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A HISTORY 



OF THE 



City OF Saint Paul, 



AND OF THE 



COUNTY OF RAMSEY, 



MINNESOTA. 



By J. Fletcher Williams, 

Secretary of the Minnesota Historical Society; Cor. Sec. of the Old 

Settlers Association of Minnesota ; Sec. of the Ramsey 

County Pioneer Association, &c., &c. 



[collections of the MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY: VOL. IV. ] 









SAINT PAUL: *.. ' • '. ; 

Published BY THE Society. '/••••• * '.. » * •^ 

2876. 



• • ••• • • • 

. ■•••.'.*•. ;*. ••: •• 



• » • 



Entered according to A6t of Congress, in the year 1875, by the 

♦•MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY,** 
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C. 



THE 
•W YORK 
PUBLIC UBRARY 



r t 



hiXor, Lenox and Tild«n 

Foundations. 

t896 



» • • 






• • 



lOt^ElUBOC^S CO., 
C:>okrA|n)^,fOB PRINTERS. 

-: — ^-r — ■-'v-: : 



PREFACE. 



This work was prepared at the request and advice of a number of 
friends, who believed that the writer had the material at hand and the 
opportunity to prepare it, better than any one else who was likely to 
undertake it. There seemed, too, a necessitj' for such a work. The 
old pioneers of our city and State were, one by one, passing away, and 
the events of our early history, if not soon gathered and placed on 
permanent record, would be lost. The names even, of those who first 
planted their cabins on the site of our city, were fast becoming lost and 
forgotten ; and their worthy acfts, their labors, their adventures, the 
privations and struggles of frontier life, and other events in the earliest 
days of our city, were rapidly fading from the memory of the little 
group of pioneers who survived. Even what manner of men they 
were, whence they came, their personal history, particulars which will 
interest those who come after us more, perhaps, than they do the pres- 
ent generation, were matters known to so few, and scattered in frag- 
ments among widely distant households, it was almost a sealed book 
to some of the pioneers themselves. 

It needed, therefore, some one who was, by occupation and taste, 
interested in such a work to perform it — since it was certain to be both 
laborious and unremunerative — some one who would hunt up from the 
various sources the lost and forgotten threads which, little by little, 
might be woven into the record of the founding and early days of our 
goodly city. It was this work that, in a rash moment, I was induced 
to undertake, little foreseeing into what a labyrinth of troubles I was 
about to plunge. (At first, however, I should say, only a jf>ampklet 
was projected.) 

It is now fully ten years since I began collecting material and data 
for these chronicles — and it was fortunate that I began the work then. 
I secured, in writing, the minute statements of some of the earliest pio- 
neers of our city, who have since gone to their reward, and which, if 
not recorded by me then, would probably have been lost. Among 



4 Preface. 

these were (tUerin, Pierre Gervais, Bbaumbtte, Simpson, Harts* 
HORN, Robert, Forbes, Hoyt, J. R. Brown, and others, all of whom 
were among the earliest residents here, and took a prominent part in 
the pre-territorial period of our history. Coming to Saint Paul at 
quite an early day myself, it was my good fortune to be well acquainted 
with nearly all the early settlers — scores of them since deceased — and, 
being in an occupation which enabled me to do so, was accustomed to 
secure from them and write up for publicatiott, little sketches, histori- 
cal and biographical, about the early days and early men of Saint Paul. 
Thus I colle<5led and preserved from loss, a considerable amount of 
materials for history, and became generally familiar with the subject. 

I have since visited and secured the minute statement of every living 
pioneer of our city, (besides the deceased ones mentioned,) whose ad- 
dress I could ascertain, if within any accessible distance — and also the 
families of many who died before I began the work — securing also the 
statements, in writing, of those I was not able to visit. To do this 
has required not a little travel — sometimes journeys of considerable 
length and expense. But I am repaid by the satisfa(5tion of know- 
ing that I left no known source unexplored, that would throw light on 
my subjeciit, or develop material. A large number of letters were writ- 
ten also, and' circulars sent out, asking information, and I conversed 
widely with our old settlers, from time to time, on various points. 
These fa<5ts are not mentioned in a boastful way, but simply to enable 
the reader to judge whether the author has performed the task under- 
taken with the thoroughness and fidelity which was requisite — or, 
rather, has endeavored to do so. 

That the work is corre<5l in every particular, he does not claim. 
Among so many hundred names, dates and statements of fa<5ts, it would 
be a miracle if errors are not found. Of the imperfe<5lions of the work 
no one is more sensible than the writer — ^yet, in view of the many dif- 
ficulties Vhich surrounded him, he is entitled to the leniency of critics. 
The task of one who writes a local history during the lifetime of the 
a($tors, is an unenviable one. He must depend for many fa<5ls upon the 
memory of those a<5tors or their friends, no two of tViem, perhaps, 
agreeing on the same statement, or in the exa<5l amount of prominence 
due to each. Where these oral statements are the only sources of in- 
formation, any one can realize the troubles that environ a writer who 
endeavors, with impartiality and candor, to build a faultless structure 
on such shifting quicksands ! 

To the earliest years of our history, the pre-territorial period, and 
up to the organization of the city, the most space and minuteness was 
given. But the events of those years were so imperfe<5lly recorded, if 
recorded at all, as to be inaccessible to the great mass of our present 
citizens, and almost forgotten by the old pioneers themselves. The 
living witnesses were fast disappearing, and what they knew and could 



Preface. c 

remember of that period must be first cared for. After * 1854, there 
were several daily papers, directories, and other means of recording 
history and its a<5tors, which did not exist before. It was the earliest 
pioneers and oldest %ttWt.r% who most needed the biographer and his- 
torian. Those of a later day are amply cared for in other ways. 
Hence, when the work was about half printed, finding that it threat- 
ened to largely overrun its intended size and cost, the later years were 
of necessity condensed to a simple record of important fa(5ts. Some 
200 pages of manuscript, prepared with considerable labor and cost, 
were thus cut out — ^among other things, the entire census roll of the 
men of 1857. 

It was my intention to have given many more portraits and biogra- 
phies of pioneers of our city, and of men who have been prominent in 
public or professional life, &c.^-one hundred, at least, were hoped for, 
but there were difficulties that prevented it. The publication, not long 
ago, of a ** Historical Atlas," almost destroyed the desirableness of 
this feature, and quite recently the city has been flooded with the cir- 
culars of publishers from abroad, proposing to issue more works of 
that kind. In the face of such schemes, any legitimate work, purely 
in the interest of history, and not for profit, has but little chance of 
success, and I was compelled to forego much of what I had hoped to 
secure. Some, doubtless, supposed this work was also designed as a 
speculation. This does me injustice. It was proje<5led and completed 
solely from a taste for historical research, a feeling of pride in the sub- 
ject, and an endeavor to honor the memory of our pioneers and pioneer 
days, and without the slightest desire of profit. As an evidence of this, 
it will be observed that the copyright, even, has been given to one of 
our deserving institutions, so that not a penny of the receipts can 
enure to the writer. But if the labor and outlay incurred by him 
has in any 8atisfa<5tory degree accomplished what was intended — if this 
work shall prove of any value or interest to those for whose pleasure 
and information it was written — then he will feel amply repaid for both. 

Were I to mention those who have kindly aided me in my researches, 
and furnished information and other aid, it would embrace almost the 
entire roll of our old settlers. To one and all, I return my grateful 
thanks, regretting only that I have so imperfectly performed the task 
they coitfided to me. 

J. F. W. 

Saint Paul, January 6, 1876. 



Contents. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. PAGES. 

1. The Pre-Historic period 9- 17 

2. The Discovery of the Northwest 18- 25 

3. Jonathan Carver and his E^xplorations 26- 37 

4. The First Settlement of Minnesota 38- 56 

5. The Treaties of 1837 57-^3 

6. The First Settlement of Saint Paul 64-76 

7. Events of the year 1839 77" 9^ 

8. Events of the years 1840 and 1841 99"^ ^^ 

9. Events of the year 1842 117-^25 

10. Events of the year 1843 126-13^ 

11. Events of the year 1844 140-148 

12. Events of the year 1845 '. 149-152 

13. Events of the year 1846 153-163 

14. Events of the year 1847 164-176 

15. Events of the year 1848 177-202 

16. Events of the year 1849 203-222 

17. Events of the year 1849, continued 223-246 

18. Events of the year 1850 247-264 

19. Events of the year. 1850, continued 265-283 

20. Events of the year 1851 284-308 

21. Events of the year 1851, continued 309-320 

22. Events of the year 1852 321-332 

23. Events of the year 1853 333-347 

24. Events of the year 1854 348-355 

25. Events of the year 1855 356-361 

26. Events of the year 1856 362-368 

27. Events of the year 1857 369-378 

28. Events of the year 1857, continued 379-383 

29. Events of the year 1858 384-387 

30. Events of the year 1859 ■ 388-391 

31. Events of the year i860 392-397 

32. Events of the year 1861 to 1865 398-4^9 

33. Events of the year 1865 to 1870. 420-439 

34. Events of the year 1871 to 1875 44^-454 

35. A Quarter Century's Retrosped 455-458 

Appendix 459-465 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PORTRAITS. 



Hon. Alex. Ramsey (on steel) opposite title page. 

Capt. Jonathan Carver page 27 

Joseph R. Brown opp. " 40 

Norman W. Kittson ** 48 

Gen. Henry H. Sibley (on steel) opp. " 50 

Vetal Guerin ** 97 

Rev. Lucian Galtier opp. " 112 

Very Rev. A. Ravoux ** 1 13 

John R. Irvine '* 127 

Capt. Louis Robert ** 141 

Capt. Russell Blakeley ** 175 

Nathan Myrick ** 195 

Rev. E. D. Neill ** 213 

Hon. A. Goodrich ••••.. ** 220 

Gen. R. W. Johnson ,. •* 226 

Ex-Gov. W. R. Marshall ** 239 

Dr. David Day '* 243 

Hon. Geo. L. Becker *' 251 

"Old Bets" " 253 

Hon. Edmund Rice ** 255 

Hole-in-the-Day * ** 261 

Little Crow : " 276 

Bartlett Presley ** 294 

J. C. Burbank ** 299 

Bishop Joseph Cretin *' 311 

Col. Alex. Wilkin " 315 

Judge R. R. Nelson ** 345 

Col. E. S. Goodrich ** 351 

Dr. J. H. Stewart " 361 

Rev. John Mattocks " 367 

John W. McClung " 373 



8 



Illustrations . 



D. W. Ingersoll page 395 

Capt. Wm. H. Acker ** 397 

Gen. John B. Sanborn (on steel) opp. ** 398 

Hon. E. F. Drake *' 405 

L. E. Reed " 41 1 

Hon. James Smith, Jr " 422 

Edward Zimmerman ** 425 

Hon. Geo. L. Otis , " 429 

Ex-Gov. C. K.Davis ** 431 

Hon. C. D. Gilfillan " 436 



VIEWS. 



Chapel of Saint Paul page 112 

280 

281 
292 

339 
365 
436 
446 

451 



Court House 

Old Jail 

Corner of Third and Robert streets (1851) 

Old Capitol 

International Hotel 

McQuillan Block 

Custom House 

First Baptist Church 



ERRATA 



Page 282, 9th line, for ** Tremont," read '* Fremont." 
Page 390, for '* Henry J. Howe," read *' Henry J. Horn. 



j4l^T0F{Y Of ^AIJsIT pAUL, 



AND RAMSEY COUNTY. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD. 

In which is mors Romance than History — ^The Creation of the World — 
Geological Changes — How Saint Paul looked a million years ago — The 
Mound Builders and their works — Original and aboriginal ideas — Im- 

• 

iN-i-jA Ska — ^The Red Man — ^The scenery of the Indian Period — Past and 
Present. • 

THE changes which the settlement of the Northwest by the 
whites have wrought in this region, are truly wonderful, 
even in a country that has shown so many instances of remark- 
able progress as America. Many a reader of these pages, yet 
^ on the sunny side of forty, can remember when the great valley 
of the Upper Mississippi was known only to a few adventurous 
traders and explorers. On the school-boy's map over which he 
pored in his far eastern home, not over thii-ty years ago, it was 
put down as an ''unknown region, inhabited by Indians and 
buffaloes !"* Fort Snelling and the Falls of Saint Anthony 
may have possibly been indicated, or the outlines of '' Carver's 
Claim," but beyond this all was vague and uncertain. Indeed, 
as late as 1849, when the Territory of Minnesota was organized, 
and the bill creating it located its capital at " Saint Paul," 

• 

♦The ** National Geography," published in 1845, and widely used in schools at that 
period, in describing this section of the country, says : **A large portion of this region 
is unknoTutiy and occupied by Chippewas, Menominees and other Indians. Wild rice, 
growing in the marshes, furnishes a considerable' portion of their food. The soil is 
fine, and there are rich mines of iron, lead and copper." 
2 






lO The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

people examined their maps for it in vain. It was vaguely 
supposed to be " somewhere near Saini Anthony's Falls," and 
that was all the light that geographers or newspaper writers of 
that day were able to throw upon its location. 

The record of these wonderful changes — which have trans- 
lormed this wilderness of yesterday, comparatively, into a 
garden of fruitful fields and busy cities. With railroads and fac- 
tories, and churches and colleges — which have built up a pros- 
perous empire, populous with civilized and educated people, 
where were only the few wandering bands of a pagan and 
savage race before — seems more like a tale of enchantment 
than a sober history. The scenes shift so rapidly, the phan- 
tasmagoria almost bewilder us. Literally — 

With smoking axles hot with speed, with steeds of fire and steam, 
Wide-waked To-daj leaves Yesterday behind it like a dream ; 
So from the hurrying trains of life, fly backward far and fast. 
The mile-stones of our fathers, the landmarks of the past. 
And in the tales our fathers told, the songs our mothers sung, 
Tradition, snowy-bearded, leans, on Romance, ever young. 

PAST AND PRESENT. 

Nor is this remarkable, for it is within the memory of men 
still young, when most of the site of Saint Paul was a tangled 
jungle — a morass — a wilderness of trees and bushes, and rocks, 
and long swamp grass and reeds — a spot almost inaccessible 
except for muskrats and aquatic fowl. As late as 1855, or pos- 
sibly a more recent date, wild ducks were shot by the Indians 
on marshes where now stand some of our most durable blocks 
of warehouses. Where the muskrat built his queer " house," 
or the fox burrowed in the rocks, and wild fowl bred undis- 
turbed in the tangled reeds of the slough, or the dense jungle, 
are now the homes of 40,cxx) people, many of them built in 
the highest style of elegance, and furnished with every appli- 
ance of comfort that human ingenuity and taste can devise, or 
wealth procure. Where the " medicine man" performed his 
barbarous incantations, now is reared the walls of colleges and 
schools in which a science more profound is taught, and the 
best learning of the age. And where the rude worship of the 
Wakan was performed, with its mystic rites and ceremonies, 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 1 1 

now rise stately temples dedicated to the true God, in which 
tfie mild religion of the Prince of Peace is taught to the peo- 
ple who have supplanted the pagans of that day. In a word, 
upon the spot so recently wrested from the savage that the 
smoke of his lodge-fire almost yet lingers in the vale, has 
arisen, like the palace of Aladdin, the work of enchantment, 
a great, opulent, prosperous, populous cit^', with its wharves, 
shipping, railroads, factories, granaries and business ware- 
houses, schools and churches, and all the institutions of the 
highest civilization of the age. 

It is our task to chronicle these wonderful changes. 

In writing our history, perhaps we may as well begin at 

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD ! 

But here ensues a difficulty at the very outset, for while a 
historian should always be very particular and accurate as to 
dates, there is considerable disagreement among writers as to 
the date of that event. Moses' chronology would place it at 
about 6000 years ago, while recent French savans are confident 
of the great antiquity of the globe, and assert its age anywhere 
from half a million to several million years. It is evident, then, 
that Saint Paul is a place of great antiquity ! 

Originally, say those savans, the ^lobe was a mass of molten 
granite. The cooling process was beyond doubt a slow one, 
and the crust just under our feet did not become hard enough 
and cool enough to rest any superstructure on, for perhaps 
many thousands of years. Perchance ages passed while it was 
a rough, ragged, repulsive mass of granite — the skeleton of 
the future earth. Abrasion and erosion ground the surfaces of 
the mass into powder. Oceans swept over it. Chemical 
changes operated on it. Next our sand rock, or thb saccharoid 
sandstone was laid up. This singular formation underlies the 
whole limestone of the Upper Mississippi valley, from Saint- 
Peter to Rock Island. Then came the Magnesian Limestone, 
of which our bluffs are composed.* Here fossil life begins. 

* In the valuable work of Owen, [" Geological Survey of Iowa, Wisconsin and Min- 
nesota,"] is given an examination of the formation at and near Saint Paul. He says : 
"At Fort Snelling the sandstone is one hundred and fourteen feet thick ; it is here of 



1 2 The History of the City of ^aint Paul^ 

The Reptilian age came on. The Icthyosaurus, the Ptero- 
dactyl, the Iguanodon and Plesiosaurus, and other huge mon- 
sters wallowed and splashed in the muddy water, which in 
time hardened into splendid building stone, worth $1.25 per 
cord. Then came on the "Glacial Period." The edges of 
the limestone strata along Dayton's Bluff and West Saint Paul, 
are ground smooth and polished by the sliding of the icebergs, 
on their way down from the north. The Mississippi of that 
day could not have been the stream of the present time. Then 
it must have flowed from bluff to blufl'. Baptist Hill, a huge 
pile of rocks and boulders, and gravel and sand, was evidently 
deposited, like a great sand-bar, by a whirl or eddy of the wild 
waters and icebergs. Perhaps the stream wore its way through 
the limestone rock for many miles, since the Falls of Saint 

a pure white color, composed of loosely cemented grains of quartz. Above this we 

have 33 feet of fossiliferous limestone, with numerous org^anic remains, similar to those 

at the Falls of Saint Anthony. The fossils of the upper beds are mostly casts, but the 

moulds often show the structure of the original surface. Many of the fossils have a 

coating of sulphuret of iron, which gives a bright metallic appearance. 

'• The best section of these rocks that we have observed in Minnesota is at a bluff half 

a mile below Fort Snelling. The section here is as follows : 

Feet. 

I . White sandstone, without fossils, in thick beds 93 

3. Soft argillaceous marlite of a blue color, in which no fossils were discovered . . 5 

3. Ash-colored limestone, clouded with blue, full of fossils. These layers effer- 

vesce freely with acids, and contain nearly 65 per cent, of carbonate of lime. 
They will probably afford the best rock for burning into lime of any of the 

beds in the neighborhood. Thickness 15 

[The composition of this rock is as follows : 

Carbonate of lime 64.85 

Carbonate of magnesia i3-7S 

Insoluble matter 1340 

Alumina, oxide of iron. and manganese . . . .' 7.50 

Water 1.35 

Loss 0.35 

loo.ooj 

4. Ash-colored/argillaceous, hydraulic limestone, in thin layers, sometimes with 

a conchoidal fracture. It effervesces slightly with acids, and disintegrates 
rapidly when exposed to the weather g 

5. Grayish, buff-colored, highly magnesian limestone, with numerous casts of 

fossils, &c. 

"About half a mile above Saint Paul, near the entrance of a small cave, the sand- 
stone has an elevation of only 14 feet above the river level, and on it rests 1 1 feet of 
shell limestone. 

"At Saint Paul, the strata again rise. Here the cliffs are from 70 to 80 feet high, of 
which the lower 65 feet consists of white sandstone, the remainder being shell lime- 
stone. About one mile below this point the hills recede from the river." 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 13 

• 

Anthony have receded several hundred yards even since the 
white man settled here. But the Glacial Period passed. Its 
duration cannot be estimated. Vegetation appeared. . The 
earth rejoiced in scenes of beauty. Mammals came. Man — 
rude and uncouth, the cotemporary of the mammoth and cave 
bear — appears on the scene. The Age of Flint, then of Bronze, 
the Era of the Mound Builder, and the Red Man succeeded — 
each an indefinite period — terminated by the advent of the 
white explorer. From this on, the milestones of history are 
plainly visible. 

THE MOUND BUILDERS. 

The first human inhabitants (unless Darwin's theory be true) 
who occupied this spot, were of that mysterious race known 
as the " Mound Builders." Who and what they were, whence 
they came, their history and ultimate fate, are wrapped in an 
impenetrable mystery, that will perhaps always baffle the most 
industrious scrutiny of antiquarians. Many plausible theories 
concerning them have been advocated by writers. It is gen- 
erally agreed that they were a simple and somewhat ingenious 
race, who subsisted partly by cultivating the earth and partly 
by the chase, and were more civilized than tlie Red Race who 
subsequently occupied this region. By what means they dis- 
appeared — whether by war, or famine, or disease, or partly by 
all those causes — will never be known, but it is beyond doubt 
that they disappeared centuries ago. , 

The only memorials of their existence that have survived are 
the mounds that lie ^scattered about, generally (and erroneously) 
called Indian Mounds, though the Indians deny that their 
race erected them, asserting, "our fathers found them here 
when they first possessed the land." ,A number of these mounds 
have been found on the site of Saint Paul, mostly on Dayton's 
Blufi". Several of them are very large, showing that the Mound 
Builders must have lived for some time on this spot, and in 
considerable numbers. The mounds in this city are evidently 
of great age. Several of them have been excavated at times 
by antiquarians, and human remains, beads, pottery, and other 
relics of the pre-historic races discovered. Occasionally the 



14 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

stone axes, chisels, arrow-heads, and other implements of the 
aboriginal dwellers here are found in the soil of our city. They 
are curious remains of this race.* 

The object of these mounds has never been satisfactorily 
explained. Some regard them as memorials, others as sepul- 
chral, and some as religious or sacrificial altars. Whatever 
they are, they possess absorbing interest, and carry back the 
' imagination to the period of the lost race who built them, and 
to the time when they dwelt on the very spot occupied by our 
own hearth-stones. As a recent writer has aptly said : 

*' Lonely, storm-beaten and freshet- torn, they stand nameless and 
without a history in this generation — silent, yet convincing illustra- 
tions of the ephemeral character of the nomadic races which for cen- 
turies peopled this entire region, and, departing, left behind them 
neither letters nor monuments of art^nothing, save these rude earth- 
mounds, and occasional relics, to give assurance of their former 
existence. 

** In the twilight of what by-gone and unrecorded century were these 
tumuli built? Whence came, and who the peoples that lifted them 
from out the bosom of our common mother ? Served they as friendly 
refuge in seasons of freshet and of storm ? Were sacred fires ever kin- 
dled upon your summits ? Within your hidden depths do the brave and 
honored of your generation sleep that sleep which knows no waking 
until the final trump shall summon alike the civilized and the savage 
to the last award ? Or are ye simple watch-towers, deserted of your 
sentinels — forts, abandoned of your defenders ? We question, but there 
are no voices of the past in the ambient air. We search among these 
tombs, but they bear no epitaphs. We gaze upon these monuments, 
but they are inscriptionless." 

William Cullen Bryant's beautiful poem, '' The Prairie," 
refers thus to the Mound Builders : 

** Are they here — 
The dead of other days .'* And did the dust 
Of these fair solitudes once stir with life. 
And burn with passion .•* Let the mighty mounds 
That overlook the rivers, or that rise 
In the dim forest, crowned with tall oaks. 
Answer. 



* One of the handsomest stone axes ever found in the Northwest was picked up by 
EuGENio A. Johnson, C. E., in the ravine near the City Hospital, and presented by 
him to the Historical Society. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 15 

** A race that long has passed away 
Built them ! A disciplined and populous race, 
Heaped, with long toil, the earth, while yet the Greek 
Was hewing the Pentelicus to forms 
Of symmetry, and rearing on its rock, 
The glittering Parthenon. These ample fields 
Nourished their harvests. Here their herds were fed. 
When haply by their styles the bison lowed. 
And bow'd his maned shoulder to the yoke. 
All day this desert murmured with their toils, 
Till twilight blushed, and lovers walked and woo'd 
In a forgotten language, and old tunes 
From instruments of unremembered form, 
Gave the soft winds a voice. 

"The red man came — 
The roaming hunter tribes, warlike and fierce. 
And the Mound Builders vanished from the earth. 
The solitude of centuries untold 
Has settleW where they dwelt. * * * All is gone — 
All, save the piles of earth that hold their bones — 
The platforms where they worshipped unknown gods — 
The barriers which they builded from the soil. 
To keep the foe at bay. * * ♦ 
Thus change the forms of being. Thus arise 
Races of living things, glorious in strength. 
And perish." 

THE ABORIGINAL PERIOD. 

Following the era of the Mound Builders, came the " Abo- 
riginal Period," — erroneously so called — or the period when 
the Red Race, or Indians, were in possession of this region, and 
probably all the continent of America, when it was discovered 
by the Northmen in the eleventh century. The nation which 
occupied this spot, and the region immediately about it, from 
the earliest period concerning which any traditions of the Red 
Man exist, was the Dakota or Sioux, one of the most populous 
of the Indian Nations of North America. There were numer- 
ous villages of that Nation in this vicinity at a very early day, 
and it appears to have been a favorite locality for them, on 
account of natural advantages, and the abundance of game. 
As late as the time of Carver's visit this was the case. The 
towering cliffs, or "bluffs," of white sandstone which overhung 



1 6 The History of the City of Saint PatiU 

the river, formed a prominent landmark for the Indians as they 
paddled up or down in their canoes, and it was known to them 
from time immemorial as Im-in-i-ja Ska^ i. e.. White Rock, 
and to this day is so called in their tongue. 

The scenery, before the hand of the white man marred its 
wild, quiet beauty, must have been picturesque in the extreme. 
Then the bluffs were crowned with majestic trees, and the 
bottom lands above and below and opposite the city, were a 
dense jungle, where the primeval forests* grew in unchecked 
luxuriance. Here the deer, the bear and the buffalo roamed 
freely, disturbed occasionally by the wily Indian, whose skin 
teepee w^s frequently pitched in the bottom-land along the 
margin of the river. Standing on the edge of the high plateau, 
or second table, say where the bridge now starts, the eye would 
then have wandered over a sea of foliage on the bench below, 
through which rolled the calm and placid river, unvexed by 
anything except the " squaw's birch canoe." Civilization had 
not then come with its burning force, changing and marring 
the natural face of creation, but instituting new forms of beauty 
— planting in the solitude a busy, populous city, with its din 
and noise, and smoke and clang of factory and mill, and the 
scream of engine and steamer. 

" Here lived and loved another race of beings." On the 
upper plateau of our city they hunted the deer and bear and 
bison ; speared the muskrat in its marshes, and shot the beaver 
in its streams. The quiet river bore their canoes. Under the 
old centurj^-mossed trees in the glen their group of skin teepees 
stood. Their songs of festivity echoed in the vale ; anon it 
rang with the demon yells of their scalp-dance, or the shrieks 
of a victim tortured to death. The Indian lover wooed his 
dusky sweetheart with a flute serenade, or whispered sweet 
tales of love by moonlight. Anon they joined in death-combat 
with the wily Chippewa, and the soil beneath our feet may 
have once been reddened with the life-blood shed in those fierce 
battles. 



* In 1854, Mr. R. O. Sweeny counted the rings on a large tree that had been cut down 
near the upper levee, and found over six hundred annual rings^ indicating an age of 
over six centuries. Primeval indeed. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 17 

But it is not necessary here to speak at length of the Red 
Race who once occupied this spot. Their history, customs 
and character are too well known and too thoroughly recorded 
to need incorporation into this work. They seem doomed 
to disappear before the settlement of the white man, and, how- 
ever lightly they may be regarded by those who have mingled 
with them on the frontier, there is something sad in the way 
they have been dispossessed of their ancestral heritage by 
the pale-faced intruder. Truthfully are they represented as 
lamenting : 

" They waste us — aye, like April dew, 

In the warm noon we shrink away. 

And fast they follow as we go, 
Towards the setting day, 

Till they shall fill the land, and we 

Are driven into the western sea I" 

At the period of which we write they were at least untainted 
by the vices the white man introduced among them, and what- 
ever natural nobility of character may be claimed for them by 
their eulogists, must have then been displayed. The white 
people, since St. Paul was settled, do not seem to have ad- 
mired them greatly, though many who read this book may 
entertain for them the romantic regard of Longfellow and 
Cooper. 



1 8 The History of the City of Saint PauU 



CHAPTER II. 

THE DISCOVERY OF THE NORTHWEST. 

The Jesuit Missionaries and their Explorations — Marqjjette and Joliet 
VISIT THE Upper Mississippi — La Salle and his Acts — Father Hennepin 

SENT TO THE SlOUX REGION — HiS ADVENTURES AMONG THAT NATION — HE 

Discovers and Names Saint Anthony's Falls — Subsequent Discoveries 
AND Explorations — Cession of this Region to Great Britain. 

THE Northwest was early claimed by the French through 
the right of discovery, and its first explorers were of 
that nation. Religious zealots have ever led the vanguard of 
discovery, and, in accordance with this rule, we find that many 
years before even the traders had dared to traverse the wilds of 
the Northwest, a class of men of that remarkable Order founded 
by Ignatius Loyola — the Jesuits — had explored much of the 
country around the Lakes and the headwaters of the Missis- 
sippi, sent hither to plant the banner of the Cross among the 
aborigines, and win them to its mild religion. Its missiona- 
ries, inspired with a sublime heroism in the cause of Christ, 
visited these wilds, endured incredible toils and privations, 
and, with a fortitude that never faltered, even in the face of 
peril and death, carried the precious words of the Gospel to 
the savages of the wilderness. History records no devotion 
more sublime. Many of them now wear the martyr's crown, 
but their sufl'erings and toils were not in vain. To no sect or 
order could such a work have been more properly confided. 
Says Macaulay : " Before the Order had existed a hundred 
years, it had filled the whole world with memorials of great 
things done and suffered. There was no region of the globe 
in which Jesuits were not to be found. They wandered to 
countries which neither mercantile avidity nor liberal curiosity 
had ever impelled any stranger to explore. Yet, whatever 
might be their residence, whatever might be their employment, 
their spirit was the same^entire devotion to the common cause, 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 19 

implicit obedience to the central authority. None of them had 
chosen his dwelling place or his avocation for himself. Whether 
the Jesuit should live under the Arctic circle or under the 
Equator — pass his life collating MSS. at the Vatican, or in 
persuading naked barbarians in the southern hemisphere not 
to eat each other — ^were matters vs^hich he left, with profound 
submission, to the decision of others. If he was wanted at 
Lima, he was on the Atlantic in the next fleet. If he was 
wanted at Bagdad, he was toiling through the desert with the 
next caravan. If his ministry was needed in some country 
where his life was more insecure than that of a wolf, he went 
without remonstrance or hesitation to his doom." Bishop Kip 
pays them this just tribute: "Amid the snows of Hudson's 
Bay — among the woody islands and beautiful inlets of the Saint 
Lawrence — ^by the council fires of the Hurons and of the 
Algonquins — at the sources of the Mississippi, where, first of 
all the white men, their eyes looked down upon the Falls of 
Saint Anthony, and then traced down the course of the bound- 
ing river as it rushed onward to earn its title of ' Father of 
Waters' — on the vast prairies of Illinois and Missouri — among 
the blue hills which hem in the salubrious dwellings of the 
Cherokees^ and in the thick cane-brakes of Louisiana — every- 
where were found the members of the ' Society of Jesus.' " 

The reports and letters of these devoted Heralds of the 
Cross to their superiors, ( Jesuit Relations^ and Lettres Ed- 
ifiantes et Curieuses^) contain the earliest reliable historical 
and descriptive data relating to the Northwest, and are rare 
and valuable. From them we glean the meagre details of the 
earlier explorations in the Northwest, and the 

PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY TOWARDS THIS REGION. 

Gabriel Sagard, in 1624, visited the tribes on Lake Hu- 
ron, and in 1641 Fathers Jogues and Raymbault reached as 
far as the Sault Ste. Marie. Here they first heard tidings of 
the Dakotas. Paul de Jeune, a Jesuit Missionary, is per- 
haps the first writer who mentions them with any distinctness, 
about the same date. He says they were called by the voya- 
geurs, '' The People of the Lakes." The Iroquois war ensued. 



20 The History of the City of Saint PauU 

however, and further exploration was arrested for several years. 
At length, in 1658, two daring traders penetrated to Lake 
Superior, wintered there, and brought back accounts of a fero- 
cious tribe who dwelt on " a great river" to the west. These 
accounts incited the Jesuit Fathers at Quebec to dispatch a 
missionary to the tribe mentioned. Father Rene Mesnard, 
(or Menard,) an aged priest, was selected, and set out in the 
autumn of 1660, penetrating that fall as far as Chegoimegon 
Bay on Lake Superior. The next spring he crossed the country 
from Lake Superior to Black River Falls, Wisconsin. Here, 
or near here, it is supposed, he was lost in the forest. His 
cassock and breviary, long afterwards preserved among the 
Dakotas as medicine charms, afforded the only clue to his fate. 
In 1665, Father Claude Allouez, the successor to Mesnard, 
reached La Pointe, and, erecting a chapel, established a per- 
manent mission among the Ojibwas. 

second discovery of the MISSISSIPPI. 

De Soto had discovered the Mississippi in 1 541, but the 
discovery was never used, and was well nigh forgotten. Over 
a century had passed, when it was again to be discovered from 
the north. Jean Nicollet, an interpreter and Catholic, in 
1639, advanced on a mission to one of the strange tribes of the 
west [Winnebagoes] so far that he discovered the Wisconsin 
River, and, floating down it, heard from the Indians of a '' great 
water," only three days' journey beyond, which he inferred was 
the sea. While Father Allouez was preaching to the Ojib- 
was, on Lake Superior, he heard these accounts of a poA^erful 
nation, called by that tribe the Naudowessioux ^ meaning, in 
the Ojibwa tongue, " enemies," and of a might}^ stream called 
the Mese Seepi., signifying, " Great River." Returning to 
Quebec soon after,- he spread the reports of this great river, and 
M. Talon, Intendant of New France, became interested in the 
subject. He resolved to endeavor to discover this great stream, 
so as to reap the honors of such a feat, but owing to the trouble 
and delays incident to carrying an expedition into the far wilder- 
ness, it was not until 1673 that anything practical was eftected. 

Louis Joliet, of Quebec, once a priest, but at that time a 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 21 

fur- trader, agreed to undertake a voyage to the unknown river. 
With him w^as associated Father Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit 
priest, then a missionary among the Hurons, admirably fitted, 
from his influence among the Indians, to aid the enterprise, and 
who has been thought by some to have been the real originator 
of the expedition. They set out from Michilimackinac, Father 
Marquette^s missionary station, on May 13, 1673, accompa- 
nied by five Frenchmen and two Algonquin Indians. They 
proceeded to Green Bay, thence up the Fox River to the port- 
age, arid on June 10 launched their canoes on the Ouisconsin. 
Marquette and Joliet proceeded thence alone; For seven 
days they floated down this river, and, on the 17th, chanting 
the Exaudig^t and De Profundis in thankfulness to God, they 
glided out on the broad bosom of the " Great River." 

The two explorers continued their journey down the Missis- 
sippi, until, about the middle of July, they reached the mouth 
of the Arkansas. Here they began to retrace their voyage, 
and, returning by the Illinois River, soon floated into Lake 
Michigan through one of the branches. Joliet returned to 
Quebec to become famous for his discovery. Marquette 
pursued his missionary labor§ along the western lakes for two 
years longer, and, on the i6th of June, 1675, died at the age of 
thiity-eight. 

LA SALLE's expedition. 

No eflfort to follow up the discovery of Marquette and 
Joliet seems to have been made for fully five years. Robert 
Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, a descendant of a noble Nor- 
man family — once a Jesuit, but then a fur-trader of Montreal- 
resolved, if possible, to prosecute still further the discovery of 
the Mississippi, and laid his views before Count de Frontenac, 
then Governor of New France. Imbibing somewhat of the 
enthusiasm of La Salle, but unable to fit out such an expe- 
dition, Frontenac sent him to France, with credentials that 
would ensure him aid at Court. Colbert, the Prime Minister 
of Louis XV, kindly listened to La Salle's scheme, and pro- 
cured for him authority to prosecute his plan, as well as other 
honors. La Salle also enlisted Chevalier de Tonti, and 



22 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

about thirty colonists, to accompany him. The expedition 
arrived at Quebec September 15, 1678. A vessel was built, 
and La Salle started on his voyage, but was compelled to put 
into winter quarters near Niagara Falls. In the spring of 1679 
he built and launched another vessel above the Falls. It was 
called the Griffin. The expedition again set sail on August 7, 
and arrived at Green Bay on October 8. The Griffin was 
loaded with furs and sent homeward, with instructions to return 
at once. But she never returned, a storm on Lake Erie having 
sent her and her cargo to the bottom. Meantime, having left 
a part of his force in a small fort near the mouth of St. Joseph's 
River, he proceeded with the rest to the Illinois River, where 
he built a fort, which, in view of the discouraging circumstances 
surrounding him, he named Creve- Coeur^ [Broken Heart.] 

While here he resolved to make another effort to explore the 
Mississippi, and on February 28, 1680, dispatched 

FATHER LOUIS HENNEPIN, 

with two companions, on a voyage of discovery. Perhaps no 
one could have been selected better fitted for such a mission. 
He had all the ambition and darirfg of a knight-errant. He was 
born in Flanders about the year 1640. He entered holy orders 
while young, but was always afflicted with a burning passion 
for travel and adventure. He relates that he used to hide him- 
self behind the doors of taverns, to listen to the sailors narrate 
their adventures, and longed to visit strange lands. This at 
last led him to get le^ve of his superiors to go to Canada. He 
came over on the same ship which bore back La Salle in 
1675, and then, most probably became acquainted with La 
Salle and his plans. Parkman describes his dress : " With 
sandaled feet, a coarse gray capote, and peaked hood, the cord 
of Saint Francis about his waist, and a rosary and crucifix 
hanging at his side." Such was the first white man who was 
to look upon the Falls of Saint Anthony. 

Hennepin's adventures. 

Hennepin set off, as stated before, on February 28. His 
canoe was heavily laden with goods sent by La Salle as pres- 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 23 

ents to the Indians. For companions and oarsmen he had two 
Frenchmen, named Accau and Du Gay. Floating down the 
IlHnois River to its mouth, which they reached on the 12th of 
March, they commenced their toilsome journey up the Missis- 
sippi . Game was abundant, and they fared well . On the 1 1 th or 
1 2th of April, Hennepin says they stopped in the afternoon to 
repair their canoe, when a fleet of Sioux canoes suddenly swept 
into sight, and in a moment they were surrounded by 1 20 naked 
warriors. Hennepin placated them with presents of tobacco, 
when they explained to him that they were on their way to 
attack the Miamis. Hennepin caused them to understand that 
the Miamis had gone across the Mississippi, beyond their reach. 
At this they showed signs of sorrow, and finally stated that 
they would retrace their way up the river, and that Hennepin 
and his companions must accompany them. To this he agreed, 
as they had thus far expected to be murdered, while it allowed 
him to continue his explorations. Slowly the Indians and their 
prisoners paddled their way up the Mississippi, Hennepin 
and his companions still tormented with fears for their safety. 

THEY arrive AT THE SITE OF SAINT PAUL. 

On the 30th day of April, or the 19th day after their captiv- 
ity, Hennepin's captors arrived at what is most probably the 
site of the present city of Saint Paul. He describes it as a little 
bay or inlet, five leagues below the Falls of Saint Anthony, 
grown vv^ith alders or rushes. This description seems to point 
to the little bay at the mouth of Phelan's Creek, which is about 
that distance below the Falls, and would be a very convenient 
point for the Indians to land and set out on their journey over- 
land to Mille Lac. Here, he says, the Indians broke his canoe 
to pieces, and hid their own among the reeds. They then 
divided amongst them the baggage and effects of the Father, 
even taking his priestly robes, whose ornaments allured their 
covetousness. They then set out on foot for their village, 
which was near Mille Lac, and arrived there about May 5th. 

Here Hennepin was adopted into the family of the Chief, 
AqyiPAGUETiN, and lived with him in his lodge on an island 
in the Lake. His account of his life among the Indians is 
entertaining, but space forbids its narration here. » 



24 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

In September, the Indians set out on their annual hunt, and 
left Hennepin and his companions at liberty to go where they 
pleased. AccAu preferred to remain with the Indians, and 
consequently Hennepin and Du Gay set off alone down the 
Mississippi River in a small canoe. 

HE DISCOVERS THE FALLS OF SAINT ANTHONY. 

About the first of October, they arrived at the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, being beyond doubt the first white men to gaze upon 
that spot. His description of the Falls is very brief, but toler- 
ably accurate. He named them, he says, in honor of Saint 
Anthony, of Padua. They portaged around the Falls, meet- 
ing several Indians who were making sacrifices to the Spirit of 
the Waters. Launching their carlqe below the Falls, they con- 
tinued their journey, and, after a variety of adventures, reached 
the Jesuit station at Green Bay. 

Hennepin's subsequent career. 

From thence he proceeded to Montreal, and, soon after, to 
Europe. " Providence," he writes, " preserved my life that I 
might make known my great discoveries to the world." He 
published an account of his travels, and afterwards, for some 
reason, put out a new edition, with a lying account of his ex- 
ploration of the Mississippi to its mouth in 1680. This has 
detracted from the fame he otherwise would have had, and, 
though twenty editions of his work have been printed, in six 
different languages, Hennepin died at last in obscurity. In 
the Northwest, which he was so instrumental in discovering, 
something has been done to his memory. A town in Illinois, 
and a flourishing county of our own State, carry the name of 
the Franciscan priest to posterity. 

• 

THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

Though Hennepin referred to the River as the Meschasipi 
and Meschasebe^ he nevertheless endeavored to bestow upon it 
the name of " Saint Louis," in honor of the King of France. 
Marquette and Joliet christened it La Riviere de Con- 
ception; La Salle named it "the Colbert," after the Prime 






and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 25 

Minister of the King ; but none of these names have been re- 
tained, and that by which it was first known to the Algonquins 
two centuries ago, with slight modifications, still adheres to it. 
But w^hat a mighty change these two centuries have wrought. 
The route over which Hennepin then traveled was an un- 
know^n wilderness. Now it is dotted with populous and busy 
cities. The Anglo-Saxon, " the dominal blood of the world," 
with religion as its pillar of cloud by day and fire by night, has 
• wrought this great change. As the Star of Empire lightens 
the Western sky, it gleams over fruitful valleys and opulent 
cities. In its track are borne the banners of the Prince of 
Peace ; along its course flourish the Arts and Sciences, while 
the country blossoms as the rose. 

DISCOVERIES SUBSEQUENT TO HENNEPIN. 

The discoveries made by Hennepin undoubtedly attracted 
considerable attention to this region, and diligent efforts were 
made to take formal possession of it in the name of France. 
In 1689, Nicholas Perrot, a French oflicer, eredled a fort 
on Lake Pepin, and, planting the arms of France on a cross, 
took formal possession of this region. Other forts were built, 
and the exploration of the country pushed. Le Sueur ascended 
the Minnesota River in the fall of 1700, and established a fort, 
which he named UHeullier^ on the Blue Earth River, near- 
the mouth of the Le Sueur, where there is a deposit of a sort 
of mineral which he mistook for copper ore. 

CESSION OF THE COUNTRY BY FRANCE. 

Before much further explorations were made, the "French 
War," between Canada and the Colonies, ensued, and prevented 
further progress of settlement in the Northwest for some years. 
It was not until the Treaty of Versailles, in 1763, by which all 
of the territory comprised within the limits of Wisconsin and 
Minnesota, east of the Mississippi, were ceded to Great Brit- 
ain, that the way seemed opened for further discoveries. It 
needed only an adventurous spirit to take advantage of the fadl, 
and introduce to the notice of the world the vast empire of the 
Northwest. 

3 



26 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 



CHAPTER III. 

JONATHAN CARVER AND HIS EXPLORATIONS. 

Some Account of Carver— His Object in making the Journey— His account 
OF his Adventures— He discovers the " Great Cave"— Makes a Treaty 
WITH THE Sioux — And receives a Grant of Land — Subsequent fate of 
THE purported Land Grant — ^The Northwestern Territory Organized. 

nr^HE man for that work a,t length arrived. It was brother 
-^ Jonathan Carver, a keen Yankee from Connedlicut — 
not indeed with a stock of wooden nutmegs and cheap clocks, 
but with his eye open for a good speculation of any kind. 
History must record him as the progenitor and founder of the 
noble order of real estate speculators who have flourished here 
since, and the first man to originate a *' land grant." 

SOME ACCOUNT OF CARVER. 

Jonathan Carver was a grandson of William Joseph 
Carver, of Wigan, in Lancashire, England, who was a cap- 
tain in the army under King William, and sei*ved in the 
campaign against Ireland with such distinguished reputation, 
that the Prince was pleased to reward him with the government 
of the Colony of Conne<5licut, in New England. Jonathan was 
born in 1732, at the town of Canterbury, Connedlicut. His 
father, who was a Justice of the Peace, died when he was 15 
years of age. It was designed to educate him for a physician, 
but his spirit of enterprise and adventure could not brook the 
close study necessary to acquire the profession, and he chose 
the army instead. He therefore purchased an ensigncy in a 
Connecticut regiment, and soon, by good conduct, rose to the 
command of a company during the '"'French War." In the 
year 1757, he was present at the massacre of Fort William 
Henry, and narrowly escaped with his life. 

carver's object in making the journey. 
Having served through the war with credit and distinction, 



and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 27 

the peace of Versailles, in 1763. left Capt. Carver without 
occupation. It was then, that Carver conceived the proJcS 
of exploring the newlv acquired possessions of Great Britain 
in the Northwest, In the preface to his hook he says : 



CAPTAIN JONATHAN CARVER. 

" No sooner was the late war with France concluded, and peace estab- 
lished by the Treaty of Versailles, in the year 1763, than I began to 
consider (having rendered my country some service during the war) 
how I might continue still serviceable, and continue, as much as lay in 
my power, to make that vast acquisition of territory, gained by Great 
Britain, in North America, advantageous to it. It appeared to me in- 
dispensably needful, that Government should be acquainted, in the ' 
first place, with the true state of the dominions they were now become 
possessed of. To this purpose I determined, as the next proof of my 
zeal, to explore the most unknown parts of them, and to spare no 
trouble or expense in acquiring a knowledge that promised to be so 
useful to my countrymen. I knew that many obstruiSions would arise 
to my scheme from the want of good ma^s and charts. • • • These 



28 TAe History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

difficulties, however, were not sufficient to deter me from the undertak- 
ing, and I made preparations for setting out. What I chiefly had in 
view, after gaining a knowledge of the manners, customs, languages, 
soil, and productions of the different nations that inhabit the back of 
the Mississippi, was to ascertain the breadth of that vast continent, 
which extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, in the broadest 
part between 43 and 46 degrees northern latitude. Had I been able to 
accomplish this, I intended to have proposed to Government to establish 
a post in some of those parts about the Straits of Annian, which, having 
been first discovered by Sir Francis Drake, of course belong to the 
English. This, I am convinced, would greatly facilitate the discovery 
of a northwest passage, or a communication between Hudson's Bay and 
the Pacific Ocean, an event so desirable, and which has been so often 
sought for, but without success. Besides this important end, a settle- 
ment on that territory of America would answer many good purposes, 
and repay every expense the establishment of it might occasion. For 
it would not only disclose new sources of trade, and promote many 
useful discoveries, but would open a passage for conveying intelligence 
to China, and English settlements in the East Indies, with greater expe- 
dition than a tedious voyage by the Cape of Good Hope, or the Straits 
of Magellan, will allow of. That the completion of the scheme I have 
had the honor of first planning and attempting will sometime or other 
be effected, I make no doubt. Whenever it is, and tfce execution of it 
carried on with propriety, those who are so fortunate as to succeed will 
reap, exclusive of the national advantages that must ensue, emoluments 
beyond their most sanguine expectations, and, whilst their spirits are 
elated by their success, perhaps they may bestow some commendation 
and blessings on the person that first pointed out to them the way." 

HE SETS OUT ON HIS TRAVELS. 

Carver set out on his journey from Boston, in June, 1766. 
He proceeded to Mackinac, then the most distant British post, 
arriving in August. 

" Having here (he says) made the necessary dispositions for pursuing 
my travels, and obtained a credit from Mr. Rogers, the Governor, on 
some English and Canadian traders who were going to trade on the 
Mississippi, and received also from him a promise of a fresh supply of 
goods when I reached the Falls of Saint Anthony, I left the fort on the 
3d of September, in company with these traders. It was agreed that 
they should furnish me with such goods as I might want for presents 
to the Indian chiefs during my continuance with them, agreeable to the 
Governor's order." 

Carver pursued the usual route to Green Bay, ascended the 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 29 

Fox River, made the portage to the Wisconsin, and, descend- 
ing that stream, entered the Mississippi on October 15. The 
traders who were with him left him at Prairie du Chien, oppo- 
site to which village, at ''Yellow River," they took up their 
quarters. Carver here "bought a canoe, and, with two ser-v 
vants, one a French Canadian, and the other a Mohawk of 
Canada," started up the Mississippi River. 

Without giving too much space to Carver's voyage, we 
must now come to his arrival at the present site of Saint Paul, 
and his description of 

"the great cave," 

(under Dayton's Bluff,) which he thus describes in his work : 

" About thirty miles below the Falls of Saint Anthony, at which I 
arrived the tenth day after I left Lake Pepin, is a remarkable cave of an 
amazing depth. The Indians term it Wafcan-Teebe, that is, * The Dwell- 
ing of the Great Spirit.' The entrance into it is about ten feet wide, 
the height of it five feet. The arch within is near fifteen feet high, and 
about thirty feet broad. The bottom of it consists of fine, clear sand. 
About twenty feet from the entrance begins a lake, the water of which 
is transparent, and extends to an unsearchable distance ; for the dark- 
ness of the cave prevents all attempts to acquire a knowledge of it. I 
threw a small pebble toward the interior parts of it with my utmost 
strength ; I could hear that it fell into the water, and, notwithstanding 
it was of so small a size, it caused an astonishing and horrible noise, 
that reverberated through all those gloomy regions. I found in this 
cave many Indian hieroglyphics, which appeared very ancient, for time 
had nearly covered them with moss, so that it was with difficulty I 
could trace them. They were cut in a rude manner upon the inside of 
the walls, which were composed of a stone so extremely soft that it 
might be easily penetrated with a knife — a stone everywhere to be found 
near the Mississippi. The cave is only accessible by ascending a narrow, 
steep passage that lies near the brink of the river. 

" At a little distance from this dreary cavern, is the burying place of 
several bands of the Naudowessie Indians ; though these people have 
no fixed residence, living in tents, and abiding but a few months on 
one spot, yet they always bring the bones of their dead to this place ; 
which they take the opportunity of doing, when the chiefs meet to hold 
their councils, and to settle all public affairs for the ensuing summer." 

This was Carver's first visit to the now celebrated cave. 
After leaving it, he proceeded on to Saint Anthony's Falls, 
which he minutely describes in his volume of travels, accom- 



30 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ - 

panying it by a copperplate engraving from a drawing made 
by himself on November 17, 1766. He afterwards took a short 
trip up the Mississippi River, as far as the " Saint Francis 
River," beyond which point, he says, it had never been explored, 
^nd thus far only by Father Hennepin and himself. 

HIS JOURNEY UP THE SAINT PETER's RIVER. 

On the 25th of November, Carver returned to his canoe, 
which he " had left at the mouth of the River Saint Pierre," 
[Minnesota,] and ascended that stream. About forty miles 
from its mouth, he says, he "arrived at a small branch that 
fell into it from the north," which, as it had no name that he 
could distinguish it by, he called " Carver's River," which 
nahie it bears to this day. 

HE WINTERS AMONG THE NAUDOWESSIES. 

On the 7th of December he arrived at the most westerly 
limit of his travels, and, as he could proceed no further that 
season, spent the winter, a period of seven months, among a 
band of Naudowessies encamped near what is now New Ulm. 
He says he learned their language so as to converse in it intel- 
ligibly, (though white men w^ho have learned this language 
declare that to be impossible,) and was treated by them with 
great hospitality. In the spring, he returned to the cave. His 
account of this is as follows : 

THE RETURN TO THE "GREAT CAVE." 

"I left the habitations of these hospitable Indians the latter end of 
April, 1767, but did not part from them for several days, as I was 
accompanied on my journey by near three hundred of them, among 
whom were many chiefs, to the mouth of the River Saint Pierre. At this 
season these bands annually go to the 'Great Cave,' before mentioned, 
to hold a grand council with all the other bands, wherein they settle 
their operations for the ensuing year. At the same time they carry with 
them their dead for interment, bound up in buffalo skins." 

It was on this visit to the cave that Carver made the alleged 
Treaty with the Indians, and received from them the celebrated 
deed of land. His account of it is as follows : 

** When we arrived at the * Great Cave,' and the Indians had deposited 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 31 

the remains of their deceased friends in the burial-place that stands 
adjacent to it, they held their great council, into which I was admitted, 
and at the same time had the honor to be installed and adopted a chief 
of their bands. On this occasion I made the following speech which 
was delivered on the ist day of May, 1767 : 

carver's speech to the INDIANS. 

"My brothers, chiefs of the numerous and powerful Naudowessies ^ 
I rejoice that, through my long abode with you, I can now speak to you 
(though after an imperfe(5t manner) in your own tongue^ like one of 
vour own children. I rejoice, also, that I have had an opportunity so 
frequently to inform you of the glory and power of the great King that 
reigns over the English and other nations ; who is descended from a 
very ancient race of sovereigns, as old as the earth and the waters ; 
whose feet stand upon two great islands, larger than any you have ever 
seen, amidst the greatest waters in the world ; whose head reaches to the 
sun, and whose arms encircle the whole earth ; the number of whose 
warriors is equal to the trees in the valleys, the stalks of rice in yonder 
marshes, and the blades of grass on your great plains ; who has hundreds 
of canoes of his own, of such amazing bigness, that all the waters in 
jour country would not suffice for one of them to swim in ; each of 
which have great guns, not small like mine, which you see before you, 
but of such magnitude, that a hundred of your stoutest young men 
would with difficulty be able to carry one. And they are equally sur- 
prising in their operation against the King's enemies when engaged in 
battle; the terror they carry with them, your language lacks words to 
express. You may remember, the other day, when we were encamped at 
Wadapatv-menesoter^ the black clouds, the wind, the fire, the stupendous 
noise, the horrible cracks, and the tumbling of the earth which then 
alarmed you, and gave you reason Jto think your gods were angry with 
you ; not unlike these are the warlike implements of the English when 
they are fighting the battles of their great King. 

'* Several of the chiefs of your bands have often told me in times past, 
when I dwelt with you in your tents, that they much wished to be 
counted among the children and the allies of the great King, my master. 

"You may remember how often you have desired me, when I return 
again to. my own country, to acquaint the great King of your good 
disposition toward him and his subje(5ts, and that you wished for 
traders from the English to come among you. 

"Being now about to take my leave of you, and to return to my own 
country, a long way toward the rising sun, I again ask you to tell me 
whether you continue of the same mind as when I spoke to you in 
council last winter; and as there are now several of your chiefs here 
who came from the great plains toward the setting of the sun, whom I 



"^2 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

have never spoken with in council before, I ask you to let me know if 
you are willing to acknowledge yourselves the children of my great 
master, the King of the English. 

" I charge you not to give heed to bad reports, for there are wicked 
birds flying about among the neighboring nations, who may whisper 
evil things in your ears against the English, contrary to what I have 
told you ; you must not believe them, for I have told you the truth. 

** As for the chiefs that are about to go to Michilimackinac, I shall 
take care to make for them and their suits a straight road, smooth 
waters, and a clear sky, that they may go there and smoke the pipe of 
peace, and rest secure on a beaver blanket under the shade of the great 
tree of peace. Farewell !" 

Whether any such grandiloquent speech as the above was 
really made by Carver on the occasion or not, has frequently 
been doubted. It is probable, however, that he made them a 
short address, in such imperfe<5l Dakota as he could command. 

To this speech Carver gives the reply of the principal chief, 
speaking, as the orator asserted, for the eight bands of the 
nation. He professed to believe Carver's account of the King 
and his power, and desired Carver to tell him that they 
''wished to be counted among his good children," and have 
traders sent among them. 

the purported deed. 

At this council was given the famous deed of land to 
Carver, which reads as follows : 

"To Jonathan Carver, a chief under the .most mighty and potent 
George the Third, King of the English, and other nations, the fame 
of whose warriors has reached our ears, and has been now fully told to 
us by our good brother Jonathan, aforesaid, whom we rejoice to see 
come among us, and bring us good news from his country. 

*' We, chiefs of the Naudowessies, who have hereto set our seals, do 
by these presents, for ourselves and heirs forever, in return for the 
many presents and other good services done by the said Jonathan to 
ourselves and allies, give, grant and convey to him, the said Jonathan, 
and to his heirs and assigns forever, the whole of a certain tradl or ter- 
ritory of land, bounded as follows, viz. : From the Falls of Saint An- 
thony, running on the east bank of the Mississippi, nearly southeast, 
as far as the south end of Lake Pepin, where the Chippewa River joins 
the Mississippi, and from thence eastward, five days' travel, accounting 
twenty English miles per day, and from thence north six days' travel, 
at twenty English miles per day, and from thence again to the Falls of 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 33 

Saint Anthony, On a direct straight line. We do, for ourselves, heirs, 
and assigns, forever, give unto the said Jonathan, his heirs and as- 
signs, forever, all the said lands, with all the trees, rocks, and rivers 
therein, reserving the sole liberty of hunting and fishing on land not 
planted or improved by the said Jonathan, his heirs and assigns, to 
which we have affixed our respe(5live seals. 
*'At the 'Great Cave,' 

" May ist, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven. 

" Haw-no-paw-gat- AN, his x mark, 

(picture of a beaver.) 
" Otoh-ton-goom-lish-eaw, his x mark, 

(pi(5ture of a snake.)" 

It is a somewhat singular fa<5l that Carver nowhere men- 
tions this deed in his writings. Why its existence was sup- 
pressed by him, can only be conjectured. It seems not to have 
been made public until after his death. John Coakley Lett- 
SOM, who wrote the biography of Carver for the third edition 
of his travels, says he (Lettsom) had the original deed in his 
possession. 

Carver, after making the purported treaty with the Indians, 
returned to Prairie du Chien, and thence proceeded to Lake 
Superior, and spent some time in exploring that region, return- 
ing to Boston by way of Sault Ste. Marie, Detroit, and Niagara 
Falls.. He arrived in Boston in October, 1768, " having been 
absent from it on this expedition two years and five months, 
and during that time traveled near 7,000 miles." 

carver's subsequent history. 

He soon after sailed for England, made known his discov- 
eries, and claimed a reimbursement from Government. His 
petition w^as referred to the "Lords Commissioners of Trade 
and Plantations." They required him to surrender up the 
manuscript of a book he had nearly ready for the press,* for 
which, with his other expenses, they allowed no reimburse- 
ment. He finally re-wrote his work from his original journals 
and papers, and it was published in 1769. 

It is hardly possible that he realized much money from his . 
book, as w^e hear of him a few months after this, in. very indi- 
gent circumstances. His health also declined. In 1779, he 
secured a position as clerk in a lottery office, from the gains of 



34 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

which he eked out a scanty subsistence for a few months. 
Disease soon ensued, however, and he a<5lually died of want in 
London, January 31, 1780, aged 48 years. 

SUBSEQUENT HISTORY OF THE PURPORTED DEED. 

Carver, as we before mentioned^ does not speak in his 
work of the deed said to have been given May i, 1767* It 
was not until after his death that it 'was brought to light. 
Carver had married during his sojourn in England, (although 
he had a wife and five daughters in Connecticut at the time,) 
and by this second wife had one daughter, named Martha. 
She was raised by Sir Richard and Lady Pearson. When 
she grew up, she eloped with, and married a sailor, whose 
name seems to be now unknown. A mercantile firm in Lon- 
don, thinking that money could be made by securing the title 
to the alleged grant, secured from the penniless couple, a few 
days after their rfiarriage, a conveyance of the grant to them, 
for the consideration of one- tenth the profits. The merchants 
dispatched an agent named Clark to go to the Dakotas, and 
obtain a new deed, but on the way Clark was murdered in 
New York, and the speculation for the time fell through. • 

In the year 1794, the heirs of Carver's American wife, in 
consideration of £50,000, conveyed their interest in the Carver 
Grant to Edward Houghton, of Vermont. In the year 1806, 
Rev. Samuel Peters, who had been a Tory during the Revo- 
lutionary war, alleged, in a petition to Congress, that he had 
also purchased of the heirs of Carver their right to the grant. 

In 1 82 1, Gen. Leavenworth, pursuant to a request of the 
Commissioner of the Land Office, inquired of the Dakotas .in 
relation to the grant, and reported that the land alleged to be 
granted "lies on the east side of the Mississippi." The In- 
dians do not recognize or acknowledge the grant to be valid, 
and they, among others, assign the following reasons : 

" I. The Sioux of the Plains never owned a foot of land on the East 
side of the Mississippi. ****** 

''2. The Indians say they have no knowledge of any such chiefs, as 
those who signed the grant. They saj if Capt. Carver did ever 
obtain a deed or grant, it was signed bj some foolish young men who 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 35 

were not chiefs, and who were not authorized to make a grant. Among 
the Sioux of the River there are no such names.* 

"3. They say the Indians never received anything for the land, 
and they have no intention to part with it without a^ consideration. * * 

"4. They have, and ever have had, the possession of the land, and 
intend to keep it." * * * * * * * 

On January 23, 1823, the Committee on Public Lands re- 
ported to the Senate on the claim of Carver's heirs*, at some 
length. They argue that the purported grant has no binding 
effedl on the United States, and give very satisfactory and con- 
clusive reasons therefor — at too great length, how^ever, to include 
in this paper. The prayer of the petitioners was, therefore, 
not granted. 

It is certain that Carver's American heirs always supposed, 
(and are said to this day to assert,) that they had a good title 
to the grant in question. Some of them have visited Saint 
Paul in their investigations of the subject. 

Numerous deeds for portions of the land were made at vari- 
ous times by Carver's heirs or their assignees. In 1849, ^"^ 
a few years subsequent, when real estate agents throve in the 
infant city of Saint taul, very many of these deeds were re- 
ceived by land dealers here, to " locate." Several of them are 
among the MSS. in the Library of the Historical Society. 

SUBSEQUENT HISTORY OF THE CAVE. 

After the visit by Carver, the cave remained unentered by 
the white man for nearly half a century. Pike tried in vain to 
find it in 1806, but its entrance was stopped up. Maj. Long 
succeeded in gaining an entrance to it in 181 7. Feather- 
ST.ONHAUGH, in 1 835, fouud the entrance again closed up with 
debris. Nicollet explored it in 1837, however, and says 
Carver's description of it was "accurate." 'Indeed, it is so 
accurate, that, at the present day, if one wished to describe it, 
he could do no better than use Carver's own language. 



* Carver only once, in the body of his work, mentions the chiefs whose signatures and 
"family coat of arms" are appended to the deed. On page 380, speaking of Indian 
nomenclatiire, he says : Thus, the great warrior of the Naudowessies was named, 
Ottahtotig'oomlisheahy that is, " The Great Father of Snakes ;" ottah^ being in English, 
father ; tongoom^ g^eat ; and lisheah^ a snake. Another chief was called Honahpawjatin, 
which means, " A Swift Runner Over the Mountains." 



36 The History of the City of Saint Paul,, 

Carver's Cave is novsr the most interesting relic of antiquit}' 
in this region. Unfortunately, the spirit of progress and im- 
provement has no veneration for historical associations, and the 
Saint Paul and Chicago Railroad, w^hich runs along the bank 
of the river directly by the mouth of the cave, w^ill doubtless 
ere long dig down the bluff, and thus destroy the cave. The 
centenary of Carver's treaty w^ith the Naudow^essies was duly 
observed on May i, 1867, by the members of the Minnesota 
Historical Society. They paid a visit to the cave in the day- 
time, and held a reunion in memory of Carver at their rooms 
in the evening. The proceedings were printed in pamphlet 
form, subsequently, at the expense of Geo. W. Fahnestock, 
of Philadelphia, an estimable gentleman of historical tastes, * 
(now deceased,) who was present. 

carver's prophesies concerning this region. 

Carver was a man of keen perceptions and shrewd fore- 
sight. He hints in his work at the possibility of a ship canal 
from the Mississippi River to the Lakes, and was sanguine that 
this region would ultimately become populous and' wealthy. 
He says : 

" To what power or authority this new world will become dependant, 
after it has arisen from its present uncultivated state, time alone can 
discover. But as the seat of empire, from time immemorial, has been 
gradually progressing toward the west, there is no doubt but that at 
some future period, mighty kingdoms will emerge from these wilder- 
nesses^ and stately palaces and solemn temples^ with gilded sf ires reach- 
ing the skies, supplant the Indian huts, whose only decorations are the 
barbarous trophies of their vanquished enemies.^* 

Already events were transpiring, which led to a more rapid 
fulfillment of his vision, than perhaps he himself even anticipated. 
The disputes between the Colonies and England were fast 
culminating in open rebellion. While Carver was absent in 
England, the 

revolutionary war 

broke out, and all progress toward the settlement of this region 
was stayed for the time. The war virtually terminated in 1782, 
and, by the Treaty of Paris, 1783, the territory east of the Mis- 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 37 

sissippi River was ceded and yielded up to the United States, 
which now^ took its place among the nations of the earth. On 
March i, 1784. Virginia, which claimed what was afterwards 
known as the Northwest Territory, ceded all that district to 
the United States, and, three years later, the famous " Ordinance 
of 1787" was enacted by Congress, creating the "Northwest 
Territory." 

THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY. 

This vast domain, comprising the present noble States of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota 
east of the Mississippi, was probably the finest body of land, of 
equal extent, on the globe. At that time there were scarcely a 
dozen settlements of whites in the whole domain. Its present 
population must be over 10,000,000. Wonderful has been the 
transformation of tjiis great empire from barbarism to civiliza- 
tion, and in the brief space of %% years. It has scarcely, if at 
all, a parallel in the world's history. 

Civil government was soon after established over the Terri- 
tory, and it began rapidly to settle up. On May 7, 1800, 
Indiana Territory was created, embracing all of the previous 
Northwest Territory except the present State of Ohio, and, 
in 1805, Michigan Territory was formed, whose southern 
boundary ran from the Maumee Bay, on Lake Erie, westerly to 
the Mississippi River. Minnesota (east of the Mississippi) 
remained attached to Michigan until the formation of Illinois 
Territory in 1809, when it was included in the bounds of the 
latter, and so continued until 18 19, when Illinois became a 
State. This region then fell again into the arms of Michigan 
Territory, and continued there until Wisconsin Territory was 
formed in 1836. 



38 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE FIRST SETTLEMENT OF MINNESOTA. 

Exploration by Lieut. Pike — He selects the Site for Fort Snelling — Red 
River Colony Founded — ^Troops ordered to " Saint Peter's" — ^They build 
Fort Snelling — Joseph R. Brown — Red River Refugees settle here — 
Arrival of first Steamboat— Early Mail Service — Governmental 
Changes — Sketches of two Pioneers, H. H. Sibley and N. W. Kittson. 

THAT portion of Minnesota west of the Mississippi, as 
mentioned before, had, by the " Louisiana Purchase," 
(December 20, 1803,) come into the possession of the United 
States, and President Jefferson took profnpt steps to extend 
the authority of the United States over the domain acquired, 
and to make an exploration of the same. Lieut. Z. M. Pike, 
U. S. A., was the officer seledled to visit this region, expel the 
British traders, and make alliances with the Indians. He 
ascended the Mississippi River in a batteau in the month of 
September, 1805, and arrived at the encampment of J. B. 
Faribault, an Indian trader, a mile or two above Saint Paul, 
on September 21. On the 23d he held a council with the 
Sioux at Mendota, and obtained from them a grant of land nine 
miles square, for military purposes, which has since been known 
as the Fort Snelling Reservation. Lieut. Pike remained all 
winter in Minnesota, and returned to Saint Louis in the spring. 

THE RED river SETTLEMENT. 

In the year 181 2, the Earl of Selkirk, having obtained 'a 
grant of land from the Hudson Bay Company, near the conflu- 
ence of the Assiniboine and Red Rivers, established a colony 
of Scotch settlers upon it, and subsequently a colony of Swiss 
were induced to settle there. The colony suffered various 
hardships for many years, from floods, frosts, grasshoppers, 
&c., and were at times almost on the verge of starvation. In 
1827, a party of the Swiss who had immigrated to Red River, 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 39 

• 

abandoned the colony, and established themselves near Fort 
Snelling, as will be noticed more fully a little further on. 

The cession of land procured by Lieut. Pike at the conflu- 
ence of the Saint Peter's and Mississippi Rivers, in 1805, ^^^ 
been for the purpose of ere<5ling a United States Fort. The 
matter w^as allovs^ed to rest, however, for some years. The 
planting of Selkirk's Colony on the borders of the United 
States, called attention to it again, and resulted, in 1819, in the 
establishment of a military post at the point named. 

TROOPS ORDERED TO MINNESOTA. 

On February 10, 181 9, an order was issued by the War 
Department, concentrating the Fifth Regiment of Infantry at 
Detroit, under Lieut. Col. Leavenworth, with a view of pro- 
ceeding west. Portions were detailed to garrison Prairie du 
Chien and Rock Tsland, and the remainder were to proceed to 
establish a post at the point called '' Saint Peter's," (since 
known as Mendota,) which was to be the headquarters of the 
regiment, and of Lieut. Col. Leavenworth, its commander. 
He remained some time at Prairie du Chien, to organize 
'* Crawford* County," which had been created by the Legisla- 
ture of Michigan Territory, on 0(5lober 16, 1818. Its bounda- 
ries were as follows : jOn the east by a line running north and 
south from the portage of \he Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, and 
extending to Lake Superior, thence westward to the Mississippi 
River. 

He found great difficulty in securing enough persons quali- 
fied to fill the county offices. 

The expedition up the Mississippi was made in keel-boats, 
and so low was the water that the party did not reach Mendota 
until September 24th. Rude huts for barracks were at once 
eredled, in which the first winter was passed amid much dis- 
comfort. Many of the soldiers died from scurvy. The follow- 
ing August, Col. Snelling took command of the post, and 
the erection of ''Fort Saint Anthony" was commenced. On 
September loth, 1820, the corner stone was laid with appro- 
priate ceremonies, but the next winter had to be passed in their 
cantonments at Mendota again. The lumber for the buildings 



40 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

• 
was cut on Rum River by the soldiers. The fort was not so 

far completed as to be occupied until the fall of 1822. It was, 

by recommendation of Gen. Scott, subsequently called " Fort 

Snelling," in honor of its builder.' 

MAJ. LAWRENCE TALIAFERRO. 

In order to properly conduct relations with the Indians of 
this region. President Monroe also resolved to send hither an 
Indian Agent, to permanently reside at or near the new military 
post. Lieut. Lawrence Taliaferro,* an officer of the regu- 
lar army, was selected for this duty, and commissioned on 
March 27, 1819. He proceeded at once to his post, and con- 
tinued to fill that office for twenty years, resigning it in 1840. 

condition of the country in 1820. 

The establishment of Fort Snelling (as it was afterwards 
known) attracted considerable attention to this region, and was 
an important event for the Northwest. Up to that time this 
region was almost unknown. A few traders had penetrated 
here and there through what is now Minnesota, but its geogra- 
phy was to the country at large a sealed book. Its great 
lumbering resources were almost unknown. It was not until 
1822 that the Government saw mill was built at Saint Anthony 
Falls. The same year a permit was granted by Maj. Talia- 
ferro to a man named Perkins, from Kentucky, to ere6l a 
saw mill on one of the branches of the Menominee River, 
Wisconsin — the first mill eredled by private parties in the 
Northwest. Indeed, only in 1822 was Minnehaha Creek — now 
in one of the most thickly settled parts of the State — explored 
by Joseph R. Brown, then a soldier at Fort Snelling, and 
was long afterwards called by his name. 

* Lawrence Taliaferro was born in Virginia, February 34, 1794. His ancestors 
were Italians, who settled in Virginia in 1637. Taliaferro enlisted in the war of 
1813, when only 18 years of age, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant. When the army 
was reduced to a peace footing«»at the close of the war, he was retained as a First Lieu- 
tenant. On retiring from the Indian Agency, in 1840, he returned to his home at 
Bedford, Pennsylvania, where, in 1857, ^'^ w*^ appointed Military Storekeeper, and 
filled that post until 1863. He died January 33, 1871, in his 81 st year. While at Fort 
Snelling he kept a minute diary of events, now in possession of the Historical Society, 
and from which the writer has drawn valuable fa(5ts. 



\ 

JOSEPH R. BROWN- 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 41 

JOSEPH RENSHAW BROWN 

was one of the most remarkable men conne6led with the his- 
tory of Minnesota. He was born January 5, 1805, in Harford 
county, Maryland. His father removed soon after to Lancas- 
ter, Pennsylvania, where Joseph R. was apprenticed to the 
printing business when about 14 years of age ; but, being treated 
harshly by his employer, he ran away, joined the army and came 
to Minnesota with the detachment of troops which built the can- 
tonment at Mendota, in 1 819. He left the army about 1825, and 
took up his residence in what is now Minnesota, engaging in 
the Indian trade, lumbering and other occupations. He became 
allied to the Sioux Nation by marriage, spoke their language, 
and soon acquired a great influence oyer them. He held, at 
various times, a number of important oflSces. In 1838, he was 
appointed by Gov. Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, a Justice 
of the Peace, and for several years performed the duties of that 
office at his trading post, on Grey Cloud Island, 12 miles below 
Saint Paul. He was eledled a member of the Wisconsin 
Legislature from " Saint Croix County," in 1840, 1841 and 
1842, taking a prominent part in those sessions. He was also 
a leading member of the famous " Stillwater Convention" of 
1848. He was Secretary of the Territorial Councils of 1849 
and 1 85 1, and Chief! Clerk of the House of Representatives in 
1853 ; a member of the Council in 1854 and 1855, and House 
in 1857 ' ^^^ was, besides. Territorial Printer in 1853 and 1854. 
He was appointed agent for the Sioux Indians in 1857. ^^ 
was also a member (from Sibley county) in the Constitutional 
Convention, and was one of the commissioners to canvass the 
first State vote. He had large influence in the early Legisla- 
tures, and in his party conventions. In 1852, he became editor 
and publisher of the '' Minnesota Pioneer ^^ which he carried 
on for two years with much ability, and established a reputation 
as an able political writer. In 1857, ^^ started, at Henderson, 
a town laid out by him, the ^'Henderson Democrat ^^^ which 
was published until 1861. 

Maj. Brown was a pioneer in every sense. He laid out the 
first town site in Minnesota ; was the first lumberman to raft 
logs down the Saint Croix. He aided in the eredlion of the 
4 



42 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

first frame, and first stone building in Minnesota. He assisted 
in staking out the first road from Fort Snelling to Prairie du 
Chien ; driving the first wagon over it, and the first from Men- 
dota to Lac qui Parle. He built th^ first house in the present 
limits of Stillwater and Hastings, &c., &c. During his long 
and eventful life he suflfered many reverses of fortune, but was 
always cheerful and frill of energy. He died in New York 
City, whither he had gone on business, on November 9, 1870. 
Brown county was appropriately named in honor of him. 

IMMIGRATION FROM RED RIVER. 

Prior to the year 1827, there was no agriculture carried on 
in the entire State, except small gardens and limited fields 
attached to the trading posts here and there. In the year 
named, a number of Swiss families— ^who had been, several 
years previous, misled by the lying emigration agents of Lord 
Selkirk into settling on the Red River — ^after suflfering great 
hardships, were finally compelled, to avoid a6lual. starvation, 
to leave the colony and come to Fort Snelling, where, it had 
been stated to them, they would be allowed to settle. They 
were kindly received by Col. Snelling, the commander of the 
post, and permission given them to settle on the Reserva- 
tion, near what was afterwards known as the " Saint Louis 
House," on the west side of the Mississippi, a little above the 
fort. Here they opened farms, erected dwellings, and, having 
brought cattle with them, soon became prosperous and comfort- 
able farmers. In this colony were Abraham Perry, Louis 
Massie, and other patriarchs, some of whom, as will be seen 
a little further on, were among the earliest settlers of Saint 
Paul, Pig's Eye, Little Canada, Mendota, Saint Anthony, Still- 
water, and other of the oldest towns in this region. Up to 
1836, nearly 500 persons had left the Red River Colony and 
came to Fort Snelling, in search of new homes, and several 
large parties came subsequently. A few of them went on to 
Wisconsin, Illinois and Missouri, and some to Vevay, Indiana, 
(a Swiss settlement,) but most of the refugees settled in this 
region, and their descendants hereabouts are a numerous class. 
Most of the early residents of Saint Paul were Red River 
refugees, as we shall show a few pages further on. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota » 43 

Thus the first agricultural immigrants into Minnesota — the 
vanguard of that vast army that in later years poured over it — 
came from the " frozen north" — a sort of Nor' man invasion 
of a peaceful kind. 

ARRIVAL OF THE FIRST STEAMBOAT. 

During the year 1823, another event occurred of great im- 
portance to the Northw^est. It was the arrival of the first 
steamboat, the ''Virginia," from Saint Louis, loaded with 
stores for the fort. Her dimensions were: length, 118 feet; 
width, 24 feet; and draught, six feet. She was four days in 
getting over the Rock Island Rapids, an obstacle which it had 
been supposed would always prevent steamers from navigating 
the Upper Mississippi. As this was the first steamboat ev^r 
seen by the Dakotas in this neighborhood, their fright was 
extreme. They mistook it for some supernatural monster^ and 
fled to the woods and hills, with their hair and blankets stream- 
ing in the breeze. 

The success of the " Virginia" in reaching the mouth of the 
Saint Peter's, opened the Upper Mississippi to steam navigation, 
the mightiest agent in making the then wilderness blossom as 
the rose. Up to May 26, 1826, fifteen steamers had arrived at 
Fort Snelling, and they became more frequent after that. 

SIOUX AND OJIBWA WARFARE. 

The ancient feud of the Dakota and Ojibwa Nations, led to 
frequent encounters, some of them in this neighborhood. In 
1826, a party of 200 or 300 Ojibwas, from the Upper Missis- 
sippi, came to Fort Snelling on a visit, and encamped near 
Pickerel Lake, across the river from this city. The Dakotas, 
learning of their presence, soon rallied and attacked them, 
killing in cold blood a number of women and children, who 
could not escape. The same autumn, at Fort Snelling, a party 
of Dakotas,' after being hospitably entertained by some Ojib- 
was encamped there, and promising peace and good will,, 
treacherously fired into the wigwams of the latter at night, 
killing several. Col. Snelling, the commandant, compelled 
the Dakotas to surrender the guilty men, and they were handed 



44 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

over to the relations of the murdered Ojibwas for punishment. 
Four of them were compelled to "run the gauntlet," i. e., 
allowed a few feet start, and, at a given signal, the Ojibwas 
were to fire on them. They were in this manner shot down, 
and their bodies mutilated. 

These barbaric orgies were repeated from year to year, for 
some time. The liquor sold to the Indians by traders was 
mostly the cause of this, and every effort was made by the 
authorities to break up the traffic, without success. 

MAIL SERVICE 182O-49. 

During the first three years, the mails for the garrison were 
carried by soldiers, from Prairie du Chien. In the summer they 
m.ade the trips two or three times during the season, with keel- 
boats or canoes, also bringing supplies for the garrison. In 
the winter the trip was one of hardship and danger, occupying 
many days. The whole distance to Prairie du Chien was 
generally traversed on the ice, in a sort of sledge drawn by 
dogs or a Canadian pony, and called a train du glace. Ex- 
cepting probably an encampment or two of Indians, there was 
no sign of a human habitation from Fort Snelling to Fort 
Crawford, (Prairie du Chien,) and during the trip the mail 
carriers and their animals must subsist as best they could. This 
sort of winter transportation was kept up until stage service 
was established in 1849. In May, 1823, the first steamboat 
arrived at Fort Snelling, and thenceforward steamboats carried 
the mails generally to that post, until a regular packet line 
was established to Saint Paul, in 1847. 

Of course, winter service in those days was irregular. For 
instance, in one of Taliaferro's journals, kept at Fort Snelling, 
now in the archives of the Historical Society, we find it noted 
that on January 26th, 1826, there was much rejoicing over the 
arrival of two officers " from below," who had returned from 
a furlough, bringing thefrst mail received for Jive months ! 
^In May, 1832, a soldier at Fort Crawford, named James 
Halpin, was detailed by Col. Zachary Taylor, then com- 
mander of that post, to carry the mail from Fort Crawford to 
Fort Snelling. A small pouch of mail was all there was to 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 45 

carry, and he made the journey on foot, the round trip occu- 
pying generally two weeks. He carried the mail a whole year. 
There was not a human habitation on his whole route, unless 
he fell in with a teepee of Indians. 

GOVERNMENTAL CHANGES. 

In 1836, the Territory of Wisconsin was organized, com- 
prising all of Michigan Territory west of the Lake. This, of 
course, included what is now Minnesota east of the Mississippi. 
Saint Paul, or what is now Saint Paul, thus fell in the jurisdic- 
tion of Crawford* county, Wisconsin — an extended existence of 
Crawford county, Michigan. For several years it was repre- 
sented in the Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin as follows : 

Council. House. 

o ^ XT I- r James H. Lockwood, 

1836 No member. J •; „ ^ ,, 

(James B. Dallam. 

00 XT i_ / Ira B. Brunson, 

1837-8 No member. 1 , ^ 

'^Jean Brunet. 

1838 George Wilson. Alex. McGregor. 

o r- ^nT'A f Al^^- McGregor, 

1839 George Wilson. \ r t. t. 

^^ ° I Ira B. Brunson. 

o T u T> • u • / Alex. McGregor, 

'«39-40 Joseph Bnsbo.s: | ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ 

1840 (extra) . . . Chas. J. Learned, s ^ t»* t» 

I Ira B. Brunson. 

» 

In January, 1840, " Saint Croix County," as will be noticed 
a little further on, was created by the Legislature, out of 
Crawford county. It comprised all that territory west of a line 
running northward from the mouth of Porcupine River, on 
Lake Pepin, to Lake Superior. Most of the representatives 
subsequently lived in what is now Minnesota : 

Council. House. 

^ A-.1 1 T T J ( Theophilus La Chapelle, 

1 840-1 . . . Charles J. Learned. I ^ ; « -r, 

(Joseph R. Brown. 

o i-.i_ 1 T T J f Theophilus La Chapelle, 

1841-2 . . . Charles J. Learned. \ ^ f ^ -r, 

(Joseph R. Brown. 

1842-3 . . . Theophilus La Chapelle. John H. Manahan. 

1843-4 • • • Theophilus La Chapelle. John H. Manahan. 

1845 .... Wiram Knowlton. James Fisher. 

1846 .... Wiram Knowlton. James Fisher. 

1847 • . . • B. F. Manahan. Joseph W. Furber. 

1847 (ext.) B. F. Manahan. Henry Jackson. 

1848 . . . . B. F. Manahan. Henry Jackson. 



46 The History of the City of Saint Paul ^ 

ESTABLISHMENT OF MISSIONS. 

The various missions among the Chippewas and Sioux of 
Minnesota, were established during the period from 1830 to 
1840. Edmund F. Ely, (now of Santa Barbara, California,) 
and Rev. Wm. R. Boutwell came in 1833 5 Revs. S. W. and 
G. H. Pond in 1834 » Revs. Thos. S. Williamson and J. D. 
Stevens in 1835 » Revs. S. R. Riggs, Alfred Brunson and 
David King in 1837 » ^^^ Rev. S. Spates in 1839, &^ More 
than half of the above band of self-sacrificing men are still res- 
idents of our State. 

THE ''peculiar INSTITUTION" IN MINNESOTA. 

Connected with the operations of the missions in this locality, 
is a fad: so curious that it deserves insertion here. During the 
early days of Fort Snelling, some of the officers were owners 
of slaves, whom they kept as their body or household serv^ants. 
" Dred Scott," who afterwards became historical, owing to 
the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States — gen- 
erally known as " the Dred Scott Decision " — was a slave of 
Surgeon Emerson, at Fort Snelling, about this date, and mar- 
ried a negro woman belonging to Maj. Taliaferro, while at 
the fort. When Rev. Mr. Brunson established his mission 
at Kaposia, in 1837, he found himself unable to do much owing 
to his entire ignorance of the Indian tongue, and at once set 
about finding an interpreter. The only one he could secure 
was a young negro named James Thompson, owned by an 
officer at Fort Snelling, and who was willing to sell him 
for $1,200. "Jim" talked Sioux first rate, and was religiously 
inclined, so that Father Brunson concluded to buy him if he 
could be secured. He accordingly wrote to some friends at 
Cincinnati the circumstances, and the amount necessary was 
soon raised and forwarded to him. "Jim" was purchased, his 
"free papers" secured, and he was soon interpreting the gos- 
pel to the pagans at Kaposia. Mr. Thompson now lives in 
St. Paul. This is, so far as has been recorded, the only sale 
of a slave which ever took place in what is now Minnesota. 

Father Brunson yet resides in Prairie du Chien — a hale. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 47 

active pioneer of 83, and preached in Saint Paul during the 
past autumn. 

THE PROGRESS OF SETTLEMENT. 

During the period — or decade — from 1830 to 1840, there set- 
tled in what is now Minnesota, some of our oldest pioneers — 
names now honored and widely known. Norman W. Kitt- 
son came in 1832 ; Henry H. Sibley in 1834 5 William H. 
Forbes, Martin McLeod and Franklin Steele in 1837 » 
Henry M. Rice and William Holcombe in 1839, &c. The 
Lake Superior region was early settled by William A. Ait- 
kin, the Morrisons, and others. Charles H. Oakes lo- 
cated there in 1825, and Dr. Charles W. Borup in 1831, 
both these gentlemen becoming residents of our city in a sub- 
sequent year. 

During these years, this region was likewise visited by sev- 
eral distinguished savans and travelers — Featherstonhaugh, 
Schoolcraft, Mather, Nicollet, Fremont, Cass, Cat- 
LiN, and others. Their published accounts aided in making 
the Upper Mississippi region better known, and undoubtedly 
tended to hasten the treaties which extinguished the Indian 
title to portions of the present State. 

Sketches of three of the pioneers of this period are appended 
to this chapter, and another (Hon. H. M. Rice) will be found 
in Chapter XV. 



NORMAN WOLFRED KITTSON 



was born at Sorel, Lower Canada, March 5, 18 14. He is a 
grandson of Alexander Henry, the celebrated explorer and 
traveler, who journeyed through the Lake Superior, Manitoba 
and Saskatchewan districts as early as 1776, and whose pub- 
lished travels are very scarce and valuable. In May, 1830, 
being then only 16 years of age, Mr. Kittson engaged as an 
employee of the American Fur Company, and in that capacity 
came to the Northwest. From the summer of 1830 to 1832, 
he was stationed at the trading post between the Fox and Wis- 
consin Rivers. During the latter year, he was sent to the 



48 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

headwaters of the Minnesota, and from thence went to the 
Red Cedar River, in Iowa. 

In 1834, he came to Fort Snelling, where he was engaged 
in the sutler department until 1838, in the fall of which year 
he returned to Canada, -and remained until spring. On his 
return, (1839,) ^^ began business on his own account, as a fur- 
trader, near what was then called '' Cold Spring," just above 
Fort Snelling. He continued here until 1843, when he entered 
the American Fur Company, as special partner, having charge 
of all the business on the headwaters of the Minnesota, and 
along the British line. During that year he fixed his headquar- 
ters at Pembina, and commenced collecting furs there and 
shipping them in Red River carts to Mendota. This was the 
origin of a very large trade between Saint Paul and the Red 
River settlement, a few years later, which will be found more 
fully dwelt on in a subsequent chapter. 

In 1854, Mr. Kittson entered into partnership with the late 
William H. ^orbes, in St. Paul, in the general Indian trade 
supply business. Their establishment, called " The Saint 
Paul Outfit," was widely known at that time. This year, Mr. 
Kittson came to reside at Saint Paul permanently, although 
it niight almost be said that his residence dates back to 1843, 
as he had owned property here since that day, and was here a 
considerable share of his time. In 1843, as will be found 
more fully narrated under tbat year, Mr. Kittson, purchased 
a claim which eventually proved very valuable, and was, in 
1 85 1, laid out as " Kittson's Addition," now one of the hand- 
somest portions of our city. 

In 1 85 1, Mr. Kittson was elected a member of the Council 
of the Minnesota Legislature from the Pembina District, and 
re-ele6ted in 1853, serving four sessions in all, viz. : 1852, 
1853, 1854, '^55? i^ which he took a prominent and useful 
part. In order to attend these sessions, in mid-winter, Mr. 
Kittson was compelled to walk on snow-shoes the whole dis- 
tance, or ride in a dog- sledge — a trip of great hardship, exposure 
and danger. Two of these trips, at least, he made on snow- 
shoes. Some account of these winter journeys will be found 
in the proper place. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 49 

In 1858, Mr. Kittson was ele<5led Mayor of Saint Paul, 
since which time he has not been in public life. 

During that year, the firm of Forbes & Kittson was dis- 
solved. Mr. Kittson continued his Red River trade until 
i860. He soon after accepted the position of Agent of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, and established a line of steamers and 
barges on the Red River, which has grown into quite a corpo- 
ration, now called the " Red River Transportation Compa- 
ny," with headquarters in Saint Paul, and operating several 
steamers and barges. 

Mr. Kittson is the oldest living pioneer of our State, with 
but one exception. In his 43 years' residence he has witnessed 
and taken part in changes which fall to the lot of but few men 
during an ordinary lifetime. Although over 60 years of age, 
Mr. Kittson is as a<5live, strong, and elastic in body as most 
young men of our day, and is constantly absorbed in an exa<5l- 
ing and harassing business. He enjoys the esteem of a wide 
multitude of friends, who hope that far distant may be the day 
when, at one of our " Old Settler" reunions, the name of Nor- 
man W. Kittson will be added to the list of those who have 
left us. 

HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 

Every new community, and, to a great extent, every new 
State, receives from its first pioneers and. prominent organizers, 
the impress which decides much of its future tone and spirit. 
Hence, the value of having society in every new State started in 
the right direction by men who can mold the " plastic elements" 
for good. Minnesota was peculiarly fortunate in having for 
its leading pioneers men of broad views, liberal culture and 
elevated character, and the effedl of their influence is plainly 
traceable in the future successftil course of our State, and the 
good name it bears abroad as a commonwealth, where educa- 
tion and religion are universal, and law and order are respected. 
How much of this we owe to the men who, with no selfish 
ends, but, actuated only by devotion to principle and the public 
welfare, and an unfaltering trust in the triumph of right, laid 
the foundations of our State, created its institutions, framed 



50 The History of the City of Saint PauU 

m 

its first laws, executed its first offices, and gave the first bent 
to its usages — we can now scarcely estimate. Posterity must 
indeed point to their names with gratitude and honor, far ex- 
ceeding even that evinced by those of the present generation, 
because to these the events (in some of which they may have 
participated) are too recent and perhaps too much colored with 
the passions or prejudices that are inseparable from our human 
organization, to place an impartial estimate on motives, and 
a<5lions, and results. By such a rule as the above, the name 
which heads this sketch, is one that must always occupy a 
foremost place in the history of our State. 

Henry H. Sibley was born at Detroit, Michigan, February 
20, 181 1. His father, Judge Solomon Sibley, a native of 
Massachusetts, was one of the most prominent pioneers of the 
Northwest, settling in Ohio in 1795, and in Michigan in 1797, 
from which he was a member of the first Legislature of the 
" Northwest Territory" in 1799 ; a delegate to Congress in 1820 ; 
Judge of the Supreme Court from 1824 to 1836; United States 
District Attorney, &c. He died in 1846, universally lamented. 
Judge Sibley married at Marietta, Ohio, in 1802, Miss Sarah 
W. Sproat, daughter of Col. Ebenezer Sproat, a distin- 
guished officer of the Revolution, and gr^nd-daughter of Com- 
modore Abraham Whipple, of the Revolutionary Navy. Her 
parents and grand-parents were all pioneers of Ohio, so that 
the subject of this sketch was, by ancestral influence, predisposed 
to such a life of pioneer adventure as he was destined to lead. 
Mrs. Sibley died at Detroit, January 22, 1851. Mrs. Ellet, 
in her work, " Pioneer Women of the West," remarks that she 
was a woman of unusual personal beauty, and rare mental 
accomplishments. 

H. H. Sibley received an academical education when young, 
and subsequently enjoyed two years' private tuition in the 
classics, from Rev. R. F. Cadle, one of the pioneers of educa- 
tion in the Northwest. His father had wished him to adopt 
his own profession, but, after studying law sometime, he be- 
came convinced that his natural inclination would lead him to 
more active and stirring life. His father very sensibly told him 
to pursue his own inclinations in this respedl — " a decision," 



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and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota^ 51 

said a writer, referring to the fa<5l, " that gave to Minnesota her 
honored pioneer — one whose history is so interwoven with her 
own that to write the one is almost ipso fado to record the 
other." 

About the age of 17, young Sibley went to Sault Ste. Marie, 
and was engaged there in mercantile operations for about a 
year. In 1829, he went to Mackinac, and entered the service 
of the American Fur Company as clerk. He remained at that 
post five years. In 1834, ■^^* Sibley, then 23 years of age, 
was admitted as a partner in the American Fur Company, of 
which Ramsey Crooks, father of Col. William Crooks, of 
this city, was President, and the late H. L. Dousman and Jo- 
seph Rolette, Senior, of Prairie du Chien, were also part- 
ners, and was to have charge of the trade above Lake Pepin, 
as far as the British line, with headquarters at Mendota, then 
called " Saint Peter's." Gen. Sibley himself says this step 
was largely owing to H. L. Dousman's solicitation, and to the 
glowing accounts he gave of Minnesota as a land of game, per- 
haps knowing Gen. S.'s fondness for field sports. 

Mr. Sibley arrived at Mendota, November 7, 1834, having 
rode on horseback from Prairie du Chien, a distance of nearly 
300 miles, there being but one human habitation on the way. 
Then, in all the region now known as Minnesota, there was, 
excepting -the garrison at Fort Snelling, only a handful of 
white men, mostly fur-traders and Canadian voyageurs. What 
mighty changes these forty-one years have witnessed. Gen. 
Sibley is now the oldest living settler, save one, in our popu- 
lation of 600,000 people, and it has been his fortune to take a 
more active and prominent part in the history of that period, 
than any other living man. 

On May 2, 1843, he was united in marriage to Miss Sarah 
J. Steele, at Fort Snelling. He had previously, in 1836, 
erecSted, at Mendota, the first private dwelling built of stone, 
in Minnesota, which is still standing. Mrs. Sibley died May 
21, 1869 — ^being truly one of the pioneer women of our State, 
and a lady of rare virtues and accomplishments. 

Mr. Sibley was probably the first civil officer in what is 
now Minnesota, having been appointed a Justice of the Peace 



52 . The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

in 1838, by Gov. John Chambers, of Iowa, which then en> 
braced the territory west of the Mississippi. This is more 
fully spoken of elsewhere. 

On Odober 30, 1848, Mr. Sibley was eleded a Delegate to 
Congress from what was then considered as Wisconsin Terri- 
tory — the residue of the old territory of that name, after carving 
the State out of it — with the understanding that he would urge 
the organization of Minnesota Territory. It was a trust of 
much delicacy and responsibility, for a failure would have been 
very discouraging and unfortunate at that juncture, when suc- 
cess was so vital to the interests of the people. He proceeded 
to Washington, and, after much effort, was admitted to a seat\ 
During the session, he was enabled, by hard work and personal 
influence, to procure the passage of a bill to organize the Ter- 
ritory of Minnesota. In the fall of 1849, he was again ele<5led 
for two years, and re-ele<5ted in 1850, serving over four years 
in all. 

This was a very diflicult and trying period for any one to 
represent a new Territory like Minnesota, whose needs were 
large, and yet with little population, and believed to be, as one 
member of Congress declared, '' a hyperborean region," unfit 
for settlement. Mr. Sibley soon exploded that prejudice by 
well- written articles for the press, on the climate, advantages 
and resources of Minnesota. There were large appropriations 
needed for various purposes, and these could be secured only 
by persuasive appeals to the members, by tadl and vigilance, 
and patient urging, so that Mr. Sibley was enabled to secure 
for the Territory more generous appropriations and liberal 
legislation than could have been obtained by any one possessing 
less of the esteem and respedl of his fellow members, since 
nearly everything was secured by personal influence. 

In 1855, Mr. Sibley was elected a member of the Minnesota 
Legislature from Dakota county, and, in 1857, served as a mem- 
ber, and President of the " Democratic wing" of the Consti- 
tutional Convention. In the fall of the same year, he was 
elected first Governor of the State. Owing to the delay in the 
admission of Minnesota, he was not inaugurated until May 24, 
1858. His term expired January i, i860. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 53 

On August 19, 1862, he was appointed by Gov. Ramsey 
commander of the military forces sent to quell \he Sioux out- 
break. He at once took adlive measures to meet and defeat 
the Indians, and release the captives, 250 in number, which 
they held, in both of which designs his ta6t and intimate knowl- 
edge of Indian chara<5ler and mode of warfare, enabled him 
fully to succeed — also taking about 2,000 Indian prisoners. 
Over 400 of these were tried by court-martial, and 303 con- 
demned to death, only 38 of whom, unfortunately, were finally 
executed on September 29, 1862 — President Lincoln having 
been persuaded by mistaken humanitarians to interfere in their 
behalf. Col. Sibley was commissioned Brigadier General for 
gallant services, and, during the winter, remained in command 
of the military forces in this State. Congress, meanwhile, 
reduced the number of Brigadiers General, but he was reap- 
pointed by the President in March, 1863, and accepted, at the 
request of a large number of leading citizens, who addressed 
to him a petition to that effect. During the summer, he organ- 
ized and commanded an expedition to Devil's Lake and the 
Missouri River, for the purpose of routing and driving off the 
hostile Sioux hovering on the frontier. The expedition was 
successful, and defeated them in several battles and skirmishes, 
returning to Fort Snelling in September. The years 1864 and 
1865 were employed in securing the defense of the frontier, ♦and, 
with the single exception of the Gardner family, no murders 
or depredations by Indians took place in the State. On No- 
vember 29, 1865, Gen. Sibley was commissioned as Major 
General, "for efficient and meritorious services." He was 
relieved from the command of the District of Minnesota in Au- 
gust, 1866, and was detailed as a member of the commission to 
negotiate treaties with the hostile Sioux and other bands on the 
Upper Missouri River, which was successfully carried out. 

In 1 87 1, Gen. Sibley served another term in the Legislature, 
from the 5th Ward, Saint Paul, (of which he became a resi- 
dent, it might be here noted, in 1862.) He is at present a 
Regent of the State University, and President of the State 
Normal Board, and was, for a few months, a member of the 
Board of Indian Commissioners — which last office he was com- 



54 ^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

pelled to resign on account of pressure of business. He has also 
been, for several years, President of the Gas Company, a Director 
of the First National Bank, Diredlor of the Sioux City Railroad, 
&c., besides filling various trusts, such as Park Commissioner, 
Meniber of Board of Education, and other bodies. Indeed, it 
is difficult to see how, in the pressure of so much business, and 
the exa<5ting demands of society. Gen. Sibley finds time to 
write the interesting papers which may be found in the collec- 
tions of the Historical Society, on the early history of the State, 
from which many extra<5ls are made in this volume. 

The frequent references, necessarily so, on account of Gen. 
Sibley's prominent and a6live connection with our history for 
over forty years, and the impossibility of condensing in a few 
sentences what would require a chapter, renders any further 
sketch, in this shape, unnecessary. It might simply be added 
that no one in our State is more widely known and more highly 
respected and honored than Gen. Sibley. His name has been 
almost " a household word" for one entire generation ; and, with 
his fine physique and unimpaired powers, it is not too much to 
hope that even many years of useful and a<5tive life may yet 
await him. 

WILLIAM HENRY FORBES 

was Dorn on Montreal Island, Canada, November 13, 18 15. 
His father was a Scotchman by birth, and was a member of 
the Hudson's Bay Company as early as 1785, but, at the time 
of the birth of the subje<5t of this sketch, he had retired from. 
a6tive business. Wm. H. was carefully educated in schools 
at Montreal, and afterwards apprenticed to the hardware 
business, ultimately becoming junior partner in the house 
where he was employed. At that time, Montreal was the chief 
depot of supplies for the Indian trade of the Northwest, and 
young Forbes, being constantly placed in conta<5l with the 
adventurous traders making purchases at his establishment, 
became interested in their romantic life, and the exciting stories 
they told about the great Northwest. His love of adventure 
was finally so aroused, that he resolved to try a career in this 
region. He consequently withdrew from the hardware busi- 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 55 

ness, and accepted a clerkship in the American Fur Company, 
one of the requisites being that the incumbent could speak and 
write French, which Mr. Forbes did fluently. He, with his 
party, came to Minnesota via Superior, and arrived at Mendota 
in the summer of 1837. ^* ^* Sibley was at that time in 
charge of the post. Mr. Forbes clerked for him for ten years, 
and, in 1847, took charge of an establishment for the Company, 
(called the "Saint Paul Outfit,") at Saint Paul, becoming a 
resident here, and continuing so until his death, nearly 28 years. 
In the early days of our city, Maj. Forbes was one of its most 
active promoters and public spirited men, and was one of the 
proprietors of the " Town of Saint Paul" when it was first 
laid out. 

When the Territory was organized, Maj. Forbes was elected 
a member of the first Council from Saint Paul, and afterwards 
re-eled:ed, serving four sessions as Councillor, and, during his 
third session , (1852,) was President of the Council . On March 
18, 1853, Maj. Forbes was appointed by President Pierce 
pK>stmaster at Saint Paul, and held this oflfiice for three years. 
During this year, (1853,) the American Fur Company closed 
out their business in Saint Paul, arid Maj. Forbes formed a 
partnership with N. W. Kittson, for the general supplying of 
the Indian trade. They transacted a very large business for 
several years. In 1858, Mr. Kittson retired from the firm, 
and it was continued until 1862 by Maj. Forbes. The Indian 
outbreak of that year put a close to the trade, and Maj. Forbes 
lost considerable at his trading posts, which were plundered by 
the savages. During the campaign against the Sioux, that year, 
he served with ability as a member of Gen. Sibley's staft', and 
a6ted as Provost Marshal at the military trial or court-martial 
of the 300 Indians who were condemned to death. At the 
close of this campaign, he was commissioned by President Lin- 
, coLN as a Commissary of Subsistence in the volunteer service, 
with rank of captain. He was also nominated and eledled 
Auditor of Ramsey county that fall, and served as such during 
the years 1863 and 1864. During a considerable portion of 
this time he was absent on military duty, however. In the 
spring of 1863, he accompanied Gen. Sibley's expedition to 



56 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

the Missouri River, as Chief Commissary, and, in the spring 
of 1864, was ordered to the Distri6l of Northern Missouri, as 
Chief Commissary. He remained there until 1866, and, during 
the latter part of his term, was engaged, as Chief Quartermas- 
ter, in closing up the unsettled affairs of Gen. Fremont's De- 
partment, which he did very satisfactorily to the Government. 
He was brevetted Major a short time prior to his being mus- 
tered out of office in 1866. 

He returned to Saint Paul in 1866, quite broken in health, 
and never recovered his former strength and energy. In 1871, 
he was appointed Indian Agent at Devil's Lake, a position for 
which he was admirably fitted, and the duties of which he 
performed with great success, and with fidelity and honesty. 
His health continued to decline, however, and, on July 20, 
1875, he closed his life, deeply lamented by 'a large circle of 
friends. His remains were brought to Saint Paul, and en- 
tombed in the Catholic cemetery, on July 25, in the presence 
of a numerous concourse of friends. 

Major Forbes was twice married ; first in 1846, to Agnes, 
daughter of Alexander Faribault, by whom he had one 
daughter, the wife of Captain J. H. Patterson, U. S. A. ; 
and again in 1854, to Miss A. B. Cory, of Cooperstown, New 
York, by whom he had four children, three of whom are living. 

The following very just tribute to Maj. Forbes' charadler is 
from the Pioneer- Press ^ which announced his death : 

'* During his long residence in Saint Paul, he maintained a high char- 
aAer for integrity and honesty, and was honored with many places of 
honor and trust, in all of which he acquitted himself with a credit which 
won for him the respe<ft and admiration of all who knew him. No 
stronger proof of his probity of chara<5ler could be given than the fad 
that for many years he has occupied positions of peculiar trust at the 
hands of the Government — positions such as purchasing and delivering 
agent in the army, and among the Indian tribes, in which hundreds of 
thousands of dollars have passed through his hands — and yet neither 
himself, nor any convenient friend, has ever touched a dollar not legit- 
imately earned. The extremely moderate circumstances with which 
he was surrounded during his official career, and up to the time of his 
death, are in striking contrast to those of many others who were simi- 
larly situated during the war and since." 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 57 



CHAPTER V. 

THE TREATIES OF 1837. 

The Trbatibs of 1837— The Country East of the Mississippi Thrown Open 
TO Settlement — Memorial of Settlers on the Reservation — ^The Reser- 
vation Surveyed — Settlers Object to being Driven off — Some Account 
or those Settlers, ac. 

THE year 1837 ^^^ ^ memorable one in Minnesota history, 
for during that year occurred the treaties referred to in the 
preceding chapter — one ot the most important events in the ca- 
reer of our State — throwing open, as they did, for the first time, 
the fine agricultural land of the delta between the Saint Croix 
and Mississippi Rivers, to the plow of the farmer, and the 
inexhaustible pineries of the Saint Croix Valley to the axe of 
the lumberman. 

The first of these treaties was made by Gov. Henry Dodge, 
of Wisconsin, (for whom our Dodge county was appropriately 
named,) with the Chippewas, at Fort Snelling, July 29, 1837. 
By this treaty, the Chippewas ceded. to the United States all 
their pine or agricultural lands on the Saint Croix and its 
tributaries, both in Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

In September, 1837, ^ delegation of about twenty chiefs and 
braves, by direction of Gov. Dodge, proceeded to Washing- 
ton, to make a treaty ceding their lands east of the Mississippi. 
They were accompanied by Maj. Taliaferro, their agent, 
and Scott Campbell, interpreter. The Fur Company was 
represented by H. H. Sibley ; while Alexis Bailly, Jo. La 
Framboise, A. Rocque, Labathe, the Faribaults, and 
others, fur-traders, &c., were present. Joel R. Poinsett, a 
special commissioner, represented the United States. On Sep- 
tember 29, the terms of the treaty were agreed on, and the 
articles signed by both the high contracting parties. By this 
treaty, the Dakotas ceded to the United States all their land 

5 



58 The History of the City of Saint Paul,, 

east of the Mississippi River, including all the islands in the 
same. They received therefor $3oc\,ocx), to be invested in five 
per cent, stocks, the income of which shall be paid to them annu- 
ally ; $iio,ocx) to be divided among the mixed bloods ; and 
$90,ocx) to payment of debts owed by the tribe, &c. 

This treaty — the extinction of whatever "title" the red men 
had to the region named — was, as observed above, a very im- 
portant event for Minnesota. It was the key-note for the set- 
tlement of the State. It opened the way for the hardy fron- 
tierman with his red shirt, and axe and plow. Hitherto, 
every foot of what is now Minnesota, except the little reserva- 
tion around Fort Snelling, had been the property, after a fash- 
ion, of a few barbarians — ^but this obstacle was no longer to 
exist. Once the white man had gained a foothold on the soil, 
following the precedent of two centuries, he would soon en- 
. large his grant, until he had swept out of his way its original 
tenants. .A breach had been made in the barriers that shut out 
civilization from this territory, through which the forlorn hope 
pressed their w;ay, with the great army of occupation following 
eagerly behind. 

This treaty, too, led the way for the first settlement of our 
city, as we shall presently see. 

MEMORIAL OF SETTLERS ON THE RESERVATION. 

Prior to the treaty, and before its ratification by the Senate, 
the summer following, there was much anxiety on the part of 
the settlers on the Reserve, to ascertain in what condition they 
would be left, after the territoiy east of the Mississippi was 
thrown open to squatters. A few families of Red River refu- 
gees and others had been allowed by the humane Col. Snel- 
ling to settle on the Reserve temporarily, as being the only 
place that could be of!ered them, but latterly there had been 
quite a hostile feeling against them on the part of the officers 
of the fort. Col. John H. Stevens, of Minneapolis, in his 
address on the "Early History of Hennepin County," before 
the Minneapolis Lyceum, 1856, says: "At that time, and 
both before and since, the commanding officers at the fort were 
the lords of the north. They ruled supreme. The citizens in 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 59 

the neighborhood of the fort were liable at any time to be 
thrust in the guard-house. While the chief of the fort was the 
king, the subordinate officers were the princes, and persons 
have been deprived of their liberty and imprisoned by those 
tyrants for the most trivial wrong, or some imaginary offense." 
The offense which was charged against Abraham Perry, 
Louis Massie and others, was that their cattle broke into the 
enclosures of the fort, and committed other depredations. They 
had repeatedly been requested and cautioned to leave, but they 
still hoped that they would not be driven away. On August 16, 
1837, t^cy sent to the President of the United States, (Martin 
Van Buren,) the following memorial : 

^' The undersigned citizens of the settlement near Fort Snel- 
ling, beg leave to make known to you the interest they feel in 
the contemplated purchase of the Sioux lands in this vicinity. 
In 1804, a treaty was made by General Pike with the Sioux 
Indians, under which he purchased a certain portion of their 
country, extending from the Falls of Saint Anthony to the 
mouth of* Saint Peter's River, and the prevailing opinion has 
been, until very recently, that this treaty had received the 
san<5tion of Government. It was under this impression that the 
undersigned settled upon the lands they now occupy as part of 
the public domain. They were permitted to make improve- 
ments and retain unmolested possession of them for many years 
by the commanding officer of the post, and the other officers 
of the Government employed here, who believed the land be- 
longed to the United States, and that the settlers were only 
exercising the privileges extended to them by the benign and 
salutary laws which have peopled the western country with a 
hardy, industrious and enterprising class of citizens. 

" The undersigned will further state that they have erected 
houses and cultivated fields at their present places of residence, 
and several of them have large families of children who have 
no other homes. All the labor of years is invested in their 
present habitations, and they therefore appeal to the President 
and Senate of the United States for protection. If a treaty 
should be made at Washington, as we have heard suggested, 
and the lands we now occupy be purchased from the Sioux 



6o The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

for a military reservation, we ask that a reasonable and just 
allowance be made us in the treaty for our improvements," &c. 
This memorial was signed by Louis Massie, Abraham 
Perry, Peter Quinn, Antoine Pepin, Duncan Graham, 
Jacob Falstrom, Oliver Cratte, Joseph Bisson, Joseph 
Reasch, Louis Dergulee, and others. Col. Samuel C. 
Stambaugh, sutler at Fort Snelling, was empowered to pre- 
sent it, and represent the settlers in any negotiations, and refer- 
ence was made to Gov. Henry Dodge for the truth and justice 
of the statements. 

SURVEY OF THE RESERVATION. 

On Odtober 19, Lieut. E. K. Smith, First Infantry, made 
a survey and map of the Reservation, by command of Maj. J. 
Plympton, Commander of the Post, who had arrived during 
that summer. He says, in his report ta Maj. P. : 

" The white inhabitants in the vicinity of the fort, as near as 
I could ascertain, are : 82 in Baker's settlement, around old 
Camp Coldwater, and at Massie*s landing. On the opposite 
side, 25 at the Fur Company's establishment, including Far- 
ibault's and Le Clere's, 50. Making a total of 157 souls 
in no way connedted with the military. 

*'This population possess and keep on the public lands, in 
the immediate neighborhood, nearly 200 horses and cattle. I 
am inclined to believe that this estimate will fall short of the 
adtual number." 

This map Maj. Plympton returned to the War Department 
on October 19, accompanied by a letter plainly indicating his 
intention to eje(ft all settlers on the Reserve. One reason he 
alleges is the scarcity' of timber for fuel on the Reserve : "It 
now (he says) causes much labor and inconvenience to the 
garrison to obtain the necessary fuel — and, should this point be 
required for the next 20 years for military purposes, the diffi- 
culty will be very great, and very much increased." 

In acknowledging receipt of this communication, November 
17, the Secretary of War instructed Maj. Plympton as follows : 

" If there be no reservation already made for military pur- 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 6i 

poses, at your post, please mark over what in your opinion will 
be necessary to be reserved." 

A memorandum from the War Department says : '* March 
26, 1838, Major P. transmitted a map of such a tra(ft embracing 
a considerable quantity of land on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi River J*^ 

In endorsing this memorial, Mr. Stambaugh says : 

'' The persons who sign the above memorial reside in the Saint 
Peter's settlement, about half a mile from the fort. They are 
the only individuals having houses and improvements on the 
west side of the Mississippi River, with the exception of Mr. 
Baker, whose principal trading establishment is in this settle- 
ment. No others can be afte<5led by a purchase of land neces- 
sary for a military reserve." 

In a subsequent letter to Hon. Joel R. Poinsett, Secreta- 
ry of War, dated February 11, 1839, Col. Stambaugh says: 

' ' The memorial speaks for itself, and I would not a(ft as the 
representative of the memorialists if I were not convinced that 
their claims are founded on justice, and their improvements 
secured to them by a custom which has grown into common 
law in all cases of this character. Independently of the legal 
right, however, I believe that humanity and good policy will 
secure them a reasonable allowance for the improvements and 
privileges they are willing to abandon. The memorial is signed 
by all the settlers on the west side of the Mississippi, with the 
exception of B. F. Baker. There are three or four settle- 
ments on the east side of the Mississippi River, but, as it was 
not supposed that an attempt would be made to extend the 
reservation across the river, the settlers did not join in their 
memorial." 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE SETTLERS. 

As near as I can ascertain, after extensive inquiry, the three 
or four settlers on the east side were : Joseph Turpin, Fran- 
cis Desire, Donald McDonald, "old man" Chorette, 
and, perhaps, Scott Campbell, Bartholomew Baldwin, 
and Abner Powel. 

Joseph Turpin is said to be the first man who built a house 



62 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

east of the Mississippi. Mr. Turpin was born at Montreal, 
Canada, about 1775. He came, sometime about the beginning 
of the present century, to Prairie du Chien, with his brother 
Amable, of whom a sketch is given elsewhere, and subse- 
quently emigrated to Selkirk's Settlement, where he remained 
some years. In 1831, as near as I can ascertain, he left Red 
River with a company of refugees, some of whom settled near 
Fort Snelling, and, not long after that date, built a house on the 
east side of the Mississippi. This house he subsequently sold 
to Joseph Rondo, another refugee. He afterwards lived many 
years at Mendota, where he died in 1865 — aged over 90 years. 

Of "old man" Chorette, I have been able to learn little 
that is reliable. He was a Canadian, lived af Red River some 
time, and settled near Fort Snelling the same year as Rondo, 
Turpin and others. He has probably been dead some years. 
T have been informed that he has children living in this vicin- 
ity, but have been unable to find them. 

Fronchet, or Desire, was a native of France, and, proba- 
bly, at the time mentioned, was 50 years of age, as he alwrays 
boasted of having been a soldier of Napoleon, and probably 
was. He had also served in the United States army, at Fort 
Snelling latterly, and (Mrs. James Fatten thinks) was dis- 
charged there. The explorer and scientist, J. N. Nicollet, 
while at Mendota, in 1836, preparing to go toward the Upper 
Mississippi on his expedition, employed Desire, then attached 
to the garrison, as an attendant. He speaks of him in his 
work as follows : '' Having received good testimonials of his 
character, I accepted his offer, and have nothing but praise to 
bestow on his activity, patience, and the cheerfulness which he 
manifested even in the midst of some trying circumstances to 
which we were exposed." Desire, having spent most of his 
life in the army, was unfitted, at his age, when he left the army, 
for any very adlive pursuits, while his intemperate habits also 
brought on him repeated troubles. He made a settlement east 
of 'the Mississippi, where he led a lonely life for some time, 
but was, in 1840, expelled from the Reserve with other set- 
tlers. In 1842, he came to Saint Paul, and secured employ- 
ment from Sergt. Richard W. Mortimer, who had just 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 63 

settled there, and J. R. Irvine and others. Desire could not 
work much, but did such light labor as was necessary, inter- 
spersing it with fearful sprees, lasting sometimes two weeks, 
in w^hich he would roll on the ground anywhere, helpless and 
insensible. He came near freezing to death several times in 

these debauches, but was always cared for by his acquaint- 

* 

ances, w^ho liked him very much, as he was a kind-hearted, 
good-humored and vivacious companion. Desire lived at Saint 
Paul some two years, and then went to Elk River, into which 
he fell during one of his sprees, and was drowned. 

•Donald McDonald was born in Canada, in 1803, of Scotch 
parents. At the age of 15 years he left Canada, with Captain 
Miles Montgomery, and went to Hudson's Bay. He was, 
for some years, in the employ of the American Fur Company, 
and traveled very extensively over the Northwest. He put up 
(he says) the third house on the east side of the Mississippi. 
Subsequently he claimed the land where the Half- Way House 
now is. This land, he says, he soW to Denoyer, " for a bar- 
rel of whisky and two Indian guns." He subsequently went to 
Crow Wing, where he married a half-breed, and had a numer- 
ous family. 



64 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE FIRST SETTLEMENT OF SAINT PAUL. 

Pierre Parrant, or "Old Pig's Eye"— Some Account of the Old Coon — He 
Makes the First Claim in Saint Paul — Abraham Perry and the Gervais 
Brothers Follow — Phelan and Hays, and Some Account of Them — ^the 
Indians Shoot Perry's Cattle — Ratification of the Treaty — ^A Mysteri- 
ous Character — Parrant Mortgages his Claim. 

THE long winter wore to a close, and the spring of 1838 
had thawed away its snow and ice. The treaty had 
been made, and that it would be ratified, there was no reasoln- 
able doubt. Why not anticipate the latter form, by making 
claims in advance } The thought was inspiring. Some of the 
pine-fringed streams along the Saint Croix, already resounded 
to the lumberman's axe. At Fort Snelling and Mendota -were 
a number of keen fellows, looking eagerly on, and waiting for 
a good chance to seize on some of the rich territory so soon to 
be open to the impatient speculator. Among them was one 

PIERRE PARRANT, 

a Canadian voyageur, who chanced to be, at the time, hanging 
around Mendota, waiting for something to turn up. Parrant 
had lived some time at Sault Ste. Marie, then at Saint Louis, 
where he had been in the employ of McKenzie and Chou- 
teau, and afterwards at Prairie du Chien. He came to Men- 
dota in 1832. It must be related, that he bore not the most 
enviable character. It was hinted that he left Sault Ste. Marie 
on account of some irregularities of condudl that were distaste- 
ful to the good people there. Maj. Taliaferro, the Indian 
Agent, appeared to estimate his character somewhat low. In 
one place in his journal, under date of August 23d, 1835, ^^^ 
writes: ^'Ordered Pierre Parrant, a foreigner, prohibited 
from the trade, not to enter the Indian country in any capacity." 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 65 

Parrant seems, in defiance of this order, to have entered 
the Indian country, for Maj. Taliaferro again writes, on 
October 12th, that it was reported that he had done so— 
and adds that, if found true, *' a military force would be sent 
after him, and he would be sent to Prairie du Chien." Par- 
rant's personal appearance may have somewhat favored the 
estimate of his character. He was a coarse, ill-looking, low- 
brow^ed fellow, with only one eye, and that a sinister-looking 
one. He spoke execrable English. His habits were intem- 
perate and licentious, and, at the date w^e speak of, he was past 
the meridian of life — probably sixty years of age. 

Such was the man on whom Fortime, with that blind fatuity 
that seems to characterize the jade, thrust the honor of being 
the founder of our good city ! Our pride almost revolts at the 
chronicling of such a humiliation, and leads us to wish that it 
were on one worthier and nobler that such a distinction had 
fallen. But history is inexorable, and we must record fads as 
they are. 

Parrant kept his one eye open to the main chance, it 
would seem, and, after surveying the situation of things with 
his optic, he concluded not to wait the ratification of the treaty, 
but to seize on some good spot in advance. For certain rea- 
sons, he desired to get as near the fort and to Mendota as pos- 
sible, while getting just outside the lines of the Reserve, as 
far as they could be ascertained. These reasons were, that he 
could sell whisky to the soldiers and Indians undisturbed by 
the authorities at the fort, who had been greatly annoyed at the 
surreptitious sale of liquor to those two classes, by some un- 
principled traders and hangers-on around Fort Snelling, and 
were endeavoring to break up the traffic as far ais possible. 
Hence, he selected, as the most eligible spot for such a busi- 
ness, the mouth of the creek which flows out of "Fountain 
Cave," in upper town. Parrant wisely judged of the con- 
venience of the place to his customers. It was near the river, 
where the Indians and others could paddle to his very door, 
and then, too, he could get his supplies easily, and, if neces- 
sary, dilute the article profitably, by a judicious admixture of the 
unfailing stream flowing out of the cave. Here, in the coolie. 



66 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

a secluded and lonely gorge in the river bank, Parr ant, about 
the first of June, in the year of our Lord 1838, began eredling 
his hovel. He, the immortal parent of our saintly city, and 
of the noble army of whisky-sellers who have thriven since 
that day — it, the first habitation, the first business house, of our 
Christian metropolis of to-day ! Thus was our city ''founded" 
— by a pig-eyed retailer of whisky. The location of the future 
Capital of Minnesota was determined, not by the commanding 
and picturesque bluffs, a noble and inspiring site whereon to 
build a city — not by the great river flowing so majestically in 
front of it, suggestive of commerce and trade — but solely as a 
convenient spot to sell whisky, without the pale of law ! 

ANOTHER SETTLER ABRAHAM PERRY. 

Almost simultaneously with the advent of Parrant, came 
another settler — Abraham Perry, (or Perret,) and family, 
having been compelled to leave the Reserve on the west side, 
as referred to a few pages back. 

Abraham Perry was born in Switzerland, about the year 
1780, and was brought up as a watchmaker. He married in 
Switzerland, and three children were born to him there. 
About the year 1820, he, with a considerable number of his 
fellow countrymen, were induced to emigrate to the Red River 
Colony, by one of Lord Selkirk's agents. " Their occupa- 
tions had been mechanical, (says Neill,) chiefly that of clock- 
making, and they were not adapted for the stern work of found- 
ing a colony in the interior of North America. From year to 
year their spirits drooped, and when the Switzers' song of 
home was sung, they could not keep back their tears." Re- 
peated calamities oppressed the colony — untimely frosts, grass- 
hoppers and other causes despoiled their harvests, and finally 
the great flood of 1826 gave the finishing blow to their hopes. 
A large number of the Swiss determined to emigrate to the 
United States. It was reported that they would be kindly re- 
ceived at Fort Snelling, and allowed to settle there, and, in 1827, 
a number of families came to that point, Abraham Perry 
among them. The kind-hearted Snelling allowed such as 
wished to locate near the fort. Perry, who had brought with 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 67 

him a number of cattle, located a mile or two above the fort, 
near '' Cold Spring," built a cabin, opened a farm, and was 
soon prosperously fixed. Two children had been born to him 
at Red River, and, during his residence at Fort Snelling, two 
more, making six daughters and one son in all. Meantime, 
two of his oldest daughters w^ere married. In the spring of 
1838, as referred to before, Maj. Plympton drove all the set- 
tiers oft' the west side of the Reserve, Perry among them. 
This w^as a cruel blow to Perry, who had just begun to be 
comfortably fixed, and was now in the evening of his days, 
with quite a family dependent upon him. But, driving his 
flocks before him, like Abraham of old, he journeyed across 
the river, looking for a new home. Wishing, like Parrant, 
to get just without the bounds of the Reserve — which he was 
informed by Maj. Plympton intersected, the Mississippi at 
Fountain Cave — ^he made a claim just below that of Parrant, 
on the beautiful stream which flows across the road there, and 
eredled a habitation about where the City Hospital now stands. 
His herd* was soon grazing on the luxuriant meadow grass 
about him, giving new hopes that perhaps at last he might pass 
the evening of life in peace. 

But even this hope was destined to prove delusive ere long, 
as we shall see a few pages subsequently. In fa(ft, scarcely 
was Perry's new roof-tree reared, when the Sioux appeared 
and threateningly ordered them to leave. It seems that, al- 
though the Indians had bartered away their lands, they still 
looked with a jealous eye upon them, and were loth to see the 
stranger and the pale-face occupy them and prosper. Perry 
gave them no satisfadtion, however, and, on June 9^ a party of 
the Kaposia band, probably headed by Wa-kin-yan-ton-ka^ or 
Big Thunder, (Little Crow's father,) went to Fort Snel- 
ling, and complained to Maj. Taliaferro, Indian Agent, 
about Perry and Parrant settling on their lands, before the 
treaty had been ratified, and they received any consideration. 

Nothing was done at that time concerning the alleged intru- 

* Col. John H. Stevens, in the address before quoted, says : " Perey at one time 
owned more cattle than all the rest of the inhabitants of what is now Minnesota, if we 
except Mr. Renville." 



» 



68 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

sion, as a steamer arrived just then, on which came a passen- 
ger, who reported to have heard that the treaty was ratified. 
A Httle premature, however. But at all events, Parrant was 
suffered to sell whisky, and Perry to herd his flocks, undis- 
turbed. 

Not undisturbed eitljer, for a few weeks subsequently, viz. : 
on October i8, Maj. Taliaferro writes in his journal, that 
Mrs. Perry and Charles Perry, her son, came to the fort 
and complained that the Indians had killed three of her cattle, 
and wounded a fourth. This was sometime after the ratifica- 
tion of the treaty, too, and that fact must have been known to 
them. But I am of the opinion that Parr ant's whisky must 
have caused this latter outrage, more than any other cause. 
Perhaps Maj. Taliaferro took this view of it, too, for he 
merely adds in his journal: "They (the Sioux) will have to 
pay $200 for the aftair out of their next year's annuity." 

THE TREATY RATIFIED. 

While these events were progressing, however, the ti-eaty 
of September 29, 1837, ^^^ slowly passing through the Sen- 
ate. On June 15, a final vote was reached on it, and it was 
ratified. Just one month later, (news traveled slow those 
days,) the steamer Palmyra landed at Fort Snelling, with the 
glad news. It produced some excitement among those vs^ho 
had been waiting so long to make claims, and they at once 
started oft' to seize on eligible points, which had already been 
picked out by covetous eyes. 

N. W. Kittson states that the boat arrived in the evening, 
and, after dark the same night, he, Franklin Steele and An- 
gus M. Anderson, started off to make a claim at Saint Anthony 
Falls. Joseph R, Brown left at the same time for the Saint 
Croix, where he drove the stakes of a new town. 

the gervais brothers settle here. 

On the 13th day of July, 1838, Benjamin Gervais and 
Pierre Gervais, made claims near Abraham Perry, and 
proceeded to ere(ft habitations. The Gervais brothers were 
Red River refugees. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 69 

Benjamin Gervais was born at Riviere du Loup, Canada, 
July 15, 1786. About the year 1803, he went to Red River, 
in company with several Canadian families, who settled there. 
Gervais did not himself settle there that year, but made trading 
voyages back and forth to Canada until the year 181 2, when 
he took up his residence there, and was in the employ of the 
Hudson's Bay Company for several years. On September 29, 
1823, he was married at Fort Garry, by Bishop Provencher, 
to Miss Genevieve Larans, a native of Berthier, Canada, 
and went to farming at a place called La Pointe, about a mile 
and a half below Fort Garry. Their story is that of all the 
Red River refugees — the floods, grasshoppers, untimely frosts, 
hard winters, &c., drove them away to a more habitable region, 
and, in 1827, Mr. Gervais, with his wife and three children, 
proceeded to Fort Snelling, near which they settled. 

On being turned away from the Reserve, Mr. Gervais pro- 
ceeded to the neighborhood of Mr. Perry, and made a claim 
a little below that settler, running from the river to the bluff. 
Having one or two stout boys, born during his residence, on 
Red River, he proceeded to make a clearing, and soon had 
quite a farm in operation. 

Pierre Gervais was 17 years younger than his brother. 
He, too, had lived at Red River several years^ and came from 
there to Mendota in 1826, where he entered the service of the 
American Fur Company. He made a claim near Benjamin 
Gervais, which occupied about what is now known as 
*' Leech's Addition." 

ANOTHER PRONUNCIAMENTO FROM MAJOR PLYMPTON. 

Though the above settlers thought that they were, beyond 
any doubt, settling outside the bounds of the Reservation, as 
far as they were understood at that time, it is possible that the 
authorities at the fort took a different view of it, and regarded 
it as an intrusion on the sacred domain of the Government. 
On July 26, 1838, Maj. Plympton issued an order forbidding 
" all persons, not attached to the military, from eredting any 
building or buildings, fence or fences, or cutting timber for 
any but for public use, within said line, which has been sur- 



^o The History of the City of Saint Paul., 

veyed and forwarded to th^ War Department, subject to the 
final decision thereof," &c. 

Whether this order was called out by the fa6l of Perry, the 
Gervais families and others settling within the imaginary lines 
of Plympton's Reser\'e, or not, it is not absolutely known. It 
is quite probable he did refer to those squatters, however, as in 
the letter accompanying a copy of the order to the War De- 
partment, he says : 

" Headquarters Fort Snelling, July 30, 1838. 

" Sir : I take the liberty to enclose to you herewith a copy of an 
order which I deemed necessary to publish to prote<$t the land which 
has been marked out as a military reservation at this post, against en- 
croachments, which were every day forcing themselves upon my notice. 

" Without interfering with the property of any individual, I shall 
stricftly enforce my order till the pleasure of the Department shall be 
known upon the subject, presuming that my duty to the public and the 
spirit of niy instructions call for such a course. 

** My order must, as a matter of right, more particularly allude to 
persons urging themselves within the line at this time, than to those 
who I found, on my arrival here last summer, settled down near the 
fort. The authority for these settlements being made, I have to pre- 
sume, is to be found or is known at the Department, although I have 
not been successful in finding any record of it in the office of this post. 

•*The chara<5ler and extent of these settlements and improvements 
was given in my communication of the 19th Odlober, 1837. 

** I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

"J. Plympton, 
"Major United States Army, Commanding Post. 
** Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, Distric^t of Columbia." 

About the same date that the news of the ratification of the 
treaty was received at Fort Snelling, and shortly after, three 
soldiers were discharged from the Fifth Regiment, named Ed- 
ward Phelan, John Hays and William Evans, all three 
natives of Ireland. They resolved to make claims in the newly 
ceded tra(ft, and, finding some settlers along the river below 
the cave, fixed on this locality as the most likely one for their 
purpose. 

EDWARD PHELAN 

was the youngest of the three. He was a man of splendid 
physique, over six feet in height, muscular and active. He 



and of the County of Ramsey,^ Minnesota, 71 

bore not the most enviable character. He is reported to have 
been immoral, cruel, revengeful and unscrupulous. By his 
own boasting, he had led a law^less and criminal life before 
entering the army, and was one whom most civil and well- 
disposed persons avoided as a dangerous person. His future 
career will show that this estimate of his character was well 
founded. 

Since the foregoing was written, I have, by the courtesy of 
the Adjutant General U. S. A., been supplied with the follow- 
ing " descriptive list" of Phelan, from the records of the War 
Office : 

"Washington, D. C, 0<ft. 20, 1875. 

** Sir : In reply to your letter of the 7th instant, I respectfully inform 
you, that, upon an examination of the official records, it appears that 
Edtvard Felyn enlisted June 8, 1835, at New York City, for three 
years, and was assigned to Company E, Fifth Infantry, and discharged 
June 8, 1838, by reason of expiration of service, at Fort Snelling, Wis- 
consin Territory, a private. He was twenty-four years of age when en- 
listed, had gray eyes, brown hair, fair complexion, and was six feet 
two and one-half inches high ; born in Londonderry, Ireland, and by 
occupation a laborer. 

** Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" S. N. Benjamin, 
"Assistant Adjutant General." 

WILLIAM EVANS 

was a fellow countryman of Phelan's, and near the same age. 
He sele(5ted for his claim a spot on Dayton's Bluff, near the 
Dayton Mansion, and lived there a dozen or more years. He 
subsequently moved to what is now Washington county, and 
is said to be a farmer in that locality at present — ^but I have 
been unable, after several efforts, to get his address, or to secure 
any information from him. 

SERGEANT JOHN HAYS. 

Serving in Company E, Fifth Regiment, was Sergeant John 
Hays, also a native of Ireland, who, at the time Phelan and 
Evans made their claims, was expecting his discharge in a 
few months, and wished to settle near his old comrades. He, 
therefore, made an arrangement with Phelan, that the latter 



72r The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

was to make for him (Hays) a claim alongside his own, and 
hold it until his discharge, and agreeing that he would furnish 
for Phelan some money which the latter was to use in erect- 
ing a cabin, &c., which they would jointly occupy, when he 
came out of the army. Hays was a man of exactly the oppo- 
site characteristics as the ruffianly Phelan. He was of middle 
age at the time we write — his hair somewhat bleached with 
two or three terms' service in the army. He was something of 
a martinet in discipline, precise and exa(ft in his dress, bearing 
and actions, gained by his long military service. His form 
was spare but eredl, and he had a dignified and respecStable 
bearing, that impressed everybody who met him, favorably. 
Every one of the earliest settlers of Saint Paul who knew^ John 
Hays, speaks of him with unqualified praise, as an honest, 
good, courteous and clever old gentleman. He was unmar- 
ried, and, during his service in the army, had saved his pay, 
which, at the time of his discharge, amounted to a considera- 
ble sum. The records of the War Department give the "de- 
scriptive list" of Hays, when he re-enlisted in 1836, as foUow^s : 

"John Hays, age 37 years, born in Waterford, Ireland; occupation, 
a laborer; blue eyes, light hair, light complexion, height five feet 
eight and three-fourths inches. Re-enlisted in Company E, Fifth In- 
fantry, April 25, 1836, for three years ; discharged at Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota, April 25, 1839, hy reason of expiration of service, a sergeant." 

His age, when discharged, would, if the above figures are 
correal, be about forty, but he is spoken of by all who knew 
him, as being much older than that, and probably was, as for 
good reasons he might have understated his age when muster- 
ed in. 

PHELAN MAKES A CLAIM. 

As remarked above, these three soldiers resolved to nriake 
claims in this vicinity. Phelan was the first to secure his 
discharge, and, after prospecSting hereabouts, seledted as a claim 
a tra6t of ground fronting on the river, running back to the 
bluff', and bounded (approximately) by what is now Eagle and 
Third streets on the west, and Saint Peter street on the east. 
On the side of the bluff", under Third street — about where, the 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 73 

soap faiftory now stands — he built a log house, a mere hovel, 
it is described, to " live" in for the present. 

At request of Hays, as before stated, Phelan seledied for 
him*, a claim adjoining his own on the east, fronting on the 
river, and running back to the bluffs, extending probably from 
what is now Saint Peter street, down to somewhere near the 
present Minnesota street. He was to hold this claim for 
Hays — according to the agreement with H. — until the latter 
got his discharge, the subsequent spring, and thereafter Hays 
w^as to live with him in the hovel under the hill. 

a mysterious character. 

Sometime during the summer or fall of 1838, a stranger 
" turned up," from no one knew where, and built a cabin on 
the bank near where Lindeke's mill now is — between that and 
the gas works. Nothing more. was known concerning him 
than that his name was ''Johnson." ^V^here he came from, 
his past life, his object in settling in such an out-of-the-way 
place, were all wrapped in a profound and embarrassing mys- 
tery, that baffled the most curious scrutiny of the suspicious 
settlers hereabout. A woman was living with him, presumed 
to be his wife, and she had a young child. What deepened 
the mystery, in the eyes of the plain, simple inhabitants of that 
primeval period, was the fadl that ''Johnson" and his wife 
had evidently moved in society of a kind much superior, in a 
social, or fashionable point of view, to that which would usually 
be found in the claim shanties of the frontier at that period* 
Their manners were elegant atid refined, and they dressed in 
expensive and fashionable clothing. In fa6l, it was not so 
much the reserved and secluded manners of Johnson that first 
attracted suspicion against him, as* his fine clothes ! We almost 
shrink from recording the fact that, at one period of our history, 
to be well dressed was to become an objedl of suspicion. That 
is sadly changed now, to an opposite extreme. One needs 

* Vetal Guerin, who gave me very minutely his reminiscences of early days, 
thought that the claims were owned in the opposite way, i. e., that the upper one Phe- 
lan intended for Hays, and the lower one he meant to be his own. The other settlers, 
however, give the account of it as I have recorded it above. 



w 

74 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

only a skillful tailor to enable him to become the pet of quite 
a numerous circle of persons who ought to know better, but 
•who find out, after being repeatedly vidiimized, that good char- 
adier and good clothes are not inseparable. No such nice dis- 
tindlions troubled the men and women of 1838, however. But 
when they saw a man threading our springy bogs or thorny 
thickets in patent leather gaiters and broadcloth clothes and 
silk hat, it must be confessed that there was some ground for 
being a little shy of him. The most charitable would have 
admitted -that he had at least eloped with some other man's 
wife, and came to this secluded region to avoid notice. But 
there were others who suspedied a still more heinous offense. 
He could not, they thought, support all this style without labor, 
unless he had robbed some one down below, and fled with the 
ill-gotten booty, or else was a counterfeiter. The last suspicion 
gained the most prevalence, and was strengthened by an inci- 
dent that occurred the following spring, probably. One cold, 
dark, stormy night, when a perfedi tempest was raging, one 
of the settlers, who had been down the river, to Pig's Eye, 
probably, arrived at Johnson's cabin, cold, weary, wet and 
hungry, and asked permission to remain all night and get some 
food, as he did not feel able to get the rest of his way home in 
the storm and darkness. Strange to say, this request was re- 
fused ; in fa<5t, he avers that Johnson would not even open the 
door for him. This, taken in conne<5tion with the other sus- 
picious circumstances, was, to the settlers hereabouts, proof 
strong as words of holy writ that Johnson must be a counter- 
feiter. The settlers at last hinted to him their suspicions, and 
added a threat that " the authorities at the fort," a class every- 
body seemed to stand in awe of, were going to arrest him. 
Whether Johnson had been* guilty of any wrong or not, will 
never be known, but this last information seemed to make him 
uneasy. He hastily sold his claim to James R. Clewett, 
and decamped down the river. ^ 

PARRANT MORTGAGES HIS CLAIM. 

But we must not lose sight of old Parr ant, located at the 
cave. During all this time he was driving a flourishing trade. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 75 

selling whisky to both Indians and whites. Occasionally a 
party of soldiers, bound on a spree, would come down to his 
ranch, get soaked with his red-eye and tangle-foot brands, and 
fail to report next day. Hence a guard would have to hunt 
them up, and the poor fellows would sojourn in the guard- 
house, or wear a ball and chain for a period. Two or three 
times the officers at the fort threatened to tear his shanty down, 
but never executed the threat at that time. His place was 
searched once or twice, with the intention of demolishing all 
liquor found, but the old fox was too sly to be caught that way. 
He didn't keep much stock in sight. The rest of it was buried 
near by, w^here no one but himself could find it. Some say he 
used to hide it in the cave. 

But old Parrant lost his place at last. In the fall of that 
year — 1838 — he borrowed from William Beaumette, of Men- 
dota, the sum of $90, and, to secure it to the latter person, gave 
him the following judgment note, the original of which the 
writer has in his possession : 



" Saint Peter's, 12th November, 1838. 
** On the first day of May next, I promise to pay to Guillaume 
Beaumette, ninety dollars, for the value received, without defalcation. 

his 

"Pierre X Parrant. 

mark. 

" Witness : 
"A. M. Anderson. 
" H. H. Sibley. 

" Know all men by these presents, that I, Pierre Parrant, residing 
near the entry of the Saint Peter's River, and in Wisconsin Territory, 
do hereby make over, transfer and quit-claim to Guillaume Beau- 
mette, of said Saint Peter's, all my right, title, and interest in and to 
all that tract or portion of land which I, the said Parrant, now reside 
upon and occupy, at the cave, so-called, about four miles below Fort 
Snelling, to have and to hold the same to the said Guillaume Beau- 
mette, his heirs and assigns forever. 

' Provided always — and it is hereby expressly understood between 
the parties, that if the said Pierre Parrant shall pay or cause to be 
paid, on or about the first of May next, to the said Beaumette, the siim 
of ninety dollars, amount of a certain note of hand given by me, the 



76 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ 

said Parrant, to the said Beaumette, then this transfer to be null, 
and of none effe<5l, otherwise to remain in full force and virtue. 

his 

** Pierre X Parrant. [l. s.J 

mark. 
** Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of — 
" H. H. Sibley. 
"A. M. Anderson." 

The above document is in the handwriting of H. H. Sibley, 
who was then, or at least shortly afterward, a Justice of the 
Peace of Clayton county, Iowa, with a bailiwick extending 
from the present Iowa line to the British Possessions. 

WILLIAM BEAUMETTE, 

to whom the above note was given, was a Canadian by birth, 
who had emigrated to Red River about i8i8or 181 9. He was 
a stone *mason by trade, and, while at Red River, helped to 
build the present Fort Garry. At the time of the exodus from 
Selkirk's Settlement to Fort Snelling, Beaumette accom- 
panied the refugees, and proceeded to .Mendota, where he 
lived some years. He did not become an a<5tual resident of 
Saint Paul until some time after the date of this occurrence. 
He married a sister of Vetal Guerin, and lived in Saint Paul 
for over twenty years. He died here in November, 1870, aged 
about 70 years. 

Here, for the present, we must leave this real estate transac- 
tion. 



/ 



1839] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 77 



CHAPTER VII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1839. 

The Exclusion of Settlers from the Reserve Argued— Surgeon Emerson 
Accuses them of Demoralizing the Soldiers with LiqyoR — Gen. Wool 
Corroborates this — ^The LiqyoR Traffic with Indians — Parrant Loses 
his Claim — Origin of " Pig's Eye" — Settlers at the Grand Marais — First 
Marriage, Birth and Death — ^The Murder of Hays — Was Phelan Guil- 
ty? — Survey of the Reservation — Order finally issued to Expel the 
Settlers — ^The Wisconsin Legislature Protests — Vetai, Guerin Jumps 
the Hays Claim. 

EARLY in 1839, the exclusion of the settlers on the Re- 
serve again occupied the attention of the authorities at 
the fort. The ostensible reason was the illicit liquor traffic 
which some of them carried on, but, from the subjoined letter 
of Col. Samuel C. Stambaugh, sutler at Fort Snelling, to 
the Secretary of War, quoted on page 61, other motives may 
have been at work. Referring to the lines of the Reserve, as 
adopted by Major Plympton, he remarks : 

A SIGNIFICANT DOCUMENT. 

" Nor was it thought by any one that the line would cross the Saint 
Peter's. There is land enough on the west side of (or between) these 
rivers, in the Indian country, to make a reservation of any extent, 
which will not be bounded by western settlers for a long time. 

*' You will perceive, by an examination of the survey and plat before 
you, that the line as run is both awkward and unnatural. It commences 
some distance above the Falls of Saint Anthony on the west side of 
the Mississippi, but, instead of crossing immediately and traversing the 
country to strike the angle of the river below the fort, it runs along the 
west side about three miles below the Falls, where it crosses the river, 
and thence strikes across the country to Carver's Cave, which is three 
miles below Fort Snelling by the course of the river. 

*'The land, embracing the Falls of Saint Anthony, on the east side 
of the river, has, since its purchase by the United States, been im- 
proved by settlements so as to secure a pre-emption, and it is now held 
in possession by Doctor Wright, Franklin Steele, and myself, (one- 



78 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1839 

half se<5lion,) and one section by Major Plympton, Captain Scott, arid 
Do<5tor Embrson. These settlements include the best positions imme- 
diately above the Reservation, as surveyed. If the military Reservation 
is made to include Carver's Cave, belov^r Fort Snelling, it will embrace 
all the steamboat landings on the Mississippi River along a distance of 
twenty miles below the Falls, as the country is broken and swampy 
nine miles below the cave, and hence no steamboat landing can be 
procured by settlers within a distance of twelve miles below Fort Snel- 
ling, and the rapids produced by the Falls will prevent boats ascending 
above the Reservation line. The property, therefore, in which I, with 
others, claim. to have an interest, would be greatly enhanced in value, 
by a military Reserve, which would place our claim most .contiguous to 
the fort. But I believe the military service cannot be benefited by 
such a measure, and the adoption of it would produce universal dissat- 
isfaction when the country comes into market, and would now be a 
great mortification and inconvenience to visitors, who will crowd the 
!Falls of Saint Anthony during the summer months, if houses for their 
accommodation can be eredled in the vicinity of Fort Snelling. The 
bluffs of the river immediately opposite the fort are very high and dif- 
ficult of ascent, and the current of the river strong and deep. They 
are exposed to the eye of the sentinel for more than a mile up and 
down the river, so that no soldier can cross and enter a house on the 
opposite side without detection. Whereas, if settlers are forced back 
into the interior, out of sight and beyond immediate investigation, they 
will be of an inferior class, and can, if so disposed, bring whisky in 
kegs into the forest, within a short distance of the fort, with but little 
risk. 

"The same objedtions exist to the extension of the Reserve beyond 
the Saint Peter's River. In a year or two, in all probability, the Indian 
title will be extinguished on that side of the river, so as to secure both 
sides of the Mississippi, and the citizens of Iowa Territory will extend 
their settlements to the rich valley of the Saint Peter's. If, therefore, 
the line is established as surveyed, it will take in all the boat landings 
near the jun<5tion of the Saint Peter's and Mississippi, and the people 
of Iowa can have no town or depot within from 10 to 15 miles distance, 
centered by this important point. 

"I have taken the liberty of submitting to you these undigested re- 
marks, because I know that the extension of the military Reserve for 
Fort Snelling, beyond the Mississippi and Saint Peter's, will give great 
dissatisfaction to the people who go to purchase land and settle in that 
country. I have heard but one opinion expressed concerning, it from all 
who have visited that place since I have been there. The United States 
Commissioners, Judge Pease and General Ewing, who were there 
last summer, after the survey was made, expressed the same opinions 
here given. If a military force must be kept up, at a heavy expense, to 



1839] ^^^ of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 79 

preserve peace between the Indians and our own citizen settlers, the 
latter should not be thrown out of sight and out of hearing of that pro- 
tection, but, as is usual, the first settlers should be permitted to locate 
as near that protection as possible. As the line has been run by the 
survey now before you, with the Mississippi and a forest of several 
miles intervening, an Indian force can intercept all communication with 
the fort, and the inhabitants may be massacred before the military can 
be apprised of the attack. Whereas, if the settlements would border 
on the river, they could furnish a shelter for those in the interior, and 
be covered by a six-pounder from the fort. A friendly intercourse and 
feeling would thus also be kept up between the military and civil power, 
which. is a matter of the highest importance in times of Indian troubles.*' 

THE ILLICIT SALE OF LIQUOR TO SOLDIERS. 

On March 10, Maj. Plympton addressed a long letter to the 
War Department, mainly in reference to the lines of the Re- 
serve, and the settlers thereon, rehearsing the troubles the set- 
tiers had given him by selling liquor to the soldiers, and urging 
their expulsion. The surgeon of the fort. Dr. Emerson, also 
addressed the following letter to the Surgeon General : 

'* Fort Snelling, April 23, 1839. 

" Sir : As a friend to the soldier and temperance in the army, I am 
induced to make to you, as head of the department to which I have the 
honor of belonging, a statement of our situation at this post. Since 
the middle of winter we have been completely inundated with ardent 
spirits, and consequently the most beastly scenes of intoxication among 
the soldiers of this garrison and the Indians in its vicinity, which, no 
doubt, will add many cases to our sick-list. The whisky is brought 
here by citizens who are pouring in upon us and settling themselves on 
the opposite shore of the Mississippi River, in defiance of our worthy 
commanding officer, Major J. Plympton, whose authority they set at 
naught. At this moment, there is a citizen, once a soldier in the Fifth 
Infantry, who was discharged at this post while Col. Snelling com- 
manded, and who has been since employed by the American Fur Com- 
pany, actually building on the land marked out by the commanding 
officer as the Reserve, and within gunshot distance of the fort, a very 
extensive whisky shop. They are encouraged in their nefarious deeds 
in consequence of letters received by them, as they say, from Saint Louis 
and Washington, mentioning that no Reserve would be acknowledged 
by the proper authority. If such is the fa<St, (which I doubt very much,) 
I can only say that the happiness of the officers and soldiers is at an 
end at Fort Snelling. 

" In my humble opinion, the immediate a(5lion of the Government is 



8o The History of the City of Saint Pauh [1839 

called for, to give us relief in pointing out the military Reserve, which 

ought not to be less than twenty miles square, or to the mouth of the 

Saint Croix River, especially as the Indians are allowed by treaty to 

hunt on it. I am certain, if the honorable Secretary of War knew our 

situation, not a moment's time would be lost in turning the wretches 

off of the Reserve, who live by robbing the men of the garrison of 

health, comfort, and every cent they possess. Pardon me, sir, if I err 

in writing so, but I feel griefved to witness such scenes of drunkenness 

and dissipation where I have spent many days of happiness, when we 

had no ardent spirits among us, and, consequently, sobriety and good 

conduct among the command. May I presume to ask you to use your 

influence with the proper authority to mark out the Reserve, and rid us 

of those harpies or whisky-sellers who destroy the health of the soldiers, 

and, consequently, their usefulness to their Government and country. 

** With great respecft, I have the honor to remain your obedient servant, 

**J. Emerson, 

'* Surgeon U. S. A. 
"Thomas Lawson, 

" Surgeon General U. S. A. 

** The immediate adtion of the Government is called for in this matter. 

This letter was referred by the Surgeon General to the Sec- 
retary of War, and, on June 2d, the post at Fort Snelling was 
visited and inspe6ted by Brig. Gen. John E. Wool, who, in 
his report to the Secretary of War, strongly endorsed the above 
views, as follows : 

"My object at this time is to call your attention particularly to his 
peculiar situation in regard to the Indians and white inhabitants who 
are permitted to occupy the country surrounding his post. The views 
of Major Plympton on this subje<5t have been on several occasions 
presented to the War Department, and at length in his communication 
of the nth March last, and which, from my own observation, I am con- 
fident are corre<5t, and, if not attended to in due season, his predi(5tions 
in relation to the Indians and whites will be verified. 

"The white inhabitants, aware of the large amount of money an- 
nually paid by the United States to the Indians residing in that region 
of country, avail themselves of the means in their power, confident of 
the protection of the Government, of introducing at all points, and within 
half a mile of Fort Snelling, intoxicating liquors, which is no less de- 
stru<5live to the discipline of the troops than hazardous of the peace and 
quiet of the country. Such is the chara<5ter of the white inhabitants of 
that country, that, if they cannot be permitted to carry on their nefari- 
ous traffic with the Indians, it will sooner or later involve them in a 



1839] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 81 

war with the United States. If the Government would avoid such a re- 
sult, it should immediately adopt measures to drive off the public lands 
all white intruders within twenty miles of Fort Snelling, an'd prohibit 
intoxicating liquors from being introduced into the Indian country, or 
on lands not sold by the United States. 

" Again, it is well known that the Sioux and Chippewas have been at 
war from time immemorial, and no prospe(5l of its termination or of 
peace being established between the two tribes. The introduction of 
whisky, which is as common almost as water, by no means tends to 
lessen their national hatred ; on the contrary, it prompts collisions and 
war, and, consequently, a feource of constant and increasing anxiety to 
the commanding officer, which no vigilance can guard against. The 
sacrifice of blood and treasure in the late war in Florida ought at least 
to admonish us that we ought to be on our guard, and, by timely meas- 
ures, prevent similar results." 

These reports and communications were taken under advise- 
ment by the Secretary of War, and soon induced him to take 
decisive adiion in the case, as will appear hereafter. 

It may be thought that unnecessar}^ space and prominence 
has been given to these documents regarding the lines of the 
Reserve, and the conduct of some of the settlers thereon. But 
the reader will soon perceive, if he has not already, that they 
are of the greatest historical value and importance, as giving 
the reasons and causes which first tended to the settlement of 
the locality which afterwards became Saint Paul, and deter- 
mined the location of our city. Hence, they could not be 
omitted from a full and impartial history, and deserve the 
careful attention of the reader. 

THE LiqUOR TRAFFIC. 

Perhaps the inquiry has arisen in the mind of the reader, 
was the illicit liquor traffic carried on so extensively as has 
been intimated above, and was it produdlive of the evil conse- 
quences mentioned, to the Indians and soldiers.? 

I think there is abundant testimony from various sources to 
prove tl\^t it was. Intemperance among the soldiers, as Sur- 
geon Emerson says, has always been one of the worst enemies 
to their health, good discipline and morale. How to prevent 
it always has been, and is now, one of the most difficult prob- 
lems of the good officer. Maj. Taliaferro, Indian Agent at 



82 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^39 

the fort, in his journal, before quoted, refers in many instances 
to the trouble brought on soldiers by the illicit sale of liquor 
to them. On June 3d, 1839, he notes ^2X forty-seven soldiers 
were confined in the guard-house for drunkenness^ in one 
nighty having been arrested in an uproarious spree in a whisky 
hovel across the river, kept by a man named Mink, who was, 
for that offense, sent out of the country. Mrs. James Patten, 
of Minneapolis, (then living in the fort with her father, Rich- 
ard W. Mortimer, a Commissary Sergeant,) states that, every 
winter, after settlers began to locate west of the river, and sell 
liquor clandestinely, soldiers lost their lives by falling down on 
their way back to the fort, from Donald McDonald's, while 
intoxicated, and freezing to death. They would scale the 
walls, and run away, in order to go up to that groggery. The 
bodies of some who died thus were eaten by the wolves. 
Others, less fortunate, lost their hands or feet, and dragged out 
the rest of their lives, miserable cripples. The trouble and 
expense, and strategems soldiers would resort to to obtain 
liquor, shows the irresistible thirst that overpowers reason and 
self-command. ^ few years before the above date, a Sergeant 
Mann, one winter night, gave eighty dollars for a gallon 
of whisky^ which probably cost the dealer a shilling. 

Judge Ira B. Brunson, of Prairie du Chien, the Deputy 
Marshal of Wisconsin Territory, who, in 1840, was charged 
with dislodging the settlers from the Reserve, says that at that 
time a considerable part of the soldiers were men of intemper- 
ate habits before they joined the army, and many of them en- 
listed while drunk, so that, being habituated to the use of liquor, 
they would run all sorts of risk to satisfy their cravings. 

The effedl of the sale on the Indians was even worse. 
" Under the influence, [says Neill,] of a vile class of whisky- 
sellers that infested the neighborhood of what is now the capi- 
tal of Minnesota, the Dakotas were a nation of drunkards. 
Men would travel hundreds of miles to The place wh^re they 
sell Minne-wakan^ as they designated Saint Paul, to traffic 
for a keg of whisky." Rev. Gideon H. Pond, the editor of 
the Dakotah Priend^ says, in an article dated September, 1851 : 

"Twelve years ago they bade fair soon to die, all together, in one 
drunken jumble. They must be drunk — they could hardly live if they 



1839] ^'^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 83 

were not drunk. Many of them seemed as uneasy when sober as a fish 
does when on land. At some of the villages they were drunk months 
together. There was no end to it. They would have whisky. They 
would give guns, blankets, pork, lard, flour, corn, coffee, sugar, horses, 
furs, traps, anything for whisky. It was made to drink — it was good — 
it was 7i/a^a/>. They drank it — they bit off each other's noses — broke 
each other's ribs and heads — they knifed each other. They killed one 
another with guns, knives, hatchets, clubs, fire-brands — they fell into 
the fire and water, and were burned to death and drowned — they froze 
to death, and committed suicide so frequently that, for a time, the death 
of an Indian, in some of the ways mentioned, was but little thought of 
by themselves or others. Some of the earlier settlers of Saint Paul and 
Pig's Eye remember something about these matters. Their eyes saw 
sights which are not exhibited now-a-days." 

WHAT SAINT PAUL OWES TO WHISKY ! 

Out of what humble circumstances sometimes spring great 
results. The history of Saint Paul exemplifies it. The illicit 
sale of liquor by some unscrupulous squatters on the Reserve, 
led to the expulsion without its lines of all the settlers, whether 
guilty of that oflense or not, and resulted in forming a settle- 
ment at another point, which ultimately grew into the Saint 
Paul of a later day. Thus* the very corner-stone of our civic 
existence was laid in whisky ! To some extent the village 
throve on whisky at an early day, and whisky is yet an element 
of power in our midst, (especially in politics,) despite the no- 
ble crusade of Bishop Ireland and the temperance societies. 
In fadt, the first steamboat that ever landed at the shores of 
Saint Paul, the Glaucus, Captain Atchison, May 21, 1839, 
stopped to put off six barrels of whisky for Donald McDon- 
ald, since known as the " Half- Way House," being afraid to 
take the liquor any further up the river, for fear it would be 
seized and destroyed by the authorities at the fort. 

It was always a mystery to the writer how such quantities 
of liquor could have been used by ordinary consumption, those 
days, unless the early settlers of this locality were "power- 
ful" thirsty fellows, got up on the sponge order. But Gen. R. 
W. Johnson, in his address before the Old Settlers' Society of 
Hennepin county, gives a charitable construction of it that ex- 
plains the whole question satisfa<5torily. He says that the old 



84 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^39 

pioneers were about to settle in a region of which they had 
very little knowledge, and were afraid it might be infested with 
rattlesnakes, hence used considerable whisky to guard against 
the effedis of the poison in case they should be bit. It must 
have been qn efficacious remedy, as we believe there is no case 
on record of any one ever dying in this locality from a snake- 
bite, and, indeed, we never even heard of any one getting bit ! 
But they were right in being careful. 

PARRANT LOSES HIS CLAIM. 

But we must not lose sight of that real estate operation be- 
tween Parrant and Beaumette, mentioned on page 75. Be- 
fore the note became due, Beaumette, probably forced by the 
pressure of circumstances, sold the note to John Miller, of 
Mendota. Miller was a stone mason by occupation, as was 
Beaumette. He built General Sibley's house at Mendota, 
the first stone private dwelling house in Minnesota. About 
1844, he was drowned in the river near Grey Cloud Island. 

When the first of May came round, Parrant was unable to 
lift the note, so Miller became a real • estate owner of Par- 
rant's claim, by no expensive process of foreclosure. He did 
not keep it long, but transferred it to one Vetal Guerin, a 
young voyageur, of Mendota, in settlement of a debt of $150, 
due the said Guerin. The latter never got possession of it at 
all, the old adage about " many a slip 'twixt the cup and the 
lip" being exemplified in this case, for some unscrupulous sin- 
ner, whose name history has not recorded, jumped the claim, 
and despoiled Guerin of his property. Retributive justice 
overtook the graceless jumper soon after, as the United States 
Marshal tore down his house and drove him off the Reserve, 
as will be seen a little further along. 

PARRANT MAKES ANOTHER CLAIM. 

The Romulus of our future city, after losing his mercantile 
establishment at the cave, at once made another claim. He 
sele<5ted a tradl just east of Serg't Hays* claim, fronting on the 
river, extending from Minnesota street to Jackson street, ap- 
proximately, and thence back to the bluff. About where the 



1839] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 85 

» 

foot of Robert street now is, he erected on the bank — afterwards 
know^n as Bench street, and since cut down — a hovel in which 
to reside, and carry on his liquor trade. He occupied this 
claim about a year. ' 

THE ORIGIN OF '' PIG*S EYE." 

Parrant, as before remarked, had only one eye that was 
serviceable. He had another, it is true, but such an eye ! 
Blind, marble-hued, crooked, with a sinister white ring glaring 
around the pupil, giving a kind of piggish expression to his 
sodden, low features. Roswell P. Russell, now of Minne- 
apolis, who was a sutler's clerk, at Fort Snelling then, and was 
frequently back and forth through the village during those days, 
bestowed on Parrant the suitable and expressive sobriquet, 
4 4 Pig's Eye," and, after a little while, he was generally known 
by that appropriate nickname. (The Frenchmen called it 
Oeil de Cochon,) Finally, the name became attached to the 
locality itself, in the following manner : 

One day, in 1839, Edmund Brissett, a young Canadian, 
who had come to Fort Snelling in 1832, and was doing odd 
jobs of carpentering for the settlers hereabouts, such as furni- 
ture, doors, sash, &c., was stopping at Parrant*s, and wanted 
to send a letter to Joseph R. Brown, who had a trading post 
on Grey Cloud Island, 12 miles below, and was a Justice of 
the Peace. But where should he date tihe letter at, was the 
.problem.^ ''I looked up inquiringly at Parrant, (says 
Brissett, in relating the circumstances,) and, seeing his old 
crooked eye scowling at me, it suddenly popped into my head 
to date it at Pig^s £ye^ feeling sure that the place would be 
recognized, as Parrant was well known along the river. In 
a little while an answer was safely received, diredled to me at 
Pig*s Eye. I told the joke to some of the boys, and they made 
lots of fun of Parrant. He was very mad, and threatened 
to lick me, but never tried to execute it." Thus the name 
bestowed on the place in a joke, stuck to it for years, and it is 
jocosely called by it to this day. After Parrant removed to 
the bottom, below Dayton's Bluff, some three or four years 



86 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['839 

subsequently, the name became attached to that locality, and it 
will probably be known as such, until the end of time. 

SETTLERS AT " PIG's EYE" IN 1 839. 

During the summer of 1839, quite a number of Canadians 
settled at the locality now known as Pig's Eye, then called the 
Grand Marais, [Pike, who was here in 1805, speaks of it 
by that name in his work.] Among them were : Am able 
TuRPiN, Michel LeClaire, Antoine LeClaire, Francis 
Gammell, Lasart, Joseph Labisinier, Henry Bel- 
land, Chevalier, Amable Morin, and Charles 

Mousse AU. It is possible, however, that some of these may 
have located there in the fall of 1838, after the ratification of 
the treaty was known, but at least the above, with perhaps 
more now forgotten, were living at Pig*s Eye in the year men- 
tioned. They were all in the employ of the Fur Company, as 
voyageurs, a portion of the year, and, when not needed by the 
company, cultivated their little farms in quiet. 

Amable Turpin was the father of Mrs. Louis Robert. 
He was born at Montreal, Canada, about the year 1766, as, 
when he died, in 1866, he was in his looth year — a span of life 
that falls to the lot of but a small percentage of mortals. While 
a young man, he went to Mackinac, and thence to Green Bay, 
and finally to Prairie du Chien, where he was in the employ of 
the American Fur Company for many years. The date of his 
settlement in Prairie du Chien is not now remembered accu- , 
rately, but it must have been early during the present century, 
as when the British captured that place, in 1814, Mr. Turpin 
was a citizen of influence and widely known in the Northwest. 
He had, during his long life, traveled on business for the Fur 
Company, over every portion of the Northwest, while it was 
an utter wilderness, only penetrated occasionally by adventur- 
ous fur-traders or devoted missionaries. He was generally 
seledled by the Fur Company for any mission or. voyage of 
more than usual difficulty, danger and hardship. His ad- 
ventures, during his many perilous journeys among the Indians, 
and in the forests and lakes of the Northwest, would fill vol- 
umes. He possessed a physique of extraordinary power and 



1839] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 87 

endurance. He lived at Pig's Eye several years, and ultimately 
removed to Saint Paul, where he died May 4, 1866, having 
almost rounded out a centurv. Mrs. Turpin used to teach the 
catechism to the half-breed children at the Grand Marais, before 
the arrival of Father Galtier — ^beingthe first religious teaching 
in this locality, except the missionary work among the Indians. 

Michel LeClaire and Antoine LeClaire were, I be- 
lieve, brothers. They came from Canada — date unascertained 
by the writer. Antoine LeClaire, I think, had lived at 
Mendota several years before settling at Pig's Eye. It is prob- 
able that Michel LeClaire was the first settler at the Grand 
Marais, as the locality was known along the river shortly after 
that time, as '' Point LeClaire." [See letter of Rev. L. Gal- 
tier, post.'\ LeClaire had a dispute, several years subse- 
quent to this date, with Pierre Parrant, about the ownership 
of a claim at the Grand Marais, which is fully narrated a few 
pages further on. LeClaire died at Pig's Eye, about the 
year 1849, leaving quite a numerous family, some of which 
still live in this vicinity. He seems to have been a carpenter 
by trade, as Vetal Guerin states that he made the doors and 
windows for his (G.'s) cabin, in 1840. 

Of Antoine LeClaire, or his subsequent history, I have 
been unable to learn anything. 

Francis Gammel's history will be found more fully nar- 
rated in the events of the year 1842, where he plays a some- 
w^hat conspicuous part. 

Joseph Labisinier came from Canada originally, and lived 
some time at Red River, where he married a Moutinier woman. 
He came from Red River to Fort Snelling, in 1836, with the 
same company in which Rondo et als, immigrated to Minne- 
sota. One or two of his cotemporaries think he settled at 
Pig's Eye in the fall of 1838 — but at least he was living there 
as early as 1839. In 1842, he made a new claim, occupying a 
part of Jackson and Robert street hill, and extending down to 
about Twelfth street. He eredled a cabin near the head of 
Jackson street, which was burned down about three years ago. 
His claim he sold to James R. Clewett, in 1843 — considera- 
tion, a horse — and retired a little further back, toward Lake 



88 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^39 

Phelan, where he made a new claim. He died at Osseo, 
Minnesota, several years since, at quite an advanced age, leav- 
ing several children, some of whom reside here yet. His 
widow died about five years ago. 

Henry Bellajjd, Another resident of the Grand Marais in 
1839, subsequently resided in West Saint Paul for many years, 
and is still a citizen of that locality. 

Amable Morin now lives at Wheatland, Rice county. 

Charles Mousseau was in reality more a resident of Saint 
Paul than of Pig's Eye, since his claim was on Dayton's Bluff, 
and not in the Marais at all. Mousseau was a native of Can- 
ada — ^born 1807. He came to Minnesota in 1827, as a voya- 
geur of the Fur Company. In 1836, he was married to Fanny 
Perry, at Fort Snelling, and in the fall of 1838, or spring of 
1839, made a claim as above stated, in what is now Saint Paul. 
This claim he sold, in 1848, to Eb. Weld, and moved to Hen- 
nepin county, of which he has been a resident ever since. Mr. 
Mousseau now resides in Minneapolis, and has had twelve 
children, nine of them now living. 

Denis Cherrier came to the Grand Marais in the fall of 1839. 
He is a native of Prairie du Chien, — born 18 16.. Late in the 
fall, he started for Pig's Eye, on a steamer, with a stock of 
goods, but the river closed with ice at the head of Lake Pepin, 
so that the boat could not get through, and Cherrier came on 
in a canoe. He sold his goods that fall and returned to Prairie 
du Chien, but came up again the next year, and has been a 
resident of Saint Paul ever since. He has owned several claims 
at different times, and, had he held on to any one of them, 
might be well off, but, like many of our pioneers, he sold them 
for a mere song, and is still poor. Denny's violin used to en- 
liven the dances in early days, and some of the girls of thirty 
years ago — grandmothers now — may remember how they 
danced all night to his music. 

JAMES R. CLEWETT. 

During this year, James Reuben Clewett became a resi- 
dent of the little settlement. Mr. Clewett was born in 
England, in 1810, and came to America in 1829. He lived in 



1839] <^^d of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 89 

Canada for a couple of years, and, in 1831, was hired by 
Gabriel Franchere, an agent of the American Fur Com- 
pany, to come to Minnesota in the service of that company, as 
a voyageur, clerk, &c. On arriving at Prairie du Chien, 
Clewett vsras assigned, by the late Hercules Dousman, to 
RocquE's Trading Post, below Lake Pepin. At that time he 
could not speak a word of French, but was soon compelled 
to learn it, ds well as Sioux, because English was not spoken 
by any one at the post. No one but Clewett could read or 
M^rite, and he kept all the books and accounts of the post. 
After serving at Rocque*s two years, in 1834 he was sent to 
Lake Traverse to '.' old man" Mooer's Trading Post. He re- 
mained in that region until the winter of 1838-9, when he 
came to Grey Cloud Island, below Saint Paul, with Joseph R. 
Brown, who latterly had been in charge of the Lake Traverse 
Post. After remaining there, and at Mendota a short time, he 
went to live at Abraham Perry's, on his claim in upper Saint 
Paul, and in April of 1839, married Rose Perry, one of the 
daughters of the old gentleman, being the first marriage in 
Saint Paul. Soon after, Clewett purchased the claim of 
"Johnson," which subsequently (1843) passed into the pos- 
session of Hon. Norman W. Kittson, and was laid out as 
" Kittson's Addition." He then purchased a small claim of 
Labisinier, on Jackson street hill, where he resided until 1851, 
when he removed to White Bear Lake, and has resided there 
since that date. Mr. Clewett has had 12 children, eight of 
whom are married, and have considerable families. He has 
been engaged in steamboating on Red River for two or three 
seasons past, and is still active and hearty, bidding fair to live 
for a score of years yet. 

THE FIRST MARRIAGE, BIRTH AND DEATH. 

The year 1839 witnessed the first marriage, birth and death, 
which occurred in the little hamlet that subsequently became 
Saint Paul — the initial of the long series of those "important 
events" in the life of each one of its ftiture citizens, which will 
gladden or sadden households, as long as the stream of hu- 
manity flow^s. 

7 



90 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^39 

The first birth of a white child, was in the family of Benja- 
min Gervais. His youngest son, Basil Gervais, was bom 
September 4, 1839, and is now, at the age of 36 years, a re- 
spected citizen of Centerville, Anoka county. 

In a newspaper sketch, which the writer of this published 
several years ago, it was stated, (on the authority of the late 
Vetal Guerin, then our oldest settler,) that his son, David 
GuERiN, now deceased, was the first white child born in Saint 
Paul. Mr. Guerin supposed this was the case. Subsequent 
investigation of church registers, however, shows this to be an 
error. David Guerin was not born until the fall of 1841. 
The register of Saint GabrieFs Church, at Prairie du Chien, 
shows Basil Gervais to have been born September 4, 1839, 
and baptized by Rev. A. Ravoux, then at Prairie du Chien, 
May 10, 1840, while his mother was on a visit to that place. 
Mr. Clewett was long under the impression that his oldest 
son, Albert, was the first white child born here, but it was 
not until January, 1840, some four months after Mr. Gervais 
was born. 

The first marriage, conformable to the laws of the land, 
which occurred in Saint Paul, was that of J. R. Clewett, 
to Rose Perry, in April, of this year. The ceremony was 
performed by Rev. J. W. Pope, a Methodist missionary at 
Kaposi a. 

Of the first death we will now proceed to speak. 

THE MURDER OF HAYS. 

Phelan and Hays, who were partners in the claim busi- 
• ness, had been residing in the cabin on Phelan's claim, since 
April of this year, 1839. It was in a lonely spot, a mile or 
more from any other habitation, and but seldom did any one 
visit the cabin of the two settlers. Phelan, as before re- 
marked, was regarded by the other settlers, as a bad, unscrupu- 
lous, wicked man. Hays was supposed to have considerable 
money, received on his discharge from the army, and the two 
held in common several cattle and other personal property. 
The two men were as unlike as possible in their disposition. 



1839] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 91 

charadler, &c., and it was known that they did not agree very 
well. Such was the situation of matters in September, 1839. 
About the middle of that month, Hays mysteriously disap- 
peared. He was missed for several days, and, to inquiries as 
to his w^hereabouts, Phelan gave evasive and unsatisfactory 
answers. The rumor of his disappearance reached Fort Snel- 
ling, where Hays was well known and liked. Taliaferro 
makes this record in his journal : 

" Sunday, 15th September, 1839, ^ man, by name Hays, an Irishman, 
lost. Supposed killed — even reported to have been murdered by the 
Chief Wa-kin-yan-ton-kay [Big Thunder — Little Crow's father.] 
No belief rests with me. I incline to the opinion that his neighbor, 
Phelan, knows something. Hays lived with him, and had money." 

On September 27, Taliaferro made the following entry : 
'' Wabsheedah^ or the Dancer, called at the office to" say that 
his sons had found the body of Mr. Hays, lost some time ago, 
in the river near Carver's Cave." 

Maj. Taliaferro at once sent Wabsheedah to Maj. Plymp- 
TON v^^ith the following note : 

"Agency House, Saint Peter's, September 27, 1839. 
"Major : I have sent the bearer, a good Indian, to go with the gen- 
tlemen who are in quest of the identity of Mr. Hays' body, now in the 
water near Carver's old cave. The Indian will conduct them to the 
spot, being so directed by his chief, if requested so to do. 

" Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" Law. Taliaferro, Indian Agent." 

The body of poor Hays was at once secured. On examin- 
ation, his head, jaws and nose were found badly mashed by 
violent blows, unmistakably indicating a desperate murder. 
Phelan was at once arrested, by warrant issued by Henry H. 
Sibley, as Justice of the Peace, and, on the 28th, was examined 
before that officer as to his knowledge of Hays' death. The 
evidence adduced and the other circumstances known, were 
sufficient to justify his commitment to answer the charge of 
murder in the first degree, and he was consequently confined 
in the guard-house at the fort, until the next steamboat arrived, 
when he was sent to Prairie du Chien, county seat of Craw- 
ford count}', Wisconsin Territory, in which the crime had 
been committed, to await trial. 



92 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^39 

DID PHELAN MURDER HAYS? 

It is somewhat a late day, 36 years after the event, to place 
Phelan on trial before the public, as to his guilt in the murder 
of his partner, but we propose only to advance such fa6ts as 
the lapse of time have left, bearing on the case. 

Of Phelan's guilt no one who was resident in this vicinity 
had any doubt. Hon. H. H. Sibley, who carefully sifted the 
evidence on the examination of Phelan, says it was such as 
to leave no doubt of his guilt. Gen. Sibley thinks he pre- 
served a copy of the evidence taken — ^but has been unable, so 
far, to find it in his mass of papers. Mrs. Benj. Gervais and 
William Evans were two witnesses who were subpoenaed to 
go to Prairie du Chien at the trial, the following spring, and 
give evidence against Phelan. What testimony Evans may 
have been in possession of, I cannot ascertain. Mrs. Ger- 
vais, whose memory is remarkably clear for one so aged, says, 
among other things, that, a short time before the murder: of 
Hays, she asked Phelan how he and Hays got along. 
'"Very badly," replied Phelan. "He is a lazy good-for- 
nothing. But never mind," (he added, with a wicked look,) 
'Til soon get rid of him." Alphonse Gervais stated that 
he saw blood on Phelan's clothes, and that, when Phelan's 
cabin was searched, bloody clothes were found beneath the 
floor. He states, moreover, that he found the place, near. the 
cabin, where the adt was committed, being led thither by. a 
very sagacious dog he owned, who smelled the blood, and 
plainly traced the route by which the body was dragged to the 
river from tl\ence. Others also saw these evidences of a mur- 
der. J. R. Clewett says he thought, at the time, the Indians 
had committed the murder ; and that one Indian, a few years 
afterward, just before his death, confessed that he was the 
murderer of Hays ; also, that some of the Kaposia Indians 
used to assert that a brother of Little Crow had committed 
the adl. But Gen. Sibley says this is impossible. That had 
any Indian committed the adl, he (Gen. S.) would certainly 
have found it out. Moreover, there was no particular motive 
for the Indians to have murdered Hays, more than any one 



1839] ^^^ of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 93 

else, while two powerful motives would seem to have influ- 
enced Phelan — revenge and avarice. 

There is, then, no alternative left, but to record Phelan as 
the murderer of Hays. He must stand, on the chronicles of 
our city, as its Cain — the first who imbrued his hands with the 
blood of his brother — a crime too often, alafe, repeated since 
that dav. 

THE SURVEY OF THE RESERVATION. 

Maj. Taliaferro, in his journal, under date of October 5, 

1839, ^^y^ • 

" Lieut. Thompson is engaged in making the lines for the military 
Reservation around Fort Snelling. * From Mississippi five miles up the 
Saint Peter's ; thence west to Lake Harriet, seven miles ; thence along 
Lake Harriet to the Lake of the Isles ; thence to the portage landing, 
above the falls, one-fourth of a mile ; across the Mississippi, five miles.' 
* The line,' he says further, * comes below the cave ;' and, in another place, 
' that it extends much further east than any survey hitherto.'" 

Maj. Plympton, on November 29, transmits this map to 
the War Department, with the following statement : 

"The red lines show the ^boundaries of the Reservation, and which 
are conformable ta the survey of Lieutenant Smith, with this slight 
difference : that, in his survey, the principal lines, from river to river, 
were necessarily (from the season and weather) left imaginary, which, 
upon an actual survey, will be found (to embrace the necessary wood- 
land and to preserve the cardinal points) to cross the Mississippi a little 
further down than that imaginarily indicated on the map of Lieutenant 
Smith's survey. 

" The limits of the Reservation, as now marked, embrace no more 
ground, I conceive, than is absolutely necessary to furnish the daily 
wants of this garrison, and} could they be extended further into the 
country on the east side of the river, it would, no doubt, add to the quiet 
of this command." 

The limits fixed were entirely arbitrary. They were not 
governed by the "• daily wants" of the garrison, for the addi- 
tional woodland secured was of no value or importance to the 
post, and vv^as never utilized. The line was extended far be- 
yond the possible intent of the Reservation. John R. Irvine 
states, that when he came here, four years after, the east line 



94 The History of the City of Saint tPaui^ [1839 

of the Reservation ran about where tne Seven Corners now is, 
thence northwardly to about where the Park Place Hotel stands. 

ORDER FOR THE EXPULSION OF THE SQUATTERS FROM THE 

RESERVE. 

But we must return, to preserve the chronological order of 
events,* to the efforts made by the military authorities, for the 
expulsion of squatters from the Reserve. Hon. Joel R. Poin- 
sett, Secretary of War, after duly considering the letters of 
Surgeon Emerson and Gen. Wool, given in preceding pages, 
issued the following order : 

"War Department, 0<5lofeer2i, 1839. 

"Sir: The interests of the service, and the proper and efFedlive 
maintenance of the military post at Fort Snelling, requiring that the 
intruders on the land recently reserved for military purposes, opposite 
to that post east of the Mississippi River, be removed therefrom, the 
President of the United States directs that, when required by the com- 
manding officer of the post, you proceed there, and remove them, under 
the provisions of the a<ft of March third, 1807, entitled *An a(5l to pre- 
vent settlements being made on lands ceded to the United States, until 
authorized by law.' 

"You will satisfy yourself of the shortest period within which the 
intruders can make their arrangements for removal, and depart from 
the Reservation, without serious loss or sacrifice of the property which 
they may have to take with them ; and you will promptly make known 
to them that it is expe(5led they will not delay beyond that period ; as, 
should they do so, it will become your duty to remove them by mili- 
tary force. It is hoped, however, that a resort to such force for this 
purpose, which, by the a(5l above mentioned, the President is authorized 
to employ, will not be necessary ; but that they will promptly depart, 
on being informed of the determination of the executive, not to permit 
them to remain. Should you, however, be unfortunately obliged to use 
force in order to accomplish the obje(5l, you are authorized to call for 
such as you may deem necessary, on the commanding officer at Fort 
Snelling. In this event, you will adl with as much forbearance, consid- 
eration, and delicacy as may be consistent with the prompt and faithful 
performance of the duties hereby assigned to you, first fully and 
mildly explaining the folly of resistance on their part, and your own 
want of discretion in the matter. 

"Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"J. R. Poinsett. 
" Edward James, Esq., 

"United States Marshal for the Territory of Wiskonsan, Peru." 



1839] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 95 

r 

It was probably the intention of Poinsett and PlymptOn to 
have ejected the squatters that fall. By an accident, however, 
the above letter was not received by Mr. James for several 
months, as his reply below shows : 

"Mineral Point, Wisconsin Territory, ^ 

"February i8th, 1840. | 

" Sir : By the evening's mail, I have received your instructions of 
Oiftober 21, 1839, relative to the removal of intruders at Fort Snelling. 
The delav of their receipt has, doubtless, been occasioned by their be- 
ing directed to Peru, which is in Iowa Territory. 

"I have not as yet received any request from the' commanding officer 
of that fort, but shall promptly attend to the duty whenever required. 
"Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"Edward James, 

"Marshal of Wisconsin. 
" Hon. J. R. Poinsett." 



ACTION OF THE WISCONSIN LEGISLATURE. 

Probably finding there was no stay of execution to be se- 
cured from any other source, the squatters within the lines of 
Maj. Plympton's Reserve, seem to have appealed to the Wis- 
consin Legislature to interfere in their behalf. That body con- 
sequently passed the following concurrent resolutions : 

" Whereas, the advantages of steamboat landings are of vast impor- 
tance to an agricultural distri<5l, and particularly necessary to the citi- 
zens of this Territorj^residing near the head of the navigation of the 
Mississippi river; and whereas, the military Reservation of Fort Snel- 
ling, in Iowa Territory, has been so surveyed as to embrace the only 
convenient steamboat landing east of the Mississippi, for fifteen miles 
below the head of navigation, and also includes a valuable agricultural 
distriA, much of which is under a good state of cultivation, and occu- 
pied by an industrious and enterprising people, some of whorrt have 
made valuable improvements ; and whereas, it appears efforts are being 
made by the military of said fort to procure a seAion of the Reserve as 
lately surveyed, for speculative purposes, and without any regard to the 
good of the military service : Now be it 

^^ Resolved, by Council and House of Representatives of the Territory 
of Wisconsin, That our delegate in Congress be requested to protest 
against the extension of the military Reserve of Fort Snelling to the 
Wisconsin side of the Mississippi. 

" Resolved, That the Governor be requested to forward one copy of 



96 The History of the City of Saint Pauh [1839 

the foregoing preamble and resolutions to the Secretary of War, and* 
one copj to our delegate in Congress. 
"Approved December 16, 1839." 

On January 12. 1840, Governor J. D. Doty addressed the 
Secretary of War as follows : 

** Washington, January 12, 1840. 

** Sir : The Legislative Assembly of Wisconsin has, by a resolu- 
tion, approved by the Governor on the i6th of December, 1839, requested 
me to protest against the extension of the military Reservation of Fort 
Snelling to the Wisconsin side of the Mississippi River, with which 
I have now the honor to comply. 

**A question of some importance will arise if the Reservation is 
made, which I beg leave to state : The United States may reserve any 
portion of its lands from sale, but can it extend a military jurisdiction 
over so large a tradt of country as is embraced in the limits of this Res- 
ervation by the simple declaration that it is necessary for military pur- 
poses ? 

** A Territory is a State under a temporary form of government. It 
may be doubtful with some whether Congress may exercise exclusive 
jurisdiction over this Reservation, the purchase having been made with- . 
out the consent of the Legislature of that State. Against the exercise 
of that jurisdi(5tion the legislative power of that State now protests. 

** The subdivisions of the territory northwest of the Ohio are de- 
nominated States in the ordinance of 1787. And in the third section it 
is ordained that ' the laws to be adopted or made (by the 'Legislature) 
shall have force in all parts of the district.'' It also requires the Gov- 
ernor ' to lay out the parts of the distri<5t, in which the Indian titles 
shall have been extinguished, into counties and townships.' An exclu- 
sive military jurisdiction would be incompatible with the exercise of 
this power by the Territorial Government. 

"I am advised that a copy of the resolution of the Assembly of Wis- 
consin has been forwarded to the War Department, and I beg leave to 
refer to the reasons therein stated. 

" I have the honor to be, sir, with great respedt, your obedient servant, 

"J. D. Doty. 

•* Hon. J. R. Poinsett, Secretary of War." 

VETAL GUERIN. 

A tew pages back, mention was made of one Vetal Guerin, 
who purchased Parrant's original claim, but who never came 
into possession of it, for reasons there stated. 

Vetal Guerin was born in Saint Remi, Canada, July 17, 



1839] "'"'^ "f '^^ County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 97 

r'8i3. His father was Louis Guerin, a voyageur by occupa- 
tion, who died in 1865, at the ripe age of 83, Vetal grew 
lip into the same occupation as his father. In 1832, when he 
was 20 years of age, a lithe, sinewy young fellow, Vetal en- 
listed in the service of the American Fur Company, under 



Gabriel Franchkre, for three years. He was to join a com- 
pany bound for the Upper Mississippi, consisting of 134 men, 
in charge of four barges of goods. They left Montreal, May 
5, 183Z, and made the entire journey to Mendota by water, 
through the lakes. Green Bay, the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, 
and up the Mississippi. The entire season was consumed in 
this trip, and it was late in the fall when the party reached the 
company's post at Mendota. 

Guerin served the company his stipulated three years, and, 



98 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^39 

after that term had expired, worked by odd jobs for the com- 
pany, and for Mr. Faribault and other traders, at Mendota 
and Traverse de Sioux, for three or four years longer. 

Guerin's first investment in Saint Paul real estate had not 
proved a paying one, but, nevertheless, he soon after deter- 
mined to repeat the experiment. Looking about, in the fall of 
1839, he found the Hays claim, which Phelan still pretended 
to own, by virtue of his partnership with Hays, unoccupied, 
and quite likely to be so as far as either of its former owners 
was concerned^-one being dead, and the other in prison 300 
miles away, with a good prospect of stretching hemp. As 
the claim suited Vetal pretty well, he forthwith squatted on 
it, and proceeded to erect a cabin. This cabin, so he stated 
to the writer, was a very unpretending affair, about 16x20 feet, 
built of oak and elm from the woods surrounding it, with a 
bark roof and a floor of split and hewed puncheons. The door 
and sash were made by Michel LeClaire, of the Grand 
Marais, since called Pig's Eye. This cabin stood on the spot 
now occupied by IngersolFs Block, and, with some additions 
and changes, stood there until i860, when the buildings occu- 
pying the site of said block were removed, to make room for it. 

Thus, at the close of the year 1839, there were nine cabins 
within the present limits of the city of Saint Paul. Patience ! 
We shall have a city yet. 



1840] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 99 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEARS 1840 AND 1841. 

Organization of Saint Croix County— Expulsion of Sbttlbrs from the 
Rbserve — Some of them Come to Saint Paul — Phblan Returns and De- 
mands HIS Claim — Guerin Checkmates Him — Joseph Rondo — Vetal 
Guerin's Subsequent History — Pierre Bottineau — A Catholic Mission 
Founded Here — Father Galtibr and Father Ravoux, *c. 

CRAWFORD county, Wisconsin Territory, had been cre- 
ated and organized, (as noted on page 39,) in 18 19. For 
twenty-two years its boundaries were unchanged. In January, 
1840, through the influence of Joseph R. Brown, a bill was 
passed creating " Saint Croix County." The boundaries of 
the new county included all that part of Crawford county lying 
west of a line running northward from the mouth of the Por- 
cupine River on Lake Pepin to Lake Superior. The county 
seat was fixed at Brown's town-site of '' Dakota," about the 
upper end of the present city of Stillwater. In the fall of this 
year, at the ele(5tion for Representatives, Joseph R. Brown 
was elected a member of the Wisconsin Assembly, for two 
years. Henceforth this region commenced to have a voice 
in the public affairs of the Territory, to which it had been 
hithe'rto a mere unnoticed back settlement. But Saint Paul 
must have stood for several years to Wisconsin about in the 
same relation that Pembina used to, to Minnesota. Its repre- 
sentatives, from this date until the organization of Minnesota 
Territory, are given on page 45. 

EXPULSION OF SETTLERS FROM THE RESERVE. 

When Marshal Edward James, of Wisconsin Territory, 
received the order for the expulsion of the settlers on the Re- 
serve, he sent it to his deputy, Ira B. Brunson, of Prairie du 
Chien, to execute. As it was now near the end of winter, 



loo The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1840 

and traveling very difficult and insecure, Mr. Brunson de- 
layed his journey until the opening of navigation in the spring^, 
when he took the first boat for Fort Snelling, about May i , 
and proceeded to execute his unpleasant task. 

In an account of the transaction Mr. Brunson wrote for me, 
he says that he gave the settlers several days' notice to remove, 
but they disregarded the warning, so that he was compelled 
to call upon Maj. Plympton for a military force to execute the 
orders vi et antnis. On the 6th day of May, 1840, the settlers 
on the Reserve were dishoused and driven off, and every cabin 
within the lines destroyed. 

In a memorial from the expelled settlers to Congress, praying 
for indemnity for their losses, presented by Delegate H. H. Sib- 
ley, in 1849, ^^^ again in 1852,* the settlers state that the soldier}' 
fell upon them without warning, treated them with unjustifia- 
ble rudeness, broke and destroyed furniture wantonly, insulted 
the women, and, in one or two instances, fired at and killed 
cattle. Mr. Brunson denies, positively, in general and in par- 
ticular, these statements. He states that the soldiers adled 
reluctantly in the matter, but civilly, under the command of 
a Lieutenant, and under his (Brunson's) supervision, and in 
their presence. As the settlers refused to budge, they had to 
carry their household goods out, but none was broken inten- 
tionally, and no unnecessary force was used. 

Abraham Perry, the Gervais brothers. Rondo, and other 
of the early settlers, of Saint Paul, were among those whose 
houses were destroyed. To these poor refugees it was a cruel 
blow. The victims of floods, and frosts, and grasshoppers, in the 
Red River valley, and once before expelled from the Reserve, 
(west side,) it seemed that the cup of disaster was charged to 
the brim for them. Mournfully gathering up their effedls and 
flocks, they set out once more to find a home. 

• 

FINDING NEW HOMES. 

On being dishoused, the unfortunate settlers retreated beyond 



♦ No atftion was ever taken by Cong^ress on this Memorial, beyond referring it to a 
committee, which never reported on it. 



1840] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, loi 

the line of the Reserve, and there made preparations for begin- 
ning life once more. 

Abraham Perry and family sojourned for the present in the 
house of his son-in-law, James R. Clewett. Almost broken 
down by his repeated misfortunes, and by the severe toil and 
hardships of the past few years. Perry seemed never to re- 
cover from these buffets of hard fortune. His health gradually 
declined. For some time his lower limbs were so paralyzed 
that he could not stand. He still endeavored to engage in 
agricultural labor, and actually cut down trees while sitting on 
the ground. He died in May, 1849, aged 73 years. His 
wife, Mr§. Mary Ann Perry, died in 1859, at an advanced 
age, at the residence of Charles Bazille, her son-in-law. 

Abraham Perry had seven children, the three oldest of 
whom were born in Switzerland, two at Red River, and the 
two youngest at Fort Snelling. His only son, Charles Perry, 
born in Switzerland, now lives at Lake Johanna, Ramsey 
county. Mr. Perry's daughters all married in this vicinity, 
as follows : Sophia married Pierre Crevier, and lives near 
Watertown, Minnesota. Fanny married Charles Mousseau, 
1836 ; residence, Minneapolis. Rose Ann married J. R. Clew- 
ett, 1839 ; residence, White Bear. Adele married Vetal 
Guerin, 1841 ; residence. Saint Paul. Josephine married J. B. 
Cornoyer, 1843 ; residence, Minneapolis. Annie Jane mar- 
ried Charles Bazille, 1846 ; residence, Saint Paul. Nearly 
every one of Perry's children have raised large families, and 
he had over 75 grandchildren. 

GERVAIS BUYS PARRANT's CLAIM. 

Ben. Gervais, on losing his home near the creek, in upper 
town, at once proceeded to Parrant's claim, before mentioned 
and purchased of that swine-optical individual, all his right, 
title and interest to said real estate, together with the heredita- 
ments and appurtenances, and so on. Reader, what do you 
suppose Gervais paid to " Old Pig's Eye" for this property, 
now in the heart of our city } Ten dollars ! It is now worth 
several millions. 

Parrant had an uncompleted cabin on the edge of the bluff, 



I02 The History of the City of Saint Pauh [1840 

about where the corner of Robert and Bench streets now is. 
Gervais finished this, and occupied it as a dwelling for sev- 
eral years. 

Parr ANT at once made a new claim on the lower levee, 
and erected another hovel, where he continued his whisky 
business until 1843, when Louis Robert purchased his claim. 
But of this hereafter. 



phelan's trial. 



In the spring of 1840, the case of Phelan, who for several 
months past had been lying in the guard-house at Fort Craw- 
ford, Prairie du Chien, awaiting trial for Hays* murder, was 
taken up by the court of Crawford county. I have been unable 
to ascertain just what action was had in his case. Hon. Ira 
B. Brunson, now County Judge at Prairie du Chien, at my 
request, carefully searched the records of the court at that pe- 
riod, and before and after, but can find no reference to the case. 
The only explanation is, that the case was brought before the 
grand jury, who failed to find a bill against Phelan, and he 
was discharged. Mrs. Gervais and Wm. Evans went to 
Prairie du Chien as witnesses, but their evidence probably 
failed to convince the grand jury of Phelan's guilt, and he 
was allowed to go his way. 

PHELAN vs. GUERIN. 

When Phelan made his way back to Saint Paul, which he 
soon did, he found Vetal Guerin in possession of the Hays 
claim, which he (Phelan) still pretended to own, by virtue 
of his partnership with Hays. He at once proceeded to de- 
mand of Guerin, possession of the claim. The result we 
give in Guerin's own words, dictated to the writer in 1866 : 

" Phelan called at my cabin, accompanied by James R. Clewett 
as interpreter, as I could then talk no English. He demanded posses- 
sion of the claim. I replied that I would not give it up, as I believed I 
was rightfully entitled to it. Some more talk ensued, and, finding that 
I was not disposed to yield to him, Phelan told Jim to say that if I 
was not off by a certain day — say a week from then — he would put me 
off by force. As Phelan was a large, powerful man, and I was small 



1840] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 103 

and light, he could have easily picked me up and carried me outside the 
claim lines. After making this threat, Phelan went away. 

*' As I knew I could not deal with Phelan single-handed, I told some 
of nmy voyageur companions at Mendota how matters stood, and three 
or four .of them, strong, * husky' fellows, came down to stay with me. 
A supply of liquor and some cards made time pass merrily. On the 
day Phelan' had set to put me off the claim, sure enough, he made his 
appearance — axe in hand and sleeves rolled up — with Clewett as inter- 
preter. Through the latter, Phelan inquired if I would leave. I re- 
plied, no. Phelan got very mad at this, and said, * tell the d — little 
Frenchman I will take him under my arm and throw him off the claim.* 
" I then said to my men, who were inside, that I thought it was time 
for them to interfere. They came out, and, throwing off their coats, 
told Phelan that if he did not go way and leave me alone, they would 
pitch him over the bluff! And, rhoreover, if he ever molested me, they 
would lynch him. Phelan knew they were not fellows whom it would 
do to trifle with, and, as he had just got out of one bad scrape, didn't 
want to get into any further trouble, if he could avoid it. He finally 
left, saying he would take the law of me. He thereupon commenced an 
action before Joseph R. Brown, Justice of the Peace, at Grey Cloud 
Island, to recover possession. Brown examined into the case, and 
found that Phelan was absent from his claim more than six months at 
one time. So he told Phelan that he had lost all title to it, and that 
I could not be ejected. I had no further trouble with him, and kept 
peaceable possession of the claim." 

GUERIN GIVES AWAY HALF HIS CLAIM. 

When GuERiN had thus quieted title to his claim, he pro- 
ceeded to do a very generous a6t for a friend, Pierre Ger- 
VAis, who had recently been expelled from the Reserve, an;d 
was looking for a new home. Feeling lonesome, and, wanting 
a neighbor, he gave, without any consideration, one-half of 
his claim — or at least a good share of it — to Pierre, on con- 
dition that the latter would come and live there. Gervais 
accepted the offer, and built a cabin about where Mrs. Dr. 
Mann's block is now, corner of Third and Saint Peter streets. 
He lived here about two years, and, in 1842, sold the claim to 
Denis Cherrier for $150, and moved into lower town, where 
he got another small tra<5l. Cherrier, in turn, sold the claim, 
in 1843, ^^ Scott Campbell for $300, and, In 1848, Campbell 
sold out to Wm. Hartshorn and others. 



I04 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1840 

JOSEPH RONDO. 

A few pages back, reference was made to Joseph Rondo, 
a refugee from Red River, who was one of the earliest squatters 
on the Reserve, east of the Mississippi. His house was one 
which was destroyed by the soldiery on May 6, 1840. 

Joseph Rondo was born near Montreal, Canada, in i797- 
When quite a lad, some 17 or 18 years old, he engaged as a 
voyageur in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company, and was 
sent to the Pacific Coast. He passed several years in the labo- 
rious work of his calling, on Frazer River, Great Slave Lake, 
Fort Edmonton, and other posts on the extreme west and 
north of the Hudson's Bay Company's dominions. 

About 1827, he settled in the Red River Colony, near Fort 
Garry, and, having married Josephine Boileau, a Kootenais 
mixed blood, established a farm there. The troubles which 
affli<5led the colonists have already been referred to. After 
enduring them for eight years, Mr. Rondo, in company with 
the Gervais brothers, Beaumette, Bruce, Blanc, Michel 
DuFENi, Labisinier, GOODRICH, and others — about 60 in all — 
left the Red River Colony, and settled near Fort Snelling. 
Rondo purchased a house on the west side, of Joseph Turpin, 
from which he was eje6ted on May 6, 1840, with the other 
settlers. 

Following the example of Perry, Gervais and others. 
Rondo then came to the lower side of the Reserve, looking 
for a new claim. Phelan offered his for sale, including the 
unfurnished hovel under the hill, the scene of the Hays 
tragedy, for $200. Rondo purchased the same, and, finishing 
up the house, lived in it a season or two, until he could build 
a more comfortable one. 

phelan makes a new claim. 

Having now lost or disposed of all his real estate in Saint 
Paul, Phelan made a new claim on the creek that now bears 
his name, and built a cabin about where Hamm's brewery is. 
This claim enclosed a fine water-power on the creek, and, in 
1844, it was purchased by William Dugas, for a mill-site, as 
will be found more fully narrated in the events of that year. 






1841] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 105 

SOMETHING MORE ABOUT VETAL GUERIN. 

GuERiN lived more than ^ year alone in his cabin, but such 
a solitary, bachelor life must have become very distasteful to 
him. So, he persuaded one of the few young w^omen which 
the little village then boasted of, Miss Adele Perry, to share 
his lot. On January 26, 1841 , Father Galtier made the twain 
one flesh, at Mendota. Returning to the settlement, a gay and 
pleasant party was given to the new couple, at the house of 
Ben. Gervais, during the evening. Denny Cherrier says 
he fiddled that night until he was exhausted. 

The domestic outfit of the young couple was not an extrava- 
gant one. Furniture was only obtainable those days from 
Saint Louis. The settlers generally made their own furniture. 
The bridal bed was a bunk of boards, on which hay and a red 
blanket, which Guerin had brought from Mackinac, were 
spread. Mrs. Guerin soon aftei^ward traded a shawl to some 
Indians for feathers, and thus softened the rough edges of life 
a little. Guerin's chest, that held all his goods and effe<5ls, 
served for a dining table, until a better one could be procured. 

A few rods from Guerin's cabin, was Parrant's establish- 
ment, and the powerful nature of the minne-wakan he sold the 
Indians there, used. to turn them sometimes into red demons. 
In one of their crazy sprees, the Indians killed Guerin's cow 
and pig, and destroyed other property. Indeed, the lives of 
Guerin and his bride were oftentimes in danger, and their 
honeymoon was somewhat a stormy one, take it all in all. 
These devilish sprees of the Indians occurred occasionally for 
several years. Once, when Mrs. Guerin was nursing her 
first child, about two months old, some nine or ten Indians 
made an attack on the house, and tried to kill Guerin. They 
broke in the window, and attempted to crawl in. Mrs. G. 
concealed herself under the bed, expedling to be murdered. 
Guerin seized an axe, and was about to brain the first pagan 
whose head appeared through the window. This would have 
been a very unfortunate affair for Guerin, had it happened, 
but, luckily, before any bloodshed occurred, a friendly chief, 
named "Hawk's Bill," came up, and remonstrated with the 
8 



io6 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^4^ 

drunken brutes, urging them to leave. While they were par- 
leying, Mr. and Mrs. Guerin, with the child, slipped out of 
the door, and fled to Mr. Gervais' house. The Indians then 
went away, after shooting Guerin's dog with arrows. 

Another time, Guerin was leaning on the gate-post of his 
garden, when some drunken Indians, coming up Bench street 
hill, fired at him. A ball struck the post, making a narrow 
escape for Vetal. Again, as he opened his door, one morn- 
ing, an iron-headed arrow whizzed past his head, and stuck 
in the door-jamb. Another close call, but Guerin survived 
them all. 

At that time, Mendota was the only place where supplies 
or necessaries of any kind could be obtained, and these usually 
of a simple character. Pork, flour, tea and sugar, were about 
all that could be purchased in the way of provisions, but game 
was very plenty, and some farming on a small scale had begun. 
In the summer after his marriage, Guerin enclosed a small 
field, embracing the land now lying between Saint Peter 
and Cedar, Bench and Sixth streets, and plowed it up for a 
garden. His oxen were "Red River" cattle. Mrs. Guerin 
used to help him by driving the oxen. Guerin, one year, 
raised considerable grain, but could not sell it, or get it ground 
up — so it laid in his granary until it rotted. There was no 
grist-mill in this region, for custom use, until Lemuel Bolles 
established his, on Bolles Creek, in 1845. 

It needs but little more space to speak of Guerin's subse- 
quent life, and, perhaps, it is as fitting here as anywhere. In 
his little cabin he kept the even tenor of his way, even when 
the whirl of real estate speculation was turning men's brains. 
While his neighbors were selling out at what they deemed 
fabulous sums, and moving away, Guerin held on to his 
claim — nay, refused tempting ofiers for it, and was called a 
fool for so doing. And it did seem foolish when, in 1843, he 
declined $1,000 for his land. Had some dream of a future 
splendid city, rising like a palace of enchantment, come to 
him, as he slept in his bark-roofed cabin? Verily, one would 
think so. But fortune befriended the plain, humble French- 
man. Suddenly his acres leaped into great value. He was a 






1841] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 107 

rich man. His dream had been realized. Yet, with property 
valued al over $100,000, he was the same plain, unassuming 
man as he had been in his pioneer cabin. True, he built a 
finer house, in 1849, corner of Wabasha and Seventh streets, 
where he resided until his death, but he assumed no parvenu 
airs, and no foolish pride puffed him up, though ample means 
compensated him for the hardships and privations of his earlier 
years. He gave to his children the education of which he 
had been denied. His generosit}' was a distinguishing trait. 
After the town was laid out, in 1847, he gave away property 
worth now a round quarter million — one block for the court- 
house, several lots to the church, and for other purposes. 
During his years of plenty, he was unceasingly beneficent to 
his poor countrymen, who always found in him a liberal and 
sympathizing friend. Honest and candid himself, his simple 
faith and trust in other men's honor, was large and confiding — 
a trait that continually enabled sharpers to defraud and over- 
reach him, until his ample fortune melted away by reverses, 
which, before his death, sent him into the bankrupt court. In 
his prosperous days, every enterprise for the good of the city, 
met his generous aid, and yet he, the once owner of millions, 
the princely donor of estates to the public, died poor, and his 
family have since felt the pinchings of want. His last illness 
was long and painful, but patiently borne. He died No- 
vember II, 1870, aged 58 years, and his funeral was attended 
by a large gathering of old settlers and early citizens. The 
common council properly honored his memory by erecting a 
monument over his remains, which now repose in Catholic 
cemetery. 

The excellent portrait of him, given elsewhere, was taken 
from a small card photograph, the only one he ever had made, 
and which was taken, not long before his death, at the urgent 
request of the writer. 

PIERRE BOTTINEAU. 

In 1841, Pierre Bottineau settled in Saint Paul, with his 
brother, Severe Bottineau, and purchased of Benj. Ger- 
VAis, a small tradl of land on what was afterwards known as 



io8 Tfw History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['S41 

Baptist hill. Pierre Bottineau is one of the most notable 
characters of the JSForthwest. He was born in the Rtd River 
settlement, his father being a French Canadian, and his mother 
a Chippewa woman, and came to Fort Snelling, in 1837, where 
he was in the employ of General Sibley for a while, as guide, 
interpreter, &c. He was one of the settlers expelled from the 
Reserve, and came to Saint Paul, as above stated. He lived 
here six years, when he sold his claim, and made a new one 
at Saint Anthony Falls, which he subsequently laid out as an 
addition to the city. He was also the first settler at Maple 
Grove, or " Bottineau's Prairie," in Hennepin county. 

Perhaps no man in the Northwest has passed a life of more 
romantic adventures, exciting occurrences, hair-breadth es- 
capes, and ''accidents by flood and field," than Mr. Botti- 
neau. He has traveled over every foot of the Northwest, and 
knows the country like a map. He speaks almost every In- 
dian language in this region, and his services as guide and 
interpreter have always been in great demand. He was guide 
to Col. Nobles' wagon road expedition to Frazer River, in 
1859, to Captain Fisk's Idaho expedition of 1862, and Gen. 
Sibley's expedition to the Missouri River, in 1863, &c. His 

• 

adventures, could they be faithfully written, would make a 
volume of surpassing interest. Mr. Bottineau is now about 
65 years of age, but is as strong and a6tive as 'he was thirty- 
years ago. 

A CATHOLIC MISSION FOUNDED. 

With whisky as an element of traffic, making brutes of the 
white men and demons of the red men — making Saint Paul — 
i. e., the little hamlet wh;ch was its nucleus — a by- word, even 
among the savages, there is no knowing what depths of abase- 
ment might have awaited it, had not a mighty and powerful 
moral influence been thrown into the scale against rum — and 
that was, a Christian church. 

In 1839, Bishop Loras, of Dubuque, had visited Fort Snel- 
ling and Mendota, with a view of establishing mission churches 
in a region, as yet, destitute of them, but which was now be- 
ginning to attract notice, and attention, and population, and 



\ 



1841] CLnd of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 109 

bade fair, ultimately, to become of importance. In a letter to 
a relative in Ireland, [published subsequently in the " Annals 
of Faith," Dublin, 1840,] he says: 

" DuBuc^E, July, 1839. 

** I have just returned from Saint Peter's, [Mendota,] where I made my 
second mission, or episcopal visitation. Though it lasted only a month, 
it has been crowned with success. I left Dubuque on the 23d of June, 
on board a large and magnificent steam vessel, and was accompanied by 
the Abbe PelamourGues, and a young man who served us as interpre- 
ter with the Sioux. After a successful voyage of some days, along the 
superb Mississippi, we reached Saint Peter's. Our arrival was a cause 
of great joy to the Catholics, who had never before seen a priest or 
bishop in those remote regions ; they manifested a great desire to assist 
at divine worship, and to approach the sacraments of the church. The 
wife of .our host was baptized and confirmed ; she subsequently received 
the sacrament of matrimony. The Catholics of Saint Peter's amount to 
185, fifty-six of whom we baptized, administered confirmation to eight, 
communion to thirty-three adults, and gave the nuptial benedidlion to 
four couples.' 

" Arrangements have been made for the construction of a church 
next summer, and a clergyman is to be sent, when he is able to speak 
French, (which is the language of the majority,) English, and the 
Sioux. To facilitate the study of the latter, we are to have, at Dubuque, 
this winter, two young Sioux, who are to teach one or two of our young 
ecclesiastics." 

Bishop LoRAS remained thirteen days at Mendota, and then 
returned to Dubuque in a canoe. The next spring, he was 
reminded, one day, when an up-bound steamer whistled for the 
landing, of his promise to send a priest hither. He selected 
Rev. LuciAN Galtier for the work, and, in one hour, that 
clergyman was en route to his new field of labor. 

REV. LUCIAN GALTIER. 

The following extract from a memoir of Father Galtier, 
written by Rev. John Ireland, for the Historical Society, 
gives an account which will be read with interest : 

" LuciAN Galtier was born in France, Department of Ardeches, A. 
D. 181 1. From an early age, he looked forward to the priesthood as 
his vocation, and was a student of theology in the seminary of his na- 
tive diocese, when Bishop Loras, the then newly appointed prelate 
of Dubuque, arrived in Europe, in quest of laborers for the immense 



no The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [i^i 

region confided to his spiritual charge. The missionaries, whom the 
Bishop persuaded to follow him to the wilds of western America, were 
Rev. Joseph Cretin, afterwards Bishop of Saint Paul ; Rev. Joseph 
Pelamourgues, now Vicar General of Dubuque ; Rev. A. Ravoux, 
now Vicar General of Saint Paul ; * * * and Rev. L. Galtier. 
The party landed in New York, in the fall of 1838. Messrs. Galtier 
and Ravoux, who had not yet completed their studies, proceeded to 
Emmitsburg College, Maryland, where they remained about a year. 
They were ordained in Dubuque, January 5, 1840. 

" The diocese of Dubuque comprised what was then the Territory of 
Iowa, the present State of Iowa, and as much of Minnesota as lies west 
of the Mississippi. The east side, though under the dire(ft jurisdi<5tion 
of the Bishop of Milwaukee, was, however, generally attended to by 
Dubuque priests, who, geographically, were in closer proximity than 
those of other dioceses." 

Of his arrival at Mendota, and subsequent founding of the 
church which gave the name to our city, let us copy from an 
account written by himself, in 1864, at the request of Bishop 
Grace : 



;< 



On the 26th of April, 1840, a Saint Louis steamboat, the first of the 
season, arrived at Dubuque, bound for Fort Snelling. Rt. Rev. Dr. 
LoRAS immediately came to me, and told me he desired to send me 
toward the upper waters of the Mississippi. There was no Saint Paul 
at the time ; there was, on the site of the present city, but a single log 
house, occupied by a man named Phelan, and steamboats never 
stopped there. 

" The boat landed at the foot of Fort Snelling, then under command 
of Major Plympton. The discovery that I soon made — that there were 
only a few houses on the Saint Peter's side, and but two on the side of 
the fort, surrounded by a complete wilderness, and without any signs 
of fields under tillage — gave me to understand that my mission and life 
must henceforth be a career of privation, hard trials and suffering, and 
required of me patience, labor and resignation. I had before me a large 
territory, too, under my charge — but few souls to watch over. * * * 

'* In that precarious and somewhat difficult condition, I continued for 
over a year. * * * A circumstance, rather sad in itself, commenced 
to better my situation, by procuring for me a new station and a variety 
in my scenes of labor. Some families — most of whom had left the Red 
River settlement, British America, on account of the flood and the 
loss of their crops, in the years 1837 and 1838 — had located themselves 
all along the right bank of the Mississippi, opposite the fort. Unfor- 
tunately, some soldiers, now and then, crossed the river to the houses 
of these settlers, and returned intoxicated — sometimes remaining out a 



1841] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 11 1 

day or two, or more, without reporting to their quarters. Consequently, 
a deputy marshal, from Prairie du Chien, was charged to remove the 
houses. He went to work, assisted by soldiers, and unroofed, one after 
another, the cottages, extending about five miles along the river. The 
settlers were forced to look for new homes ; they located themselves 
about two miles below the cave. Already a few parties had opened 
farms in this vicinity ; added to these, the new accessions formed quite 
a little settlement. Among the occupants of this ground were Rondo, 
(who had purchased the only cultivated claim in the place, that of Phe- 
LAN,) Vetal Guerin, Pierre Bottineau, the Gervais brothers, &c., 
&c. I deemed it my duty to visit occasionally those families, and set 
to work to choose a suitable spot for a church. 

SELECTING A SITE FOR THE CHURCH. 

" Three different points were offered, one called La Point Basse, or 
Point LeClaire, (now Pig's Eye) — but I obje<5ted, because that locality 
was the very extreme end of the new settlement, and, in high water, 
was exposed to inundation. The idea of building a church, which 
might at any day be swept down the river to Saint Louis, did not please 
me. Two miles and a half further up on his elevated claim, (now the 
southern point of Dayton's Bluff,) Mr. Charles Mousseau offered me 
an acre of his ground , but the place did not suit my purpose. I was 
truly looking ahead, thinking of the future as well as of the present. 
Steamboats could not stop there ; the bank was too steep, the place 
on the summit of the hill too restridled ; communication difficult with 
the oyier parts of the settlement up and down the river. 

"After mature reflection, I resolved to put up the church at the nearest 
possible point to the cave, because it would be more convenient for me 
to cross the river there, when coming from Saint Peter's, and because, 
also, it would be the nearest point to the head of navigation, outside 
of the Reservation line. Mr. B. Gervais and Mr. Vetal Guerin, 
two good quiet farmers, had the only spot that appeared likely to an- 
swer the purpose. They consented to give me jointly the ground 
necessary for a church site, a garden and a small graveyard. I accepted 
the extreme eastern part of Mr. Vetal's claim, and the extreme west 
of Mr. Gervais*. Accordingly, in 1841, in the month of October, logs 
were prepared and a church erecfted, so poor that it would well remind 
one of the stable- at Bethlehem. It was destined, however, to be the 
nucleus of a great city. On the ist day of November, in the same year, 
I blessed the new basilica^ and dedicated it to * Saint Paul, the apostle 
of nations.' I expressed a wish, at the same time, that the settlement 
would be known by the same name, and my desire was obtained. I 
had, previously to this time, fixed my residence at Saint Peter's, and as 
the name of Paul is generally connected with that of Peter, and the 



113 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1841 

gentiles being well represented in the new place in the persons of the 
Indians, I called it Saint Paul. The name ' Saint Paul,' applied to a 
town or city, seemed appropriate. The monosjilable is short, sounds 
well, and is understood b^ all denominations of Christians. When 
Mr. Vbtal Guerik was married, I published the bans as being those 
of a resident of 'Saint Paul.' A Mr. Jackson put up a store, and a 
grocery was opened at the foot of the Gbrvais claim. This soon 
brought steamboats to land there. Thenceforth the place was known 



THE CHAPEL OF SAINT PAUL. 

as 'Saint Paul Landing,' and, later on, as 'Saint Paul.' When, some- 
time ago, an effort was made to change the name,* I did all I could to 
oppose the projeift, bj writing from Prairie du Chien." 

It would seem that Father Galtier was not a bona fide 
resident of Saint Paul, at any time, but only came here at reg- 
ular intervals, to preach and administer sacraments. On the 
35th of May, 1844, he left Saint Peter's, and went to Keokuk, 
Iowa. In 1848, he returned to France, and remained a little 
time, but soon again was at work in the mission field. He 
was now placed at Prairie du Chien. In 1853 and 1865, lie 



REV. LUCLAN GALTIER. 



i REV. A, RAVOUX, 1 



1 841] ctnd of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 113 

visited Saint Paul, and felt a warm pride in its growth. On 
February 21, 1866, he was called to his reward. 

It may here be stated, that, when the little log chapel was 
taken down, several years later, (about 1856, I believe,) the 
logs and pieces were all marked and numbered, and laid by, 
with the intention of sometime rebuilding this truly historical 
strudlure. 

Thus w^as the infant city baptized with a Christian name. 
Pig's Eye no more — " now, by Saint Paul, the work goes 
bravely on." " One shudders to think," (said a writer in the 
Pioneer ^^ " of what the place would have come to if it had 
not been rebaptized — of the horrible marble squint of a Pig's 
Eye following it around the world. The head of navigation, 
with such an eye glaring from its socket were a pestiferous 
Medusa's head, blasting everything within five miles of it 
with its stony leer — blasting the rocks, especially. Imagine 
the efte<5l of a Pig's Eye in a senate committee. Think of a 
Pig's Eye for a seat of government. Who would have come 
to live under the bristling lashes of a Pig's Eye ? What should 
we have done for clothes ? What Jew would have domiciled 
in the leering eye of a pig? Or any pen have been held in 
honor but a pig-pen ?" 

In the first '' New Year's Address" ever printed in Minne- 
sota, written, probably, by Goodhue, January i, 1850, the 
sequel is given : 

"Pig's Eye, converted thou shalt be, like Saul; 
Arise; and be, henceforth, Saint Paul !" 

ARRIVAL OF FATHER RAVOUX. 

During the fall of 1841, Rev. Augustin Ravoux arrived 
from below, and has been, ever since that date, a resident of 
Minnesota, and, most of the time, of Saint Paul. From a 
sketch of the good father, in the Northwestern Chronicle^ I 
copy the following : 

" Father A. Ravoux was born January 11, 1815, at Langeac, in Au- 
vergne, France, about 20 miles from Puy, where he spent three years 
in the Petit Seminaire, and four years in the Grand Seminaire. Right 
Rev. M. LoRAS, previously Pastor of the Cathedral Church, of Mobile,' 



114 ^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S41 

Alabama, having been consecrated, in 1837, Bishop of Dubuque, Iowa, 
before visiting his diocese, went to France, in order to have a few mis- 
sionaries and some pecuniary means for his poor and new diocese. 

*' Early in the spring of 1838, he visited the Grand Seminaire of Puy, 
and delivered before the seminarians an urgent invitation, in order to 
induce some of them to accompany him to America. Deeply moved 
by the discourse and tears of the good Bishop of Dubuque, whom he 
had never seen or heard of before, TAbbe A. Ravoux, then a sub-deacon, 
offered himself to him for the missions of his diocese. In September, 
1838, they left France for the United States, and after 45 days* naviga- 
tion, they reached New York. The Rt. Rev. Bishop was accompanied, 
also, by his Vicar General, Father Cretin ; by Rev. A. Pelamour- 
GUES, who, in 1858, was appointed Bishop of Saint Paul, (but declined 
accepting the charge;) by I'Abbe Galtier, who gave to our city its 
name, and by two other sub-deacons. 

"A few days after. Father Ravoux was sent to Prairie du Chien, 
where he exercised the holy ministry till September, 1841, when he re- 
ceived from his Bishop the commission of visiting the Sioux, being in 
the northern part of the disocese of Dubuque, in order to see if there 
was any prospect of establishing a mission among them. He left Prairie 
du Chien, for the Upper Mississippi, spent a few days with his friend. 
Father Galtier ; was then invited to go, in a canoe, to Traverse des 
Sioux ; accepted the invitation with many thanks, and, after foiir or five 
days, arrived at Traverse. He was there the guest of Mr. Provencal, 
an old and respectable gentleman, who had been a trader with the In- 
dians for about forty-five j^ears. While here, he commenced the study 
of the Sioux language, in which he soon became quite proficient, mean- 
time preaching to the Indians by interpreters. He soon after proceeded 
to * Little Rock,' and, in January, 1842, went to Lac qui Parle. After 
having passed there two or three months, performing the same duties 
as at Traverse and Little Rock, he returned, early in the spring, to 
Mendota, where he spent the greater part of the summer with his friend. 
Father Galtier. During that summer. Rev. L. Galtier visited the 
Catholics living at Lake Pepin and on the Chippewa River; meanwile. 
Father Ravoux attended the mission of Mendota, and Saint Paul, and 
taught the catechism in Sioux to the Messrs. Frenieres' families, who 
were encamped for several weeks near the church at Mendota. At their 
invitation, he accompanied them to Lake Traverse, being by them in- 
formed that he would find there several hundred families of Sioux, who 
would be glad to see him and hear the good tidings of the Gospel. 
Unfortunately, when they reached the place, the Indians, four or five 
families excepted, had already left for their winter expedition. He 
spent about two weeks near the banks of the lake, baptized many per- 
sons belonging to the families of the Frenieres. and returned to Men- 
dota. He there, at the request of the Faribault family, established 



1 841] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 115 

a mission at Little Prairie, (now Chaska,) and remained some time. 
While here, he wrote a catechism and other religious books, in Sioux. 

'* In the spring of 1843, he went to Dubuque, to see the Right Rev. 
Bishop LoRAS, who gave him some encouragement ; then he left Du- 
buque for Prairie du Chien, where he spent almost two months, and 
printed, with a small printing press, belonging to Very Rev. J. Cretin,' 
a book in the Sioux language ;* and then returned to his mission. 

"In the months of January, February, and March, 1844, 23 Indians 
and half-breeds received the sacrament of baptism, but, unfortunately 
for that new mission. Rev. L. Galtier was, in the spring of the same 
year, removed from Mendota to Keokuk, and Father Ravoux had to 
take his place, until another priest would be sent from Dubuque. Right 
Rev. Bishop Loras had promised to send one after a short time, but, 
though he renewed, again and again, his promise, he could not fulfill it, 
and so Father Ravoux had under his charge, Mendota, Saint Paul, Lake 
Pepin and Saint Croix, till the 2d of July, 185 j, when Right Rev. 
Bishop Cretin arrived at Saint Paul." 

From the time that Father Galtier left, until about 1849, 
Father Ravoux preached alternate Sundays at Mendota and 
Saint Paul. The latter year, his flock here increased so that he 
spent two Sundays here, and the third at Mendota, and so on, 
until Mendota was made a parish by itself, and Saint Paul's 
church had the exclusive labors of a priest. Father Ravoux's 
life has been spared to witness glorious fruits from his early 
labors. Beloved by a large congregation and revered by all, 
he is still adively pursuing his holy calling, with the prayers' 
of his flock that his days may yet be many amongst us. 

PROGRESS OF SETTLEMENT. 

About this period, the agricultural region between the Mis- 
sissippi and Saint Croii began slowly settling up. During 
the summer of 1841, a mission was established at Red Rock, 
by Rev. B. F. Kavenaugh, superintendent of the Methodist 
missions among the Sioux and Chippewas. He was accompa- 
nied by his family, William R. Brown, (afterwards of Saint 
Paul,) Charles Cavileer, a Miss Julia Boswell, and Mrs. 
Martha Boardman, the two latter as teachers for the mission. 
Mr. Brown ere<5led the buildings for the mission, and subse- 

* Wakantanka ti Cancu — Path to the House of God. 



ii6 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1^4* 

quently he and Cavileer opened a farm. In 1842, Daniel 
Hopkins established a store there, and, in 1847, removed it to 
Saint Paul. Mr. Cavileer also removed to Saint Paul, 
shortly after this, (1845,) and, in 1851, w^ent to Pembina, 
where he has been postmaster almost a quarter of a century. 
Soon after, other farmers settled in the Cottage Grove re- 
gion — Hiram Haskell, J. W. Furber, James S. Norris, 
and others. John A. Ford and Rev. John Holton also 
settled at Red Rock, and a fevv^ families at Point Douglas — 
David Hone among them. 



1842] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 117 



CHAPTER IX. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1842. 

Henry Jackson Settles Here— Also, Sergeant Mortimer— Fronchet and 
"Old Pelon" — Stanislaus Bilanski— The Battle of Kaposia— Strange 
Scenes. 

ON June 9, 1842, there landed in Saint Paul, as we may now 
call it, a man whose name must always be prominently 
mentioned in connection with the early history of our city. 

HENRY JACKSON 

w^as born in Abingdon, Virginia, February i, 1811. In early 
life he acquired but a limited education, though he ultimately, 
by reading and study, became a good penman and accountant, 
and acquired a fair amount of scholarly culture. He was 
shrewd, energetic, and self-reliant, and had a large share of 
humor and penetration into chara<5ler. He was of a somewhat 
roving disposition, however, and, while quite a young man, 
went to Texas, where he was engaged in the " Patriot War" 
of 1836-7, with the rank of orderly sergeant. He then made 
his way back to the St^es, and lived for a time at Buffalo, 
New York, where, on May 27, 1838, he was married to Miss 
Angelina Bivins. • He soon after emigrated to Green Bay, 
Wisconsin, and from there to Galena, Illinois, where he went 
into business, but failed. He then, (1842,) resolved to remove 
to Saint Paul, and, gathering his worldly goods together, was 
landed at our lower levee, on a dark, rainy night, when it re- 
quired considerable search and trouble to secure a shelter for 
the night. This was finally accomplished at the Clewett 
place, where the Perrys were, then living. Mr. Jackson 
and family remained here several days, and then rented of old 
Parrant a cabin on the levee, where they lived until their 
own house was ready in the fall. 



ii8 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1842 

Jackson soon purchased of Ben. Gervais a small tra6l of 
land, about three acres, lying in the block now bounded by 
Jackson and Robert, and Bench and Third streets. It was 
then a high bank or " bluff," a part of which still remains, in 
rear of the Saint Paul Fire and Marine Building. Here, on a 
point overlooking the lower levee, Jackson built a log or 
pole cabin, and opened a small stock of goods suitable for 
the Indian trade. He soon did a prosperous business, and, in 
a short time, by his activity, ta6l and sagacity, became a lead- 
ing man in the community. 

During his residence in Saint Paul, Jackson held several 
important offices. In 1843, he was appointed by Gov. Dodge, 
of Wisconsin, a Justice of the' Peace — the first one who ever 
filled tha,t office in our city. In 1846, he was appointed the 
first postmaster of Saint Paul ; and, in 1847, was elected a 
member of the Wisconsin Assembly, for two years. He was 
also a member of the first Territorial Legislature of Minnesota, 
and a member of the first town council. On April 28, 1853, 
he removed to Mankato, being almost the first settler in that 
town, where he died July 31, 1857. Jackson street, in this 
city, and Jackson county, Minnesota, were named for him. 

Mrs. Jackson subsequently became the wife of John S. 
Hinckley, Esq., of Mankato, and still resides in that city. 
Mrs. H. has kindly furnished the writer, (who visited her for 
the purpose,) with many interesting and valuable fa6ls of early 
days. It has been her fortune to pass her entire life, after 
marriage, in frontier towns, several of which she has seen gro\v 
up from a few cabins to prosperous cities, and endured such 
privation and hardships as every pioneer woman must neces- 
sarily undergo. She has now, in her house, at Mankato, the 
first clock which was ever brought to Saint Paul. 

SERGEANT R. W. MORTIMER. 

On August 17, 1842, Richard W. Mortimer, usually 
known as "Sergeant Mor.timer," settled in Saint Paul. 
Mortimer was a native of Leeds, England, and was born 
about the year 1800. His father was a man of some wealth, 
and young Mortimer was educated at Eton College. When 



1842] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 119 

19 years of age, in company with a younger brother, he ran 
away from home, in a foolish, school-boy freak, and went to 
Canada. His brother soon returned, but Richard W. was too 
proud to do so, and, as a result, was disinherited. He had been 
splendidly educated, however, and soon turned it to account by 
procuring an appointment in the Signal Service of the British 
Army, in which he remained several years. He subsequently 
emigrated to the United States, and was appointed Commissary 
and Quartermaster Sergeant, holding both positions for some 
years. He came to Fort Snelling in 1835, ^^^ lived in the 
fort until 1842, excepting a short time during the Florida war, 
when he accompanied the troops to that region. During his 
residence in Canada, he was married to a Miss Elizabeth 
Maxwell, and two children were born there. • Three were 
also born in Fort Snelling. 

In the year 1842, Sergeant Mortimer got tired of army life, 
and, having saved about $4,000, he concluded to settle in this 
region. He, therefore, purchased from Joseph Rondo, eighty 
acres of his claim, fronting on the river, and bounded on the 
east by Saint Peter street, and on the west by Washington 
street. The exact sum paid for this, I have been unable to 
ascertain. There was an old house on the claim, at the time, 
but Mortimer built, near where Robinson's drug store now is, 
a good hewed log house, with a shingle roof, which his daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Maria Patten, thinks was the first shingle roof in 
Saint Paul. Mortimer made other improvements, and soon 
opened quite a lot of goods suitable to the trade at that time. 
He also expended considerable in cattle and horses, and had 
about 40 acres under cultivation. 

Sergeant Mortimer was really unfitted for the new life in 
which he had engaged. There were many troubles he had not 
anticipated. He had expended nearly all the ample sum he 
had saved in his army life, in his improvements and stock, and 
realized but little from them at last. The trade was small and 
•the people poor. He was filled with vain regrets that he had 
ever left the army, and it weighed on his mind so that it affedled 
his health at last. He was a liberal and public-spirited man, 
and, had he lived, would have been a prominent citizen. The 



I20 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1842 

first flag every raised in Saint Paul, was procured by him, at 
the expense of $35* He had one of his men raise it on a p)ole, 
in front of his house, on Christmas, 1842. There seems to 
have been almost as much rivalry between upper and lower 
town, those days, as there was subsequently, for the flag had 
been flying but a little while, when some wicked scamp, from 
the lower part of tlie village, cut it down. Mortimer was 
terribly enraged when he found it out, and was about to put in 
force Gov. Dix's famous order — *' if anv man hauls down the 
American flag, shoot him on the spot." He went to load a 
gun, and ordered his horse to pursue the offender. His wife, 
fearing there would be bloodshed, unloosed the horse, and 
there was so much delay before he was caught, that Morti- 
mer's anger Cooled down. 

Mr. Mortimer did not live long after his residence in Saint 
Paul. On January 8th, 1843, he was attacked with hemor- 
rhage, resulting from an injury received a short time before, 
and died at the age of 43 years. He left a widow and five 
children — two sons and three daughters. His oldest daughter 
is now Mrs. J. R. Patten, an estimable lady of Minneapolis. 
His second daughter, Fanny, married Aaron Foster, an old 
settler of Saint Paul. Both are now dead. His youngest 
daughter, Lily, is now Mrs. Robert Clinger, of Philadel- 
phia. His two sons, William and George, served in the late 
war, the former giving an arm to his country. Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Mortimer died at Minneapolis, January 15, 1873. 

While Mr. Mortimer was living in Saint Paul, there w^orked 
for him, and for his famil}^ after his death, an old soldier 
named FRONCHET,.or Desire — as he was generally called — 
referred to more at length on page 62. Fronchet was a 
faithful servant, and highly valued despite his infirmities. He 
always boasted of his Parisian origin and purity of language, 
afle6ling to sneer at the Canadian French, whom he declared 
he could scarcely understand. Poor Fronchet ! Whisky 
finally got the better of him, and he came to a sad end. 

" OLD PELON." 

Shortly after Jackson opened his trading-house in lower 



1842] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 121 

town, he began to feel the need of an interpreter who could 
talk Sioux, and assist him in selling and buying with his red 
customers. Opportunely, there happened along, at this junc- 
ture, from Prairie du Chien, a Canadian ex-voyageur, common- . 
Iv known as " Old Pelon." What Pelon's Christian name 
was, no one happens now to remember, nor is it of much mo- 
ment, since, probably, we have sufficiently identified him by 
the title given. Old Pelon was quite a charadler in his way — 
vivacious, polite, good-natured, shrewd, faithful, he proved a 
valuable aid to Mr. Jackson, and remained in his service for 
several years. Goodhue, who met Pelon at the Indian 
treaty of Traverse de Sioux, in 185 1, relates this incident of 
the. old coon : 

Pelon used to tend Jackson's bar, while Saint Paul was 
only the western suburb of Pig's Eye. At that time, all sorts 
of liquors were sold out of the same decanter, and a stranger, 
coming in once, asked Pelon if he had any confe<5tionery .'^ 
Pelon, not knowing the meaning of the word, supposed it 
was some kind of liquor, passed out the decanter of whisky to 
his customer, saying : " Oui, Monsieur, here is confecshawn, 
ytx good, superb, magnifique, pretty fair." 

Pelon afterwards kept a saloon of his own on the lower 
levee, but, ultimately, age and infirmities overtook him, and he 
died in 1852, at " old man Larrivier's," on Lake Phelan. 

STANISLAUS BILANSKI, 

who settled in Saint Paul this year, was a Polander by birth, 
and had lived in Wisconsin prior to coming to Saint Paul. He 
purchased a claim and cabin on the point of second table-land 
between Phelan's Creek, and Trout Brook, near the machine 
shops of Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad Company, 
called then "Oak Point," and lived there several years. Bi- 
LANSKi was an uxorious individual, and had a facility for mar- 
rying and divorcing wives, that ultimately brought him to an 
untimely end. While living with his fourth wife, in 1859, 

« 

he died, on March nth of that year, under circumstances that 
showed he had been poisoned. The full particulars of the 



122 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1842 

case will be found in the chapter devoted to the events of the 
year 1859. 

THE BATTLE OF KAPOSIA. 

In September of this year occurred the famous battle of 
Kaposia, between the Chippewas and Sioux. References will 
be found in the previous pages of this history to the savage 
warfare that had been waged for several years between these 
two hostile tribe*, whose deadly feud must have begun genera- 
tions ago, and sacrificed a hecatomb of warriors during those 
years. 

Early in the spring of 1841, three Chippewa warriors pro- 
ceeded to the vicinity of Fort Snelling, and lay concealed in a 
thicket there, looking for Sioux scalps. Ere long, Kaiboka, 
a Dakota chief, accompanied by his son, and another Indian, 
passed along, when they were at once killed and scalped, and 
the cowardly assassins escaped. Enraged at this a6l, a war 
party from Little Crow's village, at Kaposia, headed by that 
cliief, equipped themselves and started on a campaign of revenge. 
Three of LtTTLE Crow's sons were in the party. Near the 
Falls of Saint Croix, they fell in with the Chippewas. Twa 
of Crow's sons were shot dead, and the party returned. 
Another se6lion of the expedition penetrated the Ojibwa country 
as far as Pokeguma, where there was a village of Indians and 
a missionary station, at which Edmund F. Ely, for several 
years subsequently a resident of this city, was present. The 
Dakotas attacked this, but inflidled little damage on the enemy, 
losing two of their own number. 

In revenge for this raid, the Chippewas, in 1842, determined 
to attack the Sioux village, of Little Crow, at Kaposia. A 
war party of about 40 was formed at Fond du Lac, and, in their 
downward march, thev were joined bv recruits from the Mille 
Lac and Saint Croix bands, until the party ijiumbered about 
100. They arrived unnoticed at the bluff back of Pig's Eye, 
where they halted in Pine Coolie, the ravine just back of the 
old poor-house, to reconnoiter. This was about 10 o'clock in 
the forenoon. 

Just at this moment, a Red River half-breed, named Henry 



J 842] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 123 

Sinclair,* who was in the employ of the missionaries Kave- 
NAUGH, at Red Rock, came along on the trail, riding a pony. 
Him they hailed, and inquired, '' if there were any Dakotas 
about." Sinclair was about to reply, when his pony took 
fright, and started off at break- neck speed. He did not try to 
check him, but galloped on, and in a few minutes, arrived at 
the mission house, where he reported what he had seen. 
There were two Sioux at Rev. Mr. Kavenaugh's house, who 
at once started off on the run to alarm the .men at Kaposia. 
Mrs. Thomas Odell, then Miss Elizabeth Williams, a 
half-breed girl, was a pupil at the Red Rock mission. She 
states that, a moment after the Indians left, the rattle of guns 
was heard, showing that the work of death had commenced. 
But we must go back a little. 

On Pig's Eye bottom, a little distance from Pine Coolie, 
where the Chippewas were lying in ambush, was the cabin 
and field of Francis Gammel, a French Canadian, who had 
come to Minnesota as a voyageur, in 1829, and had lived at 
Mendota. He was now married to a Dakota woman, and they 
had one child, David Gammel, then an infant. That morning, 
an old Indian, named Rattler, a brother of old Bets, well 
known to the early residents hereabout, had gone over to Gam- 
mel's house, with his two wives, and a son and daughter, in- 
fants, in order to help Mr. and Mrs. Gammel hoe their corn. 
Gammel and his wife, and one of Rattler's wives, were in 
the field at work. The other Mrs. Rattler complained of 
being sick, and went into the house, whither old Rattler 
followed. The three children were playing near by. 

Just at this moment, a squad of Chippewas, who had been 
sent out to reconnoiter, sneaked through the bushes outside 
the field, and seeing the two Sioux women at work, fired a 
volley at them. Mrs. Rattler fell dead, and Mrs. Gammel 
was mortally wounded. Gammel picked her up and carried 

* Sinclair came from Selkirk Settlement, in 1839, piloting a drove of cattle. He 
was a simple-hearted, honest fellow. One time he was sick, at Mendota, and Surgeon 
Emerson, at the fort, sent, by some one, a box of pills, for him to take a dose from. 
N. W. Kittson called on him a little while after this, and found that Sinclair had not 
only swallowed all the pills, but was then chewing up the box ! S. afterwards went to 
Sauk Rapids, or Crow Wing, where he died a few years ago. 



124 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1842 

her into the house, followed by some of the blood-thirsty Chip- 
pewas, who rushed in and scalped the dying woman in his 
arms^ and at once retreated, not knowing of the presence of 
Rattler and his other wife, in an adjoining room. As they 
bounded off, giving the scalp-halloo, Gammel seized a gun and 
fired at them, wounding one in the leg, but they did not, at any 
time, offer to molest him. Just then they observed the little 
boy of Rattler, who was endeavoring to hide in the bushes. 
They seized him and cut off his head. The little son of Gam- 
mel,* and the daughter of Rattler, named 7a-//, (Her 
Lodge,) escaped unnoticed. This affair had all occurred in 
a moment, and was undoubtedly a military blunder of the at- 
tacking party. Their design had been to crawl, unobserved, 
to the bank of the river, opposite Kaposia, and there, concealed 
in the dense shrubbery, lie in wait for some unsusj>e<5ting 
party of Sioux, and massacre them. But, seeing the Dakota 
women in the field, they had rashly attacked them, thus giving 
the alarm prematurely. 

If they had carried out the first named plan, they could not 
have chosen a more opportune time than that day. The Sioux 
at the village were in the midst of one of their drunken sprees, 
and, as is customary at such times, the squaws had hid their 
guns and other weapons, to prevent them from doing each 
other any harm. The firing across the river first gave them 
the alarm that the enemy was near, when great excitement at 
once prevailed. The men hunted up their concealed weapons, 
meantime giving their barbaric war-whoop, and yelling like 
so many demons, in order to scare the enemy, probably. In 
this vocal exercise they were joined by the squaws and chil- 
dren. As soon as they could arm themselves, the Sioux bravely 
advanced across the river to attack the enemy. The latter, by 
this time, had advanced near the bank of the river, about where 
the quarantine grounds now are, and here the battle mainly 

*Gammel's son, David, grew up to manhood atMendota, and served in a Minnesota 
Regiment. Old Rattler died in 1851, of an overdose of whisky. Ta-ti, his daughter, 
afterwards became the wife of Wa-kin-yan-ta-woy (His Thunder,) sometimes called 
"Chaska," who saved George H. Spencer's life, in i86a, and was poisoned acciden- 
tally the year following. Ta-ti now lives at Mendota. Francis Gammel died at 
Mendota» in 1S71. 



1842] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 125 

took place. It raged with great spirit for a couple of hours, 
during which the firing was incessant. Some hand-to-hand 
encounters also took place between the two sides, while the 
forest and bluffs rang' with their incessant yelling. The firing 
was plainly heard in Saint Paul. Every inch of the battle- 
ground was hotly contested. Toward noon, the Qhippewas 
began to fall back, and soon retreated on their path, followed 
by the Sioux, who pursued them over the bluff", and several 
miles toward Stillwater. The Chippewas left some nine or 
ten dead bodies on the field, and may have carried off their 
wounded. The Sioux also lost heavily. Different accounts 
place their loss at nineteen or twenty, including the mortally 
wounded, who died subsequently. The dead Chippewas were 
at once scalped, while the squaws amused themselves by hack- 
ing and mutilating them. "Old Bets" went around pound- 
ing their heads with a huge club. One of her sons, afterwards 
called Ta-opi^ or Wounded Man, was so named because 
wounded in this fight. 

When the Chippewas first made the attack, a messenger 
was sent to Fort Snelling with the intelligence. It was the 
policy of the Government to prevent and punish these inter- 
tribal carnages, and Major Dearborn at once dispatched a 
party of soldiers from Companies D, G and H, First Infantry, 
who at that time garrisoned the fort, to Kaposia, to stop the 
conflidl. The party came down below Pickerel Lake in boats, 
and thence across by land, but did not arrive until after the 
confiidl was over. Thomas S. Odell, now of West Saint 
Paul, was one of this party. I am indebted to him and his 
wife for many of the minor incidents of this strange affair. 



126 The Historj/ of the City of Saint Paul^ [1^43 



CHAPTER X. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1843. 

Notices of Some Settlers— John R. Irvine, J. W. Simpson, William Harts- 
HORN, A. L. Larpenteur, Scott Campbell, Alex. R. McLeod, ac, ac— 
Rondo sells his Claim— An Indian in Pursuit of Whisky. 

DURING the year 1843, there was quite an accession to 
the population — among others, John R. Irvine, C. C. 
Blanchard, J. W. Simpson, Ansel B. Coy, William 
Hartshorn, A. L. Larpenteur, Scott Campbell, An- 
ToiNE Pepin, &c., &c. 

JOHN R. IRVINE 

was botn in Dansville, New York, November 3, 181 2. When 
a boy, he worked at blacksmithing, but, about the age of 17, 
removed to Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where he learned the trade 
of plastering, and, in 1831, was married to Miss Nancy Gal- 
braith. He afterwards returned to Dansville, and resumed 
blacksmithing. In 1837, he emigrated west, living for three 
years in Green Bay, and, in 1840, settled in Prairie du Chien, 
where he went into the grocery trade. While living in Buffalo, 
New York, he had become acquainted with Henry Jackson — 
indeed, he and Jackson had come to Green Bay together, the 
latter soon removing to Galena, however. About February, 
1843, Jackson was on his way down the river to purchase 
goods, and, stopping at Prairie du Chien, there found his old 
friend, who was in business with Ansel B, Coy and C. C. 
Blanchard. Jackson at once urged him to remove to Saint 
Paul, as being a much more promising place for trade, rapid 
growth, &c., than Prairie du Chien. So warmly did he set 
forth the advantages of Saint Paul, that Mr. Irvine resolved 
at least to visit it and see the land of promise. He accordingly 
came up here in the latter part of that winter, in a sleigh, with 



1843] and of the Cntmty of Ramsey. Minnesota. ray 

a load of groceries and other goods for sale, and, after looking 
around over the field, resolved to repove here. He therefore 
purchased of Joseph Rondo the balance of the old Phelan 
claim (remaining after the sale of about half to Sergeant Mor- 
timer.) The price paid for this traft was $300. Rondo had 
at that time a very good log dwelling built on the French plan, 



JOHN R. IRVINE. 

(i. e., the logs squared and let into grooves — not notched at 
the corners.) It stood about where the northwest corner of 
Third and Franklin streets would now be. With some ad- 
ditions, it made a verv comfortable dwelling, and was used bv 
Mr. Irvine for several years. Mr. Irvine thinks that the 
claim he bought of Rondo contained 300 acres. It extended 
back to the marsh on the Lake Como road, which residentR of 
some 15 or 20 years ago may remember. 



128 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^43 

After purchasing this property, Mr. Irvine returned to 
Prairie du Chien, to remove his family and business hither. He 
placed his household eftedls and goods in a large Mackinac 
boat, and, as soon as navigation opened, hired the steamer Ot- 
ter, on her first trip up, to tow it to Saint Paul. His partner, 
Ansei- B. Coy, came with the goods, but Mr. Blanchard 
did not come up until a few weeks subsequently. Mr. Irvine 
arrived some time in June with his family. The boat was run 
up the slough between the upper levee and the main land, and 
moored there. It was then all heavy timber and underbrush 
in that locality, and, as there was no road — hardly a foot-path 
from the bluff down to the water — the unloading and carrying 
of the goods up the bluff was no small job. 

A dense forest covered the bottom land near the upper levee. 
Mr. Irvine cut immense quantities of wood for steamboats off 
of that bottom, without apparently making any impression on 
it. Upper Third street, from the seven-corners to the bluff, 
was a quagmire, almost without bottom. Cows used to stick 
there years after this, to the great trouble of their ow^ners. 
Along the side of the hill, near Pleasant and College avenues, 
was a morass, with a forest of cedar and tamaracks growing on 
it. No one at that day could have imagined it would, in so 
few years, become the valuable property it now is, covered 
with comfortable residences. For several years, Mr. Irvine 
cultivated a considerable part of his land for a farm. 

Mr. Irvine subsequently (about 1845, he thinks) purchased 
the Mortimer claim, and, in 1848, entered the land (which 
had then been surveyed) in the land office at Stillwater. In 
November, 1848, for $250, he deeded the east half of the north- 
west quarter of section 6, town 28, to Henry M. Rice, which 
afterwards became a part of Rice and Irvine's Addition. But 
of this anon. 

Mr. Irvine has been one of our most a6live and useful citi- 
zens during his thirty-two years' residence. The ample prop- 
erty, which his foresight and prudence prompted him to secure 
and hold, is now one of the finest portions of our city. The 
proceeds of most of it which has been sold, has been reinvested 
in eredting substantial business blocks, mills, warehouses, and 



1843] a7id of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 129 

other buildings, which now stand as a credit to the enterprise 
of the owner. Although 63 years of age, a period when most 
men court repose, Mr. Irvine is still adtively engaged in busi- 
ness, and is known as one of our most energetic and hard- 
working men. Mr. Irvine has served our county in the 
Legislature, and other elective bodies, and perhaps no one of 
our pioneer settlers more fully enjoys the esteem of the public 
than he, and the wish that the " great reaper" will long delay 
his visit. 

The amiable wife of Mr. Irvine, is one of the first white 
women who settled in Minnesota, and has endured the priva- 
tions and struggles of pioneer life, with others of that noble 
few, who deserve especial mention. Mr. and Mrs. I. have one 
son and six daughters living, most of the latter married to well- 
known citizens. 

When Irvine bought Rondo's claim, the latter at once 
made a new claim in and near the marsh, on the Lake Como 
Road. When the land was entered, in 1848, it was noticed 
that the lines overlapped somewhat, but Ij^nd was so cheap 
then, that such things were hardly noticed. A few acres were 
not worth disputing about. 

FURTHER ABOUT RONDO. 

Mr. Rondo subsequently laid out quite an addition on this 
claim, or a part of it, and it has of late years become valuable 
property. The marsh has been so drained and graded that it 
can scarcely be found, except by close search. 

Rondo has raised a large family, and has a number of grand- 
children to bear his name down to posterity. He lives in a 
plain manner, in his brick house, on the street which is called 
after him, and, though nearly 80 years old, worked hard in the 
harvest field this summer. His long life has been full of inter- 
esting events, and, as one of his ancestors lived to 112, and two 
more over a century, Mr. Rondo, now our oldest living settler 
resident among us, may live a score of years yet, to see still 
more generations of his descendants. 

C. C. BLANCHARD. 

With Mr. Irvine, came Christopher C. Blanchard, who 



130 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1^43 

had been his partner in business in Prairie du Chien, and con- 
tinued that relation after arriving here. Mr. Blanch ard was 
not pleased with Saint Paul, however, and soon returned to 
Prairie du Chien, and thence to Saint Louis. No tidings have 
been received of him for some twenty years, and he may not 
now be living. Blanchard was a married man, and his 
wife's sister, Mrs. Matilda Rumsey, lived with him. When 
he went back down the river, Mrs. Rumsey remained here, 
residing with Mr. Irvine's family. 

ANSEL B. COY, 

who had also been a partner of Irvine, at Prairie du Chien, 
as before stated, came to Saint Paul quite early in the spring, 
in charge of the goods. He, too, was not suited here, and 
soon after returned. 

■ 

ALEXANDER MEGE. 

During the season of 1843, a Frenchman named Alex. 
Mege, who had lived at Prairie du Chien, came to Saint Paul, 
and purchased the interest of Coy, when that gentleman left. 
Mege and Irvine dissolved subsequently, and Mege kept a 
store in a building on the Mortimer claim. On June 23, 1845' 
he was married to Mrs. Matilda Rumsey, at Mr. Irvine's 
house, by Rev. Father Ravoux. In 1847, Mr. and Mrs. Mege 
removed to Montrose, Iowa, where Mrs. Mege subsequently 
died. Mrs. Rumsey is the lady mentioned elsewhere who' 
taught the first school in Saint Paul. 

J. W. SIMPSON. 

James W. Simpson was born in Virginia, 1818. We have 
seen it asserted, that in his younger days he was a clergyman, 
but do not state this on positive authority. He came to Min- 
nesota in 1842, and resided about a year at Sandy Lake, wrhere 
he was connedted with the mission in some capacity, and then 
came to Red Rock, where he resided a short time, settling at 
Saint Paul in October of 1843. He bought an acre of Benj. 
Gervais, where Union block now stands, and opened a store, 
the second one in the village. He afterwards sold this, and 



1843] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 131 

bought a tra6l between Baptist hill and the Merchants' Hotel, 
where he lived until his death. He soon after established a 
commission business on the levee, which he continued until 
within a year or two of his death. He was eledted county 
treasurer in 1849, and so scrupulously just and honest was he, 
that he turned over at the end of his term the identical coin 
collected by him, having kept it as a fund separate from any 
other money. About 1868, his health failed, and he was very 
feeble for some months. Indeed, his death was prematurely 
reported once or twice. It finally came to his relief on May 
30, 1870, in the 52d year of his age. He died respected by all. 
Mr. Simpson was married, in 1846, to a MissDENOYER, a niece 
of Louis Robert. 

WII-LIAM HARTSHORN 

was born at Dedham, Massachusetts, in i794« He learned 
the trade of hatter when a boy, and subsequently removed to 
Springfield, Massachusetts, where he established a store, and 
continued in the fur and hatting business for several years, part 
of the time on a large scale, as he once made a sale of furs to 
John Jacob Astor, for $100,000. Adversity came upon him, 
however, and he sold out his business, removed to Brockport, 
New York, subsequently to Lewiston, thence to Michigan City, 
&c., where he was in the hotel and stage business, and, in 1839, 
settled in Saint Louis, where he engaged again in the fur and 
peltry trade. 

In 1843, he started for the Upper Mississippi, to purchase 
furs. On the way up, he met Henry Jackson on the steamer. 
Jackson told him he had some furs to sell, which induced him 
to stop here. The result of the visit was, that he and Jackson 
formed a copartnership, and Hartshorn, returning to Saint 
Louis to close up his business there, settled in Saint Paul in 
September, although he did not bring his family up for some 
months afterwards. The first deed on the Ramsey county 
records, is one dated April 23, 1844, in which Jackson deeds 
to William Hartshorn, for $1,000, the "half of three acres, 
it being the place where said Jackson now lives, lying im- 



132 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^43 

mediately on the Mississippi River, known as the Saint Paul's 
Landing." 

Mr. Hartshorn also bought, that year, or early in 1844, 
a tra6t of Gervais, on his claim, bounded by what (now) 
would be Sibley and Minnesota streets, and Fourth and Sixth 
streets. In 1846, when Pierre Bottineau sold his claim, 
(Baptist hill,) he describes it as ''bounded on the west by 
Hartshorn." There was a log house on this tra6t, about 
where the Schurmeier block now stands. 

The copartnership with Jackson lasted only about two years, 
and Mr. Hartshorn, withdrawing, moved to the old Morti- 
mer claim, and commenced business there on his own account. 
He also had one or two stores or trading posts in other places, 
at Saint Croix Falls and on the Minnesota River. He in- 
creased his business so at one time, that he had several of these 
outside stations. D. B. Freeman, who had clerked for him 
in Saint Louis, and Aug. Freeman ; A. L. Larpenteur, 
Ed. West, of New York ; W. H. Morse, of Stillwater ; and 
others, clerked for him, and Joseph Campbell, Joseph Des- 
MARAis, Antoine and Sam. Findley were employed by him 
at various times, as interpreters. It was also through him 
that William H. Randall, of New York, came to Saint 
Paul, in 1846. 

In the winter of 1847-8, Mr. Hartshorn disposed of his 
interest to John and William H. Randall, the Freemans 
and Larpenteur, under the name of "Freeman, Larpen- 
teur & Co.," and removed to Stillwater. Not liking that 
place, he soon returned to Saint Paul, and re-embarked in trade. 
He continued in business until 1864, when disease fastened on 
him, and he died January 2, 1865. A newspaper sketch says 
of him : " He was an honest and pure-minded man, with a 
kindness of heart and absence of guile that made him beloved 
by all. Ever upright himself, in his simplicity, he perhaps 
placed too much confidence in others, and hence, though at 
times well off, he was over-reached to an extent that kept him 
in reduced circumstances most of his life." Mrs. Tyle Harts- 
horn, his venerable widow, who, with him, sustained the pri- 
vations and hardships of pioneer life, died March 4, 1874. 



1843] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 133 

William E. Hartshorn, his only son, is still a resident of 
Saint Paul. 

AUGUSTE L. LARPENTEUR 

was born May 16, 1823, at Baltimore, Maryland. His father 
was an emigrant from France. In 1840, he went to Saint 
Louis, to enter into business there with a relative, and, some 
time after his arrival, got acquainted with William Harts- 
horn, who had been up to Saint Paul on a fur-buying expedi- 
tion, and had formed a partnership with Henry Jackson. He 
engaged Larpenteur, in 1843, to go to Saint Paul with him, 
and gave him charge of an invoice of goods and horses. Lar- 
penteur at once started for Saint Paul, on the steamer Otter, 
Capt. Scribe Harris, and arrived here September 15, 1843. 
Hartshorn & Jackson had their trading house in the Jack- 
son building, on the point. Larpenteur was in the service 
of the firm about two years. In 1845, Mr. Hartshorn dis- 
solved with Jackson, and moved up to the Mortimer place, 
where he opened business on his own account, and Mr. Lar- 
penteur remained with him, having mainly the charge of the 
whole business. In 1848, Mr. Hartshorn* retired from the 
trade, and disposed of his interest in it, with a quantity of real 
estate, to a new firm, called Freeman, Larpenteur & Co. — 
Wm. H. Randall, of New York, having, also, an interest in it. 
They completed a warehouse on the levee, which Hartshorn 
had commenced, and continued there until the death of David 
B. Freeman, in January, 1850, when the business was wound 
up and passed over to John & Wm. H. Randall. In the 
spring of 1850, Mr. Larpenteur built a frame store on Third 
street, just above Jackson, and started business for himself. In 
1847, ^^ should state, he built as a residence for himself, the 
building on Jackson street, afterw^ards, for many years, known 
as the '' Wild Hunter Hotel." In 1855, he built the four-story 
brick block on the corner, and used it several years as a store, 
carrying on a large business. The hard times of 1858 com- 
pelled him to close up, and eventually he lost all his fine 
property on that street. 
In 1845, Mr. Larpenteur was married to Miss Mary J. 



134 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^43 

Presley, sister to Bartlett Presley, and, like most of our 
early settlers, has had a numerous family. 

SCOTT CAMPBELL,. 

another of the settlers of the year 1843, was a half-breed son 
of Colin Campbell, (a Scotch trader, w^l known through- 
out the west during the early part of this century,) and was 
born at Prairie du Chien, in 1790. He adted as interpreter at 
Fort Snelling, for some 25 years, and also was in the employ, 
at various times, of Frank. Steele, N. W. Kittson, and 
others. After quitting the Indian agency at the fort, he came 
to Saint Paul, and bought a small claim of Denis Cherrier, 
say running from Wabasha to Saint Peter streets, and back two 
or three blocks. He erected, a dwelling, subsequently, about 
where Zimmerman's art gallery now is. In 1848, he sold this 
claim to Wm. Hartshorn, for a small sum, and moved to a 
claim on the Saint Anthony road, just beyond Denoyer's, 
where he died, in 1850, in destitute circumstances. Campbell 
is said to have been a man of some ability, but of intemperate 
habits, which caused him to lead an unhappy life. His wife, 
Margaret Campbell, was a Menominee half-breed, and 
always bore the name of an industrious, worthy woman. She 
is still a resident of Saint Paul. 

Campbell had five sons and four daughters. When his 
sons were young boys hereabouts, they were known as good- 
natured and well-disposed lads, but some of them afterwards 
turned out very badly. Baptiste was among the Indians exe- 
cuted at Mankato, in 1862, for murder and other crimes during 
the massacre. Hypolite, another son, was also engaged in 
the massacre, and fled to Manitoba, where he now lives. 
Scott Campbell, Jr., died in the insane asylum, November 
17, 1870. He was regarded as a quiet and inoffensive man. 
Joseph Campbell, the oldest of the sons, was at Yellow Med- 
icine when the outbreak occurred, and was forced by the In- 
dians to accompany them. Mr. Heard says, in his valuable 
history of the massacre, that Campbell was shown to be inno- 
cent of any complicity in the outrages, and, by his kindness 
and aid to prisoners, deserved praise. He also wrote the letters 



1843]] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 135 

from Little Crow to Gen. Sibley, which led to the negotia- 
tions by which the white prisoners were released. Joseph 
Campbell has lived in Saint Paul for several years past, and 
is well spoken of by persons ii# whose employ he has been. 

John L. Campbell, the youngest of the sons, was a scoun- 
drel, without any redeeming qualities. He was born at Men- 
dota, in 1832, and, after growing up to manhood, led a vicious 
and abandoned life. He was cruel, revengeful, licentious and 
intemperate. He is said to have committed, or been concerned 
in, several murders while a young man. In 1861, he enlisted 
in Company A, Brackett's Battalion, and served nearly three 
years with them. His officers had a great deal of trouble with 
him, and he is charged with several murders, robberies, &c., 
while in the service. In 1864, while home on veteran fur- 
lough, he deserted, and cast his lot with the outlawed Sioux. 
While engaged in a raid with them, in April, 1865, they mur- 
dered the Jewett family, near Mankato. John Campbell 
was captured at Mankato, on May 2d, and some of the clothes 
of the murdered man found on him. He was tried by a lynch 
court, the following day, and hung to a tree, after confessing 
his guilt and restoring some money stolen from Jewett's house. 
Campbell was a man of more than usual physical beauty — 
had long, curly, black hair, dark, expressive eyes, and a finely 
proportioned figure. 

ALEX. R. m'lEOD. 

Alexander Roderic McLeod was the son of a Scotch 
Canadian. According to some old settlers, he was a native of 
Canada, but others assert as positively that he was born in the 
Hudson's Bay territory, near the Rocky Mountains. Joseph 
Rondo says that McLeod's father was a prominent officer of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, and that McLeod (the son) was 
born at a post in the Rocky Mountains, and that he (Rondo) 
saw him there, and held him on his lap when he was a small 
infant. McLeod's mother, says Rondo, was a Metis. Others 
say that McLeod was a pure blood white man. McLeod's 
father must have been a man of some influence. There is a 



136 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^43 

" Fort McLeod," named for him, near Peace River, and a 
" McLeod River," near Fort Edmonton. 

A. R. McLeod came to Saint Paul in 1843. What year 
he carae to Minnesota, I cann<ft learn with exactness — proba- 
bly 1838 or 1839. He was employed by the American Fur 
Company for a short time, and was, also, a clerk for Frank. 
Steele. McLeod was a man of extraordinary powerful phy- 
sique, and great endurance. On one occasion, he walked on 
snow-shoes from. Saint Croix Falls to Saint Paul, about sixty 
miles, in one day, and, arriving late in the evening, found a 
French ball in progress, and danced the rest of the night, as 
gay and a6tive as any one. A few pages further on, will be 
found an account of McLeod killing a man with whom he 
had a quarrel, by blows of his fist. 

A few months after coming to Saint Paul, (September, 1843,) 
McLeod married a half-breed girl, named Nancy Jeffries, 
then living at Pig's Eye, daughter of a trader well known in 
this region at that time. Mrs. McLeod is living in West Saint 
Paul. 

In 1844, McLeod purchased some land of Benj. Gervais, 
in connection with Louis Robert. McLeod built, on his 
portion, a square log building, on the site of the recent Central 
House. It. was then only one story high. The next year, he 
had a frame upper story and attic added to it, and the whole 
was weather-boarded. A year or two subsequently a wing 
was added, &c., and thus, little by little, it grew into the Cen- 
tral House of a later day, which was for years a hotel well 
known to old residents, and was (1849-50-51) used for the 
Legislature and Territorial officers. 

• McLeod, after living there a year or two, subsequently ( 1 846) 
. rented the building to other parties, and moved to a claim on 
Phelan's Creek, near the Stillwater road, which is sometimes 
called "McLeod's Creek," owing to that fact. He lived here 
four years, and moved to West Saint Paul, where he lived 
most of the time until his death. In 1862, he enlisted in Com- 
pany A, Sixth Minnesota Regiment, and died of disease at 
Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, November 14, 1864, aged 47 
years. 



1843] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 137 

OTHER SETTLERS OF 1 843. 

Antoine Pepin, Alexis Cloutier, and Joseph Gobin, 
who came from Red River together, several years previous, 
this 3'ear settled in the Rondo neighborhood, and made claims 
near the swamp on the Lake Como road. 

Antoine Pepin was a Canadian, and had lived at Red River 
several years. He must have come from there about 1831 or 
1832, as about that time he was appointed by Maj. Taliaferro, 
blacksmith to the Sioux. Taliaferro says, in his journal : 
" He is a faithful man, hard-working and honest. He is a good 
blacksmith." He records in another place that Pepin had 
worked until his hands were swelled and blistered, making 
traps for poor Indians, not able to buy any. In 1836, Maj. 
Taliaferro displaced him, in favor of Oliver Cratte, 
because it was necessary to have some one for blacksmith who 
could repair guns, and Pepin did not understand that craft. 
Pepin then settled near the fort, or at Mendota, and came to 
Saint Paul, as before mentioned. Pepin lived about 20 years 
after settling in Saint Paul, and died about a dozen years ago, 
in a little house on part of his old claim. He has one or more 
children still living hereabouts. 

Of Cloutier and Gobin, I can get but little information, 
except that both are now dead. I do not find the names on 
any of the recent census rolls, and judge that no descendants 
of either are yet living in this locality. 

David Thomas Sloan was engaged in trading with the 
Chippewas — a part of the time for Hartshorn and Jackson, 
and subsequently on his own hook. He afterwards went up to 
the Chippewa country, where he married a sister of the chief 
Hole-in-the-day. a gentleman, who knew her, says she was 
one of the best looking Indian women he ever saw. Sloan 
died a few years ago, near Crow Wing. A daughter of his 
was raised "by Mrs. Tullis, wife of Judge Aaron W. Tul- 
lis, who was sherift' here in 1859-60, but both Mrs. T. and 
Sloan's daughter are now dead. 

Joseph Desmarais was a French and Chippewa half-breed, 
born in the Red River settlement. He came to Fort Snelling, 
10 



138 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^843 

as guide and interpreter for the party of refugees with which 
Rondo and others came. Desmarais settled in Saint Paul, 
in 1843, and purchased a piece of ground about where the 
Merchants' Hotel now stands, as near as I can make out. His 
property is frequently mentioned on the early records, and his 
name was signed as a town proprietor to the recorded plat. 
Desmarais was an interpreter for Jackson for some time. He 
had quite a family of children, some of whom live hereabouts 
yet. His wife died in 1847, ^^^ ^^ went off in the Indian 
country, where he still lives, or was, not long ago. 

Louis Larrivier came from Red River. About 1843, he 
made a claim near the head of Robert and Wabasha streets, 
and including the ground the Capitol now stands on. Charles 
Bazille purchased it of him, not long after. Larrivier then 
moved to a place near the foot of Phelan's Lake. His wife, 
who was a half-breed, died at Little Canada. Larrivier sub- 
sequently became blind from sun-stroke, and, having no means 
of support, was sent to the poor-house, where he died about 
two years ago. 

Xavier Delonais came from Red River, also. He lived 
here for some time, then removed to Little Canada, and thence 
to Rice Lake, where he died about two years ago. His wife is 
also dead, and a married daughter is living in West Saint Paul. 

« 

MINOR incidents. 

A Frenchman, named Gerou, a butcher by occupation, who 
lived near the Denoyer place, first established the sale of fresh 
meat in the village this year. 

The Indians were very troublesome this year, and perpetu- 
ally drunk. One day, Mrs. Mortimer, who was endeavoring 
to close out the stock of goods belonging to her late husband, 
was in her house, when an Indian stalked in, and, seeing a 
camphor bottle standing on a shelf, took a deep swig, sup- 
posing it was whisky. As soon as he detecSted the nauseous 
taste, he gave a grunt of rage, and, seizing a measure, turned 
some vinegar into it from a barrel, supposing that also was 
whisky. He dashed down a heavy draught of it without stop- 
ping to taste it. Mrs. Mortimer saw the storm coming and 



1843] ^^^ of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. ' 139 

fled for safety to Mr. Irvine's house, pursued, a moment after, 
by the infuriated Indian, with uplifted tomahawk, but Irvine 
disarmed him and sent him off. The Indian had left the vin- 
egar running, however, and the whole of it was gone when 
Mrs. Mortimer returned. 

This year, among the '* real estate sales," N. W. Kittson 
purchased Clewett's claim, the latter purchasing Labisinier's 
claim. 



140 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1^44 



CHAPTER XI. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1844. 

Charles Reed Freezes to Death — Captain Louis Robert Settles Her£ — 
Charles Bazille also Arrives — William Dugas Builds the first Mill — 
Little Canada Settled — Robert buys out Parrant— A Novel Lakd 
Case — The Final Career of Phelan — ^The End of Old Parrant — Marry- 
ing BY Bond — Religious Items. 



T 



HE winter of 1843-4 ^^^ quite a severe one, and the 
snow fell unusually deep. 

CHARLES REED FREEZES TO DEATH. 



In March, 1844, a young Canadian Englishman, named 
Charles Reed, a carpenter by occupation, who was helping 
to build a house for "old Gerou," the butcher, near Denoy- 
er's, came to town to visit, and started back late in the after- 
noon. A violent snow storm came on when Reed got a mile 
or so on his way. Reed did not return to Gerou's at the 
time expedled, and was missing several days. One day, a 
daughter of Mr. Pepin's was going near the swamp, on the 
Lake Como road, when she noticed a dog, which accompanied 
her^ gnawing something, and, on examination^ was shocked to 
find it was a man's head ! The same day, or a day or two 
after this,.a Canadian, who was hunting partridges in the swamp, 
found Reed's body, with the head gnawed off. The poor 
fellow had evidently got bewildered by the storm, and, wander- 
ing in a circle, had fallen down and perished. Reed had 
lived at Prairie du Chien before coming to Saint Paul. 

This year witnessed several valuable accessions to our 
population, among them Captain Louis Robert, Charles 
Bazille, &c. 

captain louis robert 

was one of the most prominent men connected with the early 



1844] ft^ of tf*s County of Ramsey-, Minnesota. 141 

history of Saint Paul. He was of Canadian parentage, and 
was born at Carondelet, Missouri, January 31, 1811. His 
early life was spent in that region, and in the fur trade of the 



Upper Missouri River, He traversed the whole of the Mis- 
souri valley, while a young man, meeting with innumerable 
hair-breadth escapes. About 1836 or 1837, he went to Prairie 
du Chien, and, in the fall of 1843, came to Saint Paul with 



142 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^44 

some goods, which he sold. He then determined to remove 
here, and did so in 1844. Came to what is now Saint Paul, 
then a place of only three or four cabins. He purchased a 
part of the claim of Benj. Gervais, and other property, for 
$300, which ultimately became worth two or three million 
dollars, and embarked in the Indian trade here — his foresight 
and energy being of great value to the infant town, to the de- 
velopment of which he gave his whole energy. In 1847, ^^ 
was one of the original proprietors of the '' Town of Saint 
Paul," when it was laid out. He took a prominent part in 
the '•' Stillwater Convention" of 1848, and was largely instru- 
mental, b}^ his influence, in securing the location of the Capital 
at Saint Paul. In 1849, he was appointed County Commis- 
sioner for Ramsey county, and rendered it important service. 
He was, also, eledted a member of the Territorial Board of Build- 
ing Commissioners. Though without the advantages of educa- 
tion in early life, he had a large fund of information, gained 
by travel and contact with men, and was gifted with excellent 
business capacity and judgment. In the early days of our 
city he took an adtive part in politics, and wielded a large in- 
fluence. He was very generous and liberal in aiding any 
worthy objedt, for the public good — gave freely of his means, 
and also donated valuable property to the church. The bells 
of the Cathedral and French Catholic church were gifts from 
him. In the way of private charity, his hand was ever open, 
and he never refused to render a friend any favor that lay in 
his power. In the year 1853, he engaged in the steamboat 
business, and, at difl^erent times, owned five steamers. He was, 
also, largely engaged in the Indian trade, and supply contracts, 
when the Indian massacre occurred, in 1862. He lost quite 
heavily in that outbreak, and nearly lost his own life, which the 
Indians seemed determined to take, only escaping by secreting 
himself for a considerable time, while they were searching for 
him, by laying in a marsh, with merely his nose out of water! 
Captain Robert was widely known throughout the State, 
and as widely respedled by all the old settlers. He was the 
true embodiment of the pioneer — ^generous, brave, energetic, 
liberal, and "broad guage," as it is termed, in his manners. 



1844] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota » 143 

Unlike many of his fellow pioneers, who allowed millions to 
slip through their fingers and died poor. Captain Robert 
saved a fine estate, valued at $400,000. He died, after a pain- 
ful illness of several months, on May 10, 1874, universally 
lamented. He was married in 183^ at Prairie du Chien, to 
Miss Mary Turpin, who survived him, with two daughters, 
one the wife of Uri L. Lamprey, Esq. 

CHARLES BAZILLE 

was born in Nicollet, near Montreal, November 5, 181 2, and, 
while a young man, came west, and settled in Prairie du Chien, 
Wisconsin. He was a carpenter by occupation. He first met 
Louis Robert at Green Bay, and subsequently became more 
closely acquainted with him at Prairie du Chien. When 
Robert came to Saint Paul with his goods, in the fall of 1843, 
Bazille accompanied him. They returned to Prairie du 
Chien before winter, but, in the spring of this year, removed to 
Saint Paul, and became permanent residents. 

Bazille built, this summer, for Captain Robert, what was 
undoubtedly the first frame house in Saint Paul. It was de- 
signed as a sort of warehouse to store goods landed by the 
boats, and stood on the lower levee, about where the Milwau- 
kee and Saint Paul passenger depot now is. The frame of 
this building was made of lumber hewn by hand^ no sawed 
dimension stuft' being obtainable. After the old shell had served 
its day and generation for a number of years, and the room 
was needed for a better building, it was removed to near the 
corner of Fourth and Minnesota streets, where it still stands, 
[number 58 East Fourth street.] It is beyond doubt the oldest 
building in the city. 

Mr. Bazille also commence.d to build, this fall — for Wil- 
liam Dugas, who came this year — a grist and saw mill at what 
was called the falls of Phelan's Creek, or McLeod's Creek — 
the first mill built in what is now Saint Paul. This mill stood 
on the west bank of Phelan's Creek, a few yards south of where 
the Stillwater carriage road crosses it. It is referred to more 
ftiUy elsewhere. 

On December 28, 1845, Mr. Bazille was married, at Men- 



144 ^^ History of the City of Saint Paul,, [i^44 

dota, to Annie Jane Perry, the youngest daughter of Abra- ^ 
HAM Perry. They have, like all tbe other pioneer settlers of 
our city, been blessed with a numerous progeny. 

Mr. Bazille purchased, at quite an early day, a claim pre- 
viously owned by old Larrivier (before mentioned.) This 
subsequently was laid out as an addition to Saint Paul, in con- 
nection with his brother-in-law, Mr. Guerin, and became 
immensely valuable. Mr. Bazille had, however, disposed of 
most of it before it had greatly enhanced in price. The 
square, or block, now owned by the State, known as the "Cap- 
itol Square," was a gift from Mr. Bazille to the United States, 
and, with the generous recklessness common to the early land 
owners, he gave away many other lots and blocks, now worth 
perhaps $ioo,ckx) in all, and yet, in the evening of life, he, 
like many other of our pioneers, is in very limited circum- 
stances. For many years, Mr. Bazille carried on the brick 
business on the Lake Como road and other places. 

WILLIAM DUGAS, 

to whom reference was made in the sketch of Mr. Bazille, 
was a Canadian, and came to Saint Paul in 1844. In the first 
record book in the Ramsey County Register of Deeds Office, 
[that commonly called " Saint Croix," because this was in 
that county then,] we find a deed from Edward Phelan to 
William Dugas, dated September 2,. 1844, of "160 acres on 
Paylin^s Creek and Falls," — so it was spelled by whoever 
drew up the deed — J. W. Simpson, probably, as he used to do 
most of the conveyancing of that period. This land is now 
known as the southwest quarter of section 29, township 29, 
range 22. It is the second deed on the Ramsey county records. 
The consideration given was $70. 

Dugas, who was a millwright by occupation, and had un- 
doubtedly purchased the claim for the fine water-power on it, 
at once set about erecting a saw and grist-mill. He employed 
Mr. Bazille to assist him. The mill was two stories, about 
25x50 feet in size. It was not completed that fall, but was 
finished and got into running order the next year (1845.) ^^^ 
saw was worked a short time, but there was such difficulty in 



1844] • ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 145 

getting logs, and such a small demand for lumber, that the 
mill was almost a failure from the start. The burrs were 
never put in at all. Some 18 months after the date of his pur- 
chase, (February 28, 1846,) Dugas sold the claim and all im- 
provements to Alex. R. McLeod, for $835. 

Dugas then settled at New Canada, or in that vicinity, as he 
was elected one of the members from that precincSt, to the first 
Territorial Legislature, in 1849, along with Wm. R.Marshall, 
then of Saint Anthony. He subsequently lived in Saint Paul, 
in 1850 and 185 1, and, after that, removed up to the Crow River 
valley, and now resides there. 

FRANCIS m'cOY AND JOSEPH HALL 

were two other settlers of this year. Both were carpenters, 
and continued to live here until after the Territory was organ- 
ized and the town incorporated. Hall died some years ago. 
Of McCoy's present whereabouts, or whether he is still in the 
flesh, I can learn no tidings. 

LITTLE CANADA SETTLED. 

When Benjamin GervaissoM his claim to Louis Robert, 
he at once moved about eight miles northward from Saint 
Paul, and, on the lake that now bears his name, he and his 
sons made claims. He was the first settler of the town of 
New Canada — ^but this is given more fully in the sketch of 
New Canada township, in the latter part of this work. 

MORE ABOUT PHELAN, 

After Phelan sold his claim at the falls of the creek now 
named for him, he made another claim on what was known 
those days as " Prospect hill" — the ridge on the upper side 
of Phelan's Creek, just north of where the West Wisconsin 
Railroad crosses it. This claim he did not keep long, but sold 
it to Henry Jackson. W. G. Carter, a cousin of Jack- 
son's, lived on it for some time, and, in 1849, perhaps, Mr. J. 
sold it to Alexander Wilkin, by whom it was transferred to 
others, and finally laid out as an addition — called ''Arlington 
Heights." 



146 The History of the City of Saint Patil^ [^^44 

Phelan was a sort of pacha of many claims, for he at once 
made another, (the fifth one he took in what is now Saint 
Paul.) This was to the east of the others a little, and extend- 
ed, pi<5^ably, as far as Trout Brook. This claim he sold, in 
1849, to Edmund Rice, who entered it in the land office, and 
it subsequently became his addition to the city. 

In the spring of 1850, Phelan was indicted by the first 
Grand Jury that ever sat in Ramsey county, for perjury. 
When the sheriff went to apprehend him, it was found that 
Phelan had fled his bailiwick, and, in company with Eb. 
Weld, started for California. It was shortly afterwards re- 
ported here that Phelan had come to a violent end, while 
crossing the plains. The account states that he acfted so bru- 
tally and overbearingly toward the other men in the same car- 
avan, they were compelled to kill him, in self-defense. The 
murdered Hays was avenged ! It is a disgrace, that the name 
of this brutal murderer has been affixed to one of our most 
beautiful lakes — one that supplies our households with water. 
Last winter. Senator W. P. Murray made an effort to have 
the name changed to '' Goodhue Lake," but it did not suc- 
ceed, as it should have done. 

ROBERT BUYS OUT OLD PARRANT. 

In addition to his purchase of Gervais' claim, or what re- 
mained of it after Gervais' sales to various parties, Robert 
also purchased of old Parrant, his claim on the lower levee, 
the one he had made after the sale of his cabin and land to 
Gervais. The extent of the bounds of Parrant's claim 
here, I have not been able to get very definitely, but it could 
not have been a very large piece. 

Parrant then abandoned Saint Paul, much to the sorrow 
of the good people here, no doubt, and removed to Pig's Eye, 
or the Grand Marais, where he made another claim, adjoining 
that of Michel LeClaire. 

the case of LE CLAIRE VS. PARRANT. 

But unkind fate, although it had thrust on old Pig's Eye the 
honor of being the Romulus of our city, seemed to give him 



1844] *^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 147 

no rest for the sole of his foot, nor permit him to long enjoy an 
undisturbed habitation. LeClaire and Parrant quarreled 
about the lines of their respective claims, although neither of 
them cultivated ten square rods of ground, and all the land in 
dispute would have been dear at ten shillings. Perhaps they 
thought that " principle was involved," and so neither would 
give up. Finally, LeClaire summoned Parrant before 
Squire Joseph R. Brown, Justice of the Peace at Grey Cloud. 
There was tall swearing on both sides. In fad:,, so strong was 
the testimony that Squire Brown, with all -his sagacity and 
discrimination, could not tell on which side to make the decision. 
His irresistible love of a joke finally helped him out of the 
dilemma. He decided that neither of the parties had any 
valid claim to the land in dispute, as they had not properly 
staked it out in the presence of witnesses, and defined its 
boundaries. It would, therefore, be the just property of the 
first who should do so. The result was, of course, a foot-race 
back to the claim, to see who should first arrive and plant the 
stakes. 

Both the contestants started off, eager and anxious. A race 
of eight miles was before them, over bogs and sloughs, and 
through jungles and forests. Parrant was old and logy, but 
strong and tough, and avarice nerved up his strength ; while 
LeClaire was younger and more active. Both strained every 
nerve, and long in doubtful balance hung the scales. But in 
this contest, fortune favored LeClaire, who soon began to 
outstrip the panting Parrant, who, nevertheless, toiled 
steadily along, hoping some lucky chance might yet enable 
him to win. But he was doomed to disappointment. Le- 
Claire arrived long enough in advance to drive his stakes in 
the presence of witnesses, and secure his claim, when the ex- 
hausted founder of our city arrived, sick, mad and furious, to 
find himself the butt of jeers and ridicule. 

Parrant was so worked up by this misadventure, that he 
soon after sold his claim and left the neighborhood. He started 
for Lake Superior, designing to return to Sault Ste. Marie, 
but died on the journey, of a disease resulting from his own 
vices. 



14S The History of the City of Saint Paul. [1844 

MARRYTXG *' BV BOND." 

During this year, or possibly the year previous, Henrv Jack- 
son was appointed, by the Governor of Wisconsin Territory', 
a Justice of the Peace. There was some delay in getting the 
commission, &c., after his bonds had been sent to Madison, as 
the mails in winter were very slow. One day, a couple came 
to his house, very anxious to be married. Jackson informed 
them that he was not yet authorized to perform that ceremony 
legally, and they would have to defer their marriage a few 
days. This was a great disappointment to the loving hearts 
that were so anxious to " beat as one," but they could not 
think of postponing the happy hour. Jackson was equal to 
the dilemma. He proposed to marry them by bond — i. e., 
that they should give a bond that, when his commission arrived, 
they would appear and be legally married by him, and in the 
meantime they could live together. They gladly consented to 
this. The bond was made out and signed, and the happy 
couple went on their way rejoicing, &c. 

Any public officer who could bridge over little difficulties 
like this, was a handy man to have around. Jackson was 
justice, postmaster, hotel-keeper, legislator, clerk of court, and 
several other fun(5tionaries combined in one. He even used 
to naturalize foreigners, ''by bond," probably. But then, 
like vaccination, if it didn't take the first time, it could be 
renewed. 

church items. 

In May of this year, Father Galtier left his mission field 
here, and was transferred to another field of labor. Father 
Ravoux then officiated at Saint Paul and Mendota alternately, 
for some five or six years longer, until the parish was divided 
into two. 

In the fall of this year, the first Protestant service was held by 
Rev. Mr. Hurlbut, a missionary of the Methodist church, 
who remained in this region about a year. The service was 
held at the house of Henry Jackson. 



1845] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 149 



CHAPTER XII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1845. 

Probable Population at this Date — A Polyglot Village — Settlers of this 
Year— Leonard H. LaRoche— The Future Merchants* Hotel— Francis 
Robert— The Freeman Brothers — W. G. Carter — Charles Cavileer — A 
Mrs. Rumeey Starts the First School— S. Cowden, Jr., also Tries It. 

AT the beginning of the year 1845, there were probably 
about thirty families living in and around what, by that 
date, ^vas pretty well known in this region as " Saint Paul." 
There were also a few persons — single men — laborers, me- 
chanics, voyageurs, trappers, &c., who composed a sort of 
floating population ; so that the village, or settlement, (for it 
was so scattered about, from the seven-corners to Phelan's 
Lake, that it was hardly even a village,) had begun to be a 
point of some considerable promise. Louis Robert, Henry 
Jackson, John R. Irvine, Wm. Hartshorn, J. W. Simpson, 
and others, were now engaged in trade, and were bending all 
their influence and energies to benefit the infant metropolis, 
and draw population and traffic hither. 

At this time, by far the largest proportion of the inhabitants 
were Canadian French, and Red Riv6r refugees, and their 
descendants. There were only three or four purely American 
(white) families in the settlement, while most of the French 
were intermarried with the native race, so that not more than 
one-half the families in the place, if that many, were white. 
In the families of the mixed bloods, the Sioux, Chippewa, 
Menominee, Cree, Kootenais, Winnebago, and perhaps other 
tongues, were spoken. English was probably not spoken in 
more than three or four families. 

'settlers of 1845. 
Among the new comers this year, were Francis Chene- 



150 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^45 

VERT, David Benoit, Leonard H. LaRoche, Francis 
Robert, Augustus and David B. Freeman, W. G. Carter, 
Charles Cavileer, and others. 

Leonard H. LaRoche was a Canadian by birth, and, by 
occupation, a carpenter. He was engaged in trade for aw^hile 
with David Faribault, in a little store which stood on what 
was afterwards called Bench street. On August 13, 1846, La- 
Roche purchased from Henry Belland a small tra6l of 
ground, described in the deed as "bounded on the front and 
back by Henry Jackson's land, and on the sides by McLeod 
and Desm AR Ais . '* The consideration was $ 1 65 . This is prob- 
ably the land on which the Merchants* Hotel of to-day stands, 
as, during that year (1846) LaRoche built a cabin of tamarack 
logs, which, with some additions, afterwards became the 
" Saint Paul House," of which the Merchants of to-day is the 
outgrowth. LaRoche sold this property to Simeon P. Fol- 
SOM, in 1847, and went to Crow Wing, where he died about 
1859 or i860. 

W. G. Carter, or " Gib." Carter, as the old settlers better 
knew him, was a cousin of Henry Jackson. He was a native 
of Virginia. When he came here, he lived for tw^o or three 
years on the claim which Phelan sold Jackson, called then 
'' Prospect hill." Carter was, in 1848, a member of the 
Stillwater Convention of that year. He subsequently made 
a claim, or, at least, owned a piece on the Fort road, and died 
there about 1852. His widow still resides in this city. 

Francis Robert was a younger brother of Capt. Louis 
Robert, and. a native of Missouri. After his arrival here, 
he was engaged in the fur trade for Louis. In 1848, while 
descending the rapids of the Saint Croix in a birch-bark canoe, 
he was thrown out and badly injured on the rocks, by a blow 
on the chest. From this injury he never recovered, and, after 
months of suffering, died on September 27, 1849, aged 30 
years. Out of respecSt, the Legislature, wliich was then in 
session, adjourned for one day, to attend his funeral. 

Francis Chene vert was a clerk of Louis Robert . He was 
born at Prairie du Chien, of Canadian parents. He appears, 
from the Register of Deeds' records, to have purchased (in 



1845] <^^d of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 151 

connedlion with David Benoit) the claim of Pierre Botti- 
neau, on June 16, 1846. Chenevert was unmarried, and 
lived here until 1865, when he died at the residence of a friend 
on Robert street. 

Of David Benoit I can get little or no information that is 
reliable. He probably resided here but a very short time. 

Augustus and David B. Freeman had been residents of 
Saint Louis. The latter had been employed by Wm. Harts- 
horn, while in business there, and was engaged by him to 
come to Saint Paul, when he established his own store here, in 
1 845 . Augustus Freeman was also employed by Mr. Harts- 
horn. The Freemans, in connection with A. L. Larpen- 
TEUR, and possibly with Wm. H. Randall, continued the 
business of Hartshorn, when he retired from it, a couple of 
years later. David B. Freeman died in January, 1850, under 
the following circumstances : He was going over to Stillwater 
in a sleigh, whi^h was overturned, and the horses got away. 
Freeman pursued them a couple of miles, becoming over- 
heated, and then sat down on the snow to rest. In consequence 
of this, he caught a violent cold, inflammation of the lungs set in, 
and he died after a very short illness. Freeman was an Odd 
Fellow, and, although the Odd Fellows' Lodge had not been 
instituted then, the members buried him with the honors of the 
order. He was interred on what was aftei-wards Pearl street, 
in the First Ward. The remains were dug up in 1863, while 
some improvements were going on there, and recognized by 
the ''three links" on the coffin. This was the first Odd Fel- 
lows' funeral in Minnesota. Augustus Freeman subsequently 
went to New York and died there. 

Charles Cavileer came to Minnesota in 1841, in company 
with the missionary. Rev. B. F. Kavenaugh, and Wm. R. 
Brown, and settled at Red Rock. He was a saddler by trade, 
and, in 1845, located in Saint Paul, which was then becoming 
enough of " a place" to carry on that business. He occupied, 
for some time, a building on the levee, and in 1847, perhaps, 
moved up to what was once called Saint Charles street. In 
1848, he and Dr. Dewey engaged in the drug business. Mr. 
Cavileer was Territorial Librarian for a few months, and, in 



152 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1^45 

» 

1 85 1, removed to Pembina, where he has been postmaster al- 
most ever since that year. 

THE FIRST SCHOOL. 

During this spring, or early in the summer, Mrs. Matilda 
RuMSEY, who had come to Saint Paul a few months before, 
with Mr. Blanchard and his wife, (the latter her sister,) es- 
tablished a small school for children, in a log building on the 
bottom, near the upper levee. This was, beyond doubt, the 
first school in Saint Paul. There were only a handful of 
scholars, however, and the school was not kept up long. 
On June 23, Mrs. Rumsey was married to Alexander Mege, 
and the school was abandoned. 

A young man, named S% Cowden, Jr., then attempted to re- 
establish the school. There is some disagreement among the 
old settlers, as to whether he did carry on one or not. Some 
think he did not succeed in opening one, but others are certain 
that he taught in the fall of that year. Cowden was a young 
man, who had worked awhile for Henry Jackson. He came 
from Prairie du Chien, and was married to a Winnebago half- 
breed. Cowden died some years ago, and his wife is living 
at the Winnebago Agency, in Blue Earth county. 



1846] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 153 



CHAPTER XIII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1846. 

Increase of Trade and Traveling — ^The Establishment of a Post-office— 
Movement to Organize Minnesota Territory— Settlers of 1846— Wil- 
liam H. Randall— James ••Mc"Boal — ^Thomas S.Odell — Harley D.White 
and Others — Indian Temperance Movement — Rev. Dr. Williamson Set. 

TLBS AT KaPOSIA — AnD WrITES EaST AFTER A SCHOOL Ma'AM FOR SaINT 

Paul, &c. 

SAINT PAUL had now become quite a ''point" on the 
river. There were only three or four points on the Upper 
Mississippi, above Prairie du Chien, where boats ever touched, 
and only one where they landed with any regularity. Saint 
Paul might be classed in the latter list. Considerable goods 
were now received here by the five or six traders who car- 
ried on business in the village, and there was some passen- 
ger business to and fro. Strangers, travelers, and tourists, 
generally — sometimes an adventurous trader, from below, 
seeking for a location — would occasionally land, to ''look 
around" a little. There was no tavern to go to, and Henry 
Jackson, whose hospitality was a distinguishing trait, usually 
invited them to his house, where they were entertained free of 
charge. 

Jackson was a Justice of the Peace, a merchant, and a sa- 
loon-keeper combined. To accommodate all these branches of 
business, he kept on enlarging his hostelrie, until it grew into 
quite a caravansary. Jackson was a man of a great deal of 
force, originality and humor, and " the boys" usually liked to 
*' loaf round" there, until it became a kind of headquarters for 
trade, hews, gossip, politics and general exchange. It soon 
became a sort of post-office, too. Nearly every boat that landed 
would have a handful of letters or papers directed to persons 
in Saint Paul, and these, by a sort of established custom, were 

handed to Jackson, because there was no one else to receive 
II 



154 -^'^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1846 

them, probably. Jackson used to keep them piled up on a 
shelf in his store. When any one asked for mail, the whole 
bundle was thrown down on a table or counter, and the party 
picked out what he wanted. That was before the days of cheap 
postage. A letter from the Eastern States those tirnes, cost 25 
cents. A letter from England was 50 cents. Now it is two 
cents, i. e., by postal card. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF A POST-OFFICE. 

It soon became evident that a post-office was a necessity 
here, and the proper petition was forwarded to the Post-office 
Department at Washington, and favorably considered. The 
records of that Department show that the office was estab- 
lished on April 7, 1846, and a commission to Henry Jackson, 
as postmaster, issued the same day. The business was so 
small, however, that it is scarcely probable that the emolu- 
ments were worth scrambling for. It is different now. 

Having now the rank and emoluments of a post-office, Jack- 
son conceived that some effort should be made, for appearance 
sake, at least, to establish post-official regulations and conven- 
iences, and so set about making the first case of boxes, or 
pigeon-holes, that the Saint Paul post-office ever possessed or 
used. Out of some old packing cases, or odd boards, he con- 
structed a rude case, about two feet square, and containing 16 
pigeonrholes. These were labeled with initial letters. The 
whole affair was awkwardly cgnstrudled, apparently with a 
wood- saw, axe and knife, for temporary use, and, after serving 
for two or three years, was laid aside. Fortunately, it was not 
lost or destroyed, and finally, after Saint Paul became a flourish- 
ing city, the widow of Mr. Jackson, (Mrs. Hinckley, of 
Mankato,) gave it to the Historical Society, as a relic of early 
days. It now graces the cabinet of that institution, and is 
about the most decidedly "historical" relic of their whole col- 
le(5lion, showing, as it does, at a glance, the whole story of 
the wonderful and rapid growth of our city. The Society 
value it above all their other relics, and will not part with it 
for any sum, no matter how fabulous, or we should advocate 
its purchase and enclosing of it in a glass case for an ornament 



1846] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 155 

to the present post-office, to show the contrast of thirty years — 
the first and the last, the alpha and omega of Saint Paul post- 
offices. 

Saint Paul was not the first post-office established in this re- 
gion, as some have supposed. *■' Lake Saint Croix Post- 
office," afterwards called Point Douglas, was established on 
July 18, 1840, and Saint Croix Falls on July 18, 1840. Still- 
water was made a post-office January 14, 1846, about four 
months before Saint Paul. 

Saint Anthony Falls, this year, gave promise of being a point 
of importance. This is why Pierre Bottineau sold his 
claim on Baptist hill, on June 16, foi $300, and removed to 
the Falls, where he bought, for $150, a considerable tracSt, 
which afterwards became Bottineau's Addition, and built the 
second house in the place. In his deed of the claim on Bap- 
tist bin, (to Francis Chenevert and David Benoit,) he 
describes it as *' bounded east by Kittson, north by Clew- 
e'tt, west by Hartshorn and Jackson, and south by Louis 
Robert," and '' containing 100 acres." This was merely an 
estimate — there could not have been that much. 

TERRITORIAL FORESHADOWINGS. 

The people of Wisconsin Territory had, for some months, 
been making efforts to secure a State government. On August 
6, 1846, the act of Congress, to enable Wisconsin Territory to 
frame a State Constitution, &c., was passed. The Conven- 
tion met on October 5, and adjourned on December 16. Hon. 
William Holcombe, of Stillwater, represented Saint Croix 
county. The Constitution, as framed, provided for the western 
boundary of Wisconsin down the valley of the Saint Croix, 
thence down the Mississippi, so that the region now known 
as Minnesota was thus "left out in the cold." A little out of 
its regular order, I might here say that this Constitution, which 
was voted on in April, 1847, ^^^ rejected by the people of 
Wisconsin. 

On December 23, 1846, after the above Convention had ad- 
journed, and, prqbably on the presumption that its acStion would 
be ratified, Hon* Morgan L. Martin, the Delegate from Wis- 



156 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1846 

consin in Congress, introduced a bill to organize the Territory 
of Minnesota.* This bill fixed the western boundary of the 
Territory on the Red and Sioux Wood Rivers. The bill was 
bandied about for several months, and, on March 3, 1847, P^^ 
to sleep "on the table." Thus early was a Territorial gov- 
ernment for Minnesota foreshadowed. 

Among those who settled in Saint Paul this year, were Wm. 
H. Randall and William Randall, Jr. ; James M. Boal, 
Thomas S. Odell, John Banfil, Harley D. White, David 
Faribault, Louis Denoyer, Jo. Monteur, Charles Ro- 

LEAU, &c. 

WILLIAM H. RANDALL 

was' born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, May 8, i§o6. He was 
in business in New York, in 1845, with his brother John, 
when Wm. Hartshorn went there to purchase goods. Mr. 
Randall seemed to feel a great interest in Saint Paul, made 
many inquires regarding it, and, the following year, accompa- 
nied Mr. Hartshorn out, and resolved to settle here. He 
seemed to have, from the first, a firm faith in the future great- 
ness and prosperity of the place. He soon after, with his 
brother, and, perhaps, the Freemans and A. L. Larpenteur, 
succeeded to Mr. Hartshorn's business, and became owner of 
a large amount of valuable property, in the heart of the city. 
He was one of the proprietors of the Town of Saint Paul when 
it was laid out in 1847. This property became immensely 
valuable, and, just prior to the crash of 1857, '' Father Ran- 
dall," as he was called, was considered a millionaire. In 
the early days of Saint Paul, he was one of its most prominent 
and public-spirited citizens. In 1848, he built the stone ware- 
house now used by the Milwaukee Railroad. It was a great 
building for that day. He also graded the levee and improved 
streets at his own expense, and always subscribed liberally to 
every public enterprise. The panic of 1857 wrecked him, as 
it did every heavy owner of real estate, and his once ample 

*Hon. H. M. Rice says that the late H. L. Dousman, of Prairie du Chien, was the 
first to urge the adoption of the name, " Minnesota," on account of its geographical 
fitness, and the beauty of the name. 



1846] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 157 

fortune slipped away. In an obituary sketch, the editor of 
the Press said : " Generous to a fault, and singularly indis- 
criminate in his friendship, he made loans and endorsements to 
others, that completely wrecked his princely fortune. While 
he had property, it was freely used, entitling him to the appel- 
lation of a public benefa6tor. Mr. Randall was fitted for 
that era of our social development, when every man knew and 
trusted his neighbor as a brother — when legal forms and tech- 
nicalities were not needed or resorted to, to protect one's rights. 
Alas ! that a higher civilization and social advance should 
bring, with many blessings, so many wrongs and evils un- 
known to the simpler, ruder forms of society." The Pioneer.^ 
also, said : "We have never known a more kindly-hearted 
man. There are manv who owe their start and success in life 
to his generosity. Very many others, strangers, stricken by 
sickness in a strange land, who owe life itself to his nursing ; 
and in our cemeteries, scores of mounds mark the gtaves of 
tKose who, having no relatives to minister to them in their fatal 
illness, were soothed and comforted by the tender hand, and 
open purse, and sympathizing voice of that kind old man, 
with whom suftering was always a bond of friendship." Even 
amid the disasters of 1857, ^^ ^^^ cheerful and hopeful — 
and was always the welcome guest of the social circle. On 
July 30, 1861, he died of heart disease, aged 55 years, and was 
buried by the Masonic Fraternity and the Old Settlers of Saint 
Paul. John H. Randall, Esq., of the Saint Paul and Pacific 
Railroad, and E. D. K. Randall, merchant, are sons of Mr. 
Randall. 

William Randall, Jr., was the oldest son of Wm. H. 
Rajndall. He was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, Decem- 
ber 19, 1829, and came to Saint Paul with his father. He 
was an artist of no common ability, and, as a caricaturist, was 
very skillful. Some political caricatures he made during the 
early days of the Territory, are spoken of as being brim full 
of sarcasm. He died in 0(5tober, 1851, aged 22 years — an 
untimely end, cutting short, in the very flower of life, a career 
of promise and hope. 

Ed. West was also an employee of the firm of Hartshorn, 



158 The History of the City of Saint Paul ^ [1846 

Randall & Co. He came from New York here, but did not 
reside in Saint Paul long, leaving, as I learn, for the Indian 
country, and probably is dead. 

JAMES m'cLELLAN BOAL, 

usually termed "Jimmy Mc Boal" by the old settlers, was one 
of the curious characSters of early days. Boal was a Penn- 
sylvanian by birth, and had served a term in the army. He 
was probably discharged at Fort Snelling, shortly prior to his 
coming to Saint Paul. He was a painter by occupation, and 
quite an artist also, and was the first who ever pursued that 
calling in Saint Paul. He was in partnership with Marshall 
Sherman, about 1849 or 1850. Boal was renowned for his 
good-heartedness and improvidence. He would loan or give 
away anything he had, without any thought of the morrow. 
In 1-849, Boal was elected a member of the Territorial Coun- 
cil from Ramsey county, for two years. About 1851, he 
moved to West Saint Paul, and formed a partnership with 
Thomas S. Odell, in the trading business. While residing 
here, he was appointed by Gov. Ramsey as Adjutant General 
of the Territory, and held that office until a change of adminis- 
tration occurred in 1853. He was also elected a member of 
the House of Representatives, in 1852, from Dakota county. 
He removed to Mendota about 1855 , and died there, after a long 
illness, in the year 1862, leaving a family. There is a street 
in Saint Paul named for him, but is called by his sobriquet, 
" Mc Boal," instead of by his correct name. 

THOMAS S. ODELL 

is a native of New York. He came to Fort Snelling in 1841, 
as a soldier in the First Infantry, and was mustered out of ser- 
vice in 1845. The following year he settled in Saint Paul. 
He was chainman to the surveyor who laid out the town plat 
in 1847. In 1850, he moved to West Saint Paul, and built a 
log house, for a trading post with the Indians, which is still 
standing on his property. He states that it was the first house 
built on that side of the river, which was still unceded by the 
Sioux. 



1846] and of t/ie County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 159 

HARLEY D. WHITE 

is a native of ConneAicut. He came west about 1841 or 1842, 
and, after Daniel Hopkins opened his store at Red Rock, in 
the latter year, Mr. White was with him, either as a partner 
or an employee. He came to Saint Paul, in 1846, and was 
employed by Henry Jackson, as a trader among the Sioux. 
He went to Point Douglas not long after, where he married a 
Miss Tainter, in 1849. He then removed to a farm near 
Red Wing, where he ran for the Legislature in the same fall, 
against James Wells, of Wabasha. Wells got the certifi- 
cate, and White contested his seat, but failed to oust him. 
Mrs. White died a few months after this, leaving a daughter, 
now an estimable lady of this city. Mr. White th^n returned 
to Connedlicut, and, at last accounts, was living there. 

Joel D. Cruttenden was a native of the District of Co- 
lumbia, and came to Saint Paul when he was quite a youth — 
not being of age. He subsequently went to Crow Wing, and 
vsras a member of the first State Legislature from that county. 

LOUIS denoyer 

was born at Saint Louis, Missouri, and lived there until he 
became a resident of Saint Paul. He married a sister of 
Louis Robert. Mr. Denoyer resided, while in Saint Paul, 
on a claim on Phelan's Creek. About 1850, he removed to 
what is now Belle Plaine, then called "Robert's Creek," and 
has lived there since that date. J. W. Simpson married one 
of his daughters. 

DAVID FARIBAULT 

was a quarter-breed son of Jean Baptiste Faribault, one 
of the earliest traders in Minnesota. David opened a trading 
house on what would now be described as Bench street, be- 
tween Jackson and Robert. He purchased considerable prop- 
erty here, as early as 1846, since we find on the Registry of 
Deeds, sales of property by him to Henry H. Sibley, and 
others, early in 1847. Faribault built, (in 1847,) *^^ New 
England House, a frame building, which stood about where 
the gas company's oflfice now is, and which was burned down 



i6o The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1846 

in r86o. He now lives on the Shevenne River, Dakota 
Territory. 

John Banfil was a native of Vermont, and was born in 
the year iSio. He rented the McLeod House, after his arri- 
val in Saint Paul, with the intention, I believe, of opening a 
hotel, but it was never regularly kept by him as such. In the 
spring of 1849, he removed to Manomin, Minnesota, and en- 
gaged in the hotel business there, in which he still continues, 
and also erected a mill. In 1857, ^*'* Banfil was elected 
from his county a member of the first State Legislature, (Senate.) 

Charles Roleau and Joseph Monteur were Canadian 
Frenchmen. They are still residents of our city. 

. THE CART TRADE WITH RED RIVER. 

There had grown up, during the last two or three years, 
quite a large and profitable trade with the Red River Settle- 
ment. The venture of N. W. Kittson, trading between 
Mendota and Pembina, is fully given elsewhere. When the 
advantages and profits of that trade were demonstrated, Jo. 
Rolette, of Pembina, and his uncle, Alex. Fisher, or- 
ganized a cart brigade, and made trading trips to Saint Paul. 
It succeeded very well, and, in 1847, ^^ niany as 125 carts 
came to Saint Paul, selling furs and bringing goods here. 
Rolette & Fisher came by the Sauk River route. Mr. 
Kittson's carts came via Traverse de Sioux. He ultimately 
adopted the other route, and it then became the main road to 
Pembina, and, in 1859, was improved for a post route by the 
Minnesota Stage Company — ultimately giving way to the '^ iron 
horse." 



(t 



JOSEPH* ROLETTE 



was a son of the late Joseph Rolette, of Prairie du Chien, who was 
agent of the American Fur Company for a number of years, and a 
man of great influence and energy. Joseph, Jr., was born about 1820, 
and, in his younger days, was noted for daring and activity. In 1843, 
he came to Fort Snelling, and, soon after, went to Pembina, where he 
concluded to settle. The condition of society there — the free, half- 
wild manners of the people, untrammelled by the restraints of more 
refined society, and their generous improvidence and half-nomad life, 



1846] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 161 

part hunter, part farmer — just suited Jo. He married in the winter 
of 1854-5, ^^^ ^^^ * numerous family. 

"Jo. was best known to the early residents of Saint Paul as a member 
of the Legislature. He was first elected to the Legislature (House) of 
1852, and re-ele<5ted in 1853, 1854, and 1855. He was, also, elected to 
the Council of 1856 and 1857, and a member of the Constitutional 
Convention in 1857. When the State Constitution was adopted, shut- 
ting Pembina out of Minnesota, it was supposed we had seen the last 
of Rolette. But, in December, when the Legislature met, here was 
*the gentleman from Pembina,* with his credentials, as usual, and, 
of course, he was admitted. What would a Minnesota Legislature 
those days be without Jo. Rolette ? He was a sort of time-honored 
institution. When the Republicans came into power the next year, 
however, he was compelled to retire from public life. 

** Jo. was just the sort of man to be popular with the boys in those 
days. His bonhomie^ his jolly nature, his hearty and good-humored 
disposition, his generosity, all made him liked, even by those politically 
opposed to him. He had faults, of course, just as every human being 
has, but they were the very outgrowth of his free, generous, hearty 
nature. They were not allied to anything mean, or small, or sordid. 
If Jo. had one failing more marked than another, it was his generosity 
and improvidence. He would give away anything or everything to 
oblige another, without any thought of his own wants. His spend- 
thrift nature, at last, brought want to him, and he died actually poor. 

**Jo. was never happy without he was engaged in some practical 
joke. His spiriting away the Capital-removal bill was a mere joke of 
his — as he did not care a straw were the Capital went, but he simply 
saw a chance to have some fun. His hearty and natural laugh, when 
he got a good joke on anybody, almost seems to echo through the cor- 
ridors of the Capitol yet. Alas, the old * International' and * Ameri- 
can' — spots that bring back his well-known figure and face — are gone, 
too." 

AN INDIAN TEETOTAL MOVEMENT. 

The unfortunate eftedls of intemperance among the Indians, 
has been fully referred to in previous pages. From year to 
year, they grew worse instead of better, and shameful scenes 
were to be witnessed in and near the village. Every few days, 
a band of the savages would come to Saint Paul, and, getting 
furiously drunk, endanger the lives of the inhabitants. Time 
and time again, were the latter compelled to flee from the red 
demons, who, though passably civil when sober, were very 
devils when maddened with fire-water. 



1 62 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1846 

Strange as it may seem, a temperance movement commenced 
this year among the Indians themselves. Little Crow — ^he 
who was killed in 1863 — while on a spree this year, was shot 
and wounded by his own brother. When he got sober, on the 
principle of the devil who resolved to turn monk, he deter- 
mined to put a stop to drinking in his tribe, and make teetotal- 
ers out of his followers. He therefore applied to Mr. Bruce. 
the Indian Agent at Fort Snelling, for* a missionarj^ to reside 
at his village. Willing to encourage such a laudable desire to 
reform, Mr. Bruce wrote to Dr. Thomas S. Williamson, 
then at Lac qui Parle, who was a devoted missionar}% and. 
besides, a skillful physician, asking him to establish a school 
at Kaposia. Dr. Williamson consented, and, in November, 
1846, removed to that place. He established a school — and 
soon had a number of Indian and half-breed scholars — among 
the latter, several girls, who afterwards married white citizens. 

SAINT PAUL IN 1 846-7. 

While laboring for the welfare of his red children. Dr. 
Williamson felt that something must also be done for the 
white people at Saint Paul, who were without much educa- 
tional or religious advantages. He accordingly wrote to ex- 
Governor Slade, of Vermont, President of the "National Pop- 
ular Educational Society," asking him to send hither a good 
teacher. As his letter contains, probably, the first written 
description of Saint Paul, T give it nearly entire : 

** My present residence is on the utmost verge of civilization, in 
the northwestern part of the United States, within a few miles of the 
principal village of white men in the Territory that we suppose will 
bear the name of Minnesota, which some would render * clear water,' 
though strictly it signifies slightly turbid or whitish water. 

"The village referred to has grown up within a few years, in a 
romantic situation, on a high bluff of the Mississippi, and has been 
baptized by the Roman Catholics, by the name of Saint Paul. They 
have eredled in it a small chapel, and constitute much the larger por- 
tion of the inhabitants. The Dakotas call it, Im-nt-ja'Ska^ (white rock,) 
from the color of the sandstone which forms the bluff on which the 
village stands. This village has five stores, as they call them, at all 
of which intoxicating drinks constitute a part, and I suppose the prin- 
cipal part, of what they sell. I would suppose the village contains a 



J 



1846] and of the County of Ramsey ^ Minnesota. 163 

dozen or twenty families living near enough to send to school. Since 
I came to this neighborhood, I have had frequent occasion to visit the 
village, and have been grieved to see so many children gp*owing up 
entirely ignorant of God, and unable to read His Word, with no one 
to' teach them. Unless your Society can send them a teacher, there 
seems to be little prospect of their having one for several years. A 
few days since, I went to the place for the purpose of making inquiries 
in reference to the prospect of a school. I visited seven families, in 
which there were twenty-three children of proper age to attend school, 
and was told of five more in which were thirteen more that it is sup- 
posed might attend, making thirty-six in twelve families. I suppose 
more than half of the parents of these children are unable to read 
themselves, and care but little about having their children taught. 
Possibly the priest might deter some from attending, who might 
otljerwise be able and willing. 

** I suppose a good female teacher can do more to promote the cause 
of education and true religion, than a man. The natural politeness of 
the French, (who constitute more than half the population,) would 
cause them to be kind and courteous to a female, even though the priest 
should seek to cause opposition. I suppose she might have twelve or 
fifteen scholars to begin with, and, if she should have a good talent of 
winning the affe(5tions of children, (and one who has not should not 
come,) after a few months', she would have as many as she could 
attend to. 

"One woman, [Mrs. Irvine,] told me she had four children she wished 
to send to school, and that she would give boarding and a room in her 
house to a good female teacher, for the tuition of her children. 

"A teacher for this place should love the Saviour, and for His sake 
should be willing to forego, not only many of the privileges and ele- 
gances of New England towns, but some of the neatness also. She 
should be entirely free from prejudice on account of color, for among 
her scholars she might find not only English, French and Swiss, but 
Sioux and Chippewas, with some claiming kindred with the African 
stock. 

" A teacher coming should bring books with her sufficient to begin a 
school, as there is no bookstore within three hundred miles." 

Leaving this letter to go on its long, and, (in those days,) 
slow journey, we close this chapter. 



164 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1847 



CHAPTER XIV. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1847. 

The State Movement in Wisconsin — Settlers in 1847— J. ^' Bass, Ben. W. 
Brunson, S. p. Folsom,'W. H. Forbes, Dr. J. J. Dewey, Miss Bishop, *c. — 
The Latter Opens a School— J. W. Bass Establishes a Hotel — Organi- 
zation OF A Steamboat Line — Capt. Russell Blakeley — PoliticalNotes. 

THE Wisconsin State Constitution was voted on, April* 6, 
1847. ^^^ some cause, it was rejected by the people. 
It had been sufficient, however, together with Mr. Martin's 
bill, to call considerable attention to Minnesota, and it w^as 
deemed certain, that, within a few months, it would be organ- 
ized into a separate Territory. This fa(5l being known abroad, 
caused the commencement of quite an immigration to Minne- 
sota, during the year 1847. Stillwater and Saint Anthony 
grew rapidly, this season, and Saint Paul had considerable ac- 
cessions to its population. Among other 

SETTLERS IN I 847, 

were : Jacob W. Bass, Benj. W. Brunson, Daniel Hop- 
kins, Aaron Foster, Simeon P. Folsom, John Banfil, 
C. P. V. Lull, Wm. H. Forbes, Parsons K. Johnson, Wm. 
C. Renfro, Dr. John J. Dewey, and G. A. Fournier. 
Nor must Miss Harriet E. Bishop be omitted from the list 
of " settlers" this year. 

A full sketch of Major Wm. H. Forbes is given in Chapter 
IV, and need not be repeated here. 

JACOB W. BASS 

was born in Braintree, Vermont, 1815. He emigrated west 
when a young man, and lived for some time at Plattville, Wis- 
consin, then at Prairie du Chien, and subsequently at North 
McGregor, Iowa, where he was owner of the ferry, proprie- 



1847] ^'^d of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 165 

tor of a hotel, and a part of the time in the mercantile business. 
He married, while at Prairie duChien, Miss M. D. Brun- 
SON, a daughter of Rev. Alfred Brunson, one of the pioneers 
of Wisconsin, and, soon after, with Benj. W. Brunson, en- 
gaged in the lumber business at Chippewa Falls. In 1847, ^^ 
and Brunson sold out their business, and came to Saint Paul. 
Mr. Bass arrived in August, and, soon after, leased a building 
on what is now the corner of Third and Jackson streets, which 
he opened as a hotel, under the name of ''Saint Paul House." 
Mr. Bass was appointed postmaster, on the 5th of July, 1849, 
and held that office until March 18, 1853. He continued in 
the hotel business until 1852, when he sold out, and opened a 
commission and forwarding warehouse on the levee, which 
was a prominent business house for some years. During the 
past three or four years, Mr. Bass has been largely engaged in 
farming in Watonwan county. 

BENJAMIN W. BRUNSON 

was born in Detroit, May 6, 1823. He is a son of Rev. Al- 
fred Brunson, of Prairie du Chien, the well-known pioneer 
preacher and writer. When thirteen years old, Mr. Brunson 
removed to that city, where he resided until 1844, when, in 
company with his brother-in-law, Jacob W. Bass, he went 
into the mill business at Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. They 
continued there until May, 1847, when he removed to Saint 
Paul, and, in the fall of that year, assisted his brother, Ira B., 
to survey the town plat. Mr. Brunson secured a considera- 
ble tra<5t of land, at an early day, lying east of Trout Brook, 
which, in June, 1852, he laid out as ''Brunson's Addition." 
In 1861, Mr. Brunson enlisted in Company K, Eighth Min- 
nesota Volunteers, and served three years, as Orderly Sergeant 
and First Lieutenant. He was one of the charter members of 
Saint Paul Lodge Number 2, I. O. O. F., and, also, one of 
the early members of the Masonic order. Like all our pio- 
neers, he has experienced many reverses of fortune — to-day 
rich, to-morrow poor. Mr. Brunson, pursuing his profession 
of surveyor, has surveyed a considerable part of our own city 
into streets and lots, when it was a ''wilderness" still, and 



1 66 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^47 

has laid out some of what are now the most flourishing towns 
of Minnesota. Mr. Brunson was ele6led a member of the 
first Territorial Legislature, and re-ele6led to the second ses- 
sion. He was also a Justice of the Peace for several years. 

SIMEON p. FOLSOM 

was born December 27, 18 19, in Lower Canada, near Quebec. 
His parents were natives of New Hampshire, and returned to 
that State when he was quite young, subsequently removing 
to the State of Maine. During 1837, ^^3^ ^^^ ^^39? ^^• 
Foi^soM was attending academy, teaching school, and engaged 
in the lumbering business. In the fall of 1839, Mr. Folsom 
came west, and settled in Prairie du Chien, and not long after 
engaged as clerk to Henry M. Rice, trader to the Winneba- 
goes, at Fort Atkinson. In 1841, he returned to Prairie du 
Chien, and was Deputy Sherift' for two years. In 1843, he 
was engaged in surveying public lands, and in 1844 and 1845, 
was County Surveyor of Crawford county, also reading law 
with Hon. Wiram Knowlton. In 1846, he joined a volun- 
teer company to go to the Mexican War, but the company vv^as 
sent, instead, to garrison Fort Crawford, where he remained 
one year. On July 25, 1847, ^^ landed in Saint Paul, and has, 
most of the time since, been engaged in surveying and the 
real estate business. He was the first City Surveyor of Saint 
Paul, in 1854. In 1861, he enlisted as a private in Company 
H, Seventh Minnesota, and served in that capacity three years. 
He was a member of the School Board in 1858, 1859 ^^^ i860, 
and has been, for several years, in the employ of the Saint Paul 
and Pacific Railroad. I am indebted to Mr. Folsom for valu- 
able assistance in securing items about early days. 

WM. C. RENFRO 

was a cousin of Henry Jackson. He was a Virginian by 
birth, and a young man of ability and education, though un- 
fortunately, too convivial in his habits. He had studied for a 
physician, and, probably, graduated, but never practiced his 
profession, further than some gratuitous advice to the poor, 
pulling teeth, or small matters of that kind. Renfro came 



1847] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 167 

to an unfortunate end, a few months after his arrival in Saint 
Paul, as will be found narrated in th^next chapter. 

DR. J. J. DEWEY. 

The first regular practicing physician who settled in Saint 
Paul, was Dr. John J. Dewey, who arrived on July 15, of 
this year. Dr. Dewey is a native of New York, and is a 
brother of ex-Governor Dewey, of Wisconsin. He had, not 
long before his arrival here, graduated at the Albany Medical 
College. The want of a good, reliable physician, which Dr. 
Dewey was, had been badly felt in the town, and his coming 
was very grateful to the good people of that day, who, though 
generally pretty hearty and rugged, were not entirely and al- 
ways free from the visitations of sickness and accident. Hith- 
erto there had been no medical or surgical aid nearer than 
Fort Snelling. Dr. Dewey was a member of the first Ter- 
ritorial Legislature, and established, (in 1848,) the first drug 
store in Minnesota. . 

PARSONS K. JOHNSON 

was born in Brandon, Vermont, May 8, 1816. His mother 
was a grand-daughter of Jonathan Carver, noticed in pre- 
vious chapters of this work. During his boyhood days, he 
was a schoolmate of a lad, who, in after days, became widely 
known — Stephen A. Douglas. Mr. Johnson, in early life, 
learned the tailoring business, and emigrated west — settling in 
Saint Paul in August,* 1847, and was, beyond doubt, the first 
person who carried on the tailoring business in Saint Paul. 
Mr. Johnson was elected a member of the first Territorial 
Legislature. In 1850, he was married to Miss Laura Biv- 
iNs, a sister of Mrs. Henry Jackson. He removed to Man- 
kato, in 1852, with Jackson, at which place he has been post- 
master, member of the Legislature, (1855-56,) Justice of the 
Peace, &c. 



♦ Mr. Johnson registers the date of his arrival in the Old Settlers' book, as August, 
but says that he and B. W. Brunson assisted Miss Bishop in organizing the first 
Sunday school. Miss B. gives the date of that occurrence as July 35, which is, prob- 
ably, more corre(5l, as she kept a written diary. 



1 68 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1847 

DANIEL HOPKINS 

was a native of New Hampshire, and was born in the year 
1787. Previous to coming to Saint Paul, he had been in busi- 
ness in Green Bay, Prairie du Chien, &c., and at Red Rock, 
settling at that place in 1842. On August 7, 1847, ^^ pur- 
chased of Henry Jackson, a lot which would now be on the 
corner of Third and Jackson streets. The consideration was 
$200. Mr. Hopkins erected a store, where he did a general 
merchandizing business. He also purchased considerable real 
estate in Saint Paul. In 1852, he went to Saint Louis to pur- 
chase goods, and, while on his return home, was seized 
with sudden illness on the steamer, and died June 13, 1852, 
aged 65 years. 

AARON FOSTER 

was a native of Pennsylvania, and was born in '181 7. He came 
to Stillwater in 1846, and the following year to Saint Paul. 
Soon after his arrival here he was commissioned a Justice of 
the Peace. Very many of the deeds of that period appear to 
have been acknowledged before him. His regular occupation, 
however, was carpenter, and he worked at that several years. 
He married a Miss Fanny Mortimer, daughter of Sergeant 
Mortimer, a settler of 1842. Foster went to Kansas about 
1854 or 1855, and in May, 1864, enlisted in the army, but died 
of disease at the recruiting station, before regularly entering 
the service. Mrs. Foster died in Minneapolis, about Sep- 
tember I, 1875. 

Cornelius V. P. Lull is a native of New York, and set- 
tled in Saint Paul, Odlober, 1847, pursuing his occupation as 
carpenter. Mr. Lull was appointed Sheriff of Ramsey 
county, by Governor Ramsey, in the fall of 1849, and, soon 
after, eleded for a full term. He "^ still lives" in our city. 

Fred. Olivier and G. A. Fournier, came to Saint Paul as 
clerks and agents of Louis Robert. Both are natives of 
Canada. Mr. Olivier resides here still, and Mr. Fournier 
is in the trading business at Yellow Medicine. 

GOV. SLADE finds A TEACHER. 

When Governor Slade received Dr. Williamson's letter. 



1847] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 169 

describing the deplorable educational and religious condition 
of the people of Saint Paul, he referred the letter to Dr. C. E. 
Stowe, husband of Harriet Beecher Stowe, who for- 
warded it to his sister-in-law, Miss Catherine Beecher, 
who was then at Albany, New York, instrudting and training 
a class of young ladies for teachers. By her it was placed in 
the hands of Miss Harriet E. Bishop, as being a proper per- 
son to accept and fill the proposed post of duty. 

Miss Bishop is a native of Vermont, and was early filled 
with a wish to become a teacher of youth, and with consider- 
able missionary spirit. She was an ardent member of the 
Baptist church. She tells us, in her pleasant book of frontier 
experiences, "Floral Homes," published in 1857, that, when 
the request to go was put to her, it was the occasion of quite 
a mental struggle, in which the dangers and trials to which a 
feeble and timid young lady would be subjected in such a 
position, and the sacrifice of leaving home, friends, and the 
comforts of civilization, for a rude habitation in a rough fron- 
tier settlement, were weighed against the call of duty, and the 
opportunity of doing good. The latter sentiments, at length, 
predominated over her fears, and she decided to go. Journey- 
ing by land to Cincinnati, she came thence by river. On July 
16, 1847, ^^ ^^^ landed at Kaposia by the steamer " Argo," 
of which our present townsman, Capt. Russell Blakeley, 
was clerk, and remained a short time an inmate of Dr. Wil- 
liamson's family. A day or two afterwards, she was taken 
in a canoe, paddled by two stout young squaws, to Saint Paul. 
*' A cheerless prospedl," she adds, greeted her. ''A few log 
huts composed the town — three families, the American popu- 
lation. With one of these, [J. R. Irvine,] distant from the 
rest, a home was offered me. Theirs was the dwelling — the 
only one of respedlable size, containing three rooms and an 
attic." After making arrangements to secure a school room, 
Miss Bishop returned to Kaposia, until the building could be 
made ready. 

The building sele6led was a log cabin, which stood on the 

site of what is now known as Dr. Mann's Block, corner of 

Third and Saint Peter streets. It had formerly been occupied 
12 



lyo The History of the City of Saint Paul. [1847 

by Scott Campbell, as a dwelling, but Scott had built 
another house. Though the building was a plain one, it prob- 
ably answered for a pioneer school. Miss Bishop describes 
it : '* Some wooden pins had been driven into the logs, across 
which rough boards were placed for seats. The luxury- of a 
chair was accorded to the teacher, and a cross-legged table 
occupied the center of the loose floor." The attendance of 
scholars was small, at first — Miss Bishop thinks only four or 
^\^^ but Mrs. Fatten thinks, nine or ten. At least, it in- 
creased to this latter number very soon, and. by fall, it w^as 
found necessary to have a larger and better building. This 
was secured on Bench street, just west of Jackson's stand, 
and was used until a building could be built, the following 
year, for the purpose of a school. 

first SUNDAY SCHOOL IN SAINT PAUL. 

On July 25, 1847, ^**y^ Miss Bishop, in her work, the first 
Sunday school in our city was held. Seven scholars attended, 
and there was such a mixture of races among these, that an 
interpreter was^ necessary,- who could speak English, French, 
and Sioux, before all could he made to understand the instruc- 
tions given. The school increased to twenty-five scholars, by 
the third Sunday, and was continued successfully for several 
years, and, finally, became the Sabbath school of the First 
Baptist church — so that said society claim to have the oldest 
Sunday school in Minnesota. 

survey ok the town-site. 



The rapid growth of the town this season, and the more 
frequent demand for real estate — which was now bringing 
prices that must have astonished the old pioneers who were 
still living in a plain, easy, slow sort of way in their bark- 
roofed cabins — seemed to point to the necessity of having a 
portion of the site laid out into lots. Louis Robert and 
others favored this projedl, and it was soon carried into eftedt. 
Ira B, Bri^nson, of Prairie du Chien, was employed to do 
the sur\'eying, in connection with his brother, Benj. W. Ira 
arrived in August, and commenced operations. Thomas S. 



1847] and of the County of Ramsey y Minnesota, 171 

Odell, now of West Saint Paul, was chainman. The tracl^t 
now known on the maps and in the Registry of Deeds as 
'^ Saint Paul Proper," was then laid out. We have no com- 
ment to mak^ on it, except as to the narrowness of the streets, 
and the absence of alleys. But, then, the good people of 28 
years ago, could hardly have dreamed that we would have 
35,000 people in the lifetime of the men who laid out the 
town ! It was a mistake — but one so excusable we haven't it 
in our heart to blame them. 

The ti*a<5t, as surveyed then, contained only about 90 acres, 
but included all the principal business part of the town, arid 
the more thickly settled portion. The names of the proprie- 
tors, as given on the recorded plat, are : Louis Robert, 
David Lambert, Henry Jackson, Benj. W. Brunson, 
Charles Cavileer, Henry H. Sibley, J. W. Bass, A. L. 
Larpenteur, Wm. H. Forbes, J. W. Simpson, Henry C. 
Rhodes, L. H. LaRoche, J. B. Coty and Vetal Guerin. 
Some of these persons were not residents and land owners in 
1847 — ^^^^ secured an interest subsequent to that date. As the 
land in this locality had not at that time been surveyed by the 
United States, and could not be entered, neither could the 
town plat be entered, and was not until April 28, 1849. It was 
signed on February 28, 1849, by the above gentlemen, three of 
whom, (David Lambert, Henry C. Rhodes*, and J. B. 
CoTY,*) were not residents in September, 1847, ^^^ settled 
subsequently. 

After the property was surveyed, the lots or blocks were 
deeded to each owfier, so that he would have a title to his own 
land. B. W. Brunson testified in the Saint Charles street 
case, tried in 1866: *' We had meetings about once a week 
at the time, in regulating proprietors' lines. There was a 
committee to determine who owned lots, and when the lines 
were so that parties entering the town could own equitably ; 



♦John Baptiste Coty was a Canadian by birth, and a carpenter by occupation. He 
was one of the charter members of Saint Paul Lodge, No. a, I. O. O. F., but afterwards 
withdrew from that order, by command of the clergyman who married him. Coty 
returned to Canada about 1853, or 1853. Though a "proprietor" when the plat was 
signed, I think he was not a resident when the town was surveyed. 



172 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1847 

most of those difficulties were settled before the plat was 
signed." 

In vol. 8, p. 491, Supreme Court Reports of Minnesota, 
will be found a decision on the question as to whether the 
dedication of the plat was valid. 

From the records in the Sui*veyor General's office of this 
distri<5l, I find that the United States surveys of the land in 
and around Saint Paul, were made in the fall of 1847. ^^^ 
town lines were run by James M. Marsh, in October, and the 
subdivisions made by Isaac N. Higbee, the following month. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF A HOTEL. 

Reference was made to the establishment, by J. W. Bass, 
of a hotel, during this season. It was in the building spoken 
of in the last. chapter, commenced in 1846, by Leonard H. 
LaRoche, and subsequently completed and enlarged by S. P. 
FoLSOM, in the summer of 1847, ^"^ finally considerably ex- 
tended and improved by Mr. Bass. The first part built was 
20x28 feet, a story and a half high, and was built of tamarack 
logs, hewed square and laid on a small foundation. When 
this building was taken down, in 1870, to give way to the 
Merchants of to-day, the logs were found as sound as when 
put up, 23 years before. Judge Goodrich, the enthusiastic 

* 

Secretary of the "Old Settlers' Association," secured one of 
the logs, and had a gavel and chest constructed out of it, for 
the use of the Association. 

At that time, the building was situated on quite a bank, and 
when this was dug down, in 1853-4, to^rade Jackson and 
Third streets, the log stru(5lure was left almost one story above 
ground. So a stone basement was built up under the log 
structure. Mr. Bass leased the building in August, 1847, 
at $10 per month. He gave it the name, " Saint Paul House," 
and made considerable additions to its size, and improvements 
in its interior and exterior, raising it to two full stories, &c. 
It was then quite a good-sized building, for those days, and 
Mr. Bass kept a right smart tavern in it, too, and old settlers 
say it helped the town considerable, for no one would want to 
go to a town that had no good hotel. 



1847] and of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota, 173 

The Saint Paul House, and its larger successor, played no 
insignificant part in the histor\' of our city and State. It was 
here that, on June i, 1849, the Territory was organized by the 
Territorial officers. The post-office was held in it a couple of 
years, and, in one of the additions to the building, a lodge of 
Sons of Temperance and Free Masons was held. 

The subsequent history of this pioneer hotel deserves men- 
tion. Mr. Bass retired from it, in 1852, and various persons 
essayed to '' keep" it, until July, 1856, when E. C. Belote 
leased it. He managed it until 1861, when John J. Shaw 
and Wm. E, Hunt leased it. Mr. Hunt soon retired, and 
Col. Shaw continued it until 1873. During this period, the 
present fine structure was built. Mr. Shaw gave way to Col. 
Alvaren Allen, the present proprietor. 

ORGANIZATION OF A STEAMBOAT LINE. 

Another important event of this year, one which greatly aided 
the settlemelit of this region, was the organization of a steam- 
boat company, to run regular packets from Galena to Mendota 
and Fort Snelling. Hitherto, only stray boats would make trips 
to this region, whenever they could get loads that would pay. 
During this season, Messrs. Campbell & Smith, of Galena, 
Brisbois & Rice, H. L. Dousman, of Prairie du Chien, H. 
H. Sibley, of Mendota, and M. W. Lodwick, of Galena, 
purchased the steamer '' Argo," with the intention of organ- 
izing, the next spring, the " Galena Packet Company." The 
"Argo" was destined to be the pioneer of an important trade. 
M. W. Lodwick, was commander, and Russell Blakeley, 
of Galena, was clerk. The ''Argo" was designed to make trips 
once a week, and did a pretty fair business that season.* 
Unfortunately, she struck a snag, near Wabasha, in October, 
and sank. Capts. Lodwick and Blakeley then went to 
Cincinnati and purchased the " Dr. Franklin," which came 
out the next year, and was a popular packet for those days ; 
she ran for several seasons. 



* From a record kept at Fort Snelling, by Philander Prescott, for some years, we 
find the number of steamboats arriving there about those times, stated as follows : 1844, 
41 boats; 1845, 48 do. ; 1846, 24 do. ; 1847, 47 do. ; 1848, 63 do. ; 1849, (Saint Paul,) 95 do. 



1 74 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Pauh [1^47 

CAPT. RUSSELL BLAKELEY, 

one of the pioneer steamboat men of the Upper Mississippi, was 
born at North Adams, Massachusetts, April 19, 18 15. In 
18 1 7, his parents removed to Leroy, Genesee count}', New- 
York, where he grew up to manhood. From there he went 
to Peoria, Illinois, in 1836, and to Galena in 1839. ^^ 1844. 
he went to Wythe county, Virginia, where he remained three 
years, returning to Oalena in 1847. 

When the *'Argo" was put on the river, in June of that year. 
Capt. Blakeley was engaged as clerk, and, after that boat 
sank^ of the ""Dr. Frafnklin," which succeeded her, running the 
latter part of the time as captain. Also, in 1853, he ran the 
'* Nominee," and, in 1854, took command of the '" Galena," a 
famous and popular packet in her day, which was burned 
July I, 1858, at Red Wing. During this period, thousands, 
perhaps tens of thousands, of the earlier citizens of our State, 
have been brought here by Capt. Blakeley, on one or the 
other of the above packets, a fadl which made him more 
widely' known, probably, at that time, than almost any other 
man in this region. If Capt. B. would write a faithful account 
of steamboating in those days, with his personal reminiscences 
of men and events, it would make an interesting chapter of 
our pioneer history. 

In 1855, he was appointed agen! at Dunleith, of the Packet 
Company, and soon after bought out the interest of Charles 
T. Whitney in the Northwestern Express Company, the firm 
then becoming J. C. Burbank & Co. Capt. Blakeley came 
to Saint Paul to reside in 1856. Soon after, the firm became 
largely interested in mail contracts, stage and transportation 
lines, &c., a full account of which is given in a future chapter. 
Mr. Burbank retired from the company, in July, 1867, and 
the business is now continued by Capt. Blakeley and C. W. 
Carpenter, Esq. Capt. B. is also largely interested in the 
railroad business, being a director of the Sioux City Railroad, 
and is a member of several other business organizations, con- 
tributing largely, both in capital and time, to promote the pros- 
perity of our city and State, and build up its literary and other 
institutions. 



1847] a'^d of the Coutitv of Ramsey. Minnesota. 



SAINT CROIX COUMTY, 



which had, up to this time, been included in Crawford county 
for judicial purposes, was. this year, detached, and reorgan- 



ized, with Stillwater ns the county- seat. In June, the first 
term of any court ever held in what is now Minnesota, was 
held there, by Judge Charles Dunn, of the United States Dis- 
tri^ Court. Harvey Wilson, of Stillwater, was appointed 



176 The History of the City of Saint Paul,, [1847 

Clerk of the Court, and has held that position nearly, if not 
all, the time since. 

POLITICAL NOTES. 

The Wisconsin State Constitution, mentioned on page 164, 
was voted on April 6, 1847, but, for some reason, defeated. 
A second Convention was held on the 13th of December, 1847. 
Its results will appear a little further on. 

At the election held this fall, for Representative from the 
District composed of Crawford, Saint Croix, Chippewa and 
LaPointe counties, to the fifth Legislative Assembly of Wis- 
consin, Henry Jackson was chosen a member. A special 
session was held 0(5tober 17--27, 1847, and the regular second 
session of the fifth Assembly was held February 7, to March 
13, 1848. 



1848] ^^^ of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 177 



CHAPTER XV. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1848. 

Death op Wm. C. Rbnfro— Raising Funds for a School House — Religious 
AND Temperance Movements — ^Territoria!l Movement — ^The Stillwater 
Convention — H. H. Sibley Elected Delegate— Sale of the Land at 
Saint Paul — H. M. Rice Buys Into the Town-site — Memoir of Mr. Rice — 
Memoirs of David Olmsted, and Others — List of Pre-Territorial Set- 
tlers — General Remarks on that Period. 

THE year 1848 was a sort of pivotal period in our history. 
It was marked,' too, with important events — the adoption 
of a State government by Wisconsin, leaving Minnesota with- 
out a government — the efforts of our citizens to secure a Ter- 
ritorial organization, which were' soon after successful — the 
purchase from the United States of the site of the city and the 
lands surrounding it — the influx of new settlers, some of them 
men of capital, education and influence — the increase of trade, 
and in the importance of the place, &c. Thus, the year 1848 
was a sort of intermediate period, between the era of the wil- 
derness and unorganized society, and that of a government of 
law and order, emerging from chaos, as it were, into the dig- 
nity of an established commonwealth. 

DEATH OF WM. C. RENFRO. 

The first event of the year 1848, which we have to record, 
was the death of William C. Renfro, by freezing. Ren- 
FRO, as stated in the sketch of him a few pages back, was a 
young man of education and ability, but addi(5led to the use of 
intoxicating drinks. About the first of January, while stop- 
ping at his cousin's, W. G. Carter's, on " Prospedl hill," 
near the bend of Phelan's Creek, he arose in the night, while 
suffering from mania a potu^ and wandered^ toward town. 
Being missed, search was made, and, on January 3d, his life- 
less body was found under a tree, near the present Saint Mary's 
Catholic church. He was clad only in his shirt, drawers, &c. 



178 The History of the City of Saint PauL [184S 

RAISING FUNDS FOR A SCHOOL HOUSE. 

Miss Bishop, in her work before quoted, gives some account 
of a sewing circle raising funds for a school house : 

"The first winter (1847^) closed in upon us. * * * Books were 
the companions that enlivened the solitude of our evenings. The social 
pleasures of the vicinity were merged in a weekly ball for those who 
enjoyed what, according to the report of the parties, was little else than, 
in western parlance, a * whisky hoe-down.' What rational, social pleas- 
ure can we devise that shall elevate the moral tone of society.'* w^as 
the theme of discussion, when Joseph R. Bowron,* of Saint Croix, 
proposed that a * Ladies' Sewing Society' be instituted, to aid in the 
eredlion of the proposed school house, and, for our encouragement, 
generously pledged $10, for a commencement. Accordingly, the * Saint 
Paul Circle of Industry' was formed, with eight members. f We re- 
member, with an allowable pride, that the first payment on the lumber 
for the first school house, was made with money earned with the needle 
bv the ladies of this circle." 

Miss Bishop further hints that they had good success in 
soliciting subscriptions, and received $50 from officers at the 
fort. She adds : 

*'The specified objecftof the building was the accommodation of the 
school, church, court, occasional leisures, elections, and, in short, all 
public gatherings ; with the expectation that an expenditure of $300 on 
a building 25x30 feet, would be all that would be required for at least 
ten years." 

This building was completed sometime in August, 1848. It 
stood about where Dr. Alley's block now stands, and was 
used for church services, dav-school, lectures, &c., until as 
late as 185 1, when several denominations had erected chapels 
of their own. It was burned at the great fire, in 1857, ^vhich 
swept that whole square. The building was eredted by Jesse 
H. PoMEROY. The lot was a gift from Jffo. R. Irvine. 

RELIGIOUS PROGRESS TEMPERANCE. 

The first Protestant sermon, as before noted, ever preached 
in Saint Paul, was by Rev. Mr. Hurlbut, a Methodist Episco- 

* Joseph R. Bowron died at Hudson, Wisconsin, April lo, 1868. 

t Miss B1SHOP4 Mrs. Jackson, Mrs. Bass, Miss Harriet Patch, and Mrs. Irvine 
were among' the members. 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 179 

pal missionary, in 1844. R^v. E. A. Greenleaf preached 
the next sermon in June, 1846. Mrs. Hinckley thinks Rev. 
Father Gear,* Episcopal missionary at the fort, preached the 
third sermon, in the same year. September 5, 1847, Dr. Wil- 
liamson preached the fourth Protestant sermon. 

After Miss Bishop's arrival, she kept a diary of events, 
principally of religious matters, which gives some interesting 
ideas concerning the progress of religion in Saint Paul during 
this vear. We condense a few notes, as follows : 

"January 30. Mr. Gear preached in afternoon. 

*' February 20. Mr. Greenleaf preached. 

*' March 19. 'Visiting, hunting, wrestling, drinking, gambling, &c., 
are the pastimes of this holy day.' 

"April 2. Mr. Putnam preached. 

"April 23. Viola Irvine (a little daughter of J. R. Irvine,) died 
from a severe burn, by accident. 

"June 26. Mr. Cavender a<5ts as Superintendent of Sunday school. 

"July 10. Preaching by Rev. Lemuel Nobles. 

"July 17. Prof Bent [a professor in the University at Middlebury, 
Vermont,] ledtured. 

"July 24. B. F. HoYT preached. 

"October 16. Rev. Mr. Copeland, of Indiana, preached. 

"OAober 23. Mr. Hoyt preached. 

"November 6. Mr. Hoyt preached. 

"December 4. Rev. Benj. Close, the Methodist preacher of the 
Saint Paul and Stillwater circuit, preached. 

"December 31. Mr. Close preached and organized a class, the first 
move towards organizing a Protestant church in this city." 

During this season, Miss Bishop says, in her book, the re- 
ligious element in the village was greatly reinforced by the 
aiTival of Mr. B. F. Hoyt and A. H. Cavender. '' The for- 
mer occasionally broke the bread of life to the listening few^. 
When the number of disciples had increased to five or six, on 
November 9, 1848, a weekly prayer meeting was established. 
Hon. H. M. Rice made the liberal offer of $2cx) and ten town 
lots toward the first church edifice, [Market Street Methodist,] 



*Rev. EzEKiEL G. Gear was born at Middletown, Connecticut, September 13, 1793. 
In 1836, he went to Galena, and, in 1837, "^'^^ appointed Ppst Chaplain at Fort Snelling. 
In i860, he was transferred to Fort Ripley, and, in 1867, placed on the retired list. He 
died OAober 13, 1873, aged 80 years. In the early days of Saint Paul he was well- 
known to our pioneer settlers. 



i8o The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1848 

which offer was accepted. During the same winter, Rev. Mr. 
Gear held monthly, and finally semi-monthly service in Saint 
Paul." 

It may be interesting to know that the first temperance soci- 
ety in Saint Paul — perhaps in Minnesota — was organized this 
summer, by a few young folks — some of them scholars in Miss 
Bishop's school. The pledge itself was drawn up by James 
M. BoAL, who was quite an artist, and decorated it with 
drawings and emblematic designs. Miss Bishop still has the 
paper, the first written temperance pledge, beyond doubt, in 
the State. Shortly afl:er this, the young men of the town or- 
ganized a temperance society, about thirty of them taking the 
pledge. Alex. R. McLeod was elected president — but. Miss 
B. adds, regretfully, that he did not keep the pledge ver\^ well. 

REMARKABLE SCENE IN A JUSTICE'S COURT. 

Under the head of the administration of justice in early 
days, it occurs to us to chronicle a curious aftair which occur- 
red this summer. Henry Jackson was a Justice of the Peace 
this year, and was trying some ordinary case in his caravansary 
on the point. The matter had been submitted to the jury, and 
they had retired to consider a verdi(5l, being locked up, by the 
constable, in a room, where there was only one little outside 
window. Among the six men thus confined, was one skillful 
violinist, (Charley Mitchell, I believe,) \yho was always 
in request for balls and convivial assemblages. On the day of 
the trial, a man had come over from Stillwater, for the purpose 
of hiring the violinist, and taking him back to that piney set- 
tlement, to fiddle for a ball that was coming oft' the same eve- 
ning. On finding the violinist locked up, with no prospedt of 
an early release, he became somewhat nervous, lest he should 
not be able to return in season with the manipulator of the 
bow. The jury, unluckily, were not able to agi*ee on a verdidt, 
and spent several hours in a fierce discussion of the case, some 
of them getting " fighting mad" on the question.' About this 
time, the Stillwater man got desperate, as he saw the afternoon 
waning away, and determined to take an opportunity to speak 
to the violinist at all hazards. He, thereupon, got a box or 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 181 

some other standing place, and climbed up to the window, 
where he held a confab with the fiddling juryman. At this 
point, one of the disagreeing jurors accused the latter of being 
in surreptitious communication with an outsider, and of receiv- 
ing a bribe ! Of course, this brought the dispute to blows at 
once, in which the whole jury were busily engaged in less than 
a minute. Chairs and tables were broke to splinters, and two 
or three jurors were pounded badly. Among the latter was 
the violinist, who had a shocking ''head put on him," and 
suffered a dislocated arm, &c. The constable, justice and 
others rushed in to quell the fight, when the jurors who were 
able to go, broke out and ran away, and this ended the case. 
The Stillwater man returned without his musician, and the 
ball was postponed indefinitely. 

MORE GOVERNMENTAL PROGRESS. 

Wisconsin held a second Constitutional Convention, as be- 
fore remarked,, which convened on December 15, 1847, and 
adjourned on February i, 1848. The Constitution framed by 
them, and which was voted on and adopted March 13, 1848, 
fixed the State boundaries as they are now seen on the maps. 
Congress admitted Wisconsin as a State, on May 29, following. 
The question was thus definitely settled, that what is now 
Minnesota, was ''left out in the cold," with no government, 
unless, fortunately, they inherited the abandoned Territorial 
government of Wisconsin, and many claimed thatthis was the 
case. The question considerably agitated the people of the 
region west of the Saint Croix and Mississippi, and, after con- 
siderable ''talk," it was resolved by the Saint Paul men to 
hold a meeting and canvass the matter. The meeting, which 
could not have been a large one, for there were scarcely 20 
English-speaking men in Saint Paul at that time, was held at 
Jackson's caravansary in July.* This was undoubtedly the 
first public meeting on the subjec^l, or perhaps on any subjecSl 

♦A prominent old settler thinks this meeting was held in the street, instead of in a 
house, mainly because there was more room out of doors, and logs were plenty, which 
could be used as seats, and to make "smudges" with. He says most of the public 
meetings those days, were held in the street. 



1 82 The Htstory of the City of Saint Paiih [1848 

of a public nature, and it was strongly urged that measures be 
taken to secure a Territorial government for the balance of 
Wisconsin, then unprote6led by law. 

THE STILLWATER CONVENTION. 

On the 5th day of August, a public meeting of the same 
kind was held at Stillwater, and it was resolved to circulate 
a call for a general convention of all persons interested, to 
meet at Stillwater on August 26. The call was made, and, at 
the time mentioned, the Convention was held. Sixty-one per- 
sons appear to have been present, as we find that number of 
names signed to a memorial adopted during the session. Among 
those present from Saint Paul, were : Louis Robert, J. W. 
Simpson, A. L. Larpenteur, David Lambert, Henry 
Jackson, Vetal Guerin, David Hebert, Oliver Rosseau, 
Andre Godfrey, Joseph Rondo, James R. Clewett, Ed- 
ward Phelan, Wm. G. Carter, &c. 

At this meeting a letter was read from Hon. John Catlin, 
Secretary of State of Wisconsin, stating that, in his opinion, 
if a Delegate were elected, he would be permitted to take 
his seat — and that the Territory of Wisconsin was still in 
existence. 

Joseph R. Brown, H. H. Sibley, Morton S. Wilkin- 
son, Henry L. Moss, Franklin Steele, David Lambert, 
and others, appear, from the proceedings, to have taken a 
prominent part. A committee was appointed to draft a me- 
morial to Congress, resolutions, &c., and the Convention ad- 
journed to dinner. 

While at dinner, (Hon. H. L. Moss states,) there was con- 
siderable caucusing as to the location of the Capital for the 
proposed Territory, and the Saint Paul delegates carried the 
day — it being generally understood that Saint Paul was to be 
fixed on as the Capital, but Stillwater was to have the State's 
prison, and Saint Anthony the university — a parole agreement, 
which was, by a future Legislature, carried out. 

When the Convention reassembled, J. R. Brown reported the 
proposed memorial, together with voluminous resolutions, re- 
citing the necessity of having a Territorial government — pro- 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 183 

viding for the appointment of a delegate to visit Washington, 
and urge an immediate organization of the proposed Territory ; 
also, for the appointment of a committee of six, to collec^t 
information and statistics, for the use of said delegate, and a 
'* central committee" of seven, to correspond with and aid 
said delegate. The resolutions and memorial w^ere adopted, 
and the latter signed by all the members present. 

BISECTION OF A DELEGATE. 

The Convention then proceeded to eledl a delegate to Wash- 
ington, and Hon. Henry H. Sibley, of Mendota, waseledted, 
and furnished with proper credentials. It was expe(5ted that 
the delegate so elec^ted was to defray his own expenses. Mr. 
Sibley accepted the proposed mission, however, and prom- 
ised the Convention to go on, and use his utmost endeavors to 
accomplish the important trust committed to him. 

Shortly after this, Hon. John H. Tweedy resigned as Del- 
egate to Congress from Wisconsin, and Hon. John Catlin, 
claiming to be a6ting Governor of Wisconsin Territory, if there 
was now any such thing, came to Stillwater, and issued a 
proclamation, on October 9, ordering a special election, to fill 
the vacancy. On October 30, said election was held. Mr. 
Sibley and Henry M. Rice were the only candidates, and 
there was little or no effort made by either to secure an eledlion, 
though some of the friends of each got up a small canvass, 
hi fa6l, neither of them desired it, as far as any personal mo- 
tives were concerned, as the condition of things was very du- 
bious, and it seemed very improbable that the Delegate elected 
would be permitted to take his seat. General Sibley was 
eleded, as it turned out, and, in November, proceeded to 
Washington. 

purchase of the town-site from the united states. 

Meantime the Government surveys of land in this neighbor- 
hood had been progressing, and, on August 14, 1848, the first 
sale of lands occurred at the land office, at Saint Croix Falls, 
in pursuance of a proclamation of President Polk. At this 
sale, 27 whole and fractional townships, or 436,737 acres, were 



184 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1848 

offered for sale — part lying in Wisconsin, but only 3,326 were 
sold, at $1.25 per acre. At this sale, the town-sites of Saint 
Paul, Saint Anthony and Stillwater were offered for sale. A 
gentleman present gives the following account of it : 

**The land office for the Chippewa land district was opened by 
Gen. Samuel Leech, Receiver, and Col. C. S. Whitney, Register, at 
the Falls of Saint Croix, in the first part of August, 1847. The first 
sale in this District commenced on or about the 15th daj of August, 
1848, and continued for two weeks. The second sale commenced on 
or about the 15th day of September, of the same year, and, also, con- 
tinued for two weeks. At this latter sale, the first lands were disposed 
of, that are now comprised within the limits of Minnesota, including 
the towns of Saint Paul, Saint Anthony and Stillwater. At this period, 
there were very few white settlers within what is now the Territory of 
Minnesota ; and they were principally located within and immediately 
surrounding the above named towns. For the better accommodation 
of the people — the conveniences of travel being very poor — the land 
officers gave timely public notice of the exadl day upon which certain 
townships would be offered for sale ; so that at no one time were there 
more than forty or fifty persons present. There were no * speculators' 
in attendance at this sale; which accounts for the fadt that there was 
but One contra bid during the whole sale, and that was between two 
settlers, who resided somewhere in the neighborhood of Cottage Grove, 
in Washington county. It seems, that, after having secured their re- 
spe(5live claims, they could not agree upon which should have a certain 
eighty-acre tradt, composed of timber land lying adjacent to each. I 
believe that the successful bidder got it at about ten cents above the min- 
imum price per acre. 

"The most exciting time during this sale, at which there were a great 
number of people present, was on the day and the day before that on 
which the town-site of Saint Paul was offered for sale. The good 
people of this vicinity were very fearful that the sale would be infested 
with a hungry set of speculators, as has too often happened at land 
sales in the west, ready with their gold, to jump at every chance that 
presented itself, and bid over the actual settler. To guard against this 
emergency, it was understood beforehand that the Hon. H. H. Sibley, 
should bid in the town-site of Saint Paul, and the claims of such Cana- 
dians as did not understand English sufficiently to do so for themselves; 
and, to aid and assist him in this mission, a large and well-armed force, 
composed principally of Canadian Frenchmen, were present at the 
sale. Their fears, however, were not realized, and thej were permitted 
to purchase their lands without molestation. 

**In 1849, after mudi delay and difficulty, the land office at the Falls 
of Saint Croix, was removed to Stillwater. A remonstrance against 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 185 

this removal was made by the members of the Wisconsin Legislature ; 
their objections, however, were overcome by the establishment of an 
additional land district in Wisconsin." 

Gen. H. H. Sibley, inhis'^Reminiscencesof the Early Days 
of Minnesota," published by the Historical Society, says of 
this sale: ''I was selec^led by the adtual settlers to bid off 
portions of the land for them, and, when the hour for business 
had arrived, my seat was invariably surrounded by a number 
of men with huge bludgeons. What was meant by the pro- 
ceedings I could, of course, only surmise, but I would not have 
envied the fate of the individual who would have ventured to 
bid against me." 

Saint Paul Proper, being owned by various parties, the 
owners selected H. H. Sibley, Louis Robert and A. L. 
Larpenteur, as trustees, to enter the lands in question, and 
deed the lots, blocks, and fra6lions to the parties who were 
entitled to the same. This was quite a difficult task, and re- 
quired not a little trouble and patience to sift out the real and 
equitable owners in some cases. Finally, every piece was con- . * 
veyed, by the above trustees, to the rightful owner, and their 
decision atquiesced in. Some of the simple Canadians, who 
did not understand English very well, or the forms of convey- 
ancing, suffered their title to remain in General Sibley's 
name, in some cases, two or three years, thinking they were 
secure there, and it required adlual persuasion and trouble on 
the part of Gen. S. to get some of them to receive the deeds 
and conclude the transfer by registry. 

THE WINNEBAGO REMOVAL. 

In 1846, the Winnebagoes, then on a reservation in Iowa, 
ceded their land to the United States, and acpepted, instead, a 
Reservation now in Todd county, Minnesota. But, in 1848, 
when the time came for their removal, they refused to go, and 
their removal was only accomplished by much patience and 
strategy on the part of H. M. Rice, E. A. C. Hatch, David 
Olmsted, S. B. Lowry, John Haney, Jr., N. Myrick, Geo. 
Culver, Richard Chute, Lieut. John H. M^Kenney, now 

^3 



1 86 The History of the City of Saint Pauh [1848 

of Chatfield, and other agents, soldiers and traders. They 
were finally located near Long Prairie Agency, about July i. 
This movement resulted in securing, as citizens here, either 
that year or soon after, most of the above gentlemen. Mr. 
Rice bpught property here, and made valuable improvements ; 
Olmsted and Rhodes established a trading outfit, while E. 
A. C. Hatch, N. Myrick. and George Culver ere long 
made Saint Paul their home. 

H. M. RICE BUYS A PART OF THE TOWN-SITE. 

. On November 14, Mr. Rice purchased, of John R. Irvine, 
the ''east half of the northwest quarter, of sedlion 6, town 
28, range 22 west," for the sum of $250. This soon became 
a part of Rice and Irvine's Addition, which was surveyed the 
same winter, byB. W. Brunson. This was an important ac- 
quisition for the town. J. W. Bond says, in " Minnesota and 
its Resources," that the very name of having H. M. Rice in- 
terested in the town, gave it a new influence in the estimation 
of persons abroad. Ex-Governor Marshall, in his address 
before the Old Settlers of Hennepin county, Februaiy 22, 1871, 
considers that this fa6l had more to do with turning the scale 
in favor of Saint Paul, at a critical jun6ture. than anything else. 

HON. HENRY M. RICE 

was born in Waitsfield, Vermont, November 29, 181 6. He is 
a lineal descendant of the famous Warren Hastings, one of 
the most remarkable men connected with the history of Eng- 
land during his time. His grandfather was engaged in the 
French War of 1755, and was taken prisoner to Canada at one 
time, and ransomed. He attended academy at Burlington, 
and studied law ^bout two years with Hon. Wm. P. Briggs, 
of Richmond, Vermont. In 1835, Mr. Rice emigrated to De- 
troit, Michigan, with Hon. Elon Farnsworth, then a resi- 
dent of that Territory. In 1837, ^^ ^^^^ appointed Assistant 
Engineer under the State of Michigan, to locate the Sault Ste. 
Marie Canal and other works. 

In 1839, ^^** ^icE came to Fort Snelling, Minnesota, where 
he remained in the sutler department until June, 1840, when 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 187 



he was appointed sutler at Fort Atkinson, in what is now 
Iowa. He soon after became connected with P. Chouteau, 
Jr. & Co., and had charge of the trade with the Winnebagoes 
and Chippewas, having a large number of trading posts 
throughout the Chippewa country, from Lake Superior to Red 
Lake, and thence to the British Possessions. No man among 
the early traders was better acquainted with the Lake Superior 
and Northern Minnesota region than Mr. Rice. He has 
traveled over every portion of it, and knew all the old traders, 
whose names have now passed into history. 

In 1846. a delegation of Winnebagoes visited Washington 
to negotiate a treaty with the United States for their Reserva- 
tion in Iowa. One of their principal chiefs being taken sick, 
Mr. Rice was appointed a delegate in his place, and was in- 
strumental in accomplishing a sale of their lands, then needed 
for the growing settlements of whites. On August 2, 1847, ^^ 
Fond du Lac, Lake Superior, Mr. Rice and Hon. Isaac Ver- 
PLANK, as commissioners on the part of the United States, 
purchased from the Chippewas of Lake Superior and the 
Mississippi, the country lying on the Mississippi and Long 
Prairie Rivers, for a new Reservation for the Winnebagoes. 
On the 2 1st of the same month they also purchased from the 
Pillager Indians, at Leech Lake, the country lying between 
the Otter Tail, Long Prairie, Crow Wing and Leaf Rivers, 
for a Menominee Reservation, but it was never used for that 
purpose. Mr. Rice subsequently, in 1851, 1853, 1854, ^^^3^ 
and other dates, was largely instrumental in consummating 
treaties with the Chippewas and Sioux, by which the greater 
portion of our State was ceded to the whites, and thrown open 
to settlement. 

When the Winnebagoes v^re removed, in the summer of 
1848, Mr. Rice aided largely in quelling the threatened out- 
break by them, and, in order to accomplish it without trouble, 
advanced the expense of removal, over $20,000 in gold, on be- 
half of his company. The Indians were finally taken to Long 
Prairie in July. 

In order to attend to the receipt of the goods required in the 
trade, business compelled Mr. Rice to spend a large share of 



i88 The History of the City of Saint Paul. [1848 

his time in Saint Paul. The growing importance of the place, 
then recently *' laid out" as a town, and regularly entered — and 
which was already spoken of as the future Capital of the com- 
ing '- Territory of Minnesota" — ^was one cause of his becoming 
one of the town-site owners, and, not long after the land had 
been entered, he purchased a tradt, which was soon after laid 
out as an addition. It is now in the heart of the city, and 
worth millions. Another cause of Mr. Rice's locating here, 
and making this the depot for his goods, was the fa6l that it 
was the head of navigation. Boats then, as now, could not 
get above Saint Paul in low or moderate water. 

Mr. Rice at once bent his whole energies, and employed 
his capital to the development of the town. He built ware- 
houses, ere(5ted hotels and business blocks in his addition, 
diverted trade and commerce from other points hither, and 
influenced men of capital and energy to invest here largely. 
In a short time the impetus thus given to the place lifted it 
above competition. He also proceeded to Washington, ''on 
his own hook," while the bill organizing Minnesota Territory, 
with Saint Paul as its Capital, was pending, and labored for 
it untiringly. His influence with friends in Congress, and 
other members, aided largely in turning the scale in our favor. 

In the early days of Saint Paul, Mr. Rice was one of its 
most reliable, ready and liberal promoters of every good en- 
terprise. He donated lots to several churches and public insti- 
tutions, besides considerable sums in money. '' Rice Park," 
our beautiful resort on summer evenings, was one of his gifts 
to the public. To one of the institutions of Rice county, 
named in honor of him in 1853, ^^ gave the documentary 
portion of his valuable private library, worth several thousand 
dollars. 

In 1853, Mr. Rice was elected Delegate to Congress, and 
re-ele<5ted in 1855. This was the period of the most rapid de- 
velopment of Minnesota, and it imposed on our Delegate 
extraordinary labor. He procured legislation extending the 
pre-emption system to unsurveyed lands ; also opening certain 
military reservations to adlual settlers. Land oflices were to 
be established, post routes opened, and post-oflices created; 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 189 

immense tra<5ls to be purchased from the Indians, and thrown 
open to settlement ; and appropriations to be secured for im- 
provements. Besides, there were the countless requests from 
private individuals, for favors to be secured at the departments, 
or for special legislation — so that one can form some idea of 
the work Mr. Rice accomplished. Indeed, only those who 
lived in Minnesota during that period, can know what it really 
owes to him for much of its material progress. 

In 1857, ■^''' Rice procured the passage of the a<5t endow- 
ing our land grant roads with the land, which has alone se- 
cured their construction, and resulted in the rapid development 
of the State. Also, establishing here a Surveyor General's 
office, and, more important in some respedts than all, was 
the Enabling Act, authorizing Minnesota to form a State gov- 
ernment. Mr. Rice's term as Delegate closed in 1857, ^"^ ^^ 
was at once elected Senator, for six years, by the first State 
Legislature. During this term, the rebellion broke out, and 
considerable numbers of Minnesota troops were stationed near 
Washington. Mr. Rice's kindness and liberality to our sol- 
diers will long be remembered. His house in Washington 
was always open, as well as his purse, to the sick and destitute 
soldier. During this term, he serv^ed on several very impor- 
tant committees, among others, on finance, on military, on 
post roads, on public lands, and the special committee to re- 
port some mode of averting the threatened rupture between 
the North and South. 

On March 29, 1849, Mr. Rice was married to Miss Matil- 
da Whitall, at Richmond, Virginia. Mr. Rice was, also, 
the founder of Bayfield, Wisconsin, in 1856, and the beauty 
of the place, and the security of its harbor, vindicates the wis- 
dom of his choice of the location of what must be one of the 
most important places on Lake Superior. 

Mr. Rice is truly a pioneer. He resided in Michigan, 
Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, while each passed from a 
Territorial to a State government, and has borne his share of 
the hardships, and dangers, and vicissitudes of frontier life. 
No candid historv of Minnesota can be written which does 
not do full credit to his labors for the welfare of our State, and 



190 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1848 

his name, wherever mentioned by its people, is spoken only 
with the respe<5l and esteem which his public a6ls and private 
virtues deserve. 

Sketches of some of the other settlers of 1848 are here 
^iven, as fully as space will permit. 

DAVID OLMSTED 

was born in Fairfax, Franklin county, Vermont, May 5, 1822. 
At the age of 16 years, he left home to seek his fortune in the 
west. He finally located in the mineral region of Wisconsin, 
where he mined some time. In July, 1840, with his brother, 
Page, he moved over to northern Iowa, then unsettled by 
white men, and made a claim near the Winnebago Reserva- 
tion, at a place now called Monona. Here they lived several 
years. In the fall of 1844, ^^* Olmsted sold his claim and 
embarked in the Indian trade near Fort Atkinson, Iowa, as 
clerk for W. G. and G. W. Ewing, licensed Winnebago 
traders. In the fall of 1845, he was elected from the district 
in which he lived (Clayton county) to the Convention to frame 
a Constitution for Iowa. He was then only 24 years old. In 
the fall of 1847, ■^^*- Olmsted, in company with H. C. 
Rhodes, purchased the interest of the Ewings in the Winne- 
bago trade, and, in the summer of 1848, when the Indians 
were removed to Long Prairie, Minnesota, he accompanied 
them, opening a trading house at that point, and also in Saint 
Paul. On August 7, 1849, Mr. Olmsted was ele(5ted a mem- 
ber of the first Territorial Council of Minnesota, and, on its 
assembling, was chosen President. Mr. O.'s term extended 
also to the second session (1851) in which he took an active 
part. 

In 1853, he abandoned the Indian trade, and removed to 
Saint Paul, where he had lived at intervals for several years, 
and, on June 29, purchased of Col. D. A. Robertson, the 
Minnesota Democrat office. He edited that journal with 
much ability until September, 1854, when he sold it out. In 
the spring of 1854, ^^' Olmsted was elected first Mayor of 
Saint Paul, the city having just been incorporated. In i8j;v 
he removed to the village of Winona. During the summer of 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 191 

that year he was nominated by a portion of his party, for 
Delegate to Congress, but failed to secure an eledtion. Soon 
after his health began to decline, and he spent a winter in 
Cuba in hopes of restoring it, but without avail. He con- 
tinued to grow feebler until his death, February 2, 1861, 
which occurred at his mother's house, in Franklin county, 
Vermont. During his residence in Minnesota he was one of 
the most popular men in public life. The flourishing county 
of Olmsted was named in honor of him. 

WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS, 

or *•' Billy" Phillips, as he was generally called, was one of 
the oddest of the many odd characters who favored Saint Paul 
with their presence in early days. He was a Marylander by 
birth, and came to Saint Paul in 1848, to pra(5lice as an attor- 
ney. His knowledge of law is said not to have been very 
profound, but he practiced diligently at '* the bar," neverthe- 
less. Oratory was the great hobby and weakness of Billy D. 
He imagined he was a second Roscius, and was always ready 
to speak at any time, on any subje6l, or in any place. He 
never used to see several persons together without itching for 
a chanqe to address them on some subject, even from the head 
of a barrel, or a dry goods box. His ledture on Kossuth, in 
1852, a sort of half-drunken rhapsody, will always be remem- 
bered, with amusement, by the old settlers who heard it, or, 
rather, the introduction to it, for he did not reach the body of 
the discourse when the meeting broke up. Goodhue,, out of 
joke, printed about half a column of the balderdash, and then 
added — " The balance of the lecture is all as good as the 
above !" 

In 1849, Hon. H. M. Rice gave^ (without consideration.) 
to Billy D., several lots, one on upper Third street, about a 
square below the American House. Mr. Rice told him to 
make out the deed, and he would sign it, which was done. 
But be it recorded, as an instance of mean ingratitude, that 
Billy, subsequently, brought a claim against Mr. Rice, of 
$5, for making out the deed^ and Mr. R. paid it ! One lot 
Billy sold, in 1852, for $600. 



192 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1848 

That year, Billy D., who had set high hopes, for a long 
time, on the nomination of Cass for the Presidency, and fre- 
quently declared that Cass, (who, he claimed, was an inti- 
mate friend of his,) would make him Governor, at least — find- 
ing his fond hopes dashed to the dust, by Pierce's nomination, 
left the scene of his ambition and glory, and went to Wash- 
ington. In 1856, he was appointed to a clerkship in the 
General Land Office. A year or two later, he was prosecuted 
for forging the franks of Senator Douglas, and selling them 
to a patent medicine vender, to mail circulars in. He w^as 
acquitted on this charge, and then disappeared from public 
sight. One old settler saw him, about 1858, looking very 
much decayed, but, since that date, no tidings have been re- 
ceived from him, and he has, probably, gone to his reward. 

HENRY C. RHODES 

came from Logansport, Indiana. His nativity and age I have 
not been able to get satisfadtorily, but Mr. R. Chute, of Min- 
neapolis, thinks he was born about the year 1820. He was 
in business at Logansport for W. G. & G. W. Ewing, and 
probably represented that firm at Fort Atkinson, Iowa, in the 
Winnebago ti*ade. After the removal of the Winnebagoes, 
he went to Long Prairie, and soon after, in conne<5lion with 
David Olmsted, established an agency here. He purchased 
some property about where Auerbach, Finch & Scheffer's 
store now is, and had a store and dwelling house there. In 
1849, ^^ ^^^ Olmsted dissolved partnership, and Mr. Rhodes 
returned to Logansport, with his wife arid child. He soon 
after went to California, where he died, about three years ago. 
His family remained in Indiana. " 

EDWIN A. C. HATCH 

was born in New York, March 23, 1825. He emigrated to 
Wisconsin in 1840, and was engaged in the Sioux trade. He 
first came to what is now Minnesota, in 1843. He was, also, 
engaged in the Winnebago trade, at Fort Atkinson, Iowa, and 
after the removal, settled in Saint Paul. Mr. Hatch has been 
largely engaged in the Indian trade and other enterprises 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 193 

growing out of it, since his residence here, and perhaps no 
man in Minnesota is more accurately informed concerning the 
various Indian nations in the Northwest than he. In 1856, 
President Pierce asked H. M. Rice to name some one whom 
he could appoint Agent of the Blackfeet Indians — adding that, 
w^hoever accepted the post did so at the risk of his life. Mr. 
Rice suggested Mr. Hatch, and he was appointed. In car- 
rying out his duties, Mr. H.'s life was in danger innumerable 
times, but he is a stranger to fear, and always escaped harm 
by his coolness and daring. Once, in Wisconsin, he refused 
to let some insolent Sioux have goods they demanded, and 
they threatened to help themselves. Mr. Hatch opened a 
keg of powder, lit his pipe, and told them to go on with their 
threatened raid. The Sioux slid out as fast as possible. In 
June, 1863, Mr. Hatch was commissioned a Major in the 
volunteer service, with instru<5lions to recruit an Independent 
Cavalry Battalion of six companies, for frontier 'service and 
defense. Maj. Hatch soon had his battalion in the field, and 
commanded it a year, when he resigned. While stationed at 
Pembina, he was enabled, by strategy, to secure the capture 
of Shakopee and Medicine Bottle, who were hung at Fort 
Snelling in 1865. 

bushrod w. lott 

was bom at Pemberton, New Jersey, May i, 1826. His 
father removed to Saint Louis in 1837, and at the Saint Louis 
University, a Catholic college, Mr. Lott received his edu- 
cation. After leaving college, he went to Quincy, Illinois, 
where he studied law, and was admitted to pra<5lice in 1847. 
In 1848, he accompanied Gen. Samuel Leech, who had just 
been appointed Receiver of the land office at Saint Croix Falls, 
to that place, and a6ted as clerk of the first land sales in this 
region. 

In the fall of that year, he settled in Saint Paul, and com- 
menced the pradtice of law, and land agency, which he con- 
tinued some years. Mr. Lott has been elected by his party, 
the Democratic, to several official positions. He was Chief 
Clerk of the. House of Representatives in 1851, and a member 



194 '^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1848 

in 1853 and 1856. In the former session he was a candidate 
for Speaker, and was beaten by Dr. David Day, the Whig 
candidate, after 22 days' balloting, by one vote. 

He was president of the town council for two years, and 
city clerk (1866-7) for a year and a half. 

In 1862, he was appointed by President Lincoln, United 
States Consul to Tehuan tepee, Mexico, and held that office 
until 1865. ^^* LoTT was a charter member of Saint Paul 
Lodge, I. O. O. F., and one of the earliest members of the 
Christ church (Episcopal.) 

WILLIAM H. NOBLES 

was born in New York, in i8i6, and was a machinist by trade. 
He came to Saint Croix Falls, in 1841, and assisted in putting 
up the first mill there. He subsequently removed to Willow 
River, since called Hudson, where he built the first frame 
house in tlfe place. He also lived at Stillwater several years, 
(1843-48,) and came to Saint Paul in 1848. He opened the 
first wagonmaker*s shop in this city, and made the first wagon 
ever made in Minnesota. A part of the shops used by Col. 
Nobles is still standing, now used by the firm of Quinby & 
Hallowell. In 1856, he was eled:ed a representative in the 
Legislature from Ramsey county. In 1857, Col. Nqbles, un- 
der appointment from the Government, laid out a wagon road 
to the Pacific, through the southwestern part of Minnesota, 
and, in recognition of this service. Nobles county was named 
for him. He discovered one of the best passes through the 
Rocky Mountains, now known as '"Nobles' Pass." In 1862, 
he was elected by the ''Seventy-Ninth New York Volunteers," 
known as the "Highlanders," as Lieut. Colonel, and served 
with them in South Carolina, afterwards resigning his com- 
mission, on account of disagreement with the other oflficers of 
the regiment. He was then cotton colle6tor for the Govern- 
ment some time. United States revenue officer, master of 
transportation of troops at Mobile, and held other positions. 
After the war, his health became seriously impaired, which 
induced him to remove to the Waukesha Springs, in Wisconsin, 
and, subsequently, to the Hot Springs, Colorado, where he 



1848] and of the County of Ramsev^ Minnesota. 195 

now is, in very feeble health. Col. Nobles has a remarkable 
inventive genius, and has patented several valuable inventions. 

hilt, as usual in such cases, others have borne off all the profits. 

NATHAN MVRICK 

was born in Westford, Essex county, New York, July 7, iSaa. 
At the age of 18, he came to LaCrosse. Wisconsin, and was 



the founder of that town, in which he stills owns an interest, 
and which he laid out in 1842. From 1841 to 1848, Mr. 
MvRicK was engaged in lumbering on Black River. During 
the latter year he settled in Saint Paul, and has been a resident 
of this place ever since, except once or twice, when business 
compelled his removal for a short time. He is in the Indian 
supplybusiness, an occupation which has made him thoroughly 
acquainted with the frontier. 



196 The History of the City of Saint Paul., [1848 

ABRAM H. CAVENDER 

was born in Hancock, Hillsborough county, New Hampshire, 
1 815. He attended school for two years, and then went into 
a machine shop and cotton factory, where he had charge of a 
weaving loom for eleven years — most of the time in Nashua, 
New Hampshire. Married, in 1840, a daughter of Daniel 
Hopkins, mentioned in the preceding chapter, and, in 1843, 
removed to Ohio, where he lived five years. In May, 1848, 
he settled in Saint Paul. In December, 1849, he commenced 
blacksmithing and wagonmaking on Robert street, the busi- 
ness having expanded into the large carriage establishment of 

QUINBY & HaLLOWEIX. 

BENJ. F. HOYT 

was born at Norwalk, Conne<5licut, June 8, 1800. When a 
young man, he settled in western ^ew York, and after a few 
years removed to Ohio, where he secured a tra6l of land 
deeded by the Government to some of his ancestors for services 
in the revolution. Here he married, and resided until 1834, 
when he removed to Illinois, in which State he resided until 
he came to Saint Paul, in the summer of 1848. He purchased 
for $300 that property now bounded by Jackson and Broadway, 
and Eighth street and the bluft^. This was laid out as an ad- 
dition the next spring. Mr. Hoyt dealt largely in real estate 
during his residence here, and has at various times owned 
property now worth millions. Mr. Hoyt was an ardent 
Methodist. When he came here, finding no society, he ac- 
cepted the appointment of local preacher, and exercised its 
duties for sometime very acceptably. He always objedted to 
the use of the word, "Rev." to his name, saying he was not 
regularly in the ministry. As a lay-member he was a valuable 
worker for his church, giving liberally and taking an adtive 
part in every movement. To his exertions is mainly due the 
first church built by his se6l on Market street, while Oakland 
cemetery was proje6led by him and secured mainly by his 
eflbrt. Hamline University also owes much to his active work 
and his always open purse. To the poor he was unceasingly 
generous — not only giving freely, but taking an active interest 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 197 

in enabling them to help themselves. In his later years, he 
spent considerable of his time in this way. So much was he 
respeded and loved, he was generally known as *' Father 
HoYT." In person he was tall and dignified, with a mien of 
kindness and benevolence, yet always unobtrusive and retiring. 
The sincerity of his religious professions was best shown by 
his exemplary walk. Mr. Hoyt died on September 3, 1875, 
w^ithout much illness, but from the final decay of strength, at 
the ripe age of 75. 

WILLIAM FREEBORN 

was a native of Ohio — born 1816. He arrived in Saint Paul 
May 25, 1848. He owned, at one time, considerable property 
in the city and county, and was quite a prominent citizen, be- 
ing a member of our town council one term. In 1853, ^^ 
removed to Red Wing, and was one of the first settlers there. 
He was elected, from that district, (then called Wabasha 
county,) a member of the Council of 1854-55, ^^5^57* ^^ 
1855, ^^ Legislature named a county for him. During the gold 
excitement of 1862, Mr. Freeborn emigrated to the Rocky 
Mountains, and now resides in San Luis Obispo, California. 

DAVID LAMBERT 

was a native, if I mistake not, of Conne(^ticut, at least, he 
graduated at Trinity College, Hartford. He studied law, and 
soon after emigrated to the west, settling first in Little Rock, 
x\rkansas, and then in Wisconsin. In 1843, ^^ became editor 
and publisher of the Madison Enqiiirer^ and showed marked 
ability as a journalist. He subsequently sold out the paper to 
his brother, Henry A. Lambert, and, in 1848, settled in Saint 
Paul. He took a prominent part in the Stillwater Convention, 
this year, and was regarded as a young man of brilliant ability 
and promise. Some domestic unpleasantness, at times, ren- 
dered him misanthropic and reckless, and, to forget care, he 
resorted to the bowl. On November 2d, 1849, while returning 
from Galena, on a steamboat, he leaped from the roof of the 
steamer, during a paroxysm of nervous excitement, and was 
drowned. He was only about thirty years of age. 



198 



The History of the City of Saint Paul. [1S4S 



OTHER SETTLERS. 

W. C. Morrison was born in Whitehall, New York, Janua- 
ry 20, 1815. He resided, while young, at Cleveland^ Detroit, 
Chicago, Galena, Dubuque, and other 'places, and, in 1848, 
came to Saint Paul. He says there were then only 15 fami- 
lies here. Mr. Morrison has been adtively engaged in trade 
since his arrival, and is widely known in business circles. 

Lot Moffet, a gentleman well-known in Saint Paul in 
earlv davs, was a native of Monteromerv countv. New York, 
where he was born in 1803. He was, for some years, pro- 
prietor of the "* Temperance House," on Jackson street, some- 
times called by old settlers, '^Moffefs Castle." on account of 
its unfinished condition for some time. Mr. Moffet was a 
scrupulously honest man. and very benevolent. Many will 
recolledl his venerable appearance, as he usually w^ore a patri- 
archal beard. He died December 2^. 1870. 

Wm. B. Brown came from the '' lead region," in Wiscon- 
sin. He purchased, at an early day, the corner on which the 
Warner Block now stands. He died some years ago. 



PRE-TERRirORlAL SETTLERS. 

The following is believed to be a complete and accurate list 
of all the pre-territorial settlers and residents in Saint Paul, 
with the years hi which they came : 

1838. 

Johnson. 



Pierre Parrant. 
Abraham Perry. 
Edward Phelan. 
William Evans. 



John Hays. 
James R. Clewett. 
Vetal Guerin. 



Joseph Rondo. 
Rev. Lrucian Galtier. 

Pierre Bottineau. 



1839. 



1840. 



1 841. 



Benjamin Gervais. 
Pierre Gervais. 



Denis Cherrier. 
Charles Mousseau. 
Wm. Beaumette. 

Rev. A. Ravoux. 



Severe Bottineau. 



V 



1S48] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 199 



1842. 



Henr J Jackson. 
Richard W. Mortimer. 
Pelon. 



1843- 



John R. Irvine. 
Ansel B. Coy. 
James W. Simpson. 
William Hartshorn. 
A. L. Larpenteur. 
Alex. R. McLeod. 
Christopher C. Blanchard. 
Scott Campbell. 
Alexis Cloutier. 
Francis Moret. 



1844. 



Louis Robert. 
Charles Bazille. 
William Dugas. 



Leonard H. LaRoche. 
Francis Chenevert. 
David Benoit. 
Francis Robert. 
Wm. H. Morse, 
Antoine Findlay. 

James M. Boal. 
Wm. H. Randall. 
William Randall, Jr. 
Ed. West. 
David Faribault. 
Charles Rouleau. 



Wm. Henry Forbes. 
J. W. Bass. 
Benj. W. Brunson. 
Daniel Hopkins, Sr. 
Miss Harriet E. Bishop. 
Aaron Foster. 



1845- 



1846. 



1847. 



Joseph Labisinier. 
Francis Desire. 
Stanislaus Bilanski. 



Antoine Pepin. 

Alex. Mege. 

David Thomas Sloan. 

Jo. Desmarais. 

S. Cowden, Jr. [or Carden.] 

Charles Reed. 

Louis Larrivier. 

Xavier Delonais. 

Joseph Gobin. 



Thomas McCoy. 
Joseph Hall. 



Charles Cavileer. 
Wm. G. Carter. 
Augustus Freeman. 
David B. Freeman. 
Jesse H. Pomeroy. 
Gerou. 



Thomas S. Odell. 
Harley D. White. 
Joel D. Cruttenden. 
Louis Denoyer. 
Joseph Monteur. 



John Banfil. 
Fred. Olivier. 
Wm. C. Renfro. 
Parsons K. Johnson. 
C. P. V. Lull. 
G. A. Fournier. 



200 The History of the City of Saint Paul., [1S48 

1848. 

Henry M. Rice. Wm. B. Brown. 

A. H. Cavender. Hugh McCann. 

Benj. F. Hoyt. B. W. Lott. 

Wm. H. Nobles. H. C. Rhodes. 

David Lambert. David Olmsted. 

Wm. D. Phillips. Hugh Glenn. 

W. C. Morrison. Nels. Robert. 

Nathan Myrick. Andre Godfrey. 

E. A. C. Hatch. Dav. Hebert. 

Richard Freeborn. Oliver Rosseau. 

William Freeborn. Wm. H. Kelton. 

Alden Bryant. Andy L. Shearer. 

Lot Moffett. E. B. Weld. 

A. R. French. Albert Titlow. 

Date unknown. Archambault and Marcil Coutourier. 

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE PRE-TERRITORIAL PERIOD. 

The labor of colle<5ting the names of the above settlers, and 
of determihing, with any. exa<5lness, the year of their settle- 
ment, and of securing the occurrences, events and incidents of 
the period from 1838 to 1849, was a task that almost discour- 
aged me from pursuing the work, more than once. The time 
occupied — the physical labor of running back and forth, and 
the nei*ve-wear — spent on this little list, no one can get much 
idea of, except, perhaps, a few of the old pioneers, to whom I 
made repeated visits, with a catechism of what may have 
seemed to them very trifling questions. Yet it was only by 
these little incidents, ascertained by such questioning, much 
like a dete<5tive would work up a trace, that I was enabled to 
compile the list above, and fix the right names to the right 
years. So that, on the period from 1838 to 1849, I expended 
more time, labor and patience, than on all the rest of the 37 
years of our history. It should be remembered, that tliis was 
before there were any newspapers, any census lists, any pub- 
lic records, or any written records of any kind. So that I 
had to. depend alone on the memory of residents of that period, 
some of whom could not tell the year in which they them- 
selves came ! 

It was deemed more important to chronicle this period care- 



1848] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 201 

fully, because it is the portion of our histoiy most needing 
preservation. In ten years more, it would have been impos- 
sible to colle6t the fa6ls given above. The memories of those 
not dead woidd have then become so weak from age as to be 
totally unavailable. 

It may be objected by some that too much space has been 
used in colledting these *' simple annals of the poor." and re- 
cording the career of men known as obscure and humble. 
But the descendants of these '^rude forefathers of the hamlet," 
whom better opportunities may raise above the lives of toil 
they spent, will in future years read these pages, and feel with 
some pride that history, like the photographic camera, depidts 
even the minutest details, which, while they may be scarcely 
noticed in the general eftec^t. have their value in making up 
the perfect picture. 

The period from 1840 to 1849, ^^^7 ^^ called the arcadian 
days of Minnesota. The primitive,, easy-going simplicity of 
the people, isolated as they were, from the fashions, vicfes, 
and artificial life of the bustling world, was in strange contrast 
with the jostling throng of immigration that poured in a few 
months later, changing their steady -going habits and plain 
manners into a maddening, avaricious race for gold. Up to 
this time they were contented and unambitious, and pursued 
the ^'even tenor of their way" along the "'cool, sequestered 
vale of life," unagitated by the exciting events that stirred other 
communities. Their worldly means was small and their in- 
come limited, it is true, but their wants were few and simple. 
They were honest, forbearing,, generous and charitable. Crime 
was unknown. "'Why," said an old settler, speaking of those 
happy days, ''board of the best kigd was only $3 per week." 
But the influx of immigrants, many of them greedy for spec- 
ulation, selfish and unscrupulous in many cases, soon changed 
the chara6ter of the times. Their quiet, dreamy, slow, and 
sober-going primitive simplicity was gone. Even the price of 
the necessaries of life was inflated. "You new comers," said 
one of the pioneers, more in sorrow than anger, "have raised 
the prices of things so that what we used to get for ten cents 

now costs a quarter." 
14 



202 The History of the City of Saint Pauh [ 1 84S 

THE MEN OF 1 848. 

In the Pioneer of June 14, 1849, Goodhue thus does honor 
to the pre-territorial settlers : 

** It is proper for those who are flocking into our Territory, to know 
who those men are who were here, struggling with privations before 
Minnesota had a name in the world. They are the men who, by their 
voluntary exertion, sustained our Delegate on his mission to Washing- 
ton, for the accomplishment of what, few believed, could then be ac- 
complished — the recognition of our rights as a Territory distin<5t from 
Wisconsin. Every Territory, in its earlier days, has its times that trj- 
men's souls. The inception of a State, whether settled by the peace- 
ful pioneer, or baptized by the blood of a border warfare, has its trials 
and troubles. How darkly hung the cloud of doubt over this region of 
the Northwest; one year ago. How like the glorious sunlight, did the 
first intelligence from our Delegate to Washington last spring, burst 
through that cloud of doubt. There were men here, who, from the 
beginning, saw the end. We respedt, we reverence those men. Let 
the men and the women of those days be remembered." 

THE YEAR 1 848 CLOSED 

with anxiety to the settlers in the little village.* Delegate 
Sibley had gone on to Washington to fight a hard battle there 
against heavy odds. Everybody was nervous with expecta- 
tion — and with the next chapter the cin'tain rises on a new and 
exciting adt in the drama. 

*It was but a villag-e, after all. One cold day, about the beg-inning- of winter. Miss 
Bishop records in her diary, J. R. Clbwett came into Mr. Irvine's house and 
said — "My! how this town is growing. I counted the smoke of iS chimneys this 
morning!" 



184.9] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 203 



CHAPTER XVT. 

* 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1849. 

Creation of Minnesota Territory — Saint Paul made the Capital — How the 
News was Received — Establishment of the " Pioneer" — Description of 
Saint Paul in 1849 — Rapid Growth — Events of the Day — Memoirs of 
Governor Ramsey, Judge Goodrich, &c. 

WE now enter on a period of our history crowded with 
the most important events. In fadl, this chapter opens 
upon a new era in the career of our city and State. Minne- 
sota was on the eve of her political birth. And Saint Paul — 
•^ the little hamlet of bark-roofed cabins" — was just trembling 
with eagerness to make a long spring forward. 



A " WINTER OF DISCONTENT" 

was that of 1848-9. It commenced with unusual severity — un- 
usually early. Snow fell on November i. To the inhabitants 
of the little burg, 200 miles from the nearest settlement and 
mail supply, (Prairie du Chien,). hemmed in by snow and ice, 
and cut oft', almost, from communication with the world, it 
must have passed wearily enough. The mails, carried over 
the vast reaches of snow on a dog-sledge, or a train du glace^ 
came " only once in a coon's age," as an old settler expresses 
it, and a hat-fiill merely then, but its arrival was an event for 
the village, and eager was the rush for letters and papers to 
Jackson's. It was not until January that news of Gen. Tay- 
lor's election was received, and also advices from Delegate 
Sibley, who is working hard at Washington to organize a 
Territory, but not much encouraged at the prospects of success. 

HOW SAINT PAUL BECAME THE CAPITAL. 

Indeed, our good city came within an ace of not being the 
Capital of Minnesota at all. When Gen. Sibley arrived in 



204 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1849 

Washington, his credentials were presented at the opening of 
the session, by Hon. James Wilson, of New Hampshire, and 
referred to the Committee on ElecSlions. This committee held 
several meetings on the matter, and were addressed by Gen. 
Sibley, in favor of his recognition, and by Hon. Mr. Boyden. 
of North Carolina, and others, adverselv. The committee did 
not report, finally, until January 15, 1849, when a majority, 
(5,) reported in favor of Gen. Sibley's admission, and a mi- 
nority, (4,) against it. The majority' report was adopted, 
however, and he was admitted. 

His first work was to secure the organization of Minnesota 
Territory, as determined on by the Stillwater Convention. 
Upon consultation, it was deemed best that the bill should be 
introduced from the Committee on Territories in the Senate. 
It was prepared by Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, chairman, 
by whom the draft was sent to Gen. Sibley, for his perusal. 
He noticed that Mendota had been designated as the Capital, 
whereas, it had been the wish of the people generally, es- 
pecially of those participating in the Convention, to have Saint 
Paul fixed as the seat of government. 

Gen. Sibley, without delay, called on Senator Douglas. 
and urged him to make that change. A meeting of the com- 
mittee was at once called, and the matter taken up. Gen. 
Sibley argued that most of. the inhabitants of the proposed 
Territory resided east of the Mississippi, and there was an 
unanimous wish to have the Capital on that side. Saint Paul 
was one of the most prominent places in the region, well lo- 
cated for the seat of government, and was a regularly platted 
town, and the land had. been entered, so that good titles to 
property could be had, &c. Senator Douglas opposed the 
change. He said he had been at Mendota, not long before, 
and was so much pleased with the geographical position of 
Mendota, at the confluence of two important rivers, he had 
then fixed on it as a good site for the future Capital of this re- 
gion. Moreover, the bulk of area, and, ere long, of popula- 
tion, would be west of the Mississippi, and the Capital should 
be on the west bank. He thought the top of Pilot Knob, at 
Mendota, would be a grand place for the State House, as it 



1849] ^^^ ^ ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 205 

afforded such a beautiful and extensive view of the valleys of 
the two rivers.* 

Gen. Sibley persisted in the change, and Senator Douglas, 
after some solicitation, conceded it, and Saint Paul was fixed 
on as the seat of the Capital, instead of Mendota, after the 
two places had hung wavering in the balance for some days. 
Then some member obje(5ted to the name, and said there were 
•' too many Saints" in this locality — and this stupid objedlor 
had to be argued with, &c. 

The bill, so amended, was introduced in the Senate, but its 
passage met with considerable opposition, as it did also, in 
the House. Gen. Sibley worked night and day for it, and 
made personal appeals to all the members he could influ- 
ence. Hon. H. M. Rice arrived in Washington, about this 
time, on private business, and threw his earnest efforts and 
personal influence in the scale also, being personally acquainted 
with a number of members. The issue was doubtful for some 
days, but our tutelar saint kindly turned the current in our 
favor, and the bill finally passed, being approved March 3, 1849. 

RECEPTION OF THE NEWS AT SAINT PAUL. 

In the slow movements of mails ni those days, especially 
during the season known as the breaking up of winter, it took 
^\Q weeks for the news to reach Saint Paul. The snow had 
commenced to melt about March i, and the dog mail-sledge 
was suspended. The only way was to wait for a boat, and 
the news from Lake Pepin was, that the ice was firm and hard. 
Our last mail had arrived about the first of March, with news 

♦In connection with this statement of Gen. Sibley's successful efforts to locate the 
Capital at Saint Paul, it might be mentioned, that, in 1S53, while Gen. S. was running 
as a candidate for re<eledtion as Delegate, the charge was made against him, by some 
partisan journals, of hostility to the interests of Saint Paul, as he was at that time liv- 
ing at Mendota, and some of his property was there. The paragraphs came under 
the eye of Senator Douglas, and, without solicitation or suggestion, he wrote a state- 
ment of the course of Gen. S. in regard to the location of the Capital, and stated that it 
was unjust that he should be accused of unfriendliness to Saint Paul interests, since he 
had secured the location of the Capital here, in obedience to the wishes of his constitu- 
ents, when, to have allowed it to be located at Mendota, would have been of great pe- 
cuniary advantage to him. It might be remarked, too, tliat, when Senator Douglas 
was here, in 1857, he freely admitted that Gen. S. was right in his convi<5lion that Saint 
Paul was a much better point for the Capital than Mendota. 



206 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^49 

two months old. It was now the second week in April, and 
expectation and anxiety was strained to the utmost tension. 
A communication in the first number of the Pioneer signed 
D. L., (David Lambert,) graphically describes the reception 
of the news of the organization of the Territory, under the 
caption, '' The Breaking up of a Hard Winter." 

"The last has been the severest winter known in the Northwest for 
many years. During five months the communication between this 
part of the country and our brethren in the United States has been 
difficult and unfrequent. A mail now and then from Prairie du Chien, 
brought up on the ice in a ' train ' drawn sometimes by horses and 
sometimes by dogs, contained news so old that the country below had 
forgotten all about it. When the milder weather commenced, and the 
ice became unsafe, we were completely shut out from all communica- 
tion for several weeks. Sometime in January, we learned that Gen. 
Zachary Taylor was elected President of the United States. We had 
to wait for the arrival of the first boat to learn whether our Territory 
was organized, and who were its Federal officers. How anxiously was 
that boat expected ! The ice still held its iron grasp on Lake Pepin. 
For a week the arrival of a boat had been looked for every hour. Ex- 
pe(5tation was on tiptoe. 

" Monday, the ninth of April, had been a pleasant day. Toward 
evening the clouds gathered, and about dark commenced a violent storm 
of wind, rain, and loud peals of thunder. The darkness was only dis- 
sipated by vivid flashes of lightning. On a sudden, in a momentary 
lull of the wind, the silence was broken by the groan of an engine. In 
another moment, the shrill whistle of a steamboat thrilled through the 
air. Another moment, and a bright flash of lightning revealed the 
welcome shape of a steamboat just rounding the bluff", less than a mile 
below Saint Paul. In an instant the welcome news flashed like elec- 
tricity throughout the town, and, regardless of the pelting rain, the 
raging wind, and the pealing thunder, almost the entire male popula- 
tion rushed to the landing — as the fine steamboat, ' Dr. Franklin, No. 2,* 
dashed gallantly up to the landing. Before she was made fast to the 
moorings, she was boarded by the excited throng. The good captain 
and clerk [Capt. Blakeley] were the great men of the hour. Gen. 
Taylor cannot be assailed with greater importunity for the * loaves 
and fishes' than they were for news and newspapers. At length the 
news was known, and one glad shout resounding through the boat, 
taken up on shore, and echoed from our beetling bluffs and rolling hills, 
proclaimed that /^« hill for the organization of Minnesota Territory 
had become a law !" 



1849D ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 207 

The long agony was over. Minnesota was a Territory, and 
Saint Paul was its Capital. Henceforth, we had a future ! 
But let us look at the 

CONDITION OF THE TERRITORY ^ 

at that time. It was but little more than a wilderness. Its 
entire white population could not have been more than i ,000 
persons. When the census was taken, four months later, after 
many hundred immigrants had arrived, there were only 4,680 
enrolled — and 317 of these were connecSled with the army, 
and of the 637 at Pembina, but few were white. 

The portion of the Territory wxst of the Mississippi was 
still unceded by the Indians. From the southern line of the 
State to Saint Paul, there were not more than two or three 
white men's habitations along the river, now gemmed with 
flourishing and handsome cities, and the steamers ascending 
the river had no regular landing places, except to "wood 
up." Indeed, such a terra incognita as existed at that time, 
over the now well settled State of Minnesota, seems more the 
condition of a century ago than of twenty-six years. 

But, with this feeble array, the people were big with expeda- 
tion. The ''elements of empire here, were plastic yet and 
warm," and needed only the right men to mould them into a 
prosf>erous State. Fortunately, we had the men. Minnesota 
may well be proud of her pioneers. The people of to-day 
and coming years owe them gratitude and honor, and, in view 
of the success and prosperity of our State, it may well be said, 
vthey builded better than they knew." California was just 
then offering its stores of gold to any one lucky enough to 
reach there, and it seemed as if all the country was on the 
move to the El Dorado. Minnesota, almost unknown, lying 
in a latitude deemed to be semi-ar(5lic in its character, and in- 
habited by savages, could scarcely exped to draw immigration. 
Especially Saint Paul — what would be its condition under the 
new order of events ? And, presuming that people came here, 
what resources were there to furnish them business and em- 
ployment.^ The Indian trade, supplying the frontier forts, the 
lumber business and its supplies, a little fur trade, etc., was 



2o8 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^49 

about all. On this, the 150 or 200 people in Saint Paul were 
supported. If more came, what would these last do? For it 
was still but a village. Goodhue stated that when he came, 
in April, there wer-e only thirty buildings in Saint Paul* 

But the problem was soon solved. Come they did. It was 
not — as Whittier wrote — 

" The first low wash of waves, where soon 
Should roll a human sea." 

It was the sea itself. Boat after boat landed at the levee, brinj^- 
ing crowds of new comers, until it became a serious question 
where they should lodge, and on what should they subsist. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEWSPAPER. 

But what would an ambitious western town be without a 
newspaper, to herald its importance to the world .^ And es- 
pecially the Capital of a Territory. Who would know it 
existed? Who would wish to live in such a desolate place — 
one too poor to boast of a paper? But Saint Paul was too 
promising a field for the journalist, to long suffer from the 
need, and it was right soon supplied. 

The first steps to commence the publication of a newspaper in 
Minnesota, were taken in August, 1848, by Dr. A. Randall, 
then an attache of Dr. Owen's Geological Corps, engaged in 
a survey of this region by order of Government. The projec^t 
grew out of the celebrated ''Stillwater Convention" of that 
year. It was this political event which first suggested to the 
mind of Dr. Randall that, if there was to be a Territorial 
organization here, whether it be a new Territory, or the right- 
ful inheritor of the abandoned Territorial government of that 
State — it would be necessary to have a newspaper. Having 
the capacity and means necessary to undertake the enterprise, 
he set about it, and was promised ample aid by leading men 
of the Territorv. 

Randall soon after proceeded to Cincinnati, which was at 
that time his home, to purchase his press and material, design- 
ing to return that fall. Winter set in unusually early that year, 
however, and he found navigation would be closed before he 



1849] ^^^ of the County of Ramsey -> Minnesota, 309 

could do so. Meantime he concluded to await the issue of the 
bill to organize the Territory, which had been introduced into 
Congress, but did not finally pass until the last day of the 
session. By this time, Randall, annoyed at the delays, con- 
cluded to set up his press in Cincinnati, and get out a number 
or two of his paper there. While in Cincinnati, he formed 
the acquaintance of John P. Owens,* a young man engaged in 
the printing business, who had already imbibed the Minnesota 
fever by reading the debates in Congress on the Organic A(5t, 
and a partnership between them was the result. They at once 
set to work to get out a number of their paper, which was to 
be called the yiinnesota Register, It was dated "Saint 
Paul, April 27, 1849," but was really printed about two weeks 
earlier than that date, so as to reach Saint Paul by the day 
named for publication. Messrs. H. H. Sibley and H. M. 
Rice had passed through Cincinnati, on their way home from 
Washington, and contributed valuable articles on Minnesota to 
the Register. These, added to Mr. Randall's extensive 
knowledge of the country, gave the paper a very interesting 
local character. It was the first Minnesota newspaper ever 
printed, and dates just one day in advance of the Pioneer ^ 
although the latter must be recorded as the first paper prJnted 
in Minnesota. 

Mr. Randall, being a man of unsettled purpose and roving 
disposition, caught the California fever just at this juncSlure, 
and sold out his interest in the newspaper to Major Nathaniel 
McLean, of Lebanon, Ohio, who had determined to emigrate 

John Phillips Owens was born near Da3rton, Ohio, January 6, 1818. His father, who 
was a native of Wales, died when the subje<it of this sketch was seven years old, and 
during his younger years he worked on a farm, with occasional schooling, until the age 
of 15. He then attended Woodward College, at Cincinnati, some two years, when he 
concluded to learn the printing business, which he did. His embarking in journalism 
and removal to Saint Paul is given elsewhere. Mr. Owkns continued in the newspaper 
business in Saint Paul for some 13 or 13 years, being seven years editor of the Minne- 
sotian, a leading journal of the Territory. As a political writer he always wielded a 
large influence. In 1863, he was commissioned Quartermaster of the Ninth Minnesota, 
and served faithfully with that Regiment until discharged, in 1865, having been brevet- 
ted Colonel in the meantime. In 1869, Col. Owens was appointed Register of the 
land office at Taylor's Falls, which position he still holds. He is about to publish a 
*' Political History of Minnesota," a work for which he has peculiar fitness, and which 
will comprise his interesting reminiscences of men and events in the early days of 
Minnesota. 



2IO The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S49 

hither, and resume the business of printing, to which he had 
been bred, but had not followed for some years prior. The 
publishers and editors, under this arrangement, became ^'Mc- 
Lean & Owens." But of this anon. 

GOODHUE FOUNDS THE PIONEER. 

Among the many men of energy and enterprise, all over the 
Union, whose attention had been directed to Minnesota by the 
debates in Congress and the passage of the ad:, was James M. 
Goodhue, of Lancaster, Wisconsin, who had been bred a 
lawyer, but was, at that time, engaged in a more congenial 
pursuit as editor of the Wisconsin Herald, When the news 
of the organization of the Territory was received, he at once 
resolved to remove here and establish a paper. He imme- 
diately purchased a press and type, and, as soon as navigation 
opened, shipped them to Saint Paul, meantime issuing a 
prospectus for a journal, which he proposed to call The 
Epistle of Saint Paul,, but which name he changed, (at the 
advice of some friends who objected to its irreligious tone,) be- 
fore the first issue of his paper, to The Minnesota Pioneer, 

Of his arrival in Saint Paul, and the issue of his first paper, 
Mr. Goodhue, in a subsequent article, gives the following inter- 
esting account : 

"The i8th day of April, 1849, ^^^ ^ *'^^» cloudy day. The steam- 
boat ' Senator,' Capt. Smith, landed at Randall's warehouse, lower 
landing, the only building then there, except Robert's old store. Of 
the people on shore, we recognized but one person as an acquaintance, 
Henry Jackson. Took our press, types, printing apparatus all ashore. 
Went, with our men, to the house of Mr. Bass, corner of Third and 
Jackson streets. ♦ ♦ ♦ C. P. V. Lull, and his partner, Gilbert, 
furnished us gratuitously, the lower story of their building, for an office — 
the only vacant room in town. * ♦ ♦ Xhe weather was cold and 
stormy; and our office was as open as a corn-rick ; however, we picked 
our types up, and made ready for the issue of the first paper ever printed 
in Minnesota, or within many hundreds of miles of it; but, upon search, 
we found our news chase was left behind. Wm. Nobles, blacksmith, 
made us a very good one, after a delay of two or three days. ♦ ♦ We 
determined to call our paper the Minnesota Pioneer. One hindrance 
after another delayed our first issue to the 28th of April. ♦ ♦ We 
were at length prepared for our first number. We had no subscribers; 



1849] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 211 

/ 
for then there were but a handful of people in the whole Territory ; and 
the majority of those were Canadians and half-breeds. Not a Territo- 
rial officer had yet arrived. ♦ * The people wanted no politics, and 
we gave them none ; they wanted information of all sorts about Min- 
nesota, and that is what we furnished them with. We advocated Min- 
nesota, morality, and religion from the beginning." 

In his first issue, he speaks of the Pioneer establishment of 
that day : . 

" We print and issue this number of the Pioneer^ in a building 
through which out-of-doors is visible by more than five hundred aper- 
tures ; and as for our type, it is not safe from being //W^on the galleys 
by the wind." 

This building was afterwards used for several years, by 
Thomas H. Calder, now ' deceased, as a saloon and restau- 
rant, and was burned down in the spring of i860. 

SAINT PAUL IN APRIL, 1 849. 

In the first number of the Pioneer^ we find some interesting 
sketches of what Saint Paul was, in April, 1849. In his lead- 
ing editorial, the editor says : 

** This town, which was but yesterday unknown, for the reason that 
it had then no existence, is situated on the east bank of the Mississippi 
River, about five miles south of latitude 45 degrees. A more beautiful 
site for a town cannot be imagined. It must be added, that bilious fe- 
vers and the fever and ague are strangers to Saint Paul. A description 
of the village now would not answer for a month hence — such is the 
rapidity of building, and the miraculous resurrection of every descrip- 
tion of domiciles. Piles of lumber and building materials lie scattered 
everywhere in admirable confusion. The whole town is on the stir — 
stores, hotels, houses, are proje(5ted and built in a few days. . California 
is forgotten, and the whole town is rife with the exciting spirit of ad- 
vancement. 

** Saint Paul, at the head of river communication, must necessarily 
supply the trade of all the vast regions north of it to the rich plains of 
the Selkirk Settlement, and west to the Rocky Mountains, and east to 
the basin of the great Lakes, and is destined to be the focus of an im- 
mense business, rapidly increasing with the growth and settlement of 
the new regions lying within the natural circumference of its trade. 
That extensive region of beautiful land bordering on the Saint Peter's 
River, as well as all the other tributaries of the Mississippi north of us, 
will soon be settled, and must obtain their supplies through Saint Paul. 



212 The History of the City of Saint PauL [^^49 

Is it strange, then, that Saint Paul is beginning to be regarded as the 
Saint Louis of the North ?" 

From the first number of the Pioneer, we extrad; a few 
items of interest : 

'*To Immigrants. — We advise settlers who are swarming into Saint 
Paul in such multitudes, to bring along tents and beddings to provide 
for their comfort until they can build houses, as it is utterly imj>ossible 
to hire a building in any part of the village, although builders are at 
work in every dire<5lion, completing houses." 

'* Rev. Mr. Neill,* a member of the Presbytery of Galena, is about 
removing to Saint Paul. Mr. Neill is expedited to preach at the school 



* Rev. Edward Duffield Neill, mentioned in the foregoing extra<^t, was the first 
Protestant clergyman who settled in Saint Paul. He was bom at Philadelphia, August 
9, i8a3, and was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, and Amherst College, 
Massachusetts, graduating there in 1842. He was ordained a clergyman in the Presby- 
terian church in 184S, but prior to that — in 1847 — went to the neighborhood of Galena, 
where he performed missionary labor in the rough mining region. From there he was 
transferred to Saint Paul, in the spring of 1849, arriving at this place April 33, and at 
once commenced his labors in organizing a church. He ere<5ted the first Protestant 
church in Minnesota, on Washington street, near Fourth, in July, 1849, and in Novem- 
ber organized the First Presbyterian church. In May, 1850, the first church was 
burned, and rebuilt at once, corner of Third and Saint Peter streets. Mr. Neill also 
organized, in 1855, ^^ " House of Hope," and was its pastor several years. During 
this period he gave great attention to educational and literary matters. He iwas ap- 
pointed Territorial Superintendent of Instru<ftion in 1S51, and held that office two years. 
In 1853, he organized and secured tlie ere<^ion and endowment of Baldwin School. In 
1855, he fccured the building of the College of Saint Paul, which was for several years 
a classical academy for young men. He was Secretary of the Board of Education, and, 
ex-officio Superintendent of Schools, for several years, and Chancellor of the State 
University, 1858 to i860. He was also State Superintendent of Public lnstru(5tion from 
1858 to i86i, and Secretary of the Historical Society from 1851 to 1861. 

On June 33, 1861, he was appointed Chaplain of the First Minnesota Volunteers, and 
served as such over two years. He was then United States Hospital Chaplain until 
January, 1864, when he became one of President Lincoln's private secretaries, and 
after the death of Mr. Lincoln, he continued in the same relation to President Johnson. 
In April, 1869, 1^*^ ^^^ appointed by President Grant, Consul to Dublin, and resided - 
there in that capacity for about two years. He then returned to Minnesota, and became 
President of the Baldwin School and College of Saint Paul, which were consolidated 
by the Legislature under the name of " Macalester College." 

In January, 1874, Mr. Neill withdrew from the Presbyterian church and entered tlie 
Reformed Episcopal Church. He has written and published several valuable historical 
works, his " History of Minnesota" being frequently quoted in these pages. He is 
truly a pioneer clergyman. He performed the first marriage recorded in the records of 
Ramsey county, and is now marrying the second generation (of persons born in Saint 
Paul) in the same families. He built the first brick dwelling house in Minnesota — laid 
the foundations of half a dozen of our best institutions, and has labored hard for a life- 
time in the cause of religion, education and human progress, with much success, but 
to his own loss in estate. His name can never be mentioned by the future people of 
Minnesota, but with respec^t. 



1849] "^w^ "f ^^^ County of Ramsey- Minnesota. 213 

house, on Bench street, next Sunday, (to-morrow,) at 11 o'clock in the 
morning." 

" Tlie Galena Advertiser says there is a prospett of a heavj immigra' 
tion to Minnesota the present seBBon. We learn that whole colonies 
are on the move to Minnesota, from ihe Middle and Eastern States, and 
from Canada." 

" While we are writing, a Sioun Indian has dropped into our oflice. 



RHV. GDWART> n. NEILL. 

to look at the printiiif! press. He expresscK a great deal of curiosity 
and surprise." 

""Mr. RiCB, a jjentleman equally distinguished for his liberality and 
enterprise, returned to Saint Paul on the steamboat ' Senator," last 
Tuesday. Mr. Rice received a most cordial welcome. He i« very 
much identified with the jjrowlh and prosperity of Saint Paul." 



Immigration poured in \ex\ rapidly for a few 



214 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul. [1849 

Every boat brought crowds of immigrants, many of whom 
were unable to find proper accommodations. E. S. Seymour. 
author of a very entertaining work, " Sketches of Minnesota, 
the New England of the West," landed here on May 17. Re- 
ferring to his first view of the town, at Kaposia, he sa^s : 

" Its new frame buildings, glistening with the refle(5tion of the rising 
«un, imparted to it an air of neatness and prosperity. On arriving at 
the wharf, a numerous throng of citizens and strangers came rushing 
down the hill to welcome our arrival. I grasped the hand of many an 
acquaintance, whom I unexpectedly found here. Everything here ap- 
peared to be on the high pressure principle. A dwelling house for a 
family could not be rented. The only hotel was small, and full to 
overflowing. Several boarding houses were very much thronged. 
Many families were living in shanties, made of rough boards, fastened 
to posts driven in the ground, such as two men could construct in one 
day. It was said that about 80 men lodged in a barn belonging to 
Rice's new hotel, which was not yet completed. Two families occu- 
pied tents while I was there. While traveling in Minnesota, I made my 
headquarters at Saint Paul, where I occasionally tarried a day or two at 
a boarding house, consisting of one room, about 16 feet square, in 
which 16 persons, including men, women and children, contrived to 
lodge. The remaining boarders — a half-dozen or more — found lodgings 
in a neighbor's garret; this tenement rented for $12 per month. The 
roof was so leaky that, during the frequent rains that prevailed at that 
time, cme would often wake up in the night and find the water pour- 
ing down in a stream on his face, or some part of his person. ♦ * * 

"We are now near the dividing line of civilized and savage life. 
We can look across the river and see Indians on their own soil. Their 
canoes are seen gliding across the Mississippi, to and fro between sav- 
age and civilized territory. They are met hourly in the streets. * * 
Here comes a female in civilized* costume; her complexion is tinged 
with a light shade of bronze, and her features bear a strong resem- 
blance to those of the Indian. She is a descendant of French and In- 
dian parents — a half-breed from Red River. There goes a French 
Canadian, who can converse only in the language of his mother tongue. 
He is an old settler; see his prattling children sporting about yonder 
shanty, which was constru(ited of rough boards, with about one day's 
labor. There he lives — obliging fellow ! exposed to the sun and rain, 
and rents his adjoining log cabin at $12 per month. Let us pass on 
to that group that converse daily in front of yonder hotel. They 
appear to be principally professional men, politicians, office-seekers, 
speculators and travelers, discussing the various topics growing out of 
the organization of the new Territory — such as the distribution of the 



1849] cind of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 215 

loaves and fishes, the price of lots, the rise of real estate, the opportunity 
now aiForded for the acquisition of wealth or political fame. 

** The town-site is a pretty one, affording ample room for stores or 
dwellings, to any extent desirable. I could not but regret, however, 
that where land is so cheap and abundant, some of the streets are narrow, 
and that the land on the edge of the high bluff, in the centre of the 
town, was not left open to the public, instead of being cut up into small 
lots. It would have made a pleasant place for promenading, affording 
a fine view of the river, which is now liable to be intercepted by build- 
ings ere<5ted on those lots." * * * 

MASONIC AND SONS OF TEMPERANCE LODGES. 

Early in the growth of the town, the usual secret orders 
were founded. The Pioneer^ of May 19th, says: 

'* A Division of the Sons of Temperance has been fully organized in 
Saint Paul, under the title of 'Saint Paul Division, No. i,' Sons of 
Temperance. This is the first Division of that order in this Territory. 
The Division meets every Tuesday night. The officers are — Lot Mof- 
FET, W. P. ; Benj. L. Sellers, W. A. ; S. Gilbert, P. W. P. ; W. C. 
Morrison, R. S. ; B. F. Irvine, A. R. S. ; A. H. Cavender, F. S. ; A. 
R. French, T. ; C. P. V. Lull, G. C. ; B. F. Hoyt, A. C. ; W. Patch, 
I. S. ; C. Davis, O. S." 

*' Members of the Masonic Fraternity, in and near Saint Paul, intend 
to meet together in the room over the Pioneer office, on Thursday eve- 
ning next, [May 31,] at 6 o'clock." — [lb. May 26.] 

The Sons of Temperance soon became quite a powerful or- 
ganization, and at one time owned a lot and built a building 
thereon for a hall. They subsequently lost the property bv 
mortgage, and (oh ! profanation) the building was used for 
a saloon I 

EVENTS OF THE DAY. 

Early in May, two more printing presses and material for 
newspapers arrived. One was the Register^ before noted — 
the other was the Minnesota Chronicle^ which was issued on 
June I, by Col. James Hughes, formerly of Jackson, Ohio. 

One or two cases of cholera occurred this season. Onj May 
3d, L. B. Larpenteur, father of E. N. and grandfather of 
A. L. Larpenteur, arrived in the city, and on the 7th died 
of cholera, aged 71 years. He had, unfortunately, cojntrac^ed 
the disease on his jomney up the river. 



2i6 The History of the City of Saint PauL [[1849 

From the Pioneer of May 26, we extradl some interesting 
items : 

• ** ' Scratch up, scrabble up, tumble up, any way to get up,' seems to 
be illustrated in the sudden growth of building in Saint Paul. Logs 
which were in the boom at the Falls last week, are now inflated into 
balloon frames at Saint Paul, ready for a coat of fresh paint. Lots 
which were the other day considered quite remote, are now * right in 
town.' More than seventy buildings, it is said, have been eredted here 
during the past three weeks ; and the town is so changed in its appear- 
ance, and has so multiplied its inhabitants, that a person absent for 
three weeks, on returning, almost fancies that he has been taking a Rip 
Van Winkle slumber." 

" There is not a lock of hay to be bought from Galena to Saint Paul." 

"Ex-Governor Slade, of Vermont, General Agent of National Pop-: 
ular Education, arrived on the steamboat * Senator,' last Thursday, 
with three young ladies,* who will engage in the responsible and ar- 
duous labor of teaching in Minnesota." 

'* Carpenters in Saint Paul are now fully employed. Mr. Bra^wley 
is making a supply of brick, near the upper end of town." 

ARRIVAL OF TERRITORIAL OFFICERS. 

On May 27, Hon. Alex. Ramsey, of Pennsylvania, who 
had a short time previously been appointed Governor of the 
Territory, arrived, w^ith his wife, but, being unable to secure 
proper accommodations at Saint Paul, went, by invitation of 
Hon. H. H. Sibley, to the mansion of that gentleman, at 
Mendota, where he remained a few days. Several other of 
the Territorial officers arrived during this month, and we close 
this chapter with some personal sketches of them. 

HON. ALEX. RAMSEY. 

From "Barnes* History of the Fortieth Congress," the fol- 
lowing sketch is condensed : 

"Alex. Ramssy was born near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, September 
S; J815. His paternal ancestry were Scotch — the family of his mother 
was o^ German descent. Left an orphan at the age of ten, he was 

* « In the tpriziS of 18419, Miss Mary A. Scofield joined our feeble band of teach- 
ers, and w^8, for a year, associated with the waiter at Saint Paul. A second school 
house was b^uilt, and ample means provided for the instru<5tion of one hundred and fifty 
pupils."— [>1iss Bishop's «« Floral Homes."] 



1849] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 217 

assisted by a relative to obtain an education, and engage in business. 
He was employed as clerk in a store at Harrisburg for a time, and, about 
the year 1828, was engaged in the office of Register of Deeds of Dau- 
phin county. He afterwards learned the trade, or at least worked for 
some time, as carpenter, but, having a strong love for reading and study, 
he determined to adopt the profession of law. With this in view, he 
became a student of Lafayette College, at Easton, Pennsylvania, and in 
1837, entered the office of Hamilton Alrich, Esq., at Harrisburg. 
He also studied in the law-school of Hon. John Reed, at Carlisle, and 
was admitted to practice in 1839, being engaged a portion of the time 
in teaching. 

"During the celebrated Harrison campaign of 1840, Mr. Ramsey 
took a prominent part, and was that fall chosen Secretary of the Elec- 
toral College of the State. In 1841, he was ele<5led Chief Clerk of the 
House of Representatives of Pennsylvania. In 1843, he was nominated 
for Congress from the distri<5l composed of Dauphin, Lebanon and 
Schuylkill counties, and served in the Twenty-eighth Congress (1843-4.) 
He was re-ele(5led in 1844, ^ member of the Twenty-ninth Congress, 
his term ending March 4, 1847. During these years, Mr. Ramsey be- 
came well-known, not only in his own State, but widely among public 
men of the country, as evincing those qualities of sagacity and firmness, 
which have been so marked during his whole career. As chairman of 
the Whig State committee in 1848, he contributed largely to the ele<5tion 
of Gen. Zach. Taylor to the presidency. 

"When that brave old soldier was inaugurated, it became his duty to 
appoint the officers of Minnesota Territory, and he at once tendered 
the Governorship to Mr. Ramsey, which was accepted. His commis- 
sion is dated April 2, 1849, ^"^ he immediately proceeded to remove, with 
his family, to his new home. And here, it should be remarked, that 
Gov. Ramsey was married, in 1845, to Miss Anna E. Jenks, of New- 
town, Pennsylvania. 

"Gov. Ramsey arrived at the scene of his official duties on May 27, 
and four days afterwards, with the other Territorial officers who had ar- 
rived, issued a proclamation declaring the Territory organized, and the 
machinery of law in operation. Other proclamations, dividing the 
Territory into districts, ordering elections, &c., soon followed, and, with 
the labor of organizing the machinery of government, securing officers, 
managing Indian affairs, and administering various trusts, the Govern- 
or's chair was no sinecure. When the first Legislature met, in Sep- 
tember, it bestowed on one of the first counties created, and, at that 
time, the most populous and wealthy, the name of our first Governor, a 
deserved and just compliment. 

"Gov. Ramsey took early measures to procure the extinguishment 
of Indian titles, by treaty, &c., and by the negotiations made at Men- 
dota and Traverse de Sioux, in 1851, the valuable lands near Lake 

15 



2i8 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^49 

Pepin, and 40,000,000 acres in what now constitutes Southern Minne- 
sota, were thrown open to the settler. In the fall of the same year, he 
visited the Red River Colony and made, at Pembina, a treaty with the 
northern Chippewas, for the cession by them of 30 miles on each side of 
the Red River. This treaty was not ratified by the Senate, but in 1863, 
Gov. Ramsey, then Senator, made another treaty, accomplishing the 
intended results, and the Red River valley is now rapidly settling up. 

"Various events of Gov. Ramsey's term are narrated elsewhere 
quite fully, and need not be referred to in this sketch. Some of the 
extra(5ls from his messages, predi<5ting the future growth of the Terri- 
tory, seem almost prophetic. He evinced his oWn faith in its future 
success by large and judicious investments in real estate, which ulti- 
mately became of great value, and are the bulk of a comfortable 
fortune. 

** In 1853, Gov. Ramsey's term closed, and, in 1855, he was elected 
Mayor of Saint Paul, for a term of one year. In 1857, when the Re- 
publican Convention met, he Was nominated for first State Governor, 
but his party was not successful in that contest. Two years later, he 
was again nominated, and this time ele<5led by a majority of 3,752 in a 
vote of 38,918. He was inaugurated January 2, i860. At that time 
the State was considerably in debt, taxes difficult to colle(5t, and many 
other troubles were to be met, but his administration was a very suc- 
cessful one. The following year the rebellion broke out, and this laid 
new duties and responsibilities on the Governor. One was the proper 
officering of the regiments from our State, but the very fadl that a 
large proportion of Colonels appointed by him were ultimately pro- 
moted to Brigaders, and several to Majors General, while every officer, 
with exceptions too few to notice, made a good record, is proof enough 
that the sele<5tions were wisely made, of men who have done honor to 
our State on the field. 

"In 1861, Gov. Ramsey was re-ele<fted. During his second term the 
Sioux outbreak occurred, adding still further to the responsibilities of 
the position, but ultimately peace and security was restored to the 
frontier. In January, 1863, Gov. Ramsey was ele<5led United States 
Senator for six years, and re-ele<5ted in 1869, serving twelve years in all. 
During this period, he served on several important standing commit- 
tees, post-offices and post roads among them. Postal reform occupied 
much of his attention. He first introduced the bill for the repeal of the 
franking abuse, and visited France in 1869, to urge cheap international 
postage, which has since been accomplished. He has also aided, as 
far as possible, the constru6tion of our Northern Pacific and other 
railroads. 

"This hasty summary," says Mr. Barnes, in concluding his sketch, 
"will sufficiently indicate the prominent position of Senator Ramsey. 
Few of his colleagues have exhibited more tadl in establishing and sus- 



1849] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 219 

taining persipnal influence. He has proved himself a vigilant guardian 
of the interests of Minnesota. Of a frank, hearty bearing, his figure, 
countenance and voice concur to make him a favorite with his associates 
and with all observers." 

Senator Ramsey, at home, has been prominent in every 
public enterprise. He has, since the first days of our city, 
aided liberally every good work, and our churches and other 
institutions have been recipients of gifts of both real estate 
and money. He has, also, been an adtive member of the His- 
torical Society and Old Settlers' Association. At one of the 
reunions of the latter, as is elsewhere remarked, he kindly 
volunteered to be the " last man" — a hope his friends indulge 
in, and, indeed, from his fine, almost rugged health and evenly 
poised system, there is no reason why their wish should not 
be realized. 

HON. AARON GOODRICH 

was born in Sempronius, New York, July 6, 1807. While a 
young man, he settled in Tennessee, where he was admitted to 
the bar of that State, and successfully pradticed for several 
years. He was ele(Sted, (though a Whig,) from a Democratic 
district, a member of the House for the years 1847 ^^^ 1848, 
and, during the latter year, was eleded a Presidential Ele(Stor 
on the Whig ticket. On March 19, 1849, he was appointed, 
by President Taylor, Chief Justice of Minnesota, and took 
up his residence in Saint Paiil. He held the first term of 
court in Ramsey and other counties, and was one of the corpo- 
rate members of the Historical Society in 1849, ^"^ ^ charter 
member of the first Masonic Lodge, and a corporate member 
of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota. His term on the Supreme 
Bench closed in the fall of 1851, when he resumed the pradtice 
of law. In the early days of the Republican party, he was 
one' of its nlost ready and effective campaign speakers, and 
drew up the first Republican platform adopted in Minnesota. 
In 1858, he v^as a member of the commission to prepare a Code 
of Pleadings and Pradice, and submitted a report of marked 
ability. In i860, he was a member of the Republican Na- 
tional Convention at Chicago, and labored to secure the nom- 



320 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1849 

itiiitioii of Wm. H. Sbward, for President. TRroiigh the 
friendship of that statesman, he was next iipriiig appointed 
Secretary of Legation at Brussels, which position he filled for 
eight years. In 1S69, he returned to Saint Paul, and devoted 







his leisure to the writing of a work for which hehud gathered 
materials during his sojourn in Europe, entitled, "A Historj- 
of the Charadter and Achievements of the so-called Christo- 
pher Columbus," in which he opposes the claim of Colum- 
bus as discoverer of America. The work was published in 



1849] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 221 

1874, by i). Appleton & Company, New York. It is origi- 
nal and bold in its conception and handling, and has attra<5led 
much notice from scholars. In 1872, he was a member of the 
Convention at Cincinnati, which nominated Horace Gree- 
ley, although he himself constantly voted for Judge Davis, of 
Illinois. Judge Goodrich was a prominent mover in the or- 
ganization of the " Old Settlers' Association of Minnesota," 
in 1858, and has been its Secretary nearly ever since, devoting 
much time and labor to its objects. 

CHARLES KILGORE SMITH, 

Secretary of State, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 
15, 1799. His father was a prominent man in Ohio in early 
days. C. K. Smith was educated at Oxford, Ohio, and, prior 
to his coming to Minnesota, had held several important offices, 
and was admitted to pra6tice as a lawyer. On coming to 
Saint Paul as a Territorial officer, he became prominent in 
many useful Works. He was adlive in establishing a system 
of common schools in this city. He was a charter member of 
the first Masonic, and the first Odd Fellows* Lodge and Encamp- 
ment in the city, and also one of the first to organize and 
found the Minnesota Historical Society, of which he was 
Secretary for two years, and labored faithfully. He was a 
man of incisive aod determined charadter, and made many 
political and personal enemies in Saint Paul. Goodhue, of 
the Pioneer^ used to attack him without mercy, during his 
whole career, even accusing him of fraud and malfeasance in 
oflSce. Mr. Smith, at one time, owned considerable property 
in Saint Paul. He resigned in November, 1851, and returned 
to Hamilton, Ohio, where he died September 28, 1866. 

COL. ALEX. M. MITCHELL, 

Marshal of the Territory, vice Taylor declined, was also 
appointed from Ohio. He was born in North Carolina ; 
graduated at West Point in 1835 » served with distin<5lion 
during the Florida War ; was then transferred to the Engineer 
Department, in which he served some time, and resigning, 
studied law at Yale College, and settled in Cincinnati, where 



1 



222 T^e History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^49 

he practiced until the breaking out of the Mexican War, in which 
he promptly enlisted, and was commissioned Colonel of the 
First Ohio Volunteers. He was severely wounded at Monterey. 
On his return to Cincinnati, a splendid sword was presented 
to him by the citizens, and the bar gave him a dinner. Col. 
Mitchell held the office of Marshal until September, 185 1. 
In the fall of 1850, he was nominated for Congress, against 
H. H. Sibley, but was unsuccessful. He left Minnesota 
about 1853, and afterwards became a resident of Saint Joseph, 
Missouri, where he died February 26, 1861, aged 52 years. 
A newspaper obituary said of him : "His last years were 
clouded with the vice of intemperance." 

HENRY L. MOSS 

was born in Oneida count}'. New York, March 23, 1819. He 
graduated from Union College, in 1840, and commenced the 
study of law, being admitted to pradtice in 1842, in the Su- 
preme Court of Ohio, where he was then residing. In 1845, 
he removed to Plattville, Wisconsin, and, after residing there 
three years*, moved to Stillwater, on April 29, 1848. He was 
appointed United States District Attorney in March, 1849, and 
held said office for four years. In 185 1, he removed to Saint 
Paul, and has resided in this city ever since. In O<5lober, 
1863, he was again appointed United States Distri<5l Attorney, 
and held that position until 1868. For some years he has also 
been largely interested in the insurance business. Mr. Moss 
was in Washington when our land grant bills were pending, 
and gave valuable assistance to our delegation in Congress, in 
lobbying for their passage. 

The machinery of government was now ready. In our next 
chapter we shall see it set in motion. 



1849] ^'^<l of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 223 



CHAPTER XVII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1849.— Continued. 

The Organization of the Territory— First of June Proclamation— Rapid 
Growth of the Town— Gen. Johnson's Interview with Goodhue — First 
Fourth of July Celebration — ^The Census — Post-office Matters — First 
Election — First Courts — Assembling of the Legislature — Location of 
the Capital— Wm. R. Marshall — Incorporation of the Town— Election 
OF County Officers — Schools Established — First Business Directory. 

ON June I, Governor Ramsey and Chief Justice Goodrich, 
with H. L. Moss, United States District Attorney, and 
Judge David Cooper, Associate Justice, seated on beds or 
trunks, in a little room, about eight by ten, in the Saint Paul 
House, drew up the "First of June Proclamation,'* as it is 
called, announcing the Territorial government organized, and 
that " law and order reigned in Warsaw," (as a jocose old 
settler used to express it.) It was written on awashstand, the 
only table that could be procured, which Judge G. has pre- 
served as a relic of the event. 

To commemorate this event — the formal birth of Minnesota — 
the ''Old Settlers' Association of Minnesota" hold their annual 
meetings on June i of each year, and their annual banquets at 
the Merchants' Hotel, the successor of the historic Saint Paul 
House, the corner-stone of whose new structure was laid by the 
Association on June i, 1870. 

another hotel. 

As a specimen of rapid building, the Pioneer of June 14, 

says : 

" That very large house, the Rice House, near the upper landing, 
one of the largest hotels north of Saint Louis, was completed, so far 
as the carpenter and joiner work is concerned, in ten weeks from its 
commencement. " 



224 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul,, [i^49 

This hotel was afterwards called the *' American House," 
and was a famous point in its day. It was opened to the 
public on June 28, by Mrs. Rodney Parker, formerly of 
Charlestown, Massachusetts. The hotel burned down on 
December 20, 1863. 

SKETCH OF THE TOWN, JUNE, 1 849. 

The clever work of Mr. Seymour, before quoted, gives a 
very readable picture of Saint Paul, about the middle of June : 

" On the 13th of June, I counted all the buildings in the place, the 
number of which, including shanties and those in every state of pro- 
gress, from the foundation wall to completion, was one hundred and 
forty-txvo. Of the above, all, except about a dozen, were probably less 
than six months old. They included three hotels, one of which is very 
large, and is now open for the accommodation of travelers ; a State 
house, four warehouses, ten stores, several groceries, three boarding 
houses, two printing offices, two drug stores, one fruit and tobacco 
store, one or two blacksmith's shops, one wagon shop, one tin shop, 
one or two baker's shops, one furniture room, a billiard and bowling 
saloon, one school house, in which a school of about forty children is 
kept by a young lady, and where divine services are performed every 
Sabbath by a minister of the Episcopalian, Methodist, Presbyterian, 
or Baptist persuasion. There is, also, a Catholic church, where meet- 
ingis are held every alternate Sabbath. At the time mentioned above,' 
there were twelve attorneys at law, six of whom were pradticing; five 
physicians, and a large numbef of mechanics, of various kinds. There 
was not a brick or stone building' in the place. There are, however, 
good stone quarries in the vicinity, and clay near the town, where per- 
sons were employed in making brick." 

The rush of immigration to the Territory about this date, 
seemed to have set in quite briskly. The Pioneer,, of June 28, 
says : 

**On Wednesday of last week, three steamboats arrived at our land- 
ing. They were»all heavily laden with merchandize for this point." 

ITEMS. 

On June 25, Gov. Ramsey and lady came from Mendota 
in a birch-bark canoe, and commenced house-keeping in a 
neat white frame cottage which stood on Third street, about 
where Beaumont's store now is. The Governor's office was 



1849] ^^^ <{f ih^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 225 

kept in the same building, It was afterwards called the "New 
England House," and burned down in the spring of i860. 

"An adjourned meeting, for the purpose of consulting upon the 
expediency of erecSting a town house suitable for the accommodation of 
secular and religious meetings, societies, &c. , will be holden at Free- 
man, Larpenteur & Co.'s store, on Saturday, July 7, at 7 p. m. A. H. 
Cavender, Secretary." — [Pioneer^ June 28.] 

"The Pump. — Within the past week the citizens of Saint Paul have 
eredled in the lower square, a pump. Of course, nothing could be more 
desirable, or to the city more appropriate. For what is a town without 
a town pump ? It is a church without a bishop. How will a stranger 
know when he arrives in our steepleless city unless it has the centre 
marked with a pump. A town pump is useful on numerous accounts. 
It is the centre exchange, where merchants and financiers do the fiats 
of commerce. It is the place for placards of advertisement — a reference 
for details of information upon all doubtful questions — as when we 
say — * inquire of the town pump.' It might do for the stand of a tem- 
perance leAurer. It might answer as a whipping-post for rogues 
of low degree, and might perhaps subserve a patriotic purpose as a 
ducking engine with which to quench the heat of over-zealous office- 
seekers." — [lb. I 

"Stop that Rooting Under our Floor! — We are no Jew, but a 
gentile, or the rootjng nation under our editorial sand:um, instead of 
a respe<5tful notice with our pen, would get punched with a sharp stick. 
Not that we would find fault with the pigs, for it is all owing to their 
bringing up. But really, our equanimity is somewhat ruffled, if our 
chair is not jostled, by the movements 9f their hard backs under our 
loose floor." — [lb.] 

Speaking of the pigs rooting under the Pioneer editor's 
floor, makes apropos an anecdote related by Gen. R. W. 
Johnson,* (in his Old Settlers' address,) who came to Fort 
Snelling in 1849, as a Lieutenant in the army : " The boat had 

*Gen. Richard W. Johnson was born in Livingston county, Kentucky, February 
7« 1827. He was educated at West Point, graduating in the class of 1S49, ^"d was 
appointed to a command at Fort Snelling, with rank of Second Lieutenant. He came 
here that season, and resided in this State several years. On October 30, 1850, he was 
married, at Mendota, to Miss Rachel £. Steele. When the rebellion broke out he 
served in many important battles and campaigns, and was severely wounded near 
Atlanta, Georgia, in 1864. For this cause he was ultimately placed on the retired list, 
having then attained by successive promotions, the rank of Major General, and com- 
manded the Distri<5t of Tennessee, &c. He soon returned to Minnesota, which he 
had always considered his home while in the army. Served as Military Professor at 
the State University 1868-9, and then removed to Saint Paul. Gen. J. is now President 
of the Chamber of Con^merce, and a leading promoter of all our civic interests. 



326 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1849 

tied up at the levee. Taking advantage of the delay, I 
wended my way to the Pioneer office, and was kindly received 



GEN. RICHARD W. JOHNSON. 

by Mr. Goodhue. During the conversation, I observed a hen 
on her nest tnider the table, and I ventured to ask him if he 
de.signed raising his own poultry." He replied. " that he had 



1849] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 237 

eaten all her eggs, and the old fool is setting on a couple of 
brickbats^ and, if she hatches out a brick yard, you may bet 
your last dollar that hen is not for sale !" 

FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION. 

The Fourth of July was celebrated by the patriotic Saint 
Paulites in a very spirited and becoming manner. Early in 
the forenoon a procession, composed of the Territorial offi- 
cers, civic societies, (what there was,) and a few "invited 
guests," with our own citizens, making about 500 persons in 
all, headed by a military band from Fort Snelling, formed in 
front of the Saint Paul House, and, according to a programme 
in the Pioneer^ marched through " a number of the principal 
streets," (as our newspaper reporters would say,) although 
said streets were then a jungle of hazel brush and scrub oaks, 
to a grove on the site of , the present Rice Park. Here Gov- 
ernor Ramsey presided, with Messrs. Sibley and Rice as vice 
presidents. Rev. E. G. Gear, Chaplain at Fort Snelling, 
read an appropriate service with prayers. The Declaration 
of Independence was read by Billy Phillips, in his most 
pompous and rhetorical style, and Judge B. B. Meeker de- 
livered the oration, filling six columns in the Pioneer, The 
procession then re-formed, and marched to the American 
House, where a dinner was partaken of, followed by numerous 
toasts and speeches. The day wound up with a grand ball at 
the American House, and fireworks. Franklin Steele 
a6led as chief marshal of the day, with A. L. Larpenteur 
and Wm. H. Nobles as aids. And thus ended the first Fourth 
of July celebration in Saint Paul. 

Gen. Sibley, in his address on the early history of Minne- 
sota, relates, that one of our prominent French citizens, on 
being asked how he liked the proceedings, said — " *Fore God, 
dat speech of Phillips was ze best speech made to-day." 
And it is said that " speech" secured Billy D. the appoint- 
ment of Prosecuting Attorney by the County Board soon after. 

THE CAPITOL AND TERRITORIAL OFFICERS. 

The Pioneer of July 5, notices the arrival of the Secretary 



228 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1849 

of the Territory, Hon. Charles K. Smith, of Ohio. Mr. 
Smith at once set about securing apartments, or a building, 
for the use of the Territorial officers and Legislature, &c., but 
found it almost impossible to do so, as the town was so crowded, 
and buildings in demand. Finally, he secured rooms in the 
'' Central House," a weatherboarded log structure on Bench 
street, which was then kept as a hotel by Robert Kennedy, 
and (having been afterwards more than doubled in size) was 
the Central House of more recent days, though since almost 
destroyed by fire. A flag-staff was eredled on the bank of the 
river, and the national banner run up, to mark the headquar- 
ters of government, and here, in these narrow quarters, its 
business was carried on. 

territorial census — apportionment. 

Pursuant to a provision in the Organic A<51, John Morgan, 
Sherift^of Saint Croix county, had been engaged for several 
weeks prior to this date, in taking a census of the Territory. 
Edmund Brissett took the districts on the Missouri River, and 
Wm. Dahl the Pembina region.* The census of Saint Paul 
appeared as follows : 

Males — 540. Females — Tpa. Total — 840. 

The total of the whole Territory was : 

Males — ^3,067. Females — 1,713. Total — 4,780. 

Of these, over 700 lived in what is now Dakota Territory, 
and 367 were not inhabitants at all, legally, being soldiers in 
the forts. The rapid growth of Saint Paul during the sum- 
mer of 1849, may be inferred from these figifres. 

On July 7, Governor Ramsey issued a proclamation dividing 
the Territory into seven Council disti*i6ts, based on the census 
just taken, and providing for an election of nine Councillors 
and eighteen Representatives, on August i. The Territory, 
not having been divided into counties, the distri6ts were ar- 

* Dahl was a g-enius in the line of censuses. * He would be a valuable man for any 
ambitious town that wished to get credit for more population than it had. How the 
handful of people on Red River swelled, in his hands, to 700, was one of the mysteries 
that, as Lord Dundreary would say, " no fellah could find out." 



j 1849] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 229 

ranged by '' precindts." The eledlion of a Delegate to Con- 
gress was also ordered at the same time, and the assembling 
of the Legislature fixed for Monday, September 3. 

Under this apportionment, what was called the " Saint Paul 
Precincft," embracing the town of Saint Paul, constituted the 
Third District, and was entitled to two Councillors and four 
Representatives. Nominations were soon after made, gener- 
ally on personal grounds, as party lines had not then been 
drawn. Indeed, some of our old settlers declare that, in early 
days, they used to have to force office on men — that such a 
thing as "office-seeking" was unknown in those poor but hon- 
est times. There are many who would gladly hail a return 
of such an era of primitive simplicity. 

THE "MINNESOTA REGISTER." 

I gave on page 208, an account of the issue of the Register 
at Cincinnati. As soon as the river opened, the press and 
material of the office were shipped to Saint Paul. J. P. Owens 
/ accompanied it, arriving in May, Maj. •McLean* being de- 
tained by illness at Cincinnati, did not arrive until August. 
In the meantime. Col. Owens went to work to get the paper 
out, and on July 14, issued No. 2. Capt. E. Y. Shelley, 
the veteran typo of Saint Paul, was foreman. The paper was 
printed in a small office on upper Third street. Some ?sm^ or 
six numbers of the Register were issued, when it became 
evident that there were too many newspapers in Saint Paul, 
and, on the arrival of Maj. McLean in August, ^ consolida- 



* Nathaniel McLean was born in Morris county, New Jersey, May 16, 1787. He 
was brother of Hon. John McLean, of the Supreme Court of the United States. His 
father removed to Ohio in 1789, settling in Warren county. Nathaniel McLean 
learned the printing business at Cincinnati, and, as early as 1S07, published a paper at 
Lebanon. In 1810, he was elected a member of the Ohio Legislature, serving two or 
three sessions. He was also an officer in the War of iSia. In the spring of 1849, he 
determined to remove to Saint Paul and embark in the newspaper business. Hewasthen 
60 years of age, but remarkably strong and active. On November 3, 1849, ^® ^*^ ap- 
pointed by President Taylor, Sioux Agent at Fort Snelling, which office he held until 
the spring of 1853. In the fall of 1855, he was elected one of the Commissioners of 
Ramsey county. This was the last public office he held. He retained his physical 
powers almost unimpaired until a short time before his death, when he was attacked 
with cancer, and suffered greatly before his end came, April 11, 1871, aged 84 years. He 
was an honest and good man. The township of McLean, in this county, was named ip 
honor of him. 



230 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1849 / 

tion was eftedted with the Chronicle^ as before stated. Col. 
Hughes sold out and retired, and went to Hudson, Wisconsin, 
where he died a couple of years ago. His foreman, fe. A. 
Quay, took an interest with McLean & Owens in the 
Chronicle and Register, The first number of this paper was 
issued on August 25, from the Chronicle office, a well-printed 
seven column sheet. Mr. Quay withdrew after a few weeks, 
and left the Territory. The paper became the Whig organ, 
and soon had a good patronage from that pai*ty. 

FORESHADOWINGS OF OUR BRIDGE. 

The Pioneer^ of July 26, contained the following rather pro- 
phetic note : 

*' That the position of Saint Paul on the east side of the river will 
soon require our town to be connedled by a bridge with the west side, 
as early as possible, at least after the extinguishment of the Sioux title 
on the west side, is quite obvious. ♦ ♦ * That a bridge can be built 
from the bluiF, near the middle of Saint Paul, many feet above the 
reach of the tallest steamboats, at no very great expense, by supporting 
it in the centre by a pier on the island, we have no doubt." 

CHURCHES AND RELIGIOUS ITEMS. 

The Register^ of July 21, contains the following: 

'*Mr. Parsons [Baptist] will preach at the school house to-morrow 
morning, at half past ten, and the Rev. Mr. Neill, [the Presbyterian 
clergyman,] on the following Sabbath, at the same hour. These gen- 
tlemen will continue to officiate alternately, thus affording the citizens 
an opportunity of attending divine service every Sabbath morning. 
The means of grace are about being further facilitated in Saint Paul 
by the erection of two churches, one under the dii;e<5tion of Rev. Mr. 
HoYT, of the Methodist church, the other to be occupied by Mr. Nkill's 
congregation." 

The Plattville (Wisconsin) Argus of the same week speaks 
of the session of the " Wisconsin Annual Conference," in that 
city. Up to this time, and, we believe, for several years after- 
wards, Minnesota was included in this conference. Rev. 
CuAUNCY Hob ART was stationed at Saint Paul. 

At this time (as noted before) Rev. Mr. Neill was engaged 
in building a small frame chapel on Washington street, facing 



1849] ^^d of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 231 

Rice Park, on a lot contributed by H. M. Rice. His brick 
dwelling, the first erected in Minnesota, was on the same block 
facing on Fourth street. The chapel was completed for use in 
August, being the first Protestant church built in Minnesota. 
The funds for its erection had been contributed by some rela- 
tives and personal friends of Mr. Neill, in Philadelphia. 

POST-OFFICE MATTERS. 

On page 154 was given some notes of the establishment of 
the post-office in Saint Paul, and its equipment of furniture. 
Jackson held the post-office three years and three months. 
During the three years of that time, we. incline to the belief 
that it hardly paid for the trouble of conducting it. But 
meantime a change came over the hamlet. With the rush 
of population and business, came also a very great increase of 
mail matter, and it soon became necessary to lay aside the 
little case of pigeon-holes, and procure more expanded facili- 
ties for serving the public. The Register,, of July 28, says : 

"Our New Post-office. — Our postmaster, Mr. H. Jackson, has 
fitted up his new post-office building on Third street, with great taste 
and convenience. Every citizen, whose business requires it, can now 
have a box to himself." 

The "new post-office" refeiu*ed to, was a frame building 
about where No. 105 East Third street now is. There were 
only about 200 "glass boxes" in his new equipment, a num- 
ber considered sufficient for present needs and future, too. 

But alas ! for the fallacy of human hopes in this world. 
Jackson's head (officially) was already in the basket, even 
while he was planning and building in expectation of profits 
to come. On July 5, he was decapitated by the new Whig 
dynasty, and Jacob W. Bass commissioned in his place. 
The news of political appointments was slower getting circu- 
lated those times than in these days of telegraphic journalism, 
or Jackson might have saved his time and money. For in- 
stance, the Pioneer of that week growls in this wise : 

"Would any one believe that, in the nineteenth century, our Govern- 
ment would limit Minnesota, . situated here in the very heart of the 
Republic, to one mail a week? We ought to have mails at least tri- 
weekly during the summer." 



333 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^49 

As soon as Mr. Bass could make preparations for accomnno- 
dating the office he took possession of the same. He at once 
erected a small frame addition, or lean-to, alongside of the 
Jackson street front of the Saint Paul House, (since called the 
Merchants) and removed thither the glass boxes or pigeon- 
holes, with the other equipments necessary. The whole room 
was only about as big as a sheet of paper, but no doubt accom- 
modated the business of that day. Mr. Wallace B. White, 
adted as Mr. Bass* deputy during the most of his term. Mr. 
White was subsequently Territorial Librarian, and now lives 
in Washington. 

THE ELECTION 

for Councillors, Representatives and Delegate came off on 

August 2d. The vote in the Saint Paul precind: stood as 

follows : 

Councillors. 

Wm, H, Forbes.- 187 David Lambert 91 

James M. Boal 98 

Representatives. 



B. W. Brunson 168 

P. K. Johnson 104 

Henry Jackson 165 

Dr. J. J. Dewey 178 

Those in italics ele<5ted. 



Joseph R. Brown 84 

A. G. Fuller 24 

Eb. Weld 2 



The election developed considerable ''life" among the boys 
of those days. The Pioneer said it had ''gone off as quietly 
as could be expedted." The Register^ however, speaking of 
the rejoicings over the election, reported more : 

" Forbes, J/cBoal, Brunson, Dewey, Jackson and Johnson, were 
successively placed in a small-sized * go-cart,* and hauled through the 
streets by the enthusiastic crowd, at a speed rather prejudicial to whole 
necks. The vehicle finally broke down, but the * boys' were not to be 
stopped in their rejoicings. So they carried their successful friends to 
the hotel, where such cheering took place, as we scarcely ever heard be- 
fore. The crowd then dispersed in good order." 

Hon. H. H. Sibley was elected to Congress without op- 
position. 



1849] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 333 

BRIEF NOTES. 

'*The number of retail liquor establishments in Saint Paul and other 
towns of the Territory, is a leetle too great for k sound and healthy 
state of public morals. It is the subje<5t of remark by strangers, and 
gives us a bad name at home and abroad, to say nothing of its evil 
eiFe<5ls upon society." — {Register, Aug. 4.] 

'* Shameful. — Last Monday night, some person in Saint Paul fur- 
nished a band of Winnebago Indians with liquor. Of course, they got 
drunk and were patroling our streets at night, singing their terrific 
war songs, and filled with bitter malignity. These things must not be 
tolerated." — {Pioneer, Aug. 9.] 

*' It is with pleasure that we learn that another school, for the smaller 
children, will soon be started in the lower town of Saint Paul. In the 
rush of business, it is pleasant to find the training of the infant minds 
of the rising generation not negle<5ted." — {Chronicle, Aug. 10.] 

"Messrs. Freeman, Larpenteur & Co., with some aid from their 
neighbors, have eredled a staircase from the lower landing to the sum- 
mit of Jackson's point. It renders the passage up and down the bluff 
a diversified and pleasant promenade." — {Pioneer, Aug. 16.] 

These stairs remained there and were used for several years. 

" There will be a school meeting at Freeman & Larpenteur's on 
Saturday evening next, at 7 o'clock." — [lb.] 

" We called on friend Brawley the other day, at his brick yard. He 
is now in a most successful state of operations. Reemploys two mills, 
ten men, and has now on hand some 400,000 brick. The quality is bet- 
ter than can be shown north of Saint Louis. If we are really going to 
build a city we must use brick." — {Pioneer, Aug. 30.] 

This was the first kiln of brick ever burned in Minnesota. 
The yard was near the present residence of D. W. Ingersoll- 
E. D. Neill had a dwelling built from this kiln, and the Market 
Street Methodist Episcopal church was also built from it. 

SOCIAL STATISTICS. 

Some one in the east having written a letter making inquiry 
about the Territory, among other things, inquires whether 
'' there are any Odd Fellows* Lodges in the Territofy .'*" Mr. 
Goodhue replies: [August 16.] 

"As to the Order of Odd Fellows, we have not heard of any, but 
there are a great many smart bachelors, who will have to continue odd, 
if their other halves do not come along with you immigrants." 
16 



234 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1849 

Mr. Goodhue was right about the preponderance of the 
male element of population. The census, taken a few months 
later, disclosed only 860 females to balance 1,337 lords of cre- 
ation, a disproportion always found in all new western com- 
munities. Thus, 477 of the young bachelors of Saint Paul 
must have remained unmated, unless, as the jocose editor sug- 
gested in another case, they " take up" with some of tlie 
'' Wenonas of the Sioux nation, who could have been bought 
any day then for a few dollars each," and, indeed, were con- 
tinually hanging around, waiting to be bought, at any sum. 

In the next issue of the Pioneer^ however, one of the 
'* brethren of the three links" throws some light on the 
question of Odd Fellow's Lodges. One, he says, was instituted 
at Stillwater, on August 15, and ''the brethren of Saint Paul 
have made application for a charter to institute a Lodge in 
this place." 

EARLY COURTS OF THE TERRITORY. 

The first court held in Saint Croix county after the Territory 
was organized, was on August 12. Chief Justice Good- 
rich presided, and Judge Cooper assisted. Goodhue says : 
••' The roll of attorneys is large for a new country. About 20, 
of the lankest and hungriest description, were in attendance." 
The term lasted six days. ''The proceedings," says the 
Chronicle and Register^ "were for the first two or three 
days somewhat crude, owing to the assembling of a bar com- 
posed of persons from nearly every State. But, by the urban- 
ity, conciliatory firmness, and harmonious course taken by the 
Court, matters were in a great measure systematized." At 
this session, it was said only one man on the jury wore boots ! 
All the rest had moccasins. 

The court of the Second Distridl, Judge Meeker presiding, 
" met at the house of Mr. Bean, on the west bank of the 
Mississippi, opposite the Falls of Saint Anthony," the same 
week. The grand jury room was the old government saw 

mill ! 

The court of the Third District was held at Mendota in the 
latter part of August, Judge Cooper presiding. Gen. Sibley 
was foreman of the grand jury. Judge Cooper read the jury 



1849] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota » 235 

an elaborate charge, which, Gen. S. says, only three out of 
the twenty odd members understood, the rest being French. 
Maj. Forbes acted as interpreter during the term. 

ORGANIZATION OF A MASONIC LODGE. 

Reference was made a few pages back to a meeting for the 
purpose of organizing a Masonic Lodge. The movers in the 
work applied to the Grand Lodge of Ohio for a Dispensation, 
which was granted on August 8, 1849. On September 8, the 
Lodge was organized in the office of C. K. Smith, who had 
been designated in the warrant as first Master. Soon after, the 
officers and members were announced as follows: W. M., 
C. K. Smith; S. W., James Hughes; J. W., Daniel F. 
Brawley ; Treas., J. C. Ramsey ; Sec, J. A. Aitkenside ; S. 
D., Lot Moffet ; J. D., Taylor Dudley; Tyler, W. C. 
Wright. Members — Aaron Goodrich, John Condon, Al- 
bert TiTLOw, John Holland, Levi Sloan, C. P. V. Lull, 
George Egbert, Samuel H. Dent, D. B. Loomis, M. S. 
Wilkinson, John Lumley, H. N. Setzer, James M. Boal, 
Chas. p. Scott, O. H. Kelley, Chas. M. Berg, William 
H. Randall, Hugh Tyler, Luther B. Bruin, A. M. 
Mitchell. 

The Lodge met for sometime in a room in the Merchants' 
Hotel building. C. P. Scott is said to be the first Mason 
made in Saint Paul. 

ASSEMBLING OF THE LEGISLATURE. 

On Monday, September 3, the first session of the Legisla- 
ture assembled at the Capitol, (i. e.. Central House,) the ho- 
tel business not being impeded by the law-making branch 
whatever. On the first floor was Secretary Smith's office 
and the ''Representative Chamber." Up-stairs was the li- 
brary and the "Council Chamber." As the Council had 
only nine members, and the House eighteen, it did not require 
a large room to accommodate either, and no formalities stood 
in the way of their business. 

" Both Houses," said a subsequent writer in the Pioneer^ 
'" met in the dining hall, where Rev. E. D. Neill prays for 



236 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^49 

us all, and Governor Ramsey delivers a message full of hope 
and far-sighted prophecy, to comfort us withal ; and then 
leaves the poor devils sitting on rough board benches and 
chairs, after dinner, to work out as they may this old problem 
of self-government through the appalling labyrinth of parlia- 
mentary rules and tactics that perplex their souls. Yet no 
Legislature which ever sat in Minnesota was made of better 
stuff than that which assembled to lay the corner-stone of the 
political edifice." 

HOMICIDE. 

Qn the 12th of September, a lad, named Isaiah McMillan, 
accidentally or carelessly shot another lad, named Heman 
Snow, near the corner of Third and Franklin streets, with a 
gun loaded with shot. The charge entered the head of the 
unfortunate boy, and he soon after died. McMillan was 
tried for homicide, at the February term of the first District 
Court, held by Judge Cooper, in Stillwater. There not hav- 
ing been proved any malice aforethought in the a(5t, the jury 
returned a verdi(5t of manslaughter, with a recommendation to 
mercy. The boy was sentenced to one year's imprisonment, 
but, as there was no county jail, he was sent to Fort Snelling 
for confinement, where he was kept as a prisoner for d year, 
though not closely confined. He appeared to be half-witted, 
or partially idiotic. This was the first trial for murder in 
Minnesota, whose soil has so often since been stained with 
human blood by the crime of Cain. 

BIRTH OF DEMOCRACY IN MINNESOTA. 

Hitherto, the party lines had not been drawn very stridtly in 
the new Territory. At the election npticed ante^ no political 
questions had entered into the canvass. The first erection of 
party standards took place at a ''Democratic Mass Conven- 
tion," which met pursuant to call, at the American House, on 
October 20, 1849. Suitable resolutions were reported and 
adopted, the Pioneer was declared the organ of the party, and 
from this time dates the bitterness of party strife. 



1849] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 237 

FERRY CHARTERS. 

We noticed, a few pages back, an article by Mr. Goodhue, 
on the necessity of a bridge across the river to West Saint Paul. 
This must necessarily be, however, a work for the future. 
To supply something better for travel and commerce to cross 
the river than a dug-out, a bill was introduced by Hon. Henry 
Jackson, " to grant a charter to Isaac N. Goodhue to keep 
and maintain a ferry across the Mississippi River opposite the 
lower landing, in Saint Paul." The bill did not pass at that 
session, however, but a notice was . soon after placed in the 
Pioneer that James M. & Isaac N. Goodhue would apply 
to the Commissioners of Ramsey county for a ferry charter 
across the Mississippi, at the lower landing. The license was 
granted on January 7, 1850, and, at the same meeting, a ferry 
privilege was also granted to John R. Irvine, to run one 
from the upper levee. These ferries plied regularly until the 
Saint Paul bridge was compjleted in 1858. 

LOCATION OF THE CAPITAL. 

The question of the location of the Capital came up during 
the session, on the consideration of a part of Gov. Ramsey's 
message referring to that subjed:. The Committee on Terri- 
torial Affairs, to whom it had been referred, reported that : 

"They are constrained to give it as their opinion, that Saint Paul 
should continue to be the seat of government of the Territory until 
otherwise determined by a vote of the people. Apart from the fa<5l 
that Saint Paul is the most central point, so far as the present popula- 
tion of the Territory is concerned, the fa<5l that it is the head of naviga- 
tion on the east of the Mississippi, and accessible to steamboats, is 
another strong point in its favor. Your committee believe that it is the 
wish of a majority of the inhabitants of Minnesota, that the location of 
the Capital should not be changed. With good roads diverging from 
every point. Saint Paul is easily reached at all seasons of the year." 

Considerable discussion ensued during the session on this 
subject, as to whether the Territory had a right to expend the 
$20,000 appropriated in the Organic A<ft, for a Capitol building. 
The question having been submitted to Hon. W. M.Meredith, 
Secretary of the Treasury, he replied that the " Department 



238 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1849 

cannot doubt that the public buildings in question can only be 
erected at the permanent seat of government, located as 
described. Of course, the reply to your inquiry must be, that 
nothing can be expended from this appropriation until after 
the location shall be duly made." 

So the permanent location was not definitely settled this 
session, however, but, at the close of the Legislature, it was a 
drawn battle. Saint Paul remained the temporary seat of 
government, and the Governor was authorized to rent build- 
ings to carry on the public business meantime. 

Ex-Gov. Marshall, in his address before the Old Settlers of 
Hennepin county, February 22, 1871, says, regarding the 
contest for the seat of government : 

"The original a<5l made Saint Paul the temporary Capital, but pro- 
vided that the Legislature might determine the /grw^zwew/ Capital. A 
bill was introduced by the Saint Paul delegation to fix the permanent 
Capital there. I opposed it,* endeavoring to have Saint Anthony 
made the seat of government. We succeeded in defeating the bill 
which sought to make Saint Paul the permanent Capital, but we could 
not get through the bill fixing it at Saint Anthony. So the question re- 
mained open in regard to the permanent Capital until the next session, 
in 185 1, when a compromise was efFe<5ted, by which the Capital was to 
be at Saint Paul, the State University at Saint Anthony, and the Peni- 
tentiary at Stillwater. 

**At that early day, as well as now, caricatures and burlesques were 
in vogue. Young Wm. Randall, of Saint Paul, now deceased, who 
had some talent in the graphic line, drew a pi<5lure of the efforts at 
Capital-removal. It was a building on wheels, with ropes attached, at 
which I was pictured tugging, while Brunson, Jackson, and the other 
Saint Paul members were holding and checking the wheels to prevent 
my moving it, with humorous and appropriate speeches proceeding 
from the mouths of the parties to the contest. The caricature was quite 
a good one, and served to amuse the people of Saint Paul for some 
days. When this question was before me, as Governor, if it had been 
the old question of removal to Saint Anthony — a very different thing 
from removal to a point more than a hundred miles from the centre of 
population, and quite as far from the geographical centre of the State — 
I do not believe I should have been so ready to veto it.** 

This was the first struggle on the Capital question. The 
sessions of 1851, 1857, ^^^9 ^"^ 1872, saw it repeated, as will 
be noted under those dates. 



* Gov. Marshall then represented Saint Anthony, at which place he lived. 



1849] and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 



R. MARSHALL 



was born in Boone county, Missouri, OAober 17, 18*5. His father, 
Joseph Marshall, was a native of Kentucky, and hin mother, Abbv 
Shaw, of Pennsylvania. In his younger days, Mr. Marshall followfcd 



WILLIAM B. MARSHALL. 



the business of mining, survej-ing, &c., and spent several years in the 
lead region of Wisconsin. In 1847, he came to Saint Croix Falls, and 
settled there for a few months. During September of that year, he first 
visited Saint Anthony Falls, on foot. His account of this visit, in his 



240 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S49 

address before mentioned, is worthy of a record here: "When with 
weary feet, I stood at last, in the afternoon of that day, on the brink of 
the Falls, I saw them in all their beauty and grandeur, unmarred by 
the hand of man, — in such beauty of nature as no one has seen them 
in the past 22 years. As the light of the fast-declining sun of that 
autumn day bathed the tops of the trees and the summits of the gentle 
hills, and left the shadows of the wooded islands darkling the waters, 
and as the plunging, seething, deafening Falls sent up the mist and set 
its rainbow arching the scene, I was filled with a sense of the awe-in- 
spiring in nature, such as I have rarely since experienced." At that 
time a claim shanty or two were the only habitations there. 

Gov. Marshall, on that visit, staked out a claim, and cut logs for a 
cabin, but could not get a team to haul them. So he left it for the 
present, and returned in 1849, ^'^^ perfedled his claim, which has since 
become an addition to the city. 

In the fall of 1848, he was elected to the Legislature of Wisconsin, 
from Saint Croix county, but his seat was contested by Joseph Bowron, 
of Hudson, on the grounds that Marshall lived out of the limits of 
the St^te, which had just been admitted. 

After settling at Saint Anthony, in 1849, ^^ ^^^ ele<5led a member 
of the first Legislature from that distri(ft. He was then engaged in the 
iron and heavy hardware business. The following summer, he en- 
deavored to get the steamers to deliver his heavy freights at the foot of 
the Falls, but, as they would not or could not do so, he was compelled 
to remove his business to Saint Paul, which he did in 185 1. He had, in 
the meantime, it may be remarked, surveyed "Leech's Addition," and 
other portions of our city. On removing to Saint Paul, he established 
the first iron store in this city, the same business now continued by 
NicoLS & Dean. In 1852, he was elected County Surveyor. In 1853, 
with his brother, Joseph M. Marshall, (now of Colorado,) and N. P. 
Langford, he established a banking house, which was very successful 
until 1857, when the crash prostrated everything. In 1855, he was the 
candidate of the Republican party for Delegate to Congress, but the party 
were not successful in the contest, H. M. Rice being elected ; though 10 
years later the tables were turned, Mr. Marshall beating Mr. Rice 
for Governor. After withdrawing from the banking business, he en- 
gaged in stock-raising and dairy-farming for several years, importing 
some of the finest cattle ever brought to our State. 

In December, i860, he purchased the Saint Paul Daily Times^ and, on 
January i, 1861, issued it as the Daily Press, in connection with New- 
ton Bradley, Esq., as business manager, and Joseph A. Wheelock, 
as assistant editor. The Press was very successful, soon absorbing the 
Minnesotiati, and has been ever since, until its mergement into another 
paper, a leading journal of the State. 

In August, 1862, Gov. Marshall enlisted in the Seventh Regiment, 



1849] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 241 

of which he was appointed Lieut. Colonel. During the Sioux out- 
break, he was constantly in adlive service, and, in several engagements, 
led his men with a fearless bravery which has always been a chara<5ler- 
istic. He was also in the expedition of 1863. In November of that 
year he was commissioned Colonel. The Regiment went south that 
full, and was soon after assigned to the Sixteenth Army Corps. It had 
its full share of battles and campaigns, until the end of the war. Col. 
Marshall being, in the meantime, brevetted a Brigadier. Shortly af- 
ter the discharge of the Regiment, in August, 1865, he was elected 
Governor of Minnesota, and, in 1867, re-eledted for another term. On 
the conclusion of his term, January, 1870, he again engaged in bank- 
ing, being Vice President of the Marine National Bank, and President 
of the Minnesota Savings Bank. In 1874, he was appointed a member 
of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, and, in November, 1875, was 
re-ele<5ted Commissioner for two years. 

Gov. Marshall has been prominent in a number of our public in- 
stitutions, and in measures and enterprises to benefit the city — such as 
the Saint Paul bridge, &c., and in educational matters. He has been 
a(ftive in organizing the Swedenborgian church in this city, and has 
liberally aided other societies. Like most of our pioneers, he rejoices 
in sound health and a good constitution, and his a(5live participation in 
events may extend over another generation yet. 

SAINT PAUL INCORPORATED AS A TOWN. 

The Legislature continued in session for 60 days, adjourning 
on November 3, 1849. ^^ passed many a6ls which had a bear- 
ing on the material prosperity of the Territory. Nine coun- 
ties were created, among them one named in honor of the 
Governor of the Territory — Ramsey. Saint Paul was declared 
to be the county seat of the same, and, on the first day of No- 
vember, 1849, a bill was approved, incorporating the " Town 
of Saint Paul." It begins as follows ; 

''''Be it enadied^ <&c. That so much of the Town of Saint Paul as is 
contained in the original plat of said town, made by Ira Brunson, to- 
gether with Irvine and Rice's Addition, be and the same is hereby 
created a town corporate, by the name of the Town of Saint Paul." 

Then follows a provision for the election, on the 6th of May 
following, "and annually thereafter," of one President, one 
Recorder, and fivQ Trustees, each for the term of one year, 
the same to constitute a Town Council. They were empow- 
ered to appoint a Treasurer and Marshal, and other subordinate 



242 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1849 

officers. The President was also to be a Justice of the Peace, 
ex'officio, in all matters, civil or criminal. 

APPOINTMENTS OF OFFICERS. 

On the adjournment of the Legislature, the following ap- 
pointments by the Governor were announced, for Ramse}' 
county : 

Register of Deeds. — David Day.* 

Sheriff.— C. P. V. Lull. 

Commissioners. — Louis Robert and Andre Godfrey. 

Judge of Probate. — Henry A. Lambert. 

THE FIRST "bank" IN SAINT PAUL. 

The Pioneer, of November 15, aired up quite a neat swin- 
dle', as follows : 

" Some time in September last, there came to Saint Paul a burly- 
looking, middle-aged man, of medium stature, dressed in a drab suit, 
and wearing a drab-colored fur hat, who called himself Isaac Young, 
and represented that he had formerly been a saddler in Ohio. This 
man closeted himself with a Mr. Sawyer, who was then in Saint Paul, 
and got him to sign a large number of handsomely engraved pieces of 
paper, on which were engraved the words, ''''Bank of Saint Croix ^ 
Saint Paul, Minnesota,"" or something of that purport. Mr. Young 

* David Day was born in Burke's Garden, Virginia, September 19, 1825, and his 
boyhood was passed in the same place. In 1846, he removed to the lead region of Wis- 
consin, where he followed mining for three years, studying medicine at night and 
other leisure times, and attending the Medical Department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in winter. He graduated from that Institute in 1849. He came to Saint Paul 
in the spring of that year, and commenced the pra(5tice of medicine, which he pursued 
with much success for several years. In 1854, he entered the drug business, and with, 
drew from the pra(5tice of medicine. During this period he also held one or two im- 
portant public positions. In 1849, ^^ ^^^ appointed Register of Deeds, and the same fall 
ele<5ted for two years more. He was also a member of the legislatures of 1852 and 1853, 
from Benton county, in which he was temporarily residing, the latter year being eleAed 
Speaker. He retired from the drug business in 1S66, being at that time the oldest house 
in the State. In 1871, he was appointed State Prison Inspe<ftor. In 1874, he was ap- 
pointed one of the Commissioners of State Fisheries, and also " Seed Wheat Commis- 
sioner," to provide the sufferers from the grasshopper raid with seed — ^both honorary 
appointments, without any compensation. On June i, 1875, he was appointed Postmas- 
ter of Saint Paul. Dr. Day has been a close observer and diligent student of questions 
and problems in social science, philosophy and political economy, and at the same time 
has been one of our most successful, sagacious and enterprising businessmen. With 
an even temperament, and well-preserved physique, one might almost expe<ft him to be 
the ** last man" of the old settlers. 



1849^ ««(/ of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 243 

disappeared from Saint Paul. The next we hear of Mr. Young, he is 
in Saint Louis, buj'ing printing paper, and negotiating for goods to 
send to Saint Paul. Notes of the "Bank of Saint Croix, at Saint 
Paul," are quoted in the Eastern banlt note liste at one per cent, dis- 
count, the quotation being furnished by some accomplice in the fraud, 
living in Wall street. New York. Mr. Young has not reappeared in 



DAVID DAY. 

never will. Mr. Sawyer, 



The rush of immigration continued late that fall. The Pi- 
nneer, of November 15, says : " Steamboats continue to ar- 
rive at our wharves, laden with merchandize and passengers." 

The Chronicle, of September 29, states that 2,135 barrels of 
cranberries had been shipped below up to tha^ date. The 



244 ^^ History of the City of Saint Paul,, [1849 

cranberry trade, for several years, was quite a large one. 
They were mostly gathered by squaws, who traded them for 
goods and other merchandize at the stores. 

Pig's Eye was stated at this time to have a population of 
forty families. 

THE ELECTION FOR COUNTY OFFICERS, 

under the new laws passed by the Legislature, took pkce on 
November 26. Ramsey county at that time extended up the 
Mississippi River to its source almost, including, of course, 
Saint Anthony. The vote stood as follows : 

St, Anthony. 

Register Dr. D. Day 39 

** W. D. Phillips 30 

Sheriff C. P, V. Lull 17 

" J.R.Irvine 33 

** Ed. Brissett 19 

Treasurer y. W. Simpson 69 

Commissioners L,. Robert 57 

'* A.Godfrey 19 

B. Gervais 31 

John Banfil 37 

** R. P. Russell 54 

Judge of Probate H. A. Lambert 34 

''' B. W. Lott.. 33 

Those in italics elected. 

ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

An adjourned school meeting of the citizens took place at 
" the school house," on December i . Hon. C. K. Smith, from 
the committee previously appointed, after reviewing the pro- 
visions of the Minnesota Statute on public schools, and that 
of Wisconsin, still in force, reported, recommending : " That 
two persons be appointed by this meeting to call on the 
County Commissioners, and request them to divide the 
town into a suitable number of school distridls, after which an 
organization of the districts shall be brought about, agreeably 
to the requirements of the law." Also, that a committee be 
appointed to procure from Jno. R. Irvine, a deed to the lot on 
which the school house then stood, provided the amount still 



u 



St. Paul. 


Total. 


172 


211 


69 ' 


99 


172 


189 


60 


93 


2 


21 


240 


309 


202 


259 


123 


142 


167 


198 


70 


107 


108 


162 


149 


183 


93 


126 



1849] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 245 

due for its eredlion ($80) was paid ; and to secure from Mr. 
Randall a deed for the lot which he had proposed to donate 
for school purposes on Jackson street. Three schools were 
recommended to be opened ;* one on the RaniXall lot, to be 
put up immediately ; one in the basement of the Methodist 
church, and one in "Mr. Neill's lecture room." As teachers 
Miss H. E. Bishop, Miss Scofield, and Rev. C. Hobart, 
were recommended ; the committees ( of two each ) who 
were to be appointed as above, to be the school trustees until 
the town shall be districted, and others ele(5ted. 

The report was adopted, and the following gentlemen 
appointed as the trustees : Wm. H. Forbes, John Snow, 
Edmund Rice, Rev. E. D. Neill, Rev. B. F. Hoyt, J. 
Parsons, and B. W. Brunson. 

REVIEW OF THE TRADE OF 1 849. 

The river remained open and navigable this year 242 days, 
during which there were 95 arrivals. 

The whole mercantile business of Saint Paul for the year 
1849, was ascertained at the close of the season to be $131 ,ooq. 
Of this, $60,000 was computed to be groceries alone. There 
were scarcely any stores devoted exclusively to one branch of 
business. Each had " a little of everything" — groceries, hard- 
ware, dry goods, clothing, boots and shoes, &c. In a short 
time, however, this changed, and nearly every merchant de- 
voted himself to one line of merchandize. The McCloud 
Bros, established the first exclusively hardware' store in Min- 
nesota, during this year. 

FIRST BUSINESS DIRECTORY, JANUARY I, 1850. 

In the New Year's Address of the Pioneer^ mentioned more 
fully hereafter, the following business directory is given : 

Clergymen, — Rev. Messrs. Ravoux, Neill, Hobart, Hoyt, Parsons. 
Lawyers.— Ed, Rice, H. A. Lambert, W. D. Phillips, P. P. Bishop, 



♦The Chronicl^ and Register of January 6, 1850, says that, "our three schools recently 
established, are now in full blast, affording by their capacity and location, ample means 
for the education of all the children in town." One of these was the old frame build- 
ing situated on the west side of Jackson street, below Sixth. It is now used as a 
second-hand store. 



246 The History of the City of Saint Pauh [1S49 

Geo. L. Becker, H. F. Masterson, O. Simons, J. A. Wakefield, S. H. 
Dent, W. B. White, B. W. Lott, James M. Goodhue, L. A. Babcock, 
C. K. Smith. 

Land Agents, — A. V. Fryer, Isaac N. Goodhue. 

Physicians.— ]\ J. Dewej, David Day, Thos. R. Pott^, N. Barbour. 

Merchants.— E\ie\t & Bro., Fuller & Bro., L. Sloan, FuUerton & Cur- 
tis, W. H. Forbes, Douglas & Slosson, John Randall & Co., Louis Ro- 
bert, H. W. Tracy & Co., Daniel Hopkins, Sergeant & Bowen, J. W. 
Simpson, Bart. Presley & Co., Dewey & Cavileer, N. Barbour, J. C. 
Ramsey. 

Tailors. — Johnson & Brown, W. H. Tinker, J. N. Slosson. 

Shoemaker. — Hugh McCann. 

Hotels. — ^American House, by R. Parker ; Tremont House, by J. A. 
Wakefield ; Central House, by R. Kennedy ; Saint Pa«J House, by J. 
W. Bass ; DeRocher's House, by DeRocher ; Miller's Boarding House, 
by B. Miller. 

Painters. — J. M. Boal, Burrill & Inman. 

Blacksmiths. — Wm. H. Nobles & Co., Leverich & Co. 

Plasterers.—]. R. Irvine, D. De Webber, Starkfielder, C. P. Scott, 

Masons. Barnes, B. Bowles, Wm. Beaumette, Hanley, J. 

Kirkpatrick. 

Carpenters. — C. P. V. Lull, Wm. Bryant, A. Foster, W. Woodbury, 

W. C. Morrison, J. B. Coty, Chas. Bazille, T. Lareau, Coit, H. 

Willey, Eaton & Bro., Chase, B. F. Irvine, J. B. Lumbeek, Joseph 

Brinsmade, H. Glass, J. Frost. 

Silversmith. — Nathan Spicer. 

Gunsmith McGuire. 

Bakers. — Berry & Bro., K. Stewart, Humphrey & Brinkman. 

Wheel-Wrights. — Nobles & Morrison, Hiram Cawood. 

Saddle and Harness Maker. — A. R. French. 

Tinner. — C. D. Bevans. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 347 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1850. 

C£LSBRATioN OF New Year's Day— Curious New Year's Address— Balls— 
Roads and Mail Service— Sketch of "Old Bets"— A Homicide— Sketch 
OF Hon. E. Rice— First Term of Court— First Town Election— Daring 
Indian Conflict. 

T^HE year 1850 opened auspiciously. The prad:ice of 
-*- '* making calls" was then inaugurated by the gentlemen 
of the city. The day was clear and fine, and all enjoyed it 
greatly. The Pioneer says : 

" The festivities and hilarity of our town on New Year's confirm the 
truth that cold weather can never freeze warm hearts. Saint Paul was, 
yesterday, swarming with animated fashion. The sideboards of many 
of our citizens were provided with free entertainments, which would do 
credit to the wealthy burghers of Gotham. At 11 o'clock a. m., our 
people assembled at the Methodist church, to attend the exercises of 
the Minnesota Historical Society. * * * In the evening, there was 
a rush to the ball at the Central House, there being nearly or quite one 
hundred gentlemen, with their ladies, present." 

THE ''pioneer's" NEW YEAR*S ADDRESS. 

The Pioneer issued, on January i, a New Year's Address, 
which created considerable amusement. A few extra(5ts will 
show its tone : 

"The cities on this river must be three, 
Two that are built, and one that is to be. 
One is the mart of all the tropics yield; 
The cane, the orange, and the cotton-field ; 
And sends her ships abroad and boasts 
Her trade extended to a thousand coasts ; 
The other ^ central for the temperate zone, 
Garners the stores that on the plairfs are grown ; 
A place where steamboats from all quarters range, 
To meet and speculate, as 'twere, on 'change. 



248 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S50 

The third "will be^ where rivers confluent flow 

From the wide-spreading north through plains of snow : 

The mart of all that boundless forests give 

To make mankind more comfortably live ; 

The land of manufacturing industry, 

The workshop of the nation it shall be. 

Propelled by this wide stream, you'll see 

A thousand fa<5lories at Saint Anthony : 

And the Saint Croix a hundred mills shall drive, 

And all its smiling villages shall thrive ; 

But then my town — remember that high bench 

With cabins scattered over it, of French ? 

A man named Henry Jackson's living there, 

Also a man — ^why, every one knows L. Robair ; 

Below Fort Snelling, seven miles or so. 

And three above the village of Old Crow ? 

Pig's Eye? Yes; Pig's Eye! That's the spot ! 

A very funny name; is't not? 

Pig's Eye's the spot, to plant my city on, 

To be remembered by, when I am gone. 

Pig's Eye, converted thou shalt be, like Saul : 

Thy name henceforth shall be Saint Paul. 

When the Wisconsin's wedded to the Fox 

By a canal and solid steamboat locks ; 

When freighted steamboats leave Saint Paul one day, 

And reach, the next but one. Green Bay; 

When locomotives regularly draw. 

Their freighted trains from distant Pembina, 

And o'er the bridge rush, thundering, at Saint Paul; 

And, at Dubuque, to breathe, scarce make a call ; 

But hurry onward to the hot Balize, 

By flying farms, plantations, houses, trees', — 

When from the Cave to Pig's Eye shall extend 

A levee lined with steamboats to each end ; 

When one great city covers all 

The ground from Pig's Eye to the Falls, 

I then will claim Saint Paul for mine, 

The child of 1849." 

Some of these visions of the future, though then a mere 
freak of wild fancy,' have been so closely fulfilled since, or are 
about to be, the doggerel will repay a careful perusal. 

BALLS AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR. 

A ball was held on January 17, at the Central House. The 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 249 

Pioneer criticises it in a humorous way, that would lead one 
to suppose that society was not as starchy and high-toned 
those days as we have it at our bon ton soirees now-a-days. It 
advises gentlemen to wear neither moccasins or heavy boots 
at balls ! The Pioneer also thought it "vulgar for a lady to 
make up a bundle of cake, nuts and candies at the table to 
carry home ! She might as well pocket the sugar-bowl and 
teaspoons." 

Balls and sociable dancing parties appear to have been about 
the only amusements in winter-time then, and, without them, 
the long winter months Would have probably been intolerably 
tedious. The 2 2d of February this year was celebrated by a 
ball at the American House, 80 or more persons being present. 
The band of the Sixth Regiment generally furnished music 
for those soirees. Their leader, Mr.. Jackson, was a famous 
bugler, and many of our old citizens remember the soul-stirring 
notes of his favorite instrument. 

Another famous ball musician of early days was a colored 
man, named Wm. Taylor. He had a very musical voice, and 
has '' called figures" for hundreds of balls and dances, almost. 
He was killed by the Indians at Yellow Medicine, in 1862. 



ROADS AND MAIL SERVICE. 



The Pioneer complains, and justly, too, that the mail ser- 
vice during the winter of 1849-50, was execrable. "7? takes 
(groaned the editor) a month to get a letter from Washington." 
The proposals advertised for, a short time previous, called for 
a weekly eastern mail, during winter. The contrail for this 
service was let to Hon. H. M. Rice, as will be further noted 
in a subsequent chapter. One reason for the poor service, 
probably, was the absence of good roads. Prior to this win- 
ter, the only road from Saint Paul to Prairie du Chien was on 
the ice of the river, after it froze — a route of much danger. 
In Novenjber and December, 1849, however, Wiram Knowl-. 
TON, of Willow River, (Hudson) Wisconsin, laid out a road 
from Prairie du Chien to that place, via Black River Falls. 
It was '' blazed and marked," he says, in a letter to the 
Pioneer^ '^the whole way," — distance, 223 miles. Some 
17 



250 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^5^^ 

streams were bridged, " and a span of good horses can now 
haul 1,800 or 2,000 pounds through the whole distance." 
'' Stopping places" could be found a part of the way, but the 
rest of the route, the traveler must " camp out" in the snow^. 
This road was used as the winter route east by Saint Paul 
travelers, for several years. Willoughby and Powers' stage 
line ran on it several seasons, and Mr. Rice's mail contra<5l 
was served on it, at least a part of that time. 

At this date, the only mail routes in Minnesota, besides the 
one above referred to, were from Saint Paul to Fort Snelling 
and back, weekly ; from Saint Paul to Falls of Saint Croix, 
via Stillwater and Marine Mills, and back, weekly, with one 
additional trip per week to Stillwater and back. There were, 
in 1850, only sixteen post-offices in what is now Minnesota. 

• 

ORGANIZATION OF CHURCHES. 

On December 29, 1849, a Baptist church had been organ- 
ized, with 12 members, and was "recognized" by a Council 
the day following. This was the first Baptist church in Min- 
nesota. The Pioneer^ of January 9, 1850, has the following: 

'*The First Presbyterian church, of Saint Paul, was organized last 
Sunday, jn the Rev. Mr. NeilL's chapel. Bros. Selby and Tinker, 
who had been before chosen elders, were ordained by the laying on of 
hands, &c. Rev. Dr. Williamson, of the Little Crow Mission, was 
present, with several of the native Sioux." 

Hon. Geo. L. Becker* was one of the original members 
of this church, and is still a member of it. 



* Hon. George L. Becker was born in Locke, Cayuga county, New York, Febru- 
ary 4, 1839. In 1841, his father removed to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he entered the 
Freshman class of the University of Michigan, in 184a, and graduated in 1846, his class 
being the second one graduated at that institution. Immediately after graduating he 
studied law with George Sedgwick, Esq., of Ann Arbor, and remained with him 
until October, 1849, when he emigrated to Saint Paul, arriving here on the apth of that 
month. He at once commenced the practice of law, and soon after formed a copartner- 
ship with Edmund Rice and Ellis G. Whitall, under the firm name of "Rick, 
Whitall & Becker." About a year afterwards, Mr. Whitall withdrew, and Wm. 
HoLLiNSHEAD, one of the best lawyers who ever lived in the State, joined the firm, 
which then became *• Rice, Hollinshead & Becker," one of the most successful and 
widely-known law firms in the Territorial days of Minnesota, continuing to transact 
II large and important business until its dissolution in 1856. Mr. Rice retired during 
that year, and Messrs. Becker and Hollinshead continued the business for another 
year, when Mr. Becker withdrew and soon after ceased the a<ftive practice of law. 

During the last thirteen years, Mr. Becker has been aAively engaged in the important 



1S50} and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 151 

Vvurk <if f<>r>var<lmg Ihe railroad intcrcsU of the SUte. In tg6j. he was chosen Laiid 
CommiBsioner of the Saint PauLaiid Pacific Railroad. Upon the organization of the 
First Ditisiiin of the Saint Riul and Pacific KaJlroad, (6th of Ketn-uary, 1864,) he was 
nsltlnn he has held ever since. Under liis able 



GEORGE L. BECKER. 

formed an immcn:^ amount of physical and mental labor, mahLng freqnei 
5 east and to Europe, besides carrying on his large office business et home, ar 
esponsible public offices at the same time. 
IKCKEH has filled a number of importanl offices in our State. In 1354, at t) 



252 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1^50 

« 

The Pioneer^ of February 27th, says : '* Our Baptist friends 
are making adlive preparations for erec^Ung a house of public 
worship in Saint Paul." 

''old bets" 

used to flourish about those days, as she did for many years 
subsequently. No history of Saint Paul can be complete which 
omits mention of this curious character, so well known to all 
the old residents. The papers about this date contain numer- 
ous references to her — some not very complimentary, perhaps, 
but they show that " Old Bets" was a sort of favorite, at 
least, which she certainly was. 

Old Bets was a full-blood Sioux woman, of the M'dewakontonwan 
tribe. She came of a family which was somewhat distinguished in its 
way. Her Sioux name was Aza-ya-man-ka-wan, or Berry-picker. 
She was born near Mendota, in 1788, and was at the time of her death 
only 75 years old, though she was generally supposed to be 100. She 
was '* married," after the Indian fashion, to Ma-za-sa-gia^ or "Iron 
Sword," who died a few years subsequently at Mendota. She had 
several children. One daughter was living not long ago in Saint Paul. 
A son, named Ta-opi^ or '* Wounded Man," born at Mendota, became 
somewhat noted as a convert to Christianity, and, after his death at 
Faribault, in 1869, Bishop Whipple published a fine volume of his 
biography, with an engraved portrait. A town in southern Minnesota 
has been named for him. One of her brothers was He-in-da-koo, a 
famous warrior, prophet and medicine man, who was killed by the 
Chippewas, some years ago. * One-legged Jim* was another brother 
of Old Bets. He had lost a leg in some skirmish, and used to peg 

first municipal election, under our city charter, he was ele<fled an Alderman, and, in 
1856, chosen Mayor of the cily. In 1857, ^^ ^^^ elected from Ramsey county one of the 
members of the Constitutional Convention, and soon after eleAed one of the three mem. 
bers of Congress to which it was supposed our State (when admitted) would be entitled. 
During the delay which attended its admission, it became certain that only two mem- 
bers could be received, and Mr. Becker at once resigned. The following year (1859) 
he was unanimously nominated, at a Convention of his party, for Governor, but the 
opposite side gained the day. In 1867, he was elected a member of the State Senate from 
Ramsey county, and re-eleAed in r869, serving four sessions in all. Such was the confi- 
dence reposed in him by both parties, that, at his last ele<5tion, no nomination was made 
against him on the opposite ticket, and he was unanimously chosen. In 187a, Mr. 
Becker was again nominated for Congress, but his party was not successful in the 
contest. 

Mr. Becker has generously aided all the benevolent, literary and educational insti- 
tutions of Saint Paul, and is known as one of our foremost citizens in every good 
enterprise. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 353 

around on a wooden stump. He was well known to most of the early 
settlers, and was never backward about begging. 

Old Brts lived all her life in this localitj-. Miss Bishop mentions 
her frequently in her work, " Floral Homes," and gives a good portrait 
of her. She has been photographed many times, and her pictures, 
purchased by tourists, may be found in albums in all parts of the civil- 
ized world. Thousands of them have been sold. She was always very 
proud of this distinrftion, and of the notice paid her by travelers, 
never failing to levy a small tax on them. Mungkr Bros, once pub- 



lish^ a piece of music (words by J. H. Hanson) based on the supposed 
faA that she was 100 years old, and some artist made a very good bust 
of her. So she had become quite an institution in our midst. She 
subsisted by begging for many years. She was always welcome at the 
kitchen doors of the old settlers, and never failed to bear off a wallet of 
food. She was a privileged charaiiler in many ways, and no old settler 
[she knew them all] would refuse her request for kash-foppy (money.) 
She always greeted her acquaintances on the street with a broad grin 
of her huge mouth, and a cheerful " ho-ho." During the Sioux War. 
she was very kind to white prisoners„and possessed other good traits. 
She was converted to Christianity shortly before her death, by Father 



254 '^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul., [1850 

Ravoux. When her last illness was known, the Chamber of Commerce 
subscribed a sum of money for her comfort, and she had a Christian 
burial. She died about May i, 1873, at Mendota. The portrait here- 
with is an excellent likeness. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

" Some journeyman preacher would make a profitable trip up the 
Mississippi River, with a suppljof blank marriage licenses, there being 
no person north of Saint Paul, who is authorized, by law, to tie the 
nuptial knot. Many couples are represented* to be in an awful state of 
suspense. The laws of Minnesota do not anywhere authorize Justices 
of the Peace to solemnize marriages." — \_Pioneer^ Jan. 30.] 

" Many of the people go unshaved, although the village is supplied 
with three barbers — such is the scarcity of soap." — [lb.] 

*' Wood is selling in Saint Paul at about $1.50 per cord." — [lb.] 

"The foundation of a brewery is laid at the upper end of Saint 
Paul."— [lb.] 

" *Great Cry and Little Wool.' — Four of the lawyers of Saint 
Paul were engaged all day last Wednesday, in trying the right of prop- 
erty in a little, old sow." — [lb., Feb. 27.] 

" We would advise each immigrant to Saint Paul this season, as we 
did last season, to come prepared to build a cheap house immediately, 
without depending upon hiring a house." — [lb.] 

The Pioneer notices the market bare of cured meats ; ''only 
fresh meats," it says, " and mallards 20c. a pair." It adds: 

** One year ago there were three stores in Saint Paul, sold out at that, 
so that the place was absolutely bare of goods and provisions. There 
are now fifteen stores, in one or the other of which almost every article 
of necessity can be found." 

ANOTHER HOMICIDE. 

On Friday, February 22, 1850, another homicide occurred. 
Two men, named Alex. R. McLeod and Wm. B. Gordon, 
got into an affray, where the Stillwater road forded Phelan's 
Creek, about a mile east of town, on or near McLeod's claim, 
mentioned on page 136. Gordon was so severely injured that 
he died next day. McLeod was arrested and examined be- 
fore Justice Wakefield. The evidence showed that both 
men were in liquor, but that Gordon first assaulted McLeod, 
striking him with a whip-stock, while McLeod used r othing 



L 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota. 255 

bul his fist. He was held to bail in the sum of $200, but, on 
trial before the next term of court, was acquitted on grounds 



of self-defense. McLeoo was defended bv Hon. Edmiinu 
Rice.* 

• Hon. Edmund Rick was born in Wailsfi.Ld, Vermont, February 14, i8ifl. He re. 
moved to Kslamaiflo, Michigan, in 1S3S; studied law, and was adinilled to prsiftice in 
iSfi; was Master in Chancery, Register of the Court of Chancery for the Third Cir- 
nil, and Clerk of the Supreme Court of the State. He served in the Mexican War, in 



256 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S50 

GRANt) COUNCIL WITH THE WINNEBAGOES. 

On March 14, a deputation of the principal chiefs of the 
Winnebagoes, who were dissatisfied with their Reservation, 
waited on Gov. Ramsey. A grand council was held in the 
trading house of Olmsted & Rhodes, on Third street, be- 
tween Jackson and Robert streets. Afnong the famous chiefs 
present were One-Eyed Dekora, (who took Black Hawk 
a prisoner in i8j2,) Winneshiek, Big Canoe, Good Thun- 
der, Little Dekora, Carimona, Little Hill, and others, 
more or less prominently known in the history of the North- 
west, and a number of Sioux also attended. Gen. J. E. 
Fletcher, Winnebago Agent, was present, and Wm. H. 
Forbes and John Haney, Jr., a<5led as interpreters. They 
stated their grievances to Gov. Ramsey, and had a long talk. 
They were finally persuaded to return to their Reservation and 
remain there peaceably. 

It was at this council that Gov. Ramsey made his famous 
temperance speech to the Indians. He admonished them of 
the dangers of intemperance, and urged them to quit drinking. 
" The white men," he said, " have quit drinking" — [the inter- 
preter translated this, but the Indians looked a little astonished 
and incredulous — so the Governor qualifiedly added,] ^^ in a 
g'r eat measure r The interpreter rendered this literally, to 
mean a large-sized vessell Old Dekora, at this, exclaimed, 
" perhaps they had, but most of them still use a small measure !" 

ROADS and mails. 

The continual complaint at poor mail facilities has been 

1847 and 1S4S, with the commission of First Lieutenant of the First Michig^an Volunteers. 
In July, 1S49, he settled in Saint Paul, and soon became a member of the law firm of 
Rice, Hollinshead & Becker, which, for several years, was a leading law firm in 
Minnesota. He pra<fticed until 1855. In 1857, he became President^ of the Minnesota 
and Pacific Railroad Company, and also President of its successors, the Saint Paul and 
Pacific, and the Saint Paul and Chicago Railway Companies, till 1873, performing a 
large amount of service in the organization and starting of our railway system. 

Mr. Rice was a member of the Territorial Legislature, in 1851, of the State Senate 
in 1864 and 1865, House in 1867, and the Senate again, in 1873 and 1874— an instance of 
popularity extending, in the same direAion, over a longer period than any other we 
have chronicled. Mr. Rice's valuable services to his county and city, not only in the 
Legislature, but as a pioneer in works of internal improvement— the highways of com- 
merce — have won for him their lasting gratitude and regard. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 2c; 7 

before noted. The breaking up of the winter of 1849-50, 
rendered the ice on the river, which was at that time the 
public road, very insecure, and many accidents happened, 
several persons being drowned. On March 29, a mail was 
received, the first for 20 days, says the Pioneer — a deprivation 
that must have been sorely felt, in the isolated condition of the 
community then. The Pioneer^ of February 27, adds : 

" The number of letters passing through the post-office at Saint Paul 
averages nearly 700 per week. The mail to Saint Anthony alone is 
larger than the whole mail of the Territory was one year ago." 

THE MORALS OF SAINT PAUL. 

• 

The editor of the Pioneer denies reports that had been cir- 
culated abroad, that Saint Paul was a disorderly and immoral 
place. He said, despite the temporary character of many 
homes, and the floating population — men without families, 
&c. — and the fa<5l that the town government had not yet organ- 
ized, the town was orderly and moral. Religious services 
held in five churches, and well attended — Sunday observed — 
drunkenness and gambling not openly carried on — good 
schools, and a good moral tone in community. No violent 
disorders or crimes. 

If whisky was sold, it must have been as villainous "forty- 
rod" stuff'as is now vended. An old Indian, named Rattler, 
who had a camp across the river, managed to get a drink in 
town, one night, and was found dead in his teepee next morn- 
ing. Whisky that could kill a Sioux Indian that quick, must 
have been a mighty mean article. 

SCRAPS. 

About this time, a contest for the cathedral of this bishop- 
ric is noted. Pierre Bottineau and others made profuse 
offers of lots at Saint Anthony, but some eligible lots were 
finally secured here, the same on which it now stands, as is 
narrated elsewhere. . 

Reference is made to Sergeant E. K. Thomas, of Fort 
Snelling, an artist of some skill, who used to paint portraits 
of Indian celebrities quite skillfully. 



258 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1850 

FIRST TERM OF COURT FIRST GRAND JURY. 

The first term of court in Ramsey county, was held on 
Monday, April 8, 1850, with 49 cases on the calendar. Chief 
Justice Goodrich presided. Thirteen indictments were found, 
mostly against gambling-house keepers. McLeod, for homi- 
cide, was acquitted. 

.There was no jail then. Prisoners were generally sent to 
Fort Snelling for safe-keeping. The Pioneer, of April 16, 
says : 

"Jacob R. Shipler, indidted for assaulting his wife with intent to 
kill, and convi(5ted and sentenced to imprisonment in penitentiary for 
one year, slipped away from the sheriff and escaped." 

The Saint Paul people must have been a very litigious com- 
munity then, as it is now. The /Yow^^r says : "We have now^ 
25 lawyers in Saint Paul !" •What sins could this young and 
feeble population have committed, that such a punishment 
was sent on them ? 

From the records of this term, I find the names of the first 
grand jury ever drawn for Ramsey county, as follows : 

William H. Nobles, Wyman Baker, C. D. Bevans, 
And. Godfrey, R. Cummings, Fred. Olivier, A. TITLo\^^ 
H. R. GiBBS, D. L. Fuller, Jno. Ford, J. M. Marshall, 
James Hinton, John Carlton, Ed. Patch, Loren Jones, 
Eben Weld, Henry H. Angel, Louis Parker, Reuben 
Bean, S. K. Lane, Francis Chenevert, John B. Coty, 
A. L. Larpenteur. 

The record adds : ^''Some of the above reported for duty." 
A part of these lived at Saint Anthony, then in Ramsey count}'. 

the flood of 1850. 

In the spring and early summer of this year, a great freshet 
occurred, mainly caused by extreme heavy snows on the 
Upper Mississippi, and long-continued warm rains early in 
the spring. The water commenced rising about April i , and 
continued most of the month. The floor of the Constans 
warehouse, still standing, was submerged several inches — 
higher water, if we mistake not, than has been known since. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 259 

and, the Pioneer of that date said, "unprecedented for many 
years." The water subsided somewhat when the regular "June 
fresh" came on, which again carried it up, and it remained 
high for several weeks. The "Anthony Wayne," a steamer 
well known in those days, went up to the Falls of Saint An- 
thony on the flood, and likewise, made a trip up the Minnesota 
River ^ as did also the "Yankee" a little later. 

When the river first rose at Saint Paul, the ice was still 
firm, and swept down in huge cakes. The Pioneer^ of April 
10, says : " Last evening in Saint Paul, we could hear the 
noise of masses of ice tumbling over the Fails of Saint An- 
thony, eight miles distant." The roaring of the Falls used to 
be heard here several years afterwards, but the improvements 
there, changing their character, gradually stopped this. 

OPENING OF NAVIGATION, 1850. 

The Pioneer,^ of April 25, says: 

**On Friday morning, the 19th, (arrival of 'Highland Mary,') at 6 
o'clock, the smoke of a steamboat was visible at Saint Paul, and the 
very heart of the toWn. leaped for joy. * * * As she came up in 
front of Randall's warehouse, the multitude on shore raised a deafen- 
ing shout of welcome," &c. 

She brought 500 passengers, not an uncommon load for 
those days. 

" Such has been the anxiety here," continued the Pionee7\ 
"for the arrival of steamboats, that nothing else was talked 
of. Saint Paul seemed likely to go to seed." 

An editorial of the same date says ; "At length the flood 
of immigration has burst through the barriers of Lake Pepin. 
The boats that have already arrived have brought hundreds of 
strangers amongst us. * * * Let us do everything in our 
power to welcome, encourage, and build up those who have 
come to unite their fortunes with ours" — and further recom- 
mends that, as the hotels are overcrowded, citizens entertain 
the strangers at their houses until they can build tenements. 

Some idea can be formed, from the above paragraph, of the 
joy with which the arrival of the first boat was hailed, in early 
days — opening communication with the rest of the world, af- 



26o The History of the City of Saint Paul., [1^5^ 

ter months of isolation. It was generally a signal for a jollifi- 
cation, at which all rules of restraint were thrown aside. At 
one of our Old Settler reunions, a graphic description was given 
of the president of a temperance society leaning up against 
Cons TANS* warehouse, two or three hours after the first boat 
arrived, entirely overcome by. his feelings, and retching in an 
agony of surfeit. Perhaps, like Rip Van Winkle, he thought 
"• that time didvUt count, ^^ Of late years, the opening of nav- 
igation has ceased to be of any importance or interest. Our 
railroads have changed all that. 

A vision of our northern pacific. 

In an editorial which now, that over twenty-five years have 
elapsed, reads with prophetic interest, the editor calls attention 
to '•'a short route to Oregon and California." He thinks, 
" there is some probability that a railroad will be made from 
Saint Louis westward, to San Francisco, at no very remote 
period." * * * "We wish now," (he adds,) "to turn 
your attention to another overland route, in the north, which 
we believe is far easier and safer," and proceeds to argue that 
Saint Paul is much nearer the Pacific in a dire<5l line, than 
Saint Louis; also. '•* that there is a route or trail from the 
Red River to the Columbia River, over which mails are regu- 
larly transported, by the Hudson's Bay Company, with safet}' 
and ease." It must be remembered that the northern route 
for a railroad was then hardly thought of. Even the central 
route was looked on as an impossible scheme, and but few 
then, even young men, ever expelled to see it in their lifetime. 

FIRST TOWN election. 

On May 6, pursuant to the terms of the town charter, the 
first municipal election took place. There was no contest 
worth mentioning, and the following ofiicers were chosen : 

President. — Dr. Thomas R. Potts.*. 



* Dr. Thomas R. Potts was born in the city of Philadelphia, February lo, i8io. He 
graduated at the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, in 1831, and 
settled at Natchez, Mississippi, where he lived 10 years. In 1841, he removed to Ga- 
lena, Illinois, and, in 1849, to Saint Paul, where he praAiced medicine for 36 vears, 



1850] and of the County of Ra>*nsey, Minnesota. 263 

Recorder.— Edmund Rice. ^^ht from below. Some 

Trustees.— W. H. Forbes, B. F. H^, 
UALL, Henbv Jackson, and A. L. Larpe 
The records of the Board are lost, and the> 

proceedings are what appear from time to timtx 

^^^ >dtuted, under 

A DARING MURDER BY HOI.E-IN-THE-Da9- PoTTS," 

The Pioneer, of May 16, graphically describes a dJi 




HOLE. IN.T HK.DA Y . 

of Hole-in-thk-Day, the Chippewa chieftain, who used to be 
-so well known in Saint Paul : 

" On Wedneeday, the 15th, at about i p. m., there was a great excite- 
ment in Saint Paul— Indians yelling at each other across the river, and 
running up and down the shores, canoes crossing the river, and every- 
thing betokening the utmost enasperation. It seems news has reached 



, elHfted City Physic 




26o The History of the City of Saint PaiiL [1850 

ter months of isolation^x were overtaken, a short distance out of 

cation, at which all r^^^^^ ^"^ ^^^^^ ^*^^" prisoners. At this mo- 

r rM J o iu-i - Sioux have started northward through tovjrn, 

one of our Old bettP . .. /• .u j ^ ji a^ ^^^ t-k;^ 

ikets, in pursuit of the dastardly murderers. This 

of the president <£ ^^^ ^^^^^ jg ^^^^^ struck by the Chippewas in 
CoNSTANS' \yf4 of their tribe, murdered the other day in a sugar 
arrived, enJ«>ioux. 

aeony of About sunset, on Wednesday, the Sioux returned, with the 
" that f^^^^ man, (who seems to be the only one murdered,) whom 
. >Ad in a canoe, nailed up in a box, covered with a red pall. Just 
ark, they left the lower landing in sadness, with their canoes, for 
village, four miles down the river." 

The murder, which was a most daring feat, was committed 
by Hole-in-the-Day. He secreted his canoe in the mouth 
of the creek that runs from '*• Fountain Cave," and, with one 
or two other warriors, crossed the river, attacked several Sioux, 
and killed and scalped one, and got off with the scalp before 
quite a body of the Sioux, who were near by, could get the 
alarm. It was a most audacious adl. The Pioneer^ of May 
23, says : 

"A gentleman, just down from Fort Gaines, says that, on his way 
down, he met the Chippewa chief, Hole-in-the-Day, with the scalp 
of the young Sioux Indian, which that brave took last week in this 
neighborhood, divided into quarters. He was in fine feather. At night 
he and his followers had a scalp-dance. In his descent on the Sioux, 
in the short space of 24 hours, he marched 80 miles, committed the 
murder, and started for home again." 

In order to put a stop, if possible, to these butcheries by 
the Indians, Governor Ramsey summoned the chiefs of both 
tribes, their agents and interpreters, to a council at Fort Snel- 
ling, which was held on June 11 or 12. After tedious palav- 
er, a sort of treaty of peace was patched up between the red- 
skins, for about the fiftieth time. 

THE CHOLERA 

was quite bad this season, and several very sudden deaths oc- 
curred. It was quite bad at towns down the river also, and 
passengers arriving per steamer constituted quite a proportion 
of the cases. The Pioneer declared that not a case had orig- 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 263 

iiiated here — but that all had been brought from below. Some 
occurred subsequent to that, at all events. 

BRIEF ITEMS. 

On May 3, a Lodge of Odd Fellows was instituted, under 
the title of *' Saint Paul Lodge, No. 2," by John G. Potts,* 
of Galena. The charter members were, Benj. W. Brun- 
soN, Justus C. Ramsey, Comfort Barnes, B. W. Lott, 
John Dunshee, C. K. Smith, John Condon, J. B. Coty, 
and Wm. C. Huggins. 

The Pioneer^ of May 16, says: *' This morning about 10 
o'clock, Rev. Mr. Neill's commodious chapel, in Saint Paul, 
took fire, by some shavings, and was burned to ashes." This 
was the first fire which ever occurred in Saint Paul. Mr. 
Neill at once started east to colledl funds for a new church, 
in which he succeeded. In the meantime, he used to preach 
in an unfinished warehouse, which then stood where War- 
ner's Block now does. At the same time. Dr. Williamson 
would occasionally preach in a log building then occupied by 
Joseph R. Brown, on the site of the present Ingersoll Block. 
He, several times, preached there to the Sioux, in their lan- 
guage. 

A little of the speculative fever, which raged so intensely 
four or five years later, must have^hown itself then. On June 
27, 1850, the Pioneer remarks: '^The cash price of town 
lots in Saint Paul is too high. It is industry, it is labor, it is 
adual production, not gambling and speculation, which pro- 
duces wealth. We want to see more industry and production, 
and less gambling and speculation." But what would Good- 
hue and his compeers have said if they could have foreseen 
prices 20 years later? They would have kept mum on " gam- 
bling and speculation," and bought themselves poor. 

On June 19, a young mechanic, named John Lumley, died 
very suddenly of cholera, one of the few fatal cases that oc- 
curred this season. He was an Odd Fellow, and had been 



♦John G. Potts died at Galena, February 13, 1874. At his death he was ohc of the 
oldest Odd Fellows in the United States. 



264 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^5^ 

initiated only four days previous. The Fraternity turned out 
at his funeral, the first they had been called on to condud:. 
Referring to their new white regalia, Goodhue, who could not 
resist a joke, even at a funeral, writes that " he had not seen 
such a display of clean linen since the Territory was formed." 
If the mourners went about the streets, there was occasion- 
ally festivities and rejoicings likewise, and the bells did not 
always toll. The census-taker reported 25 marriages in Ram- 
sey county for the year- ending June i, 1850. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 265 



CHAPTER XIX. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1850.— Continued. 

Navigation of the Minnesota River — ^The Census of 1850 — List op Residents — 
Ethnological Notes — Aboriginal Items — The Indians and their Habits — 
Political — Fredrika Bremer Visits Saint Paul — The CouRT-rtousE and 
Jail — Biographies of Old Settlers, &c. 

ONE of the most noticeable events of the year 1850, was 
the navigation of the Minnesota River. Three boats, the 
"Anthony Wayne," ''Nominee" and "Yankee," made excur- 
sions with large pleasure parties of Saint Paulites, each trying to 
ascend further than the other. The water was very favorable 
for such experiments, and the "Yankee" ascended 300 miles, 
thus demonstrating that the Minnesota was navigable. 

On July 18, the Pioneer says : "The water is now higher 
than in the spring freshet — higher than it has been for 28 
years." The Red River valley was also inundated, and the 
settlers compelled to flee to the hills. 

ITEMS. 

"The heavy rains have made the roads from Satnt Paul to Saint 
Anthony in some places impassable. The necessity for a railroad to 
the Falls is becoming every day more and more obvious. — [Pioneer, 
JulyiS.J 

The conveniences of a city are gradually increasing in Saint Paul. 
The confectioner, the ice-cart, the milk-man, are among the new 
conveniences here, and last, but not least, a regular market for fresh 
beef.— [lb.] 

The "Order of iooi*s" flourished in those days. Frequent 
notices are made of the meetings, and most of the prominent 
citizens were "roped in" just as they were a few years later 
into the Sons of Malta. James M. Goodhue was one of the 
high oflficers of the order. A leclure which he once wrote 
on the "emblems" of the order, illustrated with tovs bought 
18 



266 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1850 

in a store, is said to haye been a masterpiece of wit, excellino^ 
even Alf. Burnett's great ledliire on the menagerie. 

CENSUS OF 1850. 

Meantime the Federal census of iSso had* been taken, and 
the result in the county was as follows : 

Males, 1,337; females, 860; total, 2,197. 

No. of d-vyellings, 384 ; No. of acres improved, 458. 

Population of Saint Paul, 1,294; No. of families, 257. 

Ramsey county at that time, it should be remembered, in- 
cluded Saint Anthony, and, in fact, all of Minnesota on the 
east side of the Mississippi, except the Saint Croix valley. 
The census of Ramsey county was taken by Charles F. 
Tracy, who was a resident here from 1849 to 1855. 

RESIDENTS OF \^<,0, 

I have, with considerable labor, compiled from the census 
rolls, the following important and valuable list of residents 
of 1850. It may be. justly termed the *•' Battle Abbey Roll'' 
of Saint Paul. Where it was defe<5live or erroneous, I have 
added to it a number of names gathered from the roll books 
of societies, poll lists, advertisements, and other sources, so 
that it is probably quite correct. (It includes only adult male 
residents :) 

Quartus B. Abbott, B. Allen, Wm. Armstrong, (col'd,) 

Elliot Adams, Geo. W. Alvord, Louis Augee. 

Peter Allard, Michael E. Ames, 

J. W. Babcock, George Bemis, J. R. Brewster, 

Lorenzo A. Babcock, Lyman L. Benson, J. W. Brinsmade, 

Abram Baker, Corydon D. Bevans, O. B. Bromley, 

Daniel A. J. Baker, Henry L. Bevans, Joseph R. Brown. 

John Banfil, Stanislaus Bilanski, Oris Brown, 

Dr. Nehemi'h Barbour, P. P. Bishop,. S. F. Brown, 

V. B. Barnum, W. J. Blake, William Brown, 

Comfort Barnes, James M. Boal, Luther B. Bruin, 

Thomas Barton, Cyril Boisvert, Louis Brunel> 

F. J. Bartlett, Elijah Booth, B. W. Brunson, 

Louis Bartlett, Joseph Boudrette, Alden Bryant, 

Jacob W. Bass, Charles W. Borup, William Bryan, 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 267 



Joseph Bastin, 
William Battleford, 
Charles Bazille, 
Reuben Bean, 
J. B. Beauchernier, 
Geo. L. Becker, 
W. H. Belknap, 

Anthony Caifil, 
John B. Callis, 
Scott Campbell, 
Peter Cardinal, 
John J. Carlton, 
William G. Carter, 
John M. Castner, 
John B. Cotj, 
Charles S. Cave, 
A. H. Cavender, 
Charles Cavileer, 
Hiram Cawood, 
Firman Cazeau, 
William Chambers, 

Maxime Damas, 
Severe Desmarais, 
Xavier Desmarais, 
George Daniels, 
Jo'seph Daniels, 
Dr. David Day, 
James Day, 
Lyman Dayton, 
J. W. DeCamp, 

Alonzo Eaton, 
Benjamin Eaton, 
David Ebert, 
George Egbert, 

J. H. Farnham, 
Geo. W. Farrington, 
John Farrington, 
George Farquhar, 
Martin Fetcot, 
Stark Fielder, 
Thos. M. Finch, 



Joseph Boudreau, 
Joseph Bourcier, 
William Bowen, 
David Bradley, 
Patrick Brady, 
D. F. Brawley, 
Rev. J. Lloyd Breck, 

Peter Chapdelin, 
Warren H. Chapman, 
Gabriel Cheseiield, 
Bruno Chenevert, 
Anthony Chosee, 
James R. Clewett, 
Solomon T. Close, 
Francis Cloutier, 
Charles Colter, 
William Colter, 
John Condon, 
Alex. Connolly, 
Chas. R. Conv^ay, 
Philip Constans, 

Louis Denoyer, 
Narcisse Denoyer, 
Sam*l H. Dent, 
Wm. DeRocher, 
Isaiah DeWebber, 
Dr. Jno. J. Dev^rey, 
Rev. L. Dickens, 
Dyer Divine, 
Henry Doolittle, 

Abram S. Elfelt, . 
Chas. D. Elfelt, 
Edwin Elfelt, 



S. P. Folsom, 
James E. Forbes, 
Obed Foote, 
Wm. H. Forbes, 
B. B. Ford, 
Aaron Foster, 
Dr. Thomas Foster, 



Louis W. Bryson, 
William Buchanan, 
Willard Bunnell, 
Patrick Burke, 
Geo. W. Burkholder, 
Alex. Burnett, 
Henry C. Butler. 

Wm. Constans. 
David Cooper, 
Wm. F. Corbet, 
John B. Cornoyer< 
George Cornoyer, 
Joseph Cornoyer, 
Oliver Courtemanche, 
Marcil Coutourier, 
F. Couture, 
Peter Crevier, 
Charles Creek, 
J. W. Crosby, 
George Culver, 
John Cyphers. 

Hiram Doty, 
Geo. Douglas, 
Carter H. Drew, 
Taylor Dudley, 
D. W. C. Dunwell, 
Edward G. Dunford, 
Michael Dunning, 
Oliver Duprey, 
Wm, M. Dwinnels. 

Samuel Ells, 
Evan Evans, 
William Evans. 



Aug* J. Freeman, 
Cyrus Freeman, 
Alpheus R. French, 
J. Frick, 
A. V. Fryer, 
Jonathan Frost, 
A. G. Fuller, 



268 



The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^5^ 



A. Findley, 
Charles Fisher, 
Edwin Folsom, 

Louis Gabott, 
W. B. Gardner, 
Leander Garniot, 
Napoleon Gautier, 
J. Gehon, 
R. B. Gibson, 
Nathan Gilpatrick, 
Francis Gingras, 

John T. Halsted, 
Eberle Handley, 
John J. Haney, 
Frederic Hardy, 
George Harris, 
E. A. C. Hatch, 
Jacob Haus, 
Nathan Hawley, 
John Haycock, 
Edward Hays, 

B. F. Irvine, 

Henry Jackson, 
Louis Jacques, 
Noel Jaillard, 

S. F. KaufFman, 

C. Keller, 
Egidus Keller, 

Isaac La Bo.nissier, 
Joseph Labisinier, 
John B. LaChappel, 
Jacques Lafaire, 
Joseph Lafond, 
Henry A. Lambert, 
Henry F. Lander, 
Charles Landres, 
Henry Lansing, 
Hyele Lapierre, 
Peter Lapointe, 



G. A. Fournier, 
Richard Freeborn, 
William Freeborn, 

Joseph Gingras, 
Harlow Glass, 
Hugh Glenn, 
John Glenn, 
Joseph Gabin, 
Emanuel Goode, 
George Goodhue, 
Isaac N. Goodhue, 

John H. Henderson, 
John Henley, 
Charles J. Henniss, 
J. S. Hinckley, 
W. W. Hickox, 
Rev. Chauncy Hobart, 
Samuel C. Hoffman, 
John Holland, 
David Hopkins, 
Peter Hopkins, 

Jno. R. Irvine. 

Dr. Wm. H. Jarvis, 
William Jebb, 
John W. Johnson, 

Isaac M. Kelley, 
M. N. Kellogg, 
Robert Kennedy, 

Timothy Lareau, 
A. L. Larpenteur, 
E. N. Larpenteur, 
Leonard H. LaRoche, 
Louis Larrivier, 
William Lauver, 
Daniel Lavalle, 
Xavier Lavalle, 
Andrew Lavier, 
W. G. LeDuc, 
Michael Lemay, 



David L. Fuller, 
J. E. FuUerton, 
Luther Furnell. 

James M. Goodhue. 
Aaron Goodrich, 
Aaron Gould, 
Baptiste Gravelin, 
Joseph B. Gravelin, (?) 
Edward Greenwood, 
Vetal Guerin, 
Matthew Groff. 

B. F. Hoyt, 
Lorenzo Hoyt, 
William Huggins, 
James Hughes, 
Richard M. Hughes, 
George Humphrey, 
James M. Humphrey, 

C. S. Hurtick, 

B. E. Hutchinson. 



Parsons K. Johnson, 
D. H. Jones, 
P. Jones. 

Philip Kessler, 
James Kirkpatrick. 
R. C. Knox. 

John Leslie, 
Sylvester Leveridge, 
John Lewis, 
James Lock, 

B. W. Lott, 
S. B. Lowell, 
Jesse Lowe, 
S. B. Lowry, 

C. P. V. Lull, 
John Lumley. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 269 



Asa Mallory, 
James Marley, 
J. Cole Martin, 
Henry F. Masterson, 
Ira Mathews, 
Lewis Mathews, 
Thornton Mathews, 
Hugh McCann, 
Charles McCarron, 
V. B. McCulloch, 
Nathaniel McLean, 
John McCloud, Jr., 
R. West McCloud, 

Rev. E. D. Neill, 
R. R. Nelson, 
P. S. Newell, 

Charles H. Oakes, 
David Oakes, 
Thomas Odell, 

Stephen Palmer, 
Antoine Papin, 
J. P. Parsons, 
Rodney Parker, 
Edward Patch, 
David Patnande, 
Peter Patoille, 

Patrick Quinn, 

Alex. Ramsey, 
Justus C. Ramsey, 
John Randall, 
Wm. Randall, 
Wm. H. Randall, 
S. R. Randolph, 
George Rath (.?) 
J. W. Reed, 
Thomas P. Reed, 



John P. McGregor, 
George McGuire, 
John McKee, 
Edward McLagan, 
R. McLagan, 
Alex. R. McLeod, 
Patrick Meagher, 
Rev. J. A. Merrick, 
Abraham Michier, 
John P. Miller, 
Amadis Mini, 
A. M. Mitchell, 
Lot Moffet, 

Geo. C. Nichols, 
Jacob J. Noah, 
Wm. H. Nobles, 

Fred. Olivier, 
Louis M. Olivier, 
Louis M. Olivier, 

E. M. Patridge, 
Louis Paul, 
Charles Peltier, 
Olivier Peltier, 
James Phillips, 
Wm. D. Phillips, 
Allen Pierce, 

William Quinn, 

Edmund Rice, 
Henry M. Rice, 
Orrin W. Rice, 
David Richardson, 
Wm. Roach, 
Louis Robert, 
Nelson Robert, 
A. B. Robinson, 
Flavien Roberge, 



Joseph Motiteur, 
Ferdinand Monti, 
George W. Moore, 
Amable Morin, 
Wilson C. Morrison, 
Joseph Mosher, 
Peter MuUin, 
Alfred Murphy, 
Luke Murphy, 
D. C. Murray, 
Elijah Murray, 
Wm. P. Murray, 
Nathan Myrick. 

William Noot, 
Anson Northrup. 



David Olmsted, 
John P. Owens. 



Jesse H. Pomeroy, 
Columbus J. Post, 
Calvin Potter, 
Dr. T. R. Potts, 
Simon Powers,! 
A. C. Prentiss, 
Bart. Presley. 

Wm. L. Quinn. 

Barnard Rogers, 
John Rogers, 
Daniel Rohrer, 
Joseph Rondo, 
O. H. Root, 
Isaac Rose, 
Charles Rouleau, 
Peter Rougard, 
Wm. Russell. 



Henry Sage, 
Edward J. Sanford, 
M. St. Cyr, 
Hyacinthe St. Cyr, 



Marshall Sherman, 
Hile Sikwalen, ( .^) 
George Simon, 
Orlando Simons, 



Charles Sperry, 
Nathan Spicer, 
Daniel Steele, 
W. M. Stees, 



270 



The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^50 



Oliver St. Martin, 
Nicholas Schidalin, 
Ellis Scofield, 
C. P. Scott, 
J. W. Selbj, 

B. L. Sellers, 
W. H. Semmes, 
Samuel H. Sergeant, 
Damas Semper, 

C. E. Shaffer, 
Nelson Shattuck, 
George Shaver, 
Geo. W. Shaw, 
A. L. Shearer, 
Erwin Y. Shelley, 

William Talkin, 
John Tanner, 

D. C. Tajlor, 

Wm. Taylor, (col'd,) 
John F. Tehan, 
Benj. S. Terry, 
John C. Terry, 
Robert Terry, 
Francis Thibeault, 
Benj. Thompson, 
G. W. Thompson, 

Pierre Vadnais, 
Hugh I. Vance, 

L. B. Wait, 
W. S. Wait, 
John A. Wakefield, 
George Welles, 
Henry Wellington, 
Martin Wells, 

E. G. Wentall, 

Anthon Yeorg, 
Benjamin Zanger. 



J..W. Simpson, 
Edward Sloan, 
Levi Sloan, 
J. N. Slosson, 
Chas. K. Smith, 
J. W. C. Smith, 
George H. Snider, 
John Snow, 
J. C. Somerville, 
J. R. Spangler, 
Jackson Spears, 
George Speftce, 
John B. Spencer. 
R. M. Spencer, 
Spier Spencer, 

Jas. Thompson, (col'd,) 
Joseph Thompson, 
Rinaldo Thompson, 
Socrates Thompson, 
James H. Thoms, 
Jeremiah Tibbets, 
Albert Titlow, 
Henry L. Tilden, 
Wm. H. Tinker, 
C. S. Todd, 
W. M. Torbet, 

Mamime Vanace, 
Robert Van Holmes, 

J. A. Wheelock, 
Wallace B. White, 
Joel E. Whitney, 
Rev. T. Wilcoxson, 
Alex. Wilkin, 



Arthur Stephens, 
James Steward, 
Wm. H. Stiles, 
Daniel Stinchfield, 
Kennedy Stuart, 
David Stockbarger, 
Ed way Stoughton, 
Daniel Strickland, 
Sandford Strickland, 
Peter Sturgeon, 
Andrew Swartz, 
Edward Sweeny, 
Dr. W. W. Sweney, 
Charles Symonds. 



Geo. Townsend, 
C. F. Tracy, 
H. W. Tracy, 
Fred. W. Travers, 
John Trower, 
Matthew Trov, 
Balthasar Tschudi. 
John Tschudi, 
E. Inman Turner, 
Amable Turpin, 
Hugh Tyler. 

Joseph Villaume. 

Morton S. Wilkinson, 
Samuel Williams, 
George Wisgarver, 
Simeon Woodbury, 
Warren Woodbury, 



Amherst Willoughby, I. P. Wright, 



Peter Yoss. 



.SOME ETHNOLOGICAL NOTES. 

To one curious enough to study the nationalities which form 



1850J and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 271 

our diverse population, the above list is suggestive. For in- 
stance, the absence of German names is singular. There are 
scarcely half a dozen German names on the list. It would 
appear that the Germans are not a pioneering people, as the 
Yankees are, or the French. But very shortly after this date 
the German population increased very rapidly. Look at the 
census of 1857, given under its proper date. A very large 
proportion of the names there are German, and are recog- 
nized as among our most ''solid" and well-to-do citizens, own- 
ers of fine business blpcjcs, and comfortable residences, and 
gratifying bank accounts. Many of them came here, too, poor 
emigrant boys.* By the census of i860, fully one-third of the 
foreign-born population were Germans, and the proportion 
must have increased since then. 

Another thing that will strike the observer, is the large per 
centage of French names on the census of 1850. The Cana- 
dian and Swiss French at one time composed the bulk of the 
population here, and their descendants are still a numerous 
class. They formed, during the first six or eight years of the 
city's history, an. important element in our midst. Goodhue 
mentions in 1849, or 1850, that a knowledge of the French lan- 
guage was indispensable to a trader, just as German or Scan- 
dinavian salesmen are considered necessary now. The stores 
then bore the sign, *' ici on parle Francaise," just as they do 
now, '' Norske Handels," or '' Deutsche Handlung," to attrac^l 
those classes. Indeed, such a large infusion of French blood 
in our population, left its impress upon i<t unmistakably — and 
a valuable ingredient it was, too. 

''wait tii.l after the payment.'* 

The Pioneer^ of August 1 , says : ''One would suppose, by 
the promises about town, that the Indian payment would 
square every debt in Minnesota, but the ' debt of nature.' Ev- 
ery reply to a dun is, ' after the payment,'' " This used to be 
the great word among slow payers, for years, showing how 
much the early business and prosperity of Minnesota depended 
on the Indian trade, and how the money disbursed unloosed 
things generally. Afterwards this was changed to, " wait 



272 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1^50 

until the logs come down," showing that the lumber business 
had become the disbursing patron of society. Now-a-days 
the phrase is, " wait 'till after harvest," an evidence that agri- 
culture is now our main hold. 

MINOR TOPICS. 

The /*/<?«^^r, of August, contains the following: '^"Rev. 
Mr. Breck respe(5lfully invites the attendance of the citizens 
of Saint Paul at the house of H. A. Lamberx, Esq.,* on Fri- 
day, the 2d day of August, to take iirto consideration the ere6l- 
ing of an Episcopal church in Saint Paul." 

The result of this conference was that a society was organ- 
ized, and the corner-stone of '^ Christ church," on Cedar street, 
laid on September 5, following. 

The Town Council, or Board of Trustees, was urged by the 
'Pioneer to have the stumps pulled out of Third street ! 

" Brick at the kiln sell at $6 per thousand. We noticed that several 
good brick buildings are about being ere(fted near the upper landing." — 
[Pioneer, July 4.] 

"The people in Saint Paul seem to express a general wish that no 
building should be ere<5ted on the margin of the bluff, or the south side 
of Bench street. That street- when built up, will be unsurpassed for 
beauty. There ought to be a row of elm shade trees planted on that 
side; thus Bench street may soon become one of the pleasantest prom- 
enades in the world." — [Pioneer.^ 

The Pioneer^ of August 22, says : "' The roar of Saint An- 
thony Falls was more distinctly audible at Saint Paul than 
we ever heard it. The 9 o'clock reveille of Fort Snelling 
came rolling down the channel of the Mississippi as though 
it were meant for some stray soldiers." How quiet the village 
must have been those summer evenings. The roar and noise 
of a great city makes a marked contrast now. 

ABORIGINAL ITEMS. 

The town about these days, and indeed for several years 

* Hknry a. Lambert was a brother of David Lambert, before noticed. He was 
Judge of Probate for several years, and died in 1863. Though an ad:ive supporter of 
the Episcopal church at the time noticed, he afterwards embraced Catholicism. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 273 

later, used to he thronged with Indians, both Chippewa^ and 
Dakotas, some buying goods, others begging, stealing, sell- 
ing peltries, etc. That their presence in such numbers was a 
nuisance, any early resident can testify. Occasionally some 
curious scenes were witnessed, the "begging-dance," the 
"war-dance," and other orgies being frequently performed 
on the streets, in expectation of some reward from bystanders. 
On July 9, sixteen chiefs and head men of the Yanktons, in 
full feather, "sang a wild song," says the Pioneer^ in front of 
Gov. Ramsey's house, to an audience of villagers. Some of 
the red-skins were accomplished thieves, vide the following 
from the Pioneer: 

** Substitution of a Thief. — The other day, an Indian came into the 
jeweler shop of Mr. Spicer, on Robert street, and, while there, stole 
a watch. Mr. Spicer followed him up street, to Mr. Fuller's store, 
and collared him, and, seeing no one to assist, left the Indian standing 
by the side of Mr. Fuller's store, while he went inside to get some 
one to help him search the body of the Indian. Returning in two or 
three minutes, he found an Indian standing in the same spot, in the 
same attitude he had left the thief in, his blanket philosophically folded 
around him, but he was another Indian^ who had taken the place of 
the thief during Spicer's absence — while the thief himself slipped 
around the house and fled." 

While the buck Indians were loafing about, smoking, drink- 
ing fire-water (if they could get it) and begging money, the 
squaws did all the labor. The Pioneer records, at various 
times, items explaining scenes familiar to all the old-timers : 

'* Quite a novel team, consisting of four squaws dragging a train with 
a load of provisions on it, made its appearance in Saint Paul, on 
Thursday last." 

'*The Sioux women are certainly very industrious, and do a great 
deal of hard labor. It would no doubt be a novel sight to most of the 
eastern people to see women paddling their log canoes across the 
Mississippi, heavy laden with wood or fence-posts, and then cording 
it on the bank, or carrying large posts up a steep bluff for a number 
of rods, with a child a year or two old on their shoulders. Yet these 
things are of daily occurrence at Saint Paul, Sunday not excepted.'* 

•'Many of the children carried about by the Sioux women on their 
shoulders, look remarkably pale. Like many other phenomena, it is 
more easy to observe than explain, as the children appear to be in 
perfea health." 



374 T^^ History of the City of Saint Pauh [1S50 

Miss Bremer, the Swedish novelist, when in Saint Paul, 
gave much attention and considerable space in her book, to 
the social condition of the Indian females. She says, among 
other things : 

*' ' What estimate may be given of the morals and character of the 
Indian women in this neighborhood ?* inquired I, of a lady in Saint 
Paul, who had resided a considerable time at this place. 

" *Many are immoral, and cannot be much commended; but others 
again there are who are as virtuous and blameless as any of us.'" 

Few will be disposed to blame the poor '' pagans," who read 
the following pi<5lure of their destitution, from the Pioneer^ of 
November 21 , 1850 : 

*' The other evening, near the upper landing, we saw a revolting 
spedlacle — a Sioux squaw, evidently famished, gnawing the head of a 
dog she had found dead ! Judge of the sufferings of these poor wretches, 
thus gloating over offal and refuse." 

It would have been better, of course, for the morals and 
health of the town, if these creatures, with scarcely any dis- 
tind:ion between right and wrong, had not been always hang- 
ing around, ready and anxious to earn money by almost any 
means, but that evil seemed inseparable from the condition of 
society then. 

In the earlier days of our city, the Indians helped to make 
quite a trade in one way and another. They used to ^upply 
the local market with fish, wild fowls, venison, bear meat, 
cranberries, and other wild fruit, furs and products of the for- 
est generally ; besides moccasins, bead-work, and trinkets of 
that class. They would always demand gold and silver for 
their products, which they would reinvest in ammunition, 
blankets, flour, cutlery, or anything they fancied. They were 
pretty sharp at a bargain, too, be it known, and scarcely ever 
got overreached. Most of the earlier merchants of our town 
learned a few Sioux words sufficient to. trade with, and some 
acquired quite a knowledge of the tongue. After the Indians 
came to know and have confidence in any one, they would 
trade with him and take his word unhesitatingly, hence became 
good customers. Those who could not talk Sioux, resorted 
to signs. The hand held up meant one dollar. A finger out- 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 2^^ 

stretched signified ten cents. Thefinger bent was five cents, and 
so on. Yet the Indians were nearly all sly thieves, and would 
pilfer at every chance. They were inveterate beggars, too. 
Give one of them any food, money, or other gratuity, and next 
day he would probably return to ask the same favor, and bring 
a dozen of his companions with him. They had any amount 
of impudence, too. They would bolt into a person's kitchen 
without knocking, perhaps several '' bucks" at once, and beg 
or help themselves in a very free manner. Ladies recently 
from the east, not knowing their habits, would thus be fright- 
ened into hysterics almost, and the visitors would enjoy the 
fright hugely. Those who understood their habits better, 
would tell them '* puck-a-chee," [be gone,] in a severe tone, 
when thev would leave. 

There were several of the older stores in our city, which 
were the recognized headquarters of these red men, and were 
known far and wide among the tribes as such. Larpenteur's 
was one of such places. Here, at various times, the writer 
has seen most of the principal Sioux chieftains of all the bands, 
(except, possibly, the Missouri River bands,) and most of the 
principal warriors. At any hour of the day when one might 
call there, during any of the early years, several of the plumed 
and painted lords of the forest could have been seen. They 
\vere, apparently, always taciturn and reserved, but any one 
in their confidence could have drawn them out in conversation 
quite freely. Had the writer at that time had an opportunity 
to collect from these prominent chieftains some account of 
their adventures in war and the chase, of their ancestors, and 
the traditions of the race, it would have been more interesting 
than a romance. It will ever be regretted that no one did 
this, since it is now, perhaps, too late to do so. 

Both the Sioux an^ Chippewas used to frequent our streets 
in those days, (the former the most numerous,) yet, although 
the two tribes had a mortal hatred for each other, no collision 
ever occurred, except the one noted in the events of 1853. 
The faces of Little Crow and Hole-in-the-Day, the two 
renowned chieftains of those nations, were very familiar to all 
our old residents. Excellent portraits of each are given in 



376 The History of the City of Hainl Paid, [1S50 

this volume, and an interesting chapter might be written on 
each, could the space be spared. 

Some of these Indians had very curious names. It is known 
that, frequently, thev name children from some incident, or 
some physical peculiarity. Two of the Indians who used to 
be regular frequenters of Larpenteur's, in early days, and 
were well known to old settlers, had names whose translation 
would be shocking to ears polite.' 



LITTLE CROW. 

The Indian:! luiacquainted with English, used to greet their 
acquaintances with the exclamation, " ^ow," or ■•ho." Final- 
ly, this was taken up by the boys, and became a regular pass- 
word with them. When raising glasses to take a nip, they 
would always say, " ho," as a pi-eliminary — a custom that ob- 
tained for years, was carried bv them into the army, and pro- 
duced many amusing incidents. One day, an English tourist, 
who was stopping at the Fuller House, quizzing everything 
through his eye-glasses, observed this custom, and inquired of 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 277 

a friend, "What makes *em say 'o when they go to drink? 
Does it 'iirt 'em ?" 

POLITICAL MATTERS. 

The month of August, 1850, was charadterized by a strife 
for Delegate to Congress. No party nominations were made, 
but the eledtion of candidates for Delegate by the different 
conventions was solely based on personal preferences. Hon. 
H. H. Sibley, Col. A. M. Mitchell, David Olmsted, and 
N. G. Wilcox, >^ere severally put up by their friends. The 
two latter gentlemen declined, and left the contest to Messrs. 
Sibley and Mitchell. The campaign was short, the elec- 
tion occurring on September 2. 

Of the bitterness of the contest, Gov. Marshall, in his 
annual address before the Old Settlers of Hennepin count^s 
February 22, 1871, said: 

"There were no party issues; it was more a contest of rival Indian 
trading interests. Messrs. Sibley and Rice had been partners with 
the great house of Pierre Chouteau & Co. A quarrel arose, and, in 
the fall of 1849, Mr. Rice left the firm. Gen. Sibley was then Dele- 
gate in Congress. As the election approached, in 1850, Mr. Rice's 
friends put forward Col. Mitchell, and supported him with all their 
great influence. The fears and jealousies of the people were aroused 
against Mr. Sibley on account of his connection with the Fur Com- 
pany. The cry was Anti-Monopoly ! I wish those who deprecate party 
dissensions now-a-days, could know something of the bitterness and 
personal abuse of that contest in 1850, in which party lines were not 
drawn. Thej would not think that well defined party contests were so 
great an evil." 

THE VOTE IN SAINT PAUL. 

The election was held ' ' at the house of Robert Kennedy" — 
afterwards known as the Central House. 
The vote was as follows : 

Delegate to Congress. 
Henry H. Sibley 151 | Col. A. M. Mitchell 153 

Representatives, 



P. K. Johnson 126 

Benj. W. Brunson 150 

Justus C. Ramsey 204 

Wm. P. Murray 121 



H, L, Tilden '. . . . 191 

Edmund Rice 157 

J. J. Dewey i v 

Henry Jackson 



278 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^50 

Comn^issioner. * 
And. Godfrey 130 | R. P. Russell 165 

Assessors. 



Sam. J. Findley 148 

George C. Nichols 135 

Albert H. Dorr 135 



Thos. P. Reed 103 

I. I. Lewis ^ 154 

S. H. Sergeant 143 



County Treasurer. 

y. W, Simpson was ele(5led without opposition. 
Those in italics ele(fted. 

» 

The following minor officers were also elected, mainly with- 
out opposition : 

Supervisors of Roads. — Lot MofFet, Alpheus R. French, and Pierre 
Bottineau. 

Constables. — Warren Chapman and Warren Woodbury. 

School Trustees^ Dist. No. 1. — B. F. Hoyt, A. R. French and Rev. 
J. P. Parsons. 

School Trustees, Dist. No. 2.^J. R. Brown, E. D. Neill, Vetal 
Guerin. 

The vote in the Territory on Delegate was: Sibley, 649 ; 
Mitchell, 559. 

fredrika bremer visits saint paul. 

In 0(5tober of this year, the distinguished Swedish authoress. 
Miss Fredrika Bremer, visited Saint Paul. In her enter- 
taining book, ''Homes of the New World," about 40 pages 
are devoted to her visit. A few extra<5ts must suffice : 

'* Scarcely had we touched the shore, when the Governor of Minne- 
sota and his pretty young wife came on board and invited me to take 
up my quarters at their house. And there I am now, happy with 
these kind people, and with them I make excursions into the neighbor- 
hood. The town is one of the youngest infants of the Great West, 
scarcely eighteen months old ; and yet it has in a short time increased 
to a population of 2,000 persons, and in a very few years it will certainly 
be possessed of 22,000; for its situation is as remarkable for its beauty 
and healthiness, as it is advantageous for trade. 

*'As yet, however, the town is but in its infancy, and people manag-e 
with such dwellings as they can get. The drawing-room at Governor 
Ramsey's house is also his office, and Indians and workpeople, and 
ladies and gentlemen, are all alike admitted. In the meantime, Mr. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 279 

Ramsey is building a handsome, spacious house upon a hill, a little 
out of the city, [quite in the city now, madame,] with beautiful trees 
around it, and commanding a grand view of the river. If I were to 
live on the Mississippi, I would live here. It is a hilly region, and on 
all sides extend beautiful and varying landscapes. 

■ *'The city is thronged with Indians. The men, for the most part, 
go about grandly ornamented, with naked hatchets, the shafts of which 
serve them as pipes. They paint themselves so utterly without any 
taste, that it is incredible." 

CHURCH ITEMS, AGAIN. 

" The Episcopal church was raised on Tuesday last. There are now 
in the course of con8tru<5tion three churches, the Presbyterian, Baptist, 
and the Episcopal. These, with the Methodist and the Catholic, will 
make five churches in Saint Paul." — [^Pioneer, 0(5lober lo.J 

In a few days from this time, the First Presbyterian church, 
rebuilt on its late site, (corner Third and Saint Peter streets,) 
was finished so as to be used for worship. A bell — the first 
church bell in Minnesota — was hung in its belfry late one Sat- 
urday evening, just in time for the opening services of the new 
chapel the next morning. Impatient to test its tones, the bell 
was rung even at that late hour, a source of satisfaction to the 
Christian people, and of wonder to the pagans, who heard the 
solemn tones of the church-going bell, pulsating over the 
"valleys and rocks," for the first time. Only two days subse- 
quently, another bell arrived on a steamboat, an unexpected 
present from a gentleman in Ohio, and the first one was sold 
to the Market Street Methodist Episcopal church, in whose 
belfry it long did good service. 

BUILDING OF A COITRT-HOUSE AND JAIL. 

Vetal Guerin, the liberal donor of so manv lots and 
blocks for public and church purposes, having deeded to the 
county a square of land for the purpose of a court-house and 
jail, on January 16, the County Commissioners advertised for 
plans for the sarhe. Dr. David Day, Register of Deeds, and 
Clerk of the Board, produced the most acceptable plan for a 
court-house, and was paid $10 for the same. In order to raise 
the money for the erection of these buildings, the County 



28o The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1850 

Board ordered tlie issue of some county bonds. When they 
were put on the market, they were known rs the ^^ Cross 
Bonds" — but this is a pretty tough story, and we will not give 
it unless it is substantiated by the affidavit of at least three 
disinterested and reliable witnesses. 



THE COUKT.HOUSE. 

The court-house was commenced some time in November. 
1850, and completed for use in the following year. Freemas 
& Daniels were the contraflors. It was, for tliose days, a 
fine building. It has now been used a quarter of a century. 
and has played .in impoitant part in the history of this gen- 
eration, not only in law, but the numerous political conven- 
tions, public meetings, and even religious services. Three 
years ago a commission appointed by the city and coimty. 
procured plans for a new building, a joint city hall and court- 
house, which will probably be built in due time, and the oUI 
" historic" court-house removed. In view of this fa»5l, the 
County Board procured the engraving of the old building 
herewith, to preserve its familiar " face" in our annals. 

The hnilding of the jail was not. however, commenced for 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey ^ Minnesota, 281 

several months after thin date. It was a small log building, 
weather- boarded, ami about as seciire as if made of paste- 
lM>ard. This jail, which was the first prison erected iu Min- 
nesota, stood there until 1S57. when the present one was built. 
Before it was torn down. Joseph W. Prince, then Deputy 



THE OLD JAIL. 

Sheriff, got an architect to make the drawing and plan of it. 
which now hangs in the Connty Auditor's ofliee. and which 
he gave to the county. The County Board very kindly ordered 
an engraving to be made of it, which is given herewith. 

MINOR TOPICS. 

The Pioneer speaks of a restanrant being started, as one 
of the " new improvements of the city." 

■' Last WedneedKj. the 14th day of November. Mr. Dodd first got 
Capt. Dana's steam saw mill in operation, at our lower landing, and 
sawed some maple plank, which are to he used in constnitiling a table to 
be placed in the Territorial library; they being the first boards ever 
sawed by steatn power in Minnesota. — [Pioneer, November 18.] 

On November 4. a special election was held for a Justice of 



282 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^5^ 

the Peace, vice John A. Wakefield, resigned. Orlando 
Simons* received 192 votes, electing him over Lot Moffet, 
who received 39 votes. 

Mr. Wakefield had been a member of the Illinois Legis- 
lature, in early years, and was author of a ''History of the 
Black Hawk War." He removed, after the resignation no- 
ticed above, to Iowa, and, finally, to Kansas, where he died, 
in 1872. During his residence in Saint Paul, he was proprie- 
tor of the Tremont House, and frequently lec^tured on tem- 
perance. 

'' School District No. 3, was organized on the evening of the i8th 
inst. P. K. Johnson was eleiited Clerk. The trustees were instructed 
to employ Henry Doolittle as a teacher, at $40 per month. A tax 
of $300 was voted to defray the cost of the school house, and the ex- 
penses of the school." — [Pioneer^ November 28.] 

••It is thought advisable by some of our villagers, that we have this 
winter a series of practical instructive lectures, and that a small ad- 
mission fee be charged — the proceeds to be applied for the purchase of 
a fire engine in Saint Paul. — [Pioneer , December 12.] 

The last steamboat departed this fall on November 18, 
making a season of 239 days, during which 102 boats arrived, 
or an average of one boat in two and one-third days. 

December 26, 1850, was proclaimed by Governor Ramsky. 
as a day of public thanksgiving, the first ever observed in 
Minnesota. But there were no turkeys to be had those days ! 

JOURNALISTIC. 

On November 25, the Pioneer issued a prospectus for a 
daily, which was not issued in fac5t until May, 1854, though 

* Orlando Simons was born January 18, 1824, at Lyons, Wayne county, New York, 
and removed to Elmira when young, where he was educated, at the Elmira Academy, 
Chester Academy, in Chemung county, &c., and afterwards read law. In 1S49, Judge 
Simons, in company with another young lawyer of that locality, (Henry F. Master- 
SON, Esq.,) removed to Saint Paul, arriving on June 30. The law firm of" Mastbrson 
& Simons" was then formed, which continued until a few months ago, full quarter of a 
century, being the oldest law firm in the State. In 1850, Judge Simons was ele<5ted Jus- 
tice of the Peace, and, in 1854, elec^ted first City Justice, holding that office six years, 
during which time his firm administration of its duties was a wholesome promoter of 
law and order. In the spring of 1875, he was appointed Associate Judge of the Com- 
nion Pleas Court of Ramsey county, and, in November, 1875, ele(*ted ^"^ seven years more. 



1850] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 283 

• 

the rapid growth of the Territory and the liberal support given 
to newspapers seemed to warrant it when first proposed. 

On December 10, appeared the first number of the Minne- 
sota Democrats established by Col. D. A. Robertson.* 

About the same date, the Chronicle and Register^ the union 
of the two journals of that name, after several real or osten- 
sible changes in ownership and editorial management, passed 
into the editorial control of Charles J. Henniss, a young man 
of talent, but dissipated and unscrupulous. He was a native of 
Ireland, but had latterlv lived in Philadelphia. He died in 

1856. 



♦Col. Daniel A. Robertson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 13, 1S13. 
He was descended from Hig^hland Scotch ancestry. At the age of 18, he went to New 
York, where he studied law, and was admitted to practice in 1839. ^^ ^® meantime 
he removed to Ohio, where he engaged in journalism, being editor of the CincinHati 
EnquireTy Mount Vernon Banner^ &c. In 1844, he was appointed United States Mar- 
shal for the State of Ohio, which office he held four years. He was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention of Ohio from Lancaster county, and resigned, after holding 
the office three months, to come to Minnesota, which he did in the fall of 1850. He soon 
after established the Minnesota Democrat^ which became one of the leading journals of 
the Territory, and was subsequently merged in the Pioneer. Col. Robertson at one 
time owned a large amount of real estate, but after the panic of 1857, '**» value was 
seriously reduced. During the period of " good times," Col. R. used his means in 
accumulating one of the finest private libraries ever brought into Minnesota, consisting 
of several thousand volumes in different languages, which he afterwards sold to the 
State University. He also visited Europe in 1856-7, and devoted his leisure in studying 
various scientific and historical subjects in which he is interested. He was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives in 1859-60, Mayor of Saint Paul in i860, and 
Sheriff in 1863, serving in this office two terms. He was also a member of the Board of 
Education several years, and performed much valuable labor for our public schools. 
The Historical Society and Academy of Natural Sciences are also largely indebted to 
him for their success. He also organized the first Grange of Patrons of Husbandry in 
the United States, presenting to it a valuable library of books. Col. Robertson has 
always been a close student of history, political and social science, and other subjedls, 
on some of which he has leAured with much success. 



284 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^5^ 



CHAPTER XX. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 185 1. 

The Goodhue-Cooper Rencontre— Struggle over the Location of the Capi- 
tal — Saint Paul Wins — A Case of Indian Justice— Locating the Capitol 
Building — View in Saint Paul in 1851 — The Red River Caravans — ^Thk 
Fur Trade, &c. — The Early Stage^ Mail and Express Business, &c., *c. 

THE second Territorial Legislature met on January 2, in 
the three-story brick building, just completed, of Rice 
& Banfil, which stood where the Third street entrance of 
the Metropolitan Hotel now is, and was burned down in the 
winter of 1856-7. Saint Paul was represented this year by 
Wm. H. Forbes and J. McC. Boal. in the Council, and 
Justus C. Ramsey, Ben. W. Brunson, H. L. Tilden, and 
Edmund Rice in the House — a gallant delegation it was, too, 
and a brave fight they made to keep the Philistines from mov- 
ing the Capital from Saint Paul. 

SCRAPS. 

''There was a warm ele<ition last Monday, tor Justice of the Peace, 
n Saint Paul. John F. Tehan had 119 votes, and Bushrod W. Lott 
had 182 votes, and is eledted.** — {Pioneer^ January 2.] 

•* Our exchange papers perversely spell Saint Paul, Saint Pauls ^ 
and Minnesota, Minesota. Half the paragraphists in the United States 
have scarcely sense and intelligence enough to pick up chips in the 
door-yard !"— [lb.] 

Hole-in-the-Dav, the Chippewa chief, addressed the Leg- 
islature and citizens, on January 10, at the First Presbyterian 
church. His objedt was to represent the starving condition of 
his tribe, and solicit relief for them. His speech is described 
as eloquent and pathetic. A committee was appointed to se- 
cure the aid desired, and some donations were obtained. 
There is no doubt but that the Chippewas were suffering from 
starvation, that winter. Many died, and cases of cannibalism 
were reported by the papers. 



1 851] ^nd of the County of Ramsey^ Mivnesota. 285 

THE GOODHUE-COOPER RENCONTRE. 

On January 16, Goodhue printed a savage and bitter article 
on ^'Absentee Office Holders," in which he inveighed, with 
all the ferocity of his pen, against Col. Mitchell and Judge 
Cooper, for absenteeism, &c. On the latter, he was particu- 
larly severe, using such terms as, ''a sot," ''a brute," *•' an 
ass," a ''profligate vagabond," &c. The article closed as 
follows : 

** Feeling some resentment for the wrongs our Territory has so long 
suffered by these men, pressing upon us like a dispensation of wrath — 
a judgment — a curse — a plague — unequalled since the hour when Egypt 
went lousy, we sat down to write this article \Yith some bitterness, but 
our very gall is honey to what they deserve." 

Of course, such an article as this could not fail to produce 
a personal collision between Goodhue and the friends of 
Cooper, (he himself was absent,) and scarcely had the paper 
been distributed through the town, ere it bore its natural fruits 
in a rencontre on the street. Eye-witnesses give a minute 
account of it, in affidavits afterwards published, but it can 
only be briefly recited here. Goodhue had been in the Legis- 
lature, and started down street, in company with a friend. 
After leaving the building a few steps, they met Joseph 
Cooper, a brother of Judge C, who at once advanced and 
struck at Goodhue. Both then drew pistols, '•- Col. Good- 
hue (one account says) having a single-barrel pistol, and 
Cooper a revolver." Some parleying ensued, when Mr. 
Cooper declared, '' FU blow vour G — d d — brains out." 
Sherift' Lull here ran up, and, commanding the peace, dis- 
armed the parties, but it seems Cooper still retained a knife, 
and Goodhue another pistol, with which they renewed hos- 
tilities. Some one endeavored to hold Goodhue, which gave 
Cooper an opportunity to stab him in the abdomen slightly. 
Goodhue then broke away, and shot Cooper, inflidting quite 
a serious wound on him. Cooper again rushed on Goodhue, 
and stabbed him in the back, on the left side. Both parties 
were then led away, and their wounds dressed, neither being 
fatally injured. Col. Goodhue seems to have adled on the 
defensive during the whole rencontre. In subsequent issues of 



286 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^51 

his journal, he charges that it was a ^'conspiracy on the part 
of his enemies to murder him for political revenge, and that 
Cooper was a mere tool, spurred on by others," &c. 

The affair produced great excitement throughout the city, 
and was angrily discussed, pro and con, by the friends of each. 
A public meeting was held and resolutions passed, a plan that 
always adts as a sedative on excited communities, and peace 
once more reigned. 

The Legislative session of 1851 was a stormy one, and sev- 
eral exciting questions tended to divide the members. One of 
these was 

THE LOCATION OF THE CAPITOL, 

and other public buildings. Twenty thousand dollars had 
been appropriated by Congress the summer previous for a 
Territorial prison, and, by the same a6t, authority was given 
the Governor and Legislature to expend the appropriation of 
$20,000 provided for in the Organic A6t, for Capitol buildings. 
The vexed question was, where should the Capitol be built? 
Several places competed for it, and the struggle was close and 
hard contested. Finally, by the vigorous eftbrts of some of our 
leading men, a compromise was effected. The Capitol was 
to be erected at a central point in the town of Saint Paul, the 
penitentiary at Stillwater, and the Univej'sity, (incorporated 
that session,) at Saint Anthony Falls. Thus each were satis- 
fied for the present, and all went merry as a marriage bell for 
six years, when a rival Saint got jealous of our city, and 
aspired to Capitolean honors. Gov. Marshall, in his address 
before quoted, says Saint Anthony got the best of this trip- 
artite agreement. 

Another question that stirred up strife was the apportion- 
ment, and several members bolted their seats, barely leaving 
a quorum for the rest of the session. 

Another subject of controversy was the election of State 
printer. J. M. Goodhue, of the Pioneer^ was the regular 
Democratic candidate, but Col. Robertson, of the Democrats 
and Henniss &. Vincent, of the Chronicle and Register^ 
expected to gain votes enough between them to secure the 



185 1] and of the Countv of Ramse'w Minnesota, 287 

printing. When the ballot was taken, however, Mr. Good- 
hue's side proved the strongest. This proved a death-blow 
to the moribund Chronrcle and Register, It soon gave up 
the ghost, and a new Whig organ was projected, a sort of 
joint stock journal, which, however, was not finally got into 
operation until September following. 

The session seemed to have been a turbulent one throughout. 
Col. Jno. p. Owens afterwards wrote of it : 

•'The session finally closed on the night of March 31, which was a 
day and night of excitement, such as we have never seen since in Saint 
Paul, and never desire to. Hundreds of citizens were about the streets 
and public places, armed to the teeth, and ready, upon the slightest 
provocation, to shoot down their fellow-citizens, who opposed them. 
Feelings of enmity, bitterness and hatred were engendered between 
citizens during that session of the Legislature, and particularly during 
its last days, which e'xtended even into family relations, and were not 
eradicated for months, and even years subsequent." 

LEGISLATION AFFECTING SAINT PAUL. 

Excepting the location of the Capital at Saint Paul, there 
was not much legislation this session, afledting the town. Its 
corporate limits were extended, however, so as to '" include 
the additions" recently filed by Bazille & Guerin, Robert 
& Randall, Hoyt, and Whitney & Smith. " Saint Paul 
Lodge, No. 2, I. O. O. F.," was incorporated, and " Saint 
Paul Division, No. i. Sons of Temperance." This was to 
enable these societies to purchase property, which they soon 
after did. 

The a6t providing for the erection of the Capitol in Saint 
Paul, enabled that the work should be done under the super- 
vision of a board of three commissioners, who should receive 
$3 per day, etc. The ele(5lion for these officers took place on 
April 17, resulting in the choice of D. F. Brawley and 
Louis Robert, of Ramsey county ; E. A. C. Hatch, of 
Benton county ; and J. McKusick, of Washington county. 
The Governor was ex-officio a member and chairman of the 
board. The board organized on May 19. ChArles F. 
Tracy was elected clerk. 



288 The History of the City of Saint Paul. [1851 

CURRENT ITEMS. 

Navigation opened quite early in the spring of 1851. The 
"'Nominee'* arrived on April 4, and soon business and immi- 
gration were quite brisk. 

The Pioneer refers in one or tw^o places to '-'- Monk Hall.** 
This was a sort of bachelors' retreat, kept in a building cor- 
ner of Fort and Eagle streets, and was a sort of free and easy 
club house and political headquarters for the stags of those 
days. Some poetical genius about that time wrote a few verses 
for the Pioneer^ under the heading, ''The Last Night at 
Monk Hall," one or two extracts from which give perhaps a 
fair view of the inside proceedings : 

"Come, pass round the bowl-^we'll drink while we stay — 
Although from the Hall, ere the dawning of day. 
Our order forever wide scattered will be. 
No more to unite in our wild revelry. 

itt * * * Hi * * * 

Bright spirits of heaven, and spirits of hell, 
With their thin airy forms and sulphurous smell. 
Flit wildly around us and join in our glee. 
Sing to our dancing and bend with us the knee." 

Monk Hall was moved across Fort street, and is still stand- 
ing — the same building used for many years as a store by 
Luther H. Eddy. 

a case of indian justice. 

If I have not related already too many stories about Indians, 
there is one curious incident, almost romantic in its characSler, 
that should be chronicled here. One day this spring (April 4) 
some boys came into town, and reported to Judge Goodrich 
that a dead Indian was lying in the bushes back of the brick 
yard, about where Alderman Gates A. Johnson's residence 
now is. Sheriff Lull, being notified, summoned the Coroner 
and one or two other officials, and proceeded to the spot. 
Sure enough, there was a dead Winnebago Indian, who was 
well known about here those days, by the name of " Dr. 
ToHNSON," and examination showed that he had died from a 
stab. As he had heen seen a dav or two before with some 



1 851] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 289 

other Winrtebagoes, the probability was that they had given 
him his quietus, and, as there was an encampment of those 
Indians not far off, a file of soldiers was sent to the spot, to 
arrest the murderer, if he could be found. They proceeded 
to the encampment, and found some of the red-skins quietly 
cooking their evening meal. The officer in charge of the 
squad asked one of them, Cke'en-u-wzhee-kaw^ or Stand- 
ing Lodge, if he knew anything of how their brother " Lo" 
had met his end, when Standing Lodge very coolly and 
unconcernedly replied, '' I killed him !" On further question- 
ing him, he stated that the dead Indian had committed some 
crime or offense, which, according to the Indian code, merited 
death, and that he, the speaker, had been selected to give him 
his quietus, which he did. 

There seemed no other way than to apprehend the self-con- 
fessed murderer, and ascertain whether the statutes in such 
case made and provided would not cover his crime, as equally 
as if one white man had killed another. So the officer told 
Standing Lodge to come along. The Indian made no objec- 
tion, but very quietly followed the officers to town. That 
night he slept in Sheriff' Lull's carpenter shop, the jail not 
being tenable yet, and made no efforts to escape. Next day, 
a sort of preliminar}^ examination was held. Standing 
Lodge never denied his guilt, but always said, ^'I did it," 
when asked. Some urged to let him go, as it would only 
expose the county to considerable cost to imprison and try 
him, and it was scarcely worth while to take note of all the 
quarrels and murders among the Indians, as they were occur- 
ring every few days, and but few cared much how many 
Indians were killed. Others thought it ought not to be passed 
thus. Finally it was agreed to lay the case over until the 
grand jury met, about the middle of the month, and mean- 
time, to avoid boarding Mr. Lo at public expense, to dismiss 
him on his own recognizance. This was explained to Stand- 
ing Lodge, and he promised to be on hand when court met. 
He asked how many days it was, and, on ascertaining, took 
some sticks and cut notches in them, one for each dav, and 



290 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^^ 

depositing them in his pouch, started off to join his band, who 
were hunting muskrats. 

Scarcely any one ever expected to see Standing Lodgk 
again. But, sure enough, on the first day of court, there he 
was, sitting on the steps, awaiting his fate, whatever it might 
be. Billy Phillips, the Prosecuting Attorney, was unable 
to attend to business all that week, so the grand jury did noth- 
ing. Yet the Indian was in attendance promptly every day, 
and slept at night on the shavings in Lull's shop. Had he 
run away, no one would have objected, but he said he had 
given his word to be there, and must do so. He even com- 
plained, finally, that he was not tried. 

Finally the case was called by the grand jury, and, though 
opposed by some, an indidlment was found and returned. 
The case was never brought to trial. It was shoved over to 
the September term. Standing Lodge meantime being out 
at large, on his own recognizance, with his bundle of notched 
sticks as an almanac showing him what day to return. When 
the September term began, he was again on hand, but Judge 
Goodrich, finding there was no intention to prosecute him, 
ordered the case to be dismissed. Standing Lodge was in- 
formed he could go his way. He shook hands with the offi- 
cers as unconcernedly and stolidly as ever, folded his blanket 
around him, and marched ofi', an imperturbable stoic. There 
was really something noble about the fellow, a poor pagan and 
murderer, though he was, and the incident serves to illustrate 
one of the curious phases of our early days. 

white bear lake noticed. 

'*A company of young men from Saint Paul, went out to see the 
country arOund White Bear Lake, one day last week. The lake is about 
10 miles from Saint Paul, and is six miles long by two or three miles 
wide. They represent it as a fine country, the land good and much 
timber. They saw many deer, and killed ducks and pheasants. It is 
on the east side of the river, and is subje(5t to entry." — [Pioneer^ 
April 10.] 

George W. Moore, the venerable abbot of the Custom 
House, was one of this party. 



i8«;i] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 291 

LOCATION OF THE CAPITOL BUILDING. 

The board of building commissioners did not find a site 
for the Capitol ver}- easily. Several blocks were oftered to 
them, but defe6tive title, or other considerations, induced their 
refusal, until June 27, when Charles Bazille oftered block 
six, Bazille and Guerin's Addition, which was accepted. A 
warranty deed, consideration $1, was given for the property. 
It does not revert to the giver, as has been reported, if the 
seat of government is moved. 

A plan made by N. C. Prentiss was chosen. It certainly 
does credit to his talent. The contract for the building was 
let for $33,000, but it cost in the end over $40,000. 

THE CHARTER ELECTION 

occurred on May 6. Party lines were not closely drawn, like 
our city eled:ions at present — personal issues holding the scales 
nio.stly. The following is the vote : 



Members 

of 
Council. 



President R. Kennedy 146 A. L. Larpenteur. . . . 138 

Egidus Keller 148 J. E. Fullerton 143 

Firman Cazeau 145 J. R. Irvine 126 

Wm. Freeborn 148 L. H. LaRoche 124 

/?. C. Knox 154 Chas. S. Cave 122 

Wm. H. Randall 142 G. W. Farrington .... 130 

Recorder Henry A. Lambert 140 Wm. D. Phillips 135 

Those in italics elected. 

SCRAPS. 

The Democrat^ of May 27, has the following items : 

"The Council has ele<5ted John F. Tehan, Esq., to the office of 
Town Marshal. Mr. T. will make a good officer.*' 

**Our citizens are beginning to think of the importance of providing 
sidewalks for the streets most traveled. As a temporary and cheap 
'pavement, two-inch plank answer." 

"About 40 Sioux squaws, with canoes, have been at work on the 
Mississippi for some days past, driving logs. They receive for their 
services about a dollar a day each. They are very expert canoe pad- 
dlers." 

"Our citizens were visited on Tuesday last by a company of 20 or 



The History of the City of Saint Paul. [1851 



1851 j and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 393 

more juvenile Sioux, from Little Crow's band, who danced the 
' beggar-dance' in different parts of town. The young red-skins, from 
5 to 18 years of age, presented a grotesqiie appearance. They were 
naked and painted." 

The Pioneer^ of this date, refers to a Mr. Clute, who was 
in town endeavoring to procure subscriptions enough to build 
a telegraph from Galena to Saint Paul, $27,cxx) being required. 
The amount could not be raised, and the line was not built 
until i860. 

The District Court of Ramsey county (Judge Goodrich) 
was held that spring in Mazurka Hall. The roof was fire- 
proof, but not water-proof, a heavy rain deluging the court 
while in session, and rendering umbrellas necessary. 

The rapid infiux of strangers and growth of the town, 
caused unprecedented activity in real estate, property doubling 
sometimes in one week, savs the Pioneer^ and cautions everv- 
body against the speculative mania and too much inflation. 

The first Minnesota paper published outside of Saint Paul,, 
the Saint Anthony Express^ appeared during the latter part 
of May. 

A HISTORICAL PICTURK. 

A short time ago, Dr. J. J. Dewey presented to the Histor- 
ical Society, a daguerreotype view of the corner of Third and 
Robert streets, taken in the spring of 185 1. It was enlarged 
by the photographer, C. A. Zimmmerman, and the Ramsey 
Countv Pioneer Association ordered it to be engraved for this 
work . 

This is certainly a historical picture. The white frame 
building on the left, is the same one, I believe, that is now 
used as a saloon by Voss — the old Haggenmiller place, then 
occupied by Wm. Dugas. The log cabin on the right was 
the law oflice for several vears, of L. A. Babcock, and 
others. Finch, Auerbach & Scheffer's store now occupies 
that spot. The cabin next to it, was occupied at the date 
mentioned, as a cigar store and confec^tionery, by Bartlett 
Presley,* and the wing in the rear was his dwelling. The 



* Bartlett Presley is a native of OflTerberg, Germany, and came to the United 
States when eig^ht years of age, settling in Saint Louis. He entered mercantile life very 



394 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1851 

frame beyond this (about wbere Noyes Bros. & Cutler's 
wholesale drug store now is) was John M. Castner's board- 
ing house, and the small building next to thiit, was a meat 
shop. WiLi-ouGHBY & Powers livery stable appears in its 



BARTLETT PKESLE 



old place. The large bnilding on the extreme right was Olm- 
sted & Rhodes' old store. The house seen betweeii thest 



n. In 1S43, he removed to quinc;',I]linmE, and WHS there married. At 
i.te, he remiived to Gslenx, »nd, in 1S49, to Saint Paul. He here con- 
Bsinan humble wayi and, by industry and HppJiiation. in a few yearHbuill 
laive business, und acquired a fine competence. Mr. Presley was an 
I 1S70 to 1S74, and Chief Engineer of the Fire Department for six year>. 
labor* in that ofUce is lar^ly owing- the efficiency of fiur present depart- 

flly in busineHK here since 1S49. Heen}i>y8 Iheetiteem and cimJidenceof 
F friends. 



1 851] and of the County of Ra?nsey^ Minnesota, 295 

buildings, in the distance, was J. C. Burbank's residence, 
and the church on the hill, was the First Baptist church, then 
just built. What could better show the growth of our city 
than this pidlure ? 

There was quite a flood in the river again this summer. On 
June 26, it reached its highest altitude, being only six inches 
lower than the great flood of 1850. 

It made steamboating brisk. The Pioneer, of July 3, speaks 
exultingly of*'' eight steamboats having arrived in one week." 

About the middle of May, a war-party of Sioux, who were 
sneaking about in the Chippewa region, near Swan River, 
discovered a Chippewa who had a keg of whisky. He es- 
caped, leaving his keg behind. The captors drank the con- 
tents, got gloriously drunk, and, in this condition, attacked 
some teamsters, who were wagoning goods from Saint Paul 
to Fort Ripley. They killed one, Mr. Andrew Swartz, of 
this city — a very worthy man — and went oft', leaving his body 
in the road, not molesting any of the goods. A force of sol- 
diers from Fort Ripley pursued the murderers, but did not 
overtake them. The Sioux, subsequently, delivered up ^\'it 
of the guilty ones, and, while they were being taken to Fort 
Ripley for trial, the guard fell asleep, and they escaped. 

THE EARLY STAGE, MAII, AND EXPRESS BUSINESS. 

The papers, in July, speak of an express line being estab- 
lished between Saint Paul and Galena, by J. C. Burbank. 
As the stage, express and transportation business is so allied, 
we will endeavor to briefly sketch their rise and growth at this 
time. 

The first stage ever run in Minnesota Territory, was by Am- 
herst Willoughby and Simon Powers. Mr. Willoughby, 
who is a Vermonter by birth, was an old stage driver and 
manager — went to Chicago in 1828, and drove in that region 
for 20 years. In the fall of 1848, he came to Saint Paul 
•* prospe<5ling," and soon determined to embark in the stage 
business here. He went back to Galena, and in the spring 
returned with his partner, Sime Powers. They had a nice 
span of horses, and a two-seated open wagon, but not much 



396 The History of the City of Saint Paul. [^^51 

else. They commenced running this from Saint Paul to Saint 
Anthony, daily, and sometimes made two trips daily. They 
ran until September, when their business increased so that 
they put on a four-horse open spring wagon, that would carry 
14 passengers. They ran this conveyance until winter set in. 
Thev then ran a line from Saint Paul to Prairie du Chien, over 
the new road mentioned on page 249, via Stillwater, Hudson, 
Menominee, Black River Falls, Sparta, &c. They ran this 
route in the winter season for four winters. Th^ first winter 
the traveling was very rough. There were no regular stations 
to stop at, and at night they would sometimes encamp on the 
snow. 

When the spring of 1850 set in, they resumed their four- 
horse wagon to Saint Anthony, and continued all that season. 
This vear, Robert Kennedy ran a line to Stillwater, and, 
afterwards, Willoughby & PowErfs put on a line to that 
place. 

In the summer of 185 1, Wili-oughby & Powers brought 
to Saint Paul and put on their line, the first Concord coach 
ever ran in Minnesota. It is still in use in the Minnesota Stage 
Company's stock somewhere. Up to the close of this season, 
they had had no opposition in their business, but, during the fall 
of 1851, Lyman L. Benson and a Mr. Pattison, came from 
Kalamazoo, Michigan, where they had been in the livery busi- 
ness, bringing a large outfit. In the spring of 1852, they put 
on an opposition line to Saint Anthony, called the ** Yellow 
Line." Willoughby & Powers' coaches were red, and it 
was generally termed the '* Red Line." A furious opposition 
sprang up. Willoughby & Powers, who had hitherto 
charged seventy-five cents for fare, reduced their price to a 
quarter, and, finally, to ten cents, as did also the yellow line, 
and the latter soon put on an opposition coach to Stillwater 
also. The war between the red and yellow lines was one of 
the curious phases of that day. Perhaps some of our readers 
may remember, when they landed at the levee, how the wordy 
contest was waged between the rivals. Bishop Willoughby 
says the other line had more money than he, but he '" always 
beat them at sassing." 



1 851] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 297 

. This rivalry, with varying success, continued two seasons 
or more. . In the meantime, Willoughby & Powers had in- 
creased their rolling stock to eight Concord coaches, and had 
built up a large livery business besides, at their well-known 
old stand, corner of Fourth and Robert streets. In 1854, they 
made a compromise with Pattison & Benson, the latter buy- 
ing off their Saint Anthony line. Willoughby & Powers 
had also, in the meantime, opened, and still ran a line to Shak- 
opee, &c., and also ran the Stillwater branch. 

Willoughby & Powers soon after (1855) divided their 
business, W. retaining the livery part, and P. taking the stage 
lines, which he carried on about two years longer, and then 
sold out to Robert Gibbens. who was killed at Birch Coolie 
in 1862. 

In the meantime (about 1856) Pattison, Benson & Ward, 
as the firm now was, sold out their business to Alvaren Al- 
len and Charles L. Chase, of Saint Anthony. Allen & 
Chase extended the lines to the Upper Mississippi, got se\- 
eral mail contra6ls, and ran them about three years, when they 
consolidated with J. C. Burbank and Capt. Russell Blake- 
ley's line, the whole forming a copartnership called the 
'■' Minnesota Stage Company," of which J. C. Burbank was 
the general manager, and Mr. Allen superintendent of stock 
and running arrangements. C. L. Chase, not long after, sold 
out his interest to John L. Merriam. Col. Allen remained 
a couple of years, when he also withdrew. 

The "winter route" down the east side, was run for two or 
three winters by Willoughby & Powers, when, in 1853, M. 
O. Walker & Co., of Chicago, got the winter mail service 
contract, and put on a line down through Minnesota and Iowa, 
to Dubuque. Willoughby & Powers then discontinued 
their line. The' manner in which Walker ran his line is 
given in newspaper comments hereafter. Walker ran his 
line until 1858-9, when J. C. Burbank & Co. got the winter 
mail contract. 

In the winter of 1855, J. J. Brackett ran an opposition 

line to Dubuque, via Lakeville, Owatonna and Austin. 

In 1854-5, Wm. Nettleton established a line of stages to 
20 



298 The History of the City of Saint PaiiL [1851 

Superior, which, about 1857, ^^^ carried on by C. Doble. 
and soon after was bought out by the Minnesota Stage Company. 

At the mail letting in 1850, Hon. H. M. Rice was awarded 
the contra<5lfor the mail from Saint Paul to Prairie du Chien, 
twice a week during the summer, and once a.week during the 
winter. The compensation was $800 a year. In 1852, this 
contract was assigned to J. C. Burbank. A Mr. Ormsby, 
of Prairie du Chien, also had, at the same time, a mail contra<5t 
from that place to Black River Falls. This was also assigned or 
sublet soon after to Mr. Burbank. 

The history of the Minnesota Stage Company and that of 
the Northwestern Express Company, are so closely identified, 
to write the one is almost to give both. 

ORIGIN OF THE EXPRESS BUSINESS. 

A few paragraphs back, mention was made of the establish- 
ment, by J. C. Burbank,* of an express business from Saint 
Paul to Galena, in connection with the American Express 
Company, which was running to the latter point as its western 
terminus. Mr. Burbank was himself the pioneer messenger 
of his express. During the summer he ran on the steamer 
"Nominee," and the next winter made the first trip in that 

♦James C. Burbank was born in Ludlow, Windsor county, Vermont, iSaa, and re- 
moved to New York in 1831. During his boyhood he worked on a farm, picking up 
such schooling as he was able, from winter to winter, and, more or less, earning his 
own living and educating himself. Whatever success he has achieved in life, has been 
owing to his own efforts and energy. 

Mr. Burbank came to Saint Paul in 1850, and, after trying the lumbering business 
without success, started the express business, as given fully in tliis chapter. The 
growth of the immense business first inaugurated by him, occupied his time and capital 
until 1867, since which year he has devoted himself to the insurance, banking, railroad 
and other business. He was one of the early members and warmest promoters of the 
Chamber of Commerce, which has done so much for our city, and \yas its president from 
1869 to 1871. He has also embarked largely of his capital in the constru<5tion of the 
Saint Paul and Sioux City Railroad, of which he has been a dire<5tor for several years. 
He was an aAive organizer o^ the Saint Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company, 
in 1866, and has been its president and financial manager since its organization, and its 
remarkable success has been largely owing to his sagacity and foresight. In 1873, Mr. 
Burbank led the way in the constru<5tion of the street railway, and was president of 
the same for some time. In faA, there is scarcely a worthy enterprise in our city which 
he has not aided with capital and personal effort. His career presents a striking in- 
stance of what energy and integrity will accomplish— starting in life a poor boy, and at 
present one of the wealthiest and most honored men in our State. 



1851] and of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota. 



biisiness from Saint Paul overland. He started from Saint 
Paul on the 34th of Novemlier, after the close of navigation. 



300 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^5' 

and traveled the Knowlton road, before mentioned, to Prairie 
du Chien, etc., and thence to Galena. He also had the sub-mail 
contrail on that route, from Ormsby, of Prairie du Chien, as 
related before — -his mail consisting of one bag. The amount 
of express matter entrusted to him, on his first trip, he carried 
in his pocket. He continued these trips through the winter. 
The whole receipts for express carried that winter — although 
they were made regularly — would not have paid one messen- 
ger's board. 

In the summer also he ran alone, doing the whole agency 
and messenger business himself, making weekly trips between 
Saint Paul and Galena on the old steamer '"Nominee." 

Saint Paul was then a small village of hardly 2,500 or 3,000 
inhabitants, and there were but few settlements on the river, 
but, with a firm faith in the future, Mr. Burbank diligently 
set himself to work to sow the seeds and foster the germs of 
an express business in what he foresaw was to be a great and 
populous State. Much of his business at first consisted in 
filling orders at Galena for merchants in Saint Paul and on the 
river. In 1852, he formed a partnership with W. L. Fawcett. 
who, however, found it too hard work for too poor pay, and 
he retired from the business in about six months. Then Ed. 
HoLCOMBE, a steamboatman, went in with him, taking the end 
of the rqute between Galena and Prairie du Chien, which he 
ran for the winter of 1852-3, when he got discouraged. But 
Burbank still pressed on, running the route himself, and 
gathering about him a large and increasing business. To eke 
out the express business, however, he took Chas. T. Whit- 
ney, since deceased, into partnership, and went, in 1853, "^^^ 
the forwarding business at the upper levee in Steele's old 
wharf-boat. Indeed,, the business was so large, that when, in 
1854, the wharf-boat was moved from the upper to the lower 
levee, it seriously afllsdled the business of upper town, which 
at that date was even ahead of lower town. 

In 1854, the express business had reached such dimensions 
as to justify the employment of regular messengers and officers 
at all the principal towns, and, therefore, the Northwestern 
Express Company; (Burbank & Whitney,) was first duly 



1 851] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 301 

organized, and the business grew apace, in both its branches, 
forwarding and express. In 1856, Mr. Whitney, whose 
health was failing, sold out his interest in the firm to Capt. 
Russell Blakeley, who had been connected with the old 
Galena Packet Company. This was a decided acquisition to 
the business, and, with two such enterprising and go-ahead, 
determined men, it took a new start. An ofl[ice was opened 
in Saint Paul, in LeDuc & Rohrer's old stand, (where In- 
gersoll's Block now is.) In May, 1855, C* W. Carpenter 
entered the service of the company, as local agent. In 1857, 
E. F. Warner was engaged in the Saint Paul ofl[ice, and has 
remained in that business ever since, being now local agent of 
the American Express Company. 

An event soon after occurred, which led the firm to engage 
in the stage business. Previously to 1856, Mr. Burbank had 
depended, for the winter conveyance of his express matter, on 
the famous, or rather in-famous. Walker line. But, in Janu- 
ary, 1857, disgusted with his wretched service, and, in one 
case, his utter refusal to adhere to the terms of his contract, 
Burbank & Company determined to do their own carriage, 
and put on a line of stages between Dubuque and Saint Paul 
by the interior route, via Decorah, Iowa. Although they origin- 
ally intended only to carry express matter, they soon put on 
passenger coaches, and, though they had no mail contrails at 
that time, ultimately pushed Walker's slow coaches oft' the 
road, as passenger vehicles on this route. 

The passenger business having largely increased on this and 
other routes, Mr. Burbank made a bold strike for the mail 
contrails in Minnesota, which had been generally monopolized 
by Walker, and, at the general letting in April, 1858, was 
fortunate enough to be the successful bidder for the down-river 
mail. In the fall of that year, the company stocked up jointly 
with Allen & Chase, on the route to LaCrosse, which latter 
had now become the nearest railroad terminus, and, in the 
spring of J 859, the Minnesota Stage Company was formed by 
consolidation with Allen & Chase, and the Minnesota Stage 
Company's coaches were put on the route from Saint Paul 
to Saint Anthony, and from Saint Anthony to Crow. Wing, 



302 The History of the City oj Saint Paul^ ['^5 

&c., securing the mail contrad:s owned by the Allen & Chase 
line. Ifi the summer of 1859, they also bought out the Still- 
water route from Gibbens, and the Superior route from C. 
DoBLE, and the chief stage business of the State became cen- 
tralized in the new company. In the spring of i860, Col. 
John L. Merriam,* who was a partner of Mr. Burbank in 
the forwarding business, bought out the interest of Allen & 
Chase in the stage company, and, for more than seven years, 
Messrs. Burbank, Blakeley & Merriam constituted the 
firm, and carried on the express and stage business as joint 
partners. At the next Government letting, soon after, this 
company got all the mail contrails on stage routes in Min- 
nesota, amounting in the aggregate to about 1,300 miles of 
staging, besides some 300 miles more of pony routes. The 
stage business now had grown to such proportions on their 
hands, that the express business had become a minor consider- 
ation, and, in 1863, they sold out to the American Express 
Company all the express territory south of Saint Paul, retain- 
ing for themselves all north of that point. The large propor- 
tions to which the staging business had grown may be inferred 
from the fa<5l, that, in the winter of 1865, they worked over 
700 horses, and employed over 200 men. 

It is due to these three gentlemen — and especially to tlie 
senior partner, Mr. Burbank, from whose early struggles and 
tenacity of purpose all the subsequent large business of the 
firm sprang — to say that their entire business management, as 
public carriers, from first to last, was distinguished by a lib- 

* John L. Merkiam was born at Essex, Essex county, New York, in iSaS. While 
a very yoiuig man, he exhibited those pushing, energetic, business qualities, which 
have since made him so successful. He engaged in the iron trade when a mere boy, 
and was ele<5ted Treasurer of Essex county in 1857. He carried on a large business of 
various kinds, until his removal to Minnesota in 1861, which he did in order to become 
a partner of J. C. Burbank and Capt. R. Blakeley in the stage and express busi- 
ness. He also then, or soon after, engaged in the banking, railroad, manufa<5turing, 
transportation and other enterprises, all of which, by his sagacity and good manag^e. 
ment, have been highly successful. In 1870, Mr. Merriam was elected, (in a distriA 
politically against him,) a member of the Legislature, and re-eledted in 1871. Both 
these sessions he was Speaker of the House, and rendered sigpnal service to his constitu- 
ents. Col. Merriam is known as one of our most enterprising and valuable citizens — 
one whose unblemished charaAer and social qualities have gained the esteem of all. 



1S51] (^nd of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 303 

erality, fairness and justice in all their dealings, which have 
V>een rarely, if 'ever, paralleled, and that the people of Minne- 
sota are more indebted to them than to any other agency for 
pushing out our network of mail communications all over 
the State and frontier. They chalked out more new roads, 
and built more bridges, than any other hundred or thousand 
men in the State. 

. THE TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS 

growing out of these connections, was another feature of the 
trade which sprang from such humble beginnings. The firm 
of J. C. BuRBANK & Co. had done, up to this time, a very 
heavy forwarding business, but Capt. B. transferred all his 
interest in that branch to J. C. & H. C. Burbank & Co., who 
were largely engaged in- the grocery and commission trade also. 
In the winter of 1858-9, Capt. B. was in Washington, when. 
Ramsay Crooks, (father of our Col. Crooks,) agent of Hud- 
son's Bay Company in New York, asked Senator Rice how he 
could arrange for the transportation of their goods to Hudson's 
Bay, via Minnesota } Mr. Rice told him that Capt. Blakeley 
was then in the city. An interview was secured, and Mr. 
Crooks appointed J. C. & H. C. Burbank & Co. his agents. 
Capt. Bi.AKELEY went up to the Red River, that winter, and 
examined it, and thought it could be navigated. The next 
season, the '' Ans. Northrup" was taken out and got to run- 
ning. Capt. Edwin Bell, of this city, ran her in 1859, and 
first built wing-dams on that river. The boat was not a very 
good one, but the firm purchased it, and entered into a con- 
trad with Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, to transport their goods for the Red River 
Settlement, (now the Province of Manitoba,) from Montreal 
or New York, through the States, making Saint Paul the 
headquarters, which had previously been done via York Fac- 
tory, in Hudson's Bay. This contrail covered a yearly ton- 
nage of four to six hundred tons, and was by this firm continued 
four years, during which they built the steamer '' Interna- 
tional," being the first steamer successfully navigated on the 
Red River of the North. The business thus inaugurated has 



304 The History of the City of Saint PauU [^^51 

» 

been of untold advantage to the State. It now employs seven 
steamers, 15 barges, and a large number of men. During the 
season of 1875, 74iOOO,ooo pounds of freight was carried. 

THE RED RIVER TRADE. 

The Democrat^ of July 19, 185 1, notices the arrival of the 
annual caravan of Red River carts, 102 in number. This was 
always an important event for our merchants in early days. 
Indeed, the rise and growth of the Red River trade forms a 
chapter of our pioneer history, which is too important to omit, 
and may well be given here. 

Beginning of the Trade, — Prior to the year 1844, ^^^ ^'^^" 
port of goods, and export of furs, of the flourishing Red River 
Colony, was through the circuitous and difficult Hudson's Bay- 
route, navigable only two months in the year, and beset with 
many dangers. In that year, Norman W. Kittson, our 
well-known pioneer, established a post at Pembina, in con- 
nedlion with the outfit of the American Fur Company at 
Mendota, and invested some $2,000 in furs, which were trans- 
ported to the latter point in six *' Pembina carts,*' the latter 
returning loaded with goods. This venture did not prove 
remunerative — in fa6t, occasioned a loss of some $600. The 
next two years' operations involved a similar, or greater loss, 
but the trade increased, and, notwithstanding the opposition 
and even the persecution of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
which was enraged at seeing its monopoly interfered with, 
Mr. Kittson's venture was promising of great results. In 
1850, the trade had increased so as to involve a consumption of 
goods to the extent of $10,000, and a possible proceeds of furs 
of some $15,000. Five years later, the Pembina Outfit engaged 
an expenditure of $24,000, with a return of furs of nearly 
$40,000, and the firm of Forbes & Kittson was this year 
(1851) organized (*'The Saint Paul Outfit") to carry on the 
supply business. When Saint Paul sprang into being, in 1849, 
the terminus and supply depot was shifted here, and in early 
days was an important source of gain to our city. 

The Pembina Carts, — The shipments of furs from that re- 
<rion were, for some 20 vears, made in the curious vehicle 



1 851] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 305 

known as a " Red River cart," or Pembina cart. This was 
a two-wheeled concern, of somewhat rude workmanship, con- 
structed of wood and leather, without a particle of iron, and 
would carry 600 or 700 pounds. They generally cost about 
$15. In this cart was fastened an ox or pony, geared with 
broad bands of buffalo hide. One driver would manage sev- 
eral of these carts, simply guiding the head ox or pony, the 
rest being tied to the tail of the preceding cart. The axles 
were innocent of grease, and their creaking was horrid ; a 
caravan in motion could be heard for miles, almost, in still 
weather. The drivers of these carts were also a study. Nearly 
all of them were swarthy, half or quarter-breeds, or Bois 
S rules ^ as they were termed, and dressed in a costume, a 
curious commingling of civilized garments and barbaric 
adornments. They were usually clad in coarse, blue cloth, 
with a profusion of brass buttons, and a red sash girt around 
their waists. Add to this a bead-worked cap, and an Indian's 
moccasins, and you have a fair picture of the Red River half- 
breed. They presented, also, a curious commingling of races, 
the old Scotch, English and French settlers having married 
with the Crees and Chippewas, and crossed and recrossed until 
every shade of complexion, and a babel of tongues, was the 
result. 

The distance between Pembina and Saint Paul, by the near- 
est traveled route those days, was 448 miles.* The caravan 
would generally start early in June, as soon there was suffi- 
cient pasturage for the cattle, and the down trip would gener- 
ally consume from 30 to 40 days, arriving here early in July. 
An average day's travel was 15 miles. At night the caravan 
would encamp at some spot where wood and water was con- 
venient, and draw up the carts so as to form a '" corral." Sen- 
tinels were always on watch at night, to guard against attacks 
from hostile Indians, or horse-stealing raids. The men sub- 
sisted, during their journeys, on game, and pemmican. The 
latter is a preparation of buffalo meat. It is dried, pounded 
into shreds, and stuffed into a bag made of buffalo hide, into 



* This was via Otter Tail and Sauk Rapids. During some of the earlier trips, the 
trail was via Big Stone Lake and Traverse de Sioux. 



306 The History 0/ the City of Saint Faul^ [1S51 

which melted tallow is poured, forming one solid mass. This 
will keep a longtime, and, though tasting %o\Xi^^N\^2X fragrant^ 
to one unused to it, is a great favorite with Red River men, 
and half-breeds generally. It used to be kept for sale in Saint 
Paul, in early days. 

While the caravan was in the city, disposing of furs and 
making purchases, which generally consumed some days, the 
carts were usually encamped on the prairie above the city, 
(toward the trotting park,) and their bivouac was a scene 
worth visiting, for its novelt^^ and pidturesqueness. For some 
days the streets of our city would be filled with these strings 
of carts, constituting, to the stranger, or to one who had never 
before seen them, a curious sight. Accompanying the caravans 
were generally a number of horsemen, the skilled buffalo 
hunters of Red River, mounted on their tough, shaggy ponies. 

In 1844, as noted above, the number of carts on the route 
between Mendota and Pembina, was only six. The number 
increased each year, until, in 1851, it was given at 102. In 
1857, ^t)out 500 came to Saint Paul. In 1858, 600. In 1859, 
i860, and 1861, the number somewhat decreased, as a steamer 
was running on Red River, which drew off part of the freight- 
ing trade, and decreased the land transportation to ^16 miles, 
J. C. & H. C. BuRBANK & Co. having established a line of 
freight teams connecting with the steamer. In 1863, owing 
to the Indian troubles, only 275 carts came through. It was 
not until about 1867, when the Saint Paul and Pacific Railroad 
was running to Saint Cloud, that the caravans of carts ceased 
making their annual pilgrimages to Saint Paul. Saint Cloud 
was then for a year or two their terminus, but the increase of 
freight lines and, in a short time more, the completion of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad to Red River, quite drove these 
primitive prairie carts from their old route, and thus caused 
thie decline and fall of one of the most singular features of our 
transit from the rude traflBc of the wilderness to a well-organ- 
ized commercial community. 

The J^ur Trade, — Closely connected with this subject is 
the fur trade, one of the most valuable auxiliaries to our 
prosperity in early days. The importation from Red River 



1 851] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 307 

by the cart line, was very large, and formed the main supply 
of the fur marketed at Saint Paul. Indeed, four-fifths of the 
furs and all the robes came from this region. The amounts 
handled during the earlier years were reported as follows : 



1844 $ 1,400 

1845 3.000 

1846 5jOoo 

1850 15*000 

1855 40,000 

1856 97,253 

1857 182,491 



1858 ...$161,022 

1859 150,000 

i860 186,000 

1861 198,000 

1862 202,000 

1863 250,000 



During 1858. 1859 and i860, the quantit\' of furs marketed 
did not decrease, as the figures apparently show, but the price 
declined largely during the "'hard times." Then, too, the 
prices of furs flu(^Uiated greatly. Mink sold in 1857, ^^^ ^5 
and 20 cents. In 1863, it rose to $5 and $7. 

Being the natural depot for such a large region, at one time 
well stocked with fur-bearing animals, Saint Paul was for 
some years one of the largest fur markets in America — per- 
haps second only to Saint Louis, and the trade of the latter 
was mostly in robes, a distin<5l branch of the traffic. The fur 
catch of all of Minnesota, a part of Dakota, and northern 
Wisconsin, was tributary to this point. In early days, the In- 
dians and a few professional trappers were about all who 
caught furs. As the country became more settled, every squat- 
ter eked out his living by trapping and shooting, and the larger 
game, bear, deer, elk, wolf, &c., soon became quite scarce. 
In fadt, every farmer's boy, with cheap patent traps, soon en- 
tered the war of extermination against the fur-bearing animals. 
Every stream, copse and marsh was trapped, and the result is 
that the fur *' catch" is yearly becoming less, though still 
large. The supply of robes from Red River is annually grow- 
ing smaller, as the bison is now driven further and further from 
the settlements each year. 

Value of the Red River Trade, — All of the money re- 
ceived for the sale of these furs would be generally spent in 
merchandize in our city, and large suriis in addition. Thus 
the value of the Red River trade to our city in early days can 



3o8 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^5* 

be estimated. Staple groceries, liquors, dry goods, blankets, 
&c., hardware and tools, household utensils, ammunition and 
guns, clothing, boots and shoes, glass, sash, farm implements, 
even threshers and mowers, (in parts,) and, latterly, sewing 
machines. In 1863, one house sold $4,000 worth of tobacco 
alone. The Red River men, it might be noted, sold and 
bought for coin only. They never used currency in dealing. 
The Freight Trade with Red River. — The rude Pembina 
cart line was the pioneer of a very valuable freight and trans- 
portation movement between Saint Paul and the Red River 
settlements, and the very large and profitable trade which our 
city now transacts with the Red River valley, both this side 
and beyond the British line, but this is more fully narrated a 
few pages back. 

SMALL SCRAPS. 

The Democrat^ of July 22, has the following items : 

"The Masonic Lodge has been removed to Rice and Banfil's Block — 
the Odd Fellows occupying the adjoining room.*' 

*'A picnic party of 14 or 15 ladies and gentlemen went out last week 
to White Bear Lake, 10 miles north, and spent a day very delightfully 
at fishing and hunting." 

[This is probably the first picnic to White Bear Lake that ever 
occurred.] 

"Yesterday a number of workmen commenced excavating for the 
foundation of the Capitol." 

•' Hitherto the people of Selkirk have had but two or three mails a 
year. They have now (since July) a monthly mail from Saint Paul." 



1 851] <f^nd of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 309 



CHAPTER XXI. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1 851.— Continued. 

The Treaty with the Sioux — Rejoicings over the Event — How the Indians 
Spent their Money — Creation of a Bishopric — Right Rev. Joseph Cretin 
Arrives — Purchase of Lots for a Cathedral — Col. Alex. Wilkin — Move- 
ment for a Fire Department. 

THE great event of the year was the treaty with the Dako- 
tas, at Traverse de Sioux, authorized by Congress last 
year, by whicK that nation gave up its title to all the land west 
of the Mississippi, excepting a small reservation — a domain 
exceeding 2i,cxx),cxx) acres ! The treaty commenced at Tra- 
verse de Sioux!, on July 2. All the officials, dignitaries, big 
men, traders and editors of Minnesota were present, and all 
the chiefs of the Dakotas. . The papers were crowded for 
weeks with their sayings and doings, to the exclusion of almost 
everything else. Gov. Ramsey and Hon. Luke Lea, Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs, represented the United States. 

THE GREAT EVENT CONSUMMATED. 

On July 23, the preliminaries of the treaty were all con- 
cluded, and the Indians signed the instrument by which' they 
sold, conveyed and transferred to the pale faces, one of ttie 
most glorious domains that nature ever created — signed away 
their heritage and birthright, and were thenceforth strangers 
and intruders on their own '' ancestral acres."* But sentiment 
is out of place in this day of progress. The resistless march 
of empire was doomed to sweep away the red man — it had 
been so for two centuries on American soil, and the treaty of 
Traverse de Sioux, another chapter of the mournful epic, 

called forth, not sadness, but rejoicing. 

• 

♦This may be considered merely the poetical view of the subjedl. Sometimes, when 
we have an imusually hard winter, our citizens scout the idea that the Indians were 
cheated in the sale, and wish they hadn't sold their lands at all ! 



'^lo The History of the Citv of Saint Pauh \i^^\ 

The news of the treaty was received in Saint Paul, with 
demonstrations of joy. Goodhue, with his strong gift of 
prophesy, broke forth in a strain as exultant as the song of 
Miriam and the Jewish maidens on the shore of the Red Sea. 
It thrilled through his pen as follows : 

*'The news of the treaty exhilarates our town, and it looks fresh, 
and lively and blooming ! It is the greatest event, by far, in the his- 
tory of the Territory, since it was organized. It is the pillar of fire 
that lights us into a broad Canaan of fertile lands. We behold now, 
clearly, in no remote perspedtive, like an exhibition of dissolving 
views, the red savages, with their teepees, their horses, and their fam- 
ished dogs, fading, vanishing, dissolving away: and in their places a 
thousand farms, with their fences and white cottages, and waving 
wheat fields, and vast jungles of rustling maize, arid villages and cities 
crowned with spires, and railroads with trains of cars rumbling afar 
off — and now nearer and nearer, the train comes thundering across the 
bridge into Saint Paul, fifteen hours from Saint Louis, on the way to 
Lake Superior. Is this a dream ? What but a dream, then, is the his- 
tory of the Northwest for the last twenty years?" — [Pioneer, 'juXy 31.] 

IMMEDIATE RESULTS. 

More immediate gain resulted from the treaty, viz. : the 
circulation of many thousand dollars into the pockets of Saint 
Paul. The Pioneer^ of August 14, says: 

" Last Thursday was a lively day in Saint Paul. Indians all over 
town with double-eagles, and Third street, especially, was converted 
into a temporary horse bazaar. Dogs are also in demand. On Friday 
every Indian who had a horse was anxious to try his speed. Various 
contests were witnessed between old wheezing cart-horses, running 
quarter-races at the north end of Jackson street, in sand ankle-deep. 
A large multitude turned out to see the races." 

GROWTH OF CHURCHES. 

Nearly all denominations and sedls represented in the town, 
made rapid advancement this year. 

The Wisconsin Methodist Conference of that season, which 
adjourned on July 3, made the following appointments for 
Minnesota : Chauncy Hobart, P. E. ; Saint Paul District. 
T. M. FulIerton ; Saint Anthony Falls, C. A. Newcomb ; 
Point Douglas, to be supplied ; Stillwater, G. W. Richardson. 



J 



1851J and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 311 

This spring, Christ's church, (Episcopal.) on Cedar street, 
was completed, and was dedicated by Bishop Jackson Kemp- 
er, on April 12. Rev. J. Lloyd Breck was first reiSor, 
followed bv the Rev. T. Wii.coxson and Rev. J. V. Van 

CREATION OF A BISHOPRIC— CONSECRATION OF RT, REV, 
JOSEPH CRETIN. 

The year 18s i was also a season of great encouragement to 



RIGHT REV. JOSEPH CRETIN, D. D. 

the Catholics, owiiifr to the creation of a bishopric here, and 
the arrival of Right Rev. Joseph Cretin. Since the with- 
drawal of Father Galtieh, in 1844, as before mentioned. Rev. 
Augustin Ravoitx had been in chaise of the mission at this 
place and Mendota. In 1848 or 1849. the congregation here 
increased very rapidly- The little chapel had been enlai-ged in 
184.7, ^"'^ ^'**' **'■" '"" ^^i"'''!- Members came from Saint An- 



312 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S51 

thony, Little Canada, Pig's Eye, and other places, to attend 
services, which were now held every other Sabbath, in French 
and English, and finally, Father Ravoux spent two Sundays 
here consecutively, going to Mendota on the third. It now 
became evident that more clerical help must be secured. He 
lu'ged Bishop Henni, of Milwaukee, to send this, but that 
ecclesiastic was unable to do so. It led, however, to the 
erection here of a bishopric, and the appointment of Rev. 
Joseph Cretin to the charge. The latter was then in Du- 
buque, and left at once for Europe, to .be consecrated. 

"After his departure for France, [says Father Ravoux, in a sketch in 
the Northwestern Chronicle^'\ aware of* the necessity of securing some 
lots for the cathedral and other purposes, I bought of Mr. Vetal 
GuERiN twenty-one (21; lots for $800, and for $100 the lot on which now 
stands the cathedral. This last I bought of another person, who had 
already some lumber on the ground for a building. He had bought the 
same on credit of Mr. Vetal Guerin for $60. He deeded me that lot 
for forty dollars ($40) profit. I considered the purchase of the twenty- 
two lots a very good bargain for the church, as also a good one for Mr. 
Vetal Guerin, because it was understood that the cathedral and other 
buildings would be ere<ited on block seven, and such improvements 
would increase the value of Mr. Vetal Guerin's property. The even* 
proved that I was not deceived in my expe<Hation. The Right Rev. 
Bishop after his return from France, paid the money for the 22 lots and 
received the deed ; I had but a bond for the security of our bargain." 

Speaking of Rev. J. Cretin's struggle to rhake up his 
mind whether to accept the bishopric, or not, Father Ravoux 
further writes that he did so at the advice of the Bishop of 
Bellev : 

**He then gave his consent and was consecrated on the 26th of 
January, 1851. * Omnia omnibus fa(ftus sum,' was the motto engraved 
on his seal, and in fa(5t the first Bishop of Saint Paul, like the Apostle 
of nations, was *all to all.' All those who have been well acquainted 
with him are convinced that he constantly walked in the footsteps of 
Saint Paul, by zeal, piety, charity, humility, incessant labor and 
patience in sufferings ; not only after his consecration, but also when a 
priest, when in the seminaire, and in the colleges. 

"The Right Rev. Bishop spent yet three or four months in Europe 
after his consecration, in order to procure some laborers for the exten- 
sive vineyard intrusted to his care, and many things necessary for the 
establishment of a new diocese. On the day of the feast of the Visita- 



1 851] and of the County of Ramsey* Minnesota, 313 

tion of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the 2d of Julj, 1851, 1 had the so long 
expe(fted and desired visit of the Right Rev. Bishop, who arrived at 
Saint Paul, accompanied by two priests* and three seminarians. To 
describe the pleasure I felt at their arrival would be a difficult task. 

"The Rt. Rev. Bishop was not much surprised at the poverty of the 
Catholic church in Saint Paul, for he had been informed of everything. 
From the first, he saw hard labor before him. and, full of confidence in 
God, was not discouraged. 

" He put immediately his hand to the plow, and, faithful to the advice 
of our Saviour, did not look behind. He knew for whom he worked, 
and, however difficult the task might be, supported by Divine grace, he 
was always cheerful. Before the lapse of five months after his arrival 
in Saint Paul, he had erected on block 7, in Saint Paul Proper, a brick 
building, 84 feet long by 44 wide, three stories and a half high, includ- 
ing the basement. That building became immediately the second 
cathedral of Saint Paul, and also the second residence of the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop, of his priests and seminarians : and, in a few months after, some 
apartments of the basement were used as school-rooms for boys. The 
young girls were also to be provided with Catholic schools, and, in 
1852, the Sisters of Saint Joseph devoted themselves in Saint Paul to 
the holy work of their institute, and they opened their schools on the 
propertyof the church, on Third street. ****** 

"The Rt. Rev. Bishop died on the 22d of February, 1857. His ill- 
ness had been very long and painful, but he always continued to be the 
good and faithful servant of God, bearing with the greatest patience 
all his sufferings. When no more able to leave his room, he almost 
constantly had his mind occupied about the flock intrusted to his care ; 
he would often speak to me on that subjedt, and write letters to his 
friends in order to provide for the diverse wants of his diocese. The 
last of these letters, which was addressed to a French Bishop, and left 
unfinished, was dated February the 21st, 1857. More than once, when 
his sufferings were most intense, I heard him exclaim, ' It is good for 
me to suffer for my sins I * * As I cannot work, I, at least, ought 
to offer my pains to God for the faithful and for all !' 

" Were I asked what epitaph ought to be written on his tomb, mv 
answer would be, let these words be engraved upon it : O God I ' the 
zeal of Thy house hath eaten me up !' " 

FIRST THEATRE IN SAINT PAUL. . 

During the month of August the drama was inaugurated in 
Saint Paul. A portion of the troupe of " Placide's Varieties," 

*I think one of them was the Rev. James Mokan, who officiated here for a year or 
more about that time. 

21 



314 '^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^5^ 

of New Orleans, then closed as usual during the summer, wan- 
dered to Saint Paul, partly for pleasure, partly for gain, and 
opened a theatre in Mazurka Hall. George Holland was 
manager. One of the papers of the day says : '^ They per- 
formed to full houses for two weeks." Among the plays ad- 
vertised were, '' The Day after the Fair," '' Swiss Cottage," 
'' Betsey Baker," " Slasher & Crasher," &c. No very ''heavy" 
pieces seem to have been put on the boards. 

AN ENGINEERING BLUNDER. 

Goodhue frequently, in those days, urged measures of local 
importance, that, with criminal indifference, the public and 
some of its components, disregarded. Had his advice been 
followed, we would have had a boulevard along the river bluff, 
for one thing. The streets of additions would have corres- 
ponded with those of Saint Paul Proper, instead of presenting 
the confused maze of angles and crooks our city map now 
shows — a perpetual misery inflicted on posterity. Speaking 
of a quagmire on Third street, between Wabasha and Cedar, 
he advocated cutting the soil off of all the streets running over 
the limestone rock, thus making a hard, smooth, dry pave- 
ment, unequalled in every desirable quality. Strange to say, 
this simple proposition, for a cheap improvement, was not 
a<5ted on. The grade was raised so that the streets had to be 
filled in^ at great expense, and thus we have quagmires instead 
of smooth, rock pavements. At this day, it is hard to say what 
engineer is responsible for this fossilized stupidity ; but, as 
capital punishment has been practically abolished, even if con- 
victed, no adequate punishment exists. 

POLITICS. 

Political excitement ran pretty high in the fall of 1851, 
though perhaps a shade less bitter than the year previous. 
The Pioneer launched its thunderbolts at H. M. Rice and 
his friends, and C. K. Smith, Secretary of State. The Dem- 
ocrat inveighed bitterly against the Whig office-holders. The 
Minnesotian (just established) fired double-shotted guns at 
Democratic nominees. Both parties, it seems, were split up 



1S51] and of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota. 315 

into fadions, warring against each other. The Federal office- 
holders were at swords' -points, and undermining each other. 
The war soon terminated in a batch of resignations and 
removals. Judge Jerome Fui,ler, of New York, succeeded 
Chief Justice Aaron Goodrich. Capt. Alex. Wii.kin" was 
appointed Secretary of State, decapitating C. K. Smith. Jo- 



ALEXANDEB WILKIN. 



SEPH W. Furber received ? 

TiLDEN, &C. 



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•I 1 6 The History of the City of Saivt Pauh fi^^i 

WAIFS. 

The Weekly Mirtfiesotian appeared on September 17, as a 
Whig organ. John P. Owens* name appeared as editor, and 
that of John C. Terry, as publisher. Its very first number 
created a sensation. Some severe stri(5tures on Capt. Wm. B. 
DoDD, provoked the ire of that gentleman, and a rencontre 
between him and Col. Owens on the street, was the result. 
The Minnesotian flourished for nearly 10 years, as a leading 
and influential journal. It gave up the ghost in 1861. 

** We need a jail far more than we do a court-house. The criminal 
law is almost a dead letter for want of a jail to lock up rogues in." — 
\ Pioneer. ] 

Geo. C. Nichols, surveyor, has made a splendid and accurate map 
of the city of Saint Paul, with its ad4itions, which are 15 in num- 
ber." — [Democrat^ Sept. 30.] 

[This map was the first map of Saint Paul published. Mr. Nichols 
died April 8, 1853, at Madison, Wisconsin, aged 26 years.] 

"Never was a city laid out so badly as Saint Paul. The plat looks 
as if some accident had knocked all the streets into pi. Measures 
should be taken immediately to straighten them." — [lb.] 

'* Last week there were 400 Indians out at Rice Lake, gathering cran- 
berries. They gathered about 250 barrels." — [lb.] 

'*The country is full of bears. A band of Sioux Indians killed, in 
two days, in the neighborhood of Rice Lake, 25 bears. Two were seen 
within a mile of our office, on Saturday." — [lb.] 



served until the Pierce administration commenced, in 1853. He was an unsuccessful 
candidate for Delegate that fall, and, in i860, espoused the cause of Stephen A. Doug- 
las. During the Crimean War, Capt. Wilkin visited the allied armies, and studied 
the art of war before Sebastopol. The experience that he then gained was destined 
soon to be of great value to him. When the rebellion broke out, he recruited the first 
company of the First Regiment. He adted with conspicuous bravery at Bull Run, and 
soon after was commissioned in the regular army. On September 10, he was commis- 
sioned as Major of the Second Minnesota, and, on March at, i86a, its Lieut. Colonel. 
On August 34, 1S63, he was commissioned Colonel of the Ninth Minnesota. After 
serving on our frontier several months, the Ninth was sent to Tennessee, where it took 
part in the expedition against Forrest. In the battle of Tupelo, Mississippi, on July 
14, 1864, Col. Wilkin was shot through the heart, and died instantly. He was a suc- 
cessful and skillful officer, and one of the most fearless and courageous men that ever 
lived, altliough of small and slight physique. The Legislature, in 1868, bestowed his 
name on one of our western counties. 

—Judge Westcott Wilkin, brother of Col. W., is one of the oldest and raost es 
teemed members of the Ramsey county bar. He was ele<5ted Judge of the Distri<*t 
Court in 1864, and re-ele<5ted, in 1S71, for seven years. 



Representatives 



1851] and of the County of Ramsey ^ Minnesota, 317 

THE ELECTION 

-was held on 0<5tober 14. The result in Ramsey counly, 
(which then included Saint Anthony,) was as follows : 

Old Line. People's Ticket, 

^ ... I R. R. Nelson 241 Wm. H, Forbes • . . .270 

Counctllors, • • • < 

< Wm. Freeborn 248 G. W. Farrington . . . 293 

Robert Kennedy 247 W. P. Murray 272 

Geo. Bums 217 J. W, Selby 293 

Hugh McCann 259 C 5. Cave 273 

Egidus Keller 224 5^. E. Fuller ton .... 306 

Louis Bartlett 220 Sam. y. Findley .... 279 

Sheriff, Geo, F. Brott 312 Anson Northrup 271 

C. P. V. Lull, (Ind.O 207. 

Register of Deeds . L. B. Wait 376 M. S. Wilkinson 427 

Treasurer Lot Moffet 362 Sam. H. Sergeant . .401 

Attorney John W. North 371 Wm. D. Phillips .... 414 

County Surveyor, Gqo, C. Nichols 380 5. P. Folsom 407 

Judge of Probate.. \K, Fletcher 361 Ira B. Kingsley, , . . 424 

Co.Com'is>ioner. JJ" ^^^'^ 377 Jo. LaBonne 419 

\ Warren Chapman . . .367 T. P, Reed 429 

<y /• fP r Charles Creek 211 Jacob J. Noah 236 

(. Orlando Simons .... 244 John P. Owens 234 

Those in italics ele(5led. 

TOWN GOSSIP. 

The Pioneer,, of 0<5tober 30, announces the removal of Sec- 
retary C. K. Smith, and the issue of November 20, records 
his departure from the Territory, in a terribly denunciatory 
article. When Goodhue wanted to "go for" any one, he 
never beat around the bush, but spoke right out. 

'* There is a large new bell, a very fine one, just received and hung 
up in the rear of the Catholic seminary, a present from Louis Robert. 
There are now four good bells in Saint Paul, and another coming, for 
the Baptist church." — [^Pioneer, November 6.] 

** NoN-RESiDENT LANDHOLDERS. — Avaricc and speculation can over- 
lay an infant town — nay, they oppress larger places, like a nightmare. 
A non-resident may buy up half-a-dozen lots on Third street, and keep 
them unimproved. The result is ruinous, perhaps, to the business of 
the whole street. We want to see these gentry used up in every pos- 
sible way. * * We wish that no man out of Minnesota could 
own a foot of land in it." — [lb.] 



3i8 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1851 

The Pioneer^ of 06lober 16, speaks of a contra<5t for the 
ered:ion of a four-story hotel on the site of Monk Hall. This 
was the Winslow House, a building which played an impor- 
tant part in our history, and was burned down in 1862. 

** Rev. Mr. Riheldaffer, a missionary of the Old School General 
Assembly, has taken up his residence at Saint Paul, with a view of gath- 
ering a second Presbyterian congregation." — \^Democrat^ November 4.] 

This was the origin of the Central Presbyterian church, 
which was organized by Mr. Riheldaffer, February 31, 
1852, at his residence, eight persons participating — Mr. and 
Mrs. Riheldaffer, Mr. and Mrs. R. Marvin, Mr. and Mrs. 
G. W. Farrington, J. D. Pollock and Jonas Gise. The 
church was completed in the summer of 1854. Rev. Mr. 
Riheldaffer resigned in 1864, and was succeeded by Rev. 
F. T. Brown, in 1867, and Rev. Wm. McKibbin, in June, 1874. 

*' Saint Paul is entirely destitute of means for extinguishing fire. 
Measures should be taken to form a hook and ladder company, imme- 
diately. Should a fire occur, let every citizen repair to it with a bucket 
of water." — {Democrat^ November 18.] 

"Four Sisters of Charity have arrived from Saint Louis, and will 
shortly commence teaching a ladies' seminary, in the old chapel." — fib.] 

*' The workmen are putting on the roof of the new court-house. It 
makes a fine appearance." — f^^).] 

Navigation closed this year on the 20th of November. The 
whole number of steamboat arrivals was 119. 

Rev. J. P. Parsons, pastor of the new Baptist church, 
died on November 13, while on his way up the river on a 
steamer, returning from a visit east, to raise means to finish his 
church. Mr. Parsons was a native of Onondaga, New York. 
He came west about 1837, ^^^ settled in Saint Paul, May, 
1849, as a missionary of the Baptist Home Mission Society. 
He was forty-nine years of age. 

Chari.es Symonds, the first ice dealer in Saint Paul, com- 
menced cutting ice this month. He continued the ice business 
a number of years, and died in 1873. 

'* Rev. E. D. Neill has been appointed by the Governor, Superin- 
tendent of common schools for the Territory. An excellent appoint- 
ment." — \^Democrat^ December 2.] 

** Plenty of delightful weather, plenty to eat, plenty to drink, but not 



1 851] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 319 

a word of news from the States for two weeks past." — {Democrat^ De- 
cember 24.] 

" The grading of Fourth street and the building of the culvert across 
Jackson street are so far advanced, that the street will be ready for 
travel in three or four weeks." — [lb.] 

" A friend informs us that there are about 299 applicants for the few 
offices in the gift of the Legislature." — [lb.] 

*' There appears to be considerable a(ftivity in buying and selling 
town lots. Prices are gradually rising." — [lb.] 

*' We have a hard-working, judicious and able town council. They 
work for nothing, and find themselves." — [lb.] 

" A market house is very much needed in Saint Paul." — [lb.] 
MOVEMENT TOWARD A FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

The need of some organized association for extinguishing 
fires, has several times been noticed. The Democrat^ of 
December 24, says : 

*'Mr. R. C. Knox is making efforts to get up a hook and ladder 
company. Let everybody help. * * * A meeting will be held at 
the upper school house on Saturday evening next, for the purpose of 
forming a fire company." 

Probably this movement of Mr. Knox and others was the 
little germ which afterwards gave birth to our Fire Depart- 
ment. Prior to this time, and for three or four years afterwards, 
indeed, the mode of extinguishing fires was somewhat primi- 
tive. Whenever an alarm was given, the whole able-bodied 
population would rush to the rescue, armed with pails, basins, 
dippers, tubs or any other utensil that came handy. Generally 
a raid was made on some grocery, and a few nests of pails 
confiscated. With these a line would be formed, between the 
fire and some pond, cistern or stream, and the pails then passed 
from hand to hand. The writer has seen a line two blocks 
long thus. The original subscription paper carried around by 
Mr. Knox is still in existence. Enough was raised to pur- 
chase several ladders. They were somewhat heavy, and, as 
the "boys" had no ladder wagon, but carried them to fires on 
their shoulders, they could not have made very fast time, and 
probably had their patience and zeal thoroughly tried. An 
amusing incident would occur once in a while, however, that 



320 The History of the City of Saint Paul. [1851 

lightened their burdens. On one occasion, the boys got their 
ladders out from an alley on Third street, near Wabasha, 
where they used to store them, and started on the run for a fire 
on Eagle street. After making good time for two or three 
squares, they concluded to seize on any team that happened 
along. Just then a countryman drove by with a lumber wagon. 
R. C. Knox rushed up to him, and, in tones that could have 
been heard at Pig's Eye, almost, ordered the man to ''get 
down and give up that team !" Knox, we will state for those 
who don't know him, is about as large as two ordinary men. 
The countryman gazed at his huge figure a moment, and, either 
mistaking him for a ghost or a highwayman, actually leaped 
out of the wagon and ran for dear life ! Bursting with laugh- 
ter, the boys seized the team, threw oft' the wagon-box, and 
soon had their ladders at the fire. 

As but little could be generally accomplished in this way, 
however, the ladders soon fell into disuse. They were stored 
away, and for a time sei*ved the free use of painters and car- 
penters. After the Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company was 
organized in 1855, three of them were recovered and became 
the property of that company, and were used for over 13 years. 

In the absence of engines or other apparatus, every imagin- 
able means was resorted to to extinguish fires. A small house 
once caught fire about that time, when the ground was covered 
with damp snow. Some one gave the word, ^* snow-ball it 
out," and it was so deluged with snow-balls by the crowd in 
attendance, that the fire was put out and most of the house 
saved. 



1852] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 321 



CHAPTERXXII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1852. 

The Tbmpekance Movement—Passage of a Prohibitory Law— Traveling 
ON Dog-sledges — Outcome of the Maine LIc^;oK Law — Ratification of 
THE Sioux Treaty — Brutal Wife Murder — Death of J. M. Goodhue— 
Murders by Whites — Murders by Indians, &c. 

ON January i, a Temperance Convention was held, pursu- 
ant to a published call, which was largely attended by 
delegates. An earnest feeling prevailed. The newspapers con- 
tain no report of the proceedings, and only indirect allusions 
to it. Participants say, however, that strong ground was taken 
for a Maine prohibitory law, and threats to form a temper- 
ance party of the prohibitory element did not receive due 
consideration. 

THIRD LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 

The third Legislature met on January 7, in '* Goodrich's 
Block," on Third street, below the Merchants. The Ramsey 
county members this year were : Council. — Geo. W. Far- 
RiNGTON, L. A. Babcock, and Wm. H. Forbes, the latter 
being President. House, — Charles S. Cave, Wm. P. Mur- 
ray, Sam. D. Findley, Jeremiah W. Selby, and J. E. 
FuLLERTON. Four of our present citizens represented other 
localities that year — N. W. Kittson, Pembina ; Jno. D. Lud- 
DEN, Marine ; Dr. J. H. Murphy, Saint Anthony ; and Dr. 
David Day, Long Prairie. 

On January 19, Hon. H. L. Tilden, Secretary of the Coun- 
cil, died. Mr. Tilden was a native of Ohio, and came to 
Minnesota in 1849. He was a member of the House in 1851, 
and had been appointed Marshal of the Territory that year. 
He was a lawyer by profession, and a gentleman of fine ability. 
He was buried bv the Odd Fellows, of which he was a mem- 
ber, and the two houses attended his funeral in a body. 



322 The History of the City of Saint Pauls [1S52 

Gov. Ramsey read his annual message to the joint conven- 
tion of both houses, and the citizens, in the Baptist church, 
''on the hill," then recently finished. 

TRAVELING ON A DOG-SLEDGE. 

The Pioneer^ of February 19, says : 

*'Dr. Rae arrived in Saint Paul on the 14th instant, having perlbrmed 
the journey from Pembina to Sauk Rapids, some 500 miles, in ten 
days. It was the continuation of a journey from a station on McKen- 
zie's River, about 2,500 miles beyond Pembina. Both journeys were 
performed on snow-shoes. He was sent last spring to the ArdUc cpast 
in search of Franklin, by the Hudson's Bay Company." 

The " dog-sledge" used by Dr. Rae, in his long journey 
over the snow, was presented by him to the Historical Soci- 
ety, as a memento, and may still be seen at their rooms. This 
was the only mode of winter traveling between Saint Paul 
and Pembina, until 1859, when BurBank & Blakeley's line 
of stages commenced to run to Fort Abercrombie. 

A Sauk Rapids correspondent of the Pioneer^ January 8, 
says : 

" The honorable members elected to the House and Council, from 
Pembina, viz. : Messrs. Kittson, Rolette and Gingras, arrived at 
Crow Wing on Christmas eve, in 16 days from home, stopping two 
days at Red Lake by the way. Each had his cariole, drawn by three 
fine dogs, harnessed tastily, with jingling bells, and driven tandem 
fashion, at 2 : 40 at least, when put to their speed. They usually traveled 
from 30 or 40 miles per day, and averaged about 35 miles. They fed the 
dogs but once a day, on the trip, and that at night, a pound of pemmi- 
can each. On this, they draw a man and baggage as fast as a good 
horse would travel, and, on long journeys, they tire horses out." 

LEGISLATION AFFECTING SAINT PAUL. 

The legislation of the third Assembly, affecting Saint Paul, 
may be summarized as follows : 

Daniel F. Brawley was granted a charter to run a ferry 
for ten years, from the upper levee to West Saint Paul. 
(This ferry ran until the completion of the bridge, 1858.) 

An a<5t to incorporate the Ramsey County Agricultural 
Society. 



1852] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 323 

An ac^t granting to James M. Goodhue and Isaac N. 
Goodhue, the right to run a ferry across the Mississippi 
River. 

TEMPERANCE LEGISLATION. 

The prohibitory legislation demanded by the Temperance 
Convention, and the efforts made by them in the shape of 
** personal pressure" on the Assembly, resulted in success. A 
very stringent '♦'Maine Liquor Law" was enabled by the Legis- 
lature. The manufa(5ture, sale, or possession of liquor was 
made a penal offense, to be severely published. Liquor dealers 
were prohibited from sitting as jurymen. All liquor found in 
the Territory was to be destroyed, &c. The law was to be 
voted on by the people on the first Monday in April, and, 
if approved, was to be operative from and after May i. If 
approved, County Commissioners could not grant licenses 
longer than to that date, &c. 

The contest over the liquor question was short, but very 
excited. On April 5, the election took place. Ramsey county, 
sttange to say, gave a majority in favor of the law. When 
this result was known, late in the evening, the church bells 
rang a peal of joy. The result in the Territory was for, 853 ; 
against, 662. 

It was ardently hoped and expected, by the advocates of the 
law, that it would operate successfully, but, as in so many 
other cases, they were disappointed. In Ramsey county, the 
Commissioners construed the law to suit themselves, and granted 
licenses as before. Thus the liquor traffic in Saint Paul went 
on about as usual. In Stillwater, however, the law was en- 
forced, and the saloons closed up. 

Believing the law to be unconstitutional, its opponents took 
an early occasion to test it by a case occurring at Saint An- 
thony soon after. William Constans, a commission mer- 
chant on the levee, had in his warehouse several packages of 
liquor, stored there by or for another party, and Sheriff Brott, 
being informed of the fa6t, made a descent on his place, to 
confiscate and destroy the liquor. Constans and his friends 
resisted the process, oftering to give the packages up, if Brott 



324 The History of the City\of Saint PauL [1S52 

would give a bond to indemnify him if the law was declared 
unconsitutional. This the Sheriff declined to do, and sum- 
moned a larger force from the crowd collected there, as a fosse 
comitatus. Const ans' friends also rallied, and, in the excited 
state of things, a riot, with serious results, might have occurred, 
if other parties had not advised a compromise, which was 
effected, and the liquors left in Constans* possession for the 
time. 

The Saint Anthony case soon came before Judge H. Z. 
Hayner, of the Supreme Court, who declared the liquor law 
null and void, inasmuch as the legislative power was vested by 
the Organic Adl in the Governor and Assembly solely, and they 
had no power to delegate their authority to the people, and 
the law in question, being an attempt to do so, was inopera- 
tive. This was a severe blow to the temperance element, but, 
nothing daunted, it set to work to procure the passage of an- 
other and better law the next session. 

THE TOWN ELECTION 

took place on May 6. The result was as follows : 

President B. W, Lott 227 Robert Kennedy 183 

Recorder Louis M. Olivier 237 B. B. Ford 171 

Chas. Bazille 231 Wm. Freeborn 396 

Egidus Keller 228 Firman Cazeau 178 

John Rogers 221 A. Baker 175 

LotMoffet 306 W. W. Hichcox 166 

Those in italics elected. 

The total vote cast in both precinc^ts into which the town 
was now divided, was 414, evincing a population of about 
1,500. 

SOME NOTES QN STEAMBOATING. 

The steamboat interest now began to be quite a consider- 
able one, and profitable, doubtless, as travel on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi, under the flood of immigration pouring in, was 
becoming large, and freighting was also growing in importance. 

On page 1 73* was given some note of the beginning of the 
old Galena Packet Company. The *' Senator" and ''Nomi- 



Councilmen. 



1852] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 325 

nee" had been the regular " stand-by" packets, up to this 
season. During the past winter, (i85i-2,)-the '' Ben Camp- 
bell" had been built for the trade. During the seasons of 
1849, 1850, and 1 85 1, the packet line only made two trips per 
week, each way. This year, it commenced tri- weekly trips. 
During tHe season, also, there was quite a rivalry in the 
steamboat trade. The Harrises, Smith and Scribe, ran a 
packet in opposition to the old line, but, ultimately, they con- 
solidated with it. Capt. Louis Robert brought out the 
*^ Black Hawk" and ""Greek Slave," this year — both new. 
There were '' wild" boats, also, in the trade. Capt. Keeler 
Harris, who had commanded a new boat this year, called 
the " Saint Paul." died in August, aged 36 years. 

BRIEF NOTES. 

The Pioneer^ of July 29, in a pretty pointed paragraph, 
compares the dearth of schools to the abundance of churches : 

"Truth compels us to say, that there is not a building in all Saint 
Paul, fit to be called a distriift school house. The only building known 
as such, is hardly fit for a horse stable. There was another miserable 
substitute for a school house on Bench street, belonging to the upper 
distri(5t ; but that was sold the other day, to satisfy a mortgage of less 
than $200. All this in an opulent town, swarming with children, little, 
untaught brats — swarming about the streets, and along the levee, in 
utter idleness, like wharf rats. All this in a town, too, that boasts of 
half-a-dozen steepled churches. If Saint Paul is not a priest-ridden 
town, it is in a fair way to be. This is a blunt, homely truth, but we 
are perfe(5tly indifferent who dislikes it.'* 

The Pioneer^ of August 25, says: ''The court-house is 
finished, and is an ornament to the town." 

The same journal (September 16) says: " Neill's church 
has got a fine organ, and the Cedar street church followed 
suit." It also adds, on the subjedl of church music : "-now we 
have good choirs in all the churches, which would do honor 
to the most refined congregations in the States." 

The Pioneer^ of Odlober 21, has a little item which shows 
that even at that early day our present system of \^ater- works 
was thought of. It suggests supplying the city with water 
*'from one of the lakes toward Little Canada." 



326 The History of the City of Saint Paul., [1^52 

On August 10, it was stated that the cars on the Galena road 
had commenced t<5 run to Rockford. They did not reach the 
Mississippi for three years after this. 

At this date, Minneapolis was not yet christened by that 
name, but is always referred to in the papers as "^// Saints ^ 

Hotels seemed to be as ill-fated those days as they were a 
few years subsequently. On June 23, a large hotel just eredled 
by Daniels & Wasson, near the upper levee, burned. 

The repeated reference by the editors to the need of a cem- 
etery, led to the formation in March of an association, w^hich 
procured 80 acres on what was, for many years, and perhaps is 
now, known as "Nigger Lake," a beautiful forest-covered 
hill to the right of Como avenue, and laid out a cemetery 
called "Oak Hill." Several burials were made there, when, 
for some reason, the scheme was abandoned and the property 
reverted to the original owners. It is unfortunate that the 
sites of the graves made there were afterwards obliterated, and 
cannot be recognized. 

"Langrishe & Atwater*s Troupe" commenced a theatri- 
cal season at Mazurka Hall, on May 22, and played to good 
houses for two or three weeks. 

RATIFICATION OF THE SIOUX TREATY. 

During the early summer, the Sioux treaties of 185 1 were 
before Congress for ratification, and, for some reason, delayed 
unnecessarily. The result was looked for with great interest 
by the people in Saint Paul. On June 26, the Senate, having 
ratified the principal treaty, (with the upper Sioux,) the news 
was received in Saint Paul, amid great rejoicings. 

The newspapers issued extras, and in the evening bonfires 
blazed on the bluf!s, while the Maine law was somewhat dis- 
regarded. Settlers had not waited for the formal ratification 
of the treaty before taking possession of " Suland," as it was 
slangishly termed. Good points for farms, mills and town- 
sites had already been seized on, which have since become 
leading cities of our State. 

MURDER OF ELIJAH S. TERRY BY THE SIOUX. 

The doom of the Dakota race in this State was practically 



1852] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 327 

sealed by the treaty, although they continued to hang around 
until 1862. During all. those years, there wfere repeated mur- 
ders of white people by them, which nearly all went unpun- 
ished. On June 25, the Sissetons, near Pembina, murdered, 
under the most outrageous circumstances, a young man named 
Elijah S. Terry, a resident of Saint Paul, who had' gone to 
that point to teach a mission school. He was a finely educated 
and religious young man, who had designed to devote his life 
to the elevation of the very savages who murdered him. He 
was a brother of John C. Terry, of this city, and of Benj. 
S. Terry, who, 10 years later, himself fell at Birch Coolie by 
a Sioux bullet. 

WIFE MURDER. 

On July 21, a man named Chauncy Godfrey, formerly 
of Baraboo, Wisconsin, while in a fit of jealousy and drunk- 
enness, shot his wife through the heart with a pistol, killing 
her almost instantly. They were boarding at the Tremont 
House, a small frame hotel which stood on Bench street, 
where the rear of Bell's Block now stands. In the excitement 
that followed, Godfrey escaped, and was captured some days 
afterwards at Reed's Landing. He broke jail several weeks 
subsequently, and fled from the Territory. No effort to re- 
take him was made, and he was never heard from again. 

The newspapers of that day did not cultivate sensational 
reporting, as they do now. The murder did not make an item 
of over six or eight lines in either journal. 

DEATH OF JAMES M. GOODHUE. 

On August 5th, Mr. Goodhue's serious illness was an- 
nounced in his own journal, and referred to with apprehension 
by the other papers. He grew rapidly worse. About the 26th 
he rallied, and hopes were entertained of his recovery, but he 
relapsed again, and sank rapidly, expiring on the 27th. 

James M. Goodhue was born in Hebron, New Hampshire, on March 
31, 1810. He entered Amherst College at a youthful age, and, after a 
creditable course, graduated in 1832, in his 23d year. He at once en- 
tered upon the study of law, and was, for a time, associated with Judge 



328 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^52 

W. R. Beebe, now of the firm of Beebe & Donohue, New York. He 
ultimately emigrated west, and finally settled in the lead region of 
Wisconsin, then almost on the frontier of the Northwest, and compar- 
atively unsettled. Here he began to pra<5tice his profession with vigor 
and success, and was soon widely known in that region. A circum- 
stance, however, changed the current of his life. He was invited to 
take charge of the editorial columns of the Wisconsin Herald^ pub- 
lished at Lancaster, during the temporary absence of the editor. He 
found in the new vocation the very field that his restless a<!tivity, strong 
discrimination and keen wit eminently qualified him for. The paper 
doubled its interest during his occupancy of the tripod, and at length 
it resulted in his becoming its editor. 

In the spring of 1849, M*"* Goodhue resolved to remove to Saint Paul, 
and swiftly executed his design. On April 28, he issued, under dis- 
couraging circumstances, the first paper ever published in Minnesota, 
which he continued with remarkable success until his death, three 
years subsequently. 

He became a man of mark and power in the new commonwealth. 
He was one eminently fitted to impress the "elements of empire." 
which were "plastic yet, and warm." His habits, temperament, 
feelings and style, were all such as to give him influence in such a 
population as the Territory then had. His journal was an institution 
inseparably connetfted with the word Minnesota. In the early days of 
the Territory it was a powerful immigration document. Thousands of 
the present citizens of our State first heard of Minnesota in the columns 
of the Pioneer^ or by extracts from it in other journals, which were 
widely circulated, and were attra(5ted hither, by his bright and glowing 
pictures of life in the new Territory. His paragraphs thus circula- 
ted, powerfully contributed to correct the prevalent errors in eastern 
States as to our climate, soil, etc. He was unwearied in laboring for 
good enterprises to advance the prosperity of his adopted State. His 
faith in its future greatness was unbounded. He constantly predi<5led 
its prosperous career, in paragraphs that now read as if he had been 
gifted with prophetic ken. When any civil or political emergency 
arose, he could summon the force, strength, nerve and daring of his 
nature so promptly and powerfully as to astonish and confuse his op- 
ponents. His strength of will and purpose was remarkable. 

In a paper prepared by Rev. E. D. Neill, his intimate 
friend and spiritual counselor, for the Historical Society, his 
chara(5ter is strikingly sketched : 

*'The editor of the Pioneer^ was unlike other men. Every a<5tion. 
and every line he wrote marked great individuality. Impetuous as the 
whirlwind, with perceptive powers that gave to his mind the eye of a 
lynx, with a vivid imagination that made the very stones of Minnesota 



1852] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 329 

speak her praise ; with an intellecft as vigorous and elastic as a Damas- 
cene blade, he penned editorials which the people of this Territory can 
never blot out from memory. His wit, when it was chastened, caused 
ascetics to laugh. His sarcasm upon the foibles of society was paralyz- 
ing. His imagination produced a tale of ficftion called * Striking a 
Lead,' which has already become a part of the light literature of the 
west. When in the heat of partisan warfare, all the qualities of his 
mind were combined to defeat certain measures ; the columns of his 
paper were like a terrific storm in mid-summer in the Alps. 

**As a paragraphist, he was equalled by few living men. His sen- 
tences so leaped with life, that, when the distant reader perused his 
sheet, he seemed to hear the purling brooks and see the agate pavements 
and crystal waters of the lakes of Minnesota, and he longed to leave the 
sluggish stream, the deadly malaria, and worn-out farftis, and begin life 
anew in the Territory of the sky-tinted waters." 

Joseph R. Brown, whose sagacity in reading and knowing 

men was scarcely equalled by any one in our State, thus wrote 

of him : 

" Col. Goodhue was a man of warm temperament, which occasion- 
ally betrayed him into an undue severity of comment upon those who 
differed with him in opinion upon political questions, and upon aspirants 
for office whom he deemed unworthy of public confidence. Many of 
his editorials would have done no discredit to the New Tork Herald 
in its most palmy days. They are replete with satiric humor. Indeed, 
his powers of sarcasm were limited only by his sense of propriety, and 
we can all testify to the effective mode in which they were exercised. 
In comparison with the ordinary controversial articles of the country 
press, his style of writing was as fine gold to lead. ♦ ♦ ♦ He will 
be numbered with the small band of sturdy men who labored constantly 
and with iron resolution to establish the pillars of society in our Ter- 
ritory upon a sound moral basis. His press was always found on the 
side of law, order, temperance and virtue. Minnesota may well lament 
his death, and inscribe his name on the roll of her benefadlors." 

But Goodhue did not live to finish the harvest of fame 
and wealth which his energy and ability had begun to reap, 
as indicated by the foregoing extradls. He was mysteriously 
cut off in the prime of life, with apparently years of useful- 
ness to come. The slight illness with which he was at first 
attacked took an unfavorable turn, and, on August 27th, 1852, 
as the twilight shadows darkened around his home, his eyes 
closed forever on earth. The news of this sad event produced 

a feeling of gloom in the entire community. He was buried 

22 



330 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [i^S^ 

on Sunday, August 29th, by the Masonic fraternity, from the 
First Presbyterian church, the pastor of which, Rev. E. D. 
Neill, preached his funeral discourse to the largest audience 
which had ever gathered in the town. The Legislature of 
the following year very appropriately honored his memory, 
by bestowing his name on a new county, now one of the inost 
flourishing in the State. 

OUR TOWN SURVEYS. 

Goodhue had a broad and liberal view of public improve- 
ments. In his pride of our young city, and his strong desire 
for its success and welfare, he never ceased to importune for 
its social, physical, educational and commercial prosperity. 
His paper teems with advice to the people, which it would 
have been wisdom for them to have adopted. He deplored 
the building of houses on the bluff side of Bench and Third 
streets, and so have thousands since then. At that day it could 
have been avoided. The execrable manner in which the town 
was laid out was another horror to him. In one of his articles, 
just before his death, he says : 

'* The projectors of this town appear to have had but the smallest 
possible ideas of the growth and importance that awaited Saint Paul. 
The original plat was laid off in very good imitation of the old French 
part of Saint Louis, with crooked lanes for streets, irregular blocks, 
and little skewdangular lots, about as large a« a stingy piece of ginger- 
bread, broken in two diagonally, without a reservation fit to be called a 
public square — without a margin between the town and the river; with- 
out preserving a tree for shade, without permanent evidences of bounda- 
ries made by the survey. In fadt, it was a survey without measure- 
ment, a plan without method, a volunteer crop of buildings, a sort of 
militia muster of tenements. So much for the old plat. Then came 
Rice and Irvine's Addition. This is laid out but little, if any, better. 
In fadt, the two plats appear to have taken a running jump at each 
other, like two rival steamboats — which, having inextricably run into 
each other, the passengers and crews have concluded to knock down 
the railings and run along together, as one craft. Kittson's is laid oft* 
in smaller lots than any of the other additions, and its streets make no 
sort of coincidence with other streets in town. // -would save immense 
cost and frove an eternal blessing to Saint Paul, if the whole site of 
the town could now be thrown into one common field, and platted as 



1852J ctnd of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 331 

it ought to be, with large reservations of public grounds, with straight, 
wide, regular streets, and blocks and lots of uniform size." 

ANOTHER HOMICIDE. 

On the night of Odlober 12, an affray occurred in the saloon 
of Thomas H. Calder, between Col. Daniel Breck, James 
Breck, Simon Dalton and others, in which Dalton was 
fatally stabbed, dying a few hours aftei-wards. A coroner's 
jury tried to sift the case, but could come to no conclusion as 
to who gave Dalton his quietus. (May be he suicided ?) 

THE ELECTION 

came off on October 12. The canvass of votes for Saint Paul 
precind: of Ramsey county, showed as follows : 

Democrat. Opposition, 

Louis M, Olivier '"y^^ J. R. Brown 301 

Mich'l Cummings.354 y. C. Ramsey 366 

Representatives , William Noot. . . .363 B. L. Sellers 306 

Wm. P. Murray. .355 D. F. Brawley 317 

B. W. Lott 382 V. B. Barnum 301 

County Commisioner . .Louis Robert 179 George Irvine 188 

Treasurer Rob't Cummings • • 179 Ira B. Kingsley .... 185 

Judge of Probate W. H. Welch 179 Henry A. Lambert.. \^2 

Surveyor Wm. R. Marshall. 184 

Those in italics ele<5ted. 

ANOTHER MURDER BY INDIANS. 

Though the Sioux had received, in good faith, a large sum 
as a quit-claim for territory they had no more a<5lual owner- 
ship of than the fowls of the air, they seemed unwilling to 
give peaceable possession of it to white people. On Odlober 
27, a party of German immigrants were traveling up the Min- 
nesota valley, near Holmesville, where some Indians met 
them, and used threatening adlions and language. Finally, a 
Sioux buck raised his gun and shot a woman, named Mrs. 
Keener. Her body was brought to Saint Paul, and buried. 
The Indians were pursued, and the murderer, Tu-ha-zee., ar- 
rested. He was taken to Fort Snelling, on Tuesday ; indicated 
by the grand jury of Ramsey county, on Thursday ; tried and 
convicted of murder in the first degree, on Friday ; and, on 



* 

332 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^5^ 

Saturday, sentenced, by Judge Hayner, to be hung. Justice, 
those days, was speedy, (to Indians, that is.) The Statutes 
of the Territory then provided that a person sentenced to be 
hung, could not be executed for at least twelve months there- 
after. So Tu'ha-zee was sent to jail to meditate on his latter 
end. He was not executed until December 31, 1854. 

THE SPECULATIVE ERA 

seems to have commenced as early as this. A correspondent 
of the Pittsburg Token^ who visited Saint Paul in the fall of 
this year, writes of it : 

" My ears, at every turn, are saluted with the everlasting din of land ! 
land! money! speculation! sawmills! land warrants ! town lots, &c., 
&c. I turn awaj sick and disgusted. Land at breakfast, land at din- 
ner, land at supper, and until 11 o'clock, land; then land in bed, until 
their vocal organs are exhausted— then they dream and groan out land, 
land ! Everything is artificial, floating — the excitement of trade, spec- 
ulation and expe<5lation is now running high, and will, perhaps, for a 
year or so — but it must have a reaction." 

NECROLOGY OF 1 85 2. 

In addition to the death of Hon. H. L. Tilden, James M. 
Goodhue, and Elijah S. Terry, before mentioned, several 
other prominent citizens died this year. 

On June 13, Daniel Hopkins, merchant, died on the steam- 
boat '' Dr. Franklin, No. 2," vv^hile returning from a business 
trip to Saint Louis, aged 65 years. 

Robert Hughes, a painter, fell over the bluff, on Bench 
street, June 14, and vv^as killed. [Several deaths have since 
occurred in the same manner.] 

On November 22, Egidus Keller, a member of the Tovsm 
Council, died of inflammation resulting from a frozen heel. 

On December 9, J. Q. A. Altman, a printer, formerly of 
Pennsylvania, died. 

December 22, Richard O. Walker, merchant, formerly 
of Philadelphia, died, aged 24. 



'^53] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 333 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1853. 

A Retrospective View — Imprisonment for Debt — A Sioux-Chippewa Fight 
ON THE Street — Change of Adminstration — Gov. Willis A. Gorman 
Arrives — Maj. Forbes Appointed Postmaster — ^The Northern Pacific 
Railroad Survey — Business Directory — Brutal Murder of Two Men — 
Baldwin School Dedicated. 

THE fourth Legislative Assembly met on January 5, in the 
two-story brick now located on Third street, corner of 
Minnesota. (The Capitol was not then completed.) The 
Pioneer^ speaking of the legislative buildings about that time, 
said : 

'* Strangers inquire which of the three doors the front of the 
building used as the Capitol, leads to the lower house. The members 
themselves sometimes get puzzled." 

The Pioneer,^ of January 11, notes the' fa6l that Messrs. 
Kittson, Gingras and Rolette, members from Pembina, 
walked the 500 miles from that place, on snow two feet deep, 
with snow-shoes. 

Some delay was experienced in eledling officers and organ- 
izing. Hon. Martin McLeod was eledled President of the 
Council with but little delay, but the House was not so har- 
monious. Day after day they balloted for Speaker, and it was 
not until January 25, on the 64th ballot, that a choice was 
made. Dr. David Day, then temporarily residing in Benton 
county, at present our honored postmaster, was eledled, over 
B. W. LoTT, by one vote. 

On January 26, Gov. Ramsey delivered his annual message 
to the two houses and populace, in the court-house, then re- 
cently completed. 

inklings. 
Capt. Wm. B. Dodd was engaged in the month of February 



334 '^^^ History of the City of Saint PauL [1853 

in getting up a subscription to lay out a road from Saint Paul 
to Traverse de Sioux. The amount needed was raised and 
the road laid out. It is known to this day as " the Dodd 
road.'' Capt. Dodd fell by an Indian bullet while bravely 
defending New Ulm, in 1862. 

The temperance element made strong efforts for another 
prohibitory law this session, and deluged the Legislature with 
petitions, without avail. 

**The several Masonic Lodges of this Territory met in Convention 
in this city on the 23d ult, at which a Constitution was adopted, and a 
Grand Lodge formed." — [Pioneer y February 3.] 

Venison was so cheap this winter that one hunter complained 
that he only got $ti for nine carcasses I 

The Pioneer^ of January 20, 1853, rejoices over the evidences 
that Saint Paul is becoming a city. He walked down Third 
street after dark, "when the lights gleam from the dwellings, 
in multitudinous twinklings, like fire-flies in a meadow. Then 
along Third street for an eighth of a mile [ ! ]the shops are so 
illuminated as to give the same a city aspedl." Three years 
ago last winter, (he continues,) there was scarcely a store on 
that street. 

LOCAL LEGISLATION. 

The Legislature adjourned on March 5th. Among the acts 
passed were the following, aftedling Saint Paul and Ramsey 
county : 

To incorporate the Saint Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company. 
To incorporate the Saint Paul and Saint Anthony Railroad Company. 
To incorporate the Baldwin School of Saint Paul. 
To incorporate the Mississippi and Lake Superior Railroad Company. 
To incorporate Hennepin Lodge, No. 4, I. O. O. F. 
To amend an adt to incorporate the Town of Saint Paul. [To grade 
or pave any street by assessing propertj' /r<> rata.'\ 

DIVORCE LEGISLATION. 

The Minnesotian^ of March 14, "* congratulates the friends 
of sound morality' on the fa6l that no divorces were granted 
at the late session." Prior to that year, the Legislative Assem- 
blv had severed nuptial bonds quite freely. The petitions of 



1853] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 335 

• 

the applicant were generally referred to a committee who 
took the test;imony and reported. Concerning the visits of the 
committees to the female party in the suit, their questions con- 
cei'ning the evidence and other occurrences — the stories told 
by old settlers are too ^'amusing" to repeat here. The con- 
gratulations of the above journal were appropriate. 

Perhaps, under this head may as well be related a good 
storv that used to be told of a Justice of the Peace in earlv 
(lays — one whose rotund form was well known in our midst. 
A couple — French people — came to him, to be married. The 
knot was well and truly tied, the fee paid, and the certificate 
delivered. But next day, back came the parties and wanted 
the ceremonv undone. Their brief trial of married life had 
convinced them that they were not suited to one another ! 
The obliging justice informed them that for $5 he Would 
divorce them. The fee was paid, whereupon he tore up the 
marriage certificate and announced that they were free a?td 
single again. 

IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT. 

Another curious phase of our early Territorial days, was the 
law authorizing imprisonment for debt, which was in force 
about four years. (Section 2, article ix, of chapter 16, laws 
of 1849.) 

Chapter 90 of the Revised Statutes, 185 1, seemed to provide 
some relief for debtors confined in jail, under the foregoing 
law. It provided that such persons might be discharged after 
ten days* confinement, by giving notice, in writing, to the 
creditor, that application would be made to two justices of the 
peace for relief. He was then to show his inability to pay the 
execution, and the justices were to investigate the fa6l, pro and 
con. If they considered that he was not acting fraudulently, 
and was really unable to satisfy the judgment, he was to be 
discharged from custody, and not be liable to arrest or impris- 
onment for the same debt thereafter. But where the debtor 
undertook to satisfy the execution, he could not be discharged 
until he had paid all the charges for his support while in pris- 
on, and the charges and costs. 



33^ The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^53 

The marshalsea in which debtors were confined in this 
county, was J:he miserable little log jail, about fit for a pig-pen. 
Whether there were many committals under the statute or not, 
I cannot find out now, but it is asserted that there were some 
cases, at least. It is also stated that a Frenchman named Bou- 
LANGE, died in the jail, while a prisoner for debt. The old 
settlers, nearly all of whom belonged to the "poor but hon- 
est** class, were not very apt to deal harshly with an unfortu- 
nate brother who had come in debt to them. 

A SIOUX-CHIPPEWA FIGHT ON THE STREET. 

On April 27, an exciting incident occurred, viz. : a skirmish 
or fight between small squads of Sioux and Chippewas, in one 
of the most public streets of Saint Paul, resulting in the mur- 
der of a Sioux squaw. The particulars may be briefly related : 

Early in April, the Ojibwas killed a Sioux near Shakopee. 
In revenge for this, the Sioux then made an expedition near 
Saint Croix Falls, killing an Ojibwa, and losing two sons of 
old Little Crow. 

Hearing of these events, the Ojibwas prepared for revenge. 
A party of some 18, led by a young chief named A-luc-en-zis^ 
started for Saint Paul, determined to assassinate any unlucky 
Sioux found hanging around the town, as plenty always were. 
They stealthily entered town on the night of April 26, and 
concealed themselves until day-break, in an unfinished build- 
ing in lower town. At daylight they scouted carefully along 
to the edge of the bank by the gas house, to watch for Sioux 
coming up from Kaposia in their canoes. Ere long, one hove 
in sight, making for the landing. It contained " Old Bets," 
her brother, " Wooden-legged Jim," and her sister. Soon as 
the Chippewas noted this, they sprang down the bank, and 
made tracks for the landing, designing to ambush the Sioux 
at that spot. The marsh between Fifth street and the river 
was then overflowed, and they could not cross it. They were 
thus compelled to strike over Baptist hill, which they did 
at a rapid dog-trot, but, to their great disappointment, as they 
arrived near the Merchants* Hotel, found that, owing to the 
delay, the Sioux had landed and were coming up Jackson 



1853] ^^^ of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 337 

street. This street had been cut through the bluff, leaving a 
high bank of dirt on each side. The Sioux advanced care- 
lessly up the hill, suspecting no danger, and turned up the 
steps of the " Minnesota Outfit,'' a large frame trading house 
of the American Fur Company, which stood on the site of 
the present Prince's Block, and in charge of Wm. H. Forbes. 
The ChifJpewas, fearful of losing their prey, rushed forward 
arid stood on the bank opposite the store, and on a level with 
it. The Sioux had just entered the store, when they drew up 
their guns and fired a volley at them. The sister of Old Bets 
fell mortally wounded. There were several persons in the 
store at the time, and it is miraculous that they were not killed. 
The Chippewas jumped down the bank and rushed towards 
the store, determined to finish their work. They were met at 
the door by Theodore Borup and George H. Oakes, who 
happened to be present, and who peremptorily commanded 
them to clear out— or they would get into trouble. This 
brought them to a sense of their rashness, and they at once 
retired by the route they came. 

The wounded woman proved to be dying, and, at her request, 
was put in the canoe and taken to Kaposia, where she died 
the same morning. 

Meantime, the firing and excitement attracted a number of 
citizens, who, as soon as they learned what had taken place, 
pursued the retreating Chippewas, whether to arrest them, or 
for what purpose, no one hardly knew. They soon overtook 
the pagans, who, turning calmly around and confronting them, 
said : " White man, why do you pursue us.^^ This is none of 
your affair ! Do you mean to interfere in our fights ?" No 
one knew what reply to make, and, as they were unarmed, 
allowed the Chippewas to pass on unmolested. 

But we had almost overlooked " Wooden-legged Jim," 
who in his day had been quite a famous fighter. As soon as 
the Chippewa volley had been fired, he drew out an old 
pepper-box revolver he carried, and, rushing to the door, tried 
to fire at them, but not a barrel would go off. Throwing it 
down, he picked up a loaded gun standing in the store, and 
pursued them a short distance, getting a shot at them, and (it 



338 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1853 

is said) wounding their chief. The latter returned the salute, 
knocking a splinter out of Jim*s wooden leg, after which the 
latter stumped back, defiantly yelling the war-whoop. (Mr. 
James died in 1859.) 

Gov. Ramsey at once dispatched a courier to Fort Snelling 
for troops to pursue and punish the Chippewas. Lieut. W. 
B. Magruder soon appeared with a platoon of cavalry, ready 
for the pursuit. 

A Sioux guide was procured, and oft' they went on a gallop. 
The guide tracked the Chippewas to Saint Croix Falls, where 
they were overtaken, at noon next day. Seeing they were 
pursued, the Chippewas retreated to the bush, when they fired 
on the dragoons. The latter charged them, and Lieut. Ma- 
gruder shot one with his revolver. His scalp was brought 
back as a trophy, and thus ended this singular chapter of early 
scenes in Saint Paul. 

The '"Minnesota Outfit" building, where this occurred, 

was aftei-wards used as the Pioneer printing office, and, in 

i860, moved to Eighth street, below Broadway, where it still 

stands, a neat dwelling. The words, "Minnesota Outfit," are 

still faintly discernable under the recoating of paint. 

THE pierce administration 

came into power on March 4, and, consequently, all the Fed- 
eral officers in the Territory were sent to the guillotine. 
Among the new appointees announced, were the following : 

Willis A. Gorman,* of Indiana, as Governor, vice Ramsey ; J. 
Travis Rosser, of Virginia, as Secretary, vice Wilkin ; M. W. Ir- 

* Willis A. Gorman was born January 13, 1816, near Flemingsburg, Kentucky. He 
received a good education, and subsequently studied law. At the age of ao, he was 
admitted to the bar; and, in August, 1855, removed to Bloomington, Indiana, where, 
•• without money or friends," he began the pra«itice of his profession. At the age of 33, 
he was ele<5ted a member of the Legislature, and continued to fill that position for several 
terms — until the Mexican War broke out, when he promptly volunteered, and was 
eletfted Major of a battalion of riflemen, which took a conspicuous part at Buena Vista 
and otlier battles. In May, 1847, his battalion was mustered out, and he at once recruited 
a regiment (Fourth Indiana) of which he was ele«ited Colonel. This regiment took 
part in a number of battles, until the close of the war. In August, 1849, Col. Gorman 
was chosen as Congressman in his district, and re-ele<5ted in 1851, serving in Congress 
four years. 

When Pierce became President, he appointed Col. Gorman Governor of Minnesota, 



1853] <^^^ of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota. 339 

WIN, of Missouri, as Marshal, vice Furbkr ; Wm. H. Wblch, of 
Minnesota, Chief Justice, vice Haynbr; A. G. Chatfibi-d, of Wis- 
consin, Associate Justice, vice Cooper; Moses Sherburne, of Maine, 
Associate Justice, vice Meeker; Daniel H. Dustin, of New York, 
Distrift Attorney, vice Moss. 

Governor Gorman arrived on May 13, and took his seat on 
the i5tli. He soon annonnced the following appointments : 

Socrates Nblsor, Territorial Auditor; Lafayette Emmett, At- 



THE CAPITOL. 

tomej' General; Geo. W. Prescott, Superintendent of Public In- 
struction; Roberta. Smith,* State Librarian, and Private Secretary; 

which pnsitian Che litter accepted and fiJled until May, 1357. He then resumed tlie 
|>rj«ice of U™ in Saint Paul, with much success. In 1857, he was eledted a. member of 
the Conslitutional Convention, and was a candidate IhuC winter for United States Sena- 
tor, In April, 1S61, when the First Regimenl was raised, Gqv.Gohhah was appointed 
ixi. Colonel, and went with it Co \'irginia. Soon after Bull Run, he was promoted to a 
Brigadier General, and served as such until iS6t, when he was niu:itered out of service, 
and returned tn Saint Paul. He resumed the pradlice of law, in partnership with Capt. 
|sin<f Governor) C. K. Davis, whuin he had been ass;iciated with in the army. In 
April, 1869, he was eleifted City Attucney, and has been four tinieere-elefted to the same 
office. Gov. GoRHAN is one of the most eSicient speaket^ of his party in (he State, 
and if the political scale should turn, he would nndoubt be elei^ied to a position lo which 
his ability and eiperience iu public life entitle him. 

■BobehtA. Smith was born in Indiana, June 13, 1S17, and livA in that State until 
his removal to Minnesota. In 1850, he was elefted Auditor of Warrick county, and 
served as such three years. He arrived in Saint Paul in May, iS5j,and at once assumed 
Uie duties of Private Secretary to Governor Gorman, and Territorial Librarian, tlie 
hitter of which he tilled until iSsS. In May, igj6, he was appoinced by the Rnnisey 



340 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^53 

RoswELL P. Russell, Territorial Treasurer ; S. B. Lowry, Adjutant 
General ; Andrew J. Whitney, Clerk of Supreme Court. 

Until the completion of the Capitol, the Governor's office 
was kept in the law office of Rice, Hollinshead & Becker, 
on upper Third street. On July 21, the executive chamber 
in the Capitol was first occupied. 

A NEW POSTMASTER. 

With the incoming of Pierce's administration, among the 
heads that fell into the basket, was that of Postmaster Bass. 
His successor was William, H. Forbes, his commission be- 
ing dated March 18, but was not gazetted in Saint Paul until 
April 14. Mr. Forbes bought out the fixtures of Bass' office, 
and removed them to a one-story frame building, situated 
about where Nelson's brick block on Third street now is. 
The glass boxes of Bass' time were extended so as to reach 
across the room, and a door in the middle of this partition 
gave entrance to the duly sworn employees to the work-room 
in the rear. Mr. Forbes appointed as his Deputy John C. 
Terry, who retained his position as assistant during several 
changes of incumbency, and, in 1870, bade adieu to the postal 
service, after 18 years of faithful labor, to embark in a more 
healthy and profitable occupation. Mr. Wallace B. White 
was, if we remember right, employed a short time after Mr. 
Forbes' term began, and Bob Terrell, a lad then, assisted 
for a time. After Terrell left, Andrew Welch was em- 
ployed. Andy remained in the service until the winter of 
1858-9, when he died of consumption. 

The Saint Paul of 1853 was not the Saint Paul of 1875, by 
a considerable. Around the " post-office" of that time were 
hazel bushes and trees. Standing in the door of the office 
one day, in the fall of 1853, Mr. Terry shot three prairie 
chickens which had lit about where the Pioneer-Press office 
now stands, and were scratching undisturbed by the presence 
• — 

County Board, County Treasurer; and, in the fall of that year, ele(5ted for two years, and, 
subsequently, four more terms, serving until March, 1868 — a period of 13 years. In 
1866, he entered the banking business with William Dawson and H. K. Stbvkns, 
and has since then been transacting a large financial business. He is one of the best 
financiers in Minnesota, and is deservedly popular, as his repeated ele<5tion shows. 



1853] ^^^ <if ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 341 

of man. Contrast the silence of those days with the busy tide 
of human life that whirls by that spot now. 

MINOR TOPICS. 

The Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows was instituted on May 5. 

*' Short Allowance. — ^The fresh meat market is as bare as a clean 
bone. Not an ounce of fresh beef, veal, pork or mutton can be found 
in the market. Our citizens are reduced to salt provisions and fish." — 
\_Democrat, May "4.] 

" On June 6, Wm. W. Warren, an educated Chippewa half-blood, 
author of several valuable papers on the history, customs and traditions 
of the Chippewas, died." — [lb.] 

"Buildings are going up, new stores opening, immigrants arriving, 
and improvements of all kinds going ahead to a greater extent than 
ever before." — [lb.] 

" On July 4, a man named Francis Dunn was thrown from a wagon 
in which he had been excursing with his farnily, and was killed." — [lb.] 

This summer Bishop Cretin built Saint Joseph's Hospital, 
on Exchange street. Part of the grounds were contributed by 
Hon. H. M. Rice. The Bishop also bought grounds for a 
cemetery — the same now occupied by Saint Joseph's Academy, 
on Nelson avenue — but it was used for only three years as a 
burying ground, the bodies being then removed to the new 
cemetery on the Lake Como road, which was consecrated in 
the fall of 1856. 

During this year, also, '^ Oakland cemetery," that beautiful 
^and well-managed "city of the dead," was opened- On June 
23, the association was organized with the following corpora- 
tors : Rev. J. G. RiHELDAFFER, Rcv. T. WiLCOXsoN, Rev. 
E. D. Neill, Geo. W. Farrington, Alex. Ramsey, John 

E. Warren, Henry A. Lambert, B. F. Hoyt, Sherwood 
Hough. On August 23, the association purchased forty acres 
of land, for $1,600. The first year only two lots were sold, 
and it was several years before it had many lot owners. P. P. 
Furber was A6tuary several years, succeeded by Edmund 

F. Ely, and latterly by Morris Lanpher. The grounds 
have recently been extended to 80 acres, and greatly beautified. 
Fine drives and walks are laid out over it, and many handsome 



342 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1853 

marble and granite monuments erefted. The most elegant 
and costly is that of Samuel Mayall, ereded at an expense 
of $7,000. Up to the present year, about 3,000 interments 
had been made. 

The papers this season were well saturated with railroad 
talk, and quite a fever was raised over the proposed survey of 
the Northern Pacific route. Gov. Isaac I. Stevens and Lieut. 
F. W. Lander, charged with that work, arrived about the 
last of May, and organized an expedition here, which explored 
the northern route. Two volumes were subsequently pub- 
lished by the War Department, containing the reports of the 
above survey, and are valuable documents. 

BUSINESS HOUSES 1853. 

From the city papers this year, we get the names of the 
following business houses in 1853 : 

General Dealers. — H. C. Sanford, A. L. Larpenteur, D. L. Fuller, 
D. & P. Hopkins, Louis Robert, Wm. H. Forbes, Rey & May, Culver* 
& Farrington. 

Boots and Shoes. — Henry Buel, Luke Marvin, H. A. Schliek, Philip 
Feldhauser. 

Dry Goods.—]. H. & S. McClung, Edward Heenan, A. T. Chamblin, 
Cathcart, Kern & Co., S. H. Sergeant, J. E. FuUerton, Elfelt Bros., 
Curran & Lawler, Louis Blum. 

Books. — LeDuc & Rohrer, Wm. S. Combs, Dahl & Doull. 

Furs. — Louis Robert, C J. Kovitz. 

Drugs. — W. H. Jarvis, Dr. J. H. Day, Bond & Kellogg. 



* George Culver, one of the pioneers of our State,. was born in Cajmga county, 
New York, September 19, 1818. He removed, in 1834, *o Michigan, and lived there 
until 1837, when he moved west again, and engaged in business in Clinton and Fayette 
counties, Iowa. Fort Atkinson, being the principal station then in the Winnebago re- 
gion, he remained there until 18^, when he removed to Long Prairie, Minnesota, in 
charge of a part of the Winnebago Indians, (see page 186,) and, shortly after his 
arrival, engaged in business with Charles & Henry M. Rice, in the Indian trade. 
He continued in this until 1853, when he left Long Prairie, and, settling in Saint Paul, 
formed a partnership with John Farrington, Fsq., the firm being ** Culver & Far- 
rington." This house has remained in adtive operation aa years, and is one of the 
oldest firms in Minnesota. It was the first to open direA trade with Manitoba, and the 
first to engage in pork-packing in Minnesota. They maintained, for some years, trad- 
ing posts among several tribes. Recently Col. Culver has become proprietor of the 
Metropolitan Hotel, the finest one in the State. His life, up to 1853, was one of stirring 
adventure and pioneer hardship. It would require a volume to do it justice. He is now 
one of the *' solid men" of Saint Paul, respected and esteemed by all. 



1853] ^^^ of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 343 

Hardware, Iron, d:c. — J. McCloud, Jr. & Bro., C. E. & J. Abbott, 
W. R. Marshall. 

Hats and Caps. — R. O. Walker. 

Lumber, — J. W. Bass. 

Furniture, — Stees & Hunt. 

Grocers, — Julius Georgii, Nat. E. Tyson, L. B. Wait & Co., J. W. 
Simpson, W. H. Stillman^ B. Presley, Alex. Rey, J. A. Farmer, C. 
Sanford, B. W. Brunson. 

Glass,— V^. W. Hickcox, S. H. Axtell. 

Stoves, — F. S. Newell,. C. D. Bevans, J. H. Byers. 

Clothing, — L. Hyneman. 

China. — R. Marvin. 

Tobacco, — J. Campbell. 

Leather. — P. T. Bradley & Co., Martin Drew & Co., G. Scherer. 

Furnishing Goods. — Thomson Ritchie. 

Confediionery. — Renz & Karcher. 

Jewelry. — H. Fowler, N. Spicer, A. D. Robinson, Wm. Illingworth. 

Storage, Forwarding and Commission. — Edw. McLagan, Constans 
& Burbank, Spencer, Kilpatrick & Markley, H. M. Rice, M. Kellogg & 
Co. 

Millinery. — Mrs. Marvin, Mrs. Stokes. 

The papers about this date refer to the ta(!:t that most dealers 
were confining themselves to one branch of traffic, instead of 
combining different classes of merchandize in one house, as 
was done in the early days of the city. 

BRIEF MENTION. 

Whoever reads the files of Saint Paul papers of this sum- 
mer, will find numerous references to a '^ Madison Sweet- 
ZER," who had been a sort of Indian trader. Said Sweetzer 
had made charges of '' frod" in the late payment of the Da- 
kotas, and all the papers were worked up into a white heat, 
pro and con, over it. A Congressional committee finally in- 
vestigated the allegations, and reported that they were un- 
founded. Sweetzer sank again into obscurity, and died at 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, February 25, 1875. 

A military company, called the '' City Guards," was or- 
ganized this summer, probably the first militia company 
organized under the laws of Minnesota. ''Capt. Simpson" 
was commander ; R. C. Knox, Orderly Sergeant. 



344 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S53 

Linden & Underhill's theatrical corps opened a short 
season of drama, at the court-house, on July 20. 

Superior, Wisconsin, was laid out this season, by some of 
our citizens, among them R. F. Slaughter, E. Y. Shelley, 
R. R. Nelson,* D. A. J. Baker, D. A. Robertson, and 
others, who were the pioneers of that town. At that time, a 
trip to that place had to be made on foot. There was not 
even a wagon road. ♦ 

The market house was built this season. The papers refer 
to the " city hall" occupying its second story. 

At this time there were five journals published in Minne- 
sota, three in Saint Paul, and two at Saint Anthony. 

On June 29, Col. Robertson retired from the Democrat^ 
and was succeeded by David Olmsted. 

In 0(5lober, the papers notice the removal of the Sioux to 
the Upper Minnesota Reservations. 

On December 7, a low desperado, named Thomas Grieves, 
made an attack, in a drunken fit, on Henry Constans, in his 
place of business on the levee, and Constans was compelled 
to shoot him in self-defense. Grieves died of the injury. 

election of 1853. 

Politics were again warm this year, but the issues were 
confined to a straight party fight, the Democrats and Admin- 
istration party against the Whigs. The election took place 
on October 12. The following is the full result in Ramsey 
countv : 



* R. R. Nelson was born in Cooperstown, New York, May la, 1826. He is a son of 
the late Judge Samuel Nelson, one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, an eminent jurist, who died in December, 1873. R. R. Nelson studied law in 
his father's office, and was admitted to pra<5tice in that State. He removed to Saint 
Paul in May, 1850, and soon became one of the prominent lawyers of Minnesota. On 
April 33, 1857, he was appointed, by President Buchanan, one of the Supreme Judges 
of Minnesota Territory. His term expired on the admission of the State, May 11, 1S5S, 
but President Buchanan soon after appointed him United States District Judge, the 
duties of which office he has executed for 17 years, with much ability, and to the cordial 
satisfaction of all who have had business in his court. Judge Nelson is no less hon- 
ored for his learning, sound decisions, and urbanity, yet firmness, on the bench, than 
for the uprightness of his life, and his social chara<5teristics— qualities which eminently 
fit him to fill his important office with success. 



1S53] and of thf. County of Ramsey. Minnesota. 345 



^ 




34^ The History of the City of Saint Pauh [1853 

Democrat. Whig. 

Councillors, 2d disf. ' ^'""^'^ ^""^ ^^^^* * * '^^ ^' ^' Brunson 376 

(. Wm. P. Murray. . .421 J. K. Humphrey. . . .237 

Councillors, 4th dist. . Wm, Freeborn 462 D. B. Loomis 338 

( Levi Sloan 404 Dr. y. H. Day 388 

Wm. Noot 390 M. S. Wilkinson . . .383 

Representati7>es . . . -J B. Rogers 378 J. M. Marshall 387 

I Wm. Davis 413 Find. McCormick. .375 

I Louis Bartlett 425 Alden Bryant 383 

Sheriff Leonard 506 A. M. Fridley 650 

Register of Deeds. . . .Louis M. Olivier. . .548 Wm. H. Tinker. . • .523 

yudge of Probate y. M. Stone 667 Allen Pierse 486 

County Attorney D. C. Cooley 600 D. A. Secombe 537 

County Treasurer. . . . A. L. Larpenteur. .476 JVat. E. Tyson 497 

Surveyor y. D. Case 578 Jno. T. Halsted 570 

Coroner Carey 525 y. E. Fullerton. . . •581 

f Benj. Gervais 544 W. H. Stillman 560 

Assessors -j yohn O^ Gorman. . .564 Caleb D. Dorr — '570 

V Robert Cummings . .590 Jas. R. Clewett 520 

Those in italics elected. 

yustices of the Peace elet^ed. — First Precin<5t. Joseph Lemay, D. : 
Second Precindt, N. Gibbs, D. 

The total vote for Delegate in Saint Paul, was, H. M. Rice, 
883 ; Alex. Wilkin, 292. The vote in the Territory stood — 
Rice, 2,149; Wilkin, 696. 

brutal murder of two men. 

On December 26th, two young men, named John Clark 
and Philip Hull, were brutally murdered, on the corner of 
Robert and Fifth streets. They were respectable and intel- 
ligent mechanics, and had been, during the evening, sitting 
in a saloon near by, where, in conversation, they unintention- 
ally made some severe criticisms on political or religious sub- 
jects, which must have given great offense to some persons in 
their hearing. When they rose to go home, they were fol- 
lowed by parties unknown, and both attacked in the dark with 
slung-shots, or other weapons, and their skulls so severely 
fractured that they died in a few hours. The slightest clue to 
the assassins was never gained, notwithstanding the efforts of 
the officers, and a reward of $500 offered by Sheriff Fridley : 
and the affair remains a mvsterv to this dav. Old settlers 



1853] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 347 

used to assert very positively, however, who committed the 
a<!^, hut no proof could ever be procured. 

BALDWIN SCHOOL DEDICATED. 

''Baldwin School" was an educational institute, organized 
by Rev. E. D. Neill and others, and a commodious building 
was erected during the summer of 1853 ^^^ ^^^ "^^* This 
building was dedicated on December 29, by a banquet, at 
which addresses were made bv Rev. E. D. Neill, Charles 
J. Hennis, Wm. Hollinshead, W. A. Gorman, John P. 
Owens, T. M. Newson, M. S. Wilkinson, Rev. T. R. 
Cressey, Geo. L. Becker, W. G. LeDuc, and others. 
The name Baldwin School was given to it, as a compliment to 
Hon. Matthew W. Baldwin, of Philadelphia, the principal 
donor to the building fund. It had, in January following, 71 
pupils, and was in successful operation until the public schools 
of Saint Paul got well organized in 1857. During that year 
the building was rented for the Saint Paul post-office, and used 
as such until 1862. In 1864, it was leased by the Board of 
Education, and, in ^869, purchased by them, being still known 
as " Baldwin School." After being used as a school for three 
or four years, the completion of the Madison School rendered 
its further occupancy unnecessary, and it was leased to the city 
for public offices. 

As a historical note on the growth of traveling, and the 
vivid contrast between "' then" and " now," the Minnesotian^ 
of December^ ^^53? ^^^^ j"st heard of ^^ sleeping cars^ in 
which one may rest as comfortably as anywhere !" Then 
there was not a yard of railroad within 200 miles of Minne- 
sota. The papers that very month report the Chicago and 
Rock Island Railroad finished to within 50 miles of the Mis- 
sissippi River, where it rested for the winter, and was com- 
pleted the following spring. But of this anon. 

Navigation closed this fall on November 22d, unusually late 
for those times. There were 235 arrivals this year. 



34^ The History of the City of Saint Paul,, [^^54 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1854. 

Incorporation of the City— Thb First City Election — E. S. Goodrich Pur- 
chases THE " Pioneer** — The Great Railroad Excursion — Ball and Fes- 
tivities AT THE Capitol — Burning of the Sintomine Hotel — Extraor- 
dinary Buffalo Hunt — Execution of Yu-ha-zee for Murder. 

THE fifth session of the Minnesota Legislature assembled 
in the new Capitol for the first time.' The year 1854 
witnessed entirely new coalitions. Ramsey county was rep- 
resented this year by Wm. P. Murray* and Isaac Van Et- 
TEN,t in the Council ; andWM. Noot, Wm. A. Davis, Louis 
Bartlett, John H. Day, and Levi Sloan, in the House. 

LEGISLATION AFFECTING SAINT PAUL. 

Not much private legislation affecting Saint Paul was made 
during this session. Among the adts we notice the following : 

. To incorporate the German Reading Society. Approved, February 23. 

*Hon. Wm. P. Murray was born in Hamilton, Ohio, June ai, 1837. He attended 
the law school of Indiana University, and graduated in 1849, having also previously 
studied for that profession. He came to Saint Paul in December, 1S49, and is now one 
of the oldest lawyers in Minnesota. He has also filled a number of official positions. 
He was a member of the Territorial House of 1852 an'd 1853, Council in 1854 ^^^ '855, 
(the latter year President) of the House of 1857, ^"*^ Constitutional Convention the same 
year, member of the House in 1863, Senate in 1866 and 1867, House in 1868, and Senate 
ag^in in 1875 and 1876— eleven sessions in all. He has also been a County Commis. 
sioner, and member of the City Council continuously since 1859, except about 18 months, 
while he was absent in South America. No man in our county has been so honored 
with positions of this kind as Mr. Murray, and> it may be said, no man has been more 
faithful, attentive and hard-working as a legislator or alderman, than he, and fully 
deserves his remarkable popularity. In 1857, the now^ flourishing county of Murray was 
named for him. 

t Isaac Van Etten was a native of Orange county, New York, and studied law with 
Judge Wilkin, father of Hon. W. Wilkin. He was admitted to the bar in 1851, and 
at once came to Minnesota. He was Adjutant General of the Territory from 1853 to 
1858 — a member of the Territorial Council 1853 and 1854, and State Senate 1857-8. He 
was a law partner for some time of Col. Alex. Wilkin, and afterwards of Michael 
E. Ames, and Capt, Harvey Officer, until 1865, and subsequently of Judge L. Em- 
METT in 187a. He died December 39, 1S73, aged 45 years. 



1854] ^^^ *d^ ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 349 

I 

To incorporate a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in Saint Paul. 
Approved, March 3. 

To incorporate the Saint Paul Bridge Company. Approved, March 4. 

But the most important law concerning our city was the 

ACT OF INCORPORATION 

of the "• City of Saint Paul," approved March 4, 1854. The 
territory embraced in the corporate limits was but a small 
fraction of that ample territory to which it is now grown, be- 
ing not over 2,400 acres in all. Three wards were created, 
and much the same officers and general regulations that our 
present city charter provides for. 

THE FIRST CITY ELECTION 

under the new charter was held on April 4. The following 
w^as the result : 

Democrat, Whig. 

For Mayor David Olmsted 269 W. R. Marshall 238 

City Marshal, , ,,W. R. Miller 262 A. H. Cavender 241 

Treasurer D. L. Fuller 224 D. Rohrer 271 

Police yustice . . .James Starkey 227 O. Simons 248 

Those in italics elected. 

Aldermen ele(^ed. — First Ward, R. C. Knox, 2 years; A. T. Chamb" 
lin and R. Marvin, i year. Second Ward, A. L. Larpenteur, 2 years; 
T. Fanning and C. S. Cave, i year. Third Ward, Geo. L. Becker, 2 
years ; Jno. R. Irvine and J. M. Stone, i year. 

Justices of Peace ele(^ed. — First Ward, W. H. Tinker; Second Ward, 
Joseph Lemay ; Third Ward, J. M. Winslow. 

Assessors elected. — First Ward, W. H. Tinker; Second Ward, W. H. 
Stillman.; Third Ward, H. Stillvirell. 

On Tuesday, April 11, the City Council organized. They 
elected officers as follows : President, Geo. L. Becker ; 
Clerk, Sherwood Hough ; Comptroller, Findley McCor- 
MiCK ; Surveyor, S. P. Folsom ; Attorney, D. C. Cooley. 

THE SEASON OF 1 854 

was one of unprecedented prosperity for the young city, as 
well as for the entire Territory. Navigation opened on April 
6 this year, and a heavy immigration poured in. The popu- 



3^o The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1854 

lation and business of the city increased rapidly, and the 
county outside also received large accessions of population. 
Roads were opened ; farms smiled in the wilderness ; the 
•' squatter's cabin" was to be seen on every lake. Other por- 
tions of Minnesota were prospered as highly. Towns sprang 
up on every hand ; mills clattered by the waterfall ; the emi- 
grant wagon whitened every road, and hardly had the yell of 
the retreating red man died away, ere the settler's axe echoed 
in its stead. 

E. S. GOODRICH PURCHASES THE " PIONEER." 

Journalism in Saint Paul took a high bound forward this 
year. In March, Earle S. Goodrich* purchased of Joseph 
R. Brown, the Minnesota Pioneer^ and became its editor 
and publisher. 

Mr. Goodrich had been engaged in journalism in Wiscon- 
sin, and, being in New York city in the latter part of February, 
1854, fell in at the same hotel with Capt. Estes, one of the 
pioneer steamboatmen of the Upper Mississippi. In the course 
of conversation, Capt. Estes said he had just been up to Saint 
Paul, and had seen Jo. Brown, who remarked he was anxious 
to sell out the Pioneer office, to go into some other business, 
and was then trying to find a suitable person to purchase, one 
who would edit an able paper, and build up the party in Min- 
nesota. ' '' There, Goodrich," said Capt. E., '•'there is a good 
field iox you. The Pioneer is doing well, and Saint Paul is 



*Eakle S. Goodrich was born in Genesee county, New York, July ay, 1837. In 
early life he resolved to enter the editorial profession, and preliminary to that learned 
the printing business, and also studied law, being admitted to practice. He afterwards 
removed to Sheboygan, Wisconsin, where, in 1848, he established a campaign paper, 
which ran for some months. He was also eledled Clerk of the Court, but resigned and 
removed to Green Bay. He was County Clerk of Brown county from 1850 to 1S54, and 
one year District Attorney. In March, 1854, ^^ settled in Saint Paul, and published the 
Pioneer with great success for over 10 years, winning the reputation of being the most 
graceful, elegunt, and caustic editorial writer we have ever had in Minnesota. In 1863, 
while in Washington, he was tendered a commission as Captain and Aid to General 
McClellan, which he accepted, but was, by a blunder of Stanton's, sent, instead, to 
the Shenandoah Valley, where he served some time, and was then ordered to Saint Paul. 
A disagreement with Gen. Pope, then in command here, led him to resign his commis- 
sion. In 1865, he purchased the Saint Paul Gas Company, which he controlled for two 
years. He soon after engaged in railroad construction, in which he has been interested 
most of the time since. 



1S54J <""^ ^ t^^ County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 351 

a prosperous place, bound to grow, as also the Territory. 
Vou ought to go up there and buv the concern." Capt. E. 
ui^ed the matter so strongly that (although Mr, Goodrich 



E S. GOODRICH. 



had hardly speut a moment's thought on Saint Paul before tliat 
interview) he was quite in the notion of going. Hon. Ben. 
C. Eastman, a Member of Congress from Wisconsin, hap- 
pened to arrive at the hotel the same time, and he, too, urged 



352 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1S54 

Mr. Goodrich to come, glowingly describing the prospects of 
success, and offering to give him letters of introdudiion to 
prominent men. The result was, that Mr. Goodrich was en 
route for Saint Paul within 24 hours. 

On arriving here, (March 4,) he at once called oi^ Joseph 
R. Brown, and found a letter, written by Mr. Eastman in 
advance, had already reached Major Brown,. and that the lat- 
ter had his mind made up to sell the Pioneer to Mr. Good- 
rich. The bargain was quickly closed, and Mr. G. left for 
New York next day, to secure material for a daily paper, to 
be issued on May i . 

The Democrat and the Minnesotian at once determined to 
follow suit, the former appearing on May i , the same day as 
the Daily Pioneer^ and the latter on May 12. On May 15, 
the Daily Times made its appearance, edited and published by 
Thomas M. Newson, who had for a vear or more been en- 
gaged as a writer on the Pioneer, With him was associated 
J. B. H. Mitchell and M. J. Clum. Mr. Newson subse- 
quently secured the interest of both these gentlemen, and con- 
tinued the Times ^ with much success, until 1861, when it was 
purchased by Hon. W. R. Marshall, as more fully men- 
tioned under that date. 

THE GREAT RAILROAD EXCURSION. 

Perhaps the most notable event of 1854, was *'the Great 
Railroad Excursion," as it was generally termed, to celebrate 
the completion of the '' Chicago and Rock Island Railroad," 
the first road to reach the Mississippi River in the Northwest. 
Messrs. Sheffield & Farnham, the contractors who built 
the road, to commemorate the opening of that line, prepared 
a monster excursion. Nearly one thousand guests were in- 
vited, mostly from the east. They rendezvoused at Chicago, 
about June 3d, and excursed westward over the new road to 
Rock Island, where five large steamers conveyed them to Saint 
Paul, arriving here on the 8th. The company proceeded to 
Saint Anthony, Minnehaha, &c., in such conveyances as they 
could find, and in the evening a grand reception was given at 
the Capitol. 



1854] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 353 

The hall of the House of Representatives was used as a 
supper-room, while the Supreme Court chamber was appro- 
priated for a ball-room. In the Senate chamber, a large 
crowd assembled to listen to speeches from ex-President Fill- 
more, Geo. Bancroft, the historian. Governor Gorman, 
and a number of others. The music, dancing, feasting and 
speaking continued until midnight, the hour set for the depart- 
ure of the steamers, and the great excursion terminated. 

The opening of this great line of travel largely increased 
the steamboat trade on the Upper Mississippi. The packet 
company put on three new and first-class packets this year. 

BRIEF ITEMS. 

September 6. Charles L. Emerson succeeded David 
Olmsted, as publisher of the Democrat. 

On June 26, W. W. Hickcox, a druggist, who was engaged 
in business in the well-known old brick drug store, so long 
occupied by Day & Jenks. corner of Third and Cedar streets, 
had an altercation with a drayman, named Peltier, in which 
the latter struck him with a dray-pin, fraduring his skull. 
Hickcox died on July 3. Peltier was arrested and tried for 
homicide, but ultimately got clear on the ground of self- 
defense. 

The Sintomine Hotel, a large and fine frame structure, built 
by N. W. Kittson, near the corner of Sixth and John streets, 
was burned on October 3, just as it was completed, and ready 
to occupy. E. C. Rich and Howard Ward had just leased 
it. This was quite a loss to the town, which needed more 
hotel room. 

The Winslow House had recently been got into running- 
order by Capt. I. C. George, (who died in 1872,) and the In- 
ternational Hotel was about being put under contract. It was 
commenced this fall, (contra(5l price, $75,000,) but not com- 
pleted for some two years. 

the county election 
this fall occurred on October 10. The following is a synopsis : 



354 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S54 



Representatives . . ^ . 



Democrat, Whig, 

Reuben Haus 463 J. E. Fullerton 376 

D. F. Braivley.,^! Wm. Hollinshead. . 343 

C. S. Cave 459 Wm. H. Randall . . . 349 

Joseph Lemay. . .430 J. M. Marshall 371 

Wm. Davis 453 Findley McCormick 359 

Co. Commissioner ... .Joseph L,e Bonn. 80 Abraham Bennett - 'XO^'b 

Judge of Probate W. H. Stillman . .285 Richard Fewer 604 

S. M. Tracy 173 

County Treasurer ' . • . Louis Robert. . • .564 Allen Pierse 576 

Coroner Wm. H. Jarvis.^^2 

Those in italics elected. 

At this period, Saint Anthony, Rum River and Manomin, 
were the precincts outside of what is the present bounds of 
Ramsey county. 

BRIEF MENTION. 

The Democrat., of October 22, notes the rush of immigra- 
tion as follows: ''Six steamboats arrived yesterday and 
landed about 6cx) passengers." 

The currency which was chiefly in circulation those days, 
was mostly composed of "Indiana wild-cat," ox free-bank 
issues. This fall it depreciated about as badly as the " Glen- 
coe" and " Owatonna" did in 1859, causing much trouble and 
loss to tradesmen. Several meetings of merchants were called 
to devise means to remedy the evil, which resulted in organ- 
izing a protective union under the name, " Board of Trade." 
W. R. Marshall, was President, Thos. Foster, Vice Pres- 
ident, Sam. W. Walker, Secretary, and A. H. Cathcart,* 
Treasurer. It does not seem to have done much except take 
measures to remedy the currency fraud. 

Navigation closed this fall on November 25th, the season 
having been unusually long, and a very prosperous one for 

* Al£X. H. Cathcart is a native of Toronto, Canada, where he was educated 
and learned the dry goods business. He afterwards lived in Montreal and New York, 
and emigrated to Saint Paul in 1851. Soon after, with his brother, John Wilson Cath- 
cart, he established here a dry goods store, now the oldest in Minnesota. For 34 years 
continuously, Mr. Cathcart has carried on that trade in our city, part of the time being 
the largest wholesale house in the State. J. W. Cathcart leased a plantation near 
Vicksburg during the war, and was killed by guerillas on April 11, 1864. He was a 
highly estimable and noble man. 



1S54] ^^^ 9f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 355 

steamboattnen. The number of arrivals were 256, a large 
increase over former years. 

THE FIRST EXECUTION IN RAMSEY COUNTY 

took place on December 39. Tu-ha-zee^ the Sioux Indian, 
mentioned on page 331, was, aft^r much delays of law, hung 
in public, on a gallows erected on Saint Anthony hill. The 
execution was witnessed by a large crowd, who, according to 
the journals of the day, looked on it more as a joke than as a 
solemn ad: of justice. 

NECROLOGY OF THE YEAR. 

Died, January 8, John G. Cooley, a merchant of the city ; 
July jo. Col. Daniel H. Dustin, United States District At- 
torney ; July 27, C. D. Fillmore, brother of the ex-President ; 
November 22, Hon. Levi Sloan, merchant and member of 
Legislature of 1854. 



35^ The History of the City of Saint Pauls [^^55 



CHAPTER XXV. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1855. 

The Third House, or "Sovereigns" — Mail^ — Stage and Express Items — Birth 
OF our Firs Department — ^The Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company — 
Immigration — The Real Estate Mania — Political Matters, &c., &c. 

'TnHE Legislature of 1855 assembled on January 3. Ram- 
-*- sey county, this year, was represented by William P. 
Murray and Isaac Van Etten, in the Council, and Wm. A. 
Davis, D. F. Brawley, Chas. S. Cave, Reuben Haus and 
Joseph Lemay, in the House. No unusual or noticeable 
events characterized the session. Some local legislation afled:- 
ing Saint Paul, amending its charter. &c., was passed, but 
scarcely worthy of notice here. 

It was, during this year, if we remember right, that some 
of the boys organized the *' Third House" or Sovereigns^ as 
a burlesque on the Legislatures of that day. They were con- 
tinued several years, and produced great amusement. D. C. 
Cooley, was Governor, and his '* messages" were admirable 
specimens of sarcasm. 

This winter there was only a tri-weekly mail between Saint 
Paul and Dubuque, by M. O. Walker's line of stages. 
Those who remember the M. O. Walker era of staging, have 
no very pleasant reminiscences concerning it. The stages 
were anything but commodious, and, with spavined stock and 
surly drivers, intensified the horrors of a winter trip to Galena, 
the nearest point where the eastern-bound traveler could strike 
a railroad. The trip was advertised for four days, but fre- 
quently took six. Storms and drifts on the prairies often 
snowed up the stages at some frontiersman's cabin for two or 
three days, and not unseldom was real suffering and privation 
the consequence. 



^^55] ^^'^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 357 

BIRTH OF OUR FIRE DEPARTMENT^ 

On March i, 1855, our Fire Department was organized, bv 
the formation of the Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company, with 
28 members. A subscription was raised to purchase a hook 
and ladder wagon. One which had been used by a company 
in Philadelphia was purchased, and brought out. It was used 
by the hook and ladder company up to within a year or two, 
and did good service. A small fire engine was also purchased 
by several citizens, and was for several years the only engine 
in use. 

THE CITY ELECTION 

took place on April 3d, resulting as follows : 

Mayor Alexander Ramsey 552 James Starkey 256 

Treasurer . - » Daniel Rohrer 494 Louis D^meules 312 

Marshal W. R. Miller 564 John Trower 237 

Those in italics ele<5ted. 

Aldermen ele^ed. — First Ward, Wm. H. Nobles, C. H. Schurmeier; 
Second Ward, C. S. Cave, A. L. Larpenteur; Third Ward, J. R. Ir- 
vine, A. G. Fuller. 

The total number of votes cast at the election was 809, from 
which the newspapers claimed 5,000 population for Saint Paul, 
but, in point of fa6t, it was much less than that. 

IMMIGRATION, IMPROVEMENTS, ETC. 

Navigation opened on April 17, the old favorite '' War 
Eagle" leading the van, with 814 passengers. The papers 
chronicle the immigi'ation that spring as unprecedented. Sev- 
en boats arrived in one day, each having brought to Minnesota 
300 to 600 passengers. Most of these came through to Saint 
Paul, and diverged hence to other parts of the Territory. It 
was estimated by the packet company that they brought 30,000 
immigrants into Minnesota that season. Certainly, 1855, 1856 
and 1857 were the three great years of immigration in our 
Territorial days. Nothing like it has been seen since. 

With such a human flood pouring into and through it. Saint 
Paul was a busy place. The hotels and boarding houses were 
crowded, the stage lines worked night and day, people even 



358 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1S55 

camping on the streets, stores doing a perfect rush of business, 
livery stables coining money, saloons reaping brisk profits, 
real estate dealers fairly ecstatic, and mechanics not half able 
to keep up with the work pressing upon them. Perhaps not 
a city on the continent, the size of Saint Paul, was such a 
bustling bee-hive as it was that season. The fever of real 
estate speculation, which before was but feebly developed, this 
season seemed to attack all classes, and began to grow into 
the mania which a few months later almost rendered Saint 
Paul a by- word. 

THE REAL ESTATE MANIA. 

In some sense the real estate mania this year was excusable 
and natural, in view of the enormous and rapid profits made 
by shrewd and daring operators. For instance, the papers 
chronicle one movement made by Henry McKenty, the king 
of real estate dealers, and who was on the flood-tide of prosper- 
ity during 1855, 1856 and 1857. ^^^ ^854, he entered several 
thousand acres of prairie farming land in Washington county, 
by land warrants, at $1 .25 per acre. In the spring of 1855, ^^ 
sold the same land to a i:olony from Pennsylvania, at $5 per 
acre, clearing 3<X) per cent. His total net profits on this trans- 
action was $23,000, which he at once invested in more land, 
on which he in turn made almost as great profits. 

Right here the author will be pardoned for giving an inci- 
dent of those days which well illustrates the profits of real 
estate dealers. Pennock Pusey, Esq., our plain and sober- 
going friend, came to Saint Paul from Philadelphia in iS';'^, 
and got acquainted with McKenty, who startled him one day 
by ofl^ering him three and one-half per cent, a month, or 42 per 
per cent, annum, for the use of some money Mr. Pusey had. 
This seemed such an enormous premium to the latter gentle- 
man, who had come from a region where six and seven per cent, 
is the established rate, that he declined the oflTer on the ground 
that McKenty could not aftbrd to pay it, and that it would be 
wrong to accept such an usurious rate. McKenty soon 
demonstrated, however, that he would make large profits if 
he could get the money, and hence could pay the rate men- 



1855] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 3*^9 

tioned without trouble. The loan was made. McKenty 
entered some large tracts of land in Cottage Grove, at $1.25 
an acre, and within a year Mr. Pusey himself bought a part 
of the lands, and gave McKenty $2.50 an acre for it ! Thus, 
^vhile Mr. Pusey made 42 per cent, on his money, McKenty 
cleared 58 per cent, over and above that amount oft' of the 
lender I Mr. Pusey afterwards sold the land to O. Dalrym- 
PLE at $15 per acre, as part of his famous wheat farms. 

ITEMS. 

The census of 1855 was announced in the papers, as fol- 
lows : Population of the Territory, 53,600 ; of Ramsey coun- 
ty, 9^475 ; of Saint Paul, 4,716. 

Building was very brisk this year. The mechanics could 
not turn out the buildings fast enough for people to get shelter 
in. Street improvements, to a considerable extent, were 
made, also. Third, Fourth, Jackson, and other prominent 
streets were graded. 

This season the post-office was moved to the old brick build- 
ing, near the bridge, which, after passing through many 
changes, is now a saloon. 

The election this year was somewhat triangular. There 
were three candidates for Delegate in the field — H. M. Rice, 
Wm. R. Marshall, and David Olmsted — and three county 
tickets to match. The election, (October 9,) resulted in the 
choice of the following officers : Councillor, John B. Bris- 
bin; Representatives, Wm. H. Nobles, F. Knauft, R. 
Haus, Ross Wilkinson and B. W. Lott ; Sheriff', A. W. 
TuLLis ; Register, Louis M. Olivier ; Treasurer, Charles 
F. Stimson, (Saint Anthony ;) Attorney, I. V. D. Heard ; 
Sur\'eyor, James A. Case; Probate Judge, A. C.Jones. 

LOCAL topics. 

On October 4, the Daily Free Press^ an evening paper, 
made its appearance as the organ of the Gorman Democracy, 
or "Nebraska wing" of that party. It was edited by Hon. 
A. C. Smith, now of Litchfield, and published by Samuel 
J. Albright & Co. Saint Paul now boasted of five daily 



360 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [18^^ 

papers — ^three morning and two evening. Not long, ho^vever, 
was such an abundance of journals to shed intelligence on 
this saintly city. On October 31, the Democrat was discon- 
tinued and merged with the Daily Pioneer^ under the name 
of Pioneer and Democrat^ which it bore for six years, and 
the following spring the Free Press was discontinued. 

A man named E. Howitz, a book-dealer, committed a 
forgery on Marshall & Co., this fall, and escaped with sev- 
eral hundred dollars of ill-gotten booty. 

On the night of November 9, the grocery store of H. C. 
Sanford, corner of Third and Wabasha streets, on the site 
of the present Warner Block, was burned down. Sanford 
had a quantity of powder in store. When it went off, it shook 
things up lively in the vicinity. Dr. J. H. Stewart* was 
lying sick of typhoid fever in the building that stood where 
McQiiillan's Block now does. . The shock threw him out of 
bed on the floor, and cured his fever I He never recommended 
the remedy in his subsequent pradtice, however. 

In the fall of 1855, Rev. E. D. Nkill organized a Presbyte- 
rian society known as the "House of Hope," now one of the 
most flourishing churches in the city. It used to worship 
that fall in the Walnut street school house. 

On November 19, navigation closed. The total number of 
arrivals this year were 553. 

As an evidence of the amount of travel and business on the 
river during the season of 1855, it was stated that the packet 
company declared dividends (net profits) of $100,000 on that 
season's business. The " War Eagle." which cost $20,000, 
cleared $44,000 alone ; and the " City Belle," costing $1 1 ,000, 
cleared $30,000 profits. 

* Dr. J. H. Stewart was born in Columbia county, New York, January 15, 1829. 
He graduated at the University of New York, in 1 851, and pnu5ticed medicine at Peeks- 
kill, on the Hudson River, from 1851 to 1855. In May, of the latter year, he came to 
Saint Paul and established himself here — soon becoming one of the most popular and 
successful pra<*titioners in the city. In 1859, ^^ was ele(5ted State Senator, and served 
on important railroad committed. He was commissioned Surgeon of the First Min. 
nesota Regiment in 1861, and was captured at Bull Run, July ai, being held as prisoner 
at Richmond some time, but finally exchanged. In 1864, he was ele<5ted Mayor of Saint 
Paul, and the following year appointed Postmaster, which position he held five years. 
In 1869, he was again eledted Mayor, and re-eledted in iSyi^and again in 1873. But few 
gentlemen in our city have been so popular as Dr. Stewart, a fa<ft owing to his fine 
abilities professionally, and his bonhomie socially. 



1855] a«rf of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 



NECROLOGY OF THE YEAR, 



Died in January, at Providence, Rhode Island, (his former 
home.) Joseph Wakefield, a talented la^vyer. May 9, 



DR. J. H. STEWART. 

Henry P, Pratt, one of the publishers of the Minnesotian. 
July 4, by drowning, Luke Marvin, Jr., a promising young 
business man. November za. Rev, Joshua Bradley, pastor 
of the First Baptist church. December 3, by an accident, 
Charles Ross. 



362 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^5^ 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1856. 

Changk in the County Lines — Creation of our Board of Education — ^W'in- 
TER Traveling and Business — ^The Pioneer Guard— A Police Force 
Created — Corner-stone Laying — The City Hall Built — Baron Von 
Glahn — ^The Real Estate Mania — Crime and Disorder — ^A Vigilance 
Committee — ^The Fuller House Built, &c. ^ 

On March 11, Charles S. Cave was appointed postmas- 
ter, vice Major Forbes. Mr. Cave held the office four years, 
but left it poorer than he entered it. He now resides in 
Missouri. 

The Legislature adjourned on March i. No bills were 
passed materially affecting Saint Paul, unless we except the 
a(ft detaching Saint Anthony from Ramsey county, and adding 
it to Hennepin county, with which its interests were more 
nearly allied, though many now believe that in a few years 
we will all be in the same corporation again. 

This change left two officers of Ramsey county residing be- 
yond the new limits, viz. : Chas. F. Stimson, Treasurer, and 
J. P. Wilson, Commissioner. The Board of Commissioners, 
on March 23, eledled Robert A. Smith, as County Treas- 
urer, and, at a special election, Edmund Rice was chosen as 
County Commissioner. 

A " Board of Education" was also created, for the citv of 
Saint Paul, to consist of six members, two from each ward. 

The ''Pioneer Guard," the finest volunteer military com- 
pany which ever flourished in our State, was organized this 
spring. It existed until 1861 , when most of its members went 
to the war, and it ceased to maintain an organization. 

brief notes. 
On May 23, McClung and Stewart's Blocks, a row of frame 



1856] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 363 

buildings where the present stone blocks of the same owners 
stand, were burned. 

On May 30, the City Council authorized the appointment of 
four policemen. Hitherto, the City Marshal, '' Bill Miller," 
had been the only officer in the city, with powers equivalent to 
a policeman. The first appointees were John Gabel, Nich- 
olas Miller, M. C. Hardwig and Edward Maher. 

On June 24, the corner-stones of the proposed hall for the 
Historical Society, and of a projected Masonic Hall, were 
laid with great ceremony. A large procession of civic socie- 
ties, military, &c., paraded through the city. Mayor Becker 
delivered the oration over the corner-stone of the former insti- 
tution, and " Rev." John Penman, Grand Chaplain of the 
Masons, did the trowel work. Neither of these buildings, 
commenced with such prodigious flourish, were ever built, or 
progressed beyond a partial foundation. 

About the same date, the corner-stone of the cathedral, 
corner of Saint Peter and Sixth streets, was laid, with impos- 
ing ceremonies, by Bishop Tihon, of Buffalo. The excava- 
tion for this large edifice had been commenced in the fall of 
1854, but the work progressed slowly, for want of funds. It 
was completed for use in 1857. During this spring, the corner- 
stone of (old) '^Assumption church," on Exchange street, 
was laid, and the church itself completed and occupied the 
same season. Rev. Demetrius Marogna, since deceased, 
was first priest, followed by Rev. Clement Staub. In 1872-3, 
the new ''Assumption church," on Eighth street, was erect- 
ed — the largest and most expensive church in our city. 

Among other structures built in 1856, was the Jackson 
Street Methodist Episcopal church. 

This season the City Hall was ere6led. The money for its 
eredtion was borrowed from " Baron von Glahn," a capi- 
talist who used to flourish around here in those davs, and after- 
wards moved to Chicago. 

The real estate mania this year assumed alarming propor- 
tions. Speculation was red hot, and the inflation continued 
for some months, when the panic of 1857 caused the memor- 
able collapse in values. 



364 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1856 

THE CITY ELECTION . 

this Spring resulted as follows : 

Democratic. Republican. 

Mayor Geo. L. Becker 723 A. G. Fuller 524 

Treasurer » . . .Lewis Demeules 505 Dan. Rohrer 620 

yustice Joseph Lemaj^ 480 O. Simons 717 

Marshal Wm. R. Miller, (no opposition,) 1224. 

Those in italics elected. 

Aldermen elected. -^F\T%t Ward — Three years, Wm. Branch; two 
years, C. H. Schurmeier. 
Second Ward — Three years, Wm. B. McGrorty ;^two years, Charles 

Rauch. 
Third Ward — Three years, Chas. L. Emerson ; two years, Patrick 
Ryan. 

The City Council shortly afterwards met and organized by 
electing the following : 

City Clerk, L. P. Cotter; City Attorney, J.^B. Brisbin ; Comptroller, 
Geo. W. Armstrong; Surveyor, James A. Case; Physician, Dr. Sam- 
uel Willey. 

A REIGN OF CRIM^ AND DISORDER. 

The rush of immigration, and the fast habits induced by 
the speculative era, brought to our city numbers of thieves, 
gamblers and other abandoned charadlers. For several weeks 
during the summer, crime was rampant. On July 9, the dead 
body of Geo. R. McKenzie, proprietor of the Mansion House, 
was found in the river, having been robbed of money known 
to be in his possession previously, and a young man named 
Robert Johnson, was assaulted, robbed, and thrown over the 
bluff, one night, by highwaymen, dying of his injuries. Some- 
times eight or ten boats would be in port at once, each with 
large crews of low ruffians, who would roam about the citv* 
maddened with liquor, and committing excesses, and the 
.small police force, (four men,) were able to do but little. A 
public meeting was held, at which a secret police, or sort of 
vigilance committee, was appointed to aid the authorities. 
Our streets were carefully patroled at night for some time, a 
number of suspicious characters arrested and sent out of town, 
others tried for offenses committed, and punished, and securit}' 



1S56] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 365 

and order established in a short time. Meantime, the police 
force was increased to twelve men. Henry Galvin, our 
veteran patrolman, was one of those appointed. 

On September 25, the "Fuller House." just completed and- 
furnished, was opened with a grand ball. The cost of the 
building was $1 10.000. Alpheus G. Fuller was the builder 



FULLER HOUSE— (AyTBHWARHs INTERNATIONAL.) 

and owner. A bonus of $12,000 was raised for him at the 
outset. J. W. Bass and Wm. H. Randall contributed the 
land as a bonus. Stephen and Ed. Long were the lessees. 
The hotel commenced doing a splendid business at once. The 
next week it was stated that, between Saturday evening and 
Monday morning, there were 100 arrivals. That fall all the 
hotels did a large business. The same paper states the arri- 
vals at the four principal houses. (Fuller, Merchants, Ameri- 
can and Winslow,) in one week, amounted to over 1,000, and 
it was stated at the close of the season that the number of vis- 
itors registered at all the hotels ^vas 28,000. 



366 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^856 

THE ELECTION 

this fall, (Odober 14,) was with the following result: 

Republican. Democrat. 

Flouse, 1st Distru9\ ^^^^^^^ Branch.. 2^ A. T. Ckamblin.... 324 

J B. W. Brunson. ..187 Isaac Rose 215 

V J. C. Ramsey 607 Wm. P. Murray 696 

House, 2d Distrid. \ C. Bergfeld 408 Wm. Costello 664 

J Dr. C. Goring 198 J. G. McBean 436 

^ ) P. P. Furber 493 W. B. McGrorty 6'>q 

i R. A. Smith, (Ind.,) 671 

Co. Commissioner . . . Parker Paine 560 E. Rice '1232 

Coroner W. H. Shelly 502 Dr. y. D. Goodrich. \\*2^ 

Those in italics elected. 

Ramsey county extended northward at that time as far as 
Crow Wing, and R. A. Smith was elec^ted by the votes at 
that place, the vote here being almost a tie. 

The season of 1856 was very prosperous in many ways. 
The city grew wonderfully, almost doubled, indeed. Many 
fine buildings, especially residences, were ered:ed, streets 
graded, churches built, and other improvements made, that 
changed the appearance of Saint Paul from a rough frontier 
town to a bustling and thriving city. 

BRIEF items. 

On Oc^tober 15, the papers announce the arrival of Rev. 
John Mattocks,* from Keeseville, New York, to become 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church. 



*Rev,jNO. Mattocks was born in Peacham, Vermont, July 14, 1814. He was the sou of 
Hon.jNO. Mattocks, of that State, once Governor, and Member of Congress two terms. 
He graduated at Middlebury College in 1833, and commenced the study of law» but, 
embracing religion soon after, resolved to become a clergyman, and graduated in the 
theological department of Yale College. He settled in 1838, over a congregation at 
Keeseville, New York, where he remained eighteen years, when he accepted a call to 
the First Presbyterian church of Saint Paul. He came here in August, 1856, and at his 
death was the senior pastor in our city. In March, i860, he was elected Secretary of the 
School Board, and Superintendent of Schools — a post he filled until July, 187a. He was 
also a leading member of the Historical Society, &c. Mr. Mattocks was a scholar of 
fine ability. He was quite an antiquarian by taste, and very fond of the natural sciences. 
His information on these points was full and accurate, and he frequently leisured on 
geology, &c., with much success. He died suddenly on November 13, 1875, ^ **>* gT*^*' 
sorrow of the community, and of his congregation, for whom he had labored so long 
and faithfully. 



1856] and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 367 

On November 16, the building on the northwest corner of 
Saint Anthony and Washington streets, known as the " Rice 
House," (on the site of the Third street front of the present 

Metropolitan Hotel,) was burned. It was a three-story brick, 
and in the upper story, the Legislature of 185 1 held its session. 
Sanborn & French, attorneys, had rooms above ; King & 



REV. JOHN MATTOCKS. 

Rich, upholsterers, and D. L. Fuller & Company, mer- 
chants, occupied the lower story at the time of the fire. 

The papers speak of the large increase of business this 
year. The number of business firms, they report, doubled 
this season. Several new bailing houses were established — 
that of Wm. L. Banning' is specially referred to. 



368 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^5^ 

Work was commenced on the Saint Paul bridge this winter. 
Piles for the piers were driven into the river bed. Sanford 
A. Hooper and J. &. J. Napier were the original contra6tors. 

NECROLOGY OF THE YEAR. 

Died, on January 27, J. S. Brown, a prominent banker. 
February 14, Chas. J. Henniss, a journalist. December i, at 
Scotland, Connecticut, (his former home,) David L. Ful- 
ler, an early merchant of Saint Paul. 

adclphia, (1S45,) he was elejSted a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature. In 1855, 
he removed to Saint Paul, and soon after engaged in the banking business, which he con- 
tinued with success until 1861, when he retired from it. In the fall of i860, he was 
eleAed a member of the House of Representatives, and took a prominent part in iinan- 
cial and railroad questions. In 1861, Mr. Banning was appointed a Commissary in the 
army, and served und^ General Frkmont, in Missouri, for about two years. In 1864, 
he engaged in the enterprise of building the Superior Railroad, and to his energy and 
ability, and influence in enlisting capital, the people of Saint Paul are indebted for that 
valuable highway. He was President of the road for seven years, and retired from it 
owing to his impaired health. Captain Banning is a valuable member of the Chamber 
of Commerce, where his views on political economy and public matters have alwajrs 
had great influence. 



'^57] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 369 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1857. 

An Atrocious Mukder— Death of Bishof Cretin— Attempted Removal of 
THE Capital— Jo. Rolette Makes off with the Bill — ^The Ink-pa-doo-tah 
Massacre— Another Murder— Incendiarism— Sunrise Expedition, *c. 

THE year 1857 ^^^ marked by a number of important 
events, and was one of the most exciting and memora- 
ble of any in our career. 

"We learn that a new parish has been organized in the eastern part 
of the city, by the Episcopalians. A handsome stone edifice will be 
eredted during the coming season, on the corner of Ninth and Olive 
streets. Rev. Andrew Bell Paterson, of Salem, New Jersey, has 
been called to the re<5torship. — [^Minnesotian, January i.] 

Services w^ere held for several months in the Washington 
school house. 

On the morning of January 14, a German tailor, named 
Henry Wm. Schroeder, formerly of Louisville, Kentucky, 
who lived alone in a little shop on Third street, on the present 
site of '' Maxfield's Block," was found dead in his shop, hav- 
ing been murdered by a blow on the head with an axe or 
hatchet. He was a single man, and was known to have had 
considerable money, which he was accustomed to keep about 
his person, or in his shop. No clue to the perpetrator of the 
atrocious ad: was ever discovered. 

On February 22, Right Reverend Bishop Cretin died, to 
the great sorrow of his large congregation in this region. 
His body lay in state at the old brick church on Wabasha 
street until the 24th, when the funeral took place. Fully 
1,500 people were in the procession. A memoir of him is 
given on page 311. 

The first City Directory of Saint Paul was issued in Febru- 
ary, by Goodrich, Somers & Co. It contained about 1,700 



37^ ^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^57 

names of citizens. Not one in five of these are now living in 
the city, nor of the 158 business houses advertised in it, are 
there over half a dozen in existence now, and these w itli more 
or less change of firm. 

REMOVAL OF THE CAPITAL. 

During this session occurred a somewhat exciting event, 
frequently referred to — the passage by the Legislature of an 
adl removing the Capital to Saint Peter. The bill was intro- 
duced on February 6, by W. D. Lowry, Councillor from 
Saint Cloud, and on the 12th passed the Council — ayes eight, 
nays seven. Among those who prominently opposed it w^ere 
Hons. J. D. LuDDEN, H. N. Setzer, J. B. Brisbin, and B. 
F. TiLLOTSON. In the House it was opposed by J. R. Brown, 
L. K. Stannard, Dr. W. W. Sweney, of Red Wing, Elam 
Greeley, John M. Berry, and " our own" W. P. Murray. 
The measure was also generally opposed by the press of the 
Territory. It, however, passed on the i8th, and the bill was 
sent back to the Senate to be enrolled. 

About this time the odor of the mouse had so permeated the 
atmosphere, that one of the most obtuse olfactories could have 
perceived it. There were a few individuals hereabouts who 
came to the conclusion that, after some things had occurred 
which looked a little " heathen Chinee," almost any maneuver 
to defeat the bill would be legitimate. The member from 
Pembina," Jo." Rolette, as he was generally called, dearly 
loved a joke, no matter at whose expense. He was chairman 
of the Committee on Enrolled Bills ! A wink was as good to 
him as a nod. On the 37th, the original bill and enrolled 
copy was placed in Mr. Rolette's hand to compare. 

Next dav, Februarv 28, Mr. Rolette was not in his seat I 
The other side now saw the mouse "floating in the air," and 
concluded, as the Irish orator said, "to nip him in the bud." 
St. a. D. Balcombe, of Winona, now editor of a journal at 
Omaha, moved resolutions calling on Rolette to report 
forthwith ; and if he failed to do so, that the next member of 
the committee, (Mr. Wales,) be ordered to procure another 
enrolled copy, and report the same, &c. 



1857] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 371 

Mr. Balcombe at once moved the previous question on the 
resolutions, but Mr. Setzer moved a call of the Council, 
which w^as ordered, and Mr. Rolette reported absent. Bal- 
combe moved that further proceedings under the call be dis- 
pensed vsrith, on w^hich there vsrere yeas nine, nays five. Tw^o- 
thirds not voting for the motion, the Chair, (Hon. J. B. Bris- 
BiN,) declared it lost, notwithstanding Balcombe eloquently 
protested that nine was two-thirds of fourteen ! The Ser- 
geant-at-Arms, John M. Lamb, of White Bear Lake, was 
ordered to report Mr. Rolette in his seat, and started out to 
•" find" him. He didn't find him that day. The Council, 
unable to adjourn, patiently ( ?) waited his return. The din- 
ner hour passed^ and messengers were dispatched to the hotels 
for a supply of food. Bed-time arrived, still the Sergeant-at- 
Arms came not with the missing member. Beds and bedding 
were sent for, and the members camped on the floor of the 
Senate. Next day, no tidings of either Rolette or the Ser- 
geant-at-Arms. It was rumored that Rolette had been seen 
near Sauk Rapids, in his sledge drawn by dogs, flying swiftly 
homeward, with the enrolled bill sticking out of his pocket. 

Others said, bosh^ and declared Rolette was hid in an 
upper room of the Fuller House, playing poker and drinking 
punch. Anon it was reported that John Lamb was '' look- 
ing"- for Rolette in every possible and impossible phice in 
the city, armed with a rope, and threatening to bear Rolette 
to the Council, dead or alive. It was asserted by others, how- 
ever, that this was pure " blow" — that Lamb was not looking 
for him to any great extent — that he had one eye closed, (and 
some say both,) and couldn't have '"■ seen" Rolette if he had 
met him. Certain it is, that Lamb didn't find him, ''either 
dead or alive," and Rolette continued his poker and punch, 
while the enrolled bill quietly reposed in the safe of Truman 
M. Smith, banker, on the first floor of the Fuller House. 

The Council, meantime, continued in its dead-lock, with 
the call still pending. Another bill was procured and enrolled, 
but Mr. Brisbin, President of the Council, and Mr. Furber, 
Speaker of the House, refused to sign it in that shape, endors- 
ing on it their reasons therefor. The bill was, however, sent 



372 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1S57 

to the Governor, signed by him, and printed in the laws of 
that year, with the endorsements mentioned. 

After a continuous session of five days and nights, (or 123 
hours,) the Council adjourned, the call still pending. At 
midnight, on March 5, the last night of the session, the Pres- 
ident resumed the chair, and announced the Council adjourned 
sine die, , The moment the doors were thrown open, in stalked 
Jo. Rolette, and commenced rallying his brother members, 
in his vivacious and pointed style, on the good joke he had 
played on them. 

But little more remains to be recorded, to show the end of 
this singular chapter of Minnesota history, one which, now that 
19 years have cooled the passions excited by the contest, is 
generally mentioned with a smile by both.the former friends and 
opponents of the scheme. The first of these took the ground 
after the session was over, that the bill had become a law, a 
position scouted by the others. The Saint Peter Company, 
we believe, erected buildings to accommodate the Territorial 
oflScers and Legislature, and, on June 29, A. F. Howes, Pres- 
ident of the company, applied before Judge R. R. Nelson, 
of the Supreme Court, for a writ of mandamus to compel the 
Territorial officers to remove to Saint Peter. Judge Nelson 
took the motion under advisement, and, on July 12, filed an 
opinion. After reviewing, at considerable length, the evidence 
concerning the passage of the adl, he decides: "We are of 
the opinion, therefore, that there has been no law passed by 
the Legislative power of the Territory, removing the Capital 
from Saint Paul to Saint Peter. The application for a man- 
damus is therefore refused." 

BRIEF ITEMS. 

There was no legislation at the last session especially affed:- 
ing St. Paul, except the incorporation of the " Saint Paul Li- 
brary Association." The incorporators were Charles E. 
Mayo, J. W. McClung,* R. F. Houseworth, S. D. Jack- 



* John W. McClung was born near Maysville, Kentucky, November ai, i8a6. He 
studied law at Transylvania University, and graduated in 1S47. He practiced law at 
Maysville until 1855, when he came to St. Paul and engaged in law and the real estate 



1857] '^'^^ of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota. 373 

SON, J. F. HoYT, E. Ingalls, a. R. Capehart, Wm. A. 
Croffut, Thompson Connolly and P. DeRochebrunk. 

On March 35, Messrs. Day & Grace, who had contraifted 
to build the Ramsey county jail for $75,000, broke ground 
for the same. The building was finisbed that fall. 

On April 13, news was received of tbe Ink-pa-doo-tah 



JOHN W. McCLUNG. 

Great excitement prevailed. The Pioneer Guard 
promptly volunteered to go to the proteiSion of the frontier, 



others, that he is a popular man, for any one fiilini 
holds, must necessarlJy be the subjeA of much cei 
it like a philosopher, and works for the interests o 
is worthy of imitation. He has also published a 
thitt has done our State great benefit. 



374 ^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [i^57 

but could get neither transportation or proper ammunition. 
Two of the female captives, who were rescued soon after, w^ere 
brought to Saint Paul and presented with a purse by our 
citizens. 

Hon. Samuel Medary, who had been appointed Governor 
of the Territory, arrived on April 22, and at once assumed 
the gubernatorial chair. 

This spring two new volunteer companies were organized. 
One was the '' Saint Paul Light Cavalry," Capt. James 
Starkey ; the other was called the Shields' Guards, Capt. 
John O'Gorman. 

On April 27, the extra session of the Legislature convened, 
and continued until May 25. Among the local a6ts passed, 
affe^ling Saint Paul, were : To incorporate the Saint Paul 
Water Company ; to extend Rice street ; to incorporate the 
Saint Paul Fuller House Company ; to incorporate the Saint 
Paul Dramatic Joint Stock Association ; to open and extend 
vSeventh street, &c. 

The spring of 1857 ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ latest ever known. The 
'' first boat*' did not arrive at Saint Paul until the morning of 
May I . Once the barrier was broken, however, the season 
was inaugurated with a fleet of boats. On May 4th, eighteen 
were at the levee at one time, and, a" few days afterwards, 
twenty- f our ^ the largest number ever seen at our landing. Each 
of these were crowded with passengers and their goods, so 
gi'eat was the rush of immigration that spring. 

SCRAPS. 

On May 5, the city election occurred, with the following / 

result : 

Republican. Democratic. 

Mayor yohn B. Brisbin, (Democrat — had no opposition,) . . 1876 

Treasurer • . Daniel Rohrer 961 Edward Heenan 858 

Marshal ' . . . Wm. R. Miller 1 143 John O'Gorman 735 

Those in italics ele<5led. 

Aldermen eledled. — First Ward, Luke Marvin ; Second Ward, A. L. 
Larpenteur; Third Ward, H. J. Taylor. 

On the night of May 10, a murder took place at the -^ Cave," 
a low sink of crime above town. A man, named Peter W. 



1857] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 375 

Trotter, was stabbed by a roustabout, named "Mike 
Smith," alias Golden, and died in a few moments. The 
murderer escaped and was never detected, although Deputy 
Sheriff J. W. Prince pursued him to Saint Louis. 

Saint Paul was well supplied with theatres this season. 
''Sallie St. Clair's Varieties" opened at Market Hall on 
May 20, with a very good company. 

On June 27, H. Van Liew opened the " People's Theatre," 
in a frame structure, built for the purpose, on the northeast 
corner of Fourth and Saint Peter streets. Van Liew had a 
very good company, and ran his theatre that season, and also 
during the summers of 1858 and 1859. The building burned 
down September 8, 1859, during a political meeting, while 
Schuyler Colfax and Galusha A. Grow were addressing 
it. The scenery of the People's Theatre was painted by Al- 
bert CoLGRAVE, the first scenic artist in Minnesota. He 
came from Columbus, Ohio, and was a young man of prom- 
ising ability and talent. In 1862, he enlisted in the Sixth 
Regiment, and died at Glencoe, in March following — an un- 
timely ending of ^ noble life. 

A few days subsequent to the opening of the People's 
Theatre, a Mr. Scott brought a small company here, and 
opened a theatre in a hall in Irvine's Block. Thus there were 
three theatres going at one time, and all doing well. The 
panic, a few weeks later, soon closed them up. The hall used 
by Scott's troupe was subsequently used for a while by the 
House of Hope congregation. 

The election for delegates to the Constitutional Convention 
occurred on June i. The Democratic nominees were all 
eledled, as follows : 

Moses Sherburne, Geo. L. Becker, Michael E. Ames, D. A. J. Baker, 
John S. Prince, Patrick Nash, Lafayette Emmett, Wm. P. Murraiy, W. 
A. Gorman, Wm. H. Taylor, W. B. McGrorty, Paul Faber. 

The total vote cast in the city was 2,820, which would have 
shown (if not fraudulent) a population of 17,000, or more, 
but one journal asserts that '' several steamboat crews voted 
several times in each ward !" 



37^ The History of the City of Saint Pdiil^ [^^57 

WAIFS. 

On August 4, a severe fire occurred on the north side of 
Third street, between Market and Saipt Peter, which de- 
stroyed some twenty buildings and much of their contents. 
The fire was undoubtedly the work of an incendiary. 

On August 1 8, jhiother fire swept the west side of Robert 
street, between Third and Fourth, then occupied by frame 
business buildings. This fire was also, beyond doubt, the 
work of an incendiary. 

These two fires, taken in connedlibn with a number of bur- 
glaries, attempted and successful, and the presence of a gang- 
of hard characters in the city, and the insufficiency of the 
small police force to properly guard so extensive an area as they 
were expedled to protect, led to the formation of an organiza- 
tion similar to that of the preceding summer — a volunteer 
patrol, or vigilance committee. This was kept up for several 
weeks, and rendered good service in clearing the city of vaga- 
bonds and criminals. The fires also demonstrated the neces- 
sity of fire engines, and the City Council set about procuring 
them, though it was fully a year before they were received. 

A "'fast" town. 

During the summer of 1857, Saint Paul was said by trav- 
elers, to be the fastest and liveliest town on the Mississippi 
River. Emigration was pouring in astonishingly, several* 
bpats landing daily loaded with passengers. Those intending 
to go back in the country, usually purchased their supplies 
here, and the stores were almost overtaxed, so profitable was 
their trade. The hotels and boarding houses were crowded 
to overflowing. The principal business streets fairly hummed 
with the rush of busy life. Building was never so brisk ; an 
army of workmen and mechanics labored night and day to 
keep up with the demand for dwellings and stores. Another 
small army was engaged in grading streets, and laying gas 
pipes, the air being continually shaken with the concussion 
of blasting, rock. Saloons, of course, throve as they always 
do, be times flush or hard. That season they coined money ; 



I 
J 



'^57] ^^^ ^f ^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 377 

so, also, did the livery stables. The city was continually full 
of tourists, speculators, sporting men, and even worse char- 
a<5lers, all spending gold as though it was dross. Perhaps 
this "floating" population amounted to two or three thousand 
persons during most of the summer, until the crash scattered 
them like leaves before an autumn gale. 

THE SUNRISE EXPEDITION. 

During the summer, settlers ne^r Cambridge, Sunrise, &c., 
complained that the Chippewas were very troublesome, steal- 
ing, &c. Gov. Medary ordered Capt. Starkey to take a 
part of his volunteer cavalry company, and proceed to the 
spot, and arrest any Indians known to be committing depre- 
dations, or order them to return to their Reservation. Capt. 
Starkey took 20 men, and, on August 24, started for the 
settlements named. On August 28, they overtook six Indians 
near Washington, and, while talking to them, the Indians 
broke away and ran. Capt. Starkey ordered one of his men, 
Frank Donnelly, to head them off" and tell them to stop. 
Donnelly did so, when one of the Indians, named Sha-go- 
ba^ shot Donnelly, killing him instantly. The other cavalry- 
men fired on the Indians, killing one and wounding another. 
Securing the four Indians, and putting the other two, together 
with Donnelly's body, in a wagon, the cavalry returned to 
Saint Paul, arriving on the 29th. The scene, when Don- 
nelly's bloody corpse was left at his house, can better be 
imagined than described. 

The funeral of Donnelly took place on Sunday, August 
30, from the Jackson Street Methodist Episcopal church.' 
" Rev." John Penman preached the discourse from the text: 
"' To live is Christ, and to die is gain." (This was a subject 
well suited to the piety of that holy and eloquent divine !) 
The military of the city did the accustomed honors to their 
fallen comrade. 

The Indians were kept in confinement for several days, 

when they were released by Judge Nelson, on a writ of 

habeas corpus, brought by Maj. Cullen, Superintendent of 

Indian AflTairs. S/ia-gorba was sent to Chisago countv, to be 

25 



378 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ ['^57 

tried for the murder of Donnelly, but soon cut his way out 
of the ''jail" with a knife, and escaped. 

ITEMS. 

On August 31, the Washington school house, which had 
been built that season, was dedicated. This was the first 
school house built by the Board of Education, and cost $8,433. 

On September 3, the City Council subscribed $50,000 to- 
ward the Saint Paul bridge, which had been commenced the 
previous winter, and stopped for want of funds. The w^ork 
was now pushed forward night and day. to complete the piers 
before frost, and the wood work was built during the winter. 

On September 7, the District Court, second judicial distri6t, 
assembled. Judge R. R. Nelson presiding. There were 400 
cases on the calendar, no term of the court having been held 
for two years. 

On September 16, the ''Mercantile Library Association" 
was organized. It maintained its organization quite success- 
fully for several years, accumulating a considerable library, 
keeping up a good reading room, and getting up two or three 
interesting courses of le<5lures. In 1863, its library was united 
with the Young Men's Christian Association, and formed our 
present well-managed and excellent " Saint Paul Library." 

This fall, the Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien Railroad was 
completed. The nearest railroad connection east had hitherto 
been at Dunleith. Step by step, the iron horse was advancing 
toward our city. 



1 857 J ^'^^ ^f i^^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, ^379 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1857.— Continued. 

The Real Estate Mania — The Period of the "Flush Times'* — ^The Panic— 
The Real Estate Market Ruined — Hard Times — The Census — Elec- 
tion — Currency Troubles — Perilous Balloon Ascension, *c., &c. 

THE real estate mania, before mentioned, was now at its 
height. No description that can be given of this singu- 
lar era of our history can convey an idea of it. Only those 
who lived through the '' flush times" will ever know what 
they were. 

Everybody seemed inoculated with the mania, from the 
moneyed capitalist to the humble laborer who could merely 
squat on a quarter sed:ion, and hold it for a rise. The buying 
of real estate, often at the most insane prices, and without 
regard to its real value, infected all classes, and almost ab- 
sorbed every other passion and pursuit. Town-sites and 
additions to towns were laid out by the score.* Many of 
these town-sites were purely imaginary, and had never been 
surveyed at all. Lots in these paper cities were sold by the 
hundred east, at exorbitant prices. Agriculture was W'S^^- 
le6led, and breadstufls enough for home consumption were not 
raised. Their import formed a large branch of trade. Honest 
labor w^as thrown aside for more rapid means of wealth. 
Farmers, mechanics, laborers, even, forsook their occupations 
to become operators in real estate, and grow suddenly rich, as 
they supposed. 

''Real estate dealers" — some of them honorable men, like 
Henry McKenty, but many without character or conscience. 



* D. C. CooLEY, " Governor of the Sovereigns," in one of his inimitable messages to 
the Third House, recommended, with bitter irony, that a small portion of the land be 
reserved for agriculture, and not all laid out in town lots. There was almost some 
grounds for the advice. 



38o 



The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [i^S? 



mere shysters — flourished in Saint Paul by the score. A large 
share of them were purely street sharpers, having no office 
but the sidewalk, and no capital but a roll of town-site maps, 
and a package of blank deeds, yet all fairly coining money, 
and spending it, in many cases, as rapidly as made, on fast 
horses, fast women, wine and cards. These operators would 
board boats, on their arrival, or hang around hotels, and, by a 
little sharp maneuvering, as ''confidence men," find out and 
manipulate unsuspecting strangers, who had money, and fleece 
them of their means, by selling them lots in moonshine towns, 
for several hundred dollars each, not acSlually worth as many 
cents, even if they got a title at all. Such operations w^ere 
repeated by the score, until Saint Paul and Minnesota got a 
name abroad anything but enviable. 

This mad, crazy, reckless spirit of speculation, which char- 
adlcA'ized those times, was appalling, to look on it now from a 
soberer stand-point. Perhaps in no city of America, w^as the 
real estate mania, and reckless trading and speculation, so 
wild and extravagant, as in Saint Paul. It could not last, and 
must soon bring its own punishment in general ruin. Indeed, 
the storm was near at hand. 



THE BUBBLE BURSTS. 

On August 24, occurred the failure of the Ohio Life Insur- 
ance and Trust Company, of New York, which gave rise to 
the memorable panic or financial revulsion of that year. 

To Saint Paul, this pricking of the bubble of speculation 
was more ruinous^and dire in its consequences than perhaps 
to any other city in the west. Everything had been so infla- 
ted and unreal — values purely fictitious, all classes in debt, 
with but little real wealth, honest industry negle6led, and 
everything speculative and feverish — that the blow fell with 
ruinous force. Business was paralyzed, real estate adtuallv 
valueless and unsaleable at any price, and but little good 
money in circulation. Ruin stared all classes in the face. 
The notes secured by mortgages must be paid, but all values 
were destroyed. No' device would raise money, for no one 
had any to lend. Everybody was struggling to save himself. 



1857] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 381 

The banking houses closed their doors — nearly all the mercan- 
tile firms suspended or made assignments. All works of im- 
provement ceased, and general gloom and despondency settled 
down on the community. In a few days, from the top wave 
of prosperity, it was plunged into the slough of despond. 

And now the " hard times" commenced in earnest. No 
description of this terrible and gloomy period will convey any 
idea of it. With many, even those who had but shortly be- 
fore imagined themselves wealthy, there was a terrible struggle 
between pride and want. But few had saved anything, so 
generally had the reckless spirit of the times infested all classes. 
The humble poor, of course, suffered ; but the keenest suffer- 
ing was among those who experienced the fall from affluence 
to poverty. 

The papers were crowded for months with foreclosures of 
mortgages, executions, and other results of the crash. Not 
one in five of the business houses or firms weathered the storm, 
despite the most desperate struggles. The population of the 
city fell ofi' almost 50 per cent., and stores would scarcely rent 
at any price. 

BREVITIES. 

On September 19, the gas works having been completed, 
and got in running order, gas was for the first time let on the 
city. 

On September 21, A. C. Jones, Deputy Marshal, com- 
menced to take the census of Ramsey county, pursuant to 
se<5tion four, of the Enabling A61, the objedt being to ascer- 
tain the population of the State when admitted, and fix its 
representation in Congress. The census was completed in 
about six weeks, and showed the population to be as follows : 
Of Saint Paul, 9,973 ; of Ramsey county, 12,747, and of the 
Territory, 150,037. [It was the wish of the writer to have 
given the names of adult male citizens in this census, but the 
length of such a list precluded the attempt, after the list was 
prepared, and alphabetically arranged.] 

THE FIRST STATE BISECTION 

occurred on October 13. The State had not yet been admit- 



Representatives 



382 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1S57 

ted, though it was supposed this would be done in December, 
and State officers were therefore elected. The vote in Ramsey 
county was as follows : 

Republican. Democratic. 

Distri^ Judge.. . .E. C. Palmer^ (Ind.,)i936 Wm. P. Murray. . . 1253 

r J. W. Selby 1 143 Isaac Van Etten . .2040 

Senators -j Martin D. Clark 1048 Charles S. Cave . . 1690 

^ J. M. Marshall 1 156 Wm. Sprigg Hall. 1754 

James Day 1297 yohn W. Crosby . . 2076 

Daniel Rohrer 1224 Wm. Davern 1986 

Charles Colter 1073 Wm. B. McGrorty.i&j6 

B. F. Irvine 1 125 Charles Ranch 2037 

A. Varenne 1088 James Starhey .... 2024 

V. B. Barnum 1078 Geo. L. Otis 2079 

Probate Judge. \ ^- '^- <=°"°" 973 "R'^." J. Penman ^1<)1. 

^ A. C.Jones, (Ind.,) 691 

Clerk of Court. . -E. Ingalls 986 R. F. Houses or th. 2016 

Sheritr jj. W. Prince, (Ind.,)- 684 J. T. Caldivell...i6(^ 

^^^^ I R. B. Galusha, (Ind.,) 382 

Treasurer R, A. Smithy (no opposition,) 2659 

Attorney /. V. D. Heard^ (no opposition,) 3196 

n ' f n d / Louis Demeules 370 Edward Heenan. ..12^$ 

Is. Hough, (Ind.,)... 622 

Coroner. .' J. M. Castner 948 Dr. J. V. Wren . . . 1708 

Surveyor James A. Case 303 W. E. Duffy 1236 

Those in italics eleAed. 

CURRENCY TROUBLES. 

Toward winter, the stringency increased severely. The 
currency which had been in use before the crash had about 
all gone up, or been withdrawn. There was a limited amount 
of specie in circulation, but this was soon hoarded up. Ex- 
change on the east was 10 per cent. ! To devise some meas- 
ures for relief, meetings of the merchants were held, and 
various measures recommended to the Legislature — a stay law, 
general banking system, &c. The city and county boards 
were advised to issue " denominational scrip," to use as cur- 
rency. This scheme was soon after put in operation, and the 
scrip was in circulation for two or three years. Every old 
settler remembers it — not with pleasure, perhaps. But it was 
of some use. 



1857] and of the Coimty of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 383 

In the midst of these troubles came a call from Stearns and 
other counties, asking relief for poor settlers, whose crops had 
been destroyed by grasshoppers. A considerable amount was 
subscribed in this city, poor as everybody was. Our own 
home destitute were also cared for, and public improvements 
were projected to give them employment. 

The City Council this summer ordered two new fire engines, 
for the use of the city. In anticipation of this, two fire com- 
panies were organized — "Hope Engine Company, No. i," 
on September 14, and "Minnehaha Engine Company, No. 2,'* 
on December 4. Of the former, M. Levoy, R. C. Wiley, 
James Hery, John H. Dodge, and others, were the organ- 
izers ; and of the latter, H. P. Grant, M. J. O'Connor, R. 
G. Sharpe, L. E. Clarke, J. B. Olivier, S. T. Raguet, &c. 

William Markoe built a handsome balloon this summer, 
and made two ascensions. The last was on October 8, at the 
Territorial Fair, in the Capitol grounds. S. S. Eaton and 
H. H. Brown went with him. The balloon descended on 
Rice Creek, about 18 miles northward, throwing Mr. Eaton 
out, and breaking the valve ropes o^ in the neck of the bal- 
loon. The balloon shot up rapidly, and when a mile high, 
Mr. Brown climbed up to the neck of the balloon by the net- 
ting, and secured the cords I It was a perilous feat, but saved 
their lives. 

From a report made to the Chamber of Commerce, it was 
ascertained that 343 buildings, costing $591,500, had been 
erected this season. Among them were several churches, a 
county jail, a school house, bridge, &c. For street improve- 
ments, sewers, &c., $133? 153 had been expended. 



384 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [185S 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1858. 

The " Five Million Loan Bill" — Creation of the Fourth Ward— Admis- 
sion OF the State — DuLL>mss of Business — Cable Celebration — Fire: 
Engines Arrive— Homicide — Dedication of School Houses — Election 
Statistics. 

ONE of the most noticeable events in 1858, was the "Five 
Million Loan," which was passed this spring, by the 
Legislature, and was voted on April 15. The debate on its 
merits was short, but somewhat acrimonious. Meetings 
were held, pro and con, handbills circulated, &c. R. O. 
Sweeny prepared an amusing caricature, whicli was litho- 
graphed by the opponents of the measure, and made much 
merriment. When the loan measure was voted on, it was 
carried by a majority that was surprising. In the cit>', the 
vote was, ayes 4,051, noes 183 ! 

In common with other cities of the cpuntry. Saint Paul was, 
that winter, visited by sweeping revivals of religion. 

Navigation opened on March 25 — one of the earliest dates 
on record — but travel and business on the river were painfully 
dull. The Northern Line Packet Company was put on this 
season. • 

The papers about this period frequently mention the " Sons 
of Malta." One of our citizens rose to the high rank of Car- 
dinal in this ancient order. 

The Fourth Ward was created by the Legislature this win- 
ter, out of the Third Ward. 

THE CITY ELECTION 

occurred on April 4. It was not a straight party contest, the 
Republicans making no nominations as such. The result was : 



1858] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 385 

Independent. Democratic. 

Mayor Moses Sherburne 1546 N. W. Kittson 1788 

Treasurer Daniel Rohrer 1936 Mich. Cummings . . . 1334 

C'i ^ i' ^ Orlando Simons 1 193 Thomas Howard .... 1 191 

/ y fus tee . ^ Nelson Gibbs 857 

Comptroller . . T. M. Metcalfe 1615 C. W. Williams 1520 

Those in italics ele<5ted. 

Aldermen ele6ied. — First Ward, C. H. Schurmeier; Second Ward, 
P. 0*Gorman; Third Ward, Nicholas Gross, three years; Wm. H. 
Wolff, two years ; Thomas Grace, one year ; Fourth Ward, Henry M. 
Dodge. 

BRIEF MENTION. 

The LaCrosse and Milwaukee Railroad was completed this 
spring to LaCrosse. Little by little the iron horse was ap- 
proaching pur city. 

On May 14, the papers announced that the State was ad- 
mitted, but no demonstrations were made over the event. 
The State officers were quietly sworn in on the 24th. 
• Business was depressingly dull all the season. Still, a num- 
ber of buildings were built, and public improvements carried 
on. The scarcity of a good currency was a great drawback 
to trade. 

During July, at an adjourned session of the Legislature, an 
attempt was made to remove the Capital to Nicollet Island, 
but it did not meet with much favor. 

On September i. Saint Paul, with other cities of the Union, 
celebrated the successful laying of the Atlantic Cable to Eng- 
land. The celebration was carried out with much spirit and 
enthusiasm — a procession, orations, music, &c., and at night 
fireworks and general illumination. 

Our Fire Department were gladdened, this fall, by the arrival 
of two new engines, which the city had procured at Philadel- 
phia. They were formally delivered to Hope Engine Com- 
pany, No. I, and Minnehaha, No. 2, on November i, and did 
good service for some ten years, when steamers were substi- 
tuted. This summer, also, Fort Snelling was abandoned by 
the Government, and Hon. John S. Prince* purchased the 

* Hon. John S. Princb was bom in Cincinnati, May 7, i8ai, and resided in that city 
until i840» being, during^ the latter part of that period, in the commission business. He 



386 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1858 

post engine, and presented it to a company formed of em- 
ployees of his mill, called, "Rotary Mill Company, No. i." 
so that we had now a well-equipped Fire Department. 

On 06tober 18, an old man, named James McClay, was 
killed at a disreputable shanty, near the jail, by two roughs, 
named " Chicago Jack" and Cormack Malloy. They es- 
caped without any punishment, by some technicality. 

On November 13, Adams schoM was dedicated, and, soon 
after, Jefferson school. The latter burned down about nine 
years subsequently, and has been rebuilt on another site. 
Saint Paul had now three good school houses, and a good 
corps of teachers. 

On December 22, " House of Hope," on Walnut street, 
was dedicated. 

THE ELECTION 

that fall was only for County Auditor and Representatives, the 
latter useless after all, as the session [of 1859] was never 
called. The following was the vote : 

Democratic. Independent. 

John B. Brisbtn . . 1770 H. J. Taylor 941 

W. A. Gorman « . .1150 Wm. Branch 864 

E. D. Cobb 1301 M. Groff 615 

Wm. Von Hamm . 1436 W. B. Quinn 87 

Wm. P. Murray^ . 1209 T. M. Metcalf 377 

John S. Prince . . . 1523 W. H. Nobles .... 1061 

County Auditor L. P. Cotter 1026 Alex. Buchanan . . 1084 

Those in italics elected. 

The business and financial outlook this fall was very discour- 
aging. Trade was almost paralyzed. The harvest had been 
poor. There was no immigration. Some "Glencoe" money, 

then entered the employ of the American Fur Company, at Evansville, Indiana, and 
after the company suspended in 184a, he engaged with Pierre Chouteau, Jr., & Co., 
who assumed the business, and became their purchasing agent, throughout Ohio, Indi* 
ana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. In 1854, he came to Saint Paul, to look after 
their real estate here. Connedted with it was a saw mill, long known by early residents 
as the Rotary Mill. This was carried on by Mr. Prince for 15 years. He also dealt 
largely in real estate, on his own account. Personally, no gentleman in our city has 
been more popular than Mr. Prince. He was a member from Ramsey county, 
in the Constitutional Convention, and has been eledted Ma3ror five times, being one of 
the most faithful and valuable municipal officers our city ever had. 



Representatives 



1858] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 387 

based on the State railroad bonds, began to circulate, but they 
w^ere looked on with distrust. State scrip circulated for a 
while, but it soon ran down to forty cents on the dollar, and 
all classes were in bad financial straits. 

NECROLOGY OF THE YEAH. 

July II, by drowning, Hon. Wm. Costello, ex-member 
of the Legislature, from this county. November 23, M. W. 
Irwin, formerly United States Marshal for Minnesota. De- 
cember 4, John H. Brownson, a lawyer, (by falling from a 
w^indow.) 



388 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1859 



CHAPTER XXX. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1859. 

Murder of Mrs. Laliyer — G. L. Lumsden Convicted of Mail Robbery — ^Thk 
BiLANSKi Murder Case — Wright County War — Sketch of Bishop Grace — 
Death of Doctor Borup. 

NO session of the Legislature was held this winter. Mem- 
bers had been ele6ted, but the session was not called to- 
gether by the Governor, it having been left for him to decide 
whether it was necessary or not. 

CRIME. 

During January, a man, named Lawrence Laliyer, was 
arrested at Prairie du Chien, on charge of having murdered 
his wife, in Mounds View township, in 1856. Her remains 
were found buried under an old ice house. Laliyer was 
tried for murder in the first degree twice, and, on the second 
hearing, convicted of murder in the second degree, and sen- 
tenced to a short term in the penitentiary. 

On February 12, Geo. L. Lumsden, a clerk in the Saint 
Paul post-office, was arrested on charge of stealing a land 
warrant out of the mail, and selling it to Henry McKenty. 
He was convi6ted, and soon after sentenced to ten years' im- 
prisonment in the State's prison. Lumsden was pardoned, in 
1864, on condition that he would enlist in the army, which he 
did, and, in a few days afterwards, was killed at the battle of 
Nashville. 

On March 11, Stanislaus Bilanski, a Polander by birth, 
of whom some account is given on page 121, died at his resi- 
dence on the Stillwater road. He was married at the time to 
a woman whose name had been Annie Evards, formerly of 
Fayetteville, North Carolina, with whom he had had but little 
previous acquaintance, and of jw^hose past life, what was 



1859] ^^^ ^f i^^ County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 389 

known, was not creditable. Bilanski's last illness was short, 
and his symptoms thought suspicious by several persons who 
visited him. After his burial, a girl, who had been employed 
in the family during Bilanski's illness, reported that she had 
purchased arsenic at Mrs. B.'s request, and mentioned other 
circumstances fully sufficient to warrant the belief that Bilan- 
sKi "was the vi6tim of a design to murder him on the part of 
his wife. Mrs. Bilanski was at once arrested, and the body 
of B. being exhumed, the stomach was subjected to analysis. 
This was made by Dr. Wm. H. Morton, and revealed strong 
and unmistakable proofs of arsenic, and, on May 15, Mrs. Bi- 
lanski w^as indicted for murder in the first degree. On her 
trial she was ably defended, but, on June 3d, was found guilty. 
On December 9, she was sentenced to be hung, and March 
23d was fixed by the Governor as the date. 



** THE WRIGHT COUNTY WAR." 



Many of the readers of this book may have heard of the 
Wright County War, but do not know to what it refers. In 
the fall of 1858, one H. A. Wallace was murdered in 
Wright county, and *a neighbor, named Oscar F. Jackson, 
was tried for the offense, in the spring of 1859, ^"^ acquitted 
by the jury. On April 25, a crowd of men assembled, and 
hung Jackson to the gable end of Wallace's cabin. It was 
a most wicked and inexcusable outrage. Governor Sibley 
offered a reward for the conviction of any of the lynchers. 
Not long afterwards, one Emery Moore was arrested on the 
charge of aiding in the affair, and taken to Wright county for 
trial, but was rescued by a mob. Governor Sibley at once 
decided to take vigorous measures to maintain the majesty of 
the law. A military force was called out, and three compa- 
nies dispatched (August 5) to Monticello, to arrest the rioters 
and reinforce the law. The Pioneer Guard headed the col- 
umn, which was in command of Colonel John S. Prince. 
A few special officers and detectives accompanied the force. 
The military proceeded to Monticello, reinforced the civil 
authorities, arrested eleven lynchers and rescuers, and turned 
them over to the Wright county officers. Having subdued 



390 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1S59 

the "'rebellion," they returned on August 11 — the ''Wright 
County War," as it is facetiously termed, having fortunately 
ended without bloodshed. 

THE CITY ELECTION 

took place on May 3, resulting as follows : 

Republican. Democratic. 

Mayor Henry J. Howe 1514 D. A. Robertson 1755 

Comptroller^ . .F. Willius 1468 Wm. Von Hamm 1801 

Treasurer Daniel Rohrer 141 1 C. A. Morgan 1851 

Those in italics ele(5led. 

Aldermen elected. — First Ward, Wm. Branch ; Second Ward, M. J. 
O'Connor; Third Ward, R. C. Wiley; Fourth Ward, Peter Berkey. 

On May 23, Dr. J. F. Hey ward, a capitalist of the. city, 
died, leaving a large estate. 

On July I, Col. Wilbur M. Hayward, a lawyer of Saint 
Paul, died at Taylor's Falls. 

On July 6, Dr. Charles W. Borup, one of the first and 
most prominent bankers of the city, of the firm of Borup & 
Oakes, died suddenly. He was a native of Denmark, came 
to Ameripa when young, and was engaged in the fur trade on 
Lake Superior for many years. He came to Saint Paul in 
1S49, ^'^^ ^^^ been, since that date, one of the most influen- 
tial and wealthiest citizens. 

During x\ugust, the hearts of our Catliolic population were 
gladdened by the arrival of Rt. Rev. Thomas L. Grace,* who 

* Rt. Rev. Thomas L. Grace was born in Charleston, South Carolina, November 15, 
1814. He commenced his studies, preparatory to the priesthood, under Bishop Fen- 
wick, in the Seminary of Cincinnati, in 1828. A year later, he went to the Dominican 
Convent of Saint Rose, Kentucky, where he became a member of the Dominican 
order, continuing there his studies until 1837. ^" ^^* year he went to Rome, and 
studied at the Minerva until 1844. He was ordained priest in Rome, December 31, 
1S39. On his return to America, in 1844, he was for^wo years engaged in the ministry 
in Kentucky, and for 13 years in Memphis, Tennessee. While in Memphis, he built 
the very fine church of Saints Peter and Paul, the Convent of Saint Agnes, Orphan 
Asylum, &c. On July 34, 1859, ^® was consecrated Bishop of Saint Paul, and arrived 
here shortly after. He has had great success in his zealous labors in this city and State, 
increasing the church greatly, procuring large additions to the clergy, opening schools, 
establishing charitable institutions, and multiplying churches. He is warmly beloved 
by his large congregation, and respedted by other sed:s, for his learning, piety, amiable 
character and benevolence. He is regarded as one of the ablest prelates in America. 



1859] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 391 

had recently been ordained Bishop of the diocese of Saint 
Paul. 

The State eled:ion took place on Oc^tober 11. Wm. Sprigg 
Hall, C. N. Mackubin and Dr. J. H.'Stewart were elected 
Senators ; and Geo. Mitsch, OvScar Stephenson, J. B. 
Olivier, D. A. Robertson, John B. Sanborn and Henry 
Acker, Representatives ; A. W. Tullis, Sheriff; Sher- 
wood Hough, Register; I. V. D. Heard,* County Attor- 
ney ; R. A.. Smith, Treasurer ; J. F. Hoyt, Probate Judge. 

On December 5, a fire destroyed several frame buildings on 
the north side of Third street, where McCargar's piock now 
stands, and thence to the corner above. 

On December 14, the two organs of the party, the Minnc- 
sotian and the Times ^ were united into one journal, and the 
joint proprietors, "Newson, Moore, Foster & Co.," were 
elected State printers. This firm was not a happy family, and 
the union was soon dissolved. 

The year 1859. closed with somewhat better prospe(!:ts 
financially. The harvest had been abundant, and somewhat 
enlivened business. The people of the State were confident 
that the panic had spent its force, and that matters were now 
on the mend. For the first time this fall, grain had been ex- 
ported from the State, and the people began to get on a 
foundation of real prosperity. 



* Isaac V. D. Heard was born at Goshen, New York, August 31, 1834. He came 
to Saint Paul in May, 1S53, when 18 years of age, studied law, and was admitted to 
pradlice. He was eleAed City Attorney in 1856, and again in 1865, 1866 and 1867. He 
was appointedCounty Attorney in 1857, ele<5led the same fall fortvvo years, and re-eledted 
in 1859 *"^ 1861, serving over six years. He was eledted State Senator from Ramsey 
county, in 1871. Mr. Heard volunteered, during the Sioux War, in an independent 
cavalry company ; was Judge Advocate during the trial of the 303 Indian murderers the 
same fall, and afterwards wrote a valuable work on the Sioux War. 



392 The History of the City of Saint Pauln, [i860 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



EVENTS OF THE YEAR i860. 



Supposed Uxoricidb — Destructive Fires — Execution of Mrs. Bilanski — 
Prices, Business, ♦c— The Douglas and Lincoln Campaign — Suicide of 
Wm. C. Gray. 

/^^N January 26, the wife of a shoemaker, named Wm. 
^^-^ O'Neill, was found dead in their hovel, in the swamp, 
near the corner of Seventh and Cedar streets. It was uncer- 
tain whether she had died by accident, or her husband mur- 
dered her in a drunken fit. He was tried for it, at any rate, 
and sentenced to Stillwater for five years. 

February 25, Theodore French, a leading lawyer of the 
city, died. 

On March 16, most of the buildings on both sides of Third 
street, from Robert to Jackson, were destroyed by fire. It 
commenced in the clothing store of a well-known chara<5ter, 
named Isaac Ansell. Some 25 or 30 business houses were 
broken up by this calamity. 

These fires, of which there were several very destructive 
ones, from 1857 to 1861, always produced great discourage- 
ment. But from the ashes of despair ever grew tKe plant of 
new hope and courage. The fires really did good. Most of 
the buildings destroyed were old shells, and in their places 
fine and valuable blocks were built. Old settlers have seen 
Third street swept by flames nearly from one end to the other, 
and rebuilt again. 

On March 22, the appointment of W. M. Corcoran, a 
lawyer and real estate dealer, as postmaster, was announced. 
He held the oflfice about a year. He resides now in Maryland. 

THE execution OF MRS. BILANSKI. 

A strong efibrt was made by a few members of the Legis- 



i86o] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 393 

lature, opposed to capital punishment, to commute the death- 
sentence of Mrs. BiLANSKi, to imprisonment for life. A bill 
to accomplish this was passed early in March, but Governor 
Ramsey promptly vetoed it, on the grounds of unconstitu- 
tionality, and that it vv^as a case not calling for any show of 
clemency. The law, therefore, took its course. 

The execution of the unfortunate woman took place at ten 
o'clock, on March 23d. The scaffold was erected in the en- 
closed yard adjoining the jail, and alongside the old hook and 
ladder house. An immense crowd, several thousand in num- 
ber, were present. The Pioneer Guards, with loaded muskets 
and fixed bayonets, were placed in line in front of the jail, to 
preserve order. Mrs. Bilanski, who had spent the whole 
morning in devotional exercises, with Father Caillet and 
another clergyman, walked with a firm step to the gallows, 
cheerfully bidding her acquaintances good-bye. Before the 
fatal noose was adjusted, she spoke a few words, to the effe<5l 
that she had not had justice in her trial, and conveying the 
impression that she was innocent. She then kissed the cruci- 
fix, the black cap was put on, and the noose adjusted. The 
bolt was then drawn, and the body fell. After hanging a short 
time, it was taken down and buried in the Catholic cemetery. 

THE CITY ELECTION 

this spring resulted as follows : 

• Democratic. Republican, 

Mayor yokn S. Prince 1148 C. D. Gilfillan 1133 

Treasurer .... Chas. A. Morgan. . . 1257 Geo. C. Mott 1012 

Comptroller. . . Wm. Von Hamm . . . 1262 T. M. Metcalf 1012 

City yusiice • . . Nelson Gibbs 1285 Luke Marvin 997 

Those in italics elected. 

County Commissioners elected. — J. C. Burbank, J. R. Irvine, John 
Smith, J. W. McClung, John Nicols. 

Aldermen eleded. — First Ward, R. H. Fitz; Second Ward, H. P. 
Grant; Third Ward, C. M. Daily; Fourth Ward, W. M. Corcoran. 

" IngersoU's Block" was this year built by D. W. Ingersoll.* 

*Danikl W. Ingkrsoll was born at Newton, New Jersey, June la, iSia. At quite 
an early age he entered the mercantile business, in the employ of a friend, at Newton, 
26 



• 



394 -^^ History of the City of Saint Paul^ [i860 

It supplied a great want in the matter of a public hall for 
meetings, &c. It was used for some 14 years for that purpose, 
and, a few months ago, converted into offices. 

PRICES — BUSINESS — IMMIGRATION. 

Some improvement in business, &c., was noticeable during 
this spring, and immigration commenced. Much of the splendid 
wholesale trade of our city dates from this time, and was one 
of the good results of the commercial revulsion. Country 
dealers, unable to buy large stocks east, on long credit, as 
formerly, could purchase small lots in Saint Paul for cash, 
and many of our merchants thus had a wholesale trade^thrust 
on them, without seeking it, which has grown into huge pro- 
portions, and now employs an- immense capital. Thus, out 
of the nettle disaster, we plucked the flower prosperity. 

Prices had, about this date, touched their lowest ebb. Pro- 
duce and provisions, fuel, rents, &c., were so low that even a 
little money would go a great ways in the '' pursuit of happi- 
ness." The Minnesotian^ of June 2, mentions that houses, 
that in 1856 or 1857 rented for $18 and $20 per month, then 
only brought $5 and $6. Potatoes were 15 and 18 cents a 
bushel ; wood, $4 per cord, and other necessaries in propor- 
tion. Even whisky could be had for 25 cents a gallon. Alas ! 
that those halcyon days should have fled forever I 

FRAGMENTS. 

On April 7, Rogers'* Block was destroyed by fire. 

who not long after removed to Burlington, Vermont, and Mr. Ingkrsoll accompanied 
him to that place, ultimately becoming his partner. In 1837, ^^' Ingersoli. removed 
to New York, and engaged in trade there, remaining until 1855, wheil he came to Saint 
Paul. He established his dry goods house here the following year, which has continued 
one of the leading establishments of Minnesota since that year. Mr. Ingeksoll was 
never eledled to any position except the School Board, in which he has given valuable 
labor for education, and is now its President, but has held many honorary appointments, 
being President of the State Reform School Board of Managers, President of the State 
Temperance Association, &c., and member of a number of charitable, religious, and 
similar bodies. He is one of our most faithful and energetic workers in every good 
cause. 

* Hiram Rogers was born in Bucks coxmty, Pennsylvania, April 7, 1806. He subse- 
quently went to Philadelphia, where he was engaged in the manufacture of morocco, 
&c., which he carried on extensively for some years. In 1836, he removed to Zanesville, 



i86o] and of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota. 395 

The census was taken in June, by John M. Lamb. Depiitj- 
Marshal, The result was reported: Population of the city, 



'. INGKRSOLL. 



10,279; **^ ^^^ couiitv, 13,150: native born, (in city,) 5,620: 
foreign born. 4,659. 



39^ The History of the City of Saint Pciul^ [i860 

This season, Capt. Davidson started a line of packets from 
Saint Paul to LaCrosse, with three small boats, and thus laid 
the foundation of his present marine corporation. 

The presidential campaign of i860 was a memorable one, 
and was hotly contested in Saint Paul. The Republicans had 
a large club, called the ''Wide Awakes," commanded by 
Capt. Wm. H. Acker,* and the Douglas Democrats had a 
similar club, called the " Little Giants," commanded by Capt. 
Alex. Wilkin. Both were finely drilled. 

On August 9, the telegraph from Saint Paul to LaCrosse 
being completed, the first message was sent, being addressed 
to Hon. Wm. H. Seward. 

On November 10, Wm. C. Gray, once a prominent broker 
and real estate dealer, committed suicide, by leaping over the 
bridge into the river. A sheriff had arrested him for forgery, 
when Gray broke away from him, ran to the bridge, and com- 
mitted the desperate adl, in full sight of a nunriber of persons. 

The county elecSlion (November 6) resulted as follows : 

Republican. Democratic. 

Auditor T. M. Metcalfe . 1510 C. W. Griggs 943 

Court Commissioner . . O. Malmros . . . . 1 288 Greenleaf Clark . . . . 1 169 

Surveyor D. L, Curtice** 1251 C. M. Boyle 1214 

^ i^y as. Smithy Jr., 703 J. C. Burbank 673 

I yno. B. Sanborn 581 Alex. Wilkin 506 

^ Andrew Nessel.\ 677 J^ P. Kidder 679 

House J Henry Acker . . . 726 John S. Prince 663 

l W. L. Banning. 501 Thomas Dalv 447 

Those in italics ele<5ted. 



* Captain William H. Acker was born in Clyde, Wayne county, New York, 
December ^, 1S33. ^^' ^^^ ^ ^^° ^^ Hon. Henry Acker, deceased, who held several 
important offices in this county at various times. Wm. H. spent most of his youtli in 
Michigan, coming to Saint Paul in 1854. He was book-keeper in the banking- house of 
W. R. Marshall, for several years. In 1856, he was one of the organizers of the 
Pioneer Guard, the first military company in Minnesota, and was afterwards its Captain. 
He was very fond of military exercises, and was a Hne drill-master. On March 19, 
i86o, Governor Ramsey appionted him Adjutant General of the State, but when the war 
broke out in 1 861, General Acker resigned, and recruited a company, which became 
Company C, First Regiment. He was wounded at Bull Run, and afterwards commis- 
sioned a Captain in the Sixteenth Reg^ars. He fell at Shiloh, April 6, 1863. His 
death created profound sorrow in this city, where he was warmly esteemed. His remains 
now repose in Oakland cemetery. 

t Nbssrl contested Kidder's seat and gained it. 



i86o3 and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 397 

On December 25. Wm. Hoi.i.inshear, one of the ablest 
lawveis of the city. died. 

The Daily Times was this month sold to Wm. R. Mar- 
shall, who. on Jaiiuarj- i . issued it as the Daily Press. 



The year i860 closed under gloomy circumstances. The 
disunion cloud was darkening the southern horizon, and the 
miitterings of war were heard in the distance. Trade was 
again depressed, cnrrency depreciated, and glooni and fore- 
bodings rested on all. 



3S>8 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1861 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

EVENTS OF THE WAR PERIOD.— 1861 to 1865. 

The Disunion Period— Opening of the War — ^The First Regiment Raised — 
Officers of the Various Regiments — Our Railroad System Begun — The 
Saint Paul and Pacific Railroad— Overland Emigration — ^The Call for 
600,000 Men — The Sioux Outbreak — Birch Coolie— Origin of our Banking 
System — Saint Paul and Sioux City Railroad — Casualties and Crimes — 
The Sanitary Fair — End of the War — Celebration — Return of our 
Regiments — Our Quota, &c. 

THE year 1861 was marked in history by the opening of 
the great struggle between the Northern and Southern. 
States. The disunion movement, which began in the fall of 
i860, steadily advanced, and in its course the depression of 
business, the failure of banks, and gloomy forebodings of 
trouble, were the results. In Saint Paul this was especially so. 
At the municipal ele(5lion, (April 2,) the following vote 
was cast : 

Republican. Democratic. 

Mayor Dr. J. H. Stewart 881 John S. Prince 1 121 

Comptroller . . Findley McCormick. . . . 860 Wm, Von Hamm . . . 1 135 

Those in italics elected. 

Aldermen ele<$ied. — First Ward, J. E. Thompson ; Second Ward, 
Wm. P. Murray; Third Ward, N. Gross; Fourth Ward, L. H. Eddy. 

During this month, the appointment of Charles Nichols, 
as postmaster, was announced ; also Geo. W. Moore, Col- 
le6tor of the Port ; Hon. Aaron Goodrich, Secretary of 
Legation to Brussels, &c. 

On April 13, the telegraph brought the' sad news of the fall 
of Sumter, and the call for 75,000 troops. Great excitement 
prevailed for some days, and war was the only theme of con- 
versation. Capt. Wm. H. Acker and Capt. Alex. Wilkin, 
at once commenced recruiting companies for the First Minne- 
sota Regiment, and war meetings were held to encourage en- 



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i86i] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 399 

listments. Gen. John B. Sanborn* was appointed Adjutant 
General of the State, vice Acker, resigned. 

In four days, Capt. Acker's Company (C) was full, and ac- 
cepted, with the following officers : Captain, Wm. H. Acker ; 
First Lieutenant, Wilson B. Farr^ell ; Second Lieutenant, 
Samuel T. Raguet. On the 22d, Capt. Wilkin's Company 
"' A," (Pioneer Guard,) was accepted — First Lieutenant, 
Harry C. Coates ; Second Lieutenant, H. Zierenberg. 
Ex-Governor Gorman was commissioned Colonel of the Regi- 
ment, with Dr. J. H. Stewart as Surgeon, and Rev. E. D. 
Neill as Chaplain. The Regiment was mustered in at Fort 
Sneiling on April 29, and on June 22, left for Washington. 

In the meantime a 

second regiment 

had been accepted. '' The Western Zouaves" was recruited 
in Saint Paul by Capt. H. H. Western, and became Com- 
pany D. The Regiment was mustered in on June 26. Among 

* Gen. John B. Sanborn was born December 5, i8a6, in Merrimac county, New 
Hampshire. Determining upon the profession of law, after preparatory schooling, he 
studied three years, and was admitted to praAice in July, 1854. In December, of the 
same year, he removed to Saint Paul, and at once began a successful practice here, in 
the well-known law firm of early days — " Sanborn, French & Lund." 

In 1859, he was eleAed a member of the House of Representatives. The next year 
he was ele<5ted to the Senate of 1861. Hardly had his term closed, when the war broke 
out, and he was appointed Adjutant General of the State. Very heavy labor now de- 
volved on him, in the organizing, arming and equipping of the four regiments raised that 
year. When the Fourth Regiment was filled, the command was tendered to him, and 
he accepted it (December.) He remained in command of Fort Sneiling that winter, 
and early in the spring of i86a, his regiment was sent to Mississippi, when it at once 
entered the Corinth campaign. Col. Sanborn was placed in command of a demi- 
brigade, and subsequently of a brigade, afterwards part of the famous 17th army corps. 
On September 19, at luka, he lost 600 out of 3,aoo of his men, and, for his gallant con- 
duA, was promoted to Brigadier General. He was also in the battles of Port Gibson, 
Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hills, and the assault on Vicksburg. After the surren- 
der of the latter po^t, he was assigned to the command of t^e southwest distriA of 
Missouri, where, after the campaign against Price, he was, upon recommendation of 
Gen. RosECRANS, promoted to Brevet Major General, for *' gallant and meritorious 
services." 

After the close of the war, he performed other important duties, civil and military, for 
some months. In September, 1866, he was appointed one of the special " Peace Com- 
mission," along with Generals Sherman, Harney, Tekry, and Senator Hender. 
son, to negotiate treaties with the principal tribes of the central plains. The commission 
was engaged 18 months on this important.labor. 

On his return home, he resumed the pratftice of his profession. In 1873, he again 
served as a member of the Legislature. 



400 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1861 

our citizens who, at various times, held rank and commissions 

on its rolls, are the following ; 

» 

Alex. Wilkin, Lieut. Colonel ; Dr. W. L. Armington, Assistant Sur- 
geon; John D. Wilson, (Company D,) Sergeant-Major ; Webster D. 
Hoover, (Companj' D,) Quartermaster Sergeant; Brewer Mattocks, 
Hospital Steward; Michael Esch, Band Leader, (died, July 10, 1873;) 
Calvin S. Uline, Second Lieutenant, Company I, afterwards Captain, 
Major and Lieut. Colonel ; John B. Davis, Captain, Company F, and 
afterwards Major; John Moulton, Company D, promoted Lieutenant, 
Captain and Major ; Horace H. Western, Captain, Company D ; Moses 
C. Tuttle, First Lieutenant, Company D, promoted Captain ; S. P. Jen- 
nison. Second Lieutenant, Company D, promoted First Lieutenant 
and Adjutant; C. F. Meyer, Second Lieutenant, Company G, promo- 
ted First Lieutenant and Adjutant ; James W. Wood, Second Lieuten- 
ant, Company I, pfomoted First Lieutenant and Adjutant; Geo. W. 
Shurman, Adjutant, and promoted Captain, Company D ; Samuel G. 
Trimble, Company D, promoted Second Lieutenant and First Lieu- 
tenant, (killed at Mission Ridge, November 25, 1863;) Hiram Lobdell, 
Company D, promoted Second Lieutenant and First Lieutenant; Ja- 
cob T. McCoy, Company D, promoted Second Lieutenant and First 
Lieutenant ; Isaac W. Stuart, Company D, promoted Second Lieuten- 
ant; John S. Livingston, Second Lieutenant, Company F, promoted 
First Lieutenant and Captain ; Andrew R. Kiefer, Captain, Company 
G ; Jacob Mainzer, First Lieutenant, Company G ; Henning Von 
Rumohr, Second Lieutenant, Company G, promoted First Lieutenant 
and Captain ; Charles Rampe, promoted Second Lieutenant, Company 
G ; Fred. Lambrecht, promoted Second^ Lieutenant, Company G ; Ja- 
cob J. Noah, Captain, Company K; E. Allen Otis, Second Lieutenant, 
Company K, promoted Staff. 

The Second Regiment left Fort Snelling for the seat of war 
06lober 14. 

Congress, which assembled July 4, having authorized the 
raising of 5oo,ocx) troops, a Third, Fourth and Fifth Regiments 
were apportioned to Minnesota's quota, besides one or two 
companies of Cavalry and Batteries of Light Artillery, Sharp- 
shooters, &c. 

THE THIRD REGIMENT 

was completed in October, and remained at Fort Snelling 
until March. Among the citizens of Saint Paul who served 
in its ranks, the following gained commissions : 



i86i] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 401 

Ephraim Pierce, Second Lieutenant, promoted First Lieutenant, 
Adjutant and Captain, Company F ; Otto F. Dreher, First Lieutenant, 
Company F, promoted Captain, Company A ; John C. Devereux, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, Company G, promoted First Lieutenant and Captain ; 
Damon Greenleaf, Second Lieutenant, Company I, promoted First 
Lieutenant and Captain; Hiram D. Gates, First Lieutenant, Com- 
pany K. 

THE FOURTH REGIMENT 

was organized in December. Saint Paul was largely repre- 
sented in its officers, as follows : 

John B. Sanborn, Colonel, afterwards Brigadier and Major General ; 

D. M. G. Murphy, Quartermaster, promoted Captain, Company B; 
Dr. John H. Murphy, Surgeon; Geo. M. D. Lambert, Hospital Stew- 
ard, promoted Assistant Surgeon ; Rev. Asa S. Fiske, Chaplain ; Frank 

E. Collins, Quartermaster Sergeant; Thomas P. Wilson, Commissary 
Sergeant, (afterwards Major of another regiment;) Wm. F. Wheeler, 
First Lieutenant, Company F, promoted Captain ; James Drysdale, 
Second Lieutenant, Company F, promoted First Lieutenant; John G. 
Janicke, Second Lieutenant, Company G, promoted First Lieutenant; 
Edward H. Foster, Second Lieutenant, Company I; L. B. Martin, *First 
Lieutenant, Company K, promoted Captain ; Frank S. DeMers, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, promoted Adjutant ; Cheeseman Gould, Second Lieu- 
tenant, Company B, promoted First Lieutenant and Captain. 

THE FIFTH REGIMENT 

was recruited mostly during the winter of 1861-2, and was 
not mustered in until March, 1862. Our citizens who bore 
commissions in that Battalion, are as follows : 

John C. Becht, Captain, Company E, promoted Major; Wm. B. Mc- 
Grorty, Quartermaster ; Dr. J. A. Vervais, Surgeon ; Rev. John Ireland,* 



* Right Reverend John Ireland, D. D., was born at Burnchurch, Kilkenny county, 
Ireland, September ii, 1S38. His parents came to America in 1849, settling at Chicago, 
where he attended school at " Saint Mary's of the Lake." Three years later, his father, 
Richard Ireland, Esq., settled in Saint Paul, where he has since resided. In 1853, 
under the auspices of Bishop Cretin, Dr. Ireland left for France, to. complete his 
studies, in company with Rev. Thomas O'Gorman, now of Rochester, Minnesota, and 
Rev. A. Ravoux. The latter placed them at Meximeux, Ain, where Dr. Ireland 
passed four years of preparatory study, and another four years with the Marist Fathers 
of Hyeres, Var, where he completed his theological course. In 1861, he returned to 
Saint Paul, and was ordained priest, by Bishop Grace, on December 31. The next 
year he was commissioned Chaplain of the Fifth Minnesota Volunteers, and remained 
in service a year, resigning on account of ilKhealth. Since that date he has been pastor 
t>f the cathedral parish. On February la, 1875, he was appointed by the Sovereign Pon- 



402 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1861 

Chaplain; F. A. Cariveau, First Lieutenant, Company D; Killian 
Six, Second Lieutenant, Company E; Ross Wilkinson, First Lieuten- 
ant, Company F, promoted Captain; David O. Oake8,»^Second;.Lieu- 
tenant. Company F, (killed, May 28th, 1862, at Corinth ;) W. A. Van 
Slyke, Second Lieutenant, Company G; Luther E. Clark, Captain, 
Company I; Alpheus R. French, Second Lieutenant, Company I, 
promoted First Lieutenant and Captain ; Patrick Ryan, First Lieuten- 
ant, Company I ; James Farrell, First Lieutenant, Company I. 

brackett's battalion, 

originally three companies, attached to the Fifth Iowa Cav- 
alry, was recruited in the fall of 1861. Commissioned officers 
from Saint Paul as follows : 

Alfred B. Brackett, Captain, Company C, promoted Major and Lieut. 
Colonel ; Henning Von Minden, Captain Company A, promoted Ma- 
jor ; Albert T. Phelps, Captain, Company A ; August Matheus, Cap- 
tain, Company A; Gustave Leue, Second Lieutenant, Company 
A; Joseph J. Buck, Second Lieutenant, Company A; Geo. A. Freud- 
enrich, Second Lieutenant, Company A; Adam Lindig, Second Lieu- 
tenant, Company A ; Wm. Smith, Second Lieutenant, Company B, 
promoted Captain; Erwin Y. Shelley, First Lieutenant, Company 
C, promoted Captain ; Mortimer Neeley, Second Lieutenant, Company 
C, promoted First Lieutenant and Captain ; R. W. Peckham, Second 
Lieutenant, Company C; Charles H. Osgood, Second Lieutenant, 
Company C ; Andrew J. Church, Second Lieutenant, Company C ; 
Wm. B. McGeorge, Second Lieutenant, Company C, promoted First 
Lieutenant and Adjutant. 

At the election, on October 9, the followiijg officers were 
chosen: Senators. — James Smith, Jr., and J. R. Irvine. 
Representatives. — Henry L. Carver, Philip Rohr, N. 
Gross. Sheriffi — D. A. Robertson. Treasurer. — R. A. 
Smith. Register. — Charles Pass a vant.. Clerk of Court. — 
Geo. W. Prescott. Attorney. — I. V. D. Heard. Probate 
Judge. — J. F. HoYT. (HoYT resigned ini 862, when E. C. 
Lambert was elected.) 



tift', Bishop of Maronea, in partihus infidelium^ and Vicar Apostolic of Nebraska, but, 
at the solicitation of Bishop Grace, this appointment was recitlled, and Dr. Ireland 
was appointed to the Coadjutorship of the See of Saint Paul^-consecrated December 
31, 1875. Dr. Ireland, since his priesthood began, has labored untiringly for the 
welfare of his flock, and is looked up to by them with the deepest affection. His labors 
in the cause of temperance, which have been blessed with remarkable success, have 
gained him the gratitude of every good citizen. He is zealous in all good works, is an 
impressive and eloquent preacher, and, having attained a rank but few prelates reach at 
his age, a career of extensive usefulness is yet before him. 



1862] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 403 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1 862. 

The year 1862, was marked by several important events — 
among which were the Sioux massacre, the heavy levies of 
troops, the beginning of our railroad system, &c. 

The principal legislation of the winter, affediing Saint Paul, 
was the creation of the Fifth Ward. 

The second company of Sharpshooters was recruited this 
spring. Capt. Wm. J. Russell, First Lieut. Emil A. Bur- 
ger, and Second Lieut. John A. W. Jones, were citizens of 
Saint Paul. 

The Legislature of 1862, did a work of great importance 
by infusing life into our dead railroads. The franchises, 
which the State secured by foreclosure sale in i860, were con- 
veyed to new corporations. Work was commenced vigor- 
ously on the Saint Paul and Pacific Road, between Saint 
Paul and Saint Anthony, by Messrs. Winters & Drake,* 
and iron arrived early in the summer, sufficient to lay the 
track to Saint Anthony. 

THE SAINT PAUL AND PACIFIC RAILROAD 

may truly be called a Saint Paul institution, and as such it has always 
been regarded. It was proje<5ted and started by Saint Paul citizens, 
and has been almost exclusively managed and officered by them. The 
company was first chartered by the Legislature, May 22, 1857, and en- 
dowed with a part of the Congressional land grant, under the name 
*' Minnesota and Pacific Railroad," and authorized to construct a line 
**from Stillwater via Saint Paul •and Saint Anthony to Breckenridge, 
on the Sioux Wood River, with a branch from Saint Anthony via 



* Elias F. Drake, one of the pioneer railroad men of Minnesota, is a native of 
Ohio, in which State he lived until he came to St. Paul, in 1861. In early life he studied 
law, and practiced awhile, but was more interested in finance than law, and was 
appointed cashier of the State Bank of Ohio, which position he filled ten years. Dur- 
ing that period he served tliree terms as member of the Legislature, one of which he 
was Speaker. He was largely interested in works of internal improvement, embarking 
capital in several of them. Mr. Drake, in company with two other capitalists, (Hirsh* 
MAN & Winters,) in i86a, built the first railroad in Minnesota, from Saint Paul to Saint 
Anthony, which g^ve a start to our present splendid railroad system. Soon after, he, 
with some associates, took hold of the Minnesota Valley Railroad, and, in the face of 
great obstacles, completed it to Sioux City, Iowa, in 187a. Mr. Drake represented his 
county in the State Senate in 1874-5, with marked ability, and advantage to the State. 
He is known as one of the most able, sagacious, hard-working and resolute business 
men in our State. 



404 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1862 

Anoka, Saint Cloud and Crow Wing, to Saint Vincent, near the mouth 
of the Pembina River," &c. Among the names of the first Board of 
Directors (named in the a<5t) were Alex. Ramsey, Edmund Rice, R. 
R. Nelson, Wm. L. Ames, Charles H. Oakes, F. R. Delano, and 
other past and present citizens of Saint Paul. Edmund Rice was 
first President. The line was surveyed in 1857, and some grading done 
by Selah Chamberlain that fall, but the panic, then raging, prevented 
much active work being done. 

When the five million loan bill was passed, in 1858, work was resumed 
vigorously, and most of the bed between Saint Paul and Saint Anthony 
graded, when the failure of the loan scheme again compelled a stop- 
page of work. 

In i860, the mortgage given by the road to the State, as security for 
its aid, was foreclosed, and the bed, franchises, &c., became the prop- 
erty of the State, and so remained until March^ 10, 1862, when the 
Legislature conferred them on Edmund Rice, R. R. Nelson, E. A. 
C. Hatch, J. E. Thompson, Wm. Lee, and others, with provisos that 
certain portions should be constru(5ted by specified datesj. The name 
of the corporation was also changed to "Saint Paul and Pacific Rail- 
road Company." 

A contract was soon entered into, (March 11, 1862.) with Messrs. E. 
F. Drake and V. Winters, to constru<5t the road from Saint Paul to 
Saint Anthony, and it was completed and running on June 28, of that 
year. The first locomotive was the "William Crooks,"* named in 
honor of the Chief Engineer of the road ; it was run by Webster C. 
Gardner, who still runs on the same road; and J. B. Rice, at present 
Assistant Superintendent, was the conductor of the first train. Hon. 
E. Rice, the President, about that time, went to England, where he en- 
listed capitalists in the construction of the road, and sent back 3,000 
tons of rails for its cons tru<5lion. Work was steadily pushed on the 
road during the ensuing year. On February 6, 1864, the road was 
divided into two companies — the part from Saint Paul to Breckenridge, 
and the Branch Line to Watab, being called the " First Division," un- 
der the presidency of Geo. L. Becker, and the remaining portion, 
(Saint Cloud to Saint Vincent, Saint Paul to Winona, &c.,) being 



* William Crooks was born in New York City, June ao, 1833. He attended 
West Point Military Academy, and learned the profession of Civil Engineer. He came 
to Saint Paul in 1857, *s Chief Engineer of the Saint Paul and Pacific Railroad, and 
was one of the men who helped carry through that enterprise in its dark and trying 
days. In honor of his ser\'ices, the first engine which ever turned a wheel in Minne- 
sota, (1863,) was named for him. Col. Crooks volunteered in the Sixth Regiment, in 
186a; was commissioned Colonel, and commanded that fine battalion two years, resign- 
ing 0«5tober, 1864. He then aided Hon. E. Rice in starting the " River Road," mak- 
ing two trips to Europe, &c. Col. Crooks was a member of tlie Legislature in 1875, 
and has been re-ele<5led for another term. He also served a term as member of the 
Board of Public Works of Saint Paul. 



1862] and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 405 

called the "Saint Paul and Pacific." Recently, the Saint Vincent 
branch has been leased to the "First Division" for 99 years, and thus 
is now again virtually one organization. 

On the Branch Line, the road was completed to Elk River, 39 miles. 



H. F. DRAKE, 
in 1864, and, on September i, 1866, to Saint Cloud, 74 miles. On the 
Main Line it was completed to Wayzata in 1867 ; to Willmar in 1869; 
to Benson in 1870, and to Breckenridge, 217 mites from Saint Paul, in 
Oiftober, 1871. The road from Saint Cloud to Melrose, 35 miles, has 
also been completed, and from Glyndon to Crooketon, 84 miles, &c. 



4o6 TTie History of the City of Saint Paul,, [1862 

The ofl&cers of the Saint Paul and Pacific, (including both divisions 
at the various dates,) have been : Presidents. — 1857 to 1871, Hon. Ed. 
Rice; 1864 to 1875, (First Division,) Hon. Geo. L. Becker, (the lat- 
ter also Land Commissioner.) Vice Presidents. — Hon. R. R. Nelson, 
to 1864, and W. B. Litchfield, thence. Secretaries. — J. W. Taylor, 
Henry Acker, S. S. Breed, (1864 to 1875.) Treasurer and present 
Land Commissioner. — Herman Trott. Superintendents. — First, Wm. 
Crooks; second, W. B. Litchfield; third, F. R. Delano; fourth, 
E. Q^ Sewall. Chief Engineers. — First, D. C. Shepard; second, 
Wm. Crooks ; third, Chas. A. F. Morris. General Ticket Agent. — 
1862 to 1875, John H. Randall. General Freight Agent. — 1862 to 1875, 
James W. Doran. Attorney. — Henry F. Masterson. The names 
of some of the old and faithful officers of this pioneer road have been 
very appropriately given to the flourishing towns along the main line. 

THE SAINT PAUL AND CHICAGO RAILWAY. 

Se6lion 25 of the original charter of the Minnesota and Pacific Rail- 
road, authorized a line from Saint Paul to Winona. On March 6, 1863, 
a grant of s"\yamp lands was made to it by the State. The city of Saint 
Paul subsequently gave a bonus of $50,000 to the line, and, on March 
19, 1867, the Directors of the Saint Paul and Pacific Railroad resolved 
that it should be called the ** Saint Paul and Chicago Railway.'* In 
1864, Hon. E. Rice, President of the Saint Paul and Pacific Railroad, 
commenced a<ftive efforts to build the road. He went to England, en- 
listed the aid of capitalists, procured an enlargement of the land grant, 
and, in a few months, the road was under way, and progressed steadily 
until completed to LaCrescent, in 1872. Through eastern trains com- 
menced running in September, 1872, via Winona. The road bed was 
sold to the Saint Paul and Milwaukee road, of which it is the '* River 
Division." The' officers of the road have been : President. — Edmund 
Rice, 1864 to 1875. Chief Engineers. — C. A. F. Morris, William 
Crooks, D. C. Shepard, and, at present, Joseph G. Dodge. Secre- 
tary. — Henry Acker, &c. 

The city eledlion took place on April i, with the followino^ 
result : 

Republican. Democratic, 

Mayor D. W. Ingersoll 853 yohn S. Prince 1197 

Comptroller . .Edw. Zimmerman -815 Wm. Von Hamm .... 12 16 

Treasurer , . . .A. Armstrong, (Ind.,) . .869 C. A. Morgan 1174 

City Justice . .A. McElrath 925 N. Gibbs 1 106 

Those in italics ele(5led. 

This summer, an important movement was inaugurated, that 
ultimately led the way for the Northern Pacific Railroad, bv 



1862] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 407 

calling public attention to the desirability of the route via the 
Upper Missouri. A party of citizens formed an expedition to 
go to the gold mines in Idaho and Montana, overland, and 
started on May 14. They arrived safely. Meantime Congress 
appropriated a small amount for guidance and protection to 
emigrant trains. Capt. James L. Fisk was appointed to com- 
mand an expedition, and another train left on June 16, getting 
through safely. Most of our citizens who accompanied these 
expeditions, ultimately returned. 

The call for 600,000 men, in July, was very disheartening, 
coming after the disasters in Virginia, but was bravely met. 
Meetings were called, funds subscribed to encourage enlist- 
ments, the city voted a monthly bounty to the families of vol- 
unteers, and with this stimulus five regiments were raised in a 
few days. Among our citizens who held official rank in these 
regiments were : 

SIXTH REGIMENT. 

William Crooks, Colonel ; Hiram P. Grant, Captain, Company A, 
promoted Major and Lieut. Colonel ; F. E. Snow, Adjutant ; Alonzo P. 
Connolly, First Lieutenant, promoted Adjutant; H. L. Carver, Quar- 
termaster; H. H. Gilbert, Second Lieutenant, Company G, promoted 
First Lieutenant and Quartermaster; Dr. A. Wharton, Surgeon; Dr. 
J. W. McMasters, Assistant Surgeon ; Harry Gillham, First Lieuten- 
ant, Company A, promoted Captain ; Wm. T. Barnes, First Lieutenant, 
Company A ; Jacob E. Baldwin, Second Lieutenant, (died, December 
10, 1863;) Dana White, First Lieutenant, Company C, promoted Cap- 
tain ; R. Schoenemann, Captain, Company E ; Christian Exel, First 
Lieutenant, Company E ; Matthias Holl, Second Lieutenant, Company 
E, promoted First Lieutenant; Justus B. Bell, Second Lieutenant, 
Company E; D. H. Valentine, Captain, Company G; Chas. J. Stees, 
Second Lieutenant, Company G, promoted Captain ; Geo. W. Pres- 
cott. First Lieutenant, Company G ; A. C. Helmkamp, Second Lieu- 
tenant,- Company G, (died, September 24, 1864, at Saint Paul;) E. O. 
Zimmerman, Second Lieutenant, Company G ; Fred. Norwood, Ser- 
geant-Major; D. H. McCloud, Sergeant-Major ; H. D. Tenney, Quar- 
termaster Sergeant; Wm. S. ;^^cCauley, Commissary Sergeant; John 
H. Gillis, Hospital Steward, (died, April 8, 1864, at Saint Peter;) 
George L. Van Solen, Hospital Steward. 

SEVENTH REGIMENT. 
Wm. R. Marshall, Colonel, promoted Brigadier General ; Dr. Brewer 



4o8 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1863 

Mattocks, Assistant Surgeon ; Wm. H. Burt, Captain, Company C ; 
Frank H. Pratt, Second Lieutenant, Company C, promoted First Lieu- 
tenant and Captain ; Stephen C. Miller, Second Lieutenant, Company 
F, promoted Captain ; James Gilfillan, Captain, Company H, promoted 
Colonel, Eleventh Regiment; S. Lee Davis, Second Lieutenant. Com- 
pany H, promoted First Lieutenant. 

EIGHTH REGIMENT. 

Dr. F. Rieger, Surgeon; Wm. Paist, . Second Lieutenant, Company 
H, promoted Captain ; Egbert E. Hughson, First Lieutenant, Company 
H ; John G. McGregor, Second Lieutenant, Company I, promoted 
First Lieutenant and Captain ; Wm. T. Rockwood, Captain, Company 
K; John I. Salter, First Lieutenant, Company K; Benj. W. Brunson, 
First Lieutenant, Company K; William Helsper, Second Lieutenant, 
Company K ; R. Goodhart, Sergeant-Major ; Edgar W. Bass, Quarter- 
master Sergeant. 

NINTH REGIMENT. 

Alex. Wilkin, Colonel, (killed at Tupelo, July 14, 1864;) John P. 
Owens, Quartermaster, brevetted Colonel ; Dr. John J. Dewey, Assis- 
tant Surgeon ; S. P. Tomlinson, Hospital Steward ; Thomas Van Et- 
ten. Second Lieutenant, Company I, promoted First Lieutenant and 
Captain. 

TENTH REGIMENT. 

Samuel P. Jennison, Lieutenant Colonel; Cyrus A. Brooks, Assist- 
ant Surgeon ; M. R. Prendergast, Commissary Sergeant; M. H. Sul- 
livan, Captain, Company H; M. J. O'Connor, Captain, Company K. 

Hardly were these regiments raised, when the fearful Sioux 
massacre occurred on our frontier. The news of this event 
was received here on August 20. A volunteer cavalry- com- 
pan\' was at once raised by our citizens, and started, with 
other troops, toward the scene of the massacre. Some of 
this company afterwards fell at Birch Coolie. Large numbers 
of fugitives from the western counties fled to Saint Paul for 
safety, destitute and panic-stricken, and many of them suffering 
from wounds. 

On September 2d, occurred the tragic aftair at Birch Coolie. 
The news was received here on the 6th, and it was truly one 
of the blackest days in the many gloomy ones of that year of 
disaster and trouble. In the conflidl at Birch Coolie, 23 men 
were killed and 60 wounded. Among the Saint Paul men 



1863] cind of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 409 

who lost their lives were : Benj. S. Terry, Fred. S. Ben- 
EKEN, George Colter, Wm. M. Cobb, Wm. Irvine, Wm. 
Russell, John Colledge, H. Whetsler, Robert Bax- 
ter, Robert Gibbens. The bodies of these men were 
afterwards disinterred and brought to Saint Paul, where they 
were buried with appropriate honors. 

ITEMS. 

The Daily Union was established this fall, by F..Driscoll. 
In the spring of 1863, it was consolidated with the Daily Press, 

The post-office was removed, in December, to the stone 
building on Third street, above Market. 

On 06tober 10, the Winslow House was burned down. 

The election this fall, November 2, resulted as follows: 

Representatives. — Wm. P. Murray, J. P. Kidder, J. B. 
Brisbin. Auditor. — Wm. H. Forbes. Probate Judge. — E. 
C. Lambert. Coroner. — O. F. Ford. 

NECROLOGY OF 1 862. 

Died, January 4, at Saint Paul, Michael E. Ames, a well- 
known lawyer of our city. April 8, at Shiloh, Captain Wm. 
H. Acker, of Saint Paul. May 19, Alex. Buchanan, ex- 
County Auditor. May 28, at Corinth, Captain David O. 
Oakes. August 24, in Canada, Louis M. Olivier, formerly 
Register of Deeds. September 12, Lawrence P. Cotter, 
Citv Clerk. December 22, at Saint Louis, Edward Heenan, 
formerly Count}^ Auditor. 

events of the year 1863. 
The city election (April 7) resulted as follows : 

Union. Democratic. 



Mayor J. H. Stewart . . 

Comptroller T. M. Metcalf. . 

Assessor C. T. Whitney 

Surveyor G. A. Johnson 

Street ConCr^ . . -G. Rank 



.838 John Esaias Warren. » 920 

• 73^ ^' ^* Lienau 1024 

• 796 John y. Soens 938 

. 805 C. M. Boyle 957 

. 807 yohn Doivlan 938 



Attorney 5. M. Flint, (on both tickets,) 1730 

Those in italics ele<fted. 

27 



4IO The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1863 

This season commenced the memorable drought which ex- 
tended over the years 1863 and 1864. The low water was 
the worst result, seriously affecting trade on the river. 

Gen. Sibley's expedition to the Missouri occurred this 
year. Col. Miller was in command of the headquarters here. 
In July, Little Crow was reported killed. 

On July 6, a torch-light procession, fireworks, illumination, 
&c., took place in honor of the victor}^ of Gettysburg. 

hatch's battalion 

was organized during this summer. The following citizens 
of Saint Paul bore commissions : 

E. A. C. Hatch, Major; Charles H. Mix, First Lieutenant, Com- 
pany A, promoted Captain; Allen T. Chamhlin. Captain, Company 
A; Geo. A. Freudenreich, Second Lieutenant, Company A; Wm. H. 
Ensign, First Lieutenant, Company B; James E. Cochrane, Second 
Lieutenant, Company C, promoted First Lieutenant ; Mark T. Berry, 
First Lieutenant, Company E. 

THE SECOND CAVALRY 

also bore on its rolls the following names of our citizens : 

Andrew J. Whitney, Commissary ; Dr. J. A. Vervais, Surgeon ; Dr. 
Charles J. Farley, Assistant Surgeon ; Joseph S. Thompson, Sergeant- 
Major; Horace \V« Moore, Hospital Steward; John Ledden, Second 
Lieutenant, Company H ; Frank C. Griswold, Second Lieutenant, 
Company M. 

Captain H. H. Western was commissioned in June, First 
Lieutenant of the Third Battery. 

ORIGIN OF OUR BANKING SYSTEM, 

The year 1863 was marked in our financial history, by the 
establishment of the First National Bank, on December 8. 
This, the pioneer national bank of our State, was one of the 
earliest established in the country. Its original stockholders 
were : J. E. Thompson,* President ; Horace Thompson, 

'''James E. and Horace Thompson were born in Poultney, Vermont, in iSaa and 
1837, respe<5tively. While young- men, they removed to Georg-ia, and entered into busi- 
ness there, remaining until 1859, when they settled in Saint Paul, and engaged in the 
banking business, with great success, becoming the leading bankers of Minnesota. 



1863] and of the County of Ramsty, Minnesota. 41 1 

Cashier ; T. A. Harrison. Vice President ; Charles Schef- 
FER, Assistant Cashier; W. M. and H. G. Harrison, and 
J. C. BuRRANK. Direftors. H, P. Upham was appointed 



Teller, and Wm, H, Kelly, Book-keeper. Its present officers 
are: H. Thompson, President; L. E. Reed,* Vice Presi- 

Jahes E. Thompson nas suddenly cui aS, in the prime of life, on May iS, 1S70, but 



First National Bank, when it was eitablished, in iS6j. He afterwards beranie a 
ner of Wh. D«wson, under the name of " Dawbdn & Company," and eontinuei 
years, after which he was Vice President of the City Rank, for three years. In i8 
was elefted Vice President of Ihe First National Hank. Mr. Rutn, IhnuRh a n 



412 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1863 

dent ; H. P. Upham, Cashier ; W. W. Hoyt, Paying Teller. 
Capital, $1,000,000. Surplus, $250,000. 

The Second National Bank was established April 10, 1865. 
Its officers are : E. S. Edgerton, President ; D. A. Mox- 
FORT, Vice President ; G. R. Monfort, Cashier ; W. B. 
Bell, Teller. Capital, $200,000. 

The National Marine Bank was next organized. O. B. 
Turrell, President ; W. R. Marshall, Vice President ; 
F. C. Howes, Cashier. Capital, $100,000. 

The Merchants National Bank, organized in 1870. M. 
AuERBACH, President ; Walter Mann, Vice President ; W. 
R. Merriam, Cashier. Capital, $500,000. 

The other banking houses of our city are as follows : Ger- 
man American Bank. Ferdinand Willius, President; J. 
B.Sanborn, Vice President ; Gustav Willius, Cashier. 
Capital, $200,000. 

Farmers and Mechanics Bank. John Farrington, Presi- 
dent ; Dr. A. Wharton, Vice President ; C. A. Mortox, 
Cashier. Capital, $50,000. 

Savings Bank of Saint Paul. W. R. Marshall, Presi- 
dent; H. Sahlgaard, Vice President; John S. Princh, 
Cashier. 

Dawson & Company. [William Dawson, R. A. Smith 
and Albert Scheffer.] 

The total capital employed by the above banking houses, is 
over $2,000,000, and are all managed by men of acknowl- 
edged financial ability and experience. 

The enrollment for the draft was made this summer, and as 
threats of resistance wei*e made, and trouble was anticipated 
similar to that in other cities, a provost guard was stationed in 
the city for some weeks. 

The ele6tion this fall was closely contested, the *' Union 
League," a secret political organization, playing a conspicuous 
part. Edmund Rice and John Nicols were elected Sena- 
tors ; and R. H. Fitz, J. P. Kidder, and A. R. Kiefer, 

and unassuming gentleman, in private life, is one of the ablest financiers in our State, 
and his judgment and sagacity are proverbial. He wields an influence in money cir- 
cles greater than almost any man in Minnesota. 



1864] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 413 

Representatives; D. A. Robertson, Sherift^ R. A. Smith, 
Treasurer ; C. A. Passavant, Register of Deeds ; H, J. 
Horn,* Attorney ; R. F. Crowell, Judge of Probate ; G. 
A. Johnson, Surveyor ; Philip Scheig, Coroner, &c. 

In Odtober, the Seventh, Ninth and Tenth Regiments left 
for ^^ Dixie." 

December 20, the American House was destroyed by lire. 

NECROLOGY OF 1 863. 

Died, April 12, at the residence of Hon. John S. Prince, 
Gabriel Franchere, a pioneer of the Northwest. July 3, 
by a railroad accident, Capt. Abram Bennett. July 10, 
Charles N. Mackubin, formerly a banker, legislator, &c. 
July 3, at Gettysburg, Capt. W. B. Farrell. August 7, 
Capt. Charles Koch, Fifth Regiment. November 9, Hen- 
ry A. Lambert, formerly Probate Judge. December 16, at 
Washington, Robert F. Fisk. 

PRINCIPAL events OF 1 864. 

The early part of this year was marked by the return of a 
number of our regiments on veteran furlough, and the enter- 
tainments given them by our citizens. 

The city election this spring went Republican, for the first 
time, by the following vote : 

Republican. Democratic, 

Mayor Dr, J. H. Stewart iioo Geo. Culver 784 

City Justice »..A. McElrath 1 140 F. F. Strother ^ 707 

Comptroller . . H. Schiffbauer 1000 C. H. Lienau 859 

Treasurer C. T. Whitney^ (no opposition,) 1875 

Those in italics eledted. 

'While the events of the war, the large levies of troops, the 
suffering among the destitute families of absent soldiers, the 

* Henry J. Horn, (we had almost written " Harry Horn," as his intimate friends 
call him,) was bom in Philadelphia, in i8ai. He studied law with Henry D. Gilpin, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1849. 1° ^^SS* ^^ came to Saint Paul, and has aiftively 
practiced his profession ever since. He was elec^ted City Attorney in 1857, *"*^ re-ele<5ted 
in 1858 and 1859; elected County Attorney in 1863; member of School Board in 1857 
and 1858, and is at present Corporation Counsel. His leg^l services to the city and 
county have been of great value, and he has been zealous in promoting every g'ood work. 
No man has more warm friends than Mr. Horn, or is more respe<5ted and confided in. 



414 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1864 

mourning in thousands of households " over the unretuming 
braves," and other incidents of the strife, sometimes caused 
gloom, still there was remarkable courage and hopefulness 
among the people. Financially, matters w^ere curious. The 
rise in gold, and the inflation produced by the enormous issues 
of currency, created a buoyancy in business matters that gave 
a silver edge to the cloud. Even real estate looked up, the 
population increased, and our railroads were now in aAual 
progress. Security was restored to the frontier, and immi- 
gration recommenced. 

SAINT PAUL AND SIOUX CITY RAILROAD. 

This road was incorporated in 1857, as one of the lines of the Root 
River Valley and Southern Minnesota Railroad, and separated from that 
corporation in 1864, into a new line, called the "Minnesota Valley 
Railroad." Under the five million loan impetus, a few miles of the road 
from Mendota to Shakopee was partially graded, in 1858. Nothing 
more was done until after the a(5t of 1864. Messrs. E. F. Drake, Jno. 
L. Merriam, Horace Thompson, A. H. Wilder, H. H. Sibley, Jno. 
S. Prince, J. C. Burbank, W. F. Davidson, Chas. H. Bigelow, Geo. 
A. Hamilton, Capt. R. Blakeley, and others, became incorporators 
and stockholders, and furnished means to eonstru<5t and equip a part 
of the road. From this time on, its building was steadily pushed. 
The line from Mendota to Shakopee was opened November 16, 1865 ; 
from Saint Paul to Mendota, August 24, i866; completed from Saint 
Paul to Belle Plaine, November 19, i866; to LeSueur, December 5, 
I867; Saint Peter, August 17, 1868; Mankato, October 12, 1868; Lake 
Crystal, December 13, 1869; Madelia, September 5, 1870; Saint James, 
November i, 1870; Worthington, 1871; Sioux City, 1872. [From 
Sioux City, Iowa, to Saint James, Minnesota, the line is called **The 
Sioux City and Saint Paul Railroad."] 

This road is one of our home institutions. It was projected, con- 
8tru(5ted, and is still owned and operated and controlled by Saint Paul 
men, who, by their expenditure of capital, and by their labor and 
energy, have thus given the State this important and valuable highway 
of commerce. 

The officers of this road, since its period of a<!:tive life, have been : 
President and Land Commissioner. — Hon. E. F. Drake. Vice Presi- 
dent. — Hon. Jno. L. Merriam. Secretary. — Geo. A. Hamilton. 
Chief Engineers. — First, John B. Fish ; second, Charles McNamara ; 
third, J. W. Bishop ; fourth, T. P. Gere. Superintendents. — First, 
J. H. Gardner; second, Jno. F. Lincoln. Treasurer. — H. Thomp- 
son. General Manager. — J. W. Bishop. Secretary of Land Depart- 



1864] dnd of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 415 

ment. — Edward Sawyer. General Ticket and Freight Agent. — J. C. 

BOYDEN. 

On June 14, the Sixth Regiment left for the South. 

The draft, to fill calls previously made, commenced at the 
Provost Marshal's office, Mackubin's Block, on May 26. Saint 
Paul had filled her quota previously, but several townships 
were drawn on. 

On July 18, the call for 500,000 men was received. The 
quota of Saint Paul was 160 men, she having already furnished 
1,180. This number was raised only by special exertions, the 
city giving $30,000 as bounties, besides large sums raised by 
subscription. 

THE ELEVENTH REGIMENT 

was organized from the men obtained under this call. Among 
our citizens holding official position in it were : 

James Gittillan, Colonel ; Peter Gabrielson, Assistant Surgeon ; Rob- 
ert L. Morris, Assistant Surgeon ; Franklin Paine*, Captain, Company 
B ; John S. Moulton, First Lieutenant, Company E ; Jaspn W. Gard- 
ner, Quartermaster Sergeant; Wilford C. Wilson, Hospital Steward. 

The Eleventh Regiment departed for the front on Septem- 
ber 22. 

The political campaign of 1864 was ''red-hot," McClellan 
and Lincoln being candidates for the presidency. Public 
meetings, torch-light parades, &c., kept the excitement at fe- 
ver heat. The vote on county officers was : * 



Union. Democratic i 

{James Smith, Jr. .744 Wm. P. Murray 750 

C. D. Gilfillan . . .779 John A. Peckham . . . .772 

A. R. Kiefer 517 yohn M. Gilman 561 

Disirid Judge J. P. Kidder 1116 W, Wilkin 1520 

Auditor W. H. Kelley . . . . 1248 y, F. Hoyt 1406 

Judge of Probate. ..R. F. Crowell* . . 1322 E. C. Lambert 131 1 

Those in italics ele(5led. 



• 



On September 28, a soldier of Hatch's Battalion, named 
Miner, had both arms blown oft', while firing a salute, by the 
premature explosion of a cannon. The following day, another 
soldier, named LaFi.esh, had his right hand blown oft' in the 
same way. A liberal.purse was raised for the unfortunate men. 



41 6 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1864 

On November 4, a terrible casualty occurred in front of our 
lower levee. The boiler of the steamer *^John Rumsey" 
blew up, just as she was coming into port, blowing the boat 
to pieces, and killing seven men, also badly injuring others. 
Nearly every house in the city was shaken by the concussion. 
The boat was owned by Mr. Rumsey, of LaCrosse, but leased 
by W. F. Davidson, and the latter party, after several years' 
litigation, ultimately paid over $30,cxx) to the families of the 
men killed by the accident. 

On December 19, another call for 300,000 men had been 
made, making the quota of Saint Paul 200 men. It seemed 
almost impossible to raise this number, but by special sub- 
scriptions raised by ward committees, in addition to the Gov- 
ernment bounties, 14: was at length accomplished. The 

FIRST REGIMENT MINNESOTA HEAVY ARTILLERY 

was raised from the men obtained under this call. Among 
our citizens honored with commissions, were the following: 

Dr. Clinton G. Stees, Surgeon ; George Powers, Hospital Steward ; 
E. D. K. Randall, Senior First Lieutenant, Company A; E. J. Van 
Slyke, Junior First Lieutenant, Company A ; William Colter, Junior 
Second Lieutenant, Company A ; Wm. M. Leyde, Captain, Company 
B; James J. Egan, Junior First Lieutenant, Company B; R. G. Dan- 
iels, Junior First Lieutenant, Company C ; Harvey Officer, Captain, 
Company E ; B. N. Cushway, Junior First Lieutenant, Company E ; 
James K. Wilson,. Senior Second Lieutenant, Company H ; Henry C. 
Collins, Junior Second Lieutenant, Company I; Harry H. Wilson, 
Junior Second Lieutenant, Company K ; James P. Allen, Captain, Com- 
pany L ; Harrison Allen, Senior Second Lieutenant, Company L. 

The Heavy Artillery was the last body of troops which left 
our State for the war. 

On December 22, a married woman, named Eleanor Stel- 
ZER, living on Summit avenue, while laboring under insanity, 
killed two of her children with a hatchet, attempted to kill a 
third, and cut her own throat, dying in a few moments. 

NECROLOGY OF 1 864. 

Died, 'January 8, at Saint Louis, Rev. F. R. Ne>well, a 
Unitarian clergyman of Saint Paul, then temporarily in the em- 



1865] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 417 

ploy of the Sanitary Commission. January 20, Capt. T. M. 
Saunders, Third United States Artillery, and Quartermaster 
at Saint Paul. April 11, near Vicksburg, Mississippi, John 
W. Cathcart. He was buried at Saint Paul, May 12. May 
16, Charles L. Emerson, formerly editor of the Saint Paul 
Democrat^ for several years Surveyor General, Alderman of 
the city, &c. June 15, Louis Buechner, the first lithographer 
in Saint Paul. July 14, at Tupelo, Mississippi, Col. Alex. * 
Wilkin, of the Ninth Regiment. September i, Matthew 
Broome, a trader and capitalist of the city. November 12, 
C. A. Gates, was accidentally killed on the Des Moines 
River, where he was hunting. 

the sanitary fair. 

On January 9, 1865, the ladies and other patriotic citizens 
of Saint Paul, gave a fair at Mozart Hall, (Mackubin's Block,) 
the objedt being to raise money for the destitute families of sol- 
diers, of which there were a large number in our city. The 
fair remained open four days and evenings, and was crowded 
to excess all the time, the citizens spending their money with 
lavish generosity. At the close, the entire receipts were found 
to be $13,000, leaving $10,000 after paying all expenses. A 
contest for a sword, to be given to a Minnesota officer, was 
one feature. Col. C. S. Uline carrying it oft' by 2,300 votes 
over all competitors. 

In addition to this amount, our citizens had, during the war 
period, given lavishly to the Sanitary and Christian commis- 
sions, to hospital funds and other war charities, to the families 
of soldiers, and to numerous special cases of distress, &c. 
Mayor Prince reported, in the summer of 1865, that in the 
preceding four years, $225,000 had been raised and expended 
by our citizens. A noble and patriotic record, tnily, and one 
that we may point to with pride. 

On February 5, a young man, named John McHugh, was 
fatally stabbed in an aftray in a saloon on upper Third street. 

On March 14, 1865, Dr. J. H. Stewart was appointed 
postmaster, holding that office for five years. 

In the spring of 1865, after four years of dreadful conflic^t, 



41 8 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1865 

which can only be briefly hinted at here, the clouds of war 
seemed lifting. Glorious news was received from Petersburg, 
and the Shenandoah, and from Sherman. Soon came the 
news of the evacuation of Richmond, and the end then seeme^ 
near. A general celebration was arranged, to commemorate 
the Union vidtories. It took place on April 8. An artillery 
salute, a procession, civic and military, a general decoration 
of buildings with flags, &c., were the principal features. At 
the International Hotel, addresses were made by Gov. Miller, 
John M. Gilman, Judge Goodrich, T. J. Galbraith, J. W. 
Tayi^or, S. Ludvigh, and even '' President Jones." All 
were enthused with joy, and when Gen. Sibley, president of 
the day, read from the balcony a telegram announcing the sur- 
render of Lee and his army, the crowd fairly exploded with 
delirious excitement. At night a general illuminatibn and a 
torch-light parade took place. 

The city eledlion, on April 4, resulted as follows : 

DeiHocratic. Republican. 

Mayor yohn S. Prince 867 Charles E. Mayo. .702 

Attorney /. V. D, Heard 900 E. C. Palmer 666 

Street Commissioner, John Doivlan 1567 (No opposition.) 

Those in italics elected. 

The exultation at the Union victories was somewhat chilled 
by the sad news of the death of President Lincoln, on April 
15. It created profound gloom and sorrow, and,x)n April 19, 
the day of his funerai, all business was suspended in the city — 
the bells tolled, and funeral sermons were preached in nearly 
all the churches, to large audiences. 

The spring and summer of this year was marked by the 
return of our regiments from the South, to Fort Snelling, to 
be mustered out. Each of them was received here with the 
most cordial demonstrations of joy, and escorted to the Capi- 
tol, where an ovation was given them by the ladies and citi- 
zens generally, and speeches of welcome made by prominent 
officials. These receptions were a feature of the summer. 

Altogether, our city had furnished to the army of the Re- 
public, 1 ,470 men ; but of this number, one hundred and 
twenty four brave men returned not. Many of them lie in 



1865] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 419 

unrecorded graves on battle-fields where they fell, or heaped 
ill the burial-trench of some prison-pen, the vidlims of disease 
and starvation. It is not creditable to our city, so generous 
and liberal, that a monument to the memory of these martyrs 
to liberty, our friends and fellow citizens, has not been ere6led, 
as has been done in many other places. 



• 



420 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1865 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

, EVENTS OF THE PERIOD, 1865 to 1870. 

A New Era of Prosperity — The Census of 1865 — December Steamboat Ex- 
cursions — ^The Lake Superior Railroad — A Singular " Accident**— The 
State Reform School — Supposed Uxoricide — Destructive Fires — Court 
OF Common Pleas — Supposed Murder of Dr. Harcourt — Attempted Re- 
moval OF THE Capital — ^The City Water Works — Another Murder — 
Completion of Railroads, *c. 

A NEW era seemed to have commenced with the close of 
'^•^ the war. Our city entered on a career of unusual pros- 
perity. Money was abundant, capital came in fi'om abroad ; 
business never was more flourishing ; real estate buoyant ; 
immigration increasing ; employment plenty for all classes ; 
every branch of trade and manufacture brisk, and everything 
presented a vivid contrast to the despondent days from 1857 to 
1862. 

From this period may be dated the most rapid growth of 
Saint Paul. Her railroad system had now become well 
advanced. Building had never been so brisk. The popula- 
tion increased very rapidly. In short, the struggles and draw- 
backs of infancy over, Saint Paul began to assume the vigor, 
the energy, the strength, of maturity. 

The census taken this summer showed a considerable in- 
crease of population, despite all drawbacks. The population 
of the city was reported at 12,976, and of the county at 15,107. 

On August 24, the body of a man was found in the river, 
below Dayton's Bluft', tied by a rope around the neck to a 
heavy stone at the bottom. The body was much decayed, and 
was not recognized, but it was evident that a murder had been 
committed, and its concealment attempted. The body of the 
stranger was buried by the Coroner, but was destined to ere 
long play an important part in the criminal annals of the county. 

The autumn of 1865 was remarkable for its lateness and 



1865] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 421 

uniform mildness. Notliing approaching it had been known 
in the weather records of our city. That year, the first of 
December steamboat excursions were inaugurated, by Colonel 
Hewitt.* 

This fall will also be remembered as the period of the Ver- 
million gold excitement, in which many of our citizens were 
interested. 

THE LAKE SUPERIOR AND MISSISSIPPI RAILROAD. 

During the year 1865, the grading on this road was pushed 
quite vigorously, and completed to Wyoming, 30 miles. 

This road was first incorporated in 1857, under the name of the 
** Nebraska and Lake Superior Railroad," and the name was changed 
bj the Legislature of 1861, to its present title. Lyman Dayton and 
others, were made corporators. But little was done in adlual construc- 
tion for some three or four years; Meantime, Capt. Wm. L. Banning, 
L. Dayton, James Smith, Jr.,t Wm. Branch, Dr. Stewart, Robert 
A. Smith, Parker Paine, and one or two others, took hold of the 
enterprise and put in enough money to grade 30 miles. On Odlober 
20, 1865, the President of the road, Lyman Dayton, died. Capt. Ban- 
ning succeeded him, and, after much trouble, got some Philadelphia 
capitalists to build and equip the road. It was not completed to Duluth 
until 1870, and the Stillwater branch was built the same year. 

The early officers of the road were : Lyman Dayton, President, to 
his death in 1865 ; 1865 to 1870, Capt. Wm. L. Banning ; Frank H. 
Clark, 1870 to 1873 ; and J. P. Ilsley, to the present tinie. Gates 



* GiRART Hewitt, one of the most a<ftive real estate dealers of the city, was bora in 
Hollidaysburgf, Pennsylvania, in 1835. He studied law, and removed to Alabama in 
1S45, remaining there twelve years. He came to Minnesota for health, in 1856, and has 
since that date been a prominent citizen. Col. Hswitt's specialty has been immigra- 
tion and December steamboat excursions. His "pamphlet" on Minnesota and its 
advantages to immigrants, has been circulated in the United States and Europe by the 
hundred thousand, and passed through twenty editions. He says he never held any 
office except School Inspector, and was beat the only time he ever ran for Alderman, 
and that, too, after his services in the Indian War of i86a ! 

t Hon. James Smith, Jr., was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio, October 39, 1815. While 
young, his eye-sight was seriously impaired by sickness, but he accomplished his educa- 
tion and read law, being admitted to praiftice in 1839. ^^ 7^^^ ^ partner of the late 
Col. J. W. Vance, killed on Banks' Expedition. He remained at Mount Vernon vmtil 
1856, when he settled in Saint Paul, and was a partner first of Judge L. Emmett, and 
afterwards of Hon. John M. Oilman. For ten years or more past, he has been Attor- 
ney of the Lake Superior Railroad. Mr. Smith was a member of the State Senate in 
1861, 1863 and 1863, and has just been elected for another term — ^the last time witliout 
opposition, a fadt that evinces tlie high esteem in which he is held by his fellow citizens. 



422 The History of the City of Saint Paul, [1865 

A. Johnson* was Chief Engineer through the period of construAion. 
in connei^ion, partof the time, with J. S. Sew all. and was then Superin- 
tendent for two or three jears, succeeded bj W. W. Hungbrford, and 
more recentlj' hy Geo. H. Smith. Thomas Brbnnan, who laid all 
the iron on the road, is, at present, Assistant Superintendent. The 
first Secretarv was Charles St, Clair: next, Charles Brewstbr. 



HON. JAMES SMITH, Jr. 
succeeded by Robert P. Lewis ; then R, M. Lamborn, and the present 
Secretary', Thos. M. Davis. Hon. James Smith, Jr., has been 
Attorney from the inception of the road until the present time. 

Oh November S, tlie Daily Pioneer was sold to H. P. 
Hall and John X. Davidson. 

• Gates A. Johhboh was boro u PJatCsbur);, New York, iSvS. He adopted the pn- 
feiisiOD oi engineer, and Ja 1855 rernoYCd lo Saint Paul. He pursued his calllDg with 
much succesB for several years, being ele«*d City Engineer in i86q, Bnd County Sur- 
veyor in 1S63. He nag also eleifled Chief Engineer of the Superior Raiimad in i»ii. 
and remained until the completion of the road. In 1871, he was elei^ed Alderman, and 
Vv^ given Ikithfiil attention to the inlereste nf the city. 



1 866] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 423 

There were no well-defined issues in politics this year. 
Two old settlers, Wm. R. Marshall and Henry M. Rice, 
were candidates for Governor, the former gaining the day, but 
the county election was dull. The following officers were 
eledled : 

D. A. Robertson, Sherift'; Albert Armstrong, Clerk 
of Court ; S. M. Flint, District Attorney ; J. Mainzer, 
Register of Deeds ; O. F. Ford, Coroner ; Dr. John Steele, 
County Commissioner; W. P. Murray and Geo. L. Otis, 
Senators ; Parker Paine, William Branch and Herman 
Trott, Representatives. 

NECROLOGY OF 1 865. 

Died, January 2, William Hartshorn, one of the earliest 
pioneers of our city. February 16, M. L. Temple, a mer- 
chant of this city, and Capt. W. B. McGrorty, a well-known 
public man, were drowned at LaCrosse. April — , in Vir- 
ginia, John W. Crosby, formerly Chief of Police of Saint 
Paul. April 11, Jeremiah W. Selby, an old and esteemed 
citizen. May 22, Hon. John A. Peckham, banker, alder- 
man, legislator, &c. July 21, at Homer, Louisiana, Dr. 
Ebenezer Miller, formerly Deputy Sheriff. Odlober i, 
Solomon Coggswell, an old resident. October 4, Desire 
Michaud, for many years a merchant. Od:ober 14, Captain 
Emil a. Burger, an ex-officer. '06lober 20, Lyman Day- 
ton, one of the early settlers of the city. October 25, Joseph 
R. Atkins, a prominent fireman. November 2, Charles T. 
Whitney, a well-known real estate dealer, formerly County 
Commissioner and City Treasurer. November 11, at Evans- 
ville, Indiana, Capt. R. M. Spencer, an early steamboatman. 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF 1866. 

The year 1866 was one of great ease financially, the enor- 
mous expenditures of Government in settling up its war 
claims, making money plenty. 

On March i , ground was broken for the Opera House. 

On May 25, the Cosmopolitan Hotel and ten other build- 
ings, were destroyed by fire. 



424 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1866 

The city eledtion this spring was not much contested. The 
following officers were eledted : Mayor. — John S. Princk. 
Treasurer. — Nicholas Gross. Justice. — E. C. Lambert. 
Surveyor. — C. M. Boyle. K. T. Friend was ele(Sled by the 
Council, City Clerk. Comptroller.— John W. Roche. CiU- 
Physician. — Dr. A. G. Brisbine. 

The cholera having threatened to pay the city a visit, a quar- 
antine was established at Pig's Eye. . 

June 20, Rev. J. D. Pope, for ten years pastor of the First 
Baptist church, resigns. 

June 30, Jefferson school house burned. 

July I, Capt. John Jones appointed Chief of Police, vice 
TuRNBULL, resigned. 

July 29, Capt. H. L. Carver, C. W. Nash and others, 
purchase the Pioneer, 

August 1 1 , the first steam fire engine, " City of Saint Paul," 
received by our firemen, and assigned to Hope Engine Com- 
pany, No. I . 

August 21, a curious "accident" occurred at the Mansion 
House, a hotel which stood where the Custom House now 
is. A man, named Hawkes, from Chicago, who was board- 
ing there, while cleaning a revolver, shot his wife, killing her 
instantly. As it afterwards transpired that he had taken a 
policy of insurance on her life for $10,000, not long before, 
the fadts seemed to warrartt his prosecution for murder. He 
was consequently tried on that charge, but acquitted. The 
county was the only sufterer, the trial costing $4,000. 

institution of a state reform school. 

During the year 1866, one of the most useful of our State 
institutions, a Reform School for juvenile culprits, was insti- 
tuted, and soon after got into operation, adjoining what is now 
the corporate limits of our cit}% on the road to Minneapolis. 
This institution had its origin in the following circumstances : 

During 1865, Hon. I. V. D. Heard, City Attorney, was 
frequently called on to prosecute young boys, some of them 
mere children, for larceny and other petty crimes. Their 
confessions as to their own adls, and those of their compan- 



iS66] and of the County of Ramsey ^ Minnesota. 475 

ions, were deplorable, and exhibited an amount of depravity 
jtmong the boys of the city, that alarmed Mr. Heahd and 
excited his sympathies. There seemed but one way to check 
and cure the evil — a juvenile reformatory. 

After several communications to the daily papers on tlie 
nt;ce8sity of such an institution in or near our city, Mr. Heard 



> ZIMMERMAN.' 



on Novenil>er 9, 1S65, addressed an official com muni cat ion to 
the City Council, urging that body to take steps to secure a 
juvenile refoimatorv. 



• Edwakd Zimmkkman was bcir 


n in Slraabourg, Ithen in F 


■ranee,) April a6, 1811, add 


ttsided in the Department of A Lsac 


e unUl 1848, when the revoi 




him to seek 1 home in the oeiv -^n 




rk that year, and lo Saint 


P^i.1 in iSss, '"d ents™! >n«'iai,til 


e biulnus here, Iri which) 


He was widely known, and 


hi^ly rcspetted. Hi uas, ills... Hii 




of the Board of Education 


for ^-crjl ye»r>i. He died <>ti July 


J7, ise6. 





426 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1866 

The communication was referred to a special .committee, 
who reported, on January 2, strongly urging that Mr. Heard's 
proposal be concurred in, and means taken to secure such an 
institution as was proposed. A committee was appointed to 
secure the proper legislation, and an appropriation from the 
State for the purpose, and sufficient aid pledged by the city to 
ensure its organization, conditioned that the institution was 
located in or near the latter. 

The Legislature of 1866, on a proper representation of the 
fadts, established by ena<5tment, a " House of Refuge," and 
appropriated for the purchase of grounds, &c., in Ramsey 
county, $5,000, on condition that the citj- of Saint Paul would 
contribute a similar sum, which was done. Messrs. D. W.. 
Ingersoll, S. J. R. McMillan, A. T. Hale and Rev. J. G. 
RiHELDAFFER, were appointed managers. A very suitable 
location, near the city, called the Burt Farm, was purchased 
for $10,000, and, in a few months, the institution was in suc- 
cessful operation, Mr. Riheldaffer having been appointed 
as Superintendent. Its name was subsequently changed to 
the '* State Reform School." 

On January i, 1875, the Superintendent reported that since 
the opening, 253 inmates had been received, and 145 of these 
had been discharged, all of whom were, (so far as known,) 
doing well, and many holding positions of trust and responsi- 
bility, and leading moral lives. The amount of good such an 
institution does, no one can tell, for its main power is in pre- 
venting rather than remedying. 

October 18, two servant girls, named Lena Bqden and 
Sophia Martin, at Mrs. Stokes* boarding house, on the 
site of the present Metropolitan Hotel, were burned so badly 
by the explosion of kerosene, with which they were lighting 
a fire, that they died within a few days. 

November 3, J. D. Williams, who, for a number of years, 
had kept "Williams' Ferry," above the city, was murdered 
near Fort Snelling. 

December 19, the Chamber of Commerce, which, for almost 
10 years, had been dormant, was reorganized, and became one 
of our most important institutions. 



1867] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 427 

The elet^tion, this fall, resulted in the choice of the following 
officers: Senator. — ^Wm. P. Murray. Representatives. — 
C. H. LiENAU, Edmund Rice, and C. K. Davis. Judge of 
Probate. — R. F. Crowell. Auditor. — S. Lee Davis. 

NECROLOGY OF 1 866. 

Died, Febi*uary 5, Bert Muller, a pioneer hotel keeper, 
policeman, &c. February 20, at Burlington, Iowa, R. Frank 
HousEWORTH, an old resident. Clerk of the Ramsey county 
Court, member of School Board, &c. March 2, at Prairie du 
Chien, Rev. Lucien Galtier, first priest of Saint Paul. 
March 21, Dr. Wm. H. Morton, a well-known physician. 
April 7, J. Watson Webb, a merchant. May 4, Amable 
TuRPiN, father of Mrs. Louis Robert, aged 100 years. 
June 3, Perry Sloan, by accidentall}^ falling from the third 
story of Merchants' Hotel. August 13, at the Iowa Insane 
Hospital, DeWitt C. Marvin, a well-known au6lioneer of 
Saint Paul. August 23, at Philadelphia, Wm. H. Wolff, 
for many years a druggist in Saint Paul, Alderman, &c. Octo- 
ber, 15, Kennedy T. Friend, City Clerk. December 14, 
George G. Strong, formerly of Second Regiment. 

PRINCIPAL events OF THE YEAR 1867. 

The congregation of Christ church, Protestant Episcopal, 
(Rev. S. Y. McMasters,* re6tor,) which had for about i6 
years worshipped in the old chapel on Cedar street, completed 
their new and fine edifice, corner of Fourth and Franklin 
streets, early in January. On th^ 13th, it was used for service, 

* Dr. Sterling Y. McMasters was born at Guilford Court House, North Carolina, 
December 9, 1813, and graduated at tlie University of that State. He studied medicine 
in early life, but subsequently studied theology, and was ordained a clergyman in the 
Protestant Episcopal church. In 1846, he became retitor of Christ church, at Alton, 
Illinois, In 1858, he became President of Saint Paul's College, Palmyra, Missouri. 
Three years later, this was broken up by the war, and he became Chaplain of the 
Twenty-seventh Illinois Regiment. In 1863, he came to Saint Paul for his health, and 
became redtor of Christ church, ministering to that society for la years. He soon at- 
tained a high reputation in our State as a line scholar, a skilled theologian, an earnest, 
ai^ive, faithful clergyman, and a Christian gentleman of the finest culture. He was a 
member of the State Normal Board, of the Minnesota Historical Society, and was Com- 
ipissioner to the Vienna Exposition in 1873. He was a Free Mason of the 33d degree. 
He died November 5, 1875, sincerely lamented. 



428 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1867 

and, two Sabbaths later, caught fire from the furnace, and was 
destroyed, all except the bare walls. It was soon rebuilt. 

January 25, the '' Mansion House," corner of Wabasha and 
Fifth streets, was destroyed by fire, the fifteenth hotel, the 
papers remarked, that had been burned in our city. In this 
case, it was ultimately of some benefit to the public. It led 
the way to the purchase, a few days subsequently, of the 
ground for the site of the Custom House and Post-oflSce. 

The great increase of business in the Distri<5t Court of Ram- 
sey county, for some months prior to this date, clearly rendered 
an additional court necessary. The bar, at meetings held in 
1866, decided to secure the same^ and the Legislature of 1867, 
established the '^ Court of Common Pleas" for Ramsey county. 
At a city election held April 2, Hon. William Sprigg Hall* 
was ele<5ted as Judge. 

Several very destrud:ive fires [besides those noticed] occur- 
red this season. On February 22, Weide & Bro.*s wholesale 
grocery store, on Third street, burned down. June 22, the 
machine and car shops of the Saint Paul and Pacific Railroad 
were destroyed — loss $150,000. May 23, several buildings on 
the south side of Third street, above Cedar, were destroyed, 
including an old landmark, the ''Saint Paul House," on 
Bench street. 

The municipal eled:ion, this spring, resulted in the choice 
of the following oflScers : Mayor. — Hon. Geo. L. OTis.f 

* William Sprjgg Hall, one of the most respe<5ted jurists that Ramsey county 
ever had, was born July 9, 1832, in Anne Arundel county, Maryland. He was educated 
at Saint John's College, in that State, and studied law, being admitted to pra(5tice in 
1854. He came to Saint Paul in Odtober of that year, and formed a law partnership 
with Harwood Iglehart, formerly of Annapolis, Marj'land. In 1856, he was ap- 
pointed Superintendent of the Common Schools of Minnesota, which office he filled two 
years. In 1857, ^^ "^^^ eleiSted to the State Senate, in which he showed high ability. 
In 1867, he was eledted Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and re-eleAed in 1874, for 
seven years more. His health failed rapidly about that period, and he took an European 
tour without much benefit. On February 35, 1875, he died on a railroad car, while on 
his way home from the east. 

t Geo. L. Otis was born in New York, October 7, 1829. He removed to Michigan in 
1837, and lived ^ere until 1855, in the meantime studying law and was admitted to prac- 
tice. In October, 1855, ^^ came to Saint Paul, and has pra<5ticed his profession here since 
that date, with eminent success. He was eledted a member of the Legislature (House) 
of 1857-S, and of the Senate in 1866, performing valuable services on the Judiciary Com- 
mittee during the first named session. Mr. Otis was eled:ed Mayor of Saint Paul in 



1867] and of the County of Ramsey, Minnesota. 439 

Street Commissioner.— John Dowi.an. Attorney. — Harvey 
Officer. The Council elefted B. W. Lott, Ci^- Clerk; J. 
W. RocRK. Cornptroller ; Dr. B. Mattocks. Citv Physician, 



GEO. L. OTIS. 

On April 37, Hope Hose Company, No. i, was organized. 



430 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1867 

July 28, Saint Mary's church, (Catholic,) was dedicated. 
Rev. L. Caillet has been its priest since that date. 

September 10, ground was broken for the Custom House. 

November 14, a young woman, named Maggie Murphy, 
burned to death at Gen. Sibley's residence by the explosion 
of a kerosene lamp. 

THE SUPPOSED MURDER OF DR. HENRY HARCOURT. 

During the fall of this year occurred one of the most inter- 
esting crirhinal trials that has ever taken place in the history- 
of the Northwest, and rivalling, in some features, the celebrated 
cases of Eugene Aram or Dr. Webster. 

On page 420, was mentioned the finding of the body of an 
unknown man, evidently murdered. A curious chain of cir- 
cumstances led to the arrest, at Chicago, on September 23, 
1866, of a young man named Geo. L. Van Solen, for some 
years a resident of Saint Paul, as the murderer of the unknown 
man, who was subsequently proven (as was supposed) to be 
Dr. Henry Harcourt, of England — more latterly of Saint 
Louis, Missouri. Van Solen had known Harcourt in 
Saint Louis, in 1864 and 1865, and shortly afterwards the 
former returned to Saint Paul. Harcourt soon after received 
a letter from a person unknown to him, offering him a situa- 
tion, as surgeon to an expedition, if he would come to Saint 
Paul, and giving Van Solen as a reference. Dr. Harcourt 
came to Saint Paul with a surgeon's outfit, about August 15, 
and stopped at Van Solen's house. The two went hunting 
at Pig's Eye, <?n August 19. Van Solen returned alone, 
stating that Harcourt had run away from him, and the latter 
was never seen alive after that day. His friends in England, 
alarmed at not hearing from him, investigated his wherea- 
bouts, which led to Van Solen's arrest, as stated. He was 
tried on the charge, in December, and ably defended by Hon. 
C. K. Davis* and Hon. I. V. D. Heard. The theory of the 



* CusiiMAN K. Davis was born in Henderson, New York, June 16, 1838. WTiile an 
infant, his parents removed to Waukesha, Wisconsin, where he attended Carroll Col- 
lejfe, but subsequently graduated at the University of Michigan, in 1857. He studied 
law with Hon. A. W. Randall, and, after the ele<5lion of that g-entleman as Governor, 
he appointed Mr. Davis as State Librarian. He was admitted to the bar in 1859, and 



1867] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota. 



C0SHMAN K. DAVIS. 

ilefense was, that the bod}' of the unknown man, tbiind hi the 

kcslA, at which place, in 1S61, he enlisled in Che Tirenty^eishth Wisconsin Volunteers. 
He nas, not long alter, promoted lo Firs) Lieulenanl, and was piil on the stalT of Gen. 
GoHMAN.with the lankofAssisUnlAdjuUnl General. When Geu. GOKM AN retired from 
the service, Capt. Davis returned lo his tmnmand, and was made Judge Advocate of 
the Department. AOer aeveral months' servict, illness compelled him to withdraw from 
theaimy. He settled in Saint Paul in 1864, engaging in the pra«ice of law with (Teat 
success. Ill 1S66, he was elcAed to the Legislature, and, in 1868, appointed United States 
Distria Attorney. In November, 187J, he was =le«ed Governor, «nd has tilled that 
office with ackno»ledifed ability. He is one of the most scholarly and readv s|>eal,i-rs ' 



433 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1868 

river, was not that of Harcourt. The prosecution, Judge 
S. M. Flint and H. J. Horn, Esq., had the body exhumed, 
and endeavored to prove, by its size, &c., and articles found 
on it, that it was Harcourx's body. The jury, on the first 
trial, disagreed, and, on a second trial, in the spring of 1868, 
Van Solen w^as acquitted. The Pioneer^ in commenting 
on the case, said: *'It is a case painful as it is mysterious, 
and one of the dark riddles that occur more frequently in real 
life than in the attractive pages of fiction." 

The election this fall resulted in the choice of the following 
officers : 

Senator. — Geo. L. Becker. Representatives. — Wm. P. 
Murray, D. C. Jones and C. H. Lienau. Sheriff. — D. A. 
Robertson. Treasurer. — C. S. Ui-ine. Register. — J. 
Mainzer. Attornev. — S. M. Flint, &c. 

necrology of 1867. 

Died, January 5, Jacob Beck, an ex-soldier. Turner, &c. 
January 20, Benson Galloway, for some years a merchant 
on Third street. March 20, D. C. Murray, an old resident. 
April 2, at Waconia, B. Rodeck, a prominent fireman. April 
26, James Wiley, a well-known citizen. June 7, Michael 
Dorniden, member of City Council. June 19, Dr. Wm. 
Caine, homcBpathic physician since 1858. July 5, Charles 
Patten, a resident since 1852. July 7, William Perkins, 
an early settler. August 4, Capt. Samuel T. Raguet, late 
of the First Minnesota Volunteers, a prominent fireman, 
merchant, &c. 

PRINCIPAL events OF THE YEAR 1 868. 

On January 9, a row of frame buildings, on the northeast 
corner of Third and W^abasha streets, burned down. J. L. 
FoREPAUGH, that year, ere6led on the site, his fine block, now 
the property of P. F. McQuillan, by whose name it is 
known. It is the largest and finest business block in our city. 

On February 29, the Daily Dispatch^ an evening journal, 
was issued bv H. P. Hall and David Ramaley. 



i868] and of the Connty of Ramsey, Minnesota. 433 

April 21, Mackubin's Block burned. Total loss. $120,000. 

The city eleiftion this spring, resulted: 

Mayor, — Dr. J, H. Stewakt. City Justice. — O. Malm- 
rob. Comptroller.— J. W. Roche. Treasurer.— Nichoi. ass 
Gross. The Council elected John J, Wiixiams as Citv 
Clerk, &c. 



McQ.UlLI.AN' BI.OCK. 

May 23, the Rotary Mill, an old landmark, burned, 
August 8, old Christ church, (Cedar street,) burned. 
The post-otfice was removed to the Opera House this season. 
At tlie State eleiflion. this fall, the following officers were 
chosen : Representatives. — John M. Oilman,* James J. 



removed lu Ohio in ig0, settling at No 


I- Lisbon. 






temrnrds fanned a law parlnerMliip with 


Hoo.jAS. 


ars. He in now a member iif the firm nf 





434 ^^ History of the City of Saint Pauh [1869 

Egan and Paul Faber. Judge of Probate. — O. Stephen- 
son. Coiintv Auditor. — S. Lee Davis. 

NECROLOGY OF 1 868. 

Died, Januar\' 15, Samuel L. Vawter, a prominent mer- 
chant. February 2. Eliab L. Whitney, an early real estate 
dealer. February' 3, in Hennepin county, James Day, a pio- 
neer builder of Saint Paul. Februar}' 21, George H. Oakes, 

• 

a well-known earlv resident. Februar\' 26, at Toronto, Can- 
ada, H. Holmes, an earlv surveyor of Saint Paul, afterwards 
a. General in the Confederate States Army. March 14, Rev. 
J. E. Dixon, a teacher. March 29, at Orono, Judge Moses 
Sherburne, one gf the early jurists of Minnesota. April 
10, Rudolph H. Fitz, a pioneer builder, Alderman, &c. 
April 10, Thomas H. C alder, a well-known character 
of early days. April 21, S. R. Champlin, a merchant 
for many years. April 27, at Chicago, by suicide, Wm. 
Wood, of the firm of Mehaffey & Black, in 1856. May 
20, Jim Lord, a relic of early days. July 12, Capt. Eugene 
H. Fales, an ex-army officer.. August 4, Simon Powers, a 
pioneer stage line operator. August 30, at Louisville, " Pres- 
ident" Jones, an eccentric character, who lived at Saint Paul 
for several years. September 19, Michael J. Wise, an old 
resident. October 10, "Dr. J. A. Vervais, a pioneer physi- 
cian. November 6, Rev. T. H. N. Gerry, a Protestant 
Episcopal clergyman. December 25, Thomas Wall, well 
known in political circles. 

principal events of 1869. 

January i. Jubilee of colored citizens at Ingersoll Hall, 
to celebrate the amendment to the State Constitution conferring 
on them the ele<5live franchise. 

January 12. Masonic Hall, in McQuillan's Block, dedicated. 

February 3. The International Hotel burned. This fire 
commenced about two o'clock a. m. There were over 200 
guests in the house, but all escaped without injury. The loss 
was stated at $125,000. [See page 365.] 

During the Legislative session of 1869, ^ bill was intro- 



1869] ctnd of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 435 

duced, by Hon. C. H. Clarke, of Hennepin county, to re- 
move the Capital to Kancfiyohi county, on one of the se6lions 
of land called '' Capital lands." The bill passed both houses, 
with very little opposition — probably being regarded in the na- 
ture of a joke. When presented to Gov. Marshall for his sig- 
nature, he declined to approve it, and returned the bill, with his 
reasons for vetoing it, which were probably satisfactory, as a 
motion to pass it over his veto failed to carry. The same, or 
substantially the same, measure was introduced again in 1872, 
but met with no favor. 

• The city ele<5tion this spring resulted in the choice of the 
following officers : Mayor. — James T. Maxfield. Comp- 
troller. — J. W. Roche. Attorney. — ^W. A. Gorman. As- 
sessor. — Charles Pass av ant. Surveyor. — D. L. Curtice. 
Street Commissioner. — Frank Deck. The City Council 
elected John J. Williams, City Clerk ; Dr. Mattocks, 
Health Officer, &c. 

the city water works. 

■ 

An important event of this year was the completion of the , 
city water works, by the "Saint Paul Water Company." 
This company was first chartered in 1857, ^"^ nothing was 
done by the parties holding the franchises, until about 1864 or 
1865, when C. D. Gilfillan, and others, took hold of the en- 
terprise, and, after much labor and expenditure, completed the 
Works. The water was turned on from Lake Phelan, the res- 
ervoir, on August 23. There has been in all, 17 miles of pipe 
laid, three miles of canals built, and 1,100 buildings are now 
supplied with water. The works have a capacity of 4,300,000 
gallons every 24 hours. In all, $340,000 have been invested 
in the works. To the energy, perseverance and enterprise of 
Hon. Charles D. Gilfillan,* president of the company, 

♦Charles D. Gilfillan was boru near Utica, New York, July 4, 1831. He was 
educated at Hamilton College, and removed to Missouri, in 1850. In April, 185 1, he 
came to Saint Paul, then removed to Stillwater, where he practiced law three years, 
returning to Saint Paul in 1854, and continuing his profession here. He was eledled to 
the Legislature in 1864 and 1865. At the close of the latter term, he began the con- 
struction of the Saint Paul Water Works, which will always entitle him to the rank of 
one of the benefatHors of our city He has just been elected a third time to the Legis- 
lature. 



436 The History of the City of Saint Paul. [1869 

Saint Paul is indebted for this valuable improvement: and 
perhaps no city in the Union is more cbeaply or easily sup- 
plied with water than Saint Paul. 

The State eledlion. (November 2.) was somewhat more 
closely contested than usual this year. Hon. Geo. L. Otis. 
one of our most popular and esteemed citizens, was a candi- 
date for Governor, and, although his party throughout the 
State was in a hopeless minority, he received a vote in this 



I. GILFILI.AX. 

county that was a generous compliment to him, the result be- 
ing : for Horace Austin, 778 ; for Mr. Otis. 3847 1 The 
count\- officers elefled were : Senator. — Geo. L. Becker. 
(no opposition.) Representatives. — John M. Oilman. Paul 
Fabeh. Jno. L. Merbiam. Clerk of Court. — Albert Arm- 
strong. Sherift". — John Grace. Treasurer. — C. S. Uline. 



1870] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 437 

Register. — Jacob Mainzer. County Attorney. — Harvey 
Officer. 

The newspapers reported that 509 buildings were built this 
year, at a total cost of $i,5cx),ooo. 

NECROLOGY OF 1869. 

Died, near Princeton, Minnesota, January 7, from a gun-shot 
wound, Geo. W. Thompson, an early resident. January 14, 
Robert P. Patterson, a brick-mason, well-known in the 
city. January 26, at Chicago, Richard Marshall, formerly 
proprietor of the City Mills. February 22, near Omaha, by 
freezing, H. H. Gilbert, formerly Deputy State Treasurer, 
and Quartermaster of the Sixth Regiment. March 19, 
Charles Creek, an early settler. March 27, Rev. Deme- 
trius Marogna, priest of Assumption church. April 11, 
Nelson Gibbs, for several years City Justice, &c. May 8, 
Julius Schmidt, well known to theatre-goers. May 28, Asa 
Goodrich, for several years president of the gas company. 
June 29, Geo. C. Mott, since 1 861, clerk in the Surveyor 
General's office. July 10, at Chicago, Mason M. Forsythe, 
a well-known business man of Saint Paul. July 14, Joseph 
Campbell, an old settler. August 10, Col. Henry McKen- 
ty, once the largest and most prominent real estate dealer in 
Minnesota. October 30, Andy L. Shearer, for some years 
a ^'banker" on Jackson street. November 12, Louis C. 
Jones, a capitalist. November 22, Jacob B. Braden, a 
highly respected merchant. November 22, Orrin Curtis, 
formerly Mayor of Saint Anthony, a well-known insurance 
agent. November 25, David Stuart, Jr., an old resident. 
December 30, Thomas Daly, well known in political circles. 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE YEAR 187O. 

During the rebuilding of part of the Saint Paul bridge, this 
winter, a young man. named James Nolan, fell about loo 
feet on the ice, and was killed. 

At the spring election, only one ticket was in the field, be- 
ing ele<5ted as follows : Mayor. — William Lee.* Comp- 

* William Lee, one of the oldest wholesale merchants of Minnesota, was born in 
Milford, Hunterdon county, New Jersey, April 14, iSaa. After completing his educa- 



438 The History of the City of Saint PauL [1870 

troUer. — John W. Roche. City Justice. — Thomas Howard. 
Treasurer. — Michael Esch. Surveyor. — D. L. Curtice. 
The City Council elected Wm. Rhodes, President; M. J. 
O'Connor, City Clerk ; Dr. Mattocks, Health Officer. 

The river was on a freshet this spring, being the highest 
water for 20 years. 

May 4, Joseph A. Wheelock was appointed postmaster. 

May 19, Concert Hall Block burned. A young lady, named 
McLellan, was burned to death ; and two brothers, named 
Mueller, tailors, saved their lives only by leaping from the 
windows in the rear to the foot of the bluff, receiving frightful 
injuries. The fire spread across the street, consuming several 
buildings. The total loss was $50,000. 

June 1 , the corner-stone of the new Merchants' Hotel was 
laid by the Old Settlers' Association, with appropriate cere- 
monies. 

On June 27, the Metropolitan Hotel was opened, Gilbert 
DuTCHER, proprietor. 

The census of 1870 showed a rapid growth of the city since 
1865. The total population of the city was reported at 
20,030; county, 23,085. 

An atrocious murder was committed, on September 2, in 
Rose township. A man, named Joseph Stehle, of Saint 
Anthony, was enticed away from home by a tramp, named 
Daniel Gundy, who murdered and robbed him. Gundy 
was convicted of the crime in March following, and sentenced 
to imprisonment for life. 

The Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad was completed 
and opened to Duluth in August, this year, thus giving our 
city a connection with the great lake system, which has been 
of incalculable advantage to its commerce. 

The State eled:ion this fall resulted in the choice of the fol- 
lowing officers : Representatives. — H. H. Sibley, John L. 



tion, he engaged in mercantile business at Enston, Pennsylvania, and, in 1859, removed 
to Saint Paul, where he established what is now one of the leading jobbing houses in 
our city. Mr. Lke was twice elected Mayor, and is at present County Commissioner, 
serving the public with fidelity and ability. While devoted to his business, he finds 
time to engage in |K>litics, simply (as he asserts, and the writer believes,) as a recreation 
from business cares ! 



1870J and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 439 

Merriam, Chris. Stahlman. Probate Judge. — O. Ste- 
phenson. County Auditor. — Hiram J. Taylor. 

Navigation remained open this fall unprecedentedly late. A 
steamboat excursion in aid of the Home of the Friendless, 
'came off on December 17 — the latest on record. 

NECROLOGY OF 187O. 

Died, April ii, Charles A. Morgan, for several years 
City Treasurer. May 12, at Hebron, Illinois, John McCon- 
KEY, a former railroad man. May 21, Thomas Thomas, a 
pioneer builder. May 28, James E. Thompson, President of 
the First National Bank. May 30, J. W. Simpson, one of the 
pioneers of the city. June 6, Isaac A. Banker, one of the 
earlier surveyors and real estate dealers. June 4, Edward 
Coles Lambert, for many years Probate Judge, City Justice, 
&c. June 23, William Illingworth, town-clock builder. 
June 16, at Charleston, Illinois, Jonathan Frost, one of the 
early merchants. July 1 1 , Lieutenant Charles Rampe, for- 
merly of the Second Regiment. Odober 6, by suicide, Wil- 
liam Yung. October 29, F. Schwartz, a well-known 
German citizen. November 11, Vestal Guerin, the oldest 
living settler. November 16, Henry Buel, for many years a 
well-known merchant. December 9, William J. Cullen, a 
prominent public man. December 28, Lot Moffet, builder 
and proprietor of *' Moftet's Castle," or the Temperance House. 



440 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^71 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

EVENTS OF THE YEARS, 1871 to 1875. 

Advance in Real Estate — The Prairie Fires — Relief for Chicago Suffer- 
ers — Changes in City Charter — Board of Public Works Created — Pub- 
lic Park Purchased — Street Railway Built — More Steamers Secured— 
The Great Storm of 1873 — Custom House Completed — The Jay Cooke 
Panic — Annexation of West Saint Paul — A Carnival of Crime— The 
Census of 1875 — Conclusion. 

THE events of the period from 1870 to the present date, 
can only be briefly noted, as they are too recent, and not 
sufliciently '^ historical** to bear chronicling at much length. 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF 1871. 

One of the noticeable features of this year, was the rapid 
and decided advance in real estate. The demand was better, 
and sales more ready, than for several years — perhaps, better 
than since the fatal 1857. Woodland Park, and a number of 
other additions, were, about this date, got into market, and 
the rapid advance in prices — sometimes doubling in a few 
weeks — almost reminded one of the kiting days before the 
memorable collapse. It set the real estate market all ablaze, 
and gave it an impetus which continued until the Jay Cooke 
disaster of September, 1873, again checked it. 

The city election this spring resulted in the following choice : 

Mayor. — William Lee, re-ele(5led. Attorney. — W. A. 
Gorman. Comptroller. — John W. Roche. Surveyor. — D. 
L. Curtice. 

July 5, the Minnesota State Sabbath School Convention 
assembled in a temporary building, opposite the Capitol. 

The State Fair took place at the Driving Park, September 
26, 27, 28 and 29. 

The fall of this year was memorable for the destruc^tive fires 
in the Northwest — Wisconsin, Michigan, and our own prairie 
region were swept by the flames. The crowning disaster was 



1 871] (ind of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 441 

the great fire of Chicago, Odlober 8th and 9th. Our City Coun- 
cil, as soon as it. could be called together, appropriated 
$20,000 for the relief of the sufferers of that city, and the 
amount was taken to Chicago the same evening. A consid- 
erable amount in money, provisions and clothing, was also 
sent to the sufferers by our prairie fires. 

On October 24, 25 and 26, occurred the excursion of the 
Old Settlers' Association of Minnesota, to the Red River of 
the- North, to celebrate the completion of the Saint Paul and 
Pacific Railroad to that river. 

The State election this fall, (November,) resulted in the 
following choice : Distridl Judge. — Westcott Wilkin. 
Treasurer. — Cal. S. Uline. Sherift". — John Grace. Reg- 
ister of Deeds. — Jacob Mainzer. County Attorney. — W. 
W. Erwin. Surveyor. — C. M. Boyle. Court Commis- 
sioner. — G. Siegenthaler. Senators. — John Nicols and 
Isaac V. D. Heard. Representatives. — John B. Sanborn, 
Peter Berkey,* James C. Burbank, H. M. Smythe and 
Edmund Rice. 

December 15, the Ramsey County Pioneer Association was 
organized. This society was designed to include all who set- 
tled in this county prior to the admission of the State, (May 
II, 1858,) and who were of age at the date of the organiza- 
tion of the society. 

The newspapers reported that 832 buildings wer^ built dur- 
ing 187 1, at a total cost of $1,735,761. 

Died, January 9, Wm. Beaumette, one of the earliest set- 
tlers in Saint Paul, (1838.) January 11, at Santa Barbara, 
California, Major H. A. Kimball, a lawyer of this city. 

* Capt. Peter Bekkey, one of the self-made men of our city, was bom in Somerset 
county, Pennsylvania, in i8aj. His early life was one of hard labor, privation, and but 
little opportunity for education. To his own pluck and industry he owes his present re- 
spc<5ted position in our community. In early days, he struggled with fortune on the 
canals, railroads and stage roads of his native State. He and Selah Chamberlain 
stood by the track of the Pennsylvania Railroad, in 1836, and saw the first train go by. 
He came to Minnesota in 1855, and has since been engaged in the hardware, iron, rail- 
road, livery, insurance and banking business, at various dates. He is now President 
of the Saint Paul, Stillwater and Taylor's Falls Railroad, Diredtor of the Second Na- 
tional Bank, &c. He has given the city and county years of valuable service, as Al- 
derman, County Commissioner, member of the Legislature, and other offices, and in all 
good enterprises is a most valuable and reliable citizen. 
29 



442 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^72 

January 28, at Cottage Grove, Pierce P.Furber, for many 
years a6luary of Oakland cemetery, and Justice of the Peace, 
First Ward. March 3, Wm. R. Wood, a draughtsman in the 
Surveyor General's office. March 4, John Austin, a w^ell- 
known English resident. March 20, at Little Canada, Pierre 
Gervais, a resident here, 1838 to 1845. April 7, Charles 
Weed, a well-known railroad agent. April 11, Major Na- 
thaniel McLean, ex-editor and public officer ; a settler of 
1849. April 16, at Saint Peter, Robert F. Slaughter, an 
early real estate dealer. June 13, at Waterford, Pennsylvania, 
John Curtis, for many years a hotel keeper and hardware 
dealer. June 20, John B. Lahr. August 4, Amos W. Pear- 
son, a manufacturer of this city. August 30, C. G. Wyckoff, 
a public officer, prominent Mason, &c. September 22, 
George Lowry, for many years a saddler. 06lober 2, John 
C. Raguet, a prominent merchant. November 27, at Saint 
Cloud, Mason H. Mills. December 25, Henning Von 
MiNDEN, an officer during the war, engineer, &c. 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1872. 

Some very important amendments were made to the charter 
of the city by the Legislature this winter. One was, providing 
that the city eledlion should be held (after 1872) the same day 
as the State ele(5lion, and terms of officers expiring in the 
spring of 1873 should continue until 1874. Each ward was 
also divided into two election precin(5ls, and the limits of the 
city largely extended. 

A " Board of Public Works" was also created, to consist of 
live members, one from each ward. They are charged with 
the control and supervision of public improvements generally. 
The Board has performed a large amount of work in improv- 
ing our streets, sewerage, &c., though at considerable expense. 

Another important adl was the one authorizing the purchase 
of a public park. Five commissioners were to be appointed 
by the District Judge, to purchase a suitable tra<5t for that pur- 
pose. Judge Wilkin soon after appointed H. H. Sibley, J. 
A. Wheelock, Samuel Colhoun, W. P. Murray, and J. 
C. BuRBANK. After some months of inquiry and survev, a 



1872] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 443 

very fine tra6l bordering on Lake Como, containing about 260 
acres, was purchased for $icx),ooo, the bonds for which were 
issued by the City Council. 

The last spring city election was held on April 2, resulting 
in the following choice : Mayor. — Dr. J. H. Stewart. 
Treasurer. — Michael Esch. Justice. — Archibald McEl- 
RATH. Commissioners. — Casper H. Schurmeier, Peter 
Berkey. 

On February 10, the- ''Saint Paul, Stillwater and Taylor's 
Falls Railroad" was formally opened by an excursion, and on 
February 14, the West Wisconsin Railroad, a new route to 
Chicago, was dedicated to business by an excursion. 

During this year, the first street railway was chartered and 
constructed. On July 14, two miles were opened to travel. 
The following year a branch line was built. 

On July 2, two new steam fire engines were ordered by the 
City Council, and soon after received, jpiaking four in all in 
use by our Fire Department, which is now one of the best 
managed and most eflScient in the country. 

On July 24, the Sheriff of Crow Wing county, fearing 
trouble with the Chippewas, owing to the lynching of two of 
their number, at Brainerd, telegraphed for a military force 
from this city. Although this was late at night, by daylight 
next morning, two military companies were under arms, and 
en i;;oute for Brainerd. Fortunately the expedition was a 
bloodless one, and is now generally known as the " Blueberry 
War." 

At the State election this fall, the following oflScers were 
chosen : Senator. — Edmund Rice. Representatives. — J. N. 
Rogers, Hubert H. Miller, Geo. Benz, Henry A. Cas- 
tle, H. J. Brainard. Auditor. — J. B. Olivier. Probate 
Judge. — H. R. Brill. Mr. Olivier resigned soon after, and 
was ele(5led Abstrad: Clerk. S. Lee Davis was elected as 
Auditor. 

The winter of 1872, set in unusually early and severe, and 
a *'fuel famine" added to its discomfort. 

December 21, *" Warner's Corner," as it was long known, 
burned down, together with the building adjoining, then occu- 



444 ^^^ History of the City of Saint Paul* [^1872 

pied by A. T. C. Pierson. In the latter, a young man, named 
John H. Dowling, was burned to death. 

The season of* 1872, was remarkable for the number of fine 
buildings erected. The papers reported 932 buildings built 
during the year, at a cost of $2,346,487. 

Died, January 12, Baron Von Freudenreich, a native of 
Germany, a resident since 1856. January 14, at Memphis, R. 
McLagan, an early settler. January 27, Wm. B. Newcomb, 
a prominent merchant. January 28, Capt. John O'Gorman, 
formerly Chief of Police. January 30, J. A. Chaffee, mer- 
chant. February i, at Chaska, James Houghton, pioneer 
steamboatman. February 10, at Carver, Geo. P. Holmes, 
formerly of Saint Paul. February 16, Thomas Shear an, 
Alderman Second Ward. February 28, David Hart, a well- 
known tobacconist. April 4, Marshall Sellers, an old 
resident. April 22, George P. Peabody, a prominent mer- 
chant. May 2, Walter Kittredge, many years in the hotel 
business. May 3, at Elgin, Illinois, Walter W. Webb, a 
young merchant. May 20, at Lakeville, Patrick O'Gorman, 
for several years an Alderman. June 3, Rodney Parker, a 
pioneer hotel keeper. June 19, J. R. Brewster. June 26, 
I. C. George, a well-known railroad man. July 7, Capt. 
Chas. G. Pettys, an early real estate dealer. August 3, Au- 
gust Von Beeck, formerly of Fifth Regiment. August 9, 
at San Jose, California, Judson A. Russell, several years 
clerk of the Press office. August 26, at Cleveland, Ohio, 
Andrew Spencer, formerly a Saint Paul hotel keeper. Sep- 
tember 12, Luther H. Eddy, for several years Alderman, 
Chief of Police, &c. September 21, John H. Carrier. Sep- 
tember 23, at Chicago, C. N. Pease, formerly a bookseller 
here. October 9, Allan Campbell, an editor of Daily Dis- 
patch, October 25, Rev. J. R. Balme, an Englishman by 
birth, used to preach on the levee, &c. November 6, Wm. 
TowLERTON. November 9, Butler Comstock, a pine land 
operator. November 21, Dr. Samuel Willey, a promi- 
nent physician for many years. Nov. 27, John P. Kilroy, 
well-known in Second Ward politics. December 12, at Ti- 
conderoga. New York, R. W. DeLano, for several years a 



1873] ctfid of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 445 

member of Saint Paul School Board. December 31, Wm. 
Branch, railroad builder, public man, &c. 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF 1 873. 

t 

The year 1873, opened with a storm, unequalled in severity 
and destru6liveness by any which had ever occurred in the 
memory of man. On January 7, a " polar wave" swept over 
the State, lasting some 36 hours, during which time, the wind 
blew an icy gale, and the air was filled with fine snow. In a 
report made by Gov. Austin to the Legislature, on the sub- 
ject, it is stated that 70 persons died from exposure, a large 
number were maimed, and about 300 cattle, horses, &c., 
perished. 

January 29, Odd . Fellows* Hall, in Semper's Block, was 
burned. 

On February 9, the Saint Paul Custom House was so far 
completed, that the post-oflSce was removed to it — a change 
hailed with joy. The Custom House had occupied five years 
in construction, and cost $350,000. The engraving accompa- 
nying this, shows its fine proportions and architedlure — a 
building that is truly an ornament to our city. 

On September 19, the news was circulated of the failure of 
Jay Cooke. Those who remembered the disastrous failure 
of the Ohio Life and Trust Company, in 1857, (P^^^ 3^0?) 
were apprehensive that history was about to repeat itself, and 
that another financial revulsion would occur. While to some 
extent it did occur in the manufadturing districts and money 
centers of the east, it was scarcely felt here, beyond a slight 
stringency of the money market, and a dullness in real estate. 
Not a failure of any mercantile or banking house occurred as 
a consequence, nor did any manufacturing establishment close 
its doors. How vastly difterent was. our condition in 1857, 
when a similar flurry utterly wrecked every branch of busi- 
ness and every enterprise. Then, there was no real wealth, 
no adtual capital, no solvent business, no production to create 
exchange, and a currency not worth the paper used in its issu^e. 
Eyerything was fictitious and unreal. Now, how changed. 
Twenty million bushels of wheat marketed per annum, had 



446 The Hhtory of the City of Saint Paul. [1873 



1873] ^^^ of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 447 

created real financial strength and profitable trade. Wealth 
and capital had accumulated. Few or none were in debt, and 
all in a condition to laugh at panics. Sixteen years h^d built 
up from the soil a new commonwealth, strong in its own re- 
* sources, with capital accumulated from honest industry and 
trade, and with reserve means to weather even severer finan- 
cial storms unscathed. 

The election on November 4, combined, for the first time, 
the city with the State tickets, making a lengthy list of officers 
ele(5led, as follows : Senator. — E. F. Drake. Representa- 
tives. — L. HoYT, Geo. Benz, T. M. Metcalf,* John X. 
Davidson, H. Meyerding. Treasurer. — Calvin S. Uline. 
Sheriflf. — John Grace. Register. — Theo. Sander. • Attor- 
ney. — C. D. O'Brien. Surveyor. — C. M. Boyle. Clerk of 
Court. — ^A. Armstrong. Coroner. — P. Gabrielsen. For 
the city : Mayor. — ^J. H. Stewart. Treasurer. — F. A. 
Renz. Attorney. — W. A. Gorman. 

This fall, a moving appeal for aid was received from the 
frontier counties, which had been ravaged by the grasshop- 
pers. Large donations in money, food and clothing were sent 
to the suflferers, with that lavish generosity that has always 
characterized our city. 

Died, February 8, William L. Ames, an early resident. 
February 27, F. J. Metzgar, an early resident. March 13, 
Casper H. Schurmeier, a prominent German citizen. March 
25, Judge Sherman Finch, a much respected lawyer. May 
5, John H. Grindall, a well-known builder. May 9, 
Michael Harris, a prominent fireman. May 14, at Baraboo, 
Wisconsin, Lieut. EdwIn J. Van Slyke, formerly of the 
Heavy Artillery. May 16, at Chicago, Oscar R. Cowles, 
better known as ^' King Cole," a well-known sporting man in 
Saint Paul, 1855. to 1858. May 31, H. Herwegen, a mer- 
chant. June 24, at Denver, Gustave Hancke, a well-known 

* Tracy M. Metcalf was born in Homer, New York, 1827. In 1853, he removed to 
Michigan, where he was engaged in the Paymaster's Department, of the Southern 
Michigan Railroad, until 1854, when he came to Saint Paul. Mr. Metcalf was City 
Comptroller, from 1857 to 1859; County Auditor, in 1861 and 1863, and member of the 
Legislature in 1874. He was also Chief Clerk in the Provost Marshal's office in this 
distridl, from i86a to 1865. For the past ten years he has been in the real estate business. 



448 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^874 

and popular musician. July 10, Michael Esch, City Treas- 
urer. July 13, Howard A. Hunt, merchant. July 25, at 
Minneapolis, Gonrad Zenzius, dire6lor of the Musical So- 
ciety. July 29, John Nicols, iron merchant, several years 
Senator from this county, &c. August 6, Major Robert* 
Whit ACRE, capitalist and real estate operator. September £>, 
Lieut. Harry H. Wilson, formerly of the Heavy Artillery. 
September 20, Hugo Petzhold, a German politician. Oc- 
tober I, Gilbert Dutcher, proprietor of the Metropolitan 
Hotel • September 26, at the Insane Asylum, Saint Peter. 
George Morton, for several years Captain of Police. Od:o- 
ber 13, John Sims. December 25, A. W. Grenier. Decem- 
ber 26,. Isaac Van Etten, a prominent lawyer. 

principal events of 1874. 

At the Legislative session this w^inter, several a6ls afte6ling 
this city and county were passed. One was the revised and 
consolidated city charter — a ponderous document of 100 pages. 
Another im'portant a6l was the one authorizing a change of the 
county line between Dakota and Ramsey counties, so as to 
annex West Saint Paul to this city and county. This proposed 
change was to be voted on at the next general election, and, if 
approved by a majority of the people of the two counties, 
should become a law. 

April 2d, the newspapers reported a daring forgery on two 
of our banks, by which the perpetrator gained $7,400. No 
certain clue to the bold rascal was ever gained. 

This season, the old Pioneer Hook and Ladder building was 
converted into court rooms and offices for the county. * 

April 22, the Daily Pioneer became the property of Hon. 
David Blakely. 

August 12, Prof. S. S. Taylor, shot and seriously wounded 
by a burglar, whom he surprised in his house. 

September 9, serious fire on Third street ; Huntington's 
photograph gallery, and other parties, burned out. 

The State election this year, (November 3,) resulted in the 
choice of the following officers: Auditor. — S. Lee Davis. 
Probate Judge. — O. Stephenson. Senator. — W. P. Mur- 



1874] and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 449 

RAY. Representatives. — Wm. Crooks, H. H. Miller, 
George Benz, F. R. Delano, Lorenzo Hoyt. County 
Commissioners. — Wm. Lee and E. S. Blasdell. The total 
vote cast in the city at the election, was 5,017. On change of 
county line, the vote stood — ^yeas,. 4,700 ; nays, 53. Dakota 
county also voted in favor of it. Due proclamation of the 
ratification of the Legislative adt, was made by the Governor, 
on November 16, and West Saint Paul became a part of our 
city, being designated as the Sixth Ward. By this annexa- 
tion, about 2,800 acres were added to the area of Saint Paul, 
making in all an area within our city limits of 13,583 acres, 
or twenty-one and one-fifth square miles. One of the imme- 
diate results of the annexation, was, abolishing tolls on the 
Saint Paul bridge, and it was thrown open to free use on No- 
vember 4. 

This year was characSterized by an unusual amount of crime. 
On August 3, near the head of Rice street, a man, named 
Michael Kelley stabbed Barney Lamb, during an alterca- 
tion, killing him almost instantly. Kelley was tried twice, 
and, on the second trial, found guilty, and sentenced to the 
State's prison for life. 

On November i, Joseph Lick and his wife, Ulrica, were 
attacked in the yard of their residence. No. 59 West Tenth 
street, late at night, by some parlies armed with a hatchet and 
knife. Mrs. Lick was killed, and her husband severely in- 
jured. Three persons, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Rapp and Geo. 
Lautenschlager, were arrested for the adt, and subsequently 
found guilty of murder in the first degree — the latter being 
condemned to sufter the death-penalty. Mr. and Mrs. Rapp 
were sentenced to the State's prison for life, and an appeal to 
the Supreme Court, in the case of Lautenschlager, is now 
pending. 

On November 10, a man, named John H. Rose, shot Pat- 
rick O'Connor, a respe<5lable and industrious contractor, 
with a gun, in broad daylight, on a public street. O'Connor 
died in a day or two. Rose was convi<5led the following 
summer of murder in the first degree, and sentenced to the 
State's prison for life. 



450 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [1^75 

The municipal election was held this year, (under the re- 
vised charter,) separate from the State election, on December 
6. There was only one ticket nominated for city officers, and 
they were ele6led, as follows : Mayor. — James T. Max- 
field.* Comptroller. — John W. Roche. City Justice. — S. 
M. Flint. The Sixth Ward, for the first time, joined in our 
city election. 

Died, January lo, Martin Whelan, an old resident. Jan- 
uary 19, J. J. Prendergast, a prominent fireman. January 
27, by accident, Timothy McCarthy. March 29, Edward 
HoGAN, for many years a well-known dry goods merchant. 
March 30, David Guerin, one of the first white children 
born in Saint Paul. April 6,- at Chicago, A. Von Glahn, a 
capitalist of Saint Paul in early years. April 9, Charles 
Symonds, the first ice dealer in Saint Paul. April 28, Rob- 
ert Terry, an old settler. May 1 1 , Capt. Louis Robert, 
a pioneer of Minnesota, for many years a prominent trader, 
&c. June 5, (at Dixon, Illinois,) Wm. Kennedy, for sixteen 
years Superintendent of the Saint Paul Gas Company. June 
II, John L. Stryker, a well-known real estate owner. 
August 31, Hon. Henry Acker, formerly member of 
the Legislature, Federal officer. County Superintendent of 
Schools, &c. October 6, Dr. Thomas R. Potts, City Physi- 
cian, an old settler. October 12, Capt. Wm. Paist, Secretary 
of the State Agricultural Society, State Grange, &c. Novem- 
ber I, (at Chicago,) S. K. Putnam, formerly Alderman. 
October 31, Henry Shearan, for several years a policeman. 
November 25, at Newport, Minnesota, Wm. R. Brown, for 
many years a resident of the city. 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF 1 875. 

The months of January and February were chara(5lerized by 
intense and unusually protracted cold weather. 

♦James T. Maxfield was born in Norwich, Ohio, March 7, 1827, and lived in that 
city until 33 years of age, when he went to Goshen, Indiana, of which State he re- 
mained a resident eight years, being a member of the Indiana Legislature in 1S53-3. 
He then removed to Detroit, subsequently to Cleveland, and became a resident ijf Saint 
Paul in 1864. Mr. Maxfield is known as one of our hiost enterprising, public-spirited 
and valuable citizens. He has been three times elected Mayor, and has labored hard 
and successfully for the welfare of our city. 



1875] and of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota. 451 

February 19, Judge S, J. R. McMillan. eletSed United 
States Senator. 

March 1, H. R. Brill, appointed Ciimmon Pleas Judge- 
vice Hall. 



T CHURCH, 

March 15. Orlando Simons, appointed Common Pleas 
Ji'tige. 

April I.e. H. BiGELow's house burned. 

April II. the Pioneer and Press consolidated. 

May 30. dedication of the First Baptist church, the finest 
church edifice in Minnesota, 



4S2 The History of the City of Saint Paul^ [^^75 

June I, Dr. David Day appointed postmaster. 

The months of September and October were charafterized 
by a great revival of religion, aided by Messrs. Whittle and 
Bliss, two lay. evangelists. 

November 27, Oliver Beaudoin, killed by a railroad ac- 
cident, at the lower levee. 

December 21, consecration of Rt. Rev. John Ireland, as 
Coadjutor Bishop. 

The census of Saint Paul and Ramsey county was com- 
pleted this month, showing as follows : Population of city. 
33,178 ; county, 36,333. The tax duplicate was also returned, 
showing the total valuation of the city to be $27,755,926, hav- 
ing, in five years, fi.illy trebled. Contrast this with the first 
census of Saint Paul (1849) giving a population of 840, and 
the first tax roll, showing a total valuation of $85,000 ! In 
the appendix will be found a compendium of the various 
census and assessment rolls. 

Died, January 4, Alanson Wilder, a resident since 1864. 
January 15, James Gooding, ex-Chief of Police. January 
17, John B. Wagner. January 23, John Graham, a manu- 
fadlurer. January 31, Michael Fetsch, a leading firemap^ 
February 24, Hon. Wm. Sprigg Hall, Judge of CoHlmon 
Pleas Court. March i, Capt. James R. Lucas, Depiit}- State 
Auditor. March 11, Henry Schiffbauer, ex-City Comp- 
troller. March 22, Geo. Nathan. March 26, at San Fran- 
cisco, California, James Wylie, for many years a carpet 
merchant here. June i , Augustus Boyden. June 6, Jared 
Van Solen, an old resident. June 19, Wm. M. Dwinnels, 
one of our earliest settlers. July 20, at Fort Totten, Dakota 
Territory, Wm. H. Forbes, a pioneer. July 2, Patrick H. 
Butler, an old resident. August 8, Hon. Charles Schef- 
FER, State Treasurer for several years, a leading wholesale 
merchant, president of the Musical Society, &c. August 17. 
Parker Paine, for many years a banker, &c. August 18, 
Theodore Schleif. August 29, H. Berry. September 3, 
Benjamin F. Hoyt, a pioneer of our city. September 23. 
Robert Wiley, an old resident. November 5, Rev. S. Y. 
McMasters, D. D., rector of Christ church. Novembers. 



1 875 J and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 453 

at Bass Lake, Samuel McCullough. November 13, Rev. 
John Mattocks, pastor of First Presbyterian church, for 
twelve years Superintendent of Schools, &c. November 23, 
John G. Irvine, a much esteemed young citizen. November 
28, Judge J. J. Scarborough, formerly of Georgia, &c. 

CONCLUSION. 

And here the writer must lay down the pen of the histo- 
rian. His task is done, and he closes it with satisfaction, and 
with pardonable pride in the goodly subject on which he has 
labored so long, with no other motive than to place on the en- 
during page of history, those facts concerning the early days 
of Saint Paul which might else be lost, if not recorded in time. 

He has, in these imperfedl and poorly written annals, traced 
the career of our city from the dimly remembered days of 1838, 
when a single bark-roofed hovel formed its only civilized land- 
mark, an unknown point in the wilderness surrounding it — 
through the perils of its infancy and pioneer days, its strug- 
gles to secure and retain the Capital, its period of wild infla- 
tion and speculation, its financial reverses and dark days, its 
later years of success and prosperity, fairly won by the enter- 
prise of its citizens — until we reach the Saint Paul of 1875 — 
a prosperous, populous, opulent city, the capital of a great 
and flourishing State, the commercial emporium of the valley 
of the Upper Mississippi. 

The period mentioned is but a brief span, after all — about 
one average generation — but what great results those few years 
have seen accomplished. Let the mind take in our city now, 
with its 33,000 inhabitants, and taxable property of $27,000,- 
000 — its long miles of splendid, smooth, well-paved avenues, 
lined with solid business blocks and public buildings, or pala- 
tial mansions, and underlaid with water and gas pipes, and a 
well-arranged system of sewerage — her levee, with the com- 
merce of the greatest river in the world, and its tributaries, 
connecting us with 35,000 miles of inland navigation — her 
eight railroads, with nearly a hundred trains arriving and de- 
parting daily. Her numerous manufa<5tories, warehouses, 
elevators, &c., banking houses with millions of capital in the 



454 ^'^^ History of the City of Saint Pauln [1S75 

aggregate, and large wholesale houses doing a trade of mil- 
lions annually — her numerous large and elegant churches, 
commodious first-class hotels, well managed public schools, 
orphan asylums, hospitals, and other charitable and reforma- 
tory institutions — a splendidly drilled and efficient fire de- 
partment and police force — public libraries and academies of 
art and science — in a word, all the numerous institutions which 
are the outgrowth of civilization and refinement, aided by 
wealth, and the remarkable progress of our city will be appa- 
rent, inspiring us with the hope that the future of a commu- 
nity which has achieved such wonders in the past, will be still 
more brilliant and glorious. 



and of the County of Ramsey^ Minnesota, 455 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

A QUARTER CENTURY'S RETROSPECT. 

The Unparalleled Growth of our City— A Century's Work Compressed in 
35 Years— The Social Condition of our City 35 Years Ago, Contkasted 
WITH Now— Money v^ Culture and Social Refinement— Our .^stheti- 
CAL Growth — Education, Literature, Music and Art. 

[For this interesting chapter — a fitting close to our civic history — the writer is in- 
debted to Col. Earle S. Goodrich. Indeed, this acknowledgment is scarcely neces- 
sary — his graceful and polished style would be recogfnized without it.] 

THE past quarter of a century stands by itself in the im- 
portance and variety of the results achieved in all 
departments of knowledge and enterprise. The happy mar- 
riage of the mechanic arts with science, has produced and per- 
fe6led a series of remarkable inventions, which, in ministering 
to the demands of commerce, manufadlures, and the social 
needs and luxuries, have revolutionized trade, created new and 
expanded old industries, refined the conditions of labor, and 
by their influence upon habits of thought and methods of life, 
have aflTedled the structure as well as changed the surface of 
society, and almost created a new race in a single generation. 
These transformations, clearly enough seen in old communi- 
ties, are most Vividly revealed in the new and frontier se6lions. 
For whereas, in the older States, twenty-five years ago, there 
were in existence all known methods which produce wealth, 
and all the culture and ease which are the fruit of it, here, at 
the Northwest, civil society was just in process of organiza- 
tion, and all things were as wild and untamed as nature itself. 
There, in the older communities, nature was already subdued, 
and country as well as town showed the marks of refined liv- 
ing, so that the influence of the quarter century's progress is 
revealed more in the inner and higher life of the people than 
in physical manifestations ; while here, on the border, what- 
ever lies between the first turning of the sod and the last 
achievement of art, had to be wrought from crude nature, and 



45^ The History of the City oj Saint Paul^ 

by men gathered together by chauce, and exhibiting not merely 
every grade of culture, but every phase of the lack of it. 
Here, then, has been furnished the most tangible and striking 
revelation of the wonderful progress which has marked the 
third quarter of the present century. 

In seleding out of this frontier region a point to serve as an 
example of the remarkable development of the last twenty-five 
vears, and which shall cover not merelv increase of business 
and access of population, but growth in those mental, moral, 
and aesthetic dire(5itions which make up culture, and are the 
flowering of a high civilization, we can, viithout being invidi- 
ous, choose our own citv of Saint Paul. The historv, which 
closed with the last chapter, certainly presents a record in 
which our citizens may take a justifiable pride. It shows the 
work of a century compressed into a quarter of the time. The 
simple record of the organization of our religious societies, 
embracing almost every se(^^ ; of the beginning and spread of 
our educational system ; of societies devoted to art and science, 
as well as to charity and reform ; of our public libraries ; and 
of scores of other beneficent organizations, having for their 
objed: the improvement of our people in intelligence and 
worth ; this simple record reveals more forcibly our progress 
in culture than any mere generalizing can show ; for all these 
things not only sustain culture, but grow out of it, and are the 
best and highest indications of its quality and strength. 

The social condition twenty-five years ago and now, pre- 
sents as stiong a contrast as anything shown i« our history. 
A small population, joining together to form a community, 
but mingling only in business intercourse ; divided ir^to cliques 
which represented every nationality; this made up, an un- 
promising composition to mould into shapely and attrad:ive 
social form. Yet, the very heterogeneousness of the chara<5ler 
of our early settlers, through the wearing but smoothing effedt 
of years of fridlion, and under gradually improving conditions, 
has developed a society more cosmopolitan, and with greater 
variety and breadth of culture, than can be found in many 
cities of quadruple our age and population. Freedom from 
insularity marks our habits and manners as it does our posi- 
tion ; the representatives of many lands have contributed their 



and of the County of Ramsey. Minnesota, 457 

graces and refinements ; until, if we were to calculate our age 
by the ordinary growth of social tone and breeding, we might 
without vanity count by decades instead of years. 

This change in the social condition is due greatly to the 
difference, then and now, in the prime objects of life and 
effort. The accumulation of wealth is everywhere and at all 
times the moving spring of energy, not always for the gratifi- 
cation of a sordid desire for gain, but for the comfort which 
it brings, and the good which may be done with it. With our 
first settlers, making mon«y seemed the sole aim and end of 
living. And while that passion continued the dominant one, 
the possession of money was the touchstone of influence ; the 
man who gained the most of it was the man most regarded — 
with little reference, during the earlier years, to the means by 
which it was obtained, or to the mental or moral qualities of 
its possessor. Under the impulse of this spirit there could, 
of course, be little society worth its name, for the general ten- 
dency was toward narrowness, selfishness and vulgarity. It 
must be understood, however, that these sweeping remarks 
apply to society in the mass, and are held to be true of it only 
in that sense. For no one, whose residence dates back to our 
earliest" days, can fail to recall many homes, in Saint Paul 
and vicinity, which were the seats of an elegant hospitality, 
and from which proceeded the most elevating influences. 
These cannot be remembered with more gratitude than is their 
due ; they were the leaven that leavened the whole lump ; and 
the air of graceful refinement that pervaded them, remains 
with us as the purest and best of the social atmosphere of to- 
day. We are still sordid enough, without doubt, but our 
growth has been in the right direction, and we can now see 
more in life than the gathering of a fortune. There is to-day 
more pride in the possession of a good name than in great 
riches ; and there exists a healthily growing respe6l for social 
position and family repute, which are the fruits of good conduct 
and virtuous living. These things as tangibly mark right devel- 
opment as do the substitution of the opera and drama for the 
Indian dance and pow-wow, the popular ledlure-room for the 
public gambling-hall, and the music of Mozart, Beethoven 
and Wagner for the grotesque mouthings of negro minstrelsy. 
30 



458 The History of the City of Saint Paul. 

In public architecture, the progress is seen at a glance, hv 
comparing the Mission of Saint Paul, (of which an engraving 
is given in this history,) with Saint Mary's, the First Baptist 
church, or the German Catholic cathedral ; while scattered 
over the city are hundreds of elegant residences, which show 
that in domestic architecture, no stereotype forms have been 
used, but that expression has been given to cultivated individ- 
ual tastes, in which lies the peculiar charm and beauty^ of any 
structure named, and used as, a home. Many of these are 
beauty spots upqn the face of the city, reflecting a refining 
influence upon all who see them, and holding within their 
walls, in pictures and libraries, such treasures of art and 
knowledge as prove that all is not done for outward show, but 
that very much is the legitimate expression of enlightened 
sentiment and cultured taste. 

The strictly material progress of Saint Paul during the 
quarter century past, does not come within the purview of this 
chapter. In those preceding, the details of its growth in 
trade, commerce, population, manufactures, and all the indus- 
tries which go to make up a prosperous community, have been 
as fully presented and discussed, as could be suitably done in 
such a work. But this may be said, that, coupling the substan- 
tial character of our development with its rapidity, the result 
is quite without example, even in this region and during this 
period of marvelous growth. We cannot, however, contem- 
plate this picture of progress, pleasing as it is, without notic- 
ing that ghostly shadows fall upon it, day by day, as one by 
one of those who laid the foundations of our prosperity, pass 
away from our midst. The majorit\' of the men who, twenty- 
five years ago, were influential in the political, financial, and 
commercial enterprises of the little town just christened after 
its mission chapel, and whose names and deeds are recorded 
in this book, sleep now in one or another of the pleasant cem- 
eteries that lie on the outskirts of the city which they founded. 
The many are taken ; the few are left. May these few linger 
among us during long years to come, enjoying the prosperit}' 
which they helped to create, and receiving the benediction of 
every worthy citizen of our beautiful Saint Paul ! 



APPENDIX. 



LIST OF FEDERAL, COUNTY AND CITY 

OFFICERS SINCE 1849. 



FEDERAL OFFICERS. 



Postmaster: 

April 7, 1846— Henry Jacksoji. 
July 5, 1849 — Jacob W. Bass. 
March 15, 1853 — Wm. H. Forbes. 
March 11, 1856 — Charles S. Cave. 
March la, 1860-^W. M.Corcoran. 
April la, 1861 — Charles Nichols. 
Mardi 14, 1865— Dr. J. H. Stewart. 
May 4, 1S70— J. A. Wheelock. 
June 1, 187s — Dr. David Day. 



Collector of the Port: 

1851-53 — Charles J. Henniss. 
1853-55 — Robert Kennedy. 
1855-57— L. B. Wait. 
1857-59 — James Mills. 
1859-61— E. A. C. Hatch. 
1861-76— George W. Moore. 



COUNTY OFFICERS. 



Register of Deeds: 

1849-53 — David Day. 
1853-54 — M. S. Wilkinson. 
1854-58 — L. M. Olivier. 
1858-60 — Edward Heenan. 
i86o-6a— S. Hough. 
iS6a-66— Charles Passavant. 
1866-74 — Jacob Mainzer. 
1S74-76 — Theodore Sander. 
1S76-78 — Alex. Johnston. 

Sheriff: 

1849-53— C. P. V. Lull. 
1853-54 — George F. Brott. 
1854-56 — A. M. Fridley. 
1856-58— Aaron W.Tullis. 
1858-^0— J. Y. Caldwell. 
1S60-63— A. W. Tullis. 
1863-70 — D. A. Robertson. 



Sheriff: 

1870-76— John Grace. 
1876-78— John C. Becht. 

Judge of Probate: 

1849-53 — Henry A. Lambert. 

1853 — Ira B. Kingsley. 

1853 — Henry A. Lambert. 

1854— Jesse M. Stone. 

1855 — Richard Fewer. 

1856-58 — A. C. Jones. 

185&-60 — John Penman. 

1860-63— J. F. Hoyt, (res. Ap. 13, '63.) 

1863— R. F. Crowell. 

1863 — E. C. Lambert. 

1864-69— R. F. Crowell. 

1S69-73 — Oscar Stephenson. 

1873-75— Hascall R. Brill. 

1875-76 — Oscar Stephenson. 



460 



Appendix. 



TreoBurtr: 

i849-5»— James W. 8iinp»on. 
185a — S. H. Serg^eant. 
1853 — Robert Cumraings. 
1854— Nathaniel E. Tyson. 
1855— Allen Pierse. 
1856— (to March 23,) C. F. Stiniiion. 
i856-6»~Robert A. Smith. 
1868-76— Calvin S. Ulinc. 

County Attorney: 

'849-53— W. D. Phillips. 
•853-5^— D. C. Coolcy. 
1856-64— Isaac V. D. Heard. 
1864-66— Henry J. Horn. 
I866-70-S. M. Flint. 
1870-73 — Harvey Officer. 
1872-74— W. W. Erwin. 
1874-76— C. D. O'Brien. 

County Surveyor: 

1853-53-8. P. Folsoni. 
1853— W. R. Marshall. 
1854-58— J. A. Case. 
185S-60— Wilbur F. Dufty. 
i860— D. S. Kenney. 
1861-64— D. L. Curtice. 
1864-66— Gates A. Johnson. 
1866-73— (No election.) 
1S73-76— Charles M. Boyle. 

Coroner: 

1854— J. E. FuUerton. 
1855-57— D». W. H. Jarvis. 
1857— Dr. J. D. Goodrich. 
1858-60— Dr. J. V. Wren. 
•1860-63 — James M. Castner. 
1863-64—0. F. Ford. 
1864-66— Philip Schcig. 
1866-68—0. F. Ford. 
1868-70— J. P. Melancou. 
1878-73 — Dr. A. Guernon. 
i87»-74— P. McEvoy. 
1874-76— Dr. P. Gsibrielseu. 

Clerk of Court: 

1850-53— J. K. Humphrey. 
» 853-54— A. J. Whitney. 
1854-58— George W. Prescott 
1858-63 — R. F. Houseworth. 
1863-66— George W. Prescott. 
1866-76— Albert Armstrong 

Auditor: 

1859-61 — Alexander Buchanan. 
1861-63— Tracy M. Metcalf. 
1863-65— William H. Forbes. 
1865-67— J. F. Hoyt. 
1867-71 — S. Lee Davis. 



Auditor : 

1871-73 — Hiram J, Taylor. 

1873— John B Olivier, (resigned.) 

1873-76— S. Lee Davis. 

Court Commissioner: 

1861-67 — Oscar Malmros. 
1867-71— Henry M. Dodge. 
1873-76— G. Siegendialer. 

District yudge: 

1858-64— E. C. Palmer. 
,864-78— Wcstcott Wilkin. 

Common Pleas yudges: 

1866-75— William Sprigg Hall. 
1875-83 — O. Simons. 
1875-83— H. R. Brill. 

County Commissioners. 
Acker Henry, 1869-71. 
Baker D. A. J., 1858 to *6i. 
Barney T. J., 1871-73. 
Bennett Abr., 1855 to '58. 
Berkey Peter, 1863-7375. 
Betz J. G., 1861-63. 
Blasdell E. S., 1874-5. 
Brainerd H. J., 1868-75. 
Branch Wm., 1858-9. 
Burbank, J. C, i860. 
Clark Martin D., 1858 to '60. 
Davern Wm., 1858-9. 
Emerson C. L., 1858-9. 
Godfrey Ard., Nov. 1S49 *** J^'- »85o« 
Gervais Benj., 1850-1. 
Hale H., 1863 from 5th July. 
Hammond George, 1863-7. 
Holland John, 1864-9. 
Howard Thomas, 1867-71. 
Hoyt L., 1871-3. 
Irvine J. R., i860. 
Kelly Dan., 1871-5. 
Kilroy John P., 1863-66. 
Lambert John S., 1858 to '60. 
Larpenteur A. L., 1859. 
LeBonne Joseph, 1853-4. 
Lee William, 1875. 
Lindeke William, 1873.5. 
McClung J. W., i860. 
McGrorty William B., 185S-9. 
McLean N., 1856 to *59. 
Marvin L., 1859. 

Morgan Charles A., 1865 from Sept 9. 
Murray James F., 1858-9. 
Nicols John, 1860-1, 1871-3. 
O'Connor M. J., 1861. 
Parker A. F., 1861-3. 
Prince John S., 1871-3. 






J 



Appendiof. 



461 



County Commissioners : 

Rice Edmund, 1856 to '58. 
Robert Louis, Nov. 184910 Jan. 1856. 
Russell R. P., 1850-3. 
Ryan Patrick, 1864-6. 

Schiller , 1859. 

Schurmeier C. H., 1873-3. 

SelbyJ. W., 186a. 

Smith John, 1860-1. 

Spiel, Joseph, 1867-72. 

Stahlman C, 1870-1. 

Steele John, 1866-8. 

Stees W. M., 1859. 

Taylor H. J., 1859. 

Welch Wm., 1871-5. 

Whitney C. T., 1863-5. 

Wilkinson Ross, 1859. 

Wilson J. P., Jan. 1854 to April 1856. 

Wolff Wm. H., 1858 to '60. 

Senate. 

Becker George L., 1868-9-70-1. 

Boal James McC., 1849-51. 

Brisbin John B., 1856-7. 

Cave Charles S., 1858. 

Drake E. F., 1874-5. 

Farrington George W., 1853.3. 

Forl)es William H., 1849-51-2-3. 

Hall Wm. Sprigg, 1858-60. 

Heard I. V. D., 187a. 

Irvine John R., 1862-3. 

Mackubin C. N., i860. 

Murray William P., 1854-5-66-7-75-6. 

Nicolsjohn, 1864-5-72-3. 

Otis George L., 1866. 

Rice Edmund, 1864-5-73-4. 

Sanborn John B., 1861. 

Smith James, Jr., 1861-2-3-76. 

Stewart J. H., i860. 

Van Etten Isaac, 1854-5-8. 

House of Representatives: 
Acker Henry, 1860-1. 
Banning William L., 1861. 
Bartlett Louis, 1854. 
Benz George, 1873-4-5. 
Berkey Peter, 1873. 
Brainard H. J., 1873. 
Branch William, 1857-66. 
Brawley Daniel P., 1855. 
Brisbin John B., 1863. 
Brunson Benjamin W., 1849-51. 
Burbank James C, 1873. 
Carver H. L. 1863. 
Castle Henry A., 1873. 
Cave Charles S., 1853-5. 



House of Representatives ; 
Chamblin A. T., 1857. 
Costello William, 1857. 
Crooks William, 1875-6. 
Crosby John W., 1858. 
Davern William, 1858. 
Davidson John X., 1874. 
Davis C. K., 1867. 
Davis W. A., 1854-5. 
Day John H., 1854. 
Delano F. R., 1875. 
Dewey John J., 1849. 
Egan James J., 1869. 
Faber Paul, 1869-70. 
Findley Samuel J., 1853. 
Fitz R. H., 1864. 
Fullerton J. E., 1853. 
Gilfillan Charles D., 1865-76. 
Gilman John M., 1865-9-70. 
Gross Nicholas, 1863. 
Haus Reuben, i''S5-6. 
Hoyt Lorenzo, 1874-5. 
Jackson Henry, 1849. 
Johnson Parsons K., 1849. 
Jones D. C, i863. 
Kidder Jefferson P., 1863-4. 
Kiefer Andrew R., 1864. 
KnauflF., 1856. 
Lemay Joseph, 1855. 
Lienau Charles H., 1867-8. 
Lott Bushrod W., 1853-6. 
Lunkenheimer John, 1876. 
McGrorty William B., 1858. 
Meiriam John L., 1870-71. 
MetcalfTracy M., 1874. • 
Meyerding Henry, 1874. 
Miller H. H., 1873-5. 
Mitsch George, i860. 
Murray William P., 1853-3-7-67-8.* 
Nessel Andrew, 1861. 
Nobles William H., 1856. 
Noot William, 1853-4. 
Olivier John B., i860. 
Olivier Louis M., 1853. 
Otis George L., 1858. 
Paine Parker, 1866. 
Peckham John A., 1865. 
Ramsey Justus C, 1851-3-7. 
Ranch Charles, 1858. 
Rice Edmund, 1851-67-73. 
Richter Fred., 1876. 
Robertson, D. A., 1866. 
Rogers J. N., 1873. 

* Ele<5ted, but did not take his seat. 



462 



Appendix, 



/louse of Representatives ; 
Rohr Philip, 1863. 
Sanborn John B., 1860-73. 
Selby Jeremiah W., 1852. 
Sibley H. H., 1871. 
Sloan Levi, 18^4. 
Smythe H. M., 187a. 
Stahlman Christopher, 1871. 



House of Representatives : 
Starkey James, 1858. 
Stephenson Oscar, i860. 
Tilden H. L., 1851. 
Trott Herman, 1866. 
Webber William, 1876. 
Wilkinson Ross, 1856. 






CITY OFFICERS. 



Mayor: 

[854— David Olmsted. 
1855 — Alex. Ramsey. 
[856— George L. Becker. 
[857— J. B. Brisbin. 
1858— N. W. Kittson. 
[859 — D. A. Robertson. 
1860-63— John S. Prince. 
1863— J. E. Warren. 
[864— Dr. J. H. Stewart. 
1865-67— J. S. Prince. 
[867— George L. Otis. 
1868— Dr. J. H. Stewart. 
[669— J. T. Maxfield. 
[870-73— Wm. Lee. 
1873-75- Dr. J. H. Stewart. 
[875-76— J. T. Maxfield. 



City 



City 



City 



Treasurer: 

854-59 — Daniel Roher. 
859-64— Charles A. Morgan. 
864-66— C. T. Whitney. 
866-70— N. Gross. 
870 to July 10, 1873— M. Esch. 
873-76— F. A. Renz. 

justice: 

854-60 — Orlando Simons. 
860-64— Nelson Gibbs. 
864-66— A McElrath. 
866-68— E C. Lambert. 
868-70— O Malmros. 
870-73 — Thomas Howard. 
873-75— A. McElrath. 
875— S. M. Flint. 

Clerk: 

854-56— Shenvood Hough. 
856-58— L P. Cotter. 
858— A. J. Whitney, (Resigned.) 
858 — Isaac H. Conway. 
859-61— John H. Dodge. 
861 (to Sept. 13)— L. P. Cotter. 



City Clerk: 

1863, (Sept, 13,) to Oc't. 15, 1866-K. 

T. Friend. 
1866 (OA. i5)-6S— B W. Lott. 
1868-70— John J. Williams. 
1870-76— M. J. O'Connor. 

Comptroller: 

1854-56— F. McCormick. 
1856— G, W. Armstrong. 

fA. T. Chamblin, resigned. 

\QS1\ Sher. Hough, resigned (July 31 ) 

[t. M. Metcalf. 
1859-63— Wm. Von Haram. 
1863 — C. H. Lienau. 
1864 — Henry Schiffbauer. 
1865-76— John W. Roche. 

Attorney: 

1854— D. C. Cooley. 

1855— J. B. Brisbin. 

1856—1. V. D. Heard. 

1857 — C. J. Penningtoh, resigned. 

H.J.Horn. 
i860— S. R. Bond. 
1861-65— S M. Flint 
1865-67—1 V. D. Heard 
1867-69 — Harvey Officer. 
1869-76 — W. A. Gorman. 

Engineer: 

1854 — Simeon P. Folsom 
• 1855-57— J. A. Case. 
1857— J. T. Halsted. 
1858— D. L. Curtice. 
1859 — F. Wipperman. 
i860— Gates A Johnson. 
1861-63— Charles A. F. Morris. 
1863-69— Charles M Boyle. 
1869-74— D. L Curtice. 
1874.76— D. L Well man. 



Appendix. 



463 



Chief of Police:* 

,854.58— William R. Miller. 

1858-60— John W. Crosby. 

i86o— John O'Gorman. 

1861— H. H. Western. 

i86a— James Gooding. 

1863— Michael Ciunmings, Jr. 

1864— J. R. Cleveland. 

1865-6— G. W.TurnbuU (res July.W) ) 

1866-67— John Jones. 

1867.70— J. P. Mcllrath. 

1870^2— L. H. Eddy. 

1872-75— J. P. Mcllrath. 

1875— James King. 

Physician and Health Officer: 
1856— Samuel Willey. 
i8S7-S^-J. V. Wren. 
1859— J. A. Vervais. 
i86o-6a— T. R. Potts. 
i86a to June, 1866— A. G. Brisbine. 
1866— T. R. Potts. 
1867-71 — Brewer Mattocks. 
1871 — M. Hag^n. 
1873.74- T. R. Potts. 
1874-76— Brewer Mattocks. 

Wharf master: 

1858—8. R. Champlin. 
1859 — Andrew R. Kiefer. 
i860 — Louis Semper. 
1861— James J. Hill. 
1 86a— John B. Cook. 

\ Paul Faber. 
1864— T. K. Danforth. 
1865 — Henry Constans. 
1866 — Louis Krieger. 
1867— John O'Connor. 
1868— G. A. Borup. 
1869-73 — Patrick Butler. 
1873 — H. D. Mathews, 

Market Master. 

1859.61— N. J. March. 
1861— Jacob Heck. 
1863-65 — Michael Cummings, Sr. 
1865-68— N. Gibbs. 
1868.70— John O'Connor. 
1870— John Lunkenheimer. 
1871-75— P. McManus. 

Chief Engineer Fire Department: 
1854— W. M. Stees. 
1855-59— C. M- Williams. 

* From 1854 to 1858 this office was called 
City Marshal. 



Chief Engineer Fire Department : 
1859— J. B. Irvine. 
1860-63— J. E. Missen. 
1863— W. T. Donaldson. 
1863— L. H. Eddy. 
1864— J. C. A. Pickett. ^ 

1865— C. H. Williams. 
1866-68— B. Presley. 
186S-70— Frank Breuer. 
1870-73— J. C. Prendergast. 
* 1873— R. O. Strong. 
1873-76— M. B. Farrell. 

Superintendent of Schools: 
1856-59— E. D. Neill. 
1859— B. Drew. 

1860-73 — John Mattocks. , 

1873.74 — Geo. M. Gage. 
1 874-76 —L. M. Burrington. 

Street Commissioner: 
i860— R. C. Knox. 
1861-63 — Patrick Murnane. 
1863-69— John Dowlan. 
1869— Frank Deck. 

City Council: 

Bazille Charles, 1854-6. 

Beaumont J. I., 1865-7. 

Becker George L., 1854-6. 

Berkey Peter, 1859-63, 1864-5, 1868-71. 

Betzjohn G., 1863.5. 

Branch William, 1856-61. 

Breuer F., 1870-74. 

Cave Charles S., 1854.7. 

Chamblin A. T., 1854.7. 

Corcoran William M., i86o>3. 

Cummings Michael, Jr., 1868-73. 

Dailey CM., 1860-3. 

Dawson William, 1865-8. 

Demeules Louis, 1874-7. 

Dodge H. M., 1858-61. 

Dorniden M., 1864-7. 

Dowlan John, 1874-7. 

Eddy Luther H., 1861-4, 1869-73. 

Emerson Charles L., 1856-9. 

Fanning Thomas, 1854. 

Farrell M. B., 1869. 

Finck Adam, 1863.5. 

Fisher J. W., 1871-5. 

Fitz R. H., 1860-3, 1865-8. 

Fuller A. G., 1855. 

Galbraith Thomas J., 1865. 

Gies William, 1866-7. 

Golcher William, 1873-75. 

Grace Thomas, 1858-9, 1869-79. 

Grant C. L., 1867-8. 



464 



Appendix. 



City Council : 

Grant H. P., 1860.3. 

Gross Nicholas, 1858^. 

Hartshorn William E., 1870-71. 

Heathcote Thomas, 1875-8. 
^ HofTman James K., 1867-74. 

Holland John, 1865-7. 

Irvine John R., 1854-7. 

Jansen Frank, 1868-71. 

Johnson Gates A., 1871-8. 

Keller John M., 1865.6. 

King James, 1863-9. 

Kittson Norman W. , 1856-8. 

KnauftF., 18747. 

Knox R. C, 1854-7. 

Krieger Louis, 1871-75. 

Langevin E., 1875-7. 

Larpenteur A. L., 1855-6, 1857-60. 

Lienau Charles, 1862-3. 

Litchfield, William B., 1869-70. 

Livingston John R., 1863-5. 

McCarthy Jeremiah C, 1875-8. 

McGrorty William B., 1856-9. 

Madden S. C, 1866-9. 

Markoe William, 1865-7. 

Marvin Luke, 1857-60. 

Marvin Richard, 1854-5. 

Maxfield James T., 1867-9, 1871-5. 

Metzdorf J., 1874-7. 

Minea Joseph, 1875. 

Mitsch George, 1867-70. 

Moore George W., 1866-9. 
Morton C. A., 1875-8. 
Murray William P., 1861-8, 1870-79. 
Nash Patrick, 1866-69. 

Nobles Wm. H., 1855-6. 

O'Connor John, 1875-8. 

O'Connor M. J., 1859-63. 
O'Gorman Patrick, 1858-61. 
Paine Parker, 1863-5. 
Peckham John A., 1863-65. 
Presley Bart., 1870-74. 
Putnam S. K., 1863-8. 
Quimby J. C, 1873-9. 
Rauch Charles, 1856. 
Reaney John H., 1875-8. 
Reardon Timothy, 1868-71. 
Reed L. E , 1863.70. 
Rhodes William, 1868-70. 
Richter Fred., 1873-6. 
Robert Nelson, 1873-4. 
Ryan Patrick, 1856-8. 
Schurmeir C. H., 1855.61. 
Shearan Thomas, 1867-73. 
Slater Richard, 1867.9. 



City Council : 

Slichter J. B., 1864-7. 
Steele John, 1861-65, 1869-73. 
Stone J. M., 1854-5. , 

Taylor H. J., 1857-60, 1870-4. 
Thompson James E., 1861-4. 
Valentine D. H., 1863-5. 
Werner Frank, 1874-7. 
Wiley R. C, 1859-63. 
WiUius F., 1869-76. 
Wolff Wm. H., 1858-60. 
WoodE. H., 1876-9. 
Wright Isaac P., 1863-64. 

Board of Education: 
Ames W. L., 1856-7. 
Arbuckle S. C, 1873-6. 
• Baker H. E., 1856-8. 
Berrisford, E. F., 1873-6. 
Beveridge F., 1863. 
Blakeley Russell, 1864.5. 
Bradley Newton, 1866. 
Bradley Richard, 1875-7. 
Brisbine A. G., 1863.5. 
Carpenter C. W., 1875-8. 
ChaneyJ. B., 1873.5. 
Collins W.H., '1857-8. 
Combs W. S., 1858-76. 
Cummings Michael, 1868-71. 
Dean W. B., 1875-7. 
Delano R. W., 1867-70. 
Demeules L., 1871-3. 
Donaldson J. H., 1874-7. 
Donnelly J. G., 1870-7. 
Duncan T. B., 1876-9. 
Dunham W. N., 1858. 
Erdman William, 1875-8. 
Farrell M. B., 1868-71. 
Farwell George L., 1873-6. 
Fink Adam, 1875-8. 
Fink Jacob, 1859.60. 
Fisk R. F., 1859-60. 
Flynn P. F., 1875.8. 
Folsom S. P., 1858.63. 
French Theo., 1856.7. 
Furber P. P., 1856.9. 
Geis William, 1870-4. 
Goodrich A. J., 1865-6. 
Grace Thomas, 1871-8. 
Grant William H., 1867. ' 
Gray William C, 1858-61. 
Green J. C, 1870-1. 
GrindallJ.H., 1867.8. 
Hamilton G. A.,1871.7. 
Hewitt Girart, 1859-61. 
Horn Henry J., 1857.9. 



Appendix. 



465 



Board of Education ; 

Houseworth R. F., 1865-6. 
Howard Thomas, 1867-70. 
Ingersoll D. W., 1865-77. 
Kiefer John, 1^65.68. 
Kelly W. H., i86a-7. 
KingT. J., 1663-5. 
Lambert E. C, 1861-7. 
Lambert Henry A., 1861-3. 
Langford N. P., 1859. 
Little George, 1859-60. 
Lott B. W., 1858-60. 
Lumsden G. L., 1857.8. 
McCormick F., 1858-9- 
McNamee Francis P., 1863-9. 
Mann C. A., 1866-9. 
Marshall William R., 1856.7. 
Mason W. F., 1866-7. 
Mathews James H., 1866-8. 
Mattocks John, 1859-73. 
Merrill D. D., 1665-8. 
Meyerding Henry, 1F69-79. 
Minor John, 187a. 
Moody A. C, 1864. 
Mott George C, 1858.9. 
Mueller B., 1874.5. 
Murphy J. H., 1876.9. 
Neill E. D., 1856.60. 
Nicols John, 1863-5. 
Noah Jacob J., 1860-61. 
Paine Parker, 1656-74. 
Palmer E.C., 1856.7. 



Board of Education : 
Peckham J. A., 1862-5. 
Phillips J. B., 1860.61. 
Pond J. P., 1857-8, 1669.6a. 
Pope John D., 1663. 
Potts Thomas R., 1860-63, 1863-3. 
Prescott George W., 1663, 1665.8. 
Putnam S. K., 1660-63. 
Ramaley David, 1663.5. 
Robertson D. A., 1663-69. 
Rogers John, 1669-73. 
Scheffer Albert, 1675-8. 
SelbyJ. W., 1661-3. 
Sheire Monroe, 1668-75. 
Sibley H. H., 1868-70. 
St. Peter I., 1875.6. 
Starkey James, 1857.8. 
Stewart J. H., 1858-61. 
Strong C. D., 1863-3. 
Studdart I. F. A., 1871-5, 1876-9. 
TerryJ.C, 1876-9. 
Torbet A. M., 1856.7. 
Trott Herman, 1869-73. 
Von Minden H., 1871. 
Ward J. q. A., 1863-5. 
Watson George, 1876-9. 
Wedelstaedt H., 1868-71. 
Williams J. Fletcher, 1864-7, 1868.71, 
Wolff Albert, 1873.5. 
Zenzius Conrad, 1865-8. 
Zimmerman Edward, 1863-6. 



31 



466 



Appendix. 



GROWTH OF WEALTH AND POPULATION. 



The first assessment made in Saint Paul, in 1849, gave a valua^on of $85,000. In 
1853, this had risen to $733,534; and, in 1854, almost doubled, being $1,300,000. In 1856, 
it rose to $3,387,330, which, in one year more, (1857,) had increased nearly 100 per cent., 
being $6,437,385. This valuation of the "fiush times" shrank, with everything else, 
and, in i860, had declined $1,691,176. From this on, the following table gives the 
quinquennial increase : 





i860. 


1865. 


1870. 


1875. 


First Ward— Real Estate. 
Personal Prooertv. ........ 


•877,593 

31 1 M\\ 


$450,644 


♦ 1.343,159 $3,593,743 
131. 300 i.iXe.nnC 




*T*.y<30 -^-^rtinf 


j**»*S^ 


4.777.748 
4,106,751 
3.536,734 

7.633.485 

3,069,374 

734.674 

3.793.948 

[5.897.943 
773,370 


Second Ward— Real Estate 
Personal Prooertv. ........ 


1,119,535 

1,319,100 
397,309 


737.019 
896,038 


1.663,449 

3,143,936 
779.943 




Third Ward— Real Estate. 
Personal Prooertv 


1.5*6,309 

818,149 
367,963 


1.643.340 

616479 
366,657 


3,933.868 

1,104,181 
385,013 




Fourth Ward— Real Estate 
Personal Prooertv 


1,086,113 

936,68« 
98.488 


983.336 

685,951 
366,974 


1.479.193 

1,363,041 
143*300 








Fifth Ward— Real Estate. 


1.034,173 


953.935 
431.663 
518,997 


1,405,350 

1 .I30.3IC 


6,670,313 




145.033 676,613 










940,660 


1.2*74.3^*7 Ajf%\9',Wl 


J^iYth 'Warrl 'Rtfk'il Kftfate 




*»^/5.*T/ 


-ft — ^t-oi 

330,474 
^3,937 


Personal Pronertv. .....••. 










• 












. 1 


363,401 




1 


Total, f citv.') 


$4,746,119 

73.909 
5.»»3 


5^5.357.370 

73,015 
46,807 


♦9.315.507 

78.777 
1C,Q16 


$37,755,936 


McLean— Real Estate 

Personal Prooertv. ........ 


$183,335 

i6.«:87 






Mounds View— Real Estate 
Personal Prooertv 


78,013 

68,643 
3.396 


168,663 

71.614 
1,511 


171.463 

46,394 
3.933 


310,888 




New Canada— Re4il Estate 
Personal Prooertv. ........ 


71.938 


73.135 

138,304 

19.365 


50,316 

330,643 
37.975 


1 1 3.481 

568,430 
91,817 






Reserve— Real Estate 

Personal Prooertv 


307386 

190,668 
8,008 


198,713 

116,353 
33,101 


307.156 

169,733 
34,876 


731,137 

437.065 
33,013 




Rose— Real Estate 

Personal Prooertv 


307,676 

346.665 

6,943 


198^408 

318,667 
35.950 


33I>0I9 

347.314 
35,893 


491.858 

631,934 

19.633 




• 

White Bear— Real Estate. 
Personal Property 


353.608 

60,64a 
1,718 


331.308 

64,591 
10,349 


341.951 

71.554 
13.487 


789.890 

161,143 
30,354 




63,360 


80,663 


85,041 


199,496 


Total, (county,) 


♦5.837,599 


$6,308,058 


$1,493,353 ( $30,383,666 



Appendix. 



467 



COMPENDIUM OF CENSUSES. 



First Ward... 
Second Ward. 
Third Ward.. 
Fourth Ward. 
Fifth Ward... 
Sixth Ward.. 



Total City. 



Mound's View Township. 

White Bear Township 

New Canada Township. . . 

Reserve Township 

McLean Township 

Rose Township 



Total County. 



1850. 



1855- 



i860. 



1.083 



4,716 



a, 3^7 



9.495 



3.4»9 
2,401 

3,049 

3.S33 



I040I 

99 
367 

S" 
349 

134 
499 



1865. 



a.348 
a.893 

3,874 
2,146 



13,150 



13,976 

"S 

378 

350 

338 

495 



15.107 



1870. I 1875. 



315 
430 

789 
439 
443 
750 



3.436 
3.466 : 
3.956 I 

4.775 I 
4.408 



4,763 
4,609 
5.336 
10.17s 
6.893 
1.503 



30,030 I 33,178 



39s 
647 

799 

388 

316 
710 



33.085 36,333 



Note. — The first census taken in Saint Paul was in June, 1849, simply an enumera- 
tion of the inhabitants, which were reported at 840. The census of 1850 and 1855, were 
not taken by wards, but the city and county given as a total. 



468 



Appendix, 



NATIVITIES OF THE POPULATION. 



The census of 1875, gives the nativities of the population of Ramsey 
county as follows : 



Native Born, 

Minnesota ii>865 

Conne(5ticut 160 

Illinois 644 

Indiana 207 

Iowa. . , 154 

Kentucky i^o 

Maine 385 

Massachusetts 394 

Michigan ', 214 

Missouri 328 

New Hampshire. 140 

New Jersey 89 

New York »i789 

Ohio 619 

Pennsylvania 723 

Vermont 216 

Virginia and West Virginia. ...... 152 

Wisconsin^ 739 

Other States and Territories 1,284 



Total native born 20,122 



Foreign Born. 

Canada 1*309 

England 66a 

Ireland a,662 

Scotland 131 

Wales 19 

Sweden i ,437 

Norway 565 

Denmark i59 

Holland 3° 

France t '^ 

Switzerland 168 

Austria 162 

Bohemia f^ 



Wirtemberg 

Baden 

Bavaria 

Hanover 

Prussia 

Germany 

Other Countries. 



8 

35 

.'75 

31 

1,850 

3,837 
333 



Total foreign born. 



14,364 



Unknown, 1,847. Total, 36,333. Percentage of native born, 58.4; of foreign bom 
and unknown, 41.6. 



INDEX. 



Acker Henry, 391, 306, 406, 450. 

Acker William H., 391, 396, 398, 399, 409. 

Allen Alvaren, 173, 297. 

American House, 324. 

Ames Wm. L., 404, 447, 

Annexation ofWest Saint Paul, 448,449. 

Area of city, 449. 

Armstrong A., 406, 423, 436, 447. 

Assumption Church, 363, 437. 

Babcock L. A., 393, 321. 
Baldwin School, 347. 
Balloon Ascension, 383. 
Balls, early, 178, 180, 248. 
Bknks and Currency, 343, 354, 383, 386, 397, 

398,410. 

Banning Wm. L , 367, 396, 431. 

Baptist Church, 330, 350, 353, 379,395,318, 

330, 361, 434, 451. 
Bass J. W., 164, 171, 173,310, 331,340,365. 
Bazille Charles, 101, 138, 143, 391, 334. 
Beaumette William, 76, 84, 441. 
Becker George L., 356, 347, 349, 363. 364. 

375* 40s. 433, 437- 
Bell, first in city, 342. 
Benz George, 443, 447, 449. 
Berkey Peter, 390, 441 , 443- 
Bets Old, 13S, 353, 336. 
Bigelow Charles H., 414, 451. 
Bilanski Mrs., executed, 393. 
Bilanski S., i3i, 393. 
Birch Coolie, 408. 
Birth, first in city, 90. 
Bishop Miss, 169, 178, 345, 353. 
Blakeley Capt. R., 169, 173, i74» 3o6, 397, 

301 f 303. 4H' 
Blanchard C. C, 135. 138, i3^, 153. 
Boal J. M., 158, 180, 333, 33s, 384. 
Board of Public Works, 443. 

32 



Bolles' Mill built, 107, 
Bond J. W., quoted, 186. 
Borup Dr. C. W., 390. 
Bottineau Pierre, 107, 133, 151, isSt 357, 378. 
Boyle C. M., 396, 409, 434, 441, 447. 
Brackett's Battalion, 403. 
Branch Wm., 364, 366, 386, 390, 433, 445. 
Brawley D. F., 316, 333, 387, 317, 333. 
Breck Rev. J. L., 373, 311. 
Bremer Miss Fredrika— quoted — 378. 
Brick yard, first, 316, 333. 
Bridge the, 330, 337, 333, 368, 378, 449. 
Brill H.R., 443,451. 
Brisbinjohn B., 3S9»364> 37o> 374> 386, 409 
Brown Joseph R., 41,68, 85, 99, 103, 147 
183, 378, 339, 331, 350, 370 
Brunson Rev. Alf., 46, 165. 
Brunson B. W., 165, 170, 171, 186, 333, 338 
345, 363, 377, 384, 366, 376, 40S 
Bnmson Ira B., 83, 99, 103, 170, 241. 
Burbank J. C, 174, 395, 397, 393, 396, 411 

414,441,443 



Caillet Rev. L., 393, 431. 
Campbell Scott, 103, 134, 170. 
Capital, location of, 183,304, 337, 336. 
Capital, removal of, 161, 338, 370, 385, 435. 
Capitol square, gift of, &c., 144. 
Capitol building, 338, 33^, 337, 386, 387, 391 , 

308, 333. 339- 

Carpenter C. W., 174, 301. 
Carter W. G., 145, 150, 177, 183. 
Carver Jonathan, 36, 30, 32. 
Carver Henry L., 402, 434. . , 
Case J. A., 346, 359, 36*, 38a. 
Catholic church, 109, 111,113,115, 163,311, 

3»3. 363. 39»> 430- 
Cathedral, 357, 313, 363. 



470 



Index, 



Cathcart A. H. and J. W., 354, 417. 
Cave Charles S., api, 317, 3ai.349»354»356» 

AS7» .^^"»» ^Si. 
Cavileer Charles, 115, 151, 173. 
Caveuder A. H., 179, 196, J15, 325, 349. 
Celebration Fourth July, first, 337. 
Cemetery, 196, 336, 341. 
Census, 338, 366, 359* 381, 395* -po. 438, 453. 
Central House, 136, 33S, 348, 377. 
Chapel of Saint Paul, 111, 113, 115, 311. 
Chcrrier Denis, 88, 103, 105, 134. 
Chamber of Commerce, 436. 
Cholera, 315, 363. 
C^houteau P. & Co., 187, 377. 
Christ church, 373, 311, 437, 4.^. 
Claims, early, 64, 66, 73, 103, 104. 
Clewett J. R., 68, 93, 101, 103, 139, 183. 346. 
Close Rev. B., 179. 
Common Pleas Court, 43S. 
Constans William, 333. 
Cooley D. C, 346, 349, 356, 379. 
Cooper David, 333, 334, 3S5. 
Corcoran William M., 393, 393. 
Corner-stones laid, 363. 
County of Ramsey created, 341. 
County of Ramsey, boundaries, 354, 363. 
Cotter L. P., 364, 386, 409. 
Court, first in county, 358. 
Court, early, 335, 358, 393, 438. 
Court House, 379, 318, 335, 44S. 
CotyJ. B., 171, 358, 363. 
Coy Ansel B., 136, 138, 130. 
Crawford county. Wis., 39, 91, 99, 176. 
Cretin Bishop, no, 311, 341, 369. 
Crosby J. W., 383, 433. 
Crooks Ramsay, 51, 303. 
Crooks Wm., 404, 406, 407, 449. 
Crowell R. F., 413, 415, 437. 
CuUen W. J., 377, 439. 
Culver Georjfe, 185, 343, 413. 
Curtice D. I.., 396, 435, 438, 440. 
Custom House, 438, 430, 445. 



Daily Paper, first, 353. 

Davidson Capt. W. F.,396, 414, 416. 

Davidson John X., 433, 447. 

Davis C. K., 437, 430. 

Davis S. Lee, 408, 437, 434, 443, 448. 

Dawson Wm., 413. 

Day Dr. D., 194, 343, 344, 379,331, 333,353, 

453- 
Dayton L,., 431, 433. 

Death, first in Saint Paul, 90. 

Deed of Carver, }^2. 



Deed, first in Saint Paul, 131. 
Deeds early, 131, 144, 150, 159, 1S5. 
I>elano F. R., 404, 406, 449. 
Deleg-ate ele<5tion, 183, 188, 333, 340, 377, 

378,346. 

Desire or Fronchet, 63, 130. 

Dewey J. J., 151, 167, 333, 377, 393, 408. 

Dispatch Daily, 433. 

Divorce Legislation, 334. 

Dodge H. M., 385. 

Dog-sledge traveling, 330. 

Donnelly Frank, killed, 377. 

Dousman H.^L., 51, 89, 156, 173. 

Dow Ian John, 409, 418, 439. 

Draft, 415. 

Drake £. F., 403, 404, 414, 447. 

Dugas William, 104, 143, 144, 393. 

Eddy L. H., 388, 398, 444. 
Education . (See Schools.) 
EganJ.J., 416, 433. 
Emerson C. L., 353, 364, 417. 
Entry of town-site, 138, 183. 
Episcopal church, 373, 379, 311, 369, 437. 
Esch M., 400, 438, 443, 448. 
Evans William, 71, 93, loa. 
Execution of Yu-ha-zee, 355. 
Execution, of Mrs. Bilanski, 393. 
Explosion of steamer Rumsey, 416. 
Express business, gro^vth, &c., 174, 39S. 
Expulsion of settlers, 94, 99, 100, no. 



Faber Paul, 375, 434, 436. 
Farrington G. W., 391, 317, 331, 341. 
Farrington John, 343, 413. 
Ferries, 337, 323. 

Fisk's Wagon Expedition, loS, 407. 
Five Million Loan, 384, 404. 
Fire, first in city, 363. 
Fire Department, 318, 319, 357, 383, 385, 

434, 439, 443, 448. 

Fitz R. H., 393, 413, 434. 

Flag, first in city, 130. 

Floods, 358, 365, 395. 

Flint S. M. 409, 433, 433, 450. 

Floral Homes — quoted, 169, 17S. 

Folsom, S. P., 150, 166, 173, 317, 349. 

Fort Snelling Reservation, 38, 77, 95, 99. 

Foster Aaron, 130, 168. 

Forbes Wm. H., 54, 171, 333, 335, 345,356, 

361, 384, 304, 317, 3^1, 337. 340» 409» 45^- 
Franchere Gabriel, 89, 97. 
Freeborn William, 391, 317, 334, 346. 



Index, 



471 



Free Masons, 173, 215, 219, aai, 235, 308, 

334.434- 
Freeman A. and D. B., 132, 133* 151, 156. 
Friend K. T., 424, 427. 
French settlers, the, 163, 271. 
French Theodore, 367, 392, 399. 
Fronchet, or Desire, 62, 120. 
Fur TVade, 48, 307. 
Fuller House, 365, 434. . 
Furber P. P., 341, 44a. 

Gabrielsen P., 415, 447. 
GaltierRev. L., 105,109, in,' 114, 14S, 311, 

427. 

Gaminell Francis, 86, 123. 
Gear Rev. E. G., 179, 227. 
George I. C, 353, 444. 
Geology of Saint Paul, 11. 
German settlers, 271. 

Gervais Benj., 68, 90, 100, 101 , 105, 1 1 1 , 1 18, 
130, 136, 142, 14s, 244, 346. 
Gervais Pierre, 68, 100, 103, 442. 
Gibbens Robert, 297, 409. 
Gibbs Nelson, 393, 406, 437. 
Gilfillan C. D., 393, 4JS. 435. 436. 
Gillillan James, 408, 415. 
Gilman John M., 415, 418, 433, 436. 
Godfrey, wife murderer, 327. 
Goodhue J. M., 146, 191, 202,208, 210, 221, 
234, 237, 263, 264, 285, 286, 310, 

317. 333. 337- 
Goodrich Aaron, 172, 219, 234, 235, 288, 315, 

398, 418. 
Goodrich E. S., 350, 369, 455. 
Gorman W. A., 338, 347. 375. 386, 399, 434, 

440, 447. 

Grace John, 436, 441 , 447. 

Grace Rt. Rev. Thos. L., 110, 390, 441. 

Grace Thomas, 373, 385. 

Grand Marais, (or Pig's Eye,) 86. 

Grant Hiram P., 383, 393, 407, 

Gray William C, suicide of, 396. 

Greenleaf Rev. E. A., 179. 

Gross N., 385, 398, 402, 424, 433. 



Hall H. P., 422, 432. 
Hall Wm. Sprigg, 382, 391, 428, 452. 
Harcourt, Dr.H., supposed murder of, 430. 
Hard times, 381. 

Hartshprn Wm., 103, 131, 133, 137, 151. 

156, 423. 
Hatch E. A. C, 185, 192, 287', 404, 410. 
Hays Sergeant John, 71, 90, 146. 



Heard I. V. D., 359, 382, 391, 402, 418, 424, 

430,441. 
Hennepin Louis, 22. 
Henniss Charles J., 283, 286, 347. 
Hewitt Girart, 421. 

Hinckley Mrs. John S., 117, 118, 154, 179. 
Hole-in-the-Day, 137,261,275, 284. 
Hollinshead Wm., 250, 347, 367, 397. 
Hopkins Daniel, 116, 159, 168, 196,332. 
Homicides, 90, 236, 254, 327, 331, 346, 353, 

364, 369, 374, 386, 388, 392, 416, 417, 

420, 424, 426, 438, 449. 
Horn Henry J., 390, 413, 432. 
Hospital Saint Joseph's, 341. 
Hotels, 153, 172, 223, 329, 353,365. 4»8. 435. 

438- 

House of Hope, 212, 386. 
Hough Sherwood, 349, 382, 391 . 
Howard Thqraas, 385, 438. 
HoytB. F., 179, 106, 215, 230, 245, 261, 

378, 341.453- 
Hoyt J. F., 373, 391, 40a. 415- 
HoytL., 447,449. 
Hudson's Bay Trade, 303. 
Hughes James, 215, 230, 235. 
Hurlbut Rev,, 148, 178. 



Immigration, 357. 
Imprisonment for debt, 335. 
Indian Treaties, 57, 68, 187, 309, 326. 
Indian War of 1862, 53. 
Indians, various references, 43, 81, 82, 105, 
138, 161, 238, 272, 289, 291, 29s, 310,336. 
Incorporation of Town, 240. 
Incorporarion of City, 349. 
Ingersoll D. W., 233, 393, 406,* 407, 426. 
Ireland Rt. Rev. John, 83, 109, 401, 452. 
Irvine, John R., 126, 169, 178, 179, 186, 237, 
244, 291, 349, 357, 393, 402. 

Jackson Henry, 117, 121, 126,131, 133, 137, 

13S, 145, 148, 150, 153, 159, 167, 168, 171, 

180, 182, 210, 231, 232, 237, 

238, 248, 261, 277. 

Jail old, 281. 

Jail new, 373. 

Johnson Gates A., 288, 409, 413, 423. 
Johnson P. K., 167, 232, 277, 2S2.. 
Johnson Gen. R. W., 83, 225. 
Jones A. C, 381, 382. 
Justices of Peace, early, 148, 168, 180. 



Kaposia battle of, 122. 



472 



Index, 



Kavenaughs, Missionaries, ii5»i33, i^i. 
Kennedy Robert, aa8, 346, 277, 391, 296, 

317. 324- 
Kidder J. P., 396, 409, 413, 415. 
Kiefer A. R., 400, 413, 415. 
Kittson N. W., 47, 68, 89, 134, 139, 160, 

304. 331. 3". 333. 3S3» 385- 
Knox R. C, 391, 319, 343, 349. 



Lake Phelan, 146. 
Lamb John M., 370, 395. 
Lambert David, 171, 183, 197, 306. 
Lambert E. C, 403, 409, 415, 434, 439. 
Lambert Henry A., 197, 343, 344, 373, 391, 

331,341,413. 

Larpenteur A. L., i33> »33. iS>. >S6. i7». 
183, 18s, 315, 335, »a7, 333, 358, 361, 

ays. a9»» 346. 349. 3S7» 374- 
LaRoche L. H., 150, 171, 173, 391. 
Larrivier L., 138, 144. 
LaSalle, early explorer, 31. 
Lawsuit curious, 146. 
Lawyers early, 334, 358. 
Lee Wm., 404, 437, 440, 449. 
Leech Gen. Samuel, 184, 193. 
Library, Public, 378. 
Lienau C. H., 409, 413, 437, 433. 
Lincoln's obsequies, 418. 
Liquor sale to soldiers, 75, 79, 81, 83. 
Little Canada settled, 145. 
Little Crow, Sr.,67, 91, 133. 
Little Crow, Jr., 135, 163, 375, 410. 
Loras Bishop, 108, no, 115. 
Lott B. W., 193, 344, 363, 384, 334, 331, 

333» 359. 439. 
Lumsden Geo. L., 388. 
Mackubin C. N., 391, 413. 
Mail robbery, 388. 

Mail service, 44, 153, 303, 305, 349, 357, 396. 
Malmros O., 396, 433. 
Markoe Wm., 383. 
Mankato, 118, 135, 167. 
Mainzer J., 400, 433, 433, 437, 441. 
Market Street M.E. church, 179, 196, 330. 
Marriage, first in Saint Paul, 90. 
Marrying ♦• by bond," 148. 
Marshall J. M., 340, 358, 346, 383. 
Marshall Wm. R., 186, 338, 339, 377, 386, 

33». 349. 3S». 354. 359. 397. 407. 4^3. 435- 
Marvin Luke, 374, 393, 343. 

Mar\'in Richard, 343, 349. 

Masterson H. F., 383, 406. 

Mattocks Dr. B., 400, 408, 439, 435, 43S. 

Mattocks Rev. John, 366, 453. 



Mayo Charles B., 37a, 418. 

Maxfield J. T., 435, 450. 

McCormick Findlay, 346, 349, 354, 398. 

McClung J. W., 363, 373, 393. 

McElrath A., 406, 413, 443. 

McDonald Donald, 63, 83, S3. 

McLean Nathaniel, 309, 339, 443. 

McGrorty Wm. B., 364, 366, 375, 383', 433. 

McKenty Henry, 358, 379, 388, 437. 

McLeod Alex. R., 135, 145, 180, 354, 358. 

McMasters Dr. S. Y., 153, 437. 

McMillan S. J. R., 436, 451. 

McQuillan Block, 360, 433, 433. 

Medicine Bottle hung, 193. 

Mege Alex., 130, 153. 

Metcalf T. M., 3gS, 386, 393, 396, 409, 447. 

Merriam John L., 397, 303, 414, 437, 438. 

Merchants' Hotel, 150, 438. 

Methodist church, 179, 196, 379, 310, 363. 

Metropolitan Hotel, 438. 

Mill, first in Saint Paul, 143. 

Miller H. H., 443, 449. 

Minnesota, first settlement of, 38. 

Minnesota, name first proposed, 156. 

Minnesota, Territory organized, 305. 

Minnesota, condition of in 1849, 307. 

Minnesota, State admitted, 385. 

Minnesota River, 358, 365. 

Mitchell Col. A. M., 331, 335, 377, 385. 

Missions, 46, 109, 115. 

MoflFet Lot, 198, 315, 335, 378, 383, 317, 334, 

439- 
Monk Hall, 388, 318. 
Morgan C. A., 390, 393, 406, 439. 
Moore George W., 390, 391, 398. 
Morris C. A. F., 406. 
Morrison W. C, 198, 315. 
Mortimer Sergeant R. W., 63, 83, 118, 

138, 168. 
Morton Dr. Wm. H., 389, 437. 
Moss Henry L., 183, 333, 339. 
Mott George C, 393, 437. 
Mousseau Charles, 88, lox, in. 
Murders, (see homicides.) 
Murders, by Indians, 395, 336, 331, 377. 
Murphy Dr. J. H., 331, 401. 
Murray Wm. P.,. 146, 377, 317, 331, 331, 
346, 348. 366, 370. 375. 38a. 386, 398. 
409. 4»5» 433. 427. 43a. 442. 448. 
Myrick Nathan, 185, 195. 

National banks, 411. 
Navigation opening of, 359, 374, 384. 
Neill Rev. E. D., 3i3, 330, 333, 335, 345, 
263, 378, 318, 338, 341, 347, 360, 399. 



Index. 



473 



Nelson R. R., 317, 344, 373, 377, 378, 4041 

406. 
Newspapers, 190, ao8, 315, aap, 340, 383, 

344» 3So» 3S». 353. 3S9» 39i» 397. 409. 

433. 434.433. 448. 45 »• 
Newson Maj. T. M., 347, 353, 391, 404. 

New Year's Address first, 113. 

New Year's calls, 347. 

Nichols Charles, 398. 

Nicols John, 413, 441, 448. 

Nobles Wm. H., 108, 194, 3io, 337, 357, 

359. 386. 
Northern Pacific Railroad predi<5tcd, 360. 



Oakland Cemetery, 196, 341. 

O'Connor M. J., 383, 390, 408, 438. 

O'Gorman John, 346, 374, 444. 

Odell Thos. S., 133, 135, 158, 170. 

Odd Fellows, 151, 194. 331,333,363,387, 

308. 445- 
Officer Harvey, 416, 439, 437. 

Oldest building in city, 143. 

Old Settlers' Association, 333. 

Olivier John B., 383, 391, 443. 

Olivier Louis M., 334, 331, 346, 359. 

Olmsted David, 185, 190, 192, 356, 377, 344, 

349. 359- 
Opera House, 433. 

Otis George L., 383, 433, 438, 436. 

Owens John P., 309, 339, 387, 316, 317,347, 

408. 
Paine Parker, 431, 433, 453. 
Palmer Judge E. C, 383, 418. 
Panic of 1857,381. 
Park Rice, 188. 
Park Como, 443. 

Parrant Pierre, 64, 75, 84, 101, 146. 
Parsons Rev. J. P., 345, 378, 318. 
Passavant Charles A., 403, 413, 435. 
Paterson Rev. ^. B., 369. 
Patten Mrs. J. R., 83, 119, I30, 170. 
Peckham John A., 415, 433. 
Pembina cart trade, 160, 304. 
Pemmican, how made, 305. 
Pepin Antoine, 137, 140. 
Perry Abraham, 59, 60, (16^ 89, 100. 
Phelan £d., 70, 90, 103, 104, 144, 145, 146, 

183. 

Phillips W. D., 191, 337, 390, 391, 317. 
Physician, first In Saint Paul, 167. 
Pig's Eye, origin of, 85. 
Pig's Eye, locality, 86, in, 113, 146. 
Pioneers of Minnesota, 47. 
Pioneer Guard, 363, 373, 393. 

33 



Plympton Col. J., 60, 67, 69, 77, 93, loo. 

Police first, 363. 

Politics, 336. 

Population, 307, 338, 359, 381, 395, 430, 

438, 453- 
Post^ffice, 153, 154, 331, 398, 409, 417, 433, 

438, 445. 
Potts Dr. T. R., 360, 450. 

Powers Simon, 350, 395, 434. 

Presbyterian church, 313, 330, 350, 363, 379, 

318, 335, 360, 366. 

Prescott G. W., 339, 403, 407. 

Presley B., 134, 393, 394. 

Pre-Territorial settlers, 199. 

Prince John S., 375, 385, 386, 389, 393, 396, 

398, 406, 413, 413, 414, 4i7, 418, 434. 

Prince J. W., 375, 383. 

Proprietors of Town, 171. 

Protestant services first, 148, 178, 

Raguet Samuel T., 383, 399, 433. 

Railroads, 347, 378, 385. Saint Paul and 
Pacific, 403, 441 ; Saint Paul and Chi. 
cago, 406; Saint Paul and Sioux City, 
414; Lake Superior and Mississippi, 
431 , 439 ; Saint Paul and Stillwater 
441,443; West Wisconsin, 443. 

Ramsey Alex., 158, 316, 334, 337, 338, 356, 
378. 385, 309, 333, 333, 338, 341 , 393, 404. 

Ramsey J. C, 335, 363, 377, 331, 366. 

Ramsey County Pioneer Association, 441. 

Randall E. D. K., 157, 416. 

Randall John, 133. 

Randall John H., 157, 416. 

Randall Wra. H., 133, i33» »S». »S6. 235, 

345.361,391,365. 

Randall Wm. Jr., 157, 338. 

Ravoux Rev. A., 90, no, 1 13, 148, 353, 311. 

Real estate speculation, 393, 379, 440. 

Red River settlement, 38, 43, 66, 69. 

Red River Transportation Company, 49. 

Red River trade, 48, 160, 304, 306. 

Reform School, 434. # 

Reed Charles, freezes to death, 140. 

Reed L. £.,411. 

Removal of Capital, 161,338,370, 385,435. 

Rhodes H. C, 171, 186, 190, 193. 

Rice Edmund, r46, 345, 351, 355, 361, 377, 
384, 363, 366, 404, 413, 437, 441, 443. 

Rice Henry M., 166, 173, 179, 183, 185, 186, 
188, 191, 193, 304, 309, 313, 331, 340,349, 

377. 398, 303. 314. 341.343. 359. 433. 
RiheldafTer Rev. J. G., 318, 341, 436. 

Robert Louis, 103, 131, 136, 140, 146, 159, 

170, 171, 182, 185,343,348,387,317, 

33».4S0. 



474 



Index, 



Robertson D. A., 190, 383, 386, 344, 390, 

391,403,413,433,433. 
Roche J. W., 434, 439, 433, 435, 438, 440. 
Rogers Hiram, 394. 

Rohrer D., 349, 357, 364, 374, 383, 385, 390. 
Rolette Jo., 160, 333, 333, 370. 
Rondo Joseph, 63, 100, 104, 119, 137, 139, 

i3S» »83. 
Rumsey Mrs. Matilda, 130, 133. 



Saint Anthony Falls, 34, 108, 155, 164, 183, 

184, 334, 339, 340, 386. 
Saint Croix County, 99, 175, 176. 
Saint Paul : Its first settler, 64. 

How the name originated, 1 1 1 . 

A post-office established, 154. 

Description of in 1847, '^^' 

Entry of to\vn>site, 183. 

List of earliest settlers, 198. 

How it became the Capital, 303. 

Incorporation as a town, 340. 

Incorporation as a city, 349. 
Saint Paul House, 165, 173, 333, 333. 
Sanborn John B., 391, 396, 399, 401, 441. 
Sanitary Fair, 417. 
SchefTer Charles, 393, 411, 453. 
Schiffbauer H., 413, 453. 
Schools, 163, 169, 316, 344, 383, 335, 378, 

386,434. 
School house first, 176, 344, 335. 
SchurmeierC. H., 364, 385, 443, 447. 
Selby J. W., 350, 317, 331, 383, 433. 
Settlers on reservation, 58, 61, 67, 94, 99. 
Settlers in Saint Paul first, 198. 
Seven-comers, 138. 
Shakopee hung, 193. 
Sherburne M., 339, 385, 434. 
Sibley H. H., 49, 57, 76, 84, 91, 100, 135, 

159, 171, 173, 183, 183, 184, 185,303,303, 

309, 316, 333, 337, 333, 234,377, 389, 

410, 414, 430, 438, 443. 

%imons O., 383, 317, 364, 451. 

Simpson J. W., 130, 144, 171, 183, 344, 378, 

439- 
Sioux, habits, &c., 373, 391. 
Sioux and Chippewa fights, 336. 
Sioux massacre of 1863, 408. 
Slave, sale of a, 46. 
Sloan Levi, 335, 346, 348, 355. 
Smith C. K., 338, 335, 344, 363, 314, 331. 
Smith James Jr., 396, 403, 415, 431. 
Smith Robert A., 339, 363, 366, 383, 391, 

403,411,413,431. 
Social life, 178, 349, 456. 



Sons of Temperance, 173. 

Sovereigns, or Third House, 357. 

Speculation, 318, 333, 358, 379, 440. 

Stage lines, &c., 160, 395. 

Starkey James, 349, 357, 374, 377, 383. 

Steamboats, 43, 173,334,360. 

Steam fire engines, 443. 

Steele Frank., 134, 136, 183, 337. 

Stephenson O., 391, 434, 439, 448. 

Stevens Col. J. H., 58, 67. 

Stewart J. H., 360, 391, 398, 399, 409, 413, 

4»7» 43" » 433*443. 447- 
Stillwater, 99, 164, 175, 180, 183, 183, j84, 

334,386. 

Stillwater Convention, 143, 150, 183, 197, 

308. 

Street railroad, 443. 

Sunrise expedition, 377. 

Survey of the town-site, 330. 

Sweeny R. O., 16, 384. 

Taliaferro Maj. L., 40, 57, 64, 91, 93, 137, 
Taylor H. J., 374, 386. 
Taylor J. W., 406, 418, 439. 
Telegraph, 393, 396. 

Temperance, 83, 180, 315,333,356,331,333. 
Temperance House, 198. 
Terry John C, 316, 337, 340. 
Territory of Minnesota, 155, 164, i8i, 188, 

3p5, 333. 

Theatres, 313, 336, 344, 375. 

Thompson Horace, 410, 414. 

Thompson J. £., 398, 404, 410, 439. 

Tilden H. L., 377, 384, 331. 

Town of Saint Paul surveyed, 170. 

Town.site, entry of, 183. 

Town eletftion first, 360. 

Trading with Indians, 374. 

Traveling in winter, 48, 203, 349, 396, 333, 

3S6. 
Treaty Indian, 57, 68, 187^309, 336. 
Trott Herman, 406, 433. 
Tullis A. W., 137, 359, 391. 



Uline C. S., 400, 4»7»43a» 436. 441, 447. 



Valuation of property, 453. 
Van Etten Isaac, 346, 348, 448. 
Van Solen G. L., trial of, 407, 430. 
Vervais Dr. J. A., 401, 410, 434. 
Von Glahn Baron, 363. 
Von Minden H., 403, 443. 



Index. 



475 



Walker M. O., 397, 301, 359. 
War, rebellion, 39S. 
War Wright County, 389. 
War " Blueberry,** 443. 
Water Works, 335, 435. 
Wharton Dr. A., 407, 41a. 
Wheelock J. A., 340, 438, 44a. 
White Bear Lake, 390, 308. 
White Wallace B., 333, 340. 
Whitney C. T., 174, 300, 409, 413, 433. 
Wholesale trade, origin of, 394. 
Wiley R. C, 383, 390. 
Wilkin Alex., 145, 315, 396, 398, 400, 408, 

417. 



Wilkin W., 316, 348, 415, 441, 44a. 
Wilkinson M. S., 18a, 335, 317, 346, 347. 
Willey Dr. Samuel, 364, 444. 
Willius Ferdinand, 390, 413. 
Williams John J., 433, 435. 
Williamson Dr. T. S., 163, 169, 179,350, 363. 
Willoughby A., 350, 395. 
Winnebagoes, 185, 187, 190, 356, 389. 
Winslow House, 353, 409. 
Wisconsin, 45, 95, 99, 155, 164, 176, 181. 



Zimmerman Edward, 406, 435. 



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