Ohio. The beginning of this system was the 
old road known as the Maysville and Zanesville Turnpike constructed in 
the period of internal improvements by the States. President Jackson 
vetoed a bill providing for the- construction of this road by the general 
government in 1830. Afterwards the state of Ohio committed itself to a 
system of internal improvements of its highways, under the provisicMis of 
which the construction of the Maysville and Zanesville turnpike was 
undertaken. The company was incorporated by act of the Legislature and 
the county subscribed one-half of the capital stock. It was a toll road and 
for many years paid large dividends to the stockholders. The length of 
the part completed in Adams County was about thirteen miles, beginning 
at the Brown County line and ending at the residence of the late Doddridge 
Darlinton in West Union. John Leonard, of West Union, who came from 
Belgium to Adams County in 1837 and Michael Warloumount, who then 
kept a small store at Bradyville, completed the first mile of this road in 
1838, beginning at the lower end of Bradyville and extending through 
the village toward Bentonville. The next three miles were built by John 
Brotherton ; the next two miles by James and Peter McKee, beginning 
near Union Church ; the next two miles by Hugh Clarke ; and the next 
two by a Mr. Allison. John Schwallie built the first two miles below 
Bradyville, and Michael Dietz the next mile ending at the Brown County 
line. Abraham Hollingsworth was superintendent of construction, and 



OUTLINE SKETCH OF ADAMS COUNTY 7 

John Sparks treasurer of the company. The contractors were paid in 
part in county scrip, consisting of small bills about the size of the "Lincoln 
shinplasters/' in denominations of one, two, three, five and ten dollars. 
These bore six per cent, interest. The road was purchased by the county 
about twenty-five years ago and made a free turnpike. 

From tihe close of the Civil War to the present time there have been 
over three hundred miles of macadamized roads constructed in the county ; 
and the present system of free pikes reaches every hamlet, village and 
town from its center at West Union to the remotest parts of the county. 
This system of roads has done more than any other agency to develop the 
resources of the county, and to add to the wealth and prosperity of the 
people. In connection with this system of roads and as a part of it there 
have been constructed hundreds of bridges across the numeroiw creeks 
and streams, affording safe passage over them at all seasons of the year. 
Many of these are wholly of iron and steel and are models of the best 
ideas of American bridge work. 

Of the natural resources of the county its timber is fast becoming 
depleted. The portable saw-mill has hastened the destruction of the finest 
forests in everv section of the countv. The iron industries on Brush 
Creek have long since been abandoned, and there is no prospect of their 
revival under existing conditions. But the county has millions of dollars 
of wealth in the ledges of building and paving stone not surpassed in 
durability and beauty in any of the quarries of the world. With cheap 
transportation which will eventually be provided, the products of these 
quarries will become the source of untold wealth to the county. 

The population of the county is largely descendant from two principal 
sources : the Virginia pioneers, and the Scotch-Irish who came at a later 
period. There is a small German element whose ancestors came about 
1850. In religion each of these elements is Protestant, the first two very 
largely of the Presbyterian faith. There never has been but one Catholic 
Church in the county and that is now abandoned for lack of membership. 

Popnlation of Adams County. 

The following table shows the population of the county at the periods 
stated : 



Years. 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 

1 


1840 


1850 


Population 


3,432 


9,434 


10,406 


12,238 


13,183 


18,883 





Years. 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 




Population 


20,309 


20,750 


24,005 


26,093 













HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 
P«pn]«tloB of Tawaablpa wtd Towao. 



iToy,-nBhipB. 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 




"678" 
1,148 


1,807 
],308 
1,302 
1,001 
1,132 
1,342 
807 
1,141 


1,408 

1,365 
637 

1,068 
916 
832 

1,&40 


1,620" 
1.504 
1,963 

I. hid 

1,438 
1.318 
1,193 
1.980 




1.063 

i.es6 

1,365 
1.541 
3,444 
2,124 
1,IB2 
1,400 
2.212 
1,064 
2,652 
1,126 
1,404 


1,090 
2,023 
1.245 
1,594 

3,947 
2,645 
1,132 
1,430 

2,600 
1,061 
2,626 
1,181 
1,488 
1,988 






l.SM 
1.544 

2.261 

J,S4S 
1,548 
1,327 
l,a06 
1,787 
1.O60 
2,51 fl 
1.191 

.,» 


1,833 
1.377 
2.172 
S.S68 
1.748 
1,409 
1,304 
1.868 
1.068 
2,086 

i;475 














916 
2,001 




MeigB 








783 
1,028 














1,652 

771 


],67B 
1.068 


'■SI 

1,121 


2,111! 
168! 
1,803 






































Towoa. 




180 




434 


834 


982 


1,403 


1,888 
368 
720 














110 
429 








416 

486 


564 
626 






406 





444 















Stetlrtlea »f tiM Tmt 1900. 



TOWUBhlpB. 


HorBeB. 


Cattle. 


Sheep 


HogB. 


No. 


Value. 


No. 


Value. 


No. 


Value. 


No. 


Value. 


Bratton 


215 

206 

112 

73 

220 
166 
85 
115 


$9.9«0 
6,950 

5,261 
2,686 

6,050 

;j.;bo 

3.260 

3,195 
13,755 
2,685 


430 

436 

241 
106 

370 
177 
243 
196 
1220 


J13.116 
9,345 

4,000 
1,755 

4,920 

1,792 
4,130 
3.286 
21.160 


468 
436 

2t 
193 

217 
38 
69 
70 


|1,4B5 

1,260 

40 

525 

650 

84 
170 
175 


703 
280 

220 

8i 

414 
188 
213 
211 

1209 
63 

794 
352 
372 
631 

1208 

539 

764 
1271 
2009 

705 


$3,405 
1.130 




Greene— 


Sandy Springa Precinct 
Jefferson — 
Cedar MIUb Precinct 


285 

1,24« 






WarasleyTille 


426 
4,693 








MelSTB— 


280 
182 
268 
260 
315 

202 
263 

525 
373 

410 






343 

108 
124 
520 

770 

217 
446 
616 
765 

844 


280 
490 
1.596 
2,828 

1.500 
1,640 
1.830 
2,330 
.3.626 




Mineral Springe Precin't 


3.610 
7,B25 
10,310 
11,320 

7,830 
7.462 
18.850 
13.326 

15.750 


2«0 
602 
413 

650 
60S 
1266 
774 
913 


2,6% 
fi.170 
8.440 
14,580 

10,160 
8,647 
21 ,440 
12,760 
18,010 


704 
1.116 




ScoU - 

Spring— 

Benton V ille Free inct 

Bradyville Precinct. 


2,940 

2,016 
2,038 


"Wayne 

WinehBBter 


4,660 
3.045 



OUTLINE SKETCH OF ADAMS COUNTY 



9 



Lands. 



Townships. 



Culti- 
vated. 



Pasture. 



Wood- 
land. 



Waste. 



Total. 



Value. 



Bratton 

Franklin 

Greene- 
Rome Precinct 

Sandy Springs 

Jefferson — 

Cc^ar Mills Precinct 
Chum Creek Precint 

Lynx Precinct 

Wamsleyville Prec... 

Liberty 

Manchester 

Meigs — 

Jacksonville 

Min. Springs 

Monroe 

Oliver... 

Scott 

Sprigg— 

fientonville Precinct 
Bradyville Precinct 

Tiffin 

Wayne 

Winchester 



6,555 
6,372 


7,538 
6,551 


3,646 
• 4,794 


3,141 
1,750 


1.572 
.520 


4,879 
1,296 


3,552 
2.567 
2,257 
2,586 
6,026 
293 


2.117 
1,241 
1,451 
1,180 
12,911 
174 


4,660 
4.61^5 
2.521 
4.963 

3,587 
2 


5,885 
3,068 
4,699 
6,227 
6,346 


3,912 
1,518 
3,353 
5.162 
7,317 


4,601 
5.090 ■ 
3,8:^8 
4.864 
3,494 


4,674 
6,362 
7,461 
5,412 
6,634 


6,875 
4,905 

11.399 
7.408 

10,771 


1,376 
1,054 
7,427 
2,833 
2,498 


91,817 


97,875 


72.118 



1,798 
2,625 

1,692 
5,863 

1.041 

1,920 

1,638 

796 

18 



1,212 
949 

3,186 
887 
672 

241 
362 
2,329 
393 
325 



27,947 



19.537 
20,342 

11,284 \ 
9,429/ 

11,3701 

10.423 

7,867 

9,475J 

22,542 

469 

15,610 \ 
10,625 / 
15,076 
17,140 
17,829 

13,166 \ 
12,683 / 
28,616 
16,046 
20,228 



289,767 



$184,860 
141,990 

224,500 



270,690 

321,520 
252,740 

269,710 

183,770 
147.520 
264,830 

369,020 

323,280 
264,160 
328,830 



3,547,120 



Soldiers of the War of tHe Rebellion. 



TOWNSHIPS. 

Bratton 32 

Franklin 38 

Greene — 

Mb Rome Precinct 37 

Sandy Springs 17 

Jefferson—: 

Cedar Mills Precinct 16 

Chum Creek Precinct 81 

Lynx 12 

Wamsleyville 26 

Liberty 29 

Manchester 114 

Meigs— 

Jacksonville 57 

Mineral Springs 32 

Monroe 25 

Oliver 27 

Scott 35 

Sprigg— 

Bentonville 47 

Bradyville 33 

Tiffin 77 

Wayne 42 

Winchester 53 



CHAPTER II. 

* GEOLOGY AND MINEItALOGY 

There has never been but one geological survey of Adams County, 
and that was made by Prof. John Locke, Assistant State Geologist, in 
1838. There is a more recent report but it does not at all cover the county. 
Prof. Locke's report is so comprehensive and withal so plain that anyone 
by reading it may acquire much valuable knowledge of the geological 
formations of Adams County. It is however necessary to note some 
changes in classification and nomenclature in accordance with present 
usage. Reference to the map of the county in 'this volume will greatly 
assist the reader in fixing the relative position of places and localities. 

The rocks of Adams Countv are so well defined and so various as to 
render it a model of stratification. It embraces a varied series, including 
different strata, extending from the blue limestone [Cincinnati group] 
to the fine-grained [Waverly] sandstone. The strata are of nearly a 
uniform thickness, and nearly uniformly inclined east nine and one-half 
degrees south, at the rate of about 37.4 feet per mile, or a little more than 
100 feet in three miles. In the direction of north, nine and one-half de- 
grees east, a line on the strata or layers of rocks is level just as the sloping 
roof of a house is level in a line parallel to the ridge or eaves. This is 
called the line of hearing, while the line at right angles to it is called the 
line of dip. If the rocks of Adams County were continued onward as they 
now lie, until they filled up the surface of the county to the height of 500 
feet above the level of low water of the Ohio River at Cincinnati, the 
several layers of rocks running up a slope from the east, and cut off by 
this level surface, would present at that surface, several belts of various 
widths, running in the direction of the line of bearing. If the county were 
sliced down by cutting off level horrizontal layers so as to reduce it in 
height successively to 400. 300. 200, and 100 feet, it would still present 
the same belts of surface having the same width, but removed each time a 
little more that three miles to the east of the place which they formerly 
occupied. [Place seven pennies one upon another on a level surface: then 
push them over to the southeastward until their edges rest upon the plane, 
with each penny covering about one-half the surface of the one next 
beneath. Then the position of these pennies will fairly correspond to the 
position of the seven layers of rocks in the county, beginning with the 
blue limestone and ending with the fine-grained sandstone. — Ed.] The 
several layers of rocks of Adams County are, beginning at the bottom : 

*From Locke's Report, with notes and comments by the Editor. 

(10) 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY 11 

First. Blue limestone of indefinite thickness. 

Second. Blue marl 25 feet. 

Third. Flinty limestone 51 feet. 

Fourth. Blue marl 100 feet. 

Fifth. Cliff limestone 89 feet. 

Sixth. Slate 251 feet. 

Seventh. Fine-grained sandstone 343 feet. 

w 

[The more recent classification is, beginning at the bottom : Cincinnati 
or Trenton, Clinton, Niagara, Water Lime, Comiferous, Erie Shale, and 
Waverly. — Ed.] These sections lie over each other like shingles on the 
roof of a house. We will now proceed to describe the belts or "out- 
cropping'* edges of the several strata, supposing the surface of the county 
to be a plane 500 feet higher than low water of the Ohio. 

First. The blue limestone would extend from the west into the 
southwest comer of the county, only about one mile ; into the northwest 
comer about four and a half miles, where it would disappear under the 
marl and continue onward to the eastward, sloping deeper and deeper, no 
one knows how far. 

Second. The blue limestone would be succeeded eastwardly by a belt 
of an outcropping of marl two-thirds of a mile wide. 

Third. The belt of flinty limestone, one ane one-third miles wide. 

Fourth. The belt of the great marl layers three miles wide. 

Fifth. The belt of the cliff limestone two and one-half miles wide. 

Sixth. The belt of slate six and two-thirds miles wide. 

Seventh. The belt of sandstone occupying rest of county and about 
ten miles wide. 

Now as the surface of the county is not level, it does not actually 
exhibit such belts but only such an approximation to them as the surface is 
to a level. The western part of the county consists of blue limestone about 
500 feet high, as at Fairview. West Union and some hills to the west of it 
shows the cliff limestone rising to 600 and 700 feet. The bed of Ohio 
Brush Creek again is in the blue limestone, because it is excavated to 
near the level of the base line, being only twenty or thirty feet above it. 
Cherry Fork and nearly all of the branches about Winchester in the north- 
west part of the county are also in the blue limestone, and seem to descend 
on the regfular slope of the stratification. Above the Marble Furnace, 
the bed of East Fork is in the flinty limestone [Clinton] and finally in 
Highland County rises in the cliff fNiagaral limestone. It will be seen 
that most of the tributaries of Ohio Brush Creek are on the west side of 
it ; those from the east being short and few in number. This results from 
the dip of the strata and the natural surface conforming to it. The slopes 
to the east, on the incline<l surface of the stratification, are broad and 
gradual, but those to the west are abrupt and narrow, being over the 
escarpments or upturned ends of the several layers. The cliff limestone, 
the marl and the flint limestone at West Union, are what are called "out- 
liers," a kind of geological island, as they are cut off on every side from 
the main body of the same layer and stand out above. They are cut off 
on the west by outcropping ; on the north by Cherry Fork : on the east by 
Ohio Brush Creek, and on the south by the Ohio River, all of which have 
their beds in the blue limestone. 



12 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

West Union is over 600 feet above low water at Cincinnati, overlook- 
ing the whole surrounding country except some outliers, Bald Hill and 
Cave Hill, to the northwest, and the very elevated knobs of slate and sand- 
stone east of Ohio Brush Creek. As the great marl stratum underlies the 
cliff limestone, the descents from West Union over tht cliff and marl are 
very abrupt. The marl being soft, and, during wet weather, treading into 
a bottomless mortar, requires the roads over it to be stoned. 

From West Union to Treber's on Lick Fork, the following section 
with thickness of strata is observed : 

Cliff limestone 89 feet. 

Marl , 106 feet. 

Flinty limestone 51 feet. 

Marl 25 feet. 

Blue limestone 25 feet. 

The cufi? limestone (86 feet. thick) at West Union consists of 
three layers partially blended into each other. The first or upper part is 
a rough, porous, soft limestone, filled with cavities which have been oc- 
cupied by fossil animals, and which have decayed out. These cavities are 
lined with a dark colored bitumen. It produces good lime. The second 
or middle portion of this cliff limestone, is aluminous and arenaceous, of 
a slaty structure, dark g^ay color, and comparatively hard. The third and 
bottom portion is more sandy. It is massive, light colored, rather free 
to work and is quarried as a building stone. It has been opened in 
Darlinton's Quarry at the head of Beasly's Fork in a stratum twenty feet 
thick. Both this and the second or slaty layers effervesce but slightly with 
acids, and on solution in acid, leave a fine sediment or mud consisting of 
clay and fine sand and there rises on the surface of the solution a film of 
bitumen. They contain about 60 per cent, of carbonate of lime, but do not 
slake perfectly after burning. If pulverized after calcination, and mixed 
with sand, they harden under water, and might be used for hydraulic 
cement. 

The great marl stratum (106 feet thick) forms the immediate 
sharp descent of the various hills around West Union. When lying un- 
disturbed it has the blue color common to clay, and is evidently stratified. 
When decomposed by the frost and weather, it becomes lighter in color 
and, dried, becomes almost white. It is earthy, hisfhly effervescent, con- 
tains a few fossils, and has thin layers of slaty limestone two or three 
inches thick, traversing it at remote distances. The great marl deposit 
forms, according to circumstances, three different sorts of soil. 

First. When it forms a slope under the cliffs, as it does at West Union 
and numerous other places, the water from above flows over it, and it 
produces the sugar tree and becomes covered with a rich mold suitable 
for wheat or corn. If it lies in a steep declivity, it is liable, after the 
trees are removed, to slip in large avalanches, blasting entirely the hopes of 
the husbandman. 

Second. When the natural level surface coincides with the great 
marl stratum, as it does for some distance north of West Union, the soil 
is rather inferior, and produces a forest of white oak. Such plains are 
called white oak flats. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY 13 

Third. When it is left in conical mound-like "outliers," the marl 
IS otten barren of trees, and produces some peculiar prairie-like plants, as 
the prarie docks, wild sunflowers, etc. These places are called "bald hills" 
and "buffalo beats." Several occur within a mile of West Union in a 
northerly direction, and would be quite a paradise for the botanist. 

The FLiNtV LIMESTONE (51 feet thick), like the blue limestone, lies 
in thin layers interstratified with marl, but it differs from the blue lime- 
stone in color, in fossils, and especially in having certain layers which 
abound in silicious matter, or are flinty. In the layers of stone the flinty 
matter is intimately combined in a crystalline rock, and not in any degree 
sedimentary or sand-like, as it is in the lower layers of the cliff stratum. 

The upper layer of the flinty limestone is peculiarly marked. It is 
about one foot thick, and contains so much silex that it has the sharp con- 
choidal or flinty fracture, and gives fire with steel. In some places it is 
"crackeled," or broken into small triangular and diamond-shaped blocks, 
by vertical fractures or seams. In other places it occurs in large slabs and 
would be useful as a building stone. It is hard, but breaks or "spalls" 
easily. Nothing could be better for macadamizing than this rock. It is 
harder than the blue limestone and contains lime enough to form a final 
cement after packing. It is feebly effervescent, contains iron, is of a 
reddish or brown color outside, but has a pale or opal-like blue when 
freely fractured. No rock in our part of the country is more duable. In 
the cliffs where it has been exposed for ages it is not in the least weathered, 
but retains perfectly its sharp edges and angles. I have met with it at 
every point where the channels have been deep enough to reach it. [On 
the right bank of Lick Fork at the "old deer lick" nearly the whole of this 
stratum is exposed. The salt at "the lick" is not table salt but an epsom 
salt, sulphate of magnesia. — Ed.] 

. Green burrh stone is a "calcareo-silicious rock," occurring in de- 
tached semi-nodular masses, immediately on top of the flinty stratum, not 
general, but only locally presented. It is compact and flinty, of an agree- 
able apple-green color, rough and cellular, often containing liquid bitu- 
men, white crvstals of carbonate of lime and some fossils. It is to be 
seen in the greatest perfection on the descent into Soldier's Run, just above 
the site of Groom's old mill. It is said to equal the Raccoon burrh stone. 

Inferior marl stratum (25 feet thick) is the common blue clay, 
marl, and has nothing peculiar, except at *'the lick" it includes a thin 
slaty layer of bluish limestone, similar to that in the great marl deposit, 
except the stem-like bodies are on the under side of it, and two or three 
inches in diameter. 1 

The blue limestone^ of indefinite thickness, with its characteristic 
fossils, commences in the bed of Lick Fork, v\athin a mile below "the lick." 
Two peculiar subjects which occur in it below Treber's, and about fifty 
feet below the top of its stratification, claim our attention. These are a 
peculiar waved stratum, and a large species of trilobite. The waved strata 
occur in the cliff, the flinty and in the blue limestone ; the under side is flat 
and smooth ; the upper is fluted in long troughs two to three feet wide, 
called "ripple marks." The trilobite found was the isotelus maximus and 
measured twenty-one inches in length. 



14 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX)UNTY 

BiOd HUl mmi, C«t« HIIL 



These are *'outliers" of the cliff limestone similar to that of West 
Union, and lie to the north and west of it. In altitude, as they are in "a 
direction from West Union directly opposite to the **dip,'' they are higher 
than West Union ; Bald Hill about fifty feet and Cave Hill one hundred 
feet. Bald Hill is quite an insulated elevation and would be an excellent 
observatory in a trigcHiometrical survey of the countr>'. [Cave Hill was 
the location of one of the stations in the late geodetic survey by the general 
government. — Ed. ] 

SpUt Ro«kHllL 

This elevation is on Ohio Brush Gredc near "Old Forge Dam," 
The ascent was made in company with Mr. John Fisher, and the section 
was found to be almost identical with that at West Union except that the 
little marl deposit seemed to be encroached upon by stone, and slate caps 
the top of the hill as an outlier. 

The following are the heights of the several points indicated by the 
barometer : 

Mr. Fisher's house [in bottom at the old forge] above 

low water mark at Cincinnati 82 feet. 

Top of the blue limestone 100 feet. 

Top of the flinty limestone 189 feet. 

Bottom of the cliff limestone 327 feet. 

Top of cliff 465 feet. 

Top of the hill 524 feet. 

The great marl deposit here which seems to be thickened to 136 feet, 
presents a broad slope of "coveland" on the hillside covered with a fine 
growth of sugar trees. A narrow spur of the cliff about three-fourths of 
a mile southeast of the. forge forms an insulated and almost inaccessible 
rock, which is quite a curiosity. It is fifty-three feet high, presenting a 
level terrace on the top ninety-two feet by thirty-six feet. The upper 
part of it is a tolerably pure limestone, the lower part is a loose 
arenaceous limestone filled with large corallines, and disintegrating 
by atmospheric agency, has been reduced ten to twenty feet in 
width, leaving the upper portion standing like a head on a small 
neck. Three sides of this are overhanging and inaccessible. At the fourth 
side it has been split from the contiguous hill, and the cliff has opened 
about two feet, from which circumstance I gave it the name ** Split Rock." 
It is remarkable that though thus insulated and scarcely covered with 
soil, the flat top bears a great number of herbs and small trees. I made a 
catalogue of what I saw there : Red oak. black oak. chestnut oak, cedar, 
pine, ash, sycamore, water maple, box-elder, red-bud. butternut, hazel, 
hornbean, hydrangea, sumac, three-leaved sumac. Juneberry, mullein, 
balm, sandwort, yellow flax, sassafras, grass — four species, soxifrage, 
white plantain, columbine, eupatonium. ferns — four species, hounds- 
tounge, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry, huckleberry, cinquefoil, thistle, 
garlic. It is evident that Split Rock is concave and contains a reservoir 
of water to which the roots of the plants descend. Immediately above 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY 16 

Split Rock and beyond the cliff, commences a gradual swell of soil formed 
by the disintegration of slate, and produces cedar, pine, and chestnut oak, 
which last tree, in this vicinity, furnishes the tanner's bark. 

Fvmaoe Hill Hear Bnudi Greek Fvmaee. 

In company with Mr. John Fisher and Mr. James K. Stewart, pro- 
prietors of the furnace, we ascended to the southeast, and presently came 
to the slate or shale formations. The rock does not crop out but exfoliated 
masses of slate appear in the soil in scales one to two inches in diameter, 
and perhaps an eighth of an inch in thickness. Undershrubs became 
abundant. I was forcibly reminded of the origin of the name of the con- 
tigfuous" stream [Brush Creek]. The huckleberry bushes with ripe fruit 
abounded in the open places. Among other trees, the- chestnut begins to 
show itself, which is, I believe, scarcely seen to grow in the limestone 
regions. After ascending several sharp acclivities, one of thirty degrees 
and another of thirty-five, we came to the fine-grained [Waverly] sand- 
stone, where it had been quarried for furnace hearthstones, in a stratum 
three feet thick. This point is 707 feet above low water at Cincinnati. 
Ascending still further, we came to the top of the hill, where the barometer 
stood 28.596 inches and the thermometer registered 61 degrees F., a cool 
place for 10 A. M., July 12. This would g^ve a height of 797 feet. The 
top of this hill is a level terrace of several acres having a deep rich soil, and 
producing a heavy growth of timber. It divides the water between 
Cedar Run and Scioto Brush Creek. On descending we saw abundance 
of game, squirrels, rabbits, and wild turkeys, and I was told that deer were 
not uncommon. 

Obserrations, NortH'westem Part of the County. 

From Sample's Tavern at the "crossing'' of Brush Creek, nine miles 
from West Union, the ascent to Jacksonville presents a section almost 
identical with that at West Union : 

From the water to the bottom of the flint limestone is. . . 58 feet. 

Flint limestone, 51 feet thick 109 feet. 

Top of marl, 96 feet thick 205 feet. 

Jacksonville 281 feet. 

The bed of Brush Creek is then twenty -five to thirty feet in the blue 
limestone, and Jacksonville near the top of the cliff limestone. The surface 
of the country from Brush Creek Furnace to the Steam Furnace, and from 
Jacksonville to Locust Grove, lies on the cliff limestone, is nearly level, 
with a thin soil, often ash-colored or almost white, producing naturally 
white oaks. With good management it produces wheat, but some of it 
needs more nursing than it is likely to receive. The cliff stone in these 
places is more porous and arenaceous than elsewhere, and at Locust 
Grove it has disintegrated into a kind of sand and gravel through which 
a plow may sometimes be driven. From Jacksonville to Locust Grove, 
the stone, in its out-croppings, exhibits numerous nodules of sparry 



16 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

crystals which treasure hunters have christened **silver blossom/* and have 
wasted valuable time in useless and absurd explorations. These sparry 
nodules sometimes graduate or blend into a black substance, which gives 
opacity, and the spar adds luster till there is an appearance quite like 
Galena or lead ore. This has served still funhcr to excite the imagination 
of dreamers. 

Ejuunlmatiom at the Steaai Fvrmmoe. 



The stream on which the furnace stands is small, but vet has cut a 
deep channel in the rocks; and falling rapidly below the furnace, presents 
within one-fourth of a mile vertical cliffs, seventv feet to one hundred feet 
high. At the point where it has cut quite through the cliff and makes its 
bed in the great marl stratum, the channel opens on the left into a slope 
of thirty degrees, while the cliff is vertical or even overhanging on the 
opposite side. The slope on the left is formed by the surface of the marl, 
which having no other solid materials than the thin slaty limestone which 
traverses it remotely, will not lie steeper than thirty degrees or five feet 
of an elevation in ten. The continued rains of a wet season had so softened 
the soil on the slope, which does not permit the water to sink away, that 
with all its load of trees, rocks and springs, it had slidden into the stream 
l^elow, leaving the grooved blue clay marl bald for lOO feet in length up 
and down the slope and 200 or 300 feet wide. 

The Turk*! Head. 

As this marl stratum extends over the whole of the eastern and 
middle parts of the county, it presents in the valleys of the streams 
peculiar slof)es commencing immediately under the cliffs, where they 
abound with copious cool springs. Having a large portion of lime in its 
composition, it communicates great fertility to the soil. It has already 
been noticed that such lands are called **coves lands." If this marl were 
dug out and applied to the poor soil on the terrace of the cliff rocks, it 
would undoubtedly fertilize it. The bluff opposite to this avalanche, is a 
picturesque object, and its outline near the top resembles the profile of a 
Turk, and is called the "Turk's Head." 

The rocks through this ravine are all feebly effervescent. The lower 
portion, about twenty feet thick, is a tolerably quarry stone, and works 
like a sandstone. The middle portion, fifteen or twenty feet thick, is 
slaty in structure, but still contains lime. The remainder, sixty or 
seventy feet, is a ragged nodular rock, including the ore beds. 

Orassy HilL 

We made our approach to the hill one and one-half miles east of the 
furnace over an old road, and first passed over the common oak terrace of 
the cliff limestone. Gradually ascending we came to the huckleberry 
bushes and the chestnut trees, sure signs of the slate region, and finally, 
leaving the beaten path, we entered the **tangled thicket." to ascend the 
sides of the terminal cone of the knob, where we learned practically the 
origin of the name Bnish Creek ; for the brush was not merely close set. 



IB^SH^* 




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P^iE3|^^^^BP^^ 


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BP^^Itti 












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ng 


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TWIN KOCKS, CIDAR 1-OKK, MEIGS TOWNSHIP 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY 17 

but numerous grapevines passing from one young chestnut to another, 
horizontally, disputed every rod of our pass. On the slope sides was 
abundance of a broad-leaved, cutting grass (andropogon) and a fern 
(osmunda) both indicative of a wet soil. We finally arrived at the top, 
which is a terrace 200 feet wide and 1,000 feet long, nearly destitute of 
trees but covered with grass and copsewood. The height obtained, 
barometically, was 735 feet above low water at Cincinnati. The top is 
within the fine sandstone region, but that rock does not appear in place, or 
in regular layers. Fragments of it are abundant, some of them bright 
red, and so much rolled down the slopes that I was unable to determine 
where the slate commences. 

Valley of Soioto Bmsli Creek. 

Ascending from the waters of Crooked Creek at Locust Grove, we 
reached the summit between it and the waters of Scioto Brush Creek 
within a half mile. From this point the knobs or slate hills, capped with 
fine sandstone, are seen eastwardly ranging north and south to an in- 
definite distance. Our first view of Scioto Brush Creek showed it in a 
deep channel in the cliflE rock surmounted with cedars. So firm and thick 
is that stone in this place that it sustains itself in overhanging cliffs, pro- 
jecting over the water in places twenty feet. On the slopes of the hills the 
stones have the forjn of stairs, with an occasional rise of twenty inches. 
At Smalley's, about six miles from Locust Grove, the cliff limestone is 
covered by a slate hill, and sinking still deeper and 'deeper as it proceeds 
on its line of the dip, disappears altogether beneath the surface a short dis- 
tance to the eastward. Even above or west of Smalley's, on the north 
side of the creek, the slate shows itself in a bald or perpendicular side or 
mural escarpment of a knob. 

SulpHnr and Chalybeate Springs. 

It is at the junction of the slate and limestone that the sulphurous and 
chalybeate springs make their appearance. At Snialley^s and just above 
the level of the contiguous stream, and a few feet below the top of the lime- 
stone, is a spring discharging about fifty gallons of water per minute, at 
the temperature of fifty-four degrees, and known in the vicinity as the 
"Big Spring." About ten feet above the sprmg commences the slate* and 
rises into a mountain capped with sandstone, fragments of which have 
rolled to the base. There is about ten feet of clay between the limestone 
and the slate. Along the base of this hill and at the margin of the fork, 
the sulphur springs appear for a quarter of a mile. They are highly im- 
pregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen, having the foeted smell, the naus- 
eous taste, the black mud and the milky precipitate on the waters. 

THe Slate on South Fork. 

It Stands often in cliffs 100 feet in height. It is separable into very 
fine plates and would seem to be fit for roofing but unfortunately on ex- 
posure it crumbles. It is very bituminous, and when heated will burn 
2ii 



18 fflSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

with a bright flame. Scxnetimes the slate banks ignite and bum fcM- sev- 
eral days, but in general it will not support its own combustion. There 
is no workable coal in the slate stratum, it contains sulphuret of iron 
both in brassy and silver nodules, and imperceptibly blended with the slate 
itself. This decomposing, forms copperas and altun which . effloresce in 
the clefts of the rocks, and by solution, form chalybeate water. The 
slate also includes septaria Indus helmontii, or large rounded masses of 
impure blue limestone, often a little flattened and cleft, the interior being 
filled with sparry crystals of carbonate of lime, or sulphate of baryta. 

About one-fourth of a mile below John Williams', the nodules or sep- 
taria of limestone asstune the form of globes either perfect or a little flat- 
tened, and are singularly marked with parallels and meridians, like the 
lines of latitude and longitude on an artificial globe. One, three feet in 
diameter, lies at the water's edge broken into two hemispheres ; another, 
nine feet in circumference, lies in situs half raised above the water in the 
middle of the stream, with its axis nearly perpendicular. The equatorial 
part of this globe is raised like the rings of Saturn. Two others are in 
the vertical bank twenty feet above the water, one of which is not a per- 
fect globe, but a double conoid. 

THe Fine-Grained Sandstone at RoekTille. 

This is a fine building stone. It is procured from Waverly, Rockville, 
and several localities. As a building stone it is not surpassed in the world. 
The grain is so exceedingly fine that it appears when smoothed almost 
compact. Its color is a drab and very uniform, varied occasionally by iron 
stains Its fracture is dull and earthy, but so fine and soft as to have a 
peculiarly velvety appearance. It works freely and generally endures 
atmospheric agencies with little change, except it blackens somewhat from 
a decomposition of sulphuret of iron intimately blended with it. It en- 
dures the fire and answers well for the hearthstones of furnaces. Its sub 
stance is chiefly an aluminous and silicious deposit almost wholly destitute 
of any calcareous matter. It lies in layers or strata nearly horizontal and 
varying in thickness from a few inches to three or four feet, separated 
mostly by simple joints or seams, having a little clay in them ; sometimes 
by a stratum of clay, and in two places traversed by a shale or soft slate 
fifteen feet thick. 

Heifflitfl AboTe Low Water at CineinnatL 

Top of the slate 261 feet. 

White ledge 344 feet. 

City ledge 410 feet. 

Beautiful quarry 465 feet. 

Iron stratum 517 feet. 

Top of the hill 542 feet. 

Vicinity of Loonst GroTO. 

Locust Grove occupies the cliff limestone at a lower level than its top. 
The region to the north and east of it seems to have sunk from 200 to 400 
feet, thus making the slate and sandstone occupy the level of the marl and 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAIXX5Y 19^ 

cliff limestone in the outlying region. The channel of Crooked Creek in 
the vicinity of *Massie*s Spring is not in the great marl stratum. Its place 
seems to be occupied by thin layers of limestone. Near the spring the level 
of the cliff limestone is occupied by sandstone in large upturned and broken 
masses, from which it is evident that a region of no small extent had sunk 
down several hundred feet, producing faults, dislocations, and uptumings 
of the layers of rocks. The spring is an excellent sulphuretted water ; on 
the west side of it is a gray limestone, the cliff rising about fifteen feet, 
while on the opposite side of it is slate dipping thirty degrees to the east. 

Sunken Mountain. 

To the east of Massie's Spring lies a sandstone hill beyond and at the 
foot of which is Mershon*s sulphur spring. Here the slate again is exposed 
but dips in a direction opposite to that at Massie*s Spring. As the top of 
the slate is found here more than 300 feet lower than in the strata in situs 
in the surrounding knobs, and as these strata are broken and upturned, it 
is evident that this mountain, at some remote period of times, sank down 
from its original place. At Mershon's Spring are found the Indus hel- 
montii or septaria of the slate. 

Pine HiU. 

lies to the east of Locust Grove about two miles. Its top is capj>ed with 
sandstone, and its height above low water mark at Cincinnati is 679 feet. 

Roeks and Earths. 

Blue limestone ; clay marl ; flinty limestone ; sandy limestone ; cal- 
careous spar or clear, glass-like crystals of limestone ; hydraulic limestone, 
being a compound lime, clay, fine sand and iron ; quartz crystals which will 
scratch glass ; chert or flinty nodules, often broken into sharp fragments ; 
sulphate of lime, g\^psum; sulphate of baryta; slate or shale; clay; sand- 
stone ; red ochre ; bright yellow ochre. 

Ores. 

Iron ore, Hmited. 

Iron pyrites (fool's gold), abundant. 

Soluble Salts. 

Epsom salts. 

Alum. 

Copperas. 

Common salt, very sparing. 

Combnstibles. 

Petroleum, or rock oil. 
Bitumen, in the rocks. 
Sulphur in the sulphur springs. 
Sulphuretted hydrogen. 



• This spring was formerly the property of General Massle and he errected a bath house 
and other buUdimrs there in order to make it a convenient "watering place." It was known 
as the "Red Sulphur Spring." 



CHAPTER 111. 

TtfE HOUND BUILDBKS 



Scattered] over the ^-ast extent of territor>- stretching from the Alle- 
ghanies on the east to the Rockies on the west, and extending from the 
Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, are landmarks of an ancient people 
once inhabitants of this region, and whom, we, for the want of a more 
specific term, call the Mound Builders WTience the^- came is enveloped in 
impenetrable myster>'. Some have supposed them to be the lost tribes of 
Israel, which hardly deserves passing notice. Others, and there is much to 
sustain the theory, suppose them to be of Mexican origin, having pushed 
gradually to the northward, where, in time, they were assailed by invaders 
from the northwest, who perhaps came from Asia when that continent was 
united in the region of Alaska to America, and who by reason of superior 
numljers or more warlike natures swept these people in turn back to the 
southward. 

At what period of time these people flourished, or when they ceased 
to \)e, is problematical. The Indians had no tradition concerning them. 
In fact, it is very generally believed by those who have investigated the 
matter, that there was at least one inter\'eni ng race of inhabitants in the 
Mississippi Valley prior to the advent of the Indians and following the dis- 
apfxfarance of the Mound Builders. We refer to "The Villagers" who 
formed the "garden beds" found in northern Indiana, southern Michigan 
and lower Missouri. These "beds" are laid out with great order and sym- 
metry and do not belong to any recognized system of horticulture. They 
arc in the richest soils and occupy from ten acres to three hundred acres 
each. That they are the work of a race succeeding the Mound Builders, 
is evidenced by the fact, that some of these "garden beds" extend over 
mounds which certainly would not have been permitted by their builders. 
Again the formation of these "beds" cannot be ascribed to the Indians for 
no such system of cultivating grain or plant foods was practiced by them. 

And again, when the white man's attention was first called to the num- 
erals mounds and enclosures in the Ohio Valley as being the work of an 
extinct race, it was observed that forest growths over these works were of 
the .nanic species as those in the outlying regions, which would prove the 
great antiquity of these structures. It is well known to persons skilled in 
wrxKlrraft that several generations of trees must come and go before bar- 
ren sr)il.s will ])r()(hice the variety and kinds of the virgin forest. As an il- 
lustratir)!!, the writer observed that the "old coalings" in the vicinity of 
Mar!)Ie I'urnace in Adams County, are covered with a dense growth of red 

(20) 



THE MOUND BUILDERS 21 

oak saplings while the virgin forest consisted of ash, white oak, chestnut 
oak, hickory and black maple. On some of these mounds, as for instance, 
one at Marietta, Ohio, stood trees showing eight hundred annual growths. 
When Squier and Davis made their surveys of the mounds of Ohio, in 
1846, it is noted that a chestnut tree measuring twenty-one feet in circum- 
ference, and an oak twenty-three feet in circumference grew on the walls 
of "Fort Hill" in Highland County, in the vicinity of Sinking Springs. 
From calculations based on periodical deposits of sediment at the mouth 
of the Mississippi, and the supposition that the mounds now existing along 
its lower course were originally built near the mouth of the river, it is as- 
certained that these works were erected from ten to thirty centuries ago. 
But whatever time may have elapsed since ihe Mound Builders inhabited 
this region, it is nevertheless an undisputed fact that such a people once 
had their abodes here, and that they were a race distinct from the aborig- 
ines of whom we know something definite. They have left no written 
history to tell the story of their existence, but instead imperishable me- 
mentos in the form of mounds, enclosures, effigies, stone implements, and 
so forth. 

In all the vast region inhabited by the Mound Builders, to the arch- 
aeologist, the territory comprised within the state of Ohio is one of the 
most interesting sections. Within the limits of the state there are not 
fewer than ten thousand mound and one thousand five hundred circum- 
vallations or enclosures. These works are found in three great groups: 
the Muskingum, the Scioto, and the Miami Valleys respectively. Along 
each of these are groups of mounds marking prominent settlements of this 
prehistoric race. And it is a singular fact, and one of the strongest to 
prove that these people were an agricultural race, that all the principal 
cities and towns of this state are upon the very grounds marked out as the 
villages and towns of the Mound Builders. The same advantages as to 
location from an agricultural and commercial point of view noted by the 
present Anglo-Saxon inhabitants, were observed by the Mound Builders 
centuries ago. Marietta, Portsmouth, Chillicothe, Circleville, Newark, 
Springfield, Hamilton, and Cincinnati are marked examples of this. 

All the monuments of this people in this state, may be classed under 
two general heads, mounds and enclosures, with three marked exceptions, 
viz.: the Whittlesey Effigy Mound, the Alligator Mound and the Great 
Serpent Mound. It is to the last mentioned effig}' that the writer desires 
to call special attention. 

The Great Serpent Monnd. # 

Although the Serpent Mound is well known to archaeologists of both 
the old and the new world, yet until very recently there were many intel- 
ligent persons in the county wherein it is located who scarcely knew of its 
existence. When the writer first visited the Serpent Mound in 1883, he 
was astonished to learn from a gentleman of fair intelligence who had lived 
in the vicinity from childhood, that he had not seen the mound for over 
twenty years. This was the more surprising from the fact that scientific 
gentlemen from Europe had but a short time previous, spent several weeks 
in platting, photographing, and investigating this wonderful effigy; and 
that Prof. F. W. Putnam, in behalf of the Peabody Museum, of Cam- 



22 mSTORV OP ADAMS COUNTY 

bridge, Massachusetts, was then, in company with other prominent arch- 
aeologists, on the grounds studying the design and features of the mound 
But this only confirms what is too often true, that familiarity destroys re- 
spect and reverence for what is sacred or venerable. 

The Great Serpent Mound is located on the east fork of Ohio Brush 
Creek, in Bratton Township, in the extreme northern portion of Adams 
County, within sight of the little hamlet of Loudon (Lovett P. O.) and 
about seven miles from the town of Peebles on the line of the Cincinnati, 
Portsmouth and Virginia Railroad It lies along the crest of a narrow 
spur-like ridge rising in its highest part to an altitude of one hundred and 
fifty feet above the level of the waters of Brush Creek which washes its 
western base. On the east, this ridge is cut by a narrow ravine which 
deepens and widens as it nears the creek to the north of the serpent's head. 
The ridge projects from the high table lands on the east of Brush Creek» 
and slopes gently down to a narrow, projecting bluff, something iliore 
than eighty feet high, overlooking the fertile bottom lands of the creek, 
both up and down the valley, and giving a ccwnmanding view of a broad 
expanse of country for miles in front and to the northward. The spur-like 
ridge along the crest of which the Serpent lies, is crescent-shaped, its con- 
cave side bordering on the creek. Along this western side of the ridge, 
its entire length, as also to the front and right of the serpent's head, the 
walls are almost vertical. About midway from where the ridge joins the 
table lands at the south of the triple coil of the serpent's tail as shown in 
the engraving, and the bluff at the north of its head, there is a considerable 
depression extending across the ridge from east to west. 

Beginning in a triple coil of the tail on the highest portion of this 
ridge, the Great Serpent lies extended in beautiful folds down along the 
crest ; curving gracefully over the depression in the ridge, it winds in nat- 
ural folds up and along the narrow ledge, with head and neck stretched 
out, serpent-like, on the high and precipitous bluff, overlooking the creek 
and country beyond. Just to the north of the serpent's head, and partly 
within its extended jaws, is an oval or egg-shaped figure, eighty-six feet 
long and about thirty feet wide at its middle, surrounded by an embank- 
ment from two to three feet high and about twenty feet wide. A little to 
the north of the center of the egg-shaped figure is a pile of stones showing 
plainly marks of fire ; and some have supposed here once to have been an 
altar about which a benighted people performed the mystic rites of their 
religion. 

P'rof. McLean, author of several popular works on archaeology, dis- 
covered that there are two other crescent-shaped elevations between the 
precipice and the north extremity of the egg-shaped figure, extending 
nearly parallel with the curves forming the north extremity of the oval, 
which he thinks are intended to represent the hind legs of a frog leaping 
from the precipice to the creek below. It is his theor\' that the frog, the 
oval, and the serpent are symbolical of the three forces in Nature: the 
creative, the productive, and the destructive: the frog representative of 
the first : the oval, an egg emitted by it as it leaps from the precipice to the 
creek below, the second ; and the serpent in the act of swallowing the ^g, 
the third. 

The Great Serpent is the only effigy mound of its kind in North Amer- 
ica. It differs in its structure, also, from the various effigies in Wisconsin, 



THE MOUKD BUILDERS 23 

its base being formed of stones, and the body of the work of clay and sur- 
face soil. The entire length of the serpent, following its convolutions, is 
thirteen hundred and thirty-five feet. Its width at the largest portion of the 
body is twenty feet. At the tail the width is no more than four or five feet. 
Here the height is from three to four feet which increases towards the 
center of the body to a height of from five to six feet. The total length 
of the entire work from the north end of the oval to the end of the tail 
of the serpent following its convolutions, is fourteen hundred and fifteen 
feet, and the average height is about four feet. A recent writer says': 

"Persistent explorations of the mound and its immediate vicinity have 
resulted in many important discoveries, which have opened the field to 
conclusions of widespread interest. The mound is a voiceless evidence 
of the fact that certain forms of worship in all parts of the world were 
identical in prehistoric times, and from this some have come to the conclu- 
sion that the human race was evervwhere alike in its earlier forms of de- 
velc^ment. Other scientists have reasoned, however, not that the. race 
was one great family, undivided into tribes in that distant age, but that the 
different tribes touched elbows in some things. The form of the mound 
and the discoveries made under the soil of modern formation have led to 
the conclusion that the race known as the Mound Builders were addicted 
to the terrible worship of the serpent, of which little is positively known, 
and much is guessed. That human sacrifice formed a part of the rites of 
this worship seems certain from the evidence gained by a study of the 
mound. 

"How many centuries ago it was built vvill never be known until the 
great day when all earth's secrets are opened. The explorations have 
shown, however, that there are three strata of soil. First comes the super- 
imposed layer of black soil composed of vegetable mold, which has been 
deposited since thei erection of the mound. Second is the yellow clay of 
which the mound was built, and which was apparently carried from three 
pits in the near vicinity. Third is the grayish clay of the foundation. 
Evidently the soil, whatever there may have been at that time, had been 
cleared away until this clay was reached. Upon it huge stones had been 
carried with infinite labor from the bed of Brush Creek, far below, to form 
a foundation. This preserved it against the wash of rains, and upon this 
foundation the mound was built, of yellow clay, mixed in some places with 
ashes. The egg-shaped mound within the jaws of the serpent, is an oval, 
of which the walls are four feet high and eighteen feet wide. The oval 
itself is 1 20 by 60 feet. In the pit. in the center of the t^g^, the ancient altar 
was placed. 

"Some of its fire-blackened stones are still there. Within the memory 
of men still living it was quite an imposing structure. The myth that 
treasure was buried in this ancient cairn had firm hold on the pioneers, 
however, and years ago the altar was torn down, in a vain search for gold 
and precious stones. So far as possible it has been restored. 

"The mound itself is built as all other serpent mounds are, no matter 
in what country. The head of the serpent, containing the altar, is on a 
high bluff overlooking Brush Creek. The first rays of the Sun God fell 
first upon this altar, and from it, far below, the priests of the ancient faith 
could see the *three forks of the river. This trinity, whether it be three 

* Baker's, Middle and West. See Braiton Township. 



24 fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

rivers or three mountains, is always to be seen from an altar of the ser- 
pent worshipers, and is always unmistakable. The altar is invariably 
placed in the one spot from which the trinity may be seen. It is always 
placed where the first rays of the rising sun may fall upon it. From the 
.'eighboring lands the awe-struck worshipers of old might see the priests 
perform their fearsome rites and watch the victim of the stone knives 
gasp out his last breath as the first tongue of flame licked at his still quiver- 
ing flesh. Just what these rites were will never be known, in all prob- 
ability. But that fire and knife played a part in them can hardly be doubted 
from the mute witnesses found by modem searchers. 

*'That the spot was revered as a shrine is certain from the character 
of the remains found near it. Hardly a square yard of the surrounding 
territory is there that did not at one time hold a grave. The interments 
were evidently made with ceremonies of some nature. Ashes are fre- 
quently found in the graves though this is not often an indication of cre- 
mation. The human bones found are not calcined by fire. The ashes 
are rather to be considered as the scrapings from the hearth desolated by 
the death of its protector. In them are found stone and bone weapons 
and ornaments and occasionally plates of native copper, rudely hammered 
out, or crystals of lead ore fashioned into rude ornaments. Smelting was 
not known then, and stone hammers took the place of the rolling mills of 
today. 

*'From the position of these copper ornaments, they were evidently 
head and breast plate, probably burnished. They are in very rare in- 
stances of sufficient size to be considered as an early attempt at body armor. 
Flint knives of considerable elegance and of presumable utility are to be 
found in abundance, together with weapons in the process of making, and 
the stone shapers and grinders by which the weapons were made. In one 
or two instances these stone knives have been found in such position as to 
inevitably lead to the conclusion that they were lodged in the body at the 
time of interment. Whether they w^ere placed there before or after death 
is mere conjecture. In the ashes of the graves remains of rude pottery 
are also to be found. 

"From a careful inspection of the Serpent Mound, and an exploration 
of the graves and mound itself, scientists have formed several interesting 
conclusions. First, that the mound, corresponding as it does exactly in 
type with similar serpent mounds found in Asia, Africa and Eun^, 
Central America, Peru and Mexico, points to the dissemination of serpent 
worship at one time over the then habitable world. Whether these mounds 
are of approximately the same date, or belong to diflFerent epochs, is yet 
debatable. That they belong to the same form of worship is indisputable. 
Human sacrifice is pointed at by the fire-blackened altars. The worship 
of the snake still exists among the Zunis and Moquis of our own country, 
though the more bloodthirsty portion of the rites is now omitted. All 
evidence points to such sacrifice at no distant date among them, however. 

"Structural peculiarities of the skulls point to a similarity of the 
Mound Builders with the Hindoos of the present day and with the ancient 
Peruvian races. The occasional presence of decapitated bodies in the 
serpent mound graves, or a bodyless skull, indicates that head hunting, 
even as it is now practiced among the Dyaks of Borneo, existed in those 
earlier days. Traces of paints occasionally are found on the disinterred 



THE MOUND BUILDERS 26 

skeletons together with lumps of the ochre used for such personal adorn- 
ment, even as the American Indiap does now where he has not come in con- 
tact with the influence of civilization. Lastly, the skulls found are those 
of men equal in brain capacity and muscular and bony structure to races in 
existence at present." 

In 1886 the trustees of the Peabody Fund of Harvard University, 
through the efforts of Prof. F. W. Putnam, purchased the Serpent Mound 
and several acres of the lands surrounding it from Hon. John T. Wilson. 
Under the directions of Prof. Putnam, the Serpent was restored to its 
original outlines, and the grounds surrounding were tastefully converted 
into a beautiful park — now known as The Serpent Mound Park. 

Recently the park has come into the possession of the Ohio State 
Archaieological and Historical Society. It will be greatly improved and 
made a place of resort for pleasure seekers as well as for the graver 
students of the monuments of a lost race. 

Old Stone Fort. 

In the northern part of Tiffin Township, about one mile to the north- 
west of the now almost forgotten site of the old town of Waterford on 
Lick Fork, on lands now owned by William Smith and William Crosby, is 
"Old Stone Fort," an ancient structure, the work of the Mound Builders. 

The form of the fort is circular. The walls are frctfn twenty to thirty 
feet at the base, and were when first observed by the early settlers from 
three to five feet in height. They seem to have been constructed of clay 
and surmounted with a heavy wall of stones. This theory is sustained 
from the fact that portions of the stone superstructure seem to have top- 
pled over where the bulk of the stones lie on the outer edge of the walls. 
In other portions there are but few stones remaining, the walls having 
been taken down and removed. 

The site of the fort was well chosen. It is on the highlands border- 
ing Lick Fork of Ohio Brush Creek, and commands a sweeping view of 
the valley below and the country about and beyond. It is near enough the 
rich valleys of Ohio Brush Creek to afford a place of safe retreat for those 
engaged in cultivating the soil or fishing in its waters in case of attack. 

A little rocky stream known as Mink Run flows across the enclosure 
from west to east cutting it into two equal portions. From the outer limits 
of each of these portions of the enclosure come little rivulets which enter 
Mink Run within it thus dividing it by a series of narrow longitudinal val- 
leys affording shelter from the missiles of an attacking party from without 
the walls of the fort. Within the walls of the fort are three fine springs 
of pure water. The one on the east of the center of the enclosure would 
alone supply hundreds of persons and animals with abundance of water 
at all seasons of the year. There seems to have been constructed across 
Mink Run below this spring and near the eastern wall of the enclosure, 
a dam which formed a great reservoir of pure water in this portion of the 
fort. The walls of the fort itself have been much heavier in the portion 
d'here Mink Run passes through them than elsewhere. There are three 
gateways yet visible in the walls. One at the southwest, one at the west 
where Mink Run enters the enclosure, and one to the northwest. Thi*^ 
last gateway is in a portion of the wall yet covered with forests and can 



26 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

readily be seen. At the western gateway where Mink Run enters the en- 
closure are two circular structures, one on each side of the stream. These 
are each about thirty feet in diameter and were erected for the protection 
of this gate. Without the north and east walls of the fort are a number 
of small mounds. Within the eastern wall of the enclosure there can yet 
be seen a small mound about thirty feet in diameter, now about level with 
the surrounding surface, which at one time was several feet in height. 
This was opened many years ago by Samuel McClung who then owned the 
lands on which the fort is situated, and it was found to contain charred 
bones and some bits of earthenware. The walls of the fort proper enclose 
about thirty acres of land. 

* Explorations of the Talley of Bnuili Creek. 

This region is well known because in its northern part is located the 
famous Serpent Mound. The serpent itself has been the subject of much 
literature and considerable has been published regarding Fort Hill, in the 
edge of Highland County, but a few miles up Brush Creek from the ser- 
pent. But no one seems to have examined the remains lying between the 
serpent and the Ohio River. There are several branches of Ohio Brush 
Creek which also have remains along their shores, so that altogether there 
is about sixty miles of occupied territory' along Brush Creek Valley. 

On the farm of James McCullough, about four miles north of Youngs- 
ville, a small mound was opened and a skeleton badly decayed found 
near the center, with head toward the east. Several flint war points, some 
bones, needles, and a few bear tusks were found near the shoulders. 

In a small stone mound on the farm of James Montgomery was found 
a cremated skeleton and one badly decayed. An earth mound three- 
fourths of a mile northeast of Montgomery's was opened and a hammer 
stone and decayed bones found. 

On the McCullough farm five miles south of Youngsville, three stone 
mounds, nine by eleven, seventeen by twenty-one, seven by ten. and each 
about one foot high were explored. They occupy a high point of land over- 
looking West Fork of Brush Creek. Bodies as in case of all stone graves 
or mounds lay upon the surface, and had been covered with bark and stones 
heaped on top. No relics accompanied the remains. On a spur of the 
same hill; lower down, sav lOO feet above the vallev is an earth mound, 
two feet high and thirty-two feet in diameter. In the center was found 
a skeleton buried about five feet deep. The skeleton was surrounded by 
large flat stones fonning a kind of sarcophagus. 

On the Swearinger farm two and a half miles below Newport on 
Ohio Brush Creek is an earth mound. 

On the Plummer farm just below Newport is a village site containing 
twenty-five acres, and must have had 200 lodges. There are numerous 
potter)' fragments, flint chips, bones, and other remains scattered over the 
surface. Skeletons in graves have been found here. 

On the Florea farm at an elevation of 500 feet, commanding a view 
of the country for ten miles about, is an earth mound. 



*£ztraots from Oh^o Archaeological Report. 1897. 



THE MOUND BUILDERS 27 

On the Patton farm on Cherry Fork is a mound four feet high and 
forty feet base. In it was a badly decayed skeleton and two rare spear- 
heads. A layer of charcoal two inches thick covered the skeleton. 

There are a number of stone graves on the farm of William McCor- 
mick on West Fork of Brush Creek. On the Williams farm across West 
Fork from McCormick's, on a hill 175 feet high is a moimd four feet high 
and forty in diameter. In it was found burnt earth, charcoal, a cremated 
skeleton and one spearhead. 

On the Finley farm near North Liberty is a mound four feet high 
and fifty feet broad. Two skeletons were found above which were much 
charcoal and ashes and two fine spearheads of the "shouldered" pattern. 

About one-half mile north of Winchester is a fine mound and three 
circles, the walls of which were when first discovered about five feet high.- 
These circles are about 150 feet in diameter. One mile north of Win- 
chester on a branch of West Fork, Mr. James McNutt in 1896 found a 
cache or pocket of eighteen spears of fine workmanship, and constitute 
one of the finest deposits ever discovered. 

Above and below the village of Rome six miles above the mouth of 
Ohio Brush Creek are extensive village sites with refuse scattered over 
the fields in great profusion. Just below Rome on the high bank of the 
river, 200 yards from the water, is a mound two feet high and fifty feet 
in diameter. In this mound were twenty-two skeletons. 

To the above we add the following: On Ohio Brush Creek, on the 
old Daniel Collier farm, there is a circular enclosure 200 feet in diameter 
and three to four feet high. This is situated on the broad terrace on the 
right bank of the creek about three- fourths of a mile below the Collier res- 
idence, and just below the old ford of the creek. The banks of the creek 
have been washed away until a portion of the circle is exposed, giving a 
fine sectional view. There are fragments of human bones, shells, charcoal 
and flint chips extending through a vertical section of two feet. There 
are numerous stone graves on the high hills overlooking Brush Creek in 
this region. 

At the mouth of Ohio Brush Creek is a village site, and numerous, 
kettle-shaped pockets of burnt earth, charcoal and other debris. On the 
Ohio River just below Vineyard Hill was a fine mound perhaps fifteen feet 
high and one hundred feet in diameter near which Israel Donalson was 
captured by the Indians in April, 1791. When the writer visited this mound 
in 1883, the river had cut it nearly all away. In the archaeological report 
above quoted, the mound at Rome is said to be the place of Donalson 's 
captivity. This is a gross error. 

Below the mouth of Island Creek and near the upper island is a mound 
and circle. And at the crossing of Seventh and Broadway in the town of 
Manchester stood a most beautiful mound twenty or twenty-five feet high, 
and perfect as a cone. It is said that the Ellison heirs who owned the land 
had this beautiful tumulus dug down and carted away. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE INDIANS 




That portion of the Northwest Tcrritor>' comprised within the limits 
of the state of Ohio, when first visited by white men, was occttpied by 
several powerful and warlike tribes of Indians. The first explorer of 
this region was LaSalle who discovered the Ohio River in the year 1669, 
but his account of the Indian tribes is meager and unreliable. In fact no 
authentic account of the Indians in this region dates beyond the year 
1750. About this period, some reliable information as to location, numbers, 
manners and customs of these tribes was obtained from adventurers and 
traders among them. In the year 1755 James Smith, of Bedford, Penn- 
sylvania, was taken prisoner by some Delaware Indians and carried to one 
of thdr towns on the upper Muskingum, and adopted by one of their 
families. Smith was then about eighteen years of age, and he remained 
with this tribe, adopting their customs and manners, until his twenty- 
third year. He afterwards became a resident of the state of Kentucky' and 
was elected a member of the Legislature of that state for several years. 
Mis accf/unt of the Ohio Indians is accepted as reliable. In the year 1764, 
Col. Boquet led an expedition overland from Fort Pitt against the Mingos 
and I>elawares in the Muskingum country, and at the same time Col. Brad- 
street invaded the lands of the Wyandots and Ottawas in the region of 
the Sandusky and Maumee, from the British post at Detroit. As a result 
of these expeditions much valuable information was obtained concerning 
the 

Okio Tribes of T»iHa»». 

At this period the Wyandotts occupied the valleys and plains bordering 
the Sandusky River. They were, according to their traditions the oldest 
of the northern tribes of Indians, and had at one time occupied all the 
coimtry from Mackinaw down the Lakes to Quebec, west to the Great 
Miami River, and northwest to Lake Michigan. They had spread the deer 
skin for the Delawares and Shawnees and permitted them to occupy a por- 
tion of their country. It is said of them that they were always a humane 
anrl hospitable people who instead of torturing and killing their white pris- 
oners, adopted them into their families and treated them as of their own 
blofKl and kin. Rev. James B. Finley, a missionar}^ to the Wyandotts for 
many years, points to the fact that at that time this tribe was dominated by 
descendants of the Armstrongs, Browns, Gibsons, Walkers, Zanes and 
other white families prominent in Ohio pioneer histo^\^ 

(28) 



THE INDIANS 29 

The Delawares who at one time occupied the country north of the 
Potomac, and who sold to William Penn the state of Pennslyvania, after- 
wards crossed the AUeghanies and took possession of the country drained 
by the Muskingum and its tributaries. The Delawares were largely 
represented by warriors at the defeat of St. Clair. 

The Mingos, a remnant of the Six Nations, were in greatest force 
about the Mingo Bottoms on the Ohio River below Steubenville, and 
occupied the country as far down the Ohio as the Scioto. In the early 
history of the country they had dwelt in the lake region of the 
state of New York and in the contest for supremacy between the British 
and French, had taken sides with the English. The celebrated Logan, 
whose speech at the treaty with Lord Dunmore, at Camp Charlotte, on the 
Scioto, whiph was pronounced by Jefferspn one of the masterpieces of the 
world's oratory, was a chief of the Mingo nation. 

The Miamis, a fearless and warlike people of whom the chief Little 
Turle, was a repre^sentative type, resided in the region of the Great Miami 
and the upper Maumee. 

The Shawnees, the most relentless enemy of the early white settlers, 
were of southern origin, and occupied all the country between the Scioto 
and the Little Miami northward to the territory of the Wyandotts and 
Ottawas in the region of the Sandusky and Maumee. The celebrated 
Chief Tecumseh was a Shawnee. The above mentioned were the principal 
Indian tribes in what is now the state of Ohio, when the first white ad- 
venturers began to explore this region. 



Indian Mode of Life. 

The first explorers of the region bordenng the Ohio from the mouth 
of the Muskingum to that of the Great Miami note the existence of but 
one Indian town — Lower Old Town— a Shawnee village just below the 
mouth of the Scioto, on the Ohio side. The village contained a numerous 
population, but was destroyed by a great flood about the year 1765. After- 
wards the whites laid out the old town of Alexandria near the same site, 
which in time was abandoned for reasons which caused the Indians to re- 
move to another situation. The other Indian towns in this region were 
those on the waters of Paint Creek, and near where the town of Xenia 
now stands on waters of the Little Miami. There were camping sites oc- 
cupied a portion of the year by Indian families on the larger tributaries 
of the Scioto and the Miamis. but no permanent villages. In Adams 
County, there were noted summer camps on Ohio Brush Creek near its 
mouth, on the West Fork above the village of Newport, and above the 
Marble Furnace on the East Fork. There was a well-known hunting 
camp on Scioto Brush Creek near Smalleys. As late as the year 1800, 
Indian families cultivated the bottom lands on West Fork above where 
the Tranquillity pike crosses that stream. These families came from the 
towns on Paint Creek to this region to gather their winter store*; the 
women and children to make sugar in the fine groves of black maple that 
bordered the waters of Brush Creek, and to cultivate patches of maize 
and beans, while the men fished in the well -stocked streams, or followed 
the chase in quest of the deer, elk and bear. 



[!rti<i«init^ \v<5Jl <^fynp^^ )»ifS. ^^mw; acr«t. ami kni^wt <mm\m^ lixr c&e- Frencfe. 
ffjiiiiy^ i« (1n» ifftijpftn ♦'^r ffc ILa6«?^. Oni^i lir>«f ami «iixarw» tbkiC t&t Brow 
att«<: armw \x\ tlie i^nr-wnr ^>f af^^sne: Th<w ^»i*sr^. al'ao' -Hippihsfl wtcft: irnm kct- 
rtf.-^ S^r i^Hi* i« <*iVj<m|^ aorf ^Hrvj^str-fn^ij^n^ The mtsn went ecperta in rfnc 
<*fA^pftf^vrfit^• eA hiwlr itatirnw.. and! riae w^meir 'v«Tt 'nuK&atilttff in rfte €k«s»- 
iwij^ '**t? ^irw aifrf ffte m»iir is^ '*>^ mrjrrA«n» fli';r die fetsr. THiey ali*> moAs: vtcs- 
«iiM ?r^. -^iift!^ in: ^fciirit fhe^ tf/^-r*!! riiA!: -hT '^f die b«ar dor L i iCii r tt use. TEaese 
i*iWMmi*r (♦am^p* rti**iwtt«ftrf <>« ^)»isap»atTLt ft'^^rnieft' fr^ini pofej ^ec 'Xi «iid and 
fo«V»iv4: f/>5|fcflww atC tsiiK- tVTiflv^ amii cnw-fttrwl ragually wiii bark. .oocaanr'>naIllT 
#iirft •^-ivui^.- tit^mm^ a 4ivr«n: ffitscraxu'je toci '■jcit wiit-.. aosrC aai 'opimzBB^ at die 
V^ (^j^r hSmt <:i«(»fpe ^jf !«CHk'^ xitfutn: ^ &^ vas^ cnsb-ie wirfmcr. Tbeir Bmts in 
rfuft vilJiaijaftt* w«re manfc <^;f wnaJT. r«jcmrl Iiosr* '"r.viwwf 'srniL hark c-r skins, 
^jM rJhttKr/j«Jbe^ twar Xetwa, wa* Pwiilt tasp m t±e ^^cm ot a hi^CDawr ajaare, 

TW 4r)«ift^fc: afwmshl* f»t tBie Ftrrfran were the fojr^e ar&i c6e 4id<§^. and 
flik^ ^»«»IfK <of a lyfare wa* reck/jcscfl hv the anmfter -o-f tbwe m his pi>sses- 
^tift. Tte fwKan fcffwtihcrf ifettw aiirf &»? for fr£* f^x^. bcrt oetther for 
Ki^ hi'yrvr. f IH 4K>g^ ^j«M ♦ha.re hw rrscar of Temrson; -^.r tear meat, aof! coald 
jiW^r m W* wijfwam — tee the hrorse conW fkr neft&er. His borse was ex- 
fiert<^l %tv fesm in fttmvmer aiid narre throcr^ the wfrrtcr. wfecn its otily 
^frfy*if<*fetkrft «ra* the fallien ^^ra^K oi the ncJi hzttc^n Iannis and upland 
fyfaifie%, ^jC the **hr^>v«r/' ^yr twi^ of sma!!! brjsbes and tmder^>wth of the 



TIrr (>hk> trihcfi of Indians guarded its soil i^^th jealous care against 
iiie encrfaichtneni% of the whites. The>' had carried on wars of extermina- 
turn kmfmf( themselves previous to the coming of the white settlers, but 
uifffti the a^lvent of the latter, the prominent chiefs of the several tribes 
CffUtii^U'A peace amr^g their own people, and unrelenting warfare against 
iiinr cf/mm(m enemy, the whites. As a result, for a period of fort>- years 
fffmi i'raddrxrk'ft defeat to Wayne's victor}- at Fallen Timbers, the most 
rr\ntiuv%%, the nuj%i cruel border warfare in the histor\- of the world was 
wa^cd l>ciween the Ohio Indians and the white settlers of Western Penn- 
nyWiiUVd, and Virginia, and the northeastern border of Kentucky. The 
inilitary ^/rganizatir^s led into this region before the establishment of civil 
^//virnincnit in the great Nc/rthwest, under Maj. Wilkins, in 1763; Col. 
iJradMnTt, in 1764; Col. Bowman, in 1779; Col. Clark, in 1780. Col. 
IJroadhcad, in 1781, and that of Col. Crawford, in 1782, only served to 
Mffnnlatr the Indians to greater efforts to exterminate the white invaders. 
I'/Vrn the HticccHsful campaigns of Col. Boquet, in 1764; of Lord Dunmore, 
1774. and of Ovu. Ger)rge Rogers Clark, in 1778, failed to give any per- 
fnttrwnt safety to the border settlers on the Ohio. After the treaty of peace 
lirtwrrn the United States and England in 1783, when the Northwest 
Territory came into the possession of our government, several minor 
r)(|»rclilionft from the settlements in Kentucky were undertaken against 
thr Sliawnet' towns on the Little Miami and the waters of the Scioto, but 
with no beneficial results to the whites. 



THE INDIANS 31 



Tod's Expedition. 



One of these expeditions organized by Col. Robert Tod, of Paris, Ken- 
tucky, and Simon Kenton, of Kenton's Station, near Washington, Ken- 
tucky, took its route across Adams County, and blazed a line of travel 
through the forest, that afterwards became a prominent landmark in this 
region, known as Tod's Trace and Tod'^ War Road. The Indians had 
greatly harrassed the inhabitants around Kenton's Station, stealing their 
horses, and killing the settlers or carrying them away in captivity. This 
was in the summei* of 1787, arid Kenton sent word to Col. Tod to bring 
what men he could raise and join his men at Washington from which place 
their combined forces would march against the Shawnee town on the north 
fork of Paint Creek in what is now Ross County, Ohio. The forces ren- 
dezvoused at Washington, and Col. Tod was put in command. They 
crossed the Ohio at Limestone and marched up the river to Little Three 
Mile Creek and thence by the way of where Benton ville now stands to the 
waters of Lick Fork, and thence to Ohio Brush Creek which they crossed 
at the Old Indian Ford, afterwards called **Tod's Crossing," near the 
Fristoe bridge, and thence by way of the Sinking Spring to Paint Creek. 
McDonald says Kenton as usual commanded a company and piloted the 
way to the Chillicothe town. On their route out, about five miles south of 
the town, the advance guard, commanded by Kenton, met four Indians. 
Kenton and one Helm fired, and killed two of the Indians. The other two 
were taken prisoners. Kenton was surrounded by a set of young men of 
his own training, and fearful was the doom of enemies of equal numbers 
who came in their way. From the two prisoners they learned that there 
was a large Indian encampment between them and old Chillicothe, and 
about three miles from that place. On this intelligence the army was 
halted, and Kenton and his company went cautiously forward to recon- 
noiter the situation of the enemy. Kenton proceeded near the Indian 
camp, and with a few chosen men reconnoitered the enemy. He 
then sent an express to Col. Tod, informing him of their probable number 
and situation. Before day Maj. Hinkston came on and joined Kenton. 
Prompt measures were immediately taken. The Indian camp was sur- 
rounded, but the whites were too impatient for delay, and the attack was 
made before it was light enough. Two Indians only were killed and seven 
made prisoners. Many in the darkness made their escape. Col. Tod, 
with the main body of the troops, lingered behind, and did not reach the 
place where the Indians were defeated till the sun was at least two hours 
high in the" morning. The Indians who escaped alarmed the town. Their 
men. women and children took naked to the woods, and by the time 
Col. Tod reached the town, they had all fled. The town was burned and 
everything about destroyed. The army camped that night on Paint Creek 
and th^ next day made their way home, without the loss of a man killed or 
wounded. 

Soott's Expedition. 

In the spring of the year 1790, Col. Charles Scott led an expedition of 
230 mounted men from Limestone across Adams County to the waters of 
Scioto Brush Creex in pursuit of a band of marauding Indians who had 
been committing depredations against the settlement on Lee's Creek, Ken- 



32 HISTORY OF ADAMS COtlNTY 

tucky. At the Indian camp near Smalley's Spring, four Indians were sur- 
prised and killed, the main body having abandoned the camp before the 
arrival of Col. Scott's force. 

A Battle If ear BeeTe's Crossims* 

In I793» a large party of Indians crossed the Ohio above the mouth of 
Brush Credc and attacked the white settlements about Morgan's Station. 
Col. Kenton having been informed of the attack hastily collected a part}* 
of about thirty of the choice spirits about his station and set off in hot haste 
to intercept the Indians on their retreat to the Chillicothe towns on Paint 
Creek. Taking Tod's trace opposite Limestone, he followed it to what is 
known as Reeve's Crossing of Paint Creek near the present town of 
Bainbridge, where he discovered a fresh trail of Indians going down the 
creek. It was late in the evening and he cautiously followed the trail till 
dark. Kenton then left his party, and in company with Michael Cassady, 
went forward to make observations. They had not proceeded far when 
they found the Indians encamped on the bank of Paint Creek. They had 
three fires ; some of them were singing and making other merry noises, 
showing that they felt in perfect security. Kenton and Cassady returned 
to their party, and it was concluded to lay still till daylight and then 
surround and attack the Indians. Kenton's party were all on horseback. 
Having secured their horses, they lay still till daylight when they moved 
on for the Indian camp. When they got near the camp they haJted and 
divided into three divisions. Capt. Baker, with one division, was directed 
to proceed to the creek above the camp ; Cassady with another division was 
ordered to make the creek below the camp; and Kenton with the re- 
maining division was to attack the camp in front. Strict orders were 
given that no attack should be made until it was light enough to draw 
a clear bead. The divisions took their several stations promptly. Day- 
light began to appear, the Indians had risen, and some were standing 
about the fires. Capt. Baker, seeing the Indians, soon became impatient 
to commence the action, and before it was light enough to see to draw 
a clear sight, he began the attack. All the divisions then rushed upcm the 
Indian camp and fired. The Indians dashed across the cree4v and scattered 
through the woods like a flock of young partridges. Three Indians only, 
and a white man named Ward, were killed. Ward had been taken prisoner 
by the Indians when young, and in every respect was an Indian. He had 
two brothers, James and Charles, who were near neighbors to Kenton 
and who were respectable men. James Ward was with Kenton in this 
engagement. Kenton's party lost one man, Joseph Jones, in this engage- 
ment. The party returned home without any further adventure. 

To the reader in these days of advanced civilization these thrilling 
stories of Indian depredations against the white settlements on the Ken- 
tucky border, and the prompt retaliatorj' incursions of the whites against 
the Indian towns in the Northwest Territory, read like fiction. It seems 
incredible that any considerable body of mounted troops could be collected 
and carried over the Ohio River within the course of a few hours' time. 
There were neither bridges nor ferries across the Ohio in those days, and 
the rapid crossing of that broad stream by mounted troops would seem 
a formidable undertaking. 



THE INDIANS 33 

• 

But the waters of the beautiful Ohio were no barrier to our hardy 
pioneer fathers. Their horses were trained to swin apd at the same time 
carry their riders and their accoutrements. With a few well-trained 
leaders, a troop of horsemen would dash into the waters of the Ohio, and 
within the time it takes to relate the fact would be on the opposite shore 
getting in order for the pursuit of a marauding band of Indians, or for a 
dash against some of their towns. It will be remembered that when 
Simon Kenton was captured by the Indians in 1778, at the mouth of 
Eagle Creek, now in Brown County, it was through delay in trying to get 
the horses he and his companions had taken from the Indians on Paint 
Creek, to enter the waters of the Ohio, a windstorm prevailing at the time 
which dashed the waves so high as to frighten the animals. 

Kenton's Attack on the Camp of TeonmseH. 

Early in the spring of 1792, a small band of Indians under the 
celebrated Tecumseh, made an incursion into the region about Limestone, 
Kentucky, and stole a number of horses from the settlers. A party of 
whites numbering thirty-six men, among whom was Simon Kenton, 
Cornelius Washburn, Benjamin Whiteman, Alexander Mclntyre, Timothy 
Downing, Charles Ward, and other experienced woodsmen, pur- 
sued the enemy. It was found that the Indians had crossed 
the Ohio at I^ogan's Gap near the mouth of Eagle Creek and 
had followed the course of Logan's Trace toward the Indian 
towns on the waters of the Little Miami. The pursuing party 
crossed the Ohio the first evening and encamped for the night. Early 
the next morning the trail of the Indians was taken up and followed in a 
northerly course, through a flat swampy region. When fairly started on 
the trail, a difference of opinion as to the best plan to pursue, arose among 
the men, and twelve of them were granted liberty to return home. Kenton, 
at the head of the twenty-four remaining, pushed on and encamped the 
second night on the waters of White Oak Creek, now in Brown County. 
On the afternoon of the following day, the tinkle of a bell was heard, 
and the pursuing party believed they were in the vicinity of the Indian 
Camp. After moving cautiously forward some distance, a solitary Indian 
was seen approaching them. When within gur<=hot he was fired upon 
and killed. Then Kenton hastened his spies forwa-d to reconnoiter the 
Indian camp, being satisfied it was near by. A considerable body of 
Indians was later found encamped on the waters of thr East Fork of the 
Little Miami near the present boundary between Brown and Clermont 
Counties. A hasty council was held and it was agree<l to lay by until night- 
fall, and then assault the camp. Spies were left to watch the camp, while 
the men withdrew and kindled fires to dry themselves from a day's travel 
through the cold March rain, and to put their guns in order. The party 
was then divided into three detachments, Kenton commanding the right, 
Mclntyre the center, and Downing the left. When Downing and his men 
had approached near the camp, an Indian arose and began to stir the fire 
which was but dimly burning. Fearing discovery, he was instantly shot 
dow^n. This was ioUowed by a general fire from the other detachments, 
upon the Indians who were sleeping under some marquees and bark tents 
close upon the margin of the stream. When fired upon the Indians in- 
3a 



34 mSTORY OF ADAMS CX)UNTY 

stead of retreating as had been anticipated, boldly stood to their arms and 
rushed upon their assailants. Kenton fearing that his men would be over- 
powered, soon ordered a retreat which was continued through the night and 
a part of the next day. Samuel Barr was killed in this action and Alexander 
Mclntyre was captured the next day and tomahawked. The Kentuckians 
were three days, during which they suffered from the wet and cold and 
for want of food, in reaching the station near Washington. 

After the treaty of peace at Greenville in 1795, Stephen Ruddle, who 
had been captured by the Indians in his youth and adopted by a Shawnee 
family, stated that he was with Tecumseh in this engagement, and that 
the number of Indians was much less than the force under Kenton. He 
said that at the beginning of the attack, Tecumseh was lying by the fire 
outside of the tents. When the first shot was fired, he sprang to his feet 
and called to his warriors to charge their assailants. Tecumseh rushed 
forward and killed Samuel Barr with his warclub. In the confusion, it being 
quite dark, an Indian fell into the creek and made so much noise in getting 
out, that Kenton supposed reinforcements were crossing the stream to aid 
Tecumseh, and ordered liis men to retreat. There were but two Indians 
killed. Ruddle said Mclntyre was killed the next day, after having been 
pursued and taken prisoner. He had caught the horse of the Indian who 
had been shot bv Kenton's men the afternoon before the attack and had 
tied it some distance in the rear of the Indian Camp. When a retreat was 
ordered he mounted this horse and rode away. The Indians pusued his 
trail and overtook him the next day while he was encamped cooking some 
meat. He was taken back to the battle-ground and in the temporary 
absence of Tecumseh was tomahawked and scalped by some of his 
warriors. At this act of cruelty to a prisoner, Tecumseh was exceedingly 
indignant, and upbraided his men for such conduct, declaring it cowardly 
to kill a man when tied and a prisoner. Says a writer : "The conduct of 
Tecumseh in this engagement, and in the events following, is creditable 
alike to his courage and humanity. Resolutely brave in battle, his arm was 
never uplifted against a prisoner, nor did he suffer violence to be inflicted 
upon a captive without promptly rebuking ii." More than twenty years 
after the events related above, the brave and humane Tecumseh. saved the 
lives of many helpless prisoners among whom was the grandfather of the 
writer, taken at the defeat of Col. Dudley, while confined in the old block- 
house at Maiden. In the absence of Tecumseh. the British Gen. Proctor 
permitted some savages to enter this prison pen and seize, tomahawk and 
scalp their helpless victims. Hearing of this cowardly slaughter, Tecumseh 
hastened with the utmost speed of his pony to the block-house, and dis- 
mounting seized two savages who were in the act of butchering a stalwart 
Kentuckian, and threw them to the ground, where they lay trembling in 
fear of their chief. Then turning to Gen. Prfx:tor, he demanded why such 
butchery had been permitted by him. The General replied that he could 
not restrain the savages. With a look of ^vithering scorn and contempt 
Tecumseh told Proctor that he was not fit to command men and that he 
ought "to go home, and put on petticoats." Although a savage chieftain 
and the implacable foe of the whites, yet such was his magnanimity to- 
wards his white captives, that many of our pioneer forefathers honored 
his memory by naming a son Tecumseh. One of our most illustrious 
generals, lK>re his name — William Tecumseh Sherman. 



THE INDIANS 35 

Elsewhere in this volume it is stated that in a battle with some 
Shawnees near Reeve's Crossing of Paint Creek, in 1793, that a white man 
named Ward who was with the Indians, was killed. That was John Ward 
who was with Tecumseh at the above mentioned fight on East Fork. He 
had been captured by the Indians in 1758 when but three years old, and 
had grown up in an Indian family and married a Shawnee woman. His 
brother, Captain Charles Ward, of Washington, Kentucky, was one of 
Kenton's men in this fight on East Fork, and afterwards related that while 
he stood within rifle shot of the camp on the night of the engagement, an 
Indian girl about fifteen years of age attracted his attention, and not 
recognizing her sex he raised his gun to fire, when her open bosom dis- 
closed her sex and her light complexion caused him to doubt whether she 
was an Indian bv birth. He afterwards learned it was his brother's child 
whose wife and family were in the camp. 

ExtinKnisHment of Indian Titles. 

By the treaty of Fort Mcintosh in 1785 and that of Fort Harmar in 
1789, the Indian titles to the lands in southern Ohio were partially trans- 
ferred to the United States government. But the powerful tribes of west- 
em and northwestern Ohio refused to recognize the terms of these treaties, 
because as they justly claimed they had been negotiated with only a few 
of the weaker tribes, and had never been sanctioned by the real powers in 
the so-called Indian confederacy. These tribes insisted that the boundary 
line between the Indian possessions and the lands of the United States 
should be the Ohio River. And it was mainly this contention that brought 
about the horrible border warfare between the whites and the Indians of 
the northwest which only terminated with Wayne's victory at Fallen 
Timbers. They had up to this time defeated the arms of the United States 
first under General Harmar in 1790, and again under General St. Clair 
in 1 79 1, and as has been truthfully said held the combined forces of the 
United States and the Kentucky and Virginia militia at bay, and retarded 
the settlement of the Northwest Territory for a period of seven years. But 
with the crushing defeat of the allied Indian tribes at Fallen Timbers, the 
spirit of their confederacy was broken, and all principal tribes con- 
sented to the terms of the treaty of Greenville in 1795, which vested the 
title of the southern three-fourths of the territory of Ohio, in the United 
States, and gave permanent peace and safety to the hardy pioneers who 
erected their homes therein. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE VIRGINIA MIUTARY DISTRICT 

First Surrey im tlie Distrlet— Deputy Surreyors— First Settleai 
Manmer of Malriiig Surreys— Soaie Ineideat*— Tiate for Makiag 



AdTentnre with tlie Tiidlsns OrigJmal Entries 
and Surreys— Recorded Itaad Patents. 

The Virginia Military lands or the Virginia Reservation in Ohio, 
includes a vast portion of the State lying between the Scioto and the 
Little Miami Rivers. In form it may be likened to an isosceles triangle 
with the Ohio for the base, the Scioto and Little Miami respectively 
forming the sides, and the old Wyandot reservation, the apex. This 
region includes the fairest and richest lands within the State, and there 
have been formed from its territory the counties of Adams, Brown, 
Clermont, Highland, Clinton, Fayette, Madison and L'nion; and por- 
tions of Scioto, Pike, Ross, Pickaway. Franklin, Delaware, Marion, 
Hardin, Logan, Clark, Champaign, Green and Warren. It covers six 
thousand five hundred and seventy square miles, and contains over four 
million acres of land. 

When Adams County was erected it embraced the larger portion of 
the \'irginia Military lands, and from the old stockade at the **Three 
Islands*' where the town of Manchester now sits, the intrepid Nathaniel 
Massie, assisted by the Beasleys. the Washbums, the McDonalds, the 
Leedoms, the Wades, and the Edgingtons, braving savage beascs and 
more savage men, explored its remotest regions, surveying its richest 
valleys and most fertile plains. 

McDonald, in his "Sketches,'' says: "This fine portion of our State 
known as the \'irginia Military District, possesses from its situation and 
soil many advantages. On the east and north its boundary is the 
Scioto River: on the west, the Little Miami, while its entire southern 
boundary is washed by the Ohio River for upwards of one hundred 
miles. The soil of this tract of country presents a greater variety, prob- 
ably, than any other region of like extent in the L'nited States. In the 
southeastern portion the uplands extending thirty or forty miles below 
the mouth of the Scioto, and thirty miles north from the Ohio, are hilly 
and the lands poor. Below the mouth of Brush Creek, the hills along 
the Ohio, for a short distance from the river, are rich and heavily tim- 
bered. Further down the Ohio the extent of rich land increases to the 
mouth of the Little Miami. The bottoms of the Ohio, Scioto, Miami 
and the large tributary streams, composed of a rich and dark loamy soil, 
are celebrated for their fertility ; and the heavy crops annually taken 

(36) 



THE VIRGINIA MILITARY DISTRICT 37 

from them for a succession of upwards of thirty years, without rest or 
renewal in any way, show that their celebrity is not without foundation. 
*'The middle portion of the district presents, however, the greatest 
variety of soil. Although the extent of bottom land along the streams 
is considerable, yet the greater portion is upland of good quality, on 
which wheat is raised in great abundance. A portion of it is level land, 
timbered with beech and sugar trees, and at the first settlement of the 
country was considered rather too flat and wet for cultivation ; but since 
it has been cleared and cultivated, it is justly considered very good land, 
alone surpassed by the rich alluvial bottoms. 

**A part of the middle portion consists also of prairie or barren land, 
the value of which has been lately discovered to be greater than ever was 
suspected, as it presented, at the first settlement of the country, a 
marshy appearance, which, it was supposed, could not be overcome by 
cultivation. The industry of our inhabitants has overcome this ob- 
stacle, and the barrens are fast becoming very valuable lands. The 
other part of the district consists of barrens, and also of wet, flat land, 
timbered with beech and sugar trees, and is at this time quite unsettled. 
[Now these are drained and are rated very fine farming and grazing 
lauds.] From this variety of soil great advantages arise. In our bot- 
toms we raise corn in great abimdance ; on our uplands, wheat and other 
small grains; while our barrens or prairies furnish most desirable pas- 
tures for grazing. Our quarries supply the finest building stone to be 
obtained, and the Brush Creek hills contain ore from which a quality of 
iron is obtained unsurpassed in the world." 

The Virginia Military District is a product of the Revolution. It 
grew out of the adjustment of the claims of Virginia to portions of the 
Northwest Territory acquired by the United States from England under 
the treaty of Paris in 1783. It will be remembered that the grants of 
land from the English monarchs to the American Colonies, as set forth 
in their charters, were "from ocean to ocean," and consequently, upon 
the acquirement of the territory west of the Alleghenies at the close of 
the Revolution, the States of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, each claimed 
portions of the newly acquired territory within the alleged limits of their 
respective colonial grants. The claim of New York, however, was lim- 
ited to "all the territory northwest of the Ohio River belonging to the 
Six Nations, or Iroquois Indians," from whom that State had acquired 
title to their lands. The sfx other States in the Confederation whose 
boundaries were fixed, and which were in consequence barred from 
claiming, as individuals, any of the newly acquired territory under the 
plea of extension of boundaries, contended that this territory acquired 
from Great Britain became the common property of all the States in the 
Confederation, and should be disposed of for the benefit of all under the 
authority of the Congress of the Confederation. And so it was, that 
after the awful hardships and terrible conflicts of the war just closed, 
in which the States vied with each other in their sacrifices of property 
and lives to maintain their rights and to establish the principles of lib- 
erty, one of the fruits of that victory — this newly acquired territory — 
very nearly brought on internecine war, and almost disrupted the Fed- 
eral Union. It is truthfullv said that the history of the times of the 



I 



88 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

Revolution shows that nothing except the war itself, so deeply agi- 
tated the whole country as the question to whom properly beloneed this 
vast western domain, and no question so subjected the Confederation 
to greater peril. All the States were gjeatly straitened for means of 
bearing their respective portions of the expense of the war ; and all at- 
tached a very great, and probably an undue, importance to these lands 
as a source of revenue, or as a fund on which to obtain credit by their 
hypothecation. Many distinguished men arrayed themselves on differ- 
ent sides of this question. Mr. Hamilton, for example, held that the 
Confederacy or nation at large had succeeded to the rights and property 
of the Crown as a common fund, while Mr. Madison maintained that the 
States respectively had succeeded to the Crown lands within their limits, 
and thus the matter was carried into the Congress of the Confederation. 

Congress appealed to the States to relinquish their claims to the 
disputed territory, and to cede it to the Confederation for the benefit of 
all the States. Under the powerful influence of Hamilton, New York, 
whose claims were not so well established as those of the other States 
above referred to, authorized her delegates in Congress to restrict her 
western boundary by such limits as the>' might deem expedient. The 
conciliatory course adopted by New York was followed by the other 
States, and finally, under the Ordinance of 1787, this vexed question was 
brought to a happy termination. But in their deeds of cession to the 
Congress of the Confederation. Connecticut and Virginia each provided 
for a large "reservation*' of lands in the territory northwest of the Ohio 
River ; the former a large tract known as the **\Vestem Reserve," for the 
benefit of her citizens who suffered from Tory raids, and for the purpose 
of establishing a common school fund ; the latter for the purpose of 
making good her promises of bounties in lands to her soldiers in the 
Revolution. 

The Commonwealth of Virginia during the Revolution had raised 
two descriptions of troops — State and Continental — to the latter of 
which she had promised large bounties of **good lands on the Cumber- 
land, between the Green and Tennessee Rivers'* in her territory south- 
west of the Ohio River. Rut anticipating that there would be a defi- 
ciency of good lands in that reservation, in order to provide against such 
an emergency, when she deeded her interest in the Northwest Terri- 
tory to Congress, she prudently reserved the tract between the Scioto 
and the Little Miami, since known as the ^'Virginia Military Lands," 
to fulfill all her obligations to her soldiers of the Continental line. 

The act of cession of Virginia was passed by the Legislature of that 
State, October 20, 1783, and the ceded territory was adopted by act of 
Congress March 1, 1784. The reservation above refered to in the deed 
of cession is as follows : 

"That in case the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of 
the Ohio, upon the Cumberland River, and between the Green River 
and the Tennessee River, which have been reserved by law for the Vir- 
ginia troops of the Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than was 
expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the deficiency 
should be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid off between 
the rivers Scioto and the Little Miami, on the northwest side of the 



THE VIRGINIA MILITARY DISTRICT 39 

river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engfaged to them by the 
laws of Virginia." 

'^he '^proportions as have been engaged to them" were as follows: 
A Private, 200 acres; a Non-commissioned Officer, 400 acres; a Sub- 
altern, 2,000 acres; a Captain, 3,000 acres; a Major, 4,000 acres; a 
Lieutenant Colonel, 4,500 acres; a Colonel, 5,000 acres; a Brigadier 
General, 10,000 acres; and a Major General, 15,000 acres. 

August I, 1784, Gen. Robert C. Anderson, grandfather oi Major 
Anderson, of Fort Sumpter fame, who had been appointed principal sur- 
veyor of these lands, opened an office in Louisville, Kentucky, for the 
reception of entries and surveys upon warrants issued to the Virginia 
soldiers of the Continental line. These warrants could be laid by the 
original grantees or by some one to whom they had been legally as- 
signed. And as many of the soldiers to whom these warrants were 
granted had not the means or inclination to locate them, from the great 
hardships to be endured and the risk and danger from Indian attacks 
after crossing west of the Alleghenies, there sprung up a class of land 
jobbers who bought these warrants and employed deputy surveyors to 
locate them. The deputy surveyors themselves became speculators in 
lands through the purchase of warrants or by taking an agreed portion of 
the lands entered and surveyed by them. Sometimes they would get as 
much as one-half of a survey for their services. Or, if paid in money, 
the usual terms were £10 Virginia currency for each 1,000 acres entered 
and surveyed exclusive of chainmen's expenses. 

At that period lands were abundant and cheap, and it was the prac- 
tice to give "full measure'' in the location of warrants ; and if the deputy 
surveyor had a contract for one-fourth or one-half of the lands located, 
the "measure would be full and overflowing" for a certainty, as he would 
get, besides his agreed share, the surplus. It is said of General Lytle, 
a famous frontiersman and a noted surveyor and land speculator of the 
times, that he made many of his surveys on horseback, and never 
troiibled himself to thread thickets or to cross fallen timbers, but that he 
would conveniently ride around such obstacles. 

Previous to the year 1787, the warrants issued troops of the Conti- 
nental line were laid on lands upon the Cumberland, between the Creen 
and Tennessee Rivers. But early in that year it became apparent to Gen- 
eral Anderson, that there would be a deficiency of good lands in that 
reservation, and he accordingly established in his office, August i, 1787, 
a bureau for the reception of entries and surveys in the reservation 
northwest of the Ohio. This region had been cautiously explored by 
Kenton, Davis, Helm, Fox, O'Bannon and other frontiersmen, who 
painted fine pictures of the beauty of the region, and related wonder- 
ful stories of its abundance of game and great fertility of soil. This, 
together with the fact that Congress had just enacted an ordinance pro- 
viding for a most liberal and enlightened code of laws for the govern- 
ment of the Territory in which the reservation was situated, caused hun- 
dreds of holders of the military warrants to anxiously turn to this el- 
dorado of the West. But the ever-vigilant and revengeful savages of 
the Territory stood as a bar to its entrance. From their look-outs on 
the Ohio, they scrutinized every pirogue that passed over its waters, and 
reckoned the military strength of every armed foe that threatened their 



40 ffiSTORY OF ADAyLS CO 

shores. None but the most experiencetl Indian fighters dared enter the 
region with hope of returning alive- Under these difficnhies the early 
surreys in the Mrginia Reservation were made, and it was not until aher 
the treaty ot Greenville that the danger of assault from the savages was 
removed. 



The first survey made in the district was that of Jc^n 0*Bannon of 
lands upon which the village of Xeville, in what is now Clermont 
County, is situated. This was on the thirteenth day of November, 1787. 
Two days later he made a number of surveys on Three Mile, in Sprigg 
Township, and one of i/xx> acres for Philip Slaughter, opposite Lime- 
stone, and on the ijih surveyed 1,000 acres at the mouth <A Eagle Creek 
lor M'ice Qements. The entry of this survey is said to have been the first 
made within the district, it having been recorded on the day of the open- 
ing of the reservation, August i, 1787. The survey made by O'Bannon 
opposite Limestone, and the one at the mouth of Eagle Creek, were of 
lands within the limits of Adams Cotmtv until the formation of Brown 
Countv in 1818. 

On July 17, 1788, Congress, by resolution, declared all the entries 
and surveys pmiously made in this district in^-alid for the reason that 
General Anderson acted without authority of law in opening the reser- 
vation, as it had not been officially ascertained that there was a defi- 
ciencv of lands in the Cumberland Reser\ation. This was a bitter dis- 
appomtment to those who had endured severest hardships and risked 
life itself to lav the foundation of their future homes in this choice 
region of the Northwest Territory. But this galling resolution was re- 
pealed August 10, 1790, by an act of Congress which declared the Cum- 
berland Reser\'ation insufficient, and immediately thereafter entries and 
surveys were made in the new resenation as rapidly as conditions would 
permit. 

Deputy Svrreyors. 



The principal deputy surveyors in this district, and most of whom 
made surveys in Adams Countv. were John O'Bannon, Arthur Fox, 
Nathaniel Massie, John Beasley. William L\tle, Cadwallader Wallace, 
Allen Latham, Robert Tod. Benjamin Hough, Joseph Riggs, E. V. Kend- 
rick. James Taylor, Joseph Kerr, James Poage, John Ellison, Jr„ John 
Barriit, William Robe and G. \insonhaler. Of all these Nathaniel Mas- 
sic is probably the most distinguished. 

First Settlement. 

In the winter of 1790, after Congress had declared this reservation 
open for entries and surveys upon proper warrants, Nathaniel Massie, 
with a few brave spirits, made the first settlement in the district at the 
"Three Islands," where Manchester, in Adams County, is now situated. 
Here they erected rude cabins for shelter on the banks of the Ohio,oppo- 
sitc the lower of the three islands, and enclosed them with strong pick- 
ets driven into the ground, forming a rude kind of stockade as a 
means <)\ protection from attacks of the Indians. 



THE VIRGINIA MILITARY DISTRICT 41 

From this stockade, or Station, as it was called, Massie and his 
chosen assistants ventured forth into the unbroken wilderness, carefully 
exploring the principal water-courses, noting the most desirable situa- 
tions and making surveys and entries of the best lands. 

Hanner of Making Surreys. 

These excursions were full of peril ; but the "plan adopted by Mas- 
sie," says McDonald, *'was such as to insure the greatest possible se- 
curity. He usually had three assistant surveyors; each surveyor, in- 
cluding himself, was accompanied by six men, which made a mess of 
seven, and the whole party would amount to twenty-eight. Every man 
had his prescribed duty to perform. Their operations were conducted 
in this manner : In front went the hunter, who kept in advance of the 
surveyor two or three hundred yards, looking for game and prepared to 
give notice should any danger from Indians threaten. Then followed, 
after the surveyor, the two chainmen, marker, and pack-horse man with 
the baggage, who always kept near each other, to be prepared for de- 
fense, in case of an attack. Lastly, two or three hundred yards in the 
rear, came a man, called the spy, whose duty it was to keep on the back 
trail and look out, lest the party in advance might be pursued and at- 
tacked by surprise. Each man, the surveyor not excepted, carried his 
rifle, his blanket, and such other articles as he might stand in need of. 
On the pack-horse were carried the cooking utensils and such provisions 
as could be most conveniently taken. Nothing like bread was thought 
of. Some salt was taken, to be used sparingly. For subsistence, they de- 
pended on the game which the woods afforded, procured by their un- 
erring rifles. 

"When night came, four fires were made for cooking; that is, one 
for each mess. Around these fires, till sleeping time arrived, the com- 
pany spent their time in social glee, singing songs and telling stories. 
When danger was not apparent or immediate, they were as merry a set 
of men as ever assembled. Resting time arriving, ^lassie always gave the 
signal, and the whole party would leave their comfortable fires, and car- 
rying with them their blankets, their firearms, and their little baggage, 
walking in perfect silence two or three hundred yards from their fires. 
They would then scrape away the snow, and huddle down together for 
the night. Each mess formed one bed ; they would spread down on the 
ground one-half of the blankets, reserving the other half for covering. 
The covering blankets were fastened together with skewers, to prevent 
them from slipping apart. Thus prepared, the whole party crouched 
dovrn together with their rifles in their arms, and their pouches under 
their heads for pillows ; lying "spoon-fashion,'' with three heads one way 
and four the other, their feet extending to the middle of their bodies. 
When one turned, the whole mess turned, or else the close range would 
be broken, and the cold let in. In this way they lay till broad daylight, 
no noise, and scarcely a whisper being- uttered during the night, 
When it was perfectly light, Massie* would call up two of the men in 
whom he had the most confidence and send them to reconnoiter, and 
make a circuit around the fires, lest an ambuscade might be formed by 
the Indians to destroy the party as they returned to the fires. This was 



If ifhmor*?r>ffy > .tire ro the iiatn#^ if Itf-rnes vho ii»re snccess-^ 
fn?!y :;^>»^ff*»f in h^ r?e?/t o? b;^tle. no ;e<;ii :iofR^r«; axr- iiw ro soch men as- 



In tbe '*^rTy p?>Tt vf the vinft^ ^i \*^f)i Massie \va* engmged in lo- 
(*??ttfi(]f ;^nd ^?trv^*\-tn^ laiiH«i <>n <'-»hi«^ [lr»i5;h Cn»ek, c-k far up asr rfie three 
tV>fVs. ititi^ndmq^. a<^ sfV>n ;»«; then* .v^is less ianqer tmm tiie Enrlian&. tn 
pfvy^vl '^n a iar^f :^al#* It '.va*; in the spnni^ n" rhiK year riiar he was 
<*Ti<yKtj«M in ^jr/^yin<r :h#* !>nn«vii«; m rhe Little Miami. BLe had ad- 
v-anr<*<i lip the* n\*<*r as far i«? when* the tmvn at Xenia now :3t&ncis with- 
^Mt nir^e^t?*ti*Mi. Itarly ^>ne mominqf tlie parry .'9tartk»ft out tn pertorm 
thf* ifiMr'^? ^ th<* day .\f35««e wrm wr^iWing- in aiivani'.e of die party. 
\rhf*ii an rndian vra^ per^^iv<»rl Hy r^eneral William. Lytie; witiL toa gaxi 
iXMnt-^'l at \f^a«r«ti4* anr! in rhe art i%t tirinq*. Lytie, with iracnmmoa qtirck- 
rt^^q nr^<i an<fi tri!!<*4 rh«* Fnclian. After rhis 'occurrence diey advanced 
c'^anrifMi'^iy. an«i :^r>4*>i^ fo«in«i fhemselv**^ n^'Scc an encampment oc aJSjoot 
6ii<^ hnn<1i*f*<1 at^*i firry rn-riimis. The parr}* »:*-immenceti x rapid retreat, 
aii<1 \v<*i*(* (*Vy^e1y pwr^!ied ^y fhe rnilian?*. The retreat and poranit coo- 
finii^^'i wifh^rmr :*<*l-a'>cari<i'»n nn-fil fhe p<vrry ^ttd^* readieil ^laaac&csccr. or 
A^'a^^sie'^ .^t'afH'yj^-. as ii* ^^^^ fi\^n ca-lled; 

V(^y ffie l^f^^^f iWi^k wifhiin^ a« p€*c5^yftaWe ''SsaCafmce of the Scatioct. As the 
I'lVi'K'a'f)''? \K^^r^<^ a^\x^ay^ fn^'yr^ f^^:t d'rffi'tn-^ cfue ^wrnter. fee- ecnjpIbTcd two 
^'^iV. 1^f<&ph Wi-PPJafm^ j*ni/{ f^yfve <'/{ ?hfr Waufei. tii*> acootrirpanj bini to ex- 
pPrt^ *h^ ^^ihy fA Vmtt^ Ctfek, ^tufl |>ar5 <o« ttPue Sc&oco country. He 
^jn'rml J"!)*^ \f^/liffm< f\ch )pryfmf\ hj^ exp^rtaJJoru.*, aiwf mai^e entries of all 
iii^ t(fi(ff) htifh //n fh»t f reek. I>tif jng this expedition Kenton, Helm, 
^ttfl fffh^t^, ^hn hnA nrtampTkriitA the various detachments from Ken- 
Uif'V.y, \X'h?e^ hrtd invaded ihe rMinlry, made a few entries, but the large 
fyfflJr n^ thh (»nd wa«; Mill v^f^int. 

Jn fhe m^^nh of Ocfoher, the following year, some canoes were 
pfnt^iH^f^, nuf] Mfl<»<5ie and hi«» party %ct off by water. They proceeded 
ffp ^h^ ' ^hio fo the tnoiith n{ the Scioto, thence up the Scioto to the 
ftfMMMi of I'rtinJ (/reek. While mrandrring the Scioto they made some 
«?ffftf ;<? on flfp hoffotn«3. After reaching the mouth of Paint Creek, the 
<?fff^/^;f<rc vptn \n work. Many surveys were made on the Scioto as far 
ffp fK \\><?tfall Sotne were niafje on Main and others on the Nordi 
f^ofk n\ \\\h)\ rrf'»k, fltwl \\\o greater part of Ross and Pickaway Coun- 
f|f*<3 tv^r^- wf'll f»i?plrirrfl anil partly stirveycd at this time. Massie fin- 
Uh^i\ hJ<? jnt»Mi»|f"l work without meeting with any disturbance from the 
ltt'HMn<! Ihit rttip tinlian was seen during this expedition, and to him 
fh^v ({Jivp n linftl I Im^o. He. however, escaped. The party returned 
lintttf »tH|itdH»fl with \\\c \\x\\ Scioin valley which they had explored." 



THE VIRGINIA MILITARY DISTRICT 43 

Time for Makims Entries and Snrreys. 

From the opening of this reservation in 1790 until 1871, the time 
for making entries and surveys was repeatedly fixed by act of Congress 
and then extended from time to time, as is shown by the following 
epitome of laws bearing upon the subject : 

1804. Such parts of reservation as remain unlocated for three years to 

be released from claim under Virginia warrants. 
1807. Time extended four years. 
1810. Five years allowed for obtaining and locating warrants, and 

seven years for returning surveys. 
1814. Three years additional for locating warrants, and five years for 

making returns. 
1821. Time of location extended two years, and returns five years. 
1823. Two years additional for locating warrants, and four returning 

surveys. 
1830. Time for issuing Virginia warrants extended to 1832. 
1838. Time extended. 
1841. Time further extended. 
1850. Time again extended. 
1855. Time extended for returning survey. 

1871. Vacant lands ceded to the State of Ohio. 

1872. State of Ohio ceded unsurveyed lands to Agricultural and Me- 

chanical College [Ohio State University.] • 

As shown above, the unsurveyed and unappropriated lands in the 
district were by Act of Congress, February 18, 1871, granted to the 
State of Ohio with the provision that each settler on these lands should 
have the privilege of pre-empting, under such restrictions as the Legisla- 
ture might provide, any number of acres not in excess of one hundred 
and sixty. This grant was accepted by the State in March, 1872, and 
then conveyed to the Agricultural and Mechanical College, since styled 
the Ohio State University, at Columbus. At the following session of 
the Legislature, it was enacted that the Trustees of the College should 
survey, set off, and convey to each such settler forty acres at the cost of 
the survey and deed only. And it was further provided that each such 
settler might demand and require the said Trustees to set off and con- 
vey to him one hundred and twenty acres additional or such proportion 
of that amount as such settler might have in actual possession, at the 
cost of one dollar per acre. 

Under the act of 1872, the courts held that not only the title to "un- 
surveyed*' lands in the district, but to all "unpatented" lands where the 
survey was not returned to the General Land Office before January i, 
1852. passed to the College. This was remedied by the act of 1893, 
which provided for proof of occupancy for more than twenty-one years, 
and an exhibit of the deed under which such occupant claimed posses- 
sion; Board of Trustees to make deed, for which occupant should pay 
two dollars. 



44 fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

Massie's SnrreTias Party— An AdTeaivre Witli tlie TwiHaaB, 



In the winter of 1794-5, Nathaniel Massie and his assistant survey- 
ors, Nathaniel Beasley, John Beasley and Peter Lee, together with 
about twenty-five chainmen, markers, hunters and spies, set out from 
Manchester to locate lands on Tod's fork of the Little Miami and the 
head waters of Paint Creek. After several weeks' work without inter- 
ruption from the Indians, the party had turned from the waters of the 
Miami and were slowly moving toward the waters of Paint Creek, mak- 
ing choice locations and noting the topographical aspect of the region 
lying between Caesar's Creek and Rattlesnake fork of Paint. Late one 
evening the party discovered tracks of Indians in the snow. A hasty 
reconnoiter of the vicinity was made, and a party of Indians was dis- 
covered encamped a short distance away. As the Indians greatly out- 
numbered the surveying party, it was deemed prudent to withdraw to- 
ward Manchester as speedily as possible. The party traveled till ten or 
eleven o'clock that night before going into camp. The next morning, 
fearing pursuit if their trail should be discovered by the Indians, they 
broke camp before daylight and hurriedly marched toward home. 
About noon they struck a fresh trail made by Indians, some mounted 
and others afoot. As they were evidently inferior in point of numbers, 
to the surveying party, it was determined to follow the trail, as it led 
in the direction of Brush Creek and the Ohio River. The trail was 
cautiously followed until evening, when the Indians were discovered 
making preparations for the night's encampment. This was on the 
waters of Clear Creek, in what is now Highland County. In his "Life 
of General Massie," in noting this expedition, Col. McDonald says : "It 
was put to a vote whether the Indian camp should be attacked immedi- 
ately, or whether they should postpone it till daylight. A majority were 
for lying by and attacking them in daylight. Two or three men were 
then sent to reconnoiter their camp and bring away their horses. The 
horses were brought away, and preparations made to lie by for the night. 
Massie, who was more thoughtful than the rest of the company, began 
to reflect on the critical situation of the party. He told them he did not 
approve of the idea of lying by until morning, as there was no doubt they 
were rapidly pursued by the Indians from the head of Caesar's Creek, 
and that by waiting until morning the pursuing Indians might come up 
in the course of the night, and when daylight appeared they would find 
themselves between two fires. He said it was true the Indians might 
be more effectually destroyed in daylight, but it was dangerous to loiter 
away their time on a retreat, and advised that whatever they did to the 
Indians should be done quickly, and the march continued toward home. 
It was resolved to follow his advice. 

"It was about two hours in the night when this occurred. The day 
had been warm, and had melted the snow, which was eight inches deep, 
and quite soft on the top. At night it began to freeze rapidly, and by 
this time there was a hard crust on the top. In this situation, the crust, 
when broken by a man walking on a calm night, could be heard at a 
distance of three hundred yards. Massie, under these circumstances, 
prepared to attack the Indians forthwith. The men were formed in a 
line, in single file, with their wiping sticks in their hands to steady them 
when walking. They then commenced moving toward the Indian 



THE VIRGINIA MILITARY DISTRICT 45 

camp in the following manner : The foremost would walk about twenty 
steps and halt ; then the next in the line would move on, stepping in the 
tracks of the foremost to prevent any noise when breaking the crust of 
the snow. In this cautious and silent manner, they crept within about 
twenty-five yards of the Indian encampment, when an unexpected in- 
terruption presented itself ; a deep ravine was found between Massie and 
the camp, which was not perceived by the reconnoitering party. The 
Indians had not yet lain down to rest, but were singing and amusing 
themselves around their fires in the utmost self-security, not dreaming 
of danger in their own country in the depth of winter. The bank of the 
ravine concealed Massie and his men,who were on low ground, from the 
light of the Indian fires. After halting for a few minutes on the bank 
of the ravine, Massie discovered, a few paces above him, a large log 
which had fallen across the ravine. On this log he determined to cross 
the gully. Seven or eight of the men, on their hands and knees, had 
crossed, and were within not more than twelve or fifteen paces of the 
Indians, crouching low, and turning to the right and left, when too many 
men at the same time got on the log; and as it was old and rotten, it 
broke with a loud crash. This startled the Indians. The whites who had 
crossed over before the log broke, immediately fired into the Indian 
camp, shouting as they ran. The Indians fled, naked, and without their 
arms. No Indian was killed in the camp, although their clothing and 
blankets were found stained with blood. No attempt was made to 
pursue them. Their camp was plundered of their horses and arms, 
making altogether considerable booty. The party traveled that night 
and until noon the next day, when they halted to cook some provisions 
and rest their wearied limbs. After taking some refreshments, they 
loitered about the fires a short time, and again commenced their march 
through snow and brush, and about midnight of the second day, arrived 
at Manchester after a fatiguing march of two days and nights from the 
head of Caesar's Creek. 

**On the last day of their march, about a mile north of where West 
Union now stands, one of the men who carried a bag of Indian plunder, 
and rode one of the horses,dropped the bag and did not miss it until they 
arrived at Manchester. Some time in the succeeding day, two of the 
men took fresh horses and rode back on the trail to look for the bag. 
They found the bag some distance south of the brow of the hill, and con- 
cluded they would go to the brow and look over for deer. When they 
reached it, they were astonished to find the spot where a large- party of 
Indians had followed the trail to the top of the hill, and then stopped to 
eat their breakfast, leaving some bones and sinewy jerk that was too 
hard to eat. Had the Indians pursued the trail one hundred yards fur- 
ther, they would have found the bag and lain in ambush for the whites 
to return, and would doubtless have killed or taken prisoners the men 
who returned for the bag. This was truly a narrow escape." 

The hill on which the Indians had encamped, and on which the 
bag of lost plunder was recovered, referred to above, is the elevation on 
the farm now owned by S. R. Stroman, about one mile to 
the north of West Union, on the line of Tod's Trace, which was the 
line of travel followed by the various expeditions from Maysville and 
Manchester to the Paint Creek region prior to the location of Zane's 
Trace in 1796. 



46 



mSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



We give herewith the principal original entries and surveys as 
found in the land records of the county : 

The largest entry and sun-ey is Xo. 798 on Warrant Xo. 76, in the 
name of Thomas Hill, in what is now Liberty To^nTiship, on Hill's Fork 
of Eagle Creek. This survey contained 5.333 1-3 acres, and was made 
by Arthur Fox in 1793. 

The longest sur\'ey is Entr\' Xo. 491, in the name of Charles Scott, 
in Green Township. It contains 2,000 acres, and extends from Sandy 
Springs along the Ohio River bottom to the mouth of Ohio Brush 
Creek. It is eig^t miles long and but one-half mile in average width. 
Made by Massie, April 10, 1793. 

The most irregular survey is Xo. 14,354. for Cadwallader Wallace, 
on Warrant Xo. 8677. The sun-ey was made by A. D. Kendrick in 
185 1, and contains 2,000 acres. It is in Jefferson Township. 

Xo. 1581 was entered on February 2, 1788, by Robert Todd. It 
covered 1,000 acres in what is now Tiffin Township, near West Union. 
The Trotter land is embraced within this sur\'ey, and was originally the 
finest and richest upland in Adams County. It was heavily timbered 
with the largest yellow poplars and sugar trees. Some of the poplar 
trees were over eight feet in diameter. 

Warrant Xo. i was issued to Richard Askren, and is Ento- Xo. 
1426 for 100 acres on Eagle Creek, Sprigg Township, and was surveyed 
by John O'Bannon, Xovember 20, 1787. 

Among the chainmen and "markers" for O'Bannon were John 
Xealey. J. Britton, Sylvester Munroney, George Abed, William Hood, 
William Christie, John Williams, Thomas Palmer and Josiah Stout. 

For Arthur Fox were William Leedom, George Edg^ngton, Rob- 
ert Smith, Duncan McKenzie, James Thompson, Robert Walton, James 
McCutlin and John Reed. 

For Massie were John Mclntyre. Edward Walden, Zephaniah 
Wade, William Colvin, William Campbell. Thomas Kirker, Duncan 
McArthur, David Lovejoy, John Riggs. John Beasley, John Yochum 
and Xathaniel Hart. 

The following are among the early entries and surveys in the county : 



No. 
entry. 


Quantity 
in acres. 


Watercourse. waViint. 


For whom. 


Date. 


Surveyor. 


14S 


1.000 

2,000 
006«i 
000s 

1000S 

1.000 
1,000 
1.000 

450 

490 

015 

445 
1.000 

778 

bOO 
1.000 
1,000 
1.494 
1.000 

6.n3H 

I.OOO 


Cherry Fork.. 

Brush Creek.. 

Mouth ThreeMUe 
Ohio River.. 


010 


John Winston-... 
Richard Taylor.^ 
Nathaniel Fox ... 
Archdus Perkins 

John T. Grlffln..... 
Mayo Carrington 
Churchill Jones- 
CalohiU Mlnnis ... 
Charles Scott-... 

41 
4 I 
It "*"" 

Byrd H end rick ."! 

John Steele 

Albert Gallatin... 

Francis Smith 

Wm Holllday-... 
Wm. LudimMU-... 
Timothy Peyton. 

Thomas Hill 

John McDowell - 


Mar. 10, 1794... 
Apr. 10, 1792... 
Aug. 15 1795- 
Aug. 10, 1796- 

Jan. 4. 179C-... 
Nov. 16. 178f7- 
Nov. 17, 1787. 

April 10, 1790. 

- 1 

It 
ti 

Nov. 17, 17^7 7. 
Jan. 1, 17TO — 
Mar. 10, 1794... 
Mar. 0. 1794 .... 
Oct.0. 1T9I..- 
May 27, 1794... 
July 2, 1790-... 
Nov. 2, 1T9I... 
Nov. 18,1787. 


Arthur Fox. 


»1 

401 

4e3 


1734. 

2545.. 

238S« 

128 _ 

748 


JohnO'Bannon. 

• • 

• • 


4S1 

00 


Brush Creek 
(opp. Ldck Fork) 
Mouth Salt Lick. 
Mouth of Br. Or.. 

Three Mile 

Long Lick Creek 

Ohio River 

It 

Three Mile*.!'.*.!!!'. 
Ohio River 


Massie. 
O'Bannon. 


460 

400 

491 

491 


2S1I- 

2272- 

815 

815 


t« 

tt 

Massie. 

•t 


49! 


815 


tt 


491 ... 

495 

64S 


815 

2007- 

002 

1070- 

70 

2038 

1818 

1297- 

70 

827 


t* 

0*Bannon. 

tt 


661 

600 

061 

790 

9oe 


»• 

Mouth Buck Ruii 

Eagle Creek 

Brush Creek 

• • 

Brjsh & £agle Cr 
Three Mile 


Massie. 

Fox. 

Massie. 

0*BsnDon. 

John Beasley. 

Fr>x. 

O'Bannon. 



THE VIRGINIA MILITARY DISTRICT 



eDtrj- 


s-sss; 


w.„,c™. 


WBTTMIt. 


.„..». 


Dmte. 


Snrreyor. 


•11 


i.«n 






A. Kirkpatriak.. 














SKL-bBS" 








,000 


KSSffi*: 
















,000 


Hffi*^^^ 




John Winston ,.. 

Cklrlea Soou ... 


Mar. 10, iTw::; 








































?SS?a,.™::: 






























Mn.2J.XTVt... 
































































































l.333<. 


ilnish Cr««k 




JcwiBta TftneyhUL 


Dec. 8. 1T11 


Maaale. 










ffiWfe::::. 

JobuGreeLe. 


Deo. g. 17»l.„. 
Not. tl. ITtS. 












Brash CreelL. 








O'Banaon. 










Robert Eanktn::: 










UiMle. 














































MO 


Bnuli Creek 


l»lfr-atK 


And> WooiHon 


May 10. I81S... 




































Bsker's Fork 








































Turkey Creek 




Walter bavles. ) 


April 11. ITVe.. 




ISEl 


l,W» 


OWo River „.. 


J«9 


J»n. 4, HOT 


Musle. 














































































































































































































































































138 


ir« 


OberryFork 


M'i 
























Levin Powell J«n. I. 17«i.... 














































































































Be«tf ey« Fork.. 






























































Abrm Shepberflj Msr. U, 179T.. 












Reuben Sifvers..! April B. igoi.. 








Treberl Rao 







4^ 



fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



Reoorded I^md Patents. 



The following list contains all the land patents on record in Adams 
County, so far as can be learned from the record books in the Recorder's 
office: 



Name. 



Date. 



No. Acres 


President. 


1.000 


John Adams. 


6.333J 


do 


l.rOO 


Henry Lee, Gov. of Va 


200 


Thos. Jefferson. 


1,000 


do 


150 


J no. Adams. 


1,000 


Thos. Jefferson. 


50 


Andrew Jackson. 


50 


do 


50 


do 


490 


John Adams. 


85 


Martin Van Buren. 


63 


do 


50 


do 


1 


do 


30 


John Tyler. 


15 


do 


50 


do 


25 


do 


20 


Martin Van Buren. 


10 


John Tyler. 


15 


do 


15 


do 


10 


Martin Van Buren. 


20 


John Tyler. 


147 


do 


30 


do 


15 


James K. Polk. 


10 


do 


45 


do 


18 


Z. Taylor. 


10 


James K. Polk. 


20 
5 


Z. Tayior. 


20 


.do 


30 


do 


50 


James Madison. 


14 


James K. Polk. 


33§ 


do 


100 


do 


10 
40 


Z. Taylor. 


50 


John Tyler. 


llOJ 


Z. Taylor. 


189S 


17 


Millard PiUmore. 


85 


Franklin Pierce. 


50 


Martin Van Buren. 


18J 


John Tyler. 


20 


do 



Grimes, Noble.... 

Taylor, Francis^ 

Heth, Harvey.. 

Lafferty, Comelins., 

Todd, Robt.. 

Fields, Simon 

Parker, Alexander., 
Mowrer, Christian.. 

MitcheU, Wm 

Mowrer, Christian., 

Massie, Nath'l 

Florea, Joshna 

do 

Steel, David 

Darl i ngton , Jose ph . , 

Brooks, Leonard 

Roth well, John 

Dillinger, Jacob 

Baird, Harvey B 

Johnson, William..., 

do 
Rothwell, Robt. J.... 

do 
Wilman, James V..., 

Marvin, Ira. , 

Demint, Jas., et al..., 

Cross. John 

Rothwell, Robt. T„ . 
Willman, James V., 

Mitchell. Wm 

Scott, John 

Johnson, William.... 

Brooks, Leonard 

Zinkhorn, Balsar..... 

do 

Hamilton, Robt 

Anderson, James..., 
Rothwell. Simon P. 
Murphy, R. S., et al 

Tapp, Vinet , 

Johnson, Wra , 

Blake, Millins 

Wallace, Daniel 

Taylor, James 

do 

Evans, Thos 

Jenkins, Jno. S 

Murphy, D W 

Murphy, D. W. &J. 
Calloway, John , 



•••••• ••• 



October 28, 1799 

March 16, 1798... 

April 20. 1792.. 

November 9, 1803.... 

November 7, 1803.... 

September 30, 1800.. 
November 20, 1804.. 
November 15, 1834.. 
September 1, 1»31.. 
February 20, 1887.... 

February 1, 1800...... 

December 12, 1838.. 
December 6, 1838.... 

January 9. 1839 

May 15, 1840 

December 20, 1842.. 

June 20, 1842 

December 20, 1842.. 

March 30. 1843 

June 29, 1839.. 

June 20, 1842. 

October 3. 1843 

October 3, 1848 

March 10, 1840 

April 8. 1842 

June 20, 1842 

October 15, 1844 

October 3, 1846 

June 8, 1848 

September 5, 1848.. 

August 16. 1849 

April 3, 1848 

April 1, 1850 

do 

do 

do 

February 5, 1817 

April 8, 1848 

August 19, 1848 

June 6, 1848 

December 26, 1849.. 
November 1, 1849.. . 
December 20. 1841.. 
August 31, 1849 

do 

May 1,1851 

September 26, 1853.. 
December 28, 1838.. 

March 13, 1843 

December 20, 1841.. 



THE VIRGINIA MILITARY DISTRICT 



49 



Rbcordbd Land Patents— Concxudbd. 



Name. 


Date. 


No. Acres 


President. 


Wallace, Atiiniatns 


June 20, 1863 


455 

360 

24 

45 

400 

120 

75 

8 

15 

92 

45 

20 

130 

50 

140 

40 

12 

10 

20 

21 

40 

155 6-7 

30 

35 

100 

1,000 

4 

174 

1,300 

12 

1.000 

347 

615 

1,000 


Abe Lincoln. 


Wallace, Cadwallader. 

Massie, Nath'i 

McLanahan, James 

Calloway. Francis 


do 

October 29, 1861 

May 11,1848 


do 
do 
James K. Polk. 


December 23, 1844... 

July 10, 1866 

October 17, 1866 

September 4, 1867... 
September 9, 1867... 

November 8, 1867 

September 5, 1867... 

do 
June 20. 1863 


Jno Tyler. 


Thompson, Jame^ H 

do 
Coryell, Tames L 


Andrew Johnson, 
do 
do 


Barns. Isaiah.. 


do 


McKinney. Wm. T 


do 


Behm. Andrew 


do 


do 
McGinnis M. W 


do 
Abe Lincoln. 


Wamsley, Jesse 

McCalt. David 


September 5, 1867... 
September 1, 1831... 

May 15, 1840 

January 21, 1865 

November 15, 1861... 
April 4. 1871 


Andrew Johnson. 
Andrew Jackson. 


Lanshery. Tohn„ 


Martin Van Buren. 


Pitzfirerald. Geo. R 


Abe Lincoln. 


Smith. Tames P 


do 


Baird, Jno. H 

Smith. Tames P« 


U. S. Grant. 


March 30,1843 

November 1, 1849 

December 12, 1852... 
April 8. 1842 


John Tyler. 


Baird, R. D 


Z. Taylor. 
Millard Fillmore. 
John Tyler. 
Andrew Johnson. 


Massie. Nath'l 

Baird. Tno. H 


Humble. Hlias 


September 5, 1867... 
December 10. 1848... 
June 1, 1798 T 


McGinnis. Tas. S 


Tames K. Polk. 


Shepherd, Abraham 

Matneney, Hlias 


Jno. Adams. 


October 1, 1849 

September 15, 1837... 
March 7. 1804 


Z. Taylor. 

Martin Van Buren. 


Cook. Mathew S 


Wrieht, Saml 


Thomas Jefferson. 


Welsh. John 


September 5, 1850... 

January 20, 1840 

December 18, 1804... 
March 3, 1793 


Z. Taylor. 

Martin Van Buren. 

Thomaft Jefferson. 


Edwards, Thomas 

AUesou. Richard 


Scott. Charles 


Geo. Washington. 
Thos. Jefferson. 


Lockhart, Robt 


September 4, 1805... 



4a 



CHAPTER VI. 



*THE PIONEERS 

I walk across the meadow in the balmy breath of spring; 
The earliest flowers are blooming and the birds are all awing. 
I see a little hillside where two humble stones arise. 
And mark the spot where sleep the dead whose memories we prise. 

Beneath their axes fell the trees, their rifles sought the deer, 
They struggled with that fortitude known to the pioneer; 
They met the red-man face to face, as eagles they were free. 
And owned allegiance to no king who ruled across the sea. 

At liberty's immortal shrine they worshipped day by day. 
For empire's occidental course they bravely cleared the way; 
With hearts of oak and nerves of steel and healthy brains, I know, 
They made the forests blossom like a garden long ago. 

No gilded cradles held the babes the mother loved to kiss. 
Where howled the famished wolf at night, or rose the serpent's hiss, 
And where she led them unto God with calm and tender brow 
We follow, with no thought of her, the ever busy plow. 

No longer on the hillock's side rings out the settler's steel, 
No longer in the cabins old sings low the spinning wheel; 
The pioneers have anished like the billows of the tide. 
With here and there a stone or two to tell us where they died. 

Sk>, when I cross the meadow in the balmy breeze of spring. 
With flowers blooming round me and the merry birds awing. 
It is to part the grass blades, each a tiny emerald spear. 
And read upon a leaning stone: "Here sleeps a pioneer.' 



>f 



Then comes to me a vision of the brave, the true, the bold, 
An era grander, greater than the fabled age of gold — 
When the misty azure mountains 'twixt us and the eastern sea 
Heard in the settlers' march the tread of nations yet to be. 

From beyond the Alleghanies came that small, heroic band, 
I see them cross the border of the death-Invested land; 
No obstacles retard their march and dangers lurk in vain; 
They build within the forest and they rear upon the plain. 

They carve a way for progress in the dark and lonely wood. 
They hold the savage foe at bay, they triumph o'er the flood; 
And commerce follows in their wake, as day succeeds the night, 
And fairer beam the stars that shine upon our banner bright 

All honor to the pioneers whose race has passed away! 
Their deeds have won a fame that lasts forever and a day; 
And when I part the tender grass upon the hillside fair 
I do it gently for I know the brave hearts resting there. 

The homes they wrested from the wilds they left to you and me. 
We drew from those heroic souls our love of liberty; 
The rights that we enjoy today they battled to maintain. 
And Gk)d, for them, has blessed us upon every hill and plain. 



•T. C. Harbaugh 

(50) 




GKN. NATHANIEL MASSIH 

' UlLKCarXtKR IN I7W. THI Tl 

Sktti.ehiikt in Ohio 



THE PIONEERS 5i 

Ma— §•*■ Settlememt at lCameHeste>^-01uupaet«r of ike PloB««ra— Xdfe la- 
the Bmokwood a E arly MarriagO B B e n i ti i l K i 6«ce». 

The present generation has but Kttle conception of the environments 
of the pioneers of Adams county, and of the hardships and dangers en- 
dured by them. When the first settlement was formed at the "Three 
Islands/' what is now Adams County, as in fact with two exceptions, all 
of the present State of Ohio, was a vast wilderness, inhabited by tribes of 
hostile savages, and filled with ferocious beasts and venomous serpents. 
There was not a white man's domicile in all the Virginia Reservation, 
and there was not a fort nor a single company of scridiers in all that vast 
region to shelter the pioneer who ventured within its limits, or to stay 
the course of the bands of murderous savages that roamed the forests. 
For the most part the entire region was an unbroken forest, and the 
stately monarchs of the woods, the oak leviathans, whose lofty tops to- 
wered the heavens, formed a canopy of green that was but dimly pene- 
trated by the summer's sim, and the creeks and streams were overhung 
with foliage that shut out the sunlight and cast deep shadows over the 
surface of the waters. There was not a road nor a path through this 
wilderness except those made b}' the herds of buffaloes in their travels 
from one feeding place to another. There were no means of travel 
through this vast wilderness except on foot or on horseback and these 
were fraught with the greatest dangers to life and limb. With such sur- 
roundings and under such conditions was the first white settlement be- 
gun in the Virginia Reservation. 

Massie's Bettlemeat at ManoHester. 

In the year 1790, Nathaniel Massie, a young land surveyor, who was 
interested in locating land warrants in the Virginia Reservation north- 
west of the Ohio River, as an inducement to found a colony there, offered 
to each of the first twenty-five persons who would join him in making a 
settlement, one inlot and one outlot in a town he proposed to lay off, 
and one hundred acres of land in the vicinity of the new town. In ac- 
cordance with this propdsal the following written agreement was drawn 
up and signed by the parties interested: 

Articles of agreement between Nathaniel Massie, of the one part, 
and the several persons that have hereunto subscribed, of the other 
part, witnesseth ; that the subscribers hereof doth oblige themselves to 
settle in the town laid off, on the northwest side of the Ohio, opposite the 
lower part of the three islands ; and make said town or the neighborhood, 
on the northwest side of the Ohio, their permanent seat of residence for 
two years from the daje hereof; no subscriber shall be absent for 
more than two months at a time, and during such absence, he shall fur- 
nish a strong able-bodied man sufficient to i)ear arms at least equal to 
himself; no subscriber shall absent himself the time above mentioned, 
in case of actual danger, nor shall such absence be but once a year; 
no subscriber shall absent himself in case of actual danger, or if absent, 
he shall return immediately. Each of the subscribers doth oblige him- 
self to comply with the rules and regulations that shall be agreed on 
by a majority thereof for the support of the settlement. 



52 ffl STORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

In consideration whereof, Nathaniel Massie doth bind and oblige 
himself, his heirs, etc., to make over and convey to such of the sub- 
scribers, that comply with the above conditions, at the expiration of two 
years, a good and sufficient title unto one inlot in said town, containing 
five poles in front and eleven back, one outlet of four acres convenient 
to said town, in the bottom, which the said Massie is to put them in im- 
mediate possession of; also one hundred acres erf land, which the said 
Massie has shown to a part of the subscribers; the conveyance to be 
made to each of the subscribers, their heirs or assigns. 

In witness whereof each of the parties have hereunto set their hands 
and seals this first day of December, 1790. (signed) 

Nathaniel Massie. John Ellison, 

John Lindsey, Allen Simmeral. 

William Wade, John X McCutchen, 

John Black, Andrew X Anderson, 

Samuel X Smith, Mathew X Hart. 

Jessie X Wethington, Henry X Nelson, 

Josiah Wade, John Peter Christopher Shanks, 

John Clark, James Allison, 

Robert Ellison, Thomas Stout, 

Zephaniah Wade, George Wade. 

Done in the presence of John Beasley, James Tittle. 

It has been said that this agreement was drafted and subscribed at 
Kenton's Station near the town of Washington, Kentucky. It is 
probable that it was drafted at Limestone and subscribed there. How- 
ever, the settlement was begun immediately, the town was laid out into 
lots and named Manchester, after Manchester in England, the home of 
the ancestors of its founder. The new settlement was known for years 
as Massie's Station. 

**This little confederacy, with Massie at the helm (who was the whole 
soul of it)," says McDonald, "went to work \vith spirit. Cabins were 
raised, and by the middle of March, 1791, the whole town was enclosed 
with strong pickets, firmly fixed in the ground, with block-houses at each 
angle for defense. [The situation of the stockade was opposite the 
lower end of the large island and extended to the river bank.] Al- 
though this settlement was commenced in the hottest Indian war, it 
suffered less from depredations and even interruption from the Indians, 
than any settlement previously made on the Ohio River. This was no 
doubt owing to the watchful band of brave spirits who guarded the place, 
men who weie reared in the midst of danger and inured to perils, and as 
watchful as hawks. Here were the Beasleys, the Stouts, the'Washbums, 
the Leedoms, the Edgingtons, the Dinnings, the Ellisons, the Utts, the 
McKenzies, the \Vades and others who were equal to the Indians in all 
the arts and stratagems of border war. 

"As soon as Massie had completely prepared his station 
for defense, the whole population went to work, and cleared 
the lower of the three islands, and planted it in com. The 
island was very rich and produced heavy crops. The woods. 



THE PIONEERS 63 

with a little industry, supplied a variety of game. Deer, elk, buffalo, 
bears and turkeys were abundant, while the river furnished a variety of 
excellent fish. Tlie wants of the inhabitants were few and easily gratified. 
Luxuries were unknown except old Monone^ahela double distilled. This 
article was in great demand in those days, and when obtained was freely 
used. Coffee and tea were rare articles, not much prized nor sought 
after, and were only used to celebrate the birth of a newcomer. The in- 
habitants of the Station were as playful as kittens, and as happy in their 
way as their hearts could wish. The men spent most of their time in 
hunting and fishing, and almost every evening the boys and girls footed 
merrily to the tune of the fiddle. Thus was their time spent in that 
happy state of indolence and ease, which none but the hunter or herds- 
man state can enjoy. They had no civil officers to settle their disputes, 
nor priests to direct their morals ; yet amongst them crimes were of rare 
occurrence. Should any one who chanced to be amongst them, prove 
troublesome, or disturb the harmony of the community his expulsion 
forthwith would be the consequence ; and woe be to him if he again at- 
tempted to intrude himself upon them." 

Cbanurter of tHe Pioneers. 

The pioneers of Adams County as a class were honorable and moral 
men and women. They represented some of the best families of Vir- 
ginia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Maryland. New Jersey and the Car- 
olinas. They were a hardy, industrious, and frugal people, who had 
come determined to make a home for themselves and their generations 
in the great Northwest. They were the daring, spirited and brave 
element of the older settlements east of the AHeghenies. It is true 
there were in the early settlements as there is in every community today, 
a rough, immoral, indolent element ; but look into the history of any of 
the earlv settlements in the county, and it will be seen that each was 
dominated by moral, industrious, and intelligent families. The pioneers 
were not, as is the popular opinion, giants in stature and of herculean 
strength, but they were hardy and vigorous as a result of plain living 
and an active outdoor life. As a matter of necessity every man and boy 
devoted a portion of his time to the chase. It afforded the principal 
subsistence of the early settlers, and "wild meat without salt or bread 
was often their only food for weeks." They were a generous-hearted 
and hospitable people, whose welcome was plain and outspoken. There 
was none of the deceit veiled in hollow formalities that prevails in society 
today. "Our latch-string is always out" meant a genuine hearty wel- 
come to the humble home of the pioneer. 

Itife in tlie Baokwoods. 

We make the following extracts from "Life in the Backwoods," by 
Rev. James B. Finley, a pioneer of Adams County : 

"The first settlers could not have sustained themselves, had it not 
been for the wild game that was in the countr>'. This was their principal 
subsistence ; and this thev took at the peril of their Mves, and often many 
of them came near starving to death. Wild meat without bread or salt, 
was often their food for weeks together. If they obtained bread, the 



X 



54 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

ineal was pounded in a mortar or ground in a handmill. Hominy was a 
good substitute for bread, or parched com pounded and sifted, then 
mixed with a little maple sugar and eaten dry ; or, mixed with water was 
a good beverage. On this coarse fare the people were remarkably 
healthy and cheerful. No complaints were heard of dyspepsia ; I never 
heard of this fashionable complaint till I was more than thirty years old ; 
and if the emigrants had come to these backwoods with dyspepsia, they 
would not have been troubled long with it ; for a few months living on 
buffalo meat, venison, and good fat bear meat, with the oil of the raccoon 
and opossum mixed with plenty of hominy, would socm have effected a 
cure. 

**Their children were fat and hearty, not having been fed with plum- 
pudding, sweetmeats and pound-cake. A more hardy race of men and 
women grew up in this wilderness than has ever been produced since ; 
with more common sense and enterprise than is common to those who 
sleep on beds of down, and feast on jellies and preserves ; and although 
they had not the same advantages of obtaining learning that the present 
generation have, yet they had this advantage; they were sooner thrown 
upon the world, became acquainted with men and things, and entirely 
dependent on their own resources for a living. A boy at the age of six- 
teen was counted a man in labor and hunting, and was ready to go to 
war; now, one of that age hardly knows the road to mill or market. 

"Their attire was in perfect keeping with their fare. The men's 
apparel was mostly made of the deer's skin. This, well dressed, was made 
into hunting shirts, pantaloons, coats, waistcoats, leggins, and moccasins. 
The women sometimes wore petticoats of this most common and useful 
article ; and it supplied almost universally the place of shoes and boots. 
If a man was blessed with a linsey hunting-shirt, and the ladies with Kn- 
sey dresses, and the children with the same, it was counted of the first 
order, even if the linsey was made from the wool of the buffalo. On 
some occasions the men could purchase a calico shirt ; this was thought 
to be extra, for which they paid one dollar and fifty cents or two dollars 
in skins or furs. And if a woman had one calico dress to go abroad in, 
she was considered a finelv dressed ladv. Deer's hair or oak leaves 
was generally put into the moccasins and worn in place of stockings or 
socks. The household furniture consisted of stools, and bedsteads made 
with forks driven into the ground and poles laid on these with the bark 
of the trees, and on this beds made of oak leaves, or cattail stripped off 
and dried in the sun. They rocked their children in a sugar trough or 
pack-saddle. The cooking utensils consisted of a pot, dutch . oven, 
skillet, frying pan. wooden trays and trenchers, and boards made smooth 
and clean. The table was made of a broad slab. And with these fixtures 
there never was a heartier, happier, more hospitable or cheerful people. 
Their interest were one, and their dependence on each other was in- 
dispensable, and all things were common. Thus united they lived as 
one familv. 

"They generally married early in life, the men from eighteen to 
twenty-one, and the ^irb from sixteen to twenty. The difficulties of com- 
mencing the world were not so great; and as both parties were con- 
tented to begin wHth nothing, there was no looking out for fortunes, or 



THE PIONEERS 55 

the expectations of living without labor. Their * affections were personal 
and sincere, which constituted a chief part of their domestic happiness, 
and endeared them to home. The sparkling log fire in the backwoods 
cabin, the g^ambols of half a dozen cheerful, healthy children, and the 
smiles of the happy wife and mother, made an earthly paradise. 

"Nothing could produce more hilarity than a backwoods wedding. 
Most generally all the neighborhood, for miles around were invited ; and 
if it was in the winter, there would be a log-heap or two somewhere near 
the cabin. Around these fires the men assembled with their rifles; the 
women in the cabin ; and if there was a fiddler in the neighborhood he 
must be present at an hour stated. The parson, if one could be had, 
if not, the Justice of the Peace, called the assembly together, then the 
couple to be married. After the ceremony was over, and all had wished 
the happy pair much joy, then, if it could be had, the bottle passed 
'round ; the men then went, some to shooting at a mark, some to throw- 
ing the tomahawk, others to hopping and jumping, throwing the rail or 
shoulder stone, others to running foot races ; the women were employed 
in cooking. When dinner was ready, the guests all partook of the very 
best bear meat, venison, turkey, etc. This being over the dance com- 
mences, and if there is no room in the cabin, the company repair to or 
near one of the log fires ; there they dance till night, and then they mostly 
return home ; yet many of the young people stay and perhaps dance all 
night on a rough puncheon floor, till their moccasins are worn through. 
,The next day is the infare; the same scenes are again enacted, when the 
newly married pair single off to a cabin built for themselves, without 
twenty dollars' worth of property to begin the world with, and live more 
happily than those who roll in wealth and fortune. 

"I recollect when a boy to have seen a pair of those backwoods 
folks come to my father's to get married. The groom and bride had 
a bell on each of their horses' necks, and a horse-collar made of corn- 
husks on each horse to pay the marriage fee. The groom had a bottle 
of whiskey in his hunting shirt bosom. When they had entered the 
house, he asked if the parson was at home. My father replied that he 
was the parson. '*Then" said the groom, "may it please you, Mary Mc- 
Lain and I have come to get married. W^ill you do it for us?" "Yes, 
replied my father. "Well, then," said the groom, "we are in a hurry. 
So the knot was tied, and the groom pulled out his bottle to treat the 
company. He then went out, and took the collars off the horses' necks 
and brought them in as the marriage fee ; and soon after they started for 
home in Indian file, with the bells on their horses open, to keep the 
younger colts which had followed them together. 

"The chimneys of the cabins were built on the inside by throwing 
on an extra log, three feet and a half from the wall. From this it was 
carried up with sticks and clay to the roof and some two feet above it. 
The whole width of the cabin was occupied for a fire-place, and wood 

♦The early records of Adams County contain but few divorce cases. In 
commenting on this fact a Judge in this judicial district once remarked that 
there is not a case of divorce on the records where the courting was done in 
a flax-patch or sugar camp; at a quilting or apple cutting. And we might add 
or "while bladln' cane," according to the observation of Judge Mason. 



99 
99 



-;^?i. v* iv^rtJvv^-Vp** ivi^.%viti<. ;in !«trt ui vh«n. mrn^irti iff t3wi' im dter miifi- 

:n»t^ v«tin*r' i ntuif '*\V.ii*n: ttwn?: v«$t inr. iner ;i«t -n. rtie oodtim. it: waa* 
:i/V 4^.v tiiit' vvi. ^vilH^ iii^r Iiniv» x 4r>^^^ ni^ir * nasn. fhr Gatxer stg^for was 
vv;^. M^f^ '*i*« :feit^ v^ -Itn iiiv -iii^-Jif iunnnj^ .verpt ail tailkKt- <iw«r.. t&c 
4f{tK ^^^^'-^ invv^it' rtvfffli.. :t«ir iiitfiah . u" tettrr ami ^igrsait 'tcswii} ftrfbr* 
;»i sij^WUn^ lit^v. :*rtii^ * iii'tttifc^ 'jr itiufeih mite tu- tawar ^witft:: 3ai£ ^ram 
^;vil4l ii»*y*i>/ ;t»%MjtJli'^ ;iur rlii^ vRirji» ^r -^tii riii^ir mil iwer dm: «n»es^. tffll dfcr 

lK»^^ ^d ii»vv ^»rtj* 'V>i^mi^ i«%)r * tivyr.. rltifr wai" ^gitanail^ mam^iw^ ami 
^i*r V^^ Y*t iit<dif» '%r "A^v ^stl*.«i-.- ''ir * "Trw: -igiic iin tswi- am£ rftgrr. &ip»twfl 

;4l 'vt->*3" **.v !rt*>' 'Vv<^. Tf^iti ^•*»'4n<(5^ -i-ywiMRst >c ifcrpmr liarqpa: ^iara- Sssgaeaxd 

<*':^(t^ *»4>i'«*n^ iw jMWi'iWjf ^yw^i t&it >jja|«t Wj**: '^i^Hf^feSossr., anf tflttv w^one 
,44^ %v)4: iirt:, DT^jk ^^(►- twnurA Bocaftflaitr dka© ir*5«ft' ^or fiamdk Baanaes: and 

''f<M f^ ^Aiiilili!^ tt&;«f ?i>^ tAtf:^- -^ecnli^^ SiOkrf -gira» ttSv: foosmBSEi- Uock. or a 
'h9t^ mM. Th^ i^^n^'^.iZ.'k ^fZ mAj^-^^^ ^«int vj ias eM dnt it was Eke 
a^M^ ^m % fMMfi^'f^^' ^^ Z^- ^ i^"^ r ^uEft{ besides dbe wC^ was sa cnor- 
#^fi^/.V^])^ iii0^, ^^^^4'^, f }i^. tfs^ pr€i^:rTe4 doing tdbdr o«m milfiii^. 

''Ain^M ^^y rwtti »wi \ffjj mttt. bttniers. and some of tfac women 
//( %\^f^ iittk^^ ^^K i^rs^f^eru in the chase. The game wlikJi was con- 
iM^f^A ih^ ftifM pr^/fy^hie and usefnl was die boftdo. die elk. the bear, 
Mfi4 pIn^ ^'Wf. 'fn^ ^rwaUrr ^ame cr^nsistcd 01 raccoon, tnrkey. oposstun, 
ftfi4 nf^mwih^^. The frtmther was sometiines used for food, and con- 
^Vt^vr/I t/^ v/m^ ;si« j;^^x>d Tne flesh of the wolf and wildcat was only 
ii^4 wUf'ti tUfthini^ f Isr c/niM t>c olitained. 

'"n*#r l/^'kw^^^l%men u%tsally wore a hunting shirt and trousers 
ffif^U t4 \fnt^k%Vmt <^^1 m^xrcasins of same material. His cap was made 
//jf ^otm^kU%, Mu\ %fmwX\n\^ ornamented with a fox^s tail. The ladies 
tUp*i^i\ \n Wii^y'VftftfUcy, and sometimes buckskin. 

*'^Hif Iff rat t\\(fw\\\\y with the pioneers was to procure salt which 
tit$\t\ t^ntfuum^y hijfJJi ^^ tli<? t-atc of four dollars for fifty pounds. In 
SmUwtfiptU *'\\rr(^,\wy, it wrntld require four buckskins, or a large bear 
^kUi, nr «>i«frrfi (turn nkiuN to make the purchase. Often it cduld not be 
Urn] ttf ttf»y prirr, juicl thrn llu! cMiIy way we had to procure it, was to 
pH^-U tt Umi] of krlflrn on our horses to the Scioto salt lick, and boil the 
Wftt^t ouriirlvrii. Othrrwisc we had to forego its use entirely. I have 
kll^nvtl iMrttf riirrd with Mrong hickory ashes. 

"I lmtt«hir t hrar the rcjwlcr saying this was hard living and hard 
tOMP«» Ho ihry WJHilcl have been to the present race of men, but those 
wlio llvril Ml ihr lime en joyed life with a greater zest, and were more 
hpf*llhv fttid httppy than the present race. We had not then sickly 
•lV«»frf li rtl wlvri». with poor. puny, sickly dying children, and no dyspeptic 
mrn nmoftthtlv «wallowhig the nostrnnis of quacks. When we became 
hit It nnfo drttfh, we ilicd at once, and did not keep the neighborhood in 
H ♦iifittfrtnf tttrttr of alann for several weeks, bv dailv bulletins of our 



THE PIONEERS 67 

dying. Our young women were beautiful without rouge or cosmetics, 
and blithesome without wine. There was then no curvature of the spine, 
but the lassies were straight and fine-looking, without corsets. They 
were neat in their appearance, and fresh as the morning in their home- 
spun. 

"We spun and wove our own fabrics for clothing ; the law ot kma- 
ness governed our social walks ; and if such a disastrous thing as a 
quarrel broke out, the difficulty was settled by a strong dish of fisticuffs. 
No man was permitted to insult another without resentment ; and if an 
insult was permitted to pass unrevenged, the insulted party lost his 
standing and cast in society. It was seldom we had any preaching, but 
if a traveling minister came along and made an appointment, all would 
attend, the men in their hunting shirts with their guns." 

Early Manias^** 

• 

'Vhe first law regulating marriages in the Territory was published 
in the fall of 1788, at Marietta. 

Section i. Provided that males of the age of fourteen, and not 
prohibited by the laws of God, might be joined in marriages. 

Section 2. Provided that any of the Judges of the General Court 
or Common Pleas or ministers of any religious society within the district 
in which they resided, might solemnize marriages. 

Section 3. Provided that before being joined in marriage, the 
parties should give notice of their intentions by having them proclaimed 
the preceding Sabbath in their congregation ; or notices in writing under 
the hand and seal of one of the Judges before mentioned, or a Justice of 
the Peace of the county, and posted in some public place in the town 
where the parties respectively resided: or a license might be obtained 
from the Governor, under his hand and seal, authorizing the marriage 
without the publication aforesaid. 

A supplementary act was passed August i, 1792, empowering every 
Justice of the Peace to solemnize marriages in their respective counties, 
after publication aforesaid, or upon license. 

The following list embraces all the marriages that took place in 
Adams County down to January r, t8oo. The records are missing 
from that date down to May. 1803. We give a partial list of the mar- 
riages for the subsequent ten years : 

1798. 

April 17 — ^James Scott and Elizabeth Kilgore. by James Scott. 

April 17 — ^Joseph Lane and Mary Hastley, by James Scott. 

June 5 — Thomas Harrod and Esther Templin. by James Scott. 

June 12 — Andrew Edgar and Nancy Brooks, by James Scott. 

Aug. 7 — ^Turner Davis and Elizabeth Vance, by John Belli. 

Aug. 7 — William Russell and Ruth Heneman, by John Belli. 

Aug. 15 — John Stockham and Francis Kahn, by Moses Baird. 

Oct. 31 — ^James Folsom and Elizabeth Martin, by John Russell. 

Oct. 31 — ^Jacob Strickley and Martha Cox of Mason County, Kentucky, 

by John Russell. 
Nov. 26— Fred Baless and Nancy Erls, by Thomas Kirker. 
Jan. 10 — ^John Davis and Nancy Aikens, by Moses Baird. 



58 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

1799. 

Jan. 3 — David Miller and Catharine Studebaker, by Moses Baird. 

Jan. 22 — Peter Bible and Isabel Morrison, by Thocnas Kirker. 

Jan. 22 — George Noleman and Polly Edgington, by Thomas Kirker. 

March 5 — ^Jesse Nelson and Martha Wilson, by Moses Baird. 

April 4 — ^Thomas Foster and Jennie McGovney, by Rev. John Dimlavy. 

May 16 — William Stout and Margaret Bennett, by John Russell. 

May 16— Isaac Stout and Ann Snodgrass, by ]ohn Russdl. 

June 14 — ^Joseph White and Elizabeth McHenry, by John Russell. 

July 25 — John Smith and Nancy Dennis, by Noble Grimes. 

Aug. & — ^Abraham Thomas and Margaret Baker, by Rev. John Dunlav)'. 

Aug. 20 — ^Elijah Shepherd and Hannah Rodgers, by John Belli. 

Aug. 25 — Alexander Barker and Beckey Dennis, by Noble Grimes. 

Sept. 12 — ^Abraham Shepherd and Peggy Moore, by Rev. John Dunlavy. 

Sept. 17 — ^Jonathan Liming and Jane Liming, by Rev. John Dunlavy. 

Oct. 23 — Joseph Corns and Anna Truesdale. by John Belli. 

Dec. 20 — ^Alexander Bumside and Margaret Martin, by John Belli. 

Dec. 30 — ^John Jones and Jane Mitchell, by John Belli. 

1803. 

May 12 — ^Wm. Morrison and Prudence Noleman. by Rev. John Dunlavy. 

May 5 — Richard Woodworth and Sarah Robcrson, by Rev. John Moore. 

May 26 — William McClelland and Margaret Fink, by Israel Donalson. 

June 2 — Robert Taylor and Sarah Palmer, by Mills Stephenson. 

April 18 — Nathan Glaze and Nancy Creswell, by Mills Stephenson. 

April 13 — William Bayne and Patty Bayne, by Mills Stephenson. 

June 3 — Marcus Tolonge and Sara Bagger, by Mills Stephenson. 

Sept. 15 — Coleman Asberry and Amy Compton. by Nathan Ellis. 

Sept. 9 — Henry Shaw and Nancy Rogers, by Joseph Newman. 

Oct. 6 — Peter Parker and Mar>' Fele. by Joseph Newman. 

Sept. 15 — ^James Mclntyre and Ann Roebuck, by John Baldwin. 

May 14 — Michael Sloop and Mary Ann Gilsever. by John Russell. 

Aug. 3 — William Frizel and Nancy Stolcup. by John Russell. 

Sept. 22 — William Coole and Sara Stout, bv John Russell. 

Sept. 13 — George Campbell and Caty Xoland, by Thos. Odell. 

Aug. 18 — William Taylor and Millie Key, by Jas. Parker. 

Aug. 30 — Daniel Kerr and Sarah Curry, by Jas. Parker. 

Nov. I — Alex. Harover and Mary Stevenson, by Nathan Ellis. 

Oct. 6 — ^John Davidson and Isabel Pence, by William Leedom. 

Sept. 29 — James Hunter and Hannah Gordon, by William Leedom. 

Oct. 20 — ^John Moore and Nancy Edwards, by Jos. Moore. 

Not. 21 — ^John Knots and Catharine .^dams, by Rev. Thos. Odell. 

Oct. 9 — Nicholas Washburn and Lily Lacock, by Mills Stephenson. 

Oct. 20 — ^James King and Elizabeth Larwell, by Mills Stephenson. 

Dec. 15 — ^John Davidson and Margaret Kincaid. by Rev. John Dunlavy. 

1804. 

Jan. 5 — Thomas Mullen and Ann Megonigle, l)y Philip Lewis. 
Jan. 26 — William McCormick and Mar)' Charlton, by John Ellison. 
Jan. 16 — ^John Shelton and Sarah Middleton, by Jas. Parker. 



THE PIONEERS 69 

Jan. 15 — ^Thomas Lewis and Irene Smith, by Rev. T. W. Levimey. 
Feb. 23 — ^James McComas and Esther Smith, by Noble Grimes. 
Feb. 23— James Horn and Elizabeth Miller, by Rev. John Dunlavy. 
Feb. 15 — Gilbert Hiett and Polly Gunnings, by William Leedom. 
March i — ^John Abbott and Hannah Reynolds, by Jos. Newman. 
Feb. 29 — ^Jonathan Wamsley and Sarah Odell, by Rev. Thomas Odell. 
May 6 — ^Jo9ej)h Rgrnolds and Jane Abbott, by Joseph Newman. 
May 23 — George Fisher and Hannah Haden, by Joseph Newman. 
May 17 — Solomon Shoemaker and Agnes Kerr, by Paul Kerr. 
June 26 — Aquilla Denham and Harriet Thompson, by Hiram Currey. 
June 30 — George Roebuck and Ann Bealfes, by Jas. Parker. 
May 23 — Adam Morrow and Frankie Barley, by Mills Stephenson. 
April ip-^Samuel Smith and Mary Peyton, by Philip Lewis. 
Feb. 12 — Levi Sparks and Mildred Anderson, by Noble Grimes. 
July 12 — ^Joseph Lovejoy and Priscilla Anderson, by Noble Grimes. 
July 12 — Stephen Clark and Rebecca Ogle, by Noble Grimes. 
Aug. 9 — Lewis Coleman and Elizabeth Stalcup, by John Russell. 
July 15 — Cornelius Cain and Elizabeth Newman, by Jas. Moore. 
Aug. 14 — William King and Peggy Wright, by Samuel Wright. 
Dec. 26 — Mathew Thompson and Mary Simral, by John Baldwin. 
Dec. 29 — ^John Copas and Betsey Grooms, by James Carson. 
Oct. 13 — William Dunbar and Rebecca Delaplane, by John Ellison. 

1805. 

Feb. 4, Isaac Edgington and Sarah Bryan, liy William Leedom. 

Jan. 20 — ^John Philips and Elizabeth Cole, by Paul Kerr. 

Feb. 7 — ^James Moore and Peggy Wade, by Wm. Leedom. 

March 25 — William Rolland and Sally Crawford, by John Russell. 

March 25 — ^John Means and Sally Collier, by John Russell. 

May 23 — Thomas Palmer and Ruth Noleman, by William Leedom. 

July 4 — Philip Lewis, Jr., and Nancy Humble, by Rev. T. W. Levinney. 

June 2^ — William Wills and Sara Shepherd, by Rev. James Gilleland. 

Nov. 4 — ^John Baldridge and Lila Cole, by James Scott. 

Dec. 2 — Andrew Elliott and Martha McCreight, by Robt. Elliott. 

1606. 

June 23 — Isaac Edgington and Margaret Palmer, by James Scott. 

June 20 — James Wilson and Sally Horn, by Robt. Dobbins, V. D. M. 

June 26 — ^John Grooms and Deborah Sutterfield, by James Moore. 

July 17 — Isaac Aerl and Rebecca Collier, by P. Lewis, Jr. 

July 21 — David Murphy and Catharine Williams, by P. Lewis, Jr. 

June 25 — Hugh Montgomery and Polly Secrist, by Robt. Elliott. 

June 25 — Jesse Stout and Sara Morrison, by John Russell. 

June 19 — ^John Ailes and Rebecca Vires, by John Russell. 

July 10 — ^John Bilyue and Grace Dunbar, by James Moore. 

Oct. II — ^John Sellman and Nelly Parmer, by Wm. Leedom. 

Aug. 7 — Philip Bourman and Mary Dragoo. by Jas. Parker. 

Aug. 8— Hezekiah Bellie and vSarah Stephenson, by John Russell. 

Oct. 24 — ^John Hamilton and Isabella Smith, by Wm. Lee. 

Dec. II — Reuben Pennywitt and Mary Lucas.by Wm.WilliamstMi,V.D.M. 



60 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

i8oe. 

I>ec. 25 — George Washington Green Harroll and Sarah Askren, by Mills 

Stephenson. 
Aug 3 — Robel Butler and Comfort Pettijohn, by Mills Stephenson. 

1807. 

Oct. 9 — Henry McGarah and Sarah Young, by James Moore. 

May 27 — Dr. Joseph Keith and Sarah Beasley (relict Major John Beas- 

ley), by Rev. Wm. Williamson. 
Oct. 22 — ^John West and Barbara Platter, by Curliss Cannon. 
Dec. 1 1 — Samuel Laremore and Catherine McGate, by Jas. Moore. 

1808. 

Jan. 14 — Hamilton Dunbar and Delilah Sparks, by James Scott. 
Jan. I — William McClanahan and Nancy Paull. by Adam Kirkpatrick. 
Feb. 18 — Samuel Finley and Polly Glasgow, by James Scott. 
Dec. 9 — Thomas Lockhart and Marry Grimes, by P. Lewis, Jr. 
Nov. 10 — Davis Reymrfds and Milley Dunn, by John Lindsey. 

1809. 

March 10 — ^Jesse Grimes and Polly Meggitt (McGate), by John Ellison. 

Feb. 28 — Moses Lockhart and Sarah Aldred, by John Russell. 

March 23 — Cornelius Washburn and Susanna Dunn, by John Lindsey. 

April 6 — ^John Mannon and Sarah Washburn, by John Lindsey. 

June 8 — ^James Wikoff and Rachel Ellis, by Rev. Robt. Dobbins. 

June 8 — William Russell and Nancy Wood, by Rev. Abbott Goddard. 

Aug. 17 — ^James Collier and Sarah Eyler. by Job Dinning. 

Sept. 14 — Thomas Hayslip and Isabel Paul, by Wm. Williamson. V. D. M. 

Sept. 13 — Robt. Glasgo and Rosanna Finley-, by John W. Campbell. 

Sept. 25 — Enos Johnson and Sally Sparks, by John W. Campbell. 

Nov. 2 — Samuel Finley and Mille>' Sparks, by John W. Campbell. 

Oct. 24 — Horace L. Palmer and "the amiable Miss Margeretia Campbell 

of Kentucky," by Mills Stephenson. J. P. 

Dec. II — "The Honorable John Ewing to the amiable Mrs. Hannah 

Cutler, both of the county of Adams," by William Laycock, J. P. 

« 

1810. 

March ^ — Mark Pennwitt and Nancy Naylor,by Wm.W^illiamson.V.D.M. 
March 14 — Thomas Dawson and Druzilla Palmer, by James Parker. 
March 14 — Damascus Brooks and Priscilla Palmer, by James Parker. 
April 3 — Angus McCoy and Agnes Horn, by Rev. James Gilliland. 
April 26 — Thomas McGovney and Jenny Graham, by Samuel Young. 
June 28 — Stout Pettit and Martha McDcrmott, by Jos. Westbrook. 

1811. 

Jan. 14 — John Dixon and Polly Middleswart. by Mills Stephenson. 
Aug. 8 — Jacob Edgington and Mary Anne Dobbins, by Rev. Robt. I>obbins. 

•Junes Parker eertlfled that *' Archibald Oualer *' was married on the 6th day of April, 1806. 



THE PIONEERS 61 

1812. 

March 26 — ^Joseph McKee to Peggy Eakins, by Joseph Westbrook. 

1813. 

Feb. II — Zachariah Grooms to Fanny Shanks, by Job Dinning. 

REMINISCENCES. 
Diieasei of the Pioneeri. 

The first settlers were attacked with a skin disease which produced a 
■terrible itching. All newcomers to the settlement became afflicted with 
this disease. It was attributed to the water. Sore eyes prevailed to a 
very great extent, and influenza was a frequent scourge in the early 
spring of each year. It was then believed to be caused by the melting 
of the snow in* the mountains. Fevers prevailed along the river bottom 
and the valleys of the larger streams due to the use of creek and river 
water, there being no wells, and to the decay of vegetable matter in the 
newly cleared lands. For this reason the highlands were occupied by 
the pioneers in preference to the rich bottoms which could be purchased 
at the same price per acre, as the uplands. The bloody flux prevailed at 
frequent periods in the early settlement of the country, produced by bad 
water and excessive use pi green vegetables, and unripe fruit, especially 
wild plums which grew in great abundance in the bottoms of all the 
streams. The poorer classes of women went barefooted most of the year 
to which was attributed cases of obstruction of calamenia and hysteria. 

Medioinal Herbi and Boots. 

There were few, if any physicians in the early settlement. In cases 
of fractures some one in the neighborhood more skilled than others did 
the setting" and bandaging. Cuts and bruises were simply bound up, 
and nature did the rest. Cases of childbirth were attended by the elderly 
women of the vicinity. The ills of children were colds, bowel complaint 
and worms, and horehound, catnip and the worm-wood were the remedial 
agencies. Among the other standard roots and herbs were senna 
serpentaria Virginia, tormentilla, stellae, valerian, podophillum 
peltatum (may apple), percoon. sarsaparilla, yellow root, hydrastis 
canadensis, rattleweed. gentian, ginseng, magnolia (wild cucumber), 
prickley ash, spikenand, calamint, spearmint, pennyroyal, dogwood, wild 
ginger (coltsfoot), sufnach and beech drop. 

Wliiikoy and Tobacco. 

In the early days of the country all classes used whiskey as a medi- 
cine and a beverage. "Old Monongahela double distilled" was a staple 
article. Old and young, men and women drank it, and there was but 
little drunkenness. After the settlements were made in the interior there 
were hundreds of little copper stills set up along the spring branches, and 
much of the grain gro^n was consumed in making "Old Mononga- 
hela" or sometHing "just as good." The whiskey and brandy in those 
days had one recommendation — they were not adulterated. But even 



#2 HISTC«Y OF ADAMS COUNTY 

then ''the appetite" of some overcame their discretion, and they became 
sots, and eyesores to the community. An early Methodist preacher gave 
as his reason for not becoming a member of a Seceder congr^;ation, was 
that he had seen one of the elders carried home dnmk and the next 
Sabbath he again saw him at the communion table. The preachers in 
those days expected the black bottle with spikenard, dogwood buds, and 
snakeroot, in the whiskey to be passed as an "appetizer" before meals. 
Many were not averse to taking it "straight." Of the early prominent 
J families, nearly all got a start in the world in the whiskey business, in 
^ either its distillation, or by keeping "tavern" or "grocery" \diere the 

chief source of profits was from the "Hquor" sold. But then it was 
"fashionable" and fashion rules the world. 

Floods lA tko Oldo. 

The first great flood in the Ohio, over thirty miles of which borders 
Adams County, is that of 1765 which swept the Shawnee village "Lower 
Old Town" from the high bottoms near the old site of Alexandria below 
the mouth of the Scioto. In 1808 the Ohio in this region again became 
higher than ever was known before, and the great flood in 1832 was 
thought to be the limit. In 1847 there was a December flood that al- 
most equaUed that of 1832. In 1867 there was a June freshet that caused 
great damage to crops, and swelled the Ohio to the "great flood" mark. 
In the winter of 1883 the record was broken in the "great floods" of the 
Ohio, 66 feet and 4 inches above low water mark at Cincinnati ; which 
is 2 feet and 6 inches above bed of the channel. The flood of 1832 
reached 64 feet and 3 inches at Cincinnati. But the greatest flood came 
February 14, 1884 when the Ohio reached the height of 71 feet and 
three- fourths of an inch above low water mark at Cincinnati. At 
Manchester the waters reached the Hotel Brit, from which skiffs took 
and returned guests. Backwater came up Brush Creek to the vicinity 
of the Sproull bridge. In 1832 the backwater came up Brush Creek to 
forge dam. 

Great Gathoriac* of tho Pooplo. 

The first great gathering of the people, and one of the largest consider- 
ing population and means of travel at that period was at the hanging of 
Beckett at West Union in 1808, an account of which is recorded in this vol- 
ume. It had been a noted trial in many respects and the crime committed 
by Beckett had been discussed throughout southern Ohio, northern 
Kentucky and western Virginia, from which regions people came in great 
numbers to witness the execution. Among those from a distance was Capt. 
William Wells, a noted frontiersman and the founder of the town of 
Wellsville, Ohio. 

The next great meeting of the people was at the great Vallandig- 
ham rally at I^ocust Grove September 4, 1867. Political excitement was 
at highest pitch and people from Brown, Highland, Pike and Scioto 
counties, came in wagons, on horseback and some on foot to attend 
this great rally. The roads leading to Lucus Grove were lined with 
campers the night before, who had come from a distance to be at the 
meeting the next day. It is said that fifteen thousand people, men, 
women and children, attended this meeting. 



THE PIONEERS 63 

The third and last, and greatest outpouring of the whole people of 
Adams County, practically, was at the Centennial meeting at West 
Union, July 4, 1876. The crowd has been conservatively estimated at 
twenty fiiousand people, while others put it much higher. It took one 
line two hours and forty-five minutes to pass the old toll-gate on the Man- 
chester pike. There were present Maj. Joseph McKee, aged 87; Wil- 
liam Jackson, aged 85 ; William Brooks, aged 79 ; James Umble, aged 
85 ; James Little, aged 83 ; and Andrew B. Ellison, aged 81 ; survivors 
of the War of 1812. 

Thomas J. Mullen delivered ttie address of welcome. W. H. Penny- 
witt, Rev. I. H. DeBruin, John W. McClung and others addressed the 
assembled people. 

The Squirrel Plaipie. 

In 1808 the crops of corn were greatly injured and in many places 
destroyed by myriads of gray squirrels. They seemed to be migrating 
from the north to the south. Hundreds could be seen crossing the Ohio 
River where it was nearly a mile wide. In this attempt thousands were 
drowned. They were greatly emaciated and most of them were covered 
with running ulcers made by worms of the grub kind. By the first of Janu- 
ary they had mostly disappeared. Afterwards woodmen in cutting into 
hollow trees would find them filled with the bones and skins of squirrels, 
some trees containing as many a<; forty or fifty. From this it would 
seem that they died of disease and not of famine. This was the season 
that fever and influenza ravaged the country. The Legislature passed an 
act requiring each male over twenty-one years of age to produce to the 
County Clerk 100 squirrel scalps or pay three dollars cash. 

Flooki of Pigeons. 

In the early history of the county and as recently as 1865, great 
flocks of wild pigeons came into the county in the seasons when there 
was much mast. These would fly in such numbers as to darken the sky 
overhead, and in lighting in the timber would crash the branches and 
linjbs like the force of a hurricane. 

The BeBulatori. 

After the Civil War, a class of "refugees** came into the eastern 
portion of Adams County and the western border of Scioto, and com- 
mitted many petty crimes. Some of them were accused of horse- 
stealing. A number of promment citizen formed a kind of league, 
known at the "Regulators" who pimished and drove out the most offen- 
sive of the "refugees." The "Regulators" held annual public re-unions 
for years. 

A Glen on Beasley. 

Many of the steep hillsides bordering the streams are covered with 
dense thickets of "red brush" which in the early springtime when the 
buds are fully blown, appear like clusters of lilacs, or huge bouquets of 
violets. They have a charm that never tires. On the headwaters of 
Beasley's Fork, near West Union, is a glen noted for the beauty of its 
redbud coves and the number of its redbird inhabitants. Years ago 



64 fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNl'Y 

Judge Mason, noting the particular charms of the locality and the num- 
ber of its scarlet plumed dwellers, named it Redbird, which others (mis- 
taking the name to refer to the thickets of *'red brush") called Redbud. 
Noting this fact, the writer spent a pleasant afternoon in the month of 
May, in company with the Judge along this charming glen, to determine 
which name should go down in history. The decision favored both. 
And so it shall be "Redbud,*' "Redbird/* and its charms shall be perpet- 
uated in the following lines by an unknown author whose name deserves 
to be enrolled among the immortals : 

The Redbud and the Redbird. 

The redbnd thicket by yonder stream. 
Shines forth with a roseate purple gleam ; 
As if from the sky at even, 
A sunset cloud had deserted the blue 
To join with the green its brigher hue, 
Brought down from the azure heaven. 

And out and in, on his crimson wing, 
With a note of love that he only can sing. 
The redbird gaily is flitting; 
As if a cluster of bloom from the tree 
Had started to life and minstrelsy — 
Its beauty to melody fitting. 

Sweet tree — sweet bird ! Such a pair I ween. 
In the month of beauty was never seen 
Nor heard in so sweet a duetto ; 
Where blossom and bird have e(jual part. 
And where each raptured, listening heart 
May furnish its own libretto. 

One sings in color, one blooms in song. 
Both making sweet harmony all day long 
In the pleasant vernal weather — 
A charming music, or seen or heard 
For the redbud and the redbird 
Ever blossom and sing together. 



Redbud, ceris canadensis. 
Redbird, Tanagra ae^tira. 






CHAPTER VII. 



CONFLICTS AND ADVENTURES WITH THE INDIANS 

A Battle with the Indians on Soioto Bmsh Creek— Captivity of Israel 
Donalson— Aaahel Edgington Killed by the Indians— 

Capture of AndreiF Ellison. 

The last contest between any considerable number of whites and 
Indians in the Virginia Military District took place on the waters of the 
north fork of Scioto Brush Creek in the northern part of Adams 
County, and within the present limits of FrankHn Township. The site 
is about two an one-half miles northeast of the village of Locust Grove, 
on lands recently owned by the widow of John Moomaw. The place 
is on the dividing ridge between the headwaters of the north fork of 
Scioto Brush Creek and the tributaries of east fork of Ohio Brush 
Creek, at what is known as Wethington's Spring, where Jesse Weth- 
ington, one of the nineteen persons who signed the articles of agreement 
with Nathaniel Massie to settle at his stockade at the Three Islands in 
1790, finally settled, and where he died. His widow Betty, resided here 
many years. This was also the last battle during the old Indian War 
from Dunmore's expedition into the Northwest Territory to Wayne's 
treaty at Greenville. In accounts of this expedition it is stated that 
during the attack at Reeve's Crossing, a white prisoner escaped from the 
Indians and returned with the exploring party to his home. That pris- 
oner was John Wilcoxon who had early in the spring of that year come 
out from Limestone over Tod's Trace to the "Sinking Spring," and 
there built a rude hut in which he and his wife and child resided until 
his capture by the Indians, while taking honey from a bee-tree, about 
the time of this expedition. 

Rev. James B. Finley, who wrote the first account of this expedi- 
tion and the battles growing out of it, and whose father was one of the 
party of explorers, says: "While Gen. Wayne was treating with the 
Indians at Greenville, in 1795, a company of forty persons met at Man- 
chester, at the Three Islands, with the intention of exploring the Scioto 
country. 

"General Massie was the principal in this expedition. My father 
and several of his congregation formed a part of the company. After 
proceeding cautiously for a number of days in a northerly direction, 
they reached Paint Creek near The Falls. Here they discovered fresh 
traces of Indians, the signs being such as to indicate that they could 
not be far off. They had not proceeded far till they heard the bells on 
their horses. Some of the company were what was called "raw hands," 
and previous to this had been very anxious to smell Indian powder. One 

5a (65) 



M HISTORY OF ADAMS COUXTY 

of the old hunters remarked, on witnessing their anxiety, ''If you get 
sight of the Indians you will run, or I am mistaken/' A council was 
called of the most experienced in Indian warfare, and the result of their 
deliberations was. that it was too late to retreat with safety and with- 
out great danger. They resolved, as the best possible course, to attack 
the enemy by surprise. It was agreed that General Massie, FeUenash, 
any my father shotdd take the command and lead on the men, and Cap- 
tain Petty was to bring up the rear. 

"The Indians were encamped on the bank of Paint Creek pre- 
cisely (?) where the turnpike now crosses it, at what was called Reeve's 
old crossing. Out of the forty in company only about twenty engaged 
in battle. Those who were so anxious to smell Indian powder retreated, 
and Captain Petty reported them as having taken refuge between logs 
and other defenses, trembling with fear. The remainder advanced 
cautiously to within fifty yards when they fired and rushed into the 
Indians' camp. Astounded by this attack, the Indians fled down the 
bank and across the stream many of them leaving their guns. One of 
the company — Mr. Robinson — ^was shot, and died in a few minutes. 
The Indians were Shai^Tiees, and would not go to the treaty. They had 
a prisoner with them, who, in the fight, made his escape, and finally suc- 
ceeded in reaching his home. His name was Armstrong [Wilcoxon]. 
As soon as the company could bury the dead and gather up the horses 
and plunder of the Indians, they directed their course to Manchester; 
but night overtook them on Scioto (?) Brush Creek, and as they ex- 
pected to be followed by the Indians, they stopped and made the 
necessary preparations for defense. The next morning, an hour before 
daylight, the Indians made their appearance, and opened upon them 
a vigorous fire, which was promptly and vigorously returned. Those 
who would not fight took shelter from the balls of the enemy in a large 
sinkhole in the bounds of the encampment. After a hot contest, which 
lasted an hour, the Indians were repulsed and fled." 

McDonald says of this fight: "There was a sink-hole near, and 
those bragging cowards got down into it, to prevent the balls from hit- 
ting them. Several horses were killed, and one man, a Mr. Gillfillan, 
was shot through the thigh. After an hour's contest the Indians re- 
treated ; and the company arrived at the place they started from, having 
lost one man, and one wounded." 

This was in July, 1795, and was General Massie's first attempt to 
found a settlement in the Paint Creek \'alley which he hoped 
to make the nucleus for the building up of a city to become the 
capital of the first State erected out of the Northwest Territory. The next 
year he led another expedition to that region and laid out the town of 
Chillicothe which eventually did become the first capital of Ohio. 

^CaptiTity of Israel Doaalson. 

At the request of a number of friends, I attempt to give you a brief 
account of my checkered life, which has been one full of incidents, 
many of which it is not now in my power to relate, having kept no 
journal. I write entirely from memory, which is every day growing 

• Dated June t7. 1842. 




ISRAEL DOXAIJiON 



CONFLICTS AND ADVENTURES WITH THE INDIANS 67 

more indistinct. I was bom in the county of Hunterdon, State of New 
Jersey, on the second erf February, 1767. While quite small, my father 
moved to Cumberland County, in said State, where I was reared up and 
received my education, and where we had perilous times during the 
long revolutionary struggle. I was too young to take any part in it 
myself, but quite capable of noticing passing events. I have known 
two companies to leave the house of worship during the services of one 
Sabbath to face the enemy. In the fall of 1787, I left my native State 
to seek my fortune in western wilds. My first stop was in Ohio County, 
State of Virginia, where I remained until the spring of 1790; part of the 
time farming, part of the time teaching school, and a third part I was 
among the rangers, stationed by the State of Virginia, at the old Mingo 
town, about eighteen or twenty miles above Wheeling. In May, 1790, 
I took passage on board of a flatboat for Kentucky, and arrived at Lime- 
stone on the first night of June. I got into a public house, but was not 
able to procure food, fire, or bed, or any other nourishment but whiskey, 
and a number of us that had landed that evening, spent the night sitting 
in the room, which was a grand one for those days. [Query? What 
should we have done if the temperance cause had prevailed at that 
time? ] There had during the spring been a great deal of mischief done 
on the river, but we saw no Indians. There were however in company, 
I think, nineteen boats. Major Parker, of Lexington, was our admiral 
and pilot. During the summer of that year I taught school in what is 
now called Maysville. During the winter of 1790-91, I became ac- 
quainted with Nathaniel Massie, and in the spring of 1791, came to re- 
side in his little fort, in the then county of Hamilton, Northwestern 
Teritory. At this time there was very little law or gospel in the Terri- 
tory, and the usual mode of settling disputes was by a game of fisticuffs ; 
and at the close, sometimes a part of a nose, or ear, would be missing, 
but a good stiff grog generally restored harmony and friendship. 

I am not sure whether it was the last of March or first of April, I 
came to the Territory to reside ; but on the night of the twenty-first of 
April, 1791, Mr. Massie and myself were sleeping together in our blan- 
kets, for beds we had none, on the loft of our cabin, to get out of the way 
of the fleas and gnats. Soon after lying down, I began dreaming of 
Indians, and continued to do so through the night. Sometime in the 
night, however, whether Mr. Massie waked of himself, or whether I 
wakened him, I cannot now sav. but I observed to him I did not know 
what was to be the consequence, for I had dreamed more about Indians 
that night than in all the time I had been in the western country before. 
As is common he made light of it, and we dropped again to sleep. He 
asked me next morning if I would go with him up the river, about four 
or five miles, to make a survey, and said that William Lytle, who was 
then at the fort, was going along. We were both young surveyors, and 
were glad of the opportunity to practice. Accordingly we three, and a 
James Tittle, from Kentucky, who was about buying the land, got on 
board of a canoe, and were a long time going up, the river being very 
high at the time. We commenced at the mouth of a creek, which since 
that day has been called Donalson Creek. We meandered up the river; 
Mr. Massie had the compass, Mr. Lytle and myself carried the chain. 
We had progressed perhaps one hundred and forty or one hundred and 



W fllSTOHY OF ADAMS OOUNTY 

fifty poles, when our chain broke, or parted, but i^-itb the aid of a toma- 
hawk we soon repaired it. We were then close to a large fmoond, and 
were standing in a triangle, and L\tle and mvBelf were amusing our- 
selves pointing out to Tittle the great convenience he would have by 
building his house on that mound, when the one standing with his faci 
up the river, spoke and said, "iJoys, there are Indians:" "'No,'' relied 
the other, "they are Frenchmen." By this time I had caught a glimpse 
of them ; I said they were Indians, and begged them to fire. I had no 
gun. and from the advantage we had, did not think of running until they 
started. The Indians were in two smaU bark canoes, and were close 
into shore and discovered us just at the instant we saw them; and be- 
fore I started to run I saw one jump on shore. We took out through 
the bottom and, before getting to the hill, came to a ^mng branch. I 
was in the rear, and as I went to jump, something caught my foot 
and 1 fell over the opposite side. They were then so close I saw there 
was no chance of escape, and did not oflFcr to rise. Three war- 
riors first came up, presented their guns all ready to fire, but as I made 
no resistance they took them down, and one of them gave me his hand 
to help me up. At this time Mr. Lytle was about a chain's length 
before me, and threw away his hat : one of the Indians went forward and 
picked it up. They then took me back to the bank of the river, and set 
me down while they put up their stuft, and prepared for a march. 
While sitting on the bank of the river, I could see the men walking 
about the block-house on the Kentucky shore, but they heard nothing 
of it. The Indians went on rapidly that evening, and camped, I think, 
on the waters of Eagle Creek. W^e started next morning early, it rain- 
ing hard, and one of them seeing my hat was somewhat convenient to 
keep off the rain, came up and took it off my head and put it on his 
own. By this time I had discovered some friendship in a very lusty 
Indian, I think the one that first came up to me; I made signs to him 
that one had taken my hat : he went and took it off the other Indian's 
head and placed it again on mine, but had not gone far before it was 
taken again. I complained as before, but my friend shook his head, 
took down and opened his budget and took out a sort of blanket cap, 
and put it on my head. We went on : it still rained hard, and the waters 
were very much swollen, and when my friend discovered that I was 
timerous, he would lock his arm in mine, and lead me through, and fre- 
quently in open woods when I would get tired, I would do 
the same thing with him and walk for miles. They did not make me 
carry anything until Sunday or Monday. They got into a thicket of 
game, and killed I think two bears and some deer, they then h^ted 
and jerked their meat, eat a large portion, peeled some bark, made a 
kind of box, filled it, and put it on me to carry. I soon got tired of it 
and threw it down ; they raised a great laugh, examined my back, ap- 
plic/l some bear's oil to it, and put on the box again. I went on some 
distance and threw it down again ; my friend then took it up, threw it 
over his head, and carried it. It weighed, I thought, at least fifty 
pounds. 

While resting one day one of the Indians broke up little sticks and 
laid iheni up in the form of a fence, then took out a grain of com, as 

* Tb« mound hM nine* been entirely destroyed by oAvlng In of the river bank. 



CONFLICTS AND ADVENTURES WITH THE INDIANS 69 

carefully wrapped up as people used to wrap up guineas in olden times ; 
this he planted and called out "squaw," signifying to me that that 
would be my employment with the squaws. But notwithstanding my 
situation at the time, I thought they would not eat much corn of my 
raising. On Tuesday, as we were traveling along, there came to us a 
\diite man and an Indian on horseback ; they had a long talk, and when 
they rode off, the Indians I was with seemed considerably alarmed. 
They immediately formed in Indian file, placed me in the center, and 
shook a warclub over my 'head, and showed me by these gestures that 
if I attempted to run away they would kill me. We soon after arrived 
at the Shawnee camp, where we continued until late in the afternoon 
the next day. During our stay there they trained my hair to their own 
fashion, put a jewel of tin in my nose, etc, etc. The Indians met with 
great formality when we came to the camp, which was very spacious. 
One side was entirely cleared out for our use, and the party I was with 
passed the camp to my great mortification, I thinking they were going 
on ; but on getting to the further end they wheeled short around, came 
into the camp, sat down — not a whisper. In a few minutes two of the 
oldest got up, went around, shook hands, came and sat down again; 
then the Shawnees rising simultaneously, came and shook hands with 
them. A few of the first took me by the hand ; but one refused, and I 
did not offer them my hand again, not considering it any great honor. 
Soon after a kettle of bear's oil and some cracknels were set before us, 
and we began eating, they first chewing the meat, then dipping it into 
the bear's oil, which I tried to be excused from, but they compelled me 
to it, which tried my stomach, although by this time hunger had com- 
pelled me to eat many a dirty morsel. Early in the afternoon, an Indian 
came to the camp, and was met by his party just outside, when they 
formed a circle and he spoke, I thought, near an hour, and so profound 
was the silence, that had they been on a board floor, I thought the fall 
of a pin might have been heard. I rightly judged of the disaster, for 
the clay before I was taken I was at Limestone, and was solicited to 
join a party that was going down tfo the mouth of Snag Creek, where 
some Indian canoes were discovered hid in the willows. The party 
went and divided, some came over to the Indian shore, and some re- 
mained in Kentucky, and they succeeded in killing nearly the whole 
party. 

There was at our camp two white men; one of them could swear 
in English, but very imperfectly, having, I suppose, been taken young; 
the other, who could speak good English, told me he was from South 
Carolina. He then told me different names which I have forgotten, 
except that of Ward ; asked if I knew the Wards that lived near Wash- 
ington, Kentucky, I told him I did, and wanted him to leave the Indians 
and go to his brother's, and take me with him. He told me he preferred 
staying with the Indians, that he might nab the whites. He and I had 
a great deal of chat, and disagreed in almost ever>'thing. He told me 
they had taken a pri.soner by the name of Towns, that had lived near 
Washington, Kentucky, and that he had attempted to run away and 
they had killed him. But the truth was, they had taken Timothy Down- 
ing the day before I was taken, in the neighborhood of Blue Licks, and 
had got within four or five miles of that camp, and night coming on, and 



70 eiSTC«Y OP ADAMS CX>UNTY 

it being very rainy, they concluded to camp. There were but two In- 
dians, an old chief and his son ; Downing watched his opportunity, got 
hold of a squaw-axe and gave the fatal blow. His object was to bring 
the young Indian in a prisoner; he said he had been so kind to him he 
could not think of killing him. But the instant he struck his father, 
the young man sprung upon his back and confined him so that it was 
with difficulty he extricated himself from his grasp. Downing then made 
for his horse and the Indian for the camp. The horse he caught and 
mounted; but not being a woodsman, struck the Ohio a little below 
Scioto, just as a boat was passing. They would not land for him until he 
had ridden several miles and convinced them that he was no decov. and 
so close was the pursuit, that the boat had only gained the stream when 
the enemy appeared on the shore. He had severly wounded the young 
Indian in the scuffle, but did not know it until I told him. But to re- 
turn to my own narrative ; two of the party, viz., my friend and another 
Indian, turned back from this camp to do other mischief, and never 
before had I parted with a friend with the same regret. We left the 
Shawnee camp about the middle of the afternoon, they under great ex- 
citement. What detained them I know not, for they had a number of 
their horses up, and their packs on, from early in the momini^ I tbiiik 
they had at least one hundred of the best horses that at that time Ken- 
tucky could afford. They calculated on being pursued; and they were 
right, for the next day, the twenty-eighth of April, Major Kenton, with 
about ninety men, were at the camp before the fires were extinguished ; 
and I have always viewed it as a providential circumstance that the 
enemy had departed, as a defeat on the part of the Kentuckians would 
have been inevitable. I never could get the Indians in position to ascer- 
tain their precise number, but concluded there were sixty or upward, as 
sprightly looking men as I ever saw together, and as well equipped as 
they could ask for. The Major himself agreed with me that it was a 
happy circumstance that they were gone. 

We traveled that evening, I thought, seven miles, and encamped 
in the edge of a prairie, the water a short distance off. Our supper that 
night consisted of raccoon roasted undressed. After this meal I became 
thirsty, and an old warrior, to whom. my friend had given me in charge, 
directed another to go with me to the water, which made him angry; 
he struck me^ and my nose bled. I had a great mind to return the stroke 
but did not. I then (leterniincd, be the result what it might, that I 
would go no further with them. They tied me and laid me down as 
usual, one of them lying on the rope on each side of me ; they went to 
sleep, and I to work gnawing and picking the rope (made of bark) to 
pieces, hut did not get loose until day was breaking. I crawled off on 
my hands and feet until I got into the edge of the prairie, and sat down 
on a tussock to put on my moccasins, and had put on one and was. pre- 
paring to put on the other, when they raised the yell and took the back 
track, and T believe they made as much noise as twenty white men could 
do. Had they been still they might have heard me as I was not more 
than two chains' lenp^th from them at the time. But I started and ran, 
carrying one moccasin in my hand : and in order to evade them chose 
the poorest ridges I could find : and when coming to logs lying cross- 
wise, would run along one and then along the other. I continued on 



CX>NFLICTS AND ADVENTURES WITH THE INDIANS 71 

that way until about ten o'clock, then ascending a very poor ridge, 
crept between two logs, and being very weary soon dropped to sleep, 
and did not waken until the sun was almost down. I traveled on a short 
distance and took lodging in a hollow tree. I think it was on Saturday 
that 1 got to the Miami. I collected some logs, made a raft by peeling 
bark and t)ring them together ; but I soon found that too tedious and 
abandoned it. I found a turkey's nest with two eggs in it, each one hav- 
ing a double yelk ; they made two delicious meals for different days. I 
followed down the Miami, until I struck Harmar's trace, made the pre- 
vious fall, and continued on it until I came to Fort Washington, now 
Cincinnati. I think it was on Sabbath, the first day of May; I caught 
a horse, tied a piece of bark around his under jaw, on which there 
was a large tumor like a wart. The bark rubbed that and he became 
restless and threw me, not hurting me much, however. I caught him 
again, and he again threw me, hurting me badly. How long I lay in- 
sensible I don't know, but when I revived he was a considerable dis- 
tance from me. I then traveled on very slow, my feet entirely bare and 
full of thorns and briars. On Wednesday, the day I got in, I was so far 
gone that I thought it entirely useless to make any further exertion, 
not knowing what distance I was from the river; I took my station at 
the foot of a tree, but soon got into a state of sleeping, and eithe'r dreamt 
or thought that I should- not be loitering away my time ; that I should 
get in that day; which on reflection I had not the most distant idea. 
However, the impression was so strong, that I got up and walked some 
distance. I then took my station again as before, and the same thought 
again occupied my mind. I got up and walked on. I had not traveled 
far before I thought I could see an opening for the river; and getting 
a little further on I heard the sound of a bell. I then started and ran (at 
a slow speed undoubtedly) ; a little further on I began to perceive that I 
was coming to the river hill ; and having got about half way down, I 
heard the sound of an axe, which was the sweetest music I had heard 
for many a day. It was in the extreme outlot; when I got to the lot 
I crawled over the fence with difficulty, it being very high. I ap- 
proached the person very cautiously till within about a chain's length, 
undiscovered, I then stopped and spoke ; the person I spoke to was 
Mr. William Woodward, the founder of the Woodward High School. 
Mr. Woodward looked up, hastily cast his eyes around and saw that I 
had no deadly weapon ; he then spoke, "In the name of God," said he, 
"who are you?'' I told him that I had been a prisoner and had made my 
escape from the Indians. After a few more questions he told me to come 
to him. I did so. Seeing my situation his fears soon subsided ; he told 
me to sit down on a log, and he would go and catch a horse he had in 
the lot, and take me in. He caught his horse, sat me on him, but kept 
the bridle in his own hand. When we got into the road people began 
to inquire of Mr. Woodward, "Who is he, an Indian?" I was not sur- 
prised nor offended at the inquiries, for I was still in Indian uniform, 
bareheaded, my hair cut off close, except the scalp and foretop, which 
they had put Up in a piece of tin, with a bunch of turkey feathers, whicli 
I could not undo. They had also stripped off the feathers of about two 
turkeys, and hung them to the hair of the scalp ; these I had taken off 
the day I left them. Mr. Woodward took me to his house, where every 



72 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX)UNTY 

kindness was shown me. They gave me other clothing; coming from 
different persons, it did not fit me very neatly, but there could not 
be a pair of shoes got in the place that I could get on, my feet were so 
much swollen. But what surprised me most was that when a pallet 
was made down before the fire, Mr. Woodward condescended to sleep 
with me. The next dav soon after breakfast General Harmar sent for 
me to come to the fort. I would not go. A second messenger came ; I 
still refused. At length a Captain Shambrugh came; he pleaded with 
me, told me I might take my own time, and he would wait on me. At 
length he told me if I would not go with him, the next day a file of men 
would be sent, and I would then be compelled to go. I went with him, 
he was as good as his word and treated me very kindly. When I was 
ushered into the quarters of the commander, I found the room full of 
people waiting my arrival. I knew none of them except Juc^e S)rmmes, 
and he did not know me, which was not surprising considering the fix 
I was in. The General asked me a great many questions; and when 
he got through he asked me to take a glass of liquor which was all the 
aid he offered; meantime had a mind to keep me in custody as a spy, 
which when I heard it, raised my indignation to think that a commander 
of an army should have no more judgment when his own eyes were 
witnessing that I could scarce go alone. I went out by his permission 
and met Col. Strong. He asked me if I was such a person ; I answered 
in the affirmative and passed on. In going out of the gate I met his 
son. He knew me at once, and after a few minutes chat he pulled a 
dollar out of his pocket, offered it to me saying, it was all he had by 
him, but when I wanted more to call on him. I told him I did not think 
I should stand in need, people generally appeared so kind; but he in- 
sisted on my taking it ; and I believe I brought it home with me. In the 
course of that day, I got down to the river, and went into the store of 
Strong & Bartle, men that I had done business for previous to the cam- 
paign. For three or four weeks I was busy in making out accounts 
and settlements. My office was a smoke-house about six or eight feet 
square, built of boat materials, and stood, I think, a little above Main 
Street. 

In the course of the day, Mr. Collin Campbell came in. Bartle asked 
him if he knew me. He viewed me a considerable time, and answered, 
"No." He then told him, but Mr. Campbell could hardly believe him. 
But when convinced, nothing would do but I must go home with him 
to North Bend, that he might nurse me up and send me home. We got 
down sometime in the night; he had all his family to get up, and see 
what a queer man he had brought home. After sometime we got to bed, 
and next morning, just after daylight, he came up into my chamber, or 
rather loft, and wakened me up. I begged of him to let me lay a little; 
no, I must get right up, and he would have in all who passed by to see 
me. Wherever he went I had to go. I stayed there about two weeks, 
gaining in health and strength everyday. 

About this time there was a contractor's boat coming up the river, 
tie hailed it and made the arrangements for me to go with them: 
put up provision for the trip, and did everything that a near relative 
could have been required to do. About the time I left the Bend, some 
of the citizens professed to believe me to be a spy, and said, that if I 



CX>NFLICTS AND ADVENtURES WITH THE INDIANS 73 

did not leave there they would ; and that I was only waiting a fair op- 
portunity of bringing the enemy in upon them. As I did not want to 
break their peace, I thought best to leave them. When I got on the 
boat, I found two persons on board that I was well acquainted with, 
and was treated very friendly. Nothing particular occurred on the boat. 
When we got up to Limestone, I was greeted by almost every man, 
woman, and child, particularly those that had been under my tuition. 
The Captain Bartle above mentioned was among the first settlers of 
Cincinnati. I had not seen him for forty years, until we met on the 
twenty-sixth of December, 1838, the time the pioneers were invited to 
the half Centennial celebration of Cincinnati. We then met, and at his 
request lodged in the same room. We parted the next day, never more 
to meet in this world; he was then ninety-four years of age, and has 
since paid his last debt. 

Asahel EdslnBton Killed by the Indians. 

The writer of this article finds the first printed matter of this story 
in "McDonald's Sketches," published in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1838. 

That account is copied in "Howe's History of Ohio" in both edi- 
tions. 

It is also copied in "Finley's Book on Indian Life." No written or 
printed account is known earlier than that of McDonald, who was a 
contemporary of Gen. Massie, Gen. Simon Kenton and other pioneers, 
although he was very much younger than either of them. McDonald 
visited Massie's Station, now Manchester, and spent some time there in 
the winter of 1795, and was probably there several times before. 

The facts as we give them were obtained of William Treber, 
of Dunkinsville, Adams County, Ohio, who resides on the farm 
on which Edgington was killed. William Treber's father, Jacob Treber 
located there with his father, John Treber, in 1796, only three years after 
the tragic death of Asahel Edgington. Jacob Treber was then a boy of 
sixteen, having been born in 1780, and he lived until 1875. William 
Treber was born in 1825, and had the account of the death of Edgington 
from his grandfather, John Treber, who lived to a ripe old age, and from 
his father, Jacob Treber, some years since a prominent merchant of 
Cincinnati^ but there the name is spelled Traber. 

On the Treber farm, which lies in the valley of Lick Fork of Brush 
Creek, on both sides of the creek, is a celebrated deer lick. Coming 
along the turnpike from the south, in passing through the Ellison farm, 
there is a wide bottom to the left with the creek to the right. The 
hills form a semi-circle to the west of the Ellison stone house and they 
approach the creek on the line between the Ellison and Treber farms, 
and end in a low ridge dropping off to the level of the bottom, just east 
of the turnpike. The north end of the semi-circular ridge is parallel to 
the turnpike for two hundred feet and just to the right of it. The foot 
of the ridge is a few feet inside Treber's field. 

From the foot of the ridge, which is rocky and almost barren of tim- 
ber, trickles a spring, which flows by the roots of a majestic elm. just 
inside the fence, and empties into the ditch to the west of the turnpike. 
The creek is not ten feet to the east of the turnpike at the point opposite 
the spring, which in early times gave out brackish waters, but in 1793, 



74 fflSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

the creek flowed thirty feet further east than it docs now and there was 
a little terrace between where the turnpike now is and the creek as it 
then flowed. The sloping end of the ridge was as bare of timber in 1793 
as it is now, but the bottoms were a dense forest. 

John and Asahel Edgington were brothers, and young men not 
over thirty-five years of age. They were noted deer hunters and Indian 
fighters as were all of Massie's little confederacy, at his station, 
now Manchester. John Edgington was quite tall and slender and of a 
taciturn disposition. 

While 1793 was a year of Indian depredations, the settlers at Man- 
chester had no fear of them, when they could meet them on equal terms. 
The Lick Fork of Brush Creek about ten miles from Manchester, abounded 
in wild game of all kinds. In December an incursion of Indians was not 
apprehended and John and Asahel Edgington determined on a hunt. 
They took with them a third party, whose name is not given by Mc- 
Donald, but who was probably Cornelius Washburn, and they had a 
three days' hunt. They camped near the famous deer lick, for there 
the deer came to them. They killed several deer and two bears. Such 
of the meat as they cared to save to take back to the station, thev hung 
upon a scaffold, out of danger of the wolves and other wild animals and 
returned to Manchester for horses upon which they could take the meat 
to the station. 

They left Manchester the morning after their return from the hunt, 
each taking a pack horse. They approached their former camp which 
was near the elm, coming over the hill from the southwest and came 
direct to it without making an examination for Indian signs. Had they 
left their horses to the south of the hill over which they came and made 
an entire circle of their camp, as was customary with Gen. Massie in 
such cases, the former story and this one would not have been written, 
but instead they came right on through the creek and upon the little 
bottom to the east of the turnpike, where, without any examination of 
their surroundings, they alighted from their horses and began to make 
a fire. At this time, the Indians fired upon them and Asahel 
Edgington was instantly killed, but John and his companion were 
unhurt. The Indians no doubt rose up from behind the ridge 
to fire, and to this fact is due the escape of John Edgington. John 
dashed through the creek, over the bottom on the other side and half 
way up the long slope of the hill where he stopped behind a large white 
oak tree, which was standing until quite recently. There he undertook 
to take a view of the situation. The Indians were in possession of the 
camp and two of them had started in pursuit. He undertook to fire on the 
nearest Indian from behind the white oak, but the powder in the prim- 
ing-pan of his gun had been moistened in dashing through the creek 
and his gun would not go off. Then it was he turned to run and was 
pursued until the Indians discovered he was a swifter runner than any 
of them. There were seven Indians in the party. John Edgington came 
back the next day with a party from the station. The horses and meat 
were gone. His brother's body was found where it had fallen, but the 
Indians had cut off the head and placed it on a small cedar tree near 
by, and which has now grown to a considerable tree and is pointed out 
to this day. 



CONFLICTS AND ADVENTURES WITH THE INDIANS 75 

The party buried Edgington's body in the small bottom to the left 
of the creek. The creek began washing out the bottom, and in 1835, 
Edgington's skull was exposed and was taken to the Treber tavern, near 
by, where it remained some years, and finally was taken away by a Ken- 
tucky visitor, who claimed to have been a relative of Asahel Edgington. 

In a few years more the bones of his skeleton made their appear- 
ance in the steep clay bank to the left of the creek. These were rev- 
erently gathered up and reinterred in a field in front of the Treber 
tavern. 

Edgington's death was not unavenged. After the peace of 1795, 
the Indians were frequent visitors to the white settlements. On one 
occasion, soon after the Greenville treaty, a party of three Indians visited 
Manchester. As was usual in those days, they were treated to fire water, 
and one of them, in his cups, boasted of having been in the party which 
killed Asahel Edgington. This came to the ears of John Edgington, 
his brother, then living in Manchester. The Indians remained several 
days, and left one morning, going up the Ohio River on its right bank. 
Island Creek empties into the Ohio about two miles above Manchester, 
and at that time was crossed by a foot log at a place 
where there was a great deal of timber. The three Indians went 
onto the foot-log together, but never walke^d off the other end. There 
were three rifle reports and three bodies dropped into the waters of Island 
Creek and floated out into the Ohio. Thus was the death of Asahel 
Edgington revenged. Little was ever said of this tragedy while the 
participants in it survived, and it has never appeared in print till the 
writer published it, but as all the avengers have for sixty years been be- 
yond the jurisdiction of the courts to try them for the murder, there is 
now no longer any reason why the story should not be told. No stone 
marks the place of the tragic death of Asahel Edgington. Cap- 
tain Johnny, the ShaWnee chief, who commanded the band of Indians 
on the occasion of Asahel Edgington's death, was a scout for General 
Harrison's army before the battle of the Thames. 

Asahel Edgington was a young married man. He left a wife and 
one daughter, then an infant. She lived to maturity, married, and has 
left numerous descendants. 

Capture of Andrew EI1i««bJ^ ..^ "^ 

In the spring of the year 1793, the settlers at Mitichester com- 
menced clearing the outlots of the town ; and while so engaged, an inci- 
dent of much interest and excitement occurred. Mr. Andrew Ellison, 
one of the settlers, cleared a lot immediately adjoining the fort. He had 
completed the cutting of the timber, rolled the logs together and set them 
on fire. The next morning, a short time before daybreak, Mr. Ellison 
opened one of the gates of the fort and want out to throw his logs to- 
gether. By the time he had finished this job, a number of the heaps 
blazed up brightly, and as he was passing from one to the other, he ob- 
served, by the light of the fires, three men walking briskly towards 
him. This did not alarm him in the least, although, he said, they were 
dark-skinned fellows; yet he concluded they were' the Wades, whose 
complexions were very dark, going to hunt. He continued to right his 
log-heaps, until one of the fellows seized him by the arms, and called 



76 I^^5TORY OF ADAM9 COUNTY 

out in broken English, ''How do? How dd?" He instantly looked in 
their faces, and tm his surprise and horror found himself in the clutches 
of three Indians. To resist was useless. He therefore submitted to 
his fate, without any resistance or an attempt to escape. The Indians 
quickly moved off with him in the direction of Paint Creek. When 
breakfast was ready, Mrs. Ellison sent one of her children to ask their 
father home, but he could not be found at the log'-heaps. His absence 
created no immediate alarm, as it was thouf^t he might have started 
to hunt after the completion of his work. Dinner time arrived, and, 
Ellison not returning, the family became uneasy, and began to suspect 
some accident had happened to him. 

His gun rack was examined, and there hvaig his rifie and his pooch 
in their usual place. Massie raised a party and made a drctnt around 
the place and foimd, after some search, die trails of four men, one of 
whom had on shoes; and as Ellison had shoes on, the truth that the In- 
dians had made him a prisoner was unfolded. As it was almost night 
tit the time the trail was discovered, the party retnmed to their station. 
Next morning early preparations were made by Massie and his party 
to pursue the Indians. In doing this they found great difficulty, as it 
was so early in the spring that the vegetation was not of sufficient 
growth to show plainly the trail of the Indians, who took the precaution 
to keep on hard and nigh land, where their feet could make little or no 
impressions. Massie and his party, however, were as unerring as a pack 
of well-trained hounds, and followed the trail to Paint Crcdc, where they 
found the Indians gained so fast on them that pursuit was vain. They 
therefore abandoned it and returned to the station. The Indians took 
their prisoner to Upper Sandusky, and compelled him to run the gaunt- 
let. As Ellison was a large man and not very active, he received a se- 
vere flogging as be passed along the line. From this place he was 
taken to Lower Sandusky and was again compelled to run the guantlet, 
and was then taken to Detroit, where he was generously ransomed by a 
British officer for one hundred dollars. He was shortly afterwards sent 
by his friend and officer to Montreal, from whence he returned home 
before the close of the summer of the same year. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



CIVIL ORGANIZATION IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY 

Establishment of Adams County. 

Under a provision of the Ordinance of 1787, the Governor of "The 
Temtory of the United States Northwest of the river Ohio" was author- 
zed to make proper division of said Territory, and directed to proceed 
from time to time as circumstances might require to lay out counties 
and townships, subject however to future alterations by the Territorial 
Legislature, in the parts of the Territory in which the Indian titles had 
been or might be extinguished. 

October 5, 1787, General Arthur St. Clair was appointed by the 
Second Continental Congress first Governor of the Northwest 
Territory. In July following, the Governor arrived at Marietta, founded 
the April previous, and on the twenty-seventh of that month proclaimed 
the establishment of the county of Washington, the first erected in the 
Territory. The Governor named the county in honor of his friend. Gen- 
eral Washington, with whom he had ser\'cd in the Revolution. St. Clair 
was an aristocrat and a staunch Federalist, and it is worth noting that 
he named the early counties formed in the Territory for leading spirits 
of thiat party. 

The boundaries of Washington County included most of that por- 
tion of the State of Ohio lying east of the Scioto River. The seat of 
justice was fixed at Marietta and from there the early laws of the Terri- 
tory were promulgated. The first court in the Territory was convened 
September 2, 1788. It was an impressive ceremony witnessed by a num- 
ber of Indian Chiefs who had come to the Fort to make a treaty with the 
commander. The citizens, military officers, the Governor, Judges of the 
courts and members of the bar formed an imposing procession as they 
moved through the forest to Campus Martins Hall, where the court, 
after invocation of the Divine blessing by Rev. Dr. Cutler, was formally 
opened by Colonel Sproat, the High Sheriff, who proclaimed with his 
solemn "O, yes" that a "court is now opened for the administration of 
even-handed justice to the poor and the rich, to the guilty and the in- 
nocent without respect to persons ; none to he punished without a trial 
by their peers, and then in pursuance of the law and evidence in the case." 

January 2, 1790, the Governor proclaimed the erection of the county 
of Hamilton, the second county formed in the Territory. This county 
included the strip of territory lying between the Miamis. and extended 
north to the Standing Stone fork of the Big Miami. Afterwards, on 
February 17, 1792, the eastern boundary of the county was extended to 
the Scioto. River. The seat of justice for the county and the Terntory 
was fixed at Cincinnati. 

(77) 



78 m8TC«Y OF ADAMS COUNTY 

After the removal of the Governor and Supreme Judges of the Ter- 
ritory from Marietta to Cincinnati, in 1790, the county of St. Clair was 
erected in what is now the State of Illinois. This was done by proclama- 
tion April 27, 1790. 

The fourth county in the Territory was that of Knox, June 20, 1790. 
The county included the present State of Indiana, and the place of hold- 
mg the courts was the old French town of Vincennes. 

Trouble with the Indians prevented the extension of civfl growth 
until after Wayne's Treaty when the county cA Randolph was formed 
from the southern portion of the county of St. Clair. October 15, 1795. 

The sixth coimty formed in the Territory- was Wa\Tie, by proclaina- 
tion of the Governor, August 15, 1796. This was a very large county 
and embraced all of northwestern Ohio, a portion of northeastern 
Indiana, and all of the lower peninsula of Michigan. 



Tli« Establlskaiemt of AJais Gowmty. 

It was organized by proclamation of Governor St. Clair, July 10, 
1797. This was the first county organized in the Virginia Military Dis- 
trict, the third within the limits of the State of Ohio, and the seventh in the 
Northwest Territory. It was formed from territory belonging to Hamil- 
ton County and a strip east of the Scioto River within the jurisdictiction of 
Washington County. At the time of its organization its northern line 
extended across what is now territory included i\4thin the counties of 
Logan, Union, Delaware, Morrow, and Knox. 

Its eastern limit followed very nearly what is now the western 
boundary of the counties of Licking, Fairfield, Hocking, Vinton, Jack- 
son, and Lawrence. 

Its southern boundarv was the line of low water mark on the north 
shore of the Ohio River. And its western limit extended across 
Brown County, along the western border of Highland, and crossed the 
counties of Clinton. Greene. Clark, and Champaign. 

The original boundaries of Adams County as defined in Governor 
St. Clair's proclamation, were as follows: 

''Beginning upon the Ohio River, at the upper boundary of that 
tract of twenty-four thousand acres of land, granted unto the French 
inhabitants of Gallipolis, by act of the congress of the United States, 
bearing date the third of March, 1975 ; thence down the said Ohio River, 
to the mouth of Elk River, (generally known by the name of Eagle 
Creek) and up with the principal water of the said Elk River or Eagle 
Creek, to its source or head ; thence by a due north line to the southern 
boundary of Wayne County and easterly along said boundary, so far that 
a due south line shall meet the interior point of the upper boundary of 
the aforesaid tract of land of t went v-f our thousand acres, and with the 
said boundary to the begining.'* The following year, 1798, by 
proclamation August 20th. at the formation of Ross County, (Sovemor 
St. Clair changed the western boundary line of Adams County and made 
it to be as follows: 

"To begin on the bank of the Ohio, where Elk River or Eagle 
Creek empties into the same, and run from thence due north, until it 
interects the southern boundarv of the countv of Ross: and all and 
singular the lands lying between the said north line and Elk River or 



CIVIL, ORGANIZATION IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY 79 

Eagle Creek shall, after the said first day of September next, be separated 
from the county of Hamilton, and added to the county of Adams." This 
♦line remained the western boundary of Adams County until the date of 
the erection of Brown County, March i, 1818. At this latter date the 
western boundary of the county was made a "due north and south line 
drawn through a point eight miles due west from the court house in 
the town of West Union." A special act of the Legislature provided 
that this line should be nm by the compass without making any cor- 
rections for the variation of the needle. 

By the establishment of this last line, Adams County lost all that ter- 
ritory comprised within Eagle, Jackson, B)Td and Huntington, the 
greater portions of Union and Jefferson, and a part of Franklin and 
Washington Townships in Brown County. The northern boundary of 
Adams County, as herein shown, originally extended to the south line of 
Wayne County, which was in part a line extending from a pomt on the 
portage between the waters of the Cuyahoga and the Tuscarawas Rivers, 
near old Fort Laurens, westerly to the eastern boundary of Hamilton 
County, which at that time was the Scioto River and a due north line to 
Lake Erie, from the lower Shawnee town on the Scioto. 

In 1798, Ross County was formed from the northern portion of 
Adams, and the north line of Adams was then fixed as follows : "Begin- 
ning at the forty-second mile tree, on the line of the original grant of 
land by the United States to the Ohio Company, which line was run by 
Israel Ludlow, and running from thence west, until it shall intersect a 
line to be drawn due north from the mouth of Elk River on Eagle 
Creek." 



* A.t a Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace held at Washington, in and for the 
eounty of Adams In the Territory of the United States. Northwest of the riyer Ohio, before 
John Beasley, Moses Baird, Noble Grimes, John Russell and Joseph Moore, Esquires, justices as- 
sifmed to keep the peace and to grant orders for highways, etc., in the county aforesaid, on the 
thirteenth day of March in the year of our Lord 1801, appointed and ordered Thomas Middleton 
to run measure and mark the west boimdary line of Adams County, being in length twenty-two 
miles from the Ohio, beginning at the mouth of Eagle Creek and the Ohio River and make return 
to our June sessions. At which time, to-wit: at a Court of General Quarter Sessions of the 
Peace, held at Washington, in and for the county of Adams, in the Territory of the United 
States, Northwest of the riyer Ohio, before John BeHie, Noble Grimes, John Gutridge, John 
Russell, Mills Stephenson. Samuel Wright and Kimber Barton, Esquires, justices assigned to keep 
the peace and t<» grant orders for the surveys, etc., on the ninth of June. 1801, agreeable to the 
order of March sessions last past, Thomas Middleton returned the survey of the lower line of 
the county, and it was read the first time, and on the tenth was read a second time, to-wit: In 
obedience to an order of the Honorable Court of Adams County, to me directed. I proceeded 
on the twenty-fifth day of May, 1801, to run the west line of said county: Beginning at the mouth 
of Eagle Creek on the Ohio River at a large elm, and running from thence north 320 poles to a 
large beech. No. 1 mile ; thence crossing red oak at 240 poles ; thence 80 poles to a small hickory, 
No. 2 miles; thence 820 poles to a small buckeye. No. 3 miles: thence 320 poles to a large white 
walnut standing near James Prlckett's house. No. 4 miles; thence 320 poles to a hackberry stand- 
ing in Rodgers* field. No. 6 miles; thence 320 poles to an ash No. miles; thence crossing the big 
road leading from Thomas* Mill to Waters' Ferry at 240 poles : thence 80 poles to an ash stand- 
ing on a branch of the east fork of Straight Creek. No. 7 miles; thence 320 poles to an ash stand- 
ing near the east fork of Straight Creek, No. 8 miles; thence crossing the said east fork at 84 
poles ; thence 161 poles to the second crossing of Thomas's road ; thence 125 miles to a beech. No. 
miles; thence 820 poles to an elm. No. 10 miles; thence 320 to a beech. No. 11 poles; thence 320 to 
a maple, No. 12 miles; thence 820 to a poplar. No. 13 miles; thence 320 to a large white oak. No. 
14 mll^s; thence crossing Straight Creek at 210 poles ; thence 110 poles to a beech No 15 miles : 
thence 820 poles to a red oak. No. 10 miles ; thence 320 poles to a red oak. No. 17 miles ; thence 180 
poles to the crossing of Denham's trace leading from Denham's Town [Bethel] to Chillicothe at 
a maple marked **C L;" thence 180 poles to a white oak. No. 18 miles; thence 320 poles to a 
white oak. No. 19 miles; thence 820 poles to a white oak. No. 20 miles ; thence crossing the east 
fork of White Oak Creek at the end of eighty poles; thence 240 poles to a beech. No. 21 miles ; 
thence 820 poles to a beech marked " W. B." of "A. C.,*' supposed to be three miles from the 
forks of said Wlilte Oak Creek. 

Thomas Middleton. Surveyor. Harry Bailey and Gideon Palmer, Chain Carriers. Thomas 
Middleton. Marker. All being sworn. 

Whereupon all and singular the premises being seen, and by the justice here fully under 
stood, and due consideration thereon nad, it is ordered the same be recorded. 



80 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

In 1805, at the formation of Highland County, the north line of 
Adams was again removed to the southward, and defined as follows: 
"Beginning at the twenty-mile tree, in the line between Adams and Cler- 
mont Counties, which is run due north from the mouth of Eagle Creek, 
on the Ohio River, and running thence east twelve miles ; thence north- 
eastwardly until it intersects the line which was run between the counties 
of Ross and Scioto and Adams, at the eighteen-mile tree from the Scioto 
River." 

Again at the time of the erection of Pike county in 1815, a portion 
of the northern line of Adams was changed from the "highlands between 
the waters of Scioto Brush Creek and Sunfish southwardly with said 
highlands so far that an east line will strike" the line between townships 
three and four on the Scioto River, range twenty-two. 

On May i, 1803, when Scioto County was formed, the eastern line 
of Adams was altered so as to begin "on the Ohio, one mile on a straight 
line below the mouth of Lower Twin Creek ; thence north to the Ross 
County line ;" now the Pike County line since the erection of the latter 
county. 

The southern boundary is low water mark on the north shore of the 
Ohio River. We have accurately traced so far, the restriction of the 
boundary lines of the county from the period when it embraced nearly 
one-fifth of the area of the State of Ohio, down to its present limits within 
which are contained about 625 square miles. 

The student of our territorial history will note the fact that during the 
political conflict between Governor St. Clair, the Federalist, and Na- 
thaniel Massie and his Democratic associates, over matters pertaining to 
the government of the Territory, the line "due north from the mouth of 
Elk River or Eagle Creek." so often mentioned by St. Clair in his gub- 
ernatorial proclamations and in the acts of the Territorial and early State 
Legislatures, was proposed at one time by the Governor as the proper 
western boundary for the first of the five States to be erected out of the 
Northwest Territory as provided for in the Ordinance of '87. An act 
of the Territorial Legislature, passed January 23, 1802, provides that this 
line should be run and completed before May i, 1802. Another curious 
historical fact in connection with the civil organization of Adams County, 
is that the territory within its limits at one time was under the jurisdiction 
Botetourt County, Virginia, and that the county seat was thein the old 
town of Fincastle in that county. 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE EARLY COURTS 



Th« First Court of Qnartor Session*— The First Grand Jnry^Some Inter- 

estins Proeoedings of the Conrt— Fees of Justiees and Constable*— 

RemoTal of the Connty Seat to AdamsTille— Ferry Rates— 

Connty Seat Ai^tation— First Indictment— First Trial Jury 

—The Connty Seat Renaoved to Washington- Some 

Qvaiat Indictments and Curions Cases— 

The Whipping: Post. 

The first court held in Adams County convened at Manchester, 
Tuesday, September 12, 1797. It was the Court of General Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace. This court was created under a law adopted from 
the statutes of Pennsylvania, by Governor St. Clair and Territorial 
Judges Parsons and Varnum, at Marietta, August 23, 1788. The law 
provided that the Justices of the Peace commissioned in each county by 
the Governor, should constitute this court, and that any three of them 
should be a quorum. Some one of the acting judges was designated 
Presiding Justice. The court held four general sessions in each year, 
and had jurisdiction of misdemeanors and crimes where the punishment 
did not extend to life or limb, or imprisonment for a longer period than 
one year. One or more of the Judges could hear and determine petit 
crimes and misdemeanors where the penalty was fine only and not ex- 
ceeding three dollars; and in higher offenses could bind over to the 
"Court in Course." When an offense was committed in presence of a 
Judge he could fine without examination of witnesses. Corporal pun- 
ishment, even for minor offenses, was the usual penalty. One of the early 
statutes of the Territory was "An act directing the building and estab- 
lishment of a court house,county jail, pillory, whipping post and stocks in 
every county." Each jail was to have two apartments, one for debtors 
and one for persons charged with crime. 

It is not known in what building this first court in the county was 
held. It may have been held in the public house then kept by an Irishman 
named John McGate, or "Megitt," as the Clerk of the Court spelled the 
name ; or in the old blockhouse at the stockade which was then standing ; 
or possibly at the house of Nathaniel Massie, the most prominent char- 
acter in the town and county at that day, and who was greatly interested 
in locating the county seat at Manchester. However, after the Clerk, 
George Gordon, had read the commissions of the Judges present, the 
Sheriff, David Edie, opened court with the usual proclamation, "O, yes! 
a court is now opened for the administration of even-handed justice to the 
poor and the rich," etc., etc. ; and the first Court of General Quarter Ses- 
6a (81) 



82 mSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

sions of the Peace, for Adams County, was convened and ready to hear 
pleas and to determine causes, and to transact such matters of business 
as might properly come before the court. 

The Court, as then constituted, consisted of the following Judges: 
Nathaniel Massie, John Beasley, John Belli, Thomas Worthington, 
Hugh Cochran, Benjamin Goodin, Thomas Scott, Thomas Kirker, and 
Joseph Kerr. 

Job Denning was Court Cr>'er, and Andrew EUison had been ap- 
pointed Coroner, an office next in rank to SheriflF, the Coroner perform- 
ing the duties of the Sheriff on certain occasions, and succeeding to the 
office at the death of the Sheriff while in office. 

Nathaniei* Massie, the Presiding Justice of this first court, was the 
founder of the town of Manchester in 1790. His influence with Governor 
St. Clair, with whom he was, at this time, in great esteem, had been such 
as to secure the erection of Adams County as a civil division of the Terri- 
tory. He founded the town of Chillicotbe in 1796, and four years later 
succeeded in having it made the capital of "The Territory Northwest of 
the river Ohio." In 1807 he was a candidate for Governor of Ohio but 
was defeated by a small majority by Return J. Mdgs. Massie contested 
the election, and was declared by tihe Legislature the duly elected Gov- 
ernor. He refused, from his fine sense of honor, to accept the office, and 
Thomas Kirker, President of the Senate, became the Governor. He was 
a Presidential Elector in 1804 and cast his ballot for Thomas JeflFerson. 

Thomas Kirker, of Irish ancestry, was among the early 
settlers in Adams County. He was a man of fine presence, 
but of limited talents. He was popular with his associates, 
and a firm friend of Nathaniel Massie. He was one of that 
coterie of Democrats that brought about the political overthrow of 
Governor St. Clair in the Territory. He was fond of public office, 
even filling in interims when a member of the Legislature, as road 
reviewer, foreman of a grand jury, or as a special court commissioner. 
He was commissioned by St. Clair, a Justice of the Peace at the organ- 
ization of Adams County, through the influence of his friend, Nathaniel 
Massie, and as such became a Judge of the Court of Quarter Sessions. 
He was a member, along with Darlinton and Donalson, of the first Con- 
stitutional Convention. He served many years in the Legislature, both 
Senate and House, and became the second Governor of Ohio in 1807, 
acting as such for the term, upon the refusal of Nathaniel Massie to 
accept the office after his successful contest for it against Return J. 
Meigs. Governor Kirker, while not a brilliant man, played strong 
parts in the early history of the county and State. His fidelity to 
friends and duty seems to have been his chief characteristic. He ap- 
pears always to have been present to perform his official duties. The 
early biographers and historians of Ohio were Federalists, and the 
•'Virginia Democrats/' as the adherents of Jefferson were termed, were 
not accredited with the notice they deserved, and hence it is, that a 
builder of a State, like Nathaniel Massie, is sset down as a "surveyor and 
land jobber." And so it is that the second Governor of Ohio, has not a 
line of notice in such standard works as "Howe's Historical Collections/' 
while an otherwise obscure lawyer somewhere in "Cheesedom" has 



THE EARLY COURTS 83 

pages devoted to the delightful task of making him one of "the im- 
mortals." 

♦Thomas Worthington was a Virginian by birth and came 
to Chillicothe the year of its founding, 1796. He was a 
brother-in-law of Edward TifRn, the first Governor of Ohio, 
He was an ardent Democrat oi the Jefferson school, and as 
such became an intimate friend of Nathaniel Massie, who intro- 
duced him to Governor St. Clair, and secured for him official recogni- 
tion. When the rupture came between Massie and the Democrats on 
the one side, and St. Clair and his Federalist adherents on the other, 
over the question of statehood of Ohio, Worthington was selected as the 
representative of the Democrats to look after their cause at the seat of 
the Federal Government, first at Philadelphia and afterwards at Wash- 
ington, and he succeeded so well as to bring about the founding of the 
new State of Ohio, and the crushing defeat of St. Clair and his adher- 
ents. He became a member of the first Constitutional Convention, and 
upon the admission of the State was made a United States Senator. He . 
was twice elected Governor, serving from 1814 to 1818. All his 
measures were noted for their practical worth and honesty. No man did 
more than he during his lifetime to develop the State and to advance 
the general welfare of its people. He was one of the most distinguished 
pioneers of Ohio. 

John Belli was a native of Holland and came to the United States 
after the close of the Revolution. He stood in favor with President Wash- 
ington and in 1793 was made Deputy Quartermaster General in Wayne's 
Legion in the campaign against the Indians in the Northwest Territory. 
He came to Adams County in 1796 and purchased a large tract of land at 
the mouth of Turkey Creek, about six miles below Portsmouth, where 
he resided when appointed a Justice of the Court of Quarter Sessions 
for Adams County in 1797. He was a man of much learning and very 
influential in Masonic circles. He was the first and only Recorder of 
Adams County under the Territorial Government. He took an active 
part in the early history of the county, being a man of broad intelli- 
gence and of great influence. 

Thomas Scott came from Kentucky to Chillicothe the latter part of 
the year 1796. He was Secretary of the first Constitutional Convention, 
and Clerk of the Senate from 1803 to 1809. Was a Judge of the Supreme 
Court from 1809 to 181 5. He was painstaking in the preparation of his 
decisions and ranks well as a jurist. During his active public life he held 
his charge as a local Methodist preacher. He was something of a par- 
tisan in politics and was associated with the Democratic party until 
about 1840 when he became a Whig. 

JosKPH Kerr was a pioneer of Adams County. He is prominently 
identified with the early political history of the county, under his removal 

* In the Records of the Oourt of Quarter Sessions, appears the name Thomas Wttherington 
or Wetherlnffton. But after careful research and investigation the writer is convinced that it is 
only a mis-spellinff of the name of Thomas Worthington, the friend and associate of Nathaniel 
MaasEle. The clerk of that oourt spelled proper names as an Irishman or "raw" Englishman 
would pronounce them; thus, "Kerker." "Ledum." "Oyler," "Bazlie," and "Duncan McCarter." 
for Ktriier, Leedom. Byler. Beasley, and Duncan Mc Arthur. Massie sat at only three sessions 
of this oourt. the flrst. and the June and September sessions of 1706. Worthington was present 
at the flr^ two of these. Then Ross Oounty was organized from the northern portion of Adams, 
August 20, 1806, and his name does not appear again In the record. 



B4 mSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

to Ross G>unty about the year 1800. He served in the State Senate from 
1804 to 1807, 2ind was the only member of "The High Court of Impeach- 
ment" in the trial of Judge William W. Irwin, of Fairfield County, 
charged with "high misdemeanor and ne^ect of duties," who from first 
to last voted in the negative. He was Speaker pro tem of the session of 
1804-5. He afteniv-ards served one term in the House of Representatives 
from Ross County. 

John Beasley, bom in Virginia, came to the vicinity of Limestone, 
Kentucky, in 1788. He was a surveyor under Massie, and a scout and 
Indian fighter of great celebrity in the pioneer days about Limestone and 
the Three Islands. He was a man of much natural talent, and was Pre- 
siding Justice of the Court of Quarter Sessions for many terms of that 
court. He was chosen the first State Senator from Adams County under 
the old Constitution, but his seat was successfully contested by Joseph 
Darlinton. This is perhaps explained by the statement that Beasley was 
a Federalist in politics. He was a brother of Benjamin Beasley and 
•Nathaniel Beasley, prominent characters in the early history of Adams 
County. John Bfeasley's remains lie buried in an unmarked *grave near 
the public school building in Manchester. 

The First Graad Jury. 

The following named persons formed the first grand jury: James 
January, foreman ; Thomas Massie, John Barritt, John Ellison, Duncan 
McKinzie, Jesse Eastbum, Elisha Waldon, John Lodwick, Stephen 
Baylis, Robert Ellison, William Mclntyre. Nathaniel Washburn, 
Zephaniah Wade, James Naylor, Jacob Piatt. 

After "being sworn and charged the court adjourned to four o'clock 
this afternoon." 

"The court met agreeable to adjournment," and the first matter be- 
fore the court was a petition for a recommendation to the Governor to 
grant Samuel Stoops a tavern license, which was granted. Following 
the granting of the petition of Stoops, is this quaint and interesting entry : 

"William McMillen and Jacob Burnett, Esquires, were admitted 
and qualified as counsellors and attorneys." William McMillan became 
a prominent member of the bar in Ohio, was the Territorial Delegate to 
Congress, following William Henry Harrison, afterwards President of 
the United States, and was ser\'ing as a member from Hamilton County 
of the first Territorial Legislature at the time when he was made a Ter- 
ritorial Delegate to Congress. 

Jacob Burnett, better known as Judge Burnett, was at this time 
about twenty-seven years of age, and had just graduated from Princeton 
and came to the Territory to practice law. He rapidly rose in his pro- 
fession and was Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio from 1821 to 1828 
when he resigned to accept the position of United States Senator. He 
was a Federalist and in after years, a Whig in politics. He was an able 
lawyer, but not "the author of the first Constitution of Ohio," as his 



*The true patriot cannot stay the blush of shame that will flash his cheeks at mentton of the 
fact as alletred that the burial place of Judge Beasley is today pointed out to the Tisltor to thl 
historic 'Three Islands" as being near the superstructure over the vaults on the publio 80boo« 
f rounds. If not the public spirited citizens of Manchester, thmt the"Plone«r 8ooletj**of 
Adanas County should remove the ashes of the old pioneer to a publio cemetery and erect a 
suitable monument to his memory. 



THE EARLY COURTS 85 

admiring biographers have declared. Ht was brought into early prom- 
inence more through the influence of Governor St. Clair than from 
natural or acquired abilities. 

McMillan and Burnett were residents of Cincinnati but with other 
members of the bar in those days attended the courts in the other counties 
of the Territory. There were no public roads over which wheeled 
vehicles could be moved for public conveyance, and all travel was afoot 
or on horseback, except along some of the larger water courses where 
canoes or pirc^^es were used. At this time Zane's Trace had just been 
blazed through the forest from Wheeling to Limestone via Chillicothe, 
and Bouquet's, Dunmore's, Harmar's, Logan's, Tod's, and Wayne's war 
roads had been cut through the wilderness. These with some old Indian 
trails were the pathways throughout the Territory to guide the pros- 
pector and immigrant from the Ohio to the scattered settlements in the 
interior. The judges and attorneys in those days made the circuit of 
the courts on horseback accompanied with servants and pack horses. 
On these journeys, they were sometimes eight or ten days in the wilder- 
ness, and as there were no bridges over the streams, "they were compel- 
led, at all seasons of the year, to swim every water course in their way 
which was too deep to be forded." 

Some Interesting Proceedings of tlie Conrt. 

The first matter taken up by the court at the afternoon session of 
this day, was the division of the county into townships, and the appoint- 
ment of Supervisors and Constables in the subdivisions of the county, all 
of which matter and proceedings will be found under another chapter in 
this volume. 

After forming and organizing the townships of the county, the 
court next took up the matter of petitions for public roads, (which matter 
is also fully noticed under another chapter herein) and then it was that 
the recently admitted attorneys, McMillan and Burnett got their first 
retainers, and began a proceeding before the court that occupied its at- 
tention for many terms. Joseph Darlinton, who had recently come to 
the vicinity of Manchester, had established a ferry across the Ohio, near 
the mouth of Cabin Creek, in opposition to James Lawson who operated 
a ferry at that point.. Lawson had cut out a road from his ferry to Man- 
chester, and in order to get benefit of the drift of travel, Darlinton con- 
ceived the idea of changing the road so as to bring it past his landing. 
So he employed Burnett to draft a proper petition and get favorable 
action on it by the court then in session, which was done accordingly, 
as the following record discloses : *'On the petition of Joseph Darlinton 
the court grants the prayer of the petition on the following terms ; that 
the said petitioner do not increase the distance of the present road by 
his alteration in its direction more than forty or fifty poles and that the 
said petitioner open and keep in repair the part of the road that shall 
be turned from its present direction for the term of three years." But 
then as now courts were subject to change of opinion, and McMillan 
on behalf of his client, Lawson, sought to have the order of the court 
modified and was successful notwithstanding the protests of attorney 
Burnett. 



m HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY' 

• 

The next morning McMillan, who had in the meantime taken 
a few nips of "Old Monongahela" with the court and entertained its 
members with pleasing anecdotes to the disgust of the sallow and sedate 
Burnett, succeeded in getting the following entered as a matter of record : 
"Motion by William McMillan in behalf of James Lawson to supersede 
the order made yesterday in behalf of Joseph Darlinton. Motion 
granted, and ordered that Hosea Moore, Andrew Ellison, and William 
Leedom be appointed to examine and report to next court the most 
eligible plan for the road to nm from the place where it first strikes 
Joseph Darlinton's land to Lawson's Ferr>', having reference to the 
injury it may do to private property, at the cost of Joseph Darlinton." 

This matter was contested before each session of the court until the 
September term, 1798, when Darlinton having succeeded in getting a 
majority of the resident freeholders in the vicinity of the proposed im- 
OTovement to subscribe his petition, viz: R. Roundsavell, I. I>onalson, 
T. Massie, J. Collins, J. Megitt (McGate), L. Hawkins, J. Barritt, J. 
Davidson, John Ellison, J. Beam, Jun., D. Exlie, and John Thomas, the 
court ordered the following entry to be made: "The report of Hosea 
Moore, Andrew Ellison, and William Leedom on the order for a road 
from where the road strikes Darlinton's land to Lawson's Ferry be re- 
ceived, and David Edie. Israel Donalson and John Ellison to survey and 
make a return agreeable to report." 

The historv of this case discloses some facts for the consideration 
of the present generation. It shows that our pioneer fathers had spirited 
contests for supremacy in affairs of trade, even invoking the aid of the 
courts in such matters. We learn from it that wily lawyers dallied with the 
courts and that "even-handed justice," in those "good old times," was 
very deliberate in adjusting the scale. And it discloses the traits of 
character that made Burnett the renowned jurist that he later be- 
came — ^fidelity to clients even in trifling causes, persevering energy, 
studious and temperate habits. Judge Burnett notes the fact that in 1796 
there were nine practicing attorneys in Cincinnati, all but two of whom 
became confirmed drunkards, and descended to premature graves. At 
this session of the court the following order was made with reference to 
fees of justices and constables: 

Fees of Justices and Gonstables. 

"The court order that the following fees be the standing fees for 
justices of the county of Adams : 

Summons or capias 18 cents. 

Entering action 7 cents. 

Recognizance 25 cefits. 

Administering oath 12J cents. 

On issue joined 25 cents. 

Tiidgrnent 25 cents. 

Taxing costs 12J cents. 

Making up record 12^ cents. 

Subpoena for witness 12I cents. 



THE EARLY COURTS 97 

Execution 25 ce^s. 

Acknowledging deed 25 cents. 

Issuing attachment 50 cents. 

Bail 25 cents. 

"The court order the following fees to the Constable for the county 
of Adams : 

Serving capias or summons 30 cents. 

Mileage 6 cents per mile 6 cents. 

Takine bail 15 cents. 

Attendance, or return of precepts 20 cents. 

The time of the court was largely consumed at this sitting in con- 
sidering petitions for roads, and in appointing reviewers and surveyors 
for those granted. After appointing supervisors for portions of 
Zane's road, the court adjourned on the evening of the second day of the 
session until "Courts in Course." 

RemoTAl of the Oountj Seat to AdamsTille. 

In the meantime the county seat contest was going merrily on be- 
tween Massie and the Manchester contingent on the one hand, and the 
settlers up the river in the region from the mouth of Brush Creek to the 
Scioto valley on the other. Winthrop Sargent, Secretary of the Territory 
assigned to hold the next term of court, a majority of Justices in favor 
of the "up river" contestants, and the village of Adamsville, an "out 
of the way" place where the town of Rome now stands, was designated 
as the seat of justice for the county. There was a small log court house, 
a log jail, and a few log dwellings at the point, but the accommodations 
for the court, lawyers, and attendants, were so poor that the place was 
called in derision by the opponents of the site, "Scantville." The courts 
were held here until the December session 1798. At the close of the 
September session of that year the record states that "the Court adjourn 
until Court in Course to meet at Washington agreeable to Ordinance." 
The story of the removal to Adamsville as told by the record is: "The 
Court of General Quarter Sessions met at Adamsville in the county of 
Adams agreeable to charter, on the second Tuesday (12th of De- 
cember, 1797. Present: John Beasley, John Belli and Benjamin Goodin, 
Esquires." 

It will be noticed that Nathaniel Massie, Thomas Worthington, 
Thomas Scott, Joseph Kerr, Hugh Cochran, and Thomas Kirker were 
not members of this court. It has been stated that these members of the 
court met at Manchester to transact business this term, but the record 
does not disclose anything with reference to any such transaction. 

Francis Taylor was admitted to practice as an attorney before this 
court, after taking "the oath prescribed by the statutes of this Territory." 
Jacob Burnett was present, and on his motion, "the reviewers in the 
case of Darlinton against Lawson have until next term to make their 
report." 



msToer cr adams cocxtv 



<jt:t mfJtym ot Bmjasntn UnsEftoc. t&e CcCTt ordered the following 
rsk5«r for i^rnc* itarjm the Sdcto Rnrcr: 

Mail and borie i^ cents. 

Snr^(le 6i cems. 

Wajgoa ajid team 75 cents. 

Honied cattk each €^ 



The folkMring rates were also estabfisbed for ferriage across 
tbe Ohio River: 

Man and horse i8| cents. 

Single 9i cents. 

Wagon and team $115 

Honied cattle 9} cents. 

At the March session, 1798, the court consisted of John Belli, John 
Beaftley, Benjamin Goodin, Thomas Kirker, Nathaniel Ellis, Hugh 
Cochran and John Russell. After the convening of the court the fol- 
lowing grand jurors appeared and were sworn and charged: 

John Thomas, William Lucas, Peter Shoemaker, John McGate, 
Stephen Beach, Alexander Warren, WiUiam Russell, Xoble Grimes, 
James Collins, Furgus Moore, Thomas Dick, John Bryan, Robert Elli- 
son, Joseph Lovejoy, Isaac Edgington,. James Lawson, James Morrison 
and Micluiel Thomas. 

On the second day of this session of the court, March 14, 1798, James 
Scott, Henry Massie and Joseph Darlinton were appointed Com- 
missioners for the county. The Township Assessors, Overseers of the 
Poor, Supervisors of Roads, Viewers of Indosures, and Constables were 
also appointed at this session of the court. 

The next session of the court commenced at Adamsville, June 12, 
1 798, with the following justices present : 

Nathaniel Massie, John Belli, Thomas Worthington, Benjamin 
Goodin, Joseph Kerr, Nathaniel Ellis, John Russell and Thomas 
Kirker. 

The opponents of St. Clair sat at this court, and were present for the 
purpose of securing aid in their contest to secure the location of the 
county seat at Manchester. 

The grand jurors impaneled and sworn were: Thomas Massie, 
James Lawson, George Edging^on. Benjamin Massie. John Chennowith, 
John McDonald, John Ellison, John Hessler, William Stockham, 
Nathaniel Collins, Duncan McKenzie, Moses Raird, James Morrison, 
Nathaniel Washburn and Thomas Burkett. 

Samuel Kincaid was appointed Court Constable. 

County Seat Asitation. 

On the second dav of the session, immediately after opening of the 
court, the matter of location of the seat of justice in the county was 
brought before the court, and after some delay the following entry was 
made in the record : "Ordered that the court will receive by gift or other- 



THE EARLY COURTS S9 

wise a piece of g^und proper whereon to erect public buildings." It is 
probable that Massie and his friends had what is known as a "cut and 
dried" arrangement with the court in this proceeding, as it is their first 
participation in the affairs of the court since the removal of the county 
seat from Manchester. Those opposing Massie were divided in their 
choice of a site for the future capital of the county, as the following rec- 
ord clearly discloses: "Whereupon the following offers were made: 
Fifty acres at the mouth of Turkey Creek, by John Belli ; one acre in the 
town of Manchester by Nathaniel Massie ; one acre in the town of Adams- 
ville by John S. WiUes; two acres near the mouth of Brush Creek by 
Noble Grimes; one acre in the town of Adamsburgh (Killinstown) by 
James Collins, as proper places." 

The discussion of the above propositions pro and con, occupied the 
time of the court the entire day, but when the decision of the court was 
finally rendered it was "ordered that the public grounds in Manchester 
be received;" whereupon the court adjourned, Massie and his friends 
having triumphed in the contest. 

The next session of the court was the last held in the town of Adams- 
ville. The record reads : 

"Territory of the United States Northwest of the river Ohio, Adams 
County. The Court of General Quarter Sessions met agreeable to ad- 
journment at Adamsville, September it, 1798. 

"Present : Nathaniel Massie, John Belli, John Beasley, and Thomas 
Kirker, Esquires." 

This was the last session of this court at which Nathaniel 
Massie sat as a justice. Ross County had been erected by proc- 
lamation of the Governor August 20th, and if Massie had not removed 
from Buckeye Station to Chillicothe prior to the convening of this court, 
he did so very soon thereafter. About this date, also, the opposition to 
Massie in his efforts to fix the seat of justice at Manchester, succeeded 
in having the order of the court removing the county seat from Adams- 
ville to Manchester, revoked : and the town of Washington laid out by 
Noble Grimes, at the mouth of Brush Creek, was made the seat of justice 
for the county. 

The grand jurors for this session of the court were: Thomas 
Aerls, Jonathan Boyd, Cornelius Williams, Joseph Lovejoy, John Mc- 
Cutchen, David Lovejoy, William McClelland, William Markland, Zep- 
haniah Wade, Hector Murphy, Joseph Evler, James Collins, Daniel 
Robins, James Andrews, William Baker, Zedick Markland. 

First Indiotment. 

The first indictment returned before this court was filed at this ses- 
sion and as a bit of quaint historical matter is given here in full : 

"United States vs. Isaac Stout, Defendant. 

"Be it remembered that at a Court of General Quarter Sessions held 
for the county of Adams, in the town of Adamsville, in the Territory of 
the United States Northwest of the river Ohio, before Nathaniel Massie, 
John Beasley, John Billie and Thomas Kirker, Esquires, Justices 
assigned to hold Court of General Quarter Sessions, etc., on the twelfth 
day of September, 1798, the plaintiff brought hereinto court their certain 
bill in these words, to-wit : 



90 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

"Territory of the United States Northwest of the river Ohio, Adams 
County, to- wit : The grand inquest in and for the county aforesaid, on 
their oaths present that Isaac Stout on or about the thirteenth day of 
March in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-eight, ^ and within the county aforesaid, did for the sake of lucre 
and gain, vend and retail a less quantity than two gallons of a certain 
fomented liquor commonly called cider, not being licensed or qualified 
agreeable to law, for retailing and vending. And vending the same to 
the evil example of all others in like way offending, and against the 
form of the Act of the Territory aforesaid in such case lately adopted, 
etc. William McMillan for Arthur St. Clair, Jun., Attorney General. 

"Unto said bill the defendant pleads *gtiilty.' It is therefore con- 
sidered by the court that the plaintiff recover against said defendant one 
cent damage and costs taxed to dollars." 

Fint Trial Jmry. 

At this session of the court, the first trial jury was summoned to 
sit in judgment in the case of the United States v. William Osbum 
charged with the larceny of a hog, the property of John Lindsey. 

This jury was composed of Daniel Collins, Archibald Morrison, 
Obediah Stout, James Williams, Daniel Bailes, John White, David 
Bradford, George Edwards, John Worley, William Dunbar, Joseph 
Collier, and John Hamilton, "who being elected, tried, and sworn the 
truth to speak upon issue joined do say that the defendant did not 
feloniously steal, take and convey away a hog as in manner and form as 
the bill against him hath alleged, and do find he is not guilty." 

"Whereupon the court discharged him the said William Osburn." 

John S. Wiles prosecuted for Arthur St. Clair, Jun., Attorney 
General of the Territory. Francis Taylor defended the accused. 

Tlie County Seat RemoTed to Wa»htngton« 

On December ii, 1798, the court met to hold its first session in the 
new town of Washington. The Judges present were: John Bellie, 
Moses Baird, Noble Grimes, David Bradford, and John Russell, Esquires. 
The sheriff was not present at this session and no grand jury being re- 
turned the court adjourned on the T2th without having transacted any 
business other than gfranting an application for a recommendation to the 
Governor to grant John Hessler a tavern license. He was the father of 
old Mike Hessler, who kept a famous inn at Piketon in antebellum days, 
and whose testimony is quoted in the trial of Edward Hughes for 
treason, noticed in this volume. 

The March 'session was held at Washington with John Beasley, John 
Bellie, Moses Baird, Noble Grimes, David Bradford, Thomas Kirker, 
and John Russell, present. 

The grand jury at this term was composed of the following named 
persons: David Edie, Joseph Collier, Joseph Washburn, Nathaniel 
Washburn. Hardin Crouch, John Briggs, William McClaren, Allen 
Simeral, John Crawford, Alexander Smith, Henry Edwards, Conrad 
Hofman, William McGarrv, Richard Davis, and Joseph Lucas. 



THE EARLY COURTS 91 

The court appointed George Gordon and James Edison commis- 
sioners for the county. The time of the court was taken up in. the ap- 
pointments of road supervisors and in hearing and granting petitions for 
new roads. 

The next session of the court convened at Washington, June ii, 
1799, with Judges Bellie, Grimes, Bradford, Kerr, and Kirker present. 

The g^nd jury was composed of John Ellison, Phillip Lewis, John 
Leitch, Robert Foster, John Bryan, John Clark, David Decamp, Peter 
Rankin, Zephaniah Wade, John Reed, John Cook, John Vastine, James 
Brown, James Hemphill, William Wade, Alexander Varner, and James 
McGovney. 

John Reed, one of the grand jurors, charged that "Noble Grimes, 
gentleman, felonously and forcibly took from the court house at Adams- 
ville, a quantity of plank, the property of the county/' and the grand jury 
thereupon indicted Grimes, who was at that time sitting as a member 
of the court. He was taken into custody by John Barritt, sheriff, and 
recognized to appear at the December term. At that term the record 
states that Grimes appeared "under the custody of John Barritt, Esquire, 
sheriff of the county aforesaid, whereupon Robert Slaughter, Esquire, 
deputy for the Attorney General, who prosecutes for the United States, 
in this behalf enters a nolle prosequi and the said Noble Grimes goes 
without day." 

At this sitting of the grand jury a great many indictments or "pre- 
sentments" were returned to the court against divers persons, mostly for 
assault and battery, selling whiskey in quantities less than one quart, 
and for larceny of hogs and horses. These animals ran at large in the 
forests, and sometimes would wander many miles from the residence of 
their owners. Frequently it is noted in the early commissioners' 
journals, of estrays from settlements on the Miami River, having been 
taken up in the valley of Ohio Brush Creek. Sometimes the owner 
never appeared to claim these estrays. And often it would be months 
before they would be recovered. This led to a great deal of trouble and 
annoyance, in case a horse had been held as an estray for a great while, 
and afterwards disposed of without complying with the provisions of 
the law in such cases, when the person found in possession would often 
be charged with horse stealinsf. The following curious "presentment" 
is an instance of such charge : 

"The Jurors of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the 
river Ohio, for the body of Adams County upon their oath present that 
William Keith and Zedock Markland, yeomen, on the first day of June 
in the year of our Lord one thousand, seven hundred and ninety-eight, 
at the county aforesaid, with force and arms to-wit: with swords and 
staves and knives, one mare of the goods and chattels of a certain per- 
son to the jurors aforesaid then and still unknown, then and there found, 
and being feloniously stole, took and led away against the peace, gov- 
ernment, and dignity of the United States and this their Territory." 

"A true presentment. John Ellison and Fellows.'* 

At this term of the court attachments were issued for Alexander 
Smith, George Edgington, John McGitt. Peter Mo\\Ty, Nathan Rodgers, 
Adam Pennywitt, Phillip Roush, Henry Edwards, Jacob Beam, 
Thomas Lewis, Isaac Wamsley, and Anthony Franklin for "contempt 



92 ffl STORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

of the court's precept issued to the sheriff for summoning a grand jury" 
at the previous term of said court. 

The September session of the court was held in the town of Wash- 
ington beginning the tenth day of the month, with John Bdlie, Moses 
Baird, Noble Grimes, Thomas Kirker, Joseph Kerr, John Russell, and 
Nathan Ellis on the bench. 

Grand Jury: John Ellison, Duncan McKensie, Robert Ellison, 
William Hannah, Needham Perry, John McCutchin, Daniel Sherrard, 
Alexander Smith, David Mitchell, William Russell, Jonathan Ralston, 
Alexander Ratchford, John Briggs, John Harmomon, John Da\adson, 
and John Pollock. 

Joel Bailey appointed Court Cryer by order of the Court. 

The attention of the court was directed for the most part to hearing 
petitions for, and objections to the location of public roads. 

Rebecca Earl was put under a peace bond for six months, with 
Judge Ellis as surety. And John Evans was cited for contempt for not 
surveying, as per order of the Court, the road leading to the Sinking 
Spring. Thomas Aerl, prosecuting witness. 

John Evans and Rachel Evans were before the grand jury to testify 
against Rebecca Earl for harboring John Irwin charged with horse- 
stealing. And "the court direct William McCord to be paid three dol- 
lars and thirty-six cents for six days' attendance as a witness from 
Kentucky against John Irwin^ a criminal." 

On the last day of this session, "Nathaniel Massie's Mike" appeared 
in court to claim his freedom." "The court ordered him, Mike, home 
and stay until next court, to be confronted by his master." (See Negro 
Slavery, Fugitive Slave Law, and Underground Railroad.) 

Deoettiber session, 1799, at Washington. Present: John Bellie, 
Noble Grimes, and John Russell, Esquires. Grand Jury : James January, 
John Pence, Peter Pence, David Moore, John Beam, John Smith, John 
Calloway, James Long, Ezekiel Moore, Benjamin Massie, Job Deming, 
John Cook, Thomas Black, Henry Bowman, Thcwnas Grimes, and John 
KilHn. 

At this term of court, John Reed, who had charged that Justice 
Grimes had "feloniously taken plank from the court house in Adams- 
ville to the value of five dollars," was tried for an assat|lt on Justice 
Russell, and mulcted to the amount of ten dollars and costs ; the imposi- 
tion of which penalty was perhaps something like solace to members of 
the court. 

Stephen Davison, Thomas Ryan, and James Ryan under indictment 
for letting John Irwin, charged with horse stealing, escape from the jail 
in Washington, were tried by a jury and acquitted of the charge. 

Noble Grimes was allowed by the court the sum of fifty dollars for 
house room, firewood, etc., for use of the court for five terms and referred 
to County Commissioners for a final settlement. 

So far, the members of this court, the names of g^rand jurors, and 
other characters connected with the administration of the court have 
been given in order to preserve for the future historian the prominent 
characters in the affairs of the county prior to the year 1800. The other 
justices who sat as members of this court following that year until the 
adoption of the first constitution, were Joseph Moore, Samuel Wright, 



. THE EARLY COURTS * 98 

Mills Stephenson, after whom Fort Stephenson, the place of Colonel 
Croghan's heroism, was namedj Kimber Barton, John Gutridge, and 
Joseph Van Meter. Some other matters of curious historical value to 
the student of our early customs and laws, are here given from the 
records of this court. 

The table for use of the court was made bv Henrv Aldred for which 
he received the sum of six dollars. 

There is an entry made at the March term, 1801, stating that "The 
clerk presented the account of William Jennings to the court for making 
the county seals for the Court of Common Pleas, the Court of General 
Quarter Sessions of the Peace, and for The Orphan's Court, and press 
with a screw for the same, amounting to twenty-five dollars, which sum 
was allowed by the Court, and the Clerk ordered to certify the same to 
the Commissioners." 

John Stephenson was appointed in 1800 the keeper of the "stray 
pen," and was usually allowed two dollars a quarter for "his services 
therein." 

At the June sessions, 1800, "The Court allowed Samuel Pettit three 
shillings and six pence per pannel for getting, hauling, and putting up 
twenty-four panel of post and railing for a stray pen in Adams County." 

Some Quaint Indictments and Cnrions Cases. 

In November, 1800. Mary Ailes, of Mason County, Kentucky, ap- 
peared before Justice Grimes at Washington and stated that she had 
been robbed at her home the August previous, relating a most wonder- 
ful story in connection therewith, whereupon the Justice prepared an 
affidavit, or as called "the deposition of Mary Ailes" in the language fol- 
lowing, barring the heading, etc. : "That H. and she believes W. came 
to her house *one hour before cock crow* and 'pushed the door down 
and they both came in and asked if there was not a horse thief there and 
one met her at the room door and told her to surrender one thousand 
dollars ; and it appeared to her he had a pistol in his hand and a club 
and ordered her to open a chest which she did not,but he made the Negro 
boy give him the key and he opened the chest and searched it and threw 
out the clothes and there was some monev in the chest which she believes 
he took ; and further the deponent saith he went into the room and 
searched a trunk and threw the clothes out and took up a gun that stood 
in a corner and took the flint out and spit in the pan and the man that 
••.tood guard at the door told the man that searched to bring the gun 
along and he told him she was good for nothing. And further the de- 
ponent saith that the man that searched the house told the man at the 
door to guard the window. And the man that guarded the door pointed 
his gun at a Negro boy and a white boy that was at the fire and told 
them if they would stir he would blow their brains out. And further 
this deponent saith not." 

The said H. and W. were duly arrested and gave bond in the sum of 
$200 each for their appearance at next term of court. And Mary Ailes 
who could neither read nor write, was put under bond in like amount for 
her appearance to prosecute the action. But at the convening of the 
court in December this entrv was ordered made: "The Court are of 
the opinion and direct that H. and W. be sent to Kentucky there to 



94 • HISTORY OP ADAMS (BOUNTY 

appear before a prefer tribunal for trial." And "Jacob Frizell take H. 
and W. and convey them to the first magistrate or any magistrate in 
Mason County, Kentucky, which is accordingly done." 

It is quite probable that the deponent was mistaken in her identity 
of the persons accused, as they each were respectable citizens of Adams 
County, and lived there many years thereafter esteemed by all who 
knew them. 

Another remarkable "deposition" deemed worthy of preservation 
here, is that of Adam Highbarger made before Justice Kirker in Jan- 
uary, 1802: "Adam Highbarger made oath that I was present at Pee 
Pee when John Lyons spoke to Major John Mannon and asked him if 
he would take a bag of salt down the river for Major Beasley for him ; 
and Major Mannon agreed to do it ; and ]ohn Lyons asked me if I would 
go along round with him, to-wit, the said Mannon, which I did; and 
when we came to Manchester, Major Mannon told me to take it out of 
the boat, to-wit, the said Lyons' salt, which I did and asked Mr. Massie 
for leave to put the bag of salt in his boat, and he said I might, and I 
put it in his boat ; and the next morning I went to Major Beasley's for a 
horse and got one, and came to the boat and asked Starling to assist 
me in putting the bag on the horse, and he refused and said he would 
not assist me nor touch it. And 1 think I asked Mr. Massie if I might 
leave the bag in the boat until I would go and tell Mr. Lyons, and he 
said I might and I left a pack-saddle with it." 

"Question. Did you leave the salt in Starling's care? 

"Answer. No. ' 

Question. Have you ever seen the bag since? 

'Answer. Yes. I saw it in John McGate's cellar. 
'Question. Was there as much salt in the bag as when you left it 
in the boat? 

'Answer. No, I think there was not bv about two bushels. 

"And further said depondent saith not." 

The said Starling was indicted at the March term, and tried bv a 
jury composed of John Wa<ihbum, Phillip Lewis, Joseph Barton, Cor- 
nelius LaflFerty, Daniel Collier, William Wade, James Nicholson, John 
Bryan, James Reed, Uriah Barton, Alexander Smith, and found guilty, 
and sentenced to pay John Lyons eight dollars and thirty-four cents, 
and to be fined a like sum to the county, and pay the cost of prosecu- 
tion. "And if he does not pay the fine, is to receive twenty stripes on 
his bare back well laid on, and is to be sold by the sheriff for the sum 
to be paid to John Lyons, and cost of suit, etc. Whereupon the sheriff 
IS commanded that he take the said William Starling to satisfv costs, 
etc." 

Tlie WHippins Post. 

Under the Territorial laws a great many offenses and crimes were 
punishable in whole or in part by whipping, on the bare back of the 
offender, with a rawhide, or the "cat o' nine-tails." The spirit of these 
laws was handed down under our first constitution and incorporated in 
our statute of crimes ; many offenses being punishable in part by whip- 
ping. The sentence of the courts in such cases was carried out by the 
sheriff who laid on the number of stripes while the offender stood with 
naked body and up-stretched arms tied to the public whipping post. 



le 



THE EARLY COURTS 95 

Arson, burglary, forgery, and perjury were punished in part by 
laying on the naked back not exceeding thirty-nine stripes. Larceny 
to amount of one dollar and a half, punishment public whipping not ex- 
ceeding fifteen lashes. Robbery punished with fifty-nine stripes. 
Horse stealing fifty-nine stripes first offense and one hundred for second 
and subsequent offenses. Children or servants for disobedience might 
receive ten stripes. 

, The whipping post at Washington was a small buckeye tree that 
stood in the southeast corner of the jail bounds near the bank of Brush 
Creek. Many a poor fellow has bared his back to the lash tied with 
up-stretched arms to that emblematic species of Ohio's forest trees. 
In the many cases examined in the records of the courts of Adams 
County the writer has failed to fine a single instance of a woman's hav- 
ing received punishment in this manner. But the poor and ignorant 
class of male whites found guilty of petty offenses, and the offending 
blacks of the county, were punished under "Grimes' Buckeye" with 
from five to fifty stripes according to the magnitude of the offense and the 
humor of the Court. 

A typical case is that of William McGinnis charged with stealing 
a hunting shirt, a petticoat, two blankets and a part of a pair of stockings 
from John Guthrey, who upon being arraigned before the Court, plead 
guilty and "put himself on the mercy of the Court," and was sentenced 
to receive "ten stripes on his bare back well laid on, and bound out to 
service for the fees of prosecution." 

It is said that a small poplar tree that stood near where the Chris- 
tian Union Church is situated was utilized as the whipping post in the 
early days of West Union. The records disclose the fact that the lash 
and poplar tree were frequently resorted to under the decree of the 
courts. 

There is a case of a Negro receiving five stripes for the theft of a 
pair of shoes worth $1.25 from Abraham Burkett. And a white boy 
was given eight stripes for stealing a knife worth a shilling. 

At the August term. Common Pleas, 1809, Jacob Coffman, who 
had been indicted for larceny, plead guilty, and he was sentenced to pay 
Nathan Reeves $52.62^ ; Stokes Anderson $30 ; a fine of $50 ; to receive 
fifteen stripes on his naked bare back; to be imprisoned one month and 
stand committed until sentence of the court was performed. Reeves and 
Anderson each remitted their fines, the property having been restored 
by Coffman. 

In 1812, George, a black man, was convicted of stealing a horse from 
Mr. Watson, of Sprigg Township, and was sentenced by the Court to be 
whipped fifty stripes on his naked bare back, to pay a fine of $500 for 
the use of the countv of Adams, to pay the costs of prosecution and to 
stand committed until sentence of the Court was complied with. After- 
wards the Board of County Commissioners, as then empowered by law, 
remitted the fine as George's imprisonment was burdensome to the tax- 
payers, he having no property from which the fine could be collected, 
on the conditions that the cost of prosecution be paid or secured to be 
paid. This would indicate that some one took George to service for a 
term in consideration of the payment of the costs of his prosecution. 



M HISTORY OF ADAXS COUNTY 

In the last year of the Territorial Government, Robert Elliott and 
Reuben Frazier, residents of the virinit}' of the old Indian crossing of 
/ Ohio Brush Creek (Tod's Crossing), who had been on bad terms for 

^ some time and had embrcMgled the entire neighborhood in their 

troubles, resorted to the Court of Quarter Sessions for a settlement of 
their differences. One Hugh Montgomery was a principal witness 
against Frazier who sought to impeach Montgomery's testimony before 
the court by the following proceeding, made a part trf the record in -the 
case: 

"November 21, 1801. Whereas application hath been made by 
Reuben Frazer unto us the subscribers for the character of a certain 
Hugh Montgomery, whether we think that he ought to have the privi- 
lege of an oath, and it is our unanimous opinion that he ought not to 
have in any case, for he has been the disturber of the peace of our neigh- 
borhood by lying so that there was not a night's lodging for him. He 
also would not work and there is the strongest reason to believe that 
he shot Mr. Chapman's ox. We think that he is not capable of swear- 
ing. 

"Henry Neff, Solomon Shoemaker, Peter Shoemaker, Simon Shoe- 
maker, Paul Kirker, John Trcber. 

"This is to certify that we, the subscribers, have known Reuben 
Frazer these several years, and he has lived on our plantations and has 
always maintained a fair and unblemished character in every respect, 
as witnessed by us. 

"Peter Shoemaker, David Furguson, John Treber, Rohert Smith." 

Before closing the notes and comments on this court and its doings 
it should be stated that it had concurrent jurisdiction with the Court of 
Common Pleas to imprison for debt in the enforcement of its judgments 
and to absolve the debtor upon his compliance with certain statutory 
provisions. 

A case in point is that of James Nicholson who had been imprisoned 
for debt and kept for some time under the care of John Stephenson, the 
jailor, in the old town of Washington. In order to procure his release 
John S. Willes, attorney for Nicholson, prepared and presented to the 
Court the following affidavit subscribed by the imprisoned debtor: 

"I, James Nicholson, do in the presence of Almighty God, solemnly 
swear that I have not any estate, real or personal, in possession, rever- 
sion or remainder, sufficient to support myself in prison or to pay prison 
charges ; and that I have not since the commencement of this suit against 
me or at any time, directly or indirectly, sold, leased or otherwise con- 
veyed or disposed of to or entrusted any person or persons whatsoever 
with all, or any part of the estate, real or personal, whereof I have been 
the lawful owner or possessor, with an intent or design to secure the 
same, or to receive, or to expect any profit or advantage therefor, or 
have caused or suffered to be done anything else whatsoever whereby 
any of my creditors may be defrauded, so help me God." 

Whereupon the Court ordered the following certificate to be made 
out to the jailor, to-wit: 

"To John Stephenson, jailor, in our said county of Adams, greeting: 
You are herebv dulv authorized and commanded to release and dis- 
charge James Nicholson from your prison for and on account of the 



THE EARLY COUilTS 97 

following persons, to-wit: Joseph Scott of Kentucky, Banjamin Tap- 
per of Marietta, Samuel Van Hook of Adams, John Snider, Samuel Hall, 
and William Stockham. 

"Witness, John Beasley, Esquire, presiding justice of our said court 
at Washington, the second Tuesday of December, 1801. George Gor- 
don, Clerk." 

In addition to the above, Nicholson exhibited to the Court *'a true 
return" of all his possessions, as set forth in the following exhibit, to-wit : 

"Territory of the United States Northwest of the river Ohio, Adams 
Countv. 

"I do hereby make a true return of all my goods and chattels now 
in my possession, to Your Honors, greeting: 

"One bed, and the furnishings for a bed of the poorest description ; 
one pewter dish, six pewter plates, three rung chairs, two buckets, one 
tin strainer, one spinning wheel, third rale : one small box, one meal 
tub." 



tA 



CHAPTER X. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE TOWNSHIPS 

Tlie Territorial Township*— Roster of Towmship Oflleers— The To 
ships vader the OonstitiitioB— Plaees of holding Eleetions 

EreotioA of Kew Townships. 

At the first session of the Court of General Quarter Sessions of 
the Peace, which convened at Manchester, Tuseday September 12, 1797, 
the county of Adams was divided into six original townships, by order 
of the Court, as follows, towit : 

Cedar Hill Township — To begin at the mouth of Eagle Creek on 
the Ohio, running up the same to Lawson's Ferry opposite the mouth of 
Cabin Creek ; thence north to the northern boundary of the county ; thence 
with the north line to the northwest comer of the same ; thence with the 
said west line to the place of beginning. 

Jacob Boone was appointed Supervisor of Roads, and William 
Rains, Constable. 

Manchester Township — To beg^n at the upper comer of Cedar 
Hill Township on the Ohio, running up the river to the mouth of Island 
Creek; thence up the same to the main forks; thence up the said forks 
keeping the high lands between Eagle Creek and Brush Creek to where 
the road (Zane' Trace) leading from Limestone to Wheeling crosses; 
thence north to the northern boundary of the county; thence with said 
line to the east line of the former (Cedar Hill) township; thenoe with the 
said line to the place of beginning. 

Isaac Edg^ngton, Aaron Moore, and Nathaniel Washburn were ap- 
pointe?d Supervisors of Roads ; Job Denning and William Hannah were 
appointed and sworn as Constables. 

Iron Ridge Township — To beg^n at the upper comer of Manchester 
Township, running up the Ohio to the mouth of the first large branch 
running into the river above the mouth of Salt Creek ; thence up the same 
to the head ; thence on the high lands along the heads of the southeast 
fork of the Scioto Brush Creek to the junction with the main creek; 
thence up the same to the mouth of Rounding Fork; thence up in the 
forks keeping the highlands to where the road (Zane's Trace) leading 
from Limestone to Wheeling crosses the said ridge; thence north to the 
northern boundary of the said county; thence with the said line to the 
line of the before-mentioned (Manchester) township; thence with the 
said line to the place of beginning. Thotnas Grimes and James Collins 
were appointed Supervisors of Roads, and Stephen Beach, Constable. 

(98) 



ORGANIZATION OF THE TOWNSHIPS W 

Union Township — To beg^n at the upper corner on the Ohio of 
the above (Iron Ridge) township, running up the river to the mouth 
of the Little Scioto; thence up the same to the first large fork coming in 
on the lower side; thence north until it strikes the Salt Lick fork of 
Scioto ; thence down the same to the mouth ; thence west to the highlands 
between Paint Creek and Sunfish Creek and along the same until it 
crosses the road leading from Limestone to Wheeling; thence westwardly 
along the said road to the line of the former township ; thence with the 
said line to the place of beginning. 

No road supervisors appointed at this session of the court. John 
McBride was appointed Constable for the township. 

Scioto Township — ^To begin at the northeast corner of Union 
Township, running westwardly with the north line of said township to 
the east line of Iron Ridge Township; thence north with the said line, 
to the north line of the county; thence eastwardly with said line so far 
that a line south will strike the place of beginning. 

Samuel Harris was appointed Constable for the township and be- 
ing present was sworn in open court. 

Upper Township — To begin at the upper corner, on the Ohio, of 
Union Township, running up the river to the upper boundary of the 
county; thence north with said line to the northeast comer; thence with 
the north line of the same to the line of Scioto Township ; thence south 
with said line to the southeast comer thereof; thence with the east line 
of Union Township to the place of beginning. Thomas Kilmuth was 
appointed Constable. 

At the December session of this court, the first held at the new 
county seat of Adamsville, or "Scantville," as it was derisively called, 
John Shepherd was appointed supervisor of Iron Ridge Township in- 
stead of Joseph Collins, and ordered to oversee that portion of Zane's 
road "beginning where it crosses the west line of Iron Ridge Township 
and continuing to the residence of Shepherd on Ohio Brush Creek. And 
that all the inhabitants on the waters of Brush Creek north of the road 
leading from Manchester to Elijah Chapman^s including all above Chap- 
man's on the waters of Brush Creek" be under the supervision of Col- 
lins. 

Roster of Township Officers. 

At the March session, 1798, which convened at Adamsville on the 
thirteenth of the month, the Court, with Maj. John Bellie presiding, ap- 
pointed the following officers for the respective townships : 

Cedar Hill — ^Assessor, Simon Reader. 

Supervisors — John Mitchell, Jacob Boone, and Nathan Ellis. 
Overseers of the Poor — Charles Osier and David Graham. 
Reviewers of Inclosures — John West and Abraham Evans. 
Constable — Williams Rains. 

Manchester — Assessor, Aaron Moore. 

Supervisors — Daniel Robbins, Isaac Edgington, John McGate. 

Overseers of the Poor — John Thomas and Nathaniel Washburn. 

Reviewers — William Leedom and John Cook. 

Constables — ^Job Denning and Benjamin Gray. 



rtitr>#»r^'^'.r^ -;-'*r<*r bf^tcii. ^Vit-.r-iar."* .\*t'<:n.'* imt r-.>»ei:,ii W:l'Tarn>f- 
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>sifj//TvJv^* — ^J/fnujamin f/rmHon. Ke«r>en Abram^. John Thaq). 
^/v^Tv^tT^— Wjlliam Crajjf, Samuel Rogers. 
k/'vie^'efv-Wiiliam Ca^e. Samue! Henderson. 

J 'n^Kk — A*Mr<^v/r, John Watts, 

Af March M:%»»ion, ^799, Wjlham Mf/ntgomer>- was appointed con- 
«if?»Wr', and John Watts overseer. 

M-\H3*rF, TowNHiiii' — The Court of Quarter Session at the June 
t^r^^um, iHfg}, rn-aterl a new township in the county from territory be- 
Uftt^i'unz ♦'' (*edar Hill Township, which was named in honor of the 
fMindrr nf the first settlement in the county, Massie Township. The 
tiu'tfrt] !► not c/miplet<r in the descriptif>n of the boundary' of this town- 
•iliip, iIh" north line being omitted, as the following would disclose: **It 
i«» tnli'd and ordered that a township be laid off called Massie Township: 
I'r^jititiing on the east fr)rk of Eagle Creek where the Manchester Town- 
*»liip Ijfif rrosses; |that was a due north line from the Ohio River opposite 
llir nioiiih of Cabin Creek| thence down the same to the main creek: 
tlirtire with the creek to the mouth ; thence north with the county line to 
MntM'lMstrr Tovvtishij), anrl from said township line to the beginning." The 
ilvkrr'i\f\'utu should read *'thence north with the county line to its upper 
boimd;!! V ; thence with the north line of the county to the Manchester 
rnvvnsliip liiH'. and thence south with said line to the place of beginning.'' 
riuM fnnd<' the beginning corner in the region to the souhtwest of Hill's 
p'ork pnstoflice in what is now Liberty Township, Adams County, and 
the new townshij) included all that portion of Brown County within 
the present townships of Huntington, Hyrd, Jefferson, Jackson and 
h'.;i>:l<*; and a portion of I'nion, l^ranklin and Washington, as well as all 
the northwestern portions of Adams County as it now is bounded, to- 
|k»ether with a portion of Highland and Ross Counties. 

At the .\laroh session, 1801, the Court appointed the following 
ollicers for Massie Township: 



T 



ORGANIZATION OF THE TOWNSHIPS 101 

Lister — Andrew Moore. 

Supervisors — John Epsey, John Shreves, Jeptha Beasley. 
Overseers — William Kincaid, John Espey. 

Viewers — William Gregory, William Stephenson, Robert Moore. 
Auditors of Supervisors Accounts — James Moore, Nathaniel Beas- 
ley, David DeVore. 

Appraisers of Town Lots— Jonas Shreves, Adam McPherson. 
Constable — Xeal LaflFerty. 

Sprinx Hill Township — This township was formed at the March 
session of the Court of Quarter Sessions, 1802 As the law providing for 
the election of township officers took effect in April following, no appoint- 
ments of township officers were made by the Court. The boundaries of 
this township were as follows: "Beginning on the west line of Iron 
Ridge Township at the road leading from January's to Killinstown, 
[James January lived at foot of the hill west of West Union on what is 
known as the Swearingen farm] with said road on to Killinstown; and 
from thence with the trace to William P^eterson's on Brush Creek ; thence 
east to the highlands between Scioto Brush Creek and Ohio Brush Creek ; 
thence with said highlands between Scioto Brush Creek and Ohio Brush 
Creek to the east line of Iron Ridge Township." This cut Iron Ridge 
Township into two divisions, the upper portion being called Spring Hill 
Township. 

The election of township officers was ordered to be held at the 
house of Daniel Collier on Ohio Brush Creek. 

The elections for township officers in the other townships were or- 
dered to be held at the following places : 

Upper Township, at the residence of Kimber Barton. 

Union Township, at the house of John Collins, in the town of Alex- 
andria. 

Iron Ridge Township, at the court house in the town of Washing- 
ton. 

Manchester Township, at John McGate's in the town of Man- 
chester. 

Cedar Hill Township, at the residence of Xathan Ellis. 

Massie Township, at the house of John Shepherd, proprietor of 
Shepherd's horse mill on Red Oak. 

The Townships under the Constitntion. 

On December 2, 1806, the County Commissioners, Nathaniel Beas- 
ley, Job Dinning, and Moses Baird proceeded to divide the county into 
townships, as follows : 

HuNTixGTON Township — Beginning on the Ohio River one and 
one-half miles below, opposite to the mouth of Cabin Creek; thence 
running down the river and binding thereon to the mouth of Eagle Creek ; 
thence with the lower line of Adams County north to the south line of 
James Williams' survey which Alexander Dunlap now owns ; thence with 
the said Dunlap's line east to the dividing corner between Jordan Harris' 
two surveys; thence east to Eagle Creek; thence up the same with the 
meanders thereof to the mouth of Suck Run ; thence east to the west line 
of Sprigg Township; thence with the said line south to the beginning. 



102 fflSTORY OP ADAMS CX>UNTY 

Sprigg Township — Beginning at the upper corner of Huntington 
township (on the Ohio), thence running up the river with the meanders 
thereof and binding thereon to the mouth of Island Creek; thence north 
so far as that an east and west Hne will strike the north line of Thomas 
Hill's tract of land (Hill's Fork) ; thence so far as that a south line will 
strike the beginning. 

Byrd Township — Beginning at the northwest comer of Huntington 
Township; thence with the north line thereof to the northeast comer of 
the said township; thence north with the line of Sprigg and passing its 
comer to the north line of Adams Countv ; thence with the said line west 
to the northwest comer of the county, thence south to the beginning. 

Wayne Township — Beginning at the notheast comer of Sprigg 
Township ; thence east so far as that a north line will strike the mouth of 
Cherry Fork of Bmsh Creek ; thence north to the north line of Adams 
County ; thence with the said line to the northeast comer of Byrd Town- 
ship ; thence south with the line of Byrd Township to the northwest comer 
of Sprigg Township ; thence east with the line of the said township to the 
place of beginning. 

Tiffin Township — Beginning at the mouth of Island Credc (on 
the Ohio River) ; thence up the Ohio River with the meanders thereof 
and binding thereon, to the mouth of Brush Creek; thence up the said 
creek and binding thereon to the mouth of the Lick Fork of Brush Creek ; 
thence with the highlands between Brush Creek and the Lick Fork till it 
strikes the east line of Wayne Township ; thence with the line of the said 
township to the southeast corner thereof ; thence with another line of the 
said township to the northeast comer of Sprigg Township; thence 
south with the line of Sprigg Township to the beginning. 

Green Township — Beginning at the mouth of Bmsh Creek; thence 
up the creek and binding thereon to the mouth of Beasley's Fork ; thence 
on a direct line to the head of Black's Run ; thence with the highlands be- 
tween the waters of the Ohio River and Scioto Brush Creek to the east 
line of Adams County ; thence south with the said line to the Ohio River ; 
thence down the same and binding thereon to the place of beginning. 

Jefferson Township — Beginning at the mouth of Beasley's Fork; 
thence up Brush Creek to the mouth of the Lick Fork ; thence east to the 
east line of Adarns County ; thence south with the said line to the north- 
east corner of Green Township ; thence with the north line to said town- 
ship, to the beginning. 

Meigs Township — Beginning at the mouth of the Lick Fork of 
Brush Creek ; thence with the line of Tiffin Township, to the east line of 
Wayne Township; thence with the said line north to the back line of 
Adams County ; thence with said line, to the northeast comer of Adams 
County; thence with the line of Adams County south to the northeast 
comer of Jefferson Township; thence with the north line of said town- 
ship to the beginning. 

Places of Holding Eleotions. 

On the next day, December 3. the Commissioners proceeded to ap- 
point the places for holding the first elections in the several townships, 
as follows : 



ORGANIZATION OP THE TOWNSHIPS 108 

Huntington, at the house of John Housh, Sr. 
Byrd, at the residence of James Moore. 
Wayne, at the house of Nathaniel Patton. 
Tiffin, at the Court House, West Union. 
Green, at the house of Obediah Stout. 
Jefferson, at the house of Phillip Lewis, Sr. 
Meigs, at the residence of Peter Wickerham. 

It was also ordered that the foregoing division of the townships 
take effect and be in force on and after the first Monday in March, 1807. 

Eagle Township — ^At the June meeting of the Commissioners, 
1807, Byrd Township was divided by a line running due west from a 
point one mile north of the southwest comer of Wayne Township, and in 
the west line thereof. The northern division was called Eagle Township, 
and the first election was held at the residence of William Laycock, where 
William Rhoten, in Eagle Township, in Brown County, now resides, one 
mile south of South Fincastle. 

Clianse in NAme of Otl&er Townslilps. 

June 6, 1808, the line between Sprigg Township and Tiffin Town- 
ship, was ordered altered as follows: "Beginning at the mouth of Is- 
land Creek; thence up the creek to the place where the township line 
ran by Andrew Woodrow crosses the same ; thence with said line to the 
north part of said township. And that the name thereof be called Man- 
chester, instead of Sprigg. 

It was further ordered that the names of the different townships 
in the county be altered and established as follows: That Tiffin be 
called Union. Huntington be called Cedar Hill. Jefferson be called 
Iron Ridge. Meigs be called Spring Hill. Byrd be called Liberty. 
Green be called Ohio. Wayne be called Cherry. 

The whole of the alterations to take effect July 4, 1808. The above 
order was afterwards rescinded. 

Monroe Township was established from territory cut off from Tiffin 
June 23, 1817. 

Liberty, cut off of the north end of Sprigg, December 2, 1817. 

Scott, cut off of north end of Wayne, February 25, 1818. 

Franklin, cut off of north side of Medgs, March 10, 1828. 

Winchester, cut off of Wayne and Scott, December 4, 1837. 

Oliver, cut off of Wayne and Scott, March 8, 1853. 

Manchester, cut off of Sprigg, composed of Manchester Corpora- 
tion and Special School District, March 3, 1858. 



CHAPTER XL 

COMMISSIONERS' EARLY PROCEEDINGS 

Soiue Curions and Interestine Notes Froat the Jovrmal of the Board of 

County ConumissioiLers. 

The first Board of County Commissioners was appointed at the 
March term of the Court of Quarter Sessions, held at Adamsville, 1798. 

Two members of the first Board, Henry Massie and Joseph Dar- 
linton, met at Adamsville, June thirteenth, and adjourned until the 
twenty-seventh, on account of the absence of James Scott, the other 
member. 

At the meeting on the twenty-seventh, Mr. Scott still did not put 
in an appearance. After appointing Mr. Darlinton Clerk of the Board, 
Mr. Massie and he transacted some business for the county and ad- 
joumed on the twenty-eighth, to meet at Manchester August 9. 1788. 
Mr. Scott took his seat at this meeting. The Board held its meetings 
thereafter at Manchester until March session, 1799, when the Board met 
at Washington, where it held its meetings until the location of the 
county seat at West Union, in 1804. 

First Entry on Journal. 

Territory of the United States, Northwest Territory, Adams 
County, S. P. 

At the Court of General Quarter Sessions held for the county afore- 
said, March term, 1798, the following appointments were made: 

Conumissioners. 

James Scott, Henry Massie, and Joseph Darlinton. 

Assessors. 

Simon Reeder, Cedar Hill Township. 
Aaron Moore, Manchester Township. 
Noble Grimes, Iron Ridge Township. 
James Edcson. Union Township. 
Thomas Dick. Scioto Township. 
John Watts, Upper Township. 

Collectors. 

Adamsville, June 27, 1798. 

Joseph Darlinton appointed Clerk to the Board of Commissioners. 
The following persons were appointed Collectors for the several 
townships in the county : 

David Mitchell. Uni^^n Township. 

(104) 



COMMISSIONERS* EARLY PROCEEDINGS 106 

John B. Genett, Upper Township. 
Stephen Beach, Iron Ridge Township. 
Samuel Smith, Scioto Township. 
John Ellison, Manchester Township. 
William Rains, Cedar Hill Township. 

First Iievy. 

Having calculated the public debts and demands of this county, 
we find it necessary for defraying the expenses of building the county 
jail agreeable to the plan of the Couft of Common Pleas at their last 
session, as well as all other expenses which have or may be brought 
against the county, to levy the sum of two thousand four hundred dol- 
lars on the several townships in this county. 

Manchester, August 9, 1798. 

James Scott, Esq., being appointed Commissioner by the Court of 
General Quarter Sessions, held at March term, this day exhibited a cer- 
tificate of his qualifications, ap.d took his seat. 

First Tax Refunder. 

Manchester, Sept. 7, 1798. 

It appeared to the satisfaction of the Commissioners that John 
Crawford, of Iron Ridge Township, who was taxed as a single man, is 
married, and that his property is taxed to, and paid by his son, Moses 
Crawford; ordered to refund the money. 

Allo^7i|noe8 of Aooounts. 

Samuel Harris, Constable and guard, for taking Patrick 

Creighton, prisoner, from Chillicothe to Manchester. . .$19 91 2-3 

Ditto, for taking Jacob Folen as above 34 9^ 

Ditto, for taking Thomas Thompson as above 36 00 

Thomas McDonald, Constable, for guarding Hugh McDill 

from Chillicothe to Manchester 22 41 

John Barrett, Sheriflf and guard, for taking Hu^^h McDill to 

Cincinnati , etc 38 50 

Josiah Stout, Constable, for taking Peter Walker prisoner... 3 11 

Sundry guards for keeping Hugh McDill 20 25 

William Morrison, John Davidson, and Jessie Wethering- 

ton, for guarding Hugh McDill, each one day 2 19 

Manchester, August 11, 1798. 

Received the returns from the assessors of the different townships 
as follows : 

Scioto Township $412 87 

Iron Ridge Township 179 10 

Manchester Township 155 74 

Union Township 147 36 

Cedar Hill Township 52 69 

Upper Township 17 18 

$964 94 



106 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX>UNTY 

Sum appropriated on June 27, by the Commissioners and Assessors 
to be levied on the county, $2400.00. Balance, $1435.06. 

Court of Appeals appointed to be held at Manchester on the sev- 
enth day of September next. 

Notiee to Amaemmorm and Colle«tora. 

Washington, March 30, 1799. 

Drew advertisements to be set up in the most public places in each 
township, requesting all persons who had business to transact with the 
Board of Commissioners, to attend at Washington on the twenty-ninth 
day of May next, and required the punctual attendance of each assessor 
at that time and place. Also notified the collectors of '98, that if they 
did not appear on that day and settle up their respective balances, they 
could not expect any longer indulgence. 

First Tec Fixed for Sheriff. 

Sheriff's fee for serving each g^and jury, established at three dollars 
each court. 

Jos. Darlinton received $36.99 for services as Clerk of Commis- 
sioners, one year. 

Washington, January 2, 1800. 

The Commissioners thought proper to advertise the burning of 
the jail on Friday night, the twenty-seventh of December last, and offer- 
ing a reward of two hundred dollars in order to find out the incendiaries. 
In consequence thereof, wrote five advertisements. James Edison, 
Clerk of Board. 

Joseph Kerr appointed Clerk of Board of Commissioners for one 
year. 

First Seals. 

William Jennings presented his account for making seals and press 
for the county, amounting to $25.00 for which sum an order is granted. 

First Allowance for Wolf Scalps. 

George Harper presented the certificate of Thomas Kirker, Esq., 
for having killed an old wolf, agreeable to law, for which he is allowed 
the sum of $1.25. 

Isaac Wamsley, 5 wolves $6 25 

Jonathan Wamsley, i wolf i 25 

Christopher Wamsley, i wolf i 25 

Jacob Utt. I wolf I 25 

John Polock, i wolf I 25 

Daniel Bayless, i wolf i 25 

Robt. Wright, 2 wolves 2 50 

Jno. Wright, i wolf I 25 

jno. Beckman, i wolf i 21; 



CX>MMISSIONERS' EARLY PROCEEDINGS 107 

Resisnatioa and Appointment. 

Washington, November 17, 1801. 

Jos. Kerr, Secretary, and one of the Board of Commissioners, re- 
signed on the seventeenth of November, 1801. 

Jno. Beasley appointed Commissioner December 10, 1801. 
George Gordon appointed Secretary to the Board. 

Two Dollars Eaeli for Wolf Sealps. 

Washington, December 18, 1801. 

Jesse Cain presented the certificate, of Jos. Moore that he killed 
a gjown wolf, and an order is issued for two dollars. 

Cornelius Cain, i old wolf $2 00 

Chris Beekman, i old wolf 2 00 

Jno. Pollock, I old wolf 2 00 

R®bt. Bennett, 3 old wolves 6 00 

Jno. Brewer, 3 old wolves 6 00 

Wm. Creel, i old wolf 2 00 

Jas Lawson, i young wolf i 25 

Rent for Conrt House. 

Washington, March 8, 1802. 

Noble Grimes & Co. presented an order of the Court for the house, 
fuel and candles, attendance amounting to $6.00, and the Commission- 
ers concluding the order did not come properly before the Board, re- 
ferred the order ag^in to the Court for their decision, being of the opin- 
ion that it ought to be $10.00. 

Sheriff Made Colleotor. 

Washington, September 11, 1801, 

Nathan Ellis, Esq., was qualified as the Collector of the county 
taxes, for the year 1801, and was furnished with a duplicate thereof, 
which amounts to $1,262.97^. 

First Order Issued to Clerk of Courts. 

Washington, March 15, 1800. 

George Gordon obtained an order on the Treasurer for $43.37, for 
his services as Clerk of the Court from September session, 1797, to Sep- 
tember session, 1798, inclusive. 

Colleotor Exonerated. 

August II, 1800. 
Stephen Cary, Collector of Union Township, has also made to ap- 
pear that Joseph Darlinton is unable to pay his tax, he is therefore exon- 
erated in the sum of twelve and one-half cents. 

Court House Rent. 

NobJe Grimes, Esq., presented two accounts for his furnishing 
house ^oom for four terms of court, also repairing court house, $40.00 
aid $5.00. 



108 mSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

Proseoutims Attomey Teem. 

September 8, 1801. 

William Creighton, Esq., presented the certificate of the Court that 
he prosecuted the pleas for the county at September session, 1801, and 
was allowed the sum of $15.00. 

Francis Taylor, Esq., presented the certificate of the court that he 
prosecuted the pleas of the county, at June sessions, 1801, and was al- 
lowed $15.00. 

Jailor and Court Crier. 

December 18, 1801. 

John Stevenson, jailor, presented his account as Crier of the Court 
at September term, four days, and attending the stray pen Oiic day, Crier 
of the Court at December term, one day, and attending on the stray 
pen one day, amounting to $7.00. 

Proseoutor's Fees. 

JuP'i I, 1802. 

Thomas Scott, Esq., presented the certificate of the court for prose- 
cuting the pleas of the Uiited States in behalf of the county at March 
term, amounting to $15.00. 

Grimes* Rent. 

June I, 1802. 

The account of Noble Grimes & Co. was returned from the court 
with a certificate that he was entitled to $10.00 for the use of his house, 
etc., at the December sessions, 1801. 

Snrvey of Connty liines. 

June I, 1802. 

James Stevenson presented an account for running the line between 
Ross, Clermont and Adams Counties, amounting to $(55.50. 
Wolf scalps raised to $3.00 each in 1802. 

Sheriff Lodwick, Tax Collector. 

July 6, 1802. 

John Lo<lwick was appointed Collector of t3ie count\^ rates and 
levies for the year 1802, and at his own offer bid to collect at $5.47 per 
$100. 

Jailor's Fees. 

John Stevenson presented the certificate of the Clerk of the Court 

of General Quarter Sessions at June term, 1802, certifying that John 

Stevenson was allowed $20.00 as jailor for the year last passed, which 

certificate was protested, and appeal granted at the request of said John 

Stevenson. 

Duplicates. 

Washington. September, 16, 1802. 

The Commissioners order the Secretary to immediately make out 
the duplicate for the tax of 1802, in which duplicate he must put the tax 
of the town property and Cedar Hill Township agreeable to the rates of 
1801, as the appraisers neglected to make a return of that year .and to 



COMMISSIONERS' EARLY PROCEEDINGS 109 

take bond and security of the Collector for the true collection and pay- 
ing over the same. 

Peter Shoemaker presented an account for taking care of a poor 
person farmed out to him, and was allowed $50.00, agreeable to his ac- 
count as filed. 

Peter Platter, for taking care of Moses Massie, a poor person, 
while sick, was allowed $31.50. 

Allowanoes for Wolf Soalps, MaroH, 1803. 

Edmund Wade. 2 wolf scalps $6 00 

John Bailes, i wolf scalp 3 00 

Andrew Clemmer, 3 wolf scalps 9 00 

Daniel White, i wolf scalp 3 00 

William Wade, 1 wolf scalp 3 00 

Peter WycoflF, i wolf scalp 3 00 

Joseph Shepherd, i wolf scalp 3 00 

Daniel Collier. 2 wolf scalps 6 00 

Isaac Smith, 5 young ones 7 50 

George Hise, 1 wolf scalp 3 00 

Thomas Tong, 1 wolf scalp 3 00 

William Pittinger. r wolf scalp 3 00 

Jonathan Wamsley, i wolf scalp 3 00 

Peter Shoemaker, i wolf scalp 3 00 

John Strickler, 3 wolf scalps 9 00 

William Russell, i wolf scalp 3 00 

James Milligan, i wolf scalp 3 00 

Soloman Froman, i wolf scalp 3 00 

Peter Rakus, i wolf scalp 3 00 

John Walling, i wolf scalp 3 00 

Panther Scalps. 

Phillip Lewis, Jr., 2 panther scalps $6 00 

William Duduit, i panther scalp 3 00 

Elijah Rinker, i panther scalp 3 00 

Branding Irons. 

William Jennings produced the certificate of the court allowing him 
$14.00 for a set o^ branding irons for the use of the county. 

Election Boxes. 

John Mitchell presented a certificate from the court allowing him 
for four election boxes, $14.70. 

Estrays. 

Four head of neat cattle taken up by me some time in January, 1801, 
were claimed on the tenth of September ensuing by Thomas Young, 
living in Hamilton County, waters of Little Miami, twentieth of Sep- 
t':niber. 1802. David Bradford. 

These are to certify that a cow and calf taken up by me last Feb- 
ruary have been claimed by and proven to be the property of Mary 
Harrison.. of Kentucky, August 26, 1802. David Edie. 



no fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

I do certify that a bright bay mare taken up by me, is this day re- 
stored to the owner, Henry Andrews, living in South Bend Township, 
Hamilton County. Given under my hand this ninth day of August, 
1802. Geo. Hutton. 

John Lodwick, Sheriff, exhibited a receipt from the Treasurer for 
$30.25, it being the net proceeds of an estray mare sold by the said Lod- 
wick, which was taken up by Thos. Grimes. 



Ordered that the tax for the present year be laid to the extent of 
the law. 

John Lodwick appointed Collector for 1803 at a commission of 
six per cent. 

Court Prosecutor. 

December 10, 1803. 

Levin Belt, $15.00 for prosecuting on behalf of State at December 
term. 

County Seat CommlMioiiers. 

December 10, 1803. 

Isaac Davis, John Evans and James Menary, Commissioners, who, 
in obedience to law, viewed the county in order to report to the Legis- 
lature thje most eligible situation for the seat of justice for this county, 
had their amounts exhibited and were allowed $49.00. 

First Meeting Held at West Union. 

West Union, June 11, 1804. 

Nathaniel Beasley, Moses Baird and Robt. Simpson this day pro- 
duced certificates of their being duly elected Commissioners of Adams 
County, and also of their being duly qualified according to law, and 
took their seats. Jos. Darlinton appointed Clerk to Board. 

New Townships Established. 

June 23, 181 7. 
Monroe Township established. 

December 2, 1817. 

Liberty Township cut off of the north end of Sprigg. 

February 25, 181 8. 

Scott Township cut off of the north end of Wayne Township. 

March 10, 1828. 
Franklin Township cut off of the north side of Meigs Township. 

Connty Strong Box. 

January 6, 1830. 

Ordered that the County Auditor and County Treasurer procure 

a strong chest to be lined and bound with iron, for securing the funds 

in the county treasury. 

Sheriff's OIBoe. 

October 3, 1831. 

Andrew Ellison allowed $12.00 for rent of house for Sheriff's office 
one year. 



CX>MMISSIONERS' EARLY PROCEEDINGS 111 

Fimt Inflmuury. 

March, 1837. 

The Commissioners purchased the farm of G. L. Compton on Beas- 
ley's Fork, of 211 acres, for $2,000.00, for a poor farm. 

MajSTille and ZaaesTille Tnmpike Snbsoription. 

November 10, 1838. 

After weighing the subject, the Commissioners of Adams County 
subscribe to the Zanesville & Maysville Turnpike Road Company 
$8,000.00, which sum is to be obtained from the Bank of West Union 
when called on at a rate of 6 per cent, per annum, and is not to be 
called for until the year 1840. 

Scrip iMiied. 

December 8, 1840. 

The Commissioners of Adams County have come to the conclusion 
to issue Adams County scrip for the special benefit of the Zanesville and 
Maysville Turnpike Road Company, to the amount of $8,000.00, in the 
following manner: $1,500.00 in one year, $1,500.00 more in eighteen 
months, $2,500.00 in two years, and $2,500.00 in three years, all bearing 
legal interest from the issue until paid. 

Old Market House. 

March i, 1841. 

The Commissioners have come to the conclusion to have the 
market house of said county cleared out and kept clean and free hence- 
forth from fodder, hay, oats, or straw of any kind and every kind. 

June 6, 1844. 

The Board then proceeded to assess the tax on the practicing at- 
torneys and physicians in Adams County as follows, to-wit : 

ATTORNETS— Tiffin Towneliip. 

Geo. CoUings, $4; James Armstrong, $1; Nelson Barrere, $5; 
Joseph McCormick, $2. 

PHTSICIANS— Tiffin Township. 

Dr. T. M. Sprague, $2; Dr. Clark, $2; Dr. W. F. Wilson, $2. 

Spriee Township. 

Dr. W. R. Robinson, $2; Dr. Stableton, $2; Dr. D. McConaha, $1. 

Meiss Township. 

Dr. Sever Little, $1 ; Dr. Eph Wheaton, $1. 

Green To^^nship. 

Dr. T. M. Wood, $2; Dr. John Evans, $2; Dr. J. M. Tweed, $2. 

Jefferson Township. 

Dr. Daniel Burley, $0.50 ; Dr. Daniel Peggs, $2. 



112 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



Dr. W. G. Johnson, $i ; Dr. William Shields, $2 ; Dr. Wm. Hol- 

derness, $2. 

Wineliester Towmshlp. 

Dr. N. D. Thompson, $1.50; Dr. Abraham Baker, $1; Dr. A. C. 
I^ewis, $2. 

Resolution of Cemcwe. 

March 4, 1850. 

The Commissioners adopted the following resolution, to-wit: 
Resolved, that the County Commissioners of the county of Adams 
are opposed to the enactment of the proposed law providing for tlie sale 
of the Maysville and Zanesville Turnpike road, as a g^oss act of injustice 
to the people of the county, and hereby respectfully but firmly remon- 
strate against the same. 

Resolzfed, that the Auditor be directed to forward an authenticated 
copy of the foregoing resolution to our member of the House 6f Rep- 
resentatives, to be by him presented to that body. 

OliTor Towsflhip. 

March 8, 1853. 

Oliver Township established. Cut off of Wayne and Scott. First 
election held at the house of W. B. Brown near Unity. Was named 
in honor of John Oliver, of Meigs Township. 

JaiL 

March 3, 1858. 

The stone work of the jail and Sheriff's residence was let to William 
Killen for $994.50. The completion of the building to Rape & Moore 
for $2,498.00. 

ManoHester Towmaliip. 

March 3, 1858. 
Manchester Township established from Sprigg Township. Cohi- 
posed of Manchester Corporation and Manchester S. S. D. 

November 16, 1858. 
The Commissioners appointed William E. Hopkins Clerk of Courts 
to fill vacancy occasioned by death of A. C. Robe. 

Plans for Infirmary. 

March 8, 1859. 

A. W. Wood, of Aberdeen, paid $40.00 for making plans and speci- 
fications of county infirmary. 

West Union Incorporated. 

December 5, 1859. 

A petition to incorporate West Union was presented by J. K. Bil- 
lings et al. Remonstrance presented by G. D. Darlinton et al. 

December 6, 1859. 
Petition lo incorporate West Union granted. 



CX>MMISSIONERS' EARLY PROCEEDINGS 113 

Arms, Eto., for First ReKiment. 

September 3, 1861. 

E. P. Evans presented a bill for J. R. Cockerill and I. H. De Bruin 
for $30.00 cash paid by them for transporting arms and acoutremenls 
from Columbus, Ohio, to this county for use of the First Regiment, First 
Brigade, Fifth Division, O. V. M., which was allowed. Also a bill for 
$63.00 for repairing old arms, which was not allowed. 

-•^ 

County livnatio Asylniii. 

April 25, 1863. 

The contract for building a county lunatic asylum was let to A. L. 
Lloyd for $398.00, to be built on infirmary grounds. 

Morgan Raid Claims. 

September 7, 1863. 

Allowed William E. Hopkins $50.00 and Mrs. Ann Marlatt $60.00 
for boarding men and horses during the Morgan Raid. 

Commissioners' Contest. 

December 7, 1863. 

The Commissioners met pursuant to law. Present : Jos. R. Stev- 
enson, John Pennywitt, and J. C. Milligan, the latter two claiming the 
same seat. In consequence of the Commissioners being unable to ag^ee 
as to who constituted the Board, they adjourned until tomorrow. 

[John Pennywitt obtained the seat as Commissioner, but the record 
does not state how. — Ed.] 

Army Substitute Brokers. 

February 6, 1865. 

This day the Commissioners of said county appointed L. E. Cox 
and Smith Grimes to act as agents for the different townships of this 
county, to procure substitutes, etc., in pursuance of an act of the General 
Assembly, passed at the present session, restricting and legalizing sub- 
stitute brokerage. 



8a 



CHAPTER XII. 



PUBUC ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 

The First Pnblio Hicliway— The Xyte Fork Road— The Roads to EllLi* 
Ferry^-The Whiskey Road^— Zane's Traee from Treber's 

TaTom to Tod's Crosstnc* 

The first public road sur/eyed and established in Adams County was 
the old post road over that portion of Zane's Trace from opposite Lime- 
stone or Maysville on the Ohio River to the north line of the county near 
the Sinking Spring. This road,however,was established under authority of 
Hamilton County, in 1796, the year preceding the organization of Adams 
County. It was known by the name of Zane's road, the Limestone road, 
and the Limestone and Chillicothe road, and is as variously designated 
in the early road records of Adams County. Afterwards the "New State 
Road," as it was called, was laid out over the same general line, but so 
changed and altered in many parts as to form a new road. The most 
notable change was that beginning at the old ford of Brush Creek where 
the SprouU bridge now spans that stream. Here the new State road 
crossed the creek and passed by the way of the Steam Furnace and in- 
tersected the old Chillicothe road to the east of Locust Grove. In later 
years the Maysville and Zanesville turnpike was constructed along the 
general route of the old post road over Zane's Trace before mentioned, 
passing through Bradyville, Bentonville, West Union, Dunkinsville, 
Dunbarton, Palestine, Locust Grove, and Sinking Springs. 

Under the Territorial Government the Court of Quarter Sessions 
heard petitions, granted views, and ordered surveys for the location of 
public roads; and upon proper hearing ordered or refused the estab- 
lishment and record of such roads. The earlv records of this court dis- 
close the fact that all roads petitioned for were granted without reference 
to the number of petitioners or their place of residence in the county. But 
after settlements began to dot the valleys of the water courses through- 
out the county, and rivalry between them was aroused for improved 
roads to the county seat or principal market points, the Court acted 
with much formality and great deliberation in the establishment of these 
public highways. 

The first step in the establishment of a public road was the filing of 
a proper petition praying for the granting of such improvement, sub- 
scribed by more than twelve re^dent freeholders of the county. After 
a second reading of the petition, if there was no remonstrance against the 
proposed road, viewers were appointed and a survey of the route or- 
dered ; after the report of the viewers and surveyors, if favorable to the 
petitioners, and there still being no remonstrance filed, the Court, after 
due consideration, would order the establishment of the road as a public 
highway, and a record of the same made by the Clerk of the Court. 

(114) 



PUBLIC ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 115 

All the early roads in the county began at some one of the many 
ferries across the Ohio River and extended into the interior to settle- 
ments on Brush Creek, Eagle Creek, Red Oak, Scioto Brush Creek, 
the Scioto River, or to intersect Zane's Trace leading to the settlements 
on Paint Creek. There was but one east and west road across the 
county, other than the roads from Logan's Gap to Ellis' Ferry, and from 
Manchester via Washington to Alexandria, at the mouth of the Scioto, 
and that one was established in 1799 from Manchester to the settlement 
made by Capt. Feagins near where Georgetown in Brown County is 
now situated. There was a trail thence to Williamsburg and the settle- 
ments on the Miami. This excepts the post route from ChilHcothe to 
Cincinnati, which passed through the old town of New Market and ter- 
ritory at that time within the limits of Adams County. 

At the organization of the county in September, 1797, the following 
orders with reference to public roads were made by the Court: 

"Upon petition of sundry persons the Court admit and order a 
road laid out from Manchester to the east fork of Eagle Creek (in the 
vicinity of the Kirker settlement) and appoint Joseph Kerr, surveyor, 
and William Hannah and Daniel Robbins, reviewers." 

"On petition of sundry persons the Court admit and order a road 
laid out from Manchester to the land opposite the mouth of Bull Creek, 
to take the bottom from Law son's road. Andrew Ellison, surveyor, 
Adam Pennyweight and William McGarry, reviewers." 

"On the petition of sundry persons the Court order a road laid out 
from Manchester to the Lick Fork to where it meets the Limestone 
road, from thence to the crossin.G^ of Brush Creek, and appoint Andrew 
Ellison, surveyor, and Robert Ellison and Joseph Eyler, reviewers." 

"The Court order a road laid out from Ohio Brush Creek where the 
Limestone road crosses it to ChilHcothe. Duncan McArthur, surveyor 
(afterwards Governor of Ohio), and Henry Abrams and William Carr, 
reviewers." 

"The Court order and allow a road laid out from Nathaniel 
Massie's mill to Joseph Collier's on Scioto Brush Creek. Benjamin 
Lewis, surveyor; James Williams and Hector Murphy, reviewers." 

Xo more roads were granted until the June session of the court in 
1798, when the following entry was ordered: "On petition of sundry 
persons for a road from the mouth of Brush Creek to Adamsville, 
granted." 

At this session of the court the road from Manchester to the Rock 
House (Ellison's") on Lick Fork was established and made a matter of 
record. This road began at a beech tree at the upper end of Manchester, 
crossed Island Creek, continuing in a northerly course to Killinstown; 
thence crossing Lick Fork at the town of Waterford ; whole distance, 
twentv miles. 

Parmenus Washburn, viewing, seven days. 

Lazeleer Swim, viewing, five days. 

Joseph Kerr, surveying and plotting, five days. 

Caleb Wells and Edward Wells each, chain carriers, four days. 

The Court appointed Joseph Collirs and Simon Shoemaker, super- 
visors of this road. 



11« HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

The Court also ordered at this session a road laid out from Capt. 
Brook's road (which began at the river five miles above Ellis' Ferry) 
to Ellis* Ferry opposite Limestone, and also a road from Manchester 
to Henry Moore's mill 

Adams County at this date included what is now Ross County, and 
the record shows that the Court ordered a road laid out from the Falls 
of Paint Creek, afterwards known as "the Falls road," to *ElHs' road 
near John Shepherd's on Brush Creek, and appointed Duncan McArthur, 
surveyor, and Daniel Hare and John Brown, viewers. 

At the December session, 1798, the return of the survey of the road 
from Adamsville to the Scioto, whole distance from the court house 
twenty-four miles, was made and the plat ordered recorded. William 
Russell, surveyor. 

The following quaint record was ordered at the March session, 
1799: 

"The Court order that the road leading from Manchester to Scioto 
Brush Creek shall be altered around David Lovejoy's fence not to ex- 
ceed ten rods until it intersects James Naylor's line, and then with his 
line until it intersects the old road." 

John Edg^ngton, brother of Asahel Edgington, who was killed by 
the Indians on Lick Fork, and Edward Thomas were appointed view- 
ers of a rood from Osier's or Beasley's Ferry below Limestone to St. 
Clairsville, now Decatur in Brown County. 

A road was granted beginning^ at John Shepherd's crossing of 
Brush Creek, extending along the Falls road (Falls of Paint Creek) to 
the Sinking Spring. Simon Shoemaker and Thomas Aerl, viewers. 

The Kyte Fork Road. 

The following petition could not fail to bring the Court to its 
senses and cause it to act immediately to relieve the "awful" condition 
of affairs in the Kyte Fork "vicinitude." 

"The petition of the inhabitants of the east fork of Eagle Creek 
and the vicinitude thereof prayeth that Your Honors would grant us a 
survey for a highway from Edwards' Ferry, opposite Maysville, on the 
nearest and best ground, to the mouth of Kyte's Fork, of Eagle Creek 
and thence to the junction of the State road at or near the fifteen-mile 
tree from Maysville. Your petitioners being well aware of the necessity 
of a public highway being laid out on that ground for the accommo- 
dation of the public and neighborhood or settlement such highway will 
pass through, and more especially as Mr. Edwards by the insinuations 
of one or two of the inhabitants of this creek who for their own private 
emoluments have persuaded him to decline having the survey made 
agreeable to your order of the last session for laying out a highway 
from his ferry to the State road from the eleventh to the thirteenth 
mile tree, and intend superseding it by a petition for a road from Lime- 
stone to the mouth of Thomas' Run of the east fork under the head of 
accommodating that settlement which will open a door for carrying it 
on through an unknown tract of rough country' and join the State road 



*EI11b* road was that portion of Zane's trace which Nathan Ellis had Improved atbfnown ex- 
pense from his ferry opposite Limestone to John Shepherd^s on Ohio Brush Creek now known as 
Frlstoe's. 



PUBLIC ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 117 

between Brush Creek and the Falls of Paint which if necessary would be 
burthensome to our inhabitants; therefore, we pray that you would 
grant us a survey, as we are sensible of its being the most eligible ground 
for the benefit of the public and this settlement as it crosses the east 
fork where Seth Foster is building a grist and saw mill, and also there 
intersects the road from Manchester to New Market, which roads will 
lully supply the present and future settlements, for which our most earn- 
est desire is that you would grant our request, for which we in duty 
bound will ever pray/' Granted, and ordered that Thomas Middleton 
be surveyor and Stephen Beach and R. Smith, reviewers. John Lod- 
wick, security for costs. 

At the March session, 1799, a petition was granted for a new road 
"on better ground and nigher way from Manchester to Killinstown, to 
intersect the old road near Robert Ellison's. John Barritt, surveyor ; Job 
Dening and James Collins, reviewers. John Killin, for costs. 

A road also granted from mouth of the Scioto to Lucas' Ferry 
(Lucasville, Scioto Codnty). Joseph Lucas, for costs. 

The road from the mouth of Thomas' Run to Limestone so greatly 
deplored by the "Kyteforkers" in a petition heretofore noticed, was 
granted at this session. John Thomas, for costs. Nathaniel Beasley, 
surveyor, and John "Kingsawley" (Gunsaulus) and Ellis Palmer, re- 
viewers. 

A road was petitioned for at this session from John Stinson's 
ferry opposite the mouth of Svcamore Creek to" the town of Washington 
at the mouth of Brush Creek. Hector, Murphy for costs; Joseph Kerr, 
surveyor, and Richard Grimes and John Sherley, reviewers. 

The Roads to Ellis' Ferry. 

The September term, 1799, was mostly consumed in considering pe- 
titions for and remonstrances against proposed roads. James Edwards 
had the year previous established a ferry opposite Limestone in oppo- 
sition to Nathan Ellis who had. in 1796, settled where Aberdeen now 
stands, and conducted a ferry and later a tavern for the accommodation 
of prospectors and emigrants to this portion of the Northwest Territory. 
After the opening of Zane's road, which terminated at Ellis', his ferry 
became the source of immense revenue, and as he owned the landing 
for some distance above and below the termination of the road, he 
monopolized the ferry on the Ohio side of the river, to the envy of 
James Edwards and John West, who owned lands fronting the 
river below Ellis' possessions. So these two citizens conceived the idea 
of gettting a public road located from a point on the river bank below 
the lands of Ellis, and across his lands to intersect Zane's road in the 
rear of Ellis' landing and residence. By this means thev would not 
only be enabled to maintain a ferry, but also to turn the traveling public 
from toward Ellis' to their own ferry. The following petition had been 
presented to the Court at the previous March session : "Yonr petition- 
ers, inhabitants of Cedar Hill Township, and county aforesaid, most re- 
spectfully showeth that the emigrants by the route of Limestone, Ken- 
tucky, to the said township and county, labor under various inconven- 
iences in landing below the road of Nathan Ellis, Esq., which being drove 
down the Ohio by the current of the river as low as will be opposite to 



118 HISTORY OF ADAMS (X)UNTY 

the southwest street that leads from the house of Benjamin Suttcm who 
occupies all the ferries in Limestone aforesaid ; and that a road may be 
readily had from opposite said street (in Limestone) on the land of James 
Edwards, to rim about ninety poles in the same, thence throug^h lands 
of Nathan ElKs, Esq., along the hillside about twenty poles to where it 
will intersect the road now established. Your petitioners therefore pray 
that Your Worships will appoint suitable persons to view the above re- 
cited desired road and make a return of their proceedings in the same 
to Your Worships for confirmation, and your petitioners will ever be in 
duty bound, etc. Granted and ordered that Philip Lewis be surveyor, 
and Wm. Dunbar, and Stephen Beech, reviewers. John West, security 
for costs." 

At this September session, as aforesaid, Judge Ellis sat as a mem- 
ber of the Court, and through his attorney, William Creighton, first 
Secretary of State of Ohio, moved the Court not to receive the return 
of the viewers and surveyors then filed with the Cl^rk of the Court, John 
S. Wills. But notwithstanding the protest of Judge Ellis, the Court 
overruled the motion. Then his attornev moved for a review of the road, 
which motion was granted, and Peter Shoemaker, Daniel Collier, and 
John Collins were appointed reviewers. 

At this time the celebrated Thomas' Run road, which was a matter 
of contention between Ellis and Edwards and their respective adherents, 
was before the Court for confirmation of the survey, and the Court or- 
dered a review of that proposed thoroughfare. The remonstrances, 
among other matters, allege that "there is no necessity for any such 
road (to Edwards' Ferry) as there is a very good road established, sixty- 
six feet wide, by the Court of Hamilton County, and is now opened at 
least twenty feet wide and made commodious for travelers and on a^ good 
ground as ever can be got through the same neighborhood and as near ; 
and must run within a small distance of the above (Zane's) road the 
whole length of the way, and can never serve the pubHc if opened, but 
if opened will just serve to draw the benefit of Capt. Ellis' public labcM" to 
Edwards' Ferry, which we, your petitioners, conceive to be too hard and 
unjust, and therefore object to the opening of the said survey, and pray 
that Your Honors (the petitioners for the improvement addressed the 
Court as "Your Worships") may appoint three disinterested men to re- 
view the above survey and make report to your next Court of General 
Quarter Session of the Peace whether the said survey is of public utility 
or not, and your petitioners in duty bound shall ever pray, etc." 

Judge Ellis, or Capt. Ellis, as he was familiarly known, himself pe- 
titioned the Court with reference to the Edwards Ferry road above no- 
ticed as follows : 
"To the Honorable John Beasley, John Belli and Joseph Kerr, members 

of the Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace in and for 

the county of Adams, N. W. Territor}- : 

"The petition of your petitioner humbly showeth that whereas Your 
Honors were pleased to order a survey of a road beginning twenty rods 
below opposite Ben vSutton's ferry at Limestone and to intersect Zane's 
road at about 120 rods from the river which is at least twenty rods 
further about than the other road, and will call for a great deal of labor 
to make said road, and when made will be ver}' injurious to your peti- 



PUBLIC ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 119 

tioner's farm as it will deprive him of all his woodbine pasture that he has 
on his land that is watered, and will forever be injurious to him, and can- 
not accommodate the public half as well as the road that your petitioner 
has made through his own land and as far as twenty miles at one hun- 
dred and seventy -two dollars expense (this portion of Zane's road was 
also known as Ellis' road, and is frequently so referred to in the early 
records of the county) ; that your petitioner has never received any sat- 
isfaction more than the good-will of the public, and now it appears that 
undermining men wish to draw the benefits of my labor to their coffers. 
I must therefore object to the opening of the above road and pray that 
Your Honors may appoint three disinterested men to review the above 
survey and make report to your next court whether such road is of pub- 
lic utility or not, and your petitioner in duty bound, etc. 

Nathan Ellis." 

These roads were finally opened under a compromise agreement 
between Ellis and Edwards. 

The survey of the Waterford and Killinstown road was confirmed 
at this session, which was as follows : Agreeable to an order of the Gen- 
eral Quarter Sessions of the Peace in and for Adams County ,at their June 
term, 1799, surveyed the road from the town of Waterford on the Lick 
Fork of Brush Creek (Old Stone Tavern) beginning at the lower street ; 
thence south 85 east 40 poles; south 65 east 44 poles; south 51 east 52 
poles ; east 28 poles ; south 64 east 30 poles ; south 5 east 66 poles ; south 
10 east 120 poles ; one mile ; south 94 poles ; south 10 west 54 poles ; south 
20 west 216 poles to the nine-mile tree on the Manchester road in Eyler's 
lane and with said road 240 poles to Killinstown. John Beasley, sur- 
veyor; John Shepherd and John Drake, assistants. 

The foregoing established as a public road and ordered to be four 
poles wide. 

At this session was presented the petition of the inhabitants of the 
Eagle Creek and Red Oak settlements for a road beginning at the 
county line between Hamilton and Adams Counties w'ithin half a mile of 
Poague's ^erry at the mouth of Red Oak; thence to James Creswell's 
mill on said creek ; thence the nearest and best way to John Shepherd's 
horse mill ; thence to a point near Indian Lick to intersect Orr's road 
(from his ferry at Logan's Gap) leading to the Falls of Paint Creek 
(passing near where th( villages of Decatur and Tranquility are now sit- 
uated). Abraham Shepherd, surveyor, and John Shepherd and William 
Dunlap, reviewers. 

A road from Washington up Brush Creek to intersect the Chilli- 
cothe and Manchester road was granted upon the petition of Hosea 
Moore, Thomas Berkett, William Peterson, Joseph Collier, Daniel Col- 
lier, Christian Wood, Henry Moore, George Campbell, Simon Fields, 
John Henderson, James Carson, Jacol) Tanner, S. Rost, Isaac Wams- 
ley, Jr., Isaac Wamsley, Sr., Cornelius Williamson, Samuel Smith, Zeke 
Barber, Alex. Barber, Lazaleer Swim, Stephen Beach, Cyny Rusion. 
Isaac Wamsley for costs. Philip Lewis, surveyor. Hosea Moore and 
Henry Neave, assistants. 

At the December session, 1799, the Court appointed Nathaniel 
Beasley. surveyor and Samuel Shaw and John Baldwin, assistants, to 



120 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX>UNTY 

locate a road from James Holmes* mill on the east fork of Eagle Creek 

to the highway leading from the n^outh of Thomas' Run to Edwards' 

Ferry. 

The Wkiskey Boad. 

In early days the very necessary commodity, whiskey, was scarce, 
and to secure plenty of it, in about 1807, a party from Xew Market 
started out to cut a road through the \voods to near Winchester, where 
a German named *He!nphill had a still-house, the fame of which had 
spread to the early settlers. 

It was on Xew Year's day, 1807, that a party started from the tavern 
of George \V. Barrere, in Xew Market, headed by that gentleman with 
his compass and Jacob-staflF to locate the route for the new road. He 
was followed by thirty men with axes, and a barrel of Jacob Medsker's 
best whiskey on a pole sled drawn by a horse. Several tin cups were 
hung on one side of the sled and a side of bacon on the other. A boy 
rode the horse and for a saddle sat on a bag, the ends of which were filled 
with corn dodgers. A few of the force carried rifles, with which to pro- 
cure any game which they should be fortunate enough to meet. Mike 
Moore had charge of the barrel and provisions, and carried with him his 
^ I fiddle with which he made the camp lively during the evening. The 
whiskey barrel was nearly empty in the morning, which proved an in- 
centive to the force to be expeditious with their work and reach a new 
base of supplies, where a fresh drink could be taken. On the return a 
barrel of Hemphill's best was placed on the sled, and the speed being 
greater, the larger portion of it returned to Xew Market. Thereafter 
the New Marketers had a sure road for the transportation of their favor- 
ite beverage. 

At the June session, 1800. William Sprigg, for whom Sprigg Town- 
* i ship was named, and who afterwards became a Supreme Judge of Ohio, 
as attorney for Israel Donalson and others, presented to the Court a peti- 
tion for a road from the crossing of Elk Run to intersect the Limestone 
road at or near the residence of George or Isaac Edgington (near Union 
Church, south of Bentonville). This petition is subscribed b> George 
Rogers, Ezekiel Rogers, Peter Bilber. Richard Roundsavill, John 
Rogers, Nathaniel Rogers, John Austin, Wm. L. Kenner. I. Donalson, 
William Morrison. John Morrison, Joseph Morrison. John Goodin and 
Daniel Henderson. 

The following petition for a road from Shoemaker's Crossing of 
Brush Creek to Zane's road discloses the fact that Zane's road was as 
has heretofore been suggested, so "straightened and amended" as to lose 
its identity within a few years after the trace was blazed through Adams 
County. This accounts far the many conflicting claims as to its origi- 
nal location, by the descendants of those who lived in the county about 
the time of the opening of the trace, and who rely upon tradition as the 
foundation of their knowledge. "Your petitioners pray that a road may 

* The Hemphill farm was near the present village of Newport, on George's Creek, near Its 
junction with weHt fork of Ohio Brush Creek. 

The above is taken from Williams' History of Highland County, and the George W. Barrere 
mentioned was the father of the late Nelson Barrere. a notice of whom appears In this volume 
under the chapter devoted to the Judiciary and Bar of Adams County. 

James W. Finley, afterwards a noted divine and missionary to the Wyandotte Indians, was 
an associate of Barrere and a frequenter of the bar room in his tavern about the period men- 
tioned, and was known throughout the settlement, as the "New Market Devil." 



PUBLIC ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 121 

be established from Shoertiaker's Crossing of Brush Creek (near 
Sproull's) on the nearest and best course passing Mr. Chapman's, till it 
•ntersects Zane's road and thence with the said road straightening it in 
many places and making such amendments thereon as may be thought 
necessary, to the county line. Your petitioners further pray that a road 
may be established from the termination of a road established by the 
county of Ross, leading from the Pee Pee town to the line of this county 
to intersect the first road asked for at the most convenient place. James 
Boyd, Jesse Weatherington, Abram Boyd, Joseph V^an Meter, Absalom 
Van Meter, Seth Van Meter, Peter Shoemaker, Simon Shoemaker, John 
Sample, Jonathan Boyd, Samuel McDermitt, John Shirley, David Mc- 
Dermitt. Daniel Collier, William Ogle, Enoch Ogle, Thomas Ogle, 
Henry Moore, Jesse Eastburn, Joseph Collier, C. Williamson, Hosea 
Moore. Thos. Kirker, William Peterson. Abraham Neff, John Chap- 
man, Adam Hatfield, Robert Ellison, James Ellison, Job Denning. 

Joseph Eyler, Daniel Collier and Peter Shoemaker, viewers. 

This latter road, nine miles in length, was ordered opened two rods 
w^ide at the March session, 1801, and the former, Shoemaker's ford road 
fifteen miles in length and four poles v/ide. 

At the September session, 1800, the road from the twenty-mile tree 
to the Sinking Spring, was surveyed. The road leading' from the court 
house in Washington to intersect the Manchester and Chillicothe road 
was surveved bv Hosea Moore and return thereof to court made and 
same read a second time. Whole distance sixteen miles, and road es- 
tablished four poles wide. 

At the December session, 1800, the following petition was presented 
to the Court praying for a road from crossing of Eagle Creek at Logan's 
Gap to the Red Oak settlement : 

"The Court of General Quarter Session of the Peace, at Washington, 
in and for the countv of Adams, Territory of the United States northwest 
of the river Ohio.before John Beasley, Moses Baird, Noble Grimes, Joseph 
Kerr, Thomas Kirker and John Russell, Esquires, justices assigned to 
keep the peace and to grant orders for highways, etc., in the county 
aforesaid, we, the undernamed subscribers considering the disadvantages 
attending those who travel through Massie Township, and the titility re- 
sulting from a good road through said county and township, unanimously 
solicit your approbation and commands in appointing William Steph- 
enson, James Espey, and Mills Stephenson, Esquires, to view and make 
out from the crossing of Eagle Creek at Logan's Gap, the ground that 
shall be thought best and nighest to pass over Red Oak as nigh the river 
as high water wiP permit. Pass over our informality unnoticed. Our 
countr}' is young, therefore our petitions cannot be polished by the hand 
of formality. December 5. 1800. Ignatius Mitchell, William Gregory, 
Thos. Espey, Wm.. Stephenson, Gabriel Cox, Mills v^tephenson, James 
Cresswell, John Thomas, Robert McBride, George McKinney, Samuel 
Creswell, John Redmond, Richard Roylston. Xewell Redmond, Daniel 
Redmond, James Stephenson, Elza Redmond. Survey granted. At 
the June session, 1801, said survey was returned by John Smith, Sur- 
veyor, and road ordered estaiilished from Eagle Creek at Logan's Gap 
to crossing of Red Oak ; distance two and one-tenth miles. 



122 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUlTrr 

At this session was read the first time, survey of the road from 
Holmes' Mill on the east fork of Eagle Creek to the eight-mile tree on 
the highway from Thomas' Run to Edwards' Ferry. 

There was also granted at this term of the court a road from George 
Edwards' mill on Fishing Gut Creek, passing Col. Gutridge's settlement, 
and intersecting 2^ne's road at a white ash marked three and one-fourth 
miles to Ellis' Ferry. James Edwards, Willim Rains, John West. 
Francis Jacobs, John Gutridge, Sr., John Gutridge, Jr., Robert Miller, 
William Hamilton, John Dillon, George Swisher, William Patterson, 
Thomas Roberts, Asabel Brookover, George West, Thomas Justice, 
Simon Reeder, John Simpson. William Cornell, William Gollshar, Na- 
than Ellis. 

A petition for a road to be laid out from Washington to intersect the 
road from Manchester to Chillicothe, at or near Killinstown, was filed at 
this term subscribed by the following petitioners: John Brown. John 
Brown, Jr., Simon Shoemaker, Peter Shoemaker, Thomas Grimes, Laz'l 
Swim, James Collins. Jesse Witherington, Stephen Bayless, Patrick Kil- 
iin, Joseph Eyler, William Boldridge (Baldridge), Samuel Boldridge, 
Ben Piatt, John Boldridge, James Allison. Davison C. Clary, Thomas 
Mason. Job Denning, John Killin. Henry Smith, James Miller, Alex. 
Barber, Thomas Brown, Laid Furguson. 

At the March session, 1801, a petition was filed for alteration of road 
from John Treber's to the twenty-seven mile tree on Zane's road. 

December session, 1801. Road from Washington to William Dun- 
bar's landing opposite Sycamore Creek. James Barritt, Surveyor; 
James Nailor, David Lovejoy, and Hector Murphy, viewers ; John Barritt, 
surveyor; David Bradford, John Ellison and David Leitch, security for 
costs. 

At same session the road from Robert Ellison's trace to John Tre- 
ber's granted. "Beginning in the road already laid from Manchester 
to Adamsville where Robert Ellison's trace leaves the said road at the 
forks of Island Creek, thence through the western part of James Collins' 
plantation to itersect the Limestone road (Zane's) three miles and fifty 
poles from Treber's, the whole distance being five miles and two hun- 
dred and thirty-nine poles." John Beasley, surveyor. 

Zane's Trace from Treber's Tavern to Tod's Crosslns. 

Zane's road from John Treber's to top of Brush Creek hill was 
changed as follows: from Treber's on the highlands to the old Indian 
ford of Brush Creek, and thence on nearest and best grounds to intersect 
main road at the twenty-seven-mile tree. 

The survey of this road was (granted upon the petition of Peter 
Wickcrhani, John Treber, Joseph Horn, Nathan Ellis, Abraham Shep- 
herd, Samuel Swan, William Murfin, James Boyd, Abraham Boyd, Jon- 
athan Boyd, William Boyd, Peter Platter, David Honsell, John Milligan, 
David Bunnell, James Bunnell, at September session, 180T. 

The return of the survey was made on the eighth day of December, 
tRoi. by John Beasley, surveyor; Jacob Treber and John Sample, 
chainmen. The road began at the twenty-one-mile tree near Treber's 
and thence as follows: North 60 east 60 poles; north 120 poles; north 
20 east 734 poles ; north 47 east 66 poles ; north 82 east 60 poles ; north 



¥ 



PUBLIC ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 123 

42 east 106 poles ; north 54 west 34 poles at Tod's old crossing of Brush 
Creek; north 34 east 194 poles; north 69 east 46 pc4es; north 33 east 
10 poles ; to the said road again at or near the twenty-seven-mile tree, 
he whole length of the above mentioned road is six miles ; width estab- 
lished, thirty feet. 

The Court order and appoint David Edie, John Mehaffey and Ben- 
jamin Grace, viewers, and Nathaniel Beasley, surveyor, of a road from 
Limestone to county (Clermont) line. James Edwards, John West and 
Seth Foster, for costs. 

James Naylor, Zed. Markland and Zephaniah Wade, reviewers, 
and John Barrett, surveyor, of road from Donalson's Creek to Wash- 
burn's Mill. Adam Pennywait, David Lovejoy, and Zeph Wade, for 
costs. 

Charles Osier, Joseph Stewart, and William Middleton, viewers; 
James Stephenson, surveyor, of road from opposite Sutton's Ferry at 
Limestone to the Buffalo crossings. James Edwards, John West and 
George Edwards, for costs. 

David Edie, Joseph Washburn, and Parmenus Washburn, viewers, 
and Israel Donalson, surveyor, of a road from Manchester to New Mar- 
ket. Joseph Darlinton, Nathaniel Beasley, and Needham Perry, secu- 
rity for costs. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE EARLY TAVERNS AND OLD INNS 




The First Taverm at Manehestex^-Piomeer TaTerm Keepers— A Wayside 

Ibbf— Obserratioms of a Traveler. 



There were no settlements made outside the stockade at the Three 
Islands in the territory from which Adams County was formed before 
the autumn of 1795. But early in the year following the tide of emi- 
gration set in so strong that cabins were erected and clearings were 
made along all the principal streams in the interior. The mouth of the 
Scioto, the vicinity of Brush Creek Island, Manchester, Ellis' Ferry, 
opposite Maysville and Logan's Gap, near the mouth of Eagle Creek, 
were the principal gateways through which the pioneers entered this 
portion of the Territory. Of these, Manchester at the Three Islands, 
and Alexandria at the mouth of the Scioto were the principal entrance- 
ways. And at these towns were opened the first taverns of the county. 
They were rude log structures not arranged with the view of contribut- 
ing to the comfort of guests, but only for the purpose of furnishing 
shelter from the elements, and a simple fare to appease hunger. At 
most of these early taverns whiskey was sold, and many of them be- 
came the resort of the idlers and rowdies in the vicinity. George Sam- 
ple, who settled on Ohio Brush Creek at the mouth of Soldier's Run, 
in writing to the Western Pioneer in 1842, with reference to his first 
visit to Adams County in 1797, among other things concerning Man- 
chester, says : 

The First Tavern at Manehester. 

**There were fifteen to twenty cabins at Manchester, one of which 
was called a tavern. It was at least a grogshop. There were about a 
dozen visitors at the tavern, and as the landlord was a heyday, well-met 
tippler with the rest, they appointed me to assist the landlady in mak- 
ing eggnog. I was inexperienced in the art, but I made out to suit 
them very well. I put about a dozen eggs in a large bowl, and after 
beating, or rather stirring the eggs up a little, I added about a pound of 
sugar and a little milk to this mass ; I then filled the bowl up with whis- 
key, and set it on the table ; and they sat about the table and sipped it 
with spoons. Tumblers or glasses of any sort had not then come in 
fashion." This tavern was conducted by John McGate, an Irishman, who 
with his good wife Katy were noted characters in the pioneer days of 
Manchester. The early Court records tell the story of many broils and 
fisticuffs at McGate's in which the landlord and landlady were par- 
ticipants. One James Dunbar, school-master, seems to have gplven 
much time to the "manly art," in and about this resort from the num- 

(124) 



THE EARLY TAVERNS AND OLD INNS 126 

ber of "mills" reported to the Court in which he is alleged to have taken 
a principal part. In fact the g^and jury report of that day would be 
incomplete without the familiar return : "We do present James Dun- 
bar and William Hannah for beating and abusing John McGate and 
wife." Or, "We do find a bill against Catherine McGate for a breach of 
the peace on the body of James Dunbar." 

Pioneer Tavern Keepers. 

At the sitting of the first Court of Quarter Sessions at Manchester 
in 1797, Samuel Stoops, John McGate and Job Denning each petitioned 
the Court for a recommendation to the Governor for a tavern license, 
and their petitions were granted, **to keep tavern in the town of Man- 
chester." At the same time John Pollock was given a recommendation 
for a tavern license in the town of Alexandria at the mouth of the Scioto. 
In June, 1798, William Keggs and Benjamin Goodin, and in September 
of that year, Peter Mowry, were each licensed to keep tavern at Man- 
chester. These and Daniel Robbins (residence not known) were the first 
licensed tavern keepers in Adams County. As the settlements began to 
dot the valleys in the interior, and traces were blazed and roads cut 
through the forests to them, "the wayside inns" were opened for the 
accommodation of the traveling public. The earliest of these was kept 
by James January on the Limestone and Chillicothe road (Zane's Trace) 
in the valley just to the west of where West Union now stands, on what 
is known as the Swearingen farm. This house was opened in 1798, and 
licensed early in 1800. In the latter part of the year, 1798, John Hessler 
opened a tavern at Alexandria, and William Faulkner began to enter- 
tain travelers at the mouth of Brush Creek. The next tavern in the 
interior was that opened by John Trebar in the latter part of 1798 or 
early in the year 1799. When George Sample made his first trip over 
Zane's Trace in 1797, he noted the fact that but two houses were on the 
trace from the vicinitv of where West Union now stands to Chillicothe — 
Trebar's on Lick Fork, and one at the Sinking Spring, Wilcoxon's. But 
neither of these was at that time places of public entertainment. In 
1800, David Bradford was licensed to keep a tavern at the town of 
Washington, the new county seat; and about the same date Noble 
Grimes opened a place of public entertainment there. In this year 
George Edgington, father-in-law of William Leedoni, who for many 
years conducted the house, opened a tavern near Bentonville. Th's 
afterwards became one of the noted old inns of the county. It is a 
large two-story, hewed log structure, now weatherboarded, and in a 
very good state of preservation. It is pleasantly situated among great 
spreading elms and locusts, just to the south of Bentonville on the old 
Limestone road, and is at present the private residence of Henry Gaffin 
who married a granddaughter of William Leedom. 

In 1 801 a petition was presented to the Court recommending Peter 
Wickerham as a "civil citizen and very worthy of the character of inn- 
keeper," and that **he lives on such a part of the road as requires some 
person to officiate in that capacity." "Granted at four dollars a year." 
This was the old tavern so long kept by Mr. Wickerham at Palestine 
between Locust Grove and Peebles on the Limestone road, or Zane's 
Trace as it was first known. The old brick tavern, the first of the kind 



126 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

in the county, is still standing and is the residence of Jacob Wicker- 
ham. 

In this year, also, Richard Harrison, at the town of Waterford near 
the mouth of Lick Fork, and Joseph Van Meter, at 2^ne's crossing of 
Brush Creek, petitioned for and were granted license to keep houses 
,of public entertainment at their respective residences. 

There was great rivalry among these tavern keepers in the new 
towns like Manchester, Alexandria, Washington, Killinstown and 
Waterford where two or more taverns were kept, and the landlords 
each manifested much bitterness of spirit toward his rivals in business. 
As one of many instances illustrative of this fact, the following is cited : 

"To the Honorable Court of Adams County : Whereas, a certain 
Christian Bottleman, of Alexandria, has for almost two years followed 
the practice of selling spiritous liquors by the quart and pint, and of 
late by the half pint, I had it in contemplation to inform on said Bottle- 
man last court but was unable by sickness, and am so at this time, but I 
thought it not improper to make this kind of information; and if the 
Court think proper to bring the offender to justice, the fact can be 
proved by calling on Joshua Parrish who will be at court, etc. I think 
it hard that the said Bottleman should take away the privilege that I 
purchased at the rate of seventeen and a half dollars per year." From 
your humble servant, William Russell. 

"Alexandria, December 5, 1801." 

About this date John Scott was keeping tavern also at Alexandria, 
and John Killin was licensed as a tavern keeper at Adamsburg, better 
known as Killinstown. A few years later the Bradford Hotel at West 
Union, The Stone House on Lick Fork, Horn's Hotel at Locust Grove, 
and Ammen*s near the county line on the "old trace," Sample's on 
Brush Creek, Allen's (old stone house) and Treber's on Lidc Fork, 
became noted stopping places for travelers over the old stage route 
from Maysville to Chillicothe. These and some others will be further 
noticed in the township histories. 

A Wayside Inn. 

"As ancient is this hostelry 
As any in the land may be. 
Built in the old Colonial day 
When men lived in a grander way. 
With ample hospitalitv ; 
A kind of old Hobgoblin Hall 
Now somewhat fallen to decay 
With weather stains upon the wall, 
And stairways worn, and crazy doors, 
And creaking and uneven floors 
And chimneys huge and tiled and tall.'- 

"A region of repose it seems, 
A place of slumber and of dreams 
Remote among the wooden hills ! 
For there no noisy railway speeds 
Its torch-race scattering smoke and gleeds, 
But noon and night the panting teams 
Stop under the great oaks, that throw 
Tangles of shade and light below 
On roofs and doors, and window sills'* 



THE EARLY TAVERNS AND OLD INNS 127 

The above view of the old Treber Inn built by John Treber, in 
1798, was recently made for this volume. It stands on the left bank 
of Lick Fork, fronting the Old Limestone road, about five miles to the 
northeast of West Union. The main building is constructed of hewed 
logs weatherboarded, while the large kitchen and dining room to the 
rear is of stone quarried in the immediate vicinity. With the exception 
of Bradford's in West Union, this is the most celebrated of the "old 
inns" yet standing. Soon after the erection of this building, there was 
swung from a huge post near the highway, the inviting sign — '*Trav- 
eler's Entertainment' ' — which swayed to and fro at the caprice of the 
winds for more than half a century. This old inn sheltered many dis- 
tinguished guests in the days of the old stage* line from Maysville to 
Wheeling. Here General Jackson and party warmed and refreshed 
themselves when he was on his way to be inaugurated President after 
his election in 1828. Here Thomas H. Benton, Henry Clay and scores 
of prominent characters from the southwest have sipped and praised 
**MotherTreber'smostexcellent coffee" while eating the "finest biscuits 
ever baked." *"Mother Treber" as she was familiarly known, was very 
proud of the reputation she had acquired of making the "best coffee" 
and **finest biscuits" anywhere to be had. On one occasion some noted 
guests were present at table, and had purposely refrained from praising 
the coffee and biscuits to annoy Mother Treber who had bestowed ex- 
tra care in the preparation of that portion of the meal. After waiting 
for the accustomed word of praise and not having received it, she ven- 
tured to remark that the meal was not to her liking and offered some 
apology. A g^est more daring than the others replied that the meal 
was very satisfactory with the exception of the coffee and biscuits; 
whereupon came the impetuous retort "you never tasted finer coffee 
nor eat better biscuits, for I prepared them myself." 

A few rods to the southeast of this old inn, at the roadside, stands 
an elm tree near which it is said Asahel Edgington was killed by the 
Indians in 1793, a full account of which occurrence appears elsewhere 
under the chapter devoted to "Adventures and Conflicts with the In- 
dians." 

Some fifty or sixty rods to the northeast of the house, in a field 
near the roadside, is the grave of Zachariah Moon, a member of a Ken- 
tucky regiment in the war of 1812, who died here and was buried by 
liis comrades when returning home after the close of the war. 

In 1825 John Treber removed to a farm in the vicinity, and his 
son Jacob Treber took charge of the old tavern and conducted it until 
about the time of the Civil War. William Treber, his son, now resides 
here. 

Observations of a Traveler. 

In August, 1807, Dr. F. Cumming, while touring the western 
country, traveled afoot across Adams County along the old stage line 
from Ellis' Ferry (Aberdeen) to the Sinking Springs ; and thence to 
Chillicothe. The following interesting notes are taken from his 
"Sketches of a Tour :" 

"Thursday, Friday anxi Saturday, I was employed in rambling 
about the woods, exploring and examining a tract of land, of a thou- 

• wife of Jacob Treber, son of John Treber, the pioneer. 



128 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

sand acres, in the State of Ohio, which I had purchased when in Europe 
last year, and which had been the principal cause of my present tour. 
As it was only six miles from Maysville, I crossed the Ohio and went 
to it on foot. I had expected to find a mere wilderness, as soon as I 
should quit the high road, but to my agreeable surprise, I found my 
land surrounded on every side by fine farms, some of them ten years 
settled, and the land itself, both in quality and situation, not exceeded by 
any in this fine country. The population was also astonishing for the 
time of the settlement, which a muster of the militia, while I was there, 
gave me an opportunity of knowing — there being reviewed a battalion 
of upwards of five hundred effective men, most expert in the use of the 
rifle, belonging to the district of ten miles square. 

'*And now I experienced amongst these honest and friendly farmers 
real hospitality, for they vied with each other in lodging me at their 
houses, and in giving me a hearty and generous welcome to their best 
fare. Robert Simpson, from New Hampshire, and Daniel Kerr and 
Thomas Gibson, from Pennsylvania, shall ever be entitled to my grate- 
ful remembrance. I had no letters of introduction to them, I had no 
claims on their hospitality, other than what any other stranger ought 
to have; but they were farmers, and had not acquired those contracted 
habits, which I have observed to prevail very generally amongst the 
traders in this part of the world. 

"On Saturday, I returned to Ellis' Ferry, opposite Maysville, to 
give directions for my baggage being sent after me by stage to Chilli- 
cothe. 

"On the bank of the Ohio, I found Squire Ellis seated on a bench 
under the shade of two locust trees, with a table, pen and ink, and sev- 
eral papers, holding a Justice's Court, which he does every Saturday. 
Seven or eight men were sitting on the bench with him, awaiting his 
awards in their several cases. When he had finished, which was soon 
after I had taken a seat under the same shade, one of the men invited 
the Squire to drink with them, which he consenting to, some whiskey 
was provided from Landlord Powers', in which all parties made a liba- 
tion to peace and justice. There was something in the scene so primitive 
and so simple, that I could not help enjoying it with much satisfaction. 

"1 took up my quarters for the night at Powers' who is an Irish- 
man from Ballibay in the county of Monaghan. He pays Squire Ellis 
eight hundred dollars per annum for his tavern, fine farm and ferry. 
He and his wife were very civil, attentive, and reasonable in their 
charges, and he insisted much on lending me a horse to carry me the 
first six miles over a hilly part of the road to Robinson's tavern, but I 
declined his kindness, and on Sunday morning, the ninth of August, 
after taking a delightful bath in the Ohio, I quitted its banks. I walked 
on towards the northeast along the main post and stage road seventeen 
miles to West Union. — the country becoming gradually more level as 
I receded from the river, but not quite so rich in soil and timber. 

"The road was generally well settled, and the woods between the 
settlements were alive with squirrels, and all the variety of woodpeckers 
with their beautiful plumage, which in one species is little inferior to 
that of the bird of Paradise, so much admired in the East Indies. 



THE EARLY TAVERNS AND OLD INNS 129 

"I Stopped at twelve miles at the house of Squire Leedom, an in- 
telligent and agreeable man, who keeps a tavern, and is a justice of the 
peace. I chose bread and butter, eggs and milk for breakfast, for which 
I tendered a quarter of a dollar, the customary price, but he would re- 
ceive only the half of that sum, saying, that even that amount was too 
much. Such instances of modest and just honesty rarely occur. 

"West Union is three years old since it was laid out for the county 
town of Adams County. The lots of one-third of an acre in size, then 
sold for about seventy dollars each. There were upwards of one hun- 
dred lots, which brought the proprietor above three thousand dollars. 
It is a healthy situation, on an elevated plain, and contains twenty 
dwelling houses, including two taverns and three stores. It has also a 
court house and a jail, in the former of which divine services was per- 
forming when I arrived, to a numerous Presbyterian congregation. One 
of the houses is well built with stone ; one of the taverns is a large frame 
house, and all the rest are formed of square logs, some of which are two 
stories high and very good. 

"Having to get a deed recorded at the clerk's office of the county, 
which could not be done till Monday morning, I stopped Sunday after- 
noon and night at West Union, where my accommodation in either 
eating or sleeping, could not boast of anything beyond mediocrity. 

"Monday the tenth of August, having finished my business and 
breakfasted, I resumed my journey through a country but indifferently 
inhabited, and at four miles and a half from West Union I stopped for 
a few minutes at Allen's tavern, at the request of a traveler on horse- 
back, who had overtaken and accompanied me for the last three miles. 
He was an elderly man named Alexander, a cotton planter in the south- 
west extremity of North Carolina, where he owns sixty-four negro slaves 
besides his plantations — all acquired by industry — he having emigrated 
from Larne in Ireland in early life with no property. He was now going 
to visit a brother-in-law at Chillicothe. He liad traveled upwards of 
five hundred miles within the last three weeks on the same mare. He 
had crossed the Saluda Mountains, and the States of Tennessee and 
Kentucky and had found houses of accommodation at convenient dis- 
tances all along that remote road, but provender so dear, that he had to 
pay In many places a dollar for a half bushel of oats. 

"Allen's is a handsome, roomy, well finished stone house, for which, 
with twenty acres of cleared land, he pays a yearly rent of one hundred 
and ten dollars, to Andrew ElHson, near Manchester. He himself is four 
years from Tanderagee, in the County Armagh, Ireland, from whence he 
came with his family to inherit some property left him by a brother 
who had resided in Washington, Kentucky ; but two hundred acres of 
land adjoining my tract near Maysville, was all he had been able to ob- 
tain possession' of, although his brother had been reputed wealthy. I have 
met many Europeans in the United States, who have exeprienced sim- 
ilar disappointments. 

"My equestrian companion finding that I did not walk fast enotigh 

to keep up with him, parted from me soon after we left Allen*s. At t\vO 

miles from thence I came to Brush Creek (at Sproull's), a beautiful river 

about sixty yards wide. A new State road crosses the river here, but 

9a 



130 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

as I had been informed that there was no house on it for ten miles, I 
preferred keeping up the bank of the river on the stage road, which led 
through a beautiful but narrow unsettled bottom, with Brush Creek 
on the right, and a steep, craggy precipice on the left, for a mile and a 
half. I then ascended and descended a steep and barren ridge for a mile, 
when I forded the creek to Jacob Platter's finely situated tavern and 
farm on the opposite bank. 

"Having rested and taken some refreshment the growling of dis- 
tant thunder warned me to hasten my journey, as I had five miles 
through the woods to the habitation. The road was fine and level — ^the 
gust approached with terrific warning — one flash of lightning succeed- 
ing another in most rapid succession, so that the woods frequently ap- 
peared as in a flame, and several trees were struck in every direction 
around me, one being shattered within fifty paces on my right, while the 
thunder without intermission of an instant was heard in every variety 
of sound, from the deafening burst, shaking the whole atmosphere, to 
the long solemn cadence always interrupted by a new and more heavy 
peal before it had reached its pause. This elemental war would have 
been sublimely awful to me, had I been in an open country, but the 
frequent crash of the falling bolts on the surrounding trees, gave me 
such incessant warnings of danger, that the sublimity was lost in the 
awe. I had been accustomed to thunder storms in every climate, and 
I had heard the roar of sixty ships in the line of battle, but I never be- 
fore was witness to so tremendous an elemental uproar. I suppose the 
heaviest part of the electric cloud was impelled upon the very spot I 
was passing. 

"I walked the five miles within an hour, but my speed did not avail 
me to escape a torrent of rain which fell during the last mile, so that 
long before I arrived at the hospitable dwelling of the Pennsylvania 
hunter who occupied the next cabin, I was drenched and soaked most 
completely. I might have sheltered myself from some of the storm under 
the lee side of a tree, had not the wind, which blew a hurricane, varied 
every instant, but independent of that, I preferred moving along the 
road to prevent a sudden chill ; besides every tree being a conductor, 
there is greater danger near the trunk of one, than in keeping in a road, 
however, narrow, which has been marked by the trees being cut down. 

"My host and his family had come here from the back part of Penn- 
sylvania last May, and he had already a fine field of com and a good 
deal of hay. He had hitherto been more used to the chase than to 
farming, and he boasted much of his rifle. He recommended his Penn- 
sylvania whiskey as an antidote against the effects of my ducking, and 
I took him at his word, though he was much surprised to see me use 
more of it externally than internally which I did from experience that 
bathing the feet, hands and head with spiritous liquor of any sort, has 
a much better effect in preventing chill and fever, either after being 
wet or after violent perspiration from exercise, than taking any quantity 
into the stomach, which on the contrary rarely fails to bring on, or to 
add to inflammatory symptoms. A little internally, however, I have 
found to be a good aid to the external application. 

"I found at my friendly Pennsylvanian's, a little old man named 
Lashley, who had taken shelter at the beginning of the gust, which be- 



THE EARLY TAVERNS AND OLD INNS 13f 

ing now over, he buckled on his knapsack, and we proceeded together^ 
He had traveled on foot from Tennessee River, through a part of the 
State of Tennessee quite across Kentucky, and so far in Ohio in nine 
days, at the rate of thirty-six miles a day. He had assisted in navigating 
a boat from Indian Wheeling, where he lived, to Tennessee, for which 
he got thirty dollars, ten of which he had already expended on his jour- 
ney so far back, though using the utmost economy. He remarked to me, 
that although he was upwards of sixty years of age, and apparently very 
poor, he had not gotten gratuitously a single meal of victuals in all that 
route. Are not hospitality and charity more nominal than real virtues? 

"The country for the next five miles is tolerably well improved, and 
there is a good brick house which is a *tavem owned by one Wicker- 
ham at the first mile, and a mile further is Horn's tavern, where the 
stage sleeps on its route to the oortheast to Chillicothe. 

"Old Lashley complainingof fatigue, we stopped at Marshon's farm 
house, ten miles from Brush Creek, where finding that we could be ac- 
commodated for the night, we agreed to stay, and were regaled with 
boiled corn, wheaten griddle cakes, butter and milk for supper, which 
our exercise through the day gave us a good appetite for, but I did not 
efnjoy my bed so much as my supper, notwithstanding it was the sec- 
ond best in the house, for besides it was not remarkable for its clean- 
liness, I was obliged to share it with my old companion ; fatigue, how- 
ever, soon reconciled me to it, and I slept as well as if I had lain down 
between lawn sheets. 

"Marshon is from the Jerseys, he has a numerous family grown up, 
and is now building a large log house in which he means to keep a 
tavern. Three of his sons play the violin by ear — they had two.shocking 
bad violins, one of which was of their own manufacture, on which they 
scraped away without mercy to entertain us, which I would have most 
gladly excused, though I attempted to seem pleased and believe I suc- 
ceeded in making them think I was so. 

The land here is the worst I had seen since I had left the banks 
of the Ohio ; it had been gradually worse from about two miles behind 
Squire Leedoni's. and for the last two miles before we came to Mar- 
shon's it had degenerated into natural prairies or savannas, with very 
little wood, and none deserving the name of timber, but well clothed 
with brush and low coarse vegetation. 

"On Tuesday morning the eleventh of August, we arose with the 
dawn, and notwithstanding there was a steady small rain, we pursued 
our journey having first paid Marshon fully as much for our siniple and 
coarse accommodations, as the best on the road would have cost, but 
our host I suppose thought his stories and his son's music were equiv- 
alent for all other deficiencies. 

"The land was poor, and no house on the road until we arrived at 
Heistand's tavern, four miles from Marshon's, where we met the Lex- 
ington stage. Heistand is a Pennsylvania German, and has a good and 
plentiful house, in a pleasant situation, called the Sinking Springs, from 

•This bouse to yet standiog at Palestine, and is the present residence of Jacob Wicherham. a 
rrandflOD of Jacob Wicherham who erected it in 1800. It was the first plastered building In 
Adams County. 



182 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX)UNTY 

a great natural curiosity near it. On the side of a low hill now in culti- 
vation, are three large holes, each about twenty feet deep and twenty 
feet in diameter, about sixty paces apart, with a subterranean communi- 
cation by which the water is conveyed from one to the other, and issues 
in a fine rivulet at a fourth opening near the house, where Heistand's 
milk house is placed very judiciously. The spring is copious and the 
water ver\' fine." 



CHAPTER XIV. 



COUNTY AFFAIR3 

The County BnildinKS— The Wilson Children's Home— Roster of Connty 

Offleial»— Jnstioes of the Peaoe of Adams Connty— Receipts and 

Z«jcpenditnres of the Connty foi* the Tear 1824. 

There never were any county buildings erected at Manchester, al- 
though it was the first seat of justice in Adams County, the first session 
of the Court of Quarter Session having convened there September 12, 
1797. 

Conrt Honse and Jail at Adamsville. 

At this time there was great rivalry among the new towns for the 
location of the county seat, and the Adamsville people, led by John S. 
Wills, succeeded in having the seat of justice removed from Manchester 
to that place, where the court convened at the following December ses- 
sion. This place was near the site of the present village of Rome, and 
remained the seat of justice for Adams County just one year. There is 
no record of there having been a court house built there, but that one 
was provided from some source is shown by the fact that John Reed of 
that vicinity had Noble Grimes indicted by the grand jury, June, 1799, 
for "wilfully and feloniously taking plank from the court house in 
Adamsville to the value of five dollars." The Court of Common Pleas 
had approved plans for a jail there, and the Board of County Commis- 
sioners on June 28. 1798. had made a levy on the county to raise funds 
to put up the structure, but the county seat soon thereafter being re- 
moved to Washington at the mouth of Ohio Brush Creek, the jail was 
erected there. This was a log structure and was erected in the spring 
of 1799. On the night of December 27, of that year, this jail was 
burned bv an incendiarv. The Board of Countv Commissioners at their 
March session, 1800, offered a reward of $200 for the apprehension of 
the person who committed this crime, but he was never discovered. 

Pnblic Bnildings at Washington. 

From the records it appears that Xoble Grimes furnished a house for 
the use of the Courts and the County Commissioners until the latter part of 
the year 1802, when a log court house was erected on grounds after- 
wards donated to the county by Thomas Grimes and his wife. We find 
that "Noble Gnmes was allowed $50 for house rent, wood, candles, 
etc.. for use of the Courts up to December 12, 1799." a period of one 
year. And as late as December 10, 1803, there is an entry on the 
journal of the County Commissioners stating that "Noble Grimes is al- 
ii 33) 



XHA HiaTcjKY OF ADAM6 CXIUOT!^' 

luwed $iv for the use of a houst fur tlie coun and jurors to sit in, for 
tircwood, candles, aiid a iiian to attend to supply the house wilii fire, 
water, caiidl^iij, etc." 

It ib stated in tlie Adams Countx' atlas that there H-as a larg^e hewed 
log court house, at Washington, with a jail in the lower Btor>-. This 
house could not liave been built earlier than the autumn of 1802. There 
is an entry on tlie <:ofurt records apjwovinj^ an account oC Richard Crimes 
for 4>iie thousand feet of j^lank for the court house at Washington. And 
aj^>tlier on connnissi<^iers' journal allowing an item of five dollars to 
Noble Grinieb f^>r repairs on court house. It would appear from a 
search of the reo>r4i> tJiat the jail at W'ashin^on was a separate build- 
ijig froiJJ tlie c<>urt house and tliat tlie statement in the Adams County 
atlaij is erroJMious. In j8o6, after the removal of the county seat to 
West l.'nioij, Th^nas Grimes and his wife Pollv deeded to the County 
(*^^nnjissi4>ners '*f<>r the use and l>ehoof of the countv." inlots nimibers 
41, 42, 44, 45, 56, 57, 58, and 59. on which the public btiilding^s in the 
t/>wn of Washington ^UnA. And the said Commissioners "ordered that 
the aforesaid lots, the *court house, and the iron of the jail be sold at 
public sale im the first Tuesday of Auj^nst next, giving eighteen months' 
rredit. 'I'lie lots prol/ablv included what was known as the "jail bounds" 
1,11 which the "stray pen" wa£ situated and where certain classes of 
prisriuers had the privilege of exercising. At March session of the Court 
\\\ (JiiarUr Sessions, the prison bounds were altered as follows: "Begin- 
ning al the northeast corner rjf the public grounds: thence with the said 
publir grounds and course west thirty-5vix poles; thence south to the 
river ( )liio al wal^M's t^i\^e\ thence up it to the bank of Brush Creek at 
water's* edge; ihen fnnn the beginning cast forty poles: thence south 
to the hank of lirush Creek at water's edge and down it to the river bank 
at water's edge." These bounds of the jail included several acres of 
land lying ui the angle formed bv the junction of Brush Creek with the 
1 Hiio River, and besides the uses above named afforded a field of labor 
tor indigent priaciuera. 

Oonnij BiiUdlmc« At Wett UbIob. 

West l^\iou because the county seat in 1804. The towTi was laid 
ott the week begint\ing Moiidav, March iQth. There was then but one 
huiUhuiL;, a log cabin, cvn the town plat. It had been erected by Robert 
McCMauahan but not occupied a short time ^>efore the platting of the 
iv \NU. It stkAxl on lot 46, afterwards known as the Lee comer on Main 
Stivct 

The >»oard of County Commi'Nsioners met in this house Jtme ti, 

iHi'wi. a»Kl it !>. ^aid the ^courts met here until the erection of the log' court 
house in i><i.s 

V 

The fol!'>wluii^ cntrv (>n the commissioners' journal shows clearly 
that thctv \\a^ ;i court h«.»use on the Public !N.Tuare in West Union prior 

^ rtiu M»uiu;bK>! !.r)o (^Vuiitv Oouiistuoit^TH v^otiLiiiDs the foHowiBK encrias wiUk reforenc t9 
Iho •»u''c v>f uhc uuShc oiojxjit.v -kt W;*.sbirt»<tou 

V>ii<u.>«L -x *.iO0. OoniUi:s>M>imn« met. »rK) ^>ld uro^K^rtv Oiii oourf- ^oum« witb cwolofison wtiieb 
ii su>iH.l. ifciia t.ho oMior -iix '\>\^ <ii the i>ur>iic st^uur^. viso piuak 'n the oourfe Iiuqs^. fOur iMzes of 
^Ickvs. t,ho \\\.ni t.>r ' !io i>W )\\\\ ere. oic 

S«i)>t«.'iuU4:*4 % iniHl Hoboi'o Snut>soa nme o' the ooaiaiissioaenk) was ;ftUow«4 fOr 9it6tk. paid 
fo: whlskov for isc «>.' r,he >t*«iu of the iki:>»)c i>roper€y it the niouib of tlTttrtl Ct «lL llffey ovqCh. 
'riLk wo.^ '.he urioe ol oxte ^^allmi. — Ki>/ 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 136 

to the one erected by Foster and known as the "old log court house." 
The order for Joseph Darlinton to sell court house could not have refer- 
red to the one at Washington for the credit fixed for that sale was 
eighteen months, and the "removal" of the building was for the purpose 
of clearing the square for the structure erected by Mr. Foster. : 

"West Union, July 2, 1805. 
"Ordered that Joseph Darlinton sell to the highest bidder on the 
thirteenth inst., the old court house, giving six months' credit, on the 
purchaser giving bond and security. Ordered also that the purchaser 
of the said court house shall remove the same off the public grounds in 
thirty days from the purchase." 

The First Court House was erected in 1805. The contract was let 
to William Foster at his bid of $709, with Benjamin Sutton, Needham 
Perry, and John Thomas as sureties on his bond. The struc- 
ture was erected on lot 63 in the Public Square, with the side 
facing Main Street five poles from it, and the east end adjoin- 
ing Market Street. It was thirty feet long, twenty-four feet 
wide and two stories high. It was specified that it should be 
built of oak, poplar, walnut, or blue ash logs, eight inches thick and 
none less than twelve inches on face. There was an outside stone 
chimney with fireplace four and one-half feet wide below and above, on 
the north side, and seven feet from the inside of northwest comer. The 
lower story was twelve feet in the clear and the upper eight feet, with a 
banistered stairway on the north side leading up to it. A door three 
and one-half feet wide was in the east end fronting Market Street, and 
the bench for the Court was on an elevated platform on the south side of 
the lower room. In this room were four windows, two on the south side, 
one of which was in the center between the bar and bench, and two in the 
west end equal distance from each other. There were four windows 
above, two in south side, one in the north side near northeast corner, 
and one in the west end near northwest corner suiting the two rooms 
in the upper story. Tlie lower windows each had twenty lights of glass 
and the upper ones twelve each. The windows in court room had double 
shutters fastened with iron bolts and bars. The contract specified that 
the lower story should be finished by the twenty-fourth day of August, 
and the upper one by the fourth of October, 1805. Some of the logs of 
this building are now in a dwelling occupied by John Knox just south 
of the Presbyterian Church in West Union, on the Beasley Fork pike. 

The First Jail at West Union stood on lot 67, now the site of the 
brick dwelling of Miss vSarah Boyle. It stood three rods north from 
Main Street with the end fronting Cherry Street and the old Bradford 
Hotel. It was a most remarkable structure, of hewed logs, eighteen by 
twenty-four feet, and two stories in height. It was constructed of two 
walls, one within the other, and the space between was filled in with up- 
right hewed logs each one foot square. Both the upper and the lower 
floors were laid with hewed logs one foot thick, and the partitions be- 
tween the rooms of which there were four, two above and two below, 
were of logs of that dimension. The door in the east end was made 
from two-inch oak plank with upright and cross-bars of heavy iron laid 
over it. The windows, of which there were four, were each two feet 
square and heavily screened with iron cross-bars. It was erected in 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 137 

one-half acres were purchased for a new site from James McClanahan 
in Liberty Township. This IcAcatiom not being satisfactory, the land 
was exchanged with George S. Kirker for sixty-six and two-thirds 
acres now ocupied by the infirmary buildings near West Union. 

The infirmary building is of brick and in its day was substantial 
and commodious. The building was completed in 1859 by A. W. Ram- 
say, the contractor, at a cost of $7,833. William McNeilan was the first 
superintendent here and William Shuster is the present incumbent. 
George L. Campton was the superintendent from the establishment of 
the Infirmary on Poplar Ridge till its location at the present site. 

A story used to be related of McNeilan who was a Scotch- Irishman 
with a deep brogue, that, at one of his settlements with the Board of Di- 
rectors, some of his charges were objected to, one item of $5, in his account 
not being clearly specified. After some reflection the superintendent ex- 
plained that the item in question was for "foive days seekin' hogs and 
foindin' none." 

The Wilson Children's Home. 

The Wilson Children's Home is located about one-half mile east 
of the court house, on the corporation line of the town of West Union, 
on the south side of the Cedar Mills turnpike, at its junction with the 
West Union and Locust Grove turnpike. The site is a most pleasing 
one, affording a fine view of the town of West Union, and of the sur- 
rounding country. The sanitary conditions are unexcelled, the drain- 
age being perfect, and abundance of pure water easily accessible. The 
building constructed of brick and native limestone is of modern archi- 
tecture and is supplied with every convenience as to heat, light and 
ventilation. The grounds, consisting of twenty-five acres* of fine farm 
land, were donated by the citizens of the town of West Union. The 
outbuildings in connection with the house are a laundry, workshop, 
bam. ice house, and other domestic buildings pleasantly surrounded 
by fine fruit orchards and vegetable gardens. The ITome was erected 
in the years 1883 and 1884 through the beneficence of Hon. John T. 
•Wilson, a wealthy citizen of the county, whose biography appears else- 
where in this volume. The present value of the premises and appurte- 
nances, $75,000. Number of inmates, 80. 

History of the Home. 

Tranquility. Ohio, March 6. 1882. 

To the Commissioners of .\dams County, Ohio : 

Gentlemen : — It is sometimes better for a man to do in his lifetime 
that which he may contemplate having done after his death. Hence, 
for the purpose of establishing, or aiding the establishment and main- 
tenance of a Childrens' Home, on a permanent basis, under the laws of 
Ohio, I propose to give to the county of Adams, fifty thousand dollars, 
less the sum T have already unjustly paid into the county treasury, under 
protest, with interest thereon, together with any further sum I may yet 
have to pay at the final termination of a suit now j)en(ling in the Su- 
preme Court of Ohio, for taxes claimed on account of Indiana assets, 
together with costs of attorneys' fees and incidental expenses ; thirty 
thousand dollars, to be paid on the acceptance of this proposal, or as 
soon thereafter as it mav be needed. 



188 fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

The remaining twenty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may 
be left to be paid, when I get through resisting the unjust, and, as I be- 
lieve, illegal demands of former county officers. It is not my purpose 
that any expense shall accrue to the county until the donation herein 
named shall first be fully expended. 

Very respectfully, J. T. Wilson. 

On the tenth of March, W. S. Bottleman and J. R. Zile, members of 
the Board of County Commissioners, together with Ex-Sheriff Capt. 
John Taylor and J. W. Shinn, County Auditor, by agreement, went to 
the little hamlet of Tranquillity for the purpose of consulting Mr. Wil- 
son as to his proposed benefit for the orphan children of Adams County. 
After fully discussing the matter, it was finally determined to accept and 
use said proposed gift for the erection and support of an Orphan Asylum 
and Children's Home. 

In March of the year following, the Commissioners took up the 
proposition to select a site for the Home. The chief competing points 
were Winchester, West Union, and Manchester. Mr. W. S. Bottleman, 
who resided near the village of Winchester, voted at each ballot for the 
site to be near that village. Mr. J. R. Zile, whose residence was near 
Locust Grove, in the northern portion of the county, voted as a mattei 
of courtesy, at first ballot, for Manchester, and Mr. William McGovney, 
whose home was in Sprigg Township, about half way between West 
Union and Manchester, voted at each ballot for West Union; so that 
upon taking the second ballot, Zile and McGovney voted for West 
Union, and thus fixed the location of the Home at that point. 

At this meeting W. A. Blair, business associate of Mr. Wilson, was 
appointed a Trustee of the Home for one year, from the first Monday in 
March, 1883 ; John A. Laughridge for the term of two years, and Sam- 
uel E. Pearson for three years from that date. The Commissioners then 
adjourned to meet the Board of Trustees at the Auditor's office, March 
15th. On this day W. A. Blair and S. E. Pearson appeared and ac- 
cepted their said trusteeships. John A. Laughridge failing to appear 
in person or by letter, Hon. John P. Lecdom was then selected as one of 
the Board of Trustees. 

On the eighth of May, 1883 ,the County Commissioners and Board 
of Trustees of the Home adopted the plans submitted by J. W. Yost for 
the construction of the Home, and Mr. Yost was employed as architect, 
to receive $500 for the plans and draughts in detail, and twenty dollars 
for each trip necessary from his office in Portsmouth, Ohio, to West 
Union, during the building of the Home. About this time Captain 
John Taylor and Auditor J. W. Shinn were appointed to collect the sub- 
scriptions of the citizens of West L^nion for the purchase of the site of 
the Home. 

June 20, 1883, the bids for the entire structurc,except the plumbing 
and heating, were opened and found to be as follows : 

E. A. Hanna & Alex. Hanna, Dover, Ky $38,000 

W. J. Hayslip, West Union, Ohio Z7^777 

Gallegher & McCafferty, Fayetteville, Ohio 38.500 

Thomas F. Jones, Columbus, Ohio 39,ioi 

W. T. Wetmore, Hillsboro, Ohio 29,910 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 189 

W. T. Wetmore being the lowest responsible bidder was awarded 
the contract. It was stipulated in the contract that the foundation of the 
main walls of the structure should be bedded upon solid rock found at a 
depth of from five to twelve feet below the surface at the site of the 
Home. 

On July 28, 1883, Mr. I. G. Brown was appointed by the Joint 
Boards of Commissioners and Trustees, superintendent of the work of 
building the Home, at a salary of three dollars per diem for actual time. 

December 14, 1883, the contract for gas fittings and steam heating, 
plumbing, etc., was let to Wetmore and Gallegher at $5,600, to be com- 
pleted by November i, 1884. 

The building complete was given in charge of the Trustees of the 
Home by the County Commissioners, December 5, 1884, and on the fif- 
teenth of February, 1885, Col. W. L. Shaw and his wife, Mrs. R. J. 
Shaw, were appointed Superintendent and Matron, respectively, of the 
Home, and on the ninth of March following, the first installment of chil- 
dren was received from the County Infirmary. 

Charles T. Downing and wife were elected Superintendent and 
Matron, succeeding Col. Shaw, January 16, 1886, and took possession 
March 9, of that year. They were re-elected January 5, 1887, for a term 
of one year. 

W. W. Baird and wife were employed as Superintendent and 
Matron, February i, 1888, for the year beginning March 9, 1888. They 
tendered their resignations October i, 1888, to take effect from that date, 
and W. H. Jordan was appointed until further action thereon by the 
Board of Trustees. 

December 5, 1888, J. T. Little and wife were employed as Superin- 
tendent and Matron, respectively, to fill the unexpired term made vacant 
by the resignation of W. W. Baird and wife. 

On March 6, 1889, Thomas W. Ellison and wife, of West Union, 
were elected Superintendent and Matron for a term of one year, from 
March 9, and they have been retained by the Board of Trustees to the 
present time. 

Besides the Superintendent and Matron, there are employed at the 
Home one physician, one teacher, two governesses, one seamstress, two 
cooks, one dining-room girl, one engineer, and one teamster. 

Since the opening of the Home there have been 382 children ad- 
mitted and cared for by the institution, and fifty-eight placed in private 
homes, making a total of 440 children cared for by the institution. 

MEMBERS Olf THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

W. A. Blair, Tranquillity, appointed March, 1883. 

John P. Leedom (vacancy), West Union, appointed March, 1883. 

S. E. Pearson, West Union, appointed March, 1883. 

Henry Scott (vacancy, Pearson deceased), West Union, appointed 
March. 1884. 

J. K. Pollard, West Union, appointed March, 1884. 

John P. Leedom, West Union, appointed March 1885. 

Dr. J. W. Bunn (Scott resigned), West Union, appointed May 11, 
1885. 



140 fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

G. W. Pettit (LeedcMn resigned), West Union, appointed July 7, 
1885. 

Dr. R. A. Stephenson, Manchester, appointed March, 1886. 

M. A. Scott (Pollard resigned). West Union, appointed March, 
1886. 

S. N. Bradford (Scott resigned). West Union, appointed September 
9, 1886. 

S. B. Wamsley (Pettit resigned). West Union, appointed March i, 
1887. 

Samuel McClanahan, West Union, appointed March i, 1887. 

R. A. Leach (Stephenson resigned), West Union, appointed June 8, 
1887. 

Capt. D. W. Thomas, West Union, appointed March, 1888. 

Judge I. N. Tolle. West Union, appointed March, 1889. 

J. W. McClung (McClanahan resigned). West Union, appointed 
March, 1889. 

Henry McGovney, West Union, appointed March, 1890. 

Capt. D. W. Thomas, West Union, appointed March, 1891. 

Judge I. N. Tolle, West Union, appointed March, 1892. 

S. A. McCuUough (Thomas resigned). Tranquility, appointed 
March, 1892. 

Henry McGovney, West Union, appointed March, 1893. 

C. W. Sutterfield, West Union, appointed March, 1893. 

W. S. Kincaid, West Union, appointed March, 1894. 

Judge I. N. Tolle, West Union, appointed March, 1895. 

Grimes J. Nicholson, Manchester, appointed March, 1896. 

S. A. McCuUough (Sutterfield vacancy). Tranquility, appointed 
April 7, 1896. 

G. N. Crawford (ToUe vacancy), West Union, appointed April 7, 
1896. 

S. A. McCuUough, Tranquility, appointed March, 1897. 

W. S. Kincaid, West Union, appointed March, 1898. 

John F. Plummer, West Union, appointed March, 1899. 

C. E. Frame (McCuUough resigned). West Union, appointed 
March, 1899. 

ROSTER OF COUNTY OmCALS. 

* ConuBLissioners, 

James Scott. Henry Massie, Joseph Darlinton, all appointed by 
Court of Quarter Sessions. March, 1798. First Clerk of Board. Joseph 
Darlinton. First meeting held at Adamsville, June 13, 1798. 

George Gordon, apj^ointed by court March 21), 1799. James Edi- 
son, second Clerk of Board. 

George Gordon, fourth and fifth Clerk of Board. 'James Edison, 
appointed March 14, 1800. 

Joseph Kerr, third Clerk of Board: resigned November 7, i8or. 

Joseph I.ucas. appointed March 7, 1801. 

*The ilateR iriven herein are the dates of the flist meeting at which the Comminionera-elect 
served. In t u-o or three places the Commissioners-elect arc not friven every year for the reason 
that the journals jfive no entry of their taking their office by reason of their taaTtnc been re- 
elected and still serving continuon«ily on the Board. 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 141 

John Beasley, appointed December lo, 1801. 

John Beasley, appointed June i, 1802. 

Needham Perry, appointed March 25, 1803. 

First Board elected and qualified June 11, 1804: Moses Baird, long 
term; Robert Simpson, two years; Nathaniel Beasley, short term. Joseph 
Darlinton appointed sixth clerk. 

Nathaniel Beasley, appointed November 5, 1804. 

Job Denning, appointed November 17, 1806; resigned March, 1814. 
1814. 

James Baird, appointed December 4, 1809. 
James Parker, appointed December 4, 1810. 
James Baird, appointed October 30, 181 2. 

Joseph Neilson, appointed by Court March 29, 1814, to fill vacancy 
of Job Denning. 

bseph Moore, appointed December 5, 1814. 
ames Baird, appointed October 30, 1814. 

James Parker, November 9, 181 6, was struck off into Brown 
County, created by Legislature, 1818. Gabe D. Darlinton appointed 
seventh Clerk of Board. 

Joseph Moore, October 30, 181 7. 

James Finley, appointed to fill vacancy of James Parker, June i, 
1818, eighth Clerk of Board. 

Joseph Curry, October, 1818. 

John Matthews, October 25, 1819. G. D. Darlinton appointed 
ninth Clerk of Board. 

John Fisher, October 26, 1819. 

Aaron Moore, October 30, 1820. 

John Means. November i, 1821. James R. Baldridge, Auditor, 
became Clerk of Board in 1821 by virtue of office. 

Andrew Mclntire, December 3, 1821. 

John Sparks, December 2, 1822. 

John Lodwick, December i, 1823. 

John McClanahan, December 6, 1824. 

Samuel R. Wood, William Kirker, both October 15, 1825. 

Thomas Kincaid, October, 1827. 

John Prather, October, 1828. 

Henry Rape, October, 1829. 

James Cole, October, 1830. 

William Smith, December, 1831. 

Seth Van Metre, December, 1832. 

William Kirker, October, 1823. 

Jacob Treber, October, 1833. 

Richard Noleman, December, 1835. 

Elijah Leedom, December 5, 1836. 

Asa Williamson, November 10, 1838. 

William McVey, December 2, 1839. 

R. H. Anderson, December 7, 1840. 

William Smalley, December, 1842. 

Daniel Burley, December 2, 1844. Died in office. 

William T. Smith, December i, 1845. 

James McNeil, December 7, 1846. 



142 H1S1X>RY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

William Robe, appointed by Court to fill vacancy of D. Burley. 

Jesse Wamslev, December 6, 1847. Resigned. 

William T. Smith, December 4, 1848. 

James McNeil, December 5, 1849. 

David C. Vance, appointed Febniary 9, 1850, to fill vacancy of 
Jessee Wamsley, resigned. 

Christian Bottleman, December 2, 1850. 

John Oliver, December, 1851. 

John McGovney, December 6, 1852. 

Christian Bottleman, December, 1853. 

William E. Grimes, December, 1854. 

R. S. Daily, December 7, 1857. 

Andrew Mahafley, December 6, 1858. 
bseph Spurgeon, February 20, i860. 
C. Milligan, December i, i860. 

Samuel S. Mason. December 2, 1861. 

J. R. Stevenson, December i, 1862. 

John Pennywitt, December 7, 1863. 

Silas Marlatt, December 5, 1864. 

John McClanahan, December 4, 1865. 

Stephen Reynolds, December 2, 1867. 

William B. Gregg, December 7, i86i8. 

Thomas R. Leedom, December 6, 1869. 

Jesse Wamsley, December 5, 1870. 

John Williamson, December 4, 1871. 

John B. Allison, December 2, 1872. 

Noah Tracy, December i, 1873. 

William Treber, December 7, 1874. 

Samuel P. Clark, December 6, 1875. 

Jacob F .Weaver, December 4, 1876. 

Richard Moore, December 3, 1877. 

Dugald Thompson, December 2, 1878. 

Alexander Stewart, December I, 1879. 

W. S. Bottleman, December 6, 1880. 

J. R. Zile, December 5, 1881. 

William McGovney, December 4, 1882. 

John Martin, December 3, 1883. 

J. R. Zile, December, 1884. 

Thomas J. Shelton, December 7, 1885. 

J. H. Crissman, January 3, 1887. 

Mahlon Urton, January 2, 1888. 

S. B. Truitt, January 7,' 1889. 

Robert Collins, January 6, 1890. 

P. M. Hughes, January 5, 1891. 

Thomas J. Shelton, January 4, 1892. 

Robert Collins, January 2, 1893. 

M. H. Newman, January 2, 1894. 

F. M. Grimes, appointed January 6, 1896, to fill vacancy of Thomas 
J. Shelton to September, 1896, by change in law. 

W. D. Early, September, 1895. 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 143 

R. H. Oursler, appointed January 6, 1896, to fill vacancy of Robert 
Collins to September, 1896, by change in law. 

J. F. Cornelius, September, 1896. 

Darius Dryden, appointed January, 1897, to fill vacancy of M. H. 
Newman to September, 1897, by change of law. 

R. H. Oursler, appointed June, 1^8, to fill vacancy to November 
election, 1898. By contest of election of M. H. Newman, Common 
Pleas Court declared neither elected. 

F. B. Roush, September, 1898. 

Sanford McCuUough, elected for Short Term by reason of contest 
of Newman and Oursler, and became a member of the Board November, 
1898. 

J. F. Cornelius, September, 1899. 

S. A. McCullough re-elected in 1899 ^^r three years. 

Clerks of the Conrts. 

The Clerks of the Courts under the Constitution of 1802, were ap- 
pointed by the Courts for a term of seven years, but before his appoint- 
ment, except pro tempore, the applicant was required to produce a 
certificate from a majority of the Judges of the Supreme Court that he 
was well qualified to execute the duties of the office. If a vacancy oc- 
curred at any time, the appointment was made pro tempore until the 
proper certificate could be procured and filed. The journals show that 
Gen. Darlinton was appointed pro tempore several times. This was be- 
cause when his term had expired, he had not secured the necessary cer- 
tificate to be filed before his reappointment, and he could not receive the 
appointment for the full term until the certificate was filed. As to the 
clerkship of the Supreme Court of Adams County, Gen Joseph Darlinton 
was the only one who ever held the office. He was appointed at the 
first term of the Court in Adams County in 1803, and held it by successive 
appointments until his death on August 2, 185 1. As the Court expired 
September i, 1851, no one w?is appointed for the twenty-nine days 
elapsing between his death and the time when the Constitution of 185 1 
took effect. As to the Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, he was ap- 
pointed its first clerk, August 5, 1803. At December term, 1810, he was 
appointed pro tempore till the next term, but before the term closed, his 
certificate came to hand, and he was appointed for seven years. At the 
December term, 1817, he was appointed pro tempore until March i, fol- 
lowmg. At the March term, 1818, it is recited on the journal that he had 
produced his certificate from all the Judges of the Supreme Court, and 
that he was appointed for seven years. At April term, 1825, April 18, he 
was reappointed for seven years. At Marcli term, 1838, he did not have 
his certificate ready and was appointed pro tempore. On August 7, 1832, 
he was appointed for seven years. August 6, 1839, he was appointed for 
seven years. On August 7, 1846, his time having expired, John M. Smith 
was appointed pro tempore till the next term. At September term, 1846, 
Joseph R. Cockerill was appointed pro tempore till the next term. On 
February 3, 1847, Joseph R. Cockerill was appointed for the full term of 
seven years and served until September 2^, 185 1, when he resigned. 
James N. Hook was appointed in his place and served until February 
9, 1852, when he took the office by election. The roster is : 



144 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

1803-1846 Joseph Darlinton. 

1846 John M. Smith. 

1846-1851 Joseph R. Cockerill. 

1851-1854 James N. Hook. 

1854-1857 George H. Puntenney. 

1857-1859 A. C. Robe (died in office). 

1859-1862 William E. Hopkins. 

1862-1865 L. E. Cox. 

1865-1868 Charles N. Hall. 

1868-1874 Joseph W. Shinn. 

1874-1880 John P. Leedom. 

1880-1886 George W. Pettit. ' 

1886-1892 William R. MehaflFey. 

1892-1898 Oscar C. Reynolds. 

1898-1901 Oscar C. Reynolds. 

Alexander Robe died November 14, 1858. His successor, W^m. E. 
Hopkins, was appointed Xovember 16, 1858, and served until December 
5. 1859. He was elected in October, 1859, for a full term. 

Territorial Clerks: George Gordon, 1797; John S. Wills; Joseph 
Darlinton. 

Proseonting Attorneys. 

Arthur St. Clair, Jr., son of the Governor, who received his ap- 
pointment from his father, was the first Territorial Prosecutor. Some- 
one, as Jacob Burnett, William McMillan, Francis Taylor, or John S. 
Wills, usually prosecuted the many petty offenses, for St. Clair, as the 
records show. William Creighton, M. Baldwin. William Sprigg. 
Thomas Scott, Levin Belt and others acted as prosecutors by appoint- 
ment from the years 1800 to 1803, receiving for their services $15 per 
term. 

The Prosecuting Attorneys were afterwards appointed by the Court 
of Common Pleas. The appointments were made during the pleasure 
of the Court. The law of April 13, 1803, gave the appointing power to 
the Supreme Court. The act of February 21, 1805, restored it to the 
Common Pleas. The law of December 29, 1825, gave the power of ap- 
ix)inting the Prosecuting Attorney to the Common Pleas Court. The 
act of January 29, 1833, made the office elective for a term of two years, 
and that law continued in full force until 1881. when under the act of 
April 20, Vol. 78, Ohio Laws, page 260, the term was changed to three 
years. The incumbents, prior to 1833, can only be gathered from the 
court journals, and these are in some places obscure. The first elected 
Prosecuting Attorney was Samuel Brush, who was elected in October, 
1833. As long as the office was appointive by the Court, the allowance 
for services was made each term by the Court. Prior to 1808, the 
duties of PVosecuting Attorney were in all probabilitv discharged by 
some attorney nonresident of the county who traveled the circuit follow- 
ing the courts. At November term, 1808, John W. Campbell was allowed 
$30 for senices as Prosecuting Attorney. He continued to act until 
December term, 1810. when Jessup M. Couch was allowed $25 for 
services for prosecuting. With this exception John W. Campbell con- 
tinued to discharge the duties of the office until the June term, 18 17, 



(JOUNTY AFFAIRS 146 

when Samuel Treat was appointed. Campbell was usually allowed 
$25 per term for his services, sometimes it was more, but never over 
$45. At this same term, June, 1817, John W. Thompson was allowed 
$15 for prosecuting in the* Supreme Courts. Samuel Treat was 
usually allowed $45 per term for his services, there being three terms 
each year as now. Treat served until August term, 1820, when Geo. R. 
Fitzgerald was appointed. He resigned August term, 1820, and in 1821 
Richard Collins was appointed in his place. August term, 1822, Richard 
Collins resigned and Daniel P. Wilkins was appointed. He served until 
June term, 1826, when George CoUings was appointed, and the salary 
made $100 per annum. So far as the record shows he continued to act 
until 1833, when Samuel Brush was elected. The roster is: 

1808-1817 John W. Campbell. 

1817-1820 Samuel Treat. 

1820-1821 George R. Fitzgerald. 

1821-1822 Richard Collins. 

1822-1826 Daniel P. Wilkins. 

1826-1833 George Collings. 

1833-183S Samuel Brush. 

1835-1837 James Keenan. 

At October term, 1837, Nelson Barrere wao appointed special Prose- 
cuting Attorney. 

1837-1838 Nelson Barrere. 

1838-1839 Joseph McCormick. 

1839-1843 Shepherd F. Norris. 

1843, March term, Joseph McCormick was appointed in place of 
Norris who had removed to Clermont County. He served until 1845, 
ivhen Thomas McClausen was elected. 

1843-1845 Joseph McCormick. 

1845-1851 Thomas McCauslen. 

1851-1853 John K. Billings. 

1853-1857 John W. McFerran. 

1857-1861 Thomas J. Mullen. 

1861-1863 John K. Billings. 

1863-1865 Reason T. Naylor. 

1865-1867 Thomas Downev. 

1867-1869 David Thomas. * 

1869-1873 Frank D. Bayless. 

1873-1877 John K. Billings. 

1877-1879 Henry Collings. 

1879-1884 Wm. Anderson. 

1884-1890 Philip Handrehan. 

i890-]896 Cyrus F. Wikoff. 

1896-1899 C. F. McCoy. 

1899-1902 C. F. McCoy. 

10a 



146 



fflSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 



Ooromovfl. 



Laws were passed under the Territorial Government, December 21, 
1788, and July 16, 1795, creating the office of Coroner and defining his 
duties. Andrew Ellison was the first Coroner of Adams County. 



CORONERS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION. 

This office was created by section i, Article VI, of the Constitu- 
tion of 1802, and the office was elective for tAvo years. Hence a Coro- 
ner was elected every two years from 1803 to 1852. The list of Coronen 
in Adan^ County since 1851 is as follows: 



1852- 
1856- 
1858- 
1859- 

1863- 
1867- 

187s- 
1876- 

1878- 

1880- 

1886- 

1888- 

1891- 

1893- 

189s- 
1897. 



1797- 
1798- 
1800- 
1803- 
1806- 
1810- 
1812- 
1813- 

1815- 
1819- 
1821- 
1823- 
1827- 
1829- 

1833- 

1837- 
1S41- 

1845- 

1847- 
i8^i- 

i8'5;s- 



856 WiUiam Killen. 

858 John D. Hincs. 

859 William Leach. 

863 John W. Nelson. 

867 E. Kilpatrick. 

87s John W. Nelson. 

876 William Blake. 

878 William Rvbolt. 

880 William Wade. 

886 John W. Nelson. 

888 Dr. George W. Osborne. 

891 Moses L. Wade. 

893 R. W. Purdv, M. D. 

895 O. W. Robe. 

897 C. W. Edgington. 

899 John M. Brooke. 

Sheriffs. 

798 David Edie. 

800 John Barritt. 

803 Nathan Ellis. 

806 John Lodwick. 

810 John Ellison. 

812 John Lodwick. 

Samuel Bradford. 

815 Mills Stephenson. 

819 Thomas Mason. 

821 Tohn Lodwick. 

823 Thomas Kincaid. 

827 Tohn McDaid. 

820 Robert McDaid. 

8^ Tohn McDaid. 

St^;- James Cole. 

841 Samuel Foster. 

845 Fields Marlatt. 

847 William Smith. 

8^1 Jacob S. Rose. 

855 J. V. W- niman. 

857 William Cochran. 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 147 

1857-1861 David S. Eylcr. 

1861-1863 Hazlett Sproull. 

1863-1867 John Taylor. 

1867-1871 James Thoroman. 

1871-1873 Lyman P. Srivers. 

1873-1875 John Tavlor. 

1875-1879 John K. Pollard. 

1879-1883 Henry F. McGovney. 

1883-1887 J. Matt Long. 

1887-1889 W. Pierce Newman. 

1889-1893 Green N. McMannis. 

1893-1897 Marion Dunlap. 

1897-1899 James W. McKee. 

1899-1901 James G. Metz. 



Israel Donalson, 1797 to 1800. 

David Bradford, appointed for a year each time from July 6, 1800, 
to June 6, 1832. June 4, 1828, he took the office by election for the term 
of two years. 

James Hood, from June 6, 1832, to June 3, 1844. 
Wilson Prather, from June 3, 1844, to September, 1858. 
Andrew Smalley, from September, 1850, to September, 1854. 
George Moore, from September, 1854, to September, 1856. 
Robert Buck, from September, 1856, to September, 1858. 
Thomas Ellison, from September, 1858, to September, 1862. 
George Moore, from September, 1862 to September, 1864. 
W. R. DuflFey, from September, 1864, to September, 1866. 
John Duffey, from September, 1866, to September, 1868. 
Elijah Leedom, from September, 1868, to September, 1872. 
Henry Scott, from September, 1872, to September, 1876. 
J. H. Connor, from September, 1876, to September, 1880. 
W. B. Brown, from September, 1880, to September, 1884. 
C. W. Sutterfield, from September, 1884, to September, 1888. 
W. B. Brown, from September, 1888, to September, 1890. 
P. H. Wickerham, from September, 1890, to September, 1894. 
John R. Fristoe, from September, 1894, to September, 1898. 
H. B. Gaffin, Jr., from September, 1898, to September, 1902. 

Andltors. 

The office of Auditor was created in 1820. 
James R. Baldridge, from March, 1820, to March i, 1824. 
Joseph Riggs, from March i, 1824, to October 3, 1831 ; then resigned. 
Leonard Cole, October 3, 1831, to March 6, 1832. 
Leonard Cole, from March 6, 1832, to March 4, 1844. 
A. Woodrow, from March 4, 1844, to March 2, 1846. 
Francis Shirni, from March 2, 1846, to March 4, 1850. 
Robert Buck, from March 4, 1850, to March 6, 1854. 



148 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

Wm. E. Hopkins, from March 6, 1854, to March i, 1858. 
Henry Oursler, from March i, 1858, to March 5, i860. 
James L. Coryell, from March 5, i860, to March, 1864. 
J. N. Hook, from March, 1864, to March 2, 1868. 
John L. Swearingen, from March 2, 1868, to November, 1874. 
John F. Ellis, from November, 1874, to December 2, 1878. 
R. H. Ellison, from December 2, 1878, to November 14, 1887. 
J. W. Shinn, from November 14, 1881, to November 14, 1887. 
J. W. Jones, from November, 14, 1887, to September, 1888. 
H. J. Thomas, from September, 1888, to September, 1894. 
Dr. J. M. Wittenmeyer, from September, 1894, to October, 1900. 
R. A. Stephenson, from 1900 to — 

Probate Jnds^s* 

John M. Smith, from March 8, 1852, to February, 1855. 

James McColm, from February, 1855, to February, 1858. 

John M. Smith, February, 1858, to February, i8i54. 

Henry Oursler, from February, 1864, to October, 1865. and resigned. 

Joshua Gore, from October, 1865, to November 14, 1866. 

George Collings, November 14, 1866, to February 11, 1867. 

George Collings, from February 11, 1867, to Februarj' 10, 1870. 

James L. Coryell, February 10, 1870. to February 14, 1879. 

R. W. McNeal, February 10, 1879, ^^ February 13, 1882. 

I. N. Tolle, February 13, 1882, to February 9, 1894. 

W. R. Mahaffey, February 9, 1894, to February 9, 1897. 

J. W. Mason, I^ebniary 9, 1897, to March 14, 1898. 

J. O. McManis, March 14, 1898, to November 26, 1898. 

J. W. Mason, November 26, 1898, to February 9, 1900. 

J. VV. Mason, from February 9, 1900, to February, 1903. 

Recorders. 

John Belli, from September, 1797, to October, 1803. 

Joseph Darlinton, from October, 1803, to October, 1810. 

Samuel Bradford, from October, 1810, to September, 1813. 

Joseph Darlinton, from September, 18 13, to January, 1831. 

Joseph Darlinton, from 1831 to 1834. 

James Smith, from July, 1836, to October, 1838. 

Wilson Prather, from October, 1838, to October, 1841. 

John M. Smith, from October, 1841, to August, 1846. Resigned 

August 8, 1846. 
Robert Buck, from August 8, 1846, to October, 1849. 
Henry Oursler, from October, 1849, ^^ -856. 
John T. Trel)er, from January, 1856, to January, 1859. 
W. W. Baird, from January, 1859, to January, 1862. 
James T. Thoroman, from January, i8i62, to January, 1865. 
John C. Dragoo, from January, 1865, to January, 1868. 
W. R. Thoroman, from 1868, to Januar>% 1874.' 
J. M. Ellison, from January, 1874, to Januar}% 1877. 
James R. Stevenson, from Januar\', 1877, to January, 1883. 
C. T. Downing, from January, 1883, to January, 1886. 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 



149 



Leonard Young, from January, 1886, to January, 1889. 
William Cooper, Jr., from January, 1889, to January, 1892. 
Leonard Young, from January, 1892, to January, 1895. 
C. W. Murphy, from January, 1895, to September, 1895. 
Leonard Young, from September, 1895, to September, 1898. 
J. E. McCreight, from September, 1898, to September, 1901. 



This office was created by act of April 15, 1803, Chase, Vol. i, Page 
368, authorizing the Court of Common Pleas to appoint Surveyors. 
This continued the law until March 7, 183 1, when the office became 
elective, triennially. (Chase Statutes, Vol. iii, Page 863.) The list is 
as follows : 

1801-1805 James Stevenson. 

1805-1807 Nathaniel Beasley. 

1807-1810 Richard Cross. 

1810-1816 Andrew Woodrow. 

1816-1818 James Pilson. 

1818-1819 Joseph Wright. 

1819-1820 Richard Cross. 

1820-1822 Andrew Woodrow. 



1822 

1823 

1824- 

1826- 

1829- 

1834- 
1836- 

1837- 
1840- 

1843- 
1846- 

1851- 

1854- 

1857- 
1863- 

1869- 
1874- 

1877- 
r88o- 
1883- 
1886- 
1887- 

1893- 
1899- 



James Criswell. 

John Russell. 

826 Andrew Ellison. 

829 Samuel McClanahan. 

833 Richard Cross. 

836 William Robe. 

837 Richard Cross. 

840 Jeremiah Bryan. 

843 Joseph R. Cockerill. 

846 Jeremiah Bryan. 

851 James N. Hook. 

854 Jesse Ellis. 

857 Jeremiah Bryan. 

863 Jesse Ellis. 

869 R. Hamilton. 

874 Jesse Ellis. 

877 Jeremiah Ellis. 

880 A. V. Hutson. 

883 Jeremiah Ellis. 

886 Crevton Reynolds. 

887 Capt. Patterson. 

893 A. V. Hutson. 

899 A. S. Doak. 

902 J. H. Butler. 



IfiO 



fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



JmstieM •£ tkm Pi 



James Williams 
Hosea Moore 
oseph C(rilier 
ohn Phillips 
oseph Freeman 
Samuel Burkitt 
James Williams 
Samuel Burkitt 
James Williams 
Joseph Freeman 
Thomas Williams 
Joseph Freeman 
James Williams 
Joseph Frieeman 
James Williams 
Daniel Burley 
Joseph M. Walden 
John Collier 
Daniel Burley 
Laban Parks 
Aaron Moore 
Daniel Burley 
Aaron Moore 
William K. Stewart 
Aaron Moore 
William K. Stewart 
John Thompson 
L. Parks 
John Fisher 
W. C. Ellis 
Jesse Wamsley 
Michael Freeman 
John Fisher, N. P. 
John Fisher 
John Fisher 
Abraham Forsythe 
William Mclntire 
W. F. Wamslev 
Henry Scott 
John Wamsley 
Henrv Scott 
John B. Young 
Ci, M. Freeman 
John B. Young 
r.oorge M. Freeman 
Jolin B. Young 
Cicorge M. Freeman 



JEI^FERSON TOWNSHIP. 

WHBV qUALlWOD 

May 22, 1809 
October 12, 181 2 
May II, 1815 
May 21, 1818 
April, 1819 
April 15, 1821 
April 18, 1822 
March 20, 1824 
January 24, 1825 
April 22, 1826 
January 7, 1828 
April 6, 1824 
January 18, 1831 
April 10, 1832 
December 21, 1833 
April II, 1835 
December 23, 1836 
April 21, 1838 
December 18, 1839 
July IS, 1840 
October 20, 1841 
October 19, 1842 
April II, 1844 
October 23, 1845 
October 26, 1847 
April I7„ 1848 
October 20, 1849 

1851 
November 17, 1852 
November 6, 1854 
October 17, 1855 
April 28, 1856 
December 3, 1856 
October 19, 1857 
October 15, i860 
October 25, 1861 
April 13, 1863 
October 27, 1864 
October 15, 1866 
October 15, 1867 
October 18, 1869 
October 18, 1870 
October 18, 1872 
October 22, 1873 
October 18. 1875 
October 14, 1876 
October 14, 1878 



812 

815 
818 

821 
822 
824 
825 
827 
828 
829 
830 
832 
834 

835 
836 

838 

839 
841 

842 

843 
844 

845 
847 
848 

850 

851 
852 

854 

855 

857 
858 

859 

859 
860 

863 

864 

866 

867 

869 

870 

872 

873 

875 
876 

878 

879 
881 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 



151 



Allen Easter 
A. D. Singer 
Waiiam Hm 
A. D. Singer 
Hosea M. Wamsley 
William Hill 
John B. Young 
William Hill 
£. L. Ellis 
William Hill 
D. H. Woods 
Jesse O. Grant 
William H. Johnson 
J. W. Webb 
William H. Johnson 



WBBM QUALUmD 

October 21, 1879 1882 

October 18, 1881 1884 

October 18, 1882 1885 

October 24, 1884 1887 
October 22, 1885 Resigned, 1887 

December, 1885 1888 

November 17, 1887 1890 

November 17, 1888 1891 

November 3, 1891 1895 

April 2Ty 1892 1895 

November 8, 1893 ^896 

April II, 1895 1898 

April 30, 1896 1899 

April 14, 1898 1901 

April 28, 1899 1902 



SPRIGG TOWNSHIP. 



William Leedom 

Aaron Moore 

John Ellison 

Aaron Moore 

John Ellison 

John Ellison 

Samuel K. Stivers 

George Bryan 

George Bryan 

Joseph McClain 

George Bryan 

Joseph McClain 

John Fisher 

Van S. Brady 

Van S. Brady 

William Dryden 

Van S. Brady 

Robert Pence 

John Bryan 
ohn Fisher 
ob S. Edgington 
ohn Bryan 

Henry Y. Copple 

John P. Bloomhuff 

John Bryan 

Richard N. Edgington 

David Beam 

John Bryan 

Michael Roush 

William T. Brady 

R. N. Edgington 

David Beam 

William K. Stewart 



April 24, 1809 
.uly 21, 1809 
July 24, 1809 
June 23, 1812 
July 20, 1812 
May II, 1815 
August 8, 1817 
May 21, 1818 
May 8, 1821 
February 13, 1822 
May 19, 1824 
February 23, 1825 
February 20, 1826 
April 23, 1827 
April 19, 1830 
April 10, 1832 
April 15, 1833 
April II, 183s 
November 14, 1835 
April 13, 1836 
November 7, 1838 
November 4, 1839 
November 10, 1841 
April 9, 1842 
October 19, 1842 
October 15. 1844 
April 19, 1845 
November 15, 1 845 
April 21, 1846 
August 17. 1846 
November 20, 1847 
April 17, 1848 
October 20, 1849 



1812 
1812 
1812 
1815 
1815 
1818 
1820 
1821 
1824 
1825 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 

1833 

1835 
1836 

1838 

1838 

1839 
1841 

1842 
1844 

1845 
1845 
1847 
1848 
iC"*48 

1849 
1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 



152 



HISTORY OP ADAMS CX)UNTY 



MAMS 



R. N. Edgington 
N. Kimble 
James Truitt 
L. L. Connor 
James Hamer 
Isaac Parker 
James Truitt 
William H. Bryan 
Robert Tucker 
James Hamer 
Robert Tucker 
Denton Tolle 
Alfred Pence 
M. A. Scott 
Denton Tolle 
Alfred Pence 
S. J. Lawwill 
Alexander Stewart 
Denton Tolle 
Harvey Connor 
M. A. Scott 
Alexander Stewart 
Philip Howell 
M. A. Scott 
J. N. Case 
Denton Tolle 
M. A. Scott 
J. N. Case 
Denton Tolle 
M. A. Scott 
J. N. Case 
A. V. Hutson 
W. T. Warner 
W. H. Vane 
W. H. Vane 
W. T. Warner 
Joseph A. Stewart 
Joseph A. Stewart 
C. H. Thompson 

F. M. Grimes 
C. C. Ellis 

J. N. Case 
J. N. Case 
J. N. Case 

G. J. J. Connell, 
Joseph Bowman 



SPRiGG TOWNSHIP — Concluded. 

WHSV QUALirnCD 

April 12, 1850 

185 1 

February 3, 1853 
April 15, 1853 
October 27, 1853 
April 12, 1854 
January 26, 1856 
October 27, 1856 
January 31, 1859 
October 17, 1859 
January 24, 1862 
October 22, 1862 
April 10, 1865 
October 7, iSiSs 
April 9, 1868 
April 9, 1868 
October 20, 1868 
April 7, 187 1 
April 7, 1 87 1 
April 7, 1 87 1 
April 10, 1874 
April 10, 1874 
April 10, 1874 
April 12, 1877 
April 12, 1877 
April 12, 1877 
April IS, 1880 
April IS, 1880 
April 15, 1880 
April 10, 1883 
April 10, 1883 
April 10, 1883 
April 10, 1889 
April 12, 1886 
April 10, 189s 
April 10, 189s 
April 10, 1889 
April 10, 189s 
April 28, 1899 
April 12, 1886 
May 3, 1898 
April 12, 1886 
April 10, 1889 
May 3, 1898 
April 2, 1895 
April 13, 1892 



WHEN BXPIBED 

1853 

1854 
1856 

1856 

1856 

1857 

1859 

1859 
1862 

1862 

1865 

1865 

1868 

1868 

1871 

1871 

1871 

1874 

1874 

1874 

1877 

1877 

1877 
1880 

1880 

1880 

1883 

1883 

1883 

1886 

1886 

1886 

1892 

1889 

1898 

1892 

1892 

1898 

1902 

i88q 

1901 

1889 

1892 

1901 

189S 

1895 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 



153 



MAMB 



James Parker 
Wm. Middleton 
Mills Stephenson 
Wm. Middleton 
Mills Stephenson 
William Gilbert 
Thomas Shelton 



Benjamin Sutton 
George Edwards 
Jeptha Beasley 
Mills Stephenson 
Jeptha Beasley 
Alex. Jolly 
James Moore 
James Moore 
Alex. Jolly 
Jeptha Beasley 
Nevil Redman 
Barrett Ristine 



Joseph Westbrook 
Abner Ewing 
Joseph Westbrook 
Abner Ewing 
Joseph Westbrook 
Robert Baird 
Abner Ewing 
Joseph Westbrook 
oshua Truitt 
oseph Westbrook 
ames A. Baird 
oseph Westbrook 
David W. Murphy 
Joshua Truitt 
David W. Murphy 
Joseph McKee 
Jonathan Kenyon 
David W. Murphy 
Joseph McKee 
Joshua Truitt 
Joseph McKee 
Thomas G. Lewis 
Elisha C. Stout 
Joseph C. N. Baird 
Archibald Oursler 
David W. Murphy 



HUNTINGTON TOWNSHIP. 

WHBN QUALIFIKD 

August 29, 1809 
April 20, 181 1 
August 4, 1812 
April 16, 1814 
August 26, 1815 
October 19, 181 5 
May 20, 1816 

BYRD TOWNSHIP. 

September 15, 1809 
September 13, 1809 
September 19, 1809 
September 19, 1809 
August 4, 1812 
August 4, 181 2 
August 4, 1812 
June 30, 181 5 
June 30, 181 5 
June 30, 181 5 
April 9, 18 16 
May 19, 1817 

GREEN TOWNSHIP, 

June 14, 1810 
November 12, 1810 
June 13, 1813 
March 9, 1814 
March 20, 181 6 
February 8, 181 7 
March, 1819 
June 7, 1817 
October 22, 1821 
April 18, 1822 
October 27, 1823 
April 23, 1825 
October 20, 1826 
April 24, 1828 
October 23, 1829 
April 26, 1 83 1 
October 17, 1832 
March i, 1833 
April 16, 1834 
March 7, 1836 
April 15, 1837 
April 21, 1838 
April 13, 1839 
March 10, 1840 
April 13, 1840 
October 19, 1842 



WUBN BXPIHSD 



I8t2 

1814 
1815 
18x7 
181S 
1818 
1819 



812 
812 

813 

813 

815 

81S 

815 
818 

818 

818 

819 

820 



813 

813 
816 

817 

819 

820 

822 

822 

824 

825 

826 

828 

829 

831 
832 

834 

835 
836 

837 

839 
840 

841 

842 

843 
843 
845 



164 



fflSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 



GRBBN TOWNSHIP — Concluded. 



MAMB 



Jacob S. Rose 
John Wikoflf 
Jacrb S. Rose 
Robert Y. Humphrey 
John Wikoflf 

bhn Collier 

ohn Wikoflf 
Hai*\ey Hall 
A. J. Wikoflf 
Jacob Rose 
A. T. Wikoflf . 
Jacob S. Rose 
Allen T. Wikoflf 

Jacob S. Rose 

Luther Collier 

James McKinley 

J. S. Rose 

James McKinley 
ames S. Colvin 
ames McKinley 

Elliot H. Collins 

W. W. Ellison 

F. J. Rideout 

Elliot H. Collins 

W. B. Godfrey 

Jonathan Tracy 

W. W. Ellison 

Elliot H. Collins 

L. F. Adams 

W. W. Ellison 

Charles N. Hall 

Elliot H. Collins 

T. B. Manning 

W. W. Ellison 

Elliot H. Collins 

John H. Rose 

Henrv Oursler 

Elliot' H. Collins 

W. W. Ellison 

F. J. Rideout 

Wm. Furtwaugher 

F. J. Rideout 

F. M. Piatt 

Wm. Furtwanger. 

J. N. Patton 

Wm. Tracy 

Darius Dryden 

Wm. Tracv 

J. W. Drake 



WHBM qUAJAWOD 

April lO, 1843 
November i, 1845 
April 21, 1846 
November 20, 1847 
October 21, 1848 
April 12, 1850 

1851 
November 17, 1852 
October 20, 1854 
October 17, 1855 
October 19, 1857 
October 27, 1857 
October 15, i860 
October 25, 1861 
April 13, 1863 
April II, 1864 
April 13, 1866 
April 9, 1867 
April 8, 1869 
April 18, 1870 
April 7, 1 87 1 
October 20, 1871 
April 16, 1872 
April 15, 1874 
October 31, 1874 
April 9, 187s 
April 10, 1876 
December 12, 1877 
April 6, 1878 
April 10, 1879 
April 15, 1880 
April 9, 1 88 1 
April 14, 1882 
April 14, 1882 
April 14, 1884 
April 18, 1885 
December 12, 1885 
April 12, 1887 
November 17, 1887 
April II, 1888 
Apirl 10, 1889 
April 15, 1891 
April 13, 1892 
April 13, 1892 
April 14, 1894 
April 14, 1894 
April 10, 1895 
April 21, 1897 
May 3, 1898 



WH«N SXPIBMD 
1846 
1848 
1849 
1850 
185 1 

1853 

1854 

1854 

1857 
1858 

i860 

I86I 

1863 

1864 

1866 

1867 

1870 

1870 

1869 

1873 
1874 

1874 

1875 
1877 

1877 

187s 

1879 
1880 

I88I 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1885 

1887 

1888 

1888 

1890 

1890 

I89I 

1892 

1894 

1895 

1895 
1894 

1897 

i8q8 . 

1900 

1901 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 



Michael Bevis 
John Chapman 
Michael Bever 
Nathaniel Chapman 
Curttss Cannon 
Joseph Carson 
Curtiss Cannon 
Joseph Carson 
John Chapman 
Seth Van Mater 
Samuel R. Wood 
Seth Van Mater 
Samuel R, Wood 
Seth Van Mater 
Francis Warder 
Samuel R. Wood 
John Eakins 
Samuel R. Wood 
Samuel R. Wood 
Samuel R. Wood 
John Eakins 
John Oliver 
Eleven Phillips 
John Oliver 
Levin Little 
John Oliver 
Isaac Wittenmeyer 
John Oliver 
Isaac Wittenmeyer 
Samuel Lewis 
Job S. Edgington 
Samuel Lewis 
Thomas Metz 
George W. Nixon 
Thomas Metz 
Joseph Thoroman 
George W. Nixon 
Joseph Thoroman 
George W, Nixon 
Joseph Thoroman 
G. \V. Nixon 
Wm. Nevi! 
Geo. W. Nixon 
Joseph Thoroman 
George Nixon 
Joseph Thoroman 
Samuel A. Chapman 
David Nixon 
Samuel A. Chapman 



MEIGS TOWNSHIP. 




WBIlf qUUJTlMD 


WKiK uni 


June 15, 1810 


1813 


June 13, 1811 
May 26, 1813 


1815 
1816 


April 16, 1814 


1814 


August 26, 1815 


1818 


April 16, 1817 


1820 


August 19, 1818 


1821 


March 20, 1820 


1823 


April 10, i8zi 


1824 


December 24, 1821 


1833 


April 23, 1824 


1827 


December 31, 1824 


1827 


April 23, 1827 


1830 


April 23. 1827 


1830 


April 24, 1828 


183I 


April 19, 1830 


1833 


April 19, 1830 


1834 


April 15, 1833 


1836 


April 13, 1836 


1839 


April 13, 1830 


1843 


April 9, 1842 


1845 


November 17, 1842 


1845 


April 19, 1845 


1848 


October 15, 1845 


1848 


April 17, 1848 


1850 


April 17, 1848 


1851 


August 18, 1849 


1852 


.85. 


i8S4 


1852 


i8S5 


April 9. 185'; 


1858 


April 28, 1S56 


I8S9 


May I, 1858 


1861 


April 12, 1859 


1862 


April 5. 1861 


1864 


April II, 1862 


i86s 


April II, 1865 


1868 


April 9, 1867 


1870 


April 9, 1868 


1871 


April 8, 1870 


1873 


April 7, 1871 


1874 


April 14. 1873 


1876 


April 15, 1874 


1877 


April 10. 1876 


1879 


April 12, 1877 


1880 


April 10, 1879 


1882 


April ^. 1880 


1882 


April 14, 1882 


1885 


April io. 1883 


1886 


October l8, 1885 


1888 



fflSTORY OP ADA^MS COCNTY 



UBiGS TOWNSHIP — Concluded. 



Wm. P. Newman 
J. W. Tillotson 
S. A. Chapman 
David Nixon 
John CHne 
S. A. Chapman 
J. C. Chapman 
S. A. Chapman 
Dynes Tener 
J. C. Foster 
S. A. Chapman 



Uriah Springer 
Wm. Laycock 
Peter Shaw 
Wm. Laycock 
Stephen Reynolds 
Joshua Parrish 
James Kendall 



Adam Kirkpatrick 
Adam Kirkpatrick 
Robert Morrison 
Adam Kirkpatrick 
Robert Morrison 
Adam Kirkpatrick 
Philip Robbsns 
John Wright 
Adam Kirkpatrick 
John Wright 
Adam Kirkpatrick 
Daniel John 
Adam Kirkpatrick 
Daniel John 
Wm. McVey 
Wm. Hckman 
Samuel Wright 
Wni. Eckman 
John Kirkpatrick 
Silas Marlatt 
John Kirkpatrick 
Silas Marlatt 
Kdwnr.l Clark 
Wni. I'tcknian 
John Kirkpatrick 
Wm. Kckman 



, "813 



WBBB QVAUnU) 

April 12, 1886 
April u, 1888 
April II, 1888 
April 10, 1889 
April 14, 1890 
April s, 1891 
April 13, 1892 
November 12, 1894 
April 10, 189s 
April 21, 1897 
April 14, 1898 

EAGLE TOWNSHIP, 

June 15, 1810 
December 12, 1810 
April 26, 1813 
November 
April 9, 1816 
August 17, 1816 
April 16, 1817 

WAYNE TOWNSHIP. 

July 6, 1810 
September 23, 1813 
October 19. 1815 
April 17, 1818 
October 29. 1818 
April 10, 1 82 1 
October 23, 1821 
October 27, 1823 
April 23, 1824 
October 14, 1826 
April 23, 1827 
April 17, 1829 
April 19, 1830 
April ID, 1832 
Apri! 15. 1833 
Octobei 27, 1835 
April 13, 1836 
October 19, 1838 
April 13, 1839 
April 21, 1841 
April 9, 1842 
April II, 1844 
April 19, 1845 
October 20, 1846 
April 17, 1848 
Octol)er 20. 1849 



1891 
1891 



1896 
1894 



1897 



1900 
1901 



1813 



1816 
1819 
1819 



181. 1 
1816 
1818 
1821 
1821 
1824 
1824 
1826 
1827 
1829 
1830 
1832 
1833 
183s 
1836 
1838 
1839 
1841 
1842 
1844 
1845 
1847 
18^ 
1849 
1851 
1852 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 



Wm. Mclntire 
John C, Diiffey 
Samuel Smith 
James M. Young 
W. F. Kirkpatrick 
Samuel Alexander 
James Cross 
S. D. Mclntire 
Wm. Eckman 
J. C. Cooper 
S. D. Mclntire 
John C. Cooper 
S. D. Mclntire 
Geo. G. Meneley 
J. C. Cooper 
A. Kirk 
David Curran 
N. S. Williams 
Craven E. Silcott 
N. S. Williams 
James N. Taylor 
J. W. Young 
Restine Rohe 
Alexander Kirk 
Samuel J. Finley 
John A. McNeil 
John Plummer 
John A. McNeil 
John A, McNeil ■ 
Thos. P. Kirkpatrick 
Thos. P. Kirkpatrick 
John A. McNeil 
John A. McNeil 
G. G. Meneley 
John A. McNeil 



John Barritt 
Thos. Lockhart 
Isaac Vorhes 
John Phillips 
Daniel Matheny 
John Phillips 
Charles Stephenson 
Moses Lockhart 
Wm. Smith 
Moses Ix)ckhart 
John Pennywit 
Daniel Matheny 



VEIN qu*unu> 


WBBM KIPIl 


April 12. 1850 


1853 


1852 


1855 


October 19, 1852 


1855 


April 15, 1853 


1856 


December 2!, 1853 


Resigned 


April 9, 1855 


1858 


April 28, 1856 


i8S9 


January z, 1857 


i860 


April 21, 1857 


i860 


April 13, 1858 


1861 


January 9, .860 


1863 


April 5, 1861 


1864 


October 22. 1862 


1865 


April 9, 1867 


1870 


April 9, 1868 


1871 


April 8, 1869 


1872 


April 17, 1872 


1S75 


April 17. 1872 


187s 


April 9, 1875 


1878 


April 9, 1875 


1878 


April 12, 1877 Resigned 


March '78 


April 6. 1878 


1881 


April 6. 1878 


1881 


April ro, 1879 


1882 


April 15, 1880 Resigned Jan. 2, '82 


January 19, 1882 


1885 


April ID, 1883 


1886 


April 10, 1885 


1888 


April II, 1888 


1801 


April 12, 1886 


■ 839 


April 10, 1889 


1802 


April 15, 1891 


I8<)4 


April 14, 1894 


I8<,7 


April 14, 1894 


1897 


April 21, 1897 Died 


June. I8y9 


MONROE TOWNSHI!'. 




August 8, 1817 


1820 


September I, l8l8 


182= 


May 21. 1820 


1823 


April 22, 1822 


1825 


September 22, 1823 


1S2& 


April 23. 1825 


1828 


September 30, 1826 


1829 


May 19, 1828 


1831 


Julv 3, 1829 


1832 


May 22 1831 


1834 


April 10, 1832 


.835 


November 6, 1832 


■83.i 



168 



HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



MONROB TOWNSHIP — Concluded. 



9Aum 



Moses Lockhart 
Andrew Livingston 
Wm. Stephenson 
James Cole 
Abraham Perry 
^ ames Cole 
James V. Willman 
John P. Drennan 
Wm. Stevenson 
Thos. J. Lockhart 
James V. Willman 
John Devine 
Wm. Stevenson 
Jacob M. Wells 
John Devine 
Wm. Stevenson 
Caleb Francis 
David Dunbar 
Thomas Ellison 
Elliot H. CoUins 
John Devine 
Elliot H. Collins 
David C. Vance 
Wm. Evans 
John Devine 
Christian Mowrer 
John Devine 
Wm. Stevenson 
Wm. Stevenson 

ames Gray 

ohn Devine 
Wm. Stevenson 
John Devine 
Isaac Stevenson 
Lerov T. Smith 
Wm.' M. Smith 

oseph F. Mitchell 

. L. Howell 
Wm. M. Smith 
Henry Phillips 
Wm. M. Smith 
A. D. Fry 
Joseph F. Mitchell 
A. D. Fry 
Wm. M. Smith 
E. R. Cummings 
A. D. Fry 
John C. Baldwin 



WHBN QUALITZBD 

May i6, 183 j 
April 13, 1836 
February 20, 1837 
October 19, 1838 
December 18, 1839 
October 20, 1841 
November 17, 1842 
April II, 1844 
December 11, 1845 
August 17, 1846 
November 25, 1848 
April 12, 1849 
185 1 
1852 

October 22, 1853 
April 9, 1855 
August 30, 1856 
June 3, 1858 
September 12, 1859 
April 5, 1861 
August 3, 1861 
April 13, 1864 
August 7, 1864 
April 9, 1867 
August 21, 1867 
October 15, 1867 
September i, 1870 
November 17, 1870 
November 14, 1873 
November 14, 1873 
April 10, 1876 
November 11, 1876 
April 10, 1879 
October 21, 1879 
April 15, 1880 Resigned 
September 15, 1881 
April 14, 1884 
October 22, 1885 
December 12, 1886 
April 12, 1887 
November 11, 1889 
April 14, 1890 
November 12, 1892 
April 10, 1893 . 
April 10, 1895 
April 30, 1896 
April 14, 1898 
April 28, 1899 



m 



837 

839 
840 

S41 

843 

844 

84s 

847 
848 

849 

851 
852 

854 

855 
856 

858 

859 
861 

862 

864 

864 

867 

867 

870 

870 

870 

873 

873 
876 

876 

879 

879 
882 

882 

881 

884 

887 

888 
889 
890 
892 

893 

895 

895 
898 

899 
901 

902 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 





UBERTY TOWNSHIP. 




BAMU 




VBBV KXPII 


John Kincaid 


April 17, 1818 


I82I 


Wm. Robbins 


April 17, 1818 


I82I 


Wm. Mehaffey 


October 29, 1819 


1822 


John Kincaid 
Wm. Mehaffey 


April 10, 1821 


1824 


November 5, 1822 


1825 


John Kincaid 


April 24, 1828 


1831 


Wm. Mehaffey 


October 24, 1825 


1828 


John Kincaid 


April 23, 1827 


1830 


Richard Nolemaa 


April 24, 1828 


1831 


Robert Fatten 


Mav iq, 182S 


I83I 


Robert Patton 


Ociobtr 24, 1831 


1834 


Richard Ncrfeman 


April 16, 1834 


1837 


Rob-irt Patton 


October 23, 1834 


1837 


Thomas Foster 


April 15, 1837 


1840 


Robert Patton 


January 2, 1838 


I 841 


Richard Noleman 


October 10, 1838 


I84I 


Thomas Foster 


April 13, 1840 


1843 


John S. Patton 


October 20, 1840 


1843 


Richard Noleman 


October 20, 1841 


1844 


Thomas Perry 


April 9, 1842 


1845 


Thomas Foster 


April 10, 1843 


1845 


John S. Patton 


April 10, 1843 


1846 


Wm. P. Cluxton 


April 19, 1845 


1848 


John L. Francis 


April 2, 1846 


1849 


John S. Patton 


October 20, 1846 


1849 


Wm. P. Cluxton 


November 20, 1847 


1850 


Toe. Washburn 
James McKee 


April 12, 1849 


1852 


October 20, 1849 


1852 


Tames N. Hook 


April 12, 1850 


1853 


A. Mehaffey 


1851 


1854 


Jas. McClanalian 
Mills S. Stevenson 


April IS. 1853 


1856 


April 15, 1853 


1856 


Andrew Mehaffey 


Octob';r 20. 1854 


1857 


Isaac Washburn 


April 9. 1855 


1858 


A. E. Robe 


April 7, 1856 


1859 


Wm. R. Frame 


October 27. 1856 


1859 


R. A. Kinpatrick 


October 19, 1857 


i860 


Lias Washburn 


April 13, 1858 


I86I 


A. H Mehaffey 


October 17, 1859 


1862 


T. R. MehaPfev 


April 5. 1861 


1864 


A.- H. T^Iehaff'ev 


October 22, 1862 


1865 


J. R. Mehaffey 
T. R. Mehaffey 


April II, 1864 


1867 


April Q, 1867 


1870 


'A. S. Brownfield 


October 7, 1865 


1868 


J. R. Mehaffey 


April 9, 1867 


1870 


R. M. Askren 


April 9, 1867 


1870 


Wm. P. Hannah 


October 20, 1868 


I87I 


W. K. Frame 


April 14, 1869 


1872 


Isaac Washburn 


April 18, 1870 


1873 



HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 



LiBBRTy TOWNSHIP — Concluded. 



Wni. E. Kirkpatrick 
Isaac Washburn 
Wm. H. Kirkpatrick 
A. W. Kincaid 
Isaac Washburn 
\A'm. H. Kirkpatrick 
John R. Mehaffey 
Samuel Jackson 
Ezckial Pittenger 
Isaac Washburn 
J. R. Mehaffey 
A. H. Mehaffey 
John V. Kincaid 
A. H. Mehaffey 
H. D. Robuck 
A. H. Mehaffey 
H. D. Robuck 
Carev Patton 
A. H. Mehaffey 
John V. Kincaid 
Care\' Patton 
Jcftin V. Kincaid 
G. A. McColm 
Carev Patton 
0. H. Emerv 



WBBD QUlLinCD 

October 20, 1871 
October 14, 1873 
October 20, 1874 
April 9, 1873 
April 10, 1876 
October 16, 1877 
October 16, 1878 
April 10, 1879 
October iS, 1880 
April 9, 1831 
April 9, 183 1 
April 14, 1884 
April 14, 1884 
April 12, 1887 
April 12, 1887 
April 74 1890 
April 14 1890 
April 18, 1892 
April ID, 1893 
April 10, 1893 
November 12, 1894 
April 30, 1896 
April 30, 1S96 
April 14, 1898 
April 28, 1809 



1874 
1875 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 



1890 
1890 
1893 
1893 
1895 
1895 
1895 
1897 
1899 
1899 
1 901 
igo2 



SCOTT TOWNSHIP. 



Aaron Moore 
Thomas McClelland 
Aaron Moore 
Samuel Dryden 
Aaron Moore 
Wm. McCormick 
Wm. McCormick 
Aaron Moore 
Wm. McCormick 
Aaron Moore 
\\'m. McCormick 
Aaron Moore 
Asa Williamson 
Lemuel IJndsey 
.\sa Williamson 
Thomas Robbins 
Mo.Kc.'; Tilack 
David McCreight 
Joseph M. Glasgow 
b.ivid McCreight 
Henry Moore 



April 17, 1818 

April 17, 1818 
April 10, 1821 
April 10, 1821 
April 23, 1824 
April 23, 1824 
"'- ■ 23, 1825 
April 23, 1827 
April 24, 1828 
April 15, 1830 
■^"-=' 26. 1831 
'5- 1833 
^ 1834 
15- 1834 
15. 1837 
'5. '837 
21. 1838 
13. '840 
21, 1841 
10. 1843 

IT. 1844 



Apr! 
Apri 
April 
April 
April 
Apri 
Apri 
April 
April 
April 
April 



1821 
1821 
1824 
1824 
1827 
1827 



1831 
■833 
1834 
1836 
1837 
1837 
1840 
1840 
1841 
1843 
1844 
1846 
1847 



David McCreighl, Jr. 
Josqjh M, Glasgow 
David McCreight 
Joseph M. Glasgow 
Wm. A, Aultman 
David Gaston 
John Blair 
David Gaston 
H. C. Bryan 
David Gaston 
Wm. Mclntire 
David Gaston 
Wm. Mclntire 
George Campbell 
Wm. Mclntire 
George Campbell 
Wm. Mclntire 
George Campbell 
I. L. Dodds 
I. L. Dodds 
George Campbell 
Absalom Day 
M. V. Williamson 
Absalom Day 
Alex. McCreight 
Absalom Dav 
M. V. Williamson 
T. F. JefFrevs 
W. O. Murphy 
T. F. Teffrevs 
W. S. MiUer 
L W. Spargur 
I. L. Dodds 



Henry Y. Copple 
las. N. Brittingham 
E. H. Thomas 
James Matt 
David Dunbar 
David Dunbar 
Thomas H. Cnisan 
David Dunbar 
John D. Hines 
lames W Bierly 
band Dunbar 
H. C. Doddridge 
J. C. Montgomery 
tames E. Panghum 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 

April 21, 1846 
April 12, 1847 
February 24, 1849 
April 12, 1850 
April 12, 1852 
August 2, 1853 
April 9, 1855 
April 28, 1856 
August 19, 1857 
April 12, 1859 
October 15, i860 
April II, 1862 
April 9, 1868 
April 9, 1868 
April 7, 187 1 
May 9, 1871 
April 10, 1874 
April 10, 1874 
April 12, 1877 
April i:;, 1880 
April 15, 1880 
April 10, 1883 
April 10, 1883 
April 12. 1886 
April 12. 1886 
April 10, 1889 
April 10, 1889 
April 13, 1892 
April 27, 1892 
April 10, 1805 
April 10, 189=; 
April 14, 18^ 
May 3. 1898 

MANCHESTER TOWNSHIP. 

1851 
1852 

April 12, 1854 
December 29, 1854 
June 12, 1861 
April 13. 1864 
April 9, 1867 
October 15, 1867 
October 18, 1869 
April 7. 1871 
April 10, 1R74 
November 12, 1877 
April 15, t88o 
April 17, 1882 



1849 
1850 
1852 
1853 
1855 
1855 
1858 
1859 
i860 
1862 
1863 
1865 
187 1 
1871 
1874 
1874 
1877 
1877 



1883 



1892 
1892 

1895 
1895 



1901 
1901 



1854 
1855 
1857 
1857 



1870 
1870 

1R72 
1874 
1877 
1880 



HISTORY OP ADAUS COUNTT 



UANCHBSTBR TOWNSHIP — Coacluded. 



Fred"w" Bailey 


ITHIS QTJALinMD WBSa BIPII 

April lo, 1885 1888 


John K. Dunbar 


May 16, 1885 


1S88 


W. H. Coolev 


August 20. 1887 


1890 


J. E. Pangbu'm 


November 10, 1890 


1893 


J. M. Lovett 


April 7, 1894 


1897 


T. W. Connolley 


April 21, 1S97 

BRATTON TOWNSHf. 


1900 


J. B. Gustin 


October, 1883 


1886 


A. G. Getty 


AprU 14, 1884 


1887 


J. B. Gustin 


November 9, 1886 


1889 


G. W. Siders 


December 8, 1887 


1890 


Porter Jackson 


November 11, 1889 


.892 


G. W. Siders 


November 10, 1890 


1893 


. V/. Mason 


November 21, 1891 


1894 


. . B. Gustin 


April 24, 1891. 


1897 


ohn W. Mason 


November 24, 1894 


1897 


; . W. Zile 


April 21, 1897 

OLIVER TOWNSHIP. 


igoo 


James Crisswell 


April 12, T854 


1857 


Newkirk Hull 


October 20, 1854 


1857 


John OHver 


r>e<:eml)er 29. 1854 


■857 


James Milligan 


Apn 9, 1855 


1858 


John Oliver 


December 30, 1857 


i860 


J. C. MiUigan 


April 5. 1861 


1864 


Henrv Scott 


April 13, 1863 


1866 


H. C: Viers 


January 5, 1864 


1867 


J. C. Milligan 


April II, 1864 


1867 


John M. Plummer 


April Q. 1867 


1870 


0. H. Viers 


April 9. 1867 


1870 


John Caiskafklni, 


April 8. 1809 


1872 


R. FI. W. Peterson 


April 25, 1870 


1873 


John Carshaddon 


April 19, 1872 


■875 


J. W. McClmig 


Apn! 14, 1873 


1876 


T- T Treber 


Abril 9: 1S75 


1878 


j. W McChing 


April 10. 1876 


1879 


Daniel Collier 


November Ii5. 1S76 


1879 


John Ellison 


October ifi. 1877 


iSSo 


J. V/. McClung 


April 10. 1S70 


T882 


Tohn Kllisun 


Novemlier S. 1880 Res'd Mar. 


7. •83 


T, W. McClun? 


April i-i. 1882 


18R5 


C. "i". Hall 


April 10. 1S83 


1886 


T. W. McChing 


April 10. 188s 


i88g 


Tas. C. Milligan 


April 12, 1886 


1889 


J. C- Thompson 


April 12. 1887 


18S9 


J. C. Thompson 


N'oveniber 17, 1887 


1890 


Joseph Tlif>roman 


April TO. 1880 


1892 


J. C. Milligan 


April ro. T889 


1892 



J. T. Ryan 
R. S. Moore 
T. P. Kirkpatrick 
R. S. Moore 
W. D. Colman 
W. D. Coleman 
R. S. Moore 
H. S. McClelland 
J. T. Ryan 



Win. McNeill 
Samuel Holmes 
Jacob Grooms 
Rezin T. Fowler 
Abraham Evans 
Rezin T. Fowler 
Thomas Robbins 
Richard Ramsey 
J. M. Wells 
Richard Ramsey 
Wm. Moore 
Samuel McNeill 
■Rirhard Ramsey 
Wm. R. Leedom 
Richard Ramsey 
R. McKune 
Thomas Ramsey 
R. McKune 
Richard Ramsey 
Richard Ramsey 
\y. C. Gilbert 
Richard Ramsev 
Wm. Albert 
William Long 
Reuben McKime 
Turntr Osborne 
Isaac Roberts 
Reuhten McKune 
Richard Ramsey 
Renhcn McKune 
Harrisi^n Massie 
Georpc F. Palmer 
George F. Palmer 
F M Wells 
"Deniamin Hudson 
H. T. Massie 
Tohn A. Gilbert 
H. T. Masie 
F. M. Wells 
F. M. Wells 



OODNTY AFFAIRS 

WaBH QUALiniD 

April 14, [890 
April 27, 1892 
April 27, 1892 
April 10, 7893 
April 10, 1893 
May 9, 1896 
May 9, 1S96 
April 27, 1809 
April 27, 1899 

WINCHESTER TOWNSHIP. 
June II, JS38 
April 13, 1839 
April 13, 1840 
April 9, 1842 
April 10, 1843 
April 29, 1845 
Ann! 2r, 1846 
Jiily iB, 1846 
April 17, 1S48 
August 4, 1849 
August 4, 1849 
1852 

April 9. 1855 
April 12, 1855 
April 13, 1858 
April i\, 1858 
April 5. 1S61 
April ^,1861 
March" 18, 1862 
April 10. 1865 
April 10. 1S65 
April 9, 186S 
April 9, 1862 
Aprd T3. 1871 
May !8. 1871 
April 10, 1874 
April 10, 1874 
December i8. 1876 
April 12, 1877 
December 17. 1879 
April 15, 1880 
December 18. 1882 
April TO, T883 
April 12, 1886 
Kovemhcr Q. 1S86 
April 10, il^ 
Kovcmber 11, 1889 
April 13. r8Q2 
\oveniber 12, 1892 
April 10. fPQ^ 



1895 
1895 
1896 
1896 
1899 
1899 
1902 
1902 



1841 
1842 
1843 
1S45 
1846 
1848 
1849 
1849 
1851 
1852 
1852 
1855 
1858 
1858 
1861 
1861 
1864 
1864 
1865 
1868 
1868 
1871 
187 1 
1874 
1874 
1877 
1877 
1879 
1880 



18S5 
1886 



1892 
1892 
1895 
1895 



HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 



Franklin townshtf 



Wm. Curry 
Scth VanMater 
George Vinsonhaler 
Jonathan Turner 
Geo. Vinsonhal«- 
Seth VanMaler 
E. L. O. Lovett 
Seth VanMater 
Wni. M. Hays 
Seth VanMater 
Seth VanMater 
Wm. M. Havs 
Seth VanMater 
R. D. Middleton 
E. L. O. I,ovptt 
Joshua Gore 
John Ct^eland 
Isaac Kelley 
ToDhua Gore 
G. P. Tener 
J. R. Copeland 
E. Rcid 
T. E. Reid 
Thomas Beavers 
A, Turner 
G. W. Nixon 
Thomas Beavers 
A. Turner 
J. T. Copeland 
G. W. Ciders 
J. T. Copeland 
John H. Guthrie 
Jacob T. Copeland 
M. H, Newman 
David S. Eylar 
Benjamin Siiffran 
Tames Copeland 
Philip Leijjhiev 
D. S. Evlar ' 
James Copeland 
Tames N. TTook 
b. S. Eyiar 
Jonathan Tpner 
David S. Eylar 
Tames Coneland 
Davis S. Eylar 
Tames Copeland 



WBUI qVALlflED 

April 24, 1828 


'""i^T" 


April 24, 1S28 


1831 


January 18, 1S31 


1834 


April 15, 1833 


1836 


Februarv 13, 1834 


1837 


April 13, 1836 


1839 


April 15, 1S37 


1840 


April 13, 1839 


1842 


February 2p, 1840 
April 13, 1840 


1843 


1843 


December 13, 1842 


1845 


April 10, 1843 


1846 


February 4, 1846 


1849 


December 16, 1848 


1852 


April 12, 1850 


1853 


1851 


1854 


1851 


1854 


November 25, 1852 


1855 


April 12, 1854 


1857 


April % i8s5 


1858 


April 21, 1857 


18G0 


April 13, 1858 


1862 


April 5. 1861 


1864 


April 13, 1863 


1866 


April II, 1864 


1867 


April 11, 1864 


1867 


April 13, 1866 


1869 


April 0, 1867 


1870 


April 8, 1869 


1872 


Aoril 8. 1869 


1872 


June 16. 1869 


1872 


April 16. 1872 


1875 


April 16. 1872 


1875 


April lo. 1874 




April 9, 1875 


1878 


April 12, 1877 


1880 


April 6. 1878 


1881 


April 6, 1878 


18S1 


April 0, 1881 


1884 


April 0, i88t 


]SS4 


April 14. 1884 


!S87 


April 14. 1S84 


1887 


Oetobrr 22. 1885 


1888 


April 12, 1887 


1890 


November 7, 1888 


i8qc 


April 14. 1890 


1893 


November 13. 1891 


■894 



WHSK QUALIFIED 


WBBN BXPIBKD 


April TO, 1893 


1896 


April 18, 1894 


1897 


May 9, 1896 


1899 


April 21, 1897 


1900 



CX)UNTY AFFAIRS 166 

■AXB 

D. S. Eylar 
J. P. Jackson 
G. W. Moomaw 
J. H. McCoy 

Reeeipta and Bzpenditures of Adams County, from tl&e 8t]& Day of Jnae, 
.^24 1824, to tl&e Bth Day of Jnae, 1825. 

June 30. Received of Daniel Edmiston for tavern license $ 6 00 

July 19. Received of William Armstrong for store license 13 479 

Joshua Woodrow for store license 10 00 

Peter Cooley for store license 11 2S 

William Early for ferry license 2 25 

Sparks and Means for store license 13 479 

David Bradford for tavern license 7 863 

John Young for store license 10 00 

William Leedom for tavern license „ 6 616 

William Williamson for ferry license 2 00 

Isaac Aerl for tavern license 5 616 

Curtis Cannon for tavern license 5 616 

Joseph Darlinton for ferry license 2 25 

Oct 18. Received of Willis Lee for store permit 7 945 

20. James Paull & Co. for store license 10 00 

23. Joseph Darlinton, £sc|., for fines paid to him 31 25 

27. John Meek for store license 10 00 

Dec 1. Received of Benjamin Bowman for tavern license 5 00 

1825. 

Jan. 5. Received of John Patterson, collector of the county levy for 1824, 

in part of said collection 1,002 28 

Jan. 6. Received of John Patterson, collector of the land tax for 1824, the 

county's proportion of said tax 219 095 

Jan. 6. Received the county's proportion of arrears taxes, and from the 

sales of land for taxes, etc 601 217 

Mar. 7. Received of Thomas Kincaid, collector of the county levy for 

1821, the balance of said collection 249 475 

Mar. 7. Received of John Patterson, collector of the countv levy for 

1824, the balance of said collection 261 759 

Mar. 7. Received of justices of the peace for fines collected by them, 
viz: John Patterson, Esq., $2.00— William Mehaffey, Esq., 

$3.92— Daniel Matheney, Esq., $2.00 7 92 

Mar. 12. Received of James McCague for store license 5 068 

April 13. Received of John Lodwick, late sheriff, a fine on Josiah Edson. 1 00 

16. Willis Lee for store license 10 00 

18. William Russell for store license „.... 17 00 

Thomas McCague for store license 17 00 

A. Ellison & Co. for store license 14 17 

19. Jacob Cox for tavern license 5 00 

Wesley Lee 'or store license 17 00 

Alexander Hemphill for tavern license 5 00 

Jonathan Kenyan for ferry license 2 00 

21. the securities of Thomas Kincaid, late sheriff, for 

several fines collected by him 40 84 

22. James Young for a store license 10 00 

June 4. Received of Joseph Darlinton, Esq., for fines paid to him 17 00 

Total receipts $2,561 41S 



166 fflSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

1^04 Sxpeadit«re»- Orders Allowed by tl&e CoauBieeiomere. 

June 8. Paid Leyi Smith, lister of Wayne township, for 1824 7 60 

Peter Belles, lister of Monroe township, for 1824^ ^ 7 60 

Levi Mattison, lister of Greene township, for 1824 5 00 

Lyman Taft, lister of Jefferson township, for 1824^ 8 126 

Thomas Kirkpatrick, lister of Scott township, for 1824 12 60 

John McClure, lister of Tiffin township, for 1824 16 626 

Moses Connell, lister of Liberty township, for 1824^^ 8 76 

David Kirkpatrick, lister of Meigs township, for 1814^ 16 26 

Jesse Parham, lister of Sprigg township, for 1824. 18 76 

Hamilton Dunbar, appraiser of Tiffin township » 2 60 

Samuel Dougherty, appraiser of Sprigg township^ 1 2b 

the viewers, surveyor, etc., for laying out a road from the 

county line on Lower Twin Creek to the Portsmouth 

road near Joseph Williams' 9 876 

the viewers, surveyor, etc., for laying out a road from the 

mouth of Turkey creek to the steam furnace 7 60 

John M. Hay slip for keeping court house one year 18 00 

Samuel McClenahan for surveying a part of the township 

lines 49 76 

Oliver C. Collins for selling the contracts for public build* 

ings at public auction 1 60 

Benjamin Paull for a lock for the jail and sundries . 31 00 

Joseph Riggs, for his services as county auditor, from the 

Ist of March, 1824. to the 1st of March, 1826 ^ 243 667 

for postage and stationery for auditor's office 7 76 

The following orders were allowed by the County Auditor : 

Paid John Long and Daniel Amen for assisting to take and guard 

Daniel Mershon to prison $ 4 00 

Paid Nashee, & Bailhache for publishing amount of road tax, etc., for 

1821 2 00 

Paid witnesses in state cases 6 00 

Paid Jury fees in state cases 18 00 

Paid Prosecuting Attorney at July term, 1824 30 00 

Paid Associated Judge at July term, 1824 37 60 

Paid Associate Judges at October term, 1824 37 60 

Paid Prosecuting Attorney at October term, 1824 33 00 

Paid constables for attending on courts and juries 18 26 

Paid James Miller under the act for his relief. 100 00 

Paid Joseph Darliuton, Esq., by order of court, under the act regulating 
fees of civil officers for services when the state fails, etc., at 60 dollars 

per annum HO 00 

Paid John McDaied.Bsq., sheriff of Adams county under the act regulat- 
ing the fees of civil officers, agreeable to an order of court, at 60 dol- 
lars per annum, from the 11th of November, 1823, to the 1st ol June, 

1826 93 16 

Paid Associate Judges for April term, 1825, and for three called courts^.. 67 60 

Paid Prosecuting Attorney at April term, 1825 25 00 

Paid County Commissioners 60 00 

Paid Grand Juries at July and October terms, 1824 76 00 

Paid Grand Jurors at April term, 1825 46 00 

Paid John McDaied, sheriff, for summoning three n-and juries and giving 

notice to the township trustees to select jurors for 1825 13 00 

Paid Sheriff McDaied for paper furnished the grand jury at July term, 

1824 12 60 

Paid Jailor's fees for boarding prisoners 19 076 

Paid Joseph Darlinton for books and stationery bought by him for 

clerks* office 42 375 

Paid for books for auditor's office 8 60 

Paid constable for returning a list of jurors to the clerks' office 1 925 



COUNTY AFFAIRS 167 

Pidd Rmlph M. Voorhees for pnblishing delinquent lands, receipts and 
expenditures for 1824, etc 61 25 

plaid judges and clerks' for the annual election 38 75 

Faid judges who delivered poll books of said election 7 45 

Paid for wolf scalps, in conformity with a resolution of the commis- 
sioners 37 

Paid Curtis Cannon for delivering the poll book of the annual election 
in 1823 for Meigs township 75 

Paid judges who delivered the poll books of elections for justice of the 
peace 6 00 

Paid Mathew S. Cook for furnishing copies of surveys, making connec- 
tions, and assisting to make map of Adams county 51 68 

Paid John Patterson, collector of the land tax and the county levy for 1824 
for paper furnished by him to write receipts 1 50 

Paid Joseph Darlinton for a book case for the clerks' office purchased by 
him 6 75 

Paid Joseph Darlinton for drawing a deed from the trustee of the town of 
West Union, and for receiving and filing the sheriff's receipt to the 
judges of the Presidential election and giving certificates therefor 1 00 

Dunbar and Ross on account for repairing the cupola of the court house 
and making cells in the jail 25 00 

Total expenditures |1,537 572 

The balance m the treasury on the eighth dav of June, 1824, was 1,328 242 

Amount received from that day to the sixth day of June, 1825, as above... 2,561 418 

$ 3,889 66 
The amount of orders redeemed at the county treasury in the same time, 
including the treasurer's commission $1,974 981 

* 

Balance remaining in the treasury on the sixth day of June, 1825 *1,914 679 

J. RiOGS, Auditor of Adams County. 
West Union, June 13, 1825. 

* A proportion of this sum, say 871 dollars, is depreciated bank paper, which has remained on 
hand since the year 1819. 



CHAPTER XV. 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 

Common Pleas Circutta and Distriot*— Conunon Pleas Judcee— The Circ«it 

Court— The Bar and Jndioiary. 

The constitution of 1802 divided the State into three districts, in 
each of which there was a President Jndge of the Common Pleas, elected 
by the Legislature for seven years. Three circuits were established by 
the Legislature, April 16, 1803, and were as follows: 

First Circuit — Composed of the counties of Hamilton, Butler Mont- 
gomery, Greene, Warren and Clermont. 

Second Circuit — Composed of the counties of Adams, Scioto, Ross, 
Franklin, Fairfield and Gallia. 

'Third Circuit — Composed of the coimties of Washington, Belmont, 
Jefferson, Columbia and Trumbull. 

In 18 10, four circuits were made, and the second was composed of 
the counties of Ross, Pickaway, Madison, Fayette, Highland, Clermont, 
Adams, Scioto and Gallia. The circuit so remained until 1816, when six 
were created and the second circuit was composed of the counties of 
Highland, Adams, Scioto, Gallia, Pike and Ross. This law was amended 
in 181 7, and Lawrence added to the second circuit. In 1818, seven cir- 
cuits were provided for and the second was composed of Highland, 
Adarfjs, Scioto, Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson, Pike and Ross. In 1819, 
nine circuits were made,, and the second was composed of the counties 
of Hocking, Pickaway, Fayette, Highland, Adams and Ross. This 
remained, so far as Adams County was concerned, until 1821, when the 
second circuit was compooed of Hocking, Fayette, Highland, Brown, 
Adams and Ross, and so remained until 1825, when the seventh circuit 
was constituted of the counties of Butler, Clermont, Brown, Adams, 
Highland, Greene and Warren. In 1826, the seventh circuit was com- 
posed of Preble, Butler, Adams, Highland, Clinton, Warren and 
Greene. 

In 1828, the seventh circuit was composed of Butler, Adams, High- 
land, Clinton, Warren and Greene. This arrangement continued until 
1834 as to Adams County, when the tenth circuit was composed of the 
counties of Clermont, Brown. Adams, Highland and Fayette. In 1839, 
thirteen circuits were made, but the tenth remained as before. In 1840, 
there were fifteen circuits, and the tenth remained as before. This 
tenth circuit remained composed of the same counties until 1852 when 
the new constitution took effect. Under that, Adams County was placed 
in the fifth judicial district. This district and the first subdivision re- 
mained the same until April 21, 1896, when Adams County was trans- 

(168) 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 169 

ferrcd to the second subdivision of the seventh judicial district, 
composed, as changed, of the counties of Adams, Scioto, Pike, Jackson 
and Lawrence. 

Conunon Pleas Judges in Adams Connty. 

Its first judge under the constitution of 1802 was Willis Silliman, 
ot Fairfield County, elected April 15, 1803. He resigned some time in 
1804, and Governor Tiffin appointed Levin Belt, of Chillicothe, in his 
place. 

On February 7, 1805, the Legislature elected Robert F. Slaughter, 
of Fairfield County, in Belt's place, and on January 9, 1807, removed him 
by impeachment. On February 7, 1807, the Legislature elected Levin 
Belt. On or before February 10, 1810, Levin Belt gave up the office, but 
whether by death or resignation, does not appear, and on that date, John 
Thompson, of Ross County, was elected in his place. The next year 
John Thompson was impeached on a lot of ridiculous and foolish charges 
and was tried and acquitted, and on the eighteenth of January, 1817, 
was re-elected by the Legislature. 

In January, 1824, Joshua Collett was elected presiding judge of the 
second circuit, and served till 1828, when he was succeeded by George 
Smith. In 1834, John Winston Price was elected judge of the seventh 
circuit and served one term. 

In 1841, Owen J. Fishback, of Clermont, was elected judge of the 
tenth circuit and served a full term. In 1848, George Collings, of 
Adams, was elected and served until he resigned in 185 1. The Legis- 
lature elected Shepherd F. Norris to fill out the term. 

The president judges under the old constitution received a salary 
from the formation of the State until 1821 of $750 per annum. From 
that until 1852, their salary was $1,000 per annum, paid quarterly. 

Shepherd F. Norris was the first judge of the common pleas court 
elected by the people, for a term of five years beginning February 9, 
1852. He was re-elected in 1857, and sensed until February 9, 1862, 
when he was succeeded by Thomas Q. Ashburn who was elected three 
times and served until March, 1876, when he resigned to take the ap- 
pointment of one of the Supreme Court Commission. Governor Hayes 
appointed Thomas M. Lewis, of Batavia, to succeed him, and he served 
until the October election, 1876, when Allen T. Co wen was elected to 
serve out the term ending February 9, 1877, and David Tarbell was 
elected to take the full term beginning February 9, 1877. In February, 
1882, D. W. C. Loudon, having been elected the fall previous, took 
Tarbell's place. He was re-elected in 1887 and served until February 
9, 1892. when he was succeeded by Henry Collings, who served until 
February 9, 1897, when the constitutional judgeship of the first sub- 
division of the fifth district went to John Markley, of Brown County. 

On April 9, 1871 (Vol. 68, page 68), an act was passed to make an 
additional judge in the three counties of Adams, Brown and Clermont. 
There was a special election on the third Monday of May, 1871, and 
David Tarbell was elected. He took the office the third Monday in 
June, 187 1, and served one term of 1riyc years. 

In the fall of 1876 he was nominated for and elected to the consti- 
tutional term as alreadv stated. « 



170 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX>UNTY 

On April 28, 1877 (Vol. 74, page 483), an act was passed renew- 
ing the additional judgeship, which the Supreme Court in State v. 
Brown, 38 O. S., had held was but for the one term. In the fall of 1877, 
Allen T. Cowen was elected to this office and served for five years from 
February 9, 1878. On March 26, 1883 (Vol. 80, page 76), the Legis- 
lature provided for an additional judge in the three counties to be elected 
in October, 1883, and take his office October 15, 1883. Under this act 
Allen T. Cowen was elected and served five years. In October, 1888, 
he was succeeded bv Frank Davis, who was re-elected and served ten 
years and until Adams County ceased to be a part of the first subdivision 
of the fifth district. 

On April 21, 1896 (Vol. 92, page 214), an act was passed which 
transferred Adams County from the fifth district and placed it in the 
second subdivision of the seventh judicial district. This act took effect 
September i, 1896, and from that date, the common pleas judges of 
Adams County, were Henry Collings, W. D. James and Noah J. 
Dever. 

In the fall of 1896, Henry Collings was re-elected, and John C. 
Milner elected to succeed Noah J. Dever. Their terms began February 
9, 1897. The term of W. Dow James expired February 9, 1899, and 
he was succeeded by William H. Middleton, so that at the publication of 
this work, Henry Collings. Wm. H. Middleton and John C. Milner 
are the common pleas judges of Adams County. A table of the common 
pleas jud^res of Adams County from the foundation of the State to the 
present time is as follows: 

1803 to 1804 Willis Silliman 

1804 to 1805 Levin Belt 

1805 to 1807 Robert F. Slaughter 

1807 to 1810 Levin Belt 

1810 to 1824 John Thompson 

1824 to 1828 Joshua Collett 

1829 to 1833 George Smith 

1834 to 1841 John Winston Price 

1841 to 1848 Owen J. Fishback 

1848 to 1851 George ColKngs 

1851 to 1852 Shepherd F. Xorris 

Under the constitution of 1851, fifth district, constitutional judges: 

1852 to 1862 Shepherd F. Norris 

1*862 to 1876 Thomas Q. Ashbum 

1876 to Thomas W\ Lewis 

1876 to 1877 Allen T. Cowen 

1877 10 1882 Darid Tarbell 

1882 to i8^)2 D. W. C. Loudon 

i8i)2 to i8<)7 Henry Collings 

Additional indices fifth district: 

1871 to 1876 Da\-id Tarbell 

1878 to 1888 Allen T. Cowen 

1888 to i%8 Frank Da\-is 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 171 

Seventh district since September i, 1896: 

1896-1897 Noah J. Dever 

£896-1899 W. D. James 

1899-1906 W. H. Middleton 

1897-1902 Henry Colh'ngs 

1897-1902 John C. Milner 

WyUM SiUiman 

was the first presiding common pleas judge to sit in Adams County after 
the State was organized. He occupied the bench from April 15, 1803, 
to June, 1804. He was born in Stratford, Connecticut, October 8, 
1777, and died in Zanesville, Ohio, November 13, 1842. His wife was 
Dora Webster Cass, daughter of Major Cass, and sister of Gen. William 
Lewis Cass. He was married to her July 14, 1802. When a young 
man, he removed to western Virginia, and, in 1800, edited a paper there, 
and was a strong Federalist in the contest between Jefferson and 
Adams. 

The struggle was too much for him, and he moved to Washington 
County, Ohio. He was a member of the first Legislature of Ohio from 
Washington County. In that body he was elected presiding judge 
of the second circuit, composed of Adams, Scioto, Ross, Franklin, Fair- 
field, and Gallia. It was too humdrum a place for him, and he re- 
signed in 1804, and located at Zanesville, and was the first lawyer there, 
and in the next year, Silliman, Cass, and Herrick were the only resident 
lawyers. In 1805, he was appointed register of the Zanesville land 
office, and held that until 181 1. In 181 1 he was in the commission to 
select the .State Capital. 

In 1824 he was a candidate for United States Senator, and re- 
ceived 44 votes, to 58 for General W. H. Harrison, who was elected. 
In 1825 he was in the State Senate, from Muskingum County, and 
served one term. In 1826 he was again a candidate for United States 
Senator, and received 45 votes, to 54 for Benjamin Ruggles, who was 
elected. He was a member of the House from Muskingum County 
in 1828 and 1829. From 1832 to 1834 he was solicitor of the Treasury, 
appointed by President Jackson. 

He was a great natural orator, but his early education was de- 
fective. His legal attainments were not of a high order. He was a 
great reader, and read everything which came in his way. He was of 
no use in a case until it came to be argued. He did not examine wit- 
nesses or prepare pleadings, but advocacy was his forte. He was in- 
diflferent to his personal appearance, and looked as though his clothes 
had been pitched on him. He was as sportive and playful as a boy. In 
all criminal cases, in breach of promise or seduction cases, he was uni- 
formly retained, but it was in the great criminal cases where his power 
as an advocate was demonstrated. He was stout and well formed, 
above medium height. He had two sons, who came to the bar, and he 
had a son-in-law, C. C. Gilbert, a lawyer in Zanesville. He was one 
of the distinguished figures of his time. 



172 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

I.eTim Belt 

was a practicing lawyer in Chillicothe, under the Territorial Govern- 
ment. He was born in England, but the date of his birth has not been 
preserved. He was admitted to practice law, and took the oath of 
office at Washington, Adams County, March 2, 1802. He was the 
first prosecuting attorney of Ross County, and was allowed from $15 
. to $50 per term for his services. In Jime, 1804, he was elected presid- 
ing judge of the second circuit, in place of Wylliss Silliman, resigned. 
He served until February, 1805, when Robert F. Slaughter was elected 
to succeed him. On January 9, 1807, Robert F. Slaughter was re- 
moved by impeachment, and L^vin Belt was elected and succeeded him 
February 7, 1807. He served until February 10, 1810, when he was 
succeeded by John Thompson. It is said he was a reasonably good 
and satisfactory judge of the common pleas, but that he failed as a 
practitioner at the bar. From the bench he descended to the mayor- 
alty of Chillicothe, and in that office and that of justice of the peace, 
he served many years. While he was a justice of the peace, there was 
a statute in force forbidding licensed attorneys to appear before justices 
of the peace. Soon after this, Mr. Richard Douglas, an attorney of 
Chillicothe, appeared before him to argue a motion to dismiss a case. 
Squire Belt said, "Dick, Dick, don't you know the law? You must 
not appear before me. Get behind me and make your speech." 
Douglas complied with his order, and got behind the justice and made 
his speech. 

Mr. Belt was tall, broad-shoulderejd, muscular, without surplus 
flesh, dark brown hair sprinkled only with gray, and somewhat ruddy 
of complexion. His presence as a justice in the exercise of his office 
was awe-inspiring. He removed from Chillicothe to Washington City 
in 1828, and died there soon after. The first case submitted to him in 
Muskingum County in 1804 was Samuel Connar, plaintiff, against 
James Sprague, defendant, in slander. Damages claimed, $500. Ver- 
dict for the plaintiff, $300. 

Robert F. Slaushtev 

was the third presiding judge of Adams County. He was bom in Cul- 
pepper County, Virginia, in 1770. Of his childhood nothing is known, 
but, at the age of seventeen, he came to Kentucky and volunteered as 
an Indian fighter. He went to Chillicothe as early as 1796, at the 
founding of the city, and studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 
Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1799, and began practice there. He seemed to 
have traded and trafficked about considerable in lands, as everyone did 
at that time, but was a poor manager. In 1800 he purchased a farm 
about one and one-half miles south of Lancaster, and made his home 
there until his death. He was a merchant at first, but gave up that 
business and opened a law office in Chillicothe. 

In 1802 he was a candidate from his countv for the State Constitu- 
tional Convention, but was third in the race. 

He was careless about his obligations, and in 1803 and 1804 he was 
sued for debts many times. He was elected presiding judge in 1805. 
He was elected to the State Senate 1803-1805 from Fairfield County, 
February 7, in place of Wyliss Silliman, resigned. His circuit was 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 173 

very large, and his salary very small. He had the second circuit and 
had to ride horseback to his appointments. The salary was only $750, 
and the creeks were without bridges. There were no ferries, and the 
swimming was risky. The judge would miss his courts, and the Leg- 
islature determined to make an object lesson of him. Legislatures are 
fond of displaying their power, and the one of 1807 was no exception 
to the rule. January 8, 1807, charges were filed against him in im- 
peachment. 

1. He failed to attend the March term, 1805, in Adams County. 

2. Failing to attend same term in Scioto County. 

3. Failing to attend spring term, 1805, in Gallia County. 

4. Failing to attend July term, same year, in Franklin County. 

5. Failing to attend fall term, 1805, in Scioto County. 

6. Failing to attend fall term, 1805, in Athens County. 

7. Failing to attend spring term, 1806, in Highland County. 

8. Failing to punctually attend spring term, 1806, in Adams 
County. 

9. Failing to attend spring term, 1806, in Scioto County. 

10. Failing to attend spring term, 1806, in Gallia County. 

11. Failing to attend summer term, 1806, in Adams County. 

12. Failing to attend summer term, 1806, in Athens County. 

13. Failing to attend summer term, 1806, in Gallia County. 

14. Failing to punctually attend the fall term of Fairfield County 
in 1806. 

15. Failing to attend the fall term, 1806, in Franklin County. 

Abraham Shepherd, as Speaker of the House, signed the articles. 
On January 9, 1807, Hough and McArthur were appointed a committee 
to prepare rules to govern the trial. Slaughter appeared in person and 
asked two or three days to prepare for the trial. He was g^nted to 
the following Monday to answer. In answer he alleged he was not 
charged with any misdemeanor and could not, by law, be bound to 
answer. To the first three charges he pleaded ill health. He denied 
the fourth, and said he did punctually attend. To the fifth, he said that 
after attending court in Adams County, he went to Paris, Kentucky, 
to attend to some business, and expected to reach Scioto in time to at- 
tend court, but on returning to the Ohio River, at Brook's Ferry, 
could not cross. Tliat he went two miles below to be ferried, and, be- 
ing impatient, rode into the corn field after the ferryman, and this un- 
expected delay, against his will, prevented him from attending the court 
until the second day, and there being little business to be done, court 
was adjourned. In answer to the sixth, he said he was well acquainted 
with the docket, and there was no civil case ready for trial, and not more 
than one or two being imprisoned in the county for misdemeanors, and 
the court would be obliged to pardon those rather than expose the 
weakness of the laws, since their sentence could not be enforced. That 
he had applied for a tract of land, for which he had the deposit money, 
and was compelled by law to pay the fourth within forty days or forfeit 
his application, and was compelled to attend to it. To the seventh, he 
stated that he had started from Lancaster, his home, but that his horse 
became foundered at Pickaway Plains, and his funds and his salary were 



174 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

not sufficient to buy another. He finally borrowed a horse to ride to 
Adams County. He answered the ninth charge that he had only bor- 
rowed the horse to ride to Adams County, and could not procure an- 
other to go to Scioto County. That he is afflicted with ill health in 
the spring, and had the pleurisy, and did not attend the spring term 
in Gallia for that reason. That the rivers were high, and he would be 
compelled to swim some creeks and ford others, and his health would 
not permit it. To the eleventh, he answered that while in Highland 
County, his horse broke out of pasture, and he could not be found, and 
he was obliged to return to Chillicothe, supposing his horse had gone 
that way, but he did not, and he procured a horse of Joseph Kerr, to 
ride to Scioto County, on conditional purchase, but the horse was not 
able to carry him on to Gallia County if it were to save him from ruin, 
and was compelled to trade horses, on which he made the balance of 
the circuit. He denied the twelfth charge. His answer to the thir- 
teenth was that his farm was advertised to sell, and not having the 
money to save it, was obliged to raise it, which he did in time to save 
it. He denied the fourteenth charge. To the fifteenth, he answered 
that he attended the Franklin term two days, and then obtained the 
Associates' consent to be absent the remainder of the term. He was 
compelled to return to New Lancaster before going to Ross County in 
order to take money to complete the payment for his land before the 
court in Ross Countv would convene. He asked for a continuance 
to the first Monday of December next to secure Joseph Kerr, Doctor 
Spencer, and George Shoemaker, witnesses. Four only voted in favor 
of this. Mr. Brush was admitted as counsel for respondent. Henry 
Brush, Jessup M. Couch, Wm. Creighton, Joseph Foos, James Kil- 
boum, Wm. Ir\vin, and Lewis Cass, witnesses for the prosecution. Re- 
spondent read the deposition of Samuel Wilson. Mr. Beecher was 
CGi'nsel fo the State. The trial began January 26. 1807, and lasted 
until the twenty-eighth. On the question of his being guilty o£ neg- 
lect of official duty, the yea vote was: Ciaj'pool, Corre, Hempstead. 
Hough, Jewett, McArthur, McFarland, Sargeant, Smith, Wood, and 
the Speaker, Thomas Kirker. Mr. Schofield alone voted he was not 
guilty. On January 29, the respondent was called, but made no an- 
swer, though three times solemnly called. The speaker delivered the 
judgment of the court, that he had bten found guilty of neglect of duty 
and should be removed Irom office. His removal did not seem to aflfect 
his health or spirits, Oi- his standing among the people of Fairfield 
County, where he resided. He served four years as prosecuting attor- 
ney. He was elected to the Senate in 1810, from Fairfield, Knox, and 
Licking. 

He was elected to the House from Fairfield County in 1817, 1819, 
and 1821. In 1828 he was elected to the Senate, and re-elected in 1830. 
While in the Legislature he voted for the School System and the 
Canal System. 

He was eccentric and absent-minded, and the story is told of him 
that once when plowinjij:. it became time for him to go to the Legisla- 
ture. Leaving the plow in the middle of the field, mounting the 
horse, with one of his own shoes on and the other off, he rode away. He 
was of medium height, dressed plainly, and always wore his hair in a 




THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 176 

queue. He was a Democrat of the old school, a man of great strength 
of character, a bold speaker, and a natural orator, and in speaking was 
capable of making deep impressions on his audience. His public 
record was clear, notwithstanding the Legislature undertook to 
blacken it. He once said, "The best rule in politics is to wait until the 
other party declares itself, then take the opposite side.*' 

He married a Miss Bond, who was devotedly attached to the 
Methodist Church, but he was not a member of any church. Their 
children were William, Terencia, Ann, Fields, and Frances, all de- 
ceased, and two surviving, Mrs. Mariah Dennison, of Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, and Thomas S. Slaughter, of Olanthe, Missouri. The judge 
survived until October 24, 1846, when he died at the age of 76 years. 
He is interred in the country cemetery near his home. 

In view of the record of the Ohio Legislature in the matter of im- 
peachments under the first Constitution of the State, we do not consider 
it any reflection on Judge Slaughter that his impeachment was success- 
ful, and had he lived in our day, his answer to the impeachment articles 
would have been held good, and any Legislature presenting articles 
of impeachment against him, such as are given above, would be deemed 
in the wrong. 

John Thompson 

was the presiding common pleas judge of Adams County, from April 9, 
1810, to March 29, 1824. He was a resident of Chillicothe, Ross County, 
Ohio. He located there in 1806 from Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. 
He was elected presiding judge in 1810, re-elected in 1817. and served 
until 1824. His circuit was composed of Fraklin, Madison, Fayette, 
Highland, Adams, Scioto, Gallia and Ross. He was a member of the 
Presbyterian Church and an elder in it. He was also a total abstainer 
from alcoholic drinks. He was an acute lawyer, but narrow-minded, 
firm to stubbornness, of considerable reading and of much readiness in 
the application of learning, much influenced by his likes and dislikes. 

In 18 1 2, he was impeached by the House and tried by the Senate. 
The following were the charges exhibited against him : 

First. Because he allowed the attorneys but ten minutes to a side 
in a larceny case in Highland County and when they objected, said that 
if they did not take it, he would allow them but five mimues to a side. 

Second. Because he refused to allow an attorney to testify for his 
client in a case of usurpation in office, the attorney having offered to 
testifv. 

Third. Because he ordered certain court constables to knock 
down certain by-standers with their staves and gave no reason there- 
for. 

Fourth. Because he allowed a bill of exceptions contrary to the 
facts. 

Fifth. Because he declared in an assault and battery case that the 
attorneys had no right to argue the facts to a jury except \Wth the per- 
mission of the Court, and then when overruled by his associates, im- 
patiently told the jury to go on. 

Sixth. Because in a larceny case when the jury came back into 
court and wanted to re-examine the witnesses he refused them and sent 



176 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

them back telling them the case was too trifling to take up the time of 
the Court 

Seventh, Because he ordered a jury to be sworn in a robbery case, 
after they had all stood up and said they had made up their minds, and 
they found the defendant guilty without leaving the box. 

Eighth. Because he said publicly the people were their own worst 
enemies; that they were cursed brutes and worse than brutes. 

Ninth. Because at Hillsboro, he had refused to sign a bill of ex- 
ceptions and had refused to let an appeal be docketed. 

Tenth. Because at a trial at Gallipolis, he had unjustly and arbi- 
trarily allowed an attorney but twenty-five minutes for an argument to 
the jury, and then when the limit of time was reached, ordered hun to sit 
down sa3ring the jury would do justice in the case. 

Elevenith. Because at Gallipolis, he ordered the prosecuting attor- 
ney not to let any testimony go before the grand jury until he knew 
what it was. 

Twdfth. Because he said to the grand jury at Circleville that our 
government was the most corrupt and perfidious in the world and the 
peo|de were their own enemies. That the)' were devils in men's 
clothing. 

The trial on these chains took nine days and witnesses were 
brought from each county where the transaction occurred. Henry 
Baldwin and Wylliss Silliman were attorneys for the State and Lewis 
Cass, John McLean and Samuel Herrick, for the defense. He was 
acquitted on all of the charges by a larg^ majority and was re-elected 
by the Legislature in 1817. In 1821 and 1823, billious fevers prevailed 
at Chillicothe and many cases were fatal. Many thought the disease 
was yellow fever. Jud^e 1 hompson had a large family and became 
quite fearful of the disease attacking them. Thompson took up the 
theory that ammonia destroyed the ia:erms of this fever. Therefore, he 
seriously proposed moving his whole family to and living in a tavern 
stable, among the horses, during the sickly season. Vigorous protests 
from Mrs. Thompson resulted in a compromise, by which the family re- 
mained in the mansion, but were required to spend an hour each morn- 
ing on the manure pile, to inhale the fumes which arose from it 

Soon after removing from the bench. Judge Thompson removed 
to Louisiana, where he purchased a plantation and some negroes. 
There he died in 1833. near Fort Adams, just over the line in Mississippi. 

Joakva CoUett 

was the presiding common pleas judge in Adams County, Ohio, from 
March 24, 1824, to March 16. 1829, 

He was born in Berkley County, Virginia, Xo\-ember 20. 1781. He 
obtained a good English education and studied law at Martinsburg, \^r- 
ginia. At the age of tAventy-one, he removed to the Northwest Terri- 
tory. He stopped at Cincinnati where he remained a year. June, 1803, 
he removed to Lebanon, Ohio. He wks modest, diffident and unassum- 
ing, so much so that many predicted he would not succeed as a lawyer. 
He traveled in Hamilton, Butler, Warren, Qermont, Montgomery, 
Miami, Greene ar.d Champaign coimties and practiced law in each of 
them. His knowledge of the law and sound judgment made him a sue- 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 177 

cessful practitioner. In 1807, he was appointed prosecuting attorney in 
the judicial circuit in which he resided, and held the office for ten years, 
when he was succeeded by his pupil, Thomas Corwin. The diligence, 
integrity and ability with which he discharged his office made him widely 
known and universally respected. In 1817, he was elected presiding 
judge of the common pleas and served for seven years and was re- 
elected. In 1824, Adams County was placed in his district and so con- 
tinued until he resigned in March, 1829, to accept an election to the 
office of Supreme Judge. He served one term until April, 1836, and 
then retired to a farm near Lebanon, where he resided until his death. 

In 1836 and in 1840, he was on the Whig electoral ticket and voted 
each time for General Harrison. He was for seventeen years a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees of Miami University and in that time man- 
ifested a great interest in the welfare of that institution. 

In i&)8, he was married to Eliza Van Home. William R. Collett 
was his only son and child. 

Judge Collett was a member of the Baptist Church. He was be- 
nevolent and kind hearted. His integrity was the crowning glory of his 
life. He died August 25, 1855, and is interred at Lebanon, Ohio. 

George J. Smitli. 

was president common pleas judge for Adams County, March 16, 1829, 
to March 17, 1834. He was bom near Newton, Hamilton County, May 
22, 1799. His father came from Powhatan County, Virginia, in 1798, 
and died in 1800, leaving his mother a widow with nine children of 
which he was the youngest. He qualified himself as a school teacher 
and followed that vocation. In April, 1818, he began the study of law 
under Thomas Corwin, and was admitted to the bar June 20, 1820. He 
began to practice at Lebanon where he always resided. 

On April 9, 1822, he was married to Miss Hannah W. Freeman, 
widow of Thomas Freeman, at one time a member of the Lebanon bar. 
She died March 25 1866. 

In 1825, he was elected to the Legislature from Warren County and 
re-elected in 1826 and 1827. In 1827, he was defeated for the Legisla- 
ture by Col. John Riggers, who sat in that body longer than any other 
person since the organization of the State, twenty-two years, and Smith 
was defeated by a scratch. In 1829, he was elected presiding judge to 
succeed Joshua Collett. This honor was unsought and unexpected by 
him. He served seven year«5, though Adams and Highland were de- 
tached from his circuit after he had served five years. He was always 
a Whig and was defeated for re-election by one vote. All the senators 
and representatives from his judicial circuit, irrespective of party, voted 
for him. 

In 1836, he was elected State Senator and re-elected in 1838. In 
1837, he was elected Speaker of the Senate. In 1850, he was elected to 
the Constitutional Convention, and served in that body on the judiciary 
committee. He was, however, opposed to the Constitution and voted 
against its adoption. In 1850, his son, James M. Smith, who is now one 
of the circuit judges in the first circuit and has been since 1884, became 
12a 



178 mSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

his partner in the law practice. In 1858, he was elected a common 
pleas judge and re-elected in 1863. He retired at the close of his sec- 
ond term in 1869. He died in April, 1878. 

John Winston Prioe, 

was bom in Hanover County, Virginia, in 1804. He was prepared for 
college by a Rev. Blair. At seventeen years, he entered William and 
Mary College and graduated with honors four years after. He studied 
law in Richmond. Virginia, under the tuition of John Marshall, Chief 
Justice of the United States, and was admitted to the bar in that city. 
He came to Ohio in ^827 and located in Columbus for the practice of the 
law. 

In 1830. he married the eldest daughter of Judge John A. Mc- 
Dowell, of Columbus. In 1831, he located in Hillsboro and practiced 
law with the late Gen. Richard Collins until 1834, when he became pres- 
ident judge of the common pleas district composed of Adams, Brown, 
Clermont, Highland and Fayette, having been elected the winter pre- 
vious. His work was laborious and arduous, but he was an honest and 
faithful judge. He retired from the bench in 1841 and gave up the 
practice of the law. He was a careful and prudent man in business and 
accumulated a handsome fortune. He died March 4, 1865. 

Owen T. Fislibaok. 

was bom in Fauquier County, Virginia, in the year 1791. His father 
was John Fishback who emigrated to Bracken County and settled on 
the north fork of the Licking River, not far from Augusta. While rid- 
ing one of his father's horses, it became unmanageable and threw him 
off. The result was the compound fracture of the thigh bone, which 
healed, stiffening the knee joint and shortening the leg. This unfitted 
him for farm work and he took a position as writing clerk in the office 
of Gen. Payne, clerk of Bracken County. By the advice of Martin Mar- 
shall, he studied law and was admitted to the bar of Kentucky in about 
1 810. He then removed to the town of Williamsburg, which was at 
that time the county seat of Clermont County, Ohio. Here he met and 
married Caroline Huber. a daughter of Jacob and Phoebe Huber. He 
was then elected to the Senate of Ohio, serving one term and was in- 
strumental in procuring the passage of a law transferring the county 
seat from Williamsburg to Batavia, and he moved there and remained 
until his death in 1865. He was always an uncompromising Whig, and 
was very much chagrined at the defeat of Clay in 1844. He was the 
contemporary and personal friend of Senator Thomas Morris, Gen. 
Thomas L. Hamcr, Thomas Corwin, and practiced law in the circuit 
composed of Adams, Brown, Fayette, Highland and Clermont counties. 
In 1841, he was appointed judge of that circuit by the Legislature of Ohio 
and served seven years. At that time, the judges of the common pleas 
court, over which he presided, had the power to grant or refuse licenses 
for the retail of intoxicating liquors. He absolutely refused to grant a 
license during the seven years he was presiding judge, and for this he 
was severely criticised by the keepers of the leading hotels, where he 
was compelled to stop while attending court. Things were made so 




HON. CKORCK COLI-INGS 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 17^ 

unpleasant for him that he was compelled to board at the houses of 
private citizens. At the expiration of his term of office in 1848, he was 
succeeded on the bench by George W. Collings, of Adams County. He 
resumed the pra<:tice of law and in all was fifty years at the bar. He 
reared a family of nine children. The eldest daughter married Col. John 
W. Lowe, who was killed at Carnifax Ferry, while commanding the 
Twelfth Ohio Volunteers in the Brigade of Gen. Wilford B. Hager. 
The daughter Mary was the wife of Judge Phillip B. Swing, who was 
the United States District Judge for the southern district of Ohio, nav- 
ing been appointed to that office by Gen. Grant. His son, George W. 
Fishback, was editor and proprietor of the St. Louis Democrat for 
twenty years. 

John Fishback was, at one time, owner of the Indianapolis 
Sentinel, His son, William P. Fishback, was his father's partner in 
Ohio until 1857, when he removed to Indianapolis, where he now re- 
sides. For some years, he was the partner of Gov. Porter and Gen. 
Harrison, and since 1877, has been master in chancery in the United 
States circuit court for the district of Indiana. His youngest son, Owen 
T. Fishback, died from a disease contracted in the volunteer service dur- 
ing the Civil War. Judge Fishback was one of the ablest lawyers of 
his time and coped successfully with such antagonists as Gen. Hamer, 
Sr., Thomas Morris, Hanson L. Penn, and David G. Devore. He was 
a model judge and fine advocate and his addresses to court were always 
characterized by great earnestness. He was especially strong in cross- 
examining an adversary witness. He loved his profession, worked dili- 
gently, reared a large family and died poor. 

George CollinKS. 

James Collings. a native of Annapolis, Maryland, was of Welsh ex- 
traction, as was his wife, Christiana Davis, of Cecil County, whom he 
married February 20, 1780. They began housekeeping in Maryland, 
where they lived many years, and were the parents of a large family. 
some of the children dying in childhood. They were members of the 
Episcopal Church. Christian Davis belonged to the family of Henry 
Winter Davis and David Davis, of Illinois, these being brothers' sons. 
Their gprandfather was Naylor Davis. '*Naylor" runs through the family 
as a baptismal name. 

About the clotee of the century the Collingses, determining to 
emigrate in company with several other families, started for their pro- 
posed destination. Limestone (now Maysville, Ky.). When near Man- 
chester, Ohio, a child of the party dying, they stopped to bury it, and 
James Collings and family choosing to stay north of the river, by acci- 
dent, became Ohioans. 

Mr. Collings bought of Nathaniel Massie 400 acres of land one 
mile south of West Union, his heirs adding 100 acres to the purchase. 
He died at the early age of forty-eight years. His widow is said to 
have been a person of remarkable energy and great force of character, 
managing her affairs with ability. 

As the years passed, several of the sons and a daughter married 
and established homes of their own ; Elijah living in Adams County, 
William removing to Pike County, where he was afterward elected to 



180 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

the Legislature; James emigrating to Vermilion County, Ind., and 
Nancy marrying Mr. James Cole and residing in Adams County. The 
family circle was thus narrowed to the widow, two unmarried daugh- 
ters, one of whom is remembered as a woman of commanding intellect, 
and two sons, the elder, John, a promising young man, was taken off 
suddenly by a fever. 

George Collings, the youngest son of James and Christian Col- 
lings, was bom near West Union, Adams County, Ohio, February 29, 
1 800. He was a boy whose mind was early awakened to the delights of 
learning. His educational opportunities being only such as the county 
afforded, he was largely self-taught. He showed an unconquerable 
-*:^termination to make a place for himself, and his incessant study of 
oooks, as well as of men and events, then beg^n, lasted throughout life. 
He knew Latin, read and spoke German (among his books is the Ger- 
man New Testament, which he often read in his last long illness), be- 
came a practical surveyor (his surveying instruments are still in his sec- 
retary), and applied himself closely to other branches of mathematics, 
including astronomy. With his mathematical and legal studies, he 
developed a talent for practical affairs. His business ventures were 
numerous. As a young man, he was part owner of a general store at West 
Union. Later, with Mr. Allaniah Cole, he was interested in a furnace in 
Eastern Kentucky; was a member of a queensware firm in Mavsville, 
Ky. ; a stockholder in an iron company in Cincinnati; a depositor for 
years in the LaFayette Bank, in the same city ; was a shareholder in the 
Maysville and Zanesville Turnpike Company. Besides several small 
tracts of land in Adams County, Mr. CoUii^s had a farm of 400 acres on 
the Ohio River, lots in the town of Manchester, a farm of 342 acres in 
Highland County, real estate in Hillsborough, Cincinnati, Covington, 
Ky., Maysville, Ky., a tract of 1,000 acres in Iroquois County, Illinois, 
and lots in Middleport, same county. He erected three substantial 
houses — one in West Union, one seven miles east of Manchester, and 
one in Manchester. 

Mr. Collings studied law in West Union, probably with Daniel P. 
Wilkins. He was admitted to practice at that place May 25, 1824. He 
afterward was appointed prosecuting attorney, and was elected to the 
Legislature of his native county. In later years he was elected to the 
Legislature from Highland County. About 1835 he became a resident 
of the latter county, living at Hillsboro several years and practicing his 
profession. 

At this time of his life, ^Fr. Collings was a marked social figure. 
In person he was five feet nine inches in height, very spare, with delicate 
feet and hands, very dark hair, gray eyes, and a pale complexion. These 
advantages, with a high-bred manner, exquisitely neat attire, and a 
large reserve of keen, quiet humor, made him the center of a company. 
Ho was extremely fond of music, singing by note, and when a young 
man, playing the flute. From native gifts and systematic cultivation, 
Mr. Collings possessed a style of writing, strong and clear, there be- 
ing no superfluous words in his manuscripts. The mechanical part 
was beautifully done. In looking over scores of papers signed by him, 
one does not meet a blot, an erasure, an error in spelling or in grammar^ 
a false capital, or anything to mar the production. 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 181 

« 

Mr. Collings was a charming letter writer. His keen insight, deli- 
cate humor, and wide information, having here scope, made his letters 
delightful. 

The few chance letters remaining of his large correspondence are 
full of quaint and superior touches. When young, addressing a friend 
from New Orleans, he is shocked at the general wickedness of the cit3% 
by the slaves working on Sunday, etc., and opens by saying, "there are 
doubts resting on my mind concerning two points : First, could three 
righteous men save such a city? Second, could three righteous men be 
found in this city?" and proceeds to describe the February sunshine 
flooding the southern city, while it was bleak when he had left the north 
a short time before. Among his effects are autograph letters fronx 
those who were or subsequently became men of influence, as Philip B. 
Swing, Dnrbin Ward, W. H. Wordsworth, John A. Smith, Richard Col- 
lins, Nelson Barrere, Allen G. Thurman, J. H. Thompson, the Trimbles, 
and others. 

In January, 1848, Mr. Collings was elected by the Legislature 
judge of the tenth judicial circuit, which included the counties of High- 
land, Adams, Brown, Clermont, and Fayette, and remained in office 
until June 30, 1851, when his resignation was accepted. He resigned 
his office on account of domestic misfortunes. He was a member of 
the convention to revise the State Constitution in 1851. Some time 
before this, owing to the continued ill health of his family, he had taken 
a resolution to remove to his Ohio River farm, which he did in 1852. 
He united with the Methodist Episcopal Church about this time, and 
built a chapel within a mile of his home, which the church gave him the 
privilege of naming. He called it "Collins Chapel" for the Rev. John 
Collins, a celebrated pioneer preacher and circuit rider of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and the father of his dear friend, Col. Richard Col- 
lins, and Mrs. Nathaniel Massie, the latter of whom lived many- years in 
Adams County, and whom Judge Collings visited once a year as long as 
his health permitted. The people of the community where he lived, 
not distinguishing between the names of "Collings" and "Collins," 
thought that the judge had named the chapel for himself, which al- 
ways amused him and caused him many a quiet smile. He was a lay 
delegate to the general conference of his church in 1856, sitting in 
Indianapolis. In 1857, ^^ ^ quarterly conference, held at West Union, 
he was granted a license to preach, the little certificate setting forth 
that "George Collings is hereby authorized to exercise his gifts as a 
local preacher, in the Methodist Episcopal Church, as long as his faith 
and practice accord with the doctrines and discipline of said churcli '^ 
It was renewed statedly as long as he was able to speak in public. 
Judge Collings was helpful in his community, bearing the perplex- 
ities of the working people, and giving them aid and material advice 
during the week, and being, for the most part, their spiritual director on 
Sunday. He brought the same careful oversight to his farming opera- 
tions that had characterized his every undertaking. His commonplace 
books are full of notes as to the planting of fields, fence building, wood 
chopping, harvesting, etc., with exact figures as to dates and the pay- 
ment of the "hands." He was a great lover of trees, and wherever 
living, a tireless planter of them. He had caused to be planted a large 



182 mSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

orchard of mixed fruits at his Ohio River home. He became a scien- 
tific gardener — his manual on gardening being yet in his library — and 
his vegetables and small fruits had a neighborhood fame. 

In this ideal retreat, Judge CoUings was often appealed to to take 
charge of lawsuits in his own and neighboring counties. These offers 
he declined without exception, but to the last, gave private advice to 
friends and acquaintances, who visited him for the purpose. After 
several years of tranquil rural life, seeing himself surrounded with a 
family of small children, William, Mary, Harry, Davis, Jane (his son 
James had died in West Union), Judge Collings realized that he must 
either have private teachers for their instruction or make his home near 
public schools. In 1861 he began the erection of a dwelling at Man- 
chester (still occupied by his youngest son and daughter), and during 
the few months of life remaining to him, planned for the comfort of his 
stricken family in a new situation. He died at his country place Jan- 
uary 5, 1862. His remains rest in the family burial ground near 
where he was bom. His career had been full of care, effort, and not- 
able events. 

Shepherd F. Horrlfl 

was born April 8, 1814, at Epping, Rockingham County, New Hamp- 
shire, but removed when a young man to West Union, Ohio, where he 
read law. He was admitted to the bar at Georgetown, and practiced in 
Adams County, where he was elected prosecuting attorney in Octo- 
ber, 1839. He served until March, 1843, when he removed to Batavia, 
and Joseph McCormick was appointed in his place. He was a mem- 
ber of the Legislature from Clermont County in 1847 and 1848. 

In 1 85 1 he was appointed presiding judge of the court of common 
pleas of Adams County, Brown and Clermont, under the old Constitu- 
tion, and served until the new Constitution took effect. He was elected 
common pleas judge in the three counties in the fall of 1851, and again 
in 1856, and served two full terms. He was a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1851, from Clermont County. He was a candidate 
for Supreme Judge on the Democratic ticket in 1854, but was defeated. 
The vote stood. 186.498 for Joseph R. Swan, and 109,025 for Shepherd 
F. Xorris. 

The writer of this sketch, Mr. Evans, remembers when he sat upon 
the bench as common pleas j.udge in Adams County. He wore a very 
full and long brown beard, and was a snuff taker. He was constantly 
takiuj^^ snuff while sitting on the bench, and his beard was full of it. He 
was considered a very good and fair judge by everybody but Judge 
Owen T. F'ishback. of Clermont Countv, who maintained a contrarv 
Opinion, perhaps growing out of some personal matter. However, he 
was kindly remembered by the people of his own county and the law- 
yers of his subdivision. He died August 23, 1862. He was a Demo- 
crat in politics. 

Tltomaa Q. Aslibnni. 

was common pleas judge of Adams. Brown', and Clermont Counties 
from 1 86 1 to 1876. fifteen years. He resigned in February, 1876. to 
accept an appointment on the Supreme Court commission, to which he 
was api^ointed by Governor Hayes. He served on this until 1879. ^^^ 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 183 

• 

father was a native of Lancashire, England, though his son was bom 
at Walnut Hills, near Cincinnati, February 9, 1820. When a boy, his 
father removed to New Richmond, in Clermont County, where he was 
reared. In 1838 he entered as a student of Miami University, and 
afterward spent several years at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania. After 
his college course, he returned to Clermont County and taught school. 
He studied law with Shields and Howard, and was admitted to the bar 
April I, 1843. He practiced at New Richmond until 1846, when he 
removed to Batavia. He was prosecuting attorney of Clermont County 
from 1848 to 1852. He was a candidate for Supreme Judge of Ohio 
in 1875 on the Democratic ticket, and was defeated by a small majority. 
He was married December 3, 1846, to Sarah W. Penn. She died 
November 10, 1854, leaving four children, two of whom are Dr. A. W. 
Ashbum, of Batavia, and Anna, now the wife of William R. Walker, 
the well-known attorney. 

He was remarried on May 27, 1856, to Miss Mar>' Ellen Griffith, 
a first cousin of Gen. U. S. Grant. By this wife he had two children, 
Albert I. and Mamie. 

In February, 1879. he retired from the Supreme Court commission 
and entered into partnership with George W. Hulick, of Batavia, with 
whom he continued until his death. His opinions while on the Su- 
preme Court commission are found in Volumes 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 
and 33 of the Ohio State Reports. He was not a member of any church, 
but his views accorded with those of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

As a judge, he was careful and painstaking. The controlling idea 
of his life was duty — what is it? He was true to every obligation. 
He was elected to the State Senate from the fourth district in Novem- 
ber, 1889, on the Democratic ticket. At the time of the election of 
Calvin S. Brice to the United States Senate, he was very sick at the 
in Columbus, and had to be carried into the legislative hall to cast his 
American Hotel in Columbus, and had to be carried into the legislative 
hall to cast his vote for Mr. Brice, and he died within a few days afterward, 
on the seventeenth of January, 1890. 

Tltomas M. Le'uris 

was common pleas judge in Adams, Brown, and Clermont Counties 
from February, 1876, to October, 1876. He was admitted to the bar 
April 2, 1842. He was appointed judge by Governor Hayes, to serve 
to the next election. From 1846 to 1851 he was deputy county clerk 
of Clermont County. He was a captain in the 59th Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. He was a bachelor, and boarded at the Hamilton Hotel at 
Batavia, Ohio, for over thirty-five years. 

David Tarliell, 

was born at Ripley, Ohio, December 3, 1836. His father was a seafar- 
ing man, a native of Massachusetts. After following the sea many years, 
he became an Indian trader and later located at Ripley. He was 
a Whig. He accumulated considerable property. He died in 
1852. He married Martha Stevenson, of Adams County. 
David Tarbell was reared at Riplev and attended the 



]84 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. He read law with 
Chambers Baird, of Ripley, and was admitted October 4, 1858. In 
April, 1858, he was elected a justice of the peace of Union township. 
In 1861, he was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney. In 1864, he 
was elected probate judge of Brown County to fill a vacancy. In 1866, 
he was re-elected for a full term. In 1871, he was elected an additional 
judge and re-elected in 1876. His rulings on points of law were seldom 
reversed. 

He was married June i, 1861, to Nancy Sallee and has five children. 
He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and a Democrat in 
politics. 

De Witt Clinton London, 

was born at Georgetown, Ohio, May 29, 1827, son of Gen. James Lou- 
don. He graduated at the Ohio University in 1850. In 1846, he was 
in the Mexican War, in the first Ohio Regiment, and was quartermaster 
sergeant. 

In 1832, he conducted the Democratic Union newspaper in George- 
town for two years. He studied law with Lot Smith, of Athens, and 
David G. Devore, of Georgetown, and was admitted to practice in No- 
vember, 185 1. In October 3, 1861, he went into the 70th O. V. 1. as 
lieutenant colonel. He was promoted to colonel, April 26, 1864, and 
resigned August 9, 1864. 

In 1857, he was elected probate judge of Brown County, Ohio, to 
fill a vacancy and resigned November, 1858. In 1881, he was elected 
common pleas judge of Brown, Adams and Clermont counties. He was 
re-elected in 1886. From 1861 to 1872, he acted w^ith the Republicans. 
Previous to the war he was a Democrat. He again acted with the Dem- 
ocratic party in 1896 until his death, making speeches in the Bryan cam- 
paign. 

In 1852, he was married to Hannah W. Bowles and had five chil- 
dren. He was a Presbyterian. He was an excellent lawyer. He died 
suddenlv about one year since. 

Henry Collines, 

the son of the Hon. George Collings and Harriet Conner, his wife, was 
born on his father's farm in ^fonroe Township. March 15, 1853. He at- 
tended school in Manchester and the Ohio Wesleyan L^niversity at Del- 
aware in 1869, 1870 and 1871, when he gave up his course. Had be re- 
mained, he would have graduated in the class of 1873. He took up the 
study of law in the fall of 1872. with Col. Oscar F. Moore, of Ports- 
mouth, and was admitted in April, 1874. He began the practice of law 
in Manchester, where he has since continued to reside. He was elected 
prosecuting attorney of Adams County, and served one term. In the fall 
of 1891, he was a candidate for common pleas judge in the first sub- 
division of the fifth common pleas district, composed of Adams, Brown 
and Clermont counties, and while there was a nominal majority of 1500 
against him. he was elected hv a niatority of about 500. He had 800 
majority in .Xdams County. In bis career as a judge in his first term 
he made such a reputation for judicial ability that his friends determined 
his service should not be lost to the public' In order that he might be 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 186 

retained, his county, was by the Legisiature, taken from the first sub- 
division of the fifth district and placed in the second subdivision of the 
seventh district, and in the latter he was nominated and elected common 
pleas judge in 1896, and is now occupying that position. Judge Coilings 
has always been a Republican in his political faith and practice, and is 
a member of the Presb)rterian Church. 

He was married September 20, 1882, to ^liss Alice Gibson, daughter 

of Rev. Gibson. There are two children of this marriage, Henry 

Davis and Mary King. Judge Coilings had a reputation as an able 
lawyer before he went on the bench and has more than sustained it. He 
is well trained as a lawyer, has a clear judicial mind and in his investi- 
gations groups al! the essential points of a case and when he has deter- 
mined it, the opposing party is satisfied that he has determined it im- 
partially and according to his conception of the law. 

In addition to his excellent qualities as a judge he has a fine sense 
of humor, which is continually asserting itself and makes his intercourse 
with the lawyers and his best friends have a spice which is most enter- 
taining and delightful, but as he inherited this most entertaining qual- 
ity from his distinguished father, we do not propose to hold him respon- 
sible for it. Enjoying the confidence and respect of all the people whom 
he serves, we hope he may not be gathered to his fathers till he has en- 
joyed the good things of this world as long as his venerable neighbor and 
friend, David Dunbar. 

Frank Davis, 

yi Batavia, Ohio, was born in New Richmond, Ohio, October 21, 1846. 
His father was Hon. Michael H. Davis, who was State Senator for a 
Qumber of years and was one of the most prominent Democrats in south- 
em Ohio. His mother's maiden name was Mary E. Walker. She lived 
lo be a very old lady, remarkable for the vigor of her mind, her gentle- 
ness and kindness and the extraordinary number of people, who, though 
they were in no way related to her, yet loved her as a mother. 

Judge Davis was educated in the public schools and attended Miami 
University for a short time, but was compelled to leave before he fin- 
ished his course on account of ill health. He afterward attended Cler- 
mont County Academy. He studied law and graduated from the Cin- 
cinnati Law School in April, 1867. Several months before he was of 
3ge, lie was admitted to the bar at New Richmond. In July, 1868, he 
formed a partnership with Hon. Perry J. Nichols, which continued until 
1879. In 1875, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Clermont County. 
He filled this office for two terms, making a record that has never been 
surpassed in this office. He finished his second term in 1879, ^"^ i" this 
year, his partnership with Judgfe Nichols also terminated. Judge Nichols 
going to BataA'ia to fill the office of probate judge and Judge Davis re- 
maining in New Richmond and continuing his practice there until 1888 
when he was elected judge of the court of common pleas, taking his 
office on October 14, 1888. He served in this office ten years. When 
he ran for the second term, there was no one nominated against him on 
the other ticket. His term as judge was filled with honor to himself, 
and, to the position, he added both honor and dignity. He is regarded 
as one of the best judges that Clermont County has ever produced. 
After the expiration of his second term, he retired to resume the practice 



186 mSTORY OP ADAMS CX)UNTY 

of law in Batavia, forming a partnership with John R. Woodlief, of 
Batavia. 

In 1872, Judge Davis was married to Elizabeth Short, of New Rich- 
mond, Ohio. He has two children, a daughter Agnes, who is the wife 
of Lieut. P. M. Ashbum, of the United States Arm v. and Frank Davis, 
Jr., who is at present studying law. In politics, Judge Davis has been 
a lifelong Democrat and has always been one of the mainstays of his party 
in Clermont County. He has always been prominent in religious matters, 
being a staunch Presbyterian, and taking always an active part in all the 
affairs of the church. He belongs to the Masonic order, being a thirty- 
third degree Mason. He is president of the First National Bank, of 
New Richmond, Ohio ; vice president of the J. & H. Clasgens Company, 
and vice president of the Fridman Lumber Company, of the same town. 

One of his friends says of him : "He is certainly one of our best 
business men. He has alwavs been broad-minded and liberal. He is 
a close thinker and has sometimes been thought critical to a certain 
degree, but bis criticisms are only made and intended for the improve- 
ment of his fellow men. He well knows the correct standard of true 
manhood and measures his acquaintances thereby. His walk through 
life from early manhood has been most commendable and exemplary, a 
golden mark for others to follow. His attainments in law and literature 
are admired by all who know him. He applies himself closely to law 
and to business, but his interest in his fellow men. is not in the least 
lessened by these pursuits. He has always fostered and encouraged 
improvements and is among the first to give the people anything that 
may add to their comfort and happiness. As a lawyer, he is well known 
throughout southern Ohio as clear-minded, able and honest and has had 
but few, if any, superiors as a common pleas judge. 

Noah J. Dever 

was born August 17, 1850, in Madison Township, Scioto County, Ohio. 
His father is William Dever. and his mother*s maiden name was Louisa 
McDowell. He is the only son of his parents and the first born, but has 
eight sisters. His maternal great-grandfather. John Bennett, was a sol- 
dier in the war of 1812. His father was and is a farmer, and he was 
reared on his father's farm, until the age of fifteen years, when he at- 
tended the Jackson High School. In 1867. he began teaching in the 
coninion schools, and taught and attended school at Lebanon alter- 
nately until 1 87 1. In that year he took a commercial course in the 
Iron City Commercial College at Pittsburg. Pennsylvania. In Octo- 
ber. 1871, he began the study of law in the office of Messrs. Harper and 
Searl, in P^ortsmouth, and read law under their instructions until Judge 
Harper assumed the duties of common pleas judge in February. 1872, 
and then with Judge Searl until October. 1872. when he attended the 
Cincinnati Law School that fall and winter, completing the senior year 
and graduating in April, 1873. when he was admitted to the bar by the 
district court of Hamilton County, and immediately began the practice 
t)f law in Portsnunith. Ohio. 

In May, 1873, he was appointed one of the school examiners of 
Sciot(^ County. Ohio, and held the office for twelve vears. He was 
prouder of this appointment than any with which he was ever 



TBE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 187 

honored, because it was his first, and during the whole time he held the 
office, he was associated with the reverend and venerable Dr. Burr, as 
one of his colleagues on the same board. It was a great honor for any 
one to be associated, officially or otherwise, with Dr. Burr, and so 
Judge Dever regarded it. 

In April, 1873, he formed a law partnership with Judge F. C. Searl, 
as Searl & Dever, which continued until January i, 1879. ^^ t^^" 
formed a law partnership with the Hon. Dan J. Ryan, as Dever & Ryan, 
which continued until February, 1881. In the fall of 1879, ^^ was 
elected prosecuting attorney of Scioto County, Ohio, for the .period of 
two years. He has always been a Republican in politics. At his first 
election his majority was 144. During his first term as prosecuting 
attorney, the term was made three years, by the law of April 20, 1881, 
Volume 780, O. L., 260. In October, 1881, he was re-elected by a ma- 
jority of 1252 for three years. He discharged the duties of the office 
with ability and fidelity. In the fall of 1886, he was elected a common 
pleas judge of the second subdivision of the seventh judicial district. 
This election, in the fall of 1886, was the first state election held in 
Ohio in November. In 1891, he was renominated and re-elected 
without opposition. 

On April 21, 1896, the county of Adams was taken from the first 
subdivision of the fifth common pleas judicial district and placed in 
the second subdivision of the seventh common pleas judicial district. 
This law took effect September i, 1896, and from that date until Feb- 
ruary 9, 1897, he was one of the judges of the court of common pleas 
of Adams County, though he never held a court therein. 

On February 8, 1897, Judge Dever retired from the bench at the 
close of his second term, and was succeeded by the Hon. John C. 
Milner. Judge Dever's record on the common pleas bench compares 
favorably with his able and distinguished predecessors. He pos- 
sessed great executive ability and, as a judge, kept all his business 
well in hand. He never allowed his dockets to get behind. Since his 
retirement from the bench, he has engaged in the practice of law with 
great success. On January 16, 1899, he was appointed receiver of the 
Farmers' National Bank of Portsmouth, Ohio, in place of David Arm- 
strong, deceased, and is engaged in the administration of that trust. 

On July 2y, 1876, he was married to Miss Lydia Austin, of Iron- 
ton. Ohio. She lived but a short time, and on July 4, 1878, he married 
Miss Mattie Gilliland, of Jackson County. Of this marriage, three 
children have been born ; Louisa, the eldest, attended the Ohio State 
University from 1897 to 1899, and in September, 1899, she entered Mt. 
Holyoke College, Massachusetts, as a junior; Martha, the second 
daughter, is a student of the Portsmouth High School, and Alice, the 
third daughter, is in the grammar schools. 

Noah J. Dever as a boy was taught frugality and economy by his 
father. It may be said to have been ingrained for generations. From 
his mother he inherited his natural acumen, quick perception, his pur- 
pose and will for thorough investigation. He has been taught to con- 
serve all his physical and mental faculties for the serious objects of 
life. He possesses a natural spirit of investigation, which made him a 
diligent, earnest, and faithful student. Not only did he have a great 



188 HISTORY OF ADAMS (30UNTY 

love for the acquisition of knowledge, but happily he developed the 
power of imparting it. As a school teacher he was able to interest 
his pupils, and so instnict them that what he taught was never for- 
gotten, but a possession for everyday use. As a teacher he was suc- 
cessful. 

The habit of imparting instruction followed him on the bench 
and much enhanced his qualities as a judge. As a law student, he was 
determined to master and understand every subject he took up. As 
prosecuting attorney, he did his duty thoroughly, faithfully, and effi- 
ciently. As a judge, he was laborious, industrious, painstaking, and 
thorough. He kept his business up, and his dockets never lagged be- 
hind. He possesses the confidence of the business community; and 
since his retirement from the bench, has developed the able business 
lawyer that he is, and is recognized to be, by the public and his pro- 
fession. He holds an enviable position in the community. 

In politics, he is and always has been a Republican, and has always 
taken an active interest. In his personal habits, he is a model, never 
using tobacco or spirits. While not a member of church, he attends 
the Bigelow Methodist Episcopal, and has been a trustee of the church 
many years. His family relations are most pleasant ; and he is a prom- 
inent, well-respected, and useful citizen. He has obtained his high 
position in the community by the practice of those principles which, 
observed by the great body of our English-speaking people, have made 
the United States and England the most powerful nations of the earth. 

« 
William Dow James 

was born near Piketon, December i, 1853. His father was David 
James and his mother, Charlotte Beauchamp. His first ancestor in this 
county came over from Germany in 1750, and located in Bedford 
County, Virginia. His grandfather, grandson of the immigrant, wrs 
born in 1785 and came to the Northwest Territory shortly after 1794 
with his parents and located in Gallia County. He resided with his 
parents in Gallia till 1805 when he moved to Pike County in the Beaver 
Valley, ten miles from Piketon. He married a Miss Allison, and nine 
sons and daughters were born to them. Among them was David, 
father of our subject. He became a prominent and successful farmer. 
Our subject remained at home attending school and receiv'ng in- 
struction privately until he was about twenty years of age. when Ik- 
began the study of law under John T. Moore. This was continued until 
Mr. Moore located in Jackson in 1875. He then prosecuted his law 
studies with George D. Cole, teaching school of winters and reading 
the text-books in summers. This course he followed until 1877, when 
he was admitted to the bar and opened a law office in Piketon. Here 
he remained four years. In 1879 ^^ ^^'^^ elected mayor of Piketon 
and held the office until he removed to Waverlv. He continued to 
practice in Pike and the adjoining counties until 1893 when he was 
elected judge of the second subdivision of the seventh judicial district. 
He made quite a reputation as a trial lawyer and advocate while at 
the bar, and his reputation as a man and citizen is the highest. In 
1882, he was married to Miss Terrena F. Vulgamore. At the close of 
his first term on the bench, he could have been renominated and re- 



* 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 189 

elected without opposition, and it was much regretted by the lawyers 
of his district that he did not so determine, but he felt that he had made 
all the reputation he desired as a judge and he peremptorily declined a 
renomination. Immediately on his retirement, he removed to Cincin- 
nati, and opened a law office in the Blymyer Building, No. 514 Main 
Street, where he is acquiring a large clientage. His wife died May 
i-^. 1898, and he has since remarried to Miss Louise Adams, of Chicago, 
Ills. 

Judge James is affable in his manners, both on and off the bench. 
He has a clear and logical mind. His mind, after a surveiy of the facts, 
grasps the points in a case and his correct legal training enables him 
quickly to make the application of the law to the facts. He is pain- 
staking in the preparation and trial of his tase. On the bench, he 
was never hurried in making his decisions, but when announced, they 
showed careful and thorough consideration of the questions involved. 
He had the judicial quality to withhold judgment till he had fully con- 
sidered the case and until he was satisfied as to the principles govern- 
ing it. Once satisfied, his decision was made and usually sustained 
in the higher court. As a lawyer he was always careful and thorough 
and his client could he sure that the best course would be adopted and 
the best results obtained. 

A friend speaking of Judge James says he is able to perform and 
does perform exacting labors. He is a patient reader and succeeds 
in ascertaining the results of what he reads. He is affable as a man, 
a citizen, lawyer and judge. As a lawyer he was connected with all 
the important cases in his county. As a judge, he gave great con- 
sideration to his cases and was without prejudice or partiality. 

Another friend speaking of Judge James says he is a man of 
affable, courteous and at the same time, dignified manners, and is very 
popular among his associates by reason of his genial and social man- 
ner. As a lawyer, he is a fluent speaker, with a clear, clean, logical 
mind, quick to grasp the points of a case and to use them to his ad- 
vantage, and his power before a jury is widely recognized. As a judge, 
he was noted for his fairness and keen love of justice, and with his 
thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the law, administered the 
complex and onerous duties of that position with the highest credit 
to himself and to his profession. 

William H. Middloton 

was born at Locust Grove on the 19th day of July, 1864, son of Rev. 
Wilder N. Middleton, of the Ohio M. E. Conference, and Cynthia 
(Bailey) Middleton, daughter of Cornelius Bailey, one of the pioneer 
residents of the Scioto Valley. His early life was a roving one, his 
father's calling taking him to various towns in southern Ohio, in the 
public schools of which he received his education, and later, at the 
private school of Professor Poe, of Chillicothe, and the Nation?.^ Nor- 
mal University at Lebanon, Ohio. 

He began life for himself at fifteen years of age as a teacher and 
followed that work for several years, teaching in the public schools 
at Piketon, Waverly and other towns. His inclinations being directed 
to the bar, in 1888, he entered the law office of Judge W. D. James, at 



190 mSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

Waverly. In 1889, ^^ ^'^s appointed deputy collector of internal reve- 
nues by M. Boggs, which office he held until his admission to the bar 
in 1 89 1. After his admission to the bar, he continued with his pre- 
ceptor until the latter was elected to the bench. 

In 1896, he was nominated and after one of the hardest political 
battles ever fought in the county, was elected prosecuting attorney, 
receiving 192 votes above the head of the ticket. He continued in 
this office until his election to the bench in 1898. 

On the 24th day of June, 1897, he was married to Miss Minnie 
Howard, and one child has blessed the union — Wilder Howard, aged 
one year. 

He is a member of the Orient Lodge, No. 321, F. & A. M., Wav- 
erly, Ohio ; Chillicothe Chapter, No. 4, R. A. M. and Niobe Lodge, No. 
370, K. of P. 

Judge Middleton comes of a long line of ministers; hence, in his 
moral and mental fibre, he is possessed of that conscious sensibility so 
essential to an upright and just judge. It matters not how young and 
inexperienced a judge may be, or how old or learned he may be, if he 
is not possessed of natural, moral and innate, honesty, he cannot make 
a just judge. Honesty of purpose supplants all. Without it, he floats 
a buoyant pestilence upon the great ocean of truth. A friend says of 
him — "Having an intimate acquaintance with Hon. William H. Mid- 
dleton from his youth up, from the country school-teacher, the student 
of law, to the practitioner, I bear witness that the bright jewel of his 
crown is honesty and integrity of purpose, a man of native modesty, 
but possessed of a courage in the exercise of his moral and intellectual 
convictions. Ever dignified, always genial and at all times agreeable. 
We bespeak that his integrity and honesty and never failing common 
sense and cautious sagacity, his powers of analysis, his quickness of 
intuition to grasp the principles of law as well as the right and morality 
of a controversy shall win for him the approval of the bench, the bar 
and the people. 

John Clinton Blilner 

was born July 12, 1856, at Morristown, Belmont County, Ohio His 
father was John Milner and his mother's maiden name, Esther Hogue. 
His father and mother were both natives of Belmont County His 
grandfather, Joseph Milner, and his maternal grandfather, Samuel 
Hogue, were also from Belmont County. His great-grandfather, Ed- 
ward Milner, and his maternal great-grandfather, Isaac Hogue, were 
both born in Loudon County, Virginia. The ancestors of his mother 
came from Scotland in 1729, and those of his father, from England^ 
about the same date. 

Our subject attended the public schools of Morristown, and grad- 
uated therefrom in 1872. In 1874 and 1875, he attended the National 
Normal University at Lebanon, Ohio, graduating from there in 1875. 
He then went to Hamden, Ohio, and taught school two years, during 
1876 and 1877, having charge of four schools. In 1877 and 1878, he 
taught at Wheelersburg, also having charge of four schools there. 

He began the study of law in 1878, and attended the law college at 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1878 and 1879. From 1879 to 1882, he was 
at home in poor health. In 1882 and 1883, he attended Shoemaker's 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CX)NSTITUTION 191 

School of Oratory and Belles-Lettres, at Philadelphia. In the fall of 
1883, he went to Topeka, Kansas, and while there was admitted to 
the bar. He did not like the countrv and returned to Belmont County. 
On June 9, 1884, he was admitted to the bar of Ohio, at Columbus, and 
located at Portsmouth, Ohio, at once. He went in partnership with 
F. C. Searl, in 1884, and the firm was known as Searl and Milner. 
The same year Judge Harper became a member of the firm, under 
the name of Harper, Searl and Milner, which continued until 1891. 
In the fall of 1890, he was elected prosecuting attorney (A Scioto 
County, and re-elected in 1893, serving until 1897. In the fall of 1897, 
he was elected one of the, common pleas judjj^es of the second subdivi- 
sion of the fifth district, and took his seat as such on the ninth of Feb- 
ruary, 1897, and is still holding that position. 

He was married November 19, 1897, to Miss Mollie E. Warwick. 
He has always been a Republican. 

As prosecuting attorney' of Scioto County, Mr. Milner made an 
honorable record. He was fearless, tireless and brought out of every 
case all the merit in it. His work in that office was most satisfactory 
to the public. As judge, he is very quick to grasp all the details in a 
case, and to give his views as to the justice or equities. He is disposed 
to dispatch business and to keep his work well in hand. As a lawyer, 
he was energetic, industrious and able ; as a business man, he has no 
superior. 

THe Cirovlt Court of Adams Coimty. 

The Constitution of 1802 provided that the Supreme Court should 
be held in each county once a year. This proved to be a failure and a 
disappointment. The holding of this court in the circuit was found 
to be a disappointment to the judges, to the bar, and to the suitors. 
It was a hardship on the judges to travel and on the bar to follow them 
about. Suitable time was not given in the hearing and consideration 
of the cases and under the circumstances, it could not be given. The 
terms for the counties were often, therefore, omitted, or held in the 
capital or some other county. 

The Constitution of 1851, in making provision for an intermediate 
court between the common pleas and circuit court provided for a Dis- 
trict Court to be held in each county at least once a year. It was to 
be composed of one supreme judge and at least two common pleas 
judges of the district. In practice, it worked badly. None of the com- 
mon pleas judges liked to do district court work. The supreme judges 
found themselves too busy at Columbus to attend and soon after the 
constitution went into effect, ceased their attendance. In practice, the 
district court was usually made up of the common pleas judges who 
had h'eard the cases before and determined them, and to other common 
pleas judges, judicial courtesy required them to affirm the former de- 
cision, and judicial courtesy was not often violated. The system be- 
came so unsatisfactory to all concerned that in 1883, a constitutional 
amendment was adopted providing for the present circuit court. These 
courts were to have independent judges, not sitting in any other court, 
and were to be held in each county once a year. Each judge could sit 
in any circuit. The legislature acting on the amendment made nine cir- 
cuits of which the fourth was composed of the sixteen counties of 



192 mSTORY OP ADAMS CX>UNTY 

Monroe, Washington, Athens, Meigs, Hocking, Pickaway, Vinton, 
Jackson, Gallia, Lawrence, Scioto, Pike, Ross, Adams, Highland and 
Brown, Afterward Monroe was detached and attached to the Zanes- 
ville circuit. The first election was in 1884 and the judges elected 
were Thomas Cherrington, of Lawrence; Milton L. Clark, of Ross; 
and Joseph P. Bradbury of Meigs. The judges met and drew lots for 
terms. Judge Cherrington drew the two-year term; Judge Bradbury 
the four-year term, and Judge Clark, the full or six-year term. The 
court was opened for business on February 9, 1895. It has proven a 
very satisfactory court. In the fourth circuit, there have been but 
few changes. Judge Bradbury served out his term of four years in 
1889 and was succeeded by Judge Daniel A. Russell, who was elected 
m 1889, ^"d re-elected in 1894. Judge Clark was re-elected in 1890, 
and served until February 9, 1897. He was succeeded by Hiram L. 
Sibley, of Marietta. The bench as now composed consists of Hon. 
Daniel A. Russell, chief judge, and Honorables Thomas Cherrington 
and Hiram L. Sibley, judges. The lawyers and people of the district are 
well satisfied with these judges and hope they may serve as long as they 
are willing to remain. Sketches of the several judges who have oc- 
cupied the bench are as follows: — 

MUtoB I.ee Clark 

was born April 21, 1817, in Ross County, son of Col. William Clark, 
who held that rank in the war of 181 2. His father was a farmer and 
was for many years a justice of the peace.^ He died when his son, Mil- 
ton L., was seven years of age. Young Clark was left dependent on 
his own resources. He clerked in mercantile houses in Chillicothe and 
Circle ville and taught school. He w^ent to Louisville in 1839 and be- 
came a trusted employee in a wholesale business house until 1842 when 
lie returned to Chillicothe and became a law student with Col. Jonathan 
F. Woodside. He was admitted to the bar November 25, 1844, in the 
twenty-eighth year of his age. In 1845, he was elected prosecuting 
attorney of Ross County and held that office until 1849, discharging 
its duties with marked ability. He represented Pickaway and Ross 
Counties in the lower house of the Ohio legislature at the forty-eighth 
legislative session from December 3. 1849, ^^ March 25, 1850. October 
II, 1849, he married Miss Jane Isabelle Woodside, eldest daughter of 
his legal preceptor. He practiced law exclusively from the time he 
left the legislature until 1873, when he became a member from Ross 
County of the Ohio Constitutional Convention. Mr. Clark was first 
a W big and afterward a Republican and took an active part as speaker 
in political campaigns. In 1884, when the first circuit judges for the 
fourth district of Ohio were elected, he was one of the three elected 
and in drawing for terms, he drew the six-year term. He was renom- 
inated and re-elected in the fall of 1890 and served till February 9, 
i8c)7, when he was succeeded by the Hon. Hiram L. Sibley. He was 
sixty-eight years old when he went on the bench and gave the circuit 
twelve years of as al^le and faithful service as any judge who ever oc- 
cupied a judgeship. He brought to it the experience of forty years 
of assiduous study and diligent practice. He was a candidate for a third 
term, and was most loyally supported by his county and the friends 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 193 

he had made in other counties, but his renomination was defeated. This 
disappointment wounded him mortally and he sickened and died June 
II, 1897. He acheived great success and reputation as a lawyer, the 
result of patient and thorough study. He was a fluent and ready 
speaker as an advocate. As a judge he was thoroughly and well in- 
formed in the law. He gave patient and careful investigation to all 
cases and his decisions were clear elucidations of the law. Especially 
was he thoroughly conversant with the land laws in the Virginia Mili- 
tary District. In the history of our state jurisprudence, he will be 
remembered as one of our best and ablest judges, 

Hiram "L. Sibley 

was born May 4, 1836, in Trumbull County Ohio. His father removed 
to Gallipolis in 184 1, and to Middleport, in 1847. He lived there until 
1855 W|hen he removed to Racine, Ohio, where he remained until 
i860. His father, Ezekial Sibley, was from Westfield Massachusetts. 
His mother, Phoebe Simons, from Colebrook, Connecticut. He at- 
tended school until thirteen years of age, when he began to learn the 
trade of shoemaking. At sixteen, he attended a select school for six 
months, and again another term of six months in 1856. April 22, 
1858, he was married to Esther Ann Ellis. They had six children, 
three of whom are living. The eldest, William Giddings, graduated 
from Marietta College in 188 1. In the fall of 1858, Mr. Sibley took up 
the study of law, and continued it until i860 when he was elected clerk 
of the common pleas court of Meigs County, and took the office Feb- 
ruary 12, 1861. August 12, 1862, he entered the ii6th O. V. I. as 
second lieutenant. Company B. He was promoted first lieutenant, 
February i, 1864, resigned January 16, 1865. He was captured June 
16, 1863, at the battle of Winchester and was a prisoner of war until 
December 10, 1864. His health was so broken by his confinement that 
he was compelled to and did resign. April 14, 1865, he was admitted 
to the bar at Meigs County. In August, 1865, he removed to Marietta 
and began the practice of law as one of the firm of Ewart, Shaw & 
Sibley. He was defeated for prosecuting attorney of Washington 
County, with the Republican ticket in 1867. In the same year he 
formed a partnership with R. L. Nye, which continued until 1869. In 
1870, he returned to Pomeroy and began practice with Lewis Paine, 
under the name of Paine & Sibley. In April, 1874, he removed to 
Marietta to practice with Mr. Ewart under the firm name of Ewart & 
Sibley. In 1882, he was elected common pleas judge in the second 
subdivision of the seventh district and re-elected in 1887 and in 1892, 
the last time without opposition. In 1896, he was elected circuit judge 
in the fourth circuit to succeed Milton L. Clark. Since 1856, he has 
been a member of the Methodist Episcopal church and for a number 
of years has been a local preacher therein. He has attended many 
of the principal conferences and councils of that church and has written 
quite extensively on ecclesiastical law. In 1895, Claflin University of 
South Carolina conferred on him the degree of LL. D. No more de- 
voted or enfthusiastic Methodist than he can be found in the county. 
He is a great lover of music, especially of the violin, which he carries 
13a 



194 fflSTORY OP ADAMS CX>UNTY 

with him over the circuit. He possesses strong analytical power com- 
bined with a faculty of clear and logical reasoning. He is an inde- 
fatigable student and examines all authorities cited to him. He has 
a good memory of all cases in the report which he has once examined 
and has them at his command at all times. He is always fair, and on 
the trial or hearing, he is always along with counsel conducting the 
case and sometimes anticipates him. He conducts the investigation of 
a case on lines suggested by himseli and reaches his conclusions 
quickly. He is habitually courteous to all before him and especially 
considerate of the younger members of the profession. In the conduct 
of a case, the vital points must be approached and reached directly. No 
side issues are tolerated. Without the benefit of a classical education 
or a law school training, he has become learned in law and literature 
and has made a first-class lawyer and an able judge. 

DaAlel A. BnsseU, 

who succeeded Judge Joseph P. Bradbury in the circuit court of the 
fourth circuit in 1889, was born on a farm in Athens County, September 
2, 1840, and when three years old was taken into Meigs County. Un- 
til the age of sixteen, he attended the district schools, when he spent 
two years at the Ohio University at Athens, and two more years at 
the Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. In i860, he accepted 
a position in the treasurer's office in Meigs County. July 16, 1861, he 
enlisted in Co. E, 4th Virginia Infantry. He was promoted for bravery 
to second lieutenant, August 22, 1861, first lieutenant in September, 
1862, and captain, January 2, 1863. He was at Haine's Bluff and at 
the siege of Vicksburg and was twice wounded. He was at the bat- 
tles of Cherokee Station, Jackson, Miss., Missionary Ridge, and after- 
wards at Piedmont, Lexington, Lynchburg, Winchester and other en- 
gagements in the valley of Virginia. He was discharged September 
II, 1864, and re-entered the service, February 3, 1865, as major of the 
187th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and served as such until 
January 21, 1866, when he was mustered out. He at once entered 
the Cincinnati Law School and remained there until April, 1866, when 
he was admitted to the bar. He located at Pomeroy in the practice 
of the law. In 1873. he was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion from Meigs County. He was city solicitor of Pomeroy from 1873 
to 1879. From 1874, he was in partnership with his brother, Charles 
F., until his election to the circuit bench in 1889. He was re-elected 
in 1893, and is serving his second term. As a judge, he is careful and 
painstaking, and aims to see each case in all its bearings. He seeks 
to ascertain and apply every principle of law bearing on the matter in 
hand, and after listening to one of his decisions, the bar feel that he 
has exhausted the subject. As a lawyer, he stood high, as a judge, none 
is more careful to apply the correct principles of law, and none has a 
higher sense of honor and justice. His career as a judge has given gen- 
eral satisfaction to the bar and to litigants. 

Thomas Cherrlnstoa 

was born October 29, 1837, in Addison Township, Gallia County, Ohio, 
on a farm where he lived with his parents until he was nearly eighteen 
years of age, at which time he took a two-years* course in the academy 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 195 

at Gallipolis, preparatory to entering the regular college course at the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio, where he afterwards 
entered, and for four years he attended that college and graduated 
from it. He was a private soldier in Company E, 84th O. V. I. from 
May 28, 1862, to September 20, 1862, and was afterwards a captain in 
the I22d United States troops, and was mustered out of the service 
at Corpus Christi, Texas, January, 1866. His service in the 84th Ohio 
was in West Virginia, and in the I22d Regiment of Colored Infantry, 
it was in Virginia, Louisiana and Texas. On his return from the army, 
he read law with the Hon. S. W. Nash of Gallipolis, and was admitted 
to the bar in the spring of 1867. In January, 1867, he located in Iron- 
ton for the practice of law. He was twice elected city solicitor of 
Ironton, and twice elected prosecuting attorney of Lawrence County, 
and continued to practice his profession there until February, 1885, 
when he became a member of the circuit court of the fourth judicial 
circuit. He drew the two-years' term when the court was organized 
and was re-elected in 1886 and again in 1892 and again in 1898. 

THe Bar and Jndioiary of Adams Coniity. 

Jacob Burnet and William McMillan, of Cincinnati, and Levin 
Belt, of Chillicothe, were admitted to the bar in Adams County and 
practiced in its courts under the Territory. 

William Creighton, Henry Brush, Michael Baldwin and Thomas 
Scott, afterward of Chillicothe, were practitioners in Adams County. 
Francis Taylor and other lawyers of Maysville, Kentucky, attended the 
courts of Adams County until in the forties. 

The first Supreme Court held in Adams County of which a record 
was found, was October term, 1804. It was held by Judges William 
Sprigg and Samuel Huntington. There was but one term held in each 
year. 

General Darlinton was appointed clerk of this court. He was 
the only clerk this court ever had, serving as such from 1803, until his 
death, August 3, 1851. The cmrl passed out of <*xistence September 
I, 1851, but no clerk was reappointed after his death. In 181 9 and 
1820, no court was held. In 1821, Judges Pease and Couch held the 
court, and in 1822, Judges McLean and Jacob Burnet held court. 

In 1823, the court was held by Peter Hitchcock and Charles R. 
Sherman, father of the Senator. The May term, 1824, was held by 
Judges Peter Hitchcock and Jacob Burnet. At this term, George Col- 
lings and Kidder Meade Byrd were admitted to the bar. The latter 
was drowned in the Potomac River in Washington, September 24, 
1824. 

At the May term, 1825, General Darlinton was reappointed clerk 
for seven years and William H. Allen was admitted to the bar. Judges 
Pease and Burnet held the term. 

The May term, 1826, was held by Judges Hitchcock and Burnet. 
Archibald Leggett, of Ripley, was admitted to the bar. Joseph D. Darl- 
inton, son of the General, was appointed deputy clerk. 

At the May term, 1827, held by Judges Burnet and Sherman 
George Lyon was admitted to the bar. 



196 HISTORY OP ADAMS (30UNTY 

In 1828, Judges Hitchcock and Burnet held the court. Allen D. 
Beasiey was admitted to the bar. 

The May term, 1829, was held by Judges Pease and Sherman. 
Henry Brush was one of the attorneys in attendance, and John H. 
Haines was admitted to the bar. 

The August term, 1830, was held by Judges Joshua Collett and 
Ezekial Hayward. 

At the April term, 1832, the judges were Joshua Collett and John 

C. Wright. General Darlinton resigned as clerk because his term ex- 
pired May 7, following, and he was reappointed for seven years. The 
court also appointed him master in chancery for three years. 

At the April term, 1834, the judges were the same as the previous 
term. 

At the x\ugust term, 1835, the judges were Collett and Lane. 
Thomas J. Buchannan and Andrew Ellison were admitted to the bar. 

The March term, 1836, was held by Judges Lane and Hitchcock. 

The April term, 1837, was held by Judges Lane and Hitchcock. 
General Darlinton was appointed master in chancery for three years. 

At the March term, 1838, the judges were Wood and Grimke. 
Joseph Darlinton was reappointed clerk for seven years, and Joseph 

D. Darlinton, his deputy. No term was held in 1839. In 1840, Judges 
Lane and Hitchcock held the term. Charles K. Smith was admitted 
to the bar. 

In 1841, Judges Grimke and Hitchcock held the term. George 
Nealy was admitted to the bar. In 1842, the judges were Lane and 
Wood. In 1843, the court was composed of Judges Wood and 
Birchard. John M. Smith was admitted to the bar. 

In 1844, the judges were Lane and Wood, and James W. Arm- 
strong was admitted to the bar. 

In 1845. t^^ judges were Wood and Birchard, and in 1846, Reed 
and Birchard 

On March 30, 1846, Gen. Darlinton was reappointed clerk for 
seven years, his last appointment. In 1847, the court was held by Judges 
Reed and Avery. In 1848, the same judges sat. James Clark and 
Joseph Allen Wilson were admitted to the bar. The latter died the 
following December. 

In 1849, the court was held by Judges Avery and Spaulding. An- 
drew W. McCauslen was admitted to the bar. 

The April term, 1850, was held by Judges Hitchcock and Caldwell. 

The April term, 1851, was the last Supreme Court held in Adams 
County, and was held by Judges Spaulding and Ramsey. Joseph R. 
Cockerill, John K. Billings and David B. Graham were admitted to 
the bar at this term. 

The District Court succeeded the Supreme Court and its first term 
in Adams County was held October 17, 1852. Judge Allen W. Thur- 
man of the Supreme Court, presided, and John F. Green and ^epherd 
F. Norris were the common pleas judges. 

The first court of common pleas held in Adams County was Decem- 
ber 13, 1797. The judges of that court were John Beasiey, John Belli 
and Benjamin Goodwin, all lay judges. This court was held at Adams- 
ville. The next was held at the same place in December, 1898. Benja- 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 197 

min Goodwin had removed from the county and the court was com- 
posed of Beasley, Belli and Nathaniel Massie. 

The December term, 1799, was held at Washington. The court 
was composed of John Beasley, president, John Belli, Moses Baird and 
Noble Grimes, all lay judges. They held this court in September, 1800, 
June and September, 1801, at Washington. There is no record for 
1802. 

In August, 1803, David Edie was presiding judge and Hosea 
Moore and Needham Perry were associates. This was the first court 
under statehood. John Lodwick was sheriff. 

At the December term, 1803, Wyllis Silliman, a lawyer and pre- 
siding judge, sat at Washington and his associates were Hosea Moore, 
Needham Perry and David Edie. 

Astothe lawyers who attended early courts, there is little of record. 
John S.Wills was prosecuting attorney in 1804, James Scott in 1807, and 
Jessup M. Couch, in 1808. Prior to that, the State used any attorney 
who happened to attend as prosecutor. John W. Campbell located 
in West Union in 1808 and was a leader there at the bar until 1826, 
when he removed to Brown County. He was prosecuting attorney 
from 1808 to 1817 under the magnificent salary of one hundred dol- 
lars per year. In 181 7, he was succeeded by Samuel Treat, whom ob- 
livion has fully obscured. Even the writers of this work could not 
resurrect him. Richard Collins practiced in Adams County in 182 1 
and 1822. He was a son of the Rev. John Collins, of fragrant memory. 
He afterwards went to Maysville and died there. 

The first term at which the attendance of lawyers was noted was 
November term, 1822. There were present at that term John W. 
Campbell, Samuel Treat, Daniel P. Wilkins, Richard Collins, Benjamin 
Leonard, Henry Brush of Chillicothe, and George R. Fitzgerald. 

At the June term, 1823, the same attorneys were present, together, 
with Taylor and Scott. 

In 1824, John Thompson, of Chillicothe, attended. In 1825, the 
Legislature passed a law placing a specific tax on lawyers and this re- 
mained in force until 185 1. This law did not take effect until June, 
1826, and the assessments were made by the associate judges until 
1830, when the law required them to be made by the commissioners at 
their June session; hence, the resident attorneys from 1830 to 1851 can 
be found in the commissioners* journal at every June meeting. 

George Collings first appeared as an attorney at the March term, 
1824. In 1825, the lawyers were Samuel Brush, Geo. R. Fitzgerald, 
Richard Collins, Daniel P. Wilkins, George Collings, Taylor and Ben- 
jamin Leonard. The latter was considered a great lawyer and was em- 
ployed in all great cases. He never resided in the county. Henry 
Brush, of Chillicothe, attended in 1826. In 1827, Garland B. Shelleday 
appears. He was a Virginian, a protege of John W. Campbell. John 
Thompson, of Chillicothe, attended regularly. At June term, 1828, 
Beasley appears. In 1828, we note the first appearance of Archibald 
Leggett. In 1829 Leggett, Beasley, and George W. King, of Brown 
County attended. In 1832 the list of taxed kwyers were Samuel 
Brush, George Collings, and Daniel P. Wilkins. Thomas L. Hamer, 
of Brown, attended first that year. 



IM mSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

In 1834 Nelson Barrere first appears. In 1835 John P. Crapsey 
attended. At this time James Keenan appears. He was an Irishman. 
He married a sister of James Cole, and soon after located in Piketon. 
In 1836 John Hanna attended, and three of the Brushes, J. T., Samuel, 
and Henry. In 1837 David Devore, of Brown, and McDowell, of 
Highland, attended ; also Shepherd F. Norris. In 1839, A. McClausen 
first appears. We are uncertain whether this was Thomas A., or an 
elder brother of his. 

In 1840 O. F. Moore attended ; Joseph McCormick and Chambers 
Baird, McCauslen, Devore. Barrere, and Hamer were also present. In 
1841 William \. Peck attended. At the October term, 1841, Henry 
Massie, of Chillicothe, Chambers Baird, Hamer, Devore, J. S. Taylor, 
John W. Price, of Hillsboro, and H. L. Penn, of Brown, were in attend- 
ance. The same lawyers attended most of the terms for several years 
after. At February term, 1845, Edward P. Evans appears for the first 
time. He did not become a resident of the county till April, 1847. 

At March term, 1846, John M. Smith appears for the first time. 

At the June term, 1847, William M. Meek made his bow to the 
court. At the September term, 1847, there were present, John M. 
Meek, Edward P. Evans, Hanson L. Penn, Joseph McCormick, 
Thomas McCauslen, and James H. Thompson. Of all the above, the 
latter only is living at a great age. 

In 1849 ^^^ 1850 John W. Price attended. In 1851 the name of 
Col. Cockerill first appears at September term. McCauslen. McCor- 
mick, and Evans are named. George Collings was last named at June 
term, 1847. 

At the August term, 1852, there were present Evans. Penn, Mc- 
Causlen, Cockerill. Billings, David B. Graham, James Lowery, William 
M. Meek, William C. Buck, James H. Thompson, Chambers Baird, and 
William H. Reed. 

As this brings us within the memory of the present generation, we 
do not mention the attendance. McFerran appeared on the stage the 
next year. Jacob M. Wells located in West Union as a lawyer in 1854. 
The same year, 1854. Thomas J. Mullen located in Adams County for 
the practice of law. The ashes of Evans, Cockerill, Mullen. Wells, Bil- 
lings, and McFerran all rest in the old South Cemeter\-. 

David W. Thomas began the practice of law at West Union in 
1864. He, too. has joined the silent majority. 

Edward M. DeRruin was a lawyer at West Union in i860. He 
went into the 33d Ohio \'olunteer Infantry- as an officer, and after the 
war went to Hillsboro. He died at Columbus. Ohio, in October, 1899. 

Colonel Cockerill practiced at West Union from 1851 to 1875, ^^^ 
was well and favorably known. 

The present bar of Adams County is composed of Franklin D. 
Bayless. George W. Pettit, A. Z. Blair, William R. Mehaffey, Cyrus F. 
Wikoff. C. F. McCoy, the prosecuting attorney : Carey E. Robuck, M. 
Scott. John W. Hook, J. W. McClung. all residents of West Union; 
C. C. W. Xaylor. William Anderson. S. X. Tucker, and W. E. Foster. 
residents of Manchester; and Philip Handrehan and T. C. Downey, 
of Winchester. 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 199 

Separate sketches of all the prominent members of the bar, past 
and present, will be found following this article, as well as separate 
sketches of the judges in succession. 

The practice of the law in Adams County was much more profitable 
in the early history of the county than it is now. Then the people 
thought they were rich ; now they know they are poor. At least, that 
is the statement most of them made to the canvassers for this work. 
Then the county was new; lands were taken up in large tracts, and 
there was much litigation over disputed and conflicting lines. For 
thirty years all the boundary questions have been settled, and the liti- 
gation is made up chiefly of foreclosures, damage suits, and divorces. 
The lawyers of this day have a better time than the early lawyers did, 
but are not so much looked up to as the first lawyers, because the peo- 
ple have other things to think of. In the early days all public interest 
centered in the courts. Now it has many other objects. A number of 
the older generation of lawyers were gay lotharios, and very fond of 
corn whiskey, but the present generation have abandoned both proclivi- 
ties. The older generation of lawyers rode the circuit. They passed 
from county seat to county seat on horseback, with saddle pockets 
across their saddles, and sherry vallies encasing their legs. They rode 
in all weathers and on all kinds of roads. The present generation trav- 
els only turnpikes in carriages, or travels on the cars. The older gen- 
eration spent their evenings in inns, before blazing fires, and with can- 
dle light. The present generation would not be found in a common 
bar room, and enjoys all the comforts and conveniences of life. The 
older lawyers depended much on oratory and effect ; the present gener- 
ation are largely business agents with business methods. The older 
lawyers may have enjoyed log cabins with puncheon floors and clap- 
board roofs, but the present members of the fraternity enjoy all the 
fruits of the intense civilization in the midst of which we live. 
Law books are plenty now. In the early times they were scarce. While 
the present lawyers have business away from home and attend to it, the 
old plan of riding the circuit has gone, never to return. George Col- 
lings, the father of Judge Henry Collings, rode the circuit, as did John 
W. Campbell and their cotemporaries. Judge George Collings attended 
the courts in Scioto, Highland, and Brown Counties. The fashion of 
riding the circuit went out with the old Constitution. The old-fash- 
ioned judges were not always strong men, nor were they all learned in 
the law. Wylliss Silliman was an able lawyer, but Levin Belt was no 
better qualified than a justice of the peace. Robert F. Slaughter was 
not much of a lawyer, though quite an orator. John Thompson was 
only passable, though of a very high temper and much natural dignity, 
which shielded his lack of training as a lawyer. Joshua Collett and 
George J. Smith were able judges. John W. Price was a fair lawyer. 
Judge Fishback is described in a separate sketch. George Collings was 
an able and successful lawyer, but his feelings were too sensitive for a 
judge, and he would not remain on the bench. Shepherd F. Norris 
was a fair lawyer and judge, but Judge Fishback would never concede 
it. Thomas Q. Ashburn made an efficient judge, but was not bril- 
liant. Tarbell was proficient in the law. Cowen, Collins, and Davis 



200 HISTORY OP ADAMS CXDUNTY 

were able judges, above the average of judges before the present 
constitution and their immediate predecessors. Loudon made a good 
judge, though not of a judicial temperament. Of the nineteen 
associate judges of Adams County, as we learn them, Robert 
Morrison was the best informed on the law, and of the greatest natural 
ability. Aloses Baird was the next in ability, though we do not know 
so much of him as of Morrison, hut he was a man of excellent natural 
ability and of great dignity. 

The old courts and judges, however, believed in dignity. Colonel 
John Lodwick, sheriff of the county, mustered the court with martial 
music and a procession from their hotel to the courthouse on the 
opening of every term. He wore a cocked hat and carried a sword. 
Of all men, Colonel Lodwick was most efficient in a case of this kind. 
At militia musters he made the finest appearance of any one on the par- 
ade, and as sheriff, was capable of maintaining his own dignity and that 
of the whole court. He was a model for every sheriff who has followed 
him. 

Riol&ard Collins, 

son of Rev. John Collins, was born February 22, 1796, in New Jersey. 
He was liberally educated, studied law with John McLean, was admitted 
to practice in 1816, and settled in Hillsboro. He was appointed prose- 
cuting attorney of Highland County in 1818 and resided there until 1832. 
On August 7, 182 1, he was appointed prosecuting attorney of Adams 
County and on Aug^ist 5, 1822, he resigned. He represented Highland 
County in the House from 182 1 to 1823. He removed to Maysville, 
Kentucky, in 1833, and represented Mason County in the Kentucky Leg- 
islature in 1834, 1844, 1847. Po'" fifteen years, he was president of the 
city council of Maysville, Kentucky, and was the first president of the 
Maysvile and Lexington Railroad. In 1853, he removed to his father's 
old home in Clermont County, where he died May 12, 1855. 

He had a keen and sparkling wit and was of high ability in bis pro- 
fession. 

Daniel Putman Wilkins, 

one of the members of the bar of Adams County in its early history, was 
born at Amherst, New Hampshire, in 1707, and died at West Union, July 
11, 1835. one of the victims of Asiatic cholera. He was the son of An- 
drew Wilkins and Lucy lyovell Blanchard, his wife. His grandfather, 
Rev. Daniel Wilkins. entered the ministry of the Congregational Church 
at Amherst, New Hampshire, in 1740, and died there at the age ol 
eighty-five. Of him the record is preserved that **The people of Amherst 
paid the highest respect to his memory and erected over his remains a 
monument of respectable proportions commemorating his memorable 
acts and intrinsic merits.'* 

Daniel P. Wilkins came from a family eminent for services as states- 
men and soldiers. Among them are named Daniel Wilkins, Major in 
the Revolutionary War, who died of smallpox at Crown Point; Hon. 
William Wilkins, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, United States Senator and 
Secretary of War, 1841-1846; General John A. Dix, governor of New 
York and minister to France: General Thomas Wilkins, of Amherst, 
New Hampshire ; George Wilkins Kendall, editor of the New Orleatis 



THE CX)URTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 201 

Picayune, and Hon. James McKean Williams, lawyer and lieutenant gov- 
ernor of New Hampshire. 

Daniel P. Wilkins was a brilliant, scholarly lawyer ; keen, bright and 
pungent in his manner. It is said he made the following statement in 
court in regard to a pleading of an opponent, "May it please the Court. 
In the beginning the earth was without form and void, and the Spirit of 
God moved upon the face of the waters and there was light. So, too, 
may it please the Court, this pleading is without form and void, but it 
lies in the power of no spirit to move upon its face and give it form or 
iight." 

He married Susan A. Wood, a pioneer school teacher from Massa- 
chusetts, and they had four children — Susan and Clara, who are now de- 
ceased and who were married successively to Daniel Barker, of Red Oak 
Junction, Iowa ; Anna I., now deceased, married to John Eylar, of West 
Union, and Mar}% married to Charles B. Rustin, now living at Omaha, 
Nebraska. Our subject's acquaintance with Miss Wood, whom he mar- 
ried, was romantic. She had studied law and appeared in some cases in 
the minor courts. Mr. Wilkins was called before a trial justice and there 
he found Miss Wood as counsel for the opposite party, and this was the 
first time he had met her. She conducted the trial for her client and won 
the case. Her management of defense so impressed young Wilkins that 
he courted and married her. 

He located as a young lawver in West Union, Adams County, in 
1820. On the fifth of October, 1822. he was appointed prosecuting attor- 
ney of Adams County and served as such until June 12, 1826, when he 
was succeeded by George Collings. On the fourth of July, 1825, he de- 
livered an oration at West Union, of which an account is given in the 
Village Register. He was aho a land accent and advertised lands sales in 
that paper. There uas a public library in West Union in 1825, and he 
was librarian. In 1826, he was aid-de-camp in the militia and brigadier 
general of the district. The children of his daughter, Anna A. Eylar, 
aie Joesph W. Eylar, editor of the News Democrat, of Georgetown ; Oli- 
ver A. Eylar, of the Dallas Herald, of Dallas, Texas ; John A. Eylar, a 
lawver at Waverlv ; Albert A. Evlar, lawver at El Paso, Texas, Louella 
B. Eylar, a school teacher at West Union. Henry Rustin, a lawyer at 
Omaha, Nebraska, is a son of his daughter, Mary. 

George R. Fitsgerald 

was born in Maryland, and came from there to Chillicothe, Ohio. From 
the latter place, he came to West Union, probably about 1816. About 
all we know of him, we learn from Col. Wm. E. Gilmore, of Chillicothe, 
to whom we are indebted for many favors. 

While in Adams County, Fitzgerald kept a fine horse, which he was 
accustomed to loan 10 his friend, youncr Joseph Riggs, a bank clerk, to 
ride to X'orth Liberty to court Rebecca Baldridge, daughter of Rev. Wm. 
Baldridge. In t8t8, he was elected to the Legislature from Adams 
County and had Gen. Robert Morrison for his colleague. In 1821 and 
1822, he again represented Adams County in the lower House, having 
no colleague. In 1822. he appears to have changed his residence to 
Highland County, for he was prosecuting attorney there in 1824 and 
again in 1831 and 1833. From there he returned to Chillicothe, and was 



202 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

in partnership with Judge Henry Brush. Fitzgerald was a portly, good 
looking man and of first-rate legal abilities and attainments. He was 
studious and attentive to business. He was moral and temperate in his 
habits, but at the same time, moody, often depressed in spirits, and mel- 
ancholy. Whether this arose from lo\'e or dyspepsia, we do not know, 
but he was madly enamored of one of the daughters of Wm. Creighton, 
Jr., and his addresses were rejected. Upon Miss Creighton's marriage 
to another suitor, he went to Washington, D. C, and soon after com- 
mitted suicide. 

Eheu! amare simul et sapere, ipsi Jovi non datur 

Oarlancl B. Shelledj 

was a young lawyer in West Union in 1824, 1825, to 1828. He is said to 
have been a relative of John W. Campbell. His marriage is announced 
in the Village Register, of November .14, 1826, as having occurred on the 
thirty-first of November, to Miss Nancy Hutcheson, at Cannonsburg, 
Pennsylvania, the Rev. Dr. Brown, President of Jefferson College, per- 
forming the ceremony. 

On March 2y, 1827, he was president of the council of West Union 
while Joseph Darlinton was recorder. At that time, the president of the 
council was the mayor. In 1827, he was a candidate for county treas- 
urer, but as usual, Gen David Bradford was elected. No one had any 
show as against him. At the election for treasurer at that time, Octo- 
ber 27, 1827, the vote stood as follows: David Bradford, 707; Joseph 
D. Darlinton, 191 ; John M. Hayslip, 170; Garland B. Shelledy, 97; Wil- 
liam McColm, 35. 

He was born in Kentucky. His mother's maiden name was Brad- 
ford. He was a graduate of Jeflerson College of Cannonsburg, Penn- 
sylvania. When he left Adams County he located in Edgar County, 
Illinois. He was known as a fine speaker at the bar. In his political 
views he was a Whig and in his religious views a Presbyterian. He 
reared a family and has one daughter, Mrs. S. H. Magner, aged 64 years, 
who resides at Paris, Edgar County, Illinois, where he died and is 
buried. He died of consumption, as did most of his family. 

Samnel Bmib 

was born January 13, 1809, in Chenango County, New York, where his 
father resided until 1815, when he removed to Chillicothe, Ohio. His 
father, Piatt Brush, was a lawyer and practiced in Chillicothe with his 
son, Henry Brush. In 1820, he removed to Delaware, where he re- 
mained until 1828, when he returned to Chillicothe. 

Samuel Brush was a clerk in his father*s office. He received a clas- 
sical education from three private tutors, one of whom was John A. Quit- 
man. He read law with his father and Avas admitted to the bar at Tiffin, 
Ohio, August 30, 1830. In the spring of 1831, he located at West Union, 
Ohio, and was elected prosecuting attorney in 1833, the first one elected 
in the county. He served two years and then went to Batavia, Ohio, and 
practiced a short time when he removed to Columbus, Ohio. He ac- 
quired the title of major in Columbus by being brigade inspector of the 
militia. He was vice president of the agricultural society of Franklin 
County when it was organized. In 1859, he retired from practice and 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONST [TUTION 203 

removed to Canandaigua, New York, and engaged in farming. He was 
a Union man during the Civil War. It is said he never lost a case he 
prepared or had it reversed. He had great powers of concentration and 
was of great industry in his business, always ready to try his cases. He 
was true to his friends and very grateful to those who favored bim, and 
of an undoubted integrity. 

He was married June 7, 1843, i" New York, to Cordelia A. Jenkins. 
He had an only son, Henry, who died in 1879. 

Samuel Bush was living in 1880 at Canandaigua, New York. He 
was of a low stature, dark complexion and of medium size. 

James Keenan. 

was born near Killala, County Down, in the Province of Ulster, Ireland, 
December 30, 1800. He was the youngest of fourteen children, but four 
of whom survived to maturity. His father was William Keenin, and his 
mother Miss Deborah Gaugh. His ancestors were originally from 
Scotland. His parents were well educated, and strict members 
of the Presbyterian Church. His father died when he was but 
eighteen years old; and with his mother, his brother William, 
and one sister, he took passage on a sailing vessel to this country in 
1819. The ship was bound for New York, but it was chased by Al- 
gerian pirates, and driven out of its course. After landing in this coun- 
try, they went to Pittsburg. 

Our subject received a good education. He read medicine; but on 
account of his health and the advice of physicians, never practiced. He 
then took up the legal profession ; and after being admitted to the bar, 
located in Adams County for the practice of the profession. In 1832 he 
married Miss Lucasta H Cole, a daughter of James M. Cole, who was 
then the sheriff of Adams County. His wife died June 29, 1834, and is 
buried in the CoUings Cemetery at West Union. In 1835 he was elected 
prosecuting attorney of Adams County, and served until 1837 ; when he 
resigned and moved to Pike County. He removed from Piketon in the 
same year, and went to Tennessee. He located at Camden, and prac- 
ticed law there and at Paris. 

In 1844 he removed to Mississippi and was admitted to the bar there. 
On June 3, 1840, he was remarried to Mrs. Lucynthia W. Rucker Coun- 
suUe, of Ripley, Mississippi. Of this marriage there were two daughters, 
Mrs. Linnie A. Robertson and Susan Deborah, and one son, William 
James. Soon after his marriage, he devoted himself to farming. 

He was a natural born orator, and possessed much ability as a law- 
\er. He was frequently called upon to act as a special judge. He was 
a magistrate of his neighborhood for years. He died the eighteenth of 
October, 1873, ^"^ Js buried in Rucker Cemetery, near Ripley, Mississ- 
ippi, and his wife died the first of September, 1875. His daughter 
Linnie married Charles Alexander Robertson, son of Col. C. S. Robert- 
son, a prominent lawyer of New Albany, Mississippi. His daughter 
Susan Deborah is unmarried, as well as his son William James. They 
reside in the old homestead. In his religious belief, he was a Univer- 
salist ; but not a church member. In his political views, he was a Demo- 
crat. He was of a kind disposition, gentle and affectionate to those 
about him, and charitable to all. 



204 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

Joseph MeCormielK, 

the son of Adam McCormick and Margaret Ellison, his wife, was born 
in 1841 in Cincinnati. He was an only child. As a child, he lived a part 
of the time in Cincinnati and a part of the time in West Union. He 
is said to have attended college at Marietta. In 183 1 and 1832, he was 
at Pine Grove Furnace, ostensibly as a store-keeper. He studied law 
soon after this under Nelson Barrere and was admitted to the bar in 
about 1835. Directly after his admission to the bar, he located in Ports- 
mouth, where he remained for only a few months. He then went to 
Cincinnati and remained there most of the time until 1838 when he be- 
came prosecuting attorney of Adams County. In 1843 he was again 
prosecuting attorney of Adams County, first by appointment and after- 
wards by election, until 1845 » O^ May 20, 1840, he was married to 
Elizabeth Smith, sister of Judge John M. Smith, of West Union. They 
had three children, two sons and a daughter, bom in Adams County, 
but only one survived to maturity, Adam Ellison, born January 31, 1843. 
He was a fine looking man, of magnificent physique, an Apollo 
Belvidere, but the bane of his life was the drink habit. His father died 
in July, 1849, of the Asiatic cholera and left a large estate, which was dis- 
posed of by will. He gave a life estate in it to his son, Joseph, with the 
remainder over to his grandchildren, Adam and Mary, the latter of 
whom died at the age of ten years. He made Judge George Collings 
trustee of his estate and directed him that in case his son should reform 
his present unfortunate habit as to drinking, he was to turn the whole 
estate over to him. That event, however, never occurred and the estate 
was held by the trustee until his death, when it was turned over to his 
son, Adam. He was elected to the Constitutional Convention in 1850 
from Adams Countv. where he serv^ed with much distinction. On Mav 
5, 1 85 1, he was appointed, by Governor Wood, attorney general for the 
state of Ohio in place of Henrv Stansberry, whose term had expired. 
He served about seven months, until George E. Pugh, the first attorney 
general under the new constitution was elected and qualified. At the 
time of Mr. McCormick's appointment, the salary of the office was $750. 
Henry Stansberry was the first attorney general appointed in 1846, and 
Mr. ilcCormick was the second. 

In about 1857. he left Adams County and went to the state of Cali- 
foniia, where he remained until his death in 1879. His wife and son 
continued to reside in Manchester from 1857 until 1872 when she died. 

Joseph Allen Wilson 

>vas born September 16. 18 16. in Logan County, Ohio. His father, John 
^^'ilson. was born December 17, 1786, in Kentucky, and died October 5, 
1824. in Locran County. His wife, Margaret Darlinton, was born in 
\\'inchester. \'irginia. She was married to John Wilson in Adams 
County. August 6, 1810, by Rev. William Williamson. She survived 
until ^larch 8. i860. Her fatlicr was boni March 24, 1754, and died 
May 20. 181 1, at Newark. Ohio. Her mother was born April 10, 1700, 
and died December 14, 1832. John Wilson, grandfather of our subject, 
moved to Maysviile, Kentucky, about 1781, and bought land on the 
Kentucky side o\ the river tor tnelve or fifteen miles. This land is all 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 206 

divided up, and a part of it opposite Manchester is known as Wilson's 
bottoms. 

The father of our subject had fifteen children, all of whom lived to 
maturity, married and had families. Our subject went to reside with 
his uncle. General Joseph Darlinton. in Adams County in 1823. He 
was brought up in the Presbyterian church and had such education as 
the local schools afforded. At the age of sixteen, in 1832, he became 
an assistant to his uncle in the clerk's office of the court of common 
pleas and Supreme Court. In 1837, when he had attained his majority, 
he started out for himself, with a certificate from J. Winston Price, 
presiding judge of the common pleas that he was of correct and most 
unexceptionable moral character and habits. Gen. Darlinton also gave 
him a certificate that he was perfectly honest and of strict integrity; 
that he was familiar with the duties of the clerk's office, that he had had 
some experience in retailing goods from behind the counter and in 
keeping merchant's books. Between 1837 and 1840, he was a clerk in 
the Ohio Legislature at its annual sessions. In September, 1838, he was 
employed in the county clerk office at Greeup County, Kentucky. 
In November, 1838, he obtained a certificate from Peter Hitchcock, 
Frederick Grimke, Ebenezer Lane, Supreme Judges, that he was well 
qualified to discharge the duties of clerk of the court of common pleas 
of Acams County, or any other court of equal dignity in the State. In 
November, 1840, he obtained employment in the office of Daniel Gano, 
clerk of the courts of Hamilton County, as an assistant for four years 
at $380 per year. He was married to Harriet LaflFerty, sister of Joseph 
West Lafferty, of West Union, April 14, 1839, by Rev. Dyer Burgess. 
He formed a great friendship with Nelson Barrere, a young lawyer who 
had located in West Union in 1834 and several of Barrere's letters to him 
are in existence. To Barrere, he disclosed his inmost soul as to a father 
confessor and Barrere held the trust most sacredly. He seems also to 
have had the friendship of Samuel Brush, an eminent lawyer of that time, 
who practiced in Adams County. In 1846, he was an applicant for the 
clerkship of the Adams Court of Common Pleas, when Gen. Darlinton 
resigned the office. He was recommended by George Collings, Nelson 
Barrere, William M. Meek, Chambers Baird, John A. Smith, James H. 
Thompson and Hanson L. Penn, but Joseph Randolph Cockerill was 
appointed. However, on September 18, 1846, he entered into a written 
contract with Joseph R. Cockerill, the clerk, to work in the office at $30 
per month until the next spring, and in that period, to be deputy clerk, 
in April, 1848, he was admitted to the bar at a term of the Supreme 
Court held in Adams County, but it is not now known that he ever 
practiced. He always had a delicate constitution and died of pulmonary 
consumption December 16, 1848. His wife died August 12, 1850. 
They had two children, a daughter, who died in infancy, and a son, John 
O., who has a sketch herein. 

DaTld B. Graham 

was born in Washington, Pennsylvania, February 7, 1826, the son of the 
Rev. John Graham, D. D., whose sketch appears elsewhere in this book, 
and of Sarah Bonner, his wife. He resided in W^ashington, Pa., until the 
age of four years when bis father moved to Greenfield, Highland, County, 



206 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

Ohio. He resided at Greenfield and Chillicothe till 1840, when he went 
to West Union, Ohio. In 1845, ^^ attended Washington College at 
Washington, Pennsylvania, and was a student there until the summer of 
1848. At that time, he begfan the study of law at West Union, Ohio, 
under the late Thomas McCauslen, and completed his studies in 1850, 
when he was admitted to the bar. He resided at West Union and prac- 
ticed law there from 1850 until 1853. when he removed to Xenia, Ohio, 
and formed a partnership with Mr. Beatty Stewart. 

On the twelfth of February, 1857, he was married to Miss Cornelia 
McCroskey. Of this marriage, there were three daughters, all now re- 
siding in Cincinnati, Ohio. Miss Henrietta, the eldest, is a fine musician; 
Mrs. Minnie Redd is a widow with a grown daughter, and the youngest 
is the wife of Dr. Landis, of the Brittany Building. 

David Graham removed to Delphi. Ind., in September, 1859, and 
remained there till 1872. when he located in Logansport, where he spent 
the remainder of his life. He died there in 1887. His wife, a lovely and 
lovable woman, survived him but a short time, and side by side their 
ashes repose in the beautiful cemetery at Logansport. 

David B. Graham resided in West Union from his fourteenth year 
until his twenty-seventh year, and as a youth and yoimg man. he was the 
soul and life of the society of the young people in West Union, and in his 
yoimg manhood, they had more social pleasures than any generation 
since. He was genial, companionable and full of humor and fun. He 
was fond of the society of young people and they were all fond of his 
companionship. He was kind, loving and jolly, and always looking out 
to do a kindness or a friendly favor, and among his accomplishments, 
he was a fine musician. In his mature life, his genial spirit never forsook 
him and he was very popular. He was a cholera sufferer in 1849 and 
went through the scourofe in 1851. He was of strong religious feelings 
and was a member of his father's church in West Union. At Delphi, 
Indiana, he connected with the Presbyterian Church and at Logansport, 
he was connected with the Methodist Episcopal, and so remained until 
his death. In politics, he was first a Whig and afterwards a Republican. 
He will be remembered as a man with a great and generous soul, with a 
heart for all humanity and a sympathy for all who knew him, which 
made them love him in return. 

Ed^rard Patton ETani, 

Kdward Patton Evans was born May 31, 1814, on Eagle Creek. 
JefTorson Township, in Brown County, Ohio. He was the eldest son of 
William Evans and his wife, Mary Patton. daughter of John Patton. 
of Rockbridge County, Virginia. His mother was born in Rockbridge 
County, \'irginia. in 1781). and was married to Charles Kirkpatrick in 
Virginia in 1806. She and her husband came to Ohio in that year, and 
he bought the farm on Eagle Creek on which our subject was bom. In 
t8t8 Kirkpatrick obtained his (]ec(\ to the farm of one hundred and 
thirty-eight acres in l^hillip Slaughter's Survey Xo. — , of i.ooo acres, 
and ]Kiid $600. The i\<^ci\ was executed in 1812 before John W. Camp- 
bell, justice of the peace, at West I'nion. Ohio, and afterwards U. S. 
Tudi^^e for (^hio, and was witnessed bv him and his wife, Eleanor Camp- 
bell. 




EDWARD TATTON- EVANS 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 207 

The same year Charles Kirkpatrick went out in Captain Abraham 
Shepherd's company, and on his way returning, was shot and wounded 
by Indians, and died of his wounds at Chillicothe, Ohio, and was bur- 
ied there. William Evans was his friend, and had to break the news to 
his widow. Next year, August 13, 1813, he married her, and our sub- 
ject was their first child. He had nine brothers and sisters, and on 
March 22, 1830, his mother died at he early age of 41. 

When our subject was bom, it was customary to name the first boy 
for his two grandfathers, so he got Edward on account of his grand- 
father Evans, and Patton, for his grandfather, John Patton. As his 
father and mother had four other sons, they might have saved the name 
of one grandfather for one of them. His grandfather, Edward Evans, 
was bom in Cumberland County, Pa., in 1760, and was a member of 
Col. Samuel Dawson's company, nth Pennsylvania Regiment, Col. 
Richard Humpton, in the Revolutionary War, and was in the battles 
of Germantown, Brandywine, and Monmouth, and spent the winter of 
1777 at Valley Forge. His great-grandfather, Hugh Evans, was also 
in the Revolutionary War. and before that had been a school teacher 
in Chester County, Pennsylvania, and had had Mad Anthony Wayne 
for a pupil, when the latter was only twelve years old. He was a very 
unruly pupil and always at pranks. His four times great-grandfather, 
Hugh Evans, came over with William Penn in 1682, and the family 
were Quakers until the Revolution. 

Edward Patton Evans worked on his father's farm and went to 
school of winters until his eighteenth year. He went to school at Rip- 
ley for awhile, and afterwards at Decatur. He became a school teacher 
and law student, and May 20, 1839, he was married to Amanda J. King, 
at Georgetown, Ohio. Subsequent, to his marriage, he carried on a 
general store at Hamersville, Ohio, and afterwards removed to Sardina, 
and carried on a cooperage business there. In 1842 his eldest son was 
born, and in 1844 he was admitted to the bar. He removed to West 
Union, Adams County, Ohio, in April, 1847, ^"^ continued to reside 
there until his death. He was engaged in the active practice of the law 
from his location in West Union in April, 1847, ^"^il 1877, when he re- 
tired on account of failing health. He was a Whig until that party dis- 
solved. When the Republicati party was organized he identified him- 
self with that, and was an enthusiastic Republican all his life. But at 
all times he was an anti-slavery advocate. He was a very successful 
lawyer, and made more money at the practice of his profession than any 
lawyer who has ever been at the bar in Adams County. When he was 
at his best, physically and mentally, he was on one side or the other 
of every case of importance. When he brought a suit, he never failed 
to gain it, unless he had been deceived by his client. The fact was, he 
would not bring a suit unless he believed his client had the chance to 
win largely in his favor. Once a farmer called on him to bring a suit 
in ejectment. Mr. Evans heard his statement and informed him that if 
he brought the suit he would lose it, and declined to bring it for him. 
This made the farmer very angry, and he went away in a great passion. 
He found a lawyer to bring his suit, and Mr. Evans was employed by 
the defendant, and won the case. He was very positive in his judgment 
about matters of law, but his judgment in such matters was almost in- 



208 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

variably correct. He was an excellent trial lawyer, and commanded the 
confidence of the entire community. He never sought office, but in 
1856 was presidential elector on the Fremont ticket, and, as such, can- 
vassed his entire congressional district with Caleb R. Smith, R. W. 
Clarke, and R. M. Corwine. From 1856 until after the war, he usually 
attended all the State conventions of his party. In i860 he took part 
in the canvass for the election of President Lincoln, and during the war 
was chairman of the military committee of Adams County, which was 
charged with raising all the troops required in the county. As such, 
he did a great work in aiding the prosecution of the war. He also did a 
great work in looking after the families of the soldiers. In the fall of 
1864 he went out with the 6th Independent Infantry to guard rebel 
prisoners at Johnson's Island. In 1862 he became a member of the 
banking house of G. B. Grimes & Company, and continued in that busi- 
ness until 1878. During and directly after the war for a time, he owned 
and was concerned in operating the flour mill at Steam Furnace. In 
the seventies he and three others for a time conducted a woolen mill 
at West Union, but, it proving unprofitable, the business was closed 
down. Up till 1877 he had apparently had an iron constitution, had 
never been sick, but in that year his health beg^n to fail, and continued 
to grow worse until he gave up all business. He survived until April 
i7» 1883, when death ended his sufferings. He was an honest man, 
punctual about all his obligations. He was positive in his convictions 
on every subject. He was devoted to the interests of the community 
in which he lived, and in the county seat contest spent his money, time, 
and labor freely for West Union. He was energetic and enthusiastic 
in eyerything he undertook. He was always in favor of public im- 
provements, and the West Union school house and new court house in 
West Union were largely due to his efforts. 

Major Chamber! Baird. 

Chambers Baird was born July 25, 181 1, at Sandy Springs, Adams 
County. Ohio, and died at Ripley, Brown County, Ohio, March 20, 1887, 
^^^^ 75 years, 7 months, and 25 days. He was the son of Judge 
Moses Baird. an Ohio pioneer, who came from Washington County, 
Pennsylvania, and settled at Sandy Springs in 1790, and who has a 
sketch herein. 

Chambers Baird was reared on the home farm on the banks of the 
Ohio River opposite Vanceburg, Kentucky, where he remained with his 
parents until the age of nineteen, when he entered Ripley College in 
1830. lie entered Jefferson College, Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania, in 
1832, in company with his cousin, Stephen R. Riggs, afterward noted 
as a minister and missionary among the Dakota Indians. He was 
graduated with him in the class of 1834 with second honcM^, having dis- 
tinguished himself in Greek, Laitin, English composition, and as a 
speaker. 

He returned to Ripley after his graduation and began the study of 
law with Hon. Archibald Leggett and Col. Francis Taylor, formerly of 
Kentucky. He was admitted to the bar in November, 1836, and he 
was a regular practitioner in the courts of Adams County from 1837 
during the whole time he was in the practice of the law. He was mar- 



THB COURTS JNDER THE CONSTITUTION 209 

ried in 1837 to Miss Mary Ann Campbell, of Ripley. She died in 1844, 
childless. He was ag^in married May 6, 1845, ^o Miss Judith Anne 
Le&gett, only daurfiter of Mr. A. Leggett, who had married two 
daughters of Col. Taylor. Mrs. Baird is still living in Ripley (1899). 
To them were bom five children, three daughters and two sons, of 
wliom three died in infancy. The surviving children are Florence C, 
now Mrs. John W. Campbell, of Ironton, Ohio, and Chambers, Jr., the 
youngest, an attorney of Ripley. 

Mr. Baird's early years of manhood were spent in the active work 
of his profession. He was a close student and a hard worker. His great 
ability, perfect integrity, and high character secured for him recogni- 
tion in his profession and in the county, and he became a prominent and 
influential figure at the bar to the end of his long life. He was in all 
the activities of life at home, and served several terms as mayor of Rip- 
ley, and was also repeatedly a member of various elective and ap- 
pointive local boards, in which positions he was an efficient and accept- 
able officer. 

Being a man of strong convictions and great industry, Mr. Baird 
early took an active part in political life. He was originally a Whig, 
a follower of Henry Clay, and championed the cause of the party in the 
great campaign of 1840 and many others following. As a strong anti- 
slavery man, he was one of the organizers of the new and great Re- 
publican party, to which he constantly adhered to the end of his Hfe. 
In 1855 he was elected State Senator from Brown and Clermont coun- 
ties, and served with honor and distinction during the sessions of 1856 
and 1857. In 1856 he was a delegate to the first National Republican 
convention, held at Philadelphia, and assisted in the nomination of Fre- 
mont for President. During the troublous and exciting years preced- 
ing the war, some of the l)est work of his political life was given to the 
cause of free speech, free men, and a free press. Here, as usual, his 
courage, ability, and energy placed him in the front rank and won for 
him the distinction which he ever after retained. He was only pre- 
vented from attaining the highest political honors by his modesty and 
lack of ambition. He rose to everv occasion and contest, but the crisis 
past, he returned to his profession, and left the gathering of public 
laurels to others. 

In the campaign of i860 he took a prominent part in the election of 
Lincoln, and at the outbreak of the Civil War, which he always be- 
lieved would and must come as the only settlement of the great question 
of slavery, he was one of the first and foremost to speak for the Union, 
to the maintainance of which he gave his highest and untiring energies. 
His close personal and political relations with Senator Sherman, Secre- 
tary Chase, Governor Dennison, and other statesmen, gave him great 
prominence in state affairs. His age, fifty years, prevented him from 
entering active military service, but he was at once appointed Provost 
Marshal by the Governor, and was intrusted with the responsible duty 
of organizing a defense of the Ohio border against the inroads of disloyal 
Kentuckians and raiders from the Confederate Armv. This confidence 
of the War Governor was not misplaced. With his accustomed energy, 
he set about organizing minute men and military companies until the 
14a 



210 niSTORY OP ADAMS CX>UNTY 

martial reputation of the people of Ripley and vicinity, already secured 
by the many enlisted men in the active volunteer service, made them 
well known as being thoroughly prepared to repulse any attack that 
might be contemplated. Later in the war he desired more active ser- 
vice, and having been offered the appointment of paymaster in the U. S. 
Army, he accepted it. He was first assigned to the Army of the Cum- 
berland, with headquarters at Louisville, Ky. But he was often with 
the army in the field, and was present at several battles, having wit- 
nessed the famous "battle above the clouds" at Lookout Mountain, and 
other engagements. Later on he was ordered to Washington, and 
there remained on duty among the eastern armies until the close of the 
war. He was living in Washington at the time of the assassination of 
President Lincoln. At the close of the war he was sent to Annapolis 
to pay the Union troops returned from Southern prisons, where he 
witnessed many pitiful scenes. On the first day of July, 1866, after a 
service of three hard years, he was at last, at his own request, honorably 
mustered out of the U. S. service, after handling many millions of 
money without the loss of one cent and without a blemish or spot upon 
his integrity. 

Leaving the army, Major Baird returned to Ripley, to his home 
and family, and resumed the practice of his profession. In this work 
he continued for a number of years, until the cares of it became a bur- 
den, when he relinquished a lucrative practice and occupied himself only 
with his private business and affairs, retiring finally with abundant hon- 
ors and a competence. During the last decade of his life, however, he 
continued his usual activities and expanded his interests. For many 
years he was engaged in tht banking business as director of the First 
National Bank of Ripley, Ohio, and later as president of the Farmers' 
National Bank, and of its successor, the Citizens' National Bank. He 
was president of the Ripley Gas Company from its organization in i860 
until his death. He was an active member of the Ripley Fair Com- 
pany, the Ripley Saw Mill and Lumber Company, of several turnpike 
companies, and also an investor in other industries and enterprises at 
home and abroad, always desiring to promote the welfare and pros- 
perity of his town and its people. His handsome home w^as the seat of 
a continuous and generous hospitality, and here he entertained many 
of the distinguished men of the coimtry. He possessed two of the 
largest libraries of law books and miscellaneous books in southern 
Ohio, and wrote many addresses and articles on subjects of general 
interest. He also maintained a wide correspondence with friends and 
public men, and obtained many tokens of their esteem and confidence. 

In his active political life, which was continued for a number of 
years after the war,he was a regular attendant of state and otherconven- 
tions of the Republican party, and had a wide acquaintance with public 
men and politicians in the state. He was famous as a debater, and no 
antagonist could easily annoy or ever discomfit him, for his quick, full 
mind was always ready to reply with facts, arguments, stories and witti- 
cisms. He usually had the best of every discussion, because from his 
nature and conscience, he always took the best side of the question. 
Thus he was in constant demand as a speaker, and during his long, 
active life, made many thousands of addresses of all kinds, professional 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 21£ 

and political, aiid on temperance and religious subjects. He was 
never an office seeker, nor often a place holder. He declined many 
nominations and appointments, which he felt would take him away from 
his law practice and family life. 

He was long and closely identified with the Presbyterian Church 
of Ripley, which he truly loved and faithfully attended for more than 
half a century. For more than forty years he was a trustee, and chair- 
man of the board for many years. He also served several terms as 
elder in his later years, and always took a deep interest and an active 
part in the religious services. He was earnest and effective in all 
church work and charities, and contributed largely of his time and 
means to their support and furtherance. He was long connected with 
the Sunday School in various capacities, and for some years was teacher 
of a large Bible class. He served repeatedly as a delegate from the 
church to the meetings of the Pesbytery and Synod, and was once a del- 
egate from the Presbytery of Portsmouth to the General Assembly. 

Major Baird was of medium height, fine, regular features, a hand- 
some man, possessing a sound mind in a sound body. From his mid- 
dle life, he wore a full brown beard, later tinged with gray. His dispo- 
sition was sunny and cheerful, and his manners were kindly and courte- 
ous. He was friendly to every one, and had a great fondness for little 
children, with whom he was a fast favorite. He was fond of men and 
company, of books and of social pleasures, — the life of every assembly 
with his vivacity, humor, and stories. His temper was easy and kindly. 
In affairs of duty and honor, his courage was unaffected by opposition 
or self-interest. He always saw the right clearly and instantly, and 
took his stand upon it without any fear or wavering. He was gener- 
ous to the poor and helpful to the deserving, always ready to assist per- 
sons in distress and trouble. For years he maintained many private 
charities and dependents, of which the world knew little or nothing. 
His personal and professional life was clear, just, and consistent, and he 
lived an earnest, devoted Christian gentleman. He lived long and 
worked hard, rising from simple beginnings to the highest eminence 
in his profession and in the consideration of his conimuniaty. In his 
profession of the law, he attained the highest reputation ; among men 
of business and affairs, he was esteemed as a banker and financier; in 
politics, he was the trusted Republican leader of his county, and pos- 
sessed the unlimited confidence of the leaders of his party in the State ; 
in the work and counsels of the Presbyterian Church, he was promi- 
nent and useful as a trustee and an elder ; in slavery and temperance agi- 
tation and in other moral reforms, he was ever active and eloquent ; and 
in the general routine of life, he was helpful, sympathetic and generous, 
a leader in all good works and deeds. He lived a long, full life, and the 
world and humanity are the better for his efforts and example. 

**Oiily the actions of the just 
Smell sweet and blossom in the dust." 

^irmiam M. Meek, 

son of Rev. John and Anna Meek, was born November 22, 1818, in 
Wr?t Union, where he resided with his parents until 1836, when they re- 
moved to Winchester. That same year he entered school at Hillsboro, 



212 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

and completed the Hillsboro schools. He then accepted a position 
with the dry goods firm of Trimble & Barry, where he remained until 
1838, when he returned to West Union, accepting a like position with 
Edward Moore. In 1841 he began the study of law. He was the pupil of 
the Hon. Nelson Barrere. In May, 1844, in the Supreme Court of 
Hillsboro, he was admitted to practice. The Hon. Thomas L. Hamer, 
of Brown County, was one of the committee who examined him and 
recommended his admission. He opened up a law office in West Union 
and remained there for more than a year. In August, 1845, he was 
married to Miss Hester DeBruin, of Winchester, daughter of H. I. 
DeBruin, a well-known merchant. In October, 1845, ^^ formed a 
partnership with Hon. Nelson Barrere, in the practice of law at West 
Union, and this continued until March, 1850, when he rempved to Win- 
chester and entered into merchandising as a partner with the late I. H. 
DeBruin in Winchester. Pie continued the practice of law at the same 
time he was engaged in merchandising business, which he continued 
until 1854, when he removed to Hillsboro, Ohio, where he resumed 
practice. He was elected probate judge of Highland County first in 
1863, re-elected in 1866, and again in 1869. In 1872 he resumed the 
practice of law, and continued until his health broke down. In politics 
he was a Republican. He was a member of and devotedly attached to 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which he was reared, and he was 
twice a lay delegate to the geiteral conference of that church, first at 
Baltimore in 1876, and again in 1880 at Cincinnati. He was made a 
Master Mason in 1849 i^ West Union. He was a Royal Arch Mason, 
Hillsboro Chapter, in 1850, and was made a Knight Templar in the 
Chillicothe Commandery in 1851. He departed this life April 29, 1893. 

John MitoheU Smitli. 

Among those wlio were continuous residents of the village of 
West Union for the greater number of years was Judge John Mitchell 
Smith, who was born in Columbus, Ohio, June 29, 1819. He was of 
Scotch-Irish extraction, his ancestors having emigrated from Argyl- 
shire, Scotland, to the north of Ireland, and thence to the New Hamp- 
shire Colony, America, in 1719. His grandfather, John Smith, was a 
non-commissioned officer in the Revolutionary War, and was wounded 
in the service of his countrv. 

His father, Judge David Campbell Smith, a graduate of Dartmouth 
College in the class of 1813, came to Ohio from Francestown, New 
Hampshire, where he was born October 2, 1785, and settled in Frank- 
lintown, now a part of the city of Columbus, in the year 181 5. He was 
the first lawyer to locate permanently in Columbus, and was one of the 
first associate judges of the common pleas court for Franklin County, 
having been elected as **David Smith'* in 181 7. Almost invariably after- 
wards, he dropped his middle name. He was a member of the House 
in the Twenty-first General Assembly and also in the Twenty-fifth Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State. From 1816 to 1836 he was editor and pro- 
prietor of the Ohio Monitor (afterwards in the Ohio Statesmen)^ the 
third newspaper established in the county. He was State Printer in 
1820 and again in 1822. From 1836 to 1845 ^^^ was chief clerk in the 
*'Dead Letter" office in the Postoffice Department. On August 17, 



THE CJOURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 213 

1814, David Smith was married to Miss Rhoda S. Mitchell, of Haver- 
hill, Mass., and John M. was their third child. His mother died when 
he was only six weeks old, and on June 5, 1820, his father again married 
— a sister of the fist wife. Miss Harriet Mitchell (born in Haverhill), 
December 23, 1802. By this latter marriage, there were also three 
childen. Mrs. Harriet Smith died of cholera, August 11, 1833. Judge 
David Smith remained a citizen of Columbus until 1836, when he went 
to Manchester, Adams County, Ohio, to reside with his daughter, Mrs. 
Elizabeth McCormick. He died at her home February 4, 1865. His 
remains, as also those of his wife, repose in Greenlawn Cemetery, at 
Columbus. 

Until seventeen years of age, John Mitchell Smith continued to live 
with his father in Columbus, receiving such education as the public 
schools and the severe training of his father's printing office afforded. 
He then took three years' course of study in Blendon College. In the 
spring of 1840 he removed to West Union. Here he studied law for 
two years in the office of Jos/bph McCormick — afterwards attorney 
general of the State, and was licensed to practice law by the Ohio Su- 
preme Court in 1843. In the meanwhile he had served as deputy 
sheriff under Samuel Foster, and from 1841 to 1846 was recorder of 
Adams County. In 1850, greatly to his surprise and against his wishes, 
he was nominated and elected representative of Adams and Pike 
Counties in the Fifty-ninth General Assembly, serving but one term. 
In 1846 he was clerk of the courts for a short time to succeed General 
Darlinton, whose term had expired. In December, 1846, he purchased 
and for the next twelve years, successfully and ably edited and published 
the Adams County Democrat Though a vigorous organ of the Demo- 
cratic party, the paper was popular with all patrons, and is yet fre- 
quently mentioned as one of the ablest journals ever published in the 
countv. 

In 1 85 1, upon the adoption of the present constitution of the State, 
he was elected probate judge. In 1854, the year of the famous "Know- 
Nothing" campaign, Judge Smith was defeated, along with the remain- 
der of the Democratic ticket, as a candidate for re-election. In 1856 
he was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention at Cincin- 
nati, and was a firm supporter of Lewis Cass, from first to last, as 
against James Buchanan and Stephen A. Douf2:las. In 1857 ^^ was 
again nominated and elected probate judge, and, in i860, was for the 
fourth time nominated and the third time elected to that office. Owing 
to the declination of Judge Henry Oursler, in 1865, he continued to per- 
form the duties of the position for a year longer — serving practically 
for ten vears. 

In 1866 he was appointed United States deputy internal revenue 
collector for Adams County, and served for a number of months under 
Gen. Benjamin F. Coates, of Portsmouth, the collector for the district. 
Afterwards, he served as deputy sheriff under Messrs. John Taylor, 
John K. Pollard. James M. Long, and Grecnleaf N. McManis, and at 
the time of his death was deputy county clerk under Wm. R. Mahaffey. 

As school director, he actively assisted in establishing the union 
school in West Union, shortly before the Civil War, and for twenty 
years prior to his death he was almost constantly clerk of the incor- 



214 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

porated village of West Union (generally by unanimous election), and 
clerk of the school board of the special district, ever taking pride in 
every movement for the advancement and progress of the people, and 
especially of the youth of the village. In 1880 he was United States 
census enumerator for Tiffin Township, by appointment of Henry A. 
Towne, of Portsmouth. For years he was county school examiner, 
and for a long time was the secretary of the old agricultural society of 
the county. From the time of the adoption of the Australian ballot 
system in Ohio, until his death, he was president of the county board of 
elections, and his last official act was in connection with that office. 

On the breaking out of the Rebellion, Judge Smith was what was 
known as a **War Democrat," but, during or about the close of the 
war, he became a Republican, and was as ardent in support of that party 
as he was in earlier years of the Democratic party. However, he 
was always fair and conservative in his political opinions, and inde- 
pendent and conscientious in support of party candidates. 

On November 30, 1842, John M. Smith was married to Miss Ma- 
tilda A. Patterson, third child and oldest daughter of John and Mary 
Finley Patterson, who were among the early settlers of Adams County. 
The acquaintance of the families began in Columbus, where their 
fathers served together in the Legislature. They were married in the 
house on Main street (built by Mr. Patterson), in which they lived from 
1848 to 1892, and in which eight of their eleven children were born. 
Two of their children (John David and Thomas Edwin) died in infancy ; 
Elizabeth, married to Rev. WilHam Coleman on May 18, 1864, died 
April 26. 1873. at Pleasant Hill, Mo. ; Joseph P. died at Miami, Florida, 
February 5. 1898. Those surviving (in the spring of 1899) ^^ Mary 
Celia (Mrs. Chandler J. Moulton), Lucasville, O. ; Virginia Gill (widow 
of Luther Thompson), West Union; Clarence Mitchell, Columbus: 
Clifton Campbell, Columbus ; Frederick Lewis, Cincinnati ; Herbert 
Clark, Hyattsville, Md; Sarah Lodwick (Mrs. Charles E. Frame), 
West Union. 

John M. Smith was never a church member, but he respected the 
beliefs of others, and encourgagcd his children to imitate their mother's 
example as a humble follower of the Lord Jesus Christ. His religious 
convictions were in accord with those entertained by those persons 
who are affiliated with the Universalist Church of the present day. 
In his last days he said to his wife: '*I have always considered religion 
a matter of personal belief and concern. T have tried to lead an honor- 
able and useful life, and am content to leave mv future in the hands 
of a merciful God." He died on November 17, 1892, after a sickness 
of about a month. 

Jn the "inner circle" — the home life, the wife and children of John 
M. Smith knew him as an affectionate husband and loving father; 
jj^enerous and thoughtful, tender and compassionate, indulgent and 
self-sacrificing. What some others saw in his life is expressed in 
their own language, as follows : — Judge Henry Collings said in part — 

*'The modesty of his disposition and the great antipathy to any- 
thing like display, probably prevented his taking the rank he other- 
wise might have done at the bar, and certainly obscured his ability, 
to an extent, among the common people. But lawyers and courts 
knew and often attested that we had no profoimder legal mind, no 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 216 

jnan of sounder judgment, no one whose opinion of the law was more 
deferred to than Judge Smith." 

Judge Frank Davis, of Batavia, said: 

**I learned to respect and honor him as a just, honest, true, in- 
telligent man; one whom, had he desired to actively engage in the 
practice of law, had rare ability and thorough knowledge, and, with 
it all, an intimate insight into the motives of men." 

Col. Jc^n A. Cockerill wrote from New York that "He was 
the first man, outside of my own father, whom I learned to esteem 
and honor ***** Judge Smith was indeed a very able man, and 
I think in a wider field than Adams County afforded, would have 
achieved marked distinction." 

Matilda A. Smith, wife of Judge John M. Smith, was born in the 
house in which she was afterwards married, in which she made her 
home for so many vears, and in which she died. Her birthdav was 
October 4, 1823. Her mother died February 6, 1831, and as the eldest 
daughter, three younger children were left for her to care for. Her 
father married Miss Celia Prather on the ninth of the following No- 
vember. Five children were bom to this union, previous to the death 
of the mother at Columbus, O., February 22, 1840. Never freed from 
the care of her own brothers and sisters, during the illness and after the 
death of her step-mother, the additional care of her half-brothers de- 
volved upon Matilda. She also assisted in caring for the children 
of her second step-mother. (Mary Catherine McCrea,) married to John 
Patterson at Columbus, November 12, 1840, until after her marriage in 
1842. 

These family cares deprived Matilda A. Smith to a great extent 
of the educational facilities of her young days, and early privations 
had their influence on her health. P>ut while frail of body, she was 
strong of mind and energetic will. Her younger brothers and sisters 
looked up to her as a second mother. She had a great, loving, sympa- 
thetic heart. In addition to caring for those mentioned, and for her 
own eleven chHdren, she also took into her family and her affections, 
treating him all his life as one of her own, John M. Chipps, a distant 
relative. 

In the retrospect of the life of our mother, we the children, stand 
amazed at the duties assumed and wonder how it was possible for her 
to accomplish so much. And yet, despite her own cares, she found 
time to minister to the sorrowing and afflicted among her neighbors. 
Her whole life was a continuous round of unselfish usefulness. Her 
highest ambition was the success and happiness of her children; and 
her greatest earthly joy, as she reached the twilight hours of her life's 
journey, was that the members of her family were living in comfortable 
circumstances. After the death of her husband, she resided for a time 
with one of her sons in Columbus, but wanted to return to end her 
days in the old homestead. For more than fifty years, she was a de- 
vout member of the Presbyterian Church at West Union and died on 
August 21, 1895, with the blessed liope of a blissful eternity. Together 
the remains of Judge John M. and \Iatilda A. Smith are reposing in 
the old cemeterv south of West Union. Their children bless God for 
such a father and such a mother. The world is better for their having 
lived in it. 



216 HISTORY OP ADA3IS COUNTY 

Major JokA W. MoFerram 

was born September 15, 1828, in Clermont County, Ohio. He was the 
architect of his own fortune — was dependent upon himself from child- 
hood. He qualified himself to teach school and followed that occupation 
for several years. When a young man he ran a threshing machine in 
times of harvest. He came to West Union in about 1850, and began the 
study of law under the late Edward P. Evans. He maintained himself 
by teaching while a law student. He was admitted to the bar May 2, 
'853, and began practice in West Union. That same fall he was a can- 
didate for the nomination for prosecuting attorney before the Democratic 
primary and defeated J. K. Billings, who had had the office but one term, 
and by all precedents was entitled to his second term. McFerran, how- 
ever, made an active canvass and being very popular secured the nomi- 
nation. Before the people, E. M. DeBniin, now of Columbus, Ohio, was 
his opponent, but McFerran was elected. He was renominated and re- 
elected for a second term as prosecuting attorney. In the fall of 1857, 
he determined to contest with Captain Moses J. Patterson for the place 
of representative to the Legislature. Captain Patterson resided near 
Winchester. He was highly esteemed by every one and had but one 
term in the Legislature. McFerran, however, contested the nomination 
v/ith him and won. McFerran had 679 votes and Patterson, 407. Be- 
fore the people the Hon. George Col lings was the Whig candidate. Mc- 
Ferran had 1626 votes and Collings, 1282. Legislative honors did not 
please McFerran. He said it was well enough to go to Legislature once, 
but a man was a fool to go a second time. He declined a second term 
and Moses J. Patterson succeeded him. McFerran then devoted himself 
to the practice of law and was making a great success when the war 
broke out. He could make pleasing and effective arguments before a 
jury and he carried the old and young farmers of Adams County with 
him. He was of a fiery temper and disposition. Whatever he under- 
took, he did with great enthusiasm. It was just as natural that he 
should be consumed by the war fever as that a duck should take to w^ater. 
When the war broke out, he gave his entire soul to the Union cause, 
lie aided in organizing the 70th O. \^ I., and became its major, October 
2, 1861. He was the idol of the men of his regiment and was willing to 
do anything for them. However, he fell a victim to the southern cli- 
mate and died of a fever at Camp Pickering, near Memphis, Tennessee, 
October 6, 1862. His body was brought to Cairo, Illinois, and after- 
wards to West Union, and reintcrred among the people who admired and 
loved him. 

He was married to Miss Hannah A. Briggs, June 2y, 1858, a most 
estimable woman, and there were two children of the marriage, Minnie, 
the wife of Dr. W. K. Coleman, of West Union; John W.. who died at 
the age of four. 

In the public offices he occupied, he faithfully and capably dis- 
charged their duties. He was public spirited and always ready to aid any 
worthy and good enterprise. In his private deaHngs, he was honest and 
liberal. For his soldiers, he always had kind words and pleasant greet- 
ings. There was nothmg he would not do for them and they knew it 
and felt it. He had the respect and esteem of his fellow officers. He 
was always at his post, always cheerful and imcomplaining and ready 




GEORGR COU-INGS EVANS 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 217 

to die at any time. He showed his bravery on the bloody field of Shiloh, 
at Corinth, Chewalla, Holly Springs and Memphis. 

He was worthy of the cause he fought for and his patriotic career 
will be one which his descendants can look back to with pride and it will 
grow brighter as the years go by. It has been thirty-seven years since 
he gave his life to his country, but to those who knew him and loved him, 
and who survive, it seems but yesterday. 

There were three officers of the Civil War who lost their lives in the 
service whom Adams County will always remember, and they were Major 
McFerran, Samuel E. Clark and Major Philip R. Rothrock. 

Gdorse C Evans. 

George Collings Evans was born February 20, 1858, the son of 
Edward Patton Evans and Amanda Jane Evans, in the family home- 
stead now owned and occupied by John P. Leonard. As a babe, he was 
large, strong and healthy. He walked at the age of nine months. He 
was always a sturdy boy. His father and the Hon. George Collings, of 
Monroe Township, were close friends and the babe was named for the 
latter. George attended the public schools in West Union until his six- 
teenth year when he went to school in Portsmouth, Ohio, residing with 
his elder brother, Nelson W. Evans. In September, 1874, he entered 
the Academv at South Salem, Ross Countv, and remained there one year. 
In September, 1875. he entered Marietta College in the freshman class. 
He remained there until July, 1877. While in college he was a fair stu- 
dent and was very fond of athletic sports and all those amusements dear 
CO college boys. 

In the summer of 1877, he took up the study of the law with his 
father and was admitted to the bar by the district court in Ironton, Ohio, 
April, 1879. He formed a partnership with Luther Thompson, also now 
deceased, under the name of Thompson and Evans and practiced his pro- 
fession at West Union until January, 1881. when he opened an office in 
Columbus, Ohio, and began the practice of law there. From 1877, his 
father's health had been failing and in 1881, it had so far failed that he 
was confined to his home, a helpless invalid. About the first of Decem- 
ber, i88t, George returned to West Union to make it his home during 
the life of his father. On December 27, t88t, he was married to Miss 
Josephine Cluxton and the two took up their home with his parents. 

On September 25, 1882, in the forenoon, he was in as good health, 
apparently, as any one could wish to enjov. He went to his office and 
attended to his business. Conversing with some friends that morning, 
in regrard to the death of a young ladv, it was said to him, "You have 
+he phvsical powers to live to old age." George replied he believed he 
would have a very long life. Tust before noon, he began to write out an 
administrator's deed. He had it half finished and left it on his desk, 
when he closed his office and went to dinner. • He never was at his office 
again. He ate a hearty dinner and rested awhile. Then he complained 
of severe pain. He w-as attacked with hepatic calculi or gall stones. 
From that time imtil his death, he was never free from pain, unless 
under the influence of opiates. Pie continued sufi^ering until it P. M. 
October 2. when peritonitis set in and from that time until he breathed 
his last at 9 A. M. October 3, he was in a mortal agony which opiates 



218 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

could not relieve. It is believed that at this hour, the gall stones rup- 
tured the hepatic duct and let the contents of the gall bladder into the 
cavity of the bowels. However, all this time, he was in his full strength. 
On the morning of October 3, at 6 A. M., a neighbor, David Thomas, 
called and saw that George was dying, though not apparent to others. 
He requested the physician in attendance to notify the family which 
was done and they gathered about him. His aged father was carried 
to his bedside to bid him a last farewell. His mother and his wife were 
beside him. George said, "Father, I had expected to be your comfort 
and stay in your old age, but I am called first." Tlie word spread 
through the village quickly, "George Evans is dying," and his friends 
hurried to bid him farewell. He made his will; he prayed for himself 
and bade his relations and friends all a touching farewell. He left 
messages for his brother in Portsmouth and his sister in school at Ox- 
ford. He left directions as to his wife, expecting soon to be a mother, 
and expressed his willingness and readiness for the inevitable. Fifteen 
minutes before he died, he was on his feet and was conscious almost 
to the last moment. Those who were present say they never saw such 
a death scene and hoped to be spared from a like one. He died at fif- 
teen minutes past 9 A. M. October 3, 1882, and the court house bell 
at once tolled the fact and the number of his years. The community 
was never so shocked by the death of anyone since the cholera epi- 
demic of 1851. His funeral was held October 5th at his father's resi- 
dence. It was a beautiful, ideal, October day and the attendance was 
so numerous that the services were held in the open air. The Masonic 
Order had charge of the ceremonies and the West Union band, at its 
own request, preceded the funeral procession playing dirges. No sadder 
funeral was ever held in West Union than this and none in which more 
profound sympathy was felt and expressed for his family friends. 

The following was said by the Defender in respect to his sudden 
death : 

"He was just entering into the realities of life and beginning to 
assume the responsibilities of manhood. His star of hope shone bright 
ill the firmament of his ambition. The future to him was the fairest 
of visi(»ns, and his life full of the enthusiasm of youth His most earnest 
desires and aspirations seemed to be fast approaching a happy con- 
summation. Young in years, buoyant in spirits, ardent in hope, his 
li^ht was dashed out at the beginning of a splendid and promising 
career. The midnight of the grave drew its sable curtains at a time 
wiien all things seemed fair. To say that his death caused universal 
grief hut illy expresses the universal feeling of sorrow at his sudden 
demise." 

Tile following was the expression of the bar of Adams County, 
on tlie occasion of his death: 

"George C Kvans, a highly esteemed and respected member of 
the bar. having i)een suddenly removed by the casualty of death, his 
late associates, in commemoration of his estimable qualities of head 
and licart aiiil as expressive of their unfeigned sorrow at his sudden 
death, take this action: 

"(icorgc l\ 1\ vails is taken away from us while yet in the vigor 
of liis early nianhooil, being only 24 years of age, having within three 




THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 219 

years been admitted to practice, he had scarcely developed to the pub- 
lic the large ability which his fellows at the bar knew him to possess. 
Notwithstanding his brief career as a practitioner, he gave clear evidence 
of the many qualities which form the able and successful lawyer. 

"He possessed in the prosecution of his business almost untiring 
energy. He was always prompt and persistent in attending to the 
interests committed to his keeping. He manifested much more than 
usual ability as an advocate and had a happy vien of humor, and a 
pleasant faculty of expressing himself, which rendered him a pleasing 
and forcible speaker. His unquestioned integrity rendered him at all 
time a safe representative of the interests of clients and he was an 
agreeable associate and respected and trusted opponent in the practice 
His social qualities render particularly sad his untimely death. He had 
an almost uninterrupted flow of good spirits — always a kindly disposi- 
tion and a general warm heart with a hopeful view of the future. These 
qualities made him a rare addition to any social occasion. Those of 
this bar who have known him as a man and boy during his life, cordially 
bear testimony by this tribute that no loss that could have been visited 
upon us would have been more sadly deplored than the sudden death 
of the brave, warm-hearted genial gentleman, and upright lawyer, 
George C. Evans. Great as our sense of bereavement is, we can only 
appreciate in a small way, the sorrow that has fallen upon his aged 
parents and young wife. We tender them our heartfelt sympathies 
in their great loss. In token of our respect of the deceased, 

''Resolved, That the court be requested to enter upon its journal 
the foregoing action, that the same be published in each of the several 
papers of the county, and a copy furnished the wife^ the parents, brother 
and sister of the deceased." 

The Masonic Fraternity also passed resolutions in respect to the 
awful calamity. His Sunday School class, consisting of ten young 
boys, all of whom are now men, and two of whom have since passed 
beyond, expressed, by written resolutions, their feeling on the occasion 
of the sudden demise. These resolutions were presented at a memorial 
serv^ice held by the Presbyterian Sunday School. They spoke of him 
as their able and beloved teacher, of his genial manners, his earnest 
instruction, of his liberality and of the brave manner in which he sub- 
mitted to the last enemy. 

His office was opened the day after his funeral and his papers 
were found just as he had left them at noon on Monday September 
25. The administrator's deed lay on his desk half finished, just as he 
had left it to go to his dinner. 

His child, born after his death, is now (1900) almost a woman, 
Georgia C. Evans, residing at Winchester, Ohio, with her widowed 
mother. 

When we reflect that in the disease of which George Evans died, 
there is only one fatal case in every hundred, and that almost immed- 
iately after his death, the medical profession be^an the practice of suc- 
cessfully relieving such cases, by surgery, it seems a thousand pities 
that this young man, so full of manly viiij^or, of courage and hope with 
such happy prospects for a long life, and so full of the activities of this 



220 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

life, should be so suddenly called away, but until every one living in 
West Union, who realized this startling event, has passed away, the 
shock caused by his untimely demise will not be forgotten. 

Luther Thompsoi&y 

who in his time was one of the prominent lawyers of the county, was 
bom December lo. 1848, In Oliver Township, the only son and child 
of Archibald and Sarah Ann (McKenzie) Thompson. He was reared 
in the county. His education was in the public schools of the county 
and at the Lebanon Normal School. As a boy, he was serious, con- 
scientious and exemplary. He was strictly truthful and was njever 
known to use a profane or vulgar word. His moral character as boy 
and man was perfect. He was ambitious and studious and always 
honest and conscientious. He began the study of law with the Hon. 
F. D. Bayless, in 1869, and continued it while engaged in teaching 
until April 24, 1873, when he was admitted to the bar and began prac- 
tice at West Union. It has been a custom in West Union to have a 
lawyer, young or old. as justice of the peace, and in 1874, Mr. Thomp- 
son was elected as such and served two terms. 

On January 5, 1876, he was married to Miss Jennie Smith, 
daughter of the Hon. John M. Smith. They had six children, but only 
two survive — Charles L., born October 22, 1877, and Matilda, born 
April I, 1883. 

He was, at one time, a school examiner for the county. He had 
no ambitions for political honors, but an intense ambition to succeed 
as a lawyer. In his profession, he was thorough in all he did. He 
never tired in his legal work. He had a love for his profession and 
delighted in the performance of its duties. He had in his work that 
most essential element of success, enthusiasm. The elements of his 
character held for him the confidence of all who knew him. His at- 
tainments and his conscientious discharge of his professional duties 
gave him the respect of the court and his fellow lawyers, and secured 
him the devotion of his clients. 

From 1879 to i88t, he was in partnership with the late George 
C. Evans, under the firm name of Thompson and Evans. From 1882, 
until his death, he was in partnership with his father-in-law, Hon. 
John M. Smith under the firm name of Thompson & Smith. 

He was onlv thirteen vears at the bar, but in that time he demon- 
stratcd that had he been permitted to live, he would have made a noble 
success in his profession, but consumption had marked him as its own, 
and at thirty-eight years, when the world is brighest and fairest, he 
was called away. For nine years he had been a member of the Pres- 
byterian Church and lived up to his religious profession. Politically, 
he was reared a Democrat and adhered to that party, but never was 
a partisan and had as many friends in the other party as in his own. 
In the testimonial the lawyers gave him, they said he was a good citizen, 
an able lawyer and an honest man. 

What greater tribute could he have earned or could have been 
given him than this? All that is grand or good, all that is valuable is 
character, and Luther Thompson left the memory of one, which his 



THE CX)URTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 221 

widow, his children and his friends will be proud, and which will be a 
beacon light to those who come after. 

One of the editors of this work, Mr. Evans, knew Luther Thomp- 
son well. He respected him for his high personal standard of life, for 
his attainments and his work as a lawyer. He knew from his own lips 
how bitter it was to him to turn his back on the world and face death 
at the early age of thirty-eight, and he knows how bravely and well, 
how like a philosopher and a Christian, he met the inevitable and sub- 
mitted to it. No truer man, no more honorable and noble in his life 
efver lived, and the passing of one so endowed, but illustrates that irony 
of fate which takes those best qualified to live. 

David W. Thomas, 

lawyer and soldier, was born in Loudon County, Virginia, Augiist ii, 
1833, the fourth child in a family of six. His father was Joseph Thomas 
and his mother, Sallie Worthington. They were natives of Loudon 
County, Virginia, whose male ancestors were soldiers in the Revolu- 
tion. His father \v2ls a wagon and carriage maker. He removed to 
Ohio in 1836, locating at Mt. Vernon, Knox County, and remained 
there three years. He then removed to Adams Countv, near Mt. 
Leigh, where he resided until his death in 1870. He was noted for 
his ability as a master mechanic, and esteemed for his sterling integrity 
of character. 

Our subject's earlier years were passed in various employments, 
in the carriage shop and on the farm. His early training was limited 
to the common schools. In his twentieth year, he was so far advanced 
by self-culture, that he became a teacher of the district schools and 
engaged in that profession at Locust Grove, Adams County, where 
he taught two winters, and labored on a farm in the summers. In this 
period he began the study of law. In the winter of i860, he removed 
to West Union and resumed his law studies under Col. Joseph R. Cock- 
erill. In May, 1861, he enlisted in the immortal Co. D. of the 24th 
Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and served with that regiment 
the full period of three years. On the second day of the battle Shiloh, 
he was wounded in the thigh and was incapacitated from service for 
about two months. After the battle of Stone River, he was promoted 
to first lieutenant and subsequently made captain of the company. 

At the expiration of his term of service, he returned to West Union 
and again resumed the study of law under the late E. P. Evans. He 
was admitted to the bar on the first of October, 1864. Most of the 
time during the remainder of his life, he resided at West Union, and ac- 
quired a very extensive practice. In 1867, he was elected prosecuting 
attorney of Adams County, and served until May, 1869, when desiring 
to remove to Georgetown, Ohio, to practice his profession, he re- 
signed that office and was succeeded by Franklin D. Bayless. Our 
subject, however, resided at Georgetown but two years, and then re- 
turned to West Union. He was elected mayor of West Union in 1873, 
and re-elected in 1874, holding the office three years consecutively. 
In his political faith, he was always a Democrat. 

He was married on November 9, 1854, to Miss Elizabeth Fritls, 
a native of Loudon County, Virginia. Their children were : Nellie, 



222 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

married to Charles Q. Lafferty, and died in 1889; William T., David 
Ammen, Joseph J., Alfred Tennyson, Hattie M., and Charles V. 

Our subject died April 13, 189^., at Cincinnati, Ohio. He is buried 
in the Odd Fellows Cemetery at West Union, Ohio. His widow, 
daughter Hattie, and sons who are at home, reside at West Union. 

David Thomas was a man of the most generous impulses. He 
was always ready to do a kind act for an enemy or a friend. His patriot- 
ism was of the unselfish, exalted kind, and it was his pride that he 
had been able to serve his country as a soldier in the Civil War. As 
a lawyer, when in the possession of good health, he was active, indus- 
trious and devoted to the interests of his clients. He possessed more 
than common ability in his profession and was successful, but his last 
years were burdened by infirmities, resulting from his service in the 
army, and he was compelled to relinquish the practice of his profession 
for several years prior to his death. He was of that noble band of 
patriots who offered their services to their country at the very outset 
of the war, to whom the people of Adams County and of all the country 
will be lastingly grateful. In politics he was always identified with 
the Democratic party. He was identified with the Presbyterian Church 
of West Union. 

Franklin D. Bayless 

was born February 2, 1839, on 5rush Creek, at a time when the ther- 
mometer stood fifteen degrees below zero. He was thus early thrown 
upon the cold world, but this fact has never seemed to have had a 
bad influence on his subsequent life. His parents were Elza Bayless 
and Jane W. DeCamp, and from his mother, he received his second 
name. He received his education principally in the West Union 
schools. In 1858 and 1859, ^^ taught school and in i860 and 1861, he 
was a student. In the latter year he was in school, and just prior to 
Major McFerran's departure with the 70th O. V. I., he enrolled him- 
self as a law student under him. 

On July 29, 1862, he enlisted in Company E, 91st O. V. I. He 
was appointed sergeant on the 22d of August, 1862. On July 20, 
1864, he was severely wounded at an engagement at Stephenson's 
Depot ; being shot in both thighs. He was appointed first sergeant. 
December i, 1864, and was mustered out June 24, 1865. When he 
returned from the war. he resumed the studv of law, and was admitted 
to the bar at Portsmouth, Ohio, April 23, 1866. The same fall, he was 
a candidate on the Democratic ticket to represent Adams County in 
the Legislature, but was defeated by Captain W. D. Burbage, now of 
Washington, D. C, by a majority of twenty votes. 

In 1869, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Adams County on 
the Democratic ticket, and was re-elected in 1871. In 1873, ^^ ^'^^ 
again a candidate for the legislature on the Democratic ticket and was 
defeated by Richard Ramsey, Republican. 

In 1881, he was a candidate for common pleas judge in the counties 
of Adams, Brown and Clermont, on the Democratic ticket, but was 
defeated by Col. D. W. C. Loudon, of Brown County, by 41 votes. He 
received the remarkable majority of over 600 votes in his own county, 
but was defeated by his own party votes in the other two counties, 



THE CX)URTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 223 

owing to the personal popularity of Col. Loudon, and the activity of 
the latter's friends. 

He has been twice married, first to Helen M. Young, on Novem- 
ber 22, 1869. She died September 9, 1884. He entered into a second 
marriage with Nora White Young, on October 8, 1885. Mr. Bay- 
less has three daughters, two of his first marriage and one of his sec- 
ond marriage. Politically, he is a Democrat, and in his religious views, 
he is a Presbyterian. He is one of the ablest lawyers who ever prac- 
ticed at the West Union bar. 

George Washington Pettit. 

It is a great' responsibility for a father to name a son for the father 
of his country, but in this case, Mr. Pettit's father assumed it. If a 
boy or man having this prenomen, does not live up to the model set 
by his immortal name, then it is always cast up to him, but in this 
case, our subject has always done the best he could under all circum- 
stances, and has never been reminded that he did not follow the model 
of his patronymic. 

Our subject was bom near Dukinsville, Adams County, April 5, 
1856. His father was Isaac Pettit and his mother's maiden name was 
Sarah Chambers. His father was a native of Greenup County, Ken- 
tucky, and his mother of Washington County, Pennsylvania. His 
father was a farmer and a blacksmith, and young George partially 
learned the latter trade while a boy at home with his father. All the 
education he received from others was in a log school house in Oliver 
Township, known as the "Gulf District," and he had but three months 
school in any one year, but George was ambitious and determined to 
seek learning and did so. He acquired a sufficient knowledge of the 
comon branches and began his career as a county school teacher, April 
30, 1866, at Mt. Tabor, in Jefferson Township. The same year he 
taught at Bentonville, and continued there until 1870. In 1871, he 
began teaching at Rome, and taught there until 1874. 

On May 20, 1874, he was married to Laura A. Adamson, daughter 
of John Adamson, of Bentonville. In 1874 and 1875, ^^^ taught in Con- 
cord, Kentucky. In 1875 and 1876, he taught again at Rome. In 1876 
and 1877, he and his wife both taught at Buena Vista, in Scioto 
County, and in 1877 and 1878, he taught again at Rome. 

In April, 1878, he removed to Chenoa, Illinois, and was there ^v^ 
months, when he returned to Adams County, and that same winter he 
taught at Bentonville. He began the study of law under the Hon. 
F. D. Bayless, of West Union, and continued it while he was teaching. 
He was admitted to the bar in West Union in 1878, and Ijegan prac- 
ticing in April, 1879, at West Union. In October, 1880, he was t-lected 
clerk of the courts of Adams County by a majority of 215 over f^. J 
Fenton, afterward congressman. He was re-elected in 1883 over R. S. 
Kirkpatrick by 420 majority and had 124 more votes than the Demo- 
cratic state ticket. 

He has three children — Horace G., who married Vida Sutterfield, 
daughter of D. R. Sutterfield, Ernest G., aged eighteen, and Helen, 
aged II. He is a member of the board of elections of Adarns County, 



224 HISTORY OP AD^MS COUNTY 

having been appointed .August i, 1890. In his political views, he is 
a Democrat. He is a member of the Methodist Church. He is a 
strong advocate of the cause of temperance. He is known even where 
as a Christian gentleman. He is honest and honorable in all hi< rela- 
tions of life. As a lawyer, he is active, energetic and industrious. He 
always prepares his cases well, tries them thoroughly and excels as a 
trial lawyer. At the great day, when all records are read and examined, 
George Washington will have no occasion to blush for this namesake. 

JokA W. Hook 

was born August 26, 1854, at West Union, Ohio, in what was then 
known as the "Dyer Burgess property," now the Palace Hotel. His 
father, James N. Hook, was at that time, clerk of the courts of Adams 
County. His mother's maiden name was Sarah Jane Baird, daughter 
of Joshua Baird, a native of Washington County, Pennsylvania, and 
her mother's name was Susan (Gibson) Baird. The last named was 
left a widow early in life with a large family to care for. She is said 
to have been a woman of great natural ability and force of character. 
She was able to take care of a farm and raise and educate a large family 
of children. She lived near Bentonville, and it is said of her that noth- 
ing but serious sickness prevented her from attending the services of 
the Presbyterian Church at West Union, of which she was a devoted 
member, and of bringing her numerous family with her in an old buggy 
over the worst roads in the world, every Sunday, rain or shine, winter 
as well as summer. 

John W. Hook passed the greater part of his boyhood on the farm 
of his father, attending the village schools of his native town in the 
winter and assisting with the farm work in the spring and summer. At 
the age of eighteen years, he began teaching school, which occupied 
him for a part of the time. During the remainder of the time, he either 
attended school or pursued the study of the law, having determined 
early in life to make that his calling. 

In September, 1876, at a session of the district court of his county, 
he was admitted to the bar, having had the firm of Bayless & Thomp- 
son as his instructors. After teaching another year, he began the prac- 
tice of his profession in his native town and has continued therein for 
the greater portion of his time to the present. 

In 1 88 1, he was elected a member of the board of education of 
the West Union village school district. He was mayor of his native 
town in 1884 and was re-elected again in 1886. 

On July 1, 1889, he accepted the position of chief deputy under 
the United States Marshal for the southern district of Ohio, which posi- 
tion he held for four years. After leaving the marshal's office he re- 
turned to the practice of law at West Union where he has since been 
actively engaged in the courts of Adams and adjoining counties and in 
the United States Courts. 

In 1898. Congress having passed a national bankrupt law, Hon. 
George R. Sage, l-nited States District Judge, appointed him referee 
in bankruptcy for Adams County, which position he now holds. In 
politics, he has always been a Republican, and being a young man 
located at the county seat in a Democratic county, he has been called 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 225 

upon to act as chairman and secretary of the county executive com- 
mittee a number of times, and has thereby been more or less prominent 
in the local politics of his party for a number of years. At the Repub- 
lican State Convention of 1880, without his knowledge or solicitation, 
he was made an alternate delegate from his congressional district to 
the National Convention at Chicago, where General James A. Gar- 
field was made the Republican candidate for the presidency. In 1883, 
he connected himself with the Presbyterian Church and has continued 
a member of that church to the present time. He is one of the charter 
members of Crystal Lodge, No. 114. He was its first presiding officer 
and has remained an active member of that organization to the present 
time. He is a member of the uniform rank of Central Division No. 
2t7 and a present regent of Adams Council, No. 830, Royal Arcanum. 

In November, 1884, at West Union, Ohio, he was married to 
Miss Rachael, daughter of William and Rebecca Wilson, and at that 
time, a member of the corps of teachers of the West Union schools. 
They have had five children, three of whom are Hving at this time. 

A gentleman who knows Mr. Hook well and is capable of judging 
says of him : "There is no better citizen than he ; his influence is always 
for good citizenship ; that on every question of morals, he will be found 
advocating that side which is for the best interests of society. Mr. 
Hook is a man of excellent reasoning powers and a good lawyer. He 
is one of the most sensitive men and this is against him as a lawyer as 
the latter should have no feelings or sensibilities. He is not aggres- 
sive, but that is owing to natural diffidence born with him. He is a 
very companionable man and had he lived in the days of the Greek 
philosophers, he would have been the chiefest among them. He is a 
born counsellor and adviser, but he lacks just what John Alden lacked 
— he does not always speak for himself when he ought to. lie can al- 
ways do better for a friend than for himself. He is an estimable citizen 
and one who is always ready and willing to do his part in the com- 
muni'.y. 

Richard Watson MoNeal, 

was born in Erie County, New York, on the twentieth day of Novem- 
ber, 1840. His father's name was Milo H. McNeal, and his mother 
was Sarah P. Playter. Both were born in the province of Upper 
Canada, and both families moved into Erie County, Western New 
York, at the breaking out of the war of 1812. Milo H. McNeal was 
a farmer and our subject grew up on a farm about two miles from 
Williamsville. He received his education in the common schools and 
the Academy at Williamsville. He taught school at Clarence, New 
York, during the winter of 1861 and 1862, and in August of 1862, he 
enlisted in the 50th New York Volunteer Engineers, and served till 
the close of the war, being discharged at Ft. Barry, Virginia, in June, 
1865. On returning from the war, he taught school four more years, 
one year in Michigan, one year in Indiana, and two years in Iowa. 

He was married to Sarah M. Gardner, of Amsterdam, New York, 
on the 26th of November, 1866. 

He was admitted to the bar in Iowa, in May, 1867. He came to 
Ohio in 1869, living in Cincinnati until the spring of 1870, when he 

15a 



226 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

went to Brown County? In 1876, he went to Adams County, taking 
charge of the farm of Captain C. W. Boyd, at West Union. In 1878, 
he was elected to the office of probate judge, serving one term, from 
February, 1879, ^^ February, 1882. He then formed a law partnership 
with J. M. Wells, which continued for two years. In the spring of 
1884, he went to Indianapolis, Indiana, to take editorial charge of the 
Indianapolis Republican, having purchased one-half interest in the paper. 
In December, 1885, he sold his interest in that paper and moved to 
Rarden, Scioto County, Ohio, where he resided for ten years, practi- 
cing law in the courts of Adams and Scioto counties. In 1895, he left 
Rarden, and removed to Cincinnati. He resides at Hartwell and 
practices law in Hamilton County. 

While a resident of Adams County, Judge McNeal was regarded 
as an excellent citizen. He was courageous and able in his advocacy 
of any principle or issue, which he believed to be right. He discharged 
the duties of probate judge with marked ability and fidelity. Before his 
election, he declared his hostility to the corrupt use of money in elec- 
tions and on that idea, was elected by a good majority. 

As a lawyer, Mr. McNeal is zealous in the interests of his clients 
and is an advocate of more than ordinary ability. 

Albion Z. Blair 

was born on Friday, December 31, 1861, but has no superstition as to 
the concurrence of the two dates. His father was George Washington 
Blair, and his mother's maiden name was Nancy Miller Frazier. The 
place of his nativity was near Belfast, in Highland County. His grand- 
father, John Blair, was a native of the Emerald Isle, but was caught 
young, being brought from Ireland when but two years of age. 

Our subject's father was a farmer, and he was reared on a farm. 
He qualified himself for a teacher and took up that occupation in 1878 
and followed it for twelve years. In this period of twelve years he has 
taught in Jackson Township, Highland County. In 1880, he went to 
Kansas and taught there one term. He had the highest certificate of 
any teacher in the institute. He came back in 1881 and obtained a 
school in Highland County in the district where he first taught. \\ bUe 
in Hio^hland County, he was township clerk from 1886 to 1890. He 
taught in Highland County in 1888 when he began the study of en- 
gineering and surveying, and at the same time began studying law 
with J. B. Worley, of Highland County. In June, 1886, he obtained a 
ten years' certificate as a teacher. In 1888, he taught at Rome schools, 
consisting of four departments, and in 1889, he was appointed county 
engineer, with a salary of $5.00 a day, which amounted to about $1,000 
a year. He held this position four years. He began practicing law in 
1889, and while he was county engineer, he was a partner with Hon. 
F. D. Bayless, under the firm name of Bayless & Blair. In the years 
1891, 1892 and 1893, he served as county engineer, to June, 1894. He is 
a school director in West Union. 

On March 5, 1898, he formed a partnership with W. R. Mehaffey, 
as Blair & MchafTey, which continues. He is attorney for the Farmer's 
Bank of Manchester and the Peebles Bank. He is a Democrat. He 
is a member of the Christian Church. He was married on the twenty- 




CYRCS W. WIKOFF 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 227 

first day of February, 1889, to Miss Alberdie Armacost. They have 
four children^<iuy Mallen, aged nine years ; George Benton, aged four 
years; Gladys Inez, aged seven, and Albion, aged two years. He is 
an active, energetic lawyer, a good pleader, a pleasant speaker and 
tries his cases well. He is a power in the Democratic party in Adams 
County, and a number of the Presbyterian Church of West Union. 

Cyrus Franklin Wikoff, 

attorney at law, West Union, was born November 22, 1853, ^^ Liberty 
Township, Adams County, Ohio, son of Mahlon and Jemima (Melvin) 
Wikoff. The WikoflF family is of German origin. The ancestor who 
came to this county was Peter Claeson Wikoff. He emigrated in 1636. 
Jacob Wikoff, his son, was the father of Peter Wikoff, who, in about 
1790, emigrated from Virginia to Washington, Kentucky, where he 
bought one thousand acres of land. He, however, afterwards lost it 
by defective title. He removed to Adams County, Ohio, and settled 
on Scioto Brush Creek in Jefferson Township. Here he bought land 
in the wilderness, cleared, farmed and lived on it until his death. James 
Wikoff, the son of Peter Wikoff, was the grandfather of our subject. 
He was bom February 11, 1782. He resided with his father until 1810, 
when he married Rachel Ellis. After his marriage, he resided on the 
Brush Creek farm until his decease, September 18, 1818. He left 
four children, three sons and one daughter. One of the sons was the 
father, our subject. He afterwards married a second time and young 
Wikoff was left to look out for himself. He found a home with his 
maternal uncle, John Ellis, who kept him until he was of age, when 
he gave him the customary outfit, horse, saddle, bridle and a new suit 
of clothes and he thus started out in life. John Ellis died in 1889. Our 
subject's wife's grandfather was an Englishman, who emigrated to 
Delaware, where he lived and died. He left seven children, four ot 
whom were boys. George Andrew Melvin emigrated, at the a^^e of twen- 
ty-eight, to Kentucky, and two years after, he married Sarah Huffman, 
who was a native of Virginia. After thirty-five years of married life, 
Mr. Melvin died, leaving a family of eleven children, of which Mrs. 
Wikoff was the tenth. Mrs. Melvin, the mother of Mrs. Wikoff, who 
was tlie mother of the subject of our sketch, died in 1887, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-seven years. Jemima Melvin, at the time of her 
marriage, was the owner of a spinning wheel and loom, which she knew 
how to use. There were eight children of this marriage, — William J., 
who died from a disease contracted while attending the Ohio Wesleyan 
University, at Delaware, Ohio; George M., Cyrus F., subject of this 
sketch; Sarah A., Lou R., Mary E., Lucir.da M. and Laura L. Mrs. 
Wikoff died in 1893. 

Cyrus F. Wikoff, our subject, spent his boyhood on the farm and 
received such education as could be obtained in the country schools 
and in the higher-schools and normals in the county. He began teach- 
ing at the age of eighteen and continued until 1880. In 1882, he be- 
gan the study of law with S. E. Pearson who died, and he completed 
his studies under Luther Thompson, and was admitted to the bar in 
1884. In 1888, he was elected Mayor of West Union. In 1889, he was 
elected prosecuting attorney of Adams County and was re-elected in 



228 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

1892, serving two terms. He has served as a member of the school 
board of West Union, and also in various other offices. He is a Knight 
Templar, member of Cavalry Commandary No. 13, Knights Templar, 
Portsmouth; of Chapter No. 129, Manchester; and of Masonic Lodge 
No. 43, West Union, Ohio. He is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church at West Union, and served as superintendent of the C. U. Sun- 
day School at that place for twelve years. 

He was married on the twenty-fifth of December, 1881, to Jennie 
E. Wikoff, daughter of H. B. and Eliza Wikoff, and granddaughter of 
Judge James McColm. Their children are Cecil C, Lida J., and 
Lester B. 

Mr. WikoflF stands in the first rank as a lawyer, has fine qualities, 
socially, and is regarded as an upright citizen. 

James R. B. Kesler, 

attorney at law, Peebles, Ohio, was bom August 22, 1863, near Mar- 
shal. Highland Coumy, Obio. His father's name was Andrew K«-v-l« i 
and his mother's maiden name was Christina Lewis. He received only 
a common school education and studied law with the Hon. J. B. Wor- 
ley, of Hillsboro, Ohio. After being admitted to the bar, he located 
in Peebles, Ohio, for the practice of his profession, where he still re- 
sides. He was elected Mayor of that thriving town three terms and 
served by appointment for five months in additicm. He is a Democrat 
in politics, and was a candidate on the Democratic ticket for Represen- 
tative in the Pike-Adams district in 1899, but was defeated by Joseph 
A. Wilson, of Cynthiana, by the vote from Pike County. 

He was married December 12, 1887, to Miss Kate M. Frost. They 
have had two children, one living and one deceased. 

Mr. Kesler is a gentleman who enjoys the confidence of his politi- 
cal associates and of the people who know him, and is regarded as an 
able lawyer and a correct busines man. 

Charles Franklin McCoy 

was born December 5, 1862, at Pond Run, Scioto County, Ohio, where 
his father, Charles A. McCoy, was then residing. His mother's 
maiden name was Annette Thomas. They had six children; four died 
in infancy and two survive. When our subject was two years of age 
his father moved to near Dunbarton, Ohio, and bought the Moses 
Buck farm on Brush Creek. Mr. McCoy had a common school educa- 
tion. He spent the winter of 1881 at the Manchester high school, and 
attended the Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware from 1883 to 
1886. At the close of the year, he left that institution and engaged in 
work on his father^s farm, on account of his father's ill health. In the 
fall of 1887, he went to Bethany College, West Virginia, and graduated 
there in the classical course in June, 1888. In the fall of 1888, he taught 
school at Purtce's school house, and two winters at Jacksonville. In 
1891 his health ^ave way and he went to farming. He began the study 
of law in the same year with John W. Hook, and continued it with 
Chas C. Swain and Wni. C. Coryell. He was admitted to the bar in 
December, 1894. He located at West Union in March, 1895, and be- 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CX>NSTITUTION 229 

gan the practice of law. He was elected prosecuting attorney on the 
Republican ticket in the fall of 1896, by a majority of 115. He was re- 
elected in 1899 by a majority of 107. In March, 1900, he entered into 
a partnership with Hon. F. D. Bayless; under the firm of Bayless 
& McCoy. He has always been a Republican, and is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. On March 9, 1892, he was married to 
Miss Minnie A. Young, daughter of Leonard Young, a former recorder 
of Adams County. 

A friend gives this statement as to Mr. McCoy : "His moral char- 
acter is above reproach. He is upright and honest in all his dealings 
with his fellow men. His habits are correct and pure. He maintains a 
high degree of character in the church of his choice, the Methodist Epis- 
copal, of which he is a prominent and useful member. As a citizen he 
looks to the best results for himself and the community. He is enter- 
prising and ever ready and willing to do his full share of labor for the 
advancement of the community in which he is a good and successful 
lawyer. As such, he is painstaking and thorough ; and as a prosecuting 
attorney, he does his duty thoroughly. It is believed he has filled that 
office with as much credit as any predecessor he ever had. He comes 
up to the full measure of a good man and citizen." 

Carey E. Robnok 

• 

was born August 17, 1876, in Liberty Township, on the old Cave Hill 
farm, the son of Johnson and Rachael J. (Mehaffey) Robuck. Aaron 
Robuck, grandfather of the subject, was one of the pioneers of Liberty 
Township. His maternal grandmother was Esther Ellison. He came 
from Kentucky w^hen young and settled on the farm now known as the 
Evans farm. He married a McGovney. 

Our subject was reared on the farm, attended the common schools 
of Liberty Township until the age of sixteen, when he removed to West 
Union with his parents. He began teaching in 1892 and taught in 
Adams County until 1898. He began reading law under C. F. Wikoff 
in 1894 and was admitted to the bar in March, 1899. 

He was married to Miss Clara E. Brodt, daughter of Jacob Brodt, 
of West Union, Ohio, September 3, 1897. They have one. child, Ben- 
jamin Franklin. 

Mr. Robuck is a Republican. He is a self-made young man with 
brilliant prospects. For several years he was one of the most promi- 
nent school teachers of Adams County. He has an active and brilliant 
mind. He is honest and upright in his transactions and bids fair to be 
a leader in his profession. 

Robert Cramer Vance 

was born December 8, 1857, in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. His 
father was George Vance and his mother, Lydia A. Wilson. They re- 
moved to Highland County, Ohio, in 1864. His father was a shoemaker. 
He died in 1893. His mother resides in Hillsboro. Our subject was 
educated in the common schools,qualified himself as a teacher and taught 
eight years. 

He studied law with DeBruin and Hogsett, of Hillsboro, and was 
admitted to the bar on October 23, 1887. He was township clerk of 



280 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUMY 

Newmarket Township, Highland County, Ohio, two terms and of Tiffin 
Township, Adams County, from 1 891 to 1897. 

He removed to Adams County, April 2, 1890. He was deputy 
auditor under Dr. J. M. Wittenmyer from 1894 to 1900. He was a can- 
didate for auditor at the Democratic primary election in 1899, and was de- 
feated by one vote by Dr. R. A. Stephenson, of Manchester. From 1890 
till 1895 he practiced law in Adams County, but gave up the practice 
when he became deputy auditor. 

He was married October 23. 1881, to Miss Olive E. Gibler and has 
six children, Myra M., Shirley S., Ethel E., Joseph, Louis G. and Otto 
K. Their ages range from seventeen years to eighteen months. 

Mr. Vance is a Democrat, a Mason and a Red Man. He is of a gen- 
erous and genial disposition. He is reliable both as a friend and as an 
enemy. While poor in earthly goods, he is rich in those qualities which 
ennoble the soul. 

He is well read in his profession, is a gentleman of pleasing presence 
and address, popular with those who know him well, and whom he at- 
taches to himself by the strongest bonds of friendship. 

Cliester C. "W. Kaylov 

was born in Monroe Township, Adams County, October 20, 1849. His 
great-grandfather was a native of England, and emigrated to Lexington, 
Siassachusetts. It is tradition in the family that he and five sons, of 
whom the great-grandfather, James Naylor, was one, participated in the 
Battle of Lexington. At the close of the war, James Naylor located 
near Cumberland, Maryland, and later located forty miles west of Pitts- 
burg, in Pennsylvania. He moved his wife and four children on two 
horses over the Alleghanies. The wife and four children were on one 
horse and he lead the other horse loaded with their goods. In 1792, he 
and a neighbor named Mehaffey and a boy named David Young, built 
a flat-boat and with their effects, floated down the Ohio River. They 
landed at Limestone after a three days* voyage on high water, though it 
usually took from six to nine days. 

James Naylor located at Washington, Kentucky, and remained till 
1796, when he removed to Gift Ridge, Adams County. Mrs. Naylor 
brought with her from Pennsylvania, a number of apple seeds and planted 
them in Kentucky. When she removed to OhiOr she dug up the young 
sprouts and took them with her. She replanted them and from them 
have come the famous "Naylor Apple." The trees grew from twenty- 
four to thirty inches in diameter, and the apples were large and juicy. 
James Naylor had two wives, the first was a Miss Brinket. and the sec- 
ond, Margaret Packet. He had four sons and two daughters. Of the 
sons, Samuel was the grandfather of our subject. He was born in 
Washington, Kentucky He married Sallie Tucker and lived and died 
in Monroe Township. The other brothers went west. One daughter 
of James Naylor married Mark Pennywit, and the other married John 
Washburn. Samuel Naylor married Sallie Tucker, and they had seven 
sons and four dauj^^hters. Sanuiel Parker Naylor, father of our subject, 
was born on the old homestead November 2, 1827. From 1856 to 1858, 
he conducted a merchandise business at Wrightsville, and later ran a 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 231 

small steamboat between Cincinnati and Manchester. On January i, 
1849, h^ ^^^^ married to Elizabeth Jane Taylor. They had nine children, 
of whom our subject was the oldest. The latter obtained his education 
in the schools of Monroe Township and at Manchester. At the age of 
eleven, he began work at the Manchester pottery and worked there for 
three years. At the age of seventeen, he began teaching school in Jef- 
ferson Township. In 1869, he began the study of law with the late 
Edward P. Evans, and on October 20, 1870, on his twenty-first birth- 
day, he was admitted to the bar in the district court of Hamilton County. 
In 1873, he formed a partnership with his legal preceptor as Evans & 
Naylor. On June i. 1875, ^^ ^^^ married to Miss Nannie Irene 
Coryell, daughter of the late Judge James L. Coryell of 
West Union, and is the father of two gifted, talented daughters, 
both of whom graduated at the Manchester High School at the age of 
sixteen, and each was the valedictorian of her class. Both became teach- 
ers. Mary, the eldest, taught school at West Union and Manchester, 
and was for two years assistant at the High School at the latter place. 
She afterward married Charles B. Ford, and is living at New Richmond, 
Ohio. Winona, the youngest, is teaching at Manchester and studying 
law with her father. 

In 1880 and 1881, Mr. Naylor was deputy county auditor of Adams 
County. From 1882 to 1891, he was cashier of the Manchester Bank, 
conducted by R. H. Ellison. Since 1891, he has applied himself exclu- 
sively to the practice of law. He has always been a Republican and 
taken an active interest in politics. He is not a member of any church, 
but prefers the Presbyterian. 

'William Anderson 

was born March 11, 1847, ^^ Manchester. His father was Samuel An- 
derson, and his mother, Mary Burket. His father was born in North- 
umberland County, Pennsylvania, and his mother in Adams County, 
Ohio. Her father kept hotel in west Union where Lewis Johnson now 
resides, and died there about 1828. His widow afterward married John 
McDade, while his brother Robert married her daughter, Angeline. now 
residing in the McDade Hotel in Manchester. Our subject was edu- 
cated in the schools of Manchester, and began the study of law in 1869 
with R. T. Naylor, and finished with Joseph R. Cockerill. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Portsmouth, Ohio, .'\pril 26, 1872, and has practiced 
law at Manchester ever since. He was elected prosecuting attorney of 
Adams County twice, serving from 1879 -^ t^»^4» ^"d administered his 
office with great credit to himself and satisfaction to the public. As a 
lawyer, Mr. Anderson is careful, thorough and painstaking, and is a suc- 
cessful advocate. 

Henry Soott, 

West Union, Ohio, was born March 6, 1838, in Green Township, 
Adams County. He lived in Jefferson Township from 1840 till 1872. at 
which latter date he located in West Union. His education was ac- 
quired in the common schools of Jefferson Township, at the old acad- 
emy at North Liberty, and in the West Union Hic^h School. He taught 
in Green and Jefferson district schools for about ten years, and was a 



232 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

most careful and successful instructor. He was elected on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket Treasurer of Adams County, which office he filled to the 
satisfaction of his party for two terms, from 1872 to 1876, inclusive. He 
also has served for nearly twenty years as Justice of the Peace in Jeffer- 
son and Tiffin Townships. He was admitted to practice law in 1878, 
and is recognized as one of the most careful and painstaking attorneys 
at the Adams County Bar. On March 24, 1861, he married Miss Har- 
riet Shively. They have no family. 

The g^eat-grandparents of Henry Scott were James and Cynthia 
Scott. Their son, James Scott, who married Agnes Young, in Washing- 
ton County, Pa., January 17, 1812, was his grandfather. They had nine 
children, of whom John Scott, the oldest, born December 18, 1812, 
was the father of our subject. He came with his parents to Adams 
County, in 1813. where he resided until his death, August 3, 1882. He 
married Susanna McGary, a daughter of Henry McGary and Sallie 
Young, his wife. Susanna was born in the house now occupied by Mrs. 
Isaac Worstel, in West Union, January 14, 1814. She and her sister, 
Elizabeth, who was born in Manchester April 6, 1808, and the widow 
of George Young, are the oldest living sisters in Adams County. Henry 
McGary was a son of William McGary, a Revolutionary soldier and a 
pioneer of Adams County. He has a separate sketch in this volume. 

Henry Scott had three brothers, Alexander, James and Whitney: 
and two sisters, Sarah A. and Elizabeth A. Of these Alexander and 
Whitnev are now deceased. 

Jndffe John "Wesle j Mason, 

West Union, was born on the old Mason farm, four miles east of West 
Union, September 29. 1845. His father. Samuel S. Mason, was a 
farmer and shoemaker, and was a prominent character in political cir- 
cles in Adams County in his time. He ser\*ed for years as a Justice of 
the Peace in Tiffin Township. Judge Mason worked on the farm in 
summer and attended the district school in winter until he acquired suffi- 
cient education to teach, which occupation he followed with marked 
success for several years. Many young people were given financial and 
professional aid by him that enabled them to make a beginning in the 
world by teaching school. While teaching, he married Miss Addie 
Moore, a daughter of Newton Moore, a pioneer of Adams County, April 
16, 1872. In the meantime he had been reading law under the tuition 
of Hon. Thomas J. Mullen, of West Union, and on April i, 1873, ^^ ^^'^s 
admitted to the bar, following the legal profession until 1888, at which 
time he removed to his farm on East Fork of Ohio Brush Creek, in Brat- 
ton Township. While residing there he was nominated and elected on 
the r)emocratic ticket, Probate Judge of Adams County, in the autumn 
of 1S06. The legislature had enacted that "buncombe" statute that 
year, known as the "Garfield Law," or "Corrupt Practice Act," and 
under its provisions political dyspeptics invoked the aid of the courtsand 
had tlie Judge removed from office for alleged promises of remunera- 
tion for aid in the campaign in which he had so gallantly carried the 
banner of his party to victory. But the people were in sympathy with 
the cause of justice, and took up the contest and elected the Judge a 




JUDGE JOHN W. MASON 



THE COURTS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 233 

second time, after his removal, to the office of Probate Judge, the last 
time in 1899, the term for which he is now serving. 

In politics the Judge is a Jeffersonian Democrat, having the larg- 
est faith in the people. He is the original silver advocate in Adams 
County, in the contest since the Civil War, between the money power 
and the people. He wrote a pamphlet on the subject in 1878, when a 
candidate for Congress. He led the fight on the minions of the money 
power, and won the contest in the selection of delegates in Adams 
County by the Democratic party in 1895 ; and again in 1897, when he de- 
livered before the County Convention of delegates a most remarkable 
speech on the subject of bi-metallism, in which, with reference to the 16 
to I resolution of the Chicago platform, he declared: '*That resolution 
is the St. Peter of our political faith, and by the blessing of God and the 
justice of our cause, we will maintain it." 

The Judge is one of the most companionable of men, and reckons 
his friends by the score. As a Judge of the Probate Court, his career 
has been entirely satisfactory to the people. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



POUTICS AND POUTICAL PARTIES 

Vote for OoTemor 1803-1899— Adams County in the Iiosislatnre— Table 
of Senators and Representatives— Adanis Conntj in Congress. 

From the period of the organization of Adams County, politics, 
local, state, and national, has been an absorbing theme with its citizens, 
enlisting their time, talent, and best energies. It was here that the con- 
test for supremacy in governmental affairs between Governor St. Clair 
and his adherents on the one side, and Nathaniel Massie and the "Vir- 
ginians" on the other, was begun and continued with unabating effort 
to the fina> downfall of the former. This contest was purely a matter of 
politics. It involved the question of republican government as opposed 
to nionarchial rule — the Democratic ideas of Jefferson versus the Fed- 
eralistic plans of Hamilton. 

It must be borne in mind that Manchester, at the "Three Islands/' 
was the first settlement within the Virginia Military District,and became 
the gateway to the settlements afterwards made in the interior of that 
region. Massie with a few daring spirits had established a fortified sta- 
tion there when there were but two other white settlements within the 
limits of the present State of Ohio ; the one at Marietta, and the other at 
Fort Washington, where Cincinnati now stands. The inhabitants of 
Marietta, the seat of government for the Territory, were New England- 
ers, whose political ideas were markedly Federalistic. The inhabitants 
of Fort Washington were necessarily dominated by the military with all 
the pomp and circumstance thereto attendant ; so that there was a sym- 
pathetic political bond of union between the inhabitants of these first 
two permanent settlements in the Territory. But the inhabitants of 
Manchester and the settlments within the district contiguous thereto 
were both from education and force of circumstance, most democratic 
in their manners and customs and their ideas of government. They 
were Virginians, and had been schooled under the teachings of Jeffer- 
son; and braving the dangers from savage foes, had sought a home on 
the frontier, with no protection to life and limb, except such as could 
be provided by themselves. They erected their own block-houses and 
garrisoned them from among their own numbers. It is worthy of men- 
tion that the Federal Government never erected a fort nor sent a com- 
pany of soldiers for the protection of the settlers of the Virginia Mili- 
tary District. And so it was, that these people with their ideas of re- 
publican )2rovernnient, and with that strength of character that comes 
from self-reliance, became the opposing element to the schemes of the 
leaders of the Federalistic colonies in the Territory. Governor St 

(?34) 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 235 

Clair, the very embodiment of aristocracy, and the head of the Feder- 
alists in the Territory, believed the people but ill qualified to decide 
political questions for themselves. "He believed that a wise and good 
man, provided like himself, by some far-away superior power, was much 
better fitted to be intrusted with all such matters." 

St. Clair, in speaking of these people, had expressed the opinion 
that a "multidude of indigent and ignorant people are but ill qualified 
to form a government and constitution for themselves." And he had 
further said that they were "too far removed from the seat of govern- 
ment to be impressed with its powers," deploring the fact that if they 
were permitted to form a government that "it would most probably be 
democratic in form, oligarchic in its execution, and more troublesome 
* * * than Kentucky." 

It was the ambition of Massie to make Manchester the county town 
and seat of justice of the new county which must of necessity be soon 
erected in the Virginia Military District. It was a central point between 
its eastern and western boundaries on the Ohio River, and the mass of 
population in the district centered about it. With this in view, he had 
selected for himself a fine plantation of one thousand acres, on which he 
had erected a magnificent dwelling, which he named Buckeye Station, 
situated on a high plateau, overlooking the green hills of Kentucky and 
commanding a fine view of the Ohio River for miles up and down its 
course (see Buckeye Station). This was to be his country seat and 
future home, being about four miles by river to the eastward of Man- 
chester. But the presumptions authority of St. Clair was interposed in 
all matters of government in the Territory, even to the organization of 
the new counties and the fixing of the seats of justice for them. At the 
organization of Adams County, in September, 1797, Massie succeeded 
in having Manchester named as the county town. But the scheming 
Federalists, through a majority of the Court of Quarter Sessions ap- 
pointed by the Governor, directly thereafter fixed the seat of justice at 
an out-of-the-way point, where there were absolutely no accommoda- 
tions for the public, at what was named Adamsville, in honor of John 
Adams, the Federal President, but which was called in derision "Scant- 
ville." Afterwards, while Massie's brother-in-law, Charles Willing 
Byrd, was Secretary of the Territory, and in the absence of St. Clair, 
who was at the seat of the Federal Government at Philadelphia, schem- 
ing to thwart the plans of the "Virginians" to form a state government, 
and thus rid themselves of the "old tyrant," as St. Clair was designated, 
the seat of justice was removed to Manchester foi one session of the 
court, ''^hen it was established by the opposition at a point named 
Washington, at the mouth of Ohio Brush Creek, where it remained 
until fixed at West Union, the present county seat, a name signifying 
the burning of the hatchet. But this contest engendered by St. Clair 
was carried down among the people to the year 1871, when a vote was 
taken by authority of an act of the Legislature on the question of re- 
moval of the county seat to Manchester. 

While this contest between Massie and St. Clair was being 
waged in Adams County, the Governor, by proclamation, erected 
in 1798 the county of Ross from the northern portion of 
Adams. This he named after his friend, Senator Ross, of 



236 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

Pennsylvania, a rabid Federalist. This county contained the site of a 
new town, Chillicothe, laid out by Massie, which was largely settled by 
Virginians, many of whom were relatives and personal friends of its 
founder. Among them none were more conspicuous than Thomas 
Worthington, a brother-in-law of Edward Tiffin, the first Governor of 
Ohio, and who himself became Governor of the State. Worthington 
had served with Massie as a member of the first Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions held at Manchester, and was Massie's confidential friend and po- 
litical adviser. It was through his diplomacy as the political envoy of 
the "Virginians" to the seat of the Federal Government when Jefferson 
became President that St. Clair and the Federalists in the Northwest 
Territory were so completely overthrown and Ohio made a State. 

In 1799, the first Territorial Legislature convened at Cincinnati. 
Nathaniel Massie and Joseph Darlinton represented Adams County. 
Thomas Worthington was one of the members from Ross County. A 
bill was passed fixing Manchester as the county seat of Adams County ; 
and other bills were passed dividing other counties and creating new 
ones. The Governor, at the close of the session, vetoed these bills, 
holding that under the Ordinance of 1787, "the erection of new counties 
was properly the business of the Executive," and not of the Legisla- 
ture. However, Cong^ress finally determined the right in favor of 
the Legislature. Hostilities now between the Federalists, headed by 
St. Clair, and the '^Virginians," led by Massie and Worthington, opened 
in a broader field. The questions at issue became political, extending 
throughout the Territory. It wasJ ** Democrats," as the Republican 
admirers of Jefferson were derisively styled, against the aristocratic 
Federalists. The "Virginians" planned operations on a large scale: to 
divide the Territory, form a State, and lay its foundations on true re- 
publican principles, the right of the people to govern themselves. Mas- 
sie's idea to make Manchester the principal city was abandoned; he 
disposed of his home at Buckeye Station, and plans were perfected to 
make Chillicothe the chief city in the district, and the capital of the new 
State. 

The Federalists, in anticipation of this movement, sought to have 
the Territory divided, but in such a manner as to prevent the erection of 
a new State. The schemte, for scheme it was, was to make the eastern 
division a Federalist territory, to so divide the "Virginians" as to place 
them in a hopeless minority. This will be best shown by quoting from 
St. Clair's letter to Senator Ross, of Pennsylvania, mention of whom has 
heretofore been made. This letter can be found in St. Clair's published 
correspondence in what is known as the "St. Clair Papers." On the 
subject of dividing the Territory, he says : "But it is not every division 
that would answer those purposes (to keep the 'Virginians from control 
of the government — Ed.), but such a one as would probably keep them 
in the colonial state for a good many years to come. In a letter which 
I wrote to the Secretary of State by the last post, on this subject, I men- 
tioned the proper boundaries to them (the dividing line then proposed 
was from the mouth of the Scioto River north — Ed.), but on further re- 
flection, I think it would not answer: that it would divide the present 
inhabitants in such a manner as to make the upper or eastern division 
surely Federal, and form a counterpoise from opposing local interests 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 237 

in the western division to those who are unfriendly to the general gov- 
ernment, I think is certain; but the eastern division is too thinly in- 
habited, and the design would be too evident. A line drawn due north 
from the mouth of Eagle Creek, where it empties itself into the Ohio, 
would answer better. * * * The division of the Territory, I am 
persuaded, will be pressed, and I believe it to be a part of Col. Worth- 
ington's business in Philadelphia ; and the Great Miami, or a line drawn 
from the mouth of it, will be set forth in the strongest manner as the 
proper line. The people of Ross County are very desirous it should 
take place. Their views are natural and innocent enough. Tliey look 
no further than giving consequence to ChilHcothe. But I am very much 
mistaken if their leaders have not another and more extensive view. 
They think the division in that way would but little retard their becom- 
ing a state, and, as almost all of them are Democrats, whatever they pre- 
tend to the contrary, they expect that both the power and the influence 
would come into their hands, and that they would be able to model it 
as they please ; and it is my fixed belief it would be in a manner as un- 
friendly to the United States as possible. This, however, is in strict 
confidence, and I particularly request that my sentiments may not be 
confided to Col. Worthington, who, I have discovered, not to be en- 
tirely the candid man I once represented him to you, and who I now 
think a very designing one." 

It was a fortunate condition for the "Democrats" in the Territorv 
that the Territorial Representative in Congress,* William Henry Harri- 
son, was a Virginian with Democratic ideas of government. He sympa- 
thized with Massie and Worthington in their efforts to rid the Territory 
of St. Clair and his advisers, and heartily assisted in carrying out their 
plan to do so, which was to divide the Territory by the Greenville treaty 
line, thus giving the "Virginians" the coveted right to demand that the 
eastern division, by reason of sufficient population, be admitted a State 
of the Union. In May, 1800, Congress passed an act dividing the Ter- 
ritory as desired by Massie and Worthington. The eastern division 
retained the name Northwest Territory, and the western division was 
named Indiana Territory. Vincennes was made the capital of the lat- 
ter, and Massie's new town, Chillicothe, became the capital of the for- 
mer. This was a great victory for the "Virginians" or "Democrats," 
as the advocates of republican government were derisively called 
by the Federalists. Party Hues were now closely drawn, and Federalists 
or "Tories" and Republicans or "Democrats" battled with fury for su- 
premacy in the Territory. In this year, the "Father of Democracy," 
Thomas Jefferson, was elected President, and the hopes of the "Vir- 
ginians" in the Territory for statehood ran hi^h. But President Adams 
reappointed St. Clair Governor, and the Senate confirmed his appoint- 
ment a few days before the inauguration of the "Sage of Monticello." 

St. Clair, enraged to desperation, set about to elect a Territorial 
Legislature favorable to the Federalists and himself, which by a small 
majority he succeeded in doing. His scheme was to make the Scioto 

*Ttae first Territorial Legislature which sat In Cincinnati in 1799 elected William Henry Harri- 
son then Secretary of the Northwest Territory, delegate in Congress, over Arthur St. Clair, Jr. , by 
two votes out of twenty-two cast. The votes of Nathaniel Massie and Joseph Darlinton. the 
representatives from Adams county in this Legislature decided the contest against young St. 
Clair, a fortunate matter for the " Virginians" in their memorable contest with the Federalists 
as above narrated. 



288 HISTORY OP ADAMS CX>UNTY 

the western boundary of the Northwest Territory, and thufe keep it in 
its Territorial stage for years to come. The Legislature, which met at 
Chillicothe in November, 1801, among other partisan acts, passed a 
bill removing the capital from Chillicothe back to Cincinnati, and an- 
other declaring the assent of the Territory necessary to a change of 
boundaries of the States to be formed from the Territory as provided 
in the Ordinance of 1787. St. Clair approved both these acts. At this 
session of the Territorial Legislature, Joseph Darlinton represented 
Adams County in the House, and was a warm supporter of Massie, as 
opposed to St. Clair. Immediately upon the passage of these acts, 
Massie dispatched Worthington and Michael Baldwin to Washington 
to oppose the approval of the act changing the boundaries of the Ter- 
ritory. Paul Fearing, the territorial delegate then in Congress, was a 
Federalist, and favored making the Scioto the western boundary. 

There was no trouble in preventing the proposed division of the 
Territory, for Jefferson and his party supporters were anxious to help 
their fellow "Democrats" triumph over the Federalists. Congress 
passed an act authorizing a convention of delegates to be elected by the 
people of the Territory to form a State government. The contest over 
the selection of these delegates was one of the fiercest. The "Virgin- 
ians" triumphed and statehood quickly followed, builded upon a consti- 
tution most liberally "Democratic," and which, as a safeguard against 
future tyrants, prqvided that the Governor should not have power to 
veto acts of the Legislature, which provision is carried down in the 
constitution of the State today. Adams County was carried over- 
whelmingly by the Democrats at the election to select delegates, Jo- 
seph Darlinton, Israel Donalson, and Thomas Kirker having been 
chosen to represent the county. 

"The constitutional convention," says a writer, "was the first fruits 
of republican victory. It was their convention. The men who had 
sided with Massie and his fellow Chillicotheans controlled it completely. 
Edward Tiffin was its President, and a careful study of its committees 
and proceedings will disclose what an iron grip they had on it, and how 
fully they directed its work. 

"For years these men had been contending for the right of the peo- 
ple to govern themselves through their representatives, and had been 
fighting the paternal policy of their Governor. It was but natural when 
the opportunity came, for them to try to secure perpetually these princi- 
ples, and to embody them in the Constitution. The Governor was 
made a mere figure head, given no control whatever over the Legisla- 
ture, by the right of vetoing its acts or otherwise ; he was not even re- 
quired to sign its laws before they went into effect (provisions still in 
force) ; was shorn of all patronage and allowed to name no officers ex- 
cept an adjutant general. The Legislature made all the appointments 
of state officers, including the judiciary; its powers were bounded 
only by the constitution itself, which protects the people by a large and 
liberal bill of rights, and provides an easy way of amending its pro\'is- 
ions. This constitution was the full and complete triumph of Democ- 
racy, and is the crowning glory of those who brought it about; for the 
history of the Anglo-Saxon race in its broadest sense is a record of the 
struggles of the people to assert themselves against their rulers. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 239 

"The great trophies in this contest are the Magna Charta and the 
Bill of Rights of 1689 won by our ancestors in their old homes across 
the sea, and the Declaration of Independence, made good by our Rev- 
olutionary forefathers in America. Each of these mark a long step 
forward toward a **government of the people, by the people, and for the 
people," but none go quite so far as to claim for the people absolute 
power, freed from all control by king or president or governor. The 
first to reach that goal were the founders of Ohio, led by the Chillicothe 
statesmen, who had been trained in their backwoods struggles with 
savage men and rugged nature to rely upon themselves alone, and to 
allow no man to dictate what was best for them and theirs.'' 

Adams County remained steadfastly true to the principles of Democ- 
racy and the party of Jefferson from the erection of the State until the 
year 1826, when Allen Trimble, of Highland County, and a follower 
of Henry Clay, carried it by a plurality of ninety-one votes over his 
highest opponent, John Bigger. At this election Alexander Campbell 
received ninety-two votes, Benjamin Tappan twenty-seven votes, and 
there were scattering twelve votes. On the question of the war with 
Great Britain in 1812, the people of the county were nearly unanimous 
for its vigorous prosecution. In the period from 1820 to 1830 the ques- 
tions of public schools, public highways, and canals occupied the public 
mind. In this period, the Presbyterians, who were dominant in the 
county, were bitterly attacked by members of other sects jealous of their 
power and wealth, as well as by some secularists, for their loyalty to the 
cause of President Andrew Jackson. The Presbyterians in those days 
were Jacksonian Democrats — Judge Morrison, a pillar of the Cherry 
Fork congregation, being the Jackson presidential elector in 1824 from 
the district to which Adams County belonged. 

Some of the leading politicians of this period were John W. Camp- 
bell, William Russell, Israel Donalson, Thomas Kirker, John Means, 
John Lodwick, Joseph Riggs, Joseph Darlinton, John and Nathaniel 
Beasley, John Fisher, Joseph Moore, Robert Lucas (afterwards of Scioto 
County), Col. Kincaid, Judge Morrison, Thomas Mason and Edward 
Browning, of "Browning's Inn." 

Although Colonel Trimble had in 1826 carried the State by an as- 
tonishing majority, receiving nearly five-sixths of the vote cast, and had 
swept Adams County from its Democratic moorings, yet in 1828 while 
he was re-elected, Jackson carried the State, and John W. Campbell, 
Trimble's opponent, carried Adams County by the decisive vote of 1065 
to 216 with but one scattering vote. 

Through all the years of bitter contention between the Whigs 
and Democrats in the period from 1830 to i860, not even the 
matchless oratory of the "Wagon Boy of the Miami Valley," 
although personally known to the citizens of Adams County, 
could wrest it from the Democrats. They held steadfast and unfaltering 
to the political teachings of Jefferson, Jackson and Benton. In 1840 
with the brilliant military record of General Harrison and his hundreds 
of personal admirers who had served under him in the last war with 
England, as the presidential candidate on the Whig ticket, Corwin, as 
the gubernatorial candidate on that ticket, failed to carry the county 
over Wilson Shannon, his Democratic opponent, although Corwin car- 



240 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

ried the State. In 1842 Shannon again carried the county over Corwin 
and defeated him in the State. In the memorable campaign of 1844, 
David Tod, Democrat, received 1,605 votes as against 1,213 for Mcw- 
decai Hartley, Whig, and Leicester King, Free Soiler, 88, for Governor. 

Ten years later William Medill, Democrat, received 1,314 votes; 
Nelson Barrere, Whig, 861 votes, and Samuel Lewis 304 votes for Gov- 
ernor. In the campaign of 1857, Medill received 1,422; Allen Trimble, 
207; and Salmon Chase, 1,130 votes. In 1859, Rufns P. Ranney, Dem- 
ocrat, carried the county by 348 majority over William Dennison, Re- 
publican, for Governor. This was the beginning of the war period, when 
old party lines were almost obliterated. In 1863, John Brough received 
2,322 votes as against 1,798 for C. L. Vallandigham. This was the sec- 
ond time in the history of the county, that it had been lost to the Dem- 
ocrats. In 1865 Jacob D. Cox carried it over Geo. W. Morgan, Demo- 
crat, but in 1867 after the return of the soldiers from the army, Allen G. 
Thurman, Democrat, carried the county over R. B. Hayes, Republican, by 
a vote of 2,300 to 1,982. 

About the time the War of the Rebellion the old line Democratic 
party became known as "Douglas" Democrats and "Breckenridge" 
Democrats. The old time "Virginians/' who had early come into the 
county, for the most part took the southern view of the question of 
Negro Slavery, and were classed as "Breckenridge" Democrats, as 
favoring the presidential candidacy of John C. Breckenridge, of Ken- 
tucky. They opposed as a class the extension of slavery and further 
agitation of that question. The younger and more liberal element, how- 
ever, dissented from the opinions of their fathers, and adopted the ideas 
of Stephen A. Douglas, advocating "Squatter Sovereignty" a kind of 
"local option" as to Negro Slavery. But when the War of the Re- 
bellion came on, party opinions were laid aside and all were "War Dem- 
ocrats" for the suppression of the rebellion. Adams County shows by 
undisputed records that she sent to the front in that war more soldiers, 
based upon her population, than any other county of the State. In round 
numbers, from first to last, 2,000 of the flower of her manhood took up 
arms in defense of the Union. The valiant 70th Regiment, O. V. I., 
was essentially made up of volunteer soldiers of the county. 

The Covenanters, a respectable religious body in the northwestern 
portion of the county, for years refused to take part in politics, but dur- 
ing and since the war they have, as a body, been acting with the Re- 
publican party. 

The eastern portion of the county has a very large soldier element 
scattered throughout the hilly section who are largely dependent upon 
their pensions for a living. They contribute much strength to the Re- 
publican party. 

The sons of Adams County who have enrolled their names among 
those prominent in political affairs of the State and nation are too nu- 
merous to name individually here. The biographies of many of them 
appear in this volume. Some of them, as will be seen, have molded the 
policies of Governors and Presidents. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 241 

In closing this sketch, we call attention of the reader who may have 
high political aspirations, to the following parody on Holmes' "Last 
Leaf," written by an Adams Countian, who went through the "whirl- 
wind and flame" of the Buchanan campaign, 1856. 

The Fourth of March. 



Blessed are they that expect nothing, for they shall not be disappointed." 



I saw him — he had come 
Pro in his far distant home 

In the West. 
A jingling purse he showed, 
And in the latest mode 

He was drest. 

His face was all a smile, 
And he talked all the while 

How he took 
Such an interest in the late 
Election in his State 

For old Buck. 

He always felt the ties, 

Of party— let it rise- 
Let it fall. 

Twas not for reward 

That he had worked so hard, 
Not at all. 

But office he could bear 

As the bravest soldier 'd wear 

Epaulets, 
Which fix his rank, you know — 
And to the public show. 

What he gets. 

I saw him after that. 
And he had a kinky hat 

On his head ; 
His shoes were worn away 
And his pockets seemed to say, 

''Nary red r 

And loudly he declared, 
That for party men he cared 

Not a jot ; 
He scorned their dirty tricks, 
And as for politics, 

'Twns a plot. 

Polks saw the suddf»n change, 
And thought it wondrous strange 

At least. 
Our friend did not explain, 
But took an early train. 

For the West. 



16a 



242 



HISTORY OP ADA^S COUNTY 



Vote for OoTemor, 1803^1899. 

Since the War of the Rebellion and the reconstruction period fol- 
lowing, the county has been very closely divided politically on both state 
and national issues, while locally neither party has had any advantage 
over the other, the county officers within the entire period being about 
equally divided. 

The following is the vote for Governor with the exception of that 
for Edward Tiffin, the first Governor, who practically had no opposi- 
tion, from th« organization of the State to the present time. It will be 
observed, that prior to the new constitution of 1851, the vote was taken 
in even years. Since then in odd years. 



Year. 



Candidate. 



Political party. 



Votes. 



•1806 
1808.. 

1810.. 
1812.. 
1814.. 
1816.. 
1818.. 
1820.. 

1822.. 

1824.. 
1826.. 



1828. 



Nathaniel Massie 

R.J. Meigs 

Thomas Kirker 

Thomas Worthington. 
Samuel Huntington... 

Thomas Worthington. 
R.J. Meigs 



Thomas Scott 
R. J. Meigs ..... 



Thomas Worthington. 
Othiel Looker 



Thomas Worthington. 
James Dunlap 



Ethan A. Brown .. 
James Dunlap 

Jeremiah Morrow. 
Ethan A. Brown .. 
Wm. H. Harrison. 
Scattering 



Jeremiah Morrow, 
Allen Trimble .... 
Wm. W. Irvin 



Jeremiah Morrow. 
Allen Trimble 



Allen Trimble 

John Bigger 

Alexander Campbell 

Benjamin Tappan 

Scattering 



John W. Campbell 

Allen Trimble 

Scattering 



Democrat. 
Democrat. 

Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 

Democrat. 
Democrat. 

Democrat. 
Democrat. 

Democrat. 
Democrat. 



Democrat., 
Democrat. 



Democrat. 
Democrat. 

Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 



Democrat 

Clay Republican.. 



Democrat 

Clay Republican. 



Clay Republican... 
Jackson Democrat. 
Jackson Democrat. 
Clay Republican,.. 



Democrat 
Whig 



441 
114 

390 

176 
5 

487 
167 

580 

7 

629 
300 

627 
400 

627 
496 

605 

85 

10 

4 

408 

344 

10 

734 
368 

556 

465 

92 

27 

12 

1,065 

216 

1 



"^The first vote for Governor, January 12. I80S, is not a matter of record that we have heen 
able to find. Neither is the second vote taken the following year. Edward TifDn, the Democratic 
candidate, had practically no opposition. 



POLITICS AND POUTICAL PARTIES 



24a 



Vote for Governor — Continued. 



Year. 



Candidate. 



Political Party. 



Votes. 



1830.. 

1832... 

1834... 
1836... 
1838.. 
1840... 
1842... 

1844... 

1846... 

1848... 
I860... 

1851... 

1863... 

1865... 

1857... 

1859... 
1861... 
1863... 



Robert Lucas 

Duncan McArthur 
Scattering 



Robert Lucas... 
Darius Lyman, 
Scattering 



Robert Lucas... 
James Findley. 



Eli Baldwin . 
Joseph Vance. 



Wilson Shannon. 
Joseph Vance 



Wilson Shannon. 
Thomas Corwin . 

Wilson Shannon. 
Thomas Corwin . 
Leicester King ... 



David Tod 

Mordecai Bartley 
Leicester King ... 



David Tod 

William Bebb .. 
Samuel Lewis , 

John B. Weller 
Seabury Ford.... 



Reuben Wood .... 
William Johnson 
Edward Smith.... 



Reuben Wood 

Samuel P. Vinton 
Samuel Lewis 



William Medill 
Nelson Barrere . 
Samuel Lewis .. 



William Medill... 
Salmon P. Chase. 
Allen Trimble.... 



Henry B. Payne .... 
Salmon P. Chase .. 
Philip Van Trump. 



Rufus P. Ranney... 
William Dennison 



Hugh J. Jewett 
David Tod 



John Brough 

Clement L. Vallandigham. 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat .. 
Whig 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat ... 

Whig 

Free Soiler. 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat .. 
Whig 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat . .. 

Whig 

Free Soiler. 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat 
Whig 



Democrat 

'• Knownothing ". 
Old line Whig .... 



Democrat 

Whig-Republican. 



Democrat .. 
Republican 



Democrat ... 
Republican 

Republican 
Democrat ... 



783 

567 

9 

959 

498 

1 

926 
489 

977 
749 

1,002 
689 

1,384 
1,166 

1.270 

1,091 

40 

1,605 

1,213 

88 

1,298 
949 
108 

1,553 
1,295 

1,295 

960 

31 

1,499 

1.144 

28 

1,314 
861 
304 

1,422 

1,130 

207 

1,608 

1,269 

48 

1,753 
1.405 

1,658 
1,604 

2,322 
1.798 



HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 
VoTK FOK GOVRKNOB— Continued. 



Jicob D. Cox .. 



George W. Morgan ... 
Alexander Long 

Allen C Thurman.... 
R. B. Hayes 



William Allen 

Edward F, Noyes 

Gideon T. Stewart... 
Jacob Collins 

William Allen 

1t..B. Rayea 

JayOdeU 



Richard H.BiBhop 

W. H. Weal -... 

Henry A. Tbompaon... 

Thomas :^iae 

Charles Foater 

Gideon T. Stewart 

John W. Boolcnalter ... 

Charles Poster 

Abraham R. Ludlow ... 
JohnSeitK_ 

Georfie Hoadley 

J. B. Foraker 

F. Schumaker...., 



Thomas B. Powell... 

f. B. Foraker _ 

Morris Sharp 

J. B. Foraker _ 

Jatnea E. Campbell .. 
John B. Helwlg. 

William McKinley... 
James E. Campbell... 

J.J, Aahenhurst 

John SeiLE 

WnUstn UctCinley... 
Lawrence T. Neal..... 

G. P. Msclin 

E.J. Bracken 



Democrat _ 1,769 

Democrat ._ 



Democrat 

Repnblicau .. 
Prohibition .. 



Democrat 

Republican .. 

Prohibition.. 

Republican.. 
Democrat _... 
Prohibition .. 

Republican.. 

Prohibition.. 



Republican .. 
Democrat.,.. 
Prohibition.. 



2.223 
1.662 

2,202 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 



245 



Vote for Governor— Concluded. 



Year. 


Candidate. 


Political Party. 


Votes. 


1895 


Asa S. Bashnell 


Republican 


3,062 
3,051 

84 




Tames K. CamDbell 


Democrat 




Jacob Coxev 


Labor 




Seth Ellis 


Populist 


169 


1897 


A. S. Bushnell 


Republican 


3,046 
2,987 




H. L. ChaDman 


Democrat 




J. C. Holliday 


Prohibition 

Labor 


54 




Jacob S. Coxev 


14 




Julius Dexter 


Gold Democrat 


2 




John Richardson ., 




28 




Samuel T. Lewis 


Socialist 


1 


1899 


George K. Nash 


Republican 

Democrat 


3,381 




John R. McLean 


3,197 




Seth Ellis 


Union Reform 


45 




Samuel M. Jones 


No party 


35 




Robert Bandlow 


Socialist 


1 









Adams County in the LeKislatnre. 



By N. W. Evans. 

By the provisions of the Constitution of 1802, Adams County had 
one senator and three representatives. This instrument provided that 
one year after the first meeting of the General Assembly and every four 
years thereafter, there should be an enumeration of the white male in- 
habitants above 21 years of age, and the Legislature should not have 
over twenty-four senators and thirty-six representatives until the white 
male inhabitants were more than 22,000 ; after that, there should not be 
over thirty-six senators and seventy-two representatives. The repre- 
sentatives were chosen annually on the second Tuesday of October, and 
the senators were chosen biennially, and were divided into two 
classes, one-half going out each year. Under this apportionment, Gen- 
eral Joseph Darlinton was the senator for the first legislative session, 
which met at Chillicothe, March i, 1803, and adjourned April 16, 1803. 
Thomas Kirker, Joseph Lucas and William Russell were the repre- 
sentatives from Adams County. 

The second legislative session was from December 5, 1803, to Feb- 
ruary 17, 1804. The general assembly was the constitutional term for 
the legislature, and met on the first Monday of December in each year. 
At this session, Thomas Kirker represented Adams and Scioto in the 
senate, and Daniel Collier, of Tiffin Township, John Wright, of Sprigg, 
and Abraham Shepherd, of Byrd Township, represented Adams in the 
lower house. 

February 11, 1804, was the first apportionment. In that, Adams 
and Scioto had one senator and three representatives. The enumera- 
tion of Adams County was 906, and of Scioto was 249, and a total of the 
entire state of 14,762. 



246 mSTORY OF AD/IMS COUNTY 

The third legislative session was the first under this apportion- 
ment, and Thomas Kirker was senator, and Philip Lewis, Abraham 
Shepherd, and Thomas Waller, of Scioto, were the representatives. 

Philip Lewis resided in Jefferson Township, Shepherd in Byrd, and 
Waller at Alexandria, in Scioto County. This legislature remained in 
session from December 3, 1804, until February 22, 1805. 

The fourth legislative session under the second apportionment, 
December 2, 1805, to January 27, 1806, Thomas Kirker was senator; 
Philip Lewis, Daniel Collier. And Abraham Shepherd were representa- 
tives. 

At the fifth legislative session, Thomas Kirker was senator, Philip 
Lewis, James Scott and Abraham Shepherd were representatives. This 
legislature was in session from December i, 1806, to February 4, 1807. 

At the sixth legislative session, December 7, 1807, to February 22, 
1808, Thomas Kirker was senator, Alexander Campbell, of Hunting- 
ton Township, Andrew Ellison, of Tiffin Township, and Philip Lewis, 
of Jefferson Township, were representatives. 

On February u, 1807, the third apportionment was made. The 
enumeration of the entire state was 31,308. Adams and Scioto coun- 
ties were given two representatives and one senator. Under this, 
Thomas Kirker was senator, Alexander Campbell and Andrew Ellison 
were representatives. Tlie seventh legislature was in session from De- 
cember 5, 1808, to February 21, 1809. 

At the eighth legislative se^ision, December 4, 1809, to February 
22, 1810, Thomas Kirker was senator, and Alexander Campbell and 
William Russell were representatives. 

At the ninth legislative session, December 3, 1810, to January 30, 
i8ri, Thomas Kirker was senator, and John W. Campbell and Abra- 
ham Shepherd were representatives. 

February 2^, 1812, the fourth apportionment was made. Adams 
County was given one senator and two representatives. 

At the tenth legislative session, December 10, 181 1, to February 
21, 1812, Thomas Kirker represented Adams County in the senate, and 
John Ellison, Jr., and William Russell in the house. 

At the eleventh legislative session, December 7, 1812, to February 
9, 1813, which was under the fourth apportionment, Thomas Kirker 
was senator and John Ellison and William Russell were representa- 
tives. 

At the twelfth legislative session, December 6, 1813, to February 
n. 1814, Thomas Kirker was senator, John Ellison, Jr., and John W. 
Campbell were representatives. 

At tlie thirteenth legislative session, December 5, 1814, to Feb- 
ruary 16, 1815, Thomas Kirker was senator and John EUision Jr., and 
Nathaniel Beasley were representatives. 

At the fourteenth legislative session, December 4, 1815, to Feb- 
ruary 4, 1816, Abraham Shepherd was senator and John W. Campbell 
and Josiah Lockhart were representatives. 

At the fifteenth legislative session, December 2, 1816, to Tanuar\' 
28. 1817. Abraham Shepherd was senator, John Ellison, Jr., and Thomas 
Kirker were representatives. At this session. Shepherd was speaker of 
the senate and Kirker speaker of the house. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 247 

At the fifth legislative session, 1806 and 1807, Thomas Kirker had 
been speaker of the senate and Abraham Shepherd speaker of the house. 

At the sixteenth legislative session, December i, 181 7, to January 
30, 1818, Abraham Shepherd was speaker of the senate and represented 
Adams County, while Robert Morrison, better known as "J^^^^ Morri- 
son" and William Middleton were representatives from Adams County. 

At the seventeenth legislative session, December 7, 1818, to Feb- 
ruary 9, 1819, Nathaniel Beasley represented Adams County in the 
senate and George R. Fitzgerald and Robert Morrison in the house. 

At the eighteenth legislative session, December 6, 1819, to Feb- 
ruary 26, 1820, the sixth legislative apportionment was made, and 
Adams County was given one senator and one representative. The 
enumeration of the state at that time was 98,780. At this session, Wil- 
liam Russell was senator and Nathaniel Beasley and Robert Morrison 
were representatives. 

At the nineteenth legislative sessi6n, December 4, 1820, to Feb- 
ruary 3, 1821, under this apportionment, William Russell was senator 
and Robert Morrison representative. 

At the twentieth legislative session, December 3, 1821, to Feb- 
ruary 4, 1822, Thomas Kirker was senator and George R. Fitzgerald 
was representative. 

At the twenty-first legislative session, December 2, 1822, to Jan- 
uary 28, 1823, Thomas Kirker was senator and John Fisher, representa- 
tive. 

At the twenty-second legislative session, December i, 1823, to 
February 26, 1824, Thomas Kirker was senator, and Henry Steece, 
representative. At this session, the seventh apportionment was made. 
Brown County was given two representatives and Adams one, and the 
two counties were given one senator, but it was provided that one sen- 
ator and one representative should be chosen from each county, and 
the two representatives from the other, and this was to be done alter- 
natelv. Brown Countv was to have the senator first. 

At the twenty-third legislative session, December 6, 1624. to 
February 8, 1825, Thomas Kirker appeared as senator again and John 
Means was representative. This was the last appearance of Thomas 
Kirker in pubHc life. 

At the twenty-fourth legislative session, December 5, 1825, to 
February 5, 1826, Abraham Shepherd was senator from Adams and 
Brown, and John Means and James Rogers were representatives from 
Adams. 

At the twenty-fifth legislative session, Abraham Shepherd, of 
Brown, was senator and John Patterson and William Robbins of 
Adams County were representatives. 

At the twenty-sixth legislative session, December 3, 1827, to Feb- 
ruary 12, 1828, John Fisher was senator from Adams and Brown coun- 
ties and William Robbins was representative. At this session, the 
eighth apportionment was made. Adams and Brown were together 
given one senator and the two counties, one representative, and one 
additional representative. Brown, having the office in 1828 and Adams 
in 1829 and alternately thereafter during the period the apportionment 
continued. 



248 mSTORY OP ADA.MS CX>UNTY 

At the twenty-seventh legislative session, December i, 1828, to 
February 12, 1829, John Fisher was senator and John Patterson repre- 
sentative. 

At the twenty-eighth legislative session, December 7, 1829, to Feb- 
ruary 23, 1830, John Cochran of Brown County, was senator and Abra- 
ham Moore and John Patterson were representatives. 

At the twenty-ninth legislative session, December i, 1830, to 
March 14, 1831, John Cochran, of Brown County, was senator and John 
Patterson, representative. George Edwards and Nathan Ellis repre- 
sented Brown, the latter being the floater. 

At the thirtieth legislative session, December 5, 1831, to February 
13, 1832, Joseph Riggs represented Adams County and Brown C /'unty 
in the senate and William Robbins and George Collins represented 
Adams County in the house. 

On the thirteenth of June, J832, at an adjourned session, t^e ninth 
apportionment was made, but fieretofore, the enumeration had always 
been made in August preceding the meeting of the legislature, but it 
seems it was not completed before legislature met and that necessitated 
an extra session. The enumeration was not completed until after the 
regular legislature had adjourned. Adams and Brown were given one 
senator and Adams one representative. 

At the thirty-first legislative session, December 3, 1832, to Jan- 
uary 25, 1833, wnder this apportionment, Joseph Riggs was senator 
from Adams and Brown, and William Robbins was representative. 

At the thirty-second legislative session, December 2, 1833, ^^ 
March 3, 1834, James Pilson, of Brown, was senator and John Patter- 
son, representative from Adams. These same persons were senator 
and representatives respectively at the thirty-third legislative session. 
December 31, 1834, to March 9, 1835. 

At the thirty-fourth legislative session, December 5, 1835, ^^ 
March 14, 1836, John Patterson represented Adams and Brown coun- 
ties in the senate and William Robbins represented Adams County in 
the house. At this session, the tenth apportionment was made, and 
Adams, Brown and Scioto were given one senator and two representa- 
tives. 

At the thirty-fifth legislative session, December 5, 1836, to April 
3, 1837, under this apportionment, John Patterson was senator, John 
Glover, of Scioto, and James Loudon, of Brown, were representatives. 

At the thirty-sixth legislative session, December 4, 1837, to March 
19, 1838, Charles White, of Brown, was senator and Nelson Barerre, 
of Adams, and William Kendall, of Scioto, were representatives. 

At the thirty-seventh legislative session, December 3, 1838, to 
March 18, 1839, Charles White, of Brown, was senator, and John H. 
Blair, of Brown, and John Leedom, of Adams, were representatives. 

At the thirty-eighth legislative session, December 2, 1839, to 
March 23, 1840, John Glover, of Scioto, was senator and John H. 
Blair of Brown, and Joseph Leedom, of Adams, were representatives. 

On March 23, 1840, the eleventh apportionment wasj made. 
Adams. Highland and Fayette were made one legislative district with 
one senator and two representatives and an additional repesentative in 
1840. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 249 

At the thirty-ninth legislative session, December 7, 1840, to 
March 29, 1841, John Glover was held over and was senator from 
Adams, Brown and Scioto, but the representatitves were elected under 
the eleventh apportionment. James Carothers, of Fayette, David 
Reese and James Smith, of Highland, were representatives. 

At the fortieth legislative session, December 6, 1841, to March 7, 
1842, William Robbins, of Adams County, was senator and Abraham 
Lowman, of Fayette, and John A. Smith, of Highland, were represen- 
tatives. 

At the forty-first legislative session, December 5, 1842, to March 
13, 1843, William Robbins, of Adams, was senator, and Robert Robin- 
son, of Fayette, and John A. Smith, of Highland, were the representa- 
tives. 

At the forty-second legislative session, December 4, 1843, ^o 
March 13, 1844, John M. Barrere, of Highland County, was senator, 
and, Burnham Martin, of Fayette, and Hugh Means, of Adams County, 
were the representatives. 

At this session on March 12, 1844, the twelfth apportionment was 
made. Highland, Adams and Pike were given one senator, and Adams 
and Pike one representative. 

At the forty-third legislative session, December 2, 1844, to March 
13, 1845, Jol^n M. Barerre, of Highland, was senator, and Joshua M. 
Britton of Pike, was representative. 

At the forty-fourth legislative session, December i, 1845, ^^ 
March 2, 1846, Tilbery Reid, of Pike County, w^s senator and Daniel 
Cockerill was representative. 

At the forty-fifth legislative session, December 7, 1846, to Feb- 
ruary 8, 1847, Tilbery Reid was senator and John P. Bloomhuff, of 
Adams, was representative. 

At the forty-sixth legislative session, December 6, 1847, to Feb- 
ruary 25, 1848, Jonas R. Emrie, of Highland County, was senator, and 
Amos Corvvine, of Pike, was representative. At this session, the thir- 
teenth apportionment was made and Adams and Pike had one repre- 
sentative and those two counties and Scioto and Lawrence, one senator, 
elected in 1849 ^^^ 1851. 

At the forty-seventh legislative session, December 4, 1848, to 
March 26, 1849, Jonas R. Emrie, of Highland, held over as senator, and 
Daniel Cockerill, of Adams, was the representative. 

At the forty-eighth legislative session, December 3, 1849, to March 
25, 1850, William Salter, of Scioto, was the senator and Jacob Taylor, 
of Pike, the representative. 

At the forty-ninth legislative session, December 2, 1850, to March 
25, 1851, William Salter was senator and John M. Smith, of Adams, 
the representative. 

The fiftieth general assembly was elected under the apportionment 
in the new constitution. Under this, Adams, Jackson, Pike and Scioto 
constitute the seventh senatorial district, and have one senator, which 
has been the case from 1852 until now; Adams had one representa- 
tive until 189 land since, Adams and Pike has had one representative, and 
the table of senators and representatives is as follows : — 



250 



HISTORY OP ADAJyIS COUNTY 



Senatom. 



Year. 


Name. 


County. 


Party. 


1852-1853 


OscarP. Moore 


Scioto^ 


Whig. 
Democrat. 


1854-1855 


Thomas McCauslin 


Adams 


1856-1858 


Hezekiah S. Bundy 

George Corwine 


Jackson 


Republican. 
Reoublican. 


1858-J860 


Pike 


1860-1862 


William Newman 


Scioto 


Democrat. 


1862-1864 


Beniamin F. Coates 


Adams 


Democrat. 


1864-1868 


John T. Wilson 


Adams 


Republican. 
Democrat. 


1868-1872 


James Emmitt 

James W. Newman 


Pike 


1872-1876 


Scioto 


Democrat. 


1876-1878 


I. T. Monham 


Jackson 


Demorr*t, 


1878-1880 


Irvine Oungan 


Jackson 


Democrat. 


1880-1884 


John K. Pollard 


Adams 


Republican. 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Republican. 


1884 1888 


John W. GrefiTfiT 


Adams 


1888-1892 


Amos B. Cole 


Scioto^.. 


1892-1896 .... 


Dudley B. Phillips 

Elias Crandall 


Adams 


1896-1900 


Jackson 


1900-1902 


Samuel L. Patterson 


Pike 









The Representatives in the same period have been : 




1852-1853 
1854-1856 
1856-1858 
1858-1860, 
1860-1862, 
1862-1864 
1864-1866 
1866-1868 

1868-1872 
1872-1874 
1874-1876, 
1876-1880 
1880-1884 
1884-1886 
1886-1888 
1888-1890 
1890-1892 

1892-1894 
1894-1896 
1896-1900 
1900-1902 



Joseph R. Cockerill 

Jessie Ellis 

Moses J. Patterson. 

John W. McFerran 

Moses J. Patterson 

David C. Vance 

William W. West 

Heniy L. Philips (part) 

William D. Burbage (part) ... 

Joseph R. Cockerill 

Jesse Ellis 

Richard Ramsey 

Joseph W. Eylar 

James L. Coryell 

John B. Young 

William A Blair 

John W. Shinn 

William A. Blair (contested). 

R. H. Peterson (seated) 

John W. Hayes, Pike 

A. Bayhan, Pike 

A. C. Smith, Adams 

Joseph D.Wilson, Pike 



Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Republican. 

Republican. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Republican. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Republican. 

Democrat 

Republican. 

Democrat 

Republican. 

Democrat. 

Republican. 

Republican. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 261 

General Joseph Darlinton. 

In this age of pessimism, agnosticism, materialism, skepticism and 
other isms, it is refreshing to go in the past for two generations and 
find a character whose faith in our Christian rehgion, was as pure, sin- 
cere, true and genuine as the sunlight. We know of no such character 
now and it elevates the soul to find one of a former generation and to 
contemplate his life. Such was Joseph Darlinton. He was bom July 
19, 1765, within four miles of Winchester, Va., on a plantation of 
over four hundred acres, owned by his father, Meredith Darlinton. 
It was a pleasant home with delightful surroundings, as the writer, who 
has visited it, can testify. He was the fourth of seven children, six sons 
and a daughter. He grew up on his father's plantation, receiving such 
education as Winchester then afforded, and he went through all 
the experiences of the average boy. He was too young to have 
been a soldier in the Revolution, but old enough to imbibe the spirit 
of the times. When he was twelve years old, in 1777, six hundred of the 
prisone?rs, British and Hessians, taken at the surrender of Burgoyne 
at Saratoga, were kept on his father's plantation from that time until 
the close of the war. A part of them, were lodged in his father's bam, 
and for the remainder, barracks were built which they occupied. As 
might be expected, young Darlinton spent much of his time with 
them, trading knives and trinkets, and listening to their wonderful 
stories of travel and adventure. He was, by their influence, filled with 
a consuming desire to see the world, so much so that, when of age, he 
begged his father to advance him his patrimony, which he did. Young 
Darlinton went to Philadelphia, and from thence took a sea voyage 
to New Orleans, and returned to his home by land. While seeing the 
world, he spent his money freely, and lived extravagantly. Had he 
lived in our dav, he would have been called a dude or a dandv, but 
those names wxre not then invented, and so he was a young gentleman 
of fashion. He wore a queue, and as the young men of that day vied 
with each other which could have the thickest and longest queue, he 
had one as thick as an ordinary arm and very long. In his travels, he 
found Miss Sarah Wilson, at Romne>', W. Va. She w^as an heiress, 
possessed of lands and slaves, and was the belle of the two counties of 
Frederick and Hampshire. She had many suitors, among whom was 
young Darlinton, and the future statesman, Albert Oallatin. Darl- 
inton was the best looking and won the lady. He was married to her 
at Romney, March 18, 1790. He was, at the ceremony, dressed in a 
ruffled shirt, coat, waistcoat, knee breeches, silk stockings, great shoe 
buckles, and with his abundant hair pomaded and powdered and with 
his wonderful queue. He Hved in Romney till about the close of 1790, 
when he moved to Favette Countv, Pennsylvania, on a farm w^iich his 
wife owned there. His oldest son, John Meredith, was bom there De- 
cember 14, 1791, and his second son, George Wilson, was also born in 
Fayette County, Pennsylvania, November 18, 1793. The same year 
he and his wife united with the Presbvterian Church. While in 
Fayette County, he began his long career of office holding, having been 
chosen a county commissioner. It is told in the family that while living 
in Pennsylvania, young Darlinton and his wife w^ere much discour- 
aged. They often talked and wept together and thought there was 



262 HISTORY OP ADAJdS COUNTY 

nothing in the world for them. However, they concluded to try a new 
country, and they, with their two children, in October, 1794, left Penn- 
sylvania. They descended th^ Ohio, on a '*broadhom" and landed at 
Limestone, Kentucky, November 14, 1794. He went from there to the 
niouth of Cabin Creek, where he kept a ferry. Tiring of this he bought 
land just across the river in Ohio, and removed there. In the spring 
of 1797, believing that the county seat would be at Washington, below 
the mouth of Brush Creek, he moved there. When the county was 
organized on July 10, 1797, he was, by Governor St. Clair, appointed 
its judge of probate, and thus became Judge Darlinton. How long 
he held this office has not been ascertained. 

In March, 1798, at Adamsville, he was, by the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions, appointed one of the three first county commissioners of Adams 
County and clerk of the board. James Scott and Henry Massie were 
the other two. In this same year, he was made an elder in the Presby- 
terian Church, which office he held for the remainder of his life. In 

1803, he located lands east of the site of Weist Union and built a 
double hewed log house on the same, on the hill opposite Cole's 
spring. The house and spring have long since disappeared. He was 
elected a representative from Adams to the first Territorial Legislature. 
It sat from November 24, 1799, until January 29, 1801. He also repre- 
sented Adams in the second Territorial Legislature, which sat from No- 
vember 23, 1801, till January 23,- 1802. He was one of the three mem- 
bers from Adams in the first Constitutional Convention, which sat from 
November i, 1802, until the twenty-ninth of the same year. As this 
body transacted most of its business in the committee of the w^hole, its 
record is meagre. He was on the committee on privileges and elec- 
tions. On November 3, he voted against listening to a speech from 
Gov. St. Clair. He was on the committee to report a preamble to the first 
article of the constitution. On November 6, he was appointed on the 
committee to prepare the second article of the constitution, atul on the 
eighth of November, he presided over the committee of the whole. He 
was also on the committee to prepare the third article on the judiciary. 
He was also on the committee to print the journal oi the convention. 
He and his colleagues voted to retain the word "white" to the qualifica- 
tions of electors. It is sufficient to say that he was present at every 
session and voted on every question before the body. In the first Legis- 
lature, of the state he was a member of the Senate and served from March 
I, 1803, until April 16, following. 

On the sixteenth of April, 1803, he was elected one ot the first 
three associate judges of Adams County, but resigned February 16, 

1804, and Necdham Perr>^ was appointed in his place. On September 10, 
1804, he was commissioned by the Governor lieutenant colonel of the 
1st Brigade, ist Regiment, 2nd Division, Ohio Militia, and thus he be- 
came Colonel Darlinton. He w^as commissioned a brigadier general 
of the militia March 17, 1806, and thus became General Darlinton, by 
which title he was ever afterwards known. He was appointed clerk 
of the court of common pleas of Adams County, August 3, 1802, and 
continued to hold that position by successive appointments until Au- 
gust, 1847, when he resigned, as he wrote to Judge Cutler, of Marietta, 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 263 

"to prepare for that better country out of sight." *He served as re- 
corder of Adams County from 1803 to 1810 and ag^n from September, 
181 3, to 1834. Any one examining the old records in the recorder's 
office and clerk's office of Adams County will find whole volumes 
written out in his old-fashioned copper plate style. He never used any- 
thing but a quill pen and used a soft piece of buckskin for a pen wiper. 

On February 20, 1810, he was appointed a member of the commis- 
sion to locate the capital of the state. No doubt the General held many 
other important offices and appointments, but as the writer has no 
time to read over the entire records of the state kept during the Gen- 
eral's life, he is unable to give them, but the people interested and the 
appointing powers wanted him to have these various offices and he 
discharged the duties of every one of them, with the utmost fidelity. 

While he was the incumbent of the clerk's office, there was no law 
as to the disposition of unclaimed costs. Whenever any costs were paid 
in, he would put it iq a package by itself, and label it with the name of 
the party to whom it belonged and never disturb it until called for by 
the party entitled to it. These packages he kept loose among his court 
papers and with his office door only secured by an ordinary lock. In 
all the years he kept the office it was never burglarized, and his suc- 
cessor. Col. J. R. Cockerill, found the unclaimed costs in the very money 
in which it was paid in and much of it was worthless because the banks 
which issued it had failed years before. 

In 1805, he became an elder in the Presbyterian church at West 
Union, and felt more proud and honored in that office than any he ever 
held. He reared a family of eight : the two sons have been already 
mentioned : John Meredith was married three times, while his second 
son, George, who has a separate sketch herein, never married at all. His 
third son, Gabriel Doddridge, well known to all the citizens of West 
Union, was born February t, 1796, and married Sarah Edwards, his full 
cousin, October 2, 1823. His fourth son, Carey A., was born October 
2, 1797, and married Eliza Holmes, May 5, 1829. His daughter. Sarah 
was born January 26, 1802, married the Rev. Henry Van Deman, 
November 2. 1824, and two of her sons, John D. and Joseph H. have 
sketches herein. She died July 23, t888. The General's daughter 
Eliza, born January 22, 1804, and died April 2, 1844, never married. She 
was a woman of lovely character and was much esteemed in the society of 
her time. The eighth and youngest child of Gen. Darlinton was 
David N., born on December 10, 1806, and died in 1853, without issue. 

On May 17, 1804, in the allotment of lots in West Union, he took 
lot No. 84 at $17. This was just north of lot 57, which he afterwards 
acquired, and on which he built his home. Just west of the home he 
built a log office, which was afterwards weatherboarded. It was in this 
log office he kept the postoffice in West Union from July i, 1804, until 
October i, 181 1. His old residence is still standing, but its chief fea- 
tures, three immense stone chimneys, have long since been taken away. In 
this home, made pleasant and happy by the daily observance of ail the 
Christian virtues, General Darlinton dispensed a generous and bounte- 
ous hospitality. No stranger of consequence and no public officer ever 

•He was the only clerk of the Supreme Court of Adams County from its organization 
UU his death. 



264 HISTORY OP ADA.MS COUNTY 

came to West Union without being his guest. In the first place, he 
entertained all the Presbyterian ministers who came there ; in the second 
place, all the statesmen who traveled that way, and many of them did, 
and were not permitted to be entertained elsewhere. The associate 
judges and prominent citizens of the county were entertained at his 
home on the occasion of their visits to the county seat. In fact, in his 
day, the General's home had as many guests as the hotels, or taverns as 
they were called then, and but for the name of it, he might as well have 
had a tavern license. 

His personal appearance would have attracted notice anywhere. 
He was about average height, somewhat corpulent, of full and slightly 
elongated visage, fine regular features, clean shaven, diark brown eyes 
with heavy brows, and a large head and forehead with his white hair 
combed back from his forehead and behind his ears. He was quack of 
movement and to the last walked with the firm step of youth. He had 
a manly bearing which impressed all who knew him. The business of 
his office was admirably systematized and all his habits of daily life were 
regular and methodical. In the routine of life, it is said he did the same 
thing every day and at the same hour and moment for fifty years. His 
going to his office from his home in West Union and his returning were 
with such exactness as to time that his neighbors along the route, used 
him as a living town clock and did actually set their clocks by the time 
of his passing. Among other instances of his regularity in all things 
was the winding of his watch. While writing in the clerk's office, he would 
lay it down beside him, and when the hands pointed to a certain hour, he 
would take it up and wind it. The offices he held and his associations 
with the lawyers and judges, gave him such a knowledge of the princi- 

i)les of the common law of the state, and his familiarity with the statute 
aw, having grown up with it, together with his excellent judgment, 
qualified him for a local oracle, which he was, and grave matters of 
domestic and legal concern were constantly referred to him, and when 
he decided the matters, his disposition was acquiesced in as satisfactory 
to all sides. Jn politics, in his last years, he was a Whig. He believed in 
the state promoting religion, education and internal improvements. While 
not anti-slavery in his views, he thought the war with Mexico was un- 
righteous. 

His day, as compared with ours, was that of beginnings, and of small 
things. Everything was primitive but human character. That then 
had its highest development. In his day, there were no steam rail- 
roads, no macademized common roads, no luxurious vehicles, no tele- 
graphs, or telephones, no typewriters ^nd but few newspapers and books. 
All services were ihen compensated in sums of money which would seem 
insignificant to us in these days, and trade was largely carried on by bar- 
ter, and exchange of goods and services. 

General Darlinton always alluded to Winchester, Virginia, in af- 
fectionate terms, and loved to converse about it, particularly with his 
neighbors, Abraham Hollingsworth and Nicholas Burwell, who were 
also natives of that place. He owned the site of Winchester in this 
county, laid it out and named it in honor of his own loved Winchester, 
Virginia, but strange to say, he never re-visited the latter, though he had 
an interest in his father's estate until as late as 1817. But he never 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 256 

visited much in or traveled over Adams county, yet he knew every one in 
it and their circumstances. In his day, the clerk's office was the most 
important in the county, for every one's property rights were registered 
there. 

What distinguished General Darlinton among men and above his 
fellows was his unusual amount of good, hard, common sense, which 
after all, is the most uncommon kind of sense. He was an entertaining 
talker, and always had something useful and entertaining to say. He 
had a wonderful natural dignity of which he seemed unconscious, and 
which impressed itself on those with whom he came in contact. His 
Hfe was on a plane above the ordinary and the people who knew him well 
felt they were looking^ up to it. 

But what distinguished his life above everything else, what shone 
out above all things, and what will be remembered of him when all else 
is forgotten, was his remarkable Christian life and character. His re- 
ligion was of the very highest and best type of the Puritanic. With 
him, religion was not as now in many cases, a fashionable sentiment, but 
it was a living, essential realitv, controlling every thought and action of 
his life. His whole soul, conscience, principles, opinions, worldly in- 
terests and everything in his life was m.ade subservient to his religion. 
His life made all who knew him feel that there was truth and reality in the 
Christian religion, and he lived it every day. In his judgment, his 
crowning earthly honor was that he had served nearly fifty years as a 
ruling elder in the Presbyterian church at West Union. 

Four years before his death, he had retired from all public business 
and was simply waiting the final summons. All his life he had had a 
dread of the Asiatic cholera. When that pestilence visited West Union 
in the summer of 185 1, the first victim died June 26. By some irony 
of fate, he was the last and died of the dread disease on the last day it 
prevailed, August 2. He died in the morning about 7 o'clock after a 
sickness of but a few hours and was buried before noon that day, and 
there were but four persons present at his interment, when, had he died 
of any ordinary disease, the v/hole county would have attended. Geo. 
M. and William V. Lafferty, his son, Gabriel Darlinton and Rev. John 
P. Van Dyke were the only persons to attend his funeral rites. Rev. 
Van Dyke repeated a prayer at the grave. 

The writer, at nine years, knew him at eighty-five. He was in his 
sitting room. He had a wood fire in an old-fashioned fire place. The 
floor was uncarpeted and a plain deal table stood out in the middle of the 
rocMTi, at which the General sat and wrote. The table had a single drawer 
with a wooden knob. On that was tied a piece of buckskin, which he used 
to wipe his pen. A rocking chair was at each comer of the fire place, and 
common split-bottomed chairs in the room. Grandmother Edwards, his 
sister, with cap and spectacles, sat in one of the rocking chairs. The Gen- 
eral's hair was then as white as snow, long and combed behind his ears. 
He arose to meet and welcome me, only a child, and a more grave and 
dignified man I never met. To me, a boy, his presence was awe-inspiring. 

General Darlinton was and is a fair example of the good and true 
men; who built well the foundations of the great State of Ohio, His 
good works in church and state have borne and will bear fruit to many 
generations of posterity. From the day West Union was laid out. 



266 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

for forty-seven years his fig^ire was a familiar one, seen daily on its 
streets, but for forty-eight years, it has been missed, but his memory is 
as fresh and green as that summer day, forty-eight years past, when he 
closed his books at the clerk's office for the last time and walked to his 
home. The memory of his lovely and lovable Christian character is 
the richest legacy he left his children, but they can give it to posterity, 
and be none the poorer. 

Gov. Thomas Kirker 

was a native of Ireland. His father lived in Tyrone County, and was a 
man of small means, but good standing. Thomas was one of a large 
family, and was born in 1760. Until he was nineteen years old, he lived 
with his parents in Ireland and endeavored with them to make a living 
out of the poor soil and against the exactions of oppressive landlords. 
His father concluded that was too much of an undertaking, and moved 
to America, settling in Lancaster County, Penn. After a few years of 
hard work in that county, the father died, leaving behind him a fragrant 
memory and a wife and five or six children. By constant toil and good 
management the family made a living and the children acquired some 
education. From the death of his father in Lancaster County, until 1790 
Thomas Kirker left no account of himself. At that time, being thirty 
years of age and having acquired some little money and seeing a hope 
for the future, he was married to Sarah Smith, a young woman of ex- 
cellent family and great worth, eleven years his junior. They remained 
in Pennsylvania for a short time when stories of great wealth to be made 
in Kentucky came to them across the mountains, and the perilous jour- 
ney of moving to the Blue Grass State was undertaken. Indians were 
on the way, and they kept the small company in constant fear by oc- 
casional arrow practice with them as targets. Kentucky proved a fail- 
ure so far as they were concerned, and in 1794, Mr. Kirker and his wife 
crossed the Ohio and settled in Manchester, this county. This marked 
the beginning of his public career, and of his financial success. 

In 1796, our subject changed his residence from Manchester to 
Liberty township in the same county, and settled on a farm, which has 
ever since been known as the Kirker farm, and on which he died in 1837, 
and in the cemetery there the ashes of him and his wife now repose. 
When he moved to Liberty township, his family consisted of himself, 
wife and two children. Thev were the first settlers to locate in the 
county outside the stockade in Manchester, but the county was speedily 
covered with settlements. The site selected proved a happy choice and 
soon blossomed with crops that yielded an abundant harvest. Within 
the next few years, Liberty township was dotted with cabins and the 
sturdy settlers were tilling the soil. He was a member of the first Court 
of Quarter Sessions held in the county under the Territorial Government 
at Manchester, in September, 1797. He was also a county commis- 
sioner under the Territorial Government, but the record of his service 
is lost. Mr. Kirker was the leading man in that settlement, and was 
usually the foremost in all public matters. By common consent he set- 
led quarrels among his neighbors and acted in the capacity of judge and 
jury. All his neighbors respected him and looked to him for counsel. 
His reputation for good judgment in his township spread throughout 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 267 

the county, and when delegates were elected to the first Constitutional 
Convention in 1802, he was sent as one of them, and at, once, on the open- 
ing- of the convention, Mr. Kirker took a prominent part in its deliber- 
ations. 

Thomas Kirker was a member of the lower house of the Legis- 
* lature from Adams County at the first legislative session March i, 1803, 
to April 16, 1803, He entered the Ohio senate at the second legisla- 
tive session, December 5, 1803, and served in that body continuously 
until the thirteenth legislative session, closing February 16, 1815. In 
that time he was Speaker in the Senate in the fifth, sixth, seventh, ninth, 
tenth, eleventh and thirteenth sessions. From November 4, 1807, to 
December 12, 1808, he was acting Governor of the State by reason of a 
vacancy in the office of governor and his then being speaker of tl^e 
senate. At the fifteenth legislative session, December 15, 1816, to Jan- 
uary 28, 1 817, he was a member of the House and its speaker. Then 
he took a rest from legislative honors for four years. At the twentieth 
legislative session beginning December 3, 1821, he was again in the 
senate from Adams and served in it continuously until February 8, 1825. 
On January 17, 1821, he was appointed an associate judge from Adams 
county, and served until October 30, 1821, when he resigned. In 1824, 
he was presidential elector, and voted for Clay. From 1808 until his 
death, he was a ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church at West Union, 
and his son William was also an elder in the same church from 1826, 
during his father's lifetime. 

Mr. Kirker was not a brilliant man, but he was honest, conscien- 
tious and possessed of sound judgment and integrity that was unselfish 
and incorruptible. He was respected, esteemed, and exerted an in- 
fluence that was felt in the entire circle of his acquaintance. No man 
served his state better or with more credit than he. Called to high 
places, he filled them well and went out of office carrying with him the 
respect of all who knew him. His wife died August 20, 1824. He died 
February 20, 1837. He reared a family of thirteen children, and has 
a host of descendants, who are scattered in difTercnt parts of the United 
States. A number of them are residing in Adams County, but most of 
them are in other localities. 

He succeeded Gov. Tiffin, March 4, 1807, when he resigned to enter 
the U. S. Senate and served to the end of his term. In December, 1807, 
the election of governor having failed by reason of Return J. Meigs not 
being qualified and N. Massie declining, he served as Governor one year 
or to December 12, 1808, when Samuel Huntington succeeded him. 
The vote stood Huntington 7,293 ; Worthington, 5,601 ; Kirker, 3,397. 

Abraham Shepherd. 

It is a pleasure to study the subject of this sketch, and the more we 
study the more we find to admire. He came from Virginia's best blood. 
His grandfather was Captain Thomas Shepherd, a title probably coming 
from the French and Indian War, and his grandmother was Elizabeth 
Van Meter, daughter of John Van Meter. His father, John Shepherd, 
was born in 1749 and in 1773 was married to Martha Nelson, born in 

17a 



268 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

1750. To them were born seven children, six of whom were bom in 
Shepherdstown, Va., and one at Wheeling Creek, Ohio. Capt. Thomas 
Shepherd died in 1776, and among other property, left a new mill, which 
fell to his son, John, father of our subject. John, however, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier. He was a private in Capt. Wm. Cherry's Company, 
4th Virginia Infantry, from April, 1777, to March, 1778. The regiment 
was commanded by Col. Thomas Elliott and Major Isaac Beall. John's 
brother, Abraham, was a captain in the nth Virginia Regulars. Cap- 
tain Abraham Shepherd, on August 13, 1787, entered 1000 acres of land. 
Entry No. 1060, on Virginia Military Warrant, 290, for his own services, 
at Red Oak, in Brown county. This was surveyed November 3, 1791, 
by Nathaniel Massie deput\ surveyor; Duncan McKenzie and Robert 
Smith, being chain carriers and Thomas Stout, marker. He had an 
uncle, David, who was a colonel in the Revolutionary War and so came 
of good fighting stock. The subject of our sketch was born August 13, 
1776, at Shepherdstown, now Jefferson county, Va. He must have 
drank in patriotism with his mother's milk. Next year his father was in 
the service and so continued most of the time during the war. It seems 
his father operated a flour mill from 1781 to 1787, and his son Abraham 
learned something of the business. It is said Abraham received a 
liberal education for his time and surroundings. The details of that 
education we do not know, but do know that he learned the operations of 
his father's mill and the art of land surveying. In 1787, John Shepherd, 
with his family, moved to Wheeling Creek, Ohio, about eight miles from 
Wheeling, W. V. Here were already located two brothers and a mar- 
ried sister of John Shepherd. In 1793 he removed to Limestone, Ky., 
where he remained two years. In 1795 he removed to what was then 
Adams County, Ohio, but what is now Red Oak, in Brown County, 
locating on the trrct entered by his brother, Captain Abraham Shepherd. 
In 1799, he married Margaret Moore and was at that time living at Red 
Oak. Soon after this he bought a part of Capt. Phillip Slaughter's 
survey 588 on Eagle Creek and built a brick house on it, now owned by 
Baker Woods. Here he also built and oj^erated the mill afterwards 
known as Pilson's Mill. He also laid out and dedicated the cemetery 
on his lands now known as Baird's cemetery. In October, 1803, he was 
elected one of the three representatives of Adams County in the lower 
house, and took his seat December 5, 1803. He continued to represent 
Adams County in the house by successive re-elections till February 4, 
1807. He remained out till December 4, 1809, when he again repre- 
sented Adams County in the house and continued tc^o so until January 
30, 181 1. At the session in December, 1809, he received two votes for 
senator, but Alexander Campbell was elected. In the fifth legislative 
session, December i, 1806, to February 4, 1807, he was speaker of the 
house, while at the same session Thomas Kirker, also from Adams 
County, was speaker of the senate. He seems to have dropped out of 
the legislature from January 30, 181 1, until December 4, 1815, but in 
the meantime he was not idle. He was in the war of 1812 as captain 
of a company and had two of his men shot by Indians as they were re- 
turning home in 1 81 2. In 181 3 he was out in the war again as captain 
of a company in Major Edward's Battalion, ist Regiment, ist Brigade, 
2d Division, Ohio Militia. In the fourteenth legislative session. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 259 

December 4, 181 5, to February 27, 1816, he was a member of the senate 
from Adams. In the fifteenth legislative session, December 2, 1816, to 
January 28; 1817, he represented Adams County in the senate and was 
speaker at the same time Ex-Gov. Kirker was speaker of the house, he 
and Shepherd having exchanged offices from the fifth legislative session. 
In 18 16, he was one of the eight presidential electors of Ohio and cast 
his vote for James Monroe. Brown County was set off from Adams 
and Clermont by the legislature December 21, 181 7, and Abraham Shep- 
herd procured the passage of the act in the senate. 

In 1818 the first court was held in Brown County, at Ripley, by 
Josiah Collett, presiding Judge, with James Moore, William Anderson 
and James Campbell, associate judges. At this term, Abraham Shep- 
herd, was appointed clerk for a term of seven years, and served a full 
term. In this period he was an active politician and practically con- 
trolled affairs in Brown Coimty. 

In 1825, he was sent back to the senate from Adams County and 
Brovm. During this twenty-fourth legislative session, from December 
8, 1825, to February 3, 1826, he was appointed a member of the state 
board of equalization for the sixth district, the first state board appointed. 
In the twenty-fifth legislative session, December 4, 1826, to January 31, 
1827, he was again in the senate for Adams and Brown counties, and 
again its speaker. This closed his active career in public office. 

He was a Presbyterian in faith and practice, and long a ruling elder 
in that church. The records of the Chillicothe Presbytery show that he 
attended it as a delegate in 1823, 1830 and 1832. He was master of a 
Masonic lodge at Ripley in 1818 and appears to have taken a great 
interest in the order for a period of years. In private life Abraham 
Shepherd was quite an energetic character. In 1815, he built and 
operated Pilson's mills on Eagle Creek then in Adams County, now in 
Jefferson township, Brov/n County. He held this until about 1817 
when he sold it and went to Ripley. He built the Buckeye mill on Red 
Oak and operated it with steam as early as 1825. While engaged in this 
he was a pork packer. 

He was of pleasing address, large and portly. No picture 
of him was preserved or can be obtained, ?Ie was always 
courteous and gentlemanly in his intercourse with others, and was pop- 
ular with all sorts and conditions of his fellow men in his county. He 
was f)Ossessed of unbounded energy and wonderful perseverance, and 
naturally became a man of influence and importance in the community 
in which he dwelt. As a legislator and as presiding officer of the two 
houses, his services commanded the respect and commendation of his 
constituents and his fellow members. In his farming, he excelled his 
neighbors and made more improvements on his farm than any of them, 
and did it more rapidly. As a miller, he did more business than his 
competitors and the same is true of his pork packing. In 1834 it is 
said he met with financial reverses, and in consequence removed to 
Putnam County, IlHnois, with his family. In that county he lived as a 
farmer, a quiet retired life, until his death on January 16, 1847. 

He was the father of ten children by his first wife, who died in 1818. 
All his children by his first wife are deceased. He married Miss Har- 
riet Kincaid on October 19, 1819, and by her he had two children, 



260 • HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

Andrew K., born November i8, 1820, and Martha Ann, March i, 1823, 
and both of whom are now living at Crete, Neb. His second wife died 
November 10, 1884, at the residence of her two children. • 

When the slavery question came to be agitated, he became strongly 
anti-slavery. While acting with the Democratic party in his earlier career 
on account of slavery he abandoned it and became an Abolitionist. His 
convictions on every subject were positive and strong. His influence on 
his community, either in politics or religion was great and it was always 
on the side of humanity, right and justice. 

John Fisher 

was bom in Pennsylvania, May 4, 1789. He moved to Cincinnati. 
Ohio, in 1807. He was married there at Fort Washington, July 12, 
1810. He went to Hillsboro and from there to Manchester. On June 
13, 1815, he was made post master at Manchester, and served until 1822. 
He resided at Manchester until 1836. He was a commissioner of 
Adams County from 1819 to 1822. During his residence at Man- 
chester he carried on the commission business most of the time. In 1822 
and 1823 he was a member of the house of representatives. In 1827 
and 1828 he was in the senate, representing Adams and Brown counties, 
and also in the winter of 1828 and 1829. He was a Whig at all times. In 
1836, he purchased the Brush Creek Forge Furnace and moved to Cedar 
Mills, where he spent the remainder of his life. When the Whig party 
ceased its organization, he became a Republican. He was a justice of 
the peace in Sprigg and Jefferson townships seventeen years. He was 
devoted to his party and very fond of contributing political articles to 
the newspapers. He was an interesting writer and his articles were 
terse and to the point. He was more a philosopher than a politician. 
A number of his letters are in existence and they give much insight into 
his life and thoughts. 

A letter from him dated in 1859 to a friend in Scotland, gives some 
account of himself. He states in this letter that his father lost his life 
in the campaign of Gen. Anthony Wayne, against the Indians in 1793, 
and that his mother died six months aften^^ard, leaving him to find his 
way alone, friendless and penniless, the best he could. He states that 
he was never in a school house in his life as a pupil. He says when he 
located in Cincinnati, he had but six cents left, and that he has never re- 
ceived a penny since except what he earned by his own hands. That 
his mental acquirements are what he obtained by his own creation as he 
passed along. He states that ten years before, in 1849, ^^ closed his 
accounts with the world and owed no man a cent. That he has not 
done a days work for ten years and don*t ever intend to do one — that he 
does just what seems right in his own eyes. He says four of his children 
live in sight of his residence, that all of his children are industrious and 
doing well for themselves and their families. That he enjoys himself 
at reading and writing far better than he did in his younger days, and 
that he has no cares. That he has enough to keep him and his wife, 
who has cheered him in adversity and prosperity for fifty years, and that 
while he has but little, he considers himself richer than the Rothschilds. 
Then he comments on the Russian War, and gives an account of a trip 
to Iowa to visit a son located there. He gives a description of Iowa 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 261 

as he found it, worthy of the pen of the best descriptive writer. He 
speaks of the approaching political campaign and defines the position 
of the three parties, Republican, Democrat and Abolitionists. He 
states that his friends, Thompson, (Peter) and Campbell and their fam- 
ilies, as well as himself, and all connected with him were Republicans. 
That the Abolitionists are right in the abstract, but as the constitution 
recognized slavery in the slave states, we must submit to slave states, but 
are opposed to admitting any more in the Union. 

John Fisher was fond of writing for the newspapers and enjoyed a 
political controversy on paper. One or more of his political contro- 
versies got into the courts and cost him much expense and trouble, 
owing to its personal character, but those matters are better now for- 
gotten than remembered. 

John Fisher was not a religious man. His philosophy largely took 
the place of religion, but he believed in right and justice. With him, the 
golden rule was the highest law. He believed in every man having a 
full opportunity to do the best he could for himself in the world, and in 
his doing right at all times. John Fisher's code of morality was the 
highest and of the best order. He lived up to it himself, and had no 
respect for the man who did not or could not live up to it. Had he lived 
in the days of the Greek philosophers, he would have been one of them, 
and the principal one among them. Probably he would have been a 
Stoic. He aimed to do his part in the world's work from his standpoint 
as he saw it, and in view of what he accomplished from his slavery point. 
We think his life and career was a credit to himself and to the com- 
munity of which he was a member. His descendants are all honorable, 
self-respecting and highly respected men and women, and the impress 
he left upon them, they need not be ashamed of, and the world can con- 
gratulate itself on the legacy he left it in his posterity. He died October 
24, 1864. 

Gen, John Cochran. 

one of the most distinguished of the early citizens of Brown County, was 
born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, September 19, 1781. His 
father, William Cochran, was an early pioneer of Brown County, was a 
native of Ireland and born in County Antrim in 1722. He was married 
in his native countrv to Elizabeth Boothe, and about the middle of the 
last century, emigrated to America. He served in the Revolutionary 
War, and resided in Pennsylvania, afterward in Kentucky, and about 
1795 or 1796, came to the Northwest Territory and settled on the east 
fork of Eagle Creek, near the present eastern boundary of Brown 
County. He died in March, 1814, aged ninet3^-two. His wife, Eliza- 
beth, died October 21, 1823. John was about nine years old when his 
father came to Kentucky. He lived for a few years in the vicinity of 
the old settlement of Washington. When a small boy, he was at Fort 
Washington, on the site of Cincinnati, and saw corn growing on what 
is now Fourth Street of the Queen City. He was with his father on 
his settlement north of the Ohio, as above stated, and when about eigh- 
teen years old, became overseer of the Kanawha Salt Works, where he 
continued about seven years. Salt was one of the necessaries of life 
which it was most difficult for the pioneers of Kentucky and the North- 
west Territory to obtain. John Cochran is said to have shipped the 



262 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX>UNTY 

first boat load of salt down the Ohio River to Louisville, Kentucky. 
He came to what is now Brown County in about 1805 or 1806. He 
married Tamer Howard, daughter of Cyrus and Milly Howard, who was 
born in Montgomery County, Virginia. Her father for some years 
kept the ferry between Aberdeen and Limestone. John Cochran pur- 
chased a farm from Nathaniel Beasley, about six miles northeast of 
Aberdeen, on the east fork of Eagle Creek, in what is now Huntington 
township, on which he resided for the greater portion of the remaining 
years of his life. He served in the War of 181 2 as dleputy sergeant in the 
commissary department. He took much interest in the old militia musters 
and passed through all the grades from captain to brigadier general. He 
was known as General Cochran. In the year 1824, he was first elected rep- 
resentative to the legislature as a Democrat, and was re-elected in 
1826, 1827 and 1828. In 1829, he was elected senator from Brown and 
Adams counties, and was re-elected in 1830, thus serving six full terms 
in the general assembly. Gener^ Cochran had but little education 
from books in his early life, never attending school but three months in 
his life. He was, however, self-educated. He was a man of strong 
con\ictions and remarkable memory. In his recollection of dates, he 
was seldom found to be in error. He carefullv cultivated his memorv 
in his early business transactions by imprinting facts on his mind, and he 
became marked for the tenacity with which he could retain everything 
he heard or read. 

General Cochran was the father of thirteen children, five sons and 
eight daughters — Joseph, John, Milly, William, Mary, Elizabeth, James, 
Tamer, Ellen, Thomas J.. Sarah J., Malinda and Lydia. Of them, ten 
are now living. Mrs. Cochran died in 1855. She was an esteemed 
member of the Christian Church. General Cochran was a Mason, and 
assisted in organizing the first Masonic lodge in Brown County. In 
his business pursuits, he met with great success and died in possession 
of considerable property. In his old age, he resided for a time in 
Illinois, but he returned to Brown County and lived with his children. 
His death occurred at the residence of his son-in-law, William Shelton, 
in Adams County. He lived eighty-three years and died on his birth- 
day, September 19, 1864. His remains, with those of his wife, repose 
in the cemetery of Ebenezer Church. General Cochran left behind him 
a high reputation for ability and judgment and patriotism, and his name 
finds an honored place among the rnen of Brown County. 

Joseph Riggs^ 

was born near Aniitv, Washington County, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1796, 
the eldest son of Stephen and Anne Baird Riggs. He had four brothers 
and six sisters. His father removed to near Steubenville, Ohio, when 
he was a child ; and later to Sardinia, Ohio, where both he and his wife 
are buried. In August, 1817, our subject left his home near Steuben- 
ville Ohio, to visit his uncles James and Moses Baird in the Irish Bot- 
tom in Green Towmship, Adams County. While there he was offered 
the position of clerk in the West Union Bank, kept by George Luckey. 
This position he accepted on December 31, 1817: and in coming from 
Steubenville to Manchester, travelled on a flat boat. 

While living at West Union he was a great friend of lawyer George 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 263 

Fitzgerald, and frequently borrowed his fine horse to ride to North 
Liberty to court Miss Rebecca G. Baldridge, daughter of Rev. William 
Baldridge. On January i, 1819, he was elected cashier of the West 
Union Bank ; and on December 8, 1819, he married Miss Rebecca Bald- 
ridge, before named. Soon after, they joined the Associate Reformed 
Church, at Cherry Fork. He served as cashier of the West Union 
Bank until 1823. On March i, 1824, he was appointed auditor of 
Adams County, Ohio, to serve an unexpired term. He was elected and 
re-elected; and served from March i, 1824, until the fall of 1831. In 
183 1 he was appointed a deputy surveyor of the Virginia Military Dis- 
trict of Ohio, for Adams County. While holding that office, he made 
a connected survey of all the lands in Adams County, and made 
a map of the county which remained in the auditor*s office till it fell to 
pieces from age. Mr. Riggs was an accomplished surveyor, but when 
or where he learned the science we are not advised. He resigned the office 
of auditor on October 3, 1831, to accept the office of state senator from 
Adams and Brown counties, to which he was elected as a Democrat in 
183 1 and served ufitil 1833. In the fall of that year he removed to Hang- 
ing Rock, Ohio. He remained there until 1837, when he removed to Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, where he resided the remainder of his life. 

On reaching Portsmouth, in 1837, he and his wife connected with 
the First Presbyterian Church, and he was ordained an elder in 1838. 
He served until February 9, 1875, when he connected with the Second 
Presbyterian Church. He was at once made an elder in that Church, 
and continued as such during his life. 

In 1837 he opened a general store in the city of Portsmouth, and con- 
tinued in that business, either alone or with partners, for many years. 
He was a man of substance and of excellent business qualifications. In 
March, 1838, he was elected to a township office in Wayne Township, 
in which was located the town of Portsmouth. He was elected a member 
of the city council of Portsmouth, March 3, 1838; and continued in it, 
with intervals, until t868. He was elected recorder of Portsmouth, April 
10, 1838, and served until March 15, 1844, and again from March 17, 
1848, to March 16, 1849 Me was county surveyor of Scioto County from 
1839 to 1841. OnMay2i,i838,he was appointed on acommitteeto secure 
an armory at Portsmouth. He was surveyor of the town of Portsmouth 
from November 7, 1845, to March 7, 1849, and again from 1852 to 1854. 
On December 4, 1846, he was appointed one of the first infirmary board 
of Scioto County, Ohio, and served by subsequent elections till 1852, 
and during that time he was clerk of the board. In i860, he engineered 
the construction of the tow path from the city of Portsmouth to Union 
Mills, and charged $70 for his entire services. In 1867, he was president 
of the city council of Portsmouth. He was usually on the committee of 
ordinances, and was one of the most useful members of the council. He 
was responsible for most of the city ordinances, and general legislation 
during his membership of council. 

He was a public-spirited citizen, and was so recognized. 'When any 
delegation was to be sent on a public mission by the city authorities, he 
was usually one of it. In 1869 he retired from all business, and lived 
qui,etly until his death on Jtily 28, 1877, at the age of 81 years, 26 days. 
He was a just man, a consistent Christian, and a most valuable citizen. 



264 HISTORY OP ADAMS (X)UNTY 

General Jaaies Pilsoa 



was born in April, 1796, in Augusta County, Virginia, the son of Samuel 
and Dorcas Pilson. His parents emigrated to Adams County in 1807, 
and settled on Eagle Creek. Dorcas Pilson died in 1840, and Samuel 
Pilson in 1848. James taught school when a youth, and at the age of 
twenty was appointed surveyor of Adams County, and held the office two 
years. From the organization of Browm County, he was its county 
surveyor until 1824. In 1831 and 1832, he was a member of the house 
from Brown County, defeating Jesse R. Grant, father of President Grant, 
for that office. 

He was for many years proprietor of Pilson's mill on Eagle Creek. 
The mill was built by Abraham Shepherd. For many years he was a 
brigadier general in the militia. From 1833 to 1835, he represented 
Adams and Brown counties in the senate. He was a man of good busi- 
ness capacity, of integrity and steady and reliable character. He married 
a niece of Gen Joseph Darlinton, daughter of his sister, Mrs. Edwards. 
She was a widow of George Sparks when he married her. 

They had one son, Samuel Pilson, born March 7, 1843. Gen. James 
Pilson died April 4, 1880. He was a Democrat and a Republican. The 
writer remembers him very well and was a playmate of his son Samuel, 
also now deceased. 

Joliii Patterson. 

John Patterson was born in Pendleton County, Virginia, Novem- 
ber 23, 1793, and died in Wilkins, Union County, Ohio, February i, 
1859. His parents were James Augustine Patterson, of English de- 
scent, and Ann Elizabeth Hull (Patterson), of Dutch descent. 

The family lived in that part of Virginia (now West Virginia) 
known as the "Backbone of the Alleghanies," and owned large tracts of 
land on the South Branch of the Potomac River. James A. Patterson 
rendered the American cause important service during the War of the 
Revolution, and for that reason became possessed of sufficient means 
to purchase a large body of land in Alleghany County, Pennsylvania, 
a part of which is now in the heart of the city of Pittsburg. Others 
had preempted a part of the land before he reached it, and he did not 
attempt to dispossess them. 

John Patterson was but about eight years of age when his father 
died, in 1801, and in 1804 he was apprenticed for a period of ten years 
to Z. A. Tannehill to learn the trade of watchmaker and silversmith. 
His employer died in 1813, leaving his apprentice on his own resources. 
He then enlisted as a private soldier in a Pittsburg infantry regiment, 
serving in Gen. Adamson Tannehiirs Brigade in what is historically 
knmvn as the "War of 1812." He saw but little field service, but be- 
fore the war ended he was made a corporal. 

In 181 5 he went to Alexandria, Va., expecting to go into business, 
but his partner proved unworthy, and he returned to Pittsburg, enter- 
ing the employ of Mr. John Thompson. In the autumn of 1817 he 
emigrated to Ohio, making the journey down the Ohio River on a 
keel boat to Manchester, and thence overland to West Union, then one 
of the most promising settlements in the Bucke>'e State. Here he 
opened a jewelry store, made and repaired watches and clocks and man- 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 266 

ufactured articles of silverware. Some of the spoons and possibly other 
utensils of his handiwork are still in existence. He afterwards estab- 
lished a tannery, and then one of the first wool-carding and combing 
factories erected in southern Ohio. In the spring of 1819 he was 
elected justice of the peace for Tiffin Township, and subsequently was 
twice elected to the same position. For several years he held the office, 
by appointment, of county collector of taxes. On January 27, 1827, the 
system of tax collecting then in vogue was abolished by the act of the 
legislature, which created the office of county treasurer, and the incum- 
bent of that office was made the only tax collector. 

In 1826 Mr. Patterson was elected as representative from Adams 
County to the twenty-fifth general assembly of the state; in 1828 to the 
twenty-seventh ; in 1829 he was joint representative with Hosea Moore 
in the twenty-eighth general assembly. He was then, as always 
throughout his public career, an ardent Democrat. In 1833 ^^d again 
in 1834, he was for the fifth and sixth times elected as representative 
in the legislature. He was elected as state senator from Adams and 
Brown counties in 1835 to the thirty-fourth general assembly; and in 
1836 was elected as state senator from Adams, Brown, and Scioto 
counties to the thirty-fifth general assembly. 

With the single exception of Hon. Thomas Kirker, Governor of 
Ohio, in 1808, who served as senator and representative for seventeen 
years prior to 1825, John Patterson was a member of the legislature 
longer than any other citizen of the county. He took high rank as a 
party leader and debater, and secured the passage of excellent laws. He 
was a firm friend of all public improvements, and heartily supported the 
"National Road" and all the various canal projects which were before 
the legislature during his eight terms of service. 

In 1834 John Patterson, of Adams; Uri Seeley, of Geauga, and 
Jonathan Taylor, of Licking, were appointed by Governor Lucas as 
commissioners for Ohio to settle the boundary between Ohio and 
Michigan. The action of the commissioners was resisted by the Gover- 
nor and inhabitants of Michigan Territory, and for a time there was 
g^eat excitement throughout the state, the militia was called out on 
each side, and for a few weeks there was every prospect of bloodshed. 
Happily for all concerned this was averted. This, and subsequent pro- 
ceedings relative to the disputed boundary line, are matters of record 
end a part of the history of the state, too lengthy for repetition here. 
Suffice it to say that the action of the commissioners was sustained by the 
governor and legislature of the state, and by the president and congress 
of the United States. The territory in dispute now includes the great 
city of Toledo. 

On March 21, 1838, President Van Buren appointed Mr. Patter- 
son United States Marshal for the state of Ohio, as the successor of 
John Patterson, of Belmont County, who, though he bore the same 
name, was not a relative. The United States courts then were all held 
at Columbus, and thither Mr. Patterson removed his family, residing in 
that city from the date of his appointment until the expiration of his 
official term, July 10, 1841. His most important service was the taking 
of the United States census, during the summer of 1840. This im- 
mense and important task was solely in his charge, and it was per- 



266 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

formed in a manner creditable to himself and to the complete satisfac- 
tion of the government. 

Returning to Adams County, in 1841, Mr. Patterson resided in 
West Union until the summer of 1847, when he removed to York 
Township, Union County, Ohio, where he spent the remainder of his 
life on a farm in the peaceful pursuits of agriculture and stock raising. 
His remains were laid to rest in sight of his home, in the cemetery of 
the York Presbyterian Church, with which he was identified during the 
last twelve years of his life. 

John Patterson was married three times. His first wife was Mar>^ 
Brown Finley, daughter of Major Joseph Lewis Finley and Jane Blair 
Finley. They were married at her father's residence on Gift Ridge, 
south of West Union, November 10, 1818, by Rev. Thomas Williamson. 
Six children were born of this union, namely: Joseph Peter (died at 
Butler, Pa., March 4, 1856), Lewis Augustine (died at West Union, 
April 26, 1846), Matilda Ann (mameu John Smith, died at West Union, 
August 23, 1895), Thomas R^ed (resides at Price Hill, Cincinnati, 
Ohio), Hannah Finley (married Lewis C. Clark, died at ilanhattan, 
Kansas, April 23, 1884), and Mary Brown (married Jacob Dresback, 
resides at Paris, 111.). His first wife's remains were laid away in the old 
village cemetery. 

His second wife was Miss Celia Prather, daughter of Major John 
Prather, of West Union, to whom he was married November 9, 183 1. 
by Rev. John Meek. To them the following children were born : Al- 
gernon Sidney (died in infancy), Elizabeth Jane (married Benjamin F. 
Coates, resides at Portsmouth, Ohio), Robert Emmet (died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., June 25, i860), John Prather (died at Chicago 111., Decem- 
ber 17, 1889), ^^^ James Hamer (died in infancy at Columbus, Ohio) 

Mrs. Celia Patterson died at Columbus, Ohio, February 22, 1840. 
A number of vears afterward her remains were removed to the West 
Union cemetery 

His third wife was Miss Marv Catherine McCrea, a relative of 
Jane McCrea, whose tragic massacre by the Indians near Saratoga, 
N. Y., is narrated in the annals of the Revolution. They were married 
at Columbus, Ohio, on November 12, 1840, by Rev. James -Hoge. All 
of their four children were born in West Union ; three of them (James 
McCrea, Stephen Henry, and Celia Ann) died in infancy. Charles 
Moore, their youngest child, died in his seventeenth year (March 4, 
1863), at Murfreesboro, Tenn., while in the service of his country as a 
volunteer soldier during the War of the Rebellion. 

Mrs. Catharine M. Patterson was married to Andrew McNeil, of 
Union County, on June 16, 1862, who died December 31, 1889. She 
died at her home near Richwood, Ohio, October 27, 1893. 

Col. Oscar F. Moore, 

who represented Adams County as a part of the seventh Ohio sena- 
torial district in the fiftieth general assembly, and its first senator under 
the constitution of 1851, was born January 2y, 1817, near Steubenville, 
the son of James H. Moore and his wife, Sarah Stull. His maternal 
grandfather, Daniel Stull, was a captain in the Revolutionary War. 
He graduated at Washington College, Pennsylvania, in the class of 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 267 

1836. He beg^n the study of law immediately, under D. L. Collier, 
then mayor of Steubenville. He attended one session of the Cincinnati 
Law School, and was admitted to practice by the Supreme Court at 
Steubenville, October, 1838. 

In April, 1839, ^^ located at Portsmouth, in the practice of the law, 
nnd conimued to reside there the remainder of his life. In 1850 he was 
elected as a Whig to represent Lawrence and Scioto counties in the 
house of representatives in the last session under the constitution of 
1802. He participated in the senatorial election in which Benjamin F. 
Wade was elected to the United States senate. In 185 1 he was elected 
to the state senate, as stated at the opening of this sketch. He had as 
associates in the house. Col. J. R. Cockerill, of Adams County, and 
Hon. Wells A. Hutchins, of Scioto. In 1854 he was elected to the 
thirty-fourth congress as a Whig, representing the tenth district, com- 
posed of Scioto, Pike, Ross, Jackson, and Lawrence. On July 23, 
1861, he entered the 33d O. V. L, as its lieutenant colonel. He was 
promoted colonel of the regiment July 16, 1862. At the battle of Perry- 
ville, October 8, 1862, he was wounded, captured, and paroled. He re- 
mained at home until February, 1863, when he was exchanged. He 
commanded his regiment in the two days* fight at Chickamauga, where 
the regiment met with heavy loss in killed and wounded. He served on 
court martials at Nashville, Tenn., in 1863 and in 1864, until July 20, 
1864, when he resigned. 

In politics he was a Whig until the dissolution of that party, when 
he was a member of the American party during its existence. After 
its dissolution, he went to the Democratic party, in which he remained 
during his life. 

On September 19, 1843, ^^ was married to Martha B., daughter of 
Hon. Thomas B. Scott, of Chillicothe. He had two daughters, the eld- 
est of whom he named Clay for the idol of his party, Henry Clay. She 
married Mr. George O. Newman in 1866. His second daughter, Kate, 
is the wife of Hon. James W. Newman. 

As was said of him by the leading member of the bar in his county, 
and who practiced with him for over forty years : 

"He was a man who had many warm friends, of liberal views, of a 
kind, charitable nature, and who scarcely ever expressed a harsh re- 
mark or used an unkind word to others. His life in this respect was 
a lesson of the broadest charity. As a lawyer, he had a wide reputation, 
and will long be remembered in southern Ohio. He was in active prac- 
tice at the Portsmouth bar for over forty years, a period longer than any 
other member has served ; his ability was of the very highest order, and 
as adapted to the varied practice in the diflferent courts, both state and 
federal, whether before court or jury, and whether relating to cases 
at law or in equity or to criminal practice, he had but few equals. He 
seldom made mistakes in the management of a case. Perhaps the most 
striking feature of his mind was the faculty of clear discrimination, 
which enabled him, with care and facility, to sift authorities quoted 
against him and explain the facts of a case so as to avoid legal princi- 
ples, supposed by an opponent to be conclusive against him. He had 
a keen relish for a "close case," full of surprises by the disclosure of un- 



268 fflSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

expected evidence which took the case out of the line of preparation 
marked out by opposing counsel. 

"No one could have passed through so many years with so large a 
practice and sustained more friendly relations to other members of the 
bar. He was never known to have a serious difficulty or misunder- 
standing with any member of the bar. Being actuated by a high sense 
of honor and courtesy toward his brethren of the profession, he was al- 
ways able to reconcile matters of mistake or misunderstanding so as to 
leave no ground of complaint. Through the kindness and generosity 
of his nature, he was disposed to make large allowance for the errors 
and infirmities of his fellow men, and always strongly — perhaps too 
strongly — leaned to the side of mercy." 

He died at Waverly, Ohio, June 24, 1885, in active practice, and 
while attending the circuit court at that place. He was seized with a 
severe chill while in the court room, went to sleep the next night, feel- 
ing better, but never awoke. 

Hon. Thomas MoClaiLsIen 

was of Scotch-Irish descent. He was a native of Jefferson County, 
Ohio, born March 16, 1819, the eldest son of Hon. William McCauslen, 
a congressman of Ohio. He attended the district schools of his home 
and Scott's Academy at Steuben ville. In the academy he was a good 
student, and from there he went to the study of the law in the office 
of Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, afterwards the great war secretary. In 
1844 he was admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court in Warren 
County, and located at West Union the same year. He was quite a 
society man, while single, in West Union, and much devoted to the 
ladies. He was liked very much by the young people, and was popular 
with all classes. As a lawyer, he was diligent and attentive to business 
and a fluent advocate. He filled the office of prosecuting attorney for 
three terms from 1845 to 185 1, and did it with great credit to himself. 
In 1853 he was elected to the Ohio senate from the seventh district, 
composed of Adams, Scioto, Pike, and Jackson counties, and served 
one term. He participated in the election of the Hon. Geo. E. Pugh 
to the senate. During his term the superior court of Cincinnati was 
created and the judges' salaries fixed at $1,500, and the circulation of 
foreign bank bills of less than $10 was forbidden in the state. This leg- 
islature must have had a sweet tooth, for, by joint resolution, it asked 
congress to repeal the duty on sugar and molasses. It also favored the 
construction of a Pacific Railway. He declined to be a candidate for 
a second term. He was married in West Union on February 19, 185 1, 
to Miss Mary Jane Sparks, daughter of John Sparks, the banker of 
West Union, and niece of David Sinton, of Cincinnati. 

In 1856 he was one of the attorneys who defended William Milli- 
gan, indicted for the murder in the first degree, and was undoubtedly 
guilty as charged, but the jury brought in a verdict of murder in the 
second degree, and Milligan died in the penitentiary. In 1857 Mr. Mc- 
Causlen removed to Portsmouth, where he resided and practiced law 
until 1865, when he removed to his native county, and located at Steu- 
benville. He continued in the active practice of his profession in 
Steubenville until 1883, when he retired. • He, however, left his busi- 




UOS. THOMAS MCCAVSI.HX 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 269 

ness to his eldest son, William, born in West Union, and who has suc- 
ceeded him. 

At his pleasant home, within one-half mile of Steubenville, he spent 
thirteen years of dignified and honorable retirement in the enjoyment of 
the society of his family and of his old friends. 

He died February lo, 1896. He had a family of four sons and 
four daughters, all of whom grew to maturity, and some of whom are 
married. 

As a young man, Mr. McCauslen was jolly, good nature^, and fond 
of outdoor sports. In politics he was a staunch Democrat, but with no 
particular taste for party work. In religion he was a Presbyterian. 
As a lawyer he was active and energetic and a fine speaker before a 
jury. He enjoyed a legal contest, and would throw his whole soul into 
it. He was an honorable gentleman, an excellent conversationalist, 
and a delightful companion. His manners were uniformly cordial, and 
it was always a pleasure to meet and converse with him. While he 
grew old in years, he preserved the perennial spirit of youth. 

*' In his years were seen 

** A youthful vigor and an autumnal green." 

William Ne^Brman 

was born at Salem, Ronaoke County, Virginia, on the nineteenth of 
January, 1807, the son of William and Catherine Ott Newman, who had 
removed from Virginia to Pennsylvania. His boyhood years were spent 
at Harrisonburg, Virginia. He came to Ohio in 1827, and cast his first 
vote at Newark, Ohio, for Andrew Jackson for President. He returned 
to Virginia, and on the twentieth of February, 1834, was married to 
Catherine Ott Williams, of Woodstock, Shenandoah County. They re- 
sided at Staunton until 1838, where Anna M. (now Mrs. Joseph G. Reed) 
and George O. were born. In March of the latter year, they came to 
Portsmouth, where they resided ever aft^r with the exception of a brief 
period of residence in Highland County in t8^i. Five children were 
born to them in Ohio — ^William H., James W., J. Ric^d on, Charles H.. 
and Hervey C, who died in infancy. The others still live except Rev. 
Charles H. Newman, who was an ordained minister of the Episcopal 
Church. He was sent as a missionary to Japan in 1873. For years his 
health was impaired ; he retired from the ministry and died in St. 
Augustine, Florida, May 30, iSSy, where he had gone with his wife to try 
the effects of its mild climate. 

William Newman was, by occupation, a contractor and builder, and 
many of the larger and finer buildings erected in Portsmouth from 1840 
to 1874 were his work, including churches and school houses. Among 
these are the First Presbyterian Church, All Saints, the two Catholic 
Churches, the Massie Block, the George Davis residence and many others, 
others. 

Mr. Nev^Tnan .served as a member of the Portsmouth board of educa- 
tion several terms, and for a number of years, was an active member of 
the city council. In 1847, he was the Democratic candidate for the state 
legislature from the Lawrence-Scioto district, these two counties then 
constituting one legislative district. In 1859, he was elected to the Ohio 



270 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

senate from the seventh senatorial district, composed of Adams, Scioto, 
Pike and Jackson counties. He served in the same senate with Garfield, 
who afterward became illustrious in the nation's annals, and although 
differing radically in politics, a warm personal friendship sprang up be- 
tween these two men, as a correspondence several years after, testified. 
He died in Portsmouth on the twenty-third day of July, 1847, aged 67 
years. 

William Newman was a man of strong character and earnest con- 
victions. To any cause that he espoused, he stood true to the end. He 
believed in the principles of Jefferson. Madison and George Mason, of 
his native state. He was a Virginian in all that the word implies, and 
the doctrines sought by its early statesmen and leaders were implanted 
deep in his heart. He was noted for his honesty. Integrity was the 
very corner stone of his character. As his old friend, the well known 
editor, Walter C. Hood, once wrote, "William Newman is an honest 
man, a strong stocky man of the people. He would rather stand up, 
assured with conscious pride alone, than err with millions on his side." 

General Benjamin F. Coates 

was born June 23, 1827, near Wilmington, in Clinton County, Ohio. 
His father was Aquila Coates, born in 1799, in Chester County, Penn- 
sylvania. His mother was Rachael Pidgeon, born in 1801, near Lynch- 
burg, Virginia. His rnaternal grandfather, Isaac Pidgeon, was the 
owner of 1,600 acres of land, about five miles north of Winchester 
County, Virginia, which he divided among his children. General 
Coates' father and mother, and his grandfather Pidgeon were Friends, 
and were married according to the formula of that faith at Hopewell 
Meeting House, near Winchester, Virginia. They came to Ohio in 
1823. They had eight children, six sons and two daughters. Gen- 
eral Coates was reared on his father's farm, and attended the common 
school in Clinton County. He also attended an academy at Wilming- 
ton, conducted by Oliver W. Nixon. He studied medicine with Dr. 
Aquila Jones at Wilmington, and took his first course of lectures at the 
Ohio Medical College, of Cincinnati. His second course was taken 
at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He began 
the practice of medicine at Mawrytown, in Highland County, in 1850, 
and remained there two and one-half vears. He located in West 
Union, Ohio, in 1853. In 1857 he was married to Elizabeth J. Patter- 
son, a daughter of John Patterson, a former resident of Adams County, 
and a prominent politician. In Adams County General Coates was a 
Democrat, and as such was elected to the Ohio senate in 1861, to rep- 
resent the present seventh senatorial district. George A. Waller, of 
Portsmouth, was his opponent, and Coates' majority was twenty-three. 
In the legislature, he found himself at variance with his party, and acted 
with the Republicans on all questions relating to the Civil War. On 
August TO, 1862, after having attended the regular session of the fifty- 
fi^th general assembly from January 6 and May 6, 1862, he entered the 
Volunteer Army as lieutenant colonel of the 91st Regiment, Ohio Vol- 
unteer Infantry. From January 6th until April 14, 1863, he was granted 
a leave of absence to attend the adjourned session of the fifty-fifth gen- 
eral assembly. He was wounded August 24, 1864, at the battle of 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 271 

Halltown, Virginia. He was promoted to the colonelcy of his regiment 
December 9, 1864, and was brevetted brigadier general March 13, 1865. 
He was mustered out of the service June 24, 1865. He made an excel- 
lent officer, and was highly esteemed for his ability and bravery by his 
superior officers. He located in Portsmouth, Ohio, July i, iSiSs, as a 
physician. On July i, 1866, he was appointed deputy collector of in- 
ternal revenue, under Colonel John Campbell, of Ironton, Ohio, and on 
October i, 1866, was appointed collector in the eleventh district of 
Ohio, in place of John Campbell, and held the office until July i, 1881, 
when he resigned. He was a trustee of the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Orphans' Home from 1868 to 1871. He was receiver of the Cincinnati 
& Eastern Railway Company from September i, 1885, until February 
I, 1887, and as special master commissioner, sold the road to the Ohio 
& Northwestern Company. He has served on the Portsmouth city 
board of equalization one or more terms. In 1897 he was appointed a 
member of the city board of elections for a term of four years. 

Since 1862, General Coates has been a Republican. He left the 
Democratic party on account of war questions. During the time he 
held the collector's office, he was the leader of his party in the county 
and congressional district. He had a wonderful insight of human 
nature, and could tell beforehand how the public would form opinions 
of men and measures. He had great executive ability, and always had 
the courage of his opinions. He was a pleasant and agreeable com- 
panion, and had hosts of friends. He had been unwell for some two 
weeks prior to his death. On Saturday evening. May 6, 1899, he went 
to the Republican primary meeting in his precinct and voted. On re- 
turning, he lay down for a few moments, and then arose and undertook 
to walk to his chair. He sank between the bed and chair, where he 
breathed once or twice, and then died of heart failure. He leaves a 
widow and three children — his son Joseph, and daughters Lilian and 
Sarah. The latter was in Boston, Mass., at the time of her father's 
death. General Coates made quite a reputation as an officer, and his 
memory will be always cherished by the survivors of his regiment. 

Hon. James W. NeTrman, 

of Portsmouth, Ohio, was born in Highland County, Ohio, March 12, 
J841, the son of William and Catharine Ott Newman. His father has a 
separate sketch herein. 

Soon after the birth of our subject, his parents removed to Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, where he has since resided. He was educated in the 
Portsmouth schools, graduating therefrom in the year 1855. After- 
wards he attended Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, where he 
graduated in July, 1861. In November of that year, when but twenty 
years of age, he began the publication of "The Portsmouth Times," 
which he continued for thirty years, and his talents and ability, as dis- 
played in its publication and management, brought him reputation and 
fame. That newspaper is now one of the most influential in the state, 
and its columns in the thirty years he managed it show Mr. Newman's 
ability as a journalist. In 1894, the "Times" property was turned into 
a corporation, in which Mr. Newman still retains an interest. 



272 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

In 1867, Mr. Newman was elected on the Democratic ticket to rep- 
resent Scioto County in the legislature, defeating Coionel John R, 
Hurd, the Republican candidate for that office. In 1869 he was a can- 
didate for re-election, but was defeated by Hon. Elijah Glover, by a 
majority of twenty-three votes. In 1871 Mr. Newman was the candi- 
date of his party for the state senate in the seventh senatorial district, 
composed of Adams, Scioto, Pike, and Jackson counties, and was 
elected, and re-elected over the late Benjamin B. Gaylord, to the same 
office, in 1873. During his second term he was chairman of the com- 
mittee on finance, and also of benevolent institutions, and conducted 
the aflFa^'rs of these committees with recognized ability. In 1882 he 
was elected secretary of state on the Democratic ticket by a majority of 
19,117 over Major Charles Townsend, of Athens County. In this 
election he came within forty-one votes of carrying his own county, 
strongly Republican, and carried Hamilton county by over 10,000 ma- 
prity. In 1884 he was defeated for re-election as secretary of state 
by Gen. James S. Robinson, by a majority of 11,242. It was the 
memorable campaign year in which Grover Cleveland was first elected 
president. Mr. Newman headed the state ticket in the October con- 
test, and received the highest vote that has ever been cast for a Dem- 
ocrat in Ohio. In his first annual report, as secretary of state, he rec- 
ommended a system for taxing corporations, in the granting of articles 
of incorporation, and drafted the bill carrying out his ideas. This meas- 
ure was that winter enacted into a law by the legislature, and the sys- 
tem has since developed until it now produces a very considerable rev- 
enue to the state. On June 20, 1885, Mr. Newman was appointed col- 
lector of internal revenue for the eleventh collection district of Ohio, 
and held the office four vears. 

He has always been prominent in his party, has served on its state, 
central, and executive committees, has aided it in its councils and on 
tlie stump in every campaign for the past thirty-five years. 

He is a prominent and active Elk, and served two terms as Exalted 
Ruler of the Portsmouth Lodge. He has been called upon to deliver 
addresses on numerous occasions in connection with that body. He 
is a public speaker of high order, and his addresses on these occasions, 
as well as others, have been eloquent and well received. 

In 1893 he aided in organizing and establishing the Central Sav- 
ings Bank in Portsmouth, and has since been its president. 

In all public enterprises in the city of Portsmouth, Mr. Newman 
takes a leading and prominent part, and is known as a public-spirited 
citizen. He is fond of good literature, and keeps well informed on all 
current topics. 

On October 24, 1871, he married Miss Kate Moore, daughter of 
Colonel Oscar F. Moore, who has a separate sketch herein. They have 
one son, Howard Ott Newman. 

Hon. John William OregB, 

one of the principal farmers of Pike County, was bom July 13, 1845, on 
the farm where he now resides. His father, John Gregg, was born 
October 15, 1808, in Pennsylvania, and emigrated to Ohio in 1818. He 
came to Ohio to make a fortune, and succeeded. He worked on the 




HON. JOHN K. POLLARD 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 273 

Ohio canal when it was made through Pike County. Our subject had 
only a common school education, and was reared to the occupation of 
farming and stock raising. 

He was married November 8, 1866, to Miss Minnie C. Downing, 
whose parents were among the first settlers of Pike County. They have 
live children, John W., aged 32, who is the recorder of Pike County; 
George A., who is bookkeeper at Washington Court House ; Edg^r M., 
who is bookkeeper in the Bank of Waverly, and two daughters, Ada 
Belle and Minnie E., who are at home with their parents. 

Mr. Gregg represented Adams County as a part of the seventh 
senatorial district in the sixty-sixth and sixty-seventh general assem- 
blies, from 1884 to 1888, and did it ably and well. Mr. Gregg was in 
the dry goods business in Waverly from 1864 to 1866, and with that ex- 
ception has always been a farmer. He resides in Seal Township, two 
and a half miles east of Waverly. His two eldest sons are married and 
have families. He has always been a Republican, served on the central 
committee of his county many times, and has often been a delegate to 
district and state conventions. 

Mr. Gregg is a man of a generous and genial disposition. His 
heart is full of kindness and sympathy. It is said of him that no deserv- 
ing person ever applied to him in vain. To the poor he has always 
been kind. 

In politics he is the strongest of strong partisans. He never fails 
in an opportunity to aid his own party, or advance its interests as he 
sees them. 

In business life he is a man of the highest integrity and honor, and 
or those qualities he enjoys the confidence of all with whom he has had 
any business relations. As a legislator, Mr. Gregg made a most 
creditable and honorable record. 

Hon. John Kilby Pollard 

was brought up on a farm in Adams County, Ohio, and at the age of 
eighteen enlisted as a private in Company G, 70th O. V. I., October 16, 
1861, serving therein until December 22, 1862, when he was honorably 
discharged on account of general debility incurred in the service. He 
re-enlisted in the spring of 1864 as a private in Company I, i82d O. V. 
I., and was commissioned, from the ranks as second lieutenant in the 
same regiment, serving until the close of the war, participating in the 
battles of Shiloh, Corinth, Nashville, and numerous skirmishes. Upon 
his return home he attended school two years, taking an academic 
course. He then resumed farming; and while engaged in that pursuit, 
in the year 1867, was married to Miss Anna Watson, of Manchester, 
Ohio, a daughter of Lawson Watson. Two children were born of this 
union, Lucille E. and William S. Lucille was educated in the West 
Union public schools and at the Ohio Wesleyan University, taking a 
three years' course afterwards in piano at the Cincinnati Conservatory 
of Music. She then traveled and studied two years in Berlin with 
Moritz and Moszkowski. William also attended the Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, studied pharmacy two years afterward, and has since held many 
positions of trust and honor. In the fall of 1875, John K. Pollard was 
18a 



274 fflSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

elected sheriff of Adams County on the Republican ticket. He was re- 
elected in 1877 by a large and increased majority. In the fall of 1879, he 
was nominated and elected state senator from the seventh senatorial dis- 
trict by a majority of one hundred and three votes, and was re-elected in 
1881 by one thousand four hundred majority. In the fall of 1888, he was 
a Harrison presidential elector from the eleventh congressional district of 
Ohio. In 1892, he was appointed by Governor McKinley financial officer 
of the institute for the deaf and dumb, at Columbus, Ohio, which place he 
held until appointed by President McKinley counsul general of the 
United States at Monterey, Mexico, one of the most important posts in 
the service, so far as jurisdiction and trade are concerned, there being 
within its compass nine consulates over which the consul general has 
supervisory authority. 

Among numerous other positions, he was elected lay delegate from 
the Cincinnati conference to the general conference of the Methodist 
Church, held in New York in 1888. He was a charter member of Mc- 
Ferran Post, G. A. R., West Union, Ohio, and a member of the mili- 
tary order of the Loyal Legion. He was also a member of the Masonic 
Fraternity, Manchester, Adams County, Ohio. After years of patient 
suflFering, he died while in the consular service, October 22, 1899, «^^^ was 
buried at Manchester, Ohio. 

Dudley B. PhiUips 

was born at Clayton, Adams County, Ohio, August i, i860. His parents 
removed to Manchester in 1864, where he has since resided. He gradu- 
ated from Manchester High School in 1878, studied law with Judge 
Henry Collings and was admitted to the bar in December, 1881, and 
was three times elected Mayor of Manchester and elected to the Ohio 
senate m 1891 and re-elected in 1893 and is now practicing his profession 
in his native county. 

He was married to Fannie B. Adams in 1887 and they have three 
children : Henry Lee, Dudley Collings and Helen C. 

Hon. Samuel Lincoln Patterson, 

who now represents Adams County as a part of the seventh senatorial 
district, is a great-grandson of Judge Joseph Lucas, who represented 
Adams County in the first les:islature of Ohio and a sketch of whom is 
found elsewhere. 

He was born September 7, 1860, at Piketon, Ohio, son of William 
Patterson and wife, Hannah Brown, who was a daughter of John R. 
Brown and his wife Levisa Lucas, daughter of Judge Joseph Lucas. 

Our subject's father was born near Philadelphia. His father, 
Thomas, died when his son William was quite young. The father of 
John R. Brown named was a captain in the Revolutionary War from 
Virginia, as was Maj. William Lucas, father of Judge Joseph Lucas. 
Mr. Patterson, the father of our subject, was a wagon maker and a black- 
smith. His wife had a farm adjoining Piketon and he operated that in 
connection with his trade. He died June it, 1879, and his widow still 
resides in Piketon. Our subject attended school in Piketon till 1879, 
when he went to Lebanon. He began the occupation of school 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 275 

teacher in 1881 and followed it until 1886. In Piketon he taught in 
1884, 188.S and 1886, having the position next to the superintendent. 
He was mayor in the village of Piketon from 1882 until 1890, and was a 
justice of peace of Seal Township from 1883 to 1886. He was a member 
of the school board in Piketon from 1889 to 1897. He was elected state 
senator in the seventh senatorial district composed of Adams County, 
Pike, Jackson and Scioto in the fall of 1899. At the organization of the 
senate he was made chairman of finance and placed second on the judi- 
ciary committees and on the committees on public works and insurance. 

He was married May 18, 1882, to Miss Lizzie M. Bateman, daughter 
of Rev. Samuel Bateman, of Piketon. They have six children, two 
boys and four girls. In his political faith, Mr. Patterson is an earnest 
Republican, and was chairman of the Republican Executive Committee 
for the first three years Pike County went Republican. 

He is a man of strong convictions, but cautious and conservative in 
the expression of them. While amongst hi.s friends, he is gentle and 
reserved in his manner, at the same time, he is one of the most positive 
men, and firm in his purposes. As a lawyer, the longer he devotes him- 
self to a cause, the stronger he becomes in it. He has great reserve 
force, he always appears to have something reserved for a denoument. 
He has rare judgment and fine discrimination. He seldom reaches a 
false conclusion. As a lawyer an untiring worker. In taking up a 
case, he masters the facts and then the law, then he prepares his plead- 
ings which are models of accuracy. He gives great promise as a law- 
yer. As a member of the Ohio senate, he has already taken a high 
position amongst his fellow senators. He bids fair to make an enviable 
reputation as a legislator. 

Joseph Iiiioas. 

Joseph Lucas was born in Virginia in 1771. His father, William 
Lucas, was born in 1742 and ser\'ed throughout the Revolutionary War, 
rising to the rank of captain. He belonged to one of the proud families 
of Virginia. He owned extensive lands and negroes. His son, Joseph, 
was married in Virginia in 1792, to Hannah Humphreys. He and his 
brother William came to the Northwest Territory in 1797 to locate their 
father's land warrants. They located at the mouth of Pond Creek in 
what is now Rush Township, Scioto County, then Adams County. 
In 1800, Capt. William Lucas, father of our subject, sold his possessions 
in Virginia, and came to the Northwest Territory, and joined his sons. 
He had a son, John, who laid out the town of Lucasville in Scioto 
County, and his son, Robert, was representative and senator in the Ohio 
• legislature for nineteen vears ; Governor of the State, 1832 to 1834, and 
Territorial Governor of Iowa from 1838 to 1841. 

Our subject was one of the three representatives from Adams 
County in the first legislature of Ohio, which met in Chillicothe, March 
I, 1803, and continued its sessions until April 15, 1803. This is the 
legislature which met under a sycamore tree on the bank of the Scioto 
River. 

Our subject was well educated and took a prominent part in public 
affairs. His colleagues from Adams County in the house were William 
Rus.sell and Thomas Kirker : in the senate, Gexi. Joseph Darlinton 
At this session Scioto County was organized and Joseph Lucas was made 



276 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

one of its associate judges, in which office he continued until his death in 
1808. In politics he was a follower of Thomas Jefferson, and in religion 
he was a Presbyterian. Dying at the early age of thirty-seven, a most 
promising career was cut short. He left three sons and three daughters. 
His daughter, Rebecca, married Jacob Hibbs, Sr., and was the mother 
of Gen. Joseph L. Hibbs and Jacob Hibbs, of Porstmouth, Ohio. His 
daughter, Levisa married Jacob Brown, of Pike County, and became the 
mother of several well known citizens of that county. His sons, Joseph 
and Samuel, located in Muscatine, Iowa, and died there. 

Harry Hibbs, of the firm of J. C. Hibbs and Company, of Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, is a great-grandson. 

The Honorable S. L. Patterson, of Waverlv, senator for the seventh 
district, is his great-grandson. 

Judge Joseph Lucas was one of the active characters in Adams 
County, but fell a victim to the untried climate which the pioneers found 
in their first settlement. 

Thonuui Waller, 

physician and legislator, was bom in Stafford County, Virginia, Septem- 
ber 14, 1774. He was a descendant in a direct line, on his father's side, 
from Edmund Waller, the great English poet, who was also for many 
years a member of parliament; and on his mother's side from the English 
patriot Hampden, whom the poet Gray has immortalized in his celebrat- 
ed "Elegy in a Country Churchyard." A volume containing the life 
of Mr. Edmund Waller, together with his poems, published in L^don in 
171 1, is still preserved as a family relic by the son of our subject, Mr. 
George A. Waller, of Portsn)Outh. The history of the Waller family in 
this country has been closely interwoven with that of the Baptist denom- 
ination during the past hundred years, especially in Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia. Many of the Wallers were Baptist ministers, some of them of 
decided note. Among^ these may be mentioned William Waller and 
his brother, John Waller, the great leaders of the Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia Baptists during the times of persecutions in those states. Amid 
the trials, imprisonments, and universal hatred which the Baptists in 
those days endured, these two brothers stood forth fearlessly, "steadfast 
and unmovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord." The sons 
of William Waller — Absalom, George and Edmund — were also minis- 
ters, distinguished for their talents, eloquence, and profound acquain- 
tance with the Scriptures. Untaught in the schools, they made them- 
selves learned in the highest and truest sense of the term, and under God 
were the architects of their own eminence and power. Those familiar 
with the history of Kentucky Baptists will remember that it was 
Edmund Waller who burned a revision of the New Testament, made by 
Alexander Campbell., for the reason that he regarded Mr. Campbell's 
renderings of certain passages inimical to a true and pure Christianity. 
Independence, boldness, firmness, energy and zeal have been, and con- 
tinue to be, the characteristics of all members of this family. Dr. 
Thomas Waller was a second cousin of the Revs. John and William Wal- 
ler, just noticed. He was educated in William and Mary College, Vir- 
ginia, studied medicine and attended lectures under Dr. Rush, in Jef- 
ferson Medical College, Philadelphia. He located in Bourbon County. 
Kentucky, where, in 1800, he married Elizabeth McFarlane, and took his 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 277 

bride on a wedding tour on horse back to visit her relatives in Penn- 
sylvania. While sojourneying in that state, a daughter was born to 
them, and in 1801, they returned to the West, bringing their baby on 
horseback, over, perhaps as rough a road as man or beast ever traveled. 
He settled at Alexandria, at the mouth of the Scioto River, and at once 
entered upon the practice of his profession. Scioto County was organ- 
ized in 1803, and Dr. Waller was its first representative in the state legis- 
lature. In 1805 he removed to Portsmouth, where he afterwards pur- 
chased one hundred acres of land, adjoining the then incorporated limits 
of the town, all of which territory is now embraced in the city ; and in 
memory of him, one of the streets is called after his name, "Waller 
Street/' He also built the first postoffice and apothecary shop in the 
city, and was the first postmaster, remaining so all his life. He was for 
several years president of the town council, and also of the Commercial 
Bank of Scioto. In 1822 and 1823 a very fatal epidemic prevailed, at 
which time his professional labors, extending over a very wide circuit, 
uiduced the illness if which he died, on July 19, 1823. He was a very 
active, energetic man, and a popular physician. It is said of him that 
he had at the time of his death more friends and fewer enemies than any 
other man in Scioto Countv. He had a family of nine children, onlv 
one of them being now living, George A. Waller, of Portsmouth, Scioto 
County, Ohio. He has a ring that once belonged to Mrs. Edmund 
Waller, and which bears the family coat of arms. 

Dr. Waller was in everA' public enterprise in the town of Ports- 
mouth, from the day he located there until his death. 

Andrew Ellison. 

Andrew Ellison was born in 1755. His father, John Ellison, a 
native of Ireland, was born in 1730, and died in 1806. He is interred 
in the Nixon graveyard, three miles south of West Union, Ohio. 
Andrew Ellison came to Manchester, Ohio, from Kentucky, with Gen. 
Nathaniel Massie, in the winter of [790. He took up his residence in 
the town of Manchester with his family. He located a farm on the 
Ohio River bottoms about two miles east of Manchester, and proceeded 
to clear and cultivate it. 

The events in the history of the pioneers of Ohio, one hundred 
years ago, are becoming more obscured every day. Many facts that 
should have been preserved have been lost, and many more are now 
liable to be lost, if not obtained from those now living, and preserved. 

The story of Andrew Ellison's capture by the Indians, given in both 
editions of Howe's Historical Collection of Ohio, is incorrect, and the 
correct and true story is given here. The story by Howe given in his 
edition of 1846 was copied bodily from McDonald's Sketches published 
in 1838. Where McDonald got his information we do not know, but he 
was contemporary with General Nathaniel Massie and Andrew Ellison, 
though much younger. 

Our sketch comes from a granddaughter of Andrew Ellison. She 
obtained it from her mother, who was born in T789, the daughter of 
Samuel Barr, and the wife of John Ellison, Jr. Mrs. Anne Ellison ob- 
tained it of her husband, and he of his father, who survived until 1830. 



278 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

For some time prior to his capture, Andrew Ellison had been going 
to his farm, two miles east of Manchester, in the morning, and remaining 
at work until evening. He took his noon-day meal along in a basket. 
On the morning of the day of his capture, he had eaten his breakfast 
with his family, and taken his noon-day lunch and started to his farm. 
While on his way, afoot, he was surprised by a band of Indians. The 
first intimation he had of their presence was the rattling of their shot 
pouches and in an instant they had him surrounded and seized. They 
forced h-im to nm about half a mile to the top of a steep hill away from the 
traveled paths. They then tied him v/ith buffalo thongs to a tree, till 
thev scouted about to their own satisfaction. When readv to march, 
they cut the buffalo thongs with a knife, took his hat and basket of pro- 
visions, and compelled him to take off his shoes and march in moccasins. 
They also compelled him to carry a heavy load. At night they fast- 
ened him to a tree. 

His failure to return home in the evening was the first intimation his 
family had of his capture. Major Beasley was the commander of the 
station at Manchester at that time, and not General Massie. When 
Mr. Ellison failed to return at tlie usual time, his wife went to Major 
Beasley and asked that a rescue party be sent out at once. The Major 
fearing an ambuscade, did not deem it wise to move out in the evening, 
but early next morning he took out a party in pursuit. They discovered 
Mr. Ellison's hat and shoes, and the pieces of buffalo thongs, with which 
he had been tied directly after his capture. 

The party determined to pursue no farther, having come to the con- 
clusion that the Indians desired to retain Mr. Ellison as a prisoner, and 
that if they pursued and attacked them while on the retreat, the Indians 
would probably kill him at once. They concluded that his chances for 
his return alive would be better bv allowing him to escape, if he could 
and so gave up the pursuit. 

The Indians took him first to their Chillicothe towns, where they 
compelled him to run the gauntlet, and in which ordeal he was severely 
beaten, but he was not compelled to go through this punishment a 
second time, or at any other place. The Indians took him to Detroit, 
where a Mr. Brent, an Englishman, who heard his story and sympa- 
thized with him, bought him from the Indian who claimed to own him. 
for a blanket, and not for $ioo as stated by Howe. Mr. Brent furnished 
him with suitable clothing, and with money for his trip home. He came 
from Detroit to Cleveland bv water, and thence bv land, afoot, to Man- 
Chester, in September, 1793, and surprised his family by his appearance 
among them. From his capture until his return, they had heard 
nothing of him nor he of them. 

Andrew Ellison and his wife, Mar}-, were both bom in County Ty- 
rone, Ireland. About 1797, he took up a large tract of land on Lick 
Fork of Brush Creek, four miles north of West Union, and there he built 
a stone house, which was the pride of his time. It is said that upon its 
completion, he and his wife went upon the hill opposite to have a view 
of it, and upon the view they concluded that they had the grandest house 
in the country. It was modeled after houses he had seen in Ireland. 

It is said that Mr. Ellison selected this location on account of the 
abundance of game in that vicinity. Within site of the old stone house 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 279 

is a celebrated deer lick, where, in December, 1793, Ashael Edgington 
was waylaid and killed by a band of Indians under Captain Johnny. 

Mr. Ellison's wife died in 1830 at the age of seventy-five. They 
are buried on the farm on which the stone house is located. Mr. 
Ellison was an extensive locator of lands, left great quantities of it to his 
children, and gave each a list of surveys. 

His daughter Margaret married Adam McCormack; his daughter 
Isabel married Rev. Dyer Burgess, and his daughter Mary married 
Thomas Houston. His son Andrew was one of the iron masters in the 
Hanging Rock region, and died there. For some time his remains 
were exposed in an iron coffin on the river bank, in pursuance of his 
own request. His son John married Anna Barr, daughter of Samuel 
Barr, who was killed by the Indians, near what is now Williamsburg, in 
the spring of 1702. Mrs. David Sinton, of Cincinnati, Ohio; Mrs. 
Thomas W. Means, of Hanging Rock, Ohio, and the first Mrs. Hugh 
Means, of Ashland, Kentucky, were daughters of John Ellison and Anna 
Barr. 

Andrew Ellison was thirty-eight years of age when captured, and 
was one of the few pioneers who walked across the state twice, while it 
was a virgin forest. 

Andrew Ellison was a shrewd Irishman. Had all the land he 
owned been preserved intact, without improvement and owned by a 
single person to this day, that person would be fabulously wealthy. 

But while Andrew Ellison could see as far into the future as any- 
one, we can give one instance in which his judgment turned out wrong. 
In May, 1796, congress authorized the location of a great highway be- 
tween Maysville, Kentucky, and Wheeling, Virginia, by Ebenezer Zane. 
In the spring of 1797 it was laid out, and as it was then a mere blazed 
path through the woods, it was called Zane*s Trace. 

Everyone expected that trace to become a great highway between 
the South and East, and all the settlers were anxious to be near it. 
Andrew Ellison located his lands on Lick Fork of Brush Creek, and 
built his great stone house to be along the national highway. He ex- 
pected many advantages to accrue in the future from his location near 
the national road. It was a great thoroughfare for travel from the 
South to the East until the railroads began to be built and then its glory 
departed forever. The great coaches, the horsemen, the freight 
wagons, the droves of hogs, cattle and mul'-s deserted it, and now it is 
only a neighborhood road for its entir<^ length. The last to desert it 
V/ere the mules. Till the opening of the Civil War it was used for 
driving mules from Kentucky to Zanesville or Pittsburg to be shipped 
east, but since the Civil War this useful product of Kentucky is shipped 
by railroad. Andrew Ellison, however, never dreamed and could not 
anticipate that Zane*s Trace would be superseded by railroads. 

Dr. Alexander Campbell 

was the only resident of Adams Comity who attained the position of 
United States senator. He was born in Greenbriar County, Virginia, 
in 1779. In childhood he lived in East Tennessee, and afterwards at 
Crab Orchard, Kentucky. He lost his father, Alexander Campbell, 
Sr., at the age of twelve years, and up to that time had not attended any 



280 HISTORY OP ADAMS CX>aNTY 

school. His mother purchased a small farm in Woodford County, 
Kentucky, and here he first attended school. He went to Lexington 
and studied medicine with Drs. Reighley and Brown, beginning in 1799. 
In 1801 he began to practice medicine at Cynthiana, Kentucky. Here 
he married a daughter of Col. Alexander Dunlap, and while here was 
elected a member of the Kentucky legislature. 

In 1804 he removed to that part of Adams County afterwards set 
off to Brown County. In 1807 he was elected as a member of the leg- 
islature from Adams County; and re-elected in 1808 and 1809. On 
December 12, 1809, he was elected speaker of the house. On the same 
day Edward Tiffin resigned as United States senator, leaving four years 
yet to serve, and Dr. Cambpell was elected to fill the vacancy. The 
vote stood : Alexander Campbell, 38 ; Richard Thompson, of Lebanon, 
29; Thomas Worthington, t ; Janies Pritchard, i, and David Findlay, i. 
In the senate he voted against the declaration of war with Great Britain, 
and against renewing the charter of the United States Bank. During 
the time he was United States senator, he rode horseback to Washing- 
ton, D. C, and return, to attend the sessions of Congress. He was a 
merchant from 1803 to 1815, and purchased his goods in Philadelphia. 
He made the purchases personally twice each year, and rode from his 
home to Philadelphia and back, on horseback, for that purpose. 

He moved to Ripley in 1815, and resided there until his death. In 
1820 he was a presidential elector, and voted for James Monroe. After 
the organization of Brown County, he was in the state senate In 1822 
and 1823 ; and in the house from Brown County in 1832 and 1833. In 
1826 he was a candidate for governor, and had 4,675 votes. In 
1836, he was again a presidential elector, and voted for William Henry 
Harrison. He was mayor of Ripley from 1838 to 1840. He died 
November 5, 1857, and has an imposing monument in the new cemetery 
at Ripley. He was one of the first physicians in Ripley, and was emi- 
nent in his profession. He possessed the confidence of all who knew 
him, and was a most popular citizen; not because he sought it, but be- 
cause his character commanded public approbation. He was of anti- 
slaver>' views and principles all his life. 

John Ellison, Jr., 

was born at Almah, County Tyrone, Ireland, in 1779, soln of Andrew 
Ellison who has a sketch herein. He came to this county with his father 
and mother when' he was eleven years of age and located at Manchester, 
in the Stockade. He was elected sheriff of Adams County in 1806, 
and served until 1810, two terms. It was in Decelmber 8, 1808, while 
he was sheriff that David Becket was hung, the only le^al execution 
which ever topk place in the count\\ 

On February 6, 1808, he was married to Anna Barr, who was a 
superior and most excellent woman. From December 10, 181 1, until 
January 11, 1812. he served in tlie Ohio Legislature with William Rus- 
sell as his colleague. Again from December 12, 1812, until February 
9, 1 81 3, he represented Adams County in the legislature with William 
Russell. From December 6, 1813, until February 11, 1814, he was in 
the legislature with John W. Campbell as his colleague. From De- 
cember 5, 1814, to February 16, 1815, he represented Adams in the 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 281 

legislature with Nathaniel Beasley as his colleague. In the fourteenth 
legislative session, he was no^ a member, but from December 2, 1816, 
until January 28, 1817, he was a member of the house of representa- 
tives from Adams with Thomas Kirker as his colleague. 

He bought the Buckeye Station farm in 1818 of Judge Charles 
Willing Byrd and paid $5,500 for it. At that time, there were 700 acres 
of it. This was his home until his death on April 10, 1829, in the fiftieth 
year of his age. His eldest son, Andrew Barr Ellison, was born in 
Manchester, December 19, 1808. 

Judfce Robert Morrison 

had quite a checkered career. He was born in County Antrim, Ire- 
land, November 29, 1782. His father died while he was an infant, and 
he was reared by his mother. She was a Presbyterian and her instruc- 
tions and prayers followed him all his life. But she did not only in- 
struct and pray for him. She was a firm believer in King Solomon's 
theories as to the rod and she carried them into practice. One day he 
ran out of school without permission and started home. The teacher 
pursued him and Robert threw a stone and lamed him. When he 
reached home, his mother learned of his Escapade, and promised him a 
whipping the next morning. He lay awake all night thinking about it, 
but he received it and remembered it all his life. His education was 
very meagre, and when a mere boy he was put out to learn the trade 
of a linen weaver. Before he was nineteen years of age, he was en- 
gaged in manufacturing and selling linen cloth. Being of a very ad- 
venturesome disposition, he joined the United Irishmen, and as re- 
sult of it was he was compelled to flee from Ireland to save his life. 
Lord Fitzgerald smuggled him out of Ireland. He came to this country 
accompanied by his mother and an uncle. He landed at New York in 
1801 in the nineteenth year of his age. He went to South Carolina with 
his uncle and mother to visit two paternal uncles. South Carolina did 
not impress young Morrison, and he went to Kentucky in 1802, and 
located near Flemingsburg. While here, he connected himself with the 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, and in 1803 married Miss 
Mary Mitchell, sister of Judge Mitchell, of Preble County, and the day 
after his marriage, he and his bride set out for Ohio. They settled on 
Cherry Fork. He purchased a tract of land all in forest. Sometime 
after his purchase, adverse claims being made, he went to Lexington, 
Kentucky, and consulted the great Henry Clay as to his title. Clay 
advised him that his title was good, but that he had better buy off the 
claim than to litigate. Mr. Clay's fee was five dollars for the advice. 
Young Morrison dug the first grave in the Cherry Fork burying ground, 
and was one of those who organized the Cherry Fork A. R. Church 
in 1805. The congregation then consisted of twelve or fifteen families. 
He was naturalized at the April term of 1810 of the Adams Court of 
Common Pleas. In 1813, he lost his wife. She left six children, one 
only seven days old. He was almost immediately called into the war, 
and wxnt with an expedition to Fort Wayne. In this, he was Captain 
Morrison, commanding a company of dragoons. In the general call 
in 1 814, he served as captain of a company of infantry, and was part 
of the time acting colonel of the regiment. During the campaign he 



282 fflSTORY OP ADAMS CXDUNTY 

formed a great friendship for Gen. William Henry Harrison, and the 
latter offered him a captain's commission in the regular army, but he de- 
clined. On June 28, 1814, he married Miss Phoebe McGowan, who 
survived him. In 181 6, he was made a ruling elder in the church at 
North Liberty. In December, 181 7, he was elected to the legislature. 
He was re-elected in 1818, 1819 and 1820. While serving in the legis- 
lature, he was elected a brigadier general of the militia. In the legis- 
lature, he defeated a bill to abolish capital punishment. After serving 
four terms in the legislature, he declined renomination, On February 
21, 1 821, he had his friend, Thomas Kirker, elected an associate judge 
of Adams County. Gov. Kirker did not like the place and resigned in 
October, 1821. The governor appointed Robert Morrison in his place. 
On the fourth of February, 1822, he was elected to the full term of 
seven years, re-elected in 1829 and served until 1836. In 1838, he 
was reelected and served until the new constitution took effect on Sep- 
tember I, 1 85 1. One who knew him best has written the following 
comments on his character: 

"His early education was very limited, but in reality he educated 
himself as a good practical lawyer while occupying the position of Asso- 
ciate Judge in Adams County. He became remarkably familiar with 
the principles of the common law. His friendly advice was frequently 
sought in disputeis likely to go into the courts. His advice was always 
against going to law. Often both parties to a controversy would come 
to him for advice. If it were a matter of doilars and cents merely, he 
would advise a compromise. If t were a matter of principle, he was 
as uncompromising as any other hard-headed Irishman. When it was 
a matter of right and wrong, he always sought to have the party in the 
wrong concede the fact. The more hostile the parties were, the greater 
efforts he would make to bring them together." 

In his large family, his word was law. His children all understood 
that. It was seldom he had to use Solomon's remedy among his chil- 
dren. The idea of neglecting or refusing to obey any command of his, 
never, at any time, entered one of his children's minds. He had the 
respect of all who knew him, and as to those who did not know him, he 
had a natural dignity which commanded their respect. Most of the 
associate judges were content to be nobodies, but it was not so with 
him. He was a force wherever he was. He was endowed with a won- 
derful amount of common sense, possessed great tact, was overflowing 
with kindly humor and was kind and courteous to all. As an officer of 
the church, he kept down all difficulties. Had he liveid in the time of 
the judges in Israel, he would have been one of them. In his early 
days, he was a Jefferson Democrat, but he was anti-slavery, and that 
took him away from that party, and placed him in opposition to it. 

After retiring from the duties of associate judge in 1851, he re- 
sided quietly on his farm till he was called hence on the tenth day of 
February, 1863. 

The following are the names of his children, with the dates of their 
births : 

Alexander, born 1804, married Elizabeth Ewing. 

Sarah, born October 25, 1805, married John S. Patton. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES £83 

Mitchell, bom October 9, 1807, married Jane Wright, second time 
a Ewing. 

Nancy, born October 21, 1809, married W. D. Ewing. 

James, born September 21, 181 1, married Rebecca Ewing, second 
wife's name unknown. 

Mary, January 21, 1816, married William .Eckman. 

John, Ai^st 8, 1817, married Julia Ann Pittinger. He was .the 
merchant at Eckmansville for many years. 

Robert, August 12, 1819, married Elizabeth Patton. He. and his 
wife are both living. 

Marion, June 8, 1821, married Elizabeth T. Brown. He is living 
at Mission Ridge, Neb. 

Elizabeth, August 3, 1823, married William McMillen. 

William, July 20, 1828, married Emiline Allison. 

Harvey, March 12, 1831, died in childhood. 

Matilda, April 4, 1833, married first Mr. Glass, and second, Mr. 
Pittinger. 

Robert, July 12, 1813, died an infant. 

Colonel John Means. 

The people of Ohio are more indebted to this high-minded 
southern gentleman than they are aware. He was the first to develop 
the iron interests of southern Ohio. He was of old Scotch-Irish Pres- 
byterian stock. The family name has been written MacMeans and it is 
the same as Mayne or Maynes. William Means, his father, was born 
in Ireland and was married to Nancy Simonton. He emigrated to 
the United vStates and settled in Juniata County, Pennsylvania, about 
1760. From there he removed to the Union District in South -Carolina, 
where he resided during the Revolution. He embraced the side of 
the Colonies, and being confined to his home by d4sease, was subjected 
to great annoyance by the Tories. A part of the time his family was 
supported by a slave, Bob, a native of Africa, and at one time, they 
were compelled to live on wheat boiled in water, not being able to pro- 
cure other provisions. With all their privations, they had eight chil- 
dren, James, Hugh, Margaret, Mary, William, Rachael, John and Jane. 
The eldest, James, was born in Ireland. Mary married William Davitte 
and moved with her husband to Adams County in 1802, and to Edgar 
County 'in Illinois in 181 2. 

Our subject, John, the seventh child, was born March 14, 1770, 
in South Carolina. He grew to manhood at the place of his birth, 
and married Anne Williamson, the daughter of Thomas and Anne 
Williamson, of Spartanburg District, on the tenth of April, 1798. Prior 
to his marriage, he united with the Presbyterian Church. He lived in 
Union District, South Carolina, with his mother until after her death in 
1799. Soon after his mother's death, he moved to Spartanburg Dis- 
trict, and engaged in farming, merchandise and tanning. At the time 
he removed to Spartanburg District, the only company of militia near 
his home had for their captain, one Burton, whose father had been a 
Tory in the Revolutionary War. John Means' dislike of the Tories 
was so strong that, though the law required him to belong to the militia, 
he would not join Bruton's company, but got up one of his own, rather 



284 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

than to serve under the son of one of those who had persecuted his 
father during the war. During the War of 1812, he was commissioned 
a colonel of the militia in South Carolina, but was never called into 
active service. He was a member of the South Carolina legislature in 
1815 and 1816. He and his wife both believed that slaves had souls, 
and that they should be taught to read the Bible. This was not law- 
ful in South Carolina, Col. Means determined to remove to Ohio, 
where his brother William had preceded him in 1802, and his brother- 
in-law, the Rev. William Williamson, in 1805. He emigrated to Ohio 
in 181 9 and took with him twenty-four slaves to give them their free- 
dom. On reaching Manchester, he purchased a farm one mile west of 
Bentonville, now owned by A. V. Hutson. He erected a suitable dwell- 
ing and buildings in 1824, and built quarters for his freedmen. In Oc- 
tober, 1 82 1, he was elected county commissioner of Adams County 
and served one term. In 1824, he was elected a member of the legisla- 
ture from Adams County and served at the ensuing session and that 
of 1825. During his first session in legislature, the canal project oc- 
cupied very much attention, and at his first session, William Henry 
Harrison was elected United States senator, in place of Ethan Allen 
Brown, whose term had expired. He was re-elected to the twenty- 
fourth legislative in the fall of 1825, which remained in session from 
the fifth of December, 1825, until the fifth of February, 1826. During 
this session, there were land assessors chosen, who made their returns 
to the state auditor, and during this session, the first State Board of 
Equalization was created, with fourteen members, one for each congres- 
sional district. 

Col. Means was in sentiment, anti-slavery, and an Abolitionist. He 
always declared slavery to be a moral and political evil, though he was 
not the same kind of an Abolitionist as the Rev. Dyer Burgess, who 
afterwards married his daughter. He and Mr. Burgess often had 
heated discussions oft the subject of slavery, owing* to their differences. 
He watched over and cared for his former slaves as long as he lived, 
and when nearing the end of his life, he often expressed himself grati- 
fied with his action in freeing his slaves, and bringing his family into 
a free state. He mined the first iron in Adams County. He built the 
Brush Creek Forge Furnace and made iron there. He was one of the 
partners who built Union Furnace, the first furnace built* in Ohio in 
the Hanging Rock Region. He was an elder in the Presbyterian 
Church at Manchester. He died on the fifteenth of March, 1837, and 
is interred in the Manchester cemeter}\ adjoining the Presbyterian 
Church. His wife survived him until November 30, 1840. He was a 
sincere Christian, an honorable, upright and successful business man. 
His wife was a remarkable woman. She was of the same views as 
her husband on slavery, and noted for her piety and good works. 

It is mainly through their children this eminent couple are known 
to this generation. They had six children, Elizabeth Williamson, bom 
in 1799, married Dr. Wm. M. Voris in 1827, and by him was the mother 
of three daughters, one of whom was the wife of the Hon. William P. 
Cutler, of Marietta, Ohio. Dr. Voris died of the cholera in Cincin- 
nati, June 8, 1835. In 1842, she married the Rev. Dyer Burgess, and 
became his widow in 1872, but lived until February 28, 1889, to the 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 285 

great age of ninety. A son, Thomas Williamson Means, was known to 
all the business men of southern Ohio. He»was born in South Carolina, 
November 23, 1803, and came with his father to Ohio, in 1819. He 
married Sarah Ellison, December 4, 1828. He has a separate sketch 
in this book. Another son of Col. Means, the late Hugh Means, of Ash- 
land, Kentucky, also has a separate sketch in this book. 

Col. Means tells us of himself and his views and labor through 
his children and grandchildren, who ^ire foremost in the land, and 
the memory of a man who had the conscience and moral courage to 
be an Abolitionist in South Carolina in 1819, and to demonstrate his 
faith by removing hundreds of miles into a new country to free his 
slaves and to place his family in a free state, deserves to have a place 
of remembrance in the hearts of this generation. Such moral heroism 
should be inscribed in lasting tablets in the Treasure House of Fame. 

General William KendalL 

His father, Jeremiah Kendall, was a relative of General Anthony 
Wayne. He was in the Revolutionary War for five years, entering 
at the age of eighteen years. He was wounded at the battle of Brandy- 
wine, and for two years afterward he was secretary to General Wash- 
ington. His wife was Rhoda Mclntire of Scotch descent. Our sub- 
ject was born on November 23, 1783. Directly after the Revolutionary 
War, his father, Jeremiah Kendall, removed from Fauquier County, 
Virginia, to a farm near old Red Stone Fort, Pennsylvania. In 1784, 
he started with a flatboat to New Orleans, intending to take a cargo 
of buffalo meat, vension and other game, expecting to obtain it on his 
way down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Samuel Davis and Lewis 
Wetzel were with him as skilled hunters. When below the falls of the 
Ohio, they were attacked by six canoes filled with Indians. They fired 
a blunderbuss loaded with thirty-six rifle balls among the Indian 
canoes, and drove them off. After many adventures, they reached New 
Orleans, sold their cargo and walked back to their homes. Jeremiah 
Kendall served two years under General Anthony Wayne against the 
Indians. He was in the battle of Fallen Timbers and at the Treaty 
of Greenville, and was wounded several times in that campaign. 

William Kendall was his oldest son, who first settled on Paint 
Creek in Ross County, but afterw^ard went to the site of Portsmouth, 
Ohio, with Henry Massie before the town was laid out. 

On May 29, 1806, William Kendall married Rachael Brown, 
daughter of Captain John Brown. The Brown residence stood upon 
the spot now occupied by the government building in Portsmouth, 
Ohio. Captain John Brown had been a Revolutionary soldier and an 
officer in the War of 1812. The old well was in the middle of Sixth 
street. A mill, a garden and an orchard were north of this. The 
farm covered what is now the Central Park of the city of Portsmouth. 
Ohio. William Kendall built the first court house in Xenia, and cleared 
the timber off the public square for that purpose. In 1809, he was 
elected an associate judge of Scioto County, but it does not appear how 
long he served, as the records during whatever time he served have 
been lost or destroyed. 



286 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

In the War of 1812, he commanded a troop of cavalry under Gen- 
eral William Henry Harrison, and the muster roll of his company is 
preserveid. The same fall he was elected to the Legislature to represent 
Scioto County, and re-elected in 1813. 

In Portsmouth, Ohio, he resided on the first alley below the Biggs 
House, and kept a store there. In a room on the second floor, was 
the Commercial Bank of which he was a director. 

In 181 6, he was treasurer of Scioto County, with a salary of $54.53. 
In 1818, he built, at the mouth "of Brush Creek, as a home, a two story 
frame house, which is still standing, also a flouring mill, a store and 
two saw mills, and was in partnership with George Herrod, who mar- 
ried his sister, Elizabeth Kendall, while the family were still in Penn- 
sylvania. The firm started a boat yard for the construction of steam- 
boats and flatboats. In i824he built the first steamboat in Scioto County. 
It was called the "Herald," and afterwards, the "Ohio." It ran on the 
Ohio River many years. The "Belvidere" was built under the super- 
vision of Captain Rogers and was owned by Lodwick & Company. 
Kendall and Herrod afterward became contractors for the construc- 
tion of the Ohio Canal. For fifteen years he was brigade inspector 
of the Ohio militia. He was also on the staff of Gov. Robert Lucas, 
who was his brother-in-law, and became a brigadier general of militia. 

In 1820, he was auditor of Scioto County, but resigned in 1821. 
In December, 1821, he was elected to the Legislature to represent 
Scioto, Pike and Lawrence counties in the house. In December, 1822, 
he was elected to represent the same coimties in the senate, and served 
until 1824. This same year he was a presidential elector and voted 
for Henry Clay, and in the same year was appointed deputy surveyor 
for the military districts of Scioto County, Ohio, and served until 1848. 

In 1825, he was elected to represent Pike, Scioto and Lawrence 
counties in the house. In 1828, William Kendall built Scioto Furnace 
which was the first furnace in the southern Ohio iron field. He after- 
ward built Clinton and Buckhorn furnaces. The lot for the court 
house in Portsmouth, Ohio, was donated by Henry Brush. The con- 
tract for erecting the court house was let to William Kendall for $12,- 
650, and he built it in 1837. It was considered a fine building in that 
day. 

In 1828 and 1829, he represented Scioto, Pike, Jackson and Law- 
rence counties in the senate. 

In 1835 ^"d 1836, he represented the same counties in the senate. 
In 1836, he was presidential elector and voted for William Henry Har- 
rison. In 1837 and 1838, he represented Adams, Brown and Scioto 
counties in the house with Nelson Barrere, of Adams County, as his 
colleague. 

In 1842, he was appointed post master of Portsmouth, Ohio, and 
served four years. He kept the post office on the comer of Second 
and Market streets, where the Massie Block now stands. 

He was elected to the Ohio senate in October, 1847, and served un- 
til March 26, 1849. ^^ served six terms in the house, and five terms in 
the senate. 

His first wife, Rachael Brown, died November 26, 1820, and he 
was married to Christina Lawson, his second wife, on October 2, 1821. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 287 

His son, Milton Kendall, married his wife's sister, consequently he was 
a brother-in-law to his own son, he having married the eldest daughter 
and his son the youngest. His second wife died August 2, 1840, and he 
married for a third wife, Mrs. Ruth Claypool, of Chillicothe, who sur- 
vived him a number of years. 

He was a Whig, and took an active part in politics on that side all 
his life. During his entire life in Portsmouth there was no public en- 
terprise went on unless he was connected with it in some way or other. 
He took a prominent part in the affairs of the state. Whenever his 
party was in doubt as to a candidate, it was always suggested, "Let us 
take Kendall ; he will make a safe and sure man," and he was. He had 
a habit of getting there and being elected. This was because he was al- 
ways popular. He was large-hearted and hospitable. He was candid, 
but at the same time never sought to obtrude his views on any one, and 
was tolerant. He was active in his habits, but his disposition was mild, 
and he was always calm and deliberate. He was the father of fifteen 
children, and left numerous descendants. 

General Kendall came to Portsmouth, Ohio, in 1805, as a trader, 
and for several years was engaged in mercantile and trading pursuits. 
He was a faithful friend, a kind neighbor, and a public-spirited citizen. 
No man was more universally beloved and respected. He possessed 
uncommon equanimity; he was seldom disturbed in mind or conduct, 
no matter what happened. He had a sound judgment. He died 
August 2, 1849, o^ ^ lingering consumption, perfectly resigned, having 
for a long time been expecting and desiring the final end. He was a 
tall, spare man, nearly six feet high, complexion between light and 
dark, blue eyes, and very active. He took hold of many enterprises 
and was very popular. No more active or energetic citizen ever re- 
sided in Scioto County, and none was ever ^ore intimately connected 
with public affairs. 

Hngh Means 

was born October 14, 1812, at Spartanburg, South Carolina, the son 
of Colonel John Means, who has a separate sketch herein. His mother 
was Annie Williamson, sister of Rev.William Williamson, also sketched 
herein. His father and mother moved to Adams County when Hugh 
was but seven years of age. He received his education mostly in Ohio 
at West Union, Ripley, and other schools. He commenced his busi- 
ness career at West Union, at about sixteen years of age, with his 
brother, Thomas W. Means, who was engaged in merchandising there. 
He remained with his brother, Thomas, about three years, and then 
went to Union Furnace in 1831, first as a store-keeper, and afterwards 
sold their iron. 

In 1835 he went to Greene County, Alabama, and engaged with 
his brother, James W., in merchandising. In 1837 he returned to Ohio 
on account of his father's death on November 15, 1837, and remained 
on the home farm in Sprigg Township, until his mother's death, No- 
vember 30, 1840. In that year he was married to Miss Ella Ellison, 
'who died in Catlettsburg in 1851. 

In October, 1843, he was elected to the Legislature from Adams 
County, and served one term. At that time, Adams, Fayette, and 
Highland were in one legislative district, and had two representatives. 



288 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

Burnham Martin, of Fayette County, was his colleague. After this, 
he was engaged at merchandising at Portsmouth, Ohio. 

In 1847 he became one of the partners in building Buena Vista 
Furnace in Boyd County, Kentucky, with James W. Means, John Cul- 
bertson, and William Foster. In 1848 he built a residence in Catletts- 
burg, Ky., and removed his home there. 

In 1851 he was married to Miss Amanda Wilson. He resided in 
Catlettsburg, Kentucky, until 1856, when he removed to Ashland, Ken- 
tucky, where he continued to reside the remainder of his life. He was 
one of the charterers of the Bank of Ashland, and was its president 
from its organization. He was one of the original owners of the town 
plat of Ashland, and helped to organize the town, and as such, was one 
of the original members in the Ashland Coal and Iron Company. 

In 1872, when the Ashland National Bank wa3 organized, he was 
made its president, and continued such until his death. 

Politically, he was a Whig so long as that party existed. At the 
organization of the Republican party, he identified himself with that, 
and continued affiliated with it all his life. During the Civil War he 
was a staunch friend of the Union, and did all he could for its cause. 
However, he never put himself forward in any poKtical movement. 

He was a member of the Presbyterian Church since 1849. ^^ 
was elected to the office of deacon, and was treasurer for many years. 
In 1872 he was made a ruling elder in the church, and served as such 
during his life. This was a position for which he was eminently fitted 
in every way. He kept himself well informed on all current topics 
of the day, and was deeply interested in all ethical questions. He, 
however, had no taste for speaking in public assemblies, but when he 
did speak, his character and life spoke for him. He was of polished 
manners, refined in taste, exceptional in correct habits, of the strictest 
integrity, and of great purity of life. He was respected, honored, and 
loved by all who knew him. His deeds of charity were numerous, but 
were done so unostentatiously that their extent could never be told. 
He had an interest in every enterprise of the church. He was diligent 
in his business and in his work for the church. In person, he was tall 
and slender, with admirable bearing, but always of a delicate consti- 
tution. He had no childem by his first marriage. By his second he 
had four. His eldest, William, died in 1878. His son, Charles W. 
Means, is cashier of the Ashland National Bank. 

He died December 15, 1884. His widow and two daughters re- 
side in Asheville, North Carolina. 

Henry. Ii. Phillips 

was born in Highland County, Ohio, September 13, 1829, received a 
common school education, studied medicine and began practicing in 
Adams Coimty. Ho was married to Martha A. Bloomhuff, September 
10, 1856. Three children were l>orn to them: Cora, now a teacher in 
the public schools of Manchester ; Dudley B. and Fannie, now the wife of 
W. D. Vance. He entered the 70th O. V. I. in the fall of 1861, as first 
lieutenant and adjutant. He was afterwards made captain in the same 
regiment and detailed as acting assistant adjutant general. He was 
next made a lieutenant colonel, and continued in that grade and com- 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 289 

manded the 70th Ohio until it w^s discharged August 14, 1865. He 
was in all the important engagements in which his regiment participated 
and went with Sherman to the sea. In 1865, while still in the service, 
he was elected to the Legislature as the representative from Adams 
County. He was a member of Manchester Lodge, No. 317, F. and 
A, M., by which order he was buried July 27, 1866, having died of 
malarial fever and a chronic disease contracted in the armv. 

Joseph Wilkin* Eylar 

was bom in Carlisle, Brown County. Ohio, March 11, 1847. Before he was 
a year old, his parents removed to Winchester, Ohio, where they resided 
until 1856, when they removed to Yoimgsville, where they resided until 
i860, when they removed to West Union. Our subject attended pub- 
lic schools at Winv^ihester, at Grace's Rim near Youngsville, and at West 
Union. While in West Union, between terms of school, he went into 
the employment of Billings and Patterson, who were publishing the 
Democratic Union. In 1862, he went to Georgetown where he worked 
at the printer's trade under John G. Doran, publisher of the Southern 
Ohio Argus, In 1862, he went with his father in the army, acting as 
teamster and forage master. He was with Burnside's Army in East 
Tennessee in 1863. Just before the siege of Knoxville, Eylar was one 
of a party sent with dispatches from General Burnside to the com- 
mandant at Cumberland Gap, directing the forwarding of commissary 
supplies. The party carrying the dispatches went from Knoxville to 
the gap by a circuitous route and narrowly escaped capture by the rebels. 
They, however, delivered the dispatches safely, and from there young 
Eylar went home. That winter he spent in school and from there went 
into the office of the Democratic Union, at West Union. He remained 
there until the summer of 1865 when he went to Fayette County and 
worked in a hub and spoke factory until September when he returned to 
West Union and undertook to establish a Democratic newspaper in 
Adams County. He walked over the county canvassing for subscribers 
and on the nineteenth of January, 1866, he launched the Peoples' De- 
fetider on the troubled sea of journalism. As a newspaper, it was a suc- 
cess from the start. Mr. Eylar seemed to have a talent for newspaper 
work and was able to make the paper as good as it could be with the sup- 
port he had in Adams County. The paper and its editor, Mr. Eylar, 
prospered right along. 

In March, 1889, he was married to Mary Ellen Oldson, daughter 
of James R. Oldson, of West Union. He has had four children, Mar- 
garet Ann, William Allen, James Norton and Lotta Sinclare. 

In 1876, Mr. Eylar was elected to the Legislature from Adams 
County as the representative of his party and re-elected in 1878. Dur- 
ing his two terms, he secured the passage of more bills than any one who 
had ever preceded him in the representation of Adams County. He 
made a record as a most efficient legislator. 

In 1890, after having published the Peoples' Defender successfully 
for twenty-four years, he sold it to Edward A. Crawford and removed 
to Georgetown, Ohio, where lie purchased an interest in the Georgetown 
News Democrat and has been its editor and publisher ever since. 

19a 



290 HISTORY OP ADAMS CX)UNTY 

Mr. Eylar is a Democrat in the intensest sense of the word. While 
there may be, and doubtless are, Democrats whose faith in the tenets of 
their party is only sentimental, that is not the case with Mr. Eylar. His 
democracy is eig^hteen carats fine. He not only believes it, but he 
thinks, acts and lives it. The Defender under his management was an 
able newspaper. Many thought at times he was too pungent and sar- 
castic and sometimes too abusive, but his friends stood by him and he 
succeeded. 

Mr. Eylar is a good friend, a good neighbor, a bad enemy, and a 
good citizen. He believes iyi the broad religion of humanity and prac- 
tices it ever>' day of his life. With the foundations he was able to lay 
in his boyhood and youth, he has made a superstructure with which he 
and his personal political friends can be well satisfied and of which they 
can be proud. 

James I<. Oory«lL 

James I,. Coryell was born near West Union, February 22, 1830. 
His father was Salatbiel Coryell, and his mother, Nancy Holmes, daugh- 
ter of James Holmes. His father was born in Mason County, Ky., and 
located in Adams County in 1801. The Coryell family came from the 
state of New Jersey. Up to twenty years of age, our subject worked on 
his father's farm in the summer and attended school in the winter. At 
twenty years, he became a teacher in the public schools, followed that 
profession for about nine years, and in that time, was county school ex- 
aminer for two years. In 1853, he removed to West Union and became 
a teacher in the upper district, and when not engaged in teaching, was 
employed in the county auditor's oflice. He was always a Democrat, 
and in 1859, was by that party elected to the office of county auditor and 
re-elected in 1861. He filled the office with satisfaction to the public 
and great credit to himself. In 1864, he was elected justice of the peace 
for Tiffin Township and was re-elected in 1867, ^^^ served as such for 
about six years. During this time, he also followed the occupation of a 
surveyor. In the discharge of his duties as justice, he brought to his aid 
a calm, judicial mind and temper. He was a most excellent surveyor. 
In 1869 he was elected probate judge of Adams County and was re- 
elected in 1872 and 1875. In 1879, he was elected Adams County's rep- 
resentative in the Legislature and served two terms. In 1875 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Ohio. In April, 1886, he was again elected a justice 
of the peace in Tiffin Township, and continued to hold it by successive 
re-elections until the time of his death. He was first married to Miss 
Mary McGranagan, of Manchester, and by her was the father of three 
children ; Lydia, the wife of Orlando Burwell, of Cincinnati ; Nancy, the 
wife of C. C. W. Naylor, of Manchester ; W. C. Coryell, the well-known 
attorney in West Union, and Julia, wife of Edward Hughes, of Man- 
chester, but now deceased. His wife died in- 1866 and in 1869 he mar- 
ried Mrs. Hannah McFerran, widow of Major John W. McFerran, who 
died in the service of his country in the Civil War. From 1867 to 1880 
and from April, 1889, until his death, he served as a member of the 
board of education of West Union. As a school teacher and surveyor, 
he was most efficient. As a public officer, he discharged his duties with 
promptness, thoroughly, and with satisfaction to all who had business 
before him. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 291 

In the probate office, he systematized the manner of transact- 
ing its business and keeping its records. To all cases in that court he 
gave a patient and calm hearing, and in their disposition displayed a 
broad and sound judgment, which commanded the respect of all. As 
a lawyer, he was a safe and prudent counselor. He was not an advocate 
but in the management of estates, he had the confidence of all the people 
in the county, and that confidence was well deserved, and never abused. 
He was of an even and calm temper, never excited or perturbed, and at 
no time did he ever lose his mental balance. He had a taste for local 
history and reminiscences from boyhood, and his mind was stored with 
historical facts about the county and its citizens. Whenever he learned 
a fact, he never forgot it. His reminiscences of Adams County would 
have made a most interesting book. The writer has often suggested to 
him that he ought to have written the history of z\danis County, and had 
he done so, it would have been a most readable book, but he never could 
be induced to write out and preserve the many interesting facts in the 
past of the county with which his mind was stored. The writer never 
would have taken an interest in the history of Adams County and this 
book never would have been written, so far as he is concerned, had it 
not been for the interest awakened in him by Judge Coryell, in his many 
iiiter\'iews with him. On men and events in the past history of the 
County, Judge Coryell was a most interesting conversationalist, and no 
one could listen to him without becoming interested. Th« writer was 
not only deeply interested in the many events narrated to him by Judge 
Coryell, but also felt these events should be preserved in a printed book 
and hence this history, the work of himself and his associate, Mr. Stivers. 

And to Judge Coryell's wonderful faculty of remembering past 
events and relating them in an interesting manner to his friends, the 
patrons and readers of this work may largely attribute any pleasure they 
may have in reading that portion of this work prepared by the writer 
of this sketch. 

Hon. Jolm B. Yonne. 

The paternal great-grandfather of our subject, Daniel Young, emi- 
grated from the north of Ireland to the state of Mew Jersey prior to the 
Revolution, in which he was a soldier in a New Jersey regiment. He 
was a pensioner, and died in Adams County, Ohio, and is buried in the 
Foster cemetery, in Greene Township. His son, Thomas W. Young, 
was born in New Jersey, September 4, 1783, and died January 10, 1867. 
He was the grandfather of our subject, and his wife was Mary Finney, 
who was born in Ireland February 11, 1788, and died in 1870. She is 
also buried in the Foster cemetery, l^aniel Young, father of our subject, 
was born October 27, 1813, in Pennsylvania; and died in Adams County 
April 18, 1850. He married Clarinda Brooks, who was born in Che- 
mung County, New York, March 9, 181 r, and died September 14, i860. 

John B. Young was born February 19, 1839, ^^ Jefferson Township, 
Adams Countv, Ohio, where he has ever since resided. When he was 
eleven years old, his father died, and John B. was put under the charge 
of a great uncle, George Young, with whom he made his home until his 
sixteenth year. After working for a few months for Daniel Spurgeon, 
he returned to his mother's home, where he remained until she married 
John Scott. In April, 1859, he entered school in West Union under the 



292 fflSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

tutorship erf the late Judge J. L. Coryell, and prepared himself to teach 
in the country schools of Adams County, receiving his first certificate to 
teach in the year 1859. While under the instruction of Judge Coryell, 
the latter became a candidate on the Democratic ticket for the nomina- 
tion for county auditor. He was anxious about the delegates from Jef- 
ferson Township, and sent our subject there to try to secure the pledges 
of ten delegates which were needed to insure the nomination for the 
judge. After much political wire-pulling, eleven pledges were secured, 
j-nd the judge was assured the coveted nomination. This was the first 
political work of our subject beyond township affairs, and he had not 
then attained his majority. 

In September, 1859, he began teaching in Jefferson Township at 
twenty-five dollars per month, paying five dc^lars per month for board- 
ing. He continued teaching as a profession until he enlisted in the Civil 
^Var, August it, 1862, at Buena Vista, f^cioto County, Ohio, under 
Captain Henry, Company H, 81 st Regiment, O. V. I., Colonel Morton 
in command. He served until mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 1865. 
During his term of service, he was engaged in the following battles: 
Tuscumbia, Town Creek, Lay's Ferry, Rome X Roads, Dallas, Siege of 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station, Kennesaw Mountain, Sherman's 
March to the Sea. the march through the Carolinas. and Bentonville. 

Five days after his enlistment in the service, he was married to 
Deidamia Thompson, who has borne him ten children — Isaac D., Edmund 
Lee, Clement L., John H., Inda, Thomas M.. Thomas E., Sarali, Mary 
and Anna. 

In 1883, ^^ was nominated on the Democratic ticket for representa- 
tive from Adams County in the Ohio Legislature; and after one of the 
most stubbornly contested political battles, he was elected, his opponent 
being Robert H. Ellison, of Manchester, a wealthy banker of that place. 
His record in the legislature was eminently satisfactory to his parly, and 
he was nominated for a second term, but defeated bv a few votes in a vear 
in which the entire Democratic ticket was ovenvhelmed in Adams 
County. He has held many positions of trust and honor, and has long 
been a leader of the Democratic party in his native county. He is a 
member of the Christian Union Church, and has ser\^ed for years as an 
elder in that organization. 

IXriUiam Alfred Blair, 

a merchant of Tranquility, Adams County, Ohio, was bom April 13, 
1829, on a farm six miles northwest of Tranquility. His ancestors 
were of Scotch-Irish stock. Joseph Wallace Blair, father of our sub- 
ject, was born in Tennessee, December 22. 1799. When thirteen years 
of age, he accompanied his parents to Adams County, Ohio, arid for a 
number of years was engaged in farming. His father, being afflicted 
with rheumatism, gave his attention to school teaching and merchan- 
dising, first opening a small store at Belfast. Highland County, Ohio, 
associated for a time with the Hon. John T. Wilson. The last twenty- 
five years of his life were spent on a farm of 155 acres, located near 
Russcllville, Brown County, Ohio, where he died February 9, 1878, and 
was buried in the Red Oak cemetery in that county. Polly Ann Blair, 
mother of our subject, was born January 12, 1807, and died November 




AM>kK\V CI.H.MMKK SMITH 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 298 

12, 1865. Mr. and Mrs. Blair were married in 1827, and were the par- 
ents of twelve children, six of whom are still living. 

W. A. Blair, the subject of this sketch, received his education in 
the early days of his boyhood from his parents and in the district com- 
mon schools of those days in Adams and Highland counties. He re- 
mained with his parents until fifteen years of age, when he came to live 
with the Hon. John T. Wilson, of Tranquility, and was employed to do 
general work around the store. He remained with that gentleman 
nine years, and acquired an interest in the store. In 1853 ^^ accepted 
a position in the dry goods establishment of B. L. Jefferson, of Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, and shortly afterward bought a half interest in the busi- 
ness, which partnership continued for two years. Mr. Blair next spent 
one year in merchandising at South Webster, Ohio, and in August, 
1856, he returned to Tranquility and purchased the old Wilson store, 
then owned by Silcott & Mathews, and located on- the hill. Five years 
later Mr. Blair built his present store room and dwelling, into which he 
moved in January, 1862. He was married September 18, 1856, to 
Mary Jane, daughter of John and Narcissa McCreight, of Adams 
County. Mr. and Mrs. Blair have had the following children : Frank 
Granville, born November 23, 1857, is conducting the store at Tran- 
quility, married Lulu America Wasson, by whom he had one child. 
Earl Clyde; John Joseph, born September 24, 1859, ^s engaged in the 
banking business at Peebles, Ohio, married Espy Jane Patton, and they 
have one child, Charles Patton ; Spencer W^ilson, bom December 29, 
1865. ^s employed in his father's store ; Blanchard Grier, bom January 
18, 1869, is a clerk in the Ripley National Bank, Ripley, Ohio. 

W. A. Blair is a man of considerable means, of great business ex- 
perience and ability, and his probity of character and uprightness in all 
business affairs, are unquestioned by those who come in contact with 
him. He was in the Civil War, served as second lieutenant in Co. G. 
I72d O. V. I. While never aspiring to public honors, he was elected 
by the Republican party of Adams County, Ohio, in the fall of 1885, 
as representative from said county to serve in the sixty-seventh General 
Assembly of Ohio for the years 1886 and 1887. He also served the 
township of Scott, in Adams County, Ohio, as its treasurer from 1862 
to 1886, about twenty-four years. In politics he is a Republican; in 
reHgion he is a Presbyterian. He was the intimate friend of the late 
Hon. John T. Wilson ,having known him from childhood, and so thor- 
oughly did he impress Mr. Wilson that he always placed the most im- 
plicit confidence in him, and at the time of his death, Mr. Blair was 
named as executor, without bond, of the Wilson estate, the largest es- 
tate ever left for settlement in Adams County, and he has conducted the 
administration of the estate with that care and fidelity Mr. Wilson an- 
ticipated. 

Hon. Andrew Clemmer Smitli 

was born a musician. His father was a musician, a trait- inherited fron? 
generations back. Our subject was born on the seventeenth day of 
September, 1836, at Mt. Leigh, in Adams County, Ohio. His father, 
Samuel Smith, was a wool carder and an instructor in vocal music and 
penmanship. His mother was Barbara Clemmer. Young Smith grew 
up in a home of industry, song, and peace, until the age of nine, when 



2W HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

his parents removed to North Liberty, where he began to learn the 
wool carding trade. He spent his winters in the common schools, and 
his summers at work at wool carding. As might be expected, young 
Smith developed an extraordinary aptitude for instrumental music, and 
when a band was organized at North Liberty, under the instructions of 
Dr. L. D. Sheets, an eminent physician and musician from Baltimore, 
Md., Andrew was given a position as bass drummer, but in less than six 
months he was promoted to first B flat cornet. Much of his young 
manhood was spent in the study and practice of music, arranging music 
for bands, and instructing them throughout the counties near his home. 
He went to school, some time at the North Liberty Academy when 
the Revs. Fisher, Arbuthnot and Andrews presided, successively, over 
that institution. At the age of seventeen he became a teacher of com- 
mon schools., receiving a certificate of qualification to that effect from 
the county board. Not being able to obtain a school, at that time, he 
entered the wool carding mill of M. J. Patterson, of Winchester, and 
remained until the season closed in 1853, when he entered the dry 
goods store of George A. Dixon, of Winchester, as salesman. This 
place he held until the fall of 1854, when he obtained a school. As a 
teacher he was very successful, and held a prominent position among 
the teachers of Adams County. For four years prior to the Civil War, 
he was a teacher in the West Union schools. Two vears of the time 
he taught under the late James L. Coryell, and two years under Rev. 
W. W. Williams. On July 18, 1861, he enlisted in the 24th Regiment, 
O. V. I., at the age of twenty-six, as leader of the regimental band. 
On September 10, 1862, he was discharged. 

He spent the time from September 10, 1862, until March t, 1863, 
at his home in Winchester, Ohio. On the latter date he re-entered 
the military service as a first-class musician in the brigade band, 3rd 
Brigade, ist Division, 21st Army Corps. On April 5, 1863, he left 
Adams County for Murfreesboro, Tenn., where on April 13, 1863, he 
was a second time mustered into the U. S. military service. On March 
II, 1864, he was made a leader of the band of the 3rd Brigade, ist Di- 
vision, 4th Army Corps. He remained with this corps until the first of 
September, 1865, when he was discharged from the service of the 
United States at Camp Stanley, Texas. He, however, remained as 
leader of the band of the 21st Illinois, until that regiment was mustered 
out in December, 1865. He did not reach home until January 25, 1866. 
During his service in the Civil War he was present in the following 
battles: Cheat Mountain, W. Va., Shiloh, Tenn., Murfreesboro, 
Tcjm., Smithville, Corinth, Dalton, Resaca, Atlanta, Chicamauga, 
Jonesboro, Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. For personal servce 
rendered Major General Thomas in front of Atlanta, Ga., in Septem- 
ber, 1864, Mr. Smith was granted a furlough for thirty days. While at 
home in this period, he was married to Miss Mary J. Puntenney, 
daughter of Mr. James Puntenney. At the close of the war he took 
up his residence at his wife's former home at Stout's Run, Greene 
Township, and, with the exception of three years in West Union, as 
a teacher, he has lived there ever since. There have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Smith five sons and two daughters, of which a daugh- 
ter and a son died in infancy. Edgi^ P., the oldest, is a U. P. minister, 



POUTICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 295 

and lives in Huntsville, Ohio. Mary Maude married a Methodist Epis- 
copal minister, Rev. William C. Mitchell, and lives in Lynden, Wash- 
ington; Samuel James was born October 14, 1873, ^"d died March 20, 
1^6; George H. C. and Harry E. were born October 22, 1879, and De- 
cember 28, 1883, respectively, and still live at home with their parents. 
Mrs. Mary J. Smith, his wife, was bom November 16, 1842. In her 
young womanhood she was a student under Miss Mary E. Urmston, 
afterwards Mrs. E. P. Pratt, and under Jas. L. Coryell and Rev. W. W. 
Williams. She became a teacher and obtained great proficiency in 
music. For several years she was a teacher of piano music. Mr. 
Smith and his entire family, with the exception of his married daughter, 
are members of the United Presbyterian Church, living up to, and ac- 
cording to the ethics of all that church teaches man as to his duty, and 
the reasons for it. He especially loves to defend, bold and fearless, 
the sublimity of "the Songs of the Bible." 

In politics Mr. Smith is a Republican of the "most straightest 
sect." He firmly believes that the principles of the Republican party 
carried out by the government arc necessary to the welfare and contin- 
uous prosperity of the nation. 

He was elected to the Legislature for the district composed of the 
counties of Adams and Pike in November, 1895, and re-elected in 1897. 
This office came to him unsolicited, and he discharged his duties as he 
has done everything in life, — on his conscience. 

Mr. Smith is a man of the highest character. With every move- 
ment for the betterment and elevation of mankind, he has been identi- 
fied as an advocate. He has always been a man of generous and noble 
impulses. In musical culture and education he has been a pioneer in 
southern Ohio. Many persons owe to him the lifelong pleasures they 
have found in the enjoyment of musical culture. His record as a 
teacher, as a patriot, as a musician, as a citizen, a man, and a Christian 
gentleman is without stain or blemish, and is one of which he, his 
friend's, and his posterity may feel justly proud. 

Hon. Rioliard Ramsay 

was bom in Washington County, Ohio, but was from early child- 
hood a resident of Winchester, Adams County, Ohio, where in 1885 he 
died, at the age of seventy-four years and eleven months. He made the 
most of the common schools in his day, and thus added to a mind of great 
natural force much acquired ability. His mind was well stored with 
useful information of which, owing to his mental discipline, he had 
ready command. He was a natural logician, and reasoned well on ques- 
tions of local and national importance. For thirty-one years he was a 
Justice of the Peace, though he accomplished as much by his unofficial 
counsels in reconciling the estranged as through the administration of 
the law. And so wise were his decisions that through this long period 
but few, if any, of his official rulings were reversed by the higher court. 
In 1873, he represented Adams County in the State Legislature. He 
was elected at a time when the opposing political party was in the as- 
cendency, so fully did he share the confidence of his neighbors, without 
distinction of party. • 



296 HISTORY OP ADAMS CX)UNTY 

In his early manhood, he united with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, of which he was a useful and influential member till his death. 
For thirty-seven years of this time, he was a local preacher; and for 
thirty-one years, a local deacon. His sermons were both scriptural and 
practical, and were very acceptable in the entire field of his labors. 

In 1 83 1 he was married to Miss Priscilla Reese, daughter of Major 
Jonathan Reese. In 1881 they celebrated their golden wedding, all 
their nine children and several grandchildren being present. 

His was a beautiful character. He was gentle and kind, faithful 
and true. His disposition was even and winning. He had clear and 
deep convictions on all questions, and never failed in his loyalty to what 
he thought was right. His influence in the community was blessed, and 
aided greatly in the promotion of every moral reform. 

His body was the first in this large family to be borne to its last rest- 
ing place in the cemetery of the village where so long he had resided. 

Adams Connty in Consreas. 

By N. W. Evans. 

F^om the organization of the state until 1810, there was but one 
congressman, Jeremiah Morrow, a member of the first constitutional 
convention, and afterwards Governor. On February 14, 1892, the 
State was divided into six congressional districts. The second district 
was composed of Clermont, Highland, Fayette, Clinton, Greene, and 
Adams. John Alexander, of Greene, was elected in this district in 1812 
to the thirteenth congress. He was re-elected to the fourteenth con- 
gress, and served from 181 3 to 181 7. He was bom in Spartanburg, 
N. C, in 1777, where the family name was "Elchinor." He moved to 
Ohio, where he became known as the "Buffalo of the West." He was 
elected as a Democrat. He came to Ohio in 1802 with his family. He 
was a member of the state senate, December, 1822, to February, 1824, 
representing Greene and Clinton. He was a lawyer. He left two sons 
and had a large estate. 

The next representative from this district was John W. Campbell, 
of Adams County. A sketch of him appears elsewhere. He was 
elected to the fifteenth congress in 181 6, and served from March 4, 
181 7, till March 4, 1827, five terms. On May 20. 1822, the second ap- 
portionment was made and the fourteen districts were made. The 
fifth district was composed of Brown, Adams, Highland, and Clinton. 
John W. Campbell represented this district for two terms, residing in 
Adams County all the time. On March 4, 1827, he was succeeded by 
William Russell in the twentieth congress. Russell served three con- 
secutive terms, March 4, 1827, to March 4, 1831, being a resident of 
Adams County all the time. Thus Adams County had the first con- 
gressman from the fifteenth to the twenty-second congress, both inclu- 
sive, for sixteen consecutive years. 

On June 14, 1832. the third apportionment was made, and nine- 
teen districts were made. Brown. Highland. Clermont, and Adams 
formed the fifth district, and Thomas L. Hamer was elected to the 
twenty-third congress as a Democrat. A sketch of him appears else- 
where. He was re-elected to the twenty-fourth and twentv-fifth con- 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 297 

grasses, and served until March 4, 1839. Judge Campbell might have 
remained indefinitely, and so might Hamer, but each decHned further 
elections, the first after five terms, and the second after three. 

Then Dr. WilHam Doane, of Clermont Coimty, was elected to the 
twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh congresses. He will not have a sep- 
arate sketch, and we will finish him right here. He was born in the 
state of Maine. He removed to Clermont County and filled several 
local offices. He was elected as a Democrat. July 15, 1842, at a spe- 
cial session of the legislature, as in 1832, the fourth apportionment was 
made and twenty-one districts created. Clermont, Brown, Highland, 
and Adams were the seventh district. In this district, Gen. Joseph Mc- 
Dowell, of Highland County, was elected to the twenty-eighth con- 
gress, and served two terms, 1843 ^^ ^847. He was born in Burke 
County, North Carolina, November 13, 1800. He moved to Highland 
County, Ohio, in 1824, and became a farmer. He was a merchant in 
Hillsboro from 1829 to 1835. At that time he was admitted to the bar 
by a special act of the legislature. Previous to his election to congress, 
he was m the legislature, in the House in 1832 and 1833, and in the Sen- 
ate from 1833 to 1835. He attained distinction as a lawyer, was an 
earnest and eloquent man, true to his constituents, faithful in the dis- 
charge of duty, and was noted for being a Christian gentleman. To 
the thirtieth congress, in October, 1846, Thomas L. Hamer, of Brown 
County, was elected, but never sat. He died in Mexico, December 21. 
1846. Jonathan D. Morris, of Clermont County, was elected to suc- 
ceed him. He was re-elected to the thirty-first congress, and served 
till March 4, 185 1. He had been clerk of the courts in Clermont 
County from 1831 to 1846, was a lawyer by profession, and was a faith- 
ful, conscientious and popular official. For twenty-five years he was a 
controlling factor in Clermont County politics. He had the respect 
and confidence of the people of his county, and was a leader of public 
opinion. 

In the thirty-second congress, 1851 to 1853, Nelson Barrere, a 
Whig, for the first time represented the district. He was a resident of 
Highland County when elected, but had resided in Adams County from 
1834 to 1845, ^^^^ while he had represented that county in the legisla- 
ture in 1837 and 1838. In 1853, he was the Whig candidate for Gover- 
nor, but was defeated by Mr. Medill. During the Civil War he was 
a Republican, but at its close became a Democrat, and remained such 
during his life. He 'was an able lawyer. He died August 20, 1883. 

In 1852 the fifth congressional apportionment was made of twenty- 
one districts. The sixth district was composed of Clermont, Brown, 
Highland, and Adams. Andrew Ellison, a lawyer from Brown County, 
represented the district in the thirty-third congress, 1853 to 1855. 
Nothing is now remembered of him except that he was a lawyer from 
Brown Countv. He was elected as a Democrat. 

In the thirty-fourth congress, Jonas R. Emrie, of Highland County, 
lepresented the district as a Republican in 1855 to 1857. He was 
defeated for re-election to the thirty-fifth congress by Joseph R. Cock- 
erill. of Adams Ccrtmty, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere. Under 
the plan by which the Democratic party was managing its affairs in the 
district at that time, Col. Cockerill was allowed but one term, and in the 



298 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNIY 

thirty-sixth congress, 1859 ^^ 1861, was succeeded by Col. William How- 
ard, of Clermont County. He was a distinguished citizen of that county, 
whose memory is still fragrant. Like Campbell and Cockerill, he was a 
native of Virginia. When a boy he learned the saddler trade. He was 
prosecuting attorney of Clermont County from 1845 to 1849; state sena- 
tor in 1849. He was a lieutenant in the Mexican War, and went into the 
Civil War as major of the 59th O. V. I., and was promoted to lieutenant 
colonel. He was a patriot, and so disclosed himself in congress, but the 
Democracy of his district had at that time established a foolish custom 
that no one should have but one term, so he retired at the close of his 
term and gave place to Chilton A. White, of Brown County, who was 
elected to the thirty-seventh congress, 1861 to 1863, as a Democrat. In 
1862 the sixth apportionment for congress was made, and the Republi- 
cans had the innings. There were nineteen districts, and the eleventh 
congressional district was composed of Adams, Scioto, Lawrence, Gallia, 
Jackson and Vinton. The district was Republican, but to the thirty- 
eighth congress, Wells A. Hutchins, of Scioto County, was elected as a 
War Democrat on a platform for the more vigorous prosecution of the 
war. A sketch of Mr. Hutchins appears elsewhere. He was a candidate 
to succeed himself, but was defeated by the Hon. Hezekiah H. Bundy, of 
Jackson County, who represented the district in the thirty-ninth con- 
gress, 1865 to 1867. A sketch of him appears herein. 

In the fortieth, forty-first, and forty-seCond congresses, 1867 to 
1873, John T. Wilson, of Adams County, represented the district. A 
sketch of him will be found herein. 

In 1872 the seventh apportionment was made. There were twenty- 
one districts, and Highland, Brown, Adams, Pike, and Ross were made 
the seventh district. And Lawrence T. Neal, of Ross County, repre- 
sented it in the forty-third and forty-fourth congresses, 1873 ^^ ^^77- 
Henry L. Dickey, of Highland County, was elected to the forty-fifth 
congress from this district, 1877 to 1879. 

In 1878 the eighth apportionment was made, and this was the first 
not made at a decennial period. It was made by the Democrats, all 
previous ones having been made by the Whigs or Republicans. There 
were twenty-one districts, and the eleventh was composed of Clermont, 
Brown, Adams, Highland, and Clinton. Under this apportionment, 
Henry L. Dickey, of Highland, was re-elected and represented the dis- 
trict, 1879 to 1881. In 1880 the Republicans controlled the Legislature 
and re-enacted the apportionment of 1872, making the ninth, and in 
this district, composed of Highland, Brown, Adams, Pike, and Ross. 
John P. Lccdom was elected to the forty-seventh congress and served 
one term, i88t to 1883. 

In 1882, the decennial period, the tenth apportionment was made. 
Under this there were twenty-one districts, and the eleventh was com- 
posed of Lawrence, Adams, Scioto, Jackson, Gallia, and Vinton. In 
this district John W. McCormick, of Gallia, was elected to the forty- 
eighth congress, and served one term. 

In 1884 the legislature was again Democratic, and that party took 
a turn at the wheel of fortune. The eleventh apportionment was made, 
and twenty-one districts were formed. The eleventh was composed of 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 



299 



Ross, Brown, Adams, and Highland. W. W. Ellsberry, of Brown, was 
elected to the forty-ninth congress, and served one term, 1885 to 1887. 

In 1886 the Republicans controlled the legislature, and they made 
the twelfth apportionment. Under this, Adams, Scioto, Lawrence, 
Gallia, Jackson, and Vinton composed the eleventh district, and Judge 
Albert C. Thompson was elected to the fiftieth congress, in 1887 to 
1889. He was re-elected to the fifty-first congress from the same dis- 
trict, 1887 to 1889. A sketch of him will be found elsewhere. These 
political changes are hard on the historian, but have to be borne. 

In 1890 the Legislature, controlled by the Democrats, made the 
thirteenth apportionment. Adams, Brown, Highland, Clermont, and 
Pike were made the eleventh district, and John M. Pattison, as a Demo- 
crat, of Clermont, represented it in the fifty-second congress, 1891 to 
1893. In 1892 the Republicans made the regular decennial apportion- 
ment, the fourteenth in number. There were twenty-one districts, 
Adams, Scioto, Pike, Jackson, Gallia and Lawrence composed the tenth 
district, and in this Gen. William H. Enochs was elected to the fifty- 
third congress. He died July 13, 1893, after four months and nine days 
of his term, and Hon. Hezekiah S. Bundy was elected his successor, 
and served out his term. 

To the fifty-fourth congress and to the fifty-fifth, Lucien J. Fenton, 
of Adams, was elected, and served from 1895 to 1899. A sketch of him 
appears herein. To the fifty-sixth congress Stephen Morgan, of Jack- 
son, was elected, and is serving his first term. 

A table of Adams County in congress is as follows : 



Congress. 


Years. 


7-12 


1803-1813... 


14-15 


1813-1815... 


15-19 


1817-1827... 


20-22 


1827-1833... 


23-25 


1833-1839... 


26-27 


1839-1843... 


28-29 


1843-1847... 


30-31 


1847-1851... 


32 


1851-1853... 


33 


1853-1865... 


34 


1855-1857... 


35 


1857-1859... 


36 


1859-1861... 


37 


1861-1863.. 


38 


1863-1865... 
1865-1867... 
1867-1873... 


39 


40-42 


43-44 


1873-1877... 


45-46 


1877-1881... 


47 


1881-1883... 


48 


1883-1885... 
1885-1887... 
1887-1891... 


49 


50-51 


52 


1891-1893... 
1893-1895... 

1895-1899... 


53 


54-55 


56 


1897 



Name. 



County. 



Politics. 



Jeremiah Morrow , 

John Alexander 

John W. CampbeH 

William Russell 

Thomas L. Hamer 

William Doane 

Jos. T. McDowell 

Jonathan D. Morris 

Nelson Barrere 

Andrew Ellison 

Jonas R. Emrie 

Jos. R. Cockerill 

William Howard 

Chilton A. White 

Wells A. Hutchins 

Hezekiah S. Bundy 

John T.Wilson 

lyawrence T. Neal 

Henry L. Dickey 

John P. Leedom 

John W. McCormick 

W. W. Ellsberry 

Albert C. Thompson 

John M. Pattison 

Wm. H. Enochs 

H. S. Bundy 

Lucien J. Fenton 

Stephen J. Morgan 



Hamilton 

Greene 

Adams 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 


Adams 

Brown 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 


Clermont 

Highland 

Clermont 

Highland 

Brown 


Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Democrat. 

Whig. 

Democrat. 


Highland 

Adams 

Clermont 

Brown 


Republican. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 


Scioto 


Democrat. 


Jackson 

Adams 


Republican. 
Republican. 
Democrat. 


Ross 


Highland 

Adams 

Gallia 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Republican. 
Democrat. 


Brown 


Scioto 


Republican. 

Democrat. 

Republican. 

Republican. 

Republican. 

Republican. 


Clermont 

I/awrence 

Jackson 


Adams 


Jackson 



3<»o HISTORY OP ADAMS CX>UNTY 

There have been fourteen apportionments made, when regularly 
there should have been but nine. The first apportionment, other than 
at a decennial period was in 1878 by the Democrats. The next was in 
1880 by the Republicans. The third was in 1874 by the Democrats, 
and the fourth in 1886 by the Republicans. The fifth was in 1890 by 
the Democrats. Exclusive of the present term, Adams County has 
been represented in congress ninety-six years, thirty of -which by its 
own citizens. Of the ninety-six years, the Democrats have had sev- 
enty-two years, and the Whigs and Republicans twenty-four years. 

Jeremimh Morrov 

was the first congressman from Ohio. He was born in Gettysburg, 
Adams County, Pennsylvania, October 6, 1771. His father was a 
farmer, and he was brought up on the farm. He attended a private 
school at Gettysburg, and was especially bright in mathematics and 
surveying, which were his favorite studies. In 1795 he emigrated to the 
Northwest Territory, and settled at Columbia, near Cincinnati. At 
Columbia he taught school, did surveying, and worked on the farm. 
Having saved some money, he went to Warren County, bought a large 
farm and erected a log house. In the spring of 1799 he married Miss 
Mary Packhill, of Columbia. 

In 1 801 he was elected to the territorial legislature. He was a 
delegate to the constitutional convention in 1802. In March, 1803, he 
was elected, to the Ohio senate, and in June, 1803, he was elected to 
congress, and re-elected ten times. While in congress he was chair- 
man of the committee on public lands. In 181 3 he was elected to the 
United States senate, and was made chairman of the committee on pub- 
lic lands. In 1814 he was appointed Indian commissioner. At the 
close of his term he retired to his farm. 

In early life he became a member of the United Presbyterian 
Church, and devoted himself to its welfare all his life. 

In 1820 he was a candidate for governor, and received 9,476 votes, 
to 34,836 for Ethan A. Brown, who was elected. In 1822 he w^as 
elected governor by 26,059 votes, to 22,889 ^^^ Allen Trimble and 11,- 
150 for William W. Irw^in, and re-elected in 1824 by the' following vote: 
39,526 for him, and 37,108 for Allen Trimble. During his service as 
governor, the canal system of Ohio was inaugurated, and Lafayette's 
visit to the state took place. On the fourth of July, 1839, he laid the 
corner stone of the capital at Columbus. In 1840 he was re-elected 
to congress to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Thomas Corwin, 
and was re-elected. He was a deep thinker, a delightful social com- 
panion, had a wonderful retentive memory, boundless kindness of heart 
and endowed with much vivacity and cheerfulness of spirit. He died 
March 22, 1853. 

Joliii Alexander 

represented Adams County in the thirteenth and fourteenth congresses, 
181 3 to 18 1 4. He represented the second district, composed of Adams, 
Clinton, Greene, Fayette, Highland, and Clermont counties. Brown 
Countv was not then established. He was elected as a Democrat. He 
appears to have been in the senate, twenty-second legislative session, 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 301 

December 2, 1822, to January 28, 1823, and in the twenty-second legis- 
lative session, December i, 1823, to February 26, 1824, representing 
Greene and Clinton counties. 

He was born in Spartanburg, South Carolina, about 1777, where 
the family was called **Elchinor." After receiving a common school 
education he removed to Ohio, where he was known at the "Buffalo of the 
West." He located in Greene Countv. He is said to have entered the war 
of 1812 as a private. He was a lawyer. He had a son, Washington, bom 
in South Carolina in 1800 who came with his parents to Greene County 
in 1802. He was also a lawyer. He had a son, William J., bom June 10, 
1827, who was admitted to the bar in i860. He died in 1897. 

Jolin W. Campbell 

was the third United States district judge for the district of Ohio. Like 
his two predecessors, he was a Virginian. He was bom February 23, 
1782, near Miller's Iron Works in Auijusta County, Va. He only 
breathed the Virginia atmosphere until his ninth year, for at that time 
his father removed to Kentucky. He had no facilities for an education 
except those of the common schools of that day, and they were about no 
schools at all. He was not strong enough to perform farm labor, as his 
father's circumstances required, and he went to Cincinnati, then an in- 
significant village, where he began to learn the carpenter's trade. He 
remained in Cincinnati for a few months and then returned home. His 
parents soon afterward removed to that part of Adams County now in 
Brown, where John studied Latin under Rev. Dunlavy. He afterward 
studied under Rev. Robert Finley. His father was too poor to pay for 
his maintenance and books, and he worked clearing ground in the morn- 
ing and evening to maintain himself in school. He studied the lan- 
guages under Mr. John Finley, and afterward pursued them himself. 
He was then seized with a desire to study law, and went to Morgantown, 
Virginia, and studied under his uncle, Thomas Wilson. He earned his 
expenses while studying by teaching school. In t8o8, he was admitted 
to the bar in Ohio and fixed his residence at W^est Union. He delivered 
an oration on the fourth of July, 1808, at West Union at a celebration 
on that day. He was a Jacksonian Democrat all his life. In July, 1809, 
he was elected a justice of the peace of Tiffin Township, Adams County, 
and served until June 5. 1815, when he resigned. The same year, 1809, 
he was appointed prosecuting attorney of Adams County by the common 
pleas court, and was allowed from $25 to $30 a term for liis services, there 
being three terms in a year, and he served until January- 23, 181 7. He 
was elected to represent Adams County in the Legislature in October, 
1810, with Abraham Shepherd as his colleague. He represented the 
county in the Legislature again in 1815 and 18 16 and had Josiah Lock- 
hart as an associate. He was elected to the fifteenth congress in 1816, 
and served continuously until March 4, 1827. He was succeeded by 
William Russell. In 1828 he was a candidate for governor of the state 
on the Democratic ticket and was defeated by the vote of 53.970 for 
Allen Trimble and 51,051 for himself, majority in favor of Trimble, 
2,019. I" March, 1829, President Jackson appointed him United States 
district judge for the district of Ohio, and he served until his death, 
September 24, 1833. In January. 1833, he received in the legislature, 



302 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

49 votes for United States senator to 54 votes for Thomas Morris, at the 
time Morris was elected. He was a candidate for congress in 181 2, but 
was defeated, but was elected four years later. He terminated his con- 
gressional career at his own choice, was not choked off or killed off by 
politicians as is the fashion in our days. In 1827, on his retirement from 
congress, he removed from West Union to Brown County, Ohio, and 
settled on a farm in what is now Jefferson Township on Eagle Creek. 
His farm consisted of 250 acres. He lived there but two years after 
his appointment as United States judge, when he removed to Columbus. 
During the time of his residence in West Union, he resided in the house 
in which Mr. James Hood died and where Mr. Cooper's family now re- 
side. He resided there from 1808 to 1827. He had a habit of rising 
at four o'clock in the morning to study and he kept this up after his re- 
moval to Columbus, although in his da}' there was but little for the 
United States district judge to do but to maintain his dignity. In 1833, 
his adopted daughter died after ten days' painful illness, during which 
time the judge was a watcher night and day. After her death. Judge 
Campbell and his wife, broken down with anxiety, concluded to visit 
Delaware Springs for relaxation and rest. On the way Judge Camp- 
bell was taken with a chill, followed by a high fever. However, the next 
day he proceeded to Delaware, but was taken worse and breathed his 
last on the twenty-fourth of September, 1833. On the arrival of the 
news of his death at Columbus, a great sensation was caused, as he was 
highly respected. Several hundred people of Columbus met his funeral 
procession at Worthington and accompained his remains to their last 
resting place. 

In 181 1, he was married to Miss Eleanor Doak, daughter of Robert 
Doak, of Augusta County, Virginia. There was no issue of this mar- 
riage. Judge Campbell was a man of great natural dignity and force 
of character. 

The source of our information is a book entitled "Biographical 
Sketches with other Literary Remains of the late John W. Campbell, 
Judge of the United States Court for the District of Ohio," compiled 
by his widow. It was printed at Columbus, Ohio, in 1838, and pub- 
lished by Scott & Gallagher. The biography was evidently written by 
a lady because it is conspicuous in faihng to tell, what, after a lapse of 
fifley-eight years, we would most like to know and by filling it up with 
comments for which posterity is not thankful and does not appre- 
ciate. What we would like to know ar, to Judge Campbell are the facts 
of his life and then our own judgment as to the place he should occupy 
in history. 

He has been dead sixty-six years. All v;ho knew him personally are 
dead. We have to resort to his writings and to written accounts left 
of him to make an estimate of his character. He was highly respected 
by all who knew him. He was public spirited and patriotic. He was a 
friend whom his friends valued most highly. As a public speaker, his 
manners and style were pleasing. He investigated every subject pre- 
sented to him with great care. He was of the strictest integrity. He 
was a successful lawyer, never lost his self- poise or equanimity and his 
judgment was never controlled by his emotions. His opinions were 
carefully formed, but wlien formed, did not need to be revised. The 



POUTICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 308 

public welfare with him was paramount. He was very sympathetic in 
cases of suffering or distress brought to his notice. He took a great 
interest in education. He favored the colonization of the Negroes, and 
was president of the Ohio Colonization Society at the time of his death. 
He was strictly moral in all his life and conduct and this, from high 
principles, well considered and adopted, which served as glides to his 
life. He was intensely religious. He was the strongest kind of a 
Jacksonian Democrat, but yet was never offensive to his political op- 
ponents and treated them with the greatest consideration. His was a 
familiar figure on the streets of West Union from 1808 to 1826, during 
all of which time he resided there, but there is no tradition of him what- 
ever in the village. He was fond of composing verse, was no insignifi- 
cant poet, and had fine literary tastes. Altogether he was a valuable 
citizen of whose career present and future generations in Adams County 
may be proud. 

William Russell 

v;as boni in Ireland in 1782. He was left an orphan at an early age. 
He came to the United States alone in 1796 at the age of fourteen. He 
remained a short time in Philadelphia and while there began to learn a 
trade, that of hatter. He went from Philadelphia to Maysville, Ken- 
tucky, took up hat making and followed it. While there, he married 
Sarah Tribbey. They had one child but she and it died shortly after it 
was born. He moved to Adams County, Ohio, in 1802. He repre- 
sented Adams County in the first Legislature of the new state 
which sat at Chillicotl-e, Ohio, March i, to April t6. 1803. Thomas 
Kirker and Joseph Lucas were his colleagues. He was the first clerk 
of the courts of Srioto County, having been appointed December, 1803. 
It seems that the office did not suit his tastes and he resigned in June, 
1804. In the eighth legislative session, December 4, 1809, to February 
22, 1 810, he was a member from Adams County at the munificent salary 
of two dollars per day. He had Dr. Alexander Campbell afterward 
United States senator as a colleague. On the fifteenth day of February, 
18 10, he was appointed an associate judge for Scioto County, Ohio. 
This office did not suit his tastes and he resigned it in 1812. 

At the tenth legislative session. December 10, 181 1, to February 
21, 181 2, he was a member of the house from Adams County, with John 
Ellison as a colleague. This legislature sat at Zanesville, Ohio. The 
house impeached John Thompson, a president judge of the common 
pleas, but on trial in the senate, he was acquitted. At this session, 
Columbus was made the capital of the state, and the legislature provided 
for the military equipment of the Ohio militia. It also incorporated a 
number of libraries in the state. At the eleventh legislative session, 
December 7, 1812, to February 9, 1813, William Russell was a mem- 
ber from Adams County with John Ellison as a colleague. This legisla- 
ture provided for the care and maintenance of women who had been 
abandoned by their husbands, (an epidemic in those days,) an,d made the 
property of the absconder liable for the wife's maintenance. Strong 
measures were adopted to require every able bodied man to respond to 
the call to arms, but the lerislature, by special resolution, excused 
Jacob Wooding, of Scioto County, Ohio, from military duty, because 



804 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

his father was blind, lame, absolutely helpless and had two blind children. 
No one else was excused From 1813 to 1819, he dropped out of the 
legislature, but not out of public employment. 

At the eighteenth legislative session from December 5 1819, to Feb- 
ruary 26, 1820. he was a member of the senate from Adams County. 
The House amused itself by impeaching two mdges on the ground of de- 
ciding an election contest contrary to the evidence, but the senate unami- 
mously acquitted them. The senate spent a great deal of time in dis- 
cussing the Missouri Compromise and the question of slavery. 

At the nineteenth legislative session, December 4, 1820, to Feb- 
ruary 23, 1 82 1, William Russell again represented Adams County in the 
senate. The question of a canal system occupied much attention; also 
that of attacking branches of the United vStates Bank. This legislature 
placed the United States Bank without Ohio's laws and forbade the 
officers of the courts to recognize it in any way. Justices and judges 
were forbidden to entertain any case for it ; sheriflFs to arrest any one 
at its instance, or notaries to protest notes for it, or take any acknowledg- 
ment for it. Justices and judges were to be fined $500 if they entertained 
a suit for it. and sheriffs $200 for putting any one in jail at its instance. 
From this time, 1821 to 1829, William Russell was out of public employ- 
ment. In the fall of 1826. he was elected to congress as a Democrat, and 
re-elected for two succeeding terms. During all of this time he was a 
resident of Adams County and a merchant at West Union. After his 
third term in congress expired, March 4, 1833 he removed to near 
Rushtown, Ohio, in vScioto County and engaged in forging bar iron. 
In this enterprise, he was unsuccessful and is said to have lost $30,000. 
He was elected to the twenty-seventh congress in 1841 as a Whig and 
served one term. At the end of his first term, March 4, 1843, he re- 
turned to his farm on Scioto Brush Creek, w^here he continued to re- 
side until his death, September 28, 1845, at the age of 63. When at 
Portsmouth in 1803, he was a Presbyterian but returning to West Union, 
he became a Methodist. In 1809 to 1820, he was one of the trustees of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in West Union, Ohio, and aided in 
the erection of the first church there, and all his life after, he was a faith- 
ful, devoted and devout Methodist. He was a student and self- 
educated. He was a fluent and pleasant speaker and had extensive 
conversational powers. He was liked and respected by all who knew 
him. He had a remarkable popularity, largely owing to his even temper. 
As a merchant, he was strict and honorable in all his dealings, and main- 
tained the highest credit. His public career began at the age of twenty- 
one, when elected to the first legislature of Ohio. He was legislator, 
clerk of court, state senator and congressman and filled each and every 
office with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of his constituents. 
In private life, he was a successful merchant, an honored member of the 
Methodist Church and an upright citizen. In this case, the office 
sought the man. How many men have crowded into the space of 
forty years so many activities? Comparing him with the men of his 
time, we find he held office in two counties, and all he lacked was that 
he was not niade a militia general. Every legislator of prominence, 
under the constitution of 1802, was either made an associate judge or 
a major general of militia. William Russell obtained the judgeship but 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 306 

missed the generalship. However, his career in congress gave him 
more distinction than the militarv title could have done. 

In 1808, he married Nancy Wood and had seven children, six sons 
and a daughter. One of the sons lived near Rushtown during his life. 
Another, William B., married Rebecca Lucas and became the father 
of six chidren, three sons and three daughters. A grandson, James 
Russell, resides near Lucasville, Ohio, and another, George Russell, in 
Portsmouth, Ohio. 

Thomas I*. Hamer 

Thomas Lyon Hamer, who died on the plains of Mexico on Decem- 
ber 2, 1846, to-day is the most alive man in Brown County. 

The worship of ancestors may be laughed down, or cried down, yet 
it exists. Hero worship is decried too, but all the same it goes on. 
Thomas L. Hamer lived in this world forty-six years. He has been dead 
forty-eight years and yet no man in Brown County wields such an in- 
fluence as he did at the time of his death and which has extended to the 
present time. If you visit Georgetown you will see his lawyer's sign 
in the lobby of the court house, a precious souvenir. His picture hangs 
over the judge's seat in the court room. 

In the village cemetery, his tomb is reverently pointed out, and in 
the village itself, his old home is shown, just as he had left it in the 
spring of 1846 to go into the Mexican War. The day when hjs sacred 
lemains, brought all the way from Mexico, were laid to their everlasting 
rest was the greatest day ever known in the history of Brown County. 
No such funeral honors were ever given any man in Ohio, and none will 
ever again be given. It seemed as though the whole population of 
Brown County had turned out to honor the great man. The particulars 
are graven on the memory of every man present at that funeral in char- 
acters never to be obliterated. Thomas L. Hamer was a man of middle 
height, of slender physique, ^yith a head covered with a shock of bushy 
red hair, always neat and cleanly dressed, and with smoothly shaven face, 
and with a personal magnetism which could be felt but not described. 
No man could inspire greater personal devotion to himself, and no man 
of his time ever did. He was everybody's friend, and his friendship 
was not seeming but real. He was a most entertaining conversationalist 
— brilliant, engagmg, interesting — a delightful companion, and as a 
public speaker, he carried his audience the way he wanted it to go. 
Time and again he had cavassed his own county and district and all the 
|)eople knew him. They seemed to know him, all at once, on first ac- 
quaintance, and they could not forget him. He moved to Georgetown, 
Ohio, in August, 1821, just after the town had been laid out, 
and while it was yet in the virgin forest. His manners were 
pleasing, his conversation charmed the hearer, and he won the respect 
and esteem of every one. The law business was in its infancy then, and 
he accepted the office of justice of the peace of Pleasant Township, and 
also edited a newspaper in Georgetown. His written articles were as 
happy as his speeches. His oratory was artless and natural. He carried 
his hearers with him and had great success with juries. In 1825, he was 
elected to the legislature. In 1828, he was an elector on the Jackson 

20a 



306 HISTORY OP ADAMS OOUfOT 

ticket, and was re-elected to the legislature in 1829. In December, 1829, 
he was elected speaker ol the house in the legislatore. Mr. Hamer, as a 
speaker, appointed a majority of his political opponents on seven com- 
mittees out of eight. In the election of judges by the legislature, when 
the Democrats held a caucus in 1830, Mr. Hamer opposed the moticm to 
be bound by this caucus and in the subsequent election he voted against 
two of the nominees of the Democratic caucus on the ground that the 
selection of the judiciary should have no connection with politics. Mr. 
Hamer, in defending his votes against two of his own party, cm this oc- 
casion, made a noble speech, which anticipated all the doctrines of the 
civil service reformers, and should go down to the ages. He defined his 
oath as representative to vote according to the dictates of his judgment, 
and that if his judgment told him that a candidate was not quaUfied, and 
he voted for the man notwithstanding, because of his political affiliations, 
that was not honest; it was not a faithful discharge of the duties he 
owed to his constituents, and was a violation of his oath. He said, "I 
think so, and if any other man thinks otherwise, let him 
act accordingly. I never have and never will obey the dictates 
of party principles, or party caucuses, when by so doing, I must 
violate my oath as representative, betray my constituents or injure my 
country." If nothing made Hamer great, his sentiments before ex- 
pressed, and his acting up to them were sufficient. It seems that Mr. 
Hamer's independence of action did not hurt him with his party, for, in 
1S32 he was elected to congress from his district, and, moreover, he was 
elected as an indej)endent candidate against Thomas Morris, the regular 
Democratic candidate, Owen T. Fishback, the Whig candidate, and Wil- 
liam Russell the anti-Jackson Democratic candidate. The vote was, 
Hamer, 2,069; Morris, 2,028, and Russell, 403. In Clermont County, 
where Morris and Fishback lived, Hamer had only 209 votes and Rus- 
sell 19, while Morris had 1,319 and Fishback 1,186. Hamer swept 
Adams and Brown counties, simply by his eloquence. Thomas Morris 
had been Hamer's preceptor in the study of law. Two months after this 
Thomas Morris was elected United States senator from Ohio, and the 
two took their seats at the same time, and each served six years. Both 
were Democats, but differed widely as to their views on slavery. Gen- 
eral Hamer was re-elected to congress from his district in 1834 and 
1836. In the house Thomas Corwin and William Allen were among 
his colleagues. In the house he voted that petitions for the abolition of 
slavery should be laid on the table, and no further action taken on 
them. He declined a re-election to congress in 1838, but did not 
drop out of politics. His red hair and Corwin's swarthy complexion 
were common objects of remark in political circles of that time. There 
was a magic about Hamer which could be felt, but which could not be 
described. Every man who came within the sound of Hamer's voice 
could feel the spell of it, and ever afterward remember it, but could not 
describe the phenomenon of it. When Hamer spoke every one listened, 
and they gave him their exclusive and undivided attention, no matter 
how long he spoke. Old and young alike listened to every word, en- 
tranced bv his voice and manner. 

Not only was he a speaker, but he was a writer as well, furnishing 
many articles for the press of his party, and at the same time he carried 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 80T 

on an extensive correspondence with the most distinguished men of the 
nation. He remained out of public life until March 4, 1839, simply 
because he chose to, and not because it was the wish of his constitu- 
ents and party friends. On October 3, 1845, President Polk tendered 
him the office of commissioner of Indian affairs, but he declined it. In 
the summer of 1846 he was renominated to congress by the district 
composed of Clermont, Brown, and Highland counties. When the 
president called for 50,000 volunteers for the Mexican army, Hamer 
rode over his district, addressed meetings, and, by his wonderful elo- 
quence, aroused the war spirit. He himself volunteered as a private 
soldier in the company of his son-in-law, Captain Johnson. When 
the first Ohio regiment was organized at Camp Washington, he was 
elected major. On June 29, 1846, President Polk appointed him a 
brigadier general of volunteers, principally at the instigation of Con- 
gressman J. T. McDowell, whom Hamer succeeded. The appointment 
did not reach General Hamer until June 24, 1846, and his commission 
did not reach him until August i, 1846, at Camp Belknap, Texas. Gen. 
Taylor, in preparing for the attack on Monterey, arranged to allow 
none but southern volunteers and regular troops to participate. In a 
council of war, when this was proposed. Gen. Hamer protested and in- 
sisted that his brigade should have a part in the storming of Monterey, 
where, it is said, it performed prodigies of valor and won immortal re- 
nown. On the second Tuesday of October, 1846, Gen. Hamer was re- 
elected to congress in his district without opposition. After Monterey, 
he commanded a division; but there was one thing that he could not 
endure. His constitution could not stand the trying climate of Mexico. 
Every northern soldier had to go through the process of acclimatiza- 
tion and have a spell of fever. Gen. Hamer was unwell from the time 
he landed in Mexico, but he was only dangerously ill a week previous 
to his death. He died on the night of December 21, 1846, near Monte- 
rey. He was interred with all the honors of war in a cemetery 
near the place of his death. At that time the Ohio Legislature met in 
December, and on December 31, 1846, Andrew Ellison, a lawyer of 
Georgetown, and a member of the house from Brown County, intro- 
duced resolutions as to the death of Gen. Hamer. This was on Wednes- 
day. The resolutions provided that the speakers of the houses should 
procure a suitable person to pronounce a eulogy on the life, character, 
and pubHc services of the deceased before the legislature ; that tlie body 
of Gen. Hamer should be brought back and interred in Ohio soil at the 
expense of the state, and both houses agreed to the resolutions and ad- 
journed to the next Saturday out of respect to the memory of the de- 
ceased. On January 6, 1847, the house resolved that Gen. John J. 
Higgfins, of Brown (a brother-in-law of Gen. Hamer), James H. 
Thompson, of Highland, and James C. Kennedy, of Clermont, be ap- 
pointed commissioners to carry the house resolutions into effect, and 
they were to draw on the treasury for their expenses. The senate con- 
curred in the resolution at once. When Hamer's body reached 
Georgetown, he was accorded the grandest funeral ever given to any 
citizen, except our martyred president. Hon. David T. Disney pro- 
nounced the oration at the funeral. Hon. James H. Thomp- 
son, of Hillsboro, Ohio, one of the commissioners, was present at the 



308 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUfOT 

funeral. He has been asked to describe it, but does not think he has 
the eloquence or the pathos to do the subject justice. With the weight 
of his years, he cannot command the inspiration he thinks the subject 
demands. In several visits to Georgetown, I sought to obtain the 
original documents, books and writings, which would have shed a won- 
derful light on Hamer's career and life, but every avenue seemed closed 
to me, and reluctant as I am to give up the subject, I am compelled 
to let oblivion claim and hold many facts which it would have been well 
for posterity to have preserved. 

There is a parallel between the lives of General Hamer and Gen. 
Franklin Pierce, president of the United States, that is more than re- 
markable. Hamer was bom in 1800, Pierce in 1804. Hamer was a 
farmer's son and so was Pierce. The latter, however, secured a good 
college education, which the former lacked. At the time, Hamer had 
been two years in the Ohio legislature, Pierce was admitted to the 
bar. In 1829, Pierce entered the legislature of New Hampshire as a 
Jackson Democrat, and he served in the legislature four years, two of 
which he was speaker of the house. In 1825. 1828, and 1829. Hamer was 
in the Ohio legislature, the last two years of which he was speaker. 
Hamer was in the lower house of congress from 1833 to 1839. Pierce en- 
tered the lower house in 1833 ^"^ served four years. He spoke and voted 
against receiving petitions for the abolition of slavery in the District 
of Columbia, and so did Hamer. In 1833, Pierce entered the United 
States senate from his state and retired from that in 1842. At this 
point, there is contrast, and not comparison between the two. In the 
National Legislature, the two stood alike on the slavery question. 
When the Mexican war broke out in 1846, the same military spirit 
was shown by Pierce as by Hamer. Pierce enlisted as a private, so 
did Hamer, and, like the latter, went about everywhere making 
war speeches. Pierce, like Hamer, was soon after elected to office, being 
appointed colonel of the Ninth Regiment of Infantry of his state. Like 
Hamer, Pierce was made a brigadier general, dated March 3, 1847. 
He did not reach Mexico until June 28, 1847, ^"^ i" the war displayed 
the same personal bravery, the same spirit of self-sacrifice and the 
same devotion to the men of his command as did General Hamer. 
Both Hamer and Pierce were men of pleasant appearance, of excellent 
address ; both were fond of neat and elegant apparel ; both had a charm 
in social intercourse, and both were eloquent advocates. Each had a 
clear, musical voice, graceful and impressive gesticulation, and each 
could kindle the blood of his hearers, or melt them to tears by pathos. 
Each had a natural oratory that had an inimitable charm of its own, 
and each had a wonderful natural kindness of heart. Pierce's oratory 
had more of the polish of education while Hamer's had the fire of 
nature. Each had an intuitive knowledge of human nature, but Hamer 
was a diligent student, while Pierce was not. Each had a wonderful 
and remarkable popularity in his own district and state. Each could 
attract, hold, move and sway audiences by the power of oratory. 
Hamer's power of oratory had to be felt to be appreciated. It could 
not be described in words, and the same was true of Pierce, though 
tiierc was more of nature and less of art in Hamer's oratory. Had 
Hamer lived and continued the promise of his life, as no doubt he 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 809 

would, in 1852, he would have been the nominee of his party for presi- 
dent, instead of General Pierce. Every one who knew Hamer has ex- 
pressed that thought, and what every one felt would no doubt have 
been carried oat. In 1852, the conditions were such that the Demo- 
crats were bound to nominate a northern man and one of a military 
reputation. General Pierce barely filled the military requirements, but 
had Hamer lived, he would before then have been governor of the 
state or United States senator and would have filled the requirements of 
his party better than General Pierce, and would have been the nominee 
of his party for president. 

Thus death robbed Brown County, Ohio, of the opportunity of 
furnishing a president, but by a singular coincidence, General Grant, 
whom Hamer had appointed from Brown County, Ohio, as a cadet to 
the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1838, became 
president of the United States in 1869. Thus, while Hamer did not 
live to become president of the United States, as surely he would have 
been, yet he shaped the career of a boy of his own village, so that this 
boy afterward became the president of the United States. Even in 
the appointment of the boy Grant, as a cadet, Hamer showed himself 
cf noble mind. 

Jesse R. Grant, young Grant's father, was not friendly to Hamer, 
so much so that he could not and would not ask Hamer to make the 
appointment, but got Gen. James Loudon, father of Col. D. W. C. 
Loudon, of Georgetown, to obtain the appointment for him, which 
General Loudon did. Hamer did not know young Grant's real name 
but took it to be Ulysses Simpson, and sent it in that way, when really 
it w^as Hiram Ulysses. When Grant found that he was appointed as 
Ulysses Simpson Grant, he adopted that name and used it ever after. 

IVilliam Doaue 

was born in Maine. He received a public school education. He re- 
moved to Ohio and filled several local offices. He was elected to the 
twenty-sixth Congress as a Democrat, and re-elected to the twen- 
ty-seventh Congress. He served from December 2, 1839, ^o March 3, 
1843. ^^ represented the sixth district, composed of Highland, Brown, 
Clermont and Adams counties. He was a resident of Clermont County, 
and a physician. 

General Joseph T. MoDoxv^ell 

was born in Burke County, North Carolina, November 13, 1800. He 
removed to Ohio in 1824 and located on a farm about seven miles 
north of Hillsboro. In 1829, he located in Hillsboro, and engaged in 
the mercantile business until 1835, when he was admitted to the bar 
by a special act of the legislature, and began the practice of his pro- 
fession. In 1836, he formed a partnership with Col. William O. Col- 
lins, and followed the profession until 1843. 

He was a member of the thirty-first general assembly from 
Highland County. In the thirty-second general assembly, December 
2. 1833, to March 3, 1834, he was a member of the state senate 
representing Highland and Fayette counties. He represented the 
same constituency in the thirty-third general assembly in the senate 



810 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

from December i, 1834, to March 9, 1835. He represented the seventh 
district of Ohio in the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth congresses. 
This district was composed of Adams, Brown, Clermont and Highland 
counties. He resumed his law practice after his return from congess, 
and also engaged in farming. He died January 17, 1877. 

He was an earnest and eloquent man, true to his instincts, faithful 
in the discharge of duty, and was honored and rejected by the com- 
munity as a Christian gentleman, and died in the faith of which he was 
in later life a defender. 

Jonatluui D. Morria 

began the practice of law in Clermont County, Ohio, in 1828. In 
1 83 1, he was appointed clerk of the courts, which position he held un- 
♦il 1846, and in 1847 ^^ was elected to congress to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of General Thomas L. Hamer, and was re-elected 
in 1849. 

He was a faithful, conscientious and popular official and for a quar- 
ter of a century exerted a controlling influence in his county's history, 
being a leader of political opinion and a man in whom the public re- 
posed great confidence. 

Nelson Barrere 

was born near Newmarket, Highland County, Ohio, April i, 1808. and 
was the seventh of twelve children. His father was George W. Bar- 
rere, a very prominent citizen of Highland County. He was a deputy 
surveyor, justice of the peace, member of the Ohio senate nine years, 
and an associate judge of Highland County for fourteen years. He was 
in the Indian War, 1791-1795. Was in St. Clair's defeat and Wayne's 
victory. He was also in the War of 1812 at Hull's surrender, and was 
in every public enterprise in Highland County until his death in 1839. 
His son, Nelson, lived on the farm until eighteen years of age and at- 
tended school in the winters. He spent a year in the Hillsboro High 
School and in 1827 entered the freshman class at Augusta College. 
He graduated from there in 1830, finishing a four years' course 
in three and a half years. 

In 1 83 1, he began the study of law in Hillsboro with Judge John 
W. Price and was admitted to the bar on December 23, 1833. ^^ 
opened an office in Hillsboro and remained there nine months. He 
located in West Union in 1834, forming a partnership with Samuel 
Brush. This partnership continued for a year. He remained in West 
Union eleven years altogether and had a large and lucrative practice. 
He had the confidence of the people. He represented Adams County 
in the lower house of the legislature at the thirty-sixth legislative ses- 
sion from December 4, 1837, to March 4, 1838. In 1846, he removed 
his residence to Highland County and continued there until his death. 
In the thirty-seventh congress, he represented the sixth district, com- 
posed of Adams, Clermont, Brown and Highland counties from March 
4, 1851, to March 4, 1853. I" 1853, he was the Whig candidate for 
governor, but was defeated, receiving 85,847 votes, while his competi- 
tor, William Medill, received 147,663. When the Whig party dis- 
solved, he went over to the Democratic party, in which he remained 
during the remainder of his life, but during the Civil War, he sup- 
ported the Republican administration. In 1870, he was a candidate 




CRN. JOSKl'H k. COCKHRK.r. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 311 

for congress cm the Democratic ticket, but was defeated. He was the 
Democratic candidate from Highland County for member of the con- 
stitutional convention in 1875 and was defeated by one vote. He never 
married. He continued in the active practice of the law until his 
death, which occurred August 20, 1883. 

In Adams County, during his residence there, he was very pop- 
ular. He was always conspicuous for his public spirit. As a lawyer 
he was energetic and industrious. He was a safe and reliable counsellor 
and an eloquent and successful advocate. He was always agreeable 
and courteous in his manners. In West Union, he formed many warm 
friendships, and he, Joseph Allen Wilson, Davis Darlinton and others 
had a club at Darlinton's store, to which they resorted of evenings and 
spent many pleasant hours. Joseph West Lafferty and John Fisher, 
of Cedar Mills, were two of his most particular friends in Adams 
County. 

Josepli Randolpli Cookerill 

was bom in Loudon County, Virginia, January 2, 1818. His father's 
name was Daniel Cockerill, of whom there is a separate sketch in this 
book, and his mother was Esther Craven. His father's family emi- 
grated to Adams County, Ohio, in 1837, and located near Youngsville, 
in Scott Township. After coming to Ohio, he taught school for a 
while and afterwards in 1840. was elected county surveyor. In the 
same year he was married to Ruth Eylar, daughter of Judge Joseph 
Eylar, of Winchester, Ohio. 

From 1840 to 1846, he was a school teacher and surveyor. In 
1846, when Gen. Joseph Darlinton's term expired as clerk of the court 
of common pleas, Joseph R. Cockerill was appointed his successor, and 
as such served until the new constitution was adopted. He was elected 
to the fiftieth general assembly of Ohio, the first held under the new 
constitution. In this legislature, he was chairman of the committee 
on corporations, and as such drew that part of our revised statutes on 
corporations, which remains on the statute books today, substantially 
as he drew it, a monument to his knowledge as a lawyer. 

On returning from the legislature, he studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar. In 1856, he was elected a member of the thirty-fifth 
congress from the sixth district of Ohio, composed of Adams, High- 
land, Brown and Clermont. 

The writer remembers him as a lawyer prior to the Civil W^ar. 
As a boy, for the first time, he went into the court house to listen to 
a trial. There was a party on trial for stealing watches. David Thomas 
was prosecuting and Cockerill defending. After hearing Thomas' 
opening argument, the writer concluded the defendant was guilty. 
Then after hearing Cockerill's argument, he was fully convinced that 
the defendant was innocent and ought to be acquitted. 

In i860, Mr. Cockerill was elected a delegate to the Charleston 
convention and attended. E. P. Evans offered to pay his expenses if 
he would take several copies of the New York Tribune and let it he 
known he was carrying them, but the offer was not entertained. In 
t>je split which ensued, Mr. Cockerill adhered to the Douglas wing 
of the party. When the war came on, Mr. Cockerill was fired with 



312 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

patriorism. He had no sympathy with the south, and thought the 
rebe-lion should be suppressed in the most vigorous manner. 

On October 2, 1861, he was commissioned by Gov. Todd to organ- 
ize the 70th Ohio Infantry Regiment, as its colonel. The camp of 
rendezvous was fixed at West Union, Ohio, and was called Camp 
Hamer. The regiment was raised in the counties of Adams and 
Brown. While it was organizing at West Union, Reuben Smith, from 
Oliver Township, came to West Union, got enthused and expressed 
treasonable sentiments. Col. Cockerill at once had him arrested and 
sent under a guard of the soldiers to the probate court where he was 
compelled to take the oath of allegiance. Once during the war, prob- 
ably in 1862, Col. Cockerill was at home for a few days. During the 
time, there was a Democratic countv convention in the court house 
and the war policy of the government was under discussion. Squire 
Jacob Rose, of Green Township, was speaking. He favored peace, and 
in his remarks, held out his right hand and said, "We must approach 
our southern brethren with the olive branch in the right hand." Then 
he extended his left hand and said, "We must also approach them with 
the olive branch in the left hand." Col. Cockerill was sitting in the 
audience in his full colonel's uniform and when Squire Rose extended 
his left hand, the colonel sprang to his feet and extended both his arms, 
shook his fists at Rose, and said in most emphatic tones, "No, we must 
approach them with a sword in each hand." Col. Cockerill displayed 
great bravery in the battle of Shiloh, and was a model officer. Most 
of the time he commanded a brigade. His merits as officer entitled him 
to have been made a brigadier general. Gen. Sherman said of him at 
Shiloh that "he behaved with great gallantry and kept his men better 
together than any colonel in my division and was with me from first 
to last." His promotion was several times recommended by Generals 
Grant and Sherman. They were prompted to do this from observation 
of his conduct on the field of battle, but for some reasons not now 
known to us, but not creditable to the authorities at Washington, his 
promotion was not made, though so richW deserved. Congress how- 
ever, afterwards, gave him the brevet of brigadier general in recogni- 
tion of the merit which should have given him the office. 

When Col. Cockerill saw that justice would not be done him, he 
resigned and came home. He was always popular with his own soldiers 
and with all soldiers who knew him and had the admiration and re- 
spect of all his fellow officers. He never broke his political ties with 
the Democratic party and in 1864, after returning home, continued 
to act with that party, though he was never at any time a Peace Demo- 
crat. He had many Republican friends who were of opinion that when 
the war broke out, he should have gone over to the Republi- 
can party. Had he done so, no doubt he would have been speedily 
promoted and might have had any office in the gift of the Republi- 
can party of his state. His Republican friends believed he would have 
been governor of the state had he joined that party in 1862 or earlier. 
His own party sent him to the legislature from 1868 to 1872, and he 
had a most excellent record as a busy, useful and working member. 

In 1 87 1, he was a candidate for state auditor on the Democratic 
ticket, but was defeated. 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 313 

He was a man of independent, broad and liberal views. In public 
affairs, he was always actuated by the principles of right and justice, 
looking to the general welfare and not to any local advantage. Charity, 
benevolence, and liberality were prominent traits in his character. He 
was public spirited in all things. 

His public and private life were each without reproach. As a 
social companion, he was always agreeable and entertaining. He knew 
every one in his county, knew all their faults and foibles and all their 
good qualities. He had a fund of entertaining anecdotes which was 
inexhaustible. As a conversationalist, he had no superior. A fact once 
acquired by him was always ready for use and he knew more of the 
history of Adams County than any man of his time. He should have 
written the history and it is unfortunate for the county he did not. 
Bv his death much valuable information about citizens and events in 
the county has been lost. He was a born soldier. As a courtier and 
diplomat, he would have been successful. As soldier, lawyer, states- 
man, citizen, he was successful and merited the approbation of his co- 
temporaries and will merit that of posterity. His family consisted of 
three sons and two daughters. His eldest son was an officer in the 
24th O. V. I. and rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. He died at the 
early age of twenty-eight, after the close of the war. His second son, 
John, was also a soldier of the Civil War and became a journalist of 
world wide fame. His second daughter, Sallie, married Lieut. W. R. 
Stewart of the 70th O. V. I., and both she and her husband are dead. 
Their only son, a young man, was lost at sea, washed overboard off 
Cape Horn. The eldest daughter, Esther, married John Campbell, 
M. D.. who was a captain in the 70th O. V. I. and is now in the em- 
ployment of the Equitable Insurance Company at No. 328 Chestnut 
Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She too, has drank the cup of sor- 
row, in the loss of her only son, Joseph Randolph, an ensign in the 
navy, who died in the service of his country, during the Spanish War, 
a sketch of whom appears elsewhere. Surely the family of Joseph R. 
Cockerill haye shown their love of country. 

He departed this life on the twenty-third of August, 1875, at the 
early age of fifty-seven, but his life was in deeds, not in years. 

William Howard 

was born in Jefferson County, Virginia, December 31, 1817. His father 
removed to Wheeling, West Virginia. He lived on a farm until the 
age of fifteen. He learned the saddlery trade in West Virginia. In 
1835, he removed to Augusta. Kentucky, where he entered Augusta 
College, and graduated in 1839. He was very proficient in mathe- 
matics and studied surveying. He supported himself while in Augusta 
College by working five hours each day at his trade. He studied law 
under Hon. Martin Marshall, and was admitted in 1840, and located at 
Batavia. He was prosecuting attorney of Clermont County from 1845 
to 1849. ^^ 1849 ^^ w^s state senator from Brown and Clermont coun- 
ties. In 1 858 he was elected to congress for the district for Adams. Brown 
Clermont and Highland counties. He took strong grounds for the pre- 
servation of the Union while in congress. He was elected as a Democrat. 
He served asaheutenantin the Mexican War, Co. C, 2d Ohio Regiment. 



314 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNIY 

He went into the War of 1861 as major of the 59th O. V. I., and was 
promoted to lieutenant colonel. He resigned in 1863 owing to ill 
health. He was a zealous Methodist. He was married January 29, 
1852, to Amaratha C. Botsford. He had a son, William Howard, who 
died in his twenty-third year, and a son, John Joliffe Howard. His 
wife died July 13, 1875, and he married November 27, 1877, Mrs. Har- 
riet A. Broadwell. He died Sunday, June i, 1890. 

Hon« Wells A. Hutohlnfl 

represented Adams County as a part of the eleventh congressional dis- 
trict in congress from March 4, 1863, until March 4, 1865. He was 
born October 7, 181 8, in Hartford, Trumbull County, Ohio. His father 
Asa Hutchins, and his mother, Hannah Bushnell, were from Hartford, 
Connecticut, so that Mr. Hutchins was a true blue Connecticut West- 
ern Reserve Yankee. His father was colonel in the War of 181 2, but 
he died at the early age of forty-five, leaving his widow with eight 
children, of whom our subject was one, at the age of twelve years. 
The year following his father's death, he worked on a farm for $25 for 
his entire services for a year, and from that time on, was dependent 
upon himself for a livelihood. He had a quick, active mind and made the 
best use of the opportunities of education about him. At the age of 
eighteen he had qualified himself for a school teacher, and at that tirre 
went to Corydon, Indiana, where he taught a select school for eighteen 
months. During this period he saved from his salary $900. took it 
home, and with that he began the study of law. He read law with the 
Honorables John Hutchins and John Crowell at Warren and was ad- 
mitted in 1 841. He immediately went to Portsmouth, where he was 
an entire stranger, and set himself up to practice law. He was instinct- 
ively a lawyer. He loved the profession and naturally succeeded in it. 
For a while after he came to Portsmouth, he edited a newspaper, or 
spent part of his time at that. 

On February 23, 1843, ^^ married Cornelia Robinson, daughter 
of Joshua Robinson, then and for many years afterward one of the 
foremost citizens of Portsmouth. During the time of Mr. Robinson's 
activities in business in Portsmouth, nothing in the way of public en- 
terprise went on unless he was engaged in it. Naturally, such a father- 
in-law was a great aid to a young lawyer, but Mr. Hutchins would 
have succeeded without such aid. In his political views, at the time he 
located in Portsmouth, he was a Whig. He became a member of 
the lower house of the legislature in 1852 and 1853 ^^ such. When 
the Whig party dissolved, he became a Democrat, which he remained 
during his life. In 1862, he was a candidate for congress on the plat- 
form, ''a more vigorous prosecution of the war," being endorsed by 
the Democratic party. He was elected on his platform, defeating Hon. 
H. S. Bundy, but again in 1864, he and Bundy made the race, and the 
latter was victorious. While Mr. Hutchins was a great success as a law- 
yer he was not a success as a politician, and his party was very much 
worried at its failure to make him over into one. He could never make up 
his mind that he must be bound by a party caucus. He had the old- 
fashioned idea that he must use his own judgment, and be controlled 
by his own conclusions of right and wrong, and he was so constituted 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 316 

that he could not do othen\'ise. In congress, he voted for the aboli- 
tion of slavery in the District of Columbia, and he alone of his own 
party voted for the thirteenth amendment to the federal constitution. 
Whenever an opporunity offered, his old-fashioned anti-slavery aboli- 
tionist ideas would come to the front. In 1867, he and one other of 
his party were the only ones in Scioto County who voted in favor of 
the amendment to the state constitution granting negro suffrage. 
But Mr. Hutchins was old-fashioned in many things. Under the old 
constitution, he traveled over the circuit and practiced law, and he 
kept up the custom under the new constitution. He believed that there 
was such a thing as justice and that it was administered in the courts. 
He believed that a judge should not be approached about a matter in 
his court unless he was on the bench and in the presence of opposing 
counsel. There is no word in the English language, outside of slang, 
which will express the qualities he displayed in the trial of a case. The 
sporting man would have said he was the **gamest" man he had ever 
seen. Whatever may have been his inward feelings while engaged in 
a trial, he never expressed or betrayed the slightest surprise in its 
conduct, no matter what occurred. If his client broke down, if a wit- 
ness disappointed him, if the court ruled against him, or a jury verdict 
was unexpected, he never gave a sign of emotion or disappointment 
any more than an Indian would. If he had a case he expected to win, 
but lost it. to the public, he accepted the result as expected. He was 
calm and collected under all circumtances, and never lost his equipoise. 
If Gabriel had blown his trumpet at any time, no matter when, Mr. 
Hutchins would have lined up and said he was ready and he would have 
been ready. His reputation as a lawyer was coextensive with the state, 
and he was employed in many important cases. His cases for the 
Furnaces against the old Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad were car- 
ried on for twenty-one years and resulted in a victory for his clients. 
It is said the fees in this case were $65,000, but the amounts involved 
were large and covered freight overcharges for many years. No one 
thought he would ultimately be successful, but he. believed in the causes 
and succeeded. In the Scioto Valley Railroad case, he took the claim 
of C. P. Huntingdon for $750,000, when it was worthless, and he main- 
tained a contest on it until it was paid in full with interest, dollar for 
dollar. For thirty years prior to his death, he was considered one of 
the ablest lawyers in Ohio, and his assistance was sought in weighty 
and great causes. 

In his arguments to the court, he always spoke clearly and with 
great deliberation. In no part of the conduct of a case was he ever 
in a hurry or ever perturbed. If he believed in his case, he usually 
carried the court or jury with him from the outset. If he did not be- 
lieve in his case, he aimed to take up and impress on the court or jury, 
the one or two controlling principles, and let the others go. In this, 
he was very successful. His arguments were all well arranged, logical, 
forceful, clear, to the chief points, and brief. 

In the case of Oliver Applegate v. W. Kinney & Co., involving 
some $200,000, and where it was sought to hold the defendants as 
quasi partners, he represented, with numerous counsel, the plaintiff, 
and Col. O. F. Moore, with numerous counsel, rerpesented the de- 



81(J HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

fendants. Col. Moore spoke three days. Mr. Hutchins closed for the 
plaintiff in one hour and carried the jury with him from the opening of 
the speech. While other lawyers had to work out by hard study the 
principles governing a case, they came to Mr. Hutchins by instinct. 
He could look into a case and almost immediately say what principles 
would determine it. 

Mr. Hutchins was a high-toned old-fashioned gentleman. He was 
always tastefully and neatly dressed. He always paid the highest price 
for his clothing and had the best. He always preferred walking to 
riding in a carriage, and when past seventy, he walked with the spring- 
ing step of a young man. Though he aged in years, he did not in ap- 
pearance, or in manners. He always laughed at the idea of being called 
old. 

Mr. Hutchins' motto must have been nil desperandum for he was 
always cheerful, always hopeful and always encouraging those about 
him. For the last thirty years of his life, he traveled much of the time. 
He always paid for the best accommodations on the train, always stop- 
ped at the highest priced hotels, and always took the best rooms. When- 
ever he was likely to arrive home late at night,he would wire the fact and 
have a full meal ready for him on arrival. He uniformly preferred 
to sleep on a full stomach, and said that was the way animals do 
and thought that was best for mankind. A number of times in his 
history, he was very sick and his life despaired of, but he never despaired, 
and surprised his friends and physicians by recovering. He may be said 
to have died in harness. While in the latter years of his life, he only 
took employment in important cases, he worked hard until stricken 
with his last sickness. In the earlier part of that, before the disease 
assumed a fatal turn, he was anxious to get out and go to work in the 
preparation of arguments for the Supreme Court, but when his disease 
look a fatal turn, and the fact was announced to him, he was not taken 
by surprise. He did not repine and grieve, and made no attempt to 
transact or close any business, but met the inevitable with the utmost 
calmness and composure. He died on the twenty-second of January, 
1895, with a disease of the kidneys. He was the best illustration of a 
self-contained, self-composed man ever known to the writer He passed 
away in perfect peace, just as though he had been ready for the event 
all his life. To those who knew him, he was the most perfect type of 
the true philosopher of modern times. He did not concern hiiusclf 
why he came into the world or about his going out. He did not con- 
cern himself what happened to him, good or bad, but simply imdertook 
to make the best of every situation when it presented itself and as it 
presented itself. 

The readers of this history would be happier and get more enjoy- 
ment out of this life if they adopted his philosophy. 

Hesekiah Sanf ord Bnndy 

was born August 15, 1817, in Marietta, Ohio. His father was Nathan 
Bundy, a native of Hartford, Conn. His mother was Ada M. Nich- 
olson, of Dutchess County, New York, where they were married. In 
1816 they removed to Marietta, Ohio. Two years later, Mr. Bundy's 
father settled near Athens where he leased college land and cleared and 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 317 

improved it. His title, however, proved invalid. He was killed in 1832 
by the falling of a tr^e. In 1880, his wife died at the age of eighty-one 
years. Of their three children, our subject is the only one who reached 
maturity. In 1834 he located in McArthur and in 1837 went to Wilkes- 
ville, where he married Lucinda, daughter of Zimri Wells. In 1839, he 
moved back to McArthur, where his wife died in December, 1842, 
leaving three children, William Sanford, Sarah A., wife of Major B. 
F. Stearns, of Washington, D. C, and Lucy, now Mrs. J. C. H. Cobb, 
of Jackson County. 

From 1839 to 1846, Mr. Bundy was engaged in merchandising in 
McArthur, Ohio. In 1844, he married Caroline, daughter of Judge Paine, 
of Jackson County, and in 1846, moved to the old home of his father- 
in-law, which he afterward purchased and where he continued to re- 
side until his death. His second wife. died in 1868, leaving two daughters, 
Julia P., now the wife of U. S. Senator Joseph B. Foraker, of Ohio, and 
Eliza M., wife of Harvey Wells, the founder of Wellston. Mr. Bundy 
was again married in 1876 to Mary M. Miller, who survives and still 
occupies the old home. 

In his early life, he attended for a short time a private school under 
the charge of David Pratt, of Athens, but his schooling ceased when he 
was fourteen years of age. In 1846, he commenced the study of law 
and was admitted to the bar in 1850. In the fall of 1848, he was elected 
to the legislature from Jackson and Gallia counties and voted to re- 
peal the black laws. In 1850, he was elected to represent Jackson, 
Athens, Gallia and Meigs counties in the house. In 1855, he was 
elected to the state senate to represent the present seventh senatorial 
district. In i860, he was a presidential elector from his congressional 
district and cast his vote for Abraham Lincoln. In 1862, he was the 
Republican candidate for congress from the eleventh district of Ohio, 
but was defeated by the Hon. Wells A. Hutchins by 1900 votes. Two 
years later, he was again a candidate against Mr. Hutchins and de- 
feated him by 4,000 majority, and was elected to the thirty-ninth con- 
gress. In 1872, he was a candidate for the forty-third congress in the 
same district and defeated Samuel A. Nash by a large majority. In 
1874, he was again a candidate, but was defeated by Hon. John L. 
V^ance, of Gallipolis. In 1893, he was a candidate for congress to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Gen. Wm. H. Enochs, and was 
elected. Upon Mr. Bundy 's retirement in March, T895, he was ten- 
dered a banquet and reception at Jackson, Ohio, which was attended 
by Gov. McKinley, and state officers. Senator Foraker, Ex-Governor 
Foster, General Keifer. General Grosvenor, and many others of Na- 
tional prominence; and to Mr. Bundy upon that occasion was given 
one of the grandest tributes ever witnessed in Ohio. He represented 
Adams County in the state senate and in his first and third terms in 
congress. 

In 1843, he became a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and was one of the two first lay delegates from Ohio to the General 
Conference. In 1848, he bought the farm where he died and since 
then was largely engaged in the iron and coal interests in Jackson 
County, Ohio, and owned Latrobe and Keystone Furnaces. He also 
at one time owned the Eliza Furnace. 



818 mSTORT OF ADAMS OOUNTY 

His son, William S. Bundy, served in the i8th O. V. I. during the 
first three months of the Civil War. He then enlisted in Co. G. of 
the 7th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, September 20, 1862. He was severely 
wounded December 14, 1863, at Bean's Station in Tennessee. In Jan- 
uary, 1864, he was sent home on account of his disability and on March 
22, 1864, discharged for the same reason. After his return from the 
army he married Kate Thompson, and had one child, the present Wil- 
liam E. Bundy, United States attorney for the southern district of 
Ohio. He died from the results of his wounds January 27, 1867, and 
his wife was killed in December, 1868, by being thrown from a horse. 

Hezekiah S. Bundy was always remarkably popular among the 
furnace men of his own county. They were for Bundy for congress 
at any time and at all times. He was an excellent campaigner. While 
he was not trained and never sought to train himself in the arts of 
oratory, yet he was an entertaining and effective public speaker. The 
people came to hear him and were always pleased and instructed. Mr. 
Bundy was well informed in every detail of public affairs, and had a 
good memory. He had a most remarkable treasure of illustrative anec- 
dotes from which he could draw at any time. His reminiscences were 
always delightful. He thoroughly understood human nature, and al- 
ways kept in close touch with the common people. On the floor of 
the house, or in committee, he was familiar with the public business, 
and always performed his duties creditably to himself and acceptably 
to his constituents. On all public questions in congress while he was 
a member, he was usually in advance of the march of public senti- 
ment, — especially was this true of reconstruction measures. As a busi- 
ness man, he did much to develop the iron and coal industries in 
the region where he lived. He enjoyed to a remarkable extent the 
confidence and esteem of all who knew him and was universally 
mourned when he died at his home in Wellston, Ohio, December 12, 

1895. 

Jolin T. Wilson* 

The words of Miss Edna Dean Proctor's poem are ringing in my 
ears. She inquires if the heroes are all dead ; if they only lived in the 
times of Homer and if none of the race survive in these times ? The re- 
frain of the poem is ; "Mother Earth, are the heroes dead?" And then 
she proceeds to answer it in her own way, and she answers it thus : 

" Gone ? In a grander form they rise. 
Dead ? We may clasp their hands in ours." 

» « • • ♦ 

' * Whenever a noble deed is done 
* Tis the pulse of a hero's heart is stirred. " 

Then comparing our modern heroes with those of Homeric days, 
Jason, Orpheus, Hercules, Priam, Achilles, Hector, Theseus and Nestor, 

she continues : 

' ' Their armor rings on a fairer field 
Than the Greek and the Trojan fiercely trod : 
For freedom's sword is the blade they wield, 
And the light above is the smile of God. " 




HON. JOHN T. WILSON 
Patbiot awd PHii.AiiTB«orm 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 319 

We have heroes in these, our days, who will compare more than 
favorably with those of the Homeric, or any subsequent times ; but hav- 
ing known them as neighbors and friends, and having associated with 
them from day to day, we do not appreciate them till death has sealed 
their characters, and then as we study them it begins to dawn on us that 
they have done things to be canonized as heroes. 

Till since his death, we believe the public has not fully appreciated 
the character of the Hon. John T. Wilson, a former congressman of the 
tenth (Ohio) district, though it is his record as a patriot, and not as a con- 
gressman, we propose especially to discuss. 

He was a hero of native growth. He was born April i6, 1811, in 
Highland County, Ohio, and lived the most of his life and died within ten 
miles of his birthplace. His span of life extended until the sixth of 
October, 1891, eighty-five years, five months and twenty days, and in 
that time, his manner of life was known to his neighbors like an open 
book. 

In that time, living as a country store keeper and a farmer, and re- 
sisting all temptation to be swallowed up in city life, if such temptation 
ever came to him, he accumulated a fortune of about half a million of 
dollars, which, before and at his death, was devoted principally to char- 
itable uses. 

To attempt to sum up his life in the fewest words, it consisted in try- 
ing to do the duty nearest him. He was never a resident of a city, ex- 
cept when attending to public official duties, and to expect a hero to come 
from the remote country region about Tranquility in Adams County, 
Ohio, was as preposterous as looking for a prophet from the region of 
Nazareth in the year one ; yet the unexpected happened in this instance. 

Till the age of fifty, he had been a quiet unobtrusive citizen of his 
remote country home, seeking only to follow his vocation as a country 
merchant and to do his duty as a citizen ; but it was when the war broke 
out that the soul which was in him was disclosed to the world. He 
showed himself an ardent patriot. When government bonds were first 
offered, there were great doubts as to whether the war would be suc- 
cessful, and whether the government would ever pay them. 

No doubt occurred to Mr. Wilson. He invested every dollar he 
had in them, and advised his neighbors to do the same. He' said if the 
country went down, his property would go with it, and he did not care to 
survive it; and if the war was successful, the bonds would be all right. 
As fast as he had any money to spare, he continued to invest it in govern- 
ment securities. In the summer of t86i, he heard that Capt. E. M. 
DeBruin, now of Hillsboro, Ohio, was organizing a company for the 
Thirty-third Ohio Infantry Regiment, and he went over to Winchester 
and arranged with the Rev. I. H. DeBruin, now of Hillsboro, Ohio, 
that his only son and child, Spencer H. Wilson, then nineteen years of 
age, should enlist in the company, which he did, and was made its first 
sergeant, and died in the service at Louisville, Ky., March 4, 1862. 

In the summer of 1861, Mr. Wilson determined that Adams County 
should raise a regiment for the service. He did not want to undertake 
it himself, but he believed that Col. Cockerill, of West Union, Ohio, 
would lead the movement ; it could be done and he sent Dr. John Camp- 
bell, now of Delhi, Ohio, to secure the co-operation of Col. Cockerill. 



820 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNIY 

That was not difficult to do, as Col. Cockerill felt about it as Mr. Wilson. 
It was determined to ask Brown County to co-operate, and Col. D. W. 
C. Loudon, of Brown, was taken into the plan, and the Seventieth Ohio 
Infantry was organized in the fall of 1861. Mr. Wilson undertook to 
raise a company for the regiment and did so, and it was mustered in as 
Company E. 

The captain, the Hon. John T. Wilson, was then fifty years of age, 
and he had in the company three privates, each of the same age, and one 
of the age of fifty-five, so that the ages of five members erf that company 
aggregated 225 years. Hugh J. McSurely was the private who was past 
fifty-five years of age when he enlisted in Capt. Wilson's Company. He 
is the father of the Rev. Wm. J. McSurely, D. D., pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Hillsboro, Ohio, and has a separate sketch 
herein. 

Capt. Wilson's company was much like Cromwell's troop of Iron- 
sides. It was made up of staid old Scotch and Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terians, who went in from a sense of duty. Col. Loudon, of the Seventieth 
O. V. I. says that Capt. Wilson did more to raise and organize the Seven- 
tieth Ohio Infantry than anyone else. At the time he went into the ser- 
vice, he was physically unfit, and could not have passed medical exami- 
nation as an enlisted man. He had an injury to his leg. from the kick 
of a horse years before, that greatly disabled him, but be wanted to go 
and felt he owed it to his friends and his country to go. He would not 
consider his own Dhvsical unfitness. 

He led bis company into the sanguinary battle of Shiloh. His per- 
sonal coolness and self-possession inspired his company, and he held it 
together during the entire two days' battle. 

During the march to Corinth, after Shiloh. he was taken down with 
the fever, and by order of the surgeon was sent north. At Ripley, Ohio, 
he was taken much worse, and lay there for weeks, delirious and uncon- 
scious, hovering between life and death. Owing to the most careful 
nursing, he recovered. He was not able to rejoin his regiment until 
September, 1862. at Mertiphis, Tenn. 

Col. Cockerill was then in command of the brigade, and made him 
brigade quartermaster, so he would not have to walk ; but it was apparent 
that he was unfit for service ; and was imperiling his life for naught. 
Col. Cockerill and Lieut. Col. Loudon both told him he could serve his 
country better at home than in the army, and insisted on his resigning and 
going home. He resigned November 27, 1862. Col. Loudon says his 
record was without a stain, and none were more loyal than he. 

Capt. Wilson was married in 184T to Miss Hadassah G. Drysden. 
There was one son of this marriage, Spencer H. W^ilson, born September 
13, T842, and whom he gave to his country, as before stated. Capt. 
Wilson's wife died March 23, 1849, ^"^ he never remarried. 

Captain Wilson not only invested his fortune in the war securities 
and sent his only son and child to the war, but went himself, and served 
as long as he could. Could any one have done more? 

In the summer of 1863, he w^as nominated by the Republicans of the 
seventh senatorial district of Ohio, to the state senate without being a 
candidate, and without his knowledge or consent he was elected. In 
1865 he was renominated and re-elected to the same office, and served 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 321 

his constituency with great credit and satisfaction. In 1866, he was 
nominated by the Republicans of the Eleventh Ohio District for a mem- 
ber of congress, and was renominated and re-elected in 1868 and in 1870; 
though just before his congressional service, and just after it, the district 
was carried by the democracy. 

When Mr. Wilson was first nominated for congress, it was not sup- 
posed that he was a speaker, or that he could canvass the district, but he 
made appointments for speaking all over the dictrict, and filled them to 
the satisfaction of everv one. He made a most effective speaker, and 
moreover, the farmers all over the district believed what he said, and 
were justified in doing it. He was never present at a convention which 
nominated or renominated him for office, and never in the slightest way 
solicited a nomination or renomination. 

He was the most satisfactory congressman ever sent from his dis- 
trict. Every constituent who ever wrote him, got an answer in Mr. 
Wilson's own handwriting, which was as uniform and as plain as cop- 
perplate. The letter told the constituent just what he wanted to know, 
and was a model of ])erspicuity and brevity. Those letters are now pre- 
cious relics to anyone who has one of them, and they are models of what 
letters should be. 

If a constituent wrote for an office, he was sure to get an answer 
which would tell him whether he could get an office or not, and if Mr. 
Wilson told him he could get an office, and that he would assist him, he 
was sure of it. Mr. Wilson had the confidence of the President and of 
all the appointing officers, and if he asked for an office inside of the dis- 
trict, he usually obtained it, because he made it a rule never to ask for an 
office unless he thought he was entitled to it, and that it would be grant- 
ed him. 

Mr. Wilson retired from congress at the end of his third term with 
the good will of his entire district, and with the feeling that he had served 
to their entire satisfaction. 

On March 6. 1882, he gave Adams County, Ohio, $46,667.03 
towards the erection of a Children's Home. The gift was really $50,000, 
but was subject to certain reductions, which netted it at the sum first 
named. As the county built the Home, he issued his own checks in pay- 
ment for it, until the entire gift was made. That Home is now one of the 
best and finest built institutions of the kind in this state. Bv his last will 
and testament, he gave to the Children's Home an endowment of $35,000 
and $15,000 in farming lands. He also gave $5,000 towards the erection 
of a soldier's monument to the memory of the Adams County soldiers 
who had died or been killed during the Civil War. This momument 
has been erected in the grounds of the Wilson Children's Home, and 
occupies a site overlooking the surrounding country. 

Mr. Wilson made many private bequests in his will, which it is not 
within the scope of this article to mention ; but to show his kindly dis- 
position we mention that he gave $1,000 to a church in which he was 
reared and held his membership, and $1,000 to the church at Tranquility, 
where he resided. His housekeeper, a faithful woman, he made inde- 
pendent for life As a residuary bequest, he gave to the commissioners 
of Adams County, $150,000 to be expended in the support of the worthy 
poor. 

21a 



822 HISTORY OP ADAMS CX)UNTY 

It is to the interest of the state that every citizen should be law abid- 
ing; that he shall faithfully follow some occupation and support him- 
self and those dependent upon him ; that he shall accumulate and hold 
property to guarantee his own independence and that of his family, and 
that he shall be able to contribute to the needs of the state. 

It is also to the interest of the state that, in case of war, its citizens 
shall place th*e«r entire property and their personal services fully at its 
disposal. A citizen who performs all these obligations is said to be 
patriotic, and the virtues of patriotism are more admired than any other, 
because what is given in that direction is given for the common good of 
all the people of the country. 

One may take the entire list of patriots, from Leonidas, the Spartan, 
down to Lincoln, the great war president, or in our country, from Gen. 
Warren down to the last man who fell at Appomattox, and none can be 
found who did more work for his own country than the Hon. John T. 
Wilson. 

He periled his entire fortune ; he gave the life of his only son, and 
he freely offered his own. What mtore could he have done? 

Patriotism is and must be measured by the station in life which a 
man occupies when his opportunity comes. 

If each man does all he can, and offers or gives all he can, he is as 
great a patriot as any one can be. Measured by this standard, Capt. 
John. T. Wilson filled the full measure of patriotism. 

When he came to the last of earth, he not only remembered those 
upon whom the law would have cast his estate, but he devoted the 
greater part of it to public benefactions and especially to the relief of the 
innocent unfortunates who were not responsible for their own misfor- 
tunes. 

In his public duties as captain in the line, as brigade quartermaster, 
and as a representative in conpfress, he performed every duty apparent 
to him honestly and conscientiously, and in the very best manner in 
which it could be done. His entire life consisted in the performance of 
each and every duty as he saw it at the time. He never did anything 
for effect, or for show, or to be spoken of and praised by his fellow men. 

In size, he was like Saul, head and shoulders above his fellows, over 
six feet high, but with a most kindly disposition. His features were at- 
tractive and commanding. He was willing to meet every man, to esti- 
mate him according to his manhood, and to bid him God-speed, if he 
deserved it. 

He never tried to do anything great, but his punctuality to every 
duty before him, from day to day, made him known of all men. He 
simply tried to do right, and, this simple devotion to duty in war and 
peace, in public office and as a private citizen, cause his memory 
to be revered as a perfect patriot so long as his good deeds shall be re- 
membered. 

Lanvrenoe Talbot Neal 

of Chillicothe, Ohio, was born at Parkersburg, Virginia (now West Vir- 
ginia), September 24, 18.14 I ^^'^^^ educated at the Asbury Academy at that 
place; removed to Chillicothe in 1864; studied law there and was ad- 
mitted to the bar by the Supreme Court of Ohio, in 1866; was solicitor 
of the city of Chillicothe from April, 1867, to April, 1868, and declined 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 32 

re-election; was elected to the Ohio legislature in 1867 and served two 
years and declined re-election ; was elected prosecuting attorney of Ross 
County in 1870 and held that office until October, 1872, when he re- 
signed and was elected to the forty-third congress as a Democrat, re- 
ceiving 13,379 votes against i2,io(5 for John T. Wilson, Republican. 
He was re-elected in 1874. He was the Democratic candidate for gover- 
nor in 1893 and defeated by about 80,000 plurality. 

Mr. Neal is noted for his devotion to his party. He is a lawyer of 
respectable attainments and is now residing at Columbus, Ohio. He 
was not engaged in the Civil War and is unmarried. 

Henrj Ii. Diokey 

of Greenfield, Ohio, was horn in Ross County, Ohio, October 29, 1832 ; 
received an academic education ; studied civil engineering, and, subse- 
quently, the law, and is a lawyer by profession; was a member of the 
Ohio house of representatives in 1861, and of the Ohio senate in 1867 
and 1868; was elected to the forty-fifth congress in 1876 as a Democrat, 
receiving 14,859 votes against 13,518 votes for A. Brown. He was re- 
elected to the forty-sixth congress in 1876, but in a different district. 
His father resided in Washington C. H., until our subject was fifteen 
vears of age, when he removed to Greenfield, Ohio, where Mr. Dickey 
has resided ever since. He was, as a youth, a civil engineer on the Mar- 
ietta and Cincinnati Railroad during its construction. He resigned the 
position in 1855 and began the study of law with his father, who was a 
prominent lawyer and common pleas judge of ability. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1857. He afterward attended law school in Cincinnati and 
in 1859 he formed a partnership with Judge James H. Rothrock, after- 
ward supreme judge of Iowa. 

On January 2, t86t, he was married to Miss Mary L. Harper. He 
was defeated for a second term in the lower house in 1863. From 1870 
to 1872, he was chief engineer of Highland County in the construction of 
its turnpikes. 

Jolin P. Leedom 

was born in Adams County on December 20, 1847, ^"^ received a com- 
mon school education. He i^raduated at the Smith Business College in 
Portsmouth, Ohio, in 1863. He then taught in the public schools. He 
was elected clerk of the courts in Adams Co., in '74, and re-elected in ^jj. 
He was a member of the Democratic state committee in 1879 \ ^^ elected 
to the forty-seventh congress as a Democrat, receiving 17,375 votes to 
15,663 votes for the Republican candidate. In this congress, he served 
on the committee on territories. He was a candidate for the forty-eighth 
congress, but was defeated by John W. McCormick, of Gallia County, 
by a vote of 15,288 to 13,037. He was elected sergeant-at-arms of the 
forty-eighth congress ; also of the forty-ninth and fiftieth congresses. 
The defalcation of a trusted subordinate broke him down financially, and 
in health and spirits. He left Washington in October, 1890. and was 
never well afterwards. He had suffered much before with acute attacks 
of kidney trouble, and he died at Toledo, Ohio, March 18, 1895, and is 
interred in the Odd Fellow's cemetery at Manchester. He was married 
in 1869 to Ruth Hopkins, of Adams County. His children are Mrs. 



324 HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

Eva Bundy, wife of Col. W. E. Bundy, of Cincinnati, United States 
attorney for the southern district of Ohio ; Mrs. Effie Dugati, widow of 
the late Jesse Dugan, and a son, Wilbur H. Leedom, now a law student 
at Manchester. Mr. Leedom was a man of fine appearance and pleasing 
address, and was popular as a public officer. He made a good impres- 
sion wherever he went. Ill health and misfortune — ^the misfortune of 
trusting too much to others — cut short a most promising career. 

Jolin W. MoCormiok 

of Gallipolis, represented in the forty-eighth congress, the district con- 
sisting of Adams, Gallia, Jackson, Lawrence, Scioto and Vinton counties. 
He was born in Gallia County on December 20, 1831. He was brought 
up on a farm and educated at the Ohio Wesleyan University at Dela- 
ware, Ohio, and at the Ohio University at Athens, Ohio. 6n leaving 
school, he engaged in farming and was elected delegate to the Ohio con- 
stitutional convention in 187? and was elected to the forty-eighth con- 
gress as a Republican, receiving 15.288 votes against 13,037 votes for 
John P. Leedom, Democrat. 

William W. Ellsberry 

represented the forty-ninth congress for the eleventh district, composed 
of Adams, Brown, Highland and Ross counties. He was born at New- 
hope, Brown County, Ohio, December 18, 1833; received a good educa- 
tion in the public schools of his native county, finishing at a private acad- 
emy in Clermont County. After having taught school for two years, he 
began the study of medicine with bis father. Dr. E. M. Ellsberry, a noted 
pliysician of his time. He attended medical lectures at the Cincinnati 
College of Medicine and Surgery, graduating there, and some years later 
he attended a full course at the Ohio Medical College, adding its diploma 
to the former. He continued in the successful practice of his profession 
until his election to Congress. He \vas appointed superintendent of the 
Central Insane Asylum, of Columbus, Ohio, in 1878, but declined to 
serve. He was three times chosen county auditor. At the outbreak 
of the war, he was one of the county military board. He was a 
member of various medical societies, including the American Medical 
Association. He was always a Democrat and was a delegate to the 
national convention, which nominated Hancock in 1880. and he was 
elected to the forty-ninth congress as a Democrat, receiving 15,251 votes 
against 14.841 votes for Hart. Republican. 

Hon. Albert C. Tliompson 

On February 14, 1894, the legislature passed an act to apportion the 
state of Ohio into congressional districts, and amended the act of April 
77, T882. Under this statute, Ross, Highland, Brown and Adams coun- 
ties composed the eleventh district, and Vinton, Pike, Jackson, Lawrence 
and Scioto counties composed the twelfth district. Under this law, in 
the fall of 188-I, Albert C. Thompson was elected congressman for the 
twelfth district, and W. W. Ellsberry, of Brown, was ejected for the 
eleventh district. On May 18, 1886, by act of that date, congress was 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 325 

reapportioned into congressional districts, and the eleventh district was 
composed of Adams, Scioto, Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson and Vinton. 
In this district A. C. Thompson was elected to the fiftieth congress, and 
re-elected to the fifty-first congress, and represented Adams County as 
its Congressman. 

Judge Thompson was born in Brookville, Jefferson County, state 
of Pennsylvania, January 23, 1842. He was two years at Jefferson Col- 
lege, Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania, his course ending with the freshman 
year. He was a student at law when the Civil War broke out. On 
April 23, 1861, he enlisted in the Union Army, and served as second ser- 
o;eant of Company I of the Eighth Pennsylvania, three months troops. 
The regiment served in Maryland and Virginia under General Patterson. 
On the twenty-seventh of August, i86t, he enlisted for three years in 
Company B, 105th Pennsylvania Infantry. He was made orderly ser- 
geant of the company, and in October, 1861, was promoted to second 
lieutenant and on the twenty-eighth of November, 1861, he was transfer- 
red to and promoted to the captaincy of Company K of that regiment. 
On the thirty-first of May, 1862, he was severely wounded at the battle 
of Fair Oaks, and was again wounded on the twenty-ninth of August, 
1861, at the second battle of Bull Run. The last wound was a serious 
one. A musket ball entered his right breast, fracturing his second and 
third ribs, and lodging in the lungs where it remained. He was con- 
fined to his bed by this wound for ten months. In June, 1863, he entered 
the invalid corps, but resigned in December, 1863, and resumed the study 
of law. He was admitted to practice in Pennsylvania on the thirteenth 
of December, 1864. In 1865 he removed to Portsmouth, Ohio. In 
1869 he was elected probate judge of Scioto County and served from 
February 9, 1870, to February 9, 1873, and was not a candidate for re- 
election. In the fall of 1881 he was elected one of the common pleas 
judges of the second subdivision of the seventh judicial district of Ohio, 
and served until September, 1884, when he resigned to accept the nom- 
ination of his party as a candidate for congress to which he was elected 
and served as above stated. After he retired from congress he was 
appointed by Gov. McKinley, chairman of the Ohio Tax Commission 
which made its report in December, 1893. He was chosen a delegate to 
the Republican national convention at St. Louis in 1896. In January, 
1897, he was appointed chairman of a commission created by congress 
to revise and codify the criminal and penal laws of the United States, and 
served as such until he was appointed by President McKinley, United 
States district judge for the southern district of Ohio. He entered upon 
the discharge of his duties as district judge on the twenty-second day of 
September, 1898. After his appointment as United Sates district judge 
he removed to Cincinnati, where he has resided since the first of Novem- 
ber, 1898. 

During Judge Thompson's first term in congress he was a member 
of the committee on private land claims, of which committee he was a 
valuable member. In the fiftieth congress he served upon the invalid 
pension committee, and in the fifty-first congress upon two of the most 
prominent and important committees, namely, judiciary and foreign 
affairs. As a member of the first committee the judge was made chair- 
man of the sub-committee to investigate the United States courts in 



326 HISTORY OF ADAMS CX)UNTY 

various parts of the country. The report which he submitted to con- 
gress as chairman of that sub-committee was among the most valuable of 
the session. It was during the fifty-first congress that the famous Mc- 
Kinley Tariff Bill was formed, and in the construction of that important 
measure Judge Thompson took no inconsiderable part, being frequently 
called into the councils of his party. Judge Thompson's career 4n con- 
gress was of material benefit to his adopted city, as it was through his 
efforts that a public building was erected in Portsmouth costing $75,000. 
The bill providing for this building was vetoed by President Cleveland 
in the fiftieth congress, but became a law by the President's sufferance in 
the fifty-first congress. A dike, known as the Bonanza dike, built in the 
Ohio just about that time, was also provided for through the same in- 
strumentality, at a cost of $75,000, and three ice piers butlt just below, 
were added at a cost of $7,500, apiece. The city of Portsmouth also re- 
ceived the boon of free mail delivery through the same source. 

As a member of the Ohio Tax Commission he took a conspicuous 
part in its labors, and its work is now bearing fruit in the legislation of the 
state on this subject. The report of this committee received the highest 
praise from contemporaneous journals of political science. 

As a lawyer Judge Thompson was well read in his profession, and 
was a diligent and constant student. He was painstaking, industrious, 
and energetic. He brought out of a case all there was in it, both of fact 
and law. His opponent in any case could expect to meet all the points 
which could be made aginst him, and would not be disappointed in this 
respect. 

As a common pleas judge he gave general satisfaction to the bar 
and public. He was one of the ablest who ever occupied the common 
pleas bench in Ohio, and there was universal regret when he left the 
bench for Congress. As a federal judge, he has received many compli- 
ments, and it is believed by those who know him best, that he will make 
a reputation as such equal to any who have occupied that position in our 
state. 

Jolin M. Pattison 

was born in Clermont County, Ohio, June 13, 1847. He entered the 
army in 1864 ^^ the age of sixteen. He was admitted to the bar in Ham- 
ilton County, Ohio, in 1872. He was elected to the state legislature 
from Hamilton County in 1873. He was vice president and general 
manager of the Union Central Life Insurance Company in 1881 and was 
elected president in 1891. He was elected state senator in 1890 m the 
Brown-Clermont District to fill a vacancy caused bv the death of Thomas 
Q. Ashburn. He was elected to the fifty-second congress on the Demo- 
cratic ticket by 16,110 to 13,157 for D. W. C. Loudon. After his con- 
gressional career, he resumed his connection with the Union Central Life 
Insurance Company and is now its President. 

Cken. William H. Enoolis 

represented the tenth Ohio district in the fifty-third congress, erf which 
Adams County was a part. While he was only Adams County's repre- 
sentative from March 4, 1893, ^^^^ his death, July 13, 1893, yet he was well 




GEN. \VM. II. ENOCHS 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 327 

known in the county and had canvassed it for the nomination to congress 
in 1890, when Judge Thompson obtained his third term. He is a good 
example of what the ambitious American boy can make of himself. He 
was born in Noble county, Ohio, March 29, 1842. His parents were 
Henry and Jane Miller Enochs. They removed to Lawrence County 
when he was a child. 

He had the advantages of a common school education and was at- 
tending the Ohio University at Athens when Fort Sumpter was fired on. 
He at once enlisted in Co. B, 22d Ohio Volunteers and was made a ser- 
geant. Col, Wm. E. Gilmore, of Chillicothe, was colonel of this regi- 
ment. Hon. Thaddeus A. Minshall, now Supreme Judge of Ohio, was 
its sergeant major. Judge Guthrie, of Athens, was captain of the com- 
pany and W. H. H. Minton, of Gallipolis, the banker, its first sergeant. 
This regiment was mustered in April 2y, 1861, and mustered out August 
19, 1861. Young Enochs was afraid the war would be over before he 
could get in again, so he swam the Ohio River and enlisted in the 5th 
Virginia Infantry. At that time he did not believe he could get into an 
Ohio Regiment, so he enlisted in Virginia. In October, he was elected 
captain of his company, but owing to his youth, his colonel refused to 
issue the commission and made him a first lieutenant. He was recom- 
mended to be major of the regiment in 1862, but owing to his youth, was 
commissioned a captadn. As such, he was in the battles of Moorfield 
and McDowell and of Cross Kevs. He was in Cedar Mountain and the 
Second Manassas, and at the latter had command of his regiment, 
although junior captain. He was also in the battle of Chantilly. In 
1863, the regiment was transferred to West Virginia. On August 17, 
1863, Captain Enochs was commissioned lieutenant colonel. His regi- 
ment was in the Lynchburg Raid, which was a campaign of "marching, 
starving and fighting." In 1864, his regiment was in the battles of Bun- 
ker Hill, Carter's Farm and Winchester, Halltown and Berryville. At 
the battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864, Colonel Enochs was 
severely wounded by being struck on the head by a musket ball, and was 
supposed at first to have been instantly killed. At Fisher's Hill, Sep- 
tember 22, 1864, he displayed great bravery in leading his regiment to 
the attack and for this, was brevetted brigadier general. His regiment 
and the northwest Virginia were consolidated and made the ist West 
Virginia Infantry. Near the close of the war, his regiment was sent to 
Cumberland, Maryland, where he was assigned to the command of the 
troops in that part of Maryland, and on March 13, 1865, was made a 
brigadier general. In the fall and winter of 1865 and 1866, he studied 
law in Ironton and was admitted to the bar in April, 1866. He located 
at Ceredo, West Virginia. After remaining there a year or more he re- 
moved to Ironton. He at once acquired a large and lucrative practice. 
For a long time he was general counsel for the Scioto Valley Railway 
Company. 

In 1871 and 1872, he represented Lawrence County in the house of 
representatives of the Ohio legislature. In 1875, he was married to Miss 
Annis Hamilton, of Ironton. They had one son, Berkley, who was 
educated at West Point and is now a first lieutenant in the 2Sth U. S. 
Infantry and is with his regiment in the Philippines. During the Spanish 
War, he served with his regiment in Cuba. 



328 HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 

Gen. Enochs always had an ambition to represent his district in con- 
gress. This desire was gratified when, in 1890, he was elected to con- 
gress from the twelfth district, composed of Athens, Meigs, Gallia, 
Lawrence and Scioto. In 1892, he was re-elected to congress from the 
tenth district composed of Adams, Pike, Scioto, Jackson, Lawrence and 
GalHa. On the morning of July 13, 1893, he was found dead in his bed 
from an attack of apoplexy. A most promising career was cut short. 
He was the idol of the people of his county and respected, honored and 
beloved by the people throughout his district. 

In the spring of 1893. he was full of projects for the benefit of his 
district and particularly for the improvement of the Ohio River. Had 
he lived, he would doubtless have had as many terms in congress as he 
desired and would likely have been governor of the. state. He had the 
happy faculty of making all whom he met feel that he was their friend. 
He had some subtle unknown charm, of which he was unconscious, but 
which made him friends everywhere and attached them to him by indis- 
soivable bonds. His patriotism during the war was ardent, and never 
failed. It was just as strong in peace. All he achieved, all he accom- 
plished in his brief career was his own. He had no rich or powerful 
family friends. He had no aid or assistance whatever and his friends 
were all made on his own merits. He was generous beyond all pre- 
cedents, and any one deserving sympathy received the greatest measure 
from him. Once your friend, he was always such, and he made you feel 
he could not do too much for you. He believed in the brotherhood of 
man. His death at the time was a public calamity. He received a pub- 
lic congressional funeral and persons attended from all parts of the sur- 
rounding country. His funeral was the largest ever held in Ironton. 
He left the memory of a career of which every young American can feel 
proud and feel glad that a countryman of his had so distinguished him- 
self in the Civil War, at the bar and in the National legislature. 

Iiuoien J. Fenton 

was born on his father's farni near Winchester, May 7, 1844. The fam- 
ily were of English ancestry. Mr. Kenton's great- grandfather, Jere- 
miah Fenton, emigrated from Yorkshire, England, in the early part of 
the eighteenth century. He was a prominent and active patriot during 
the Revolutionary period. His son, also named Jeremiah Fenton, 
was born in Frederick County, \'irginia, and died in Adams County, in 
1841, at the age of seventy-seven years. Benjamin Fenton, the father of 
our subject, was born near Winchester. August 31, 1810, and died Aug- 
ust 13, 1870. His wife, Elizabeth Smith, was born in Pennsylvania, 
December 19, 181 3, and died at Winchester, Ohio, November 5, 1892. 

Mr. Fenton was a student at Winchester when the war broke out. 
On the eleventh of August, 1862, he enlisted in Company I, 91st Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, and was with his regiment until September 19, 1864. 
Me was wounded at the battle of Opequan Creek, Virginia, the ball lodg- 
ing in his shoulder. He was sent to the hospital at York, Pennsylvania, 
and was not discharged until May, 1865. He returned home in the fall 
and began a normal course at the Lebanon school, where he remained 
for three terms. He taught school for several years. In 1869, ^^ en- 



POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 329 

tered the Ohio University at Athens, and took a Latin-Scientific course, 
leaving that institution one year before he would have graduated in order 
lo accept the principalship of the Winchester schools, which position he 
held for two years. He then conducted the West Union schools for one 
year and the Manchester schools for five years, but he resigned in 1880 
and was appointed clerk in the custom house at New Orleans. He was 
transferred, at his own request, from the custom house of New Orleans 
to the treasury department in Washington, D. C, March 15, 1881, in the 
office of the supervising architect. He remained in government service 
until October 18, 1884, when he resigned and returned home. The Win- 
chester Bank was organized at that time, and its original officers were as 
follows: George Baird. president, J. W. Rothrock, vice president, and 
L. J. Fenton, cashier. Mr. Fenton is still cashier of the bank. 

Mr. Fenton is a trustee of the Ohio University at Athens. In 1892, 
he was a delegate to the Republican national convention at Minneapolis. 
In 1894, he was elected to the fifty-fourth congress and in 1896 was re- 
elected to the fifty-fifth congress by over 10,000 plurality. He was a 
member of the house committee on military affairs during the Spanish- 
American War. 

On May 22, 1872, he was married to Miss Sarah B. Manker. They 
have three children, Alberta F., Clifton L., who was a captain in the 
Spanish- American War, and Mary E. 

He served on th** staff of the Ohio Department Commander of the 
G. A. R. in 1893, 3nd on the staff of the National Commander of the G. 
A. R. in 1896. 

As a soldier and patriot Mr. Fenton has an honorable record. As 
a teacher he won and held the high esteem of all the teachers of this 
county; as a banker and business man he has shown a high degree of 
ability and has the confidence of the community : as a citizen he has the 
respect of all who know him. He is an excellent example or what the 
ambitious young American may attain. 

Hon. Stephen Morsan, M. C, 

a Republican, of Oak Hill, was born in Jackson County, Ohio, January 
25, 1854; was reared on a farm and educated in the country schools and 
at Worthington and Lebanon, Ohio ; taught in the public schools of 
Jackson County for a number of years ; was school examiner for nine 
years, and principal of the Oak Hill schools for fifteen years ; was elected 
to the fifty-sixth congress, receiving 1Q,297 votes, to 13,769 for Alva 
Crabtree, Democrat. On April 10, 1900, he was renominated by his party 
for a second term. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



MIUTARY HISTORY 



ReTolutionary Soldiers— Adams County In the CItU War— Morgan's Raid. 



It has been a very great labor to secure the information given be- 
low. In the state library is a list of the revolutionary soldiers of Adams 
County, on continental line, who drew pensions. We also obtained 
a list of those who served in the militia and drew pensions and the two 
lists are combined. The ages are either at the death of the soldier 
where his death is mentioned, or where it is not mentioned, the age is 
given as in the year 1835. The date following the age, where there 
is a date given, is the date the soldiers were placed on the pension roll. 
The following is the list: 

Alexander, John, Pennsylvania Continental, 91. 
Brewer, Henry, Congressional Regiment, 69, February 2, 1819. 
Baldwin, John, private, Maryland Mliitia, June 22^ 1833. 
Breedlove, John, private, Virginia Militia, October 18, 1832. 
Conner, William, ensign, Virginia Continental, May ii, 1819, July 22, 

1819. 
Costigan, Francis, lieutenant, New Jersey Continental, 84, July 21, 

1821. 
Copple, Daniel, Pennsylvania Continental, age 74, died February 7, 

1832. 
Cochran, John Gen. 

Callahan, Dennis, Maryland Continental, 86. 
Cole, Ephriam, Col. Wm. R. Lee's regiment. 
Cross, Samuel, private, Pennsylvania Militia, June 11, 1832. 
Collings, James, 5th Maryland Continental. 
David, Zebediah, private, Pennsylvania Militia, May 22, 1833. 
Erwin, James, lieutenant, Pennsylvania Continental, 65. 
Edwards, Jesse, private, Pennsylvania Militia, August 8, 1833. 
Falls, Wm. 

Finley, J. L., major, Pennsylvania Continental, y^i- 
Flood, William, Virginia Continental, 94. 
Faulker, William, Pennsylvania Continental, 79. 
Fields. Simon, Virginia Continental, jy. 

Foster, Nathaniel, private. New Jersey Militia, August 8, 1833. 
Gates, William, Virginia Continental, 74, died October 29, 1879. 
Gustin, Amos, Pennsylvania Continental, 68. 
Gordon, John, Pennsylvania Continental, 76. 
Grooms, Abraham, private, Virginia Militia, November 16, 1833. 
Hamilton, Charles, corporal, Delaware, Continental. 

(330) 



MILITARY HISTORY 381 

Hull, Isaac, private, New Jersey Militia, January 3, 1834. 

Jack, Thomas, sergeant, Pennsylvania Continental, 85, died August 8, 

1831. 
Laney, John, Virginia Militia, died in Huntingdon Township — buried 

at Hickory Ridge. 
McPike, John, private, Pennsylvania Militia, May 24, 1833. 
McDaniel, Patrick, Pennsylvania Continental, 94. 
Magin, Charies, Maryland Continental, 82, died December 23, 1827. 
McMahan, Joseph, Virginia Continental, 73. 
Middleswart, Jacob, Pennslyvania Continental. 
Madatt, Thomas, private and sergeant, Maryland Militia, June 26, 

1833. 
Miller, James, Cleutis Artillery Company. 
Mehaffey, John, private. New Jersey Militia. 
Piatt, Benjamin. 

Richardson, James, Virginia Continental, 80, died January 16, 1833. 
Rogers, William, New Jersey Continental, 66. 
Rankin, Daniel, Maryland Continental, 80. 
Richards, James, Virginia Continental, 75. 
Stivers, John, private, Virginia Militia, August 7, 1833. 
Simpson, Robert, private, New Hampshire Continental, September 24, 

1819. 

Stevenson, Charles, private, Pennsylvania Militia, February 25, 1833. 

Sams, Jonas, Virginia Militia. 

Smith, Henry. 

Thompson, John, private, Pennsylvania Militia, September 21, 1833. 

Trotter, Christopher, Virginia Continental, 75, died May 6, 1828. 

Trotter, John, Virginia Continental, 76, transferred from Kentucky. 

Usman, Charles, private, Virginia Militia, February 12, 1833. 

Waldson, Elizah, private, Virginia Continental. 

Walker, James, private, Pennsylvania Militia, October 8, 1833. 

Williamson, William, private, Pennsylvania Militia, October 8, 1833. 

Waters, Thomas, sergeant, Virginia Continental, 87. 

Woodworth, Richard, Pennsylvania Continental. 

Walker, Peter, Pennsylvania Continental, 65. 

Waters, Thomas, sergeant, Virginia Continental, 87, July 21, 1819. 

Woodworth, Richard, Pennsylvania Continental, 79, October 28, 1819. 

Walker, Peter, Pennsylvania Continental, 65, May 24, 1820. 

Of this list Major Joseph Finley has a separate sketch herein. He 
and John Killin, another revolutionary soldier, are the only ones 
known to be buried in the old cemetery in West Union. The graves of 
both are marked. Most of the revolutionary soldiers in Adams County 
who obtained pensions, did so through Wesley Lee, who acted as pen- 
sion agent in West Union from about 1823, so long as pensions were 
obtained. 

Daniel Copple served as a private in the German battalion of the 
continental troops, revolutionary army. He was a member of Capt. 
Daniel Burchart's company, between October 4, 1776, and July, 1777. 
He was on the rolls of Capt. Peter Boyer's company, from August, 
1777, to June, 1779. His name appears as Daniel Kettle on the rolls 
of Capt. Michael Boyer\s company, from November, 1779, to De- 



332 fflSTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY 

cember, 1780. He was enlisted for the war. This battalion was raised 
from the several colonies. There were four companies from Pennsyl- 
vania and four from Maryland. Daniel Copple, a former resident of 
Liberty Township, Adams County, Ohio, was his grandson atid Mrs. 
M. J. Earley, of Red Oak, Ohio, is his great-granddaughter. He is 
buried in the Dutch graveyard, in Liberty Township, together with his 
wife, and his grave is unmarked. He could speak only a f