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Full text of "A History and Description of the Modern Dogs of Great Britain and Ireland: Sporting Division ..."

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THE NT.W YORK 






HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 

OF THE 

MODERN DOGS 



OF 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



SPORTING DIVISION: VOL. H. 



(A NEW EDITION.) 



BY 



RAWDON B. LEE, 

KENNEL EDITOR OF. " THE FIELD," AUTHOR OF THE HISTORIES OF 
"THE FOX TERRIER,'' " THE COLLIE," ETC. 

/ 



The Illustrations by ARTHUR WARDLE. 



LONDON : 

HORACE COX, 

'• FIELD " OFFICE, WINDSOR HOUSE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, E.C. 

1897. 



: • -*i 



• • 



• * 



• ••*••• 






« V 



- - • I 









THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

9278b 

AS^OR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 

1898. 



LONDON I 
PRINTED BY HORACE COX, WINDSOR HOUSE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, E.C. 



• • 






• . 






« » 



» • 









.• 






^ • 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. page 
The Pointer .... i 

CHAPTER II. 
The Setter 63 

CHAPTER III. 
The English Setter 85 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter . . .121 

CHAPTER V. 
The Irish Setter 141 

CHAPTER VI. 
The Retrievers 175 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Curly Coated Black Retriever . . . .179 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The Flat or Wavy Coated Black Retriever . 187 



\ 



vi Contents. 

CHAPTER IX. page 
Other Retrievers 201 

CHAPTER X. 
The Spaniels 2 19 

CHAPTER XI. 
The Irish Water Spaniel ' 229 

CHAPTER XII. 
The English Water Spaniel ........ 249 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Clumber Spaniel 257 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The Sussex Spaniel 279 

CHAPTER XV. 
The Black Field Spaniel 293 

« 

CHAPTER XVI. 
The Norfolk Spaniel 303 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Spaniels other than Black 307 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
The Cocker .... 313 



Contents. vii 

CHAPTER XIX. page 

The Basset Hound 323 

CHAPTER XX. 
The Basset Griffon 351 

CHAPTER XXI. 
The Dachshund ' 355 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Pointers and Setter Frontispiece, 

Pointer Facing page i 

Setters 

English Setters 

Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setters 
Irish Setters 

Curly CoXted Retrievers 

« 

Flat or Wavy Coated Retrievers 

Other Retrievers 

Irish Water Spaniels 

Clumber Spaniels 

Sussex Spaniels 

Black Field Spaniels 

Norfolk Spaniels 

Spaniels other than Black .... 

Cockers 

Basset Hounds 

Basset Griffons 

Dachshunds 



63 
85 

121 
141 
179 
187 
201 
229 

357 
279 

293 
303 
307 
313 
323 
351 
355 



I 



r 







- 1 



) 



CHAPTER I. 

THE POINTER. 

Although the Pointer is of comparatively recent 
introduction into this country — comparatively along- 
side his fellow worker the setter — no animal is 
more popular with the shooter. Originally said 
to come from Spain, a country to which we are 
indebted for other dogs, Sydenham Edwards, writing 
in 1805, says it was first introduced by a merchant 
trading with Portugal, at a very modern period, and 
was then used by an old " reduced baron," named 
Bechill, who lived in Norfolk, and " who could shoot 
flying." The same writer eulogises this Spanish 
pointer, and so good a dog was he, and required so 
little training that there was quite a chance of 
his putting the nose of the " setting spaniel" 
out of joint altogether. " Shooting flying " was 
practised prior to 171 7 (although most probably 
not very much in vogue until some time later), for 
in that year Mr. Markland published " Pteryplegia, 
or the Art of Shooting Flying," an interesting and 

B 



/ 



Modern Dogs. 



popular little poem which went through at least 
four editions up to 1767 inclusive. It certainly 
deserved popularity for the knowledge the author 
evidently possessed of his subject must have 
been simply marvellous, the period at which the 
work was written being taken into consideration. 
It may be taken that the Pointer was introduced 
to England early in the eighteenth century as the 
most likely dog to use under the new system. 

Very likely France had pointers earlier than this. 
One of our modern writers falls into a curious error 
with regard to a picture by Francis Desportes. The 
artist depicts two dogs, which the author says are 
examples of the " early foxhound and pointer cross 
in France," of the date about 1701. As a fact, the 
picture is a portrait of two favourite hounds from the 
pack of Louis XV., Pomp£e and Floressant, and was 
painted in 1 739. There is no mistaking the hound 
character of these dogs, and they display no trace, 
so far as I can make out, of any pointer appearance 
whatever. The pheasant and two other birds in the 
background are merely accessories to the picture, 
and are not put there to indicate that the dogs 
below them are of a feathered game finding variety. 
However, there is extant another drawing by the 
same artist, of a pointer and two setters, with par- 
tridges in front of them, the smooth-coated dog 



The Pointer. 



being quite of modern type, though he has his stern 
shortened. 

By the means of that fine old picture, " The 
Spanish Pointer," by Stubbs, and which was engraved 
by Woollett in 1768, we know what kind of a dog 
it was : liver and white in colour, heavily and 
massively made, big of head, double nosed, strong 
loined, shortened stern ; a cumbrous dog, steady 
enough, no doubt, but as unlike our modern pointer 
as a Suffolk punch is unlike a thoroughbred race- 
horse. To one of the London dog shows, I think it 
>was in 1891, Sir Walter Gilbey, of Elsenham Hall, 
Norfolk, sent up a brace of Spanish pointers. These 
were short, thick set, small dogs, fawn, rather than 
lemon, and white in colour, double-nosed, with short 
stumpy heads — very ugly animals indeed, and, how- 
ever staunch and steady they might be on game, 
they would certainly be sadly deficient in pace, 
and of no use in competition against the high rangers 
we at present own. Nor could these Spanish pointers 
of Sir Walter Gilbey's compare with the one Stubbs 
over a hundred years before, had given us upon 
canvas. As a fact, they were short and thick enough 
in head, and sufficiently heavy in under jaw to 
give indications of a bulldog cross. Still, they 
were pure bred animals so far as they went. 

Good as the old Spanish pointer had been, our 

B 2 



Modern Dogs. 



English sportsmen required something better. The 
old strain tired much, and became slow at the 
end of a day's heavy work; and it lacked persever- 
ance generally. So, it was said, a cross was 
resorted to. History tells us this was found with 
the foxhound, and that the much quoted sports- 
man, Colonel Thornton, of Yorkshire, was the first 
man to bring the improved dog prominently to the 
notice of the public. This might be so or not, we 
fancy not ; for, about the same period, pointers, far 
removed from the imported Spanish dog in appear- 
ance, were not at all uncommon in England, and 
they could easily have been brought over from 
France. In any case, if Colonel Thornton was not 
actually the maker of the modern English pointer, 
he had the credit of being so, and, sportsman 
though he was, contrived to get big prices for 
some of his dogs, and obtain a reputation for them 
as being the best in England. 

It was said, that two bred by him, Pluto and Juno, 
remained on point during the whole of the time 
Sidney Gilpin, the animal painter, was taking a 
sketch for their portraits, and this occupied about 
an hour and a quarter. This was not, however, a 
sufficiently extraordinary feat for his dogs, one of 
which, the gallant Colonel stated, had stood on point 
for five hours at a stretch, and was even then loth to 



The Pointer. 



move in and spring the game ! Such a story as the 
latter does not require much further exaggeration to 
suggest others, like that dog frozen to death whilst 
on point ; or its cousin, where a sportsman lost his 
dog (it was not on an Irish mountain), and on 
going over the same ground twelve months later 
found the skeleton of his old favourite still standing 
with one foot raised and on point, whilst six yards 
away lay the bones of two brace and a half of part- 
ridges, the feathers of the birds having long before 
been blown to the four winds of the heavens. Surely, 
then, there are grounds for the truth of the north 
country expression, " Shutters is leears/' although 
this may be qualified by the usual addendum " but 
fishers, by gum ! " 

The jovial Colonel is supposed to have had an 
Eclipse of pointers in his dog called Dash, the produce 
of a foxhound and a Spanish pointer. Dash could 
beat all other dogs, he never omitted to find birds in 
front of him, and his extraordinary intuition enabled 
him to do this without quartering his ground as other 
dogs did. Moreover, Dash was perfectly steady 
and staunch behind in backing other dogs. We 
are not told how so unusual an animal could so 
far be outstripped by some sorry quarterer of his 
ground as to be so far behind in position as to be 
required to back. The fact of the matter is, that 



Modem Dogs. 



these extraordinarily fast dogs are never good 
backers, because they have not the opportunity of 
being made so; and they can scarcely be perfection 
as such naturally and without some training. Dash 
sustained his reputation to the end, for he was sold 
by his breeder to Sir Richard Symons for champagne 
and burgundy to the value of £i6o t a hogshead of 
claret, " an elegant gun," and another dog. There 
was a proviso that should accident befal this canine 
wonder he must be returned to his former owner for 
fifty guineas. This was brought about by the 
immaculate Dash breaking one of his legs. 

At the close of the past century, and about the 
beginning of the present one, the pointers were pretty 
similar in colour to what they are now — brown, or 
liver and white, lemon and orange and white ; some 
heavily flecked or ticked with these colours on a 
white ground ; others black ; and no doubt there 
would be pure browns or livers, as there are occa- 
sionally to-day, though we do not read of them. 
Sometimes we see pointers with white ticks or 
flecks on a brown ground, and they, though odd, are 
by no means unsightly. About ninety years ago 
the Earl of Lauderdale had a strain of very small 
pointers that would be little more than 3olb. in 
weight ; they bore a reputation for excelling in their 
work, but were generally considered too diminutive 



The Pointer. 7 



to be so useful as the bigger dogs as we have them 
now. They were, however, a novelty, and likely 
enough might be introduced from France, where, 
about that time, a small and lightly made pointer 
was quite common. 

Earlier than this, the Duke of Kingston owned a 
celebrated strain of black pointers ; but they, not 
being so easy to see when in work as a white dog or 
one nearly white, the colour never became popular. 
Still, a superstition remains to this day, in some 
parts of the country, that the black pointers are the 
best to kill game over, " because such have the 
better noses and the more stamina, and birds lie 
better to a black dog than to a white one." The 
latter idea prevails in a somewhat similar way as 
to wild animals — foxes, otters, &c. — bolting better 
to a white terrier than to a coloured one ; but 
whether there is anything in such a statement I 
cannot give an opinion, though my experience is 
by no means a small one in the matter of foxes and 
otters. 

Before entering on to the show period of the 
pointer and the introduction of field trial competi- 
tions, he was, no doubt, more used to the gun than 
he has been since. Shooting surroundings have been 
much changed during the past thirty or forty years. 
Battues and artificial breeding of game have been 



8 Modem Dogs. 



introduced on a large scale; improved agriculture 
and general cultivation have further altered matters ; 
so have the close cropping of the land, the use of 
machines for mowing and reaping, and increased 
drainage. Under the old system the stubbles 
remained as high as a pair of shooting boots, the 
after grass required dogs to work it, rents were 
lower, and the farmer could afford to have a " rushy 
pasture " or two on his land, which, being ill-drained, 
grew coarse "bent" grass, affording lovely shelter 
for the birds. I am writing of inland shooting now, 
and not of the moors. One thing with another and 
the old system is changed. On some of the best 
partridge land in England, and so in the world, birds 
are not usually killed over dogs ; they are either 
walked up by the shooters moving on in a row, with 
retrievers behind them, or driven where the sports- 
men take their stands, or their seats, and wait until 
accumulated coveys of partridges fly within gunshot. 
Still, the old style is the better, and nothing 
prettier in the way of sport is there than walking 
behind a brace of well-trained pointers, either through 
turnips or over rough land, and killing your birds as 
your dogs find them, first one dog and then the 
other, quartering right and left, crossing correctly, 
and backing as occasion requires. To kill driven 
birds may require a smart shot ; to kill them when 



The Pointer. 



walking in a line may require nerve and steadiness ; 
but to kill them over dogs, you acquire some know- 
ledge of the habits of the game you are after, and, 
moreover, are proud in the possession of a brace of 
animals which, without prejudice, you may believe to 
be the best in the universe. 

All things in this ' world pretty much find their 
level ; maybe, had such not been tne case, the race 
of the pointer would have died out when he came to 
be so little used, through what some are pleased to 
call " modern improvements in the way of sport." 
But the introduction of dog shows gave him a fillip, 
and the establishment of field trials raised his social 
status higher than ever. When the great Daniel 
Lambert — great in more ways than in obesity — had 
a noted strain of black pointers about 1840, he was 
contented to give a puppy away to a friend, or to 
sell one for a matter of five pounds, or even less, 
and little more could he obtain for a fully grown dog. 
No one disputed the excellence of his kennel, yet, 
at its dispersal on his death, six brace and a half of 
pointers realised but 256 guineas, the highest figure, 
46 guineas, being obtained for lot 13, a dog called 
Bang, and said to be very good in the field. Swap 
and Snake, unbroken, from one of Webbe Edge's 
bitches called Bloom, who had been sold for 
80 guineas at the Edge sale, realised 25 guineas 



io Modern Dogs. 



each. The three latter not at all bad prices, when 
the period and other matters are taken into 
consideration. 

Even so long ago as this, the Earl of Derby, at 
Knowsley, had, and was obtaining, a kennel of good 
pointers ; at Edenhall, in Cumberland, the Mus- 
graves had some excellent dogs; so had Lord 
Mexborough, the late Marquis of Westminster, Lord 
Lichfield, Lord Henry Bentinck, Sir E. Antrobus, 
and last, but by no means least, Mr. Webbe Edge, 
of Stretley Hall, Nottingham. 

Some of the oldest of our modern kennels have 
their foundation from the stock purchased at the 
Edge sale in 1845, and Mr. Thomas Statter, of 
Stand Hall, near Manchester, whose death occurred 
in 1 891, was there, and bought a brace of dogs that 
did him great good in the future. The late Prince 
Consort was likewise a purchaser at the same sale, 
and so were the Duke of Portland, who obtained 
Rake, and others ; and Mr. George Moore, of 
Appleby, Lincolnshire, who for a time had a kennel 
of pointers as good as any man in the country 
possessed. Then, just prior to this period, Mr. 
Osbaldeston and Mr. Meynell, so great with fox- 
hounds, had spent considerable time and expense in 
improving the pointer, but it may be said that their 
blood, with that of the Squire of Thornville Royal, 



The Pointer. 1 1 



all lapsed into the Knowsley and the Edge strains, 
and from these to others, such as the few dogs that 
Lang, the Cockspur Street gunmaker, sold for such 
high prices, Mr. Comberbach's, and Mr. Statham's, 
of Derby. 

The Edge strain appears to have been pretty well 
distinct from the others, and has proved of infinite 
benefit to the admirers of the pointer who followed 
him. His were medium-sized but particularly 
elegantly moulded dogs, dark liver and white in 
colour, with more than a tendency to a golden or 
bronze shading on the cheeks. They carried their 
heads well in the field, and in work were quite equal 
to what they were in appearance. 

More modern kennels were those of Sir R. Garth, 
Q.C., and Mr. J. H. Whitehouse, Ipsley Court, 
Redditch ; and the latter must be taken as the 
connecting link between the present generation and 
the past one. 

Mr. W. Brailsford who now, in 1897, is st ^ strong 
and hearty, and was able to attend and enjoy the 
Birmingham show the previous year, informs me 
that, between 1830 and 1840 or so, the best 
pointers were certainly to be found in the Midlands. 
In addition to the kennels already named, Mr. 
Gell, Hopton Hall, Wirksworth, had a choice lot of 
dogs. Mr. Statham, of Derby, alluded to before, 



i2 Modern Dogs. 



owned a good-looking, double-nosed strain of 
the Spanish type; and perhaps his other pointers 
contained more crosses with those from Mr. Moore, 
of Appleby Hall, than any other kennel. The 
double-nosed variety soon died out. 

Mr. Martin, at the Laxton kennels, had mostly 
black and white dogs, still there were some lemon 
and white amongst them. Mr. Edge had given his 
sole attention to the liver and white, and no doubt 
to him their popularity at the present day is attri- 
butable. Lord Chesterfield, at Gedling, whose 
kennel was under the charge of the father of my 
informant, also had some black and whites of great 
excellence. 

Mr. Brailsford further says that two of the best 
dogs in the Edge kennels in 1841-2 were Rake and 
Romp, but the latter, having tan shadings on his 
liver-marked cheeks, was not much used for breeding 
purposes. Thus, even so far back as half a century 
ago, a purely fancy point was not sneered at by even 
the greatest of breeders. The Edge strain was in 
the first instance obtained by judicious crossing with 
dogs and bitches obtained from Captain White, Mr. 
Hurts, of Alderwasley, Mr. Mundy, Mr. G. Moore, 
Mr. Statham, Sir R. Goodrich, and others. All 
colours but liver and white were rigorously excluded, 
and the leading feature of the Edge strain lay in its 



The Pointer. 13 



general uniformity. The best specimens only were 
saved ; the kennels were never overcrowded, and no 
more dogs than could be used and properly trained 
for the owner's own requirements were kept. The 
latter an excellent arrangement which does not, how- 
ever, find favour now ; and I fancy that already the 
market is well nigh glutted with pointers and setters, 
as recent sales at Aldridge's and elsewhere prove. 

Mr. Garth's dogs were disposed of by auction at 
the Lillie Bridge running grounds, West Brompton, 
London, in June, 1874, when eight brace of pointers 
realised 490 guineas. It may be noted that the 
plums of this sale were obtained by Mr. R. J. Lloyd 
Price, of Rhiwlas, and by Mr. G. Pilkington, of 
Widnes; and no doubt the celebrity both these 
kennels obtained later on, was, in a great degree, 
owing to the discriminating purchases made at Mr. 
Garth's. Mr. Price took away four brace and 
Mr. Pilkington one brace, the latter giving 67 guineas 
and 55 guineas respectively for Major, by Drake — 
Mite, and for Doll, by Major — Jill. Mr. Price's lots 
cost him more money, and £150 for the grand 
pointer Drake, then seven years old, was the sum 
the Welsh squire gave, and it was a high one for so 
old a dog. 

The Earl of Sefton sold his pointers the same 
week, but the prices realised were not noteworthy. 



i4 Modern Dogs. 



The first Field Trial meeting ever held took place 
over Sir S. Whitbread's Bedfordshire estate at 
Southill, April, 1865, and at which "Idstone" 
(the Rev. T. Pearce, of Blandford), and Mr. John 
Walker, of Halifax, were the judges — both, unfor- 
tunately, deceased. The day was by no means 
favourable for good work, being hot and windless ; 
notwithstanding this, judging from the points awarded 
to the dogs, many of them were of the highest class. 
Two, Mr..R. Garth's Jill and Mr. Fleming's Dandy, 
made the highest number of points possible; whilst 
Mr. Brockton's Bounce, Mr. Whitehouse's Hamlet, 
and Mr. J. A. Handy' s Moll had 90 points given 
them out of a possible hundred. In thus casually 
alluding to the maximum of points obtained in a 
working trial by a pointer it would be an omission 
not to mention Mr. Lloyd Price's handsome bitch 
Belle, who at the Vaynol trials in 1872 made the 
perfect score of 100, though in the champion plate 
she was beaten by Mr. Purcell Llewellin's English 
setter Countess. 

Our modern winners do not appear to have quite 
reached such high figures of merit*, and, as a com- 
parison, I will give the number of points awarded 
at the Pointer Club Trials, which took place over 
Lord Kenyon's estate near Wrexham in 1889. Here 
the maximum to be obtained was 100: and Mr. 



The Pointer. 15 



F. Lowe's Belle des Bordes was given 98 ; Mr. 
Heywood Lonsdale's Crab, 96; Mr. C. H. Beck's 
Quits Baby, 94; and Mr. Lloyd Price's Miss 
Sixpence 88, all competitors in the all-aged stake. 
The puppies did not do so well, and the maximums 
reached were 66 and 57 by Mr. Beck's Pax of 
Upton and his Quail of Upton, and 62 by the late 
Mr. T. Statter's Toil. This was the last occasion 
in this country upon which a field trial was judged 
by points. 

The disparity in the above numerals, we should 
say, lies more in the method and in the opinion of 
the judges rather than in the fact that the modern 
pointer is inferior in his work to that of a quarter of 
a century ago. As a matter of fact, nowadays the 
work got out of the properly trained dogs should be 
of a far higher class than was formerly the case, for 
the largest owners of field trial dogs have special 
men to look after and train them, breaking them in 
the first instance for public work alone, though after 
their advent as puppies they are well able to do 
their duty amongst the grouse on the moors and 
the partridge in the more cultivated land. 

So successful was the initial Field Trial meeting 
that others followed, and so they have been continued, 
and exist at the present day. Some writers have 
endeavoured to make a distinction between the work 



1 6 Modern Dogs. 



done by the liver and white dogs and by those lemon 
and white, one advocating the one colour and others 
the other. But let me say colour has nothing what- 
ever to do with the work of a dog. Both have 
originally come from the same strains, and, given 
equal opportunities, will be equally good. My field 
trial and shooting experiences over dogs have been 
long CQntinued without any material cessation, and 
during this period I have seen good and bad of all 
colours, excepting, perhaps, I have never seen a 
really good field trial performer a whole brown. 
Blacks I have seen, and black and whites too, good 
enough for anyone. Perhaps the best of all was the 
black dog Tap, belonging to Mr. W. Arkwright, of 
Sutton Scarsdale. Commencing as a puppy in 1892, 
he ran with great success every year, his last being 
so recently as July, 1896, when he very nearly won 
the principal stake at the International Field Trials 
at Bala, one slight mistake right at the end spoiling 
his record. He had drawn up on point when a 
young grouse, a " chiper," fluttered up above the 
heather right under his nose, a temptation which 
was too much for the old dog, who went in and gave 
the little bird a nip. Tap is as good in private as in 
public, and is an untiring worker. Tap's dam was 
a lemon and white bitch. 

Mr. Arkwright, who has given considerable atten- 



gY 



The Pointer. 17 



tion to black and white pointers, showed a hand- 
some bitch of that colour called Barmaid, and she, 
at the Kennel Club Show and at Birmingham, in 
1896, took the highest honours, winning the cham- 
pionship on one occasion, and pretty nearly doing 
the same thing on the other. At Birmingham 
another good black pointer was shown, and won a 
second prize, Mr. J. Graham's (Middlesbro'-on- 
Tees) Jester, whose dam is unknown. Another, 
called Nigger, that Mr. Herbert Brown owned 
some years ago, w T hich came from a strain Mr. J. 
H. Salter had in his kennels, and valued highly, 
was quite first-class and very smart. Then in 1894 
a black and white pointer puppy came over from 
France, M. Puissant' s Fly des Bordes, to run at 
the National Field Trials at Shrewsbury, at which 
meeting she ran right through the stake almost 
unchallenged. Sir Watkin Wynn has some black 
and white pointers at Wynnstay, which are, in fact, 
his own strain and of Mr. Arkwrights', and gene- 
rally just now there appear to be more black and 
black and white pointers appearing both in the 
field and show bench than has been the case for 
some years. 

Of some of the chief pointers at the earlier trials, 
" Stonehenge," in his " Dogs of the British Isles," 
says : 

c 



1 8 Modem Dogs. 



" Among the liver and whites, the celebrated 
Drake, bred by Sir R. Garth and sold by him for 
^150 in his seventh season to Mr. R. J. Lloyd Price, 
of Bala, was an example of speed and endurance. 
This dog was, in his day, the fastest and most 
wonderful animal that ever quartered a field, and his 
race up to a brace of birds at Shrewsbury in the 
field trials of 1868, when the ground was so dry as 
to cause a cloud of dust to rise on his dropping to 
their scent, was a sight which will probably never be 
seen again. He was truly a phenomenon among 
pointers. His extraordinary pace compelled his 
dropping in this way, for otherwise he could not 
have stopped himself in time, but when he had lost 
more of his pace he began frequently to stand up. 

"A very beautiful and racing bitch was Mr. Lloyd 
Price's Belle, bred by Lord H. Bentinck, and bought 
by Mr. Price for ^10 after winning a third prize at 
Manchester. She was at first fearfully headstrong, 
and chased hares for many weeks persistently, being 
far beyond her puppyhood and unbroken ; but the 
perseverance of a young, and till then unknown, 
breaker, Anstey, overcame these defects, and being 
tried in private to be good, she was entered at 
Vaynol field trials in 1872, when she won the prize 
for braces, and also that for bitches, being left in to 
contest the disputed point of priority in the two 



The Pointer. 19 



breeds with Mr. Whitehouse's Priam against Mr. 
Llewellyn's Countess and Nellie, both setters. In 
this trial she succumbed to Countess, but turned the 
tables on her at Bala in 1873. Being possessed of 
this beautiful and excellent bitch, Mr. Lloyd Price 
naturally desired to match her, and so Drake, as 
already mentioned, was purchased. Previously, 
however, Drake had got several dogs of high class, 
including Viscount Downe's Bang, Drake II., and 
Mars ; but, considering the run he had at the stud, 
his stock could not be said to have come out as well 
as might be expected in public, though in private 
their character was well maintained. Crossed with 
Belle, a litter considerably above the average was 
obtained, including Mallard and Beau, but none 
coming up to the form of either sire or dam, and not 
equal to Eos, who was subsequently from her by Mr. 
William Starter' s Major. Mr. Statter had also bred 
Dick, successful at Bala and Ipswich, from a 
daughter of Drake by his Major, who was descended 
from the good, old-fashioned strains of Lord Derby, 
Mr. Antrobus, and Mr. Edge. Major was a fast, 
resolute dog, and ranged in beautiful style ; but he 
behaved very badly at Bala in 1867 (his only public 
appearance), having just returned from the moors, 
and not owning the partridge scent, as is often the 
case with even the steadiest grouse dogs. 

C 2 



2o Modern Dogs. 



" It should be remembered that in these days fast 
pace is demanded far more than in those when 
pointers were used in the south for beating high 
stubbles in fields of 20 acres or less, and when the 
heavy breeds of Mr. Edge, Lord Derby, and Mr. 
Antrobus were able to do all that was desired, 
delicacy of nose, and steadiness both before and 
behind, being the chief essentials required. By 
careful selection, and some luck, Sir R. Garth was 
able to breed Drake \ and Lord H. Bentinck also 
obtained Belle, while Mr. Statter has been little 
behind them with his Major, Dick, and Rex. In the 
south, Mr. S. Price has produced his Bang, Mike, 
and Wagg, the first not quite up to the pace of the 
above dogs, but closely approaching it. He is 
descended from Brockton's Bounce, one of the old 
heavy sort, who, however, showed fair pace at 
Southill in 1865, but crossed with the lemon and 
white strain of Mr. Whitehouse, which I must now 
proceed to describe. Mr. Lloyd Price added Wagg 
to his kennel for stud purposes, and in the year 
1877 obtained a very fast and clever puppy from 
Devonshire, viz., Bow Bells, by Bang out of Leech's 
Belle; Mr. Whitehouse's Rapid was another Devon- 
shire-bred dog of recent celebrity, being by Clang 
out of Romp. 

"Up to the time of the institution of dog shows, 



The Pointer. 21 



the lemon and whites were little valued in comparison 
with the liver and whites; but Mr. H. Gilbert's Bob 
and Major (the latter sold to Mr. Smith, of Tetten- 
hall, on Mr. Gilbert's death in 1862), brought the 
lemon and whites into notice on the show bench ; 
while a son of Bob, Mr. Whitehouse's Hamlet, already 
alluded to, took 90 points out of a possible 100 at 
the Bedford trials. Mr. Whitehouse's Hamlet also 
took several prizes in the ring, and his stock have 
quite superseded that of Major, which, handsome as 
they are admitted to be, have not shown much capa- 
city for the work demanded from them in the field. 
Mr. Whitehouse has bred from this dog Priam, 
Rap, Joke, Flirt, and Nina, all winners; besides 
Macgregor, who is by Sancho out of a grand- 
daughter of Hamlet. From these successes in the 
twofold direction of beauty and goodness in the field, 
Hamlet was in high fashion until the appearance of 
Sir R. Garth's Drake, since which the contest be- 
tween the stock of those two dogs has been main- 
tained with varying results, there being little differ- 
ence in the number of wins between Viscount 
Downe's Bang II., Mars, Grace II., and Drake II., 
together with Mr. Lloyd Price's Mallard and Beau, 
and Mr. Statter's Dick ; and on the other hand, Mr. 
Whitehouse's Priam, Rap, Pax, Nora, and Blanche. 
Besides these may be mentioned Mr. Brackenbury's 



22 Modem Dogs. 



Romp and her produce by Chang, Mr. Whitehouse's 
Rapid, and Mr. Fairhead's Romp." 

I have made this quotation as some proof of what 
I had written as to there being nothing in the colour 
of a pointer that would indicate either pace, staunch- 
ness, or stamina, and Mr. Whitehouse, by sticking 
consistently to the orange or lemon and whites, has 
convinced most people that the dogs of this colour 
are as hardy as those of any other. His Hamlet 
and Rap never had their superiors, and though Mr. 
Whitehouse does not give so much time to his 
pointers as formerly, he has been the means of 
popularising the " lemons and whites " in such a 
fashion that they are not likely to die out. North- 
wards, the county of Durham seems to have 
obtained a strong strain of this colour, and at the 
Darlington shows, held annually at the end of July, 
a capital display of them is usually seen, indeed, 
nearly all the shooting men in that locality have had 
at one time or another, and still have, lemon and 
white pointers in their kennels. 

There was that good dog Don IX., and several 
others with which Mr. Ridley (Ferryhill, Durham), 
was so successful. The Peases, too, had them, and 
this kennel included some of the smartest small- 
sized dogs I ever saw. The dam of the writer's old 
bitch, Miss Prim, who did a good deal of winning in 



The Pointer. 23 



her time, and was as good as anything else in the 
field, was from the Durham side — a remarkably 
handsome bitch, spoiled by being wide in front, but 
this was due to the accident of bad rearing, and was 
not constitutional. The late Mr. G. Maw, of Bishop 
Auckland, had an extra good lemon and white in 
Peg, fast and good, and who was, unfortunately, run 
over and killed by a train earlier on that fatal day 
when her owner received injuries that resulted in his 
death. The exceedingly smart but rather small 
Wolsinghartl Bob was also of a Durham strain, as 
are Mr. W. Arkwright's Aldine Fluke and Belle 
Chance, bred by Mr. C. Drury, and equal to winning 
at our big shows when hard on ten years old. 

The peculiar character of the pointer may be 
proved by the example of Mr. Maw's bitch Peg, and 
there is no doubt that,, when roused, the pointer is far 
more determined than the setter, and can better hold 
his own in fight than the longer-coated dog. When 
Peg was quite a puppy, it was her misfortune to be 
run over by one of those cyclists who in their road 
races become such a nuisance, and so bring discredit 
upon a useful and healthy pastime. The bitch was 
not much hurt, but she bore bicycles a grudge ever 
after, and unless her owner had her hard at his heels 
when a " machine " approached, Peg went for it 
with a vengeance, and never failed to upset the 



24 Modern Dogs. 



luckless rider, often to his injury, and, on more than 
one occasion, to the cost of her owner. It was 
strange that this bitch, so well trained and broken 
on game, staunch and obedient to perfection, should 
be quite oblivious to, and heedless of, her owner's 
whistle and voice when the ring of the cycle bell was 
heard, or the machine itself loomed in the distance. 

Whilst on these lemon and white or orange and 
white pointers, it may be as well to mention another 
strain, though this was more successful on the bench 
than in the field. This belonged to Mr. C. W. 
Brierley, then living near Manchester, but who 
has left his favourite dogs for the newer love of 
" pedigree" shorthorns. Then pretty well on to 
twenty years ago, Mr. C. H. Mason, Yorkshire, was 
showing and winning with a number of good dogs, 
but when he went to the United States, where he is 
now one of the leading authorities on canine matters, 
his kennels were dispersed. 

Of late years Devonshire has become the favourite 
county in England for its strains of pointers, most 
of which are liver and white in colour, though 
occasionally those of the lemon and white crop up. 
As to these Devonshire pointers, Mr. E. C. Norrish, 
so well and favourably known in connection there- 
with, kindly contributes the following, excepting 
where his own kennel is mentioned : 



The Pointer. 2 







11 No other country can lay claim to older pointer 
blood than that which is found in Devonshire. If 
we carefully go through the pedigrees of the field 
trial performers and bench winners of the present 
day, whether in our own country or in America, we 
shall almost invariably find that those which take 
premier honours can trace back to the old Devon 
sort. Long before dog shows and field trials 
became fashionable, Devon pointers were distin- 
guished for their high quality, for their total freedom 
from anything approaching the hound cross, and for 
their natural working characteristics, such as 
staunchness on point, range, and readiness to 
back. 

" Probably the variety of work which this county 
affords has something to do with the stoutness and 
symmetry which were always reckoned essential to 
good breeding by our old sportsmen. Steep hills, 
often covered with stone and rock, and deep and 
holding moorland, render muscle and lifting power, 
good legs and feet, a necessity, consequently we 
find these points kept in the foreground, and handed 
down to us almost as heirlooms of the breed. Would 
that the same care and judgment had been taken 
with the brisk little Devon spaniel, whose qualities 
were as defined and distinct as those of the pointer, 
but whose symmetry of late years has been sacrificed 



26 Modern Dogs. 



to fashion, which has rendered him less able to work 
thick covert and thorny hedgerow. 

" Whether dog shows are in any way responsible 
for the deterioration of this useful breed, it is not my 
intention to inquire ; I will, however, confidently 
assert that to dog shows and field trials we owe 
much of the all-round improvement so perceptible in 
the breed of pointers generally, and those of Devon- 
shire in particular. The opportunities which these 
meetings afford of discussing the merits and charac- 
teristics of the different strains, is of incalculable 
value to breeders, and frequently lead to the inter- 
change of blood, which above all else is so necessary 
for the keeping up of stamina and keen working 
qualities. 

" One of our earlier Devon breeders, who recog- 
nised the wisdom of an infusion of fresh blood, was 
Mr. W. Francis, of Exeter — a thorough sportsman, 
whose kennels were never without the right sort for 
hard work — his frequent companion in the field was 
the late Mr. Samuel Price, of Bow. It is hardly to 
be wondered at that two such enthusiasts working 
together, were successful in maintaining the reputa- 
tion of their kennels. At that time dog shows were 
in their infancy ; however, that good authority the 
Rev. T. Pearce (" Idstone "), while on a visit to 
Devonshire, had spoken so highly of the working 



The Pointer. 27 



characteristics and general good qualities of the liver 
and white Bounce — a well known prize winner, owned 
by Mr. Brockton, of Farndon — that Mr. Francis 
and Mr. Price quickly decided on breeding from 
him. For this purpose they selected one of their 
best bitches, named Belle, whose dam Dido was bred 
near Newton Abbot, and was by Sancho, whose sire, 
Mentor, came from South Molton. This union of 
Francis's Belle with Brockton's Bounce gave us the 
sensational litter — Sancho, the black and white 
Chang, the bitch Vesta, and Random. So grand a 
team quickly gained for themselves a reputation on 
the bench, and we find Sancho and Chang amongst 
the prize winners at Birmingham and other important 
shows of that period, while Vesta, judged by 
" Idstone," at Barnstaple and other local shows, 
usually won with ease. 

" As a matter of course, their blood was greatly 
sought after, especially by neighbouring kennels, and 
wherever it found its way it proved successful. For 
example, Sancho, bred to his niece Sappho, produced 
that nearly perfect specimen of a pointer, Wagg, 
which was so successfully shown by Mr. R. J. Lloyd 
Price, of Bala, and, bred to the late Mr. R. P. 
Leach's Fan — whose ancestors were from the North 
of Devon — produced Leach's Belle, probably the 
most successful brood bitch of that day. Amongst 



28 Modern Dogs. 



her numerous offspring were the Champions Bang II. 
and Bow Bells, Bonus Sancho, Merry Bells, Belle of 
the Ball, and Grant's Maggie, all of which were sired 
by Price's Bang. We shall find Chang best repre- 
sented by his union with Romp, a small, compactly 
made bitch, owned by the late Mr. Brackenbury, of 
Exeter ; her performances in the field were of the 
highest order, and her excellence as a worker was 
transmitted to her progeny. From these Mr. J. H. 
Salter's well known black and whites, alluded to later 
on, are descended. 

" Besides being the dam of Mr. Sam Price's world- 
renowned Bang, Vesta's name is brought down to us 
through her daughter Sappho, dam of Wagg, already 
named, and Pearl, dam of Mr. E. C. Norrish's lemon 
and white Beryl, a famous bench winner at Birming- 
ham and elsewhere, from whom again spring Mr. 
Norrish's Revel III. and his Saddleback, that quite 
recently were almost invincible in the show way. 
For size, substance, and quality combined, Vesta 
would doubtless compare favourably with any bitch 
of the present day, and it has always appeared to me 
a regretful circumstance that Mr. Price allowed her 
to leave this country at so early a period in her 
career. From her the most conspicuous representa- 
tives of the Bow kennels are descended, amongst 
them being the above-mentioned Bang, who, with 



The Pointer. 29 



his son Mike, won for Mr. Price the Cloverly Stakes 
at Shrewsbury three years in succession ; Belle of 
Bow, Lad of Bow, Lass of Bow, Mealy, Bang's Boy, 
and Climax. The two latter were his favourites in 
the field, and it will be remembered that he had the 
brace actually in his hands at the time of his lament- 
ably sudden death, the evening before the 1st 
September, 1887. 

" Random, the last of the team named above, mated 
with Mr. Huggins's Juno, gave us the typical Don 
Juan, sire of the well-known champions Ponto and 
Fan, from which Mr. Beck's celebrated Naso of 
Upton is descended on his dam's side, and of 
Fursdon Juno, dam of Graphic, another of Mr. 
Norrish's well-known dogs, and now in America. It 
is unnecessary here to follow the successful careers 
of Devon bred pointers in other countries, their good 
deeds would fill a volume. 

"Returning again to the progeny of Old Bang and 
Leach's Belle, Mr. Bulled, of Witheridge, was 
fortunate in securing one of these, viz., Belle of the 
Ball. Not only did she bring his name to the fore 
as a prize winner, but she enabled him to hold his 
own in the strongest competition. One of the 
earliest of her progeny was Sambo the Devil, who 
from the time of his debut at Margate in 1879, scored 
prize after prize, which quickly ran him into 



30 Modern Dogs. 



champion honours. Amongst other good ones 
which the Witheridge kennel bred from Belle of the 
Ball was the field-trial performer, Lass of Devon, 
who was by Mr. Stranger's Don of Devon, and 
Devon Noble. More recently Mr. Bulled has been 
successfully breeding from the Village Star, a 
daughter of Devon Jack — Bell Bona, litter sister to 
Bonus Sancho. From her came his present day 
field trial and bench winners Devonshire Nero, 
Devonshire Sail, and Devonshire Lady." 

However, the most successful of all Devonshire 
kennels, especially on the show bench, is that of 
Mr. E. C. Norrish, of Gay's House, Copplestone. Nor 
has Mr. Norrish restricted himself to- the ordinary 
dogs of the ring, he having latterly made entries at 
the Field Trials, where animals trained by himself 
have, as a rule, performed more than fairly, though 
not always quite so successfully as might be wished. 
There is no doubt that for some years back the 
pointers of Mr. Norrish have obtained great celebrity 
and become almost pre-eminent in maintaining the 
prestige of the West country strain. Such good 
animals as Graphic, Saddleback, Vesper, Saddle- 
back II., Revel, Beryl, Sandford Reveller, Truebill, 
without others that could be named, and equally first 
class, are quite sufficient to gain a reputation for any 
kennel. 



The Pointer. 31 



" Other noted Devonshire pointers are those of 
Mr. Lloyd- Lloyd, of Totnes, who, as far back as 
1875, I find exhibiting a bitch named Adele. From 
her, by Mr. Sam Price's Old Bang, he bred Hebe, 
who, in turn, being put to Lord Downe's Bang II. 
produced the field trial winners Fatima, Elias, and 
Hero, whose excellence cannot be gainsaid. Hebe's 
next litter, with Mr. W. Lort's Naso as their sire, 
included the good looking brace Totnes and Daphne, 
and the former, in alliance with Mr. J. Fletcher's 
Young Ponto, produced Nan, who, when the 
property of Mr. C. H. Beck, was the dam of Naso 
of Upton, by many persons considered to be one of 
the very best pointers ever bred, at any rate, so far 
as beauty was concerned. 

" To Daphne Mr. Lloyd owes much of his early 
reputation as a successful breeder. Her career on 
the bench was brilliant. Shown always in the pink 
of condition, only bitches of extra merit could hold 
their own with her ; moreover she transmitted to her 
progeny many of her most taking qualities, and 
some of the best in the Totnes kennels at the 
present day are directly descended from her. By 
her union with Mr. Norrish's great dog Graphic, she 
produced Zasme, Zero, and Zeus. The latter was a 
frequent winner at some of our principal shows, and, 
by mating him back to Old Hebe, Mr. Lloyd bred 



32 Modern Dogs. 



the remarkably handsome brace of bitches lima and 
Lady Jane. Many connoisseurs considered Lady 
Jane the better of the brace. She was, however, 
some years since, sold to a gentleman in Russia, 
and we have thus lost sight of her. lima is with us 
still, and has added to the reputation of her kennel 
by producing a litter of puppies to Mr. Raper's Naso 
of Strasburg — a descendant of Price's old champion 
Bang. Another good litter which Mr. Lloyd bred 
from Daphne was that by Mr. Wroth's Don, the 
best of which were the well-known Totnes Parody 
and the lemon and white Totnes Onyx. 

" That strain, of which Wroth's Don is a repre- 
sentative, deserves a passing notice. His dam, Mr. 
Andrew's Sappho, came directly from the Croxteth 
kennels, and was by Lord Sef ton's Sam — his Flirt, 
while his sire, Mr. Norrish's Old Bob, was equally 
well bred, being by Mr. Whitehouse's renowned 
Hamlet — Pearl, Hamlet's granddaughter. 

"Mr. Norrish's Donald, Revel, and Digby were all 
of the same family as Wroth' s Don. Donald, it will 
be remembered, won at Birmingham in the small- 
sized dog class in 1879. After securing other lead- 
ing prizes he went to America, where he continued 
his successful career. Revel proved to be a Field 
Trial crack, being very smart and fast. The part 
she took* in a sensational trial at Blandford in 1882 is 



The Pointer. 33 



related further on. She also won on the bench, but 
unfortunately died in her prime in Mr. Arkwright's 
kennels. Digby proved himself sire of Lady Digby, 
from whom sprang Count de Beauffort's Master 
Dan, a large-sized dog, whose debut at the Alexandra 
Palace, where he won first prize, caused quite a 
flutter. One other representative of this family 
I must not forget, namely, Mr. Leach's Mina 
Juno, a daughter of Wroth's Don — Fursdon Juno. 
From Mina Juno came Mr. Norrish's Sandford 
Vesper and Saddleback Secundus, both by Saddle- 
back. 

"A familiar name amongst pointer breeders at the 
present day is that of Mr. R. Stawell Bryan, of 
South Molton. Coming out first as a successful 
poultry exhibitor, principally in the Game and Azeel 
classes, it was not a very big jump from poultry to 
pointers; and all the more easy as he had been a 
thorough sportsman from his boyhood, and knew 
practically what a pointer's work should be. 
Possessing a good strain to start with, he has 
consistently bred for size, substance, and working 
characteristics. Well do I remember Beta some ten 
years ago, when she was on a stud visit to Mr. 
Leach's grand old Bang II. One of the offspring of 
this union was Molton Broom, who can surely claim 
to be the very corner stone of Mr. Bryan's kennels. 

D 



34 Modem Dogs. 



Her litter brother, Molton Baron, was also extra 
good, his best progeny at the present day being 
Mr. Bulled's Devonshire Nero, already mentioned, 
Molton Byrsa, and Banker. The latter was good 
enough to win at Barn Elms, the Crystal Palace, 
and other large shows. Beta's pedigree traces back 
on her dam's side to Mr. Whitehouse's blood, while 
her sire was a brother to Mr. Stranger's well-known 
Don of Devon. Probably no pointer bitch of the 
present day has been more successful than Molton 
Broom, whose chief progeny, by Saddleback, have 
•been Molton Banner, Molton Brake, Molton Bronte, 
Sandford Bang, Sandford Quince, Sandford Revel, 
Beau o' the Border, and Heather Graphic, all of 
which have gained their laurels in high-class 
company. Molton Broom also bred well to Mr, 
Lloyd's Totnes Milo, a son of Zero— Zoe, and 
produced the stoutly-made Bracken, from whom 
again sprang Sandford Graphic, sire of Mr. Norrish's 
Graphic Secundus, who was first in the Open and 
first in the Novice Class at the Kennel Club Show 
last July, but unfortunately succumbed to distemper 
shortly after. 

. "It would be by no means difficult to find other 
kennels of pointers in the county of Devon. Mr. 
Scratton, of Ogwell, always has some good dogs, 
also have Mr. Cross, of South Molton ; Mr. Pring, 



The Pointer. 35 



of Exeter; and Mr. Elias Bishop, of Ogwell, the 
latter* s Senor Don Pedro being one of the fastest 
dogs of the generation, and a well-known field 
trial performer. Mr. C. Ford, of Stoke Cannon, 
deserves especial notice, as being the breeder of 
Blanche of Bromfield, winner at the Shrewsbury, 
Pointer Club, and Irish Field Trials in 1892. This 
bitch was by Mr. Ford's Okhay Mars, out of his 
Okhay Juno (a litter brother and sister), by his Mars 
— Belle, bred by Mr. Norrish, out of old Fursdon 
Juno, champion Graphic's dam, while Mars was by 
Bacchus out of Pearl, litter sister to Price's Bang. 

" Devonshire pointer breeders must be congratu- 
lated on the success which has attended their efforts 
in spite of the fact that so many good dogs have left 
that county for other parts of the world. Devon- 
shire is essentially a breeding corner, favoured by 
climate ; winter puppies can easily be reared, 
and as nearly as possible brought to perfection. 
Fortunately, too, the driving of partridges is almost 
unknown in the west, and, so long as the pointer is 
used as a sporting dog, he will undoubtedly hold his 
own, but directly his hunting instincts are allowed to 
rust, and he is only kept for the show bench, his 
best days are numbered." 

Of course, in addition to these Devonshire dogs, 
•equally good pointers are to be found in various 

D 2 



36 Modern Dogs. 



kennels in different parts of Great Britain. For 
instance, at Rhiwlas, near Bala, in North Wales, 
Mr. R. J. Lloyd Price possesses dogs that are equal 
to the best of them, some of which have already 
been alluded to. For many years past the Rhiwlas 
kennels have been well represented at the field trials, 
running as a rule consistently, and with success. 
Drafts were sold annually at Aldridge's, in St. 
Martin's Lane, and have brought excellent prices ; 
and in June, 1892, the bitch Saule, that had won 
at field trials, realised 80 guineas, whilst at the 
same time others brought up to 36 guineas 
each. 

So far as these important sales are concerned, 
they have of late been looked forward to with great 
interest, as they enable those who have shootings, 
and do not keep dogs all the year round, to fill their 
kennels with either pointers, setters, spaniels, and 
retrievers that have been well broken. At Mr. 
Pilkington's sale, in June, 188^, four and a half 
brace of puppies sold for 418 guineas ; Lymm, by 
Lake, realising no guineas; Peace, 60 guineas; 
Pardon, 56 guineas ; Lincoln, 57 guineas ; others, 
smaller sums. At the same auction, the old dogs 
sold almost as well, Dingle bringing 63 guineas ; 
Lilac and Lake, 61 guineas each ; Moffatt, 55 
guineas ; and Druid, 46 guineas. 



The Pointer. 37 



All the dogs offered by auction do not realise the 
good figures one would expect, and it was almost 
sad to see the kennel of the late Mr. T. Statter 
dispersed one Friday afternoon in June, 1892, for 
almost an old song — seven brace of pointers, as 
good as man could produce, and upon which their 
late owner had spent much money and much 
thought, realising only 143 guineas. His setters 
brought even a lower average. 

Another celebrated kennel of pointers is to be 
found near Whitchurch, Salop, and owned by the 
late Mr. Heywood Lonsdale, of Ightfield Hall, 
whose death we have to deplore as these pages 
are being printed. The Ightfield pointers have, 
during the past few years, been more successful 
than any others in field trial work at the English 
trials. But this did not satisfy their late owner, 
for on two occasions, in 1 890-1, teams of his 
were sent over to America and Canada for field 
competition there. Notwithstanding the fact that 
the English dogs had never had an opportunity of 
hunting quail, the game bird of America, as the 
partridge is here, they soon took a liking to their new 
quarry, and acquitted themselves most satisfactorily, 
the liver and white bitch, Igntfield Deuce, taking 
the highest honours, as she had done in this country 
before and has done since, and all the others acquit- 



38 Modern Dogs. 



ting themselves creditably. The team was in the 
charge of Mr. W. Brailsford, who, on his return, 
contributed an interesting article to the Field on the 
conduct and general management of field trials in 
America. 

Also in Shropshire there is another valued kennel 
of pointers kept by Colonel Cotes, at Pitsford, and 
irt work they are just as good as any others. It 
may be stated that the majority of these field trial 
dogs are rather higher on the leg, and generally 
built in more racing lines, or not so cobbily and 
heavily made as the pointers we see winning on 
the show bench. As a rule, they are good-looking 
enough for anything, and dogs like Ightfield Dick 
and Ightfield Deuce, both entered at the Kennel 
Club Show in June, 1892, were particularly smart in 
this respect, the first named especially. 

The Rev. W. J. Richardson, in Oxfordshire, and 
his neighbour, the Rev. J. Pooley, in the same 
county, ought likewise to be mentioned as owners of 
pointers of undoubted excellence, Mr. Richardson 
having at one time been especially successful with 
animals of his own breeding, both in the field and 
on the bench ; his dogs usually of the small or 
medium-sized strains, excel in quality. Then, in 
Northumberland, the Rev. W. Shield has another 
useful kennel of dogs that can do good field work 



The Pointer. 39 



as well as appear to advantage in the ring. In 
Kent, Mr. F. Warde had a capital strain ; so 
has Mr. F. C. Lowe, Sittingbourne ; and Mr. Elias 
Bishop, Newton Abbot; Lieut.-Colonel Cornwall 
Legh, Cheshire ; Mr. J. T. Hincks, Leicester ; Mr. 
J. J. Pollack, Strathblane ; the Hon. H. Fitzwilliam, 
Yorkshire ; Mr. J. Milden, Tiverton ; Mr. Mawson, 
Bromfield ; Mr. W. L. Nicholson, Ercall Heath, 
Market Drayton ; Mr. Humphreys, Mr. S. Moreton 
Thomas, Sir H. de Trafford, and Mr. James Bishop, 
Wellington, who with many others in various parts 
of the country, have made names for themselves 
as the owners of pointers of more than usual excel- 
lence. Mr. Barclay Field, who died early in the 
winter of 1892, also possessed a number of dogs 
which had done good work at Field Trials ; and 
so had the late Sir T. B. Lennard. 

Near Macclesfield, in Cheshire, Mr. C. H. Beck, 
at Upton Priory, has perhaps bred as good pointers 
as anyone during the present generation. His 
Rapid Ben, Busy Ben, Quail of Upton, Quits Baby 
were equally good in looks and work, and Naso of 
Upton, so successful on the bench, has previously 
been mentioned. 

Allusion has already been made to sundry pointers 
of great excellence in the kennels of Mr. William 
Arkwright, of Sutton Scarsdale, Chesterfield. Of 



40 Modern Dogs. 



late years he has taken, perhaps, more trouble and 
spent more money on his hobby of pointers than any 
other man, and he has achieved quite a proportionate 
success. For his kennel he has gone to what is 
generally considered " the old-fashioned " strains, 
some of which have been obtained from North 
Yorkshire and Durham. He is greatly antagonistic 
to such dogs as he considers show foxhound charac- 
ter in any way, such as undue strength of bone, 
thick round feet, and heavy heads. At Sutton 
Scarsdale he has a number of very superior animals 
which, in " dog language/' may be said to show 
"a lot of breeding," i.e., they abound in quality and 
are " highly strung.' ' These qualities do not 
interfere with their work in the field, for they have 
appeared with great success in public, and do more 
than their share of work in Scotland in the autumn. 
On the show bench, too, they more than hold their 
own, a fact which was much in evidence at Curzon 
Hall, Birmingham, in December, 1896. Here both 
champion prizes went to Sutton Scarsdale by the 
aid of the lemon and white Alden Fluke, then seven 
years old, and Belle Chance, his sister, bred by C. 
Drury, who at that time looked after Mr. Arkwright's 
kennels and their inmates, and ran his dogs likewise. 
There is, I believe, every likelihood that Mr. Ark- 
wright's strain of pointers will obtain a name, at 



The Pointer. 41 



any rate, not below that achieved by any other 
family of the variety. 

At the same show it was proved that there was 
another exhibitor who held quite as strong a hand as 
that possessed by the Derbyshire squire, for was not 
the latter beaten by three brace sent into the ring 
by Mr. R. Chapman, of Glenboig. These were a 
particularly level and even lot, and they included 
Mirth, Graphic, Bee, Bid, Bride, and Jewel, which 
bear the prefix of Heather. These were a particu- 
larly smart and even lot of pointers, which, 
individually, had done very badly at this show ; 
whilst, probably, the lemon and white Jewel was not 
all round excelled by any other of her variety 
benched that day. She, as well as her kennel 
companions, had already won a great number of 
prizes, a performance which they will, doubtless, 
repeat in due course. As I write, Mr. Chapman 
has, doubtless, the strongest kennel of sporting dogs 
in Scotland, if not in Great Britain. 

Mr. L. Bulled, in Devonshire, has a very excellent 
kennel of pointers just now, making quite a fine 
display when he brings them out at the big shows, 
his Birmingham teams in 1895-6 attracting con- 
siderable notice. In the former year they came 
reserve, in a very strong team competition, to those 
of Mr. Arkwright's. 



42 Modem Dogs. 



Perhaps no one has had a more successful lot of 
pointers, so far as field trial work is concerned, with 
the slight addition of good looks, than Mr. J. H. 
Salter, of Tolleshunt d'Arcy, Witham, Essex. Some 
of his very best dogs have been black or black 
and white, and, in one or two cases, brown, or liver 
and white ticked, oddly marked, almost approach- 
ing " roan " in appearance. They were originally 
descended from Mike and Romp, the latter being 
by Francis's Chang out of Brackenbridge's Romp ; 
Mike by Price's Bang — Miller's Sella, and moreover 
they went back to Brockton's Bounce and White- 
house's Hamlet. There never was better blood 
than this, and, judiciously used, Mr. Salter has 
produced therefrom some of the fastest dogs of the 
present day. He had given Mr. Samuel Price, of 
Bow, Devonshire, a long price for Mike in 1876, 
and perhaps this dog, with his sire Bang, were as 
good a brace of pointers as ever ran, and Romp 
was not far behind them. 

One who has often shot over both Mike and 
Romp said there was nothing between the two, 
excepting that when any particularly brilliant piece 
of work came to be done it was the bitch that did it. 
Mr. Salter believes that the excellence. of the strain 
arose from the dam's side rather than that of the 
dog, and, from what I have seen of Bang and 



The Pointer. 43 



Romp's progeny in other kennels, I believe this 
supposition to be quite correct. 

At our English field trials the Mike-Romp strains 
have won, in the United States likewise ; and there 
is no reason to doubt that one of the most valuable 
kennels of pointers in the States was that of Mr. 
Dexter. Such dogs as his Rip- Rap, Maid of Kent, 
and one or two others, one would very much like to 
have seen competing in this country, for, from the 
reports in the American Press, their work, and 
especially that of Rip-Rap, must have been well- 
nigh perfect. 

Romp, a black and white mottled bitch, ran at 
Horseheath and other meetings in 1876-7, and she, 
no doubt, got her colour from Francis's strain, 
which were, as a rule, black and white. Mr. Salter 
speaks in the highest terms of them, of their great 
sense, speed, nose and endurance. He says they 
are difficult to break, because the " ordinary breaker 
will not give them credit for knowing more than he 
does ; hence the whip comes in, a thing they never 
want and never forget." The late Mr. Herbert 
Brown was perhaps the most successful in training 
these pointers. " He never flogged, and patience 
and careful study told him that, when he and they 
disagreed in opinion, the dogs were almost always 
right and he wrong." 



44 Modern Dogs. 



I have repeatedly seen this strain of pointers 
perform at our English Field Trials, and at times 
their work could not be surpassed. ' They possessed 
pace, nose, and knowledge — the latter often caused 
their downfall. However, no pointer kennel of such 
limited dimensions as that of Mr. Salter has ever 
produced such excellent performers as Romp, Mike, 
Romp's Baby, Monitor, Mainspring (a great winner 
in America), Malt, Hops, Shandygaff, and some 
others have proved themselves to be. 

Malt's visit to old Priam (then the late Sir T. B. 
Lennard's) was most successful, for it produced, 
amongst others, Osborne Ale and Stout that ran 
respectively first and third in the Feld Derby in 
1885, an( * she herself had won at Stratford-on-Avon 
the year before. To Naso of Upton she bred 
Shandygaff and others. Some other crosses did 
not appear to " nick " so well, and since then she 
has failed to breed. It is a great pity that this 
same strain had not been kept in more than one 
kennel. It would have allowed some in-breeding, 
and I am afraid that, in the long run, it may be lost. 

The dog Mike, from 1874 to 1876, won nine 
prizes at field trials, six of them firsts, the remaining 
three he divided with other dogs. During the same 
period he was successful on the show bench, com- 
mencing with a second at the Alexandra Palace 



The Pointer. 45 



in 1875, and a first at the Crystal Palace next year. 
Mike died in 1884, leaving behind him a reputation 
as one of the hardiest and best pointers that ever 
ran, and I am not aware that any other pointer has 
approached his record, both in the field and on the 
bench. 

Probably, the best work ever done at Field Trials 
was in a heat run between Romp's Baby and Mr. 
Arkwright's Revel, which took place at Blandford, 
Dorset, in 1882. One who was present at the time 
writes as follows : " I had not been there the first 
day, and only got over to Mr. Farquharson's the 
night before, so was anxious to obtain all the 
information I could from those who had seen the 
trials so far, my interest being accentuated from the 
fact of my having a dog in the stake. 

" Everybody seemed to be of opinion that the 
contest between the dogs named above would be a 
close one, and there was much speculation as to the 
result, opinions being pretty evenly balanced as to 
which was the better. Both went very fast, and up 
to now no hole had been found in their prowess. 
The handler of Romp's Baby, Mr. Herbert Brown, 
was very confident (he was always so) ; still, there 
was considerable doubt as to the result. The two 
dogs were ordered down on a ploughed field recently 
rolled, and looking as flat as a billiard table, without 



46 Modern Dogs. 



the least covert, and the sun was shining, so brightly 
that imagination could readily lead to the belief that 
a beetle could be seen a hundred yards away. It 
was not a big field, and the wind was coming in on 
our right quarter. In those days pace was much 
more thought of than now, and so long as the 
nose was good enough to ' stop 'em ' it was all right. 
The fear, however, with an extra fast one is that he 
will overrun his nose or commit faults which a 
slower and more careful dog would not do. 

" Dr. Salter whispered a word of caution to Mr. 
Brown about casting the bitch off, so that she had 
not too much ground to cover before she came round 
into the wind (her practice being to go from one side 
of the field to the other, taking the most perfect 
quartering, and never going over stale ground), and 
then, the word being given, off they went like 
greyhounds racing for the first point ! (the turn). 
No one quite knew which was the faster till they got 
together — neck and neck they raced alongside, each 
doing her best, and then Romp's Baby drew out and 
left her friend, who, finding herself outpaced (for the 
first time in her life), wheeled about and took 
an independent beat. Romp's Baby completed her 
cast to the fence, took fresh ground, got the wind in 
her teeth, and was soon swiftly coming up the field as 
fast as a swallow, and as prettily. She overtook 



The Pointer. 47 



Revel, once more inviting her to test her pace, which 
she did, but, finding it l no go/ again turned sulkily 
away, and went on her own errand. The crowd 
marvelled at the speed of the Baby — for she was very 
small and of that black or blue mottled variety 
— and looked on with astonishment to see how 
Revel ' chucked up the sponge/ her sulkiness 
at being outpaced increasing as the trial went 
on. Presently Baby, coming up the field with the 
wind in her favour, on reaching the centre, pulled 
up as in a cloud of dust, and stood like a statue, 
attitudinising like a stage dancer, her neck out- 
stretched, her stern poised stiffly, her toes hardly 
touching the earth, her whole form quivering ! 
Never was there a more earnest point, but what 
was it ? 

" There lay the field shining and shimmering like a 
newly-rolled onion bed, not a vestige and not the 
chance of anything being on it, without being seen, 
bigger than an earwig ! Mr. Brown pulled up in 
almost as stagey an attitude as the bitch ; he had 
confidence in the bitch, but her owner afterwards 
said he doubted the scent, but thought perhaps the 
Baby saw something. There she stood, as Revel, 
a clever sensible bitch, came galloping up behind 
her. She took in the position, came upon Baby's 
tracks, gave a slight jerk, half intending to acknow- 



48 Modern Dogs. 



ledge the point, and then, slowing down, passed her 
opponent, who never budged an inch. Revel moved 
about in front in a half hesitating way, and lo ! to the 
surprise of everybody, up got a brace of birds fifty 
yards on their left front. Mr. Brown, of course, 
claimed them for the bitch, and everybody thought 
she had behaved well, and Revel very badly. The 
latter was brought back, but Baby stood on, stock 
still — no flinching, no dropping, when the birds had 
risen — there stood she, stiffer than ever, and, if 
possible, more in the air — you could almost see day- 
light under her feet ! Her handler, his heart never 
in doubt, began to regard her with attention, and 
then, as it were, ' tumbling to it/ went up to her side 
and tried to move her on — but no, she seemed to 
say ' I've got my birds, you may have a field full 
if you like, but if you want mine you must trust 
me.' 

"Everybody stood in intense excitement to see the 
bitch ( do or die/ make a fool of herself, or come out 
with something wonderful. It was odds on the fool. 
With much pressure, she was forced on a few 
yards, when a hare jumped up close to her, which 
never shook her in the least, and then, nearly a 
hundred yards away, a pair of birds rose, right in 
her line, and that instant she dropped, as though 
she had been shot ! 



The Pointer. 49 



" The first person who came up to congratulate the 
owner of the dog was Mr. Arkwright, who said it 
was the most wonderful piece of work he ever saw. 
After this Revel almost refused to go on, repeatedly 
coming back to her trainer, and working in short 
circles around him ; she had met more than her match 
for the first time, and, like many greyhounds, race 
horses, and other things bred for competition, she 
saw the un-wisdom of continuing the contest and 
1 turned it up.' It need scarcely be said that Romp's 
Baby won the stake outright, never making a 
mistake during the whole of her courses, and never 
allowing an opponent to make a point.' ' 

It may be well to mention a brace and a half 
of pointers which I fancy pretty nearly make a 
record as field trial winners, both here and else- 
where. Perhaps of the trio Mr. F. C. Lowes' lemon 
and white Ben of Kippen should come the first, a 
strong useful dog, scaling 551b. in weight, but, being 
low and thick-set, he does not seem to be so heavy. 
He was born in July, 1889, an( ^ was ninning from his 
puppyhood the following season until 1895, anc ^ ma 7 
even be given another trial before these pages are 
before the public. He was always able to gallop as 
fast as his opponents, quartered his ground better, 
and had quite as good a nose. He is equally good 
on all kinds of game. His winnings include nine 

E 



So Modern Dogs. 



first prizes, two second prizes, and three third prizes, 
and he competed altogether about twenty times, 
inclusive of Continental meetings. His winnings 
closely approach ^600. Ben's pedigree is interest- 
ing, as he combines all our best known strains of 
pointers through his sire Rocket R. and his dam 
Laura of Kippen. From the former he has Graphic 
and Wagg blood, and from his dam, who was by 
Naso of Kippen, he goes back to old Bang, to whom 
he is rather in-bred and to Champion Drake. Like 
all of us Ben of Kippen had his bad days, but 
when not flurried and flustered, and on his best 
behaviour, perhaps nothing in the world could have 
beaten him, excepting, perhaps, through such a per- 
formance as that of Romp's Baby mentioned on a 
preceding page. He made out game at extraordinary 
distances, was staunch and certain, and no dog ever 
quartered and beat out his ground better. Poor old 
Ben deserves even a better monument than the one 
he has — his portrait is the trade mark for a certain 
dog food. 

Mr. W. Arkwright's black dog Tap is another 
notability, and of him much has already been said. 
He was born in June, 1891, his sire being Rapp VI. 
(26,631), his dam Sella Price (24,454), by Barton 
Don, and he was still running and running well in 1896. 
His wins include in 1892 second prize at the Kennel 



The Pointer. 51 



Club Trials at Ipswich, and thirds at the Irish Trials 
and at the Pointer Trials, these being in the puppy 
stakes. In 1893 ^ e won ^ e All-aged stakes at the 
Kennel Club meeting and third at the pointer Club ; 
in 1894 he was first at Bolbec, the Normandy trials, 
third at Chirk, pointer club, and second in the all- 
aged stake over grouse at Bala. The same year 
and in 1895 ^ e won ^ e braces stakes at Bala and at 
the Kennel Club meeting running in conjunction 
with Mistletoe. In the latter year he won second in 
the all-aged stake at the Setter Club's meeting near 
Bedford and third at the International Club's gather- 
ing at Bala as already mentioned. Tap weighs 
661b. ; like Ben he does not appear to be so heavy, 
but he is a very thick set and muscular dog. His 
wins of course do not equal those of Ben of Kippen, 
but they are interesting because extending over four 
years and being gained on both grouse and 
partridge, and in Ireland, Wales, England, and on 
the Continent. 

If Mr. G. Pilkington's (now W. L. Nicholson's) 
liver and white pointer Woolton Druid, never achieved 
such notoriety as the brace already named, he has 
been pretty well as reliable a performer. Without 
possessing the dash of either Ben or Tap, he could 
keep pegging away pretty nearly as fast as any of 
them, and he carried his head finely and looked 

E 2 



52 Modern Dogs. 



perfection itself when on game, but he was by no 
means what may be called a sensational dog. Born 
in 1892, by Woolton Dick out of Lawn, he ran fourth 
in the puppy stake at the National meeting in the 
spring of 1893, an( ^ * n the autumn of the same year 
he won the St. Leger stakes and the championship 
at the Irish trials. In 1894, he was placed first at 
Chirk at the Pointer Club's meeting; first at that of 
the Setter Club and ran a good second for the Acton 
Reynald stake at Shrewsbury. The following year 
he again won at the Setter Club's trials near Bedford, 
and was fourth in the champidn stake at Shrewsbury 
in 1895. Those are performances above the average 
and thus worthy of being chronicled here. Druid is 
a muscular, compact dog weighing 561b. 

Somewhat at random, I have mentioned the most 
famous breeders and their famous dogs in order to 
show that the pointer, in all its excellence, is a 
common commodity, although a valuable one with 
us. His pedigree is rigorously kept in the stud 
books, and his performances in the spring are 
studiously repeated in the columns of the Field, 
and to give the names of all the best dogs 
that have appeared during the past twenty years 
would be but repetition, and a difficult thing to 
accomplish satisfactorily. Prince Solms, at Braun- 
fels, in Prussia, has, at one time or another had 



The Pointer. 53 



English pointers equal to the best that have remained 
in this country, and the writer will never forget the 
excellent work his brace, Naso of Kippen and Jilt of 
Braunfels, did on the dry fallow field near Shrewsbury 
in 1885, a * a ti me when every one had come to the 
conclusion that there was no scent. 

With the establishment of the Pointer Club, in 
1887, a special Field Trial Meeting was annually 
held by its managers, and special prizes were offered 
by the Club for competition at the principal shows. 
Somehow or other the later meetings of the Pointer 
Club which had been held in the vicinity of Wrexham 
were not very successful, and in the end the club was 
allowed to lapse. From its ashes, as it were, sprung 
the International Pointer and Setter Association, 
which has for its object the improvement of both 
varieties, so far as work and appearance are 
concerned, the former especially. It was success- 
fully inaugurated by an autumn field trial meeting 
over grouse in 1895, which was continued in 1896, 
and will go on in the future, when it is hoped its 
International surroundings will be intensified by a 
meeting to be held on the continent. Without 
doubt the support given by the club in the first 
instance, and by the International Club later, has 
been of great advantage to the pointer from all 
points of view, and notwithstanding modern changes 



54 Modern Dogs. 



and prevailing fashion in shooting, there is little 
likelihood of the star of the modern pointer being 
eclipsed in the near future. 

As a sporting dog, the pointer can work as hard 
and as long as a setter ; on account of his smooth 
coat, he does this in hot weather better than any 
other dog, and is not so soon knocked up, through 
want of water, as the setter is. There is no reason 
to compare the varied excellences of the two 
varieties, for here it may be said " Jack is as good 
as his master." One day, one may do the best 
work ; another day, the others may excel ; both are 
sufficiently perfect in their way for modern require- 
ments, and there is, in reality, no ostensible reason 
for the preference of the one over the other, except- 
ing, as I have stated, where a scarcity of water is 
concerned. The two varieties are equal; with similar 
surroundings and in similar health there is nothing 
to choose between either, nor is there in staunchness. 
It has been said that the setter is less steady, more 
difficult to command, and not so easy to break as 
the pointer. Such is not so. 

There are strains of both that are equally wild and 
headstrong, and, as a matter of fact, such, when 
once brought under command, produce the most 
successful dogs as field trial winners ; and, when 
birds are scarce, and the extent of land to be worked 



The Pointer. 55 



over very extensive, they are the best dogs in the 
field for practical work. In a wet stormy country, 
where the climate is cold and chilly, the going 
rough and covert thick, the ordinary pointer may be 
at a discount, and he has been found to be so in 
some parts of Scotland, the Highlands and else- 
where ; but, excepting where the circumstances and 
surroundings are exceptional, our modern pointer will 
do all that is required of him ; work a long day, and 
come up the following one ready to do another, and 
to assist his master to fill the game bag. 

I consider the usual light colour of the pointer is to 
the advantage of the shooter, who can much more 
easily distinguish his dog against the dark outline of 
heather and bracken, when being used on the moors, 
and the idea that the birds better see a white 
coloured dog, and therefore do not lie so well to him, 
is altogether fallacious. Those who have shot 
over the wide expanses of Scottish moors or Irish 
mountains with free ranging dogs doing the work, 
will agree with me that the dark colour of many of 
the setters requires so much strain on the eyes 
to discern them at even comparatively short dis- 
tances, as to interfere with the average of the 
shooter. 

Before entering at length into his description it 
may be as well to state that the classes at the 



56 Modern Dogs. 



more important shows are arranged to meet his 
different sizes, for the pointer varies in this respect 
more than any other sporting dog. Such classifica- 
tion is usually for "large-sized" dogs 551b. weight 
and over, and bitches 5olb. weight and over ; the 
11 small size" including dogs under 551b- weight, and 
bitches under 5olb. in weight. 

The pointer is an elegantly shaped dog, smooth in 
coat, which, though close and weather-resisting, 
ought not to be hard and coarse. In some strains 
there is a tendency to be rather coarse in the stern, 
which in reality is no detriment, though smooth and 
fine caudal appendages are fashionable. The latter 
is so much the case, that it is not unusual to find 
the tail trimmed by singeing or other means, until it 
resembles that of a bull terrier. Not long ago one 
of the prize pointers at Birmingham was so very 
much "done" that disqualification ought to have 
resulted. The stern, is nicely set on from the back, 
carried straight out, with a downward tendency 
rather than otherwise. A hound carried stern is a 
great detriment. In work it is dashed from side to 
side until the animal obtains " a point," when all the 
muscles are rigid. 

The head should be fairly long and broad at the 
skull, and at the muzzle without any undue tapering; 
where the latter occurs a "snipy" or narrow 



The Pointer. 57 



appearance is given that is not correct. The 
development at the occiput should be nicely 
defined, but not too much so ; there may be 
more stop than in the setter, and the head is 
generally rather shorter and broader than in the 
latter variety. Ears soft and hanging gracefully ; 
although set on moderately low, not so low as in 
the hound, nor should they fold, rather lying close 
to the cheeks. The nose broad, nostrils wide, and 
such as will give the impression of being particularly 
useful in finding game by scent. In lemon and 
white, orange and white, and in light coloured speci- 
mens generally, the nose should be of a so-called 
" flesh colour " ; in dark coloured specimens black 
noses are desirable. However, a dark brown or a 
liver coloured nose is often seen, and when in unison 
with the body markings of the dog is not objection- 
able. Eyes, pleasant in expression, dark in colour; 
pale lemon or " yellow gooseberry " coloured eyes 
are on the increase, and such are objectionable, 
ugly, and ought to be a severe handicap to the dog 
possessing them. They are certainly not a sign of 
amiability. The lips, should be square, and very 
slightly pendulous, or rather, less tight than those of 
a terrier. Neck well placed and free from throatiness 
in any part of it. As in all dogs good sloping 
shoulders are desirable. Chest deep, powerful, and 



$8 Modern Dogs. 



ribs nicely sprung behind and carried so to the loins, 
which ought to be strong and muscular. Stifles 
well turned and powerful, and generally the muscular 
development in the hind quarters must be great, for 
the work a pointer has to do is arduous. 

The fore legs and feet are important for a similar 
reason. The former strong, without being too 
massive and cumbersome ; elbows fairly well let 
down, but not turned out, neither ought they to be 
turned inwards, for when the latter is the case the 
dog is likely to be flat ribbed and have his fore legs 
set too closely together, like many of the modern 
fox terriers. The fore legs ought to be well set on, 
and if carried too far back are objectionable, as a 
chicken-breasted appearance is given ; and a dog so 
made cannot gallop. As to the feet, the Pointer 
Club has adopted " Stonehenge's" description, with 
which I quite agree. This is as follows : " Breeders 
have long disputed the comparatively good qualities 
of the round, cat-like foot, and the long one, 
resembling that of the hare. In the pointer, my own 
opinion is in favour of the cat-foot, with the toes 
well arched and close together. This is the desider- 
atum of the M.F.H., and, I think, stands work 
better than the hare foot, in which the toes are not 
arched, but still lie close together. In the setter, 
the greater amount of hair, to a certain extent, 



The Pointer. 59 



condones the inherent weakness of the hare foot ; 
but in the pointer no such superiority can be 
claimed. The main point, however, is the closeness 
of the pads combined with thickness of the horny 
covering." So far as hare feet are concerned, an 
ordinary foot of this description would be severely 
handicapped by modern judges, who persist in a 
hard, close, thick foot, which in reality is squarer 
and more angular than a round foot, but equally 
thick — even thicker. 

Shape and symmetry are something in every 
animal, especially in short-coated dogs. As to 
colour , it is a matter of fancy whether it be lemon 
or white or liver and white. Once the lemon 
and orange and whites were fashionable, now the 
liver and whites appear to be the more popular ; the 
paler lemon, with a tendency towards whiteness, is 
not good nor nice. Black and white pointers are 
handsome, and, possibly, were some breeders to 
introduce three or four perfect specimens on the 
show bench they might put the noses of the liver 
and whites out of joint. Liver and white heavily 
ticked is not a bad colour, but, as it nearly 
approaches whole colours, liver and black — because 
they are less easy to distinguish whilst being worked 
than the others — is not to be recommended, and, in 
the ring, ought to be handicapped accordingly. 



6o Modem Dogs. 



The best colours are liver and white, lemon and 
white, and black and white, bearing precedence as 
written. 

I should allot the points of the pointer as 
follows : — 



Value. 

Skull 10 

Muzzle 10 

Ears, eyes, and lips 10 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest 10 

Back, quarters, and stifles 10 

55 



Value. 
Legs, elbows, and hocks i o 

Feet 10 

Stern 5 

Symmetry and quality 15 
Colour and coat 5 



45 



Grand Total IOO. 



Perhaps I might be deemed guilty of a serious 
omission were I to overlook the fact that American 
and foreign admirers of the pointer have been more 
successful in producing good animals from stock 
obtained from us, than has been the case with others 
similarly situated, who have sought to breed St. 
Bernards, Setters, Spaniels, and any other variety of 
dog in perfection ; and more money has been spent 
on any of the latter than on the pointer. 

South Carolina produced a Beaufort, whose 
excellence as a show dog has never been gainsaid, 
and for whom that good judge, Mr. C. H. Mason, 
of New York, paid a very large sum of money. 
Count de Beauffort sent from Belgium Master 



The Pointer. 61 



Dan, who beat our cracks at the Kennel Club Show 
in 1889; Mr. G. Raper had Naso of Strasburg from 
Germany, a dog that, when in his prime, must at 
any rate have been as good as the best ; and other 
foreign bred pointers have on several occasions 
more than held their own at our usual field trial 
meetings. At the show of the Westminster Kennel 
Club, New York, held in February, 1897, anc ^ which 
in America holds a similar position to the Birming- 
ham and Kennel Club exhibitions here, there was 
an entry of upwards of one hundred pointers. The 
judge, Mr. George Raper, of Sheffield, pronounced 
them an excellent lot, and as a group quite equal to 
the best he has ever seen in Curzon Hall or at the 
Crystal Palace. The pointer appears to be the 
most popular " shooting dog" in the States, and, as 
already hinted, their admirers there have been more 
successful in breeding them up to the highest 
standard of excellence than is the case with the 
setter in any of his three varieties. 

Such dogs as have been brought from the con- 
tinent by M. Puissant, M. Drory, M. Caillard, M. 
Richards, M. Morreen and others, would come 
to the front anywhere, and the work of such dogs 
as Master of Merlebeke, Drake of Merbes, Ben- 
digo of Brussels, and Fly des Bordes will never be 
forgotten over here as creditable alike to their 



62 Modern Dogs. 



countries and to their trainers. It was in 1894 
when the last named, a son of old Paris, almost 
romped through the puppy stake at the National 
meeting, which will be recollected on account of 
its dampness, and in 1896 there was not a better 
puppy running at our English trials than Bendigo 
of Brussels. Nor does this short list by any means 
exhaust the names of the good dogs of the variety 
produced outside the British Isles, and maybe 
injustice is done to some by the omission of their 
names. 



* - . 

■4» -y\ 




CHAPTER II. 



THE SETTER. 



The setter has been called by his many admirers 
the handsomest of all varieties of our English sport- 
ing dogs, and whether he be rich red in colour, like 
the Irish strain j glossy black and tan, as the 
Gordon ; or gaudily blue and white, or orange and 
white, &s in the English race, there is no more beau- 
tiful dog seen in our fields or on the show bench. 
Other canine varieties are bigger, some, of course, 
are more diminutive; in temper he is excelled by 
none, and, so long as his kindly countenance is not 
disfigured by light yellow eyes and a heavy cumbrous 
dewlap, nothing in the way of live-stock can be 
handsomer than he. His intelligence and utility in 
the field and on the moor no one will gainsay ; so 
there is little wonder that his popularity has gradually 
but surely increased during the past quarter of a 
century. 

There was a time when the setter was unknown in 
this country by his present name, and this cannot 



64 Modem Dogs. 



have been at a far distant date. His old cognomen 
of spaniel still attaches to him in certain country 
districts remote from the railway, and in which 
old customs and old names die hard. Not long 
ago, whilst on a visit to Ireland, I repeatedly heard 
the modern setter dubbed a spaniel, and early in 
the present century the same dog was quite as 
often called a spaniel as not. " Kunopaedia, a 
practical essay on breaking and training the English 
spaniel and pointer/ ' by the late William Dobson, of 
Eden Hall, Cumberland, was published in 181 4, and 
in this, one of the earliest works of its kind specially 
devoted to breaking sporting dogs, the word spaniel 
must be read to mean setter. The instructions given 
throughout the work are those likely to be useful in 
training a dog to stand, point, and do his work 
according to the modern idea of excellence in his 
line. 

A history of the setter should, of course, commence 
at the very earliest portion of his career, but old 
writers are particularly silent on the point, even more 
so than when they have attempted to trace the rise 
and advent of other dogs, those used in the field for 
hunting, those trained to guard the flocks and 
the household, or others used as companions, as 
lap-dogs, for fancy and amusement alone. 

In Great Britain the domestic dog has for hundreds 



The Setter. 65 



of years been held in high estimation as a useful 
addition to the sporting equipage. From time 
immemorial almost has he been utilised for the pur- 
pose of hunting wild animals, both by scent and 
sight, but when a variety of his kind was first trained 
to "set," "couch," or "stand" the smell of game^ 
do so without going sufficiently near to alarm and 
disturb it, arid so afford the sportsman accompanied 
by such a dog an opportunity of killing such game 
with an arrow from his bow or taking it in his net, 
history is not very explicit.. H. D. Richardson, 
who, about forty years ago, wrote several little hand- 
books on country matters, including one about dogs, 
says that the spaniel was first broken to set 
partridges and other feathered game as an assistant 
to the net, by Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, in the 
year 1335. Whether this date be correct or not I 
cannot say, for the author does not say where he 
obtained his information. However, other writers, 
and perhaps more reliable ones, including Delabere 
Blaine (1840), say that "Robert Dudley, Duke of 
Northumberland, as early as 1555, is said to have 
trained a setter to the net j and that other authorities 
of antecedent dates notice the sitter, or setter, as a 
dog used for sporting purposes. It must not, there- 
fore, be concluded that the application of him by 
Dudley was his advent, although he might not until 

F 



66 Modern Dogs. 



then have been employed as " sitting or crouching 
to the game he found." 

That the spaniel was well known earlier than the 
middle of the sixteenth cpntury, and dogs of a 
certain kind were used for finding birds, under 
somewhat similar conditions as are observed to-day, 
long prior to the introduction of firearms, there is no 
doubt whatever. 

First of all, such dogs as spaniels were trained to 
find birds at which the falconer flew his hawks. 
Strutt, in his " Sports and Pastimes," quotes from a 
fourteenth century manuscript, written in the reign 
of Edward III., father of the Black Prince. This old 
writer and interesting antiquarian says the spaniel 
was of use in hawking, " hys crafte is for the 
perdrich, or partridge, and the quaile ; and when 
taught to couch he is very serviceable to those who 
take these birds with nets." This is the earliest 
allusion I can find of trained dogs so nearly 
approaching in their work the well broken setter 
and pointer of modern times. 

The spaniel must have been a steady, highly- 
trained dog even then, and this taking of game by 
nets is, in some localities, unfortunately, still prac- 
tised by the poacher, especially at night time, when 
a lighted lantern is fixed on the dog's back. The 
blaze enables the poacher to see his dog, which, 



The Setter. 67 



standing and drawing up to his game, when 
sufficiently close, comes to a full stop, and a net is 
drawn or cast over birds and dogs alike. Five 
hundred years ago there was some excuse for taking 
game by means of nets, but with modern firearms, 
breech-loading guns so quickly charged and emptied, 
the net ought to have disappeared entirely. Still, 
its use is now confined entirely to some few ill- 
conditioned, grasping hill farmers, or the more 
sportsman-like poacher. 

There is an engraving (of the early part of the 
fourteenth century) still preserved in the Royal 
Library which depicts two ladies and one attendant 
hawking. Here are two spaniels of that day, odd- 
looking creatures enough, with pendulous ears and 
long hound-like tails, evidently in the act of going 
carefully up to some game or other, and the attitude 
of the huntresses, with their hands raised and 
carefully poised, gives the idea that they are 
steadying their dogs with their ancient equivalent of 
"So ho ! careful, good dogs ! " The lady carrying 
her hawk on her hand is drawing the attention of 
her bird to the action of the dogs. 

An earlier MS. than this is illustrated by the 
figure of an archer in the act of shooting a bird on 
the wing. This is from the Saxon of about the 
eighth century ; the sportsman here is not accom- 

F 2 



The Setter. 



69 



inted of a gentle kind, and there be two sorts : 

trst findeth the game on the land, the other 

*th the game on the water. Such as delight on 

md play their parts either by swiftness of foot, 

\y often questing, to search out and to spying 

bird for further hope of advantage, or else by 

ie secret sign or privy token betray the place 

they fall. 
The first kind of such serve the hawk, the 
►nd the net or train. The first kind have no 
ticular names assigned them, so only that they be 
>minated after the bird which by natural appoint- 
it he is allotted to take. Thus, some be called 
for the falcon, some for the pheasant, some for 
partridge, and such like. 
"The common sort of people call them by one 
jral word, namely, ' spaniells/ as though these 
of dogs came originally and first out of Spain. 
te most part of their skins are white, and if they 
marked with any spots, they are commonly red 
.nd somewhat great, the hairs not growing with such 
lickness but that the mixture may be easily 
•.■rceived. Others be reddish or blackish, but of 
»at sort there are but few. There is also at this 
ay a new kind of dog brought out of France (for we 
nglishmen are marvellous greedy, gaping gluttons 
iter novelties, and covetous cormorants of things 



70 Modem Dogs. 



that be seldom, rare, strange, and hard to get) and 
they be speckled all over with white and black, 
which mingled colours incline to a marble blue, which 
beautifyeth their skin and affordeth a seemly show 
of comeliness. These are called French dogs, as 
is above declared already. 

" The dog called the Setter, in Latin Index. — 
Another sort of dog there be serviceable for fowling, 
making no noise either with foot or tongue whilst 
they follow the game. These attend diligently upon 
their masters, and frame their conditions to such 
becks, motions, and gestures as it shall please him 
to exhibit and make, either going forward, drawing 
backward, inclining right hand or yielding to the 
left. In making mention of fowl my meaning here 
is of partridge and quail. When he hath found the 
bird he keepeth sure and fast silence, and stayeth 
his steps and will proceed no further, and with close, 
covert, watching eye, layeth his belly to the ground 
and so creepeth forward like a worm. When he 
approacheth near to the place where the bird is, he 
lays down, and with a mark of his paws betrayeth 
the place of the bird's last abode, whereby it is 
supposed that this kind of dog is called Index 
— setter, being, indeed, a name both consonant and 
agreeable with his quality. " 

Caius then proceeds to tell how the fowler ensnares 



The Setter. 71 



the birds in his net, and he does not look upon the 
performance as very extraordinary, for such a dog 
is a " household servant, brought up at home, 
with offals and the trenchers and fragments of 
victuals;" and a hare, "a wild and skippert beast, 
has been trained to dance a measure, play upon a 
tabbaret, and nip and punch a dog with her teeth 
and claws." This performing hare Dr. Caius saw 
in the year 1564. 

There is no mention of shooting birds over such 
dogs, but in a later chapter, when writing of the 
water spaniel, our author alludes to him as useful in 
bringing back the boults and arrows that have 
missed their mark [game], and also such water fowl 
as be stung to death by any venomous worm. 

Although Caius uses the words index and setter in 
application to a dog used in a manner very similar 
to that in which he performs his duty at the present 
day, his tone of writing conveys the idea that such a 
dog was not generally known in his time. Still 
there were certainly setters in the sixteenth century, 
and I very much regret Caius did not give us a 
picture of one " crawling along the ground like a 



worm." 



As he did not, a search elsewhere must be made 
for an illustration, and this I found, and bearing an 
earlier date than the year when Caius first wrote his 



72 Modern Dogs. 



little book. In the summer of i8qi an exhibition of 
" Sport illustrated by Art," was held in the Grosvenor 
Gallery, London, and here were hung a large number 
of most valuable subjects of the painter's art. To 
me there were few so interesting as a canvas upon 
which was painted one of the many delineations of 
the patron saint of hunting, St. Hubert, by Albrecht 
Diirer, the great painter, who died in 1528. In one 
corner of the picture was a black tan and white 
setter extraordinary in its resemblance to many of 
the modern stamp. Indeed, so perfect was the like- 
ness that one was tempted to look and re-look at the 
picture until the wonder was aroused where the 
painter obtained his model from which he made the 
sketch, or whether this modern setter on an ancient 
canvas was an emanation from his own brain. The 
head, coat, ears, character, and colour of the dog 
were all there, a typical specimen of the modern 
English setter in black, white, and tan — a dog similar 
in all other respects, but higher on the leg and not 
so massive and inclined to the spaniel type as that 
excellent tri-colour dog shown by Mr J. B. Cockerton, 
and winning recently under the name of Royal Rap. 
Albrecht Diirer was a Flemish painter. Had he 
been from Spain, I might have taken his production 
as some sort of evidence that our spaniel or setter 
did originally come from Spain. All authorities say 



The Setter. 73 



so, but produce no proof of the fact. The country 
of bull-fights appears to have been generally a happy 
hunting-ground for the discovery of valued strains of 
the dog, for, it has been said, the bull-dog had its 
origin there. One English admirer of the latter 
actually took a journey into Spain for the purpose of 
bringing back new blood of pure bulldog race, with 
which to cross and improve what he considered the 
degenerating bulldog of Great Britain ! John Bull 
allowing \nsjidus Achates to degenerate ! What an 
idea ! I may say en passant that the big, vulgar 
Spanish dog, with his ears shorn off, that was 
imported, did not improve our native breed, nor has 
our British bulldog degenerated in the manner 
suggested. Even now, as in the day of Johannes 
Caius, we like something foreign in the form of dog 
flesh, and to Spain have we likewise flown for a 
coarse pointer ; to France for poodles ; to Holland 
for pugs ; and to the north of Europe and China for 
ladies' pets and toy dogs. 

Before leaving the subject of old painters and 
setters, allusion must be made to a picture by 
Alexander Desportes, a French artist of great skill, 
to whom allusion has previously been made. 

He was expressly employed at the court of Louis 
XIV. as historiographer of the chase, a» position 
which his abilities enabled him to fulfil much to the 



74 Modern Dogs. 



satisfaction of his royal master. The painting in 
question is one of dogs and partridges. There are 
three of the former, two of them evidently setters 
and one of them pointing a covey, with one foot 
forward, is very much like the dog painted by 
Diirer, and already mentioned — namely, a black, tan, 
and white flecked animal, of quite the modern setter 
type. Another dog, on the point, is black and 
white, and a setter; whilst the third, also black 
and white, might be a cross between pointer and 
setter. Anyhow, the latter is much smoother in 
coat than either of its companions. I think no more 
evidence than the above pictures by great artists, 
need be given to convince those who may be 
interested in the matter and still doubtful, that the 
setter is not quite so modern a creature as some 
writers would have us suppose. At any rate, we 
have substantial proof that a dog remarkably similar, 
if not actually identical, with our modern English 
setter, was known as early as the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. 

There are many other paintings of sporting 
scenes and accessories that include dogs of some 
kind or other ; but the writer has not met with any 
so old as those already alluded to where the artist 
has so nearly delineated the English setter of the 
present day. 



The Setter. 75 



Aldrovandus, who died in 1607, had written an 
immense work on Natural History, a portion of which 
was published posthumously. Amongst other sub- 
jects, he wrote about dogs, but, his history being in 
Latin, and somewhat scarce, a reference thereto 
has not always been attainable. He illustrates two 
varieties of what are called the Spanish dogs, and 
one of them is described as having " pendulous ears, 
chest and belly white, with black spots, the rest of 
the body black." The engraving accompanying 
this description is an odd-looking creature, one that 
might by courtesy be considered a bad spaniel. 
The stern is setter-like in length, but carried gaily 
over the back. The ears are very long, set high on 
the head, and there is a fair amount of feather and 
coat both on them, on the body, and on the legs. 
Aldrovandus's second specimen is a rather bigger 
dog than the other, and the colour might be black 
and white. Here the ears are not so long, and 
generally this illustration is more of the setter than 
the one first named. 

Strangely enough, this great historian, who bore a 
reputation for extreme reliability, gives us a third 
sporting dog of somewhat similar variety. This he 
describes as " a spotted dog used for taking quail." 
It has evidently had its tail amputated, or maybe it 
is a natural " bob-tail " some people are so fond of 



76 Modern Dogs. 



telling us about. In any case, whether the curtail- 
ment was natural or artificial, here is a bob-tailed 
dog, spotted almost as much as a Dalmatian or 
coach dog, in the act of flushing a bird. Unfortu- 
nately, Ulysses Aldrovandus does not tell us much 
about these dogs, but it is interesting to mention 
them here as early specimens of the dog from 
Spain, from whence it is said our modern races of 
setters and spaniels are derived. But when they 
came from that peninsula, or who introduced them 
eastward into the countries where they are now 
common, there is no record. 

Then Conrad Gesner, whom dear old I zaak Walton 
was so fond of quoting, tells us something about 
dogs, but not much. Born at Zurich in 1516, he 
died of the plague in 1565, and between these two 
dates he wrote his chief work, " Historiae Animalium," 
a volume that obtained for him the name ot the 
Pliny of Germany. Gesner says there were two 
sorts ot dogs that follow their masters, who use a 
small firearm {minor bombarda) for the purpose of 
taking fowl. He, however, only alludes to them 
as bringing birds to their masters ; but naturally 
education in the art of retrieving would follow that 
of finding the birds. So there is little doubt that 
these sixteenth century dogs that Gesner wrote 
about, not only found the game, but brought it to 



The Setter. 77 



their masters when shot, just as a well-trained dog 
of the present day would do. 

Firearms and gunpowder had been introduced long 
prior to this, and, although the earliest guns were 
big cumbrous weapons that had to be fired from a 
rest, tubes for firing gunpowder from the shoulder 
were introduced into England about 1440. From 
this date until approaching the middle of the follow- 
ing century appears an extraordinarily long period 
for the development of the firearm from an implement 
of warfare to one for sporting purposes. We must 
not, however, forget that in these early days of fire- 
arms, the wounds caused by them were almost always 
fatal, possibly not so much on account of the nature 
of the wound, but because the surgical treatment at 
that time was of an unskilful character. Such being 
the case, those whose pleasure it was to kill birds or 
other creatures would not care to do so with either a 
" minor bombarda " or a " scorpion " — the latter a 
name given to the first shoulder firearm used in this 
country — for the flesh would be considered more or 
less contaminated by the influence of the missile 
used, so rendered less fitted for the cook to dress 
up for her noble master's repast. 

This appears to me a reasonable conjecture for 
the slow progress made at this time in the 
popularisation of the firearm as an implement for the 



78 Modern Dogs. 



sportsman. Besides, the latter would be the more 
proficient with the bow, for the " scorpion " was but 
a sorry article with which to take aim, and the 
priming of the guns was something of a job to do. 
There were no flints then, and percussion caps had 
not even been thought of. As a fact, so recently as 
the end of the eighteenth century — viz., in 1792, a 
match was made and shot at Parton Green, in 
Cumberland, in which the merits of a musket, a 
brown Bess, were tested at a mark against a bow 
and arrow. The latter came out victorious in the 
contest, scoring sixteen hits out of twenty shots 
at 100 yards to twelve hits made by the supposed to 
be deadlier firearm. Looking back upon a match of 
this kind, one cannot help forming an opinion that 
the result was not because the bow .and arrow were 
superior to the old brown Bess, but was solely owing 
to the lack of skill possessed by the handler of the 
musket. 

When the prejudices against the new weapon 
had worn themselves out, no doubt its popularity 
increased apace. The Game Laws on the conti- 
nent being less stringent than in England in 1555, it 
became necessary to have some legislation whereby 
the use of firearms should be restricted. Then we 
have the Elector of Saxony at that time issuing an 
order prohibiting the use of them excepting under 



The Setter. 79 



certain conditions, and this because " the carrying 
of firearms had become so general in our dominions, 
that not only travellers but shepherds and peasants 
used them." Shot of some kind was known at that 
time, but not the well regulated pellets that came in 
somewhat later, and are used even to-day. In 
Mecklenberg in 1562 a Government regulation pro- 
hibited the use "of hail shot entirely and absolutely." 
The dogs, too, would require to be particularly 
staunch, for they would have to remain standing 
and quiet during the time their masters were 
taking aim at the quail or partridge, or the more 
timid hare. 

Some time after this James I. was reigning in 
England, and no doubt he with " his shuffling trot 
and his jerkin" would be giving some attention to 
the dogs of the field, for was he not one of our most 
sporting kings ? though he did not love the weed 
tobacco. His Majesty took his dogs out with him 
on his favourite hawking expeditions, and they 
couched to and flushed the game at which the 
peregrine falcon and the goshawk were flown. One 
would have expected to find something relating to 
dogs of the field in the King's " Book of Sports," but 
the pastimes mentioned therein, do not include game 
shooting, nor was it likely that his Majesty would 
deem an amusement of this kind fitted for the 



8o Modern Dogs. 



Sabbath day. It was in James's reign that the 
franchise was raised so far as the keeping of 
" hounds or setting dogs " was concerned, and unless 
qualified through himself or wife, as the owner of 
land to the value of ^ioper annum (or ^30 per 
annum if only of life interest) no man was allowed to 
keep such dogs, under severe laws and penalties. 
The son of a knight or lord or the son and heir 
apparent of an esquire was exempt. After various 
changes the qualification was again raised, this was 
in Charles II. reign, when a new Act raised the 
franchise to j£ioo a year landed income of self or 
wife, or ^150 a year in life interest or lease of 
ninety-nine years. A " son or heir apparent of an 
esquire, or other person of higher degree," was also 
qualified to keep sporting dogs and engines of chase, 
as scheduled in the Act, and no one else. 

The next stage was the introduction of the "game 
certificate " of three guineas a year, payable to the 
Revenue (25 Geo. III., c. 50). But this certificate, 
though required to qualify, was not in lieu of the 
property and birth qualification of Charles II. 
statute, but superadded to it. The cost of a 
gamekeeper's licence under this Act was one guinea. 
The property qualification finally lapsed as to Eng- 
land and Scotland in the reign of William IV., and 
from the enactment then brought into force, no 



The Setter. 81 



material change has since been made, excepting so 
far as certain excise arrangements and other modifi- 
cations are concerned. It may be said here that in 
the reign of Richard II. the property qualification 
for killing game was first enforced, and that before 
then the leave of the owner of the soil was the only 
qualification required to kill game. 

The early writers on sport, the " Stonehenges " of 
the seventeenth century, all allude in pretty much 
the same terms to the setter, and Gervase Markham, 
in his chief work with the odd title " Hunger's Pre- 
vention, or the Art of Fowling" (1655), describes 
what a " Setting dog" should be to be perfect in the 
eyes of the sportsman of his time. Markham says : 

" A setting dogge is a certaine lusty land spannell 
taught by nature to hunt the partridges before and 
more than any other chase whatsoever, and that with 
all eagernesse and fiercenesse, running the fields 
over so lustily and busily as if there were no limit in 
his desire and furie ; yet so qualified and tempered 
with art and obedience, that when he is in the 
greatest and eagerest pursute, and seems to be most 
wilde and frantike, that even thus one hem or sound 
of his master's voyce makes him presently stand, 
gaze about him, and looke in his master's face taking 
all directions from it whether to procede, stand still, 
or retire. Nay, even when he has come to the very 

G 



82 Modern Dogs. 



place where his prey is, and hath, as it were, his nose 
over it, so that it seems he may take it up at his own 
pleasure, yet is his temperance and obedience so 
made and framed by arte that presently, even on a 
sudden, he either stands still or falles down flatte 
upon his bellie, without daring once to open his 
mouth, or make any noise or motion at all, till that 
his master come unto him, and thus proceedes in 
all things according to his directions and command- 
ments. " 

This extract is somewhat interesting, if a little 
complicated, and without any further reference to 
the " has beens " of the setter, we must break into 
more modern days, when he is divided into three 
divisions — the English, Irish, and Gordon or black 
and tan varieties, and the former will have the 
preference. 

Until well into the present century the setter was 
not so commonly used as an adjunct to the gun as 
the pointer, and even the writer of the article in the 
" Sportsman's Cabinet " said that at that time (1803) 
it was oftener used for the purpose of finding par- 
tridges to be taken with nets than otherwise. It 
had been trained to drop on point, and thus more 
readily was the net dragged over him and the 
birds encircled in its meshes. But he was highly 
valued as a sporting dog long before this, and there 



The Setter. 83 



is extant a copy of a bond, dated October 7th, 1685, 
which carefully specifies the particulars of a contract 
for training a dog. This is as follows : 

" Ribberford, Oct. 7, 1685. 

il I, John Harris, of Welldon, in the parish of 
Hartlebury, in the county of Worcester, yeoman, for 
and in consideration of two shillings of lawful English 
money, this day received of Henry Herbert, of 
Ribberford, in the same county, Esq., and of thirty 
shillings more of like money, I have promised to be 
hereafter paid me, do hereby covenant and promise 
to and with the said Henry Herbert, his exhors. and 
admors., that I will from the day of the date hereof 
until the first day of March next, well and sufficiently 
maintain and keep a spanill bitch named Quand this 
day delivered into my custody by the said Henry 
Herbert, and will, before the said first day of March 
next, fully and effectively train up and teach the said 
bitch to sitt partrages, pheasants, and other game, 
as well and exactly as the best sitting dogges usually 
sitt the same. And the same bitch, so trained and 
taught, shall and will deliver to the said Henry 
Herbert, or whom he shall appoint to receive her at 
her home at Ribberford aforesaid, on the first day of 
March next. And if at any time after the said 
bitch shall, for want of use and practice, or orwise- 

G 2 



84 Modern Dogs. 



forget to sett game as aforesaid, I will at my cost 
and charges maynetayne her for a month or longer, 
as often as need shall require, to trayne up and teach 
her to sett game as aforesaid, and shall and will 
fully and effectually teach her to sett game as well 
and exactly as is above mentoyned. 

" John Harris, x his mark." 

The above is, doubtless, one of the earliest re- 
corded agreements to be found relating to the 
training of a sporting dog, and as such is worth 
reproduction here, especially as it evidently applies 
to the setter of that time, then known as the spaniel. 

The varieties, as we have them now, came to be 
separated from each other much later, but all must 
have originally sprung from the smaller and shorter 
legged dogs — the spaniels. I consider it unfortunate 
that there is so little information extant as to the 
early history of the setter. What there is I have 
endeavoured to compress into suitable shape and 
form, and, perhaps, from the three following chapters, 
those readerf who are interested in the subject will 
be able to obtain some idea as to the period when 
the ordinary setter came to be divided into the three 
distinct races, as he is found at the present day. 



I . 



* i ; 



1 ? 



r 



a 



r 



a> 



CHAPTER III. 

THE ENGLISH SETTER. 

Without doubt, to the late Mr. Edward Laverack, 
who died in April, 1877, the present generation is 
indebted for the excellence of the setter, both in 
form and work, as he is found to-day, and, with few 
exceptions, the very best dogs are actual descendants 
of the Laverack strain. That there is, however, 
such a thing as a " pure Laverack" to be found 
now in 1 892 I very much dispute. The best strains 
have a cross or two cropping in somewhere or other. 
Mr. R. L. Purcell Llewellin, to whom Mr. Laverack 
dedicated his volume on the setter, claims a strain 
of his own, which perhaps has been more successful 
than any other, both in the field and on the show 
bench. Mr. Llewellin has, however, kept it very 
much to himself, so the continuation of the general 
improvement, at any rate in appearance, of this 
dog, has been due to another source. This is 
from the kennel of Mr. James B. Cockerton, of 



86 Modern Dogs. 



Ravensbarrow Lodge, North Lancashire, who, in 
reality, had his first setter from Mr. Laverack. 

It appears that some forty-five years or more ago, 
the author of " The Setter" was in the habit of 
going inta the neighbourhood of Mr. Cockerton's 
residence to shoot during September, and he left 
behind him, with the uncle of the latter (Mr. Myles 
Birket, Birket Houses, Winster), one or two setters, 
from which the present strain has, with the aid of 
slight infusions of other strains, been continued with 
extraordinary success. Thus they are more or less 
inter-bred, and resist very much the introduction of 
new blood. This, Mr. Cockerton has repeatedly 
found to be the case, he having on several occasions 
introduced a fresh strain by the purchase of a Stud 
dog. In no instance has the progeny answered 
expectations. They were destroyed, and their sire 
came to a similar end. Later he tried a well-known 
field trial winner, Dr. Wood's Fred W., of great excel- 
lence in the field, and by no means indifferent in 
appearance. The result, however, did not turn out 
any more satisfactorily than previous off-crosses had 
done. 

However, to the origin of the " Laverocks." We 
are told that Mr. Laverack first obtained his strain 
from the Rev. A. Harrison, who resided near Carlisle, 
and he informs us in his book, published in 1872 



The English Setter. 87 



when he was seventy-three years of age, that he had 
been breeding setters for fifty years. His first fancy 
for them must have been well on to seventy years 
ago. At that time, and for long after, the pedigrees 
of dogs were of little value, and, so long as the strain 
was good for work, and not bad to look at, people did 
not care a jot what the blood was. Mr. Laverack, 
however, had found that he could, by a few genera- 
tions of judicious crossing, breed setters more true 
to type than others had done. 

He was a sportsman, spent most of his time in 
shooting and in sub-letting shootings, travelled 
much in Scotland and the North of England, and so 
became acquainted with the various strains of setters 
then extant. Two or three years before his death 
the present writer repeatedly met Mr. Laverack, and 
a mutual admiration of the dog led to a considerable 
interchange of ideas on the subject, and on setters 
in particular. Although he would never acknowledge 
any cross from the original Old Moll and Ponto, 
which he had obtained from Mr. Harrison in 1825, I 
am not quite certain such was not tried. There 
were strains in the North of England that he valued 
highly, and which, no doubt, he would find useful 
for the purpose of putting vigour and size into his 
puppies, for it is a little against nature to produce in 
so short a time such good dogs as he owned by 



88 Modern Dogs. 



breeding from brothers and sisters, as he did with 
Dash I. and Belle — the one a black and white, the 
other an orange and white. However, the pedigrees 
of Dash II. and Moll III. — the latter black, white, and 
tan, both great, great grandchildren of the original 
brace — are fully set out in his book, and, of course, 
cannot be gainsaid. It is, however, strange that the 
black, tan, and whites, and the liver and whites, of 
the same 4< pure " strains did not come out until the 
later generations, nor, until actually pressed upon 
the point, did he acknowledge that a liver and white 
puppy was the genuine article. 

His friend Rothwell, who had the use of the 
best Laveracks for breeding purposes, wrote him 
that one of his puppies was liver and white. To 
this a reply came to the effect that it was all 
right, and that the colour came back from a 
strain of the " Edmond Castle " breed, Cumberland, 
which he had introduced about thirty years before ! 
Rather a peculiar period for a cross to remain in 
abeyance before it came out, and which no scientist 
would believe possible. It is extremely likely that, 
up to a comparatively late date, Mr. Laverack 
crossed with the Cumberland and Northumberland 
dogs, most of which were liver and white ; and so 
we have that colour in the setter to this day, and 
there it will remain. Twenty years or more ago I 



The English Setter. 89 

saw several of these liver and white dogs that had 
more than a tendency to the top knot, which was a 
prevailing feature with the Naworth Castle strain, 
and in another which the late Major Cowen kept 
at Blaydon Burn, near Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Whatever crosses may have been used by Mr 
Laverack, or by his friends, there is no doubt that 
such proved extremely useful, and have been the 
means of fully establishing the strain on a sound 
and substantial basis. In his own kennel, towards 
the close of his career, Mr. Laverack was not 
fortunate in rearing his puppies, and at the time of 
his death there were but five setters in his actual 
possession. These were Blue Prince, Blue Rock, 
Cora (lemon and white), Blue Belle, and Nellie or 
Blue Cora. The two latter were own sisters, and 
Mr. Laverack's housekeeper sold Prince, Belle, and 
another to Mr. T. B. Bowers for about 100/. The 
remaining brace ultimately went to Mr. J. R. Robin- 
son, of Sunderland, who held a kind of partnership 
with the late Mr. Laverack, and had laid claim to 
the whole of the kennel ; but the three dogs Mr. 
Bowers bought were sold even before poor Laverack 
was laid in his grave near the quiet little church at 
Ash, not far from Whitchurch. The Kennel Club 
Stud Books tell us how the blood of these setters 
has been disseminated since that time. 



! 



90 Modern Dogs. 



Mr. Laverack claimed for his dogs excellence all 
round in the field, and unusual stamina; indeed, 
he talked to me of working them ten, twelve, and 
fourteen hours a day for a fortnight. That they were 
good dogs goes without saying; but " Stonehenge" 
did not care about their work in the early days of 
Field Trials, for he said they had not good noses, 
carried their heads low, and were lacking that fine 
tail action that he so much valued either in pointer 
or setter. 

As a show dog, Mr. Laverack's Dash II., better 
known, perhaps, as old Blue Dash, was a typical 
specimen; and from, say, 1869 to 1872, was, perhaps, 
the best setter appearing on the bench. He had size 
bone, coat, and general symmetry to commend him, 
though his shoulders were rather upright and his neck 
not quite of the best, whilst his appearance would 
certainly have been smarter had he been cleaner 
cut under the throat. He was good enough to 
win at Birmingham, the Crystal Palace, and else- 
where, and in looks was far the best dog that I ever 
saw in his owner's possession. Another beautiful 
setter of Laverack's early strain was Mr. Dickon's 
Belle, and, it was said, equally excellent in the 
field and the show ring. So far as field trial dogs 
are concerned, Mr. Laverack mentions Mr. Garth's 
Daisy and Mr. Purcell Llewellin's Countess as 



The English Setter. 91 

the best ; but, although both were fast, very fast, 
the one had but a moderate nose and the other was 
said to be somewhat addicted to false pointing. 
Both were alluded to in the reports of the trials 
where they competed as possessing the above faults, 
which Mr. J. H. Walsh considered to arise from 
in-breeding. 

Allusion must be made to Mr. Llewellin' s Dan, 
Novel, Bondhu, Dash III., Count Wind'em ; and Mr. 
Field's Bruce, and to Lord Downe's Sam, who also 
went into the Llewellin kennels ; Armstrong's Old 
Kate was extremely useful as a brood bitch to that 
family of skilled dog trainers ; to Mr. S. E. Shirley's 
Rock, who, perhaps, won more bench prizes than 
any other setter ; to Mr. Barclay Field's Duke, a 
great field trial winner in 1866 and 1867 ; to Mr. 
T. B. Bowers' Frank, the handsomest orange and 
white setter of that time ; to Mr. Armstrong's 
Dash, sold to Mr. Brewis, Mr. G. Lowes' Tarn o' 
Shanter ; Mr. T. Cunnington's Sir Alister ; and 
many other celebrities in their day might likewise be 
mentioned. Mr. Llewellin purchased Dan from 
Mr. T. Statter at the Shrewsbury trials in 1871, 
where he won the two stakes in which he competed 
and the extra prize for the best dog at that gather- 
ing. Dan owing to dislocating his shoulders never 
appeared in public afterwards but proved extremely 



1 



92 Modern Dogs. 



useful in the kennel which so long remained his 
home. 

Some of these improved Laveracks are not now 
so successful at the field trial meetings as they 
ought to be ; but whether this arises rather from 
the lack of opportunity or from other causes it 
is difficult to say. As a fact, those persons who 
own the handsome dogs, mostly of the Laverack 
strain, that win on the show bench, clo not, as 
a rule, train them for field trial work. This has 
been noticed to such an extent as to draw forth 
the remark that the field trial dog and the show 
dog are two distinct articles. I am of opinion 
that the absence of the show dog from the public 
field arises from the fact that he has not been 
afforded training opportunities and not from natural 
unfitness. Of course there are good and bad 
dogs of all strains, and it is not every dog, even 
from the best of parents that ever worked at 
a trial, that will come forward creditably in a 
similar position, and I am certain that, did Mr. 
Cockerton, already alluded to, enter his dogs for 
field trial work as Mr. Llewellin and others do 
theirs, the former would give quite as good an 
account of themselves as the others. 

Monk of Furness, one of the show strain and a 
bench champion, was as good a dog in the field as 



The English Setter. 93 

ever ran, and at times, says Nicholson, who trained 
him at Ercall Heath, near Market Drayton, had done 
better work than any other in his kennel. He per- 
formed creditably at the National Trials, though it 
was not one of his best days. He, however, was the 
sire of Mr. Nicholson's Master Sam, Mr. F. Lowe's 
little bitch, Nun of Kippen, and Mr. T. Lauder's 
Sweep the Green, whose public work was quite as 
good as any one need wish to see. Monk of Furness 
was sold to go to Canada for 230/. 

Few of these show dogs are, as I have hinted, put 
into proper hands to bring out their working powers, 
hence, what may be called, the cross-bred dogs do 
best. Of these, the liver and whites appear to excel 
all others, especially some of those that had Baron 
Doveridge for sire. He was bred by Lord Water- 
park, was by Fred V. from Rue by Drake — Rival ; 
Fred, by Blue Prince — Dicken's Belle; thus com- 
bining two distinct strains. 

These are by no means handsome dogs, but they 
never appear to tire, have good noses, and are always 
on the look out for game. The late Mr. Heywood- 
Lonsdale's Woodhill Bruce and his sister Woodhill 
Beta I have seen run trials that could not well have 
been excelled ; and both Mr. F. Lowe and Mr. F. 
Warde have had liver and white dogs of the same 
strains that did excellent work, Trip of Kippen not 



94 Modem Dogs. 



only running well as a puppy, but when an old 
dog it took some luck and a better animal to beat 
him. These dogs are, however, difficult to train, 
for as puppies they are very fast and terribly wild 
and headstrong. When once finished it is not easy 
to find their superiors. Mr. Johnson's Pitti Sing, 
purchased at Aldridge's in 1888, was of this strain, 
and she ran second in a stake in which each trial 
had to last four hours, and this competition took 
place in North Carolina. She ran three such trials, 
and only lost because she was not trained to 
retrieve, which all American and Canadian shooting 
dogs are expected to be. 

At the National Trials in 1892 Colonel Cotes ran 
a puppy called Dash, which was the result of the 
first cross between a Gordon Setter of Lord Cawdor's 
strain and an English setter. It performed very 
well, indeed ; so well, in fact, as to win the stake, 
and make one believe that a combination of the 
strains would lead to working animals that would 
probably have no superior. However the later or a 
continuation of the cross was not successful, and I 
believe Colonel Cotes did not persevere with it 
further. This dog had a fine nose, carried his head 
well, quartered his ground beautifully, and appeared 
to be persevering throughout, his natural qualities 
being good ; and I take it that in the latter most 



The English Setter. 95 

important attributes " Stonehenge " considered the 
early Laveracks deficient. I do not think those 
that I have seen run from Mr. Llewellin's kennels of 
recent years are to be found fault with either as 
regards their pace or other capabilities. I fancy it 
was in 1889 that a nine months' old puppy of Mr. 
Llewellin's was entered at the National Trials, when 
he ran over a rough fallow, and by no means a level 
one either, in such a perfect, natural style, and at 
such a pace that I with others thought the stake at 
his mercy. However some trivial fault later on put 
him out of court. 

Some years before this there was a much lauded 
setter called Ranger, whose pace and nose were 
such as to make him almost invincible. Unfor- 
tunately, I never saw him run, and have heard so 
many different opinions as to his merits that I can 
say very little upon the subject. He was an un- 
certain dog, but, this notwithstanding, he must be 
included with the dogs of his time — such as Count 
Wind'em, Phantom, Drake, Dash II., and Belle; with 
Countess and Nellie, who, at the Vaynol trials, in 
1872, ran so well as a brace that they were given 
by the judges the full hundred points — as near the 
head of his race, and it has been said of him that 
when in the humour he was " as steady and de- 
pendable as a steam locomotive." During Ranger's 



g6 Modern Dogs. 



career from 1873 to 1877 he won seven stakes and 
special prizes, and, if at times his work was not 
quite perfect, he, in the opinion of the judges, 
usually made up for some little delinquency by 
finding and standing birds in an extraordinary and 
brilliant manner. Ranger was a plain-looking — 
indeed, an ugly little dog, white with black and 
slight tan marks. He was bred by Mr. Macdona 
from his Judy by Paul Hacked:' s Rake — Calver's 
Countess; his sire being Quince II. by Jones' 
Quince I. — Lort's Dip. 

An interesting trial would, no doubt, have been 
fought could he have been brought against Dr. 
Wood's lemon and white Fred W. who proved him- 
self one of the best field trial dogs of more recent 
years. Unfortunately, Fred had not a long reign, 
flourishing, as our history would say, between 1891- 
92, both dates inclusive. Bred by Mr. T. Webber, 
of Falmouth, in August, 1886, Fred W. was by 
Prince W.— Moll W. ; Prince bv Sam IV.— Moll 
III.; Sam by young Rollick — Nell; but Fred W's. 
dam does not appear in the stud books. He was a 
lemon and white ticked dog, well made and sym- 
metrical, but scarcely up to high-class show form in 
appearance, his head being more characteristic of 
the Irish rather than of the English setter. Fred W. 
made his mark as a Field Trial dog, and perhaps on 



The English Setter. 97 

all points had never many superiors ; although, on 
his first appearance in 1890, he was put out of the 
aged competition at the National Trials because he 
failed to back, and Mr. Llewellin's Satin Bondhu 
won the stake. The latter, if not quite so fast as 
Fred W. had shown a better nose by finding birds 
the scent of which Dr. Wood's dog failed to hit, 
though the latter was well in front at the time. As 
is the case with almost all fast dogs, this failing to 
back was, at any rate in the early portion of his 
career, Fred W.'s chief defect. He won four stakes 
outright, the special cup on two occasions, once he 
was placed third only, when without injustice he 
should have been second, and on two other occasions 
he owed defeat to his unwillingness to back a point 
made by his opponent. Fred W., who had always 
been a delicate dog, died during the summer of 1892. 
He left a reputation as a Stud dog so far as field 
trials were concerned, and several of our chief per- 
formers of to-day have some of Fred W.'s blood 
in their veins. Prince Frederick and Fancy Free 
were perhaps the best of his actual progeny both 
running with great success in the spring of 1893. 

Most of the best bench setters of modern times 
have come from the Ravensbarrow kennels of Mr. 
Cockerton, who has had them for some forty years, 
though he did not commence showing, excepting at 

H 



98 Modern Dogs. 



a local gathering, until about 1881, since which time 
he has taken pretty much all before him, especially in 
the bitch classes at Birmingham. His best dogs have 
been Sir Simon, Madame Rachael, Cash in Hand, 
Belle of Furness, Monk of Furness, Ellen Terry, 
and Lady Bentinck, as with Lord Bentinck, now the 
property of Colonel Piatt, and there are more whose 
names do not occur to me. Mr. John Shorthose, 
of Newcastle, has winning dogs of much the same 
strain; so have Mr. G. Cartmel, Kendal; Mr. G. E. 
Pridmore, Coleshill ; Mr. T. Steadman, Merioneth- 
shire ; Mr. G. Potter, Carlisle ; Sir Humphrey de 
Trafford ; Mr. Robertshaw, Lancashire ; and others. 

Mr. W. Hartley, Kendal, has had good dogs of 
this blood, Mr. W. H. B. Cockerton's Lune Belle, 
the writer's Richmond, and Sir H. de Trafford's 
Barton Tory being the best of his, and he who 
breeds such a brace and a half in a lifetime cannot 
be considered at all unlucky. At Birmingham, in 
1892, the first two named, after winning in their 
respective classes, were placed first and third in 
competition for special prizes awarded to the best 
setters of all varieties afterwards. 

Barton Tory, when little more than a puppy, made 
his debut at Birmingham in 1896 where he did not 
gain all he ought to have done, for I considered him 
then the best English setter I ever saw, not excepting 



The English Setter. 99 



Mr. Llewellin's cracks and such dogs as Richmond 
and Monk of Furness, both of which won all down 
the line whenever shown until 1896. Richmond 
was the champion at Birmingham for three years 
in succession, and in 1894 he won the special for 
the best setter of any variety in the show, and 
eventually found a new home in Melbourne, Australia. 
A statement appeared in the Kennel Gazette not 
long ago, hinting that the English setter was not 
only degenerating, but rapidly disappearing. Such, 
however, is by no means the case, and, with the 
encouragement given by the various clubs and the 
trouble taken by breeders, this dog appears to be 
going rather strongly at the time I write. In the 
public field Mr. F. Lowe's Mabel of Kippen, a liver 
and white smart little bitch, has never had a superior, 
and, after doing remarkably well whenever she 
competed, she finished a brilliant service in 1896 
by winning the chief stake at the International 
Trials at Bala, and later near Bordes, in France, 
added another ^100 prize to the already long list 
which she had brought to her owner. Then the 
late Mr. Heywood-Lonsdale retained many good 
setters in his kennels ; Ightfield Tom, a recent 
winner at work to wit ; Sybarite Sam, too, must also 
be mentioned, and Mr. Llewellin's still strong team 
is alluded to elsewhere. 

H 2 



92786 



ioo Modern Dogs. 



Sir Humphrey de Trafford, at Trafford Park, 
Manchester, has got together an extraordinarily fine 
team of English setters, workmen and bench winners. 
His Grouse of Kippen, a Welsh-bred dog, has done 
exceedingly well in both capacities ; his Barton 
Charmer is as good as they can be made for work, 
whilst on the bench Mallwyd Flo, Mallwyd Bess, and 
Barton Tory formed a team good enough to beat all 
the other setters at Birmingham in 1896. Colonel 
Piatt, at Llanfairfechan, is breeding some excellent 
setters, Madryn Earl, a field trial winner (and he has 
more good enough to take high honours anywhere), 
being perhaps the pick of his basket. Mr. Elias 
Bishop, Mr. F. Alexander, Mr. James Bishop, Mr. 
W. H. David (Neath), and Messrs. Bottomley 
(Bradford) may also be alluded to in addition to those 
already mentioned as owners of English setters quite 
equal to the average dog of previous years, and the 
entries at the Kennel Club show and at the National 
Exhibition in 1896 were quite as numerous, and all 
round of as good quality as one can expect to see in 
these days of hyper-criticism. It is pleasing also to 
be able to state that just now increasing attention is 
being paid to the working qualities and capabilities 
of the animals, and so long as we retain such dogs 
as those already named, and others perhaps equally 
good, or better, that have not appeared in public r 



The English Setter. 101 

there is little likelihood of the English setter lapsing 
into oblivion. 

The best colours for these improved or modern 
Laveracks are blue or black and white flecked or 
ticked (Blue Beltons, as Mr. Laverack was the first 
to call them, taking this name from a village or 
hamlet in Northumberland), orange and white 
flecked, lemon and white ticked, black tan and 
white, and liver and white flecked. The orange, 
lemon, and liver or brown, are found in various 
shades, but the lighter hues are the most desirable. 

Allusion has already been made to the setters 
bred by Mr. Purcell-Llewellin, and by many persons, 
both in this country and America, known as the 
" Llewellin " Setter. Whether the strain has by its 
characteristics merited a distinguishing title of its 
own is a question upon which opinions are divided, 
but, as to the excellence of the breed in work, and 
many of them in appearance, there cannot be two 
opinions In the field and on the moors they hold 
their own anywhere ; but of late years Mr. Llewellin's 
dogs have not been shown so much as they had been 
earlier on. Yet, when they do appear, they still 
come pretty forward in the prize list. I was much 
struck with the size and amount of bone a team of 
his possessed, which were in the ring at Birmingham 
in 1896, and this, notwithstanding their almost 



io2 Modem Dogs. 



continuous inter-breeding. At the same time, in 
most other kennels, the tendency is to produce 
small and comparatively weedy animals. 

The following interesting description of the 
Llewellin setter with which I have been favoured 
will, I believe, form a valuable contribution on a 
subject with which the admirers of the strain are not 
well acquainted : 

" This is a strain of English setter, formed by its 
owner, Mr. R. LI. Purcell- Llewellin, of Dorrington, 
near Shrewsbury. The late Mr. Laverack, in his 
book ' The Setter/ describes him as one ' who has 
endeavoured, and is still endeavouring, by sparing 
neither expense nor trouble, to bring to perfection 
the setter/ and has for over thirty years experi- 
mented largely in breeding and crossing strains of 
setters. In due course he succeeded in producing 
the remarkable family of setters which now bears his 
name. 

" Mr. Llewellin many years ago kept black and 
tan setters ; though he did not in those days 
exhibit. These dogs, however, although he spent 
much time and pains over their breeding, fell 
short of the ideal in his mind of the highest type of 
sportsman's dog, and, having moors in Scotland, and 
shootings in England and Wales, to test his ideas 
on, he, rightly or wrongly, was fully persuaded in his 



The English Setter. 103 

own mind that it was hopeless to spend more time 
over the black and tans ; and, after full considera- 
tion, he finally discarded them. This conclusion 
was not come to without long trial and experiment 
of all the best strains of the day, having, besides the 
well known sorts, many of a kind not generally 
known, such as those of Mr. Hall, master of the 
Holderness, and, above all, those of his intimate 
friend 'Sixty-one' (the Rev. Hely Hutchinson), 
which were bred and used long before the days of 
dog shows for work in the Lews, where ' Sixty-one ' 
for many years held some 70,000 acres of moors. 
Mr. Llewellin had his own reasons for discarding 
black and tans after experience of them for several 
years. 

" He next tested the Irish setter, and in experi- 
menting with this breed he followed on the same 
lines as in the case of their forerunners, the black 
and tans, i.e., sparing no expense and trouble to get 
at the best possible specimens, and to try as many 
of the leading strains as possible, We find him 
therefore purchasing for £ 1 50 the famous ' Plunket ' 
from Mr. Macdona, and dogs from the breed of the 
Knight of Kerry, from Colonel Whyte, of Sligo, 
from those of Cecil Moore, Colonel Hutchinson, Mr. 
Jephson, and several others. With these he bred, 
and some of the produce he exhibited, and his Kite, 



io4 Modern Dogs. 



Samson, Knowing, Carrie and Marvel, were excellent 
specimens of the Irish setter, winning him prizes on 
the show bench ; whilst Kite, Marvel, and Samson, 
were successful in field competition. 

" Nevertheless, after long trial, Mr. Llewellin 
reluctantly confessed that, though superior to the 
black and tans, there were certain peculiarities in 
the Irish setter which he wished to see modified. 
Hereupon he commenced a long course of blending 
and crossing of these breeds with others. The 
result of one of these experiments was a handsome 
bitch, called Flame, a show winner, and for reasons 
which Mr. Llewellin deemed sufficient, he sold her. 
The blood of this bitch is still to be found in 
many of our leading bench winners at the present 
time. 

" With all these crosses, however, Mr. Llewellin 
failed to satisfy his aspirations for a perfect working 
setter. Handsome many of them were, but he 
desired to develop certain peculiar field styles and 
methods of hunting in them, and which, as yet, 
neither the comparatively pure breeds alluded to, nor 
the crosses, had shown themselves possessed of. 

" Mr. Laverack's breed was just about that time 
at its zenith, and, attracting Mr. Llewellin's atten- 
tion, he hoped that at last he might obtain, in the 
so-called ' pure Laverocks/ what he had been 



The English Setter. 105 



seeking. He therefore, at a high price, secured 
the choicest Laverack blood, i.e., that of Dash — 
Moll, and Dash — Lill. By this means Mr. Llewellin 
had succeeded so far in gaining all he desired, 
owning, as he now did, the Beautiful Countess, and 
her half sister Nellie, and later on, Mr. Garth's Daisy, 
three of the most famous Laveracks in the field that 
ever lived. He also owned Prince, brother to Nellie, 
a very handsome blue belton dog and a great show 
winner for his enterprising owner, who, moreover, 
owned Lill and Rock, the latter afterwards drafted 
by him and known as Lort's Jock. Mr. Llewellin 
bred several pure Laveracks, amongst which were 
the handsome bitches Phantom, Puzzle, Princess, 
all great show winners. 

" Now, although Mr. Llewellin thus had the best 
possible opportunities and means of estimating the 
Laverack breed, he finally came to the conclusion 
that, however handsome at that time they were, and 
in the case of Countess, Nellie, and Daisy, good in 
some respects in the field, yet that, on the average, 
the pure Laveracks had too many unsatisfactory and 
inconvenient peculiarities of mind, habit, and instinct, 
to fit them for attaining his ideal. This discovery 
set Mr. Llewellin once again on the track of experi- 
ment, and, this time, with far more satisfaction to 
himself than anything he had previously experienced. 



io6 % Modern Dogs. 



The result was the breed of dogs which bears his 
name, and which has scored its mark so deeply in 
setter history. Mr. Teasdale Buckel, the gentle- 
man who handled so many of his winners at field 
trials in former years, materially assisted in showing 
this variety to the world. 

" The particular strain which is known as the 
1 Llewellin ' setter is, therefore, a blend of the pure 
Dash — Moll and Dash — Lill Laverack, with blood 
represented by Sir Vincent Corbet's Old Slut, and 
with that of the late Mr. Statter's Rhoebe, as shown 
chiefly in Dick, Dan, Dora, Daisy, Ruby, &c, but, 
whilst those for the most part were somewhat coarse, 
withal powerful workmanlike dogs, the Llewellin 
combination has retained the size, bone, and power, 
and added improvement in shape and make, so that 
the tendency towards coarseness, slackness of loin, 
and want of refinement, has been improved away, 
and the characteristic of the Llewellin is size with 
quality. That they possess quality and beauty of 
appearance their show bench achievements have 
proved, whilst at the same time their field trial 
record as a setter kennel has never been approached. 

11 In the days when the feeling for show bench 
honours was keener in Mr. Llewellin, his kennel had 
only to put in an appearance at a show to take 
nearly all the prizes. For years this was the case at 



The English Setter. 107 

the two great gatherings, Birmingham and London, 
the only places where they were exhibited. 

"The sight presented by the setter benches in 
1 884, the first year that the Birmingham authorities 
offered special prizes for field trial winners, is well 
remembered by sportsmen. On that occasion Mr. 
Llewellin entered twelve field trial winners, viz., 
Count Wind'em, Dashing Bondhu, Dashing Duke, 
Sable Bondhu, Novel, Dashing Beauty, Dashing 
Ditto, Countess Bear, Countess Moll, Countess 
Rose, Nora, and Noma. Although there were some 
absentees, the team made a show of setters in itself, 
representing field as well as show champions — Count 
Wind'em, a field trial and also bench show champion, 
for whom Mr. Llewellin had been offered, and refused, 
£750 and ^"1 200 ; Novel, equally a champion winner 
in the field and bench shows ; and that beautiful bitch 
Countess Bear, winner of the first field trial ' Derby/ 
besides other field trials, and several show prizes, 
both here and in America. Countess Rose was 
also a bench winner, and with Novel, winner of the 
Braces Stakes at one of the National Field Trial 
Meetings, on which occasion that well known judge, 
the late Sir Vincent Corbet, declared them the best 
brace he had ever seen. For these two bitches Mr. 
Llewellin was offered on the spot ^"iooo. This 
same Birmingham team likewise included three 



io8 Modern Dogs. 



winners of the field trial '• Derby/ Countess Bear, 
already alluded to ; Sable Bondhu, and Dashing 
Ditto ; also Noma, Nora, and Dashing Beauty, all 
gainers of first prizes at field trials; besides Dashing 
Bondhu, who up to quite recently had the record as 
a field trial winner, and it must be recollected that 
when he ran, meetings were not so numerous as they 
are now. 

11 The peculiarity of this kennel is that the same 
dogs unite in themselves, in a measure no others 
have done, first class show, as well as field trial 
quality. There are owners who have dogs with 
which they win on the bench but not in the field. 
Others, again, there are, which perform in the field 
but would take a low place at a show. The 
Llewellin dogs, on the contrary, have proved them- 
selves capable bench show champions ; yet the 
doings of the self-same dogs at field trials would 
alone have been sufficient to place them at the 
head of the list, even if they had possessed no other 
qualification. 

" Mr. Llewellin has never, at any time, cared 
to keep so large a kennel as some other setter 
breeders, nor does he rear many during the year, 
a fact which should not be lost sight of when the 
large proportion of show and field trial prizes which 
have fallen to his setters is considered. 



The English Setter. 109 



"The 'blue ribbon/ of field trials is held to be 
the ' Braces Stakes/ and, next in estimation is 
the field trial ' Derby/ the latter being a Kennel 
Club event, and the former that of the National 
Society. Mr. Llewellin's setters have won the 
1 Braces Stakes ' twelve times, and the ( Derby ' four 
times, whilst running second for those events on 
additional occasions. The ' D^rby ' was won three 
years in succession by his dogs Sable Bondhu, 
Dashing ditto, and Dashing Clinker. On the 
occasion when Sable won in 1882, three other 
puppies from the same kennel ran, and the four 
were placed equal, though the owner preferred 
that Sable Bondhu should have the honour, and 
so she was selected to run against the winning 
pointer puppy for the championship, which, as indi- 
cated above, she won. When Clinker won in 1883 
something of the same happened, as he, with his 
kennel companion Duke Phoenix, had beaten all the 
other puppies, and Clinker was given the honour of 
running against the best pointer puppy, which he 
beat and so won the great prize. 

" Mr. Llewellin did not compete at the Kennel 
Club trials from 1883 to 1893 but m l %94> he had 
several entries and up to 1896 quite held his own 
whenever his dogs were running. Daphne, Rosa 
Wind'em, Nelly Wind'em, Bruce Wind'em, Darkie 



no Modern Dogs. 



WincTem, Jessie Wind'em and Daphne, being the 
best of his dogs of late years and not long ago Bruce 
Wind'em was sent over to the Imperial Kennels 
at St. Petersburg. 

" It should be noted that several leading American 
sportsmen imported some of Mr. Llewellin's dogs 
several years ago, and that their workmanlike 
qualities and suitability to the peculiarities of 
American field sport brought them rapidly into 
favour, both in the States and Canada. The place 
they hold both at bench shows and field trials in that 
country is quite as prominent as it has been in the 
one of their origin. It is a question, however, 
whether the breed as it is now preserved in America 
is in all respects up to its original standard. 

" It is interesting to state that Mr. Llewellin has 
never departed from the lines of blood with which he 
began to form his breed nearly twenty-five years ago. 
No outside cross of any sort or kind has been al- 
lowed to invade those lines. The various families 
are strictly preserved, and the strong family likeness, 
with the peculiar habits and methods of working, 
and their power to transmit those to others, justify, 
I consider, their title to rank as a distinct breed, 
which fact is perhaps more fully recognised in 
America than here." 

From time to time there have cropped up 



The English Setter. in 

other so-called strains of English setters, but they 
have never possessed sufficiently distinguishing 
features to entitle them to a name or classification 
of their own. Personally, I have known more than 
one breed that better deserved a position of their 
own than some that strived to attain it. In West- 
morland, fifteen or twenty years ago, the shooting 
men in the neighbourhood of Crosthwaite had black 
setters, not more than forty pounds in weight, with 
little coat and no lumber about them. They did not 
gallop at a very great pace, because the small allot- 
ments there were not suitable for fast dogs, but their 
noses were excellent ; they required little training, 
and had stamina enough, to hunt every alternate day 
during the season. No doubt, this was the remaining 
strain of the black setter Laverack alluded to in his 
book, as belonging to Harry "Rothwell." This I 
take to be a mistake for Rauthmell, whose family I 
knew very well. They lived not very far away from 
Crosthwaite, where Squire Rauthmell's hounds re- 
peatedly went to hunt, and the two "country-sides" 
had much in common in the way of sport. I believe 
that in Wales there was a similar strain of setter to 
this, which has likewise been lost — perhaps by 
continual inter-breeding. 

Another strain of setters I saw in the north many 
years ago were of a pale red colour, with a double 



ii2 Modern Dogs. 



nose. The owner said " they were the best in 
the world," but difficult to rear, and they seldom 
produced more than a brace or three puppies 
at a time. I fancy both these families have dis- 
appeared with the " statesmen " of the dales who 
shot over their own land, and could go over that 
of their neighbour were the latter not a sports- 
man himself. The surroundings of shooting have of 
late years changed in the north, and with this 
change such strains of setters as I have alluded to 
have gradually been allowed to die out. 

There was another valued strain to be found in 
the kennels of the Marquis Breadalbane, and which 
I should not be surprised to find that Mr. Laverack 
had used freely. They were called " red marbles " 
or " blue marbles," the latter word possessing a 
similar meaning to that we attach to " mottle," 
" ticked," or " flecked." Of this strain were a 
brace or two that " Sixty-one " owned, on which he 
set great store, and called Balloch setters. They 
were long, low dogs, with great bone ; they had 
nicely-shaped, but rather short, heads ; their peculi- 
arity lay in having a thick coat of, so to say, " fur," 
almost wool, at the roots of the ordinary jacket — an 
undercoat, in fact, like that a good collie should 
possess. No doubt the extra coat, not noticeable 
without examination, was provided by nature to with- 



The English Setter. 113 

stand the cold climate in which they lived all the 
year round. In other respects both coat and feather 
were soft and silky. These dogs were excellent in 
the field, carrying their heads high, and working 
for the body scent in beautiful style. I believe, 
too, that Mr. Llewellin had one or two of these 
setters, and his opinion of them as working dogs 
was high. 

Much has at times been written of the Llanidloes 
setter, which, as its name implies, has its habitat in 
Wales. At a show at Welshpool, in 1889, a class 
was provided for them, but no prizes were awarded. 
The chief exhibitor was Mr. J. J. W. Dashwood, of 
Huntington Court, Kingston, Hereford. It seems to 
me that this Welsh setter is no more than an ordi- 
nary English setter, with little distinguishing type, 
excepting a coarse, hard, curly coat, and a thick, 
though long, head, may be deemed to constitute a 
type, which I do not think is the case. It bears a 
reputation as a close, slow, and methodical worker, 
and better able to perform the duties of an all-round 
dog in a rough country than the much more highly 
bred animal, which is, however, fast supplanting 
the older-fashioned and more spaniel-like article. 
From what I have heard by men who have used 
the Llanidloes setter, it appears to be hardy, is not 
spoiled by being allowed to hunt covert for cock and 

I 



ii4 Modem Dogs. 



pheasant, and is thoroughly suitable for a " one dog 
man." 

The Anglesea setter, the Newcastle setter, the 
Featherstone setter, and others that could be men- 
tioned are but local strains of the general variety 
as it is diffused throughout the country. In no case 
have they been kept sufficiently pure to justify any- 
one placing them as varieties of their own. The Earl 
of Tankerville has had good setters, and so has Lord 
Waterpark ; likewise, Mr. Jones of Oscot, the late 
Mr. F. R. Bevan, the late Mr. W. Lort, Mr. 
Bayley, Colonel Cotes, Mr. R. Lloyd Price, Mr. T. 
Cunnington, and Mr. Paul Hackett, but they laid no 
claim to any particular strain of their own. 

The Russian setter has often been alluded to by 
previous writers. " Stonehenge " gives us a picture 
of one, but such a dog has either died out altogether 
or been returned to the country that gave him birth. 
As a fact I do not believe the Russians ever 
had a setter of their own. For years Mr. Purcell 
Llewellin offered a prize for him at the Birmingham 
show, but in no instance was there an entry forth- 
coming. Possibly, in promising such a thing the 
Welsh squire was poking fun at the breed, and, in 
a way of his own, endeavouring to prove to the 
public what he thought himself, that such a thing 
asa (< Russian setter " had only existence in fancy. 



The English Setter. 115 



Our English Setter Club was formulated in 1 890 ; 
following, a description of the breed was drawn up 
and adopted, and I fancy its foundation was taken 
from Mr. Laverack's description in his book. How- 
ever, I with others do not consider the club standard 
by any means what it ought to be, so in preference 
to theirs I give one of my own, which in the main 
is similar to " Stonehenge's " which is so generally 
adopted. 

1. The skull (value 5) has a character peculiar 
to itself. It possesses considerable prominence of 
the occipital bone ; is moderately narrow between 
the ears ; and there is a decided brow over the 
eyes. A sensible forehead with width enough for 
brains. 

2. The nose (value 5) should be long and wide, 
without any fullness under the eyes. There should 
be in the average dog setter at least four inches 
from the inner corner of the eye to the end of the 
nose. Between the point and the root of the nose 
there should be a slight depression — at all events 
there should be no fullness — and the eyebrows should 
rise sharply from it. The nostrils must be wide 
apart and large in the openings, and the end should 
be moist and cool, though many a dog with good 
scenting powers has had a dry nose. In dark 
coloured specimens the nose should be black, but in 

I 2 



1 1 6 Modern Dogs. 



the orange and whites, or lemon and whites, a 
coloured nose is desirable, though it must not be 
spotted. The jaws should be exactly equal in length, 
"pig jaw," as the receding lower one is called, 
being greatly against its possessor, nor should he be 
undershot. 

3. Ears, lips, and eyes (value 10). — With regard 
to ears, they should be small, shorter than a 
pointer's. The " lea ther" should be thin and soft, 
carried closely to the cheeks, almost folding from 
their roots, so as not to show the inside, without the 
slightest tendency to prick ; the ear should be partly 
clothed with silky hair, but there must not be too 
much of it. The lips also are not so full and 
pendulous as those of the pointer, but at their angles 
there should be a slight fullness, not reaching quite 
to the extent of hanging. The eyes must be full of 
animation, and of medium size, the best colour being 
dark brown, and they should be set with their angles 
straight across. The head and expression of the 
English setter are pleasing. 

4. The neck , (value 5) has not the full rounded 
muscularity of the pointer, being considerably 
thinner, but still slightly arched. It must not be 
" throaty," though the skin is loose. 

5. The shoulders and chest (value 15) should 
display great liberty in all directions, with sloping 



The English Setter. 117 

deep shoulder blades, and elbows well let down. The 
chest should be deep rather than wide. The ribs 
well sprung behind the shoulder, and great depth of 
the back ribs should be especially demanded. 

6. Back, quarters, and stifles (value 15). — An 
arched loin is desirable, but not to the extent of 
being " roached " or " wheel-backed/' a defect 
which generally tends to a slow up-and-down gallop. 
Stifles well bent, and set wide apart, to allow the 
hind legs to be brought forward with liberty in the 
gallop. 

7. Legs, elbows, and hocks (value 12). — The elbows 
and toes, which generally go together, should be set 
straight ; and if not, the " pigeon-toe " or inturned 
leg is less objectionable than the out-turn, in which 
the elbow is confined by its close attachment to the 
ribs. The arm should be muscular, and the bone 
fully developed, with strong and broad knees, short, 
well turned pasterns, of which the size in point of 
bone should be as great as possible (a very impor- 
tant point), and their slope not exceeding a very 
slight deviation from the straight line. The hind 
legs should be muscular, with plenty of bone, clean 
strong hocks, and hairy feet. 

8. The feet (value 8). — A difference of opinion 
exists as to the comparative merit of the cat and 
hare foot for standing work. Masters of foxhounds 



n8 Modern Dogs. 



invariably select that of the cat, and, as they have 
better opportunities than any other class for insti- 
tuting the necessary comparison, their selection may 
be accepted as final. But, as setters are specially 
required to stand wet and heather, it is impera- 
tively necessary that there should be a good 
growth of hair between the toes, and on this 
account a longer but thick foot, well clothed with 
hair on and between the toes is preferred. This 
hair on and between the toes acts as a protection on 
rough stony ground, and it is said that amongst the 
flints of some countries a setter can on this account 
work for a day where a pointer would be placed 
hors de combat in half an hour. 

9. The flag (value 5) is in appearance charac- 
teristic of the breed, although it sometimes happens 
that one or two puppies in a well-bred litter 
exhibit a curl or other malformation, usually con- 
sidered to be indicative of a stain. The setter's flag 
should have a gentle sweep downwards ; and the 
nearest resemblance to any familiar form is to the 
scythe with its curve reversed. The feather must be 
composed of straight silky hairs ; close to the 
root the less hair the better, and again towards the 
point, of which the bone should be fine, and the 
feather tapering with it. 

10. Symmetry and quality (value 10).— -In 



The English Setter. 119 

character the setter should display a great amount 
of " quality," which means a combination of 
symmetry, as understood by the artist, with the 
peculiar attributes of the breed under examination, 
as interpreted by the sportsman. Thus, a setter 
possessed of such a frame and outline, as to charm 
the former would be considered by the sportsman 
defective in " quality " if he possessed a curly or 
harsh coat, or if he had a heavy head, with pendant 
bloodhoundlike jowl and throaty neck. The general 
outline is elegant, and very taking to the eye. 

11. The texture and feather of coat (value 5) 
are much regarded, a soft silky hair without curl 
being a sine qua non. The feather should be con- 
siderable, and should fringe the hind as well as the 
fore legs. 

12. The colour of coat (value 5) is not much 
insisted on, a great variety being admitted. These 
are as follows : Black and white ticked, with large 
splashes, and more or less marked with black, known 
as " blue belton ; " orange and white, ticked and 
marked as in the blacks or blues ; liver and white, 
ticked in a similar manner ; black and white with 
tan markings ; orange or lemon and white ticked ; 
black and white ; liver and white. Pure white, 
black, liver, and red or yellow are sometimes seen , 
but are not desirable. 



130 



Modern Dogs. 



Weight, dogs from 481b. to 6olb. ; bitches from 
4olb. to 5olb. 

Standard Points of the English Setter. 

Value. 

Skull 5 

Nose 5 

Ears, lips, and eyes 10 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest 15 

Back, quarters, and stifles 1 5 



55 



Value. 

Legs, elbows, and hocks 12 

Feet 8 

Flag 5 

Symmetry and quality 10 

Coat 5 

Colour 5 



45 



Grand Total 100. 



• «'   i ' 'i ;v lp .*' 






ASTOR, itNCX «.»;} 
TiLL'EN  •jN.,s!' JNS, 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE BLACK AND TAN (OR GORDON) 

SETTER. 

This variety of the modern setter had its name 
originally from the fact of being first introduced to 
the public from Gordon Castle, Fochabers, Banff- 
shire, the Highland seat of the Dukes of Richmond 
and Gordon. For what length of time the family 
possessed the strain no one appears to know, but 
that it was not there in 1803, when Colonel Thornton 
visited the place, may be taken for granted, as that 
gallant sportsman, in his u Northern Tour/' makes 
no allusion whatever to any such dogs. He does, 
however, mention the Highland deerhound, and gives 
an account of a somewhat dubious cross the Duke 
had between a wolf and a Pomeranian dog, which, on 
being slipped at a deer, tore its throat out. Some 
early writers, however, have called the black and tan 
setter the " Scotch setter/' and Mr. Thomson Gray, 
in his " Dogs of Scotland," adopts a similar nomen- 
clature. This is not likely to become general, as the 



i22 Modern Dogs. 



more popular name has obtained the voice of the 
public. 

According to the late Rev. T. Pearce ("Idstone"), 
who must be taken as an authority on the variety, 
about 1820 was the period when the then Duke of 
Gordon took his special strain of setters in hand ; 
but as to where they came from, or how they were 
produced, no facts are forthcoming, and the result is 
left to imagination. 

It is somewhat strange that two such observant 
sportsmen as Mr. Charles St. John and Mr. John 
Colquhoun, who, the former in " Highland Sports/ ' 
and the latter in "The Moor and the Loch, ,, wrote 
so charmingly of what appertains to dogs, shooting, 
natural history, and fishing in Scotland, should have 
little or nothing to say about the Gordon setter. 
They wrote some fifty or more years ago, and this 
silence may be taken as an indication that the 
Gordon setter was not a common dog then. The 
first edition of " Wild Sports and Natural History 
of the Highlands " was published in 1845, an< ^ 
the earliest edition of "The Moor and the 
Loch " in 1851. 

One much regrets that at the present time (1897) 
this old variety of setter is not to be found at Gordon 
Castle. Years ago the dogs there were bred to 
English setters, principally of Laverack blood, with 



The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter. 123 

the result that the valued and true type of black, 
tan, and white Gordon was entirely lost. The 
setters at the kennels now, as I write, and for some 
years, have been all useful working dogs of modern 
strains. 

In England no doubt there had been setters of a 
black and brown colour from the earliest manufacture 
or introduction of the breed, and Gervaise Markham, 
in " Hunger's Prevention ; or, the whole Art of 
Fowling by Land and Water " (1655), mentions 
black and fallow dogs as the hardest to endure 
labour. This description must be taken to mean 
black and tan, but not to imply that such dogs were 
similar to the Gordon setter of to-day. Again, a 
writer in 1776, who calls himself " A Gentleman of 
Suffolk, a staunch sportsman," says there were, fifty 
years before he wrote, two distinct tribes (strains) of 
setting dogs, " the black tanned, and the orange or 
lemon and white/ ' But from other sources we 
find the latter colour the commonest. Sydenham 
Edwards (1805), in " Cynographia Britannica," gives 
an illustration of three setters, one of which is 
undoubtedly black and tan in colour, but in type it 
has very little if any resemblance to the modern 
strain. Two white and orange setters are given in 
Bingley's Natural History (1809), and no mention is 
made of black and tan setters. 



i24 Modem Dogs. 



Our old friend " The Druid " (Mr. H. H. Dixon, 
of Carlisle), who visited Gordon Castle about thirty- 
five years ago, says: " We beguiled the way by a chat 
with Jubb, the head keeper, whose seven and thirty 
black, white, and tans, were spreading themselves out 
like a fan in the kennel meadow. . . . Originally 
the Gordon setters were all black and tans ; . . . 
now, all the setters in the Castle are black, tan, and 
white, with a little tan on the toes, muzzle, root of 
the tail, and round the eyes. The late Duke of 
Gordon liked it, as it was both gayer and not so 
difficult to back on the hillside as the dark coloured. 
They are light in frame and merry workers, and 
' better put up half a dozen birds/ says Jubb, ' than 
make a false point/ " 

Various opinions have been expressed as to how 
the original black and tan setter of the heavy type 
was obtained. He was a bigger and coarser dog 
than any other of his race, and his deep rich colour, 
heavy head, preponderance of haw in many cases, 
and strong dewlap, betrayed a not very remote cross 
with the bloodhound ; and, judging from appearances, 
I have not the slightest doubt that, at one time or 
another, this hound blood has entered into his com- 
position. A single dash would do the trick nicely, 
and such would account for the tendency in some of 
the heavier Gordons to, like the Irish setter, hunt the 



The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter. 125 

ground when at a loss, rather than carry the head 
high and sniff the wind. 

Impure blood such as this in the strain has never 
been acknowledged, but even admirers of the breed 
in " all its purity " have not objected to the state- 
ment that at no very remote date a cross with the 
collie -had been found useful. The latter may have 
been the case, the former more likely ; and, as blood- 
hounds were not uncommonly used in some localities 
in Scotland for hunting the roe, no difficulty would 
be experienced in quietly putting a bitch to such a 
hound, and no one be any the wiser. The collie 
cross, some writers have said, could be plainly traced 
in the strains of many modern Gordon setters ; in 
quite as many, the bloodhound cross may be more 
strongly noticed in the shape of head and general 
expression. 

At Tattersall!s, in July, 1837, five and a half brace 
of setters from Gordon Castle, and most of them 
black, white, and tan in colour, were sold by auction, 
reaching 417 guineas — an excellent price. The 
highest figures were given by Lord Chesterfield for 
young Regent and Crop, they reaching 72 guineas 
and 60 guineas respectively, although the latter had 
had one of her ears eaten off by a ferret. Lord 
Douglas gave 36 guineas for Saturn ; Mr. Martyn, 
106 guineas for a leash of bitches; and Lord 



i26 Modern Dogs. 



Abercorn and the Duke of Richmond paid 34 guineas 
each for a dog and a bitch. This was but a draft 
from the kennels, for others had been privately 
purchased by the then Dukes of Abercorn and 
Argyle ; and Viscount Bolingbroke got some 
likewise. This sale took place on account of the 
death of the Duke of Gordon, and forms an interest- 
ing example of the price obtained for sporting dogs 
at that time. 

In li Dogs of Scotland' ' (1891), by Mr. Thomson 
Gray, a contributor gives some interesting particulars 
of the setters at Gordon Castle, and from the extract 
below it will be noted that he differs from what 
"The Druid " wrote, to the effect that the original 
strain was black, tan, and white. " These dogs 
were, seventy years ago, of different colours, " says 
the correspondent, " the majority being black and 
tan, and black, white, and tan. Some were liver and 
white, and black and white, and lemon and white was 
sometimes seen. They were famed for their working 
qualities, and, dog shows being unknown, good looks 
were of secondary importance, although the whole 
of the dogs were very stylish, and many of them 
exceedingly well marked. The black, white, and 
tans were heavily marked, black and white, with tan 
spots above the eyes and on the cheeks — the black 
and white clearly defined but not spotted 



The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter. 127 



"The black and tans were of a lighter tan than 
the black and tans of to-day, and often had white 
breasts and feet. The dogs, on the whole, had a 
heavy look about them, with spaniel-looking ears, 
but excellent legs and feet, with wealth of coat and 
feather, beautiful heads, and well set on sterns. 
Light eyes were not allowed on any account, nor 
snipy noses. As workmen they were undeniable, 
and when the writer in question used them on the 
moors twenty-five or thirty years ago, they could 
easily have held their own with any modern cracks. 

" The late Mr. Jubb, who had the care of the 
Gordon Castle setters for many years, could break a 
dog to perfection ; the strain, though, was easy to 
break, and naturally backed well. They were not 
fast, but excellent in staying powers, keeping on 
steadily from morn till night, had good noses, and 
seldom made a false point" The same writer goes 
on to say, "As to the original colour, I had the 
particulars from an old man named Bill Rogers, who 
was about the kennel at Gordon Castle before the 
battle of Waterloo (this would be a very, very early 
period of the formation of the kennels), that the dogs 
were black and tan, black, tan and white ; liver and 
white (and sometimes lemon or orange and white), 
the black and tans, which often had white feet and 
chests, predominating. ,, 



i28 Modern Dogs. 



Another authority, who often saw the Gordon 
Castle dogs, and was acquainted with Jubb, the 
head keeper, viz., Mr. E. Laverack, said that these 
setters were black, tan, and white, and he did not 
give them a very high character for endurance 
and perseverance. 

Evidently most of the noted kennels in Scotland 
had obtained their dogs, at one time or another, from 
Gordon Castle, as Lord Lovat, Sir A. G. Gordon of 
Cluny, Major Douglas, Mr. Thompson (Broughty 
Ferry), Lord Panmure, the Marquis of Huntley, 
Lord Saltoun, Sir James Elphinstone, and Mr. 
McNicholls (Glenbucket), could all trace their 
strains to this one common origin. From some of 
them I firmly believe the bloodhound cross must 
have come, for in no other way can be accounted 
the hound-like type that was far from being 
uncommon about twenty-five years ago. 

Not very long since I was given a Gordon setter, 
said to be of the best blood, and it had cost 
thirty guineas in Scotland as a broken dog. Never 
look a gift dog in the mouth, but its breaking was a 
myth and its value in shillings ! The first day I had 
him out the parish was not big enough to hold 
him. He chased everything, and got into a plan- 
tation where, with nose down, and a whimper every 
now and then, he chevied the hares and rabbits to 



The Black and, Tan (or Gordon) Setter. 129 

his content — to my disgust. I was sorely tempted 
to shoot the brute. When tired he came to 
my whistle and was "rated" in proper fashion; a 
five mile walk home along a hard road in pouring 
rain tamed him a bit, and as he had a sensible look 
about him I gave him another outing next day, over 
the roughest land I could find. Here, after a long 
trudge of some eight hours or so, he became 
amenable to discipline — hunted and found birds 
by their ground scent, and worked more like a 
hound than a pointer or setter. Had he done 
like " Idstone's " Gordons crossed with his collie, 
and gone round his birds as his ancestors would 
have done round a flock of sheep, I should have 
noticed it. He did not do so. His head was 
always down. A third day he worked well within 
range, answered to the whistle, and his old training 
had come back to him. He was, however, no use to 
me, so I gave him away. Now, this Gordon setter 
was good-looking, and from a strain that bore a 
reputation of being " pure even amongst the pure," 
but his manners and appearance were too hound - 
like to please me. 

There is no doubt a screw loose somewhere in 
the Gordon setter, else he would be more popular 
now than he appears to be. With the earlier Field 
Trials he had much to do, with the later ones next 

K 



130 Modern Dogs. 



to nothing. The Rev. T. Pearce's Rex and Kent, 
Mr. Adey's Kate, Young Kent, and Mr. J. H. 
Salter's Rex all performed creditably in the field ; 
so did the Earl of Dudley's Claret and Dandy 
(Mr. J. N. Fleming's, Maybole, N.B.), the champion 
at Southill trials in 1865, but somehow or other 
this good work did not continue, and was uneven. 
Some dogs were slow and stupid ; others fast and 
disobedient, and as a fact I have seen very few 
Gordon setters performing at Field Trials during the 
past dozen or more years that I have attended them, 
and I think this absence must be taken as proof 
positive that he is not so good as either the 
English or Irish strains. 

Still fewer of them have shown any great degree of 
merit. Perhaps the best performer at a gathering 
of this kind appeared in 1895, a Belgian bitch called 
Venus of Thyrimont belonging to Mons. H. Lurkin. 
She, however, on her dam's side was of the Devon- 
shire strain. She ran at the Kennel Club Meeting, 
and after a long and exceedingly well run series of 
trials she was placed second in the Derby. With- 
out doing particularly well in the early part of the 
stake she went on improving, and making some 
extraordinary finds and going at a great pace, she 
seemed to have the stake at her mercy, and 
certainly did far and away the best work I ever 



The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter. 131 

saw from a Gordon setter either in private or in 
public. The same year another Gordon setter ran 
in public, Mr. W. H. Beevor's Brooklyn Grouse, 
and he too did well, his work in style and pace, 
range and nose, being far in advance of any of that 
displayed at a special field trial for Gordon setters 
held in 1893, anc * which will be alluded to later on. 

Even on the show bench this variety of the 
setter is not what he was. Mr. Jobling's Dandie 
won the first prize at the first dog show ever 
held, and took the cup as the best setter in 
the exhibition. Then " Idstone's" Kent in his 
day (1863-65) won pretty well all before him in 
the ring, and created quite a furore when he first 
appeared at Cremorne in 1863, exhibited by Sir 
Edward Hoare. He there won the first prize, and, 
notwithstanding the fact of his being without pedi- 
gree, was purchased by Mr. Pearce for about ^30. 
Although Sir Edward Hoare had obtained this dog 
from a rabbit catcher on the Hothfield estate, who 
said it had been suckled on a cat, pains were taken 
to find out that he had a pedigree. In the end 
his dam was said to be a black and tan bitch of 
" Adamson's," his sire Shot by Mr. Jobling's Scamp 
— his Nell, the latter by a liver and tan dog of Sir 
Matthew Ridley's. Whether " Kent " was properly 
bred or not is a moot question, he did not do very 

K 2 



132 Modern Dogs. 



much good as a stud dog, and although his admirers 
spoke in praise of his progeny, others did the con- 
trary, some going so far as to declare that much 
of his stock was gun-shy and generally inferior in 
their working capabilities. 

It had been thought that a brighter future might 
have been in store for his Gordon setters when a 
club was founded to look after its interests. Such 
however does not appear to have been the case, and 
now writing in 1897 the Gordon setter does not 
appear to be any more flourishing than was the 
case half-a-dozen years ago. Still I cannot overlook 
the fact that at that Birmingham show there was 
the one capital class of Gordon setters, there being 
ten in the division for dogs and bitches which had 
won or had not previously won prizes, and most of 
these were worthy of the highest honours. 

In 1893 Mr. F. A. Manning, the very energetic 
secretary of the specialist club, arranged a field trial 
meeting for Gordon setters which was held over a 
portion of the Hatfield estate of Lord Cranborne 
It took place early in April, the ground being 
admirably adapted for the purpose, plenty of covert, 
birds in profusion and the surroundings charming, 
although the dry weather and the bright sun spoiled 
scent somewhat. The few dogs entered performed 
most indifferently, and the judges displayed a con- 



The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter. 133 

siderable amount of liberality in refraining from 
withholding the prizes. The trials have not been 
repeated, and it is quite unusual to see a Gordon 
setter competing at our ordinary meetings for which 
they, like the English and Irish varieties, are elegible. 
No doubt at the present time, and such has been 
the case for some years, the most extensive kennel 
of Gordon Setters is that of Mr. R. Chapman, of 
Glenboig, Scotland. For a considerable period he 
has taken pains to produce neat animals, and such 
as he shows are fairly perfect specimens, and, as a 
rule, do not display the slightest trace of either 
bloodhound or collie cross. They are of the 
accepted black and tan colour, free from white, and 
in their prime, peculiarly rich and bright in their 
markings, but some of his best dogs when not in 
coat look very ragged, and their ears and sterns 
remind one very much of what we better like to see 
carried by an Irish water spaniel. At one time it 
looked as if to Mr. Chapman we must look for any 
improvement in the variety, but he does not seem 
to be maintaining his excellence, and his wins on the 
bench are not so frequent as of yore. Mr. Chap- 
man, who speaks highly of his strain as field dogs, 
considers them quite equal to any other race of 
setters he has ever used, but in public their per- 
formances have been far from satisfactory. It may 



134 Modern Dogs. 



be said that this exhibitor annually lets out teams 
of dogs for the moors, and his general surroundings 
and tastes allow him to speak with some authority 
on the subject. Still, we know that our own geese 
are swans and our own dogs the best. 

Colonel Le Gendre Starkie, at Huntroyde Hall, 
near Burnley, Lancashire, has given considerable 
attention to the Gordon setter, and at times has 
had excellent specimens. The gallant colonel has 
sometimes sent a dog or two to compete at the 
Field Trials, and where he has often judged, but I 
cannot call to mind any occasion upon which he 
had run a black and tan setter in public. No doubt 
had he had one fast enough and smart enough for 
the purpose he would have done so. Messrs. 
Greenbank, of Sedbergh, Yorkshire, have on occa- 
sions exhibited a good specimen or two, their White 
Heather II. being a particularly smart dog. At 
Maidstone, in Kent, Mr. J. R. Tatham is an admirer 
of the breed, and possesses several ; so does Mr. 
Manning, at Norwood, the secretary of the specialist 
club. Mr. Edwin Bishop, of Needles Farm, Brackley, 
has always had some fair Gordon setters, and his dogs 
were good enough to win both stakes at the Gordon 
setter trials already alluded to, and they have been 
successful on the show bench. Mr. James Emery, 
Downham Market, Norfolk, has some very fair 



The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter. 135 

dogs, Sir Hugo and Duke of Downham to wit, so has 
Mr. W. J. Fox, Orpington ; and Mr. F. Hignett's 
(Bolton) Duke of Edgeworth is about as good a 
specimen of this variety being shown at the present 
time. Another excellent dog, though " made in 
Germany," is Mr. G. E. Pridmore's Knockavoe, who 
was originally purchased at one of the continental 
shows by Mr. George Raper. A few fair Gordons 
are also to be found in Mr. L. Bulled's kennels in 
Devonshire. 

Another very old strain of Gordon setters is in the 
kennels of the Earl of Cawdor, at Cawdor Castle, 
Nairn. They have been there and highly valued 
as long as similar dogs have been kept at Gordon 
Castle, and for a period of at least eighty years 
kept pretty well free from cross with the 
English or Irish varieties. Some of the dogs are 
heavily marked with black and tan, but none are 
without some white — tricolours in fact — handsome 
animals in appearance, and reliable to shoot over. 
At Beaufort Castle, Beauley, N.B., Lord Lovat has 
a similar strain, which has been in his family for 
many generations. 

Although these old breeds have been kept as 
nearly pure as possible, and may be found useful in 
crossing with the ordinary English setter, especially 
when work more than actual beauty is required, I 



136 Modern Dogs. 



do not see any great future for the black and tan 
setter. He is not easy to follow with the eyes on 
the moors, and, as a rule, is not nearly so smart as 
either the English or Irish varieties, and I cannot 
imagine why, even his most ardent admirers, prefer 
him to others, excepting that a team of them match 
well. The latter fact has been at times of consider- 
able advantage to Mr. Chapman in the show ring, 
where on several occasions a couple of brace or so 
have beaten all comers in the competition for the 
team prize. 

In America and on the Continent, in France and 
Belgium, Gordon setters appear to enjoy greater 
popularity than with us ; they are shown on the 
benches, and field trials for them are of periodical 
occurrence when, as a rule, large entries are obtained. 

The following are the description and points of the 
Gordon setter as adopted by its club, and from the 
facts I have given of some of the leading and oldest 
kennels being entirely confined to tri-coloured dogs, 
i.e., black, tan, and white, it seems a pity such are 
not allowed in the club's standard ; nor do I agree 
with what it says about the " bloodhound " type 
in the dog generally and in the expression of the 
eyes. Such a cross has been there some time or 
other, but pains have been taken to " breed " it 
out, and in no case where it appears so marked 



The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter. 137 



should a prize be given the dog, or should it be 
used for stud purposes. However, I give the 
following chief portion of the club's descrip- 
tion because it was issued by an authoritative 
body : — 

" There seems to be little authentic information as 
to the origin of the Gordon setter. Authorities, 
however, agree that originally the colour was black, 
white, and tan ; the opinion of the late Dr. Walsh 
(" Stonehenge") — that he is a compound of collie, 
bloodhound, and English or Irish setter, and that 
the foundation of the breed was derived from a 
mixture of these — is to a large extent borne out by 
the general character of the dog, as exhibited in the 
best specimens. Of late years no doubt the breed 
has been tampered with for show purposes, and 
crosses, more particularly with the Irish setter, with 
the idea of improving the colour, have been resorted 
to to the detriment of the dog, both tor show bench 
and field purposes. Probably the pale buff in the 
place of tan frequently verging on stone colour, 
and the diffusion over the body, instead of being 
developed on the recognised points, is mainly due to 
this cause ; if so, it will require careful breeding 
through many generations to eradicate. ... In 
the best bred Gordons we almost invariably find the 
leading features of the collie, the bloodhound, and 



138 Modern Dogs. 



the setter, and perhaps in about equal proportions, 
giving what we call the type. 

"The head of the Gordon is much heavier than 
that of the English setter, broad at the top between 
the ears, the skull slightly rounded, the occiput well 
developed, and the depth from the occiput to the 
bottom of lower jaw much greater than in the 
Laverack or English Setter ; the width between the 
eyes should perhaps not be too great, speaking with 
caution ; the nose moderately long and broad across 
the top, giving room for the nerves of scent, in fact 
the opposite of snipyness, the nostril well distended, 
making this the widest part of the nose ; the shape 
of the under jaw is perhaps a matter of fancy : old 
Kent had a very heavy muzzle and under-jaw, with 
remarkably bright and penetrating eyes, in these 
his likeness has been transmitted to many of his 
descendants in a remarkable degree. Many Gordons 
show slight n haw n and "dewlap," a proper develop- 
ment of these is probably the true type ; the ears 
vary considerably, some being long, silky, and 
hanging close to the face, others much shorter; 
these are also matters of fancy, and therefore of 
minor importance. The body of the Gordon is also 
heavier than that of the English setter, but may be 
judged on the same lines ; the tail is often long, 
giving bad carriage, this does not interfere with 



The Black and Tan (or Gordon) Setter, 139 



good work. The great beauty of this dog is his 
lovely colour, and as this in perfection is in no 
way antagonistic to his working qualities, great 
prominence should be given to it in judging. 
Formerly, without doubt, the prevailing colours were 
black, white, and tan, of late there has been but 
little white seen on the bench, this, too, is a matter 
of fancy ; the black should be a jet, not brown or 
rusty; the tan should be a rich dark mahogany, 
and should be exhibited on inside of thighs, showing 
down front of stifle to ground, the front legs to the 
knees ; the muzzle also should be tan, the spots over 
the eyes well defined, not blurred, and on the points 
of the shoulders also : blurring and diffusion over the 
belly and other parts of the dog probably indicate 
contamination with other blood. It is of the highest 
importance, if we are to get back the real hunting 
qualities of this breed and the show qualities also, 
that purity of blood should be the chief aim in 
breeding; a first cross may sometimes appear to 
answer, but succeeding generations will certainly 
show the cross, and will deteriorate in all the 
qualities we prize. 

"A splendid intelligence, fine scenting powers, and 
great endurance are the main characteristics of the 
Gordon. If purity of blood is maintained, we may 
not only recover the qualities which some fear we 



140 



Modern Dogs. 



have partly lost, but also develop their natural 
powers to an extent hitherto unknown. A well- 
formed head is of the first importance if we are to 
develop and maintain that intelligence which is the 
great charm and usefulness of the dog. 

Scale of Points. 



Value. 

Head and neck 35 

Shoulders and chest ... 12 

Loin and quarter 12 

Feet and legs 16 

75 



Value. 

Colour 10 

Coat, feather, and quality 10 
Tail 5 



25 



Grand Total 100. 



r, 






\ A. * .' 
* .j- 1 - 



i ^ 



CHAPTER V. 

THE IRISH SETTER. 

It has often struck me as being extraordinary that 
so little is known of the origin of the Irish setter 
— that he is an old dog in his purity there is not 
the slightest doubt. He has been alluded to by 
writers early in the present century, but they have 
failed to tell us what kind of a dog he was, either in 
colour or form. I believe him to have been red, 
or red and white in colour, a smart active animal, 
full of courage, rather headstrong, an untiring 
worker, with olfactory organs quite as good as any 
other dog used for a similar purpose. 

And how strange it seems that the native Irish 
dogs are for the most part red or brown. This 
may be a favourite Milesian colour, or it may be 
the result of accident. One cannot say that the 
Irish red setter, the Irish terrier, and the water 
spaniel of Ireland, came at any recent date from one 
stock. Still, their colours, if not quite alike, are 



1 42 Modern Dogs. 



similar, and for modern tastes, the redder the terrier 
and the setter are, the better. 

Failing to find anything of particular interest in 
the early days of the Irish setter, I turned to Mr. W. 
C. Bennett, of Dublin, a gentleman who has made 
the variety his hobby, and he most kindly promised 
to do what he could for me in the matter. The 
following particulars from his pen will no doubt be 
read with interest : 

" My inquiries relative to the above breed have 
tended to convince me that, so far at least as 
the Midland and Western Counties of Ireland, Dub- 
lin, and its vicinity, were concerned (which were best 
known to my three first named informants, whose 
experience apd opinions are given below), the red 
setter was but seldom encountered, and that red and 
white Irish setters (differing in many essential 
qualities and in general appearance from the English 
variety) were well known and highly esteemed. 

"That this assertion will be met with indignant 
denial from the owners and exhibitors of the red 
dogs at present gracing the bench and holding their 
own in Field Trials, I am quite prepared for, but how 
far back does their recollection carry them ? The 
first gentleman I interviewed on the subject was Mr. 
Mahon, one of the old Ross Mahon stock, of 
Galway fame, now over eighty years of age, and son 



The Irish Setter. 143 



of the Rev. H. Mahon, of Castlegar, an ardent 
sportsman and owner of many setters, all of which 
were red and white, and who held the opinion often 
expressed to his son, that this was the true colour 
of the Irish setter. This gentleman's recollection 
carried him back to the last century (he having died 
in the year 1838). 

" The present Mr. Mahon informs me that in his 
early days dogs wholly red were rare, though such, 
he admits, existed, and were considered more diffi- 
cult to break than the red and white, which, he 
says, were smaller. A strain of them, called the 
1 Ahascragh breed/ kept in his family were highly 
prized, but which, from being bred in and in by the 
gamekeeper, Jemmy Fury, degenerated into weeds. 
He especially mentions one, called Sylvie, which he 
obtained from Charles Mahon, of Mount Pleasant, 
co. Mayo ; she was a big bitch, beautifully feathered, 
very enduring and staunch, and with her he hoped 
to resuscitate the Ahascragh strain. Owing, how- 
ever, to the death of his father, he abandoned the 
attempt. Mr. Mahon purchased two dogs from Mr. 
Buchanan for Sir St. George Gore, about the year 
1838, which were wholly red in colour, and this 
gentleman appears to have kept the whole coloured 
almost, if not entirely, in his kennels. 

" Mr. Baker, of Lismacue, co. Tipperary, was a 



i44 Modern Dogs. 



firm adherent of the red and white variety, and Mr. 
Mahon considers his breed a particularly good one ; 
they had black noses, and were fine upstanding 
dogs, selected with care, with good feathering and 
low carriage of stern. 

11 My next informant was Mr. John Bennett, of 
Grange, King's County, who hunted the county for 
over 30 years, and whose recollection goes back to 
the early part of the present century. So far back 
as the year 1835 he owned a light red bitch called 
Cora, which he mated with a red dog, the property 
of the late Captain Vaughan, of Golden Grove, 
King's County, one of the O'Connor breed, which so 
far as he can recollect, were all red. Captain 
Vaughan had two brace of the strain in his kennels, 
and all these were red with black noses, sterns 
carried low (a point then, as now, highly valued), 
large sized and muscular. 

" Mr. Bennett considers the O'Connor and 
Yelverton O'Keeffe's strain of red and white setters 
the best he ever shot over. The latter paid great 
attention to keeping them pure, and adhered to the 
parti- coloured in preference to the whole coloured 
variety, though, strange to say, the last of the race 
was a red dog in the possession of the late Charley 
O'Keeffe, of Parsonstown, son of Yelverton O'Keeffe. 
This Mr. Bennett accounts for by Yelverton 



The Irish Setter. 145 



O'Keeffe's admission that he had used a red in his 

strain, having bred from a handsome specimen in 

» 

the possession of Long, a coachmaker in Mary- 
street, Dublin, which had a cross of the O'Connor 
breed ; but Mr. Bennett says the wholly red were 
scarce, and much more difficult to break than the 
red and white dogs. 

" It is to be observed that neither Mr. Mahon nor 
Mr. Bennett ever exhibited setter^, but used them 
solely for work. I myself shot over a dog and bitch, 
Beau and Belle, the property of Mr. Darby, of Leap 
Castle, Roscrea, which he obtained from Judge 
O'Connor Morris, a descendant of Maurice Nugent 
O'Connor (before mentioned), and both these were 
dark red with black noses, but with, to my eyes, a 
strong suspicion of a Gordon or other cross, as their 
coats were too deep in colour, and were, moreover, 
inclined to be broken, not silky and fine as they 
should be. 

11 1 next consulted Mr. John G. King, of Ballylin, 
King's County, who may be fairly looked upon as 
the father of the breed in this country. He has 
been a constant attendant and exhibitor at dog 
shows, not alone of setters, but of pointers and fox- 
hounds. He is still as keen as possible, notwith- 
standing that he paid for his first game licence in 
1837, and his experience is golden, for not only does 

L 



146 Modern Dogs. 



he remember clearly the dogs of the past, but he can 
recollect the names of winners at dog shows, in what 
he calls recent years, from the show in the Rotunda 
Gardens, Dublin, about 1863, down to the last field 
trials in Cookstown. 

" At the Rotunda show he pointed out that there 
were numbers of red and white setters exhibited. 
Although Mr. King keeps a note book in which he, 
from time to time, jotted down names of dogs and 
incidents connected with them, he seldom has to 
refresh his memory of either the owner, breeder, or 
dog, and he firmly adheres to the assertion that the 
entirely red coloured dog was not only in the 
minority, but difficult to obtain at all. He quotes 
an instance of a gamekeeper from Roscommon, from 
whom he was in the habit of purchasing dogs, 
bringing him a red dog, and urging him to purchase 
it because of its rarity. He gives the palm to the 
O'Connor strain as having been selected with the 
most care, and kept for years pure from extraneous 
crosses. In confirmation of his assertion that the 
red and white were, in former years, the favoured 
breed, he refers to a picture at Sharavogue, the seat 
of the late Earl of Huntingdon, who married the only 
daughter of the late Colonel Westenra (the owner of 
the famous racehorse " Freeny") representing Lord 
Rossmore, the ancestor of the Westenra family, and 



The Irish Setter. 147 

an enthusiastic sportsman, shooting over three or 
four setters. Only one of these is whole coloured, 
and this dog is a pale golden red, with a white snip 
on the forehead, all the others are red and white. 

" Amongst noted breeders in the past Mr. King 
quotes Mr. La Touche, of Harristown, who had the 
O'Connor strain ; Mr. Dunne, of Brittas ; Mr. Samuel 
Handy, of Parsonstown ; Miss Lidwell, Lord Howth, 
Lord Waterford, Mr. Trumble, of Malahide, Dublin, 
and Mr. Reeves, of Dublin. Mr. King — when only 
verging on manhood as a Trinity College student, 
was even then a sportsman — and can recall Dycer's 
red dog " Don " (the reputed father of Captain 
Hutchinson's famous " Bob ") and often sought "the 
Repository " for the purpose of a ramble with old 
11 Don/' Miss Lidwell (or Ledwich as she was 
sometimes erroneously called), had the reputation 
for keeping good dogs, and Mr. King on a visit to 
her cottage, near Beggar's Bush Barracks, Dublin, 
saw the then crack " Pluto," a red and white. The 
lady had shortly before been interviewed by the late 
Mr. Edward Laverack, who wished to take her dog 
to England to cross with his strain, but the lady was 
obdurate, even indignant, and refused to lend or sell 
her favourite. 

" Of later breeders, Mr. King is equally familiar, 
and can recall the faults and perfections of champion 

L 2 



148 Modern Dogs. 



Palmerston ; Miss Warburton's Lilly ; Mr. Giltrap's 
Garryowen ; Mr. Nuttall's Maybe and Loo VII. ; 
Captain Milner's Frisco ; and at a recent Ballsbridge 
show he was as interested in the awards as the most 
recent exhibitor. He disagrees with Mr. Bennett as 
to the colour of the O'Connor breed, as he maintains 
they were red and white. A few words in conclusion 
of his remarks. He confines his observations to those 
localities with which he personally was acquainted, 
and as these did not extend either to the bleak 
north, or the wilds of Kerry, he cannot say that the 
red setter may not, in these favoured districts, have 
existed in considerable numbers. 

11 Now it has often been mooted, and always met 
with a most decided opposition from the Irish Red 
Setter Club, that a class should be given for red and 
white dogs, and surely if they are more easily broken 
than the whole coloured dogs and more easily seen 
on mountain or moor, it would not be a step in the 
wrong direction to try and resuscitate so valuable a 
strain. There must be many specimens still existing 
when so comparatively recently as the Rotunda 
show, before referred to, several red and whites were 
exhibited on the benches. There is another point 
worth observing, and that is the red dogs of the past, 
and even those shown at the earlier shows were not 
nearly so deep in colour as many now before the 



The Irish Setter. 149 



public on the benches. The Irish Red Setter Club's 
own rules state that the correct colour is " a rich 
golden chesnut." How many of this colour do we 
now see winning at our leading dog shows ? 

11 My next informant (says Mr. Bennett) was Mr. 
Cecil Moore, the breeder of champion Palmerston, 
Kate (afterwards Mr. Perrin's), and numerous other 
celebrities. This gentleman is from county Tyrone, 
and informs me that in that locality the red dog was 
the favourite, and numbers of them were to be 
found in the possession of sportsmen about the 
town of Omagh, and as he has turned " the three 
score and ten years allotted to man," and is a 
good shot, and kept dogs of the right sort, his 
opinion is valuable. 

"That the red and white were in existence he 
freely admits, but that they were Irish setters at all 
he denies, as he holds to the opinion that they 
were imported from England, and were a distinct 
breed. Amongst breeders of the pure red sort he 
mentions Mr. Jason Hazzard, of Timaskea, county 
Fermanagh, who, so far back as the year 181 2, kept 
nothing but whole coloured specimens. The Earl 
of Enniskillen, grandfather of the present Earl, about 
the same period had a different strain of the red 
colour, on which he set great value. Between these 
gentlemen a friendly rivalry existed, and both 



150 Modern Dogs. 



evidently admired each other's breed, as they even- 
tually bred their favourites together, a red bitch, the 
property of the commoner, visiting a dog of the Earl's. 

" Mention may also be made of Mr. Evans, of 
Dungannon (land agent to Lord Ranfurley), who 
had a kennel of Irish red setters, and kept no others. 
Mr. Moore relates a curious instance of a pure bred 
red bitch, which he used to one of the red and white 
variety, and which, when mated with whole coloured 
dogs, in every subsequent litter threw a pup or two 
of similar marking to the first cross. 

" Mr. Moore seldom exhibited his setters in the 
early days of dog shows, preferring them for their 
working qualities alone, and the famous old 
champion Palmerston had a narrow escape of being 
lost to the admiring gaze of the public. Mr. Moore, 
finding him rather a delicate dog for field work 
(though most persevering and with an excellent 
nose), ordered his man to drown him, as he did not 
wish to give him to anyone who would use him for 
shooting purposes, as he had then passed his prime. 
The late Mr. Hilliard met the poor old dog on the 
way to what was expected to be his watery grave, 
and begged him from Mr. Moore. The dog was 
given him conditionally that Mr. Hilliard would 
keep him for show purposes alone. The result is 
known to most of my readers. 



The Irish Setter. 151 

" It would appear, from Mr. Moore's remarks, 
that a white patch on chest or white on the feet was 
little regarded, and he has frequently known a patch 
on the back of the neck appear in the best red 
setters, and that this is still the fact is well known to 
breeders. Now, may it not be reasonably asked, is 
not this some former cross with the red and white 
variety repeating itself? For, although in self- 
coloured breeds, such as the black retriever, the 
black Field spaniel, the Irish terrier, a patch on the 
chest is but little thought of ; while on the toes, 
and, worse still, on the neck or body, the mark is 
regarded with much disfavour. 

" The Palmerstbn strain, as most breeders are 
aware, frequently had what the late Mr. Lort called 
the ' Palmerston snip/ a thin thread of white 
running down the forehead, and in some of his 
descendants this amounted to a pretty broad 
" blaze " on the forehead. 

"It should be borne in mind that in early days 
men kept dogs of all breeds for their good working 
qualities alone, and I think it reasonable to suppose 
that if an enthusiastic sportsman had a particularly 
excellent red dog, and his friend and neighbour an 
equally good red and white bitch, or vice versa, they 
were pretty certain to breed them together. Be it 
also remembered that travelling in those days was 



152 Modern Dogs. 



not the easily accomplished matter it is now, nor 
were dogs advertised at stud or for sale to any great 
extent, if at all. Dog shows were wholly unknown, 
consequently the dogs of those days were only 
locally famous. 

' ' It is somewhat difficult to reconcile the apparent 
difference in opinions existing between the various 
gentlemen who have been mentioned by me as to 
whether the original breed was red and white, or 
wholly red. Mr. Mahon, who may be taken to have 
a good knowledge of the west, and Mr. King, who 
knew the Midland counties, and, as a college youth 
the vicinity of Dublin, believed that the original 
breed was red and white, but both admit that the 
red dog was usually to be found, though not to any 
great extent. 

11 Mr. Bennett, who knew the Midland counties 
and Dublin, holds the opinion that the red and white 
predominated, but that the red was kept in com- 
parative purity in certain kennels, but believes that 
there were few, if any, men in those days (save Mr. 
Maurice O'Connor, perhaps) who would not use a 
red and white, if he were a well-proved good one, in 
the field. Do not these facts tally with Mr. 
Moore's assertion that he himself did so on one 
occasion ? 

" It is easy to suppose the red dog existed in 



The Irish Setter. 153 



greater numbers in the north, and the red and white 
in the midland and western counties, but that the 
red and white were imported from England in 
sufficient quantities, in those days of slow sailing 
boats, and with no accommodation for dogs, and 
the stupendous difficulties to be encountered on 
stage coaches, &c, to establish a breed of red and 
white English setters, I think, very unlikely. 
Therefore the natural conclusion appears to be that 
the red and white Irish setter was the favourite in 
certain counties crossed with the red Irish setter 
when the latter was a good performer, and that the 
red setter was held in highest esteem in other 
counties crossed with the red and white, when 
occasion demanded. 

11 An interesting pamphlet (now, I believe, out of 
print), has been lent me by Mr. Giltrap, secretary of 
the Irish Red Setter Club, and which was published 
by Dr. Wm. Jarvis, of Claremont, New Hampshire, 
U.S.A., in the year 1879. It purports to contain 
the pedigree and performance of the two famous 
setter champions " Elcho" and " Rose/' The former 
dog was born in the year 1874, and, after gaining a 
second prize in Dublin, found his way to America, 
where he had numerous successes on the bench, and 
was the sire of Captain Milner's Aileen, Berkeley 
Ben, and Joe Junior, and a host of other winners, 



154 Modern Dogs. 



Rose, bred by Mr. Cecil Moore, was born the same 
year as Elcho, and was by champion Palmerston out 
of Flora, and, after winning two prizes in Ireland and 
one in England, went to Dr. Jarvis's kennels ; and 
the following is an extract from the pamphlet, which 
is not, I think, without significance on the question 
of the purity of the breed. 

"' About 1796, the then Earl of Enniskillen, of 
Florence Court, county of Fermanagh, had a 
remarkably fine strain of Irish setters, and in 18 14 
he and Mr. Jason Hazzard, of Timaskea, in the 
same county, also had an equally fine strain, which 
they crossed. Mr. Jackson Lloyd, of Tamnamore, 
obtained this strain from Mr. Hazzard ; and in 18 19, 
Mr. Robert Evans, of Gostmerron, Dingamore, 
county of Tyrone, obtained the family from Mr. 
Lloyd, and crossed it with the then noted strain of 
Irish red setters possessed by the late Captain 
McDonald. Mr. Evans was a noted sportsman 
throughout the north of Ireland, and his Irish setters 
were famed for their beauty and field qualities. In 
1846, Mr. Moore obtained the breed from Mr. 
Evans, and has since kept it pure/ " 

There is sufficient evidence in Mr. Bennett's 
communication to prove that the original Irish 
setter was red and white, and that the fine red race 
were the rarer of the two. Even among the earlier 



The Irish Setter. 155 

days of dog shows, few of the best dogs were wholly 
red, and one of the most shapely and successful of 
them, Dr. Stone's Dash, was red and white. But 
the rage was even then abroad for the whole- 
coloured dogs, and those who procured them would 
not look at any other, and attacked Dash wherever 
he won, and called him a mongrel. 

As a fact, the red and white dog is the more 
useful, and the wholly red dog's popularity is the 
result of the show bench. Those who have ever 
shot on the mountains and bogs of Ireland cannot 
fail to have noticed the difficulty there is at times in 
discerning the red dog, when on a wide range, with 
a brown heather background, he comes to a point. 
By no means is it unusual to lose your dog under 
such circumstances, and if he is not altogether lost, 
and his skeleton found still pointing when the 
shooter goes that way in twelve months time, it is 
through the good sense of the dog, who would never 
commit suicide under such conditions. A few 
years ago, at the Field Trial meeting, held in county 
Tyrone, Mr. J. G. Hawkes lost one of his dogs 
under similar circumstances whilst running a trial. 
An hour or more later one of the keepers found the 
dog on a stiff point. Had it been red and white, 
such a thing could not have happened. At the same 
meeting and at others the difficulty of distinguishing 



156 Modern Dogs. 



the red dogs was brought prominently forward when 
they were running against liver and white or lemon 
and white pointers or setters, for the latter could be 
observed with less than half the difficulty it took to 
discern the native animals. 

Nor have I found that birds lie one bit the better 
to dark coloured dogs than they do to those of a 
lighter hue. It is often the custom to tie a white 
handkerchief around the neck of a red setter when 
he is being shot over, in order that he can be more 
easily seen. 

The Rev. Thomas Pearce (" Idstone"), writing of 
the Irish red setter twenty years ago, remarked that 
he would not be surprised were they to become 
popular. That they have done so there is no 
doubt. 

For many years the Rev. J. C. Macdona's Plunket 
stood alone in his race as the one Irish setter that 
had ever proved his excellence at Field Trials. 
This dog, after winning second prize in the aged 
stake, to Mr. Statter's Bruce, at the National 
Meeting, Shrewsbury, in 1870, was purchased by 
Mr. Purcell-Llewellin, who won the prize for setters 
with him at Vaynol the same year, and other field 
trials and bench honours subsequently. Plunket, 
who was bred by the late Rev. R. O'Callaghan, 
R.N., and not by the Hon. D. Plunket, as erroneously 



The Irish Setter. 157 



stated in the Kennel Club Stud Book, had Captain 
Hutchinson's Bob for his grandsire ; Plunket was a 
fairly good-looking dog, and perhaps all round no 
Irish setter that has yet appeared could beat him. 
But, of course, this is purely a matter of opinion, 
for it is very difficult to judge of the work of two 
dogs without seeing them together, especially when 
there is an interval of about twenty years between 
him and the best of recent years — Aveline, Drogheda, 
and some others. In appearance either of the two 
named would easily have beaten Plunket in the 
show ring, whatever might have been the result in 
the field. 

When the Irish Setter Club was established, in 
1882, considerable impetus was given to the red 
setter, but even before that time he was beginning 
to make his mark as a good worker at field trials. 
He had long borne a reputation for being wild and 
headstrong, and another fault he had was a tendency 
to put his nose down and hunt the foot scent like a 
hound rather than seek for it in the wind. This was 
said to be on account of some remote, may be 
fabulous, cross, years and years ago with a blood- 
hound. However, that he was fond of hunting on 
the ground there is no doubt whatever, any more 
than there is of his wilfulness and difficulty in 
breaking. When properly and perfectly trained, the 



158 Modern Dogs. 



red setter has shown us that no other variety of the 
setter can beat him. 

I should conscientiously say that, from what I 
have observed in his work of late years, and I have 
seen all the best dogs run, that the Irish setter 
is as dashing, as energetic, as stylish as the best 
English dog I ever saw. I believe he, as a general 
rule, will do a long and hard day's work better than 
any other breed of setter. His stamina is extra- 
ordinary. I shall never forget that big, strong dog 
11 Wrestler " (Mr. W. H. Cooper, of Derbyshire), 
that ran at the Irish Trials in 1891. Each morning 
he followed, or rather preceded, the cars, during 
the long ten miles' drive to the moors, on his way 
racing over the fields and enclosures, and, indeed, 
doing an ordinary day's work before his trials com- 
menced, and when he did run his first heat he was 
even then too wild. No English or Gordon setter 
would have been allowed to do .this, and it must 
have proved even too much for those untiring 
liver and white little dogs to which allusion has 
previously been made in the article on English 
setters. 

Perhaps after Plunket, most attention was attracted 
to Irish setters by the good work of a bitch, called 
Aveline, belonging to the late Rev. R. O'Callaghan, 
which ran at the Kennel Club meeting in the spring 



The Irish Setter. 159 

of 1885. She was a handsome bitch, so much so, 
indeed, as to obtain the cognomen of "beautiful," 
and as the " beautiful Aveline " she was often 
known. I recollect how the stake appeared at her 
mercy, when, unfortunately, a very little rabbit 
jumped up almost between her legs, and the high 
couraged bitch, unable to resist the temptation, 
committed a fault so grave that quite prevented 
her taking that precedence in the stake her pace, 
style, and nose, would have entitled her under 
more favourable circumstances. Later on she won 
all before her on the show bench, and was not long 
in attaining her degree as champion. 

For many years Mr. O'Callaghan, who died 
somewhat suddenly early in 1897, had given con- 
siderable attention to the production of the Irish 
setter in its purity. I have seen his dogs, when 
properly broken and handled at field trials, do 
excellent work, and the Kennel Club Stud Books 
tell how successful they have been in the show ring. 
There are enthusiasts of the variety who consider 
this strain usually too dark in colour, too deep in 
their bright redness, which is indeed a lovely hue. I 
have a peculiar fondness for this colour so long as 
it does not show any actual blackness, indicative of 
Gordon cross, the latter so marked in many of 
the earlier show dogs — Mr. Jones's Carlo to wit, 



160 Modern Dogs. 



who did a considerable amount of winning in his 
day. 

Possibly, at some time or another, these red setters 
were so crossed. Mr. Laverack writes of a red dog he 
saw at Cockermouth, in Cumberland, which he would 
have much liked to have used to his setters. He 
found on inquiry that this dog always produced one 
or more black puppies, and, although he was fast 
and had a good nose, he was so headstrong that he 
could not be broken. I fancy some of our modern 
skilled trainers would soon have brought him to his 
senses. 

Richardson, who wrote little of the Irish setter, 
says he is perhaps the purest of all setters, and that 
his colour is " a yellowish red." Writing more than 
fifty years since, he remarks, such dogs " are the 
genuine unmixed descendants of the original land 
spaniel, and, so highly valued are they, that a hundred 
pounds is by no means an unusual price for a single 
dog." This was a very high price for such a dog, 
in Richardson's time, but another authority on 
the breed, who flourished rather before this period, 
says that so valued were some strains of the Irish 
setter, that on one occasion an estate was given for 
a brace of dogs. The story of the latter is told by 
Daniel, who, on the authority of a Mr. Thornhill, 
says, " A gentleman in the North of Ireland once 



The Irish Setter. 161 



gave his tenant for a dog and bitch the renewal of a 
lease of a farm for 999 years, which, had the lease 
expired, would have cleared to the landlord more 
than ^250 per annum." No dates or names are 
given, but as Daniel wrote this in 1805 the occur- 
rence, if true, no doubt took place towards the close 
of the last century. 

It may be right to allude to Youatt's opinion as 
to the colour of Irish setters when he wrote about 
1845. He says they are " either very red, or red 
and white, or lemon coloured, or white patched with 
deep chesnut; and it was necessary for them to 
have a black nose and a black roof to their mouth/ ' 
The same author tells us that an Irish setter will 
fetch a higher price than an English or Scotch one, 
" fifty guineas being no unusual sum for a brace, 
and even two hundred guineas have been given." 
It is just as well to make these quotations here, as 
they will remind the present and a future generation 
that the Irish setter had a reputation of its own 
before it came to be re-popularised by working at 
Field Trials and by its appearance in the show ring. 

How the variety has progressed during the past 
few years, may be judged from the fact that at the 
first Birmingham show, held in i860, there were but 
four entries in the bitch class, and these so little 
deserving that no prize was awarded. At the same 

M 



1 62 Modern Dogs. 



exhibition, in 1891, there were something like 
eighteen red setter bitches in competition, and 
in 1896 there were in all forty-seven entries of 
Irish setters. • The classes for them are, however, 
much better filled at the exhibitions held in Dublin, 
Cork, Belfast, and other large towns in their native 
country. When the Kennel Club Stud Book was 
published, in 1874, the Irish were the only variety 
of setter grouped dogs and bitches together. 
Matters have changed since that time, and the 
red dogs now get their due. 

One of the handsomest Irish setters following 
immediately after Dr. Stone's Dash was Mr. 
Hilliard's Count, a most typical specimen, lovely 
in colour, which was not too dark, but just dark 
enough. Then there was Mr. Giltrap's Garryowen, 
who, in his day, had been considered almost invin- 
cible. Mr. Cecil Moore's Old Kate, who did a 
considerable amount of winning between 1878 and 
1882, when she was the property of Mr. Abbot and 
others, was certainly one of the best bitches 1 ever 
saw, and Mr. Hilliard's Palmerston, already alluded 
to, an immense dog, 641b. in weight, and with an 
abnormally long and narrow head, monopolised the 
leading prizes at most of the best shows about 
this date. 

Such admirers of the breed as Mr. Hilliard, of 



The Irish Setter. 163 

Dublin ; Mr. Waterhouse, Killiney ; Mr. Giltrap, 
Dublin ; Captain Milner, Booterstown, Dublin ; Mr. 
McGoff, Tralee; Messrs. Perrin, Kingstown; Mr. 
J. G. Hawkes, Kenmare ; Mrs. Grattan Bellew, 
Enniskerry; Mr. JE. Falkiner Nuttall, co. Sligo; Mr. 
F. Bass, Cork ; Dr. Hanson, Bray ; Mr. Bond, 
Londonderry ; and other Irish families have latterly 
done, and are doing, much to give the variety its 
present popularity. Such has, however, been much 
more brought about in a similar manner, by breeders 
this side the water, for the late Rev. R. O'Callaghan, 
R.N., Wickham Market; Mr. C. C. Ellis, Suffolk; 
Mr. H. M. Wilson, Holmes Chapel, Cheshire; Mr. 
W. H. Cooper, Ashbourne ; Mr. A. Taylor, 
Beaminster, Dorset; Major Jameson; Mr. A. E. 
Taylor, Cheadle ; Mr. C. Austin, Wickham Market ; 
Sir H. de Trafford, Trafford Park (there are others 
likewise) have proved thorough enthusiasts in 
keeping up the strain. 

Captain Milner has been very successful with his 
dogs, both on the bench and in the field ; and his 
Frisco, who died in 1892, was certainly one of the 
crack dogs of the day, as his red puppy Airnie was 
one of the best youngsters of the Trial season during 
the same year. She won first honours at the Kennel 
Club, at the National trials, and at the Irish trials, 
and could not be deemed lucky in so doing. Airnie 

M 2 



164 Modern Dogs. 



was one of the most careful and steady Irish setters 
I ever saw, and although able to go fast enough 
when so inclined, she in a great measure lacked that 
dash and fire usually found in her strain. Her 
kennel companion Spalpeen, has likewise performed 
well and steadily in public trials, and was also an 
exceedingly steady dog. It may be mentioned here 
as somewhat extraordinary that at the Kennel Club 
trials, when Airnie won, the whole of the winning 
setters in the puppy stakes were of the Irish variety. 

Mr. O'Callaghan's Aveline we have alluded to, 
and his bitch Coleraine, in 1891, created quite a 
sensation by the brilliant manner in which she ran 
through the puppy stakes at both the National and 
Kennel Club trials, and was placed third in the open 
competition at the latter meeting. She had greater 
style and dash than either of the dogs that ran so 
well for Mr. Milner, and I fancy could have beaten 
both of them. She went to America. 

Mr. McGoff's Mac's Little Nell, born in 1884, and 
purchased by Mr. C. C. Ellis, was one of the most 
wonderful little setters I ever saw. Though barely 
4olb. in weight, she went as fast as the big ones, had 
an excellent nose, and dropped on scent instantane- 
ously ; in her day no one would have been surprised 
to have seen her beat anything that she was put 
down against. Her field trial successes, when she 



The Irish Setter. 165 



died in the winter of 1892, had been greater than 
those of any other Irish setter. 

Messrs. Perrin's dogs, although fair performers at 
the trials, excelled more on the show bench, his 
Hector, Kate, and Wee Kate being cracks in 
their line, but his very successful Maid of the 
West, born in America, was a very much over- 
estimated animal. Similar remarks as to bench 
qualifications apply to the Killineys of Mr. 
Waterhouse, and to the several dogs Mr. Giltrap, 
the popular secretary of the Irish Setter, has from 
time to time owned, and still owns. At Glengariff, 
Kenmare, Mr. J. G. Hawkes spends his leisure 
in training his dogs, several of which have run 
successfully at the Irish trials. His Blue Rock, 
first prize Birmingham in 1890, and such animals as 
his Signal, Muskerry, Miss Signal, were quite as 
good dogs as any man might be proud of owning. 
Muskerry, the sire of most of Mr. Hawkes' dogs 
and other winners, I have not seen, but am told he 
is a valuable and handsome animal, and has shown 
extraordinary stamina, though on several occasions he 
has been terribly hard run. The Hon. Mrs. Bellew had 
a large and valued kennel at Tenchurch, Enniskerry, 
and her Susi, who won in the bitch class, at Curzon 
Hall, in 1890, was a particularly good specimen. 
Mr. W. W. Despard, Rathmoyle, Queen's County, 



1 66 Modern Dogs. 



has at times shown some excellent dogs, and an 
omission would be caused were no mention made of 
the many Irish setters that Mr. W. H. Lipscombe 
has so often brought from Dublin to compete at our 
English trials, though they may have not met with 
that amount of success such enterprise deserved. 
Mr. Falkiner Nuttall, of Cullinamore, Sligo, has 
for years had many good dogs, of which perhaps 
Loo VII. was his best. Later Mr. F. H. Bass, of 
co. Cork, showed some beautiful animals, his 
Blossom IV. being quite good enough to win the 
cup for the best of all varieties of setter at Birming- 
ham in 1894, and in 1896 a similar honour went to 
Dr. Harrison's Bray Princess, who with her brother 
Bray Prince were awarded all before them at the 
same show in the best collection of Irish setters ever 
brought together. But this placement was received 
with disfavour, and some very bitter correspondence 
followed in certain newspapers. It was particularly 
marked that Sir H. de Trafford's Camlough Bloom, 
who had previously won leading honours at Dublin, 
Belfast, and other places, was entirely overlooked, a 
fate which likewise befel Blossom IV. so far as 
prize money was concerned, who had been at the 
head of all the setters two years before, and in 1 896 
she was quite as fit as in 1894. 

On the bench the Rev. R. O'Callaghan's cracks 



The Irish Setter. 167 

were often seen pitted against those of Mr. Ellis for 
supremacy, and victory was sometimes one way, and 
sometimes another. But such dogs as Fingal, 
Shandon III., Finglass, and Geraldine, are good 
enough whether beaten or not ; and Mr. Ellis's 
Drogheda, and his Dartrey, Rossmore, Tarbat, &c, 
formed, perhaps, as fine a team of red setters as ever 
stood to grouse. Drogheda was an unlucky dog at 
the trials, making some serious mistake or other, 
either through his own fault or his handler's, 
just as he appeared to be winning the chief prize. 
By show goers Mr. H. M. Wilson's Nellie will long 
be remembered for her successes on the bench, a 
bitch whose beauty we have brought to our recol- 
lection by an excellent portrait of her by the great 
animal painter Basil Bradley. 

Mr. W. H. Cooper, at Ashborne, in Derbyshire, 
had for some time, perhaps, a larger kennel of Irish 
setters than anyone else, and their good qualities 
have been well known both on the bench and in the 
field. The names of his Wrestler, Finnigan's Wake, 
Sure Death, Vicar, and Woodbine, will, we fancy, be 
found in future pedigrees where a combination of 
the " best blue blood " is desired ; for such will 
ensure that its possessors can gallop and stay with 
any dog coming against them during the most 
arduous field trial work imaginable. At the Irish 



1 68 Modem Dogs. 



trials at Omagh, in 1889, there were a number of 
extraordinary dogs running, amongst them Hen- 
more Sure Death, and Woodbine (bred by Mr. 
Hawkes), fast and brilliant in the extreme. The 
former made a unique performance by winning 
both the puppy stake and the all-aged stake, the 
latter including all varieties of setters and pointers, 
and she was second, too, in the open puppy 
stake, beaten by the late Mr. Heywood- Lonsdale's 
Ightfield Rosa. She also, if I mistake not, was 
third with Woodbine in the braces. Such a per- 
formance as this over a rough country, at once 
stamps the excellence of the strain from which she 
comes. Other good dogs of Mr. Cooper's were 
winning at the Irish trials in the autumn of 1892. 
Here his kennel performed unusually well, Clonsilla, 
a smart bitch, especially distinguishing herself. 

Mr. Taylor's (Dorset) dogs, though successful on 
the bench, have not yet been tried in public on 
the mountains, nor have those of his namesake 
Mr. A. E. Taylor, of Cheadle ; neither have I seen 
Major Jameson's great bench dog Ponto, or his 
kennel companion Drenagh anywhere but in the 
show ring, where they appear to be pretty nearly as 
good as they can be. 

Perhaps there have been no better Irish setters 
running and being shown of late than such as have 



The Irish Setter. 169 



come from Mr. C. Austin's kennels at Brandeston 
Hall, Wickham Market; his Tim Sullivan and 
Ben Sullivan being as good a brace as ever ran 
before the gun, and in appearance they are quite up 
to the best show form. Tim, after appearing un- 
successfully as a puppy in 1892, in the following year 
went higher, winning second at Cullompton ; whilst 
perhaps Ben Sullivan's best performance was when 
he ran third at Bala in 1894, his careful methodical 
work there pleasing the Welsh keepers more than 
that of any other dog. Following this brace, to keep 
up the prestige of the race came Mr. T. Humphrey's 
Bonnie Dan of Coldhill and Bonny Jill of Coldhill 
both of which proved themselves quite in the first 
flight, and although pretty hard run took sundry 
honours in 1895-6. In the latter year Sir H. de 
Trafford's Punchestown, who had been bred by Mr. 
J. G. Hawkes in 1892, and was by Ponto — Kerry 
Kate, made his appearance and met with a con- 
siderable amount of success although at first he 
ran indifferently, which may have been owing to the 
fact that in the first instance he had been trained 
and shot over in the usual manner without any inten- 
tion of a public appearance. He ran at all the last 
(1896) seasons trials, his first success being second 
at the Setter Club, whilst in Ireland he divided a 
first prize with a kennel companion and was one of 



170 Modern Dogs. 



the winning brace. He is a show dog as well as a 
worker and has met with great success in the latter 
position after making an unsuccessful first appear- 
ance at Curzon Hall in 1895. 

It is difficult to judge the standard of the 
dogs which have appeared at only one meeting, 
Mr. Shirley, who was one of the judges in Ireland 
in co. Galway last autumn, speaks very highly of 
the work done by Mr. T. A. Bond's bitch Oonagh 
of Cullinamore who, born in 1888, ran through the 
all -aged stake with great dash, finding birds in 
beautiful form and displaying natural abilities as well 
as training of a high order. Those who saw this 
bitch run when eight years old regret that she had 
not been entered at our English trials, where it was 
said she might have proved as successful and as 
attractive as Mac's Little Nell had done years before. 

In what I have written an endeavour has been 
made to do justice to a handsome and valuable 
variety of the dog, which, from some cause or other, 
did not receive its due during a certain era, say from 
about 1840 to 1880. The development of field 
trials, the spirited and concerted action of several of 
his admirers, and the formation of the red setter 
Club have, however, wrought a change, and 
naturally an improvement in the dog both in work 
and appearance. 



The Irish Setter. 171 

At the present time there are more good show 
specimens extant than at any previous period of their 
history, and in work the Irish setter is steadier and 
better than he was once upon a time. This, no 
doubt, arises from the greater pain6 taken in his 
breaking ; moreover, most of the best modern dogs 
are produced from animals whose ancestors for two 
or three generations have been highly trained. Such 
continued for a few years longer, and, may be, the 
red setter will be the shooting dog of the future. 
He is fortunate in having so many enthusiasts to 
look after his welfare, and, so long as they breed for a 
combination of working capabilities and good looks, 
abstaining at the same time from introducing strains 
other than so far pure and tried ones, we may look 
for a continued improvement in this favoured dog. 

I have said that, for work on the moors and 
mountains, a red and white dog is better than the 
deep, bright red, which is difficult to discern amid 
the brown heather on the hillside. But, if the 
breeders like the whole colour, let them stick to it 
by all means, and allow their failing sight to be 
assisted by tying a white handkerchief around the 
neck of their dog, for something of the kind is 
certainly required. And the shooting man who has 
a wide expanse of moor upon which birds are scarce 
and require a great deal of finding, and the walking 



172 Modern Dogs. 



is arduous, can have no better dog for the purpose 
than a properly trained and staunch Irish setter. 
Such a one will work hard all day and not give up 
in disgust about noon because he has failed to 
locate more than an odd bird or so. Shortly, the 
Irish setter appears to me to be the most persevering 
of all sporting dogs used with the gun. 

His points and description, as issued by the Irish 
Setter Club, are as follows : — 

"Head. — Should be long and lean. The skull 
oval (from ear to ear), having plenty of brain room, 
and with well-defined occipital protuberance. Brows 
raised, showing stop. The muzzle moderately deep, 
and fairly square at end. From the stop to the 
point of the nose should be long, the nostrils wide, 
and the jaws of nearly equal length, flews not to be 
pendulous. The colour of the nose dark mahogany 
or dark walnut, and that of the eyes (which ought 
not to be too large) rich hazel or brown. The ears 
to be of moderate size, fine in texture, set on low, 
well back, and hanging in a neat fold close to the 
head. 

"Neck. — Should be moderately long, very mus- 
cular, but not too thick, slightly arched, free from 
all tendency to throatiness. 

" Body. — Should be long — shoulders fine at the 
points, deep, and sloping well back. The chest as 



The Irish Setter. 173 



deep as possible, rather narrow in front. The ribs 
well sprung, leaving plenty of lung room. Loins 
muscular, and slightly arched. The hindquarters 
wide and powerful. 

" Legs and Feet. — The hind legs from hip to hock 
should be long and muscular ; from hock to heel, 
short and strong. The stifle and hock joints well 
bent, and not inclined either in or out. The fore- 
legs should be straight and sinewy, having plenty of 
bone, with elbows free, well let down, and, like the 
hocks, not inclined either out or in. The feet small, 
very firm, toes strong, close together, and arched. 

" Tail. — Should be of moderate length, set on 
rather low, strong at root, and tapering to a fine 
point ; to be carried in a scimitar-like curve on a 
level with or below the back. 

" Coat. — On the head, front of legs, and tips of 
ears, should be short and fine, but on all other parts 
of the body and legs it ought' to be of moderate 
length, flat, and as free as possible from curl or wave. 

" Feathering. — The feather on the upper portion of 
the ears should be long and silky; on the back of 
fore and hind legs long and fine ; a fair amount of 
hair on the belly, forming a nice fringe, which may 
extend on chest and throat. Feet to be well 
feathered between the toes. Tail to have a nice 
fringe of moderately long hair, decreasing in length 



*74 



Modern Dogs. 



as it approaches the point. All feathering is to be 
as straight and as flat as possible. 

11 Colour and Markings. — The colour should be a 
rich golden chesnut, with no trace whatever of 
black ; white on chest, throat, or toes, or a small star 
on the forehead, or a narrow streak or blaze on the 
nose or face not to disqualify/ ' 



Value. 

Head 10 

Eyes and ears 10 

Neck 4 

Body 20 

Hindlegs and feet io 

Forelegs and feet io 



Value. 

Tail 4 

Coat and feathers i o 

Colour 8 

Size, style, and general 
appearance 14 



64 

Grand Total 100. 



36 



It may be interesting to give the weight of some 
of our modern Irish setters : the late Rev. R. 
O'Callaghan's Fingal, 581b. ; his Shandon, 6olb. ; 
Mr. A. Taylor's Carlo, 551b. ; Mr. Austin's Sullivan, 
521b. ; his Tim Sullivan, 53^1b. ; his Ben Sullivan, 
551b. — the latter when in thin condition. Of 
some bitches the weights were : the late Rev. R. 
O'Callaghan's Erne, 52lb.; his Geraldine, 541b.; and 
his Kinvara, 491b. ; and Mr. A. Taylor's Netherbury 
Venus, Nellie, and Nellie II. scaled respectively 
49lb. , 481b., and 441b. 



\ 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE RETRIEVERS. 

Our retrievers were produced when the British 
sportsman found out that it was not good for his 
pointer or setter to fetch his game, and that the 
spaniel would not do this so well and quickly as a 
bigger dog ; so the retriever became a necessity. 
As a sporting dog, he is purely of modern growth. 
In America it is still the fashion for the pointer and 
setter to do the double duty of finding and standing 
his game and bringing it to his owner who has [shot 
it. A dog that does this is no doubt useful, answers 
the purpose of two dogs, and so keeps down the 
kennel ; but the luxuriousness of modern sport with 
which we are surrounded will not take the latter into 
consideration, and a man's kennel is incomplete 
without it includes retrievers of one or other of the 
few varieties. Again, in walking up the birds — 
which is almost the common procedure nowadays in 
the south of England and other good partridge 
countries — retrievers are required, and could not be 



176 Modem Dogs. 



done without ; and such is the case in grouse driving, 
duck shooting, and for bringing a wounded hare or 
a winged pheasant out of the covert. I incline to 
the opinion that a well-broken, soft-mouthed 
retriever is the best all-round dog a man can have — 
one whose means are limited, who is fond of sport, 
and has not accommodation for more than one dog. 
Let such an animal live in the house and be consti- 
tuted a constant companion, and there is no knowing 
how sensible a creature he will prove when his 
services are required in the field. 

The retriever is a creation within the past fifty 
years, and he was no doubt, in the first instance, pro- 
duced from crossing the old English or Irish water 
spaniel with the setter, the collie, and the smaller 
Newfoundland, usually known as the St. John or 
Labrador Newfoundland. Colonel Hutchinson, in 
his admirable work on dog breaking, gives us 
pictures of various crosses, and in general appear- 
ance these illustrations are of dogs bearing very 
much the characteristics of the modern retriever. 
Colonel Hutchinson published his book in 1847. 
Still, there were retrieving dogs long before Colonel 
Hutchinson's time. Dr. Caius wrote of dogs that 
brought back the " boults and arrows " that had 
missed the mark, and also such waterfowl as had 
been stung to death by some " venomous worm." 



The Retrievers. 177 

Conrad Gesner, in the early part of the sixteenth 
century, wrote of dogs trained to bring back birds to 
their masters ; but such animals as these were the 
spaniels commonly used at that time. 

It must be taken for granted that our modern 
retriever, be he either curly-coated, straight or 
wavy-coated, black, brown, black and tan, or pale 
liver in colour, at some time was produced from one 
or other of the crosses I have named. The " nick " 
answered well, and what is now an actual and distinct 
variety resulted therefrom — one that with careful 
crossing produces a type quite as well defined as is to 
be found in the mastiff, bloodhound, and bulldog, 
which may be taken as our oldest British varieties of 
the canine race. With the improved farming, close 
cropping, increasing wildness of game arising from a 
variety of causes, and a disinclination in the modern 
shooting man to fill his bag over pointers and 
setters, the retriever is in many quarters considered 
to be the dog of the future. Whether this will 
prove to be the case or not, time will tell. 

Field trials for retrievers were held at Vaynol 
Park, the seat of Mr. Assheton Smith, in the autumn 
of 1 87 1 -2, but on neither occasion do they appear 
to have been particularly successful. The usual 
competitions for pointers and setters took place at 
the same time, the retrievers doing their work in 

N 



178 Modem Dogs. 



conjunction with the other dogs. Birds were scarce, 
and " Stonehenge," in his Field report, said the 
only dog that did really good work was Mr. Parr's 
Cato, who took the chief prize on the second 
occasion. Two stakes, one for aged dogs, the 
other for puppies, were arranged at each meeting, 
and amongst those who made entries were Lord 
Downe, Mr. R. L. Purcell Llewellin, Mr. R. J. Lloyd 
Price and others. 

Whatever report may be as a rule in a matter of 
truthfulness, on this occasion it could not be far 
wrong when retriever trials by its rumour were pro- 
nounced a failure ; for, although Mr. Price subse- 
quently offered to find ground at Rhiwlas for a 
continuation of them, the kindly offer was not 
accepted, nor has anything of the sort been 
promoted since, though over twenty years have 
gone by since " Retriever Trials " were run. As 
a fact, the best work of such dogs would not be • 
seen under surroundings so public, for the real 
excellence in a retriever lies in its intelligence in 
finding dead or wounded game under circumstances 
so exceptional as to preclude any possibility of 
opportunity being afforded them so to do when 
actually required. 



i 



r 



»• ,i 



n : ' 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE CURLY-COATED BLACK RETRIEVER. 

The admirers of this variety cannot have failed to 
notice, as others have done, its gradual decadence 
as a sporting dog, and that its position is slowly but 
surely being usurped by the flat or wavy-coated 
retriever. This, I think, must be taken as another 
instance of the survival of the fittest. Those who 
possess the leading strains of " curlies," will, how- 
ever, not acknowledge this, as they believe their 
own the best dogs in the world for their purpose- 
harder in constitution, more shapely, and better able 
to do rough work than their cousins. 

Still, there is no getting away from the fact that 
the curly-coated retriever does not bear a good 
reputation. He is inclined to be hard-mouthed, i.e., 
he may bite and injure the game he ought to 
retrieve tenderly and without ruffling a feather. His 
temper, too, is decidedly unreliable, especially with 
strangers, although, no doubt, there are exceptions 
here as in everything else. We must, however, 

N 2 



180 Modern Dogs. 



look to the curly-coated retrievers as the hardiest of 
their race, and perhaps the best animals to use as 
assistants for wild fowl shooting. Were I, however, 
to be asked to express an opinion as to which 
variety of the British dog was most unreliable in 
temper, I should without hesitation say the curly- 
coated retriever. He is so as he reclines on his 
bench in the show building ; he is so with his 
companions in his kennels at home ; and he remains 
so when doing duty with the guns at the "big shoot' ' 
in the late autumn, when the leaves are off the trees 
and the undergrowth of bramble and fern have lost 
their luxuriance. 

He is a faithful and useful dog to follow the 
keeper who makes a companion of him, for in 
addition to being very steady and easy to command, 
he possesses a good nose if the scent be not too 
stale, and is well able to give variety to his 
retrieving instincts by killing any vermin that the 
traps may have caught. One big curly dog a 
keeper owned up in the north was an adept at 
finding stoats in an old stone fence. With his 
assistance, and that of the ferrets and the guns, we 
killed seven of these mischievous little creatures one 
afternoon, and there were two or three remaining 
which the dog's owner said they would get the next 
day. St. John, in his " Highland Sports," tells 



/ 

i 



The Curly -Coated Black Retriever. 181 

how a retriever of his found and brought out an 
otter. 

Although there are, in various parts of the 
country, some few kennels that contain the curly- 
coated retriever for working purposes, he is as often 
used for a companion and as a show dog. For a 
companion, as I have already hinted, he is not the 
most desirable, but as a show dog he excels. His 
deep black coat, hard, close crisp curls right on to 
the top of the brow, but no further should they go, 
his symmetry, clean ears, nicely shaped tail, and 
dark piercing eyes, that ought to have a mild 
expression, and so convey the impression of great 
sense and sagacity in their owner, make him 
particularly attractive on the show bench. Still, to 
be successful there, he requires a constant attention, 
and the cases are exceptional where a dog can be 
brought straight from work and prove successful in 
the ring. 

The earliest classes at shows for the curly- coated 
retrievers were at Birmingham in i860, but the 

competition was by no means keen. The first prize 

» 

was awarded to a big coarse dog, shown by Mr. W. 
Brailsford ; second honours went to a brown bitch 
belonging to Lord Alfred Paget, which, so far as 
looks went, was not worth her entrance fee. Up to 
1 864 all the varieties were shown together at Curzon 



1 82 Modem Dogs. 



Hall, but, following the example of the Cremorne 
management, the National exhibition increased the 
classification, and the two varieties competed 
separately, as they have done since, excepting, 
perhaps, where a special cup was concerned, offered 
for the best retriever in the show, and often enough 
a curly dog has won this great honour. 

Amongst the best of the race in the early days 
of the show was Mr. J. D. Gorse's Jet, which 
" Idstone " is said to have coveted, as that great 
authority considered him to be the most perfect dog 
he ever saw ; and this strain that Mr. Gorse then 
had at Radcliffe-on-Trent were, when trained, quite 
as good in the field as on the bench. Mr. Riley, of 
Lancashire, who just preceded Mr. Gorse as a 
successful exhibitor, had two excellent ones in Carlo 
and Carlo II., and, following them, Dr. Morris, of 
Rochdale, introduced his dogs True and XL., which, 
good as they were, never had quite the sagacious, 
kindly expression Mr. Gorse's two Jets appeared 
to possess. Still, these Lancashire dogs were, for 
a time, invincible on the bench, and so closely 
curled were they that, when a slight fringe did 
appear over the brow, it seemed quite excusable, 
because it might just have been crowded out from 
some other portion of the dog. 

Mr. J. H. Salter had some good dogs of the 



The Curly -Coated Blaek Retriever. 183 

variety about this time ; Mr. T. Swinburne's Chicory 
was a notoriety on the show bench, where she lasted 
far better and longer than is the case with the 
majority of exhibition dogs, and at Stowmarket, Mr. 
S. Matthews always kept in his kennels two or three 
animals fit to show and win anywhere. 

Now, in 1897, good curly-coated black retrievers 
are owned by Viscount Melville, at Melville Castle, 
Mid Lothian ; his Robin Hood is about equal to 
anything that one has seen of late, and that he can 
transfer his excellence to his sons was proved by a 
puppy by him being sold at Aldridge's in June for 
twenty- three guineas, the whole of the litter realising 
fifty-six guineas, by no means bad prices as things 
go for unbroken dogs. Mr. S. Darby, at Tiverton, 
appears to be giving more attention than anyone else 
to the variety, and, as I write, so far as the show 
bench is concerned, his kennel is by far the best, 
and contains at least half a dozen specimens about 
as perfect as they can be found. This was very 
much in evidence at the Birmingham shows of 
1895-6, when his Tiverton Beauty II. and Tiverton 
Beauty III. were awarded the special prize for the 
best brace of pointers, setters, or retrievers in the 
hall. These dogs are almost perfect in their "curl" 
and form generally. Mr. Henry Skipworth, of 
Barkwith, near Lincoln, had an almost equally good 



184 Modern Dogs. 



kennel, and of a strain that has been in his posses- 
sion many years. Mr. W. Walker, Preston, also 
owns several excellent specimens, and it was one 
of his fine young dogs to which Mr. Lloyd Price, 
when judging at Birmingham in 1892, awarded a 
second prize, he withholding all others in about as 
good a class of the variety as had been benched. 
Though each of the nine entries brought into the 
ring, had at one time or another taken show honours, 
they were not to the liking of the judge, who created 
quite a sensation by acting as stated. At any rate, 
he proved to have the courage of his convictions, 
which is not always the case with modern judges. 

In 1890 a club was formed with the laudable 
intention of, if possible, repopularising the curly- 
coated black retriever, but somehow or other it was 
allowed to lapse. However, another club was 
formed in 1896 with a similar object, but whether 
it will be able to popularise a waning variety — 
which no doubt the curly-coated retriever is — may 
be a matter of extreme doubt. The following is 
a description of the variety it adopted : 

" Head. — Long and narrow for the length. 

"Ears. — Rather small, set on low, lying close 
to the head, and covered with short curls. 

" yaws. — Long and strong, free from lippiness, 
with good sound teeth. 



The Curly -Coated Black Retriever. 185 

"Nose. — Wide open nostrils, moist and black. 

" Eyes. — Dark, cannot be too dark, rather large, 
showing great intelligence and splendid temper; a 
full pug eye an objection. 

" Coat. — Should be one mass of short, crisp 
curls from the occiput to the point of tail, a saddle 
back or patch of uncurled hair behind shoulders, and 
white patch on chest should be penalised, but few 
white hairs allowed in an otherwise good dog. 
Colour, black or liver. 

" Neck. — Long, graceful, but muscular, and well 
placed, and free from throatiness, such as a blood- 
hound. 

" Shoulders. — Very deep, muscular, and obliquely 
placed. 

" Chest. — Not too wide, but decidedly deep. 

" Body. — Rather short, muscular, and well ribbed 
up. 

" Legs. — Forelegs straight, with plenty of bone, 
not too long, and set well under body. 

"Feet. — Round and compact, with toes well arched. 

" Loin. — Powerful, deep, and firm to the grasp. 

" Tail. — Should be carried pretty straight, and 
covered with short curls, tapering towards tip. 

" General Appearance. — A strong, smart dog, 
moderately low on leg, active, lively, beaming with 
intelligence and expression. 



i86 



Modern Bogs. 



The weight is not given in the club standard ; 
dogs should be from 551b. to 681b., bitches about 
five pounds less. 



Head 
Jaws . 
Eyes. 
Neck. 
Chest 
Legs. 
Loins 



Value. 
10 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 
10 



Ears 

Nose 

Coat 

Shoulders, 

Body 

Feet 

Tail 



Value. 
5 
5 
15 

5 
5 
5 
5 



General appearance 10 



45 



55 



Grand total, 100. 




■v  w » 






!C 



V. 



r 



 

I 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE FLAT OR WAVY COATED BLACK 

RETRIEVER. 

This handsome and kindly animal, so say its 
admirers, is to be the sporting dog of the future. 
Whether this will prove the case or not only that 
future can decide, but, taking a line from the pro- 
gress it has made in public esteem during the past 
dozen years or so, it is a prognostication likely enough 
to prove correct. Here we have a creature made for 
use ; handsome, kindly in disposition, obedient, easy 
to rear, breeding true to type, and well answering 
•the purpose for which it is intended, so there can be 
little fear of retrogression on its part. Though the 
curly-coated dog had obtained the advantage at the 
start, he is coming in but a very bad second. The 
causes of this have already been alluded to. 

The flat or wavy coated retriever is now pretty 
well distributed throughout the British Isles, and 
few shooting parties leave home unaccompanied by 
a well trained specimen or two, which are, however, 



S/ 



1 88 Modern Dogs. 



actually more useful in turnips and on comparatively 
open ground, than they are in thick covert and 
tangled brushwood. Their coats are fine, and 
certainly not made for the purpose of resisting 
thorns and briers, and, so far as the experience of 
the writer goes, their one fault lies in their indis- 
position to face thick covert, and in whins and 
gorse I have seen them actually useless. Still, I 
have been told that there are some strains that I 
believe will do as well in the roughest covert as the 
curly dog. A friend of mine was taking exception 
to the lack of perseverance a flat-coated retriever 
displayed in making out the line of a winged phea- 
sant that had run about some bramble bushes ; at 
the same time praising his own dog, with a curly 
coat on him as shaggy as that of a Herdwick sheep. 
There requires to be a happy mean between the two, 
for, where one would not face the brambles at all, 
the other would, and had to be cut out of them, the 
strong prickles holding him fast as if he were in a 
net. On the conclusion of each day's shooting it 
would take two or three hours to free my friend's 
dog from the "burrs" that had become entangled 
in his coat. A hard, wavy coated retriever, clad in 
a jacket not unlike those possessed by the German 
griffons, would be useful in a rough country. 

The first introduction of the flat-coated retriever 



r 



The Flat or Wavy Coated Black Retriever. 1 89 

to the show bench was at Cremorne in 1873, but 
in the first volume of the Kennel Club Stud Book, 
printed in 1874, the two varieties are classed 
together. He was a much bigger and coarser dog 
than he is now. Some of the early specimens were 
pure and simple little Newfoundlands, and it has 
taken a few years' careful work to bring the wavy 
retriever to what it is at the present time. Not 
too big but just big enough. Our grandfathers 
said, " Oh ! we want a big retriever, a strong 'un ; 
one that can jump a gate with an 81b. hare in its 
mouth, and gallop with one at full speed.' ' This is 
not so now. A comparatively small dog is well able 
to carry a hare, and shooting is so precise that puss 
does not run as far as she did, when properly hit. 
Dogs are not made to assist bad shooters to fill a 
bag; and a man who cannot, in ninety-nine cases 
out of a hundred, stop a hare before she has run 
seventy yards, ought not to fire at another. And 
you do not require to have a special dog for that 
one chance in a hundred. 

Such animals as Dr. Bond Moore used to show 
were of enormous size and coarse to boot, and I 
am sure would not be looked at in the show ring to- 
day. If any of the blood of this strain remains it 
must be in very small quantities. One or two of 
his dogs had ugly light eyes, which, objectionable as 



190 Modern Dogs. 



it may be in other dark- coloured dogs, is more than 
trebly so in a retriever. The two Wyndhams which 
came earlier were better dogs, especially Mr. 
Meyrick's, that was winning at the leading shows 
from 1864 to 1870. Mr. W. Brailsford brought out 
the other Wyndham, this in )86o, a dog which was 
evidently almost pure Labrador, and, like its name- 
sake, has no pedigree in the Stud Book. Still, both 
dogs were successful on the show bench, so were 
much used, and their blood is to be found in most of 
the strains at the present day. Another excellent 
dog of the earlier period was Major Allison's Victor, 
which he had purchased at Edinburgh, and he, too, 
was without a pedigree so far as could be ascer- 
tained, and partook more of the Labrador character 
than that of the modern strains. It is interesting to 
note how true to type these pedigreeless dogs have 
proved, and do so at the present time. For instance, 
Mr. L. A. Shuter, of near Farningham, in Kent, 
some time ago purchased a bitch in the streets at 
Bristol, and could not obtain the slightest trace as to 
what her sire and dam were. Still, so good was 
she that he formed an alliance between her and his 
dog Darenth. The result was puppies so good that 
they won prizes in keen competition directly they 
came to be shown. Such cases are, however, excep- 
tional, and must not be considered when mentioned 



The Flat or Wavy Coated Black Retriever. 191 

here as an indication that I do not value pedigree, 
because the contrary is the case, and I would never 
have allowed any pedigreeless dog to be entered 
in the Kennel Club Stud Book. 

To Mr. S. E. Shirley, the president of the Kennel 
Club, the admirers of the wavy-coated retrievers are 
indebted for what he has done for the popularisation 
of the breed, and most of all the best dogs of the 
present day are of his strain. A valued lot of 
retrievers had been kept at Ettington Park long 
before the dogs of the show bench, and Mr. Shirley 
remembers black retrievers in the kennels there more 
than forty years ago. These dogs were much wavier 
in the coat than is the present fashion. In addition to 
those at Ettington Park, in the time of the father of 
the present popular owner, the neighbouring gentry 
round about Stratford-on-Avon had strains of their 
own, and these the late Mr. Shirley made use of in 
founding his kennel. One dog in these early days 
was especially valued, for he excelled all others 
in work as well as in looks. This was Nep, who 
belonged to Wey, then head keeper to Captain 
Peach, of Idlecote. The dog was, however, too 
valuable to stay long with his breeder, and Wey sold 
him for ^"20, a very high price then, to the late Mr. 
West, of Alscot Park. In due course Nep was the 
sire of a dog called Moses, who will no doubt be 



192 Modern Dogs. 



recollected by retriever breeders as the father of 
Mr. J. D. Gorse's once well known Sailor. 

The blood of this dog still remains in the best 
dogs in Mr. Shirley's kennels, and it is more than 
thirty years since he began to give special atten- 
tion to improving the retriever for show purposes. 
This he did by purchasing and using the best dogs 
obtainable, and by careful selection got them to the 
uniformity of type and general excellence as they 
are seen to-day on the benches at Birmingham and 
elsewhere. No setter cross has ever been used, but 
one of the older stock, Paris, was a Labrador, still 
he was a great winner on the bench in his day. Mr. 
G. T. Bartram's good old dog, Zelstone, used with 
great success up to the time of his death as a sire, 
had likewise an undoubted strain of Labrador in 
him. 

I have entered into the particulars of this kennel 
pretty fully for two reasons — because it is one of the 
most important at present, and that from which 
almost all others have sprung, and, secondly, because 
it has been previously stated that Mr. Shirley's 
retrievers were purely and simply crosses from the 
Labrador. That they have but a slight tinge of 
that breed in them, and are mainly indebted for 
their excellence to careful selection from old local 
strains, is very evident from what I have written. 



The Flat or Wavy Coated Black Retriever. 193 



Lieut.-Colonel Cornwall Legh, near Knutsford, 
also owns a considerable kennel of a strain that 
have proved themselves equally acceptable as 
workers as on the show bench. Mr. H. Liddell, 
Otterburn Hall, Northumberland; Mr. John Morrison, 
Standeford, near Wolverhampton ; Mr. C. A. Phillips, 
Eccles, Lancashire ; Mr. G. T. Bartram, of Braintree, 
whose Zelstone is alluded to above ; the Rev. W. 
Serjeantson, Acton Burnell; Mr. Harding Cox; Mr. 
L. A. Shuter, Kent; Mr. H. L. Grainger, Nor- 
thumberland ; Mr. H. R. Cooke, Nantwich ; Mr. C. C. 
Hulkes, Sevenoaks ; Mr. A. B. F. Mitford, C.B., 
Moreton on the Marsh ; Mr. P. A. Beck, Welshpool ; 
Sir H. de Trafford, Patricroft ; Mr. R. P. Meyrick, 
Wellington, Salop; Mr. G. R. Davies, Cheshire; 
and Lieut.-Colonel Cotes, Shropshire, have at 
one time or another possessed, or still possess, 
capital specimens of the race, some of them owning 
dogs and bitches in sufficient numbers to perpetuate 
the breed should any virulent disease attack and 
destroy all that others own. 

A good retriever, handsome in appearance and 
steady and reliable in work, is to the sportsman a 
most valuable dog ; still he never brings purely fancy 
prices like many far less useful animals. For 
instance, we seldom hear of them being claimed at 
our shows for more than ^50 apiece, and when, not 

VOL. II. O 



/ 



i94 Modem Dogs. 



long ago, a dog of Colonel Cotes' was run up to 
£60 at Aldridge's, at which price he changed hands, 
people stared, though those who desired to own him 
knew what a good dog he was. In 1896 a some- 
what sensational sale took place at the same mart, 
when a number of flat-coated retrievers, from the 
kennel of Mr. G. R. Davies, of Hartford, Cheshire, 
realised excellent prices. They were certainly hand- 
some young dogs ; they had all been " handled," 
but could not be said to be absolutely " finished." 
There were fourteen in number, which realised 380J 
guineas ; Kismet, a bitch, bringing 50 guineas, and 
Deacon, a year old dog, 53 guineas; the lowest 
price being io£ guineas, and the general average a 
trifle over 27 guineas. 

At the present time there is a tendency to produce 
the wavy-coated retrievers with an inclination to the 
type and shape of head possessed by the setters. 
This is, no doubt, due to the fallacy carried out in 
breeding for straight coats, which are all very 
well in their way, attractive enough in the show 
ring, but thoroughly bad from a workman's point of 
view. During my somewhat lengthened connection 
with dog shows I have noticed that, as a rule, the 
straightest and flattest coated dogs have the 
greatest tendency to the longer setter-like heads. 
If breeding for this coat in preference to that of 



The Flat or Wavy Coated Black Retriever. 195 

type of head and character is continued, mischief 
will be done which may not be so easy to remedy 
as the variety was to be produced in the first 
instance. I would especially recommend the judges, 
in dealing with this retriever, to give more credit for 
the correct type of head than for an actually and 
perfectly flat coat, not forgetting that the dog was 
originally " wavy-coated " quite as much as his 
jacket was straight. 

About judging wavy-coated retrievers. At a 
recent Birmingham show Mr. Lloyd Price had an 
unusually fine class of dogs before him, which 
included an animal called Rightaway, which his 
owner, Mr. Shirley, considered to be one 6f the best 
dogs he ever saw. The judge thought otherwise, 
and gave the chief award to another from the same 
kennel. The winner was a much more active- 
looking dog than Rightaway, equally good in coat, 
head, and expression, and in legs and feet ; but he 
stood a little higher on the legs, and was not so 
heavy in bone as the favourite of the Kennel Club's 
President, who should know a good dog if any man 
does. Still, on this occasion, we endorse the judge's 
decision in giving first prize to the more active and 
workmanlike animal, and it is to be hoped that 
judges will be consistent, and award the leading 
honours to those dogs that, from appearance, 

O 2 



196 Modern Dogs. 

seem most likely to be useful in the field. As I 
have already stated, coats can be too fine and 
straight. 

The descriptions and points of the wavy-coated 
black retriever are as follows : 

" The nose and jaws are to be considered from two 
points of view — first, as to the powers of scent ; and 
secondly, as to the capacity for carrying a hare or 
pheasant without risk of damage. For both pur- 
poses the jaws should be long, and, for the develop- 
ment of scenting powers, the nose should be wide, 
the nostrils open, and its end moist and cool ; teeth 
level, and neither overshot nor undershot. 

The skull, ears, and eyes. — Skull bone wide 
and flat at the top, with slight furrow down the 
middle. Brow by no means pronounced, but the 
skull is not absolutely in a straight line with the 
nose. The ears must be small, lie close to the 
head, and set on low, but not hanging down 
in hound fashion. With regard to the hair on 
them, it must be short. The eyes should be of 
medium size, dark in colour, bright, intelligent- 
looking, and mild in expression, indicating a good 
temper. 

Neck, loins, and back. — Whatever be the breed 
of dog, his neck should be long enough to allow him 
to stoop in seeking for the trail. A chumpy neck is 



The Flat or Wavy Coated Black Retriever. 197 

especially bad ; for, while a little dog may get along 
on a foot scent with a short neck, a comparatively 
large and unwieldy dog tries himself terribly by the 
necessity for crouching in his fast pace. Loins and 
back wide, deep, and strong. 

The quarters and stifles must be muscular, 
and so formed to enable the retriever to do his 
work fast enough to please the modern sportsman, 
with ease to himself; the stifles should be nicely 
turned. 

The shoulders should be long and sloping ; 
otherwise, even with a proper length of neck, 
the dog cannot stoop to a foot scent without 
fatigue. 

The chest should be broad as well as deep, with 
well-developed and well sprung ribs. 

Legs, kneeSy and hocks. — When tolerably fast 
work is to be done by a heavy dog, it is important 
that these parts should be strong and free from 
, disease in their joints. Hence the legs must not 
only be long and muscular, but they must be clean 
and free from lumber. The knees should be broad, 
and the hocks well developed, and clean. 

The feet are rather larger proportionately than in 
the setter, but they should be compact, and the toes 
well arched. Soles thick and strong. 

The tail should be bushy in proportion to the dog, 



198 



Modern Dogs. 



but not feathered. It should be carried gaily, but 
not curled over the back. 

The coat is short, but not so short as in the 
pointer or hound ; it should be close and thick and 
as straight as possible ; a thin open coat, underneath 
which the skin is easily found, is bad, however 
straight it may be. 

The colour should be a rich black, free from 
rustiness and from white. 

Symmetry and temperament. — The symmetry and 
elegance of this dog are considerable, and should 
be valued highly. The evidences of good temper 
must be regarded with great care, since his utility 
mainly depends on his disposition. A sour-headed 
brute, with a vicious look about the eyes, should be 
disqualified. 

Weight from 5olb. to 681b. for dogs ; bitches 
rather smaller. 



Value. 

Nose and jaws 5 

Skull, ears, and eyes 10 

Neck, loins, and back ... 10 

Quarters and stifles 5 

Shoulders and chest 13 

Legs, knees, and hocks... 12 

55 



Value. 

Feet 10 

Tail 5 

Coat 10 

Symmetry and tempera- 
ment 20 



45 



Grand Total 100. 



The Flat or Wavy Coated Black Retriever. 199 

Little more is to be said about the flat-coated 
black retriever, and I can only reiterate that a 
specimen from a good strain is the best all round 
dog a man can have for shooting purposes. Well 
trained, he is thoroughly reliable and absolutely 
steady when he is kept for retrieving only; but it 
must not be forgotten that as used by what is 
generally known as " a one dog man," when he has 
to hunt and find his game as well as retrieve it, he 
is not likely to be so absolutely steady as when 
broken for the one department alone. In choosing 
such a dog, the colour of eyes and expression ought 
to be considered, as light coloured eyes, hard 
features, if they may be so called, and a generally 
unpleasant outlook, in nine cases out of ten denote 
an unamiable disposition, bad temper, and that 
which usually accompanies such defects, a hard 
mouth. Most retrievers are liable to become hard 
mouthed at three or four years old, especially when 
they have worked much amongst rabbits and hares, 
the reason being that the latter, usually strong and 
powerful, scratch or otherwise irritate the dog, who 
to stop them gives just a quiet nip. A sensible dog 
sooner than a foolish one gets to do this, because it 
is for his own comfort, and when the bad habit has 
once been acquired it is not to be cured, and is soon 
brought to bear on feather as well as on fur. In no 



2oo Modern Dogs. 



case should a retriever be allowed to kill rats or 
other vermin, as this is another method by which he 
gets to know that his teeth are given him for biting 
purposes. However, the training of the retriever 
may well be left for another volume. 



^ 



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• 5. 



,v 



CHAPTER IX. 

OTHER RETRIEVERS. 

There are other retrievers than the two varieties 
already mentioned. Some years ago a so-called 
" Russian Retriever M very often appeared in the 
variety classes at our shows — a huge, unwieldy 
creature, certainly more like being successful in 
carrying off a sheep rather than in retrieving a 
snipe. He would weigh pretty well on to a hundred 
pounds, was covered with long ringlets, and appeared 
more nearly allied to the French poodle than to 
anything else, and I believe, in fact, that he was a 
poodle. Usually he was black in colour, sometimes 
brown. It was said this " Russian " was introduced 
here for the purpose of " crossing," to give size and 
strength. When already our retrievers were bigger 
and coarser than we required them, there is no 
wonder his services were refused. 

The common brown retriever that we see running 
about the streets, neither curled nor wavy, nor 
smooth, is a sort of nondescript animal we can well 



202 Modem Dogs. 



do without. He is usually snappish and ill-natured, 
and, when not looking in the gutters for a living, 
may be found chained up to a kennel in somebody's 
back yard. Those who own a dog of this kind are 
recommended to exchange it for a nice little terrier, 
which will not only cost the owner less in the way of 
food, but be not so liable to bite his neighbour, his 
wife, or his children. When anyone is bitten by 
a dog the odds are two to one that the injury was 
caused by one of these common brown dogs. An 
injustice is done to the Emerald Isle when they are 
called " Irish retrievers," and this frequently happens. 
There are black dogs, with white on their breasts, 
of similar type and character. No doubt the dis- 
repute in which even the well-bred retriever is held 
in many quarters, arises from the ill-fame which 
attends this cousin of his. 

There are, however, brown retrievers that have 
better reputations, some are curly-coated, others 
wavy or straight coated. The latter are repeatedly 
produced from black parents, are very handsome, 
and equally useful as any other. Personally I 
have a great fancy for this pale or chocolate 
brown, wavy-coated retriever. He is a novelty, 
and if he shows dirt more than his black parents, 
his coat is equally glossy, and he is quite as good 
tempered and sociable. The white or pale primrose- 



X 



Other Retrievers. 203 



coloured eye is objectionable in this variety as it is 
in the black. Mr. A. Money- Wigram showed an 
excellent specimen called Merle, which won second 
in a class for "retrievers any other colour than 
black, ,, at the Kennel Club Show in June, 1889, an< ^ 
first in the same class in 1892. It is rather odd 
that in the Kennel Club Stud Book for 1892 the 
awards in several of these retriever classes at the 
Club Show are altogether omitted. 

One of the prettiest retrievers I ever saw, and one 
of the best all round in coat, curl, docility of expres- 
sion and otherwise, was Mr. J. H. Salter's handsome 
brown bitch Beauty III., and she was not misnamed. 
She was so good as to be able to win even against 
the blacks ; her coat remained crisp and hard, and 
in disposition and temperament she was quite an 
example to other dogs. Beauty was born of 
pure brown parents, her sire being Prince Rupert, 
dam Pearl. Rupert was a well known good dog on 
the bench, winning, like his daughter, even when 
pitted against the black variety, and it is rather odd 
that his sire, King Koffee, black, usually had a 
brown puppy in each litter when mated with Pearl. 
Rupert, up to the time he was ten years of age, was 
able to undergo a day's hard work in the Essex 
marshes, would plunge into the water in the coldest 
weather, go into the sea under any conditions, 



204 Modern Dogs. 



and retrieve a jack snipe as tenderly as a cat would 
carry her kitten. This is no doubt a useful sort of 
dog to have. The strain deserved being per- 
petuated, and it is much to be regretted that 
Beauty's owner was unable to obtain any puppies 
from her. 

There is supposed to be a Norfolk retriever, but 
this is no special strain, being black, brown, black 
and tan, or any other colour; an undoubted cross 
between an ordinary field spaniel and some other 
retriever. Such cross-bred dogs are useful on the 
" Broads" when the shooting season is on, and, 
being hardy, are, when trained, perhaps better 
adapted for wildfowl shooting than the more 
attractive and better cared for varieties, the popular 
idols of the sportsman of the present day. 

Quite recently an interesting correspondence 
appeared in the Field about Labrador retrievers, a 
variety which appears to. have been particularly 
popular with shooting men. However, the difficulty 
of obtaining a change of blood seems to have been 
not easy to surmount, and crosses were introduced 
which, some people aver, has not been to the advan- 
tage of the modern production. Of the real article 
Mr. J. Kerss, head gamekeeper to the Duke of 
Buccleuch, wrote as follows : 

11 Sixty or seventy years ago there was a consider- 



Other Retrievers. 205 

able trade between Poole, in Dorsetshire, and 
Labrador ; and it is a fact that it was by these 
trading vessels that the first Labrador dogs were 
brought to this country; and that excellent sports- 
man, the then Earl of Malmesbury, became the 
possessor of some of them. So highly was he 
pleased with their work, especially in water, that he 
kept the breed up till his death. About the same 
time, or perhaps a little later, the late Duke of 
Buccleuch, the Earl of Home (who died in 1841),. 
and Lord John Scott, imported some of the variety 
from Labrador. They were kept pure for many 
years, but the difficulty of getting fresh blood arose,, 
so they became crossed in and out with other 
breeds, especially with the flat-coated retrievers, 
and Tweed water spaniels. There are even at 
present few retrievers on the borders of England and 
Scotland that have not a dash of Labrador in them. 
It is said that one of the dogs imported by Lord 
John Scott jumped overboard on the voyage, when 
there was a bit of sea on, and swam for about two 
hours before being picked up. Not a bad perform- 
ance. 

" In course of conversation with old James Craw 
(now eighty years of age), whom the writer met not 
long since, and who was for many years keeper at 
Hirsel and Netherby, and I believe knows, more 



ao6 Modern Dogs. 



about Labrador dogs than any living man, he 
described the old strains as rather larger than the 
modern Labrador, and said that the head should be 
flattish and long. The ears should be set well up on 
the head, but not rising above the ' cantle/ and 
should lie close to the cheeks ; they should be rather 
small and V-shaped. The eye should be black, and 
not very large (neither hazel nor grey colour being 
correct). The roof of the mouth should be black, 
and the neck rather strong. The legs should be 
straight, the feet fairly round, and the ribs well 
sprung. They should be fairly strong in the loins, 
with thighs well let down. The tail should be 
straight and strong, like that of an otter, should 
have no fringe, and should not on any account be 
curled. A strong hard straight coat without wave 
or curl, and a thick under coat, colour mostly black, 
are essential marks of purity ; but some of the old 
strain had brindled legs, and yellow- coloured dogs 
were sometimes seen. When asked about the 
wriggling motion which some of them had when 
moving, he said that it was more from defective 
make in odd specimens than anything else ; and as 
to their having more webbing in the feet than other 
"breeds, he did not think there was much in it. In 
giving his opinion as to work, Mr. Craw said ' I have 
tried all kinds of retrievers on all kinds of game, and 



Other Retrievers. 207 

for sagacity, stamina, perseverance, quickness, and 
nose, none can come up to the Labradors. The 
only fault that I had to find with some of them was 
that they were a bit hard in the mouth ; and if I had 
my life as a keeper to go over again, I would prefer 
Labradors to any other breed of retrievers/ 

" This is, indeed, a good character from such a 
veteran. To this excellent description, I can add 
nothing further than that I consider Labrador dogs 
should stand 2i£in. to 22^in. at the shoulder, and 
bitches iin. or so less. The weight of dogs from 
581b. to 641b. ; bitches considerably less. Lieut- 
Colonel Hawker, in his great work on shooting, 
published in 1830, writing about retrievers, refers 
to Newfoundlands thus : — ' Here we are a little in 
the dark. Every canine brute that is nearly as big 
as a jackass, and as hairy as a bear, is denominated a 
fine Newfoundland dog. Very different, however, is 
both the proper Labrador and the St. John's breed 
of these animals ; at least, many characteristic 
points are required to distinguish them. The one is 
very large, strong in limb, rough haired, small in the 
head, and carries his tail very high. The other, by 
far the best for any kind of shooting, is oftener black 
than any other colour, and scarcely larger than a 
pointer. He is made rather long in the head and 
nose, pretty deep in the chest, very fine in legs, has 



2o8 Modern Dogs. 



short or smooth hair, does not carry his tail so much 
curled as the other, and is extremely quick and 
active in running, swimming, or fighting. The St. 
John's breed of these dogs is chiefly used on their 
native coast by fishermen. Their sense of smelling 
is scarcely to be credited ; and their discrimination 
of scent in following a wounded pheasant through a 
whole covert full of game, or a pinioned wildfowl 
through a furze brake or a warren of rabbits, appears 
almost impossible. The real Newfoundland dog 
may be broken to any kind of shooting. For finding 
wounded game there is not his equal in the canine 
race ; and he is a sine qud non in the general pursuit 
of wildfowl. Poole was of late years the best place 
to buy Newfoundland dogs, either just imported or 
broken in ; but now they have become much more 
scarce, owing (the sailors observe) to the strictness 

of these tax-gatherers.' 

" Colonel Hawker goes on to say that he l should 
always recommend buying these dogs ready broken 
from the fowlers, who teach them everything almost, 
by the process of half starving them ; and by the 
time they are well trained, the chances are that they 
have got over the distemper, with which this species 
in particular is sometimes carried beyond recovery/ 
He adds, l If you want to make a Newfoundland 
dog do what you wish, you must encourage him, and 



Other Retrievers. 209 



use gentle means, or he will turn sulky ; but to deter 
him from any fault, you must rate or beat him/ 

" Mr. Charles St. John in his 'Wild Sports'— a 
new edition of which was published in 1872 (others 
have followed) — chapter xiv., writes : ' Opposite one 
window of the room I am in at present is a young 
Newfoundland bitch, which is being educated as a 
retriever. ' In the same chapter Mr. St. John 
remarks : ' In choosing a young dog for a retriever, 
it is a great point to fix upon one whose ancestors 
have been in the same line of business. Skill and 
inclination to become a good retriever are hereditary, 
and one come of good parents scarcely requires any 
breaking, taking to it naturally as soon as he can 
run about. It is almost impossible to make some 
dogs useful in their way, no teaching will do it unless 
there be a natural inclination, a first-rate retriever. 
Nascitur non fit. You may break almost any dog 
to carry a rabbit or a bird, but it is a different thing 
entirely to retrieve satisfactorily or to be uniformly 
correct in distinguishing, and sticking, to the scent 
of an animal which is wounded/ 

" In this, we have the confusion between the 
Newfoundland (as a general term) and the Labrador. 
When the writer entered on his present situation, 
fifteen years ago, there were few retrievers on this 
estate, and these of no particular breed. And more 

VOL. II. P 



2io Modern Dogs. 



being required, it was resolved to go back to the old 
breed. A brace of Labrador dog puppies and a 
bitch were got from the late Lord Malmesbury, and 
another bitch from Lord Ruthven, and by the use of 
dogs from the kennels of the Duke of Hamilton, 
Lord Grimston (now Earl of Verulam), Sir F. 
Graham, and Mr. Montagu Guest, a kennel of 
excellent working Labradors has been established 
here. The best we have ever had here was Avon, 
from Lord Malmsbury's kennel. He was broken by 
James Moffat, now head keeper to the Duke of 
Sutherland at Dunrobin, and a better dog never 
ran ; either for grouse, amongst partridges in rough 
turnips, or in covert shooting he was equally at 
home with all, and has left an indelible mark in the 
character of the dogs ; indeed, all are good speci- 
mens of the Labrador breed, and first-rate in the 
field. 

" I think that the great forte of Labradors is 
their perseverance, stamina, and splendid scenting 
powers ; and it is marvellous to see the jaunty way 
these Labrador's come home at the end of a week's 
hard work of very long days. Correct their little 
faults, give them plenty of work, and they soon 
know all that is required of them. Indeed, the 
more work you give them, the better they like it. 

" If I mistake not, most of the Labradors in this 



Other Retrievers. 2 1 1 



country are descended from Lord Malmsbury's 
stock, and from the dogs to which I have referred 
before, as having been imported by the Duke of 
Buccleuch and the Earl of Home. Amongst the 
former were Brandy, Moss and Drake, about 1840, 
and Nell about 1848, located at Bowhill, and Jack, 
Drake and Nell, at Hirsel about the same dates. 
A dog, Sailor, which came here from Lord Verulam's 
two years ago, is descended from the Netherby 
Boatswain and Keilder, the latter of which has been 
referred to by one of your correspondents. Both 
were bred from the above-mentioned, as having been 
imported for Bowhill and The Hirsel. It is therefore 
evident that the great trouble in keeping this breed 
up to a good standard is the difficulty in obtaining 
fresh blood ; and it is doubtful if fresh blood of any- 
thing like a pure strain can be got in Labrador. 
I have commissioned several people trading to that 
country, but they have all failed to find me any- 
thing like that which I require." 

Mr. Kerss alludes to a Newfoundland dog men- 
tioned in " Highland Sports." With regard to that 
dog a correspondent of the Field, a relative of the 
author, says : 

" This dog was obtained and imported direct from 
Labrador by a friend for Mr. St. John, and broken 
in by Mr. St. John himself. Body long and low, 

P 2 



ai2 Modern Dogs. 



with very deep chest ; tail carried low, and never 
curled over back ; head very broad, rather short in 
proportion to breadth ; eyes set wide apart, large, 
full and deep hazel, very gentle and full of expres- 
sion, prominent and not sunken ; legs very well set 
on and very strong ; feet round and partially webbed 
between toes ; colour black, lower part of legs 
showing a tan colour with white star on chest; 
temper perfect in every way ; coat very heavy and 
wavy, soft and silky, with an undercoat of down. 
I have never seen a dog equal to him in the water ; 
he seemed to float in it, and could remain in it for any 
length of time, and after coming out the water 
seemed to run off, and he got dry quicker than any 
dog I have ever seen. He was a most intelligent 
dog. My father found him very easy to break in, 
and he was a perfect retriever in every way. Once 
having seen a true Labrador, there could be no 
chance of mistaking the ' small ' Labrador for the 
large Newfoundland, as they are perfectly different. 
Weight and height I cannot recollect. The former 
was considerable, as he was very strongly made, and 
had a very wide straight back." 

But, after all, there are almost all sizes and 
conditions of retrievers. There were trials of water- 
dogs arranged in connection with the Maidstone 
Show in May, 1876, and here many varieties 



Other Retrievers. 213 

competed, including Newfoundlands. It was, how- 
ever, acknowledged on all hands that by far the best 
work, in retrieving, diving, and swimming, was 
performed by a black and white retriever, semi-curly 
in coat, and one that, in the show ring, no judge 
would have looked at a second time. Still, it beat 
such known cracks as the belauded Newfoundland 
Theodore Nero, and easily took the first prize. The 
dog was Mr. T. Cole's Nero. 

John Colquhoun, in his " Moor and the Loch," 
descants in praiseworthy terms of his wildfowl 
retriever, that was a cross between a water spaniel 
and a terrier. In appearance not unlike a modern 
Airedale terrier, it was, doubtless, one of the most 
useful dogs ever bred, and in a boat would do better 
than a larger and curlier animal, as he would bring 
less water in with him when retrieving his masters 
ducks. Such dogs are, however, liable to be hard- 
mouthed ; still, I have myself owned terriers, and 
have one now — an Irishman — that will carry an egg 
in a cup without breaking either, or a piece of tissue 
paper without soiling it in the least. But such dogs 
as these have taken naturally to their work, and no 
amount of training would persuade or teach them 
to do what they like to perform of their own 
accord. 

One of the best retrievers I ever owned was a 



2i4 Modem Dogs. 



sorry-looking customer — a cross between a badly- 
bred collie dog and an illegitimate retriever slut. 
His curly tail would have been a credit to an 
Esquimaux. But a dog does not carry a bird or a 
hare with his stern, nor does his intelligence lie 
therein. Although this dog "Dick" was not more 
than forty pounds weight, and had a small head and 
jaw, he could carry two rabbits easily. This he did 
often enough when I happened to be shooting with 
a friend, and a couple of rabbits had been stopped 
simultaneously by smart first barrels. Dick was so 
jealous that he persisted in bringing both to his 
master. 

To prove the general uses an intelligent, well- 
trained retriever may be put to, it may not be out 
of place to mention that quite recently a very 
mongrel-looking specimen of the breed figured in a 
most interesting fashion in a London police-court. 
A man was charged with having sundry umbrellas in 
his possession of which he could give no satisfactory 
account. It was alleged that he had trained his 
dog to snatch such articles from the hands of 
unsuspicious ladies, make off with his spoil, following 
a light cart, in which the defendant and his wife 
were seated. In due course the purloined article 
was taken from the dog by its owner, who was 
at last detected in his nefarious practices, appre- 



I 



Other Retrievers. 215 

hended, and charged, as stated. Eventually the 
case against him was dismissed. I am told that the 
dog did the trick well ; still, it is scarcely right to 
train any creature to such a dishonest practice. 

Then about the same time another retriever saved 
a child from drowning in the Thames, the owner, 
unable to swim himself, sending in his dog to the 
rescue of the struggling infant, who had fallen off 
the tow-path, and was being washed away by the 
receding tide. But stories such as these can be 
made to order, and, as a fact, a good retriever dog 
will bring anything out of the water which he is sent 
in to fetch, even to the extent of supporting an 
object much heavier than himself. 

Not long ago an interesting presentation took 
place at Cardiff, the captain of a Liverpool steam 
ship being presented with the bronze medal of the 
Board of Trade for saving life, under the following 
circumstances. A boat was capsized when leaving 
a wreck, the occupants being thrown into the heavy 
sea ; Captain Nickels twice swam out into the surf 
and saved four men from drowning. But he was 
assisted greatly by a retriever dog, who later, when 
his master, Mr. Pengelly, who had been assisting in 
the rescue, was about exhausted and struggling in 
the water, seized him by the collar and brought him 
safely to land, otherwise he would have lost his life. 



2i6 Modern Dogs. 



The dog was presented with a new collar, which he 
well deserved. 

The above is not the only retriever which has 
been presented with a new collar, for at a recent 
meeting of the members of the Amalgamated Society 
of Watermen and Lightermen of the River Thames, 
the secretary placed a silver collar around the neck 
of a retriever dog known as Roger, owned by Mr. 
W. T. Court, of Stroud. This dog had in reality 
saved the lives of the captain and mate of the barge 
Eliza, which foundered in Northfleet Hope on 
September 23rd, 1896. The vessel sprang a leak 
when the two men in charge were asleep in the 
cabin. The dog, when the water was flowing into 
the hold and the swamping of the boat imminent, 
began to bark and to scratch at the cabin door, 
awakening the men, who were just able to escape 
before the barge foundered. The silver collar had 
principally been subscribed for by the members of 
the Sailing Barge branch of the society. 

In many deer forests in Scotland retrievers are 
used in connection with deer stalking, when they are 
found to be more useful than the ordinary deerhound 
in bringing to bay a wounded stag. Indeed, a good- 
tempered dog of the retriever kind, when nicely 
trained, is a most useful animal, but when kept as a 
watch dog chained to a barrel in the backyard, or 



Other Retriever 8. 217 

allowed to follow the gutter for a livelihood, he is 
treacherous in the extreme, and as such to be 
avoided. 

If you require a retriever for show purposes, buy 
one to answer your requirements ; but, if such a dog 
is required for work, either by land or water or both, 
do not mind what colour or shape he may be, so 
long as his character for intelligence and tenderness 
be satisfactory. Beware of the hard-mouth, of that 
cold unlovable face and light yellow eye that denote 
ill-nature and querulousness which in the end will 
lead to mischief. You, perhaps, will not be able to 
get hold of such dogs as two or three " H. H." so 
pleasantly mentions in his practical and valuable 
work, "The Scientific Education of Dogs for the 
Gun." One that broke from the bush the bough 
upon which the lost fly cast hung, and ran eighty 
yards down stream to break the ice in order that the 
wounded duck could come to the hole to breathe, 
and so be caught ! Colonel Hutchinson tells us of 
another retriever that was in the habit of acting as 
" whipper-in " where the spaniels were concerned, 
seizing any dog of the team in his mouth and giving 
it a good shaking for not " down charging " when 
required, or for rushing in front of the remainder of 
the team, with which it worked, and trying to 
demolish the wounded pheasants. 



218 Modern Dogs. 



Retrievers that perform such feats as the above 
are not of every day occurrence, and are only to 
be made by constant companionship with an owner 
who understands their every movement, and can 
read what is passing in their minds by looking into 
their eyes. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE SPANIELS. 

Dog shows, and the consequent breeding for so- 
called fancy points, have completely altered the 
character of our English spaniels — at least, of a 
majority of those we see winning in the rings nowa- 
days. Such are, as a rule, quite a different article 
to the animal old painters placed upon their can- 
vases, and which writers of previous generations 
described in the pages of their volumes. 

There is no doubt that the spaniel, as he is gene- 
rally known, preceded the setter, who was produced 
from him, and was trained to " sett " game many 
years before the pointer came to be introduced to 
this country. It has been said both came from 
Spain originally, a country that was also stated to be 
the home of the British bulldog. Surely the land of 
wines and bull fights may be deemed fortunate in 
obtaining the reputation of being the original 
manufacturer of such valuable animals. 

Juliana Barnes, or Berners, wrote of spaniels in 



22o Modern Dogs. 



i486, so did Dr. Keyes, or Caius ; and later, in 1677, 
Nicholas Cox, in his " Gentleman's Recreation/' 
copied what both his predecessors had said about 
them, and added what remarks Gervase Markham 
had made on the same subject. Then we must not 
forget all Aldrovandus put in print early in the 
sixteenth century, and the engravings he gave of 
sundry varieties of the Spanish dog, which are 
described in a preceding chapter on the setter. One 
of these he called " pantherius, ,, because it was 
spotted, i.e., more or less ticked, as are many of 
the handsomer setters and spaniels of the present 
day. 

In Nicholas Cox's time, and earlier, the spaniel 
was in great measure used as an assistance in hawk- 
ing, and he says : u how necessary a thing it is to 
falconry I think nobody need question, as well as to 
spring and retrieve a fowl being flown to the mark, 
and also in divers and other ways to help and assist 
falcons and goshawks." He further alludes to 
cutting the tails of spaniels, about which he says, 
"it is necessary for several reasons, to cut off the 
tip of a spaniel's stern when it is a w T help. First, by 
doing so worms are prevented from breeding there ; 
in the next place, if it be not cut, he will be the less 
forward in pressing hastily into the covert after his 
game ; besides this benefit, the dog appears ' more 



The Spaniels. 221 



beautiful.' " This custom of tail docking has con- 
tinued to this day, we practising it, because the 
spaniel in working covert is less likely to injure his 
tail by lashing it backwards and forwards and tearing 
it amongst the tangled briers and the thick under- 
growth than if it were left intact. 

Even prior to such early times, we have 
mention made of the spaniel as of use in hawking, 
and " hys crafte was also for the perdrich or 
partridge, and the quaile ; and, when taught to 
couche he is very serviceable to the fowlers who 
take those birds with nets." In a fourteenth 
century MS. there is a picture of ladies hawking, 
they being attended by two dogs with long ears, no 
doubt intended to represent the spaniel of that 
period. 

The spaniel in his two varieties, the land and 
water spaniel, was the sporting dog in those early 
days, and in " The Master of the Game," written 
in the fifteenth century, we are told that this 
dog " hath many good customs and evil ; he should 
have a large head and body, be of fair hue, white or 
tawny, and not too rough ; but his tail should be 
rough and feathered." 

The Prince to whom we are indebted for this 
early treatise further says, the breed came from 
Spain, although it was to be had in other countries, 



222 Modern Dogs. 



and those that were used for hawking were 
11 baffers," i.e., they gave tongue. 

From these two breeds of spaniels, I believe, 
have sprung all the varieties known at the present 
time, not excluding the toy spaniels. Writers on 
canine matters so recently as within the present 
century, have told us that the Blenheim spaniel was 
at that time used for covert shooting, and was 
useful in such a capacity. Now it is purely and 
simply a lap or toy dog, and the most perfect speci- 
mens that are seen on the show benches would likely 
enough come off but second best in a tussle with a 
good wild rabbit. 

The extraordinary sagacity and affectionate dis- 
position of the spaniel have repeatedly formed a 
theme for those who delight to dwell on anecdotes 
relating to dogs. Unfortunately, in most instances, 
the variety of spaniel is not mentioned, so one is at a 
loss to know whether to give the credit of such 
extraordinary intelligence to the little creature that 
has been the pampered favourite of monarchs and 
ladies since the days of the Stuarts, or to that 
equally valuable animal which assists the sportsman 
to fill his bag with either feathered or ground game, 
or both. 

But, as already hinted, the show era has wrought 
an extraordinary change in the character and appear- 



The Spaniels. 223 



ance of our spaniels, and in vain we look for the old 
curly- coated water variety that our grandfathers 
valued so highly, or for the equally useful and 
smaller dog, some twenty pounds weight or so, that 
would with equal facility " fetch " a stick that had 
been thrown into the water, or retrieve a rabbit with 
a hind leg broken that in vain struggled to reach 
the sanctuary of its burrow. 

With, perhaps, few exceptions, the chief being 
the Clumber and Irish variety, our show spaniel of 
to-day is not a sportsman's dog — a fancy creature 
merely, whose coat requires as much grooming as 
that of a Yorkshire terrier, and the slightest waviness 
thereon would be as fatal to its chances of success 
before some judges as if it had but one eye, and 
unable to see with that one. Crooked forelegs, 
malformed elbows and shoulders, are often allowed 
to pass muster in the show ring, but a curly or wavy 
coat seldom. 

Personally I should disqualify dogs with crooked, 
disproportioned forelegs, however long they might 
be in body, however "near the ground " (meaning, 
however short the legs), and however straight the 
coat. These abnormally formed dogs — "long and 
low " their owners love to call them — have completely 
usurped the position that the old fashioned field 
spaniel formerly occupied, and the modern edition is 



224 Modern Dogs. 



neither so handsome nor so useful as the original 
one. The coats of the new may be straighter, 
shinier and more glossy, but in most cases the 
spaniel character has disappeared, and nothing so 
good occupies its position. I know the owners of 
these show dogs will still sell such specimens for a 
hundred pounds each or more, and will not agree 
with these remarks, but they are true nevertheless. 

Some of the breeders with whom I have had 
acquaintance have considered it an advantage to be 
able to produce at least threie so-called varieties 
from the same crosses. A black spaniel may be a 
brother to a Sussex or liver coloured specimen in 
the adjoining class ; and further away it might be 
possible to find a fiver and white, or blue and white, 
or black and tan, brother or sister to the others 
taking leading honours in a third class. Happily, in 
a few instances, one or two old varieties of field 
spaniel have been kept fairly pure, notably the 
Clumber and the Sussex, of which more anon. 
Still, even the best strains of the Sussex are 
often enough supplanted by dogs with " black 
blood " running in their veins, because they happen 
to be half an inch longer in the body and have the 
longer ears, the latter actually detrimental in his 
proper vocation of life that Nature brought him into 
the world to perform. 



The Spaniels. 225 



The early grouping of the spaniels at our shows 
was not satisfactory, and at the initial, Birmingham 
exhibitions but four classes were provided, two for 
Clumbers and two for " any other variety." About 
1862 an improvement was wrought, Irish water 
spaniels were specially provided for, and later the 
classes were divided, not by colour or variety, but 
according to weight. Thus dogs exceeding 251b. 
weight competed separately, so did dogs below that 
standard, and the bitches were restricted to over 
and under 2olb. 

Now matters are different, colour is taken into 
consideration, and type and variety to a limited 
extent. In the best arranged schedules individual 
classes are provided for Clumbers (2), Irish Water 
Spaniels (2), Sussex or liver coloured (2), black (2), 
any other colour (1), and for cockers (2). In 
addition challenge classes may be made if it is 
deemed desirable so to do. The cockers are 
usually restricted to 25th. in weight. 

The old fashioned English water spaniel appears 
to have altogether disappeared, and now this curly- 
coated brown and white, retriever-like, but smaller, 
dog is not to be found, remaining only in the 
pictures engraved by Bewick and drawn by Reinagle 
and others. The " Sportsman's Cabinet" has a nice 
picture of this dog, and even so recent a writer as 

VOL. II. Q 



226 Modem Dogs. 



Youatt (1845) illustrates and describes him. The 
variety has, however, been improved off the face of 
the earth, so will soon be forgotten. 

The Spaniel Club, established in 1885, has issued 
its description of the spaniel in his varieties in a 
most exhaustive form, and this includes, besides 
those already mentioned, and more fully alluded to 
further on, the Norfolk spaniel. In the case of the 
cocker, divisions are made, the " black " and the 
"any other colour' ' being separated, forming, indeed, 
the two varieties out of the one. Why this has been 
done it is difficult to imagine, unless because members 
of the club are desirous of bringing into the cocker 
classes little black spaniels altogether of the modern 
type; and such are not cockers at all. They are 
miniature specimens of the ordinary field spaniels, 
and are bred from that stock. 

The Norfolk spaniel is not now acknowledged by 
the public as a variety, though it is by the Spaniel 
Club. I have already said that the English water 
spaniel is pretty nearly extinct, and I have not seen 
one on the show bench for very many years. How- 
ever, to give completeness, I have appended all the 
points and descriptions issued by the Club, and 
they will no doubt prove of value for reference 
in the tuture. 

No doubt the Spaniel Club has done some good 



The Spaniels. 227 



in defining the varieties, describing them, and in 
looking after their interests at shows and exhibi- 
tions, but they have entirely neglected their working 
qualifications. At one period it was thought field 
trial competitions would have been provided, but the 
difficulties of arranging them satisfactorily must 
always be in the way of such gatherings. Personally 
I scarcely see how spaniel trials could be conducted, 
for in reality most of those who hold large kennels 
of spaniels for sporting purposes use them as teams. 
In fact the modern human beater — the fustian -clad 
yokel, with a long and stout stick and a stentorian 
cry of " Cock ! cock ! cock ! " — has very long ago 
pretty well ousted the merry cockers or the more 
staid Clumber for driving the coverts ; certainly an 
innovation not at all a desirable one. 

There is no prettier sight than to see a team of 
well trained spaniels drop instantaneously to com- 
mand or to gun fire. In reality covert work is the 
proper thing for spaniels to do. Some years ago, 
when the Knipe Scar and other coursing meetings 
were held over the Lowther estates of the Earl of 
Lonsdale, the coverts were occasionally beaten by 
an excellent team of liver and white spaniels. It was 
pleasant to see them driving their game out of the 
thick undergrowth of brambles and furze. When 
a hare was well away a shot was fired and each 

Q 2 






228 Modern Dogs. 



member of the team dropped instanter. There they 
remained whilst the greyhounds were running their 
hare in the open. The course ended, and by 
command the spaniels were up again, as busy as 
possible, and so the day's proceedings were con- 
tinued until nearly dark, when the coursing men had 
a long walk home before reaching headquarters, 
stopping, however, on their way to partake of the 
" roast beef of Old England," and its strong ale, 
spread upon the hospitable boards at the Castle. 
Certainly all round a better kind of sport than 
is to be had by modern coursing in the enclosed 
grounds. 

As to the " field trials for spaniels/ ' perhaps in 
due time some one will come forward with a scheme 
by which they may be conducted successfully in 
public; but the judge who would award the prizes 
to the satisfaction of the owners of such dogs as 
might be entered would have a position that no man 
could envy. 



X 






»* - 



;;; 



s 



I 

i- 



CHAPTER XL 

THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL. 

Early in 1859 a considerable amount of corre- 
spondence appeared in the Field with regard to Irish 
Water Spaniels. There had been writers on the 
matter who knew little or nothing about the dog in 
question, and now enquiries were made as to what the 
Irish Spaniel was and what he had been. " Smack" 
wrote of the " St. Leger breed, ' and of an excellent 
strain kept by Lord Erne ; and the same week 
another admirer of the variety wrote from Dublin 
that, after long and diligent search, he found 'the 
"real Irish water spaniel one of the most difficult 
animals to procure." 

Further he says the colour is most invariably 
of " a rich liver ; the coat long, curly, and matted ; 
the head peculiarly long, and almost hidden by long, 
silky ears, much longer than any English retrievers ; 
the tail is thin and nearly destitute of hair; and, 
lastly, the animal stands high on his legs, which are 
thickly and closely feathered. It unites the sagacity 



230 Modern Dogs. 



of the poodle with the daring of the spaniel, and 
although, by reason of its coat, nearly useless in 
covert, still no day is too long, no water too cold ; 
and happy indeed ought the wild fowler to be if he 
can procure a specimen of this invaluable and almost 
extinct breed. " 

The above and other letters brought a reply from 
Mr. McCarthy, who had for long been looked up to 
as the authority on the variety, and his communica- 
tion to the Field (February 19th, 1859) must be 
taken as the most important contribution on the 
subject that had hitherto appeared. From this 
description of his strain, the type of water spaniel 
was formed, and so it has continued to the present 
day. Mr. McCarthy wrote : — 

" I have been the owner of the curly coated Irish 
water spaniel for the last thirty years, and have been, 
as it were, the godfather of most of those to be 
disposed of, the dealers always recommending their 
dogs by saying ' they are one of McCarthy's real old 
breed.' I have bestowed many scores of dogs and 
bitches to gentlemen in every county in Ireland and 
many parts of England, and bitches have been sent 
to me from every part of this country for the services 
of my celebrated dog Boatswain, the patriarch of all 
the highly-bred dogs in the country. 

"There is in reality but two breeds of the true 



The Irish Water Spaniel 231 

Irish water spaniel. In the north the dog has 
generally short ears without any feather, and is very 
often of a pied white and brown colour ; in the south, 
the dog is of pure liver colour, with long ears, and 
well curled, with short stiff curls all over the body. 
The present improved and fancy breed, called 
McCarthy's breed, should run thus: Dog from 21 
inches to 22^ inches high (seldom higher when 
pure bred), head rather capacious, forehead promi- 
nent, face from eyes down perfectly smooth, ears 
from 24 inches to 26 inches from point to point. 
The head should be crowned with a well defined top- 
knot, not straggling across like the common, rough 
water dog, but coming down in a peak on the fore- 
head. The body should be covered with small crisp 
curls, which often become clogged in the moulting 
season. The tail should be round without feather 
underneath, rather short, and as stiff as a ramrod ; 
the colour of a pure puce liver without any 
white. 

" Though these dogs are of high mettle, I have 
never found them untractable or difficult to train. 
They readily keep to heel and down charge, and will 
find a dead or wounded bird anywhere, either in the 
open or in covert ; but they are not partial to 
stiff, thorny brakes, as the briars catch in their curls 
and trail after them. It is advisable to give them a 



232 Modern Dogs. 



little training at night, so that in seeking objects 
they must rely upon their nose alone. For the gun 
they should be taught to go into the water like a 
duck ; but when kept for fancy a good dog of this 
breed will take a flying jump of from twenty-five to 
thirty-five feet or more perpendicularly high into the 
water. 

" My old dog Boatswain lived to about eighteen 
years old, when, although in good health and spirits, 
I was obliged to destroy him. ... A good, well 
trained dog of this kind will not be obtained under 
from ;£io to ^"20, and I have known ^40 or ^50 
paid for one. They will not stand a cross with any 
other breed. . . . The pure breed has become 
very scarce ; and although very hardy when grown 
up, they are very delicate as puppies. " 

Following the above, some special interest ap- 
peared for a time to be taken in Irish water spaniels, 
and Captain Lindoe, R.N., Mr. E. Montressor, Mr. 
J. T. Robson, Mr. R. W. Boyle, Captain O'Grady, 
Mr. J. S. Skidmore, Mr. N. Morton, and a few 
others took them in hand. But they never appeared 
to become popular, possibly because their coats were 
so often ragged and untidy, and, maybe, shooting 
men found other dogs equally useful for wild fowl 
purposes. In 1862 two classes were provided for 
them at Birmingham, and, although there were but 



The Irish Water Spaniel. 233 

three competitors the Curzon Hall executive have 
supported the Irish spaniel ever since, although, as 
a rule, competition is meagre and the entries are 
few. 

To me it has been a matter of regret that nothing 
appears to be known as to the early history of the 
Irish water spaniel, and even Mr. M'Carthy omits to 
tell us where he first obtained his strain. Richard- 
son is equally silent on the matter, and he an Irish- 
man too. Still, he writes of and illustrates a dog 
similar to the breed already described. Gervase 
Markham (1595) tells of a " liver-hued water dog " 
that is " swiftest in swimming ; " but he does not 
identify it with the Emerald Isle. Perhaps some one 
interested in the subject may yet be able to find out 
something as to the origin of this variety, and 
about what period it first came to be identified with 
the country from which it takes its name. 

Without entering more fully into the particulars, 
it may be as well to hear what Mr. J. F. Farrow, of 
Ipswich has to say of the variety, and I thank him 
for doing so well that which I might have done 
indifferently, for the Irish water spaniel is one of 
those dogs whose acquaintance I have only made 
through shows. Mr. Farrow writes as follows : — 

" I remember as well as if only yesterday a very 
old sporting friend — a man who had done years of 



234 Modern Dogs. 



wild fowling on all the rivers and marshes in the 
East of England — coming up to me when I was 
engaged in a conversation with the late Mr. P. 
Bullock, going over the winners in the Irish Water 
Spaniel classes at a dog show held at Laycock's 
Dairy Yard, Islington, in 1869. Mr. Bullock's 
exhibit had obtained an extra prize, and the Rev. 
W. J. Mellows Doctor and Bingo had been placed 
1 st and 3rd, and that good dog, Rake, Mr. P. 
Lindoe's, 2nd. ' Farrow/ said my old sporting 
friend, 'you don't want to trouble about those 
gentlemen ; you would not use them twice in a boat, 
they carry too much water, with such a companion 
a boat is a miserable place to be in if you have 
any work to do.' This remark, however, did not 
stop the desire I had to go in for an Irish water 
spaniel at that time. 

" I had certain rough shooting on some of the 
Essex marshes, and I found the Irish water spaniel 
a fairly useful dog for such work ; he has, however, 
never been a popular companion with sportsmen 
generally, and never will be, for the simple reason 
that he is not the all round sportsman's dog many 
of his admirers claim him to be. His great length 
of ear, coat, and feathering almost prevent him, 
for instance, working in covert, whereas a good 
squarely-built field spaniel of fair size, with a 



The Irish Water Spaniel. 235 

reasonable length of body, ear, and feathering, with 
a good dense coat, will do for you in water any 
and everything the Irish water spaniel can do, and 
perform in covert what the ' Irishman ' cannot. 
Hence, since the history of dog exhibitions, this 
variety of water spaniel is standing still, and, on 
the contrary, there is an increase in the various 
kinds of field spaniels. 

" Of course, it must not be understood that I 
believe all breeders of exhibition spaniels are sports- 
men — it is a fact some are not — but I often think 
more is frequently made of this point than there is 
any sound justice for doing, and I state without fear 
of contradiction that a very large percentage of 
the breeders and exhibitors of the various classes 
of spaniels are also fond of their gun as well as 
their dog. Some, of course, have more opportunity 
than others for breeding and working their dogs. 
Another point which makes the ordinary springer or 
field spaniel more popular than the water spaniel is 
its size; a 451b. field spaniel can place himself 
without difficulty out of the way in a boat or dog- 
cart, but not so the bigger Irishman. 

" Perhaps the most prominent breeder, certainly 
the most successful exhibitor of Irish water spaniels 
since the history of dog shows, is Mr. J. S. Skidmore, 
of Nantwich, who claims for this variety of spaniel a 



236 Modern Dogs. 



position as the most useful dog for the sportsman of 
limited means. Now, much as I respect this gentle- 
man's views as to what a typical Irish water spaniel 
should be like, I cannot agree with him on this 
point. I regard the ordinary retriever or a fair-sized 
reasonably constructed field spaniel a much more 
useful dog. Let us take, for instance, an old cock 
pheasant, winged, in only a reasonable covert, and I 
should like to ask Mr. Skidmore what he thinks 
such specimens as some of his typical Irish water 
spaniels, measuring nearly a yard — I believe some of 
them measured over 30 inches — from tip to tip of 
ears, would do with a winged pheasant, or say a 
winged partridge in a ditch on a farm where high 
cultivation is unknown, or in a covert in which the 
undergrowth has not been touched for a dozen 
years. 

11 Again, in many specimens the coat is woolly in 
texture and too open and long; such a coat will 
hold as much water as a blanket, and a dog with an 
abundance of feather of this woolly texture of hair 
is simply a nuisance. If you walk across a farmyard 
with such a specimen he is not fit to look at, and if 
by chance you come across a bramble or piece of 
hedge clipping, and you do not notice it for a minute 
or so, a stop has to be made of two or three minutes 
to relieve the poor brute. I have seen a dog with 



The Irish Water Spaniel. 237 

this woolly class of coat and feathering rendered 
almost useless on a proper wild-fowling day from the 
snow and ice freezing and hanging in balls or lumps 
as big as walnuts from the feathering, and to such 
an extent as to render the dog, before half the day 
was over, useless. I do not think this woolly open 
coat and feather is taken sufficient notice of by some 
of our judges ; I believe it is on the increase, and it is 
unquestionably the wrong class of coat for such a 
dog. I know we saw such coats years ago, but not 
so frequently as now. 

" I have said before, and I repeat, that this variety 
of spaniels has never been, and never will be, a 
popular sporting dog with Englishmen. The breed 
has been encouraged by classes being provided at 
almost all the principal exhibitions from their very 
commencement, still the Irish water spaniel has not 
made headway, and to-day is declining in both 
numbers and typical specimens when compared 
with what were to be found ten or a dozen 
years ago. 

" The origin of the Irish water spaniel is a matter 
no authority, or any one else, has ventured to say 
much about, and give anything like a definite opinion 
thereon. We know years ago Ireland possessed two, 
if not more, varieties, in the north and south. We 
also know that to-day, and indeed since dog shows 



238 Modern Dogs. 



commenced, that our judges have taken the south 
of Ireland type for their standard of what an Irish 
water spaniel should be like. We know, also, that 
years ago more care was exercised by gentlemen 
in the south of Ireland to establish a type than those 
in the north ; hence ' Stonehenge/ in his last work, 
making the following remark in his article on this 
variety of spaniel : ' At the present time the 
McCarthy strain may be considered to be the type of 
the Irish water spaniel, and his description, published 
in the Field, and quoted on another page, is the 
standard by which the breed is judged, and must, 
therefore, be so regarded.' I may just remark that 
in my opinion the common ' water dog, 1 as known 
in 1803, a capital illustration of which appears in 
the ( Sportsman's Cabinet/ so often alluded to in 
these days, had a great deal to do with the origi- 
nality of this variety of spaniel. Indeed, even down 
to the specimens seen to-day, in outline, the water 
dog referred to, much resembles the Irish water 
spaniels of the present period. Take, for instance, 
the top-knot and coat, the length of back, the 
length from hip to hock, the length of face, 
and one must, in my humble opinion, notice the 
similarity. 

" The Irish water spaniel of to-day is looked 
after by two clubs, one in England and the other 



The Irish Water Spaniel. 239 

in Ireland. The former club has recently revised 
its standard of points, but the revision, in my 
opinion, is not an improvement on the old one. 
Take the description of head, for instance, which is 
as follows : l Capacious skull, rather raised on dome 
and fairly wide, showing large brain capacity. The 
dome appears higher than it really is, being sur- 
mounted by the crest or top-knot.' 

" Not a word is said about the ' face/ the length 
of face — the very point in the breed that such an 
acknowledged authority as ' Stonehenge ' goes out of 
his way to describe as ' very peculiar.' The face, in 
my opinion, and in the opinion of many old breeders, 
is a most remarkable and important feature of the 
breed. Take the top-knot again, another charac- 
teristic point of the breed, and it is very badly 
handled by the Club. Nothing like sufficient im- 
portance is given to it. In the remarks in the 
descriptive particulars of the coat we read as 
follows : ' Top-knot should fall well over the eyes.' 
Now, from such a description, one, I take it, would 
be satisfied if the top-knot came over the dog's 
eyes and was cut off quite square or straight across 
the face, as it is seen to-day on some of our chief 
prize winners. Such a top-knot I think wrong, and 
it always reminds me of the poodle's wig. The 
top-knot in a good specimen falls ' between ' and 



240 Modern Dogs. 



over the eyes in a * peaked ' form, and not across 
the eyes or face, like a poodle's. 

" Years ago light-coloured eyes were looked upon 
as a grave fault. Judges often put such specimens 
back, and the critics noted the fault in their reports, 
but to-day the amber-coloured eye is almost 
fashionable. Anyhow, many of the principal winners 
have amber coloured eyes, and such are recognised 
by the spaniel clubs. What, in fact, years ago, was 
one of the most objectionable points in the breed, is 
now, to a certain extent, allowed. That this altered 
state of things will last I do not believe, as I am 
quite certain, although the ' amber '-coloured eye is 
recognised by several influential breeders and 
exhibitors, it is not liked by 25 per cent, of the 
breeders of Irish water spaniels throughout England 
and Ireland. And of one thing I am positive, the 
amber eye will now take a lot of getting rid of in the 
breed, and the longer it is allowed, the more will 
this variety of spaniel fail in popularity and numbers. 
I have letters from several old breeders, who, from 
no other cause, have recently lost their interest in 
the breed. 

11 That the best specimens seen at our exhibitions 
now could hold their own with the best of ten or 
twenty years ago I do not believe. I am not one of 
the ancient pessimists who consider that years 



The Irish Water Spaniel. 241 

since everything was so much better than is the 
case at the present time ; but certain it is that 
Irish water spaniels of the past on the bench were 
more typical and perfect specimens than they are 
now. 

" Let us compare a few of the principal prize 
dogs that were winning at shows held at the end of 
the sixties. I will take Mr. J. S. Skidmore's Doctor 
(2061), Captain Lindoe's Rake (2088), and Mr. 
Skidmore's Duck (2066). Now I am quite certain 
any one of these three specimens, for length of face, 
formation of head throughout, colour of eye, length 
of ears, top-knot, and quality of coat — although, 
perhaps, not in colour of coat — would simply romp 
away from any one of the three specimens now 
winning in the challenge classes at our show — say 
Shaun, Harp, and the Shaughraun. 

" I now come to a more recent period — say a 
dozen years ago ; and I venture to state that few, 
if any, breeder or gentleman who has taken an 
interest in this variety, of spaniel will contradict me 
when I state that our present champions could 
not possibly have been in it, point for point with 
the prominent winners at that time. Take, for 
instance, such dogs as Mr. Skidmore's Mickey 
Free (10,393), Mr. Hockey's Young Patsey 
(10,397), and the same gentleman's Lady (9250) 

VOL/ II. R 



242 Modem Dogs. 



and other big winners about this time. It may 
be said, it is all very weir to simply say that the 
prominent winning specimens ten years ago were so 
much ahead of the present prominent winners, but 
tell us, in your opinion, in what way, in which par- 
ticular points, these specimens could beat the present 
winners ? For argument's sake I will take the most 
prominent winning bitch of some few years back 
— Young Hilda (born 1878, breeder and exhibitor, 
Mr. G. S. Hockey) and Harp (born 1885, breeder 
and exhibitor, Colonel the Hon. W. Le Poer Trench). 
Now I say that in length of face, expression, colour 
of eye, colour and texture of coat and outline, there 
is ho comparison between these two specimens; 
and it is in the points I have described where Holt 
loses so much when compared with Young Hilda. 
Thus, my opinion is, that the specimens seen 
generally to-day are behind those of an earlier 
generation.' ' 

At one time it appeared as if the Emerald Isle 
was ceasing to give us specimens of one of its 
favourite varieties, and Larry Doolan, a very excellent 
dog shown at one time by Mr. H. Morton, and later 
by Messrs. Carey, was the only distinguished repre- 
sentative that appeared at the show of the " base 
Saxon.' ' Matters appear to be different now, and 
although there are many English admirers, Milesian 



The Irish Water Spaniel 243 

ones are even more numerous, and for the best 
specimens we must fly across the water. From 
Clonburn, co. Galway, Messrs. O'Rorke send in such 
animals as Rock Diver, whilst Mr. T. C. Tisdall has 
as good a strain as any man ever possessed, and his 
Dermot Asthore and Dick O'Donoghue are, perhaps, 
equal to anything we have ever seen. Mr. J. 
Conley, Bangor, co. Down, shows Rock Peggy with 
equal success, whilst Messrs. Carey, of Borris, co. 
Carlow, and others, are never without specimens 
worthy to meet in competition the very best of their 
variety. I even think that the Irish water spaniel is 
somehow or other looking up, and although the 
awards at shows are sometimes very conflicting, the 
entries at the leading exhibitions are increasing 
numerically, and by no means retrograding in 
quality. Both at the Kennel Club and Birmingham 
exhibitions of 1896 capital classes were forward, and 
while at the former Mr. F. C. Mitchell's Kempston 
Tessy was entirely passed over, at the latter, and 
with much the same dogs competing, she won all 
before her, and came out the champion of the day, a 
position which she thoroughly deserved. 

Following Mr. Farrow's exhaustive and critical 
remarks, with most of which I am completely in 
accord, especially so far as his strictures on the 
light coloured eyes are concerned, little remains for 

R 2 



244 Modem Dogs. 



me to say. He, however, somewhat overstates his 
case about the " amber" eyes being almost fashion- 
able, for in the Spaniel Club's scale appended, such 
eyes are handicapped to the extent of ten negative 
points, and at the present time some of our best 
Irish water spaniels are devoid of that objectionable 
feature. 

Allusion may be made to certain protests which 
had been laid against two or three of these 
spaniels on the ground that their sterns or tails were 
artificially treated in order to add to their fineness. 
Various conflicting evidence was given before the 
Kennel Club, but the protests were not upheld. It 
may be stated that the Irish water spaniels are now 
shown in much better order, so far as their coats are 
concerned, than once was the case. 

The principal exhibitors at the present time are 
Colonel the Hon. W. Le Poer Trench, Gerrard's 
Cross, Bucks; Mr. J. C. Cockburn, Glasgow; Mr. 
T. C. Tisdall, Monaghan, Ireland ; Mr. J. A. Hearne, 
Midlothian ; Mr. G. T. Millar, Denbigh ; Mr. W. W. 
Thomson, Mitcham; Mr. J. C. Brown, Tewkesbury; 
Mr. T. S. Carey, Boris, co. Carlow ; Mr. F. H. Fitz- 
herbert ; Messrs. C. T. and F. O'Rorke, Mr. T. H. 
Miller, Mr. F. C. Mitchell, Birmingham ; Mr. C. E. 
Cartwright, Colwyn Bay ; and Mr. S. J. Hurley, 
Killaloe. 



The Irish Water Spaniel. 



245 



The Club's points and description are as follows : 



Positive Points. 

Head and jaw 

Eyes 

Top-knot 

Ears 

Neck 

Body 

Fore-legs 

Hind-legs 

Feet 

Stern 

Coat 

General appearance 



10 

5 

5 
10 

1\ 
7i 
5 

5 

5 
10 

15 

15 



Total Positive Points... 100 



Negative Points. 
Light yellow or gooseberry 

eyes 10 

Cording, or tags of dead or 

matted hair 12 

Moustache, or poodle hair 

on cheek 5 

Lank, open, or wholly coat 7 
A natural sandy light coat 8 
Furnishing of tail more than 

half way down to sting ... 7 
Setter-feathering on legs ... 10 
White patch on chest 6 

Total Negative Points... 65 



Disqualifications. — Total absence of top-knot ; a fully feathered 
tail ; any white patch on any part of the dog, except a small one 
on chest or toe. 



Descriptive Particulars. 

"Head. — Capacious skull, rather raised in dome 
and fairly wide, showing large brain capacity. The 
dome appears higher than it really is, from its being 
surmounted by the crest or top-knot, which should 
grow down to a point between the eyes, leaving the 
temple smooth. 

" Nose. — Dark liver coloured, rather large, and 
well developed. 



246 Modern Dogs. 



"Eyes. — Comparatively small. Dark amber and 
very intelligent looking. 

"Ears. — Set on rather low. In a full-sized 
specimen the leather should not be less than 18 
inches, and with feather about 24 inches. The 
feather on the ear should be long, abundant, and 
wavy. 

" Neck. — Should be l pointer-like/ i.e., muscular, 
slightly arched, and not too long. It should be 
strongly set on the shoulders. 

" Body {including size and symmetry). — Height 
at shoulder from 20 to 23 inches, according to sex 
and strain ; body, fair sized, round, barrel shaped, 
and well ribbed up. 

" Shoulder and chest. — Chest deep, and not too 
narrow; shoulders strong, rather sloping, and well 
covered with hard muscle. 

" Back and loin. — Back strong, loins trifle arched 
and powerful, so as to fit them for the heavy work 
of beating through sedgy, muddy sides of rivers. 

" Hind quarters. — Round and muscular, and 
slightly drooping towards the set on of the stern. 

" Stern. — A l whip tail,' thick at base and taper- 
ing to a ' sting.' The hair on it should be short, 
straight, and close lying, excepting for a few inches 
from its root, where it gradually merges into the 
body coat in some short curls. 



The Irish Water Spaniel. 247 



" Feet and Legs. — ' Fore-legs ' straight, well 
boned. They should be well furnished with wavy 
hair all round and down to the feet, which should be 
large and round. ' Hind-legs ' stifle long, hock 
set low ; they should be well furnished except from 
the hock down the front. 

11 Coat. — Neither woolly nor lank, but should 
consist of short crisp curls right up to the stern. 
Top-knot should fall well over the eyes. It, and 
furnishing of ears, should be abundant and wavy. 

" Colour, — Dark rich liver or puce (to be judged 
by its original colour). A sandy light coat is a 
defect. Total absence of white desirable ; any 
except a little on chest or a toe, should disqualify. 

" General Appearance. — That of a strong, com- 
pact, dashing-looking dog, with a quaint and verv 
intelligent aspect. They should not be leggy, as 
power and endurance are required of them in their 
work. Noisy and joyous when out for a spree, but 
mute on game." And it may be stated that the 
Irish water spaniel is the only dog of his variety 
not subjected to the custom of having his tail 
docked or shortened. 

The weight of the Irish water spaniel should be 
from 5olb. to 6olb., or, maybe, a trifle over the latter 
figures. Colonel the Hon. Le Poer Trench's well- 
known dog Shaun, at five years old, scaled 641b. ; 



248 Modern Dogs. 



his young dog Shamus, at one and a half years old, 
631b. ; his bitch Harp, at eight and a half years old, 
54lb. ; and the three and a half years old Erin, 61 lb. 
These three dogs may be taken as typical specimens 
of this variety, and of about the average and 
ordinary weight. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE ENGLISH WATER SPANIEL. 

Personally I should not have taken any further 
notice of this variety than has already been done, 
believing it to be almost, if not entirely, extinct, 
its place being now occupied by the ordinary 
retriever; but the Spaniel Club still acknowledges 
it, so some introduction to their description is 
required. 

The old-fashioned water dog our great grand- 
fathers used was the English water spaniel. Mostly 
liver and white in colour, with a curly coat, it was 
just such an animal as would be produced through 
a cross between the modern brown curly-coated 
retriever and an ordinary liver and white spaniel. 
Reinagle, in the " Sportsman's Cabinet/' gives us 
such a dog, and later, so recently as 1845, Youatt 
describes and illustrates the " Water Spaniel.' ' That 
writer gives it a good character for docility, &c.,and 
Ewan Smith draws him not unlike a modern curly 
retriever, but evidently liver and white. Certainly 



250 Modem Dogs. 



his illustration makes this spaniel a bigger dog 
than we should have taken the English water 
spaniel ever to have been. However, the dog 
is not bred or kept now as a special variety, nor 
is there much likelihood of its being quickly 
resuscitated. Youatt said that the true breed was, 
even at the time he wrote, lost, and the variety was 
then a cross between the "water dog" and the 
English setter. 

However, I believe that the old " water dog" 
and the English water spaniel were identical, 
and my opinion is pretty well supported by 
those who mav be considered authorities on the 
matter. 

At some of the earlier Birmingham dog shows 
classes were provided for English water spaniels, 
but few entries were obtained, and, these becoming 
fewer and fewer, the classes were discontinued 
entirely. I have not seen such a spaniel on the 
bench or in the ring for a long time; the Kennel 
Club Stud book during the past few years will be 
searched in vain for an entry of the breed, and the 
last so entered in 1886 had no pedigree attached to 
them. Curiosities rather than eligibilities for any 
Stud Book. 

In some recent remarks on the English water 
spaniel Mr. J. F. Farrow, of Ipswich, says : 



The English Water Spaniel. 251 

" The grandest specimen of this variety of spaniel 
I ever saw was Mr. P. Bullock's Rover, which I 
came across at Birmingham in 1869, when awarded 
the second prize in the English Water Spaniel dog 
class. Although beaten for the first place at this 
exhibition, he made such an impression upon me 
that I can see him in my mind's eye at the time of 
writing these notes, almost as clearly as when I was 
looking at him at the Birmingham Show in 1869. I 
had more than one conversation with those old 
spaniel and sporting dog judges, Mr. W. Lort and 
the Rev. T. Pearce (" Idstone ") in reference to 
this dog, and both thought him a most typical 
specimen. He won first prize at Birmingham in 
1866, 1868, 1870, and at the Crystal Palace, and 
gold medal at Paris in 1865 — the latter a win that, 
however, the owner and breeder of Rover thought 
more of, and a medal he was more pleased to show 
his friends, than any of his numerous other prizes. 
This dog was a beautiful, bright chestnut-red in 
colour, with a very deep square body, which was not 
long, legs straight, and about twice as long as 
the fashionable field spaniel seen at our present 
exhibitions, with beautiful flat bone, which in 
quantity was sufficient to carry his grand body 
without being lumbersome. I never heard the 
weight of Rover, but should judge him, in show 



252 Modern Dogs. 



form, about 481b. ; his tail had been shortened 
a bit, but was rather long; his neck was simply 
grand, and sprung from the very best of working 
placed shoulders, and his head was simply a 
study. 

" Nothing in the show world at the present time 
have we, even in the numerous beautiful field 
spaniels, black, exhibited, have we a head with such 
quality. The occiput showed itself slightly, and the 
head was of considerable length throughout, the 
length from eye to occiput and eye to nose being so 
beautifully balanced ; the brows very cleanly cut, 
muzzle grandly developed, with just the correct 
quantity of flew required to give a nice squareness ; 
the eyes dark, showing no haw, but just a little bit 
of " coral " could be seen at the inner corner of each 
eye, and the whole face was brimful of spaniel fond- 
ness, life, and intelligence ; ears long, well feathered 
inside as well as outside, and placed low, altogether 
making up such a head as I would willingly travel 
500 miles to see once again. The coat was dense, 
but silky in texture, the curl of which was not so 
close or crisp as we like in an Irish water spaniel ; 
his curl was indeed more of a ringlet, with not a 
particle of topknot ; the feathering on legs was not 
so abundant as is seen on the Irish water spaniel, 
and was of the right texture for work. 



The English Water Spaniel 253 



11 Another smart English water spaniel I remember 
well was Flo, also born in 1869, a winner for several 
years at Birmingham. Flo was a daughter of Rover, 
the dog I have just given a description of, and was 
bred by Mr. Bullock, but nearly always shown by the 
Hon. Capt. Arbuthnot. This bitch was liver in 
colour, but of a lighter shade, and not so bright in 
hue as her sire. Her body was longer, but nothing 
like so square as Rover's, and she was, perhaps, 
rather high on her legs, and lacked the workmanlike 
and typical outline of her sire. A liver and white 
ticked dog named Don, shown by Mr. Crisp, was 
placed over her at one of the Curzon Hall shows, 
and later this dog did some important winning, but 
Rover often beat him, and w r as a long way the 
more typical of the two. Don's pedigree was 
never very clearly defined, and, although he had 
certain good, sound English water spaniel points 
about him, he had also points about him that 
one could see favoured the ordinary springer, 
or land spaniel; or, in other words, Don was 
not so distinctly typical of the variety as Rover, 
Flo, and others from the then famous Bilston 
kennels." 

These dogs mentioned by Mr. Farrow, and which 
I recollect perfectly well myself, may be said to be 
about the most typical of their race of modern times. 



254 



Modem Dogs. 



Similar animals are not produced now, but if there 
be any one anxious to resuscitate this once favourite 
dog, there is plenty of material for him to commence 
working upon, and it would not take long to re- 
introduce the variety, though perhaps a dog of such 
excellence as Rover would not be produced for some 
time to come. 

The following are the Club's points and descrip- 
tion of the English water spaniel. 



Positive Points. 

Head, jaw, and eyes 20 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

Body 10 

Fore-legs 10 

Hind-legs 10 

Feet 5 

Stern 10 

Coat 15 

General appearance 10 



Negative Points. 

Feather and stern 10 

Top-knot 10 



Total Positive Points... 100 



Total Negative Points... 20 



Descriptive Particulars. 

14 Head. — Long, somewhat straight and rather 
narrow ; muzzle rather long, and, if anything, rather 
pointed. 

" Eyes. — Small for the size of the dog. 



The English Water Spaniel. 255 



11 Ears. — Set on forward, and thickly clothed with 
hair inside and out. 

" Neck. — Straight. 

" Body {including size and symmetry). — Large, 
and very deep throughout; back ribs well developed, 
not quite so long as in field spaniels. 

" Nose. — Large. 

" Shoulders and Chest. — Shoulders low and chest 
rather narrow, but deep. 

" Back and loin. — Strong but not clumsy. 

" Hind quarters. — Long and straight ; rather 
rising toward the stern than dropping, which, 
combined with the low shoulder, gives him the 
appearance of standing higher behind than in 
front. 

" Stern. — Docked from 7 to 10 inches according 
to the size of the dog, carried a little above the level 
of the back, but by no means high. 

" Feet and legs. — Feet well spread, large and 
strong ; well clothed with hair, especially between 
the pads. Legs long and strong ; the stifles well 
bent. 

11 Coat. — Covered either with crisp curls or with 
ringlets ; no top-knot, but the close curl should 
cease on the top of the head, leaving the face 
perfectly smooth and lean looking. 

"Colour. — Black and white, liver and white, 




256 Modern Dogs. 



or self-coloured black or liver. The pied for 
choice. 

" General Appearance. — Sober - looking, with 
rather a slouching gate and a general independence 
of manner, which is thrown aside at the sight of a 
gun." 



4 




1 l '-- ,*' r- '* JL v -> 

 — -^ r '-\'v 



--/ 



?S C, _ 



y 

* 



CHAPTER XIII. 
THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 



With the Irish water spaniel it may be said that 
shows have wrought less change in the Clumber 
spaniel than they have done in any other variety 
of dog. The reason for this is not very difficult 
to find, for he is but a comparatively modern intro- 
duction ; he does not stand crossing well, and has 
come to be so bred in and in, that the tendency 
has been towards making him delicate and difficult 
to rear, rather than to alter or completely change 
his type, according to the fashion prevailing at the 
hour. 

That fashion does change in canine matters 
pretty much as it does in dress and otherwise, 
no one having any knowledge of dogs will deny. 
About fifty years ago, William Youatt wrote his 
book about the dog. Strangely, he never mentions 
the Clumber spaniel, but gives an illustration of the 
English water spaniel. The latter is obsolete now, 
the former has classes provided for him at all shows 

VOL. II. S 



258 Modern Dogs. 



that pertain to leading rank, and is a fairly popular 
dog likewise. 

We all know that this dog takes its name from 
Clumber, near Worksop, one of the seats of the 
Dukes of Newcastle, and where that dog has been 
kept from its first introduction to this country 
to the present time. When that first introduction 
took place is not exactly known, but it was probably 
about the middle of the eighteenth century when the 
Due de Nouailles presented the then Duke of New- 
castle with a number of spaniels, which in France 
had a reputation for being better than others, 
as they were steady workers and easily brought 
under command, i.e., there was little difficulty in 
training them. This good character remains with 
them at the present day. For many years the 
breed was kept at Clumber, and so zealously 
guarded and so identified with the place, that in due 
time it came to bear the name of the seat, which is 
still retained. This appears to be the early- history 
of the Clumber spaniel, and, although in various 
parts of France many spaniels are still found and 
used in work, I have not been able to trace any 
kennels of true Clumbers in that country. 

That the Clumbers were with the Duke of 
Newcastle at the end of last century proof remains 
on canvas. There is a portrait of his Grace, seated 



The Clumber Spaniel 259 

on a shooting pony and surrounded by a group of 
his spaniels, which are identical with the Clumbers 
of the present day, though, perhaps, they appear 
somewhat smaller, and are rather longer in the head, 
than the majority of the best dogs we see now. 
At that time, or rather a few years later, a writer in 
the " Sporting Magazine " called them " springers " 
or " cock-flushers." This admirable and useful 
picture, the work of F. Wheatley, R.A., was, in 
1797, engraved ; the painting itself remains, copies 
of the engraving are still extant, and, although 
highly valued by the admirers of spaniels who own 
them, copies are occasionally to be found in the 
leading shops that deal in such treasures. 

Dog shows were unknown then, and the spaniel 
was kept solely for working purposes. In due, 
course, this strain from Clumber came to be some- 
what spread about the country, though com- 
paratively scarce and highly valued. That the 
latter was the case may be inferred from the fact 
that, at the first Birmingham show, say in 1859, 
a class was provided for them, and the following 
year two divisions were given this handsome spaniel, 
and such have been continued ever since. At the 
early show Lord Spencer was the winner with a 
good looking dog, but the succeeding one saw Mr. 
E. Boaler (who had been with the Duke of Portland 

S 2 



260 Modern Dogs. 



at Welbeck), of near Chesterfield, taking first honours 
in both classes, the Spencer kennel coming but 
second. On this occasion there were a dozen 
entries. 

It was, however, in 1861 that the chief interest was 
caused, when there was a capital collection of seven- 
teen dogs and bitches. The late Mr. C. E. Holford, 
of Weston Park, Tetbury, sent up an exceptionally 
smart team, and succeeded in winning all the six 
prizes awarded. Following, this kennel was for a 
time almost invincible when it was represented on 
the show bench, which was not often, as the dogs 
were kept for working the coverts, where they did 
what was expected of them very well indeed. Of 
late years Mr. Holford's Clumbers appear to have 
deteriorated very much, for when, a few years ago, 
they were dispersed at Aldridge's, in St. Martin's 
Lane, the puppies were but a sorry sample, and, 
with one or two exceptions, the old dogs were not 
much better. However, for a generation or two 
Mr. Holford's Clumbers formed one of the leading 
kennels of that variety in the country. 

To hark back, Mr. Boaler's Bustle and Floss, that 
won in i860 and at other shows about this period 
and later, were excellent specimens ; lemon in 
markings, with good bodies, great bone, and cer- 
tainly not excelled by any of the same race that 



The Clumber Spaniel. 261 

appeared at these earlier shows. It is interesting to 
note that at the present time a son of this Mr. 
Boaler — namely, Mr. G. Boaler, of Mansfield , 
Woodhouse, Notts, still has Clumber spaniels good 
enough to show and appear in the prize list, and of 
the same strain that his father won with thirty years 
since. This kennel has been kept up for over fifty 
years, and it is owing only to the failing health of 
their owner that they do not appear oftener on the 
show bench. 

It need scarcely be said, that in the first volume 
of the Kennel Club Stud Book classifications were 
given this dog, the entries reaching the excellent 
number of sixty-five. 

At this period, no doubt, some peculiar decisions 
were given at our dog shows, where, in many cases, 
a judge undertook his duty without knowing any- 
thing at all about the breed upon which he had to 
adjudicate. Instances were not isolated where he 
awarded the prizes more to the man than the dog, 
and so, to his own satisfaction, got out of a diffi- 
culty into which his own self-assertion had led him. 
It is said that on the eve of one of the large shows 
there was a difficulty in obtaining a judge for 
Clumber spaniels. The secretary was at his wit's 
end and did not know what to do, when, seeing 
Mr. , one of the so-called " all-round " judges, 



262 Modern Dogs. 



a happy inspiration occurred. " Eh ! " called the 
secretary to the " all-round man." " You can judge 
Clumbers, can't you ? " " Clumbers, Clumbers/ 1 
* r as the reply ; " what's them ? Oh ! I know ; 
them big white dawgs with yellow marks. Yes, I've 
never seen but one or two, but I'll take them," and 
he did. What his decisions were may be easily 
imagined. 

A year or two later than this, a comparatively 
unknown exhibitor had perhaps the best Clumber 
of the day. He showed it at one of the Crystal 
Palace shows, and, with a friend, was looking 
around the class preparatory to the judging, which 
then took place on the terrace. No doubt the dog 
in question was the best in his class, but two or 
three numbers away, a well-known exhibitor was 
" running " another Clumber. " Ah ! " said the 
unknown owner, " my chance is poor to-day. 
That dog will win ! " " Why ? " replied his friend, 
" such cannot be ; that dog is small and mean, no 
bigger much than a cocker." However, the " small 
and mean " did win, and was afterwards sold to 
someone, who at the same time must have been 
considerably sold himself ; for his purchase was un- 
doubtedly one of the very worst dogs in a class 
which included such grand specimens as Duke, 
Nabob, and others not far behind them. 



The Clumber Spaniel. 263 

« 

These little stories are mentioned explanatory of 
the difficulty breeders of Clumbers have had to 
contend with in the matter of judges. More- 
over, the dog requires very great care in breeding 
or rearing, whieh in itself is quite as much as his 
admirers can put up with, without having additional 
suffering in the show ring. It has been said that no 
man ought to judge unless he had seen the breed he 
was handling at work, and had owned some of them 
himself. However, this is a question that may be 
argued ad infinitum, and is as applicable to any 
dog as much as to the one the name of which 
appears at the head of this chapter. 

Mr. Wardle, in his illustration, has exceedingly 
well pourtrayed what a Clumber spaniel should be, 
and a little description of the two dogs may be 
interesting. That standing foremost possesses the 
perfect body of one of the best working dogs, but 
in the flesh its head is far from what it ought to be, 
so the artist has replaced it with the head from 
another dog, which is considered to be about as 
good as they can be obtained. The bitch behind 
is almost an exact likeness of the original, improved 
somewhat to approach that perfection which no dog 
has yet been able to reach. 

In colour the body of the dog should be white, 
the ears coloured, spot on the occiput ; and on the 



264 Modern Dogs. 



side of the face to the eye there should be lemon 
markings, and the jaw must be well flecked and ticked 
with marks of a similar colour. There is a diversity 
of opinion as to what this colour should be. I prefer 
lemon, and this not too dark in shade ; others prefer 
this lemon approaching, or quite, an orange hue. 
Liver or brown markings are entirely wrong, and 
should certainly disqualify, however good the dog 
bearing them is in other particulars. As to colour 
that well-known admirer of the variety, Mr. J. T. 
Hincks, of Leicester, tells me that some few years 
ago he had a number of dogs with light lemon 
markings, but got rid of them, as they were not, 
in his opinion, nearly so attractive in teams as those 
of a darker shade — rather a peculiar statement to 
give as a reason for destroying and disposing of 
valuable dogs. 

The head large, square, and fairly long, but so 
massive as to render the length not impressive; it 
should be broad on the top, with a decided occipital 
protuberance, heavy brows, with a deep stop; haw 
showing. Muzzle long and heavy, with well de- 
veloped flew ; " snipeyness," or a weak face, being 
very objectionable. 

A few years ago there was a controversy amongst 
writers as to whether the head should be unduly 
long or unduly short. I have no doubt on the point. 



The Clumber Spaniel. 265 

The heads of the dogs in the picture of 1797 are 
long — decidedly long ; so are the muzzles, in which 
point they show a weakness, like many otherwise 
good dogs of the present day. With regard to this 
difference of opinion it must be remembered that, 
although this variety is often used in teams for covert 
shooting, it may be part of its duty to retrieve, 
and the jaw should be of a formation to enable the 
animal to carry a hare or pheasant with ease. 
Besides, the massive head is a great feature in the 
variety, and we cannot get massiveness without 
length. It is important that there should be no 
resemblance to the setter ; but if the head I have 
described be borne in mind, and Mr. Wardle's 
drawing be referred to, there will be no likelihood 
of the setter type being produced, and we must 
remember that the deep stop is very important, also 
the drooping eye showing haw, as in the blood- 
hound. 

The ears, whilst being large, look small for the 
size of the dog, and should not hang below the 
throat, but come slightly forward. 

The neck is very thick, and the chest very heavily 
feathered. The shoulders particularly strong and 
muscular. The legs short, with as much bone as 
can be obtained. They should be straight, but 
here I would prefer a crooked legged rather than 



266 Modern Dogs. 



a long legged dog. They should be very heavily 
feathered. 

With regard to this question of legs it must be 
remembered that the work of the dog is to hunt in 
front of the gun and flush game, but he should never 
go faster than a trot. I have found that if we get a 
dog with long legs, when he gets the scent he is apt 
to go away too quickly and flush his game out ot 
shot. This is annoying, and the dog that will stick 
to his slow trot will keep on all day, always giving a 
chance for the gun, and so is much to be preferred. 

The body should be long — i.e., as long as possible 
consistently with being well ribbed up. If the 
latter point be obtained the body cannot be too long, 
but I have seen dogs of such a length as to be next 
to useless from a sportsman's point of view, and, 
however handsome they might be, unless well ribbed 
up, I should never award a prize to such a dog. It 
is said that the body should be low ; this does not 
mean low from the back to the ground, but that the 
chest should be so deep and so heavily feathered 
as to show very little daylight underneath. The 
deeper the body and rounder the ribs the better. 
The back should be straight. The hindquarters 
are very powerful and heavily feathered, hocks set 
on low, and when the dog is standing showing well 
behind the body. 



The Clumber Spaniel 267 

When looking at the dog with a side point of view 
he should underneath appear level from front to rear ; 
a great defect in some of the modern dogs being 
that, whilst well let down in front, they are tucked 
up behind like a greyhound. The tail should be 
straight (a fourth docked off), and carried at any 
rate level with the back, below rather than above it, 
and, like the hindquarters, should be very heavily 
feathered. 

It is a great point of beauty in the Clumber that 
when the team is out at exercise or work the stern is 
on a continual move from side to side. I find 
that dogs which at exercise and at work invariably 
have beautiful tail action, are very apt, when taken 
from the bench into the judging ring, to carry their 
tails high. This is often done by the best dogs, 
and is in many cases the result of being in robust 
health and spirit. Before passing over a dog for 
this fault judges should wait as long as possible, and 
watch the effect of allowing the dog to quieten down. 
The coat should be straight and of medium texture. 
Coarse coated dogs are not handsome, and soft 
coated ones, when in work, are continually getting 
heated in their skin ; besides, a soft coat is not 
suitable for a dog whose work is principally in covert 
in autumn when the leaves have fallen. 

A great authority on spaniels wrote the other 



268 Modern Dogs. 



day : — " The outline of many of our Clumber dogs 
to-day is bad, they have very massive fore-quarters 
with very weak hindquarters, cut up in stifle, and, 
indeed, are made as much on the fashionable and 
typical lines of a Bulldog as a Clumber. A Clumber 
must be built on massive lines throughout, not heavy 
in one part of its frame and light in another. A 
perfect Clumber body, although long, should be so 
deep and massive as to appear square when looked 
at broadside on ; that is, if you carry your eye from 
the top of the shoulder to the hip joint, from the hip 
joint to the stifle joint, and from the stifle joint to the 
elbow, and elbow to the starting point, the outline 
should be almost a square. This is a perfect body 
for a Clumber, but how many have them of this 
stamp ? " 

With regard to his work, the Clumber is slow, 
very slow, but he never tires, and goes on day by 
day. At many places they are worked in teams. 
At Knowsley, one of the seats of the Earl of Derby, 
from twenty-five to thirty Clumbers are used in this 
manner, as occasion requires. 

The Clumber spaniel is mute, easily broken, and 
should be trained to drop to hand, wing, and shot. 
If a large number of dogs are worked together it is 
better that they should not be taught to retrieve, but 
if only a few are required for woodcock and for 



The Clumber Spaniel 269 

general shooting (for which they are invaluable) then 
retrieving should be a sine qud non. They take to 
this naturally. To teach them, dry a rabbit skin, 
stuff it with hay, and wrap it round with string, 
and when the pups are about three months old 
have similar skins thrown for them to retrieve. 
After a very few lessons they learn to do this, and 
enjoy the fun. Then kill a bird or two to them, 
letting them fetch it, which in nine cases out of 
ten they will do willingly, and with the greatest 
pleasure. 

The work of breaking is quite simple. It is 
important that rabbits should not be killed to them 
before birds, or the dogs are apt to get hard 
mouthed. As a companion the Clumber is excellent ; 
it is very unusual to find one with a bad temper, 
and there are few things which he cannot be taught 
to do. 

The Rev. T. Pearce (" Idstone ") was as fond 
of a Clumber spaniel as he was of a wavy-coated 
retriever and a Gordon setter, and when he wrote 
about twenty years ago, the chief Clumber owners 
were the Earl of Abingdon, Mr. James Morrell, the 
Marquis of Westminster, Earl Spencer, Mr. Holford, 
and the Maharajah Dhuleep Sing ; at least, this was 
the somewhat incomplete list he published in his 
book on the dog. There are a few kennels of 



270 Modern Dogs. 



Clumbers at the present day, and, perhaps, all 
round, this dog is more common than ever, i.e., it is 
to be found in greater numbers in fair perfection 
than at any previous time of our history. 

So far as one can make out, I believe the 
principal kennels at this time, 1892, are dealt with 
in the succeeding pages. As a commencement, 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, at Sandringham, has a 
number of handsome Clumbers that are first class 
workers, and there are promising puppies coming 
on. The failing in most of His Royal Highness's 
dogs is in their heads, they being narrow and 
deficient in massiveness. Suitably and successfully 
crossed with a dog or dogs excelling in head 
properties, probably, the Sandringham Clumbers 
would be about the best in existence. Mr. Fol- 
jambe, at Osberton Hall, near Worksop, has a fair 
team, the fault here being lightness in bone, and 
deficiency in head properties. This strain, perhaps 
excels all others in making an off- cross, and drafts 
from here are often on sale during the season at 
Aldridge's. 

The Dukes of Portland, Newcastle, and West- 
minster own the kennels that are most popularly 
known, and, although they have not been kept up to 
date so far as appearance is concerned, greater 
pains, I believe, are now being taken to make an 



The Clumber Spaniel 271 

improvement in size, bone, and head properties, 
the latter being where almost all the strains fail. 
An exception, however, may be made to the dogs 
kept for many years by Mr. H. H. Holmes, of 
Lancaster. All his Clumbers were particularly good 
in head, and if they are wrong at all in this particular, 
they have an inclination to be too short, and so 
become rather sour in expression. These dogs are 
also excellent in colour and bone, indeed, so far as 
bench properties go, were the best of all, as the 
successes of his Tower, John o' Gaunt, Hotpot, and 
others testified. This must be an extremely 
valuable strain to use, if it has not been lost, 
where the modern failing is so predominant. 

Lord Derby's dogs have been alluded to. Lord 
Clinton Hope, at Deep Deenes, Surrey, has an 
excellent team, mostly* of the strain obtained from 
Mr. J. T. Hincks, of Leicester, who is perhaps the 
greatest modern enthusiast of all, in the way of 
Clumbers, and when he shows them is usually in 
the prize list. His dogs are equally as good in 
the field. 

As an instance of Mr. Hinck's enthusiasm it 
may be mentioned that at the recent sale of Mr. 
Holford's spaniels, at Aldridge's, the ten-year-old 
Brush II., a Birmingham first prize winner and 
a most typical Clumber, was put up for auction 



272 Modern Dogs. 



though feeble and quite worn out. Mr. Hincks 
purchased the poor old dog in order that it 
should have a peaceful home and be well cared 
for in its declining years. However, Brush did 
not survive its change of ownership many weeks. 

Baron Rothschild also, I believe, uses Clumbers 
for beating his extensive coverts ; and Mr. Allen, of 
Ampthill, has had some capital specimens, chiefly 
of the Duke of Portland's strain. The Earl 
Spencer keeps a team at Althorp Park, Northamp- 
ton, and drafts therefrom occasionally appear at 
Aldridge's sales in St. Martin's Lane. The latter 
are, however, as a rule, rather inferior specimens. 
Mr. J. H. McKenna, of Harpurhey, near Manchester, 
can show an excellent team, so can Mr. G. B. Clark, 
Bridgenorth ; Messrs. Haylock and Barnard, 
Chelmsford ; Mr. F. Parlett, near Chelmsford ; 
Mr. Charles, Neath ; the Rev. A. G. Brooke ; 
Captain Maxwell, Dumfries ; the Earl of Manners, 
Mr. V. Kitchingman, Slingsby, York; and Mr. 
Boaler (already mentioned), have all at one time or 
another owned and bred many good specimens. 

To my mind the best three Clumbers of the early 
days of the show ring were Mr. H. P. Charles's Duke, 
who was by Foljambe's Bang — Mr. R. S. Holford's 
Trimbush, and the writer's Nabob, afterward shown 
by Mr. P. Bullock and Mr. G. H. Oliver. Mr. R.J. 



The Clumber Spaniel 273 

Lloyd Price's Bruce, illustrated in " Stonehenge," 
stood too high on the legs and was too long in the 
head ; but about this time twenty-five years ago many 
good dogs were being shown, mostly of the Foljambe 
strain, or at any rate said to be so. Of more 
modern dogs I take Mr. Holmes' John o' Gaunt, 
Mr. Hinck's Nora Friar ; Chelmsford Clytie, bred by 
Messrs. Haylock and Barnard ; the Duke of Port- 
' land's Fairy III., Damper, Welbeck Bess, and Fop; 
the Duchess of Newcastle's Rally of Hardwicke ; 
Mr. R. Chapman's Wycombe Rattle ; Mr. J. Far- 
row's Fribble ; Mr. Fellow's Alveley Bruce ; Mr. 
D. C. Davies' Ferndale Punch, and Mr. Parlett's 
Trust and Truth to be about the best. Psycho, who 
at one time did a great deal of winning, was terribly 
weak in head, and Boss III., 4( a champion," was also 
similarly wrong, and his loins were bad. However, 
I think, with a few enthusiasts at work in addition to 
those whose names have been mentioned, there may 
be an improved future for the Clumber spaniel. 

A leading breeder of the variety says that the best 
dog for stud purposes he ever owned was one called 
Barney, which he purchased at one of the Birmingham 
shows. The dog, although not straight on his legs, 
bad in colour, and too fine in coat, proved extremely 
useful. In speaking of the same dog he said this 
fine coat made him liable to a form of skin disease 

VOL. II. T 



274 Modern Dogs. 



similar to mud fever in horses, and which was brought 
on by working. My experience is that the Clumber 
spaniel is more subject to disease of one kind and 
another than other dogs. Not many years ago 
there was an excellent bitch being shown, often 
winning, and usually catalogued to sell at an 
extremely low price. Bromine her name was, well 
bred, and when she was sold to go to America, I 
remarked to a friend who liked Clumbers, how 
foolish he was to allow such a good bitch to go 
out of the country. " You don't know as much 
about her as I do," replied the friend ; " she cannot 
be kept in health, and is nearly always up to the 
eyes in mange." It need scarcely be said that 
she did not survive long amidst our American 
cousins. 

Mr. Hincks tells me a little as to the doings of 
some of his Clumbers when at work. Of the dog 
Barney, already alluded to, he says : "I had him 
out one day with a young dog, Friar Jumbo. A 
covey of birds rose and crossed me from left to 
right in the corner of a field. 1 took the first bird, 
and as I pulled two others came in the line of fire. 
The bird aimed at dropped dead, whilst the other 
two were winged. Both dogs dropped to shot, and 
one of the wounded birds made for one fence and 
the other for another fence. 1 took the two dogs 



The Clumber Spaniel. 275 

and sent them in different directions ; each returned 
with his bird, and not a feather ruffled." 

Mr. Hincks mentions another excellent perform- 
ance of one of his dogs, Friar Boss, which he had 
with him on a visit to Wales to look after cock, stray 
pheasants, and anything that could be found on a 
wild, rough shooting. There was a mixed team of 
dogs with the. party, and the host expressed a great 
dislike to " show dogs " and to show Clumbers in 
particular. However, Boss's owner got the first 
three woodcocks over his dog, and the second day 
" the showman " did so well as to quite alter the 
opinion held by the lessee of the shooting. Boss 
bustled out an old cock pheasant, which made away 
over the top of a hedge, but was stopped just in the 
nick of time. The dog dropped to shot ; Mr. 
Hincks lighted his pipe, then sent Boss for the 
bird. " Hi ! what are you waiting for ? " cried one 
of the party. " Bird be hanged ; the dog is 
ranging away right at the end of the other field ; 
come back," and Mr. Hincks got over the fence to 
see what was the matter. But instead of ranging 
wildly, Boss had his nose down, and speedily came 
back with the fluttering cock in his mouth, for it 
had been but winged, and had run the full length 
of two fields. So after all " show dogs " may be of 
some use. 

T 2 



276 



Modern Dogs. 



Thus much for the Clumber spaniel and his work, 
and all that is to be done for him now is to say that 
he is not a water dog, and give the Spaniel Club's 
description of him. This is as follows : 



Positive Points. 

Head and jaw 20 

Eyes 5 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

Body 15 

Fore legs 5 

Hind legs 5 

Feet 5 

Stern 5 

Colour of markings io 

Coat and feather 10 

General appearance 10 

Total Positive Points... 100 



Negative Points. 

Curled ears 10 

Curled coat 20 

Bad carriage of tail ... 10 

Snipy face .« 15 

Legginess 10 

Light eyes 5 



Total Negative Points... 70 



Descriptive Particulars. 

Head, — Large, square, and massive, of medium 
length, broad on top, .with a decided occiput ; heavy 
brows with a deep stop ; heavy freckled muzzle with 
well developed flew. 

Eyes. — Dark amber, slightly sunk, and showing 
haw. 

Ears. — Large, vine-leaf shaped, and well covered 
with straight hair and hanging slightly forward, the 
feather not to extend below the leather. 



* 



The Clumber Spaniel. 277 



Neck. — Very thick and powerful, and well feathered 
underneath. 

Body {including size and symmetry). — Long and 
heavy, and near the ground. 

Nose. — Square and flesh coloured. 

Shoulders and Chest. — Wide and deep j shoulders 
strong and muscular. 

Back and Loin. — Back straight, broad and long ; 
loin, powerful, well let down in flank. 

Hind Quarters. — Very powerful and well de- 
veloped. 

Stern. — Set low, well feathered, and carried about 
level with the back. 

Feet and Legs. — Feet large and round, well covered 
with hair ; legs short, thick, and strong ; hocks low. 

Coat. — Long, abundant, soft and straight. 

Colour. — Plain white, with lemon markings; orange 
permissible but not desirable ; slight head markings, 
with white body preferred. 

General Appearance. — Should be that of a long, 
low, heavy, very massive dog, with a thoughtful ex- 
pression. 

Weight of dogs from 551b. to 651b. ; bitches 
45'b. to 551b. 

The new club for sporting and working spaniels 
promises to do something in the way of popularising 
the Clumber, but its members must not forget that 



278 Modern Dogs. 



no . modern variety of the canine race resents 
" crossing' ' with other strains so much as the 
Clumber spaniel. He has a thoroughly distinct 
character of his own, which happily has not been 
spoiled by the vagaries of fashion consequent upon 
the varying opinions of certain judges, and, like a 
few other breeds of sporting dogs, he remains pretty 
much what he was half a century or more ago. We 
require him no heavier in bone, nor in body, nor 
more massive in head than he is to be found at 
present, and his comparative inutility as a single 
dog will always be against his being so popular as 
longer legged and consequently more active varieties 
of the spaniel. 



\ 



~~ i 






!' 



i.~> ._ 



^ 

H 






»?* 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE SUSSEX SPANIEL. 

A WELL-KNOWN authority on the dog, writing in 
1802, says that some of the largest and strongest 
spaniels " are common in many parts of Sussex, and 
are called Sussex spaniels." Unfortunately, he does 
not tell us what colour they were or what colour they 
ought to be ; still there is no doubt, from what I have 
been told, from what I have read, and from general 
gossip, that this spaniel was brown in colour, or, as 
that shade is usually called in application to the 
variety, " golden liver." 

It somehow appears strange that, until within 
thirty years or so ago, this handsome and useful 
spaniel should have been allowed to languish in 
a quiet country place in its native country; bred 
by certain families, who valued it only for its 
working excellences, and, by a course of much in- 
breeding, rendered its extinction only a matter of 
time unless others came forward to strengthen the 
breed. 



280 Modern Dogs. 



When " Stonehenge," in 1859, wrote " The Dog 
in Health and Disease," attention appears to have 
been drawn particularly to the Sussex spaniel, and 
the outcome of that article of his was a mass of 
information on the subject that was extremely 
valuable. It was not, however, until much later — 
viz., in 1872 — that a class for Sussex spaniels was 
provided at our dog shows, this being at the Crystal 
Palace, when, I believe, Mr. J. A. Handy offered 
a special prize for them. The awards, however, did 
not appear to be satisfactory to those who knew the 
variety. They said that the leading honour ought 
to have gone to Mr. J. H. Salter's Chance, who came 
second to Captain Arbuthnot's Dash, an ordinary 
field spaniel with none of the true character about 
him, third to a dog bred from at any rate one 
black parent, Mr. Bullock's George. However, if 
the awards were wrong — and it was not the first 
time they had been nor was it the last occasion in 
which the judging was in error — Sussex spaniels 
obtained such a fillip that they have not looked 
behind them since. 

The Rosehill strain was the most fancied, and 
into Sussex all the " show men," with Mr. T. B. 
Bowers in command, ran to see if they could buy 
up the plums that remained in the neighbourhood. 
Some few were found, but the owners knew their 



The Sussex Spaniel. 281 



value as purely sporting dogs, and were loth to part 
with them at anything else than "sporting" figures, 
this word, however, used in quite a different sense — 
an opposite one in fact, and " fancy figures " might 
be better. 

For over fifty years Mr. Fuller, at Rosehill Hall, 
Brightling, near Hastings, had perhaps the leading 
strain, but, although some of it remains, mostly in 
the kennels of Mr. Campbell Newington, at Ridge- 
way, Ticehurst, Sussex, and in those of Mr. Moses 
Woolland, William-street, Lowndes-square, London, 
and Mr. J. H. Salter, at Tolleshunt d'Arcy, we fancy 
not one is quite free from a strange cross. 

Mr. Fuller kept his spaniels for the purpose of 
beating the large woods and plantations in the 
vicinity of Brightling and Heathfield. He was 
a good sportsman of the old school, one perhaps 
better satisfied when killing his eight or ten brace 
of wild pheasants a day over dogs, than the modern 
shooter is with more than fifteen times that number 
of hand-fed birds brought to book by the aid 
of human beaters. Not that I have any vish to 
decry the " big days" in covert we all so much 
enjoy, nor for one moment run down the skill of 
the man who can kill a score of rocketers without 
more than two or three misses. 

On the death of Mr. Fuller, which occurred so far 



282 Modern Dogs. 



back as 1847, Mrs. Fuller allowed Relf, the head 
keeper, to select two of the best spaniels in the 
kennel ; the remainder were for a time used by the 
new tenant of the shooting, but eventually sold, and 
realised high prices. There were seven of them so 
disposed of, but it was from the dog and bitch 
selected by Relf, named respectively George and 
Romp, that the strain, so far as it goes, survives at 
the present. 

It has been stated that the original strain from 
Rosehill was lost through an outbreak of rabies in 
the kennels necessitating entire destruction of the 
spaniels. This was not the case. Many years 
before Mr. Fuller's death, there was such an outbreak 
amongst the hounds — southern hounds they were. 
These were destroyed, and with them some of the 
spaniels, but by no means the whole of the latter. 

In addition to the Rosehill strain, Dr. Williams, of 
Hayward's Heath, had some excellent Sussex 
spaniels, so had Mr. Farmer at Cowfold, but it is 
years since the first-named wrote that he had not a 
single specimen in his kennel, and did not know 
where to find any of the pure breed. However, 
thanks to those gentlemen I have named, and the 
trouble they have taken to retain what blood 
remained, the complete extinction of the pure Sussex 
spaniel is now improbable. 



The Sussex Spaniel 283 



Some eighteen years ago the best bred dogs were 
Mr. Newington's Laurie, born in 1877, and which 
came to an untimely end by swallowing a cork ; Mr. 
Salter's Chloe, Mr. Egerton's George, and Mr. 
Hudson's Battle. 

Peggie, the dam of Bachelor, who did a great 
deal of winning in his day, had a considerable 
strain of water spaniel blood in her, and so the 
descendants of that bitch, handsome though she 
was, cannot be deemed as pure as they might be, 
still, with slight exception, Bachelor was about as 
pure as any at that time, and it is from his strain 
that the various colours which now and then appear 
are produced. It was rather unfortunate that Mr. 
Bullock's George, one of the illustrations of the 
Sussex spaniels published in the Field in 1872, was 
by his dog Bob, one of the best of the black variety 
ever benched. So here again are so-called Sussex 
descended from him, and his strain cannot be 
considered the genuine article. But, as already 
stated, not one is entirely pure, and, so far as I can 
make out, the dog Laurie, already alluded to, was 
about as free from black in the strain as any, he 
being by Hudson's Dash out of his Romp, the latter 
with a sire and dam pure Rosehill, and Dash was by 
Mr. Curtiss' Bob — Mr. Watt's Dash, both pure in 
their way. 



284 Modern Dogs. 



I cannot find any others of the best looking and 
most typical dogs that do not on one side or the 
other go back to Bachelor. Still with no more wrong 
.blood than he possessed, there was not much harm 
done, and those who take the trouble to reproduce 
the true thing have every opportunity of doing so, 
especially where they take pains to keep off any 
sire or dam that excels in the length of the ears. 

The distinguishing feature in the Sussex spaniel 
is the " golden liver colour," and without which no 
dog should receive a prize. How this was originally 
obtained it is difficult to say, but Relf, the favourite 
old keeper at the Rosehill kennels, who died 
some years ago, aged eighty-five, said that every 
now and then they obtained amongst their puppies 
one of a " sandy " colour. This sandy specimen, 
I have since heard, only came in from a bitch 
that was mated with a dog belonging to Dr. Watts, 
of Battle. This conveys the impression that this 
strain, some time or other, had (and I am writing 
of what occurred as far back as fifty years since), a 
41 sandy " coloured or yellow dog or bitch in it, and 
these lighter-shaded puppies bred back to that time. 
This is a remarkable fact, because a sandy colour 
bred to liver colour would be likely enough to pro- 
duce that lovely golden tinge that is so desirable at 
the present time, and has been so for very many 



The Sussex Spaniel 285 

years. It need scarcely be said that the " sandy n 
puppies were usually destroyed by the old keeper, to 
whom nevertheless we must be in a great measure 
indebted for the Sussex spaniel as he is to-day in 
his purity. 

In the modern specimens there is a tendency to 
get the coats too fine, such of course being to the 
advantage of the dogs when before the judges, but 
very much against them for work. A good dog 
ought to have a hardish coat, dense underneath, 
perfectly straight, and one that would allow a willing 
dog (and the strain is willing enough) to work in the 
thickest covert of briar and bramble. 

Then another peculiarity in the Sussex spaniel lies, 
in his ears. These ought not to be too long, small, 
or narrow where they are set on (which should be 
low), but larger or " lobe shaped " towards the base, 
all nicely coated with straight silky hair, quite free 
from fringe at the tips. Perhaps one of the most 
typical of her race we have seen was Mr. T. B. 
Bower's Maud, born in 1871. She was bred by Mr. 
Saxby, and said to be pure Rosehill on the sides of 
both her sire and dam. She was, however, some- 
what fine in coat, and had not quite so workman- 
like an appearance as might have been desirable. 
Those handsome dogs, the Bebbs (there was a 
whole family of them), that did no end of winning 






s86 Modern Dogs. 



on the show bench twenty years ago, were not 
Sussex at all. Old Bebb, Mr. Burgess's, originally 
came from Lord Derby's kennels at Knowsley, and 
proved such a useful sire that he could produce 
browns, blacks, and other colours from the same dam. 

The late Mr. J. A. Handy, who was a great 
-authority on the breed, persisted that another most 
important item was that the feather on either the 
front or hind legs " should not extend down to the 
toes. It should stand out straight from the back 
of the legs, without that fluffy Cochin-China-like 
appearance considered by many persons a desi- 
deratum in a prize spaniel — indeed, the hind legs 
from the hock downwards should not be feathered 
-at all.' ' I give the above opinion for what it is worth, 
but the dogs that we see on the benches have, when 
in coat, certainly more feather on the legs than Mr. 
Handy indicates, though what they might be in full 
work and beating the coverts five days in the week 
is another question. The " show feather" would 
soon disappear. 

As a worker the Sussex spaniel is second to none. 
He is hardy, busy, reliable, and has no preference to 
hunt one kind. of game before another — i.e., he will 
not leave fur for feather nor feather for fur, though 
perhaps of the two he would prefer " feather." 
There is no better dog than he for beating out the 



The Sussex Spaniel 287 

thick covert when the cocks have arrived and the 
pheasants are chary of taking wing. # He works 
closely, intelligently, and will not leave a bit of 
covert untried ; he is a faster and merrier worker 
than the Clumber, and will go on quite as long. 
He is not mute, though not a noisy dog by any 
means ; a slight yelp or whimper every now 
and then, when on a hot scent, which becomes 
more of a round full bark when close to his game 
or when it is in sight. Of course, some dogs 
may be more excitable than others, but what I 
call a very noisy spaniel is quite out of place, for 
it often enough leads the shooter to believe it has 
game in front of its nose when such is far away, and 
perhaps never comes within distance to afford a 
shot. The Sussex spaniel readily retrieves, is 
tender-mouthed, and makes by no means a bad 
single-handed dog where a pointer or setter will not 
be of much use. As a water dog he is excellent 
when properly trained for the purpose. 

In a great measure the present popularity of the 
pure Sussex spaniel is due to what Mr. T. B. Bowers, 
who then lived near Chester, did for it many years 
ago. He was energetic in defining the type, got to 
the right strains, and protested against the award of 
prizes to brown dogs that had sprung from black 
parents, and had little or no Sussex blood in them. 



288 Modern Dogs. 



This he did so successfully that a well-known liver- 
coloured dog, called George, a great winner in 
Sussex classes and mentioned earlier on, was with- 
drawn from competition because his sire and dam 
were both black. Following him, no one has had so 
many good specimens as are to be found in the pos- 
session of Mr. Moses Woolland and Mr. Campbell 
Newington at the present time, and the competition 
at our shows is usually restricted to representatives 
from those kennels, unless Mr. Salter sends an entry 
or two. At the Crystal Palace show in the autumn 
of 1892, and at Birmingham and other exhibitions 
later on, Mr. Newington showed an excellent dog, 
called Rosehill Ruler II., which his owner states 
contains perhaps more of the real Rosehill blood 
than any other dog before the public. The colour 
of the dog was very choice, in his coat there was 
little to be desired in the way of improvement, and 
with these qualities he had the modern fancy point 
of extraordinary length. Another good dog bred 
by Mr. Newington is Rosehill Rush, afterwards 
shown by Mr. C. F. C. Luxmore. 

The teams Mr. Woolland so often wins with are 
about perfect in form and shape, not too long nor 
too low, sometimes not too big in the ears ; but 
their jackets are usually rather silky, which no 
doubt arises from the fact of their being specially 



The Sussex Spaniel 289 

groomed for show ring purposes. His Bridford 
Battle, dam of the beautiful bitch Bridford Naomi, 
was own sister to Mr. Newington's good bitch, 
Countess of Rosehill, and so the two leading 
kennels have blood in common. Mr. Woolland at 
the present time no doubt possesses the strongest 
kennel of Sussex spaniels ever held by one man, and 
all his dogs and bitches are uniform and breed true 
to type. His Bridford Breda Boy and Queenie, and 
best of all Bridford Giddie, have perhaps never been 
surpassed for excellence, and, it may be noted, that 
at the Kennel Club's show in 1896, three-fourths 
of the Sussex spaniels shown were bred by Mr. 
Woolland. Attention, however, to the production of 
show points by extreme care and skilfulness has 
mainly brought the London dogs to the front, though, 
perhaps, if it came to a matter of work, the Tice- 
hurst kennel might prevail. Both are good, whilst 
Mr. Salter is only beaten by either because he has 
given his attention more to other varieties than to 
the Sussex spaniels. Mr. G. Carrington, Missenden; 
Mr. R. Chapman, Glenboig, and one or two others 
take considerable pains in endeavouring to bring the 
variety to perfection, whilst near Alnwick, in North- 
umberland, the Rev. W. Shield, an old spaniel 
breeder, is seldom without a few liver-coloured 
spaniels which he keeps for work. The weight of 
VOL. II. U 



290 



Modem Dogs. 



the Sussex spaniel should not be more than 5olb. 
for a dog, and from 401b. to 4Slb. for a bitch. 

The following are the Club's scale of points, and 
their latest description of the Sussex spaniel. 

Positive Points. 



Head 10 

Eyes 5 

Nose 5 

Ears 10 

Neck 5 

Chest and shoulders 5 

Back and back ribs 10 

Legs and feet 10 

Tail 5 

Coat 5 

Colour 15 

General appearance 15 



Total Positive Points ... 100 



Negative Points. 

Light eyes 5 

Narrow head 10 

Weak muzzle 10 

Curled ears or high set on 5 

Curled coat 15 

Carriage of stern 5 

Top-not 10 

White on chest 5 

Colour (too light or too dark) 15 

Legginess or light of bone 5 
Shortness of bodv or flat 

sided 5 

General appearance, sour 

or crouching 10 

Total Negative Points ... 1 00 



Descriptive Particulars. 

" Head. — The skull should be moderately long 
and also wide, with an indentation in the middle and 
a full stop, brows fairly heavy ; occiput full, but not 
pointed, the whole giving an appearance of heaviness 
without dulness. 

" Eyes. — Hazel colour, fairly large, soft and 
languishing, not shewing the haw overmuch. 

" Nose. — The muzzle should be about three inches 



The Sussex Spaniel. 291 

long, square, and the lips somewhat pendulous. 
The nostrils well developed and liver colour. 

" Ears. — Thick, fairly large, and lobe shaped ; 
set moderately low, but relatively not so low as in 
the black field spaniel ; carried close to the head, 
and furnished with soft, wavy hair. 

" Neck. — Is rather short, strong, and slightly 
arched, but not carrying the head much above the 
level of the back. There should not be much throati- 
ness in the skin, but well marked frill in the coat. 

" Chest and Shoulders. — The chest is round, 
especially behind the shoulders, deep and wide, giving 
a good girth. The shoulders should be oblique. 

"Back and Back Ribs. — The back and loin is 
long, and should be very muscular, both in width and 
depth ; for this development the back ribs must be 
deep. The whole body is characterised as low, long, 
level, and strong. 

" Legs and Feet. — The arms and thighs must be 
bony, as well as muscular, knee and hocks large 
and round, and with short hair between the toes. 
The legs should be very short and strong, with 
great bone, and may show a slight bend in the 
forearm, and be moderately well feathered. The 
hind-legs should not be apparently shorter than the 
fore-legs, or be too much bent at the hocks, so 
as to give a settery appearance, which is so 

u 2 



292 Modem Dogs. 



objectionable. The hind-legs should be well 
feathered above the hocks but should not have 
much hair below this point. The hocks should be 
short and wide apart. 

" Tail. — Should be docked from five to seven 
inches, set low, and not carried above the level of the 
back, thickly clothed and moderately long feather. 

" Coat. — Body coat abundant, flat or slightly 
waved, with no tendency to curl ; moderately well 
feathered on legs and stern, but clean below the hocks. 

" Colour. — Rich golden liver ; this is a certain 
sign of the purity of the breed, dark liver or puce 
denoting unmistakably a recent cross with the 
Black or other variety of Field Spaniel. 

"General appearance. — Rather massive and 
muscular, but with free movements and nice tail 
action, denoting a tractable and cheerful disposi- 
tion. Weight from 351b. to 451b. " 

It will be seen from the above Club standard that 
a somewhat lighter weight is allowed than is alluded 
to in my description. However, I must say that I 
have not yet, so far as I am aware, seen a good 
specimen of the pure Sussex spaniel so small as 
351b., and, on the contrary, some of the most perfect j 
dogs I have met must have closely approached 5olb. 



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CHAPTER XV. 

THE BLACK FIELD SPANIEL. 

If the black spaniel, as seen at our modern shows, 
can be taken as a distinct variety — and I think 
that it can — we must consider him as a compara- 
tively recent introduction. None of the old writers 
mention him, nor have artists of a past generation 
drawn him. It may be safely said that he is 
bred for show purposes alone — his sleek, silken 
coat, glossy and bright even as the sheen on the 
raven's wing, making him a most attractive and 
ornamental creature. For actual hard work and 
use in the field he has many superiors. As a fact, 
such dogs as gain the chief prizes on our show 
benches are kept for that purpose alone. They 
are brushed and groomed methodically and with 
as much regularity as a maiden will attend to her 
own toilet. A ramble in the rain, or a gallop in 
the fields, a scurry after the rabbits in the covert, 
are not the part and parcel of the education of 
the black spaniel, at any rate during that time of 



294 Modem Dogs. 



life he is in his prime, when mooning, and sleeping 
away the dreary hours on the show benches. 

Of late years so much attention has been given 
these black spaniels that there are men who have 
actually attained a degree of celebrity on account 
of the skill they display in obtaining a perfectly 
flat coat and a shining one. This a good specimen 
must have. Then his ears cannot be too long, 
well clothed with hair and fringed at the tips ; his 
head, too, may be an exaggeration, long, with not 
the most peculiarly pleasing spaniel expression and 
eye that one would like to see. Some of our 
heavier black spaniels have enormous heads, square 
and untypical, with eyes displaying a haw that 
would not be out of place in a bloodhound. I need 
scarcely say that when dogs of this kind are given 
prizes, the judges who make such awards are wrong. 

Length of body, shortness of leg, and enormous 
bone are again produced to an exaggeration; crooked 
forelegs have followed, and the black spaniel, once 
perhaps a useful and active animal, has now fallen 
into the heavy, slow ranks of the Clumber (but by 
no means so interesting a creature), and may be 
taken as a sound example of what can be done in 
the matter of breeding " for show points." 

I have always taken my line for perfection in 
a black spaniel from that charming bitch, Nellie, 



The Black Field Spaniel. 295 



(born in 1869) Mr. Phineas Bullock used to show 
when he resided near Bilston. Afterwards she 
passed into the hands of Captain Arbuthnot, of 
Montrose. Nellie was simply perfect in her line, 
sweet in expression, lovely in size and hang of 
ears, straight in coat (not so flat as that of to- 
day), active and smart, not too heavy in bone, 
or short on leg, or long in back, and, from her 
appearance, would have been an excellent bitch to 
shoot over. Her weight I would take to be about 
35lb. She was by Young Bebb out of Flirt, and, 
through the latter, went back to Mr. F. Burdett's 
old strain, which, indeed, is found more or less in 
all the best spaniel blood of to-day. 

Mr. Burdett had been the secretary of the earlier 
Birmingham shows, and his spaniels, which seldom 
went over about 3olb. weight or so, he had originally 
from a Mr. Footman, who lived near Lutterworth in 
Leicestershire. After the death of Mr. Burdett, the 
strain went into the hands of Mr. Jones, of Oscott, 
Mr. P. Bullock, and others, and that it proved 
extremely valuable the stud books attest. It crossed 
well into other strains, of whatever colour, and from 
them our field spaniels are what they are now, 
excepting that the real Sussex has been kept as 
free from the black blood as possible. 

Following Messrs. Burdett, Bullock, and others, 



296 Modem Dogs. 



came Mr. H. B. Spurgin, of Northampton; Mr. W. 
Gillett, of Hull ; Dr. W. W. Boulton, of Beverley ; 
Mr. Schofield, of Morpeth, who all took great pains 
to sustain the excellence of the black spaniel, and 
even to improve its appearance. That they did 
the latter I scarcely believe, and such dogs as 
Nellie, already mentioned, Old Bob and Flirt, her 
kennel companions, have, at any rate, never been 
excelled, maybe never equalled. 

With an increase in the weight of the dog, crooked 
legs began to prevail, and they in time became so 
common as to be overlooked by the judges, and a 
dog called Beverlac, though very bad in this parti- 
cular, in his day won no end of prizes ; he was about 
54lb. in weight, and thus too big. 

Then Mr. T. Jacobs, of Newton Abbot, began 
to put in an appearance at our dog shows, 
and proved so successful at Birmingham and else- 
where as to almost take all the prizes on several 
occasions, and sold some of his dogs for enormous 
sums. One bitch went to Mr. M. Woolland for 
^250 ; this was Bridford Perfection, whose sire 
and dam had both been bred* by Mr. Jacobs. She 
was of great length and had particularly short legs ; 
her head was very good indeed, but personally I 
never liked her shoulders. Some judges pronounced 
her the best spaniel ever bred. 



The Black Field Spaniel 297 

Mr. Jacobs made no secret of his strain, the 
individual specimens of which were always shown , 
in the pink of condition, a fact which he attributed 
to feeding his favourites on nothing but flesh. I 
fancy that fresh air and exercise had more to do 
with this good growth and bright coat than the 
actual diet. He also tells me that he does not 
believe in there being at any time any distinct 
colour variety of spaniels. 

Mr. Jacobs had been breeding spaniels for some 
years before he showed them, and the first black 
specimen he had was as far back as 1874. This 
dog, Nigger, was by Mr. Bullock's Palm, from his 
Flirt, and the foundation of this most successful 
kennel was laid from this dog and a team of four 
bitches obtained from the late Mr. S. Lang. The 
best of them were by Rolf out of Belle, the former 
from the strain that Dr. Boulton had. 

However, not contented with these good 
specimens of pure blood, Mr. Jacobs went further 
afield, and the well-known liver-coloured dog 
Bachelor became his at the same time that he 
obtained a Sussex bitch called Russet from the 
Rev. W. Shield ; and from this stock the Newton 
Abbot kennels must have produced hundreds of 
winners of all colours, for the great part heavy 
and medium-sized dogs. The sale of Bridford 



298 Modern Dogs. 



Perfection has already been noted, and the last 
dozen dogs Mr. Jacobs sold realised ^1500. 

Of course, Mr. Jacobs had bred and mated his 
dogs and bitches carefully, and succeeded in pro- 
ducing spaniels longer in the body, lower on the 
leg, and with greater bone than any of his 
predecessors had done, and, had he kept his 
strain more to himself, there is no doubt as 
a spaniel breeder he would have taken a higher 
position even than the one he did attain. It may 
be stated as a guide to future breeders, that even 
the purest bred black bitches and black dogs of 
Mr. Jacobs never yet had a litter that wholly took 
after their parents. Browns or livers, brown and 
white, black and tan, black, black and white, even 
the handsome mirled or roan colours at times 
appeared. 

Mr. J. F. Farrow, of the Fountains, Ipswich, 
has a strain of admirable " blacks " which produce 
a fairly distinct type, and his dogs Buckle and 
Gipping Sam are exceedingly good specimens, . 
not so abnormally short on the leg and heavy in 
body as to prevent them being useful sporting 
dogs. 

Mr. Woolland has in his kennels some of the 
best black spaniels, for the most part bred by 
himself, and of much the same strain as that 



The Black Field Spaniel. 299 



with which Mr. Jacobs has been so successful. 
His Bridford Tommy, Bridford Brilliant, and 
Bridford Gipsy are all well nigh perfection, and 
formed a team at a recent show that proved quite 
invincible. Mr. J. Smith, Coleshill, Warwickshire, 
has likewise a strong team, his Lady Lass, Nebo, 
Doris and one or two others being able to hold 
their own in any competition. 

Mr. T. Marples, Reddish, near Stockport, has 
often lately had some exceedingly fine black spaniels 
of the show strains. Major Moreton Thomas, Brom- 
wood Court, Pembridge, has a capital kennel. Mr. 
R. Pratt, Bradford, Yorks. ; Mr. C. Lawrence, 
Chesterton, Cambridge ; Mr. R. C. Howarth, 
Hindley, near Wigan ; Mr. Kitchingman, near 
York; Mr. H. B. Spurgin, Northampton; Rev. E. 
Mortlock and Mr. W. R. Prance, Bexhill; Mr. H. 
Haylock, Chelmsford ; Mr. E. Clarke, Stockport ; 
Mr. R. Chapman, Glenboig; Mr. F. E. Schofield, 
Morpeth ; Mr. H. Pollard, whose Rother Queen was 
one of the best being shown during 1896; Major 
Claude Cane, Celbridge, co. Kildare ; Mr. Joseph 
Royle, Manchester, and others, have at one time 
or another exhibited charming specimens of the 
black spaniel. Perhaps, taken altogether, this 
variety is the most popular of all the field spaniels 
of the present day. 



3°° 



Modern Dogs. 



The Club's description and points of the black 
spaniel are as follows : 



••••••••a 



15 

5 

5 

5 
10 



Positive Points. 
Head and jaw 

Eves 

Ears 

Neck 

Body 

Fore-legs 10 

Hind-legs 10 

Feet 10 

Stem 10 

Coat and Feather 10 

General Appearance 10 



Total Positive Points... 100 



Negative Points. 

Light eyes 20 

Light nose 15 

Curled Ears 10 

Curled Coat 10 

Carriage of back 10 

Bad top-knot 15 

White on chest 10 

Crooked forelegs 10 



Total Negative Points. .. 1 00 



Descriptive Particulars. 

"Head. — Should be quite characteristic of this 
grand sporting dog, as is that of the bloodhound 
or bulldog, its very stamp and countenance should 
at once convey the conviction of high breeding, 
character, and nobility ; skull well developed, with a 
distinctly elevated occipital tuberosity, which, above 
all, gives the character alluded to ; not too wide 
across muzzle, long and lean, never snipy nor 
squarely cut, and, in profile, curving gradually from 
nose to throat : lean beneath eyes — a thickness 
here gives J coarseness to the whole head. The 
great length of muzzle gives surface for the free 



The Black Field Spaniel 301 



development of the olfactory nerve, and thus 
secures the highest possible scenting powers. 

" Eyes. — Not too full, but not small, receding, or 
overhung; colour, dark hazel or dark brown, or 
nearly black ; grave in expression, and bespeaking 
unusual docility and instinct. 

" Ears. — Set low down as possible, which greatly 
adds to the refinement and beauty of the whole 
head ; moderately long and wide, and sufficiently 
clad with nice setter-like feather. 

" Neck. — Very strong and muscular, so as to 
enable the dog to retrieve his game without undue 
fatigue ; not too short, however. 

"Body {including size and symmetry). — Long 
and very low, well ribbed up to a good strong loin,, 
straight or slightly arched, never slack ; weight from 
about 351b. to 45lb. 

" Nose. — Well developed, with good open nostrils,, 
and always black in colour. 

" Shoulders and Chest. — Former sloping and 
free — latter deep and well developed, but not too 
round and wide. 

" Back and Loin. — Very strong and muscular ; 
level, and long in proportion to the height of the 
dog. 

" Hind Quarters. — Very powerful and muscular, 
wide, and fully developed. 



302 Modern Dogs. 



11 Stern. — Well set on, and carried low, if possible 
below the level of the back, in a perfectly straight 
line, or with a slight downward inclination ; never 
elevated above the back, and in action always kept 
low ; nicely fringed, with wavy feather of silky texture. 

" Feet and Legs. — Feet not too small and well 
protected between the toes with soft feather ; good 
strong pads. Legs straight and immensely boned, 
strong and short, and nicely feathered with flat or 
waved setter-like feather. Over-much feathering 
below hocks objectionable. 

" Coat. — Flat or slightly waved, and never curled 
— sufficiently dense to resist the weather, and not 
too short — silky in texture, glossy and refined in 
nature, with neither duffelness on the one hand nor 
curl or wireness on the other ; on chest, under belly, 
and behind the legs there should be abundant 
feather, but never too much, and that of the right 
sort, namely, setter-like. The tail and hind quarters 
should be similarly adorned. 

" Colour. — Jet black throughout, glossy and true. 
A little white on chest, though a drawback, not a 
disqualification. 

" General Appearance. — That of a sporting dog, 
capable of learning and doing anything possible for 
his inches and conformation. A grand combination 
of beauty and utility." 



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CHAPTER XVI. 

THE NORFOLK SPANIEL. 

I AM somewhat at a loss to know why the 
ordinary liver and white spaniel came to be dis- 
tinguished by the Spaniel Club as the Norfolk 
spaniel (the Club description, appended, says it may 
be black and white), for surely it is quite as common 
a commodity in any county in England as it has 
ever been in that from which it is supposed to have 
derived its name. Some say it was used there to 
assist the shooters on the Broads, but a similar dog 
has from time out of mind been used by shooters in 
other parts of the country. Personally, I do not 
consider the liver and white spaniel any particular 
variety at all, nor do I believe that it has ever been 
indigenous to Norfolk. Devonshire, for instance, 
has attained a celebrity for hardy spaniels that had 
to work in the rough country with which the county 
of lanes abounds, and do their work well. Many of 
these were liver and white in colour, others black 
and white. They never came from Norfolk, nor 



304 Modern Dogs. 



did the Devonshire men ever claim them as a 
distinct variety. 

Youatt, writing in 1845, sa Y s the breed was first 
brought into note by the late Duke of Norfolk, who 
was supposed to have produced them by crossing with 
a black and tan terrier and a springer, the latter an 
ordinary spaniel. This, however, is not at all likely 
to be correct, for, long prior to that time, brown and 
white spaniels were found. Indeed, I fancy such was 
the prevailing spaniel colour. Far more likely the 
so-called Norfolk spaniel was produced originally by 
a cross between a curly-coated water spaniel and 
one of the ordinary Sussex or other strain. 

Now, liver and white spaniels, almost infinite in 
shape and size, may be seen running about the 
streets in any country place. The sporting shop- 
keeper considers him the best shooting dog ; and so 
he may be when properly trained— for he is a leggier, 
closer and better coated animal than the ordinary 
spaniel we see when standing at the ring side. He 
will retrieve well from both land and water, work a 
hedgerow or thick covert, and indeed do anything 
that is the special work of a spaniel. 

Some of these liver and white spaniels are com- 
paratively mute, whilst others are terribly noisy — 
yelping and giving tongue when hunting, almost as 
freely as a hound. Still, the chances are that the 



The Norfolk Spaniel. 



305 



rustic sportsman who keeps but one dog, and has 
not accommodation for more, prefers a liver and 
white spaniel, be it Norfolk or otherwise, and, as a 
rule, if he be not addicted to poaching, prefers it to 
make a noise when rabbiting in the dense gorse 
coverts. 

The Club points and description are as follows : 



Positive Points. 

Head, jaw, and eyes 20 

Ears 10 

Neck 10 

Body 10 

Fore-legs : 10 

Hind-legs 10 

Feet 5 

Stern 5 

Coat and feather 10 

General appearance 10 

Total positive points ... 100 



Negative Points. 

Carriage of stern 5 

Top-knot 5 



Total negative points 10 



Descriptive Particulars. 

" Head. — Skull long and rather narrow ; a stop ; 
the muzzle long and broad to the end. 

"Eyes. — Rather small, bright and intelligent. 

" Neck. — Long, strong, slightly arched. 

" Ears. — Strong, low set, and lobular. 

"Body {including size' and symmetry). — Fairly 
heavy body ; legs rather longer than in other field 

VOL. 11. X 



r 



306 Modem Dogs. 



spaniels, but not so long as in Irish. Medium 
size. 

" Nose. — Large and soft. 

"Shoulders and Chest. — Shoulders long and 
sloping ; chest deep and fairly broad. 

" Back and Loin. — Back flat and strong ; loin 
rather long, flat, and strong. 

" Hind Quarters. — Long ; hocks well let down 
stifles moderately bent, and not twisted inwards nor 
outwards. 

" Stern. — Docked ; low carried, i.e., not above the 
level of the back. 

"Feet and Legs. — Strong boned~ legs, inclining to 
shortness ; feet large and rather flat. 

" Coat. — Hard, not woolly; not curly, but may be 
broken. 

" Colour. — Liver and white and black and white. 

" General Appearance. — An active, useful medium- 
sized dog." 



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CHAPTER XVII. 

SPANIELS OTHER THAN BLACK. 

As CLASSES are provided for " Field Spaniels other 
than black " (not being Clumbers, Sussex, or 
cockers), and as such are entered in the Stud 
Books, allusion must be made to them here. 
Their varied colouring gives them a hardier 
appearance than is observable in the blacks ; their 
coats are often crisper and denser, or maybe 
they appear to be so in the absence of the 
raven gloss. It must not be forgotten that they 
spring from the same strain as the black variety. 

The most common colours are black and tan ; 
black and white, flecked more or less ; brown, grey, 
and white approaching a roan; black, tan, and 
white ; liver or brown and tan, and any variations of 
these many hues. Orange and white or yellow is 
seldom seen, and when this colour does crop up, it 
is a sign of a not very remote cross with the setter 
or the Clumber spaniel. 

In respect to general shape and character they 

X 2 



308 Modern Dogs. 



are in common with the black, though, excepting 
in the case of the black and tan, the haw, to 
which exception is taken, is seldom apparent. The 
handsomest colours are the roans, black tan and 
white, and the black and white ticked, and the 
latter is exactly the same colour as the early 
spaniels drawn for Aldrovandus, who, over three 
hundred and fifty years ago, wrote of them as 
"pantherius." So, however shape and type may 
have altered, the colour does not appear to have 
changed to any very great extent. 

The liver and white variety has somehow or 
other become identified with the county of Norfolk, 
and known as the Norfolk spaniel, is dealt with on 
preceding pages. 

He is, however, common to all parts of the 
country where such dogs are used for w r ork, and 
will retrieve, hunt the day out and through, and 
is not excelled by any of his race as thoroughly 
a sportsman's dog. Some of the very best rabbiting 
spaniels I have ever seen were liver and white, 
and the only fault that could be found with them 
was more than a tendency to be hard in the mouth. 
Not an uncommon fault where a dog is employed 
almost entirely among rabbits, retrieving twenty or 
thirty couple a day, some of them struggling hard 
in the mouth and scratching with their feet. 



Spaniels other than Black. 309 



I noticed a short time ago a very handsome strain 
of this race kept by Sir Thomas Boughey, at 
Aqualate, near Newport, Salop. The coats of 
these had more than a tendency to curl ; their 
character at work was excellent, and the specimens 
I saw appeared to be remarkably good tempered, 
well broken, not inclined to run riot, and only hunt- 
ing when ordered to do so. On inquiry I learned 
that this particular breed had been in the family for 
many generations, and was likely to remain so in 
the future. 

About twenty-four years ago Mr. Burgess, of 

Brighouse, Yorkshire, showed a couple of liver and 
white spaniels with great success, Sam and Flora 
by name. Bred by Mr. Hopcroft, of Nottingham, 
at that time they were said to be Sussex spaniels, 
but, although their breeder tried to maintain their 
reputation as such, it was pretty certain that they 
had no claim to be of that variety. Mr. Hopcroft 
had the strain for some time, and valued it exceed- 
ingly. Sam and Flora were brother and sister, of 
nice character, but, though they won all before 
them in their time, they were much higher on the 
leg than bench winners of to-day ; they, however, 
excelled in length of ears. 

There are extant two capital chromo-lithographs 
of these celebrated dogs, and the blood of both 



310 Modern Dogs. 



of them is still to be found in many of the best 
specimens at the present time. 

Mr. H. P. Green, at Caistor Hall, near Norwich, 
has a strain of black, tan, and white and roan 
spaniels, which he values highly. Personally, I never 
saw any dogs that took my fancy more than they 
did when I first saw them on the show bench. A 
little over 4olb. weight or so, they abound in character, 
are long in ears, fairly straight in coat, and strong in 
bone ; still, handsome though they be, they are more 
valued for work, notwithstanding the fact that they 
have earned distinction on the show bench. Their 
owner tells me he has had the strain for a quarter of 
a century, commencing with a bitch obtained from 
the late Sir Richard Wallace, which was mated with 
a tri-coloured dog. Both were excellent in the field, 
and appear to have transferred their good qualities 
to their progeny. The strain is easily trained, 
possesses great sense, plenty of dash and go, and 
can stand the hardest work without ill effect. Mr. 
Green uses them as retrievers in Scotland amongst 
the grouse, much to the admiration of some of 
the old Highland sportsmen. These spaniels are 
also excellent dogs for snipe, duck, and mixed 
shooting of all kinds ; they cannot be excelled as 
water dogs, and I am certain that animals so hand- 
some and so good are well worth cultivating. 



Spaniels other than Black. 311 



Some of the best bred dogs of this variety are 
Mr. F. E. SchofiekTs Selaw ; Mr. J. Smith's Coles- 
hill Blue Boy ; Mr. T. Harrington's Trumpington 
Don; Mr. F. C. Hignett's Crusader; Mr. J. H. 
Hussey's Rathgar Belle II.; Mr. R. Chapman's 
Heather Jean ; and Mr. Le Gros* Old Ford Ted ; 
but as a rule lew appear on the bench, though their 
colour is so taking, and in other ways they seem 
attractive. 

The Club descriptive particulars of any other 
variety of field spaniel are as follows, the points 
being similar to those adopted for the black variety, 
excepting, of course, as to colour : 

"Head. — Similar to that of the black spaniel, 
save in colour. 

" Eyes. — The colour in all cases to match the coat 
and markings, viz. : Black and Tans — hazel or 
brown ; Liver and Tans — rather lighter than in 
black and tans, but of good rich tone ; Livers — 
light hazel colour ; Black Tan and White Roans, 
&c. — somewhat similar to liver and tans ; Liver and 
Tan Roans, &c. — somewhat similar to liver and tans. 

11 Ears. — Similar to those of the black spaniel, 
except in colour. 

" Neck. — Similar to that of the black spaniel. 

" Body (including size and symmetry). — Similar 
to that of the black spaniel. 



312 Modem Dogs. 



"Nose. — Variable, according to colour of coat 
and markings : Black and Tans — black ; Liver and 
Tans— «dark liver colour; Livers — liver; Black and 
Tan . and White Roans — black ; Liver and Tan 
Roans* — liver. 

" Shoulders and Chest. — Similar to those of the 
black spaniel. 

" Back and Loin. — Similar to those of the black 
spaniel. 

" Hind Quarter s.~~ Similar to those of the black 
spaniel. 

" Stern.-— Similar to those of the black spaniel. 

" Feet and Legs. — Similar to those of the black 
spaniel. 

" Coat. — Similar in quality, substance, and texture, 
and in all other respects, except colour, responding 
to that given for black spaniels. 

" Colours.— -Various, such as black and tan, liver 
and tan, liver, black, tan, and white roans ; liver, tan, 
and white roans, &c. 

u General Appearance. — Similar in all respects, 
except in regard to colour and markings ; identical 
with the general description given before for black 
spaniels." 



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CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE COCKER. 

This, the smallest of our race of sporting spaniels, 
is retrograding rather than progressing, and, hardy, 
cheerful little dog though he be, sportsmen have 
found that a bigger dog can do his duties better, 
even to working rough covert, and it is not a general 
thing for a cocker to retrieve a rabbit or a hare. 
Indeed, some cockers I have had would not retrieve 
at all, nor did I blame them, for retrieving is a duty 
to be performed by a more powerful dog. 

The prizes offered for the cocker on the show 
bench are not of particular value, nor do they carry 
sufficient honour, to make it worth the while of any 
one breeding him for such purpose alone, so, as a 
matter of fact, this once favoured little dog is not 
growing with the times in the manner which savours 
of success. Only the larger exhibitions give him 
classes of his own, and the prizes then do not always 
go to the genuine article. 

The cocker of the olden time I should take to be 
the connecting • link between the working and the 



314 Modern Dogs. 



toy spaniels. We have been told that the Blenheims 
at Marlborough House were excellent dogs to work 
the coverts for cock and pheasant, and, excepting in 
colour, there is in reality not much difference in 
appearance between the older orange and white toys 
(not as they are to-day, with their abnormally short 
noses, round skulls, and enormous eyes) and the 
liver and white cockers H. B. Chalon drew for 
Daniel's " Rural Sports " in 1801. 

Two of Chalon's little spaniels have just sprung 
a woodcock, and charming specimens they are, 
not too low on the leg, nor over-done in the matter 
of ears, but sprightly little dogs, evidently under 
2olb. weight, and of a type we do not find to-day. 
Many of us lament the growing scarcity of this 
variety as he was to be found fifty years ago and 
more. Modern breeders tell us they have provided 
us with a better and handsomer animal. It is an 
open question whether they have done the former ; I 
acknowledge they have done the latter. 

Some few years ago I became the possessor of 
a brace of black cockers, the most beautiful little 
spaniels imaginable. How they were bred I am not 
aware. This I do know, that wherever they went 
they were admired more than any other dogs ; not in 
the show ring — they never appeared there — but in 
the streets and the country generally. At that time 



The Cocker. ' 315 



I was shooting a good deal, and had ample oppor- 
tunity of entering them to game of every kind. As 
sporting dogs they were comparatively useless ; for 
they were noisy, headstrong, not at all careful, and 
would pass half a dozen rabbits or pheasants whilst 
they were putting up three or four. My terriers could 
beat their heads off, and a cross-bred spaniel I had at 
that time could have outworked a big team of them. 

Of course, this must not be taken as an inference 
that all these modern, extremely pretty black 
cockers are equally useless ; but, from others that 
I have seen at work, I did not take mine to have 
been an especially unfortunate brace. The coats 
of some of them are not adapted to protect the hide 
of the dog from being pierced by those sharp thorns 
and prickly brambles that are to be found in every 
ordinary covert. 

Some portions of Wales and Devonshire have 
produced the old working type of cocker, mostly 
liver and white in colour, higher on the leg than 
an ordinary field spaniel, not so long in ears, with a 
close coat, not too fine, usually inclining to be wavy 
and curly on the hind quarters, and a head finer in 
the muzzle than the ordinary spaniel would seem to 
possess, and with a character of its own. 

About twenty-five years ago Dr. Boulton was 
exhibiting his Rhea, a black specimen which won a 



316 Modern Dogs. 



great many prizes. She, however, had little or no 
strain of the cocker in her, and what excellence she 
possessed was imparted from the same blood that 
ran in the pedigree of Bullock's Nellie and other 
celebrities of her day. 

Perhaps the best class of cockers I have ever 
seen was benched at Manchester in 1892. There 
were fourteen of them, in many types ; but amongst 
them specimens of both the old and modern style. 
Mr. H. J. Price, of Long Ditton, had an excellent 
team, his Ditton Brevity and Gaiety being particu- 
larly excellent — the one a blue and white, the other 
a tricolour. Mr. Carew-Gibson, of Fareham, in 
Grove Rose and Merry Belle, had a brace of 
beauties, also of the old type, and his first named 
won chief prize ; but other leading honours of third 
and reserve were given to miniature modern spaniels, 
both black, but certainly not like Rose and Brevity, 
that took first and second honours. Mr. Phillips' 
Rivington Merry Legs was another of the pure 
strain, a black and white, that, I believe, came from 
Exeter; and at the most recent Manchester show, 
that in 1897, ^ e l atter exhibitor benched a brace of 
beauties, Rivington Bee and Sue, by Bruton Victor 
— Busy, which won leading honours in their group. 

I have particularly drawn attention to these classes 
at Manchester in proof, if such were needed, that there 



The Cocker. 317 



still remains material in the country to popularise 
the old-fashioned breed of cocker, and I fancy this 
would soon be done would judges, in making their 
awards, stick to one type and throw out those dogs 
that showed unusually heavy bone, long bodies, 
heavy heads, and over-sized ears. And I may go 
further than this, and say that I never yet saw a 
good and perfectly characteristic cocker that had a 
flat coat, was entirely black, or of that bright liver 
colour found in the Sussex. The correct colours are 
either mixed roan or a dull brown and white or black 
and white and brown, but the latter have white on 
the chest and often enough white feet also. 

Mr. J. F. Farrow, of Ipswich, owns an excellent 
strain of small black spaniels, one or two of which 
are of the cocker type I approve. Some of them 
are miniature specimens of the black field spaniel, 
and from which they are bred, but his Frank Obo, 
Ted Obo, and Lily Obo, are quite of the correct old- 
fashioned type. Mr. J. W. Caless, Shipton-on- 
Stour; Mr. H. Singleton, Leamington Spa; Miss 
F. Canham, Forest Gate, own some of the best speci- 
mens of the day, their Brutus, Floss, Ladas, and Liko 
Joko usually winning when they appear in the ring. 

In weight the cocker ought not to exceed 251b. at 
the very most, and bitches of 2olb. or less are 
the desirable size. As I have already hinted, they 



3 i8 



Modern Dogs. 



should not be so high on the leg, so long in the 
body, so heavy in the ears, or so heavy in the muzzle 
as an ordinary field spaniel, and may be taken as 
sharp, active little creatures, always busy when at 
work, and specially smart in driving rabbits from a 
gorse covert or other rough place. 

The Spaniel Club separate the black cockers 
from those of any other colour, and evidently give 
precedence to the former, their descriptive scale for 
judging which is as follows : 

Negative Points. 
Light eyes (undesirable. 

but not fatal) 10 

Light nose (fatal) 15 

Curled ears (very undesir- 



Positive Points. 

Head and jaw 10 

Eyes 5 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

Body 15 

Fore-legs 10 

Hind-legs 10 

Feet 10 

Stern 10 

Coat and feather 10 

General appearance 10 

Total positive points ... 100 



able) 15 

Curled coat (curly, woolly, 

or wiry) 20 

Carriage of stern (crooked 

or twisted) 20 

Top-knot (fatal) 20 

Total negative points... 100 



Descriptive Particulars. 

" Head. — Not so heavy in proportion, and not so 
high in occiput as in the modern field spaniel, with 
a nicely developed muzzle or jaw ; lean, but not 
snipy, and yet not so square as in the Clumber or 
Sussex varieties, but always exhibiting a sufficiently 



The Cocker. 319 



wide and well-developed nose. Forehead perfectly 
smooth, rising without a too decided stop from 
muzzle into a comparatively wide and rounded well- 
developed skull, with plenty of room for brain power. 

"Eyes. — Full, but not prominent, hazel or brown 
coloured, with a general expression of intelligence 
and gentleness, though decidedly wide awake, bright 
and merry, never gozzled nor weak, as in the King 
Charles and Blenheim kinds. 

" Ears. — Lobular, set on low, leather fine and not 
extending beyond the nose, well clothed with long, 
silky hair, which must be straight or wavy — no 
positive curls or ringlets. 

" Neck. — Strong and muscular, and neatly set on 
to fine sloping shoulders. 

" Body {including size and symmetry). — Not quite 
so long and low as in the other breeds of spaniels, 
more compact and firmly knit together ', giving the 
impression of a concentration of power and untiring 
activity ; the total weight should not exceed 251b. 

" Nose. — Sufficiently wide and well developed to 
insure the exquisite scenting powers of this breed. 
Colour black. 

"Shoulders and Chest. — The former sloping and 
fine, chest deep and well developed, but not too wide 
and round to interfere with the free action of the 
forelegs. 



320 Modern Dogs. 



"Back and Loin. — Immensely strong and compact 
in proportion to the size and weight of the dog; 
slightly drooping towards the tail. 

"Hind Quarters. — Wide, well rounded, and very 
muscular, so as to insure untiring action and pro- 
pelling power under the most trying circumstances 
of a long day, bad weather, rough ground, and dense 
covert. 

" Stern. — That most characteristic of blue blood in 
all the spaniel family, may, in the lighter and more 
active Cocker , although set low down, be allowed a 
slightly higher carriage than in the other breeds, but 
never cocked up over, but rather in a line with the 
back, though the lower its carriage and action the 
better, and when at work its action should be 
incessant in this, the brightest and merriest of the 
whole spaniel family. 

" Feet and Legs. — The legs must be well boned, 
feathered and straight, for the tremendous exertions 
expected from this grand little sporting dog, and 
should be sufficiently short for concentrated power, 
but not so short as to interfere with its full activity. 
Feet firm, round, and catlike, not too large, spread- 
ing and loose jointed. This distinct breed of spaniel 
does not follow exactly on the lines of the larger field 
spaniel, either in lengthiness, lowness, or otherwise ; 
but is shorter in back, and rather higher on the legs. 



The Cocker. 321 



" Coat. — Flat or waved, and silky in texture, never 
wiry, woolly, nor curly, with sufficient feather of the 
right sort, viz. waved or setter-like, but not too 
profuse, and never curly. 

" Colour. — Jet black ; a white shirt frill should 
never disqualify; but white feet should not be 
allowed in any specimen of self-colour. 

"General Appearance. — Confirmatory of all indi- 
cated above, viz , a concentration of pure blood and 
type, sagacity, docility, good temper, affection, and 
activity." / 

The Club scale for judging any other variety of 
cocker : 



"Positive Points. 
Same as in the Black Variety. 



Negative Points. 

Subject to colour similar to 

those of the Black Variety. 

" Head. — Similar to that of the black cocker. 

11 Eyes. — Dependent on colour and markings. 

" Ears. — Similar to those of the black cocker. 

" Neck. — Similar to that of the black cocker. 

" Body {including size and symmetry). — Similar 
to that of the black cocker. 

" Nose. — The colour will be dependent on the 
colour of coat and markings, in all other respects 
similar to the black cocker. 

" Shoulders and Chest. — Similar to those of the 
black cocker. 

VOL. II. Y 



322 Modem Dogs. 



i% Back and Loin. — Similar to those of the black 
cocker. 

" Hind Quarters. — Similar in all respects to that 
described in the black cocker. 

" Stern. — Identical with that of the black cocker. 

" Feet and Legs. — Similar to those of the black 
cocker. 

" Coat. — Similar in every way to the coat of the 
black variety, except in colour or markings. 

" Colour. — Black and tan, liver and tan, liver, 
black tan and white, liver tan and white, lemon and 
white, roans, and in fact nearly every combination or 
blending of colours. 

" General Appearance. — In all respects agreeing 
with the description given for the black variety of 
this breed." 

Throughout these chapters on spaniels it will be 
seen that I have dwelt rather strongly on the show 
dogs as somewhat different from those usually used 
for shooting purposes. That I am not wrong in 
doing so has been borne out by the fact that a club 
is being formed for the encouragement of spaniels 
for work, and its members believe that they can 
benefit the variety considerably by holding field 
trials, and in other ways preventing it from losing 
such attributes as have made it so popular a dog 
with sportsmen generally. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE BASSET-HOUND. 

In this handsome hound we have another example 
of the naturalisation of a foreign dog in this country. 
A quarter of a century ago he was a great favourite 
in France, and some other parts of the Continent, 
where he for years had been bred with great care ; 
in. England he was almost unknown. Now he 
is one of our own varieties, at least he is claimed 
as such, and even " Stonehenge," so loth to adopt 
anything for ourselves that did not belong to us, 
so far back as 1 88 1 , gave him a place amongst 
his " Dogs of the British Isles." The Kennel 
Club acknowledged him in their stud-book by 
classification in 1883, when but ten entries were 
made; there were thirty-eight in 1891 ; and ninety 
at the Kennel Club's show in 1896; whilst the 
Curzon Hall committee at Birmingham moved the 
Basset from the variety class to one of its own in 
1882. 

Sir Everett Millais, who took the initiative with 

Y 2 



324 Modern Dogs. 

regard to the Basset's introduction in this country, 
supplies me with the following valuable history and 
particulars of this hound : 

" Before I commence a description of the various 
kinds of Bassets and their especial points, it might 
be advantageous to touch upon the origin of the 
word Basset, since it has been my misfortune, not 
once but many times, to listen to the most absurd 
reasons for the nomenclature of the hound. Briefly 
the word basset means ' a low thing ' or a ' dwarf,' 
and it has a similar derivation to the words bassi- 
nette, basset (the game), bastard, basse (a shoal), 
and many others which it is unnecessary for me to 
give, all of which have a common ancestor in the 
French adjective l bas.' 

"The meaning, then, of the word being almost 
apparent on the face of it, notwithstanding the fact 
that I have heard people urge with the greatest 
gravity that the Basset is a hound used for the 
purpose of hunting the basset, in the same way that 
the foxhound pursues the fox. It might also be 
interesting to observe how the hound became a 
dwarf, for if it be a dwarf, and this is what its name 
undoubtedly implies, it is obvious that it must be a 
dwarf of some other race of hound. 

"It is also obvious that as there exist many 
varieties of Bassets in France, Belgium, Austria, and 



The Basset-Hound. 325 

Germany, they too are dwarfs of some form of 
hounds. 

" To account for this somewhat extraordinary 
assumption I must go back in the history of these 
countries to somewhat remote periods, and ask the 
reader what the use in those days, that is to say 
the days when men did not take the trouble to 
hunt small game, and the modern weapons of sport 
were still uninvented, would have been for such a 
hound as the Basset, which to-day, in France and 
Belgium especially, is looked upon as one of the 
best companions the sportsman can have by him. 

" I need hardly say that such a hound as the 
Basset, when men followed the chase on horseback 
and looked upon rabbits and hares as vermin, would 
have been quite out of place, and the only logical 
conclusion one can come to as to the origin of these 
hounds is, that as men took up the chase of the 
smaller game a slower hound was required — a type 
of hound which would at once be produced by breed- 
ing only from those that were short in the leg, and 
consequently slower in speed. Breeding from such 
hounds, it must be observed, would but tend to 
decrease the height, and not the bodily proportions, 
coat, or form ot head. 

" In due time, as weapons made their appearance 
— and by weapons I especially mean when guns 



326 Modern Dogs. 



came into use — a slower dog still was required, 
which would either hunt in front of the sportsman or 
drive game slowly towards him. 

"This type of hound would be produced by again 
breeding from the lowest and heaviest of his prede- 
cessors, and, what with the weight in front and the 
question of stability, the internal ligaments of the 
carpus would give way, the fore-feet would turn out 
so as to act as buttresses to the chest wall, and in 
the animal thus produced we should find a hound of 
full-sized body, of similar head and colour to the 
hounds from which it sprang, identical in fact with 
them except in this peculiar formation of the front 
and hind feet. 

" Such undoubtedly is the manner in which the 
Basset originated, and what is still more remarkable 
is the fact that the tallest of the Bassets are the 
straight-legged ones, the medium the half-crooked, 
and the lowest the full-crooked, thus showing alone 
the gradual change which has been wrought by man 
to bring the great chiens courants down to the dwarfs 
or the Bassets of to-day. 

" Had this manufacture, as I may reasonably call 
it, been limited to one breed of hound, we should 
naturally find but one breed of Bassets, but this is 
not so, since from the great variety of Bassets to be 
found in the countries I have named, it is certain 



The BasseUHound. 327 



that many breeds of hounds have been thus dealt 
with. 

"As a result Bassets abroad are to be found 
smooth in coat, wire-haired and rough, straight- 
legged, half-crooked and full-crooked, and had we 
imported and bred all the varieties together, my task 
of describing them would have been somewhat 
difficult. I am glad, however, to say that we have 
stuck pretty closely to one strain in the smooths, 
and am in hopes that the same will follow in the 
Griffons, consequently in classifying them as we have 
them, or had them in this country, for one of the 
smooths has all but disappeared, I can name them as 
the Basset Fran9ais, and the Basset Griffon, the 
former being the smooth coated and the latter 
rough. 

11 In France every smooth-coated Basset is called 
a Basset Fran§ais, whether it be big, little, straight- 
legged or crooked, tricolour, lemon and white, or 
any hound colour whatever. The two strains which 
have been imported into this country are those 
which combine size with lowness in front and crook, 
tricolour or lemon and white markings, and, what 
is more to the point, the true hound type of those 
hounds from which they are descended. These two 
strains are the Le Couteulx and The Lane, originat- 
ing respectively in the ' Artois ' and ' Poitevin/ 



328 Modern Dogs. 



" The strain of the Le Couteulx hounds owes its 
origin to Mons. Le Comte le Couteulx le Cantalan, 
of Chateau St. Martin, near Etrepagny, one of the 
foremost sportsmen and the acknowledged authority 
on hunting and kennel matters in France, and from 
him takes its name. 

11 In it we find two modern types, both due to two 
hounds, viz., Fino de Paris, formerly the property 
of the Count, and Terraino, the property of Mons. 
Masson — both of which I shall have to speak of 
again ; but as the difference between them is but of 
small importance, I will give a general outline of the 
type of the strain first, and revert to the small 
differences between them afterwards. 

" In general appearance the Le Couteulx is a good 
sized hound, generally tricolour, but not uncommonly 
lemon and white, of heavy build and set on short 
legs, the fore ones being exceedingly massive and 
crooked. 

" Taking the various portions of his body in order, 
we find the head to be large and set gracefully 
on the neck, which should be somewhat arched ; the 
head should be domed, of considerable length, and 
narrow in comparison with its length, though far 
from weak. It should be of great depth, and the 
sides should be clean cut and free from any appear- 
ance of, or inclination to, cheek bumps. 



The. Basset-Hound. 329 

" The nose should be inclined to the Roman type, 
and be set on in a line with the external occipital 
protuberance, any dipping of a pronounced type or 
stop being unsightly. The nose itself should be 
strong and free from snipiness, while the teeth of 
the upper and lower jaws should meet. A pig-jawed 
hound, or one that is underhung, being distinctly 
objectionable. 

" The lips should be square and not cut sharply 
away, and from the lower jaw extensive flews should 
fall towards the throat. 

" The eye should be deeply sunken, showing a 
prominent haw, and in colour they should be a deep 
brown. 

" The ears should be set on low ; are of great 
length, of velvety texture, and should curl grace- 
fully inwards ; their outer surface coming towards 
the base in contact with the side of the cheek and 
neck. 

" The whole of the head should be covered with 
loose skin, so loose in fact, that when the hound 
brings its nose to the ground the skin over the head 
and cheeks should fall forward and wrinkle sensibly. 
In a word, the head of the Basset should resemble 
and approach as nearly as possible the bloodhound 
in conformation. The neck is massive but graceful, 
and as it approaches the body it thickens. 



33° Modern Dogs. 



" The body itself is extremely powerful, and shows, 
as it is united with the sacrum, a graceful rise, which 
disappears at the base or set on of the tail. 

"If the animal were not so low to the ground its 
body would not appear of such length as it appears 
to be. At the same time, it is a lengthy body, but 
well supported by ribs ; and as the ribs cease and 
we approach the sternum or chest, we find this to be 
capacious and of great width, the superior portion of 
the sternum standing out most prominently. 

" The body of the chest comes right down between 
the fore-legs, fitting tightly in an angle formed by 
the approximation of the two radial bones, which 
are of great thickness. Below this point the carpus 
is straight, but the metacarpus inclines outwards, 
and the phalanges or toes completely so. 

" In not a few specimens the carpus inclines 
forwards, thus giving the animal the appearance of 
knuckling over, which is a decided fault, and this is 
due largely to a forward inclination of the radius and 
ulna bones, which ought to incline inwards, and fit 
closely to the chest wall. On looking at the animal 
from the front we at once observe why the legs 
assume this peculiar formation, viz., inclining inwards 
from the elbow joint to the wrist joint, and then out- 
wards again to the end of the toes. 

"If the legs of the heavy Le Couteulx were straight 



The Basset-Hound. 33 1 

the chest would hang between, and the whole weight 
of the body would necessarily be centered at the 
shoulder joint. Consequently the animal would be 
incapable of any active movement and much ex- 
posed to dislocation at that joint ; but as the legs 
incline inwards and then outwards the weight of the 
body is supported below the chest, viz., at the 
carpus, the latter being, as it were, the keystone on 
which the entire weight of the body falls. As a 
result it is at this point we should expect to find 
trouble if any portion of the architecture was out of 
position. I have drawn particular attention to the 
anatomy of the Bassets here, for it is at this joint 
we discover unsoundness if present, the reason 
being, as I have previously observed, that the radius 
and ulna bones are thrown too far forward, and not 
placed or gathered sufficiently behind the spot where 
the whole weight of the body converges. 

"To be absolutely sound and perfect in legs, the 
Basset ought to stand in front between two and 
three inches from the ground, and in such a manner 
that if a plummet were dropped from the set on of 
the neck right through the dog it would touch the 
ground between the toes, and in front of the carpus. 

" The hind legs are massive, like those in front, 
and should stand well below the hound to bear the 
weight of the back portion of his body. They are 



33 2 Modern Dogs. 



very muscular, as may be expected, seeing the 
great weight in front which they have to propel. 

11 The tail is of considerable length and should be 
carried gaily, though not so as to curl over the back. 

11 Our most perfect Bassets of the present day are 
undoubtedly Mr. F. B. Craven's Forester, Mrs. G. 
Walsh's Paris and Xena, and Dr. Woodhead's 
Geraldine, and I regret much that I have not their 
weights and measurements. I shall, however, not 
be wrong in giving those of my old Model, who, 
though rather flat in skull and having badly hung 
ears, was otherwise as perfect a specimen in other 
particulars as I ever hope to see. 

" Measurements, &c, at seven and a half years of 
age : Weight, 461b. ; height at shoulder, 1 2 inches ; 
length from tip of nose to set on of tail, 32 inches ; 
length of tail, 1 i-J- inches ; girth of chest, 25 inches ; 
girth of loin, 21 inches; girth of head, 17 inches; 
girth of fore-arm, 6£ inches ; length of head from 
tip of occiput to tip of nose, 9 inches ; girth of 
muzzle at midway, 9^ inches ; length of ears from 
tip to tip, 19 inches; height from ground between 
fore-feet, 2f inches. 

" I think I have gone now pretty clearly through 
the points of the Basset as far as his bodily points 
are concerned, consequently there remain but his 
coat and colouring. 



The Basset-Hound. 333 

" In texture the coat should be that of a hound, 
and, on seizing it, the skin below should come away 
from the body, leaving the impression that the 
animal has much more skin than he requires. On 
no account should the skin fit closely to the body,, 
and even on the fore-legs it should wrinkle, giving 
to the hound a ' comfortable ' appearance. 

" As to colour, I am afraid that I am one of those 
who believe that a good hound, like a good horse 
cannot be of a bad colour. I grant the fact that the 
heavily marked tricolour is very taking to the eye, 
and that the lemon and white, in comparison to the 
former, loses greatly in appearance. Still, colour is, 
after all, but a superficial point, except in breeds 
where it means much, consequently personally I 
should never in the judging ring allow colour to- 
weigh greatly in my mind when it was a question of 
points and type between two animals. The colours, 
then of the Basset are heavy tricolour, light tricolour, 
hair pie, lemon and white, and tricolour with blue 
mottles. The latter is particularly pretty and 
attractive. 

" Having now dealt with the question of points, I 
will give a few particulars as to the introduction of 
the Basset into this country. The first note I have 
regarding them is one from Lord Galway, who 
informed me some years ago that he had been 



334 Modern Dogs. 



presented with one or two, by Comte Tournon, of 
Montmelas. These in due time Lord Galway passed 
to Lord Onslow, but, as this strain is now extinct, I 
need not further dilate on them except to say that 
they were Le Couteulx hounds, far from inferior 
specimens, and all beautifully marked. 

" Although they might have been known amongst 
those who had the personal friendship of the two 
peers I have named, to the general public they were 
entirely unknown, and it was not until the winter show 
at Wolverhampton, in 1875, where I showed Model, 
which I had procured from the Jardin d'Acclima- 
tation the previous year, that the British public 
had the opportunity of making the Basset hound's 
acquaintance on the show bench. Model was bred 
by Comte le Couteulx, and with Fino de Paris stood 
at stud in the Jardin d'Acclimatation when I first saw 
him, consequently I had the pick of the two best 
hounds France could then boast of. 

" At that time I was unaware that Lord Onslow 
had Bassets. Had I known this I would have asked 
his permission to breed the dog to one of his bitches. 
But as I did not know this, and I could not then 
procure a bitch, I, on the advice of the late Mr. 
Lort, began breeding through a beagle, and in the 
second generation produced a winner. 

" I must here observe that the difference between 



The Basset-Hound. 335 



the old-fashioned beagle and the Basset does not 
amount to much except in the legs, and two genera- 
tions I found quite sufficient to reduce the beagles' 
legs to those of the Bassets', plus the racial 
peculiarity. 

41 In 1877, as Lord Onslow had, through me, 
obtained from Comte le Couteulx a dog and a bitch, 
I gave up the beagle line and, in 1878, began to 
breed pure-bred through Garenne, a bitch by Model 
out of Lord Onslow's Finette, which, with her 
brother Fino, he had imported the previous year. 
In 1880 I was able, through the use of that Fino to 
show in the first class, given for Bassets in England, 
namely, at Wolverhampton. 

" Up to this date, then, the only owners and 
breeders of Bassets were Lord Onslow and myself ; 
but in the spring of that year Mr. G. R. Krehl and 
Mr. Louis Clement imported Fino de Paris, Jupiter, 
Pallas, Guinevere, Theo, Vivien, and others which 
it is needless here to mention. By 1886 we were 
able to place 1 20 on the bench at the Dachshund 
and Basset show in the Aquarium. How many 
there are now in the country it would be difficult to 
say, but the number is very large, though the entries 
at shows are not as great as they might be. 

"To return, however, to 1880, when Mr. Krehl 
imported Fino de Paris, it was observable that the 



336 Modern Dogs. 



bitches Guinevere, Theo, and Vivien differed some- 
what in type from Fino de Paris. I have already 
said that I had the opportunity of selecting this 
latter hound in 1874, at the Jardin d'Acclimatation, 
where he had been sent by Comte le Couteulx to 
stand at stud, and I may now mention that before 
being sent to Paris he had been bred from ; the 
bitches Guinevere, Theo, and Vivien being descended 
from him. 

" I here give their pedigrees : Trouvette by Fino 
de Paris by Fanfaro — Ravaude, by Fino de Paris — 
Mignarde II. by Fino — Mignarde I. ; Finette out of 
Termino ; Mignarde out of Termino ; and Vivien 
by Fanfaro out of Theo. Thus, Fino de Paris, 
being put to Trouvette and Ravaude, produced 
from them respectively Mignarde and Fanfaro. 
He was then put to his daughter Mignarde, 
producing Finette, who in turn was put to 
Termino, this alliance producing Guinevere and 
Theo; the latter being put to Fanfaro, producing 
Vivien. 

" Under these circumstances, and the inbreeding 
that had gone on, it is only just to suppose that in 
the three bitches I have named, we should have 
seen a strong personal resemblance or a strong 
family type in them to that of Fino de Paris. As a 
matter of fact they did not resemble Fino de Paris, 



The Basset- Hound. 337 



but had a common type amongst themselves, which 
was doubtless inherited from their sire, and in the 
case of Vivien, grandsire, namely, Termino. Conse- 
quently, I can only come to the conclusion that 
the breeder, from whom these hounds were imported, 
being desirous of an outcross after the inbreeding to 
Fino de Paris, put Finette to Termino and returned 
the produce again to a son of the old dog. 

" What Termino was, or how he was bred, remains 
an unfathomable mystery, notwithstanding the fact 
that I have made every inquiry ; but it appears to me 
reasonable to suppose that he was either a large 
Basset & Jambes Droites, or one of the small chiens 
courantSy and for this reason, viz., the offspring 
Guinevere and Theo could hardly be called Bassets 
a Jambes Torses, while Vivien, got by one of Fino 
de Paris' sons, was directly described as such. 

" Now the reason I have largely entered into this 
question of breeding in France is for the following 
cause : When Fino de Paris and the three bitches 
were imported here he was put to Guinevere, and 
of this litter we had two well known hounds, viz., 
Fino V. and Bourbon. Fino V. was almost a 
counterpart of his sire, while Bourbon took after his 
mother's side of the house, and resembled the three 
bitches I have named. 

4< Again, Fino V., on being put to Vivien, produced 

vol. 11. z 



338 Modem Dogs. 



another hound of Fino de Paris's type, viz., Fino VL ; 
whilst the same bitch, on being put to Bourbon, gave 
birth to D'Aumale and Chopette, who were clearly 
of a totally different stamp to Fino de Paris, and 
resembled Bourbon and the three bitches. As a 
result, I think there can be but little doubt that 
Termino was the cause of this difference, and what 
that difference is I will now explain. 

" The Fino de Paris hounds take after their proto- 
type, Fino de Paris. They are very heavily marked, 
except when lemon and white; they are much coarser 
in the coat than the Terminos ; they are, as a rule, 
larger and heavier in the bone ; and, finally, they are 
nearer to the ground and exceedingly torse in front. 

"The Terminos differ where I have already pointed 
out, and, in addition, their skulls are not so domed 
and their markings are more regular — white playing 
a much larger part in the marking than in the Fino 
de Paris. In addition, their coats are much finer, 
shorter, and they are not built on such heavy lines. 

"The most successful breeders in this country 
have been Lord Onslow, Mr. Krehl, Mr. Craven, 
Mrs. Stokes, and Mrs. Ellis, the latter at one time 
carrying all before her. Putting aside Lord Onslow, 
who has been away and given up Bassets for 
some years, it might be interesting to note, from 
a breeder's point of view, the gradual development 



The Basset-Hound. 339 

of this hound to modern times, from the mating of 
Fino de Paris and Trouvette, in France, something 
like a quarter of a century ago. 

"In doing this, I shall apply myself to the Fino 
de Paris type alone, since the Bourbon is all but 
extinguished ; and, having done so, I will ask the 
reader to believe that type cannot be got unless we 
inbreed, and that inbreeding does not necessarily 
deteriorate stock if properly carried out. 

" To prove this, I give the names of the following 
hounds, and how they are inbred to the Fino de 
Paris: Mignarde, \; Finette, f; Guinevere, f; 
Fino V., ^£; Fino VI., £f ; Forester, $£ ; Paris, 
J& ; and Xitta, i£f . 

" What I show here is the direct succession from 
father to son or daughter, in all, eight generations of 
hounds. Under normal circumstances, had they 
been bred ' anyhow/ these hounds would begin at 
Mignarde with two parents, one of which was Fino 
de Paris, and finish at Xitta with no less than 258. 
By inbreeding, starting with Finette, she has two, 
Guinevere has three, Fino V. has the same number, 
Fino VI. has four, Forester has seven, Paris has 
eight, and Xitta has the same number. 

"'In all, except Guinevere, the defunct Fino de 
Paris might almost have been their real sire, and, as 
a standing proof of the necessity of inbreeding, the 

Z 2 



34° Modern Dogs. 



only one that did not resemble him was Guinevere, 
who has not that amount of blood necessary. 

11 To anyone interested in the study of breeding, 
and especially breeding for individual type, I re- 
commend them most strongly to get the Basset 
Hound Stud Book and work out the blood factors 
of the hounds there inscribed. On comparing them 
with past show reports and the hounds now on 
the bench, they will without any difficulty come to 
the conclusion that there is not a hound in this 
country worth the biscuits it is fed on, or can 
show the Fino de Paris type, that is not bred upon 
the lines I have shown these generations to be. 

" My recollections of Fino de Paris are nor such 
as will entitle me to describe him very accurately, 
but I may say this — viz., that I do not believe, 
grand hound as he was, that he could have com- 
pared favourably with the hounds that are on the 
bench to-day ; and, furthermore, that France could 
not show a class of such character and type as we 
can bring together. The proof of this latter state* 
ment is to be found in the somewhat plaintive 
remark of a well-known French sportsman, who visits 
this country regularly, viz. : ' If we had known what 
you could produce from Fino de Paris, he would 
never have left the Jardin d'Acclimatation ! ' 

" It will no doubt be interesting to note the 



The Basset-Hound, 341 

methods by which Mrs. Ellis, alluded to earlier 
on, contrived to obtain such a kennel that until 
lately she possessed. If my memory serves me 
aright, Mrs. Ellis bought her first Basset — a small 
bitch, named Venus II., by Champion Jupiter ex 
Venus — at the Warwick Show of 1886, and, by 
mating this bitch with Champion Fino VI. in 1887, 
Champion Psyche II. resulted. In 1889 she bred 
Champion Paris, Champion Xena, Napoleon II., 
and Miriam, from Psyche II. by Forester- and in 
the same year had another litter from Champion 
Fino VI. and Venus II., of which Cupid II. is a 
representative. In 1891, from Paris and Venus II., 
Isola and Marvel were produced ; whilst, from the 
union of Forester and Xena, Zero and Xitta were 
obtained. Again, in 1892, a younger litter of 
brothers and sisters to Champion Xena and Paris 
made their appearance, to be heard of in the show 
ring when their time comes. 

" However, leaving them for a moment, and 
forgetting entirely that in 1890 Mrs. Ellis acquired 
by purchase champion Forester, such a trio as 
Paris, Xena, and Isola would make the reputation 
of any kennel. Starting, as Mrs. Ellis did, in such 
a humble way, it only proves what can be done by 
sheer perseverance, and, if I may say so, a singular 
capacity for successful mating of hounds, the 



342 Modem Dogs. 



progeny of such unions producing animals of the 
highest type. At the time when Mrs. Ellis had not 
only the above, but Champion Psyche, Champion 
Forester, and others, it is manifest her kennel 
was invincible. Towards the close of 1892 it was 
rumoured that her hounds would be no longer 
at the service of the public. Had this rumour 
proved correct it is difficult to say exactly what 
it would have meant to the breeders of Basset 
hounds, for, if we except Mr. Lord and Mr. Musson, 
no one has a single dog fit to take the place of 
Champion Forester and Paris. That the public 
know this is seen in the fact that, with two ex- 
ceptions, every new face of merit seen on the 
benches in 1892 was sired by these two hounds. 

" I shall say but a few words concerning the Lane 
hounds, as they are now in their purity extinct 
in this country. Like the Le Couteulx, they were 
started by the gentleman whose name they bear, 
Mons. Lane, of Francqueville, near Boos. They are 
as a race bigger and heavier than the Le Couteulx, 
and lighter in colour, many of them being lemon and 
whites. It is, however, in their heads that we find 
the greatest difference, since the skin is tighter ; the 
eyes more prominent and yellow, which gives them 
a wild appearance ; the lips, too, are cut sharply 
away, and they appear to lack the great flews 



The Basset-Hound. 343 

which give such stately dignity to the Le Couteulx, 
as bred in this country. Their ears, however, set on 
very low, are of great length, though they do not 
curl so nicely inwards, some hounds having them, as 
it were, plastered to the side of the head. 

" Their first appearance was in 1880, when Mr. 
Krehl imported two bitches; but they have never 
taken in this country, and have solely been used for 
crossing and outbreeding where size and ear are 
desired. I shall therefore say no more about them 
as nowadays they are extinct with us, no pure 
specimens having ever been born over here." 

Sir Everett Millais ultimately found that through 
inter-breeding the Basset-hound was deteriorating in 
many respects, and, with the idea of improving his 
appearance and size, he looked out for a cross. He 
says : 

" After inbreeding for nearly twenty years, it was 
obvious that the English Basset required fresh 
blood, primarily because the general mass of hounds 
were below the average in size; secondly, because 
there was increasing difficulty in breeding and rear- 
ing them ; thirdly, because barrenness was becoming 
very prevalent ; and fourthly, because when reared 
they succumbed through constitutional causes to 
distemper in a most alarming manner. The ques- 
tion, having determined to make the cross, was, 



344 Modern Dogs. 



what hound to use which would give us the points 
we desired, and give increased stamina to the breed. 
. " I chose the Bloodhound, firstly, because the head 
of the Basset should resemble that of the Blood- 
hound; and secondly, because from my experimental 
work with Beagles, I knew that the question of a 
return to Basset formation in legs was but a matter 
of one or two generations. There therefore re- 
mained simply the question of colour, and this I was 
certain would come back very speedily. 

"The first cross was between the Basset-hound 
Nicholas and the Bloodhound Inoculation, and the 
puppies were produced artificially by the method 
now known as c Insemination.' Twelve in all were 
born, and they were all anatomically nearer the 
Basset than the Bloodhound, but in colour they took 
after the dam. These were Basset- Bloodhounds. 

11 The next cross was between Champion Forester 
and one of the above litter, viz., Rickey. There 
were seven puppies born, six of them were tri- 
colours like the sire, and one black and tan like the 
dam. They all took after the Basset in anatomy, 
and were f -bred Bassets with £ Bloodhound. 

" The next cross was between Dulcie, one of the 
above litter, and Bowman. There were four pups 
in the litter, three tricolours and one lemon and 
white. They cannot be distinguished from pure- 



The- Basset-Hound. 345 

bred Bassets. They are naturally hounds containing 
% of Basset and £ of Bloodhound. 

" The next cross was between one of the above 
litter and the Basset-hound Guignol. Here six 
puppies were born, four tricolours, one lemon and 
white, and one black and tan. They are perfectly 
indistinguishable from pure Bassets, and are com- 
posed of \% of Basset blood to yj of Bloodhound. 

" The result of this set of experiments has brought 
about animals which cannot be distinguished from 
pure Bassets, and they can be used throughout the 
breed to bring in the trifling quotum of fresh blood 
necessary without damaging or altering the existent 
type in the slightest degree. 

" Now, in going through these various crosses, it 
will be seen that in the first we get half-bred hounds 
taking mostly after the Basset in shape and the 
Bloodhound in colour. In the second cross we 
have a return to Basset colouring, and greater 
approach to the Basset in every way. In the third 
cross we get pure Bassets, and in the fourth the 
same, with what might be expected, one case of 
atavism to the Bloodhound in colour. 

"We have, however, something more. I have 
said that one most desirable object was size, and 
when I stated that most of the hounds one meets 
with are below the average, I place the average at 



346 Modern Dogs. 



such hounds as Fino de Paris, Fino V., Fino VI., 
and Forester. 

" These have been the four great sires in direct 
descent and those most used, and it will be ac- 
knowledged, that with a few exceptions, few of their 
offspring have equalled them in size and bone. By . 
the use, however, of the Bloodhound cross, both the 
third and fourth crosses are equal in size to Forester, 
and in addition we have the required points. 

" It is, in my opinion, a mistake to call such 
hounds as the third and fourth crosses by the name 
of Basset-Bloodhounds, for this name applies only 
to the first cross. The third cross has only £ of 
Bloodhound in it, and the fourth -5^; in other words, 
is an animal a Basset-Bloodhound, whose great- 
grandmother or great-great-grandmother was a 
Bloodhound? I think most breeders would not 
pay very much attention to such relationship 
as this, and would call their animals pure Bassets. 
At least such is my intention. It would take a very 
good man to tell an Octoroon in the human subject, 
and I would defy him to pick out a cross below that. 
Why should we do so in dogs? Of course, in 
crossing one must expect a case of atavism now 
and then as is seen in the fourth cross, but by such 
phenomena as these, we are able to add a new colour 
to those now existing in Bassets." 



The Basset-Hound. 347 



Since his first introduction the Basset-hound has 
progressed, but, although his head and expression 
are, as a rule, almost handsome, and perhaps more 
beautiful than are to be found on any other hound, 
his unduly long body and crooked legs are, as in the 
case of the dachshund; likely to prevent his ever 
being a popular idol. Still he has many admirers, 
for he is quiet, sensible, and attractive likewise. 
As a companion he is affectionate, but his short legs 
and heavy body make him less adapted for outdoor 
exercise than many other varieties of the dog, 
especially where the roads and streets are dirty, and 
when he is kept in the house. A Basset-hound can 
take more mud into a drawing-room than a giant St. 
Bernard or a mastiff, and sometimes he possesses a 
rather strong odour of the kennels. However, kept 
clean and nicely groomed, his expression and gaudy 
markings are sure to attract attention anywhere, and 
he is not so quarrelsome as our own hounds. 

During the period of his naturalisation with us, he 
has in. several instances been used for hare hunting, 
and packs of Bassets for that purpose have from 
time to time been formed. The Field hunt table 
for 1896-7 contains names and particulars of three 
such packs ; the Delapr6, twelve couples with kennels 
at Delapr6 Abbey, Northampton; Mr. Moss' four- 
teen couples at Winters hill, Bishops Waltham ; and 



348 Modern Dogs. 



the Walhampton sixteen couples, with kennels at 
Walhampton, Lymington, Hants. Mr. Heseltine, 
master of the Walhampton Bassets, has many first- 
rate runs, and kills about a dozen hares annually. 
One part of the season the meets are in the neigh- 
bourhood of the New Forest, and later, hounds remove 
to near Cambridge, where the season finishes. 

The Melbourne (Australian) Basset Hunt Club, of 
which Mr. J. C. Anderson is master, may be mentioned 
here and of it I need scarcely say that this pack was 
established by drafts from this country, and it 
includes a number of specially good hounds that 
were given to the hunt by Sir Everett Millais. At 
the Melbourne dog shows these Bassets have proved 
a great attraction. The usual mode of following 
Basset hounds is on foot, and by so doing some 
excellent hunting is seen. It seems really wonderful 
how quickly the heavily-bodied, short-legged hounds 
get over the ground. 

There are some earnest sportsmen who prefer 
hunting the hare with the Basset rather than with 
the Beagle or Harrier. With the former, those on 
foot are certainly likely to see more of the run, and 
have, if their lungs be sound and their legs strong, 
a very good chance of being in at the death, though 
the chase may last a couple of hours or more. 
Harriers would kill a similar "jack hare" in less 



The Basset- Hound. 349 

than half an hour. Small beagles might perform the 
same feat in an hour or so. The latter are certainly 
the brighter and merrier hunters, and possess a 
greater amount of dash and go than the short- 
legged, heavily bodied hounds, which, perhaps, excel 
in melody. I do not think the Basset more pains- 
taking and careful on a cold line than the Beagle. 

Bassets have particularly fine voices, the tones of 
some of them being almost as lovely as those the 
otter-hounds can produce. The Basset is slow on 
scent, and, of course, his formation quite puts him out 
of court as likely to be of use in a stone wall country. 

A pack can kill a hare well enough, but after 
the fox such hounds would not be of the slightest 
use ; and even after the hare the Bassets require to 
be in an easy country, where the fences are few and 
the hills neither too steep nor top rough. On the 
Continent the various strains of the Basset-hound 
are used for beating and working the coverts, being 
utilised exactly in the same way as we in this country 
work spaniels, and, in a few cases, beagles. 

There is a Basset Hound Club in England, 
which was established in 1883, and, by providing 
special prizes at various exhibitions, in many cases 
classes are placed in the schedule which, under 
ordinary conditions, would not be found there. 
Personally I have never owned a Basset. I have 



35° Modem Dogs. 



admired them, and recollect how favourably I was 
struck with the appearance of a team that Sir 
Everett Millais showed at Wolverhampton about 
sixteen years ago, and alluded to earlier in this 
chapter. They were little known then, but certainly 
on that occasion formed one of the features of an 
interesting provincial show. Since that time (and 
before) Sir Everett had perhaps taken more interest 
in the Basset than any other Englishman, and may 
be considered the British authority on the variety, 
so no doubt what he has so kindly supplied will 
prove a valuable contribution on the subject. 

Our typical Basset hound has been fully described 
earlier in this chapter. The club which looks after 
his welfare has not had any special scale of points 
drawn up, and in the absence of such I have com- 
piled the following : 



Head (including ex- 
pression, skull, Sec.) 20 

Ears 15 

Shoulders, chest, and 

neck 10 

Legs and feet 15 

60 



Loins and hindquarters 1 5 

Stern 5 

Coat 5 

Colour 5 

Character 10 



40 



Grand Total 100. 



Weight, dogs from 401b. to 481b. ; bitches about 
5lb. less. 



t> 



0' 









V "**">k 



'%. 







CHAPTER XX. 

THE BASSET GRIFFON. 

Of the Basset Griffon or rough coated basset hound 
Sir Everett Millais writes : 

11 Some twenty years ago, when I was at school 
in Paris, I used frequently to adjourn to a dog 
dealer's, whose shop still exists close to the Arc de 
Triomphe. I was there not long since, and on asking 
Mons. Ravry if he could find me a couple of Basset 
Griffons, such as he used to keep years ago, he 
informed me that he could not, unless I put my hand 
very deeply into my pocket. These hounds were 
like otterhounds in form and texture of coat, like* 
wise of the same colour, and quite as big as the 
largest smooth coated Bassets over here. About 
1874 — 1875 I used to see a similar type of hound 
in a variety class at our leading shows, owned 
first by Dr. Seton, and then by Mr. J. C. Macdona. 
This hound is registered in the Kennel Club Stud 
Book as Romano, and a very handsome specimen 
he was ; hard coated and workmanlike, brown-grey 



35 2 Modern Dogs. 



grizzle in colour, and always admired by the hunting 
men who saw him either on the bench or in the ring. 

" Since then I have never seen a hound like 
Romano in type and size, except Mrs. Ellis's Rocket, 
which, though not of exactly quite the same 
character, comes nearer to that mentioned above 
than the smaller varieties, which might pass better 
as rough-coated dachshunds than do duty at our 
shows as Basset Griffons. 

" In the last class of these hounds which I had 
the pleasure of inspecting there were no less than 
four types, and if we included those owned by His 
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, I may, I think, 
correctly state that there are five different types 
of Basset Griffons in this country at the present 
moment. 

" Now, far be it from me to run down any of these 
types, or say that one is better than the other, but I 
will say, as I said at the commencement of this 
article, that in France there are any number of 
types of Bassets to choose from ; and, while we in 
the smooth-coated variety chose the grandest of all 
the types, and have brought it to perfection, our 
brother Griffon fanciers have not gone about their 
business in the same fashion, and have certainly not 
obtained the crime de la crkme of Basset Griffons. 
I have seen many of them, and for type and quality 



The Basset Griffon. 353 

it appears to me that those from Vendue are the 
biggest, handsomest, and best fitted for the work 
they have to do. They are, as I have described, 
such as those I used to see at Mons. Ravry's, and 
are just as low to the ground as their smooth-coated 
cousins." 

At one time there appeared to be a likelihood of the 
rough basset hounds equalling the smooth variety in 
popularity, but such a result was never brought about. 
Special classes have often been provided for them, 
which received scant support, although at times 
strengthened by entries from the Continental Kennels 
of Mr. Puissant. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 
repeatedly sends a couple or so of competitors from 
Sandringham ; the Rev. W. Shield, Mr. F. Lowe, 
and Mr. G. R. Krehl keep a few of the variety, and 
so does Mr. H. Jones, but the strongest kennel in 
Britain is that of Mrs. Tottie, of Bell Busk, near 
Leeds, her Tambour, Truelove, Pervenche, and 
Treasure being an excellent team. Mr. E. Gerrich, 
Westbury-on-Tyne, Bristol, has likewise a useful and 
successful team of Basset Griffons, his Pierrot and 
Ringwood being especially choice, and Mr. Krehl's 
Trompette d'Erpent and Bonbonneau are a type of 
hound thoroughly hardy in appearance and not very 
unlike the otter hound in head, but of course smaller 
and almost as low in the leg as the ordinary Basset 

VOL. II. A A 



354 Modem Dogs. 



hounds. In colour, however, the Basset Griffon varies 
considerably, for, whilst some are marked like ordi- 
nary hounds, others are fawn or fawn and white or 
fawn grizzle with a few black or darker coloured 
hairs showing here and there. However interesting 
these French hounds may be, I am afraid there is 
no vacancy for them in this country. 

I believe Mrs. Tottie is crossing them with the 
smooth-coated Basset, but whether this will prove 
successful in improving either is a matter of doubt. 
On the Continent there are, as Sir Everett Millais 
has hinted, many different strains of this Basset 
Griffon, which, as a rule, are used for a similar 
purpose to our spaniels, viz., for beating the coverts 
for shooting purposes. 




**■■"■». LC.N 1X ANO 



1> 



C^ 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE DACHSHUND. 

"Whether we shall ever get another dog from the 
Continent that, within so few years, has spread, 
multiplied, and become so much one of ourselves as 
the dachshund, is an open question. His disposition 
was genial, his habits were of the best, but he was 
quaint in look, and, if not so autocratic in appear- 
ance as the Borzoi, he trotted behind his master or 
mistress, with all the airs that follow high life, 
conveying an impression that he alone had the right 
to be where he was. Then, again, he was not a 
fighting dog, and, though excellent as a " watch and 
jjuard," he was not ill-natured, and his skin felt 
50 soft and velvety that it became pleasanter to pat 
and stroke him than to do the same with a Dandie 
Dinmont terrier or another pet terrier that was said 
to be brought from the Isle of Skye ; and he certainly 
appeared to be two animals rolled into one — a hound 
and a terrier — perhaps he is the connecting link 
between the two breeds, 

A A 2 



35 6 Modern Dogs. 



With such qualifications he soon became a 
favourite, and from being represented in couples in 
the variety class at our dog shows he speedily 
appeared in scores, and had, as he has now, many- 
separate divisions provided for him — challenge cups, 
and other valuable prizes, and a specialist club to 
look after his welfare to boot. These remarks, and 
subsequent ones, are in connection with the smooth* 
coated little hound as we acknowledge him, and do 
not include the rough-haired variety that has 
occasionally been seen here, and is pretty common 
in some parts of the German Empire. 

Who was responsible for bringing the first dachs- 
hund to England I do not know, any more than I 
am acquainted with the particulars of the origin of 
the dog itself. Some sporting men of the old 
school have said he was nothing more than the 
common turnspit, which the cooks of their grand- 
parents had used in their kitchens to tm*n the spit 
in which their joints and geese and turkeys were 
roasted. Perhaps there had been some connection 
between the two breeds ; there was a resemblance, 
for both had short crooked legs and unduly long 
bodies, but the cooks' dogs were seldom whole 
coloured, as is pretty nearly always the case with 
the dachshund, at least with our British variety. 

No doubt either the dachshund himself, or a dog 



The Dachshund. 357 



very like him, perhaps it was the turnspit, was 
known in the East long before the Christian em. 
Egyptian and Assyrian sculptures, some of them 
afcoo B.C., depict a dog much after his stamp, 
but whether he was then used as a sporting dog or 
as a companion, or to assist in culinary operations, 
we are not told, all we know is that at the court of 
King Thothmes III. he was a favourite. Since 
that period he has undergone many modifications. 
Even within the past quarter of a century, during his 
association with our English dogs, his character 
has changed somewhat. In Germany, Belgium, and 
other parts of the Continent, from whence he came 
to us, he is used as a sporting dog, to draw or drive 
the fox and badger, but here he is for the most part 
fancied as a companion and for exhibition purposes, 
and his rapid growth to popularity is evidence of 
his excellence in both respects. Still, even our 
English dachshunds will do their work well when 
properly trained to the duty-. 

Comparatively few of out dachshunds have afty 
chance of showing how good they are at sport. 
If properly entered they have no superiors at their 
legitimate game of going to ground to fox and 
badger, when the latter have to be dug out. I do not 
for a moment suggest that they will bolt a hunted fox 
as quickly as a huntsman's terrier — that is not their 



358 Modern Dogs. 



game. All the dachshund professes to do is to find 
the fox or badger in his earth and remain there 
until you can dig to him. He makes no attempt to 
fight or attack the " varmint, " but simply barks 
at it incessantly. Then if the game does turn 
his back upon his plucky little opponent, the 
latter immediately proceeds to business by a 
fierce attack in the rear, which is discontinued 
when the fox or badger turns again and faces the 
hound. 

This description of work, of course, enables the 
hunters to dig with great accuracy in the direction 
the fox or badger lies, and the wary dachshund is 
rarely badly hurt, whereas the terrier that gets to 
close quarters with a badger, in his natural earth, 
will, as a rule, get terribly mauled. Still, I have had 
fox terriers that would bark and bark until the game 
budged, but this barking is not always good enough 
to drive a fox, and under no circumstances will it 
send either otter or badger into the open. Particulars 
of a few day's sport with dachshunds appear at the 
end of this chapter. 

When duly entered the dachshund makes an 
excellent line hunter, and Mr. Harry Jones, of 
Ipswich, tells me that his bitch Juliet was regularly 
hunted with a pack of Basset-hounds, and was 
about the most reliable of the lot. Of course, 



The Dachshund. 359 



one has not to go further for an instance of the 
general gameness of the dachshund race than the 
trials with them on the Continent at both foxes and 
badger, which the best dogs have to treat much in 
the same manner as our terriers have to do here on 
certain occasions. It is quite the custom for such 
trials to be arranged at certain dog shows in Belgium 
and Germany for the delectation of English visitors, 
who, however, do not as a rule take particularly 
kindly to what some persons consider quite a high 
branch of sport. 

About the period when the dachshund was gaining 
its popularity here, considerable correspondence 
about him took place in the Field as to what he 
was and what he was not, and, if I make no mistake, 
Mr. Barclay Hanbury, Mr. John Fisher (Cross Hill, 
Leeds), and others, gave their opinions on the 
subject. However, notwithstanding the complica- 
tions likely to ensue on the introduction of a new 
breed, especially when one authority quoted Dr. 
Fitzinger, who said there were twelve varieties of the 
dachshund — a statement fortunately qualified by the 
remark that they were mostly cross-bred — all went 
well. In due course something like the correct 
article was fixed upon, and from that we have our 
dogs of the present time. As a fact I see less 
discrepancy in the type of the modern dachshund 



360 Modern Dogs. 



than is to be noticed in some other purely English 
breeds— the fox terrier, to wit. 

Although some of our best dogs are accepted by 
German authorities as excellent specimens, still our 
British breeders have in a degree constructed a line of 
their own, and where, on the Continent at any rate, 
two varieties were acknowledged, the hound type 
and the terrier type, here a happy medium has been 
struck, and the handsome dog now seen on our 
show benches is the result. I have a large 
amount of information as to the work and general 
description of the quaint little dog as he is seen in 
Germany, and where he divides national favouritism 
with the Great Dane, but I fancy, in a book 
dealing with British dogs alone (and those that 
we have made such by fancy or manipulation) it 
will be best not to trespass on foreign ground. 
The Germans especially do well by their favourite 
dog, and the Dachshund Stud Book published by 
them is certainly, for completeness and tasteful 
elaboration, ahead of anything of the kind we have in 
England. As an instance of what is done in this 
particular, it may be mentioned that where the dog 
alhided to is red in colour, particulars of him 
are printed in red ink, and where he is black 
and tan the usual black ink is used. The same 
arrangement applies to the portraits of dogs, 



The Dachshund. 361 



with which the pages of this Stud Book are thickly 
interspersed. 

Some twenty years ago Herr Beckmann, one of 
the German authorities, dealing with the different 
types of the breed, wrote as follows : 

" Having concentrated all varieties of the badger 
dog to one single class— the crooked-legged, short- 
haired dog, with head neither hound nor terrier like, 
weight from i81b. to aolb., colour black-tan and its 
variations-— we shall still meet many varying forms. 
With some attention we shall soon distinguish the 
c&mmon breed and the well or high-bred dachshund. 
The first is a stout, strong-boned, muscularly built 
dog, with large head and strong teeth; the back 
not much arched, sometimes even straight ; tail 
long and heavy ; forelegs strong and regularly 
formed ; the head and tail often appear to be too 
large in the dog ; the hair is rather coarse, thick- 
set, short, and wiry, lengthened at the underside of 
the tail, without forming a brush or feather, and 
covering a good deal of the belly. These dogs are 
good workmen, and are less affected by weather 
than high-bred ones ; but they are very apt to 
exceed i81b. and even 2olb. weight, and soon get 
fat if not worked frequently. From this common 
breed originates the well and high-bred dog, which 
may at any time be produced again from it by 



362 Modern Dogs. 



careful selection and inbreeding without any cross* 
The well and high-bred dog is smaller in size, finer 
in bone, more elegantly built, and seldom exceeds 
1 61b. to 171b. weight; the thin, slight tapering tail 
is only of medium length ; the hair is very short, 
glossy like silk, but not soft ; the under part of the 
body is very thin haired, rendering these nervous 
and high spirited dogs rather sensitive to wet ground 
and rain. These two breeds are seldom met with 
in their purity, the vast majority of dachshunds in 
Germany ranging between the two, and differing in 
shape very much, as they are more or less well-bred 
or neglected. In this third large group we still 
meet with many good and useful dogs, but also all 
those aberrant forms, with pig snouts and short under 
jaws, apple-headed skulls, deep set or staring eyes, 
short necks, wheel backs, ring tails, fore-legs joining 
at the knees, and long hind legs bent too much in 
the stifles and hocks. " 

That we have not the latter in this country can 
with truth be stated, and I think the majority of the 
best dogs with us now will quite equal the standard 
of the best dogs as laid down by Germany's great 
authority. 

So far as my judgment goes, English breeders 
like Mr. W. Arkwright, Mr. M. Wootten, Mr. A. W. 
Byron, Mr. H. Jones, Mr. A. O. Mudie, Mr. H. A. 



The Dachshund. 36$ 



Walker, Captain and Mrs. Barry, Miss A. G* 
Pigott, Mr. E. S. Woodiwiss, Mr. N. D. Smith, 
Miss Ramsbottom, and others, have produced 
dachshunds quite equal to any that have appeared 
of late years at the leading Continental exhibitions, 
although, naturally, more specimens are bred there 
than with us. 

Mr. Jones believes our modern dachshunds are 
far more typical than they have ever been, and with 
this opinion I thoroughly coincide. There may 
be cases in which legs, feet, chest, and loin have 
been neglected in trying to produce beautiful heads r 
but this has not been carried out to any great extent. 
The best dachshunds of to-day are particularly 
sound, have excellent chest and loins, and, con- 
sidering their short legs and long bodies, get over 
the ground at almost an extraordinary rate, and such 
animals as Mr. Jones's Pterodactyl, Jackdaw, and 
Jim Crow; Miss Pigott's Primula, Prima Donna, 
and Belle Blonde ; Mrs. Nugent's Widgeon ; Mr. 
Woodiwiss's Wiseacre, and some others which could 
be mentioned, are quite able to more than hold their 
own at any of the Continental shows. 

Although, as I have previously stated, the dachs- 
hund is usually kept in this country as a com- 
panion and for show purposes, he is quite capable 
as a sporting dog. Personally I have never seen 



364 Modem Dogs.. 



one of the little hounds at work, so for information 
as to their abilities in this respect I cannot sptftk 
of my own knowledge~*-so Mr. Jones kindly acceded 
to my wishes and furnished the following vety 
interesting account of three or four days badger 
hunting with dachshunds of his own. That they 
acquitted themselves with credit no one will deny, 
and at any rate performed their duties as well as 
our terriers would have done under similar circum- 
stances. 

" I had some excellent sport with dachshunds in 
the spring of 1878. I arranged to pay three visits 
to friends, all of whom promised to introduce me to 
some badgers in their wild state. I started for 
Gloucestershire with two couples of dachshunds, 
each about three years old and well used to going 
to ground. The first time we went out was on 
the Wednesday before the Good Friday. It was 
full moon, and the night was very bright and still. 
In addition to the four dachshunds my trieftds 
ran four terriers. The earth stopper had gone On 
before and stopped all the main earths, and re- 
mained by them until we came. We did not net 
any of the places, our object being to run a badger 
to ground in a small earth and dig him out. 

" From 2 a.m. to 5 p.m. the little pack hunted 
well, and were very merry sometimes ; but it was the 



The Dachshund 365 



thickest underwood I was ever in. When you left a 
ride you were lost amid the tangle of brambles. 
A badger was viewed once, and had a sharp tussle 
with one of the terriers. The dachshunds kept wall 
together, and on one occasion hunted out in the 
open for a long way, but I think they were then on 
the line of a fox. However, at about 5 a.m. it 
was found that one of the main earths had been 
unstopped and two of the terriers could be heard 
Hard at it in different places. Being well supplied 
with digging appliances we commenced operations, 
a^d about 10 a.m. had dug to one of the terriers, 
which we found terribly torn and bitten. After 
getting the terrier out, a dachshund was put 
in, and we soon saw him backing slowly out, 
and, to our astonishment, he brought with him a 
young badger, not quite half grown, dead and 
nearly cold. This the terrier must have killed 
early in the morning. 

" The dachshund was sent to ground again, and 
he was soon heard baying close to where we had 
heard the other terrier, but his voice was so loud 
we could tell exactly where he was. 

" Then, by twelve o'clock, we had dug to 
the second terrier, and he was more injured than 
the first, so they were both sent home. 

" The badger now seemed to shift his quarters, 



566 Modern Dogs. 



for, on putting a second dachshund in, we heard 
both dogs baying close together in a different 
place, and, after the quietness of the terriers, the loud 
baying of the dachshunds seemed to encourage the 
men in their digging, for there was no doubt as 
to the whereabouts of the dogs. About 3 p.m. 
we dug down to them, and soon bagged a very 
fine badger 

" Knowing, however, that there was more than 
one badger in, for the terriers had been working 
at different places, the four dachshunds were all 
sent underground together. They could not find 
the other badger, but one of them brought out 
another half grown one that had been killed by 
the terriers. 

11 1 left that night (Thursday) for Monmouthshire 
and after midnight on Good Friday we started 
off with the four little hounds and a couple of 
rough haired terriers for some very large woods, 
but with good rides in them. All the earths were 
well attended to with faggot bundles, the last of 
them was being stopped when we arrived. The night 
was cloudy and occasionally quite dark, but the dogs 
hunted very well, and were close on to a badger 
several times, but failed to mark one to ground. 
About 6 a.m. the dachshunds (both terriers had 
been badly bitten in the wood, and were sent to 



The Dachshund. 367 



the inn) took a line towards the river Usk. 
This line they hunted very prettily for a long 
way, when two of them went to ground by the 
riverside in an earth about six feet below the top 
of the bank, and in a moment they were baying in a 
way that left no doubt they were at something. 
I was half afraid it might be a fox, but some 
hairs picked off the side and top of the entrance 
proved it was used by badgers; and the unmis- 
takable imprint of the badger's nails, quite fresh, 
close to the entrance, settled the question. 

" Before commencing digging, the men expressed 
a great wish to send to the village for a noted 
terrier that was there ; but this we would not permit, 
and they did not hesitate to say they had no confi- 
dence in a dachshund at a ' dig out/ but how they 
had reason to change their opinions will be told 
later on. 

11 The earth ran nearly straight under the field, 
not more than some five or six feet deep, and the 
loud voices of the dachshunds could very plainly be 
heard baiting their game. We cut a trench right 
across what we thought would be about the end of 
the earth, leaving plenty of room to work ; but just 
as we broke into the earth the badger went 10 or 
1 2 feet further underground, the dogs following him 
close up. Thus there was nothing for it but to dig 



368 Modern Dogs. 



another trench, having first securely stopped the 
earth towards the river. This second trench cut 
right into the end of the earth, and but for the 
spade touching the badger we should have bagged 
him then, but he went forward facing the dogs, 
and remained about half way between the two 
trenches. 

" I then put the other two dogs in from the end 
of the earth, and at it they went, and whichever way 
the badger faced he was attacked in the rear. 

" He showed himself several times at the mouth 
of the hole, but we missed him with the tongs. At 
last he made a bolt in a hurry, and over went the 
man with the tongs, who was then on his knees, 
looking down the hole, and, jumping up the corner 
of the trench, the badger made for the river bank. 

" A shepherd had come to look on, and, having 
his sheepdog with him, the latter immediately gave 
chase, catching up to the badger just as he reached 
the edge of the bank. The badger landed beauti- 
fully on the narrow ledge upon which the earth 
opened, but the poor sheepdog went right over 
down to the bed of the river, a fall of nearly 
twenty feet. The dachshunds were helped out 
of the trench, everyone ran and halloaed, and there 
was great excitement. The badger turned up in a 
dry ditch full of brambles, and, by the combined aid 



The Dachshund. 369 



of the dachshunds and the sheepdog, was ultimately 
bagged. 

" On the Monday I was driven about fourteen 
miles for a third hunt, as my friend had seen a 
badger quite recently in the wood, and had made all 
arrangements for stopping the earths. I took the 
recently caught badger with me, as it was wanted 
to turn down, and the one we had bagged on the 
Thursday was of the wrong sex. The moon was 
late in rising, so we did not leave the house until 
2.30 a.m. on Tuesday. The earth-stopper had all 
the main earths stopped, and a fire burning in front, 
by which he had made himself comfortable. 

" This night we had only the four dachshunds; 
they did a lot of hunting, several times running well, 
and giving plenty of music. They worked round the 
big wood twice, and when near the middle two 
badgers were seen quite close together, one following 
the other, and not far behind was old Waldmann, 
throwing his tongue freely on their line. My friend 
gave a view holloa that could be heard all up the 
hillside, and soon afterwards these two badgers were 
run to ground in a small earth. Waldmann got in 
before he could be taken up, and I could not get 
him out. I had particularly wanted to run a red 
bitch that had not done much work. 

" We again dug a trench right across the line of 

VOL. II. B B 



37° Modern Dogs. 



the earth beyond where we judged the badgers to 
lie. To prevent them making a bolt we stopped 
the earth behind the dog with a large stone, leaving 
only a small hole to admit the air. We dug right 
on to the nose of one badger, which itself was digging 
as hard as it could, and had nearly buried himself, 
still we got it. Then we cleared the earth out, 
and in trying to get hold of the second with the 
tongs caused it to make a drive at poor old 
Waldmann, who was blocked in by the stone. 
The dog received an ugly bite, but we soon had 
our second badger in the sack. 

" I returned that night with only one damaged 
dog, and three very successful ' dig-outs.' 

" When we went to the stables for the dogs and 
Saturday's badger, and had not very much time 
for the train, we discovered our badger had got 
out of the box, and was not to be found. A cast 
round with the dogs and they marked him up the 
chimney in the harness room ; he had reached a 
ledge in the flue, and get him down we could not, so 
had to leave him. He was ultimately taken and 
sent on, and I believe helped to make several good 
earths that are now used by foxes. 

"The following moon I took the same four 
dachshunds into Warwickshire, where I had often 
been with my terriers on former occasions ; but this 



The Dachshund. 371 



was the first introduction of the dachshunds. We 
tried to run a badger into the nets, but were not 
successful, though the dachshunds found one in the 
meadows, and had some capital hunting before they 
lost him. There were a lot of rabbits about here, 
and I rather think they caused our hounds to run 
riot a little. 

" After breakfast we had a walk round all the 
likely places where the badgers might have gone, 
taking a hardy-looking terrier with us, one, however, 
too big to get to ground. About 10 a.m. the dachs- 
hunds marked a badger in a nice little earth, and, 
before lunch, we had him in a sack ; one man was 
bitten in the thumb by the badger, and our host was 
bitten in the leg by a dachshund. In the excitement 
of ' bagging ' he picked one of the dachshunds up 
by the tail, flinging him under his arm, and was 
stooping down and picking up another, when No. 1 
pinned him in the calf of the leg. Needless to say 
he dropped the two dogs. 

" The biting for that day was not yet over, for, 
when talking at lunch of taking the badger on the 
bank of the Usk, the question was raised, could the 
four dachshunds so hamper a badger in the open as 
to enable him to be taken with the tongs ? Nothing 
would satisfy the party but a trial, so the badger was 
turned out in a very hilly field, when he made off up 

B B 2 



372 Modern Dogs. 



hill, and from the way in which he bowled the dach- 
shunds over, I have no doubt he would have got 
away, had not the big terrier been slipped. During 
the process of getting hold of the badger, a terrier 
puppy, about nine months, came up from the house, 
and hearing a great deal of * loo loo/ and not know- 
ing quite what to do, quietly seized the man who 
was energetically trying to get hold of the badger 
with the tongs, and left his mark on him. 

" I have had many such days, of which the above 
are fair examples, and from these results am quite 
convinced that for digging out a fox or badger, 
nothing can beat a properly entered dachshund." 

Although new breeds of dogs are being intro- 
duced, I fancy that the dachshund will continue to 
hold his own. for he is by no means difficult to rear 
from puppy hood, and, as I have already stated, is a 
desirable dog as a companion. He is, moreover, 
one of the canine favourites of Her Majesty the 
Queen at Windsor. Seldom used for his particular 
work in this country, nor for hunting in packs, for 
our beagles and harriers will do the latter better 
than he, and, for going to ground after fox or 
badger or otter we have our own terriers, which 
we cannot afford to lose; still the dachshund 
has deservedly popularised himself, and when in 
his puppydom he has chased a sheep or made a 



The Dachshund. 373 



raid on the poultry yard, it is no more than other 
young untrained dogs of our own have done and 
will do to the end. 

The fact that the dachshund has a peculiarly nice 
skin makes him specially adaptable as an agreeable 
pet dog ; and when to this is added a pleasant face, 
an endearing disposition, and, for a hound, a tolerable 
immunity from the aroma of the kennel, there is little 
wonder he has become popular. 

What a dachshund in the flesh is like, Mr. 
Wardle's drawings at the commencement of this 
chapter plainly tell, and the following standard, 
drawn up by the Club, will give additional know- 
ledge to the searchers for information. 

" Head and skull. — Long, level, and narrow ; peak 
well developed ; no stop ; eyes intelligent, and some- 
what small ; follow body in colour. 

"Ears. — Long, broad, and soft; set on low and 
well back ; carried close to the head. 

" Jaw. — Strong, level and square to the muzzle ; 
canines recurvent. 

" Chest. — Deep and narrow ; breast bone promi- 
nent. 

" Legs and Feet. — Fore legs very short and strong 
in bone, well crooked, not standing over; elbows 
well clothed with muscle, neither in nor out ; feet 
large, round, and strong, with thick pads and strong 



374 Modern Dogs. 



nails. Hind legs smaller in bone and higher, hind 
feet smaller. The dog must stand true, i.e., equally 
on all parts of the foot. 

11 Skin and Coat. — Skin thick, loose, supple, and 
in great quantity ; coat dense, short and strong. 

"Loin. — Well arched, long and muscular. 

" Stern. — Long and strong, flat at root, tapering 
to the tip ; hair on under side coarse ; carried low 
except when excited. Quarters very muscular, 

"Body. — Length from back of head to root of 
stern, two and a half times the height at shoulder. 
Fore ribs well sprung, back ribs very short. 

" Colour. — Any colour, nose to follow body colour ; 
much white objectionable. 

11 Symmetry and quality. — The dachshund should 
be long, low and graceful, not cloddy. 



Head and skull 12 

Jaw 5 

Legs and feet 20 

Loin 8 

Body 8£ 

Symmetry and quality ... 11 

64* 



Ears 6^ 

Chest .• 7 

Skin and coat 13 

Stern 5 

Colour 4 



35* 



Grand Total 100. 



"The weight: Dogs about 21 lb., bitches about 
1 81b. 



The Dachshund. 375 



"The Dachshund Club do not advocate point 
judging, the figures are only used to show the com- 
parative value of the features." 

It will be noticed in the above Club description 
that "any colour " is allowed, with only the proviso 
that " much white is objectionable." The accepted 
colours with us are red, black and tan, chocolate (or 
brown), and chocolate and tan. There is some 
variation in the shades of hue, especially amongst 
the reds, some of which are so pale as to be almost 
yellow. The black and tans and the deeper reds are 
the handsomest, and a white foot or feet and a little 
white .on the breast are no detriment. " Mouse " 
coloured specimens are occasionally met, sometimes 
with tan shadings, sometimes without. This is not 
a desirable colour, and "wall" or "china eyes" 
often accompany it. Then we have the marbled or 
mirled varieties, tortoiseshell they are often called, 
but most frequently " dappled," and under the latter 
name classes are repeatedly provided for them at 
our leading shows. They are, however, not particu- 
larly well filled, though Mr. E. S. Woodiwiss usually 
sends a number of fair specimens. Frequently these 
" dapples " have the " wall " or " china eyes." The 
dachshund is what may be termed a whole coloured 
dog, at least this is what we have made him here 
since his adoption. 



37 6 Modern Dogs. 



White as the ground colour is as objectionable in 
Germany as with us, but on the Continent a greater 
variety of colour is allowed, Herr Beckmann giving 
the legitimate colours, dividing them into four groups 
as follows : 

First ; black, chocolate, light brown (red), hare 
pied, all with tan shadings. Secondly ; the same 
colour without the tan markings. Thirdly; slate, 
mouse, silver grey, either whole coloured or with tan 
marks ; eyes, blueish or colourless (wall eyed) ; and 
fourthly, variegated, slate, mouse, silver grey with 
irregular black, chocolate or tan marks and blotches, 
with or without tan, and with one or two "wall eyes." 
Any one of these colours is as good as another in 
the Fatherland, but in case two dogs are of equal 
merit in other respects, the black and tan is to be 
preferred, or the dog most richly coloured and free 
from white. 

What has been written, for the most part applies 
to the smooth coated dachshund as he is mostly 
known in this country. There are, however, other 
varieties with harder coats, some wire haired, some 
more or less silky haired. These longer coated 
hounds have not found much favour with us, al- 
though a few have occasionally appeared at our 
shows, where they have not attracted much notice ; 
and it seems odd that every now and then a rough 



The Dachshund. 377 



or long coated puppy is produced from absolutely 
smooth parents. A peculiar instance of this is 
quoted in the Field of Jan. 19, 1895. The Kennel 
Book issued by the German Teckel-Klub (Teckel= 
Dachsel=Badgerhound) distinguishes three varieties 
of the dachshund — (a) the common short haired or 
smooth haired ; (b) the rough haired ; (c) the long 
haired, which is described as follows : " This variety 
of our common dachshund is probably derived from 
an original cross with the spaniel, but has been 
gradually bred into an independent species. With 
regard to shape, colour, and size, the points are 
identical with those of the common dachshund, the 
silky hair of the long-haired species forming the only 
distinction. This hair is soft and curly, and forms 
lengthy plumes under the throat, the lower parts of 
the body, and the backs of the legs. It is longest 
of all on the ears and on the lower surface of the 
tail, where it forms a regular i flag/ like that of the 
setter or spaniel.' ' The rough haired variety is 
represented by a dog strongly resembling a rough 
Irish terrier, but of course not so high on the legs. 
An original cross (in this case with a rough coated 
dog) may not unreasonably be surmised here also. 
On the Continent, the classes for dachshunds are 
arranged according to weight, but here the classifi- 
cation is according to colour and sex. 



378 Modern Dogs. 



As to the voice or cry of* the dachshund, he is 
not, as a rule, so free with his tongue as either the 
basset hound or beagle, but, of course, there are 
exceptions to this. One old hound, Mr. Harry 
Jones's Dina, was particularly musical in this 
respect, and her voice, in addition to being loud, 
was beautifully deep and mellow. Her daughter 
Juliet, though equally free, had a much less pleasant 
note. 

There is no doubt that where dachshunds have 
been entered to work with terriers and used for 
the duties usually ascribed to a terrier, they are 
inclined to hunt with less music than if used 
as a pack or worked in connection with basset - 
hounds. Indeed this is pretty much the case with 
all hounds, and I have known a foxhound hunt 
pretty nearly mute when alone, but in company 
with his pack be as free with his tongue as any 
other hound ; a similar thing is alluded to in the 
article on the bloodhound at the commencement of 
this volume. 



INDEX. 



PAGK 

" Ahascragh " setters 143 

A irnie (Irish setter) 163 

Alden Fluke (pointer) 23, 40 

Aldridge's, sale of pointers at 36 
A Id ridge's, sales of spaniels at 271 
Aldrovandus' Natural History 75 
Alexandra Palace Show in 1875 44 

Allison, Major 190 

Anglesea setter, the 114 

Aquarium, dachshund and 

basset show at 335 

Arkwright, Mr 1 6, 39, 50 

Assyrian sculptures of dogs ... 357 

Anstey (dog breaker) 18 

Austin, Mr. C, his Irish 

setters 169 

Aveline (Irish setter) 157, 158 

Badgers and dachshunds, sport 

with 3 6 4-37 2 

Baker, Mr., of Lismacue 143 

"Baffers" 222 

Bala Field Trials 16, 19 

Balloch setters 112 

Bang (pointer) 20, 28 

Banker (pointer), 34 

Barmaid (pointer) 17 

Baron Doveridge (setter) 93 



PAGE 

Barnes, Juliana 219 

Barney (Clumber) 273 

Bartram, Mr. G. T 192 

Barton Charmer (setter) 100 

Barton Tory (setter) 98 

Bass, Mr. F. H 166 

Basset, English, crossed with 

the bloodhound 343 

Basset Francais, the 327 

Basset, height of 331 

Basset, in-breeding 339 

Basset, introduction into Eng- 
land 333 

Basset, origin of name 324 

Basset, the, as a companion ... 347 

Bassets at the shows 334 

Bassets, colour of 333 

Bassets, measurements 332 

Bassets, most sucessful breeders 338 
Bassets, many types of, in 

France 352 

Bassets, their voice 349 

Bassets used for hare -hunting 347 
Bassets, variety in coat ... 327, 333 

Bassets, varieties of 324 

Basset Club, points for judging 350 

Basset-Grifforl, the 327, 351 

Basset -Griffons, some kennels 353 



3 8o 



Index. 



 i 



PAGE 

Basset Hound Club, English... 349 

Basset-hound packs 347 

Basset - hound, Sir Everett 

Millais on the 323, 351 

Basset Hound Stud Book 340 

Basset Hunt Club, the Mel- 
bourne 348 

Battle (Sussex spaniel) 283 

Beauty III. (brown retriever) 203 
Bebbs, the (Sussex spaniels)... 285 
Beck, Mr. C. H., his pointers 39 
Beckmann, Herr, on the dachs- 
hund 361 

Belle Chance (pointer) 23, 40 

Belle des Bordes (pointer) 15 

Belle of the Ball (pointer) 29 

Belle (pointer)... 14, 18, 19, 27, 29 

Belle (setter) 88,90 

Bellew, the Hon. Mrs 165 

Ben of Kippen (pointer) 49 

Ben Sullivan (Irish setter) ... 169 
Bennett, Mr. W. C, on the 

Irish setter 142 

Bennett, Mr. John 144 

Beryl (pointer) 28 

Beta (pointer) 33 

Beverlac (black spaniel) 296 

Birmingham Show, English 

water spaniels at 251 

Birmingham Show ...107, 161, 162, 

181, 259 

Birket, Mr. Myles 86 

Bishop, Mr. Edwin 134 

Black and Tan (or Gordon 

setter) 121 

Black Field Spaniels, Club's 

description and points 300 

Black Field Spaniels, some 

owners of good 299 

Black pointers 7. 9, 16 



PAGE 

Blaine, Delabere 65 

Blanche of Bromfield (pointer) 35 
Blenheim spaniels as workers.. 314 
Blossom IV. (Irish setter) ... 166 
Blue Bel ton, origin of name ... 101 

Blue Dash (setter) 90 

Blue Rock ( I rish setter) 1 65 

Boaler, Mr. (Clumber spaniels) 259, 

261 
Boatswain ( I rish water spaniel ) 232 

Bob (Irish setter) 147 

Bond, Mr. T. A 170 

Bonnie Dan of Coldhill (Irish 

setter) 169 

Bonnie Jill of Coldhill (Irish 

setter) 169 

Boss III. (Clumber) 273 

Boughey, Sir Thomas, his 

spaniels 309 

Boulton, Dr. W. W 296 

Bounce (pointer) 27 

Bourbon (Basset) 337 

Bow and arrow versus musket 78 

Bow Bells (pointer) 20 

Bowers, Mr. T. B. 89, 280, 285, 

287 

Bowman (Basset) 344 

Bray Prince (Irish setter) 166 

Bray Princess (Irish setter) ... 166 

Bracken (pointer) 34 

Brackenbury, Mr 21 

Bradley, Basil, animal painter 167 
Brailsford, Mr. W., u, 38, 181, 190 
Breadalbane, Marquis of, 

setters 112 

Bridford Battle (Sussex spaniel) 289 
B ridford Giddie (Sussex 

spaniel) 289 

Bridford Perfection (black 

spaniel) 296 



Index. 



381 



PAGE 

Brierley, Mr. C. W., his 

pointers 24 

Bromine (Clumber) 274 

Brooklyn Grouse (setter) 131 

Brown, Mr. Herbert ... 17, 43, 45 

Bruce (Clumber) 273 

Bruce (setter) 156 

Bruce Wind 'em (setter), sent 

to Russia 1 10 

Brush II. (Clumber) 271 

Bryan, Mr. R. Stawell, his 

pointers 33 

Bulled, Mr 29 

Bullock, Mr. P 251, 295 

Burdett, Mr. F 295 

Burgess, Mr., his spaniels 309 

Bustle (Clumber) 260 

Caius, Dr 176 

Caius, Dr. Johannes, his book 

on English dogs 68 

Camlough Bloom (Irish setter) 166 

Carey, Messrs 243 

Carlo (Irish setter) 159 

Carrington, Mr. G 289 

Cawdor, Earl of, his Gordon 

setters 135 

Chalon, H. B., drawing of 

spaniels by '314 

Chapman, Mr. R 289 

Chapman, Mr. R. his Gordon 

setters 133 

Chapman, Mr. R., his pointers 41 

Chang (pointer) 28 

Chesterfield, Lord 12 

Chicory (curly black retriever) 183 

Chloe (Sussex spaniel) 283 

Clement, Mr. Louis 335 

Clumbers, a judge of 261 



PAGE 

Clumbers at work 267 

Clumbers,, best, modern 273 

Clumbers, breaking 268 

Clumbers, chief owners twenty 

years ago 269 

Clumbers, description of 263 

Clumbers, kennels of 270 

Clumbers, origin of name 258 

Clumbers, points and club's 

description of 276 

Clumber, the, as a companion 269 

Clumbers, the best 272 

Cockers at Manchester in 1892 316 
Cocker Club points and de- 
scription 318 

Cockers in Wales and Devon- 
shire 315 

Cockers, some of the best 317 

Cocker, weight of 317 

Cockerton, Mr. W. H. B 97 

Cockerton, Mr. James B., his 

setters 86 

Coleraine ( I rish Setter) 1 64 

Colquhoun, Mr. John 122, 213 

Conley, Mr. J 243 

Contract for training a dog ... 83 

Cooper, Mr. W. H 158 

Cooper, Mr. W. H., his Irish 

setters 167, 168 

Corbet, Sir Vincent 107 

Cotes, Colonel .....38,94 

Count Wind 'em (setter) 107 

Count (Irish setter) 162 

Countess (pointer) 19 

Countess (setter) 14, 90, 95 

Countess Bear (setter) 107 

Countess of Rosehill (Sussex 

spaniel) 289 

Countess Rose (setter) 107 

Craven, Mr. F. B 332 



382 



Index. 



PAGE 

Craw, Mr. James, on the 

Labrador dog 205 

Cremorne Show, 1863 131 

Crystal Palace Show, 1865 ... 251 
Crystal Palace Show, Clumbers 

at 262 

Crystal Palace Show, 1872, 

Sussex spaniels at 280 

Curzon Hall Show in 1895 ... 170 
11 Cynographia Britannica,"... 123 

Dachshund, the 355 

Dachshund and Basset Show 

at the Aquarium 335 

Dachshund a pleasant pet 373 

Dachshund, character of the... 355 
Dachshund Club description 

and points 373 

Dachshund colours 375 

Dachshund, different opinions 

as to origin 356 

Dachshund, English breeders 

of the 362 

Dachshund, Herr Beckmann 

on the 361 

Dachshund hunting with Bas- 
sets 358 

Dachshund in the Egyptian 

and Assyrian sculpture 357 

Dachshund, Mr. H. Jones on 

the 364 

Dachshund, the rough coated. .376, 

377 
Dachshunds, sport with .. . 364-372 

Dachshund Stud Book (Ger- 
man) 360 

Dachshund, the British breed 360 

Dachshund trials at Continental 
shows 359 

Dachshunds, use of 357 



PAGE 

Dachshund, varieties of 376 

Dachshund, the wire coated ... 377 

Daisy (setter) 90 

Dan (setter) 91 

Dandie (setter) 131 

Daphne (pointer) 31, 32 

Darby, Mr. S., his curly black 

retrievers 183 

Darenth ( wavy retriever) 1 90 

Dash- (Irish setter) 155 

Dash (pointer) 5 

Dash (setter) 94 

Dash I. (setter) 88 

Dash II. (setter) 88 

Dashing Bondhu (setter) 108, 109 

Dashing Clinker (setter) 109 

Dash wood, Mr. J.J. W 113 

Davies, Mr. G. R., his re- 
triever sale 194 

Derby, Earl of 10 

Derby, Lord, his Clumbers 268, 271 
Dermot Asthore (Irish water 

spaniel) 243 

Despard, Mr. W. W 165 

Desportes, Alexander, his 

painting of dogs 73 

Desportes, Francis 2 

Devonshire pointers 24 

Dick (pointer) 19 

Dick (retriever) 214 

Dick O'Donoghue (Irish water 

spaniel) 243 

Digby (pointer) 33 

Dina (dachshund) 378 

Dixon, Mr. H. H. ("The 

Druid") 124 

Doctor (Irish water spaniel) ... 241 
" Dog in Health and Disease," 

the 280 

" Dogs of Scotland," 126 



N 



Index. 



383 



PAGE 

" Dogs of the British Isles " 17, 323 

Don (Irish setter) 147 

Don (Irish water spaniel) 253 

Don (pointer), Mr. Wroth's... 32 

Don IX. (pointer) 22 

Donald (pointer) 32 

Don Juan (pointer) 29 

Downe's, Viscount, pointers... 21 

Drake (pointer) 13, 18, 19,21 

Drenagh (Irish setter) 168 

Drogheda (Irish setter)... 157, 167 

" Druid," the 124,126 

Drury, Mr. C 23 

Duck (Irish water spaniel) ... 241 
Dudley, Robert, Duke of 

Northumberland, training 

setters 65 

Duke (Clumber) 272 

Duke of Edgworth (Gordon 

setter) 135 

Duke Phoenix (setter) 109 

Dulcie (Basset) 344 

Diirer, Albrecht, his painting 

of St. Hubert 72 

Durham strain of pointers 22 

Edge strain of pointers, the ... 11 

" Edmond Castle" (setter) ... 88 

Edwards, Sydenham 123 

Egyptian sculptures of dogs ... 357 

Elcho (Irish setter) 153 

Ellis, Mr. C. C, Irish setters.. 167 

Ellis, Mrs., Bassets 341 

Emery, Mr. James 134 

English setter club, descrip- 
tion of the setter 115 

English setter, points for judg- 
ing 120 

English setters, some breeders 

of good 114 



PAGE 

English setter, the 85 

English setters, various so- 
called strains in 

English water spaniels 249 

Engravings of dogs, early... 67, 75 
Enniskillen, Ea*l of, his red 

setters 149 

Eos (pointer) 19 

Estate, an, given for a brace 

of Irish setters 160 

Evans, Mr. of Dungannon, his 
Irish setters 150 

Fancy Free (setter)....; 97 

Farrow, Mr. J. F., his black 

spaniels 298 

Farrow, Mr. J. F., his cockers 317 
Farmer, Mr., his Sussex 

spaniels 282 

Farrow, Mr. J. F., on the 

Engl ish water spaniel 250 

Farrow, Mr. J. F., on the Irish 

water spaniel 233 

Featherstone setter, the 114 

Field..... 229,359 

Field Trial, a good heat 45 

Field Trials.. .14, 17, 18, 45,53, 94, 
95> 129, 155, 156, 177 
Field Trials at Blandford in 

1882 45 

Field Trials in North Carolina 94 
Field Trial meeting, the first... 14 

Field, Mr. Barclay 39 

Finette (Basset) 336 

Fino de Paris (Basset), 328, 334, 

335. 336, 338, 340 
Fino V. (Basset) 337 

Fino VI. (Basset) 341 

Firearms, laws against the use 
of 78 



3«4 



Index. 



PAGE 

Firearms, . introduction of 76 

Fisher, Mr. John 359 

Flirt (black spaniel) 296 

Flo. (English water spaniel) ... 252 
Flora (liver and white spaniel) 309 

Floss (Clumber) 260 

Fly.des Bordes (pointer) 17 

Foljam.be, Mr., his Clumbers 270 

Ford, Mr. C. f his pointers 35 

Forester (Basset) 332 , 342 

Fox, Mr. W. J 135 

Friar Boss (Clumber) 275 

Frisco (Irish setter) 163 

Fred W. (setter) 86,96 

Fuller, Mr., his Sussex spaniels 281 

Galway, Lord, his Bassets ... 333 
"Game Certificate," intro- 
duction of 80 

Garth, Sir R 11 

Garth's, Mr., dogs, sale of ... 13 

Garryowen ( I rish setter) 1 62 

Gell, Mr 11 

"Gentleman's Recreation," 

Nicholas Cox's 220 

George, Mr. Bullock's (Sussex 

spaniel 283, 288 

Gesner, Conrad 76, 177 

Gibson, Mr. Carew, his cockers 316 

Gilbert, Mr. H 21 

Gilbey, Sir Walter 3 

Gillett, Mr. W 296 

Gilpin, Sidney 4 

Gorcfon Setter, the 121 

Gordon Castle setters 126 

Gordon setters at the Field 

Trials 129 

Gordon Setter Club 132, 134 

Gordon Setter Club's descrip- 
tion and points 137 



PAGE 

Gordon setters in America and 

on the Continent 136 

Gordon setter kennels 1 33 

Gordon setters, noted kennels 128 

Gordon setters, prices of 1 25 

Gordon setter trials at Hat- 
field 132 

Gorse, Mr. J. D 182, 192 

Graham, Mr. J 17 

Graphic (pointer) 31 

Graphic Secundus (pointer) ... 34 

Gray, Mr, Thomson 126 

Green, Mr. H. P., his spaniels 310 

Greenbank, Messrs 134 

Grouse of Kippen (setter) 100 

Guignol (Basset) 345 

Guinevere (Basset) 336, 339 

Hamlet (pointer) 21 

Hanbury, Mr. Barclay 359 

Handy, Mr. J. A 280, 286 

Harrison, Rev. A 86 

Hartley, Mr. W 98 

Harp (Irish water spaniel) ... 242 

Hawker, Lieut. -Col 207 

Hawkes, Mr. J. G., his Irish 

setters 165 

Hazzard, Mr. Jason 149 

Hebe (pointer) 31 

Henmore Sure Death (Irish 

setter) 168 

" Highland Sports," St. John's 

122, 180 

Hignett, Mr. F 135 

Hincks, Mr. J. T. ...264, 271, 274 

Hoare, Sir Edward 131 

Holford, Mr. C. E., his 

Clumbers 260, 27 1 

Holmes, Mr. H. H., his 

Clumbers 271 



Index. 



385 



PAGE 

Hope, Lord Clinton, his 

Clumbers 271 

Hotpot (Clumber) 271 

Hound-keeping under James I. 

and Charles II 80 

Humphrey, Mr. T 169 

" Hunger's Prevention," Ger- 

vase Markham's 123 

Hutchinson, Colonel, his book 

on dog-breaking 176 

" Idstone " ... 14, 26, 122, 129, 131, 

156, 182, 251, 269 

Ightfield Deuce (pointer) 37 

Ightfield pointers, the 37 

Ightfield Rosa (Irish setter) ... 168 

Ightfield Tom (setter) 99 

lima (pointer) 32 

11 Index" (Latin name for the 

setter) 70 

Inoculation (bloodhound) 344 

International Pointer and Setter 

Association 53 

Irish setter, the 141 

I rish setters at the shows 1 66 

Irish setter, breeders of 162 

Irish Setter Club 157 

Irish Setter Club's descrip- 
tion 172 

Irish setter hunting by ground 

scent 157 

Irish setter, Mr. W. C. Bennett 

on 142 

Irish setter, most noted 

breeders 147 

Irish setter originally red and 

white 154 

Irish setter, points forjudging 174 
Irish setters, red and white, 

best for shooting over 1 55 

VOL. II. 



PAGE 

Irish setter trials at Omagh ... 168 
Irish setters, various opinions 

as to colour 153 

Irish setters, weights of 1 74 

Irish water spaniels, see 

Spaniels. 

Jacobs, Mr. T., his spaniels 296 

James I.'s " Book of Sports" 79 

Jameson, Major 168 

Jarvis, Dr. W 153 

Jester (pointer) 17 

Jet (curly black retriever) 182 

Jilt of Braunf els (pointer) 53 

John o' Gaunt (Clumber) 271 

Jones, Mr. H. (dachshunds) 

358, 363> 364 

Judge, a proficient 26 1 

Juno (pointer) 4 

Kempston Tessy (Irish water 

spaniel) 243 

Kennel Club Show, 1 896 289 

Kennel Club Stud Book 157, 159, 

162, 203, 261 

Kennel Club trials, 1885 159 

Kent (setter) 131 

Kerss, Mr. J., on the Labra- 
dor retriever 204 

Keyes, Dr 220 

King, Mr. John G 145 

King Koffee (black retriever) 203 
Kingston's, Duke of, pointers 7 
Knockavoe (Gordon setter) ... 135 

Krehl, Mr. G. R 335 

11 Kunopaedia," William Dob- 
son's 64 

Labrador retriever, the 204 

Labrador retrievers, kennels of 210 

C 



3 86 



Index. 



PAGE 

Labrador retriever, Mr. J. 

Kerss on 204 

Labrador retriever, size of ... 207 
Labradors, Field corres- 
pondence on 211 

Lady (Irish water spaniel) ... 241 

Lady Jane (pointer) 32 

Lambert's, Daniel, pointers, 

sale of 9 

Lane Bassets 327, 342 

F Janidloes setter, the 1 33 

I^arry Doolan (Irish water 

spaniel) 242 

Lauderdale's, Earl of, pointers 6 

Laurie (Sussex spaniel ) 283 

Laverack, Mr. Edward, 85, 128, 160 
I^averack setters, crosses used 

in 88 

Laverack setters 85, 86, 1 o 1 

Laverack setters, dispersal of 89 
I,aycock's Dairy Yard, Dog 

Show at 234 

Le Couteulx, Mons. le Comte. 328 
Le Couteulx Bassets, descrip- 
tion °f 327, 333 

Legh, Lieut-Col. Cornwall, his 

retrievers 193 

Lemon and white pointers ...20, 22 
Li dwell (or Ledwich) Miss ... 147 

Lipscombe, Mr. W. H 166 

Liver and white pointers 18 

Llanidloes setters 113 

Llewellin, Mr. Purcell ... 14, 85, 91, 

156 

" Llewellyn " setters 101, 109 

Lloyd- Lloyd, Mr., his pointers 31 

Lloyd-Price, Mr. R. J 13 

Lonsdale, Mr. Heywood, his 

pointers 37, 168 

Lort, Mr. W 251, 334 



PAGE 

Louis XV.' s dogs 2 

Lovat, Lord, his Gordon 

setters 135 

Lowe, Mr. F 15, 49, 93 

Luxmore, Mr. C. F. C 288 

Mabel of Kippen (setter) 99 

M'Carthy, Mr., on the Irish 

water spaniel 230 

Macdona, Mr. J. C 156, 351 

Macgregor (pointer) 21 

Mac's Little Nell (Irish setter) 164 

Madryn Earl (setter) 100 

Mahon, Rev. H 143 

Maid of the West (Irish setter) 165 
Maidstone Show, 1876, re- 
trievers at 212 

Major (pointer) 19,21 

Malmesbury, Lord, his Labra- 
dors 211 

Malt (pointer) 44 

Maw, Mr. G 23 

Manning, Mr. F. A 132, 134 

Markham, Gervase ... 81 , 123, 233 
Marples, Mr. T., his black 

spaniels 299 

Martin, Mr. (pointers) 12 

Mason, Mr. C. H 24 

14 Master of the Game," the ... 221 

Matthews, Mr. S 183 

Maud (Sussex spaniel) 285 

Melville, Viscount, his curly 

black retrievers 183 

Merle (brown retriever) 203 

Meynell, Mr 10 

Meyrick, Mr., his retrievers ... 190 
Mickey Free (Irish water 

spaniel) 241 

Mignarde (Basset) 336, 339 

Mike (pointer) 29, 44 



Index. 



387 



PAGE 

Mike- Romp strain of pointers 43 
Millais, Sir Everett, on the 

Basset-Griffon 351 

Millais, Sir Everett, on the 

Basset-hound 323, 343 

Milner, Captain, his Irish 

setters 163 

Mina Juno (pointer) 33 

Miss Prim (pointer) 22 

Miss Sixpence (pointer) 15 

Mistletoe (pointer) 51 

Mitchell, Mr. F. C 243 

Model (Basset) 334 

Moll (pointer) 14 

Moll III. (setter) 88 

Molton Broom (pointer) ... 33, 34 

Money- Wigram, Mr. A 203 

Monk of Furness 92 

Moore, Mr. Cecil 149 

Moore, Mr. George 10 

" Moor and the Loch," John 

Colquhoun's 122, 213 

Moore, Dr. Bond, his retrievers 189 

Morris, Dr 182 

Morris, Judge O'Connor 145 

Moses (wavy retriever) 191 

Musket versus bow and arrow 78 

Nabob (Clumber) 272 

Naso of Kippen (pointer) ... 53 

Naso of Strasbourg 32 

Naso of Upton (pointer) ... 31, 44 

National Exhibition, 1896 100 

National Field Trials 1 7, 94 

Nellie (black spaniel) 294 

Nellie (setter) 95 

Nep (wavy retriever) 191 

Nero (Labrador) 213 

Newcastle, Duke of, his 
Clumbers 258, 270 



PAGK 

Newcastle setter, the 114 

Newfoundlands, Lieut. -Colonel 

Hawker on 207 

Newfoundlands, Mr. St. John 

on 209 

Newington, Mr. Campbell, 281, 288 

Nicholas (Basset) 344 

Nigger (black spaniel) 297 

Nigger (pointer) 17 

Norfolk retriever, the 204 

Norfolk spaniel, the 226 

Norfolk spaniel, club points 

and description 305 

Norfolk spaniel, qualities of ... 304 
Norfolk spaniel, why so called 303 
Norrish, Mr. E. C., on the 

pointer 24, 30 

11 Northern Tour," Colonel 

Thornton's 121 

Nouailles, Due de 258 

Novel (setter) 107 

Nuttall, Mr. Falkiner 166 

O'Connor's and Yelverton 

O'Keefe's Irish setters 144 

O'Callaghan, Rev. R... 156, 158, 166 

Old Bob (black spaniel) 296 

Old Kate (English setter) 91 

Old Kate (Irish setter) 162 

Onslow, Lord, his Bassets ... 334 
Oonagh of Cullinamore (Irish 

setter) 170 

Osbaldeston, Mr 10 

Osborne Ale (pointer) 44 

Osborne Stout (pointer) 44 

Paget, Lord Alfred 181 

Palmerston (Irish setter) 150, 162 
Palmerston strain of Irish 
setters 151 



388 



Index. 



PAGE 

" Pantherius," the 308 

Paris (Basset) 342 

Pax of Upton (pointer) 15 

Pearce, Rev. T. (" Idstone ") 14, 
26, 122, 129, 131, 156, 182, 251, 269 

Pearl (pointer) 28 

Peg (pointer) and cyclists 23 

Peggie (Sussex spaniel) 283 

Pen-in' s, Messrs., Irish setters 165 

Phillips, Mr., his cockers 316 

Pictures of Dogs 2, 3,4, 146 

Pigott, Miss, her dachshunds 363 

Pilkington, Mr. G 13 

Pitti Sing (setter) 94 

Piatt, Colonel, his setters 100 

Plunket (setter) 103 

Plunket (Irish setter) 156 

Pluto (pointer) 4 

Pluto (Irish setter) 147 

Pointers, black 7 

Pointers bred on the Continent 61 

Pointer Club Field Trials 53 

Pointer, description of 56 

Pointers, good kennels, 20, 27, 30, 

3i. 34. 36, 37. 39 
Pointer, introduction of the ... 1 

Pointers in France 2 

Pointers, kennels of 9, 10 

Pointers, on point 4 

Pointer, points for judging ... 60 

Pointers, prices at sales 36 

Ponto (Irish setter) 168 

Pooley, Rev. J 38 

Portland, Duke of, his Clum- 
bers 270 

Portland, Duke of 10 

Priam (pointer) 44 

Pridmore, Mr. G. E 135 

Price, Mr. S 20 

Price, Mr. H. J., his cockers... 316 



PAGE 

Price, Mr. R. J. Lloyd, 18, 20, 27, 

28, 36, 184, 195 

Prince Consort, the late 10 

Prince Frederick (setter) 97 

" Pteryplegia, or the art of 

shooting flying " 1 

Puissant, M 17 

Punchestown (Irish setter) ... 169 
Psycho (Clumber) 273 

Quits Baby (pointer) 15 

Quail of Upton (pointer) 15 

Rake (Irish water spaniel) ... 241 

Random (pointer) 29 

Ranger (setter) 95 

Rauthmell, Harry m 

Ravaude (Basset) 336 

Ravensbarrow kennels, the ... 97 
Ravry, Mons., his Griffons ... 350 

Red I rish setter, modern 1 43 

Retrievers at the shows 181 

Retrievers, clever (anecdotes) 217 
Retrievers, early specimens ... 189 
Retriever, flat-coated black, the 

best all-round dog 199 

Retrievers for show 217 

Retrievers saving life 215 

Retriever, the brown 201 

Retriever, the flat -coated, at 

the shows [89 

Retriever, the, origin of 1 75 

Retriever, the flat or wavy- 
coated black 1 87 

Retriever thief, a 215 

Retrievers used in deer-stalk- 
ing 216 

Retriever, curly-coaled, as a 
companion 181 



Index. 



389 



PAGE 

Retriever, curly-coated black. 179, 

180 

Retriever (curly black) Club's 
description 184, 186 

Retriever, wavy- coated black, 
description and points of ... 196 

Retrievers, wavy-coated, judg- 
ing 195 

Retrievers, wavy-coated, sale 

of 194 

Retrievers, wavy -coated black, 

some good kennels 193 

Revel (pointer) 45 

Rhea (Cocker) 315 

Rhiwlas Kennels, the 36 

Richardson on the Irish setter. 160 
Richardson, H. D., his books 

on country matters 65 

Richardson, Rev. W.J 38 

Rickey (Basset) 144. 

Ridley, Mr 22, 182 

Ridley, Sir Matthew 131 

Rightaway (wavy retriever) ... 195 
Rivington Merry Legs (cocker) 316 
Robin Hood (curly black re- 
triever) 183 

Robinson, Mr. J. R 89 

Rock Diver (Irish water 

spaniel) 243 

Rock Peggy (Irish water 

spaniel) 243 

Rocket (Basset -Griffon) 352 

Roger (retriever) saving life... 216 

Rogers, Bill, dog breaker 127 

Romano (Basset-Griffon) 351 

Romp (pointer) 28, 43 

Romp's Baby and Revel (poin- 
ters) trial between 45 

Romp (Sussex spaniel) 282 

Rose (Irish setter) 153 



PAGE 

Rosehill Ruler II. (Sussex, 

spaniel) • 288 

Rosehill Rush (Sussex spaniel) 288 
Rosehill strain of Sussex 

spaniels 280 

Rothschild, Baron, his Clum- 
bers 272 

Rothwell and Laverack 88 

Rover (English water spaniel) 251 

Rupert (brown retriever) 203 

11 Rural Sports," Daniel's *3i4 

Russet (Sussex spaniel) 297 

11 Russian Retriever," the 201 

Russian setter, so-called 114 

Revel (pointer) 32,45 

Sable Bondhu (setter) 1 09 

Saddleback (pointer) 28 

St. John's retriever 207 

St. John, Mr. Charles 122 

11 St. Leger " water spaniels ... 229 

Sailor (Labrador) 211 

Sailor (wavy retriever) 192 

Salter, Mr. J. H. 17, 28, 42, 182, 

203, 281 
Sam (liver and white spaniel) . 309 

Sambo the Devil (pointer) 29 

Satin Bondhu (setter) 97 

Schofield, Mr 296 

11 Scientific Education of Dogs 

for the Gun " 217 

Saxon drawing of bird shooting 67 

Seton, Dr 351 

Sefton, the Earl of 13 

Setter, black and tan, origin of 124 

Setters, engravings of 1 23 

Setters, good kennels 98 

Setters, high prices for 1 07 

Setter, Irish 141 

Setter, former uses of the 82 



39<> 



Index. 



PAGE 

Setter, the, a modern dog 63 

Setter, the English, not de- 
generating 99 

Setter, the, older than the 

pointer 219 

Shield, Rev. W 289 

Shirley, Mr. S. E 170, 191 

Shooting Flying, when intro- 
duced 1 

Shorthose, Mr. John 98 

Shrewsbury Field Trials 17, 53, 156 

Shuter, Mr. L. A 190 

Silvie (Irish setter) 143 

"Sixty-one" (the Rev. Hely 

Hutchinson) 103, 112 

Skidmore, Mr. J. S 235 

Skipworth, Mr. Henry, his 

retrievers 183 

" Smack " on the water spaniel 229 

Smith, Ewan 249 

Smith, Mr. J., his black 

spaniels 299 

Solms, Prince 52 

Southhill Field Trials, 1865 ... 130 

Spalpeen ( I rish setter) 1 64 

"Spaniells" 69 

Spaniels, classes of 225 

Spaniel Clubs, Irish water 238 

Spaniel, English water, points 

and description 254 

Spaniels in early times 220 

Spaniel, Irish water 229 

Spaniel, Irish water, at the 

shows 243 

Spaniel, Irish water, descrip- 
tion of 239, 245 

Spaniel, Irish water, points for 

judging 245 

Spaniel, Irish water, principal 
exhibitors 244 



PAGE 

Spaniel, Mr. M'Carthy on the 

Irish water 230 

Spaniel, Mr. Farrow on the 

English water 250 

Spaniels other than black, Club 

description 311 

Spaniels other than black, 

colours of 307 

Spaniels other than black, some 

good ones 311 

Spaniels, show 223, 224 

Spaniels, teams of, at work ... 227 

Spaniels, the 219 

Spaniel, the black, charac- 
teristics of 294 

Spaniel, the black field, a recent 

introduction 293 

Spaniel Club, the 226 

Spaniel, the Clumber, a modern 

dog 257 

Spaniel, the English water ... 249 
Spaniel, the Irish water, as 

retriever 235 

Spaniel, the liver and white ... 308 

Spaniel, the Norfolk 226 

Spaniel, the old English water 225 
Spaniel, the Sussex, in 1802 ... 278 
Spaniels trained in early times 66 

Spaniels used in hawking 221 

Spaniel, varieties of 226 

Spaniels with crooked legs ... 223 

Spanish dogs 75, 219 

Spanish importation, a 73 

Spanish pointers 3 

11 Sporting Magazine " 259 

"Sportsman's Cabinet," 82, 225, 

238, 249 
Sport, changed conditions of... 8 
"Sport Illustrated by Art," 

exhibition 72 



Index. 



39' 



PAGE 

Spurgin, Mr. H. B 296 

Stat ham, Mr 11 

Starkie, Colonel Le Gendre, 

his Gordons 134 

Statter, the late Mr 10, 19 

"Stonehenge" (Mr. J. H. 

Walsh), 17, 90, 91, 95, 114, 178, 

238, 239, 273, 280, 323 

Strutt 's " S ports and Pastimes ' ' 66 

Stubbs, painter 3 

Sussex spaniel as a worker . . . 286 
Sussex Spaniel Club's points 

and description 290 

Sussex spaniel, colour and coat 

of 284 

Sussex spaniel, ears of 285 

Sussex spaniels, the best 289 

Sussex spaniels, weight of 289 

Susi (Irish setter) 165 

Sybarite Sam (setter) 99 

Symons, Sir Richard 6 

Sweep the Green (setter) 93 

Swinburne, Mr. T 183 

Tap (pointer) 17, 50 

Tatham, Mr. J. R 134 

Taylor, Mr. A. E 168 

Teckel - Klub, the German 377 

Termino (Basset) ... 328, 337, 338 

Theo (Basset) 336 

Theodore Nero (Newfound- 
land) 213 

Thornton, Colonel 4, 121 

Tim Sullivan (Irish setter) ... 169 

Tisdall, Mr. T. C 243 

Tiverton Beauty III. (retriever) 1 83 

Toil (pointer) 15 

Totnes Milo (pointer) 34 

Tottie, Mrs 354 

Tower (Clumber) 271 



PAGE 

Trafford, Sir H. de 100, 169 

Trip of Kippen (setter) 93 

Trouvette (Basset) 336 

Tyrone field trials 155 

Umbrella thief, the 214 

Vaughan, Captain 144 

Vaynol Park field trials.. 14, 18,95, 

177 
Venus of Thyrimont (setter) ... 130 

Venus II. (Basset) 341 

Vesta (pointer) 28 

Victor (wavy retriever) 190 

Village Star (pointer) 30 

Vivien (Basset) 336, 337 

Wagg (pointer) 27 

Wales, H.R.H. the Prince of, 

his Basset- Griffons 352 

Wales, H.R.H. the Prince of, 

his Clumbers 271 

Walker, Mr. John 14 

Walker, Mr. W., his retrievers 184 

Warde, Mr. F 93 

Water-dog, the old English ... 249 

Webber, T 96 

Welshpool Show in 1 889 113 

Westminster, Duke of, his 

Clumbers 270 

Westminster Kennel Club, New 

York, Show, 1897 61 

Westmorland setters in in 

Wheatley, Mr. F., his picture 

of dogs 259 

White Heather II. (setter) ... 134 
Whitehouse, Mr. J. H. n, 20, 21,22 
" Wild Sports," St. John's ... 209 
Williams, Dr., his Sussex 

spaniels 282 



392 



Index. 



PAGE 

Wilson, Mr. H. M 167 

Wolverhampton Show, 1875 • 334 

Woodbine (Irish setter) 168 

Woodhill Bruce (setter) 93 

Woodhill Beta (setter) 93 

Woodiwiss, Mr. E. T 363 

Woolland, Mr. M., his spaniels 298 
Woolland, Mr. Moses ... 281, 288 

Woolton Druid (pointer) 51 

Wolsingham Bob (pointer) ... 23 

Wrestler ( I rish setter) 1 59 

Wynn, Sir Watkin W 17 

Xitta (Basset) 339 



PAGE 

Youatt on the colour of Irish 

setters 161 

Youatt on the Norfolk spaniel 304 
Youatt, William, on the Dog 226, 

249. 257 

Young Bebb (spaniel) 295 

Young Hilda ('Irish water 

spaniel) 242 

Young Patsey (Irish water 

spaniel) 241 

Zelstone (wavy retriever) 192 

Zeus (pointer) 31 



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Percentage of Meat. — We make our " Fibrine " Dog Cakes with 7, 10, 
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PATENT PUPPY CAKES, per cwt. bag, 20s. ; per 141b. 
tin or box, 4s. ; per 71b. tin or box, 2s.; and in Is. tins. Paoked also 
in cases, price per cwt., 23s. ; per }-cwt., 12s. ; per i-cwt. 6s. 6d. 

PATENT COD LIVES OIL DOG CAKES (small size) 

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Price IBs. per cwt, bag included. 
Special quotations for 5 cwt. and 1 ton lots. 

Carriage paid not less than 2cwt. 



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Dog and Pheasant Food Manufacturers, 



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PERFECT PATENT 

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A FEW TESTIMONIALS. 

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BARNARDS LIMITED, 

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EVERY REQUISITE FOE DOOa, FOULTKT, PIOEONS. 
RABBITS, fa, OH APPROVED PRINCIPLES. 

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THOMAS & SONS' 

PATENT. 
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Gentlemen having large calves 
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Telegrama: '• Sportfngly," London. 



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WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



THE NON -SPORTING Division of Modern 

Dogs of Oreat Britain and Ireland. 376 Pages and 
twenty-two full-page Illustrations. Price 10s. 6d. 

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THE TERRIERS Division of Modern Dogs 

of Great Britain and Ireland, 458 Pages and eighteen 
full-page Illustrations. Price 10s. 6d. 

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THE COLLIE OR SHEEP DOQ : Its history 

and description in its British Varieties, with full-page wood 
engravings and exquisite tail pieces by Arthur Wardlk. 
Price 3s. 6d. ; a few copies on large paper, price 10s. 6d. 

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strains, and valuable suggestions as to their rearing and management." 



THE FOX TERRIER: Its history and descrip- 
tion, with reminiscences. Illustrated by wood engravings and 
many typical tail pieces by Arthur Wardle. Third Edition, 
price 5s. 

The Westminster Gazette says: "Apart from its great value as a record of all that is 
worth knowing about Fox Terriers, its present cheap and elegant form is a delightful, 
historical, typographical, and artistic addition to the literature of dogology." 



PUBLISHED BY HORACE COX, 

WINDSOR HOUSE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, LONDON, E.C. 



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