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^dsPtsiCf fffu^t^ 

*»— ^(r tL^Q^t, 

Important Announcement to Professors and Lecturers on 
Architecture, Ornamental Art and Decoration. 

LARGE LECTURE DIAGRAMS.— For the use of Profes- 
sors and Lecturers, the unique series of 168 plates of line 
drawings of Architecture and Decorative Art contained in this 
work are now issued as Large Lecture Diagrams, measuring' 
40 ins. by 27 ins. They form a series of vivid presentments of 
ail the characteristic features of the various styles, and should 
undoubtedly form part of the necessary equipment of every 
important Institution where Architecture is included in the 
curriculum. Further particulars and prices -will be found in the 
advertisement at the end of this book. 

CLASS ILLUSTRATIONS. — In response to a desire ex- 
pressed by some lecturers, LOOSE PRINTS of the whole of the 
illustrations appearing in this volume (comprising 300 separate 
plates printed on one side of the paper) are now available. 

)r grouped together in styles as 

L— Classic and Early Christian. 90 Plates. 
II.— MIDLGVAL, 103 Plates. Price as. net 
III. — Renaissance and Modern. 75 Plates. (£ 

IV.— N on- Historical. 36 Plates. Price is. 6d. net. 
Note.— Five copies of any one section, or two copies of the 
complete collection, must be ordered at one time. 

They will be found of considerable value for distribution 
amongst Students and others attending classes and lectures, 
and for special courses of study. 

Lantern slides of all the illustrations are obtainable from 
George Philip & Son, Ltd., 32, Fleet Street, EX. 

All applications for Diagrams should bt addressed to- 




" The spirit of antiquity, — enshrined 
In sumptuous buildings, vocal in sweet song, 
In picture speaking with heroic tongue, 
And with devout solemnities entwined — 
Strikes to the seat of grace within the mind : 
Hence forms that glide with swan-like ease along, 
Hence motions, even amid the vulgar throng, 
To an harmonious decency confined, 
As if the streets were consecrated ground, 
The city one vast temple, — dedicate 
To mutual respect in thought and deed." 




Showing the main growth or evolution of the various styles. 

The Tree must be take* as suggestive only, for minor influences cannot be 
indicated in a diagram of this kind. 







(Formerly Professor of Architecture in King's College, London) 



(University Extension Lecturer on Architecture ; Formerly Lecturer on Architecture ; 

King's College, London; R.I.B.A. « Godwin' Bursar, 1893, 'Tite' Prize Medallist, 

1895, Essay Medallist, 1896, Architectural Association Medallist for Design, 

1888, Lecturer at the Architectural Association; Hon. Corr. 

Member of the American Institute of Architects ; 

Author of" Andrea Palladio, his Life and Works," etc.) 









I boo 






In the Preface to the Fourth Edition I explained the many 
important additions which had been made since the original 
publication of this book in 1896, and I desire to point out that in 
the present Edition the nature of the revision has been on an even 
more extensive scale, amounting to the rewriting of the greater 
portion of the work. While much new matter has been intro- 
duced, the importance of a thorough revision of that already 
existing has not been overlooked, the utmost care having been 
taken to verify all important statements and dates, and to amplify 
such descriptions where this appeared desirable. These remarks 
as to the text, apply equally to the illustrations, which have been 
increased by the addition of some 700, bringing their total up to 
about 2,000. Many of the subjects shown in the previous 
editions have been re-drawn and corrected in the light of the 
most recent discoveries. 

The sale of four large editions in the space of a few years 
affords strong evidence that the book has been of service not only 
to the strictly professional student and those connected with design 
in its application to the minor arts and crafts, but also to that 
larger body of amateurs to whom Architectural History is year 
by year becoming a matter of lively interest. It is gratifying to 
know that it has been adopted as a text-book in Art Schools 
and in the leading Colleges and Technical Institutions of Great 
Britain, the United States of America, and Australia, for it is upon 
these centres we must depend for the formation of a cultivated 
taste, and the future growth of interest in the Arts. 

Many causes have combined in helping towards the proper 
appreciation and enthusiasm for architecture and the arts of 


design, among which the greatly increased facilities for travel, 
the conducted educational tours now so popular, and the general 
interest in photography are undoubtedly important factors. 

The History of Architecture has, however, until recent years 


been a scaled book to many who have wandered amongst the 
most beautiful creations of the building art without being able to 
understand their meaning or appreciate their quality — a Grecian 
temple, a Roman amphitheatre, or a Gothic cathedral recalling to 
them none of the evidences which render each a reflection of its 
own period in history, and which give to each ancient building 
a special attraction, besides adding greatly to the interest and 
enjoyment of its examination. 

Architecture has been described very truly as the printing press 
of all ages, and it appears probable that in these days of enlighten- 
ment the study of Architectural History will soon take its proper 
place as part of a liberal education. It is surely remarkable that 
it should for so long have been neglected, for is it not the art with 
which everyone is brought into daily contact, which shelters us 
from the elements and gives us " Home," which enshrines and 
illuminates the most sacred of our thoughts, which is the outcome 
of conditions intimately bound up with the history of the human 
race, and, finally, is it not the mother of all other arts, since 
from it sprang sculpture, painting, and the decorative crafts 
of the succeeding ages ? 

The time spent in the study of the architecture of the past will, 
therefore, never be regretted, for every ruin tells of the history 
of other days, and enables the character and conditions of men 
of past periods to be conjured up, thus opening wide to all 
students and lovers of old buildings the enjoyment of contem- 
plating forms which will then have for them a meaning and a 

I am indebted to my brother, Mr. H. Phillips Fletcher, 
F.R.I.B.A., for helpful criticism in this edition, and to my pub- 
lisher for his care in the revision of the bibliography and in the 
general production of the book. 

It should, perhaps, be mentioned that, owing to the death of 
Professor Banister Fletcher, the revision of the fourth and of the 
present edition has been carried out by me. 

Banistkr F. Flktcher. 

29, New Bridge Street, 

Ludgvte Circus, EC. 
New Year's Day, 1905. 


The Authors' aim in writing this book has been, not only to give 
in clear and brief form the characteristic features of the archi- 
tecture of each people and country, but also to consider those 
influences which have contributed to the formation of each 
special style. 

They are of opinion that in published works upon the subject, 
Architecture has often been too much isolated from its surround- 
ings, and that the main points of the physical geography, social 
progress, and historical development of each country require to 
be understood by those who would study and comprehend its 
particular style. 

In order to bring out the effects of these influences, and also 
the qualities of the styles themselves, a comparative and analytical 
method has been adopted, so that by the contrast of qualities the 
differences may be more easily grasped. For instance, the special 
character of Gothic architecture becomes manifest when put in 
comparison with the Classic and Renaissance styles ; and, further- 
more, the shades of difference in the local or national phases of 
each, can also be equally drawn out by a similar comparative 

The styles themselves are then analysed and the parts con- 
trasted ; the analysis being carried out on the basis of the essential 
parts which every building possesses. As this system pervades 
the whole book, either the influences, character, examples, or 
comparative features of each style, can be contrasted with those 
in any other style. This then is the scheme of the book, which 
has been divided into five sections in each period, as follows : — 

i. Influences. 
i. Geographical, 
ii. Geological, 
iii. Climate. 


i. Influences — continued. 
iv. Religion, 
v. Social and Political, 
vi. Historical. 

2. Architectural Character. 

3. Examples of Buildings. 

4. Comparative. 

A. Plan, or general distribution of the building. 

B. Walls, their construction and treatment. 

C. Openings, their character and shape. 

D. Roofs, their treatment and development. 

E. Columns, their position, structure, and decoration. 

F. Mouldings, their form and decoration. 

G. Ornament, as applied in general to any building. 

5. Reference Books. 

Section i is divided into the six leading influences that may be 
expected to shape the architecture of any country or people, 
the first three being structural, the next two the civilizing 
forces, and the last containing those external historical events 
which may alter or vary the foregoing. 

Section 2 describes the character of the architecture, that is, its 
special quality, and the general effect produced by the buildings 
as a whole. 

Section 3 contains the examples, i.e. the chief buildings in each 
style, briefly named and described, being the corpus, which the 
preceding influences affect and from which the subsequent 
comparative analysis is deduced. 

Section 4 is this comparative analysis, in which every style of 
architecture is regarded as the solution of certain fundamental 
problems, i.e. each building must have all or most of the parts 
A to G, and consequently there is both interest and instruction 
to be gained in learning and comparing how each style has 
solved these points of the problem. 

Section 5 gives authorities and more especially directs the reader 
who wishes to pursue the study of any style in further detail. 

In treating of the buildings themselves under Section 3 the 
authors have endeavoured to avoid long descriptions, which are 


necessarily technical and intolerably dry, and difficult to follow, 
even by those who have had the technical training, and have 
either the building or complete drawings of it before them. They 
have therefore provided the largest possible number of illustrations, 
and have confined the text to brief, but it is hoped vivid, notes of 
the special qualities and characteristics of the building referred to. 
It is hoped that the book will appeal not only to students who 
require an outline of architectural history as part of their artistic 
and professional education, but also to the increasing number of 
art workers who are interested in architecture in its relation to 
those accessory arts in which they are engaged. Lastly; it is 
believed that a work in which architecture is treated as a result 
and record of civilization, will prove attractive to that increasing 
public which interests itself in artistic development. 

29, New Bridge Street, 

Lodgate Circus, E.C. 

New Year's Day, 1896. 


List of Illustrations . 
Prehistoric Architecture 

ieneral Introduction) 


General Introduction . 

Egyptian Architecture 

Western Asiatic Architecture 

Greek Architecture . 

Roman Architecture . 

Early Christian Architecture 

Byzantine Architecture 

Romanesque Architecture in Europe (General Introduction) 

Italian Romanesque . 

French Romanesque . 

German Romanesque . 
Gothic Architecture in Europe (( 
English Architecture 



Early English Gothic . 

Decorated Gothic 

Perpendicular Gothic . 

Scottish Architecture . 
Irish Architecture 
French Gothic Architecture 
Belgian and Dutch Gothic . 
German Gothic . 
Italian Gothic . 
Spanish Gothic . 

Renaissance Architecture (General Introduction) 
Italian Renaissance Architecture 

The Florentine School 

The Roman School .... 

The Venetian School .... 

Vicenxa and Verona .... 


xv— li 


























Italian Renaissance Architecture — continued. 

Milan and Genoa 

The Rococo Style 
French Renaissance Architecture 
German Renaissance 
Belgian and Dutch Renaissance . 
Spanish Renaissance . 
English Renaissance Architecture 

The Elizabethan Style 

The Jacobean Style 

The Anglo- Classic (Seventeenth Century) Style . 

The Queen Anne (Eighteenth Century) Style 

The Nineteenth Century Style (1800-1851) . 

,, ,, 1 85 1 to present time 

British Colonial Architecture 

Architecture in the United States .... 











General Introduction . 603 

Indian Architecture 605 

1. The Buddhist Style 612 

2. The Jaina Style 614 

3. The Hindu Style 618 

(a) Northern Hindu 618 

(b) Chalukyan .......... 623 

(c) Dravidian 628 

Chinese and Japanese Architecture . 634 

Ancient American Architecture . . .652 

Saracenic Architecture .......... 653 

Arabian 657 

Syrian 659 

Egyptian 659 

Spanish 663 

Persian 667 

Turkish 669 

Indian 671 

Glossary of Architectural Terms . . .687 

Index ............. 697 


The illustrations have been specially prepared from the authorities 




The Tree of Architecture. 

The Acropolis, Athens, restored. 

Prehistoric Architecture. 

The hut .... 
Monolith, Locmariaker, Brittany 
Shielings, Jura, Scotland 
Beehive huts, Lewis, Scotland 
Beehive hut, Ireland 
Dolmen, near Regnier, Savoy 
Stonehenge .... 
Cave dwelling 
Tents .... 


Richard Bohn. 



B \ 



-J. B. Waring. 


G J 

Charles Garnier. 




Map of Egypt. 


The Sphinx, Cairo 



Egyptian Examples. 
Egyptian System of Construction — 

Hypostyle hall, Karnac, plan 

•,, ,, method of light- 



I Perrot and 
f Chipiez. 

Pyramid of Cheops, section . 

,, ,, details of King's 

Temple of Khons, plan .... 
,, ,, section 
,, ,, view 



<- Gailhabaud 

1 Perrot and 
1 Chipiez. 


Tomb of Beni-Hasan, Egypt . 



Temple of Philae. Entrance court . 








Temple of Edfou 

• • 




An Egyptian House 

• * 



Egyptian Ornament. 

Continuous coil spiral . 


A ) 

- Flinders Petrie. 

Quadruple spirals . 

■ B»,B* | 

Feather ornament 


. C 1 

Lotus bud and flower . 

• ■ 

Hathor-head capital, Philae 

G x 

Base of column, Karnac 

, » 


Egyptian roll and bsad . 

■ • 


Palm capital . 

• • 


Column from the great hall at Karnac . 


►J. Ward. 

Column of Thothmes III., 



A vulture with outstretched 



A sphinx in granite 

■ • 


Incised wall decoration 

• • 

P / 


ii. Map of Babylonian and Persian 

12. Assyrian Examples. 

Assyrian System of Construction — 

Ziggurat (Observatory) at Khorsabad, 

elevation ..... 
Palace at Khorsabad, section . . B 

Ziggurat, Khorsabad, plan . . . <: 

,, ,, enlarged view of 

angle n 

North-west palace of Nimroud, plan 
State entrance at Khorsabad, elevation 
Sargon's palace at Khorsabad, south 

west gateway .... 
State entrance at Khorsabad, section 

13. Assyrian Ornament. 

Capital and base from the ruins of 

Persepolis ...... 

Lion hunt from the N.W. palace of 


Capital and base from the ruins of 

Persepolis ...... 

Lion from great hall, N.W. palace, 

Nimroud, view ..... 
Lion from great hall, N.W. palace of 

Nimroud. elevation .... 
Carved slab, N.W. palace of Nimroud . 
Capital and base from Persepolis . 

Carved slab, N. W. palace of Nimroud . 

Ceiling decoration of lotus flowers and 
buds ....... 

) Perrot and 
j Chipiez. 





Perrot and 
^ Chipiez. 


A 1 


B j' 

c j" 

Perrot and 



From a photo 

E ) 

F i 


Perrot and 


Perrot and 













Map of Greece. 

Pelasgic System of Construction. 

Treasury of Athens, section . 

,, „ plan 

Portion of shaft of column 





Capital of a column 

The Gate of Lions, Mycenae . 
Acropolis at Tiryns, plan 

Greek Examples— I. 

Greek Construction — 
Portico of Parthenon, half elevation . 

half transverse 

section . 
part plan . 
S. W. angle of Parthenon as restored 

Restoration of a Doiic entablature . 

S. W. angle of Parthenon as at present 

Plan of the Acropolis at Athens 
Greek Examples— II. 

Comparative plans of various forms of 

Greek Examples — III. 

The Doric Order — 

Temple of Ceres at Paestum . 

Temple of Neptune (the Great Temple) 

at Psestum 

Temple of Aphaia on the Island of 


Temple of Theseus (The Theseion), 


The Parthenon (Temple of Athena), 


Temple of Apollo, at Delos 

Greek Examples— IV. 

Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius) 

at ALgina. — 

west pediment 
east elevation 
transverse section 
longitudinal sec- 
plan . 
view of upper 

Acroterion ridge 

tile . 
View of lower 

Antefixae . 







J » 












D, E, F 

G, H,J 

K, L 









[• Gailhabaud. 

( Perrot and 
\ Chipiez. 

[■ Gailhabaud. 


f Perrot and 
I Chipiez. 


(Penrose and 
\ others. 

Stuart and 
y Revett, 


C. R. Cockerel). 




No. Name. 

21. Greek Examples— V. 

The so-called Theseion, or Temple of 

Hephsestos — 


»» II 

east elevation 


l» If 

transverse section . 



»» •> 

half south elevation, half 
longitudinal section of 


II If 

plan .... 


II I* 

plan of existing Lacunaria 


Stuart and 


Metopes, north and 

*" Revett. 

south sides 


A««0 * ^«%V* 

:» >» 

setting out of flutes 


it if 

section of entablature 


i» >♦ 

frieze of west cella wall . 


it 11 

plan of cornice looking 
up ... 


ii 11 

detail elevation of enta- 



The Theseion, Athens .... 



2 3- 

Greek Examples- 


The Parthenon, Athens : longitudinal 



section . 

A J 

* ■ * 9 ^* a a • ^^f • • *^ * 

ii > • 

half section through 




Penrose and 

»» i» 

half section through 



11 ii 

east facade 

» i 

Stuart and 

» • > > 

view from north-east 



; » » > 

sectional view of east 



view of north-west 

_ 1 





G J 

11 l> 

plan .... 



1 » II 

method of jointing 
columns . 

J / 


?l II 

statue of Athena 



The Parthenon, Athens. View of angle 



Greek Examples 


Comparative Restorations of the Methods 

of Lighting 

the Interiors of Greek 

Temples — 

Method of lighting by clerestory . 

A Fergusson. 

Method of lighl 

Ling by skylight 

b Bdtticher. 


Greek Examples 


The Propylasa, Athens, west facade . 

A ) 

n 11 

longitudinal section 


11 »i 

details of Interior 



ji 11 

cornice looking up 

•> J 




• » 

» I 






I J 





I * 


No Name. 

26. Greek Examples — VIII.— continued. 

The Propylsea, section through intitule . 
„ plan .... 
., transverse section 

27. Greek Examples — IX. 

Temple of Apollo Epicurius, at Bassse — 

north elevation 

transverse section 


long, section . 

detail of Interior 
Order . 

plan of Interior 
Order . 

detail of single Corin- 
thian column 

details of capital of 
Corinthian column 

setting out of flutes . 

large details of 
mouldings . 

28. Greek Examples — X. 

The Temple of Neptune, Paestum, plan . 

,, ,, long, section 

,, ,, elevation 

Temple at Psestum (the Basilica), plan . 

,, ,, elevation . 

Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae, 


elevation . 
Choragic monument of Lysicrates, Athens 

Plan, elevation, and section . 
Tower of the Winds, Athens, elevation . 
, , yj ,, ,, section . 

,, ,, ,, ,, plan. 

Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigen- 

tum, Sicily, plan . . 

Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigen- 

tum, Sicily, section .... 

Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigen- 

tum, elevation ..... 

29. Greek Examples— XI. 

The Ionic Order — 
Temple on the Ilissus 
The Erechtheion, east portico 
The Archaic Temple of Diana, Ephesus 
Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene 
Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassse 
Temple at Eleusis .... 

30. Greek Examples— XII. 

The Erechtheion, Athens, sketch from 

east elevation . 




















- Penrose. 

► Cockerell. 

H, J 


L, M, N j 


> Durand. 



[ Stuart and 
I Revett. 

(Vol. IV. Stuart 
and Revett's 
4 Athens.') 



a. B. c. n ) Stuart and 

k, F, G / Revett. 

H. J, K Murray. 

L, m Mauch. 

n. o, p Cockerell. 

Q, R Mauch. 

) Inwood, 
A V Middleton 

B J and others. 










> » 


Greek Examples — XII. — continued. 

The Erechtheion, west elevation . 


north elevation . 
plan .... 
enlarged elevation of 
Caryatid Porch 

Greek Examples— XIII. 

Temple of Diana at Ephesus, view of 
front facade .... 
,, plan ..... 

Heraion at Olympia, plan 

section .... 




» j 


Choragic Monument 

of Lysicrates, 

Comparative Examples of Greek and 
Roman Corinthian Capitals, 

Capital of column to portico, The 
Pantheon, Rome .... 

Typical Roman Acanthus leaf 

Plans of capital (A) looking up 

Diagram of relative sizes of Pantheon, 
Rome, and the Stoa, Athens 

Angle view of capital from the Stoa, 
Athens ...... 

Plans of capital, looking up . 

Typical example of Greek Acanthus leaf 

Comparative Examples of Greek and 
Roman Theatres. 

Typical Greek theatre 
Roman theatre at Orange 

Greek Examples — XIV. 

Mausoleum at Halicarnassos, transverse 
section .... 

half plans of basement and 
peristyle .... 

west facade 

enlarged capital, base and 

south facade 

three other restorations : — 

Greek Examples— XV. 

Lion Tomb, Cnidus, south elevation 

west elevation 
half plans of peristyle and 

plan through base 
Sarcophagus from a tomb at Cnidus, end 
,, side elevation 

11 Tomb of the Weepers '" 


> » 





D, K 





F, G,H 




Y Middle ton 
and others. 




Taylor and 
Cresy, Stuart 
and Revett. 


Newton and 

^ Society of 









Comparative Examples of Greek and 
Roman Doorways. 

Doorway of the Pantheon, Rome, 
elevation ...... 

Doorway of the Pantheon, Rome, details 

1 )oorway, Erechtheion, Athens, elevation 

,, , , ,, details . 

Comparative diagrams of the Greek and 
Roman Orders of Architecture. 

Greek Doric — Temple of Theseus at 
Athens ...... 

Roman Doric, by Vignola 

Greek Ionic — Temple on the Hiss us, 
Athens ...... 

Roman Ionic, by Scamozzi . 

Greek Corinthian — Choragic Monument 
of Lvsicrates, Athens 

Roman Corinthian — Pantheon, Rome 

Comparison of Greek and Roman 
Mouldings— I 

Comparison of Greek and Roman 
Mouldings— II 




> » 

Greek Ornament — I. 

The Ionic Volute — 

Volute from Cyprian tomb . 
Capital from Egyptian wall painting 
Bronze armour plate from Tamassos, 


Capital from Neandria .... 

Capital from the Heraion at Olympia 
Ionic Lycian tomb .... 

Goldman's method of describing Ionic 
Volute ...... 

Ionic Volute described by a whelk-shell 
Angle capital, N. portico of Erechtheion, 

half section 

half front view . 

side view .... 

plan, looking up . 
Temple of Nike Apteros, sketch of angle 

Greek Ornament — II. 

Scroll ornament from roof of choragic 

Monument of Lysicrates, Athens 
Sanctuary of the Bulls, Delos — 

enlarged triglyphs, side view . 
,, ,, front view 

enlarged capital, side view 

,, ,, front view . 

key plan .... 
plan of piers .... 
elevation of piers . 


f » 









B, C 


. Mauch and 

K to H 

A J 


C ) 


1 Stuart and 
l" Revett. 
Stuart and 

Stuart and 

Taylor and Cresy. 

A to X J 

■ Various. 

) Stuart and Revett 
A to m / and Cockerell. 
Nlov Taylor and Cresy. 

A \ 



► Dr. Richter. 







H, J, K 



'■ 1 


l > Mauch. 




J. Ward. 

Stuart and 









Greek Ornament— II. — continued. 

Caryatid figure from Erechtheion . 
Typical Greek Funeral Stele with 

Greek Ornament— III. 

Capital, Temple of Jupiter Olympius, 

Capital, Tower of the Winds, Athens . 

Capital, choragic Monument of Lysic rates, 

Sculptures, from Tower of the Winds, 
Athens ...... 

Half elevation of Stele Head 

Greek Ornament— IV. 

Honeysuckle ornament . 
Lion's head, front 

Crowning ornament, choragic Monument 
ofLysicrates .... 

Stele head 

Anta capital from Erechtheion 
Portion of frieze from Parthenon . 
Metope from the Parthenon . 
Acanthus ornament 
Console from Erechtheion 
Portion of caryatid figure 
Antefixa ornnment 




D, K 



K, 1. 




Map of the Roman Empire. 

Roman Examples — I. 

Roman System of Construction — 

Roman walling of concrete with brick 

facing an:l methods of heating . . a to H 
Roman vaulting and domes of concrete 1 to M 

47. Plan of the Roman Fora 

48. The Forum Romanum restored 

49. Roman Examples — II. 

Temple of Fort una Virilis, Rome, plan 
,, ,, front facade 

,, ,, flank facade . 

Arch of Titus, Rome, section 
,, ,, elevation 

,. ,, plan 

Arch of Goldsmith's or Silversmith's, 

Rome, view from 
the south-west 
,. ,, section . 

,. plan 
,, elevation 

> » 






Stuart and 


y Stuart and 

-J. C. Watt. 

) Stuart and 
J Revett. 

J. C.Watt, Stuart 
and Revett. 

) J. Henry 
) Middleton. 
A. Choisy. 

) Taylor and 
- Cresy and 
) others. 
j Joseph 
I Gatteschi. 

Taylor and 








' 1 



No. Name. 

49. Roman Examples— II.— continued. 

Temple of Saturn, Rome, plan 

front facade 
details of entablature 

50. Roman Examples— III. 

Temple of Venus and Rome, Rome, part 

cross section 
plan . 

part front elevation 
long, section 
Temple of Diana at Nimes, plan . 
,, ,, cross section 

,, „ part long, section 

Maison Carrie, Nimes, plan . 
,, ,, front elevation . 

„ „ part side elevation 

51. Maison Carrie, Nlmes 

52. Roman Examples— IV. 

Tomb at Mylassa, Asia Minor, half 

half section . 
perspective view . 
half plans of base- 
ment and peri- 
style . 
Tomb of Caecilia Metella, Rome . 
Tomb at Wadi-Tagije, North Africa 
Tomb at Dugga, near Tunis, plan and 
view .....-• 
Tomb at S. Remi in the South of France 
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, 

Rome, plan 
front facade 
view of remains 
flank facade 
Temple of Mars Ultor, Rome, detail of 

corbel, cornice to 
enclosing wall . 
detail of main cornice 
plan • 

53. Roman Examples — V. 

Temples at Baalbec, Syria, half section . 
,, half entrance facade 
,, long, section through 

Great Temple 
, , transverse section, 

Great Temple 
,, plan . 
Temple of Jupiter, section 

,, „ fac,ade . . • 

54. Roman Examples — VI. 
The Pantheon at Rome, section . 

„ „ „ half-plan 

Bronze mouldings round the " eye y 






















C, D 





. Society of 


> Taylor and 


Dawkins, and 

) Taylor and 
F Cresv. 
J. H. Middleton, 



No. Name. 

55. The Pantheon, Rome. Interior view 

56. The Pantheon, Rome 

57. Roman Examples— VII. 

Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome, the 

order and key plan 
detail of capital 
keystone of arch 
coffer from central 
arch . . • 
The Pantheon, Rome, the order and key 

plan . 
capital, elevation and 

naif plan . 
details of capital . 
Temple of Vesta, Tivoli, the order and 

key plan . 
detail of capital 
coffer to peristyle 

1 1 

» » 

* » 






» ♦ 

58. Roman Examples — VIII. 

Basilica of Maxentius, plan . 
,, ,, long, section 

,, ,. transverse section 

Basilica Ulpia, plan .... 
,, ,, interior view . 


59. JRoman Examples — IX. 

Baths of Caracalla, Rome 
Plan (restored) Palace of Diocletian at 

60 Roman Examples — X. 

Pont du Gard, Nlmes, elevation . 

,, ,, ,, section 

Circus of Maxentius, near Rome, plan 
Circular Temple of Baalbec, plan . 
,, ,, ,, section 

,, ,, ,, elevation 

Baths of Diocletian, section . 

,, ,. elevation 

11 11 plan 

Trajan's Column, elevation . 

„ ,, section 

61. Pont du Gard, Nlmes 

62. Roman Examples — XI. 

The Colosseum, part elevation 




63. The Colosseum 

64. Amphitheatre, Verona 
















v Taylor and 


-J. H. Middleton. 

R. Adam. 


L Durand. 

■ Cameron. 

) Taylor and 
j Cresy. 


Taylor and 








Roman Examples — XII. 
House of Pansa at Pompeii 

, , ,, , , section. 


i i 


»» »» »» plan 

Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome 

,, ,, , , section 


,, ,, ,, elevations . 

D, E 


„ ,, ,, plans . 



Arch of Septimius Severus 



Roman Ornament — I. 

Temple of Jupiter at Rome, capital 

A, C ) 

B \ 

Taylor and 

Arch of Titus, keystone. 

Forum of Nerva, Rome, cornice 

D, K ) 

Pilaster Villa Medici, Rome . 


C. H. Tatham 

Temple of Mars Ultor, capital 
Pantheon, panel 

G ) 

Taylor and 

H / 



Roman Ornament — II. 

Temple of Jupiter Stator, Rome, details 

of cornice 


,, ,, plan of coffer . 
., ., key elevation . 


Taylor and 

,, ,, console, looking up 


Temple of Antoninus and Faustina 

Rome, portion of frieze 


Roman Corinthian pilaster capital, Pan 


theon, Rome 


Roman altar 


Pilaster capitals .... 
Etruscan candelabrum . 


► F. S. Meyer. 

Pompeian candelabrum 


Roman gladiator's helmets 

L, N 

Roman arm chair .... 



Roman Ornament — HI. 

Arch of Titus, Rome : Figures in span 

drels of main arch 

A, C 


Baths of Titus, Rome : Wall fresco 



Bronze candelabra 

D, F 

J. C. Watt. 

Typical Roman tripod altar . 



Typical Roman baths . 

G, J 

I Durand. 

Rostral column ..... 



Mosaic pavement, Pompeii . 


J. C. Watt. 

Roman chariot 



Typical Roman tomb .... 



Principles of Proportion. 

Tetrastyle, hexastyle, and octastyle font 


of Temple .... 

A, B, C 

Arch of Trajan, Beneventum 


Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome 


Baptistery, Pisa .... 



Proportions of mediaeval cathedrals 


Section of Henry VI I. 's Chapel 


Chapter House at Wells 

S. George's Chapel, Windsor 



Section of King's College Chapel . 




No. Name. 

71. Optical Corrections in Architecture. 

Correction of apparent proportions 
Effect of color on proportions 
The Parthenon : Inclination of columns 
Method of drawing entasis of column 
The Parthenon : Optical corrections to 

prevent appearance of sagging . 
Optical illusions caused by convex and 

concave curves, when diawn in relation 

to parallel straight lines 







E, F, G A. Choisy. 

H, J 


72. The Basilica Church of S. Clemente, 


73. Early Christian Examples — I. 

S. Clemente, Rome, section . 
,, „ plan . 

Tomb of Theodoric, Ravenna, elevation 
,, „ section 

>» ,» ,» plan 

,, ,, ,, half plans 

Tomb of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, sections 
>» »j » 1 »t plan 

74. Basilica Church of S. Paul, Rome 

75. Early Christian Examples— II. 

Basilica Church of S. Peter, Rome, 

S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, plan . 
S. Paul, Rome, plan 
S. Stefano Rotondo, Rome, elevation 
„ „ ,, section 

,, ,, „ plan . 

Baptistery of Constantine, Rome, plan 
„ „ elevation 

,, ,, section 

76. Basilica Church of S. Maria Maggiore, 


S. Stefano Rotondo, Rome 


Early Christian Ornament. 

S. Paul, Rome, Corinthian column 

S. Lorenzo, floor mosaic 

S. Paul, Rome, composite column . 

Grado Cathedral, window 

S. Apollinare-in-Classe, Ravenna, sarco 

phagus ..... 
Window at Venice, eighth century. 
S. Agnes, Rome, mosaic in apse . 



F, G 
H, J 








I D'Agincourt. 




Digby Wyatt. 

■ Cattaneo. 






78. Early Christian Ornament — continued. 

S. Giovanni, Rome, mosaic frieze in 

cloister H 

S. Clemente, Rome, parapet and pilaster J 

S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, mosaic. . K 

S. Giovanni, mosaic floor . . . L 


79. Byzantine Examples — I. 

Byzantine System of Construction. 
Dome construction . a, b 

Method to find outline of pendentive . c, D 
S. Sergius, Constantinople, interior 

view E 

S. Sergius, Constantinople, exterior 

view F 

S. Sergius, Constantinople, plan . G 

Tomb of Galla Placid ia, section . H 

S. Sophia, Constantinople, sectional 

view ....... J 

S. Sophia, Constantinople, exterior 

view ....... K 

8a Byzantine Examples — II. 

S. Sophia, Constantinople, north-east 
elevation A 

S. Sophia, Constantinople, longitudinal 

section B 

S. Sophia, Constantinople, ground plan C 

81. S. Sophia, Constantinople, exterior 

82. S. Sophia, Constantinople, interior 


Digby Wyatt. 
Digby Wyatt. 

) Lethaby and 
j Swainson. 






83. Comparative Examples of Early Domed Structures. 

The Minerva Medica, Rome, plan . 

„ „ ,, section 

S. Vital e, Ravenna, plan 

„ ,, section . 

Cathedral at Aix -la- Chapel le. plan 

„ ,, ,, section 

84. Byzantine Examples — III. 

S. Mark, Venice, section 
S. Mark, plan 

S. Front, Perigueux, section 
S. Front, Perigueux, plan 

85. S. Mark, Venice, exterior . 

86. S. Mark, interior 

87. Byzantine Examples — IV. 

Cathedral at Athens, sketch . 
,, „ plan . 

,, W. and E., elevations 
,, section .... 

Church of Theotokos, Constantinople, 
,, W. and S. elevations 
,, plan .... 
,, longitudinal section 




Isabel le. 
Dehio and 
Von Bezold. 



c, l) 


F, G 




[■ Gailhabaud. 





Byzantine Capitals 


S. Mark, 

Byzantine Ornament. 

S. Sophia, capital .... 

Bowl and tile capital .... 
S. Demetrius, Thessalonica, Ionic capital 
,, Byzantine Corinthian 

capital . 
S. Sophia, bird and basket capital 

S. Demetrius, Bird Corinthian capital . 

S. Sophia, window from the Gynaeceum, 

S. Sophia, window from the Gynaeceum, 





f Lethaby and 
\ Swainson. 


Texier and 

( Texier and 
*( Pullan. 




90. Map of Europe at the Death of Charles 

the Great. 

91. The Baptistery, Cathedral and Leaning 

Tower at Pisa 

92. Pisa Cathedral 

93. S Miniato, Florence 

94. Italian Romanesque Examples. 

S. Michele, Pavia, part long, section 

half cross section 
details of piers . 

S. Christoforo, Lucca, doorway, arch 

elevation . 
jamb mouldings 

"Comparative" treatment of Classic 
architrave .... 

95. S. Michele, Pavia .... 

96. S. Zenone, Verona .... 

97. Monreale Cathedral, Sicily 

98. Italian Romanesque Ornament. 

S. Clemente, Rome, doorway 

S. Paul beyond the Walls, Rome, 

cloisters ..... 
Cathedral at Bari, cornice 
Cathedral at Trani, cornice . 
„ ,, pilasters . 

S. Zenone, Verona, porch 
S. Michel's Church, bishop's throne 
S. Trinita, Venosa, capital . 
Cathedral at Molfetta, capitals 
S . Paul, Rome, capital . 

» y 


1 » 

» > 




C, D 





E, F 

K, L 



[■ Dartein. 

Norman Shaw. 




[ Schultz. 








The Abbaye-aux- Dames, Caen 

French Romanesque Examples. 
Abbaye-aux-Hommes, exterior 

transverse section 
plan . 

Angouleme Cathedral, section 
,, ,, plan . 
„ „ section through 

The Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen 
Porch of S. Trophtme, Aries . 

French Romanesque Ornament. 

Fleac, capital 
Pont or son, corbel table . 
Vaison, frieze 
S. Trophime, capitals . 
S. Paul-Trois-Chateau, archivolt 
Abbaye-de-Montmajour, corbel 
Angouleme Cathedral, frieze . 
,, ,, corbel . 

D'Ouezy, capital . 
Plans of piers 

Church of the Apostles, Cologne . 

German Romanesque Examples. 

Church of the Apostles, Cologne, part 

, , , , part section 

,, ,, plan 

Worms Cathedral, part elevation . 

part section 
transverse section 


106. Worms Cathedral 

107. German Romanesque Ornament. 

Limburg Cathedral, capitals . 
Church of S. Pantaleon, capital 
S. Gereon, Cologne, capital and base 
Worms Cathedral, cornice 
S. Gereon, Cologne, double capital 
Limburg Cathedral, towers . 
Worms Cathedral, capital and base 
Limburg Cathedral, capitals . 
Ilsenburg Cathedral, capital . 
,, ,, column . 

Laach Abbey Church, window 
Worms Cathedral, doorway . 



D, E 


L to P 



A, b 

. C 






■ Pugin. 




■ Revoil. 

- Ruprich-Robert. 


■ Boisserle. 

■ King. 



[ Boisserde. 



■ Forster. 




No. Name, 

108. Map of Mediaeval Europe, Thirteenth Century. 

109. Principles of Gothic Construction. 

Amiens Cathedral 

S. Saviour, Southwark, vaulting com- 
,, ,, setting out of 

groined vault 

no. Comparative Views of Models of Con- 
tinental Cathedrals. 

Milan . 
Evreux . 
Vienna . 

in. Comparative Diagrams of Vaults and 

Roman cross vault .... 

Romanesque cross vault 
Byzantine and Renaissance domes . 
Gothic vault ...... 

Renaissance cross vault .... 

112. English Gothic Examples — I. 

Comparative Examples, showing progress of 
Gothic Vaulting. 

Waggon vault 

plan .... 
stilted .... 
showing diagonal and 
transverse groins .... 
Abbaye-aux-Hommes, sexpartite vaulting 

,, ,, external view 

Peterborough, Norman vaulting 

„ ,, „ plan 
Salisbury, Early English groined vaulting 
Westminster Abbey, groined, with inter- 
mediate ribs ..... 
Bristol Cathedral, Decorated Lierne vault 
S. Mary, Redcliffe, Perpendicular stellar 
vault interior view .... 
Gloucester, Cathedral, Perpendicular fan 

113. English Gothic Examples — II. 

Types of Mediaeval Open Timber Roofs. 

Stowe Bardolph Church, trussed rafter 

roof ....... a 

Trinity Chapel, Cirencester, tie-beam 
roof . B 

S. Mary Magdalen, Pulham, collar- 
braced roof ..... c 

Trunch Church, hammer-beam roof d 


» » 








J, L 

K, M 
N, O 

P, Q 
R, S 






■A. A. Notes. 

C, I) 

A . 



Photos by 
' T. Thatcher. 

K * 

A \ 

-W. R. Purchase 


!•: / 

Parker, and 




Xa Name. 

113. English Gothic Examples— II. -con'musa. 

Types of Mediaeval Open Timber Roots— 

Middle Tfmple Hall, double hammer- 

beam roof ..... k 

Ixworth Church, aisle roof F 

New Walsingham, aisle roof ... 6 

Westminster Hall, hammer-beam roof . H 

Evolution of hammer-beam J 

1 1 4. Comparative Views of Models of English 

Cathedrals— I. 

Chichester a 

Durham B 

Ely c 

Worcester n 

Rochester K 

Oxford F 

Carlisle a 

Bristol H 

1 15. Comparative Views of Models of English 

Cathedrals— II. 

York V 

Chester B 

Peterborough C 

Exeter i> 

Winchester ...... k 

Hereford F 

Wells o 

Gloucester H 

116. Comparative Views of Models of English 

Cathedrals— III. 

Salisbury ...... A 

Lincoln B 

Canterbury C 

Norwich i> 

Ripon k 

Lichfield F 

117. English Gothic Examples -III. 

Comparative Plans of English Cathedrals — 1. 

Ely A 

York H 

Winchester C 

Peterborough i> 

Salisbury it 

Lincoln v 

118. English Gothic Examples— IV. 

Comparative Plans of English Cathedrals -2. 

Worcester A 

Canterbury 11 

Gloucester c 

Norwich D 

Durham K 



Thomas Morris. 

Photos by 
( T. Thatcher. 

\ Photos by 
T. Thatcher. 

Photos by 
T. Thatcher. 

dral Series, 
Storer, Brittnn, 
Loftic, Munay, 

tlrnl Series, 
<■ Loftie, Hrittoft, 
Storer, Willis, 



No. Name. 

119. English Gothic Examples — V. 

Comparative plans of English Cathedrals — 3. 

S. Asaph a 

Manchester ...... B 

Oxford ....... c 

Bangor . n 

Exeter ....... E 

S. Albans ...... f 

Chichester G 

Rochester H 

Wells J 

Southwell K 

S. Stephen, Westminster L 

120. English Gothic Examples— VI. 

Comparative plans of English Cathedrals — 4. 

Christ Church, Dublin .... A 

Carlisle B 

Llandaff C 

Glasgow ...... l) 

S. Davids ...... E 

Chester F 

Ripon ....... G 

Hereford ...... 11 

Lichfield ...... J 

Bristol K 

121. Salisbury Cathedral, exterior . 

122. English Gothic Examples — VII. 

Comparative Examples of English Cathe- 
drals : 

Peterborough, external bay ... A 

detail of pier B 

cross section . . . C 

internal bay . . i> 

Salisbury, external bay . . . . E 

,, part cross section F 

„ internal bay G 

123. Salisbury Cathedral, interior 

124. English Gothic Examples — VIII. 

Comparative Examples of English Cathe- 
drals : 

Lichfield, exterior .... a 

„ section B 

,, interior C 

Winchester, exterior . . . . D 

section .... e 

interior .... f 


> > 

125. Lincoln Cathedral, exterior 

126. Lincoln Cathedral, interior 

Builder* Cathe- 
dral Series, 
Loftie, Britton, 
Storer, Murray. 



Builder' Cathe- 
dral Series, 
Loftie, Britton, 
Storer, Murray. 



• Britton. 










English Gothic Examples — IX. 
Westminster Abbey : 


Section ...... 

Interior ...... 


Henry VII. Chapel, Westminster Abbey. 

Henry VII. Chapel, Westminster Abbey, 
Fan Vaulting .... 

English Gothic Examples — X. 

Typical English Parish Church : 

S. Andrew, Heckington, Lines. 


interior . 

section . 


J. Neale. 







! Bowman 
. L and 
I Crowther. 

English Gothic Examples — XI. 

Comparative Plans of English Domestic 
Buildings : 

Tower ot London .... 


Oxburgh Hall ..... 


■ Kerr. 

Kenil worth Castle .... 


Hatfield House, plans .... 

D, E 

| Gotch and 

Longford Castle ..... 


f Brown. 



Chevening House, plans 

H, J 

" Vitruvius 
Britannicus. " 

Holkham Hall 




English Gothic Examples— XII. 
English Gothic Domestic Examples : 

Penshurst Place, elevation of great hall . 

A > 

,, ,, section of roof 


,, ,, chimney stack 

C, D 

,, ,» section of hall roof 


,, ,, general plan 


Lambeth Palace, cross sections 



,, ,, plan and longitudinal 


H, K 

Chiddingstone, Kent, timber houses 
S. Mary s Hospital, Chichester, plan 



„ ,, ,, sections 

M, N J 


S. George's Chapel, Windsor . 



Saxon Architecture. 

Earls Barton, tower .... 


,, ,, window .... 


Deershurst, ,, 


Earls Barton, doorway .... 


-Parker and 

Repton, capital ..... 



Wickham, window .... 


Corhampton, impost .... 

G ' 

Sompting, capital 

H I 

Rick man. 

S. Benets, Cambridge, capital 

J i 





No. Name. 

135. S. John's Chapel, Tower of London 

136. English Gothic Examples— XIII. 

Comparative Examples showing progress of 
English Gothic Cathedral Architecture : 

Ely Cathedral, nave, interior and exterior 
Peterborough ,, „ ,, 

Ripon, choir, interior and exterior . 
Ely, presbytery „ ,, 

137. English Gothic Examples — XIV. 

Comparative Examples showing progress of 
English Gothic Cathedral Architecture 
Lichfield Cathedral, nave, interior and 
exterior ...... 

Ely choir, interior and exterior 
Winchester, nave, interior and exterior . 

138. Iffley Church, Oxon 

139. Norman Mouldings. 

Lincolnshire, zigzag 
S. Contest, Caen, chevron 
Winchester, billet . 
Canterbury ,, . 
Westminster, chevron . 
North Hinksey „ 
Abbaye aux-Dames, billet 
Stoneleigh, double cone 
S. Peters-at-Gowts, nebule 
Iffley, Oxon., flower 
North Hinksey, beaks head 
Lincoln, embattled 

140. English Gothic Examples — XV. 

The Evolution of Gothic Spires in England 
S. Peter, Raunds, Northants . 
S. John, Keystone, Hunts. 
S. Wulfran, Grantham, Lines. 
Salisbury Cathedral 
S. Mary, Bloxham, Oxon. 
S. Peter, Kettering, Northants. 
S. James, Louth, Lines. 
S. Michael, Coventry, Warwickshire 

141. English Gothic Examples — XVI. 

The Evolution of the Gothic Buttress : 
Norman, Fountains Abbey 
E. English, Southwell Minster 
Decorated, S. Mary Magdalen, Oxford 
Perpendicular, Divinity School, Oxford 
Detached Flying Buttress, Chapter Ho 

Lincoln ..... 
Flying Buttresses, Amiens and Rheims 
Constructive principle of the Mediaeval 

Church ...... 











F, H 


r Sharpe. 




I Parker, Rick- 
V man, Bloxaro 
and others. 

> C. Wickes. 



No. Name. 

142. English Gothic Examples — XVII. 

Comparative Examples showing progress of 
Gothic Tracery Development : 

Lynchmere, plate tracery 
Woodstock „ ., 
Dorchester, bar tracery 
Minster Lovel, bar tracery . 
Headington, plate tracery 
Wimborne Minster, grouped lancet lights 
Warmington, grouped lancet lights 
Long Wittenhani, geometrical tracery 
S. Mary Magdalen, curvilinear tracery 
Duston. clerestory windows . 
Great Milton, curvilinear tracery . 
New College Chapel, rectilinear tracery 
King's College Chapel ,, ,, 

S. Mary, Dinan, Flamboyant example 



143. English Gothic Examples— XVIII. 

Comparative Examples of English Gothic 
Doorways : 

Clare Church, elevation 

capital and base 
jamb moulding 
S. John, Cley, half exterior and interior 

capital and base . 

arch mould . 

jamb and arch mould 

capital and base . 

Merton College Chapel, Oxford, elevation 

. , , , , , capital and base 

,, ,, ,, jamb and arch 

, , jamb mould 




» » 







K, L 





1 • 

> » 








J. K. Colling. 

and Crowther. 


,' Pugin. 


144. English Gothic Examples— XIX. 

Norman Font, Coleshill, Warwickshire . a 
E. English Font, Lackford, Suffolk B 
Decorated Font, Offley, Herts c 
Perpendicular Font, ClympingCh, Sussex i> 
Norman Piscina, Crowmarsh, Oxford- 
shire E 

E. English Piscina, Cowling, Suffolk f 

Decorated Piscina. Gt. Bedwin, Wiltshire G 

Perpendicular Piscina, Cobham, Kent . h 
E. English Tabernacle, Warmington, 

Northants j 

Norman Sedilia, S. Mary, Leicester k 

Decorated Tabernacle, Exeter Cathedral l 

E. English Sedilia, Rushden, Northants m 

Decorated Sedilia. Merton, Oxon . n 

Perpendicular Sedilia, S. Mary, Oxon o 



1 Parker. 

(* 2 






English Gothic Examples — XX. 

Pew, Steeple Aston, Oxon. . 

Pulpit (External), Magdalene Coll., 


Pulpit, Wolvercot, Oxon. 

Eagle Lectern, Upwell S. Peter, 


Roodloft, Handborough, Oxfordshire 
Parclose Screen, Geddington Ch., 


Prince Arthur's Chantry, Wurcester 


English Gothic Ornament — I. 

Comparative Mouldings of the Periods of 
Gothic Architecture : 







I A. A. Sketch 
l" Book. 

J. K. Colling. 

11 Norman capitals, bases, piers . 

1 to 13 

" Early English " 

14 to 25 

Parker and 

44 Decorated" ,, ,, . 

26 to 



44 Perpendicular "' ,. ,, . 

39 to 


English Gothic Ornament — II. 

Comparative Selection of Gothic Ornaments 

in Different Periods : 

Early English dog-tooth ornament. 



., ,, crocket . 



„ parapet . 



"Decorated" four-leaved flower . 
,, ball flower 


- Parker. 

,, tablet flower . 



,, typical crocket 


R. Glazier. 

,, parapet . 


*' Perpendicular " vine leaf and grapes 


- Parker. 

,, cornice flower 


A. Gt£ AVI • 

,, Tudor flower, cresting 


,, Tudor rose 
,, crocket . 



[ Bloxam. 

,, parapet . 





English Gothic Ornament— III. 

Comparative Examples of Gothic Capitals 
and Carved Foliage : 

" Norman " capitals . . . a, B, c 

" Early English" capitals and spandrel D, p., F [Parker, Pugin, 
" Decorated " capitals and ornament . G, H, J, K [ and Colling. 
" Perpendicular " capitals, spandrels . l, m, n, o,p ) 

English Gothic Ornament— IV. 

Gable Crosses : Early English — Higham 

Decorated — Haslingfleld 

Church . 
Perpendicular — Stoke 
l'erry Church . 

J. K. Colling. 











No. Name* 

149. English Gothic Ornament —IV. — continued. 

Sanctus Bell — Bloxham Church, Oxon. . 
FiniaLs : Early English — Lincoln Cathe- 
dral .... 
,, Decorated — Winchester Cathe 

dral .... 
,, Perpendicular — York Minster 
Stone Pendant : Perpendicular, AH 

Saints. Evesham 
Bosses: Early English — Lincoln Cathe 

., ,, Westminstei 

Abbey . 
Decorated — Southwell Minster 
,, Perpendicular — S. Mary'i 
Church, Bury St. Edmunds 
Early English bracket : S. Alban's Abbey 
Poppy-heads : Paston Church, Norfolk 
Winchester Cathedral 


Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire 

Examples of Scottish Architecture. 

Rothesay Castle, plan 

Drum Castle, plan .... 

Doune Castle, plan 

Castle Frazer, plan 

Cowane's Hospital, plan 

Glamis Castle, plan 

,, „ view from the south-east 

George Heriot's Hospital, plan 

,, ,, entrance gate 

way . 
Grangepans, sketch from the S.E. . 
plan .... 


» » 

» » 

Examples of Irish Architecture. 

Cormac's Chapel, Cashel, ground plan . 

view from the 

S.E. . 

plan of crofts . 

section through 

nave . 
long, section . 
section through 
sanctuary . 
N. porch 







Tower, Devenish . 

Kilree, Kilkenny 


















From a Photo. 

[►J. K. Colling. 



MacGibbon and 
{ Ross. 

Arthur Hill. 

► Arthur Hill. 



153. French Gothic Examples — I. 

Beauvais Cathedral, section . 
. , ,, plan 

,, ,, plans of buttress 

Notre Dame, Paris, wheel window 



- Burges. 

D, K, F 











Comparative Views of Models of Conti- 
nental Cathedrals. 


Amiens. .... 


Antwerp .... 
Ndtre Dame, Paris 
Strasbourg .... 
Beauvais .... 

French Gothic Examples— II. 

Comparative plans of cathedrals : 

S. Ouen, Rouen 
Chartres . 
S. Chapelle, Paris 

Ndtre Dame, Paris. View of west front 

French Gothic Examples— III. 

N6tre Dame, Paris, exterior bay 

cross section 
interior bay 

Notre Dame, Paris. Interior . 

Comparative Plans of English and 
French Types of Cathedrals. 





A, C 

B, D 

F, K 

O, J 

1 • 







Salisbury Cathedral 


. A, C, D, E 
. B, F, G, H 

Amiens Cathedral. Interior 
Rheims Cathedral. View of west front 
Coutances Cathedral. View of west front 
House of Jacques Cceur, Bourges . 

Palais de Justice, Rouen . 

French Gothic Ornament. 
Chartres, figure sculpture 

Amiens, fleche 

,, grotesque figure 
Notre Dame, Paris, open parapet 

,, ,, stone pulpit 

Mont S. Michel, foliage 
Notre Dame, Chalons sur-Marne 

Piers in Northern and Southern France . \{* K \ L ' 

( M, N, O 

Semur, capital and crocket . p, q 

166. Antwerp Cathedral. Exterior . 


c, D 

! Photos by 

h T. Thatcher. 




) Lassus and 
y Viollet-le- 











W. G. Davie. 









No. Name. 

167. Belgian Gothic Examples. 

S. Gudule, Brussels, elevation 
. , . , section . 

interior elevation 
,, ,, plan 

Antwerp Cathedral, section . 
,, plan 

16S. Town Hall, Bruges .... 

169. Town Hall, Ghent .... 

170. German Gothic Examples — I. 

Cologne Cathedral, exterior . 
,, section 
,, interior . 
,, piers 
,, plan 


Ratisbon Cathedral. Exterior. 

German Gothic Examples — II. 

S. Stephen, Vienna, plan 

„ ,, section . 

,, ,, interior . 

S. Elizabeth, Marburg, plan 

,, ,, exterior 

,, ,, section 

,, ,, interior 

S. Stephen, Vienna 

German Gothic Ornament. 

Freibourg Cathedral, canopy capitals 
S. Paul, Worms, capitals 
Cologne, parapet . 

,, corbel capital . 

it gargoyles 

,, doorway 
Gelnhausen, doorway . 
Bruges, miserere . 
Marburg, tomb 

Milan Cathedral. Exterior 

Italian Gothic Examples— I. 

Milan Cathedral, plan . 

long, section 
transverse section 

S. Maria-dei-Fiori, Florence, plan 
,, long, section . 

Milan Cathedral. Interior 

The Doge's Palace, Venice 

Italian Gothic Examples— II. 

Palazzo della Ca d'Oro, elevation . 
Doge's Palace, Venice, facade 
Palazzo Pisani, Venice, facade 
Siena Cathedral, plan . 








c Y Boisseree. 

D, E ; G, h 1 

F ' 





A, C 

K, L 


G, H 





f King. 

Norman Shaw. 
M oiler. 


- Boisseree. 



Norman Shaw. 


I Gailhabaud and 











1 80. 

Ca d'Oro Palace, Venice 




Florence Cathedral. Exterior . 




Siena Cathedral. Exterior 




Monreale Cathedral. The cloisters . 




Italian Gothic Ornament. 

Baptistery at Pisa, detail of capital from 




- Rohault de 

,, ,, plan of pulpit . 
,, „ pulpit 

2 ; 


,, Florence, candelabra 
Campo Santo, Pisa, window . 

L ) 

c J 

■ Norman Shaw 

Pisa Cathedral, portion of pulpit . 

E 1 

Rohault de 

,, ,, lion and base of columr 

1 F j 


Naples, capital .... 


Ducal Palace, Venice, capital 



Venice, angle window . 


Palazzo Scaligeri, Verona, campanile 



Burgos Cathedral. Exterior . 



Burgos Cathedral. Interior 



Spanish Gothic Examples. 

S. Maria del Mar, Barcelona, plan 

H 1 

Barcelona Cathedral, plan 

Gerona ,, ., 


>■ Street 

Toledo ,, ,, 


Lerida ,, ,, 

E J 


S. Juan de los Reyes, Toledo 



S. Gregorio, Valladolid . 



Spanish Gothic Ornament. 

Burgos Cathedral, ornament from tomb 


,, ,, „ Gonzalo „ 


,, ,, balcony 


,, sculptured pier . 


„ ,, plan . 


,, ,, window of dome 
,, ,, elbows of sedilia 



Miraflores, Infante's tomb 


„ base of Infante's tomb . 


,, pier of ,. ,, 

M, N 

Las Huelgas, capitals . 


S. Gil, canopy .... 



191. Florentine Renaissance Examples — I. 

Palazzo Strozzi, main cornice . . A 

section and elevation of 

court c 

plan e 

keystone f 

f » 

[■ Raschdorff. 

f Grandjean et 
| Famin. 








Florentine Renaissance Examples— I.— continued. 
Palazzo Riccardi, main cornice . . B 

elevation . . . D 

plan G 

Palazzo Riccardi, Florence 





Florentine Renaissance Examples — II. 
Pazzi Chapel, plan 
,, ,, elevation . 

„ „ section 

S. Lorenzo, plan .... 
S. Andrea, Afantua, plan 
., „ ,, long, section. 

„ ,, ,, porch . 

S. Spirito, capital 
,, ,, plan . . 
„ ,, long, section 

Florentine Renaissance Ornament. 

Duomo of Fiesole, console from tomb 
Palazzo Vecchio. capital 
Medici Chapel, Santa Croce, corbel 
Palazzo Strozzi, window 
Gondi, ,, 
Pandolfini, window 
,, pilaster 

Mercato Nuovo, niche . 
Banner bracket 

Piazzo Annunziata, bronze fountain 

Palazzo Guadagni, lamp bracket . 

Palazzo Giraud, Rome 

Roman Renaissance Examples — I. 

Cancellaria Palace, elevation . 
„ ,, plan 

Massimi Palace, elevation 
,, ., plan 

Farnese Palace, Rome 

Roman Renaissance Examples — II. 

Farnese Palace, Rome — 

Details of main cornice . 

i» »» • ■ 

Front facade .... 
Elevation of cortile 


Section and plan through loggia 
Upper plan .... 






G, J 





A, B 




G, H 



Grandjean et 

Waring and 
( Grandjean et 
\ Famin. 


I Grandjean et 
f Famin. 



Waring and 

) Grandjean et 
/ Famin. 


J Waring and 

( Macquoid. 



\ Letarouilly. 

T. F. Suys et 
L. P. Haude- 






No. Name. 

j 99. Roman Renaissance Examples — III. 

Tempietto of S. Pietro in Montorio, 
Rome — 


Section . 

S. Andrea, Rome, plan . 

,, ,, section 

,, ,, elevation 

S. Maria della Consolazione, Todi, plan 

>» 1? 

»> »» 

II Jesu, Rome, plan 
,, ,, elevation 

,, ,, section . 

200. The Capitol, Rome .... 

201. Roman Renaissance Examples — IV. 

The Capitol, Rome, plan 

,, ,, elevation 

Palace of Caprarola, plan 

section . 

202. S. Peter, Rome 

203. Roman Renaissance Examples — V. 

S. Peter, Rome — 
Plan of peristyle 

,, ,, by Bramante . 

Suggested dome by Sangallo . 
,, ,, by Bramante 

Elevation .... 
Section of dome 
Cross section .... 
Sketch of peristyle . 
Suggested plan by Raphael 
General plan .... 
Half plan by Peruzzi 

,, by Ant. Sangallo 

204. S. Peter, Rome. Interior . 

205. S. Peter, Rome. Exterior 

206. Roman Renaissance Ornament. 

Farnese Palace, window 

II M * 


1 » 

> > 


> 1 

Cancellaria Palace, window and balcony 
,, ,, ,, section 

,, ,, ,, plan 

Massimi Palace, doorhead 

S. M. sopra Minerva, doorway 

S. Agostino, panels 

S. M. del Popolo, angle of tomb 









J, K 

- Let arou illy. 




















Palazzo Vendramini, Venice . 



Venetian Renaissance Examples — I. 

Palazzo Grimani, plinth 

A, B, c - 

,, cornice, capitals . 

D, E, F 

,, elevation of half facade 
,, plan . 




Palazzo Vendramini, half facade 


„ cornices and capital 

K, L 


The Pesaro Palace, Venice 



Venetian Renaissance Examples — II. 

S. Mark's Library, facade 

A ) 

Waring and 

,, ,, cornices . 

B, C ) 


Doge's Palace, cornices . 

D, E ) 

,, facade . . . . 

F 1 

■ Cicognara. 

,, piers . 

G, H, J J 


Venetian Renaissance Examples — III. 

S. Maria dei Miracoli, facade 


,, „ section 


,, ,, long, section 


,, ,, plan 


S. Giorgio dei Greci, facade 


,, „ long, section 
... » plan . 



,, ,, doorhead 


,, ,, cornice 


S. Giorgio Maggiore, facade 


,, ,, plan . 


,, „ section 



S. Maria della Salute, Venice 



Comparative Plans of Various 




S. Paul, London . 
S. Peter, Rome 
Pantheon, Paris 
Cologne Cathedral 
S. Maria della Salute 

Venetian Renaissance Ornament. 

S. Mark, pedestal of flagstaff 

Equestrian statue of Colleoni, elevation 

Half plan, ditto 
Entablature and capital 
to ditto . 

Scuola di S. Marco, doorway 

,, ,, panel . 

Window and balustrade 
Palazzo Zorzi. capital 
S. M. dei Miracoli, capital and pilaster 

,, Greci, campanile . 
The Basilica at Vicenza . 











J. Clayton. 

■ Durand. 


; Cicognara. 


( Waring and 
( Macquoid. 




( Waring and 
( Macquoid. 




* i 

> » 

No. Name. 

216. Renaissance Examples by Palladio. 

The Basilica at Vicenza, elevation 
,, ,, section 

„ ,, plan 

Villa Capra, Vicenza, elevation 
,, ,, section 

,, ,, plan . 

Palazzo del Capitanio, elevation 

Palazzo Porto Barbarano, „ 

217. Renaissance Examples in Genoa and 


Palazzo Pompeii, Verona, facade 

Municipio, Genoa, facade . 
section . 
long, section . 

218. Renaissance Ornament in Genoa and 


Palazzo Gambaro, angle of cornice to 

plan of cornice 
key sketch 
Carega, angle cornice 
, , key sketch 
Old Convent, Genoa, lavabo . 
Villa Cambiaso, coffered ceiling 

,, „ pilaster 

Typical cap ..... 
Doorway ..... 
Sanmicheli's house, Verona, doorway 

219. Chateau de Blois, Escalier Francois 


220. French Renaissance Examples — I. 

Chateau de Bury, plan . 

,, elevation . 
Chambord, plan . 
, , elevation 

The Louvre, Paris, facade 
„ ,, block plan 

221. Chateau De Chambord 

222. S. Eustache, Paris . 

223. French Renaissance, Examples — II. 

Les Invalides, Paris, section through 

dome . . 
» ,, plan . 

The Pantheon, Paris, section through 

a »» i» plan . 

Chateau de Maisons, elevation 

,, ,, plan 

Luxembourg Palace, Paris, part elevation 

plan . 



» » 






E, F 

K, L 











f Waring and 
\ Macquoid. 

I Reinhardt. 



J. Kinross. 

[ Reinhardt. 

J. Kinross. 
) Waring and 
j Macquoid. 




- Gailhabaud. 

:- Durand. 

/ Sauvageot and 
( Durand. 

j- Durand, 











The Pantheon, Paris 
French Renaissance Ornament — I. 
Palace at Fomainebleau, capita] 

Chateau de Chambord, capital 
,, ,, dormer 

,, Chenonceaux, doorway 

French Renaissance Ornament — II. 

Keystone .... 

Balcony (Louis XV.) 

Versailles, lead fountain 

Lycee Napoleon, dormer window . 

Paris, console .... 

Versailles, style of decoration 


Paris, fountain (Louis XV.) . 
,, door and window . 

Palais Royal, cornice and balustrade 
Heidelberg Castle .... 
The Rathhaus, Cologne . 
German Renaissance Examples. 

Lemgo Town Hall, elevation . 

Solothurn Town Hall, elevation 

Ober-Ehnheim, wellhead 

Weimar, arcade .... 

Nuremberg, dormer window . 
The Pellerhaus, Nuremberg . 
German Renaissance Ornament. 

Heidelberg Castle, windows and niche 

,, ,, statue 

Freiburg, Switzerland, capital 
Heilbron, gable 
Freiburg, capital . 
Erfurt, window 
Heilbron, cartouche 
Munich, doorway . 
Belgian and Dutch Renaissance 

Haarlem, pinnacles 
Antwerp, gable 
Utrecht, pilasters . 
Leyden Town Hall, elevation 

The Town Hall, Antwerp 
Belgian and Dutch Renaissance 

Dordrecht, bench-ends 

Antwerp, doorway 

Gable end 

Enghien, capital . 

Brussels, ornament 

Musee Plantin, Antwerp, door 

„ „ „ staircase 

Zalt Bommel, figures 
L'Eglise des Capucins, ornament 

A, B 
c, e 

K, L, M 
H, J 


B, C, D 



G, H 


J, K 

N, O, P 

Q, R, S 

T, U 


C, D 

F, G 

A, C 



J Pfnor. 



> Cesar Daly. 


Lambert and 


Lambert and 

A, B, c, E ' 

F, H 


A, B 









Nav> . 

235, Town Hall, Seville 

256, Spanith Renaissance Examples. 

T'J'-'V •"'.': Alcazar. jr>r;on of faca-Je -, th': Ca.*a P,I*r»*;r,a co-rtyard 

237. Burgos, Courtyard of the House of 

2 }*. Comparative Plans of Various Buildings. 

'Ih': Kind's Hw^, fir'-enwkh 

'Hit k'/.jri'Ja. Vjcmza . 

Th*: Kv.'jrial, Spain .... 

Villa of Po|*r Juiius, Rome . 

Kl':nh';im Palace ..... 

239' Spanish Renaissance Ornament, 

Sigucnza Cathedral, door from cloisters 

C u-nza Cathedral, iron screen 

A Iraki l)e Henares, window . 

A vila, iron pulpit .... 

240. Map of Western Europe at the Time of 


241. Hatfield House. The Hall 

242. Knole, Kent. Staircase 

243. Haddon Hall. Long Gallery . 

244. English Renaissance Examples— I. 

Holland House, elevation 

,, ,, ground floor plans 

Stockton House, side of drawing-room . 

Blickling Hall, Norfolk, the great 

staircase ..... 

245. English Renaissance Examples — II. 

Castle Ashby, Northamptonshire, south 

•♦ »» tt plan . 

Hnrdwickc Hall, elevation . 

plan . 



246. Kirby Hall, Northants 

3)7. Little Moreton Hall, Cheshire 

a.pS. The Tower of the old Schools, Oxford . 

240, Hatfield House 





A. X. Prentice 





I), E 





B, C 

-A. N. Prentice 




B, C 




( Princess of 
( Lichenstein. 

Henry Shaw. 


) P. F. Robinson. 












English Renaissance Ornament — I. 
Bramshill House, Hants, balustrade 

• 5 • f ay vIlCl • • 

• 7 ti f 9 UXC*lQC • • 

,, ,, ,, plaster ceiling 

Duke's House, Bradford, balustrade 
Hatfield House, newel .... 

Blickling Hall, Norfolk, entrance . 

,, ,, ,, chimney piece 

All Hallow's (Barking) Church, wall 

tablet ...... 

House at Yarmouth, frieze 

Aston Hall, frieze .... 

Claverton, Somersetshire, rain water 
head ...... 

English Renaissance Ornament — II. 

Doorway in Broughton Castle 
Bay window, Hinchingbrooke Hall 
Chapel screen, Charterhouse, London . 
Bookcase, Pembroke College, Cambridge 
Tomb of Lord Burghlev, S. Martin, 

Stamford , 

Throne and stalls, Convocation Room, 


Pulpit, North Cray Church, Kent . 
Lead cistern, Victoria and Albert 

Museum ...... 

Tablet, Peterhouse College Chapel, Cambs. 

English Renaissance Examples— III. 

York Water-Gate, London, elevation 

,, ,, „ plan . 

Banqueting House, Whitehall, elevation 

,, ,, ,, plan 

Whitehall Palace, ground plan 

English Renaissance Examples— IV. 

S. Paul, Lonlon, Wren's original plan 

section through 


sketch of peristyle . 
transverse section 
western facade 


» • 
> » 

» • 

S. Paul, London .... 

English Renaissance Examples — V. 

S. Mary Le Bow, section 
,, ,, elevation 

,, ,, plans 

S. Bride, elevation 

















Henry Shaw. 



• Henry Shaw. 


J- J. A. Gotch. 
I H. Tanner, junr. 

J. A. Gotch. 

H. Tanner, junr. 

H. I. Triggs. 
H. Tanner, junr. 






Clayton and 







256. English Renaissance Examples — VI. 

S. Stephen, Walbrook, details 


♦ » 

j 1 



English Renaissance Examples— VII. 

S. James, Piccadilly, London — 
Plan .... 
Cross section . 
Long, section 
S. Bride, London, plan 

cross section 
long, section 




258. English Renaissance Examples — VIII. 

Castle Howard, elevation 
, , section 

,, central portion 

Kedlestone Hall, elevation 
,, section 


Somerset House, London 



English Renaissance Ornament — III. 
Doorway ...... 

Horse Guards, London, typical window 

Aston, wall tablet .... 

Wilton, archway .... 

S. Martin's Church, London, window 
Gate piers .... . 

Chimney piece 

Westminster, monument 

English Renaissance Examples — IX. 

Examples by Sir William Chambers. 
Pedimented gateway .... 

Doorway ...... 

A Venetian window .... 

Doorway or portion of Ionic colonnade 
without pedestals .... 

Casino at Marino, near Dublin 
Doorway or portion of Corinthian colon- 
nade with pedestals .... 

Superimposed orders, without pedestals . 

,, section . 
with arcades and 

with Venetian 
arcades and 

A, c 




H, K 




» » 







A, C 

■ Clayton. 








H J 





■ Campbell. 

Woolfe and 


J Sir William 

( Chambers. 

James Gibbs. 
/Sir W. Cham- 
} bers. 

James Gibbs. 



James Gibbs. 

!* Chambers. 




No. Name. 

262. Comparative diagrams of the propor- 

tions of the Orders after Sir W. 

Greek Doric a 

Tuscan B 

Roman Doric ..... c 

Ionic I) 

Corinthian E 

Composite F 

263. The Houses of Parliament, London 






264. Garrick (formerly Schiller) Theatre, 


265. Map of India. 

266. Indian Examples and Ornament. 

Sanchi, gateway 
Indian roof construction 
Kanaruc in Orissa, pagoda 
Sanchi, rail . 
Seringham, compound pillar 
Bindrabund, Agra, plan 

., ,, pillar 

Greek Temple, Baillur, plan 

Vellore, compound pillar 

Stone ornaments . 

267. Karli. Interior of rock-cut cave 

268. Ajunta. Facade of rock-cut cave 

269. Elephanta. Interior view of rock-cut cave 

270. Mount Abu. Interior of Dilwana Temple . 

271. Palitana. The great Chawmukh Temple . 

272. Gwalior. The great Sas Bahu Temple 

273. Umber. The Hindu Temple of Tagat- 

Garwan . ...... 

274. Hullabid. The East door of the double 


275. Ellora. The "rath " (Temple of Kailos) . 

276. Tanjore. The Great Temple from the N. E. 

277. Mandura. The West Gateway and Gopura 

278. Tarputry. Entrance to the old Temple 


B, c 

D, E 




M, N, O, P 

f Fergusson. 


Le Bon. 
■ Cole. 


Owen Jones. 










279. The Emperor's Palace. Pekin Photo. 

280. Shanghai. A typical Chinese pagoda Photo. 

F.A. d 



No. Name. 

281. Chinese and Japanese Examples. 

Canton merchant's house 

Pekin, Altar of Agriculture . 

Pekin, pavilion, summer palace 
Nankin, porcelain tower 
Tokyo, Temple of Miyo-Jin-Kanda 
Japanese middle-class house . 
Tea-house, Japan .... 
Japan, public baths 

282. A Pailoo ...... 

283. Chinese and Japanese Ornament. 

Columned brackets 

Detail of eaves 

Roof construction 

Fret ornaments 

Garden temple 

Great Temple, Canton 

Triumphal arch, Canton 

Gate, Temple of Confucius . 

Sketch of Tenno-ji Pagoda . 

Temple of Miyo-jin, altar shrine 

Japanese lamp 

,, compound bracket . 

„ font shed 

,, gable ends 

a, B, c 




H, J 

L, M 

A, B 


E, F 







*, Q 

R, S 



papers, 1866 

J. Conder. 



I Chambers. 

From a photo. 
J. Conder. 

J. Conder. 




284. Map of the Saracen Empire. 

285. Mosque of Kait Bey, Cairo. Exterior . 

286. Saracenic Examples in Spain and Egypt. 

Mosque of Ibn Tooloon, plan 
,, ,, ,, courtyard 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan, Cairo, plan . 
,, ,, ,, ,, section 

The Alhambra, Granada, plan 

,, ,, elevation 

287. The Mosque of Kait Bey, Cairo. Interior 

288. Mosque, Cordova. Interior 
2S9. The Giralda, Seville. Exterior 

290. The Alhambra, Granada. Capital in 


291. Saracenic Ornament in Spain and Egypt. 

The Alhambra, capital . . a, c 

,, blind window . . B 

„ wall ornament . . n 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan, column . e 

Cairo, portal arch F 


I Gailhabaud. 





-Owen Jones. 


No. Name. 

291. Saracenic Ornament in Spain and 

E gypt — continued. 

Arch voussoirs G, H 

Capital, showing stalactite ornament . J 

Typical dome K 

Various forms of arches . . . L, M, N 

Cresting to walls o, P 

292. The Mosque of Suleiman I. . 

293. Fountain near S. Sophia, Constanti- 


294. Saracenic Examples in India. 

The Taj-Mehal, Agra, plan ... a 

,, ,, general view B 

,, „ section c 

Mosque, Futtehpore-Sikri, plan d 

,, , * ,, view e 

Tomb of Selim Chistee, section F 

„ „ „ plan o 

The Jumma Musjid, Bijapur, plan H 

,, „ ,, section . j 

295. Mosque of Futtehpore-Sikri . 

296. Futtehpore-Sikri. Marble tomb of Selim 


297. The Taj-Mehal, Agra .... 

298. Saracenic Ornament in India. 

Futtehpore-Sikri, window ... a 

Dewan Khas, Futtehpore-Sikri, plan H 

,, ,, ,, elevation j 

Selim Chistee's Tomb c 

Futtehpore-Sikri, bracketed column . u 
Gopal Bhawan Palace, at Deeg, Agra, 

porch E 

Selim Chistee's Tomb, view of angle . F 

Minaret from Mosque, Agra G 

Futtehpore-Sikri, red sandstone bracket K 

,, ,, arch, springing . . l 

299. Comparative forms of Arches. 



Owen Jones. 



\ Edmund Smith. 








Edmund Smith. 


Edmund Smith. 
Le Bon. 

H. H. Cole. 
Le Bon. 

[Edmund Smith. 







i. Influences. 

i. Geographical. 

ii. Geological, 
hi. Climate. 
iv. Religion. 

v. Social and Political, 
vi. Historical. 

2. Architectural Character. 

3. Examples. 

4. Comparative Table. 

a. Plan, or general distribution of the building. 

b. Walls, their construction and treatment, 
c Roofs, their treatment and development. 

d. Openings, their character and shape. 

e. Columns, their position, structure, and 


f. Mouldings, their form and decoration. 

g. Ornament, as applied in general to any 


5. Reference Books. 






" Study mere shelter, now for him, and him ; 
Nay, even the worst — just house them ! Any cave 
Suffices ; throw out earth ! A loop hole ? Brave 1 

. . . But here's our son excels 
At hurdle weaving any Scythian ; fells 
Oak and devises rafters ; dreams and shapes 
His dream into a door post, just escapes 
The mystery of hinges. . . . 

The goodly growth 
Of brick and stone ! Our building-pelt was rough, 
But that descendants' garb suits well enough 
A portico-contriver. 


The work marched : step by step — a workman fit 

Took each, nor too fit — to one task, one time — 

No leaping o'er the petty to the prime, 

When hist the substituting osier lithe 

For brittle bulrush, sound wood for soft withe, 

To further loam-and-rough-cast work a stage, 

Exacts an architect, exacts an age." — Browning. 

The origins of architecture, although lost in the mists of antiquity, 
must have been connected intimately with the endeavours of man 
to provide for his physical wants. It has been truly said that 
protection from the inclemency of the seasons was the mother of 
architecture. According to Vitruvius, man in his primitive savage 
state began to imitate the nests of birds and the lairs of beasts, 
commencing with arbours of twigs covered with mud, then huts 
formed of branches of trees and covered with turf (No. 2 c). 
Other writers indicate three types of primitive dwellings — the 
caves (No. 2 h) or rocks or those occupied in hunting or fishing, 

F.A. B 

Prehistoric architecture. 


the hut (No. 2 a, d, e) for the agriculturist, and the Unt (No. 2 j) 
for those such as shepherds leading a pastoral or nomadic life. 

Structures of the prehistoric period, although interesting for 
archaeological reasons, have little or no architectural value, and 
will only be lightly touched upon. 

The remains may be classified under : — 

i. Monoliths, or single upright stones, also known as mtnhirs, 
a well-known example 63 feet high, 14 feet in diameter, and 
weighing 260 tons, being at Carnac, Brittany. Another example 
is at Locmariaker, also in Brittany (No. 2 b). 

ii. Dolmens (Daul, a table, and maen, a stone), consisting of 
one large flat stone supported by upright stones. Examples are 
to be found near Maidstone and other places in England, also in 
Ireland, Northern France, the Channel Islands, Italy (No. 2 f) 
and India. 

iii. Cromlechs, or circles of stone, as at Stonehenge (No. 2 g), 
Avebury (Wilts), and elsewhere, consisting of a series of upright 
stones arranged in a circle and supporting horizontal slabs. 

iv. Tumuli, or burial mounds, were probably prototypes of the 
Pyramids of Egypt (No. 4) and the beehive huts found in Wales, 
Cornwall, Ireland (No. 2 d, e) and elsewhere. That at New 
Grange (Ireland) resembles somewhat the Treasury of At reus at 
Mycenae (No. 15). 

v. Lake Dwellings, as discovered in the lakes of Switzer- 
land, Italy and Ireland consisted of wooden huts supported on 
piles, and were so placed for protection against hostile attacks of 
all kinds. 

These foregoing primitive or prehistoric remains have little 
constructive sequence, and are merely mentioned here to show 
from what simple beginnings the noble art of architecture was 
evolved, although unfortunately the stages of the evolution cannot 
be traced, owing to the fact that the oldest existing monuments of 
any pretension, as in Egypt, belong to a high state of civilization. 


Gamier (C.) and Ammann (A.). — " L'Habitation Humaine — Pre- 
historique et Historique." 4to. Paris. 1892. 

Lin eh am (R. S.). — " The Street of Human Habitations : An Account 
of Man's Dwelling-places, Customs, etc., in Prehistoric Times, and in 
Ancient Egypt, Assyria, Persia, India, Japan, etc." 8vo., cloth. 1894. 

Viollet-le-Duc (E. E.). — "The Habitations of Man in all Ages." 
Translated from the French by B. Bucknall. 8vo. 1876. 

Waring (J. B.). — " Stone Monuments, Tumuli, and Ornament of 
Remote Ages, with Remarks on the Early Architecture of Ireland and 
Scotland." Folio. 1870. 

D 2 



General Introduction. 

" Deal worthily with the History of Architecture and it is worthy to take its 
place with the History of Law and of Language.** — Freeman. 

IN introducing this Comparative treatment of Historical Archi- 
tecture, a general outline sketch is given of the course which 
the art has taken up to the present time in Europe, and also in 
those countries, such as Egypt and Assyria, which have influenced 
that development. 

Architecture may be said to include every building or structure 
raised by human hands, and is here denned as construction with 
an artistic motive : the more the latter is developed, the greater 
being the value of the result. 

The first habitations of man were undoubtedly those that 
nature afforded, such as caves (No. 2 h) or grottoes, which 
demanded little labour on his part to convert into shelters against 
the fury of the elements, and attacks from his fellows or w T ild 

As soon as man rose above the state of rude nature, he 
naturally began to build more commodious habitations for him- 
self, and some form of temple for his god. Such early forms are 
given under the heading of Prehistoric Architecture. 

To pass, however, at once into Historic times, there prevailed 
in Egypt a system of architecture which consisted of a massive 
construction of walls and columns, in which the latter — closely 
spaced, short, and massive — carried lintels, which in their turn 
supported the flat beamed roof. In Babylonia, the develop- 
ment of brick construction with the consequent evolution of 
the arch and vault was due to the absence of more permanent 
building materials. The influence of Egyptian and Assyrian 
architecture on that of Greece is apparent in many directions. 


Grecian architecture is considered by many to have had its 
origin in the wooden hut or cabin formed of posts set in the 
earth, and covered with transverse beams and rafters, and this 
was the type which was developed in the early Mycenaean 
period into the prodomus of the Greek house. This timber archi- 
tecture, copied in marble or stone, was naturally at first very 
simple and rude ; the influence of the material, however, was soon 
felt, when the permanence and value of stone aided in the growth 
of the art. It should be noted, however, that many writers hold 
that Greek architecture is developed from an early stone type. 
As civilization and technical skill, moreover, advanced, the 
qualities of refinement in detail and proportion were perceived, 
and the different orders of architecture — Doric, Ionic, and 
Corinthian (No. 38) — came into existence. By the word " order " 
is meant certain methods of proportioning and decorating a 
column, and the part it supports, i.e., the entablature. The 
above "orders" are characteristic of Greek architecture, and 
the beauty and grace with which they were treated, and the 
artistic and mathematical skill with which they were constructed, 
illustrate the keen artistic temperament of the Greeks. 

Greece eventually succumbed to the conquering Romans who, 
however, adopted their architecture, and in many cases employed 
Greek artists in the erection of their buildings. While borrowing 
this trabeated architecture, they added the use of the arch, which 
they had probably already learnt to construct from the Etruscans, 
the ancient inhabitants of Central Italy. 

The column and arch were used conjointly by the Romans for 
some time, good examples being the Colosseum at Rome(Nos. 62 
and 63), and the Triumphal Arches (Nos. 65 and 66). This 
dualism is a very important fact to remember, because, as will 
be seen, it eventually ended in the exclusion of the beam 
altogether, and in the employment of the arch alone, throughout 
the entire constructive system of the building. In the numerous 
buildings which the Romans erected, it will be noticed that the 
column has, in the generality of cases, become merely a decorative 
feature, the actual work of support being performed by the piers 
of the wall behind, connected together by semicircular arches. 

As time went on, however, such practical people as the Romans 
could not but discard a feature which was no longer utilitarian, 
so the column as a decorative feature disappeared, and the 
arcuated system it had masked was exposed. 

Columns were, however, used constructively, as in many 
of the great basilicas, in which the semicircular arches spring 
directly from their capitals. As the Romans conquered the 
whole of the then known world, that is to say, most of what is 
now known as Europe (No. 45), so this feature of the semicircular 
arch was introduced in every part, by its use in the settlements 


which they founded. Roman architecture was prevalent in 
Europe in a more or less debased form up to the tenth century of 
our era, and is the basis on which European architecture is 
founded. The gradual breaking up of the Roman Empire, the 
formation of separate European states, and other causes which 
we shall enumerate separately, led to many variations of this 
semicircular arched style, both in construction and decoration. 

The transition commenced in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth 
centuries, when the later Romanesque, so called as being derived 
from the Roman style, was in vogue. Constructive necessity, 
aided largely by inventive genius, led, in the latter part of the 
twelfth century, to the introduction of the pointed arch. 

The pointed arch is the keynote of what is known as the 
Gothic or pointed style, which prevailed throughout Europe 
during the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, during 
which period were erected those magnificent cathedrals and 
churches, which form the most emphatic record of the religious 
feeling and character of the Middle Ages. 

The past styles of European architecture may be broadly 
summarized as being divided into two great types, viz. : (i) Classic , 
or the architecture of the beam, and (2) Gothic, or the architecture 
of the arch. Each of these types depends on an important con- 
structive principle, and any style may be placed under one or 
other of these types. 

The early styles, including the Greek, belong to the former. 
Roman architecture is a composite transition style, whose goal, 
if unchecked, would seem to have been the combination of the 
round arch and dome that are seen in the great examples of the 
Byzantine style. It was left to the Gothic style to formulate a 
complete system of arcuated construction, the working out of 
which was marvellously alike in all countries. It was a style, 
moreover, in which a decorative system was closely welded to the 
constructive, both uniting to reflect a more intense expression of 
its age than had, perhaps, hitherto been achieved in previous 

The revival of the arts and letters in the fifteenth century was 
a fresh factor in the history of architecture. The condition of 
Europe at that period was one of ripeness for a great change, 
for the Gothic system, whether in architecture or in civilization 
regarded as a whole, may fairly be said to have culminated. Its 
latest works were tinged by the coming change, or showed 
signs of becoming stereotyped by the mechanical repetition of 
architectural features. 

The new force was the belief that the old Romans had been 
wiser and more experienced than the medievalists, and the 
result was the earnest study of every Roman fragment, whether 
of art or literature, that had been preserved or could be recovered. 


For some three centuries this belief held good, till by the opening 
up of Greece to travel and study towards the end of the 
eighteenth century, the tradition was modified by the admission 
of Grecian remains to an equal or supreme place, beside or even 
above those of Rome. 

This second phase had not, however, an equal success for 
divers reasons; a reaction was at hand in favour of mediaeval 
ideals, whether in the church, art, or the State. 

A conscious effort was then made — the most earnestly in 
England — to modify the current that had been flowing since the 
year 1500, and some of the results of this attempt may be traced 
by the student wise enough to follow up the clues indicated in the 
concluding pages of the English Renaissance style. In acquaint- 
ing himself with the buildings therein mentioned, he may feel 
that few of the diverse elements of our complex civilization, at 
the beginning of the twentieth century, have failed to find some 
architectural expression. 



N.B. — Lists of Reference Books for special periods and styles are given 

throughout the book, 

" Architectural Association Sketch Book." Folio. 1867-1904. 

Bosc (E.). — " Dictionnaire raisonne' d'Archi lecture." 4 vols., 4to. Paris, 

Brault (E.). — " Les Architects par leurs ceuvres." 3 vols. Paris, 1892- 

Choisy (A.). — " Histoire de l'Architecture." 2 vols, 8vo. Paris, 1899. 

Cummings (C. A.). — "A History of Architecture in Italy from the Time 
of Constantine to the Dawn of the Renaissance." 2 vols., 8vo. 1901. 

D'Agincourt (S.). — "History of Art by its Monuments." Translated 
from the Italian by Owen Jones. Folio. 1847. 

Dehio (G.) and Bezold (G. v.). — "Die Kirchliche Baukunst des 
Abendlandes." Folio. Stuttgart, 1884, etc. 

"Dictionary of Architecture, issued by the Architectural Publication 
Society. ,, With Detached Essays and Illustrations. 6 vols., folio. 1848-1892. 

Durand (J. N. L.). — " Parallele des Edifices de tout genre." Paris, 1800. 

Eulart (C.). — " Manuel d'Arch6ologie Francaise depuis les temps 
Merovingiens jusqu'a la Renaissance." 1. Architecture Religieux. 
2. Architecture Civile. 2 vols., Svo. Paris, 1902. 

Fergusson (J.). — " History of Architecture in all Countries." 5 vols., 
8vo. 1893, etc. 

Fletcher (B. F.). — " The Influence of Material on Architecture." 
Imperial 8vo. 1897. 

Gailhabaud (J.). — L* Architecture du V. au XVII. siccle^ 5 vols., folio 
and 4to. Paris, 1 869-1872. 

Gailhabaud (J.). — "Monuments Anciens et Modernes." 4to. Paris. 

Gwilt (J.). — " Encyclopaedia of Architecture." 8vo. 1900. 

" Handbuch der Architektur." Comprising a number of volumes upon 
the History and Practice of Architecture. Darmstadt. 

Milizia (F.).— " Lives of Celebrated Architects." 2 vols., Svo. 1826. 

Parker (J.). — " Glossary of Terms used in Architecture." 3 vols. 1850. 

Perrot (G.) and Chipiez (C). — "History of Ancient Art." 12 vols., 
8vo. 1883-1894. 

Planat.— ;" Encyclope'die d' Architecture et de la Construction." 1 1 vols. 

" Royal Institute of British Architects' Transactions.*' 1853 et seq. 

Sturgis. — "A Dictionary of Architecture and Building." 3 vols., 
4to. New York, 1901. 

Vasari (G.). — " Lives of the most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and 
Architects." Edited by Blashfield. 4 vols., 8vo. 1897. 

Viollet-le-Duc (E. C). — " Dictionnaire de l'Architecture." 10 vols., 8vo. 
Paris, 1859. 

Viollet-le-Duc. — " Entretiens sur l'Architecture." 3 vols. Paris, 1863. 
There is an English translation by B. Bucknall, entitled " Lectures on 
Architecture." 2 vols., Svo. 1877-1 881. 

Vitruvius (Marcus Pollio). — "The Architecture of." Translated by 
W. Newton. Folio, 1791. An edition by J. Gwilt. 4to. 1826, 


" Those works where man has rivalled nature most. 
Those Pyramids, that fear no more decay 
Than waves inflict upon the rockiest coast, 
Or winds on mountain steeps, and like endurance boast." 


i. Geographical. — The civilization of every country has 
been, as will be shown, largely determined by its geographical 
conditions, for the characteristic features of the land in which any 
race dwells shape their mode of life and thus influence their 
intellectual culture. 

On referring to the map (No. 3) it will be seen that Egypt consists 
of a sandy desert with a strip of fertile country on the hanks of 
the Nile. Egypt was the only nation of the ancient world which 
had at once easy access to the Northern, or Mediterranean Sea, 
as well asto the Eastern, or Arabian Sea ; for by way of the Red 
Sea, Egypt always commanded an access to hoth these highways. 
The consequence was that Egypt had outlets for her own pro- 
ductions and inlets for those of foreign nations. The possession 
of the Nile, moreover, was of immense advantage, not only on 


account of its value as a trade route, and as a means of communi- 
cation, but also because its waters were the fertilizing agents 
that made desert sands into fruitful fields. It was on the banks 
of this ancient river that from time immemorial the cities of the 
Egyptians were naturally placed ; here, therefore, are found the 
chief remains of the Tombs, Temples, and Pyramids. 

ii. Geological. — In this section throughout the volume an 
endeavour will be made to trace that influence on architectural 
style which the materials at hand in each country had in its 
development. The natural products of a country such as 
wood, brick, or stone, determine to a large extent its style of 

In Egypt there existed an abundance of limestone in the north, 
of sandstone in the central region, and of granite in the south. 
The latter is principally found near Assuan (Syene), and is 
called Syenite. This hard and lasting building material largely 
influenced the architecture of the country, and to its durable 
qualities is due the fact that there are so many remains. Bricks 
were also employed, but were generally faced with some harder 
material. Wood of a kind suitable for building was not available, 
only small forests of palm and acacia existing. 

iii. Climate. — The climate is equable and of warm temperature, 
snow and frost being wholly unknown, while storm, fog, and even 
rain are rare, which accounts to a large extent for the good 
preservation of the temples. Egypt has been said to have but 
two seasons, spring and summer. The climate was thus of 
importance in developing the qualities of the architecture, admit- 
ting of simplicity in construction, for though it demanded some 
protection against heat there was no necessity to provide against 
inclement weather. 

iv. Religion. — A close connection between religion and archi- 
tecture is everywhere manifest at this epoch. The priesthood 
was powerful, possessed of almost unlimited authority, and 
equipped with all the learning of the age. The religious rites 
were traditional, unchangeable, and mysterious. A tinge of 
mystery is one of the great characteristics of the Egyptian archi- 
tecture as well in its tombs as in its temples. The Egyptians 
attained to a very high degree of learning in astronomy, mathe- 
matics, and philosophy ; the remains of their literature have been 
preserved to us in the papyri, or MSS. written on paper made 
from the pith of the papyrus. In theory the religion was mono- 
theistic, but in practice it became polytheistic ; a multiplicity of 
gods was created by personifying natural phenomena, such as 
the sun, moon, and stars, as well as the brute creation. The 
Egyptians were strong believers in a future state ; hence their 
care in the preservation of their dead, and the erection of such 
everlasting monuments as the Pyramids. Herodotus mentions 


that the dwelling-house was looked upon by them as a mere 
temporary lodging, the tomb being the permanent abode. 

"What availeth thee thy other buildings ? 
Of thy tomb a'one thou art sure. 
On the earih thcu hast nought beside ; 
Nought of thee else is remaining.*' 

v. Social and Political. — A vast population was available 
for employment on public works, the workmen probably receiving 
no other pay than their food. Thus a state of cheap labour existed 
which was eminently favourable to the execution of large and 
important structures. In addition there existed a centralized 
despotic government which, perhaps more than any other, 
favoured the execution of monumental works. It is assumed by 
some that the spare time which occurs during the annual floods 
enabled the population to be employed on these state buildings. 
It is also possible that the transport of stone required for the 
great buildings was effected by means of rafts floated down at 
this season. During the reign of Rameses II. the captives and 
foreigners, who had largely increased, were put to enforced 
labour upon the public works, and in the first chapter of the 
book of Exodus the natives are said to have viewed with alarm the 
growing numbers and power of these strangers. 

vi. Historical. — Egyptian civilization is the most ancient of 
any of which there is a clear knowledge ; its history is partly 
derived from Holy Scripture and from Greek and Roman authors, 
but more particularly from the Egyptian buildings, by which it can 
be traced back for more than 4,000 years B.C. The Pyramids are 
thought to be a thousand years older than any building which has 
yet been discovered in Western Asia, the subject of the next 
division. The Kings or Pharaohs (from the title " Peraa " = 
"great house ") have been arranged in thirty dynasties, extending 
down to B.C. 332. These have been based on the list of Manetho, 
an Egyptian priest who lived about b.c 300, and compiled a 
history of Egypt in the Greek language, and may be divided 
into the following periods : — 

1. Prehistoric Period, b.c 23000 (?)-4777- 

2. The Ancient Empire (Dynasties I.-X.), b.c 4777-2821. 

The capital being at Memphis, the tombs of this period 
are at Abydos, Nakadeh, Memphis, Sakkara, Gizeh and 

3. The Middle Empire (Dynasties XI. -XVI.), b.c 2821-1738. 

A prosperous period in which much building was carried 
out. This period includes the dynasties of the " Hyskos" 
or shepherd kings. 

4. The New Empire (Dynasties XVII.-XX.), b.c 1738-950. 

This period had Thebes as the capital, and many imposing 
buildings were erected at Karnac, Luxor, and elsewhere. 


5. Pertod of Foreign Domination (Dynasties XXL- XXV.), 

B.C. 950-663. 

6. The Late Egyptian Period (Dynasties XXVL-XXX.), b.c. 663- 

332. This period includes the Persian Domination. 

7. The Graco -Roman Period, b.c. 332 -a. d. 640: 

i. Alexander the Great and Ptolemaic Period, b.c. 332-30. 
ii. The Roman Period, b.c. 30-A.D. 395. 
iii. The Byzantine Period, a.d. 395-640. 

8. Medieval Egypt (Mahometan Period), a.d. 640-1517. 

9. Modern Egypt (Turkish Domination), a.d. 151 7 to the present 


This section of the book deals with the architecture comprised 
in Periods 1-7. For periods 8 and 9 see pages 653, 659. 

The nineteenth dynasty, founded by Rameses I. (b.c. 1400-1366), 
may be taken as the most brilliant epoch of Egyptian art. The 
evidence of his greatness, and that of his grandson, Rameses II. 
(b.c. 1333-1300), as builders, is to be seen in the Temples of 
Thebes and elsewhere. During the twenty-sixth dynasty the 
country was conquered by the Persians in b.c. 527, from w r hom it 
was wrested in b.c. 332 by the Grecian general, Alexander the Great. 
On Alexander's death and the division of his empire, Egypt 
passed to Ptolemy, one of Alexander's generals, who founded a 
dynasty that ruled from b.c. 323 to b.c. 31. After the wars which 
ended in the death of Cleopatra, Egypt passed, as did nearly the 
whole of the then known world, into the hands of the conquering 
Romans, and became a Roman province. On the spread of 
Mahometanism,in a.d. 638, Egypt was conquered by the Arabs, who 
left important monuments (see Saracenic Architecture, page 659). 
In a.d. 151 7 it became a part of the Turkish dominions. 


In the valley of the Nile, the land which is the gift of a great 
river, and the seat of the most ancient civilization, a primitive 
architecture of mud or puddled clay and bundles of reeds changed 
in later times to a style of stone and granite. 

The primitive structure was composed of bundles of reeds 
bound together and placed vertically in the ground at intervals, 
the angle bundles being of greater strength. Joining these reeds, 
at the top, were laid horizontally other bundles, which bound the 
heads of the uprights together. The origin of the characteristic 
cornice (No. 10 j), is held to be due to the pressure of the clay, of 
which the primitive roofs were constructed, on the upright reeds, 
which formed the framework of the walls. This formed the 
slightly projecting cornice, the reeds keeping the rammed clay in 
a projecting position and allowing the curve to be terminated by 
a flat fillet which gave the level of the terrace. The jambs and 


lintels of the doors and windows were made of reeds in the 
humbler dwellings and of palm trunks in those of more pretension. 

Here, then, is seen a fair and likely prototype of the construc- 
tion of an Egyptian wall, the form of which is more suitable 
to a structure of rushes overlaid with mud or puddled clay 
than to one consisting of large stones. Still, an important point 
remains — the batter or slope which is invariably given to the 
walls. Viollet-le-Duc's theories as to the origin of this batter 
do not point to the influence of material, and this feature is 
alleged by him to have been introduced at a later stage, having 
been promulgated by a royal decree. He infers the custom 
to have been derived from the Pyramids, which were found to 
remain undisturbed during earthquakes, while straight-sided 
houses were upset, owing to their walls being more easily over- 
turned. It seems, however, more reasonable to attribute it to 
a mud origin, for nothing would be more natural, in order to 
strengthen such buildings, than to slightly tilt the bundles of 
reeds towards the interior, forming as it were an arch, a treatment 
which in any other material scarcely seems to be feasible. 

Proceeding to the internal architectural features of the style, a 
very distinct reminiscence of the primitive reeds tied together at 
intervals, and crowned with the lotus bud, is found in the later 
granite column and capital (No. 10 l, m). During the Theban 
kingdom especially (B.C. 3000-B.c. 2100), examples in stone of 
capitals and columns derived from timber and reed originals are 
frequent. At Beni- Hasan some pillars represent a bundle of four 
reeds or lotus stalks bound together near the top and bulging 
above the ligature, so as to form a capital, in imitation of a lotus 
bud. Such a pier must evidently have been originally employed 
in wooden architecture only, and the roof which it supports, in 
this instance, represents a light wooden construction having the 
slight slope necessary in the dry Egyptian climate. 

This type of column was largely used in later Egyptian times 
in a more substantial lit hie form (No. 10 m), and in conjunction 
with the hollow-formed capital of the bell type (No. 10 l), of 
which the earliest example appeared in the eighteenth dynasty. 

In fact, throughout, although materials changed, the forms of 
the early reed and clay construction were adhered to ; and the 
endeavour of the conservative Egyptian was to reproduce in stone 
and granite, superimposed in layers, the appearance assumed in 
the early reed and mud type. 

The surface decoration executed on the later granite buildings 
(No. iop) ; apparently came from the " sgraffito" (incised plaster) 
work on the earlier mud walls. The surfaces of such walls could not 
be modelled or carved with projections of high relief, but their flat 
surfaces, when plastered, provided an admirable field for decora- 
tion and for instruction through the use of hieroglyphics. The 


Egyptian system of decoration consisted in not contravening the 
form adopted, but in clothing it with a kind of drapery more or 
less rich, which never presented a projecting outline, contenting 
itself with enveloping the geometric form as would an embroidered 
stuff, or a diapered covering. 

Remarkable then as were the arts of Egypt, it is clear that the 
spirit of criticism and logical method were wanting; and that 
traditional forms, hallowed by long use, were clung to and repro- 
duced when the method of building which suggested them had been 
replaced by other systems. Egyptian art proceeded on an unin- 
terrupted line or course of tradition, and when necessity dictated 
a change in the methods of construction, or in the materials, the 
immutable form was not thereby affected, but was perpetuated in 
spite of novel conditions. 

The principal remains of ancient Egyptian architecture are the 
Pyramids, or royal tombs of the kings, and the temples, a 
contrast in this respect with Assyria, where the palaces of 
the kings are the chief remains. The Egyptian wall-paintings, 
sculptures, jewellery, bronze implements and utensils, which have 
been unearthed from their temples or tombs, show that the race 
had attained to a high degree in art. As regards the architec- 
ture, the impression given to the mind of the spectator is that 
these buildings were erected for eternity, all the remains having 
a character of immense solidity, and usually of grand uniformity. 

The Pyramids (Nos. 4 and 5) are the most extravagant of 
all ancient buildings in many ways. The relative return in 
impressiveness and the higher beauties of the art is small when 
compared with the amount of labour, expense, and material used 
in their erection. 

The finishing and fitting of such large masses of granite is 
remarkable, for many of the blocks, perfectly squared, polished 
and fitted, are at least 20 feet long by 6 feet wide. The method 
of quarrying and of transportation for long distances by land and 
water, and the raising of these blocks of stone into position, is 
even now uncertain, although M. Choisy in his latest work (see 
Reference Books, page 30) has produced many probable theories. 

The Architectural Character of the temples is striking and 
characteristic (Nos. 5, 7 and 8). The buildings decrease in height 
from front to back, presenting a disconnected collection of various 
sized structures, often built at different times, and thus forming a 
direct contrast to the harmonious whole of a Greek temple, which 
is all comprised within one "order" of columns, and which is 
distinctly, both in appearance and reality, one building. 

The character of the tombs consists in the planning of their 
mysterious chambers and corridors, which, covered with paintings 
and hieroglyphics, produce an effect of gloom and solemnity on 
the spectator. 





(No. 4}, whose date is unknown, is situated near the great 
pyramids, in the centre of an ancient stone quarry, and is a 
natural rock cut to resemble a Sphinx, with rough masonry added 
in parts. An Egyptian Sphinx (No. 100) had the head v of a king, 
a hawk, a ram, or more rarely a woman, on the body of a lion. 
The dimensions of the Great Sphinx, which represents a recum- 
bent lion with the head of a man, are as follows : it is 65 feet 
high by 188 feet long, the face is 13 feet 6 inches wide, and 
the mouth 8 feet 6 inches long. Greatly mutilated, it is still a 
marvel, as it has been throughout the ages. The symbol for an 
insoluble problem, it is, and probably ever will be, a mystery. 
It was excavated in 18 16 by Captain Caviglia, who found a 
temple between the paws, and it has since been examined by 
Mariette and Maspero. 


of Gizeh, near Cairo, all erected during the fourth dynasty 
(b.c. 3998-B.c. 3721), form one of several groups within the 
necropolis of the ancient capital city of Memphis, and rank 
among the oldest monuments of Egyptian architecture. The 
other groups are those of Abu-Roash, Zawiyet-el-Aryan, Abusir, 
Sakkara, and Dashur. 

These were built by the kings as their future tombs, the 
governing idea being to secure immortality by the preservation 
of the mummy, till that time should have passed, when, according 
to their belief, the soul would once more return to the body. 
Their construction has been described by many writers, including 

The Great Pyramid (Nos. 4 and 5 c, d), by Cheops (Khufu) 
(b.c 3733-B.c. 3700) ; the Second Pyramid (No. 4), by 
Cephron (Khafra) (b.c 3666-B.c 3633) ; the Third Pyramid 
by Mycerinos (Menkhara) (b.c 3633-B.c 3600), are the best 
known examples. 

The Great Pyramid of Cheops is square on plan, 760 feet 
each way, its area being about 13 acres, i.e., twice the extent 
of S. Peter, Rome, or equal to the size of Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
London. The faces of the pyramid are equilateral triangles laid 
sloping and meeting in a point. The sides face directly north, 
south, east and west, as in all the pyramids, and they make an 
angle with the ground of 51 degrees 50 minutes. The original height 
was 482 feet. The entrance (No. 5 c), which is on the northern 
side, is 47 feet 6 inches above the base, and is now reached by 
means of an earthen embankment. The passage to which it 

f.a. c 


gives access first slopes downwards, and afterwards re-ascends 
towards the heart of the pyramid, where the King's Chamber is 
situated. In this chamber, which is 34 feet 6 inches by 17 feet 
and 19 feet high, was placed the sarcophagus of the king contain- 
ing his embalmed body. The upper part is elaborately con- 
structed with stones one above the other (No. 5 d), and the 
entrance is protected by a massive stone acting as a portcullis, 
fitting into a rebate or recess, and weighing from 50 to 60 tons. 
Two air channels, each about 8 inches by 6 inches, led to the 
outer face of the pyramid for ventilation. 

There were two other chambers in the Great Pyramid, one known 
as the Queen's Chamber, connected with a passage leading off that 
to the King's Chamber, and the other below the ground. 

The exterior of this pyramid was originally cased with a 
sloping face of limestone, but this has now disappeared, showing 
the original stepped surface in tiers of 4 feet, on which the casing 
was placed, and which still exists in the Pyramid of Mycerinos. 


Besides the Pyramids or royal tombs are others for private 

(a.) In the Ancient Empire the Mastabas, probably derived 
from rude heaps of stones piled up over earlier mummy holes, 
were rectangular structures, with sides sloping at an angle of 
75 degrees, and having flat roofs. They were divided into three 
parts : — 

i. The outer chamber, in which were placed the offerings to 

the " Ka " or " double," having its walls decorated with 

representations of festal and other scenes, which are 

valuable from an historical standpoint. 

ii. Inner secret chambers, known as the " serdabs," containing 

statues of the deceased, and members of his family, 
iii. A well of great depth, leading to the chamber containing 
the sarcophagus with its mummy. 
The Mastaba of Thy, Sakkara, is well preserved and has 
been restored. It dates from the fifth dynasty, and was erected 
to Thy, who in his day held the position of royal architect and 
manager of pyramids. It consists of a small vestibule, beyond 
which is a large court where offerings to the deceased took place, 
and from which a mummy shaft led through a passage to a tomb 
chamber. The masonry of this tomb is carefully jointed and 
covered with flat reliefs, which are generally considered the best 
specimens of their kind. The principal reliefs are in a second 
tomb chamber, 22 feet 9 inches by 23 feet 9 inches and 12 feet 
6 inches high. These reliefs represent harvest operations, ship- 
building scenes, scenes representing the arts and crafts of the 


period, the slaughtering of sacrificial animals, and Thy himself 
sailing through the marshes in a boat with a surrounding papyrus 

(b.) In the Middle Empire tombs were either of the Pyramidal 
form, as at Abydos, or were rock-cut, as in the vertical cliffs 
bounding the Nile valley (No. 6). 

The Tombs at Beni- Hasan, in Upper Egypt, form a remark- 
able group of these rock-cut examples. There are 39 in all, 
arranged in a row in the rocks as shown (No. 6). They were 
made during the twelfth dynasty (b.c. 2778-2565), a period which 
was particularly remarkable for the progress of the arts of peace. 
The entrance to the Tomb of Khnemhotep, known as Tomb No. 3, 
has two sixteen-sided columns, sometimes considered to be a 
prototype of the Greek Doric order. These are slightly fluted 
and have an entasis, and the deeply projecting cornice has stone 
beams carved out of the solid rock, indicating a derivation from a 
wooden origin. 

(c.) During the New Empire tombs were rock-cut and structural, 
and in many cases accompanied by sepulchral temples. 

Thebes, which for a time was the necropolis of the Egyptian 
kings, has a large number of tombs dating mostly from the New 
Empire, and forming a contrast to the pyramids which formed 
the graves of the earlier kings. These tombs consist of a series 
of chambers connected with passages hewn in the rock, and were 
intended only for the reception of the sarcophagi. Amongst the 
most important of these are those of Rameses III., IV., and IX., 
and that of Sethos I., usually known as Belzoni's tomb from its 
discoverer in 181 7. The structure of all is very similar, consist- 
ing of three corridors cut in the rock leading into an ante-room, 
beyond which is the sepulchral chamber, where the granite 
sarcophagus was placed in a hollow in the floor. The walls, 
from the entrance to the sarcophagus chamber, were sculptured 
with hieroglyphics of pictures and texts necessary to the deceased 
in the future life, and mostly representing him sailing through the 
under-world accompanied by the sun god. The texts were mostly 
taken from various books relating to the ceremonies which were 
essential for insuring the immortality of the departed. 

The mortuary or sepulchral temples, such as those of Der-el- 
bahri, Medinet-Habou, the Ramesseum, and others, w r ere utilized 
for offerings and other funereal rights for the dead. 


The purposes for which they were used and their component 
parts are important. They were sanctuaries w r here only the king 
and priests penetrated, and in which mysteries and processions 
formed a great part of the religious services. They differ, 


therefore, from the Greek temple, the Christian church, and the 
Mahometan mosque, for they were not places for the meeting of 
the faithful or the recital of common prayers, and no public ritual 
was celebrated within them. The priests and king only were 
admitted beyond the hypostyle hall, and the temple, therefore, 
was a kind of royal oratory reared by the king in token of his own 
piety and in order to purchase the favour of the gods. 

The student is referred to Lockyer's theories as to the orienta- 
tion of temples with regard to the particular stars. 

The "mammeisi" were temples (dedicated to the mysterious 
accouchement of Isis) each consisting of one small chamber with 
statue and altar as at Elephantine, approached by a flight of steps. 
In this form they are generally considered to be the prototypes of 
the Greek temples. The more usual type of temple, however, 
consisted of chambers for the priests, with courts, colonnades, 
and halls, all surrounded by a high wall. 

In order that the student may understand the general distribu- 
tion of the parts of an Egyptian temple, a plan is here given of 
the Temple of Khons, near the Great Temple of Amnion, at 
Karnac (No. 5), on the eastern bank of the Nile, w r hich may be 
taken as a fair example of the ordinary type of plan. 

The entrance to the temple was between " pylons," or massive 
sloping towers, on each side of the central gateway (No. 7). In 
front of the entrance were placed obelisks, and in front of 
these an avenue of sphinxes, forming a splendid approach to 
the temple. This entrance gave access to the large outer court- 
yard, which was open to the sky in the centre, and therefore 
called "hypaethral" (from two Greek words, meaning "under 
the air "). This courtyard w T as surrounded by a double colonnade 
on three sides, and led up to the hypostyle hall, in which light 
was admitted by means of a clerestory above, formed by the 
different height of the columns (No. 5 b). Beyond this is the 
sanctuary, surrounded by a passage, and at the rear is a smaller 
hall ; both the last chambers must have been dark or only 
imperfectly lighted. 

The whole collection of buildings forming the temple was 
surrounded by a great wall as high as the buildings themselves. 

Thebes, the site of which occupied a large area on the east 
and w r est banks of the Nile, was the capital of Egypt during the 
New Empire (Dynasties XVI I. -XX.). The eastern bank had an 
important group of Temples at Karnac, including the Great 
Temple of Amnion, and the Temple of Khons (twentieth dynasty). 
At Luxor, also on the eastern bank, was another Temple of 
Ammon (eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties). On the w T estern 
bank lay the Necropolis or Tombs of the Kings and Queens, and 
a large number of mortuary temples, which included those of 
Der-el-bahri, the Ramesseum, and Medinet Habou. 


The Great Temple of A mm on, Karnac, is the grandest, 
extending over an area of 1,200 feet by 360 feet, and originally 
was connected with the Temple of Luxor by an avenue of 
sphinxes. It was not built on an original plan, but owes its size, 
disposition and magnificence to the additions of many later kings, 
from the first monarchs of the twelfth dynasty down to the 
Ptolemaic period. It has six pylons added in successive genera- 
tions, a great court measuring 338 feet by 275 feet, the great 
hypostyle hall, and other halls, courts and a sanctuary. The 
Hypostyle hall measures 338 feet by 170 feet, covering about 
the same area as N6tre Dame, Paris. The roof is supported by 
134 columns in sixteen rows. The central avenues are about 
80 feet in height as compared with 140 feet at Amiens Cathedral, 
and have columns 69 feet high and n£ feet in diameter, the 
capitals of which are of the lotus blossom type (No. 10 l) so as 
to receive the light from the clerestory. The side avenues are 
about 46 feet high and have columns 42 feet 6 inches in height 
and 9 feet in diameter, the Capitals being of the lotus bud type, 
on which the clerestory light would fall. The impression pro- 
duced on the spectator by the forest of columns is most awe- 
inspiring, and the eye is led from the smaller columns of the side 
avenues, which gradually vanish into semi-darkness, giving an 
idea of unlimited size, to the larger columns of the central 
avenues lighted by the clerestory, which is formed in the differ- 
ence of height between the central and side avenues, a form of 
lighting more fully developed in the Gothic period. The walls of 
the hall, the column shafts, and the architraves are covered with 
incised inscriptions, still retaining their original colored decora- 
tions relating to the gods and personages concerned in the erection 
of the structure. 

The Temple of Sethos I., Abydos, was dedicated to Osiris 
and other deities of Abydos. It was built by Sethos I. 
(b.c 1 366-1 333), and completed by Rameses II. (b.c 1333-1300). 
The walls are of fine grained limestone, and the reliefs on them 
are among the finest Egyptian sculptures. In common with 
other temples it has pylons, a first and second fore-court and two 
hypostyle halls, but instead of one sanctuary it has seven 
arranged side by side, dedicated to six deities and a deified king ; 
hence the front of this temple was divided into seven parts, each 
with its separate gateway and portal. The seven sanctuaries are 
each roofed by means of horizontal courses, every course project- 
ing beyond that immediately below, and the undersides afterwards 
rounded off in the form of a vault by the chisel. It further differs 
from others in having a wing at right angles to the main structure 
in consequence of a hill immediately behind the temple. 

The Great Temple of Abu-Simbel, built by Rameses II. 
(b.c i 333-1 300), is one of the most stupendous creations of 


Egyptian architecture, and was entirely excavated out of the 
solid rock. It has a fore-court, at the back of which is the 
imposing facade, 119 feet wide and over 100 feet high, formed as 
a pylon, and having four seated colossi of Rameses II., each over 
65 feet in height. The entrance leads to a vestibule, the ceiling 
of which is supported by eight pillars, the walls having vividly 
colored reliefs. Eight smaller chambers, probably used to store 
the temple utensils and furniture, adjoin this vestibule, and in 
the rear is a small hypos tyle hall, 36 feet by 25 feet, having four 
pillars. Behind this is a long narrow chamber out of which are 
three apartments, the centre and largest one being the sanctuary, 
with an altar and four seated figures of the deities worshipped. 

The Temple of Isis, Island of Philse, is an interesting 
example of the Ptolemaic period, and, like earlier examples, was 
the work of several generations. The fore-court, entered through 
a massive pylon, 150 feet broad and 60 feet high, has on the west 
side the Birth House, a small colonnaded temple dedicated to 
Hathor-Isis and to the memory of the birth of her son ^lorus, 
and on the east a colonnaded building used by the priests. On 
the fourth side of the court is the second pylon, which is 105 feet 
broad and 40 feet high. Beyond is the temple proper, consisting 
of courts, a hypostyle hall with eight columns, two small vesti- 
bules, a sanctuary, and other adjoining chambers, all nearly in 
total darkness. This group, including the second pylon, has its 
axis at an angle to that of the first pylon and courtyard. The 
entire structure has the walls, both inside and out, covered with 

The Temple of Hathor, Dendera (a.d. first century), is 
another Ptolemaic example, but was not completed till the reign 
of Augustus. It has no pylons, fore-court, or enclosing outer 
walls, but has a great vestibule with twenty-four columns, six of 
which form the facade, having low screen walls between them on 
either side of the central entrance. Behind this is the hypostyle 
hall, having six columns with elaborate Hathor-headed capitals. 
On each side of this hall and beyond are chambers, used as 
lavatory, treasury, store-rooms ; and behind are two ante-chambers 
with a sanctuary beyond. Staircases on either side lead to the 
roof of the temple. 

During the Graeco- Roman period many temples were erected, 
of which the Temple of Edfou, commenced by Ptolemy III. 
(b.c. 237), is the best preserved example. A massive pylon, 
faced with reliefs and inscriptions, gave access to a great court, 
surrounded by a colonnade. The back of this court was formed 
by the front of the great hypostyle hall, the portal of which 
was the centre intercolumniation of a row of six columns, the 
narrower spaces between the side columns having low screen walls 
(No. 8). Twelve larger columns with elaborate capitals support 


the roof over this hall, beyond which was a smaller hypostyle 
hall, the roof of which was carried by twelve columns, having 
rich floral capitals, embellished by so-called heads of Hathor. 
Behind this were vestibules, smaller chambers, and the sanctuary. 


are monumental pillars, originally employed in pairs before the 
principal entrances of temples. They are monoliths, «.*., single 
upright stones, square on plan with slightly rounded faces, and 
tapering sides, with a pyramidal summit. The height is usually 
about nine to ten times as great as the diameter, and the four 
faces were cut with hieroglyphics. The capping was of metal, 
for the groove into w T hich it was fitted is in some cases still 
visible. The quarrying and transport of such a mass of stone 
without the power of a steam-engine was an engineering feat of 
considerable skill. 

Many obelisks were removed from Egypt by the Roman 
emperors, and at least twelve are in Rome itself. That in the 
centre of the Piazza of S. John Lateran is the largest in existence. 
It is of red granite from Syene, and is 104 feet high, or with 
the pedestal 153 feet, 9 feet square at the base, 6 feet 2 inches 
at the top, and altogether weighs about 600 tons. 

Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames Embankment, another 
example, brought to London from Alexandria, although originally 
erected at Heliopolis (b.c 1500), is 68 feet 6 inches high, 8 feet 
square at the base, and weighs 180 tons. 


All these have disappeared, being only built of w r ood or of 
sun-dried bricks. Houses are shown on paintings and sculptures 
which have come down to us, from which they appear to have 
had one, two, or three stories. 

In the absence of any authentic remains, an illustration of the 
Egyptian House is given (No. 9), conjecturally restored, and 
erected at the Paris Exhibition, 1889, by M. Charles Gamier. 
The design was founded on an ancient painting, and had a garden 
in front, laid out in a formal style, with fish-ponds. The house 
w r as divided by a corridor in the centre, giving access to the 
rooms. The staircase at the back led to a verandah, and also to 
a flat roof, extending over the whole length of the structure. 
The whole building was treated with color, the upper part of 
the house being painted a bright yellow, and the long external 
wooden columns blue. 



a. Plans. — The temples have already been slightly compared 
with Greek examples (pages 15 and 22), and as already noticed 
they were especially planned for internal effect . The hypos tyle 
hall seemingly unlimited in size, crowded with pillars, and 
mysteriously illuminated from above, realized the grandest con- 
ceptions of Egyptian planning (No. 5). Externally the massive 
pylons ornamented with incised decorations formed the chief 
facade, a contrast being obtained by the slender obelisks which 
usually stood in front of them, while the approach was through an 
impressive avenue of innumerable sphinxes. 

The erection of these temples was in progress during many 
centuries by means of continual additions. In this respect they 
resemble the growth of English cathedrals ; as also in the disregard 
for symmetry in the planning of one part in relation to another. 
This may be seen in many of the later temples erected under 
the Ptolemys, the temple on the island of Philae being a notable 
instance. The walls, the pylons, and other features are placed on 
different axes, free from any pretence of regularity. The freedom 
and picturesqueness of grouping thus obtained is remarkable. 

b. "Walls. — These were immensely thick, and in important 
buildings were of granite, while in the less important they w r ere 
of brick faced with granite. 

The faces of the temple walls slope inwards or batter towards 
the top, giving them a massive appearance (No. 7). Viollet-le- 
Duc traces this inclination to the employment of mud for the walls 
of early buildings. Columns which form the leading features of 
Greek external architecture are not found on the exterior of Egyp- 
tian buildings, which have normally a massive blank wall crowned 
with a characteristic cornice, consisting of a large hollow and roll 
moulding (No. 10 j, m). For the purposes of decoration, the walls, 
even when of granite, were generally covered with a fine plaster, 
in which were executed low reliefs, treated with bright color 
(Nos. 7 and 10 p). Simplicity, solidity, and grandeur, qualities 
obtained by broad masses of unbroken walling, are the chief 
characteristics of the style. 

c. Openings. — These were all square-headed and covered with 
massive lintels, for the style being essentially trabeated, the arch 
appears to have been but little used. Window openings are 
seldom found in temples, light being admitted by the clerestories 
in the earlier examples at Thebes, or over the low dwarf walls 
between the columns of the front row, as at Luxor, Edfou (No. 8), 
Dendera, or Philae, a method peculiar to the Ptolemaic and 
Roman periods. 

d. Roofs. — These were composed of massive blocks of stone 
supported by the enclosing walls and the closely spaced columns 


(No. 5 f). Being flat, they could be used in dwelling-houses 
(No. 9) as a pleasant rendezvous for the family in the evening for 
the enjoyment of the view and the fresh breezes which spring up 
at sunset, and at certain seasons may have been used for repose. 
They may also have been used in the daytime, if protected from 
the sun by temporary awnings. The flat roofs of the temples 
seem to have been used in the priestly processions. In the rock- 
cut temples the ceilings are sometimes slightly arched in form, 
and as at the tombs at Beni- Hasan, the roofing is made to represent 
timber construction (No. 6). 

e. Columns. — The papyrus, a tall, smooth reed, and the lotus, 
a large white water-lily of exquisite beauty, offered many sugges- 
tions. The columns, seldom over six diameters in height, were 
made to represent the stalks, and at intervals appear to be tied by 
bands (No. 10). The capitals were mostly derived from the lotus 
plant (No. 10 d, e, f), as follows : — 

(a.) The lotus bud, conventionalized, tied round by stalks 

(No. 10 m). 
(b.) The fully-grown lotus flower, which formed a bell-shaped 
capital, sculptured or ornamented with color decoration 
(No. 10 l). 
(f.) The " palm" capital, the main outline of the palms being 
painted or sculptured (No. 10 k). 
In addition, the Isis or Hathor-headed capital, as at Dendera 
and Philae, is formed of heads of the goddess Isis, supporting the 
model of a pylon (No. iog). 

f. Mouldings. — These were few, viz., the hollow and bead 
generally used in conjunction, but the bead was also used by itself. 
The two combined invariably crowned the upper part of the 
pylons (Nos. 7 and 10 j, m), and walls. 

g. Ornament (No. 10). — This was symbolical, and was an 
important element in the style, including such features as the solar 
disc or globe and the vulture with outspread wings (No. 10 n), as 
a symbol of protection, while diaper patterns, spirals (No. 10 a, b) 
and the feather ornament (No. 10 c) were largely used. The 
scarab, or sacred beetle, was considered by the Egyptians as the 
sign of their religion, much in the same way as the cross became 
the symbol of Christianity. It probably attained its sacred 
character as the emblem of resurrection because of its habit of 
allowing the sun to hatch its eggs from a pellet of refuse. It 
must be remembered that the decoration of the walls of a temple 
consisted largely in acts of adoration on the part of the monarch 
to his gods, to whose protection he ascribed all his warlike 
successes. The Egyptians were masters in the use of color, 
chiefly using the primary ones — blue, red, and yellow. The 
wall to be decorated was prepared as follows : (a) It was first 
chiselled smooth and covered with a thin layer of plaster or cement, 


after which a colored wash was put over the whole, (b) The 
figures or hieroglyphics were then drawn on with a red line by an 
artist, being corrected with a black line by the chief artist ; (r) the 
sculptor next incised the outline, rounding slightly the inclosed 
form towards its boundaries ; (d) the painter then executed his 
work in the strong hues of the primary colors. (See the Egyptian 
Court at the Crystal Palace.) The hieroglyphics were often, how- 
ever, incised direct on the granite and then colored, as may be 
seen on the sculptures at the British Museum. They are instruc- 
tive as well as decorative, and from them is learnt most of what 
is known of Egyptian history (No. iop). 

The Egyptians possessed great power of conventionalizing 
natural objects such as the lotus plant, the symbol of fertility and 
abundance, produced by the overflowing Nile, the palm, the 
papyrus, and others, each being copied as the motif for a design, 
being treated by the artists in a way suitable to the material "in 
which they were working. The distinguishing, or essential, feature 
of the natural object, or its class, thus passed by a process of 
idealizing into forms adapted for ornamentation. 


Champollion (J. F., le jeune). — " Monuments de Pltgypte et de la 
Nubie." 6 vols., folio. Paris, 1845. 

Choisy (A.). — "L'art debatirchezlesEgyptiens. > ' Imp.8vo. Paris, 1904. 

" Description de Pfigypte" (known as " Napoleon's Egypt ")• 23 vols., 
large folio. Paris, 1809- 1822. 

Erman (A.).—" Life in Ancient Egypt." 8vo. 1894. 

Herz (M.). — "Mosqudedu Sultan Hassan au Caire." Folio. Cairo, 1899. 

Lepsius (R.). — " Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. , ' 12 vols., 
large folio, and 1 vol. text. Berlin, 1849- 1859. 

Maspero (G.).— " The Dawn of Civilization." 8vo. 1897. 

Perrot and Chipiez. — " History of Art in Ancient Egypt." 8vo. 1883. 

Petrie(W. N. F.)-— "The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh." 4to. 1883. 

Petrie. — "Ten Years Digging in Egypt." 8vo. 1892. 

Petrie. — " Egyptian Decorative Art." 8vo. 1895. 

Prisse d'Avennes (E.). — "Histoire de PArt £gyptien." 2 vols., large 
folio, and text in 4to. Paris, 1879. 

Rawlinson (G.). — " History of Ancient Egypt." 2 vols., 8vo. 1881. 

Smyth (C. Piazzi). — " Life and Work at the Great Pyramid, 1865." 
3 vols., 8vo. Edinburgh, 1867. 

Publications of the "Archaeological Survey of Egypt" and the " Egypt 
Exploration Fund." 

Ebers (G.).- -" An Egyptian Princess." (Historical Novel.) 

Haggard (H. Rider).—" Cleopatra." 

Ward (TO.—" The Sacred Beetle." Demy 8vo. 1902. 

The Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace and the Egyptian Rooms at 
the British Museum give a good idea of the Architecture and decoration 
of the style. The latter place contains a most complete collection of 
Egyptian antiquities, which will give the student a better knowledge of 
the style than can be gleaned merely from books. 









Learned and wise, hath perished utterly, 
Nor leaves her speech one word to aid the sigh 
That would lament her." — Wordsworth. 


i. Geographical. — On referring to the map (No. n) it will be 
seen that the principal ancient cities of Western Asia were 
situated in the valley of the twin-rivers Tigris and Euphrates. 
The district was one of the earliest seats of civilization, being 
celebrated for its great fertility, and has been styled the cradle 
and tomb of nations and empires. The plain of Mesopotamia, 
once the seat of a high civilization, was irrigated by numerous 
canals between the above-mentioned rivers, and was highly culti- 
vated, supporting an immense population round Nineveh and 

The earliest known buildings appear to have been erected 
at the mouth of the great rivers draining the country, and in 
this respect can be compared with Egypt (No. 3), where the 


Pyramids and other early structures were near the delta of the 
Nile. In Western Asia the march of civilization spread north- 
wards from Babylon (the Gate of God) to Nineveh, while in 
Egypt it spread southwards from Memphis to Philae, but in both 
cases it developed from the sea inland. 

ii. Geological. — The whole district of Chaldaea or Lower 
Mesopotamia is alluvial, being formed of the thick mud or clay 
deposited by the two great rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The 
soil, containing no stone and bearing no trees, could be made into 
bricks, which thus became the usual building material. The 
general body of the walls was constructed- of the ordinary sun- 
dried bricks, while " kiln-burnt " and sometimes glazed or vitrified 
bricks of different colors were used as a facing. As a cementing 
material, bitumen or pitch, applied in a heated state, seems to 
have been used, being obtained from bitumen springs found in the 
district, as at Is, on the Euphrates. Mortar, made of calcareous 
earth, was used in the latest periods. 

In Assyria, where stone was not scarce, the walls were also 
faced, internally and externally, with alabaster or limestone slabs, 
ou which were carved the bas-reliefs or inscriptions, which are 
so important from an historical point of view. 

iii. Climate. — The unhealthy exhalations from the vast swamps 
in Chaldaea, and the swarms of aggressive and venomous insects 
infesting the entire region during the long summer, rendered the 
construction of elevated platforms for the towns and palaces not 
only desirable, but almost essential. Moreover, the floods during 
the rainy season, when torrents fell for weeks at a time, further 
demanded the need for such structures. 

Persia is for the most part a high tableland and has been 
described as a country of sunshine, gardens, and deserts, with a 
climate ranging from the extremes of heat and cold. 

iv. Religion. — The people were worshippers of the heavenly 
bodies, such as the sun and the moon, and of the powers of nature, 
such as the wind and thunder. Numbers of omen tablets have 
survived, and bear witness to the extreme superstition which 

Ormuzd, the god of light and of good, as opposed to Ahriman, 
the god of darkness and evil, was worshipped with fire as his 
symbol. Temples, and even images, do not seem to have been 
necessary, as sacrifices and the worship of fire and sun appear to 
have been conducted in the open air, and thus the essential 
stimulus was wanting for the rise and development of religious 
art. On the other hand, the man-headed bulls, placed at the 
entrances of temples and palaces, probably had a mythical mean- 
ing, and appear to belong to the class of beneficent genii or to 
that of the great deities of the Chaldaean pantheon. 

v. Social and Political. — Judging from their history, the 

F.A. D 


Assyrians were a sturdy, warlike, but cruel people, and in their 
battles the conquering monarchs took thousands of prisoners, who 
were employed in raising the enormous mounds mentioned here- 
after. It has been calculated by Rawlinson that the erection of 
the great platform or mound of Koyunjik — upon which the build- 
ings of Nineveh stood — would require the united exertions of 
10,000 men for twelve years, after which the palaces would have 
to be built. 

The Assyrian sculptures give in a very minute way the social 
conditions of the period, and show us the costumes of the time 
and the military character of the period, for the long inscriptions 
and series of pictures with which the palace walls were covered 
form an illustrated history of the battles and sieges of succeeding 
monarchs, the sculptor thus explaining the political events of the 
period in a lasting manner. 

The cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters which form the 
inscriptions consist of groups of strokes placed in different positions. 
These characters were impressed on clay tablets or cylinders, 
while still moist, with a triangular ended instrument of wood, 
bone, or metal. Libraries of these strange MSS. were formed on 
a large scale, and by the translation of these inscriptions much 
knowledge of the social condition has been acquired. 

The Persian astronomer-poet, Omar Khayyam, in his writings, 
indicates the national love of beauty and the influence exerted by 
environment and climate. 

vi. Historical. — From the study of Assyrian history can be 
gleaned certain facts which considerably assist in forming the 
divisions of the periods. The earliest Babylonian king mentioned 
in the cuneiform inscriptions was Eannadu, who reigned B.C. 4500, 
and the empire he founded was gradually extended northwards, 
following the course of the great river Tigris. In B.C. 1700 Assyria, 
the northern part of the early Babylonian empire, asserted her 
independence and became the great power of Western Asia. 

Of the Assyrian kings, the most celebrated was Sargon 
(b.c. 722-705), who erected the great palace at Khorsabad ; he 
was the first Assyrian king who came in contact with the 
Egyptian army, then in alliance with the Philistines, a combina- 
tion of forces which he defeated. The Assyrians conquered and 
occupied Egypt in b.c 672, sacking the ancient city of Thebes 
in b.c 666 ; but the Egyptians finally shook themselves free from 
the Assyrian yoke. The destruction of Nineveh took place in 
B.C. 609, and the great Assyrian kingdom was then divided among 
its conquerors, Assyria being handed over to the Medes. Babylon 
then took the leading place until it was finally conquered by the 
Persians, a hardy race from the mountainous district north of the 
Persian Gulf, under Cyrus, in B.C. 539. The reigns of Darius 
(b.c 521-485; and Xerxes (b.c. 485- 465) are important as being 


those in which some of the most interesting palaces were erected 
at Susa and Persepolis. The country remained under the rule of 
the Persians until the time of Alexander the Great, B.C. 333, 
when it became a possession of the Greeks. The conquest of 
Egypt by Cambyses, b.c 525, and the dazzling impression left 
by the marvellous buildings of Memphis and Thebes, caused the 
development of the use of the column amongst the Persians. In the 
seventh century a. d., the Arabs overran the country and settled there 
— Bagdad becoming a new capital of great magnificence. Towards 
the close of the tenth century, the Turks, a barbarous people 
pouring in from the east, settled in the country, which is at the 
present moment in a desolate state owing to Turkish misrule. 


The banks of the Tigris and Euphrates presented only alluvial 
plains, where wood suitable for building was rare. The country, 
however, possessed an abundance of clay, which, being com- 
pressed in flat square moulds and dried in the sun, was 
the material of which were formed the huge platforms upon 
which temples and palaces were built. These immense plat- 
forms were at first faced with sun-dried bricks, and sub- 
sequently with kiln -burnt bricks, or in the later Assyrian period 
with stone slabs from the mountains that separate Assyria 
from Media. It will be perceived how the salient characteristics 
of the architecture may be explained by the nature of the 
materials at hand, for the walls being of brick, each unit, in 
general, was a repetition of its neighbour, and rarely of special 
shape. The buildings thus constructed could only be decorated 
by attached ornament, similar in principle to the mats and 
hangings spread over floors or walls as a covering, for the 
Assyrians either cased their walls with alabaster or with a skin 
of glazed brickwork of many colors. 

The arch was applied to important openings (No. 12) and also to 
vaults. In some cases it was not a true arch, but one formed by 
corbelling or projecting horizontal courses. The true arch however 
was also practised, being probably accidentally hit upon through 
the use of small units ; for as the Chaldaeans were unable to support 
walls over openings upon beams of stone or timber, owing to the 
lack of these materials in suitable forms, they had to devise some 
other means for doing so. It is a general law, which study and 
comparison will confirm, that the arch was earliest discovered 
and most invariably employed by those builders who found them- 
selves condemned by the geological formation of their country to 
the employment of the smallest units. 

Arches, therefore, in the absence of piers, rested on thick and 

d 2 


solid walls ; and whether used for the formation of vaulted drains 
under the immense platforms, or to form imposing entrances of 
colored and glazed brickwork in elaborate facades, held a space 
of extreme importance in the style. 

In Chaldaea, isolated supports, such as are found in the hypostyle 
halls of Egypt and Persia, or in Greek temples and Latin basilicas, 
were not used, for the want of suitable stone rendered any such 
arrangement impossible. The Chaldaeans and Assyrians scarcely 
ever used stone constructively except as the envelope for a brick 
wall ; but on the other hand as stone was abundant in the rocky 
country of Persia, the Persians used it for walls and columns at 
Susa and Persepolis. Assyria undoubtedly gave many of her 
architectural forms to Persia, who later borrowed much from 
Egypt and Asiatic Greece. 

The bracket and scroll capitals of the columns at Persepolis 
and Susa retain much of the form of their wooden prototypes, and 
demonstrate very clearly that a form which, applied to wood, is 
natural and inoffensive, becomes inappropriate when applied to 
stone (No. 13 a, c, g). 

Texier's description of the great mosque at Ispahan might, it 
is believed, be applied with general accuracy to the palaces of 
Nineveh and Persepolis, if the power of a Merlin could bring them 
back to our view : " Every part of the building, without exception, 
is covered with enamelled bricks. Their ground is blue, upon 
which elegant flowers and sentences taken from the Koran are 
traced in white. The cupola is blue decorated with shields and 
arabesques. One can hardly imagine the effect produced by such 
a building on an European accustomed to the dull uniformity of 
our colorless buildings." The palaces would differ principally 
from the description of this mosque owing to the rules of the 
Koran as to the prohibition in sculpture and decoration of the 
copying of natural objects (page 654). 

The appearance of the monuments must, however, be entirely 
left to the imagination, for the effect of the towering masses of 
the palaces, planted on the great platforms, and approached 
from the plains by broad stairways, can only be imagined. The 
portal, flanked by colossal winged bulls (Nos. 12 b, f, g, h, and 
13 d, e), led to an audience-chamber paved with carved slabs 
of alabaster. This apartment had a dado, 12 feet high, of 
sculptured slabs, with representations of battles and hunting 
scenes (No. 13 f, h), and was surmounted by a frieze containing 
figures of men and animals in glazed and brightly colored brick- 
work ; a beamed roof of cedar, through which small openings 
gave a sufficient illumination, probably covered the apartment 
(No. 12 B). 

At Khorsabad an ornamentation of semi-cylinders in juxta- 
position was employed externally, a style of decoration which 


is a last reminiscence of the timber stockading which had originally 
served to keep up the tempered earth before the regular use of 
sun-dried bricks. 

In Asia Minor many of the buildings present stone forms 
borrowed from a timber type, and the influence of this tradition 
is better seen in the tombs of Lycia than in any other remains. 
An example of one of these at the British Museum has a double 
podium (cf. Glossary) upon which is placed a chest or sarcophagus 
crowned with a roof of pointed-arch form, the mortises and 
framing, including the pins, being copied from a wooden form. 
In Lycia many rock-cut tombs present flat and sloping roofs, 
in which unhewn timbers were copied ; and the last stage 
shows an Ionic facade certainly developed from these carpentry 
forms (No. 41 f). 

The copying of timber forms in stone has also been traced in 
Egypt ; in India, where it was introduced by the Bactrian Greeks, 
between the second and third century B.C., and in Greece some- 
what earlier than in Lycia, in the seventh century b.c It may, 
therefore, be admitted that a material from which a style is 
evolved continues for a period to have its influence even when 
another material is substituted. It was only, however, in the 
infancy of stone architecture that timber forms were adhered to ; 
for as soon as habit gave familiarity with the new material, the 
incongruities of such forms applied to stone structures were by 
degrees abandoned, and features suitable to the new material 
were evolved. 


Western Asiatic Architecture can be divided into three tolerably 
distinct periods : — 

(0.) The first or Babylonian (Chaldaean) period (b.c 4000 (?)- 

(b.) The second or Assyrian period (b.c 1290-538). 

(c.) The third or Persian period (b.c 538-333). 


was a temple-building epoch, the principal remains being the temple 
of Birs-Nimroud near Babylon, and the temple at Khorsabad. 

Colonel Rawlinson has shown by his investigations that the 
Temple of Birs-Nimroud was dedicated to the seven heavenly 
* spheres. 

In Chaldaea every city had its " ziggurat " (holy mountain), 
surmounted by a richly decorated temple chamber, which served 
as a shrine and observatory from which astrological studies could 
be made (No. 12 a, c, d). 

These temples were several stories in height, constructed in 



receding terraces, and each of different colored glazed bricks. 
A walled inclosure surrounded the whole structure. The angles 
of these temples were made to face the cardinal points, in contrast 
to the Egyptian pyramids, whose sides were so placed. 

The attempts of the Babylonians to build a tower which should 
" reach to heaven " (Gen. xi. 4), may be referred to here, and 
it is a fact worth noting that in Western Asia and Egypt, 
countries both remarkable for their dulness and sameness of 
aspect, man should have attempted his highest flights of audacity 
in the way of artificial elevations. 


was a palace -building epoch, and terminated with the destruction 
of Babylon by Cyrus, b.c 539. 

The principal remains are the palaces at Nineveh (or 
Koyunjik), Nimroud, and Khorsabad. 

The Palace of S argon, Khorsabad (b.c 722-705), is the best 
example of the general type, and has been the most completely 
studied by means of systematic excavations, chiefly by Place. It 
was erected about nine miles north- north-east of the ancient city 
of Nineveh, and with its various courts, chambers, and corridors is 
supposed to have occupied an area of 25 acres. As in all Assyrian 
palaces, it was raised upon a terrace or platform of brickwork 
faced with stone, 46 feet above the plain, from which it was reached 
by means of broad stairways and sloping planes or ramps. The 
palace contained three distinct groups of apartments, corresponding 
to the divisions of any palatial residence of modern Persia, Turkey, 
or India, viz. : — (a.) The Seraglio, including the palace proper, the 
men's apartments, and the reception rooms for visitors, in all 
containing 10 courts, and no less than 60 rooms or passages ; 

Sb.) the Harem, with the private apartments of the prince and his 
amily ; and (c.) the Khan or service chambers, arranged round 
an immense courtyard, having an area of about 7\ acres, and form- 
ing the principal court of the palace. There was also a temple 
observatory on the western side of the platform. The great 
entrance portals on the south-east facade led into the great court 
already mentioned. These portals formed probably the most 
impressive creations of Assyrian Architecture, and were rendered 
imposing by no fewer than ten human-headed winged bulls, 
19 feet in height (No. 12 f, g, h), examples of which are now pre- 
served in the British Museum. In the principal apartments a 
sculptured dado of alabaster about 10 feet high, which seems to 
have been sometimes treated with color, lined the lower portions 
of the walls, above which was a continuous frieze of colored and 
glazed brickwork. Conjectural restorations have been made by 
various authorities (No. 12 b). 


The excavations of the Palace of Sennacherib, Nineveh, 

B.C. 705-681, and the Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal, Nimroud, b.c. 
885-860 have revealed a large amount of information concerning 
Assyrian Palaces, and many of the sculptures with which the 
walls were lined are now in the British Museum. 

The method of roofing is still much in dispute. Some authorities 
hold that the long and narrow rooms were roofed with beams of 
poplar or palm, resting upon the summits of the walls, and that the 
large halls would have a central portion open to the sky, with 
porticos around, similar to that of a Roman atrium. Other autho- 
rities hold that the arch, which was used largely in the drains and 
water channels of the great platforms and in the city gates 
(No. 12 f), also played an important part in the construction of 
the palaces themselves, specially in view of the thickness of the 
walls, which would indicate that the architect had to provide solid 
abutments for arched vaults which supported a heavy roof. 
From a bas-relief found by Layard, it would appear that domed 
roofs both spherical and elliptical were also employed. 


from the time of Cyrus to that of Alexander the Great, has 
important remains of palaces, tombs and temples, at Susa, 
Persepolis, and Passagardae. 

The Persians having no architecture of their own, proceeded to 
adapt that of the conquered Assyrians, as later the Romans 
assimilated that of the Greeks. 

In the neighbourhood of their new cities, Susa and Persepolis, 
good stone was to be found, and, as a consequence, many 
architectural features, which are wanting in the earlier periods, 
are still extant. 

Persepolis, one of the important capitals of Persia, has inte- 
resting remains of no less than eight different buildings. These 
were erected on a great platform, 1,500 feet long by 1,000 feet 
wide, of four different levels, partly cut out of the solid rock and 
partly built up. It was from 20 to 50 feet above the plain and 
was reached by a wide stairway on the western side. The most 
important buildings erected by Darius are his Palace and the Hall 
of the Hundred Columns, while his son Xerxes built the Propylaea, 
the Hypostyle Hall and a famous palace. The Hall of the 
Hundred Columns, 225 feet square, was probably used as an 
audience and throne-hall. It was surrounded by a brick wall, 
10 feet 8 inches thick, in which were forty-four stone doorways and 
windows. The bas-reliefs are on a magnificent scale, representing 
the king surrounded by the arms of subject states, receiving 
ambassadors, rows of warriors and other subjects. The columns, 
of which only one is still in situ, had capitals of curious vertical 


Ionic-like scrolls (No. 13 g), or of the double-bull or double-horse 
types (No. 13 a, c). The Hypostyle Hall of Xerxes (b.c. 485), 
probably used as a throne room, and having no enclosing walls, 
occupied an area larger than the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac, or any 
Gothic cathedral except Milan. It originally had seventy-two 
black marble columns, 67 feet in height, arranged in a somewhat 
novel manner supporting a flat roof. Of these only seventeen 
now exist, and have capitals either of brackets and volutes, or 
formed of a pair of unicorns or bulls ; the bases are bell-shaped 
(No. 13 a, c, g) and the shafts are fluted with fifty- two flutes. 

Susa has important remains in the palaces of Xerxes and 
Artaxerxes, from which splendid examples of colored and glazed 
brickwork have been excavated, especially the frieze of lions and 
the frieze of archers in which the figures, about 5 feet high, are 
now in the Louvre, Paris, and give a good idea of the glazed and 
colored work of the Persians. 

The Tomb of Darius, Naksh-i-Rustam, near Perse po lis, 
has a rock cut facade, reproducing the Palace of Darius, and 
forming one of four rock-hewn sepulchres of the Akhasmenian kings. 
In this facade the columns are of the double-bull type with cornice 
over, above which are two rows of figures supporting a prayer 
platform, upon which stood a statue of the king, about 7 feet high, 
with his arm uplifted towards an image of the god Ormuzd. 

Jewish Architecture. — The Hebrews apparently borrowed 
their architectural forms from Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek and 
Roman sources. Remains are unimportant, consisting principally 
of tombs in the valleys near Jerusalem. 

The only great attempt at a monumental structure was the 
Temple at Jerusalem. This was commenced by Solomon (b.c 
1 01 2), and the biblical description (1 Kings vi., vii., 2 Chronicles 
iii., iv.) is interesting, portraying entrance pylons, courts, cedar 
woodwork, metal work, and the isolated brazen columns Jachin 
and Boaz. The Temple was afterwards added to by Herod 
(b.c 18), and the site is now occupied by the Mosque of Omar. 
(Page 659.) 


a. Plan. — A special character was given to the temples of the 
early, and the palaces of the later period, by raising them on 
terraces or platforms some 30 feet to 50 teet in height (No. 12 g), 
and by grouping the buildings round quadrangles. Whereas the 
sides of the Egyptian pyramids face the cardinal points of the 
compass, the angles of the Assyrian ziggurats were so placed. 
Egyptian temples were designed mainly for internal effect, while 
Assyrian palaces were designed so as to be effective inter- 
nally and externally, being raised on the platforms mentioned 


b. Walls. — The Assyrians in the early period used stone only 
as a facing to their brick walls, forming a contrast with the solid 
marble work of the Greeks, and with the constructive use of 
stone and granite by the Egyptians. 

In Assyria, the massive walls, which were of cased brickwork, 
only remain, the columns being of wood having perished. In 
Persia, however, the walls which were thin have disappeared, 
leaving the massive stone or marble blocks forming the door and 
window openings, immense columns, and broad stairways which 
alone have survived the ravages of time. 

The slabs of alabaster with which the walls of the palaces were 
faced reveal much of the social history of the people, and many of 
the slabs are now in the British Museum (No. 13). 

c. Openings. — The lighting to the temples is conjectural, but 
it appears to have been effected by means of a " clerestory " 
(No. 12 b), somewhat similar to that in use in the Egyptian temples. 

It is believed that the Assyrian architects counted chiefly on 
the doorways, which were of great size, to give their buildings a 
sufficient supply of light and air, and openings may also have 
been formed in the upper parts of the walls. 

The use of the arch, both circular and pointed, was practised 
by the Assyrians, as is proved by the discoveries of Sir Henry 
Layard at Nimroud, and of M. Place at Khorsabad (No. 12F, g, h), 
where semi-circular arches spring from the backs of winged bulls 
with human heads. 

d. Roofs. — The roofing appears to have been effected by 
means of timber beams reaching from one column to the next, and 
resting on the backs of the "double-bull" capitals (No. 12 b). 

Some authorities consider that the halls of the palaces were 
covered with brick tunnel vaults, but in many cases the roof of con- 
siderable thickness was flat, formed of very tough but plastic clay 
and debris, and kept in condition by being occasionally rolled, as 
in modern eastern houses. Perrot and Chipiez, however, are of 
opinion that Assyrian builders made use of domes in addition to 
barrel vaults, because of the discovery of a bas-relief at Koyunjik 
in which groups of buildings roofed with spherical or elliptical 
domes are shown. Strabo (xvi. i. 5) also mentions expressly that 
all the houses of Babylon were vaulted. 

e. Columns. — These were primarily of wood, but in the later 
period at Persepolis, the Persians, on their return from Egypt, 
built them of the natural stone which had been wanting in 
Chaldaea. They were not so massive as in Egypt, where stone 
roofs had to be supported. 

The capitals were characteristic, being of the " double-bull," 
" double-unicorn," " double-horse " or " double-griffen " type 
(No. 13 a, c), and the Ionic scroll occurs in some examples. 

f. Mouldings. — As in the case of Egypt, in Western Asia 


the use of mouldings does not appear to have advanced to any 
great extent. In the Assyrian palaces the sculptured slabs and 
colored surfaces took their place. At Persepolis the bead, 
hollow and ogee mouldings may be noticed in the bases, while 
the volutes of the capital were treated w r ith plain sinkings. 

g. Ornament. — The Assyrian sculptures in alabaster exhibit 
considerable technical skill and refinement, while the repousse 
pattern work on bronze bowls, shields, and gate fittings is also 
notable. From the decorative treatment of Assyrian architecture 
can be traced much of the peculiar and characteristic detail used 
by the Greeks, and on the sculptured slabs (No. 13 b, f. h), already 
mentioned at Nimroud and Nineveh, are represented buildings 
with columns and capitals of Ionic and Corinthian form in 

Further, it may be said, that Greece took from Assyria the 
idea of the sculptured friezes, the colored decorations, and the 
honeysuckle (No. 12 j) and guilloche ornaments, the latter being 
seen in a pavement slab from the palace at Nineveh (Koyunjik), 
now in the British Museum. 

In the next chapter it will be seen that Greece adopted much 
of her decorative art from the preceding styles of Egypt and 
Western Asia, which are thus of extreme interest in enabling 
the evolution of architectural forms from the earlier periods to 
be traced. 


Dieulafoy (M.). — " L'Art Antique de la Perse." 5 vols., folio. Paris, 
1 884- 1 889. 

Flandin (E.) et Coste (P.). — " Voyage en Perse." 6 vols., folio. Paris, 
1 844- 1 8 54. 

Layard (A. H.). — " Monuments of Nineveh." 2 vols., folio. 1853. 

Layard. — "Nineveh and its Palaces.'' 2 vols., 8vo. 1849. 

Perrot and Chipiez. — " History of Art in Chaldaea and Assyria, Persia, 
Phrygia, and Judaea." 5 vols., 8vo. 1 884-1 892. 

Place (Victor). — " Ninive et UAssyrie." 3 vols., large folio. Paris, 
1 867- 1 870. 

Ragozin (Z. A). — "Chaldea." 8vo. 1888. (A most interesting account 
of the people and their history.) 

Texier (C). — " L'Arm6nie, la Perse, et la Mesopotamie." 2 vols., large 
folio. Paris, 1842- 1852. 

Why te- Melville. — " Sarchedon " (Historical Novel). 

A visit to the Assyrian galleries and basement of the British Museum 
will afford much interest and information to the student and will impress 
him with the dignity and importance of the style. 



" Fair Greece ! sad re'ic of departed wnrth ! 
Immoral, though, no more ; though fallen, great ! "—Byron. 
" An I downward thence lo latest days 
The heritage of lieaiity fell ; 
Anil Grecian forms and Grecian lays 

Prolonged iht-ir humani-ing spell, 
Till when new worlds lor man to win 
The Atlantic riven waves disclose, 
The wilileraotei there begin 

To blossom with the Grecian rose." — Lord Houghton. 


i. Geographical. — A reference to the map of Greece (No. 14) 
shows a country surrounded on three sides by the sea, possessed 
of many natural harbours, and convenient for the development of 
trade. By means of these havens the Phoenician merchants in 
early times carried on commerce with the country. The influence 
of the sea in fostering national activity should not be forgotten — 
an influence to which Great Britain owes her present position. 
Again, the mountainous character of the country, with scarcely a 
road until Roman times, was calculated to isolate the inhabitants 
into small groups, and together with the tempting proximity of 
a whole multitude of islands, was instrumental in producing 
a hardy and adventurous people, who might be expected to 
make good colonists. 

ii. Geological. — In Greece the principal mineral product was 
marble, the most monumental building material in existence, and 
one which favours purity of line and refinement in detail. This 
material is found in great abundance in various parts of Greece, 
e%., in the mountains of Hymettus and Pentelicus, a few miles 


from Athens, and in the islands of Paros and Naxos. In the 
effort to obtain refinement of line and smoothness of surface where 
crude bricks were used, they were in many cases coated with a 
fine cement formed of marble dust and lime; where stone was 
employed, as at Paestum and elsewhere, it appears also to have 
been coated with this marble cement, while marble itself was 
often treated in the same way, the cement being susceptible of a 
higher polish than the uncemented surface. The country was 
also rich in silver, copper, and iron. 

iii. Climate. — The climate of Greece is remarkable for the 
hot sun and the heavy rains, factors probably answerable for the 
porticos which were important features of the temples. 

Greece enjoyed a position intermediate between the rigorous 
surroundings of the Northern nations and the relaxing condi- 
tions of Eastern life. Hence the Greek character combined the 
activity of the North with the passivity of the East in a way 
that conduced to the growth of a unique civilization. 

iv. Religion. — The Greek religion was in the main a worship 
of natural phenomena (nature-worship, major and minor), of which 
the gods were personifications. There are, however, numerous 
traces of ancestor-worship, fetishism, and other primitive forms of 
religion. It should be borne in mind that Greek cults were always 
local, each town or district having its own divinities, ceremonies, 
and traditions. The priests had to perform their appointed rites, 
but were not an exclusive class, and often served only for a 
period, retiring afterwards into private life. Both men and 
women officiated, and a small bright "cella" took the place of 
the mysterious halls of the priest-ridden Egyptians (page 20). 

The principal deities of the Greeks with their Roman names 
are as follows : — 

Greek. Roman. 

Zeus Chief of the gods and supreme ruler Jupiter (Jove). 

Hera Wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage Juno. 

The son of Zeus and father of ) 
iEsculapius. The god who pun- / 

ishes, heals and heips. Also the ^ Apollo. 


god of song and music, of the sun, 1 

and founder of cities. 

Hestia Hearth (sacred fire) Vesta. 

Heracles Strength, power Hercules. 

Athena / wisd ° ra . P°wer, peace, and pros- ) Minerva 

( penty j ' 

Poseidon Sea Neptune. 

Dionysos Wine, feasting, revelry Bacchus. 

Demeter Earth, agriculture Ceres. 

Artemis Hunting (goddess of the chase) Diana. 

Hermes { Afraid or messenger of the gods | Me 

( therefore eloquence with winged feet j X »* C1 ^ U1 /' 

Aphrodite Beauty Venus. 

Nike Victory Victoria. 


v. Social and Political. — The early inhabitants were known 
to the ancients under the name of Pelasgi. Their civilization 
belonged to the bronze age, as is evident from the remains of it 
found at different points round the JEge&n sea, viz., in Crete, at 
Hissarlik in the Troad, at Mycenae, Tiryns, and elsewhere. It 
fell before the iron weapons and greater courage of invaders from 
the North, viz., the Achaeans or Homeric Greeks. The war 
against Troy affords proof of an early connection of the 
inhabitants of Greece with Asia. The Achaeans in their turn 
succumbed to a fresh influx of invaders from the North, hardy 
mountaineers called Dorians, who established themselves at 
Sparta and elsewhere in the Peloponnese. In classical times 
the land was peopled by Ionians (*.*., the old Pelasgic popula- 
tion), iEolians (i.*., descendants of the Achaeans), and Dorians. 
Dorian Sparta and Ionian (Pelasgian) Athens are the two 
principal factors in the drama of Greece. It was not till some 
500 years after the fall of Troy that the new Hellenic civiliza- 
tion was evinced in the construction of the Temple of Corinth 
(b.c 650), one of the earliest Doric temples known. 

As regards the people themselves, it is clear that the national 
games and religious festivals united them in reverence for their 
religion, and gave them that love for music, the drama, and the 
fine arts, and that emulation in manly sports and contests for 
which they were distinguished. It should be remembered that 
the people led an open-air life, for the public ceremonies and in 
many cases the administration of justice were carried on in the 
open air. 

The Greeks, as already indicated, were great colonists, and 
emigration, especially to the coast of Asia Minor and the 
Mediterranean, was a government measure dating from about 
b.c 700, undertaken not only to establish trade, but also to reduce 
the superfluous population, and to provide an outlet for party 
strife. It thus came about that the colonies were often peopled 
with citizens of a more energetic and go-ahead character than 
those of the mother country ; and it will therefore be found that 
many of the important buildings of Greek architecture, especially 
in the Ionic style, are in their colonies of Asia Minor, and 
that this connection with the East had some influence upon 
their architecture. 

vi. Historical. — The poems of Homer, apparently a Pelasgic 
bard who sang for Achaean masters, give a picture of Greek 
life about the twelfth century b.c Whether or no the war with 
Troy be an actual fact, the incidents related have a substratum 
of truth, and the tale probably arose out of the early conflicts of 
the Greeks in north-west Asia. The Hesiodic poems, cite, b.c 750, 
depict the gloomy prospects and sordid life of the Boeotian 
peasantry at a time when art was almost in abeyance. For the 


fourth and fifth centuries B.C. there are the more or less critical 
histories of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, and others. The 
cities of Greece had by this time settled down in their several 
forms of government— tyrannic, aristocratic, or democratic — and 
most of their colonies had been founded. The Persians under 
Cyrus, having captured Sardis, overthrew the kingdom of Lydia ; 
whereupon the Greeks of Asia Minor became subject to Persia, 
It was the revolt of these Ionians in b.c 499-493 which led to the 
Persian wars. The first great Persian invasion resulted in the 
victory of the Greeks at the battle of Marathon, B.C. 490 ; and 
the second invasion by Xerxes terminated in the naval victory 
of Salamis (B.c.480). National exaltation caused by the defeats 
of the Persians is largely responsible for the fact that all the 
important temples now found in Greece were built in the " fifty 
years " which succeeded the battles of Salamis and Plataea. The 
wonderfully rapid growth of Athens excited the jealousy of the 
slower Spartans, and the Peloponnesian war, which followed, 
lasted from B.C. 431 to 404. The rule of Pericles (b.c. 444-429) 
marks the climax of Athenian prosperity. The Peloponnesian 
war left Sparta the chief power in Greece ; but her arbitrary and 
high-handed conduct roused other states against her, and the 
supremacy passed successively to Thebes and Macedonia. The 
latter had hitherto been considered a half-barbarian state; 
but thanks to the ability of Philip King of Macedonia and of 
his son Alexander the Great, it rose to a leading position in 
Greece. In b.c. 334 Alexander set out on his great expedition, 
and in six years he subdued the Persian Empire, having besieged 
and taken Tyre en route and received the submission of Egypt, 
where he founded and gave his name to the famous city of 
Alexandria. His conquests extended to Northern India, and 
the effect of these was most important, for Hellenic civilization 
was thus introduced far and wide throughout Asia. On his death 
at Babylon in b.c. 323, the empire he had created was split up 
among his Generals, Egypt falling to the share of Ptolemy, who 
founded a dynasty (page 12). In Greece itself the formation 
of leagues, as the Achaean and ^Etolian, between cities was 
attempted ; but the Roman interference had commenced, and 
gradually increased until in b.c. 146 Greece became a Roman 
province. The isolation and mutual animosity of the Greek 
communities afforded all too good an opportunity for the intrusion 
of the better-centralized and more united power of Rome. En 
revanche, where arts not arms were concerned, 

" Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artes 
Intulit agresti Latio." 



Much as Greek culture owed to the preceding Oriental 
civilizations, still the change effected by the Greeks has so 
profoundly influenced the development of European progress 
that Greece must be regarded as the veritable source of literary 
and artistic inspiration. As a recent writer puts it, " Whate'er 
we hold of beauty, half is hers." Greek architecture stands alone 
in being accepted as beyond criticism, and as being an obligatory 
study for students of otherwise very different principles. 

The character of the early or Mycenaean period, also known as 
the Pelasgic, Cyclopean or Primitive period, is very different from 
the later or Hellenic period, and, as mentioned on page 53, con- 
sists of rough walling of large blocks of stone, often un worked. 
In this period the Greeks often had recourse to the corbel system, 
to inclined blocks over openings, and even to the true arch. 

The Hellenic Period which followed the Mycenaean is dealt 
with specially here because it is notable for the development of 
the trabeated style which the Greeks approved and developed, 
and which is recognised as the special Grecian type. 
The following diagram emphasizes the main facts : — 

Greeks. Etruscans. 

! / 

if Roman. r 

Greek. if Roman. r Gothic. 

Trabeated. Trabeated and Arcuated. Arcuated. 

This style was essentially columnar and trabeated (trabs»a 
beam), and the character was largely influenced by the use of 
finely -dressed marble. 

Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of 
the laws of gravity ; the weights acting only vertically, and 
consequently needing but vertical resistances. 

Stone or marble lintels being difficult to obtain of any great 
length, the columns or supporting members had to be placed com- 
paratively close together, a method of design which called for a 
certain simplicity of treatment characteristic of the style. Mortar 
was unnecessary because it would have been of no use for dis- 
tributing the pressure between the stone or marble blocks of 
which the walls and columns were constructed, as the beds of 
these were rubbed to a very fine surface and united with iron 
cramps. Further, careful study of the materials at hand was 
made, for Choisy found in the temples at JEgma. and Paestum 
(Nos. 20, 28), that the stones were laid on their natural bed or 
otherwise, according to the pressures they had to bear ; thus the 
architraves, which had to support a cross pressure, were placed 
with the planes of their beds vertically, as they were then better 
able to withstand a cross-strain, and a wider intercolumniation 
could also be obtained. 

f.a. e 


xockhjs xt tiiyhs. wrrwH or the una'* * 

(SOUTH) Cfi?TLt, PE9TI0YD 6.C. -MS. ITS ¥%* 

of craopc^M axsonitt awosu of blocks 



The general architectural character of the early works of the 
Hellenic period is heavy and severe, the influence of the Mycenaean 
period being apparent ; but a gradual change towards refinement 
and beauty took place, and in the later periods the proportions of 
the columns were more slender, and the mouldings more refined. 
Unity of effect in the larger temples was obtained by the colon- 
nade surrounding the shrine-cell, forming a contrast with the 
number of courts, halls, and chambers, decreasing in size from the 
entrance pylons, comprised in a typical Egyptian temple. Greek 
buildings have the qualities of harmony, simplicity and unity, 
because of the excellence of their proportions, their truthful and 
apparent construction, and the employment of one constructive 

Many refinements in design were practised in the best 
period of Greek art, in order to correct optical illusions, as has 
been discovered by the late Mr. Penrose in many temples, and 
especially in the Parthenon. The long lines of the architrave, 
styJobate, pediments and other features, which, if built straight in 
reality, would appear to sag or drop in the middle of their length, 
were formed with slight convex lines. For instance, in the 
Parthenon the stylobate has an upward curvature towards its 
centre of 2*61 inches on the east and west fronts, and of 4^39 
inches on the flanks. The vertical features were made to incline 
inwards in order to correct the tendency which such features have 
of appearing to fall outwards at the top. Thus, in the Parthenon 
the axes of the outer columns lean inwards 2*65 inches, and would 
meet if produced at a distance of a mile above ground. The faces of 
the architrave (No. 71, c) were also given an inward inclination. 
The shafts usually have an entasis which, in the case of the 
Parthenon column, amounts to about three-quarters of an inch 
in a height of 34 feet, and is shown on No. 71 d. 

The close spacing of the angle columns has been already 
referred to, and these were increased in thickness as it was found 
that seen against the sky owing to irradiation (No. 71, b) they 
would appear thinner than those seen against the darker 
background formed by the cella wall. 

According to Pennethorne a further correction is pointed out in 
an inscription from the Temple of Priene (No. 71, a), where 
according to Vitruvius, Bk. vi., chap. 2, the letters at the top of 
the inscription were increased in size, and the letters at the lower 
part decreased so that they might all appear of one size when seen 
from the point of sight. 

Sculpture and carving of the highest class completed the effec- 
tiveness of their most important buildings, and these were in- 
fluenced very largely by the hard, fine-grained marble employed, 
which rendered possible the delicate adjustment and refined 
treatment characteristic of this period. 

k 2 



Color and gilding were applied very largely by the Greeks both 
to their buildings and sculpture, and some of the remains which 
have been lately excavated at Athens, Delphi, and elsewhere still 
exhibit traces of their original coloring. 

The Greeks developed the so-called " Orders of Architecture," 
the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian being used by them. To these, 
in later times, the Romans added the Tuscan and Composite, 
thus completing the " five orders of architecture." An " order " 
in Greek and Roman architecture consists of the column or 
support, including base and capital, and the entablature, or part 
supported. The latter is divided into the architrave or lowest 
portion ; the frieze, or middle member, and the cornice or upper- 
most part. The proportions of these parts vary in the different 
orders, as do the mouldings and decorations applied (No. 38). 

The origin and evolution of the different parts of the three Greek 
orders are dealt with later under their respective headings, but the 
characteristics are well expressed in the following lines : — 

" First, unadorn'd, 
And nobly plain, the manly Doric rose ; 
Th' Ionic, men, with decent matron grace, 
Her airy pillar heaved ; luxuriant last, 
The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. 
The whole so measured, so lessen'd oft" 
By fine proportion, that the marble piles, 
Form'd to repel the still or stormy waste 
Of rolling ages, light as fabrics look 
That from the wand aerial rise." — Thomson. 

The late J. Addington Symonds well observed that Art is 
commonly evolved through three stages: (1) The ardent and 
inspired embodiment of a great idea — this gives strength and 
grandeur; (2) the original inspiration tempered by increasing 
knowledge and a clearer appreciation of limits — the result being 
symmetry ; (3) ebbing inspiration, details being elaborated, and 
novelties introduced to make up for its loss — this occasions a 
brilliant but somewhat disproportioned style. This progress can 
be traced in all departments of Greek life. In architecture, there 
is the solid strength of the Doric capital, the clear-cut beauty of 
the Ionic, and the florid detail of the Corinthian, in poetry the 
rugged grandeur of iEschylus, the exquisite symmetry of Sopho- 
cles, and the brilliant innovations of Euripides, and in sculpture, 
an Ageladas, a Pheidias, and a Praxiteles. 


The Mycenaean Period has already been denned as extend- 
ing to shortly after the war with Troy, though in the Islands (t.g. f 
Cyprus, Crete, and Delos), it lasted on till the eighth century b.c ; 
but remains of a pre- Mycenaean period called Min6an, dating 


back to about b.c. 3000, have been discovered by Dr. Arthur 
Evans, of which the Min6an Palace at Knossos in Crete is an 
example. The architectural remains of these periods include 
town-walls, palaces, and tombs. The walls are of three kinds of 
masonry: (1) "Cyclopean" i.e., masses of rock roughly quarried 
and piled on each other, without cramp-irons, but with clay 
mortar, the interstices between the larger being filled with smaller 
blocks. Examples at Argos, Tiryns, Mycenae, Knossos in Crete, 
and Athens. (2) Rectangular, i.e., carefully hewn rectangular 
blocks arranged in regular courses, but the joints between stones 
in the same course are not always vertical. Examples at 
Mycenae in the entrances and towers, and the entrance passage in 
"tholos" or beehive- tombs. (3) Polyzonal, i.e., many sided blocks 
accurately worked so as to fit together. Examples at Mycenae, 
wall of Acropolis at Athens, and Cnidus. Thus all three styles 
occur in structures of " Mycenaean " age, although in out-of-the- 
w r ay places, as in Caria, they survived for centuries. The first is 
seemingly the parent of the other two : but the common assump- 
tion that polygonal is later than rectangular masonry cannot be 
proved with regard to the Pelasgic period. 

In addition various characteristic features were used : — 

Corbels. — Sometimes horizontal courses were employed pro- 
jecting one beyond the other till the apex was reached, producing 
either a triangular opening as is found above the doorways of the 
tholos-tombs (No. 15 a, e), or an apparent arch as at CEniades in 
Acarnania, Assos, and the gallery at Tiryns, or a dome-shaped 
roof as in the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No. 15 a, b). 

Inclined Blocks. — Sometimes inclined blocks forming triangular 
headed openings were employed as in the early, perhaps pre- 
historic, sanctuary on Mount Ocha in Eubcea, and the ancient 
shrine of Apollo on Mount Cynthus (Delos). 

Arches. — A few examples of Greek arcuated work are extant, 
viz., a Cyclopean arch at Cnidus, an arch with a key-stone 
(partially dropped) in Acarnania, and an arched gateway at 
(Eniades. A water-channel or drain at Athens, which crosses the 
town from east to west, is partly arcuated and partly roofed with 
advancing corbels. The barrel-vault ("kamara") occurs in sub- 
terranean funeral chambers in Macedonia, and also in the vaulted 
passages at the theatre of Sicyon, the tunnel leading to the 
Stadium at Olympia and other places. 

The " tholos " or beehive-tombs at Mycenae, Orchomenos, and 
Amyclae were originally modelled on underground huts for the 
living (Vitruv. ii„ 1), the precise shape being found by Prof. Adler 
in Phrygia. At Mycenae the tholoi are confined to the lower city 
as opposed to the shaft-graves of the upper city. The largest and 
best preserved is the so-called " Treasury of Atreus " (No. 15). It 
consists of a long entrance passage or " dromos," 20 feet broad by 


1 1 5 feet long, a large vaulted chamber, about 50 feet broad by 50 feet 
high, and a small square tomb-cbamber adjoining. A similar tomb 
at Orchomenos in Bceotia has a magnificently ornamented ceiling 
in its sepulchral chamber, while another at Menidi in Attica has 
no less than five superposed lintels to support the mass of earth 
above it (cf. section of Great Pyramid, No. 5 d). These tombs 
belong to the second stage in the evolution of the dwelling-house, 
the complete series being (a) natural cave (No. 2 h) ; (6) artificial 
cave below ground ; (c) artificial cave above ground, i.e,, hut 
{No. 2 e). The famous Gate of Lions on the Acropolis at 
Mycenae also belongs to this period (No. 15 e). 

The Hellenic Period contains all the principal temples and 
monuments which were erected between the years B.C. 700 and 
the Roman occupation b.c. 146. The masterpieces of Greek 
architecture, however, were all erected in the short space of about 
ijo years, viz., between the defeat of the Persians, B.C. 480, and 
the death of Alexander, B.C. 323. 

Many of the Greek cities were upon or in the immediate 
vicinity of a hill which was known as the Acropolis (Greek = an 
upper city), and formed a citadel upon which the principal 
temples or treasure-houses were erected for safety. A model of 
the Acropolis at Athens in the British Museum wilt give a good 
general idea of the disposition of the important buildings placed 
thereon, as also the plan No. 17. Other great centres of archi- 
tectural activity were Olympia, Delphi, Psestum in South Italy, 
Sicdy, and Asia Minor. 


The Temples formed the most important class of buildings 
erected during this period, and a general description applicable 
to all is therefore given. 

Their points of difference with Egyptian examples have been 
already referred to. (Pages 15, 21, 28). They were built with 
special regard to external effect, and were ornamented with 
sculpture of the highest class in order to form fitting shrines 
for the deities in whose honour they were erected. They were 
generally placed in a "temenos" or sacred enclosure, and consisted 
of a " naos " or cell, usually oblong in plan, in which was placed 
the statue of the god or goddess ; a treasury or chamber beyond 
and a front and rear portico, with flanking colonnades, the whole 
generally raised on a stylobate of three steps. 

In the larger temples were internal colonnades of columns placed 
over each other to support the roof (Nos. 18 h, 20, 23, 25, 28 a, b, 
and 31). On the two end facades above the columns a triangular- 
shaped pediment, usually but not always filled with sculpture, 
terminated the simple span roof (Nos. 16 a, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 28, 
30, and 31 a). These roofs were constructed of timber and covered 
with marble slabs ; the ends of the overlapped joints being provided 
with ante-fixae at the eaves (Nos. 16 d, 20 h, j, and 44 n). The 
door was almost always placed in the centre of the end wall, 
behind the portico of columns, and frequently planned so that the 
sun might enter and light up the statue opposite. 

The general absence of windows in the temples, that at 
Agrigentum being the only exception (No. 28 o), has given rise 
to many theories as to how light was admitted. The method of 
lighting by a clerestory concealed in the roof which is favoured by 
Mr. Fergusson (No. 25 a), can be seen practically in Sir Arthur 
Blomfield's restoration of S. Peter, Eaton Square, London. 
Another theory by Herr Botticher is also shown (No. 25 b). 

The temple was occasionally " hypaethral," that is to say, there 
was an opening in the roof which admitted air and light to the 
central portion of the naos or cell. The use of an hypaethral 
opening has been often refuted, but it appears to have been used 
in the larger temples as in that of Jupiter Olympius at Athens 
(No. 18 j) (see Vitruvius), and in tne Ionic Temple of Apollo- 
Didymaeus, near Miletus, as mentioned in Strabo (lib. xiv.). 
The temple was the house of the local god, being merely a 
glorified dwelling-house, and some hold that the opening in the 
centre of an ordinary house must have had some counterpart in 
that of the divinity. Both alike were developed out of the smoke- 
hole of the primitive hut ; the whole development being ably 
traced in an article on " domus" in Daremberg et Saglio, " Diet, 
des Antiquites." An extant hypaethral opening is that of the 
Pantheon, Rome (Nos. 54, 55). 

Many authorities hold that light was obtained solely through 


P3I ,<aa l""l P"l 


the doorways, others that the transparent Parian marble roofing 
slabs would admit sufficient light. 

Artificial illumination by means of lamps may also have been 

The different kinds of temples are classified, by the disposi- 
tion of their columns, and a sheet of plans (No. 18) is given 
in order to indicate the general distribution of parts, and also to 
show the evolution from the simple shrine-cell of the smaller 
examples. The different methods of spacing the columns one 
from the other is shown in No. 39, r, s, t, u, v. 

i. Distyle in antis at one end (the simplest form, having two 

columns between antae). Ex.Templeof Rhamnus(No. 18 a). 

ii. Distyle in antis at both ends. Ex. Doric Temple at Eleusis 

(No. 18 b). 
iii. Prostyle tetrastyle (a front portico of four columns). Ex. 

Doric Temple at Selinus, Sicily (No. 18 d). 
iv. Amphi-prostyle tetrastyle (front and rear porticos of four 
columns). Ex. Ionic Temple on the Ilissus (No. 18 e), and 
Temple of Nik6-Apteros (No. 18 n). 
v. Peripteral circular (a ring of columns surrounding a circular 
cell). Ex. Philipeion at Olympia, The Tholos at Epidauros 
(No. 18 k). 
vi. Peripteral hexastyle (a temple surrounded by columns, the 
porticos at each end having six). Ex. The Theseion 
Athens (Nos. 18 f and 21 d), Temple of Neptune, Paestum 
(No. 28 a, b, c), Temple of Apollo at Bassae (No. 27 c). 
vii. Peripteral octastyle (as last, but with eight columns to each 

portico). Ex. the Parthenon Athens (Nos. 18 h, 23 h). 
viii. Pseudo-peripteral (having columns attached to cella walls, 
a favourite form afterwards adopted by the Romans. See 
page 12). Greek ex. Temple of Jupiter at Agrigentum 
(No. 28 m). 
ix. Dipteral octastyle (double rows of columns surrounding 
temple, having ranges of eight at each end). Exs. Temple 
of Jupiter Olympius, Athens (No. 18 j), and Temple of 
Diana at Ephesus (No. 31 b). 
x. Pseudo-dipteral octastyle (as last, with the inner range left 
out). Ex. Great Doric Temple of Selinus, Sicily (No. 18 l). 
xi. Dipteral decastyle (as ix., but with ten columns at ends). 
Ex. Temple of Apollo Didymseus, near Miletus. A Roman 
example is the Great Temple at Baalbec (No. 53 e). 
xii. Octagonal. Ex. Tower of the Winds Athens (No. 28 k, l). 
xiii. Irregular planning. Ex Erechtheion, Athens (Nos 18 m, 
30 f), The Propylcea, Athens (No. 18 n), Teleskrion at 
In order to keep the descriptions of classic temples together, 
mention is made here that the Romans employed the circular 

Tic r»'""C r.-r. " v e \*- e>C. ,\vi Vv». JTV > v VvV N x^'wU » >x l» \vv\l 

:. r . ;ct j< t v «r .r ^ ~~ .r ;" :>* : v w v>>i ov > v V»uvn o»oe* v k 
is :c 5cej:ii^ -rrr-sc.tS; ; '';«:i\s iv.; v:\\a*d o\ xvwmI .uuhouoeH % 

Perrrc xrc Cr. ;vf-\ ; r :'vu :vo ,% ;vnental wotk on u \il *n 
Pr.n:::-.* v"r:eto?. " iscus^ : %v <- ouc^on ot I he wooden \M»v;»w*l 
the Greek IVric c/.u~*r. avd :;s enwblaums and eude^\o\n to 
show ::> der.-.A:;.r. no:r. the wooden budi punlonun* \v% jvtx h ol 
the Mvceruean rvu.ue No. 10* lhe\ ihonKetw* mk^'-.I no 
oridn of the Car::al. and decline to eouMdoi the demotion hon\ 
the examples at Bexri-HasAn in F$\pt» 

They make various inteiestinvi su^eMions » \\ 4 iho di i it\«U(^i\ 
of the "gutra*" from tvnst met i\o \\o\hUm\ jh*v»*»» »»ml \\w \\A\*\*\ 
tion they i^ve of the timber atvhittvtuio ^^ M\mm»,^.»u p.\l«\M-, 
and the explanation of the wooden tvpes umhI tin ttt<tliM*l\ In llu» 
later stone architectute, form a eonsistent <mil itlti«u H\«» ihi'nn 

a theory, moreover, which is yeatly ^ainiiu: K'°* m »l a,h ' ,M '" in»m\ 
minds convincing. Illustrations showing \\\vw i m nitkiti in IImmm 
are given in No. 16. 

Yiollet-le-Duc, however, held u (Iim-uIihI opinion llml lln> unli-i-i 
of Greek architecture involved an oiif.;inal hlnni* tinnhnonl. !!»• 
was unable to conceive how tho UierU I >ni h i itf ill ill iniilil Iniui 
been derived from a timber fotm, and lir iiiiihidnii»d llm lil|il\pln» 
in the frieze, not as the petrified cmhIm mI vvnodtn l»niMi'« wlilili 
could not be seen on four sides of a buildiiif/, and whli h wmild !«»■ 
very difficult to flute across thn Ktuiti nl llin wood bill tm uili'liuil 
stone uprights, fluted to express theit luia lion ol vrilh nl »»nppiiil, 
and therefore treated in thin leaped in llu« i>iinn« iihiiiim i a«» lli»- 
columns, which were certainly Hnleil when in putjilloii IIm III" 
wise observed that "the form tfivn Ui lh<« i-nlablaliiM*. of Jim 
Doric order can be adapted witlmomn unnnpoilanl vuiiiiMoini lo a 
structure in stone an well as of wood, hi /mhImi i >n»e. Involvhif/ 



the necessity of falsifying the form or the structure." He was 
not prepared to admit, then, that a wooden original suggested a 
stone structure in the composition of the Doric order ; indeed, 
he would rather suppose the converse. 

Garbett goes so far as to call the wooden theory an " insolent 
libel," and asserts that in the case of the inclination of the soffit 
of the cornice this barbarous theory is at once disproved by two 
facts, the inclination being observed on the fronts equally with 
the sides of the building, and its angle being wholly independent 
of that of the roof. 

A later writer, Mr. H. H. Statham, in a recent work on 
architecture, rejects the wooden theory as far as the Doric column 
and capital are concerned, and adds that its adherents have to 
explain these facts : (i.) That the greater the age of the known 
and approximately dated examples, the thicker the columns are, 
while the reverse would probably have been the case had the 
original forms been wooden ; and (ii.) That the characteristic 
moulding under the abacus of the Doric column is an essentially 
stone form, and one which it would not be at all easy to work in wood. 

These opponents of the wooden theory might, howevej, have 
modified their views, had they been familiar with the recently- 
discovered examples of Pelasgic or " Mycenaean " construction. 
The similarities between these proto- historic buildings and the 
later Greek styles of architecture are too numerous to be acci- 
dental, and Pelasgic or " Mycenaean " palaces undoubtedly had 
columns and entablatures of wood. 

The column, which has no base, but stands directly on a 
stylobate usually of three steps is, including the cap, from 4 to 6£ 
times the diameter at the base in height. The circular shaft 
diminishing at the top to from £ to $ of this diameter is divided as a 
rule in 20 shallow flutes or channels separated by sharp arrises. 
Occasionally the flutes number 12 (Assos), 16 (Sunium), 18 (Greek 
Temple at Pompeii), or 24 (Paestum, No. 19 b). The division 
into twenty flutes seems to have been selected in order that a pro- 
jection or arris might come under each of the angles of the square 
abacus above, and at the same time a flute in the centre of the 
column as seen from the front, back or sides. It will be found 
that no other number of flutes between twelve and twenty-eight 
will enable this to be done, thus following out one of the Greek 
constructive principles of placing projections over projections. 
The shaft has normally an outward curvature of profile called the 
"entasis" (No. 17 a), to counteract the hollow appearance of 
straight sided columns. In early works this is often too obtru- 
sive [e.g., Basilica at Paestum) ; where it is omitted altogether (e.g., 
Corinth) the effect is lifeless ; but the happy mean may be seen 
in the Parthenon, (page 67). The column is surmounted by a 
distinctive capital formed of abacus, echinus and annulets. The 


The Temple i Aphha. (Juhtej pammeuehiib) a /zcmA. 



abacus is a square slab under which is a large convex moulding 
called the echinus, which is somewhat similar in outline to a 
human hand supporting a book. The profile of the echinus varies 
according to the date of erection, the earlier examples, such as 
the Temples at Pastum (No. 19 a, b), being fuller in outline 
(approximately parabolic section), whereas in the later examples 
such as the Theseion (No. 19 d), and the Parthenon (No. 19 e) 
the curve approaches a straight line (approximately hyperbolic 
section). Annulets or horizontal fillets varying from three to five 
in number are placed beneath the echinus of the capital in order 
to form a stop or contrast to the long lines of the arrises between 
the flutes. Immediately below is the trachelion or necking, having 
beneath it the hypotrachelion formed of three groves in the older 
or archaic examples and one in the later. 

The entablature, usually about one quarter of the height of 
order, is supported by columns, and has three main divisions : — 

(a.) The architrave is derived from its prototype, the wooden 
beam. It has considerable depth, and only one vertical face, whereas 
in the Ionic and Corinthian orders the usual number is three. 
Separating this from the frieze is a flat moulding called the tenia, 
and underneath this at intervals corresponding to the triglyphs is 
a narrow band called the regula, having six guttae. 

(b.) The frieze has triglyphs, ornamented with three channels, 
and metopes or square spaces between them, sometimes filled with 
sculpture of the highest quality (page 72). Beneath the triglyphs 
are guttae or small conical drops. The triglyphs are placed at 
equal distances apart, and come immediately over the centre of 
each column and intercolumniation. At the angles, however, this 
is not so, because the two triglyphs meet with a bevelled edge, 
and in consequence the intercolumniation of the two outer 
columns in each front is less by about half a triglyph in width 
than that of the others. 

(c . ) The cornice consists of an upper or crowning part consist- 
ing of cymatium and birdsbeak mouldings beneath which is a 
vertical face known as the corona. The soffit is inclined upwards 
and parallel with the slope of the roof, and its underside has flat 
projecting blocks called mutuies, which recall the feet of sloping 
rafters, one over each triglyph and metope, their soffits being 
ornamented with eighteen guttae in three rows of six each. 

The principal examples are found in Greece, Sicily, and South 

Doric Examples in Greece. 

Date. Architect. 

The Heraion, Olympia (No. 31 c, n, page 66) B c. 700 
The Temple of At hena % Corittth . B.C. 650 

The Temple of Poseidoti, Island of Par os . B.C. 6th cent. 
The Temple of Zeus, Olvmpia (page 67) B.C. 472-469 Libon. 

The so-called Theseion or Temple, of Hephaestos (?) b.c. 465. 



Doric Examples in Greece (continued). 

Date. Architect. 

The Theseion (so called) or Temple of B.C. 465 (?) 

Hephaestos, Athens (No. 19 D, 21. 22, 

38 a) (page 67). 
The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhel- B.c. 470-450 

lenius) on the Island of ALgina. (Nos. 

19 c, 20) (page 67). 
The Parthenon, A thefts (No. 16 A, B, B.C. 454-438 Ictinus and Callicrates* 

c, D, E, F, 17, 18 H, 19 e, 23, 24, 25, 

40 A, D, K, 44 G, h) (page 67). 
The Temple of Poseidon, Sunium . . B.C. 440 

The Propylaa (Entrance Gateway), Athens B.c. 437-432 

(Nos. 17, 18 N, 26) (page 93). 
The Temple of Apollo Epicurius ("The 

Ally"), Bassa, near Phigaleia in Arcadia 

(No. 27 A, B, C, D, L, M, N, 28 F, G, H) 

(page 72). 
The Temple of Demeter (Ceres), or the Hall 

of the Mysteries, Eleusis. 
The Tholos, Epidauros (No. 18 k) . 
The Temples of Themis and Nemesis (No. 

18 a), Rhamnus. 
The Temple of Apollo, Island of Delos (No. 

19 F). 

B.C. 430 


B.C. 435-310. Ictinus and Philon. 
B.C. 4th cent. Polycleitos the younger. 

B.C. 300. 

Doric Examples in Sicily and South Italy. 

Temple 1 Selinus, Sicily (No. B.C. 610-509 

B.c 550 


b. c. 6th cent. 
B.C. 5th cent. 

B.C. 628-4IO 
B.C. 480 

The Great 

18 L). 
The Temple known as the " Basilica, 

Pastum (No 28 D, E). 
The Temple of Ceres, Pastum (No. 19 A). B.C. 550 

The Temple of Concord, Agrigentum . . B.C. 550 
The Temple of Juno, Agrigentum . . . B.C. 550 
The 1 emple of Poseidon (Neptune), Pastum, B.C. 500 

S. Italy (No. 19 B). 
The Temple of Athena, Syracuse, Sicily 
The Temple of Egesta, Sicily . 
Temples (several) at Selinus, Sicily 
The Temple of Zeus (Jupiter) Olympius, B.C. 480 Theron. 

Agrigentum (Girgenti), Sicily (No. 28 M, 

N, o) (page 75). 

The Heraion (Temple of Hera), Olympia (b.c. 700) 
(Nos. 31 c, d, 41 e), is believed to be the most ancient of all 
Greek Temples hitherto discovered. It stands on a stylobate of 
two steps, measuring 168 feet by 64 feet 6 inches. The cella 
is very long in proportion to its width and has on either side a 
range of eight columns, the alternate ones being connected to the 
cella wall by means of short transverse walls. The peristyle 
columns, which with the capitals measured 17 feet in height, 
varied much in diameter and are both monolithic and built in 
drums. It is generally held that the original columns were of wood 
replaced by stone columns as they decayed (see page 59, on the 


origin of tlvj Doric Order). Pausanias mentions that in the 2nd 
century a.d. two of the columns in the opisthodomos were of oak. 

The Temple of Zeus, Olympia (b.c. 472 — 469) is peripteral 
hexastyle on plan. The columns, of which there are thirteen to 
the sides, equal those of the Parthenon in height, but are much 
greater in diameter. The building was especially famous for its 
sculptured pediments by Paeonias and Alcamenes. 

The so-called Theseion (? b.c. 465) (Nos. 18 f, 19 d, 21, 22, 
38 a), is now generally believed to be the Temple of Hephaestos, 
and, although the best preserved Doric example in Greece, both 
date and name are a matter of doubt. It is peripteral hexastyle 
on plan with thirteen columns on each flank. The existing 
lacunaria, especially at the eastern end, still retain some of their 
original coloring. The metopes and portions of the frieze are 
shown on No. 21, but although both pediments were ornamented 
with sculpture none of this now remains. 

The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius), (b.c 470 — 
450)1 (No. 19 c), on the Island of vfegina is an interesting and well- 
preserved example of an early peripteral hexastyle temple. On 
the interior are two rows of five columns which help to support 
the roof. A general description is given on No. 20. 

The Parthenon (b.c. 454 — 438) (Nos. 16, 17, 23, 24), was 
erected in the time of Pericles, being dedicated to Athena 
Parthenos (the virgin Athena). Ictinus and Callicrates were 
the architects and Phidias was the superintending sculptor. The 
temple is peripteral octastyle on plan, with seventeen columns on 
the flanks. It is placed on a stylobate of three steps, the dimen- 
sions on the top step being 102 feet by 228 feet, i.e., a relation of 
breadth to length of about 4 to 9. Each of the steps measures 
about 1 foot 8 inches high and 2 feet 4 inches wide, and being too 
steep to ascend with comfort, intermediate steps were provided at 
the centre of the east and west ends (No. 23 f). On the east, the 
principal doorway, led into the cella, which, measuring 100 attic 
feet in length, was called the " Hecatompedon." The cella, 
62 feet 6 inches wide, was divided into a nave and aisles by two 
rows of ten Doric columns, 3 feet 8 inches in diameter, and having 
sixteen flutes, as may be saen by. the marks of their basis on the 
marble paving. » Three columns were placed at the western end, 
so making the aisle continuous round three sides of the cella. 
Near the western end of the cella was the famous statue of Athena, 
mentioned hereafter. To the west of the cella was the Parthenon 
proper (».*. virgin's chamber), from which the temple took its name. 
This chamber is a peculiarity differentiating the temple from most 
others, and it appears to have been used as the Hieratic treasury. 
It was entered from the opisthodomos by a large doorway corre- 
sponding to the eastern one, and its roof was supported by four 
Ionic columns (No. 23 a, c). The cella and the Parthenon were 

f 2 



enclosed by walls about four feet thick, having on the outside, 
encircling the building, an ambulatory 9 feet wide on the sides and 
11 feet in the front and rear/ Both the pronaos and opisthodomos 
(measuring about 60 feet by 12 feet) were planned in a somewhat 
unusual manner, having six columns about 5^ feet in diameter 
and 33 feet high, forming a prostyle portico on an upper stylo- 
bate of two steps. They were both used as treasure stores, and in 
order to render them secure, lofty metal grilles extending from the 
floor to the roof were fixed between the columns, the central 
intercolumniation having gates for means of access. 

The internal columns supported an upper row of smaller Doric 
columns carrying the roof timbers and forming the side aisles in 
two heights (an arrangement still to be seen in the Temple of 
Poseidon (Neptune) at Paestum). Near the western end of the cella 
stood the famous statue of Athena Parthenos, being one of the 
most marvellous works of Phidias, representing Athena fully 
armed with spear, helmet, aegis and shield, supporting a winged 
victory in her right hand (No. 23 k). It was a "chryselephantine " 
(gold and ivory) statue, about 40 feet in height, including the 
pedestal, and was constructed on a wooden core. The gold plates 
of which it w r as partly composed were detachable and could be 
removed in case of national dangers. The face, hands and feet 
were of ivory, but the drapery, armour, and accessories were of 
solid gold, and precious stones were inserted for the eyes. 

The manner of lighting the interiors of Greek temples has 
already been referred to (page 56), and the theories there set forth 
apply especially to the Parthenon. The most prominent external 
features are the fluted marble columns, 34 feet 3 inches high, 
forming the peristyle and resting on the stylobate. Only thirty- 
two are still standing ; they are 6 feet 3 inches in diameter at the 
base and 4 feet 7 inches under the echinus, and support an 
entablature 11 feet high with the usual divisions of architrave, 
frieze and cornice, as already described (page 59). The former 
is three slabs in thickness, and was ornamented on its eastern and 
western fronts with bronze shields, probably selected from those 
presented by Alexander the Great in b.c 334, with dedicatory 
inscriptions between in bronze letters. The flanks of the building 
were enriched by the antefixae placed at the bottom of the rows of 
marble tiles which covered the roof. The pediments or low gables 
which terminated the roof at each end had at their lower angles an 
acrqterion and a carved lion's head. The apex (59 feet above the 
stylobate) was also ornamented by a large sculptured acroterion 
of the anthemion ornament (No. 16 a). The peristyle ceiling was 
richly ornamented with " lacunaria " and marble beams, some of 
which at the western end are still in situ. The triangular enclosed 
portions (tympana) were filled with sculpture of the most perfect 
type. The eastern pediment represents the birth of Athena and 


Parthenon, At 
View of Angle. 


i $?^nvEioBiMSffiif .raw 






The Parthenon, Athens. 


the western the contest of Athena and Poseidon for the possession 
of Athens. The celebrated Panathenaic frieze was carved along 
the top of the outside of the cella wall, being taken across the east 
and west ends above the six columns to pronaos and opisthodomos. 
It is 3 feet 4 inches high, in very slight relief (1 J inches), and is 
carefully sculptured so as to be effective by reflected light 
(No. 23 f). It represents the Panathenaic procession every 
fourth year to the Acropolis in order to present the " peplos " 
or robe to the goddess Athena, and shows the prepara- 
tions of the Athenian knights,, procession of Athenian cavalry, 
chariots, men with olive branches, musicians, youths, sacri- 
ficial animals, maidens with sacrificial vessels, magistrates and 
gods, terminating with a great central group at the eastern 
end over the principal entrance to the temple. Out of a total 
length of 525 feet only 335 feet are in existence. The western 
frieze, excepting the three central figures, is in its original 
position ; the greater portion of that belonging to the northern, 
southern and eastern sides is in the British Museum, the 
remainder, with the exception of eight fragments of the eastern 
frieze in the Louvre, being in the Athens museum. The sculptured 
metopes,.about 4 feet 4 inches square, numbering fourteen on each 
front and thirty-two on each side, are in high relief. Those on the 
eastern facade represent contests between the gods and giants, on 
the western, between Greeks and Amazons, on the southern, 
between centaurs (man-headed horses) and Lapithae, and on the 
northern, scenes from the siege of Troy. 

In the 6th century, the Parthenon was converted into a 
Christian Church, dedicated to the " Divine Wisdom," wheji 
an apse was formed at its eastern end. From 1206 — 1458 it was, 
under the Prankish Dukes of Athens, a Latin church. From 
1458 it was again an orthodox Greek church until 1460, when it 
was converted into a mosque. In 1687 during the capture of 
Athens by the Venetians, it was much damaged by a shell which 
fell into a portion of the building used as a powder magazine. 

In 1688, Athens was restored to the Turks and the building 
suffered considerable injury at their hands, until in 1801, through 
the instrumentality of Lord Elgin, many of the principal 
sculptures were removed to the British Museum. 

tl Earth proudly wears the Parthenon 
As the best gem upon her zone." 


The Temple of Apollo Epicurius (The Ally or Helper), 
Bassae, near Phigaleia in Arcadia (b.c 430) (Nos. 27, 28 f, g, h, 
29 N, o, p), of which Ictinus w r as architect, was an exceptional 
design in which all the three Grecian orders of architecture — 
Doric, Ionic and Corinthian — were employed. It is a peripteral 







hexastyle temple with fifteen columns on each flank, all built up 
in drums. The principal facade faces north, an unusual arrange- 
ment, and apparently due to its erection on the site of an earlier 
temple. The statue of Apollo was placed to one side at the 
southern end of the cella forming the sanctuary of the earlier 
building, which w r as orientated, light being admitted by an open- 
ing in the eastern wall. Owing to the narrowness of the cella, 
internal rows of columns were avoided, but instead of these a 
range of five fluted Ionic half-columns on each side forming the 
ends of short cross walls connected to the cella walls. The two 
columns furthest from the entrance on each side are joined to 
walls placed diagonally w 7 ith those of the cella. The single 
column at the southern end was of the Corinthian order, and is 
generally referred to as the earliest example known (No. 27 g, h, j). 
The lighting of the interior is conjectural, but the cella north of 
the more ancient sanctuary was probably hypaethral or had 
openings in order to admit top-light to the celebrated frieze above 
the internal half -columns (No. 27 b, d, e). These have a new 
and original treatment of the capital, with angle volutes, and have 
boldly moulded bases (No. 29 n, o, p;. The sculptured frieze, 
about 2 feet in height and 100 feet in length, represents the battles 
of the Centaurs and Lapithae, and the Athenians and Amazons. 
The building is constructed of a hard grey limestone, which being 
covered with a beautiful pink lichen of the district, has a very 
picturesque appearance. 

The roof was covered with Parian marble slabs, measuring 
3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet, and less than 2 inches in thickness. The 
ceiling of the peristyle was very richly treated in marble panels 
or lacunaria, and those to the pronaos and opisthodomos had 
marble beams in addition. 

The Temple of Zeus Olympius, Agrigentum (b.c 480) 
(No. 28 m, n, o), of which Theron was the architect, is of excep- 
tional design, and ranks as second in size among Grecian examples. 
It is pseudo- peripteral septastyle in plan, having seven half columns 
on the front and fourteen on each side. These half columns are 
of great size, being 1 3 feet in diameter, and are represented inter- 
nally by flat pilasters. The triple cella is of immense size, and 
is believed to have been lighted by windows high in the wall. 
The building was never completed, the illustrations being from 
restorations by Professor Cockerell. Owing to its immense size, 
structural truth (usually so important in Greek buildings) had to 
be sacrificed, the order being built up of small pieces, which in 
features like the echinus, abacus and architrave, is a departure 
from Greek principles, as is also the use of attached half columns. 
The architrave is supported not only by the half columns, but by 
the intervening screen wall to which they are attached. 




The Ionic order (No. 38 c) is especially remarkable for its scroll 
or volute capital. This, like so many other decorative motifs, 
seems to have been derived from the lotus bud of the Egyptians 
(No. 41 b), undergoing sundry modifications on its way from Egypt 
by way of Assyria to Asia Minor, but to what influence these 
modifications should be attributed is not at present clear. The 
spiral is also found in early Mycenaean jewellery and domestic 
articles as early as b.c 800, and these origins might be sufficient to 
account for its adoption in a later period. The earliest extant 
Ionic capitals at Lesbos, Neandra, and Cyprus, exhibit volutes of 
a distinctly vegetable type with a palmette interposed, and early 
Ionic capitals at Delos and Athens form a link between these and 
later types. The columns have shafts usually about nine times 
the lower diameter in height, including the capital and base, 
having twenty-four flutes separated by fillets, and not sharp edges 
as in the Doric order. The earlier examples, however, have 
shallow flutes separated by arrises, and the flutes number forty in 
the shafts in the Archaic Temple at Ephesus (No. 29 k) and at 
Naukratis, and 'forty four at Naxos. There is a moulded base 
(No. 40 h) usually consisting of a torus and scotia, but no square 
plinth. In the later examples a lower torus was added, making 
what is known as the Attic base. The capital consists of a pair 
of volutes or spirals, about two-thirds the diameter in height, on 
the front and back of the column, connected at their sides by what 
is known as the cushion, sometimes plain and sometimes orna- 
mented, and on the front and back an echinus moulding carved 
with the egg and dart, and a bead moulding under. 

The volutes were either formed by hand or by various 
geometrical processes easily acquired, one of which is shown on 
No. 41 g, where it will be seen it can also be formed by twisting a 
string round an inverted cone or common whelk shell. A further 
development was to make the angle capital with volutes facing 
the two facades by joining the two adjacent volutes at an angle 
approximating 45 (No. 41 p). The Temple at Bassae (Nos. 27, 
29, N, o, p), is an instance of all the volutes being thus placed. 

The entablature varies in height, but is usually about one-fifth 
of the whole order. It consists of (a) an architrave usually formed 
as a triple fascia, probably representing superimposed beams; 
(b) a frieze, sometimes plain, but often ornamented by a band of 
continuous sculpture (Nos. 27, 29 c) ; (c) a cornice, with no 
mutules, but usually with dentil ornament reminiscent of squared 
timbers, and having above it the corona and cyma-recta moulding. 
The principal examples of the Ionic order are found in Greece 
and Asia Minor. 

The Doric order provided a setting for sculptor's work. The 



Ionic incorporated it with the order itself, usually in the form of 
carved enrichments on its main lines. 

Ionic Examples. 

Datt\ Architect. 

The Archaic Temple of Artemis (Diana), B.C. 550 

Ephesus (No. 29 H.J. K? page 84). 
The Temple on the Ilisuts, Athens (Nos. B.C. 484 

18 e, 29 a. B, c. D, 38 c) (see below). 
The Temple of Xiks-Apteros ("Wingless B c. 438 Callicrates. 

Victory"), Athens (Nos. 18 N, 26 B, F, 

41 p) (see below;. 
The Propyttea, Athens (six internal columns) B.C. 437-32 Mnesicles. 

(page 93) (No. 17, 18 N, 26, 40 f). 
The Temple of Apollo Epicurius, Basstr B.C. 430 Ictinus. 

(The Internal crder only) (No. 27, 28 F, 

29 N, o, P) (page 72). 
The Erechtheion, Athens (No. 17, 18 m, B.C. 420-393 Mnesicles. 

29 E, F, G, 30) (page 81). 
The Mausoleum, Halicamassos (No. 35) B.C. 354 Satyrus and Pythius. 

(page 94). 
The Temple of Dionysus, Teos . B.c. 350 Hermogenes. 

The Temtle of Hera, Sawos . . . B.C. 350 
The Philipeion, Olympia (External colon- B.C. 338 

The Temple of Artemis (Diana), Ephesus B.C. 330 Paeon i us and Dcme- 

(No. 31 a, b) (page 84). irius of Ephesus. 

The Temple of Apollo - Didynurus near B.C. 335-320 | Pseonius of Ephesus, 

Miletus or Branchidic (page 84). | Daphne of Miletus. 

The Temple of Minerva Polias (Diana) at B.C. 320 Pythiu*. 

Priene, near Miletus (No. 29 L, M.) 

The Temple on the Ilissus, Athens (b.c 484) (Nos. 18 e, 
29 a, b, c, d, and 38 c), was amphi- prostyle tetrastyle, placed on a 
platform or stylobate of 3 steps. The cella was only 15 feet 
4 inches square. The columns, including base and capital, were 
14 feet 8 inches high, and supported an entablature 4 feet deep. 
The Temple was entirely destroyed by the Turks in 1780. 

The Temple of Nike Apteros (Athena Nike), Athens 
(b.c 438) (Nos. 17, 18 n, 26 b, f, 41 p), Callicrates being the 
architect, is perched picturesquely on the south-western spur of 
the Acropolis Rock, and is a beautiful example of a smaller 
Ionic Temple. In front of the Temple at the eastern end stood 
the sacrificial altar of the goddess, and the platform of rock on 
which the edifice stands was surrounded on three sides by a 
marble balustrade. It is amphi-prostyle tetrastyle in plan, 
and is raised on a stylobate of 3 steps, the cella being only 1 3 feet 
9 inches by 12 feet 5 inches. The Ionic columns to the east and 
west porticos resemble the internal columns of the Propylsea. 
They have a systyle intercolumniation, are 1 foot 9 inches in 
diameter, and 13 feet 6 inches high, and support an entablature 
4 feet 3 inches in height. The total height to the apex of the 




pediment is only 23 feet. The sculptured frieze, 18 inches high, 
originally consisting of fourteen slabs (four are in the British 
Museum), is in high relief. The marble balustrade mentioned 
above was 3 feet 2 inches high, enriched with very fine sculpture 
dating from B.C. 425-400. The Temple was removed by the 
Turks in 1684 and built into a battery on the Acropolis. In 1836, 
on the destruction of the battery, the materials were recovered 
and reconstructed by the architects Ross, Schaubert, and Hansen* 
The Erechtheion, Athens (b.c. 420-393) (Nos. 17, 18 m, 29 e, 
f, g, and 30), of which Mnesicles was the architect, is situated on 
the Acropolis, north of the Parthenon, and was erected on the 
site of an older temple burnt by the Persians in B.C. 480. The 
temple was regarded with special veneration by the Athenians, as 
it contained the memorials of the religion of the State, viz. :-^the 
sacred olive tree that Athena called forth in her contest with 
Poseidon, the salt well produced by the trident of Poseidon, the 
tomb of Cecrops, the olive wood Xoanon (primitive statue) of 
Athena Polias, the golden lamp of Callimachus, and other curiosi- 
ties and spoils from the Persians. It is an interesting example of 
unusual and irregular planning, due to its sloping site and the fact 
that it consisted of three distinct shrines. The distribution of 
the interior, which measures 61 feet 3 inches by 31 feet 6 inches, 
is still a matter of conjecture. It has no side colonnades, hence it 
is called " apteral.'' The eastern portion was appropriated to the 
shrine of Athena Polias (guardian of the city), the western portion 
to those of Erechtheus and Poseidon, the Pandroseion being pro- 
bably included within the precincts to the west of the temple proper. 
There are three porticos of different designs : an eastern Ionic 
hexastyle portico, a northern Ionic tetrastyle portico, and a 
southern Caryatid portico. The eastern portico probably formed 
the principal entrance. The columns are two diameters apart 
(systyle), the northern one being now in the British Museum. The 
northern portico gave access to the western cella ; it is on a level 
10 feet lower than the eastern one, from which it is approached by 
a wide flight of steps on the north. It projects westward of the 
main building, and its columns, three diameters apart (diastyle), 
are arranged in a manner unknown in other Greek buildings. 
They are 2 feet 9 inches in diameter, and 25 feet high. The 
doorway in this portico is of the finest workmanship (No. 37), with 
carved consoles and architrave enrichments. The southern or 
Caryatid portico (as it is called) was probably not an entrance, 
but a raised " tribune," as it had only a small entrance on its 
eastern side, whence the lower level of the western cella was 
reached by means of steps (No. 30 d, f). It has six sculptured 
draped female figures, 7 feet 9 inches high (Nos. 30 g and 42 g), 
similarly spaced to the columns of the northern portico, but 
resting on a solid marble wall about 8 feet above the level of the 

F.A. G 


terrace and supporting an unusual entablature on which rests the 
marble coffered roof. All the figures face southwards, the three 
western leaning on their right (outer) legs, and the three eastern 
on their left, thus correcting the same optical illusion as in the 
Parthenon and other temple facades. (The second Caryatid from 
the west is in the British Museum, being replaced in the building 
by a terra-cotta copy.) The exterior, constructed in marble from 
Mount Pentellicus, owes much of its character to the sloping site 
and unusual and irregular disposition of the three porticos, unlike 
in character, height, and treatment. The north portico is an 
example of a very rich treatment of the Ionic order. The capital 
has a plaited torus moulding between the volutes once inlaid with 
colored stones or glass, and bronze embellishments were formerly 
affixed to other parts of the capital. The spiral of the volute 
appears to have been finished by hand and is enriched with inter- 
mediate fillets, while the cushions (sides) have hollows and pro- 
jections carved with the bead and reel ornament (No. 41, l, m, n, o). 
The abacus is enriched with the egg and tongue ornament. The 
neckings of the columns are carved with the " anthemion " 
(palmette) ornament, which is also applied to the antae (No. 44 f), 
and carried round the entire building under the architrave. The 
shafts of the columns have an entasis, and the upper torus of the 
bases have plaited enrichments. 

The order of the eastern portico is very similar although less 
rich. The angle columns in each portico have the volutes arranged 
so as to show on both faces. The main building is crowned with 
an entablature 5 feet high, with the usual triple division of archi- 
trave, frieze, and cornice, with water- leaf and egg-and- tongue 
enrichments. The skyline was enriched by the acroterion orna- 
ments of the pediments and the antefixae of the marble roofing 
slabs. The frieze to the porticos and main building was formed 
of black Eleusinian marble, to which the sculptured figures of 
white marble were attached by metal cramps, a method of showing 
up the sculptured figures which in other temples was frequently 
gained by the use of color. The pediments appear to have been 
devoid of sculpture. 

The west wall was provided in Roman times with four Ionic 
half-columns, angle antas and three windows. 

The Erechtheion has passed through various vicissitudes. It 
was transformed into a church in the time of Justinian, and after 
the Turkish annexation it was converted into a harem. In 1827, 
during the Greek revolution, the north portico and coffered ceiling 
and portions of the rest of the building were destroyed, only three 
of the Caryatides remaining in position. In 1838, the walls were 
partially rebuilt in their present state, and in 1845 the Caryatid 
portico was re-erected. In 1852 a storm damaged the building, 
overthrowing the upper half of the western wall and engaged 
Roman columns. 



The Temple of Artemis (Diana), Ephesus (b.c. 330) 
(No. 31 a, b), occupied the site of two previous temples. The 
oldest archaic temple (No. 29 h, j, k) erected from the designs of 
Ctesiphon (b.c. 550), was burnt in b.c 400. It was either restored 
or rebuilt by the architects Paeonius and Demetrius, of Ephesus, 
but was again burnt in b.c. 356, on the night of Alexander's 
birth. The later temple, regarded as one of the seven wonders of 
the world, was erected in b.c 330 in the time of Alexander the 

The site of the temple was discovered by the architect Wood in 
1869 — 74> an d m any of the remains, both of the archaic and later 
temples are now in the British Museum. The building rested on 
a lower stylobate of four steps, having at each end an additional 
flight of steps, placed between the first and second rows of columns, 
in order to reach the upper platform. Conjecturally restored by 
the late Dr. Murray, by the aid of Pliny's description, the plan is 
dipteral octastyle, having double ranges of twenty columns on 
each flank. In addition to the cella, there were a pronaos, 
posticum, treasury, opisthodomos and staircases leading to the 
roof. Pliny mentioned that the temple had one hundred columns, 
thirty-six of which were sculptured on the lower drum, but he 
does not mention the sixteen front and rear columns with square 
sculptured pedestals, which are shown on a lower level so that 
their top surface is level with the upper platform. Behind these 
at each end are eight of the columns with sculptured drums, two 
being placed in antis to the pronaos and posticum, thus making 
the thirty-six columns with sculptured drums mentioned by Pliny. 

The cella is believed to have had super-imposed columns to 
carry the roof. The building externally must have been one of 
the most impressive among Greek temples, owing to its size, and 
the sculpture on the above-mentioned square sub-pedestals and 
thirty-six circular drums, which were probably suggested by the 
archaic temple, are distinctive of this building. 

The Temple of Apollo Didymseus, near Miletus (b.c. 335- 
320), was by the architects Paeonius of Ephesus, and Daphne of 
Miletus. There was an archaic temple having seated figures 
on either side and a lion and sphinx, which were dedicatory 
offerings to Apollo. (Ten of these seated figures and the lion and 
sphinx are in the archaic room of the British Museum.) This 
archaic temple was destroyed by the Persians under Darius, on 
the suppression of the Ionic revolt in b.c 496. The new temple 
is referred to by Strabo, who says, "In after times, the inhabit- 
ants of Miletus built a temple which is the largest of all, but 
which on account of its vastness remains without a roof, and there 
now exists inside and outside precious groves of laurel bushes." 

The building is dipteral decastyle on plan, the cella being 
hypaethral. It has a very deep pronaos, having beyond it an 


ante-chamber with stone staircases on either side. The cella 
walls were ornamented with Ionic pilasters, six feet wide and 
three feet deep, resting on a continuous podium, ranging with the 
peristyle level. These pilasters were crowned with capitals of 
varied design, having between them a sculptured band of griffins 
and lyres. 

At the eastern (entrance) end on either side of the doorway 
were half columns having Corinthian capitals, the acanthus leaves 
being unusually placed and the central volutes undeveloped. At 
the western end of the cella, Messrs. Rayet and Thomas discovered 
the foundations of a shrine. 

The peristyle columns of the Ionic order are fluted, and the 
bases are of very varied design, being octagonal with carved 
panels on each face. 


The Corinthian Order (Nos. 33 f, 38 e, 43 a, b, c), which is 
still more ornate than the Ionic, was little used by the Greeks. 

The column, the base and shaft of which resemble those of 
the Ionic, is generally about ten times the diameter in height, 
including the capital, and is placed on a stylobate in the same 
manner as the other orders. The distinctive capital is much 
deeper than the Ionic, being about one to one-and -one-sixth diame- 
ters in height. The origin of the capital is still unknown. It may 
have been derived from the Ionic, such as the Erechtheion example, 
where bands of sculpture occur beneath the scrolls, or it may have 
been borrowed from the bell-shaped capitals of the Egyptians, 
with the addition of the Assyrian spiral. 

Callimachus of Corinth, a worker in Corinthian bronze, is some- 
times referred to as the reputed author of the capital, and as the 
earlier examples appear to have been of this metal, the name may 
have been derived from the fact, for Pliny (xxxiv. chap, iii.) 
refers to a portico which was called Corinthian, from the bronze 
capitals of the pillars. It consists normally of a deep bell on 
which were carved two tiers of eight acanthus leaves, and between 
those of the upper row eight caulicoli (caulis=a stalk) surmounted 
by a curled leaf or calyx, from which spring the volutes (also 
known as caulicoli and helices by different authorities), supporting 
the angles of the abacus, and the small central volutes supporting 
a foliated ornament. 

The abacus is moulded and curved on plan on each face, the 
mouldings at the angles either being brought to a point as in the 
Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, at Miletus, Temple of Jupiter 
Olympius, at Athens (No. 43 a), and the Stoa or Portico, Athens 
(No. 33 f, g), or having their edges chamfered off as in the 
Monument of Lysicrates (No. 38 e). 


32. Chorahtc Monument of Lysicratks, Ati 


8 7 

Another type of capital has one row of acanthus leaves with 
palm leaves over, and a moulded abacus square on plan, as in the 
Tower of the Winds, Athens (No. 43 b). 

The entablature, which is usually about one-fifth of the 
height of the entire order, bears a general resemblance to the 
Ionic, having the usual triple division of architrave, frieze and 
cornice, the mouldings of the latter having additional enrichments. 

Corinthian Examples. 

The Temple of Apollo Epicurius, Bassce B.C. 430 

(single internal column). (No. 27 g, 

h, j) (page 72). 
The Tholos, Epidauros. (Internal order) B.C. 4th cent. 

(No. 18 K). 
The Philipeion, Olympia. (Internal order 

of half columns). 
The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. 

Athens (Nos. 28 J, 32, 38 e) (see below). 
The Temple of Apollo JDiaywaeus, Miletus 

(or Branchidae). (Two attached internal 

columns) (page 84). 
The Olympieion (or Temple of Zetis-Olympius^ B.C. 174 — \ 

Athens (No. 18 j, 43 a) (page 90). a.d. 117 ) 

The Tower of the IVino's, Athens (Nos. B.C. 100-35 

28 K, l. 43 B, D, R) (page 88). 
The Vestibule^ Eleusis. 

B.C. 338 
B.C. 335-34 

B-C- 334-320 


Polycleitos the 

Poeonius, of Ephesus 
and Daphne, of 

Cossutius (com- 
pleted by Hadrian). 

The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens (b.c. 

335-34), (Nos. 28 j, 32, 40 j, l, 43 c,), is a type of structure 

which was erected to support a tripod as a prize for athletic 

exercises or musical performances in the Grecian festivals. They 

are referred to in Yirgils' ^Eneid (V. verse, 140) in the following 

lines : — 

" In view amid the spacious circle lay 
The splendid gifts, the prizes of the day, 
Arms on the ground, and sacred tripods glow 
With wreaths of palms, to bind the Victor's brow." 

(Translation by Pitt.) 

The rusticated podium or base of Piraeus stone, 9 feet 6 inches 
square, supports a circular structure of 6 feet internal diameter, 
and having Corinthian columns supporting an entablature crowned 
by a marble dome, ornamented with sculptured scrolls, and 
terminating in a floral ornament which formerly supported the 
bronze tripod. Between the columns are circular wall panels, 
but the interior was apparently never intended for use, as there 
was no provision for the admission of light. The total height 
of the structure is 34 feet. The basement is slightly rusticated, 
by means of sinkings at the joints, and is 13 feet in height to 
the top of the cornice. The circular colonnade has six Corinthian 


columns 1 1 feet 7 inches high, projecting rather more than half 
their diameter. These rest on a secondary base encircling the 
whole building, and are complete in themselves, as shown on 
No. 38 e. Between the columns are panels, the upper part of 
each originally being sculptured in bas-relief. 

The flutings of the columns are peculiar in that they terminate 
at the top in the form of leaves. The capitals, 1 foot 7 inches 
high, bear some resemblance to those of the half-columns of about 
the same date in the cella of the Temple of Apollo- Didymae us, at 
Miletus. On the inside, where they could not be seen they were 
left unfinished. The foliage is different from the later type in 
having a lower row of sixteen small lotus leaves, then a single 
row of very beautiful acanthus leaves, having between them an 
eight-petalled flower resembling an Egyptian lotus. The channel 
just above the foliated flutings of the shaft probably had a 
bronze collar, although the Greeks were accustomed to these 
sinkings under their Doric capitals. The architrave and frieze are 
in one block of marble, the former bearing an inscription, and the 
latter being sculptured to represent the myth of Dionysos and the 
Tyrrhenian pirates. The cornice is crowned with a peculiar 
honeysuckle scroll, forming a sort of frilling, used instead of a 
cyma-recta moulding, and probably an imitation of ante-fixae 
terminating the joint tiles, as in Greek temples. The outside of the 
cupola is beautifully sculptured to imitate a covering of laurel 
leaves, and from the upper part branch out three scrolls (Nos. 42 a, 
44 d), the upper ends of which are generally supposed to have 
supported dolphins. The central portion is carried up as a 
foliated and moulded stalk or helix in conjunction with acanthus 
leaves branching in three directions, having on their upper 
surfaces cavities in which the original tripod feet were placed. 

The Tower of the Winds, Athens (b.c 100-35) (Nos. 28 k, 
l, 43 b, d, e), also known as the Horologium of Andronikos 
Cyrrhestes, was erected by him for measuring time by means of 
(a.) a clepsydra or water-clock internally ; (b.) a sun-dial externally; 
and it also acted as a weathercock. The building rests on a 
stylobate of three steps, and is octagonal, each of its eight sides 
facing the more important points of the compass. 

It measures 22 feet 4 inches internally, and on the north-east and 
north-west sides are porticos having Corinthian columns. From 
the south side projects a circular chamber, probably used as a 
reservoir for the water-clock. The interior has a height of 40 feet 
9 inches, and the upper part is provided with small fluted Doric 
columns resting on a circular band of stone. The Corinthian 
columns, 13 feet 6 inches high, to the external porticos are fluted. 
They have no base and the capitals are of a plain unusual type, 
without volutes, the upper row of leaves resembling those of the 
palm. The wall of the octagonal structure is quite plain for a 




height of 29 feet, with the exception of the incised iines forming 
the sun-dial, above which on each face are sculptured figures, 
boldly executed to represent the eight principal winds (Nos. 43 
d, e). The roof is formed of twenty-four equal sized blocks of 
marble, and was surmounted by a bronze Triton (see Vitruvius, I., 
chapter vi.). 

The Olympieion (Temple of Jupiter Olympius), Athens 
(No. 18 j), stands on the site of an earlier Doric temple commenced 
by Pisistratus, in b.c 530. It was commenced by Antiochus 
Epiphanes of Syria in b.c. 174, Cossutius, a Roman architect, 
being employed ; hence it is often designated Roman architecture. 
It remained incompleted, and in b.c 80 Sulla transported some of 
the columns to Rome for the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, as 
related by Pliny. The building was completed by Hadrian in 
a.d. 117, but only fifteen columns of the original one hundred and 
four forming the peristyle are standing. It was dipteral-octastyle 
on plan, having twenty columns on the flanks, and occupied 
an area of 354 feet by 154 feet (equalling the Hypostyle Hall at 
Karnac), and was placed in the centre of a magnificent peribolus 
or enclosure, measuring 680 feet by 424 feet, part of the retaining 
wall of which still remains at the south-east corner. It is 
described by Vitruvius as hypaethral, but it was unfinished in 
his time. The peristyle columns were 6 feet 4 inches in diameter, 
and had a height of 56 feet — a proportion of about one to nine. 
The capitals (No. 43 a) are very fine specimens of the Corinthian 
order, and appear to date from both periods mentioned above. 


The Greek theatre was generally hollowed out of the slope of 
a hill near the city, and was unroofed, the performances taking 
place in the day time. In plan (No. 34) it was usually rather 
more than a semicircle, being about two- thirds of a complete 
circle. The auditorium consisted of tiers of marble seats, rising 
one above the other, often cut out of the solid rock. Those 
spectators who sat at the extremities of the two wings thus faced 
towards the orchestra, but away from the stage. The Greek- 
theatre, which was constructed more for choral than dramatic 
performances, had a circular " orchestra" or dancing place 
(corresponding to the stalls and pit of a modern theatre) in 
which the chorus chanted and danced. 

The orchestra w T as the "germ " of the Greek theatre. 

The stage was known as the logeion or " speaking place," its 
back- wall being the skene ( = booth or tent for changing in), the 
latter name being preserved in the modern word " scene." The 
actors being few, the stage consisted of a long and narrow platform, 
with permanent background. To what height above the level of 



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the orchestra this platform was raised is a question that has been 
much debated in recent years. The most probable view seems to 
be the following: — (i.) In pre- iEschy lean drama, before regular 
theatres were made, an actor mounted on a table, probably the 
table-altar of the god Dionysos, and held a dialogue with the 
dancers or chorus. The rude table-stage illustrated on some 
vases from South Italy may represent a local retention of this primi- 
tive custom. (2.) In the fifth century B.C. no direct evidence is 
available ; but a low wooden stage is practically certain, connected 
by means of a ladder with the orchestra. (3.) The fourth century is 
the earliest period in which there is monumental evidence. At 
Megalopolis a platform of wood from 3 feet 3 inches to 4 feet 6 inches 
high appears probable, with a stone colonnade behind it. At Epi- 
dauros there was a wooden floor supported by a wall 12 feet high. 
(4.) In Hellenistic and Roman times, Vitruvius tells us, the Greek 
stage was 10 to 12 feet high, and this statement is borne out by 
many extant examples. The Theatre of Dionysos, Athens, 
(No. 17), completed b.c 340, in which thirty thousand spectators 
could be accommodated, is the prototype of all Greek theatres, 
and was the one in which the plays of the great Athenian 
dramatists were produced. 

The Theatre, Epidauros, was constructed by the architect 
Polycleitos, and is the most beautiful as well as the best pre- 
served example extant. The circle of the orchestra is complete, 
and is about 66 feet across, the entire theatre being 378 feet in 
diameter. Thirty-two rows of seats forming the lower division are 
separated by a broad passage (diazoma) from twenty rows above. 
Twenty-four flights of steps diverge as radii from bottom to top. 


The excavations lately carried out by Dr. Arthur Evans at 
Knossos in Crete (page 54), and those by the Italians at Phaestos, 
in the same island, have revealed palaces more remote in date than 
the Mycenaean period, to which is given the name " Minoan." The 
excavations of the Palace of King Minos, Knossos, show the 
remains of a remarkable structure laid out on a plan afterwards 
used in the Roman palaces and camps. This building is believed 
to date from about b.c 2000, and was unfortified. Underneath 
the upper palace were found the remains of an earlier one, which 
is believed to date from about b.c 3000. About five acres of this 
remarkable structure have been uncovered. The apartments, round 
a central oblong courtyard (about 180 feet by 90 feet), are 
constructed in several stories, which are reached by staircases. 
Some remarkable wall frescoes and colored plaster ceilings, an 
olive press with huge oil jars, and the remains of a system of 
drainage, with terra-cotta drain pipes, were discovered. 


At Tiryns, situated by the sea coast to the south-west of Athens, 
and at Mycenae, remains have been discovered of recent years by 
Drs. Schliemann and Ddrpfeld which are of the greatest interest 
in showing the general arrangement of other palaces (No. 15 f). 

At Mycenae, flights of steps lead to an outer courtyard, from 
which, by traversing a portico and vestibule, the mtgaron, or 
principal men's apartment, is reached. From this megaron, sur- 
rounded by a roof and open to the sky in the centre, were reached 
other chambers, whose uses are not denned. The women's 
chambers are considered by some authorities to be planned so as 
to afford the greatest seclusion, while others, notably Prof. Ernest 
Gardner, hold that little or no attempt was made at seclusion, 
and bring strong evidence to bear from literary authorities, 
principally from Homer. The plans of domestic buildings 
appear to have resembled, on a smaller scale, the general arrange- 
ment of the palaces as is seen in the remains at Athens, Delos, 
and Priene, dating from the Hellenic period. They appear to 
have been of one story only, and grouped around an internal 
courtyard or peristyle. Vitruvius (Book VI., chapter x.) refers to 
their general arrangement, when he says there was no atrium but 
a peristylium with a portico on three sides, and chambers grouped 
around. It is generally held that the Gra^co-Roman houses of 
Pompeii may be taken as typical examples (No. 05 a, u), and 
these may be referred to on page 162. 


Propylaea were erected as entrance gateways to many of 
the principal cities of Greece, and those at Athens, Epidauros, 
Sunium, Eleusis, and Priene are the best known. 

The Propylaea, Athens (No. 26), were erected under Pericles 
by the architect Mnesicles in b.c 437. It is at the west end of the 
Acropolis (No. 17), being reached by a long flight of steps from 
the plain beneath. It has front and rear hexastyle Doric porticos 
at different levels, giving access to a great covered hall, having a 
wide central passage bounded by two rows of Ionic columns, and 
having at its eastern end a wall in which are five doorways of 
different heights. On either side of the western entrance portico 
are projecting wings having three smaller Doric columns, that to 
the north being used as a picture gallery, while that to the south 
was never completed. The general external appearance is well 
shown in the restored view (No. 1). 


The most important from an architectural point of view are 
found in Asia Minor. The Harpy Tomb, Xanthos, in Lycia 


(b.c. 550) is an early or archaic example, with sculptured reliefs, 
from which the tomb is named, and is now in the British Museum. 
The Nereid Monument (b.c fifth century), Xanthos, is 
generally considered to have been erected as a trophy monument. 
Important fragments discovered by Sir Charles Fellows, and the 
model in the British Museum, indicate a building consisting of a 
central chamber or cella surrounded by a colonnade of fourteen 
Ionic columns, the whole elevated on a basement standing on two 
steps. The sculptured figures of nereids or marine nymphs, from 
which the building takes its name, originally stood between the 
columns and had under them marine attributes. This monument 
has important sculptured friezes, acroteria and pediments. The 
Mausoleum, Halicarnassos (No. 35), was the most famous 
tomb. It was erected to the King Mausolos (b.c 353) by his 
widow Artemisia, and consisted of a square plinth supporting a 
tomb-chamber, which was surrounded by Ionic columns and sur- 
mounted by a pyramidal roof with a marble quadriga and group 
of statuary at its apex (see page 108). 

The architects were Satyros and Pythios, and Scopas was the 
superintendent sculptor. Portions of the frieze, the statue of 
Mausolos and Artemisia, with the horses and chariots of the 
quadriga, and other fragments are in the British Museum. 

The Lion Tomb, Cnidus (No. 36), also consists of a 
square basement surrounded by a Doric colonnade of engaged 
columns surmounted by a stepped roof, and crowned with 
a lion, now in the British Museum. The interior was circular 
and roofed with a dome in projecting horizontal courses. 

The Sarcophagus from a Tomb at Cnidus (No. 36 e, g), 
is an interesting and beautiful example of a smaller type, 
as is also the Tomb of the Weepers (b.c fourth century) 
(No. 36 h), found at Sidon (now in the Museum at Constanti- 
nople), which is executed in the form of a miniature Ionic temple, 
having sculptured female figures between the columns. The 
so-called Alexander Sarcophagus (b.c fourth century), found 
near Sidon, and now in the Constantinople Museum, is the 
most beautiful and best preserved of all. It is so-called 
because its sides, which are of marble, represent battle and hunt- 
ing scenes in which Alexander was engaged, and is especially 
remarkable for the colored work which is still preserved on the 
sculpture. There are also important examples of rock-cut tombs 
at Cyrene (North Africa) and Asia Minor (No. 41 f), and reference 
has also been made to the Lycian Tombs (page 37), of which 
the two brought to London by Sir Charles Fellows, in 1842, are 
now in the British Museum. 

The Stele was a class of tombstone in the design of which 
the Greeks excelled. It consisted of a flat stone placed upright 
in the ground like a modern tombstone and crowned with the 





Anthemion design, the lower portion having panels in bas-relief 
(Nos. 42 h, 43 f, and 44 e). Many of these can be seen in the 
British Museum. 


The agora, or open meeting-places for the transaction of public 
business, were large open spaces surrounded by stoae or open 
colonnades, giving access to the public buildings, such, as 
temples, basilicas, stadion (racecourse), and the palaestrae or 


Stoae or Colonnades were formed for the protection of pilgrims 
to the various shrines, as connections between public monuments, 
or as shelters adjoining open spaces, and were an important class 
of structure. The most important of these were the Stoa Potcile y or 
Echo Colonnade, about 300 feet by 30 feet, at Olympia ; two at 
Epidauros — one two stories in height — acting as shelters for the 
patients who came to be healed at the shrine of iEsculapius ; 
three examples at Delphi ; and the remarkable example near the 
Propylaea at Delos, known as the "Sanctuary of the Bulls" 
(No. 42). 

The Stadion was the foot racecourse found in cities where 
games were celebrated, and it came eventually to be used for 
other athletic performances. It was usually straight at one end, 
the starting- place, and semicircular at the other, and was always 
600 Greek feet in length, although the foot varied, and was some- 
times planned with the semicircular end on the side of a hill, so 
that the seats could be cut out of the sloping sides, as at Olympia, 
Thebes, and Epidauros, or else constructed on the flat, as at 
Delphi, Athens, and Ephesus. The Stadion at Athens, now 
completely restored, was commenced in b.c 331, and finished by 
Herodes Atticus, and accommodates between 40,000 and 50,000 
people. The Hippodrome was a similar type of building used for 
horse racing. 

The Palaestra or gymnasia, as at Olympia and Ephesus, were 
the prototypes of the Roman thermae, and comprised exercise 
courts, tanks for bathers, exedrae or recesses for lectures, with 
seats for spectators. 


a. Plans (Nos. 18, 20 e, and 27 c). — These were simple, well 
judged, nicely balanced, and symmetrical, exceptions to the latter 
being the Erechtheion (No. 18 m), and the Propylaea (No. 18 n), 
at Athens, and probably the private houses. Plans involving 

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the use of the orders were rarely extensive or complicated, being" 
generally very regular; yet certain departures were made from 
the general rules, either for the purposes of effect or from necessity, 
as when columns were placed nearer together at the angles of 
Doric temples (No. 16 a), and as in the central intercolumniation 
at the Propylaea, Athens (No. 26), which was wider than the 
others, probably for the passage of chariots. 

Greek temples might be described as Egyptian turned inside 
out, the courtyard, porticos, and columned halls being replaced 
by a small cella, usually colonnaded on every face. The relations 
and proportions of these columns constitute the charm of Greek 

Circular planning was also adopted, as in the Tholos at 
Epidauros (No. 18 k), the theatres (Nos. 17 and 34 a), and 
choragic monuments (No. 28 j), and octagonal planning, as in the 
Tower of the Winds at Athens (No. 28 k, l). 

b. "Walls. — The construction of walls was solid and exact. 
No mortar was used, the joints being extremely fine, and the 
finished surface of the walls was obtained by a final rubbing 
down of the surface by slaves. The use of marble was account- 
able for the fine smooth face and exact jointing displayed. 
Hollow wall construction in the entablature was practised at 
the Parthenon, to lessen the weight upon the architraves, 
and perhaps for economy of material (No. 16). In temples 
the cella walls were mostly masked behind columns (No. 18). 
The base of a temple was always well marked and defined by 
steps, giving a real and apparent solidity to the structure (Nos. 
16 a and 24). The top of the walls was always finished by a cornice, 
the use of intermediate cornices being almost unknown. 

No towers were used in Greek architecture except in the case 
of fortified walls, the lofty mausoleum at Halicarnassos (No. 35) 
and the Lion Tomb at Cnidus (No. 36), both in Asia Minor, and 
of pyramidal shape, being the nearest approach to tower form 
(page 94). 

c. Openings. — Greek architecture was essentially a trabeated 
style, all openings being spanned by a lintel, and being therefore 
square-headed. The trabeated construction necessitated great 
severity in treatment ; the supports were of necessity close 
together, because stone lintels could not be obtained beyond a 
certain length. The sides of openings sometimes incline inwards, 
as in the doorway to the Erechtheion (No. 37 d). Relief to the 
facades of temples was obtained by the shadow of the openings 
between the columns (No. 22). 

d. Roofs. — These coincided with the outline of the pediment. 
In temples they were sometimes carried by internal columns or 
by the walls of the cella, and were framed in timber and covered 
with marble slabs (Nos. 16 d, 20 h;. Internal ceilings were 



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probably also framed into deep coffers, as were the marble 
lacunaria of the peristyles (No. 21 b, c, e). 

e. Columns. — As the temples were usually one story high, the 
columns with their entablature comprise the entire height of the 
building, except in some interiors, as the Parthenon (Nos. 23, 25), 
the Temple of Neptune, Paestum (No. 28 b), and elsewhere, where 
a second range of columns was introduced into the cella to support 
the roof. 

The orders having been fully dealt with on pages 59, 77, 85, 
are merely summarized as follows : — 

The Doric (No. 19) is the oldest and plainest of the orders, the 
finest examples being the Parthenon and the Theseion (page 67). 

The Ionic (No. 29) was more ornate, and is best seen at the 
Erechtheion (page 81), and the Temple on the Ilissus (page 79). 

The Corinthian was little used by the Greeks, the best known 
examples being the monument of Lysicrates at Athens (Nos. 32, 
38 a), and the Temple of Jupiter Olympius (No. 43 a), upon which 
the Romans founded their own special type. 

Caryatides (No. 42 g) and Canephora (No. 42 f), or carved 
female figures which were sometimes used in the place of columns, 
as at the Erechtheion, Athens (No. 30), and are of Asiatic origin. 

f. Mouldings. — Refer to illustrations of Greek mouldings 
compared with Roman given on Nos. 39 and 40. Mouldings are 
the means by which an architect draws lines upon his building, 
and a true knowledge of the effect of contour is best obtained 
from actual work rather than from drawings, the examples at the 
British Museum being available for this purpose. 

The principal characteristic of Greek mouldings was refine- 
ment and delicacy of contour due to the influence of an almost 
continuous sunshine, a clear atmosphere, and the hard marble 
in which they were formed. 

These mouldings had their sections probably drawn by hand, 
but approach very closely to various conic sections, such as 
parabolas, hyperbolas, and ellipses. 

As a general rule the lines of the enrichment or carving on any 
Greek moulding correspond to the profile of that moulding. 
This is a rule w r hich was rarely departed from, and therefore, 
is worthy of notice, for the profile of the moulding is thus 
emphasized by the expression in an enriched form of its own 

The examples given from full-size sections taken at the Par- 
thenon, the Erechtheion, and elsewhere, may be studied on No. 40. 

The following classified list gives the most important mould- 
ings : — 

(a.) The cyma-recta (Hogarth's "line of beauty"). When 
enriched it is carved with the honeysucke ornament, 
whose outline corresponds with the section (No. 39 j). 






(b.) The cyma reversa. When enriched it is carved with the 

water-lily and tongue (No. 39 l). 
(f.) The ovolo (egg-like). When enriched it is carved with 
the egg and dart, or egg and tongue ornament (No. 39 x). 
(d.) The fillet, a small plain face to separate other mouldings 

(No. 39 a). This is usually without enrichment. 
(e.) The beid serves much the same purpose as the fillet, 
and approaches a circle in section. W r hen enriched it is 
carved with the bead and reel or with beads, which in fact 
gave the name to the moulding (No. 39 c). 
(/.) The cavetto is a simple hollow (No. 39 e). 
(g.) The scotia is the deep hollow occurring in bases, and is 

generally not enriched (No. 39 g). 
(h.) The torus is really a magnified bead moulding. When 
enriched it is carved with the guilloche or " plat " ornament, 
or with bundles of leaves tied with bands (No. 39 p). 
(1.) The bird's-beak moulding occurs frequently, especially 
in the Doric order, and giving a deep shadow is very 
suitable for the English climate (No. 40 g). 
(j.) The corona (No. 17 a), the deep vertical face of the 
upper portion of the cornice. It was frequently painted 
with a Greek "fret " ornament. 
g. Ornament (Nos. 41, 42, 43, and 44). — The acanthus leaf 
(Nos. 33 h, 44 j) and scroll play an important part in Greek 
ornamentation. The leaf from which these were derived grows 
wild in the south of Europe, in two varieties, viz. : — 

(i.) That with pointed and narrow lobes, V-shaped in section, 
giving a sharp crisp shadow, and known as the "acanthus 
spinosis" (No. 33 h); 
(ii.) That with broad blunt tips, flat in section, known as the 

"acanthus mollis " (No. 33 b). 
The Greeks usually preferred the former with deeply drilled- 
eyes, and the Romans the latter of these varieties. 

The leaf was used principally in the Corinthian capital 
(Nos. 33 f, g, h, 43 a, b, c), and is also found in the crowning 
finial of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (No. 44 d). The 
scroll which accompanies the leaf and acts as a stalk is usually 
V-shaped in section with sharp edges. 

The anthemion, palmette or honeysuckle ornament, was a favourite 
decoration of the Greeks, and was largely used as an ornamentation 
on Anta Caps (No. 44 a, f), cyma-recta mouldings (No. 39 j), and 
round the necks of columns, as in the Erechtheion (No. 41 n). It 
is also frequently employed as an ornamentation to the tops of 
stele-heads and ante-nxac (Nos. 42 h, 43 f, and 44 e, n). 

The sculpture employed was of the highest order, and has never 
been excelled. It may be divided into : — (a.) Sculpture appertaining 
to buildings, including friezes (as at the Parthenon, the Temple 



of iEgina, the Heraion, Olympia, and the Temple of Apollo 
Epicurius, Bassse), the tympana of the pediments, the acroteria 
at the base and summit, the sculptured metopes in the Doric frieze, 
and the Caryatides, as at the Erechtheion (Nos. 30 g, 42 g, 44 m) ; 
mention might also be made of the series of magnificent figure 
sculptures to the Altar of Zeus at Pergamon in Asia Minor, of 
which the great frieze or " Gigantomachia" is now in the Berlin 
Museum, (b.) Sculptured reliefs as seen on stele-heads (No. 42 h). 
(c.) Free-standing statuary, consisting of groups, single figures, bigas 
(two-horse chariots), or quadrigas (four-horse chariots (page 94). 
Color was largely used on buildings, and many traces are left, 
as already mentioned (page 53). In many instances the stonework, 
as in the Temples at Paestum and in Sicily, brickwork, and in some 
instances marble, were covered with carefully-prepared cement 
to receive wall paintings or color decoration, which appears to 
have been almost universal, especially in buildings of the Doric 
order. This cement casing was also capable of a high polish, 
and Vitruvius mentions that well-polished stucco would reflect 
like a mirror. 


Anderson (W.J.) and Spiers (R. Phene*). — " The Architecture of Greece 
and Rome. A Sketch of its Historic Development." 8vo. 1902. 
"The Unedited Antiquities of Attica" (Dilettanti Society). Folio. 


Boetticher (C.).— "Die Tektonik der Hellenen." Folio. Berlin, 1874. 

Boettichcr. — " Die Akropolis von Athen." 8vo. Berlin, 1888. 

Chipiez (C). — " Histoire critique des Ordres Grecs." 8vo. Paris, 1876. 

Clarke (J. T.) and others. — " Investigations at Assos (1881-S3)." Folio. 
Boston, 1902. 

Cockerell (C. R.). — "The Temples at /Egina and Bassae." Folio, i860. 

D'Espouy (H.). — " Fragments de l'Architecture Antique." Paris, 1899. 

Defrasse (A.) and Lechat (H.). — "Epidaure ; restauration et descrip- 
tion des principaux monuments du Sanctuaire d'Ascle'pios." Folio. 
Paris, 1895. 

Dorpfeld (W.).— " Das Griechische Theater." Sur folio. Athens, 1896. 

Durm (J.). — "Die Baukunst der Griechen." 4to. Darmstadt, 1892. 

Fergusson (J.). — "The Parthenon." 8vo. 1883. 

Frazer (J. G.). — Pausanias's Description of Greece. 6 vols., 8vo. 

Gardner (E. A.). — " Handbook of Greek Sculpture." 8vo. 1896. 

Inwood (H. W.). — "The Erechtheion at Athens.*' Folio. 1831. 

"The Antiquities of Ionia" (Dilettanti Society). 4 vols. 1769-1881. 

Laloux (V.). — "L Architecture Grecque." 8vo. Paris. 

Laloux(V.)et Monceaux(P.). — "La restauration d' Olympie, l'historie 
les monuments, le culte et les fetes." Folio. Paris, 1889. 

Mauch (J. M. von). — " Die Architectonischen Ordnungen der Griechen 
und Roemer." Folio. Berlin, 1875. 

Michaelis (A.). — " Der Parthenon." Folio. Leipzig, 1 870-1 871. 


&tl* , 


1 TTOortoor*(rrfCTr»ifB, tmwHc. 
t^k nt evcfflsori . ovnp? rat •nil Mm nan ta«r. 

lio comparative architecture. 

REFERENCE BOOKS— continued. 

Middleton (J. H.). — "Plans and Drawings of Athenian Buildings." 
8vo. 1902. 

Murray (A. S.). — "History of Greek Sculpture." 2 vols., 8vo. 1890. 

Murray (A. S.). — "The Sculptures of the Parthenon." 8vo. 1903. 

Newton (C. T.) and Pullan (R. P.).— "A History of Discoveries at 
Halicarnassus, Cnidus, and Branchidae." 3 vols., folio. 1862-1863. 

Pennethorne (Sir J.). — " The Geometry and Optics of Ancient Archi- 
tecture." Folio. 1878. 

Penrose (F. C). — "An Investigation of the Principles of Athenian 
Architecture" (Hellenic Society). Folio. 1888. 

Pontremoli (E.) et Haussouillier (B.). — " Didymes : Fouilles de 1895 
et 1896." Folio. Paris, 1903. 

Pontremoli (E.) et Collignon (M.). — " Pergame : restauration et 
description des monuments de PAcropole." Folio. Paris, 1900. 

Perrot (G.) and Chipiez (C). — "The History of Art in Primitive 
Greece." 2 vols., 8vo. 1894. 

" Restaurations des Monuments Antiques, publiees par TAcademie de 
la France a Rome." Paris, 1877- 1890. 

Ross (L.), Schaubert (E.), and Hansen (C). — " Die Akropolis von 
Athen ; Tempel der Nike Apteros." Folio. Berlin, 1836. 

Smith (Sir William). — " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities." 
3 vols., 8vo. 

Spiers (R. P.). — "The Orders of Architecture." Folio. 1901. 

Stuart (J.) and Revett (N.).— i% Antiquities of Athens." 5 vols. 1762- 

Verrall and Harrison. — "Mythology and Monuments of Ancient 
Athens." 8vo. 1890. 

Waldstein (C). — "The Argive Herasum." 2 vols., 4to. Boston, 1902. 

Watt (J. C). — " Greek and Pompeian Decorative Work." Folio. 1897. 

Wilkins (W.).—" Antiquities of Magna Graecia." Large folio. 1807. 

Church (A. J.).—" The Fall of Athens" (Historical Novel). 8vo. 

The student should visit the Greek Court at the Crystal Palace for the 
splendid model of the Parthenon fagade, and also the British Museum 
for actual fragments of the sculptures from the Temples. 





*'' Immortal glories in my mind revive 
"When komc's eaalted beauties I descry 
Magnificent in piles of ruin lie. 
An amphitheatre s amazing height 
Here my eye with terror and delight. 
That on its public shows unpeopled Rome, 
And held uncrowded nations in its womb ; 
Here pillars rough with sculp ore pierce the skies; 
And here the proud triumphal arcnes rise, 
Where the old Romans deathless acts displayed/' 


i. Geographical. — The map (Xo. 45) will show that the sea 
coast of Italy, although the peninsula is long and narrow, is not 
nearly so much broken up into bays, or natural harlx>urs, as the 
shore line of Greece, neither are there so many islands studded 
along its coasts. Again, although many parts of Italy are moun- 
tainous — the great chain of the Apennines running from one end 
of the peninsula to the other — yet the whole land is not divided 
up into little valleys in the same way as the greater part of 

The Greek and Italian nations may therefore with fair accuracy 


be compared as follows : — (a.) The Romans never became a sea- 
faring people like the Greeks, nor did they send out colonists 
of the same description to all parts of the then known world. 
(b.) There were few rival cities in Italy at this period (a condition 
which was altered in after times, pages 230, 234, 405, 476), and the 
small towns, being less jealous of their separate independence, the 
Roman power could be built up by a gradual absorption of small 
states, a process that was never completed by Athens or Sparta. 
The position of Italy enabled her to act as the intermediary in 
spreading over the continent of Europe the arts of civilization. 

ii. Geological. — The geological formation of Italy differs 
from that of Greece, where the chief and almost the only building 
material is marble. In Italy marble, terra-cotta, stone, and 
brick were largely used even for the more important buildings. 
In Rome the following materials were at hand : — Travertine, a 
hard limestone from Tivoli ; Tufa, a volcanic substance of which 
the hills of Rome are mainly composed ; and Peperino, a stone of 
volcanic origin from Mount Albano. Besides these, Lava and 
Pozzolana, derived from volcanic eruptions, and excellent sand and 
gravel were plentiful. The existence of Pozzolana (a clean sandy 
earth) found in thick strata in the district, gave the Roman 
a material which contributed largely to the durability of their 
architecture, for it has extraordinary properties of hardness, 
strength and durability, when mixed into concrete with lime. 
The walls were generally formed of concrete and were faced in 
a decorative way with brick, stone, alabasters, porphyries, or 
marbles of all kinds, hewn from countless Oriental quarries by whole 
armies of workmen. Roman architecture, as it spread itself over 
the whole of the then known world, was influenced naturally by the 
materials found in the various parts where it planted itself, but 
concrete, in conjunction with brick and stone casing or banding, 
was the favourite material ; although in Syria, notably at Palmyra 
and Baalbec, and in Egypt the quarries supplied stones of enormous 
size, which were used locally. 

iii. Climate. — The north has the climate of the temperate 
region of continental Europe ; central Italy is more genial and 
sunny ; while the south is almost tropical. 

iv. Religion. — The heathen religion of ancient Rome being 
looked upon as part of the constitution of the state, the worship of 
the gods came eventually to be kept up only as a matter of state 
policy. The emperor then received divine honours, and may almost 
be described as the leader of the Pantheon of deities embraced by 
the tolerant and wide-spreading Roman rule. Officialism therefore 
naturally stamped its character on the temple architecture. 

A list of the chief Roman deities is given on page 46. 

v. Social and Political. — In early times three chief nations 
dwelt in the peninsula. In the central portion (or Etruria) lived 


the Etruscans, probably an Aryan people, who appear to have 
been settled in Italy before authentic history begins, and who 
were great builders (page 119). In the south the Greeks 
had planted many colonies, which were included in the name 
of " Magna Gratia." The -remainder of Italy (exclusive of 
Cisalpine Gaul) was occupied by tribes of the same Aryan race 
as the Greeks, and the common forefathers of both must have 
stayed together after they had separated from the forefathers of 
the Celts, Teutons and others. But long before history begins 
the Greeks and Italians had separated into distinct nations, and 
the Italians had further split up into separate nations among 
themselves. The common form of government in ancient Italy 
resembled that of Greece, consisting of towns or districts joined 
together in leagues. The government of Rome was effected 
firstly by chosen kings, aided by a senator and popular assembly, 
but about B.C. 500 it became Republican, and under Augustus 
Caesar in b.c 27 the Empire originated. The "Building Acts " 
of Augustus, Nero, and Trajan had considerable influence on the 
development in Rome. 

vi. Historical. — The foundation of Rome is of uncertain date, 
but is generally taken at b.c 750. The Republic engaged in 
many wars, conquering several Etruscan cities, but was defeated 
in B.c. 390, at the hands of the Gauls, who continued for some 
time to hold the northern part of Italy. About b.c 343 began the 
Roman conquest of Italy, which was effected in about sixty years, 
and resulted in the dominion of a city over cities. Then came the 
wars with peoples outside Italy, Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, being 
first subdued. The first Punic war (b.c 264-241) against Carthage, 
when brought to a conclusion, resulted in Sicily becoming the first 
Roman province. 

The second Punic war (b.c. 218-201) was the most severe 
struggle in which the Romans had engaged, for Hannibal, the great 
Carthaginian general, entering Italy from Spain, defeated all the 
Roman armies, and maintained himself in I tally until recalled by 
a counter attack of the Romans, under Scipio, upon Carthage itself. 

The third Punic war (b.c 149-146) ended in the total destruc- 
tion of Carthage, which, with its territory, became a Roman 
province in Africa. At the same time were effected the conquest 
of Macedonia and Greece, the latter becoming a province in 
b.c 146, which induced the importation of Greek artists and 
works of art. Greece formed a stepping stone to Western Asia, 
which in turn gradually acknowledged the Roman power, till in 
b.c 133 it also became a province. With the conquests of Spam 
and Syria, the Roman empire extended from the Atlantic ocean 
to the Euphrates, while Caesar's campaigns in Gaul in b.c 59, 
made the Rhine and the English Channel its northern boundaries. 
In b.c 55 Caesar crossed into Britain. 

f.a. 1 


This tide of conquest swept on in spite of civil war at home, 
and eventually rendered the empire a political necessity owing to 
the difficulty of governing so many provinces under the previous 
system. On Pompey's defeat at Pharsalia, Julius Caesar remained 
without a rival, but was murdered in b.c 44. Then followed a 
period of great confusion lasting 13 years. The Triumvirate, con- 
sisting of Marcus Antonius, Caius Octavius (great nephew to 
Caesar) and Marcus iEmilius Lepidus, were opposed to Brutus 
and Cassius, and eventually defeated them. On the defeat ot 
Antony at Aktion, Augustus Caesar (Julius Caesar's nephew) was 
made emperor b.c 27, and governed till his death, a.d. 41. 

The Augustan age was one of those great eras in the world's 
history like that succeeding the Persian wars in Greece, the 
Elizabethan age in England, and the beginning of the nineteenth 
century in Europe, in which what seems a new spring in national 
and individual life calls out an idealizing retrospect of the past. 
The poets Virgil (b.c 70-19), Horace (b.c 65-8), Ovid (b.c 43 — 
a.d. 17), and Livy the historian (b.c 59 — a.d. 17), were all contem- 
poraries. Following Augustus came a line of emperors, of whom 
Nero (a.d. 54-69), Vespasian (69-79), Trajan (98-117), Hadrian 
(1 17-138) — under whom the empire expanded to its greatest 
extent — Septimius Severus (193-211), Caracalla (21 1-2 17) and 
Diocletian (284-305) were the most active in architectural matters. 
Italy went out of cultivation and depended on imported corn. 
A turbulent populace, and the huge armies required to keep in 
check the barbarian tribes on every frontier, dominated the 
government. Emperors soon chosen were sooner murdered, and 
the chaos that gradually set in weakened the fabric of the empire. 

Architecture then fell into complete decay until the vigorous 
efforts of Constantine (a.d. 306-337) did something for its revival, 
which in large measure was also due to a new force, Christianity, 
which had been growing up and which received official recognition 
under this emperor (page 176). 


. The Romans adopted the columnar and trabeated style of the 
Greeks, and joined to it the Arch, the Vault, and the Dome, 
which it is presumed they borrowed from the Etruscans, and this 
union of beam and arch is the keynote of the style in its earliest 

The Colosseum (Nos. 62 and 63) at Rome is a good example 
of this union in which the piers between the arches on the 
different stories are strengthened by the semi-attached columns 
which act the part of buttresses; thus becoming part of the 
wall, and no longer carrying the entablature unaided. 

The arch thus used in a tentative manner along with the 


classical column eventually came to be used alone, and through 
the basilica, was finally utilized in a pointed form in the construc- 
tion of those magnificent vaulted Gothic cathedrals, which were 
erected in the Middle Ages. 

Greek buildings (see page 102) were normally only one story in 
height, but owing to the varying needs of the Romans, buildings of 
several stories were erected by them. The orders, usually attached 
and superimposed, were chiefly decorative features ceasing to have 
their true constructive significance (No. 62 a). 

The Thermae or Baths, Temples, Amphitheatres, Aqueducts, 
Bridges, Tombs, Basilicas, and P'ora, are all monuments of Roman 
greatness, showing great constructive and engineering ability com- 
bined with a power to use the materials at hand with the best 
possible results. 

The Greek method of building with large blocks of stone, 
unconnected with mortar, was employed in the buildings of the 
Republic. The practical spirit of the Romans, however, urged 
them to make a more economical use of materials, and instead 
of composing the walls of their monuments of squared-blocks 
of stone, they inaugurated the use of concrete, a material consisting 
of small fragments of stone or quarry debris mixed with lime or 
mortar. These materials, not being special to any country, were 
used with success in every part of the Empire, and gave a 
similarity to all Roman buildings. The craftsmanship required, 
under the direction of the central authority, was perfectly simple ; 
for only rough labour, both plentiful and cheap, was required for 
mixing the materials of which the concrete was made, and spreading 
it to form the walls. The structures could be erected by hands 
quite unused to the art of building ; thus the Romans employed 
the slaves of the district, subjects liable to statute labour, or even 
the Roman armies ; while the legal punishment of condemnation 
to work on public buildings was largely enforced. 

The Romans by their extended use of concrete founded a 
new constructional system and employed it in the most diverse 
situations, adapting it with rare sagacity to their new needs, and 
utilizing it in the most important projects. The various kinds 
of w r alling may be divided into two classes : — opus quadratum, 
i.e., rectangular blocks of stone with or without mortar joints, 
frequently secured with dowels or cramps, and concrete unfaced or 
faced, used especially in Italy. As stated, this was a building 
mixture formed of lime and lumps of tufa, peperino, broken bricks, 
marble or pummice stone, and from the first century b.c was 
used extensively for various building purposes. 

(a) Unfaced concrete was usually used for foundations, and 
(b) faced concrete for walls. The latter was of four varieties : — 
i. Concrete faced with "opus incertum" (No. 46 b), which 
was the oldest kind, the concrete backing being studded 

1 2 


nomn sy-jtea ? construction 

EriAxvvu or piAadc JiJow^ 


with irregular shaped pieces of stone, mainly used in the 
first and second centuries b.c. 
ii. Concrete faced with •' opus reticulatum " (No. 46 c), so 
called from its resemblance to the meshes of a net (reticulum) 
the joints being laid in diagonal lines, 
iii. Concrete faced with brick (testae), used from the first 
century b.c to the end of the Western Empire. The 
walling was faced with bricks, triangular on plan and 
usually about i£ inches thick (No. 46 d). 
iv. Concrete with " opus mixtum " consisting of a wall of 
concrete having in addition to the ordinary brick facing 
bands of tufa blocks at intervals. 
The majestic simplicity of their edifices give them a severe 
grandeur expressing the Roman ideals of conquest, wealth and 

Thus from the time that concrete displaced the ashlar masonry 
of the Greeks, and allowed of unskilled labour, the style of the 
Romans tended to become everywhere uniform and generally 
above the influence of local conditions ; for through the colonies 
and legionary camps the new methods penetrated to the extremi- 
ties of the empire, and cities could be improvised, which became in 
their turn centres whence radiated the architectural ideas as well 
as the manners and customs of Rome. 

Vaulting. — Although, as pointed out, the vault had been 
previously used by the Assyrians, the early Greeks, and the 
Etruscans, yet the Romans generalized vaulting as a structural 
system dating from the first century of the present era. They 
made it simple and practical by the employment of concrete, by 
which they covered the largest areas even now in existence. The 
effect was far reaching and gave freedom in the planning of 
complex structures, which were easily roofed, the vaults being of 
any form, and easily constructed on rough centres or temporary 
supports till the concrete was set. It will thus be understood that 
vaults of concrete had a very important effect on the forms of 
Roman buildings, and they were employed universally, so much so, 
that every Roman ruin is filled with their debris. The kinds of 
vault employed were as follows : — 

(a.) The semicircular or waggon -headed vault. 
(b.) The cross vault. 

(c.) The dome (hemispherical and semidomes). 
(a.) The semicircular or waggon-headed vault resting on two 
sides of the covered rectangle was used in apartments whose 
walls were sufficiently thick. 

(b.) The cross-vault was utilized for covering a square apart- 
ment, the pressure being taken by the four angles. When used 
over corridors and long apartments the pressure being exerted 
on points of division (Nos. 58 and 60), left the remainder of the 


walls free for window openings. If the oblong compartment or 
hall were very wide, and the side walls had to be pierced by 
large openings, it was divided into square bays — generally three 
in number — and covered with groined vaults, that is to say, a 
longitudinal half-cylinder, of the diameter of the hall, intersected 
by three half-cylinders of similar diameter. 

(c.) Hemispherical domes or cupolas (cupa = cup) (Nos. 54 and 
55), were used for covering circular structures as in the Pantheon. 
Semi-domes were employed for exedrae and other recesses 
(No. 46 k). 

The great coherence of concrete formed of " Pozzolana" (see 
page 112) and lime was important ; by its use, vaults and domes of 
enormous size were constructed. Most of these were cast in one 
solid mass with no lateral thrust on the walls, thus having the 
form, without the principle, of the arch, which, if formed of 
radiating voussoirs of brick or stone, would possibly have pushed 
out the walls. 

As Prof. Middleton has pointed out, the Roman use of 
concrete for vaults was more striking and daring than for walls, 
and had an important effect on the general forms of Roman 
architecture. The use of buttresses had not been systematized, 
and it would have been impossible to vault the enormous spans if 
the vaulting had been composed of brick or of masonry as in 
mediaeval times. 

The Roman concrete vault was quite devoid of external thrust 
and covered its space with the rigidity of a metal lid, or inverted 
porcelain cup. 

The construction of the Pantheon dome appears to be excep- 
tional (page 134). 

In many, cases (No. 46), as in the Baths of Caracalla and 
Basilica of Constantine, brick arches or ribs probably used as 
temporary centres are embedded in the concrete vaults at various 
points, especially at the "groins," but these are sometimes super- 
ficial, like the brick facing to walls, and only tail a few inches into 
the mass of concrete vault, which is frequently as much as 6 feet 

The decoration of Roman buildings had little connection with 
the architecture proper, for a Roman edifice built of concrete could 
receive a decorative lining of any or every kind of marble, having 
no necessary connection with the general structure, such deco- 
ration being an independent sheathing giving a richness to the 
walls both internal and external. Roman architecture had the 
character, therefore, of a body clothed in many instances with 
rich materials forming a rational and appropriate finish to the 
structure, and differing essentially from Greek architecture. 

Besides the use of many colored marbles other means of 
decorating wall surfaces are briefly stated here. Cements and 


stuccoes (" Opus albarium ") were frequently used for the 
coverings of walls both internal and external, and the final coat 
was polished. Mural paintings were executed on the prepared 
stucco, and may be classified as follows : — (a.) Fresco painting, 
(&.) Tempera painting, (c.) Varnish painting, and (d.) Caustic 

Marble, alabaster, porphyry and jasper as linings to the walls 
have been already referred to. They were usually attached by 
iron or bronze cramps to the walls upon a thick cement backing. 
Mosaics were also much used for ornamenting walls, vaults and 
floors. They are divided by Middleton into : — 

(a.) " Opus tesselatum," or " vermiculatum," formed of squared 
tesserae of stone, marble, or glass to form patterns. 

(b.) " Opus sectile " or " Opus scutulatum," of tesserae of marble, 
porphyry, or glass cut into shapes to form the pattern of which 
the " Opus Alexandrinum " was a very rich variety. 

(c.) " Opus Spicatum," made of paving bricks in herring-bone 

The glass mosaics sometimes forming elaborate figure pictures, 
were mostly used to decorate the walls and vaults only, and not 
the floors. 

Gilded bronze was employed as a roofing material to important 
buildings, as employed at the Pantheon (page 134). 

The abundant use of statues, many of them brought from 
Greece, led to the adoption of niches for their reception within the 
thickness of the walls. These were either semicircular, crowned 
with a semi-dome, or rectangular, and they occasionally had 
columns supporting a pediment, thus forming a frame. 


Etruscan Architecture. — In dealing with Roman Architec- 
ture mention must be made of the Etruscans or early inhabitants 
of central Italy, who were great builders, and whose methods of 
construction had a marked effect on that of the Romans. The 
style dates from about b. c. 750, and from their buildings it is known 
that they were aware of the value of the true or radiating arch for 
constructive purposes, and used it extensively in their buildings. 
The architectural remains consist chiefly of tombs, city walls, 
gateways (as at Perugia), bridges and aqueducts, and their 
character is similar to the early Pelasgic work at Tiryns and 
Mycenae (page 54). 

The walls are remarkable for their great solidity of construction, 
and for the cyclopean masonry, where huge masses of stone are 
piled up without the use of cement, or mortar of any kind. The 
" Cloaca Maxima" (c. b.c 578) (No. 47), or great drain of Rome, 


constructed to drain the valleys of Rome, has a semicircular arch 
of ii feet span, in three rings of voussoirs, each 2 feet 6 inches 

hi s h - 

There are no remains of Etruscan temples, but Vitruvius gives 
a description of them. The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the 
most important Etruscan example (dedicated b.c 509), and is 
generally taken as being typical. Its cella was divided into three 
chambers containing statues of Jupiter, Minerva (Livy VII., iii) and 
Juno, and was nearly square on plan, with widely spaced columns 
and wooden architraves. It was burnt in b.c 83 and rebuilt by 
Sulla, who brought some of the marble Corinthian columns from 
the Temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens (page 90). 

Roman Architecture followed the Etruscan, and as indicated 
on page 114, was a composite style derived by the union of the 
Greek and Etruscan styles. The principal examples of Roman 
architecture were chiefly erected during 400 years, viz., between 
B.c. 100 and a.d. 300. The principal remains are found not only 
in Italy, but throughout Europe to wherever the Roman occupa- 
tion extended, as at Nimes and Aries in France, Tarragona and 
Segovia in Spain, Treves in Germany, Constantine in North Africa, 
Timgad in Algeria, and other places in North Africa, Baalbecand 
Palmyra in Syria, and many places in England (page 280). 


The Forum corresponded with the Agora in a Greek city, and 
was an open space used as a meeting place and market, or a ren- 
dezvous for political demonstrators, corresponding to the Place of 
a French country town, the market place of English country 
towns, and to the Royal Exchange or probably Trafalgar Square 
in the Metropolis. The forum was usually surrounded by porticos, 
colonnades and public buildings, such as temples, basilicas (halls 
of justice), senate house, and shops, and was adorned with pillars of 
victory and memorial statues of great men. 

Rome possessed several Fora, and a plan of these is given 
(No. 47). The " Forum Romanum " was the oldest, and grouped 
around it were some of the most important historical buildings. A 
restoration is given (No. 48), which will indicate its probable 
appearance in the heyday of ancient Rome. 

The Forum Romanum was in early times also used as a 
hippodrome and for contests, which in after years during the 
Empire took place in the amphitheatres. This and the Forum 
of Trajan, which was the largest of all, were the most important. 
The others include those of Julius Caesar, Augustus Vespasian 
and Nerva. The models in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 
and the Crystal Palace, give a good idea of the appearance of this 
important centre of architectural history. 


Pompeii also possessed an important Forum. 

The remarkable colonnaded streets at Palmyra and Damascus, 
Antioch, Bosra and elsewhere in Syria, and Asia Minor may also 
I>e best mentioned here. 


Note. — The orders are described under the Comparative table {page 167). 

The Roman temples were the result of the amalgamation of the 
Etruscan and Greek types, for they resembled in many respects 
Greek examples, but their prostyle arrangement and the use of 
the podium was derived from Etruscan temples. The plans 
shown on No. 18 give some of the types used, and others are 
referred to later on (Nos. 49, 50, 52, 53 and 57). The charac- 
teristic temple is known as pseudo-peripteral (page 5S), and had 
no side colonnades as was usual in Greek examples, the order 
of columns being attached to the flank walls and arranged as a 
prostyle portico towards the front only. Steps were provided at 
the principal end, between projecting wing walls, which often 
supported groups of statuary, and were continued along the 
flanks and back of the temple as a podium or continuous pedestal 
(Nos. 18 g, 49, 50) (page 167). Whereas Greek peripteral temples 
were normally twice as long as their width, the Roman examples 
were very much shorter. The size of the cella was frequently 



increased, being usually the whole width of the temple, which 
was used as a museum for Greek statuary and as a treasure 
store. As the architraves were supported by the enclosing walls 
on the flanks, temples could also be built on a larger scale than 
in the Greek style. Nothing definite is known as to the ceilings, 
but these may have been of coffering in stone as in the colonnades, 
of open timber- work as in the basilicas, or vaulted as in the 
Temple of Venus and Rome at Rome (No. 50), the Temple of 
Diana at Nimes (No. 50), and the Temples at Spalato. The 
abolition of the encircling colonnade and the continuous stylobate 
of steps resulted in a certain loss of unity in comparison with 
Greek examples, which in most cases were isolated and visible 
from all sides; whereas the Roman temples were specially intended 
to be seen from the forum or open space upon which they usually 
faced, the front being therefore made important by the deep 
portico and flight of steps. No consideration was given to 
orientation as in Greek examples. 

Circular and polygonal temples were also used by the Romans, 
being probably derived from Etruscan examples. 

Rectangular Examples. 

At Rome. Date. 

The Temple of For lima Virilis B.C. 100 
(No. 49, A, B, c). 

The Temple or Mars Ultor B.C. 42-2 

(ihe Avenger) (No. 52 and 67 g). 
The Temple of Concord (No. 47" b ). B.C. 27-A.D. 


The Temple of Castor and Pollux. 
Also known as Jupiter Stator 
(Nos. 47 19 , 67 A and 68). 

The Temple of Vespasian (No. 47 s3 ). 

A.D. 6 

A.D. 94 
A.D. I4I 

The Temple of Antoninus and 

Faustina (Nos. 52 I, J, K, L, and 

68 e). 
The Temple of Venus and Rome A.D. 123-135 

(Nos. 47 ", and 50 A, B, c, d). 
The Temple of Saturn (Nos. 47'- 4 , A.D. 284 

and 49 l, M, N). 
At Athens. 
The Temple of Jupiter Olympius B.C. 1 74 

(Nos. 18 J, 43 a). 
At Nimes. 
The Afaiscn Carrce (Nos. 18 G, A.D. 1 17-138 

50 H, J, K, 51). 
The Temple of Diana (No. 50 E, 

F, G). 

A typical Roman temple plan. 

Ionic. Pseudo-ptripteial te- 

trastyle. Now the church of 

S. Maria Egiziaca. 
Corinthian. Three columns and 

a pi faster remaining (page 125). 
Corinthian. Pseudo peiipteral 

prostyle-hexasiyle. Unusual 

plan, having cella twice as 

wide as long. 
Corinthian. Peripteral octastyle 

with front portico. Three 

columns remaining. 
Corinthian. Pro*tyle-hexas.tyle. 

Three columns remaining. 
Corinthian. Pseudo-peripteral 

prostyle-hexasiyle. Now the 

church of S. Lorenzo. 
Corinthian. Peculiar double 

temple (page 125). 
Ionic. Pseudo-peripteral pro- 

style-hexastyle. Eight columns 

(See page 90.) 

(See page 125.) 
(See page 125.) 



Rectangular Examples (continued). 

At Spalato. Date. Remarks. 

The Temple of sEsculaptus (No. A.D. 300 (See page 1 61.) 

At Baalbec. 

The Great Temple (Xo. 53). A D. 131-161 (See below.) 

The 7 emple of Jupiter (No. 53). A.D. 273 (See page 130.) 

At Palmyra. 

li he Great Temple of the Sun. A.D. 273 Peripteral ociastyle, probably 

Corinthian, having attached 
brjnze leaves. 

The Temple of Mars Ultor, Rome (b.c. 42-2) (No. 52), 
stood in the Forum of Augustus, in a precinct surrounded by an 
enclosing wall 100 feet high. It was one of the largest Roman 
temples, having columns 58 feet in height, but there are only three 
columns and a pilaster remaining, the capital of the latter being 
shown in No. 67 g. A short description is given on No. 52. 

The Temple of Venus and Rome (a.d. 123-135) (No. 50), 
had a peculiar plan consisting of two cellas, each provided with an 
apse placed back to back, and a pronaos at each end. It was 
pseudo-dipteral decastyle (No. 47 11 ), the peristyle having twenty 
columns on the flanks, and the cella walls were of extra thickness 
to take the thrust of the vault. Internally there were niches for 
statues, and the cella was crowned with a hemispherical coffered 
vault, the apses having semi-domes. The plan on No. 47 11 gives 
the usually accepted restoration of this building, and that by 
Palladio is given on No. 50 a, b, c, d. This temple was raised 
on a platform and stood in a large enclosure, entered through 
imposing gateways, surrounded by a colonnade of nearly 200 
columns of red and grey Egyptian granite and red porphyry, 
occupying in all an area of about 540 by 340 feet. 

The Maison Carrie, Nlmes (a.d. 117-138) (Nos. 18 g, 50 h, 
j, k, and 51), was erected during the reign of Hadrian, and is 
the best preserved Roman temple in existence. It is of the 
typical form, being pseudo-peripteral prostyle hexastyle, with 
Corinthian columns supporting a rich entablature, and raised on a 
podium about 12 feet high provided with a front flight of steps only. 

The so-called Temple of Diana, Nlmes (No. 50 e, f, g), 
was probably a nymphaeum connected with some thermae. The 
interior walls have detached Corinthian columns, supporting a 
cornice from which springs a-stone- ribbed barrel vault, the thrust 
of which is counteracted by smaller continuous vaults over the 
side passages, probably a prototype of the vaulting of many 
southern French Romanesque churches. 

The Great Temple, Baalbec (a.d. 131-161) (No. 53), was 
dipteral decastyle, but only six columns now remain. It stood in 
a court 380 feet square with recessed porticos, in front of which 
was a hexagonal cortile entered by a dodecastyle Corinthian portico 






s-jii h uraimtoan !L 



in antis. The buildings were constructed with large blocks of 
stone without cement, and the columns were built up in three 
pieces. A further short description is given on No. 53. 

The Temple of Jupiter, Baalbec (a.d. 273), is peripteral 
octastyle with a vaulted sanctuary at tha west end, approached by 
a flight of steps. The interior was ornamented with half-Corin- 
thian columns having returned entablature, from which sprung the 
coffered vault. Between the columns were two tiers of niches. 
Dawkins and Wood restore this temple as if vaulted, but other 
authorities do not think this possible. 

Circular and Polygonal Examples. 

At Rome. 

The Temple of Mater Afatuta, for- 
merly known as the Temple of 

The Pantheon (Nos. 33, 54, 55, 
56, 57, 67 h). 

The Temple of Vesta (No. 47). 

At Tivoli (near Rome). 

The Temple of Vesta (Nos. iS c, 57). 

At Spalato. 

The Temple of Jupiter (in Diocle- 
tian's Palace) (No. 59). 

At Baalbec. 

The Circular Temple (No. 60 D, 
E, F/. 

B.C. 27-A.D. 14. 

A.D. 120-124. 

A.D. 205. 

B.C. 27-A.D. 14. 

A.D. 284. 

A.D. 273. 

(See below.) 

(See below.) 

(See below.) 

(Seepage 134.) 

(See pages 136, 161.) 

(See page 136.) 

The Temple of Mater Matuta, Rome, formerly known as 
the Temple of Vesta, is situated in the Forum Boarium, and is 
circular peripteral, having twenty Corinthian columns, 34 feet 
7 inches in height and 3 feet 2 inches in diameter, and therefore 
nearly eleven diameters high. These surround a cella 28 feet in 
diameter, and rest on a podium 6 feet high. It is built of Parian 
marble, with the exception of the podium, which is of tufa, and * 
is approached by a flight of marble steps. The roof was probably • 
of wood covered with bronze tiles. The V-shaped section of the * 
leaves indicates the work of a Greek artist. It is now the Church ' 
of S. M. del Sole. 

The Temple of Vesta, Rome, (in the Forum Romanum) 
(No. 47), was founded in b.c 715, but was frequently destroyed by 
fire and repeatedly rebuilt, finally by Septimius Sever us in a.d. 205. 
According to Middleton it was circular peripteral with eighteen 
columns surrounding a cella, and resting on a podium 10 feet 
high. Among the remains lately found are some fragments of the 
columns having fillets for fitting metal screens between the shafts. 

The Pantheon, Rome (Nos. 33, 37 a, b, c, 54, 55, 56, 57 e) is 
now, owing to the investigations of M. Chedanne in 1892, known 
to belong to two distinct periods. 

The circular portion, known as the Rotunda, occupies the site 


THE PflrtTHEOrt *t ROflE "t 


of an older uncovered piazza, used as a " nymphaeum," or place 
for plants, flowers, and running water, the level of its floor being 
8 feet below the present level. 

In front of this " nymphaeum," and facing towards the south, 
was a decastyle portico, forming a frontispiece to a three-cell 
temple of the Etruscan type, built by Agrippa during the reign 
of Augustus, B.C. 27-A.D. 14. 

The present Rotunda was erected by the Emperor Hadrian, in 
a.d. 120-124, on the site of the more ancient " nymphaeum, 1 ' the 
portico to the Etruscan temple being taken down and re-erected at 
the higher level. As rebuilt this portico was made octastyle instead 
of decastyle, and was made to face the north instead of the south. 

The Rotunda (now the Church of S. Maria Rotonda) is a 
circular structure having an internal diameter of 142 feet 6 inches, 
which is also its internal height. The walls, of concrete (opus 
incertum), with a layer of tiles every three feet in height, are 
20 feet in thickness, and have eight great recesses, one of which 
forms the entrance ; three of the remaining seven are semicircular 
exedrae, the other four being rectangular on plan. Two columns 
are placed on the front line of these recesses, above which are 
relieving arches. 

The eight piers have niches entered from the exterior of the 
building, formed in three heights, of which the lower are semi- 
circular on plan, and are 19 feet high to the springing of their 
hemispherical heads, the second tier have their floor on the same 
level as the cornice over the inner order, and the third tier are 
level with and entered from the second cornice of the exterior. 

In front of the Rotunda is the Corinthian octastyle portico, 
1 10 feet wide by 60 feet deep in the centre, the first, third, sixth and 
eighth columns having two others behind them. At the back of 
the portico are niches, and staircases by which to ascend to the 
various parts of the edifice. 

The columns, 42 feet 6 inches high, in front of the recesses in 
the interior, are believed to be part of the original design of 
Hadrian's architect. The lower third of these columns is cabled, 
and the upper portion is fluted (No. 55). The marble facing to 
the walls between, and the columns, entablature, and pediments 
of the projecting altars are later additions. 

The attic or upper story was originally ornamented with 
porphyry or marble pilasters, with capitals, six of which are in the 
British Museum, of white marble and panelling of giallo antico, 
serpentine, and pavonazetto, but in 1747 this marble panelling 
was removed and the present stucco decoration inserted. 

The dome or cupola is a hemisphere, having its inner surface 
coffered in five ranges. The manner in which the sinkings or 
mouldings are regulated or foreshortened so as to be seen from 
below is worthy of notice. 

^ 1 


The dome, although described by Middleton to be of concrete, 
was found by Chedanne to be built of brickwork laid in almost 
horizontal courses up to the fourth range of coffers, and also near 
the central opening at the summit. The intermediate portion was 
not examined, but it is held that a series of arches may have been 
formed in this portion, so as to relieve from pressure the recessed 
openings below. 

The lighting is effected solely by one circular unglazed opening, 
27 feet in diameter, formed in the crown of the dome, and still 
retaining its circular bronze cornice (No. 54 c, d). 

This method of lighting produces an effect which is solemn 
and impressive ; and there may have been a symbolic meaning 
in thus imitating the appearance of the vault of the heavens in 
the temple of all the gods, the idea being that the worship of 
Jupiter should take place in a building open to the sky. " One 
great eye opening; upon heaven is by far the noblest conception 
for lighting a building to be found in Europe." 

The circular portion was originally faced with marble up to the 
lower string cornice, the upper portion being faced with stucco 
decorated with pilasters, as shown in the drawings made by 
Palladio in the 16th century. At the present time the walls are 
faced in brick with "opus reticulatum," divided by the two cornices. 

The dome, which has its lower portion formed in steps, was 
originally covered with bronze gilded plates, but these were 
removed to Constantinople by Constans II. in 655, and replaced 
with sheets of lead. 

The octastyle portico has monolith Corinthian columns, 
46 feet 6 inches high, 5 feet in diameter at the base, and 
4 feet 3 inches at the top. These support an entablature 11 feet 
high, and a pediment having an inclination of about 23 degrees. 

Each of the three divisions of the portico ceiling appears to 
have been segmental and formed of bronze plates, since removed. 

The old Roman bronze door frame, doors and fanlight, 
originally plated in gold, still remain (No. 37 a). 

The Temple of Vesta, Tivoli (b.c. 27-A.D. 14) (Nos. 18 c, 
57 h, j, k), is another circular peripteral example, having a cella 
24 feet in diameter, surrounded by a peristyle of eighteen Corin- 
thian columns, 23 feet 6 inches high, resting on a podium. The 
cella, 23 feet 1 1 inches in diameter internally, had two windows, 
and a doorway approached by a flight of steps. The columns 
are nearly 9f diameters high, and the capitals, of which the foliage 
is derived from the acanthus mollis, are one diameter in height. 

The reason for the difference in design between the Temple of 
Mater Matuta, Rome, and this example are instructive. The Roman 
building, placed in a low flat situation, has columns of slender 
proportions in order to give it the required height ; whereas the 
Tivoli example, placed on the edge of a rocky prominence, and 


thus provided with a lofty basement, has columns of a sturdier 

The Temple of Jupiter, Spalato (in Diocletian's Palace) 
(a.d. 284) (No. 59), is a further development of the Pantheon. 
Externally it is octagonal, surrounded by a low peristyle of 
Corinthian columns, but the interior of the cella is circular, 
43 feet 8 inches in diameter, with four circular recesses and three 
square, the entrance corresponding to a fourth. Between these 
are placed eight Corinthian columns with Composite ones super- 
imposed, advanced slightly in front of the face of the wall. 
The whole is raised on a podium, and crowned with a remarkable 
domical vault constructed in tiers of brick arches, externally 
presenting a pyramidal form. 

The Circular Temple, Baalbec (a.d. 273) (No. 60 d, e, f), 
has a circular cella raised on a podium and approached by a 
flight of steps. It is surrounded by eight Corinthian columns, 
six of which are well advanced from the cella wall, and occupy the 
positions resulting from the division of a circle into seven equal 
parts. The entrance is placed centrally on the seventh division of 
the circle, and has a column on either side. The cella wall has 
Corinthian pilasters, between which are semicircular niches for 
statuary. The line of the entablature is curved inwards towards 
the cella between the six columns above mentioned. Internally 
it has superimposed Ionic and Corinthian orders. 

The Christian baptisteries erected in the following centuries 
were adapted from such circular temples as these just described, 
which are therefore extremely interesting with respect to architec- 
tural evolution. 


These, erected as halls of justice and as exchanges for merchants, 
comprise some of the finest buildings erected by the Romans, 
and bear witness to the importance of law and justice in their 
eyes. These buildings are also interesting as a link between 
Classic and Christian architecture, as explained later on page 181. 

The usual plan was a rectangle, whose length was two or three 
times the width. Two or four rows of columns ran through the 
entire length, resulting in three or five aisles, and galleries were 
usually placed over these. The entrance was at the side or 
at one end, and the tribunal at the other on a raised dais, generally 
placed in a semicircular apse, which was sometimes partly cut off 
from the main body of the building by columns. Ranged round 
the apse were seats for the assessors, that in the centre, which was 
elevated above the rest, being occupied by the Praetor or Questor. 

In front of the apse was the altar, where sacrifice was performed 
before commencing any important business. 

The building was generally covered with a wooden roof, and 






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the exterior seems to have been of small pretensions, in com- 
parison with the interior. 

Trajan's (the Ulpian) Basilica, Rome (a.d. 98) (Nos. 47*, 
58 b, e), of which Apollodorus of Damascus was the architect, 
was a fine example of the wooden roofed type. Entered 
from Trajan's Forum, it had a central nave 87 feet wide with 
double aisles, each 23 feet 9 inches wide, and an internal length 
excluding the apses of 385 feet. The total internal height was 
about 120 feet. The columns on the ground story separating 
the nave and aisles were of red granite from Syene, with white 
marble Corinthian capitals. At each end were semicircular apses, 
reached by flights of steps, having sacrificial altars in front of 
them. Galleries were formed over the side aisles, reached by 
steps as shown on the plan. 

Adjoining the Basilica were the Greek and Latin libraries, and 
Trajan's famous Column (page 156) stood in an open court between 

The Basilica of Maxentius or Constantine, Rome 
(a.d. 312) (Nos. 46 1, 47 ,G , 58 a, c, d), formerly erroneously 
known as the Temple of Peace, consists of a central nave 
265 feet long by 83 feet wide between the piers, crowned at a height 
of 120 feet by an immense groined vault in three compartments. 

To the north and south are aisles roofed with three great semi- 
circular vaults, each 76 feet in span, springing from walls placed 
at right angles to the nave. These w r alls had communicating 
openings formed in them, and aided by the weight of the aisle 
vaults, supported that of the nave. Monolithic columns were 
attached to the face of these piers, and supported pieces of 
entablature from which sprung the groined vaults. 

There were two apses, one to the north and one to the west of 
the central nave. 

Light was introduced in the upper part of the nave over the 
aisle vaults by means of lunettes, or semicircular windows in the 
wall formed by the intersecting vaulting. The building is similar 
as regards plan and design to the Tepidarium of the Thermae 
(No. 59), and is in many respects a prototype of a Gothic struc- 
ture, in which the thrust and weight of an intersecting vault are 
collected and brought down on piers built to receive them. 

The vaults to the northern aisle still remain, exhibiting the 
deep coffering executed in brick work, and a portion of the main 
vault of concrete formed of pozzolana is still in position, although 
the column which was placed to carry it has been removed, thus 
showing the extraordinary tenacity of Roman concrete. 

Other basilicas at Rome were the Basilica Porcia (b.c 184), 
believed to be the oldest, the Basilica Julia (No. 47), and the 
Basilica Amelia (No. 47) ; and the basilicas at Pompeii, Farno, 
and Treves, and at Silchester in England, may be mentioned. 



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The Thermae or great public baths are quite as characteristic 
of Roman civilization as the amphitheatres, being probably 
derived from the Greek gymnasia. 

The principal existing remains are found at Rome and Pompeii 
in a ruined state, but much can be learned from the published 
drawings of the Italian architect, Palladio, made in the sixteenth 
century, when they were better preserved, and from the restora- 
tions of French students sent to Rome as prize winners of the 
Ecole des Beaux- Arts. 

The Thermae supplied the place of the modern daily papers for 
the dissemination of news and gossip, and also answered in a 
measure the purposes of a modern club as a rendezvous of social 
life. A small charge of a quadrans (£ farthing) was sometimes 
made, but in later days they were opened free as a bribe to the 
populace by Emperors in search of popularity. 

In general arrangement they usually consisted of three main 
parts : — 

(a.) A great central block. This was planned for the baths proper, 
the processes of bathing resembling the modern Turkish bath. 
The Tepidarium (warm room for bathers to rest in), Calidarium 
(hot room, usually containing a warm water bath), Laconium or 
Sudatorium (the hottest room, usually a circular domed apart- 
ment), and a Frigidarium (cool room, usually containing a cold 
swimming bath — "piscina") were the most important apartments ; 
added to which there were the Apodyteria (rooms for undressing), 
Unctuarium (rooms for oils, pomades or ointments, where the 
" aliptae " anointed the bathers and performed the rubbing down, 
shampooing with the "strigillus" or scraper, oiling and sanding the 
body). The Sphaeristerium (place for the games of ball), libraries, 
and small theatre occasionally formed part of the central structure. 

{b.) A large open space. This surrounded the central block and 
was frequently laid out as a stadium, with raised seats for 
spectators. It was also used for various athletic exercises (such 
as wrestling, races, boxing), or for lounging, and portions were 
planted with trees and ornamented with statues. 

(c.) An outer ring of apartments. These consisted of lecture 
rooms for the hearing of discourses, open colonnades, exedrae or 
recesses for the philosophers, poets and statesmen, and other 
necessary apartments. A large reservoir frequently occupied one 
side, being supplied by a special aqueduct from a distance. This 
reservoir supplied the Frigidarium, Tepidarium and Calidarium 
in succession. The external apartments were frequently let off 
as shops or utilized for the accommodation of the numerous slaves 
who formed part of the establishment. 

The whole block was frequently raised on a high platform, 


underneath which were the furnaces and other rooms for the 
service of the baths. 

The Thermae of Caracalla, Rome (a.d. 212-235) (Nos. 46 f, 
g, h, k and 59 a), accommodating 1,600 bathers, are the most 
important of all the remains, and give a splendid idea of their 
size and magnificence. 

The entire site including gardens was raised on an artificial 
platform 20 feet high, measuring 1,150 feet (over one-fifth of a mile) 
each way, not including the segmental projection on three of the 
sides. Under this platform were communicating corridors leading 
to various parts of the establishment, vaulted chambers used as 
stores, the hypocaust, and furnaces for heating the water and hot 
air ducts. 

Along the road front was a colonnade having behind it a row 
of small chambers in two stories, the lower at the street level, 
probably used as shops, and the upper on the platform level, for 
private " slipper" baths. 

The entrance to the establishment was in the centre of the 
north-eastern facade, and led to the large open enclosure laid out 
for wrestling and other games, around which, in the segmental 
projections and elsewhere, were grouped the various halls for 
dramatic representations and lectures. The central building, used 
entirely for bathing, measured 750 feet by 380 feet, and therefore 
covered an area of 285,000 square feet, i.e. y about equal to West- 
minster Palace (including Westminster Hall), but greater than 
either the British Museum or the London Law Courts. Only 
four doorways were formed on the north-east side, which was 
exposed to cold winds, but large columned openings, giving access 
to the gardens, were a feature of the south-western front. 

Although now in ruins, restorations have been made which 
show the relative positions of the Tepidarium, Caiidarium (with 
sudatio), Frigidarium (with piscina), Sphaeristeria (for gymnastics), 
Apodyteria (dressing rooms), and other apartments. The planning 
of this and similar buildings is very instructive to architectural 
students and worthy of careful study, being laid out on axial lines, 
which, while providing for the practical requirements of the bathers, 
produced vistas through the various halls and saloons. Moreover, 
by the system of exedrae and screens of columns, loss of scale was 
prevented, and the vastness of the building was emphasized. 

Internally the Tepidarium, forming the principal hall, around 
which the subsidiary apartments were grouped, constituted the 
controlling feature of the plan to which the other apartments were 
subordinated. It was 170 feet by 82 feet, roofed with an immense 
semicircular intersecting concrete vault, 108 feet above the floor, 
formed in three compartments, and supported on eight portions of 
entablature resting on granite columns, 38 feet high and 5 feet 
4 inches in diameter, placed in front of the massive piers. This 



great apartment was lighted by clerestory windows, high in the 
walls, admitting light over the roofs of adjoining halls by means 
of the intersecting vault, which was constructed on a similar 
system to that described for the Basilica of Maxentius (page 139). 
S. George's Hall, Liverpool, is of similar dimensions to the Tepi- 
darium of Caracalla's Thermae, but with five bays instead of three. 

The Calidarium was roofed with a dome similar to that of the 

The Frigidarium was probably open to the sky, although as 
many tons of T iron were found below the surface of the bath, 
some suppose it to have been covered with a roof of iron joists 
(probably cased with bronze) and concrete. Viollet-le-duc has a 
drawing in his lectures of the Frigidarium restored, giving an 
excellent idea of its probable original appearance. 

The general adornment and color treatment of the interior 
must have been of great richness, and in marked contrast to the 
exterior, indicating a further secession from Greek principles. 

Sumptuous internal magnificence was aimed at in all the great 
Thermae, the pavings were patterned with mosaic cubes of bright 
colors, either planned in geometrical patterns or with figures of 
athletes ; the lower parts of the walls were sheathed with many 
colored marbles, and the upper parts with enriched and modelled 
stucco bright with color ; the great columns on which rested the 
vault springers were either of granite, porphyry, giallo antico, 
alabaster or other rare marbles from the JEgeaxi islands. Various 
colored marble columns were used constructively to support the 
upper balconies and the peristyle roofs, and decoratively to form 
with their entablatures and pediments frames for the superimposed 
niches in the walls. 

The surface of the great vaults was also richly ornamented by 
means of coffering, or covered with bold figures, decorations in 
black and white, or colored glass mosaic. 

In these magnificent halls thus sumptuously decorated some of 
the finest sculpture of antiquity was displayed. This was brought 
largely from Greece or executed in Rome by Greek artists, and at 
the excavation of the Thermae during the Renaissance period much 
of it found its way into the Vatican and other museums in Rome, 
and in the principal European cities. 

Finally, additional interest was given to the interiors by the 
perpetual streams of running water, issuing from the mouths of 
sculptured lions in marble or brightly polished silver, falling into 
capacious marble basins and producing a delicious cooling effect 
in the hot sultry weather. 

The exteriors appear to have been treated very plainly in stucco, 
or more wisely left as impressive masses of plain brickwork, 
perhaps banded or dressed with bricks of a different color. 

The unbounded license of the public baths, and their connection 


with amusements generally, caused them to be proscribed by the 
Early Christians, who held that bathing might be used for 
cleanliness, but not for pleasure. 

In the fifth century the large Roman Thermae fell into disuse 
and decay, caused by the destruction of the aqueducts by the 
Huns and the gradual decrease of the Roman population. 

The Thermae of Agrippa, Rome (b.c. 27) (No. 46 l), were 
the earliest example. They have completely disappeared, but 
an idea can be obtained from the measured drawings of Palladio, 
published in Cameron's " Baths of the Romans," 1772. 

The Thermae of Titus, Rome (a.d. 80) (No. 69 b), were 
built on the foundations of Nero's Golden House. 

The Thermae of Diocletian, Rome (a.d. 302) (No. 46 j), had 
a plan, shown in a restored condition in No. 60 k, from which it 
will be seen that the general distribution resembled the Baths of 
Caracalla. The Tepidarium is 200 feet long by 80 feet wide and 
90 feet high, and is covered with quadripartite vaulting of tufa con- 
crete, springing from eight monolithic columns of Egyptian 
granite, 50 feet high and 5 feet in diameter, having Composite and 
Corinthian capitals of white marble each supporting a portion of 
highly ornamental entablature. This Tepidarium was converted 
by Michael Angelo, in a.d. 1561, into the Church of S. M. degli 
Angeli, and in 1740 a projecting choir was formed on one side by 
Vanvitelli, who thus converted the nave of the church into a kind 
of transept. 

The Balneum or small private bath was much used, and the 
three examples at Pompeii indicate their general characteristics 
and manner of use. These baths were heated by means of hot air 
in flues under the floors, and in the walls from the hypocaust or 
furnace in the basement (No. 46 f, g, h). 

Typical Roman baths are shown on No. 69 g, j. 

The so-called Temple of Minerva Medica, Rome (Nos. 46 m 
and 83 a, b), is now generally regarded as a nymphaeum attached 
to the Baths of Gallenius (a.d. 266). The absence of a hypocaust 
or of flue tiles in the walls prevent it from being considered as a 

It is a decagonal on plan, 80 feet in diameter, with semicircular 
niches to nine of the sides, the tenth being the entrance. Above 
are ten windows of large size at the base of the dome, in order to 
give the necessary light and air to the plants. The dome is formed 
of concrete ribbed with tiles, bearing a remarkable similarity to 
S. Vitale at Ravenna (No. 83 c, d). It is particularly interesting 
in that the rudiments of the pendentive (see glossary) system are 
to be seen in the manner of setting the dome on its decagonal 
base, a system afterwards carried still further by the Byzantines. 
Buttresses were placed at points as required, admitting of the use 
of thinner walls, which is an advance on the construction of the 

F.A. L 


Pantheon (No. 54), and a step towards Gothic principles of con- 
struction. The pendentives are of the rudest kind, and probably 
were entirely masked by the original decoration. 


The design of Greek theatres was adapted to suit Roman 
requirements. The auditorium, instead of being rather more 
than a semicircle as in the Greek theatres, was here restricted to 
a semicircle, and consisted of tiers of seats one above the other, 
with wide passages and staircases communicating with the external 
porticos on each story. At the ground level, separating the 
auditorium of sloping seats from the stage, was a semi- 
circular area which was occupied by the Senators, and which in 
its original circular plan in Greek theatres was occupied by the 
chorus. The stage thus becoming all important, was raised con- 
siderably and treated with great richness, and became connected 
more completely with the auditorium. Theatres were still con- 
structed on the slope of a hill, but where the site did not allow of 
this they were, by means of the new art of vaulting, constructed 
tier upon tier of connecting corridors, in which the people might 
retreat in case of sudden showers. 

The Theatre at Orange, South France (No. 34 b), held 7,000 
spectators, and is an example where the auditorium is constructed 
and not hollowed out of the side of a hill. In diameter it is 
340 feet between the inclosing walls. Staircases for access to the 
various levels were placed on either side of the stage, which is 
203 feet wide by 45 feet deep, and inclosed by return walls at 
right angles to the back wall. The great wall at the back of this 
stage, 314 feet long by 116 feet high, is ornamented by blind 
arcading, and has at the summit two tiers of corbel stones, pierced 
with holes, through which the velarium poles were placed. It 
originally had a portico attached to it. 

The Theatre of Marcellus, Rome (b.c 23-13), is the only 
existing example of a theatre in that city. The remains consist 
of the arcading, two stories high, of the semicircular auditorium, 
the facade of which was ornamented with the Tuscan order and 
the Ionic order superimposed. 

The Theatre of Herodes Atticus, Athens (No. 17) 
(a.d. 161), is also a fine example, seating 6,000 people. It is 
partly hewn out of the Acropolis rock and partly constructed, the 
seats having a marble casing. It is held to have been roofed with 
cedar, but this, however, probably only applied to the stage. 

Pompeii had two important theatres, which in recent years have 
been excavated. The theatres at Taormina, on the east coast of 
Sicily, at Fiesole, near Florence, and Aspendus, in Asia Minor, are 
other examples. 

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The amphitheatres are characteristic Roman buildings, being 
found in every important settlement, and in addition to their 
normal purposes were used for naval exhibitions, the water drains 
for flooding the arena still existing in many examples. The 
modern Spanish bull rings to some degree give an idea of the 
arrangement and uses of Roman amphitheatres. These are good 
exponents of the character and life of the Romans, who had 
greater love for mortal combats, which were considered to be a 
good training for a nation of warriors, than for the tame mimicry 
of the stage. 

The Flavian Amphitheatre, (The Colosseum), Rome 
(Nos. 62 and 63), commenced by Vespasian in a.d. 70, and com- 
pleted (with the exception of the upper story) by Domitian in 
a.d. 82, is the most important example. The model in the Crystal 
Palace gives a good idea of the general distribution of its parts. 
In plan it is a type of all the examples, consisting of a vast ellipse 
620 feet by 513 feet, having externally eighty openings on each 
story, those on the ground floor forming entrances, by means 
of which the various tiers of seats are reached. The arena 
proper is an oval 287 feet by 180 feet, surrounded by a wall 
15 feet high. The seats, in solid stone, rise up from the arena, 
having underneath them corridors and staircases. The dens for 
the wild beasts were immediately under the lowest tiers of seats, 
and consequently opened on to the arena, as at Verona (No. 64). 
The auditorium has four ranges of seats, the two lower forming 
the grand tiers, the third separated from the second by a wall, 
and the top range under the peristyle forming the later addi- 
tion. Access to the various seats is from the eighty entrances 
by means of staircases placed between the radiating walls and by 
corridors, placed at intervals as shown. The radiating walls were 
cleverly constructed, concrete being used where least weight, 
tufa stone where more weight, and travertine stone where the 
heaviest pressures had to be supported (No. 62 b). The masonry 
was laid without mortar, and the construction is strong and solid, 
being of an engineering character. The system is one of concrete 
vaults resting on walls of the same material, 2 feet 3 inches thick, 
faced with travertine stone, 4 feet thick, and having an internal 
lining of 9 inches of brickwork, making 7 feet in total thickness. 
The supports have been calculated at one-sixth of the whole area 
of the building. 

The constructive principle consists of wedge-shaped piers 
radiating inwards, the vaults running downwards to the centre 
from the high inclosing walls ; consequently no building is more 
durable or more difficult to destroy — a feeling well expressed by 
the line : 

" When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall." 


The external facade is divided into four stories. The three 
lower ones have their walls pierced with arches, and are orna- 
mented with half columns of the Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian 
orders, the two latter being on pedestals. The upper story has 
Corinthian pilasters, and the height to the top of this order is 
157 feet. Between the pilasters are the corbels used to support 
the masts of the velarium. 

In criticizing the general architectural character of this 

wonderful building (No. 63), points worthy of notice are : — 

i. The multiplicity of its parts, viz., three tiers of apparently 

countless arcades encircling the exterior, divided and united 

by three tiers of orders. 

ii. The grand sweeping lines of the unbroken entablatures 

which entirely surround the building, 
iii. The purely decorative use of the Classic orders of archi- 
tecture which being superimposed are in strong contrast to 
the Grecian method of single orders, 
iv. The thick piers behind the orders, connected by eighty 
arches and supporting the weight of the structure. 
The proportions of the attached columns on the facade, which 
all have the same lower diameter are unusual : — The Tuscan 
column is about 9^ diameters high and the Ionic and Corinthian 
about 8f diameters. 

The Colosseum was used as a stone quarry by the builders ot 
later times, materials being taken from it for the construction of 
many Renaissance buildings (page 456). 

The Amphitheatre, Verona (No. 64), is in splendid pre- 
servation, all the stone seats being intact, although only four 
bays of the external wall are still standing. 

Other well-known examples are the Amphitheatres at Pompeii, 
Capua, Pola in Istria, Nimes, Aries, El Djem near Carthage, and 
remains of a roughly made example at Dorchester, in Dorset. 


The plan of a Roman Circus was an adaptation of a Greek 
stadium, but, however, was used for chariot or horse races, while 
the Greek stadium was principally used for foot races and 
athletic sports. At Rome there were several important examples, 
among which were the Circus Maximus and those of Maxentius, 
Domitian, Hadrian, Nero, Flaminius, and Sallust. 

The Circus Maxentius (No. 60 c) near Rome, also known 
as the Circus of Romulus, was built by Maxentius in a.d. 311. 
Although only part of it now remains, it is the most perfect 
example of a Roman Circus existing. It consisted of a long open 
circular-ended arena with a "spina" along its axis. Surrounding 
this were rows of marble seats supported by raking vaults and an 


external wall of concrete faced with "opus mixtum" (page 117). 
At one end were the " carceres " or stalls for horses and chariots, 
with a central entrance for processions and two side entrances, 
and at the semicircular end was the " porta triumphalis." 



These were erected to emperors or generals in honour of their 
victories. They consisted either of a single arch or of a central 
arch with a smaller one on either side. These rest on an impost, 
and have Corinthian or Composite columns on either side, and 
were adorned with architectural enrichments, statuary, and bas- 
reliefs relating to campaigns. An attic or surmounting mass of 
stonework was placed above, having a dedicatory inscription. 

(a.) The single-arched type, of which the central arch at Hyde 
Park Corner, London, is an example. 

The Arch of Titus, Rome (a.d. 8i) (Nos. 47, 49, 69 a, c), 
commemorates the capture of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. On each side of 
the arch are semi-engaged columns of the Composite order, being 
the earliest known examples, and three-quarter columns occur at 
the angles. The archway has its soffit ornamented with deep 
coffers, in the centre of which is a relief of the apotheosis of Titus. 
The inner jambs have reliefs of the emperor in a triumphal car, 
being crowned by victory, on the one side, and the spoils taken from 
the Temple at Jerusalem on the other. The central keystones 
project considerably in order to support the main architrave, and 
are richly carved, as shown in No. 67 b. 

Other well-known examples of this type are the Arches of 
Trajan at Ancona (a.d. 313), Trajan at Beneventum(A.D. 114) 
(No. 70 d), the Sergii at Pola, Augustus at Susa (Piedmont) 
(b.c 7), Augustus at Aosta (Piedmont), Augustus at Rimini 
(a.d. 27), and Hadrian at Athens. 

The Arch of the Goldsmiths, Rome (a.d. 204) (No. 49), is 
not of arched construction, the opening being spanned by an 

(b.) The three-arched type, of which the Marble Arch, London, 
gives a general idea. 

The Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome (a.d. 204) (Nos. 47, 
57» 65, 66 and 70), built to commemorate Parthian victories, has 
detached Composite columns resting on pedestals. A description 
is given on each of the illustrations Nos. 57 and 65. 

The Arch of Constantine, Rome (a.d. 312) (No. 47), was 
built in honour of Constantine's victory over Maxentius, and is one 
of the best proportioned examples. It has detached Corinthian 
columns supporting an entablature, which returns round each 
column, and above the attic were originally a quadriga, horses, 
and statues. 







The Arch at Orange is one of the finest examples of this type 
outside Italy. It has semi-attached Corinthian columns between 
the arches and three-quarter columns at the angles. 

Besides these, mention might be made of the Arch of Janus, 
Rome, in the Forum Boarium, built in the reign of Septimius 
Severus, a four-way arch built as a shelter at the junction of four 
roads; and aJso the arches at Palmyra and in North Africa. 

Arches were also erected to form entrances to towns or bridges, 
and in such cases might serve the purposes of defence. Of this 
type of gateway the Porta Nigra, Treves, the Porte S. Andre, 
Autun, the Porte des Mars, Rheims, and the Porta Aurea, 
Spalato (Palace of Diocletian), are among the best known. 

Pillars of victory, or memorial columns, were sometimes 
erected to record the triumphs of victorious generals. 

Trajan's Column (No. 58 b, 60 j, l), was erected in connec- 
tion with his Basilica (page 139), and stood in an open court with 
galleries around at different levels, from which the bas-reliefs on 
its shaft could be viewed. 

"The sculptures wind aloft 
And lead, through various toils, up the rough steep 
The hero to the skies." 

The column, of the Roman Doric order, stands on a pedestal 
16 feet 8 inches square, and 18 feet high, ornamented with 
sculptured trophies on three sides, and having a doorway on the 
fourth. The column is 12 feet in diameter at the base and is 
provided with an internal spiral staircase of marble, lighted by 
small openings. Its total height is 147 feet. The sculptures, 
numbering over 2,500 human figures, besides animals, and 
carved on a spiral band over 800 feet long and about 3 feet 
6 inches deep, were probably intended to represent the unwinding 
of a scroll of parchment illustrating incidents of Trajan's war with 
the Dacians. There is a full-sized cast in the Victoria and Albert 

The column erected in a.d. 161 to the memory of Antoninus 
Pius and that erected to Marcus Aurelius in memory of his 
victories over the Germans (a.d. 167-179) were founded on the 
design of Trajan's Column. 

Rostral columns, a type of memorial which, in the time 
of the emperors, was numerous, were erected to celebrate naval 
victories. Rostra, or prows of ships captured after a naval 
victory, were used in their ornamentation (No. 69 h), and a recital 
of the deeds which led to their erection was carved upon them. 


In contrast with those of the Greeks, tombs w r ere numerous, 
and bear considerable similarity to Etruscan examples, in particular 
that of Regolini Galassi at Cervetri. 


The Romans either buried or cremated their dead, both sarco- 
phagi (No. 69 m) and urns being sometimes found in the same tomb 
chamber. The bodies of the emperors during the first three cen- 
turies were usually burnt on magnificent pyres, from which an eagle 
was set free, symbolizing the escaping soul of the dead emperor. 

In the second century a.d. the practice of cremation became 
less usual; the richer classes embalmed their dead and placed 
them in massive and costly sarcophagi instead of the smaller 
receptacle for ashes. 

There are five varieties of Roman tombs, as indicated on 
No. 52 : — 

(a.) Columbaria. — These were placed in subterranean vaults 
or caves, which are now known as catacombs, and have rows of 
niches in the walls resembling pigeon-holes — hence the name. 
Each niche was reserved for a vase containing the ashes of the 
deceased, with the name inscribed thereon. Sarcophagi were also 
placed in these tomb-chambers, some of which in addition had 
*' loculi " or recesses for corpses, as in the Tomb of the Gens 
Cornelia, Rome. 

(b.) Monumental tombs consisted of tower-shaped blocks, 
square or circular, resting on a quadrangular structure and 
crowned with a pyramidal roof. These may be survivals of the 
prehistoric tumulus of earth with its base strengthened by a ring 
of stones. 

The Tomb of Cacilia Met ell a, Rome (b.c 60), (on the Via Appia), 
has a podium 100 feet square, supporting a circular mass 
94 feet in diameter, probably surmounted by a conical roof. The 
tomb-chamber was in the interior, and the whole was faced with 
travertine and crowned by an entablature, the frieze of which is 
carved with ox-skulls and festoons. 

The Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome (b.c. 28), was erected for 
himself and his heirs. Little is now left, but it is known, from 
descriptions of Strabo,. Tacitus, and others, to have had a square 
basement surrounded with a portico of columns and supporting a 
circular mass, 220 feet in diameter, containing the mortuary 
chambers, the whole being capped by a mound of earth laid out 
in terraces and planted with cyprus and evergreen trees, and 
crowned with a colossal statue of Augustus. In the middle ages 
it was converted into a fortress, and in the eighteenth century, 
what remained of it, was used as a theatre. 

The Mausoleum of Hadrian, Rome (a.d. 135) was one of the 
most important of these monumental tombs. It is now the 
Castle of S. Angelo, and consists of a square basement about 
300 feet each way and 75 feet high, supporting an immense 
circular tower 230 feet in diameter and 140 feet high, having 
a peristyle of marble columns, surmounted by a conical marble 
dome, as other examples. It was built of concrete, in which, 


towards the centre of the mass, were formed the»«*pi|)chral 
chamber and converging passages, which slope upwards from the 
ground level. On the whole, the structure has been much altered 
since its construction, being converted in the middle ages into a 
fortress by the Popes, and is now used as a military barrack. 

(c.) Pyramid tombs, probably due to the introduction of 
Egyptian ideas, were also adopted, as in the Pyramid of Cestiits 
(b.c. 62-12), which is formed of concrete faced with white 
marble, and has an internal tomb-chamber, the vault and walls 
being decorated with figure paintings. 

(d.) Smaller tombs, as isolated monuments, were often 
erected along the sides of roads leading from cities, as at Rome 
and in the Street of Tombs, Pompeii : 

" Those ancient roads 
With tombs high verged, the solemn paths of Fame ; 
Deserve they not regard ! o'er whose broad flints 
Such crowds have roll'd ; so many storms of war, 
So many pomps, so many wondeiing realms." — Dyer. 

These often have subterranean tomb-chambers for sarcophagi 
with niches for cinerary urns, and the walls and vaults were 
ornamented with colored reliefs in stucco, as in the Tomb of the 

Above the ground the tomb resembled a small temple, often 
with a prostyle portico, and the upper chamber contained portraits 
or statues of deities and served as mortuary chapels. 

(<?.) Eastern tombs. — The districts of Palmyra, Jerusalem 
and Petra in Syria ; Caria in Asia Minor, and Algeria and 
Cyrene in Africa possess many examples, some rock-cut, and 
some structural. 

The Tomb at Mylassa, in Asia Minor, is one of the most interesting 
examples of the latter. The illustration (No. 52) will show its 
general characteristics. 

The Tomb at Ditgga, near Tunis (No. 52 g), somewhat resembles 
that at Mylassa, but with a walled-up colonnade. 

In addition to the foregoing, memorial structures or cenotaphs 
were occasionally erected. 

The Monument of S, Remi, in Provence (b.c. first century) 
(No. 52 h), consists of a high pedestal ornamented with bas- 
reliefs and supporting a story of engaged Corinthian angle columns 
with arched openings between. Above is a circular story with 
fluted Corinthian columns, supporting an entablature and conical 
stone roof. 

The I gel Monument, near Treves, Germany, is of similar design. 


The aqueducts, although more of an engineering than archi- 
tectural character, fulfilling a utilitarian purpose only, formed by 


their size and proportion striking features of the Roman landscape. 
Throughout the Empire remains are to be seen showing the 
importance put by the Romans upon an adequate water supply 
to their cities. Rome had to be especially well supplied owing 
to the inferiority of the local service and the large quantity 
required for the reservoirs, great thermae and public fountains, 
to say nothing of the domestic supply for its large population. 

In any views of the Campagna near Rome, the ruined 
aqueducts are striking features, and in approaching the Eternal 
City in the days of its glory, these enormous arched waterways 
must have impressed the beholder. Vitruvius (Book VIII., 
chapter vii.) gives interesting information on the subject, which is 
added to from other sources by Middleton. 

The Romans were acquainted with the simple hydraulic law 
that water will rise to its own level in pipes, and the upper rooms 
of their houses were supplied by " rising mains " in the same way 
as modern buildings. Owing, however, to the fact that pipes had 
then to be made of weak and costly lead or bronze (cheap and 
strong cast-iron pipes not being in use), it was found to be more 
economical by the use of slave labour to construct aqueducts of 
stone, or concrete faced with brick, having almost level water 
channels, above or below ground (Vitruvius recommends a fall of 
6 inches to every 100 feet), on immense arches above ground, a 
system which even in modern times has been followed in the Croton 
Aqueduct which supplies New York City. 

The principle of all the examples is similar. A smooth channel 
(sptcus) lined with a hard cement, is carried on arches, often in 
several tiers and sometimes of immense height (say 100 feet), con- 
veying the water from the high ground, across valleys, to the city 
reservoirs. Many of them follow a circuitous course in order 
to prevent the slope of the channel being too steep when the 
source of the water was high above the required level of distribu- 
tion in Rome. In the time of Augustus Caesar there were nine 
of these aqueducts supplying Rome with water. 

The Aqua Marcia (b.c 144) and the Aqua Claudia (a.d. 38) 
still supply water to Rome. The " Anio Novus " (a.d. 38), 
sixty-two miles in length, entered the city on arches above those 
of the Aqua Claudia. 

The Pont-du-Gard, near Nimes, in France (b.c ic;)(Nos. 60 
a, b and 61), is the finest existing example. It forms part of an 
aqueduct twenty-five miles long, bringing water from the neigh- 
bourhood of Uzes. It is about 900 feet long, and is formed of 
three tiers of arches crossing a valley 180 feet above the River 
Gard. On the two lower tiers the central arch is the widest, and 
the others vary in width. On the uppermost tier there are thirty- 
five arches having 14 feet span, supporting the water- channel. 
The masonry is laid dry without mortar and, as will be seen on 


No. 61, some of the arch voussoirs of the intermediate tier 
projected to carry the temporary centering. 

Other aqueducts exist at Tarragona and Segovia, Spalato and 


The chief characteristics of Roman bridges were solidity and 
simplicity, with a view to their withstanding the ravages of 
time and the elements. The roadway was generally kept level 

The Bridge at Rimini is the best preserved in Italy and has 
five arches. 

There are examples of two types of Roman bridges in Spain 
which are equally impressive, (a.) The many-arched type, as 
exemplified in the extreme length of the bridges at Cordova and 
Alcantara, (b.) The single-arched type, of which the romantic 
sweep of the bridge at Toledo, spanning the rocky valley of the 
Tagus, is the best example. 


Of the Roman palaces the ruins only remain, but there is 
enough to show their enormous extent and imposing character. 

The Palaces of the Roman Emperors.— The principal 
approach was from the Forum Romanum, by a road which 
branched off from the Via Sacra, on the west side of the Arch of 
Titus (No. 47). 

Excavations on the Palatine Hill, commenced by Napoleon III. 
in 1863, and afterwards continued by the Italian Government, 
have revealed remains of a group of magnificent palaces. These, 
commenced by Augustus (a.d. 3), and having additions by 
Tiberius, Caligula, Nero and Domitian, were remodelled by 
Septimius Severus, and the giant remains attributed to him will 
probably impress the student of architecture most when visiting 
the site. 

The chief apartments in these palaces were : — The Tablinum 
or Throne-room; the Basilica, or hall for administering justice; 
the Peristylium, a square garden surrounded by a colonnade; 
the Triclinium, or banqueting hall ; the Lararium, or apartment 
for statues of the household gods ; and the Nymphaeum. Besides 
these there were many minor chambers of service, whose uses 
cannot now be ascertained. 

The disposition of the buildings was governed by axial lines 
producing magnificent vistas. Irregular spaces, caused by 
additions being made from time to time, were rendered sym- 
metrical by the use of hemicycles and other devices, disguising the 


different angles of the buildings in relation to each other, a method 
frequently used by modern architects. 

The Palace of Diocletian, Spalato, in Dalmatia (No. 59) 
(a.d. 300), is another famous example, which formed the greater 
part of the mediaeval town of Spalato, and has thus been called a 
city in a house. It may be described as a royal country house, or 
better, perhaps, as a chateau by the sea. 

The original plan of the palace was approximately a rectangle, 
occupying an area of 9^ acres, being thus almost equal in extent 
to the Escurial in Spain (page 537, No. 238). There was a square 
tower at each angle, and in the centre of each of the north, east 
and west sides was a gateway flanked by octagonal towers, 
between which and those at the angles were subsidiary towers. 
These gateways formed entrances to porticoed avenues 36 feet 
wide, which, meeting in the centre, gave the palace the character 
of a Roman camp. On each of the facades, between the towers, 
were rich entrance gateways ; the " golden " on the north, the 
" iron " on the west, and the " brazen " on the east, ending these 
main avenues, which divided the inclosed area into four parts, each 
assigned to a particular purpose. The two northern portions were 
probably for the guests and principal officers of the household ; 
while the whole of the southern portion was devoted to the palace, 
including two temples, that of Jupiter (see under circular temples, 
pp. 130, 136) and ^Esculapius (page 125) and the baths. A circular 
vestibule, with a front portico in antis, formed an entrance to a 
suite of nine chambers overlooking the sea; here were placed 
the private apartments and baths of the emperor, the finest being 
the portico, 524 feet by 24 feet, on the southern sea front. This 
served as a connecting gallery, and was probably filled with works 
of art (cf. Elizabethan gallery, page 555). The columns to the 
upper portion were detached and rested on carved corbels, a 
feature also seen in the golden gateway. 

Lining the inclosing walls of the whole area, on three sides, 
internally, were the cells that lodged the slaves and soldiers of 
the imperial retinue. The octagonal temple, and the more lofty 
halls of the palace proper, being visible above the inclosing walls 
in distant views by land and sea, were impressive features of the 


The architectural character is somewhat debased in style, broken 
and curved pediments with decadent detail being employed. The 
palace has a value, however, as a transitional example, for the 
entablature of the peristyle is formed as an arch, thus losing its 
constructive significance, and in the northern gateway arches rest 
directly on capitals without the intervention of an entablature, 
being an early example of a principle carried to its logical con- 
clusion in the Romanesque and Gothic styles. 

F.A. M 



These may be classified under — (a.) The domus, or private house ; 
(b.) The villa, or country house ; and (c.) The insula, or many- 
storied tenement. 

The dwellings of the Greeks have already been touched upon 
(page 92), and there seems every reason to believe that Roman 
dwellings were evolved from them. They each possessed an 
atrium, forming the more public portion of the building, and a 
peristyle beyond, forming the centre of the family apartments. 
At Rome, the Atrium Vestae, or House of the Vestal Virgins 
(No. 47), and the House of Livia, are interesting examples. 

The excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum have thrown 
considerable light on this important subject, and as Pompeii was 
a Graeco-Roman city, the remains which have been excavated are 
believed to differ but slightly from the later Greek dwellings. 
These Pompeian houses owe their preservation to an eruption of 
Vesuvius, which in a.d. 79 overwhelmed the city, burying it in 
ashes to a depth of 10 feet. 

The streets of Pompeii were narrow (many only 8, 12, or 15 feet), 
the widest being 23 feet 6 inches, with a roadway 13 feet 6 inches 
and paths 5 feet wide. The houses had plain fronts to the street, 
the frontage on either side of the entrance passage being let ofF 
as shops. The absence of windows on the fronts is explained by 
some as being due to a lack of glass, in which case openings 
towards the street would have rendered privacy impossible. 

The rooms were lighted by openings giving on to internal courts 
already mentioned, as are Eastern houses to this day, and the inns 
of France and England in former days. 

The Pompeian houses are mostly one story in height, but 
stairs and traces of upper floors exist. Such upper stories were 
probably of wood, but as a decree was passed in the time of 
Augustus limiting the height of houses in Rome to 75 feet, brick or 
masonry buildings must have been largely erected. The openings 
were small, the light being strong in the sunny climate of Italy. 

The House of Pansa (No. 65, a, b) may be taken as 
a good type of domus or ordinary private house. It was sur- 
rounded by streets on three sides, the garden occupying the fourth, 
and, besides the house proper, consisted of shops, bakeries, and 
three smaller houses. A prothyrum, or entrance passage, led direct 
from the street entrance to the atrium, which served as the public 
waiting-room for retainers and clients, and from which the more 
private portions of the house were shut off. The atrium was open 
to the sky in the centre, with a " lean-to " or sloping roof sup- 
ported by brackets round all four sides. The impluvium, or " water 
cistern," for receiving the rain-water from these roofs, was sunk 
in the centre of the pavement, while round were grouped the front 
rooms, probably used by servants or guests, or as semi-public 


rooms, e.g., libraries, each receiving sufficient light through the 
door openings. 

An open saloon, or tablinum, with " fauces," or narrow passages, 
led to the peristyle, or inner court, often the garden of the house ; 
and around were grouped the cubiculae or bedrooms, the triclinium, 
or dining-room (summer and winter), with different aspects, the 
cecus, or reception room, and the alae, or recesses, for conversation. 
The dining-rooms were fitted with three couches each for three 
people to recline upon, as nine was the recognized number for a 
Roman feast. The peristyle was the centre of the private part of 
the house, corresponding to the hall of Elizabethan times, and it 
usually had a small shrine or altar (Nos. 68 g, 69 e). 

The walls and floors were richly decorated with mosaics and 

The kitchen and pantry are in the side of the peristyle, furthest 
from the entrance. 

The Houses of the Faun, Vettius, Diomede, the Tragic 
Poet, and Sallust, are other well-known examples of Pompeian 
houses which have their floors, walls, and vaults decorated in a 
characteristic style, to which the name " Pompeian " is now applied, 
and which were furnished with domestic implements such as 
candelabra (Nos. 68, 69), and fountains. The floors of these houses 
were of patterned mosaic, either in black and white (No. 69 k) or 
of colored marbles. The walls were either painted to imitate 
marble or executed in fresco, the darkest colors of the decorative 
scheme being placed nearer the ground. Pictures were some- 
times framed with architectural features consisting of slender 
shafts, suggestive of a metallic origin, with entablatures in 
perspective. The ceilings, which have to be imagined, had pro- 
bably painted and gilded timbers, forming an important element 
in the decorative scheme. The roofs were covered with tiles or 
bright colored terra-cotta. 

Lytton's great novel, " The Last Days of Pompeii," will be 
found of interest to the student as a description of the habits 
and life of the Romans. 

The Pompeian House at the Crystal Palace, designed by the 
late Sir Digby Wyatt, is an exceedingly good reproduction of an 
ordinary Pompeian house, the decorations being copies of original 
paintings at Pompeii. 

Hadrian's Villa, near Tivoli, resembled a palace in its extent, 
occupying an area of about seven square miles. Besides the 
imperial apartments it was surrounded by terraces, peristyles, 
palaestra, theatres, a gymnasium, and thermae. Restorations have 
been made' by many authorities, as Piranesi, Canina, and others. 

Examples of Roman villas exist in England (see page 280). 

The insula, or tenement of many stories, seems to have resembled 
the modern flat. 

m 2 




Fountains, both public and private, have always been one of the 
most striking features of both ancient and modern Rome on 
account of their graceful designs, rich material, and the soothing 
effect in a hot and low-lying city of the clear water sparkling in 
the sun. 

The public fountains were exceedingly numerous, amounting 
to many hundreds, either as large basins of water (locus) or as 
spouting jets (salientes), or the two combined and ornamented with 
marble columns and statues. 

Private fountains existed in great numbers, mainly in the courts 
and gardens of the houses, and exhibit much variety of design. 
They were of colored marbles and porphyries, often decorated 
with bronze statuettes. In some the water issued in jets from 
fishes, shells, or other objects, sometimes supported by a figure of 
a nymph. In others, wall niches lined with glass and mosaics 
were provided with lions' heads, from which issued the water, as 
have been found at Pompeii. 



A. Plans. — Designs have refine- 
ment and beauty, proportion 
being of the first importance, 
and there is a dignity and 
grandeur of effect irrespective of 
the smallness of scale. 

Unity was attained in the self- 
contained temples, while variety 
of grouping and some picturesque- 
ness was attempted in the Pro- 
pylaea and Erechtheion (Nos. 18, 
26, 30). 

Purity and severity of outline 
caused by the simple method of 
post and beam, did not lend 
itself to such variety and bold- 
ness of planning as resulted 
from the arcuated Roman style. 

No mixture of constructive prin- 
ciples occurs in the buildings of 
the Greeks, the limits of whose 
style have not been yet success- 
fully expanded. 


a. Plans. — Designs convey an 
impression of vastness and 
magnificence, and are charac- 
teristic of a powerful and ener- 
getic race. The Romans were 
pre-eminently great constructors, 
and knew how to use the 
materials at hand. This con- 
structive skill was acquired by 
the building, on a large scale, 
of utilitarian works, such as the 
aqueducts and bridges. 

The arch, vault, and dome were the 
keynotes to the whole system of 
the style, and constituted a step 
toward Gothic architecture. By 
the use of the arch, wide open- 
ings were rendered possible, and 
by vaults and domes large areas 
and complicated plans could be 
roofed (Nos. 58 and 59), giving 
boldness and variety and leading 
to the system of intersecting 




The use of the true arch is avoided. 
An example of a vaulted building 
is the Treasury of Atreus, at My- 
cenae, where the beds of the stones 
are horizontal throughout, each 
bed overlapping the one below till 
the crown is reached (page 54). 

The Greek Temples were usually 
orientated, />., faced the east. 

B. Walls. — Constructed of large 
blocks of marble, without mortar, 
allowing of refinement of treat- 
ment, and perfection of finish in 
construction. Where coarse stone 
was used it was frequently 
covered with stucco. Jointing 
was not reckoned as a means of 
effect. Stability was achieved 
solely by the judicious observance 
of the laws of gravity, the adher- 
ence of the blocks not being 
necessary, for the weights only 
acted vertically, and needed but 
vertical resistance. Even for 
transmitting the pressure be- 
tween the blocks only metal 
cramps were used. The employ- 
ment of marble directly shaped 
the development of the style. 
One-sixteenth of an inch was 
rubbed off the buildings on 
completion, this polishing being 
performed by slaves. 
The Anta (Nos. 21, 26, 27 L, 30, 
and 44 f) was employed at ex- 
tremities and angles of cella walls. 

c. Openings.— Of minor import- 
ance, the columnar treatment 
giving the necessary light and 
shade. Doorways arc square- 
headed, and often crowned with 
a cornice supported by consoles, 
as in the fine example of the 
north doorway at the Erech- 
theion, Athens'(No. 37 n— H). 

Windows, except on rare occasions, 
as shown on plate No. 28, were 
not used in Temples, illumination 
being obtained from doorways or 
hypanhral openings (Nos. 20 c, 
23 A, B, and 27 B, d). 


vaults, by which the concentra- 
tion of weights on piers was 
effected. The use of recesses 
rectangular and semicircular on 
plan is a special Roman feature 
(Nos. 50 B, 54 b). 

The Roman Temples were placed 
without regard to orientation. 

R. Walls.— Constructed of small, 
mean, and coarse materials, such 
as brick, rubble, and concrete, 
with brick or marble facing, bond 
courses for strength being intro- 
duced. Such walls are thus often 
coarse in character. By the ex- 
tended use of concrete, it may be 
said that the Romans inaugurated 
the employment of large masses 
of irregular materials, reduced 
into fragments and bound together 
by mortar. These materials were 
not special to any country, but 
consisted of fragments of stone, 
brick or hard rock and quarry 
debris, all of which sufficed for 
the most important projects. 

Great haste was necessary in the 
execution to complete sufficiently 
for use. and doubtless many 
buildings were never perfectly 

The pilaster was the Roman de- 
velopment of the ( j reek Anta 
(Nos. 38 F and 67 f). 

C. Openings. — These were im- 
portant features, being square- 
headed or circular, principally 
the latter (No. 62 a). The 
semicircle divided vertically by 
two mullion piers was a favourite 
type of window. Arches some- 
times had centering, supported 
at the springing line, after- 
wards filled up with brick- 
work, thus producing the seg- 
mental arch, common in the 
third and fourth centuries A.D. 
(No. 46 E), from the Basilica of 





If. 4 





D. Roofs. — Extreme care was 
bestowed upon the elaborately 
constructed, and highly-finished, 
roofs of the temples. These 
were of timber framing (Nos. 23 
and 25), and were covered with 
large slabs of marble with cover- 
pieces which at the eaves were 
finished with richly carved ante- 
fixae (Nos. 16, 19 c and 20 h, j). 

The acroteria or blocks of stone 
resting on the vertex and lower 
extremities of the pediment, and 
supporting statuary or orna- 
ments were characteristic features 
(Nos. 16 A, 20). 

The ceilings of the peristyles were 
coffered in stone with square 
or rectangular panels (No. 21), 
having carved enrichments, the 
richest examples being at the 
Parthenon (No. 23) and the 
Temple of Apollo Epicurius 
(No. 27). Coffered ceilings in 
framed timber probably roofed 
over the large span of the cella. 

E. Columns. — The orders were 
structural necessities wherever 
used. The column and beam 
are the keynotes of Greek archi- 
tecture, the fluting being carried 
out when the columns were in 

Orders never superimposed except 
to interiors of Temples (Nos. 20, 
23, 28 B and 31 d). The only 
Greek use of pedestals appears 
to be that of the Temple of 
Diana at Ephesus (No. 31). 

The Tuscan Order, which is merely 
a simplified form of the Doric, 
was not employed by the Greeks. 


D. Roofs. — The noble vaults and 
domes described on page 117 
constituted the important de- 
velopment, and in many cases 
were richly coffered, as at the 
Pantheon (N os. 54, 55). Timber 
framing also appears to have 
been employed, and according 
to Horace, splendid wooden 
coffered ceilings were employed 
in the houses of the rich. Roof 
coverings were either of terra- 
cotta, as amongst the Etruscans, 
or of bronze in the more impor- 
tant buildings, as for example 
the Pantheon. According to 
Vitruvius flat terrace roofs were 
employed, which it is believed 
were constructed of T-iron and 
concrete, as in some of the larger 
halls of the Thermae. 

The ceilings internally were of 
various geometric patterns, such 
as octagons and squares in com- 
bination, as at Baalbec. 

E. Columns. — The orders were 
used in connection with the arch, 
and gradually lost their structural 
importance, being used in a 
decorative manner, as in the 
Colosseum at kome, or in the 
Triumphal Arches. 

Orders often superimposed, as at 
the Colosseum (No. 62 a). The 
Romans introduced pedestals on 
which they placed the column 
to secure greater height. 

A canon of proportions, reduced to 
rules by Vitruvius, was gradually 
evolved for all the orders. 

The Tuscan Order has a plain 
un flu ted column and simple 
entablature (No. 262 b). S. 
Paul, Covent Garden, is a good 
modern example by Inigo Jones. 

The Doric Order (No. 38 a) was 
largely used by the Greeks, their 
most important buildings being 

The Doric Order (No. 38 b), was 
little used by the Romans, not 
being suited to their ideas of 









of mux.. 

SsrBiii!) »u«<u»ii6MJiai«u«Aiitc««i.«Mifl(ii»niin 




erected of this order. It was 
used without a base, the capital 
having a plain square abacus, 
beneath which is the echinus 
(No. 40 d), whose outline varies 
in different examples. The pro- 
portions of the columns proceed 
from extreme sturdiness in the 
early examples to great refine- 
ment in the late ones, and the 
shaft is usually fluted. The archi- 
trave overhangs the face of the 
column (Nos. 16 and 38 a), and 
the triglyphs are over the central 
axes of the columns, except at 
the angles, where the end triglyph 
appears at the extremity of the 
frieze (No. 16 a). 

The channels in the triglyph are 
rounded off at the top. 

The mutules, placed over tri- 
glyph and metope are much 

The Ionic Order (No. 38 c) was 
used with great refinement by 
the Greeks. The distinctive 
capital has the scrolls showing 
on two sides only, although an 
example of angle volutes is 
found in a special case at Bassae 
(Nos. 27 and 29). 

The Corinthian Order (No. 38 e) 
was little used by the Greeks, 
and the examples remaining are 
thought by some to indicate the 
decline of Greek art, in that 
sculpture, as such, gave way to 
mere carving. 

The order was practically not 
introduced till the later age, 
although the earliest known 
example, viz., that in the cella 
of the Temple of Apollo Epi- 
carius at Bassa?, dates from 
B.C. 430. It appears to have 
been principally used in small 
buildings only, such as the 
choragic Monument of Lysicrates 
(No. 38 e), and the octagonal 
Tower of the Winds at Athens, 
or internally in buildings of 
greater size. The Temple of 


splendour and magnificence. The 
Temple of Hercules at Cora is 
the only temple in the style, 
but engaged columns occur in 
the Theatre of Marcellus. The 
Romans added a base, varied 
the abacus and echinus, and 
modified the cornice, adding a 
dentil course. The columns were 
less sturdy and the flutes were 
sometimes omitted. The archi- 
trave does not overhang the face 
of the column, but is in a line 
vertical with it (No. 38 b). In 
this order as approved by Palladio 
and others the triglyphs in the 
frieze were over the central axes 
of the columns, even at the angle. 

The channels in the triglyph have 
square angles at the top. 

The mutules, usually placed over 
the triglyph only, are but slightly 

The Ionic Order (No. 38 n) 
differed from the Greek chiefly as 
regards the typical capital, which 
usually had angle volutes, thus 
showing the face of the scrolls on 
each side. 

The entablature is of a richer 

The Corinthian Order (No. 38 f) 
was the favourite of the Romans, 
and was used in the largest 
temples, as those of Castor and 
Pollux (Nos. 67 A, 68) and Ves- 
pasian at Rome. The capital is 
rich, the acanthus leaves sur- 
rounding the " bell " often being 
naturalistic in character and 
derived from the leaves known 
as the " acanthus mollis," which 
areblunt-ended and flat in section, 
or from the olive leaf, as in the 
Temple of Castor and Pollux. 
The entablature is very much en- 
riched by ornamentation, probably 
derived from the painted work 
of the Greeks. The architrave 
has numerous and enriched 
mouldings, and the frieze is fre- 
quently carved with the acanthus 








Jupiter Olympius at Athens may 
be considered a Roman building, 
or rather as a Greek design mainly 
carried out by Romans. (See 
page 90.) The Acanthus leaves 
surrounding the "bell" were of 
the prickly acanthus (acanthus 
spinosus) type (No. 33 F, h), 
having pointed leaves of V- 
shaped section. 

Shafts of columns were fluted. 

The Composite Order was never 
used by the G reeks, but a treat- 
ment somewhat similar is seen 
in the capitals of the Erechtheion 
where the necking under the 
Ionic scrolls are carved with the 
Anthemion ornament (Nos. 29 e 
and 41). 

f. Mouldings (Nos. 39 and 
40). — The Greeks relied for effect 
on the graceful contour of their 
mouldings, which approach conic 
sections in profile, and which, 
though often covered with deli- 
cately carved enrichments, never 
lose the idea of grace of outline 
which the decoration seems but 
to enhance. Executed in a fine- 
grained marble, they were often 
undercut so as to produce a 
fretted effect. 

Greek dentils are far apart, and 
occupy the whole depth of the 

Greek consoles used only as vertical 
brackets to doorways as in the 
Erechtheion doorway (No. 37). 

<;. Ornament (Nos. 41, 42, 43 
and 44). — The sculpture of the 
Greeks has never been surpassed, 
whether executed in isolated 
groups or in works within the 
boundaries of an architectural 
framing, as at the Parthenon. 
The ornamental sculpture used 
in the tympana of the pediments, 
the metopes and the friezes, and 
the carefully prepared cement 
used as a covering to stone or 


scroll or with figure ornaments. 
The cornice is also considerably 
enriched, modillions (consoles, 
brackets or corbels) being intro- 
duced and giving an apparent 
support to the corona, and have 
between them sunk and sculp- 
tured coffers. The mouldings 
under the corona are much 
enriched with carving, as is even 
the corona itself. 

Shafts were fluted or plain. 

The Composite Order was invented 
by the Romans, being used prin- 
cipally in the Triumphal Arches. 
The upper portion of the Ionic 
capital was combined with the 
lower part of the Corinthian. In 
other details the order follows the 
Corinthian, but with additional 

F. Mouldings (Nos. 39 and 40). 
— The Romans relied on the rich 
carving cut upon their mouldings, 
which are usually parts of circles 
in profile. Ostentation replaces 
refinement, and in the latest 
examples, every member being 
carved, a certain rich picturesque- 
ness of surface is produced in 
cornices and dressings, although 
the execution of the carving to 
the mouldings themselves is often 
of inferior workmanship. 

Roman dentils are close together, 
of less depth, and have a fillet 

Roman consoles used horizontally in 
cornices (No. 68) and vertically in 
keystones to arches (No. 67). 

o. Ornament (Nos. 67, 68 and 
69). -The Romans did not excel 
either in sculpture or painting, 
but Greek artists were employed, 
and Greek examples were prized 
and copied. In later times both 
vaults and floors of importance 
were executed in mosaic, but 
many examples show great vul- 
garity of sentiment. In the case 
of marble, for wall facings and 
floors, rich and good effects were 




brick, have already been referred 
to in the analysis of Greek archi- 
tecture (page 108). It is generally 
admitted that the exteriors of the 
Temples were treated with color, 
which must have aided in the 
general effect. Polygnotus and 
other great artists were em- 
ployed for decorative painting 
upon the temples and other build- 
ings, part of the Propylaea being 
known as the Painted Loggia. 
The early frescoes were probably 
in the style of the vase painters 
of that period, while the later, if 
judged from the provincial imita- 
tions of Pompeii, must have 
been grand in style and decora- 
tive in effect. 
The Anthemion, or honeysuckle 
(Nos. 39 J, 42 h, 43 F, 44 A, E, F, 
N), was the characteristic motif 
of much Greek surface ornament, 
and was also employed on cyma- 
recta mouldings. 


produced, as the Romans were 
connoisseurs in marbles, which 
they sought out and imported 
from all countries. The ox-heads 
connected with garlands, so fre- 
quently carved on Roman friezes, 
are supposed to have originated 
from the actual skulls and gar- 
lands hung for decoration on 
altars at which the beasts them- 
selves had been slain. 

A finely worked marble cement 
was frequently used as a covering 
to walls and stone columns, and 
formed a ground on which paint- 
ings could be safely executed, as 
at Pompeii. The arabesques 
which adorned the walls of the 
Baths of Titus (No. 69 a), in- 
fluenced largely the fresco decora- 
tion of the Renaissance period. 

The Acanthus scroll with con- 
tinuous stem and spirals adorned 
with rosettes or grotesques, is 
specially characteristic (No. 67 f). 


Adam (R.). — " Ruins of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro." 1764. 

Anderson (W. J.) and Spiers (R. Phene). — 4< The Architecture of Greece 
and Rome: A Sketch of its Historic Development.' , Large 8vo. 1902. 

Blouet (G. A.). — '* Restauration des Thermes Caracalla a Rome." 
Folio. Paris, 1828. 

Cameron (C.). — " Description of the Baths of the Romans." 1772. 

Canina (L.).— " Gli Edifizj di Roma Antica." 6 vols. 1848-56. 

Caristie (A.). — " Monuments antiques a Orange, arc de triomphe et 
theatre." Folio. Paris, 1856. 

Choisy (A.). — " L'Art de Bitir chez les Romains." Folio. Paris, 1873. 

D'Amelio (P.). — " Dipinti Murali Scelte di Pompei." Folio. Naples. 

Dennis (G.). — " The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria." 2 vols. 1878. 

Durm (J.). — "Die Baukunst der Etrusker und Roemer" ("Handbuch 
der Architektur"). 4to. Darmstadt, 1885. 

Dutert (F.). — " Le Forum Romain et les Forums de Jules Caesar, 
d'Auguste, de Vespasian, de Nerva, et de Traja." Folio. Paris, 1876. 

Gell (Sir W.) and Gandy (J. P.).—" Pompeiana." 3 vols., 8vo. 1819-32. 

Gusman. — " La Villa Imperiale de Tibur." 4to. Paris. 

Isabelle (C. E.). — "Les Edifices Circulates." Folio. Paris, 1855. 

Jackson (T. G.) — " Dalmatia, the Quarnero, and Istria." 8vo. 1887. 

Lanciani (R.). — " Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries." 
Svo. Boston, 1888. 


x Y i* 



fboh m mavvm w the fxw cf Tit wrs « n nxiif metope i,celu»iii«iljiu! in (hjwpe* ; 
temple ircsit*. suntnccunKiianwsxaMiiifHitvnKL ' 

IE y in bob op k (Dune mm imeu : 
nan m n awunc imu a mmtmce. 
the Pabthewon Athens 
the East front 









E T* TEWlt FKHT ten AMflBi M E«CUTIffll Wll 0»t[ 

F Ttt Ttwit FBJfl « IT WOUt! WW IT WU H « E 

G the Tewh£ fccki weutEB wm the vtimciM. «u * 






Mau (A.). — " Pompeii : Its Life and Art," translated by F. W. Kelsey. 
New York, 1899. 

Middleton (J. H.). — "The Remains of Ancient Rome." 8vo. 1892. 

Nibby (A.). — " Descrizone della Villa Adriana." Rome, 1827. 

Niccolini (F.). — " Arte Pompeiana : Monumenti Scelti." Small folio. 
Naples, 1887. 

Niccolini (F.). — " Le Case e i Monumenti di Pompeii." Several vols, 
large folio. Naples, 1 854-1 89-. 

Palladio (Andrea).— " I Quattro Libri delP architettura di A. Palladio." 
Venice, 1570, and other editions. The best English translations are 
those by Leoni (1715) and Ware (1738). See also the author's monograph, 
with Life and Work of Palladio, published in 1902. 

Paulin (E.). — "Thermes de Diocletian." Folio. Paris, 1877. 

Penrose (F. C). — "Temple of Jupiter Olympius." Transactions 
R.I.B.A., vol. 4, p. 8. 

Piranesi (G. B. and F.). — " Antichita Romane." Forming about 30 
or 40 large folio volumes, each containing a magnificent series of engravings 
of Buildings and Antiquities in Ancient Rome and its Environs. Ctrc. 

Pliny. — " Historian Naturalis" (a.d. 23-79). 

Ponce (N.). — "Description des Bains de Titus." Paris, 1786. 

Tatham (C. H.). — "Etchings of Grecian and Roman Architectural 
Ornament." Folio. 1826. 

Taylor (G. L.) and Cresy (E.). — " The Architectural Antiquities of 
Rome, measured and delineated." 2 vols., folio. 1821-1822. 

Vignola (G. B. da). — " Cinque Ordini d' Architettura." Various 
English and French translations. 4to. 

Vitruvius ( Marcus). — " The Architecture of." Translated from the Latin 
by Joseph Gwilt. Imp. 8vo. 1826. 

Vulliamy (H). — "Examples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture." 
Folio. 18 1 8. 

Wood (R.). — "The Ruins of Palmyra and Baalbec." 2 vols. 1827. 

Church (A. J.). — " Roman Life in the Days of Cicero." (Historical 

For Classic Orders, see : — 

Chambers (Sir W.)— "The Decorative Part of Civil Architecture. 
Folio and 4to. 

Mitchell (C. F.). — " Classic Architecture." Folio. 1901. 

Mauch (J. M. von). — " Die Architektonischen Ordnungen der 
Griechen und Roemer." Folio. Berlin, 1875. 

Normand (C). — " Parallel of the Orders of Architecture. 1 ' Folio. 1829. 

Spiers (R. P.). — "The Orders of Architecture: Greek, Roman, and 
Italian." Folio. 1901. 

The student should visit the Crystal Palace for the Pompeian House 
and models of the Roman Forum, the Colosseum, Pantheon and other 
buildings. The British and the Victoria and Albert Museums should 
be visited for actual fragments. 


" A fuller light illumined all, 
A breeze through all the garden swept." — TENNYSON. 


i. Geographical. — The position of Rome as the centre of a 
world-wide empire was an important factor (see page in), " All 
roads lead to Rome," and Christianity, to become universal, 
had to grow up at the capital, however eastern its birthplace. 
Ravenna, subdued by Justinian in a.d. 537, was the connecting 
link of the early Christian and Byzantine styles (see page 193). 

ii. Geological. — The quarry of the ruins of Roman buildings 
influenced the architectural treatment of the style, both in regard 
to construction and decoration, as columns and other architectural 
features and marbles from the older buildings were worked into 
the design of the new basilican churches of the Christians. 

iii. Climate. — See Roman Architecture (page 112). 

iv. Religion. — History presents no phenomenon so striking as 
the rise of Christianity, which spread so rapidly that in a very 
short period it was diffused throughout the whole civilized world. 
In a.d. 313 Constantine issued his celebrated decree from Milan, 
according to Christianity equal rights with all other religions, 
and in a.d. 323 he himself professed Christianity, which then 
became the established religion of the Roman Empire. The 
Christians, who up to that period were an unpopular dissenting 
sect, and had worshipped in the Catacombs, which formed their 
burial-places, were now able to hold their services openly and 

The Council of Nice, a.d. 325, called by Constantine, was the 
first of several Councils of the Church for the settlement of 
disputes about heresies. 

A temporary reaction took place in a.d. 360-363, under Julian, 
known as the " Apostate." 


Gregory the Great (590-604), when besieged by the Lombards 
at Rome, employed the imperial army of Constantinople and acted 
as the defender of Rome, making common cause with the people 
against the Lombards and others. 

v. Social and Political. — On changing the capital of the 
empire from Rome to Byzantium in a.d. 324 Constantine prac- 
tically reigned as an absolute monarch till his death in a.d. 337, 
the old Roman political system coming to an end. 

The division of the Roman Empire first took place in a.d. 364, 
Valentian being Emperor of the West and his brother Valens of 
the East. 

Theodosius the Great, reigning between the years a.d. 379-395, 
reunited the Eastern and Western portions of the Empire. 

The series of emperors in the West came to an end in a.d. 476, 
and the empire was nominally again reunited, Zeno reigning at 
Constantinople over the Eastern and Western Empires. 

Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy, a.d. 493-526, a period of 
peace and prosperity, in which Byzantine art influenced Early 
Christian art by way of Ravenna, which, from 493-552, was the 
capital of the Gothic dynasty. 

Kings of separate states were then elected in Italy, Spain, 
Gaul, and Northern Africa, Odoacer, the new king of Italy, 
recognizing the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at Con- 
stantinople. The emancipation of the West from direct imperial 
control made possible the development of Romano- German 
civilization, which facilitated the growth of new states and 
nationalities, gave a fresh impulse to the Christian Church and 
laid the foundations of the power of the Bishops of Rome. 

From the Roman or common speech several of the chief 
languages of modern Europe commenced to arise, and in conse- 
quence are called Romance languages. 

vi. Historical. — The Early Christian period is generally taken 
as lasting from Constantine to Gregory the Great, or from 
a.d. 300 to 604. The Teutonic invasions of Italy commenced 
about a.d. 376, and Teutonic settlements took place within the 
empire about this time, these movements being caused by the 
incursions of the Huns into Germany. 

The West Goths sacked Rome under Alaric in a.d. 410. The 
defeat of Attila, king of the Huns, at the battle of Chalons, 
a.d. 451, aided in consolidating Christianity in Europe. 

During the reign of Gregory the Great (a.d. 590 to 604) the 
Latin language and Early Christian architecture, the latest phase 
of Roman art, ceased to exist, and for the next two centuries 
architecture was practically at a standstill in Europe, when the 
old Roman traditions were to a great extent thrown aside, and 
Romanesque architecture was gradually evolved. 

F.A. N 



One style was evolved from another so gradually that it is 
impossible to say exactly where the one ended and the next began. 
This gradual growth characterizes progress in other departments 
as well as Architecture. Each ,age feels its way towards the 
expression of its own ideals, modifying the art of the past to meet 
fresh conditions. 

Little money being at the command of the Early Christians, it 
was necessary for them to adopt places of worship which could be 
readily constructed. Many of the Roman Temples, which were 
now rendered useless for their original purpose, were utilized for 
the new faith, and in addition new churches built on the model of 
the old Roman basilicas, and formed of columns and other features 
from Pagan buildings, were erected. 

These are known as basilican churches, and w ? ere often situated 
over the entrances to their former hiding-places or crypts, and 
were constructed with columns of different orders and sizes which 
were made to an uniform height by the addition of new pieces of 
stone, or double bases, or in some cases by the omission of the 
base mouldings (No. 77). 

On this account, although extremely interesting from an archaeo- 
logical point of view, the early buildings can hardly have the 
value for study, in the architect's mind at least, which a new 
manner in architecture, arising from new structural necessities, is 
certain to possess. 

The earlier basilican churches had their columns closely spaced, 
and were crowned with the entablature which supported the 
main wall, on which rested the wooden roof (No. 75 b), but 
as the arch came more into general use these columns were 
spaced further apart, being connected by semicircular arches 
(Nos. 72, 73 a and 74). 

The basilican church with three or five aisles, covered by a 
wooden roof, is the special type of the style as opposed to the 
vaulted types of the Byzantine style (Nos. 80, 81, 84 and 85), 
in which a circular dome was placed over a square space by 
means of the pendentive (No. 79). 

The architectural character is impressive and dignified ; due 
to the increase in the apparent size of the basilicas by the long 
perspective of the columns, and the comparative lowness of the 
interiors in proportion to their length. 



The plans of the basilicas, or Roman halls of justice, were 
copied by the early Christians for their places of worship, and 


thus became stepping-stones from the Classic of pre-Christian 
times to the Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages, which 
may be said to commence with these Basilican churches. 

Some authorities, however, believe the early Christian churches 
to have been evolved from the Roman dwelling-house, where at 
first the community were in the habit of assembling, or from 
the class-room where philosophers taught. 

How suitable the Roman basilica type (No. 58) was for 
Christian worship is seen from the plan of S. Clemente, 
Rome, a.d. 10S4 (Nos. 72, 73 b), which, although rebuilt in the 
eleventh century, contains the original internal arrangement of 
the churches of the fifth century. 

An atrium or forecourt, being an open space surrounded by 
arcades, formed an imposing approach in most of the Basilican 
churches. The covered portion next the church called the 
narthcx was the place for penitents. In the centre of the atrium 
was a fountain or well, the water from which was used for washing 
before entering the church— a custom which still survives in an 
altered form amongst Catholics, who dip their fingers into a stoop, 
or holy-water basin, at the entrances of their churches. 

The nave, lighted by a clerestory of small windows, had an aisle 
on either side, such aisles being usually half the width of the 
nave. Occasionally two aisles occur on each side of the nave, as 
in the Basilicas of S. Peter (No. 75 c), S. Paul (No. 75 e) and 
S. John Lateran. 

Galleries for the use of women were sometimes placed over the 
aisles, as at S. Agnese and S. Lorenzo ; but where none existed 
the sexes sat apart on opposite sides of the nave. 

A transept, called the " bema," or "presbytery," which existed 
in a modified form in the pagan basilicas, was occasionally 
introduced, converting the plan into a Latin cross, of which the 
nave was the long arm. Some consider, however, that this 
cruciform ground plan was derived from the buildings erected 
for sepulchral purposes as early as the age of Constantine. 

A choir became necessary, owing to the increase of ritual, 
and was inclosed by low screen walls, or " cancelli " (from 
which the word chancel is derived), and provided with an 
" ambo " or pulpit on either side, from which the gospel and 
Epistle were read (No. 72). 

The bishop took the place formerly occupied by the " prator" or 
" questor" (page 136), until in subsequent ages the seat was moved 
to the side, becoming the bishop's throne. 

The presbyters, or members of the council of the early Church, 
occupied seats on either side of the bishop formerly occupied by 
the assessors. The apse became the sanctuary which remained 
circular-ended in Northern Europe. 

The altar in front of the apse, formerly used by the Romans 




for the pouring out of libations, or sacrifices to their gods, was 
now used for the celebration of Christian rites, and a baldachino, 
or canopy, supported on marble columns, was erected over it. 
In later times the altar was frequently placed against the east wall 
of the apse (No. 72). 

The interiors of these buildings owe their rich effect to the use 
of glass mosaic (" opus Grecanicum," ) which was placed fre- 
quently in a broad band (No. 74) above the nave arcading and to 
the semi-dome of the apse (No. 78 g, k), which is frequently richly 
treated with a central figure of Christ seated in glory and set in 
relief against a golden background. 

" Below was all mosaic choicely planned, 
With cycles of the human tale." 

The ceilings of timber were also formed in compartments and 
w r ere richly gilded (Nos. 74 and 76). 

The pavements were formed out of the abundant store of old 
columns and other marbles existing in Rome, slices of columns 
being used as centres surrounded by bands of geometric inlay 
twisted with intricate designs (No. 78 b, l). 

The old Basilican Church of S. Peter (a.d. 330) was 
erected near the site of the martyrdom of S. Peter in the circus 
of Nero. It had a u transept/* or " bema," 55 feet wide, and 
113 feet high (No. 75 a, b, c). Five arches, the centre called 
the arch of triumph, gave access from the body of the church, 
and at the sanctuary end was a semicircular apse on a raised 
floor, against the centre of the wall of which was the Pope's seat. 
The priest stood behind the altar, and thus faced east, as the 
chancel was at the west end of the church. 

S. John Lateran (a.d. 330) has been altered so much in 
modern times as to have lost its early character. 

There were in all thirty-one Basilican churches in Rome, 
mostly made up of fragments of earlier pagan buildings. The 
interiors of these basilicas are impressive and severe, the repetition 
of the long rows of columns being grand in the extreme, as in the 
interior view of S. Paolo fuori le mura (Nos. 74, 75 e), built 
a.d. 380 by Theodosius but re-erected in a.d. 1 821, and S. Maria 
Maggiore (Nos. 75 d and 76). 

There are also important examples at Ravenna, a city well 
situated for receiving the influence of Constantinople, and at one 
time the seat of an Exarch of the Empire. S. Apollinare 
Nuovo, a.d. 493-525, built by Theodoric the Goth, and 
S. Apollinare in Classe, a.d. 538-549, are important three- 
aisled Basilican churches carried out by Byzantine artists on 
Roman models, and they are interesting for the impost blocks to 
the capitals supporting the pier arches, and the fine mosaics. 

At Torcello, near Venice, the foundations of the original 


bishop's throne, surrounded by six rows of seats in the apse, still 
exist, giving a good idea of the Early Christian arrangements. 


are another description of building met with in Early Christian 
architecture. They were originally used only for the sacrament 
of baptism ; hence the name " Baptistery." The form was 
derived from the Roman circular temples and tombs, already 
described (page 136). There was generally one baptistery in 
each city, as at Ravenna and Florence, and it was as a rule a 
detached building, usually adjoining the atrium or fore-court. 
Indeed, until the end of the sixth century of our era the baptistery 
appears to have been a distinct building ; but after this period 
the font came to be placed in the vestibule of the church. 

In adopting the Roman tombs as models for these buildings, 
the early Christians modified them to some extent, for the internal 
columns which in Roman examples were generally used in 
a decorative way were now used to support the walls carrying the 
domes. To cover a large area with one roof was difficult, but by 
the addition of an aisle in one story round a moderate-sized 
circular tomb, the inner walls could be replaced by columns in 
the lower half, resulting in such a building as these early 
baptisteries (No. 75 h, j). 

The Baptistery of Constantine, Rome (No. 75 j, k, l) is 
octagonal, and the roof is supported by a screen of eight columns 
two stories in height. 

The Baptistery, Nocera, between Naples and Salerno, is 
circular, being 80 feet in diameter, with two rings of columns. 
This building is domed and covered with a wooden roof, and 
appears to be the first instance of the use of both, as the Roman 
architects always allowed the stone vault to show externally, as 
in the Pantheon. In the case of this building, however, the vault 
is merely an internal ceiling which is covered with an external 
wooden roof, and is similar to the practice of Gothic architects, 
who, in the mediaeval period, covered the stone vaults of their 
churches with timber roofs (No 109). 

S. Stefano Rotondo, Rome (a.d. 470), though not a 
baptistery, is a good example of a circular plan of similar type 
(Nos. 75 f, g, h, and 77), being 210 feet in diameter, and with roof 
supported on two circular rings of columns, all taken from 
older buildings, the outer range supporting arches, and the inner 
a horizontal architrave. The two central columns are an addition 
to support the roof timbers. 

The Baptistery, Ravenna, founded at the end of the fourth 
century, is an octagonal structure with two arcades in the interior 
one above the other. The dome, constructed of hollow tiles, has 



fine mosaics representing the Baptism of Christ, and altars with 
the open books of the Apostles. It resembles the Temple at 
Spalato (p. 130), but with arcades instead of horizontal architraves. 


S. Constanza, Rome (a.d. 330) was erected by Constantme 
as a tomb for his daughter, but was converted into a church in 
1256. It has a dome, 35 feet in diameter, supported on twelve 
pairs of coupled granite columns. 

The Tomb of Galla Placidia, Ravenna (a.d. 420) (No. 73 h, 
j, k), is exceptional, as it is cruciform in plan, instead of the 
usual circular form. It is 35 feet by 30 feet internally, and has 
a raised lantern at the crossing, pierced with four windows. It 
is domed by a portion of a sphere, and is one of the few examples 
in which the pendentivesand dome are portions of one hemi-sphere 
(No. 79 h). Each of the arms of the cross contains a sarcophagus, 
and the interior is remarkable, as it retains all its ancient poly- 
chromatic decoration in mosaics. 

The Tomb of Theodoric, Ravenna (a.d. 530) (No. 73 c, 
d, e, f, g) is two stories in height, the lower story being a decagon, 
45 feet in diameter externally, and containing a cruciform crypt. 
Traces remain of an external arcade round the upper portion, 
standing on the decagonal basement. The roof consists of one 
slab of stone, hollowed out in the form of a flat dome, 35 feet in 
diameter, and round the edge of this block are stone handles, origin- 
ally used to place this immense covering in position. The ashes 
of the founder were placed in an urn on the top of the covering. 

Syria has a number of interesting monuments erected between 
the third and eighth centuries, notably those by Constantine — the 
Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, the Church of the Ascension, 
Jerusalem, and the octagonal Church of the Holy Sepulchre on 
the site of the Temple of Solomon, also at Jerusalem. 

The Syrian type appears soon to have broken away from 
Roman influence, due largely to the abundance of hard stone, the 
absence of brick, and the distance from Rome. Piers were used 
instead of columns, and roofs formed of stone slabs were usual. 
A favourite plan was a circle placed in a square, the angles being 
filled with niches, as in the Churches at Bozrah and Ezra. Such 
are considered to be prototypes of later Byzantine churches of the 
type of S. Sergius, Constantinople (No. 79 e, f, g), and S. Vitale, 
Ravenna (No. 83 c, d). Salonica possesses important examples, 
notably the domical Church of S. George. In Asia Minor, as at 
Ancyra, Pergamus, and Hierapolis, and in Egypt and Algiers are 
many examples of basilican and circular buildings of the Early 
Christian period. 



a. Plan. — The early Christians adopted the Basilican model for 
their churches (Nos. 73 and 75), but in addition the halls, baths, 
dwelling-houses, and even the pagan temples were used for places 
of worship. 

An isolated circular church, used as a baptistery, 1 was generally 
attached to the chief Basilica or cathedral. 

b. Walls. — These were still constructed according to the 
Roman methods, rubble or concrete walling being used, faced 
with plaster, brick, or stone. Mosaic was used internally, and 
sometimes externally on the west facades for decorative purposes. 

c. Openings. — Doors, windows, and niches were generally 
spanned by a semicircular arch, the use of the lintel being dis- 
pensed with. The window openings were small (No. 78 d, f) ; 
those to the nave being in the clerestory high in the nave wall 
above the aisle roof, a feature which was developed in Gothic 
architecture (Nos. 73 a, 75 b, g). 

d. Roofs. — Wooden roofs (No. 75 b), covered the central 
nave, simple forms of construction such as King and Queen post 
trusses being employed. These roofs were ceiled in some orna- 
mental manner (No. 74), the decoration of a visible framework 
being of a later date, as at S. Miniato, Florence (No. 93). The 
side aisles in the churches were occasionally vaulted, and the apse 
was usually domed and lined with mosaic (Nos. 72 and 78 g, k). 

e. Columns (Nos. 72, 77 and 78). — They are often of different 
design and size, being mostly from earlier Roman buildings which 
had fallen into ruins or were purposely destroyed. It was natural 
that the early Christian builders, not being good craftsmen them- 
selves, should use in their buildings the materials and ornaments 
which had been left by the pagan Roman. A rich and grandiose 
effect was often obtained at the expense of fitness in the details 
of the design. Middleton states that all the fine marble columns 

1 In later Romanesque and Gothic periods, these early baptisteries, themselves 
founded on the Roman circular temples and tombs, were treated as follows in the 
different European countries : — 

In Italy, where the churches were not derived from a combination of a circular 
eastern church with a western rectangular nave, as in France, but were direct 
copies of the Roman basilica, the baptistery always stands alone. 

In France, circular churches were built to stand alone, and when it was 
necessary to enlarge them, the circular building was retained as the sanctuary or 
choir, and a straight lined nave was added for the use of the people. Thus from 
the circular church originated the apsidal choir of the Gothic period. 

In Germany, the earlier baptistery was joined to the square church and formed 
a western apse. The Germans also built circular churches, and then added choirs 
for the priests, that they might pray apart from the people (No. 83 e). 

In England, the Gothic builders generally preferred a square east end, except 
where French influence made itself felt, as at Westminster. Circular churches 
were erected, as the Temple Church, London, but they were few in number, and 
due to the Knights Templars (page 219), being built as copies of the Rotonda of 
the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 



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in the churches of Rome have been taken from ancient Roman 
buildings, except those in S. Paolo fuori le mura. 

f. Mouldings. — These are coarse variations of Roman types, 
and the carving is of the rudest kind, though rich in general effect. 
The technique of the craftsman gradually declined, and was at a 
low ebb during this period. 

Enrichments incised upon mouldings were in low relief, and 
the acanthus ornamentation, although still copied from the 
antique, became more conventional in form. 

g. Ornament. — The introduction of much color is a feature 
of the period, giving much richness to the interiors. 

The domed apse (No. 72), as has been mentioned, was lined with 
mosaic, the subject generally being Christ surrounded by angels 
and saints. 

The arch of triumph, separating the nave from the bema, was 
ornamented with appropriate subjects ; long friezes of figures line 
the wall above the nave arcades (Nos. 72, 74 and 76), and the 
wall spaces between the clerestory windows often had mosaics 
representing subjects taken from Christian history or doctrine. 

The figures are treated in strong colors on a gold back- 
ground. The design is bold and simple, both in form and 
draperies, and an earnest and solemn expression, fitting well the 
position they occupy, characterizes the groups. The method of 
execution is coarse and large, and no attempt was made at neatness 
of joint or regularity of bedding. The interiors are, by the aid 
of these mosaics, rendered exceedingly impressive. 

In addition to the richness of the wall surfaces formed of 
colored mosaics the pavements of colored marbles in geometric 
patterns added much to the rich effect of the interiors. These 
pavements were formed largely of slices from the old Roman 
porphyry columns, which were worked into designs by connecting 
bands of geometrical inlay on a field of white marble (Nos. 72, 78). 

The glass mosaic used to decorate the am bones, screens, and 
episcopal chairs, as in the fittings of the church of S. Clemente 
at Rome (No. 78), was of a finer and more delicate description. 


Brown (Prof. Baldwin).—" From Schola to Cathedral." 8vo. 1 886. 

Bunsen (C. C. J.). — " Die Basiliken des Christlichen Roms. ,, Folio. 
Munich, 1843. 

Butler (A. J.).— " The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt." 8vo. 1884. 

Butler (H. C.) — American Archaeological Expedition to Syria, 1899 — 
igoo. Folio. New York, 1904. 

Hubsch (H.). — " Monuments de 1' Architecture Chretienne depuis 
Constantin jusqu'a Charlemagne." Folio. Paris, 1 866. 

Vogue* (Marquis de). — u Les Eglises de la Terre-Sainte." Paris, i860. 

Vogue*. — " Syrie Centrale." 2 vols. Paris, 1865-67. 

Kingsley (Charles).—" Hypatia." \ Historical Nove l s 

Perry (W. C.).—" Sancta Paula." j Hlstoncal woveis. 


"So fair a church as this had Venice none : 
The walls were of discoloured Jasper stone 
Wherein was Christos carved ; and overhead 
A lively vine of green sea agate spread.'* — Chaucer. 


i. Geographical.— Byzantium (renamed Constantinople by 
Constantine), occupies the finest site in Europe, standing on two 
promontories at the junction of the Bosphorus and the Sea of 
Marmora. It was called "New Rome " by the Turks of Asia, 
and, like the other Rome in Italy, it rests on seven hills. It 
occupies an important commercial site, standing at the inter- 
section of the two great highways of commerce — the water high- 
road from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean, and the land 
high-road from Asia into Europe ; a position which, from early 
times, gave it power and influence, especially over the corn trade 
carried on with the western merchants on the northern shores of 
the Euxine. The absence of tides and the depth of its harbour, 
an inlet known as the " Golden Horn," four miles in length, 
rendered its quays accessible to vessels of large burden. 

ii. Geological. — Constantinople possessed no good building 
stone or even material for making good bricks, but, as far 
as possible the materials upon the spot had to be employed. 
Most of the marble used in the new capital was brought from 
different quarries round the Eastern Mediterranean, for Con- 
stantinople was a marble working centre from which sculptured 
marbles were exported to all parts of the Roman world. 

Mr. Brindley, a writer on the subject, is of opinion that quite 
seventy-five per cent, of the colored marble used in Santa Sophia, 
and the other churches and mosques in Constantinople, is Thessa- 
lian green (Verde Antico), and that the architect was influenced 
by the kind of column likely to be at once obtainable. The 
quarries were situated in different parts of the empire, the mono- 
lith columns being worked by convicts in groups of sizes such as 
the quarry could produce. 


iii. Climate. — Owing to Constantinople being hotter than 
Rome, and to its being further east, the Romans on settling 
there altered their method of building to suit the novel conditions 
due to climate and their contact with Oriental arts. 

iv. Religion. — Constantine first made Christianity the state 
religion (page 176). The political division that came to pass 
between east and west was followed by a separation of churches 
also. This was due to the " Filioque controversy " as to whether 
the Spirit proceeded from the Father and Son or from the Father 
only ; the Eastern church which still claims to be the orthodox 
church, maintaining the latter, and the western the former. The 
iconoclastic movement during the eighth and ninth centuries was 
in force and ended in the admission of painted figures in the 
decoration of churches, but all sculptured statues were excluded. 
These and other points of difference in ritual have vitally affected 
eastern church architecture up to the present day. 

v. Social and Political. — Constantine, whose system of 
government was an expansion of the despotic methods introduced 
by Diocletian, removed the capital from Rome to Byzantium in 
a.d. 324, the position of the latter city being unrivalled as a great 
commercial centre on the trading highway between east and west. 
After his death rival emperors troubled the state, and disputes in 
the church were rife — the Council of Nice in a.d. 325 being the 
first of the general councils called to suppress heresies. The 
eastern emperors lost all power in Italy by endeavouring to force 
upon the west their policy of preventing the worship and use of 
images. By the election of Charlemagne, chosen Emperor of the 
West in a.d. 800, the Roman empire was finally divided. 

vi. Historical. — Byzantium is said to have been founded in 
the seventh century b.c, and was a Greek colony as early as the 
fourth century b.c Byzantine architecture is that which was 
developed at Byzantium on the removal of the capital from Rome 
to that city. It includes not only the buildings in Byzantium but 
also those which were erected under its influence, as at Ravenna 
and Venice, also in Greece, Russia, and elsewhere. During the 
reign of Justinian (a.d. 527-565) Italy was recovered to the Eastern 
Empire, accounting for the style of some of the buildings. 

Ravenna became important owing to the Emperor Honorius 
transferring his residence there from Rome in a.d. 402, and it was 
created an archiepiscopal see in a.d. 438. After the fall of the 
Western Empire the town was taken by Odoacer, and in a.d. 493 
Theodoric the Great took the city, which, remaining the residence 
of the Gothic kings till 539, rivalled Rome in importance. From 
a.d. 539-752 it was the seat of the Exarch of the Eastern Roman 
or Byzantine Emperors. The Byzantine style was carried on 
until Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks in a.d. 1453, 
when it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. 

f.a. o 



The general architectural character depends on the development 
of the dome, induced by the adoption of circular and polygonal 
plans for churches, tombs and baptisteries. This is in contrast 
with the Romanesque style, which developed the vault in Western 
and Northern Europe (page 224). 

The change from the old Roman forms was of course gradual, 
but in the course of 200 years the East asserted itself, and under 
Justinian, the Church of S. Sophia (a.d. 532-537) was erected, 
and remains the greatest achievement in the style — the interior 
being perhaps the most satisfactory of all domed examples. 

Although no line can be stated as separating distinctively the 
Early Christian and Byzantine styles, yet as already stated the 
Basilican type is characteristic of the former and the vaulted 
church with pendentives of the latter. 

A Byzantine building consists generally of a brick carcass or 
" shell," constructed after the size of the marble shafts had been 
assured. The walls of this shell were finally sheeted internally 
with marble, and the vaults with colored mosaics on a golden 
back-ground. In fact no church was founded during this period 
in which mosaic was not intended to be employed, and the decora- 
tion of S. Sophia and the churches of Nicsea and Thessalonica 
show the perfection to which this was carried out. The core of 
the wall was generally of concrete, as in the Roman period, but 
the manner in which the bricks of the casing were arranged 
contributed greatly to the decoration of the exterior. They 
were not always laid horizontally, but sometimes obliquely, 
sometimes in the form of the meander fret, sometimes in the 
chevron or herring-bone pattern, and in many other forms of 
similar design, giving great richness and variety to the facades, 
as may be seen in the churches of Thessalonica. Externally an 
attempt was made to render the rough brick exteriors of Roman 
times more pleasing, by the use of bands and relieving arches of 
an ornamental character. 

Byzantine art and influences were carried westward by traders, 
and are found at S. Mark, Venice, S. Vitale, Ravenna, S. Front, 
P6rigueux, and elsewhere, largely directing the architecture of 
these districts. 

The dome, already referred to, is the prevailing motif or idea of 
Byzantine architecture, and had been a traditional feature in the 
old architecture of the East, and M. Choisy, in his "Art de Batir 
chez les Byzantins," traces the influence of this tradition of 
domical construction on Greek architecture to show how from 
this fusion the later imperial architecture became possible. 

Domes were now placed over square apartments, their bases 
being brought to a circle by means of " pendentives" (Nos. 79, 


80, 82, 83 b, 84, 86, in c); whereas in Roman architecture 
these features were as a rule placed over a circular apartment. 
Windows were now formed in the lower portion of the dome, 
which in the later period was hoisted upon a high circular drum, 
a feature which was still further embellished in the Renaissance 
Period by the employment of a circular peristyle or colonnade. 
In vaulting, porous stones, especially pumice, were used ; some- 
times the domes were constructed of pottery, as at S. Vitale, 
Ravenna (No. 83 d), where it is formed with urns and amphora? 
placed side by side and grouted with mortar. The architecture of 
the Byzantines was thus developed by the use of brick in the 
fullest manner, especially in domical vaulting, and there is an 
absence of preparatory and auxiliary work, M. Choisy remarking 
that, the " greater number of their vaults rose into space without 
any kind of support " (i.e., without centering), by the use of large 
flat bricks, which is quite a distinct system, not derived from a 
Roman but from an Asiatic source. Byzantine art is the Greek 
spirit working on Asiatic lines, for the dome on pendentives 
was invented and perfected entirely in the East. In the Byzan- 
tine system of vaulting the vault surfaces gave the conditions 
of the problem, and the groins or angles of intersections were of 
secondary importance, presenting a direct contrast to the mediaeval 
buildings of Europe. 

The grouping of the smaller domes round the larger central 
one was very effective externally (No. 79), and one of the most 
remarkable peculiarities of Byzantine churches was that the tunnel 
vault and the dome had no additional outer covering, but were 
visible externally (No. 80 a) ; thus in no style does the elevation 
so closely correspond with the section as in the Byzantine. 

From the time when the architect permitted the forms of the 
vaults and arches to appear as architectural features in the 
facades, the regular entablatures of the Romans were abandoned, 
and in the church of S. Sophia is seen the fully-developed Byzan- 
tine style : for whereas in the older buildings of Rome, the 
columns and entablatures could be and were removed with- 
out causing the ruin of the building, in S. Sophia the true Greek 
expression of truth in construction was reverted to, its columns 
and capitals being not merely ornamental, but really supporting 
the galleries. The Classic orders were dispensed with, and the 
semicircular arches made to rest directly on coiumns designed 
for the purpose. The capitals, of which there are seven distinct 
types, four being in S. Sophia, assume a novel form (Nos. 88 
and 89), appropriate t to their new purpose of receiving the 
springers of arches, the voussoirs of which were always square, 
and not set in receding planes, as in so-called Gothic architecture. 

As Freeman says: "The problem was to bring the arch and 
column into union — in other words, to teach the column to 

o 2 




support the arch." This was done by shaping the block of 
marble which formed the capital so that a simple transition from 
the square block to the circular shaft of the column was formed. 
Further, as Messrs. Swainson and Lethaby say, the numerous* 
round shafts of S. Sophia exhibit a remarkable and beautiful 
structural expedient, by which the necking is entirely suppressed, 
and bronze annulets surround the shafts under the capital and 
above the base. These prevent the shafts from splitting — a likely 
result, since the monolithic shafts had to be set up contrary to 
the direction of the quarry bed — and also the lead seating from 
being forced out by the superincumbent weight. - 

The science of construction acquired by the Romans descended 
to the Byzantines, for the walls were formed with a brick facing 
and concrete core — a method also employed for vaults, bridges, 
and aqueducts. The building procedure was developed some- 
what as follows : — the general form of the building being 
more or less decided, the first thing necessary was to collect 
monolithic marble shafts, and it " was necessary to have a certain 
knowledge where such might be quarried or otherwise obtained, 
before even the foundations were prepared, for the columns 
decided the height and points of support of the building. These 
shafts once assured, the body of the structure was proceeded 
with as a brickwork shell without further dependence on the 
masons, who were only required to prepare the bases, capitals, 
and cornices, everything else being completed as a brick 
1 carcass.' " The building was thus made of vast masses of thin 
bricks, with mortar joints of equal thickness ; and when this 
had settled down and dried, the walls were sheeted with their 
marble covering, the vaults overlaid with mosaic, and the pave- 
ment laid down. In this way the carcass was completed at once, 
the bricklayers not having to wait for the masons ; and, further, 
by reserving the application of the marble until the structure was 
dry and solid, it was possible to bring together unyielding marble 
and brickwork with large mortar joints that must have settled 
down very considerably. This independence of the different parts 
of the structure was a leading idea in Byzantine construction, and 
is obviously necessary when the quantity of mortar is so great 
that the bricks become secondary in height to the joints. 

Brick, moreover, was the material preferred in the construction 
of walls, and lent itself to all the caprices of the architect ; for as 
interiors were always lined with marble and mosaics, or decorated 
with frescoes, such walls were the most suitable for the recep- 
tion of these kinds of ornamentation. Bricks being so much used, 
it is not surprising that the Byzantines took great pains in their 
manufacture when it is remembered that they employed them 
in their military as well as in their ecclesiastical and domestic 
architecture. The form of these varied a great deal, but the 


ordinary shape was like the Roman, an inch and a half in depth, 
and they were always laid upon a thick bed of mortar, as 
already mentioned. Moulds were used for the pieces forming 
cornices, and the shafts of columns when of this material were 
built of circular bricks. The universal use of brickwork made the 
Byzantines pay great attention to their mortar, composed of lime, 
sand, and crushed pottery, tiles or bricks, and it remains as hard 
as that in the best buildings of Rome. 

The interiors were beautified by richly colored marble pavements 
in opus scctile or opus Alexandrinum (page 119). 

The use of natural stones in mosaics and inlaid pavements had 
been abolished, and the art of enamelling had arrived at perfec- 
tion, all the mosaics which still adorn the domes and apses being 
of colored glass enamel rendered opaque by oxide of tin, an 
invention which was introduced in the Early Christian period. 

The extensive use of rich marbles and mosaics caused a flat 
treatment, with an absence of mouldings, cornices and modillions, 
which were subordinate to the decorative treatment. 

The simple exteriors of brickwork, with bandings of stone, 
did not leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. 
Flat splays enriched by incised or low relief ornamentation were 
introduced, and mosaic and marbles were used, in a broad way, 
as a complete lining to a rough carcass, architectural lines being 
replaced by decorative bands in the mosaic, which was worked 
on rounded angles. One surface melts into another as the 
mosaic is continued from arch and pendentive upwards to the 
dome, and the gold of the background being carried into the 
figures, unity of surface was always maintained. Although 
columns of the richest marbles were taken from old buildings, 
the importation and sale of newly quarried columns and other 
decorative materials, such as rare marbles, did not in the least 
decrease. The Theodosian code in fact encouraged this branch 
of trade and industry, and the mode of ornamentation by means 
of colored marbles was carried to a greater extent than ever 
before. The quarries opened by the Romans continued to be 
used, and the workmen employed in them were governed by 
imperial decrees issued specially for their guidance. 


Byzantine examples consist mainly of churches and baptisteries. 
In the former, although a certain number follow the Basilican 
type, the majority are founded on the circular and polygonal 
plans of the Roman and Karly Christian periods. 

SS. Sergius and Bacchus, Constantinople (a.d. 527), 
erected by Justinian, is nearly square in plan, being a rectangle of 



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109 feet by 92 feet over all, and has an interior arrangement very 
similar to S. Vitale (No. 83), but it has four niches only, and is 
inclosed in a square instead of an octagon (No. 79, e, f, g). The 
dome, 52 feet in diameter and 66 feet high, is visible externally, 
having no wooden roof, and is of a peculiar melon -like form caused 
by the formation of ridges and furrows from base to summit. 
This church, picturesquely situated on the shores of the 
Bosphorus, is in a ruinous condition, but was being partially 
restored by the Sultan at the time of the authors' visit in 
January, 1896. The beautiful frescoes and mosaics are, how- 
ever, irreparably damaged in consequence of the penetration of 
rain through the roof. 

S. Sophia, Constantinople (Hagia Sophia = " Divine Wis- 
dom") (Nos. 79, 80, 81), was built by order of Justinian, in a.d. 
532-537, on the site of two successive churches of the same name, 
i.e. : — (a.) The wooden-roofed basilica, erected by Constantine, 
a.d. 360. (b.) The church erected by Theodosius, a.d. 415. The 
architects were Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus. 

The Plan consists of a central space 107 feet square, bounded 
by four massive piers, 25 feet square, connected above by semi- 
circular arches, and supporting a dome 107 feet in diameter (cf. 
S. Paul, London). East and west are great semicircular spaces, 
crowned with semi-domes, and out of these are formed smaller 
exedrae, in their turn covered with semi-domes. The area thus 
formed is a great oval-ended nave 265 feet by 107 feet. 

Outside this central area are aisles over 50 feet wide, in two 
stories, north and south, the upper story being for women. 
These aisles bring the main building approximately to a square, 
which, excluding the apse and narthex, measures 250 feet by 
237 feet. 

The narthex, to the west of the main building, was set apart 
for catechumens and penitents, and forms a grand apartment over 
200 feet long by 30 feet wide ; it is in two stories, the upper forming 
a gallery to the church. Further west is the outer narthex and 
atrium, with marble columns and brick pillars. 

To the north and south, forming continuations of the four great 
piers already mentioned, are massive buttresses, 25 feet wide by 
70 feet long, pierced with double arches on the ground and upper 
story. These piers take the thrust of the main arches and dome 
on the two sides where there are no semi-domes. SS. Sergius 
and Bacchus would resemble S. Sophia in plan if it were cut in 
two and a dome on pendentives placed over an intervening square, 
and the whole doubled in size. 

The domical method of construction governs the plan, which is 
subservient to it. The square central space is crowned with a 
dome, 180 feet above the pavement, but in itself only 47 feet in 
height above its base (t.e. 7 less than a semi-dome). 


The two semi-domes, east and west, abut against the great 
arches which support the central dome and act as buttresses 
to it on the east and west sides. The smaller exedrae are also 
covered with semi-domes, as has been stated. The pendentives 
carrying the central dome have a projection of 25 feet and a 
height of over 60 feet. 

The great piers supporting the dome are of stones, the rest of 
the building being of brickwork. The construction of the dome is 
explained on No. 80. 

Internally, the actual effect of the whole is one of extreme 
intricacy, although the general scheme is very simple, while scale 
is obtained by the careful gradation of the various parts from the 
two-storied arcades to the aisles and lofty dome, which rests, 
with little apparent support, like a canopy over the centre, or, as 
Procopius, an eye-witness, described it, " as if suspended by a 
chain from heaven." 

The impression is that of one great central domed space with 
semicircular domed ends, the height gradually decreasing from 
179 feet at the centre. 

The walls and piers are lined with beautifully -colored marbles 
(Phrygian white, Laconian green, Lybian blue, Celtic black, 
white marble with black veins from the Bosphorus, and Thessalian 
marble), in varied patterns, fixed by means of metal cramps ; the 
floors are laid with colored mosaics of various patterns, and the 
vaults and domes are enriched with glass mosaics of the apostles, 
angels, and saints on a glittering golden ground. Although many 
of these are now concealed by matting covered with plaster, or 
are replaced by quotations from the Koran, yet the four pendentives 
still exhibit the six-winged seraphim, whom Mahometans acknow- 
ledge under the names of the four Archangels, Gabriel, Michael, 
Raphael, and Israfil, and when the light is favourable the figure 
of Christ can still be seen in the vaults of the apse. 

The columns of many-colored marbles are used constructively 
to support the galleries which rest on a variety of groined vaults. 
Moulded bronze rings encircle the column shafts at their junction 
with the capitals and bases, and elsewhere. The lower stories of the 
aisles (north and south of the central space) are supported by 
four columns of dark green marble from the Temple of Artemis 
(Diana) at Ephesus, the upper stories having six columns of the 
same material. Each of the four small exedrae has two large 
columns of dark red porphyry below, brought from the Temple 
of the Sun at Baal bee, and six smaller columns on the upper story. 
The total number of columns in the church is 107 (the same 
number as the diameter of the church in feet), of which forty are 
below and sixty-seven above. 

The capitals are mostly of the pyramidal or cubiform type, 
with small Ionic angle volutes and delicately incised carving. 


Some bear the monogram of Justinian, and on a column to the 
south exedra on entering is the date 534. 

A variation of the dosseret block is in general used on the lines 
of the Classical abacus. 

The lighting is partly effected by forty small windows piercing 
the dome at its base. Additional light is introduced through 
twelve windows in each of the spandrel walls, north and south, under 
the great arches which support the dome. The bases of the domes 
of the smaller exedrae are also provided with windows. Many of 
the windows are small and spanned by semicircular arches ; others 
are more elaborate, as in those to the " Gynaeceum," or women's 
gallery, reached from the exterior by four gently sloping ascents, 
one at each corner of the building, and from the interior by stone 
staircases, in which large semicircular headed openings are 
divided into six by columns in two heights, the lighting area 
being filled with lattice work of marble 3 inches thick, pierced 
with openings about 7 inches square, filled with glass. Externally 
the walls are faced with brick and stone in alternate courses. 
The vaulting of the domes and semi-domes is visible, being 
covered with lead J-inch thick, resting on wooden battens placed 
immediately on the brick vaults. The immense buttresses 
already referred to, make imposing external features, as also 
the two great spandrel walls between them, deeply recessed from 
their face, and provided with windows lighting the central area. 
The plainness of the exterior causes the building to depend for 
effect entirely on the massiveness of its form and the general 
symmetry of its proportions. 

S. Sophia is the masterpiece of Byzantine architecture as 
the Parthenon is of Greek, or the Pantheon of Roman ; but 
neither in plan nor treatment does it seem to have been largely 
imitated, especially in respect of the abutting semicircular domes. 

S. Irene, Constantinople, originally constructed by Con- 
stantino and several times destroyed and rebuilt, finally about 
a.d. 740, is interesting as preserving the Basilican plan of nave 
and two aisles with Eastern apse and Western atrium. It has a 
dome which is believed to be the earliest example, resting on a 
high drum pierced with windows to light the interior. 

The Theotokos Church, Constantinople, dating from the 
ninth to the twelfth century, is a small but perfect example, 
having a double narthex crowned with three domes, and a central 
dome over the church itself. 

The Church of the Chora, Constantinople, is an interest- 
ing example, dating originally from the fourth century, but subse- 
quently much altered. It has a central area crowned with a 
dome resting on a drum 26 feet in diameter, pierced by windows, 
and has semicircular windows on three sides and an apse on the 
fourth. It has an inner and outer narthex, ornamented with 


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large mosaic decorations, hence it is now known as the " mosaic 
mosque." It is supposed by some that the facade of this church 
served as a model for that of S. Mark, Venice (No. 85). 

The Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople, 
founded by Constantine the Great, but rebuilt by Justinian, and 
destroyed in a.d. 1463, to make way for the Mosque of Sultan 
Mahomet II., was the second type of Byzantine plan, and is 
interesting as being the prototype of S. Mark, Venice (Nos. 84, 
85, 86) (see below). 

S. Vitale, Ravenna (a.d. 526-547) (No. 83 c, d), whose 
prototype was the Temple of Minerva Medica at Rome (No. 83 
a, b) is octagonal on plan, an inner octagon of 50 feet being 
inclosed by an outer one of no feet. The apsidal chancel opens 
from the inner octagon, by a square bay cutting through the outer 
aisle. The relation of the chancel to the octagon is successfully 
designed. It is to be noted that the other seven arches of the inner 
octagon have columns placed on a half circle, carrying round the 
gallery usual in Eastern churches. In many particulars Byzan- 
tine influences are seen. The dome is composed of earthen pots, 
and protected by a wooden roof, thus differing in construction from 
Roman examples. 

The church built by Charlemagne, and containing his tomb, at 
Aix-la-Chapelle (No. 83 e, f), is derived from this church (see 
page 261). 

S. Mark, Venice (Nos. 84, 85 and 86), was erected, for the 
most part, between a.d. 1063-1071, the columns and marble 
mosaics to the exterior being added between 1 100-1350. Venice 
was by situation one of the connecting links between the 
Byzantine and Franconian empires, and a great depot of the 
traffic between the Fast and West, which is evident in Venetian 

The plan of S. Mark (No. 84 c) is in the form of a Greek 
cross, of equal arms, covered by a dome in the centre (42 feet 
in diameter), and one over each arm of the cross, and is derived 
from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople. It 
is worthy of note that the square piers, w T hich carry the dome, 
are pierced on the ground floor and gallery levels : the gallery 
arcade connects the piers on either side, the depth of the gallery 
being that of the pier. The vestibules fill out the western arm 
of the cross to a square on plan. 

The interior (Nos. 84 a and 86) is richly veneered with colored 
marbles casing the lower part of the walls ; above, and extending in 
one great surface over vault and dome, is a lining of richly colored 
glass mosaic, in which are worked figures of saints mingled with 
scenes from their lives, set off by a broad background of gold. 
Mosaic, in fact, is the real and essential decoration of the church, 
to which all architectural detail is subordinated. 


The external facade (No. 85) has five entrances, enriched with 
shafts of many-colored marbles brought from Alexandria and 
the ruined cities of the East, forming a rich and beautiful portal. 
Mosaic panels also serve to enrich with color the spandrels of 
the arches. It must be remembered that this and the external 
domes are a later casing upon the original exterior of the usual 
Byzantine type (No. 84 a). 

The effects of S. Mark have been described by Ruskin, who 
says that they depend not only upon the most delicate sculpture 
in every part, but also on the most subtle, variable, inexpressible 
color produced by transparent alabaster, polished marble, and 
lustrous gold. 

The Byzantine style spread over Greece, Russia, and other 
parts, and has been the accepted style of the Greek church to the 
present day. 

In Greece the buildings are small but exquisitely executed, as 
may be seen in the little Metropole Cathedral (No. 87), the Church 
of the Kapnikarea, and other churches at Athens ; the Church of 
Daphni, near Athens, and the Monastery of S. Luke of Stiris, on the 
north of the Gulf of Corinth. 

At Thessalonica (Salonica), in Macedonia, 5. George (a.d. 400) is 
an early example of a domed church, and S. Demetrius (a.d. 500- 
550) an example of a five-aisled basilica with transepts (not 
showing externally), and galleries. 

In Russia among the best known examples are the Cathedrals 
of Moscow, Kieff, and Novgorod, all of which have a decided 
Eastern aspect, due to the use of bulbous-shaped domes and unusual 

In Armenia are also interesting examples with local charac- 
teristics, such as the Church of 5. Sophia, Trebizond. 


a. Plans. — Byzantine churches are all distinguished by a 
great central square space covered with a dome, supported by 
means of pendentives, shown in No. 79 j, k. On each side 
extend short arms, forming a Greek cross, which with the narthex 
and side galleries make the plan nearly square (Nos. 80, 84). 
The narthex was placed within the main walls. 

The essential difference in plan between a Byzantine church 
and an Early Christian basilican church are as follows : — 

The leading thought in a Byzan- The leading idea in an Early 

tine church is vertical, by the group- Christian basilica is horizontal, by 

ing of domes round a principal means of the long perspective of 

central one, towards which the eye columns, which direct the eye 

is drawn. towards the apsidal termination. 



b. "Walls. — These were often constructed of brick. Internally, 
all the oriental love of magnificence was developed, marble 
casing and mosaic being applied to the walls; hence a flat 
treatment and absence of mouldings prevailed. Externally the 
buildings were left comparatively plain, although the facade 
was sometimes relieved by alternate rows of stone and brick, in 
various colors. 

c. Openings. — Doors and windows are semicircular headed 
(No. 89 g, h), but segmental and horse- shoe arched openings are 
sometimes seen. 

The windows are small and grouped together (Nos. 80 a and 
87). The universal employment of mosaic in Byzantine churches, 
and the consequent exclusion of painted glass, rendered the use 
of such large windows as the Gothic architects employed quite 
inadmissible, and in the bright climate very much smaller open- 
ings sufficed to admit the necessary light. Tracery was, in con- 
sequence, practically non-existent as a northern architect would 
understand it. The churches depend largely for light on the ring 
of windows at the base of the dome, or in the " drum," or circular 
base on which the dome is sometimes raised (No. 86), and on 
openings grouped in the gable ends (No. 80 a). Such windows, 
grouped in tiers within the semicircular arch beneath the dome, 
are a great feature in the style. 

Portions of the windows are occasionally filled with thin slabs 
of translucent marble (No. 89 g). 

d. Roofs. — The method of roofing these buildings was by 
a series of domes formed in brick, stone, or concrete, with fre- 
quently no further external covering. In S. Sophia the vaults 
are covered with sheets of lead, a quarter of an inch thick, fastened 
to wood laths, resting on the vaults without any wood roofing 
(No. 80 b). Hollow earthenware was used in order to reduce the 
thrust on the supporting walls (No. 83 d). 

The Byzantines introduced the dome placed over a square or 
octagonal plan by means of pendentives (No. 79 j), a type not 
found in Roman architecture. 

In early examples the pendentives were part of one sphere. 
A good idea of this type is obtained by halving an orange, cutting 
off four slices, each at right angles to the last, to represent the 
four arches, and then scooping out the interior ; the portion 
above the crown of these semicircles is the dome, and the inter- 
vening triangles are the pendentives. Such domes are rare, 
however, perhaps the only example in Europe being that over 
the tomb of Galla Placidia (No. 73 h, j, k), already described 
(page 187). In the later type the dome is not part of the same 
sphere as the pendentives, but rises independently from their 
summits (Nos. 80 b, hi c). The early domes were very flat; 
in later times they were raised on a drum or cylinder. 


e. Columns. — In the earlier buildings, these were taken from 
ancient structures, which not being so numerous in the East as in 
the neighbourhood of Rome, the supply was sooner exhausted ; 
and thus there was an incentive to design fresh ones. Capitals 
sometimes took a form derived from the Roman Ionic (No. 89 c) 
or Corinthian types (Nos. 88 and 89 d), or consisted in the lower 
portion of a cube block with rounded corners, over which was 
placed a deep abacus block, sometimes called a "dosseret" 
(No. 89 d, e). This represented the disused Classic architrave, 
and aided in supporting the springing of the arch, which was 
larger in area than the shaft of the column. Further, an altered 
shape of capital was required to support the arch, a convex 
form being best adapted. The surfaces of these capitals were 
carved with incised foliage of sharp outline, having drilled eyes 
(No. 88) between the leaves. Several other types are shown in 
No. 89. 

Columns were used constructively, but were always subordinate 
features, and often only introduced to support galleries, the massive 
piers alone supporting the superstructure. 

f. Mouldings. — These were unimportant, their place being 
taken by broad flat expanses of wall surfaces. Internally, the 
decorative lining of marble and mosaic in panels was sometimes 
framed in billet mouldings, probably derived from the Classic dentils, 
and flat splays enriched by incised ornamentation were used. 
Externally, the simple treatment of the elevations in flat expanses 
of brickwork, with occasional stone banded courses, did not leave 
the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. 

g. Ornament. — The scheme of ornamentation was elaborate 
in the extreme, the walls being lined with costly marbles with the 
veining carefully arranged so as to form patterns, and the vaults 
and upper part of walls with glass mosaic having symbolic figures, 
groups of saints and. representations of the peacock (the emblem 
of immortal life), the whole forming a striking contrast to the less 
permanent painted frescoes usually adopted in the Western 
Romanesque churches (page 227). 

Mosaic thus was used in a broad way as a complete lining to a 
rough structure, and architectural lines were replaced by deco- 
rative bands in the mosaic. One surface melts into another as 
the mosaic sheet creeps from wall, arch, and pendentive up to 
the dome, and the gold surfaces being continued as a background 
to the figures, unity of surface is always maintained. 

Greek rather than Roman technique was followed in the 
carving, due to the origin of the craftsmen. The carving was 
mainly executed in low relief, and effect was frequently obtained 
by sinking portions of the surfaces. A special character of the 
carving was due to the use of the drill instead of the chisel (No. 88). 
The acanthus leaf, deeply channelled, and of V-shaped section, is 


0rre\NTWt Capital*? 




adopted from the Greek variety, but became more conventional, 
with acute-pointed leaves, drilled at the several springings of 
the teeth with deep holes. 

The great characteristic of Byzantine ornament as compared 
with Classical, is that the pattern is incised instead of seeming 
to be applied, for the surface always remained flat, the pattern 
being cut into it without breaking its outline. 

Grecian and Asiatic feeling strongly pervades Byzantine 

ornamentation, and this is accounted for by the fact that 

Constantinople was a Greek city, and in close contact with the 

East, and Oriental methods. 

Note. — A good general idea of the exterior of a church in this 

style is to be gained from the Greek Church in the Moscow 

Road, Bayswater, erected by Oldrid Scott, as also the new 

Roman Catholic Cathedral at Westminster by the late John 

F. Bentley. The mosaics and casts in the Victoria and Albert 

Museum should also be inspected. 


Choisy (A.).— lt L'Art de Batir chez les Byzantins." Folio. Paris, 1883. 

Didron (A. N.). — " Christian Iconography." 2 vols., 8vo. 1886. 

Knight (H. G.). — " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy." 2 vols., folio. 
1 842- 1 843. 

Lethaby (W. R.) and Swainson (H.). — " Church of Sancta Sophia, 
Constantinople." 8vo. 1894. 

Milligen (A. van). — "Byzantine Constantinople.' 1 8vo. 1899. 

" Saint Mark's, Venice." A large and beautiful monograph in several 
vols., 4to and folio, published by Signor Ongania. Venice, 1881. 

Salzenburg (W.). — " Alt-Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinope^' 
2 vols., folio and 4to. Berlin, 1854- 1855. 

Schultz (R. W.) and Barnsley (S. H.).— "The Monastery of St. Luke 
of Stiris in Phocis." Folio. 1901. 

Texier (C.) and Pullan (R. P.). — " Byzantine Architecture. l, Folio. 

Scott (Sir W.).— " Count Robert of Paris." (Historical Novel.) 

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i. Geographical. — The style which grew up on the decay 
of the Roman empire, and is known as Romanesque, was 
carried on throughout practically the whole of the Western 
empire — that is, in those countries which had l>een directly under 
the rule of Rome. The position of each country will be slightly 
touched upon under its own heading. The influence of Byzan- 
tine art brought through Ravenna and Venice also influenced the 
Italian Romanesque in Lorn hardy and Europe generally. 

1 Before treating of the deveu p 1 en: of the style pecul-ar to each country, a 
general outline sketch is given. 


ii. Geological. — In these early times a rough use of the 
material at hand characterizes the style in each country, and will 
be referred to under the same. 

iii. Climate. — Local styles were favoured by the variations 
of climate north and south of the Alps, as referred to in each 

iv. Religion. — The Christian Church, which was the civilizing 
and educating agency of the period, was striving to extend its 
boundaries in Northern Europe, and the erection of a church 
was often the foundation of a city. The monastic co.mmunities, 
with the encouragement and aid of Charlemagne, came into 
existence. The papacy had been rising to great power and 
influence, and, directed with skill, it rivalled or controlled such 
civil government as existed. The Pragmatic Sanction (a.d. 554) 
had already conferred authority on the Bishops over the provincial 
and municipal governments, thus increasing the power of the 
Church, with which now often rested the nomination of public 
functionaries and judges. As East and West drifted apart their 
architecture developed on opposite lines, but architecture of 
Western Europe due to Eastern influence is classed as Byzantine. 
The different countries looked to Rome until each developed its 
own style. Religious enthusiasm and zeal prevailed, and was 
manifested in magnificent edifices, and in creed warfare, so that 
when the Turks overran Palestine, the loss of the Holy Places 
resulted in the long warfare known as the Crusades (1096-1270) 
between the Christians of the West and the Mahometans of the 

Until the middle of the twelfth century science, letters, art 
and enlightenment generally were the monopoly of religious 
bodies, and pupils of monks afterwards became the designers 
of many of the great Gothic Cathedrals. 

The feudal rank of bishops and abbots made them in some sense 
military chiefs, occasionally taking the field in person. Schools 
attached to certain monasteries discharged to some extent the 
functions of universities, as those at S. Gall, Tours, and Rheims, 
and the aid thus rendered by monastic institutions to archi- 
tecture was therefore important. Down to the thirteenth century, 
architecture was practised largely by the clergy and came to be 
regarded as a sacred science, as stated by Albert Lenoir in 
" T Architecture Monastique." Dr. Jessop's "Daily Life of an 
English Monastery" is interesting as showing the life led by the 
monks, and may be studied with advantage. (For a description 
of the typical plan of a monastery see page 276). 

Among the chief monastic orders were the following : — 

(1.) The Benedictine order, founded in the South of Italy in the 
sixth century by S. Benedict, by whose decree architecture, 
painting, mosaic and all branches of art were taught. All the 


older monasteries in England belonged to this order, Canterbury 
(No. 118 b) and Westminster Abbey (No. 127) being the chief 

The usual arrangement consisted of a square cloister having on 
one side a church of cruciform plan with aisles, the transept 
forming a part of one side of the cloisters. The refectory was 
usually parallel to the nave, on the opposite side of the cloister. 
The dormitory was generally placed on another side with a stair- 
case in connection with the church for night services. 

The manuscript plan existing in the Library of the monastery 
of S. Gall, in Switzerland, is interesting as showing what was 
considered a typical plan of the buildings of this order (page 261). 

(2.) The Cluniac order was founded in a.d. 909, the celebrated 
Abbey at Cluny being the headquarters. The plan was especially 
notable for double transepts, a feature which was adopted 
in many English Cathedrals, as at Lincoln (No. 117 f) and 
Salisbury (No. 117 e). 

(3.) The Cistercian order was founded in a.d. 1098, at Citeaux, 
in Burgundy. In plan, the typical church was divided into 
three parts transversely by screens, walls, or steps. There were 
frequently no aisles. The transepts were short, as also was the 
eastern arm of the cross, and the choir extended westward of the 
transepts. There was an absence of towers and painted glass. 
The influence of the Cistercian foundation extended to various 
countries of Europe. In England the most important were 
Furness, Fountains, Roche, and Kirkstall Abbeys. 

(4.) The Augustinian order differed little from the Benedictine. 
It was introduced into England in a.d. 1105, and Bristol, Carlisle, 
and Oxford Cathedrals were founded by this order. 

(5.) The Premonstratensian order was instituted at Premontre, in 
Picardy, in a.d. 1119, and Castle Acre Priory in England is an 

(6.) The Carthusian order was founded by S. Bruno, about 
a.d. 1080, the chief French establishment being the Grande 
Chartreuse, near Grenoble, others being Vauvert, Clermont in 
Auvergne, Villefranche de Rouergue, and Montrieux. Two 
churches were preferred, one for the monks and the other for 
the people. In plan the typical feature was the great rectangular 
cloister, surrounded by an arcade on which the monks' cells 
opened, each being self-contained and with its own garden. By 
the rules of the order, speech was interdicted, and the Carthusian 
must work, eat and drink in solitude. Such a regime explains 
the extreme severity of their architecture. In Italy the establish- 
ments at Florence and the Certosa near Pavia, and in England, 
the Charterhouse, London, were the most important. 

(7.) The military orders included the Knights Templars and 
Hospitallers. The churches of the Templars were -circular 


in plan, as in the Temple Church, London, and those at 
Cambridge, Little Maplestead, and Northampton. It is supposed 
they were erected in imitation of the Rotonda of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 

(8.) The Friars, of which there were several orders, were founded 
at a later period. Their churches were large, plain, and without 
aisles, being designed for preaching purposes. 

(a.) The Dominicans (preaching or black Friars) were founded 
by S. Dominic about a.d. 1170, and later held a high 
place in Christian art, Fra Angelico being the best known 
member of the order. They came to England about 
a.d. 1217. 
{b.) The Franciscans (mendicant or grey Friars) were founded 
by S. Francis of Assisi, in a.d. 1209, and were distinguished 
for intellectual capacity, Roger Bacon being one of the 
most distinguished members. They first came to England 
in a.d. 1 2 16. 
(r.) The Carmelites (or white Friars), were driven out from 
Mount Carmel by the Saracens, in a.d. 1098. They came 
to England in a.d. 1229. 
(d.) The Austin Friars (or Hermits). 
(e.) Friars of the Holy Trinity, instituted in a.d. 1197. 
(/.) Crutched {or crouched) Friars, instituted in Bologna, in 
a.d. 1 169. 
(9.) The Jesuits were established in order to crush the 
Reformation, and first came to England in a.d. 1538. 

v. Social and Political. — The system of feudal tenure, or the 
holding of land on condition of military service, was growing up, 
and caused important changes in the social and political organiza- 
tion of states. While through its operation the class of actual 
slaves died out, still the poorer freemen gradually came to be 
serfs, bound to the land and passing with it, on a change of 

The growth of the towns as civilization advanced is notice- 
able, and the privileges which they acquired, amounting almost 
to independence, rapidly gave them importance. 

Constant warfare rendered the condition of the people unsettled 
during this period, and skill in craftsmanship was at the lowest 
ebb. Christianity and civilization gradually extended from 
southern to western Europe. The clergy— the scholars of the 
period — directed the building of the churches, while the influence 
of the freemasons produced important results. 

vi. Historical. — In the year a.d. 799 the Roman Empire in 
the West practically passed from the hands of the Romans, by 
the election of the first Frankish King, Charlemagne, whose 
election is a convenient date to mark the end of the Roman 
Empire as such. Till the time of Charlemagne very little 


building was done, but he in a great measure restored the arts 
and civilization to Western Europe before his death in a.d. 814. 

Before the year a.d. 1000, when it was popularly supposed that 
the world would come to an end, little building was carried out, but 
after the millennium had passed, buildings sprang up in all parts, 
with many local peculiarities, which will be noticed under each 
country; but the change was slow, traditional forms being firstly 
transformed in general design and detail, and then new features 

Nearly all the nations of Europe had at this time come into 
existence ; France, Germany, and Spain, were becoming powerful 
and tending to set aside the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, 
which now had become only a title. In northern Europe, Den- 
mark, Sweden, and Norway were distinct kingdoms, and England 
had become welded into one by the Norman kings at the end of 
the eleventh century. 


The term Romanesque may be said to include all those 
phases of Western European architecture which were more or 
less based on Roman art, and which were being carried out, in 
a rough and ready way, in various parts of Europe, from the 
departure of the Romans up to the introduction of the pointed arch 
in the thirteenth century. 

The general architectural character is sober and dignified, 
while picturesqueness is obtained by the grouping of the towers, 
and projection of the transepts and choir. 

As helping towards the appreciation of the character of 
Romanesque architecture, imagine an ancient civilization of 
vast extent, devoid of physical force, and recognisable only by 
the multitude of its monuments, some intact, others injured or 
partially destroyed, all unguarded, and most of them disused — a 
calamity which happens in due course to every great nation or 
group of peoples ; and further suppose that the civilization is 
represented by a man, dormant, but who slowly, and with many 
a contortion, and many a yawn, threw off the sleep of ages and 
awakened to a sense of the treasure he possessed, of the wants he 
began to understand, of the means to the ends he would attain. 
In his midst were ruins of vast edifices, some still standing among 
heaps of stones hewn and carved, of sculptured capitals and friezes, 
of monoliths of porphyry and marble, while his own shelter afforded 
him little protection either from heat or cold. What happened ? 
As time went on he gathered up the smaller fragments and arranged 
them perhaps upon the foundations, still intact, of an ancient 
building, and as he gradually acquired a knowledge of the uses 
to which he might apply this and that fragment, he insensibly 


produced a new art founded on the old. This explains the birth of 
Romanesque, for on the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, 
the quarry of the ruins of ancient buildings largely influenced the 
work done, both in construction and decorative treatment, for 
the earlier buildings of the period were often built from the 
remains of ancient Roman buildings in the vicinity. In the 
course of time, however, a new style was evolved, for, putting 
aside spasmodic efforts, the period of the tenth to the twelfth 
centuries is remarkable for the tentative employment of a new 
constructive principle and a new use of material. The first was 
the principle of equilibrium which succeeded that of inert 
stability as used by the Romans, and the second was the employ- 
ment of dressed stonework in comparatively small pieces, con- 
nected with mortar beds of considerable thickness. This was a 
method not before attempted, because the materials in use up to 
that time had not demanded it. By this new employment of 
materials, the whole current of architecture was turned to a 
constructive system which should answer to its needs, and which, 
after many tentative experiments, was to lead to the next glorious 
period of architecture — the thirteenth century — in which elasticity 
of structure was joined to the principle of equilibrium. 

In Italy (page 228) there were various early Christian edifices 
erected at Ravenna from the fifth to the seventh centuries, for 
Ravenna was the principal city in Italy during this period, being 
the seat of the Exarch or representative of the Byzantine 
Emperor in the western part of his dominions. These buildings 
partake, naturally, of the elements of the fully developed Byzantine 
style, in the same way in which S. Mark, Venice, and S. Front, 
Perigueux, was the result of the close connection of these centres 
with the trade and commerce of the East (No. 84). 

In France (page 246), especially in the Western and Northern 
Provinces, the old traditional basilican plan was preferred and 
adhered to during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, with certain 
exceptions, notably S. Front, but the dome raised on pendentives 
became the common kind of vaulting, in the South, in conjunction 
with the aisleless nave. It is worthy of note also that the use of 
the pointed arch occurred in the South of France sooner than in 
the North, and it is considered by some, but with apparently little 
foundation, to have been derived from contact with the Saracens, 
who invaded this portion of France from 719-732. Further, the 
development of monasteries in the eleventh century gave a great 
impulse to civilization and agriculture, and exercised considerable 
influence on architecture. Provence was, moreover, in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries the chief centre of the growing traffic from 
the East, and the highway by which artistic and other products of 
the Levant were dispersed through France and the North of 
Europe. Similarly, the development from Roman to Gothic art was 


accomplished through the ordeal of the destructive, yet purifying 
dissolution of the Dark Ages, whence the true spirit of Roman 
construction emerged, cleared to a great extent of the extraneous 
elements with which it had been so long encrusted. Up to the 
end of the twelfth century the Provencal architects had led the 
way, but at this period the lay architects of the North, seizing on 
the Provencal principle of the Pointed arch, soon developed from 
it the magnificent Gothic system of the perfected architecture of 
the thirteenth century. 

Romanesque Vaulting. 

The Roman system of plain cross vaulting (No. in a), 
was used in Europe up to the twelfth century, when it began 
to be superseded by the "groin -rib" type of vaulting, An which 
a framework of ribs supported vaulting surfaces of thinner stone, 
known as " severies," or " in-filling." This method introduced 
a new principle in vaulting, viz., designing the profile of the 
groin ribs and leaving the form of the vaulting surfaces to 
adapt themselves to them ; whereas in Roman architecture the 
vaulting surface was first settled, and the profile of the groins 
followed as a matter of course. It was therefore necessary 
for the Romanesque architects to find the profile of the ribs, 
and especially that of the diagonal rib, which had previously 
been settled without design, as mentioned above, by the inter- 
section of the two vaulting surfaces meeting at right angles. 
If the vaulting surfaces were semi-cylindrical the diagonal groin 
was of necessity a semi-ellipse, but the use of ordinates, as shown 
in No. in e, does not appear to have been employed by the 
Romanesque architects, who surmounted the difficulty arising 
from the difference of span of the diagonal and transverse ribs as 
follows :M-(fl.) On the Continent, especially in Germany and 
France, the vaulting ribs were usually portions of circular curves 
of similar curvature starting from the same level, thus the diagonal 
rib, having the longest span, rose to a greater height than the 
transverse and longitudinal ribs (No. 1 12, d 3 ). The panelling was 
then filled in on the top of these ribs, and in consequence the 
structure was highly domical, (b.) In England, however, where 
the vaults were generally constructed with level ridges, this 
domical form was not used, the difference in height between the 
diagonal and the transverse ribs being equalized by stilting the 
latter (No. 112 b, d 3 , g) or else by forming the diagonal rib 'as a 
segment of a circle, the longitudinal and transverse ribs becoming 
semicircular (No. 112 d 2 ). In vaulting an oblong compartment the 
difference between the heights of the diagonal and wall ribs was 
still greater and produced an awkward waving line of the groins 
on plan (Nos. iiib and 112 c). 

In the vaulting of the naves of the Romanesque churches in 


Germany, as at Worms (No. 105 g), Mayence and Spires ; 
in France, as at the Abbaye-atix-Hommes (No. 112 e, f), and 
Abbaye-aux-Dames at Caen, and Notre Dame, Paris (No. 157); 
and in England, as at Canterbury ; the difficulty of spanning oblong 
compartments was surmounted by including two of them in 
one square bay of vaulting, each main bay corresponding with 
two square compartments of the side aisles (Nos. 94 a, b, e 
and 105). In some instances the intermediate pier was carried 
up as a vaulting shaft and formed the vaulting compartment into 
six parts on plan, which was then known as " sexpartite M 
(six part) vaulting (Nos. 100 c, 105 b and 112 f). The weight 
of the vaulting in this case was therefore supported by alternate 
piers, which were accordingly strengthened (No. 105 c). During 
the following centuries this principle of rib design became more 
complex by the multiplication of the frame-work of ribs described 
under Gothic vaulting (page 272). It will also be found that all 
these difficulties of accommodating the heights of ribs of different 
spans, especially in oblong compartments, were surmounted by 
the introduction of the pointed arch (No. in d and 112 d). 

3. EXAMPLES (refer to each country). 


a. Plans. — In church architecture further developments from 
the type of the Early Christian Church took place. Charlemagne 
gathered around him artists and skilled workmen, and calling 
architecture out of its sleep, took the Roman basilica as a model 
for the new churches. Transepts were usually added, and the 
chancel prolonged further east than in the basilicas, the church 
partaking more and more of a well-defined cross on plan, as 
at S. Michele, Pavia (Nos. 94 and 95). The transepts were the 
same breadth as the nave, which was usually twice the width of 
the aisles. The choir was raised considerably by means of steps, 
and underneath, supported on piers, was formed a vaulted crypt 
as at S. Miniato, Florence (No. 93) and S. Michele, Pavia (No. 94), 
in which the saints and martyrs were buried. The earlier examples 
have choirs without aisles, the latter, however, being continued 
round in later examples. 

The cloisters in connection with the churches are often of 
great beauty and have capitals and other features elaborately 

The towers are special features, and of great prominence in 
the design, as at the Church of the Apostles at Cologne (Nos. 104 

F.A. Q 


and 105 c). They are either square, octagonal, or circular, "with 
well-marked stories, having windows to each, and are placed at 
the west and east ends and the crossing of nave and transepts. 

b. Walls. — Roman work and precedent, of course, influenced 
all constructive art in Europe, although technical skill was at a 
very low ebb during this period. Walls were in general coarsely 
built, having on the exterior, buttresses formed as pilaster strips 
of slight projection, connected at the top by horizontal mouldings, 
or by a row of semicircular arches resting on a corbel table 
projecting from the wall. \_Semicircular arches, resting on rudely 
formed capitals, also occur.] Other peculiarities are referred to 
in the comparative table of each country. 

c. Openings. — The door and window openings are very 
characteristic. The principle upon which the jambs were formed 
was in receding planes, or rectangular recesses, known as 
"orders," in which were placed circular columns or shafts. 
The arches followed the same method, being built in concentric 
rings (No. 94 f, h, j). A continuous abacus often occurs over 
these columns, and the profile of the jamb is carried round the 
semicircular portion of the arch in southern examples. 

The principal doorways are usually placed in the transepts. 

The characteristic rose (or wheel) window occurred over the 
principal door of the church in the west front, as at Iffley Church, 
OxonjNo. 138) ; also in Southern Italian examples, as at Palermo. 

d. Roofs. — The general employment of vaulting, especially 
over the side aisles in the eleventh century, was due to the desire 
of fire-proofing the building, but the central nave was still often 
covered with a plain wooden roof. 

The form of arch universally employed was semicircular 
(No. 94 a), often raised, i.e., stilted (No. 112 d 5 , g). 

In early examples rib mouldings were not used in the vaulting, 
but when introduced, about 1100 a.d., were at first plain, and 
afterwards moulded in a simple manner (No. 94). Intersecting 
barrel vaults (No. 112 g) were usual, and the difficulty in con- 
structing, these in oblong bays led to the use of pointed arches 
in later times. When the crossing was crowned by an octa- 
gonal dome, four of the sides were carried on " squinch " arches 
(Nos. 94 and 105). The Romanesque architects used "flying 
buttresses" under the aisle roof, in the case where the thrust of 
a vaulted roof had to be met (Nos. 94 and 100); but it was left 
for the Gothic architects of the thirteenth century to place them 
above the aisle roof and weight them with pinnacles. 

e. Columns. — The shafts of the columns have a variety of 
treatments, flutings being used (Nos. 98 b, 107 l), of vertical, 
spiral, or trellis work form, or the whole shaft is sometimes covered 
with sculptured ornaments. In early examples forms of the 
Corinthian or Ionic capitals occur — as in the third column from 



the right in S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (No. 135), where 
Classic influence is apparent. Also see Nos. 98 j, k, l, m, and 
103 D, E. 

The capital in later times was often of a cushion (cubiform) 
shape, as in S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (No. 135), with 
lower corners rounded off and no carving, or is sometimes richly 
carved and scolloped (Nos. 146 and 148 b, c). 

f. Mouldings. — These were often carved elaborately, as will 
be referred to in English Romanesque (Norman) architecture 
(No. 139). 

The abacus over the capital (Nos. 98, j, m, 103, 107 and 146) is 
always distinctive in form ; it is higher, but projects less than in 
the Classical style, and is moulded with alternate fillets and 
hollows. The base to the column (Nos. 107 d, h, and 146) is 
generally an adaptation of the old Classical form, or Attic base, 
resting on a square plinth, at the angles of which flowers or animals 
were occasionally carved to fill up the triangular part, and the lower 
circular moulding often overhangs the plinth. 

c. Ornament. — The carving and ornaments were derived from 
many types of the vegetable and animal kingdom and treated 
in a conventional way, often but rudely carved (No. 139). In 
the interiors fresco is more commonly used than mosaic, which 
required great technical skill. Early stained glass was influenced 
by Byzantine mosaic. 

Note. — The above are the principal characteristics of the style 
as a whole. Local influences of taste, climate, geography 
and geological formations were instrumental in producing the 
different characteristics of each country. 

Q 2 



" In Middle Rome there was in stone working 
The Church of Mary painted royally 
The chapels of it were some two or three 
In each of them her tabernacle was 
And a wide window of six feet in glass 
Coloured with ail her works in red and gold," 


i. Geographical. — The boundaries of Central Italy extended 
to Florence and Pisa on the north and west, and to Naples on 
the south. Pisa was by position a maritime power, while 
Florence lay on the great route from south to north, commanding 
the passage of the Arno. 

ii. Geological. — Tuscany possessed greater mineral wealth 
than any other part of Italy, and building stone was abundant. 
The ordinary building materials of Rome were bricks, local 
volcanic stone (tufa or peperino), and Travertine stone from 
Tivoli, a few miles off. Marble was obtained from Carrara, or 
Paros and the other Greek isles. 

iii. Climate. — (See Roman architecture, page 112.) 

iv. Religion. — It was during this period that, although the 
Popes had only small temporal dominions, they began to make 
their power felt in civil government, and the disputes with the 
emperors began. Pippin, king of the Franks, asked by the Pope 
(Stephen II.), defended the latter from the Lombards and gave 
him the lands they had seized and also the chief city of the 
Exarchate (Ravenna), which the Pope accepted in the name 
of S. Peter. Thus in 755 Central Italy severed its connection 
with the Empire and became independent, thereby inaugurating 
the temporal power of the papacy. Charlemagne, invited by Pope 
Adrian I. (772-779), advanced into Italy in 773, and, after defeating 
the Lombards, entered Rome for the first time in 774. He gave the 

1 The style is divided into three — central, north, and south. The comparative 
table of the three together is given on page 242. 

* *■ 


Dukedom of Spoleto and other concessions to Adrian, thus adding 
to his temporal power, and from this period connection with 
Byzantium was broken off. Gregory VII. ruled that the clergy 
should not marry, and that no temporal prince should bestow any 
ecclesiastical benefice, decisions which resulted in the struggles 
between the Guelphs and Ghibellines (page 405). 

v. Social and Political. — In Italy, especially in Tuscany, 
an artistic movement, in which architecture was most prominent, 
took place in the eleventh century, the daughter arts of painting 
and sculpture being in a state of inaction. The growth of an 
industrial population, the increase of commerce and the indepen- 
dent views caused by education, were important factors in the rise 
of Naples, Pisa and Amain and other cities for self-defence, 
owing to insufficient protection from Constantinople. 

vi. Historical. — Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi sent merchant 
fleets to the ports of the Holy Land for the Eastern Fair 
at Jerusalem, and thus were brought in contact with Eastern 
art. At the commencement of the eleventh century, Pisa, the 
rival of Venice and Genoa, was the great commercial and naval 
power in the Mediterranean, and took the lead in the wars against 
the infidels, defeating the Saracens in a.d. 1025, 1030, and 1089 at 
Tunis. The Pisans were defeated by the Genoese in 1284, which 
led to their decline. The rise of Florence dates from 11 25, when, 
owing to the destruction of Fiesole, the inhabitants of this latter 
city moved there, and in the following century its growing commerce 
caused it to rival Pisa. 

Lucca was an important city at this period, being also a 
republic, and its architecture was influenced by that of Pisa. It 
was rent by the feuds of the two parties, the Guelphs and Ghibel- 
lines, the former supporting the power of the Popes and the latter 
that of the Emperors. 




New ideas rarely found. Con- The principal aim is perfection 

structive boldness not sought after, in the construction of vaulting, 

less departure being made from which influenced the whole design 

the ancient Basilican type. The —as in Normandy and the Rhine 

Italians have always possessed a provinces, where vaulting was now 

greater capacity for beauty in being developed. Such treatment 

detail, than for developing a bold caused the introduction of many 

and novel construction into a new constructive ideas, 
complete style. 

The Byzantine influence was strong, especially in several 
districts, as Venice, Ravenna, and Pisa, which latter city in 
particular possesses a distinct style of its own. 



Pisa Cathedral (a.d. 1063-1092) is a fine example of the style 
(Nos. 91 and 92), the interior, with rows of columns and flat ceiling 
recalling the Early Christian Basilican church, but the transepts 
with segmental apse at each end were an advance on the Basilican 
plan. Over the crossing or intersection of nave and transepts 
is an elliptical dome of later date. Externally, blind arcades, 
built in stripes of red and white marble, ornament the facades, 
which also have small open arcades, one above the other, producing 
a fine impression (No. 91). 

The building depends for its artistic effect upon the beauty and 
interest of its ornamental features rather than the promise of logical 
development into a new style which a northern example possesses. 

The Campanile (Bell Tower), Pisa (a.d. 1172), is a circular 
structure 52 feet in diameter, ornamented with eight stories of 
arcades (No. 91). During its erection the foundations gave way, 
thus causing the tower to lean about 1 1 feet from the vertical. 

The Baptistery, Pisa (Nos. 70 g and 91), designed by Dioti 
Salvi in a.d. 1153, is circular, 129 feet in diameter, with encircling 
aisle in two stories. Built of marble, it is surrounded externally 
on the lower story by half columns, connected by semicircular 
arches, above which is an open arcade in two heights, supported on 
small detached shafts. It was not completed till a.d. 1278, and has 
Gothic additions of the fourteenth century, in consequence of which 
it is not easy to ascertain what the original external design really 
was. The structure is crowned by an outer hemispherical dome, 
through which penetrates a conical dome 60 feet in diameter over 
the central space, and supported on four piers and eight columns. 
Thus, if there were another internal hemispherical cupola, it 
would resemble the constructive scheme of S. Paul, London 
(No. 253 b). This Baptistery bears remarkable similarity to the 
church of S. Donato (ninth century) at Zara, in Dalmatia, which, 
however, has a space only 30 feet in diameter. 

S. Michele, Lucca (a.d. 1188, facade 1288), and S. Martino, 
Lucca (a.d. 1060-1070, facade 1204), bear considerable similarity 
to the architecture of Pisa, the reason being that Lucca belonged 
to that city when most of its churches were erected. 

Pistoia Cathedral (twelfth century a.d.), resembles these 

Rome. — In the Romanesque period, i.e., from 600-1200, 
while the architecture of the rest of Europe was slowly developing 
towards the Gothic style, that of Rome was still composed of 
Classic columns and other features taken from ancient buildings. 

During this period a series of towers were also erected in the 
imperial city. The origin of these is not clear, as the custom of 


bell ringing was not then in existence, but they may be regarded 
as prototypes of the mediaeval towers and spires. 

The Cloisters of S.John Lateran, Rome (a.d. 1234), and of 
S. Paul beyond the walls, Rome (a.d. 1241) (No. 98 b) are of 
extreme interest. They are formed in square bays, the vault 
arches inclosing the arcades in groups of five or more openings. 
The special feature of the cloisters consists of the small twisted 
columns inlaid with glass mosaic in patterns of great beauty, and 
forming an evidence of the patient skill of the craftsman. 

S. Miniato, Florence (No. 93), is a leading example of the 
Central Italian style. The length of the church is divided into 
three main compartments, and the raised eastern portion, under 
which is a crypt, is open to the nave. This division of the church 
by piers seems a prelude to the idea of vaulting in compartments, 
and is an evident departure from the basilican type of long unbroken 
ranges of columns or arcades. The marble panelling, and banding 
in black and white marble of the exterior and interior, were carried 
to a further extent in the Gothic period. Very notable is the open 
timber roof with its decoration, recently restored, in bright coloring 
of gold, green, blue and red. 

For the Comparative table of Italian Romanesque, see page 



i. Geographical. — Milan, the capital of Lombardy, always 
had a high degree of prosperity, on account of its favourable 
situation in the centre of that state, and its proximity to several of 
the Alpine passes. The city is surrounded by rich plains, and the 
cultivation of the mulberry (for the silkworm), and the vine, adds 
to the general prosperity of the district. 

Ravenna and Venice, as trade connecting links with the Eastern 
Empire, reflect the culture and architectural forms derived 

ii. Geological. — Brick is the great building material of the 
plains of Lombardy, and the local architecture shows the influence 
of this material. 

iii. Climate. — North Italy has a climate resembling that 
of Central Europe, i.e., a climate of extremes. Milan is near 
enough to the Alps to experience cold in winter, while in summer 
the heat is often excessive. 

iv. Religion. — At the end of the fourth century, Theodosius, 
the great emperor, had been forced to do penance on account of a 
massacre in Thessalonica, S. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (374-398), 
closing the doors of the Church against him. This is an instance 


S. MlNIATO, Florence. 



of the great power the Church had acquired. S. Ambrose's fame 
and influence maintained the Ambrosian rite, which differed in 
some points of ritual, such as side altars not being used (cf. 
Milan Cathedral, page 408). 

v. Social and Political. — The devastating wars in the North 
Italian plains led to the gradual rise of the Venetian state, 
the first form of government being republican, but an oligarchy 
in which a Duke, or Doge, was invested with supreme authority 
gradually grew up. Italy itself consisted of a number of separate 
cities which were independent commonwealths. 

vi. Historical. — Venice from the first kept up a close alliance 
with Constantinople, by means of which both the naval import- 
ance and commerce of the little state continually increased, 
especially after the eleventh century, by which time commercial 
relations had extended to the Black Sea and the coast of the 
Mediterranean, including Dalmatia, Croatia, and Istria. The 
barbarians w r ho occupied the valleys of the Rhine and Po pursued 
a similar development in spite of the intervening Alps, Milan 
being as much German as Italian. In Italy, the old Roman 
population eventually caused barbarian influence to wane, but 
until this had come to pass little building was done. The eleventh 
and twelfth centuries were the great building epochs in Lombardy. 



Arcades restricted to top of 
gables and apses. The character 
is less refined owing to the use of 
stone and brick rather than marble. 
Wide, flat, and severe facades 
are typical, covering the whole 
church, without marking in any- 
way the difference of nave and 
aisles. A rose window (No. 96) 
and a porch resting on lions are 
often the chief relief. Details show 
a breaking away from Classic prece- 
dent. In sculpture, hunting and 
other scenes reflecting the life of 
the northern invaders are frequent, 
and in these a grotesque element 
is prominent. 

The churches were of the Basi- 
lican type, and were nearly all 
vaulted and roofed. Side aisles 
are often in two stories, the cleres- 
tory is omitted, the walls between 
the side chapels forming buttresses. 


Arcades in several stories were 
employed as an ornament to the 
facades (No. 91). Marble facing 
was carried to such an extent as to 
form a style in that material. The 
Basilican type was closely adhered 
to, and beauty and delicacy of detail 
were preferred to the invention of 
fresh architectural forms produced 
by a new system of construction. 
Detail much affected by Classic 
remains and traditions, which re- 
sulted in the production of carving 
and ornament of great refinement. 
At Pisa ancient sarcophagi richly 
sculptured with figures existed, by 
whose study the Pisani were in- 

The churches were mostly roofed 
with plain open-timbered roofs, the 
members of which were orna- 
mented with bright coloring. 





S. Antonio, Piacenza (a.d. 1122), S. Ambrogio, Milan 
(a.d. 1 140), and S. Michele, Pavia (a.d. 1 i88),are good examples. 
The latter (Nos. 94 and 95) is vaulted in square bays, with side 
aisles in two stories, and piers of clustered section. 

S. Zenone, Verona (a.d. 1139) (No. 96), is an important 
example, having, under the slope of the gable, arcaded corbels, 
which are characteristic of the work in this district ; also the 
great western rose (wheel) window, and the projecting porch to 
the main doorway, with columns supporting arches, and resting on 
the backs of crouching lions (No. 98 g). 

The origin of the arcaded galleries in many of the more impor- 
tant churches of the period (Nos. 91 and 95), is interesting, as 
illustrating how such architectural features have had, originally, 
a constructive meaning. Thus, when a wooden roof was placed over 
a circular vault, the external walls did not need to be continued 
solid above the springing of the vault, as the ends of the rafters 
exerted little thrust ; hence this portion was arcaded, the arches 
being connected with the extrados of the vault, giving a deep 
shadow in an appropriate position (Nos. 104 and 105 b). This 
arcading, from being used merely in this position, came to be 
employed, in every possible part of the building, as a decorative 
feature, so that it even entirely covered the western facade. 
Similarly in the later Gothic periods in England, the battlemented 
parapet, primarily of use for defence at the top of the building, was 
employed as a decorative feature on window transoms and other 

The Palazzi Farsetti and Loredan, and the Fondaco dei 
Turchi, a great warehouse on the Grand Canal, used in the Eastern 
trade, are well-known examples at Venice, in which are found 
the characteristic cubiform capital, carrying semicircular arches 
which are often stilted. 

The Campanili, or bell towers, are important features of the 
period. They were not joined structurally with the church to which 
they belonged, as in England, France, ana* Germany, but were 
placed at some little distance, and sometimes connected with the 
main building by cloisters (No. 96). 

These campanili occur in most of the North Italian towns, and 
in many cases are rather civic monuments than integral portions 
of the churches near which they are situated, as that of S. Mark, 
Venice. In these cases they were erected as symbols of power, 
or commemorative monuments, being similar in purpose to the 
civic towers of Belgium (page 390). 

In plan they are always square, and have no projecting but- 
tresses, as in countries north of the Alps, being treated as plainly 
as possible, without breaks, and with only sufficient windows to 


admit light to the internal staircase, or sloping way ; the windows 
increase in number from one in the lowest story to five or more 
in the uppermost story, which is thus practically an open loggia, 
and the whole is generally crowned with a pyramidal shaped 
roof, as is the Campanile of S. Zenone, Verona, which is typical 
(No. 96). 

For comparative table of Italian Romanesque, see page 242. 


" Therein be neither stones nor sticks, 
Neither red nor white bricks ; 
But for cubits five or six, 
There is most goodly sardonyx, 
And amber laid in rows." 


i. Geographical. — Being situated centrally in the Mediter- 
ranean sea, and being of triangular form, Sicily presents one side 
to Greece, another to Italy, and the third to North Africa, and 
its history is a record of the successive influences of the powers 
to whom these countries belonged. 

ii. Geological. — The deposits of sulphur contributed to the 
wealth and prosperity of the island, while the mountains afforded 
an abundant supply of a calcareous and shelly limestone, which 
influenced its architectural character. 

iii. Climate. — The climate of South Italy and Sicily is almost 
sub-tropical, for palms grow in the open air, and there are cele- 
brated orange and lemon groves near Palermo. On the south- 
eastern coast of Italy the towns have the general characteristics 
of Oriental cities, the buildings having flat roofs and other Eastern 

iv. Religion. — In Sicily, owing to Mahometan influence, the 
facades were ornamented with intricate geometrical patterns, which 
were invented because the Mahometan religion forbade the 
representation of the human figure (page 654). 

v. Social and Political. — The Mahometans introduced into 
Sicily valuable commercial products, such as grain and cotton. 
Their civilization was, however, considerably aided by the previous 
Byzantine influences. Southern Italy has always maintained a 
close connection with Sicily, and has yet to be fully explored for 
traces of its architectural development. 

vi. Historical.— In a.d. 827 the Mahometans landed in Sicily, 
and gradually overran the whole island, and the latter part of the 
tenth century was the most prosperous period of their sway. 
Sanguinary struggles amongst certain sects led to the insurrec- 
tion of several cities, and hastened the downfall of the Mahometan 
dynasty. From 1061-1090 the Normans, under Robert and 


Roger de Hauteville, conquered the island, and a descendant of 
the latter was crowned at Palermo, 1 1 30. During this period Sicily 
prospered, and her fleet defeated the Arabs and Greeks, but civil 
wars as to the right of succession led to the island passing in 
1268 to Louis of Anjou. 


The change from the Byzantine to the Mahometan dominion, 
and from the latter to the Norman in the eleventh century is- 
traceable. Byzantine influence is shown in the plans of certain 
churches, as in the Church of the Martorana at Palermo, where 
a square space is covered by a dome supported on four free- 
standing columns. 

Mahometan influence is evident, particularly in the decorative 
parts of churches, as mentioned above. 

Architecture developed considerably under the Norman rule by 
the erection of cathedrals, and a school of mosaic was maintained 
in the Royal Palace during this period. 

The churches have either wooden roofs, or a Byzantine dome, 
but are hardly ever vaulted. Dark and light stone was used in 
courses externally, and rich mosaics and colored marbles were 
employed as a facing internally. The architectural features of 
the interiors, of which Monreale Cathedral (No. 97) has typical 
examples, were subordinate to the mosaic decorations which 
clothe the walls. 


Monreale Cathedral (begun 1174, No. 97), on the high 
ground to the south-west 01 Palermo, illustrates mixed Byzantine 
and Mahometan influences. In plan it resembles a Roman basilica, 
with apses at the eastern end of nave and aisles, the choir being 
raised above the nave. The nave columns have well carved 
capitals of Byzantine form, supporting pointed arches, which are 
square in section, and not in recessed planes as in northern 
work. Pointed windows without tracery occur in the aisles. 
The walls are ornamented with mosaics in color, representing 
scenes from biblical history, surrounded by arabesque borders. 
A dado, about 12 feet high, of slabs of white marble, is bordered 
by inlaid patterns in colored porphyries. The open timber roofs, 
intricate in design, are decorated in color in the Mahometan 
style. The interior is solemn and grand, the decoration being 
marked by severity, and by great richness in the material 
employed. The low, oblong, crowning lantern, the early bronze 
doors, and rich cloisters, are notable. 

The Capella Palatina, Palermo (1132) (in the Royal Palace), 

F.A. R 


was the model for Monreale Cathedral, and though of small size, is 
unrivalled for richness of the effect of the mosaics. It has a 
richly treated ceiling of stalactite forms. 

S. Giovanni degli Eremiti (1132) and the Martorana 
Church (11 1 3- 1 143) are other examples at Palermo which show 
the blending of Saracenic and Byzantine ideas. 

S. Nicolo, Bari (1197), is a good and typical example of the 
churches of Southern Italy which are small in comparison with 
their northern contemporaries. The entrance front is always 
distinguished by a projecting porch, with the columns resting 
on lions' backs, supporting a projecting roof, above which is the 
characteristic wheel-window. The detail of these buildings is 
always refined and graceful, which may be due to some extent to 
the Greek descent of the inhabitants of this part of Italy. The 
crypts are a special feature, that at Otranto being noteworthy for 
the numerous points of support employed to carry the choir. 


Central, North, and South. 

a. Plans . — The plans of most of the churches were substantially 
the same as the basilicas, more especially in Central Italy ; in the 
North the churches are mostly vaulted, modifications being intro- 
duced on the lines of German work ; in the South, the low lanterns 
at the crossing, oblong in plan, are marked features, as at 
Monreale Cathedral (No. 97). The choir was occasionally raised 
to admit of a crypt beneath, reached by steps from the nave. 
A number of circular examples were built mainly as baptisteries, 
that at Novara being connected to the cathedral by an atrium. 
There is a fine atrium at S. Ambrogio, Milan. In the North 
the open arcades of the apses seen in conjunction with 
the usual arcaded octagonal lantern at the crossing, constitute 
the charm of the style. Projecting porches were preferred to 
recessed doorways, and are bold open- arched structures, often of 
two stories, resting on isolated columns, and placed on huge 
semi-grotesque lions, having a symbolic character. Towers, as at 
Piacenza and S. Zenone, Verona (No. 96), are detached, being 
straight shafts without buttresses or spires, which, when occurring, 
can be traced to German influence. 

b. Walls. — The flat blind arcades of the northern style were 
developed by the Pisan (Central) architects in their galleried 
facades. The west front, including the aisles, was carried up to 
a flat gable, with arcading following the rake, and other arcades 
carried across in bands. The Northern facades are flatter, and 
sometimes have a large circular window to light the nave. In 
the South this feature is highly elaborated with wheel tracery, as 




in the churches at Palermo. Flank walls are occasionally 
decorated by flat pilaster strips, connected horizontally by small 
„ , arches, springing from corbels (No. 98 c). 

^ \ \ c. Openings. — In consequence of the bright climate the 

* \ openings are small (No. 98 a), and opaque decoration was 

* >* - L preferred to translucent. Window tracery was not developed. 
The wheel windows (No. 96) just described are only rudimentary 
in pattern, attention being chiefly bestowed upon their decoration, 
as in the rich carving of the Palermo examples. 

d. Roofs. — Where round-arched cross vaulting, or simple 
barrel vaults, were not employed, the timber roofs of the basilican 
style often effectively decorated with color were used. In the 
southern examples, domes rather than vaults were attempted, but 
timber roofs are the rule in Palermo and Monreale (No. 97), and, 
owing to Mahometan influence, great richness in timber ceilings 
was attained. 

The nave roofs of Italian churches continued to be constructed 
of wood with flat ceilings till the thirteenth century. Plain 
groined vaults of small span were common and divided into 
compartments by flat bands, a practice which was continued in 
the Gothic period. 

e. Columns. — Piers with half shafts were employed rather than 
columns, #specially in the North, where vaulting was more in 
use, but coupled and grouped shafts were seldom properly 
developed in relation to the vaulting ribs. Buttressing was 
obtained by means of the division walls between an outer range 
of chapels, more often than not unmarked on the exterior. In 
Central Italy, as at Toscanella, rude Corinthian columns carry 
a round-arched arcade, above which the plain walls are pierced, 
by the small arched openings of the clerestory, while the roof is 
of the simple basilican type. No. 98 j — m, show typical capitals. 

f. Mouldings. — Flat bands are characteristic of the Northern 
style. Strings were formed by small arches, connecting one 
pilaster strip to another. Rude imitations of old Classical detail 
are met with. Southern work is far superior in detail, often 
possessing good outline, grace, and elegance. Richness and 
elaboration were attempted in the doorways (No. 94 h, j). 

g. Ornament (No. 98). — Roughly carved grotesques of men 
and animals (No. 98 e, f), vigorous hunting scenes, and incidents 
of daily life are found in Northern sculpture. In Central Italy 
greater elegance is displayed, and Classic models were copied. 
The rows of apostles on the lintels of the doorways, as at Pistoia, 
are similar in treatment to Byzantine ivories. 

In Southern examples, bronze doors are a feature, as at Monreale 
Cathedral. Elaborate decoration in mosaic exists as in the 
Palermo churches and elsewhere (No. 98 h), and the use of color 
was the main object in the design of the interiors. 



Cattaneo (R.).— " Architecture in Italy from the Vlth to the Xlth 
Centuries." Translated from the Italian. 1896. 

Cresy and Taylor.—" Pisa." 4to. 1829. 

Dartein (F. de). — " Etude sur T Architecture Lombarde." 2 vols., folio. 
Paris, 1 865-1882. 

Delhi (A. J.) and Chamberlin (G. H.). — "Norman Antiquities of 
Palermo and Environs." Folio. Boston, 1892. 

Gravina (D. D. B.). — " II Duomo di Monreale." 2 vols., large folio. 
Palermo, 1859. 

Griiner (L.).— " Terra-Cotta Architecture of North Italy." 4to. 1867. 

Hittorff (J. I.) et Zanth (C. L. W.).—" Architecture Antique de la 
Sicile." Folio. Paris, 1827. 

Knight. — " Normans in Sicily." 8vo. 1838. 

Knight (H. G.). — " Saracenic and Norman Remains to Illustrate the 
Normans in Sicily." Folio. 1830. 

Rohault de Fleury. — "Monuments de Pise au Moyen Age." 2 vols., 
folio and 4to. Paris, 1866. 

Osten (F.). — " Die Bauwerke in der Lombardei vom 7 bis 14 
Jahrhunderts." Folio. Darmstadt, 1846- 1854. 

Salazaro (D.). — "Studi sui Monumenti della Italia meridioni dal lV e al 
XIII* Secolo." 2 vols., folio. Napoli, 1871-1877. 

Schulz (H. W.) — "Denkmaeler der Kunst des Mittelalters in Unter- 
italien.'' 3 vols., folio and 4to. Dresden, i860. 

Street (G. E.).— " Brick and Marble Architecture of North Italy." 8vo. 

Harrison (F.). — " Theophano." (Historical Novel). 



11 How reverend is the face of this tall pile, 
Whose ancient pillars rear their marble heads 
To bear aloft its arched and ponderous roof, 
By its own weight made steadfast and immoveable 
Looking tranquillity. It strikes an awe 
And terror on the aching sight." — Congreve. 


i. Geographical. — France is practically on the high road 
between the south and north of Europe, and the relative position 
of each district influenced the various prevailing types of archi- 
tecture. When Rome was a great power it was by way of Provence 
and the Rhone valley that civilization spread ; hence the strong 
classical element which is there prevalent. The trade with 
Venice and the East introduced to the district of Perigueux a 
version of the Byzantine style in stone. 

ii. Geological. — France is exceedingly rich in building 
materials, especially stone, of which most of the towns are built. 
The soft, fine-grained stone of Caen, used throughout Normandy, 
was also exported to England. In the volcanic district of 
Auvergne walling was executed in a curious inlay of colored 

iii. Climate.— In France there are three climates — (a.) the 
north resembles that of the south of England ; (b.) the west on 
the Atlantic coasts is warmer, owing to the Gulf Stream and warm 
S.W. winds ; (r.) the south, on the Mediterranean, with a landscape 
almost African in its aspect, is sub-tropical. 

iv. Religion. — Christianity, when introduced, took a strong 
hold in the Rhone Valley, Lyons contributing martyrs to the 
cause. In this district the most interesting event was the rise of 
the Cistercians (page 219), the severity of whose rules as to 
church building, caused a reaction from the decorative character 
of the later Romanesque, as in the fa£ades of S. Gilles, and 
of S. Trophlme, Aries. Attention was then concentrated upon 


the means of producing grand and severe effects, and the change 
to the pointed style was promoted, by the effort to solve the 
problems of vaulting. 

v. Social and Political. — Hugh Capet ascended the Prankish 
throne towards the close of the tenth century, Paris being made 
the capital of the kingdom. At this period the greater part of the 
country was held by independent lords, and the authority of the 
king extended little beyond Paris and Orleans. Lawlessness 
and bloodshed were rife throughout the century, hence archi- 
tectural progress was impossible until a more settled state of 
society was established. 

vi. Historical. — On the death of Charlemagne, Northern 
France was invaded by the Northmen, from whom Normandy 
was named, and their ruler Rollo was the ancestor of the Norman 
kings of England. The conquest of England in 1 066 marked the 
transference of the most vigorous of the Normans to England, 
Normandy becoming an English province until the time of King 
John. The hold, however, which they retained on their possessions 
m France was the cause of continual invasions and wars in the 
two countries, until the complete fusion of races in both was 
marked by the loss of the English possessions in France. 


The southern style is remarkable for its rich decorative facades 
and graceful cloisters, the buildings of Provence being a new 
version of old Roman features, which seem to have acquired a 
fresh significance. 

In Aquitania and Anjou the vast interiors in one span, supported 
by the massive walls of the recessed chapels, are impressive, and 
seem to revive the great halls of the Roman Thermae. In the 
north the style is the promising commencement of a new epoch, 
having the first tentative essays of a new system. The interiors 
were close set with pier and pillar, and heavily roofed with 
ponderous arching, forming a link to the marvellous structures of 
the next three centuries, where matter is lost in the emotions 

The plain thick walls, usually with flat external buttresses in 
the north or internal buttresses in the south, emphasized the rich- 
ness of the west fronts of the churches in both districts. 

The development of vaulting, which was different in the north 
and south (page 223), made much progress, especially along the 
Loire Valley. In the south, naves were covered with barrel vaults, 
whose thrust was resisted by half barrel vaults, over two-storied 
aisles (No. 100 b), thus suppressing the clerestory, as at Notre 
Dame du Port, Clermont-Ferrand. 

In the north, naves were covered by groined vaults, often in 



France exhibits several varieties of the Romanesque style, in 
which different peculiarities are traceable, and for this reason 
it may be divided into southern and northern provinces, the 
main dividing line being the Loire. 

The influence of Roman remains was naturally greatest in the 
parts where they more particularly occur, as at Nimes, Aries, 
and Orange, and other places in the Rhone Valley. 

The South of France may be roughly divided into the provinces 
of Aquitania, Auvergne, Provence, Anjou and Burgundy. 

Aquitania has two distinct styles, the first having round- 
arched tunnel* vaults, and the second having domes spheroidal in 
shape, elongated upwards and supported on pointed arches, indi- 
cating an eastern influence. S. Sernin, Toulouse, is an example of the 
first type. S. Front, Perigueux (a.d. 1120) (No. 84), an example 
of the second type, is due to a large trade with Byzantium. 
It is a Greek cross on plan, and closely resembles S. Mark, 
Venice (page 208). The illustration (No. 84 b) shows the 
arches supporting the domes as pointed, but they have latterly 
been made semicircular. Attached to the church is a magnificent 
campanile in stone, consisting of a square shaft, surmounted by 
a circular ring of columns, carrying a conical dome. S. Front 
acted as a prototype of churches with cupolas in France. 

Angouleme Cathedral (No. 100 e, f, g) is of the second type, 
but has a long aisleless nave with transepts provided with lateral 
chapels and an apsidal choir with four chapels, forming a Latin 
cross on plan. The nave is covered with four stone domes, that 
over the crossing being carried above the roof and having 
a stone lantern. Both transepts were originally crowned with 
towers, but the southern one was destroyed in 1568. 

Cakors Cathedral (a.d. 1 050-1 100) is an imitation of S. Irene 
at Constantinople (page 204). 

Auvergne being a volcanic district, the geological influence is 
frequently apparent, the buildings having a local character 
imparted to them by the inlaid decoration formed of different 
colored lavas, as at Notre Dame du Port, Clermont-Ferrand, and the 
Church at Issoire, 

Provence has numerous remains of the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, in many of which pointed tunnel-vaults were used, all 
showing Classical influence, as at Notre Dame, Avignon. The 
portals of 5. Trophime, Arks (No. 102), and the Church at 
5. Gilles, exhibit great richness of effect and beauty of detail. 
The cloisters, consisting of columns, used in couples in the depth 


of the wall, and carrying semicircular arches, are specially 
interesting. The columns have deep capitals sculptured with 
sharp and distinctive foliage (No. 103 d, e) and support semi- 
circular arches, which are left entirely open, no attempt at tracery 
filling being made. 

Anjou has many examples rich in decorative treatment, as 
Notre Dame la Grande, Poitiers. The Abbey of Fontetrault 
(a.d. 1101-1119) resembled Angouleme Cathedral in its aisleless 
nave and general arrangement. 

Burgundy was specially rich in monastic establishments 
which influenced the architectural treatment of the churches, 
many of which have been destroyed. The great Abbey -Church of 
Cluny (1089-1131) was the most famous in this province and was 
the longest in France, with double side aisles to the main body of 
the church, and a chevet of five apsidal chapels. The pointed 
arch was employed in the arcade of the nave, which was covered 
with a great barrel-vault, and the aisles probably had groined 

Autun Cathedral (1090-1132) is an example of the aisleless 
churches which are found in various parts of France. 

The Church at Vezelay (a.d. iioo), and that at Vienm are other 
interesting examples, the former having a groined vault instead of 
the longitudinal barrel-vault. 

Tournus Abbey Church is an interesting example in which arches 
spanning the nave from pier to pier support transverse vaults, 
under which windows were formed in the nave walls. 

The North of France comprises the provinces of Central France, 
with Paris as the radiating centre, and the provinces of Normandy 
and Brittany. 

Normandy possesses many fine examples of this period 
owing to its prosperity and the power of the Norman dukes. 
These examples are of the vaulted basilican type, which was being 
developed towards the complete Gothic of the thirteenth century. 

The city of Caen possesses a number of examples illustrating 
the difficulties of vaulting, which ultimately led to the introduction 
of the pointed arch. 

The Abbaye-aux-Hommes (5. Etienne), Caen (Nos. 100-101), 
commenced a.d. 1066 by William the Conqueror, in expiation 
of having married Matilda in spite of their close relationship, 
is the best known example. The plan seems to have been 
founded on the Romanesque church of Spires (Germany). It 
had originally an eastern apse, but this was superseded later by 
the characteristic chevet (No. 101). The west end is flanked by 
two square towers crowned by octagonal spires with angle 
pinnacles, this facade being a prototype of the Gothic schemes to 
follow. The vaulting illustrates the difficulties of spanning oblong 
compartments without the aid of the pointed arch. Two bays 


of the nave are comprised under one vaulting compartment, 
which thus being approximately square, the rise of the transverse, 
diagonal, and wall ribs is nearly equal. This resulted in a 
system known as sexpartite vaulting (page 225) (Nos. 100 c, d, 
112 e, f), which, however, was superseded immediately on the 
introduction of the pointed arch, when each compartment, what- 
ever its shape, could be vaulted without reference to the neigh- 
bouring one, because the difference between the width of the nave 
and the distance longitudinally between the piers could be easily 
surmounted by pointed arches of different radius manipulated so 
as to equalize the height of the ribs. 

The Abbaye-aux- Dames (La Trinite), Caen (a.d. 1083) (No. 99), 
in which the progress of intersecting vaulting is seen, the Church 
of S. Nicholas, Caen (a.d. 1084), and the Abbey Church of Mont 
S. Michel (since restored), are notable examples. 

The Abbey of S. Denis, near Paris, was erected by the great 
building abbot, Abbe Suger, in 1144, anc ^ * ne ch°i r an ^ west front 
still remain as left by him, although a fourteenth century nave has 
been wedged between them. 


a. Plans. — In the south, internal buttresses, inclosing the 
outer range of chapels, were preferred, as at Vienne cathedral. 
Round churches are rare in this district. Towers are detached, 
resembling Italian Campanili. Cloisters were treated with the 
utmost elaboration and richness, usually having double columns 
with magnificent capitals which receive the round arches of the 
narrow bays, and were left entirely open, as glazing or tracery 
were not required by the climate. 

In the north, the increasing demand for vaulted interiors 
modified the planning, and the vaulting ribs were provided 
with individual shafts, which developed the pier plans. In the 
setting out of the bays important changes were introduced, 
thus in early plans the naves were vaulted in square bays com- 
prising two aisle bays longitudinally (No. 100), but on the intro- 
duction of the pointed arch each oblong bay of the nave formed a 
vaulting compartment corresponding in length to each aisle bay. 

b. Walls. — Massiveness is the characteristic of all the early 
work. Walls were of rubble with facing stones. Elaboration was 
reserved for doorways in the arcaded lower portion of the facades, 
which are often models of simplicity and richness. Buttresses 
are often mere strips of slight projection (No. 99), and the facades 
were arranged in stories, with window lights in pairs or groups. 
Flying buttresses, admitting of high clerestories with windows 
lighting the nave, were introduced between a.d. 1 150-1200. The 
towers are mostly square with pyramidal roofs (Nos. 99 and 101). 


The Abbaye-aux-Hommes (S. Etienne), Caen. 
View of East End. 


c. Openings. — The earlier vaulted churches have no clerestory. 
In the south, narrow openings with wide splays to admit light 
sufficed, while in the north a commencement in grouping was 
made, more especially in the direction of filling in the vault 
spandrels of the clerestory with arrangements of three and five 
light openings. The ante-chapels at the Church at Vezelay 
(1130) are generally referred to as having the earliest pointed 
vaults in France. Imposing western entrances are characteristic 
of this period. 

d. Roofs. — In the south, the early treatment was a tunnel vault 
to the nave, buttressed by half tunnels over the aisles, often in 
two stories, thus not admitting of a clerestory. The pointed 
section was sometimes used, doubtless to lessen the thrust upon 
the walls, and in order that the roofing slabs of stone might be 
carried direct upon the extrados of the vault. In the north, 
clerestories of increased height were obtained by means of the 
intersecting nave vaults (No. 100), with groin ribs (introduced 
in the twelfth century), whose thrust was taken by buttress arches 
concealed in the aisle roofs — a step towards the later flying but- 
tresses. The vault in the southern examples frequently supports 
the roofing slabs direct, while in the northern examples above the 
stone vault were constructed wooden roofs, which supported the 
covering independent of the vault. 

e. Columns. — In nave arcades, either square piers, recessed 
in planes, and having upon their faces half round shafts carried 
up to the vaulting ribs (No. 103 m-p), were employed, or columns, 
circular or octagonal, and reminiscent of Roman times, were 
used, and then the vaulting shafts start awkwardly from the 
abacus of their huge capitals (No. 103 d, e), imitated from the 
Corinthian order. The carrying up of the vaulting shafts 
emphasizes the division of the nave into bays. 

f. Mouldings. — In the south, the elegance due to classic 
tradition contrasts with the rough axed decoration cut upon the 
structural features of the Norman work. In the latter, arched 
jambs are formed in recessed planes (No. 102), with nook shafts 
plainly fluted, or cut with zigzags. Capitals are cubical blocks, 
either plain or carved with copies of acanthus leaves from old 
Roman examples (No. 103). Corbel tables, supported by plain 
blocks or grotesque heads, form the cornices of the walls 
(No. 103 b, g, j). 

g. Ornament. — Painted glass was not favoured in southern 
examples, small, clear-glazed openings being employed to set off 
the opaque color decoration of the walls. Stained glass favouring 
large openings was gradually developed in the north. The diaper 
work so common in the spandrels of arches, in northern work is 
supposed to have arisen from the imitation, in carving, of the 
color pattern work, or draperies that originally occupied the 



Fi^EXCH 5::i£AXE?-\/ E. 257 

same positions. Firn^e s*-£i*nxre was rD:<re if eruently cmpl-. \ed 
in the southern biiiliiz^rs X:- zz*2 . 

The West Fronts :»f tbe cr^rrhts :.f the Charerte District in 
Aquitania were eIar»:*rait:lT trea: tc m^:r carved om^Tien: repre- 
senting foliage or tiroes za mec and animals- On the cr^'und 
story the capitals so treaitd, were often c:.r-tir:ned as a rich, bread 

McGibbon D. - — "*The Archhectue of Provence and the Riviera.* 
8vo. 1888. 

Pugin 'A. W. and Le Reus. — -Architectural ArjV:q-j:tjes of Normandy/ 
4 to. 1828. 

Ramee D. . — ~Hisioire de 1" Architecture."" 2 \ol>.. Svo. Tans, i$~o, 

Revoil (H. .— - Architecture Romane da Miiii de ia France."* 5 vols*, 
folio. Paris. 1S64-1&73. 

Ruprich- Robert V. . — ~ L" Architecture Normande aux Xle et XI lc 
siecles." 2 vols., foiio. Paris. 1885- iS>7. 

Sharpe / Edmund . — " 4 The Domed Churches of Charente." 4to, iSS.:. 

Spiers R. Phene . — *"S<±int Front of Perigueux and the Homed 
Churches of Perigordand La ^hareme." R.I.B.A. journal, February <x\ 

Thiollier (X- and F. . — " L architecture reiigieuse a lepoque romane 
dans lancien diocese du Puy.* ? Foiio. Le Puy, 1900. 

Verneilh 1 F. de). — ** L'Architeclure Bvzamin en France/* 4to. Paris, 
1 85 1. 

Viol let-Ie- Due. — ** Dictionnaire de 1* Architecture.** 10 vols.. S\o, 
Paris, 1859. A translation of the article "Construction" has been 
published under the title of ** Rational Building," by G. M.* Huss. $\o* 
New York, 1895. 

Yonge (C. M.) — "Richard the Fearless ** (Historical Novel), 



" Both the Castell and the Toure 
And eke the hall and every boure, 
Without peeces or joynings, 
But many subtle com passings 
As babeuries and pinnacles 
Imageries and tabernacles 
I saw, and eke full of windows 
As flakes fallen in great snowes." — Chaucer. 


i. Geographical. — On the banks of the Rhine, and in the 
south, cities had been established during the Roman occupation, 
and it was in these parts that Christianity took root, while, in 
the north and east, paganism still existed. 

ii. Geological. — The existence of stone in the Rhine valley 
facilitated the erection in this material of churches, rendered 
permanent and fireproof by the early introduction of vaulting. 
No stone being found on the sandy plains of Northern Germany, 
brick was there employed, and the style of that district is conse- 
quently varied from that of the Rhine valley. 

iii. Climate. — The average temperature of Central Germany 
may be said to be the same as Southern England, but with wider 
extremes, as the heat in the summer is ten degrees higher, and 
in the winter correspondingly lower, so that carriages in Berlin 
are converted into sledges. 

iv. Religion. — In the early period the Germans looked much 
to Rome, and Charlemagne, being a strong supporter of Christi- 
anity, forced the people of Saxony to embrace that religion. The 
plan of a typical church of this period is peculiar in having 
eastern and western apses. There are also a number of import- 
ant circular churches, built as tombs, or more especially as 
baptisteries, the conversion of the tribes giving great importance 
to that ceremony. 

v. Social and Political. — Germany united under Charle- 
magne afterwards split up into small principalities, whereas 
France, originally divided into many distinct nationalities, 
became fused into an absolute monarchy and has remained, in 


spite of all changes, the most united of continental powers. In 
the later portion of this period, Germany was troubled by the 
dissensions of the two rival parties, the Guelphs and Ghibellines, 
the one supporting the Church and municipal rights, and the 
other representing the Imperial authority, but the conflict between ' 
the two took place mainly in North Italy (page 405). 

vi. Historical.— Charlemagne (a.d. 768-814), the first Frankish 
king who became Roman Emperor, was crowned by the Pope at 
Rome, and ruled over the land of the Franks, which included all 
Central Germany and Northern Gaul. In addition he established 
the Frankish dominion over Southern Gaul and Northern Italy 
(No. 90). In a great measure, he restored the arts and civiliza- 
tion to Western Europe, resulting in the erection of many 
important buildings in his dominions. 

On Charlemagne's death in a.d. 814 this empire crumbled to 
pieces through internal wars, and in the unsettled state of the 
country, the German princes pushed themselves into prominence 
by demanding the right to elect their own sovereign — Conrad 
the First, reigning as King of Germany at the beginning of the 
tenth century. His successor, Otho, extending the boundary of 
the German Empire southwards into Lombardy, was crowned 
Emperor of the West at Rome, an event which shows the leading 
position of the Frankish emperors at the period, and was not 
without its influence on the architecture of these regions. The 
political relations of the Hohenstaufen (or Swabian) Emperors 
(a.d. 1 138-1273) with Lombardy, is evidenced in the similarity 
of the architecture of the two countries. The house of Hapsburg 
succeeded the Hohenstaufen dynasty in 1273, when French Gothic 
architecture was introduced, and henceforth copied. 


The style bears a strong resemblance to North Italian 
Romanesque, due to certain influences dealt with previously 
(page 234 and above). 

The Rhine districts possess the most fully-developed Roman- 
esque architecture, and the style has fewer local varieties than 
that of France. The plans of the churches are peculiar in having 
western and eastern apses, and no great western entrance as in 
France. The general architectural character is rich in the multi- 
plication of circular and octagonal turrets, in conjunction with 
polygonal domes, and the use of arcaded galleries under the eaves. 
The most richly ornamented parts are the doorways and capitals, 
which are bold and effective in execution. 

Vaulting appears to have been first adopted in the Rhenish 
churches some fifty years after its general adoption in France. 

s 2 


104. Church oi' thk Apostles, Cologne. 

View of Apse. 


The Germans may claim to be the inventors of the Lombardian 
or North Italian Romanesque, and their round arched style lasted 
till about 1268. 


Saxony and the Rhine valley are specially rich in Romanesque 
examples, and few works of importance were erected elsewhere 
till the Gothic period. Gernrode Abbey Church (958-1050), 
and S. Godehard, Hildesheim (1133), are of the basilican 
type with triple eastern apses. 

The Monastery of S. Gall (circa a.d. 820) in Switzerland 
(page 276), of which a complete plan was found in the seventeenth 
century, is an interesting and typical example of a German 
Benedictine monastery of the period. It appears to have been 
prepared by Eginhard, Charlemagne's architect, and consisted of a 
double-apse church and cloister, abbot's lodging, school, refectory, 
dormitory, guest-house, dispensary, infirmary, orchard, cemetery, 
granaries, and bakehouses. 

The Church of the Apostles, Cologne (a.d. 1220-1250) is 
one of a series in that city which possesses characteristic features 
(Nos. 104 and 105 a, b, c). In plan it consists of a broad nave, 
and of aisles half the width of the nave. The eastern portion has 
three apses, opening from three sides of the central space, crowned 
by a low octagonal tower, giving richness and importance to this 
portion of the church. The grouping externally is effective, the 
face of the wall being divided up by arcading, and crowned with 
the characteristic row of small arches under the eaves of the roof. 
The bold dignity of this church may be compared with the con- 
fused effect of the French chevet, as S. Etienne, Caen (No. 101). 

S. Maria im Capitol (ninth century), S. Martin (a.d. 1150- 
1170), and S. Cunibert, are other examples of triapsal churches 
for which the city of Cologne is famous. 

Worms Cathedral (11 10- 1200) (Nos. 105 and 106) vies with 
those of Mayence (a.d. 1036), Treves (a.d. 1047), and Spires 
(a.d. 1030), as the representative cathedral of this period. As 
usual (Nos. 105 d, e, f, g), the vaulting of one bay of the nave 
corresponds with two of the aisles, both being covered with cross 
vaults. Twin circular towers flank the eastern and western apses, 
and the crossing of the nave and transept is covered with a low 
octagonal tower, having a pointed roof. The entrances were placed 
at the side, a position which found favour in Germany as well 
as in England. The facades have semicircular headed windows, 
framed in with flat pilaster strips as buttresses. 

Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral (No. 83 e, f), built a.d. 768-814 
by the Emperor Charlemagne as a royal tomb-house for 
himself, is interesting as resembling S. Vitale, Ravenna 



(No. 83 c, d). A short description is given on No. 83. The 
building has been much altered since the time of Charlemagne, 
for the Gothic choir was added in 1353 to 141 3, and the gables and 
roof of the octagon are of the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
The chapels surrounding the structure are of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, and the western tower has been added in 
recent years. The building is of interest, historically, as the 
crowning place of the Western Emperors. 

Laach Abbey Church (a.d. 1093-1156) is a Benedictine 
example built completely in this style. On either side of the 
western apse, which is used as a tomb- house, are the principal 
entrances from the western atrium, and there are three eastern 
apses. The vaulting-bays of the nave and aisles are of similar 

Lubeck Cathedral (a.d. 1173), is a type of brick architecture 
peculiar to North Germany ; but the choir and aisles were not 
added till a.d. 1335 (page 398). 

Germany is remarkable for a series of double or two-storied 
churches, generally attached to castles, as at Nuremberg, Lands- 
berg, and Steinfurt. In these it is held that the upper chapel was 
used by the Prince and his personal retinue, and the lower by his 
retainers, but in some instances the upper church would appear 
to have been provided in case of floods. 


a. Plans. — The naves and aisles are vaulted in square bays, 
one vaulting bay of the nave being equal to two of the aisles, as 
in the plan of Worms Cathedral (No. 105 g), and the Church of 
the Apostles, Cologne (No. 105 c). 

The choir is always apsidal, and often raised, as in Lombardy, 
to admit of crypts beneath. Western as well as eastern transepts 
occur, contrasting in this respect with Italian examples, and over 
the crossing a tower, sometimes octagonal (No. 106), is generally 
found. Western apses are frequent (No. 105 g), as at Treves 
and the Abbey Church at Laach, and apses also occur at the 
ends of transepts, as in the Church of the Apostles at Cologne 
(No. 105 c). 

Numerous towers, either square, circular, or polygonal, pro- 
ducing a rich and varied outline, were employed, two being usually 
at the east end flanking the apse, and two at the west end, con- 
nected by a gallery (Nos. 106 and 107 g). The towers rise in 
successive stories, and a characteristic finish consists of four 
gables and a steep roof, a hip rafter rising from each gable top 
(No. 107 g). 

b. Walls. — The blank walls are cut up by flat pilaster strips, 
connected horizontally by ranges of small arches springing from 



corbels (Nos. 105 d and 107 e). Owing to the smallness of scale 
this favourite feature may be considered as a string course or 

Open arcades, the origin of which have already been dealt 
with (page 237), occur under the eaves of roofs, especially round 
the apses (Nos. 104 and 106). The churches have sometimes a 
triforium and always a clerestory. 

c. Openings. — No tendency towards tracery is found. The 
windows are usually single, being rarely grouped (No. 106). 
The doorways (Nos. 105 and 107 n) are placed at the side, rarely 
in the west front or transept ends. 

d. Roofs. — In the Rhine district a central semicircular barrel 
vault was supported by half-barrel vaults over the aisles, a system 
which led by degrees to complete Gothic vaulting. Timber roofs 
were also employed for large spans. Tower roofs, and spires of 
curious form, are a special feature of the style. A gable on each 
tower face, with high pitched intersecting roofs (No. 107 g), is 
common, the latter being formed by the intersections of the planes 
between the adjacent sides of adjoining gables forming a pyramid, 
being a step in the evolution of spire growth. 

e. Columns. — The nave arcades were generally constructed of 
square piers, with half columns attached, and the alternation of 
piers and columns is a favourite German feature. The capitals 
(No. 107 c, d, f, h), though bold in execution, are well designed, 
being superior to the later Gothic examples. 

f. Mouldings (see Walls). — These are as a rule of indifferent 
design, but the capitals and bases take a distinctive form, leading 
from Roman through Romanesque to Gothic. 

g. Ornament. — Internally the flat plain surfaces were occa- 
sionally decorated in fresco, and the traditions and examples of 
the early Christian and Byzantine mosaic decorations, were 
carried on in color. In the north colored bricks were used, and 
were unsuitable for rich decoration, thus accounting for the 
absence of sculptured foliage. 


Boisser^e (S.). — " Denkmale der Baukunst am Nieder-Rhein." Folio. 
Munich, 1844. 

M oiler (G.). — '" Denkmaeler der Deutschen Baukunst." Folio. Leipzig, 

Hardy (A. S.).— " Passe Rose" (Historical Novel). 




i. Geographical,— The nations of Western Europe had come 
into existence, Germany was the centre of the Western Empire 
and the Kingdoms of France, Italy and Spain were also becoming 
strong united states. Russia, Sweden and Norway had little to 
do with Western Europe. England had become thoroughly united 
under the Norman Kings. The map (No. 10S} gives the general 
distribution of the various countries in the thirteenth century. 

ii. Geological. — Refer to each country. 

iii. Climate.— Refer to each country. It has been pointed 
out that the sun, in Northern Europe, is more suitable for Gothic 
than Classic Architecture, for it is a sun wheeling somewhat low on 
an average round the sky, and shadows are better caught by out- 
standing buttresses and the flying lateral members of a Gothic 

style peculiar (o each country, a 


facade, than by the level lines of the heavy horizontal Classic 
cornices, which are more effective, under the Grecian or Italian 
sun, which moves higher in the firmament. 

Snow and inclement weather were responsible for the high 
pitched Gothic roof of Northern Europe. 

iv. Religion. — Introductory remarks and a description of the 
various order of monks are given on page 218. The immense 
power of the Popes, which was probably at its height in the 
thirteenth century, was evidenced in the way they made and 
unmade Emperors and Kings and disposed of their dominions. 
The clergy, in consequence of their learning, also took a pro- 
minent part in temporal affairs, and by so doing attracted wealth 
and power to their orders. In Germany, many of the Abbots 
and Bishops were princes of the Empire, and the Archbishops 
of Cologne, Treves, and Mayence were among the Electors of 
the Emperor. The worship of relics, and of local saints (as S. Hugh 
at Lincoln, S. Thomas at Canterbury, S. Swithun at Winchester), 
the periodical pilgrimages, the adoration of the Virgin Mary and 
other forms of ritual, also had their influence on the monuments. 
Mariolatry was responsible for the addition of lady chapels either 
laterally, as at Ely (No. 117 a), or at the eastern extremity, as 
at Salisbury (No. 117 e). The demand for chapels dedicated to 
particular saints, for an ambulatory to be used for processional 
purposes, and the foundation of chantry chapels where masses 
for the dead could be repeated, also affected the general plan of 
many buildings. 

v. Social and Political. — Refer to each country. The 
growth of towns which developed into important cities brought 
about an increase of riches and the erection of magnificent build- 
ings owing to municipal rivalries. In Italy, the country was 
divided into different portions belonging to the larger towns, 
which afterwards became principalities, whereas in Germany, 
towns joined together for mutual defence, amongst the most 
famous being those forming the Hanseatic league. 

vi. Historical. — Refer to each country. 


The principles and character of Gothic architecture were similar 
throughout VVestern Europe, and are indicated on No. 109. The 
fully-developed Gothic art of the thirteenth century was the. style 
which had been slowly developing itself throughout Europe as 
a necessary sequence of Romanesque art, and is mainly recog- 
nized because of the introduction and use in door and window 
openings, arcades, vaulting and ornamentation of the pointed arch 


which, indeed, is so characteristic as to give a suggestion of height 
coinciding with the aspiring tendency of the style and its connection 
with the religious enthusiasm of the period. 

In the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries the Gothic 
masons carried to the utmost the use of stone as a building 
material, heaping it up in towers that rose on open archways 
through the lofty roofs of the naves and transepts, and tapered 
away in shell-like spires embroidered in all the fretwork of lace- 
like tracery. They hung it aloft in ponderous vaults treated by 
art to seem the gossamer web of nature, scarce capable of bearing 
the stalactite pendants in which the fancy of the fifteenth century 
found its expression, and eventually pushing their practice to 
the furthest boundaries, they cut the granular stone to the thin- 
ness of fibrous wood or iron, and revelled in tricks of construction 
and marvels of workmanship. 

The Gothic architects, developing still further the principles of 
Romanesque architecture (page 221), had to employ the materials 
at hand according, to their nature, and to seek for those laws of 
elasticity and equilibrium which were substituted for those of 
inert stability as practised by the Greeks and Romans. This 
elasticity was obtained by the employment of stone laid in 
narrow courses with tolerably thick mortar joints. 

Every vertical support in Gothic architecture depended for its 
stability on being stayed by a buttress, which in its turn was weighted 
by a pinnacle; and every arch-thrust met another which counter- 
acted it. In the case of the nave vaults, the collected pressures of 
the vaulting and roof were counteracted by arches, called flying 
buttresses, leaning against the nave wall and supported at some 
distance by massive piers, weighted with tall pinnacles (Nos. 
109 a, 141 f, g, h, and 153 a). ) Walls became mere enclosures, 
and the entire structure consisted of a framework of piers, but- 
tresses, arches, and ribbed vaulting held in equilibrium by the 
combination of oblique forces neutralizing each other (No. 141). 
Even the walls themselves were occupied principally by glazed 
windows, divided by stone mullions, having their upper parts 
designed with combinations of curves of great variety. No such 
system of construction, it is evident, could have been developed 
without the employment of such a material as stone, laid in 
tolerably small courses with mortar joints, which gave the necessary 
elasticity to the various pressures. 

* These principles led to the introduction of much novelty in 
mouldings, capitals and piers, for the numerous vaulting ribs 
being collected at intervals were supported on capitals of a shape 
formed to fit them, and these were provided with shafts, some- 
times carried on corbels and sometimes continued to the ground, 
influencing very largely the form of the nave piers. 

Further, the comparative scarcity of materials taught the Gothic 



architects to practise economy in their use, the characteristic 
mouldings of the Mediaeval period exhibiting much less waste of 
material than those common in Classic times. 

In the Middle Ages it was the constructional features them- 
selves to which an attractive form was given, and in this 
particular, the architecture of this period stands in close relation 
to Greek art. 

The same principle of truth was upheld, but the form had 
changed, and it was no longer the self-contained Greek temple, re- 
poseful in the severity of horizontal lines, but a complex, restless 
structure whose aspiring tendencies found expression in vertical 
grouping, unity being obtained by the exact and necessary 
correlation between all the parts. 

* Although many, if not most, of the architectural features were 
founded primarily on structural necessity, yet others were the 
expression of artistic invention and of aesthetic requirements. 
-•►Form, in the best types of architecture, is not the result of 
caprice, but is only the expression of the structural necessities. 
If the column is a real support and has an expanded capital it is 
for the purpose of supporting a particular load ; if the mouldings 
and ornaments have particular developments it is because they 
are necessary, and if the vaults are divided by ribs it is because 
they are so many sinews performing a necessary function. The 
spire was evolved from no utilitarian requirements, but was a 
sign of the communal spirit — and an indication of municipal 
prosperity, of which it formed an outward and visible 
expression. — 

The architecture was adapted to a structure of small stones 
with thick mortar joints, and was a compromise between the 
concrete walling and the jointed stones (without mortar) 
of the Romans. The military organization, which had helped 
to mould the Roman style, was wanting in the Gothic period, 
stone having to be sought in various quarries from different 
proprietors and transported by voluntary aid, or by workmen who 
were forced labourers, doing as little as possible, and taken away, 
ever and anon, to fight in their owners' battles. As to the 
material at hand, the Gothic architects of Western Europe 
possessed stone which was strong and hard, and could be split 
into thin pieces, but had not at their disposal either the marble of 
Pentelicus or the blocks of granite which the Romans procured 
from Corsica, the Alps, and the East ; thus they were absolutely 
compelled to erect considerable buildings with thin courses of 
stone, whereas the Greeks erected small buildings with enormous 
blocks of marble, conditions naturally influencing the forms of 
each style of architecture. Romanesque architecture con- 
sisted of walling formed of a rubble core between two faces of 
stonework, but at the beginning of the thirteenth century, loftier 


and more extensive edifices being built, a new method was 
gradually evolved. In seeking to diminish the size of the piers 
and thickness of the walls, it was necessary for the archi- 
tects of this period to find a mode of construction more homo- 
geneous and more capable of resistance, and to avoid the expense 
of labour which the carrying of material of large size involved. 

The walls, therefore, became of secondary importance, their 
place being occupied by stained glass windows, and the support of 
the structure was effected entirely by means of buttresses or short 
walls placed so as best to resist the thrust of the vaulting. 

Vaulting. — The method was an extension of the Roman- 
esque system, which was evolved from that of the Romans 
(page 224) and consisted of a framework of independent ribs, 
which were first constructed and which supported thin panels of 
stone. The difficulties of vaulting oblong compartments were 
now overcome by the introduction of the pointed arch, which was 
used to cover the shorter spans, while the semicircular arch was 
still used for some time for the diagonal ribs. The ribs became 
permanent centres on which the panels or "infilling" of thin 
stone could rest, and enabled the building to be erected all at 
once or in parts without disadvantage to the solidity of the edifice. 
As indicated on Nos. 109 and 141, the pressures of the vaults were 
transmitted to the angles of each compartment by the diagonal 
ribs. Such pressures are of two kinds : outwards by the nature of 
the arch, and downwards by the weight of the material, the 
resultant of the two being in an oblique direction. The increase 
of the number and variety of ribs and the consequent form of 
the vaults (No. 11 1 d) during the three centuries of Gothic 
architecture is one of the most fascinating studies of the 

The invention of painted glass was an important factor in the 
development of the style, for traceried windows came to be looked 
upon merely as frames in which to exhibit painted transparent 
pictures displaying the incidents of Bible History. Neither 
the painted sculpture and hieroglyphics of the Egyptian temples, 
the colored and sculptured slabs of the Assyrian palaces, the 
paintings of the Greek temples, nor the mosaics and frescoes 
of the Byzantine and Romanesque periods produced color effects 
that can be compared with the brilliancy and the many-tinted 
splendours of the transparent walls of a Gothic cathedral. 
In the north and west of Europe, where painted glass was the 
principal mode of decoration, the walls were kept internally 
as flat as possible, so as to allow the windows to be seen 
internally in every direction, all the mechanical expedients of 
buttresses and pinnacles being placed externally. Further, 
when by the grouping of windows and the subsequent forma- 
tion of mullions and tracery, the entire screen wall between 


the piers came to he occupied by bright colored windows, these 
of necessity took the pointed form of the vault, originally adopted 
for constructive reasons arising from the progress of the art of 
vaulting, which was further influenced by the desire for lofty 
windows to act as frames for the glass. 





The construction of these buildings, many of which were 
founded in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, was carried on from 
generation to generation. 

The place in the national life which the mediaeval cathedrals 
occupied was an important one, and must be realized in order to 
understand how they were regarded. Cathedrals were erected 
and decorated partly as a means of popular education, and they 
were the history books of the period, taking the place in the social 
state since occupied, to a large extent, by such modern institutions 
as the Board School, Free Library, Museum, Picture Gallery and 
Concert Hall. The sculpture and the painted glass reflected the 
incidents of Bible History from the creation to the redemption 
of mankind, the sculptured forms and brilliant coloring being 
easily understood by the people. The virtues and vices, with their 
symbols, were there displayed, either in glass or statuary, along 
with their reward or punishment ; saints and angels told of the 
better life, and the various handicrafts, both of peace and war, 
were mirrored in imperishable stone or colored glass. 

Architecture then as now was also the grand chronicle of 
secular history, past and present, in which Kings, Nobles and 
Knights were represented. 

The plans in all parts of Europe, as may be seen on referring 
to those of England (Nos. 117, 118, 119, 120 and 127), France 
(Nos. 155 and 159), Belgium (No. 167), Germany (Nos. 170 
and 172), and Italy (Nos. 176 and 179), are generally in the form 
of a Latin cross, the short arms, north and south, forming the 
transepts. The cruciform ground plan is considered by some as 
a development from the early Christian basilicas, such as Old 
S. Peter, Rome (page 182), and by others, as evolved from the 
cruciform buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as 
the period of Constantine. A tower, sometimes crowned with a 
spire, was generally erected over the crossing or at the west end. 
As a rule the nave is the portion to the westward, and the choir, 

F.A. T 

> g 


containing the bishop and clergy, is that to the eastward of the 

Each of these divisions is further divided into a central nave 
and side aisles, separated by col inn ns or piers. The principal 
entrance, often richly ornamented, is at the west end, or by a 
porch on the south or north sides. 

The columns or piers support arches (the nave arcade K which 
carry the main walls, rising above the aisle roof 1 Xos. 109 a 
and 141 g). Above this arcade are a series of small arches, 
opening into a dark space caused by the height of the sloping 
roof of the aisle ; this is called the tnforium. or 4 * blind story/* 
Above the triforium is a range of windows in the main wall, 
admitting light into the upper part of the nave ; this division 
is called the clerestory* or "clear story," probably derived from 
the French word clair, light being admitted by the windows in 
this portion of the nave wall. The head of these windows is 
generally the level of the ridge of the stone vault of the nave, 
which is covered by a high pitched wooden roof. 

The east ends or choirs, usually square-ended in England 
(Nos. 117, 118, 119 and 120) are generally richer than the 
remainder of the church, and the floor is raised al>ove the nave 
level by steps. 

The east ends of Norwich (Xo. 118 d), Gloucester (No. 118 0, 
Peterborough (Xo. 117 d), Lichfield (Xo. 120 j). and Canterbury 
(Xo. 118 b), all of Xorman origin, were circular, while West- 
minster Abbey has a ring of chapels or chevct i Xo. 127). 

The lady-chapel is placed beyond the choir at the extreme east 
end, as at Norwich, Peterborough, and Salisbury (Xo. 117 E), or 
on one side, as at Ely (Xo. 117 a). 

The cloisters attached to so many of the English cathedrals, 
forming part of the original monastic buildings, were probably 
derived from the atrium of the Early Christian period (page 180). 
They are generally, but not invariably, south and w T est of the tran- 
sept, in the warmest and most sheltered position, forming the 
centre of the secular affairs of the monasterv, and a means of 
communication between different parts of the Abbey, 

Such is the general distribution of the parts of a cathedral or 
large church, from which, naturally, there are many deviations, 
such as, for instance, the position and number of transepts 
(Xos. 117, 118, 119, 120, 155, 159, 167 and 187). 

Great length, and central towers (see Chichester, Durham, 
Worcester, Rochester, Oxford, York, Chester, Gloucester and 
Wells), are features of English cathedrals ; western towers also 
occur in many examples, as at Lichfield (with spires), Durham, 
Canterbury, York, Wells, Lincoln and Ripon. Compared with such 
long, low, and highly grouped examples, Continental cathedrals 
seem short, high, and often shapeless, owing to the intricacy and 

T 2 


profusion of their buttressing (Nos. 109, 153, 154). In churches, 
a single western tower is an English characteristic (No. 130). 
The interior of a Gothic cathedral has been thus described : 

" The tall shafts that mount in massy pride, 
Their mingling branches shoot from side to side ; 
Where elfin sculptors with fantastic clue 
O'er the long roof their wild embroidery drew ; 
When superstition, with capricious hand, 
In many a maze, the wreathed window planned, 
With hues romantic tinged the gorgeous pane, 
To fill with holy light the wondrous fane, 
To aid the builder's model, richly rude, 
By no Vitruvian symmetry subdued." 

The English Cathedrals, as a general rule, owe much of their 
beauty to the fact that they are generally placed in a large open 
space called the Close, as at Canterbury, Lincoln (No. 125) and 
Salisbury (No. 121) — 

" The ranged ramparts bright 
From level meadow -bases of deep grass 
Suddenly sealed the light '* — 

or are situated picturesquely on the banks of a river, as at 
Worcester, or Durham, described by Scott as, 

11 Grand and vast that stands above the Wear ; " 

or, as Milton so descriptively has it, are 

" Ifosom'd high 'mid tufted trees." 

The French Cathedrals, on the other hand, are often completely 
surrounded by houses and shops (page 368), which in many 
cases were actually built against the wall of the church itself 
(No. 162). For comparison of English and French Cathedrals, 
see page 378. 


These were amongst the most important structures erected in 
the middle ages, and were important factors in the development 
of mediaeval architecture. They were erected by the various 
religious orders already referred to (page 218). 

The monks according to their several orders favoured different 
pursuits. The Benedictine was the chronicler and most learned 
of monks, and his dress was adopted by University students ; the 
Augustinian favoured preaching and disputations ; the Cistercian 
was the recluse, the friend of the poor, interested in agriculture 
and industrial pursuits ; the Cluniac was the student and artist ; 
the Carthusian the ascetic ; and the Friars the missionary 
preachers of the period. 

A complete monastery, of which S. Gall (page 261) and 
Westminster Abbey (No. 127) are good examples, included 


beside the church : — (a,) A Cloister Court ; , off which were placed 
the Chapter House, with the Sacristy between it and the church, 
and the dormitory adjoining the church, approached by a separate 
staircase. The cellarage for beer, wine and oil, was often 
placed under the dormitory. On the opposite side to the church 
were the refectory (dining hall) and kitchens, thus placed to 
keep away noise and smell. The lavatory was usually placed 
in the south cloister walk as at Westminster, Wells, Chester, 
Peterborough and Gloucester, (b.) An Inner Court, with infir- 
mary, guest house, kitchen, servants' hall, library and scriptorium 
(the writing and illuminating room for making copies of books), 
(r.) A Common Court, with double gateway for carts, surrounded 
by granaries, bakehouses, stables, store rooms, servants' rooms, 
tribunal, prison, abbot's lodging, and barn, (d) The Church 
Court or Close, open to the public, (e.) Mills, workshops, gardens, 
orchards, and fishponds. 

Monasteries answered the purpose of inns in little frequented 
places, as is the case to this day on the continent. 


Examples of secular work, such as castles and residences of the 
nobles, the dwellings of the people, hospitals, and other civil and 
domestic work are referred to under each country. 


The comparative analysis of each country is given separately, 
and a comparative table of the underlying differences between 
the Gothic and Renaissance styles is given on page 442. 


Lists are given with each country. 




" Diffused in every part, 
Spirit divine through forms of human art, 
Faith had her arch, — her arch when winds blew loud, 
Into the consciousness of safety thrilFd ; 
And Love her towers of dread foundation, laid 
Under the grave of things. Hope had her spire 
Star high, and pointing still to something higher." — Wordsworth. 


i. Geographical. — The position of England may well be 
considered unique. 

" England, bound in with the triumphant sea, 
Whose rocky shore beats back the envious siege. 


This fortress built by nature for herself 
Against infection and the hand of war; 
This happy breed of men, this little world, 
This precious stone set in the silver sea, 
Which serves it in the office of a wall, 
Or as a moat, defensive to a house, 
Against the envy of less happier lands." 

Shakespeare, Richard I J. 

England being an island with natural harbours, and lying 
opposite the rich and populous plains of Europe, owed much 
of her development to the intercourse effected by her ships. 
Isolation by the sea has had two alternating influences, for 
it has assisted in the development of purely national characteristics, 
and by giving rise to an incurable habit of travelling, has led 
to the importation of continental ideas in architecture. 

ii. Geological.— -The geology of the country is, in some way, 
responsible for the special character of the buildings in different 
parts of England, thus the transport of stone by sea was an 


important reason for its use in some districts, but in the Fen 
districts, in the absence of good roads, material was conveyed on 

The granites of Cornwall and Devonshire, the limestones of Port- 
land, and the oolitic formations, such as the Bath stones, have all 
affected the districts in which they are found, although, of course, 
as transport became easier, there was a tendency for these 
local distinctions to disappear. Even in the Middle Ages 
stone was brought from a distance, Caen stone from Normandy 
being used in the erection of Canterbury Cathedral and other 

Brickwork of modern type came into general use in England 
about a.d. 1300, after being comparatively unused since the 
departure of the Romans, Little Wenham Hall (a.d. 1260), in 
Suffolk, being probably the earliest brick building existing in 

During the reigns of William and Mary and Queen Anne, 
brickwork was largely used in house construction by Sir Christo- 
pher Wren and others. Hampton Court contains good examples 
of sixteenth and seventeenth century brickwork. 

In chalk districts the characteristic flint work of Norfolk, Suffolk, 
and parts of the south coast, gives a special character to the 
architecture of these districts. 

Terra-cotta was also employed, as at Layer Marney Towers, 
Essex (1500-1525), and in parts of Hampton Court Palace. 

Where forests afforded abundant material, as in Lancashire, 
Cheshire and elsewhere, half-timbered houses were erected, chiefly 
during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries (Nos. 132 J, 
150, and 247). 

iii. Climate. — The climate is cool, temperate, mild, and moist, 
and is adapted for almost continuous work, during every season, 
but cold, damp, and high winds with much rain necessitate con- 
stant forethought in building to exclude the weather. The deep 
porches and small entrances of English cathedrals are in contrast 
with continental entrances, and are directly influenced by the 

iv. Religion. — The conversion to Christianity of the Kentish 
King iEthelbert was effected by S. Augustine in a.d. 597. By the 
end of the tenth century the greater part of Europe had embraced 
Christianity. The power of the papacy had steadily grown, and 
was at its height from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, 
during which period several popes succeeded in overruling the 
civil power. 

In England, attempts at the assertion of national independence 
were continuous, but not pushed to extremes until a later date. 
The distinction between the regular and secular clergy was fully 
established, and the different orders of monks had come into 


existence, their buildings exhibiting characteristic points of differ- 
ence (page 218). The Crusades, indicating the religious zeal of 
the period, are referred to on pages 218, 283, 363. 

John Wycliffe (d. 1384) asserted the freedom of religious 
thought, and protested against the dogmas of the papacy. 

Many of the cathedrals formed part of monastic foundations 
(page 294), which accounts for peculiarities of plan differentiating 
them from French Examples. 

The dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. 
provided funds for the erection of new mansions. 

v. Social and Political. — Britain, as a Roman colony, was 
divided into five provinces, and progress was made in agricul- 
ture, building, and mining, the Roman dress and language being 
adopted by the British higher classes. 

The Roman settlements in this country were, many of them, 
provided with basilicas or halls of justice, baths, markets, temples, 
and villas as at Bath, Bignor in Sussex, Darenth in Kent, 
and Fifehead- Neville in Dorset. 

The remains of this epoch consist chiefly of castles, such as 
those at Colchester, York, Lincoln, Richborough, and Burgh 
Castle (near Yarmouth). 

The word "Chester," as an affix, is derived from the Latin 
word castra = camp, and signifies a Roman settlement in this 
country, as at Winchester, Leicester, Silchester, and Chester. 
The excavations at Silchester revealed the remains of a very 
fine basilica. 

The civilizing power of the Roman roads was of importance 
in opening out the country. The four great roads in England 
were : — 

(a.) Watting Street, London to Wroxeter, near Shrewsbury. 
{b.) Ermine Street, London to Lincoln via Colchester and 

(c.) Fosse Way, Cornwall to Lincoln. 

(d.) Icknield Street, Bury St. Edmunds to Salisbury and 

a.d. 81. Agricola built his forts from the Clyde to the Forth. 

a.d. 120. Hadrian's wall built from the Tyne to the Solway. 

a.d. 210. The Emperor Severus strengthened Agricola's forts. 

After the departure of the Romans in a.d. 420, the remains 
of Roman work were largely destroyed by the barbarians who 
succeeded them, but the influence of their architecture continued 
for a considerable period. 

a.d. 449-547. The arrival of the Angles and Saxons did not 
improve matters, as they were especially ignorant in all matters 
of art. We are indebted to the Venerable Bede (a.d. 731) for 
most of the information regarding this period, and from him is 
learnt that a stone church was a rarity, a.d. 650 seems to be 


about the date at which stone churches were first built, and in 
some of ihese it has been suggested that the timber forms of the 
earlier ones were executed in stone (No. 134). 

a.d. 603. See of London revived. 

a.d. 604. See of Rochester founded. 

a.d. 656. Monastery of Peterborough founded. 

a.d. 681. Benedict Biscop flourished as a church -builder. 

a.d 871-901. King Alfred erected, or rebuilt, many of the ruined 
cities or monasteries, but most of these appear to have been built 
of wood, and covered with thatch. 

a.d. 1017-1035. King Cnut founded Bury St. Edmunds mon- 

a.d. 1061. Harold's Collegiate Church at Waltham conse- 

a.d. 1042 -1066. Edward the Confessor's religious enthusiasm, 
and his work at Westminster Abbey (consecrated 1065). 

a.d. 1066. The conquest of England by the Normans, and the 
building operations of Bishop Gundulf, at Rochester Castle, the 
Tower of London, and elsewhere, influenced the construction of 
strongholds, by which the invaders secured their position in the 
newly -conquered country. 

a.d. i i 74. William of Sens built the choir of Canterbury 

The boroughs led the way in self-government, free speech, 
and justice ; and the formation of towns, around the abbeys or 
castles, took place, though the process was slow and difficult. 

a.d. 1154-1216. During this period the fusion of the native 
English and Norman settlers was effected, in order to withstand 
the strangers whom the Angevin kings were constantly bringing 
into England. 

The Association of Freemasons, founded early in the thirteenth 
century, assisted materially in forwarding the technical progress 
of the new buildings. 

a.d. 1215. The Magna Charta freed the Church, and remedied 

a.d. 1265. Leicester's Parliament, to which burgesses were first 
summoned from cities and boroughs, was called. 

a.d. 1 265- 1 284. The conquest of Wales led to further develop- 
ment in the planning and design of castles. 

a.d. 1 272-1 307. Edward I. abandoned his foreign dominions, 
and attempted to consolidate Great Britain. 

The framework of modern political institutions began to develop, 
and peace and prosperity in commerce gave importance to a 
middle class. 

a.d. 1362. The English language was ordered to be used in 
the law courts. 

a.d. 1 349-1 38 1. The rise of the farmer class and free labourer, 


owing to the Black Death, which swept away half the population 
of England. 

The poet Chaucer (1 340-1400) fought in the army of 
Edward III. against France, his employment on diplomatic 
services, in Italy and Flanders, exercising a marked influence on 
his writings. 

William of Wykeham (d. 1404), one of the greatest Gothic 
builders, carried out a large number of building operations at 
Winchester, including the college and refacing of the cathedral, 
and many other buildings. 

a.d. 1 455- 1 47 1. The Wars of the Roses, between the rival 
Houses of York and Lancaster, distracted England at this period. 

a.d. 1476. The introduction of printing by Caxton, a press 
being established by him in the Almonry at Westminster. 

a.d. 1485. Accession of Henry VII. united the Houses of 
York and Lancaster, when a great impulse was given to the 
development of political institutions. The Lady Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond, as the foundress of colleges, developed 
education, and influenced art. 

The condition of the English people, which can hardly be 
considered apart from the architecture which they produced, is 
well treated in " A Short History of the English People," 
by J. R. Green, LL.D. ; and should be referred to by the student. 

vi. Historical. 

B.C. 55. Julius Caesar's first expedition into Britain. 

a.d. 43. Expedition of the Emperor Claudius into Britain. 

a.d. 84. Final conquest of Britain by Agricola, the General of 

a.d. 420. The Roman troops withdrawn from Britain. 

a.d. 449-547. The English (the Low Dutch tribes known as 
Angles, Saxons and Jutes) conquest of Britain. 

a.d. 450-550. Destruction of British churches by heathen 

a.d. 597-681. Augustine landed in England and the conversion 
to Christianity commenced. 

a.d. 802-837. Egbert (a friend of Charlemagne), King of the 
West Saxons, gradually brought the other English kingdoms and 
the Welsh into subjection. 

a.d. 924. King Edward received the homage of all Britain. 

a.d. 1066. The conquest of England by the Normans caused 
a social and political revolution, the manners and government of 
the English being transformed, and the military organization of 
feudalism introduced. French traders at the same time came 
to reside in London and the large towns, thus bringing over 
Continental ideas. 


a.d. 1095-1254. The Crusades, which brought about the con- 
tact of East and West, aided in the formation of the great 
universities, which had a direct influence on feudalism and the 

a.d. 1 338-1453. The wars with France, known as the " Hundred 
Years' War." 

a.d. 1360. Edward the Black Prince ruled at Bordeaux, as 
Prince of Aquitaine. 

a.d. 1 43 1. Henry VI. of England crowned King of France at 

c. a.d. 1500. The introduction of gunpowder ruined feudalism, 
fortresses which were impregnable against the bow of the 
yeoman and retainer, crumbling before the new artillery which 
lay at the entire disposal of King Henry VII. Houses were 
henceforward constructed, not as castles or places of defence, 
but as residences, and from this period modern ideas of domestic 
economy gradually transformed house planning. Sutton Place 
(a.d. 1 52 1- 1 527), near Guildford, is one of the earliest examples 
of a non-castellated domestic residence (page 322). 

a.d. 1520. Henry VIII. visited the French King, Francis I., on 
the Field of the Cloth of Gold ; the King and the many knights 
who followed in his train returning imbued with the newly intro- 
duced Renaissance style as practised in France. Girolamo da 
Trevigi,an Italian, was appointed Court Architect, and Henry VIII. 
encouraged other foreign artists, amongst whom was Hans 
Holbein, an accomplished painter of portraits and designer of 
goldsmiths' work and woodwork. 

These and various other causes led to the great Renaissance 
movement, which is referred to on page 547. 


The architectural character of Gothic architecture in Europe 
has already been referred to on page 268. 

The development of mediaeval architecture in England from the 
departure of the Romans till the sixteenth century, has a more 
complete sequence of style than in other countries. It is usually 
divided into periods having special characteristics and known as 
Anglo-Saxon (page 327), Norman (page 328), Early English 
(page 335), Decorated (page 341), Perpendicular (page 349), and 
Tudor (page 356), and a comparative table showing the approximate 
period covered by each is given on page 327. 

Gothic Vaulting in England. 

The problems of vaulting during the Romanesque period have 
been already explained on page 224, where the essential differences 
between Roman and Mediaeval vaulting are compared. The first 




consisted entirely in the design of the vaulting planes or surfaces 
without reference to their meeting lines or groins, whereas 
mediaeval vaulting consisted in profiling the groins which were 
erected first and supporting the vaulting surfaces which were made 
to adapt themselves to them. 

The problem for the mediaeval architects was to vault, in stone, 
the nave of a church of the basilican type, and at the same time 
to provide for the lighting of the building by means of clerestory 
windows in the nave walls above the aisle roofs. The church 
was thus crowned with a fire- resisting covering over which a 
wooden roof was placed in order to protect it from the weather. 

The evolution of vaulting in England, as on the Continent, 
involved the solution of a group of constructive problems which 
have been already hinted at on page 272. Thus it was in con- 
nection with the necessity for counteracting the thrust of the nave 
vaults brought down on piers that the greater part of the evolution 
of the constructive side of the style took place. 

The following may be taken as the main features of vaulting in 
each period, and are indicated in Nos. 11 1 and 112. 

Norman. — The Roman system was in vogue up to the twelfth 
century, but the introduction of transverse and diagonal ribs in 
this period rendered temporary centering necessary for these. 
In England the raising of the diagonal rib, which produced the 
domical vault employed on the Continent, seems to have been 
but little used, and the method was either (a) to make diagonal 
ribs segmental, as in the aisles at Peterborough Cathedral 
(No. 112 d, g); or (b) to make the diagonal ribs semicircular and 
stilt the springing of the transverse and longitudinal ribs. A 
great advance was made by the introduction of the pointed arch, 
which was used firstly for the transverse and wall ribs only, the 
diagonal ribs {i.e. those with the longest span) remaining semi- 
circular. Norman vaulting was either (a) cylindrical or barrel 
vaulting, as at the Tower of London (No. 135) ; (b) groined cross 
vaulting in square bays (No. 112 a) ; (c) other shapes in which 
the narrower vaulting arches were stilted (No. 112 b, c), or, in 
the later period, were pointed ; (d) Sexpartite (six part) vaulting 
as in the choir at Canterbury Cathedral, rebuilt by William of 
Sens in a.d. 1174. Two views of this type of vaulting at the 
Abbaye-aux-Hommes at Caen are shown in No. 112 e, f. 

Early English (Thirteenth Century). — The pointed arch 
became permanently established, surmounting all the difficulties of 
difference in span, and enabling vaults of varying sizes to intersect 
without stilting or other contrivances, as shown in Nos. hid 
and 112 j, l. 

The cells, also known as " severies " or " infilling " were quite 
subordinate to the ribs and were of clunch or light stone in thin beds, 
resting upon the back of the ribs. These severies were of arched 


form, but often had winding surfaces, and were constructed so that 
their pressure was directed towards the piers and not the wall rib. 
The " ploughshare twist" so called from its resemblance to a 
ploughshare, was produced by stilting or raising the springing of 
the wall rib, when forming the window arch bordering on a vaulting 
compartment, above that of the diagonal and transverse ribs 
(No. 109 a.) This was a common arrangement, and was necessary 
in order to obtain greater height for the clerestory windows. 

The geometry of the Gothic system was a rough use of mathe- 
matical truths in which beauty was sought for, and not a strict 
regard for the exactitude of scientific demonstration. The curva- 
ture of the ribs was obtained from arcs struck from one or more 
centres, and designed without reference to the curvature of 
adjoining ones, as is seen in the setting out of Gothic vaulting 
compartment (No. 11 1 d). In this lies the whole difference 
between the Roman and mediaeval systems, for in the former 
the vaulting surface is everywhere level in a direction parallel to 
the axis of the vault, and any horizontal section of a spandrel or 
meeting of two cross vaults would be a rectangle. In the ribbed 
Gothic vault, however, the plan thus formed would have as many 
angles as ribs, varying according to the curve of the latter. 

The plain four-part (quadripartite) ribbed vault, primarily 
constructed as a skeleton framework of diagonal and transverse ribs, 
was chiefly used in this period, as in the naves of Durham, 
Salisbury (No. 112 j, l), and Gloucester, and the aisles of 

Later in the century intermediate ribs, known as tiercerons, were 
introduced between the transverse and diagonal ribs as in the 
vaulting of the nave of Westminster Abbey (No. 112 k, m), 
and were especially needed to strengthen the vaulting surfaces 
by decreasing the space between the ribs. In such cases ridge ribs 
were introduced in order to take the thrust of the tiercerons which 
abut at their summit at an angle, and would have a tendency to 
fall towards the centre of the compartment unless resisted by 
the ridge rib. In continental examples the ridge rib is often not 
continuous, but only extends to the last pair of arches which abut 
against it obliquely. 

Ridge ribs are generally horizontal in England and arched on 
the Continent, the "infilling " or " severy" having its courses 
meeting at the ridge in zigzag lines as in the nave of Westminster 
Abbey (No. 127 c), and the naves and choirs of Lincoln, Exeter 
and Lichfield Cathedrals, and as found in the churches of South- 
West France. 

A wall-rib^ called a " formeret," because forming a boundary for 
each compartment, was also introduced. 

Decorated (Fourteenth Century). — During this period 
there was an increase and elaboration of intermediate ribs 


(tiercerons), ridge ribs, and a new set of ribs known as Lierne ribs, 
from the French lien — to bind or hold. The name "lierne" is 
applied to any rib, except a ridge rib, not springing from an abacus. 

In the early plain ribbed vaulting each rib marked a groin, i.e., 
a change in the direction of the vaulting surface, but lierne ribs 
were merely ribs lying in a vaulting surface, their form being 
determined independently of such surface, which, however, 
regulated their curvature. 

These Hemes > by their number and disposition, often give an 
elaborate or intricate appearance to a really simple vault (No. 112, 
n, o, p, q), and in consequence of the star-shaped pattern produced 
by the plan of such vaults, it is often called "Stellar" vaulting (No. 
112 q). Examples of this type exist in the choirs of Gloucester 
(a.d. 1 337- 1 377), Wells, Ely (No. 137 f), Tewkesbury Abbey 
nave, Bristol (No. 112 n, o), and the vaulting of Winchester 
Cathedral (No. 124 e, f), as carried out (a.d. 1390) by William 
of Wykeham. 

The vaulting of this period therefore consisted of transverse, 
diagonal, intermediate, ridge and lierne ribs — in fact, a vault of 
numerous ribs, and of panels which became smaller and smaller 
until a single stone frequently spanned the space from rib to rib, 
known as " rib and panel " vaulting. 

Perpendicular (Fifteenth Century). — The complicated 
"stellar" vaulting of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries 
(No.. 112 p, q) led, by a succession of trials and phases, to a 
peculiarly English type of vaulting in this century known as fan, 
palm or conoidal vaulting, in which the main ribs, forming equal 
angles with each other and being all the same curvature, are 
formed on the surface of an inverted concave cone, and connected 
at different heights by horizontal lierne ribs. 

The development was somewhat as follows: — In the thirteenth 
century the form of an inverted four- sided hollow rectangular 
pyramid was the shape given to the vault. In the fourteenth 
century the masons converted this shape, by the introduction of 
more ribs, into a polygonal (hexagonal) pyramid, as in S. Sepulchre, 
Holborn, and elsewhere. In the fifteenth century the setting out 
of the vault was much simplified by the introduction of what 
is generally known as "Fan " vaulting, described above (No. 

112 R, S). 

Owing to the reduction of the size of panels, due to the increase 
in the number of the ribs, a return was made to the Roman method 
of vault construction, for in fan vaulting the whole vault was often 
constructed in jointed masonry, the panels being sunk in the soffit 
of the stone forming the vault instead of being separate stones 
resting on the backs of the ribs. The solid method seems to have 
been adopted first in the crown of the vaults where the ribs were 
most numerous. In some " perpendicular " vaults the two 


systems are found, as at King's College Chapel, Cambridge; 
in others, as Henry VI I. 's Chapel, Westminster, the whole vault 
is of jointed masonry. 

The difficulty of supporting the flat lozenge-shaped space in the 
top portion of the vault surrounded by the upper boundaries of 
the hollow cones was comparatively easy in the cloisters, where 
this type of vaulting was first introduced, because the vaulting 
spaces to be roofed were square or nearly so, but when it was 
attempted to apply it to the bays of the nave, which were 
generally twice as long transversely as longitudinally, difficulties 
occurred. In King's College Chapel (a.d. 15 13) the conoid was 
continued to the centre, but the sides were Cut off, thus forming an 
awkward junction transversely. In the nave of Henry VII.'s 
Chapel pendants supported by internal arches were placed away 
from the walls and the conoids supported on these, thus reducing 
the size of the flat central space, and changing it from an oblong 
to a square on plan. At Oxford Cathedral a somewhat similar 
method was adopted, the pendants also placed some distance from 
the wall, being supported on an upper arch, and a polygonal form 
*of ribs adhered to. 

Fan vaulting is confined to England, and other examples 
beyond those already mentioned are in the Divinity Schools, 
Oxford; Trinity Church, Ely; Gloucester Cathedral (No. 112 
r, s) ; S. George's Chapel, Windsor ; the retro-choir, Peter- 
borough, and elsewhere. 

The depressed four-centred arch (No. 299 m) is typical of the 
architecture of the Tudor period, although it seems to have been 
used in the vaulting of earlier churches (No. in d). It is not 
found out of England, and appears to have been first used largely 
in fan vaulting, to which the reason for its adoption is held to be 
due. For example, if the diagonal rib is to be a pointed two- 
centred arch, each portion must obviously be less than a quadrant, 
and the transverse and wall ribs, being shorter, must be con- 
siderably less than quadrants, especially if the compartment is 
oblong, and this would make the window arch in the nave wall 
of acute lancet form ; but the window arch was made equilateral 
or even less in height compared to its span in this period, and so 
the segments of a diagonal arch of two centres preserving the 
same curvature would not meet at their summit without becoming 
horizontal or possibly bending downwards to each other. To 
obviate this the transverse and diagonal ribs in an oblong com- 
partment were sometimes made as four-centred arches, all the 
ribs starting with the same curvature, but at a certain height the 
portions above this level were drawn with a longer radius in order 
that they might meet the ribs from the opposite side of the vault at 
the required height. These four-centred arches were afterwards 
applied to other parts of the buildings in England, as in arches to 

f.a. u 


doors and windows, and tracery work in panelling, possibly with 
a desire to harmonize with the important superstructure of vaulting. 

The special forms of vault used in Chapter Houses are referred 
to on page 299. 

" Pendant " vaulting is a later form often used in connection with 
fan vaulting, in which pendants as elongated voussoirs are dropped 
from a constructive pointed arch, concealed above the vaulting, 
and form abutments to support the pendant conoids. Henry 
VII. 's Chapel and Oxford Cathedral are examples of this method 
of vaulting. 

Examples of " pendant " but not of " fan " vaulting are frequent 
in the Flamboyant period (fifteenth century) in France, as at 
Caudebec, and other places. 

Bosses. — The bosses, or ornamental keystones, which form such 
decorative features in Gothic vaulting, were a constructive 
necessity, primarily used to cover the awkward junction of the 
various ribs meeting at all angles, in order that the awkward 
mitres of the rib mouldings might be hidden behind the ornament 
of the boss. 

Open Timber Roofs of the Middle Ages. 

The open timber roofs of the Middle Ages are a special 
English feature and may be classed in the following five divisions, 
being illustrated on No. 113 : — 

(i.) Tie-beam Roofs. 

(2.) Trussed rafter or single-framed Roofs. 

(3.) Hammer-beam Roofs of various forms. 

(4.) Collar- braced Roofs, including arch-braced roofs. 

(5.) Aisle Roofs of several forms. 
(1.) The "Tie-beam Roof" is the earliest form of which 
there is any record, and the simplest in construction, being 
merely two rafters pitching one against another with the tie- 
beam inserted, holding their lower portions to counteract the 
outward thrust on the walls. This was probably the only form 
known at the Norman period, and it was never entirely discarded 
by mediaeval builders, being used in every succeeding style 
(No. 113 a, b). In the early examples, the beam is merely 
pinned to the wall-plate at either end and unconnected with the 
rafters. Various methods were afterwards adopted in order to 
make the truss harmonize well with other features. The tie 
beam was rarely straight, being cambered or curved ; in the 
later examples this camber governed the pitch of the roof, the 
purlins resting immediately on it, as at Wellingborough Church. 
Curved braces were often inserted, connecting the tie-beam with 
wall-pieces (No. 113 b), the whole being framed together and 


giving the favourite form of the arch, as at Outwell Church. In 
roofs of steeper pitch the open space above the tie-beam was 
filled in with perpendicular strutting or carved open work, as at 
Outwell Church, Norfolk. A pillar or king-post and struts were 
often supported on the tie-beam to strengthen the rafters, which 
gave a pleasing effect, as at Swardstone Church and also as 
shown in No. 1 13 a, b. This is an inversion of the use of king-post 
and tie-beam as adopted in modern roofs, in which the former acts 
as a suspending piece. A timber arch was sometimes introduced, 
springing from a wall-piece below the tie-beam, but as the tie-beam 
always intersected this the result, as seen at Morton Church, Lin- 
colnshire, and elsewhere, was not satisfactory. 

(2.) The "Trussed Rafter or Single-framed Roof," of 
which there are many examples, was probably chosen in order 
to form a space for the pointed vaults, and having once been 
used the superiority of its construction and appearance led to 
its being largely substituted for the tie-beam form. In roofs of 
large span each rafter had a collar stiffened by braces, which 
-were sometimes passed through the collar, as at Lympenhoe 
Church, Norfolk, and sometimes stopped on the underside, 
as at Stowe Bardolph Church (No. 113 a). This type of 
roof was often boarded on its underside, forming a pentagonal 
ceiling ornamented with ribs and bosses, as at S. Mary, 
Wimbotsham, Norfolk. The timbers are halved and held 
together with wooden pins. As the rafters pitched on the 
outside of the wall a ledge was left on the inside, and to 
remove this hollow and unsightly appearance an upright strut 
was introduced, forming a triangular foot (No. 113 a). This 
greatly added to the stability of the roof, and is held to be the 
origin of the hammer-beam roof (No. 113 j). The arched form 
was obtained by the use of curved braces fixed to the rafters and 
collar, as at Solihull Church. 

(3.) The "Hammer-beam Roof" is, as stated, considered 
to be a natural evolution of the triangular framing adopted at 
the foot of the trussed rafter roof (No. 113 a), and consists 
generally of hammer- beam, struts, collars and curved braces, as 
shown in No. 113 d, e, h, j. The hammer-beam is merely the 
lengthening and thickening of the " sole- piece " at the foot of 
the trussed rafter (No. 113 j), the principal rafter being strutted, 
and the weight of the roof carried lower down the wall by means 
of a curved brace tenoned into the hammer-beam and wall-piece. 
Being thus strengthened, it forms a truss which, repeated at 
intervals of 10 feet or more, supports the intermediate rafters of 
the bay. 

It has been supposed by some that the hammer-beam arose 
from the cutting away of the tie-beam in the centre when a 
curved brace is used beneath the tie-beam. It is improbable, 

u 2 




however, that this was the origin, and there is little more 
resemblance between a hammer-beam roof and a tie-beam roof 
than consists in their both being double framed, i.e., both having 
principals or trusses placed at regular intervals, as opposed to the 
trussed rafter type, which has no principal. Moreover, the tie- 
beam was used in all types of roof, even in conjunction with the 
hammer-beam itself, as at Outwell, where the intermediate 
principals are supplied with hammer-beams ; this is a late 
example, and was probably constructed after the hammer-beam 
type had attained perfection. Hammer-beams were not con- 
structed until the end of the fourteenth century, and were not in 
general use until the fifteenth century. Westminster Hall is the 
earliest recorded example, a.d. 1399 (No. 113 h). 
There are many varieties of this form of roof : — 
(a.) Those with hammer-beams, struts, collars and curved 
braces, as Little Welnetham Church, Suffolk, (b.) Those in 
which the collar-beam is omitted and curved braces carried to the 
ridge, the apex being framed into a wedge-shaped strut, as at 
Trunch Church, Norfolk (No. 113 d). (c.) Those with collar- 
beams and no struts but curved braces, in which a shorter hammer- 
beam is used, as at Capel S. Mary, Suffolk, (d.) Those with no 
collars and no struts, curved braces only being used from ridge 
to hammer-beam, as at Palgrave Church, Suffolk. The arch- 
braced roof is the outcome of this latter form, (e.) Those with a 
main arched rib springing from wall-piece and reaching to a collar, 
forming a rigid chief support, as at Westminster (No. 113 h) and 

Double hammer-beam roofs have two ranges of hammer- 
beams, as at S. Margaret, Ipswich, and Middle Temple Hall 
(No. 113 e), the object of the second range being to further 
stiffen the principals and convey the weight on to the first range 
and thence to the wall. They usually occur when the pitch is 
flatter, but the effect is more complicated and less pleasing. 

These are the main divisions, but there are various minor 
modifications of the type. 

(4.) "Collar-braced Roofs" are a simplification of the 
hammer-beam form, and include arch-braced roofs, so called 
when the collar is omitted and the arched brace carried up to the 
ridge. This form is very like that constructed nearly a century 
earlier, as at Tunstead Church, but with the important difference 
that at Tunstead the braces are of the same thickness as and 
appear to form part of the principal rafters, whereas the collar- 
braced kind are not more than 4 inches thick, while the 
principals may be about 10 inches. Pulham Church, Norfolk 
(No. 113 c), is an example of this collar-braced form. Brinton 
Church is another example of the arch-braced type. The curved 
braces answer the double purpose of strengthening the principals 


and carrying the weight lower down the wall, which they also help 
to steady. 

(5.) Aisle Roofs in the early period were merely a continua- 
tion of the rafters of the nave. At North Walsham, Norfolk 
(a tie-beam roof), the tie-beam of the aisle is carried through the 
wall, forming a corbel for the wall-piece of the nave roof, thus 
binding the whole together. Aisle roofs were usually simple, 
intermediate trusses being introduced to strengthen the purlins. 
When they were gabled they were usually of low pitch, and the 
hammer-beam was rarely introduced for these. New Walsingham 
Church (No. 113 g) and Ix worth Church (No. 113 f) are good 
types of aisle roofs. 


The student is referred to Gothic Architecture in Europe 
(page 273) for the different types of buildings erected during the 
Middle Ages which are here further enlarged upon. As mentioned 
in architectural character (page 283), these buildings were mostly 
erected in the styles known as Norman, Early English, Decorated, 
and Perpendicular. 


Refer to the General Introduction to Gothic Architecture 
(page 273). 

The constitution and foundation of English Cathedrals is 
important and is largely responsible for their monastic character 
and general arrangement. 

They may be divided into three classes : — 
(a.) Cathedrals of the Old Foundation. 
(b.) Cathedrals of the Monastic Foundation, 
(r.) Cathedrals of the New Foundation. 

(a.) The Cathedrals of the old foundation are those which, 
being served by secular clergy, were not affected by the reforms 
of Henry VIII. The following is a list : — The Cathedrals of 
York, Lichfield, Wells, Exeter, Salisbury, Chichester, Lincoln, 
Hereford, S. Paul, London, and the Welsh Cathedrals of 
Llandaff, Bangor, S. David's, and S. Asaph. 

(b.) The Cathedrals of the monastic foundation are those which 
were originally served by regular clergy or ?nonks, and which were 
reconstituted at the dissolution of the monasteries as chapters 
of secular canons. The following is a list: — The Cathedrals of 
Canterbury, Durham, Rochester, Winchester, Worcester, Nor- 
wich, Ely, Carlisle, Peterborough, Gloucester, Chester, Oxford, 
and Bristol. Westminster Abbey was a Cathedral Church from 
a.d. 1540-1545. 

When the change in these monastic establishments was 


e. Rochester. 

g. Carlisle. h. Bristol. 

(Nave added, 1868.) 

Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedra 


g. Wells, h. Gloucester. 

Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals, 



Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals 



made the abbot became the bishop, the prior the dean, and the 
monks became canons and choristers ; the personnel generally 
remaining the same. 

(c.) The Cathedrals of the new foundation are those to which 
bishops have been appointed, viz., Ripon and Southwell, which are 
old Collegiate Churches, and the following Parochial Churches : — 
S. Albans, Newcastle, Wakefield, Manchester, and Truro. 

Diversity of style in each building was caused by the fact that 
with the single exception of Salisbury (page 309) many were 
erected in all periods, thus presenting a complete history of the 
evolution of Gothic Architecture. 

Most of the English Cathedrals were founded or remodelled 
after the Conquest, including many which formerly served as 
churches of the great monastic institutions of the period. 

The character which each Cathedral possesses generally indi- 
cates its original purpose. 

Monastic Cathedrals are almost peculiar to England and 
Germany. In these countries a large proportion of the Cathedral 
Churches formed part of monastic establishments in which are 
found cloisters, refectories, dormitories, chapter houses, scrip- 
torium, library, guest hall, infirmary, prison, wine cellars, mills, 
workshops, and gardens (cf. Monastery of S. Gall, page 261). 
Cloisters were required in monastic establishments from necessity, 
as they formed a covered way for the use of monks, round which 
the various buildings enumerated above were grouped. They 
were also frequently planned as an ornamental adjunct to 
cathedrals of the old foundation which were not part of monastic 
establishments, but were served by secular clergy, as at Salisbury 
and Wells. 

The Collegiate Churches of Lichfield, Ripon, Southwell, York 
and Manchester, and the Irish, Scotch and Welsh Cathedrals 
(S. Davids excepted) have no cloisters. 

The French Cathedrals were mostly erected in the thirteenth 
century by funds provided by the laity, and therefore do not 
form part of monastic establishments, differing in not being 
provided with the buildings enumerated above. 

The English Cathedrals are thus peculiar in retaining many of 
the conventual features. The plans are long and narrow, and 
the choir is often of nearly the same length as the nave. The 
extreme length is often as much as six times, whereas in France 
it is seldom more than four times the width. 

The absence of double side aisles (Chichester and Manchester 
excepted) and side chapels tends to show that worship was more 
congregational in form than on the Continent, especially in France, 
where they are frequently found. 

The buildings founded by the Norman prelates, as Norwich, 
Canterbury, and others, were provided with the apsidal eastern 


termination, sometimes developed into a chc:tt % but the English 
type evolved through Durham to Lincoln had square eastern 
terminations from the Saxon prototype tpage 327*. which produced 
a very different external effect. The transepts project considerably, 
and there are occasionally secondary transepts, as at Salisbury, 
Canterbury, Lincoln, Wells and Worcester. 

The Chapel of the Nine Altars at Durham (a.d. 1 242-1 200) is 
in reality an eastern transept. 

The main entrance was frequently by a south-western porch, 
acting as a screen against the cold winds, and in contrast to the 
large western parches of the French Cathedrals. 

The English Cathedrals, in striking contrast with the French 
examples, owe their internal effect to their enormous length, 
which is further emphasized by the comparative 1 own ess of the 
nave vault. 

The exteriors are in direct contrast to Continental examples, for 
the buildings, being mostly situated in a quiet "close" •• lar from 
the madding crowd," and seen in conjunction with cloisters, 
refectory and outbuildings, form a part only of the entire 
composition (page 276). 

The characteristic high central tower, as at Lincoln, York, Ely, 
Gloucester, Canterbury and Durham, is rendered very effective in 
contrast with the low nave. The central tower is generally 
accompanied by two western towers, and is sometimes crowned 
with a high tapering spire, as at Salisbury and Norwich, while at 
Lichfield (No. 116) all three towers are crowned with spires. 

Flying buttresses are not nearly so common as in France, 
owing to the comparative lowness of the nave vault. In France 
the flying buttresses to the chevct end of the building produce a 
confused, restless effect (cf. No. 101) absent in the English 

Chapter houses were required for the transaction of business by 
the chapter or bishops council. They were originally square in 
plan, as at Bristol (a.d. 1 142- 1 170), but the example at Durham 
(a.d. 1093-1140) is apsidal, and that at Worcester (a.d. 1084 
1 1 60) is circular internally. 

The normal type is octagonal with a central pillar to support 
the vaulting, as at Lincoln ( 1225), Westminster (1250), Salisbury 
(1250), and Wells (1292) (No. 70 k), all of which have vaults 
supported by a central pillar and the surrounding walls. York 
( 1 280-1 330) is also octagonal, but has no central pillar, being 
covered with a sham wooden vault 57 feet in diameter. 

Note, — See Nos. 114, 115 and 116 for comparative views of models 
of the Cathedrals, and Nos. n 7-1 20 for the plans. 
The characteristics peculiar to the leading cathedrals are here indicated, 
and for the sake of brevity the Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular 




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304 Comparative architecture:. 

styles are denoted E.E., Dec, and Perp. respectively. Those which wefe 
the churches of Benedictine monasteries {page 218) are distinguished by 
an asterisk *. 

1. Bangor (No. 119 d).— Repeatedly destroyed. Present church is Dec. and 
Perp., but suffered much in the civil wars. In 1866 thoroughly restored by Sir G. 

2. Bristol (Nos. 114 H, 120 k). — An Augustinian monastery. Rectangular 
Norman vaulted chapter house. E.E. "Elder Lady Chapel." Dec. choir, 
A.D. 1 306- 1 332, and modern nave in imitation thereof, by Street. Peculiar 
in having nave and aisles of nearly equal height, with lofty aisle windows, as in 
some German churches {cf. No. 172). There is thus an absence of the usual 
triforium and clerestory. Remarkable canopied wall recesses for monuments. 

3. 'Canterbury (Nos. 116 c, 118 b). — A choir of singular interest, erected by 
William of Sens, in a style after French models, on the destruction of Anselm's 
Norman choir in 1170. On his death the work proceeded under William the 
Englishman. The singular contraction of the width of the choir, in order to 
preserve two ancient Norman chapels, is worthy of notice. In plan this choir 
resembled that of the Cathedral at Sens. 

At the extreme east is the curious chapel called " Becket's Crown." Extensive 
crypts are under all the eastern portion. There are double transepts, the original 
Norman work being of singular interest. The splendid central tower, 229 feet 
high, is in the Late Perp. style. The nave, also late, is of lessor interest, and 
the west front and towers are unimportant, except in the general picturesqueness 
of the group. The chapter house is oblong, with fine wooden ceiling. The 
Perp. cloisters, on the north side, are of great beauty. A large number of side 
chapels resembling Continental Cathedrals. 

4. Carlisle (No. 114 G, 120 b). — An Augustinian Abbey. The east end a fine 
composition, containing the most perfect of tracery windows. 

5. *Chester (Nos. 115 B, 120 f). — Originally the church of the Benedictine 
order of S. Werburgh. Built of red sandstone. Perp. central and lower portion 
of south-western towers. Cloisters on the north. Lady chapel at the east end. 

6. Chichester (No. 114 a, 119 g). — The chief example of double aisles, 
really caused by the formation of lateral chapels. Fine central spire. Norman 
nave. The Bell Tower is the only example of its kind belonging to an English 

7. *Durham (No. 114 B, 118 e). — Norman work (1096-1133). An eastern 
transept called the ** Chapel of the Nine Altars," in massive E. E. (1242- 
1290), and a central Perp. tower, 216 feet in height, help to form a group 
which for strength of outline and dignity have few, if any, rivals. Internally, the 
special point is the massive arcade of the Norman nave, A.D. 1099-1128, the 
finest in England, the pillars about the same width as the openings, and quaintly 
channelled with characteristic spirals and flutes. The nave was vaulted in 
A.D. 1 133 and is said to be the earliest example of a Norman vault in England. 

8. *Ely (Nos. 114 c, 117 A, 136 A, Dand 137 f). — Norman nave and transepts, 
with timber roof and modern paintings. Choir remarkable for splendid carving. 
Most noted feature is the unique octagon, 70 feet in diameter, by Alan of Wal- 
singham, in 1322, replacing a lallen central tower. It has a rich vault of wood 
only, reaching to a central octagonal lantern. The sides of the octagon are unequal, 
being alternately 20 feet and 35 feet. The plan influenced that of S. Paul, 
London (No. 253), which it inspired. Exceptional lady chapel, 100 feet by 46 feet, 
by 60 feet high ; compare chapter house, Canterbury. The west front is an 
imposing composition (180 feet wide), owing to the bold tower, the same width 
as the nave and 215 feet high, flanked originally with bold north and south 
transeptal projections, ended by big octagonal turrets. 

In front of the tower projects the E.E. (1198-1215) Galilee porch, two square 
bays in plan, vaulted and elaborately arcaded. 


9. Exeter (Nos. 115 D, 119 e). — Unique in having twin towers placed over the 
north and south transepts (cf. S. Stephen, Vienna, page 396). It is the best 
specimen of the Dec. style, and is exceptionally rich in varied tracery and carved 
wood and stonework. 

10. 'Gloucester (Nos. 115 h, 118 c). — Very rich in Early Perp. vaulting 
(No. 112 R, s), Norman choir cased with Perp. work, as at Winchester. Perp. 
cloisters of singular completeness, on the north side of Cathedral. Central tower, 
225 feet high. 

11. Hereford (Nos. 115 f, 120 h). — Norman nave and choir, E.E. lady 
chapel and Dec. central tower. 

12. Lichfield (Nos. 116 f, 120 J, 124 a, b, c, 137 b). — Situated on slightly 
sloping ground and built of reddish stone. The nave, transepts, chapter house and 
W.. front are in the E.E. style. The Dec. central and two western spires of rich 
and graceful character form the only example of the triple combination in England. 
The clerestory windows of spherical triangular form. No cloisters. 

13. Lincoln (Nos. 116 B, 117 F, 125, 126). — Rebuilt 1 185-1200. Situated on 
the ridge of a steep hill dominating the town, in general outline resembling 
Canterbury, and having also double transepts and central and western towers, the 
former (271 feet high) being the highest in England, excluding spires. " National 
Lincoln" sums up its greatest glory, nnd the student acquainted with Canterbury 
choir will see how the Fiench feeling is here departed from. E.E. nave, transepts 
and choir, and Dec. "Angel choir," 1256-1314. The cloisters are on the north 


The E.E. decagonal chapter house, vaulted to central pillar, is surrounded by a 
ring of flying buttresses. 

The west front is unusual, consisting of a screen wall behind which rise the two 
western towers, whose lower parts are therefore invisible. 

14. Llandaff (No. 120 c). —A long low building, without transepts or side 
chapels, situated at the foot of a hill. Two western towers. The nave is much 
restored. No triforium. Square chapter house with central pillar. No cloisters. 

15. Manchester (No. 119 b). — Perp. (a.d. 1422-1520). Remarkable for 
having double aisles, obtained as at Chichester by the inclusion of side chapels. 
Fine stalls. 

16. Newcastle. — Late Dec. in style. Perp. tower (a.d. 1474), w * tn s pi re 
resting on crown of arches, similar to S. Giles, Edinburgh, King's College, 
Aberdeen and S. Dunstan in the East, London. Fine modern stalls. 

17. *Norwich (Nos. 116 D, 118 d). — The long, narrow nave, aisleless transepts 
and choir wiih apsidal chapels, are Norman (a. d. 1096-1 145). '1 he choir clerestory, 
the windows beneath clerestory on south side of nave, and the vaulting throughout 
are Perp. The easternmost apsidal chapel, removed in the thirteenth century for 
an oblong lady chapel, since destroyed. Bold central Perp. spire. Chapter House, 
resembling that of Durham, destroyed. 

18. Oxford (No. 114 F, 119 c). — Originally the church of a priory 01 
Augustinian monks. The nave and choir are Norman (1158-1180), and the 
chapter house and lady chapel are E.E. Pillars of nave, alternately circular and 
polygonal, supporting Norman arches, beneath which is the triforium gallery, 
forming quite an unusual arrangement in order to gain height. Norman central 
tower having E. E. upper part and short spire. Nave shortened by Card. Wolsey 
when building his college of Christchurch, forms, as it were, a vestibule to choir, 
which has splendid fan vaulting with pendants. 

19. 'Peterborough (Nos. 115 c, 117 D, 122 a, b, c, d, 136 b).— A Norman 
Cathedral built between a.d. 1 1 17 and 1190. The interior is considered to be 
the finest in the Norman style next to Durham. The nave is covered with a painted 
wooden ceiling of lozenge-shaped compartments, ornamenting what is probably 
the oldest wooden roof in England. The nave aisles only are vaulted (cf. Ely). 
The apsidal choir is inclosed in a square chapel of Late Perp., fan vaulted, as at 
King's College, Cambridge. 

The grand western facade, 158 feet wide, constructed in a.d 1233, consists of 

F.A. X 



Salisbury Cathedral. 
Nave, looking East. 


a portico of three gigantic arches, the full height of the Cathedral. A gable 
crowns each arch, and the end abutments are carried up as small towers crowned 
with spires. Other towers rise from behind over the end bays of the aisles, though 
some uncertainty exists as to the intended grouping. A two-storied porch of the 
Perp. period has been built in the central archway. 

20. Ripon (Nos. 116 e, 120 o, 136 c). — Central and two western towers. Rich 
choir stalls and tabernacle work. Perfect western facade in E.E. style (restored by 

21. * Rochester (Nos. 114 e, 119 h). — Norman nave. E.E. walled-in choir 
and transepts. The clerestory to nave and wooden roof are Perp. Fine western 
Norman doorways. 

22. *S. Albans (No. 119 f). — Much destroyed and altered in recent years. 
Norman nave, the longest in England (284 feet), transepts and choir. Western 
portion of nave is E.E. Dec. marble shrine of S. Alban, recovered and re- 
erected by Sir Gilbert Scott. 

23. S. Asaph (No. 119 a). — Rebuilt in the Dec. style. Roof and choir stalls 
are Perp. Restored by Sir G. Scott. 

24. S. Davids (No. 120 e). — Situated in a valley, beside the river Alan, and 
close by the sea. Central tower. Two-storied south porch. The nave arches 
support a carved oak roof of late (1508) design. Dec. rood-screen at entrance 
to choir. 

25. Salisbury (Nos. 116 a, 117 E, 121, 122 e, f, u, 123 and 140 d). — Erected 
on a level site, surrounded by the green sward of a wide close, broken only by a 
few elm trees. Constructed almost entirely A.n. 1220-1258 in the E.E. style, 
forming the type of English, as Amiens is of French Gothic. See Nos. 154 A, 
159 B, 160. The plan has double transepts, central tower, and splendid Dec. 
spire, 404 feet high, being the loftiest in England. The west facade is weak, but 
there is a fine north porch, boldly projecting and vaulted internally. The cloister 
is Dec. 

26. Southwell (No. 119 k). — Norman nave, transepts and towers. E.E. 
choir. Dec. octagonal chapter house, the chief glory of the Cathedral, has no 
central pillar, and is believed to have been the model for that at York. Carving 
very rich and well preserved. No cloisters. 

27. Wells (Nos. 115 G, 119 j) (1214-1465). — The nave, transeptsand western 
bays of choir are E.E. The E.E. west front, 150 feet wide, including buttresses, 
is arcaded and enriched with sculpture — the highest development of a t>pe of 
facade found in English Gothic. Double transepts, eastern lady chapel, and 
three towers. The triforium, of close set openings with capitals, is unique. As 
illustrating the comparative height to width of the naves of English and French 
Cathedrals it has been shown that whereas Wells is 32 feet wide and 67 feet high 
(two to one), Amiens is 46 feet wide and 140 feet high (three to one). 

2B. *Westminster (Nos. 127, 128, 129). — A Benedictine monastery founded 
by Dunstan ; betrays French influence in its polygonal chcvit and chapels, internal 
loftiness (having the highest nave in England), and strongly marked flying buttresses. 
The plan consists of a nave and aisles, transepts with aisles, and easurn chevt't, 
surrounded or'ginally by five aps dal chapels, the only complete example of this 
feature in England. Of the present structure the eastern portion was erected by 
Henry III. in a.d. 1220-1200. During 1260-1269 the four bays west of the transept 
were constructed. The nave was completed in the fifteenth century in imitation 
of the older work, but with Perp. mouldings. The western towers were completed 
in A.D. 1722-1740, by Wren and Hawksmoor. and Henry VII. 's Chapel was 
added by Henry VII. in place of the former lady c l iapel, «nd is remarkable for 
its elaborate fan vault The shrines, chantry chapels, tombs, and monuments are 
exceptionally fine. The cloisters, in the usual position to the south of nave, have 
open tracery and elaborate vaulting of the E.E., Dec. and Perp. periods. 

29. * Winchester (Nos. 115 e, 117 c, 124 d, e, f, 137 g).— It has the greatest 
total length (560 feet) of any mediceval Cathedral in Europe. Norman transepts 
and tower, 1070-1107. The Norman nave and choir (1079-1093) were transformed 



:l, West minster Abi 



by William of Wykehara and his successors (1394-1486) with a veneer of Perp. on 
the Norman core and crowned with a vaulted roof, E.E. rectro choir, the largest 
in England, and Dec. stalls. Compare Gloucester. Tombs and chantries. Wood 
vaulting to choir. 

30. * Worcester (Nos. 114 d, 118 a). — A level situation on the banks of 
the River Severn. Norman crypt, north and south transepts and circular chapter 
house, the only one in England. E.E. choir. Dec. and Perp. nave, cloisters and 
central tower (196 feet high). Interesting monuments. The Royal chantries of 
King John and Prince Arthur (No. 145) are fine specimens. 

31. York (Nos. 115 A, 117 B). — The E.E. transepts are remarkable for the 
" classic beauty of their mouldings " (Street). The five sisters — a name given to the 
lancet windows of the north transept — are each 50 feet high and 5 feet wide. 
The nave and the octagonal chapter house, without central column and covered 
with a wooden roof, of Edwardian Gothic (Dec, 1261-1324). Perp. tower. No 
cloisters. It is notable as the largest in area and width (being no less than 
106 feet within the walls) of any English cathedral. The height of the nave is 
second only to that of Westminster Abbey. The nave and choir are covered with 
a wooden imitation of a stone vault. The west front is of the French type. Iu 
spite of the size of the cathedral it compares unfavourably with Durham for 
grandeur, strength of outline, and grouping. 

(For a description oi S. Paul's Cathedral, London, see page 571.) 
Note. — For a comparison between English and French cathedrals, which will 
enable their various characteristics to be understood, see page 378. 

(See page 276.) 


" The portals of the sacred pile 
Stood open, and we entered. On my frame 
At such transition from the fervid air, 
A grateful coolness fell, that served to strike 
The heart, in concert with the temperate awe 
And natural reverence that the place inspired : 
Not raised in nice proportions was the pile, 
But large and massy, for duration built ; 
With pillars crowded, and the roof upheld 
By naked rafters, intricately cross'd 
Like leafless underboughs, 'mid some thick grove, 
All withered by the depth of shade above. 

* • * * * 

The floor 
Of nave and ais'e in unpretending guise, 
Was occupied by oaken benches, ranged 
In seemly rows ; 

* * * * * 

And marble monuments were here display'd 
Thronging the walls ; and on the floor beneath 
Sepulchral siones ap reared, with emblems graven, 
And footworn epitaphs ; and some with small 
And shining effigies of brass inlaid." — Wordsworth. 

The typical Parish Church, such as S. Andrew, Heckington 
(No. 130), was not of the cruciform plan, but consisted of a nave 



with aisles, clerestory with windows, and a long and narrow 
chancel without aisles. There was generally a single western 
tower, finished with crenellated battlements, but in some of the 
larger Parish Churches, which are cruciform on plan, the tower 
is over the "crossing." Where a spire occurs it is usually 
octagonal on plan, and the change from the square to the octagon 
was effected in the thirteenth century by means of a "broach " 
(No. 140 a) resting on angle squinch arches (No. 130 b), while in 
the following centuries, parapets with elaborate corner pinnacles 
(No. 140 c, e) and flying buttresses were employed to connect the 
tower and base of the spire (No. 140 g, h). 

The principal entrance was by a porch, sometimes of two 
stories, on the south side, near the west end, although occasionally 
the western tower emphasized the main entrance. A large number 
were erected during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

The typical English Church differs from the French in not 
being vaulted, and there is, therefore, an absence of flying 
buttresses. The English developed the " open- timbered " roof, 
and elaborate specimens of constructive art were indulged in, 
various types being shown on No. 113, culminating in the 
" hammer-beam" variety of the fifteenth century. These were 
often painted with rich colors, and the counties of Norfolk and 
Suffolk have examples specially famous in this respect. 


These form an important part of the architecture of the Middle 
Ages, and were fortified up to the end of the fourteenth century. 
They were generally residences as well as military posts ; thus, 
while complying with the ideas of defence, the planning also 
illustrates the relation of the vassal to his lord, who, while exacting 
the former's service, was theoretically bound to maintain him. 

In the twelfth century, military structures were all-important, 
over 1,100 castles being constructed during the reign of Stephen 
alone. These consisted of (a.) an outer " bailey " or court, {b.) an 
inner bailey, and (r.) the donjon or keep, several stories in height ; 
all being surrounded by a lofty wall with ramparts and parapet 
and a deep moat, as in the Tower of London (a.d. 1081-1090) 
(No. 131 a), and Kenilworth Castle (No. 131 c). 

* • The battled towers, the donjon keep, 
The loophole grates where captives weep." — Scott. 

In the thirteenth century these castles were further enlarged 
by additional buildings, clustering round the keep, the hall still 
remaining the principal feature. Large hooded fireplaces and 
chimneys became general. The castles were less strongly 
fortified, as the growth of the royal power suppressed petty wars 
between rival nobles, while the invention of gunpowder (a.d. 1500) 



made the moat comparatively useless, and soon rendered quite 
obsolete the older systems of defence (page 549). 

In the fourteenth century an increased desire for privacy 
arose, and the highest development of the Hall was attained, as in 
Westminster Hall, a royal palace ; Ightham Mote and Hever Hall, 
Kent, moated manor houses ; Cranbourne Manor, Dorset, and Crosby 
Hall, London, an example of a merchant's home, referred to in 
Shakespeare's Richard III, as Crosby Place. 

Penshurst Place, Kent (No. 132 a, b, c, d, e, f) (a.d. 1335), is a 
good example of a nobleman's house. The plan (No. 132 f) 
indicates that, as in all domestic buildings of the fourteenth 
century, the Hall was the feature of primary importance. In this 
case it is 68 feet by 38 feet 8 inches and 48 feet high, with a 
raised dais at one end and a screen at the other. An external 
elevation is given in No. 132 a. The roof (No. 132 b, e) is a fine 
example of a typical open timbered type, and the original ''louvre" 
or opening for the escape of smoke from the central fire still exists. 

A characteristic house of the period consisted of a quadrangular 
plan with central courtyard. On the side away from the entrance 
was the Hall, the whole height of the house, the kitchen being 
adjacent. The fire was in the centre of the Hall on " dogs," the 
smoke being carried away by the " louvre " in the roof, as at 
Penshurst, or by a wall fireplace with a hooded canopy. 

The porch or doorway led to the entry which, by a panelled 
partition or screen, was separated as a vestibule from the Hall 
itself. Over this entry was the minstrels' gallery, while at the 
further end of the Hall was the raised " dais," for the seats of 
the master and his principal guests, and sometimes, a large bay 
window gave external and internal importance to that end. 
The main body of the Hall was occupied by the servants and 
retainers. The walls were hung with tapestry and with trophies 
of the chase, and the floor was often only strewn with rushes and 
still formed, as in the earlier periods, the sleeping-room for the 
retainers, though they were sometimes lodged in dormitories in 
the wings. The " solar," or withdrawing- room, was often at 
right angles to the Hall. 

The great banqueting-hall gradually ceased to be used as the 
common sleeping-room on the introduction of the withdrawing- 
room, and the fourteenth century house may be taken as the 
prototype of the modern country house, which in its highest 
development is an expression of the wants, inclinations, and 
habits of the country gentleman of to-day, as was the mediaeval 
castle of the feudal baron. 

In the fifteenth century the central fireplace was moved to 
the side wall, becoming a distinctive feature, and the sleeping 
accommodation was much improved, as at Oxburgh Hall (No. 
131 b). 




In the sixteenth century the typical Tudor house consisted 
of buildings grouped around a quadrangular court, as at Layer 
Marney (a.d. 1520), Compton Wynyates (a.d. 1520) (No. 150), 
and Sutton Place (a.d. 1 521-1527). The entrance was in the 
centre of one side under a gatehouse, which gave it prominence ; 
on the opposite side were the hall and offices, the living and 
sleeping- rooms being ranged along the other two sides, and such 
rooms were usually " thoroughfare " rooms or, in some cases, 
only entered from the courtyard. 

In the latter part of the century the common dining-hall began 
to decline in importance, owing to modern ideas of privacy being 
introduced ; but the salient characteristics of the Elizabethan 
house are dealt with in English Renaissance, page 553. 


The formation of towns was often due to considerations of 
safety, as when traders and others grouped themselves around 
the castles of the great nobles, or formed a dependency to a 
monastery ; and thus afterwards arose in many towns two rival 
authorities, viz., ecclesiastical and secular. In the absence of 
effective police, and in the consequent insecurity against lawless 
vagabonds, every city was more or less fortified. 

The undeveloped state of the towns is accountable for the 
absence of town halls, in contrast with France, Belgium, Italy, 
and Germany, where many such buildings exist. 

In towns the dwellings often consisted of a shop on the ground 
floor, in which the trade of the owner was carried on, light being 
obtained by a wide opening fronting the street. Behind the shop 
were the kitchen and living-room, and an external door led to a 
staircase, which gave access to the sleeping-rooms on the first 
floor. The " Butcher Row " at Shrewsbury, of the fifteenth 
century, has ground floor shops, " solar " above, and dormitories 
in the upper story. 

The architecture was more or less developed, in proportion 
to the condition of the owner, the materials at hand, and other 
local causes. In this respect the passage way on the first 
floor to the houses at Chester is a notable example. Houses of 
half timber and brick with overhanging upper stories abounded, 
while the Jew's house at Lincoln is a fine specimen of an early 
stone residence. 


There were different varieties of these, viz., those forming apart- 
ments in palaces or other dwellings, or attached to convents and 
monasteries, those forming portions of larger churches, sepulchral 


chapels, those attached to colleges and other educational institu- 
tions and those erected on bridges — the germ of all these being a 
large apartment to which aisles came to be added. 

The following are a few examples of different types : — 
S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (No. 135) ; Lambeth 
Palace Chapel (No. 132) (a.d. 1250), with the later addition of 
the Lollard's tower (1424-1445) ; Merton College Chapel, 
Oxford (1274-1277), with later additions; the Chantry Chapel 
(fourteenth century), on the Bridge at Wakefield ; S. 
Stephen's Chapel, Westminster (1 349-1 364), since destroyed 
to make way for Westminster Palace ; King's College Chapel, 
Cambridge (a.d. 1440), of which there is a model in the Guild- 
hall Museum, London ; S. George's Chapel, Windsor 
(No. 133) (1480-1508) ; and Henry VII. 's Chapel, West- 
minster (Nos. 127, 128, 129) (1500-1512). 


From the time of Alfred onward there existed a number of 
grammar schools connected with churches, monasteries, and 
cathedrals. Colleges resembled the monastic establishments of 
earlier times and were modelled on them in many ways. The 
hall was the principal apartment, and this and the other rooms 
were grouped around a quadrangle, as in the mediaeval house. 

Winchester College (1387- 1393) was built by William of 
Wykeham, and Eton College (1442) was founded by Henry VI. 
( 1 422-1461). The rise of Oxford dates from about 1167, and that 
of Cambridge from about 1209, and many of the principal colleges 
at these Universities were erected as follows :— At Oxford : the 
colleges of Merton, 1263-1264; Worcester, 1289; Exeter, 1314; 
Oriel, 1326; Queen's, 1340; New College, 1379; Lincoln, 1427; 
All Souls, 1437 ; Magdalen, 1458; Brasenose, 1509 ; Corpus Christi, 
1516; Christ Church, 1524; Trinity, 1554; and S.John's, 1555. 
At Cambridge: the colleges of Peterhouse, 1284; Clare, 1326; 
Pembroke, 1347; Gonville, 1348; Trinity Hall, 1350; Corpus 
Christi, 1352; King's, 1441 ; Queens', 1448; Jesus, 1497; Christ's, 
1505 ; S. John's, 151 1 ; Magdalen, 1542 ; and Trinity, 1546. 


These formed important means of communication, and in many 
instances possessed a semi -religious character. A few representa- 
tive examples may be mentioned. Old London Bridge, com- 
menced in 1 1 76, was built by the religious confraternity known as 
the " Frates Pontis." The "Triangular" Bridge at Croyland, 
Lincolnshire, still exists, having three pointed arches with abut- 
ments at the angles of an equilateral triangle and having three 


roadways and three waterways. The Bridge at Wark worth, 
Northumberland, is in good preservation. 


Many of these, principally dating from the fifteenth century, 
were founded by charitable people, and form interesting examples 
of semi-domestic character. 5. Mary's Hospital, Chichester y (No. 
132 l, m, x) is mainly of the fourteenth century, although 
belonging to a very early foundation, and has bedrooms and 
sitting-rooms for the inmates opening on to the central hall, at 
the end of which is the chapel. Other examples are S. Cross, 
Winchester ; Ford's Hospital, Coventry ; S. John's Hospital, 
Northampton ; the Bede House, Stamford, and almshouses at 
Cobham, Kent, and elsewhere. 


These are still numerous, and the example from Chiddingstone 
(No. 132 j), dating about 1637, will give an idea of the appearance 
of these old timber houses, of which many towns, such as Chester, 
and numerous villages throughout the country, can still boast 
a number. 


In the cathedrals and churches, the choir screens, tombs, wall 
tablets, and chantries are specially notable. Many of these are 
worthy of careful study. 



The architecture of England during the Middle Ages can be 
divided into centuries corresponding to the principal developments, 
which have their specially defined characteristics, and each period 
is now treated in a comparative way in a somewhat different 
manner to the method adopted in other styles, the architectural 
character and examples in each period being given. 

There have been various systems of classification adopted by 
different writers, but those by Rickman and Sharpe are the best 
known. Rickman's divisions are made to include periods corre- 
sponding to the reigns of English sovereigns, which are given 
under each style later, whereas Sharpe's divisions are governed by 
the character of the window tracery in each period. 






Pumtlrf. JMN>9W n„ WICPMIM. 


lyrcjv-mc^c^:-:^^'^ &Tj r^ jowfnpte 


A comparative table showing the approximate period covered by 
each is given : — 

Dates. Hickman. Sharpe. 

A.D. 449 (arrival of Anglo-Saxons) to the Con- 
quest in 1066 Saxon, Saxon. 

IC66-1189 (i.e. to the end of 12th cent.) ... Norman. j f° a r ^" on 

\\%T l £l { r' '5? V,,h Cent ;\ Early Evglijh. \ } r ,^tL]. 

1307-1 377 (i.e. the 14th cent. ) ... ... ... Decorated. c - T 

1 377-1485 (i.e. the 15th cent.) ... ... ... Perpendicular. Rectilinear. 

1485-1558 (i.e. the first half 16th cent.) Tudor. Tudor. 

Although the period of each style is thus denned, it must be 
remembered that the transition from one style to the next was 
slow and gradual, and can often hardly be traced, so minute are the 
differences. It is only for convenience in alluding to the different 
stages that the division is made, for it must not be forgotten that 
the mediaeval architecture of England is one continuous style. 

ANGLO-SAXON STYLE (a.d. 449 to 1066). 

The buildings are sometimes composed of the fragments of 
Roman architecture in Britain, or of rude copies, but the scanty 
remains of this period render it difficult to estimate the character 
of the buildings. It is probable that timber was the material 
mostly employed in all classes of buildings, and that the great 
development in timber work of the later Gothic styles was due 
to this early use. The masonry work is considered to show signs 
of the influence of wood architecture, as in the "long and short" 
work, the triangular-headed openings, the pilaster strips, and the 
baluster mullions (No. 134), but these features are more likely 
rude attempts to copy the contemporary Romanesque work of 
Ravenna and other Italian towns. 

The following are a few of the examples of this period: — 
Worth Church, Barnack Church, Brixworth (Northants), Dover 
Castle and Church, Earl's Barton (No. 134 a, b, d), Sompting 
(Sussex) (No. 134 h), Wickham (No. 134 f), Deerhurst (Glouces- 
tershire) (No. 134 c), Greensted Church (Essex), and the crypt 
at Ripon Cathedral. 

a. Plans. — Churches seem to have been planned as two simple 
oblongs, joined by a small chancel arch, the chancel being square- 
ended (borrowed from the Keltic type), lower and smaller than 
the nave, and distinctly marked as such externally and internally. 
There was often a descent of a few steps from the nave into the 
chancel. Another type of plan is that of the Roman basilican 
form, as S. Martin, Canterbury, and Brixworth. 

Towers, of which Earl's Barton, Northants (No. 134), is an. 
example, are without buttresses, 


b. Walls. — These were mostly formed of rough rubble work 
with ashlar masonry at the angles formed in " long and short " 
courses, as at Earl ? s Barton (No. 134 a). The pilaster strips 
mentioned above are also features. 

c. Openings. — These are round or triangular-headed, and 
have square jambs, as at Deerhurst Church (No. 134 c), and are 
sometimes divided by a baluster, as at Wickham (No. 134 f). 

d. Roofs. — There are no means of knowing exactly how these 
were treated, as none exist, but they were probably either of 
timber or composed of loose stones in horizontal layers approach- 
ing each other till they met at the apex, as in early Irish 
examples. Manuscripts represent buildings as covered by slates 
or shingles. 

e. Columns. — The roughly formed balusters, that occur in 
belfry windows, have been mentioned above, and appear to have 
been worked by a lathe. Piers in churches are short, stumpy 
cylinders crowned with square blocks of stone in the place of 
moulded capitals (No. 134 e, g). 

f. Mouldings. — These were few in number and consisted of 
simple ovolos and hollows coarsely axed. Tools were few, hence 
the use of the axe in roughly finishing the contours. 

g. Ornament. — This was probably scanty, in the absence of 
technical ability, hangings being probably in use. 


also known as the English Romanesque or Twelfth Century style, 
comprises the reigns of William I., 1066-1087, William II., 1087- 
1100, Henry I., 1100-1135, Stephen, 1135-1154, Henry II., 1154- 
11 89. 

The general appearance is bold and massive, and presents 
many similarities with the architecture of Normandy, from 
whence it was introduced during the reign of William I. It 
is well described by Sir Walter Scott : 

" In Norman strength, that abbey frown'd 
Witli massive arches broad and round, 
That rose alternate row on row 
On ponderous columns, short and low ; 
Built ere the art was known, 
By pointed aisle and shafted stalk 
The arcades of an alley'd walk 
To emulate in stone "... 

In London, the principal examples are : — 

The keep and S. John's Chapel in the Tower of London 
(Nos. 131 a and 135). The round portion of the Temple Church 
(Transitional). S. Bartholomew's the Great, Smithfield. 

— 1 


maim imm showing mm r ewush 




In the Provinces, the principal examples are : — 
The greater portion of the Cathedrals of Norwich, Durham, 
Oxford, Gloucester, Exeter, Ely, Hereford, Peterborough, 
Winchester, S. Albans, Chichester, Waltham, and Tewkesbury 
Abbey. Barfreston Church, Kent, and Iffley Church, Oxon 
(No. 138), are good examples of small Norman churches. 

a. Plans. — The nave was considerably lengthened from the 
Saxon period, and transepts were employed, with usually a tower 
at the crossing. Most of the cathedrals date from this period, 
and the general type of plan laid down was developed rather than 
changed, great length being aimed at, as at Norwich, Durham, 
Ely, S. Albans, and Winchester. The chapel of the Tower of 
London (No. 135) is a type of a small chapel in the style. 

The towers are square and massive, as at S. Alban's Abbey 
and Iffley Church (No. 138). 

In Norfolk and Suffolk are some fifty churches, having at 
their west end round towers supposed to be due to Scandinavian 
influence, but probably owing to these being more readily con- 
structed, in the absence of suitable stone to form square angles. 

Castles, owing to the recent conquest, were numerous and 
important, commanding fords on the rivers, high roads, and 
other strategic points. The Tower of London gives a good idea 
of the system of defence adopted (No. 131 a). 

b. Walls. — These are very thick, and frequently arcaded in 
later work, but are often constructed with defective masonry, the 
core being imperfectly bonded with the facing. 

The interiors have nearly an equal height assigned to nave 
arcade, triforium, and clerestory, and a passage was often formed 
between the clerestory window and the triple arch carrying the 
inside of the wall, a method also adopted in the churches at Caen. 

Buttresses are broad and flat, with little projection (No. 141 a), 
and often flush with the corbel table, which supports a plain 
parapet (No. 136 a, b). 

c. Openings. — These were frequently formed with square re- 
cesses, known as " orders," to their jambs. The windows are 
usually small, narrow and deeply splayed, with semicircular heads. 
They are in single lights, but double windows divided by a shaft 
frequently occur in towers. Three openings, of which the centre 
one is largest, are sometimes grouped together. 

Doorways are deeply recessed and richly ornamented with the 
zigzag ornament and beak-head, as at Iffley Church, Oxon 
(No. 138), or elaborately carved with sculptural subjects, as at 
Barfreston, Kent. 

d. Roofs. — The vaulting was waggon -headed, or intersecting 
with plain groins (No. 112 g). 

The roof-trusses were of open timber, chiefly of king-post form, 


Iffley Church, near Oxford. 
West Front. 






G B!- i _ET,ABBAYE-AUX-DAMES tft 1 '" 

^J)mEBULE,3TPETCBS-AT-C0WT3 (&) itley.oxoh 

I ifll, 



and having an inclination of forty-five degrees, the covering 
being of lead or shingles. The simple framing is either left 
exposed, or has a flat ceiling boarded and decorated. In fact, all 
the existing cathedrals or abbeys of this period had originally 
wooden ceilings, but were vaulted later, as at Gloucester, Exeter, 
and Durham. 

k. Columns. — These are low, massive, and either polygonal 
or circular (No. 135), as at Gloucester, Bristol, and Exeter, while 
at Durham fluting and zigzag channellings were worked on the 
columns, without regard to the courses. Clustered piers, as at 
Peterborough (No. 122), with rectangular recesses, were also used, 
often in conjunction with round piers, as at Durham and Walt ham. 
The small shafts occurring in the recessed orders of doorways 
and windows were sometimes richly ornamented. 

Capitals (Nos. 146 and 148), are usually of the cushion form, 
being sometimes carved and scolloped, but occasionally forms 
reminiscent of Roman architecture occur, as the Ionic example, 
in the White Tower, London (No. 135}. The Corinthian type 
frequently met with in France is rare. 

f. Mouldings. — The ornamented mouldings, as the chevron 
or zigzag, billet, beak-head, nail-head, bowtel, or roil moulding, 
are shown on Nos. 139 and 146, and form a most important 
decorative element in the style. 

Corbel tables, supported by corbels or grotesques, constitute 
crowning features on walls and towers. 

g. Ornament. — The plain treatment of the earlier period was 
succeeded by the highly decorated work of the late period, which 
was richly carved with nail-head, corbel, billet, and other orna- 
mented mouldings (No. 139). 

Wall arcades of intersecting arches (No. 136 b), along the lower 
part of the aisle walls, constituted an effective dado decoration. 

It is probable that hangings were employed in interiors. 
Rudimentary decoration, consisting of black and white, or simple 
colors in stripes, forming lozenge-shaped and other figures 
roughly executed in distemper, produced a bold and not un- 
pleasing effect, as in the roof at Peterborough. Late in the period 
stained glass began to be employed, the glass, in small pieces, being 
chiefly white, leaded together to form patterns, with the addition 
of brown lines. 

A Norman font, piscina and sedilia are shown on No. 144. 


Also known as Lancet, First Pointed, Early Plantagenet, or 
Thirteen Century Style, comprises the reigns of Richard I., 1189- 
1199; John, -1199-1216; Henry III., 1216-1272 ; Edward I., 
1 272- 1 507. * 

The style of this period, shaking itself free from the massive 


Norman, is magnificent and rich, strong in its dependence upon 
proportion, well-defined outline, and simplicity in decoration. 
The long trails of dog-tooth ornament lurking in the dark furrow 
of the channelled recesses, the foliaged capitals and bosses intrud- 
ing their luxuriance upon the mouldings and hollows, and the 
knots of pierced and hanging leaves, extending like some petrified 
garland or bower of filigree work round the arch, almost impart 
life and vegetation to the very stones of these door and window 
openings. The tall and narrow lancet openings give an upward 
tendency to the design, and the boldly projecting buttresses and 
pinnacles, and steeply pitched roofs, mark the exteriors. Inter- 
nally, in place of the massive Norman pillar, slender groups of shafts 
occur connected by bands to the piers. The pointed arch vaults 
are bolder, more elegant, and used more frequently (page 286). 

In London the principal examples are : — 

The round portion of the Temple Church, which may be called 
Transitional, between Norman and Early English. The Eastern 
portion of the Temple Church. The choir, transepts, and first 
four bays of the nave of Westminster Abbey (1 220-1 269), a portion 
of the Cloisters, and the Chapter House, restored (No. 127). 
The Chapel of Lambeth Palace (No. 132 g, h, k). The Choir, 
Lady Chapel, and nave (restored) of S. Mary Overie (S. 
Saviour), Southwark. 

In the Provinces the principal examples are : — 

Salisbury Cathedral (Nos. 121, 122, and 140 d), York (tran- 
septs) (No. 117 b), Lincoln (nave) (No. 117 f), Rochester (choir 
and transepts), Wells (nave and west front), Lichfield, Ely (choir 
transepts and Gallilee Porch, 1198-1218) (No. 136 d), Worcester 
(choir), Bristol (the Elder Lady Chapel). 

a. Plans (No. 117 e).— These varied but little from the 
Norman. The vaulting as it advanced modified the planning, 
as, when pointed arches were finally adopted, nave compart- 
ments were made oblong in place of the former square divisions. 
Flying buttresses were introduced. 

The " broach " spire (No. 140 a, b), in which the upper portion 
rises from the square tower without a parapet, is characteristic. 

b. Walls. — These retain the massiveness characteristic of 
Norman work, but more cut stonework was employed, and less 
rubble filling, the concentration of the weight of the roof and 
vaulting on the buttresses leading to the gradual treatment of 
the walling between as a mere screen. The proportion of opening 
to the piers adjoining is often excellent, as in the transept of 
Salisbury Cathedral. 

Buttresses more pronounced than in the Norman period, 
being generally equal in projection to their width, in order to 
resist the lateral outward pressure of the pointed vaults, and 


were formed into stages by weathered set-offs (Nos. 127 a, b, and 
141 b). Their arrises were often chamfered, and the different 
stages were frequently gabled. Flying or arched buttresses (No. 
141 e) were first utilized in this period, but were not of common 
occurrence till a later period. 

In the interiors the nave arcade usually occupies the lower half 
of the height, the upper half being divided equally between 
triforium and clerestory, as at the choir of Ely, the naves of 
Lichfield (No. 124 c), and Lincoln ; but sometimes, the triforium 
was diminished in order to provide a larger display of glass, as at 
Westminster (No. 127 c) and Salisbury (No. 122 g). 

c. Openings. — Proportions, generally, are more slender than 
in Norman work, and pointed arches came into general use for 
constructive reasons, at first in connection with vaulting, then 
gradually throughout the whole building. 

The doorways are often richly treated, and ornamented with 
carved foliage (No. 143 a). 

Windows (Nos. 122, 136 d, and 142 a, b, c, e, f, g) are of 
lancet form, and tracery was developed, especially the early form 
known as " plate " tracery (No. 142 a, b), so-called because the 
openings were cut through a flat plate of stone. 

Cusps or projecting points of Gothic tracery were introduced in 
the latter part of the Early English style, being let into the soffit 
of the arches in separate small pieces and entirely independent of 
the mouldings. This form of detached cusping is found generally 
in the circular lights, the heads of windows having cusps forming 
part of the tracery itself. The spaces between the cusps are 
known as foils (Lat. folium = a leaf) being trefoil, quatrefoil or 
cinquefoil when having three, four or five openings. 

Narrow lancet windows are grouped in two, three, or even 
five lights, as in the " Five Sisters" in the north transept, York 
(page 316), the glass being usually kept near the exterior of the 
wall, making the inside jamb very deep. 

d. Roofs. — These are steeper than in the last period, approach- 
ing the shape of an equilateral triangle, i.e., sixty degrees. The 
framing was exposed where there was no vaulted ceiling. The 
braces were used to form a waggon shape, or semicircular ribs were 
employed, when the close setting of the flat rafters produces the effect 
of barrel vaulting. (Vaulting, see page 286, and Nos. 1 1 1 and 1 12.) 

e. Columns. — Piers consist of a central circular, or octagonal 
shaft, surrounded by smaller detached columns (No. 146), often 
of polished Purbeck marble, held in place by bands at intervals, 
as at Salisbury (No. 123) and Westminster Abbey. 

Capitals were frequently moulded, so as to produce fine bold 
shadows (No. 146), or carved with conventional foliage (No. 148), 
placed on the bell or lower portion of the capital. The normal 
abacus is circular on plan. 

f.a. z 


TheEwujtiom GOTHIC SPIRES im 









f. Mouldings. — These are bold, deeply undercut, and often of 
pear-shaped section, following the outline of the rectangular 
recesses (No. 146). The chiselled dog-tooth succeeded the axed 
nail head decoration of the X or man period. 

g. Ornament. — The most characteristic ornament is the dog- 
tooth, which was generally placed in hollow mouldings, and was 
used in great profusion (Xos. 143 and 147). The chisel was 
generally used, taking the place of the axe in the Early Norman 

Carved foliage is conventional, and crisp and fine in treatment 
(No. 147), typical examples consisting of convex curling masses, 
known as " stiff leaf foliage." 

Flat surfaces are often richly diapered (see Glossary, page 691), 
as in Westminster Abbey (No. 127). 

Sculptured figures of large size were used, and placed in niches 
with canopies over them. The west front of Wells (1 206-1242) 
has 300 statues, being a grand composition where sculpture is 
fully combined with architecture. 

In regard to color work, it has been suggested that the carved 
diapers of this and the next period are copies in stone of the hang- 
ings or painted decorations of the previous period. There is 
ground for believing that such carved diapers were colored, as 
was the case with Greek and Roman ornament. 

Stained glass rapidly increased in importance, the pieces 
being small and leaded up in patterns so as almost to suggest 
the cubic formation of mosaic. A general tone of color pervades 
the window's, and an unrivalled deep and violet-like blue was a 
favourite tint, as in the fine thirteenth century glass at Canterbury 

Examples of an Early English font, piscina, sedilia, and taber- 
nacle are shown on No. 144, and a gable cross, finial, sculptured 
vaulting bosses, and carved bracket on No. 149. 

In the Early English and following periods, exquisite decora- 
tive art was produced in such works as the Psalters, Missals, 
Books of Hours and Chronicles, in which the huntsman, fisher- 
man, shepherd, labourer, scribe, saint, king, knight and monk 
were represented, forming a valuable record of contemporary 
life. The Mediaeval Room at the British Museum contains 
examples of armour metalwork, ivory and woodcarving, caskets, 
rings and utensils, illustrative of the ornamental art of the 


also known as the Geometrical and Curvilinear, Middle Pointed, 
Edwardian, Later Plantagenet, or Fourteenth Century Style, 
comprises the reigns of Edward II., 1307 -1327, Kdward III. 
I3 2 7- J 377- 




The general appearance, although there is an increasing rich- 
ness of ornamentation, is simple, from the small number of parts, 
and magnificent, from the size of the windows filled in with 
geometrical and flowing tracery. Clerestories were enlarged at 
the expense of the triforium. Vaulting ribs were more numerous 
and complex than in the previous style, the vault becoming a main 
feature in the effect of the interiors. 

In London the principal examples are : — 

Westminster Abbey (three bays of the eastern cloister walk 
and the polygonal chapter house) ; the Chapel of S. Etheldreda, 
Ely Place, Holborn, and the Dutch Church, Austin Friars. 

In the Provifices the principal examples are : — 

Lincoln Cathedral (nave and east end, including angel choir, 
1 260- 1 280), Ely Cathedral (the eastern portion), York 
Cathedral (the choir, west front and chapter house), Exeter 
and Lichfield Cathedrals (naves), S. Albans (choir), Salisbury, 
Wells, and Southwell (the polygonal chapter houses), Stone 
Church, Kent, and the Eleanor Crosses. 

a. Plans. — The new plans were set out with a wider spacing 
in the bays, more noticeable in parish churches than in cathedrals 
already started in earlier periods. The progress of vaulting 
regulated the planning of the piers, and was in itself strongly 
influenced by the increased size of the openings required to 
exhibit stained glass. In domestic architecture the " Hall " was 
highly developed, as at Westminster and Penshurst (No. 132). 

Several of the great central towers were now carried up, as 
Salisbury (Nos. 116 a, 121 and 140 d), Lincoln (Nos. 116 Band 125), 
and Lichfield (No. 116 f). 

Spires, usually octagonal, are lofty, and the " broach " form, 
characteristic of the thirteenth century, gradually gave way to 
parapets with angle pinnacles (No. 140 c, d, e). Spire-lights are 
ornamented with crockets (No. 147 k), and ribs occur on the angles 
of the tapering spires. 

b. Walls. — The increased size of the traceried windows, and 
the importance of the buttresses are characteristic of the style, 
and the extension of tracery to the walls in the shape of panelling 
was now introduced. 

Buttresses occur with offsets in stages, and in later periods are 
ornamented with niches (No. 141 c) and crocketed canopies, as 
in the exterior of Lincoln (No. 125). Angle buttresses, set 
diagonally, were introduced in this period. 

Parapets were often pierced with flowing tracery (No. 147 n), 
but this was especially a French feature, the English generally 
keeping to the battlemented form (No, 147 m). 

c. Openings. — The proportions of height to width are less 
lofty than in the Early English period. 



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Windows (Nos. 137 and 142) are large, and divided by mullions 
into two or more lights. Tracery at first consisted of geometric 
forms, as in the cloisters of Salisbury, the choir clerestories of 
Ely, Lincoln, and Lichfield, and the nave of York. In the latter 
part of the period it was ".flowing " in character as in the choirs 
of Ely (No. 137 f) and Wells. 

The cusps, which in the Early English style were often planted 
on, in this period were cut out of the stone forming the tracery. 

Doorways (No. 143) are ornamented with engaged shafts, and 
have jambs of less depth than in the Early English style. 

Arches were formed by being struck from the points of equilateral 
triangles, or even of lower proportion (No. 299 1). The ogee arch 
(No. 299 v) was also used. 

The enlargement of clerestory windows proceeded pari passu 
with the diminution in height of the triforium (No. 137 f). 

d. Roofs. — These are of moderate pitch, and sometimes have 
open framing, of which Eltham Palace and S. Etheldreda, Ely 
Place, Holborn, are good examples. (Vaulting, see page 287 and 
No. 112.) 

e. Columns. — Piers are sometimes diamond-shaped on plan, 
with engaged shafts (No. 146). Small shafts, surrounding and 
attached to a central column, were a development from the Early 

The capitals, when moulded, are similar to those in the Early 
English style, but not so deeply undercut (No. 146). When 
carved, the foliage is more naturalistic, and resembles the leaves 
of the oak, ivy, maple, or vine (No. 148 g). 

f. Mouldings. — Hollow mouldings are ornamented with the 
ball-flower (No. 147 c), which is specially characteristic of the 
style, other mouldings being shown on Nos. 143 and 146. 

Cornices and dripstones often have their deep hollows filled 
with foliage and carving, and are ornamented with crockets 
(No. 147 k). 

Dripstones are finished with carved heads or grotesques, as at 
Cley Church, Norfolk (No. 143). 

"The carved angels, ever eager eyed 
Stared, where upon their heads the cornice rests, 
With hair blown back, and wings put crosswise on their breasts. "' 


Base mouldings to walls are strongly marked, as seen in the 
exterior of Lincoln (No. 125). 

g. Ornament. — Carved foliage in this period is generally 
naturalistic, and consists of seaweed, ivy, oak, and vine leaves, 
and the well-known tablet flower (Nos. 147 and 148). 

Stained glass led to a great extension of window openings, and 
the development of tracery. In itself it lost the mosaic character 


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and became more translucent, the pieces being larger, and lighter 
in tone. The subjects portrayed became of more importance, 
and there was a loss in the general decorative effect of the interior, 
but the glass in itself gained in value and expression. 

"The deep-set windows, stained and traced, 
Would seem slow-flaming crimson fires." 

Fittings, more especially in wood, as screens, choir stalls, pews, 
and pulpits, began to acquire character and importance. 

Shrines and tombs in masonry are elaborate and beautiful 
adjuncts to the interiors of the cathedrals and large churches, 
and the crockets and finials to pinnacles and canopies increased 
in importance and gave additional richness to buildings of this 
period (Nos. 143 d, 147 k). 

Examples of a decorated font, piscina, tabernacle and sedilia, 
are shown on No. 144, a brass eagle lectern on No. 145, and a 
gable cross, finial and boss on No. 149. 


also known as the Rectilinear, Late Pointed, Lancastrian or 
Fifteenth Century Style, comprises the reigns of Richard II., 
I 377" I 399f Henry IV., 1399-1413, Henry V., 1413-1422, 
Henry VI., 1422-1461, Edward IV., 1461-1483, Edward V., 
1483, Richard III., 1483-1^485, Henry VII., 1485-1509, 
Henry VIII., 1509-1547, Edward VI., I547" I 553> Mary, 1553- 

The general appearance varies much in earlier and later work, 
the latter being overladen with panelling, the main lines in a 
perpendicular direction predominating. 

The windows, owing to their immense size, were strengthened 
by transoms in tiers (Nos. 137 g and 142), by primary and secondary 
mullions,and, in some great east end windows, by an inner structure 
forming a gallery across the window, as at York. The triforium 
practically disappeared owing to height of nave arcade and flat- 
ness of aisle roofs, the clerestory and aisle windows being of 
great size. 

The architecture of the last four reigns is frequently known as 
" Tudor" architecture (page 356). 

In London the principal examples are : — Henry VII. 's Chapel 
(Nos. 127, 128 and 129) fa most perfect example), the southern 
and western portion of the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, S. 
Margaret, Westminster, Porch (with vaulting) S. Sepulchre's 
Church, Holborn, the Savoy Chapel in the Strand, Westminster 
Hall, and Crosby Hall, London. 





In the Provittces the principal examples are : — The west fronts 
of Winchester, Gloucester, and Beverley ; S. George's Chapel, 
Windsor (Nos. 70 l and 133), Sherborne Minster, and King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge (No. 70 m). 

" Thi; immense anil glorious work of fine intelligence. " 


Other examples are in the Cathedrals of Canterbury (nave), 
York (choir), Gloucester (transept, choir, and cloisters), Win- 
chester (nave remodelled) (Nos. 124, 137 g), and the Beauchamp 
Chapel at Warwick ; towers at Gloucester and Canterbury, and 
many of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge (page 324), and 
numerous mansions throughout the country. 

a. Plans. — Owing to the great building era that had preceded 
this period, ecclesiastical work consisted mostly of restorations or 
additions. In church planning there was a decrease in the size 
of the piers, and a tendency to throw all pressures upon the 
buttresses, which have often great depth. 

Towers are numerous and important, and were generally 
erected without a spire, as the Bell Tower, Evesham (1533). 
When a spire occurs, it rises behind a parapet, as at S. Peter, 
Kettering, Northants (No. 140 f). 

(The plans of castles and houses have been referred to on 
pages 318 and 322). 

b. Walls. — These were profusely ornamented with panelling 
(Nos. 128, 137 g), resembling tracery of windows, as at 
Henry VI I .'s Chapel, which may be taken as the most elaborate 
specimen of the style. 

The use of flint as a wall facing, for panels in conjunction 
with stone tracery, in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, was 

Parapets are embattled or panelled (No. 147), and often very 
rich, as at Merton College, Oxford. 

Buttresses project boldly, being sometimes deep enough in pro- 
jection to allow of a chapel being placed between, as at King's 
College, Cambridge. They are also panelled with tracery, as 
at Henry VII. *s Chapel (No. 128), and are crowned with finials 
(Nos. 124 d, e, and 128), which are often richly ornamented with 

Flying buttresses are common and are often pierced, as at 
Henry VIl.'s Chapel (No. 128). 

c. Openings. — Arches in the early period inclose an equi- 
lateral triangle (No. 299) ; they were afterwards obtusely pointed, 
or struck from four centres (Nos. 133 and 299), sometimes 
inclosed in a square hood-moulding above the head (No. 143), 



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the spandrels thus formed being filled with tracery or carving 
(No. 148 M, n). 

Windows consist mainly of mullions producing a perpendicular 
effect, hence the name of the period. The earliest are probably 
those at Winchester Cathedral (No. 124), executed under William 
of Wykeham, and having mullions continued vertically their 
whole height (Nos. 137 g and 142), stopping against the main 
arch, and strengthened by horizontal transoms. In many cases 
they are of enormous size, converting the west end into a wall of 
glass, as at S. George's Chapel, Windsor (No. 133), the east 
window at Gloucester (38 feet wide by 72 feet high), and King's 
College Chapel (No. 142 o). 

Doorways were generally finished with a 9quare label over the 
arch, and the spandrel filled with ornament, as shown in the 
doorway of Merton College, Oxford (No. 143 j). 

Lofty clerestories are general, and the space of the triforium 
(Nos. 124 f and 137 g) is occupied by panels, as at S. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, or by niches for statuary, as at Henry VI I. 's 

d. Roofs. — Open timber roofs of low pitch and of the hammer- 
beam construction abound ; they were often richly ornamented 
with carved figures of angels, and with pierced tracery (No. 113), 
many examples existing in Norfolk. The roof of Westminster 
Hall (No. 113 h), erected in 1399, covers an area of nearly half 
an acre, being one of the largest roofs unsupported by pillars in 
the world. The later roofs in the style became nearly flat 
(Nos. 70 j and 133). 

Fan vaulting (No. 112) is characteristic of the later periods 
(page 288), Henry VII.'s Chapel (No. 129), King's College 
Chapel, Cambridge, and S. George's Chapel, Windsor, as well 
as the vaults of the central towers of Canterbury and Gloucester 
Cathedrals, are well-known examples. 

e. Columns. — Piers (No. 146) are generally oblong on plan, 
and placed diagonally with their greater dimension north and 
south, caused by the vaulting shaft being taken up from the 
ground, on the front of the pier and not between the arches. 

The characteristic pier consists of four circular shafts connected 
by hollows, and with two fillets, these mouldings being carried 
round the arch. 

Capitals are sometimes polygonal on plan, and few have the 
abacus and bell perfectly denned, the mouldings being weaker 
and less effective (No. 146). Carved capitals have foliage of 
conventional character, shallow and square in outline (No. 148 l). 

Bases to piers are often polygonal on plan and a typical 
moulding is the "bracket" mould (No. 146^). 

f. Mouldings. — These were arranged on diagonal planes 
(No. 146), being wide and shallow, and often large and coarse. 

F.A. A A 

354 comparative architecture* 

Pier mouldings are often continued up from the base, and 
round the arch without the intervention of capitals. 

Crestings occur along the top of cornice mouldings (No. 147), 
and diminutive battlements along the transoms of windows. 

g. Ornament. — Canopies are often of ogee character, enriched 
with crockets (No. 128). 

Ornaments and sculptured foliage, usually conventional in 
character, are shown in Nos. 147 and 148* The special orna* 
hients of the period are the Tudor rose, the portcullis, and the 
fleur-de-lis, all of which were used unsparingly (see Henry VII.'s 
Chapel) (No. 128), especially as ornaments in square panels. 

Wooden chancel screens are very numerous, the upper part 
being divided by mullions. supporting tracery, and the whole was 
elaborately treated with panelling, niches, statues, and pinnacles ; 
also with the Tudor flower cresting (No. 147 g). 

The misereres under the choir-stalls of the period were carved 
with delicate foliage, grotesques, and flowers, and the bench ends 
with poppy-heads (No. 149 o, p). 

The tendency was to obtain ornamental motifs in decoration, by 
the application of features on a small scale, the tracery of windows 
being repeated on the walls as blank panelling (Nos. 128, 133, and 
137 g), and battlements being carved along the cornices. The 
golden tinge produced by silver stain, used along with white glass, 
gave contrast to the painted canopies of architectural character 
usually inclosing single figures. In very late examples, as at 
King's College, Cambridge, gorgeousness of coloring exists with 
great confusion of form and subject, the general design becoming 
more pictorial, and perspective being introduced, thus breaking 
away from the conditions imposed by the material. This return 
to color, however, prevented any such completeness of one tone 
effect, as in the early work. Color decoration was freely employed 
on roofs, screens, pulpits, and other fittings, as in the churches 
of Norfolk, Suffolk and elsewhere. 

Examples of a Perpendicular font, piscina and sediliaare shown 
on No. 144; a pew-end, pulpits, a rood-loft, parclose-screen and 
chantry on No. 145; and a gable cross, sanctus bell, finial, 
pendant, boss, and poppy-heads on No. 149. 


The various phases of English architecture from the time of 
the Romans to the reign of Henry VII. have been dealt with. 
In the fifteenth century the Renaissance of literature in Italy 
was taking place, and it became the fashion to read the Latin 
authors. Architecture, painting, and sculpture followed in the 
train of literature, and the generation that wrote and spoke 
the Latin tongue desired to build in the style of ancient 


Rome. The Revived style naturally originated in Italy, 
because there the Gothic style had never, at any time, taken a 
very firm hold, and because of the precedent afforded by the 
numerous Roman ruins. From Italy it spread to France and 
England ; and the special forms it took, in these countries, 
will be considered under the head of Renaissance architecture. 
It is exemplified in the more or less debased but picturesque 
styles of each country, effected by Renaissance details being 
grafted on to the native Gothic style. Tudor architecture 
(page 349) is the style prevalent during the reigns of Henry VII., 
Henry VIII., Edward VI. and Mary, in which the influence 
of the Renaissance movement is noticeable, for it is the work of 
those trained in Gothic art, but probably under the direction of 
a designer familiar with the new features of the Renaissance, and 
in some examples the designs for the details and mouldings would 
seem to have been made by a foreign artist. The Tudor style 
was followed by the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles, 
described under English Renaissance (page 551), in which may 
be traced the increased influence of the old Roman architecture, 
until the Early Renaissance architecture, finally shaking itself 
clear of incongruities, developed into the Anglo- Classic or Later 
Renaissance of Inigo Jones, and Sir Christopher Wren. The 
process, however, was slow, and Gothic structures, more or less 
debased, were erected late into the sixteenth century. 


Addy (S. O.).— " The Evolution of the English House." 8vo. 1899. 

Bloxam (M. H.). — " Principles of Gothic Ecclesiastical Architecture." 
3 vols., 8vo. 1882. 

Bowman (H.) and Crowther (T. S.).— " Churches of the Middle Ages." 
2 vols., folio. 1857. 

Brandon (R. and J. A.). — "Analysis of Gothic Architecture." 1847. 

Brandon. — " Open Timber Roofs of the Middle Ages." 4to. i860. 

Brandon. — " Parish Churches." 2 vols., 4to. 1858. 

Britton (J.). — " Cathedral Antiquities." 13 vols, in 6, 4to. 1814-1835. 

Britton (J.). — "Architectural Antiquities." 5 vols., 4to. 1807-1826. 

Brown (Prof. G. Baldwin). — " The Arts in Early England." 2 vols., 
8vo. 1903. Vol. 2 deals with Ecclesiastical Architecture from the 
Conversion of the Saxons to the Norman Conquest. 

Collings (J. K.). — "Details of Gothic Architecture." 2 vols., 4to. 1846. 

Collings. — u Gothic Ornaments." 2 vols., 4to. 1848-1850. 

Collings. — " English Mediaeval Foliage and Colour Decoration." 4to. 

Cottingham (L. N.). — " Plans, Elevations, and Details of the Interior of 
Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster." 2 vols., folio. 1822. 

Dollman (F. T.). — " Analysis of Ancient Domestic Architecture." 
2 vols., 4to. 1863. 

Johnson (J.), Sharpe (E.) and Kersev (A. H.). — "Churches of Nene 
Valley, Northants." 1880. 


Neale (J. P.). — " History and Antiquities of the Abbey Church of 
St. Peter, Westminster.*' 2 vols., 4to. 18 18. 

Neale (J.).—" The Abbey Church of St. Alban, Hertfordshire." 1877. 

Paley (E. G.).— "Gothic Mouldings." 8vo. 1891. 

Parker (J. H.). — "Glossary of Terms used in Gothic Architecture." 
3 vols., 8vo. 1830. 

Parker. — " Introduction to the Study of Gothic Architecture." 1900. 

Prior (E. S.). — "A History of Gothic Art in England." 8vo. 1900. 

Pngin (A. and A. W.). — "Examples of Gothic Architecture." 1838. 

Pugin (A.). — " Specimens of Gothic Architecture." 2 vols., 4to. 1821. 

Rickman (T.).— " Gothic Architecture." 8vo. 1881. 

Scott (Sir G. Gilbert). — "Lectures on Mediaeval Architecture." 1879. 

Scott (G. G.).— " An Essay on the History of English Church Architec- 
ture." 4to. 1 88 1. 

Sharpe (E.).— " Seven Periods of English Architecture." 8vo. 1870. 

Sharpe. — " Architectural Parallels."' Large folio. 1848. 

Sharpe. — " Mouldings ofthe Six Periods of British Architecture." 1871-74. 

Sharpe. — "A Treatise on the Rise and Progress of Window Tracery in 
England." 2 vols., 8vo. 1849. 

Statham (H. H.), Editor.—" Cathedrals of Englandand Wales." (The 
"Builder" Series.) Folio. 1898. This work is specially valuable on 
account of its splendid series of plans to a large scale. 

Turner (T. H.) and Parker (J. H.). — " Some Account of the Domestic 
Architecture in England during the Middle Ages." 3 vols., 8vo. 1859- 1877. 

Walcott (M. E. C.). — " Church and Conventual Arrangement." i860. 

Wickes (C). — " Spires and Towers of the Mediaeval Churches of Eng- 
land." 3 vols., folio. 1853-1859. 

Willis (R.).— " Vaults of the Middle Ages." (Trans. R.I.B.A.) 1842. 

Historical Novels : 

Roman Occupation. — Cutts (E. L.). " The Villa of Claudius." 

Anglo-Saxon. — Creswick (P.). " Under the Black Raven." 

Norman (wth Cent.). — Blake ( M. M.). " The Siege of Norwich Castle." 

Norman {12th Cent.).— Scott (Sir W.). " Ivanhoe." 

Early English (13//& Cent.).— Green (E. E.) " A Clerk of Oxford." 

Decorated (14/// Cent.). — Fairless (M.). "The Gathering of Brother 

Perpendicular (15/A Cent.). — Lytton. " The Last of the Barons." 
Perpendicular (16th Cent., \st half). — Ainsworth (H.). "Windsor 


Note. — A careful study of the buildings themselves is necessary 
to appreciate thoroughly the progress of the style, and many 
being within the reach of the student, measured drawings 
and sketches should be made of these, which will impress 
the different features on the mind more thoroughly than study 
solely from books. 

In London, besides the examples already mentioned after 
each period, an important collection of architectural casts of 
each period can be seen at the Royal Architectural Museum, 
Tufton Street, Westminster, the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
and the Crystal Palace. 


George HebjotIs i 

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HffitL V.'--Iir, ,-,l.;. fl [MIC, i.'.H'f.illH :■ 

M IWTOI3 mure i -fir, »;? ST ;p 


Architecture in Scotland followed on much the same lines as 
in England, until the middle of the fifteenth century, when it 
took a more national turn. Inspiration was largely drawn from 
abroad, especially from France, with which country there was a 
close political connection, causing a picturesque and interesting 
development on French lines, especially after Robert Bruce 
(a.d. i 306-1 329) finally secured the independence of Scotland. 
In Melrose Abbey is to be seen the influence of French and 
Spanish Art, while in Rosslyn Chapel Portuguese influence is 
apparent, for it is very similar in detail to the Church of Belem 
near Lisbon. The most important Cathedrals are those of 
Edinburgh (S. Giles), Glasgow (No. 120 d) (having no transepts 
but a famous crypt), S. Andrew, Kirkwall, Dunblane, Aberdeen 
and Elgin, and the Abbeys of Kelso, Melrose, Dunfermline, Holy- 
rood and Dry burgh are the best known. In these the lancet 
window, either singly or in groups, was used long after it had 
been discontinued in England, while in the later period the 
Flamboyant tracery of French Gothic was followed in preference 
to the Perpendicular style of English Gothic. 

The Pele or bastle houses were of the tower class, with pro- 
jecting turrets at angles, and consisted of single rooms one over 
the other, accessible by " turnpike" or winding stairs. 

The "corbie" or "crow-stepped" gable was used in prefer- 
ence to the straight -sided gable of England. In vaulted roofs 
a continuous barrel vault with surface ribs was occasionally 

Scotland is specially rich in castles and mansions of the Gothic 
period, which possess distinctive character, and in which stone 
was almost universally employed. In these a picturesque use of 
circular towers, vast height of walls, treated in a simple, and 
almost bare, manner, and the planning of the buildings at different 
angles, are characteristic. 

On No. 151 is given a series of plans and sketches of different 
types of buildings showing the national character of Scottish 


Billings 'R. W.,. — " Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of 
Scotland."' 4 vols., 410. i8j8. 

Mac Gibbon D . and Ross T. - — "The Castellated and Domestic 
Architecture of Scotland/' 5 rois.. 8vo. 18^7. 

Mac Gibbon (D.) and Ross T.,.-- 4i Ecclesiastical Architecture of 
Scotland. 9 3 vols.. 8vo. i£y6. 

''Edinburgh Architectural Association. Sketch Book/* 187^-1^4. 

"Glasgow Architectural Association. Sketch Book.'" 3 vols. J ^.5. 

Pinches F. f . — "The A Vrxry Church of Melrose." Folio. i^7>" 


Celtic Architecture. — The chief interest lies in the remains 
of the Celtic Architecture erected from the sixth century to the 
English Conquest in 1169. 

The early Churches were extremely small, and appear to have 
been used principally as oratories, where the priest could officiate, 
and to which a small square chancel was attached. The naves 
were covered with barrel vaults, over which was a hollow chamber 
called an "overcroft," covered by a steep pitched roof, generally 
of stone, as at Cormac's Chapel, Cashel (a.d. i 127-1 134) (No. 152), 
probably the finest example in Ireland, S. Kevin's Kitchen, 
Glendalough, and other places. Windows appear to have been 

The Monasteries form another class of building, and the 
Rev. Prof. Stokes refers to a group of seven small churches 
found at Inchleraun, similar to some in Asia Minor and elsewhere. 
The monastic cells at the Skellings are peculiar, being of beehive 
form, with domed stone roofs in horizontal courses, as in the early 
work in Greece at Mycenae (No. 15) and elsewhere. 

The Round Towers generally detached and placed near the 
Church, have been a subject of much controversy, but the 
generally accepted view, originated by Mr. George Petrie, is that 
they were used as treasure houses, refuges, bell towers, and for 
displaying lamps at night time, or were probably erected as 
symbols of power. They taper slightly towards the summit and 
are crowned with either a conical (No. 152 g) or battlemented 
covering (No. 152 j). The entrance doorway was several feet 
from the ground. 

Mediaeval Architecture. — Within the English domain the 
influence of Continental art was felt during the Middle Ages, but 
few monuments of importance were erected. The Cathedrals of 
Dublin (No. 120 a), Kildare and Cashel, were the most important, 
but the absence of parish churches is remarkable. The Monas- 
teries and Friaries (principally Franciscan) are small, usually 
having a nave and choir, probably some time divided by a wooden 
screen, a transept and southern aisle, cloisters, and a tower, which 
was added in the fifteenth century. The best known are those 
at Cashel, Kilconnel, and Muckross. 

Owing to the disturbances in Elizabethan times there is no 
domestic architecture of note, but the earlier castles built by the 
Chieftains are interesting. 


Dunraven (Earl of). — " Notes on Irish Architecture." 1875- 1877. 
Hill (A.). — " Monographs on Ardfert Cathedral, Co. Kerry.'' 
Petrie (G.). — " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland." 8vo. 1845. 
Stokes (M.). — " Early Christian Architecture in Ireland." 8vo. 187$. 


'^ IV- 



(See page 246 for French Romanesque.) 

" Graceful, grotesque, with ever new surprise 
Of hazardous caprices sure to please, 
Heavy as nightmare, airy, light as fern, 
Imagination's very self in stone." — Lowell. 


i. Geographical. — France may be divided architecturally, 
into North and South, by the River Loire, to the north of which 
were settled the Franks, while to the south were settled the 
Romance race. (See page 248.) 

ii. Geological. — The excellent building stone found near Caen 
aided in the development of the northern Gothic style, and in the 
mountainous districts of Auvergne the use of colored volcanic 
material gave a decorative character to the buildings of that 
district. (See pages 246, 248.) 

iii. Climate. — (See page 246 in French Romanesque.) 

iv. Religion. — Religious zeal, which resulted in the erection 
of so many grand cathedrals, was manifested also in the 
Crusades, Louis IX. leading the fourth (1 248-1 254). The clergy 
as a corporate body reached the summit of their power and 
influence, such being largely due to their championship of justice 
and their adhesion to the royal cause. The Abb6 Suger, the 
minister of Louis VII. ( 1 1 37-1 180), who may be styled the Cardinal 
Wolsey of the period, exercised much influence on church build- 
ing. Rome remained the controlling spirit, though local liberties 
were not all swallowed up in centralization. The introduction 
of various special cults gave fame to certain chapels and shrines, 
which as pilgrimage centres acquired both wealth and importance, 
which are expressed in the richness of their architectural treatment. 

The zeal with which the urban populations set about building 
cathedrals has been compared by Viollet-le-Duc to the commercial 
movement which has covered Europe with railways. 


The crusade against the Albigenses (see below) was a move- 
ment against Christians who had been declared by the Pope to be 
heretics, and the next stage was to carry on a religious war 
against all who were considered to be enemies of the Papacy. 

v. Social and Political. — Previous to the commencement of 
this period (a.d. 987), France was inhabited by races of people 
who, widely differing from each other, and governed by different 
rulers, were at constant war. 

In continuation of the Romanesque style, the Gothic archi- 
tecture of France, varies considerably in different parts of 
the country, such being due to political environment, to the 
separation of the various parts by different languages and customs, 
and to the Roman remains, which naturally gave a classical tone 
to any new architectural development in the southern districts 
where they were principally found. 

vi. Historical. — The real beginning of the modern kingdom 
of France may be said to commence with Hugh Capet, who was 
chosen king in 987, with the title " King of the French. " 

Philip Augustus (1 180-1223) after declaring John, King of 
England, to have forfeited all the fiefs he held of the French crown, 
proceeded to conquer Normandy, and all John's possessions in 
Northern Gaul, with the exception of Aquitaine. Philip next 
defeated the combined forces of English, Germans, and Flemings 
at the Battle of Bovines in 1214. Owing to the power of France 
at this time, the English barons offered the crown of England 
to Philip's eldest son Louis, to whom, as Louis VIII., the French 
crown afterwards passed. Louis IX., called S. Louis on 
account of his goodness, largely increased the power of the crown, 
but died at Tunis in 1270, when setting out on his last crusade. 

As a consequence of the crusade preached against the 
Albigenses by Pope Innocent, the dominions of the Counts of 
Toulouse were conquered by S. Louis in 1229, F ranee thus 
obtaining a sea-board on three seas, viz : — the Mediterranean, 
Atlantic, and the English Channel. 

The development and consolidation of the French kingdom 
thus corresponds with the great cathedral-building epoch of the 
thirteenth century. 


The main idea or prevailing principle of Gothic architecture 
in France was the same as in other parts of Europe (page 268), 
the vertical and aspiring tendency being accentuated by great 
internal height, high-pitched roofs, numerous spires (with crockets), 
pinnacles, flying buttresses, and the long lines of the tall traceried 
windows (Nos. 154, 158, 160, 161 and 162). 


french gothic. 
Comparative Views 
of Models of 
Continental Cathedrals. 

c. Antwerp. 

d. Notre Dame, 



French gothic. 

Notre Dame, Paris 
West Front. 


The stvle is divided bv M. de Caumont into: — 
(1.) Primary (Gothique) or thirteenth century. 
(2,) Secondary (Rayonnant, from the characteristic wheel 

tracery of the rose windows) or fourteenth century. 
(3.) Tertiary (Flamboyant) or fifteenth century. 
It is proposed, however, on account of space, to consider the 
subject as one continuous development — as, in fact, it really was — 
and to compare it where necessary with English Gothic. 




All the great cathedrals, numbering about 150, were erected in 
the first half of the thirteenth century, principally by funds 
provided by the laity, and not as parts of monastic establishments, 
and in consequence vary considerably in plan and arrangement 
from English cathedrals. 

The French cathedrals, in situation and surroundings, are also 
in marked contrast (page 299) with English examples (Nos. 121 
and 162), and are referred to by Browning, who talks of that 

" Grim town, 
Whose cramp'd, ill-featured streets huddled about 
The minster for protection, never out 
Of its black belfry's shade and its bells' roar." 

Ndtre Dame, Paris, 1163-1214 (Nos. 153 b, 154 d, 156, 157 
and 158), is one of the oldest of French Gothic cathedrals. The 
plan is typical in having a wide central nave with double aisles, 
transepts of small projection (being practically in a line with 
the side aisles), and the chevet arrangement with its double aisles 
and exterior chapels. The west front (No. 156) is the grandest 
composition in France, the western gable to the nave being 
hidden by a pierced screen, connecting the two western towers. 
The three deeply recessed western portals, the range of statues in 
niches, and the circular wheel window, are all characteristic 

The lateral facades are spoilt by chapels having been placed 
between the buttresses. 

Bourges Cathedral (commenced a.d. 1190) is chiefly remark- 
able as possessing no transepts, for its shortness in comparison 
with its width, and its general resemblance in plan to N6tre 
Dame, Paris. It has five aisles, in three different heights, the 
central being 117 feet, resembling Milan Cathedral (No. 176), 
though in a different gradation. The vast nave of extreme 
height and with length unbroken by projecting transepts, 
presents an imposing appearance. The view westwards from 


taxhr (§)H«Cu»Sktion glnntl 

*~ m B" 

_g«rc lfS2!E3*^S^_s jn. 


Notre Dame, Paris 
Interior, looking East. 


Amiens Cathedral. 


the east end is striking, owing to the picturesque confusion of 
innumerable flying buttresses, pinnacles, and other features. 

Chartres Cathedral (i 194-1260) (Nos. no e and 155 k) has a 
plan peculiar in having strongly marked transepts, each crowned 
with two towers, which with the two western and two contem- 
plated eastern towers would have made eight. The cathedral is 
remarkable for the fine statuary to the north and south porches 
(No. 165 a), the rose window to the northern transept, and the 
flying buttresses of three arches one above the other, the two 
lower being connected by radiating balusters resembling the spokes 
of a wheel. 

Rheims Cathedral (1212-1241) (Nos. 155 and 161) has a fine 
plan, the west front having three deeply recessed portals richly 
ornamented with sculpture, and enclosed with richly ornamented 
gables. The upper portion has a row of statues in tabernacles 
carried between the two towers instead of the open tracery arrange- 
ment seen in N6tre Dame. The flying buttresses (No. 141 h) 
show the arrangement adopted over a double aisle, in which the 
thrust of the nave vault is transmitted by arches to piers weighted 
by pinnacles and statuary. 

Amiens Cathedral (1220-1288) (Nos. 154, 159 and 160) is gene- 
rally referred to as having the typical French Cathedral plan, but the 
side chapels to the nave placed between the buttresses are a later 
addition. The interior is 140 feet high to the stone vaulting, and 
the roof of the nave is over 200 feet in height. The western 
facade somewhat resembles Notre Dame and Rheims. The great 
central fleche of timber and lead is shown on No. 165. 

Bayeux Cathedral (twelfth century) is remarkable for its 
twenty-two chapels and immense crypt under the sanctuary, dating 
from the eighth to the eleventh century. 

Coutances Cathedral (No. 162) was erected a.d. i 254-1 274, 
and is specially famous for the excellent design of the two western 
towers and spires, and the octagonal lantern over the crossing of 
nave and transepts. 

Noyon Cathedral (1 157-1228) with a peculiar plan resem- 
bling a combination of the German triapsal plan, and the French 
chevet ; Troyes Cathedral (1214-fifteenth century), a fine five- 
aisled example with eastern chevet and rich western facade ; 
Soissons Cathedral (1160-1212); Laon Cathedral (1150- 
1200), exceptional in having an English type of plan and group 
of six towers; and Rouen Cathedral (1202-1220), with rich 
western towers of a later period and iron- central spire, are other 
well-known early examples. 

The Sainte Chapelle, Paris (1 244-1 247), built by S. Louis, 
in which the space between the buttresses is occupied by windows 
15 feet wide and 50 feet high, is often quoted as a typical Gothic 
structure. The plan (^No. 155 in was in size similar to that of 


(El Ms Cathedral. 

West Front. 


Coutascks Catiiki 
West Front. 


S. Stephen, Westminster (No. 119 l), since destroyed for the 
rebuilding of Westminster Palace. It has a richly vaulted 
crypt, and such characteristic French features as the apsidal 
termination and the high stone-vaulted roof. 

Among later examples in the north of France, mostly in the 
Flamboyant style, are : — 

S. Oucn, Rouen (1318-1515), the choir (1318-1339) being 
contemporary with that of Cologne, S. Maclou, Rouen (1432- 
1500), probably the richest Flamboyant example in France, 
S. Jacques, Dieppe (1350-1440), and S. Wulfrand, Abbe- 
ville (1488-1534). 

In the south of France many buildings were erected during the 
Middle Ages, differing from these northern cathedrals in plan and 
design owing to the proximity of Roman buildings. 

Albi Cathedral (1282-15 12), a fortress church, consists of a 
large impressive vaulted hall with an apsidal end, and having a 
series of flanking chapels separated by internal buttresses. It 
possesses an unrivalled fifteenth century rood screen. 

Beauvais Cathedral was originally built 1 225-1 272, but was 
partly reconstructed 1 337-1 347, the transepts being added in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. This building was never com- 
pleted beyond the choir and chevet and the transepts. It has the 
highest nave vault in France, being 160 feet, and has a nave 
width of 47 feet from centre to centre of piers. 

The Church of the Cordeliers, Toulouse (fourteenth 
century), which was partially destroyed in 1871, was another 
example of this type, and has some similarity in plan with 
that of King's College Chapel, Cambridge. 

S. Sernin, Toulouse, commenced in 1096 (referred to on 
page 248), is a five-aisled example, the western portion and many- 
storied octagonal tower belonging to this period. 


France is especially rich in domestic architecture, and through- 
out the country are to be found castles, town halls, hospitals, 
houses, barns, farmhouses, granaries, and other buildings, in which 
the principles of the Gothic style can be studied. 

The House of Jacques Coeur, Bourges (1443), is a fine 
example of the house of a great merchant prince of the period. 
It is partly built on the town ramparts and has a central courtyard 
(No. 163), possessing a fine staircase tower. 

The Palais de Justice, Rouen (1499-1508) (No. 164), is an 
exceedingly rich specimen of French municipal architecture. The 
Chateau de Pierrefonds, restored by Viollet-le-Duc, Mont 
S. Michel (Normandy), and the Chateau de Blois (east wing) 
(1498-15 1 5), are examples of military architecture. 


House of Jacques C<eur, Bourge: 



The south of France has many examples of stone houses, and 
throughout the country half-timbered houses with plaster filling 
are still to be seen, as at Rouen, although fire and decay have 
naturally reduced their number. 

Students are often inclined to think that Gothic architecture 
was confined to ecclesiastical work, but it should be remembered 
that the style was employed in every building of the period. 



A. Plans (No. 159). — Short, 
wide, and high. Length about four 
times the width. 

Cloisters rare, except in the south, 
where richly designed examples are 
met with. 

Transepts have slight projec- 
tion, as may be seen in the sheet 
of comparative plans (No. 155). 

Side chapels numerous, due to 
the popular character of the Cathe- 
dral for the worship of saints and 
saying of masses. 

The apsidal east end developed 
into the chevct by addition of pro- 
cessional aisle and chapels, but 
Laon, Dol, and Poitiers are excep- 

The aisles are sometimes double, 
as at Notre Dame, Paris (No. 
157), Amiens, Bourges, Rheims and 

Two western towers (Nos. 154, 
161 and 162) characteristic, the 
probable reason being that the 
great height of nave prevented 
a central tower being effective. 

A wooden/&V//£ often constructed 
over the crossing, as at Amiens 
(422 feet high) (No. 165 B). 

Central spires are common in 

Towers sometimes attempted in 
groups by placing four at the 
angles formed by the junction of 
the nave and transepts, and two at 
the west end, with central flvche 
only, as at Laon. 

Arcading widely spaced and 
general largeness ot parts. Chap- 
ter houses never polygonal. 


a. Plans (No. 159). — Long, 
narrow, and low. Length about 
six times the width. 

Cloisters frequent, owing to 
monastic foundation, and charac- 
teristic of English Cathedrals. 

Transepts have bold projection, 
and a second eastern transept is 
found, as at Salisbury and Lincoln. 

Side chapels seldom met with, 
due to the fact that the principal 
cathedrals were churches belonging 
to monastic foundations. 

The square east end charac- 
teristic. The "Nine Altars " at 
Durham as an east end transept 
is remarkable. 

The aisles are nearly always 
single, Chichester (No. 119 g) 
and Manchester (No. 119 b) being 
the only exceptions (page 305). 

The central tower the most 
successful and predominant feature, 
as at Gloucester (No. 1 15 h\ Here- 
ford (No. 115 f), Rochester (No. 

114 e), Salisbury (with spire) (No. 
1 16 a), and Norwich (with spire) 
(No. 1 16 d) ; or combined with one 
western tower,as at Ely ( No. 1 14 c). 

A single western tower is charac- 
teristic of parish churches. 

Towers frequently arranged as 
a group of three, viz., two western 
and one central, as at Lincoln 
(No. 116 b), Canterbury ( N o. 1 1 6 C), 
Durham (No. 1 14 b) and York (No. 

115 a). 

Arcading closely spaced and 
general smallness of parts. Chap- 
ter houses are often polygonal. 

3 8o 



B. Walls. — Early buttresses 
were a development from the slight 
projections of the Romanesque 
period, or were sometimes semi- 
circular, especially in the apses of 
churches. Later buttresses of deep 
projection have chapels between 
them (No. 157). 

The weatherings to offsets of 
buttresses are flatter the higher 
they occur. 

Buttresses often nearly vertical, 
without offsets (No. 153). 

Flying buttresses largely em- 
ployed, being necessary on account 
of height and width of aisles and 
naves. They were used with special 
effect at the east end. 

Interiors owe their effect largely 
to their great height, otherwise 
they are considerably less ornate 
than the English examples. 

Open tracery parapets are typi- 
cal (Nos. 164 and 165 c, d). 

The characteristic west front is 
Notre Dame, Paris (No. 156). 

c. Openings. — Doorways 
elaborate and rich, larger and finer 
than in England, and deeply set 
in west fronts, as at Notre Dame, 
Paris, Rheims, and Coutances 
(Nos. 156, 161 and 162). 

Windows have much "plate" 
tracery, the final development 
in the later period being u flam- 
boyant " tracery. 

There is an absence of cusps in 
late French tracery. 

Circular windows in west fronts 
(Nos. 156 and 161) and transept 
ends (No. 153 b), with intricate 
tracery, are special features. 

D. Roofs. — These are always 
steep and ornamented with metal 
ridges and finials (Nos. 154 and 


They are constructed with double 
timbers of special type to surmount 
high vaults. 

Wooden roofs, treated ornament- 


B. Walls. — Early buttresses 
are flat projections. Later ones 
are much pronounced, and strongly 
marked with offsets and pinnacles, 
and were highly ornamented with 
niches and panelling. Transitional 
buttresses may be seen at Salis- 
bury with curious weathering. 

The weatherings to offsets of 
buttresses are steeper the higher 
they occur. 

Buttresses usually formed with 
offsets (No. 141). 

Flying buttresses are not so 
prominent a feature because the 
clerestory is comparatively low, and 
there are seldom double aisles or 

Interiors owe much to the elabo- 
ration of triforium, complex piers, 
variety of clerestories and richness 
of vaulting. 

Battlemented parapets are typical 
(No. 147 M). 

The characteristic west front is 
Wells Cathedral (No. 1 1 5 G). 

C. Openings. — Doorways 
often placed laterally, and provided 
with a projecting porch, as at Glou- 
cester, Canterbury, and Salisbury 
(Nos. 115 H, 116 C, 121). 

Windows develop on the same 
lines, but " plate " tracery was 
seldom used, the final develop- 
ment, specially characteristic of 
English work, being " Perpendicu- 
lar" tracery. 

Circular windows are not much 
used in England, although found 
at Chichester, Westminster Abbey, 
Durham, and elsewhere. 

I). Roofs. — These are of 
moderate pitch, approaching to 
flatness in later periods (Nos. 113, 
122, 133). 

Carpentry was more advanced, 
and single- framed timbers were 

Wooden roofs of an ornamental 




ally, not much developed as part 
of design of interiors. 

Coverings of slates were often 

Vaults were specially character- 
istic of the style. 

These vaults are usually domical 
and ridge ribs were rarely employed, 
very slight development taking 
place, and intermediate and Heme 
ribs seldom used (page 288) (Nos. 
109 and 112), great height being a 

Pendants are frequently used in 
the " flamboyant " period. 

The joints of the severies are at 
right angles or parallel to the wall 
ribs (No. 158). 

E. Columns. — Plain circular 
nave colums are characteristic, as 
in N6tre Dame, Paris (No. 165 H). 
and are due to Roman tradition. 

There was a difficulty in bringing 
down the lines of the vaulting with 
this type, and clumsy expedients 
were in use, as when the shafts 
started just above the square abacus 
of the arcade columns (No. 1 58). 

In the south is found the square 
pier with attached three-quarter 
columns (No. 165, J, K, L). 

The mouldings of the pier arches 
sometimes die into the pillars with- 
out capitals. 

Capitals with foliage of the 
Corinthian type lasted well into the 
style, besides an early application of 
stiff leaf foliage, and the crocket 
capital (No. 165 P, Q) was charac- 

Moulded " bell " capitals without 
foliage rarely met with, except in 

The square abacus (No. 165 G, h) 
derived from the classical feature 
was preferred. 

F. Mouldings. — These are 
larger in size, of less variety, and not 


character, as part of design of 
interiors, highly developed. 

Coverings of lead were generally 

Vaults were used more in the 
cathedrals than in parish churches. 

The vaults have level ridges and 
have longitudinal and transverse 
ridge ribs, which, being of large 
section, probably due to the in- 
fluence of carpentry, gave a strong 
backbone to the vaulting (No. 1 1 1). 

Vaults, sometimes of wood, as at 
York and the Cloisters of Lincoln. 

Fan tracery vaulting (Nos. 112 
and 129) was peculiar to England. 

The joints of the severies are 
parallel to the wall rib, or placed 
diagonally (No. in d). 

e. Columns. — The clustered 
shaft is a special feature, as in 
Salisbury Cathedral (No. 122), and 
was preferred to circular columns. 

The early adoption of attenuated 
shafts as a continuation of the 
vaulting ribs being taken as the 
basis of the pier formation avoided 
any such difficulty as was met with 
in France. 

The development of moulded 
piers was characteristic, and their 
evolution in each period is shown 
on No. 146. 

Capitals of a classic type were 
only occasionally employed, as in 
the S. John's Chapel, Tower of 
London (No. 135), early carved 
capitals usually having "stiff leaf" 

Moulded "bell" capitals were 
often employed in all periods, and 
have bold projection, especially in 
the Early English period (No. 146). 

The round abacus (N 0.1 48 D,F,K) 
was much used, and also the octa- 
gonal or polygonal (No. 148 g). 

f. Mouldings. — These were 
bold, rich, and of great variety, and 




so rich as in England, and often 
were kept some distance from 
window openings. 

Features and details are coarser, 
less attention being given to these 
on account of the largeness of 

G. Ornament. — Decorative 
figure sculpture of the highest type 
was attained, and is particularly 
seen in the great doorways of the 
west fronts of Notre Dame (No. 
156), Amien«, Rheims (No. 161), 
and in the north and south porticos 
of Chartres, where they are inclosed 
in niches or tabernacles surround- 
ing the arch in successive tiers. 

The carving of such features as 
gargoyles, finials, crockets and cor- 
bels was either of floral forms or of 
animals and birds, and was of great 
refinement (No. 165), especially in 
the South of France. 

Stained glass was much developed, 
and Chartres possesses examples 
which, in a prevailing tone of blue 
tending to violet, give an idea of 
the general effect of an interior, 
according to the intent of the artists 
of the epoch. Much of the best 
stained glass has, however, been 

Color decoration in frescoes and 
as applied to sculpture seems to 
have been fully developed, and it 
would appear that hangings were 
imitated in painted wall decora- 


applied to capitals and pier arches 
as well as to door and window 

Features and details are of great 
refinement, much attention being 
given owing to the smallness of 

g. Ornament. — Decorative 
figure sculpture was not carried out 
so extensively as in France, but the 
Cathedrals of Wells and Lichfield, 
and Westminster Abbey, are rich in 
this respect, the west front of the 
former being the most complete. 

The " dog-tooth " ornament 
(No. 147 a) is common in early 
examples of the style. 

The carving varies considerably 
in each of the periods, being con- 
ventional in the Early English, 
naturalesque in the Decorated and 
again conventional in the Perpen- 

Stained glass was developed on 
similar lines as in France, the 
earlier examples, as at Canterbury, 
being in small pieces heavily leaded, 
whereas the later examples consist 
of large figures surrounded with 
representations of the niches and 
crocketed canopies as executed by 
the sculptors. 

Color decoration to wall surfaces 
and sculpture was much employed. 

The painted roofs and screens of 
the Perpendicular period are 


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Baudot (A. de).— - " La Sculpture Frangaise." Large folio. Paris, 1884. 

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" The darkened roof rose high aloof, 
On pillars lofty and light and small ; 
The keystone that locked each ribbed aisle 
Was a fleur-de-lis or a quatre-feuille ; 
The corbels were carved, grotesque and grim, 
And the pillars with clustered shafts so trim, 
With base and with capital flourished around 
Seemed bundles of lances which garlands had bound. — ScOTT, 


i. Geographical. — The country of the Netherlands lies wedged 
in, as it were, between the Germanic and Romanic races of the 
European peoples, thus accounting for the dual influences found 
in its architectural development, Belgium being under French, 
and Holland under German influence. 

ii. Geological. — The district abounds with clay suitable for 
the making of bricks, and the consequent effect upon the archi- 
tecture was considerable, being specially noticeable in domestic 
work, as in the small house facades in the towns. 

Stone was used in Brussels Cathedral and other examples, and 
granite was also available, the cathedral at Tournai being wholly 
of that material. 

iii. Climate. — This is similar to that of England, but has 
greater extremes of heat and cold. 

iv. Religion. — This was greatly influenced by the religions 
of France, Germany, and Spain, under whose dominion the 
Netherlands were at different times. 

v. Social and Political. — The mediaeval architecture of these 
countries developed with the social progress of the people, the 
towns with independent municipalities rivalling each other in the 
arts of war and peace. Many buildings, notably Guildhalls and 
Town Halls, large in conception and rich in detail, were erected, 
reflecting the wealth and prosperity of the merchants and weavers 
of Antwerp, Louvain, Ghent, and other cities. 

vi. Historical. — Flanders, as a fief of France, became united 
to Burgundy by the marriage of the first Duke of Valois to 
Margaret, the heiress of Flanders. The whole of the Netherlands 

f.a. c c 


were brought together under the rule of the Dukes of Valois, 
descendants of the French kings. Early in the sixteenth century 
the Netherlands belonged to Charles V. (1519-1555). During the 
Middle Ages the cities of the Low Countries were the richest 
and most powerful in Europe, and were constantly at war with 
one another. 


The architecture of Belgium during this period was of two main 
types, that of the hilly part partaking of German, and that of the 
level part (Flanders) partaking of French character. A mixture 
of Spanish features is observable in many of the domestic build- 
ings, but in the Town Halls a national style of architecture was 
evolved, which for this class of buildings is unequalled in other 
countries. Dutch architecture, although somewhat resembling 
German, has a national character of its own. Much of the orna- 
ment in many of the fine, large, and lofty churches of the fifteenth 
century has, however, been destroyed, owing to iconoclastic zeal. 

The Dutch character of simplicity is translated into the 
barn-like churches, and for this reason the architecture of Holland 
is of less interest than that of Belgium. 



The cathedrals show a general inclination to French ideas in 
the general disposition of their plans. 

Tournai Cathedral (a.d. 1 146-1338) is a good example, 
illustrating the styles of three successive periods. The nave is 
Romanesque ; the circular-ended transepts with four towers and 
a lantern are of the Transition period, and the choir, with complete 
chevety fully developed Gothic, very light and elegant in character. 

Brussels Cathedral (a.d. 1226-1280) (No. 167) is one of the 
finest examples, the choir (1226) being generally considered the 
earliest Gothic work in Belgium. The eastern termination has a 
half -developed chevet, and the choir has large side chapels. The 
vaulting and nave windows date from 1 350-1450. 

Antwerp Cathedral (a.d. 1352-1411) (Nos. 154 c, 167) is 
the finest church in Belgium, and is remarkable for nave and 
treble aisles, the latter of equal heights, and narrow aisleless tran- 
septs. The west front (1422-1518), with its single western tower 
and spire, is rich and elegant but over-decorated, displaying the 
florid taste of the period. 

Bruges, Haarlem, Utrecht, Dordrecht, Ypres, and Ghent 
Cathedrals are other well-known examples. 


Antwerp Cathedral. 



The Halles, Bur 



This reflects the independent and prosperous condition of the 
mediaeval towns. The possession of a "beffroi" (belfry) attached 
to the town hall was an important privilege granted by charter, 
and the lower portion, which was of massive construction, was 
frequently used as a record office. The beffroi at Bruges, 352 
feet high (No. 168), is one of the most picturesque of these towers, 
and forms a landmark for many miles round, its chequered history 
being referred to by Longfellow : — 

" In the market-place of Bruges 

Stands the belfry old and brown ; 
Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded, 
Still it watches o'er the town/' 

The Town Halls are exceptionally fine ; those at Brussels 
(1401-1455), Bruges (1377) (No. 168), Louvain (1448-1463), and 
Ghent (1481) (No. 169) being the more important. Many were 
designed on the same lines, and are several stories in height, 
surmounted by a high roof with dormer windows in tiers, the central 
portion being carried up as a tower, the upper octagonal portion 
of which is richly ornamented (No. 168). 

The Town Hall at Ghent (No. 169), built in two distinct styles, is 
a somewhat striking example of comparative architecture, the 
Gothic facade (151 8- 1533) contrasting with the Renaissance facade 

The Trade Halls for buying and selling merchandize, especially 
cloth, for which the country was renowned at this period, are also 
very characteristic, the Cloth Hall at Ypres (1200- 1304) being 
exceptionally fine. 

The Guildhalls were also built as meeting- places for the 
separate trades or guilds, which were very powerful, and there 
are several examples in the market-place of Brussels. 


a. Plans. — Short and wide plans after French models were 
adopted in the cathedrals, that at Antwerp having seven aisles 
(No. 167 f). The French chevet was also adopted. 

b. Walls. — In domestic work the long, unbroken facades and 
greater symmetry and regularity of the scheme are characteristic, 
being regarded in other countries as non-Gothic in design. 

These, along with the trade halls and guildhalls of which Ypres 
is probably the finest example, form a class of building suited to 
the needs of the community, and their free and open appearance 
may be compared with the halls of Florence and Siena. 

c. Openings. — The windows are richly ornamented with 



sculpture, tracery, and panelling, and bear a similarity and 
regularity in position which are marked features in these large 

d. Roofs. — In domestic work roofs have steep pitches, and are 
either hipped (No. 169) or ended by crow-stepped and traceried 
gables of picturesque outline. Numerous turrets, and bold 
chimney stacks, combine with the tiers of dormers to complete 
the rich profusion of the walls below. 

e. Columns. — The use of round pillars in the nave, instead of 
clustered piers, is well exemplified at S. Gudule, Brussels (No. 
167 b, c, d). A peculiar feature is noticeable in some town hall 
arcades, where a column is omitted by hanging up any two arches 
by means of a long keystone from a concealed arch, as at Liege. 

f. Mouldings. — Coarse profusion is characteristic of Belgian 
Gothic, possessing neither the vigour of French, nor the grace of 
English, mouldings. 

g. Ornament. — In S. Waudru, at Mons, blue stone is com- 
bined with a red brick filling-in of the vault, in a scheme of 
permanent decoration, and S. Jacques at Liege is fully decorated 
with paintings of a rather later date. 


Goetghebuer (P. J.). — " Choix des Monumens des Pays-Bas." Folio. 
Ghent, 1827. 

Haghe (L.). — " Sketches in Belgium and Germany." 3 vols., folio. 

King (T. H.). — "Study Book of Mediaeval Architecture and Art." 
4 vols., 4to. 1858-1868. 

Stroobant (F.). — " Monuments d'Architecture et de Sculpture en 
Bclgique." Folio. Brussels, 1878. 

Verschelde (C). — " The Ancient Domestic Edifices of Bruges." Bruges, 


Ysendyck (J. J. Van). — ,c Documents Classes de l'Art dans les Pays- 
Bas." 5 vols., folio. Antwerp, 1880- 1889. 

James (G. P. R.).— " Mary of Burgundy." (Historical Novel.) 


(See page 258 for German Romanesque.) 

" Some roods away, a lordly house there was, 
Cool with broad courts, and latticed passage wet 
From rush flowers and lilies ripe to set. 
Sown close among the strewings of the floor ; 
And either wall of the slow corridor 
Was dim with deep device of gracious things ; 
Some angels' steady mouth and weight of wings 
Shut to the side ; or Peter with straight stole 
And beard cut black against the aureole 
That spanned his head from nape to crown ; these 
Mary's gold hair, thick to the girdle tie 
Wherein was bound a child with tender feet ; 
Or the broad cross with blood nigh brown on it." 


i. Geographical. — Germany was flanked on the east, west 
and south by large and warlike empires having strong racial 
differences. Owing to this situation it had direct communication 
with all the great European States. The River Rhine was an 
important factor in the rise of cities founded in the earlier period. 

ii. Geological. — The plains of Northern and North Eastern 
Germany produce no building material but brick, which has a 
great influence on the architecture in these regions. Stone was 
found in the centre and south, and timber in Hanover and the 

iii. Climate. — (See page 258 in German Romanesque). 

iv. Religion. — The most interesting feature in the religious 
life of Germany, prior to the Reformation, was the civil, as well as 
ecclesiastical, rule of many of the bishops. Some of these episcopal 
principalities were not finally abolished until the period of the 
French Revolution. 

v. Social and Political. — Trade guilds acquired great 
importance during this period, that of the Freemasons (cf. page 281) 
having been credited with much influence in the design and 
working out of the Gothic style. In the absence of records, 
the truth as to the individuality of the architects will not easily 
be made out. 


vi. Historical. — In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
Germany was the heart and centre of the Western Empire. 
Under the Swabian Emperors long wars occurred with the 
Lombard league of the north Italian towns {cf. page 234). The 
years 1254-1274, known as the "great interregnum," because no 
king was universally acknowledged by all Germany, were times of 
great confusion and lawlessness, until the house of Hapsburg 
came into power in 1273. 

The " Hanseatic league," an alliance of the great commercial 
towns of North Germany, exercised considerable influence on the 
peaceful arts. 


The Gothic architecture of Germany was borrowed directly 
from France, and was not a pure development of the Romanesque, 
as in the latter country. This may be ascribed to the monu- 
mental character of buildings in the Romanesque style, which had 
been developed to a greater extent than in other countries, no 
Gothic building being erected in Germany before the thirteenth 

Gothic was, therefore, reluctantly adopted at the time when it 
was attaining its great perfection in France, but the Romanesque 
precedents were long adhered to. 

In Northern Germany, in the valley of the Elbe, a brick 
architecture was developed, as at Lubeck and the neighbouring 
cities, which, although not equalling that in the valley of the Po, 
has that special character belonging properly to the material, 
although expressed in a somewhat meagre manner. 



Cologne Cathedral (Nos. no c and 170) may be regarded 
as the great cathedral in this style. It resembles Amiens 
(No. 159 b), the eastern portion being a direct copy in plan and 

It is the largest cathedral of North Europe, having an extreme 
length of 468 feet and a width of 275 feet, giving a superficial area 
of 91,464 square feet. 

It was commenced in 1270, and the choir was completed in 
1322, the remainder of the building being completed according to 
the original design in the nineteenth century. 

The clear width of nave between piers is 41 feet 6 inches, and 
the nave vault is 155 feet in height, being nearly as great as that 
of Beauvais (page 376). 



The western towers have open-work spires, characteristic of 
German Gothic, 512 feet in height. 

Strasburg Cathedral has the choir niches and transepts in 
the Romanesque style (1179), the Gothic nave dating from 1263. 
The western facade has two towers, one of which is continued 
into an open work spire, 466 feet high, dating from 1439, a large 
rose window, 42 feet in diameter, and windows with double 
tracery, i.e. 9 having mullions on the inner and outer faces of the 
wall. The cathedral was built by 

" A great master of his craft, 
Erwin von Steinbach ; but not he alone, 
For many generations labour'd with him. 
Children that came to see these saints in stone, 
As day by day out of the blocks they rose, 
Grew old and died, and still the work went on, 
And on and on and is not yet completed. 

. . . . The architect 
Built bis great heart into these sculptured stones, 
And with him toiled his children, and their lives 
Were builded with his own into the walls 
As offerings to God." — Longfellow. 

S. Lambert, Hildesheim, has aisles and nave of the same 
height, being therefore a " Hall Church," as are also S. Stephen, 
Vienna, and S. Quintin, Mayence. 

Freiburg Cathedral (1 283-1330) has a spire similar to that 
of Cologne, but with a total height of 385 feet. 

Ratisbon Cathedral (1275-1534) (No. 171), has a regular 
plan, octagonal apse without ambulatory, and western towers, 
with open-work spires added in 1859- 1869. The small triangular 
porch is a peculiar feature. 

Ulm Cathedral (a.d. 1377-1477) is spacious and lofty, being 
notable for the small ratio of support in regard to its floor space, 
and a polygonal eastern apse without ambulatory. The western 
tower is 529 feet in height. It has an arcaded gallery to the 
eaves, a remnant from Romanesque traditions, and fine choir 

S. Elizabeth, Marburg (1235-1283) (No. 172), is the 
typical form, known as the " Hall Church.'* The result of 
raising the side aisles to the same height as the nave, was to 
abolish the triforium and clerestory, to reduce the importance of 
the nave, and to do away with the necessity for flying buttresses, 
while rendering the interior more spacious. 

Munich Cathedral, S. Barbara, Kuttenberg, and S. 
Martin, Landshut (1404), are other examples of this type. 

S. Stephen, Vienna (1300-1510) (Nos. no d, 172 and 
173), is characteristic in having no clerestory or triforium, the 
three aisles nearly equal in width and height, and one great roof 


Ratisbon- Cathedral. 
West Front. 


covering the church in one span. Tower porches occupy the 
positions of transepts ; only one of which is completed and has 
a splendid spire, less open than usual in German work. The 
vaults are traceried, and the original stained glass exists. 

Lubeck Cathedral (choir and aisles) and the Marie n Kirche, 
Lubeck, are types of the brick architecture of North Germany, 
and express the possibilities of design in that material. 


Castles were erected in goodly numbers, as at Marienburg 
(1280), Heiiberg (1350), and Meissen in Saxony (1471-1483). 

Town Halls (Rathhaus) at Brunswick, Hildesheim, 
Halberstadt, Munster and Ratisbon are the best known. 

The Rathhaus at Lubeck and other cities, and the town gates of 
the Baltic provinces, are evidences of the prosperity of the 
inhabitants of these times. 

In the domestic architecture the roof was a large and important 
feature, and frequently contained more stories than the walls 
supporting it, being used as a " drying ground " for the large 
monthly wash, and planned with windows to get a through current 
of air. 

The planning of the roof- ridge parallel, or at right angles, to 
the street in towns influenced the design considerably (see 
page 536 in German Renaissance), thus in Nuremberg the 
ridge is generally parallel to the street, and dormer windows 
are plentiful, the party walls being apparent, and artistically 
treated, while at Landshut and elsewhere, the ridge being 
generally at right angles to the street, gables are the result, and 
these exhibit great variety of design in scrolls and other features. 

The dwelling-houses of early date in Cologne, with their 
stepped gables, are notable. 


a. Plans. — These were based upon (a.) the round-arched 
German style and (b.) the French plan. Apses often semi- 
octagonal, found at end of transepts, and at east and west ends 
of churches, as at Naumburg. 

The chevet is uncommon, although it occurs at Cologne (No. 170), 
Magdeburg (1208- 121 1), Lubeck, Freiburg, and Prague. 

Triapsal plans are frequent (No. 172 d), and a square outline 
to the general plan is not uncommon. 

Twin towers occur at west end of Ratisbon Cathedral (No. 171). 
In later work, sometimes only one central tower occurs, as in 
some English cathedrals. 

Entrances are often on north or south, instead of being at the 




S. Stephen, Vienna. 


west end. They sometimes have towers over them, and take 
the place of transepts (No. 173). 

Towers with spires were much used, but the junction of the 
spire was often insufficiently marked, the outline, though orna- 
mented, being weak. Open-work tracery spires indicate the same 
liking for this feature which is seen in the Rhenish Romanesque 
churches. The typical examples are Strasburg ( 1 429) ( No. 1 54 e), 
Freiburg (1300), Ratisbon (No. 171), Cologne (No. no c), and 
Vienna (No. 173) Cathedrals. 

b. Walls. — The apsidal galleries of the Romanesque style were 
simply copied, without reference to their origin and meaning. 
Tracery was employed on the outer and inner wall surfaces, the 
mullions being often cut across the openings behind. 

Lubeck in the north is the centre of a brick district, and 
churches of this material abound, as also in Bavaria and at 

c. Openings (No. 174 e, f). — Tracery was elaborated, double 
tracery windows being used in later examples. 

Excessive height is a characteristic, and the use of two tiers of 
windows was due to the lofty aisles (No. 172). In the north the 
clerestories are excessive in size, starting as low down as possible, 
to provide a great expanse of stained glass. 

d. Roofs. — Churches were nearly always vaulted, but were 
sometimes covered only with a wooden roof. 

Great attention was paid to the vaulting, both as regards its 
size and excellence of construction. 

Square vaulting bays to the nave were often adhered to, 
corresponding with two aisle bays, but vaulting in oblong bays 
afterwards became general, as at Freiburg, Ratisbon, Cologne, 
Oppenheim, and elsewhere. 

The special German feature is the immense roof, covering nave 
and aisle in one span (No. 172), which was due to the side aisle 
being made nearly as high as the nave, and when the aisles are 
equal in height to the nave it is the recognized German type 
known as the " Hall Church" (No. 172 f). Tower roofs of the 
Romanesque form were still used. 

e. Columns. — Piers usual in naves (Nos. 170 and 172) and 
not the columns found in early French Gothic, the tendency being 
to make them lofty posts carrying the roof, owing to the height 
of the aisles. 

f. Mouldings. — Complexity rather than simplicity was 
striven after ; thus interpenetration of mouldings (fifteenth century) 
was a very characteristic treatment, consisting of two different 
sets of mouldings, appearing and disappearing in and out of the 
same stone, each being provided with its own base and capital. 
The resulting complicated intersections required great skill in the 
geometrical setting out and execution. 

F.A. D D 


Features such as pinnacles are larger the higher they occur, 
and therefore scale is destroyed, as at Cologne, whereas in 
English and French work the features do not increase in size. 

g. Ornament (No. 1 74). — Foliage was treated in a naturalesque 
manner, and the interlacing of boughs and branches is a common 
feature (No. 174 a, c, j). In general, the carving was superior 
to the design, the tracery of later windows sometimes repre- 
senting the branches of trees ("branch tracery "), in which technical 
display was more considered than grace of outline. 

The Tabernacles or Sacrament Houses were developed in this 
period, being placed at one side and forming a lofty and tower- 
like structure, tapering upwards in many stages. They form an 
important feature of German decorative art, dating from the time 
that the consecrated Host above the altar went out of use. They 
are of stone or wood, and either placed against a wall or isolated ; 
and were used to keep the " pyx " with the eucharist, the shrine 
itself being closed by a pierced iron grating. They usually 
represented a Gothic spire with its traceried windows, pinnacles, 
statuary decoration, and canopies, all erected in minature. 

Examples are found throughout Germany, and they are some- 
times of great height, as at Ratisbon (52 feet), Ulm (90 feet), and 
the Lorenz Kirche, Nuremburg (64 feet). 

Stained glass and ironwork were well treated, and in many cases 
were most elaborate. 

The enforced use of brick in the north was unsuitable for the 
employment of sculptured work, and in its place moulded and 
colored brickwork was used as a means of decoration, and the 
interiors are plain and bare in character. 


Boisseree (S.). — " Histoire et description de la Cathedrale de Cologne." 
4to and folio. Munich, 1843. 

Foerster (E. J A, — " Denkmaeler Deutscher Baukunst." 12 vols., folio. 
Leipzig, 1855-1869. 

Hartel (A.). — "Architektonische Detaile und Ornamenteder Kirchlichen 
Baukunst." 2 vols., folio. Berlin, 189 1. 

King (T. H.). — " Study-Book of Mediaeval Architecture and Art." 
4 vols., 4to. 1858-1868. 

Lubke (W.). — " Ecclesiastical Art in Germany." 8vo. 1873. 

Moller (G.). — " Denkmaeler der Deutschen Baukunst." Folio. 
Leipzig, 1852. 

Puttrich (L.). — " Denkmaeler der Baukunst der Mittelalters in Sachsen." 
4 vols., folio. Leipzig, 1 836-1850. 

Whewell (W.). — "Architectural Notes on German Churches.* 1842. 

Scott (Sir Walter). — "Anne of Gierstein.' , (Historical Novel.) 


ar.auut ^!Wusna,€MMMi.ui»jm»a>mtmmm 


(See page 228 for Italian Romanesque.) 

11 1 will give thee twelve royal images 
Cut in glad gold, with marvels of wrought stone 
For thy sweet priests to lean and pray upon 
Jasper and hyacinth and chrysopas, 
And the strange Asian thalamite that was 
Hidden twelve ages under the heavy sea, 
Among the little sleepy pearls to be 
A shrine lit over with soft candle flame." 


i. Geographical. — German influence in Lombardy was 
effected through the connection of this part of Italy and 
Germany geographically by the Brenner Pass. The work at 
Venice was similarly influenced by an oversea trade connection 
with the East. 

ii. Geological. — The influence of materials in the develop- 
ment of this style was important. The colored marbles of 
Northern and Central Italy supplied abundant and beautiful 
material for the elaboration of plain wall treatment, as in 
Florence (No. 181), Siena (No. 182), Genoa, Orvieto, Lucca, and 
other places. Red, black, and white marbles were used in stripes, 
and also in panels, the architect relying much for effect upon 
their color and disposition. 

The brick and terra-cotta of Northern Italy has left a decided 
impress on the architecture of that district, many large buildings, 
such as the Hospital at Milan and the Certosa at Pavia, having 
been erected in these materials. 

iii. Climate. — The influence of the climate and brilliant 
atmosphere is apparent in the small windows, which, with thick 
walls, were necessary to keep out the glare and heat of the Italian 
sun, factors which also hindered the development of tracery. 

The preference for opaque treatment, such as mosaic work and 
fresco decoration, was inherited from the Romans, while the 
climate counteracted effectually any desire the Italians might 
have had for the suppression of the walls by the employment of 
large windows of stained glass, for the reasons mentioned above. 


iv. Religion. — The real power of the Pope as head of the 
Western Church died with Gregory X. (1 271-1276). The 
succeeding Popes were under the influence of the King of France, 
and for nearly seventy years (1309- 13 76) resided at Avignon, losing 
authority and influence during their absence from Rome. Rival 
Popes existed until a settlement was arrived at by the Council 
of Constance, in 141 5. The factions of the Guelphs and Ghibel- 
lines (pages 230, 259) distracted Italy from 1250 to 1409, a sub- 
ject dealt with by Mr. Oscar Browning in his " Mediaeval Italy." 

v. Social and Political. — Italy at this period was cut up 
into small principalities and commonwealths, in which political 
life was full of rivalry and activity, and small wars were of 
constant occurrence. The erection of the Cathedrals of Siena, 
Orvieto, Florence, Milan and Lucca was largely due to the civic 
pride of the various rival cities, while the numerous Town Halls 
attest the growth of municipal institutions. Tasso has a line to 
the effect that each holiday they blew trumpets, and proceeded 
to sack the adjoining town. Yet other countries looked to Italy 
as the head in arts, learning and commerce. The poet Dante 
(1265- 1 321) has in his great poem presented a summarized picture 
of the age. 

The revival of learning took place in Italy nearly a century in 
advance of northern Europe. 

vi. Historical. — To the Latin conquest of Constantinople, in 
1203, is mainly attributed the sudden development of the formative 
arts in the thirteenth century in Europe, for the citizens being 
dispersed during the sixty years of Latin occupation, all commerce 
was transferred to the cities of Italy, and many Greek artists were 
established at Venice, Pisa, Siena and Florence. In the thirteenth 
century successive members of the Visconti family ruled as 
Dukes of Milan, and were very powerful in consequence of the 
wealth and industry of the cities over which they held sway. The 
maritime commonwealth of Genoa considerably reduced the power 
of Pisa in 1284, and the latter was conquered by Florence in 
1406. Florence became one of the chief states of Italy under 
the powerful family of the Medici (page 447). 


The influence of Roman tradition, as shown in the Classic forms 
of construction and decoration, was so great that the verticality 
which marks the Gothic architecture in the north of Europe does 
not pervade the Italian examples to the same extent. 

The churches are especially noticeable externally for (a.) the 
flatness of the roofs (Nos. 181, 182) ; (b.) the tendency to mask the 
aisle roofs by a mere screen wall forming the west facade, without 


175. Milan Cathedral. 

East End. 


reference to the slope of the roofs behind (No. 182); (c.) the 
great central circular window in the west front lighting the nave ; 
(d.) the flatness and comparative unimportance of the mouldings, 
cheir place being more than taken by the beautiful colored 
marbles with which the facades were faced, and the broad 
surfaces covered with fresco decorations. 

There is an absence of pinnacles due to the unimportance or 
the buttresses, but the crowning cornice (No. 181), and the 
employment of elaborately carved projecting porches at the west 
end, the columns of which often rest on the backs of lions and 
other animals, are characteristic features. 

" Stern and sad (so rare the smiles 
Of sunlight) looked the Lombard piles ; 
Porch pillars on the lion resting, 
And sombre, old, colonnaded aisles." — Tennyson. 

Sculpture partakes of classical purity, and is in this respect 
superior to that exhibited in northern examples, but it enters far 
less into the general composition and meaning of the architecture. 
Corinthian capitals of modified form and the Roman acanthus 
were constantly used in Gothic buildings (No. 184). 

Mosaic was used externally in panels, in continuation of early 
ideas and practice. 

Terra-cotta and brickwork, in their plastic state rendered much 
ornament easy of application, and a smallness in detail followed, 
which was eminently suited to the material, as, for example, at 
the Frari Church at Venice and elsewhere. 

The treatment of moulded brickwork has never been carried 
to greater perfection than in North Italy during the Gothic and 
Early Renaissance period, especially in civic buildings, although 
the effect of sublimity is perhaps not to be obtained in so small a 
material unless used in the broad massive manner of the Romans. 
On the other hand, there is no beauty of detail or of design on a 
small scale that may not be obtained by the use of moulded 
bricks, which, if carefully burnt, are as durable as most kinds 
of stone. 

The Italian use of brickwork was essentially the right one ; 
the details were small and designed with taste, and the effect of 
variegated color was relied on instead of depth of shadow — a 
perfectly legitimate and expressive use of material where small 
and colored units are used. Stone of different color was also 
carried systematically in patterns through the design, giving a 
special character, as at Verona. A flatness and want of shadow 
is necessarily characteristic of brick buildings, sufficient projection 
not being obtainable for cornices, and this was always tolerated 
by the Italians, who allowed the material to express its own 
capabilities without trying to disturb its architectural function. 




Milan Cathedral (a.d. 1385-1418) (Nos. 175, 176 a, b, c, 177), 
erected by the first Duke of Milan, is the most important work of 
this period, and there is a marked German influence, both in 
character and details. It is the largest mediaeval cathedral, with 
the exception of Seville, and is built entirely of white marble. 
The roof is very flat in pitch, being constructed of massive 
marble slabs, laid upon the upper surface of the vaulting. 

In plan it consists of a nave with a very small clerestory, 
and double aisles of extreme height, the nave terminating with 
a circlet of columns in the French manner, but inclosed in a 
German polygonal apse. To the Ambrosian ritual is due the 
absence of side-chapels in the original scheme. At the crossing 
of the nave and aisles is a vault crowned with a marble spire, 
designed by Brunelleschi in a.d. 1440. The feature of the 
interior is the range of immense shafts to the nave (No. 177), 
whose summits are treated w r ith canopied niches, filled with 
statues, in the place of the ordinary capitals. Externally, the 
character of the whole design is expressive of richness and lace- 
like intricacy, which is aided in effect by the numerous pinnacles 
of glittering marble (No. 175). 

"O Milan, O, the chanting quires ; 
The giant windows' blazon d fires ; 
The height, the space, the gloom, the glory ! 
A mount of marble, a hundred spires." — Tennyson. 

S. Petronio, Bologna, commenced in 1390, in emulation of 
Florence Cathedral, would, if completed, have been one of the 
largest churches of this period. It was to have consisted of a 
nave and aisles and outer chapels on either side, and resembled 
in section the Cathedral of Milan (No. 176 b, c). Many archi- 
tects, including Palladio, have produced designs for the unfinished 
west front. 

The Certosa, Pavia, commenced in 1396, having a central 
lantern in stages, crowning an internal dome, and the great 
Hospital, Milan, w r here terra-cotta was largely used, exemplify 
the influence of brick and terra-cotta on the architecture of the 

The churches and palaces at Bologna, Vicenza, Padua, Verona, 
Cremona, and Genoa contain specimens of brick architecture with 
pleasing moulded details. 

S. Antonio, Padua (1 237-1 307) is a remarkable design, 
closely resembling S. Mark in plan (page 208), but with seven 
domes instead of five, and the front porch omitted. The domes 
were added in 1475. 



Milan Cathedral. 
Interior, looking East. 


Venice is remarkable for the civic and domestic architecture 
of this period, and it must be remembered that the Venetian 
state occupied a prominent position as a great trading centre 
in the Middle Ages, her power and richness being due to the 
supremacy of her navy. 

" Where Venice sate in state, throned on her hundred isles." 

S. Giovanni e Paolo (i 260-1400), a Dominican church, and 
S. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (1250-1280), a Franciscan church, 
are magnificent examples, showing the influence of the Monastic 
orders. The latter by Niccolo Pisano, is of the Basilican type, 
with six eastern chapels, and has a fine campanile adjoining 
the church (cf. Siena, No. 182). 

S. Anastasia, Verona (1261), and S. Andrea, Vercelli 
(12 19), are notable examples, the latter being peculiar in having 
two western towers, and an English type of plan. 

The Doges' Palace, Venice (Nos. 178 and 179 b) (facade 
a.d. 1424-1442, by G. and B. Buon) is the grandest effort in 
civic architecture of the period. Each facade consisted of an 
open arcade of two stories, one originally advanced in front and 
surrounding the main building. The latter was partly destroyed 
by fire in the sixteenth century, but was rebuilt and extended 
over the double arcade in the Venetian style, with rose-colored 
and white marble, in imitation of bricks, arranged in patterns, 
the otherwise blank walls being broken by a few large and richly 
ornamented windows. The lower columns seem to rise out of 
the ground, having no bases, and the solid and connected character 
of the tracery gives some stability to the design, so heavily loaded 
above. The delicate and light carving in low relief which occurs in 
the capitals of the arcades is justly celebrated, the excellence of 
marble as a material for carving being largely responsible for the 
refinement of execution in this example. 

The Ca d' Oro Palace, Venice (Nos. 179 a and 180), 
also by the Brothers Buon, is another fine specimen of the 
domestic work with which Venice abounds. The tracery 
especially is Venetian in character,, as is also the grouping of 
the windows towards the centre of the facade, the extremities 
of the design being left comparatively solid, thus producing the 
effect of a central feature inclosed by wings. 

The Ponte alle Grazie (1237) an ^ * ne Ponte Vecchio 
(1362), both at Florence ; the Bridge over the Adda at Trezzo, 
constructed in the fourteenth century and afterwards destroyed ; 
and the Bridge over the Ticino, Pavia, are other examples of 
the secular architecture of the period. 

The Palazzi Foscari, Contarini-Fasan, Pisani (No. 179 c), 
and Cavalli are other well-known examples. A general idea of 


crams, «r»ntem» agiss smwffiE® ffia 

SMHHI aw IMnuMKt K»M fflfflli 
(5) jcnlI ' r p...f...9 yy^i^pyyp re 


Venetian Gothic is obtained from the old front of S. James's 
Hall, Piccadilly, and the building in Lothbury, opposite the 
Bank of England. 


Florence Cathedral (Sta. Maria dei Fion) (1 294-1462) 
(No. 176), is chiefly remarkable for the wide spacing (55 feet) of 
the nave arcades, the nave itself, the absence of a triforium, 
buttresses and pinnacles (No. 181), and for the marble facades 
in colored panelling. The cathedral was erected from the designs 
of Arnolfo di Cambio, and the octagonal dome, 138 feet 6 inches 
in diameter, was added in 1420 by Brunelleschi, while the facade 
was completed in 1887. Internally the fine effect promised by 
the plan is not realized, vast masses of grey pietra serena stone, 
in piers and arches, being contrasted by blank white-washed 
spandrels. The Baptistery (originally the Cathedral), erected in 
the tenth century, but remodelled by Arnolfo in a.d. 1294, is an 
octagonal structure faced with pilasters and richly colored orna- 
mentation, being further remarkable for the fifteenth century 
bronze doors by Ghiberti. 

The Campanile (Nos. 176 d and 181), adjoining, by Giotto 
(a.d. 1324), is square on plan, 292 feet high, in four stories of 
increasing height, and is built in red and white marble. Tracery 
of an elementary character is introduced into the windows in this 
example, as in the adjoining cathedral, and inserted in the solidly 
designed lower story are sculptured panels of great interest and 
beauty. Below the present tile roof the start of the intended 
spire can be traced. 

S. Maria Novella, Florence (a.d. 1278), is an imposing 
example erected by the Dominicans, and S. Croce, Florence 
(1294), is a well-known example of the same type. 

The Palazzo Vecchio, Florence (1298), by Arnolfo di Cambio 
(with its remarkable tower), the Palazzo Publico, Siena, and 
the Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence (1376), are examples of the 
vigorous secular architecture of the period. 

Siena Cathedral (a.d. i 243-1 284) (No. 182) is remarkable in 
having a dome, 58 feet in diameter, covering an irregular hexa- 
gonal space at the crossing (No. 179 n), and for its facade in black 
and white stripes, with three portals of equal size, and charac- 
teristic rose window. The ground falling towards the east end, 
allowed of a crypt being formed under the sanctuary, which is 
used as a baptistery. The unfinished elevation of this east end 
is a grand design. 

The Campo Santo, Pisa (1278-1283) (No. 91), is a well- 
known example, having an unusual development of open tracery 
in the arches (No. 184 c). 

Orvieto Cathedral (a.d. 1290) resembles that of Siena, but is 

F.A. e E 


imbued more considerably with Northern Gothic feeling. It is 
mainly of one period, the facade dating from 13 10, and is more 
harmonious in design than the Siena example. The nave is now 
restored with an open timber roof of the Basilican type. 

S. Francis, Assisi (a.d. i 228-1 253), is an example which was 
from the designs of a German, Jacobus of Meruan. It consists 
of an upper and lower church, and is very northern in detail, 
depending much more on its frescoed interior than upon the 
architecture proper for its magnificence and character. Both 
churches are vaulted, built of brick and plastered, and received a 
complete treatment in painted decoration by Cimabue and Giotto. 

In Rome, churches of the Basilican type were erected through- 
out the Middle Ages, S. Maria sopra Minerva (1280) being 
quoted as the only Gothic church in Rome. 


The influences at work in these districts have already been 
referred to in Romanesque (page 239). The style has been 
described as " Greek in essence, Roman in form, and Saracenic 
in decoration." 

Messina and Palermo Cathedrals have plans founded on 
the Roman basilican type, the naves having timber roofs of great 
elaboration and intricate construction, resembling in their effect 
the honeycomb work of Saracenic art. The pointed arch was 
used, but without mouldings or even receding planes (No. 183). 

The main idea striven after in these churches was the unfettered 
display of mosaic decoration, in which the principal personages 
of the Bible are rendered in a stiff archaic style, with borders of 
arabesques in gold and color, while the lower parts of the walls 
have a high dado of white marble, with a border introducing green 
and purple porphyry in patterns. 

Palermo Cathedral is a remarkable example of external 
architectural decoration in stones of two colors, the apses in 
particular being very fine. At the west end is a group consisting 
of a central and two lower towers, with detail of an arbitrary 
style, but suggesting Northern Gothic in its vigour of skyline. 


North, Central, and South. 

a. Plans. — The endeavour to create a great central space in 
the churches, as at Florence (No. 176) and Siena Cathedrals 
(No. 179 d), shows the influence of Etruscan and Roman models. 

£ e 2 


The widely-spaced nave arcades are characteristic, the triforium 
being usually omitted, as at Florence and Milan (No. 176), and 
the clerestory reduced to the unimportance of a vault spandrel, 
pierced by a small, and generally circular, window. These lofty 
arcades practically include the aisles and nave in one composition 
and give the effect of a single hall. 

The nave vaulting is frequently set out in square compart- 
ments, as at Florence Cathedral (No. 176 d) and the Certosa, 
Pavia, the side aisles having oblong ones, thus reversing the 
Northern Gothic practice. 

Towers, usually isolated, have square shafts without buttresses, 
sometimes beautifully decorated, continuing the Romanesque tra- 
dition, and developing no spire growth, like northern examples. 
The best known are at Florence (No. 181), Siena (No. 182), 
Lucca, Verona (No. 184 k), Mantua and Pistoja. 

The most imposing external feature was frequently a dome, as 
at Siena (No. 182) and Florence (No. 181). 

The central lantern tower, in diminishing stages, as at Chiara- 
valle, the Certosa at Pavia, and Milan Cathedral (No. 176), are 
an advance on the Romanesque lanterns at the crossing, and may 
be compared with English work. 

b. Walls. — The absence of large windows obviated the 
necessity for projecting buttresses, the high and flat walls being 
usually comparatively solid throughout their length, and able 
themselves to withstand the pressure of a vault (Nos. 181 and 182). 
From the absence of vertical features and shadows in the facade, 
flatness is the predominant characteristic of the style. 

Facades are treated independently as decorative compositions, 
and often have no relation to the structure or roofs behind 
(No. 182). These facades are often incomplete, being composi- 
tions in marble facing, in many cases not finished on the 
score of expense. The marble was used in bands of two colors 
at Siena (No. 182) and Orvieto, each having three high gables, 
and in panelling at Florence (No. 181). This surface treat- 
ment was borrowed from the Saracens, and may be compared 
with northern methods, in which effect is obtained by deeply- 
moulded string courses, projecting buttresses, and lofty pinnacles. 

c. Openings. — The windows are often semicircular headed, 
and have shafts with square capitals of Corinthian type, instead 
of the moulded mullions of northern Gothic examples (No. 184 c). 
These slender shafts are often twisted, and even inlaid with glass 
mosaic known as "cosmato" work, from the family of that name, 
while the capitals are richly sculptured. 

Venetian tracery is a special form of geometrical combinations 
(No. 178). 

A moulded keystone is often provided to pointed arches, which 
are frequently inclosed by square lines as a frame. 


d. Roofs. — These are of low pitch, and of small importance 
in the design, being scarcely visible from below (Nos. 179 and 180). 
They are often in contradiction to the steep gables of the facades, 
borrowed from northern Europe, and treated solely as a field for 
mosaic and other elaborate decoration. Iron tie-rods were often 
used to prevent the spread of roof timbers owing to insufficient 

e. Columns. — The piers of the arcades in the churches are 
at times surprisingly clumsy in plan, four pilasters combined 
back to back being a common section. Round piers, with 
capitals and bases, recalling Roman work, were also used, but 
the continuous sequence in the design of such features, as may 
be traced north of the Alps, is not observable. 

In Milan Cathedral the circular moulded piers, by their 
height and size, and peculiar treatment of tabernacle capitals, 
produce the effect of a columnar interior (No. 177). 

f. Mouldings. — These have a flatness and squareness often 
little changed from Roman work, and the section of an arch mould 
is often identical with that of the jamb, although there may be 
capitals at the impost. Mouldings are throughout subordinate 
to surface decoration, the most interesting being those due to 
the use of brickwork in the facades. 

g. Ornament (No. 184). — Opaque decoration was preferred 
to translucent ; the art of fresco, by constant exercise upon the 
noblest subjects in the grandest buildings, leading up to the golden 
age of Michael Angelo and Raphael. Some buildings, such as 
Giotto's chapel at Padua, and the Sistine chapel at Rome, are 
shells for painted decoration, almost devoid of architectural 
features. In carving (Nos. 184 a, b, e, f, g, h, l) and sculpture 
Classic tradition led to a refinement and an elegance which 
contrasts with the grotesque element found in northern work, 
but on the other hand, the general design is often neglected in 
the attention bestowed upon accessories. It is in the carving 
and mosaics to the sumptuous altars and canopy tombs, the 
pulpits (No. 184 b), pavements and choir stalls, and in the 
veneering of the facades with colored marbles, that the decorative 
character of the style is best seen. 

The Tomb of the Scaligers, Verona (1329- 1380), is an examp'e 
of rich decoration, and many of the churches at Rome have 
elaborate inlay mosaic work of " cosmato " design on their arches 
and twisted columns. 


Anderson (R.). — "Examples of the Municipal, Commercial and 
Street Architecture of France and Italy." Folio. 1877. 
Cummings (C.A.). — '* A History of Architecture in Italy from the Time 





of Constantine to the Dawn of the Renaissance." 2 vols., Svo. Boston* 

Griiner(L.). — " Tenra-Cotta Architecture of North Italy.* 4to. 1867. 

Hittorff <J. I.) et Zanth tC. L. W.).— "Architecture Moderne de la 
Sicile." Folio. Paris, 1S35. 

Knight {H. G.). — " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy."* 2 vols. 
1842- 1 844. 

Nesfield (E.). — " Specimens of Mediaeval Architecture." Folio. 1862. 

Rohault-de-Fleury (G.). — u La Toscane au Moyen Age. v 2 vols., 
folio. Paris, 1874. 

Ruskin ij.). — "Stones of Venice." 3 vols., 8vo. 1886. 

Schulz (H. \V\). — u Denkmaeler der Kunst des Mittelalters in 
Unter-Italien." Folio atlas of plates, and text in 2 vols., 4ta 
Dresden, i860. 

Strack (H.). — " Ziegelbauwerke des Mittelalters und der Renaissance 
in Italien." Folio. Berlin, 1S89. 

Street <G. E.K— " Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages.* 8vo. 1874. 

Waring (J. B.) and Macquoid (T. R.). — 4 * Examples of Architectural 
Art in Italv and Spain."' Folio. 1850. 

Henty (G. H.).— "The Lion of S. Mark." (Historical Novel.) 


" Oft let me range the gloomy aisles alone 
(Sad luxury ! to vulgar mind unknown) 
Along the walls where speaking marbles show 
What wor hies form the hallowed mould below ; 
Proud names, who once the reins of Empire held ; 
In arms who triumphed, or in arts excelled ; 
Chiefs, graced with scars, and prodigal of blood ; 
Stern patriots, who for sacred freedom stood ; 
Just men, by whom impartial laws were given ; 
And saints, who taught, and led the way to heaven. v — Tick ell. 


i. Geographical. — Spanish architecture cannot be under- 
stood without a knowledge of the geography of the country. 
The existence of rival races and kingdoms within the peninsula 
was rendered possible by the mountainous character of some parts, 
and the subdivision of the country by sierras, or chains of low 
rocky hills. The kingdom of Granada, where the Moors held 
out until the close of the Gothic period, was surrounded by 
mountains which inclosed a fertile plain, the finest in the country. 

ii. Geological. — Stone was the material generally employed, 
but granite and some of the semi-marbles, which the country 
throughout possesses, were used in places. Rubble-work, with 
brick bonding courses and quoins, was used under Moorish 
influence with much taste and success, as in the towers and gates 
of the city of Toledo. 

iii. Climate. — This varies with the structure of the country, 
which is that of a series of table-lands of varying elevations, 
divided by sierras. Burgos, in the north, 3,000 feet above the 
sea, is cold, and exposed to keen winds even in the summer, 
while in the south the climate is sub-tropical. 

iv. Religion. — Constant warfare with the Moors gave a certain 
unity to Spain, the struggle being a war of religions as well as of 
races. Allegiance to the Papacy has been a characteristic of 
Spain, and Santiago was a pilgrimage centre of more than national 
importance. The arrangement of the choirs and the size and 


importance of the chapels attached to the cathedrals were due 
to the ritual. 

v. Social and Political. — In the Spanish peninsula, the 
Christian states of Castile, Leon, Navarre, Aragon, and Portugal 
were all growing up and gradually driving the Mahometans into 
the southern part called Andalusia. After many intermittent 
successes, as the capture of Toledo (1084) by Alfonso VI., the 
battle of Tolosa (12 12), gained by the Christians, was the turning 
point, after which Mahometan influence gradually declined. It 
was during the reign of S. Ferdinand (121 7-1 252), who united 
Castile and Leon, and won back Seville and Cordova, that Gothic 
art took root, sown by the spirit of conquest and aided by the 
wealth of the conquered Moors. James, called the Conqueror 
(1 213-1276), King of Aragon, pressed into the east of Spain 
until the kingdom of Granada was the only portion left to the 

vi. Historical. — The study of the history of a country, always 
necessary in order to properly understand the development of its 
architecture, is specially required in the case of Spain, which has 
been occupied at different times by peoples of various races. 
After the Romans left Spain the Vandals and Visigoths took 
possession, after which, a.d. 7J0-713 (page 655), the country was 
invaded by the Moors from North Africa, and for 800 years 
their influence was continuous. The evidence of this is to be 
seen in the stronghold of their power — the south of Spain — 
where the curious construction, the richness of the architecture, 
and the exuberance of intricate, and lace-like, detail are every- 
where apparent. This influence occasionally reached far into the 
north, owing to the superior education and ability of Moorish 
workmen, for although Toledo was captured by the Christians in 
1085, the Spanish conquests were gradual, and the final expulsion 
of the Moors did not take place till 1492. 


In the south, as already mentioned, there was always more or 
less of Moorish influence, and from Toledo, the Moorish capital, 
this influence made itself felt in Saracenic features, such as the 
horseshoe arch, and, in later times, the pierced stonework tracery 
of Moorish design. These fretwork screens occupy the whole 
window, and are rich in detail. Elsewhere buildings, under 
Moorish influence, were covered with intricate geometrical and 
flowing patterns and rich surface decorations, for which the 
Saracenic art is everywhere remarkable, as in the Jews' syna- 
gogue at Toledo. 

The curious early churches of the Spanish conquerors seem to 
have been executed by the aid of Moorish workmen. 


The Gothic style was best developed in Catalonia, where, 
though on French lines, as in most parts of Spain, it has a special 
character, owing to the grand scale of the single- span vaulted 
interiors. Leon Cathedral goes beyond its French original at 
Amiens, in the expanse of window opening and tenuity of its 
supports. The exteriors usually are flat in appearance, owing 
to the space between buttresses being utilized internally for 
chapels, and generally, it may be said that a liking for excessive 
ornamentation without any regard to its constructive character 
is apparent. Contrary to Northern Gothic, broad wall surfaces 
and horizontal lines are special features of the style. 

The cloisters of many of the cathedrals, as Barcelona, Toledo, 
and Lerida, are characteristic. 

In the later period, the grafting of classical details on to Gothic 
forms produced some of the most picturesque features imaginable. 



S. Isidoro, Leon (completed 1149), and old Salamanca 
Cathedral (a.d. 1120-1178), which has a dome over the crossing 
of nave and transepts, were both influenced by the Southern 
French Romanesque models of Aquitaine and Anjou. 

Santiago de Compostela Cathedral (a.d. 1078), on the 
other hand, is an example of a building with nave, transepts and 
a complete chevet, due to the influence of Northern French 
Romanesque. In this church the nave is covered with a barrel 
vault and the side aisles with cross vaults. 

Burgos Cathedral (a.d. 1230) is irregular in plan (No. 190 l). 
It has two towers to the western facade, which, with their open- 
work spires (No. 185), recall Cologne, and a richly- treated lantern 
over the crossing which was completed in 1567. The lantern 
(known as the "cimborio"), and the peculiar treatment of the 
interior is shown in No. 186. The "coro" or choir is in the usual 
position to the westward of the crossing, the nave being reduced 
to a mere vestibule, while the extraordinary size and importance 
of the side chapels are striking, as that of the Capilla del Con- 
destable (a.d. 1487), which is octagonal, over 50 feet in diameter, 
and specially remarkable for the beauty and richness of its late 

Toledo Cathedral (a.d. 1227) (No. 187 d), is a five-aisled 
church and resembles Bourges (page 368) in general idea. It is 
about the same length, but nearly 50 feet wider, and has the 
choir inclosure west of the crossing, with a singularly shallow 


Uuhgos Cathedrai 
View from N.W. 


186. Buncos Cathedral. 

View of Choir. 





apsidal sanctuary, in which is placed an immense retablo or reredos 
of wood, flanked by tiers of arcaded statuary upon the sanctuary 

S. Gregorio, Valladolid (No. 189) shows the lace-like 
character of detail derived from Moorish influence. 

Barcelona Cathedral (a.d. 1298) (No. 187 b), is remarkable 
in that the thrust of the vaults is taken by buttresses, which are 
internal features, as at Albi in the south of France, the space 
between being used as chapels. 

Gerona Cathedral is a further development (No. 187 c), but 
there are no aisles, the nave being one vaulted hall, 73 feet in 
width, in four compartments. The Central Hall of the Law 
Courts, although only 48 feet in width, will give an idea of this 

S. Maria del Mar, Barcelona (a.d. 1328-1383) (No. 187 a), 
is a splendid example of a town church. The vaults rest upon 
octagonal piers of granite about 4 feet in diameter, the spacing 
being wide, and the aisles and nave of great height. There is 
no triforium, and only small clerestory windows in the spandrels 
of the vaults. Severe simplicity is the characteristic of the 
church ; both inside and out there are no features but a few 
well-studied mouldings. 

Seville Cathedral (1401-1520), erected on the site of a 
mosque of the same size, is the largest medieval cathedral in any 
country. It bears a considerable resemblance to Milan Cathe- 
dral, but is less fanciful in detail, or, as some would prefer to say, 
of a purer Gothic style. The vaulting is rich, loaded with bosses 
in places, but confused and weak in its lines. Externally there is 
a certain shapelessness and absence of sky-line. The parroquia 
(parish) church is separate, but included within the cathedral area. 

The peculiarity of plan, having a nave, double aisles, and side 
chapels, was no doubt caused by the structure being made to 
fill up the space occupied previously by a mosque. It is typically 
Spanish in having a rectangular outline, but it differs from most 
of the great Continental churches in having a square east end, 
and small apse. As showing the extraordinary size of this 
cathedral it may be pointed out that each of the four side aisles 
of Seville is practically equal both in height and width to the 
nave of Westminster Abbey (page 309), while the nave arcades 
have twice the span, although the total length of Seville is little 
more than that of the Abbey. Thus one aisle of Seville represents 
the size of the nave and choir of the abbey, and is repeated four 
times ; in addition to which there is the great nave, 55 feet wide 
from centre to centre of piers, and 1 30 feet high. Surrounding the 
church, and of the same depth as the aisles, are the chapels. From 
these comparisons an idea can be obtained of the immense size of 
this Spanish cathedral. 


S. Juan de los Reves, Toledo, 
Interior, showing Octagonal Dome. 


S. Gregorio, Valladolid 


S.Juan de los Reyes, Toledo, a.d. 1476 (No. 188), is a rich 
example of a sepulchral chapel, erected by Ferdinand and Isabella, 
comparing in its intended purpose with Henry VII.'s Chapel at 

Valencia (a.d. 1262), Leon (a.d. 1260), and Barcelona 
(a.d. 1298) Cathedrals, all showing French influence, and 
Lerida Cathedral (No. 187 e), externally roofed with stone, are 
other examples of early date. 

In domestic work the best examples are to be found in Cata- 
lonia, as seen in Barcelona municipal buildings, and Valencia 
town hall. 


a. Plans. — In regard to the plan of the cathedrals, the great 
width and comparative shortness (No. 187) of many of the 
naves is a prominent characteristic. The position of the choir is 
generally to the west of the crossing of nave and transepts, 
as at Burgos (No. 190 l), an arrangement probably derived from 
the Early Christian basilicas, as S. Clemente, Rome (No. 73 b), 
and also seen at Westminster Abbey (No. 127), and Norwich 
Cathedral (No. 118). Chapels are numerous and large, and the 
parish church is often included in the area of the cathedral, as 
at Seville. 

The cimbortOy or dome (Nos. 186 and 188), at the crossing of the 
nave and transepts, is similar in treatment to examples in the 
south of France. S. Sernin, Toulouse, and Burgos Cathedral 
resemble each other in plan, and Valencia and S. Ouen, Rouen, 
in design. Internally octagonal vaults, which are intricate in 
design and ingenious in construction, are characteristic, and were 
probably inspired by Moorish work. 

b. Walls. — In design French models were favoured, the 
later work being characterized by extreme, and even wild, 
ornamentation. There is much flatness and absence of sky- 
line in the exteriors, Burgos having in place of gables effective 
horizontal arcades, on the lines of the facade of Notre Dame 
at Paris. Traceried open-work spires, as in Germany, were 
favoured, those at Burgos being worthy of attention (No. 185). 

c. Openings. — These were carried to excess in Leon Cathedral, 
which has not only a glazed triforium, but also a large part of 
the wall surface of the clerestory glazed as well. Even in the 
south, as at Seville, openings are of large size, stained glass 
being much used. 

d. Roofs. — Vaulting was used freely, but developed in decora- 
tion, rather than in construction, such features as tracery, bosses, 
and ribs producing a rich effect, although the lines are not always 

f.a. f f 


good, and nothing to compare in interest with English vaulting 
was accomplished. 

In the south, wide interiors, in one span, were successfully 
vaulted in a simple style, that at Gerona (No. 187 c) being no less 
than 73 feet span, and having a total length of 270 feet, including 
chevet. The boldest and most original vaults are the great flat 
arches, that form galleries across the western ends of the churches, . 
extending through nave and aisles in three spans. Their rich 
soffits attract attention on entering, and their curves frame the 
view of, and give scale to, the interior of the church beyond. 

e. Columns. — The favourite feature of a lantern at the 
crossing gives importance to the central piers, which at Burgos 
(No. 186) are circular in plan (rebuilt 1567), and contrast with 
the great octagonal piers at S. Sernin, Toulouse. 

In Seville Cathedral great column-like piers are employed for 
all the arcades, similar in effect to those of Milan, but without 
the tabernacle capitals. Carved capitals of characteristic form 
are indicated in No. 190 e, j. 

f. Mouldings. — Refinement is not the usual characteristic 
of Spanish art. Original and arbitrary forms were mingled 
with features borrowed from France. In Catalonia the best and 
most artistic work was produced in a restrained manner. In 
S. Maria del Mar, Barcelona (page 430), every moulding has 
its purpose and expression, but this is far from being the character 
of other more numerous examples in Spain. 

g. Ornament (No. 190). — The most decorative feature in 
Spanish churches is the vast retablo (reredos), which is often as 
wide as the nave, and reaches up to the vaulting. This feature 
is usually constructed of wood, stone, or alabaster, and is crowded 
with niches, figures, canopies and panelling (No. 190 c, f, k). 

Those at Toledo and Seville, resembling the great English 
altar screens, notably that at Christchurch, Hants, are probably 
the richest specimens of mediaeval woodwork in existence. 

Painting and gilding were used to heighten the effect, the former 
naturalistic, and the latter of such solidity that the effect of 
metal is obtained. 

Sculpture in stone or marble is often life-size, naturalistic, and 
expressive (No. 190 h, m, n), and however deficient in other 
qualities, it combines in producing the notoriously impressive, 
if sensational, interiors of Spanish churches. 

Stained glass was used, as at Seville, Oviedo, and elsewhere, 
being usually Flemish in style, heavy in outline, and strong to 
gaudiness in coloring. 

* RcjasJ or rich and lofty grilles (Nos. 186 and 190 h), in 
hammered and chiselled iron, are also characteristic, the formality 
of the long and vertical bars being relieved by figures beaten in 
repousse, or in duplicates attached back to back, and by freely 



employed crestings and traceries adapted to the material. Few 
things in Spain are more original and artistic than these Rejas. 

Magnificent stalls, each provided with a separate canopy and 
crowned with a tall spire, are common, Barcelona Cathedral 
having some resembling those at Chester, while bishops* thrones, 
pulpits, lecterns and choir desks were also elaborately treated. 


" Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espafia" (a magnificent work issued 
under the auspices of the Spanish Government). 89 parts, atlas folio 
(not completed). Madrid, 1859-1879. 

Street (G. E.). — ** Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain." 8vo. 1874. 

Villa-Amil (G. P. de). — " Espana Artistica y Monumental." 3 vols., 
folio. Paris, 1842-1850. 

Waring (J. BA — " Architectural Studies in Burgos." Folio. 1852. 

Waring (J. B.) and Macquoid (T. R.). — ''Examples of Architectural 
Art in Italy and Spain." Folio. 1850. 

Roulet (M. F. N.).— " God the King, My Brother." (Historical Novel.) 



" New structures, that inordinately glow. 
Subdued, brought back to harmony, made ripe 
Uy many a relic cf ihe archetype 
Extant for wonder ; every upstart church, 
That hoped to leave eld temples in the lurch, 
Corrected by the theatre forlorn 
That ns a munc'ane shell, its world late born, 
Lay, and o'er* liado wed it." — Browning. 


The causes which led to the re-introduction, or re-birth 
(Renaissance), of Classic Architecture in Europe at the beginning 
of the fifteenth century, are instructive, and must be grasped in 
order fully to understand so great a change. 

In this section the Renaissance movement as affecting the 
whole of Europe will be dealt with. 


i. Geographical. — The Renaissance movement, arising in 
Italy in the fifteenth century, spread from thence to France, 
Germany, and England, and over the whole of Western Europe — 
over what had been the Roman empire in the West. The Eastern 
empire did not come under its influence, for the Greeks in the East, 
who had been the most civilized people in Europe, were now 
falling before the Turks. 

iii. C e Hmate aL } Refer to each country. 

iv. Religion. — The invention of printing, which aided the 
spread of knowledge, the spirit of inquiry, and the diffusion of 
freedom of thought, led, among the Teutonic races, to a desire to 
break away from Romish influence. This desire was originally 
fostered by Wycliffe in England (a.d. 1377), and by Martin 


Luther in Germany (a.d. 151 7), in which countries Reformation 
in religion proceeded side by side with Renaissance in architecture. 
This renewed vigour in thought and literature was accompanied 
by a fresh building era in northern Europe. In England, civil 
and domestic architecture received a special impulse from the 
diffusion among laymen of the wealth and lands of the monasteries 
dissolved by Henry VIII. 

In Italy, on the other hand, where the Reformation took no 
hold, and where comparatively few churches had been built in 
the Gothic manner during the Middle Ages, a revival of eccle- 
siastical architecture took place, and in every important town 
Renaissance churches were carried out on a grand scale and in 
a most complete manner. The Jesuits who headed the counter- 
reformation carried the style into all parts, at the same time 
giving it a special character (page 496). 

v. Social and Political. — A new intellectual movement 
manifests itself sooner in literature than in architecture, and thus 
the former influences the public taste. Dante (1265-1321), 
Petrarch (1 304-1 374), and Boccaccio (131 3- 13 75) aided in the 
spread of the newly-discovered classic literature, which caused a 
revolt against mediaeval art, and the subsequent fall of Constanti- 
nople in a.d. 1453 caused an influx of Greek scholars into Italy, 
whose learning was an important influence in an age which was ripe 
for a great intellectual change. Thus a revival of classic literature 
produced a desire for the revival of Roman architecture. 

Again, among the MSS. of Greek and Latin authors brought 
to light about this time, was Vitruvius' book of Architecture, 
written in b.c 50, which was translated into Italian in a.d. 
152 1. 

Erasmus (1467 -1536), one of the few Greek scholars of the 
period, worked hard to direct the public attention to the original 
text of the New Testament, and to the Greek classics, as a set-off 
to the writings of the mediaeval philosophers, whose authority had 
for so long borne an exclusive sway. 

Italian architecture was naturally the first to be affected, 
because the Gothic style had never taken a firm hold on the 
Italians, who had at hand the ancient Roman remains, such as 
the Pantheon, the Basilica of Maxentius, the Colosseum, the 
remains of the great baths, and the Roman fora. In Italy, 
therefore, where feudalism had never fully established itself, and 
where the municipalities had developed a spirit of municipal 
enterprise, practically a direct return was made to Roman 

vi. Historical. — At the beginning of the sixteenth century 
there was a general grouping together of the smaller states into 
independent kingdoms, under powerful rulers, who governed with 
authority, and kept large standing armies. Three great inventions 


had an important influence — gunpowder, which had changed the 
whole method of warfare ; the mariner's compass, which led to 
the discovery of the West Indies (1492) and America, and the 
foundation of colonies by European states ; and, lastly, printing, 
which favoured that stirring of men's minds which caused the 
reformation in religion, and the revival of learning. Copper- 
plate engraving was discovered in the third quarter of the fifteenth 

Galileo (1 564-1 642) proved that the earth was not the centre 
of the universe, but merely a minute planet in the solar system. 


The Renaissance of the fifteenth century in Italy, and of the 
sixteenth century in other parts of Western Europe, was a break 
in that orderly evolution of architecture which is based on the 
nature and necessities of materials. 

In place of such evolution there was the worship of style, that 
is, of the past results of the nature of materials as formulated into 
systems. Such results were worshipped for their own sake, and 
often to a great extent applied regardless of the materials of their 

The main features in the style were the Classic orders (Nos. 38, 
262), viz., the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, which were often used 
decoratively, as by the Romans, and at other times with their 
true constructive significance. Buildings designed for more 
modern wants were clothed in the classic garb of ancient Rome, 
but it must not be supposed that in this development no advance 
was made. It is true that Roman precedent was the basis, but 
columns and pilasters, whether plain, fluted or panelled, with 
entablature and details, were applied in many novel and pleasing 
forms, a system in their application being gradually evolved, 
and a style built up which has become the basis of all modern 

Italy, the headquarters of the new movement, in the fifteenth 
century possessed skilful jewellers and excellent medallists, and 
it was by their help that the Renaissance commenced and 
expanded. From their well-known good taste, architects con- 
sulted them, and often, indeed, were their pupils, as Ghiberti, 
Donatello, and Brunelleschi. Men, therefore, who were at once 
painters, sculptors, architects, silversmiths, jewellers, and gold- 
smiths somewhat naturally only looked at the finished results 
as the goal to be aimed at, and were not troubled about the 
means to such an end. The development of the schools of 
painting also had their influence on architecture, and aided the 
tendency which caused structures to be looked upon as works of 


art, instead of being dependent mainly for their form and effect 
on structural necessities. For the same reasons, the period may 
be looked upon as the age of accessories, in which iron, gold and 
silver work, and tombs, monuments, altars, fonts, and fountains, 
were designed in great numbers, and, by the whim and fanciful- 
ness of the designer, were special features of the style. 

Architecture ceased to a certain extent to be subject to the 
considerations of use, becoming largely independent of construc- 
tive exigencies, and to a greater extent an art of free expression 
in which beauty of design was sought for. 

Speaking generally, there was an endeavour to reconcile the 
Gothic and the Roman methods of construction, *.*., the bodv 
and facing were one and the same thing constructively, because 
the architects of the period, attracted by the mere external 
appearance of ancient Roman art, but perceiving that this form 
was merely an envelope, continued in the matter of construction 
to a large extent to follow the traditions of the Middle Ages, 
which did not separate the structure from the decoration. 

Owing, therefore, to ignorance of Roman methods, the Roman 
manner of forming the main walling of concrete and casing it with 
marble, stone, or brick was not followed. 

In the Gothic period each stone was finished, moulded, and 
sculptured in the workshops before being laid — a method which 
produced skilful and intelligent masons and stone dressers, and 
obliged the sculptor to make the decoration suit each piece of 
stone. In the Renaissance period the new mouldings and carvings 
could be executed with more exactitude and less expense in situ, 
and thenceforward the necessity of making the jointing accord 
with the various architectural features being no longer imperi- 
ously felt, a want of harmony between the jointing and the 
architectural features often resulted. 

A building, it will be observed, was regarded rather as a picture 
with pleasing combinations of lines and masses than as a struc- 
ture of utility, being often designed by men trained as painters, 
sculptors, or goldsmiths. Such structures often have a princely 
dignity, as in many of the Roman palaces (No. 197), where the 
column, pilaster, frieze, and cornice w r ere employed as elements of 
composition with special regard to the artistic result and with 
considerable originality. The wide and narrow spacing of the 
pilasters in the Palazzo Giraud is a novel form (No. 195). 

It would be a great mistake, therefore, to state that Renaissance 
architecture was solely imitative, for new and delightful combina- 
tions of features were introduced, and architecture became to a 
great extent a personal art due to the fancy of individual architects, 
many of whom founded schools of design, in which their principles 
were followed by their pupils and followers. 

In the decorative detail, also, an advance was made. In 


metal work the bronze baptistery gates at Florence were won 
in competition by the sculptor Ghiberti, in 1404, and are the 
finest examples of a class of work for which these craftsmen- 
architects were famous. These accessories of architecture were 
erected, or added to many old buildings, both in Italy and 

The Renaissance architects followed the Byzantine treatment 
of the Dome, but increased it in importance by lifting it boldly 
from its substructure and placing it on a "drum,'* in which 
windows were formed, thus making it a great external dominating 
feature (Nos. 202, 212, 254). 

Likewise, they were the first to introduce as an architectural 
"motif" the wall of massive rusticated masonry with arched 
openings, as in the Palazzo Riccardi, Florence (Nos. 191 and 
192), the Palazzo Pesaro, Venice (No. 209), and elsewhere, in 
which buildings the wall was frankly treated as architecture, and 
was in no way imitative of ancient Roman buildings. 

Renaissance Vaulting. — In the beginning of the fifteenth 
century the Gothic principles of ribbed vaulting were abandoned, 
giving place to the revival of the Classic method of solid semicir- 
cular vaulting (page 117). This type of vaulting was much used 
in the halls, passages, and staircases of Renaissance palaces and 
churches, and was besides frequently built of wooden framing, 
plastered and painted with colored decoration, often of remark- 
able richness and beauty, as at the Vatican palace by 
Raphael. In cases of cross- vaulting with narrow and wide 
spans, it appears that the groins were now formed by means 
of " ordinate " (No. in e), with elliptical soffits, groins forming 
a straight line on plan instead of the wavy line produced by 
the intersection of a semicircular vault with one stilted above its 

Note. — Having now taken a rapid survey of the causes which 
led to the revival of Classic architecture throughout Europe, 
and before proceeding to consider the development in each 
country, a comparison of a few of the more prominent charac- 
teristics of the style with the treatment which obtained in Gothic 
architecture is given. 

3. EXAMPLES (refer to each country). 

Although important types of church design were evolved, yet 
in the main the most characteristic monuments were the 
municipal buildings, palaces, country houses and elaborate 
facades to town buildings. In addition, chapels, tombs, gates, 
oratories and public fountains were special creations. 





A. Plans. — S\mmetry and pro- 
portion of part to part carefully 
studied (Nos. 198, 203, 213, 223, 

Grandeur gained by simplicity 
(Nos. 200, 201 ,254). Fewness and 
largeness of parts have a ten- 
dency to make the building appear 
less in size than it really is. 

Towers are sparingly used, and 
when they occur are symmetri- 
cally placed. In England those 
at S. Paul (No. 254), and Bow 
Church (No. 255), are exceed- 
ingly fine. The dome is a pre- 
dominant feature (Nos. 181, 205, 
212, 223 and 254). 

Interiors of churches were planned 
on Roman principles (Nos. 193, 
199 and 203), and covered with 
domes and pendentives. The 
parts are few, the nave being 
divided into three or four com- 
partments (No. 253), by which 
a general effect of grandeur is 

Compare S. Paul, London (No. 


A. Plans. — Picturesqueness and 
beauty of individual features 
more particularly sought after 
(Nos. 117, 155, 159 and 187). 

Grandeur gained by multiplicity 
(Nos. 162, 175 and 189). In 
consequence of the large number 
of parts, the building appears 
larger than it really is. 

Towers are a general feature, and 
are often crowned with a spire 
(Nos. no, 114, 115, 116, i2i, 140 
and 154). Small towers, turrets, 
and finials help to emphasize the 
vertical tendency (Nos. 125, 128 
and 173). The tower and spire 
are predominant features. 

Interiors are more irregular, and 
are covered with stone vaulting 
(Nos. 112, 123), or open-tim- 
bered roofs (No. 113). The 
parts are many, a nave of the 
same length as a Renaissance 
church probably divided into 
twice as many compartments. 

Compare Cologne Cathedral (No. 

B. Walls. — These were con- 
structed in ashlar masonry of 
smooth-faced walling, which, in 
the lower stories, was occasionally 
heavily rusticated (No. 192). 
Materials are large, and carry 
out the Classic idea of fewness 
of parts. Stucco or plaster were 
often used as a facing material 
where stone was unobtainable. 
The use of the material accord- 
ing to its nature was lost, the 
design being paramount. 

Angles of buildings often rusti- 
cated, i.e., built in blocks of un- 
smoothed stone, as in Florence, or 
carefully indented with patterns 
(No. 197). 

K. ^Valls . — These were often con- 
structed of uncoursed rubble or 
small stones (No. 136), not built 
in horizontal layers ; also of brick 
and rough flint work. Materials 
are small in size, and carry out 
the Gothic idea of multiplicity. 
Masonry was worked according 
to the nature of the material to 
a new and significant extent. It 
is not too much to say that, as 
in a mosaic, each piece in a wall 
has its value in this style. 

Angles of buildings often of ashlar 
masonry or smooth-faced stone, 
the rest of the walling being of 
rough materials, as rubble or 




Gable ends of churches and build- 
ings generally were formed as 
pediments, with a low pitch 
(Nos. 193 and 211 k) or of semi- 
circular form (No. 211 A.) 

Simplicity of treatment and breadth 
of mass are prominent charac- 
teristics (Nos. 193, 197 and 200) 
of the style. 


Gable ends are steep, occupied by 
windows, and crowned either 
with sloping parapet or orna- 
mented timber barge boards 
(Nos. 125, 132 j, 138 and 150). 

Boldness and richness of sky-line 
and intricacy of mass are pro- 
minent characteristics (Nos. 121, 
125, 161, 162, 164 and 173). 

c. Openings .—Door and win- 
dow openings are semicircular 
( Nos. 206 D and 214 c), or square- 
headed (Nos 194 E and 206 A). 
The influence of climate on these 
was important. In Italy, with a 
bright atmosphere, the windows 
are small. In northern Europe, 
with a dull climate, windows of 
the earlier period are large, and 
often have stone mullions or 
solid uprights dividing the 
window space vertically (No. 
246). Openings generally come 
over one another, and are sym- 
metrically disposed with reference 
to facade. 

The Classic system of moulded 
architrave (No. 94 k) projecting 
from the wall face was revived. 
Doorways and other openings 
are surrounded by such archi- 
traves, often richly carved. 

c. Openings.— Door and window 
openings usually pointed (Nos. 
142, 143, 156 and 161), and of 
considerable size, are divided 
by mullions, though not neces- 
sarily so. This treatment was for 
the introduction of painted glass, 
the use or non-use of which 
means of decoration influenced 
the size and number of the 
openings. Often little attention 
was paid to the centre lines, i.e., 
the placing of openings over one 
another. Windows and doors 
were placed where wanted, with- 
out much regard to symmetry of 

Openings formed in receding 
planes (Nos. 94 F J and 143), 
with mouldings of great rich- 
ness, were often provided with 
small circular shafts and carved 

D. Roofs. — Vaults are of simple 
Roman form without ribs. 
Domes have usually an internal 
plaster soffit or ceiling, and are 
painted in colored fresco, upon 
which they depend for their 
beauty. The dome over a large 
space was generally constructed 
with an inner and outer covering, 
as S. Paul, London (No. 253). 
Open-timbered roofs occur, as 
in the Jacobean halls, but the 
tendency was gradually to plaster 
them up (Nos. 242 and 243). All 
roofs other than domes were 
hidden in Italy, but were made 
much of in France and Germany. 

D. Roofs . — Vaulting was develop- 
ed by means of the pointed arch, 
and depends for effect on the 
richness of the carved bosses, 
on the setting out of the ribs on 
which the severy of the vaulting 
rests, and on the grace and 
beauty of these curves (Nos. 109 
and 112). Open-timbered roofs 
are a beautiful feature of the 
style, the most perfect specimen 
in England being Westminster 
Hall (No. 113 H). Externally 
roofing is an important element 
in the design, and in conjunction 
with chimneys, must be reckoned 
as a means of effect. 




E. Columns. — The Classic 
columns and orders were revived 
and used decoratively in facades, 
as in the Roman manner( Nos. 195, 
196 197, 200, 205, 219 and 248), 
and structurally as for porticos 
(Nos. 193 A, K, 198 G, H and 254), 

The shafts were often rusticated, 
fluted spirally, or wreathed with 
bands of foliage and fruit. 

11 I, from no building, gay or solemn, 
Can spare the shapely Grecian 

F. Mouldings.— The principal 
cornice plays an important part 
in the style, and in the Floren- 
tine palaces is bold and impres- 
sive (Nos. 191, 192 and 198). 
Cornices, however, often mark 
each story (Nos. 207, 209, 210 
and 215). 

The contours of mouldings follow 
on Roman lines, as may be seen 
in the architrave (Nos. 194, 206, 
214 and 218), but many new 
combinations of mouldings were 

Cornices and other features of 
Classic origin (Nos. 191, 192, 
197, 198, 207, 209, 210 and 212J 
occur in every building, and are 
beautifully carved, refinement 
being an essential quality. 

Cornices, balconies, string bands, 
and horizontal features generally 
(Nos. 197 and 209) are strongly 
pronounced, and by their fre- 
quency and importance produce 
an effect of horizontal ity\ 

o. Ornament. — The human 
figure abandoned as a scale, 
statuary being often much larger 
than life-size (Nos. 200, 204, 205 
and 254) 

Stained glass was little used, all the 
best efforts at color being obtained 
by means of opaque decoration, 
as fresco or mosaic, which was 
lavishly applied to interiors, as 


h. Columns.— Where used. they 
were entirely structural, or ex- 
pressive of pressures upon the 
piers to which, sometimes, they 
were attached (Nos. 123, 158, 160 
and 177). The relative pro- 
portion of height to diameter 
does not exist, and the capitals 
and bases were either heavilv 
moulded or carved with con- 
ventional foliage. 

F. Mouldings.— The parapet, 
often battlemented, or pierced 
with open tracery (Nos. 128, 
133 and 147), took the place of 
a cornice, and was less strongly 
marked than the boldly project- 
ing Classic cornice. 

The contours and mouldings are 
portions of circles joined by 
fillets, inclosed in rectangular 
recesses in the early peiiods, or 
in later times based on a diagonal 
splay (No. 146). 

Tablets and string courses of 
carved ornament occur (No. 147), 
varying in outline and treatment 
in different centuries. Mould- 
ings depend chiefly for effect 
upon light and shadow. 

Vertical features, such as buttresses 
casting a deep shadow, numerous 
pinnacles, turrets (Nos. 153, 154, 
162 and 185), high roofs, with 
towers and spires, produce an 
effect of verticality. 

<;. Ornament. — The human 
figure adhered to as a scale, thus 
helping in giving relative value 
to parts (Nos. 145 G, 156, 161 , 
164, 165 a, and 177). 

Stained glass was extensively used, 
being the chief glory of inrernal 
decoration, and partly the raison 
d'etre of the immense traceried 
windows, which acted as a frame 





in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by 
Michael Angelo. 
Sgraffito " decoration, /.*., 
scratched and colored plaster, 
was sometimes applied to 
exteriors, as in the Palazzo del 
Consiglio by Fra Giocondo 
(page 490) at Verona. 
Great efficiency in the crafts is 
noticeable in the work of the 
early Renaissance architects 
(Nos. 194, 206, 214 and 218), 
who were often painters and 
sculptors, e.g., Donatello, Ghi- 
berti,and Delia Robbia, examples 
of their work being in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 


for its reception (Nos. 124 E, 133, 
153 Band 175). 
Color for exteriors was dependent 
on the actual material, as in 
the colored marbles of central 
Italy (see No. 181, Florence 

Carving was often grotesque and 
rudely executed (Nos. 165, 174 
and 190), but in the best examples, 
possesses a decorative character 
in harmony with the architecture. 
This was effected by the construc- 
tive features, such as pinnacles, 
buttresses, and arches, them- 
selves being enriched. 

5. REFERENCE BOOKS (refer to each style). 

Note. — It is now necessary to glance briefly through the chief 
peculiarities of the Renaissance style or manner in each 
country, noticing the influence of climate and race, and, 
where possible, the social and political causes which were at 

As about this period the names of architects begin to be 
prominently mentioned in connection with their own designs, 
it will sometimes be convenient to group them into schools 
for that purpose. In this respect much information may be 
derived from reading " The History of the Lives and Works 
of the most celebrated Architects," by Quatremere de Quincy, 
and the biographies of G. Vasari, Milizia, and others, transla- 
tions of which are published, and will be found in the 
R.I.B.A. Library. Interest in their works will be much 
increased by reading of the influences which directed these 
master-minds, and the various incidents in their lives which 
tended to influence their work. 

The student should study many excellent examples which 
have been collected in the architectural courts of the Crystal 
Palace, the Victoria and Albert Museum, and elsewhere, 
for it is only by a close study of the details themselves that 
the style can be thoroughly grasped. 


(See page 227 for Italian Romanesque.) 
(See page 404 for Italian Gothic.) 

11 Come, leave your Gothic, worn-out story. 

• ■•■•• • 

They love not fancies just betrayed, 

And artful tricks of light and shade, 

But pure form nakedly displayed. 

And all things absolutely made." — C lough 

The Renaissance of Italy varies considerably in the chief centres 
of the great revival, namely, Florence, Rome, and Venice, 
and this was due to various social and political causes, which will 
be enumerated shortly. 


" Florence at peace, and the calm, studious heads 
Come out again, the penetrating eyes ; 
As if a spell broke, all resumed, each art 
You boast, more vivid that it slept awhile 
'Gainst the glad heaven, o'er the white palace front 
The interrupted scaffold climbs anew ; 
The walls are peopled by the painter's brush, 
The statue to its niche ascends to dwell." — Browning. 

i. INFLUENCES (see page 437). 

i. Geographical. — It must be remembered that Florence was 
more than a city, being, in fact, one of the powers of Italy, 
although its dominions included only a small part of Central Italy. 
The activity and influence of the Florentines caused a Pope to 
declare that they were the fifth element. 

ii. Geological. — The quarries of Tuscany supplied large 
blocks of stone and marble, which, being near the surface, were 
easily obtained for building purposes, and the monumental 
character and massiveness of these materials considerably 
influenced the style of the architecture. 


iii. Climate. — Among other causes which affected the 
development of the style, the bright and sunny climate rendered 
large openings for light unnecessary. The character of the 
climate is well indicated by Tennyson : — 

" In bright vignettes, and each complete 
Of tower or duomo, sunny-sweety 
•Or palace how the city glittered 
Through cypress avenues, at our feet." 

iv. Religion. — At this period Florence produced the great 
Dominican preacher, Savonarola, whose reforming energy divided 
the city, and swayed its policy. He looked to the French king 
to call a general council to reform the Church. In art he 
tended to the Puritan theory, and although suppressed by the 
Pope, his influence on the minds of his generation was not lost, 
the Sistine frescoes bearing witness to his power over Michael 

v. Social and Political. — In Italy generally there was a 
wave of national enthusiasm and patriotic feeling and an 
endeavour to assimilate the old Roman magnificence in art. 
The Medici dynasty, so intimately connected with the rise of 
Florentine art, was founded by John of Medici (died 1429), who 
took the popular side against the nobles, gradually usurping 
supreme authority over the State. His son Cosimo (died 
1464) employed his wealth liberally in the advancement of art. 
He founded the Medici Library and Platonic Academy, and was 
the patron of Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelozzo, Lippi, Masaccio, 
and others. Pietro and Lorenzo Medici succeeded Cosimo, and 
Florence — "the Athens of the Renaissance" — became the centre 
of the revival in art and literature. 

The artists of the period were often at the same time sculptors, 
painters, and architects, and among these were : — Luca della 
Robbia (1400- 1482), famous for glazed reliefs in terra-cot ta, 
some of which are in the Victoria and Albert Museum ; Lorenzo 
Ghiberti (1 378-1455), the sculptor of the bronze gates to the 
Baptistery, reproductions also being in the same Museum; 
Donatello (1386-1466); Mino da Fiesole (a.d. 1431-1484), and 
Benedetto da Majano (a.d. 1442-1497), famous for his bas-reliefs 
and statues at Florence and elsewhere. As showing the com- 
mercial prosperity of Florence, it is worthy of note that the 
golden florin was first coined in that city in 1252, and soon became 
the general standard of value in Europe. 

As rival parties in the city were engaged in constant hostilities, 
safety and defence were primary motives in building, the palaces 
being in reality semi -fortresses. 

vi. Historical. — Florence commenced to grow in importance 
on the removal of the inhabitants of Fiesole to the banks of the 
Arno in 11 25. 



The grouping together of the independent commonwealths of 
Italy is a feature of this period, and, as in ancient Greece, one 
city bore rule over another. Pisa became subject to Florence in 
1406, and the latter gradually became the chief power in 
Italy, and also in the fourteenth century the artistic capital. 
During this period the nobles were at constant feuds with each 
other, being divided into the hostile camps of Guelphs and 
Ghibellines (pp. 230, 259), the former being generally successful. 
Dante Alighieri (1 265-1 321) took part in these conflicts, but 
eventually the wealthy family of the Medici became the ruling 
power in the State (see above). In 1494 Charles VIII. of France 
occupied Florence, during his brief invasion of Italy, which arose 
from his claims on the kingdom of Naples. The short-lived 
republic of Savonarola (see above) followed, but the Medici, 
in spite of successive banishments, were finally reinstated by 
the Emperor Charles V., who, acting on behalf of the Ghibel- 
lines, took the town in 1530. During a siege of eleven months, 
Michael Angelo acted as the engineer of the republic. The 
suppression of political liberty followed, especially under Cosimo I. 
( 1 537-1 564), who, however, greatly extended the Florentine 
dominions, Siena being ceded to him in 1557 by the Emperor. 
His successors, the Grand Dukes of Florence, followed, until in 
1737, the House of Medici becoming extinct, the Duchy passed 
into the hands of Austria. In 1801, as the Republic, and 
afterwards as the Kingdom of Etruria, it enjoyed political freedom 
with the exception of the years 1807-18 14, during which time it 
was incorporated with France, but in i860 it was united to the 
Kingdom of Italy. 


The massive blocks of rusticated masonry in the lower stories 
(No. 192) of the Florentine palaces give to these buildings that 
character of solidity and ruggedness for which they are remark- 
able. The palaces were all built round interior courts, possibly 
derived from the arcaded cloister of the mediaeval monastery, the 
walls resting on columnar arcades (No. 191). The general 
absence of pilasters, as decorative features, is specially noticeable 
in the design of the palaces, which are therefore called "astylar." 
The sparing use of carved detail, and in fact of features of any 
kind, gives a marked character of simplicity to the style. The 
grand effect of these palaces is considerably aided by the massive 
cornice which crowns the structure, being proportioned to the 
whole height of the building, as in the Riccardi Palace (No. 191 d). 
The columnar arcade is a special feature, as in the Ospedale degli 
Innocenti and the Loggia S. Paolo, and mural monuments and 
altars are exceedingly rich with sculpture and decoration. 


The types of doors and windows may be divided into three 
groups : — 

(aJ) The arcade type, usual in the heavily rusticated examples, 
consists of a round arch, in the centre of which is a circular 
column supporting a simple piece of tracery (Nos. 191 and 194 d) } 
as at the Strozzi, Pitti, and Riccardi Palaces. 

(b.) The architrave type is that in which mouldings inclose the 
Window, and consoles on either side support a horizontal of 
pediment sornice, as in the courtyard of the Pandolfini Palace 
and in the Palazzo Riccardi (No. 192), 

(c ,) The order type is that in which the opening is framed with 
a pilaster or column on each side supporting an entablature 
above, this being the final development, as employed in the 
Pandolfini Palace, ascribed to Raphael, and also shown in 
No. 194 F, 


Note. — Having reached the period when the personality of the 
architect has increased in importance, the chief works of 
Brunelleschi, Alberti, and others, as being the leaders of the 
Florentine school, will be briefly enumerated. 

BRUNELLESCHI (a.d. 1377-1446), 

a Florentine by birth, studied the features and construction of 
the Pantheon and other examples of Roman architecture, which 
henceforth exerted a considerable influence over his works,, his 
main object being to complete the unfinished dome over the 
Cathedral of Florence. 

The Dome of Florence Cathedral (a.d. 1420-1434) (Nos. 
176 and 181) was Brunelleschi's principal work, his design being 
accepted in competition. It is said that it was constructed without 
any centering, with voussoirs having horizontal joints. It covers 
an octagonal apartment 138 feet 6 inches in diameter, and is 
raised upon an octagonal drum in which are circular windows 
lighting the interior. The dome itself is constructed of inner 
and outer shells, and is pointed in form, being constructed on a 
Gothic principle with eight main ribs and sixteen intermediate 

S. Lorenzo, Florence (a.d. 1425) (No. 193 d), and S. Spirito, 
Florence (No. 193), are both examples of churches on the basilican 
plan, the latter having aisles formed round the transepts and choir, 
and a flat wooden ceiling to nave, and is probably the earliest 

F.A. g c 



Palazzo Riccardi, Florence. 



instance where isolated fragments of entablature are placed on 
each column with the arches springing from these. 

The Pazzi Chapel, Florence (in S. Croce) (a.d. 1420) 
(No. 193 a, b, c), is a refined example of his smaller works, 
consisting of a dome over a square compartment, which is entered 
through an open colonnade of six columns supporting a decorated 
vault and forming the front facade. 

The Riccardi Palace (1430) (Xos. 191 and 192) and the 
Pitti Palace (1440), in both of which he appears to have been 
associated with Michellozzo (1397-1473), are examples of the 
massive rusticated buildings with heavy crowning cornice for 
which the Florentine style is noted. 

ALBERTI (1404-1472) 

was a scholar deeply interested in classical literature, and his works 
exhibit more decorative treatment and are less massive than 
those of Brunelleschi. He wrote a work on architecture, " De 
Re iEdificatoria," which largely influenced men's minds in favour 
of the revived Roman style. 

The Ruccellai Palace, Florence (a.d. 1451-1455) is known as 
the first Renaissance building in which superimposed pilasters 
were used, and shows a lighter and more refined character, 
although dignity was lost compared with the Pitti Palace, by the 
reduction in size of the great crowning cornice. 

S. Francesco, Rimini (a.d. 1447-1455), a thirteenth century 
Gothic church, was remodelled in the revived style, but the facade 
was never completed. 

S. Maria Novella, Florence (a.d. 1470), was one of the 
first churches in which consoles were placed in the facade over 
the side aisles to connect them with the nave. 

S. Andrea, Mantua (a.d. 1472-1512) (No. 193), is particularly 
notable and important as the type of many modern Renaissance 
churches, and consists of a single nave with transepts, the 
interior ornamented with a single order on pedestals supporting a 
barrel vault. Chapels, alternating with entrance vestibules, take 
the place of the customary aisles on each side of the nave. Over 
the intersection of the nave with the transept is a dome, in the 
drum or lower portion of which are windows lighting the interior. 
The chancel is apsidal, lighted by three windows, which cause the 
entablature to be mitred round the pilasters of the order which 
carry the lunetted half dome of the apse. 

The perfection of the proportions makes the interior of this 
church one of the grandest in the style, and the front is reminiscent 
of a Roman triumphal archway. 


The Strozzi Palace (1489) (No. 191), and the Gaudagni 
Palace, both by Cronaca, are other Florentine examples. 
Note. — Characteristic Florentine ornament is shown in No. 194 

4. COMPARATIVE (see page 490). 



Alberti (L. B.). — " De re redificatoria. or I dieci Libri de' 1' Architettura. n 
English Translation by Leoni, entitled "Architecture in Ten Books." 

3 vols., folio. 1726. 

Anderson (W. J.).— "Architectural Studies in Italy." 1890. 

Anderson (W. J.). — "The Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy." 
8vo. 1901. 

Burckhardt (J.). — " Die Renaissance in Italien." Stuttgart, 1867. 

Fletcher (Banister F.). — " Andrea Halladio." 4to. 1902. 

Gruner (L.). — " Fresco Decorations and Stuccoes of Churches and 
Palaces of Italy." 2 vols., plates in folio and text in 4to. 1854. 

Kinross (J.). — " Details from Italian Buildings. 1 ' Folio. 1882. 

Melani (A.). — " Manuale di Architettura Antica e Moderna." 1899. 

Nicolai (H. G.).— " Das Ornament der Italienischen Kunst des XV. 
Jahrhunderts." Folio. Dresden, 1882. 

Oakeshott (G. J.). — "Detail and Ornament of the Italian Renaissance/' 
Folio. 1888. 

Sanmicheli(M.). — " Le Fabbriche civili Ecclesiastiche e Militari." 1832. 

Schutz (A.). — " Die Renaissance in Italien." 4 vols., folio. Hamburg, 

Serlio (S.). — " I cinque libri d'Architettura." English translation by 
R. Peake, entitled " The Five Books of Architecture made by Sebastian 
Serly." Folio. 161 1. 

Strack(H.). — "Central und Kuppelkirchen der Renaissance in Italien." 
2 vols., folio. 1882. 

Florentine School. 

Gauthier (M. P.).—" Les Edifices de la Ville de Genes." Folio. Paris, 

Geymuller (H. Von.) and Widmann (A.). — "Die Architektur der 
Renaissance in Toscana." Folio. Munich, 1 885-1 894, &c. 

Grandjean de Montigny (A. H. V.) et Famin (A.). — "Architecture 
Toscane." Folio. Paris, 1874. 

Oliphant (Mrs.).— " Makers of Florence." 8vo. 1891. 

Raschdorff (J. C.).— " Toscana." Folio. Berlin, 1888. 

Reinhardt (R.).—" Genua." Folio. Berlin, 1886. 

Ruggieri (F.).— "Scelti di Architettura della Citta di Firenze." 

4 vols. Florence, 1738. 

Eliot (Georgr). — " Romola." (Historical Novel.) 




" See the wild waste of all-devouring years ! 
How Rome her own sad sepulchre appears ! 
With nodding arches, broken temples spread." — Pope. 

i. INFLUENCES (see page 437). 

i. Geographical. — The unique character of Rome as an 
influence was its prestige as the capital of an empire that had 
crumbled away, and whose architecture was now being revived. 
The ruins and new buildings are important as forming models for 
the whole of Europe. 

ii. Geological. — The remains of old Rome, such as the 
Colosseum, Pantheon, and colonnades, formed the quarry from 
which much of the material for the Renaissance buildings was 

iii. Climate. — (See pages 112, 404.) 

iv. Religion. — The return of the popes from Avignon to Rome 
in a.d. 1376 helped to restore her to her former position of import- 
ance and prosperity. From the time of the Council of Constance, 
14 1 5, the popes took a more prominent position as Italian princes, 
and during the fifteenth century they greatly extended their 
temporal dominions in Italy. Some hoped that Italian unity would 
be effected under the papal sway, and Caesar Borgia, nephew to 
Alexander VI., proposed to effect this by absorbing the Italian 
states as one would eat an artichoke — leaf by leaf. Julius II. 
besieged Bologna in person, as sacred and secular capacities were 
often combined in the same pope. The Jesuits, founded in the 
later Renaissance period, existed to counteract the Reformation, 
by rendering the papal influence universal (see below). 

v. Social and Political. — In Rome a central government 
existed, in consequence of which party spirit was checked, and 
fortified palaces were not necessary as in Florence. Rome was 
the home of the old classic traditions, which naturally exerted 
great influence in any new development. 

During the fifteenth century the popes were temporal princes, 
and great patrons of art and learning. Splendid new palaces and 
churches were erected, and the decoration of old ones carried on 
by successive painters of whom Peruzzi, Raphael, Michael Angelo, 
and others were eminent. A school was created for artists and 
workmen, who afterwards spread abroad the style of the Renais- 
sance in other parts of Italy and beyond. 

vi. Historical. — During the absence of the popes at Avignon, 
the factions of the barons continued unchecked, except during the 
brief rule of Rienzi's republican state in 1 347. The return of the 
popes took place in 1376 under Gregory XL The scandal of rival 


popes at Rome and Avignon was terminated in 141 5 by the 
Council of Constance, after which Rome rapidly gained in wealth 
and prestige. Julius II., a warlike and ambitious pope, extended 
the temporal power, and founded the new cathedral of S. Peter 
and the Vatican. 

Rome was, for the last and seventh time, taken and plundered 
on the 6th May, 1527, by the Emperor Charles V. 

Spanish influence became powerful, and was not always exerted 
for good, but it was replaced by that of France, which was strong 
under Louis XIV. The growth of the power of Austria was next 
felt throughout the Peninsula, until the rise of national feeling 
which, though checked in 1848, led in 1870 to Rome becoming 
the capital of New Italy. This remarkable revolution was effected 
without Rome ceasing to be the headquarters of the papacy. 


The Classic orders were largely used in the facades and court- 
yards (Nos. 195, 196 and 200), and a general attempt at correctness 
and conformity to the ideas of ancient Roman architecture pre- 
vailed. The size and simplicity of the palaces of Rome produce 
an effect of dignity (No. 197). 

The principle which animated architects in the later school was 
that of unity, which they endeavoured to attain by making a 
whole building appear to be of a single story ; thus two or more 
stories were included by an order of pilasters, which was some- 
times crowned by an attic, but never by another superimposed 
order. Arcuation was only sparingly introduced, except in the 
form of tiers of arcades, in imitation of the Colosseum. 


BRAMANTE (1444-1514), 

the first Roman architect of note, was born in the year that 
Brunelleschi died, educated as a painter under Andrea Mantegna, 
and was probably a pupil of Alberti. He was a Florentine by 
birth, but studied at Rome, practising first in the city of Milan, 
and in the ducal dominions. 

S. Maria della Grazie, Milan (a.d. 1492), an abbey church 
of the fifteenth century, to which Bramante added the choir, 
transepts and dome, is essentially transitional in style with 
Gothic feeling, but is most successful and suitable in detail for 
the terra cotta with which it was constructed. 

The Cancellaria Palace (a.d. 1495- 1505) (No. 196) and the 
Giraud Palace (1503) (No. 195) are examples of Bramante's later 
works, in which a more pronounced classical tendency is seen. 



The Cortile of S. Damaso, the Cortile delle Loggie, and 
the Greater and Lesser Belvedere Courts in the Vatican 
(a.d. 1503), are well-known examples of his secular work. 

The Tempietto in S. Pietro in Montorio (1502) is a perfect 
gem of architecture, the internal diameter being only 15 feet 
(No. 199 a, b, c), founded in design on the small Roman circular 

S. Maria della Pace, Rome, erected in 1484, had its later 
cloister court of arcades supporting columns constructed in 1504 
by Bramante. 

Bramante's works of the middle period especially exhibit great 
refinement in mouldings, carving, and detail ; thus he uses flat 
pilasters, and circular- headed openings, framed by square lines 
(Nos. 196 a and 206 d). His " Ultima Maniera " is seen in the 
bold and grand designs for the Courts of Law (never finished) near 
the Tiber, and in his " projects" for S. Peter (No. 203 d). 

An article on " The School of Bramante," by Baron von 
Geymtiller, which appeared in the R.I.B.A. Transactions, 1891, 
is interesting, as tending to show the influence which Bramante, 
who may be called the " continuator " of the style of Alberti, 
exerted on the development of the Renaissance in Rome and in 
every European country. 


Baldassare Peruzzi ( 148 1- 1536) was the architect of several 
buildings at Rome, and few architects of the school were so well 
trained, and able to execute works so finished in detail, whether 
of plan, section, or elevation. 

The Massimi Palace, Rome (a.d. 1536) (No. 196 c, d), an example 
full of refinement and beauty, both in design and detail, is especially 
interesting in the way the convexfa^ade has been treated. 

The Villa Farnesina, Rome (a.d. 1506), is a two-storied structure 
(each story comprising an order) with boldly projecting wings, 
central arched loggia and rich crowning frieze. The latter was 
ornamented with cupids holding festoons, and contained windows, 
a system afterwards made use of by Sansovino in the Library of 
S. Mark (No. 210). The remarkable frescoes of this building 
were executed by Peruzzi and Raphael. 

Dorchester House, Park Lane, London, by Vulliamy, was 
founded on this design. 

S. Maria della Consolazione y Todi (1508- 1604) (No. 199), by Cola 
da Caprarola, is ascribed to his influence, but is overladen with 

Ant. da Sangallo the younger (a.d. 1485-1546) erected the 
Farnese Palace, Rome (Nos. 197 and 198). This is the grandest 
of all the examples of the school, and is executed in brick walling 



with travertine dressings from the Colosseum. Columns or 
pilasters are used only in a special way to form frames to the 
windows, each of the stories being well marked horizontally by 
projecting string courses. The grand crowning cornice, which was 
a special feature in the original design (No. 198 b) was added later 
by Michael Angelo. The internal open court (" cortile ") is in the 
style of the Colosseum, and a reduced cast of a portion of it may 
be seen in the Italian Renaissance Court at the Crystal Palace, 
and the "motif" was followed for the Reform Club, London. 

Raphael (a.d. 1483- 1520) was the nephew and pupil of 
Bramante, but authorities differ as to his exact responsibility 
for the designs ascribed to him. 

At Rome, he was engaged on S. Peter, but did little. He 
designed the facade of 5. Lorenzo in Miranda, and also the 
Villa Madama (a.d. 1516), the stucco decorations being by Giulio 

The Pandolfini Palace, Florence, erected in 1530 (ten years after 
his death), is one of his most famous designs, the "motif" being 
afterwards followed for the Travellers' Club, London. 

The excavation of the Baths of Titus gave Raphael an oppor- 
tunity of studying the interior decoration of ancient Roman 
buildings, and the use of hard stucco with painted decorations 
was one of the things he learned from these remains. The 
surface of the vaulting was found to be painted with studies from 
the vegetable kingdom, with figures of men and animals, and 
with such objects as vessels and shields, all blended together in 
fanciful schemes, rendered pleasing by bright coloring. 

The designs for the decoration of the Vatican Loggie, which he 
carried out, were based on these Roman examples. 

Giulio Romano (a.d. 1492-1546^ was a pupil of Raphael, and 
was the architect of buildings at Mantua, including his master- 
piece the Palazzo del Te, which is a one-story building, decorated 
with the Doric order. It is quadrangular in plan, and comprises 
large saloons round a central court. The recessed arcaded facade 
to the garden and the painted ceilings are remarkable, and the 
design is perhaps the nearest approach made on the part of a 
Renaissance architect to reproduce the features of a Roman villa. 

G. BAROZZI DA VIGNOLA (a.d. 1507-1573) 

exercised great influence by his writings, and was the author of 
" The Five Orders of Architecture." Being taken back to France 
by Francis 1. (page 497), he exercised a great influence on the 
development of French Renaissance architecture. 

The Villa of Pope Julius, now the Etruscan Museum, 
Rome (a.d. 1550) (No. 238 d, e), is one of his best known works. 

The Palace of Caprarola (No. 201) is a pentagonal semi- 



I-®' M8HT89B 




seems ksm<£, 

o ~ 

<5 ai i 



fortress situated on the spur of a mountain looking down into the 
valley, recalling Hadrian's tomb in mass and outline, while the 
internal circular court is suggestive of the Colosseum at Rome 
(see the Chateau de Chambord, page 500). 

S. Andrea, Rome (a.d. 1550) (No. 199) one of his earlier and 
smaller works, is a simple oblong on plan having an elliptical 
dome with pendentives. 

The two small cupolas at S. Peter (No. 203 e), and the 
unfinished municipal palace at Bologna, are other works. 

The Gesu Church (a.d. 1568-1632) (No. 199) is one of many 
designed on the lines of S. Peter, Rome. 

MICHAEL ANGELO (a.d. 1474-1564), 

a famous Florentine sculptor, and painter of the roof of the 
Sistine Chapel in the Vatican (a.d. 1508), representing the Fall 
and Redemption of Mankind, also turned his attention, late in 
life, to architecture, but reckless detail mars his work. He 
finished the Farnese Palace, and carried out the Dome of 
S. Peter (page 471), but perhaps his best work was the recon- 
struction of the Palaces of the Capitol (a.d. 1540-1644) 
(Nos. 200 and 201), grand examples of one-order buildings. 

His principal works at Florence were the Mausoleum (or 
New Sacristy) (a.d. 1520) (No. 193 d), having statues of his 
patrons, Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici, and the Laurentian 
Library (a.d. 1524), both at S. Lorenzo. 

S. Peter, Rome (1506-1626), was the most important build- 
ing erected in the period, and many architects were engaged upon 
it. In plan (Nos. 203 and 213) it was a Greek cross, the later 
extension of the nave and aisles toward the east practically 
bringing the whole scheme to a Latin cross. This was probably 
effected so as to inclose the whole of the area of the previously 
existing church (No. 75 c). The nave, 80 feet wide, consists of 
four bays of immense size, the central crossing is covered by the 
dome, 137 feet 6 inches in diameter, and the short transepts are 
terminated by semicircular apses, the western arm being precisely 
similar. The high altar stands under the dome, within a 
" baldachino," 100 feet high, over the alleged tomb of S. Peter. 
A vestibule at the East end extends the whole width of the church, 
the chancel being at the west end. 

The interior (No. 204) has one gigantic order of Corinthian 
pilasters, crowned with semicircular barrel vaults, 150 feet high. 
The walls are faced with plaster, and colored to imitate marble, 
producing a rich effect, and the dome is beautifully decorated in 

" No single parts unequally surprise, 
All comes united to th' admiring eyes." — Pope. 

H H 2 



The exterior (Nos. 202, 203 and 205), roughly executed in 
travertine, has an immense order of Corinthian pilasters, 108 feet 
high including entablature, with an attic 39 feet high surrounding 
the entire building. The view of the dome from the east except at 
a distance, is nearly cut off behind the screen wall of the now 
extended nave. The design owes much to the circular four-fold 
colonnades added by Bernini in the seventeenth century, which 
inclose one of the noblest entrance courtyards in Europe. A good 
idea of the building, in its general distribution, is to be obtained 
from the model at the Crystal Palace, in which, however, as in 
most drawings of the church, the detail is rendered less offensive 
by its smaller scale. 

S. Peter was recognized as a model of which numberless 
churches were erected throughout Italy. 

The following is a synopsis of the history of this building : — 

a.d. 1506. — Bramante, the original architect, formulated a 
design in the form of a Greek cross with entrances at East 
end. His design for the dome is shown in No. 203 b, d. 
Foundation stone laid. 

a.d. 15 1 3. — Giuliano da Sangallo (d. 1516), Raphael, and Fra 
Giocondo (d. 15 15), were entrusted with superintendence 
of the work. Division of opinion existed as to altering 
original plan to a Latin cross. Raphael's suggested ground 
plan is shown in No. 203 j. 

a.d. 1 5 14. — Death of Bramante. 

a.d. 1520. — Death of Raphael. 

a.d. 1520. — Baldassare Peruzzi appointed architect, but died 
1536. His suggested plan is shown in No. 203 l. The 
capture and sack of Rome disorganized all artistic work. 

a.d. 1536. — Antonio da Sangallo the younger succeeded him 
as architect (d. a.d. 1546). Proposed a picturesque design 
of many orders, with a central dome (No. 203 c) and lofty 
campanili. His plan is shown in No. 203 m. 

a.d. 1546. — Michael Angela appointed architect. He rejected 
the innovations of Sangallo, restored the design to a Greek 
cross, strengthened the piers of the dome, which had 
shown signs of weakness, and simplified the form of the 
aisles, in which process the masterly planning of the 
accessories, by Raphael, which were to give scale to 
the interior, disappeared. He planned and commenced 
the construction of the great dome, 137 feet 6 inches 
internal diameter, the drum of which he completed, and at 
his death (1564) left drawings and models for the completion 
of the work up to the lantern, the top of which is 405 feet 
from the ground. 

a.d. 1564. — Vignola continued the building of the church, 


adding the cupolas on either side of the great dome. These 
(Nos. 202. 203 k 1. excellent in themselves, are ineffective in 
relation to the whole mass. 

a.d. 15^5-1590- — Gid<\mj ifV.Vj Per Li and /).*»w:kv /*Vkm/m 
erected the dome from Michael Angelo's wooden model. 

a.d. 1605-1612. — Carta MaJerrui* instructed by Paul Y., 
lengthened the nave to form a Latin cross 1 No. 203 k^, 
and erected the present contemptible facade ( No. 20$ e\. 

a.d. 161 2. — Ra in auh appointed architect and prepared designs 
for campanile, but effected nothing. 

a.d. 1 629- 1 667. — Bernini erected the fourfold colonnades in- 
closing the piazza, 650 feet wide, in front (Nos. 202, 203 K, K 
and 205). He also erected the brazen baidachino under 
the dome (No. 204) with metal taken from the portico 
of the Pantheon. 

" With arms wide open to embrace 
The entry of ihe human race." — Browning. 

In Baron von Gevmuller's book, already mentioned, there is a 
plan, with the portions of separate dates colored differently, 
which is very interesting, and also a comparison drawn between 
the fundamental principles of design which characterize each 

Compare plans (No. 213) : 

S. Peter. Milan S. Paul. S. Sophia Cologne 

(No. 176). 1 No. 80) 

Area in sq. yds. 18,000 10.000 9.350 8.150 7«-*t*> 

Length in yards. 205 148 170 118 136 

Pantheon Florence 

(No. 54). I No. 170X 

Diain. of dome. 137 ft. 6 in. 142 ft. 6 in. 109 ft. 107 ft. 138 ft. 6 in. 

Other examples in Rome are : — 

The Papal Palaces (a.d. i574-i59o)on the Lateran, Quirinal 
and Vatican Hills, and the Chapel of Sixtus V. in S. Maria 
Maggiore (a.d. 1543-1607), were by Fontana. 

The portico to north transept of S. Giovanni in Laterano 
(1586) is also by Fontana. 

The Facade of S. Giovanni in Laterano, by Galilei (a.d. 1734). 
The Portico to S. Maria Maggiore, by Fuga (a.d. 1743). The 
Palazzo Borghese (a.d. 1590), the Palazzo Barberini, by 
Maderna, and the Fountain of Trevi (a.d. 1735). 

Note. — Characteristic Roman ornament is shown in No. 206. 

4. COMPARATIVE (see page 490). 






Fontana (G.). — " Raccolta delle Chiese di Roma." 4 vols., folio. 1855. 

Geymuller(H. de). — " The School of Bramante." R.I. B. A. Trans. 1891. 

Geymuller (H. de). — u Les Projets primitifs pour la Basilique de 
St. Pierre de Rome." 2 vols., 4to and folio. Paris and Vienna, 1875-1880. 

Letarouilly (P. M.). — '• Edifices de Rome Moderne." 3 vols., folio and 
4to vol. of text. Paris, 1868. 

Letarouilly. — " Le Vatican et la Basilique de Saint- Pierre de Rome, ,, 

2 vols. Paris, 1882. 

Maccari (E). — 11 Palazzo di Caprarola. Folio. Berlin. 

Palladio (A.).—" I Quattro Libri dell' Architettura." The best English 
editions are those by Leoni and Ware. 

Percier (C.) et Fontaine (P. F. L.). — " Choix de plus Celebres Maisons 
de Plaisance de Rome et de ses Environs." Folio. Paris, 1809. 

Rossi (D. de). — "Studio d' Architettura Civile della Citta di Roma." 

3 vols., folio. Roma, 1 720-1721. 

Scamozzi (O. B.). — " Fabbriche e Designi di Andrea Palladio." 4 vols., 
folio. Vicenza, 1776. 

Strack (H.). — " Baudenkmaeler Roms des XV. -XIX. Jahrhunderts." 
Folio. Berlin, 1891. 

Suys (T. F.) et Haudebourt (L. P.). — " Palais Massimia Rome.*' Folio. 
Paris, 181 8. 

Lytton (Lord). — 4t Rienzi." ]„. . . lv , 

Yeats (S. L.).-"The Honour of Savelli."} Hlst °™ al ^ ls - 


" Underneath day's azure eyes, 
Ocean's nursling, Venice lies, 
A peopled labyrinth of walls, 
Amphit rite's destined halls, 
Which her hoary sire now paves 
With his blue and beaming waves. 
Lo ! the sun upsprings behind, 
Broad, red, radiant, half-reclined 
On the level, quivering line 
Of the water's crystalline ; 
And before that dream of light, 
As within a furnace bright, 
Column, tower, and dome, and spire 
Shine like obelisks of fire, 
Panting with inconstant motion 
From the altar of dark ocean 
To the sapphire-tinted sky."— Shelley. 

i. INFLUENCES (see page 437). 

i. Geographical. — The greatness of Venice was founded on 
Oriental commerce, due to her important geographical position, 
and the effect of this commercial prosperity lasted well into 
Renaissance times (pages 232, 404). The history of the Venetian 
state was always influenced by the proximity of the sea, and the 
peculiar formation of the coast. 



ii. Geological. — Venice has the appearance of a floating city 
founded in the sea, churches, palaces, and houses being set upon 
piles in a shallow lagoon, a structural formation having an 
important influence on its art. 

iii. Climate. — This favours out-door life, the heat in summer 
being great, though tempered by sea breezes. Open top stones, 
called belvederes, exist in many houses. The northern position 
renders chimneys more prominent than in other Italian cities. 

iv. Religion. — Venice continued to maintain a semi -independ- 
ence of the Pope, due to her political necessities in those days 
of growing temporal power. Strong loyalty to the State even 
among the clergy was manifested during the attempted interdict 
of Paul V., the learned theologian Paolo Sarpi (1552-1623) 
being the adviser of the State during this crisis (1607). The 
tolerance of Venetian policy is shown by the erection of the 
Greek church, an interesting example of the local Renaissance. 

v. Social and Political. — During the whole of the fifteenth 
century, Venice w r as engaged in conquering the surrounding 
towns, to which Venetian nobles were appointed governors. 

The government of Venice was republican, and the rivalry of 
the leading families led to the erection of fine and lasting monu- 
ments, such as the palaces which line the Grand Canal ; these 
however were not fortresses, as at Florence, but the residences 
of peaceable citizens and merchant princes. 

vi. Historical. — In the middle of the fifteenth century (1453; 
Constantinople was taken by the Turks, and the supremacy 
of Venice in the East was undermined. By the discovery ot 
the new route round the Cape to India by Diaz in i486, its 
commerce was diverted to the Portuguese. During the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries the Venetians were at constant war 
with the Turks, and eventually in 17 15 the whole of her posses- 
sions, except in North Italy, were taken from her. Yet " the 
arts which had meanwhile been silently developing shed a glorious 
sunset over the waning glory of the mighty republic." 


The Renaissance movement had a very different effect upon 
the architecture of Venice from that which it produced upon the 
architecture of Florence, owing to the previously existing circum- 
stances of the two cities. The Venetians had a beautiful type of 
Gothic architecture of their own, and, being farther from Rome, 
were not so much under the influence of that city as was Florence. 
Therefore, between the periods of Gothic and fully-developed 
Renaissance, there was a period of transition, the earlier buildings 


in the new style having Gothic in conjunction with Renaissance 
details. A notable instance is in the pointed arches of the Renais- 
sance facade in the courtyard of the Doges' Palace (No. 210 f) 
(see below). 

The architecture of Venice is, in general, of a lighter and 
more graceful kind than that of Florence, columns and pilasters 
being used freely in all designs. A special Venetian feature is 
the grouping of the windows near the centre, leaving com- 
paratively solid boundaries to the facades (No. 207), which 
facades are comparatively flat, and have no great projections, 
in consequence of the houses being situated on the side of 
canals, and having a straight frontage with the water. The 
rustication of walls, as at Florence, is unusual, and a cornice 
usually marks each story (No. 208), in contrast with the great 
crowning Florentine cornices. Extreme depth was sometimes 
given to the frieze, in which window's were sometimes placed 
(No. 210 a, b). 

The balconies (No. 209) are graceful and important features, 
and give light and shade to the facade, having the same effect as 
the recessing of portions of the structure. 

The regularity of the disposition of a Venetian facade is 
described by Browning, who talks of the 

" Window just with window mating, 
Door on door exactly waiting." 

In the later period perfection of details is characteristic of the 
Venetian Renaissance, as, for instance, in S. Mark's Library 
and the palaces by Sansovino (a.d. 1479-1570). In Longhena's 
works and other late examples, the detail became large and 
projected boldly, producing strong effects of light and shade, 
heavy rustication being used to contrast the basement with the 
upper part of the facade (No. 209). 



The Court to the Doges' Palace (No. 210) was commenced 
a.d. i486, by Ant. Rizzi, the Giant's Staircase, giving access to 
the upper portions, being erected by Sansovino in a.d. 1554. 

The facade of the Geological Museum in Piccadilly is founded 
on the design of the lower part of the courtyard facade of this 

The Library of S. Mark (a.d. 1536) was erected by San- 
sovino (No. 210), but the continuation of the design, one order 
higher round S. Mark's Square, was executed in 1584 by 
Scamozzi. This design has been followed for the Carlton Club, 






S. Maria della Salute, Venice. 






The Zecca, or Mint, was erected by Sansovino, 1536, and 
has a peculiar treatment of column rustication. 

The Vendramini Palace (a.d. 148 1), by Pietro Lombardo 
(Nos. 207 and 208), has to each story an order of engaged 
columns — the earliest example in Venice. The windows are 
semicircular, with a Renaissance treatment of tracery. 

The Cornaro Palace (the Army and Navy Club, London, 
being a modified copy), by Sansovino (a.d. 1532) ; the Grimani 
Palace, by Sanmicheli (a.d. 1549) ; and the Pesaro Palace 
(a.d. 1 650- 1 680), by Longhena (No. 209), are later examples. 

The Scuola di S. Marco (a.d. 1485-1533), the facade of which 
was by Pietro Lombardo, is a rich example, held to be founded on 
the facade of S. Mark, and has curious sculptured reliefs in 


S. Maria dei Miracoli (a.d. 1480) (No. 211), by Pietro Lom- 
bardo, architect, has no aisles, and the choir is raised twelve 
steps above the nave, which is covered with a roof of semi- 
circular form, not uncommon in Venice. This is emphasized by a 
semicircular pediment on the facade, a feature which also occurs 
at S. Zaccaria. The walls are faced internally and externally, 
with delicately carved and different colored marbles. The sacristy 
is beneath the raised choir, as shown in No. 211 c. 

S. Zaccaria (a.d. 1456-15 15), a transition example, and S. 
Giobbe (a.d. 1451-1493), are other churches worthy of note. 

S. Salvatore (a.d. 1530), by Tullio Lombardo, the plan 
derived from S. Mark, with domical and barrel- vaulted bays, and 
S. Giorgio dei Greci (a.d. 1538), by Sansovino (No. 211), are 
other examples of the early or transition period. 

S. Francesco della Vigna, by Sansovino (a.d. 1534-1562), has 
a facade (1562) by Palladio resembling S. Giorgio Maggiore. 

II Redentore (a.d. 1576) and S. Giorgio Maggiore (a.d. 
1560) were both by Palladio (No. 211), although the facade of 
the latter was by Scamozzi (a.d. 1575). These churches are 
instructive, as exhibiting the difficulties of adopting the Classic 
orders to the facades of churches of the basilican plan. 

S. Maria della Salute (a.d. 1632), by Longhena (Nos. 212 and 
213 e), groups most beautifully with the surroundings on the Grand 
Canal. In plan it consists of an octagon with chapels projecting 
on each side, the central space being covered by a circular dome, 
whose drum is connected to the outer walls by buttresses (No. 212) 
over the aisles, their fanciful shapes contributing to the rich 
effect. A secondary dome covers the chancel, which projects on 
the side opposite the entrance, and a small tower also carried up, 
contributes to the picturesque grouping of the exterior. 

Note. — Characteristic Venetian ornament is shown in No. 214. 



215 The Basilica at Vicenza, by Palladio. 




These are notable cities possessing many examples of Renais- 
sance architecture, and are counted in the Venetian School. 

Vicenza was the birthplace of Palladio (a.d. 151 8-1580) and 
the scene of his labours. His churches are referred to above. 
He indefatigably studied, and measured, all the Roman antiquities, 
as may be seen by the drawings in his book on architecture. His 
designs were mostly erected in brick and stucco, the lower story 
being rusticated, and the upper ones having pilasters. A second 
method was to comprise two floors in the height of the order 
(No. 216 g), to obtain scale in that feature, and unity and dignity 
in the whole composition. There are several examples in Vicenza 
of both of these methods, as the Palazzo Barbarano (a.d. 1570) 
(No. 216 h), the Palazzo Chierecati (a.d. 1560), the Palazzo Tienc 
(a.d. 1556), the Palazzo Capitanio (formerly Prefitizio)(No. 216 g), 
and the Palazzo Valmarana (a.d. 1556). 

The Teatro Olimpico (a.d. 1580), with the stage built in 
perspective, is an interesting building completed by Scamozzi. 

The Basilica at Vicenza, originally erected in the mediaeval 
period (about 1444), owes its importance to the double-storied 
Renaissance arcades. These arcades (Nos. 215 and 216 a, b, c) 
were designed by Palladio in 1549, and are his most famous 
work, being built in a beautiful stone in two stories of Doric 
and Ionic orders, separated by arches supported on a minor order. 
This is generally known as the Palladian " motif" and was pro- 
duced in this case by the necessity of making each bay correspond 
with the Gothic hall, of which it forms the frontispiece. 

The Villa del Capra, Vicenza (generally known as the Rotonda), 
is an example of the application of the features of Classic 
architecture carried to an extreme (Nos. 216 d, e, f and 238 b). 
It is a square building, with a pillared portico on each face 
leading to a central rotunda, which appears externally as a low 
dome above the tiled roof, hipped all ways from the angles ot 
the main building. The design of this building was utilized by 
Lord Burlington at Chiswick (page 581), and it has also been 
copied elsewhere, both in England and on the Continent. 

Although Palladio's designs were mainly executed in common 
materials such as brick and stucco, and were often never fully 
carried out, still their publication in books had a far-reaching 
influence on European architecture, and he was followed in his 
methods by Inigo Jones (page 567). 

Verona owes many of its most important buildings to 
Sanmicheli (a.d. 1484- 1549), an architect of ability, who 
was also the originator of a new system of fortification, and 
the entrance gateways through the fortifications of Verona are 
excellent instances of his power of giving character to his works, 


xju rot Eitvflrioiu jiuli rat mm 


by a bold and original treatment, in which he gave great extension 
to the use of rustication as a means of effect. 

The Palazzi Pompeii (a.d. 1550) (No. 217 a), Bcvilacqua, and 
Canossa, are the best known examples of his style at Verona. 

The Palazzo del Consiglio (a.d. 1500) at Verona was erected 
by Fra Giocondo, and is chiefly remarkable for the colored 
44 sgraffito work " of the facade. 

Note. — Characteristic ornament is shown in No. 218. 


The Florentine, Roman, and Venetian Schools. 

a. Plans. 

Florence. — The utmost simplicity and compactness, a style of 
planning adapted to town, rather than country buildings. 
Staircases inclosed by walls (Nos. 191, 193) were vaulted by 
ascending barrel-vaults. In church work, the Roman coffered 
and vaulted nave (No. 193 e), the Byzantine domical treatment 
(No. 193 a), and the Basilican (No. 193 j), were all followed. 

Rome. — More varied planning on a grander scale (Nos. 196, 198 
and 199). Staircases, circular and elliptical, w r ith columnar 
supports, are features, as those in the Barberini, Corsini, and 
Braschi palaces and the Scala Regia of the Vatican. In church 
work, the dome over a circular space (Roman type) (No. 199 c), 
and the dome on pendentives (No. 199 g), were used. 

Venice. — Where an open site permitted, a broken, complex, and 
picturesque disposition was adopted ; otherwise a straight front to 
the canals had to be adhered to (No. 208). Staircases, placed 
in a central area, surrounded with arcades, belong to this school. 
In church work, the Roman barrel- vaulted type (No. 211 d), the 
dome on pendentives and Basilican plan (No. 211), were used. 

b. Walls. 

Florence. — The style of fenestration and rusticated quoins 
(Nos. 191 and 192). The astylar treatment, which dispenses 
with orders and makes each story complete in itself, while 
subordinated as a whole by the great top cornice (No. 191) 
was adopted. In pure wall treatment it is akin to Egyptian art. 

Rome. — The style of pilasters (No. 195). Two or more stories 
are united by an order upon a grand scale (No. 200). Windows 
are disturbing elements, without which the designs would have the 
unity of Greek temples. 

Venice. — The style of columns (Nos. 207 and 209). Stories are 
defined by an order to each. Excessive separation by the 
entablatures is modified, and corrected by breaking them round 
the columns. In the multiplicity of parts the style allies itself 
to the Roman, as in the Colosseum. 



" coram CHmsviLflcwBoiflHRo <jynmai.cflp- 


c. Openings. 

Florence. — Openings are small, wide-spaced, and severe in 
treatment (No. 191). The typical opening is an archway in 
rusticated work, divided by a column carrying two minor arches, 
forming a semi-tracery head (No. 194 d). In courtyards, arches 
resting directly on columns are typical (No. 191). 

Rome. — Openings seem small in relation to the great order 
adopted (No. 195). A square-headed opening was treated with a 
framework of architrave mouldings (No. 196), and later on with 
orders on a small scale, surmounted by pediments (No. 197). 

Venice. — Openings are large, numerous, and close set ; the 
arcade and colonnade, as in the Colosseum, were adapted to 
palace facades. The treatment of a centre and two wings, 
obtained by window spacing, was continued from previous periods 
(Nos. 207 and 209). 

d. Roofs. 

Florence. — Flat pitch tiled roofs are sometimes visible (No. 192). 
Raking vaults to staircases, and simple cross or waggon-vaults 
in halls, generally frescoed. 

In churches, the low dome over the crossing was a favourite 
feature (No. 193). 

Rome. — Roofs rarely visible (No. 197). 

Vaults of a similar kind were more elaborated, treated with 
coffering or stucco modelling (No. 198 h), after the style of the 
then newly-discovered Baths of Titus. Domes mounted upon 
a high drum and crowned with a lantern are universal in churches 
(No. 199). 

Venice. — Roofs having balustrades preferred (No. 210 a). 
Pictorial effect was attempted in the vaulting of halls and stair- 
cases. Domes are grouped with towers in churches (Nos. 211 
and 212). 

In Milan and other North Italian cities, the low internal cupola 
was often covered externally by a lofty structure in diminishing 
stages, as at the Certosa, Pa via, and S. Maria della Grazie, 

e. Columns. 

Florence. — Early examples do not have the orders (No. 192), 
though columns were used to arcades, the arches springing direct 
from the capitals (No. 191). 

Rome. — The application of the orders on a great scale is the 
" motif" of the style. In their use, the scale of openings, and the 
internal necessities of the building, were not regarded, and even 
such features as balustrades were not regulated by use, but by 
the system of proportion to the order employed (Nos. 195, 197 
and 200). 


Venice. — The problem of successive tiers of orders was worked 
out (Nos. 207, 208 and 209) ; projecting columns were preferred 
to pilasters, and entablatures were usually broken round these 

f. Mouldings. 

Florence, — Moulding are few and simple. Those between 
stories were reduced to the minimum, to give full effect to the 
grand crowning cornice, the details of which were based on 
Classic examples (Nos. 191 and 194). 

Rome. — Close adaptation of the features of the Classic orders 
marks the Roman style (Nos. 198 and 206), until Michael Angelo, 
and his followers, despising the sound methods of the earlier 
architects, introduced their arbitrary details. 

Venice. — Prominence of detail is characteristic of the late 
Renaissance works in Venice; entablatures have deep soffits 
and keystones, and great projection, while spandrels have figures 
in high relief (Nos. 208, 210 and 214). 

g. Ornament. 

The revival of fresco painting and its application to buildings 
by the artists of the great schools of Italian painting had an 
important decorative effect on all the schools. 

Sculptured ornament to friezes carved with infant genii, scrolls, 
fruit and masks, was abundantly used in the three schools. 

Florence (No. 194). — Decoration, such as carving and sculpture, 
is collected in masses, which contrast with the plain wall surfaces, 
as in the great stone shields at the angles of palaces (No. 192). 

Rome (No. 206). — Stands midway between Florentine and 
Venetian work, having more variety than prevails in the sternness 
of the former, and less exuberance than is found in the latter. 

Venice (No. 214). — Decoration is equally spread throughout the 
facade. Every spandrel has its figure, and the high relief of 
sculpture competes with the architectural detail in prominence 
(No. 209). 


" Calli e Canali in Venezia r (published by Ongania). Venice, 1890- 1 894. 

Cicognara (Conte F. L.). — " Le Fabbriche e i Monumenti cospicui di 
Venezia." 2 vols., folio. Venice, 1838- 1840. 

Leoni (G.). — " The Architecture of Andrea Palladio." London, 
1715, '21, '42. 

Paoletti (P.). — " L'Architettura e la Scultura del Rinascimento in 
Venezia." 3 vols., folio. Venice, 1893. 

Ruskin (J.) — " Examples of the Architecture of Venice/' Folio. 1851. 

Ruskin (J.). — " Stones of Venice." 3 vols., 8vo. 1851-1853. 

Schmidt (O.).— " Vicenza." Folio. 1898. 

Crawford (F. Marion).- "Marietta." ) Historical Nove i s 

Oliphant (Mrs.).— "Makers of Venice."/ Hlstor,cal Novels. 



Although these cities formed no distinct school, as Florence, 
Rome, and Venice, there were many noteworthy buildings which 
may be briefly referred to. 

Milan was, as it is now, one of the richest and most populous 
of Italian towns. The powerful family of the Visconti, who in 
former times had built Milan Cathedral (page 408), greatly 
encouraged art. Brick and terra-cotta were the materials chiefly 
to hand, and were employed in the Church of S. Maria delta 
Grazie (a.d. 1492) (page 457), by Bramante, and in the great 
courtyard of the Ospedale Maggiore (a.d. 1457), by Filarete, a 
Florentine. Both these buildings possess a considerable amount 
of Gothic feeling; the detail is delicately and richly modelled, 
and is very suitable to the material employed. 

5. Satiro, Milan (a.d. 1474), by Bramante, is famous for its 
chancel wall, treated in perspective, and for its octagonal sacristy. 

The Certosa, Pavia, near Milan (page 408), which was erected 
in the Gothic period (a.d. 1396), has the west facade (a.d. 
1476), by Borgognone, in the Renaissance style, and is probably 
the most important of the early examples. It is in marble, and 
is specially remarkable for the small scale of its parts, the leading 
lines being essentially Lombardian Gothic, although clothed with 
Renaissance details. The dome is interesting as a Renaissance 
copy of a type used in the Gothic period as at Chiaravalle 
and elsewhere. The arcaded galleries, the niches with statues 
executed by the greatest sculptors of the day, and the wealth of 
beautifully executed detail, make it one of the richest and most 
perfect specimens of the arts of the architect and sculptor. 

Genoa has some remarkable buildings, principally designed by 
Alessi (a.d. 1 500- 1 572), a pupil of Michael Angelo. The building 
material at hand was brick, which was covered with stucco, to 
resemble stone- work. 

The Genoese palaces are remarkable especially for the entrance 
courts, the arrangement of the vestibules, courtyards, and flights 
of steps, in which advantage was taken of the sloping sites 
to produce beautiful vistas of terraces and hanging gardens 
(No. 217 d). These buildings usually have their basements 
rusticated, and pilasters were freely introduced as a decorative 
feature ; while the facades were crowned by a bold projecting 
cornice, supported by large consoles (No. 217 b), the windows 
occupying the square intervals between these brackets. Many of 
the palaces were painted wholly in one color, and received their 
name from it, as the Palazzo Bianco (white), Palazzo Rosso (red), 
and the bright coloring, with the help of the Italian sun, gives 
them a very bright appearance. The Palazzo Munkipio (Doria- 


Tursi) (a.d. 1564) (No. 217) and the Palazzi Dttrazzo, Balbi, and 
Cambiassi are the best known. 5. Maria di Carignano (a.d. 1552), 
also by Alessi, was designed on the lines of Raphael's plan of 
S. Peter, Rome. 

Note. — Characteristic ornament is shown in No. 218. 


Callet (F.) et Lesueur (J. B. C.). — "Architecture italienne: Edifices 
publics et particuliers de Turin et Milan." Folio. Paris, 1855. 

Durelli (G. and F.). — " La Certosa di Pavia." Folio. 1853. 

Gauthier (M. P.). — " Les plus beaux Edifices de la ville de Genes." 
Folio. Paris, 18 18. 

Paravicini (T. V.). — '•' Die Renaissance Architektur der Lombardei.'' 
Dresden, 1878. 

Rubens (P. P.). — " Palazzi antichi et moderni di Genova." 1663. 


The Rococo, or Baroco, style is a debased application to 
architecture of Renaissance features, which was followed in the 
seventeenth century. Such work is to be distinguished from the 
mixtures of certain forms of the early Renaissance, when the 
style was commencing, because the Rococo period, coming after 
the reign of a highly systematized classical style, represents an 
anarchical reaction. Sinuous frontages, broken curves in plan and 
elevation, and a strained originality in detail, are the characteristics 
of the period. Columns were placed in front of pilasters, and 
cornices made to break round them, and broken and curved pedi- 
ments, huge scrolls, and twisted columns are also features of the 
style. In the interiors, the ornamentation was carried out to an 
extraordinary degree, without regard to fitness or suitability, and 
consisted of exaggerated and badly-designed detail, often over- 
emphasized by gilding and sculptured figures in contorted attitudes. 
This style, commencing at the time when the movement in 
religion connected with the Jesuits was in progress, was adopted 
by them for its essentially modern character, and the features 
described are specially to be seen in the Jesuit churches through- 
out Italy and the rest of Europe, its almost universal extension 
being a monument to their activity. The application of classical 
ideas to modern forms, beneath the trappings of bad detail, can 
be traced in the later period of the Renaissance movement. 

Carlo Maderna (1 556-1639), Bernini (1 589-1 680), and Borromini 
(1599- 1 667), were among the more famous who practised this 
debased form of art, and among the most prominent examples 
are the Roman churches of 5. Maria della Vittoria by Maderna, 
5. Agnese by Borromini, and many churches at Naples and 


(See page 246 for French Romanesque.) 
(See page 362 for French Gothic. ) 

"In all new work that would look forth 
To more than antiquarian worth, 
Palladio's pediments and bases, 
Or something such, will find their places/' — Clougii. 

i. INFLUENCES (see page 437) 

i. Geographical. — Refer to pages 246, 362. France had now 
more clearly defined boundaries, which hereafter, in spite of the 
conquests of Louis XIV. and Napoleon, were not permanently 

ii. Geological. — Refer to pages 246 and 362. Paris is built, 
so to speak, in a quarry of a fine-grained building stone, and is 
a stone city, as London is a brick city. 

iii. Climate. — Refer to page 246. 

iv. Religion. — The Reformation maintained practically no 
hold in France, the old order remaining until the end of the 
eighteenth century. As, moreover, the supply of churches erected 
during the mediaeval period proved adequate, it was the domestic 
work which took the lead in this period. Thus the Louis XIV. 
style, which had an universal influence upon interiors, and furni- 
ture, had little effect upon churches, the Jesuit style (page 496) 
prevailing in those built during this period. 

v. Social and Political. — Paris at this time was the capital 
of a compact and rapidly consolidating kingdom, and from Paris 
emanated any movement, not only in architecture, but also in 
science and literature. The number of chateaux erected during 
the early periods of the Renaissance in France was due to 
many social causes. The invasion of Italy by Charles VIII. in 
1494, and by Francis I. in 1527, in vindication of their claims 
to the thrones of Naples and Milan, marks the distribution of 
Italian artists and workmen over Europe, and more especially 
France, many returning in the train of the French kings. Among 
the chief of the artists were Leonardo da Vinci, brought to 
France by Francis I. ; Cellini, Serlio, Vignola, Rosso, Prima- 
ticcio, and Cortona. In the later period, the Italian Bernini was 

F.A. K K 



the guest of Louis XIV. A band of Italians journeying from 
place to place was responsible for much of the picturesque early 
Renaissance south of the Loire. 

vi. Historical. — The English were driven from France in 
1543, and the accession of Louis XI. in a.d. 1461 practically led 
to the consolidation of France into one kingdom by the reconcilia- 
tion of the Duke of Burgundy. During the first half of the six- 
teenth century Italy became the battlefield of Europe. In 1494 
Charles VIII. of France, claiming the kingdom of Naples, marched 
through Italy, and in 1508 Louis joined the league of Cambray 
formed against Venice, Florence being the ally of France during 
all this period. Francis I. was defeated and taken prisoner by the 
Spaniards at the Battle of Pavia, 1525. In these wars the French 
kings, although failing in their actual object, were thus brought 
into contact with the superior civilization of Italy, and drawn 
into the Renaissance movement, at the same time becoming 
more absolute in their own country. From 1558 to the end of 
Ihe century, the religious wars, between the Huguenots and 
Catholics, distracted the country. The Massacre of S. Bartho- 
lomew took place at Paris, 1572, after w T hich there was an 
emigration of Huguenots to England. During the reign of 
Louis XIII. (16 10-1643) Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the royal 
power. Cardinal Mazarin continued his policy, and Louis XIV., 
ascending the throne in 1643, became an absolute monarch. His 
conquests, in the Netherlands and Germany, led to a general 
coalition against him, and to his great defeat at the hands of 
Marlborough. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 
led to a further emigration of Protestants to England. In the 
reign of Louis XV. (171 5-1 774) the evil effects of despotism and 
bad government became more marked, and the writers Voltaire, 
Rousseau, and others weakened authority by their attacks, and 
prepared the ground for the great revolution that began in 


Refer to pages 439, 442. 

The style may be divided into three periods : — 

(a.) The Early Renaissance Period, 1461-1589 (or sixteenth 
century), comprising the reigns of: — Louis XI. 1461-1483, 
Charles VIII. 1483-1498, Louis XII. 1498-1515, Francis I. 
I 5 I 5~ I 547» Henri II. 1547-1559, Francis II. 1559-1560, 
Charles IX. 1560-1574, and Henri III. 1574-1589. 

(b.) The Classical Period, 1589-1715 (or seventeenth century), 
comprising the reigns of: — Henri IV. 1589-1610 (introduced 
classic type), Louis XIII. 1610-1643. and Louis XI V. 1643-1715. 



The latter reign was a period of remarkable artistic activity, 
the architecture being correct and dignified with a large use of 
the orders externally, while internally a fanciful style of stucco 
and papier mache decoration of scrolls, nymphs, wreaths, shells 
and figures form important elements. 

{c.) The Rococo Period, 1 715-1793 (or eighteenth century), com- 
prising the reigns of:— Louis XV. 171 5-1 774, and Louis XVI. 

I774- X 793- 

In order to understand better the architectural character of 

French Renaissance it is compared with Italian in the following 

table : — 


A direct return to Classic forms 
occurred. Considerable variety 
however arose in use and dis- 
position of the revived architec- 
tural features (No. 204). 

Principal buildings erected in 
towns, as Florence, Rome, and 
Venice, being palaces for kings, 
dukes and wealthy and powerful 
popes (Nos. 192, 195 and 207). 

Severe Classic disposition not only 
appropriate but necessary in the 
narrow streets of Florence and 
Rome, or on the straight water- 
ways of Venice. 

Influence of ancient Rome and her 
buildings apparent in greater 
purity of sculptured detail, and 
in ornamental features. 

A city palace as in Florence, Venice, 
or Rome is principally seen from 
the street, and the architectural 
features were often applique', i.e., 
only applied to the front facade 
(No. 207). 

Predominant characteristics are 
stateliness and a tendency to 
Classical horizontality. 

Early buildings were principally 
churches, in consequence of the 
comparative fewness of these 
buildings erected in the Middle 
Ages. It was essentially a 
church-building age (Nos. 193, 
199, 203, 211, 212), although the 
number of Italian palaces of the 
epoch is very large. 


A period of transition in which 
Renaissance details were grafted 
on to Gothic forms, as at the 
Church of S. Eustache (No. 222), 
Paris, Chateau de Blois (No. 219). 

Principal buildings erected in the 
country, mostly on the banks of 
the Loire, being palaces built 
for royalty and nobility, as 
Chambord (No. 220). 

The picturesque disposition ot 
Gothic origin, more in keeping 
with the country surroundings, 
where the chief buildings were 
erected (No. 221). 

Influence of Rome less apparent, 
partly because of distance from 
the headquarters of the Renais- 
sance movement. 

A country chdteau is seen on all 
sides, and the importance of a 
picturesque grouping from every 
point of view (Nos. 220, 221) 
was sought for in these buildings, 
so that every facade was of 

Predominant characteristics are 
picturesqueness, and a tendency 
to Gothic verticality (No. 222). 

Early buildings were principally 
chateaux for the nobility, who 
vied with each other in the erec- 
tion of these important structures. 
The large number of the churches 
of the Middle Ages sufficed for 
existing needs. 1 1 was essentially 
a palace-building epoch (Nos. 220, 
221 and 223). 





The country houses of the nobles The ch&tcaux on the Loire are 

in the Venetian territory, in the irregular Gothic castles, with a 

style of Palladio, are symmetrical coating of Renaissance detail 

and stately, with no traces of (Nos. 220 and 221) over features 

Gothic influence (No. 216 D, E, f). essentially Gothic. 



The Chateau de Blois (a.d. 1508), erected by Louis XII. 
and Francis I., is one of the more important examples (No. 219). 
The pilaster treatment of the facade, the mullioned windows 
showing the preference for the square section of mullion, and the 
rich crowning cornice and carved roof dormers, are notable. The 
shell ornament, introduced from Venice, was largely employed. In 
the famous " Staircase Tower 11 by Francis I. (a.d. i 515-1547), the 
letter F decoratively formed among the carved balusters, and 
vaulting bosses, and the repetition of the carving of the salamander, 
the emblem of Francis I., are interesting (No. 219). A Scottish 
version (minus the staircase) is to be seen in Fettes College, 

The Chateau de Bury (a.d. 1520) (No. 220 a, b), near Blois, 
is a typical example and may be compared with a typical English 
plan (Nos. 131 and 244). 

It consists of a large square court, in front of which is a screen 
wall, solid externally, but with a colonnade facing the court. The 
entrance is in the centre of this wall, and is provided with a porte- 
cochere, or carriage entrance. The screen wall is flanked by towers, 
circular externally, and square internally, and attached to these, 
forming two sides of the court, are long wings containing the 
servants' apartments on one side, and offices and stabling on 
the other. These are connected at the further end of the court 
with the main building {Corps de logis) in which the family resided, 
and which contained the reception rooms. Behind this main 
building was the garden, and in the centre of one side was 
placed the chapel. Each of the side wings to the court is 
one story lower than the main building, which contained the 
family apartments, as mentioned above. 

The above description applies equally to French town houses, 
up to the present day, with slight modifications dependent on site 
and local necessities. In French country houses the windows 
face on to an internal courtyard, as in the ancient Roman atrium 
(the courtyard corresponding to the atrium), whereas in English 
country houses after the time of Henry VII. the windows all face 
outwards, a courtyard being an exception (No. 131). 

The Chateau de Chambord (a.d. 1526) (Nos. 220 c, d, and 
221), by Pierre Nepveu, is one of the most famous erected in the 


Chateau de Blois 
The Staircase Towei 



Loire district of central France, and possesses a semi -fortified 
character. The traditional circular towers of defence, roofed with 
slate covered cones, are incorporated in a palace design infused with 
Italian detail. These conical roofs are broken up, where possible, 
by rich dormers (No. 225 k, l, m) and tall chimneys, which give to 
the building its characteristic confusion, yet richness, of sky-line. 
The main block, 220 feet square, corresponding to the keep of an 
English castle, was surrounded, and protected on three sides, by 
buildings inclosing a courtyard ; while the fourth side was defended 
by a moat. The central feature, or " donjon," is square on plan, 
with four halls as lofty as the nave of a church, and tunnel-vaulted 
with coffered sinkings. At the junction of these halls is the famous 
double spiral staircase, built up in a cage of stone, whose crown- 
ing lantern is the central object of the external grouping. The 
smallness of scale in regard to mouldings, the flatness of the 
projection to the pilasters, the Gothic feeling throughout the 
design, especially the high-pitched roofs, the ornamented chim- 
neys, and the general vertical treatment of the features, make 
this example one of the most characteristic of Early French 
Renaissance buildings. An English version is the Royal Holloway 
College, Egham. It may be compared with advantage to the 
pentagonal semi-fortress of Caprarola (No. 201), by Vignola 
(page 463). 

The Palace at Fontainebleau (a.d. 1528) was erected by 
Le Breton, architect, for Francis I., whose favourite residence 
it was. There is a remarkable irregularity in its plan, due in 
part to the convent it replaced, and Vignola and Serlio seem to 
have worked on the design. Contrary to Blois, the chief interest 
of this example lies in the sumptuous interiors, as in the saloons 
decorated by Benvenuto, Cellini, Primaticcio and Serlio (No. 225). 
The exterior is remarkably plain. 

Other noteworthy examples are the Chateau d'Azay-le- 
Rideau (a.d. 1520); the Chateau de Chenonceaux (a.d. 
1515-1523), picturesquely situated by a lake, and standing for 
the most part on a bridge over the water, and the Chateau de 
S. Germain-en- Laye (a.d. 1539). 

The Louvre, Paris. — This may be taken as the most 
important building in the style, and its construction lasted from 
the time of Francis I. to Louis XIV., the building exhibiting, in 
consequence, a complete history of the progressive stages of the 
French Renaissance style, as shown on No. 220 f. 

The general design of the Louvre was originally intended to 
cover the ground of the fortified Gothic palace which it replaced. 
The present design consists of two stories and an attic (No. 220 e), 
arranged round a courtyard, 400 feet square. 

Pierre Lescot (a.d. 15 15- 1578), the first architect, commenced 
the work in 1540, under Italian influence, but the original design 


only included a court one-fourth the present size. The only 
courtyard in Italy to which that of the Louvre may be compared 
is the Great Hospital at Milan, commenced in 1456 by the 
architect Filaretc. This was formed of open colonnades in two 
stories, due no doubt to climatic influences ; whereas the Louvre 
is throughout of solid walling, broken up only by pilasters, 
windows, and other architectural features. 

The lower order is of Corinthian, the upper of Composite 
pilasters, and an order of pilasters of less height was provided 
for the attic story. 

The sculptured work by Jean Goujon (a.d. 15 10-1572) is 
especially noteworthy. 

Under Henri IV. (a.d. 1589-1610), the gallery facing the Seine 
was erected (1 595-1608) by Du Cerceau, and shows the debased 
inclinations of the period, the details being coarsely carved 
throughout. Corinthian columns run through two stories, the 
entablature was pierced for admission of windows, and triangular 
or circular pediments were placed over pilasters, without any 
reference to construction or fitness. 

Under Louis XIII. (a.d. 1610-1643) the Louvre, as built by 
Lescot, was doubled in size by the architect Lemercier, the 
Pavilion de THorloge being added to form the centre of the 
enlarged court facade. 

Under Louis XIV. Perrault added (1688) the eastern facade, 
600 feet in length, consisting of a solid-looking basement, above 
which is an open colonnade of coupled Corinthian columns, and 
additional stories were added on the north and south sides of 
the court to make up the necessary height to the eastern block. 

Under Napoleon I. the northern portion fronting on the Place 
du Carrousal (completed by Napoleon III. (1863- 1868) and the 
Republic (1874-1878)) was constructed to connect this building 
with the Tuileries Palace. 

Under Napoleon III. the Louvre was finished by Visconti, 
during 1852- 1857, by the addition of the facades north and south 
of the Place Louis Napoleon, forming one of the most pleasing 
specimens of modern French art, in which a certain richness 
and dignity are added to the picturesqueness of the earlier 

The Tuileries Palace, Paris (aj>. 1564- 1572) was com- 
menced for Catherine de Medici, by Philibert de TOrme (a.d. 
1 51 5-1 570). Only a portion of one side was erected, consisting of 
a domical central pavilion with low wings on either side. In the 
reign of Henry IV. two stories were added by F. B. du Cerceau. 
The problem of effecting a proper junction between this palace 
and the Louvre was a crux of long standing because of the 
want of parallelism between them, but was finally effected 
under Napoleon III. as* mentioned above. The destruction of the 


Tuileries during the Commune in 1871, however, has rendered 
the connecting galleries architecturally ineffective. 

The Luxembourg Palace, Paris (a.d. 161 i) (No. 223 g, h), 
was erected by De Brosse for Marie de Medici of Florence, the 
intention being to imitate the bold and simple treatment of 
Florentine buildings. It resembles the Pitti Palace, Florence, 
in the treatment of the courtyard. 

It has a French type of plan, i.c. y a "corp de logis," 315 feet 
by 170 feet and three stories in height, from which wings project 
230 feet, enclosing a courtyard, and having screen and porte- 
cochire in front. It is now used as a Senate House. 

The Chateau de Maisons, near Paris (1658), was erected 
by Francois Mansard, architect, and is shown in plan and 
elevation in No. 223 e, f. It is notable for the effective use of 
the Classic orders to each story, the mansard roofs treated 
separately for the pavilions and central portion, and general 
refinement of detail. 

The Palace of Versailles was commenced in a.d. 1664, 
by Jules Hardouin Mansard (1647-1708), for Louis XIV., 
and is remarkable only for the uniformity and tameness of its 
design. The dimensions are very large, the central projection 
measuring 320 feet and each wing 500 feet, thus giving a total of 
1,320 feet. Le Notre laid out the gardens which, with their 
fountains, terraces and arbours, are very fine. 

In addition to the important buildings mentioned, there are 
many charming examples of the style, as the House of Agnes 
Sorel, Orleans, the Hotel de Bourgtheroulde, Rouen, the 
Hotel de Ville, Beaugency, and many others throughout 

Amongst later examples in Paris are the Arc de Triomphe 
(a.d. 1806) by Chalgrin ; the Library of S. Genevidve, with 
its astylar facade (a.d. 1843-1850), by Labrouste ; the Louvre, 
completed by Visconti ; the Hotel de Ville, reconstructed in its 
original style of the Early Renaissance (a.d. 1533) by Ballu and 
Deperthes in a.d. 1871 ; and the Opera House (a.d. i 863-1 875) 
by Gamier. 


The early examples of the incoming style consisted mainly, as 
in England, of tombs, pulpits, altars and doorways, and additions 
to churches, in which Renaissance details were often grafted on to 
Gothic forms. The tombs of Louis XII. (a.d. 151 5) in S. Denis 
Cathedral, near Paris, and Cardinal d'Amboise at Rouen ; the 
portals of the church of the Trinity at Falaise ; the external 
pulpit at the Chateau de Vitre, and the apses of S. Pierre at 
Caen, are examples. 




T. LJ iY 



Eh — •e^rta 



S. Eustache, Paris (a.d. 1532), by Lemercier (No. 222), 
in plan is a typical five-aisled mediaeval church, with circular 
apsidal end. As to the exterior, it has high roofs, a kind of 
Renaissance tracery to the windows, flying buttresses, pinnacles, 
deeply- recessed portals, and other Gothic features, clothed with 
Renaissance detail. The church is, in fact, laid out on Gothic 
lines, but clothed with detail inspired from Italian sources. 

S. Etienne du Mont, Paris (a.d. 1517-1538) is another 
example to which the same remarks apply. It has a famous 
rood-screen, with double staircases and carved balustrading in 
Renaissance detail, illustrating the highly developed technical 
ability of the masons of the period. 

The Church of the Sorbonne (a.d. 1629) was designed by 
Lemercier and has a domical treatment with a facade of super- 
imposed orders. 

S.S. Paul and Louis, Paris (a.d. 1627), is an unfortunate 
example of the intermediate period, overloaded with decoration 
to its three-storied facade. 

Amongst the later examples are S. Sulpice, Paris (a.d. 1650) the 
grand two-storied facade being added by Servandoni in a.d. 1750. 

The Dome of the Invalides, Paris (1670-1706), by Jules 
Hardouin Mansard, which completed the scheme of the H6tel 
des Invalides, commenced in 1670 by Bruant, shows that the 
principles of the Italian Renaissance were fully established. 

In plan it is a Greek cross, with the corners filled in so as 
to make it a square externally (No. 223 a, b). The dome, 92 feet 
in diameter, rests on four piers, provided with openings to form 
eight, thus bearing a similarity to S. Paul, London. The piers 
are so formed as to produce internally an octagonal effect, the 
openings leading to four angle chapels, which, being At a different 
level, appear independent of the dome. The triple dome is pro- 
vided with windows in the drum, or lower portion, above which is 
an interior dome, 175 feet high, with a central opening; over this 
comes a second or middle dome, with painted decorations, visible 
by means of windows at its base ; lastly, over all is an external 
dome crowned by a lantern of wood, covered with lead. 

The construction differs considerably from that of S. Paul, 
London (No. 253), where an intermediate brick cone supports the 
external stone lantern. 

The Pantheon (1755-81), Paris, was erected from the designs of 
Soufflot (a.d. 1713-81). The plan (No. 223 d) is approximately a 
Greek cross, four halls surrounding a central one, above which rises 
a dome, 69 feet in diameter. The dome is a triple one (No. 223 c) 
as that of the Invalides, mentioned above, but the outer dome 
is of stone covered with lead. The exterior of the dome is poor 
in comparison with that of S. Paul, because of the apparent 
weakness and want of variety of the unbroken ring of free-standing 



columns unattached to the drum. The interior of the church has 
an order of Corinthian columns with an attic over, and has been 
decorated recently with frescoes by foremost French artists. The 
vaulting is ingenious, and elegance has been obtained by a 
tenuity of support, which at one time threatened the stability of 
the edifice. The exterior (No. 224) has a Corinthian colonnade 
or portico at the west end, the cornice to which is carried round 
the remainder of the facades, which have a blank wall treat- 
ment, the light being obtained for the nave by a clerestory over 
the aisles. 

The Madeleine, Paris (a.d. 1804) was erected by the architect 
Vignon. In plan it is an octastyle peripteral temple, 350 feet by 147 
feet, showing a direct imitation of ancient Roman architecture, and 
being a further step towards absolute copy ism. The external 
order has a defect, which often occurs in French buildings, viz., 
that the columns are built of small courses of stone, the joints of 
which confuse the lines of the fluting, and the architraves are 
formed into flat arches with wide joints. The interior is fine 
and original, the cella, as it would be called in a Classic structure, 
being divided into three bays, covered by flat domes, through 
the eyes of which is obtained all the light for the church. At 
the east end is an apse covered with a half- dome. 


The essential differences between Italian and French Renais- 
sance will now be treated in a comparative manner, but it must 
be borne in mind that the subject is treated generally, and that 
the comparisons state what usually is the fact, although in many 
cases features are found which do not exactly correspond with the 


a. Plans. — The great feature of 
Italian houses is the cortile^ or 
central open courtyard, which 
has, in all important examples, 
a colonnade or arcade round it. 
It is usual for the main wall, on 
the first floor, to stand on the 
piers or columns of this arcade, 
giving ampler space for the 
important rooms, which are in 
Italy, on the first or principal 
floor, called the " piano nobile " 
(Nos. 191, 196, 198, 208 and 


A. Plans. — The castles of the 
previous period influenced both 
plan and design of the early 
chateaux, some of which were 
on the site of, or additions to, 
such castles. Chambord may 
be counted as an attempt at an 
ideal plan of a mansion, halt 
castle and half palace (Nos. 
220 and 22 1). The typical house 
plan in the towns has a main 
block, with two lower wings in- 
closing a courtyard cut off from 
the street by a screen wall. 




B. Walls. — Straight facades 
varied by orders, arcades, or 
window-dressings were crowned 
by a deep cornice at the top 
(Nos. 191, 192, 197, 198 and 210). 
Attics are rare, but an open top 
story (Belvedere) is a feature 
in houses of all classes. — Brick- 
work was used in large and rough 
masses with ashlar facing, atten- 
tion being concentrated on the 
window dressings or orders. 
Later examples, as at Genoa and 
Vicenza, are in plaster (Nos. 
216 and 217). 


B. Walls. — The gables and 
prominent stone dormers of the 
early period (Nos. 219, 220 and 
225) gradually gave place to 
pedimeoted and balustrade^ 
elevations (Nos. 224 and 226). 
The mansard roof lent itself to 
pavilions which mark the angles 
of the facades, while the centre 
often has an attic (No. 223 E). 
Chimneys continue to be marked 
features, though less ornamented 
(No. 221). Stone was the chief 
material, but red brick was 
sometimes combined with it. 

c Openings. — Symmetry regu- 
lated the position of openings, 
and in late examples the use of 
the Classic orders, rather than 
convenience, determined their 
position (Nos. 195, 196, 199, 
2(>o, 207, 215 and 216). Early 
designs were often astylar, the 
openings being the features upon 
which all the detail was concen- 
trated (Nos. 191, 192 and 197). 
In the later buildings greater 
plainness prevails to give effect to 
the orders. In the Rococo period 
a return was often made to the 
astylar principle, when excessive 
prominence and exaggeration of 
detail marked the window dress- 
ings. As the attic was rare in 
Italian work, on account of the 
use of the great cornice, the top 
floor openings were often formed 
as a deep band, or frieze, or were 
set between consoles, which give 
support to the main cornice. 

C. Openings. — In early designs 
the mullions and transoms of the 
Gothic method continued, though 
changed in detail (Nos. 219, 
221 and 225 K). Vertical cou- 
pling of windows was effectively 
practised, but as the orders, 
usually one for each story, 
came increasingly into use, the 
horizontal lines of their entabla- 
tures prevailed (No. 220). Sym- 
metry in position was carefully 
attended to in late work. 
Mezzanine floors were much used 
in large mansions, with circu- 
lar windows (No. 226 J, k), 
the main apartments then having 
an upper row of windows, to pre- 
serve the range of openings 
externally (No. 226 r), so as 
not to interfere with the facade 
treatment. The attic was a 
special feature, and circular 
windows (ceil de boeuf ) often occur 
in it (No. 223 E). 

D. Roofs. — Flat or low-pitched 
roofs are special features, for the 
reason that in a narrow street 
the roofs could not be seen. 
Chimneys, if used at all, were 
masked as far as possible (Nos. 
192, 195) except at Venice. 

In early examples tile roofs 
were made visible above the 

D. Roofs. — High roofs are special 
features, with elaborately carved 
dormer windows and chimneys, 
which give sky-line and pic- 
turesqueness to the design when 
viewed from a distance (Nos. 221 
and 222). 

The French invention of the 
Mansard form preserved the roof 




great cornice, the later being 
nearly always balustraded (No. 
210 a). Domes were relied upon 
for sky-line in churches (Nos. 193, 
199,211 and 212). The " Bel- 
vedere " gives character to villas. 

E. Columns. — Pilasters were 
either plain, or carved with deli- 
cate foliage (Nos. 196, 200, 204, 
206 d, 214 J, 217, 218), while 
star-shaped sinkings are un- 
common. The pilaster in Italy 
was preferred rather for its 
architectural importance as an 
" order," the panelled decoration 
being often omitted. 

An " order " was often made to 
include two or more stories of a 
building. In churches especially 
a single order prevails, which was 
the type of Palladio (Nos. 200, 
201, 203, 216). 

F. Mouldings. — The heavy cor- 
nice was provided for protection 
from the glare of the Italian sun 
(Nos. 191, 192 and 197). In early 
examples, string courses were of 
slight projection, to give value to 
the top cornice. Where the orders 
were employed, the details as- 
signed to each were used in full. 
Mouldings are usually large but 
well studied in profile. 

g. Ornament. (Nos. 194, 206, 
214 and 218). — Fresco and 
modelled plaster were much cm- 
ployed, in the early period the 
two being combined, as in the 
arabesques of Raphael. The 
frescoes were, however, some- 
times out of scale with the archi- 
tecture, and devoid of decora- 
tive value. Compare the Vatican, 
and the Palazzo del T£, Man- 
tua. Later stucco work suffered 
in the same way, Venice having 
some extraordinary examples of 
its abuse. Interiors, generally in 
late work, were regulated unduly 



as a feature (No. 223), and as it 
lent itself to pavilions, square 
or oblong, such features acquired 
great prominence,as at the Louvre, 
where they assume the import- 
ance of towers. 

E. Columns. — Pilasters were 
decorative adjuncts to Gothic 
features, rusticated or panelled 
in star - shaped patterns, but 
sometimes treated with foliage 
(No. 225 H). At Chambord (No. 
225 K), the sinkings were treated 
with a black inlay, slates being 
nailed in the sunk faces of the 

An " order " or column was 
usually given each story (No. 
220). Columns usually do not 
run through two stories. The 
influence of Vignola in this 
respect is visible (Nos. 221, 223). 

f. Mouldings. — Gothic influ- 
ence pervaded the early work, 
and combinations of methods, 
Classic and Mediaeval, in the 
profilings of mouldings were tried 
(No. 219). Some examples, as 
at Orleans, have extremely small 
members. The architecture 
gradually acquired a special 
character from the treatment of 

g. Ornament (Nos. 225, 226).— 
The wood panelling of Gothic 
times continued in the early 
period, often splendidly carved 
with arabesque designs, as at 
Blois. I n later work it continued, 
but gradually lost the character 
and scale of the material. The 
Raphael style of decoration was 
introduced by Italian artists, as 
at Fontainebleau. The tapestry 
and hangings of the early period 
were superseded by the universal 
Louis XIV. style of internal wood, 
papier machd, and stucco decora- 
tion in white and gold. It was 

L L 






by the features of Classic temple 
architecture, and have often no 
relation to the requirements of 
the occupants. Sculpture in later 
work lost touch with the decora- 
tive feeling of architecture, and 
great extravagances were perpe- 
trated, as in the fountains of 


applied to every accessory, and 
had the merit of a certain fitness 
and unity. Sculpture acquired 
an increasing importance, and 
the best available ngure sculpture 
has been used in connection with 
modern French architecture. 


Berty (A.). — " La Renaissance Monumentale en France." 2 vols., 410. 
Paris, 1864. 

Chateau (L.). — " Histoire et Caracteres de 1'Architecture en France. 
8vo. Paris, 1864. 

Daly (C). — " Motifs Historiques d' Architecture et de Sculpture." 
2 vols., folio. Paris, 1870. 

Daly. — " Motifs Historiques : Decorations IntCTieures." 2 vols., folio. 

Desjardins (T.). — " Monographic de PHdtel de Ville de Lyon." Folio. 
Paris, 1867. 

Du Cerceau (J. A.). — " Les plus Excellents Bastiments de France." 
2 vols., folio. Paris, 1868- 1870. 

Gurlitt (C). — " Die Baukunst Frankreichs." 2 vols., folio. 1900. 

Palustre (L.). — " La Renaissance en France." 3 vols., folio. Paris, 
1 879- 1 885 . {Not completed.) 

Petit (V.).—" Chateaux de la Vallde de la Loire." Folio. Paris, 1861. 

Pfnor (R.). — " Le Palais de Fontainebleau. ,J 3 vols., folio. Paris, 
1 859- 1 867. 

Rouyer (E.). — "La Renaissance de Francois I. a Louis XIII.'' Folio. 

Rouyer (E.) et Darcel (A.). — " L'Art Architectural en France." 2 vols., 
4to. Paris, 1863- 1866. 

Sauvageot (C). — *' Palais, Chateaux, Hotels et Maisons de France." 
4 vols., folio. Paris, 1867. 

Verdier (A.) et Cattois (F. P.). — " L' Architecture Civile et Domestique." 
2 vols., 4to. Paris, 1858. 

Chetwode (R. !>.).-« John of Strathbourne." j Historica j Novels . 

Weyman (b.). — A Gentleman of trance. ) 


(See page 258 for German Romanesque.) 
(See page 393 for German Gothic.) 

'* My niche is not so cramped but thence 
One sees the pulpit o' the epistle side, 
And somewhat of the choir, those silent seats, 
And up into the aery dome, where live 
The angels, and a sunbeam's sure to lurk ; 
And I shall fill my slab of basalt there, 
And 'neath my tabernacle take my rest."' — Browning. 

I. INFLUENCES (see page 437). 

i. Geographical. — Refer to pages 258 and 393. 

ii. Geological. — The absence of stone, in the great alluvial 
plains of North Germany, influenced largely the architecture of 
that district ; moulded and cut brickwork was used in every 
variety, the general scale of the detail being small, and surface 
ornamentation being formed in raised patterns. 

iii. Climate. — Refer to pages 258, 393. 

iv. Religion. — Martin Luther (1517-1546) attacked the prac- 
tical abuses of certain doctrines of the Church, and brought about 
a revolution in the religious life of Germany (see below). Luther's 
translation of the Bible into High Dutch caused that language to 
become the recognised German tongue. In architecture little 
of great interest was produced, old churches, with all their fittings, 
continuing to be used, but the prominence given to preaching 
brought in galleries and congregational planning. 

v. Social and Political. — The country consisted of a number 
of small kingdoms or principalities, each with its own capital and 
government, thus preventing any national effort as in France, 
which was under one united head. In the latter part of the 
sixteenth century, Heidelberg was the centre of " Humanism," 
and the chief reformed seat of learning in Germany. The Thirty 
Years' War, ended by the Peace of Westphalia in a.d. 1648, 
was of social importance. 

In the eighteenth century the literary works of Winckelmann, 
Goethe and others aroused interest in Greek architecture. 


vi. Historical. — Charles V. (Charles I. of Spain) succeeded to 
all the possessions of the Houses of Castile, Aragon, Burgundy, 
and the Low Countries, and this marks the period of the German 
Renaissance. In 1516 he obtained the two Sicilies, and in 151 9, 
on the death of Maximilian, he was elected to the Empire, becoming 
the most powerful emperor since Charlemagne. 

In 15 1 7 Luther nailed up his theses at Wittenberg, marking 
the commencement of the Reformation, which was aided largely 
by the revival of learning, and in 1520 he defied the Pope, by 
publicly burning the bull of excommunication put forth against 
him by Pope Leo X. The Diet of Spires, 1529, passed a decree 
against all ecclesiastical changes, against which Luther and the 
princes who followed him protested, hence the name " Protestant." 
This led in 1530 to the Confession of Augsburg and the con- 
federation of Protestant princes and cities, for mutual defence, 
called the Smalcaldic League. The war of the Emperor 
Charles V'. and the Catholics against the Protestant princes 
extended from 1546- 1555, when the Peace of Augsburg was con- 
cluded, which left each state free to set up which religion it 
pleased, but made no provision for those people who might be of 
different religion to the government of each state. This resulted 
in persecutions, and finally in the great religious war, known as 
the " Thirty Years' War," commenced in 161 8, and carried on 
in Germany between the Catholic and Protestant princes. Other 
princes, such as Christian IV. of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus 
of Sweden, joined in these wars on the Protestant side, under 
the Elector Palatine Frederick, who had married a daughter of 
James I. of England. Hence many Englishmen and Scotchmen 
served in these wars, and France joined in for her own aggrandize- 
ment, under Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin. The Peace of 
Westphalia, 1648, provided once more for religious equality and 
tolerance in each state. The war had, however, utterly ruined 
Germany, and caused France to become the leading nation in 


Refer to pages 439, 442. 

This style as in other countries may be roughly divided into 
three periods corresponding to the sixteenth, seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. 

The Renaissance style in Germany is chiefly remarkable for 
picturesqueness and variety of grouping, and quaintness and 
grotesqueness of ornament, due in a large measure to the traditions 
of the preceding style. 

It was introduced from France, about the middle of the six- 
teenth century, while the Henri IV. style was in vogue, which may 


The RATtjHAus, Cologne, 


account for a good deal of the grotesqueness and crudity which it 

German Renaissance differs from French in lack of refinement, 
and in a general heaviness and whimsicality of treatment, while 
it resembles in some respects our own Elizabethan. It forms, in 
fact, a connecting link between Elizabethan architecture and 
French Renaissance of the time of Henri IV. 

Examples are mostly found in towns, whereas in France they 
are principally found in the country (page 499). 

The later period, which commenced at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, has been called the " Revival," and was chiefly 
confined to Munich, Berlin, and Dresden. It consisted in the 
adoption of Classic forms in toto, without reference to their 
applicability, or appropriateness. 



Heidelberg Castle has interesting examples of the style, 
especially the facade of the Heinrichsbau (1556) (No. 227) of the 
early period, and the Freidrichsbau of the later period (a.d. 1601), 
which have elaborately-carved string courses, with an order and 
its entablature to each story, and classical details surrounding 
the windows. Symbolical statuary was prominently introduced 
(No. 231 a, b, c), but the design suffers much from over- 

The Gewandhaus, Brunswick, originally executed in the 
Gothic, has its eastern gable (a.d. 1590) in this style. The three- 
quarter columns, with pedestals and entablatures, marking each 
floor, and the immense gable comprising four stories, each provided 
with an order of vase-shaped pilasters, as in Elizabethan work, 
are characteristic features. The scrolls by which the stages of the 
gable are contracted are also typical. 

Nuremberg and Hildesheim are also rich in domestic 
examples of the period. 

The Rathhaus (Town Hall), Cologne, has a fine two-storied 
porch (1571) (No. 228), in a style purer in detail than usually 
found. It consists of semicircular arcading, with detached 
Corinthian columns, and a stone vaulted roof. The arches on 
the first floor are pointed, as is also the vaulting. 

The Town Hall, Lemgo, with mullioned windows and 
shaped gables (No. 229 a), and the Town Hall, Solothurn 
(No. 229 b), with pilasters and entablature to each story, are 
other characteristic examples. 

The Pellerhaus, Nuremberg (a.d. 1605) (No. 230), is an 




example of rich domestic architecture, which also has the 
elaborately-treated stepped gables, so characteristic of the period. 

The Gateway, Halberstadt (1552), the Castle, Stuttgart 
(1553), the Rathhaus, Leipsig (1556), the Rathhaus, Alten- 
burg (1562), the Zeughaus at Danzic (1605), the Rathhaus, 
Heilbronn, the Stadtweinhaus, Munster (1615), and the 
Zwinger Palace, Dresden (171 1), are a few of the picturesque 
and free examples of the early period. 

The Revival by Klenze the architect (a.d. 1784- 1864) of the 
classical styles in Munich, is responsible for the Glyptotek, the 
Pinacothek, and the Walhalla. The Brandenburg Gate, 
Berlin (a.d. 1784), is well known, and the celebrated architect 
Schinkel (1781-1841) erected the New Theatre, the Museum, and 
the Polytechnic School in that city. In all of these buildings the 
great idea was to copy classical forms and details, applying them 
to modern buildings. 

The Parliament House, Vienna, by Hansen (a.d. 1843) is 
an imposing edifice. 


The new churches were few and insignificant, an abundant 
supply for all practical needs remaining from the mediaeval 
period as in France. 

S. Michael, Munich (a.d. 1582) and the Frauenkirche, 
Dresden (1726- 1745) are among the best known buildings, 
and exhibit a desire for wide, open spaces. The latter especially 
is notable, being 140 feet square on plan, and having a dome 
75 feet in diameter, resting on eight piers. It is constructed 
internally and externally of stone. 


a. Plans. — The French method of an internal courtyard was 
adopted. In towns, many-storied houses were erected with great 
roofs, continuing the practice of the mediaeval period. 

b. Walls. — Gables assume fantastic shapes ^Nos. 229 a and 
231 e), and richness was produced by the application of columnar 
features as ornament (No. 230). Brick and stone were used singly 
and in combination. 

c. Openings. — Oriel windows of various shapes and design 
were plentifully used, both in the facade itself (No, 230) and on 
the angles of buildings. Such features did not appear at Rome, 
Florence, or Venice during Renaissance times. 

Windows are large, mullioned (No. 229 a), and crow r ned by 
grotesque, or scrolly pediments (No. 231 g). In the later periods 




the usual Classic features were adopted (Nos. 229 e and 231 
a, b, c, j). 

d. Roofs. — The large roofs in the town houses, containing 
many stories (Nos. 228 and 230), are prominent features in this, 
as in the Gothic, period. Such roofs served a useful purpose, 
being used as drying- rooms during the periodical wash. There 
were two methods of treatment : — (a) making the ridge parallel 
to the street front, as generally carried out in Nuremberg; (b) 
making the ridge run at right angles to the street, as adopted in 
Landshut, in the south-east of Germany, and many other places. 

The first allows for the display of many tiers of dormer windows 
(No. 229 f, g), rising one above the other, and the second method 
permits the use of fantastically-shaped gables (No. 229 a). The 
Pellerhaus, Nuremberg (No. 230), shows a combination of the 
two methods. 

e. Columns. — The orders were employed in a free manner, 
as decorative adjuncts (Nos. 227-231), the stories being marked 
by rich cornices ; the columns and pilasters were richly carved, 
and are often supported on corbels. 

f. Mouldings. — Boldness and vigour must be set against the 
lack of refinement and purity in detail. Though Renaissance 
details were affected in the preceding style, the worst features of 
the last age of the Gothic style, such as inter penetration of 
mouldings and other vagaries, were given up. 

g. Ornament (Nos. 229 and 231). — Sculpture is best seen 
in the native grotesques (No. 231 d, f, h), wherein much fancy is 
displayed, there being some fine specimens at Heidelberg (No. 
231 a, b, c). The imitations of Italian carved pilasters as at 
Heidelberg are inferior. 

The late glasswork is interesting, but the art soon died out. 
Fresco work was attempted during the revival at the beginning 
of the century by the Munich school. 


Fritsch (K. E. O.). — " Denkmaeler Deutscher Renaissance/' 4 vols., 
folio. Berlin, 1891. 

Lambert (A.) und Stahl (E.). — " Motive der Deutschen Architecture 
2 vols., folio. Stuttgart, 1890- 1893. 

Ortwein (A.). — " Deutsche Renaissance/' 9 vols., folio. Leipzig, 

Pfnor (R.). — " Monographic du Chateau d'Heidelburg." Folio. Paris, 

Ortwein-Scheffers. — " Studium der Deutschen Renaissance und 
Barockstils." 2 -vols., 4to. Leipzig, 1892. 

Hauf(W.). — " Lichtensiein." (Historical Novel.) 


(See page 385 for Belgian and Dutch Gothic.) 

' ' Many scarlet bricks there were 
In its walls, and old grey stone 


On the bricks the green moss grew, 
Yellow lichen on the stone. 


Deep green water filled the moat, 

Each side had a red brick lip 

Green and mossy with the drip of dew and rain." — Morris. 

I. INFLUENCES (see page 437). 

i. Geographical. — Refer to page 385. 

ii. Geological. — Refer to page 385. Brick is the characteristic 
material of this phase of the Renaissance. 

iii. Climate. — Refer to page 385. 

iv. Religion. — The persecutions begun under Charles V., 
and continued under the Duke of Alva, viceroy of Philip II. 
of Spain, led to a revolt in 1568 which lasted till 1609. The 
Belgians, being mainly Catholics, rallied to Spain, under the 
able rule of the Duke of Parma, but the Dutch, strongly 
Protestant, constituted the United Provinces, and finally under a 
republic became a great power. Their architectural expression 
was limited, the barn-like churches developing no features of great 
interest. The prominence given to preaching, and the demand 
for greater comfort regulated planning, but, whether for lack of 
interest or funds, nothing on a large scale was attempted. 

v. Social and Political. — In Holland the character of the 
Dutch is shown in their buildings, which are in general honest, 
matter-of-fact, and unimaginative. The increase of riches through 
trade in consequence of the discovery of the New World by 
Columbus, was not, however, mirrored by the erection of 
monumental structures. Their daring and activity in trade 
made them one of the chief powers of Europe during the 


seventeenth century, but their extensive colonies gradually passed 
over to the English. 

vi. Historical. — The Spanish occupation of the Netherlands, 
and the consequent influence of Spanish art in the sixteenth 
century, together with the loss of liberty under Charles V., 
and the ultimate expulsion of the Spaniards in 1648, must all 
be taken into account in this section. Belgium, as a Catholic 
country and a Spanish province from a.d. 1506-1712, remained 
under the rule of Spain, when Holland freed herself under the 
House of Orange. 


Refer to pages 439, 442. 

Belgian examples are wild and licentious, but picturesque in 
the matter of design ; while Dutch examples are plain, often 
approaching dulness. The design of houses and fittings received 
a large amount of attention, and details of internal work, including 
furniture, were perfected. Brick received its due prominence in 
this domestic style. 


The Town Hall, Antwerp, erected by de Vriendt in a.d. 1565 
(No. 233), is one of the most important buildings, the richness 
and prosperity of this particular city contributing not a little to 
the execution of this fine work. An order, or row of columns, 
and mullioned windows were employed in each upper story, the 
whole design being placed on a sturdy rusticated basement, and 
crowned by a high-pitched roof with dormer windows. 

The Hotel du Saumon, Malines, the Ancien Greffe, 
Bruges, the Archbishop's Palace, Liege, the Stadthaus, 
Amsterdam (only worthy of mention for its great size), the 
Hague Town Hall (a.d. 1565), and Leyden Town Hall 
(a.d. 1579) (No. 232 g) are other examples. Among recent 
works, the Palais de Justice, Brussels, in the Neo-Grec 
style, by Polaert, is an imposing edifice. 

Domestic Architecture. — Although there are few large or 
important works erected during the Renaissance period in north- 
west Europe, still great benefit may be derived from studying 
much of the domestic and civic architecture ; for while wandering 
through the streets of these old-world towns, many charming 
specimens of street architecture, executed in bright red brick, 
with occasional stone courses and dressings, and with additional 
ornament of gracefully-designed iron ties (No. 234 d), are met 
with. In the design of the gables, much originality of treatment 
is found (No. 232 d, g), leaning rather towards the work found in 




some of the old German towns, and often verging on the grotesque, 
but at the same time thoroughly suited to the use of bricks, and 
possessing a certain characteristic quaintness. 

Many of these street fronts are good examples of the treatment 
of large window spaces. 

In Holland, especially, these quaint buildings, of varied colors, 
rising very often from the sides of canals, group most harmoniously, 
and form fascinating studies for water-color sketching. 


a. Plans. — The great development of domestic Gothic formed 
the groundwork of the achievements of the Renaissance in these 
countries. It was in the modifications of detail that the influence 
of the latter was felt, Italian forms, generally much corrupted, 
being gradually adopted. 

b. Walls. — Gables of curly outline, grotesque, picturesque, 
and rococo in character, are crowded together in streets and 
squares. Their general effect and grouping must be enjoyed, with- 
out too much inquiry into their rationale or detail (Nos. 232 d, e, g 
and 234 d). 

c. Openings. — These were numerous and crowded, and were 
in continuation of the Gothic practice (No. 232 d). The orders 
took the place of the niches, statuary, and traceried panelling, 
that surround the windows of the previous period (Nos. 232 and 
234 c, g). 

d. Roofs. — The high-pitched forms continued long in favour, 
as well as the dormers, towers of many stages (No. 232 c, e), and 
visible chimney stacks (Nos. 232 and 233). 

e. Columns. — The orders were used as decorative features, 
being heavily panelled, rusticated, and otherwise treated in a 
licentious and grotesque fashion (Nos. 232 g and 234 c, g, j). 

f. Mouldings. — The same defect, that of coarseness, referred 
to under Gothic, continued in this period, and the further divorce 
of detail from construction and material rather accentuated the evil. 

g. Ornament (No. 234). — Carving of vigorous grotesques 
occupies any vacant panel or space (Nos. 232 f, h and 234 k), the 
motifs being usually Italian, " corrupted " or " original," according 
to the critic's point of view. The woodwork (No. 234 a, b, f, h) 
and stained glass of this age are especially worthy of study. 


Ewerbeck (T.). — " Die Renaissance in Belgien und Holland." 2 vols., 
folio. Leipzig, 1883. 

George (E.). — u Etchings in Belgium." 4to. 1878. 

Ysendyck (J. J. van). — "Documents classes de PArt dans les Pays- 
Bas." 5 vols., folio. Antwerp, 1880- 1889. 

Haggard (H. R.).— " Lysbeth." (Historical Novel.) 


(See pige 424 for Spanish Gothic. ) 

"For God, Ihe universal Architect, 
It had been as easy to erect 
A Louvre or Escurial, or a tower 
That might with Heaven communication hold, 
As Babel vainly thought to do of old ; 
He wanted not the skill or power." — Cowley. 

i. INFLUENCES (see page 437). 

i. Geographical. — The position and power of Spain, arising 
from the discovery of the new world, combined with the vast 
hereditary and conquered possessions of the Spanish monarchy, 
made her the leading nation in Europe. 

ii. Geological. — Refer to page 424. The presence of very 
pure iron ore, in the northern mountains, facilitated the develop- 
ment of decorative ironwork. Granite was much used, and brick 
was also employed in certain parts. 

iii. Climate. — Refer to page 424. 

iv. Religion. — The Reformation obtained no hold whatever 
in Spain. The religious aspect of the great struggle with the 
Moors, and the national character of the church have already been 
mentioned (page 424). The counter reformation found its motive 
force in the Jesuit order, founded by a Spaniard, Ignatius de 

v. Social and Political. — The people were a mixed popula- 
tion, in which the Goths of Northern Europe and the Moors of 
North Africa formed the most important elements. 

From the latter part of the fifteenth century the power of 
Spain gradually increased, until she became the chief power of 
Europe. Absolute despotism was the policy of Philip II., Jews 
and heretics being persistently persecuted. Under Philip III. 
(1598-162 1 ) the Moriscos were driven out of the country, and 
this proved a great loss to Southern Spain, which by their hard 
work had been made to flourish. 

vi. Historical. — The accession of Ferdinand and Isabella to 
the throne, and the fall of Granada in a.d. 1492, mark the 


consolidation of Spain, the expulsion of the Moors, and the 
beginning of the Spanish Renaissance. 

The great dominions of Spain were due to a succession of 
marriages, Charles V. reigning over Spain, the Netherlands, 
Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples, Germany, and Austria. This 
empire was held together by his skill in government, and by the 
excellence of the Spanish army, the infantry being the finest at 
that time in Europe. Philip II. checked the power of the Turks 
by winning the great naval battle of Lepanto, 1571, but his 
harsh and despotic rule alienated the Netherlands, and the 
expedition against England ended in the defeat of the Armada 
in 1588. Provinces were gradually lost, and Spain as a power 
ceased to exist. Napoleon's invasion, at the commencement of 
the nineteenth century, led to an outburst of national resistance, 
which was aided by the English. Many revolutions followed, 
but progress, as understood by other nations, has been slow. 


Refer to pages 439, 442. 

The style, as in other European countries, may be divided into 
three tolerably distinct periods : — 

(a) The Early Renaissance Period, lasting to the middle of the 
sixteenth century ; (b) The Classical Period of the latter half of 
the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century ; 
and (c) The Rococo Period of the latter part of the seventeenth 
and the eighteenth century. 

In the early period, Renaissance details, grafted on to Gothic 
forms, and influenced to some extent by the exuberant fancy of 
the Moorish work, produced a style as rich and poetic as any 
other of the numerous phases of the Renaissance in Europe. 
The style of this period, from being minute in detail, is called 
" Plateresque," from its likeness to silversmith's work, from 
" platero " — silversmith. 

The middle period became more classical, as was the case in 
Europe generally, and the chief expositors were the architects 
Berruguete (d. 1560), and Herrera (d. 1597), a pupil of Michael 

The late period shows that the style, known as Churrigueresque, 
fell away from true principles, becoming imbued with the Rococo 



The University, Alcala (a.d. 1500-15 17), has an open arcaded 
story under the roof — a specially characteristic feature— and details 
showing the lace-like character of the Plateresque period. 


i Hall, Seville. 



The Archbishop's Palace, Alcala, is also noteworthy. 
The " bracket " capitals, on the first floor in the courtyard, are 
undoubtedly of wooden origin, their use being to decrease the 
long bearing of the architrave. 

The Casa Miranda, Burgos (No. 237), has a "patio" or 
courtyard, a feature mostly found in Spanish buildings, and 
the columns have typical bracket capitals. 

The Casa Lonja (Exchange), Seville, was built (1583-98) 
from the designs. of the architect Herrera. It has a rich facade 
(No. 235), and a handsome " patio " surrounded by a double 
storied arcade in the Doric and Corinthian orders. It has been 
considerably extended at later periods, but much of the stone- 
work has remained uncarved. It is generally regarded as the 
best example of a municipal building in Spain. 

The Alcazar, Toledo, an ancient square castle of Moorish- 
Gothic architecture, has one facade (a.d. 1548) (No. 236 a) in the 
early Renaissance of Charles V., while the interior possesses a 
fine " patio " surrounded by arcades in two stories, supported on 
Corinthian columns. On the south side is a grand staircase 
inclosed in a space, 100 feet by 50 feet, and having off the half 
landing a grand square two-storied chapel. The back elevation 
is an early example of a many-storied building in the classical 
style, the whole of this severe and monumental building being 
executed in granite. 

The Palace of Charles V., Granada, adjoining the 
" Alhambra," was erected in 1527 by Machuca and Berruguete, 
and is an important structure. In plan it is a square, 205 feet each 
way, inclosing an open circular court 100 feet in diameter. The 
external facade is two stories in height, the lower being rusticated, 
and the upper having Ionic columns. Both basement and upper 
story have bull's-eye windows above the lower openings, so that 
mezzanines could be lighted where these occur. The circular 
internal elevation is an open colonnade in two stories, with the 
Doric order to the lower, and the Ionic order, of small height, to 
the upper story. 

The structure is built in a golden-colored stone, the central 
feature of the two visible fagades being in colored marbles. The 
sculpture is by Berruguete, and the whole design, which is of the 
Bramante school, is the purest example of Renaissance in Spain. 
The palace was never roofed in or occupied. 

The Palace of the Escurial (No. 238 c), near Madrid, was 
commenced by Juan de Bautista for Philip II., but in 1567 
Herrera was appointed architect. It is a group of buildings on a 
site 740 feet long by 580 feet w r ide, exclusive of palace, and con- 
sists of a monastery, college, palace, and church, all grouped into one 
design. The grand entrance, in the centre of the long facade, 
leads into an atrium, to the right of which is the college with its 



" of the House of Miranda, showing the 
Bracket Capital. 


four courts, 60 feet square, surrounded with three stories of 
arcades, and beyond is the great court of the college. On the 
left of the atrium is the monastery, with three courts 60 feet 
square, and beyond is the great court of the palace. Immediately 
in front, at the end of the atrium, is the church, lying between 
the courts of the palace and the college. Behind the church, 
which is 320 feet by 200 feet, are the state apartments of the 

The plan of the church is Italian in origin, following some- 
what the type of the Carignano Church at Genoa. The detail is 
classical, and shows that Herrera studied to some purpose in 
Italy. The principal Spanish feature is the placing of the choir 
on a vault, over the lengthened western arm of the cross, 
beneath which is a domed vestibule — consequently the interior 
is, in effect, a Greek cross on plan. 

In general grouping nothing could be finer than the dome as a 
centre, flanked by the two towers and surrounded by the great 
mass of building, the whole being silhouetted against a back- 
ground of mountains. Moreover, the palace proper at the east 
end is only an annex, and does not conflict with the church, as 
the Vatican does with S. Peter, Rome. 

The entire structure, internally and externally, is built in 
granite of a gray color, with a slight yellow tinge, which 
material may have influenced the design* The taste of Philip II. 
and Herrera might have produced something equally plain, 
whether in granite or not, but at least the design may be said to 
be suited to the material. 

The masonry is excellent, and in blocks of great size, the 
architraves of doors being 10 to 12 feet high, in one stone. The 
external facades are everywhere five stories in height, the 
windows square-headed, without dressings of any sort, and 
without any attempt at grouping, so that they are inferior in 
effect to the facade at the Alcazar, described above. 

The interior, however, is most impressive, being of granite with 
suitable detail, and having only the vaults colored. It has a 
magnificent reredos in such quietly-toned marbles that its richness 
might pass notice. The architectural character is so restrained 
that the structure looks nothing at a cursory glance. 


Santo Domingo, Salamanca(A.D. 1524-1610), is an important 
early work with excellent figure sculpture, and illustrates the 
peculiar richness of the " Plateresque " style (page 534), deriving 
its detail from Moorish influence. 

Burgos Cathedral has a magnificent dome (No. 186) belonging 
to the early period (1567), and is an example of the wealth of 
detail so characteristic of the style. 


Granada Cathedral (a.d. 1529), by Diego Siloe, is a grand 
example of the Renaissance churches of Southern Spain. It is a 
translation of Seville Cathedral into the Renaissance style, the 
Gothic system being followed, but with the Classic orders applied 
to the piers carrying the vaulting. The lofty circular choir is 
domed on radiating supports, ingeniously disposed, constituting 
a fresh and original departure. The general effect of the interior 
is powerful, but unduly sensational. 

Valladolid Cathedral (a.d. 1585), by Herrera, is more dis- 
tinctively Classic, but remains incomplete, although Herrera' s 
model is preserved. The west facade is imposing, but wholly 
out of scale, and in the interior the execution and detail are 
incredibly rough. 

Granada, Santiago, Malaga, and Carmona cathedrals 
have steeples placed alongside, forming a class of structure in 
which Spain is especially rich, and which was generally treated 
in a most pleasing manner. 

In the latter half of the seventeenth century there was a 
reaction from the correct and cold formalities of the school 
of Herrera, and buildings were erected in a manner called 
Churrigueresque, after the name of the architect, Churriguera, 
in which fantastic forms were employed for their own sake, 
without reference either to good taste or fitness. 


a. Plans. — In churches wide naves sometimes without any 
aisles are usual. Lanterns or domes are common at the crossing, 
the transepts and apsidal chancel, being usually shallow, and the 
ritual choir remaining west of the transepts. 

In houses the Patio (Nos. 236 b and 237), or Spanish version of 
the Roman atrium, and Italian cortile, is universal, and has even 
an added seclusion, which seems due to Moorish influence. The 
streets of Toledo present walls all but blank (No. 236 a), through 
the doorways of which, when open, a glimpse only of the patio 
can be obtained. Staircases are often large, as in the Burgos 
transept and the Casa Infanta at Saragossa, in which latter 
building the patio and staircase beyond are as picturesque and 
fanciful as any in Spain. Largeness of scale characterizes 
palaces as well as churches. 

b. Walls. — Brickwork was used in large, rough, but effective 
masses, as at Saragossa. Fine stonework was used in other places, 
and also granite, as at the Escurial and in Madrid. Gables were 
never or rarely employed, but a special feature is an arcade 
(No. 236), forming an open top story, on which all the decoration 
was concentrated, leaving a blank wall below, relieved by an 
elaborate doorway. Arabesque pierced parapets or crestings are 


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O THE E5Cl*IB^IK7(HEuaitt,«KHnKT) 





common in the early work, as the Palacio de Monterey at Sala- 
manca. At Saragossa, the great cornices of the brick palaces 
are of wood, elaborately detailed. Internally the great saloons 
of the early period are remarkable, the walls, for ten or more 
feet in height, being of plain stonework, to be hung with 

c. Openings. — Doorways were emphasized (No. 236 a), and at 
Toledo they alone relieve the blank, narrow, walled streets. A 
special largeness of scale (No. 239 a), was perhaps due to the 
importance of a gateway in oriental countries — a feature found 
in Spain owing to Saracenic influence. 

Windows were treated with well-designed grilles, and their 
dressings in stonework are frame-like in character (Nos. 235, 
236 a and 239 d), small orders, resting on corbels, often carrying a 
highly ornamented head (No. 239 d), while the sill is often absent 
or untreated. 

d. Roofs. — These were generally flat or of low pitch. Towers, 
however, have spires of slate or leadw ? ork of fanciful outline, even 
in designs of the severe Classic period, and the angle towers of 
the Escurial may be compared with the spire of S. Martin, 
Ludgate (London). Saloons sometimes have a light-arcaded 
internal gallery resting upon a great projecting wooden cornice, 
and reaching to the flat wooden coffered ceiling, affording a 
passage in front of the windows in the main wall, and detailed in 
a style suggestive of Arab influence, as in the " Audiencia" at 

e. Columns. — In the early style, the orders were used in slight 
and fanciful decorative forms (Nos. 235, 236 and 237) ; the 
baluster shape, or shafts of an outline suggestive of the forms due 
to wood turned in a lathe, were used abundantly, being decorated 
in low relief. Columns in arcades sometimes had very high 
pedestals, from the top of which the arches spring. In the later 
work, Classic correctness prevailed until the outbreak of the 
Rococo period. 

f. Mouldings. — In early work, much refinement (No. 239) 
was given to forms due to Gothic and Moorish influences. A 
special feature is the bracket capital (Nos. 236 b and 237), by 
which the long bearings of stone architraves are relieved by 
corbels on either side, combined in treatment with the capital 

In the middle period, the great number of breaks which occur 
in the entablatures mitred round columns (No. 235) give to the 
church interiors quite a special effect by the flutter of the many 

g. Ornament (No. 239). — Sculpture varies much in quality. 
Berruguete was the Donatello of the Spanish Renaissance, but his 
figures often are wanting in decorative treatment. Expression 


THE IHiniHT*. VJFX <:[ $MC Wt 


was often emphasized unduly, and violence of action is not 
uncommon (No. 235). 

The painting on the sculpture is usually crude and realistic. 
The great retablos of alabaster, stone, or wood are the finest 
decorative feature of the churches, the figures being often life- 
size, and the architectural detail very elaborate. The iron 
Rejas, or grilles, are also a source of effect (No. 239 a, b, d). 

Tile work is excellent in Southern Spain. Stained glass tended 
to be loaded in color and over vivid, and the drawing is frequently 
clumsy, Flemish influence, not of the best kind, being apparent. 
The fresco work of the Escurial is merely late Italian, and the 
canvases of Murillo at Madrid and at the church at Seville, though 
large in scale, have the character of paintings in oil. In the 
accessory arts, the iron pulpit (No. 239 e) is an example of the 
elaborate metal work of the period, and armour design was carried 
to great perfection by the Spaniards. 

The subject of the Renaissance in Spain has been well taken 
up by architectural students of late years, and the following 
books contain interesting examples. 


Calvert (A.). — u Impressions of Spain." 8vo. 1903. 

Ford, (R.).— " Handbook to Spain." 8vo. 1898. 

Junghaendel (M.) und Gurlitt (C). — " Die Haukunst Spaniens." 
2 vols., folio. Dresden, 1889- 1893. 

" Monu mentos Arquitectonicos de Espana," published by the Spanish 
Government. 89 parts, atlas folio (not completed). Madrid, 1859-1879. 

Prentice (A. N.). — " Renaissance Architecture and Ornament in Spain. 3 * 
Folio. 1893. 

Roberts (I).). — " Picturesque Sketches in Spain." Folio. 1837. 

Uhde (C). — " Baudenkmaeler in Spanien und Portugal." Folio. 
Berlin, 1889- 1892. 

Villa-Amil (G. P. de).— " Espafia Artistica y Monumental." 3 vols., 
folio. Paris, 1842- 1850. 

Waring (J. B.) and Macquoid (T. R.). — "Examples of Architectural 
Art in Italy and Spain." Folio. 1850. 

Wyatt (Sir M. Digby).— " An Architect's Note-book in Spain." 4to. 

Crawford (F. M.).— " In the Palace of the King." (Historical Novel.) 

WESTEffl EMmEurm 


" St. Paul's high dome amid her vassal hands 
Of neighbouring spires, a regal chieftain stand* 
And over fields of ridgy roofs appear, 
With distance softly tinted, side by side 
In kindred grace, like twain of sisters dear, 
The towers of Westminster, her abbey's pride ; 
While far beyond the hills of Surrey shine 
Through their soft hue, and show their wavy line. "— llAILI.) 

i. INFLUENCES (see page 437}. 

i. Geographical. — Refer to page 278. It would be hazardous 
during this period to lay too much stress upon the relations 
of England with the Continental powers ; but the relative 
cordiality of this country with France, or Holland, might 
be seen by some to be reflected in the architectural fashion oi 
successive periods. The closing of the Continent to travel during 


The Hall, Hatfield, Herts. 

Showing the Music Gallery. 


the great war at the end of the eighteenth, and beginning of the 
nineteenth century, certainly coincided with the worst phase of 
English architecture. 

ii. Geological. — Refer to page 278. In the increase of 
population and cultivation of the land, the forests of Lancashire, 
Cheshire, Shropshire, and Herefordshire were reduced, and wood 
had been gradually disused as an external building material, so 
that the timber architecture of the mediaeval period had died out. 
In London, the introduction by lnigo Jones of Portland stone, 
a material very similar in weathering and effect to that used in 
the Renaissance palaces of Venice, had its influence. The use 
of brick received a great impetus after the Fire of London, and 
was again brought into prominence on the introduction of the 
Dutch fashion, and thus " Flemish " bond, as a technical term, 
has its significance. 

Terra - cotta for ornamental details was introduced by the 
Italian craftsmen of Henry VIII., as in the busts of Emperors 
at Hampton Court by Giovanni da Majano, the tomb in the 
Rolls Chapel (a.d. 1516) by Torrigiano, and at Layer Marney, 
Essex ( 1 500-1 525). 

iii. Climate. — A great increase of warmth was found necessary 
as greater comfort was demanded, and the opening out of the great 
coal industry, by cheapening fuel, led to each room having a fire- 
place, and incidentally, to other features that did not complicate 
the architecture of the earlier periods. 

iv. Religion. — In the early part of the sixteenth century a 
stir in religious matters took place in Western Europe, partly on 
account of abuses having crept into the Church, w r hich the 
Popes failed to rectify, and also because the authority of the 
Pope was increasingly felt to be irksome. 

The suppression of the monasteries (1536- 154.0) caused the 
diffusion of vast sums of money and land, which Henry VIII. 
distributed freely among his courtiers. 

Monasteries either fell into ruin or were converted into cathedral 
churches on the monastic foundation. Others were cleared away 
for the erection of houses according to the new style, the funds 
for which enterprises proceeded from the newly seized revenues. 

The Act of Supremacy, 1559, settled the relation of the English 
Church to the power of the Crown. 

v. Social and Political. — The historical and other events 
which paved the way for the introduction of the Renaissance into 
England were many and significant, and some of these have been 
dealt with (pages 283, 356, 438). The following also aided the 
movement : — 

The Wars of the Roses (1455- 1485) caused a terrible destruc- 
tion of life, eighty princes of the blood being slain, while the 
ancient nobility was almost entirely annihilated, resulting in a 

N N 2 


Staircase, Kkoi.k, Keni 


period of architectural depression, from which there was a reaction 
at the end of the fifteenth century. The new nobility and rich 
merchants were naturally more susceptible to any fresh move- 
ment ; they desired, moreover, important country houses, being 
anxious to provide themselves with the paraphernalia suited to 
their rank, or newly acquired wealth. 

The extended use of gunpowder rendered ancient castles obsolete, 
and newer fortresses tended to become merely military posts, no 
longer habitable as palaces by a king, or as seats by the' nobility. 

The introduction of printing by Caxton (1476) powerfully aided 
the new movement, as the hoarded knowledge of the world could 
then be disseminated, causing the enlargement of men's ideas and 
the increased spread of knowledge throughout the country. 

The court of Henry VIII. was composed of men who were con- 
nected with the new movement, and amongst the artists, were : — 
Holbein, from Basle ; Torrigiano, who executed Henry VII .'s Tomb 
in Westminster Abbey (a.d. 1512); Rouezzano and Giovanni da 
Majano. A certain John of Padua was also brought to England 
by Henry VIII., and is usually credited with the design of 
Longleat House, Wiltshire (page 557). 

Henry VIII. and Edward VI. employed part of the funds 
obtained from the suppression of the monasteries (1 536-1 540) to 
the erection and endowment of grammar schools and colleges, 
which play an important part in the development (pages 324, 557). 

The Protector Somerset commenced building schemes which 
were interrupted by his execution (a.d. 1552). 

The reign of Elizabeth (a.d. 1558- 1603) inaugurated the era 
of the erection of the great domestic mansions. Flemish and 
German workmen and weavers came to England in large 
numbers, settling in the eastern counties especially, thereby 
influencing the architecture of certain districts. In literature *the 
writings of Spenser, Shakespeare, Burleigh, and Sir Philip Sidney 
had considerable influence. 

Finally, the wars against the Huguenots in France, and the 
Massacre of S. Bartholomew in a.d. 1572, led to the emigration 
of many skilled craftsmen to England (page 498), thus influencing 
very largely the efficient execution of the newly-imported Classic 

vi. Historical. — Henry VIII. had undisputed possession of 
the English crown. He mixed generally with foreign affairs, and 
his meeting with Francis I. on the Field of the Cloth of Gold, 
1520, was an event of some significance, bearing an important 
relation to the introduction of Renaissance art into England. 
Henry declared the Pope to have no jurisdiction in England, and 
Edward VI. continued the Reformation, but Mary's policy was 
reactionary, and marks the era of Spanish influence in England. 
Under Elizabeth (1 558-1603), the Reformation was finally settled, 


and the defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588, marked the decline 
of Spanish power in Europe. Charles I.'s attempts to develop 
art were interrupted by the outbreak of Puritanism. Charles II. 
was in the pay of Louis XIV., and England was much under 
the influence of French art. The rise of Holland was taking 
place, and on the expulsion of James II. by William of Orange, 
Dutch influence made itself felt. With the accession of George I. 
(the Hanoverian dynasty) commenced an era of quiet domestic 
progress. The growth of London proceeded rapidly, but art in 
England slowly deteriorated, until the Exhibition of 1851 marked 
the commencement of a revival in all forms of art. 


English Renaissance architecture may be divided into the 
following periods : — Elizabethan (a.d. 1558-1603), see below ; 
Jacobean (a.d. 1603-1625), page 561 ; Anglo-Classic (Seventeenth 
Century), page 567 ; Queen Anne and Georgian (Eighteenth Cen- 
tury), page 578 ; Early Victorian (Nineteenth Century) (a.d. 1800- 
51), page 589 ; Late Victorian (Nineteenth Century) (1851-1901), 
page 593- 


Elizabeth (a.d. 1558-1603). 

Elizabethan Architecture was a transition style, which 
followed the Tudor style of the reigns of Henry VII. and 
Henry VIII. (page 536), for many Gothic features were retained 
and ornamented with Renaissance details which were at first 
applied only in a tentative manner. The style bears the same 
relation to Anglo- Classic, or fully-developed English Renais- 
sance, as the Francis I. style does to fully-developed French 

As during the Middle Ages a sufficient number of churches had 
been erected for the wants of the people, few were built in this 
period. This was also the case in France and Germany; whereas 
in Italy churches of this period were many and important. 

The examples of Elizabethan architecture, like those of the 
French Renaissance, were country houses erected by powerful 
statesmen, successful merchants, and newly-enriched gentry ; 
contrasting with the palaces and churches of the Italian Renais- 
sance, principally erected in cities. The influence of landscape 
gardening was important, for in designing the house with fore- 
court, formal garden, arcades, fountains and terraces, a special 
and finished character was given to the buildings themselves. 

Many Gothic features, such as the tower, oriel, large mullioned 
"bay," and other windows (No. 251 b), gable, pierced parapet, 
and large chimney stacks were retained. 



The Elizabethan style represents the attempt to apply Italian 
architectural features to buildings, but it did not confine itself to 
architecture only, as it pervaded the whole of the ornamental arts 
in furniture, decoration, and fittings, and is in this respect a 
style complete in every aspect. 

The alliance of James IV. of Scotland (d. 151 3) with France 
caused French architectural features to be introduced, as at 
George Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh (No. 151 j). 



As in other countries, the earliest examples of the style consist 
of small works such as tombs, monuments, doorways, and other 
features, the tomb of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey, designed 
by Torrigiano, an Italian, in 1512, being generally regarded as one 
of the earliest examples. 

Elizabethan Mansions. — As already mentioned (page 551), 
domestic architecture received more attention than any other class 
of building. 

Two general types of house plan were in use at the beginning of 
the sixteenth century. Of these the smaller type consisted of a 
hall placed centrally, with kitchen and offices at one end and with- 
drawing and living rooms at the other, internal courts for lighting 
being sometimes employed, as at Chastleton in Oxfordshire. The 
larger type of house was evolved from the quadrangular plan 
of the Middle Ages (No. 131 b), which the later architects 
renounced by omitting the side forming the entrance, admitting 
sunlight and allowing free circulation of air about the building. 

The E-shaped plan thus came into existence, as at Hatfield 
House (No. 131 d, e). The gatehouse on the centre of the side 
forming the entrance, which was typical of the Tudor period, 
as at Oxburgh Hall (No. 131 b), became a detached building, as at 
Burton Agnes, Yorkshire (a.d. 1610) ; Cran'oume, Dorsetshire; 
Stanway, Gloucestershire, and elsewhere. 

The H-shaped plan was evolved by extending the wings on 
both fronts, as at Holland House, London (No. 244 a, b). 

Other fanciful plans showing extreme originality were erected, 
as Longford Castle, a triangular house attributed to John Thorpe 
(No. 131 f). 

The following features occur in the principal examples : — 

i. The great hall, retained from the mediaeval period (No. 241), 
was lined to a height of 8 or 10 feet with oak panelling, while 
above were arranged the trophies of the chase, armour, portraits 
of ancestors, familv relics and heirlooms. 


Qsn.1 favm, tixm/omwsm.. vm nam*. 



At one end of the hall, by the entrance, is the carved oak 
screen, over which is the minstrels' gallery, while at the other 
end is the raised dais with tall bay-window, the sill of which is 
almost at the floor level. The hall fireplace was much elaborated 
(No. 250 k), and richly carved with the coat-of-arms of the owner, 
and the roof (No. 113) either with the timbers showing or formed 
with plaster panels (No. 241), was elaborately ornamented. The 
hall in the later period became of less importance as a living room, 
and was used more as a means of communication. 

ii. The broad staircase of oak (Nos. 242 and 244 e) is a special 
feature, with its heavily-carved newels, pierced balustrading, and 
rich carving. It was generally placed in connection with the hall, 
and gives to the interior an air of spaciousness and dignity, its 
importance being due to the fact that the chief living rooms were 
often placed on the first floor and therefore demanded an important 
means of approach. 

iii. The long gallery on the upper floor (Nos. 131 e and 245 c) 
often extends the whole length of the house, the proportions 
varying considerably from the hall in being comparatively low 
and narrow in proportion to the length. There is no feature of 
an old English mansion more characteristic than these galleries. 
It served as a means of communication between the wings of the 
house, the hall being often two stories in height. The length is 
frequently relieved by room-like projecting bays — those at Haddon 
Hall being about 15 feet by 12 feet, with stone-mullioned windows, 
glazed with leaded panes (No. 243). The walls have usually 
oak panelling the full height, the ceiling being richly modelled 
in plaster. 

The term '■ picture gallery" is supposed to be derived from these 
apartments, and below are dimensions of important galleries, some 
of which belong to the Jacobean period. 

Aston Hall (a.d. 1618-35) is 136 feet by 18 feet and 16 feet 

Montacute House (a.d. 1580) is 170 feet long by 20 feet 6 inches 

Hard wick Hall (a.d. i 576-1 597) (No. 245 c) is 166 feet long, 
22 feet 5 inches wide and 26 feet high. 

Charlton House (Wilts) (a.d. 1607) is 130 feet by 22 feet wide. 

Haddon Hall (a.d. 1589) (No. 243) is 109 feet by 18 feet wide. 

Moreton Hall (a.d. 1559) is 75 feet by 12 feet 6 inches wide. 

iv. The withdrawing room, or " solar " of Gothic times, a chapel 
(sometimes), and the bedrooms, were other apartments, the latter 
increasing considerably in number and importance during this 

An example of an apartment treated with panelling its whole 
height and with elaborate carved chimneypiece is shown in 
No. 244 d, from Stockton House, Wiltshire. 




Charlecote, Warwickshire. 
Kirby, Northants (No. 246). 
Knole, Kent. 

Penshurst, Kent (No. 132). 
Burghley, Northants. 
Longleat, Wilts. 
Montacute House, Somerset. 
Wollaton, Notts. 
Longford Castle, Wilts. 

(later facade). 
West wood, Worcester. 

Date. A reinfect. 

a.d. 1558. 

a.d. 1570-1575. John Thorpe (?). 
a.d. 1570. 

a.d. i57°-i5 8 5- 

ohn Thorpe, 
ohn of Padua (?).. 

a.d. 1575-1589- ; 

a.d. 1567. 

A.D. 1 580-1 6oi. 

a.d. 1580. R. Smithson. 

a.d. 1580 John Thorpe. 

a.d. 1590. 

Longford Castle was originally triangular in plan (No. 
131 f), with circular towers at each angle, and central open 
triangular courtyard. It was added to in the eighteenth century, 
and now forms an irregular pentagon on plan. 

Moreton Hall, Cheshire (a.d. 1550- 1559) (No. 247), is an 
example of many of the timbered houses, erected in the period, 
for which Cheshire and Shropshire are specially famous. 

Elizabethan Colleges. — Many of the colleges at Oxford and 
Cambridge (cf. list, page 324) were erected during this period, 
and these buildings, situated within the seats of revived learning, 
naturally gave a great impetus to the new style, as object lessons 
to the rising generation. 


Name. Date. 

The Gate of Honour, Caius a.d. 1565-1574. 

a.d. 1584. 
a.d. 1595 

Emmanuel College. 
Sidney Sussex College 

The Quadrangle, Clare 

S. John's College (Court). 
Nevill Court, Trinity Col- 
■ lege. 

Jesus College. 

Gateway of the Schools 
(No. 248), with super- 
imposed orders. 

Merton College (Library). 

Wadham College. 

Oriel and Jesus Colleges 
(portions of) and others. 

Pembroke College. 

A rchitect. 
Theodore Haveus 
of Cleves (?). 

a.d. 1634. 

a.d. 1593-1615. 

a.d. 1571. 
a.d. 1612. 

a.d. 1 600-1 624. 

A.D. l6l2. 
A.D. l6l2. 

A.D. 1624. 

Ralph Simons. 

West ley. 

Ralph Simons. 
Ralph Simons. 

Thomas Holt. 

Thomas Holt. 
Thomas Holt. 
Thomas Holt. 


248. The Tower of the old Schools (now 

the Bodleian Library), Oxford. 


Elizabethan Town Houses. — Many interesting specimens 
of these exist, and among them are several houses of half-timber 
construction, as, for example, in London, Staple Inn, Holborn, 
the Hall of Charterhouse, Sir Paul Pindar's House, Bishopsgate 
(now in the Victoria and Albert Museum), and many examples 
in Chester, and other of the country towns throughout England. 

4. COMPARATIVE (see page 562). 
5. REFERENCE BOOKS (see page 565). 


James I. (a.d. 1603-1625). 

1. INFLUENCES (see page 545). 

The Jacobean style was a development of the Elizabethan, 
gradually diverging from Gothic picturesqiieness as classic 
literature and models became better known, and the use of 
the columns with their entablatures became more general. The 
celebrated architect, John Thorpe, erected several of the mansions 
of this epoch, and his book of "compositions," preserved in Sir 
John Soane's Museum, London, is w r ell worthy of study. 

The buildings of this style were most suitable to the wants of 
the people in whose era they were erected. Some of the detail 
and ornamentation may be questionable, but they were at least 
the outcome of the social conditions of that age, and an examina- 
tion of the mansions erected during the Elizabethan and Jacobean 
periods, most of which are easily accessible, will give as much if 
not more pleasure than the study of the buildings of any other 
period of Architecture in England. Jacobean furniture design 
continued on the same lines as the architecture. 


Examples of some Famous Jacobean Mansions. 

Name. Date, Architect. 

Holland House, Kensington a.d. 1607. John Thorpe. 

(No. 244). 

Charlton House, Wilts. a.d. 1607. 

Bramshill, Hants (No. 250). a.d. 1607-1612. 

Hatfield House, Herts (Nos. a.d. 161 i. 

131 d, e, 241 and 249). 

f.a. o o 



Name. Date. 

Cranbourne Manor House a.d. 1612. 

Audley End, Essex. 

Aston Hall, Warwickshire. 

Loseley Park, near Guild- 

Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire. 

Blickling Hall, Norfolk 

\ ,(Nos. 244, 250 D, k). 

A.D. 1603-1616. 
A.D. 1618-1635. 

A.D. 1613. 
A.D. l620. 


Bernard J an sen. 

H. Smithson. 


The Elizabethan and Jacobean Styles. 

a. Plans. — These are often E or H-shaped (No. 244 b), the 
entrance being in the middle of the letter, and the two ends 
forming wings, as at Bramshill, Hardwick(No. 245 c), Longford, 
Hatfield (No. 131 d, e), Longleat, Burghley, Loseley, and Audley 
End, while many are irregular in plan, as Knole, Penshurst 
(No. 132 f), and Haddon (ball-room wing), such grouping being 
often brought about through the work being an addition to a 
previous Gothic house. 

Characteristic features are : — The great hall, the broad staircase 
(Nos. 242, 244 e), the long gallery, and very often a chapel 
(No. 245 d). Broad terraces, with balustrades, raised above the 
garden level (No. 244 a, b), and wide flights of steps, are charming 
features in the style. Gardens were often laid out in a formal 
manner, as at Montacute, Hatfield and elsewhere, with yews, 
box, and other trees cut in fantastic patterns. 

b. Walls. — Elevations have the character of picturesqueness, 
the Classic orders being used in a very free manner, often 
placed one above the other in the facades, as at Hatfield House 
(No. 249), the Gateway of the Schools at Oxford (No. 248), 
Kirby Hall (No. 246), and Holland House (No. 244). 

The gables are often of scroll-work, following in a general way 
the slope of the roof (Nos. 244 and 246). 

The chimney stacks are special and characteristic features, 
being often treated in a prominent manner with orders, as at 
Hatfield and Kirby (Nos. 249 and 246) ; but sometimes they are 
of cut brickwork, the shafts being carried up boldly, so that they 
play an important part in the composition and outline of the house. 

Parapets are pierced with various characteristic designs (Nos. 
249 and 250 a, b), the baluster being much employed. 

c. Openings. — Bay windows were largely used, as at Haddon 
(No. 243), Longleat, Holland House (No. 244), and Kirby Hall 
(No. 246), and form important features of the style. 



Large heavily-mullioned windows (Nos. 241, 243, 246 and 247 \, 
filled in with leaded glass, and crossed by horizontal transoms, 
are special features adopted from the late Gothic period, and 
oriel windows are common, as at Bramshill (No. 250 e). 

Dormers were largely used, and turrets were in common use 
(Nos. 244 a and 248). 

Arcades were often introduced, as at Hatfield, Bramshill, and 
elsewhere, (Nos. 244, 249 and 250 g). 

Doorways are often elaborate in design, as in Nos. 246, 248, 
249 and 250 d. 

" Through this wide opening gate 
None come too early, none return too late." 

d. Roofs. — High, flat, or low roofs with balustrades, occur 
both separately and in the same design (No. 244 a). Lead 
and tiles were both used, and also stone slabs in certain districts. 
The balustrade, arcaded, pierced, or battlemented, is a constant 
feature (Nos. 244 a, 249 and 250). 

e. Columns. — The orders were employed rarely with 
purity, a characteristic treatment being the reduction down- 
wards, more especially in pilasters, accompanied by bulbous 
swellings (No. 250 k). Square columns were used, banded with 
strap ornamentation (No. 250 g), and pilasters were similarly 
treated or panelled. At Longleat, the most Italian-like example, 
the topmost order is the smallest, corresponding to the compara- 
tive unimportance of the upper rooms. Bramshill has a facade- 
centre which is perhaps the most licentious specimen of the style- 
Arcades were much employed, especially in the form of recessed 
loggit, as at Bramshill (No. 250 g), and Hatfield (No. 249). 

f. Mouldings. — These are local and coarse in many instances, 
but founded on Classic originals. A typical cornice consists of a 
large cyma and small ogee moulding above a corona of little 
depth, and the use of convex mouldings, often banded or carved 
at intervals. Plaster work seems to have influenced in many 
ways the sections employed (No. 250 m). 

g. Ornament (No. 250). — "Strap" ornamentation was formed 
by raised bands, of about the width and thickness of a leather 
strap, interlaced in grotesque patterns, and attached as if by 
nails or rivets, as in the ceilings (No. 250 h, j, m). It is con- 
sidered by some to have been derived from the East, through 
France and Italy, in imitation of the damascened work which 
was at that period so common. This type of detail is also found 
in pilasters, as at Hatfield (No. 249), and on piers and in spandrels, 
as at Bramshill (No. 250 g). 

Grotesquely carved figures as terminals occur (No. 250 c), and 
in carving generally, ribbons, scrolls, and festoons were preferred 
to Gothic foliage types. 


Prismatic rustication, or the projection of blocks of stone of 
prismatic form (No. 250 g), occurs in pilasters and pedestals, and 
in later times colored stones were inserted in their stead. 

Plaster (Nos. 242, 243 and 250 m) was used for ceilings 
with great skill in design and adaptability to the material, and 
broad friezes were sometimes modelled with much quaint ness and 
grotesque feeling, as at Hardwick. 

Tapestries continued to be used for walls, color decoration 
making little or no progress. 

The screens, mantelpieces, entrance porches, monuments and 
tombs (No. 250 f), such as the monuments to Elizabeth (a.d. 1604) 
and Mary Queen of Scots in Westminster Abbey, and the tomb 
of Lord Burghley (No. 251 e), are very numerous and charac- 
teristic, a large number being found in churches throughout the 
country, and many being richly colored. The chapel screen 
from the Charterhouse, London (No. 251 c) ; the doorway in 
Broughton Castle (No. 251 a) ; the bookcase from Pembroke 
College, Cambridge (No. 251 d); the throne and stalls from the 
Convocation Room, Oxford (No. 251 f) ; the pulpit from North 
Cray Church, Kent (No. 251 g) ; the cistern now in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum (No. 251 h), and the tablet from Peterhouse 
College Chapel, Cambridge (No. 251 j), will indicate to the 
reader the manner in which Renaissance features were applied 
to the arts and crafts connected with architecture. 



Clayton (J.). — "A Collection of the Ancient Timber Edifices of 
England." Folio. 1846. 

Davie (W. G.). — " Old Cottages and Farmhouses in Kent and Sussex." 
4to. 1900. 

Dawber (E. Guy). — " Old Cottages, Farmhouses, and other Stone 
Buildings in the Cotswold District " (Gloucestershire, etc.). 4to. 1904. 

Gotch (J. A.). — " Architecture of the Renaissance in England." 2 vols., 
folio. 1891-1894. 

Gotch (J. A.). — "Early Renaissance Architecture in England." 1901. 

Habershon (M.). — " The Ancient Half-Timbered Houses of England." 
Folio. 1836. 

Harrison (F.). — "Annals of an Old Manor House" (Sutton Place, 
Guildford). 4to. 1893. 

Nash (J.). — " Mansions of England in the Olden Time." 1839- 1849. 

Parkinson and Ould. — " Old Cottages, Farmhouses, and other Half- 
timber Buildings of Shropshire, Herefordshire, and Cheshire." 4to. 1904. 

Richardson (C. J.). — " Studies from Old English Mansions." 1841-48. 

Richardson. — " Observations on the Architecture of England during 
the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I." 4to. 1837. 


NT II. ' 









Richardson. — u Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Elizabeth and 
James I." Folio. 1840. 

Shaw (H.). — " Details of Elizabethan Architecture." 4to. 1839. 

Tanner (H.).— "English Interior Woodwork of the XVI-XVIIIth 
Centuries." Folio. 1902. 

Taylor (H.). — " Old Halls in Lancashire and Cheshire." 4to. 1884. 

John Thorpe's Original Drawings in the Soane Museum. A good 
selection of these are reproduced in Mr. Gotch's text-book on " Early 
Renaissance Architecture." 

Reed (J. B.)— "Sir Indar." 

Scott (Sir Walter).— 4 * Ken il worth." 

Scott (Sir Walter).—" The Fortunes of Nigel." 

Shorthouse (J. H.)— "John Inglesant." 

Historical Novels. 



Comprises the reigns of Charles I. (1625-49), the Commonwealth 
(1649-60), Charles II. (1660-85), James (1685-89), William and 
Mary (1689- 1702). 

1. INFLUENCES (see page 545). 

The transitional Elizabethan and Jacobean styles at length 
gave way before the influence of Inigo Jones and Wren, who are 
considered the founders of the Anglo-Classic style. 


INIGO JONES (1573-1652). 

Long study in Italy, and especially at Vicenza, Palladio's 
native town, influenced the work of Inigo Tones. He was 
invited to Copenhagen by the King of Denmark, but returned to 
England in 1604. He revisited Italy in 161 2 for further 
study, and on his return introduced a purer Renaissance style, 
founded on Italian models and ornamentation. The Italian 
architect Palladio was Inigo Jones's favourite master in design, 
his works being carefully studied by him, and thus Palladio 
had a great influence on English architecture. 

The Commonwealth intervened, and checked the execution of 
many of Inigo Jones's designs. 

The following are among his principal Buildings : — 

Chilham Castle, Kent (a.d. 1614-1616), is a transitional 
example of brick with stone dressings, E-shaped facade, with 
radiating side wings forming a horseshoe court at the back, and 
with a porch Jiaving the baluster-columns of the earlier periods. 



The Banqueting House, Whitehall (a.d. 1619-1621), 
is a part only of a Royal Palace, which was one of the grandest 
architectural conceptions of the Renaissance (No. 252). The 
greater part of the building was to have been of three stories, 
each 30 feet high, with a total height to the top of the parapet of 
100 feet. The remainder, as curtain wings to the main blocks, and 
in design like the Banqueting House (No. 252 c), was to be 75 feet 
high, divided into two stories. The plan (No. 252 e) was arranged 
round courtyards, one of which was to be circular, and the 
great court would have vied with that of the Louvre (page 503). 
In this design, proportion, elegance, and purity of detail, are 
more happily combined than in any other Renaissance scheme 
of the kind. 

S. Paul, Covent Garden (a.d. 1631-1638), is severe and 
imposing by reason of its simplicity and good proportions, but 
has been altered and rebuilt by subsequent architects. The 
arcades and buildings around the market were also designed 
by Inigo Jones. 

Greenwich Hospital, the river facade of which was executed 
by John Webb, a pupil of Inigo Jones, has the two lower stories 
included under one huge Corinthian order. The hospital was 
afterwards added to by Sir Christopher Wren (page 576). 

York "Water Gate, London (a.d. 1626) (No. 252), executed 
by the master mason Nicholas Stone, formed the river entrance 
to Old York House, since destroyed. The gateway is now in 
the Embankment Gardens. 

Houghton Hall, Beds (1616-1621); Raynham Hall, Norfolk 
(1630) ; Stoke Park, Northants (1630 -1634) ; the King's (Queen's) 
House, Greenwich (1639) (No. 238 a); Wilton House, Wilts 
(additions) (1640-1648;; Coleshill, Berks (1650); and Chevening 
House, Kent (No. 131 h, j), are examples of his country houses; 
and Lincoln's Inn Chapel (1617-1623); Houses in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields and Great Queen's Street (1620); the Barber Surgeons' 
Hall (1636-1637) ; and Ashburnham House, Westminster (1640), 
are examples of his town buildings. 


was a scholar and a mathematician, being Professor of Astronomy 
at Gresham College and at the University of Oxford, his early 
mathematical training fitting him for the constructive skill shown 
in his later works. As an architect, Wren lacked the more 
thorough technical education of Inigo Jones, and was not always 
able to clothe his constructive forms in equally appropriate detail, 
but his study of French architecture at Paris and elsewhere in 
France, was an important part of his education. The works 
on the Louvre were then in progress, and constituted a great 



school of art, and, in consequence, Wren's work shows more 
French influence than that of Inigo Jones, which is pure Italian. 

Palladio continued to be the inspirer of English work, as com- 
pared with Vignola, whom the French followed, but Wren, who 
never visited Italy, often gave a semi- French turn to his designs, 
more especially in the decorative detail, as may be seen on 
comparing his work with that of Inigo Jones. 

Many of his designs, in which he was obliged to study economy, 
indicate, however, much thought, all his designs, as Opie said, 
being mixed " with brains," and indicating a careful study in 
the proportion of part to part. 

Many of these, as S. Paul and the City churches, were executed 
in Portland stone, which by its good weathering properties adds 
to their dignity and importance ; while in domestic work, he used 
red brick with stone dressings, as at Hampton Court, Marl- 
borough House, and elsewhere. 

His great opportunity was the destruction of London by the 
Great Fire in 1666, after which he devised a grand plan for the 
reconstruction, which was, however, abandoned for pecuniary and 
other reasons, but he was employed in a large number of 
churches, including S. Paul's Cathedral, and other buildings. 

His principal Ecclesiastical works were as follows : — 

S. Paul, London (i 675-1 710), which ranks amongst the 
finest Renaissance Cathedrals in Europe, was Wren's masterpiece. 
The first design, of which there is a fine model in the northern 
triforium of the Cathedral, was in plan a Greek cross (No. 253), 
with a projecting western vestibule ; but the influence of the 
clergy, who desired a long nave and choir suitable for ritualistic 
purposes, finally caused the selection of the mediaeval type of plan. 
This, as executed, consists of a great central space at the cross- 
ing, arranged somewhat similarly to Ely Cathedral, crowned by 
a dome, and having east and west a nave and choir in three 
bays with aisles, north and south transepts, and a projecting 
western vestibule with lateral chapels. The building has an 
internal length of 460 feet, a breadth including aisles of 100 feet, 
and an area of 60,000 square feet. An illustration showing its 
comparative size and disposition with S. Peter, Rome, the 
Pantheon, Paris, and Cologne Cathedral, is given (No. 213). 

The internal piers (No. 253 b) are ornamented with pilasters 
of the Corinthian order, supporting an entablature and attic, 
above which are formed the flat saucer-like domes, 86 feet high. 
Light is admitted by means of windows in the clerestory, which 
are not visible from the exterior. The wall surfaces have 
recently been decorated with glass mosaic, under Sir William 
Richmond, which has given the color it was originally intended 
to have. The dome, as shown in No. 253 b, is of triple con- 
struction. It is carried on eight piers (cf. Dome of the Invalides, 



S. Paul, London. 
West Front. 


Paris, page 50a), and is 109 feet at the base of the drum, 
diminishing to 102 feet at the top. The inner dome of brick- 
work, 18 inches thick, has its summit 281 feet high, and the 
intermediate conical dome also of brickwork 18 inches thick, 
supports the stone lantern, ball and cross, which latter has 
a height of 365 feet. The outer dome is formed of timber 
covered with lead, and rests on the intermediate dome (No. 253 b). 
Eight openings are formed in the summit for the admission of 
light to the inner domes. 

The exterior is exceedingly effective, and is made to group 
well with the central dome. The facades have two orders totalling 
108 feet in height, the lower Corinthian and the upper Composite, 
but as the aisles are only one story high, the upper story on 
the flanks is a screen wall introduced to give dignity, and to 
act as a counterweight to the flying buttresses concealed 
behind it, which receive the thrust of the nave vault. The 
western front, 180 feet wide, and approached by a broad flight 
of steps, is flanked by two finely proportioned towers, 215 feet 
high, having between them the double storied portico of coupled 
columns supporting a pediment in which there is a fine repre- 
sentation of the conversion of S. Paul. 

The dome externally is probably the finest example in Europe, 
the projecting masses of masonry at the meeting of nave and 
transepts expressing the support of the dome from the 
ground upwards. The colonnade to the drum is particularly 
effective, being formed of three-quarter columns attached to 
radiating buttress walls, having every fourth intercolumniation 
filled in solid, and thus giving an appearance of strength and 
solidity which is lacking in the Pantheon, Paris. Behind the 
balustrade, known as the "Stone Gallery," rises an attic above 
supporting the dome, which is crowned with lantern and cross. 

The poetess Joanna Baillie has well described the majestic 
appearance of S. Paul on a foggy day : — 

" Rear'd in the sky, 
'Tis then St. Paul's arrests the wandering eye ; 
The lower parts in swathing mists conceal'd 
The higher through some half-spent shower reveal'd. 
So far from earth removed, that well I trow, 
Did not its form man's artful structure show, 
It might some lofty Alpine peak be deem'd, 
The eagle's haunt, with cave and crevice seam'd. 
Stretch 'd wide on either hand, a rugged screen, 
In lurid dimness nearer sticets are seen, 
Like shoreward billows of a troubled sea 
Arrested in their rage." 

S. Paul, London. 
S. Peter, Rome. 

Time Building. 


Master Mason. 


35 years. 




100 years. 





— tflfriEtfrB 

SOLES Giwy «?y 





Wren was also responsible for the erection of some fifty - 
three City churches in the Renaissance style between 1670- 1 711. 
These are models of simplicity and restraint, and are notable for 
skilful planning on awkward and confined sites, and general 
suitability for Protestant worship, in which a central preaching 
space is considered more important than the " long-drawn aisle" 
for processional purposes, characteristic of mediaeval churches. 
Among the more important of these are the following :- — 

S. Stephen, Walbrook (1672-1679) (No. 256), has original 
and ingenious planning, and is deservedly famous for the excellent 
effect produced by small means within a limited area, the sixteen 
columns, inclosed in a rectangle, carrying cross vaulting and a 
central cupola, the latter resting on eight of the columns. 

Bow Church, Cheapside (1680), is the most successful of 
a type of Renaissance steeple (No. 255 a, b) of which Wren may 
be called the inventor, in which a square tower supports a 
pyramidal spire in receding stages clothed with classical details. 

S. Bride, Fleet Street (1680) (Nos. 255 c, d, 257), is 
another example generally considered less successful because of 
the telescopic effect of similar stories, a fault which was avoided 
in Bow Church by the use of inverted consoles. 

S. Martin, Ludgate, has a steeple simpler in design, but 
exceedingly picturesque in the group that it forms in conjunction 
with Wren's masterpiece, S. Paul's Cathedral. 

S. Clement Danes (1684) and S. James, Piccadilly 
(No. 257), are successful though plain examples of his galleried 

The Western Towers of Westminster Abbey; S. 
Dunstan in the East (1698); S. Mary, Aldermary 
(1711); S. Michael, Cornhill (1721), are examples of his 
Gothic treatment of spires. 

Pembroke College Chapel, Cambridge (1663-1664) was 
one of his earliest works. 

The Secular works of Wren were numerous : — 

The Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford (1664), ls an evidence of 
his scientific skill in the constructive carpentry of the roof, and 
in the splendid acoustic properties of the hall. 

The Inner Court, Trinity College, Oxford (1665); the 
Library of Trinity College, Cambridge (1679) ; the Library 
of Queen's College, Oxford (1682) ; and the School Room 
at Winchester (1684), are other examples of his collegiate 

The Monument, London Bridge (1671); the Fountain 
Court and Garden Facade of Hampton Court Palace 
(1690); the Two Blocks of Greenwich Hospital furthest 
from the river, combined in a group at once picturesque and 
stately ; Chelsea Hospital, the Royal Palace, Winchester 

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(1683), Morden College, Blackheath, Marlborough House, 
Pall Mall (1709), and the Banqueting Hall (Orangery) in 
Kensington Palace Gardens, are a few examples which show 
the large number of different classes of buildings upon which 
he was engaged, and their suitability to the several purposes for 
which they were designed. 

The Temple, London (1674-1684) with its plain brickwork 
facades and interesting wooden doorways, is an example of his 
simpler style to which character is given, as in the principal 
entrance gateway to Fleet Street. 

Temple Bar, London (1670), removed to Theobald's Park, 
Herts, is a pleasing example of a smaller type of monumental 

4. COMPARATIVE (see page 585). 
5. REFERENCE BOOKS (see page 588). 



Comprises the reigns of Anne (1702-14), George I. (1714-27), 
George II. (1727-60), George III. (1760-1820). 

1. INFLUENCES (see page 545). 


In the latter part of the seventeenth, and during the eighteenth 
century, the plan of the smaller type of house was usually a square, 
as at the King's (Queen's) House, Greenwich (No. 238 a), or an 
oblong, as at Chevening (No. 131 h, j), both already mentioned 
(page 569). In the square type the centre was frequently occupied 
by the top-lit saloon, two stories in height, as at Green wich. In 
the oblong type, the house was usually roughly divided into three, 
the centre third being occupied by the hall, saloon and staircases. 
The basement in both types contained the kitchen, storerooms and 

In the larger type of house, the ground floor was frequently 
treated as a basement, the first floor being the principal one, 
reached by an external flight of steps as at Rainham in Norfolk, 
Castle Howard (No. 258 a, b, c), and Kedlestone (No. 258 d, 
e, f), and this led to the internal staircase being reduced in 
importance. The hall, saloon, and reception-rooms, to which 
everything was sacrificed, were placed in a central block, either 
square or oblong on plan (No. 258 c, f) superseding the E and 
H -shaped Jacobean plans. On either side symmetrical detached 
wings were added, as at Holkham Hall (No. 131 k), or connecting 


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30111 ™ WVflTIONS JCftE mum 



portions of quadrant form, often treated as colonnades, as at Stoke 
Park, Northants (No. 131 g), Castle Howard, Yorkshire (No. 2580. 
Blenheim, Oxfordshire (No. 238 f), Latham Hall, Lancashire. Moor 
Park, Herts, and Kedlestone, Derbyshire (No. 258 f). 

The Jacobean gallery survived in a modified form, as at Castle 
Howard (No. 258), Chatsworth, and Holkham (No. 131 k), and 
many other examples. 

The publication, by the Earl of Burlington, of the designs of 
Inigo Jones, and of the drawings of the " Antiquities of Rome," 
by Palladio, in the early part of the century, are thus referred to 
by Pope in one of his epistles to the Earl of Burlington. 

' ' You show us, Rome was glorious, not profuse, 
And pompous buildings once were things of use. 
Yet shall, my lord, youi just, your noble rules, 
Fill half the land with imitating fools ; 
Who random drawings from your sheets shall take, 
And of one beauty many blunders make ; 
Load some vain church with old theatric state, 
Turn arcs of triumph to a garden gate ; 
* * * » • * 

Shall call the winds through long arcades to roar, 
Proud to catch cold at a Venetian door." 

This passage suggests what really did happen, and well 
characterizes the style of architecture. There were many 
famous architects of this period and as they were contem- 
poraries, practising at the same time, their names and principal 
works are given. 

The design of the buildings, not excepting the domestic class, 
was influenced by a passion for symmetry and grandeur, which 
almost entirely put aside as unworthy of consideration the 
comfort and convenience of the people who had to occupy them, 
a point remarked upon by Pope : — 

"'tis very fine, 
But where d'ye sleep, or where d'ye dine ? 
I find by all you have been telling 
That 'tis a house, but not a dwelling." 

Or the remark of Lord Chesterfield to General Wade may be 
quoted, viz., that the latter had better take a lodging opposite his 
Palladian mansion (by Lord Burlington), if he liked nothing but 

the front. 

The fact must not be overlooked, however, that at this time 
there grew up a national style, most of the less important 
houses for the middle class people being erected in the useful 
and modest Queen A nne and Georgian type of square house. More- 
over, corridor planning did much for convenience and comfort in 
domestic architecture, and the fast developing trade ot the joiner 
admitted of the elaboration of internal fittings. 






Nicholas Ilawksmoor ( 1 666- 
1763) was a pupil of Wren and 
followed him in his practice. Prin 
cipal works:— S. George, Blooms 
bury ; S. Mary Woolnoth ; S 
George in the East ; S. Anne 
Limehouse ; Christ Church, Spital 
fields — all in London. He also 
assisted Sir John Vanbrugh at 
Castle Howard and Blenheim. 
His works were much influenced 
both by Wren and Vanbrugh, but 
ideas of some originality and 
grandeur were too often marred 
by eccentricities of treatment, and 
his architectural detail, as with 
other of Wren's pupils, was often 
badly designed. 

Hawksmoor held several Govern- 
ment appointments, notably clerk 
of the works at Kensington Palace 
and Greenwich Hospital. 

James Gibbs ( 1683- 1 754). Princi- 
pal works were : — S. Martin in 
the Fields ; S. Mary-le-Strand 
(a.d. 17 14) (the tower is an oblong 
on plan), the steeple, S. Clement 
Danes Church ; and Bartholomew's 
Hospital— all in London ; the Rad- 
cliffe Library, Oxford, and the 
Senate House, Cambridge. He 
published a book of his own de- 
signs, in which the above works, 
with others, may be found. 

William Talman(d. 17 15), Chats- 
worth, Derbyshire (a.d. 1681), Dyn- 
ham House, Gloucestershire, and 
works at Hampton Court. 

Kent (1684-1748), in collabora- 
tion with the Earl of Burlington, 
erected the Horse Guards, London, 
notable for skilful grouping ; the 
Treasury Buildings, Horse Guards 
Parade ; Devonshire House Picca- 
dilly, and Holkham Hall, Norfolk 
(No. 131 K). 

The Earl of Burlington (a.d. 
1695-1753), an amateur architect 
and patron of Kent and other 
artists. He designed the Palladian 
Villa at Chiswick — an English 

Sir John Vanbrugh (1666- 1726). 
Principal works: — Blenheim Palace 
(No. 238 f), the most important 
mansion of the period erected in 
England, is both picturesque and 
stately, and it is the commencement 
of the Palladian type of house, in 
which a striving after symmetry 
and monumental grandeur, at the 
expense of usefulness, led to the 
debasement of architecture. In 
the plan of Blenheim there is an 
extensive use of corridors as com- 
municating passages, being a great 
development in planning, and a 
step towards the privacy which is 
now insisted upon. Castle Howard, 
Yorkshire (a.d. i7i4)(No. 258), is an 
example of a ponderous character. 
King's Weston, Gloucestershire 
(a.d. 17 13), and Seaton Deiaval, 
Northumberland, are other works. 

Thomas Archer (d. 1743) was a 
pupil of Sir John Vanbrugh. He 
erected S. John, Westminster, in 
the Rococo style, and S. Philip, 
Birmingham, in the somewhat 
heavy style of his master. 

Colin Campbell (d. 1734) was 
the compiler of the '* Vitruvius 
Britannicus," which contains plans 
and elevations of all the country 
houses of any importance erected 
during the century. His best 
known works were the front and 
gateway of old Burlington House 
(171 7), Houghton, Norfolk (1723), 
and Wanstead, Essex (1720). 

Isaac Ware (d. 1766). He 
erected Chesterfield House, May- 
fair, and was the author of " A 
Complete Body of Architecture." 

Sir Robert Taylor (1 714-1788). 
He was the architect of the Pelican 
Fire Office, Lombard Street ; and 
Ely House, Dover Street. 

George Dance \ senior (d. 1768), 
City architect of London, erected 
the Mansion House, London. His 
better known son was the designer 
of Newgate, the most appropriate of 



translation of the Villa Capra, near 
Yicenza (page 488). 

The Brothers Adam. Robert 
Adam d 728-1792) published ''Dio- 
cletian's Palace at Spalato," in the 
\ear 1760, a book which influenced 
architectural design. Other designs 
are two sides of Fitzroy Square ; the 
Adelphi Terrace (named after the 
four brothers) ; the screen in front 
of the Admiralty, Whitehall (1760) ; 
Caen Wood, Hampstead ; Kedle- 
stone Hall, Derbyshire (No. 258); 
Stratford Place, London ; Lans- 
downe House, London (1765); 
Stowe House, Buckingham ; Sion 
House, near London (A.D. 1761- 
1702^; Kenwood House, Hamp- 
stead (A.D. 1704^, and many 
private houses in London, and 
the College and Register Office, 

The brothers Adam were the 
authors of a marked style of in- 
terior decoration that is known 
by their name. Furniture and 
decoration were treated together 
with the design of the rooms 
themselves with refined and 
elegant details. Adams' chimney- 
pieces are specially characteristic. 

Unity lit >//<///</ ( 1 740- 1 806 ) 
erected Claremont House, Esher ; 
Carlton House, on the site now 
occupied by Waterloo Place (the 
Corinthian columns being employed 
at the National Gallery) ; Brooks's 
Club, London, and the vestibule to 
Dover House, Whitehall, which is 
a charming and refined piece of 

James Hyatt ^1748- 1813) studied 
in Rome. The Pantheon (1772) 
in Oxford Street, and White's 
Club, are works in London ; 
Lee Priory, Kent ; Castle Coote, 
Ireland ; Bowden Park, Wiltshire ; 
and Fonthill Abbey (1795- 1822). 
He undertook the restoration of 
many of the cathedrals and im- 
portant churches in England and 
Wales, but the small knowledge 
of the true spirit of Gothic archi- 

prison designs and lately demo- 
lished ; also of S. Luke's Hospital 

John Wood ( 1 704- 1 7 54) of Bath, 
in conjunction with Dawkins, pub- 
lished the *' Illustrations of Baalbec 
and Palmyra" in 1750, creating a 
taste for Roman magnificence. 
His best known work is Prior Park, 
Bath (a.D. 1 73 5- 1 743), and various 
other works in that city. 

Sir William Chambers (1726- 
1796), first Treasurer of the Royal 
Academy, wrote the *' Treatise on 
the Decorative Part of Civil 
Architecture." He carried on the 
traditions of the Anglo- Pal lad i an 
school, objecting strongly to the 
Greek revival then commencing. 
The proportions he adopted for the 
Classic orders are given in Nos. 
261, 262. He travelled largely in 
Europe and the East. His 
great work is Somerset House, 
commenced in 1776 (No. 259), 
which is grand, dignified, and 
simple in its parts. A single order 
runs through two stories, and 
rustication is largely employed. 
The character of his work in 
general is correct and refined, but 
lacking somewhat in originality 
and strength. 

James Gandon (1 742-1823), a 
pupil of Sir W. Chambers, erected 
the Custom House and the Law 
Courts at Dublin. 

Sir John Soane (1 750-1837), a 
pupil of George Dance, junior, 
studied in Italy (1788). He was 
appointed architect to the Bank of 
England. This important building 
occupied many years of his life, 
and constitutes his masterpiece, 
the Corinthian order of the Temple 
at Tivoli being closely followed. 
Comparing this design with New- 
gate, it fails in the quality of appa- 
rent suitability of purpose. His early 
designs are Palladian, and his later 
ones are those of an original mind, 
but he was unable to clothe them 
with suitable details, and there is 
a consequent taint of eccentricity. 
The Dulwich picture gallery is by 




tecture then existing is responsible him. Sir John Soane's Museum, 

for his inability to effect thess with in Lincoln's Inn Fields, formerly 

success. Pugin has starred him with his private house, contains interest- 

the affix " the destroyer." ing drawings and models. 


Anglo-Classic, Queen Anne and Georgian Styles. 

a. Plans. — These are marked by regularity and symmetry, 
sometimes showing signs of being dictated by a preconceived 
elevation. The Italian use of a piano nobile above a storage 
basement, affected the planning of many country houses 
(No. 258). Excessive cellarage, or kitchen offices, occupy the 
ground floor, and the best rooms are reached by a great external 
staircase and portico (No. 258 d), or by a mean approach from a 
side door through the basement. Octagonal, circular, and 
elliptical -shaped apartments, often cubical in proportion, are 
usual (No. 258 c), and suites of such saloons are arranged in 
various combinations. Staircases receive much attention, in- 
genious domical, or other top lights, being introduced. Corridors 
gradually supersede the hall and en suite or thoroughfare systems 
of planning (Nos. 131 g, h, j, k, 238 f, 252 e and 258 c, f). 

b. Walls. — These are usually thick, and filled in solid between 
the varied shapes of the rooms, on plan. Brick was used most 
commonly for walling, and often for the facing, but in later 
work it was usually stuccoed. Stone was used as an ashlar facing 
and for dressings. Unbroken surfaces contrasted with the porticos, 
pilasters, or window dressings of the composition (No. 258), and 
blank walls, to mask undesirable necessities, are not uncommon. 
Chimneys are often concealed. Pediments are the only form of 
gable, and are used with and without balustrades. 

c. Openings. — Windows were reduced in number as much as 
possible, but infrequency of openings was compensated for by 
large and unobstructed window areas (No. 260 b), sometimes of a 
special Venetian Character (No. 261 c). Porticos, arcades, and 
doorways (No. 261), were regulated by the proportions of the 
Classic orders, and the minimum condition of having to pass 
through them (No. 260 a, c, e) ; the maximum scale was a question 
of material and expense. Gate piers are frequently in excellent 
proportion (No. 260 g). Vertical grouping of windows was effec- 
tively developed, as in houses in Hanover Square, and the large 
compositions of windows to more than one room or story were not 
affected by party-wall or floor divisions, as in the houses of the 
Brothers Adam in Fitzroy Square, and elsewhere. 

D. Roofs. — " No roof but a spherical one being sufficiently 
dignified " for this style, balustrades or attics conceal the small 





- •> 






amount of low-pitched roof covering the building (No. 258;. 
In the smaller works, tiled roofs having a wooden eaves cornice, 
were often effectively used. Domes, cupolas, and turrets were 
well designed, those on a large scale being lead covered, while 
small examples were sometimes entirely of wood. The splendid 
steeples of the period, in stone and wood, covered with lead, 
rival mediaeval spires in fanciful and skilful outlines (No. 255). 

e. Columns. — The orders were used wherever funds per- 
mitted (No. 260). Single order porticos of large scale were not 
possible owing to the small size of stone obtainable, but on 
the introduction of stucco and iron these could be erected. 
Pilasters, however, were most often of two or more stories in 
height (Nos. 258 a and 259). Columns, often purely decorative 
in function, were employed in interiors with considerable effect. 
The canons of proportion first laid down by Vitruvius (page 167) 
were still further insisted on by Sir W. Chambers (Nos. 261, 262). 
who took various Renaissance architects as his guide. 

f. Mouldings. — The standard mouldings of the Classic orders 
became the stock-in-trade of every workman, being applied in 
every material with small modification (Nos. 260, 262), and 
design is thus often found of equal standard in very varied 
classes of building. The large employment of wood, in which 
material smallness of scale was rendered possible, admitted oi 
much elaboration and refinement in such features as the main 
external cornices and doorways. 

g. Ornament (No. 260). — Wall tablets (No. 260 d), tombs 
(No. 260 j), and chimney-pieces (No. 260 h, k) are among the 
most pleasing decorative features in the style. Whitewash was 
usual, but sometimes fresco decorations were employed, artists 
such as Verrio and Sir James Thornhill being engaged. The 
orders were executed with facility in wood or plaster, or both, 
and small buildings resembling Roman Temples (No. 261 e) were 
most effectively grouped in parks and gardens. Decoration, 
founded on Roman, or in the later period, on Greek examples, 
was modelled in stucco with great skill and effect, and French 
work of the style of Louis XIV. and his successors w r as also 
followed, while the Brothers Adam and others imported Italian 
workmen, who carried the art to a high pitch of technical excellence. 



(Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.) 

Adam (R. and J.). — " Works in Architecture." 3 vols., folio. 1773-1822. 
Adam (R. and J.). Decorative Work of." (A selection of plates repro- 
duced from the above.) Folio. 1901. 


Belcher (J.) and M. E. Macartney. — " Later Renaissance Architec- 
ture in England." 2 vols., folio. 1 897-1 901. 

Birch (G. H.). — u London Churches of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Centuries." Folio. 1896. 

Blomfield (R.). — "A History of Renaissance Architecture in England. '* 
2 vols., 8vo. 1897. (Also abridged edition. 8vo. 1900.) 

Clayton (J.). — "Works of Sir Christopher Wren — the Parochial 
Churches of London and Westminster." Folio. 1848- 1849. 

Gibbs(J.). — " Book of Architecture." Folio. 1728. 

" I nigo Jones's Designs." By W. Kent. Folio. 1835. 

Paine (T.). — u Plans, etc., of Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Houses." 
2 vols., folio. 1767-1783. 

Papworth (W.). — '' Renaissance and Italian Styles of Architecture in 
Great Britain." 8vo. 1883. 

Stratton (A.). — "The Life, Work, and Influence of Sir Christopher 
Wren." Folio. 1897. 

Swan (A.). — " Designs in Architecture." 2 vols., folio. 1757. 

Taylor (A. T.). — " Towers and Steeples designed by Sir Christopher 
Wren." 1881. 

Triggs (H. Inigo) and H. Tanner, jun. — " Some Architectural Works 
of Inigo Jones." Folio. 1901. 

Triggs (H. Inigo). — " Formal Gardens in England and Scotland. * 
Folio. 1902. 

" Vitruvius Britannicus." By Campbell, W r oolfe, and Gandon. 5 vols., 
folio. 1715-1771. 

Ware (I.). — " Complete Body of Architecture." Folio. 1756. 

Wren (C. and S.). — " Parentalia." Folio. (Contains much interesting 
information concerning the life and work of Sir Christopher.) 1750. 

Hope (A.). — "Simon Dale." \ 

Lytton (Lord). — " Devereux." / 

%^fcZPft£&.» ^is-ica, Nove.s. 

Thackeray (W. M.).— "The Virginians." 
Wingfield (L.).— " Lady Grizel." 


(the age of revivals), 

Comprises the reigns of George IV. (1820-30), William IV. 
(1830-37), and Victoria (part of) (1837-51). 

1. INFLUENCES (see page 545). 


The notes on this period are merely given as explanatory 
of the general course of architecture at this time. The beginning 
of the century saw Palladianism on the decline, and the intro- 
duction of eclecticism as a governing idea in architectural design. 

On the one hand, isolation from the Continent, due to the 
Napoleonic wars, shut out new ideas in art, and on the other hand, 
Stuart and Revett's "Antiquities of Athens" (a.d. 1762), 
Robert Adam's "Spalato" (a.d. 1764), Inwood's " Erechtheion " 



(a.d. i 831), the writings of Professor Cockerell and the publica- 
tions of the Society of Dilettanti (a.d. 1769), caused an increased 
interest in Classic architecture and the erection of buildings 
copied from Greek originals, which is known as the " Greek 
Revival," a movement much strengthened by the importation of 
the Elgin marbles in 1801-1803. 

Somewhat later, the influence of literature helped to produce 
what is known as the " Gothic Revival." Battey Langley's 
" Gothic Architecture Improved," Rickman's " Attempt to Dis- 
criminate the Gothic Styles" (a.d. 1819), the writings of Coney, 
Paley, Wild, Cotman and the elder Pugin, Brandon's " Churches 
of the Middle Ages," and other works, Britton's Architectural 
Antiquities of Great Britain" (1807-1826), the " Cathedral Anti- 
quities of Great Britain" ^1814-1835), and the works of other 
writers, caused an increasing interest to be taken in Gothic 
Architecture. This interest was further aided by the erection of 
Strawberry Hill (1760- 1770), a Pseudo-Gothic Abbey, by 
Horace Walpole, and Fonthill Abbey (a monastic building with 
modern internal arrangements), by James Wyatt, already referred 
to (page 582). 


Note. — Examples in the Classic and Gothic schools of architec- 
ture, which now, for the first time, run concurrently, are placed 
side by side. 


H. W. Inwood {17^-1%^) \ New 
Church of S. Pancras (1819), an 
attempt to copy absolutely the 
purest of Greek detail, reproducing 
in many respects the Erechtheion, 

Nash (17 $2-1835), of the Regency, 
introduced the age of stucco : Hay- 
market Theatre ; Buckingham 
Palace, since altered by Blore ; 
Regent Street, with Quadrant (the 
colonnades have since been re- 
moved) ; All Souls, Langham Place, 
and the laying out of Regent's 
Park in palatial blocks of symme- 
trical architecture. 

William Wilkins ( 1 778-1839) : 
University College, London ; the 
National Gallery (fettered with con- 
ditions) ; S. George's Hospital, 
London ; Museum at York ; Down- 
ing College, Cambs., and The 
Grange House, Hants (1820). 


Savage: S. Luke, Chelsea (1820), 
an early attempt at revived Gothic, 
the galleried church of the period 
being clothed with details, directly 
copied from old cathedrals and 

Sir Jeffrey Wyatville (1766- 
1840) : transformed Windsor Castle 
in 1826. This started a fashion for 
castellated mansions, internally of 
the traditional architecture, and ex- 
ternally battlemented and turreted 
in imitation of the Edwardian 
castles, as at Belvoir Castle. 

William Wilkins: New Court, 
Trinity College, Cambs., and the 
New Buildings, King's College, 

John Shaw (a.d. 1 776-1832) : S. 
Dunstan in the West, Fleet Street 
(a.d. 1831-1832), a fine treatment 
of a town church, since spoilt by 
erection of adjacent buildings. 




Sir Robert Smirke (1780- 1867), 
a pupil of Sir John Soane : The 
British Museum (1823-1847) (in 
which remark the application of 
the useless but grandeur-giving 
porticos to public buildings) ; 
General Post Office ; King's Col- 
lege, London (183 1 ). 

George Basevi (1795-1845), a 
pupil of Sir John Soane, erected 
Kitzwilliam Museum, Cambs. 

Decimus Burton (1 800-1 881) : 
Screen at Hyde Park Corner in 
1824 J Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, 
and United Service Club, Pall Mall. 

H. L. Elmes (181 5-1847) : S. 
George's Hall, Liverpool, won in 
competition, is the most perfect 
design of the Classic School, the 
main hall recalling the Roman 
Thermae (page 144). Externally a 
colonnade and portico design is 
handled with great effect. On the 
death of Elmes, Prof. Cockerell com- 
pleted the decoration of the interior. 
The vault was executed in hollow 
tiles by Sir Robert Rawlinson. 

Sir W. 7//e'(i798-i873): Royal 
Exchange, London. 

Prof. C. R. Cockerel/, R.A. (1788- 
1863), travelled much in Greece and 
Italy, and published "The Greek 
Temples of ALgina. and Bassae." 
He erected the Taylor and Ran- 
dolph Institute, Oxford ; the Sun 
Fire Office, Threadneedle Street, 
London (recently altered) ; Banks 
of England at Manchester, Bris- 
tol, and Liverpool ; and Han- 
over Chapel, Regent Street (1825) 
(lately demolished). 

Sir Charles Barry (1795- 1860) 
travelled extensively in Egypt, 
Greece, and Italy. He abandoned 
the fashion of useless porticos, 
and brought in the " astylar " 
treatment of design. The Travel- 
lers' Club, Pall Mall, shows the 
influence of the Pandolfini Palace, 
Florence, and was followed by the 
Reform Club, Pall Mall, a design 
inspired by the Farnese Palace, 
Rome. In Bridge water House, the 


Augustus Wei by Northmore 
Pugin (18 1 2- 18 52), from being 
employed upon his father's books 
of mediaeval architecture, acquired 
an extraordinary knowledge of the 
style. He published a rousing 
pamphlet contrasting the "de- 
graded " architecture of the day 
with what he called the *' Chris- 
tian " style. A new spirit of 
church building was awakened, 
and, by the earnest study of old 
work, a new era in the Gothic 
revival began. Pugin erected more 
than sixtv-five churches in the 
United Kingdom, and many in 
the colonies, besides convents, 
monasteries, mansions and schools, 
and made a vast number of designs 
in collaboration with or as assistant 
to others. He had not yet arrived 
at the meridian of his power when 
he died at the age of forty. 

In the Gothic revival Pugin 
sought to restore the fervour of 
faith and the self-denying spirit 
which were the real foundations of 
the artistic greatness and moral 
grandeur of the Middle Ages. 

Amongst the numerous works 
which he erected, only the few 
following typical examples can 
be mentioned : — Roman Catholic 
churches at Nottingham, Derby, 
and elsewhere ; S. George's Cathe- 
dral, Southwark, and S. Augus- 
tine's, Ramsgate, 1855. He worked 
under Sir Charles Barry on the 
stained glass, metal work, fittings, 
and ornamental work generally of 
the Houses of Parliament. 

Sir Charles Barry : Birmingham 
Grammar School, 1833 ; Houses 
of Parliament, commenced 1840 
(No. 263), in which symmetry of 
the leading lines on plan, simplicity 
of idea, and richness of character 
pervade the whole design, which is 
Classic in inspiration, Gothic in 
clothing, and carried out with 
scrupulous adherence to the spirit 
and detail of the Perpendicular 
period. • 




third of the series (1849), the in- 
fluence of the Gothic revival is 
evidently felt, greater richness is 
sought after, and the Italian feeling 
is less strong. His final work, the 
Town Hall at Halifax, is a still 
more ornate example of the Re- 
naissance, the intention being to 
combine picturesqueness with sym- 
metrical stateliness. Other impor- 
tant works in the country are : 
Trentham Hall (where landscape 
gardening of the Italian School is 
admirably carried out), Shrublands, 
Highclere, and Cliefden. 

Sir James Pennethome (1801- 
1871), assistant to Nash, and 
influenced by Barry, discarded 
porticos as unnecessary, and fol- 
lowed on Renaissance rather than 
Classic lines : Geological Museum, 
Piccadilly (after courtyard of the 
Doge's Palace, Venice); the Civil 
Service Commission, Burlington 
Gardens ; Somerset House, western 
wing (a.d. 1857); Record Office, 
Fetter Lane. Orders were sparingly 
used, and detail is refined. 


Pugin, under Sir Charles Barry, 
directed the execution of the fittings, 
agreeing with the style of the build- 
ing, and in marked contrast to the 
previous buildings of the Revival. 

The immediate effect of the 
design of this great building was 
slight. It was the climax of the 
first idea of the movement — that 
of carrying on the Tudor style — so 
that, at the time of its completion, 
in i860, the attention of all was 
riveted on the earlier phases of 
mediaeval architecture which every- 
one was engaged in imitating. 

The end of the period of Sir 
Charles Barry marks the close of the 
Classic Revival. The influence ot 
the Gothicists was now paramount, 
and the final touch to this influence 
was given by the 1851 Exhibition, 
which in the end has done so much 
to raise the arts and crafts to a 
higher state of perfection. 

Comprises the latter part of the reign of Victoria (1851-1901). 

The Great Exhibition of 1851 caused the raising into 
prominence of the minor arts, such as metal work, glass painting, 
mosaics, decoration, and sculptured works, and formed a starting 
point for the arts of the Victorian age. The popularization of 
architecture by the architectural courts and models of buildings 
in the various styles aroused an interest in the subject. The publi- 
cation of "The Seven Lamps of Architecture" and "The Stones 
of Venice," by Ruskin, in 1851, and the works of Beresford-Hope, 
Parker, Prof. Willis, Sharpe, Whewell, Rev. J. L. Petit, Brandon, 
and others, helped on the Gothic movement, while Prof. Cockerell 
and Prof. Donaldson were writing on the Classic side. 

The foundation of the South Kensington (now Victoria and 
Albert) Museum carried further the influence of the 1851 
Exhibition, by its illustration of ancient decorative art, and by 
the atelier which was there maintained for some years. 

The restoration of a large number of cathedrals and churches, 
and the erection of many new churches, had powerfully aided 


Q Q 




the Gothic revival, which it was attempted to extend to building 
for every purpose ; until the movement met with a severe check 
in the decision, acquiesced in by Sir Gilbert Scott, to erect the 
Home and Foreign Offices (i 860-1 870) in the Classic, or as it 
was called, the modern style. The design thus dictated to Scott 
was not likely to be a masterpiece, and it is in fact but a poor 
compromise between modern French and the traditional Italian 
ideas of the Renaissance. After this crisis a new movement, due 
to Norman Shaw, Nesfield, and Philip Webb, then arose in 
favour of the Queen Anne style, or Free Classic, for domestic 
buildings, while churches and kindred buildings continued to he 
erected in a developed style of Gothic architecture. 

The work of Shaw, Nesfield, and Webb influenced the design 
of smaller buildings in suburbs and country. 


E. Af. Barry ( 1 83 1 - 1 880) : Coven t 
Garden Theatre ; The Art Union 
Building, Strand ; Charing Cross 
Station. He endeavoured to intro- 
duce the Early French Renaissance, 
as in the Temple Chambers, Victoria 
Embankment, London. 

Nelson : Junior United Service 

F. P. Cockerell: The Free- 
masons' Tavern. 

Sir Gilbert Scott (1810-1877) : 
The Foreign Office. 

Sir Digby Wyatt (1820- 1877) : 
Courtyard to India Office. 

Afcssrs. Banks and Barry ; Dul- 
wich College ; Burlington House 
(the Courtyard and facade to 

Sydney Smirke : The story added 
to Burlington House ; British Mu- 
seum reading-room ; Carlton Club, 
Pall Mall, after the library of S. 
Mark, Venice. 

Lewis Vulliamy : Dorchester 
House, London, after a Roman 
Renaissance palace, has unique 
decorative work inside by Alfred 

John Gibson : National Pro- 
vincial Banks in London and the 
provinces, in which the Classic 
orders embracing two stories are 
freely introduced ; the Society for 
the Promotion of Christian Know- 
ledge, in Northumberland Avenue, 


Sir Gilbert Scott (1810-1877): 
Camberwell Church ; S. Mary, 
Stoke Newington ; the Martyrs' 
Memorial, Oxford ; church at 
Haley Hill, Halifax (1855) ; church 
at Hamburg ; S. George, Don- 
caster (1853) ; S. Mary's Cathe- 
dral, Edinburgh ; S. Mary Abbott, 
Kensington ; the Albert Memorial ; 
S. Pancras Station ; buildings in 
Broad Sanctuary, Westminster ; 
many other new churches, houses, 
and restorations. 

Owen Jones: S. James's Hall, a 
modern version of Venetian Gothic. 

Benjamin Ferrey : S. Stephen, 

William Butierficld: Keble 
College, Oxford ; All Saints, 
Margaret Street, London ; and 
S. Alban, Holborn, all of which 
show the increasing desire for and 
study of color. 

G. E. Street (1824-1881) : S. 
Mary Magdalene, Paddington ; S. 
James the Less, Westminster, 1861 ; 
the Law Courts, London ; house 
in Cadogan Square ; the Convent, 
East Grinstead ; house and church 
at Holmwood, and elsewhere. 

IV. B urges ( 1 828-1 881) : Cork 
Cathedral (1870) ; restored Cardift 
Castle, and built his own house in 
Melbury Road, London ; the Speech 
Room, Harrow School. 

A*. Brandon : Catholic and 




London, since altered ; Todmorden 
Town Hall. 

Sir Horace Jones ; The Smith - 
field Market and Guildhall School 
of Music. 

Capt. Fowke and Assistants: 
The Science College, South Ken- 
sington, and the Albert Hall. 

Cross/and: Hollo way College, 
Egham (after Chateau de Cham- 

Whichcord: S. Stephen's Club ; 
National Safe Deposit, London. 

Davis and Emmanuel : City of 
London Schools. 

Burns: Buccleuch House, White- 

Alexander Thomson, of Glasgow, 
known as " Greek Thomson " : 
several buildings at Glasgow with a 
peculiar severe treatment of modern 
Greek which had much influence. 

H. Currey : S. Thomas's Hos- 

Bodley and Garner : London 
School Board Offices, Thames 
Embankment. The student con- 
fined to London may obtain an 
idea of the early French Renais- 
sance style by an inspection ot 
this building. 

H. Griddle: The Oratory at 
Brompton, west front and dome 
added later. (The Italian style a 
condition of the competition.) 

W. Young: Glasgow Municipal 
Buildings, in the Palladian manner; 
Gosford Park; War Office, White- 

Learning Brothers: Admiralty 
Buildings, Whitehall. (The result 
of an open competition which 
practically sounded the death knell 
of Gothic architecture for public 

R. Norman Shaw : New Zea- 
land Chambers, Leaden hall Street, 
London ; country houses, as 
44 Wispers "; Lowther Lodge, Ken- 
sington, and houses at Bedford 
Park, Chiswick ; Alliance Assur- 
ance Office, Pall Mall ; houses at 
(Queen's Gate, London ; house near 


Apostolic Church, Gordon Square, 
London, 1859. 

E. W. Godwin : Congleton 
Town Hall, Bristol Assize Courts, 
and Northampton Town Hall, 
since altered. 

A. Waterhouse : Manchester 
Town Hall and Assize Courts ; 
Natural History Museum, 1879 ; 
Prudential Assurance Offices, Hol- 
born ; Eaton Hall, Cheshire ; City 
Guilds of London Institute, South 

Deane and Woodward: The 
Oxford Museum, directly the out- 
come of Ruskin's teaching. 

Philip Webb: "Clouds." Hamp- 
shire ; Lord Carlisle's house, Ken- 
sington ; offices at Lincoln's Inn 

W. E. Nesfield : Lodges at Kew 
and Regent's Park, and many 

y. L. Pearson, P. A.: Truro 
Cathedral. His eight London 
churches : 

(1) Holy Trinity, Bessborough 

Gardens (1850). 

(2) S. Anne, Lower Kennington 


(3) S. Augustine, Kilburn. 

(4) S. John, Red Lion Square. 

(5) S. Michael, West Croydon. 

(6) S. John, Upper Norwood. 

(7) Catholic Apostolic Church, 

Maida Hill. 

(8) S. Peter, Vauxhall. 

Chiswick Parish Church (addi- 
tions) ; S. John, Redhill ; S. Alban, 

Astor Estate Offices, Thames 

James Brooks: Churches in Hol- 
land Road, Kensington, Gospel Oak, 
and many others round London. 

G oldie : S. James, Spanish 
Place, London. 

6\ G. Scott: S. A^nes, Ken- 
ningion ; churches at Southwark 
and Norwich ; the Greek Church, 
Moscow Road, London ; S. Mark, 
Leamington, 1879 J additions to 
Pembroke College, Cambridge. 





Salisbury, in the Wren style ; 

Craigside," *' Dawpool," and " Bry- 
an ston/' near Salisbury ; houses 
at Hampstead ; Harrow Mission 
Church, Wormwood Scrubs ; New 
Scotland Yard (Anglo-Classic). 

T. G. Jackson: Work at Oxford ; 
the Examination Schools and 
additions to colleges in revived 

Ernest George and Peto (Influ- 
ence of Flemish Renaissance) : 
Works at Collingham Gardens and 
Cadogan Square, London ; houses 
at Streatham Common ; Buchan 
Hill, Sussex, and others. 

H. L. Florence: Hotel Victoria, 
Holborn Viaduct Hotel and Station; 
Woolland's premises, Knights- 

E. R. Robson and J. J. 'Steven- 
son : Work for London School 
Board ; London typical style in 
red brick dressings and yellow 

E. R. Robson: Institute of Water 
Colors, Piccadilly; the New Gallery; 
the People's Palace, London. 

R. W, Edis : Constitutional, 
Junior Constitutional, and Badmin- 
ton Clubs, London. 

T. E. Colcutt : Imperial Insti- 
tute ; City Bank, London ; Palace 
Theatre; Lloyd's Registry Office, 

E. W. Mountford: Sheffield 
Town Hall; Battersea Town Hall; 
Battersea Polytechnic ; Liverpool 
Technical Schools and Art 
Galleries ; Central Criminal Court, 
Old Bailey, London. 

/. A/. Brydon : Chelsea Town 
Hall and Polytechnic ; Bath 
Municipal Buildings, Art Gallery 
and Pump Room ; Government 
Offices, Westminster. 

/. Belcher: Institute of Chartered 
Accountants ; Colchester Town 
Hall ; Eastern Telegraph Co. 
Offices, Finsbury Circus, Electra 
House, Moorgate St., London (a 
monumental example of street archi- 
tecture), and several large houses. 


Basil Champneys: Girton and 
Newnham Colleges, Cambridge ; 
Indian Institute and Mansfield 
College, Oxford ; S. Bride's Vicar- 
age, London ; Ry lands' Library, 

Bodley and Garner: Church at 
Hoar Cross, Staffordshire ; Clum- 
ber Church ; churches at Hack- 
ney Wick, Castle Allerton, Leeds, 
Folkestone, and elsewhere. 

John F. Bentley : New Cathedral, 
Westminster; the Church of the 
Holy Rood, Watford ; S. Lukes 
Church, Chiddingstone Causeway ; 
S. Thomas's Seminary, Hammer- 
smith ; S. John, Hammersmith ; 
S. John, Brentford ; S. Mary, Clap- 
ham, and many others. 

Sir Arthur Blomfield: S. Mary, 
Portsea, and many other churches ; 
Sion College, Thames Embank- 
ment; the Church House, West- 
minster ; All Saints, Brighton 
(also see " Greek Architecture, ' 
page 56). 

Paley and Austin : Stockport 
and other churches in Lanca- 

Douglas and For dham: Churches 
and domestic half-timber work, in 
Chester and elsewhere. 

/. D. Sedding ( 1 837-1 892) : Holy 
Trinity Church, Chelsea (1890), 
marks the raising of the arts and 
crafts into their proper importance ; 
the Church of the Holy Redeemer, 
Clerkenwell (a new version of the 
Wren style) ; S. Clement, Bourne- 
mouth, and domestic work 
adjacent ,* Children's Hospital, 
Finsbury, London, and in conjunc- 
tion with H. W. Wilson, S. Peter, 

Sir Aston IV ebb and Ingress Bell: 
Birmingham Assize Courts ; In- 
surance Buildings, Moorgate Street, 
London ; Christ's Hospital, Hor- 
sham, Sussex. 

Sir Aston Webb: Metropolitan 
Life Office, Moorgate Street ; 
French Church, Soho Square, W. 

Ernest Newton : Houses at 




Sir Aston Webb: Victoria and 
Albert Museum (South Kensing- 
ton) ; Naval College, Dartmouth ; 
Victoria Memorial Processional 
Avenue, London. 

H, T. Hare: Oxford Municipal 
Buildings ; Stafford Municipal 
Buildings ; Henley Town Hall ; 
Crewe Town Hall. 

Lanchester, Stewart and 

Richards: Cardiff Town Hall and 
Law Courts. 


Haslemere, Wokingham and else- 

Leonard Stokes: Churches and 
schools at Folkestone, Liverpool, 
and elsewhere. 

W. D. Carbe : Churches at 
Exeter, Fordington,and elsewhere ; 
Episcopal Palaces, Bristol and 

G. H. Fellowes Prynne: 
Churches at Staines, Dulwich and 

During the last fifty years the pages of the professional journals 
have contained most of the noteworthy buildings erected, and it 
is a source of much pleasure and instruction to go through these 
records of the developments which have taken place, for they seem 
to show that a style or manner in architecture is being slowly 
worked out, which may, it is hoped, resist all revivals and 
fashions, and become the free expression of our own civilization, 
and the outward symbol of the twentieth century. 

British Colonial Architecture. 

The development of architecture in the great self-governing 
colonies, such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada, has to a 
large extent followed the lead of the mother country, and buildings 
have been and are erected both in the Classic, Gothic and Renais- 
sance styles. As in England, Classic is principally though not 
wholly reserved for secular buildings, and Gothic for ecclesiastical 
buildings, a homely type of design resembling our own Georgian 
style being employed for smaller domestic w r orks of the country- 
house type. Some of the larger works are of importance and are 
an evidence of the political growth of those colonies in which they 
are situate. Among those in the " Classic" school are the MacGill 
University, Montreal, and the Parliament House, Melbourne ; and 
a large number of banks, insurance offices, city halls, and law 
courts. In the " Gothic " school, Melbourne Cathedral, and the 
Parliament House at Ottawa are outstanding examples. The 
Parliament House at Sydney was intended to be rebuilt in this 
style, but the building was not proceeded with further than the 
foundation, the old buildings being still in use. 



'* Built in the old Colonial day, 
When men lived in a grander way, 

With ampler hospitality ; 
A kind of old Hobgoblin Hall, 

Now somewhat fallen to decay, 
With weather stains upon the wall 

And stairways, worn and crazy doors, 

And creaking and uneven floors, 
And chimneys huge, and tiled and tall." — Longfellow. 

The study of the progress of architecture in a new country, 
untrammelled with precedent and lacking the conditions obtaining 
in Europe, is interesting ; but room is not available for more 
than a cursory glance. 

During the eighteenth century (i 725-1 775) buildings were 
erected which have been termed "colonial" in style, corresponding 
to what is understood in England as * * Queen Anne " or ' * Georgian " 
(page 578). 

In the " New England" States wood was the material principally 
employed, and largely affected the detail. Craigie House, Cambridge 
(1757), is typical of the symmetrical buildings. It has elongated 
Ionic half-columns to its facade, shuttered sash windows, the 
hipped roof and the dentil cornice of the " Queen Anne " period ; 
the internal fittings resembling those of Adam and Sheraton. 

The early buildings were mainly churches or " meeting houses," 
erected after the manner of Sir Christopher Wren. S. Michael 
at Charlestown (1752) (the probable architect being Gibbs, the 
designer of the Radcliffe Library at Oxford), 5. Paul, New York 
(1767), Christ Church, Philadelphia (1727-1735), were among the 
early churches. 

In Virginia, as at Brandon, Sh