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*« It Mthe pri?nege of History to impart the experience of tige, without 
its infirmitiee ; to bring back thingt long obeeared by time, or mnkiDg into 
cMiTion ; and enaUe w to form aome reasonable conjectures of what may 
happen to posterity.** — P&ulmm't Hitt. of Holdemem, 





Entered according to the Act of CongreMin the year eighteen hundred and forty -eight 

In the Clerk'e Office of the Dirtrict Court for the Southern Diitrict of New Yoik. 





__-^^ ated fifteen miles north- 
/a^-4 east of the village of 
'i White Plains, and dts- 
raiit one hundred and 
[hirty-niiic miles from 
Albany ; bounded iiorih 
and cast by Lewis- 
borough, soiilh east 
by the stale of Con- 
necticut, and west by Bedford and North Custle.' The name of 
this town is undoubtedly derived from the ancient Indian 
pound, which formerly stood at the foot of a liigh ridge, a. little 

u OTHanned an lbs Tthof Hucb, 1T6B. 


south of the present village of tha^ name. On account of its na- 
tural boundaries this section of country was peculiarly adapted 
for the favorite Indian practice of entrapping wild game. Upon 
the north the Stony mountains formed an impassable rampart, 
whilst the long chain of ponds and streams on the east line of 
the town closed up all avenues of escape in that direction. The 
Indians therefore availing themselves of these natural barriers, 
constructed a palisaded pound at the southern extremity of the 
ponds, into which they drove the wild game from the west. 
Van der Donck the historian informs us, " that the Indians fre- 
quently united in companies of from one to two hundred, when 
they have rare sport. On these occasions they drive over a 
large district of land and kill much game. They also make ex- 
tensive fikes with palisadoes, which are narrow at the termina- 
ting angles, wherein they drive multitudes of animals and take 
great numbers. At a word they are expert hunters for every 
kind of game, and know how to practice the best methods to 
insure success."* The shouts and yells of these savage hunts- 
men must have reverberated in frightful echoes from the neigh- 
boring woods and hills, serving no doubt much to bewilder their 

Poundridge was originally included in the Indian grant made 
to Jphffi Turner of New Haven, on the 1st of July, 1640. The 
sale is thus recorded in the town books of Stamford. 

" Bought of Ponus, sagamore of Toquams/' (Stamford,) " and Wascoasae, 
sagamore of 8hippan, by me Nathaniel Tarner of Qiiinnipiacke,"^ (New Ha- 
Ten,) ** all the ground that belongs to both the above named sagamores, ex- 
cept a piece of ground which the aforesaid sagamore of Toquams reserved for 
his and the rest of the said Indians to plant on ; all which ground being ex- 
pressed by meadows, uplands, grass, with the rivers and trees ; and in consi- 
deration hereof, I the said Nathaniel Turner am to give and bring or send to 
the above said sagamores within the space of one month, twelve coats, twelve 
hoes, tweWe hatchets, twelve glasses, twelve knives, four kettles, and four 
fathom of white wampum ; all which land both we the said sagamores do pro- 
mise faithfully to perform both for ourselves, our heirs, executors or assigns 

> Van der DoDck*8 Hist, of N. N. New York Hist. See. Coll. New Series, toI. i. 
k Capt. Nathaniel Turner purchased in behalf of the people of New Haven. 


to the aboire 8aid Nathaniel Tarner of Qainoipiacke, his heirs, exeeoton or 
anigns, and hereunto we haye set oar marks in the presence of many of the 
■aid Indians, they fully consenting thereto.^ 

Witnessed by us, Ye marke of \\ Poous, sagamore. 

William Wilkes, Ye marke of O Wascussue, sagamore. 

James, &c. The marke of co Owenoke, the son of Ponus, 

RecM in part payment, 
12 glasses, 
12 knives, 
6 coals. 

Besides Poiindridge the above sale also embraced the present 
townships of Darien, Stamford, New Canaan, and the greater part 
of Bedford and Greenwich. 

The planting grounds reserved by tlie sachem Ponus, were 
situated four miles south of Poundridge, in the vicinity of the 
street still bearing his name. In 1644, " the western Indians be- 
ing at war with the Dutch, had communicated their hostile feel- 
ings to those around Stamford, who at this period numbered one 
thousand warriors ; but the firmness and courage of Capt. Joha 
Underbill compelled the whole of them to sue for peace. Upon 
occasion of its ratification the Wappings of Stamford presented 
themselves with others at Fort Amsterdam, April 6th, 1644.^ lu 
1655 occurs the following agreement between the inhabitants of 
Stamford and the Indian Sachem, Ponus, &c. 


Our agreement made with Ponus, Sagamore of Toquams, and with Onox 
his eldest son. Although there was an agreement made before with the said 
Indians and Captain Turner, and the purchases paid for, yet the things not being 
clear, and being Tery unsatisfied, we come to another agreement with Onox 
and Ponus for their land from the town plot of Stamford north about sixteen 
miles, and then to a marked white oak tree with ST, and from that tree we 
went towards the Mill river side, we marked another white oak tree with ST, 
and from that tree west we were to run four miles eastward, and from this 
east and west line we were to have further to the north, for our cattle to feed, 

» See Bedford. 

b The Wappiogs were probably engaged " in the great battle fought between the 
Dutch and Indians in that part of HoraeDeck called Strickland's plain, now inolu* 
dad in the town of Greenwich, Connecticut" O'CaUaghan's Hist. N. N. SOd. 


fall two miles further, the full breadth only, the said Indians reserre for them- 
seWes liberty for their planting ground, and the above said Indians, Ponus and 
Onox, with all other Indians that be concerned in it, have surrendered all the 
said land &c., for and in consideration hereof, the said town of Stamford is to 
give the said Indians four coats which the Indians accept of as full satisfac- 
tion for the aforesaid lands although it waspaid before. Hereby all Ponus^s 
posterity is cut olf from making any claim or having any right to any part of 
the aforesaid land &c., the said Ponus and Onox his son, having this day re- 
ceived of Richard Lane, four coats, acknowledging themselves fully satisfied 
for the aforesiad land. 

Witness the said Indians hands this fifteenth day of August, A. D. 1655. 

Witness William Newman, Ponus /^ his mark, 

Richard Lewis. Onox Q his mark. 

Upon the 7th of January, 1667, Taphance son of Ponus and 
Powhag or Pinaghag son of Onox, confirmed to the people of 
Stamford the agreement of 1655. By these sales Poundridge be- 
came a part of Stamford township, within Fairfield County. 

On the 26th of May, 1686, the general court of Connecti- 
cut issued the following patent to the inhabitants of Stamford, 
embracing all those lands 

'* Bounded on the south jvest by ye five mile brook, between Stamford 
aforesaid and Norwalk, from the mouth of the said brook, till it meet with the 
cross path, that is, where the county road crosses the said river, and from 
thence to run up into ye country till twelve miles be run out upon the same 
line, that is between Stamford and Fairfield, and upon the west, to Totomak 
brook, where the lowermost path or road that now is to Greenwich, east by 
ye said brook, and from thence to run in a straight line to the west end of a 
line drawn from the falls of Stamford mill river, which line is to run a due 
west point towards Greenwich bounds, a short mile, and from the west end at 
the said line, to run due north, to the north of ye present country road to Rye, 
and from thence to run up into the country, the same line that is between Nor- 
walk and Stamford, to the end of the bounds, the said land having been by 
purchase or otherwise, lawfully obtained of the Indians, native proprietors. 
And whereas, the proprietors the aforesaid inhabitants of Stamford, in the 
colony of Connecticut, have made application to the Gov. and company of the 
said colony of Connecticut, assembled in court, 25th May, lf>85, that they 
may have a patent for confirmation of the aforesaid land, so purchased and 
granted to them as aforesaid, and which they have stood seized and quietly 
possessed of for many years late past, without interruption. Now, for a more 
full confirmation of the aforesaid lands, as it is butted and bounded aforesaid, 


ttnto ye present proprietors of the said town of Stamford, &o. &3. Know ye, 
that the said Gov. and company aforesaid, in general court, according to the 
conditions granted to them by his majesty in his charter, have given and 
granted, and by these presents, do give, grant, ratify and confirm, onto Mr. 
John Bishop, Mr. Richard Lowe, Capt. Johnathan Silleck, Capt. John Sil* 
leek, Lt. Francis Bill, Lt. Jonathan Ball, Ensign John Bales, Mr. Abraham 
Ambler, Mr. Peter Ferris and Mr. Joshua Hoy t, and the rest of the said pre- 
sent, proprietors of the township of Stamford, their heirs, successors and as- 
signees forever, the aforesaid parcel of land as it is butted and bounded to- 
gether, with, &c. &c., that the aforesaid tract of land, shall be forever here- 
after deemed, reputed, and be an entire township of itself, to have and to hold 
the said tract of land, premises, &c. &c., yielding rendering and paying there- 
fore to our sovereign Lord the king, his heirs and successors, his dues ac- 
cording to charter. In witness whereof, we have caused the seal of the colony 
to be hereunto affixed, this 26th of May, 1685, in ye first year of the reign of 
our Lord King James the second, &c. &c. 

Robert Treat, Gov. 

This patent included the southern portion of Poundridge; 
for, until the final arrangement of the boundary lines in 1731, 
Stamford extended four miles into the present town. 
. Upon the temporary settlement of the colonial lines, A. D. 
1701, we find the Indian sachem Catonah, confirming Robert 
Walters and others in these lands. 

"This indenture, made the 25th of Feb. 1701, betwixt Robert Walters 
John Chollwell, Leigh Atwood, Cornelius Depeyster, Richard Slater, Barne 
Cosens, Lancaster Syroes, Matthew Ciarkson, Robert Lurting, Peter Matthews 
and Caleb Heathcote of the one part, and Sagamore, Katonah, Wakemane and 
Weewanessege , Indians, of the other, for the consideration of a certain sum in 
hand paid by the said Robert Walters, &c., at and before the ensealing and 
delivering of these presents. The receipt whereof they do hereby acknowl- 
edge, &c. &c., have given, granted, bargained and sold, aliened, enfeoffed, 
released and confirmed, and do by these presents, clearly and absolutely give, 
grant, bargain and sell, alien, enfeoff, release and confirm, unto the said Rob- 
ert Walters, &c., a certain parcel or tract of land, lying and being in the 
county of W^estchester, in the province of New York, butted and bounded as 
foUoweth, viz., westward by Bedford and by the patent granted to Caleb 
Heathcote and others, northerly by Col. Cortlandt's purchase and Croton^s 
ran, southerly and easterly by colony lines j to have and to hold. Sic. &c.' 

The mark of ^ Catonah. 

•• Indian deeds, Alb. Rec. warrant for Survey, I ib. i. 1(K). 


On the 2d day of March, 1701, William the third, by his royal 
letters patent, under the great seal of the colony of New York, 
did s;rant and confirm unto Robert Walters, John Choi well, Leigh 
Atwood, Cornelius Depeyster, Richard Slater, Barne Cosens, 
Lancaster Symes, Matthew Clarkson, Robert Lurting, Peter 
Matthews and Caleb Heathcote, u certain tract of land in the 
county of Westchester. 

" Bounded to the sooth by the east division line between the province of 
New York and the colony of Connecticat, and on the east by the other divi- 
sion line, and so along the said line, until it meet with the patent of Adolph 
Philips, and so along his southern boundaries, till it meet the patent of the 
manor of Cortlandt, and from thence by a line that shall run upon a direct 
course, until it meet with the end of the first easterly line of twenty miles of 
the said manor of Cortlandt, and from thence, along the said line westerly, 
until it meet with the patent granted, to Robert Walters and others : then, 
southerly, along the said patent, until it meet with the bounds of the township 
of Bedford, and thence along the said bounds, till it meet with the patent 
granted to Col. Caleb Heathcote and others ; and, along the bounds of the 
said patent, unto the colony line, which said tract of land, on the 25th day of 
February, was by the said Robert Walters, in his aforesaid company purchased 
of the native Indian proprietors, &c. &c. 

This grant was subsequently known by the name of the East 

The same year occurs the following confirmation from the In- 
dian sagamore Catonah to the <* inhabitants of Stamford, in their 
former sales under ye hands of Taphance, son of Ponus, and 
Penaghag, son of Onox." 

" We the said Catonah and other Indians do by these presents sell and fix 
bounds as followeth, that is to say westward as far as ye west bounds of Bed- 
ford purchase, bounded north by ye south side of Bedford purchase and by ye 
Stone hills, upon a straight line eastward nnto ye upper end of ye Long Pond, 
and from thence an east line nntil it meets with a line drawn north from ye 


upper end of Five Mile river, which is ye east line of our several purchases, 
and we, ye said Catonah and other Indians, give, grant, and quit-claim all 
ye meadows, trees, feeding grounds, rivers, pools, and other privileges that 
doth belong to ye said lands and meadows within to ye southwards of ye 
north bounds above mentioned unto ye said inhabitants of Stamford, &c., &c. 
Also, we do acknowledge by these presents to have received of ye said in* 
habitants a considerable and valuable sum of money for all ye said lands, &c. 
It is to be understood that ye above said Catonah and other Indians doth by 
these presents confirm all ye said old deeds of Taphance, Ponus and Penag- 
hag, and old Onoz, also young Onox, also that deed made to Captain Turner 
in behalf of ye town of Stamford, also that deed of Nonatomonoa, that is to 
say, a quit-claim to any parte or parcel of lands and meadows within ye said 
bounds above mentioned. In witness of truth, we whose names are under- 
written have hereunto set our marks and seals, at Stamford, this eighth day of 
July, 1701. 

Signed, sealed and The marke of Catonah j^ sagamore, 

delivered in the presence The marke of Maninos q 

of John O. The marke of Wequacumoke X 

The marke of Kenhoctam '^ The marke of Pepiamah >> 

The marke of Hamhorne tr* The marke of Wokea A 

The marke of Syngo ^ The marke of Papaumema OQ 

The marke of Arutar O The marke of Temon < 

The marke of Pohorus O 
The marke of Mockea >^ 

By the final settlement of the boundary lines on May 14th, 
1731, Poundridge was transferred to the Province of ^ew York. 

In 1744. John Crawford was appointed assessor for the East 

The following items are from the town records. 

Old Poundridge, April ye first day, 1760. 

At a town meeting held at the house of Ebenezer Lockwood, 
in said Old Pound in Westchester county, under ye Province of 
New York, we the freeholders, inhabitants and residents pro- 
ceeded as follows ; first, by major vole, Joseph liockwood to be 
town clerk, and by major vote William Forster to be constable, 
&c., &c. 

January 14th, 1762. It was voted that Joseph Lockwood be 

* North Castle Rec. In 1746, Joseph Lockwood was assessor for the East Fa- 


clerk of said meeting and Lieutenant John Gauspur be modera* 

April 20th, 1776. Voted Ebenezer Lockwood as moderator, 
Joseph Lockwood as clerk, Lieut. William Jones, constable. 

Upon the 7th day of August, 1766, the East Patent formerly 
granted to Robert Walters and others, was sold, in pursuance of 
a certain act of the Lieutenant Governor, the Council, and Gen- 
eral Assembly of this colony, entitled " An act for the more ef- 
fectual collecting of his Majesties quit rents in the colony of New 
York, and for partition of lands in order thereto," (fee. The 
principal purchasers under the act, appear to have been the Lock- 
woods, Amblers, Forshers, Bishops, Ferrises, Hoyts, Hollys, 
Browns, Sil licks and Scofields, (fee, (fec.*^ In 1826, the Legis- 
lature of this state claimed as successor of the Crown the sum of 
$243 71, due as quit rent on the East Patent > To satisfy this 
claim nine hundred acres of land were sold in the southern part 
of the Putent.c 

The village of Poundridge occupies an elevated situation near 
the centre of the town, and contains two churches, two stores, a 
school house, a post office and 15 or 20 dwellings. As early as the 
year 1744, a settlement was commenced on this spot by Captain 
Joseph Lockwood, and a few associates^ from Stamford, Con- 
necticut. At this early period the surrounding country was 
one vast wilderness heavily covered with timber. Upon a com- 
manding eminence which rises above the rest of the village 
stands the Presbyterian church. This building, which was 

•■ The Wetmores aUo appear to have been amoDg the early proprietors, for at a 
late period James Wetmore, attorney at law, (then residing in Nova ScotiaJ served 
a writ of ejectment upon the Lockwood family to recover certain lands in Pound- 

b See Revised Statutes for 1813. 

e « Soccage lands were not deemed discharged of any rents, certain or other 
services, incident or belonging to tenure in soccage, due to the people of the state, 
(who were considered to stand in the place of the Crown.) Therefore on the first 
day of April, 1786, the Legislature of this state passed an act, entitled an act for 
the collection and commutation of quit rents." 

d The descendants of the original settlers are numerous, and some of them still 
reside in the village. 


erected in 1786, occupies ihe site of the old church destroyed by 
the British troops, A. D. 1779. The Presbyterian Society of 
Poundridge was first organized in 1760.* The first chnrch edi- 
fice however was not erected until 1770. Its incorporation oc- 
curs on ihe 28th of April, 17S8. Nathaniel Bonion, William 
Fancher, John Hoyt, Benaiah Brown, Thaddeus Seymour and 
Ebenozer Seymour, trustees. ^' The said church to be governed 
according to the Directory of the now established Chnrch of 
Scotland."^ From this date to 1822, it remained in connection 
with the Westchester presbytery. Upon the 8ih of May, 1822, 
it was received into commnnion with the General Assembly. 

At a meelirig of the cotigregafion held the 2:^d of April, IS2S, 
it was resolved, that whereas *' some doubt existed with regard 
to the due legal organization of the Presbyterian church and 
congregation in Poundridge, they hereby declare themselves to 
be a Presbyterian congregation under the style of the •* Presby- 
terian Congregation of Poundridge, belonging to the Presbytery 
of the North River, under the care of the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States." On this occa- 
sion Horatio Lockwood, Joseph St. John and Samuel Weed, were 
elected trustees.® 

This church and congregation are now in connection with the 
Bedford presbytery. 

List of Ministers of the Presbyterian Church at 


Instal or call. 





. Rev. Mr. Strong, 



Rev. Blackleach Burritt, 



Rev. Benjamin Judd, 



Rev. Samuel Blatchford, 




* At the first meeting of the congres^tioo, Captain Joseph Lockwood was un* 
aniiQoosly chosen chairman, and Mr. Jarvis, secretary. 

k Co. Rec. Religions Soc. Lib. A. 21. 

« Ca Rec. Religions Soc. Lib A. 197. 

'The Rev. Samael Blatchford, an Englishman, sacceeded Dr. Dwighl* ai 
Gnenfield, Conn., when the latter was called to the presidency of Ymie Cellege. 

ToL. II. 8 



Instal or call. Ministers. Vacated by. 

1800, Rw. Richard Andrews, do. 

1819, Rer. John Lowe, do. 

1823, Rev. Mr. Crocker, do. 

1824, Rev. Mr. Bronson, do. 
1830, Rev. ^hn White,* do. 
1832, Rev. (Carles G. Thompson, do. 
1834, Rev. William Patterson, present minister. 

Church Memoranda, 

1826 members 46; baptisms 

1836, ditto 62; ditto 1 

1846, ditto 90; ditto 3. 

A considerable eminence rises a little to the east of the Pres- 
byterian church, from the summit of which is an extensive pros- 
pect of the beautiful country bordering the Sound and the dis- 
tant shores of Long Island, &c. 

Prior to 1775, Poundridge constituted one of the precincts of Rye 
parish. In 1816 Episcopal services were peiiormed here by the 
Rev. George Weller. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of this place was first in- 
corporated in 1822, James Brown, John Haws and Samuel K. 
Olmstead, trustees.^ The present church edifice was erected in 

The village grave-yard is pleasantly situated about a quarter 
of a mile south of Poundridge upon a gentle acclivity. The head 
stones record the names of Thaddeus H. Lockwood who died in 
1774: Ebenczer Lockwood, Esq., who died July 29th, 1821, aet. 
84 : John Ferris who died A. D. 1788, and Captain John Grinell, 
born in Nantucket, Mass., December 7th, 1795, and died in Cron- 
stad, Russia, June 3d, 1831, set. 34, &c., &c. Others are simply 

• This indiTidual wm a natiTe of Scotland and a claMmate of Robert Pollock, 
author of the Coune of Time. 

» Co. Rec. Religioas Soc. Lib. A. 170. A second incorporation ocean on the Slst of 
December, 1832. The Methodist Protestant Chnrch and Society in Poandridfo, 
were incorporated on the 16tb of March, 1833. Selby Fancher, William Brown 
and Joseph Waterbniy, troittei. Co. Rsc Religioas Soc. Lib. B. 12. 


inscribed with the initials of the deceased, iu B. 1771. I. M. L, 
1787, &c. 

On the south side of the village, being" a part of the old estate 
of the Lockwoods, are the residences of Horatio and Ezra Lock- 
wood, Esqrs. These gentlemen are the sons of Major Ebenezer 
Lockwood of the Continental army, (me of the most active and 
efficient members of the committee oi public safety.^^ He was 
the son of Capt. Joseph Lockwood, one of the first sellers of Pound- 

The Lockwood family originally derived from a place of the 
name in Staffordshire, England, and are probably descended from 
Edmund Lockwood, a freeman of Massachusetts in 1631, who 
subsequently removed to Connecticut with Messrs. Hooker and 

Ezra Lockwood, Esq., of Poundridge, was for many years 
a judge of the late court of common pleas, in this county. Of 
this family is the Hon. Albert Lockwood, present judge of the 
county, and General Munson I. Lockwood, county clerk. 

During the contest between England and the colonies, the in*- 
habitants of Poundridge, generally, appear to have taken a decided 
stand in favor of liberty. The following letter from the commit- 
tee of public safety, to the Hon. Provincial Congress, is found ia 
the acts of the latter body. 

Poundridge^ loth of Oct, 1776. 

Honored Sirs: 

" We the sub-committee of Poundridge, in Westchester County, 
beg leave to inform your Honors, that we are apprehensive that 
there is danger of our prisoners leaving us and joining the minis- 
terial army, as we are not above nine or ten miles from the water 
where the sound is full of the ministerial ships and tenders. One 
of our number is already gone to Long Island, and numbers are 
gone from other places, who are no doubt now with the ministe- 
rial army. There aie disaffected persons daily going over to 

■ — — ^- 

* Major Lockwood wu also a member of the convention that framed the &rat 
' conatHation of the itate, and a jad^ of the coantj in 1778« 


them which gives ns much trouble* Therefore, we humbly beg 
your Honors would give us some directions concerning them, that 
they may be speedily removed at some fftrlher dislanCe. We would 
also inform you that for the misdemeanors of one of ihem and oUr 
own safety, we have been obliged to commit him to jail at the White 
Plains. These with all proper respects, from yours to serve. 

Joseph Ambler.*^ 

Chairman of Committee. 

In July, 1779, a skirmish took place in this village between the 
Americans and a slrong force of the enemy, under Lieutenant 
Colonel Tarleton. 

*' About three haodred artd sixty of the enemy's li^ht horse, andlight-infan* 
try, (says General Heath,) came out from Mile-Square, and attacked Colonel 
Sheldon's light-horse, who were posted at Puundridge, about ninety in number* 
The superi'ir force of the enemy obliged our horse at first, to reireat ; but be- 
ing reinforced by the militia, they in turn, pursued the enemy. Our loss was 
one corporal, one trumpeter and eight privates, wounded ; three sergeants, one 
corporal and four privates missing ; and twelve horses missing. The stand* 
ard of the regiment being left in the house when the dragoons suddenly turned 
out, was lost. Of the enemy, one was killed, four taken prisoners, four horses 
taken, and one horse killed. The enemy set fire to and burnt the meeting 
bouse, and Maj. Lockwood^s house \^ they also burnt Mr. Hay^s house, at Bed- 

It appears that one of the principal objects in this sudden foray 
of the enemy, was the surprisal of Major Ebenezer Lock- 
wood, before mentioned, for whose head forty guineas had 
been offered. The day previous, however, Luther Kinnicut, a 
spy in the employ of the coiumiitee of public safety, gave notice 
of the intended attack, and advised the major to be on his guard. 
The night being very dark and stormy, Colonel Sheldon did not 
expect the enemy ; he nevertheless ordered the horses to be tied 
up in readiness. 

•■ The descendants of this individual still reside ia the vicinity. 
. f ^ The British *' would not suffer the family to take any thing away.** See New 
Yotk Journal, for Holts account of the action. 

« Heath's Mem. 208. 


To General Heath's account of the action, we append the re- 
port of Lt. Col. Tarleton to Sir Henry Clinton. 

Dated, Camp on the Bronx, July 2, 1779, cle? en P. M. 

Sir: — 

I have the honor to inform your excellency, that I moved with the detach- 
ment jon were pleased to entrust me with, consisting of seventy of the 17ih 
light dragoons, part of the legion infantry and cavalry, Qucen*8 rangers, 
Hussars and some mounted yagers, in all about two hundred, at half past 11 
o^clock last night. The weather being remarkably bad, prevented my making 
North Castle church before 4 o^clock next morning, where I received con- 
firmation of my intelligence relative to the numbers and situation of SheKion^s 
regiment and one hundred Continental foot, but no tidings of MoylaruTs 
regiment of dragoons. I pursued my route through Bedford to Poundridffef 
without any material ocourreoce, in the district of the ridge, and within ihree 
hundred yards of the enemy, who were not alarmed. My guide in front, mis- 
took the road ; another guide informed me of the error, and it was rectified as 
soon as possible.^' The enemy^s vidette had noticed our passing their front. 
The whole regiment was mounted and formed behind the meeting house. An 
attack was instantly made by the advanced guard, consisting of the ITth light 
dragoons, the ground not allowing more than seven or eight in front. The 
enemy did not stand the charge ; a general route ensued. The difficulties of the 
country, und their being no possibility of obtaining their rear, enabled the great- 
est part of the regiment to escape. The pursuit continued for four miles on the 
Stamford and Salem roads. The loss of men in Sheldon^s dragoons, upon en- 
quiry and comparison of accounts, I estimate at twenty-six or twenty-seven 
killed, wounded and prisoners. But their disgrace in the loss of the stand- 
ard of the regiment and of helmets, arms and accoutrements, was great. A 
part of the officers and regimental baggage fell into our hands. I have hitherto 
omitted mentioning the militia to the amount of one hundred and twenty, who, 
together with the Continental foot, broke and dispersed at the appearance of 
the klng*s troops. The militia* assembled again on eminences and in swamps, 
and before we quitted the ground on which the first charge was made, they 
fired at great distances. We were successful in killing, wounding and taking 
fifteen of them, the rest hovered almost out of our sight. The inveteracy of 
the inhabitants of Poundridgeand near Bedford, in firing from houses and out 
houses, obliged (us) to burn some of their meeting and some of their dwelling 
houses, with stores. I proposed to the militia, terms, that if iliey would nut 
fire shots from buildings, I would not burn. They interpreted my mild pro- 
posal wrong, imputing it to fear. They persisted in firing till the torch slopped 
their progress, after which not a shot was fired." 

With pleasure I relate to your excellency, that the loss sustained bf^his 

• Major Leavenworth cooimanded the militia. 


majesties troops is trifling, one hussar of the legion killed, one wounded, one 
horse of the 17th dragoons killed. The whole of the detachment, except the 
above, being returned to camp. The infantry of the legion mounted on horses, 
were extremely fatigued by a march of sixty-four miles, in twenty-three 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

Signed, Banastre Tarleton, 

Lt. Col. British legion. 

The following additional particulars respecting this engage- 
ment, are contained in a letter from an officer (of Sheldon's regi- 
ment as supposed) dated at Salem, July 3rd, 1779. 

** Yesterday morning about sunrise, a detachment of the second regiment of 
light dragoons, consisting of ninety men, commanded by Col. Sheldon, posted 
near Poundridge meeting house, was notified of the advance of the enemy by 
our videttes. Our horses being previously saddled and bridled, the men were 
ordered immediately to mount. As soon as we were paraded, the enemy^s horse 
were discovered rapidly advancing, about three or four hundred in number. 

The enemy having driven in our advanced parties, they began the charge on 
the detachment, which from the great superiority of the enemy, was obliged 
to move off. The enemy pushed hard on our rear for more than two miles, in 
(he course of which, a scattering fire was kept up between their advance and 
our rear, and a constant charge with the sword, the country through which 
we passed being very mountainous and rocky, caused many of our horses to 
blonder and fall, which occasioned some to fall into the hands of the enemy. 
We immediately collected some of the militia, and began to pursue the enemy, 
following them below North Castle church. They moved off with such 
great precipitation, that we could not come up with them. Before the enemy 
moved off, they burnt the meeting house at Poundridge, and thedwelling house 
of Benjamin Hays, at Bedford. They (as usual) plundered most of the houses 
they came to and set fire to several houses which were fortunately extin- 
guished. Our loss on this occasion, was ten wounded, eight missing and 
twelve horses missing. The enemy^s loss, one killed, wounded uncertain, 
four prisoners, four horses taken and one ditto killed." 

The general surface of Poundridge, is uneven, and much of it 
stony, but havinga due admixture of arable, with pastureand mea- 
dow lands ; it forms a tolerable productive agricultural township. 
The soil consists principally of a gravelly loam, and is well adapted 
io grass and pasturage. It is also excellent for orchards and fruit 
trees of all kinds. The growth of wood consists of white, red and 
black oak, hickory and chesnut, ice. The northern portion of the 


town is occupied by a steep and lofty ridge of mountains, called 
the Stony Hillsy which run principally in a northeast direction; 
for the space of three or four miles. The sides of these craggy 
mountains, intermixed with small trees and bushes, exhibit a 
variety of fantastic forms, presenting one of the wildest scenes 
in Westchester county. At their base, are luxuriant valleys 
watered with numerous streams. Upon the northeast side of the 
town is a singular chain of ponds, the largest of which is called 
Cross pond ; it is supplied by several springs, and has its outlet in 
Cross river. The other ponds in succession, are the Round pond^ 
the Middle pond and the Lower pondj all communicating with 
one another. From the Lower pond^ is an outlet into Tatomuck 
river, which empties into the sound at Stamford in Connecticut. 
The south western part of the town is richly interspersed with 
hills and valleys, and much running water. 



This township is situated directly in ihe south east angle of 
Westchester county, l)ordering the sound, bounded on the east 
by the state of Connecticut and the Byrnni river, on the south 
by (he sound, and on the west and north by the townships 
of Harrison nnd Norihcnstle. 

In the year 1G()0, the lands of Rye were in the possession of 
ShanasockwellorShanorockc (as hesuhsequently signed his name) 
an independent chiofiain of the Siwanoys, whose clan formed a 
portion, if not one of the Mohegan tribes itself, of the " sea coast." 
This chief with his followers, was residing on the banks of the 
Hudson River, in 1661. 

Poningoc, the Indian name of Rye, is apparently derived 
from Ponus, the title of the aboriginal proprietor of this territory, 
A. D. 1640. The final termination oe or oug, denoting locality. 

Thus the whole word may emphatically express the place or 

locality of that Sachem's residence. Nothing however remains 

at this late period, to establish the connection with any degree of 

certainty. Ponus himself, was one of the ruling Sagamores of 

Rippowams, (Stamford) in 1640. This individual left issue, three 

sons, Owenoke, Taphance and Onox ; the latter had one son, 


The ruling Sagamore of Poningoe in 1681, appears to have 

been Maramaking, commonly known as Lame Will, His suc- 
cessor was Patthunck, who with his son Wappetoe Patthunck, 
granted to Joseph Horton in 1694, lands bordering the Mamar* 
neck river. 

For the various localities within Poningoe, the Tndians had other 
names. The meadows bordering the Armonck, (Byrani) were 
called Haseco and Miosehassaky. The high ridge ea^t of the 
Mockquams (Blind brook) Euketaupucuson and the territory 
west of the Mockquams, (embracing Rye neck) Apawquammis 
or Epawainos.<^ 

* Apwonnah it tlM Indian tenn for an oyiter.— Cotton's Indian Tocabolaiy. 


The Beaver Dam or Stony brook was styled in the Indian 
tongue Pockeotessen. The former existence of Indian babita* 
tions on the great neck of Poningoe is amply proved by the 
Dumber of hunting and warlike weapons fonnd in that neighbor- 
hood. The site of the principal Mohegan village was on or near 
Parsonage Point. In the same vicinity is situated "Burying 
mil^^ their place of sepulture. The remains of six Indians were 
discovered on excavating the present foundations for Newberry 
Halstead's residence, which stands near the entrance of the great 
neck. The first grantees under the Indians of Poningoe, were 
the Dutch West India Conipany, who obtained a grant of the 
lands extending from Westchester to Greenwich, A. D. 1640. 

By the provisional treaty of Hartford, in 1650, the boundary 
line between New En^yJand and New Netherlands was to com- 
mence upon Long Island, from the westernmost part of the Oyster 
Bay, so, and in a straight and direct line to the sea; and upon 
the main land, a line to begin upon the west side of Greenwich 
bay, being about four miles from Stamford, and so to run a 
northerly line twenty miles up into the country, and after as it 
shall be agreed by the two governments, of the Dutch and of 
New Haven, provided the said line come not within ten miles of 
Hudson's river.*^ 

The successors of the Dutch W^est India Company in 1660, 
were John Goe, Peter Disbrow, and Thomas Studwell, who pur- 
chased of the Indians the island called Manussingy or Menne- 
toies.^ The deed of sale bears date June 29, 1660. 

" Be it known unto all men whom it may concerne, both Indians and £n- 
gliah, that we, Shanasockwell, sagamore Maowhoue and Cokcnsikoe, hare 
sold unto Peter Disbrow, John Coe, Thomas Studwell, all living at this 
present at Grenege (Greenwich) to say a sartain parcell of land which these 
Indians above mentioned have sold, is called in the Indian name Menussing 
Island, and is near unto the main land, which is called in the Indian name 
Feoingoe, this said island we above mentioned do here, by virtue of this bill, 
do sell all our right and title unto John Coe, Peter Disbrow, Thomas Studwell, 
quietly to enjoy from any molestation of us or any other Indians, to them and 
theiii heires, assignees, and executors for ever, and further we have given 

» Hazard's State Papers, vol. ii. 218. 

b Minnis denotes an island, iu the Algoncpiin. 

Vol. II. 3 


unto Peter Disbrow, John Coe, and Thomas Stndwell food for their cattle 
upon the main, called by the Indians Poningoe, and what timbers or trees thai 
is for their use, and not to be molested by us or other Indians ; and we do 
hereby acknowledge to have recei? ed full satisfaction for this purchase of land 
abore mentioned to-day. We have received eight coats and seven shirts, 
fiAeen fathom of wampone, which is the full satisfaction for the parcel of land 
above mentioned ; and for the witness we have hereto put our hands. 
Witness Joshua Knapp, The marke of V Shanasockwek. 

Henry Disbrow, " ^ Aranaque. 

Feb. 23, 1678. ♦* Q Cokow. 

** Z Wawatauman. 

•* X Cokinseco. 

'* 3 Maswbort. 

*' Z Quauaike. 

" L Aramapow. 

'* S Wonanas. 

" Y Topogone. 

" W Malishes. 

" T Richard. 

By another deed bearing date the 22d May, 1661, the Indians 
sold lands on the main to Peter Disbrow. 

" Be it known to all men whom it may concerne, bothe English and Indians, 
that I, Cokoe, and Marrmeokhung, and Assawarwone, and Naktinneman, and 
Shocote, and Waowhowarnt, doe acknowledge to have sold to Peter Disbrow, 
his heirs and assignees, a certain tract of land lying between Byram River and 
the Blind brook, which tract of land is bounded as fulloweth : viz., with the 
river called in English Byram River, beginning at the mouth of the above 
said river on the east, and the bounds of Hastings on the south and south- 
west, to the marked trees, and northward up to the marked trees, which 
may contain six or seven miles, from the sea along the said Biram River 
side northward, and so from the said river cross the neck northwest and 
west to the river called Blind brook, bounded northward with marked 
trees which leads down to Little brook, which runs into the Blind brook ; 
which tract of land I, Cokoe, and the above said Indians, ourselves, heirs, 
and assignees, do here promise and make good to the said Peter Disbrow, 
his heirs or assignees, peaceable and quiet possession for ever, without 
any molestation either from Dutch, Indians, or English. We the above 
said Indians have sold also this tract of land above mentioned, with all the 
trees, grass, springs, and minerals, with feed range and timber northward 
twenty English miles above the said purchase of lands, and do acknowledge 
to have received full satisfaction for the said land. In witness hereof we 


the above said Indians have set oar hands this present day and date abore 

Witness John Coe, Marmeukhung Z his marke. 

John H. Jayson. Assawaawane ^^ his marke. 

Nantinneman S his marke. 

Cokoe P 

The following year the Indians Shawaunorocot and Rumkque 
made a further grant of territory. 

** Know all men whom this may concerne that we, Peter Disbrow, John 
Coe, Thomas Studwell, and John Budd, have bargained, bought, and payd for, 
to the satisfaction of Showannowocot, Roksohtohkow and Pewahaham and 
other Indians, whose hands are underwritten, a certain tract of land aboTO 
Westchester path, to the marked trees, bounded with the above said river, 
Blind brook, which tracts of land, with %11 the privileges, as woods, trees, 
grass, springs, mines and minerals, to the said Peter Disbrow, John Coe, 
Thomas Studwell, to them and their heirs forever, with a warrantie against 
all persons, English or Indians. To this bargain and sale we the above said 
Indians do bind ourselves, our heirs and assignees, to the above said Peter 
Disbrow, John Coe, and the rest abovesaid, to them, their heirs and assigneesi 
ioi ever, as witness our hands this present day and date, June 2, 1662. 

Shuwannorocot 3 his marke. 

Rumkque Q his marke. 

April the 28ih, 1663, Peter Disbrow, John Coe, Thomas 
Studwell and John Budd, by a deed of sale conveyed the island 
and main land to the following planters, Samuel Allen, Richard 
Lowe, Philip Galpin, Thomas Applebe, William Odell, John 
Brondig and John Coe, for which the latter were to pay forty 
shillings a lot in cattle or corn, between the above date and Jan- 
uary next ensuing.^ 

Peter Disbrow by a declaration of trust, dated June 16, 1676, 
assigned all his right, title and interest in the Indian purchase to 
the rest of the proprietors of Rye then living between the two 
rivers, viz. the By ram river to .the east and a river called the 
Blind brook to the west in equal proportions. The original di- 
vision of Rye consisted of ten acres to each individual planter, 
besides a privilege in the undivided lands. 

• R}.e Rec. Lib. A. 


From a note appended to this deed of trust it appears that 
John Horton had selected a spot of land not within the bounds 
of Rye purchase. 

" fiat lyeth considerably to the northward of the head of the Blind Brook, 
and consequently to the north of the north-west bounds, except they do claim 
it as comprehended within the twenty English miles range, whereof waa 
granted to them, viz. the proprietors. 

In 1662, the thirteen proprietors of the salt meadows within Hastings 

Thomas Studwell, William Odell, 

John Brondig, Peter Disbrow, 

WiUiam Odell, John Coe, 

Thomas Applebe, Samuel Allen, 

Philip Galpio, John Coe, 

Richard Fowler, Thomas Studwell, 

John Budd. 

At this period Connecticut, regardless of the Hartford treaty 
made in 1650, obtained from the native Indians a further grant 
of territory extending from the east line of that colony to the 
present village of Westchester. Under this purchase she claim- 
ed the lands of Rye and required the submission of the inhabi- 
tants to her authority. 

Against this aggression Governor Stuyvesant calmly remon- 
strated, and dispatched two officers to stop further proceedings. 

This appears from the following letter addressed by the inha- 
bitants to the General Court, dated 

Hastings, 6 May, 1664. 

"To the honored Governor and Councill and magistrates of 
Connecticut, we the inhabitants of Hastine, formerly Midlebo- 
rough upon Long Island, having had by the Duche Governor 
tow of his oGcers sent unto us with tow or three papers, the con- 
tents we supose doe in parte belouge unto yourselves as well as 
us, and therefore make bould to trouble your honnours there- 
with, intreatinge your aide. Wee know not wither evil intents 
may be, for wee understand that they'will not keep ther promise, 
for they have not delivered James Christed's bond and Mr. 
Willyam Leveriches, but they grant this instead of delivering the 
bond have this day demanded the moneys of James Christed, 


this is therefore to intreate your honnours to tak our condission 
into your consideration and tak some spedy cours for our futter 
peace and comforte. We are unwillinge to loose our planting by 
ihem. This hoping you will now stand by us, we rest your 
loving neighbours and friends the inhabitance of Hastine." 

By me, 

James Bradish, 

Clarke for Hasting. 
To the honored Court 
Mr. John Winthrop and his 
Honorable Counsill of the Court of Connecticut, 
assembled at Hartford, this present with speed. (^ 

During the year 1663, King Charles the Second, by letters 
patent under the great seal, conveyed the Province of New 
Netherlands, and that part of Connecticut lying westward of 
Connecticut river, to his brother James, Duke of York and Al- 
bany. Thus by a wholesale usurpation excluding for ever the 
rightful proprietors, utterly regardless of their just rights as dis- 
coverers, and in the face too of all existing treaties. 

Whilst the King was disposing of the New Netherlands in 
this unlawful manner, we find Governor Stiiyvesant thus com- 
plaining to Governor Winthrop and the General Assembly of 
Connecticut, **That John Coe, Jun., and Anthony Waters with 
eighty horse and foot have put down the old magistrates in some 
towns, and setting up others." He trusts the English will sup- 
press such things, and prevent bloodshed. Dat. Amsterdam, 
N. N. Nov. 15, 1663.b 

As early as 1641 it appears to have been the British policy as 
one means of counteracting the' Dutch in America, " that the 
English put forward their plantations, and crowd on, crowd- 
ing the Dutch out of those places where they have settled ;"c 
this continued to be the principle upon which the former acted 
until the subjugation of the latter, which happened 5th Septem- 

• Town and Lands, Hartford State Rec. Vol. i. No 36. 
k CoL Boundariei, Hart. Rec. fol. ii. letter vii. 

* Col. Boundaries, Hart. Rec. fo!. ii. letter i. 


ber, 1664, when the Province of the New Netherlands surren- 
dered to Colonel Richard Nicolls, the Duke's governor. 

The same year the commissioners appointed for settling the 
bounds of his Royal Highness the Duke of York's patent and the 
colony of Connecticut, did order and declare *• that the creek or 
river, called Mamaroneck, which is reputed to be about twelve 
miles to the east of Westchester, and a line drawn from ye east 
point or side, where the fresh waters fall into the salt at high water 
mark, north north-west to the line of Massachusetts, shall be the 
western bounds of ye said colony of Connecticut."* 

Richard Nicolls, 
George Cartwright, 
Sam'l Mawricke. 

By this division Rye became annexed to the colony of Con- 
necticut, and constituted a portion of Fairfield county. 

The following bill of sale occurs December 8, 1666, from 
John Coe one of the original proprietors of Rye to Hachaliah 

Know all men to whom it may concern that I John Coe parchaaer of the 
town of Rye, being one of the four men that bought this place in the colony of 
Connecticut, in New England, do sell and bind over unto Hachaliah Brown in 
the same town, one half of a 12th lot with all the privileges thereunto belong- 
ing ; namely, one half of the upland and one half of the meadow, both fresh 
and salt, both divided and undivided, with four acres of upland lying in the 
neck called the Opasfar neck, or otherwise called Scotch cap neck, of which 
two of the aforesaid four acres belong to the half lot. This four acres is 
bounded thus, with George Kniffen on the N. E. and front ; with the Blind 
Brook towards the N. W. and Thomas Brower toward the S. W., and the 
waste land is the bounds to the S. E. This seven acres of land more or less 
is thus bounded as is above mentioned. The aforesaid land I have purchased 
4>f the Indians, as doth appear by deed under the Indians hands, I say I have 
sold with all privileges thereunto belonging, namely, trees, grass, rocks, min- 
«raU, and springs, with the fence or fencing which are or shall be belonging 
thereunto, and I do here bind myself, by promise, to make good the sale here- 
of from me, my heirs, assignees, or administrators to the said Hachaliah 
Brown, him, his heirs, assignees or administrators, quietly and peaceably to 
possess as his own for ever, without any molestation either by or under me, 

• Col. BoundaricF, fol ii. letter xzil 


Ac.f &c. And I do acknowledge to have received full satisfaction of the above- 
said Hachaliah Brown for this aforesaid land, as witness my hand this day 
and date, Dec. 8, 1666.« 

John Coe. 

Thomas Brown, George Lane. 

May 11, 1671, the general court of Connecticut granted that 
the town of Rye bounds should extend up into ye country north- 
ward twelve miles> 

At first the pretences of Connecticut to the westward were un- 
limited, till the year 1683, and consequently so to the northward 
of Rye, hence the grant to extend twelve miles to (he north, as 
being less exposed to be opposed by New York, leaving their 
bounds unlimited to the westward of Byram river, thus giving 
. them an opportunity of extending their bounds twelve miles in 
that direction, so as to form a tract of twelve miles square; as 
they had already granted one of six miles square to Bedford. 
This grant, had it been allowed by New York, would have cov- 
ered Harrison's purchase, the White Plains, Mamaroneck, the 
Mile Square, Tuckahoe, New Rochelle, and Eastchester, besides 
other places. 

The twelve proprietors of the salt meadows in this town, A.D. 
1672, were as follows : 

William Odell, 1 Thomas Applebe, 6 Richard Fowler, 10 
John Brondij, 2 Thomas Allen, 7 Thomas Stedwell, 11 

Peter Disbrow, 3 Philip Galpen, 8 John Budd, 12 
William Odelle, 4 John Coe, 5 John Coe, 9 

"At a town meeting held March, 1672, it was agreed that the 
first of April following should be taxed of all persons and young 
cattle and horses, unless it be such as are wrought, and that they 
henceforward should goe out on the first of April, and whatsoever 
person hath not bis fence up by that time shall forfeit five shil- 
lings a rod." 

"28th January, 1673, the general court ordered that the bounds 
between Greenwich and Rye is to be from the mouth of Byram 

* Rye Rec. ^ Ilort. Rec. vol. viii. p. 13. 


river, to run up the river one quarter of a mile above the great 
stone lying on the cross path by the said river, and from thence 
the sayd commons upwards, between Stamford bounds and the 
colony line, is to be equally divided between them by a parallel 
line with Stamford, and to Norwalk to the end of their bounds 
up in the country, ikc."» 

Robert Treat, 
Jonathan Sellicke, 
Peter Diss row. 

This settlement was confirmed June, 21st, 1696, by the gene- 
ral court sitting in Hartford, May Sih, 1693. 

" Upon the 28th November, 1680, the town made choice of 
Peter Disbrow, Hachuliah Brown, Robert Blomer, and Thomas 
Merritt, for to go with the Indians to view some land lying be- 
tween the Blind brook and Biram river, and to make a thorow 
bargain with them if they shall see it best." 

The result of this interview was a sale of land under the In- 
dian sachem Marunaking, ''of all that certain tract of land lying 
by a brook, commonly called Blind brook, which tract of land 
is called by the Indians Eauketauperctison" bounded as fol- 
loweth : 

** Beginning at the southennost end, which ia between the above said brook 
and a branch thereof, and from thence to the great swamp at the ould marked 
tree, which is now marked with these letters, R. B. H. T. M., and from thence 
by marked trees to a small ran which runs into the above said brook, and there 
is marked with a mark, the which tract of land is called by the English name 
of Hogg Pond ridge, to have and to hold, &c., &c. 

In witness hereof I have set to my hand this 4th day of September, in the 
year A.D. 1680. 

Witness the mark of d Coako. The mark of 

Owrowwoaha O Maremakang 

aUas 6 WUI. 

The next year occurs another sale from the same chief, Mara- 
making, "For a valuable consideration, by the inhabitants of the 

* Hart. Rec. vol. iii. p. 36. 


town of Rye, already received, namely, three coates iu hand of 
the said inhabitants. 

"For^Khichhe alienates, covenants, and sells to the same a 
certain tract of land lying between Byram river and the Blind 
brook or Honge" In witness whereof I have set to my hand 
this 8th of October, 1681. 

Witness the mark of Maramaking, 

Wissacanow t5 or else Lame Will. 


Pammetum Z 

Joshua Knapp, 

Jacob Paiiio, 


The above sales were long known and distinguished as Lame 
WiWs two purchases. 

A.D. 1681, Peter Disbrow sells his Indian purchase on Ponin- 
goe neck to the rest of the proprietors. In 1683, Colonel Dongan 
arrived at New York as governor of the province. Soon after- 
wards the governor and council of Connecticut, in a letter to 
Dongan, dated October 6th, 1683, complain of a warrant having 
been issued to the constables of Rye, Greenwich and Stamford, 
which towns they claim are in Connecticut, by charter and 
agreement of 1664.» Dongan, in reply, October 9, 1683,^ as- 
serts that the Duke's patent extends to Connecticut river, and 
refers to the former agreement, twenty miles east of Hudson's 
river, which he is by no means compelled to confirm, only re- 
fers to the old claim for the purpose of extending as far as he 
can eastward of Hudson's river. 

In return the governor and general court of Connecticut, Oc- 
tober 16, 1684, refer Governor Dongan to the agreement of the 
King's Commissioners, A. D. 1664, as settling the boundary.^ 

Governor Dongan in reply, November 5, 1683, states, " that 
he must not be unmindful of his master's interest, thinks it 
not wrong to claim twenty miles from Hudson's river, eastward. 

» CoL Bound. Hftrt Rec. lib. iu I^llBr 42. 
% Col. B. Hart Rec. lib. ii. Letter 43. 
e CoL B. Hart Rec. Lib. ii. Letter 44. 

YoL. n. 4 


and also mentions that the commissioners were assured by Con- 
necticut people^ that Mammaroneck river was txoenty miles 
from Hudson^s river, and concludes by assuring them he will 
hnve all twenty miles eastward of that river, or he will claim to 
Connecticut River, and further wishes the matter settled.^ 

On the 2yih of November of the same year the agents (appoint- 
ed by the two governments,) came to an agreement that the line of 
partition should begin at Byram River at a point called Lyon's 
Point, where that river falls into the Sound, and run northerly at 
not less than twenty miles distance from the Hudson to the 
south line of Massachusetts.^ 

Upon the occasion of this change in 1683, we find the follow- 
ing letter addressed to Lieutenant Horton and the select men of 
the town of Rye. 

Fairfield, Dec, 3, 1683. 


We had purposed in our passage to York to have called upon you, bat 
the badness of the weather, and taking our passage by water we mist the op- 
portunity of seeing you in our going thither, and in our return. And therefore 
we take this first opportunity ^o acquaint you that although we were loath to 
have parted with you, and would have been glad to have continued you in this 
government, yet the providence of God hath so disposed that by our agreement 
with Governor Dongan, we are forced to part with you, and could not help it, 
and the go vernoi^ promised us that he would not by this change alter any man^s 
property or propriety, and therefore we thought it necessary to acquaint yoa 
of this change, and also to advise you speedily to apply him to grant yoa 
confirmation of your bounds and proprieties, which we doubt not but he will 
do also. We must acquaint you that you must by our agreement, pay to this 
colony this years rates, which the treasurer will appoint you, to whom yoa 
shall pay it speedily, it is one penny half penny upon the pound, according to 
the list presented to the general court, in October last, by the agreement with the 
governor, Dongan. The west bounds of our colony is now Byram River, and 
it runs as the river till it comes to the road, and from thence it runs north 
oorth west, till it hath run eight miles from the east point tif said Byram 

Gentlemen, we do request you to be satisfied and content with this change, 

« Col. B. Hart Rec. Lib. ii. Letter 45. 
k Webster's Letters, p. 207. 


and to carry it aoitablj to tho gOTernment ander which yoa are now seated^ 
and apply yourselvoa to the Honorable Governor, who is a noble gentlemaa 
and will do what you shall desire in a regular manner to promote your welfaie, 
which with best respects is all the needful from your assured friends. 

Robert Treat, Governor. 

Endorsed. These for Lieut. Joseph Horton, the select men of the town of 
Rye. These in Rye. 

Notwithstanding this agreement, the towns of Rye and Bed- 
ford were again received into the colony of Connecticut, June 
21, 1696-7.a 

Governor Fletcher of New York, justly complained of this 
treatment, and issued his proclamation, requiring Rye and Bed- 
ford to return to their allegiance, April 15, 1697.^ 

The whole matter was now referred to the king, who in coun- 
cil, March 28th, 1700, confirmed the former agreement made 
1683, and ordered " that the high sheriff of the county of West- 
chester, accompanied with two justices of the said county, do 
repair to the said towns of Rye and Bedford, and publish the said 
proclamation, requiring the inhabitants of the said towns, to give 
obedience to this government, pursuant to his majesties royal 
will and pleasure, at their peril. 

Per order of council, 

B. CosiNs, L. Coven try. "c 

Oct. 10, 1700, the general assembly of Hartford ordered the 
signification of the settlement to be sent to the inhabitants of 
Rye and Bedford. 

The matter was not completed until May 14, 1731, when the 
lines were established as they now exist. The inhal)itants of 
Rye in 1683, were the following : 

• Col. Boond. Hart. Rec. yoL ii. latter 138. 

b CoL Bound. Hart Reo. yol. ii. lattan 140, 141, 

< Webster*! Letters, p. 207. 




Haehaliah Brown, 
Timothy Knapp, 
Jonathan Yowles, 
Jonas Stevens, 
John Brondi^, 
Isaac Sherwood, 
Thomas Lyon, 
John Sillick, 
Caleb Hiatt, 
George Knison, 
John Purdy, 
Thomas Merritt, 
Francis Purdy, 
Joseph Ogden, 
Isaac Sherwood, 
John Boyd, 
Bobert Bloomer, 
Robert Blener, 
Jacob Paree, 
Deli? erance Brown, 
Peter Disbrow, 
Thomas Lyon, 
George Knison, 
John Boyd, 
Thomas Slatham, 
William Odell, 
Thoma^s Slatham, 
Richard Beatte, 
John Boyd, 
Samuel Jenkins, 
James Wright, 
John Horton, 
Richard Waters, 
John Stockham, 
John Horton, 
Thomas Merritt, 
Joseph Sherwood, 
John Merritt, 
Hachaliah Brown, 
Caleb Hiatt, 

John Sellickes, 
James Wright, 
Stephen Sherwood, 
Stephen Sherwood, jnn. 
Hamet Galpen, 
Samnel Odell, 
John Merritt, 
Samuel Jenkins, 
Joost Paldin, 
Timothy Knapp, 
William Odell, 
John Disbrow, 
Arnold Bassett, 
Robert Bloomer, 
Simon Robard, 
Joseph Horton, 
Joseph Sherwood, 
John Disbrow, 
Robert Bloomer, 
John Horton, 
Francis Purdy, 
Daniel Brondige, 
John Church, 
Stephen Sherwood, 
Joseph Gurney, 
Jonathan Knifiin, 
Ciniamon Horton, 
Stephen Sherwood, 
Francis Purdy, 
Peter Brown, 
The draft of the swamp, 
James Tra? is, 
Joseph Sherwood, 
The draught of lots by 

Biram River, 
David Ogden, 
Robert Bloomer, 
The draught ot Biram^s 

Thomas Merritt, 
Mary Ogden, 

Isaac Denham, 

The town grants from 

Isaac Denham, 

Abraham Brush, 

Abraham Smith, 

John Ogden, 

Samuel Banks, 

Joseph Studwell, 

Philip Travis, 

John Merritt, 

Stephen Sherwood, 

Joseph Merritt, 

John Feast, 

Jonathan Kniflfen, 

Humphrey Underbill, 

John Turner, 

Robert Bloomer, 

Hachaliah Brown, 

Jonathan Hart, 

Ebenezer Knifien, 

John Boyd, 

Roger Park, 

Joost Pauldinck, 

Thomas Merritt, 

Joseph Banks, 

Ruhamah Bishop, 

Francis Purdy, 

John Vail, 

John Vail, 

Isaac Anderson, 

John Merritt, 

A draught of Will's pur- 

Joseph Purdy, 

Richard Ogden, 

Henry Hiatt, 

Pond field draught, 

The three draughts in 
Will's purchase, 

Joseph Robinson, 


John Boddegaret, John Brondig, David Horton, 

JohnBrondig, Jonathan Knifien, John IliatC, 

David Ilorton.* 

Upon the *« 23d of November, 1686, the town empowered Ben- 
jamin Colyer and John Brondige, to treat with the governor for 
a genercU patent for the township of Rye." The proprietors of 
Poningoe neck also authorized the same individuals to obtain a 
partictdar patent for said neck> The general patent appears 
to have been granted, for on the 28th of Feb. 1686-7, occurs 
certain "charges, arising from the business between Richard 
Patrick and the town of Rye, and all the expcnsps of procuring a 
patent, for the bounds and privileges of the said town." A patent 
for Ponino^oe neck, must also have been obtained, for we invariably 
find the meetings of its proprietors held distinct from those of 
the town. At a meeting of the proprietors of Poningoe neck, 
Dec. 11th, 1699, a grant was made to Richard Ogden, of an 
island commonly called Fox island. 

In 1691, we find the Indian Sachem Patthunck, with the full 
consent of his son and heir Wappetoe Patthunck, conveying to 
Joseph Horton, a parcel of land beginning at certain marked 
trees, &c., with turf and twigg taken off the said ground and de- 
livered to the said grantee, in peaceable and quiet possession by 
the said Pattliunck, sen., and Patthunck. jr.c. The above tract 
of land w\is situated 

On ths east side of Mamaroneck river, and ran with a line of mark trees 
until it came to the said rivpr, and again to a red oak tree, close by the river 
marked IK, together with all the woods, &c. &c., to the said Joseph Hor* 
ton, his heirs &c. Dated this 29th day of Dec. A. D. 1691. 

Signed, sealed and delivered, 
in presence of us. The mark of 

The mark of Patthunck, sen. o 

• Rye Rec. Lib. B. 

k April 3d, 1688, Timothy Kuap was chosen coUector for the govemor*8 rate of 
three half pence per pound. 

• Thb feudal custom was always transacted with the greatest formality. A twig 
and a piece of turf having been brought to the Sagamore, he placed the end of the 
branch on the clod, and then handed them both to the purchaser, as a token that 
he thereby surrendered to him the soil, with all the trees and its appurtenances. 



Captain Robin, ^f'wian, The mark of 

William Coales, Wappetoe Palthanck,x 

The mark of q R. P. Miller. The mark of Betty Patthunck. 

The mark of Ackanum Patthunck, X 
daughter to the above named 
Patthunck, sen. 

13 April, 1705. The Indian chiefs Wapeto, Rarequash, and 
Mekeran, granted to Capt. Joseph Theall, Capt. John Clapp and 
Capt. John Horton all of ye town of Rye, 

" A certain parcel of land lying and being within ye towdship of Rye, bound- 
ed by a certain beach tree standing upon the brink of Byram river, marked 
with J. G. J. and J. H. and J. C, running up ye said river northerly to a 
great swamp, where standeth an ash tree marked with the above said letters, 
and from thence in a direct course to an oak tree with stones laid at ye root, 
and from thence with a range of marked trees of the northermost corner of ye 
great pond, so running down by ye said pond till it meeteth with a white oak 
sapling marked with ye above said letters, and from thence by certain marked 
trees to the above said marked beach tree by ye brink of Byram river.* 
Sig. sealed and delivered The true mark of o Wapetoe, 

in the presence of The true mark of X Raresquasb. 

Daniel Strang. The true mark of O^ Mekeran. 

Joseph Purdy. 
The marke of <^ Pare. 

A further gram and confirmation was obtained of the Indian 
proprietors, Seringoe, Raresquash and Wopeto Patthunck, by John 
Clnpp and others, 20 July, 1705. 

"Of all that said tract of land which is butted and bounded as follows, viz. 
beginning at a beach tree standing by Byram river near a great rock, marked 
with letters J. H. J. P. J. C, then running up the said river north-west to a 
certain ash tree in the upper end of a place commonly called Pond Pound 
neck, marked with the letters aforesaid, &c., &c., to the Colony line and 
thence by the said Colony line westerdly to the eight mile stake standing be- 
tween three white oak trees, marked, viz. one of said trees is marked with 
the letters C. C. R. on the north side, and on ye south side J. D. and from 
said tree in a direct line runs to ye northmost corner of Rye Pond and thence 
south 10 degrees westerdly to a white oak sapling, marked by the Pond side 
with the letters J. P., thence by a range of marked trees south 64 degrees 

• See Warrant for Survey. Alb. Rec. Lib. i. 127, 8. 


east to ao ash tree standing by Blind brook on the 6 M t*y Mo thereof, and 
thence by another range of marked trees to a certain chesnnt tree marked with 
the letters J. J. on ye north side, on the west side with the letters J. P., on the 
south-west side with letters J. II., and thence by a range of marked trees to 
ye place where it began.* 

The mark of Serringoe. 
Signed, sealed and delivered Serringoe^s mark in behalf Wapeto, 

in presence of Pathanck, and of his brother Raresquash. 

James Mott. 

Henry Disbrow. 

Joost Paldinck. 

The above sales were again confirmed by the Indians, 13 Sep- 
tember, 1705.»> 

At a Court of General Assembly holden at New Haven, 12th 
October, 1710, " Captain John Clapp of the town of Rye, in the 
province of New York, presented a petition to this assembly on the 
behalf of himself and partners, praying for a patent to be granted 
to them of a certain piece or parcel of land lying in this Colony 
and within the bounds of the said town of Rye, which they had 
purchased (with lycense) of the native Indians." 

Upon consideration whereof, this assembly do resolve that no 
patent shall be granted to them, forasmuch as the said land hath 
been formerly granted by this governnent to the inhabitants of 
the said town of Rye, and also a patent given them for the 

Queen Anne the same year issued her royal letters patent " to 
Anne Bridges, John Clapp, Augustine Graham, John Horton, 
and Thomas Hyatt for lands in Rye, 

Beginning at a beach tree standing by Byram river, near a great rock 
marked with ye letters J. H. J. P. J. C, thence running op by ye said river 
north north-west to a certain ash tree in ye upper end of a place commonly 
called ye Pond Pound neck, marked with ye letters aforesaid, and to ye Col- 
ony line, and from thence by ye said Colony line westerdly to ye eight mile 
stake standing between three white oak trees, marked, viz. one of ye said 
trees is marked with the letters C. C. R. on ye north side, and on ye south 

• Warrant for Survey, Ind. deeds. Alb. Rec. Lib. i. 129. 
b Co. Rec. Lib. E. 46. 

• Hart Rec toI. it. 12L 


aide J. D., and Arom ye said tree on a direct line it runs to ye northermost cor- 

oer of Rye Pond, and thence 80 to the westerdly to a white oak sapling mark- 
ed by ye pond side with the letters J. J. P., i hence by a range of marked 
trees so by ye east to an ash tree standing by Blind brook on ye east side 
thereof, and thence by another range of marked trees to a certain chesnot 
tree marked with ye letters I. T. on ye north side, on ye west side with ye 
letters I. P., on ye north-west side with ye letters I. H., and thence by a 
range of marked trees to ye place where it began, &c.y &o. To the above 
•aid patentees, &c., &c.« 

The proprietors of Poningoe neck were in 1715, 

Hachaliah Brown, Joseph Sherwood, 

Deliverance Brown, Isaac Anderson, 

John Stoakham, John Merritt, Sen. 

Robert Bloomer, John Brondige, 

George Lane, George S. Kniflfen, 

Timothy Knapp, John Disbrow, 

Richard Ogden, Thomas Merritt, 

Daniel Psprdy, Ebeuezer Kniflfen, 

Peter Brown. 

Upon the 1st of July, 1715, Robert Hunter, Captain General 
and Commander-in-chief, set out for patent to Christopher 
Bridges, clerk, rector of the parish of Rye, and his heirs and as- 
signs, twenty small parcels of land situate, &c., in the precinct 
and parish of Rye, &c., not heretofore granted under the seal of 
the Province ; all which certain tracts of land, purchased by 
Cbistopher Bridges, contained two hundred and ciglity-one acres.** 

On the 12th of August, 1720, the following letters patent were 
issued under the great seal of the Province. 


" George the First, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ire- 
land King, Defender of the Faith, &c., To all to whom these presents shall 
come, sendeth greeting. Whereas oar loving subjects Daniel Purdy, son of 
John Purdy, jdeceased, Samuel Brown, and Benjamin Brown, in behalf of 
themselves and others, freeholders and inhabitants of the township of Rye, in 
the county of Westchester, in the province of New York, by their humble 

» Co. Rcc. Lib. E. 2. 

^ Alb. Roc. Book of Patent*, Lib. viii. 185. llie patent appears to have been 
granted in 1718. 



petition presented to oar trusty and well beloved Col. Philip Schuyler, presi - 
dent of our council for our province of New York aforesaid, have set forth 
that they and their ancestors and predecessors, under whom they hold, have 
beld, and improved at their great charges with their labour and industry, a 
certain tract of land bordering upon the line of diyision between this province 
and Connecticut colony, for which they and their ancestors and predecessors^ 
have hitherto had no patent under the seals of the province of New York, 
which said tract of land is situated, lying, and beipg between Byram river and 
Blind brook, and beginning at a certain rock, being the ending of a part of 
land commonly known by the name of Town neck point, and is the souther- 
roost point of the said tract of land, thence running easterly by the Sound to a 
point near the mouth of Byram river, called Byram's point, including a certain 
island called Manusses Island ; and from the said Byram point northerly up 
Byram river on the east side of the said river, as the colony line is at present 
supposed to be run by the inhabitants of the neighborhood, to a rock standing 
on the east side of the said river by the wading place, and the high road lead- 
ing to Connecticut, the north twenty-four degrees thirty minutes, west three 
hundred and forty-eight chains, as the line which divides this province from 
Connecticut is supposed to run by the said inhabitants, to a walnut tree marked 
with three notches on the three sides, being twelve chains on a straight line 
to an ash tree marked with three notches on three sides, standing near Blind 
brook, then down the said brook until it empties into a creek called Mill creek, 
and then by the said creek to the place where it began, containing four thou- 
sand five hnndred acres of land or thereabout, aAer eighteen small tracts of 
land which lie within the said bounds, and are part of twenty small tracts 
formerly granted to the Rev. Christopher Bridges in his lifetime, are deducted 
and allowance being made for the king's highway ; and prayed to have our 
grant and letters patent for the same under the great seal of the province of 
New York, in the manner following, that is to say, to hold to them, their heirs, 
and assigns forever, but to and for the use and uses following, and to no other 
use whatsoever ; (that is to say) as for and concerning such tracts of land and 
hereditaments, parts of the before recited four thousand five hundred acres of 
land and island whereof they the said Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brown, and Ben* 
jamin Brown, stand lawfully and rightfully seized and possessed in their own 
several and respective rights, interest, and estate, to and for the sole and only 
proper use, benefit and behoof of the aforesaid Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brown, 
and Benjamin Brown, severally and respectively, and of their several and re- 
spective heirs and assigns forever; and as for and concerning such other 
tracts of land and hereditaments parts of the before recited four thousand five 
hundred acres of land and island which are belonging and appertaining to seve- 
ral other persons, freeholders and inhabitants within the bounds and limits of 
the same four thousand five hundred acres of land and island, some of more, 
some of less, according to the several, separate, and particular interest, in 
trust to and for the sole and only proper use, benefit and behoof of each par* 

Vol. II. 6 


ticular freehold and inhabitant, particularly and respectively^ and of each of 
their particular and respective heirs and assigns forever, in as full and ample 
manner as if the particular names and their particular and several freeholds 
and inheritances were particularly and severally mentioned and described, 
under the usual quit rent, with the usual clauses, provisions* conditions, limi- 
tations and restrictions as are limited and appointed by our royal instructioofi 
for the granting of lands in our province of New York for that purpose. Which 
request we being willing to grant, Know ye, that of our especial grace, cer- 
tain knowledge, and mere motion, we have given, granted, ratified and con- 
firmed, and do by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, give, grant, 
ratify and confirm unto the said Daniel Purdy, Samuel Brown and Benjamin 
Brown, and to their heirs and assigns forever, all that the aforesaid tract of 
land and island containing in the whole four thousand five hundred acres in 
manner and form as last mentioned and described, together with all and singu- 
lar the woods, underwoods, houses, edifices, buildings, barns, fences, orchards, 
fields, feedings, pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, ponds, pools, waters, 
water courses, runs, rivulets, rivers and streams of water, fishing, fowlingt 
hunting and hawking, quarries, mines, minerals, standing, growing, lying and 
being, or to be had or used and enjoyed within the limits and bounds aforesaid, 
and all other profits, &c., &c. To have and to hold all that the aforesaid tract 
of land and island, containing in the whole four thousand five hundred acres, 
and all other the above recited premises, &c., &c." " Witness our said trusty 
and well beloved Colonel Peter Schuyler, president of our council for our 
province of New York, in council at Fort George in New York, the eleventh 
day of August, in the sixth year of our reign, A.l). 1720.* 

In 1786 the people of the State, (as successors of the Crown,) 
claimed the arrears of quit rent due upon the tract of four 
thousand five hundred acres, granted to Daniel Purdy, Samuel 
Brown and Benjamin Brown, on the 11th of August, 1720. 

The lands west of the Blind brook, called by the Indians 
Apawquammis, are to be distinguished from the rest of the 
township of Rye, as constituting a distinct patent. This territory 
was purchased of the native sachem Shanarocke and other 
Indians, by John Budd of Southhold, Long Island. 

To all Christian people, Ingains and others whom it may concern, that wa 
whose names are hereunto subscribed, living upon Hudson^s river, in Ameri- 
ca, That we Shanarocke, sagamore, and Rackeate, Napuckheast, Tawka* 
heare, Nanderwhere, Tamepawcan, Rawmaquare, Puwaytahem, Mawmawy- 
tam, Howhoranes, Cockkeneca, Tawwayens, Altoemacke, Heathomees, all 

« Alb. Rec. Book of Patents, lib. viii. 407. 


Ingiam, for diTers good eaoses and considerations us hereunto moving, have 
fully and ^hsolately bargained and doe for ever sell onto John Budd, senior, 
of South hole, his heires, executors, &c., all our real right, tittell and interest 
we or other of us have in one neack of land lying on the mayn, called Apaw- 
ammeis, bated and bounded on the east with Mockqnams river, and on the 
south with the sea against Long Island, and on the west with Fockeotess- 
make river, and at the north up to the marke trees nyeer Westchester, both 
all the lands, trees to fell at his pleasure, with all the grounds and meadow 
grounds and planting grounds, moynes and minerals, springs and rivers or 
what else lying or being within the sayd neck track of land, and also range, 
feeding and grasse for cattell, twenty English miles northward into the 
country, and trees to fell at his or their pleasure, and to their proper use and 
improvements of the said John Budd, his heirs, executors, &c. for ever to en- 
joy, possess and keepe as their real right, as also peaceably to inherite the 
sayd track of land with all thereone, and we the before named Ingians doe 
acknowledge and confesse to have received in hand of the said John Budd, 
the juste sum of eightie pounds sterling in full satisfaction for the aforesaid 
land with all the limits, bounds and privileges without lett or molestation of 
any one. Now for the more true and reall enjoyment and possession of the 
said John Budd his heirs, &c., we doe jointly and severally, us and either of 
us, or any by or under us, for ever assign and make over by virtue of this our 
deed and bill of sale, disclayme any further right in the sayd tract of land 
from the day of the date hereof, and all and each of us do promise to put the 
said John Budd or his into quiet, peaceable possession, and him to keep and 
defend and mayotaine against all person or persons whatsoever that shall di- 
rectly or indirectly lay any clayme or former grant, or shall trouble or molest 
the said John Budd or his, be they English, or Dutch, or Ingains, or whatso- 
ever. We the aforenamed Ingains doe engage ourselves, heirs, executors, 
&c., to make good this our obligations as aforesaid, I Shanarocke, Rackeate, 
Napockheast, Tawkaheare, Nanderwhere, Tamepawcan, Rawmaquare, Puw- 
waytahem, Mawmawytam, Howhoranes, Cockkenecs, Tawwayen, Altoe- 
macke, Heathomees, have hereunto set our hands at time and times, and we 
doe approve of each of our hands to this deed to be good and firm. Witness 
this our hands this day, being the 8th of November, 1661. 
Signed, sealed and delivered. 

Thomas Revell,* The mark of P Shanarocke. 

John Coe, O Nanderwhere, 

Thomas Clowes. O^ Napockheast. 

Humphrey Hughes. •— Howhoranes. 

Pi Kawmaquaie. 
> Rackeat. 
CO Paw way taken. 
V< Cockensseco. 

• Probably Thomas Pell ; see vol. I 286. 


Know all men, English and Ingaios, that whereas Shanarocke sold John 
Badd all the land from the sea to Westchester path, I Shanarocke marked 
trees by Penning path do hereby give and grant and acknowledge that I have 
received fall satisfaction of him, and according to the true intent of these 
bounds, he the sayd John Budd is to have and enjoy all the land by the 
Blind brook to Westchester path, in witness my hand. 
Witness the The mark of Shanarocke, ^. 

mark of 04 Cokeo. The mark of Remaquie. 

Peter Disbrow. 

11 month, 5 day, 1661. 
Know all men whom this may concern, that I Shanarocke, sachem, have 
bargained, sold and delivered unto John Budd, the islands lying south, from 
the neck of land the sayd John Budd bought of me and other Ingains, and 
have received full satisfaction of Thomas Close for the said John Budd^s use 
and due warrant the sale above wxitten in the presence of Thomas Close and 
William Jones. 

The mark of O Shanarocke, sachem. 
To John Budd. 

Another bill of sale occurs a few days later for the lands east 
of the Mamaroneck river. 

11 month, twelfth day, 1661. 
Know all men whom this may concern, that I Shanarocke, Rawmaqua, 
Rackeath, Pawwaytaham, Mawmatoe, Hawing, have bargained sold and de- 
livered unto John Budd a neck of land, bounded by a neck of land he bought 
of me and other Ingains on the south, and with Merremack river on the west, 
and with marked trees to the north, with twenty miles for feeding ground for 
cattle with all the woods, trees, marshes, meadows and rivers, and have re- 
ceived full satisfaction in coats and three score faddom of wampum of Thomas 
Close for the said John's use, and to engage myself to warrant the sale there- 
of against all men, English, Dutch and Ingans, and for the faithful perfor- 
mance hereof, I have set my hand in the presence of Thomas Close and Wil- 
liam Jones, the day and year above written.* 

The mark of Shanarocke. 



Peam, his mark. 

Raze, his mark. 

* Col. Rec. Hartford, vol. i. p. 333, 4. 



A. D. 1665. John Budd, sen., grants to John Morgan and 
John Concklin of Flushing, lands situate in Rye upon the south- 
eastern neck, '* bounded west by Mamaroneck river, east by a 
great rock in a bottom, south with the creek, and north by 
marked trees."* 

The next year, John Budd obtains a confirmation of his Apaw- 
quammis lands from the Indians, together with an additional 
grant of territory extending sixteen miles north of Westchester 

To all Christian people, Indians and others living on Hudson*s river in 
America, Shanarocke, sagamore, and Rawackqua and Pathang, as we have 
formerly sold a tract of land unto John Budd, bounded by the sea on the sooth, 
on the north by Westchester path, and the name of the tract of land is com- 
monly called Apawamis, and whereas we have sold unto said John Budd 
twenty English miles norihward from the above said tract of land which is 
called by Apawamis, the above said twenty English miles we do acknowledge 
that we have sold unto Mr. John Budd for range, for feed, for timber, for 
graseing, to him and his heirs for ever, and now we doe acknowledge that we 
have bargained, sold and delivered, we and every one of us, for our heirs, ex- 
ecutors or assignees jointly and severally unto John Budd, his heirs, execu^ 
tors or assignees a tract of land lying within the compass of the above said 
twenty English miles, bounded on the south by Westchester paih, and on the 
east by the Blind brook, and on the west by Mamaroneck river, and the north 
bounds is sixteen miles English from Westchester path up into the country, for 
which land we received already in hand a certain sum, to the value of jE^20 
sterling, for the abovesaid tract of land ; for which land we are fully satisfied 
by the said John Budd, for the above said tract of land, for the which we doe 
aeknowledge we have bargained, sold and delivered onto John Budd and his 
heirs for ever, with warrantee against all men, English, Dutch and Indians, 
and doe give him full possession, and promise so to keep him, to the which 
bargain and agreement, we have hereunto set our hands this day, being the 
29th of April, 1666. 

Witness, Joseph Horton, Shanarocke, 

Witness, John Rawls, Romackqua, 

The mark of Coco, Indian. Pathung, 


The proprietors of Rye appear to have viewed these extensive 
purchases of John Budd, with no little degree of anxiety, for we 

• Col. R^c. Hartford, vol i p. 333, 4. 


find the following petition dispatched to the ^[eneral court by the 
inhabitants of Rye, on the 2d of October, 1 668. 

The humble petition of the inhabitants of the town of Rye, to 
the Right Honorable the Governor and the rest of the gentlemen 
of the general court at Hartford. 

May it please your Honor, with the gentlemen of the general 
courte, to understand that about four years since, that John Budd 
did present a paper with several names to it, of inhabitants on his 
neck or island, so called and patented. It was for the settling of 
himself and children; on which we conceived had it been per- 
formed it had done noe great injury to the towiie ; but he noe ways 
pretended it, as doth agree, but hath and doth dayley let it and 
settle people upon it, extreamely prejuditiall to the towne, without 
the towne's approbation, which wee humbly conceave may be 
our injury if not speedily prevented ; Doe humbly request that 
neck of land may be delivered up to the town, we paying 
him by Indian purchases with interest, he abating for what 
land he hath sold, if not prejuditiall to the towne. And them 
that are prejuditiall, may be removed, and that you would be 
pleased to depute two or three persones whom you shall think 
meet, to come and settell amongst us with what speed may be. 
Soe we rest your humble petitioners. 

Peter Disbrow, William Woodhull, Robert Bloomer, 
Richard Coules, John Brondig, Stephen Sherwood, 

Timothy Knapp, Thomas Browne, George Lane. 

" On the 15ih of October, 1672, the general courte assembled at 
Hartford, ordered that Mr. Budd and those of Rye, that have ap- 
propriated the lands of Rye to themselves shall appear at general 
court in May next, to make appear their right. For the general 
court intends to settle those lands according to righteousness, that 
no plantation may be discouraged, and plantation work may goe 
forward to better satisfaction than formerly."* 

The court must subsequently have confirmed John Budd, in his 
rights as proprietor, for we find him in 1681-2, granting a piece 
of meadow land lying westward of John Ogden, to John Horton.^ 

• Hart. Rec. vol. iii. 29. b Co. Rec. Lib. B. 84. 



In 1685, John Budd, of Southhold, in New England, sold to 
Joseph Purdy a certain tract of land iu Rye, lying and being upon 
the neck called Epawainos, bounded on the east by Blind Brook, 
&c., ice. Also a parcel of land upon the same to Judith Brown 
and Joseph Ogden, 29 April, 1685. « 

The following orders were issued to the surveyor general, by his 
Excellency the governor in council, the 20th of February, 1695-6 : 
" you are hereby required to survey and lay out for Joseph 
Budd in order to a patent, all the land contained in an Indian 
purchase in Westchester Co., made A. D. 1661 ; from the Sound 
to the marked trees near Westchester path, bounded on the west 
by the Mamaroneck River, on the east side by parte of Blind 
Brook," and this shall be to you a sufficient warrant.^ 

Benjamin Fletcher to Anthony Graham, Surveyor General, by 
order of council : 

In consequence of the unsettled state of the boundary lines be< 
tween the two colonies of New York and Connecticut, Joseph 
Budd failed in obtaining his patent at this time. 

The general court also refused him a patent for his paternal 
lands in 1710, upon the ground that the former patent granted 
was sufficient.^ It was not until the year 1720 that the Crown 
confirmed the Budd purchase by letters patent under the great 
seal of the province of New York, to Joseph Budd, John Hought 
and Daniel Purdy, the patentees yielding and rendering therefor 
yearly, to the governor, on the feast duy of the blessed Virgin 
Mary, commonly called I^dy day, the annual rent of one pound 
nineteen shillings. 


George, by the grace of God King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, &c. All to whom these presents shall come, sendeth 
greeting ; whereas oor loving subjects Joseph Budd, John Hought, and Dan- 
iel Purdy, inhabitants of the town of Rye, in the county of Westchester, by 
their petition presented to our trusty and well beloved Colonel Peter Sohuylert 

* Co. Ree. Lib. A. p. 14. 

V Indian Deeds, Alb. Rec. warrant forsnrvey. UK I 39. 

c Hart Rec toL iv. 131. 


president of the eouDcil for our province of New York, have set forth that in 
Tirtue of a purchase made by John Budd in his lifetime, the father of the afore- 
said Joseph Budd, by licence from the governor of Connecticul colony, bear- 
ing date the eighth day of November, one thousand six hundred and sixty, of 
a certain tract or part of land in the bounds of the township of Rye, in the 
county of Westchester, then called Apawquammis, bounded east by a river 
then called Matquams river, southerly by the sea or sound against Long Island, 
now called the Island of Nassau, westerly by a river then called Poilhstoroak 
river, and northerly by marked trees near Westchester path, they the said 
petitioners, with divers others of our loving subjects, inhabitants of the same 
township of Rye, who have and do hold and enjoy the same tract of land by, 
from, or under the same John Budd and his heirs and assignees, have culti- 
vated and improved the same at their great charge and great labour and in- 
dustry, and have been and are now hitherto peaceably and quietly possessed 
thereof, praying to have the same confirmed to them by letters patent under 
the great seal of the province of New York, in the manner as is hereafter de- 
scribed, (that is to say) all that tract or neck of land in the township of Rye, 
in the county of Westchester, in the province of New York, now called Budd^s 
purchase, beginning at a certain grist mill called Joseph Lyon^s mill, standing 
on a brook called Blind brook, thence up the stream of said brook including 
the said mill, until it meets with a small brook called or known by the name of 
Bound brook, then on a north-west course until it meets with Westchester old 
road, thence south-westerly along the said road as it runs to a white oak tree 
marked on two sides, standing on the west side of a certain brook known by 
the name of Stoney brook, which white oak tree is the south-west corner of a 
certain patent called Harrison^s patent, then from said white oak in a north- 
west course to an ash tree marked on two sides, standing on the east side of 
Maraneck river, close by the edge of said river as it runs to the place where 
said Maraneck river emptys itself into Maraneck harbour or neck, then south- 
erly to where said Maraneck harbour or creek falls into the Sound, then 
easterly all along the Sound untill it meets with a certain creek called Mill 
creek, on the head whereof the aforesaid grist mill of Joseph Lyon is standing, 
thence up the channel of said creek as it runs until it meets the aforesaid grist 
mill where it first begun, bounded easterly by Blind brook and Mill creek, 
northerly by Westchester road and Harrison^s patent, westerly by Mara- 
neck river and harbor, and southerly by the Sound, together with a small 
island called Hen Island, lying in the Sound over against the said lands, about 
a quarter of a mile from the main, containing in the whole, main land and 
island, 1560 acres, to hold to them and their heirs and assignees forever, but 
to and for the use and uses following, and to no other use whatsoever ; (that 
is to say) as for and concerning such tracts of land hereditaments, part of the 
before recited tracts of land and island whereof the said Joseph Budd, John 
Hought and Daniel Purdy are and stand lawfully and rightfully seized and 
possessed in their own several and respective rights, interest and estate, to 


and for tlie sole and only proper use, benefit and belioof of the aforesaid Joseph 
Bttdd, John Hought and Daniel Purdy, severally and respectively, and of their 
several and respective heirs and assignees forever, and as for and concerning 
SQch other tracts of land, parts of the before recited tract of land and island 
which are belonging and appertaining to several other persons, freeholders and 
inhabitants within the bounds of the same tract of land and island, some more 
and some less, allowing to their several, separate, and particular interest, in 
tmst to and for the sole and only proper use, benefit and behoof of each par- 
ticular freeholder and inhabitant, particularly and respectively, and of each of 
their particular and respective heirs and assignees forever, in as full and ample 
manner as if their names were particularly and severally mentioned and ex- 
pressed, and their particular and several freeholds were particularly and seve- 
rally mentioned and described under the usual quit rent, with the usual clauses, 
provisions, conditions, limitations and restrictions as are limited and appointed 
by our royal instructions for granting of land in our said province. Which 
request we being willing to grant. Know ye, that of our especial grace, certain 
knowledge and mere motion, we have given, granted, ratifyed and confirmed 
and do by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, give, grant, ratify, 
and confirm unto the said Joseph Budd, John Hought and Daniel Purdy, and 
to their heirs and assignees forever, all that the aforesaid tract of land and 
island before it, containing in the whole 1560 acres, in manner and form as 
last mentioned and described, together with all and singular, woods, under- 
woods, houses, edifices, buildings, barns, fences, orchards, fields, feedings, 
pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, ponds, pools, waters, water courses, 
rivers, rivulets, runs, and streams of water, fishing, fowling, hunting and hawk- 
ing, quarries, mines, minerals, standing, growing, lying and being, or to be had, 
used and enjoyed, within the limits and bounds aforesaid, and all other profits, 
benefits, liberties, privileges, hereditaments, and appurtenances to tlie same 
belonging or in any ways appertaining ; and all that other estate right, title, 
interest, benefit, claim, and demand whatsoever, of, in, or to the same, and the 
reversion and reversions, remainder and remainders, and the yearly rents and 
profits of the same, excepting and always reserving out of this our own pre- 
sent grant, unto our heirs and successors forever, all such fir trees and pine 
trees of the diameter of twenty- four inches, at twelve inches from the ground 
or root, as are or shall be fit to make masts for our royal navy, as also such 
other trees as are or shall be fit to make plank or knees for the use of our 
royal navy only, which now are standing, growing or being, or which for ever 
hereafter shall be standing, growing or being, in or upon any of the said tract 
of land and island, with free license and liberty for any person and persons 
whomsoever, by us, oar heirs and successors, or any of them, to be thereunto 
authorized and appointed under our or their sign manuel, with workmen, 
horses, waggons, carts and carriages, and without, to enter upon and come in- 
to the same tract of land and island, and there to fell and cut down, root up, 
hew, saw, rive, split, have, take, cart and carry away the same, trees, planks, 

Vol. IL 6 


ihasts and knees for the use aforesaid, and also, except all gold and silver mines* 
to have and to hold all that, the aforesaid tract of land, and island before it, 
containing in the whole, 1560 acres, and all other the above granted prerai- 
aes, with the hereditaments and appoitenances, (excepting only as before is 
excepted and reserved) unto the aforesaid Joseph Budd, John Hoaght and 
Daniel Purdy, their heirs and assignees forever, hot to and for the uses fol- 
lowing, and to and for no other use whatsoever, (that is to say) and for and 
concerning such tract of land and hereditaments, part or parts of the before 
recited tract of land and island herein and hereby granted, whereof them the 
said Joseph Budd, John Hought and Daniel Purdy, are, and stand lawfully and 
rightfully seized and possessed, in their own several and respective rights, in- 
terest and estate, to and for the sole and only piroper use and benefit and be- 
hoof of the said Joseph Budd, John Hought and Daniel Purdy, severally and 
respectively, and their several and respective heirs and assignees for ever, 
and as for and containing such other tracts of land and hereditaments, part or 
parcel of the before recited tracts of land and island herein and hereby granted, 
which are or shall be belonging and appertaining to several other persons, 
freeholders and inhabitants, within the bounds of the same tract of land and 
island, some more and some less, allowing to their several separate and par- 
ticular estates and interests in trust, to and for the sole and only proper use, 
benefit and behoof of each particular freeholder and inhabitant,, particularly 
and respectively, and of each of their particular and respective heirs and as- 
signs forever, in as full and ample manner, as if their several names and their 
several respective freeholds and inhabitants, were particularly and severally 
described and expressed in these presents, to be holden of us, our heirs and 
successors, in free and common socage, as of our manor of East Greenwich, 
in the county of Kent, within this realm, yielding, rendering and paying there- 
for unto us, our heirs and successors, unto our and their receiver general for 
the province of New York, for the time being at our custom house in the city 
of New York, yearly and every year for ever, on the feast day of the Annun- 
ciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, commonly called Lady day, the annual 
rent of two shillings and sixpence for every hundred acres of the said tract 
of land and island, and so proportionable, for a smaller quantity (that is to say) 
the sum of one pound nineteen shillings, for the whole tract of land and island, 
io lieu and stead of all other rents, services and duties and demands whatso- 
ever, for the same tract of land, island and premises so granted as aforesaid, 
provided always, and these presents are upon this condition, that the same 
Joseph Budd, John Hought and Daniel Purdy, and the other freeholders and 
inhabitants of the same tract of land and island so granted as aforesaid, and 
thfeir heirs and assigns, some or one of them have, or shall within the term 
and space of three years next ensuing the date hereof, settle, clear and make 
improvement of five acres of land at least, for every fifty acres of the said 
tract of land and island, and so proportionably for a larger or smaller tract or 


p«rt thereof, and in faoh thereof, or if the said Joseph Budd, John Hough t 
and Daniel Purdy, and the other inhabitants and freeholders of any part or 
parts of the said tract of lind and island, or their heirs and assigns or any of, 
them, or any other person or persons, by their or any of their privity, consent 
or procurement, shall set on fire and burn the woods in the same tract of land 
and island, or any part thereof, to clear the same, that then and in either of 
these cases, this onr present grant, and every article and clause thereof, shall 
become Toid^ cease and determine any thing in these presents to the contrary 
thereof, in any way notwithstanding we do hereby will and grant, that these 
our letters shall be made patent, and that they and the record of them, in our 
surrogates office, of our province of New York, shall be good and effectual in 
the law, notwithstanding the neat, true and well reciting of the premises, or 
of the bounds thereof, or of any forever, or other letters patent or grant, 
for the same made or granted to any other person or persons, body corporate 
or politic whatsoever, by as or any of our royal ancestors or predecessors, any 
law or other restraint, uncertainty or imperfection whatsoever, to the contrary 
hereof in any ways notwithstanding. In testimony whereof we have caused 
the great seal of our province of New York, to be affixed to these presents, 
and the same to be entered of record in one of the books of patent in our 
said secretary's office remaining. Witness our said trusty and well beloved 
Colonel Peter Schuyler, President of our Council for our province of New 
York in council, at Fort George in New York, the 28th day of July, in the 
sixth year of our reign, A. D. 1730.« 

The Budd or Rye neck patent was subsequently divided 
among the following proprietors, viz. James Gedney, 102 acres. 
Daniel Purdy, drummer of Rye, 40 acres. John Carpenter, a 
portion joining Mamaroneck river. Mr. William Bowuess of 
Rye, 2 acres. That portion called the Gusset to Joseph Ogden. 
A second of 30 acres to Joseph Lyon. Daniel Purdy, 3 acres. 
Monmouth Hart, 15 acres. James Wood, 6 acres. Archibald 
Titford, 18 acres. The residue to John Budd. 

23 March, 1743. Peter Jay leased of John Budd 250 acres, 
and obtained a release for the same the succeeding day.^ 

The name of John Roome occurs as lessee for ihe whole pa- 
tent, of 1560 acres^ the same year. 

4 September, 1746. Peter Jay purchased four acres of mea- 
dow on Hen Island of Monmouth Hart.c 

• Alb. Rec. Book of Patenti, Lib. viii. 387, 461. 
b Co. Rec Lib. R. 13S, 133, 128. 
« Co. Rec. Lib. R. 138. 


The partition deed between Sir James Jay, Peter Jay, John 
Jay and Frederick Jay, sons of Peter deceased, recites " that 
Peter Jay deceased devised all his real estate to his four sons, 
and conveyed in severalty tb Peter Jay the Rye farm, as convey- 
ed by John Budd to Peter Jay deceased by lease and release of 
25th and 26th of jMarch, 1745.* 

The Jays have since added to their original grant by other 
purchases from the families of the Harts, Gedtieys, Galons, and 
Haines, iJbc. 

Peter Jay by will bearing dale, 1st September, 1797, devised 
all his real estate to his brother John Jay, who thereupon be- 
came seized of the whole premises in severalty. The Hon. John 
Jay by a deed, dated 16lh September, 1822, conveyed them in 
fee to the late Peter Augustus, Esq., father of the present pro- 
prietor, making the fourth generation that has occupied this 

The Guions are also owners of a large portion of the Budd or 
Rye neck patent. 

The village of Rye is pleasantly situated upon the New York 
and Boston turnpike road one mile and a half north of Long 
Island Sound. The Mockquamsy (Blind brook,) a beautiful 
perennial stream flows through the place, and adds much to the 
beauty of the surrounding scenery. It derives its source from 
the romantic hills north of the village. The principal spring is 
located on the lands of Edwin Keeler. In its progress south this 
stream, fed by numerous tributaries, aflbrds excellent mill seats.^ 

The first settlements in the town, (as shown by the Indian 
deed of 1660,) were made on the island Minnewies or Minussing, 

* Extracts from deduction of title. 

b lu Uie town records occurs the following entry. ** March 3d, 1696. Samuel 
Lane and Joseph Lyon are, or either of them, permitted to build a fulling or 
grist mill vpon Blind brook, above the town, provided they choose their location 
in three weeks, and build the fulling mill in three years. This mill is supposed to 
have occupied the site of the present grist and saw mill of Mr. James E. Beers, so 
that a mill has stood upon this stream for one hundred and forty years at least. 
The ancient Budd milU were located near the present stone bridge at the entrance 
of the village. 

■<w'> 111 ■■^^PiwwaW 


near the Rye Port harbour. To the Island village its proprietors 
gave the name of Hastings. From this place the early settlers 
issued their famous declaration, dated 

Hastings, July 26, 1662. 
" Know all men whom this may concern, that we the inhabitants 
of Minussing island, whose names are underwritten do declare unto 
all men, we came not hither to live without government as some 
suppose, an 1 therefore do proclaime Charles the Second our true 
Lord and King, and doe voluntary submit ourselves and all our 
lands that we have bought of the English and Indians under his 
gracious protection, and do expect according to his gracious de- 
claration unto all his subjects which we are, and desire to be 
subject to a!l his wholesome laws that are just and righteous, ac- 
cording to God and our consciences, to receive, whereunto we do 
The mark of Taylor Johnson. Peter Disbrow. 

The mark of Moses. John Coe. 

Samuel Allin. The mark of Thomas Stedwell. 

The mark of Robert Hudsone. William OJell. 

John Brondish. 

The mark of Frederick Hermanson. 
The mark of Thomas Applebe." 

To this declaration is appended the following agreement and 
orders, (showing the botinds of the future township of Hastings,) 

"We do agree that for our land bought on themnyn land, call- 
ed in the Indian Poningoe^ and in English the Biaram land, 
lying between the aforesaid Biaram river and the Blind brook, 
bounded east and west with these two rivers, and on the north 
with Westchester path, and on the south with the sea, for a plan- 
tation, and the name of the town to be called Hastings. 

And now lastly we have jointly agreed that he that will sub- 
scribe to these orders, here is land for him, and he that doth re- 
fuse to subscribe hereunto we have no land for him."<^ 

* Rye Rec. Lib. A. 


Hastings, July 26, 1662. The planters hands lo these or- 

Benjamin Woypen. Robert Hutson. 

John May. John Brondish. 

Samuel Allin. Frederick Harminson. 

Thomas Aj)plebe. 

August 11, 1662. These orders made by the purchasers of 
the land with our names. 

Peter Disbrow, John Coe, Thomas Stedwell, William Odell. 

It was ordered by the General Court of Assembly, holden at 
Hartford, May 1 1, 1665, 

" That the villages of Hastings and Rye shall be for the future 
conjoined and made one plantation, and that it shall be called 
by the appellation of Rye^ and Mr. Gold, Mr. Lawes, and John 
Banks are appointed to go and settle the differences between 
the inhabitants of Hastings and Rye, and also see the line be- 
tween Stamford and Greenwich run."* 

"A. D. 1666. John Budd, Sen., of Rye, for and in consider- 
ation of thirty-seven pounds, ten shillings, sells his land, divided 
by agreement of the men of Hastings now called Rye^ to George 
Kniffen of Stratford, the house being situated in the town /or- 
merly called Hastings, in presence of us, Francis Brown and 
Daniel Simkins.*> 

In the main street of the village stands an ancient stone tavern, 
at present occupied by Mr. Silvanus van Sicklin. This build- 
ing was erected in the early days of the settlement, when it 
served the double purpose of a residence and fortification. The 
remains of embrasures can yet be traced in its walls. The fol- 
lowing order is presumed to relate to this edifice. 

March 5lh, 1676. Thomas Lyon and Thomas Brown are ap- 
pointed to choose a house or place to be fortified for the safety of 
the town. Also the young men who come into the fortification, 
and remain during the troubles^ are to have an equal proportion 

•■ Hartford Rec. vol. ii. 208. 

b Probate Rec. Fairfield Co. from 1665 to 1675. 

< King Philip's war with New England. On the 13th of March, 1676, (eight days 


of the undivided lands, providedthey be such as the town approve.^ 
Upon the 13th of July, 1681, the town authorized John Ogden 
and George Knilfen to purchase a barrel of powder, and three 
hundred weight of lead of Mr. Budd of Fairfield, or wherever it 
can be obtained the cheapest. These are to be kept for the use 
of the town." 

At this early period, the Indians were very numerous, and the 
surrounding country was infested by wolves. On the 15th of 
December, 1689, a bounty of fifteen siiillings was ordered to be 
raised by a town rate, for the killing of wolves. Whilst under 
the jurisdiction of Connecticut, the villages of Rye and Hastings 
sent a deputy to the general court of that colony. The first in- 
dividual who held this honorable ofilce, was Mr. John Budd, as 
appears from the following letter addressed to the members of 
the court then assembled at Hartford. 

Hastings, the Ist month 26, 1663. 
Mach Honored Sirs : — 

We heer underwritten, heing seted upon a small tract of land lying betwixt 
Greenwich and Westchester, which land wee have bought with our money 
the which wee understand doth lye within your patent, and whereas, yoa 
have already required our subjection as his majesties subjects, the which 
we did willingly and readily embrace, and according to your desiour, 
we sent a man to Fairfield, who have there taken the oath of a consta- 
ble, we have now made choys of our nayghbar John Budd for a depute, 
and sent him up to your Corte to act for us, as hee shall see good, it is our 
desiour to have some settled way of government amongst us, and therefore, 
we do crave so much favor at the hands of the Honble Cort, that they do 
make us a constable or any other officer, that they would give him power to 
grant a warrant in case of need, because we be somewhat remote from other 
places, thus leaving it to your well and judicious consideration, we remain 
yours to command, 

Peter Disbrow, William Odell, 

Richard Fowler, John Brondig, 

George Clere, John Jackson, 

Philip Caspine, Thomas Stedwell, 

John Coe, Walter Lancaster, 

in the name of the rest.b 

after the date of the above order,) the entire town of Groton* consistiog of forty 
houses, was bomed by the Indians. See Drake's American Indians. 

' Rye Rcc. vol I. 73. 

^ Hart Rec. vol. i. no. 66, on towns and lands. 


June 26, 1676, Mr. John Banks occurs as deputy to the gene- 
ral court from Rye. 

jjifp^ its annexation to the province of New York, Rye was 
ei^ted into a market town, and enjoyed the^extraordinary privi- 
lege of holding and keeping a yearly fair, orfthe 2d Tuesday in 
October, to end on ihe Friday next following, being in all 
four days. 

Courts of special sessions were also held in Rye during the 
colonial dynasty. 

Many handsome villas and country residences adorn tl)e vil- 
lage. The mansion of the lale David Brooks, is a beautiful 
specimen of the old English style, only requiring the proper ac- 
cessories of trees and shrubbery. The gables are enriched with 
elaborately carved scroll work, and surmounted by finials. The 
oriel windows present a light and airy eflfect. The whole struc- 
ture is elegantly finished, internally as well as externally. 
The residences of the late Ebenezer Clark and Mr. Halstead, 
are beautifully situated upon the margin of Blind brook. 
Embosomed amid luxuriant trees, south of the former, is 
the residence of Hachaliah Brown, Esq., whose family has for 
five generations occupied the estate. The present building 
was erected, A. D. 1774, upon the site of the old homestead. 
The Browns were originally from the town of Rye, county of 
Sussex, England. Hachaliah Brown the more immediate ances- 
tor of the family, having been one of the first planters of this 
town. In 1756, Hachaliah Brown of Rye, commanded the 
Westchester levies, under General Lord Amherst. The ad- 
joining estate belongs to Henry Barker, Esq. 

North east of t}:c village bordering Purchase street, is the pro- 
perty of the late Josiah Purdy, Esq., now occupied by his son 
Josiah Purdy. The Purdy family were among the early set- 
tlers of Fairfield,. Connecticut. Francis Purdy,*^ the first of the 
family of whom we have any accoimt, died in 1658, at Fairfield. 

» An iDventory of the estate of Francis Purdy, was taken Oct. 14lh, 1586. See 
Probate Records, Fairfield Co. 


Ris aonSf Francis, John^ and Samuel, subsequently removed to 

The old parsonage land is now occupied by Henry Strang 
son of the late Daniel. Strang, grandson of the worthy Huguenot, 
Daniel L'Estrange JMd Mary Hubert his wife, who removed 
firom New Rochelle to this place, in 1697. 

The most prominent object upon entering Rye from the west, 
is the Presbyterian church with its spire, a neat wooden edifice, 
erected at the private cost of the late Ebenezer Clark, Esq., and 
dedicated June the 28th, 1842.^ It occupies the site of the old 
church erected A. D. ITOS.^^ The latter was dedicated by the 
Rev. Isaac Lewis, D. D., of Greenwich, Connecticut, who offi- 
ciated here for some time, in connection with his own charge. 
To the Presbyterian church at Rye, is attached the chapel at 
Port Chester. Service is now regularly held every Sunday 
morning at Port Chester, and in the afternoon at Rye. 

The first Presbyterian church in this town, is said to have 
been erected upon Pulpit plains the property of Mr. Billah 

In 1729, the proprietors of the undivided land lying in Rye, 
between Byram and Blind brook streams, within a certain pat- 
ent that was granted unto Daniel Purdy, son of John Purdy de- 
ceased, Samuel Brown, Benjamin Brown and others, grant unto 
the Presbyterian Society for ever, one-half acre of land lying on 
the Plains near unto the house that was the late deceased 
Thomas Merritt's jun., &c. In witness whereof, we have here- 
unto set our hands, the 15th day of May, in the second year of 
the reign of King George the second, A. D. 1729.^ 
Robert Bloomer, Charles Leish, Thomas Brown, 

Daniel Purdy, sen., James Roosevelt, Jonathan Brown, 
Joseph Eniffen, Hachaliah Brown, Thomas Purdy, 

a John Purdy wai residing at Fairfield, in 1658. 

b The cost of this -edifice, including certain improvements around the church, 
• The land was the gift of Mr. Jesse Park, 
d Rye Rec. Lib. C. 

YoL. 11. 7 


60 raSTORY OF THE .^ 

Abram van Wyck, Joseph Purdy, John Garhart, 

Nathan Kniffen, Andrew Merritt, ^ Timothy Knapp, 

Samuel Lane, sen., Nathaniel Sherwood, Jonathan Haight, 

John Disbrow, Thomas Howell, Justus Bush, 

Benjamin Brown, Ebenezer Eniffen, j^ohn Coe, 

John Roosevelt, Daniel Purdy, Joseph Lyon, 

Joseph Sherwood, John Lyon, jun., Joseph StedwelK 

George Kniffen, James Brown, 

The first ordained pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Rye, 
was the Rev. John Smith, who appears to have commenced his 
labors here cir. 1753. He is said to have been an able and useful 
minister ; he died February 26th, 1771, aged 68 years. In 1793, 
the Rev. Isaac Lewis, D. D., officiated here statedly for three 
month's. His son and successor in the church at Greenwich, 
continued for a short time after. Subsequently at irregular inter- 
vals clergymen visited the church of whom no record remains. 
On the 4tb of March, 1829, this church was regularly organized 
by a commission of the New York presbytery. Upon the forma- 
tion of the Bedford presbytery in October, 1829, the relations of 
this church was transferred to that body, in which connection it 
has ever since remained. The Rev. Mr. Saxton officiated as 
stated supply until May 17th, 1827, when the Rev. W. H. Whit- 
temore took charge and continued until April, 1832. In July, 
1829, the second church edifice was thoroughly repaired, at a cost 
of $800. For the successors of the Rev. Mr. Whittemore, see 
list of pastors. 

The Presbyterian Church of Rye was first incorporated on the 
6th of June 1796; Robert Merritt,EzekieIHaIstead, jun., Nathan 
Brown, John Doughly, James Hunt and David Rogers, trus- 

List of Ministers of the Presbyterian Church, at Rye, 
Install, or call Ministers, vacated by 

A. D. 1763, Rev. John Smith, death, 

• Co. Roe. Religiottf Soc. Lib. A. 50. 


lust, or call. Ministers, Vacated by 

A. D. 1793, Rev. Isaac Lewis, resig. 

1794, Rev. Isaac Lewis, jr., do. 

1826, Rev. Mr. SaxtoD, do. 

1827, Rev. W. H. Whittemore, do. 
April, 1833, Rev. David Remington, death, 
April, 1834, Rev. Thomas Payne, resig. 

October, 1836, Rev. James R. Davenport, do. 

Oct. 9 1838, Rev. Edward D. Bryan, present minister* 

Church Memoranda. 

1836, communicants 20, baptisms 6, 
1846, do 88, do 7. 

The first religious society of Rye was Congregational, at that 
time the established religion of the colony of Connecticut. 

<' By authority it had been enacted that no person within the 
colony should embody themselves in church estate without the 
consent of the general court. The law also prohibited any min- 
istry being attended by the inhabitants, in any plantation distinct 
and separate from that which was established in the place, except 
by the approbation of the general court and the neighboring 

" One object of these laws was doubtless to prevent Baptists, 
Episcopalians and others from gaining a foothold.*'^ 

As early as 1660, says the historian Trumbull, Rye paid taxes 
for the support of religion, although no church was formed nor 
pastors ordained. 

Greenwich and Rye, continues the same authority, were but ~ 
just come under the jurisdiction of Connecticut, and not in cir- 
cumstances for the support of ministers; they had occasional 
preaching only for a considerable time.*> 

At a town meeting held in Rye, November, 1670, the town 
made choice of Joseph Horton, Thomas Brown, and John Bron- 
dig, who are to do their endeavor to procure a minister. 

It was also agreed for to allow two pence in the pound for the 

• Lambtrt's Hist. N. HaTsn, p. 189. b TmubQU'd Hist Conn. p. 300. 


maintenance of a minister amongst us, that is to say an orthodox 

From the following document it appears that the town had 
not succeeded in procuring a minister, for May the llth, 1671, 
at a court of assembly held at Hartford, Capt. Nathan Gold, 
Thomas Fitch, Mr. Holly, Lt. Richard Olmstead, and Mr. John 
Burr, they, or any three of them, are desired to repair to the said 
Rye, as soon as may be, and to endeavor a comfortable composure 
and issue of such differences as are among the people there, and 
to use their endeavors in the procuring of an able and orthodox 
minister to settle in that place, and if the people of Rye shall not 
concur with their endeavors in procuring a minister and comfort- 
ably settling of him in the plantation of Rye, then the court doth 
empower the aforesaid committe to agree with a suitable man 
for that work in that place, and to agree with him for maynte- 
nance to the value of £40 per annum, which the treasurer, by 
warrant to the constable of said Rye, shall order for the gather- 
ing and payment thereof with the county rate.* 

October 8th, 1674. The general court again empowers Cap- 
tain John Allyn, Mr. James Bishop, Major Robert Treat with 
Mr. Gold, " to endeavor also the obliging and settling of a minis- 
ter at Rye."b 

At a court hoi den at Hartford, May 17th, 1675, Major Nathan 
Gold, Major Robert Treat, and Mr. Jehu Burr were nominated 
and appointed a committee to treat with the inhabitants of Rye 
and those concerned in lands there, and labor to accommodate 
matters, as that there may be suitable encouragement for Mr. 
Prudden to settle in the ministry, and such other suitable inhabi- 
tants with him as may promote the settlement of said town of 
Rye and the ministry therein ; and if they shall find any averse- 
ness or difficulty with the inhabitants or proprietors in so just 
and necessary publique good of the town, they are empowered to 
doe what they see meet for the end aforesaid, and make reports 
to the court in October next, for approbation ; and for the en- 
couragement of the ministry at Rye, this court, for this year. 

• Hart Col. Rec toI. iii. 18. b Hart. Col. Rec. vol iii. 53. 


grants them a penny of the pound upon all the ratable estate of 
their town, to be payd out of their country rate, and shall be 
ready as need requires to continue such necessary encourage* 
ment as they shall judge suitable.* 

Upon the 27th May, 1675, the town orders that the home lot 
of Peter Disbrow, adjoining Timothy Knapp, be taken by the 
town in exchange for the land by the Blind brook, south of Jacob 
Bridge's. The above lot to be for Mr. Peter Prudden for a par- 
sonage lot ; if not thus disposed of, this agreement to be void. 

February 26, 1676. The town released Peter Disbrow's lot, 
and cancels the above agreement. 

February 26lh, 1677. John Brundige and John Purdy are 
empowered to sell the frame intended for a parsonage house. 

The same year the Rev. Thomas Denham appears to have 
been minister here, for, June 15, a bouse lot is ordered for Mr. 
Thomas Denham, and on November the 22d, we find the same 
individual admitted an inhabitant of the town of Rye. June 21 
167S, Mr. Thomas Denham is to have all the grass on the high- 
way at the old town, besides an equal share with the proprietors 
of Poningoe neck, 

March 5th, 1679. 60 poles of land lying before his door, to- 
ward the brook, are granted to Mr. Thomas Denham, and the 
ensuing year he is to have all the grass in the highway at the 
first of the old town lots ; also £30 allowed for his maintenance. 
The general court of Connecticut, October 14ih, 16S0, ordered 
that thirty pounds per annum agreed by Rye to be paid to the 
minister, Mr. Denham, shall be gathered by the constable with 
the country rate, in the same specie and prices as the country 
rate, and by him to be paid to the said minister. ^ A.D. 1682, 
the town confirms the sura of £30 as salary to Mr. Denham, and 
orders the same to be paid in provisions. 

The historian Trumbull informs us that about the year 1688, 

the Rev. John Bowers removed from Derby and settled at Rye.® 

April 22d, 1690, Captain Horton, Joseph Theall, and John 

« Hart Col. Rec vol. m. 59. b Hart Col. Rec. yol. iii. 59. 

« Tmmlrairs Hist. Conn. p. 523. 


Brondig are chosen by the town to procure a minister^ and, if 
possible, a schoolmaster. 

27ih June, 1693. Hacaliah Brown, George Lane, and Timothy 
Knapp were added to the above committee to procure a minister 
as soon as possible. 

February 26th, 1694, it is ordered that the townsman make a 
rate to defray the expense of repairing the parsonage house. 
22d July, 1697 ; Captain Theal, Hachaliah Brown, George LanCi 
and Thomas Merritt are chosen by vote for the procuring of a 
minister for the town of Rye. 

Colonel Caleb Heathcote writing to the secretary of the Pro- 
pagation Society in 1705, observes, ** that there is no parish in 
the government but what is able to pay twice as much as they do. 
For Rye parish^ which is not by one-half so large as the least 
parish established by law in the government here, since my liv- 
ing here, maintained two dissenting ministers, viz. one at Rye 
and Mamaroneck, and one B^Bed/ordf and gave tM former £50, 
and the latter £40, a year."» 



In8tal or call. Ministers. 

1681. Rev. Peter Prudden. 

1677. Rev. Thomas Denham. 

cir. 1684. Rev. John Woodbridge. 

1688. Rev. John Bowers. 

Christ Church, Rye, is agreeably situated upon rising ground, 
overlooking the village and vale of Blind brook. 

The building itself is a plain edifice of wood, surmounted with 
an embattled tower, and a small vestry-room attached to the 

» See Scandale, for Heathcote*s letter. 


Its interior consists of the nave, two aisles, gallery and cbai>- 
cel. On the korlh side of the laltar there is a neat monQtnental 
tablet, erected 

Id memorj of 
W>LLI*M Thompbok, 

ofChnM Church «t Rje, 

A natire of EnnHkiHen, 


Odlaiaed April, 18S0, 

* Appointed to the charge of thia Pariahi 

September, 1833, 

Died AugDst Sg, 1830. 

"Mark the perfect man, and behold the aprighl, 

for the end of that man ia peace." — Paaltn xxxtiii. v. 37. 

Erected by hie affeclionate 


His remains are interred in the village cemeleir. Beneath the 
floor of the church lie pillovred in the darkness of the grave se- 
veral of the early rectois. 



The present building was erected at a cost of $5500, in the 
year 1788, upon the site of the old stone edifice called Grace 

It was designed at first to have erected a steeple in place of 
the present tower, as appears by an act of the vestry, dated Sept. 
17, 1791. 

" Wherein it was ordered to remove the work projected for a 
steeple on the top of the roof, at the west end.'' 

Belonging to this church is a silver 
paten and chalice presented by her Ma- 
jesty Queen Anne, A. D. 1706. 

These articles have been used in the 
administration of the holy sacrament 
nearly one century and a half. The 
royal donation originally consisted, (to- 
gether with the above,) of a large 
church bible, common ^prayer book, 
book of homilies, cloth for the pulpit, 
and a communion table. 

Upon two copper alms bowls are in- 
scribed, "Presented to Christ Church 
at Rye, by James Meadows, 1769." 

Besides a fine toned bell the church 
contains a neat organ. 

The first notice of this parish occurs 
in the two acts passed by the Assembly of New York in 1693 
and 1697. 

The first entitled '' An act for settling a ministry and raising 
a maintenance for them in the city of New York, and counties 
of Richmond, Westchester^ and dueens." 

The second ordered, " That there shall be called, inducted 
and established a good sufficient Protestant minister to officiate 
and have the cure of souls within one year next ensuing, and after 
the publication hereof. In the county of Westchester two ; one 
to have the cure of souls within Westchester, &c. ; the other to 
have the cure of Rye, Mamaroneck and Bedford."* 

The Qaeen*0 paten and cbalice. 

• AcU of AflBemUy» Pro. of N. Y. 1691 to 1725, p. 23. 


Pursuant to these acts of Assembly a town meeting was held, 
February 28, 1695, by virtue of a warrant granted by Justice 
Theal, when George Lane and John Brondig were elected 
churchwardens, and Jonathan Hart, Joseph Horton, Josepii Pur- 
dy, Timothy Enapp, Hachaliah Brown, Thomas Merritt, Deliv- 
erance Brown and Isaac Denham, vestrymen, the two last being 
chosen for Bedford. 

The whole number of the appropriated precincts, belonging to 
the parish of Rye in 1725, were as folbw ; Bedford, Scarsdale, 
Mamaroneck and North Castle, to which were subsequently add- 
ed White Plains and Harrison. 

For collecting the minister's maintenance, writs, of. mandamus 
were issued to the justices and vestries, empowenug them to 
make a rate for raising the rector's tax. 

The following are specimens of the original taxation rolls of 
this benefice in 1725. 

Bedford, £16 2 0. Mamaroneck, £ IS 0. Scarsdale, £5 3 0. 
North Castle, £2 9 0. Total with Rye, £67 18 0. 

The first inducted rector of the parish was the Rev. Thomas 
Pritchard. In a summary account of the state of the church in 
the Province of New York, as it was laid before the clergy, con- 
vened October 6th, 1704, at New York, d&c., it was stated, that 
" at Rye, of which the Rev. Thomas Pritchard is rector, there is 
no church, but the minister preaches in the town house ; the 
parish is divided into three districts, viz. Rye, Bedford and Ma- 

" There is a salary of £50 per annum, established by act of 
Assembly; the number of communicants are considerably in- 
creased, since the first celebration of the sacraments, &c."^ 

In a letter addressed to the Propagation Society, dated Rye, 
November 1st, 1704, Mr. Pritchard proposes to that body the 
Rev. Mr. Stewart then missionary at Bedford^ as a most suitable 
person to fill the vacant parish of Hempstead, Long Island. 

The Rev. Thomas Pritchard married Anna Stuyvesant, 
daughter of Nicholas William, and grand-daughter of the illus- 

* Church Rec. Vol. i. No. 16. Francis L. Hawks* D. D.> editor. 

YoL. II. 8 


trious Peter Stnyvesant.^ Mr. Pritchard appears to have been 
inducted in 1703. He died A. D. 1706. 

His successor was the Rev. George Muirson. Of this gentle- 
man the Rev. Mr. Evans thus writes in a letter to the Bishop of 
London, under date of October 17th, 1704. " This comes by 
the hands of the ingenious Mr. George Muirson to receive holy 
orders from your Lordship, by the approbation of his Excellency 
my Lord Cornbury. I find that he is very well beloved and es- 
teemed by all sorts of people, a man of a very sober and blame- 
less conversation. He seems to be indued with great humility 
of mind, and has the character of being very prudent in his con* 
duct. I give him this recommendation not to gratify himself, 
nor any body else, but because 1 sincerely believe he may be 
very instrumental of doing much good in the church.''^ 

Mr. Muirson having been ordained, was appointed to the mission 
of Rye. In his first report to the Society he states *^ that he had a 
very great congregation every Sunday and that those were his hear- 
ers who never were in a Church of England congregation before. 
Though the people were of almost all persuasions, he had ad- 
mitted into the church, by baptism, eighty persons young and 
old ; hundreds however in the parish remain unbaptized.<^ 

He further remarks to the Society, << I have lately been in the 
Government of Connecticut, where I observe some people well 
affected to the church, for those that are near come to my parish 
on Sabbath days ; so that I am assured an itinerant missionary 
might do great service in that province. Some of their ministers 
have privately told me that had we a bishop among us, they 
would conform and receive holy orders, from which as well as 
on all the continent, the necessity of a bishop will plainly ap« 

'<In these visits and in every effort for the good of the church, 
Mr. Muirson was heartily supported by Colonel Caleb Heathcote, 

» Rep. of Propagation Soe. 

b N. Y. Hist Collections, New Series, vol. i. 455. 

« Hawkins* Hist. Not. of Col. Church, vol. ii. MS. letters. No. 34. 

* HawkiM' Hi«t. Not of CoL Church, p. 277. 


who t\$o wrote to the Societjr on (he subject, confirming the ac- 
count of the opposition which the missionary had encounteredi 
and stating thai the justices had forbidden him to preachy and 
even threatened to put him and all his hearers in jail. 

Of his own parish, Mr. Muirson reports, '' 1 have baptized 
about two hundred young and old, but most adult persons, and 
am in hopes of initialing many more into the church, after I have 
examined, taught, and find ihem qualified. This is a large par* 
ish ; the towns are far distant; the people were some Quakers, 
some Anabaptists, but chiefly Presbyterians and Independents; 
they were violently set against our church, but now (blessed 
be God !) they comply heartily, for I have now above forty com- 
municants, and had only six when I first administered that holy 
sacrament. I find that catechising on the wjek days in the remore 
towns, and frequent visiting is of great service, and I am sure 
that I have made twice more proselytes by proceeding after that 
method than by public preaching.^ 

Mr. Muirson, besides his salary of £50 from the Society, was 
entitled to £50 currency, as settled by act of Assembly on Rye 
parish ; but as his people were poor and for the most part recent 
converts, he considerately forbore to press his legal claim, and 
during the first two years of his ministry, had only received 
about ten or twelve pounds currency ; thus plainly showing ha 
sought not theirs but them« 

'' The following account of the Indians, written in the year 
170S, will be thought interesting. As to the Indians, the natives 
of "the country, they are a decaying people. We have not now 
in all the parish twenty families, whereas not many years ago 
there were several hundreds. I have frequently conversed with 
some of them, and been at their great meetings of '' pawawing,'' 
as they call it. i have taken some pains to teach some of them, 
but to no purpose, for they seem regardless of instruction, and 
when I have told them of the evil consequences of their hard 
drinking, &c., they replied that Englishmen do the same, and 

HawkiriB' Hiit. Not. of Col. Churob, p. 279. 


that it is not so great a sin in an Indian as in an Englishman, 
because the Englisliman's religion forbids it, but an Indian's 
does not. They further say they will not be Christians, nor do 
they see the necessity for so being, because we do not live ac- 
cording to the precepts of our holy religion. In such ways do 
most of the Indians that I have conversed with, either here or 
elsewhere, express themselves. I am heartily sorry that we 
should give them such a.bad example, and fill their mouths with 
such objections to our blessed religion." 

"He mentions in this letter that they had completed the house 
of God at Rye, by the subscription of the inhabitants ; a stately 
structure indeed." 

'* Mr. Muirson, after a short but a most useful service in the 
ministry of the church, died in October, 1708, much lamented 
by his friends, and missed by his parish ioners."* 

The last will of George Muirson, clerk, bears date September, 
1708. By his wife Gloriana, daughter of the Hon. Colonel Wil- 
liam Smith,b he left one son, George Muirson, M. D.,<^ of Setau- 
kett, L. I., the father of Heathcote Muirson. The latter was a 
graduate of Yale College in 1776, and died from wounds received 
in the attack upon Lloyd's neck, Long Island, July, 1781. 

Mr. Muirson was succeeded in January, 1709, by the Rev. 
Christopher Bridges. 

" Upon the 9th of January, 1710, at a meeting of the par- 
ishioners, at the parish church in Rye, the following church- 
wardens and vestrymen were elected for the year ensuing. 

Capt. Joseph Theale, Capt. Jonathan Hart, 

Cornelius Seely. 

• HiiO. Not of the Ch. of Enf^la^d in the N. A. Colonies, 281. 

k The Hon. William Smith was chief justice and president of the Council of the 
Province of New Yort. 

• Anna, the eldest daughter of Dr. George Muirson, married Cyrus Punderson, 
D. D. Their descendants are still residing upon Long Island. Mary the youngest 
married William Wiekham Wills. 



Andrew Coe, George Lane, Jun. - 

John Merritt, Sen. Joseph Lyon, 

Daniel Purdy, George Kniffen, 

Thomas Purdy, John Disbrow, Mannaroneck. 

Thomas Merritt, Jun. John Miller, Bedford. 

At a meeting of the vestry, held on the 29th of July, 1712, the 
Rev. Mr. Bridges presented the following communication from 
his Excellency Robert Hunter : 

" You are to give order forthwith, (if the same be not already 
done) that every orthodox minister within your government be one 
of the vestry in his respective parish, and that no vestry be held 
without him, except in case of sickness, or that after notice of 
vestry summoned he omit to come." 

Rev. Sir, the above copy of Uer Majesty's instructions to me, 
I have thought fit to direct to the several ministers within this 
Province, that their respective vestries may regulate themselves 
accordingly, and if there be any practice contrary thereunto, I 
desire you may duly inform me, that effectual care may be taken 

I remain Reverend Sir, 

Your assured Friend and Servant, 

Robert Hunter.* 

In 1712, <' one hundred nnd fifiy prayer books and five pounds 
worth of tracts, were voted to Mr. Bridges of Rye. He was also 
allowed for the services of two school-masters in the parish, £5 
per annum each, on a certificate, that they have taught thirty 
children the bible, the catechism and the use of the liturgy ."^ 

In 1715, '<Mr. Bridges at Rye had reduced many who were 
brought up in a very dissolute way of living and total neglect of 
public worship, to a more sober conversation and a constant at* 
tendance on the worship of God, using his utmost endeavors to 
put a stop to many disorderly practices.''^' 

• Church Roc. k Reporti of Propagation Soc 

* Reports of Propagation Soc. ^ 


The same year the Propagation Society "presented to Mr. 
Huddlestone, schoolmaster in Rye, £f6 additional salary and to 
Mr. Bridges some common prayer books and devotional tracts, of 
which the people were very desirous before he wrote, and heartily 
thankful for them since. To these donations the Society added 
two dozep prayer books, wiih the old version of the singing, and 
as many of Lewis's church catechism for exercise in his school, 
or in mornings of the Lord's d«ys, (when not only his own 
scholars, but several of the young people of the town of both 
sexes come willingly to be informed,) one dozen bibles with the 
common prayer, and the new version of psalms, twenty- five 
psalters and fifty-one primers, all which he requested as contri- 
buting mightily to the spreading the good work he has in hand, 
having taught besides British children, six hundred Dutch and 
French to read and write English."* 

The Rev. Christopher Bridges died on the 22d of May, 1719, 
having been ten years minister of this church. 

A. D. 1720. "The Rev. Mr. Barclay formerly missionary to 
Albany was missionary of Rye with a salary of £30." The same 
year the Society "gave Mr. Barclay £L0 in consideration of the 
hard circumstances he lies under."** 

In 1721, the Rev. Thomas Poyer officiated here.® 

Upon the 4th of June, 1722, the churchwardens and vestrymen 
addressed the following letter to the venerable Propagation 
Society : 

'* We the charchwardeos and Testrymen of ye parish of Rye, in ye province 
of New York, io America, having taken ye liberty soon after ye death of onr 
late incumbent, the Rev. Mr. Christopher Bridges, humbly to pray that your 
honours would continue your usual bounty to our poor church, and supply us 
in oar destitute condition with a Church of England minister in ye room of 
our late incumbent, do take this opportunity to return your honours oar hearty 
thanks, as well for the constant supply which by your honours' favorable re- 
commendation we had from the clergy of this province, as for your resolution, 

• Reports of Propagation Soc. 
b Reports of Propagation Soc. 

« The Propagation Society voted X50 to the clergy of New York for supplying 
the church at Rye, vacant by the death of the Rev. Mr. Bridges. 


'appearing in print, to sapply ua with a miniater to reaide among ut, aa aeon 
aa one whom your hononra can approve of ahali offer. We have been, to our 
great detriment, destitute about three yeara, and now haviog the opportunity 
of one whom we are universally pleased wi^i, ye Rev. Mr. Robert Jenney, 
chaplain of the forces of this province, who is willing to relinquish his place 
in the forces to settle amongst iia and become our miniater, provided he can 
have your honoura^ favor and bounty for his encouragement. We have takea 
ye liberty to give him a call, aa ye act of assembly of this province empowera 
us, (which is enclosed to your honours,) humbly praying for your approbation^ 
of what we have done, and that you will please to grant unto him aa our min- 
iater, ye favour and bounty, being a person whose conversation, preaching, 
and diligence in his holy function we are well acquainted and satisfied with. 
We are confident that his residence amongst us will efilectually reconcile all 
oar difilerences, and heal all our breaches, occaaioned by our being so long la 
want of a faithful and prudent pastor to guide and instruct na. That God 
Almighty will prosper your honours* pious and charitable endeavoura for the 
acrvice of his church in this wilderness, and that he will grant unto every one 
of you the choisest of bis blessings, temporal and eternal, la the hearty 
prayer of 

May it please yonr honours, your honours* moat dutiful and moat obedient 
humble aervanta. Signed by order, 

John Carhart, Clerk.^ 

The Rev. Robert Jenney, minister of Rye, writing to the Pro- 
pagation Society in 1723, observes, ''that he has several other 
townships under his charge, and that since his admission in 
1722, he has baptized ten adults and fifty children ; number of 
communicants twenty-six."b In 1724 Mr. Jenney reported "the 
baptism of two adults and several children ; communicants 
twenly-eight.c A.D. 1725,d the quotas of the various districts 
stood thus : 

Rye, £34 4 Bedford £16 2 

Mamaroneck 18 Scarsdale 6 3 

North Castle £2 9 
Mr. Jenhey was removed by the Society to Hempstead, Long 

« Church Rec. 
b Rep. of Propagation Soc. 

4 At a yettry meeting held in Rye, Janaary 18th, 1735, « it was voted that roo« 
ney be raieed to purchase a dmm for the church." 



Island in 1726. The vacancy created by the removal, the So- 
ciety proceeded immediately to fill by appointing the Rev. Mr. 
Colgan. Upon which we find the vestry addressing the secre- 
tary of the society as follows : 

" Ret. Sir : We, the charchwardens and Testry of the parish of Rye, re- 
tarn oar humble thanks to ye honorable Society for their pious and charitable 
care of this parish in providing so speedily to fiU this yacancy by appointing 
ye Rev. Mr. Colgan for us. We conclude they have before this time been 
acquainted by our letters how far we had proceeded to obtain a minister, fear- 
ing the ill consequences of being lef^ destitate ; and we hope ye honorable 
Society will put a favorable construction upon our proceedings, though we 
haye given our call to the Rev. Mr. Wetmore, and he received induction im- 
mediately upon it, yet he always declared that he should submit to ye resolu- 
tions of the honorable Society, and not in any degree interfere with their de- 
termination, and though we find ye inclinations of ye people yery much to 
have Mr. Wetmore appointed for us ; on which account we can't but desire 
that ye honorable Society would be pleased to favor it ; yet We shall always pay 
ye greatest defierence to their pleasure, and if they finally determine that Mr. 
Colgan shall be for us, against whom we have no exceptions, as, being a stran- 
ger to us, we shall give him the best welcome we are capable of, but inasmuch 
as ye Rev. Mr. Colgan is willing, by exchange with Mr. Wetmore, to continue 
at New York, and that vestry has signified their approbation, we heartily join 
with them in requesting of ye honorable Society that they would confirm that 
agreement, and give liberty for Mr. Wetmore to come to this parish, who, by 
being born in the county and acquainted with the dispositions and customs of 
ye people here, will be acceptable to us, and we hope do much service for re- 
ligion. But all this with submission to that venerable body, whose pleasure 
we' shall most cheerfully submit to ; and we pray ye continuance of their favour 
and charity to us, and that God would prosper their pious designs. 

We are, reverend sir, the Hon'ble Society's, and your most humble and 
obedient servants. Signed by order.^ 

John Carhart, Clerk. 

To the Rev. Mr. David Humphreys, 
Secretary to ye Hon'ble Society for Propagating ye Gospel, &c., at ye 
Archbishop's Library at St. Martins in ye Fields, London." 

In accordance with this request the society were pleased to 
confirm the appointment of Mr. Wetmore. 

• Church Rec 


We take the subjoined extract from a letter sent to the secretary 
of the society, in 1726-7. 

" And now, we are once more peaceably settled, we hope by 
the blessing of God to see religion revive among us, which by con- 
tentions and divisions is sunk to a very low ebb. As the Rev. Mr. 
Wetmore has been born in the county, and long known among 
us, who has had bis conversation becoming his sacred character 
and profession, we doubt not but ye people of this parish will 
continue their aflfection to him, and hope to see this good fruit of 
it, viz: that they be brought to a proper sense of religion, and 
more general and constant attendance, in ye public worship and 
sacraments which for a long time have been very much neglect* 
ed among us ; we earnestly pray for the blessing of almighty 
God upon that venerable society whose extensive charity (under 
God,) finds food for so many souls famishing in ignorance and 
error, and shall always look upon ourselves strictly bound to pay 
it, the greatest honor and most cheerful obedience to all their 
commands and directions, and beg leave to subscribe with all du- 
tiful respects. 

Rev'd. Sir, your and ye Honorable Society's most 

humble and obedient servants. 
Signed by order of the vestry,* 
John Carhart, clerk. 

The Rev. James Wetmore, writes A. D. 1728, that his congre- 
gation is considerably increased, he has added nine new communi- 
cants and baptized nineteen. In 1729 he acquaints the society 
^' that he meets with good success in his mission, that his num- 
bers increase, and that several of the independents have quitted 
that persuasion and very regularly attend divine service at his 
church.^b July 1st, 1738, he says "I have baptized the last half 
year five adults besides several children. About fifty families in 
the adjoining parish have requested assistance. Mr. Purdy,"© 
(schoolmaster at Rye,) ^' teaches twenty-one children of church 

« Church Rec 
^ Propagation Soe. Rep. 

* Mr. Fordy died in 1753, and wai boned on Ash Wednesday. Rep. of Propaga- 
tion Soc 

Vol. IL 9 


parents and fourteen dissenters, as likewise two Dutch, two Jew- 
ish and one colored child, in all forty-one. Mr. Dwight of 
White Plains^ six miles from Rye, teaches twenty -seven children, 
in all forty-six." 

*< And adds, July 15, 1740, that besides his regular duty at Rye, 
he officiates once a month at Stamford and Greenwich. He had 
also spent some days last winter in visiting sundry families in 
the woods. Since the 3d day of May, 1739, he had baptized one 
hundred and eleven children, and twenty-seven adults; his com- 
municants number fifty."^ 

Under date of September 28lh, 1741 , he observes " that by God's 
help the church maintains her ground notwithstanding the efforts 
of the sectaries in new melhodism. He had baptized within a 
year sixty-nine children and six adults, &c."^ 

In 1745 Mr. Wetmore writes " that he is fully occupied in per- 
forming duty at Rye, Scarsdale and the White Plains, and begs 
for an assistant to officiate under him. At Bedford and North 
Castle there are four hundred families, icc^^ 

The same year Mr. Joseph Lamson was appointed assistant to 
Mr. Wetmore with a salary of £20 ; a gratuity of £20 was also 
made by the society, ''out of compassion to Mr. Ijamson's suffer- 
ings and necessities, who was taken prisoner, shipped and carried 
into France on his voyage towards England, and afterwards on 
his way from Port Louis in France, to London, was detained 
seven months by a fever at Salisbury. Mr. Lamson undertook 
the voyage to England for the purpose of obtaining Episcopal 
ordination.^ In his first reports dated May 12th, 1746, Mr. 
Lamson writes '- that he officiates by turns at Bedford and North 

* Reports of Propagatiou Soc. 

b Reports of Propa|ration Soc. 

» Reports of Propagration Soc. 

< Some idea (says the Rev. M. H. Henderson,) of the great disadvantages under 
wbjch the church labored during our colonial existence, may be formed from the 
fftct, that beside the great expense of the voyage, (XI 00,) an expense which candi- 
dates for holy orders could ill affurd to bear, nearly one-fiAh of all that went to 
England for ordination died, either from small- pox, or the dangers of the deep. 
*< The number who had gone to England for ordination from the northern colonies^ 
tip to 1767| was 52 ; of these 42 only returned safely. Henderson's Centennial Dis« 


Castle to full congregations and had then baptized eleven children 
and three adults.''^ At a vestry meeting of this parish held at 
Mr. Benjamin Brown's, sen., in Rye, January 16th 1749, the 
Rev. James Wetmore delivered the following letter, from the 
Rev. Phihp Bearcroft, D. D., secretary to the Honorable Proper 
gation Society. 

London^ Charier House^ June 27, 1749. 
Gents : — 

It is with much concern that the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts are informed that your 
churc/i add the parsonage house are very much out of repair, 
and that even the possession of the glebe is disputed against 
your very worthy pastor Mr. Wetmore, whose great pains and 
abilities in the cause of God's church, cannot but recommend 
him to every worthy member of it. Therefore the Society hope 
and expect tliat upon due consideration you wi)l give orders for 
the full repair of the church and the parsonage house, and defend 
Mr. Wetmore in the maintenance of all his jasi rights, as you 
desire his longer continuance among you. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your very humble servant, 

Philip Bearcroft, Secretary, 
To the Churchwardens and Vestry 
of the Church of Rye, New York. 

Mr. Wetmore, in his report of 1751, mentions '*lhat the church 
had lately been repaired and is made neat and beautiful." 

In a letter of April 7th, 1769, Mr. Wetmore acquaints the Sob- 
riety " that a very worthy person, a native of Englauji,^ but now 
being in New York had put into his hands £600 currency, of 
which he reserves to himself the interest during life, and hath 
left by his will £400 more to be added after his death, to pur- 
chase a convenient glebe, and oiher liberal legacies."^^ 

^ Rep. of Propagation Sqq, 

b St. Goorge Talbot, Esq., see vol. i. 25. 

• Reports of Propagation Soc 


The Rev. James Wetmore died on the 16th of May, 1760, <^ 
having been nearly thirty- four years minister of this church. His 
remains repose in the old parish burial ground, on the north-west 
side of Blind brook. A plain monumental tablet marks the spot 
and bears the following inscription. 

Sacred to the memory 

of the 

Rev. James Wetmore, 

The late, worthy, learned and faithful 

Minister of the Parish of Rye, 

for above thirty years, who having 

strenuously defended the Church 

with his pen, and adorned it by his life 

and doctrine, at length being seized 

of the small pox, departed this 

life, May 15, 1760. iBtatis, 65. 

Cujus memoriae sit in 

Benedictione sempiterna. 

Mr. Wetmore left issue two sons, Timothy, afterwards 
attorney general of the province of New Brunswick, and 
James, of Rye; descendants of the latter are still living in 
the town. Also four daughters, Alethea, wife of the Rev. Jo- 
seph Lamson, Anna, wife of Gilbert Brundage, Charity, wife of 
Josiab f^urdy, from whom descend the Purdys of Rye, and 
Esther who married first David Brown, and secondly Jesse Hunt, 
Esq. high sheriff of this county in 1780. 

In a letter of May 6th, 1761, Mr. Timothy Wetmore com- 
plains to the Society, <' that since the death of his father they had 
not been favored with a sermon, or either of the sacraments, 
for six or eight months.''^* 

• The last will of James Wetmore, clerk, bean date Not. 1759. Surrogate's 
office, N. Y. Lib. xxu. 133. 
» Reports of Propagation Soc 


After a vacancy of nearly tvo years the mission was again fill- 
ed by the appointment of the Rev. Ebenezer Punderson.* In 
1763 this gentleman informs the Society ^' that since writing his 
last letter, besides two-thirds of the Sundays at Rye, and the 
other third at White Plains, North Castle and Bedford, he had 
been twice to Crumpond and once to Croton, he had also bap- 
tized nineteen adults and ninety-two children." 

Mr. Punderson died in 1764. The following inscription is 
taken from his monument in the grave yard. 

Sacred to the Memory 

of the 

Rev. Ebenezer Punderson, 

late Missionary to the Rev. Society for 

Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 

who died 22d Sept., A. D. 1764, 

being 60 years of age. 

" With pure religion was his spirit fraught, 

Practiced himself what he to others taught." 

Upon the 19th day of December, 1764, Grace Church, Rye, re- 
ceived the following charter from King George the Third. 


George the Third, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ire- 
land, King, Defender of the Faith, and so forth. To all to whom these presents 
shall come, greeting : Whereas our loving subjects, Peter Jay, Elisha Budd, 
Christopher Isinghart, Timothy Wetmore, Caleb Purdy, Joshua Purdy, John 
Gaion, Joseph Purdy, Gilbert Willet, John Carhart, Thomas Sawyer, Gilbert 
Bmndige, John Thomas, William Sutton, Anthony Miller and John Adee^ 
inhabitants of the parish of Rye, in the county of Westchester, in our Province 
of New York, in communion of the Church of England as by law establishedi 
by their humble petition presented on the sixteenth day of November last 
past, to our trusty and well beloved Cadwallader Colden, Esquire, our Liea- 

• Tot the induction of Mr. Fundf rK>o, see Surrogate's office, N. Y. Book of Com* 
missiohs, Fol. t. 


tenant Governor and Commander-in-chief of our Province of New York 
and tiie territories depending thereon in America, in Conncil did set forth 
that the inhabitants of the said parish of Rye, in communion of the Church of 
England as by law established, have by voluntary contributions erected and 
finished a decent and convenient church in the town of Rye, in the said par- 
ish, for the celebration of divine service according to the rites and cere- 
monies of the Church of England, but that from a want of some persons le- 
gally authorized to superintend the same and manage the affairs and interests 
thereof, the said church is greatly decayed, and the petitioners discouraged 
from contributing to the repair thereof, least the moneys given for that pur- 
pose may be misapplied, and that on that account also charitable and well dis- 
posed people are discouraged in their design of establishing proper funds for 
the future support of the said church and the better maintenance of the min- 
istry, and therefore humbly prayed in behalf of themselves and the rest of the 
inhabitants of the said parish in communion of the church of England as by 
law established, our letters patent incorporating them and the rector and in- 
habitants of the said parish in communion of the Church of England as by 
law established, for the time being a body corporate and politick, with such 
rights, privileges, and immunities, as should appear proper and expedient to 
answer the purposes aforesaid. Now We being willing to encourage the pious 
intentions of our said loving subjects and to grant this their reasonable re- 
quest, Know Ye that of our especial grace, certain knowledge and mere mo- 
tion, we have ordained, given, granted and declared, and by these presents 
for us, our heirs, and successors, do ordain, give, grant and declare, that they 
the said petitioners and the rest of the inhabitants of the said parish of Rye in 
communion of the Church of England as by law established, and their succes- 
sors the inhabitants of the said parish of Rye in communion of the Church of 
England as by law established, with the rector of the said parish of Rye for 
the time being> for ever, shall for ever hereafter be one body corporate and 
politick in deed, fact and name, by the name, stile and title of the rector and 
inhabitants of the parish of Rye, in communion of the Church of England as 
by law established, and them and their successors by the same name, we do 
by these presents for us our heirs and successors really and fully make, erect, 
create and constitute one body politick and corporate in deed, fact and name 
for ever, and will, give, grant, and ordain, that they and their successors the 
rector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye in communion of the Church of 
England as by law established, by the same name shall and may have perpe- 
tual successioui and shall and may be capable in law to sue and be sued, im- 
plead and be impleaded, answer and be answered onto, defend and be defend- 
ed in all courts and elsewhere, in all manner of actions, suits, complaints, 
pleas, causes, matters and demands whatsoever, as fully and amply as any 
other oar liege subjects of our said Province of New York may or can sue or 
be sued, implead or be impleaded, defend or be defended, by any lawful ways 
or means whatsoever, and that they and their successors by the same name 


shall be for erer hereaAer capable and able in the law to purchase, take, hold, 
receive, and enjoy any messua^s, tenennents, houses, and real estate whatso- 
erer, in fee simple for term.of life or lives, or in any other manner howsoever, 
for the use of the said church, and also any goods, chattels, or personal estate 
whatsoever, Provided always that the clear yearly value of the said real estate 
(exclusive of the said church and the ground whereon the same is built and 
the cemetery belonging to the same) doth not at any time exceed the sum of 
^YQ hundred pounds current money of our said province, and that they and 
their successors by the same name shall have full power and authority to give, 
grant, sell, lease and dispose of the same real estate for life or lives, or years, 
or for ever, under certain yearly rents and all goods, chattels and personal es- 
tate whatsoever at their will and pleasure, and that it shall and may be law- 
ful for them and their successors to have and, use a common seal, and our will 
and pleasure further is, and we do hereby for us, our heirs and successors, ordain 
and appoint that there shall be for ever hereaAer belonging to the said church 
one rector of the Church of England as by law established, duly qualified for 
the cure of souls, two churchwardens and eight vestrymen, who shall conduct 
and manage the affairs and business of the said church and corporation in 
manner as hereafter is declared and appointed, and for the more immediate 
carrying into execution our royal will and pleasure herein, we do hereby as- 
sign, constitute and appoint Peter Jay and Elisha Budd to be the present 
churchwardens, and John Thomas, Joshua Purdy, Christopher Isinghart, 
William Sutton, John Adee, Caleb Purdy, Anthony Miller and Timothy Wet- 
more to be the present vestrymen of the said church, who shall hold, possess, 
and enjoy their said respective offices until Tuesday in Easter week, which 
shall come and be in the year of our Lord one thooaand, seven hundred and 
sixty-six, and for the keeping op the succession in the said offices, our royal 
will and pleasure is, and we do hereby establish, direct and require that on the 
said Tuesday in Easter week in the said year of our Lord one thousand, seven 
hundred and sixty-six, and yearly and every year thereafter for ever, on 
Tuesday in Easter week in every year, the rector and inhabitants of the par- 
ish of Rye in communion of the Church of England as by law established, 
shall meet at the said church, and there by the majority of voices of such of 
them as shall so meet, elect and choose two of their members to be church- 
wardens and eight others of their members to be vestrymen of the said church 
for the ensuing year, which said churchwardens and vestrymen so elected and 
chosen shall immediately enter upon their respective offices, and hold, exer- 
cise and enjoy the same respectively from the time of such elections for and 
during the space of one year, and until other fit persons shall be elected and 
chosen in their respective places, and in case the churchwardens or vestry- 
men, or either of them, by these presents named and appointed or which shall 
be hereafter elected and chosen by virtue of these presents, shall die or re- 
mo?e from the said parish of Rye before the time of their respective appoint- 
ed services shall be expired, or refuse or neglect to act in the office for which 


he or they is or are herein nominated and appointed, or whereanto he or they 
shall or may be so elected and chosen, then oar royal will and pleasure is and 
we do hereby direct, ordain and require the rector and inhabitants of the par- 
ish of Rye in communion as aforesaid for the time being to meet at the said 
church, and choose other or others of their members in the place and stead of 
him or them so dying, removing or refusing to act within thirty days next 
aAer such contingency, and in this case for the more due and orderly con- 
ducting the said elections and to prevent any undue proceedings therein, we 
do hereby give full power and authority to, and ordain and require that the 
rector and the said churchwardens of the said church for the time being, or 
any two of them, shall appoint the time for such election and elections, and that 
the rector of the said church, or in his absence one of the said churchwardens 
for the time being, shall give public notice thereof by publishing the same at 
the said church, immediately after divine service on the Sunday next preceding 
the day appointed for such election, hereby giving and granting that such per- 
son or persons as shall be so chosen from time to time by the rector and in- 
habitants of the said pariah of Rye in communion as aforesaid, or the majority 
of such of them as shall in such case meet in manner hereby directed, shall 
have, hold, exercise and enjoy such the office or offices to which he or they 
shall be so elected and chosen from the time of such election until the Tues- 
day in Easter week thence next ensuing, and until other or others be legally 
chosen in his or their place or stead, as fully and amply as the person or per- 
sons in whose place he or they shall be chosen might or could have done by 
virtue of these presents, and we do hereby will and direct that this method 
shall for ever hereafter be used for the filling up all vacancies that shall hap- 
pen in either the said offices between the annual elections above directed ; 
and our royal will and pleasure further is, and we do hereby for us, our heirs 
and successors, give and grant that as well the churchwardens and vestrymen 
in these presents nominated and appointed, as such as shall from time to time 
be hereafter elected and chosen as is herein directed, shall have and they are 
hereby invested with full power and authority to execute their several and 
respective offices in as full and ample manner as any churchwardens or ves- 
trymen in that part of our kingdom of Great Britain called England, or in this 
our province of New Tork, can or lawfully may execute their said respective 
offices ; and further our royal will and pleasure is, and we do by these pre- 
sents, for us, our heirs and successors, give, grant, ordain and appoint that the 
rector and the said churchwardens of the said church for the time being, or 
any two of them, shall and may from time to time as occasion shall require, 
summon and call together, at such day and place as they shall think proper, 
the said rector, churchwardens and vestrymen for the time being, to meet in 
vestry, giving them at the least one day'^s notice thereof, and we hereby re- 
quire them to meet accordingly ; and we do hereby give, grant and ordain, 
that the said rector and one of the said churchwardens for the time being at 
least, together with the majority of the said vestrymen of the said church for 


the time being, being met in veetry as above directed, shall for ever hereafter 
have, and they are hereby invested with full power and aathority by majority 
of their Toices, to do and execute in the name of the rector and inhabitants of 
the parish of Rye in communion of the Church of England as by law estab- 
lished, all and singular the powers and authorities hereinbefore given and 
granted to the said rector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye in communion 
of the Church of England as by law established, any wise touching or relate 
ing to such lands, messuages and tenements, real and personal estate whatso* 
over, as they the said rector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye in commti- 
nion as aforesaid, shall or may acquire for the use of the said church, and also 
in like manner to order, direct, manage and transact the general interest^ 
business and affairs of our said corporation, and also shall ha? e full power 
and authority in like manner to make and ordain Such rules, orders and or* 
•iinances as they shall judge convenient for the good government and discip- 
lijoe of the members of the said church, provided «uch rules, orders and ordi- 
nances be not repugnant to the laws of that part of our kingdom of Great - 
Britain called England, or of this our province of New York, but as n^ar as 
may be agreeable thereto, and that the same be faiirly entered in a book or 
books to be kept for that purpose. And also in like manner to appoint the 
ibrra of the common seal hereinbefore granted and the same^ to alter, break 
and new make at their discretion ; and also in like manner to appoint such of* 
ficer or officers as they shall stand in need of; always provided that the rector 
of the said church for the time being shall have th^ sola power of nominating 
and appointing the clerk to assist him in performing divine service, as also 
the sexton, any thing hereinbefore contained to the contrary in any wise not- 
withstanding, which clerk and sexton shall hold and enjoy their respective 
offices during the will and pleasure of the rector of the said church for iho 
time being. And whereas by the death of the late minister of the said church 
the same is now in avoidance, our royal will and pleasure is that in this case, 
and also in case of every future avoidance of the said church, either by the 
death of the rector thereof or otherwise, that the powers and authorities here- 
by vested in the rector, churchwardens and vestrymen in vestry met as 
above mentioned, shall until the said church be legally supplied with another 
incumbent vest in and be executed by the said churchwardens of the said 
ohorch for the time being : provided always they have the concurrence and 
eonsept of the major number of the whole vestrymen of the said church ap- 
pointed by these presents, or chosen by virtue hereof, for the time being, ii| 
every thing they shall in such case do by virtue hereof. And further we do 
by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, give and grant unto the 
tector and inhabitants of the parish of Rye in communion of the Church of 
England as by law established, and their successors for ever, that this our 
present grant shall be deemed, adjudged and construed in all cases most fa- 
Torably and for the best benefit and advantage of the said rector and inhabi- 
lants of the parish of Rye ip communion of the C)»nreh of Engl^pd as by \%yf 

Vol. II. 10 


established, and that this our present grant being entered on record as is here* 
inafter particularly expressed, shall be good and efiectaal in the law to all in- 
tents, constractione and purposes whatsoever, against us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, according to our true intent and meaning herein before declared, not- 
withstanding the not reciting or misreciting, not naming or misnaming of anj 
of the aforesaid franchises, privileges, immunities, offices or other the pre- 
mises, or any of them, and although no writ of ad quod damnum, or other 
writs, inquisitions or precepts hath or have been upon this account had, made, 
issued or prosecuted, to have and to hold all and singular the privileges, lib- 
erties, advantages and immunities hereby granted or meant, mentioned or in- 
tended so to be, unto them the said rector and inhabitants of the parish of 
Rye in communion of the Church of England as by law established, and to 
their successors for ever. In testimony whereof we have caused these our 
letters to be made patent and the great seal of our said province to be hereunto 
affixed, and the same to be entered on record in our secretary's office in our 
city of New York, in one of the books of patents there remaining. Witness 
our trusty and well beloved Cadwallader Golden, Esquire, our Lieutenant 
Governor and Commander-in-chief of our Province of New York, and terri- 
tories thereon in America, at our Fort in our city of New York, by and with 
the advice and consent of our Council for our said province, the nineteenth 
day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand, seven hundred and 
sixty four, and of our reign the fiflh. First skin, line the fortieth, the words 
or with ijid second skin, line the twenty ^seventh, the word is are interlined. 


August 27, 1766. The Rev. Ephraim Avery was appointed 
to the mission of Rye. 

In 1773, Mr. Avery's notitia parockialis stood thns: baptized 
90 infants, adults G, colored infants 5 ; marriages 5; burials 10. 

On the 5th of June, 1776, he informs the Socie(y/4hat he has 
lost the use of his right hand, and therefore is incapable of writing 
and sending an account of his parish. 

" The persecutions and privations to which the clergy were 
exposed (says/^Dr. Hawkins,) in the war, whether from the 
Royalist or American armies proved fatal to several of them. 
At Rye, Mr. Avery was a principal sufferer ; his horses were 
seized, his cattle driven off, and his property plundered. His 
death, by some supposed to have been occasioned by these losses, 
happened soon afterwards."* 

. « Hawkins' Hist. Not. Col. Church, 281. Mr. Avery was a step-son of the cele-. 
hriMJOtfatnX Patnam. — Editor. 


The Rev. Isaac Hunt succeeded Mr. Avery in the rectorship, 
havin|r been appointed by the Propagation Society in 1777, with 
a salary of £40. 

During the subsequent years the parish of Rye suffered con- 
siderably from the confusion that attended the Revolutionary 
war. The church was burned, the glebe lands hired out oq 
terms which produced but a small income, and the parishioners 

After the close of the war, the congregation received a letter 
from the Rev. Samuel Provoost, rector of Trinity Church, New 
York, Abraham Beach and Benjamin Moore, dated April 17, 1786, 
ipclosiog the journals of the convention of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, held in Philadelphia, September, 1785. Upon 
the reception of this letter, a meeting of the congregation was 
called, which assembled at the house of Mrs. Haviland, in Rye, 
on the 6lh of May, 1786. 

Mr. Joshua Purdy was unanimously elected president of the 
meeting. On motion it was resolved to take the sense of the 
congregation, whether they v^ould comply with the request of 
the letter, and send delegates to meet in convention at St. Paul's 
Church in New York, upon the third Tuesday In May next. 

The sense being taken, it was unanimously agreed to send 
delegates. William Miller and Alexander Hunt, Esqs., were 
chosen delegates to the general convention. 

September, 1787. The Rev. Richard Channing Moore (after- 
wards Bishop of Virginia) was elected to the rectorship, the first 
since the close of the war. 

At a vestry meeting held 5th March, 1788, it was determined 
by that body to erect a new church on or near the place where 
the old ruins stood. 

Upon the resignation of Mr. Moore in 1788, the Rev. David 
Foote accepted an invitation to the rectorship. This individual 
was called away whilst in the morning of life from the field of 
bis earthly labors to reap an eternal reward, A. D. 1793. 

His tombstone bears the following simple inscription. 


In Iktemory 

of th6 

Rev. Mr. David Poote, 

late Pastor of Rye and White Plains, 

who departed this life the first of August, 


aged 32 years. 

Blessed are the dead who 
die in the Lord. 

The Rev. John J. Sands was called to and accepted the rec- 
torship in 1793. For«the successors of Mr. Sands, see the list of 

At a meeting of the rector, wardens and«iirestrymen, held in 
1794, it was resolved to substitute the title Christ instead of 
Grace, by which the church had heretofore been distinguished. 

The principal benefactors to this parish have been the Hon. 
Caleb Heathcote, St. George Talbot, Esq , Ann Jay,* sister of the 
Hon. John Jay, and the wardens and vestry of Trinity Church, 
New York.^ 

Christ Church, Rye, was incorporated on the 12th of March, 
1796. Peter Jay and John Barker, churchwardens, Joshua Pur- 
dy, Sen., Roger Purdy, John Haight, Thomas Carhart, Gilbert 
Hatfield, Roger Purdy, Jonathan Horton and Jonathan Purdy, 
vestrymen.<^ A second incorporation occurs on the 18th of 
June following. 

The present glebe was purchased by the vestry in 1794. Up- 
on it a neat parsonage has been erected. To Christ Church, Rye, 
is attached St. Peter's chapel at Portchester. 

The first delegates from this parish to the diocesan conven- 
tion in 17U5, were Mr. William Miller and Mr. Alexander Hunt. 

» Thii lady left a legacy of (250 to the church* 

b In 1600 Trinity Church contributed (750 for a parsonage at Rye, to which was 
added in 1813, the sum of (500. 
• Ca Rec. Religions Soc. Lib. A. 




Instituted or called, Rectors, 

A. D. 1702, Rev. Thomas Pritchard, Clericus, 
A. D. 1704, Rev. George Muirson, Clericus, 
January, 1709, Rev. Christopher Bridge, M. A. Cler.» 

1719, Rev. Mr. Barclay, Clericus, 

1720, Rev. Thomas Poyer, Clericus, 
4 June, 1722, Rev. Robert Jenney, Clericus,^ 

1726, Rev. James Wetmore, Clericus, 
1746, Rev. Joseph Lamson, Clericus, 
1 July, 1763, Rev. Ebenezer Punderson, Clericus,^' 
27 Aug. 1765, Rev. Ephraim Avery, Clericus, 
1777, Rev. Isaac Hunt, Clericus, 
Sept 1787, Re^i^ Richard C. Moore, Presb., 
Nov. 1790, Rev. David Poote, Presb., 

1793, Rev. John J. Sands, Presb., 
Nov. 1796, Rev. George Ogilvie, Presb., 

vacated by 

the same, 
the same. 

the same, 
the same, 


the same. 

the same. 




* The following obitaary notice of Mr. Bridge, is from the Boston newspaper of 
Jane 1st to 8tb, 1719 : '* we -have an acooont from Rye, in the government of New 
York, of the death of the Rev. Mr. Bridge, M. A., a presbyter of the church of En- 
gland, and minister of the gospel at that place, who died on Saturday, the 23d of May^ 
last He was formerly, for many years together, one of the ministers of the Church 
of England, in Boston, a religious and worthy man, a very good scholar, and a fine 
gfave preachet. His performances in the pulpit were solid, judicious and profitable, 
Us conversation was agreeable and improving, and though a strict churchman in 
his principles, yetof great respect and charity to dissenters, and much esteemed by 
Ihem. He was bred at the University of Cambridge, in England, and was about 
forty-eight years of age when he died, very much lamented.** Extracted from 
Greenwood's History of King's Chapel. 

^ This gentleman was the son of Archdeacon Jenny of Wanney town, in the 
north of Ireland. See Hist, of Narragansett church by Wilkins Updike. 

« Mr. Punderson graduated at Yale College in 1726, and was afterwards ordained 
a Congregational minister over the second church in Groton. In 1 732, he came into 
the Episcqml church, and crossed the Atlantic to be ordained. On his return, he re* 
organized a church at the village of Poquetannnc, in North Graton, in 1738, which 
has ever since existed,** 6lc Mr. Punderson was for some years an itinerant mission- 
ary of the •< Society for the Propagation of the Gospel,*' from 1740 to 1750. In 
1753-4 he was settled missionary in the towns of Guilford, New Haven and 
Branford." Ibid. 


Aug. 1797, Rev. Samuel Haskell, Presb., resig. 

April, 1801, Rev. Evan Rogers, Presb., death. 

1809, Rev. Samuel Haskell, Presb., resig. 

1822, Rev. William Thompson, Presb., death. 

1830, Rev. John M. Forbes, Presb., resig. 

1832, Rev. William M. Carmichal, Presb., the same. 

Aug., 1834, Rev. Peter S. Chauncey, Presb., the same. 


A. D. 1722, Communicants 25 Baptisms 

1739, ditto 50 ditto 138 

1816, ditto 60 ditto 25 

1847, ditto 112 ditto 22 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Rye, was erected A. D. 
1831. The whole structure is valued at $2150. 

In the immediate neighborhood of the village, is the Chres- 
tomathic Institute, a select English, commercial and classical 
boarding school for young gentlemen. Samuel U. Berrian, A. 
M., principal, and proprietor. <' This establishment is situated on 
the Boston post road, twenty six and a half miles from the city 
of New York, and is of easy access therefrom, by land or water. 
It possesses many attractions to render it a favorite place of re- 
sort for the young. The buildings are spacious and con- 
veniently planned, and the internal arrangements perfect and 
complete. Ample play grounds furnish every opportunity for 
healthful exorcise and recreation. The situation of the premi- 
ses is such^ that the pupils are entirely free from any vicious or 
foreign contact from without," and is well suited to encourage 
them in studious and domestic habits. 

South of the village lies Poningoe neck^ commonly called 
Brown^s Pointy one mile and a half in extent. The extremity of 
the point in the neighborhood of the Scotch caps, has been con- 
siderably undermined by the constant action of the waves. The 
eastern shore of the neck, has also receded before the same destruc- 
tive element. The beach on Rt/e flats is a well known and fa- 
vorite bathing place. It also commands an extensive view of the 


Sound. The name of Parsonage Point, has been conferred on 
the south east projection. At present, the principal proprietors 
are Gideon Reynolds and Hachaliah Brown Esq. The latter in- 
dividual holds 250 acres of the lower portion. 

Upon the western shore of Poningoe neck or Brown's Point 
stands, the small hamlet of Milton, overlooking the mouth of 
the Blind brook, (Mockquams) the beautiful scenery of the Mill 
creek and the wooded shores of Budd*s neck. Here are seve- 
ral stores and the tide mill of Henry Sandford and company ; 
J^t the latter is situated at the bead of the navigable waters of 
Mill creek. In the immediate vicinity of Milton, is the residence 
of Newberry Halstead, Esq., which from its elevated position, 
commands splendid prospects of the river and surrounding coun- 
try. The Halsteads have been long residents of Rye, and de- 
scend from a common ancestor of that name, who originally 
came from Huntingdon, Long Island. The adjoining proprie- 
tors are Underbill Halstead, Joseph Parker and Gideon Rey- 

Near the entrance of the Neck Proper, is located the ancient 
village burying ground. Here the frail memorials 

With uncoatb rhymes and Bhapeless scalptare decked, 
Implore the passing tribute of a sigh. — Gray*t Elegy, ] 

The following inscription is taken from one of the oldest tomb- 
stones : Mary, daughter to Samuel and Mary Kniffen, deceased 
January ye 12, 1707. Upon another richly carved stone sur- 
mounted by a winged cherub, are these words : In memory of 
Mr. Joseph Lyon, who deceased February the 2Ist, A. D. 1761| 
in the 84th year of his age. Here are also interred the bodies of 
the Rev. William Thompson* and the Rev. Evan Rogers. 
The tombstone of the latter is inscribed as follows : 


Masonic Society 

in the town of Rye, 

• The iimcription on the tombstone of Mr Thompson, is an exact copy of that 
upon his tablet in the church. 


have erected this monument 

sacred to the memory 

of their beloved brother, 


Rev. Evan Rogers, 

Pastor of Christ Church 

in this town, 

who departed this life 

January 25th, 1809, 

in the 42d year, 

of his life, 

extremely lamented. 

My flesh shall slumber in the ground. 
Till the last trumpet's joyful sound, 
Then burst these chains with sweet surprise, 
And in my Saviour's image rise. 

Also memorials to Stephen Roe, M. D., and Dr. Charles Mc 
Donald a soldier of the Revolution. The Unionville Ceme- 
tery belonging to the Episcopal church, is situated in North 
street. It contains monuments to the families of Budd, Nelson, 
Knifien, Osborne, Bulkley, Brook?, Merritt, Yeoman, Halstead, 
Barker, Brown, Prevoost, Andrews, Berrian, Haviland, Russel, 
Mount, Fisher and Ferguson, 6cc. 

On the west shore of the Mill creek, extends the ancient terri- 
tory of Apawquammis, afterwards named Budd's neck,» from 
John Budd, the first grantee of these lands under the Indians, 
A. D. 1661. In 1639, the name of John Budd occurs in the New 
Haven records, as one of the first planters of that pluce.i> He 
subsequently removed to Southhold, Long Island, from whence 
he came to Rye in 1661. In 1663, John Budd was deputy 
from Rye to the general court of Connecticut.^^ 

A Sometimes called Rye neck, 
k New Hayen Col. Reo. toL I 7. 
• New Haren CoL Rac. toI. i. 495. 

• { 

To (hce pnge 81, vol. it 

Anns borne by the Ha^enot. D*BZur, au chevron (Tor, en chef depii sole 

Fianclf Jay, died ^ 
from France to I 

Peter Jut, orRye,=^ary, da. of Jacobt 

nat. 3d Nov. 

▼an Cortlandt, of 

1701, Ob 17th 

the old yunkers, o 

April, 178S ; 

17th April, 1777. 

miir. 30th Jan. 

17S8. Buned 

at Rye 

Auffuatttt. nat. 15ih 
Aarll, ITM, uh. 
23d Dec. 18ul, 
a. p. 

James, nat. 97th April, Sir James, Knight, 
1731, tih. 16th Oct. nat 87th OcL 

1751, s. p. ITdEI, Ob. 90ih 

Oct. 1815. Bu- 
lled at Bye 

Peter, natsMarj^ 
]!»Ui Oct. incf-. 
1734, oh. riecf 
8th July, 

Peter Aofustus Jay_Mary Rutherrurd, 

of Rye Neck, nat. 
S4th Jan. 1777, ob. 
90th Feb. 184J 

da. or Gen. Mat- 
thew Clarkeon 

John ClarksoB—. Laura 


Jay, M D of 
Bye Neck 

da. of 

Peter AugustnB= 
Josephine Pear- 

I I I 

MarysPrederick Sarah— Wm Daw- Catf 
Prima son Eletf 



Augus. reter 
tus, ob Augustus 



Mary Cornell 


John Budd, proprietor of Budd's neck, by his last will dated the 
13th of October, 1669, bequeathed to his son John, all his part of 
the Mill on Blind brook, and to his son Joseph, the Epawqnammis 
lands. Joseph Budd was the first patentee of Budd's or Rye 
neck, under the crown, in 1720.& From the Budds, the neck 
went by purchase, into the families of the Purdys, Gedneys, Gui- 
ons and Jays, &c. The property of the latter family, covers a 
large proportion of the old patent. 

We have previously shown, that John Budd released this por- 
tion of his patrimonial estate, including Pine Island^ Marees 
neck and Hen Island, to Peter Jay, A. D. 1745. 

The Jay family who have been seated here for four genera- 
tions, are of French origin, and descendants of Pierre Jay, 
Ecuyer, a wealthy merchant of La Rochelle, in 1684. Pierre 
Jay is presumed to have been of the house of I/C Jay, of 
Poitou. There was also an ancient French family in Paris of 
the name of Le Jay, which formerly distinguished itself in the 
civil department of the state, many of whom bore the same 
christian name, as many of the Jays have since done, amongst 
whom is found, a John le Jay in the early part of the sixteenth 
century; a Nicolas le Jay, Baron de Tilley de la Maison 
Rouge, et de St. Fargeau, Seigneur de Villiers, was first Presi- 
dent to the Parliament of Paris, in 1636. This individual was 
the son of Nicolas le Jay, styled ** correcteur des Comptes a 

Of Pierre Jay, Mr. Renwick in his life of John Jay, remarks : 

> In the town records of Westchester, occurs the following entry : ** Baptised 
by Mr. John Bartow, rector of Westchester parish, in the parish church in the 
town aforesaid, the eighth of August, 1703, Sarah Budd, the wife of Joseph Budd 
of Rye, in the county of Westchester, and their son Joseph Budd, aged eleven 
months, also. 

k Hist. Genealogique et Chronologique par le P. Anselme, 1731, vol. iz. 304. 
The arms borne by Nicolas le Jay, were " D'azur an chevron d*or, accompagne en 
chef de deux ^toiles de m^me en point, d'un mouton passant d'argent. The anna 
of Pierre le Jay the Hugnenot, closely resemble the former, viz. : " d*azur au chev- 
nn d*or, en chef demi soleil splendant, eutre deux ^toiles de mdme en point, a roo 
propre snrmonte par oiseaux. Crest deux ccpurs unts. 

Vol. II. U 


'' he was a native of France, and resided in the city of La Ro- 
chelle, his business was that of a merchant, and from collateral 
facts, we have reason to believe that he was both wealthy and 
enterprising. Like many of the most industrious. and most re- 
spectable inhabitants in that part of the country, he was a Pro- 
testant, and doomed as we shall see, to undergo much trouble 
and persecution on account of his religion. He seems to have 
had a sort of presentiment, probably derived from the grow- 
ing disfavor of the Protestants in the sight of the government, 
that it would at some time or other, be necessary for him to sac- 
rifice both country and property, on account of his religion. On 
this account, he determined to send one of his sons to England 
to acquire a knowledge of that language, and tc educated there. 
His eldest son was the one chosen for this purpose, but he unfortu- 
nately died on the voyage. With great promptness, the father 
sent his second soU; Augustus, who was then barely twelve years 
old, to take his place. This happened A. D. 1677. The troub- 
les and persecutions which Mr. Jay seemed to have foreseen, and 
which preceded the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, now com- 
menced, and in January, 1685, the Protestant church at Ro- 
chelle was pulled down, pursuant to a decree passed at that time. 
Finding that the Protestants still continued the exercise of their 
religion, and were i:ot to be forced to change it by any ordinary 
means, a regiment of dragoons was despatched to that portion of 
the country, and quartered upon the Protestant inhabitants. 
We have full evidence that these armed missionaries had free 
license to make their hosts as uncomfortable as possible, and were 
encouraged to practice upon them those insults so easily perpe- 
trated by unrestrained and licentious soldiery^ 

We can easily imagine what must have been the situation of 
a pious family, and what the feelings of a husband and a father 
under such circumstances. Mr. Jay determined that those near- 
est and dearest to him should no longer be exposed to insult and 
contamination ; and, finding a safe opportunity, he secretly sent 
his family, together with several articles of value, on board a 
vessel bound for England. This vessel arrived in safety. The 
departure of his family did not long remain undiscovered ; and 


causing suspicion of his own intention, he was arrested and 
thrown into prison. From thence by the intervention of some 
worthy Catholic friends he was rescued ; when foreseeing that 
France was no longer a residence for him, he determined to leave 
it for ever. But first it was necessary to raise funds for the sup- 
port of himself and family in a strange land ; this he dared 
not do by turning any of his French property into money 
lest his motives should be surmised, and a second arrest should 
follow. At this time, several of his ships were expected to arrive. 
He gave secret orders to one of the pilots of the port, to bring 
the first of his ships that should arrive, to anchor at some dis- 
tance, and not come up to the town. The first of his vessels 
that made its appearance was from a Spanish port, laded chiefly 
with iron ; and fortunately, both for his honor and his future 
means of living, both ship and cargo belonged entirely to him- 
self. The pilot faithful to his instructions, anchored the vessel 
in the place determined on. With his assistance, Mr. Jay em- 
barked and sailed immediately for England. He arrived in 
safety, and happy must have been the meeting between him and 
his family. They were now out of danger, free from persecu- 
tion, and in the enjoyment of their chosen religion ; and, although 
their means were not so great as formerly, yet they still had a 

On his escape from France being made public, all his pro- 
perty was confiscated, and never was returned so as to be of any 
use either to him or to his children. But one thing marred 
their happiness, this was their uncertainty as to what would be 
the fate of their second, now their eldest son, who was at that 
time probably in Africa, on commercial business of his father's. 
This son, Augustus, the grandfather of John Jay, returned (not 
knowing of his parent's escape) (b Rochelle. Thence, facilitated 
by the kindness of his friends, he managed to procure a passage to 
Charleston, S. C. ; for he also, like his parents, was resolute in 
sacrificing everything for his religion. From Charleston, driven 
by a climate unhealthy even to natives, and doubly so to for- 
eigners, he travelled to Philadelphia ; but, finding in that city, 
then an infant state, no field for the exercise of commerce, to 
which business he had been brought up, he made his way to 


New York. Here he not only found occupation, but friends, 
driven like himself, by persecution, to carry the arts and industry 
of France to other shores. Here also he found churches built 
and attended by French refugees, and a service performed in 
his own language. Finding that his success in life must wholly 
depend upon his own exertions, he applied himself with diligence 
and skill to business, and followed for many years the calling of 
a supercargo. Daring this time he both heard from his parents 
and made them acquainted with his welfare.^ 

Leaving his fortunes for a while, we turn to those of his young- 
er brother, fsaac. At this time the war between William of 
Orange, and James U, of England was in progress, and a regi- 
ment of French refugees was enrolled by the former to assist in 
driving from Ireland his catholic competitor for the throne. Into 
this regiment Isaac entered, impelled by the ardor of youth, and 
no doubt not a little by the recollection of the many insults and in- 
juries he and his family had received at the hands of those who 
professed the Romish religion. He sealed his conviction of the 
justice of his own cause with his blood, and died not long after 
the battle of the Boyne, from the effects of wounds received in 
that engagement. 

In the year 1692, Augustus, while pursuing his commercial 
avocations, started on a voyage from New York to Hamburg ; on 
the passage the vessel was captured by a French privateer, and 
carried into St. Maloes. He, with other prisoners was confined, not 
very closely as it appears by subsequent events, in a fortress 
about 15 miles from that place. While there, news arrived of the 
battle of La Hogue, and the prisoners were ordered into closer 
confinement. They in some way received news of this order, 
and determined before it was put in force to effect their escape. 
Accordingly, on the evening that was to precede their imprison- 
ment, Augustus and some of his companions succeeded in scaling 

» On the 4lh of March, 1686, letters of denizbtioa were granted to Augastaa 
Jay. Upon the 29th of Sept. 1698, King William the third by hb royal letteni 
patent, granted to Augustua Jay, " all the rights and privileges of a native bom 
English subject." Augustus Jay was admitted to the freedom of the city of New 
York, by the mayor and Aldermen, on the 27th Janoary, 17C0. From the ori- 
ginal docamenti in poesession of the Hon. William Jay. 


the wall and dropping into the ditch. Whether his friends were 
stunned by the fall, or recaptuned, he had no means of ascertain 
ing. He himself, however, got out of the ditch, took the road 
and arrived at Rochelle. Here ho was secreted and protected by 
his aunt, until she found means to send him to the isle of Aux 
Rhe, whence he got passage to Denmark. On his way home he 
passed through Holland, performed his business there, and then 
crossed over to England, where he saw his father and sister for 
the first time since their separation so many years before. There 
was one drawback to their joy, one cause of grief; the mother 
who had gone through so many trials with them, was no more. 
The calls of business soon separated this happy party, and Au- 
gustus took a last farewell, and returned to his business in Ame- 

A few years after his return he married Anna Maria, daughter 
of Mr. Balthazar Bayard. She like himself, was descended from 
a family who had suflfered from religious persecution. Her great 
grandfather was a Frenchman, a Protestant professor of theology, 
in one of the colleges at Paris, who was forced either to give up 
his religion or leave his country, during the reign of Louis XHI. 
He chose the latter alternative, and fled to Holland, whence his 
grandson emigrated to this country. 

By this marriage, Augustus Jay found himself surrounded by 
a numerous and influential Dutch connection. In the colony of 
New York, the descendants of the Dutch were the most numer- 
ous class of the population, and they were remarkable for the lib- 
eral manner in which they befriended and assisted their country- 
men, or those connected with them. 

Sooa after his marriage, finding himself in comfortable and re- 
spectable circumstances, Mr. Jay sent out for his father and sis- 
ter ; but the father felt that his declining years would not per- 
mit such a voyage, and the sister would on no account leave him. 
Augustus Jay went on for many years increasing his wealth and 
influence ; and, after having had three children, all of whom were 
daughters, he was at last made happy by the birth of a son in the 
year 1704. This son, the father of John Jay, he named Peter. 
No other children were born, and Peter therefore, at his father's 
death, which did not take place until he had reached the nge of 
84, found himself sole bearer of the name of Jay. 


Peter Jay, like his father and gra^d -father, was a merchant 
and followed his business with such success, that at the age of 
forty he was able to retire and live on the proceeds of his in- 
dustry. At the age of twenty-four he married Mary van Cort- 
landt. This lady was the daughter of Jacobus van Cortlandt of 
the Lower Yonkers, by his wife Eva Philipse, daughter of the 
Hon. Frederick Philipse, lord of the manor of Pliilipsburgh. 
Through this lady the Jays subsequently became possessed of 
the Bedford estates. 

Peter Jay, Esq., by his wife Mary van Cortlandt had ten chil- 

Their eighth child John Jay was born on the 12th of Decem- 
ber, 1745, the same year that his father purchased the Rye es- 
tate. <^ At the age of eight years, John Jay was sent to a gram- 
mar school at New Rochelle; his instructor being the Rev. 
Pierre Stouppe, minister of the French Episcopal Church. " Here 
he continued for three years, and was then placed by his father 
under the care of a private tutor, who prepared him for college. 
The one selected was King's, now Columbia College, an insti- 
tution that boasts of many celebrated men among its alumni." 

" In his fourth collegiate year he decided upon the law as his 
future profession.^ At the commencement held at St. George's 
Chapel, May, 1764, General Gage and his Majesty's council, &c., 
being present, Richard Harrison seventeen years of age deliver- 
ed the salutatory4)ration ; John Jay, a dissertation on the bless- 
ings of peace." Upon this occasion he received his degree of 
bachelor of arts. 

The annexed sketch of Mr. Jay's subsequent life is. from 
Blake's Biographical Dictionary. 

'' John Jay, L. L. D., first chief justice of the United States un- 
der the constitution of 1789, graduated at King's (now Colum- 
bia) College, A. D. 1764, and in 1768 was admitted to the bar. 
He was appointed to the first American Congress in 1774. Be- 
ing on the committee with Lee and Livingston to draft an ad- 

• Here John Jay spent his boyhood. 

k Compiled and abridged from the life of John Jay by Henry B. Renwick. 


dress to the people of Great Britain, he was the writer of that 
eloquent production. In the congress of 1775, he was on vari- 
ous important committees, performing more service perhaps than 
any other member except Franklin and John Adams. In May, 
1776, he was recalled to assist in framing the government of 
New York, and in consequence his name is not attached to the 
Declaration of Independence ; but July 9th, he reported resolu- 
tions in the provincial convention in favor of the declaration. 
After the fall of New York, and the removal of the Provincial 
Assembly to Poughkeepsie, Mr. Jay retained his resolute patrio- 
tism. The very eloquent address of the convention to the peo- 
ple of New York, dated Fishkill, December 23, 1776, and sign- 
ed by A. Ten Broeck, as president, was written by him. MarcB 
12, 1777, he reported to the convention of New York the draft 
of a form of government, which was adopted, and many of the 
provisions of which were introduced into the constitution of 
other states. From May 3, 1777, to August 18, 1779, he was 
chief justice of the state, but resigned that office in consequence 
of his duties as president of congress. The glowing address of 
that body to their constituents, dated September 8, 1779, was 
prepared by him. On the 29th of September, he was appointed 
minister plenipotentiary to the court of Spain. He was one of 
the commissioners to negotiate peace with Great Britain, and 
signed the definitive treaty of peace at Paris, September 3, 1783« 
He returned to America in 1784. Congress had previously ap- 
pointed him secretary of state for fcreign afiairs. In the difii- 
cull circumstances of the country, the secretary was in efifect the 
head of the government. Mr. JayVservices were of great impor- 
tance. He drew up, October 13, 1776, an elaborate report on 
the relations between the United States and Great Britain. 
Though not a member of the convention which formed the con- 
stitution of the United States, he was present at Annapolis, and 
aided by his advice. He also assisted Madison and Hamilton in 
writing the Federalist. In the convention of New York, he con- 
tributed to the adoption of the constitution. He was appointed 
chief justice by Washington, September 26, 1789. In 1794 he 
was appointed minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain and suc- 
ceeded in negotiating the treaty which still goes by his name. 


He was governor of the state of New York from 1795 to 1801. 
The remainder of his life he passed in retirement at Bedford, in 
this county. He died 17th May, 1829. His remains are de- 
posited in the family burying ground. 

By his wife, Sarah Yanburgh, daughter of the Hon. William 
Livingston, Governor of New Jersey, he left issue two sons, viz. 
the late Hon. Peter Augustus Jay, member of the State Assembly 
in 1813, recorder of New York in 1819, and delegate to the con- 
vention which framed the late constitution of the state of New 
York ; and the Hon. William Jay of Bedford, for several years 
a judge of the late court of common pleas in this county ; be- 
sides four daughters. 

* The family residence is situated near the post road leading to 
Rye at no great distance from the river. The building is a hand- 
some structure of wood, presenting a lofty portico on the north. 
The south front commands a beautiful lawn, and charming 
views of the Sound and Long Island. Some highly interesting 
family portraits adorn the walls of the hall and dining room; 
amongst them are the following : Hon. John Jay, first chief jus- 
tice of the United States, and governor of the state of New York. 
Hend by Stewart, figure by Trumbull. The Hon. John Jay sat 
to Colonel Trumbull (his secretary) for this picture, whilst resi- 
dent ambassador at the court of St. James, London. The artist 
subsequently presented it to Mr. Jay.» Augustus Jay, who emi- 
grated to this country in 1686, a copy from the original, by Wal- 
do ; Anna Maria Bayard, wife of Augustus Jay, by ditto ; Peter 
Augustus Jay, as a boy. artist unknown ; an old painting upon oak 
panel, supposed to represent Catharine, wife of the Hon. Stephen 
van Cortlandt of Cortlandt, South Holland. This lady appears 
habited in a plain black dress, wearing a high neck ruffle and in 
her right hand holds a clasped book. In one corner of the pic- 
ture is inscribed " eetat. 64, 1630."^ 

The library contains a large and valuable collection of shells 

> This picture baa been engrayed for Herring'a National Portrait Gallery. In the 
poaaession of Henry Munro, Esq., is another portrait of the Hon. John Jay by Stew- 
art, in his robes as chief justice of the United States. 

k This picture was found in one of the old city residence! of the Van Cortlandts. 


amounting to between three or four thousand specia.ens. John 
C. Jay, M. D., has published several catalogues of the new and 
rare shells contained in his cabinet.^ 

Among other family relics we noticed the gold snuff box pre- 
sented by the corporation of New York, with the freedom of the 
city, to his Excellency John Jay, on the 4tli of October, 1784. 
Also a French bible,^ containing the following memoranda. 
Auguste Jay esc ne a la Rochelle dans le Royaume de France 
le f f Mars, 1665. Laus Deo. N. York, July ye lOih, 1733, this 
day at 4 o'clock in ye morning dyed Eva van Cortlandt, was 
buried ye next day ye 12 en ye voute at Mr. Stuyvesant's about 
six and seven o'clock." 

The situation of the Jay property is very fine, embracing some 
of the most graceful undulations of a hilly district, highly diver- 
sified with rocks, woods and river scenery. Contiguous to the 
southern portion of the estate, and bordering the Sound, is Ma- 
ree's neck, and the neighboring islands of Pine and Hen-hawk, 
the latter consisting of seventy-seven acres. A curious pheno- 
menon, called Mirage, is frequently seen from these shores, when 
the land on the opposite coast of Long Island appears to rise 
above the waters of the Sound, while the intermediate portions 
seem to be sunk beneath the waves. This illusion is caused by 
a certain state of the atmosphere, depending chiefly upon its hu- 
midity and warmth which changes considerably its ordinary re- 
fractive power. In days of ignorance and superstition such 
appearances occasionally excited a strange interest. 

In an opening of the woods on the south east side of the man- 
sion, is the family cemetery. 

« See " Catalogue of recent thelk in (he cabiuet of John C. Jay,'* 8vo. New 
York, 1835. pp. 56. " Detcription of new and rare shells with fonr plates," Svo. 
N. Y. 1836. 2d ed. pp. 78. " A catalogue of the shells arranged according to the 
Lamarckian sy|teiD, together with descriptions of new and rare species contained in 
the collection of John C.Jay, M. D." 3d ed. 4to. New York, pp. 125, with ten plates. 

b The title runs thus, " La Sainte Bible qui contient le Vieux et le Nonveaa Tes* 
lament, par David Martin, pasteor de Tfiglise Walione d'Utrecht, AmsterdaxDj 


Vol. 11. 12 




are interred 

the remains of the 

Jay family, 

which were removed from 
the family vault 

New York, 

the 28th of October^ 


In memory of 

John Jay, 

Eminent among those who asserted the liberty 

and established the Independence 

of his Country, 

which he long served in the most 

important offices, 

Legislative, executive, judicial and diplomatic, 

and distinguished in them all, by his .^ 

ability, firmness, patriotism and integrity, 

he was in his )ife and in his death, 

an example of the virtues, 

the faith and the hopes 

of a Christian. 

Born Dec. 12ih, 1745, 

Died May 17th, 1829. 



Sir James Jay, Kn't. 

born 27 October, 1732, 

died 20 October, 1816. 

Peter Jay Munro, 

who died 

22 Sept. 1833, 

aged 66 years, 

8 months and 12 days. 


memory of 


relict of John W. Watkins, Esq.. 

and last surviving daughter of 

William Livingston, 


Governor of New Jersey, 

who departed this life 

July 7ih, 1843, 

in the 83d year of her age. 

Anchored safe, the weary soul 

Shall find eternal rest. 

Nor storms shall beat nor billows roll ' 

Across my peaceful breast. 

Besides other appropriate memorials to Peter Jay, Peter Augus- 
tus Jay, Esq., Mary Rutherford Jay, Margaret Munro, Golds- 
borough Banyar, Eva MunrO; Harriet van Corllandt and Mary 
Jay, wife of Frederick Prime, Esq. 

The adjoining territory upon the west, constitutes what it 
commonly called Guioti's neck, a portion of which is still vested 
in William Henry Guion, son of the late Abraham Guion. This 
branch of the Guion family descend from Isaac Guion of New Ro- 
chelle, the son of Louis Guion who emigrated from England 
about 1(I67.» The beautiful beaver stream^ called by the In- 
dians, Pockeotessen, rises north of Guion neck, and forms its 
western boundary. 

The Purdy estate is situated upon the eastern shore of Rye 
neck bordering the Blind brook, (Mockquams). A short distance 
from the house is the burial place of the Purdy family. Among 
other memorials is the following : 

Joshua Purdy, 

't ob, ^larch 4, 1600, 

iEtat, 79. 

On the west bank of the Byram river, which here forms the 
boundary between New York and Connecticut, is situated the 
village of Port Chester^ This place has grown rapidly within 
a few years, and bids fair to rival any on the Sound ; among 
other causes, its manufactories have contributed greatly to pro- 
mote this prosperity. These consist at present, of the iron foun« 
dry of William Abendroth and company, carriage factory of 

•■ See vol. i. page 424. 

b Sometimee styled Stony brook. 

• Formerly called Sawpits. 


Henry Webb, leather manufactory of Edward Field, plane fac- 
tory of Edward Baldwin, piano factory of Mr Holder, lock fac- 
tory of John Drumgoold, tin factory of Agnr Pixley, hat factory- 
of H. D. Hinman and the dyewood mill of Henry Sandford, be- 
sides the manufactories, there are twenty stores doing an exten- 
sive business, and a large hotel termed the Pavilion, kept by Mr. 
George W. Smith. The Byram or Armonck river, which wa- 
ters this beautiful section of Westchester county, takes its rise 
from the Byram lake, an extensive sheet of water fed by the 
springs of the Comonck or Armonck hills in Bedford. During its 
downward course, it winds .between lofty hills, fringed with 
copse wood, and abounding with bold projections which here 
and there break the course of its rapid current. In other pla- 
ces it forms romantic glens, shaded with the wild hemlock 
and fir. The wooded shores of Byram point, rise directly oppo- 
site the village^ forming a fine contrast to the western side of the 
river. The Byram is navigable nearly two miles from its mouth, 
affording an easy transit from this place for the marketable pro- 
ductions of the interior. The sloops at present engaged in this 
trade, are the William Marston and the Sarah Odee, Messrs. 
Peck owners, and the New York and Washingtonian. 

The site of the ancient /err^ across the sound to Matinecock, 
upon Long Island, was the Horse rock in the vicinity otRye Port. 

Upon ihc 18ih of July, 1739, King George the second, by his 
royal letters patent, regulated and established a ferry at this 
place, to be kept and attended for the couveniency of passing and 
repassing to and from the land in the two patents called BiidcPs 
neck and Poningoe neck, lying and being in Rye, to the island 
of Nassau, over against the township of Oyster Bay, in the said 

Which ferry oar loving subjects John Budd, Hachaliah Drown and Jona- 
than Brown, Esqs, propose to undertake and to provide and keep at their own 
charge and expense, a sufficient number of good and able boats and servants 
for the due attendance on such ferry, &c., &c., and have free liberty to ask, 
demand and take for ferriage at and for such ferry, &c., the several and re- 
spective fees hereinafter mentioned, &c., viz. for every person one shilling 
and sixpence, for every man and horse three shillings, for all horned cattle 
from two years old and upwards each two shillings, for all colts and horned 


cattle tinder two years old each one shilling, for every score of sheep, Iambs, 
hogs and sows five shillings, and so in proportion for any greater or lesser 
number, for every full barrel one shilling, for every empty barrel four pence, 
for every full pipe or hogshead six shillings, for every empty pipe or hogs- 
head two shillings, for every firkin or tub of butter four pence, fur every bushel 
of wheat, salt, grain, seeds or any other thing fully measured and sold by the 
bushel one penny, for every waggon, cart or carriage seven shillings and six- 
pence, for every pair of wheels two shillings, for every cupboard, press for 
clothes or writing desk four shillings and sixpence, for every full trunk or 
chest two shillings and sixpence, for every empty trunk or chest one shilling, 
for every full half barrel sixpence, for every gammon, flitch of bacon, or piece 
of smoked beef one penny, fer every hundred weight of gunpowder, iron, 
steel, sheet pewter or lead and iron or iron, copper or brass kettles or pots 
one shilling and sixpence, and so in proportion for any greater or less quan- 
tity, for every such one penny, for every corn fan five pence, for every hun- 
dred of shingles one shilling, for every bed, bedstead and bedding together 
three shillings, for everjr chair two pence, for every tab]% eight pence, for 
every saddle without horse three pence, for every gun two pence, for every 
case with buttles nine pence, for every frying pan or warming pan two pence, 
for every looking glass of one foot sixpence, and so in proportion for all other 
goods for which no provision is hereby made, and also all manner of privi- 
leges, &c., &c. For which the patentees and their heirs are to pay to the 
collector general^of the town being, on the 25th day of March, commonly call- 
ed Lady-day, the yearly rent of -two shillings and sixpence, &c., &c. 

Frederick Morris, Secretary, 

The ancient ferry now exists only in name, the present rapid 
communications with the island having superseded this danger- 
ous mode of navigation. The property is vested in the Pro- 
voost family. Directly opposite the port lies Minnewies or 
Manursing Island, separated from the main by a narrow creek 
on the south-west side. It consists of one hundred acres, divided 
between the three proprietors, Joseph Bartam, Mr. Beale and 
Thomas Theall. Upon the main is situated the tide mill of Mr. 

A dock appears to have been commenced at or near Rye port 
as early as 1679, for in this year we find a grant made by the 
town to "John Ogden of forty eight or fifty acres of land by the 
water side at the Fishing rocky for the purpose of building a 
house and wharf. The inhabitants of Poningoe neck to have 
wharfage free," From Rye port a steam-boat runs daily to and 


from the city of New York. These is also a neat boarding house 
established here for the accommodation of summer visitors to 
this delightful spot. 

The islands ealled the Greats Middle and Little Captains 
east of Manursing belong to this toVen. 

In the village of Portchester is located the Portchester semi- 
nary, a large and flourishing institution for the education of both 
sexes. Mr. Edward D. Dow, principal and proprietor. There 
tire also four district and two neighborhood schools. 

Near the eastern end of the village stands the Episcopal cha- 
pel of St. Peters, a neat and plain structure of wood ornamented 
with a tower of the same material. The corner stone of this edi- 
fice was laid on the 25th of July, 1843, by the Right Rev. Ben- 
jamin T. Onderdonk, bishop of the diocese, on which occasion 
the rector of the parish delivered an appropriate address. There 
were also present of the clergy the Rev. Messrs. Coit, Harris, 
Partridge and Todd. It was consecrated to ihe service of Al- 
mighty God, Monday, July the 15th, 1844, by the bishop of the 
diocese. Present and assisting the Rev. Messrs. Coit, Carmichael, 
Schrocder and Meade, Doctors of Divinity, also the Rev. Messrs. 
Chauncey, Powell, Haskell, Harris, Ward, Haight. Coit, Bull, 
Yarriiigton, Partridge, Meade, Todd, Cushing, Cox, Meade, Hal- 
sey and Guion. St. Peters is at present a chapel of ease* to the 
parisli church of Rye. 

On the same side of the main street is situated the Presbyterian 
chapel. The erection of this building was commenced May 26, 
1830, and completed September, 1333, at a cost of $2100; to \, 
which a tower and bell were added in the spring of 1840, at an 

» Chapels of ease, according to the original meaning of the term, are not known 
in this country since the Revolution. In England, there is a distinction between 
a chapel of ease and a parochial chapel of ease. Chapels of ease are founded for 
the convenience of the people in large parishes in attending public worship, where 
they live at a dixtance from the parish church ; to which however the saci-aments 
and burials are restricted. Parochial chapeU of ease possess the rights of baptizing 
mnd burying, but have neither rectory nor endowment. The curate or vicar of both 
is dependent on the parochial minister. To preserve this dependence, a reservation 
it made of repairing to the parish church on the great festival days. Such chapels 
vere built in South Carolina before the Revolution. — Dalcho*s History, p. 267. 


additional expense of 8900. It was dedicated to the worship of 
God, September, 1833, and has ever since been attached to the 
Presbyterian church of Rye. 

At the foot of King street is located the Methodist Episcopal 
church. This society was incorporated on the 16th of December, 
1829. Horace B. Smith, R. Meade, Elisha Halstead, John Sey- 
mour and William Fowler, trustees.* 

Near the western entrance of the village stands the residence 
of the Merritt family. Mr. Merritt ihe present occupant, is a 
lineal descendant of John Merritt, one of the original proprie- 
tors of Rye. Of this family was " Thomas Merritt, a cornet of 
cavalry in the Queen's Rangers, A. D. 1780. This gentleman 
subsequently settled in Upper Canada, and held the offices of 
■< *^ ' sheriff of the District of Niagara, and surveyor of the King's 
forests. He died at St. Catharine's, May, 1842, aged eighty-two.*' 

King street extends nearly seven miles north of Portches* 
ter, and finally terminates in the northwest corner of Green* 
wich township, Connecticut. The surrounding country is a fine 
agricultural district, embracing some of the finest farms in the 
county. Among the principal farmers in the vicinity of Port* 
Chester are William Bush and James Biackstock, Esqrs. 

The border hamlet of Glenville is situated on the west bank 
of the By ram, east of King street. Here are the grist mill and 
lead manufactory of Samuel G. Cornell, Esq. 

During the Revolutionary war the continental forces appear to 
have been frequently quartered in this town. On the 8ih of Jan- 
uary, General Parson's bris:ade were posted in King street. 
■ The same year, General Wooster's division retreated as far as 
Rye neck. Lieutenant Colonel Van Rensselaer also received or- 
ders from congress to maintain his station until obliged to retreat 
upon Rye neck. Subsequently the enemy occupied this portion 
of Westchester county, where the soldiers did much wanton mis- 
chief and plundered most of the houses. Their principal en- 
campment seems to have been on the high ground between the 
villages of Rye and Portchester. 

' Co. Rec. Religious Soc. Lib. B. 1. 



Tffe earliest record of (own officers occurs on the 25th of April, 
1671. Upon this occasion, "George Kniffen and Francis Purdy 
were appointed pounders." 

" Upon the 3d of October, Joseph Horton, Thomas Brown and 
John Brondig were chosen town and selectman for the year en- 
suing." ** 2Slh of September, George Lane was elected constable.^^ 
*• 13lh of June, 1691. Mr. Joseph Theall, supervisor.^^ "June 
26th, 1696, Deliverance Brown was chosen constable for the 
town of Rye, and Mr. John Hoil, recorder J^ 

Sig. John Lyon. 

Hachaliah Brown. 
Samuel Kniffen. 

The general surface of the town is uneven and stoney.^ 
The land, however, is under good cultivation. The soil consists 
of a clay loam. The natural growth of wood is oak, chestnut, 
walnut, hickory, &c., on the higher lands, and in the low lands, 
ash, birch, and maple. We have already shown that it is drained 
on the east by Byram river, and on the west by Blind brook, 
both flowing into Long Island Sound. Upon these streams are 
numerous mill seats. Among the principal mineral productions 
of the town may be noticed Chlorite, *» "a soft greenish substance, 
composed of minute scales, closely compacted together, it differs 
very little from soapstone," also Tourmaline, in long slender 

• Diaturneirs Gazetteer of N. Y. 

b Rocks containing it are said to be Chloritic. 

• See geological survey of the state, 1840. 



This town is bounded on the norlh by White Plains and 
Greenburgh, east by Mamaroneck, west by Greenburgli, and 
south by Eastchester and Rochelle. Under the colonial govern- 
ment it constituted a portion of Scarsdale manor, which also, 
embraced the greater part of White Plains and the townships of 
Norlh and New Castle.* 

The place acquired its name from the Heathcote family, who 
originally came from Scarsdale, Derbyshire, England. '' More 
onward, says the learned Camden, (describing that part of Der- 
byshire,) we see Chesterfield in Scarsdale^ that is, i?i a dale en- 
closed with rocks : For crags were call'd scarrs by the Saxons." 
Under the Mohegan Indians Scarsdale is believed to have formed 
a portion of the Indian territory of Qnaroppas^ which was ceded 
to John Richbell by the Indian proprietors in 1660. 

A. D. 1696. Col. Caleb Heathcote obtained of Anne Richbell, 
relic of John Richbell, deceased, a full patent right to purchase 
lands, "which are already included in her husband^s sale of 

Upon the 30th of March, 1701, occurs the following indenture 
" between Col. Caleb Heathcote on the one part, of Mamaroneck, 
gentleman, and the Indian proprietors, Patthunck, Beaupo, Ko- 
hawney, and Wapetuck, on the other part, 

" Witnesseth that the said Patthunck, Beaapo, Kohawney, and Wapetuck, 
&c., for and in consideration of a certain sum of good and lawful money to 
them in hand paid, and secured to be paid, at or before the ensealing and de- 
livery of these presents, by the said Caleb Heathcote, the receipt whereof 
the said Patthunck, Beaupo, Kohawney, Wapetuck, &c., doth hereby ac- 
knowledge themselves therewith to be fully satisfied and contented and paid 
and thereof and therefrom do acquit, exonerate and discharge the said Caleb 
Heathcote, his heirs, executors, and administrators have given, granted, sold. 

• The prewnt township was organized on the 7th of March, 1788. 
k* See Mamaroneck, New CasUe, &c. 

Vol. II. 13 

98 HISTORY OP Tto* : -^'' 

bargained, alienated, efi^ofll^^nd co^Npiidf-tDd 4te 1^ Hkese presents give, 
grant, bargain, seU, alJM|Bte, enfeofle a^, evniirin oato the said Caleb Heath* 
cote, his heirs and assignee* Avever, all our rights, title, and interest in a 
certain tract of land lying mMbiing in the county of Westchester, bounded 
as follows: To begin on the xre^t side at southermost end of a ridge known 
by the name of Richbeirs or Horse ridge, at a gres) rock, and so to run a 
north- north-west line to Broncks*s river, and on tlie eastermost side with 
Bfamaroneck river, and from the head thereof to Broncks's river, to have and 
to hold the said bargained premises, with every of the appurtenances thereunto 
belonging, to the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assignees, forever ; and 
that the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs, executors, administrators, and as- 
signees, shall and may at all times hereafter, and from time to time, peaceably 
and quietly have, hold, use, occupy, and enjoy, all and singular the herein 
before mentioned bargained premises, with their and every of their appurte- 
nances, without the let, hindrance or molestation of them the said proprietors, 
their heirs or assignees. In witness whereof they have hereunto set their 
bands and seals, the day above written.* 

Signed sealed and delivered in presence of us, 

Ann Mullington, Patthanck, 

Benj. Collier, Beaupo, 

John Cooke, Cohawney, 

The mark of Wapetock, 

Kaokquerin Womatera. 

Upon the 2Ist of March, 1701, the extensive purchases of 
Colonel Caleb Heathcote in Westchester county were erected 
into the lordship and manor of Scarsdale, to be holden of the 
king in free and common soccage, its lord yielding and rendering 
therefor annually, upon the festival of the Nativity, five pounds 
current money of New York, &c. 


William the Third, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c, to all to whom these presents shall 
come, sendeth greeting : Whereas our loving subject Caleb Heathcote, Es- 
quire, hath petitioned the Honorable John Nanfan, oar Lieutenant-Governor 
and Commander-in-chief of the Province of ^ew York in America, and our 
Council of the said Province, for a confirmation of a tract of land in the county 
of Westchester, beginning at a marked tree by Mamaroneck river, which is 
the eastermost side of the northern bounds of Mamaroneck township, being 
about two miles from the county road, and to run along the said river to the 

» From the original, in posseaiton of the Rt Rev. W. Heathcote de Lancey. 

. ^Uirfr OF WESTCHESTER. 99 

head thereof, and theoM-'ftl a norlk Bie nntil e(|BtoeB Miles from eaid nhrked 
tree is completed, westerly at the maiked treeor a gAlt rock, being the wee- 
termost part of the said northern bounds of ifeif aforesaid township being aboot 
two miles from the county road, and thenoe to ma northerly eighteen miles 
as ye line on ye eastermost side of the said laod runneth, including in ye said 
manor his eighth part \ii the two miles laid out for ye town of Mamaronec1r« 
with ye lott he now liveth on, and ye lott bought of Alice Hatfield, with the 
lands and meadows below, westerly to a path to him belonging by virtue of 
his deeds and conveyances, part of which' land within the bounds aforesaid 
was purchased by John Richbell from ye native Indian proprietors, which said 
John Richbell had a arrant and confirmation for ye same from Fraacis Love- 
lace, late Governor of oar said Province, and ye right of ye said John Rich- 
bell therein is legally vested in ye said Caleb Heathcote, and other parts hava 
been purchased by ye said Caleb Heathcote of ye native Indian proprietors^ 
and whereas the said Caleb Heathcote hath farther petitioned our said Lieu*- 
tenant Governor and Council that the said tract of land may be crested into a 
manor by ye name of ye manor of Scarsdale, whereupon our said Lieutisnant 
Governor, by and with the advice of our Council, directed a writ to the high 
sheriff of the said county of Westchester to inquire to what damage such pa- 
tent would be, which writ issued accordingly with a proviso that it should not 
give the said Caleb Heathcote any further title than which he already hath to ye 
land caUed White Plains, which is in dispute between ye said Caleb Heath- 
cote and some of ye inhabitants of ye town of Rye, whereupon ye said sheriff 
returned that ye jurors found that there is no damage to ye King or his sub- 
jects in erecting the manor aforesaid, except ye said White Plains which are 
in dispute and contest between ye said Caleb Heathcote and ye town of Rye, 
and excepting James Mott and ye rest of ye purchasers of Mamaroneck which 
have deed within ye patent of Richbell, Know ye that of our special grace, 
certain knowledge and mere motion, we have given, granted, ratified and con- 
firmed, and by these presents do for us, our heirs and successors, give, grant, 
ratify and confirm unto ye said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assignees, all 
and every ye aforesaid tracts and parcels of land and meadow within ye re- 
spective limits and bounds before mentioned and expressed, together with all 
and every the messuages, tenements, buildings, barns, houses, out -houses, 
fences, orchards, gardens, pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, pools, ponds, 
waters, water-courses, woods, under-woods, trees, timbers, quarries, runs, 
rivers, rivulets, brooks, lakes, streams, creeks, harbours, beaches, bays, isl^ 
ands, ferries, fishing, fowling, hunting and hawking, mines, minerals, (royal 
mines only excepted,) and all the rights, members, liberties, privileges, juris- 
dictions, royalties, hereditaments, profits, benefits, advantages and appurten- 
ances whatsoever to aforesaid several and respective tracts and parcels of 
lands and meadow belonging or in any ways appertaining or accepted, reputed, 
taken, known or occupied as part, parcel, or member thereof to have and to 
hold all the aforesaid several and respective tracts, parcels of land and mea* 


dow and premises within the Respective limits and bounds aforesaid, with all 
and every of the appurtenances unto him the siyd Caleb Heathcote^^is heirs 
and assigns, to the only proper use and behoof of him the said Caleb Heath- 
cote, his heirs and assigns fur ever, provided that nothing herein contained 
shall be construed, deemed or taken to give the dfld Caleb Heathcote any fur- 
ther title than what he now by virtue of these our letters patent lawfully hath 
to ye said White Plains in dispute as aforesaid, nor any jurisdiction within the 
said White Plains until the same shall happen to belong to the said Caleb 
Heathcote ; and moreover Know ye that of our further special grace, certain 
knowledge and mere motion, we have thought fit to erect all the afore recited 
tracts and parcels of land and meadow within the limits and bounds aforesaid 
into a lordship and manor except as before excepted, and therefore by these 
presents we do for us, our heirs and successors, erect, make and constitute 
all the afore-recited tracts and parcels of land and meadow within the limits 
and bounds before mentioned (except as before excepted) together with all 
and every the above granted premises, with all and every of their appurten- 
ances into one lordship or manor, to all intents and purposes, and it is our 
royal will and pleasure, that the said lordship and manor shall from henceforth 
be called the lordship and manor of Scarsdale ; and Know ye that we repos- 
ing especial trust and confidence in the loyalty, wisdom, justice, prudence and 
circumspection of our said loving subject, do for us, our heirs and successors, 
give and grant unto the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns, full 
power and authority at all times forever hereafler within the said lordship or 
manor one court leet and one court baron, to hold and keep at such time and 
times, and so often yearly as he or they shall think meet, and we do further 
give and grant to the said Caleb HeathcotOt his heirs and assigns, all fines 
and issues and amercements at the said court leet and court baron to be hoi- 
den within our said lordship or manor, to be sett, forfeited, or imposed, or 
payable or happening at any time to be payable by any of the inhabitants of or 
within the said lordship or manor of Scarsdale, or the limits and bounds there- 
of, and also all and every power and powers, authority and authorities for 
holding and keeping the said court leet and court baron from time to time, and 
to award to and issue out the accustomed writs to be issued and awarded out 
of courts leet and courts baron, and also that the said court leet and court 
baron be kept by the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns for ever, his 
or their or any of their stewards and deputies, and appointed with full and 
ample power and authority to distrain for the rents, services and other sums 
of money payable by virtue of the premises, and all other lawful remedies and 
means for the having, possessing, levying and enjoying the premises and every 
part and parcel of the same, and all waifs and estrays, deodands and goods of 
felons happening or to be happening, being or to be forfeited within the said 
lordship or manor of Scarsdale, and we do further give and grant unto the 
said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns, that all and singular ye tenants 
of him ye said Caleb Heathcote within ye said manor shall and may at all 


time* hereafter meet together and choose assessors within ye manor aforesaid, 
accordin^jibaach rules, wm jtod methods as are prescribed for cities, towns, 
and counties, within our saia Province by ye acts of General Assembly for de- 
fraying the public charge of each respective city, town and county aforesaid, 
and all such sums of moneyio assessed and levied to collect and dispose of 
for such use as any act or acts as the said General Assembly shall establish 
and appoint, to have, hold, possess and enjoy all and singular the said lordship 
or manor of Scarsdale and premises, with all and every of their appurtenances 
unto the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns for ever, and that the 
said lordship or manor aforesaid shall be and for ever continue free and ex- 
empt from the jurisdiction of every town, township or manor whatsoever, to 
be holden of us, our heirs and successors in free and common soccage accor- 
ding to the tenure of our manor of East Greenwich, in the county of Kent 
within our kingdom of England, yielding, rendering and paying therefor yearly 
and every year for ever at our city of New York unto us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, or to such officer or oflScers as shall from time to time be impowered 
to receive ye same, five pounds current money of New York, upon the Nati- 
vity of our Lord, in lieu and stead of all services, dues, duties or demands 
whatsoever. In testimony whereof we have caused the great seal of our 
province of New York to be hereunto aflSxed. Witness John Nanfan , Esquire, 
our Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-chief of our Province of New 
York and territories depending thereon in America. Given at Fort William 
Henry in our city of New York, this twenty-first day of March, in the four- 
teenth year of our reign. Anno Domini, 1701.^ 

John Nanfan. 

Col. Caleb Heathcote, first lord of the manor of Scarsdale, was 
the son of Gilbert Heathcote, Esq., of Chesterfield, (Scarsdale) 
Derbyshire, England, a representative of the ancient family of 
the Hetbecotes of that place. 

Aatofraph and Seal of Col. Caleb Htatbcote. 

Book of Pat Alh. Rec. No. rii. S36. 


Concerning this individua1| Dunlap the historian thus spedo ' 
'' I will pause to give some notice of the Caleb Heathcote who 
became at this time one of (he governour's or his majesty's ooun- 
cil. He was judge, and a colonel of militia. The name of 
George Heathcote, appears among the inhabitants of New York, 
in 1676, and his property is rated at £2036, which placed him 
as one of the rich of the time. George died unmarried, and his 
property devolved to Caleb. Tradition says, that the father of 
Caleb was a man of fortune, and mayor of Chester, in England ; 
but Caleb had two brothers born before him, who, probably, one 
or both, inherited the father's estate ; both procured titles, and 
founded families well known in England. The oldest brother 
was Sir Gilbert Heathcote, the founder and first president of the 
Bank of England, and Lord Mayor of London. Caleb, the 
youngest, had formed a matrimonial engagement with a lady of 
great beauty, but unfortunately took his elder brother, Gilbert, 
to see his intended wife. Gilbert was struck with the lady's 
beauty, and supplanted his brother, who sought refuge with his 
uncle in New York, married a daughter of " Tangier Smith,"* of 
Long Island, and became a distinguished man in our history 
He was a sincere Episcopalian, and probably seconded from 
principle, the views which Fletcher advocated from interest, 
and in obedience to his orders. Heathcote, in his military capa- 
city, had command of the West Riding,^on Long Island, and in 
one of his letters, gives this account of his method of '* con- 
verting," as my friend Doctor De Kay, from whom I have the 
extract, says, "military into religious exercises." 

The colonel came to America in 1692, as I gather from tliis 
letter, which is dated in 1704. and he must have had both influ- 
ence and fortune to have attained a seat in the council, the first 
year of his arrival. 

He writes thus :— " I shall begin the history of the church 
from the time I first came among them, which was about twelve 

• fimilh was so caUed. from hftving been goYernor of Tangier, and to diatingaiah 
brn from « BuU Smith/' and aU other SmiUia. 






1 o face p«fc lOtf, v«il- ii. 


Anns. Ermine three pomeis, each charged . 


tiilben lleailicoie, Eiq , of Cbetterfleld In ^tcRmlale, Uerbyilil 

^ir OilbertsHMtHr da. of 
ancestor i>f ITIuUtopliar 
the |»nj8eui Rayner, Baq 
»ir tiillN-rt 
lleatbcoie of 
Park, Co. 
Rutland ob. 
Jnn 25. i::i3 
-3, ftt. 83. 


o«j.B p. 

ob s p 

ob ■. p. 


ob. s. p. 

BaiQuel. =:\| 

ano«*tor of yi 

Ui«pni«*i8lr iQ 

Wm. Heaih- 9S 

cote, of Uur* o| 

■ley Park, n 
Eng.ob. Nov 

ob. ■ p. 



Caul James d« i.anc'y— . 
of Hath, 8iwif>rMl, aid* < 
di'camp of Oun. Aber- i 
cr«»Mibi«, at 'I'Icoiidero- 
ga, July 8, 1758. [ 

Ll. C<i| Janie« do 

Jobn Peter de Lanci>y_E]izabe 

of rieatbcote hill, 


Tbi>niai Jani<>a=Mary J. 

Floyd, n 
8 Au 
l7iS8 o 
7 Ma. 

Will Heatbcol 
Bluhnp of the 
pmpii«?ior of 
ciHe Hill, Mam 


'IlioniaM Jaiii«!s, 

fimprieinr of 

Dk l*ancry neek 



John Alex. William 




• • 










years ago. I found it the most rude and heathenish country I 
ever saw in my whole life, which called themselves Christians, 
there not being so much as the least marks or footsteps of reli- 
gion of any sort. Sundays were the only times set apart by 
them for all manner of vain sports and lewd diversion, and they 
were grown to such a degree of rudeness, that it was intolerable. 
I having then command of the militia, sent an order to all 
the captains, requiring them to call their men imder arms, and 
to acquaint theiOi that in case they would not in every town 
agree among themselves to appoint readers, and to pass the Sab- 
bath in the best manner they could, till such times as they should 
be better provided, that the captains should, every Sunday, call 
their companies under arm^. and spend the day in exercise. 
Whereupon, it was unanimously agreed on throughout the coun- 
try, to make choice of readers, which they accordingly did, and 
continued in those methods for some time." 

The following letter is extracted from the MSS. of the Vene- 
rable Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 


Manor of Scarsdale, Nov, 9, 1705. 
I am indebted to you for yours ofihe 11th Jan. and 0th of April, and am 
wonderfully surprised that the Society should make choice of me for one of 
their members. It was a very great satisfaction to me, that any thing I could 
offer was acceptable to them, and should very joyfully embrace any opportunity 
of doing service to the Church, and I bless God for it, I am not conscious to 
myself of ever having slipt one fair occasion therein, when government would 
give me leave. I beg of you, sir, to present my most humble duty to that 
honorable body, and thank them for the honor they have been pleased to do 
me, and may assure them that I shall not only endeavor to give them satisfac- 
tion as to any thing they shall desire of me ; but if any new matter occurs, 
which I believe may be of service to the Church, I will not fail laying it be- 
fore them for their consideration. If I mistake not, the several heads you 
desire satisfaction of in both your letters now before me, are, first, an exact 
and impartial account of all your Ministers. Secondly, what fruit may be ex- 
pected from Mr. Moor's mission. Thirdly, what my thoughts are of sending 
Mr. Dellius into those parts again. Fourthly, my opinion of the Society's 
having appointed that good man, Mr. Elias Neau, as Catechist to the 


Negroes and Indians, and the cause of misunderstanding betwixt him and Mr. ^ 

As to the first, I must do all the gentlemen which you have sent to this 
Province that justice as to declare that a better clergy were never in aay** 
place, there being not one amongst them that has the least stain or blemish a9^ 
to his life or conversation, and though I am not an eye witness to the actions of 
any, save those in this county, yet I omit no opportunity of inquiring into their 
behavior, both of the friends and enemies of the Church, and they all agree as 
to the character of the gentlemen : and that they use their bfest endeavors to 
gain over the people. And as to their diligence in the iaithful discharge of 
their tiust, the Society, I hope, will, in their instructions, have laid down such 
rules as they wonU fail coming at it without being imposed on. Mr. Urquhart, 
minister of Jamaica, has the most diflScuIt task of any missionary in this gov- 
ernment, for although he has not only the character of a very good man, but 
of being extraordinary industrious in the discharge of his duty, yet he having 
a Presbyterian meeting house on the one hand, and the Quakers on the other, 
and very little assistance in his Parish, except from those who have no interest 
with the people, that his work canH but go on very heavily, as I understand it 
does : but Mr. Thomas, of Hempstead, having better assistance, the leading 
men in his parish not being disgusted, are helpful in the work ; and having no 
other sectaries to oppose him by their meetings but the Quakers, makes very 
considerable progress, as I have been told by some of the most sensible of his 
paris^h. As for Mr. Mackenzie, he has a very good report from the people of 
Staten Island, and I shall not fail making further inquiry concerning him, and 
let you know it in my next. 

But when all is done, what I can tell you concerning any minister, except 
in this county, is only by information from others, which is oflen very uncer- 
tain ; for some gentlemen may many titpes, and very deservingly, have a fair 
and good character by the generality of their neighbors, and yet at the same 
time, by one misfortune or other, not perform much of the service of the 
Church, in which I will give you this plain instance. 

There is not any gentleman whom the Society have sent over, that is 
clothed with a fairer character than Mr. Bartow, of Westchester, and truly he 
is a very good and sober man, and is extremely well liked and spoken of by 
his parishioners in general ; yet although he has been three years in that par- 
iah, not many are added to the communion, nor baptized, and few catechised ; 
and if he is directed to send an account how he has advanced on each of these 
heads, annually since his coming there, it will be found accordingly. For 
this and many other reasons, I can^t help still to be pressing that the Society 
should lay the gentlemen which are sent over under exact rules, and methinks 
it is no difficult matter to have it ordered so as to know almost as well what is 
done as if they were present in every parish. 

The people of Westchester were very angry with me because I was for 


■ ba?ing this county diYided into three parishes, and every minister to have 70/. 
: instead of 50/., and I had brought the county, except that place, to a willing- 
. ness to have it so, as I formerly acquainted you, and had they permitted that 
-; Rejection to have taken place, it would have been a great ease to the Society : 
for first, what Mr. Bartow had more than the 50/. he now hath, might reason- 
ably have been.deducted at home. Secondly, Mr. Bondet would have been 
provided for. And thirdly, one Mr. Morgan, who was minister of Eastches- 
ter, promised me to conform ; that there would not have been occasion of an- 
other being sent to us, and by that means have saved 50/. a year more at home, 
and wholly out of all hopes of any dissenting minister getting footing amongst 
us, and it will never be well until we are in three parishes ; and I shall not 
fail, when I have a fair opportunity, to push for it again. And to satisfy 
you of the reasonableness in what I offer, I believe there has not six publio 
taxes been laid on this county by the Assembly this fiileen years past, but I 
have been at the proportioning of, and when the places in Rye parish pay 601. 
the towns in Westchester parish were allotted 120/. ; and there are two places 
more, which, both together, are one third part as big as Rye parish, which are 
now in neither of them. And now I am on this subject, it comes in course to 
make out what I told you in my former letters, viz : that there is no parish in 
the government but what is able to pay twice as much as they do. For Rye 
parish which is not by one half so large as the least parish established by law in 
the government here, since my living here, maintained two dissenting minis- 
ters, ^iz : one at Rye and Mamaroneck, and one at Bedford, and gave the for- 
mer 50/. and the latter 40/. a year, which I think makes it out very plain 
what I have offered on that head ; and you may be assured I shall omit no op- 
portunity of serving the Society therein. But ihe work must be done, in a 
great measure by the minister*s taking pains, and bringing the people into a 
good opinion of the Church, for though the reason hereof is very plain, it 
must be a business of time to efiect it. We have had it reported that the 
Queen would be at the charge of maintaining a Suffragan Bishop in these 
parts. If that was granted, I question not but a great many who have had 
their education in Boston College would conform, and would be content with 
the benefices as settled by Assembly, without being very burthensome to the 

I have been so long wandering from one subject to another, that I had al- 
most forgot to give yon my thoughts of Mr. Muirson whom my Lord of Lon- 
don has sent for this parish. He has been here about three months, in which 
time he hath by much outdone my expectation ; having very fully retrieved 
all that unfortunate gentleman, Mr. Pritchard lost; and if he continues to 
faithful in the discharge of his trust, of which I have not the least doubt but 
he will, he^l be able. to give as large account of his services as any that has 
been sent over to this Province. And I must do him the justice to own that 
he is as deserving of the Society's favors. For as some of his parishioners 
told me, and which I know in a great measure to be true, that although thej 

Vol. II. 14 


have had a great many ministers amongst them since the settlement of their 
town, yet Mr. Muirson did more good amongst them the first six weeks after 
his coming than all they e?er had before. And I question not bat when yon have 
the particolars of his proceedings transmitted, }ou will find what I have said of 
him to be troe. As for Mr. Brooks, whom the Society have sent to the Jerseys he 
has an uncommon good character given him from those parts ; and it is report- 
ed of him that he makes wonderful advances for the service of the Church* 
and I question not but Col. Morris will be very particular concerning him — 
that being properly his watch. For though that Province is not above SO 
miles from my house, and Stalen Island about forty, yet by reason of the diffi- 
euhy of water passages, I have never been at either of them above twice 
doce my coming to America. And I am now more tied at home with a fami- 
ly, and my private affairs than formerly, for which I humbly crave an allow- 
ance. My principles and natural temper lead me to do the Church all the ser- 
vice I can every where, but I dare not promise for more than this county at 
present, and my best endeavors in the westernmost towns in Connecticut colo- 
ny, when the Church is well rooted here. And it has always been ny opin- 
ion, and is so still, that there is no part of this Province, or even America, that 
would be of greater use or service to have the Church tboroaghly settled in ; 
for it is not only large in extent, and the land very good, and near the city ; 
•0, consequently, will in time be a great settlement. But bordering on Connec- 
ticut there is no part of the continent from whence the Churoh can have so fair 
an opportunity to make impressions upon the dissenters in that government, 
who are settled by their laws from Rye parish to Boston colony, which is 
about 35 leagues, in which there are abundance of people and places. As for 
Boston colony, I never was in it, so can say little to it. But for Connecticut, 
I am and have been pretty conversant ; and always was as much in all their 
good graces as any man. And now I am upon that subject, I will give you the 
best account I can of that colony. It contains, in length, about 140 miles, and 
has in it about 40 towns, in each of which there is a Presbyterian or Indepen- 
dent minister settled by their law ; to whom the people are all obliged to pay 
notwithstanding many times they are not ordained ; of which I have known 
several examples. The number of people there, are, I believe, about 3,400 
souls. They have abundance of odd kind of laws to prevent any dissenting 
from their church, and endeavor to keep the people in as much blindness and 
unacquaintedness with any other religion as possible ; but in a more particular 
manner the Church, looking upon her as the most dangerous enemy they have 
to grapple withal. And abundance of pains is taken to make the ignorant 
think as bad as possible of her. And I really believe that more than half 
the people in that government, think our Church to be little better than 
the Papist. And they fail not to improve every little thing against us : but I 
bless God for it, the Society have robbed them of their best argument, which 
was the ill lives of our clergy that came into these parts. And the truth is» 
I have not seen many good men but of the Society^s sending. 


And no sooner was that honorable body settled, and those pmdent measares 
taken for carrying on of that great work, but the people of Connecticut, doubtiag 
of maintaining their ground without some further support, they with great indus- 
try went through their colony for subscriptions to build a college at a place 
called Seabrook. And the ministers who are as absolute in their respective 
parishes, as the Pope of Rome, argued, prayed, and preached up the necessity 
of it ; and the passive obedience people who dare not do otherwise than obey, 
gave even beyond their ability. A thing which they call a college was prepared 
accordingly, wherein, as I am informed, a commencement was made about three 
or four months ago. But notwithstanding their new college here, and old one 
in Boston, and that every town in that colony has one, and some two minis- 
ters, and have not only heard them say, bnt seen it in their prints, that there 
was no place in the world where the gospel shone so brightly, nor that the 
people lived so religiously and well as they : yet I dare aver, that there is not 
a much greater necessity of having the christian religion in its true light 
preached any where than amongst them. Many, if not the greatest number 
of them, being little better than in a state of heathenism ; having never been 
baptized nor admitted to the communion. And that you may be satisfied what 
I tell you herein is not spoken at random, nor grounded ou careless observation, 
Mr. Muirson's parish is more than three fourths of it composed of two towns, 
viz : Rye and Bedford, which were first settled under the colony of Con- 
necticut, and of people bred and born under that government, and some time 
before my coming, had a minister, one Mr. Denham, and had afterwards two 
more, Woodbridge and Bowers, at Rye, and one Mr. Jones, at Bedford. And 
the people of Rye only had of this county the care to provide a parsonage 
house. And notwithstanding all those great shows of religion, and that a* 
such times as they were destitute of a minister. 

Greenwich and Stanford, the bounds of the former of which places join 
npon theirs, and the other is not above ten miles distant, where they were al- 
ways supplied. But they could not be s^id to want the opportunity of having 
the sacraments administered to them, yet I believe 20 of them had never re- 
ceived the communion, nor half of them been baptized, as Mr. Muirson \^ill 
more fully inform yon. And now I have given you an account of the state of 
that colony, what will in the next place be naturally expected from me, is to know 
my opinion of the best and most probable way of doing good amongst them. 

There is nothing more certain, than that it is the most difficult task the so- 
ciety have to wade through. For the people are not only not of the church, 
but have been and are trained up with all the care imaginable to be its ene- 
mies. That to make an impression under all those disadvantages is very 
difficult, though I hope not impossible. And though, at first view, the pros- 
pect of doing any good upon them is very little, yet no doubt but the most 
|>roper measures ought to be taken, leaving the event to Almighty God. 

Now, to give you my thoughts in what way this great work may best be 
endeavored at, so as it may be done with little expense. I believe, for th^ 


first step, the most proper way would be, that one of the ministers in this cofin« 
try were directed by my Lord of London to inform himself where there are any 
in that government that profess themselves to be of the church, and to know 
if they or any of their neighbors have any children to baptize, or desire to 
partake of the sacrament : and that he will come to the towns where they live, 
and after having given them a sermon, will perform those holy rites. There 
need, I think, no more be done in this matter for the present. But the socie- 
ty may, if they please, leave the rest to me, and I won*t only give him the 
best advice and directions I can therein, but will, God willing, wait upon him 
in his progress, and persuade some useful friends along with me. And when 
this essay has been made, I shall be much better able to guess at the state of 
that government, and what is fitting to be done next. Now the person that 
I would advise them to pitch upon by all means for this expedition, is Mr. 
Muirson ; he being not only posted next those parts, and so will look less 
like design, but he has a very happy way of delivery, and makes little use of 
his notes in preaching, which is extremely taking amongst those people ; and 
for argument, few of his years exceed him. 

The chief end I have in this projection, is to have the people of that gor- 
ernment undeceived in their notions concerning our church ; there being, I 
believe, fifteen thousand in that colony who have never heard, nor scarce seen 
a church of England minister. And I have the charity to believe, that after 
having heard one of our ministers preach, they will not look upon our church 
to be such a monster as she is represented. And being convinced of some of 
the cheats, many of them may duly consider of the sin of schism. However, 
let the success be what it will, to me the .duty seems plain. I have not only 
mentioned this to you, but in my letter to my Lord of London, and shall pa- 
tiently wait fur his and the society^s commands therein. 

I will now proceed in giving direct answers to the several qoeries men- 
tioned in yours. Having as yet, only spoke to the first, so shall now take the 
rest in course. As for Mr. Moor^s mission, you will undoubteHlv have the 
account thereof very fully by Mr. Talbot, whose place he supplies having not 
thought it worth the while to stay at Albany. As for my opinion in that mat- 
ter, I think it is too heavy for the society to meddle with at present, and 
would properly lie as a burthen upon the crown, to be defrayed out of the 
revenue here. For their being brought over to our holy faith, will at the same 
time, secure them in their fidelity to the government. And not only that, hut 
the society will, I believe, find employment enough for their money in sending 
of missionaries amongst those who call themselves christians, on the coast of 
America ; which I find to be their resolution. And it is certainly the great- 
est charity in the world, to have the best religion planted in these parts, which 
with time will, in all probability, be so vast a country and people. But whe- 
ther the charge of missionaries for converting the Indians fall to the share of 
the crown or the society, to effect that matter well and thoroughly, those sent 


OTer on that errand, mast be sach as can endare hardships, and are able and 
willing to live with the Indians in their own country, and according lo their 
way and manner, which are iho methods the French take. And 1 believe 
some of those gentleman who have had their education in the colleges of the 
north parts of Scotland, being in orders from my Lord of London, may be 
the likeliest to undergo it. As for Mr. Dellius, I don't think it worth the 
while in being at any extraordinary charge in sending of him ; because 1 be- 
lieve no consideration would make him live in the Indian country. And if 
he did, he has not the language ; and one that goes on that mission must be a 
young man, who i^ able to grapple with fatigues, and will not only take pains, 
but is capable of learning the language ; and it is a general observation that 
none are so apt to gain foreign tongues as the Scotch. 

As for my thoughts of this society's having appointed that good man Mr. 
Neau, as catechist to the negroes and Indians, it is undoubtedly a very good 
work: and he is wonderfully industrious in the discharge of his duty, and the 
truth is, takes more pains than he needs, by going from house to house to per- 
form that office. And I believe he would find it as effectual to gain the end, 
and not the fourth part of the trouble to himself, to appoint set times in having 
them together at the English church, or at least so many at once as may be 
proper, and catechise and instruct them. And Mr. Vesey assures me that he 
shall be very free and willing to let him have the use of the church for that 
purpose. And now I am on this subject, it will be very proper that the socie- 
ty direct Mr. Cleator, if he comes over, or any schoolmaster whom they ap- 
point in their respective places to catechise and instruct the negroes and In- 
dians ; and that the ministers in their several parishes were desired to send a 
list of all the slaves or free negroes and Indians, the society would then see 
how that matter was further worth their consideration. 

I did, i# my former letters, make mention of one Mr. Bondet, a French 
Protestant minister, who is in orders from the Bishop of London. He is a 
good man, and preaches very intelligibly in English — which he does every 
third Sunday, in his French congregation, when he uses the liturgy of the 
church. He has done a great deal of service since his first coming into this 
country, and is well worth the thoughts of the society. The town he lives in 
is called New Rochelle, a place settled by French Protestants ; it is compre- 
hended in Mr. Bartow's parish, and contributes toward his maintenance, 
which disables them, in a great measure, to pay toward Mr. Bondet's, who is 
in very grna* want. It is true, besides twenty pounds a year, which the peo- 
ple of New Rochelle promise him, and is very ill paid, he has thirty pounds 
a year settled on him out of the public revenue here, as the French minister 
in York hath ; but that is paid with so much uncertainty, that he starves un- 
der the prospect of it. 

Now for a remedy for this poor gentleman, and that he may be made as 
useful to the church as possible ; if the society would use their interest that 

110 msTORY or the 

he might ha^e an order from the court that he may not only forthwith be paid 
his arrears, bat that he should aAerwards ha^e his money by quarterly pay- 
ments ; and that, at the same time, he be directed by the Bishop of London, 
to consult with and be helpful to Mr. Bartow and Mr. Muirson in taking care 
of the scattering towns of their parishes ; especially Mr. Bartow's, where it is 
impossible for any one to manage it. And whereas, he has been obliged for 
his bread, to use the French prayers in his French congregation, according to 
the orders of the Protestant churches of France, and had that liberty granted 
iiim (as he tells roe) npon his receiving of orders, it is his earnest request, 
that he might have directions relating thereunto, wherein he might be re- 
quired not to use otherwise than the liturgy of our church in any congrega- 
tions where he preacheth, whether English or French. And it would be well 
that some French common prayer books and catechisms were sent over for 
that purpose. The reason of desiring an order of that nature is, that it would 
put the matter out of dispute. Mr.^ Bondet and I have gone as far as we can 
in that afiair, and it would spend too much time to tell you what tempests we 
waded through in attempting it, but if directions came from England about it, 
none, I believe would be found to oppose it. The chief cause of its being 
hindered with so much heat was, that the French congregation in York were 
apprehensive that it might be a precedent for them ; and for that reason fired 
the most ignorant of Mr. Bondet's people, and persuaded them to recant from 
what they had agreed to.- But I must do the most sensible of them the jus- 
tice, that they hold fast their integrity, and are willing to receive the church. 

If this matter goes forward, I expect that the greatest part of the people of 
New Rochelle will cease their contributions to Mr. Bondet ; so I must desire 
the society to consider him with sonie allowance in England. And if efiec- 
taal care conid be taken that 30/. is paid him, 15/. sterling more, with the 
small helps he will have from those who will continue steady to the church, 
will enable him to maintain himself and family. 

If care is not already taken therein in the instructions which are preparing, it 
will be of absolute necessity, that the clergy of this county be directed to meet 
twice at least, annually, and taking to their assistance the best and most sen- 
sible of their parishes, to consult of the most eflfectual ways for settling the 
church, and to give you an impartial account how the parishes are settled in 
point of coDveniency, and which way it may be better done, not only to make 
it easy for themselves, but so as the bread of life may be fairly and equally 
divided amongst their people, that proper measures might be taken, in having 
it regulated by act of assembly. For if 'something of this nature is not done, 
one half the people of the county wonU have much benefit by all the cost that 
is laid out upon them. In the conclusion of your last letter, you tell me that 
you had sent some common prayers and catechisms, by Mr. Mackenzy, but do 
not understand he has brought any ; so beg of you to inquire into that mistake. 
And in case you send any other books to be disposed, pray let them only be 


Dr. Beveridge's (now Bishop of St. Asaph,) sermon concerning the common 
prayers, a little book entitled A Christianas Way to Heaven, and one of the 
lawfulness of the common prayer. No books can be more serviceable thaa 
they ; and I would take care to have them scattered through Connecticut 
colony to both ministers and people, and am apt to belieye they would do ser- 
vice. As for the deputation the society now pleased to send me, I am exceed- 
ing sorry I can do them no service therein. For the people of this conntyy 
having generally land of their own, although they donH want, few or none of 
them very much abound. There being besides, a settlement belonging tQ 
Col. Morris, and another to Mr. Phillips, and mine, not any that belong to 
particular men of any great value in the county ; nor are there ten in the 
whole county but what have been brought over to the church since I cama 
into the province, that truly sir, if we can persuade them to build and finish 
their churches and schools, help to maintain their ministers and schoolmasters* 
and fit conveniences for them, it is the most that can be expected till things 
are better settled, and the church a more firm footing among them. 1 have 
DOt had the happiness to be in company with CoL Morris since I received the 
deputation ; but shall discourse with him concerning that matter when I see 
him next. 1 could offer some few things more to the consideration of the so- 
ciety, but time won't permit me to enlarge, so I shall reserve it to the next 
opportunity. So with my humble duty to the society, begging their pardon 
for the trouble I have given them therewith, I desire to remain, sir, &c. &o., 

Caleb IIeathcotb.^ 

George Heathcote before meutioned, appears to have been a 
cousin of Col. Caleb Heathcote ; for in the will of George Heath- 
cote of Bucks county, province of Pennsylvania, among other 
items occurs the following: '^I give and bequeath unto my cou- 
sin, Caleb Heathcote, of the province of New York, the residue 
of my estate, and nominate him executor of this my last will and 
testament. "b 

Col. Caleb Heathcote was also a member of the venerable Pro- 
pagation Society, mayor of New York in 1711, vestryman of 
Trinity Church from 1697 to 1714, and upon the incorporatioQ 
of the borough town of Westchester in 1697, chosen first mayor 
of that place. 

The following order swere addressed by Benjamin Fletcher, 
captain-general, and goveruor-in-chief of the province of New 

» Church Rec. Francis L. Hawks, D. D., vol. i. no. 29. 
fc Surrogate's Ofltee N. Y. No. vU. p. 3. 



York, &c., to Colonel Caleb Heathcole, con mander of a regiment 
of foot in Westchester county. 

"Whereas I am informed that several disorders and misdemeanors aro 
daily committed by the regiment under your command, and no obedience paid 
to my several orders for prevention whereof, for the fatnre, reposing special 
trust and confidence in your prudence and conduct by virtue of the power and 
authority to me given by virtue of their majesties' letters patent under their 
great sea! of England, I have thought fit and do hereby erect, constitute and 
appoint a court martial in Westchester county aforesaid, and hereby I em- 
power and authorize you, the said Caleb Heathcote, from henceforth and at 
all times, when so often it shall be found needful to call the said court mar- 
tial, which shall consist of you, the said Caleb Heathcote, as president judge 
advocate, and six at least of the commissioned oilicers under your command, 
whereof four to be captains, with full power and authority to hear, judge and 
determine ail crimes and offences committed by any officer or soldier under 
your command, and sentence to pronounce so far as fine or imprisonment or 
other corporal punishment, as the merit of the crime or offence shall deserve, 
according to an act of assembly made and provided against such offenders and 
criminals, and to cause such sentence to be put into execution according to 
the rules, articles, and laws of war and arms ; provided always that this con- 
dition shall continue in force during this war, or till my pleasure be further 
known, and no longer. 

Given under my hand and seal at armes, at Fort William Henry, New 
York, the 12th day of September, 1693, in the fiAh year of his majesty's reign, 
by his excellency's command. 

Benj. Fletcheb. 

In 1715 Colonel Heathcote received the appointment of sur- 
veyor general of the province. 

Among the archives of the Wyllys family in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, there is still preserved a Latin order from the king to 
Col. Heathcote, dated London, August 4th, 1719. 

The manor house of Scarsdale has been already described in 
our account of Mnmaroneck. 

Colonel Heathcote married Martha, daughter of the Honorable 
William Smith, governor of Tangier. Mrs. Heathcote bore her 
husband six children ; namely, Gilbert, William, Anne, Mar}'', 
Martha, and Elizabeth. On the 29th of February, 1719, Col. 
Caleb Heathcote executed his last will and testament in the fol- 
lowing manner: 

" Imprimis. To his wife Martha he devolved the sole keep- 


ing and management of his children during minority, &c., and 
from the moneys in England due to her the sum of £100 to be 
paid to her annually. Item, To his eldest son Gilbert he devises 
his dwelling house at Mamaroneck^ together with the neck of 
land called Mamaroneck east neck, and all mills, &c., and rights 
of streams within the limits of Mamaroneck township, known 
by the name of the Two Miles Bounds, and also all my lands 
lying on the east »ide of Mamaroneck river; and the lands 
I bought from Anne Richbell, within the county of West- 
chester aforesaid, running eighteen miles in length into the 
woods, 1 hereby give and bequeath unto my said son Gilbert 
Heathcote, one thousand acres, to be laid out by my wife, &c. 

^^Item. Out of the legacy lately left me by my brother, Wil- 
liam Heathcote, in England, I hereby give and devise to my son 
Gilbert, £2600 sterling. To my son William Heathcote the 
same ; and to my four daughters, Anne, Mary, Martha and Eliz- 
abeth £4000 each. 

"His two brothers in-law, Col. Henry Smith and Major Wil- 
liam Smith, he constitutes and appoints executors of this his 
last will and testament.*^ 

The last will of his wife, Martha Heathcote, bears date 13th 
of August, 1736, by which she bequeaths to her daughter Anne, 
the wife of James de Lancey, the sum of £1000, also a pair of 
silver candlesticks, silver snuffers and snuff dish, together with 
my silver tea pot, silver tankard, and my large coffer. To her 
daughter Martha Johnston she bequeaths the like sum of £1000, 
and to her daughters Anne and Martha all her wearing ap- . 
parel, &c. 

The sons of Col. Caleb Heathcote died in their minority, upon 
which the manor of Scarsdale^ with other possessions, descend^ 
ed to Anne and Martha, their surviving sisters and heiresses. 
Anne, the eldest, married the Honorable James de Lancey, lieu- 
tenant governor of the province. The children of Anne and the 
Honorable James de Lancey were first Captain James de Lancey, 
who greatly distinguished himself as the aide of General Aber- 

« Surrogate's Office, N. Y. lib. vUi. 234. 

Vol. IL 16 


crombie at the celebrated siege of Port Ticonderoga, father of 
the present Lieutenant Colonel James de Lancey, of Somerset, 
England, the eldest heir male of the De Lancey family. 

The youngest son was Major John Peler de Lancey of Heath- 
cote Hill, Mamaroneck, who married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Colonel Richard Floyd, of Floyd's neck, Long Island. This in- 
dividual ultimately became possessor of the Scarsdale estates. 

John Peter de Lancey, by his last will ai^d testament, bearing 
date 28th of January, 1823, bequeathed his property amongst his 
surviving children ; namely, William Heathcote, Elizabeth Car- 
oline, Martha Arabella, Anne Charlotte, and Susannah Augusta 
de Lancey. 

Under the Heathcotes and De Lanceys, the Angevines iield 
the farm bearing their name for four generations, whilst the 
Secor family rented the Hickories. 

By a survey and division of Heathcote's lands lying in Scars- 
dale manor on the II th of August, A. D. 1774, in the county of 
Westchester, the property of Caleb Heathcote in his lifetime, and 
which remain unsold by his descendants since his death, &c. 
No. 1, in north division, contained twenty-one lots, and likewise 
two small lots in the possession of William Barker. Lots Nos. 
16 and 17 were controverted lands in this division. 

Upon the west side of the manor the proprietors appear to 
have been the Crawfords, Devauxs, Vailes, Gedneys, Angevines, 
Tompkinses and Townsends. On the east side, the Griflens, 
Fishers, Vuils, Underbills, Gedneys and Cromwells. On the 
south-west^ the GrifTens and Barkers. 

The surface of this town is undulating and hilly ; soil, sandy 
and clny loam ; drained, south by the Bronx river, which bounds 
it on the west. Two small streams called the Hutchinson and 
Sheldrake, rise in Scarsdale, and flow southerly into the sound. 
The latter is a tributary of the Mamaroneck river. They are 
well supplied with all kinds of fresh water fish. 

The most prominent features of Scarsdale, however, are the 
extensive tracts of woodland which completely cover its wild 
and romantic hills on the west, displaying themselves to great 
advantage from every part of the surrounding country. The 
Saxton forest which forms a large portion of this woody district, 


Dcikct p«f • 11^1 TOl- U* 

Anmwlli^ on a che^. betw. three moor cocks, cloee, or, tm ma 


of Eaatct 



1. John, oCsMerey 9. Nehcral-sOftk- 3. Nathaniel 

Ted to 

da. or 


ley, of 

4.ThomaibsHedd7 1. Mai7,inii 


1. JoliOc 

Sarah S. MoeeLsPolly 3. Natba sPoTIy 4. A 

Bark- of Bo- Boa- nlet Tomp- 

ar.da. mera net klni 




5. baaCs.A 

prunxi pj^irorro^ inuni^n 

H * ' S I 2i a o 















Abrahan,=:l. Charity 



8. Martha 




1. 8arab-=Joeeph Dn- 

8. Mary^Cbaiterton 
3. Nancy s^tephen 


1. Albeit 
8. laaae 

3. Oicar 

4. Lorensa 

1. Emellne 
8. Abigail 






J ' 




Deborah, wife of 
Blchard Pat- 



abounds with foxes, rabbits and other wild game, and retains 
much of its ancient grandeur. 

At the fox meadows, Scarsdale, was born on the 21st of June, 
1774, that dislingruished individual Daniel D. Tompkins, Vice 
President of the United States.* He was die seventh son of the 
Hon. Jonathan G. Tompkins, by his wife Sarah Hyatt, and 
grandson of Stephen Tompkins, whose ancestors emigrated ori- 
ginally from the north of England, (during the time of the reli- 
gious persecution in that country,) and landed at Plymouth, in 
the colony of Massachusetts;^ from Plymouth they removed 
to Concord. John Tompkins of that place, had John born there 
in 1642, and a daughter, Ruth, in 1640. The Tompkins family 
subsequently emij^rated to Fairfield, in Connecticut.c lu 1649, 
we find John Tompkins proprietor of lands in Fairfield. 

From Fairfield, the family removed to Eastchester, Westches- 
ter Co. The name of Nathaniel Tompkins occurs among a list of 
the first proprietors of Eastchester, in 1665. Of this family was 
Micah Tompkins of Milford, Connecticut, who secreted King 
Charles' judges when they fled to Milford. "The regicides 
Whalley and GofFe, (says Mr. Lambert) lived in the town from 
the 20ih of Auorust, 1661, for more than two ypars, till they went 
to Hadley. Here they were secreted by Mr. Tompkins, in the 
basement story of a shop standing near his dwelling. It is re- 
lated that Mr. Tompkins's daughters often spun in the shop, and 
sometimes would sing some poetry which was composed about 
that time, concerning the martyrdom of King Charles, (in which 
they are mentioned) which much amused the judges. The 
girls were of course acquainted with their concealment.^ After 
remaining in Eastchester a short time, the sons of Nathaniel 
and John Tompkins removed to Scarsdale and Greenburgh, 
where they purchased lands and permanently settled. 

" Tlie father of Daniel D. Tompkins was a member of the 
state convention, which adopted the Declaration of Independence 
and the first constitution of the state. He was a member of 

^ The fox meadow estate originally belonged to the Griffin family, and paawfi 
from Jonathan Griffin to his adopted son, Jonathan Grifl^ Toisp)uo>* 
b Herring's Nat Portrait Gallery. 
• Sbattncks* Hist of Concord. 
4 Lambert's Hist of New Haven, 144 


the legislature during the whole period of the Revolution, aUo 
for many years first judge of the court of common pleas for this 
county ; and on the institution of the university, was appointed 
one of the regents, which situation he held until his resignation 
of it, in 1808. He died after seeing his son elevated to the sec- 
ond office in the gift of liis country. 

Governor Tompkins was educated at Columbia college in the 
city of New York, and received the first honors of his class in 
1796. He was admitted to the bar of the supreme court in the 
capacity of attorney, 6th Aug., 1797.* In 1801, he was elected 
a representative of the city, in the convention to revise the con- 
stitution of the state ; in 1802, was chosen to the state legislature ; 
and in 1804, was appointed a judge of the supreme court of the 
stale, to supply the vacancy occasioned by the election of Chief 
Justice Lewis to the gubernatorial chair. In the same year he 
was elected a member of congress for the city, as a colleague of 
the late Dr. Mitchell. Gov. Tompkins (continues his biogra* 
pher) seemed to embody within himself, the peculiar character- 
istics of the citizens of his native state, activity, energy and per* 
severance, and his talents constantly and variously as they were 
tried, were always found equal to any emergency. At the bar 
in the city of New York during the early part of his life, he 
sustained an honorable rank ; on the bench of the supreme court 
of the state, amid the bright constellation of judicial talent, 
learning and eloquence which then adorned it, he was conspicu- 
ously distinguished while yet a comparative youth, and we ven- 
ture to say, that no judge since the formation of our government, 
ever presided at nisi prius, or travelled the circuit with more 
popularity. Dignified in his person, peaceful and conciliating in 
his address, and thoroughly amiable in his character, he won the 
respect and confidence of the bar, and the admiration of the 

« As attorney in the court of common pleas in N. Y. and Westchester Co., 26 
Sept. 1797 ; counsellor in court of common pleas, 26tb Sept. 1797 ; counsellor in 
Mayor's court, Feb. 24, 1801 ; counsellor in supreme court, 2 May, 1801 ; solici- 
tor in court of chancery, 5 June, 1801 ; elected representative of city to convention 
on revision of constitution, 7 June, 1802 ; solicitor in circuit court of the U. S., 
1804 ; justice of supreme court, 2 July, 1804, member of congress for N. Y., 1804, 
judge of district court, March, 1805. -^Editor. 


public. The distinction which he gained in his judicial ca- 
pacity, soon elevated him to a different theatre of action, the 
gubernatorial chair of his native state. (In 1807, when not thirty- 
three years of age,) he was put forward as a candidate by the most 
influential of the republicans of that day, and in the mode in 
which he administered the government he did not disappoint 
their choice. Those were turbulent times in politics, but like a 
skilful pilot, he safely and triumphantly weathered the storm, 
Lot only that which was raging within our own bounds and 
among ourselves, but a more painful one which was pouring in 
upon us from a foreign foe. By his unwearied efforts in repeat- 
edly pressing the subject upon the attention of the legislature, 
slavery was finally abolished in the state of New York. 

The subject of public education and morals, was always near 
his heart. Tlie benevolent feelings of Gov. Tompkins, prompted 
him to call the attention of the legislature on repeated occasions, 
to the abolition of corporeal punishment, and he at length happi- 
ly effected that of the former ;. the latter siill remains. So early 
as 1811, we find him raising his voice in favor of the encour- 
agement of manufactures. In 1812, he prorogued the senate and 
assembly of the state. In this brief sketch, it is not to be ex- 
pected that even all the most prominent measures of Gov. Tomp- 
kins's administration can be noticed."^^ 

We come now, (continues his biographer) to the part which he 
bore in our late war with Great Britain, which embraces a most 
interesting period of his life. Whenever the history of that war 
shall be written for posterity, his name will fill an ample space. 

As governor of the state of New York, he had the direction of 
all her energies, and many and arduous were the duties which 
he was ordered upon to perform, but those who were conversant 
with the scenes of that period, will recollect the universal confi- 
dence which he inspired in every lover of his country. The fol- 
lowing letter, dated a few days after the declaration of war, will 
show the perilous situation of the state of New York at that 
time, the condition of the army, and the responsibility he as« 
sumed to meet the exigency. 

* Herring's Nat. Portrait Gallery, jo\. U, 


Albany t June 28, 1819^. 
To Major Giniral Dearborn, 

Sir, your letter of the 22 inst. has been received. I had anticipated 
year request by ordering the detachments from Washington, Essex, Clinton 
and Franklin counties into service, and have fixed the days and places of their 
rendezvous. Upon application to the quarter master general, I find there are 
but 139 tents and 60 camp kettles at this place, and even those I take by a 
kind of stealth, the deputy quarter master general declines giving an order for 
their delivery, until he shall have a written order from the quarter master 
general, and the latter is willing I shall take them, but will not give the de- 
puty a written order for that purpose, under ^ such circumstances. I shall 
RTaii myself of the rule of possession, and by virtue of the eleven points of 
the law, send them ofif tomorrow morning without a written order from 
any one. Tou may remember, that when yon were secretary of the war de- 
partment, I invited you to forward and deposite in our frontier arsenals, arms, 
Rmmunition and camp equipage, for self defence, to be ready for defence in 
ease of war, and the same invitation to the war department has been repeated 
four times since. The United States have now from five to six hundred 
regular troops at Plattsborgh, Rome, Canandaigua, &c. And yet those 
reeruits are now and must be for weeks to come, unarmed, and in every re- 
spect unequipped, although within musket shot of arsenals. The recruits at 
Piattsburgh, aro within fifly miles of two tribes of Canadian Indians. In 
ease of an attack upon the frontiers, that portion of the United States army 
would be as inefiicient and as unable to defend the inhabitants or themselves 
even, as so many women. As to cannon, muskets and ammunition, I can 
find no one here who will exercise any authority over them, or deliver a single 
article upon my requisition, neither can 1 find any officer of the army who 
feels himself authorized to exercise any authority, or do any act which will 
aid me in the all important object of protecting the iohibitants of our extended 
frontier exposed to the cruelty of savages, and the depredations of the enemy. 
If I must rely upon the militia solely for such protection, I entreat you to give 
orders to your officers here, to furnish upon my order for the use of militia 
detachments, all needful weapons and articles with which the United Slates 
are furnished, and of which we are destitute. 

'' You may rely upon the assistance which my talents, influence and autho- 
rity can furnish, in the active prosecution of the just and necessary war, 
which has been declared by the constituted authority of our beloved coun- 

Prom the day of the declaration of the war, the governor en- 
tered heart and soul into the prosecution of it, and so continued 
until its close. Most of the frontier troops the first campaign, 
were militia, and many of them were marched several hundred 


miles: The quarter master general of that day, refused to make 
any advances to them ; the governor was therefore placed in the 
dilemma of providing as well as he could for them, expenses of 
every kind, or of permitting, them to return home for want of ac- 
commodation, disgusted both with the war and the government; 
he issued orders for raising a brigade of volunteers upon his own 
responsibiliryy» which greatly distinguished itself on the Niagara 
frontier, and particularly at the memorable sortie from Fort 

The officers were all selected by Gov. Tompkins, and their 
gallant conduct in the field showed his admirable discrimination 
in this respect. He had previously recommended to the legisla- 
ture to raise volunteer regiments for the defence of our frontiers 
and the city of New York ; but by a perversity that seems 
strange to us at the present day, his patriotic recommendation 
was rejected. A man of less firmness than Governor Tompkins 
would have quailed beneath the storm which was raised against 
him in Albany in the winter of 1813-14, and the consequence 
would probably have been that the state would have been over- 
run by the foe. Not only was the whole western frontier in 
danger of invasion, but Sacketts Harbor, Plattsburgh and the 
city of New York. But regardless of censure or disapprobation 
he called into the field large bodies of militia, and organized a 
corps of new fencibles for the protection of the city of New York, 
consisting of one thousand men. In Sejitember, 1814, the mi- 
litia in service for the defence of the city amounted to 17,300 
men. He was even ready to dispatch a force under the lamented 
Decatur for the assistance of Baltimore, which was then menaced 
with an attack, and had not the news of the enemy's retreat been 
received the succor would have been upon the march to the re- 
lief of a sister state. In 1814, from information received and 
corroborated by the movements of the enemy, there are suS- 
cient grounds of belief that one great object of his campaign was 
to penetrate with his northern army by the waters of Lake 
Champlain and the Hudson, and by a simultaneous attack with 
his maritime forces on New York, to form a junction which 
would sever the communication of the states. The exigency of 
the time, while it subjected the executive to great responsibility, 


admitted of no delay. To defeat his arrogant design and save 
the state from inroad, it was necessary immediately to exercise 
fuller powers and more ample resources than had been placed in 
his hands by the legislature. « He proceeded therefore to make 
such dispositions as were deemed indispensable to secure the ex* 
posed points against menaced invasion. To efiect these objects 
he found it necessary to transcend the authority tfnd means ves- 
ted in him by law, perfectly satisfied that the legislature would 
approve and sanction what he had done. 

In October of this year. Governor Tompkins was appointed 
by the President to the command of the third military district. 
He acquitted himself of the command with great ability, and on 
the disbanding of the troops he received from every quarter let- 
ters of compliment and gratitude ; and this was the only recom- 
pense for his services in this command which he ever obtained. 

During the fall of this year the general government was desi- 
rous of fitting out an expedition to dislodge the enemy from Cas- 
tine in the province of Maine. They had applied to the Gover- 
nor of Massachusetts to raise the necessary funds for this pur- 
pose but without effect. In this dilemma the situation of the 
general government was hinted to Governor Tompkins, who 
with his individual credit and upon his own responsibilities, 
immediately raised the money, $300,000, which he placed at the 
orders of General Dearborn, then commanding in Massachu- 
setts. This noble act of patriotism speaks for itself and comment 
would be superfluous."* 

" He contributed (remarks the Hon. G. Rathbun) more than 
any one man in the Union to the success of our arms in repell- 
ing the invaders of our soil. Mr. Tompkins disbursed for the 
United States very nearly two millions of dollars. This sum 
was charged to him. Further, he borrowed for the use of the 
general government more than one million, three hundred thou- 
sand dollars, some of it partly upon the credit of the government, 
and some of it upon his own responsibility, &c.'^^ 

^ Herrinsfs Nat. Portrait Gallery, vol. ii. 

b Extract* from spoecb of Hon. G. Rathbun of N. Y. in favor of an appropriation 


*' In looking over his military correspondence, it is surprising 
to see how watchful he was to foster a delicate and punctilious 
regard to the relative rank of tlie officers of the militia, so as to 
preclude any cause of jealousy or complaint. The officers were 
appointed by the council of appointment, which in the winter of 
1813-14, was together with one branch of the legislature opposed 
to the administration of the general government, and to the pro- 
secution of the war, and it is evident from his correspondence at 
this period that attempts were constantly made to create discon- 
tents, by the recommending of persons for promotion over the 
heads of those who were entitled to it by their previous military 
rank ; and in turning back to his private correspondence from 
1808 to 1811, we are struck with the continual annoyance ex- 
perienced by him from the intrigues and slanders of political op- 
ponents, and at the same time with the indefatigable industry 
and noble frankness with which he counteracted and exposed 
them. In the fall of 1814, Mr. Monroe having just been appoint- 
ed secretary of war, President Madison requested permission to 
name Governor Tompkins to the senate as his successor. This 
offer of what is considered the highest office in the gift of the 
President of the United States was declined. In the spring of 
1815, after peace had been proclaimed, he resigned the command 
of the third military district, and the President addressed to him 
a letter of thanks for his *^ patriotic action and able support given 
to the government during the war." 

"In February, 1817, having received official information of 
his election to the office of Vice President of the United States he 
surrendered that of chief magistrate of the state of New York." 
He was also chancellor of the university, and in June, 1820, was 
elected grand master of masons in the state of New York. In 
1821, he was chosen a delegate for the county of Richmond to 
the convention for framing a new constitution for the state; and 
he was afterwards appointed president of this body. This was 
the la3t public situation which he held.''^ 

for the heira of D. D. Tompkini, delivered ia the House of ReprescatatiTes, Feb. 4| 
» Herrinsft National Portait Gallery, vol. ii. 

Vol. ii. 16 


"Years having rolled away (remarks Mr. John W. Edmonds) 
since he played so prominent and active a part on the stage, and 
the party rancor with which he was sometimes beset having been 
long since buried in the grave of the past, ample justice may 
now, without ofience be done to him who was in every sense of 
the word, 

'* A stitesmaR lofly and a patriot pure/' 

The task, however, of doing full justice to his memory belongs 
to an abler pen ; but no one is too feeble to admire the elevated 
patriotism which induced him, at a most trying crisis, to forego 
the honor intended for him by the President, to sacrifice his own 
health and the comfort of his family to the paramount duty of 
serving his country in that sphere where he could be most use- 
ful, and to offer himself a victim for its safety if it should be neces- 
sary ; and the indomitable energy which enabled him in less than 
forty days, without assistance in money from the national gov- 
ernment, to bring into the field at various points of danger nearly 
50,000 men, organized, armed and equipped, to endure the toil, 
expense and embarrassment of commanding 20,000 of them in 
person, and at the same time to administer the government of the 
state : and in less than sixty days when the national credit was 
at its lowest poiiit of depression, when the payment of even the 
interest of its notes could not be provided for, to raise for the pub- 
lic service upwards of $1,000,000.^ 

If it should be asked what was his reward, for his great ser- 
vices to his country, and where stands his monument? the ven- 
eration in which his memory is yet regarded by the whole na- 
tion, answers that it is erected in the hearts of his countrymen. 

*' Such honors Ilion to her hero paid, 
And peaceful slept the mighty Hector's 8hade.**i» 

■ Id consequence of the death of Goyemor Tompkins in 1825, and of Mm. 
Tompkins a few years after, the claim of what was due him in 1824, slept until 
February 4, 1847, when Congrress voted its appropriation to the heirs of Daniel D. 
Tompkins. — Editor. See speech of the Hon. G. Rathbun. 

b Some passages in the Hfe of Governor Tompkins, by Mr. John W. Edmonds. 
See Froceedings of N. Y. Hist Soc. 1844. 


' The Hon. Daniel D. Tompkins died at his residence Tomp- 
kinsTille, Stateu Island, June 11, 1825, aged fifty-one, and was 
buried in the vault of Mr. Minthorne, at St. Mark's Church, 
New York.* His wife was a daughter of Mangle Minthorne, 
Esq., of New York. His sons were Minthorne, Ray, Daniel, 
Clinton and Griffin Tompkins. 

The Fox meadow estate in Scarsdale passed to the late Hon. 
Caleb Tompkins, the eldest brother of the Governor, and is now 
occupied by his son the present Jonathan G. Tompkins. The 
only surviving brother of the Governor is George Washington 
Tompkins, Esq., of While Plains. 

The neighboring properly on the south formerly belonged to 
the Hon. Richard Morris for many years chief justice of the pro- 
vince of New York, from whom it passed to his son-in-law, the 
late Brigade Major William Pppham. The mansion erected in 
1790, is a spacious wooden structure, and occupies a very se- 
cluded position in a picturesque hollow, surrounded by groves of 
locust trees. The Bronx enlivens the estate upon the west. 
Here is situated a valuable mill sent, once occupied by an exten- 
sive beaver dam. The calm solitude of this beautiful spot is inr 
creased by the overhanging woods and the low murmuring of 
the river over its stony bed. The graceful hemlock, fitly en- 
titled by Coleridge " the lady of the woods," appears to luxuri^ 
ant in this vicinity. 

Directly opposite to the former residence of the Hon. Richard 
Morris, a tragical event took place during the Revolution. The 
circumstances are thus narrated. An officer belonging to Col, 
Armand's cavalry, went to the village of Eastchester on the Sun- 
day, to have his horse shod. Vincent, the blacksmith, as a mat- 
ter of conscience, refused to shoe the horse ; whereupon the ofr 

« In the cemetery of this parish, around the church, (says Dr. Aothon in hit 
Historical Notices of St Mark's Churcli in the Bowery,) the govornors of three dif- 
ferent dynasties, Dutch, English and American, repose almost side by side. In 
the Stnyvesant vault, next to Governor Stnyvesant are the remains of the English 
governor. Colonel Henry Slonghter, who died in 1691. In the vault of Mr. Min^ 
thome, not far distant, the body of Daniel D. Tompkins, a former governor of the 
state of New York, was interred. Parish Aonals by Henry Anihon, D. P, 


ficer becoming enraged, drew his sword and struck the unofiend« 
ing blacksmith to the ground. In revenge for this brutal assault, 
Elijah Vincent, a brother of ihe smith, concealed himself in the 
vicinity of the Morris house, and whilst the French officer was 
passing, on his return from Oearmore's expedition, shot him 

The Pophara family were originally from Popham; in the 
county of Hampshire, England, and spring from Gilbert Popham, 
of Popham, who in the year 1200 married Joan, daughter and 
heiress of Robert Clarke, a feoffee in trust for the manor of Pop- 
ham. They were greatly distinguished by the favor of the 
Empress Maud, A. D. 1140, and held high and honorable sta- 
tions in ihe reign of Henry the third. To Hampshire county 
they gave several sheriffs. «* Sixth in descent from Gilbert Pop- 
ham was Sir John Popham, knight of the Bath, lord chief justice 
of the Queen's Bench, purchaser of the Littlecot estate, Wiltshire, 
England; this individual died, A. D. 1607, and his remains re- 
pose under a magnificent tomb in the church of Wellington, sur- 5^^ 
rounded by a palisade of wood and iron ; on a tablet are the 
effigies of himself and Lady Popham. His only son was Sir 
Francis Popham, Knt., of Littlecot, Wilts. This gentleman, 
together with his son Alexander, became so obnoxious to King 
Charles the first, that he excepted them both out of the general 
pardon. John Popham, eldest son of Sir Francis, was for many 
years a gentleman of the household to King James the first. 
Upon the restoration of King Charles II., he removed to Ireland, 
and there purchased the Bandon estates, county of Cork. His 
only son he significantly named Icabod,^ (the glory is departed.) 
Icabod left one son, John, the father of James and grandfather 
of William Popham of Bandon, whose son was the late Major 
William Popham of Scarsdale. We are indebted to the New 
York Express, of September 27, 1847, for the following account 
of the late Major Popham. " He was born in the town of Ban- 

« Robertos de Popham, 1227. Stephanas de Popham, cir. 1428. 
% The mother of Icabod is reported to have been a daughter of the celebrated 
Chief Justice Bradshaw. 


don, Cork county, Ireland, on the 19th of September, 1732. He 
was brought to this country at the early age of nine years, and 
his parents having settled in the town of Newark, state of Dela- 
ware, it was in that place that he spent his youth, and where be 
received a finished education. It was his intention to enter upon 
the holy office of the ministry, but on the breaking out of the 
revolutionary war, he was fired with military zeal, and accepted 
a commission in the army, and immediately raised a company in 
defence of his country. 

" His first engagement was at the battle of Long Island, where 
he greatly distinguished himself by taking prisoner the famous 
Capt. Ragg, with eighteen more of the enemy. He was then 
appointed a captain in the army, and having followed the Ame- 
rican arms to White Plains, he there again distinguished him- 
self as an accomplished soldier and brave man. As a captain he 
took part in the battle of Brandywine, and also acted as aid to 
Gen. Clinton in the northern division of the army, and was also 
the aid of Gen. Sullivan in his western expedition among the 

*' After the war he resided a few years in the city of Albany 
in this state, where he entered upon the study of the law, and 
practised his profession. Subsequently to that time he came to 
New York, and practised his profession for a few years. In the 
year 1787 he purchased a farm in Westchester county, upon 
which he resided for many years, during the whole of which 
time he held the office of clerk of the court of exchequer. He 
held this office until it was abolished. In 1804, he again took 
up his abode in New York, where he remained until 1811, at- 
tending to his profession, and paying particular attention to the 
education of his children. He then returned to his farm, and 
lived there until the year 1836, when the death of his wife* oc- 
curred, and he then returned to New York and resided until his 
own death. 

*^He was ever a remarkably religious man, and died at the 
age of ninety five, the peaceful and happy death of a firm Chris* 

* Mra. Popham was a daaghter of the Hon. Richard Morria. 


tian, and a member of the Episcopal church. He jpras not, as 
has been stated,-.ffQ]an of property, though he was always blessed 
with an abundan j%. He was a friend to the poor and needy, and 
derived much of his happiness by doing good. He was the 
friend and companion of Washington, and claimed as his inti- 
mates many of the most remarkable men of his day. He be- 
longed to the old school of American gentlemen, and in mind 
and body was distinguished for activity and sprightliness. He 
was an accomplished scholar, and in every particular a thorough- 
bred gentleman. His funeral took place on Sunday evening last, 
and Bishop de Lance y, an old and well tried friend of the de- 
parted, officiated on the occasion. The remains of the deceased 
were conveyed to White Plains, where, in the little church-yard 
of the village, they now repose in peace. He lived the life of a 
noble man, and died the death of a happy Christian — leaving be- 
hind him three children, two sons and one daughter." 

Major Popham was President of the New York State Society 
of Cincinnati,^ and as the oldest member, President General of 

* The folio wingr ^neral order was inaed by the New York State Society of the 
Cincionati, dated New York, Sept 27tb, 1847. 


General Order. 

New York, Sept. 27th, 1847. It has become the painful daty of the vice presi- 
dent to announce to the society the death of their venerable president, Major Wil- 
liam Popham, at the advanced age of 95 years. Major Popham was also President 
General of the General Society of the Cincinnati of the United States. 

He was a native of Ireland, and came to this country previous to our Revolution, 
and was at its commencement, appointed a lieutenant in the army, and at the bat- 
tle of Long Island with a detachment of troops under his command, captured and 
brought to head quarters in this city, a British guard with its commanding officer, 
and was highly complimented by General Washington on the occasion ; he was 
afterwards appointed an aide-de-camp to General James Clinton, and subsequently to 
Baron Steuben, by whom he was much beloved ; he continued in the service till 
the termination of the war, was a brave and accomplished officer, and a gentleman 
of considerable legal and literary acquirements. He held for a long time an im- 
portant civil office connected with our courts of justice. He always sustained the 
character of the most exemplary punctuality in the execution of his official duties. 



the Genen4 Society of Cincinnati of the United States, an office 
first held by General Washington. As presidMl general he had 
in his possession the golden eagle of the ordikr, most splendidly 
set in diamonds. It bears the following inscription : <* Presented 
in the name of the French sailors, to his Excellency the 
General Washington." This precious relic of the society, goes 
to his successor in the office.^ 

Immediately north of the Popham residence, is situated the 
estate of the Yarian family. The late Col. Jonathan Varian 
who greatly distinguished himself in the last war with Great 
Britain, was the eldest son of Michael Yarian, who occupied the 
homestead in 1775. Michael as well as his brothers Richard and 
Isaac, took an active part in their country's service, during the 
revolutionary war. Of this family was Isaac Yarian former 
Mayor of the city of New York. 

In the northwestern corner of the town, lies Morningvillei 
two miles south of White Plains. Here is a railroad station, and 
the Bronx Powder Manufactory, of the Messrs. E. F. Haubold 
and Company. There are now in operation four grinding mills, 
a dyeing house, saltpetre magazine, two coul houses, store house 
and car house, besides a spacious stone dwelling. 

Near the centre of the town, upon what is called the Angevine 
farm, stands the former residence of Fenimore Cooper, Esq. 
The house is in the French chateau style, and will excite atten- 

In private life he wu respected and beloved by all who knew him ; his mental 
faculties were retained with gre^i vigor notil the last moment of his life, and died 
as a Christian soldier, with the confident hope, that his piety and faithfulness, 
would entitle him to the reward in the life to come, promised to those who con- 
tinue faithful to the end. 

•' Sweet sleep the brave who sink to rest, 
With all their country's honor blest." 

The members of the society are requested to wear the usual badge of mourning 
for thirty days. By order, 

GiH. Anthony Lamb, Vice Pres't 

Edward P. Marckxxjn, Sec*y* 

a Major Popham was the third person who has held that office since its institution 

in 1763. 


tJon from its commanding position. There is an extensive view 
from the south front of the sound and surrounding* country. 

In this vicinity formerly resided Captain De Kay, the father of 
James E. De Kay, M. D., one of the geological commissioners 
of the state. 

On the south eastern side of Scarsdale, is situated the duaker 
meeting house. Upon the site of the oldest building stood a 
much older structure, erected prior to the Revolution.^ 


The first Independent election for officers of the manor of Scarsdale, took 
pkee on the 22nd of Dec. 1783. In parsnance of an act of the legislatnre 
passed Oct. 23d, 1779, entitled " an act to provide for the temporal govern- 
ment of the southern part of this state, irhenever the enemy shall abandon or 
be dispossessed of the same, and until the legislature can be convened,** &c, 

"The town met on the aforesaid day, at the house of Jonathan Griffin, near 
the usual place of holding said meetings ; then and there the inhabitants pro- 
ceeded to choose town officers by a majority of votes. 

Jonathan Tompkins, Supervisor. 

Benjamin Cornel], C)erk. 

Stephen Cornell, > . 
Thomas Cornell, J A»»essors. 

Israel Herriott, Constable and Collector. 

Ferris Cornell, Founder. 

Thomas' C^?I^^^^ \ ^®°®® *°^ Sewage Viewers. 

At a town meeting held in the manor of Scarsdale, at the school house in 
said manor, near Capt. Jonathan Griffin^s, on the 6ih of April, 1784, and in the 
8th year of the independency of America, according to an act of assembly 
made in that case for each town, manor, province and district, to choose all 
necessary town officers for the benefit of the towns, for the ensuing year. 

Jonathan Tompkins, ^ 

John Barker, > Inspectors of said meeting. 

Israel Herriott, } 

Jonathan G. Tompkins, Supervisor. 

Benjamin Cornell, Clerk. 

» The first Friends' meeting house erected in this vicinity, stood near the Palme 
burying in Mamaroneck. 


Israel Herriott, Constable and Collector. 

John Barker, ^ 

John Coropton, > Assessors. 

Stephen Cornell, J 

^^ire?Hi"^r' ( ^^«^^®" of highways. 
Thomw i Fence and damage Overseera. 

Samuel Higher, Pounder. 

Vol. IL IT 



SoMERs is situated twenty miles north of the village of White 
Plains, distant fifty miles from Mew York, and one hundred and 
twenty from Albany, bounded north by Dutchess county, east 
by North Salem and Lewisborough, south by Bedford and New 
Castle, and west by Yorktown. 

Prior to the year 1788 Somers formed a part of the township 
o( Hanover, within Cortlandt's manor. Upon the 7th of March, 
1788, it was independently organized under the title of Stephen- 
town, a name adopted out of compliment to Stephen van Cort- 
landt, one of its principal proprietors. The present name was 
bestowed, A. D. 1808, in honor, it is said, of Captain Somers, one 
of the gallant heroes of the Tripolitan war. This individual 
terminated a short but brilliant career in the bay of TripolL 

The name of Somers, (says Mr. Silliman,) the twin brother in 
arms of Decatur, shines brightly in the history of American 
warfare; and the last desperate action which terminated his 
short and brilliant career with his life, is stamped in colors so in- 
delible, that nothing but the destroying finger of time can efi!ace 
it from its pages. After a severe and continued fighting before 
Tripoli, the Turkish flotilla withdrew within the mole, and 
could not be induced to venture themselves beyond the guns of 
the Tripolitan battery. The ketch Intrepid was fitted out as a 
fire-ship, filled to the decks with barrels of gunpowder, shells, 
pitch, and other combustible materials ; and Capt. Somers, with 
a volunteer crew, undertook the hazardous, almost desperate, 
task of navigating her in the darkness of the night into the 
middle of the Turkish flotilla, when the train was to be fired 
and they were to make their escape as they best could in her 
boats. Lieutenants Wadsworth and Israel were the only ofllcers 
allowed to join the expedition, which was composed of a small 


crew of picked men. The Intrepid was escorted as Tar as pru« 
dent by three vessels of the squadron, who hove to, to avoid 
suspicion, and to be ready to pick up the boats upon their return ; 
the Constitution under easy sail in the ofSng. 

Many a brave heart could almost hear its own pulsations in 
those vessels, as she bec^raie more and more indistinct and era- 
dually disappeared in the distance. They watched for some 
time with intense anxiety, when a heavy cannonade was opened 
from the Turkish batteries, which, by its flashes, discovered the 
ketch determinedly progressing on her deadly errand. She was 
slowly and surely making for the entrance of the mole, when the 
whole atmosphere suddenly blazed as if into open day. The 
mast with all its sails shot high up in the air; shells whizzed, 
rocket-like, exploding in every direction ; a deafening roar fol- 
lowed, and all sunk again into the deepest pitchy darkness. 
The Americans waited — waited — in anxious — at last sickening 
suspense. Their companions came not — the hours rolled on — 
no boat hailed — no oar splashed in the surrounding darkness. 
The east grew gray with the dawn — the sun shone brightly 
above the horizon, nought but a few shattered vessels lying near 
the shore — the flotilla — the batteries-rand the minarets of Tripoli 
gilded by the morning sunbeams, met their gaze. Those noble 
spirits had written their history. Whether consigned to eternity 
by a shot of the enemy, prematurely exploding the magazine, or 
from the firing of the train by their own hands, must always re- 
main untold and unknown."^ 

The U. S. brig Somers, lost in a gale oflf Vera Cruz, January, 
1847, was also named after this young hero. 

Under the Mohegan Indians, Somerstown formed an appen- 
dage to the great terrhory of Aniaghpogh or AtnmawcUk, In 
1699 a deed for this tract was executed by Sachima Wicker, 
the chief of the Kightawonck tribe, (within whose limits Amagh 
pogh was comprehended,) to Stephanus van Cortlandt. 

The principal Indian settlement appears to have stood upon 

« Silliman*8 Gallop among American Scenery. 


the summit of a rocky ridge bordering the Croton 'ri^er, on the 
lands of Gerard Crnne, Esq. Indian lodges also occupied the 
higher grounds and adorned the romantic banks of the numerous 
streams iutersecting this town. In the woods of Ray Tompkins, 
Esq., situated upon the east side of Angle Ply brook, are yet 
visible the remains of Indian habitations. The Indian burying 
ground lies near Wood's bridge, at the junction of Plum brook 
and Croton river. This beautiful portion of Westchester county, 
80 highly diversified with hills and dales was once covered with 
extensive forests, abounding with every species of wild game* 
Deer were numerous here as late as 1780, and wolves, though 
rare, were not extinct at that period. The Indians, for the better 
purpose of hunting the large herds of deer that roamed through 
these forests, annually burnt the higher grounds. ^'This prac- 
tice (says Vanderdonck,) is named by us and the Indians, ^bush' 
burnin^j^ which is done for several reasons; first, to render 
hunting easier, as the bush and vegetable growth renders the 
walking difficult for the hunter, and the crackling of the dry 
substances betrays him and frightens away the game. Secondly, 
to thin out and clear the woods of all dead substances and grass, 
which grow better the ensuing spring. Thirdly, to circumscribe 
and enclose the game within the lines of the fire, when it is more 
easily taken, and also because the game is more easily tracked 
over the burned parts of the woods. The bush burning presents 
a grand and sublime appearance. On seeing it from without, 
we would imagine that not only the dry leaves, vegetables and 
limbs would be burnt, but that the whole woods would be con- 
sumed where the fire passes, for it frequently spreads and rages 
with such violence, that it is awful to behold," &c.» The last 
burning remembered by the oldest inhabitant took place on the 
high ridge cast of Primrose street. 

By the royal patent to Stephanus van Cortlandt in 1697, it 
will be seen that he enjoyed the sole right of hunting deer with- 
in the forests of Cortlandt, a privilege usually conceded to the 
Ranger of the county. *> 

« N. Y. Hist Collect. 2d teries, rol. i. k S«e Cortlandt town, vol. i. 46. 


The deep seclusion of the woods bordering Plumb brook af- 
forded an agreeable haunt to the bearer, and here these industri- 
ous animals had constructed an extensive dam which long sur- 
vived their existence. 

Upon the partition of the manor of Cortlandt among the heirs 
of the Hon. Stephanus van Cortlandt in the year 1734, the fol- 
lowing allotments were made in this town ; north lot, No. 5, 
Mrs. Margaret Bayard ; ditto No. 6, Philip van Cortlandt ; ditto, 
No. 7, Andrew Johnston ; part of north lot No. 8, Mr. Miller; south 
lot, No. 5, Stephen de Lancey ; ditto No. 6, Stephen van Cort- 
landt; ditto half of lot No. 7, Stephen van Cortlandt; part of 
south lot No. 9, Mrs. Susannah Wurren ; ditto. No. 10, Stephen 
de Lancey ; this lot has since been annexed to the town of New 
Castle by an act of the legislature, passed in 1846. Subsequent 
to the above division, we find the heirs of Stephanus van Cort- 
landt disposing of their respective rights in the same. On the 
4ih of June, 1760, Samuel Bayard granted to Hachaliah Brown, 
gentleman, of the town of Rye, "all that tract of land being in 
the northernmost part of the manor of Cortlandt, bounded north 
by the dividing line of Dutchess and Westchester, to the line of 
Philips's upper patent, west by lot of Andrew JohnstoUj south by 
bounds of Samuel Brown and east by Croton river." 

In the year 1763, Andrew Johnston conveyed to Hachaliah 
Brown, " all that lot of land, situate, lying and being in lot No* 
6, east range, and being part of north lot No. 7, at Plum brook^ 
consisting of two hundred and thirty acres.^ 

It appears that Andrew Johnston did also in his lifetime, by a 
certain indenture bearing date, 20ih March, 1762, lease to John 
Hampstead a certain lot of land, lying and being at Plum brook, 
in the manor of Cortlandt, known by the name of farm No. 4, 
west range, and is part of great lot No. 7. Tlie same was again 

» Co. Rec. Lib. I. 61. Upon the 17th of June,, 1760, Hachaliah Brown of Rfo. 
conveyed the same to hit eldest son, Hachaliah Brown, Jun. The property is still 
▼ested in their descendants. 

» Co. Ree. Lib. L 66. 


leased to John Hampstead by the heirs of Andrew Johnston, 
24th of June, 1772. 

John Hampstead the above lessee was one of the first settlers 
of this town. From his tomb-stone in the Union burying ground^ 
we learn that he departed this life the 26th of April, 1801, at 
the advanced age of 107 years, 6 months and 21 days. 

How few can reach those years of time, 

Whicd here are numbered to our view, 
Since death calls most while in their prime. 

And leaves behind so aged few. 

Upon the 3d of Dec. 1772, the devisees of Andrew Johnston 
conveyed to Lewis Riiley, farm No. 9, in west range of great 
north lot No. 7,^ In the year 1775, the executors and heirs of 
Andrew Johnston deceased, conveyed to Abraham Theale, cer- 
tain lands situate on Plum brook. 

A. D. 1793. John Johnston, executor of Andrew Johnston, 
conveyed to Benjamin Green of Stephentown, a farm in the north 
east corner of lot No. 4, west range, being part of Andrew John- 
ston's great north lot No. 7. 

These sales clearly show that the great lots were again sub- 
divided by the devisees of Stephanus van Cortlandt. Many of 
the descendants of the above mentioned grantees still occupy the 
patrimonial estates in fee simple. 

The oldest record relating to town officers occurs in a small 
manuscript volume, entitled as follows : 

" Book of the records of the proceedings from the first town 
meeting of the people of Stephentown, being the year of our 
Lord, one thousand, seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereof 
William Horton, Esq. was chosen town clerk. 

The first Tuesday in April, in the year above written, the 
people of Stephentown met at the house of Benjamin Green, for 
choosing town officers and oth^ necessary business of the town 
for the year ensuing. 

Hachaliah Brown, supervisor. 

■ Co. Rec. Lib. I. 179. 



William Horton, Esq., town clerk* 

Obadiah Fttttf^ 
Nathaniel Wright, 
Herman Hilliker, 
Samuel Green, 

John StedwelK > r , 

Jacob Lent, } orerseers of ihe poor. 

Benjamin Green, constable and collector." 


The village of Somers is pleasantly situated on a beautiful 
plain almost surrounded by romantic hills, the top of which are 
clothed with a profusion of green verdure. The air of this de- 
lightful region is said to be uncommonly mild and salubrious. 
To the south of the village lies the delightful vale of Plum 
brook, through which passes the road to Pine's bridge. On the 
north-east Prospect hill rises in a grand and picturesque manner. 
The village of Somers PlaiUj ccmmonly so called, " is the prin- 
cipal market of lean stock of cattle and sheep, brought hither 
from variotis and distant parts of the country to supply the wants 
occasioned by the sales of fattened cattle and sheep to the butch- 
ers of New York. The farmers of this county carry on an ex- 
tensive traffic in this way, and droves are annually and almost 
constantly arriving from the inland regions, some from 100, 200, 
and 300 miles, to replace the consumption."^ It is computed 
that over 5000 head of horned stock are annually fatted in this 
district alone. 

A bank has been for many years established in this village, 
under the name of " the Farmers and Drovers Bank of So- 
mers.^^ This institution was first organized under the general 
banking law of 1839, with a capital of $111,000. First presi- 
dent, Horace Bailey, Esq. It deserves notice that the money of 
the Farmers and Drovers Bank has always been redeemable at 
par. The present board of directors, consist of 

> New York Gajtettef r. 


Horace Bailey, Esq. Lewis Doaney 

Tjeonard D. Clift, Epenetus Howe, 
Edwin Crosby, Stephen Brown, 

John Titus, Charles Wright, 

Gerard Crane, .Daniel Kent, 
Thaddeus Crane, Lewis Brown, 

Solomon Bailey. 


Horace Bailey, Esq., President. 
Egbert Howland, Cashier. 

Near the centre of the village, and directly opposite the junc- 
tion of the Pines bridge and Peekskill turnpike road, stands the 
Elephant Hotels a very commodious and handsome brick edi- 
fice, under the superintendence of Horace Bailey, Esq. 

The large zoological exhibitions which annually visit this 
state, originated in Somerstown, through the enterprise of Hacha- 
liah Bailey, who imported about 1816, the celebrate^ elephant 
• « Old Bet,'^ the first ever brought to the United States. Other im- 
portations of animals quickly followed, but subsequently the smal- 
ler companies became absorbed into one grand travelling mena- 
gerie. The present propiietors are Messrs. Thaddeus and Ge- 
rard Crane. These gentlemen are associated with the great lion- 
tamer. Van Amburgh, and in the adjoining town of North Salem, 
with Lewis Tit is imd John June. 

The Episcopal Church of St. Luke, occupies a fine situation, 
on the Plain^ at no great distance from the hotel. It is a very 
handsome edifice of wood, in the Grecian style, with a stone 
basement beneath. The front presents a lofty portico, supported 
by Ionic columns ; the roof is surmounted with a low tower. 


Previous to ihe erection of ihis church in 1842, Episcopal ser- 
vices were occasionally performed in the town, by the neighbor- 
ing clergy. They were held usnally in an edifice erected by 
the liberality of persona belonging to the various religious socie- 
ties and others, possessing no denominational connection, under 
the name of the Union Meeting House. Here the church- 
men of'this section of country were favored with the occa- 
sional ministrations of the Rev. R. C. Moore, the late pious 
and beloved Bishop of Virginia, and many other respectable and 
laborious clei^ymen. As early as 1808, we find the Rev. Evan 
Rogers officiating here. Before the 26th of January, in the year 
1835, the present parish was organized under the rectorship of 
the Rer. Alexander Fraser, and about this lime, arrangements 
vere made for disposing of the interest which the Episcopal 
party held in Ihe Union meeting house and parsonage, and build- 
ing a church for themselves. This was quickly effected through 
the active and zealous exertions of the vestry, to whose liberali- 
ty together with that of several other individuals of the neigh- 
borhood, friendly to the undertaking, the parish is indebted for 
its present commodious and beautiful church. 

This building was consecrated to the service of Almighty 
God, on the 19ih of January, A. D. 1S42, by the Right Rev. 

ToL. II. 18 


Bcnj. Tredwell Onderdonk. It had been previously incorpo- 
rated upon the 28lh Feb., 1835. 

Isaac Purdy, and Frederick J. Coffin, church wardens, Thaddcus 
Barlow, Aaron Brown, William Marshall, Gerard Crane, Edwin 
Finch, Charles Wright, William Clock and ftay Tompkins, ves- 


Instituted or called. Incumbents. Vacated by 

A. D. 19^, Rev. Alexander Fraser, Presb. xesig. 

A. D. 1842, Rev. David H. Short, Presb. do. 

A. D. 1844, Rev. Samuel Chalmess Davis, Presb. do. 

A. D. 1846, Rev. Alfred H. Partridge, present incumbent. 

Kotitia Parochialis. 

1843, Communicants^ 14. Baptisms, 1. 

1844, do. 22. da 12. 

The Presbyterian church is very pleasantly situated on the 
north side of the main street, near the foot of Prospect Hill. 

Its front presents a neat portico of the Doric order. The 
Presbyterian society was first incorporated on the 10th of Janu- 
ary, 1811, under the name of the " Union Presbyterian Church 
of Somerstown," Darius Crosby, Lewis Brown, Amaziah Mead, 
Joseph Owen, jr., James Bailey and Ebenezer White, jr., triis- 
tees.i> 111 the year 1832, a mutual division took place, which 
led to the erection of the Presbyterian Church at Croton falls, 
whose pastor is the Rev. Joseph Nimmo. The present church 
edifice was erected, A. D. 1799. 


Instal or call. Pastor or Supply. vacated by 

A. D. 1801, Rev. John McNiece, resignation 

A. D. 1805, Rev. Mr. Perkins, ditto. 

• Co. Ree. ReligioiM Soc, Lib. B. 33. b Ibid. Lib. A. 45. 

A. D. 1825, 
A. D. 1826, 


A. D. 1823, Rev. Sylvanus Haight, resi^. 

A. D. 1824, Rev. Abraham Purely, by death. 

A. D. 1827, Rev. Ezra Day, resignation. 

A. D. 1831, Rev. Griffith R. Griffith, ditto. 

A. D. 1834, Rev. Henry Benedict, ditto. 

A. D. 1835, Rev. Alexander Leadbither, ditto. 

A. D. 1845, Rev. George Menelaus, present pastor. 

Chnrch Memoranda. 

1846, Communicants, 25, Baptisms, 1. 

The first Methodist Episcopal society in this town, was in* 
corporated on the 10th of May, 1794, Joseph Hadden, Thomas 
Bailey, John Stedwell, Abraham Golding, Samuel Wilson, Jup., 
and Benjamin Huestis, trustees.* A second incorporation of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, occurs upon the 20th of De^ 
cember, 1808.^ The incorporation of the Methodist brick 
church, took place on the 20lh of Sept. 1836. This building 
is still standing on the Mahopack road, a littlo northeast of the 

In the rear of the Presbyterian church is situated the Union 
burying ground. Here are memorials to' the Browns, Owensy 
Wrights, Crosbys, Cranes, Finchs, Baileys, Turks and Whites, 
Sec. &c. The oldest interment appears to be a member of the 
Roof family, 1770. A plain head-stone bears the following in* 
scription : 

Sacred to the memory 


James Bailey, 
who died Nov. 13th, 1826, 

aged 79 years 1 mo. and 16 days, 

O ! death thy ensigns here display. 

• Co. Rec. Religiotti Sac Lib. A. 45. J> Ibid. 


Another mortal snatched away. 
From life, from friends, from every tie 
That binds to earth, yet called to die. 
Such is our lot, like him here laid. 
' We must be numbered with the dead, 
And yield our life a transient day, 
To mingle with our mother clay. 

In this yard lie also the remains of Mary, wife of Luther Kin- 
nicut,* who departed this life Nov. 13th, 1811, aged 66 years. 

In the immediate vicinity of the village, are situated the farms 
and residences of Gerard Crane, Edward Finch, Charles Wright,** 
Thaddeus Crane, Caleb Green, Robert Halleck, John Titus^ and 

A charming valley opens to the east of the plains through 
which flows the Croton. Rapidity seems to be the principal 
characteristic of this fine stream, its Indian name Kitcha- 
wan, denoting the general swiftness qf its current. South of 
Dean^s bridge^ the banks are highly diversified with romantic 
and picturesque scenery ; below Dean's bridge are Golding's, 
Woods' and the Muscoota bridges. 

The village of Croion Fallsj formerly Owenville, occupies the 
northeast comer of Somers, bordering on the south line of Put- 
nam county. At this place, the Croton river ^'afibrds hydraulic 
power to a great extent, but little of which is as yet occupied for 
manufacturing purposes." The stream is said to average three 
hundred horse power. Here are located a Presbyterian church, 
a paper mill, a saw and grist mill, a clothier's works, a post ofiicei 
two stores and several dwellings, besides a rail road depot for the 
accommodation of travellers, and for merchandise. There is 
also a convenient hotel under the management of Messrs. Smith 

» Luther Kinnicut served in the capacity of a spy to General Washington during 
the ReTolntion, see page 12. 

b Mr. Wright occupies tlie estate formerly owned by James Bailey. 

• This gentleman is the son of John Titus, and great grandson of Samuel Titus, 
whose father, Edmund, was bom in England, in 1630, and came from Mas- 
mchusetts to Long Island, in 1G50. SeeThompson*s Long Island, toI. ii. 54. 


and Mead. Stages during the summer months, leave this place 
daily for Lake Mahopack,* a distance of five miles. Nearly oppo- 
site the depot, the two main branches of the Croton river unite. 
The Presbyterian Society was first organized here, in 1833i 
under the pastoral charge of the Rev. Joseph Nimmo. A neat 
and commodious church edifice has been recently erected, to 
which is attached a small parsonage and grave yard.i> 

Church Memoranda. 
1847, Communicants, 26, Baptisms, 2. 

Bordering the Croton river, are the estates and residences of 
Mr. Silas Finch, Mr. Edwin Crosby and Thomas R. Lee, Esq. 
The latter gentleman represented (in 1842) this county in assem- 

Within a short distance of the village, is situated the property 
of the late Lewis Brown, Esq., whose grandfather, Hachaliah 
Brown of Rye, purchased these lands under the heirs of Ste- 
phanus van Cortland t, in 1760. His son Elbert, at present, re- 
sides on the estate. 

West Somers, as its name imports, is situated to the west of 
Somerstown Plains. It is a scattered hamlet, containing a store, 
a post office, and a commodious hotel belonging to the Messrs. 
Charles and William Teed. 

The neighborhood of West Somers is exceedingly beautiful, 
commanding a rich view of the Plains and Plum Brook val- 

To the west of this place lies the valley of the Muscoota, 
through which meanders the Muscoota river. The margins of 
this lovely stream are adorned in many places with thick wood- 
land and bold hills, which constrain it into an endless variety 
of windings, at every turn, presenting new features. South of 

• '' Lake Mahopack-is a beautifa] sheet of water, lying in the town of Cannel, 
Patnam Co. ; it is about one mile in diameter, in which are embosomed two or 
three small islands. The waters abound with Tarious kinds of fish of fine flavor, 
which are taken in great quantities." Disturnell's Gazetteer of N. Y. Lake Ma- 
hopack is situated 150 feet aboTe Croton falls — Editor. 

b This church is at present connected with the Bedford Pkiesbyterjr. 


Bedell's mill pond its waters form a succession of rapids, which 
enter the Croton a little below Woodsbridge,*'near the junction 
of Cross and Croton rivers. The running supply of the Mus- 
coota is said to be at a fair calculation 3,628,800 gallons per 

Upon this stream are placed (he grist and saw mill of W. S. 
Tompkins, the cloth dressing establishment of Reuben C. Yar- 
nall, the grist, saw and fulling mill of Munson Perry, and the 
grist and saw mill of Isaac Bedle. 

On the Mili Brooke a branch of the Muscoota, are situated the 
paper mills of William Wallace and Abraham H. Miller. 

Angle Fly Brook, a celebrated trout stream, which rises on 
the lands of Mr. Tompkins, is a tributary of the Muscoota river. 

On the east side of Primrose street are situated the residences 
of Samuel Teed, William Marshall and Ray Tompkins, Esqs. 
The latter individual is the second son of the Hon. Daniel D. 
Tompkins. In his possession is an excellent portrait of the 
Governor by Waldo and Jewett. 

Mount Zion Methodist Episcopal Church in Primrose street 
was erected, cir. 1794, and appears to have been incorporated on 
the 20th May, 1828. Henry Clift, Aaron Brown, James Phil- 
lips, Samuel S. Ferguson and Samuel Pedwick trustees. 

In the grave yard are interred the remains of 


wife of 

Enoch Crosby, Esq., 

formerly the wife of 

Colonel Benjamin Green, deceased. 

Died March 22, 1825, 

Aged 64 years, 3 months, 

and 20 days. 

The above mentoned lady was the second wife of the well- 
known " Westchester Spy." By her side is a plain marble mo- 
nument inscribed, 



Memory of 

ColI Benjamin GreeNi 

who died 

October 6, 1812, 

Aged 56 years and 2 months. 

Upon Plum Brook are situated the saw mills of Messrs. 
Sylvanus Kniffen and Jacob Ruxer, also the saw and grist mill 
of Robert Halleck. This stream has its source in the northern 
part of the town, and running through the town, passes into the 
Croton at Woodsbridge. There are few historical notices of im- 
portance in connection with Somers, except that during the Re- 
volution, -General Washington lay encamped for sometime on 
the high hills east of the village, in the vicinity of Mr. Reuben 
Wright's house. 

<^ The surface of Somers is uneven in part, with some exten- 
sive plains ; soil, various, but mostly well adapted to grass and 
grain."* '* The farms are large, and the inhabitants industrious 
and wealthy. The growth of wood is similar to that in the 
neighboring towns." The high lands in the north-eastern part 
of the town are said to abound with iron ore of good quality. 

• See Diitaniell's GazeUeer of N. Y. 



The township of - 
Westchester* is siliia- 
ted sixteen miles south 
of the village of White 
Plains, distant twelve 
miles from New York, | 
and one hundred and 
fifty from Albany; 
bounded on the north by 
Eastchester, east by the 
Eastchester bay or Long Island Sound, south by the East River, 
and west by the Bronx. " Its form is defined by waters on three 
sides, and of course irregular, but its medial extent north and 
south may be four miles, and east and west about two and a 
half; with an area of nearly ten square miles."'' Prior to 1846 

flt. FfMr*i Chweh, 

• Tbie name ■ probably derived rroin tlie citj of the Same title in ChMhirs, Eng- 
Und. " Not for from tba moulh of the Dee in CLmhire, (nji Camden,) atanda 
that noble city, which Plolemy calls Deunana and ADtDninua, Deva, from the river ; 
the Britoua Caer-Legion, Jic, and by way of pre-emiaeoce Caer; as oui ancetton 
the Saxona called it Legeacerca, rrom Ihe legion there, end we more eonttactlj 
Wflchtiter from ite wealerly litaalion, and aimpty Ckttltr according to that 

Ceitria do Caatria nomen qnaii Caitria BampaiL 
Cbeater from Caater (or the camp) wai named. 
A more appropriale aiune could not have been lelected, aa It WW •Itnated WMt 
of the Mew EDglaad lettlemeDta. 

k Spifbrd'a Gazetteer. ^ 


this town embraced West Farms, and the manors of Morrisania 
and Fordham. 

Like the adjoining lands, Westchester was originally purchased 
by the Dutch West India Company, of the Mohegan sachems 
and other Indians, who claimed it in 1610.^ 

Upon the 14th of November, 1654, Thomas Pell of Fairfield, 
Connecticut, obtained a second grant from the aboriginal propri- 
etors, which also embraced the present town. Thirty years 
later we find the sachems Maminepoe and Wampage conveying 
to the inhabitants of Westchester '* all that tract of land lying on 
the east side of Bronckses river." 

The principal Indian settlements in this town, were located 
upon Castle Hill neck and about Bear swamp.^ The former is 
said to have been the site of an Indian castle. On the south-east 
side of Spicer's neck is situated " Burying Point" their place 
of sepulture. The extensive ^^ shell banks?^ on the shores of the 
East river, afford evidence that the aboriginal population must 
at one time have been very considerable. 

Westchester " was probably first settled in 1 642, by a Mr. 
John Throckmorton and thirty-five associates, who came from 
New England, with the approbation of the Dutch authorities."*^ 
By the Dutch it was denominated " Vredeland^" or the " Land of 
Peace," "a meet appellation (says the historian of the New 
Netherlands,) for the spot selected as a place of refuge by those 
who were br^ised and broken down by religious persecution."^' 

In reply to John Throckmorton's petition, soliciting permission 
to settle down within the limits of the New Netherlands, is the 
following license, dated 2d October, 1642. 

** Whereas Mr. Throckmorton, with his asAociates, solicits to settle with 
thirty five families within the limits of the jurisdiction of their High Mighti- 

• Alb. Rec. Tol. ii. 147. 

b The aborigines maintained poesesnon here as late as 1789. The site of their 
wigwams is now owned by Mr. Jesse Ryer. In this Ticinity is a small ezcaTation 
cat out of a granite rock, (in the form of a mortar,) used by the Indians in pound- 
ing their com. 

• Hist. Collections of N. Y. by John Barber and Henry Howe. 
4 0*CaUaghan's Hist N. N. 358. 

Vol. 11. 19 


nesses, to reside there in peace and enjoy the aame privilej^es as onr othir 
subjects, and be faYured with the free exercise of their religion ; having seen 
the petition of the aforesaid Throckmorton, and consulted with the interests 
of the Company, as this request can by no means be injurious to the country, 
more so as the English are to settle at a distance of three miles from us, so 
it is granted. Mr. Throckmorton, with thirty-five English families, are 
permitted to settle within three miles of Amsterdam.^** 

Upon the 6th of July, 1643, the following " land briefs was 
granted to Jan Throckmorton, &c. 

'* We, William KieA, director iifeneral, and the coancil, in behalf of their 
high mighty lords, the States General of the United Netherlands, his highness 
the Prince of Orange, and the noble lords, the managers of the General In- 
corporated West India Company in New Nethei lands residing, by these pre- 
sents, do publish and declare that we, on this day the date underwritten, have 
given and granted onto Jan Throckmorton a piece of land, (being a portion of 
Vredeland,) containing as follows, along the East river of New Netherlands, 
extending from the point half a mile, which piece of land aforesaid is sur- 
rounded on one side by a little river, and on the other side by a great hill, 
which river and hill on high water running, meet each other, surround the 
Miid land, as will more clearly appear by a map of the same which has been 
made and marked off by the surveyor, with the express conditions and terms 
that the said Jan Throckmorton, or they who by virtue of these presents shall 
succeed to his action, the noble lords, the managers aforesaid, shall acknow- 
ledge as their lords and patroons, under the sovereignty of the high and 
mighty lords, the States General, and unto their director and council here, 
shall in all things be confirmed as all good citizens are in duty bound ; provided 
also that the said Jan Throckmorton and his company (associates) shall fur- 
thermore be subject to all such burdens and imposts, as already have been 
enacted by the noble lords, and hereafter may yet be enacted. It is further- 
more made an express condition that the aforesaid Jan Throckmorton, ac- 
cording to promise, shall settle on the aforesaid lands as many families as may 
offer in the same manner, constituting over the said Throckmorton and his 
company, in our stead, in the real and actual possession of the aforesaid piece 
of land, lying on the East river aforesaid, giving them by these presents the 
full and irrevocable might, authority, and special permission the aforesaid par- 
cel of land to enter, cultivate, inhabit, and occupy, in like manner as he may 
lawfully do with other his patrimonial lands and effects, without our, the gran- 
tors in quality aforesaid, thereunto any longer having, reserving or saving any 
part, action, or control whatever, but to the behoof as aforesaid, from all as- 

• Alb. Rec. firom 1638 to 1642. 


flisting from this time forth and forever, promising moreover this tntospoit 
firmly, invariably, and irrevocably to maintain, fulfil, and execute, and to d« 
all that in equity we are bound to do. Done in Fort Amsterdam in New 
Netherlands, this 0th day of July, 1643. 

"WiLUAM KiKrr. 
" By order of the noble lords, the directors and coQocil of the New 

" CoRNELis Tikhhoven, Secretary."* 

This grant, subsequently called Throckmorton's neck, em- 
braced the eastern part of the present town. It was bounded oa 
the north by Eastchester neck, on the east by the Easlchester 
bay and Long Island sound, on the south by the East river, and 
on the west by the Westchester creek. 

John Throckmorton, the patentee, originally emigrated from 
England to Nantaskett, Massachusetts, 5th February, 1631, in 
the ship Lyon; from this place he removed to Salem in 1639; 
he afterwards became a Baptist, and a resident of Rhode Island.^ 
From Rhode Island he fled to Vredeland that he might enjoy 
here (among the Dutch) the free exercise of his religious prin* 

The Throckmorton family derive their name from Throcke- 
mertona, (Throckmorton) or the Rockmoor town, which is situ* 
ated in the vale of Evesham, Worcester county, England* Joha 
Throckmorton was lord of the manor of Throckmorton, about 
sixty years after the Norman conquest- The etymology of the 
name is either British or Saxon, which shows that they held this 
property before that period. Eighth in descent from John Throck- 
morton, lord of I'hrockmorton in 1130, was John ThrockmortoOi 
lord of Throckmorton^s neck, Vredeland, who left issue John 
Throckmorton. The patentee is now represented by the Throck- 
mortons of Middletown, New Jersey. Several members of the 
Throckmorton family appear to have fallen in the Indian massar 
ere which took place on the 6th of October, 1643.^ Upon the 
29tb of April, 1652, John Throckmorton petitioned the director 

> Alb. R«c. 6. 6. 98. Ibid. 173, 4. 
^ Farmers* Register. 

• See page 514. The war between the Dutch and the Indians of W^itchester 
continued throughoat 1644. Alb. Rec. toI zi. 56. 


general for leave to transport Throckmorton's neck. In October 
following permission was granted, whereupon he conveyed the 
same to Augustine Hermans.* 

On the 6th of December, 1656, Governor Stuyvesant ordered 
that Throckmorton's and Cornhili's neck (Clason's Point,) might 
come into .their jurisdiction if they please.^ 

Augustine Hermans, soon after his purchase, conveyed fifty 
morgen of land situated on Throckmorton's neck, to Thomas 
Hunt. In 1665 the town of Westchester asserted ** that she had 
always enjoyed Throckmorton's neck."c 

The following abstract is taken from a cause in the court of 
assize, September, 1666, wherein Augustine Hermans was plain- 
tiff, for usurpation of rights ; and the inhabitants of ye town of 
Westchester, defendants. 

Mr. Rider, ) Attorneys for ye 
— Sharpe, ) Plaintiff, &c. 

*^They produce the patent to Throckmorton transported to Augaatina^. 

** A mappe of ye neck oC land is viewed. 

" Thomas Hunt, sen., his deposition read, and Ids deed from Augastinas 

" A copy of an order is produced by the defendant, made by the Dutch g07- 
ernor, bearing date July Oih, 1657, wherein its exprest that Westchester shall 
have four English, or one Dutch mile square of land for the towne, which 
must be taken of this neck. There is also mention made on ye said order of 
a reservation of one hundred or fiOy morgen for Throckmorton^s and Corneirs 
neck, for a farme upon each. 

Another order brought in by them, dated 1660, viz., that all persons shall 
remove from their out farmes, which were at a distance, and settle in townes. 

Another writing, acknowledged before Mr. van Ruyven, of ye plaintiff's 
making over his interest in ye land in question to Thomas Hunt, sen. 

The court adjudge in lieu of all ye plaintiff's pretences to Throckmorton's 
neck, hee shall only have fifty morgen of land thereupon, with meadow pro- 
per con able : thirty- four morgen whereof, with a due proporcon of meadow, 
being that which was heretofore sold by the plaintiff to Thomas Hunt, sen., 
who is in possession thereof. The other fifteen morgen at the sale reserved 

» Rec. of Asiize, vol. ii. 59. 

b Alb. Rec. Courts of Assize, vol. i. CO. 

• Alb. Rec* Courts of Assize, vol. II. 60. 


by the pltintiflf, and making up the complement of the fifty, is to be aett out 
opon the said neck, with its proporeon of meadow, by the gOTcrnor^s order, 
and not otherwise, saving the right which Mr.^ Spicer shall hereafter make 
appeare to have therein, and the remainder of Throckmorton's aeck is to bee 
at ye governor's disposall. It appearing not to this court that ye towne of 
Westchester hath any lawful pretence thereunto, the defendants are likewise 
to pay the charge of suite.'> 

(JpoQ the 12th of September, 1666, a warrant was granted 
unto Mr. Augustine Hermans against the inhabitants of West- 
chester, by Governor Richard Nicolls.** 

On the 7th January, 1667, Richard Nicolls granted to Roger 
Townsend " a certain parcel of land within the limits of West- 
chester, upon the maine, situate, lying, and being on ye back 
side of Throckmorton's neck, at ye south-east end thereof, com- 
monly called New Found Passage, containing fifteen acres, as 
also a small neck near thereto adjoining, commonly called Horse- 
neck, being about the same quantity of land, which is not in oc- 

In 1669, thirty acres of land on Throckmorton's neck were 
granted to Mrs. Micah Spicer.^ 

Upon the 12th of January, 1686, SpicePs and Brockett's necks 
(commonly called the grove farm,) were confirmed by letters 
patent, under the great seal of the province, to Thomas Hunt, in 
the following manner. 


Thomas Dongan, Captain General, Governor in chief and Vice Admiral ia 
and over the Province of New York and territories depending thereon ia 
America, under his Majesty James the Second, by the grace of God, King of 
England, Scotland, France and Ireland, &c., &c., &c.. Defender of the 
Faith, &c., to all lo whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting: 
Whereas Thomas Hnnt of the Westchester in the Co. of W. C. stands 
seized of an estate in fee simple, or one messuage or tenement, and a certaia 

> Alb. Assize Rec. vol. 1. 129. 

^ Alb. Assize Rec. vol. L 46. 

* The Spicers and Brockets were doobtleai some of the associates of John Throok* 
morton. At a court or assizes held November 5th, 1669, Mrs. Mtoah Spicer sued 
for thirty acres of liihd on Throckmorton's neck. Assise Ree. 225, 


tract or parcel of land afid meadow ground, lying, situate and being within ihe 
liinita or bounds of the town of Westchester aforesaid, on two certain necks 
of land called by the name and names of Spicer^s neck and Brnokcti^s neck, 
vh said messuage or tenement and parcel of land and premises is now called 
and distinguished and known by the name of the Grove Farm of Westcbes* 
ter, being bounded on the east by a certain cove or bay which runs up to the 
north part of Spicer^s neck, on the south by the Sound, on the west by the 
harbour and river that runs up to the sd town of Westchester, and on the 
north by a swamp and a certain creek wh runs into the sd river and divides 
the lands called Throgmortpn^s neck from Spicer^s neck aforesaid ; Know yte 
That by virtue of the commission and authority from his roost sacred Majesty 
and power in me being and residing, in consideration of the quit rent herein 
aAer reserved, and other good and lawful considerations me thereunto move- 
ing, I have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents do 
give, grant, ratify and &o., &c., &c., confirmed unto the said Thomas Hunt, 
his heirs and assigns, for ever, all the before recited messuages or tenements 
and tract or parcel of land and premises with their and ev^ry of their appur- 
tenances together with all and singular houaes, out-houses, barns, stables, 
orchards, gardens, yards, lands, meadows, meadow grounds, marshes, pas- 
tures, fields, woods, wood lands, nndcr-woods, waters, lakes, creeks, coves, 
hunting, hawking, fishing and fowling, and all other proffits and comodiiy, 
easments, emoluments, hereditaments and appurtenances, to the above gran- 
ted messuage, lands and premises belonging or in any wise. &c., &c., apper- 
taining, as also liberty and the freedom of commonage for all sorts of cattle , 
cutting of timber and fire -wood in the commons and common wood lands of 
Westchester aforesaid, as other the inhabitants of the said town of Westches- 
ter do or may enjoy, to have and to hold the said messuage or tenement, tract 
or parcel of land and premises, with all and singular the hereditaments and 
appurtenances thereunto belonging or appertaining, and herein before granted 
and confirmed unto the said Thomas Hunt, his heirs and assigns for ever, un- 
to the sole and only proper use, benefit and behoof of him the said Thomas 
Hunt, his heirs, and assigns for ever ; and I the said Thomas Dtingan do fur- 
ther will, declare and grant to the said Thomas Hunt, his heirs and assigns, 
that the messuage lands and premises herein above granted and confirmed, 
shall and may at all time and times, &c., &c., hereafter for ever hold, use, 
retain and keep the name of the Grove Farm of W^estchester, and by that 
name, style, to be known, called and distinguished in all bargains, sales, es- 
cripts, deeds, records and writings ; the said messuage or teiiementst lands 
and premises to bee holden of his most sacred Majesty, his heirs and succes- 
sors, in free and common soccage, according to the tenure of East Green- 
wich, in the county of Kent, in his Majesty's kingdom of England, yielding, 
rendering and paying therefor yearly and every year unto his said most sacred 
Majesty, his heirs and successors, or to such officer or officers as shall from 
time to time be empowered to receive the same, vis. one bushell of good win- 


fer wheat as a quit rent, on or before the five and twentieth day of March, at 
the city of New York, in lieu and stead of all services, dues and demands 
whatsoever. In testimony of the premises I have caused these presents to bp 
recorded in the secretary's office, and the seal of the Province to be hereunto 
affixed, the &c., &c., &c., twelfth day of January, in the second year of his 
Majesty's reign, and in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty 
and six.* 

Thomas Dongan.^ 
By his Majesty's command. 

G. S. Swinton. 

In 1688, William Barnes and Martha his wife conveyed lands 
on ThrockiTiorton's neck, (situate near those of Robert Huestis) to 
Thomas Bedient.^ 

Thomas Hunt, senr., by his will bearing date 1694, "be- 
queathed to his grandson Josiah Hunt, eldest son of my son Jo- 
siah Hunt, " the Grove Farm, to him and his heirs male, which 
was patented to me by Governor Nicolls Ath Decetnier^ 1667, 
and further entails the same to the said Josiah and his heirs male 
lawfully begotten from generation to generation." 

The Grove Farm is now owned by the Ferrises, into which 
family it passed by the marriage of John Ferris with Hannah 

At an early period James Rivington (the celebrated printer and 
bookseller of New Vork^) held considerable properly on Throck- 
morton's neck. The successors of the Rivingtons were the Bay- 
ards,, a family of considerable opulence and distinction. Samuel 
Vetch Bayard ** served under the Crown of England, and was a 
distinguished military officer. He died in Wilmot, Nova Scotia, 
A. D. Ib32, aged seventy-five." Bayard purchased of Rivington 
the properly now owned by Daniel Edgar, Esq. 

* From the origioal in the ponession of Mr. Charlton Ferris. 

b Co. R«c. Lib. A. 2.50. 

c Rivington " was possessed of 6Qe talents, polite mauners, and was well inftnn- 
ed. Tbn is apparent from the correspondence of several of the leaders on the po- 
pular side, as well as from what has been here said, that his tact and ability in eon- 
duntiug a newspaper was mach feared, and that his press had more influence over 
the public mind than any other in the royal interest in the country. Rivington died 
in 1602, «t 78." Bee Sabine's American Loyalists. 


The grandsons of Colonel Samuel Vetch Bayard (who still re* 
side in the vicinity) are William Bayard, M. D., of West FarroSj 
and Mr. Edward Cooper of Throckmorton's neck. 

A portion of Col. Bayard's estate was subsequently purchased 
by his brother William Bayard. The whole property is now 
divided among numerous individuals. 

The second grantee under the Dutch, (in this town) was 
Thomas Cornhill or Cornell, who obtained the following 
^'grond brief," or grant in 1646. 

"We William Kief\, Director General, and the Council on the behalf of the 
High and Mighty Lords, the States General of the United Netherlands, the 
Prince of Orange and the noble Lords, the Managers of the incorporated West 
India Companj in New Netherlands residing, by these presents do publish and 
declare that we, on this day the date underwritten, have given and granted 
unto Thomas Cornell a certain piece of land lying on the East River, begin- 
oing from the kill of Bronck^s land east south east along the river, extending 
about half a Dutch mile from the river till to a little creek over the valley 
(marsh) which runs back around this land ; with the express condition and 
terms that the said Thomas Cornell, or they who to his action hereafter may 
succeed, the noble Lords the Managers aforesaid, shall acknowledge as their 
Lords and Patroons under the sovereignty of the High and Mighty Lords the 
States General, and unto their Director and Council here shall in all things 
be confirmed as all good citizens are in duty bound, provided also that he shall 
be furthermore subject to all such burdens and imposts as by their noble Lords 
already have been enacted, or such as hereafter may yet be enacted, consti- 
tuting over the same the aforesaid Thomas Cornell in our stead in the real 
and actual possession of the aforesaid piece of land, giving him by these pre- 
sents the full might, authority, and special license, the aforesaid piece to en- 
ter, cultivate, inhabit and occupy in like manner as be may lawfully do with 
other his patrimonial lands and effects, without our the grantors in the quality 
as aforesaid thereunto any longer having, reserving or saving any part, action 
or control whatever, but to the behoof as aforesaid for all destiny, for this 
time and for ever more, promising furthermore this their transport firmly, ia- 
Tiolahly and irrevocably to maintain, fulfil and execute, and furthermore to do 
all that in equity we are bound to do without fraud or deceit, these presents 
only as undersigned and confirmed with our seal of red wax here underneath 

Done in the Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands, this 26th of July, 1645, 

William Kiirr. 



By order of the noble Lords, the Director General and the Council of New 

CoRRELXs VAN TiENHOTEN, Secretary, •^ 

Upon the death of Thomas Cornell, the neck became vested 
in his widow who conveyed the same to her eldest daughter, 
Sarah, the wife of Charles Bridges. 

In the book of general entries at Albany, occurs the following 
order addressed to the schoiU, biirgomeestcrs, and schepens of 
New York : 

<* Upon the complaint of Charles Bridges and Sarah his wife 
against William Newman and Thomas Seneqviam, an Indian, 
now in custody, you are hereby required to summon a court to 
meet to-morrow, to examine, hear and determine the matters 
in controversie between the said partyes, and to proceed therein 
according to equity and good conscience. Given under my hand 
at Fort James, in New York, the 24th of March, 1661.''b 

Richard Nicolls. 

The cause appears to have been decided in favor of Mr. 
Bridges and his wife, for on the 27th day of March, 1665, the 
constable of Westchester was required (by the Gpvemor) " to de- 
liver unto Mr. Bridges and his wife, or their assignees, the goods 
that lye attached in your hands as of right belonging to them, 
for doing whereof this shall be your warrant. Given under my 
band at Fort James in New York, <kc."o Richard Nicolls. 

In 1664, Thomas Pell of Onkway, Connecticut, laid claim to 
Cornell's neck. 

Upon the 26th of October, 1664, " Charles Bridges and Sarah 
his wife entered a protest before and against all bargains, deeds, 
and sales of Thomas Pell of Onkway, or any from or under him, 
of or concerning a parcel of land situated on the East River, be- 
ginning from the kill of Bronx land, east south east, likewise 
alongst the river bounded almost half a Dutch mile, a copy of 

> Alb. Ree. G. 6. 206, abo 351. 

b Alb. Book of Gen. Entries, from 1664 to 1665, page 101. 

c Alb. Book of Gen. Eutriee, phge 103. 

Vol. II. 20 


the original grant whereof unto Thomas Cornell, father of the 
said Sarah Bridpres they have also registered, until such time as 
the cause can be tried."* 

The following particulars are taken from the assize records, in 
relation to a trial between the two parties, held on the 29ih of 
September, 1665. 

Charles Bridges } pi-intiffa Names of Jurors. 

and Sarah his wife, J ' John Tucker, Foremao, 

Thomas Pell, Defendant. William Wilkins, John Emans, 

Charles Morgan, John Forster, 
Joseph Bay ley, Rohert Terry. 

'* The attorney for the plaintiffs produced a copy of the heads of the trial 
at the court of sessions held in June last, st Hampstead, he likewise pnts in a 
declaration alledging the defendant's unjust molestation of the plaintiffs in their 
possession of a certain parcel of land called Corneirs neck, lying and being 
near Westchester, which of right belongs unto them, &c. 

To prove their title, a grant and patent from the Dutch governor, Kie(\, to 
Thomas Cornell, deceased, father of Sarah, one of the plaintiffs, is produced 
and read in court, that upon the said grant, Thomas Cornell was in lawful 
possession of the said lands, and that he was at considerable charges in build- 
ing, manuring, and planting ye same, that af\er some years the said Thomas 
Cornell was driven off his said lands, by the barbarous violence of the InJians 
who burnt his house and goods, and destroyed his cattle, which was made ap- 
peare by sufficient testimony. That widow Cornell's conveyance of the said 
neck of land to Sarah Bridges, one of the plaintiffs, and hor sister, was like- 
wise given in, under which the plaintiffs claime. That the said widow Cornell 
was left sole executrix of the last will and testament of her husband, Thomas 
Cornell, deceased, and so had power to convey the premises ; this was allowed 
of, (although neither the will nor a copy thereof were produced,) there being 
DO exceptions made against it. There was likewise an act from the late 
Dutch governor, Stuyvesant, produced, where he buyes the same lands of the 
Indians again, (though alledged to be bought long before,) and confirms it to 
Thomas Cornell, his heires and assigns. 

Mr. Poll, the defendant, makes answer for himself, that he bought the land 
in question in the year 1654, of the natives, and paid them for it. He pleads 
his being a free denizen of England, and hath thereby liberty to purchase lands 
in any of his majesties dominions, within which compass this is. He alledges 
the fif\h clause in the King's treaty, sent over hither to make for him, as de- 
claring this land to be within his majesties dominions, he saith the governor 

■ Alb. Rec. Gen. Entries. toI. i. p. 14. 


and council of Connecticut tooke notice of this land to be under their goTern- 
ment,* and that they ordered roagistratical power to be exercised at WeaC- 
cheater, and that lie had license from them to purchase. He pleads that 
where there is no right there can be no dominion, so no patent could be 
granted by the Dutch, they having no right. Several testimony s were read 
to prove that ye Indians questioned Mr. Corneirs and other plantations there^ 
about not paying for those lands^ which was the occasion of their cutting them 
off and driving away the inhabitants , but the defendant hath paid a valuable 
consideration to the natives. 

The attorney for the plaintifis alledges ye articles of surrender, and the 
King^s instructions, wherein any grant or conveyance from the Dutch is con- 
firmed, and plead the antiquity of Mr. Corneirs grant and possession, together 
with his great losse. After a full hearing of the case it was referred to the 
jury, who brought in their verdict for the plaintiffs, the defendant to pay costs 
and charges of suite, and sixpence damage." 

Jiulgment was accordingly granted by the court, and the fol- 
lowing order issued. 

" The bonrt having heard the case in difference between the plaintiffs aut 
defendant debated at large concerning their title to a certaine parcell of land, 
commonly called CornelFa neck, adjoining to Bronx land, near Westchester, 
and having also seen and perused their writings and evidences, it was com^ 
mitted to a jury, who brought in their verdict for the plaintiffs, vi^ , that thee 
land in question doth of right belong to the plaintiffs, and that the defendant 
shall pay the costs and charges of suit, and sixpence damage. The couit 
doth give their judgment accordingly, and do likewise order that the high 
sheriff* or the under aheriff of ye north riding of lorkshire, upon Long Island, 
do put the plaintiffs in possession of the said lands and premises, and all per- 
sons are required to forbear the giving the said plaintiffa, or their assigns, any 
molestation in their peaceable and quiet enjoyment thereof.^b 

In 1709 Col. Thomas Willelt,® of Flushing, Long Island, con- 
veyed to his eldest son, Willianri Willett, <'all that certain parcel 

» The legislature of Connecticut, (says the historian Trumbull,) determining to 
secure as far as possible the lands within the limits of their charter, authorized one 
Thomas Pell to purchase of the Indian proprietors all that tract between West- 
chester and Hudson'^ river, and the waters which made the Manhadoes an Island ; 
and resolved that'it should be added to Westchester, 1663.— 7rum6tt2i'« Hist. t(f 
Connecticut, S73. 

b Alb. Assize Rec. p. 15. 

< Col. Thomas Willett was the son of the Hon. Thomas WHlett, fliat mayor of 
the city of New York, in 1665. 


of land contained within a neck, commonly called and known 
by the name of CornelPs neck, bounded on the west by a certain 
rivulet that runs to the black rock, and so into Bronx's river."* 
From William Willett, the neck passed to his brother Thomas 
Willett, who conveyed the same to his son William Willett. 
The latter was the father of Isaac Willett, Esq., high sheriff of 
this county in 1738> Cornell's neck is now owned by the fami- 
lies of Ludlow, Clason, and Beach. 

Prior to 1647 we have seen that " Vredeland," (Westchester) 
was settled under grants from the Dutch. But, about this period, 
a number of Puritans from Connecticut must have commenced 
a settlement, for, at a meeting of the New England commission- 
ers, and Governor Stuyvesant, on the 19th of September, 1650, 
the latter complained of the English encroachments upon West- 
chester, and asserted that the " West India Company of Amster- 
dam, had bought and paid for the lands in question, of the right 
proprietors, the native Americans, before any other nation either 
bought or pretended right thereunto; he also affirmed he had 
proof of the Jirst Dutch purchase."® Under the apprehension 
that the English settlements might be connected with the claim 
of jurisdiction, it was determined (by the Dutch) to remonstrate 
against it. In 1654, it was resolved at a meeting of the director 
general and council, " that whereas a few English are beginning 
a settlement at a grehi distance from our outposts, on lands long 
bought and paid for near Vreedlant, to send there an interdict, 
and the attorney general, Cornelis van Tienhoven, and forbid 
them to proceed, no further, but to abandon that spot, done at 
Fort Amstcl, 6th Kovember, 1654."^ 

We have already seen that the principal intruder was Thomas 

This individual on the 14tli of November, 1654, purchased a 

> Co. Reo. lib. D. 38. From thit funily it obtained the name of Willeti's Deck, 
b This individual married Isabella Morrifi, daughter of Lewis Morris, of Mor- 

« Dunlap's Hist. N. Y. vol. i. 95. 

d Alb. Rec. vol. ix. 1.75. 

' See trial between 1 homas Tell and Charles Bridges, page 154. 


tract of land called '< Westchester ^^^ of the sachem Ann-hock| 
alias Wampage, and other Indians.* 

Upon the second of April, 1655, we find the following account 
of an interview between the Dutch officer Van Elslaudt and the 
English intruders. 

**yan Elslandt went to protest against those of Vreedlandt. 
Four armed men came to meet them on the creek, asking what 
he willed? He answered, he wished to land near the house. 
They told him he should not land. Hd rejoined, allow me to go 
ashore, I am cold ; whereupon he sprang ashore, where he and 
Albert the Trumpeter were warned not to come a foot higher. 
The commander came up to us with a pistol in hand with eight 
or nine armed men, to whom he read the protest and handed it 
to him. He answered, I cannot understand Dutch, why did not 
the fiscal or sheriff send English? when he sends English then 
I will answer. We expect the determination on the boundaries, 
the next vessel. Time will tell whether we shall be under Dutch 
government or the Parliament ; until then we remain here under 
the state of England. Van Elslandt saw their houses and settle- 
ments, also the English arms hanging from a tree ; they were 
carved on a board (plank.) Van Elslandt was left in a house on 
the shore well guarded with men."*» 

The continued encroachments of the English upon " Ooost- 
dorp,'' {East town,) " which they called Westchester,'''' at last 
awakened the most vigorous opposition on the part of the Dutch 
authorities, for soon after PelPs purchase occurs the following 

" The Director General and Council are informed by credita* 

ble witnesses that the English in the village which they call 

Westchester, situated in Vreedlandt, about two miles from this 

city, not only encourage and shelter the fugitives from tliis pro* 

■ See Pelham, pag^e 515. Tbie prant embraced tbe present iownihipe of New Ro» 
chelle, Pelham, Eaatchetter and Westcbestef. 

b Alb. Rec. Hoi. doc. iz. 261, 363, 4. 

« Whicb appears from the letters of the Burgomeeflters, dated 33d Nov. 1654« 
16th April and 3d of May, 1635. 


vince,bnf,as plainly appears by a copy from a certain letter, tbat 
the high sheriff Lieutenant Weyler kept in and about the time of 
our late dismal engagements with the savnges, a constant corres- 
pondence with these barbarians.^ Wherefore to promote the wel- 
fare of the country, and defend the rights of the Lords Patroons, 
against such usurpations, it was unanimously resolved by the 
Director General and Council to arrest as secretly and easily as 
it can be performed, said Englishmen or at least their leaders, to 
compel the remaining to remove from there with their property, 
and the execution of this expedition to be intrusted to the valiant 
Captain Frederick de Coninck. Captain Lieutenant Brian Naton, 
and with them the Attorney General, Cornells Tieiihoven, to ex- 
ecute his commission and apprehend the fugitives and thieves. 
Done in Fort Amsterdam, 6th of March, 1656. 

Peter Stuyvesant. 

Nicassius de Siile. 

La Montague. 

Cornells van Tienhoven.^ 

In accordance with the above order, the valiant Captain Fre- 
derick de Conhick embarked in the ship Weigh-scales and pro- 
ceeded to Wtstchester^ where he succeeded in arresting several 
of the English thieves. Upon their arrival in the city, the fol- 
lowing order appears in Council. 

"With regard to the English prisoners, lately brought hither 
from Vreedlandtf from the village which they call Westchester^ 
who remain yet in confinement in the ship the Weigh-scales, it 
is unanimously concluded and resolved, that all those who be- 
fore were on oath and allegiance of this government, and who 
therefore either for debts or other causes did run away, or 
against whom the attorney general supposes to have a just cause 
for indictment, these the aforesaid attorney general is authorized 
to secure in close confinement, and prosecute them agreeably to 
law. The remainder who either from New England or from other 

^ The Sachems Pennekek and Oratang were very troublesome to the West- 
chester settlements in 1655 — Editor, 
k Alb. Rec. vol. H. p. 283. 


places have been lured and decoyed by- Mr. Pell or any other 
person to settle within our limits, of which district this city had 
a grant, to keep them in a civil arrest, either in the court house 
or any proper and convenient place, till a further examination 
sliall be instituted and our orders issued in conformity with these. 
Done in Council, in our fort at New Amsterdam, in New Nether- 
land, 14 March, 11)56. 

Peter Stuy vesant. 

Nicassius de Sille. 

La Montague.^ 

On the 15th of March, 1656, the attorney general presented bis 
demand to the Director General and Council as plaintiff in the 

RfSPECTruL Lords: 

It is not only known to your Honors, but evory one residing in this 
country, that since many years the district called Vreedlandl was cultivated 
and inhabited in letters patent granted by your Honors and their predecessors 
by the Dutch, under your government, till the period of the general war in 
1643. Now it has happened that one Mr. Pell, residing at Onkeneg in New 
England, his dared against the rights and usages of Christian countries to 
pretend that he bought these lands of the natives, (which long since were 
purchased of them and paid by your Honors as evidently appears from the 
transfers in your records,) and actually made a beginning of settling and cul- 
tivating these lands, without your Honors previous knowledge or consent, di- 
rectly contrary to the limits and decisions of 1650, concluded with the United 
Colonies of New England at Hartford,<> against which usurpation your attor- 
ney general, in his quality and in the name of the Lords his masters, had in 
due form entered his protest, which the Lieutenant Wheeler, who there com- 
mands, not at all respecting, continues to remain there with his associates io 
planting and building, luring and accommodating our run-away inhabitants, 
vagrants and thieves, and others who for their bad conduct find there a refuge. 
As it has pleased your Honors in conformity to the instructions and letters of 
the Lords majors, and in preservation of the convention made at Hartford, to 
keep it inviolated, to send thither a liody of armed men to secure said Wheel- 
er and his associates, who, as appears from their own declaration of the 14th 

• Alb. Rec. vol. ii. 291. 

b Se6 negotiatioDs between New England and Peter StayresaDt concerning 
limits. Hazard's Hist Coll. vol. ii. 156, 173, 549. 


of March had met there the Director General there present on the spot with em 
armed force, and declined to inoye from thence, saying that it was their land, 
00 which said Englishmen were disarmed and twenty-three of them conducted 
as prisoners to the ship the Weigh -scales, leaving a few there to protect their 
vives, children and property. All which the attorney general demands that 
your Honors would send one or two of the oldest to Vreedlandt to inform the 
remainder of the English ifhat they must leave that spot, taking with them all that 
they brought thither, under the penalty that if they acted otherwise, that then 
other measures shall be adopted according to law ; and further that the afore- 
said Lieutenant Wheeler and his associates shall not be set at liberty before 
they have paid all the expenses which your Honors have been compelled to, 
through their conduct and disobedience, in that expedition in going thither 
with an armed force in boats. Besides this they shall sign an act and pro- 
mise under oath that they never more will inhabit any of the lands of oar 
Lords and principals situated in Vreedlandt, now lately by them called West- 
chester, or any other lands within the limits finally concluded at Hartford, 
neither settle, or build, or plant, or sow, or mow there, without a special order 
and consent of your Honors, under the penalty if they acted contrary to it of 
corporal punishment, as the case might require, &c.« 

The council sustained this demand of the attorney general (as 
plaintiff,) the same day. 

Upon the 16th of March, 1656, Lieut. Thomas "Wheeler and 
his English associates at Vreedlandt, voluntarily submitted them- 
selves to the government of the New Netherlands. Their names 
were as follows : 

Thomas N. Newman, Thomas Wheeler, 

Robert Basset, Isaac Holbert, 

John Cloes, Robert Roes, 

Sherrood Damis, James Bill, 

William H. Fenfall, John S. Genner, 

Richard C. Meares, Richard Osbort, 

Samuel Harelt, William Ward. 

The following prisoners were released on the 25th of March, 
1666, Captain R. Ponton, William Elet Black, merchant, Joha 
Gray and Roger Wheeler.** They were " commanded to depart 
the limits of the New Netherlands, except some of the inhabi- 

• Alb. Rec. vol. ii. 301. 

b Arrested for taking up arms at Vreedland 


tants of Vreedlant would adopt them and become tail for their 
good behaviour." "In 1656 the inhabilanls of Westchester 
dispatched five of their number, viz., Lieut. Thomas Wheeler, 
Thomas Newman, John Lord, Jonah Wilbert, William Ward 
and Nicolas Hurler, to the governor and council (hat they might 
confirm and establish them, and praying that they may in future 
appoint their civil oflScers."* 

Having efiected a settlement of the difficulties at " Oost-dorp^^ 
we find the director and his council ordering a supply of arms 
and ammunition for its protection. 

" Being presented to the Hon'ble Director General and Council in New 
Nelherland, a report of Brian Norton, captain lieut., Cornelia van Ruyven, 
secretary, and Carel van Brugge, commissary, appointed to go to Oost-dorp^ 
the director general and council did approve it, upon which they resolved that 
they would send by the first opportunity to the magistrates of Oost-dorp the 
following ammunitions of war, to be preserved there for the use of the afore- 
said village, and to be employed when necessity might require it, viz. : 
12 muskets, 12 lb. of powder, 

12 lb. of lead, 2 bundles of matches. 

And further, a writing book for the magistrates. Done in Fort Ao^sterdam, 
N. N., U June, 1657. 

Piter Stuvtesaiit, 
NicAssius Di Sills, 
Petrr Tonhemak."i> 

Upon the 28th of June, 1660, Governor Stuyvesant addressed 
the following letter to the inhabitants of Oost-dorp^ (East- 


Out of your nomination presented unto us we have made choice, as jou 
may know by these presents, of 

Josiah Gilbert, 

Nicolas Bayley, 

Thomas Wall. 
The which we, for the year following, do confirm and establish for magistrates 
of the towne called East town, requiring all and every one whom these may 

• Alb. Rec. p. 318. b Alb. Rec. vol. xv. 8. 

Vol. II. 21 


eoncerne, to esteem them as oar elected and confirmed magistrates for the 
said town. So, after my respects, I^est 

Your loving friend and governor, 

P. Stuyvesant,* 
Amsterdam, N. N., 28ih June, 1600. 

In 1662, Governor Stuyvesant granted to the English towns 
the right to nominate their own magistrates^ and to have their 
own courts, " but in dark and dubious matters, especially in 
witchcraft, the party aggrieved might appeal to the governor and 

Upon the nomination of town officers, the same year, the in- 
habitants addressed the governor as follows : 

Right Hon^ble Lord Governor of the New Netherlands, Lord Stevensone : 
We, the inhabitants of the towne, do heare present our choice unto your 
honor, for the establishing of magistrates for the ensuing yeare ; these may 
give your honor for to understand what the towne choyce is, as followeth^ 
namely : 

William Betts, Robert Huestis, John Quimbe, 

Edward Waters, Nicolas Bayley, Thomas Vaille. 

East Towne, Feb. 11, 1663.« 

About this period Connecticut claimed Westchester as lying 
within her jurisdiction j^ in support of which she issued the fol- 
lowing orders. 

At a court of general assembly, held at Hartford October 9lh, 
1662 : ** This assembly doth hereby declare and inform the in- 
habitants of Westchester, that the plantation is included in ye 
bounds of our charter, granted to this colony of Connecticut."* 

To the Inhabitants of Westchester, 

Hartford f this I3th Oct. 1663. 
You are required in his majesties name to appear (or by your deputies,} at 

> Alb. Rec. vol. xzrr. 38. 

b Alb. Rec. Tol. xxi. 233-8 

6 Alb. Rec. yol. xx. 51. 

d July 10, 1663. Connecticut now laid claim to Westchester, (says TnimbuIIi) 
and sent one of her magistrates to bend the inhabitants to the choice of their offi- 
cers, and to administer the proper oaths to such as they might elect. — TrumhulfB 
Hist of Conn, 268. 

•Hartford Reo. Boundary Letters, yoL ii. 168. 


Hartford, the Becoad Thursday Id May next, to attend your duty according to 
his majeeties grants, by letters patent hereof. You may not fail at your peril.' 

John Mason, Deputy Governor. 

To the InhahitaiUs of Westchester, 
[Connecticut seal.] 25/A of Oct. 1662. 

Mr. Gold, Mr. Clark, chairman, Mr. Campfield, and Jehu Burr are hereby 
appointed to keep a court at Fairfield, when they see cause for the issuing 
and determioing auch causes and cases as shall then be presented. Clerk 
Stamford, Clerk Greenwich, and Westchester, have hereby liberty to take 
the benefit of the court of Fairfield, as shall be in controversy amongst them- 
for the future. 

This is a true copy of the order of ihfO 
Hon. Genl. Assembly held at Hartford 
the 9th of Oct. last past, under the seal 
of the colony, and under the hand of 
Dakiel Clark, Clerk. 
Transcribed for me. Will Hill, Clerk 
of the courts to be held at Fairfield. 
Copia scripUim per me, 

Richard Mills. 

The absolute seal came not to the 
inhabitants of Westchester, only the 
sign as above, with the word seal above 

Richard Mills.* 

Another letter from Hartford, entitled an order of the general 
assembly at Hartford about Oost dorp. 

" This assembly doth hereby declare and inform the inhabitants of West«> 
Chester that that plantation is included within the bounds of the charter granted 
to the colony of Connecticut, and as it late pleased his majesty, our gracious 
sovereign lord, Charles H., thus to dispose of them, we cannot but declare, 
that we conceive it most conducible to their tranquility and future peace, thajl 
they do demean themselves in all ihings as may declare and manifest their rea- 
diness to subject to his royal will and pleasure herein. 

The next assembly is appointed and ordered to be held at Hartford on th# 
second Thursday in May next. 

Copia scriptum per me, 

Richard Mills. 

> Alb. Rec. vol. xxi- 99. 


Extracted from the records of tlie 
cdony court at CoDDecticot, and certi- 
fied with the seal of the said court per 
Daniel CLAaK, Secretary. 
The signal of the seal above is come 
to the inhabitants of Westchester, abso- 
lote made in red wax, the motto I sup- 
pose to be the arborated craggy wilder- 
ness and the flying cloudrs. 

Richard Mills. 

In this dilemma, we find the inhabitants of Westchester ad- 
dressing Governor Stuyvesant in a letter which they sent by 
their two magistrates, William Betts and Edward Waters. 

Westcbester^ tho 30th of April, 1663. 
Hon. Lord STCTENsoif, 
We humbly beseech you to understand, that wee the inhabitants of thia 
place, have not plotted nor conspired against your Honour. The original of 
the writing here enclosed, were not in any measure, sought for by us, but 
were by the said court sent unto us when we expected them not. How to re- 
sist them we know not, they being as you see, in his majesties name of En- 
gland. This was a reason why we choose not rosgistrates at present as 
formerly, and that wee hope that your honour will be herewith satisfied. Your 
honour*s loving friend, Richard Mills, in the name and by the appointment 
of the inhabitants of Westchester.*' 

Governor Stuyvesant having ascertained, that the inhabitants 
of We«stchester were about to send two delegates to Hartford, de- 
spatched the Sheriff Waldron with this letter. 

Loving Friends, 
We were much wondered, that yon according to order and your duty, 
have not presented unto us your nomination of your new magistrates for this 
present year, being now four months past that this thing should be done, the 
reason wherefore being unknown to us, we have purposely sent and ordered 
the bearer. Resolve Waldron our substitute sheriff, (schout) for to inquire 
after the grounds and reasons thereof, which you are to give unto him in 


writing, and send either your present magistrates to give us more fuUy infor- 
mation. So after our love, I shall rest, 

• Your loving friend and Governor, 

Done in Fort AmsterdanD, inscribed, 

N. Netherland, P. Stuyvesamt.* 

9 May, 1663. ^ 

The same day Sheriff Waldron conducted the two magistrates, 
William Betts and Edward Waters, to Governor Stuyvesant, 
** who were asked, why they neglected to present to the Director 
General and Council in conformity to custom and orders, a new 
nomination of magistrates ? Their answer was, that they in due 
time, when the nomination ought to have been made, called the 
inhabitants together, and requested them to nominate new ma- 
gistrates for the ensuing year, who declined to do so at two 
different times, because they had been summoned by those of Hart- 
ford in Connecticut colony, as clearly appears by the following 
English documents^ conveyed to them for this purpose, by the 
aforesaid colony, with the declaration of the aforesaid village, in 
the form of a letter to the Director General. Being further ques- 
tioned why they did not communicate the aforesaid orders and 
letters of Connecticut colony, so as they ought to have done, 
and as other English villages actually did at the past instance, 
now more than half a year past, and now above it, had actually 
de novo, appointed two of their village to go and assist in the 
aforesaid order, on the stated day, at Hartford. They answer ia 
the first, that they as magistrates, solicited an order to present 
to us the nomination, but that they could not obtain it while it 
was refused by me, Mr. Richard Mills who had it in his pos- 
session, or by an order of the people of that village, or in his 
own authority unknown to them. At last, they acknowledged 
and declared, that they through ignorance to maintain the peace 
and tranquility in said village, had committed a fault, and soli- 
cited with submission and prayed, to be excused for the present 
time. The director general and council having heard the sub- 
mission and confession of guilt of the aforesaid persons, together 

* Alb. Ree. vol. xxi. 80. k See preceding c^ocuments. 


with the promises made by them, to dispose if possible, the in- 
habitants to make a new nomination of ma^strates, and due 
obedience, resolved to let them return for the present time, 
and the following letter to the inhabitants was delivered to 
them. ^ 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands 

12th May, 1663.» 


The letter delivered to the magistrates by Governor Stuy- 

** Whereat, wee by the bearers, year present magistrates were iofbrmed, 
which in part your letters (subscribed by one Richard Blills) doe confirm* that 
the nomination for new magistrates at dae time by them, were propoonded 
at a town meeting, bat hitherto differed throngh some unacceptable orders of 
Hartford*s assembly, thb, therefore, are to require and to order you and 
erery one that are inhabitants of your towne, that I shall not attend any of 
there orders, nor that you shall not send any deputies thither, but that yoa 
shall, according to oath and duty upon sight of this presents, make nomina* 
tion of magistrates for this present year, and present them upon Monday sen- 
nit before us, and if any should be unwilfully so to doe, we have ordered 
the bearers, that the names uf such disobedient and troublesome persons 
shall be sent unto us, that we may act, and proceed against them according to 
law and judgment : so, after my Iofc, I shall rest, your loving friend 

and GoTeroor, 

Done in Fort Amsterdam, P. SrurvKSANT. 

N. N., 12 May, 1663. 

On the 14th day of May, 1663, the general assembly of Con- 
necticut, choose " Mr. Willys, Mr. Gould, Capt. Sallcote and Capt; 
Young, as a committee to consider and give up their thoughts 
and apprehensions concerning the settlement of Westchester 
and Stamford, and to make return to the court."b 

The same court also ordered, that '* the letter drawne up by 
the committee to the Atanhadoes, be drawn out fair and sent to 
the Lord Stephenson, &c., as also the letter to Westchester."^ 

• Alb. Rec. vol. zzi. 93-4. 

k Hartford Reo. Bound. Leiteri, toI. ii. 183. 

« Hartford Rec. Bonnd Letters, vol. ii. 


For the purpose of answering these pretensions and claims 
on Westchester, Governor Stuyvesant repaired in person to Bos- 
ton, and entered his complaints^ In his interview with the com* 
missioners (of the New. England colonies) on the 21sl of Sept. 
1663, he stated, " that he wished a friendly and neighborly settle- 
ment of differences concerning Easidorpe by the English called 
Westchester, and all other disputes, that the parties may live in 
peace in the wilderness where many barbarous Indians dwell." 
He requested of the commissioners a categorical answer, whether 
the treaty of Hartford made in 1650, remained ^^Jirrn and bind- 
ingy^ and whether the patent of Hartford, newly obtained, should 
extend westward. In conclusion, he expressed his willingness 
to abide by the treaty of Hartford."* 

Governor Stuyvesant was unsuccessful in his negotiations 
with the commissioners, for he " found their demands in no way 
answerable to the rights of h*is superiors.''^ 

While these negotiations were pending, Richard Mills (the lead- 
ing magistrate of Westchester) appears to have been languishing 
in the dungeons of Fort Amsterdam ; for, on the 16th of May, 
1663, occurs the following petition from the prisoner : 

" Right Hon. Got. Xiord Peter StCYcnsoo, thy degraded prisoner Richard 
Mills, doe htHoblj supplicate for your favor and commiseration towards me, 
in admitting of me unto your honoris presence, there to indicate ray free and 
ready mind to satisfy your honor wherein I am able, for any indignity done 
unto your lordship by me in any way, and if possible to release me or confine 
me to some more wholesome place than where I am. I having been tenderly 
bred from my cradle, and now antient and weakly, and at this time, and ever 
since I came into this unwholesome place, I have been very ill, and lame with 
pains in my back, hip and joints, and I doubt not, in a few days, will perdite 
(endanger or destroy) my life, if not prevented by removal or release, will 
hope of your honoris gracious admittance and reception, and craving these 
my poor humble requests and prayers to God for your honor, I remain your 
lordship, at your pleasure, 

Richard Mills. 
From the gaol in 
Fort Amsterdam, 16 May, 1663.^ 

» DuDlap'a Hist. N. Y. vol. r. 113. 
b Dunlaps*8 Hist N. Y. vol. i. 113. 
<^ Alb. Rec. vol zzL 


Alarmed at the sunnmary manner in which the director had 
treated their leader, we find the inhabitants of Westchester has- 
tening to nominate officers for the ensuing year. 

LoTiNo Frisnds, 

Oat of your nomiDations this day presented, we have made choice, as 
you may know by these presents, of 

Robert Huestis, 
John Barker, 
Nicolas Bay ley. 
The which we for the year following, doe confirm for magistrates of the 
towne, called East-towne, requiring all and erery one whom these may eon- 
oeme, to esteem them as our elected and confirmed magistrates for the 6aid 
town : so, nher my love, I shall rest, 

Your loving friend and Governor 
Amsterdam, N. N., P. STurvssANT.^ 

24 May, 1663. 

The humble petition of Richard Mills, to the Hon. High Court 
of the Manhatt^s, held 9th of June, 1663, showeth : 

That whereas, your honors have continued anger against me about some wri- 
tings that were in my costody, I owne unto your honors that I did not well 
to embrace the receipt of, though thereunto importuned, my proper calling 
being to act in another sphere, and doe see cause to blame myself for under- 
taking to keep them ; and as for Richard Ponton, his carrying them away, 
I assure your honors that I never gave order to him or any others, measure 
806 to do : neither did I acquaint him directly or indirectly, where I should 
hide them. I so doing, prepared that I might be sure to have them when 
forced to send for them, which I can freely. take my oath unto when called 
hereunto, wherefore I humbly beseech your honors wrath towards me may be 
purified, and freedom to me granted, soe as that I may proceed in my lawful 
calling, the short time I have to stay in these parts, being bound for Vir- 
ginia in Sept. next, humbly craving pardon for what I have done amiss. I 
remain your honoris petitioner 
and prisoner, 

Richard Mills. 

The preceding submission and confession of guilt of the pri- 

• Alb. Rec. vol. xxl 115. 


soner, Richard Mills, made by him verbally and in writing, being 
heard and read, so is he discharged upon his humble petition, 
under the express promise, sanctioned by his oath, that he never 
will undertake any thing either wiihin or out of this government, 
to the injury of this province, either directly or indirectly. Done 
in Fort Amsterdam, N. N., 18tli of June, 1663. 

By a court of general assembly, (held at Hartford, 8th of Oct., 
1663) it was ordered, that ** this court doth accept of-the town of 
Westchester as a member of this corporation, being received and 
accepted as such, by a council formerly. 

This court moreover declares, that all the land between the 
Westchester and Stamford, doth also belong to the colony of 

In 1664. the inhabitants of Westchester addressed the follow- 
ing petition to the honorable his majesty's commissioners for the 
affairs of New England, which, 

'< Humbly showeth ' 

l8t, That the said tract of land called Weatcbeater, waa purchaaed for 
large aammea, under the tiile of England, by Mr. Thomaa Pell of the known 
ancient proprietora, in the year 1654. 

2d. The pretended power 'of the Manhatoea, did therefore continue pro- 
testing againat and threatening of the said plantation, keeping the inhabitants 
at continual watch and ward, until at length the persona of twenty-three in- 
habitants of Westchester aforesaid, were aeized under commission from the 
said powers, and committed prisoners into the hould of a yessel, where they 
continued in restraint from all friends, for the space of thirteen days, fed with 
rotten provisions creeping with worms, whereby some of them remained dis- 
eased to this day, after which, they were^ carried away in chains and laid ia 
their dungeon at Manhatoea. 

3d. That the said inhabitants had perished <vith famine in the said imprisoq- 
ment, but for (he relief obtained at other hands. 

4th. That all this sufiering was inflicted on them, under noe other pretence, 
but that they were opposera to the Dutch title to the lands aforesaid. 

5th. That when the said pretended powers had freed the said prisoners, 
and introduced their own goverment over the said plantation, they dro?e away 
such aa would not submit to their pretended authority, to their great endaq* 
germent, and the enslaving of such aa remained. 

6th. That when in May, 1663, the said plantation was reduced to the king's 

» Hartford Col. Rec. yoI. iL 169. 

Vol. II. 28 


authority, by virtue of his letters patent to Coane^licat, the pretended pow* 
ers aforesaid, sent in hostile manner for certain inhabitants of Westchester, 
whom they confined in Manhatoes, and' the next day sent for one Mr. Rich- 
ard Mills, whom they cast into their dungeon, and afterwards so used him for 
thirty dayes space, as there are yet strong^ and crying presumptions they 
caused his death, which followed soone after. 

7th. That the unreasonable damage of the purchaser, and the low estate 
of the plantation occasioned by the premises, hath had no other recompense 
to this day, but new threatenings, and thereby an otter obstruction from the 
peopling and improTeing of a hopeful country, all which is an insuperable 
abuse to his royal majestie^s, and our English nation, is humbly offered to 
the consideration of the hon. commissioners.'** 

The difficulties between Connecticut and the New Nether- 
lands continued to increase, until the subjugation of the latter by 
the British forces under Governor Richard Nicolls, on the 27th 
of August, 1664. 

"When Governor Nicolls visited Westchester, shortly after the 
surrender, the inhabitants complained to hin), and as a matter of 
course were adjudged to belong to New York.** Subsequently 
the towns of Westchester, Harapstead and Oyster Bay constitu- 
ted the north riding of Yorkshire.** 

Upon the 16th of June, 1664, we find the inhabitants of West- 
chester surrendering all their rights to Thomas Pell in the fol- 
lowing manner, 

" Know all men by these presents, that whereas there was an agreement 
made the fourteenth of November, 1654, between Thomas Pell and divers 
persons, about a tract of land called Westchester^^ which was and is Thomas 
Peirs, bounded as appears by an instrument bearing date as above expressed, 
wherein the undertakers engaged the payment of a certaine somme of money, 
present pay, for the said land expressed in the covenant, by reason of some 
troubles which hindered the underwriters possession, the agreement was not 
attended to, the present inhabitants considering the justnesse and right of the 
above said title of Thomas Pell,, doe surrender all their rights, titles, and 
claimes, to all the tract of land aforesaid, to bee at the disposal of the said 
Thomas Pell, as being the true and proper owner thereof. Witness our hand, 

• Alb. Rec. Gen. Entries, p. 11. Also AlK Rec. vol. i. 120, 121. 

b Westchester continued to form a portion of the north riding until 1683, when 
the present county was erected. 

• At this period Westchester embraced the present town of Eastchester. See 
ToL i. 122. 


this 16th day of Jane in the yeere of our Lord one thousand six hundred and 


John Quimbie. John Winter. 

Consider Wood. Richard Ponton, 

Niekolas Balle. his X mark. 

John Barker. William Jones, 

Robert Huestis. his >- mark. 

Edward Jessopp. John Acer.» 

Wm Beet. John Williams, 

John Larens. his ^ mark. 

Samuel Barret, Samuel Pitcher, 

his B mark. his r" mark. 

Thomas Vaille, Thomas MoIIener. 
his ^ mark.b 

Thomas Pell must have subsequently released to ihe inhabi- 
tants of Westchester, for on the 15th of February, 1667, occurs 
the following patent from Governor Nicolls. 


Richard Nicolls, Esq., Governor General under his Royal Highness James, 
Duke of York and Albany, &c., of all his territories in America, to all to 
whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : Whereas there is a cer* 
tain town within this government, situate, lying and being upon the main to 
the east of Harlem river, commonly called and known by tho name of West- 
chester, which said town belongs to the north riding of Yorkshire, upon Long 
Island, and is now in the tenure and occupation of several freeholders and in- 
habitants who having heretofore been seated there by authority, have been at 
considerable charge in manuring and planting parts of the lands belonging 
thereunto, and have likewise settled a competent number of families thereupon 
for a township, now for a confirmation unto the said freeholders and inhabi- 
tants in their possession and enjoyment of the premises, as also for an en- 
couragement to them in their further improvements of their said lands and 
premises. Know ye, that by virtue of ye commission and authority unto me 
given by his Royal Highness, I have given, ratified, confirmed and granted, 
and by these presents do give, ratify, confirm and grant unto John Quimby, 
John Ferris, Nicholas Bayley, William Betts and Edward Waters, as pa» 
tenteesfor and on the behalf of themselves and their associates, ye freeholderft 
and inhabitants of ye said town, their heirs, successors and assignees, all that 

• DoubtleM Jao or John Archer, first lord of the manor of Fordham. 
V Westchester Town Roc. 


tract of land together with the several parcels not otherwise by patent dis- 
posed of, which already have or hereafter shall be purchased or procured for 
and on the behalf of ye said town whether from the native Indian proprietors 
or others, within the bounds and limits hereafter set forth and expressed, (viz.) 
that is to say, ye western bounds of ye lands lying within ye limits of ye said 
town, beginning at the west part of the lands, commonly called Bronks' land, 
near or adjoining unto Harlem river, from whence they extend eastward to 
the west part of a certain neck of land, commonly called Ann-hook's neck or 
Mr. Peirs purchase, southward they are bounded by ye Sound or East River« 
and so runne upon a parallel line from the east and west limits north into ye 
woods without limitation for range of cattle or other improvements, together 
with all ye lands, soyles, necks and lands, rivers, creeks, harbours, quarries, 
woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, waters, lakes, fishing, hawking, hunting 
and fowling, and all other profits, commodities, endowments and heredaments 
to ye said land and premises within ye said bounds and lymits described and 
set forth belonging or in any ways appertaining, to have and to hold all and 
singular ye said tract and parcells of land, heredaments and premises, with 
their and every of their appurtenances and of every part and parcel thereof 
to ye said patentees and their associates, their heirs and assignees, to the 
proper use and behoof of ye said patentees and their associates, their heirs 
and assignees for ever. Moreover, I do hereby give, ratify, confirm and 
grant unto the said patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and 
assignees, all ye rights and privileges belonging to a town within this gov- 
ernment, and that ye place of their present habitation shall continue and re- 
tain the name of Westchester by which name and style it shall be distinguish- 
ed and known in all bargains and sales, deeds, writings and records, they ye 
said patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and assignees, ren- 
dering and paying such duties and acknowledgements as now are or hereafter 
shall be constituted and established by the laws of this government, under 
the obedience of his Royal Highness, his heirs and successors. Given un- 
der my hands and seal, at Fort James, in New York, on the isle of Manhat- 
tans, 13 February, in the 19th year of his Majesty's reign, Anno Domini, 


Richard Ntcolls. 

In the Assize Records at Albany, appears the following entry. 

" Whereas Mr. Thomas Pell of Ann-hookes neck, (Pelham 
neck.) late deceased, npon pretence o£ purchase of several tracts 
of land of the Indian proprietors within 'the then government 
and jusisdiction of the Dutch, made claims unto the same as 
namely, the lands belonging to Westchester, Easlchester and 
Cromwell's neck, and that, after said land together with a larger 
tract formerly belonging to the said Dutch, were by his Majes- 


ty^s letters patent granted Unto his Royal Highness the Duke of 
York, and by the said Dutch surrendered by agreement unto his 
Itoyal Highness's deputy Col. Richard Nicolls before whom said 
Pell did personally appear the first assizes held in New York, 
and then to make good his claim to the lands aforesaid, and 
where it being sufficiently and lawfully proved that the aforesaid 
lands, together with a large tract as far as Greenwich, was be- 
fore purchased by the late Dutch government, and whatso- 
ever part thereof was not by him granted out, was of right pro- 
perty belonging unto his Royal Highness, some of which was 
granted to Thomas Richbcll, &c., &c. 

In 1673, the province of New York, surrendered to the Dutch. 
Upon this occasion we find the inhabitants of Oost*dorp tender- 
ing their submission. 

" The deputies of Oost-dorp alias Westchester and adjacent hamlet of East- 
cheater, deliveriogf their credentials, offered to submit themselves to the goT- 
ernment of their high mightinesses, and the Prince of Orange, and were com- 
manded to nominate by their inhabitants a double number of magistrates for 
the aforesaid ▼illages, by a majority of votes, and to present it to the council 
by the first opportunity, fiom which we shall elect three for their magistrates, 
yiz., two for the village of Westchester, and one for Eastchester, who in his 
Tillage may decide all differences to the value of thirty shillings ; those of 
higher value shall be determined by the whole college, in the village of West- 
chester aforesaid."^ 

On the 28th of August, 1673, the lords commanders of the 
New Netherlands, made choice of Joseph Palmer and Edward 
Waters as magistrates for Westchester.** 

In 1686, Governor Dongan issued the following letters patent 
under the great seal of the province. 


Thomas Dongan, captain general, governor-in-chief and vice admiral in all 
the province of New York, and territories depending thereon in America, 
under his majesty James Second, by the grace of God king of England, Scot- 
land, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c., to all whom these pre- 
sents shall come sendeth greeting : Whereas Richard Nicolls, Esq., gover- 
nor general under his then royal highness, James, Duke of York and Albany, 

• Alb. Rec. ToL xxiii. 273. ^ Eastchester Rec. 


&c., now his present majesty^ of all his territories in America did, by a cdr* 
tain writing or patent, under his hand and seal, bearing date the fifteenth day 
of February, in the nineteenth year of the reign of our late so?ereign lord, 
King Charles the Second of blessed memory, and in the year of our Lord God 
1667, by virtue of the power and authority onto him given by him, the said 
royal highness, now his present majesty as aforesaid. Give, ratify, confirm and 
grant unto John Quimby, John Ferris, Nicholas Baily, William Betts, and 
Edward Waters as patentees for and in the behalf of themselves and their as- 
sociates, tlie freeholders and inhabitants of the town of Westchester, within 
this government, situate, lying, and being upon the main, to the east of Har- 
lem river, which said town belongs to the North Riding of Yorkshire, upon 
Long Island, then in the tenure and occupation of several freeholders and in- 
habitants who had theretofore been seated on them by authority, and at con- 
siderable charge in manuring and planting part of the land belonging thereunto, 
and likewise have settled a competent number of families thereupon for a 
township, all that tract of land together with the several parcels not otherwise 
by patent disposed of, which already had or thereafter should be purchased or 
procured, for and in the behalf of the said town, whether from the native In- 
dian proprietors or others with the bounds and limits hereafter set forth and 
expressed, viz., the eastern bounds of the lands lying within the limits of the 
said town, beginning at the west part of the land commonly called Bronk's 
land, near or adjoining unto Harlem river, from whence they extend eastward 
to the west part of a certain neck of land, commonly called Ann-hooks neck, 
or Mr. Peirs purchase, southward they are bounded by the Sound or East 
river, and so run upon a paralel line, for the east and west limits, north into 
the woods without limitation, for range of cattle or other improvements, to- 
gether with all the lands, soyles, neck, &c., &c. William Richardson, John 
Hunt, Edward Waters, Robert Hnestis, Richard Ponton, William Barnes, John 
Beybie, John Bailey, John Tudor, John Ferris, Joseph Palmer, Thomas Bax- 
ter, freeholders of the commonality of the town of Westchester. 
6M January, 1686. 

Thomas Donoan. 

October 1687, "it was voted, and agreed upon, by the major 
part of the trustees, that John Ferris, sen., and Joseph Palmer, 
should go on Monday next, &c., and run the north-west Wne^ 
from the head of Hutchinson's, to Broncks's river; it was also 
voted that Joseph Palmer and Edward Waters shall go with the 
Indians and shew them the line as near as they can, that runs 
between Mr. Pell and our town, as also the line which runs be- 
twixt this town and Eastchester."* 

* Westchester Rec 


Upon the 27ih of May, 1692, we find the Indian proprietors, 
Maminepoe and Wampage, conveying the following tract of 
land, to the trustees of Westchester. 

'* To all Christian people to whom this deed of sale shall come, greeting : 
Know ye, that wee, Maminepoe and Wampage alias Ann-hook, Indian pro- 
prietors of a certain tract of land lying within the limits and hounds of the 
patent of the county town of W^estchester, in the province of New York, for 
a valuable consideration, and other considerations us thereunto moving, and 
having taken the advice and approbation of several native Indians here under- 
written, to us in hand paid by John Palmer, William Barnes, William Rich- 
ardson, Joseph Palmer, Samuel Palmer, Robert Huestis, John Ferris, John 
Hunt, Joseph Hunt, Josiah Hunt, Thomas Baxter, and Edward Collier, trus- 
tees of the freehold and commonality of the town of Westchester aforesaid, 
the receipt whereof we do hereby acknowledge and therewith to be lawfully 
satisfied, contented, and paid, and thereof do acquit, exonerate, and release, 
and discharge the said trustees, their heirs, successors, and assignees forever, 
have given, granted, bargained, sold, enfeoffed, released, and confirmed, and 
by these presents do fully, clearly, absolutely, give, grant, bargain, sell, enfeof, 
release, and confirm unto the said trustees, their heirs, successors and assign- 
ees' forever, all that tract of land lying on the east side of Brunxs's river, be- 
ginning at the pine trees and so compassing all the land which we the said 
Maminepoe and Wampage layes claim to, until they come to the head of Rattle 
Snake brook, and from thence north-east to Mr. PelPs land, so north by said 
PelPs marked trees by Brunxs*s river, together with the woods, underwoods, 
timber, trees, waters, rivers, runs, brooks, and all and singular the emolle- 
ments, hereditaments, rights, privileges, and appurtenances thereunto belong- 
ing or appertaining, (only reserving to ourselves the privilege of making use 
of white wood trees for our particular use,) to have and to hold the before re- 
cited premises, with all and every of its appurtenances, unto the said trustees, 
their heirs, successors, and assignees, to the only proper use, benefit and be- 
hoof of them the said trustees, their heirs, successors, and assignees forever, 
and it shall and may be lawful for the said trustees, their heirs, successors, 
and assignees, from henceforth and forever, to have and to hold, use, occupy, 
and enjoy the said tract of land, free from all incumbrances whatsoever, unto 
the said trustees, their successors and assignees forever, without any manner 
of claime, challenge, or demand of us, our heirs, executors, or administrators, 
or any other native Indians or Christian people, by, from, or under as, or any 
person or persons whatsoever, and we the said Maminepoe and Wampage 
alias Ann-hook, shall and will forever warrant and defend the said tract of 
land unto the said freeholders of the corporation of Westchester, their heirs 
and assignees forever. In witness whereof we the said Maminepoe and 



Wampage, alias Ann-hook, have put to our hands and seales this 37th of May, 
in the foarth year of their majesties reign, and A. D. 1603. 

Signed, sealed, and de\i/t0ied in pre- The mark of < Maminepoe. 
sence of as, The mark of V Wampage, 

Abraham Haw kj^y^sN ^ ,^ [alias A on- hook. 

Isac Larens, The mark of X Crohamananthense. 

The mark of John Garretson. The mark of V Mamertekoh. 

Native Indian witnesses to the above deed. 
The mark of X Weenetonah. 
The mark of V Tanancot. 
The mark of X CoiMhoa. 
The mark of > Rauh Coawind. 
«^The marK of C Tom. 

• ■ 

The following' entry in the town books refers to this sale: 
" At a meeting of (he inhabitants held the 27th of May, 1692, 
this day, the land on the east side of Broncks's river, till wee 
come to Mr. Pell's line, was purchased of Mamiuepoe and Ann- 
Hook for 

2 gunns, 
2 shirts, 
2 adzes, 

6 bitts in money. 

2 coats, 

2 kettles, 

1 barrel of cider, 


William Barnes, 1 kettle, 

To expences to ye Indians, 

John Hunt, 1 coate, 

For money, .... 

To Indian supper and other expences 

William Richardson, 3 shirts, 

John Ferris, sen. 1 coate, , 

To 1 day with the Indians, 

Josiah Hunt, 2 adzes, and 3s. bd, in money 

Samuel Palmer, I gun, . 

Thomas Baxter, 1 gun, . 

Joseph Hunt, 1 barrel of cider, 

Robert Huestis and Thomas Baxter, 1 gun.» 

£2 2 












1 2 


£8 4 


iL Alb. Rec. gen. entries. See also Town Ree. 27th March, 1704, Joseph Hont 
was directed to go to the clerk of the county and see the Indian deed recorded. 


At a meeting held by the trustees of Westchester the sixth day 
of February, 169|, 

** Present, William Barnes, John Ferris, Joseph Palmer, Samuel 
Palmer, Thomas Baxter, John Bayley, Jobn Hunt, Robert Hues- 
tis and Edward Collier. It was yoted and agreed upon, that 
John Ferris, sen. and Joseph Palmer should go to Mr. Pell's and 
proceed to have the line run between the town and him, ^c.| 
and report of their doings next Tuesday." 

Fourth of September, 1694, it was agreed upon at a lawful 
town meeting that Richardson shall have free liberty to build or 
erect a mill or mills upon the stream on the great creek of the 
town, for and in consideration of grinding of the inhabitants' 
corn, for the fourteenth part, also liberty of cutUng timber for a 
saw mill. Done in behalf of the town, &c. 

in 1700 it was resolved at a meeting of the inhabitants, "That 
the line between*' ** Thomas Pell's patent and the town of Wesi^ 
Chester^ (pursuant to the grants made by Governor Nicolls,) shall 
be run by the surveyor general of the province of New York, 
and that the standard for running said line shall be pitched 
and placed and sett in the middle of" " Hutchinson's river at the 
going over of the road as far up as (he tide flows, and so to run 
upon a north line to Broncks's river, and northward down said 
river in the middle of the channel to the Sound, which said 
bounds or lines to continue forever between the said Thomas 
Pell's patent and the said town of Westchester."* 

The same year a grant of land appears to have been made by 
the inhabitants to John Pell, Esq.t> 

At a meeting of the trustees held 23d day of January, A. D, 
1720, present. Miles Oakley, president, 

John Oakley, John Ferris, 

Thomas Hadden, Peter Ferris, 

Thomas Baxter, Joshua Hunt, 

Israel Honeywell, Nathaniel Underbill. 

"Whereas several persons have come with boats, canoes, &c., a fishing, 

» Town Reo. b Town Rec 

Vol. II. 23 


and hare broke op our groand, and taken away ye oysters from within ye 
limits of our patent, in an nnlawful manner, therefore, it is voted and agreed 
upon by the trustees aforesaid, that any person or persons who shall at any 
time hereaAer trespass upon us by fishing, breaking our ground, and taking 
onr oysters in ye manner aforesaid, shall be immediately prosecuted according 
to law for snch trespass or trespasses, and it is also voted and agreed upon by 
ye trustees aforesaid, that John Ferris, Thomas Baxter, Joshua Hunt, of 
Westchester, Capt. Joseoh Drake, Nathaniel Tompkins, and Moses Fowler, 
of Eastchester, do immediately put this into execution ; and it is also agreed 
that if any freeholder of Westchester do take any oysters to transport out of 
our township to make sale thereof, such freeholder or freholders shall be 
esteemed as trespassers, &c. Provided that the freeholders in general of 
Eastchester shall not be esteemed trespassers according to this act, excepting 
sucl; of them as shall take oysters within ye limits of West and Eastchester 
to transport them out of ye said townships to make sale thereof,'** &c. 

In the reign of George the first, a charter was granted to the 
trustees of this town, entitled, '< an act to prevent the fencing in 
or enclosing the sheep pasture^ or any part thereof, in the bor- 
ough town of Westchester," &c. Dated 28th February, in the 
eighth year of his reign, and of our Lord God, 1721. 

The sheep pasture embraced what was subsequently known 
as the commons. Upon this extensive waste, the freeholders of 
the town enjoyed the free use of pasturage. The commons were 
purchased by Martin Wilkins, of the trustees, in 1825, and are 
now owned by his son, Governeur M. Wilkins, Esq.. of Castle 
hill neck. 

The village of Westchester is situated at the head of naviga* 
tion, on Westchester creek,** twelve miles from the city of New 
York ; it contains about four hundred inhabitants, fifty dwel- 
lings, an Episcopal, a Roman Catholic, a Methodist church and 
two Friends' meeting houses, three taverns, a post office and 
four stores. Here is a convenient landing, from which ply three 

• Town Ree. fol. ix. ISK), 121. — At a court of common council held 1740, it was 
ordained that no person not belonging to this corporation do take and carry away 
oor clams or oysters, but that all boats, canoes, or other craft belonging to persons 
who shall presame to take the same, not inhabiting within this county, shall be 
soiled, and further no person belonging to this corporation shall have power to giTt 
eaye to any person not livmg in this corporation to get oysters or clams. 

k Called by the Dutch, Ooet>dorp kit. 


sloops to the New York market. The Westchester creek (al 
high water) admits of vessels carrying 300 tons, to the landing. 
There are three school districts in the town, viz., Westchester 
village, Throckmorton's neck, and Bear swamp. There are also 
several manufactories, and two grist mills, one of which is a tide 

Westchester is by several years the oldest village in the coun- 
ty, its first settlement (by the Puritans) being coeval with 
Throckmorton's purchase, in 1642.^ At this early period, it 
formed a part of the Dutch district of Vrede-land (or land of 
peace) and was, therefore, within the limits and jurisdiction of the 
New Netherland. By the Dutch it was named Oosidorpy (East 
town) from its situation east of the Manhattans. So early as 
1657, Gov. Stuyvesant ordered that Westchester should have 
four English or one Dutch mile square of land for the town.* 

During the Dutch dynasty, courts appear to have been holden 
regularly at Oost-dorp, for, among the town records, is a small 
volume, entitled " The Book of Court acts, from 1657 to 1668,'* 
from which we extract the following memoranda. 

" Feb. 1st, 1657, William Bin field for contempt of authority, 
is bound over to answer at next court." 

On the same occasion, " John Archer, plaintiff against Roger 
Wiles, in an action of debt for the value of seventy-four guilders, 

East town, the 13th of September^ 1662, at a court held be- 
fore Edward Walters, Robert Huestis and William Bett, by order 
and power of the Governor General, Peter Stuyvesant, Governor 
of the province of New Netherland, and the high council, (fcc. 

Thomas Higgins, plaintiff, complains of Lawrence Turner, in 

• N. Y. GazeUeer. 

b Dr. De Witt fixes the date of ita settlement some eS^t years later. " After 
the provisional arrangement of boundaries between New Netherland and New En. 
gland, by Got. Stuyvesant and the New Eng^l^d commissioners, m 1650. A 
number of Puritans from the east, settled a place then named Oo9t Dorp, (East 
Town) now Westchester, in Westchester county." De Witt's paper on New Neth- 
eriand. Proceedings N. Y. Hist Soc, 1644, 69. 


an action of slander done by his wife, &c., ended by arbitra^ 

When Richard Nicolls, the Duke of York^s governour, con- 
vened an assembly from the towns of Long Island and West- 
chester, to meet at Hempstead, March 1st, 1665, there appeared 
the following deputies from this place : 

Edward Jessup, 
John Cluimby,* 
August 6th, 1665, we whose names are underwritten, doe 
jointly agree to set to our hands to send the eight townsmen to 
Governor Nicolls, to stand by them in what they do in that par- 
ticular, for the settlement of the towne. 

William Quimby, Thomas Miller, 

, John Ferris, John Smith, 

Robert Piuckney, C. Wood, 

Edward Waters, Edward Jessupe, 

Richard Ponton, Thomas Hunt, 

Samuel Barret, Thomas Hunt, Jr. 

Thomas Vaile. 
At this early period, a portion of the judicial power appears to 
have been lodged in the hands of the constable, for in the town 
records this entry occurs. 

Westchester, Sept 3, 1663. 
At a town court holden by the constable and the commis- 
sioners appointed. Thomas Hunt complained against an Indian 
called Pomoqucee, that the said Indian took his canoe from the 
shore, where it was safe, and carried it quite away. Upon ex- 
amination, the Indian confessed that he took the canoe from the 
shore, but said it was not secured.** 

• Alb. Uec. Gen. Eutries, 1G64-65, page 96. See Dunlap Hist. N. Y. 

k The inhabiiantB of Westchester (like their New Eogland forefathers) appear 
to have been greatly troubled with the plague of witchcraa, for, ia 1670, Katha- 
rine Harryson of England who had lived nineteen yean at Weathersfield in Con- 
necticut, where she had been tried for witchcraft, found guilty by the jwnf, ae» 
quitted by the bench, and released out of prison, on consideration that she would 
remove. Appeared before the council on the accusation of Thomas Hunt 
and Edward Waters, in behalf of the town of Westchester, they praying that 
the might be driven from the town. This affair was adjoarned to the 4th of Au- 


The subjoined document woyild appear to be the first tavern 
license granted in this county. 

*' At a town meelingf in Westchester, the 27th of Jane, 1681, Justice Pell 
present. The town made choice of John Hunt for an ordinary keeper, for one 
year ensuing, fur the town of Westchester, and desired him the said John 
Hunt, may be licensed by the justices of the riding. The said Hunt is to sell 
his biere at two pence per quart, and rum at three pence per gill, which he 
shall not exceed, and to take his corne at price current, according to the cur- 
rent rate, and that none else to retaile againe in rum in the said towne of 
Westchester, during the said tearme of one year, without the approbation of 
the said Hunt.''* 

We have already shown that Westchester sent representatives 
to the Governor's assembly in 1665. The following relates to 
the election of representatives in 1683. 

Westchester, the 29ih of Sept. 1683. 
At a town meeting held in obedience to a warrant from the 
high sheriff concerning the choice of four men out of the town- 
ship to goe to Jamaica upon Long Island the first day of Octo- 
ber next ensuing, there to joyne with a committee chosen out of 
each towne in the north riding'^ and this said committee to 
choose two out of the riding, able men as representatives for the 
north riding. The town hath made choice of William Richard- 

gust, when being heard, it was referred to the general court of assizes. The wo- 
man being ordered to give security for good behavior. The foliowiog sentence was 
recorded by the court, Oct., 1670 : in the case of Catharine Ilarrysou, widow, who 
was bound to her good behaviour, upon complaint of some of the inhabitants of 
Westchester, whiUt ye holding of this court. It is ordered, that in regard there is 
nothing appears against her deserving the continuance of that obligation, shee is to 
be released from it, and hath liberty to remove from the town of Westchester were 
she now resides, or any were else in the government during her pleasure. The hu- 
mane efforts, however of the court, to protect the poor widow, appear to have been 
ineffectual, for soon after an order was given for Catharine Harryson charged with 
witchcraft, to leave Westchester, as the inhabitants are uneasy at her residing there, 
and she is ordered to go off. Assize Rec. Albany, 
• Town. Rec. 


SOD, Richard Ponton, Thomas Hunt, sen., and John Palmer to 
be the four men to goe to Jamaica. 

Recorded in town meeting, 

per Francis French, Recorder. 


Upon the division of the provinCennto shires and counties^ the 
following act was passed by the Colonial Assembly for the re- 
gulating and settling of courts of justice, entitled " an act for the 
more orderly hearing and determining of matters and cases of 
controversy, &c." Two courts of sessions for the county of 
Westchester^ the first Tuesday in June and the first Tuesday in 
December yearly and every year, the one to be held at West' 
Chester^ and the other at Eastchester. Also a court of oyer and 
terminer and general jail delivery in the same county on the first 
Wednesday in December. Passed 29th of October, 1683.* 

Westchester formed the shire town of the county from 1683 
to 1769. The last court held here was on the 6th of November, 
1759.^ A few extracts are selected from the early records to 
show the manner in which the county courts were conducted. 

" At a court of sessions held at Westchester, for the county of Westches- 
ter, by their Majesties authority, present John Pell, justice and quoram, pre- 
sident of the court, John Palmer, justice of the peace and quorum, Daniel 
Sharpe and William Barnes, Esquires, justices of ye peace. December ye 1st 

The Court opened. 
The grand jury called and appeared, viz. 

Robert Hustead, John Furgeson, 

John Ferris, sen. Robert Hustead, jun. 

John Mollinex, John Hadden,* sen. 

a Acts of AsMmbly, passed A. D. 1683. Upon the 29th of October, 1684, the 
period was changed for holdiug the above courts from the first Tuesday in Decem- 
ber to the third Tuesday in November. In 1691 the courts were held as first 

k Rec. of Court of Common Pleas, Lib. B. The old court house at Westchester 
was burnt at an early period of the Revolution. 

c A. D. 1749. Died John Hadden and Abigail his wife within a few hovrs of 
each other, having lived lovingly together 70 years. He died aged 96, and his wife 


Joseph Hant, Edward Hadden, 

John Hoot, John Winter, 

John Qnimby, jun. Thorny Bedient, . 

John Baly, SamudliPalmer, • 

William Chftdderton. 

he court adjourned till Thursday morning. 

Constables called. 
Westchester, Joseph Hunt. Eastchester, Henry Fowler. New Rochelle, 
Cornelis Seely. Mamaronerk, Richard Ward. Rye, Samuel Knifien. Up- 
per Yonckers, Matthias Brookes. Bedford, — . Benjamin Collier, high 
sheriff of the county.^ 

*' At a court of sessions held at Westchester by his Majesty's authority, 
June 6th and 7th, 1693, before the Honorable Caleb Heathcote, Esq., judge 
of the court of common pleas, justice and quorum, &c , the following curious 
testimony was given in a suit between Richard Ponton, defendant, and Gabriel 
Leggett, plaintiff. Captain Thomas Williams,t» aged 62 years, deposed, saith, 
the first reason of this difficulty was a big look violently from mee. After- 
wards Captain Leisler* sent an order to Captain Ponton to send him some 
men to go to Albany for their assistance against the French, and also the said 
Williams to assist the said Ponton in taking and sending the said the men up. 
When the townes company was called together and Captam Ponton asked 
them who was willing to go volunteers upon said expedition, and Gabriel 
Leggett answered that was fooles if any of them did go, and said who would 
give them a legg or an arm if they lost them. Upon which, Captain Ponton 
commanded him to hold his peace, but he still continued abusing the defendant 
and said here comes the father of rogues, and many other scurrilous words, 
upon which I got a warrant against him, &e." 

At a general court of sessions, held in 1696. 

" The jury for our Sovereign Lord the King, upon their oaths do present 
Thomas Furgeson of the county town of Westchester, laborer, for selling of 
a certain horse without a tongue of a brown culler at Westchester aforesaid, 
at or about the first day of May last, &o. 

By an act of Assembly passed on the 11th of May, 1693, " a 

•■ Fint Rec. of Court of Sewions. 

k Dec 11th, 1689. Thomas WUliams, freeholder of Westchester, was elected a 
member of the GoTemor's ConncU. 
• GoTemor Jacob Leiiler who assumed the goremment of the Province in 1689. 


public and open market was appointed to be held on every 
Wednesday of the week at Westchester, " to which market it 
was lawful for all and every of the inhabitants and sojourners to 
go, frequent and resort, and thither to carry all sorts of cattle^ 
grain, victuals, provisions and other necessaries from eight in the 
morning to sunset.'** 

It was also enacted by General Assembly the same year, " that 
there shall likewise be held and kept twice yearly and every year, 
a/c/ir, to which fair it shall and may be likewise lawful for all 
and every person to go and frequent, &c., two fairs yearly for 
the county of Westchester; the first to be kept at the town of 
Westchester in the said county on the second Tuesday of May 
and to and on the Fiiday following, being in all four days, ex- 
clusive and no longer, and the second fair to be kept at Rye in 
the said county on the second Tuesday in October yearly add to 
end the Friday following, &c., &c."*> These privileges were 
subsequently confirmed and enlarged.^: 

The following charter, iucor|)orating the ancient settlement of 
Westchester as a borough town, was granted on the 16ih of 
April, 1696: 


Gulielmas Tertius Dei Gratia, Anglic, Scotie, Gallie et Hiberoie, Rex 
fidei defensor, &c. &c. 
*' To all to whome these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : 
Whereas, Richard Nichulls, Esq., sumeiime Governor General of our pro- 
vince of New York, in America, by a certain writing or patent under his 
band and seal, bearing date on or about ye 15th day of February, in the year 
of our Lord God, 1667, by virtue of the power and authority unto him given, 
did give, ratify, confirm and grant, unto John Quimby, John Ferris, Nicho- 
las Bailey, William Belts, and Edward Walters, as pattentees for and on 
the behalf of themselves and their associates, the freeholds and inhabitants of 
the town of Westchester, within our sd. province of New York, all that 

■ The above act was confirmed in 1697. See Acts of Assembly, p. 17. 
k Acts of Assembly, confirmed 11 May, 1697. 
• See Charter. 


tract of land scituate, lyings and being apon the main to the east of Harlem riTer 
then in thetenare and occupation of the above ad patentees, and seToral other 
fireeholders and inhabitants, of the said town, who, before that time by authority, 
had been settled there, and had been at considerable charges in manuring 
and planting part of the lands belonging thereunto, and likewise had settled a 
competent number of families thereupon for a township, the boundaries and 
limits whereof, were therein set forth and exprest as follows: (viz.) tho 
western bounds of the sd. land, then lying within the limits of the said town, 
did begin at the land commonly called B rank's land, near or adjoining to 
Harlem river afores'd, from whence they extend eastward to the west pari 
of a certain neck of land, commonly called Ann Hooks neok or Mr. Pell's 
puroh'e, southward, they are bounded by the Sound or East river, and so to 
run op a parellel line from the east and west limits, north, into the woods 
without limitation, for range of cattle, and other improvementSt together 
with all the lands, soiles, necks of land, rivers, oreeks, harbours, quarry's, 
woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, waters, ffishings, hawkings, huntings and 
ffowlings, and all other profits, commodities, emoluments and hereditaments, to 
the sd lands and premises, within the said bounds and limits described and set 
forth belonging or in any manner of wayes appertaining, to have and to hold^ all 
and singular the said tracts and parcels of land, hereditaments and appurte* 
nances, and every part and parcel thereof to the said pattentees and their as* 
Aociates, their heirs, successors and assigns, forever. 

And moreover i the said Richard Nicholl^s, Esq., asGovr. Grenl. as aforesd, 
did thereby ratify, confirm and grant unto the said patentees, their associates, 
their heirs, successors and assigns, all the rights and privileges belonging to 
a town within this government, and that the place of their then present habi- 
tation should continue and retain the name of Westchester, by which name 
and stile it was to be distinguished and known in all bargains, sales, deeds, 
writings and records, they the sd. patentees and their associates, heirs, suc- 
cessors and assigns, rendering and paying such duties and acknowledgments, 
as then were or hereafter should be constituted or established by the laws of 
the said province, as by the said writing or patent now remaining upon the 
records of the secretaries office, relation being thereunto had, may more at 
large appear. And whereas^ afterwards, on or about the sixth day of Janry., 
in the year of our Lord, 1686, upon the petition of several of the freeholders 
of the said town of Westohester, in behalf of themselves and the rest of tba 
ffreeholdars and inhabitants of the said town, directed to Coll. Thomas Dun* 
gan, then Capn. Genl. and Gov. in Chief of our sd. province. The sd. ColL 
Thomas Dnngan, by virtoe of the power and authority to hhn derived, in and 
by a certain instromeot in writing, under his hand and seal of our sd prov'e 
of New York, whose date is the day and yeir last abovesd, for the oonsido- 
ration therein mentioned, did give, grant, ratify, release and confirm, unto 
twelve of he freeholders and inhabitants of the sd town of Westohestarp 

YoL. IL 84 


aikd thereby made them one body corporate and polotick, and willed and deter- 
mined them to be known and called by the name of the Trustees of the Ffree- 
holders and Commonality of the Town of Westchester and their Successors, 
all the aforesd tracts and parcels of land,within the limits and bounds aforesd 
together with all and singular the houses, mesuages, tenements, building, mills, 
niilldams, fiences, inclosures, gardens, orchards, fields, pastures, woods, nnder- 
mroods, common of pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, creeks, harbors and all 
other profits and commodities and hereditaments whatsoever, to the sd tracts of 
land, and premises belonging, or in any manner of ways appertaining, to have and 
to hold unto them the sd trustees of the flfreeholders and commonallity of the 
sd town of Westchester, and their successors forever, to and for the several 
«nd respective uses therein mentioned, (viz.) as for and concerning all and sin- 
gular the several and respective parcels of land and meadows, part of the 
abovesd granted premises, then in any wise taken up and appropriated, ei- 
ther by patent under the hand of any of his majties governors in this province, 
and soiled with the seal thereof, or by particular divisions, settlements, al- 
lottments and grants, by town orders, either for the planting of land or erect- 
» ing of saw mills, with all and every the priviledges of cutting of timber, and 
pasture for cattle, before the day of the date thereof, onto the several and re- 
spective then present, freeholders and inhabitants of the said town of West- 
chester, by virtue of the before recited deeds or pattent, to the use, benefit 
and behoof of the sd fifreeholders and inhabitants respectively, and their 
several and respective heirs and assigns forever, and as for and concerning 
all and every such tracts and parcels of land, remainder of the granted pre- 
mises not then taken up and appropriated to any particular person or persons, 
by virtue of the before recited deed or pattent, to the use, benefit and be- 
hoof of the then present fl*rceholders and inhabitants, their heirs, successors 
and assignes for ever, in proportion to their several and respective settle- 
ments, divisions and allotments as tenents in common, without any lett, hin- 
drance or molestation, to be had upon pretence of jointanaey or survivorship 
therein saveing to his then majestic, his heirs and successors, the several rents 
and quit-rents reserved due, and payable from several persons, inhabiting 
within the limitts and bounds aforesd by virtue of former grants to them made 
and given, always provided, that all and every such person and persons that 
hold any land within the limits and bounds aforesd, by virtue of the particular 
grants, patents, are forever to be excluded from having any rights or oom- 
monage or particular division of any of the lands within the limits and bounds 
aforesd that then remaind unappropriated to de holden of us, our heirs and 
successors in fee and common socage according to the manner of East 
Greenwich, in the county of Kent, within our realm of England, under a cer- 
tain ye irly quit rent therein reserved, due and payable unto us, our heirs and 
successors ; and whereas^ the northerly bounds of the first recited pattent, 
extends into the woods without limitation, the said Coll. Thomas Dungan did, 
in and by the last abovementioned pattent and confirmation, declare and deter- 


mite, tkat the northerly north-east and north-west bounds of the sd town of 
Westchester, shoald for erer hereafter be ooncladed and ascertain*d by ye 
southerly line of the pattent of Onsal and the south and west line of Thos 
Pell, as by ye last aboTe reeited patent, relation being thereunto bad, may 
more, at large appear; and, fforasmuch a.n the present trustees and other 
the freeholders and inhabitants of the sd town of Westchester, hare lately, 
by their hnmble petition to onr trusty and well beloved Benjan Ffletclier, oor 
Capn GenI and GoTernr-in-ehief of our said province of New York, in Amer- 
ica, prayM our charter or pattent of confirmation of all those sesferal tracts 
and parcels of land, and other the premises to them granted as aforesd, and 
that the said town of Westchester, and all and singular the lands and tene- 
ments thereunto belonging and appertaining, may forever hereafter, be a free 
borough and town corporate ; now knowe ye, that we do by this our royal 
pattent or charter of confirmation, for us, our heirs and successors, grant, 
ratify, approve and confirm, onto the sd trustees of the (Freeholders and in- 
habitants of onr sd town of Westchester, and to their successors and assignee 
forever, all the several tracts and parcels of land hereinbefore recited, whose 
meets and bounds are forever hereafter to be taken, and esteemed to be and 
remain as follows : (viz.) the western bounds thereof are to begin at the west 
part of the land commonly caird Urunks land, near or adjoining to Harlem river 
from whence they are to extend eastward to the west part of a neck of land, 
commonly callM Ann-hookas neck, or the westermost bounds of Mr. PelPs 
pattern, southard by the Sound and East river, and so to run up a parraUell 
line from the east and west limits, north into the woods, until it meet the 
southerly line of the pattent of Oneal and the south and west line of Thomas 
FelPs patent, together with all and singular the houses, mesuages, tenements, 
erections and buildings, mills, mill dams, fences, inclosures, gardens, orch- 
ards, fields, pastures, common of pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, plains, 
woods, underwoods, timber, trees, rivers, rivulets, runs, streams, water, lakes, 
ponds, pools, pits, braches, quarries, mines, minerals, (half of gold and silver 
mines excepted) creeks, harbours, highways, easements, fishing, hunting and 
fowling, and all other franchises, profits, commodities, hereditaments and ap- 
purtenances whatsoever, to the same belonging, or in any manner of waysap* 
pertaining or therewithal us'd and enjoy M, as part, parcel or member thereof, 
or accepted, requited or taken, to belong or in any wise to appertain thereun- 
to, to have and to hold and enjoy all and singular the abovesd tracts and 
parcels of land, hereditaments and premises, with their and every of their 
appurtenances unto the sd trustees of the fi'reeholders and inhabitants of the 
said borough and town of Westchester, and their successors forever, to and 
for the sevi^ral and respective uses following, and to no other use, intent or 
purpose whatsoever, (viz. ) as for and concerning all and singular the several 
and respective parcels of upland and meadow ground, part of the above granted 
premises, in any wise taken op and appropriated, either by pattU under the 
hand of any of our former g'lvers of this our province, and sealed with the 


teal thereof, or by grant from the shore moDtioiied tmetees, or by ptrtienlar 
divisions, settlements and grants, by town orders, either for planting of land* 
or erecting of saw mills, with all and erery the privileges of cutting of tim- 
Iber, and pastures for cattle, before the date of these presents, and that by rir- 
toe of any the hereinbefore recited grants or patients or any of them, ahaB 
he and remain to the use and behoof of such of the scYeral and respeetiYe 
ffreeholders and inhabitats respectively, and their several and respective heirs 
and assigns for ever, and particularly by one agreement made by the trustees 
of the sd town, bearing date the 2d day of December, 1694, with one Richard 
Ward, relating to the stream of the Great creek within the sd town, on which 
Coll. Caleb Heathcott and the sd Richard Ward, who are now equally coi- 
eerned therein, are erecting of sundry mills, and is for and concerning all and 
•very other the tracts and parcels of upland and meadow ground, remain- 
der of the above granted premises not yet taken up or appropriated by 
any particular person or persons as aforesaid, to be and remain to the 
only proper use and behoof of the sd trustees and the ffreeholders and 
inhabitants of the sd borroogh and town of Westchester, and to their succea- 
sors and assignes forever, and to no other use, intent, or purpose whatsoever. 
To be holden of us, our heirs, and successors, according to the manner of 
East Greenwich in the county of Kent, within our realm of England, in free 
and comnu>n socage, rendering and paying unto us, our heira, end suocessorSf 
or to the hands of our receiver genl of our sd province of New York for the 
lime being or to such other officer or officers as shall be appointed to receive 
the same for and out of the sd tracts and parcels of land and other the premises 
the sum of thirty shillings current money of N. York, upon every 2&th day of 
March forever hereafter. And we do farther give and grant unto the ffree- 
holders and inhabitants of the sd town of W. Chester, and to their heirs and 
assigns forever, full power and authority annually and once every year, and 
that upon the first Monday in the month of May, that they the said ffreeholders 
and inhabitants bhall and may as formerly hath been accustomed in the sd 
town, to elect and choose twelve freeholders for their trustees, who shall have 
full power and authority, or the major part of them, to order and dispose of all 
or any part of the undivided land within sd town limits and precincts thereof, 
as fully and amply to all intents, constructions, and purposess as formerly they 
have used and been accustomed to do. And farther of our especial grace, 
certain knowledge, and mcer motion, we do, for us, our heirs, and suceesors, 
grant, constitute, ordain, and appoint, by this our present charter, that all and 
singular the lands, tenements, and hereditaments herein before in this our sd 
royal charter and grant granted and confirmed, mentioned or intended to be 
granted and confirmed, shall from henceforth forever be a free borough and 
corporation, excepting and always reserving out of the sd borough or corpora- 
tion all that tract of land scituate and being upon the east side of Harlem river 
aforesd, and which did formerly belong to Coll. Lewis Morris, deced, and 
which now is in the tenure and occupation of James Graham, Esqr,, and to be 


and remain ont of the jurisdiction of the ad corporation. And farther of oar 
especial grace, certain knowledge, and meer motion, do, for ns, onr heirs, and 
successors, grant, constitote, ordain, and appoint, by this onr present charter, 
that the sd town of W. Chester and all and singolar the lands and tenements 
thereunto belonging and appertaining may forever hereafler be a free borough 
and town corporate, and shall be called the borough and town of W. Chester, 
and that in the sd town corporate there shall be a body politick consisting of 
a mayor, six aldermen, and six assistants, or common council of the sd borough 
and town of W. Chester, to continue in succession forever, and fur the more 
full and perfect erection of the sd corporation and body politick to consist, 
continue, and be of a mayor, six aldermen, and six assistants, or common coun- 
cil of the sd borough or town to be called and known by the name of the may- 
or, aldermen, and commooay of the borough and town of W. Chester. 

We of our especial grace, certain knowledge and meer motion, do by these 
presents for us, our heirs and successors, create, make, ordain, constitute, 
nominate and appoint our trusty and well beloved Coll. Caleb Heathcote, Esq. 
one of our counoellors of our sd province of N. York, to be the first and now 
mayor of the sd town and borough of W. Chester, and to continue in the said 
office untill the first Monday in the month of May, which shall be in the ninth 
year of our reign. And we do likewise create, make, ordain, constitute, no- 
minate and appoint Wm. Barns, Jno. Stuert, Wm. Willett, Thus. Baxter, 
Josiah Stuert and Jno. Baily, gents., to be first aldermen of the sd borough 
and town of Westchester, and Israel Honeywell, Robert Hustis, Sam*l Hus- 
tis, Saml Ferris, Daniel Turner and Miles Oakley, gents., the first assistants 
and common council of the sd borough and town, and that the sd mayor, ald'o 
and common council and their successors, shall for ever hereafter be in name 
aod in deed a body corporate and politick and shall forever hereailer be called 
and known in all courts whatsoever, plead and be impleaded by the name of 
the Mayor, Ald'n and Commonalty of the Borough and Town of W. Chester. 
And of our further grace, certain knowledge and meer motion, and to the in- 
tent that the sd corporation and body politick by these presents created and 
began as aforesd, may have perpetual succession and continue forever, we do 
by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, grant unto the sd mayor, 
ald'n and common council and their successors fur ever, that the sd mavor 


and ald'n of the sd borough and town of W. Chester, for the time being, shall 
and may from time to time, whensoever aod as oflen as they shall think meet, 
admit and receive under the common seal of the sd corporation to be of the 
commonalty of the sd borough and town, such and so many persons as the 
said mayor and alder'n, or the mayor fur the time being and the greatest part 
of the sd alder*n shall think mg^t, and that every such person and persons by 
them the sd mayor and alder*n or the greater part of them as aforesM to be 
admitted and received as aforesM, shall immediately af\er such admission be 
free men of the sd borough and town and members of the sd body politick, and 
have and enjoy all each the same and so many priviledges, franchises and im« 


muqities, as if the said pereont bo to be admitted had been apecially and par- 
ticularly named in tbia our ad royal charter to be of the sd commonality. 
And further we of our eapecial grace, certain knowledge, and roeer motion, do 
by theae preaenta, for ua, our heira and aucoesaor, give and grant onto the ad 
tnayxir, alder'n and common council of the ad borough and town of W. Chea- 
ter, that they and their auccesaora shall from henceforth for ever be a body 
politick and incorporate, in deed and in name, and by theae preaenta fully and 
absolutely make, create, coniBtitute, eatabliah and unite the ad mayor, alder'a 
and common council into one body politick and incorporate to endure and con 
tinue for ever, and them and their aucceaaora do declare, accept and allow for 
a perfect corporation and body politick for ever, and that the ad body politick 
and corporate aball be called and known for ever by the name of the Mayor, 
Alder^n and Commonalty of the Borough and Town of W. Cheater, and that 
by that name they and their aucceaaora aball be able peraona in law to make 
all manner of contracta and granta, and to make, receive and take all manner 
of gifta, granta and purchaaea aa any other natural peraon or body politick is 
able to make, receive and take by the lawa of our realm of England and thia 
our province, and that they and their aucceaaora ahall and may by that name 
implead any other peraon or peraona, or be impleaded in any court or courts, 
in all and all manner of causes and actions, real and personal ot mixt of what 
kind or nature soever, and claim and demand their libertiea and francheaaea 
before any judge or judges, ecclesiastical or aecular, and otherwise do and 
execute alt and every act and acts, thing and things whatsoever, which any 
other liege men which are enabled and made capable of the benefit of our 
laws within our realm of England or this our province of N« York, can or may 
lawfully do or execute. And farther of our especial grace, certain kno^vledge, 
and meer motion, we do by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, 
give and grant unto the sd mayor, alder^n and common council, that the sd 
Col. Caleb Heathcott and his successors, mayora of the sd town and borough 
of W. Chester aforesM for the time being, shall have the charge of free gov- 
ernmH of the sd borough and town of W. Chester during the time of his and 
their bearing the sd office, in aa absolute and ample manner as is usual and 
CQStomary with other mayors in the like corporations in our realm of England. 
And further because the sd mayor for the time being may many times have 
jnat occasion to be absent from the sd town, either of the public affairs thereof 
or for his own private respects, wee do therefore for us, our heirs and succes- 
sors, by these presents give and grant unto the sd mayor, ald^n and common 
eounoel and their anccessors, that the sd Coll. Caleb Healhcott and his suc- 
cessors, mayors of the sd borough and town of W. Cheater, and every of 
them, shall have full power and authority from time to time during his year of 
government, with the consent of the said aldermen of the sd town for the 
time being or the greater part of them, to substitute in his absence some dis- 
ereet and substantial person being one of the members of the sd aldermen 
ishabiting in the sd town or borough, ts be his deputy mayor during the ah- 


•enee of the said mayor, and each deputy mayor for the time being, we do by 
these presents fully and absolutely authorise to do and execute all (hings what- 
soever belonging to the sd office or place of mayor in as large and ample man- 
ner as if the sd mayor himself was personally present. And we do farther 
by these presents give and grant unto the sd mayor, aldermen and common 
councel of the sd borough and town of Westchester and their successors for 
ever, that the sd miayor for the time being or lawful deputy and any two or 
more of the sd aldn of the sd town shall and may lawfully hold and keep upon 
the first Tuesday in every month throughout the year a court within ye sd 
town of W. Chester, and therein shall have full power and authority to hold 
plea of all manner of debts, covenants, trespasses, accompts, detinues, de- 
mands, and all other actions personal of what kind or nature soever the same 
be, arising and growing only within the sd borough or town of W. Chester 
and the limits thereof, so as ye same doth not exceed in debt or damages the 
sum of twenty pounds current money of this our province, who shall have 
power to hear and determine the same pleas and accompts according to the 
rules of the common law of our realm of England and the acts of General 
Assembly of this our province of N. York. And farther of our like especial 
grace, certain knowledge and meer motion, we do by these presents for us, 
our heirs and successors, give and grant unto the said mayor, aldern and com- 
mon council of borough and town of W. Chester and thejr successors 
for ever, that they and their successors for ever shall have a common seal un- 
der which they shall pass all grants, warrants, deeds and specialties, and 
other the affairs and business of or concerning the sd corporation, which shall 
be engraven with such form and inscription as shall be devised by the mayor, 
aldermen and common councel of the sd borough and town ; that the sd may- 
or, aldern and common council shall and may build, or cause to be built in some 
convenient place of the sd town a common hall or town house to be called by 
the name of the town hall of the borough and town of W. Chester, where the 
sd mayor, aldern and common council shall and may from henceforth for ever 
lawfully assemble themselves to deliberate and consult touching the publick 
welfare of the sd borough and town of Westchester, and that they and their 
successors shall and may from henceforth be a free guild mercaturie, and that 
they or the greater part of them and their successors of which the mayor to 
be one, shall and may from time to time in their public counoels freely and 
lawfully make and establish all such ordinances, statutes, orders or by-laws as 
may tend to the good and wholesome government of the said borough and 
town and to ye public benefit of the inhabitants of the same, not being repug- 
nant to the common laws and statues of oar realm of England, and this our 
province of N. York, and such ordinances, by-laws, statutes, orders, and d6- 
erees as shall be made by them as aforesaid, we do by these presents, for as 
our heirs and successors, ratify, confirm aifd allow as good and effeotnal to 
bind all the inhabitants of the sd borough and town, and do expressly will and 
command by these presents that the same be duly pot in execotiony and that 


the 8d mayor, aldern and common eoaiiool ahall at aoj time or times hereafter 
hare full power to establish a ferry orer the Sound> between the said corpo- 
ration and the island of Nassaa, in such convenient place or places as to the 
ad mayor and to the greater part of the said aldern shall seem meet and con- 
venient, and to take such fees and perqaisites for the same for the use of the 
td corj>oration, as is now paid for the flferidge between N. York and the -sd 

And farther, for the more orderly government of the said borough and town, 
according to the form of the best governed towns and corporations of onr 
realm of England, Wee do by these presents, for us, our heirs and snccessors, 
give ami grant unto the s^d mayor, alder'n, and common council of the sM 
borough and town of W. Chester, full power to elect and nominate one dis- 
creet and sufficient person, learned in ye law, to be recorder and town clerk 
i>f the s*d borough and town of W. Chester, daring the pleasure of the s*d 
mayor, alder'n, and common council, and such person or persons as they the s'd 
mayor, alder'n, and common council shall choose to be recorder and town clerk 
of the sM borough and town. Wee do, for us, our heirs and successes, make, 
ordain, and constitute recorder and town clerk of the s*d borough and town, 
and that the s'd person or persons may execute their sM offices, by them- 
selves or lawful deputy or deputies, so that the same be first approved of by 
the sM mayor and tho major part of the said alder'n, and wee do hereby autho- 
rise the said recorder and town clerk, his or their lawful deputy or deputies, 
to use and exercise such jurisdictions and authority as the recorder and town 
clerk doth or ought to do in the like corporations in our realm of England. 
And further, we do by tbese presents, for us, our heirs and successors, make 
ordain, and constitute the s'd mayor and aldermen of the s'd borough and town 
of W. Chester to be justices of the peace within the s'd bounds and limits of 
the s'd town, and do hereby give them full power and atithority to do and exe- 
cute all and every act and acts, thing and things whatsoever, within the sM 
bounds and limits of the s'd borough and town, in as absolute and ample man- 
ner as any justice of the peace within the s'd county of W. Chester may or 
ought to do, by the laws and statotes of our realm of England and this oar 
province of N. York. And we do further, for us, our heirs, and successors, 
give and grant unto the s'd mayor, aldermen, and common council of ye s'd 
borough for the time being, and to their success'rs forever, full power and au- 
thority to nominate and appoint, from time to time, one serjeant of the mace, 
and all other inferior officers and ministers which they shall think to be con- 
venient and necessary, and which are accustomary in any of our corporations 
in our realm of England, for ye service of the s'd borough and town i all which 
officers being from time to time appoin'd by the s'd mayor and aldermen as 
afuresM, we do, for us, our heirs, and successors, by these presents, constitute 
and establish in their several offices, and do give them and every of them fall 
power and authority to use and exercise ye same within the s'd borough and 
town, and within the limits and franchises thereof during ye will and pleasort 


of the sd mayor and aldermen as fully and freely as any other the like offi- 
cers in or of any of the like corporations in our realm of England lawfully 
may or ought to dO) and the sM office of mayor shall from thenceforth forever 
be annual, and that the sd mayor, alder'n, and common ooancil shall from 
henceforth forerer have frank and free election of the sd mayor, to be chosen 
yearly out of the number of the sd aldermen, and that by the Totes of the 
greatest number of the said freeholders and inhabitants of the said eorporationt 
and all other the said officers and ministers out of the rest of the number of 
the sd ffreeholders and inhabitants by ye greater number of the sd mayor, 
aldermen, and common council, and when and so often as any of the affores'd 
aldermen and common council who are hereby nominated and created for their 
limetime, or untill they or any of them shall be lawfully removed, or Tollenta- 
rily remove themselves from the sd corporation, ye said aldermen to be elect- 
ed and chosen out of the number of the sd common council, and the number 
of the common council to be chosen and made up out of the freemen of the sd 
corporation by the grater vote of the sd freeholders and inhabitants thereof^ 
and that always within fourteen days after the death or removal of any of 
them as aforsM. And farther our will and pleasure is that the first Monday 
in the month of May, yearly, shall be forever the day of election of the ad 
mayor and all other the sd officers and ministers which shall yearly succeed 
in the sd borough, unless the sd mayor for the time being happen to die or 
be lawfully removM within the year, in which case our pleasure is that the 
aforesM ffreeholders and inhabitants shall within fourteen days after the death 
or removal of any such mayor for the time being, as afores^d, proceed to elec- 
tion to some other of the sd aldermen to supply the place of the sd mayor, 
being void as afores'd, and that Coll. Caleb Heathcott, the present mayor, 
shall immediately, before he take upon him the said office and place, take the 
oaths lately appointed by act of parliament instead of the oaths of alliegeanee 
and supremacy, and that the same be administered to him in the presence of 
our sd cap^n genel and gover*r in chief of oar sd province of N. York, and 
the 8*d Coll. Caleb Heathcott having taken ye said oaths, shall cause the 
same to be given in his presence as well to such persons as ye sd Coll. Caleb 
Heathcott shall at any time during his mayoralty leave to be his deputy in his 
absence as afores^d, as to the aldermen and common council created as afores*d, 
and to the recorder and all such other officers and ministers as shall be chosen 
in the said borough for the better government of the same, and that before 
they or any of them shall take upon them to execute any office or place by 
virtue of this our royal charter and pattent, and after the end of the mayoralty 
of the sd Coll. Caleb Heatheota, our will and pleasure is that every mayor 
of the sd town that shall be hereafter elected in manner aforesM shall imme- 
diately take the aboves'd oaths before three at the least of the aldermen of the 
ad boroughj and that upon election of any other alder*n or common ooancil, in 
case of death or removal as afores'd, or such other officers as shall be annaally 
chosen to take the abovesM oaths before the mayor for the time being, and any 

Vol. II. 25 


tTto of the sd aldermen^ whom we do by theee presents fully aathorixe to a^ 
minister snd gi?e the sd several oaths. And farther^ of oar especial graeo 
certain knowledge and meer motion, do by these presents, for us, our heirs 
and successors, give and grant unto the sd mayor, alder*n, aad common cfmm* 
eil of the borough and town of Westchester, and their successors forever, that 
they the sd mayor and alderman shall and may from henceforth forever, have, 
bold and keep, one free market within the sd borough and town upon every 
Wednesday in every week, and two fairs within the sd borough and town at 
two several times in the year, (viz.) the one to begin and to be holden within 
the said borough and town upon the second Tuesday in May, yearly forever, 
and to continue for three days and no longer, and the other of the sd fairs to 
begin upon the last Tuesday in October yearly, forever, and to continue also 
for three days and no longer, with power to erect several courts of pipowder, 
and the office of clerk of entries, and all other things thereunto belonging, with 
all and singular the perquisites and profits, issues, customs, tolls, fees, amercia- 
ments, commodities, jurisdictions and emoluments, to the sd courts, fairs, and 
markets, in any wise belonging and appertaining, and that the mayor of the 
said borough and town of W. Chester for the time being, aud no other, have 
power and authority to give and grant license annually, under the public seal 
of the said corporation, to all tavern keepers, inn keepers, ordinary keepers, 
vicktuallers, and all puhlick sellers of wine, strong waters, rum, cyder, beer, 
or any other sort of strong liquors by retail, within the sd corporation 
or the liberties and precincts thereof ; and it shall and may be lawful to 
and for the sd mayor of the sd borough for the time being, or his lawful de- 
puty, to ask, demand, and receive for such licence by him to be given and 
granted as aforesd, such sum or sums of money as he and the person to 
whome such licence shall be given and granted shall agree for not exceeding 
the sum of 20s. for such licence, ail which money as by ye said mayor shall 
be so receivd, shall be us'd and applyd to the public use of the mayor, alder- 
men and common council of the sd borough and their successors. And also 
we do, of our like especial grace, certain knowledg, and meer motion, by these 
presents, for us, our heirs, and successrs, grant unto the said mayor, aldermen 
and common council of the sil borough and town of W. Chester and their suc- 
cessrs forever, that the mayor with two or more of the aldermen for the time 
being, shall have full power to enquire, hear, and determine, of all frays and 
bloodsheds whatsoever, happening within the sd borough and town of W. 
Chester, and the offenders therein to correct and punish according to the laws 
of our realm of England and this our province of N. York. And we do far- 
ther by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successrs* give and grant unto 
the sd mayor, aldern, and common council of the sd borough and town of W. 
Chester, and to their successrs forever that the mayor, or in his absence his 
deputy mayor of the sd borough and town for the time being, shall be coroner 
and clerk of the market within ye sd borough and town and the liberties there- 
of, giving and^ hereby granting unto the sd mayor and deputy mayor fur the 


time being full power and anthority to exercise and execnte the eaid office and 
offices of coroner and clerk of the market in the sd borough and town and the 
liberties thereof in as large and ample manner as any other coroner or clerk 
of the market doth or may lawfully execute the like office or offices in any 
other town or liberties within this our province of N. York. And farther, of 
our especial grace, certain knowledg, and meer motion, wee do by these pre- 
sents, for us, our heirs, and successors, give and grant unto the sd mayor, al- 
dermen and common council of the sd borough and town of W. Chester 
aforesd, and their successrs forever, that they and their successors shall and 
may from time to time return and send one discreet burgess of the sd town 
and borough into every general assembly hereafter to be suromond or holdeii 
within this our province of N. York, which burgess so returnd and sent shall 
be receivd into the house of deputies or members of the sd house and have and 
enjoy such priviledges as any otlier of the sd members have or ought to have. 
And lastly our express will and pleasure is, and we do by these presents for us, 
our heirs and successors, give and grant unto sd mayor, aldermen, and com- 
mon council of the sd borough, and their successrs forever, that these our 
letters patent or the inrolment thereof in our secretarie^s office of our sd pro- 
vince, shall be good, available, and effectual in the law to all intents, construc- 
tions, and purposes, against us, our heirs, and successors, without any other 
licence, grant, or confirmation from us, our heirs, or successors hereafter, by 
the sd mayor, aldermen, and common council, or their successors, or any of 
them, to be had and obtained notwithstanding the not recitall or miss-recitall, 
not nameing or miss-nameing of the sd offices, ffranchises, lands, tenements, 
or hereditaments, and other the premises or any of them, and notwithstanding 
that no writ of ad quod damnum hath issued forth to enquire of the premises 
or any of them before the sealing of these presents, any statute, act, ordinance, 
or provision, or any other matter or thing whatsoever to the contrary in any 
wise notwithstanding. In witness whereof we have caused these our letters 
to be made paiteot. Witness oar trusty and well beloved Benjamin Fletcher 
our capn genl and govenr in chief of our sd provin/sa of New York and the 
territories and tracts of land depending thereon in America, and vice admiral 
of the same, our lieutent ^nd commander in chief of the melitia and of all the 
fibrsses by sea and land within our coUony of Connecticut, and of all the fibrts 
and places of strength within the same, Att our fort at New York, this six- 
teenth day of April, in the eighth year of our reign.^ 

VjvAiiT Rex et Reoina." 

Another entry relates to the swearing in of the first aldermen 
and common council of the borough. 

• From a certified copy of the original, in the possession of Ogden Hammond, Esq. 



(•"('"OMnt- altinm«n. iif cba wid larjocUim, aai Babcrt Hmcaaar Shbm£ 
KiMMk l^Mmiri Faccus DCIm UsUa« ud IhB^ ToEnr. padommr conni^ 

«UUBItli lit* «i|i mirpamljim, mn.( .f||| a^ ^ OBtfu Spganttd I17 MSOtf Pttdi*- 

awtt. WtiUMt <^ >if tba wlits of aUagJun u^ M 

■ HsKCMEim, JBqpr.^ 

IhifitxiscitssdoaMiefbribe ose of ibe cMpnaCani^ mii tfiat in. 
tita vaua tiioe the ko/ k ibnoerly awd by ibe inisie» liialL te 
WMWoseoC it wMfurthei ordered, that Hr.J«iK»Caiittt^iaU. 
V» Mwrrfw and li^dward Collier hia deputy ; abo ftM laaaph. 
Hoat. jan^ ahoold be tenant of the maee, if be wosM aasspt a£ 
il, and if not John Willisma ihould beieiTeanf e^iAcmuin.'* 

" At a coart held in the borough tovn of WestcfaotBir &? the 
mayor and aldermen of uid town on the 6lb of Oetdbs;. Iti9^ 
Colonel Ueatbcoie brought the wal for (be coriKMatiaiinSid.(fiil 
give it gratia to the town, and left it in the hands <i£ t&a cor 

nt Sol cT Ibt B«Oith AT 

Serenl imfnmioi^ at thii k>1 mc atUclMd b 

1 (lie lows eSnk'a 


At a meeting of the trustees of this town, held on the 8tli of 
June, 1700, it was resolved, 

" That whereas at a former meeting held by the inhabitants of the borough 
town and precincts, on the 3d day of May, 1697, it was Toted and agreed up- 
on that there should be a town hall built to hold courts in and for the public 
worship of God, &c., but it being then neglected, the mayor, aldermen and 
Justices at this meeting, did order with a joynt consent to build a house for 
the uses of a court and prison,*- The dimensions of the house is to be twenty- 
six feet square, sixteen feet joynts, a square roof, six window cases fi?e feet 
square, &c. The trustees agreed with Richard Ward to build said house for 
jC33, and with Erasmus Orton to build the prison for £5. It is to be twenty 
feet long, 16 feet wide, scTon feet high, two feet thick with a good chimney. 
The town to find attendance. Which work is to be done by the Slst."^ 

By a reference to the charter, it will be seen that the borough 
of Westchester enjoyed the right of being represented in Assem- 
bly. The first representative appears to have been Lewis Morris, 
Esq. The following certificate refers to the services of this in- 

General Assembly for the Colony of New York. 

Die Sabbati, 6 July. 1733. 

These are to certifie that Lewis Morris, Esq., one of the persons duly 

elected for ye borough of Westchester to serre in General Assembly for ye 

Colony of New York, hath attended the serTice of this house in General As<* 

sembly, the full term of sixty-one days. 

By order of ye General Assembly, 

R. LiYiKosTON, Speaker. 

July 6th, 1733. 
ReceiTed ye full payment of this certificate from ye borough of Westohes* 
ter, I say receiTed by me. 

Lewis Morris. < 

*■ The old court house and jail occupied the site of the present carriage shed, on 
the south side of St. Peter's church. Both were burned during the Revolution. 

k Westchester Rec On the 4th of September, 1700, Joseph Haviland and John 
Hunt were directed to agree for the timber work of the priaon. 

• Town Rec. book 9, 155. 


Peter de Lancey, Esq., represented the borough, in 1766, for 
which he received ten shillings per diern.^ 

One of the most important privileges conferred upon this town 
by the royal charter, was ihat of holding a mayor*s courts the 
first Tuesday in every month. This court had full power to 
bear and determine all causes '* not exceeding in debtor damages 
the sum of twenty pounds." From the town records it appears, 
that " at a mayor's court holden in Westchester, 6th of July, 
1697, the court did order that Capt. William Barnes shall see out 
for a workman to make a pair of stocks and the prison sufficient 
for the securing of prisoners, until such time as a way may be 
found for the building of a new one," &c.^ 

As a proof that liberty was not yet clearly understood by our 
ancient judges, we subjoin an extract from the records of the ma- 
yor*s court in 1730. 

<< Present Miles Oakley, mayor, Thomaa Hunt, Joshua Hunt, 
James Cromwell, Nathaniel Underbill and William lieggett, 

"The jury being called over said they could not agree, and 
James Dangly and Gabriel Le^gett who dissented from the 
others gave their reasons to the court ; which being judged in- 
sufficient, they were fined 40j. each, and to stand committed till 
paid. The jury were then discharged."c 

"At a mayor's court held in Westchester, December, 1734, 
Present, William Leggett, Esq., mayor, William Firster, recor- 
der, Nathaniel Underbill, Thomas Hunt, Joshua Hunt and Ga- 
briel Leggett, aldermen, <kc. The recorder presented the free- 
dom of the town to the Hon. James de Lancey, Esq., and John 
Chambers, attorney at law, which was read and approved : and 
thereupon it was ordered that the mayor, recorder and aldermen 
do forthwith wait on the said James de Lancey, Esq., and John 
Chambers, at the house of William Burnett, and deliver the same 

• Smith's Hilt of N. Y* The daily wages of Uie representatives, wer^ regulatpd 
by sundry acts of Assembly, 
b Town Rec, 
c Town Rec, 


unto (hem» and desire their acceptance of the same. According- 
ly the court adjourned."* 

The town properly^ is at present managed by a board of three 
trustees^ who represent the wayor^ aldermen and commonalty 
of the ancient borough of Westchester. The following act was 
passed by the legislature of this state, on the 19th of March, 
1813, entitled '<an act relative to the duties aud privileges of 
towns." The 28th section of which directs, 

" That ihe freeholders aad inhabitants of the town of Westchester, in the 
coanty of Westchester, may, on the day of their annual town meeting, under 
the usual manner of electing town officers, choose six freeholders resident in 
this town for trustees, and the said trustees or a majoriiy of them, shall and 
may order and dispose of, all or any part of the undivided lands within the 
said town, as folly to every purpose, as trustees have been used to do. under 
any patent or charier to the said town, and may continue to lease out the right 
and privilege of setting and keeping a ferry across the East river from the 
said toWn of Westchester to the town of Flushing, in Queens county, in like 
manner, at the same rates of ferriage, under the same rules and regulations, 
and for the like purposes, as they have lawfully been accustomed to do, since 
the eighteenth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and eighty five.^o 

In 1746, the small pox prevailing in Greenwich, New York, 
the house of asserubly adjourned to Westchester. 

The following letter of the Westchester sub-committee, dated 
borough and town of Westchester, A^ugust 24th, 1775, to the 
Honorable Provincial Congress, is copied from the military re- 

• Town Rec. On the 2d of July, 1737, Lewis Morris, Jun., and Frederick Phi- 
llpse were admitted fieemen of the borough under the common seal of the corpor- 

b The town property prior to its divuiion, in 1846, amounted to sixteen or twenty 
thousand dollars, (arising from the sale of the common lands) the interest of which 
was appropriated to the common schools. 

c Laws of New York, 1813- The above confirms a former act of legislatare, 
passed 18 April, 1785, in which the freeholders of the town were antborised to 
choose six trustees, who should have the right to order and dispose of the ondivided 
lands, &.C. 


We the subscribers appointed a sab-committee to inspeet theelection of mili- 
tia officers for the said town, do most humbly certify, that the following per- 
sons were chosen this 24th day of Angnst, 1775, by a majority of Toieea duly 
qaalified for that purpose, agreeable to the resdotiona of the honoraUe con- 
gress abo?esaid, (viz. :) 

John Oakley, Captain. 

Nicholas Berrian, 1st Lieutenant. 

Isaac Leggett, 2d Lieutenant, 

Frederick Philipse Stevenson, Ensign. 

C Thomas Hunt, 
Committee, < James Ferris, 

\ Lewis Graham. 

At a meeting of the freeholders and inhabitants of the town of 
Westchester, held 1st day of April, 1788, being the first Tuesday 
in April, and the annual day of electing town officers, pursuant 
to an act of the legislature, passed the 14th Feb. 1787. Present, 
Joseph Bowne, &c. 

The following persons were chosen for the ensuing year : 

Israel Underbill, Supervisor. 

John Bartow, Jr., 1 

Michael Ryer, > Assessors. 

Augustus Drake, y 

John Bartow, Jr., 
Israel Underbill, 

Josiah Quimby, LTrnatees 

Edward Briggs, >^ro»tces. 

Joseph Bowne, 
Samuel Bayard. 

Cornelius Hunt, Constable. 

The first settlers of Westchester, appear to have made early 
provision for ifie education of the young, and the support of reli^ 
gion among them. This is abundantly seen in the town re- 
cords. Tiie church at this period was Congregational in its 
form of government, and so continued until the organization of 
the English Colonial Church in 1693.' 

On the llih of February, 1680, occurs the following entry in 
the town books. " There was sprinkled with water by Morgan 

> For a long period, Westcheiiter appears to have been associated with Eastches' 
ter, in the support of a minister . 


Jones, priest, (what they call baptizing) Williana Hunt, son of 
John Hunt of Westchester ; witnesses present, Joseph Hiint and 
Bridget Waters." The same year, •* Morgan Jones married 
Isaac Dickerman of this towne, to Bertha,' the daughter of Hen- 
ry Gardner. Recorded by me, Francis French, clerk."* 

At a town meeting held in Westchester, April 2nd, 1684, '* it 
was voted, that the justices and vestrymen of Westchester, East- 
chester and Yonckcrs, do accept of Mr. Warham Mather as our 
minister for one whole year, and that he shall have sixty pound 
in country produce, at money price, for his salary, and that he 
shall be paid every quarter. Done in behalf of the justices afore- 
said, signed by us,"^ 

John Quimby, 
Joseph Hunt, 
John Bayley, 
John Burkbee. . 
In the year 1692, the church appears to have been without a 
minister ; for, '< at a lawful town meeting held in Westchester, by 
the freeholders and inhabitants, and residents of said place, the 
2nd day of January, 1692, in order to consult, conclude and 
agree, about procuring an orthodox minister in said town. It is 
voated and agreed upon, that there shall be an orthodox minister 
in the town aforesaid, as soon as possible may be, and to allow 
him forty or fifty pound per annum, equivalent to money, for 
his maintenance. Its also voated and agreed upon, that a m^n 
shall go to the Honorable Colonel Heathcotc, and see if he can 
prevail with him for to procure us a minister, in his travels in 
New England, otherwise that Captain William Barnes shall go 
and procure us a minister.''^ 

On the 15th of Dec, 1692, the general court of sessions ordered, 
'Mhat within any towne, precinct and patent within this county, 
due observation of the Lord*s day shall be kept, and for want of 
an able minister, the inhabitants shall employ a reader, to read 
out of good books, two sermons every Lord's day, (that is to say) 
one in the forenoone between 9 and 1 1 o'clock, and one in the 

• Town See. k Town Rec. • Town Rec p. 198 

Vol. II. 26 


afternoone between two and four o'clock, at such places as shall 
be thought meet and convenient by ye inhabitants of such towne, 
precinct and patent, &c.^ 



Instal or call. Ministers. Yacated by 

1665*6, Rev. Mr. Brewster, resignatioB. 

1674, Rev. Eaekiel Fogge, ditto. 

1680, Rev. Morgan Jones, ditto. 

1684, Rev. Warham Mather, ditto. 

The first organization of the Episcopal church in this town 
took place under the act of assembly passed September, 1693. 
entitled " An act for settling a ministry and raising a maintenance 
for them in the city of New York and the counties of Richmond, 
Westchester^ and Queen's." To the above act was added as fol- 
lows on the Uth of May, 1697, "that there shall be called and 
inducted and established a good sufficient Protestant minister to 
officiate and have the care of sonis within one year next and after 
the publication hereof. In the county of Westchester two, one 
to have the cure of Westchester, Eastchester, Yonkers, and the 
manor of Pelham,"^ <fcc., Ac. 

The subjoined order relates to the erection of the first Episco- 
pal church in Westchester.© 

"At a meeting held by the trustees this 4th of September, 
1700, present, Josiah Hunt, president, Edward Waters, Joseph 
Haviland, John Hunt, Joseph Bayley, John Perris, sen., and 
Richard Ponton. It is voted and agreed upon that all who shall 
cart timber and stuff for the meeting house shall have six shil- 
lings per diem, &c., done in behalf of the freeholders and com- 
monality of the town."** 

» Town Rec. 

k Aeti of proYincial assembly, N. Y., from 1691 to 1725, p. 33. 

* The exact date when the CoogrregalioDal meeting^ house was erected here is 
uncertaio ; it most, however, ha?e fallen into decay sometime prior lo the erection 
of the Episci^al church. 

4 Town Rec. 


At a subsequent meeting of the trustees held on the 26th of 
October, A. D. 1700, " It was voted that Richard Ward shall 
build the meeting house twenty-eight feet square^ with a turret 
on the top, for forty pounds.''* 

The first rector of the parish was the Rev. John Bartow. 
''This individual (remarks Dr. Hawkins,) was appointed mis- 
sionary on an annual salary of £50, in the year 1702. He ar- 
rived in New York in ten weeks, during the prevalence of a very 
fatal sickness, of which twenty persons, on an average, died 
every day for some months. He was fixed at Westchester by 
the governor. Lord Cornbury, but found the glebe of one hun- 
dred acres *'all a wilderness,** no part of which had ever been 
cultivated. He says, November 4th, 1702, '< we have a small 
house built here for public worship of boards, but there is neither 
desk, pulpit, nor bell in it."b 

Here follows the Bishop of London's^: license to John Bartow, 

• In 1793 the tt%m% work of the old church was aold by order of the veetry to 
Mn. Sarah Ferris, widow of Benjamin Ferris, who afterwards converted it into a 
bam. It is now owned by her son-in-law. Captain E. Hawkins. The frame work 
measures exactly twenty-eight feet square, according to the specification 147 yean 
ago. The posts are sixteen feet high. 

k Hawkins' Hist. Notes of Colonial Church, 276. MS. Letters, vol. i. 1, 55. 

e We take the following extracts from Queen Aune's instruetioiis to Lord Corn- 
bury, dated December 5th, 1702. " Article 6th. And whereas the inhabitants of 
our said province have of late years been unhappily divided, and by their enmity to 
each other, our service and their own general welfajre have been very much ob- 
structed, you are therefore in the execution of our commission to avoid the engaging 
yourself in the parties which have been formed amongst them, and to use such 
impartiality and moderation to all as may best conduce to our service and the 
good of the colony." 

Article 60. ** You shall take especial care that God Almighty be devoutly and 
duly served throughout your government, the book of common prayer as by law 
established read each Sunday and holyday, and the blessed sacraments administered, 
according to the rites of the Church of England. You shall be careful that the 
churches already built there be well and orderly kept, and that more be built as the 
colony shall by God*s blessing be improved, and that besides a £ompetent mainte- 
nance to be assigned to the minister of each orthodox church a convenient house 
be built at the common charge, for each minister, and a competent proportion of 
land assigned him for a glebe and exercise of his industry. And jou are to tnka 
care that the parishes be limited and settled as you shall find most convenient for 
the accomplishing this good work**' 



Henriciu, pennissione dirina, Londooensis episeopos, dfleoto nobis ia Ciirista 

lohanni Bartow, clerico, ealutero et gratiam, ad peragendum offieium ministe* 

riale intra pro?iociam de Novo Eboraco, in America, in precibaa eoniiniuiiboa 

aliisqae nainisteriia ecclesiastiois ad offieium mioisteriale pertinentibas jaxta 

formam descriptam in libro publicaram precum, auctoritate parliamenti hujaa 

inclyti regni Anglise, in ea parte edita, et proviaa, et eanones, et constitationiar 

in ea parte legitime stabilitaa, et poblicataa, et non aliter neqae riio modo ; 

tibi de cujus fidelitate moram integritate literarum scientia aaroma doctrina ei 

diligentia plurimuro confidemua, (prestituta peniius parte juramoa totami de 

agnoacendo regiam aupremam majeatatam, juxta vim formam et effectam ata* 

tuti parliamenti dicti regni Anglie, in ea parte editi et provisi, quam de canon- 

ica obedientia nobis et successoribas nostris in omnibus recitis et honestis per 

te prasstanda et exhibenda subseriptisqne pertinentibas illis articuUs mentiona- 

lia ip tricesimo sexto capituk) libri coostitutorum, si?e canonum eccleszaatico* 

ram, anno Domini, 1604, regia auctoritate editorum et prcHnulgatonim licentiam 

facultatum ntatram concedimu^ ct impertamur per precedeotes, ad nostraoa 

beneplacitum dum tanat duraturas, in cujus rei testimonium sigillam nostram, 

** 61. You are not to prefer any miaister to any ecclesiastical benefice in that 
our province without a certificate from the Right Rev. father in God the Bishop of 
London, of his being conformable to the doctrine and discipline of the Church of 
England, and of a good life and conversation, and if any person preferred already 
to a benefice appear to you to give ecandall, either by his doctrine or manners, you 
are to use the best means for the removal of him, and to supply the vacancy in such 
manner as we have directed.*' 

*' Article 62. You are to give order forthwith (if the same be not already doue,) 
that every orthodox minister witiiin your goveruraent be one of the vestry in his 
respective parish, and that no vestry be held without him, except in case of sickness, 
or that after notice of a vestry summoned he omit to come." 

*' Article 63. You are to examine whether there be any minister within your 
government who preaches and administers the sacraments in any orthodox church 
or chapel without being in due orders, and to give an account thereof to the said 
Bishop of London." 

** Article 64. And to the end the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the said Bishop of 
London may take place in that province so far as convenieutly may be, we do 
think fit that you give all countenance and encouragement to the exercise of the 
same, excepting only the collecting to benefices, granting licences for marriages, 
and prpbate of wills, which we have reserved to you, our governor, and to the com* 
mander*in>chief of our said province for the time being." 

•* Article 65. We do further direct that no schoolmaster be henceforth permitted 
to come from England and to keep school within our province of New York without 
the license of the said Bishop of London, and that no other person now there or that 
shall come from other parts be admitted to keep school without your license fiial 
obtained," &c. The original document is in the possession of Mr. Hayward, West 
I3lh street, New York. 


(quam in similibos plenimqae utimur,) presentibas apponi feeimos dat vieetimo 
seouDdo die meneis JuDii, anno Domini millesimo septengeotesimo, secundo 
nostra translaiione Ticesimo septimo.'''* 

The first election for church officers, occurs the year of Mr. 
Bartow*s arrival. '^ At a meeting held in the borough town of 
Westchester, by the parishioneni of said church, pursuant to an 
act of general assembly, '^entitled an act for the settling a minis- 
try and raising a mai itenance for them, ^c," and Mr. John 
Bartow being settled minister of said parish, and his maintenance 
ought to be taken care for, do voluntarily make choice of the 
vestry and churchwardens, the 12th day of January, the first 
year of his majesties reign, A. D. 1702. 

Mr. Justice Pell, Mr. Justice John Hunt, 

Mr. Justice Willett, Mr. Justice Graham, 

Mr. Justice Josiah Hunt, Mr. Jostice Bay ley. 


Lieutenant Col. GrahaiOi Justice Josiah Hunt. 


Thomas Baxter, sen., Joseph tiaviland, 

Joseph Draka, Thomas Pell, 

John Archer, Miles Oakley, 

John Buckbee, Daniel Clark, 

Thomas Hunt, senr. of West Farms, Peter Ic Roy. 
Edward Collier, clerk. Erasmus Allen, Messenger. 

It is agreed upon by the said justices and vestrymen, that there 
shall be raised fifty-five )K)unds for the minister's maintenance, 
and poor of the parish. The quotas for each precinct is as fol- 

loweth : 


Westchester, £27 18 

Morris Anna, 3 7 

Eastchester, 7 13 

Pelham, 1 13 

Rochelte, 7 3 

Yonkers, 7 6 


• Probate Rec New York, lih. vi. 


To be paid unto the churchwardens, at or before the 15th of 
December, next ensuing." 

■ From a summary account of the state of the church in the 
province of New York, as it was laid before the clergy, convened 
Oct. 5th, 1704, at New York, &c., we learn that there was a 
church built, but not finished, being neither glazed nor ceiled." 
"There is £30 settled on the minister's salary by act of Assem- 
Uy." "There is twenty-three acres of land given by Westches- 
ter division, for a glebe,* &c. " At the end of two years," Mr. 
Bartow speaks with thankfulness, of having, " by the blessing 
of Almighty God, been made instrumental in making many pro- 
selytes to our holy religion, who are very constant and devout, 
in and at their attendance on Divine service ; and, those who 
were enemies at my first coming, are now zealous professors of 
the ordinances of our church. The inhabitants of our parish 
live scattered and dispersed up and down in the woods, so that 
many cannot repair constantly to the church, by reason of their 
great distance from it." Mr. Bartow appears, by bis letters, to 
have been in the habii^ of making collections in his church for 
any very urgent cases of distress. Thus we have the following 
notices : '* September 5th, 170S, came a distressed woman, widow 
o( Maynard, throtigh Westchester, who had nine children mur- 
dered by the Indians. Collected for her in the church, eleven 
shillings and six pence." The following Sunday he made a 
similar collection for a poor man. Besides Westchester at which 
he resided, Mr. Bartow chelated once a month at Eastchester, 
and occasionally at Yonkers. The population of Westchester 
was about five hundred and fifty : that of Eastchester, four hun- 
dred, &c.<* 

Colonel Caleb Heathcote in a letter to the secretary of the Yene- 
rable Propagation Society, dated manor of Scarsdale, Nov. 9, 
1705, says, " there is not any gentleman whom the society hath 
sent over, that is clothed with a fairer character than Mr. Bartow, 
of Westchester, and truly he is a very good and sober man, and 

• Church Record, Francit L. Hawks, D. D., Editor, vol. i. no 16, 1841, 
k MS. Letters in Lambeth collection, vol. ii. L 32. 

« Hist Not. of the Col. Church, hj Ernest Hawkins, 276. MS. letten, Lambeth 
Colt vol. ix. p. 109. 



is extremely well liked of and spoken of by his parishioners in 

The following items are taken from the town records : " At a 
meeting of the Ji/^/ice^ of the vestry the 6th of Mai eh, 1704-6, 
John Williams late constable for the year 1703, appears with a 
receipt from Mr. John Bartow, bearing date the 5th of March, 
1704, for the sum of £26 10, which is the full quota for the 
minister's rate in Westchester. 

At a meeting of the justices, churchwardens and vestry of the 
parish of Westchester, Eastchester, Yonkers and the manor of 
Pelham, this 12th of December, 1706, in obedience to his excel- 
lency the governor's order, &c., present, 

John Hunt, Capt. John Drake and Major Wm. Willett. 

Capt. Olirer Bayley, Henry Fowler, Son., 

Lieut. Joseph Drake, Samnel Ferris, 

Thomas Pell, Jeremiah Fowler. 

It is voted and agreed upon by the justices and vestry afore- 
said, that the parish church in Westchester^ shall be finished, 
that is to say, to seal the sides up to the wall plates, and lay a 
board floor, and make two new door cases, with doors and window 
shuts for the windows in said church, the upper windows ex- 
cepted ; and whereas, Jeremiah Fowler and Isaac Irehil, pre- 
senting themselves to do said work, the justices and vestry have 
agreed with them to do said worke for £17, in good current 
money of New York, provided, that as soon as they have laid 
the under floor and made the doors, and door cases and window 
shuts, they shall be paid to the value of said work, and the re- 
mainder of said JE^17, at the finishing thereof. The justices and 
vestry to find bords, and nails and hinges. 

Edmund CullierP 

''At a subsequent meeting held by ye justices, churchwardens 
and vestry, &c., this 23d day of December, 1707, they found it 
necessary to raise ye sumes which followeth, viz. 

To ye minister's rate and collecting .... £b2 10 

To ye poor, &c . 3980 

To boards for Eastchester church 6 


To ye cl^rk of ye vestry ...... XI 

To ye bell ringer 100 

To ye colleciing uf 11 

To ye belfry roof of Westchester church . . . 7 

To ye sacrament and collection 3 8 

At a meeting of ye churchwardens and vestrymen, freeholders 
and parishioners of the borough of Westchester, held the 10th 
day of January, A. D. 1709, present, 

Joseph Hunt, Major William WDlett, 

Thomas Pinckney, John Hunt, 

Were chosen, and appointed 

Joseph Hunt, jun. and Jeremiah Fowler, Churchwardens. 

For the borough of Westchester. For Eastchester. 

Miles Oakley, Isaac Taylor, 

^ Thomas Baxter, sen. John Lancaster, 

Thomas Hunt. Nathaniel Tompkins. 

For Yonckers Precinct. For the Manor of Pelham. 

John Archer, Thomas Pell.- 

Noah Bartow. For New Rochelle, 

Anthony Lespinard. 

Collected for the minister, jC50. For the clerk of Testry, £5. For col- 
lecting, £2 13. The quotas for the different precincts were 

Westchester, £25 New Rochelle, i^S 15 

Eastchester, Pelham, 3 

Yonckers, 8 Morrisania, 3 

In 1720 the qnotas for the church and poor of the parish stood thus, 
Westchester, je37 10 02 Eastchester, £\2 U 11^ 

Yonckers, U 12 lOi New Rochelle, 12 14 U 

Pelham, 4 4 1^ Morrisania, 4 10 

In the year 1711, the venerable Propagation Society voted one 
hundred and fifty prayer books, and £5 worth of tracts for the 
Rev. John Bartow of Westchester. «^ 

Mr. Bartow in 1713 contributed £9 6s. 6rf., towards rectify- 
ing the pews and seats in East and Westchester.^ The same 
year, Mr. Charles Glen was appointed schoolmaster at Westches* 

• Raportfl of Propagation Soo. k Ibid. 

To fiice pnge C03, vol. ii. 

Arms. — D*or, a le banc 

Tbonias, ofPertb,-- 
Ambfiy, to 
whom his fa- 
ther btfqueath'd 
IaikLi in Mi>n- 
ni< utb Co. N. 

ThopbiluB, or=BAthaheba 




Ifiomas, of Phil-=H«l«>n 
adf IpliU. an. Bene- 
cetiorofthe set 

Barlowv, of 


Thcododui, to whom hi* fithf 
ed iand« in N. J. ob. 5 Ocu 1 
in Cbr int*» Church. ShrewB t 

A da.=Frcd€rlck T 


Bartow Pre- 

Jonn=l. Miei Reider 
=3. Mi«« Ann 

Theodn».ia0, Hector sJem 
ofTritiiiy Church I Abri 
New Rocbelle, 



I I i 

•4 IB > 
??=• = » 



Auguctoa^Clara Bar- Stephen=Mary Blary=Punderpoa Andrew A 

titw, da. 
of Anili 



■Oil of 



Gduund Arthur 8araJi An infant da. 










I I 


























I I 
M i 










ter, with a salary of £18 per annum, "as he is recommended 
under the character of a person sober and diligent, well affected 
to the Church of England, and competently skilled in reading, 
writing, aritiiinetic, psalmody and the Latin tongue, provided he 
comply with the Society's rules in sending certificates of the 
number of his scholars."* 

In 1715, by the blessing of God on Mr. Bartow's ministry at 
Westchester, Eastchester, Yonckers, and the manor of Pelhamj 
where there were formerly very few of the Church communion, 
there was visibly a very great reformation of manners.^ 

Mr. William Forster appears to have been schoolmaster in 
1719. This individual had thirty scholars, '^ whom he catechises 
every Saturday and also every Sunday when Mr. Bartow goes 
to another part of the parish.^^ 

In 1722, Mr. Bartow informs the Society *'lhat they are re- 
pairing the church at Westchester by voluntary contributions, 
procured by the zealous efforts of Mr. Forster."** 

" Mr. Bartow (says Dr. Hawkins) continued in the discharge of 
his important duties for the long period of a quarter of a century. 
He was the itistrument of bringing many separatists back to the 
church, and admitting into it many hitherto careless adults. He 
likewise gave much of his time to (he instruction of the poor 
negroes." " By such long and faithful services he received the 
general esteem of his people." The Rev. John Bartow was the 
son of General Bartow, a French Protestant refugee, who fled 
from France to England on the revocation of the edict of Nantes. 
A branch of this family, resident in Brittany, originally wrote 
the name Bertaut ;« but like other French names it was after- 
wards changed. 

Mr. Bartow received his education at Christ College, Cam- 
bridge, and as we have previously shown entered upon his duties 
here in 1702. In 1722, he purchased of John Moss and Rosa- 
mond his wife, the farm now owned by Mr. Abraham Hatfield. 

• Reports of Propagation Soc. b Ibid. • Ibid. d Ibid. 

* The anm of ihe Bertautea or Bertaudes, en Bretagne, Da Hertray, Du Haim|, 
Da Pontpierre, de la Poissonniere, were d'or a la bande de lable, charge de tnrit b^ 
Miita d'argent accompagn^ de six annelets de geales, rail en orle. 

YoL. 11. 27 


Here be must have resided till his death, A. D. 1725. His re- 
mains are supposed to be interred in the family burying ground. 
In 1705, he married Helen, second daughter of John Read of 
Middrow Castle, parish of Kirkleston, Scotland, and sister of Col. 
Read, Governor of New Jersey. By his last wilt he bequeathed 
an equal part of all his personal estate to his wife. To Thomas 
his eldest son, land in Monmouth county, New Jersey, granted 
to him and his wife Helen by his father-in-law, John Read, in 
1705, and all his Greek and Latin books, watch and a new Eng- 
lish bible quarto. To Theodosius, lands in New Jersey, a gold 
ring and an English bible quarto. To Anthony, lands on Mon- 
tapon river in jhe same province, and a new English bible quar- 
to. To Basil, an estate in Middlesex, New Jersey, also a part of 
the Indian purchase, called Pine hill, and a bible quarto, ^c.^ 

In 1725, " a gratuity of £50 was made by the Propagation 
Society to Mrs. Bartow, in consequence of Mr. Bartow's good sei* 
vices of twenty-three years."^ Three sons of Mr. Bartow, Thc- 
ophilus, Anthony, and Basil, left a numerous posterity, some of 
whom are still residing in Westchester county. 

Mr. Bartow was succeeded in 1726 by the Rev. Thomas Stan- 
dard. In his report for the year 1728, Mr. Standard states, that 
he preaches alternately at East and Westchester twice a day, for 
the summer, and catechises the children publicly at P^astchester. 

At a meeting of the trustees and freeholders of the borough 
town of Westchester, held the 14ih of March, 1729, present Miles 
Oukley, president, and Thomas Hadden, Nathauiel Cnderhilly 
Underbill Barnes, Thomas Baxter, John Palmer, Thomas Hunty 
Joseph Hunt, and James Baxter, trustees, ordered that Nathaniel 
Underbill, treasurer, pay Ebenczer Haviland 

For a Bpindle for the church, £Z 7 6 

To Justice Hadden, for lath and service done . . . . 2 8 

To Captain Oakley fur service dune, 6 

Allowed the treasurer for four white oak plank, 
Carting ditto, and for the weathercock, 


1 1 

• Rec. of Wills, Surrogate's office, N. Y. vol. x. 180. 
h Rep. of Propagation Soe. 

• Hawkin's Hist. Not. of the Col. Church, 277. 


To Win. Oakley for bringing the weathercock from New York, 3 
To Israel Honeywell for 4500 shingles and carting, and paid for 

mending the windows, 13 1 

To Mr. Gillaim fur work done above his articles, . . . 9 3 3 

To Mr. Gillaim for work as per articles, 43 

To expenses at making the agreement, 3 

To Mr. Barnett, expenses at this meeting, . • . . 9 

To Jeremiah Fowler^s expenses, 10 


Total* £73 7 9 

At a meeting of the trustees, (fcc, had on the 6lh day of May, 
A. D. 1729, present Miles Oakley, president, John Palmer, Tho^ 
mas Baxter, Joseph Hunt, Thomas Hadden, Thomas Hunt, Na- 
thaniel Underhill, John Cromwell, Underhill Barnes, and Miles 
Oakley, jr., trustees ; pursuant to an act of general assembly of 
this province passed in the tenth year of the reign of our late 
sovereign lord. King William the Third of glorious memory, 
entitled an act to enable the respective towns in this province to 
build and repair their meeting houses and other publick buildings. 
Resolved, nemine contra dicetite, that the sum of £70 shall be 
raised, and also the collection for the same sum^ for the repairing 
St. Peter^s Church in said Westchester, and for no other use, 
and that they will make a rate accordingly, agreeable to ye next 
assessments to be made and taken of the town sworn assessors, 
and that they will meet on yc 22d inst. to agree with workmen 
for that purpose,"*> <fec. 

At a subsequent meeting of the trustees "£16 was ordered to 
be raised to finish the seats of the church, secure the frame, and 
to pay off the arrears, the seats to be made with backs, indluding 
the collector's fees ; and Underhill Barnes and Thomas Hunt are 
appointed overseers of the work, and to employ workmen. It 
was further ordered that a warrant be issued for raising said 
money according to law, to be paid at ye same time with the 
county tax. Also ordered, the overseers now chosen require 
Henry Gillaim to compleat his work, especially the front of the 
gallery^ and to make it secure and substantial."^ 

•■ Westchestor Rec. vol. iz. 213. b Weitchester Ree. Tol. ix. 906. 

• Westchester Rec. yol. ix. 313. 


In 1743, the Rev. Thomas Standard acquaints the Society 
'^ that notwithstanding the country swarmed with vagrant preach- 
ers called New Lights he had a more numerous congregation 
than usual the Lord's day preceding." 

Uporf the earnest petition of the churchwardens and vestry- 
men of St. Peter's Church, Westchester, the Propagation Society 
appointed Mr. Basil Bartow schoolmaster of the parish. The 
king^s commissary transmitted tRe following account of this in- 
dividual. ''That he is son to the Rev. John Bartow, late the 
Society's worthy missionary there. He is a person of good tem- 
per, sober, and pious, and well affected to the present government, 
conformable to the doctrine and discipline of the church, and 
exceedingly well qualified for the instruction of the young." 

A. D. 1745, Mr. Standard observes, " that the churches of East 
and Westchester^ are in a peaceable and growing state.^ 

In a letter dated th^ 1st of August, 1760, the churchwardens 
of Westchester inform the society, that the Rev. Thomas Stan- 
dard was dead, and that for sometime before his death, he had 
been incapable of performing his office of the church, of which 
he had been incumbent for more than thirty-four y«ars.* 

Upon the 12ili of June, 1761, the Rev. John Milner was insti- 
tuted Rector of St. Peter's church, by Governor Golden, in the 
following manner: 

'* I Cadwallader Colden, Esq., president of his majesties coancil and comman- 
der-in-chief of the province of New York, and the territories depending thereon 
in America, do, in pursaance of the power defoived in me, collate, institute and 
eeiablish you, John Milner, clerk, rector of the parish charcb of Westchester, 
commonly called St. Peter's church, including the several districts of West- 
chester, Yonkers, and the manor of Pelham, in the county of Westchester, 
within this government, to have the care of souls of the parishioners of the 
•aid church districts aforesaid, and take your cure and mine. Given under 
roy hand and the prerogative seal of the province of New York, at Fort 
George, in the city of New York, the 12th day of June, lT6i/'>> 

Cadwallader Coi^den. 

* Report of Propagation Soc. 

k Surrogates office N. Y , Book of Commissions, vol. v. 343. 


On the 3d of October, 1761, the Rev. John Milner informs the 
society, " that after a long and dangerous passage, he arrived 
at his mission. May 13th, and had ever since preached to 
crowded audiences. He further states, that his parish is of 
large extent, and he is obliged to attend three churches. Until 
Mr. Houdin came to New Rochelle^ he officiated there once a 



In a letter dated June 4th, 1763, Mr. Milner acquaints the so- 
ciety " that he has procured a charter for St. Peter's church, and 
that the people have purchased a house with a glebe of thirty 
acres." The charter here alluded to, was granted in the follow- 
ing manner : 


Geori^e the third, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ire- 
land, king, defender of the faith, &c., to whom these presents shall come, 
greeting : whereas, our loving sabjeot the Rev. John Milner, rector of St. 
Peter^s church, in the borough town of Westchester, and the county of West- 
chester, in our province of New York, and John Bartow, Isaac Willett, 
Lewis Morris, Jr., Peter de Lancey, Nathaniel Underhill, James Graham and 
James van Cortlandt, inhfbitanis of the said borough town of Westchester, 
in communion of the church of England, as by law established, in behalf of 
themselves and the rest of the inhabitants of the said town, in communion as 
aforesaid, by their humble petition, presented on the twelfth day of May last, 
to our trusty and well beloved Cadwallader Golden, Esq., then our lientenant, 
governor and commander-in-chief of our Province of New York and the terri- 
tories depending thereon, in America, in council did set forth, that for many 
years past there had been a church in the said town of Westchester, for the 
regular administration of divine service according to the use of the church of 
England, as by law established, but that for the want of proper persons to su- 
perintend the affairs and interests of the same with legal authority, the building 
was considerably out of repair, and pious and well disposed persons were dis- 
couraged in the designs of contributing to and establishing proper funds for 
the support of the said and the minister thereof, for remedying whereof, the 
said petitioners did humbly pray a letter patent, constituting the said petition- 
ers or snch of thetn as shall be thought proper, a body politick and corpo- 
rate, for the purpose of conducting and managing the affairs and interests of 
the said church, in such manner and forth, and with such rights, privileges 
tnd immunities as were therefore granted to the inhabitants of the town of 


FfashiRg, in Queen^s ooanty, in comnaanion of the ehurcb of England, or with 
Koch other rights privileges and immunities as should be thonght reasonable 
and proper ; now, we being willing to encoarage the pious intentions of our 
said loving subjects, and to grant this their reasonable request^ know ye, that of 
oor especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, we have ordainedi 
given, granted and declared, and by these presents for os, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, do ordain, give, grant and declare, that they the said petitioners, 
and the rest of the inhabitants of the said borough town of Westchester, in 
oommunioo of the church of England, as by law established, and theit socces- 
•ors, the rector and inhabitants of the said borough town of Westchester, in eom- 
monion of the church of England as by law established, hereafter shall be a 
body corporate and politic, in deed, fact and name, by the name, stile and title 
of the rector and inhabitants of the borough town of Westchester, in com- 
munion of the church of England, as by law established, and them and their 
successors by the same name. We do by these presents, for os, oar heirs 
and successors, really and fully make, erect and constitute one body politic 
and corporate, in deed, fact and name forever, and we give grant and ordain, 
that they and their successors, the rector and inhabitants of the borough town 
of Westchester, in communion of the church of England as bylaw established, 
by the same name shall and may have perpetual successions, and shall and may be 
capable in law to sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded, answer and be an« 
flwered unto, defend and be defended in all courts and elsewhere, in all manner 
of actions, writs, complaints, pleas, causes, matters and demands whatsoever, 
as fully and amply as any other our liege subjects of oor said province of 
New York may or can sue or be sued, implead or ^ impleaded, defend or be 
defended, by any lawful way or means whatsoever, and that they and their 
successors by the same name shall be for ever hereafter capable and able in 
the law to purchase, take, hold, receive and enjoy any messuages, tenements, 
personal and real estate whatsoever in fee simple for the term of life or lives, or 
in any other manner howsoever for the use of the said church, and also any goods, 
chattels or personal estate whatsoever, provided always that the clear yearly 
value of the said real estate (exclusive of the said church and the ground 
whereon the same is built, and the cemetery belonging to the same,) doth not 
at any time exceed the sum of five hundred pounds current money of our said 
province, and that they and their successors by the same name shall have full 
power and authority to give, grant, sell, leave and dispose of the same real 
estate for life or lives, or year or for ever, under certain yearly rents, and all 
goods and chattels and personal estate whatsoever, at their will and pleasure, 
and that it shall and may be lawful for them and their successors to have and 
use a common seal, and our will and pleasure further is, and we do hereby for 
us, our heirs ind successors, ordain and appoint that there shall be for ever 
hereafter belonging to the said church one rector of the Church of England as 
by law established, duly qualified for the cure of souls, two churchwardens 
and eight vestrymen who shall conduct and manage the affairs and business of 


the said charch and confer in manner aa hereafter is eatabiiahed and appoint- 
ed, and for the more immediate carrying into execution our royal will and 
pleasure herein we do hereby assign, constitute and appoint Isaac Willett and 
Nathaniel Underbill, the elder, to be the present churchwardens and Peter 
de Lanoey, James Graham, James van Cortlandt, Lewis Morris, John Smith, 
Theophilus B&rtow, Cornelius Willett and Thomas Hunt, to be the present 
vestrymen of the said church, who shall hold, possess and enjoy their respec- 
tive offices until Tuesday in Easter week now next ensuing, and fur the keep- 
ing of the succession in the said offices our royal will and pleasure is, and we 
do hereby establish, direct and require, that on the said Tuesday in Easter 
week now next ensuing, and yearly and every year thereafter for ever on 
Tuesday in Easter week in every year the rector and inbabitants of the bo- 
rough town of Westchester in communion of the church of England as by law 
established, shall meet at the said church, and there by the majority uf voices 
of such of them as shall so meet, elect and choose two of the members to be 
churchwardens, and eight others of their members to be vestrymen of the said 
church for the ensuing year, which said churchwardens and vestrymen so 
elected and chosen shall immediately enter upon their respective offices and 
hold, exercise and enjoy the same respectively from the time of such elections 
for and during the space of one year, and until other fit persons shall be elect- 
ed and chosen in their respective places, and in case the churchwardens or 
vestrymen, or either of them, by these presents named and appointed, or 
which shall bo hereafter elected and chosen, shall die or remove from the 
said borough town of Westchester before the time of their respective appoint- 
ed services shall be expired, or refuse or neglect to act in the office for which 
he or they is or are herein nominated and appointed, or whereunto he or they 
shall or may be elected and chosen, then our royal will and pleasure is, and 
we do hereby direct and ordain and require the rector and inhabitants of the 
borough town of Westchester in communion as aforesaid for the time being to 
meet at the said church and choose other or others of their numbers in place 
and stead of him or them so dying, removing or refusing to act within thirty 
days next aAer such contingency, and in this case fortbe more due and order- 
ly conducting the said elections, and to prevent any undue proceedings there- 
in, we do hereby give full power and authority to, and ordain and require that 
the rector and churchwardens of the said church for the time being, or any 
two of them, shall appoint the time for such election or elections, and that the 
rector of the said church, or in his absence one of the churchwardens for the 
time being, shall give public notice thereof by publishing the same at the said 
church immediately afler divine service on the Sunday preceding the day ap- 
pointed for such elections, hereby giving and granting that such person or 
persons as shall be so chosen from time to lime by the rector and inhabitante 
of the said borough town of Westchester in commupioa as aforesaid, or the 
majority of such of them as shall in such case meet in maooer hereby directed » 
shall have, hold, exercise and enjoy such the office or offices to which he or 


they Bhall be so elected and chosen from the time of such election nntil the 
Tuesday in Easter week thence nest ensuing, and until other or others be le- 
gally chosen in his or their place instead, as fully and amply as the person or 
persons in whose place he or they shall be chosen might or could have done 
by virtue of these presents, and wo do hereby will and direct that this method 
shall for ever hereaAer be osed for the filling up all vacancies that shall hap- 
pen in either the said offices between the annual elections above directed, and 
Our royal will and pleasure further is, and we do hereby for us, our heirs aod 
successors, give and grant that as well the churchwardens and vestry, or those 
present nominated and appointed as such as shall from time to time be here- 
after elected and chosen as is herein directed, shall have and they are hereby 
invested with full power and authority to ezpcute their several and respective 
offices in as full and ample manner as any churchwardens or vestrymen in 
that part of our kingdom of Great Britain called England, or in this our pro- 
Tince of New York, can or lawfully may execute their said respective offices* 
and further our royal will and pleasure is, and we do by these presents for us, 
our heirs and successors, give, grant, ordam and appoint that the rector and 
churchwardens of said church for the time being, or any two of them, shall 
and may from time to time as occasion shall require, summon and call together 
at such day and place as they shall think proper the said rector, churchwar- 
dens and vcbtrymen for the time being to meet in vestry, giving them at the 
least one day^s notice thereof and we hereby require them to meet accordingly 
and we do hereby give, grant and ordain that the said rector, one of the said 
churchwardens for the time being at least, together with the majority of the 
said vestrymen of the said church, for the time being, being met in vestry 
88 above directed, shall for ever hereaftier have, and they are hereby 
invested with full power and authority by a majority of their voices to 
do and esecute in the name of the rector and inhabitants of the burough 
town of Westchester in communion of the Church of England as by law 
established, all and singular powers aod authorities herein before given and 
granted to the said rector and inhabitants of the borough town of Westchester 
in communion of the church of England as by law established, any wise touch- 
ing or relating to such lands, messuages, and tenements, real and persona! 
estate whatsoever, as they the said rector and inhabitants of the borough town 
of Westchester, in communion as aforesaid, shall or may acquire for the use 
of the said church, and also in like manner to order, direct, manage, and trans- 
act the general interest, business, and affairs of our said corporation, and also 
shall have full power and authority in like manner tot make and ordain such rules, 
orders, and ordinances as they shall judge convenient for the good govern- 
ment and discipline of the members of the said church, provided such rules, 
orders and ordinances be not repugnant to the lawsof<lhat part of our kingdom 
of Great Britain called England, or of this our province of New York, but as 
near as may be agreeable thereto, and that the same be fairly entered in a 
book or books to be kept for that purpose, and also in like manner to appoini 


the form of the common seal herein before granted, and the same to alter, 
break, and remake at their discretion, and also in like manner to appoint 
such officer or officers as they shall stand in need t>f, always provided 
that the rector of the said chnrch for the time being shall have the sole 
power of nominating and appointing the clerk to assist him in performing 
divine service, as also the sexton, anything herein before contained to the 
contrary in any wise notwithstanding, which clerk and sexton shall hold and 
enjoy their respective offices during the will and pleasure of the rector of the 
said church for the time being, and in case of any avoidance of the said church 
either by the death of the rector thereof or otherwise, then our royal will and 
pleasure is that the powers and authority hereby vested in the rector, church- 
wardens, and vestrymen, in vestry met as above mentioned, shall, until the 
said church be legally supplied with another incumbent, vest in and be exe- 
cuted by the churchwardens of the said church for the time being, provided 
always they have the concurrence and consent of the major number of the 
whole vestrymen of the said church for the time being, in any thing they shall 
in such case do by virtue hereof, and further we do by these presents, for us, 
our heirs, and snccessors, give and grant unto the rector and inhabitants of 
the borough town of Westchester in communion of the church of England as 
by law established, and their successors forever, that this our present grant 
shall be deemed, adjudged and construed in all cases most favorably and for 
the best benefit and advantage of the rector and inhabitants of the borough 
town of Westchester in communion of the church of England as by law esta- 
blished, and that this our present grant being entered on record as is herein- 
after particularly expressed, shall be good and effectual in the law to all in- 
tents, constructions and purposes whatsoever, against us, our heirs, and 
successors, according to our true interests and meaning herein before declared 
notwithstanding the nof reciting or mis-reciting, not naming or mis-naming of 
any of the aforesaid franchises, privileges, immunities, officers, in either the 
premises or any of them, and although no writ of ad quod damnum or other 
writs, inquisitions in precept hath or have been up this account, had, made, 
or presented or issued, to have and to hold all and singular the privileges, 
liberties, advantages, and immunities hereby granted or meant, mentioned, or 
intended so to be, unto the said rector and inhabitants of the borough town of 
Westchester in communion of the church of England as by law established, 
and to their successors forever, in testimony whereof we have caused these 
our letters to be made patent, and the great seal of our said province to be 
hereunto affixed, and the same to be entered on record in our secretary's office, 
in our city of New York, in one of the books of patents there remaining. 
Witness our trusty and well beloved Robt. Monckton, our captain general and 
governor-in-chief of our province of New York and the territories depending 
thereon in America, vice admiral of the same and major-general of oar forces 
at our fort in our city of New York, by and with the advice and consent of 

Vol. II. 28 


oar governor for our said province. Second day of December, in the yeir 
A. D. 17C2, and of our reign the third.* 

Signed Clakub. 

[L. S.] 

Upon the 7ih of July, 1764, the church wardens of the parish, 
stated to the Propagation Society, " that they have purchased a 
glebe of near thirty acres with a house, which will cost them in 
the whole, near £700, and that whole families of Quakers have 
conformed to the church." On the 8th of July, Mr. Milner in- 
formed the same body, that he had at his own expense, laid out 
£200 on the parsonage, built a new barn and out houses, &c., 
&c., and' further added, that he had appointed Mr. Nathaniel 
Sea bury, a son of the late worthy missionary, at Hempstead, 

" In 1766, (says Mr. Hawkins) Mr. Seabury intimated to the so- 
ciety, his wish to accept the offer of the mission of Westchester, 
which was made to him by the churchwardens and vestry, and 
the society consenting to this proposal, he removed thither at the 
end of the year 1706.^ 

His average congregation at this pluce, was about 200 ; and he 
states, that one of the means which he adopted of communicating 
religious instruction to the people, was preaching at funerals in 
the more remote districts, whereby he had the opportunity of ad- 
diessing those who could not be brought together at any other 
time. In 1776 he was seized by a party of the disaffected in 
arms, aiid carried off to New Haven, all his papers being exami- 
ned for proof against him. After describing this outrage, he 
says, *^ God's providence will, I hope, protect His church and 
clergy in this county, the disorder and confusion of which are 
beyond description." He says, in a letter dated New York, De- 
cember 29th, 1776, " since my last letter, I have undergone 
more uneasiness than I can describe : more, I believe, than I 

« Alb. Rec. Book of Patents, No. xiu. 490. 
• b The Rev. Samuel Seabury was instituted rector of St. Peter's church, West- 
ehester, by Sir Henry Moore, Baronet, on the 3d of Dec. 1766. 


could well support again.'' He goes on to say, " I continued 
tolerably quiet at home for a few weeks, till after the king's 
troops evacuated Boston, when the rebel army passing from 
thence to New York, bodies of them, consisting of twenty or 
thirty men, would every day or two, sometimes two or three 
times a day, come through Westchester, though five miles out 
of their way, and never failed to slop at my house." 

^^Soon after this, the British fleet and army arrived at Staten 
Island. The rebels then became very alert in apprehending the 
friends of government. Many had retired to Westchester from 
New York. These were first sought after : some escaped, many 
were seized. My situation became daily more critical, as they 
began to take up the inhabitants of the county. At length two 
ships of war came into the Sound and took their station in sight 
of my house. 

Immediately the whole coast was guarded, that no one might 
go to them. Within a few days, the troops landed on Long 
Island, and the rebels we*e defeated ; a body of them then took 
post at the heights near King^s bridge, in my parish, and began 
to throw up works. Another body fixed themselves within two 
miles of my house. For some time before, I had kept a good 
deal out of sight, lodging abroad, and never being at home for 
more than an hour or two at a time, and having a number of 
people whom I could depend upon, engaged, who punctually in- 
formed me of every circumstance that was necessary for me to 
know." With some difficulty he effected his escape to Long 
Island. The troops then, having burned the pews, converted 
his church into a hospital. They also quartered cavalry in his 
house, and consumed all the produce of his farm. A school 
which he had opened at Westchester, was necessarily broken up, 
and thus he was deprived of every means of support."* 

The following notice of this individual occurs in Sabine's bio- 
graphical sketches of American Loyalists. "Samuel Seabury, 

• Hawkini Ilist Not of Col. Church. Ori^rinal lettera Lambeth coUectiou vol 
six. 169. 


D. D., the first bishop of the Episcopal chnrch in the United 
States. He was the son of the Re^. Uamuel Seabury, who was 
a Congregational minister at Groton, and subsequently the first 
Episcopal minister of New London. He was born at New Lon- 
don in 1728, and graduated at Yale College in 175L Soon after 
completing his collegiate education, he went to Scotland for the 
purpose of studying medicine, but changed his purpose and de- 
voted his attention to theology. In 1753 he took orders in Lon- 
don, and returning to his native country, was settled at New 
Brunswick, New Jersey. After the death of Mr. Colgan, Sir 
Charles Hardy, governor of New York, introduced him as cler- 
gyman of the Episcopal church at Jamaica, Long Island, where 
he remained from 1756 to 1766. Near the close of the latter 
year he removed to Westchester, and continued there until the 
commencement of hostilities. In April, 1775, a large number of 
loyalists assembled at White Plains, and adopted the following 
protest. Mr. Seabury's name is the third affixed to it ; that of 
the Rev. Luke Babcock, another Episcopalian minister, is the 
fourth. *^ We, the subscribers, freeholders and inhabitants of the 
county of Westchester, having assembled at the White Plains in 
consequence of certain advertisements, do now declare, that we 
meet here to declare our honest abhorrence of all unlawful con- 
gresses and committees, and that we are determined, at the 
hazard of our lives and properties, to support the king and con- 
stitution ; and that we acknowledge no representatives but the 
general assembly, to whose wisdom and integrity we submit the 
guardianship of our rights, liberties, and privileges." Mr. Sea* 
bury went into New York after the Revolution opened, and at 
one time was chaplain of the king's American regiment, com- 
manded 'by Colonel Fanning. At the peace he settled at New 
London. In 1784 he went to England to obtain consecration as 
a bishop, but objections arising there, he was consecrated in Scot- 
land on the 14th of November of that year by three non juring 
bishops. For the remainder of his life he presided over the 
diocese of Connecticut and Rhode Island. His duties were dis- 
charged in an exemplary manner. He died February 25ih, 
1796, aged sixty-eight years. Two volumes of his sermons 
were published before his decease, and one volume in 1798. A 


sermon founded on St Peter's exhortation to fear God and honor 
the king, delivered before the provincial or loyalist troops, was 
printed during the war by direction of Governor Try on."* The 
following is inscribed on his tombstone at New London. 

Here lies the body of 

Samuel Seaburt, D. D. 

Bishop of Connecticut and Rhode Island, 

who departed this transitory scene, February 25ih, 1796, 

in the sixty-eighth year of his age, and the eleventh of his 

Episcopal Consecration. 
Ingenious without pride, 
Learned without pedantry, 
Good without severity. 
He was duly qualified to discharge 
The duties of the Christian and the Bishop ; 
In the pulpit he enforced religion ; 
In his conduct he exemplified it. 
The poor he assisted with his charity ; 
The ignorant he blessed with his instruction. 
The friend of men, he ever designed their good ; 
The enemy of vice, he ever opposed it. 
Christian ! dost thou aspire to happiness ? 
Seabury has shown the way that leads to it. 

"Charles Seabury, the youngest son of ihe bishop, was born 
in Westchester, in May, 1770, and succeeded his father in the 
church at New London. In 1796, he preached a while at Ja- 
maica. His first wife was Anne, the daughter of Roswell Sal- 
tonstali of New London, by whom he had issue. His son, 
Samuel Seabury, D. D., is the present rector of the church of the 
Annunciation, in the city of New York, and editor of the 
Churchman, a religious newspaper."** 

During the American Revolution religious services appear to 
have been suspended in this church. 

On the 6th day of April, A. D. 1784, the legislature of the 
state of New York, passed a law entitled " An act to enable all 
religious denominations in this state to appoint trustees, who 

*■ Sabine*B Hist of American Loyalists. 

t> History of the Narragaosett Church, by Wilkios Updike, page 144. 



should be a bodjr corporate, for the purpose of taking care of the 
temporalities of their respective congregations, and for other pur- 
poses therein mentioned." Under the provisions of this act St. 
Peler's Church was incorporated on the 19th of April, 1788, 
Lewis Graham, Josiah Browne, Thomas Hunt, Israel Underhill, 
John Bartow, Philip I. Livingston and Samuel Bayard, trustees.^ 
Upon the reorganization of the church, the Rev. Theodosius 
Bartow was called lo the rectorship. For the successors of Mr. 
Bartow, see list of rectors. The present edifice was erected in 
1794, on the site of the old church, and consecrated upon the 9th 
of December, 1793, by the Right Rev. Samuel Provoost, bishop 
of the diocese. It is a neat wooden structure surmounted by a 
cupola. The latter contains the original bell presented to the 
church by the Morris family, inscribed 

"LEWIS MORRIS, 1677." 

The commtmion plate consists of a chalice and paten, the 
gift of dueene Anne, A. D. 1706. 

« Co. Rec. Religious Soc. lib. A. 19. A second incorporation occurs on the 2d of 
Angnst. 1795 ; Israel Underhill, Philip I. Livingston, churchwardens ; John Bar- 
tow, jun., Thomas Rartow, Oliver de Lancey, Warren de Lancey, Josiah Brown, 
Jonathan Fowler, Robert Heaton, and Nicholas Bayard, vestrymen. Lib. A. 58. 


The queen also presented a church bible, book of homilies, 
cloth for the pulpit, and communion table. . 

On the sonth side of the chancel is a plain stone tablet, bear- 
ing the following epitaph : 


to the memory of 

Tbb Reverend Isaac Wilkins, D. D., 

who, for thirty-one years, was the 

diligent and faithful minister of 

this parish, 

plaeed here, as he believed, by his Redeemer. 

He remained satisfied with the 

pittance allowed him, rejoicing that even in that 

he was no burden to his 

parishioners ; 

nor ever wished, nor ever went forth 

to seek a better living. 

Died 5th February, 1830, 

aged 89 years. 

A monument on the north side, records the death of Mrs. 
Wilkins : 


to the memory 


Mrs. Isabella Wilkins, 

the humble hanmaid 

and faithful worshipper 

God, her Saviour, 

She died the 31st October, A. D. 1810, 

in the 64th year of her age, 

and lies buried here. 

This monument in conjugal love, 
is raised 


inscribed, by her grateful, faithful and afieotionate 


And now Lord ! what is our hope t 
Truly our hope is ever in thee. 

In the vestry room are memorials of the Hoffman, Wilkins 
and Turnbiill families, &c. 

To' St. Peter's church is attached a small glebe and parson- 

The following liberal grants have been made by Trinity 
parish, New York, to this church, viz. : in 1795, the sum of $750, 
in 1796, $500, and in 1809, five lots of ground in Reade, Cham- 
ber and Warren streets. New York, the present value of which 
is $22,500.* The first delegates from this parish to the dioce- 
cesan convention, in 1785, were John Jay and Richard Morris, 


Inst, or call. Rectors. Vacated by 

A. D. 1702, Rev. John Bartow, Clericus, Death. 

A. D. 1723, Rev. Thomas Standard, Clericus, the same. 

12 Nov. 1761, Rev. John Milner, Clericus, the same. 

3 Dec. 1766, Rev. Samuel Seabury, Clericus, resignation. 

5 July, 1790, Rev. Theodosius Bartow, Presb. the same. 

August, 1794, Rev. John Ireland, Presb. the same. 

9 March, 1799, Rev. Isaac Wilkins, D. D., Presb., Death. 

27 April, 1830, Rev. William Powell, Presb. preset incumbent. 

Notitia Parochialis. 

A. D. 1718, Communicants, — Baptisms, 32. 
1761, ditto 30, ditto 114. 

1764, ditto 50, ditto 91. 

• Hiat of Trinity Church, N. Y., by WUliam Bcrrian, D. D. 












The baptisranl register of this parish, contains the following 
memoranda : 

"March 4th, 1702, tlien baptized by Mr. John Barlow, Rector 
of Westchester, John Haden, aged 41 years ; John Haden, son 
of said John Haden, aged 17 years ; Abagail Haden, aged 16 
years ; Samtiel Haden, aged 13 years ; Thomas Haden, aged 8 
years; Elizabeth Heden, aged 11 years; Joseph Haden, aged 
1 year and 7 months, &.c.* 

The church yard, which is probably coeval with the settle- 
ment of the village, contains numerous interments. 

" Where heaTea the Intrin maop » rooatdering heap," 

Each in hiB Dftrrow cell forever laid, 

The tade forefather* of the hamlet alee p.— Gray '« Eltgy. 

The following inscriptions are copied from the monumenla 

Here lyeth the body of William , Esq., aged 50 years, 

deceased March 27lh, 1702. H. 1718. P. B.o 1727. In mem- 

' Weatehnter. Reo. 


ory of Philip Honeywell, Esq., he diM of a lingering illness, at 
Greeubiirgh, on the 8lh day of Sept. 1813, in the 53d year of 
his age. 

He was an active character 

during the Revolutionary war, 

he lived respected and died regretted. 

Ann Eustace,. bis wife, 

died May 11, 18II, ctat 50. 

Look on this stone and-yoa will find. 
My journey ^s o*er, and yours behind. 
Think then, before you turn away. 
That yours may end before this day. 

In memory of Oliver de Lancey, senr., who departed this 
life April 4th, 1840, aged 70 years. Sacred to the memory of 
Captain Stephen Bayard, who was born Oct. 26lh, 1785, and 
died July 11, 1814: "my Blessed Saviour receive my spirit, 
were his last words," and whosoever believeth in him, tho' he 
die, yet shall he live again. Ever will the sweet remembrance, 
of your useful, generous, forgiving and affectionate virtues, best 
of husbands and fathers, be cherished in the hearts of your wife 
and family. Sacra memoria of Philip Livingston, whose family 
were suddenly bereaved of a valued parent, on the 27th Nov. 
1808, aged 74 years. His afflictions were numerous and deep 
felt, yet was he comforted. 

His heart, its confidence 

Reposed in God, its strength and shield. 

The paths of death in glory shine, 

When saints the call obey, 

A light from Heaven, an arm divine, 

Are with them on the way. 

Here lies 

the mortal remains of 

Wright Post, 

during many years eminent as a 

physician and surgeon 

in the city of New York, 


he was distiogiibhed for sound judgment, 
practioa] ikill and unwearied diligence ia 
his profession, and for modest, dignified and 

mild deportment in all the walks of life, 

an enlightened and attached member of the 

Protestant Episcopal church, 

he was for many years a yestryman 

of Grace church 

in the city of New York, 

and for seyeral years its senior warden, 

overplied by professional labours, 

his feeble frame gradually gave way 

to the attacks of pulmonary consumption. 

He retired from the city to his country seat 

in this neigeborhood, and aAer a residence 

of a few weeks, he departed this life 

in full possession of his mental faculties, 

at peace with the worM, 

and a devout hope of acceptance 

with God, through faith in the merits of 

Jesus Christ. 

He died June 14, 182S, 

aged 62 years, 3 months 

and 26 days. 

There are also memorials in the yard, to members of the 
Hunt, Doty, Baxter, Bartow, Lewis, Arden, Findlay, Tucker, 
Read, Burnett, Holsman auJ Wright fimilies, <S6C., beside vaults 
belonging to the families of Tiuipson, Adee and Ludlow, &c. 
Near the Episcopal grave yard, is situated the Ferris burying 
ground,^ which contains the family vaults of Benjamin Ferris 
and numerous head stones to the Pell family. 

The Friends' meeting house which stands south of the church, 
was erected cir. 1747. The first meeting of this nuiiierous and 

• John Ferris of the boroug thown of WestcheBter, in 1715, by his last will, ■■ re- 
serves the hnrying groand for the people to bury their dead, in the place where they 
formerly buried without any let or hindrance. Since known as the pasture hiU 
burying ground." 


respectable society in America, is4pd to have been held at 
Westchester. There is also a tradition, that George Fox " the 
dauntless founder of their sect," preached here in 1672. 

The Methodist Episcopal society of Westchester, was first or- 
ganized in 1808, and incorporated 8th March, 1809; William 
Johnston, Gilbert Lewis, Abraham .Seacord, Benjamin Morgan, 
Moses Hunt and Gilbert Hunt, trustees.^ The present church 
edifice was erected about 1818. 

The Roman Catholic church dedicated to St. Raymond, is 
pleasantly situated on the road leading from Westchester io 
West Farms. The Rev. A. Higgins is the present incumbent.^ 

A number of handsome residences adorn the village. Among 
them may be noticed, the mansions of Captain E. Hawkins, 
Mr. George Adee, Mr. Paul Lalavette, Mr. Stephen Scribner 
and Captain Cornell Ferris, &c. 

About two miles northwest of the village, is the residence and 
estate of William A. Spencer, Esq, Within a few years, great 
additions and improvements have been made to this beautiful 
spot by the present occupant, who has enlarged the mansion 
and completely reformed the gardens and grounds. This pro- 
perty originally belonged to the Underbill family, having been 
purchased by Nathaniel Underbill, of John Turner, in 1685* 
Nathaniel Underbill was the youngest son of the celebrated Cap- 
tain John Underbill, commonly called Lord Underbill, descended 
of an ancient and honorable family, in Warwickshire, England. 

As early ns 1416, we find John Underbill and Agnes his wife, 
seated at Uoingham in Warwickshire, and in 1587, occurs 
the name of Sir Hercules Underbill, Knight, High Sheriff of 
that county.b 

The following account of Captain John Underbill, "of whom 
so frequent mention is made in the early histories of New En- 
gland and New York," is taken from a small printed volume, 
called the " Algerine Captive," by Jphfi Underbill. He had 

• Co. Rec. ReligriouB Soc. Lib. B. 30. 

b The celebrated Mr. Eklveard Underbill, one of Queen Mary*8 baud of gentle- 
meu peniiouera, in 155>^, was a member of Uiis family. 


To tU9 



iMrfitersMiirjr DavU 
; liv. Feirig 







of WeHche^^AiiBa, da. AbrahMn. of Whlte--IlMnah BmlM. Bm nir Minr 


early imbibed an firdent love of liberty, civil and religious, by 
his service as a soldier among the Dutch, in their glorious and 
successful struggle for freedom, with Philip the second of Spain ; 
when, though quite a youth, he held a commission in the Earl of 
Leicester's own troop of guards, who was then sent to the assist- 
ance of that brave people, by the renowned Queen Elizabeth of 
England. The extravagant passion, which that princess was 
supposed to entertain for various male favorites, which occa- 
sioned the disgrace of one, and the premature death of another, 
while it has furnished a darling theme to the novelist, and has 
been wept over in the tragic scene, has never yet received the 
sober sanction of the historian. A traditional family anecdote, 
while it places the affection of the queen for Leicester beyond 
doubt, may not be unpleasing to the learned reader, and may 
benefit the English historiographer. 

It is well known that this crafty queen, though repeatedly so- 
licited, never eflicaciously assisted the Netherlanders, until their 
affairs were apparently at their lowest ebb, and they in such des- 
perate circumstances, as to offer the sovereignty of their country 
to her general, the Earl of Leicester. Captain Underbill car- 
ried the dispatches to England, and delivered them at the 
office of Lord Burleigh. The same evening, the queen sent for 
the captain, and. with apparent perturbation, inquired of him, if 
he was the messenger from Leicester, and whether he had any 
private dispatches for her. He replied, that he had delivered all 
his letters to the secretary of state. She appeared much disa|i- 
pointed, and, after musing for some time, said, "so Leicester 
wants to be a king." Underbill, who was in the general's confi- 
dence, replied that the Dutch had indeed made the offer of the sove- 
reignty of their country to her general, esteeming it a great honor, 
as they said, to h ive a subject of her grace for their sovereign. 
No, replied the queen, it is not the Dutch ; they hate kings and 
their divine rights; it is the proud Leicester, who yearns to be" 
independent of his own sovereign, who moves this insolent 
proposal. Tell him from me, that ho must learn to obey, be- 
fore he is fit to govern. Tell him, added the queen, softening 
her voice, that obRlience may make hi.n a king indeed. Imme- 
diately after Captain Underbill had taken his public dispatches, 


the qtieen sent for him to her privy closet, recalled her verbal 
message, delivered him a letter for Leicester, directed with her 
own hand, and a purse of one hundred crowns for himself; 
charging him to enclose the letter in lead, sink it in case of dan- 
ger in his passage by sea, and to deliver it privately. On the re* 
ceipt of this letter, Leicester was violently agitated, walked his 
chamber the whole of the ensuing night. Soon after, he resigned 
his command, and returned to England, animated by the bright- 
est hopes of realizing the lofty sugs;estions of his ambition. 
With him Captain Underbill returned, and upon the decease of 
the Elarl of Leicester, attached himself to the fortunes of the 
Earl of Essex, the unfortunate successor to Leicester in the 
queen's favor. He accompanied that gallant nobleman in his 
successful attack upon Cadiz, and shared his ill fortune in his 
fruitless expedition against Tyronne, the rebel chief of the re- 
volted clans of Ireland; and, returning with the earl into En- 
gland, by his attachment to that imprudent nobleman, sallying 
into the. streets of London in the petty insurrection, which cost 
Essex his head, he was obliged to seek safety in Holland, until 
the accession of King James, in one thousand six hundred and 
three, when he applied for pardon and leave to return to his na- 
tive country. But that monarch entertained such an exalted 
idea of the dignity of kings, and fro n policy, affected so great 
veneration for the memory of his predecessor, that no interest of 
his friends could procure his pardon for an offence, which, in 
this day and country, would be considered a simple rout or riot, 
and punished with a small fine, in that age of kingly glory was 
supposed to combine treason and blasphemy: treason against the 
queen in her political capacity, and blasphemy against her, as 
God's representative and vicegerent on earth. 

The Rev. Mr. Robinson, with a number of other pious puri- 
tans, having fled from the persecuting fury of the English pre- 
lates, to Holland, in one thousand six hundred and tliree, he 
dwelt and communed with them a number of years. He was 
strongly solicited to go with Governor Carver, Elder Brewster 
and the other worthies, part of Mr. Robinson's church, to the 
settlement of Plymouth, and had partly en^;ed with them, as 


their chief military officer; but, Captain Miles Standish, his 
brave fellow soldier in the Low Countries, undertaking ihe bu- 
siness, he declined. How he joined Governor Winihrop, does 
not appear, but he came over to New England with him, and 
soon after we find him disciplining the Boston militia, where he 
was held in such high estimation that he was chosen to repre- 
sent that town in the general court; but, his ideas of religious 
toleration being more liberal than those around him, he lost his 
popularity, and was, on the twentieth of November, one thousand 
six hundred and thirty-seven, disfranchised and eventually ban- 
ished the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. 

The writers of those times differ, as to the particular offence 
for which he was punished. Some say that it was for holding 
the Antinomian tenets of the celebrated Anne Hutchinson, others 
that the charge against him was for saying, that the government 
at Boston were as zealous as the Scribes and Pharisees, and 
as Paul before his conversion. Tlie best account, I have been 
able to collect, is, that at the time when the zeal of our worthy 
forefathers burned the hottest against heretics and sectaries, when 
good Roger Williams, who settled Providence, the pious Wheel- 
right, and others, were banished, he, with about sixty other im- 
prudent persons, who did not believe in the then popular argu- 
ments of fines, imprisonment, disfranchisement, confiscation, ban- 
ishments, and halters for the conversion of infidels, supposed 
that the Christian faith, which had spread so wonderfully in its 
infancy, when ihe sword of civil power was drawn against it, in 
that age, surrounded by numerous proselytes, needed not the 
same sword unsheathed in its favor. These mistaken people 
signed a remonstrance against the violent proceedings, which 
"were the order of that day. William Aspinwall and John 
Goggeshell, two of the Boston representatives, who signed 
the remonstrance, were sent home, and the town ordered to 
choose others in their room. Some of the remonstrants recanted, 
some were fined, some were disfranchised, and others, among 
whom was Captain Underbill, were banished." " When the sen- 
tence of banishment passed on Captain Underbill, he returned to 
Dover in New Hampshire, and was elected governor of the 
European settlers there; but, notwithstanding his great service 


to the people of Massachusetts, in the Pequod wars, his persecu- 
tors in Boston would not allow him to die in peace. First, by 
writing injurious letters to those he governed ; by threats of their 
power; and lastly, by determining that Dover was within the 
jurisdiction of Massachusetts, they forced him to flee to Albany, 
then possessed by the Dutch, under the name of Amboyna. 

The Dutch were highly pleased with the captain, and after 
Dutchifying his name into Captain Hans van Yanderbill, they 
gave him a command of one hundred and twenty men, in their 
wars with the natives. It is said that he killed one hundred 
and fifty Indians on Lon^ Island, and upwards of three hundred 
on the main. The laurels of the famous Colonel Church wither 
in comparison."* "At the period of his military employment 
(says Mr. Thompson,) he lived at Stamford, Connecticut, was a 
delegate from that town to the general court at New Haven in 
1613, and was appointed an assistant justice. In 1644 he came 
with the Rev. Mr. Denton and others of his church, to Long 
Island, and soon after became a resident of Flushing, where he 
evinced the same restless temper as formerly, and was anxious 
for a military employment." " He was afterward settled in Ojrster 
Bay, for in 1665 he was a delegate from that town to the meet- 
ing at Hampstead, by order of Governor Nicoll, and was by him 
made high sheriff of the North Riding on Long Island." "In 
1667, the Matinecock Indians conveyed to him a large tract of 
their lands, a part of which, called Killingworth,** remained in his 
family for nearly two hundred years."^ Captain John Underbill, 
at an advanced age, died in Killingworth, leaving several sons ; 
the youngest of whom, Nathaniel, (before mentioned,) removed 
to Westchester, in 1685. By his last will, bearing date the 18lh 
of September, 1671, Copt. John Underbill bequeathes "his whole 
estate in possession of his wife Elizabeth Underbill, during ye 
time of her widowhood ; but if she marry, then my brother John 
Bowne, Henry Townsend, Matthew Pryer, and my son John 

• The " Algerine Captive," by Dr Updike Underbill, vol. i. 25, printed at Wal- 
pole. New Hampebire, 1797. 

k Originally Kenilworth, from the place of the lame name in Warwickshire, Eng. 
« Thompson's Hist, of Long Island, vol. ii 358. 


Underbill, I empower hereby tbat they see to ye estate, that ye 
children be not wronged, nor turned off, without some propor- 
tionable allowance, as ye estate will afford ; and that my son 
Nathaniel^ remain with his mother untill twenty-one years, 

Upon the 22d of March, 1686-7, Nathaniel Underbill and 
Mary his wife, of the town and county of Westchester, conveyed 
all their land of every kind at Matinecock, Oyster Bay, " which 
is the land that my father, John Underbill, sen., lived upon, with 
forty acres in the woods, which I bought of the Indians," to John 
Underbill of Matinecock.^ 

The sons of Nathaniel were Thomas, John, Nathaniel Under- 
bill, jun., from whom were descended the late Anthony L. Un- 
derbill of New York, and Lancaster Underbill of Easichester, 
and Abraham, from whom come the Underbills of Yorktowa 
and Cortlandtown, &c. 

Nathaniel Underbill, jr., died at Westchester in 1775. The 
following epitaph is inscribed on bis bead stone in the family 

Here lies the body of 

Nathaniel Underbil, 

who was born August the 

11th, 1690, and departed 

this life November 

the 27tb, 1776, aged 85 

years 3 months and 16 days. 

Nathaniel, the eldest son of this individual, filled various pub« 
lie offices, and in 1775 was elected mayor of the borough of 

Upon Dorman^s Island,^ in the north-east corner of the town, 
is situated the estate of Mr. Thomas C. Taylor ; the dwelling- 
bouse, a fine stone structure, occupies a pleasant position, over- 

« Thompeon*! Hivt. of Long Island, toI ii. 361 . 
b QueAn's Co. Rec lib. B. 9]. 
• So called prior to 1704. 

Vol. II. 30 


looking the Eastchester bay and opposit^Mi^es. The grounds 
are tastefully arranged and ornamciripi wWrthriving plantations. 
The Eastchester creek bridge communicates with Ihe Westches- 
ter shore and Pelham neck.* 

The adjoining estate, Rorkfield, is the property of Augustus 
F. van Cortlandt, Esq. ; the house is a very good specimen of the 
rural Gothic style, and agrees well with its picturesque situation. 
A choice colleciion of paintings adorns the walls, viz., St. AgathSi 
Carlo Doici; JMarianne Wellesiey, Marchioness of Wellesley, 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. This ludy was the daughter of Richard 
Caton, Esq., of Philadelphia, and widow of Robert Patterson, 
Esq. I'itian's Mistress, Heely ; Augustus van Cortlandt of 
Yonkers, Jarvis ; Mrs. van Cortlandt, (a miniature) Leslie. The 
views of the water from this place are of a beautiful description. 
Jn the immediate vicinity are located the residences of Mr. Daniel 
D. Edgar and Mr. Robert R. Morris. This portion of Throck- 
morton's neck, together with Dorman's island, formerly constituted 
the old Bayard estate, as noticed in the early part of this town. 

Further south lies the Ferris property, which has been held 
by the family of that name for five generations. At an early 
period John Ferris,^ removed hither from Fairfield,*^ Connecticut, 
and became one of the ten proprietors of Throckmorton's neck. 
These lands he probably obtained by purchase from Thomas 
Pell. John Ferris was one of the first patentees of the town of 
Westchester in 1G67 ; he lived to an advanced age, and died in 
1715, leaving five sons, viz., Samuel, one of the first assistants 
and common council of the borough of Westchester, John, James, 
proprietor of the homestead in 1746, Jonathan, ancestor of the 
Corllandt-town brunch, and Peter, of Westchester. His grand- 

• See vol. i. 550. 

k The Ferrises were originally from I^icestersbire, England, and dascend rrom 
the houite of Feriers, Ferrerr, Ferreis or Ferris, the first member of which (in Eng- 
land) was Henry de Teriers, the sen of Gualchelme de Feriers, a Norman, wbo 
obtained of William the Conqueror large grants of laud in the counties of Stafford* 
shire, Derbyshire, and Leicestershire. 

« In 16G0 occurs the name of Jefi*erey Ferryes of Fairfield, Conn. Farmer's 
Register contains the names of Benjamin Fernis, of Salem, 1G40, and Jeffrey of 
Massachusetts, who was admitted a freeman, A. D. 1635. 



son, James Ferris, possessed this estate in 1776, when it was oc- 
cupied by the British* troops, under Lord Howe. The family 
happened to be at breakfast, in the present house, on the morn- 
ing of the I2ih of October, 1776, when a gun from the British 
flag ship announced the disembarkation of the troops ; this signal 
was instantly answered by the enemies' shipping which lay at an- 
chor between City Island and Throckmorton's neck. On the next 
day Lord Howe, supposing that he had been deceived by his 
guides and landed upon an island, summoned them before a 
board of officers ; as they entered, he struck the table violently 
with his sword, and demanded in a tlireatning manner, how they 
could dare to deceive him ? After a proper explanation had been 
made, he solemnly declared he would hang every one of them 
unless conducted safe from his present position. The retreat 
was ultimately effected by a bridge of boats. 

James Ferris was subsequently captured by the '• Queen's 
HangerSf^^ and removed to the New York Provost. His descen- 
dants are very numerous in the town. Mr. Edward Cooper is 
the present occupant of the homestead. 

Throckmorton's point, situated at the south-east extremity of 
the nock proper, derives its name a« already stated, from John 
Throckmorton, an Enp^lishman, who took a grant for it under 
the Dutch, A. D. 1643. The name (says Judge Benson,) has 
been abbreviated from Tlirogmorton's to Throg's and finally cor- 
rupted to Frog's neck. 

From the Throckmortons and others the point passed by pur- 
chase to the late Abijah Hammond, Esq., whose heirs sold to 
Mr. H. Le Roy Newbold, Mr. W. Whitehead, Mr. James Drake, 
and the late Mr. Charles King, <fec. The mansion erected by 
Abijah Hammond occupies a splendid situation near the entrance 
of the point, commanding on the right and left extensive prospects 
of the East River. Mr. Hammond was the son of Abijah Ham- 
mond, and grandson of John Hammond, who emigrated to Mas- 
sachusetts in 1680> His first wife was Catharine, a daughter 

» The Hammond family, claim descent from the house of Penn through the mar- 
riage of William Hammond with Elizabeth Penn, daughter .of Sir WjJliam apd 
sister of William Penn, the foander of Penosyl?ani^ 


of Abraham Ogden ; several children survive. His son, Ogden, 
for many years resided on the point. His daughter Mary is the 
wife of William H. Harrison, Esq., of New York. 

Upon the extremity of the point is now " in course of erection 
by the United States government, a very strong fortificationi 
called Fort Schuyler. It is calculated, when completed, to de- 
fend this entrance and protect the city of New York from foreign 
invasions, in connection with the formidable works of a similar 
character erected at the Narrows.''* 

Throckmorton's point is distinguished as being the scene of 
important military o})erations, and was for a short time in the 
possession of the enemy during the revolutionary war. The fol- 
lowing account is from General Heath's memoirs. 

" October 3d, 1776. The brigadier generals of our general's 
division,^ were in council, and several new works were laid out ; 
among others, a redoubt on the hill above William's bridge. 
Our general, in reconnoitering his position, accompanied by Col. 
Hand, below the camp of the rifle corps, being apprehensive that 
the British might land on Frog's neck, took a view of the cause- 
way between Westchester and the point. Upon the neck, which 
runs between these two, is a tide mill, and a plank bridge at the 
mill} at the west end of the causeway, (the side of the American 
army,) was at this time a range of cord wood, as advantageously 
situated to cover a party to defend the pass as if constructed for 
the very purpose. After taking a full view, our general directed 
Col. Hand, immediately on his return to his camp, to fix upon 
one of the best subaltern officers, and twenty-flve picked men of 
his corps, and assign them to this pass, as their alarm-post at all 
times ; and in case the enemy made a landing on Frog's neck, 
to direct this officer immediately to take up the planks of the 
bridge ; to have everything in readiness to set the mill on fire; 
but not to do it, unless the fire of the riflemen should appear in- 
sufficient to check the advance of the enemy on the causeway; 
to assign another party to the head of the creek ; to reinforce 
both, in case the enemy landed ; and that he should be sup- 
ported. Col. Hand made his arrangements accordingly. 

• Distunieirt Gazetteer of N. Y. b General Heath. 


^October 7th. Gen. Lincoln came to camp. He had come 
from Massachusetts with a body of militia. This was the first 
of his joining the main army. The same day the British were 
putting over horses from Horn's Hook to Long Island, and fixing 
their pontoons. 

"October 9th. Our general's division was formed in line, with 
its advance, reserve flank-guards, and artillery, all in order of 
battle, when they were moved down over the diflerent grounds, 
whfch it was supposed might be the scene of action. Some of 
this ground was very broken, and there were many fences. 
These afforded frequent opportunities for the troops to break off 
and form, for the pioneers to open avenues, &c., and for the 
whole to become acquainted with every part of the ground, and 
the best choice of it, if suddenly called to action. 

" October 12th. Early in the morning eighty or ninety British 
boats, full of men, stood up the Sound, from Montresor's Island, 
Long Island, &c. The troops landed at Frog's neck, and their 
advance pushed towards the causeway and bridge at Westches- 
ter mill. Col. Hand's riflemen took up the planks of the bridgOi 
as had been directed, and commenced a firing with their rifles. 
The British moved towards the head of the creek, but found 
here also the Americans in possession of the pass. Our general 
immediately (as he had assured Col. Hand he would do,) ordered 
Col. Prescott, the hero of Bunker Hill, with his regiment, and 
Capt. Lieut. Bryant, of the artillery, with a three pounder, to 
reinforce the riflemen at Westchester causeway, and Col. Gra- 
ham of the New York line, with his regiment, and Lieut. Jack- 
son of the artillery, with a six pounder, to teinforce at the head 
of the creek; aH of which was promptly done, to the check aud 
disappointment of the enemy. The British encamped on the 
neck. The riflemen and yagers kept up a scattering popping at 
each other across the marsh ; and the Americans on their side, 
and the British on the other, threw up a work at the end of the 
causeway. Capt. Bryant, now and then, when there was an ob* 
ject, saluted the British with a field piece. 

"In the afternoon forty or fifty sail of vessels passed up, and 
came to anchor off Frog's Point. The same evening Gen. Mc- 
Dougal's brigade joined our general's division. 


** Oclober 13th, The brigade formerly under the command of 
our general, when he was brigadief, joined his division. The 
division now became very strong. Tho general officers of the 
army were this day in council at our general's quarters. 

" October 14ih. Our general, with the generals under his com- 
mand, reconnoitred the enemy at Frog's neck; afterwards the 
general officers of the army reconnoitred the various grounds. 
The same day Maj. Gen. Lee was ordered to the command of 
the troops above Kingsbridge, now become the largest part of 
the American army. But Gen. Washington had desired him not 
to exercise the command for a day or two, until he Could make 
himself acquainted with the post, its circumstances, and arrange- 
ments of duty. A great number of sloops, boats, d&c, were pass- 
ing the sound eastward, just at dusk, probably conveying ammu- 
nition, provisions, &c., to the troops at Frog's Point. 

" October 15ih. Five sailors came off from the La Brune, they 
informed that there was a large body of the British on Frog's 
Point, and that an attack might be soon expected. The scatter- 
ing fire across the marsh continued, and now and then a man 
was killed. 

"October 16th. Two works were discovered on Frog's neck, 
nearly finished. The general officers of the army rode to recon- 
noitre the ground at Pell's neck, (fcc, and it was determined that 
the position of the American army should be immediately 
changed; the left flank to be extended more northerly, to pre- 
vent its being turned by the British. 

"October 17lh. Wadsworth's and Fellow's brigades came to 
Kingsbridge. The British shipping, d&c, continued moving 

" October 18th. The regiment at Westchester causeway had 
been relieved by another. The officer on command there, this 
morning, sent up an express to our general, informing him that 
the British were opening an embrasure in their work at the end 
of the causeway, and that he apprehended they intended under a 
cannonade from this, to attempt to pass. Our general ordered 
one of his aids to gallop his horse to the officer commanding the 
brigade near Valentine's, the nearest to Westchester, and order 
him to form his brigade instantly. Arriving himself by the time 


the brigade was formed, he ordered the officer to march with the 
utmost expedition, to the head of ihe causeway, to reinforce 
the troops there-^ himself moving on with them. When the 
troops had advanced to about half the way between the head of 
the creek and the post at the head of the causeway, another ex- 
press met him, hiforming him that the whole British army were 
in motion, and seemed to be moving towards the pass at the head 
of the creek. Upon this, the brigade was ordered to halt, the 
whole to prime and load, and the rear regiment to file off by the 
left, and march briskly to reinforce the Americans at the pass, at 
the head of the creek. At this instant Gen. Washington came 
up, and having inquired of our general the state of things, ordered 
him to return immediately and have his division formed ready 
f^r action, and to take such a position as might appear best cal- 
culated to oppose the enemy, should they attempt to land another 
body of troops on Morrisania, which he thought not improbable. 
Our general immediately obeyed the order. 

<< The wind was now fresh at south-west. The British crossed 
to the other side of Frog's neck, embarked on board their boats 
crossed over the cove, and landed on Pell's neck."* 

Throckmorton's point is likewise remarkable as the place 
where the tides meet in the Sound. Directly opposite are 
the famous stepping stones, a number of rocks which pro- 
ject in a line from the Long Island shore, and show their bare 
tops at low water. "An Indian origin (says Judge Benson) is 
asserted for this name, and a tradition vouched as the authority.'^ 
'^ It is said, that at a certain time, doubtless some years ago, the 
evil spirit set up a claim against the Indians, to Connecticut, as 
his peculiar domain ; but they being in possession, determined^ 
of course, to try to hold it. By Connecticut, the premises in 
question, is to be understood, the original Connecticut proper, 
the territory between the oblong, our eastern boundary in that 
quarter, and the Sound." The surfaces of Connecticut and Long 
Island, were then the reverse of what they are now. Long 
Island was covered with rocks, Connecticut was free from them. 

* Homth'i Mom. 67. 


The Indians were fuiljr sensible of what they bad to dread from 
such an adversary, and accordingly betook themselves to a 
course not unus<tl on occasions of great difficulty and danger, 
they referred the case to the squaws, the mothers of the tribes, 
who, it is said, recommended an offer to quit, on being allowed 
their betterments, a Novanglican law teraSt devised to signify 
the dwelling and other erections, and comprehending girdling 
the trees to disencumber the land of the wood, by a person en- 
tering without title, on land never before cultivated, known as 
new or wild land, d^c." '* No answer as was to be expected, 
was given to this offer, and the parties claiming to be entitled to 
the right of sovereign states, and there being no federal court 
to interpose between them, had recourse to the "alternate mean 
of discussion between princes, to arms." The parties foresee- 
ing there would be war, were, as behooved them, prepared 
for it. 

The renowned arch-leader, an host in himself, took the field 
alone ; and being an overmatch for the Indians in skill and 
spirit, he at first advanced on them ; but, they having provided 
there should be constantly reinforcements on their march, 
thereby preserving' their corps entire, and harassing him inces- 
santly, giving him no rest night nor day, he was obliged finally 
to yield to vigilance and perseverance, and fall back. He re- 
tired collected, and, as usual, giving up the ground only inch by 
inch ; and, though retiring, still presenting a front whenever at- 
tack threatened ; he kept close to the Sound to secure his flank 
on that side ; and, having reached Frog^s point, and the water 
becoming narrow, to be crossed by the Indians in bark canoes, 
easily to be made in a night, and the tide being out, and the 
rocks showing their heads, he availed himself of them, and step- 
ping from one to another, effected fiis retreat to Long island. 
He at first betook himself sullen and silent to Coram, in the mid- 
dle of the island ; but it being in his nature not to remain idle 
long, and " rage superadded, soon roused him and ministered to 
him the means of revenge. He collected all the rocks in the 
island in heaps at Cold Sprincf, and throwing them in different 
directions, to different distances across the Sound in Connecti- 
cut, covered the surface of it with them as we now see it ; and 


It has been repeated from the whites, the first settlers of the 
lands at Cold Spring, that the Indians to the last who re- 
mained, not only undertook to show the spot where he stood, 
but insisted they could still discern the print of his feet." 
'' The fact of tradition (adds Judge Benson) among the Indians of 
Long Island, of a wnx between those of Connecticut and the 
evil spirit about the territory, and of his being worsted and re- 
treating to the island, &c., I had from the late Air. L'Hommedieu 
a native of the island."<^ A projecting point of land on the neck 
still bears the name of Satan^s toe. 

Upon the north-east side of Throckmorton's point lies Locust 
Island, the property of James Drake. On the south, the shores 
of the East river are ornamented with numerous handsome re- 
sidences, as the seats of Mr. W. H. Carter called Bella Vista, 
Mrs. Wright Post, Mr. Barker and Mr. Thomas Ash. The 
property of the latter gentleman, formerly belonged tp Philip J. 
Livingston, Esq., who expended large sums in procuring every 
novelty in the vegetable world to adorn this beautiful spot. The 
gardens at one time covered several hundred acres. "The 
finest cedar of Lebanon in the Union, (says Mr. Downing) is 
growing in the grounds of Mr. Ash, being 50 feet high, and 
of corresponding breadth.''*> There is also a superb specimen of 
the copper coloured beech. The road from the point to 
Westchester village, passes many beautiful country villas. Spi- 
cer^s and Brockett^s necks are situated at the south-west extremi- 
ty of Throckmorton's neck proper, and constitute what was 
formerly known as the Qrovefarm. This property we have 
seen, was patented by Governor Nicolls to Thomas Hunt, la 
1667, who bequeathed it in 1694 to his grandson, Josiah Hunt. 
At Josiah's death, A. D. 1729, it went to his son, Thomas Hunt. 
Upon the demise of the latter, in 1756, the Grove farm descen- 
ded to his eldest daughter, Mianna Hunt, who married John 
Ferris. Their son was the late Elijah Ferris, whose sons, John 
H., William and Charlton Ferris, are the present owners. The 
old grange erected in 1697, is prettily located at the entrance of 

» Memoirs of the SUte of N. Y., by Egbert Beusoa, 1817. 
b Downiog't Landscape Gardcoing. 

Vol. II. 31 


Spicer's neck, on the margin of the Westchester creek, shrouded 
by a group of venerable locusts. The nurseries of Mr. William 
Ferris, situated a little north of the house, are very extensive 
and contain eveiy variety of fruit and ornamental trees. We be- 
lieve this is the largest establishment of the kind in West- 
chester county. There was formerly a ferry between Ferry 
point, the termination of Brockeii's neck, now called Laing's Isl- 
and, and the opposite shore of Powell's point, L. I. The pas- 
sage was performed in a peri-auger. 

The Westchester creek which is here nearly three quarters of 
n mile across, abounds with every description of shell and salt 
water fish. Among the latter, may be enumerated, bass, week 
fish, black fish, drum, eels, flounders, spice, tomicods, perch, 
porgics, horse mackerel, herrings, bequeals, garnet, d&c. 

On the eastern side of the creek, lies Castle-hill neck,*' the 
property of Governeur M. Wilkins, Esq. This estate was for- 
merly held by the Cromwell family.** In 1685, John Cromwell 
and Elizabeth Cromwell his wife, exchanged six acres of meadow 
with Thomas Hunt, for eight acres of upland, situated upon 
Castle neck,^ From the Cromweli's,^ it went to a younger 
branch of the Underhiirs,^ who conveyed it to the Rev, Isaac 
Wilkins. After being sold by Mr. Wilkins, in 1784, it was 
successively the property of the families of Pell, Russell, 
Gilchrist, Taylor and Aspen, from whom it passed to Mar- 
tin Wilkins, Esq., by whose son it is now enjoyed. The 
family of Wilkins, was oritjiually seated in the county of 
Glamorgan, South Wales, and derives from " Robert de Winlona, 
or Wincestria, who came into that county with Robert Fitz- 
hamon, who was lord of the manor of Languian, near Coubridge 
and built a castle there, the ruins of which are still extant. The 

'^ A name derived from the ludian castle which formerly 8tood near the termi- 
nation of the neck. 

b From this family, it obtained the name of CromwelVa neck. 

« Co. Rec. Lib. A. 95. 

d See vol. i. 251. 

• Co. Rec. Lib. A. 214. 

f The name is supposed to be derived from the Whelk, an imaginary animal, 
which tradition asserts, inhabited the vale. The Whelk ia still borne on the coat 
armor of the family, with the significant Welch motto : Son ar dy Hyn : anglice, 
beware of thyselH 


valley underneath, is called Pant Wilkyn (Welkyn's vale) 
to this day.* Mennbers of the family, yet reside at Brecon, Gla- 
morganshire and Maeslongh, Radnorshire. The more immedi- 
ate ancestor of the American branch emigrated to Jamaica, West 
Indies, in 1720, and settled as a planter at St. Dorothy's in that 
colony. His grandson, was the Rev. Isaac Wilkins, D. D. 

Of the latter, the following account is given in " Sabine^s 
Sketches of American Loyalists?^ His father was " Martin 
Wilkins," a rich planter of Jamaica, and died when he was quite 
young. He was sent to New Vork to be educated, and enjoyed 
the best advantages which the country afforded. He prepared 
himself for the ministry, but did not take orders. Having set- 
tled in the countv of Westchester, he was returned as a mem- 
ber of the houss of assembly, in which boiy he became a leader 
on the ministerial side. His influence with his associates, and 
with his party, was very great. Near the close of the session of 
the assembly of Februury, 1775, Col. Woodhull, (a whig who 
met a sad and early death) moved that the thanks of the house 
should be presented to the delegates to the continental congress, 
who met at Philadelphia, in September previously. The motion 
was opposed and lost, Mr. Wilkins voting against it. When 
the question of appointing delegates to the second congress, came 
up, he made a speech, which was much admired by his friends 
for its eloquence, clearness and precision. Schuyler and George 
Clinton were his principal antagonists in the debate. As this 
speech affords a good specimen of the views of loyalists and of 
the state of the controversy at that period, I insert it entire, and 
nearly verbatim, as it was delivered ; as a matter of curious his- 
tory, and as the effort of an able man, the reader will be inte- 
rested in its perusal. 

Mr. Speaker, 
The subject now under consideration is the most importmnt, I believe, 
that has ever come before this house ; nothing less than the welfare, I had al- 
most said the existence, of this colony, and perhaps of all America, depends 
upon the result of our present deliberations. Deeply impressed with this 
idea, I rise with great anxiety of mind to deliver my sentiments on this oo- 

» Burke's Hist, of the landed gentry of England, vol. iii. 393. 


casion. Whether they are sach as this hoase will think proper to approTe* 
1 cannot tell ; but sore I am, they are such as are dictated by an honest heart, 
an heart biased by no selfish or sinister motives, and warped by no attach- 
ment to sect, persons or party. There is not, I am persuaded, an individual 
in this assembly, who does not wish well to America in general, and who is 
not solicitous for the preservation of this province in parV^colar. For my 
own part, I feel more real concern than I can well express, at the gloomy 
prospect of our aflfairs, and I would sacrifice more, much more, than meet 
men would be willing to believe, if I could by that means rescue my country 
from the ruin and destruction that is now ready to overwhelm her. The d«- 
cessity of a speedy reconciliation between us and our mother country, must be 
obvious to every «}ne who is not totally destitute of sense and feeling ; so that 
there can be no dispute now, I presume, but about the means of accomplish- 
ing it. Before I give my opinion, however, upon this matter, I must beg the 
indulgence of the House, while I exhibit a short view of the rise and progress 
of our present disturbances in America. 

" Ever since the first settlement of these colonies, Great Britain has claimed 
and exercised the right of jurisdiction over them, and her claim was founded 
in reason, and in the nature of civil government, for it is certain beyond 
all manner of doubt and controversy, that the supreme authority of every 
empire, must extend over the whole and every part of that empire, 
otherwise there must be imperium in imperio^ two absolute and dis- 
tinct powers in one and the same government, which is impossible ; 
and consequently the supreme authority of the British empire, which is 
irested in the king, lords, and commons, must extend over these colonies, 
which are a part of the British empire. This authority was never disputed 
by the colonies, till the time of the stamp act, and then no farther than as to 
the right of imposing internal taxes ; for the right of regulating trade, and of 
imposing duties upon articles of commerce, was universally acknowledged as 
essential to the supremacy of the British parliament. Their right of inter- 
nal taxation over the Colonies, was by the Americans opposed upon this prin- 
ciple, that it was contrary to one of the fundamentals of our free Constitution, 
which forbids the taking of the subjects' money without their consent, given 
either personally or by their representative. This power of disposing of their 
property, they imagined and asserted, was lodged in their Provincial Legisla- 
tures only. Be that as it will, this was certainly placing their liberty upon a 
proper bssis : here they ought to have rested ; here they ought to have bound- 
ed their demands ; this would have been a sufficient bsrrier sgainst arbitrary 
power. The Parliament, in consequence of this, although they did not relin- 
quish their claim or right to tax the Colonies, repealed that impolitic and op- 
pressive act ; and although they aAerwards imposed duties on paper, glass, 
paints, colors, &c., yet those also, in compliance with our demands, were 
taken off: so indulgent has our mother country been to the claims and 
humors of her children. This complying 'disposition, however, i i her so far 


from exciting oar gratitude, or satisfying oar uneasiness and discontent, has 
only emboldened us to make farther encroachments upon her authority. We 
foolishly attributed this gentle conduct towards us to fear, and to a conscious- 
ness of her inability to compel us to submission. And when a three penny duty 
on tea was demanded of us, we peremptorily refused to comply ; and instead 
of expostulating or of showing our disapprobation of that act, by remonstrating 
in a legal and constitutional way, as we ought to have done ; or instead of 
taking that easy and effectual method that offered itself to us, I mean the not 
purchasing that commodity, while encumbered with the duty, we flew into the 
most indecent rage, and hastily adopted every unwarrantable measure that 
could irritate and provoke the government ; we either destroyed or sent back, 
in a must contemptuous manner, all the tea that entered our harbors ; we 
insulted her ministers, and absolutely denied her authority. 

*' The colony of Massachusetts Bay was the foremost and the most violent 
in this opposition, and chastisement followed close upon tho transgression, 
which, though the mildest that could possibly have bee;i inflicted, considering 
the nature of the offence, has kindled such a flame through the whole conti- 
nent of America, as threatens universal devastation. The Colonies, instead 
of endeavoring to extinguish it, are increasing its violence ; instead of strifing 
to restore peace and good harmony, so essential to the welfare of both coun- 
tries, are using every possible means to widen the breach and make it irrepa- 
rable. Good God ! that we should be so void of common sense ! that we 
should be so blind to our own happiness ! What advantage, in the name of 
Heaven, can we propose to ourselves, in being at enmity with Great Britain 1 
Shall we by this means become more powerful, more wealthy, or more free ? 
Let us pause for a moment, and reflect a little upon the absurdity and folly of 
such expectations. On the contrary, shall we not derive every desirable ad- 
vantage from being in friendship and amity with her 1 Shall we not derive 
strength, proteetion and stability, from that oak around which we have so long 
twined ourselves, and under the shadow of whose branches we have so long 
flourished in security ? 

*' Permit me to carry on this allusion. We are a vigorous and fertile vine ; 
but without some prop, without some sufficient support, we shall only trail 
along the ground, and be liable to injury and destruction from the foot of every 
passenger. But if Great Britain gifes us her protection ; if she cultivates us 
with tenderness and care, we shall yield her a rich and plentiful vintage, as 
necessary to her welfare and prosperity, as her support is to our existence. 
In this mutual relation do we stand to each other. Let us therefore, like wise 
men, endeavor to establish a lasting and permanent union between us ; let us 
endeavor to remove every obstacle to this desirable end ; and let us reject 
with the utmost disdain and abhorrence every measure that can tend to in- 
crease the difference between us, and make this necessary union impracticable. 
Let us therefore, to the utmost of our power, endeavor to put a stop to the 
illegal and disorderly proceedings, and resolutions of committees, associations. 


sod eoojrrewes. Tbey have already drivea this Colonf to tie brink of a pve- 
cipice ; wumit of oar sister CokMiies (I speak with the deepest eoneern.) have 
already taken the desperate plonge, and ooless the cleaieocy of Great Britain 
shall work a miracle io their faror, I know not hov they vill escape perdiiioo. 
Let OS be warned by their example ; let their folly and precipitation teach no 
wisdom ; and, instead of linking oarseUes to the chain of their evil destiny, 
let us instantly break loose, and, by a well timed effort, rescue oomelveo froni 
destruction, and endeavor to make peace for ourselves, — not a shamefnl, not 
an igncHoinioos peace, — but such a one as shall be worthy of freemen ; such 
a one as will secure to us our liberties and properties, and render the onion 
between us and our mother country permanent and lasting ; in short, such as 
will be worthy Great Britain to offer, and Americans to receive. 

" And here let it not be said that it will be a base desertion of oor sister 
eolooies, to withdraw oor assistance from them when in so critical and dan- 
gerous a situation. But let it be remembered that Great Britain is oor 
mother — a kind and indulgent mother, who hath nourished, protected and 
established us in this land of Canaan, this land flowing with milk and honey-^ 
a mother, whose arms are open to receive all such of her children as will re- 
torn to their duty ; who is willing to hear their complaints, and to redress their 
grievances. And shall we take part against such a parent 1 Shall we, like 
detestable parricides, wound her bosom fur the sake of ungrateful brethren, 
who have wilfully shut their eyes both to their interest and their duty, and 
who are obstinately bent upon their own destruction T Surely we cannot. 
No, I am persuaded there is not an individual in this House who would not 
reject this proposal with the utmost abhorrence. We have too much under- 
standing not to know that the interest of these colonies and of Great Britain 
is the same ; that we are all one people — of the same laws, language and re- 
ligion, each of us equally bound to one another by the ties of reciprocal affec- 
tion ; and we have too much loyalty to the best of sovereigns — too great a 
regard to order and good government, to assert that insurreciiona and tumults 
in one Colony can or ought to justify them in another. Indeed, so far am I 
from thinking that this conduct in us would be deserving the common cause of 
the Colonies, that I am convinced it is the only expedient left, by which we 
can in any measure promote their real and true interest. By uniting with 
them, we shall in all probability sink with them, but by rending ourselves from 
the rash and ill-judged combination in which they have engaged, while we 
are doing good to ourselves, we may do good also to them. We may have it 
in our power, as I know we shall have it in our will, to stretch out a helping 
hand to raise them from the pit into which they are falling. And I will ven- 
ture to assert with baldness and confidence, that if this Loyal Province will do 
her duty, and act with wisdom and moderation in the critical juncture, she 
may yet save America. 

'* Great Britain is not the only quarter from whence danger is to be appre- 
hended. Her resentment, no doubt, is to be dreaded, aod it behoves us, if possi- 


ble, to avert it ; she may destroy oar cities ; she may ruin oar commerce ; she 
may reduce us to so deplorable a condition that we shall be willing to accept 
of peace and reconciliation upon any terms which 'she shall think proper to 
impose. This is what she may do, and what most probably she will do, un- 
less we alter the mode of our conduct towards her. But if she should think 
proper to decline the contest ; if in her wrath she should give us up to our 
own direction, and leave us to cut and shuffle for ourselves, and to settle oar 
boundaries, and to appoint our forms of government, deeper and more terrible 
scenes of distress will present themselves to our view. Fsin would I draw a 
veil over this melancholy prospect, and hide it from the eye of humanity ; but 
my duty to my family — to my constituents — to my country, forbids me to be 
silent. Factions and animosities will lay waste our country. Provinces will 
rise against Provinces, and no umpire to determine the contest but the sword. 
This once flourishing and happy land will smile no more ; it will become a 
field of blood, and a scene of terror and desolition. To such calamities shall 
we awake from our dreams of independence, and to such miseries will our 
unreasonable love of liberty lead us. Let us therefore, moderate a little the 
eagerness of our dispute, and not prostitute this noblest and best principle of 
the human heart, to the unworthy purposes of sedition and rebellion. 

*' The Americans love liberty, *His their grand, their darling object, and may 
they ever have virtue and spirit enough to assert and defend it, as well as wis- 
dom and prudence to enjoy it. But that love of liberty which beats so strongly in 
onr hearts, and which seems to animate and inspirit almost every individual, 
if not carefully watched and attended to, will, on some future day, (should 
we be so fortunate as to escape onr present danger,) prove a dreadful 
source of misfortune to us, if not our ruin. Liberty and licentiousness 
are nearly allied to each other ; like wit and madness, there is but a thin 
partition between them ; and, licentiousness invariably leads to slavery. Al- 
most every page of history will furnish abundant proofs of the truths of these 
observations ; and God grant that the annals of this country i ?.y not add to 
the number ; but I fear from the present licentious conduct v e are much 
nearer to a state of slavery and oppression than we seem to be aware of. So 
far already have we advanced towardsit, that all internal order and rubordiaatioa 
is nearly at an end amongst us. The authority of the civil magistrate is become 
useless, and almost contemptible ; even the authority of this House, nay, of the 
whole Legislative body of this Province, has been treated with the utmost con- 
tempt, and our power in a manner wrested from us, by a set of men who hav* 
arrogated to themselves the style of the People^s Representatives. If they are 
in reality such, to what purpose are we here assembled ! If they are autho- 
rized to make laws, to establish penalties, and to regulate the concerns of 
this Colony, why are we called together ? what is left for us to do 1 Notbiog 
sir, but to do our duty ; to undo, if possible, all that they have done ; to strip 
them of their borrowed plumes, and to resume that authority, which has been 
delegated to us forthe most important parposes ; for the preservation oi liberty^ 


order and good goTernment. We are the representatives of the inhabitantB 
of this Colony ; they have entrusted os with the guardianship of their rights 
and liberties, and they lo^ up to us for the preservation of them. Let os, there- 
fore, act as becomes us, with firmness and resolution. The eyes of all honest 
and good men are upon us : their hopes ^ their expectations of peace and safety^ 
under Heaven^ are centred here. Let us not disappoint their hopes, but let us 
lay aside every prejudice ; let us suppress every passion and sentiment that 
can interfere with our oountry*s welfare, and let us unite with one voice and 
one mouth, to save her from destruction. 

'* We have this day before us, the choice either of peace nr war ; of hapi»- 
ness or misery, of freedom or slavery ; and sorely we cannot hesitate a mo- 
ment which to choose. By proceeding in a firm, but in a peaceable, loyal 
and constitutional manner, in the settlement of this unhappy difference with 
our mother country, we eannot fail, I am convinced, of meeting with all de- 
sirable success. We shall by these means, nndoubtedly, secure to ourselves 
a free constitution ; we shall have a line of government stretched out and as- 
certained, and we shall be restored to the favor and protection of the parent 
state, which, next to the favor of Heaven, will be our best and strongest safe- 
guard and security. But if you listen to the dictates of violent and enthusi- 
astic men, if you adopt the ill-judged, tyrannical, and destructive measures of 
the Congress, where will your miseries end ? where, indeed, I cannot tell ; but 
from that moment you must date the commencement of them ; from that mo- 
ment be assured your ruin is inevitable. Now is the critical moment of our 
fate ; we have it in our power to do the most essential good, or the most es- 
sential mischief to oarselves and our posterity. If we neglect this opportunity 
of promoting our common felicity, and of establishing'our liberties upon a firm 
and lasting basis, we may, perhaps, never have another, and we shall repent 
of our fatal fully and infatuation, when too late to retrieve the mistake; 
when the horrors and miseries of a civil war shall be increased, if possible, 
ten fold upon our heads, by the curses and execration of our distracted and 
deluded constituents ; when all orders and degrees of men shall, in the bitter- 
ness of their hearts, point us out as the authors of their ruin ; when we shall 
be obliged to submit to the laws of conquest, or the penalties of rebellion. 

^* I have now sir, delivered my sentiments freely and candidly upon the sub- 
ject of our consideration. 1 have stiown that the rise of our present disputes 
with Great Britain has been un unreasonable jealousy on our part, originating 
from an impolitic exertion of authority, on hers. I have proved that it is 
both our duty and interest, to cultivate the closest and most intimate union 
with her. I have shown that the authority of the British Parliament, which 
is the supreme Legislature of the empire, extends over these colonies, which 
are parts of that empire. I have shown the extreme danger of undue opposi- 
tion to that authority, which, either by exerting itself against us, or giving us 
up to our own government, will equally involve us in misery and destruction. 
1 have shown, that by a peaceable and loyal conduct, we may procure for 


oarselves, and perhaps (or oar sister colonies, a more perfect system of gor- 
ernmeut than that which we had hi.herto enjoyed, whic)i was indeed better 
calculated for our infant state, than for the present period of our present ma- 
tarity, a period that requires, at the same time, more liberty and a stricter 
government I have, therefore^Mr. Speaker, nothing more to add, than that, 
if contrary to my hopes and my most ardent wishes; if, contrary to the 
honor and dignity of this house ; if, contrary to the dictates of humanity, and 
to the duty which we owe to our constituents and our country, you adopt the 
unjust and destructive measures of the conj^ress, and by that means, involve 
our country in a civil war, the most dreadful calamity that can befall a people, 
I hereby declare my honest indignation to that measure, and now call Heaven 
and the house to witness, that I am guiltless of the blood of my fellow sub- 
jects that will be shed ui>on the occasion. I am guiltless of the ruin of my 

" Mr. Wilkins's zeal and extreme loyalty, rendered him very- 
obnoxious to the whigs. Besides his prominent position in the 
Assembly, he gaye utterance to his thoughts, in essays. It is a 
singular circumstance, that the youthful Hamilton, who was 
also born in the West Indies, undeHook the task of replying to 
two of his poetical effusions. One of these. The Congress Can- 
vassed, &c., which was signed, A. W. Farmer, was extensively 
circulated, and with that called, A View of the Controversy be- 
tween Great Britain and her Colonies," was burnt, " whenever 
they fell into the hands of those whose measures they criticised 
and condemned." 

''A few months after the delivery of this speech, he abandoned 
the country and went to England. At the moment of his de- 
parture he issued the following address : 

Niw York, May 3, 1775. 


Before I leave America, the land I love, and in which is contained every- 
thing that is valuable and dear to me : my wife, my children, my friends and 
property, permit me to make a short and faithful declaration, which 1 am 
induced to do, neither through fear nor a consciousness of having acted 
wrong. An honest man and a christian hath nothing to apprehend from this 
world. God is my judge, and God is my witness, that all I have done, writ- 
ten or said, in relation to the present unnatural dispute between Great Britain 
and her colonies, proceeded from an honest intention of serving my country ; 
her welfare and prosperity were the objects toward which all my endeavors 
have been directed. They are still the sacred objects which I shall efer 
steadily and invariably keep in view ; and, when in England, all the influenoe 

Vol. II. 32 

260 U18T0RY OF THE 

that ao incontidarable a man as I am can have, shall be exerted in her be- 
half. It has been my constant maxim through life to do my doty conscien* 
tioosly, and to traat the issue of my actions to the Almighty. May that God 
in whose hands are all events, speedily restore peace and liberty to my un- 
happy country. May Great Britain and America be soon united in the bonds 
of everlasting unity, and when united, may they continue a free, a virtuous 
and happy nation to the end of time. I leave America, and every endearing 
eonneotion, because I will not raise my hand against my sovereign, nor will I 
draw my sword against my country, when I can conscientiously draw it ia 
her favor. My life shall be cheerfully devoted to her service. 

Isaac Wilkims. 

In 1776, he returned to Long Island, where he remained until 
the peace, when he returned to Shelburne, Nova Scotia. He 
remained in Nova Scotia several years, and lived a part of the 
time at Lnnenburgh. About the year 1800, he took up his 
residence in Westchester County, New York, and was settled 
over the Episcopal parish there. He continued in the ministry 
until his decease in 1830, at the age ol 89. Doctor Wilkins mar- 
ried Isabella, sister of Lewis Morris, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, and of Gouverneur Morris, another distin* 
guished whig. Their motlier espoused the royal side, and re- ' 
mained within the British lines. Their correspondence with her 
during hostilities occasioned suspicion, and caused them difficulty, 
notwithstanding their sacrifices and services. At the moment 
when Lewis voted in congress for independence, British ships of 
war were lying within cannon shot of his house; and soon after, 
his manor of Morrisania was desolated, his woodland of one thou- 
sand acres destroyed, and his family driven into exile. Three of 
the sons of Lewis served in the whig army. Staats, brother of 
Lewis and Gouverneur, was an officer in the royal service, be- 
came a member of parliament, and a lieutenant general. Thus 
was the Morris family divided. Doctor Wilkins has a son in 
Nova Scotia, who bears the name of his uncle Lewis Morris, and 
who has obtained distinction. He was elected a member of the 
house of Assembly, about the time of his father's return to the 
United States ; and when in 1806, William Cottam Longe, Esq., 
who was elected speaker, was disallowed by the governor, Lewis 
Morris Wilkins was chosen in his place, and approved of, and 
occupied the chair, by subsequent election, until 1817, when he 


was removed, to be placed on the bench of the supreme court of 
the colony. Judge Wilkins resides at Windsor."* 

The present residence of Mr. Gouverneur M. Wilkins is seated 
on the brow of a hill, near the extremity of the neck, and com- 
mands an almost uninterrupted view of the river with the ad- 
jacent shores. The interior contains some good paintings, par- 
ticularly a view on the Arno, by Cole, and a portrait of Martin 
Wilkins, Esq., by Rogers, &;c., also a beautiful white marble 
bust of Washington, by Garacchi, and an Apollo by Tantenovi. 
The old family mansion, which stands on the side of the neck 
is now converted into a farm house. Here in 1776 three of the 
clergy managed to secrete themselves for some time, notwith- 
standing the most minute and persevering search was made for 
them, so ingeniously contrived was the place of their conceal- 
ment in and about the old fashioned chimney. Food was con- 
veyed to them through a trap door in the floor. Tye front of 
the house is shaded by two of the largest and finest elm trees in 
the County. Cornell's or Clason's neck, which is pleasantly 
situated in the south-west corner of the town, contains about five 
hundred and fifty acres. We have seen that Thomas Cornell i 
from whom it was originally named, became possessed of tlia 
neck through the Dutch, who purchased of the Indians.^ Near 
the entrance to the neck, are the mansions of Mrs. Ludlow, and 
of her son, Henry Ludlow, Esq. 

The site of the old Willett homestead is now occupied by the 
residence of Mrs. Clason.<^ On the extreme point of the neck 
stands that of Augustus Clason, Esq. 

About three miles from the mouth of the Bronx, and directly 
opposite to the village of West Farms, is the mill seat and pro- 
perty of Philip M. Lydig, Esq., formerly called. I)e Lancey's 
mills. Here it is probable that Jonas Bronck<^ erected a mill 
and laid out a plantation as early as 1639. Upon the 16th of 
August, 1680, the town of Westchester did give and grant unto 

• liorenzo Sabine'i Biographioal Sketches of Ameriota Loyaliiii. 

b See pege 156. 

c On the north tide of this house we noticed t bstatiful specimen of the Hycene 
Wisteria, which is ssM to be indigenous to the neck. 

i From this indiTidaal the riTer deri?es its name. Town Rec. lib. i?. 57. Bee. 
of Trastees, pages 8S, 89. 


William Richardson and his associates the privilege of the 
stream of Broncks's river, to set up two mills^ viz^ one saw and 
a corn mill, upon certain conditions specified in the conveyance.* 
Ou the 2nd of April, 171 L, TryiHje Byvanck, widow of Evert 
Byvanck, granted to William Provost fot/r mills^ to wit, three 
grist mills and one saw mill, situate in the township of West- 
chester, and all rights and privileges appertaining thereto, &c. ; 
also a certain privilege granted by the freeholders of Westches^ 
ier of the stream of Broncks^s river, ^c, ^*c. From the Pro- 
vosts, this property was purchased by Stephen de Lancey, Esq., 
in whose will, made the 4th of March, 1735, occurs the following 

*' I do hereby give, devise, and bequeath unto my son Peter, 
and to his heirs, all my mills, mill house, mill boat, farm and 
land, and all and every the appurtenances thereunto belonging, 
situate and being in the County of Westchester, upon Broncks'a 
river, lately known as the mills of William Richardson, to have 
and to hold unto my son Peter, and to liis heirs and as^gnees 

" James de Lancey,« the eldest son of the above testator, was 
chief justice and lieutenant governor of the province of New York. 
He married Atme, eldest daughter of Col. Caleb Heathcote, and 
left James, Stephen, John Peter,<i Maria, Anne and Susan. Jaxues, 
the first of these, was educated at Corpus Christi college, Cam- 
bridge, England, in which college his father had been educated 
before him. On quitting college, he entered the army, rising to 
the rank of captain. In the unfortunate campaign against Ticon- 
deroga, he was an aid of Abercrombie's. When his father died, 
or shortly after, Captain de Lnncey sold out, inheriting the prin- 
cipal esXaies qf his family. He married Margaret, a daughter of 
Chief Justice Allen of Pennsylvania, whose other daughter Anne 
married John Penn, grandson of William Penn, the founder of 

Early in the Revolution, Capt. James de Lancey went to Eng- 
land. Eventually he established himself atBaih." This gentle- 
man, (and not his cousin, Lt. Col. James, as Mr. Sabine supposes,) 

a See Tol. i. 298. e gee yol. i. 297. 

b Surrogattf*! Office, N. Y. lib. xit. 91. < Ibid 299. 


"at the close of the t^ar, and ftt the formation of the loyalist 
agency folr presenting claims for compensation, was ippointed 
agent for New York, and became vice president of the board His 
own losses were large and difficult of adjustment, and occupied 
. the attention of the commissioners for some days. Excepting Sir 
William Pepperell," Captain James " de Lancey appears o ravj 
been the most active member of the agency.''* " Five of the chil- 
dren of Capt. James de Lancey and Margaret grew up, viz., two 
sons and three daughters. Charles, the eldest sou, was in the 
British navy, and died a bachelor. James, late Lt. Col. ist Dra- 
goon Guards, is living, also a bachelor. Two of the dn 'irhters, 
Anne and Susan, are single, and still living ; while Margaret 
married the present Sir Juckes Granville Clifton, Bart., and died 
early, childless." 

The second son of Stephen de Lancey, the Huguenot, was 
Brigadier General Oliver de Lancey. Sabine, in his sketches of 
American Loyalists, states that/<at the period of the French 
war, Oliver de Lancey occupied a commanding position, and 
perhaps he did not overrate his personal influence when he said, 
that it' in the expedition against Crown Point, he *< should accept 
the command of the Hew York raiment, he could in ten days 
raise the whole quota of troops allotted to that colony." This 
standing he maintained after his brother's death, and until the 
Revolution. *'He opposed the dismemberment of the empire, 
and put his life and property at stake to prevent it. In 1776, he 
was appointed a brigadier general in the royal service. Skinner, 
of New Jersey, Brown, a former governer of the Bahamas, Arnold, 
the af)ostate, and Cunningham, of South Carolina, were of the 
same grade, but their commissions were of later date. Gen. de 
Lancey was, therefore, the senior loyalist officer in commission 
during the contest. His command consisted of three battalionS| 
ktiown as De Lancey's battalions." 

<* Previous to the Revolution, Gen. De Lancey was a member 
of the Council, and was considered to be in office in 1782, though 
a constitution was formed in New York in 1777, and a govern- 
ment organized under it. By this government he was attainted 

• Sftbioe'f Sketehee of Am^rieaii I^yalitta. 


of treason, and his large property confiscated." ** At the eracna- 
tion in 1783, he went to England, and died at Beyerly, Yorkshire 
in 1785y aged sixty-eight His body is interred in the choir of 
the Minster, while a mouuraent standing near (he transept records 
his services." ''His son, Oliver de Lancey, jr., was educated in 
Europe; put early in the 17th Light Dragoons ; was a captain at 
the commencement of the Revolution ; became Major in 1776, a 
Lieutenant Colonel a year or two later, and succeeded Andre as 
Adjutant General of the British army in America. On his return 
to Europe, he was made Deputy Adjutant Gieneral of England ; 
as a Major General he got the Colonelcy of the 17th Light Dra- 
goons ; was subsequently made Barrack Master General of the 
British empire ; rose through the grade of Lieutenant General to 
that of General, and died, some six or eight and twenty years 
since, nearly at the head of the English Army list. This branch 
of the family is now extinct in the male line ; its last man having 
been killed at Waterloo, in the person of Sir William Heathcote de 
Lancey, the Quarter-master General of Wellington's army." 

Peter de Lancey, youngest son of the Huguenot, to whom his 
father devised the mills, was a man of wealth and of considerable 
influence in the colony. His wife was Alice, daughter of Cad- 
wallader Colden, lieutenant governor of the Province of New 
York in 1761. His children were John, father of Mrs. Yates, 
relict of Grovernor Yates, and Lt. Col. James de Lancey, a distin- 
guished military officer. " James was for a considerable time she- 
riff of Westchester county. He took a battalion in the brigade of 
his uncle Oliver de Lancey, called the Loyalist Rangers,^ or De 

•■ The command of the Loyalist Rangeis afibrded Colonel de Lancey faciiiiiea for 
communicating with hb old aaeociatea in thii lection of country, and waa the meane 
of indncingr some of the landed jrcntry to take an active part in the contest This 
was particularly the case with Samuel Kip, Eaq., of a family which from the first 
settlement by the Dutch had possessed a gnni of land at Kip's Bay, and in other 
parts of New York island- Members of this family were named as officers under 
the Crown in the royal charter granted when the British first took pos se ssion of the 
colony in 1664, and in that given thirty years later. Having been always associated 
with the government, and from their landed interest wielding an infiuence in its 
affairs, they were naturally predisposed to espouse th^ royal cause. In addition to 
this, Mr. Kip's estate was near that of Col. de Lancey, and a close intimacy had 
always existed between them. He was, therefore, easily indnoad to acoept a cap« 


Lancet's Horse. In consequence of his familiarity with the 
county, Lt Col. James de Lancey was stationed much of his 
time in Westchester, to keep open the means of procuring sup- 
plies. His corfis made free with the cattle of that part of the 
country, and got the soubriquet of '' Cow Boys," in revenge for 
their knowledge in the aiticle of beef." The colonel finally fixed 
his residence in Nova Scotia, and in 1797, was sworn in as a 
member of the council of that colony. He died at Annapolis, N. 
S., about the ye^r 1809. Martha Tippett, his widow, also died 
there in 1827, aged 73, and where his sons are still living. Oliver 
de Lancey, third son of Peter and Alice, threw up his commission 
in the British service at the commencement of the Itevolutionary 
war. His children are resident in the town. Peter, the fourth 
son, and Lt..Col. Warren de Lancey, besides four daughters. ^ 

By an indenture bearing date the 20th of July, 1774. the trus- 
tees of Westchester for divers considerations, sold to Jamei and 
Oliver de Lancey, and their heirs and assignees, the ground un* 
der the water of Broncks's river, and all such lands as had been 
granted or appointed by the town, for the use of the mills, dtc* 
The present proprietor, Philip M. Lydig, Esq., holds by convey, 
ance from under Oliver de Lancey, Esq. The dwelling house 
which once served as the head-quarters of Washington, was de- 
stroyed by fire a few years since. 

The grounds, which display all the elegance of modern gar- 
dening, rise in a succession of terraces from the water's edge. 
Near the old mansion stands a majestic pine tree, a noble relic of 

tain's oommiision from the royal goTemment and embark all his interests in this 
contest He raised a company of caTaJry, principally from his own tenants, joined 
the British army with the colonel, and from his intimate knowledge of the country 
was enabled to gain the reputation of an active and daring partisan officer. For this 
reason he was for a time assigned to a command in the Loyalist Hangen. In one of 
the severe skirmbhes whioh took place in Westchester county in 1781, Capt. Kip, 
while charging a body of American troope, had his horse killed under him, and re- 
ceived a severe bayonet wound. He survived, howe vrr, several years after the 
war, though, like his friend De Imncey, a heavy pecuniary sufferer from the cause 
he had espoused. 

• For many of the above particulan we are indebted to Mr. Cooper's correspon- 
dence in the Home Jonmal of 1848. 

k Rec. of Trustees, pp. 88, 89. 


the post. " The foltowing appropriate lines were written hy a 
genileman, atier a Tisit paid (o (his beautiful apot, th» former 
residence of the De Lancey family. 

!>• Luuy HlUa, 

of Dr. Bijard at WiM Parm. 

Db Lahcsi's Akcikkt Pun. 
Wbere gantle Bronx elm winding flow*, 
Tbe ahcdawj b&nks b«lween. 
Where bloBBDmed Irall or wilding rou 
AdoroE the biightest green : 
Memorial of tbe fallen greit, 
'I'be rich tnd hononred line, 
S lands high in aoliurj alate, 
De Lancej's ancient pine. 

There once at eatlj dawn arrajed 

The rural siKirl to lead. 

The frallant maeter of the glade, 

Bedecked his eager eteed. 

And once ihe Ijghtfoot maiden came 

In lovelineaa divine, 

I'o sculpture with the dearest name, 

De Lancey'a ancient pine. 

But now the airanger'a foot eiplores 
De Laacej's wide domain, 
And aearce one kindred heart reatotea, 
Hia DiemoTj to the plain ; 


And jast like one in age alone, 
The last of all his line, 
Bends sadly where the waters moan, 
De Lanoej's ancient pine. 

Oh, victim of misguided zeal 

To tell thy former fame ! 

Who bids the fretted stone reveal 

The numbers of thy name 1 

Ere brightening up the eastern sky 

Another morn shall shine. 

In equalizing dust may tie 

De Lancey^s ancient pine. 

Wo ho ! the satiate traveller stays 
Where eve^s calm glories shine, 
To weep as tells of other days, 
De Lancey^s ancient pine. 

At ft short distance from Lydig's mills, on the property of Mr. 
Leonard Mapes, may be seen the ruins of an old chateau, since 
the residence of Lewis H. Guerlain. Thn following inscription 
upon a marble monument hard by, so touchingly records the 
history of its former inmates, that any further account would be 
needless. A. D. 1798, sacred to the memory of virtue, merit 
and beauty ; to Sarah Guerlain, the beloved consort of Lewis H. 

Alas ! His in vain ! the spirit has ied ! 

Sarah has sunk in the tomb, 

The beauty of nature lies mixM with the dead 

Gods ! how severe is the doom : 

As a delicate lily that blows in the vale, 

That springs to perfection and dies, 

So she bloomed, and then sickened ; but, shall we bewail ? 

The grave of the pure is the path to the skies. 


In 1798, 7th March, Sarah died in the West Indies, in the 20th 
year of her age, in the passage from St. Croix to St. Christopher's 
and was brought back by her disconsolate husband to this peace- 
ful mansion, the place of their union, the 4th of October, 1 795. 

Lire HOW short! 

Vol. II. 33 


Immediate! 7 north of the village of West Farms, lies Bronx 
dale, the sides of which present a most romantic appearance. la 
this neighborhood, is a small settlement, containing two public 
houses, two stores and about twenty dwellings, also the exten- 
sive bleach factory of Mr. James Bolton, and the snuflf milU of 
Mr. Peter Loriliard. The beautiful seat of the latter gentleman 
is rendered particularly attractive, from the contiguity of over 
hanging woods, and its due vicinity to the river. The low 
ground cast of Bronx dale, is called Bear swamp. The general 
"surface of Westchester is rolling, and in some places hilly; 
soil, clay loam, mostly susceptible of high cultivation." "The 
lands produce all kinds of grain, but they are best adapted to 
grass and pasturage. Almost every variety of fruit trees flourish 
here. The principal growth of wood is oak of all sorts, chesnut 
and hickory, &c. It is freely watered in every part by springs 
and rivulets."^ 


Onc« Cbnrcb, Wot Ftrma. 


Thjb township vhich is 
situated at (h« soulli west ex- 
tremity of tbe county, was se- 
parated from ihe ancient town 
of Westchester ;» and, incor- 
porated oQ the 13th of May, 
1846,t> by an act of the legis- 
atiire. It is- bounded on ths 
north by Yonkers, east by 
the Bronx, south by the East 
river, and west by the Har- 
lem river, or county of New 

York. It is distant sixteen miles south of the Tillage of White 

Plains, and about one hundred and forty-one miles from Albany. 

" Kings bridge, across Harlem river, is just within the line, at 

the north-west comer of this town." 
Our intention is to lake up separately the three former divi- 

sions of the present town, viz., West Farms, Morrisania and 


From the following; patent, it appears that the proprietors of 

the lands subsequently called the West Farms, in 1666, were 

Edward Jessup aud John Richardson, of Westchester. 


" Richard NieoUa, Esq., goteraor seoenl nader hia tajal highneN, JuMy 
Daka of Yorli ud Albany, &e. fco., of all bia lerriiorjea in America, lo aU lo 
whom UwM pr«a«nt« ahall come, aeodeth greeting ; whereu, there ia a car- 

260 HISTORY OF TH»,^^ 

tain tract or parcel of land within this government, situate, lying and being 
neare unto and within the limits of the towne of Westchester. Upon ye 
maine being bounded to the east by the river commonly called by the Indians 
Aquehung^ otherwise Broncke river, ezteadlHig to the midst of said river to 
the north, by the markH trees and by a piece of hassock meadow, westwardly 
a little brook called by the natives Sackiorahung, and southward by the Sound 
or East river, including within a certain neck of land called Quinnahungf 
which said parcel or tract and neck of land with the appurtenances, together 
with commonage and liberty for range of horses and cattle, as free as thej 
please into the woods, hath heretofore been jointly purchased of the Indyan - 
proprietors by Edward Jessup and John Richardson of Westchester aforesaid, 
and due satisfaction hath ye then been given for the same, as by the deed re- 
maining upon record, more at large doth and may appear, now it being ma- 
tually agreed upon ye both the aforesaid purchasers, that an equal division 
shall be made of the said parcel or tract of land and appurtenances between 
.'them the said Edward Jeseup and John Richardson, their heirs and assigns, and 
to the end that the said lands may be better manured and planted for a further 
confirmation unto each and either of them, in their possession and enjoyment 
of the premises. Know ye, that by virtue of the commission and authority 
unto me given by his royal highness, I have ratified, confirmed and granted, 
and by these presents do ratify, confirm and grant, unto John Richardson 
aforesaid, his heirs and assigns, the moiety or one-half of the aforesaid par- 
cel or tract of land and premises, together with the moiety or one-half of all 
the woods, meadows, pastures, waters, conmionage, marshes, rivers or lakes 
thereunto belonging, within their and every of them, appurtenances and every 
part and parcel thereof, to have and to hold their said moiety, or one-half of 
ihe said parcel or tract of land, commonage and premises, with all and singu- 
lar the appurtenances to the said John Richardson, his heirs and assigns, unto 
the proper use and behoof of the said John Richardson, his heirs and assigns 
forever, he or they rendering and paying such duties and acknowledgments 
as now are or hereafter shall be constituted and established by the laws of this 
government, under the obedience of his royal highness, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, given under my hand and seal at Fort James^ in New York, on the 
island of Manhattoes, 25th day of April, in the eighteenth year of his majesties 
reign, A. D. 1666." 

Richard Nicolls. 

Edward Jessnp one of the above patentees, like most of the 
original settlers of Westchester, emigrated from Fairfield, Con- 
necticut. In 1653, occurs the name of Edward Jessope, owner 
of lands on Snscoe neck in that town. By his wife Elizabeth 
Bridges, he left issue a son, Edward, and two daughters. Eliza- 
beth married Thomas Hunt, of the Grove farm, Westchester, 


from whom the Hunts of Hunt's point descend. Edward Jes- 
8up died in 1666 ; his will bears date the same year. 

The last Will and Testament of Edward Jessup. 

" Being eicke and weake in body, yet in perfect nenaory, I bequeath noiy 
•oule to ye Almighty God that gave it, and my body after my death to be de- 
cently buried, my funeral to be discharged and my debts to be paid. I will 
and bequeath to my daughter Elizabeth Hunt, twenty shillings, besides which, 
I have already given her to be paid in a year and a day aAer my decease. I 
will and bequeath unto my daughter Hannah Jessup, the sum of five and thirty 
pounds with that she hath already, to be payed unto her at 18 years of age. 

I will and bequeath unto my sonne Edward Jessup, two mares with two 
colts by their sides, one is a gray mare, and the other is a mare marked on 
both ears with two half pence on each ear, to bee set out for him for hil 
use a year and a day after my decease. 

I will and bequeath unto my grandchild Mary Hunt, twenty shillings, to bee 
payd in a year and a day after my decease. I will and bequeath ooto my 
cousin Johannah Burroughs, twenty shillings, to bee payed in a year and a 
day after my decease. 

Furthermore, I institute and appoint my well beloved wife, Elizabeth Jet- 
sup, to bee whole and sole executrix, and I do will and bequeath unto her, all 
my lands and houses, and goods and cattle, moveable and immovable, of this 
my last will and testament, and to receive all debts, dues and demands what- 
soever, to be at her disposing, and she to pay all debts, dues and legaoies 
whatsoever, and she to bring up my two children in the feare of God. This 
I do owne to be my last will and testament. 

Further, I do appoint my well beloved friends Mr. Richard Cornhill, jos- 
tice of the peace, Mrs. Sarah Bridges, my well beloved brother-in'law, John 
Burroughs, and Ralph Hunt, overseers of this my last will and testament, like- 
wise to be assistants to my executrix in all cases and difliculties, and this I 
do owne as my owne act and deed, to all true intents and meanings, and doe 
furthermore ratify and confirm it as my owne act and deed by ye setting to 
my hand and seal, the day and year underwritten. 

August the 16th, 1666. 

EowiRD Jxssup. 
Signed, sealed and delivered 
in the presence of us, witnesses, 
WilFm Gouldstone, John Richardson, 
mark of Richard Horton. X 

Upon the 20tfa of June, I668j Robert Beacham and Elizabeth 


the wife formerly of Edward Jesmp of Westchesteri in the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, on Long Island, did fully (ind abso- 
lutely sell and ''make over unto Thomas Hunt of Westchester 
aforesaid all those hoeing lands and accommodations that were 
formerly Edward Jessup's, within the bounds and limits of the 
aforesaid Westchester, that the said Edward Jessup and John 
Richardson purchased together and procured patents for from 
the Hon. Col. Richard Nicolls," &c. 

John Richardson, the surviving patentee, appears to have 
united with Thomas Hunt the following year in making an 
equal division of these lands, for on the 12th of August, 1669, 
occurs the following report of the commissioners. 

- *» We whose names are underwritten being made choice of by John Rieli- 
ardson and Thomas Hunt, bothe inhabiting in Westchester, in the Neith 
Riding of Yorkshire, to make an equal division of a grant of land formerly 
purchased of the Indian proprietors by Edward Jessup and John RichardsoD, 
being butted and bounded by patent I say all those uplands and meadows within 
that purchase, save some upland and meadows, which was formerly divided 
by the forementioned persons, Edward Jessup and John Richardson, have 
been committed unto us, William Ilayden, Samuel Drake, Thomas Lawrence 
and Jonathan Hazard, to make an equal division, &c., Sic, As first we find 
it necessary that John Richardson, having twenty acres of upland and meadow 
more or less, lying on the southermost poynt of the corne field neck, which 
tract of land is a district of itself by a divisional line running west and by north 
east and by south, and all the rest of the upland both in that neck and a little 
neck adjoining to it, is Thomas Hunt's, with highways laid out, and into the 
above said neck north to upland and meadows, with marks renewed between 
the meadows and the upland, beginning at a white oak, which is the divisional 
line between Thomas Hunt and John Richardson, which line runneth from 
the white oak to the water east and by north, and all the meadow lying along 
between the water and the marked trees is John Richardson's, until you meet 
another divisional line that bears west and by north and east and by south, which 
line runs at the old highway, and all the rest of the meadows within the neck 
to be Thomas Hunt's, for and in consideration John Richardson hath all the 
Long neck lying upon the south end of the dwelling houses of John Richard- 
son and Thomas Hunt, all the above said neck within fence, and further we 
have laid out unto Thomas Hunt a tract of upland lying near bis bouse contain* 
ing sixteen acres and forty-five rods, stretching from the creek north north- 
west and south south-west to a great burnt stump, from thence west sonth- 
wett to a creek, and from the creek south south-east, &c., &c." 


The three daughters and co-heiresses of John Richardson 
were Bethia, wife of Joseph Ketchani of Newton, Long Islandi 
Mary, wife of Joseph Hadley of Yonkers, and Elizabeth, wife of 
Gabriel Leggett, from whom descend the Leggetls of West 
Farms. His last will bears date 16th November, 1679. In it he 
beqneaths ''to his beloved wife, Martha, all his housing and 
orchard, and all moveables without and within, and all live 
stock, also all his land and meadow on the planting neck, and 
all the Long neck that runs southward from Thomas Hunt's 
new dwelling house to the Sound, and this during her life to act 
and dispose as she shall see cause." 

'*To his son-in-law, Joseph Hadley, a pasture of three acres 
already laid out, &c., at or about the first spring, and all the 
meadow that is already divided, that is on this side the river 
above ye planting neck,^^ '^ To his three daughters two hundred 
acres of land each ;" ''and to his brother's son, in England, Jo- 
seph Richardson, one hundred acres, if he come within the space 
of one whole year to receive it, and if he come not within the 
time prefixed it shall remain in Martha my wife's hands." ''In 
conclusion, he constitutes and appoints his well beloved friends, 
William Richardson and Richard Ponton, both of Westchesteri 
and Jonathan Hayward of Newtown, Long Island, overseers of 
Iiis last will and testament, and that it is his whole will and tes- 
tament after his decease, he witnesses it under his own hand 
the 16th day of November, 1679." 

Signed John Richardson. 

Upon the 12th of January, 16S6, Governor Thomas Dongan 
granted a patent to Thomas Hunt, sen., for all his land bounded 
on the east by the river Aquehnng or Bronx, extending to the 
midst of the said river, on the north by certain marked trees and 
a piece of hammock, and on the west by a certain brook called 
Sackrahung, for the value of one bushel of good winter wheat."* 

The following receipt appears to have been given for quit rent 
due on the above patent. 

• Co. Ree. toI. iL From tka origintl tn the poasMiioB of Mr. Daaiol Wiflthi|b 
Hunt*! Point 


''Received of Thomas Hunt, sen., twenty-fire bushels and one 
half wheat, in full for his quit rent for his land in the county of 
Westchester, upon Broncks*s river, to the 25th of March last past. 
Witness my hand, in New York, this 9th day of April, A. D. 

''Richard Nicoll, Deputy Receiver!^ 

Seventeenth of October, 1687, Joseph Hadley of the Yonkers 
patent conveys to Thomas Williams of the West Farms eight 
acres formerly given him by John Richardson. In 1711 the 
heirs of the patentees united in a second division of the West 

** Whereas Thomas Hunt, sen., of ye West Farms io ye leraugh totem aoi 
county of Westchester in ye colony of New York, yeoman, and Rliaaheth 
Leggett of ye same place, widow, did on ye 9th day of May last past, by aa 
instrument ander their hands and seals, formerly agree and conclude that the 
West Farms lots, containing twelve in number, should be surreyed and laid 
out by myself or some other person, and that according to a former surrey 
made by me William Taylor, on or before the last day of June instant, with a 
farther covenant, promise, and agreement, each to the other, for themselTes 
and each of their heirs, executors, and administrators, as far as they or any of 
them are concerned in the said lots, that the survey made by M. W. E. or 
some other person, in manner as above, and the lines or bounds so run and 
settled should remain, continue, and not be removed for ever hereafter upon 
the penalty of ^^e hundred pounds current money of said colony, to be paid 
by the party or persons breaking the said conclusion or agreement and cove- 
nant to the party or persons fulfilling and performing the same, &c., &e., as 
by the said instrument, relation being thereunto had, will fully and at large 
appear. Therefore upon this request and desire of the said Thomas Hunt, 
Elizabeth Leggett and others, the owners and proprietors of said land, I have 
sarreyed the said twelve lots of land as followeth. That is to say, begin at a 
ohesnut tree standing on the river side above Byvanck^s miUy running thence 
north forty-three degrees, west two hundred and eighty-three, to a marked 
white wood, thence south thirty degrees, west about forty-five, eight rods to 
the north side and westernmost corner of the sixth lot, and then upon several 
courses until it meets with the north-west corner of the twelfth lot, then east 
twenty-one degrees and a half rod to ye meadow and from thence along the 
meadow and river to the place first begun as appears in the scheme hereunto 
annexed, the whole tract containing 1096 acres, &c., &c. It is firmly agreed 
and concluded upon by the said Thomas Hunt, Elizabeth Leggett and others 
concerned in the matter, that what every or any lot wants or falls short of 
one hundred acres as above shall be allowed and made up to then or theirs 


oat of* the land not contained within this survey. Comprehended with a cer- 
tain patent granted by Governor Richard Nicolls to Edward Jessup and John 
Richardson in the year of onr Lord Christ 1666, except thirty acres which he» 
said Thomas Hunt, formerly sold to John Feryedon and Robert Manning, and 
also thirty acres belonging to the said Elizabeth Leggett, being in lieu of the 
aforesaid thirty acres on which Thomas Davenport now dwells, in witness 
whereof, &c., &c. 
In presence of Joseph Huitt, Thomas Hunt, 

Justice. Elizabeth Legoet, 

John Lawrence, 
Matthew Puoslby. 

This Survey was made and completed on the 26th day of June, 1711, by me, 
Peter Berrien. 

On the 30th of Sept. 1723, William Davenport of Penh Am- 
boy, in East New Jersey, and Bridget his wife, did convey all 
their right, title and interest in ye patent of West Farms unto 
William Leggett, viz., all and singular ye flats, coves, bays, fish- 
ing places, &c, ; also, all their right, title and property of fishing, 
hunting, hawking and fowling in this ye same patent, &c."» 

In the southwest corner of the patent of West Farms, was 
situated a small tract of land, called the *^ debatable ground" 
This territory appears to have been in dispute between the heirs 
of the patentees of West Farms, and Lewis Morris, proprietor of 
the manor of Morrisania, from 1666 to 1740. At an early period, 
Lewis Morris laid claim to most of the undivided lands of the 
West i^arm^ patent, as belonging to him." 

Upon the 4th of Feb., 1712, "Elizabeth Leggett, widow of 
Gabriel Leggett and daughter of John Richardson, released her 
title and interest of all the common and undivided lands, that 
Mr, Lewis Morris makes any claim to within our patent of 
West FarmsJ^ In 1737, " William Leggett, assignee to the heirs 
of John Richardson, of one- half moiety of the West Farm^s, and 
Abraham Lent, of the heirs of Edward Jessup, }oini\y agreed to 
prosecute Lewis Morris, who is now in posses.^ion of almost all 
the undivided landsP 

» The same rights had previously been conveyed by Thomas Davenporti father of 
the above grantor, to Abraham Leggett. 

Vol. II. 34 


A complete settlement of the undivided lands was not made 
till 1740. In 1830, the debatable lands were purchased by 
William H. Leggeti, Esq. 

The twelve lots into which the West farms was originally di- 
vided, have been long since distributed among numerous pro- 

The village of West Farms is pliitMitly situated at the head 
of the navigable waters of the Bronx, three miles from the East 
river, and twelve from New York. This place from its close 
vicinity to the city, and its valuable water privileges, is rapidly 
increasing in importance. It now contains about 1,600 inhabi- 
tants, 200 dwelling houses, an Episcopal, a Dutch Reformed, a 
Presbyterian and a Methodist church, 4 taverns, a tem]ierance 
house, 12 stores of different kinds, and a post office ; also, seve- 
ral extensive manufactories, among which may be named the 
Brussels carpet and spinning factory of Mr. Richard Crow- 
ther,^ the Ingrain carpet factory of Mr. A. Smith, and the grist 
and mahogany saw mill of Mr. Philip M. Lydig ; beside nume- 
rous coopering establishments doing a large business. Here 
are owned seven sloops, trading with the New York and other 
markets. The Haarlem and Westchester rail road depot, situa- 
ted one mile north-west of the village, affords almost hourly 
communication with the city of New York. 

Near the centre of the village is situated the Episcopal 
churchf a beautiful Gothic structure, of wood. The bell 
tower is attached to the north-eastern corner. Over the prin- 
cipal entrance, is a neat porch. The cornerstone of this edi- 
fice was laid on Tuesday, November 10th, 1846, by the Rev. 
Hugh Smith, D. D., rector of St. Peter's church, New York; on 
which occasion, an address was delivered by the Rev. J. T. Gush- 
ing minister in charge of the parish. In the corner stone were depo- 
sited a copy of the New Testament, and of the book of common 
prayer ; the journal of the last general convention in 1844 ; the 
journal of the last diocesan convention of New York for 1845, 
together with the debates in the same j copies of the general and 

* Mr. Crowther*tf manufactory occupies Uic silo of the old paint mills and pottery 
workfli wliich were in successful operation during the last war with Great Britain. 


the diocesan canons, Swords' pocket almanack for 1846, Prot. 
Churchman of the date of Nov. 7th, 1846, the New York Courier 
and Enquirer of Nov. 9th, 1846, and sundry parish documents 
&c. &c. Besides the officiating clergy, there were present, th« 
Rev. William Powell, rector of St. Peter's church, Westchester, 
and the Rev. Robert Bolton, rector of Christ's church, Pelhara. 

On the 28th of June^ 1847, it was consecrated and set apart 
to the worship and service of Almighty God, under the title of 
Grace church, by the Right Reverend William Heathcote do 
Lancey, Bishop of the diocese of Western New York. The 
consecration sermon being preached by the Rev. Kingston 
Goddard of Staten Island. 

Grace church. West Farms, was incorporated upon the 13th 
of Dec. 1844. William A. Spencer and Philip M. Lydi^, church- 
wardens ; Peter Lorillard, Richard Crowlher, Dr. William Bay- 
ard, Charles S. Valentine, Benjamin Lea, Jacob M. van Winkle 
and William B. Hoffman, vestrymen."*^ 

On June 3rd, 1847, the Rev. Washington Rodman was unani- 
mously called to be rector of the parish. The credit of first attempt- 
ing the establishment of an Episcopal church in this village, is 
due, under God, to Miss Margaret Hunt,^ a lady whose intelli- 
gent zeal, kindly sympathy and untiring benevolence, deserve 
especial mention. The work was undertaken by this lady about 
twelve years since ; and, although the number of Episcopalians 
in the immediate neighborhood was then comparatively small, 
still a considerable interest was awakened by her endeavors. 
The amount of $2061,00 was collected, to which the sum of 
$1000,00 was added by the munificent donation of Mrs. C. L. 
Spencer, to whose christian liberality, the congregation is further 
indebted for the gift of an organ, a Sunday school library, and 
numerous other contributions to the church. Additional aid 
was given by the following gentlemen, viz. : Messrs. Peter Loril- 
lard, jun., Philip M. Lydig, Governeur M. Wilkins, J. D. Wolfe, 
William A. Spencer and others, making in all the sum of $4,1&8 

' Co. Roc. Religious Soc. Lib. B. p. 93. 

b Daughter of Thomas Hunt, fourth in descent from Edvard Jessup, one of 
the first patentees of the West Farms. 


95, (he cost of ihe church. The congregation are also deeply- 
indebted to Francis Barretto, Esq., of the building committee, 
for his generous sympathy with the first projectors of the church, 
as well as for his attentive supervision of the building while in 
process of erection. A bell weighing 6.^6 lbs. has been pur- 
chased by subscriptions received principally from the members of 
the church. 

The Presbyterian church stands upon the highest ground in 
the village. It was incorporated, in 1814, by the name of 
the V First Presbyterian Church in the village of West Farms," 
Robert Givan, Caleb Pell, Ebenezer Waterbury, James Bathgate, 
James Renwick and John B. Gillespie, first trustees.^ Prior to 
the year 1836, it belonged to the Bedford presbytery, but is now 
in connection with the second New York Presbytery. The pre- 
sent church edifice was erected in 1816. 


Install or call. 



Rev. Isaac Lewis, 



Rev. Truman Osborne, 



Rev. Samuel Nott, 



Rev. Joseph B. Felt, 



Rev. Thomas S. Wickes, 



Rev. Ithamer Hillsbury, 



Rev. E. D. Wells, 



Rev. J. D. Wickliam, 



Rev. George Stebbins, 



Rev. William Gray, 


Jan. 22, 1836, 

Kev. M. I. Adam, 


Feb. 1841, 

Rev. James B. Ramsey, 



Rev. Charles Moase, 


Oct. 28, 1847, 

Rev. Isaac Watts Piatt, present pastor. 

• Co. Rec. Lib A. 154. 

h For BoniA y«an this church wai aiaocialed, iu the Bupport of a minister, with 
the PretibyteriaQ church of New Rochelle. 


Church Notes. 

1826, Communicants, 41, Baptisms, 1. 

1846, do. 38, do. 8. 

The Dutch Reformed Church of this village was first organ- 
ized iu 1839, under the pastoral charge of the late Rev. George 
Bourne, of New York, and incorporated on the I6ih of March, 
1840.» First elders, Thomas Butler, George Wilson, and Abijah 
Rogers ; first deacons, James P. Fitch, J. G. Rowland, and Ste- 
phen Kelly. Mr. Bourne was succeeded, in 1842, by the Rev. 
Barnabas Collins. The present pastor is the Rev. John Simon- 
son, who commenced his ministrations in 1845. 

An Episcopal Methodist Society was incorporated upon the 
21th October, 1831 ; Andrew C. Wheeler, Joseph Smith, John 
F. Fay, Thomas T. Phillips, and Thomas Bolton, trustees.** 

West Farms is not behind any of the neighboring towns in 
her literary institutions ; for, b<^sides three large district schools 
for the education of both sexes, there is a ladies' seminary and 
a boys' school. In 1803 there appears to have been an academy 
existing here, the trustees of which were the Hon. Governenr 
Morris, Dominick Lynch, John Sloss Hobart, Abijah Hammond, 
James Morris, Daniel Ludlow, Isaac Clason, Israel Underhill| 
Philip I. Livingston, Robert Gilchrist, Joseph Given, Jonathan 
Randel, Andrew Barton, Israel Honeywell, Samuel Kelly, Rob- 
ert Heaton, and William H. Morris. 

During the revolutionary war, West Farms was constantly ex- 
posed to the daily forays of both armies, as they alternately held 
possession of the adjoining country. " Ou the 25th of January, 
1777, (observes General Heath,) early on the morning, the enemy 
made a sally towards De Lancey^s MiUs,^ where they surprised 
and routed the guard, wounding several, but not killing or taking 

» Co. Rea Relifioos Soc Lib. B. The firat church edifice wai erected io 1839. 
k Co. Rec. Religious Sec. Lib. B. p. 6. Aa incorporatioQ of the Methodist Epis* 
copal Church occom in 1836, aod again in 18(3. See Lib. B. 4(^, 76. 
< Now known as Lydig's Mills. 


any of them ; and a regiment near that place quitted their quar- 

The Military Blockhouse, which occupied the site of Mr. 
Mapes's Temperance House, was destroyed by Colonel Burr in 
the winter of 1779. The event is thus related by Samuel Young, 
in a letter to Commodore Valentine Morris : — 

"Soon after Tryon's retreat, Colonel Delancey, who com- 
manded the British refugees, in order to secure themselves 
against surprise, erected a blockhouse on a rising ground below 
De Lancey's Bridge. This Colonel Burr resolved to destroy. I 
was in that expedition, and recollect the circumstances. 

"He procured a number of hand-grenades ; also, rolls of port 
fire, and canteens filled with inflammable materials, with contri- 
vances to attach them to the side of the blockhouse. He set out 
with his troops early in the evening, and arrived within a mile 
of the blockhouse by two o'clock in the morning. The colonel 
gave Captain Black the command of about forty volunteers, who 
were first to approach ; twenty of them were to carry the port 
fires, &c. Those who had hand-grenades, had short ladders to 
enable them to reach the port holes, the exact height of which 
Colonel Burr had ascertained. Colonel Burr gave Captain Black 
his instructions in the hearing of his company, assuring him of 
his protection if they were attacked by superior numbers ; for it 
was expected that the enemy, who had several thousand men at 
and near King's Bridge, would endeavor to cut us off, as we were 
several miles below them. Burr directed those who carried the 
combustibles to march in front as silently as possible; that on 
being hailed, they should light the hand-grenades, Soc. with a 
slow match provided for the purpose, and throw them into the 
port holes. I was one of the party that advanced. The senti- 
nel hailed and fired. We rushed on. The first hand-grenade 
that was thrown in drove the enemy from the upper story, and 
before they could take any measure to defend it, the blockhouse 
was on fire in several places. Some few escaped, and the rest 

^ Heath's Mem. p. ill. 



surrendered without our having lost a single man. Though 
many shots were fired at us, we did not fire a gun."* 

Although the inhabitants appear to have suffered much during 
the Revolution, they generally continued firmly attached to the 
interests of their country. In 1775 occurs the following petition 
to the Hon. Provincial Congress, from the subscribers, inhabi- 
tants of the manor of Fordham and West'Farms, in the county 
of Westchester, which 

" Harobly sheweth that we were Rommoned to appear at Westchester in 
order to choose officers, accordiag to the resolution of the congress, it having 
been represented, as we understand, that there was not a competent number 
of men in our district to form a company, we therefore beg leave to inform 
you that the manor of Fordham and the West Farms have in the militia al- 
ways been considered as a district by themselves, and that within their limits 
there are upwards of seventy men fit to bear arms, and that an attendance at 
Westchester upon the meeting of the company will be attended with great in- 
convenience to many of the inhabitants and therefore injurious to the service 
intended to be advanced ; from which considerations your petitioners humbly 
pray the Hon*bIe Congress will be pleased to order that the manor of Ford- 
ham and the West Farms have a company with themselves, and that they 
elect their own officers under such inspection as the Honorable Congress in 
their wisdom shall think best ; and your petitioners shall ever pray. 

Nicolas Berrien, 
Isaac Valentine, 
Peter Valentine, 
John Stevens, 
Benjamin Curser, 
Abraham Dyckman, 
John Farmer, 
Benjamin Valentine, 
George Pilpet, 
Isaac Valentine, jr. 
Peter Bussing, jr. 
Abraham Wilson, 
Benjamin Curser, jr. 
Ilendrick Ryer, 
John Lent, 
John Rver, 
Isaac Curser, jr. 

Hezekiah Ward, 
Tunis Garrison, 
Isaac Cant, 
Gilbert Taylor, 
Robert Gilmer, 
Benjamin Archer, jr. 
Daniel Devoe, jr. 
John Embrie, sen. 
Jacob Lent, 
Abraham Lent, 
Dennis Hycr, 
Jacob Valentine, 
Abraham Garrison, 
James G. Groot, 
Thomas Hunt, 
Abraham Leggett, 
William Leggett, 

Levi Hunt, 
Jeremiah Requa, 
James McKay, 
Robert Campbell, 
Eden Hunt, 
Isaac Hunt, 
James Archer, 
Saml Embrie, jr. 
John Embrie, jr. 
Thomas Cromwell, 
G. Cromwell, 
Obadiah Hide, 
John Curser, 
Simon Williams, 
John Ryer, jr. 
Jacob Chappelf 
John Garrison, 

' Davis*! Mem. of Aaron Burr, vol. i. 164» 



Tunis Le Joye, 
Philip Hant, 
Stephen Emboli, 
Nathan*! Lawrence, 
Peter De?oe, 
James Swain, 
Nazareth Brewer, 
Edward Harris, 
John Cullard, 
T'ornelius Jacobs, 

John Leggett, jr. 
Robert Hunt, jr. 
Cornelias Leggett, 
Mr. Woods, 
John Hedger, 
Thomas Hedger, 
Stephen Edwards, 
James Rock, 
George Higby, 
Jacob Hunt, 

John Jacobs, 
Thomas Dogherty, 
John Cbrk, 
John de Noo, 
John Blixard, 
John Walbin, 
John Warwick, 
Thomas Gemble, 
Peter Bussing, 
Is^c Curser. 

Congress were pleased to grant the prayer of this petition. 

The road passing the Tillage landing south leads to the Grent 
Planting neck, called by the Indians Quinnakung^ upon which 
are now many beatUifnl country seats. At the south-east extre- 
mity of the neck is situated HmiCs Point. This property has 
been occupied by the Hunt family for nearly one huiidred and 
sixty yeitrs, having passed into their hands by the marriage of 
Thomas Hunt with Elizabeth Jessup, daughter of Edward Jes- 
sup, one of the first patentees. In 1688, Thomas Hunt, of the 
Grove farm, granted to his son Thomas Hunt one hundred acres 
lying on the south side of Gabriel Leggett's land, bounded east- 
wardly and southerly by Broncks^s river. It is now the property 
of Mr. Daniel Winship, who married Eliza, the widow of the 
late Richard Hunt, Esq. The old Grange erected in 1688, occu- 
pies a beautiful situation near the termination of the point, over- 
looking the East river and Flushing bay. 

This place was for many years the residence of Rodman 
Drake the poet, and it was here that he wrote his well known 
lines on the Bronx, on the neighloring banks of which he often 

I sat me dowTi upon a green bank side, 

Skirting the sroootli edge of a gentle river, 
Whose waters seemed unwillingly to glide, 

Like parting friends, who linger while thej sever ; 
Enforced to go, yet seeming still unready. 
Backward they wind their way in raai»y a wistful eddy. 

Gray o'er my head the yellow- vested willow 
Ruffled its hoary top in the fresh breezes, 



Glancing in light, like spray on a green billow, 

Or the fine frost work which young winter freezes, 
When first his power in infant pastime trying, 
Congeals sad autumn^s tears on the dead branches lying. 

From rocks around hung the loose i?y dangling, 

And in the clefts samach of liveliest green. 
Bright ising-stars the little beach was spangling. 

The gold-cap sorrel from his gauzy screeni 
Shone like a fairy, enchased and beaded, 
Left on some morn, when light flashed in their eyes unheeded. 

The hum-bird shook his sun-touched wings around, 

The bluefinch carolled in the still retreat ; 
The antic squirrel capered on the ground. 

Where lichens made a carpet for his feet. 
Through the transparent waves, the ruddy minkle 
Shot op in glimmering sparks, his red fins tiny twinkle. 

There were the dark cedars, with loose mossy tresses, 
Wliite-powder*d dog trees, and stiff* hollies flaunting. 

Gaudy as rustics in their May-day dresses. 
Blue pellorets from purple lea^ es upslanting 

A modest gaze, like eyes of a young maiden 

Shining beneath droppM lids the evening of her wedding. 

The breeze fresh springing from the lips of morn. 
Kissing the leaves, and sighing so to loose 'em. 

The winding of the merry locust's horn. 

The glad spring gushing from the rock's bare bosom ; 

Sweet sighs, sweet sounds, all sights, all sounds excelling, 

Oh ! 'twas a ravishing spot, form'd for a poet's dwelling. 

And I did leave thy loveliness, to stand 

Again in the dull world of earthly blindness; 
Pain'd with the pressure of unfriendly hands, 

Sick of smooth looks, agued with icy kindness ; 
Left I for this thy shades, where none intrude. 
To prison wandering thought and mar sweet solitude. 

Yet I will look upon thy face again 

My own romantic Bronx, aud it will be 
A face more pleasant than the face of men. 

Thy waves are old companions, I shall see 
A well remembered form in each old tree, 
And hear a voice long loved in thy wild minstrelsy. 

Vol. IL 35 


The burial place of the Hant family, is located near the en- 
trance of the point. The following inscriptions are copied from 
two of the monuments in this yard : in memory of Thomas Hunt, 
who departed this life, July 4(h, 1808, in the 80th year of his 
age. He possessed the cardinal virtues in an eminent degree ; he 
was temperate, brave, patient and just : 

The solid rock shall sink beneath 
The iron hand of time, 
But yirtne dwells with 

The other is 


to the memory 

Joseph Rodman Drake, M. D. 

who died September 2 Ist, 


aged 25 years. 

Fifz Greene Halleck's pathetic lines on the death of his com- 
panion, will not be considered inappropriate here, especially as 
the last two of the first stanza are engraved upon this tomb- 

Green be the turf aboTe Ihee, 
Friend of my better days ! 
None knew thee but to Ioto thee, 
Nor named thee but to praise. 

Tears fell when then wert dying, 
From eyes unused to weep. 
And long, where thou art lying, 
Will tears the cold turf steep. 

When hearts whose truth was proren, 
Like thine, are laid in earth, 
There should a wreath be woTcn 
To tell the world their worth. 




To lkc< |W(o STj, *ol u. 

Arnu. — Ai on a b«nd 

1. John LuBMl.pfJ 

Qmlotl JojDo 

Thom«»i nml.=l Mnry It»h|hl, ob. Jnlui U= EbfDB-= S * S a *■ 

t'.iS, nh. I Otl 10, iai5 I ici I ESS"" 

f 1 1 

einiDCl—ElliialMlli JoKpti^Elizi 


ff S s gajs 

hit il 




And 1, who wake each morrow 
To clasp thy hand in mine, 
Who shared thy joy and sorrow, 
Whose weal and wo were thine, — 

It should be mine to braid it 
Around thy faded brow ; 
But Ftc in vain essayed it, 
A nd feel I cannot now, 

While memory bids me weep thee. 
Nor thoughts nor words are free, 
The grief is fixed too deeply 
That mourns a man like thee« 

Upon Waddington pointy the south-west projection of the 
Planiing necky is situated Blythe place, the estate of Francis 
Barretto, Esq. The house is a handsome edifice of stone. The 
grounds are richly wooded, and the views of the river extensive, 
and singularly beautiful. Mr. Barretto for many years repre- 
sented this county in assembly. In the immediate vicinity of 
Blythe place, and near the public landing, stands the residence^ 
of the late Thomas Leggett, (now occupied by his widow) whose 
ancestors have been resident proprietors of the great planting 
neck, since the year 1690, if not before. 

The Legg;ett family were formerly seated in Essex county 
England, and probably descend from Helmingius Legat, high 
sheriff of that county, in 1404. As early as 1661, Gabriel Leg- 
gett emigrated to this country, and in right of his wife. Elizabeth 
Richardson, daughter and co-heiress of John Richardson, (one of 
the joint patentees) became possessed of a large portion of the 
neck. By his last will, dated 16th of April, 1697, Gabriel Leg- 
gett of the West Farms, bequeathed '^ to his wife Elizabeth, all his 
household goods &c. &c ; to his son John, all his house and out- 
houses, orchard, land and the meadows in the Planting neck^ 
and the meadow, &c., also that messuage and tenement which 
Thomas Williams dwells upon, and was formerly my father-in- 
law's, John Richardson, his now dwelling house, and orchard 

» This home ooenpied the lito mt the old Legi^tt homeeteMl 


and out houses with the land and meadow which I bonght of 
John Ferguson, sen. and Robert Manning, together with 60 acres 
of wood land, lyinsr within the bounds of the patent of West 
Farms, &c. "I say to my fou Thomas," to his son William 
100 acres of woodland, and five acres of meadow, lying behind 
the field, within the bounds of the patents of West Farms, together 
with all the undivided meadow, as also my house and house lot, 
with an orchard thereon, lying in the town of Westchester. To 
his daughter Martha, he bequeathed his little colored boy, to his 
daughters Mary, Sarah, Alice and bllizabeth, twenty pounds 
each."* John Leggett, the eldt^st son of the above testator, was 
the great grandfather of the late Thomas Leggctt. The follow- 
ing incidents are related of Mr. Leggctt, whose activity, energy 
and fearlessness of character are well known. 

While a youth, at the commencement of the revolutionary 
war, he was h'ving with his father on the farm adjoining Morris- 
ania. All he possessed at this time was a very fine young mare, 
the gift of his parent. Prior to Colonel De Lancey^s taking posses- 
sion of his father's house, a party of British refugees took, with 
other property, his favorite animal, whilst he, being unarmed, 
could only bluster and threaten. He refused, however, to leave 
them, and actually accompanied the robbers two miles on their 
route to head-quarters. As the party were passing the spot which 
now makes the southern entrance to West Farms, two continen- 
tal soldiers rose up from behind a stone wall and fired. The man 
leading the mare was shot, and fell ; the mare turned round and 
ran homewards, to the great delight of the owner, who immedi- 
ately followed. Soon after this event the family, driven from 
home, were compelled to seek shelter elsewhere. Mr. Leggett and 
his two brothers went to Saratoga ; here they cleared a small piece 
of land, erected a log house, and prepared to spend the winter. 
But on the approach of Burgoyne, they were taken prisoners by 
the Indian allies. His two brothers were carried to Fort Ed- 
ward by the Indians, whilst he himself was conveyed to Bur- 
goyne's camp. Here he fell in with a neighbor named Concklin, 

Surrogate's Office, N. Y. lib. ii. 24. 


who, ftfter a fortnight's detention, forged a pass for both. By this 
means the sentinels were deceived. Our heroes swam the North 
river, (it was the early part of October,) and ran all that night. 
The next day they concealed themselves in the woods, and the fol- 
lowing night kept on their way, avoiding all habitations of note. 
Not knowing the state of parlies in the country, they skulked 
from one place to another until they reached Dutchess county, 
where Concklin was known. Here they rested themselves and 
obtained food. Soon after the treaty of peace, Mr. Leggetl re- 
moved to New York, tie died October lOih, 1843. His chil- 
dren were Samuel, Joseph, William H. and Thomas, besides sev- 
eral daughters. 

Opposite the residence of Edward G. Faile, Esq., on this neck, 
a rural lane leads southwest to Morrisauia. It is called La Fay- 
ette's Lane, to commemorate the journey of that general, who 
passed through it on his way to Boston. 

On the west side of the Planting Neck lies the dehateahle ter- 
ritory already alluded to. 

In 1740, Lewis Morris and Isabella, his wife, conveyed to 
James Graham, as a marriage portion with their daughter Ara- 

'* All that certain tract of land being (>art of the manor of Morrisania, sita- 
ate, lying and being in the coantj of Westchester, in the province of New 
York aforesaid, beginning at the mouth of a small brook or run of water com- 
monly called or known by the name of Wigwam Brook, but by some falsely 
called Sackwrahung, it being the first brook to the westward of an isthmus or 
neck of land known by the name of JeaffertTs Neck, and from the mouth of 
the said brook, where it falls into the salt water, running as the said brook 
runs to the head thereof, which being measured in a straight line north eight 
degrees thirty minutes more easterly, is forty and three chains running east, 
thirty-four degrees northerly to Bound Brook ; thence down the said Hound 
Brook, as it runs to the mouth thereof, where it falls in a salt water creek that 
runs by the house of Gabriel Leggett ; then along the said creek as it runs 
into the Sound to the eastward of the said Jeafferd*s Neck ; then along the 
Sound to the mouth of a salt creek that runs up to Wigwam Brook ; thence 
along up the said salt creek as it runs tu the mouth of Wigwam Brook, whence 
it first began, including the said Jeafferd^s Neck, with the hammock, meadows 
and marshes thereunto adjoining and belonging, being bounded to the west- 
ward by the said Wigwam Brook and the salt creek before mentioned that 


ruM up to it to the northwaid, partly by the lands of MorrUania aod the aalt 
ereek that runs by the house of the said Jjegget to the eastward, partly by the 
said Bound Creek, and partly the salt oreek aforesaid that mns by the honae of 
heigeti, and to the southward by the Sound that divides Long Island, or the 
Iriand of Nassau, from Connecticut, Sic. : the grantee paying therefore yearly, 
on the 25th of March, six ears of Jndian com, &c,^ 

^ From Austin Graham this property passed to the Leggetts, 
who have sold various portions to Mr. Dater, Mr. Etennison and 

Rose Bank, the charming seat of Mr. William H. L^fgett, 
Is situated near the entrance of Jtfferdis Neck, on the banks of 
the East River, the waters of which appear spread out into a vast 

The view in front of the house embraces Riker's Island, the Two 
Brothers, (called in the Dutch *' Gesellen,^^) the entrance of the 
Gate, and the distant shores of New York city, &c. In the Gra- 
ham mansion, which formerly stood on the site of Mr. Leggett's 
farm house, Major Bearmore, a British officer, was surprised by 
Colonel Armaud,* of the French cavalry. "November 7th, 

* The last whose name I recollect, (says the Marquis De Chastellaz,^ is Colonel 
Armand — ^that is, M. de la Rouerie, nephew of M. de la Belinage. He was as cele- 
brated in France for his passion for Mademoiselle B , as he is in America for his 

courage and capacity. His family, having compelled him to abandon an attach- 
ment, the consequences of which they dreaded, he buried himself in a celebrated 
and profound retirement ; (the monastery of La Trappe ;) but he soon quitted it for 
America, where he devoted himself to a more glorious abstinence, and to more me- 
ritorious mortifications. His character is gay, his wit agreeable ; and nobody would 
with to see him make the vow of silence. M. Le Marquis de la Rouerie was then 
very young : his subsequent conduct has proved that nature, in giving him a sos- 
ceptible and impassioned mind, has not made him a present likely to be always fatal 
to him : glory and honor have employed all its activity ; and it is an observation 
which merits to be consigned in history, as well as in this journal, that carrying 
with him, as he did to America, all the heroic courage and romantic notions of chi- 
Talry of the ancient French noblesse, he could so well conform to republican man- 
ners, that, far from availing himself of his birth, he would only ni&ke himself 
known by bis Christian name. Hence he was always called Colonel Armand. He 
commanded a legion which was destroyed in Carolina, at the battle of Camden, 
and in the remainder of that unfortunate campaign. In 1781 he went to France, 
purchased everything necessary for arming and equipping a new legion, and on hia 


1779, (says General Heath,) at night, Colonel Armand proceeded 
with his corps from near Tarrytown to the vicinity of Morris- 
ania, to the house of Alderman Leggett, where he surprised and 
took Major Bearmore and five others prisoners. The secresy^ 
precaution, gallantry and discipline exhibited by the colonel and 
his corps on this occasion did them much honor. In the capture 
of Major Bearmore, the inhabitants of the adjacent country were 
relieved from the frequent excursions of a troublesome officer."* 
The destruction of the old house took place under the following 
circumstances. Col. Fowler, of the British army, who had dis- 
possessed the Graham family, and made it his own quarters, invi- 
ted all the officers and gentry in the neighborhood to dine with 
him, preparatory to his change of quarters. The company were 
assembled, and all seemed gay and happy. The more youthful 
of both sexes were wandering about the lawn, enjoying the 
beauty of the prospect, when a servant (one of Mr. Graham's 
slaves) announced the important fact, '^Dinner is on the table.*' 
All turned their faces to the banqueting room, but before any one 
entered the door, there was a cry of fire heard. Col. Fowler 
seemed to think the dinner was more important than the build- 
ing : he ordered everything removed from the table, the gentle- 
men assisting, and in a few minutes the table and contents were 
removed to the shade of a large willow, where all seated them- 
selves, and appeared to enjoy the meal and the burning. The 
house was utterly consumed, with the contents, before the com- 
pany separated. No effort was made to save an article not re- 
quired for the better enjoyment of their meal. The same even- 
ing Colonel Fowler conducted a marauding party into the vicin- 
ity of Eastchester, where he was attacked and fell mortally 
wounded. Being brought back to the house of Cornelius van 
Ranc, overseer of Mr. Graham's farm, he expired that night. 

return to America he adyaneed the eoet of them to Congrese. Before the peace« 
he was adyanced to the rank of Brigadier-General — TruvtU in North Ainerit^, 
by Morquio de CkatteUux, page 90-1. 
b Heath's Mem. 223. 


In 1791 the Manor of Morrisania was annexed to the ancient 
borough town of Westchester by an act of the legislature,* and ao 
continued until 1846, when it was added to the present township. 
Its name is derived from the Morris family, the first mesne Lords 
and patentees under the crown, the termination ^^ania^^ being in 
general use in the latter part of the seventeenth century. At ti.e 
period of the Dutch discovery, it was styled by the aborigines 
Ranachque, or Raraque, an appellation which doubtless refers to 
some object peculiar to its geographical locality. The Indians 
appear to have resided principally on the shores of the East and 
Haarlem River. Of this, the extensive ''shell beds," which are 
still to be seen, afford conclusive evidence. Within a few years 
several Indian tumuli have been accidentally opened in the vi- 
cinity of Governeur Morris's residence, and found to contain large 
sized skeletons of the aborio^ines. The first grantee under the 
sachemf of Ranachque was Jotias Bronck, in 1639,^ who subse- 
quently obtained a '' grond brief from the Dutch authorities. In 
1639 we find the patroon of Broncl^s land leasing a portion of his 
territory in the following manner : '^ Appeared before me, Corne- 
lius van Tienhoven, secretary in New Netherland, in presence of 
the undersigned witnesses — Mr. Jonas Bronck from one side, and 
Peter Andriessen and Lourent Dayts from the other, who agreed 
together amicably in the following manner: said Mr. Bronck 
shall show to the persons aforesaid a certain lot of land, of which 
he is proprietor, and which is situated opposite the river and the 
plain of Manhattan ; in which lot aforesaid they may cultivate 
tobacco and maize, upon the express condition that they shall 
clear and cultivate, every two years, a fresh spot for raising their 
tobacco and maize, and then the spot which they cultivated be- 
fore shall return again to Mr. Bronck aforesaid, to dispose of ac- 
cording to pleasure; they shall be further obliged to return the 
field that they again surrender, that it is in proper order to be 
ploughed, and sowed with grain : this lot of ground they shall 

• Entitled an act to annex the town of Morrisania to the town of Wettcheatert 
paiaed 22d of February, 1791. 

k See Col. Morria*t confirmation of Bronck^s porehaae. 


have (be use during three years, for which Mr. Bronck shall 
have no other claim than that the land shall have been cleared 
and brought in a proper manner of culiivation by the diligence 
of Peter Andriessen and Lourent Dayts, who from their side 
shall be holden to accomplish their task. 21st July, 1639. 

Maunt Janssen, Witness."* 

We find Jonas Bronck again leasing land on the 15th of Au- 
gust, 1639, to Cornelius Jacobsen Stoll and John Jacobsen> 

Jonas Bronck must have died sometime prior to the year 1643, 
for we find his widow Antonia Slaghboom, at that date, married 
to Arendt van Curler. His descendants are said to be still nu- 
merous in the vicinity of Coxsackie, Green county, and Coey- 
tnans, Albany county, N. Y. 

By the marriage of Antonia Slaghboom, Bronck's land passed 
into the Van Curler family. In a letter to the patroon Van Rens- 
selaer, dated " The Manhattans, this 16lh of June, 1643," Van 
Curler says, " I am at present betrothed to the widow of the late 
Mr. Jonas Bronck. May the good God vouchsafe to bless me in 
my undertaking, and please to grant that it might conduce to his 
honor and to our mutual salvation. Amen."<^ 

On the 30th of October, 1644, Van Curler obtained a" grond brief* 
for Broncks' land from William Kieft, director general. I cannot 
forbear quoting an interesting sketch of this distinguished indi« 
vidual by E. B. O'Callaghan, historian of the New Netherlands. 
^'Arendt van Curler was one of those characters who deserve 
to live in history. His influence among the Indians was unlim- 
ited, and in honor of his memory these tribes addressed all suc- 
ceeding governors of New York by the name of " Corlear." He 
possessed feelings of the purest humanity and actively exerted 
his influence in rescuing from the savages such Christians as 
had the misfortune to fall into their Iiands, of whose danger he 
might receive timely notice. On his marriage with Antonia 
Slaghboom, the widow of Jonas Bronck, he visited Holland, and 
on his return moved to the Flatts above Albany where he had a 

« Alb. Reo. b Alb. Rec. 

e O'Callaghan't Hiit. N. Y. 464. 

Vol. 11. 36 


farm. He wps proprietor of a brewery in Bererwyck, in 1661. 
Being a cousin of the Van Rensselaers he had considerable 
influence in the colony, where he was a magistrate to the time 
of his decease. Ho was one of the leaders in the settlement of 
Schenectady in 1661-2, iind in the surrender of New Nether- 
lands was especinlly sent for by Governor Nicoli to be consulted 
on Indian afiairs and the interests of the country generally. 

He was highly respected by the governors of Canada, and the 
regard entertained for him by Monsieur de Tracy, viceroy of 
that country, will be best judged of by the following extract of a 
letter which that high personage addressed him, dated Quebec, 
30th April, 1667. 

'' 'If you find it agreeable to come hither this summer, as you 
have caused me to hope, you will be most welcome, and enter- 
tained to the utmost of my ability, as I have great esteem for 
you, though i have not a personal acquaintance with you. Believe 
this truth, and that I am, sir, your affectionate and assured 

« ' Tracy.* 

" Having accepted this invitation, Mr. van Curler prepared for 
his journey. Gov. Nicoli furnished him with a letter to the 
viceroy. It bears date May 20th, 1667, and stales that 'Mons'r 
Curler hath been importuned by divers of his friends at duebec 
to give them a visit, and being ambitious to kiss your hands he 
hath entreated my pass and liberty to conduct a young gentle- 
man, Mr. Fontaine, who unfortunately fell into the barbarous 
hands of his enemies, and by means of Mons'r Curler obtained 
his liberty.' On the 4th July following, Jeremias van Rensselaer 
writing to Holland, announces that ' our cousin Arendt van Cur- 
ler proceeds overland to Canada, having obtained leave from our 
general, and been invited thither by the viceroy, M. de Tracy. 
In an evil hour he embarked on board a frail canoe to cross Lake 
Champlain, and having been overtaken by a storm was drowned, 
I believe, near Split Rock. In his death this country experi- 
enced a public loss, and the French of Canada a warm and 
efficient friend.' '*» 

• O'Callaghan't Hut. N. N. 332, 3. 


Upon the 15th of January, A. D. 1676, the following letters of 
administration were granted unto Mr. Wiiliam Beeckman of the 
estate of Juffrou^ Slaghboom. 

" Edmund Andross, Esq,, ^t. 

** Whereas Juffrou Antonia Slaghboom, the widow and relict 
of Monsieur Aren it van Curler, late of Schanecktade near Albany, 
is lately dead, and in her last will and testament did nominate 
and appoint William Beeckman, sen., of this city to be her exe- 
cutor, and the said William Beeckman having made application 
unto me for letters of administration upon the estate of the 
deceased f^ &c., &c. 

On the 10th of July, 1651, sixteen years prior to his death, 
Arendt van Corlear, transported Broncks^ land to Jacob van 
Stoll, from whom it passed through several proprietors to Her- 
man Smeeman. 

22d of Oct. 1664. " Herman Smeeman of Comoonepan on 
the maine, sold to Samuel Edsall all that certain tract of land 
situated on the East river through Hell-gate, comn^only called 
Broncks' land, containing 500 acres." This sale was confirmed 
to Edsall by royal pntent the saiie yean 


Richard NieoHs, Esq., governor g^eneral under bis royal highness, Jaaesy 
Duke of York and Albany, of all his territories in America, To all to wh(im 
these presents shall come, sendeth greeting. Whereas there was a patent ojr 
ground brief heretofore granted by the Dutch Gov. Wiirm KieA, unto 
Areni van Curler for a certaine tract or parcel of land forroerjy in the te90K;e 
or occupation of Jonas Broncks, commonly called by the Indians by the name 
of Ranachque^ and by the English Broncks land^ lying and being on the main« 
to the east and over against Harlem town, having a certain small creek «r 
kill which runs between the north-west part of it and LiUle Barnes Mand^ 
near Hell-gate, and so goes into the East river and a greater creek or river 
which divides it from Manhattoes Islands, containing about 500 acres or %&0 
margon of land, and including all the push thereunto annexed or adjoiojng, 
which said patent or ground brief so granted as aforesaid, bearing date th« 

« A title of dtstinetion for a lady among the Dutch, 
b Surrogate's Office, N. Y. 2(fl. 


20th day of October^ 1644, was by the said Arent van Curler ^ upon the 10th 
day of July, 1651, transported and made over unto Jacob Jans StoUt^nd upon 
the 19th day of December, 1663, conveyed by Matthews de Vos, as atloniey 
of Geertrtiyt AndrieSy the widow of the said Jacob Jansen Sfoll, onto Geer^^ 
trieu Hendricks formerly the widow of Andries Hoppen, and by her upon the 
same day, (with the approbation and consent of Dirck Girrits Tan Tright, 
then her husband,) made over to Harman Smeeroan, who, upon the 22d day 
of October, 1664, sold and conveyed the same for a valuable consideration 
unto Samuel Edsall, late of this city, beaver maker, now for a confimmtioB 
unto him, the said Samuel Edsall, in his possession and enjoyment of the 
premises. Know ye that by virtue of the commission and authority uoto me 
given by his royal highness, I have ratified, confirmed, and granted onto the 
said Samuel Edsall, his heirs and assignees, all the aforesaid parcel of land 
and premises, with all the soil, woods, pastures, meadow ground, marshes, 
commonage, creeks, waters, lakes, fishing, hawking, hunting and fowling, 
within the limits before set furth, described, and all other profits, commodities 
and emoluments to the said parcel or part of land belonging or in anywise 
appertaining, to have and to hold the said parcel or part of land and premises 
unto the said Samuel Edsall, his heirs and assignees, unto the proper use and 
behoof of the said Samuel Edsall, his heirs and assignees, forever, rendering 
and paying such duties and acknowledgments as now are or hereafter shall 
be constituted and established by the laws of this government, under the obe- 
dience of his royal highness, his heirs and successors. Given under my 
band and seal at Fort James in New York, on the island of Manhattoes, the 
day of in the 20th year of bis majestie^s reign. Anno Domini 166 . 

Richard Nicolls. 

The next possessor of Bronchus land was Captain Richard 
Morris, who must have purchased of Edsall, cir. 1670. Mr. 
Sparks says : ** That there was a contract, dated the lOlh of Au- 
gust, 1670, in which Richard is styled a merchant in New York, 
and Lewis, his brother, a merchant in Barbadoes.'^ " It follows," 
(remarks Dunlap,) " that Richard was in Barbadoes in 1070, and 
contracted to come on to New York to purchase this grant of 
Morrisania for himself and brother, Lewis, who was to follow 
and settle on it ; but that he did not come until the p)eace of 
1G74, when he found the son of his brother an orphan, took him 
under his protection, and built at Morrisania."^ 

• Articles of ajiproement were entered into between the two brothersi that if either 
of them died without iMue, the survivor, or inue of the survivor, if any, should 
take the estat**. 

k» Punlap's Hist, of N. Y. vol i. 272. 


The Morris family are originally of Welch origin, and '^ lineal- 
ly descend from Elystan Glodrydd, a powerful British chief- 
tain, born in 933, who derived his name, Elystan, (or Athel- 
stan,) from the Saxon king, Athelstan, who was his godfather. 
The appellation of Glodrydd, or the Illustrious, was bestowed 
upon him, indicative of his personal deeds, as well as of his rank 
and extensive possessions, which comprised nearly all the lands 
between the Severn and the Wye. He died in the early part of 
the eleventh century, leaving by Gwladys, daughter of Rhun ap 
Ednowain, Prince of TegengI, a son, Cadwgan ap Elystan, 
Lord of Builth and Radnor, who married Margaret, daughter of 
Brockwel ap Acddan, of Powys. Sixteenth in descent from 
Cadwgan was {for intervening descent^ see Barkers History of 
the Landed Gentry q^England^ vol. iii. p. 233) Morys^ ap Mor- 
GAN.'^i^ About the middle of the fifteenth century, a branch set- 
tled in Monmouthshire, and became possessed of large estates 
there, at Tintern, Denham, Ponterry, &c. It was represented in 
1635 by three brothers, viz. Lewis, William and Richard Morris. 
Lewis, who inherited the paternal estate of Tintern, raised a troop 
of horse in support of the Parliament, for which Charles the First 
confiscated his estates in Monmouthshire. In return for his 
losses, Oliver Cromwell subsequently indemnified him. At the 
attack upon Chepstow Castle, which was defended by Sir Nicholas 
Kemish, the king's general, Lewis Morris was the second in 
command. After an obstinate resistance, the garrison was reduc- 
ed by cutting ofi'the supply of water which ran through the es- 
tate of Pearcefield, then owned by Col. Morris' son-in-law, John 
Walters, and setting fire to the castle. From this circumstance, 
the family assumed as their crest a castle in flames, with the fol- 
lowing motto, <^ tandem vincitur" — at length he is conquered. 

• This name, originally apelt Mawr-rwyee or Mawr-rhys, was changed into Maa- 
rice, Morrice and Morrta. " Man, Mayon, WaUie^, ' Mawr-rwyce/ and Angliee ; 
' warlike, powerful,' ia a title applied to aaeh of the ancient chieaaina aa were pra- 
eminent for yalor, whose nnmeroas deecendants account for the present freqneney 
of the name in Wales. To this one of the mottoes borne by the family of Morris 
seems to have reference, 'Marie et mart faventibui,* " — Burke's History of tha 
Landed Gentry. 

b Burke's History of the Landed Gentry, vol. iv. 488. 


In 1654, he was despatched by Cromwell to the Spanish West 
Indies, with orders to make himself master of those seas. In 
this undertaking he was aided by his nephew, Captaui John Mor- 
ris, who had been long settled on the Island of Barbadoes. 
While on this service, Captain Lewis Morris purchased a large 
estate in that island. When the Protector sent forces to attack 
Hispniola, under Admirals Penn and Yenables, he forwarded a 
vacant rej^iment and a colonePs commission to him, with instruc- 
tions that the forces were to land as directed by Colonel Morris. 
The failure of the expedition is said to have been owing, in a 
great measure, to a non-compliance with his directions.* In the 
attack upon the Island of Jamaica, Lewis was second in com- 
mand. On ihe restoration of King Charles the Second, Colonel 
Morris deemed it prudent not to return to England, where his fa- 
mily had played so bold a part. In 1663, he, with others, pur- 
chased the Island of St. Lucia of Amiwatta Baba, chief proprie- 
tor of the Carribee Islands. He subsequently emigrated to the 
province of New York in 1674. 

William Morris, who had for his portion Denham, also joined 
the Parliamentary service, and took an active part against the 
king, when (through his favorite, the Marquis of Worcester,) he 
attempted lo enclose Wendswood chase, Monmouthshire. Upon 
the defeat of the popular party, William determined upon a sea 
voyage, until the storm should have blown over. He was lost 
at sea. His son John received a captain's commission from the 
Parliament in 1651. Like his father, he also perished at sea oft' 
Deal Castle in 1688. His body was found under the walls of the 
castle, and buried with military honors. His descendants are 
still numerous in the Island of Barbadoes. 

Richard Morris, the youngest of the three, held a captain's com- 
mission in his brother's regiment. Upon the restoration, he re- 
tired to the Island of Barbadoes, where he married a lady of large 
fortune, by the name of Pole. This individual was the first pro- 
prietor of Morrisania in 1670. The following letter addressed by 
the secretary of the colony to " Colonel Lewis Morris, at the Is- 

* Admiral Peon's Journal, in possession of the late Thomas PeoiL 


land of Barbadoes," establishes the death of Richard, and Sarah, 
his wife. 

New York, 29th Oct. 1672. 
Worthy Sir, — Since my reception of yours by Wm. Shack- 
erly, no opportunity of conveyance to you hath presoiited from 
hence till this present. Although by the way of Boston, I sup- 
pose you would sooner receive the sad tidings of your brother's 
decease, in whom as you have lost an only brother so have I a 
dear friend ; I shall not insist upon many particulars relating 
thereto ; our general letters arriving to you herewith I hope suf- 
ficiently inform you ; yet I cannot but reflect upon the transitory 
condition of poor mortals, when I frequently call to mind in how 
little time God hath been pleased to break a family, in taking 
away the heads thereof; first, a virtuous young woman in the 
prime of life, and then a man full of strength and vigor, inured 
to hardships, of whom there is remaining but one poor blossom, 
of whom yet there may be great hope with your kind friendship, 
for it is a lovely, healthy child, and was well at Ha tr"« , where 
it is at nurse, and I went to see it yesterday. I was also at the 
plantation on the other side, when there was some public correc- 
tion of two or three negroes, and breaking the necks of a mutiny 
among the white men by Mr. Gibbs, and through his vigilance it 
is now in good order. The crime of the negroes is reported to 
be so natural to them, which was both stealing and receiving 
stolen goods. 

Worthy sir, 

Your most dutiful 

Humble servant, 

Matthias Nicoll. 
The Governor presents you his 
kind respects and service. 

Col. Lewis Morris, 

At the Island of Barbadoes. 

" Letters of administration of the estate of Captain Richard 
Morris, brother of Colonel Lewis Morris, were granted to Mr. 
Matthew Nicolls Major, Captain Thomas De La vail, Mr. Corue- 

288 HisrroRY or the 

lius Steenvvyck, Captain John Berry, and Mr. Thomas Gibbs, 
trustees, in 1672."* 

" Lewis Morris," (continues Mr. Dunlap,) " tells us in the pre- 
amble to his will, that his ^mother died when' he 'was about 
six months old,* and his father not long after, in New York, 
where he was left an orphan entirely in the hands of strangersi 
who were appointed by the government to take care of him." He 
thus lost his parents, (who were prbbably English, avoiding the 
restoration of kingly government in that country,) when Francis 
Lovelace was governor of New York, and between the years 1667 
and 1673, when the province was again surrendered to the Dutch, 
and the boy '* put by their magistrates into the hands of the tnis- 
tees, by them appointed to take care of him, and of what effects 
their soldiers had left unplundered ; and after the surrender of 
New York to the English," by the peace of 1674, his 'Mmcle 
came to these parts of America, and kindly took care of him, un- 
til he came to man's estate."^ 

In 1676, Lewis Morris, second proprietor of Morrisania, and 
brother of Richard, obtained the following letters patent : 


Edmund Andros, Esq., seigneor of Sausmarez, lieut. goT*r genM under his 
royal highness, James, Duke of York, and of all his territories io America, 
to all to whom these presents shall come, with greeting. Whereas Col. 
Lewis Morris of the island of Barbadoes hath long enjoyed and by patent 
stands possest of a certain plantation and tract of land, lying and being upon 
the maine, over against the town of Haerlem, commonly called Broncks* land^ 
the same containing about five hundred acres, or two hundred and fifty morgea 
of land, besides the meadow thereunto annexed or adjoining, cotted and 
bounded as in the original Dutch ground brief and patent of confirmation is 
sett forth, and the said Col. Morris having made good improvement upon the 
said land, and there lying lands adjacent to him not included in any patent or 
grants, which land the said Col. Morris doth desire for further improTcment, 
this said land and addition being bounded from bis own house over against 
Haerlem, running up Haerlem river to Daniel Turner's land, and so aloag his 
said land northward to John Archers's line, and from thence stretching east 

• Surrogate's Office, N. Y. lib. i. 173. 
b Dunlap't Hilt. N. Y. vol. i. 373. 


to the land of John Richardson and Thomas Hunt, and thence alung the Sound 
about southwest, through Bronck*s kill, to the said Col. Morris his house, the 
additional laud containing (according to the survey thereof,) the quantity of 
fourteen hundred, and the whole, one thousand nine hundred and twenty 
acres. Now know ye that by virtue of the commission and authority unto 
me given by his royal highness, I have confirmed, granted, and given, and do 
hereby confirm, give, and grant unto the said Col Morris, his heirs and as- 
signees, the afore recited land before possest by him, and the additional land 
herein ezprest, and bounded as aforesaid, together with the woods and mea- 
dows, both salt and fresh waters and creeks belonging to the^ said land and 
premises, in his royal highnesses gift, with all and singular the appurtenances 
to have and to hold these said lands and premises unto the said Col. Lewis 
Morris, his heirs and assignees, unto the proper use and behoof of him the 
said Col. Lewis Morris, his heirs and assignees forever. He continuing in 
obedience and conforming himself according to the laws of this government 
and yielding and paying therefor yearly and every year as a quitt rent to his 
royal highness five bushels of good winter wheat. 

Given under my hand and sealed with the seal of the province of New York, 
this &re and twentieth day of March in the eighth and twentieth year of his 
majesty's reign. Anno Domini, 1676. 

Recorded by order of the gov'r the Akdross. 

day and year above written. 

Matthias NicollSi Sec. 

A confirmation from the Indians occurs on the 7th of Febru- 
ary, 1684. 

** To all to whom this present writing shall come, doth witness, that ws 
Shahash, Panazarah, Wanaoapeen, Kneed, Taquamarke, and Awarasawist 
having formerly sold unto Jonas Broncks a large tract of land lying and being 
between ye river commonly called Broncks' river and Harlem kill, and more 
especially that tract of land that Colonel Morris stands now possest of, as his 
draught and ground brief bearing date in ye year 1675, excepting forty mor« 
gen« of land that we sold Daniel Turner ye elder, being bounded on the west 
side with Harlem river, the aforesaid Colonel Morris his land, being bounded 
on the north side with the land of John Archer, beginning at Crabb Island 
and running east or thereabouts until it comes to ye corner tree of Richardson 
and Hunt and so down to ye southward according to ye marked line until it 
come to ye bound brook between ye said Colonel Morris and ye said Richard- 
son and Hunt, and from thence along ye creek to ye Sound or East river 
until yon come to Daniel Turner's land, that's above mentioned, including the 
purchase of ye said Colonel Morris, that point of land called Nauasin, whers 

* A Dutch morgen messurt d a little less than two acres English. 

Vol. IL 37 


formerly lived a Frenchman named Marcns Dosaisway, all which ptreel or 
tract of land we do for ooraelvea, our heirs, execotora, admiDiatratora, uai 
aaaigneea, fully and wholly acquit and discharge for ever ye said Ccdooel 
Morris, his heyres, executors, and administrators, of all and every part aod 
parcel of ye residue of ye money that should have been paid by ye aforesaid 
Brancks for the purchase of ye said land, declaring to the world that we ae-* 
knowledge for oarseWes, ocr hejrres, executors, and assignees, to be folly 
paidj satisfied, and contented. In witness whereof we have hereonto aett oar 
hands and fixed our seals this scTenth day of Febmary, 1684, in preaenee 
of us, 

Samuel Edsall, Ye mark X Taquamarke. 

John Bassetf, Ye mark O Wanacapeen. 

John Manton, 
Signed and sealed by Awanawis, Witnessed by Longe Clasaey 
Shahash, and Kneed, in presence a lady Wastowancett, 
of us. Ye marke of X Awanawis, 

John Ibenny, Ye marke of I Shahash, 

Edward Harrall, Ye marke of {) Kneed. 

John Edsall. 

On the 25ih of October, 1676, Colonel Morris purchased a 
large tract of land in East Jersey, consisting of 3640 acres, 
which he named Tintern and Monmouth, aAer the paternal es- 
tate in Monmouthshire, Wales. 

The last will and testament of Colonel Morris bears date 7th 
of February, 1690. Although twice married, he left no issue; 
his nephew, therefore, according to the agreement of 1670, suc- 
ceeded to the estates. Upon the 15th of May, 1691, Henry 
Sloughter, Captain General and Governor-in-chief, " granted let- 
ters testamentary to Lewis Morris, nephew to Colonel Morris, the 
executrix being dead." 


Whereaa I formerly intended to have made my nephew, Lewia Morria, aon 
of my deceased brother, Richard Morris, my sole executor ; his many and 
great miscarryages and disobedience towards me and my wife, and his caaae- 
less absenting himself from my house, and adhering to and advizeing with 
those of bad life and conversation, contrary to my directions and example onto 
him, and for other reasons best known to myselfe, I doe make and ordaine my 
dearly beloved wife, Mary Morris^ sole executrix of this my last will and tea- 
ment; and 

To the meeting of Frienda at Shrewsbury, in Monmouth co., five pounds 


ourrent money of New York per annam forever, to be paid out of his planta- 
tion '^t Tinton ironworks, to be paid on 25th March yearly. 

To Thomas Webley, of Shrewsbury, 950 acres on the westermost part of 
his 2000 acres, lying between Swimming River and Hop River, Monmouth 
CO.. — he paying quit rent one half penny sterling pr acre. 

To Lewis Morris, of Shrewsbury, one of his best mares in the woods, and 
i:20 N. York curr'y. 

To his nephew, Lewis Morris, son of his brother, Richard Morris, as soon 
as he attains the age of 21, the rest, residue, and remainder of his eHe ; t. e. 
his plantation and iron works at Tinton, with all lands, meadows, houses, 
barns, mills, runs and ponds of water, water courses, rivers, woods, trees, or- 
chards, gardens, all his negroes on that plantation, cattel, horse, kinde, swine, 
and all other creatures ; all household goods, utensils, moveables, immo*bles, 
bills, bonds, patents, books of ac, debts belong'g to ye place, all profits, privi- 
ledges and appurt'ces : also one flat handled spoon, one small tankard, one 
salt cellar, one small sugar box all of silver, one small cabinet sealed op ; — 
wherein is four pearl necklaces, three or four jewels set in gold, and several 
other things of value ; one negro woman named Bess, — which forementioned 
plate, cabinett, and negro woman, were* his brother ^s — unto which he adds all 
the children of said woman Bess, except one that is otherwise disposed of; 1 
doz. silver spoons, one large tankard, one large tumbler, one small tumbler, 
and one porringer, all of silver ; all which last mentioned things he gives his 
nephew in lieu of some things that are lost and supposed to be embezzled by 
Walter Webley ; also J^20 in silver current at New York, and ten guinneys, 
the whole given with this restriction and limitation, that he shall quietly and 
peaceably acquiess and submit himself wholly and absolutely unto every thing 
mentioned or to be m'd in his will and t*t, and shall make no opposition or ob- 
jection against the same, nor any part thereof, but to his power shall perform 
and fulfill all things whatsoever that on his part I have hereby enjoyned unto 
him ; otherwise, it is my final determination and result, that if my said ne- 
phew, Lewis Morris, his h^rs or as's, on any pretence or right from his father 
afd, whether by partnerships with me or purchase, or any way else, shall at 
any time hereafler, either by himself or any other person or persons claiming 
from, for, by or under him or them, by any manner of way or means whats'r, 
make any demand or pretend any right, title or int*t to any part or p'l of estate 
that now doth or may hereafter belong unto me, more than I have by these 
presents entitled him unto, than to what I have by these presents entiilsd him 
him unto, then, and in such case, I do hereby revoake, nullifie and make void, 
all and every part of what I have herein before given and beq unto my said 
nephV, L. M. And my will is, that in case of any disturbance by my s*d n V 
cono*g the premiss or any part or par of e*ts, real or p'l, hereby oth*se beq*d, 
and that my sM dearly bel*d wife Mary M., her h*rs or as, shall thenceforth 
and then immediately enter into possession, have, occupie and enjoy all and 
eo'n part and parcel of ye before recited premises, beq*ts and legacys givea 


or to b g, to my sM nV L. M., if he or any, under pretence of him, shall at 
any time molest my sM wife, her heirs or assigns, in her or their peac'bl en- 
joy 't of whatsoever est'te, r' or p'l. that is or shall be herein and hereby giveo 
and beqM unto her or them, any thing herein conM to the contrVy notw*hst^g« 
only giveing unto him ; and I doe hereby give and bequeath unto m sM b L. 
M. the snm of ten pounds cur*t money of N. Y., to be paid unto him by my 
8*d ex*z, h h^s and as^s in foil of my bequests and legacys unto him in case of 
any snch disturbance or molestation as aforesaid. 

Item, I gi?e and beq unto my honM friend, William Penn^ my negro man 
Taff, provided the said Penn shall come to dwell in America ; otherwise the 
B*d Yaff is to serve my said wife equally with other negroes. Item, I give 
and beq unto William Bickley one negro girl named Maria. Item. • • • 

• to Wm. Richardson one negro boy named Jack. Item to 

SamM Palmer one n. girl named Buckey. Item, I . . . onto my negro 
man Toney, the cooper, the snm of 40 shillings a yeare during his life, be- 
sides his usual accommodation. Item unto my negro w'n NeU 

her ffreedom and liberty to goe att large wheresV she shall please after the 
dec*se of my sM wife. These two last beq^ts are with this restriction and 
limitation, that they yield all duty, full submis'n and faiihfl obed*ce in all re- 
spects as becom^h diligH servHs tow^ds my wife ; otherwise, they are to enjoy 
no benefit hereby, but their beqHs to be void, as if never written or moot. 
Item, I g and b unto John Adams, of Flushing, h h and as*s, the sum of five, 
pounds, which ia due to me on his obligacon. Item, Moreover* I g and beq 
unto my said nepV, L. M., all my land and m*ws att Mattinicot, on Long Isl^d, 
together with all the profits and privires adv^g thereof, to him, his heirs and 
as's for ever, togV.with one half of all my pewter and the one half of all my 
house linen for bedding and tabling that is on my plantation over against Har- 
lem, and all my printed books, except such as my said wife shall please to re- 
serve unto herselfe. Note, that these last bequests unto my sM n'w L. M. are 
given and beqM under ye same limitations and rest*ns with those legacys first 
above mentioned, and not otherwise. Item, I give and beq^h unto ye meeting^ 
of Friends, in the prov^ce of N. Y., the sum of six pounds per annum, to be 
paid oat of my plant'n ag*t Harlem af d, in the s*d prov^ce. by whoms^er shall 
enjoy the same, according to my devise thereof, as hereafter appears, and on 
every 25th of the month called March, yearly and ev'y year forever, onto 
SQch p*n or per as shall be thereunto ap^d. 

Item, All the rest, residue and remainder of my estate and my plantation, 
rl and pM, where I now inhabitt over against Harlem afd, I give and beq*h 
onto my dMy beloved wife, Mary Morris, her heirs and as*s forever, the lands 
thereof, cont^g about 2000 acres best m or 1, tog*r with all houses, barns, miUs* 
runns and ponds of water, water courses, rivers, orchards, gardens, trees, 
woods, negroes of all kinds, cattell, swine, sheep, horse, kinds, and all other 
creatures and improves whatsoever, as also all goods, household stuff and 
utensills, moneys, plate, aud every thing else moveable and im'ble within doors 


ind wH that ean be named or ezpreseed, that now ie, or hereafter shall be 
in my poa*n or any ways belon*g unto the s'd pFo, except what is here other* 
wise disposed of and beq*d. Item. I give and beq*h unto my said d'y bel'd 
wife all that my houses, land in N. Y. city situate over against the bridge, 
unto all appurCces, profitts and advantages whatsoever thereunto belong^g, 
with all deeds, patterns, writings, bills, bonds, obIig*ions, and all things else 

WhatsV, named and unnamed, belonging. Item to John Bowne, 

of Flushing, one negro girl nM Abba ; is att old Thomas Hunts. Item. . . 
. . to Miles Foster one serv^ble negro boy, such as my s'd d*y belM wife 

shall appoint. Item to RicM Jones, M^ht, of N. Y., one negro 

boy or one negro girl, such as m d b wif shall appoint. Item to 

William Bickley and to my nV, L. M., all my right, t and int in and to the 
ship Friends' Adventure, as also of all my part of her profits and adages by 

freight or otherwise, to each of th eql alike part. Item my sM 

n'w, my gold seale and my negroman Yeabba ; and whereas, I have beqM unto 
m s*d nV, L. M., all m E at the ironworks at T., with this expression, viz. 
(as soon as H sM attaine to the age of 21 yeare,) 49 as above written, I doe 
now revoake ye sM expression as to time, giving unto him, my sM n*w, full 
power and auth'y to enter into and possess the s*d e'te, and ev'y part and p'l 
thereof, immly after my decease, anything before above w'n to the contrary 
not'g, but under the same restrictions and limitations as before men'd, viz. by 
his conformity to the fulfilling of this my last will and testament ; all the rest 
of my plate and money, silver and gold, I give and beq'th unto my dearly be* 
loved wife. Lastly, I desire, author and app't my trusty ffriends, Ric'd Jones 
and Miles Ffoster, of N. Y., John Bowne, of Fflushing, Wm. Richardson, of 
W CV, Richard Hartshorne and John Hanes, of co of Monmouth, and Wm. 
Bickley, of W'r co aforesaid, to be my executors in trust, and overseers to see 
this my will punctually perf d and fulfilM ; and in regM to the remoteness of 
their abodes from one another, I do order and appoint that any three of them 
may act as they shall find needfull, provided Wm Rich'n, Wm Bickley, er 
RichM Hartshorne be of that number ; and for want of a 3d person in the co 
of Monmouth, RM Hartshorne and John Hanes may act there as they Ihall 
find cause, or may choose a 3d person to act, &c. &c. 

And now, having thus disposed of that outward estate and substance that it 
hath pleased God to possess me of, I commit my soul to God, &c. 
^ In testimony whereof, I the sM Lewis Morris, have hereunto to this my last 
will and tH subscribe, signM and fixed my seal, at my plant^n over against 
Harlem, in the p*o N. Y., this seventh day of this twelfth month called Feb- 
ruary, in the year 1690, in presence of Johannis Vermilje, Jan Tibout, Lama- 
eert Zoches, Oavied Lillies, marks of Susannah Roberts — Wm. Bickley. 

By the Commander in Chbif. 
Whereas, Lewis Morris, gent., adminrstrator of the goods, 


rights and credits of Lewis Morris, deceased, is obliged to make 
and exiiibite a true and perfect inventory of all and singular the 
goods, rights and credits of the said dece'sd, into the surveyor's 
office of this province. These are to authorize and impower you, 
Stephanus v. Cortlandt, Nicholas Bayard, John Pell and William 
Richardson, to make a true and faithful! appraisement of the 
goods, rights and credits aforesaid, according to the best of your 
knowledge and discretion, and for so doing, this shall be to you 
a sufficient warrant. Dated at Fort William Henry, the 23d of 
October, 1691. 

Richard Itigoldsby to Stephanas van Cortlandt, Nich Bayard, John Pell and 
William Richardson, Lewis Morris, inventory. A true inventory of all and 

singular the goods, chattels and credits of Coll. Lewis Morris, deceased, 
appraised at the plantation^ the day of 1691, by Coll. Ste- 

phanus van Cortlandt, Coll. Nicholas Bayard, John Pell and William 
Richardson, Esq., by virtue of a warrant to them directed, under the 
hand of the commander-in-chief and seal of the prerogative office, 
bearing date the day of October, Anno 1691, and exhibited in the 

surveyor's office, being the prerogative registry of this province bj 
Lewis Morris, administrator of all the goods, chattels and credits of the 
•aid Coll. Lewis Morris, deceased. 

Imprimus, 16 i. 
Shop goods. 

36 Armes v Airy, (vitriol) at 2s 6d, 

8 pieces and ^ strouds, 

3 tunn of iron at 14Ib. p. tunn, 
30 yds. and } of black silk prunella, 
39 yds. lutestring, 

3 pieces of 10 yds. bagg, Holland, 33 yds. in each piece, 

7 pices white calicoes, at 20s. 
3001b. white sugar, 
16 pr. of women's worsted hose, at 
16 pd. yarne, 

1 case black hefted knives, 
lOIb ginger. 

* Arms, (aams) on old Dutch measure. 


1. d. 


14 00 

44 00 00 

42 00 00 


15 00 

12 00 00 


12 00 

7 Ob 00 


10 00 


8 00 

16 00 

6 00 

2 00 


8 yds. red caddis, 
13 yds Scotch tikkin, 

6 yards English tick, 

1 black leather saddle, 

3 yds daflells, 

45 yds Peony stone, at 2s 6d, 
53 yds. Loskoraro, at 15d. 
16 inkhornes, 

12 mille pins, 

5 ivory combs, 

6 home and wood ditto, 
4 raille needles, 

5 pair shoe buckles, 

4 pr. knitting needles, 

2 doz. fish hooks, 

yds. mock medley, 

6 gimbletts, 

10 doz. gimp buttons, 

5 yds. fustian, 

3 lb. white and brown thready 

3 oz. silk, 

2 suites dampeeriyed curtains, 

13 yds diaper linnen, 

6 yds ozenbriggs, 

14 yds dampureyed swanskin, 

9 ditto white bay damnifyed, 
6 ditto kersy, at 

6 ditto serge, at 

8} ditto topsills, 

\\ hair plush, 

8 pair womens knit gloves, 

1 doz. ditto kid, 

6 pr. mens sheep, ditto, 
8 pr. damnified bodice and stomacher, 

4 pr mens worsted hose, 

2 mens thread hose, 

2 Spanish leather skinns, 

4 shamy skins full of holls, 
6 yds move, 
16 yds persian silke, 

3 ditto course cambrick, 



16 00 


4 00 


00 00 


12 00 


12 00 


6 3 

6 00 

14 00 



2 6 

1 6 

3 9 

1 3 

3 6 

6 00 


14 00 

2 00 

3 4 

7 6 

16 00 

6 00 



19 00 

6 00 

14 00 

18 00 


4 00 



5 00 

6 00 



4 00 




10 00 

8 00 

18 00 

6, 00 


16 00 




5 00 


19 ytnia btir banttioe, 
Sa yds Mtipt blew, 
4 jit Bculett, kt 3i, 

0| yds hiJT chamblett, 

i piecei and remaaDi pintsdo*, 

S yds. cnpe, 

S ydi ahkUoon, 

5 ;di. woTtted drugged, 
I lb. inonnry, 

fiO lb. eoidage, 
A piroell ladlerjr, 

4 lb. wbJM la&d, It 6d, 
30 lb. led oker, 

SS ealvo skipDi, 

40 faog skipns, 
3 pr. ailk hote, 

6 ;ds. red Iwje 

1 pail red Mockingi, woaied, noTnen, 

I pr. green sUke hose, 

Honaehold linnen, 
19 Holland tbeeia, 
15 pr. other linnsn sheets, 

9 diaper (abie -cluailis, 

T damask table cloalbs, 

9 Onenbriggs, 

6 damask cupboard cloalbs. 

& dex. damask napkins, 

3 doz. diaper napkina, 

& doi. Oxenbrigg's napkins, 

fi towels, 

41 pillow cases, 

Household stufT. 
13 cane chairs, broken and oat of order, 
13 old Tarkey worke chairs, 

5 wicker chairs, 
8 leather chaira, 

a IT 00 

4 00 



19 4 

6 00 


6 00 

S 00 

IS 00 

B 00 

10 00 

9 10 00 


5 00 




90 SOO 

» 000 

4 10 00 

« 000 

18 00 

18 00 

10 00 

1 10 00 

fi e 



3 18 

3 000 


I 4 00 

3 00 

340 1« » 

340 10 a 


3 puna, 


4 low chtin. 

18 00 

1 (uiu UpeHry hingingi, 

3S 000 

1 pr. bUnkelU d«D) , 

6 00 

« Tuibe; coahiooi, 

18 00 


« 00 

10 »ble«. 

* 00 

5 ciMtb iDd MUgs cupeia. 

fl 5 00 

1 clock and case. 

S 040 

1 mublo monmr. 

1 19 00 

1 ligDDm Tit«, ditto, 

» 00 

.9 duesoea. 



8 00 

4 trunk*, 

1 4 00 

1 Mriplora, 

S 00 

A pueeU book*. 

18 00 

a pieues »pp»rreU, 

3 000 

1 Jack and 3 spitta, 

9 000 

3 cases ofliottlei of apiriU, 

4 8 00 

1 waiering poll. 


4 pr. btlbwa, 



4 Jicto diawera. 

16 • 

1 wetthet giftsa. 

1 speaking Irampel. 

1 ledd plaah saddle. 

1 oalUeo qoik. 

1 hd. and 4 salt, 

I cwt. while taliow. 

Scale* and beam*, and 1 ewt. 3 qt*. 16 lb. weight, 

ft barrel* beefand 9 ditto pork, 


(4) S gall*, spirit*. 

1 barrel! moIa**e*, 

1 barrel Morado sugar, 
1 firkin soap, home made, 
814 lb. Casteel aoap at 7d. 

ft doc. and S platn, 

Vol. II. 


8 basons, 
S ohsese p1ates» 
S pye plates, 
4 old pewtsr csDdl, 
1 egg dish, 
1 ordpann, 
1 fruit pott, 
(168) 4 quart potts, 

4 saucers, 
18 platers. 

1 flask and bold standish, 

1 laobeck aiid I pewter worm. Id all 364 lb. at lOd. per R>. 16 S 4 

Andirons, grate tongs, fire sho?els, racks, tramells, iron potts, 
trevetts, dripping pan, clea?er8, frying panos, fenders, &c., 
in all 927 lb. at 7d. Hooks and eyes, 97 

5 anchors and 2 graplins gt. 319, at 6d 7 19 6 

1 copper kettle, 

6 potts, 

1 desertion copper, 
1 cooler, 

1 copper still. Qt in all 416 lb. at 18d 31 4 


2 brass kettles, 

3 stewpans, candlesticks, &c., of brass, implements cent. 

1021b. at 15d 6 7 6 

£55S 2 10 
2 boxes candles, qt. 150 at 6d 3 15 


40 lb. at 12d 200 

1 whip saw, qt. appraised among the former impl. 

Bedsteads and Bedds. 

One bedd and furniture in the great room, . 25 

One in the dining room, 18 

One in the lodging room, 15 

4 other ditto, 36 

5 bedds without furniture, 20 


900 oz. plate at Gs. Od 303 15 

Cash and wampum, 89 9 



(169) 180 goyneys, 243 

1 double goiaey, 2 14 

23jaoobu8S, 34 10 

61 ditto, 4 10 

4i ditto, 1 10 

1 pi8to11e, . . . . 14 

2 double doubloons, 9 12 

5 pr uroall claspe, 

1 bullett, 
1 plain piece, 
1 aingle tootb-piek, 
1 double ditto, 

1 case ditto with small bodkin, 

2 bodkins, 

1 mourning ring, 

1 heart with lock of hair, 

1 mash bead, 
eont. in all 4 oz. 5 pwts. and 6 grs. at 41. 13s. 9d. per ot. 19 19 

DebU good and bad, 2194 

i:3661 13 10 
112 bottles, foni of them with syrup, aid other odd things, 18 


540 bushells at 3s. . , , . , . . 81 

60 aeres of wheat at 12s 30 

Stock, vis. 

24 oxen, « . 72 

17 cows, 84 

4 bolls, 800 

8 year and vantage, ^ • 10 

5 yearlings, 3 15 

2caWes, . . ^ . « « . ^ . . 12 

30 horses, mares, and colts, 60 

30 head of swine, 9 

147 sheep, 36 15 

(170) Plantation Impl'ts. 

3 carts and 1 pr timber wheels, . . ^ . . 20 

1 sloop and yall, 74 

1 yall and pinnace, 10 

12 lb. deer suett at 6d. 6 

Hangings of the lodging rooms, three old eabbinetts for all tools and 

Qtensib for th« famii and family, and appateO not particularised, 20 



24 galls, refined molasses at 18d. 

N.B. Miss addition in folio 4. 

1 16 

£UZ4 5 10 
. 15 4 

JC4149' 10 

82 man negroes at 20/. 
11 women at 15/. 

6 boys at 15/. 

2 garles at 12/. . 
25 children at 5/. 








3 box irons and heaters, 

I little letter box, 
Memorandum ; we finde in fol. the particulars by the apppraise- 

ment to amount to the summe of, . • 195 14 5 

in ful. 2, 39 4 

in fol. 3, 107 18 3 

in fol. 4 135 7 8 

in fol. 5, 98 12 6 

in fol. 6, 3023 11 

in fol. 7, 472 11 

^64071 16 1 
. 844 

Besides the negroes in fol. 7, more, 

Appraised by us underwritten. 

More 17doz. scissors at 38. 2 11 Step. V. Cortlandt* 

7 cwt. 1 qr. 9 lb. old lead N. Batard, 

at 308. per cwt. 11 John Pell, 


X13 11 


Exhibited the seventeenth day of February, 1691, by Lewis Morris, ad- 
ministrator, &c, for a true and perfect in?entory, &c., but under protestation 
of adding, &c., if &c. 

L. Morris. 

Lewis Morris, heir of his uncle Lewis, and third proprietor of 
Morrisania, appears to have been a man of extraordinary talents. 
Chief Justice William Smith informs us, that of all the members 
/)f the New York assembly in 1710, ''Colonel Morris had the 
greatest influence on our public affairs. He was a man of letters, 


and, though a little whimsical in his temper, was grave in his 
manners, and of penetrating parts. Being excessively fond of 
the society of men of sense and reading, he was never wearied at 
a sitting till the spirits of the whole company were dissipated. 
From his infancy he has lived in a manner best adapted to teach 
him the nature of man, and to fortify his mind for the vicissitudes 
of life. He very early lost both his father and mother, and fell 
under the patronage of his uncle, formerly an officer of very con- 
siderable rank in CromwelVs army ; who, after the Restoration, 
disguised himself under the profession of Quakerism, and settled 
on a fine farm within a few miles of the city, called, after his 
own name, Morrisania, Being a boy of strong passions, the 
general indications of a fruitful genius, he gave frequent otfence 
to his uncle, and, on one of these occasions, through fear of his 
resentment, strolled away into Virginia^ and thence to Jamaica 
in the West Indies, where, to support himself, he set up for a 
scrivener.''* "As a proof of his boyish propensities, (says Mr. 
Dunlap,) we are told that when a pupil to Luke Coppathwait, a 
Quaker, Lewis, hid himself in a tree by which his teacher was 
to pass, and in a feigned voice, with great solemnity called upon 
Luke, (from above, of course,) and ordered him to go and preach 
the gospel among the Mohawks. Luke considered the bidding 
miraculous, and prepared to obey, when either by compunction 
of the boy, or other means, he was undeceived. After several 
years passed in the West Indies, the wanderer returned to Mor- 
risania, and was received by his uncle with forgiveness and joy. 
To settle him for life, the uncle brought about a marriage be- 
tween Lewis and Misfs Graham,"** "a fine lady, (continues Mr, 
Smith,) with whom he lived above fifty years, in the possession 
oi every enjoyment which good sense and polite manners in a 
woman could atford."<^ 

Upon the 8th of May, 1697, Lewis Morris obtained royal let- 
ters patent from King William the Third, erecting Morrisania 
into a township and manor, to be holden of the king in free and. 

• SmiUi*i H«Ury of N. Y. b Dunlap'i Hiat. N. Y. toI. i. 278. 

« Smith'i Hitt. of N. Y. 


common soccage, its lord yieMing and rendering therefore annu* 
ally, on the Feast Day of the Annunciation of our blessed Virgin 
Mary, the rent of six shillings. 


William the Third, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c.,to all to whom these presents ahall 
come, sendeth greeting : Whereas, the Hun^ble Edmund Andross, Ee^., 
Seigneur of Saasmarez, late governor of oar province of New York, Ac, 
by a certain deed or patent, sealed with the seal of oar said province of New 
York, bearing date the 85th day of March, in the year of our Lord 167a, pur- 
suant to the commission and authority then in him residing, did confirm unto 
Col. Lewis Morris, of the Island of Barbadoes, a certain plantation or tract of 
land laying or being upon the maine over against the town of Haerlem, com* 
monly called Bronckse^s land, containing 250 margin or 800 acres of laiKl« 
besides the meadow thereunto annexed or adjoining, butted and bounded as in 
the original Dutch ground brief and patent of confirmation is set forth; which 
said tract of land and meadow, having been by the said Col. Lewis Morris 
long possessed and enjoyed, and having likewise thereon made good improve- 
ment, he, the suid Eldmond Andross, late governor of our said province, did 
farther, by the said deed or patent, sealed with the seal of our said province, 
a«id bearing date as aforesaid, we grant and confirm unto the said Cul. Lewis 
Morris, for his further improvement, a certain quantity of land adjacent imto 
the said tract of land-^which land, with the addition, being bounded from his 
own house over against Haerlem, running up Haerlem River to Daniel Tur- 
ner's land, and so along this said land northward to John Archer's line, and 
from thence stretching east to the land of John Richardson and Thomas Hunt, 
snd thence along their lands southward to the Sound, even so along the Sound 
about southwest through Bronck's hill to the said Col. Lewis Morris' house — 
the additional land containing (according to the survey thereoQ the quantity 
of fourteen hundred and twenty acres, to h ive and to hold the a fore- recited 
tract of land before possessed by him, and the additional land within the limits 
and bounds aforesaid, together with the woods and meadows, both salt and 
fresh, waters and creeks, belonging to the said lands, unto the said Col. Lewis 
Morris, his heirs and assignees forever, under the yearly rent of four bushels 
of good winter wheat, as by the said deed or patent, registered in our secre- 
tary's oflSce of our said province of New York, &c., — relation being there- 
unto had — may more fully and at large appear. And whereas, our loving sub- 
ject, Lewis Morris, (nephew unto the said Cul. Morris, lately deceased, his 
sole and only heir,) who is now, by right of descent and inheritance, peacea- 
bly and quietly seized and possessed of all the aforesaid tracts of land and 
premises within the limits and bounds aforesaid, hath, by bis petition, present- 
ed unto oar trusty and well beloved Benj. Fletcher, our Captain General and 


6overnor-in-chief of oor said province of New York and territories dependant 
thereon in America, &c., prayed our grant and confirmation of all the afore- 
recited tracts and parcels of land and premises within the limits and bounds 
aforesaid ; and likewise that we would be fi^raciously pleased to erect the said 
tracts and parcels of land, within the limits and bounds aforesaid, into a lordship 
or manor, by the name or title of the manor or lordship of Morrisania, in the 
county of Westchester ; and whereas, it is publicly manifest that the said Col. 
Lewis Morris, deceased, in his lifetime, and our said loving subject, his ne- 
phew and sole and only heir since his decease, have been at great charge and 
expense in the purchasing, settling and improving of the said tracts and par- 
cels of land, whereon considerable buildings have likewise been made ; and 
our said loving subject, being willing still to make further improvements there- 
on — which reasonable request, for his further encouragement, we being will- 
ing to grant; and know yee, that we, of our special grace, certain knowledge, 
and mere motion, we have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and by these 
presents do for us, our heirs and successors, give, grant, ratify and confirm unto 
the said Lewis Morris, his heirs and assignees, all the aforesaid tracts and par- 
cels of land within the limits and bounds aforesaid, containing the quantity of one 
thousand, nine hundred and twenty acres of land, more or less, together with 
all and every the messuages, tenements, buildings, houses, out houses, barDs, 
barracks, stables, mills, mill dams, mill howles, orchards, gardens, fences, pas- 
tures, fields, feedings, woods, underwoods, trees, timber, meadows, (fresh and 
salt,) marshes, swamps and pools, ponds, waters, water courses, brooks, rivulets, 
baths, inlets, outlets, islands, necks of land and meadow, peninsulas of land and 
meadow, ferries, passages, fishing, fowling, hunting and hawking, quarries, 
mines, minerals, (silver and gold mines excepted,) and all the rights, liberties, 
privileges, jurisdictions, royalties, hereditaments, benefits, profits, advantages 
and appurtenances whatsoever to the afore-recited tracts, parcels and necks of 
land, and mill, within the limits and bounds aforesaid belonging, adjoining, or 
in any way appertaining, or accepted, reputed, taken, known or occupied, at 
part, parcel or member thereof, to have or to hold all the aforesaid recited 
tracts and parcels of land within the limits and bounds aforesaid, containing 
the quantity of one thousand nine hundred and twenty acres of land, mora or 
less, together with all and every the messuages, tenements, buildings, houses, 
out houses, barns, barracks, stables, mills, mill dams, mill houses, orchards, 
gardens, fences, pastures, fields, feedings, woods, underwoods, trees, timber, 
meadows, fresh and salt, marshes, swamps, pools, ponds, waters, water 
courses, brooks, rivers, rivulets, streams, creeks, coves, harbors, bridges, 
baths, strands, inlets, outlets, islands, necks of land and meadow, peninsulas, 
' land and meadow, ferries, passages, fishing, fowling, hunting and hawking, 
quarries, mines and minerals, (silver and gold mines excepted.) and all the 
rights, liberties, privileges, jurisdictions, royalties, hereditaments, tolls, and 
benefits, profits, advantages, and appurtenances whatsoever, to the afore re- 
eited tracts, parcels and necks of Land and mill within the limits and boands 


aforesaid, belonging, adjoining, or in any appertaining or accepted, repute^i 
taken, known onto him, the said Lewis Morris, his heirs and assinees» to th« 
sole and only proper use benefit and behoof of him the said Lewis Morris^ his 
heirs and assinees fore?er, and moreover, that if oar farther special graee« 
certain knowledge, and mear motion, we have brought it according to the 
reasonable request of our said loving subject to erect all the aforerecited 
tracts and parcels of land and premises within the limits and bonnds afore- 
said into a lordship and manor, and therefore, by these presents, we 
do, for us, our heirs and successors, erect, make and constitute all the 
afore-recited tracts and parcels of land within the limits and bonnds 
afore-mentioned, together with all and every the above granted premises, 
with all and every of their appurtenances, unto one lordship or manor, 
to all intents and purposes, and His our royal will and pleasure, that 
the said lordship and manor shall from henceforth be called the lordship 
or manor of Morrisania ; and know yee, that we reposing especial tmst 
and confidence in the loyalty, wisdom, justice, prudence, and circumspection 
of our said loving subjects, do, for us, our heirs and successors, give and 
grant unto the said Lewis Morris, and to the heirs and assinees of him 
the said Lewis Morris, full power and authority at all timea forever 
hereafter, in the said lordship or manor, one court-leet, and one coart- 
barron, to hold and keep at such time and times, and so oAen yearly as he or 
they shall see meet, and all fines, issues and amerciaments, at the said court- 
leet and court barren, to be holden within the said lordship or manor, to be 
set, forfeited or employed, or payable or happening at any time to be paya- 
ble by any of the inhabitants of or in the said lorship or manor of Morrissa- 
nia, or the limits and bounds whereof, and also all and every of the power 
and authority therein-before mentioned, for the holding and keeping the said 
court-leet and court barron from time to time, and to award and issue out the 
said accustomary writs, to be issued and awarded out of the said court-leet 
and court barron, to be kept by the heirs and assinees of the said Lewis Mor- 
ris, forever, or their or any of their stewards deputed and appointed with full 
and ample power and authority to distraine for the rents, serveses, and other 
sums ofmoncy, payable by virtue of the premises and all other lawful remedies 
and means, for the having, possessing, recovering, levying and enjoying the 
premises, and every part and parcel of the same, and all waifes, estrages, 
meeks, deadodans, goods or ftlons, happening and being forfeited within the 
said lordship or manor of Morrissania, and all and every sum and sums of 
money to be paid as a post fine, upon any fine or fines to be levyed, of 
any bounds, tenements or hereditaments within the said lordship or manor 
of Morrissania, together with the advowson and right of patronage, and all 
and every the church and churches erected or established, or thereafter to be 
erected or established within the said manor of Morrissania, and we do also 
give and grant unto the said Lewis Morris, his heirs and assinees, that all and 
each of the tenants of him the said Lewis Morris, within the said manor, may 
at all times hercaAer, meet together and choose assesors^ within the manor 



•foretaid, aeeording lo such tuIbb, ways and melhode, ■• are pieacribed Tuc 
ciliea Iowpb and counties wiihin our province afurewid, by the seta of gene- 
ral aasembEy, foi the defraying the public charge of each respective eilj, 
town and county aforesaid, and all aoch suma of money aaaeaed or levied, to 
dispose of and collect for such uses as the acis of the general assembly shaH 
Mlablish and appoint, to have and lo hold, poasess and enjoy, all and singalat 
th« said lordship or manor of Morrissania and premises, with all their and 
every of their appurteoaneea, onto (he said Lewi* Morris, his heirs and as- 
■inees forever. Id be holden of us, our heirs and succeasora. In free and con- 
Dwn socage, according lo the tenure of our manor of East Greenwich, in oui 
eooniy of Kent, within oai realm of England, yielding, rendering and paj'ing 
Uierefor, yearly and eveiy year, on the feist day of ihs Annunciation of our 
blessed virgin, onto as, our heirs and successors, at our city of New Yi>rk, 
the annual rent of sii shillings, in lien snd atead of all former rents, dues, 
•ervices and demands whalsoever, for Ibe said lurdnhip and manor of Morris- 
sania, and premises : in Uatimeny whereof, we.hsve caused the great aeal of 
ths said province to be affixed. Witnesse our trusty and well beloved Benja- 
Diin Fletcher, our capt. gen. and guv. in-chief of oor province of New York, 
and the territories and tracts of land depending thereon, in America, and vice 
admiral of the same, ourlleulenBnt commander- in -chief of the militia and of all 
the forces by sea and land wiihin our colony of Conneclicnt, and of all the folia 
and places of strength within the same, in council at our fort in New York, 
the 8Lh day of May, in the ninth year of our reign, Anno Domini, 10B7.' 
By command of his eiceUencey, BiK. Flitchm. 

David Jameion, Sect'y, 


AuKfraph ud arsa at L.cwla Manii. 

> Alb. B<K>k of Pat. No. Til G4 and TO. 


" The greatest part of the life of Lewis Morris, before the ar- 
rival of Governor Hunter, was spent in New Jersey,* where be 
signalized himself in the service both of the Proprietors and the 
Assembly. The latter employed him to draw up their complaint 
against my Lord Cornbury, and he was made the bearer of it to 
the Queen." "In 1732," remarks Dunlap, "a question was 
raised, whether Van Dam (who administered the government un- 
til the arrival of Cosby) should receive the whole salary allowed 
to a governor, and the opinion of the assembly was asked ; but 
they declined giving an opinion, leaving it to the council, who 
consented that the warrants should be drawn for the whole. 
Cosby, on his arrival and friendly reception by the assembl^i 
waited until their adjournment, and then produced the King's 
instrnctions to take to himself one half the salary and emolu- 
ments, during Van Dam's administration, leaving him one half. 
Van Dam agrees, provided Cosby accounts for certain monies re- 
ceived by him, and shares with Van Dam such monies. Cosby 
refuses, and erects a court of exchequer to compel Van Dam to 
comply with his terms. Suits commence on their part, but Cosby 
appoints the judges. Van Dam denies the legality of the pro- 
ceedings. Chief Justice Morris declines to obey the Governor's 
orders in the case, as illegal, and is by him suspended, after serv- 
ing twenty years unimpeaoliably. James de Lancey was ap- 

• *' He was one of the Council in that province, and a jndge of the supreme 
court there in lf)92. Upon the surrender of the government to Queen Anne, in 
1702, he was named (o be governor of the colony ; but the appointment was 
changed in favor of Lord Cornbury, the Queen's cousin." '* Within the limits 
of Shrewsbury, (says Mr. Whitehead,) Col. Lewis Morris had extensive iron works, 
employing sixty or seventy negroes, in addition to white servants and dependants.'* 
** The land (3540 acres) was granted to him, Oct. 25, 1G76. Full liberty was given 
to him and bis associates *' to dig, delve, and carry away all such mines for iron as 
they shall find or see fit to dig and carry away to the iron works, or that shall be 
found in that tract of land that lies inclosed between the southeast branch of the 
Raritan River and the whale pond on the sea*side, and is bounded from thence by 
the sea and branch of the river, to the eastward, to the Raritan river, he or they 
paying all such just damages to the owners of the land where they shall dig mines 
as shall be judged is done by trespass of cattle or otherwise sustained by the cart- 
ing and carrying of the said mine to the work.'* — E. J. Records, B. page 155. 


pointed id his place.'-^ The following particulars in relation to 
this affair, are taken from the Carribeana, a literary periodical 
purporting to be " written by several hands in the West Indies," 
The reader will see that the Chief Just ice performed his part with 
great boldness and independence. 

" Sir : — You wUl perceive, by the enclosed copy of a letter, that the origi- 
nal waa addressed to the present governor of New York, on occasion of a 
new dispute that arose between his Excellency and the chief judge of the pro- 
vince concerning the establishment of a new Court of Equity. The judge's 
argument upon the question is very long, and, for aught I know, very learned. 
I shall not take it upon me to say whether his opinion is right or not ; but cer- 
tainly he was right in giving his opinion upon a matter of law that came in 
judgment before him. The governor, however, was oflfended at what was 
spoken, and demanded a copy, which the judge sent him, in prints with the 
letter now mentioned. 

I confess Ihad some curiosity to know the particular character of this ex- 
traordinary personage, who would seem to act and speak like an inhabitant of 
some other world. They tell me he is nothing but a man, and a plain man 
too, exactly like one of us — eats beef and mutton, drinks madeira wine, and 
sometimes rum punch, as we do. His education was narrow, nor does he pre- 
tend to inspiration or any supernatural aid. His knowledge is derived merely 
from reading and observation, and his fortitude grounded on the Christian reli- 
gion and the laws of his country, which he fancies are commonly on the side 
of honesty, and a good conscience. 

I would not be thought to propose this northern magistrate to the imitatloa 
of his brethren between the tropics. I hope and believe they will never meet 
with such trials ; and, if they should, I am persuaded they will be more polite 
than to copy after so coarse a pattern ! I only meant to help out your next 
paper with a strange and wonderful occurrence, which may perhaps amuse 
your gentle readers as effectually as the accounts they have sometimes of hard 
frosts and huge whales, though they never see such things in these parts. 

I am yours, &e., 


To his Excellency. William Cosby, Esq., Captain General and Governor-in- 
chief of the province of New York, New Jersies and territories thereon de- 
pending in America, Vice Admiral of the same, and Colonel in his Majes- 
ty ^s army, &c. 

May it please your Excellency : 
In obedience to your commands by F. M., Esq., deputy secretary, to send 

• Danlap's Hbt. N. Y. 70I. i. 29^. 


yoa a copy of what I read in the Sapreme Conrt ooDcerniog its having a ja« 
riadiction to determine causea in a Court of Equity, and a seeond meatags 
from him to gvre it under my hand, I send you not only what I read, hot what 
I said on that head, as far as I can charge my memory. What was said, was 
spoken before a numerous auditory, among which were the grand jury for the 
city and county of New York, and se?eral other persons of distinction. 1 
chose* this public method to prevent, as much as I could, any misapprehension ; 
and what I said is as follows, viz. : 

[Here follows the judged argoment against erecting a court of equity, and 
then he concludes with the remainder of his letter in these words, Tia. ;] 

This, sir, is a copy of the paper I read in court, and the substance of what 
I said besides on that head, as far as I can shape my memory. I have oo rea- 
son to expect that either this, or any thing else I can say, will be at all grate- 
ful, or have any weight with your Excellency, aAer the answer I received to a 
message I did myself the honor to send you concerning an ordinance you 
were about to make for establishing a court of equity in the supreme court, as 
being, in my opinion, contrary to law, and which I desired might be deUyed 
till I could be heard on that head. I thought myself within the duty of my 
office in sending this message, and hope I do not flatter myself in thinking I 
shall be justified in it by your superiors, as well as mine. The answer your 
Excellency was pleased to send by Mr. J. W. was, thai I need not gtue my^ 
self any trouble about that affair ; that you would neither receive a tfisit or any 
message from me ; that you could neither rely upon my integrity nor depend 
upon my judgment ; that you thought me a person not at all fit to be trusted 
with any concerns relating to the King ; that ever since your coming to the 
government, I had treated you, both as to your own person and as the King*s 
representative y with slight, rudeness and impertinence ; that you did not desire 
to see or hear any further of or from me, I am heartily sorry, sir, for your 
own sake, as well as that of ihe public, that the King^s representative should be 
moved to so great a degree of warmth, as appears by this answer, which I 
think would proceed from no other reason but by giving my opinion in a court 
of which I was a judge, upon a point of law that came before me, and in which 
I might be innocently enough mistaken ; (though I think I am not ;) for judges 
are no more infallible than their superiors are impeccable. But if judges are 
to be intimidated so as not to dare to give any opinion but what is pleasing to 
a governor, and agreeable to his private views, the people of this province, 
who are very much concerned both with respect to their lives and fortunes in 
the freedom and independency of those wh3 are to judge of them, may possi- 
bly not think themselves so secure in either of them, as the laws and his Ma- 
jesty intend they should be. 

I never had the honor to be above six tiroes in your company in my life ; — 

Printing his argument and letter. 


one of those times wm when I delivered the public seals of the province of 
New Jersey to joo on your coming to that government ; another, on one of 
the pablic days, to drink the King's health ; a third, at your desire, to wait on 
my Lord Augustus Fitz Roy, with the body of the laws, to tell him we were 
glad to see him at New York ; and except the first time, I never was above a 
quarter of an hour together in your company at any one time ; and all the 
words I ever spoke to you, except at the first time, may be contained on a 
quarto side of paper. I might possibly have been impertinent, for old men 
are too often so ; but as to treating you with ludeness and disrespect, either 
in your public or private capacity, it is what I cannot accuse myself of doing 
or intending to do, at any of the times I was with you. If a bow, awkwardly 
made, or any thing of that kind, or some defect in the ceremonial of address- 
ing you, has occasioned that remark, I beg it may be attributed to the want of 
a courtly and polite education, or to any thing else, rather than the want of 
respect to his majesty's representative. As to my integrity, I have given yoa 
no occasion to call it in question. I have been in this office almost twenty 
years. My hands were never soiled with a bribe ; nor am I conscious to my- 
self, that power or poverty hath been able to induce me to be partial in the 
favor of either of them ; and as I have no reason to expect any favor from 
you, so I am neither afraid nor ashamed to stand the test of the strictest in- 
quiry you can make concerning my conduct. I have served the public faith- 
fully and honestly, according to the best of my knowledge, and I dare, and dot 
appeal to it for my justification. 

I am, sir, 

Your Excellency's 

Most humble servant, 

Lbwis Morris. 

A. D. 1733, the Hon. Lewis Morris was elected a representa- 
tive for the county of Westchester, in opposition to the aristocra- 
tic candidate.* In 1738 he was appointed the first governor of 
New Jersey, as a separate province from New York. He appears 
also to have been an active member of the venerable Propagation 
Society ; for " at a meeting of that body, held in London, 14th 
of Sept., 170], a memorial was received from Colonel Morris, in 
which he speaks of the several townships of East Jersey as dis- 
tracted by almost every variety of dissent, but with little appear- 
ance of real religion among them. Middletown was settled from 
New York and New England. "It is," says Colonel Morris, "a 

• See vol. i. 136. 


large township : there is no snch thing as a church or religion 
amongst them. They are, perhaps, the most ignorant people ia 
the world." The colonel describes the settlers of West Jersey as 
"a hotch potch of all religions," and the youth as being *• very- 
debauched and very ignorant, &c."» 

Among the early benefactors lo Trinity Church, New York, 
occurs the name of Lewis Morris, who contributed the timber for 
its erection. In return for this act of munificence, the vestry of 
that church granted the family a square pew. The Hon. L^wis 
Morris died in the spring of 1746, aged 73. <* He directed his 
body to be buried at Morrisania, in a plain coffin, without cov- 
ering or lining with cloth ; he prohibited rings and scarfs from 
being given at his funeral ; he wished no man to be paid for 
preaching a funeral sermon upon him, though if any man, 
churchman or dissenter, minister or not, was inclined to say 
any thing on the occasion, he should not object. He prohibited 
any mourning dress to be worn on his account, as he should die 
when divine Providence should call him away, and was unwil- 
ling thai his friends should be at the unnecessary expanse, which 
was owing only to the common folly of mankind."^ To his 
eldest son, Lewis Morris, he bequeathed all that part of Morris- 
ania lying to the eastward of the mill brook, and the remainder 
westward of the same stream, called Old Morrisania^ to his wife 

The following items are taken from the journal of his son 
Lewis Morris. " May 26th, 1746, set out from Trenton with 
my father's corpse for Amboy ferry; got there that night about 
nine of the clock. His corpse was attended by numbers of peo- 
ple and his pall was supported by Messrs. Andrew Johnston, 
James Hide, Peter Kemble, Thomas Leonard, Philip French, 
Daniel Cox, Philip Kearney and Charles Read. The corpse 
was put on board of a large peri-auger which came from Morri- 
sania for that purpose, and arrived the next morning at Morrisa- 

> Hist. Not Miss, of the Church of England, p. 20. 
b Blake*8 Biographical Dictionary. 

< Surrogate's Office N. Y. Lib. xviii. 94. Chancery Records, Albany, for peti« 
tion of Isaac Willctt 


nia, the wind blowing at night at north-west extraordinary hard, 
and being cold lay that night at the ferry." 

" May 29ih. My father was buried at Morrisaiiia in a vault 
built by directions in his will. The materials and workman- 
ship came to JCIO 6 7^.* His bearers^were the Chief Justice, 
Joseph Murray. Robert Wallers, James Alexander, Wilh'am Smith, 
David Clarkson, Abraham Depeyster and Lewis Johnston. Dr. 
Standard the minister of the parish of Westchester attended the 
burial and performed the service of the church." 

"May 30. Sent back the chaises to Harlem that we borrowed 
for the burial. There was one quarter cask of wine expended at 
the funeral to about two dozen bottles, and about two gallons of 
rum, a barrel of cider and two barrels of beer," &c. dsc 

" Nov. 6th, 1746. Waited on my mother with my wife, and 
begged, her blessing and returned back at dusk."^ 

By her last will and testament, Isabella Morris, wife of his late 
Excellency Lewis Morris, directs that '' her body be decently 
interred in the vault at Morrisania, near the remains of her de- 
ceased husband." This lady was the daughter of James Graham, 
Attorney General for the province of New York, and a near re- 
lation of the Marquis of Montrose. The sons of the Hon. Lewis 
Morris were^ Lewis, who inherited the lordship and manor of 
Morrisania, and Robert who had for his share the Jersey es- 

Lewis Morris the eldest son was judge of the high court of 
adniiralty and one of the judges of oyer and terminer, he died iii 
1762, aged sixty-four years. By his last will, dated Nov. 19th, 
1760, he devised "all that part of Morrisania situated west of the 
Mill brook to his eldest son Lewis Morris." "To his wife the 
land whereon his house stands west of the Mill brook." "To his 
brother Robert Hunter iVlorris he bequeathed the pictures of his 
father and mother,'' and "that of myself and wife to my daughter 

■ In this vault, which lies near the residence of Colonel Lewis Morris, the re- 
mains of the Morris family have since been interred, with the single exception of 
Gouvemeur Morris, who erected a new vault at Morrisania. 

b From the journal of the Hon. Lewis Morris, in ponession of Gouvemeur M* 
Wilkins, Esq. 


Isabella."* His son Governeur was to have the best education 
<< ihat is to be had in England or Anfierica," &cJ^ His three 
sons by his first wife, Catharine Staats, were Lewis Morris, a 
brigadier general in the Continental army,<> also a member of 
Congress and one of the signers of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. Staats Long Morris, the imimgi^ General Staats Long 
Morris who married Catharine, the celebrated Duchess of Gor- 
don, and Richard Morris, judge of the .high court of admiralty in 
1776. By his second wife, Sarah Governeur, Lewis Morris had 
one son Governeur Morris. The following biograghical sketch 
of the latter^gentleman is from Barber's Historical Collections. 

'< Governeur Morris was born at Morrisania, Jan. 31, 1762. He 
graduated at King's College, New York, in 1768. He was bred 
to the law in which he obtained a great reputation. In 1775| be 
was a delegate to the provincial congress in New York. In 
1776, (Dec.) he acted as one of the committee for drafting a con- 
stitution for the state of New York, which was reported in 
March, 1777, and adopted in April of thai year, after repeated 
and very able debutes. He was employed in the public senrice 
in various capacities during the revolutionary contest, in all of 
which he displayed great zeal and ability.*^ After the Revolution 
he retired from public life and passed a number of years in pri- 
vate pursuits, excepting being a very active member of the con- 
vention which framed the constitution of the United States. In 
1792, he was appointed minister to France, and remained there 
in that capucity until October, 1794.« He returned to America 
in 1798, and in 1800 w,as chosen a senator from New York. In 
the summer of 1810, he examined the route for the Erie canal, 

■ The above-meDtioned pictures are in the poMession of Lewia Morris, £iq. 

b Surrogate's officoi N. Y. lib. zziii. 426. 

c Brigradier General Morris received orders from Congress to take possession (with 
his whole brigade; of such part of the Sound and Hudson River as he might think 
most exposed to the enemy. 

d Upon the 8th of July, 1775, he was appointed a member of the Committee of 
Public Safety for Westchester county. 

• He is said to have been the author of the memorable address of Louis XVL to 


the French people. 


and took a prominent part in originating and promoting that 
noble work." " The activity of his mind, the richness of ^his 
fancy, and the copiousness of his eloquent conversation, were the 
admiration of all his acquaintance, and he was universally ad- 
mitted to be one of the most accomplished and prominent men of 
our country ."» " He died at Morrisania, November 5, 1816, aged 
64. His publications were numerous. A selection from his pa- 
pers, with a sketch of his life, has been published by Jared 
Sparks, in 3 vols. 8vo. lS32."b 

He married Anne Carey Randolph, daughter of Thomas Ran- 
dolph of Roanoake, Virginia, who was descended, in the fifth 
generation, from the celebrated Pockohantes,c the daughter of 
Wahunsonacock or Powhattati, Emperor of Attanonghkanonck 
alias Virginia. His son is the present Gouverneur Morris of 

The principal proprietors of the ancient manor, are William 
H. Morris, who holds one third part of Old Morisania^ lying on 
the west side of the Mill brook, Colonel Lewis Morris, his 
mother, (who has a life estate,) Governeur Morris, (whose father 
purchased that portion formerly belonging to StaatsLong Morris,) 
Gerard Morris, Henry Morris, Hannah Morris, Albert J. and 
Smith Anderson, William H. Legget, Charles Dennison, Philip 
Dater, B. L. Benson, Captain Davy, Mr. Humphrey, Julia Steb- 
bins and Jordan L. Mott. 

The principal settlement in Morrisania, is a small hamlet bear- 
ing the same name, bordering the Haarlem river. Here is a neat 
hotel, a rail road depot, the rope and cord factory of Mr. John 
York, an extensive iron foundry belonging to Mr. Jordan L. 
Mott, and the nursery gardens of Mr. Joseph Lodge.<^ 

The Haarlem bridge communicates with the Westchester shore 
and New York island. Prior to the erection of the bridge, there 

> Barber^i Hist. Coll. of N. Y. 

b Blake*! Biographical Dictionary. 

• Literally a run between two hills. This name was given her under the sup- 
position that the English could not bewitch her with an assumed name. 

d Mr. Lodge, who has had a long experience in the nursery gardening basi« 
lieM, is extensively employed in ornamental horticnltore. 

Vol. IL 40 


appears to have been a fording place between the two shores ; 
for, upon the 11th of October, 1666, Governor Nicolls granted 
" certain saw mills to Thomas Delaval, John Vervelen and Daniel 
Turner^&c, lying over against Verchers or Hogg island, in the 
Sonnd, where a passage hath been made to ford over from this 
island to the maine?**' 

Governor Dongan's patent for Haarlem, in 1666, recites the fol- 
lowing : *• and whereas, the town lies very commodious for a 
ferry to and from the raaine, which may redowned to the par- 
ticular benefit of the inhabitants as well as to general good. The 
freeholders and inhabitants of said cown should, in consideration 
of the benefits and privileges therein granted, as also for what 
advantage might accrue thereby, be enjoyned and obliged, 
at their proper costs and charge, to build and provide one or 
more boats fit for the transportation of men, horse or cattle, for 
which, a certain allowance was to be given by each particular 
person," &c.*» 

In the vicinity of Harlem bridge issituated, the well known coun- 
try residence of the late Hon. Governeur Morris, which is highly 
spoken of by travellers, and other persons of taste. Its location 
is very tine, just on the south-west angle of the township of 
West Farms, nearly opposite to the beautiful scenery of Hurl- 
gate, and eight miles from New York. It commands extensive 
views of the surrounding country and the adjacent waters. " Here 
he passed the latter years of his life exercising an elegant and mu- 
nificent hospitality, reviewing the studies of his early days, and 
carrying on a very interesting correspondence with statesmen 
and literati in Europe and America.''^ Among his principal 
guests were Louis Philipe Le Due d'Orleans, (the present king 
of the French) aud John Victor Moreau, one of the most celebra- 
ted of modern French generals. Of the old mansion, which was 
constructed in the French chateau style, nothing remains but the 
central portion, and (his has been greatly modernized by tho pre- 

• Harlem couveyancea 

b Harlem coDTeyancesi p. 7. 

• Barbefa Hist. CoU. of N. Y. 



sent proprietor. The interior, however, retains much of its 
former consistence. The library possesses a very choice collec- 
lion of books. It is chiefly remarkable for the valuable manu- 
scripts belonging to it, which are so ezleasively connected with 
the history of iu former owner. There are here, likewTse, seve- 
ral choice pieces of French furniture, some gobelin capestry, and 
a good portrait of the late Hon. Governeur Morris, also a fine 
marble bust of Mrs. Morris. 

The grounds are enriched with many rare ornamental trees 
and shrubs, among the former deserve to be mentioned, two or 
three specimens of tlie deciduous American cypress, (cupressua 
disticha) said by Gordon to be the finest of the kind in the Uni- 
ted States. Of the latter, there are hedges of the glidilsia trican- 
thus, and the gliditsia horrida. The orchards consist principally 
of the bell flower, styre and pearmaiu apple trees. 

Sl Adb'i Ctrareh, 

At a short distance from the house, stands the parish church 
of St. Ann's, a pleasin;; gothic structure of marble. This edifice 
" was erected by the present Goremeur Morris, Bsq., in a field on 
his own estate, which had for some time been hallowed, as con- 
taining the sepulchre of his parents. In n vault constructed to 
receive kia remains, as appears by a tablet in the chancel, the 
relics of the Hon. Governeur Morris," were laid by his faithful 
widow. In the year of our Lord 1837, she joined him with tha 


dead ; and, over her remains has arisen this beaiitiiul sanctuaryv 
which, in remembrance of her, and with respectful regard to 
two other valued relations of the name, was called Sl^ Annfsy 
from ^< St. Anna of the Gospel, and consecrated by that name on 
the 28lh^of June, 1841,"* by the Right Rev. Benjamin T. On- 
derdonk, D. D., bishop of New York. The corner stone had 
been laid with appropriate ceremonies in the preceding Octo- 
ber. Its incorporation took place on the 20th of July, 1841 ; 
Robert Morris and Lewis Morris, churchwardens, Jacob Buck- 
hout, Daniel Devoe, Benjamin Rogers, Benjamin M. Brown, 
Edward Legget, Lewis G. Morris and Henry W. Morris, vestry- 

The interior of the church contains a well arranged chancel 
and the tablet before mentioned, inscribed as follows : 

Conjugal affection 

consecrated this spot where 


until a vault could be erected 

to receive 

his precious remains. 

A beautiful purple altar cloth . adorned with the sacred mono- 
gram, surmounted with, the glory, together with a silver com- 
munion service, consisting of a flagon, two chalices and paten, 
have been recently presented to the church by the ladies of the 
congregation. There is also an additional paten which bears the 
following inscription, "Stae. Annse Altari Voverunt Tres, J. H. 
C. Fest Pentecost, 1842." The bell is inscribed, " Presented to 
St. Ann's church by Governeur Morris, J. P. Allaire, New York, 

It appears, that prior to the Revolution, Morrisania formed one 

• Church Register. "^^ 

b The church with its adjoining grounds, were munificently conveyed to the ves- 
try, as a donation, by its founder, Ooverneur Morris, Esq., in a deed securing tho 
holy and beautiful house, which God had moved him to erect to the service of God 
the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, Slc. SlcJ" See Church Register. 


of the precincts of Westchester parish, for, in 1707, she paid for 
tlie church and poor, £3 10. In 1720, her quota was £4 10. Ta 
St Ann's church are attached a parsonage and burying ground. 


Instit. or call, Incumbents, Vadated by 

1841, Rev. Arthur C. Cox, Fresh. resig. 

1842, Rev. Charles Jones, Presb. 

1843, Rev. Charles Aldis, Presb. '' 

1st Sep., 1847, Rev. Abraham Beach Carter, present in- 


Notitia Parochialis. 
1847, Communicants, 60. Baptisms, 17. 

At the commencement of the revolutionary struggle. General 
Heath's division of the American army was stationed at Morri- 
sania. From his memoirs we gather the following particulars. 
A picket from our general's division, of four hundred and fifty 
men, constantly mounted, by relief, at Morrisania, from which 
a chain of sentinels, within half gun-shot of each other, were 
planted, from the one side of the shore to the other, and near the 
water passage, between Morrisania and Montresor's island, which 
in some places is very narrow. The sentinels on the American 
side were ordered not to presume to fire at those of the British, 
unless the latter began : but the British were so fond of beginning, 
that there was frequently a firing between them. This having 
been the case one day, and a British officer walking along the 
bank, on the Montresor's side, an American sentinel, who had 
been exchanging some shots with a British sentinel, seeing the 
officer, and concluding him to be better game, gave him a shot, 
and wounded him. He was carried up to the house on the 
island. An officer with a flag soon came down to the creek and 
called for the American officer of the picket, and informed him 
that if the American sentinels fired any more, the commanding 
officer of the island would cannonade Col, Morris's house, in 
which the officers of the picket quartered, l^he American officer 
immediately sent up to our general, to know what answer should 


be returned. He was directed to inform the British officer th»t 
the American sentinels had always been instructed not to fire 
on sentinels unless they were first fired upon, and then to retara 
the fire; that such would be their conduct; as to the cannon- 
ading of Col. Morris's house, they might act their pleafure. 
The firing ceased for some time; but a raw Scotch sentinel 
having been planted one day, he very soon after discharged his 
piece at an American sentinel nearest to him, which was imme- 
diately returned ; upon which a British officer came down, and 
called to the American officers, observing that he thought there 
was to be no firing between the sentinels. He was answered, 
that their own began; upon which he replied, ''he shall then 
pay for it." The sentinel was directly after relieved, and there 
was no firing between the sentinels, at that place, any more, and 
they were so civil to each other, on the posts, that one day, at a 
part of the creek where it was practicable, the British sentinel 
asked the American, who was nearly opposite to him, if he could 
give him a chew of tobacco; the latter, having in his pocket a 
piece of thick twisted roll, sent it across the creek to the British 
sentinet, who, after taking off his bite, sent the remainder back 

"On the 6th of October, 1776, (continues General Heath,) 
orders were given for throwing up a new work on Harlem creek 
below the wood at Morrisania."*> 

After tiie retreat of the American army northwards and the 
settlement of their lines on the Croton, the British refugee corps 
were stationed at Morrisania, under the command of Col. James 
de Liancey, who held his head quarters at Col. Morris's house. 
Here the British appear to have been kept in a constant state of 
alarm by their vigilant enemies. Upon the 5th of August, 1779, 
(says Heath) about 100 horse of Sheldon's, Moyland's, and of 
the militia, and about forty infantry of Glover's brigade, passed 
by De Lancey's mills to the neighborhood of Morrisania, where 
they took twelve or fourteen prisoners, some stock, &c. The 
enemy collected, a skirmish ensued, in which the enemy had a 

• Heath*! Mem. p. 63. «> Ibid. 6& 


number of men killed and wounded ; our loss, two Icilied and 
two wounded."^ The frequency of these attacks compelled 
De Lancey to shift bis quarters under the British guns of Fort 
No. 8, in Fordham. The dwellings at Morrisania were burnt 
on the same day with the Westchester court house. 

The property of William H. Morris is situated on the high ridge 
west of the mill brook vale. The house built by James Morris, 
Esq., occupies the site of one much older, erected in 1795. It is 
handsome, and well placed, and the neighborhood is rendered ex- 
tremely beautiful by the inequality of the ground, and the fine 
mixture of wood and pasture, which diversifies the appearance 
of the vales and eminences. Within are some good paintings, 
viz., Jttmes Morris, Benjamin Peale ; Hon. Daniel Webster, 
Frothingham ; and General Staats Long Morris, artist unknown. 
A broad and fine carriage road, lined on either side with elms,^ 
is terminated by a picturesque view of the small hamlet of 
Morrisania. At no great distance stands the residence of the 
late ^Commodore Valentine Morris, now occupied by Mr. John 

Upon the east side of the Mill brook lies the old race course^ 
which is said to have been established by General Staats Long 
Morris, one of the first importers of blooded horses at the north. 
The western portion of Morrisania is watered by Cromwell 
creek,<^ which discharges into the Haarlem river. The principal 
seats which embellish this part of the town are those of Mr. 
Anderson and Mr. Wells, &c. 

The Manor of Fordham,^ which forms the last division of 
West Farms, was, as we have noticed, originally included in the 
township of Westchester. Its early Indian proprietors appear to 
have been the sachems Fecquemeck, Rechgawac and Packana- 
riens, who sold the lands of Kekeshiek^ bordering the Haarlem 

> Heath's Mem. 214. 

b One of theee ireee meuuree fonrteen feet in circumiareDce, while its branches 
afibrd a shade of 120 feet. 

• On this stream a mill was erected by Lewis Morris in 1760, of which nothing 
remains but the mill dam. 

d A word of Saxon origin, and compounded of Ford (ford) ham (mansion.) 


River, to the Dutch West India Company, A. D. 1639.* In 
1646, we find the whole of Fordham, as well as the Toucker^ 
land, in the possession of Adriaen van der Donck, whose widow 
Mary conveyed them to her brother, Elias Doughty. The fol- 
lowing sales appear under the hands of the latter in 1666-7 : 
''Know all men, by these presents, that I, Elias Doughty, of 
Flushing, do sell unto Mr. John Archer^ of WesiehesteTf^ his 
heirs and assignees, fourscore acres of land and thirty acres of 
meadow, lying and being betwixt Brothers^ River and the wa- 
tering place at the end of the Island of Manhatans ; and if the 
land be not fit to cleare for the plow or hoe, this land is to 1]^ 
together; and if there be not all such land together as there 
should, or if there should happen eight or ten acres of land that 
is not for such use, then the said Archer is to have it with the 
rest ; and he shall have equal right privilege in the commons as 
any other man shall have within that Patent that hath no more 
arable land ; and the meadow is to be mowed all. As witnesse 
my hand this 1st of March, 1666. As witnesse, if there should 
lye any more land, that is to say, between thirty and forty acres, 
it is all in common, and I am to give the said ilrcA^a firme bill 
of sale under my hand and seal. 

"Elias Doughty. 

''J, Elias Doughty, do own to have received full satisfaction 
of the said Archer for the said lands and meadow ; the house is 
yet to be : and he, the said Archer, is to have his within the 
abovesaid tract of land. September the 18ih, 1G67. 

" It is to be understood that Mr. John Archer is to have the 
freshest meadow (boggy) that lyeth in the north side of West- 
chester path between the Patent of Mr. O'Neale, within his se- 
cond purchase, upon consideration that the said John Archer shall 
pay to the said Doughty, dec. &c/; as witness my hand. 

"Elias Doughty. 

Examined by John West." 

By these and other purchases, John Archer, Esq., eventually 

• See Yonken. b Vol. u 179. 


became seized in fee of 1263 acres. Upon the 13th of Novem- 
ber, 1671, Francis Lovelace issued the following letters patent, 
under the great seal of the province : — 

Franeis Lovelace, Esq., one of the gentlemen of his Majestie's Hon^ble 
Priry Chaniber, and GoTernoi-General under his Royal Highness, James, 
Dake of York and Albany, and of all his territories in America, to all to whom 
these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : Whereas, there is a certain par- 
cel or tract of land within this government, upon the main continent, silaate, 
lying and being to the eastward of Harlem River, near unto ye passage com- 
monly oalled Spiting Devils upon which land ye new dorp or village is erected 
known by the name o/Fordham — ye utmost limits of the whole tract or parcel 
of land beginning at the high wood land that lyes due northwest over against 
the "first point of the main land to the east of the island Pepiriniman — there 
where the hill Moskuta is— ^and soe goes alongst the said kill, the said land 
striking from the high wood land before mentioned east southeast, till it comes 
to Bronk^s, his kill ; soe westward up alongst ye main land to the place where 
Harlem Kill and Hudson River meet, and then forth alongst Harlem Kill to 
the first spring or fountain, keeping to the south of Crabb Island ; soe east- 
ward alongst Daniel Tumer^s land, the high wood land, and ye land belonging 
to Thomas Hunt ; and then to Bronk's Kill afore -mentioned, according to a 
survey lately made thereof by the surveyor-general — the which remains upon 
record ; all which said parcel or tract of land before described being part of 
the land granted in the grand patent to Hugh O^Neal, and Mary hia wife, pur- 
chase was made thereof, by John Archer, from Elyas poughty, who was in- 
vested in their interest as of the Indian proprietor, by my approbation, who 
all acknowledge to have received satisfaction for the same : and the said John 
Archer having, at his own charge, and with good success, begun a township 
in a convenient place for the relief of strangers, it being the road fur passen- 
gers to go to and fro from the main, as well as for mutual intercourse with the 
neighboring colony, for all encouragement unto him, the said John Archer, in 
prosecution of the said design, as also for divers o:her good causes and con« 
siderations : know yee, that by virtue of ye eommis-^ion and authority unto me 
given by his royal highness, upon whom, by lawful grant and patent from his 
majestie, the propriety and government of that part of the main land, as well 
as Long Island, and all the islands adjacent, amongst other things, is settled,! 
have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents do give, 
grant, ratify and confirm to ye afore mentioned John Archer, his heirs and 
assignees, all the said parcel or tract of land butted and bounded as aforesaid^ 
together with all the lands, soyles, woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, lakes, 
waters, creeks, fishing, hawking, hunting and fowling, and all ye profits, com- 
modityes, emmoluments aad hereditaments to the said parcel or tract of land 
or premises belonging or in any wise appertaining, and of every part and par- 
cel thereof; and I doe likewise grant unto ye said John Archer, his heirs and 

Vol. II. 41 


aasignees, that the house which he shall erect, together with ye Miid ptreel at 
tract of land and premises, shall be forever hereafter held, claimed, repatedf 
and be an entire and enfranchised township, manor and place of itself, and 
shall always, from time to time, and at all times hereafter, haTe,'hold and eo- 
joy like and eqiml privileges and immunities with any town enfranchised or 
manor within this government, and shall, in no manner of way, be sabordiiiat« 
or belonging unto, have any dependmce upon, or in any wise be under thm 
rule, order or direction of any riding, township, place or jurisdiction either 
upon the main or Long Island, but shall, in all cases, things and matters, be 
deemed, reputed, taken and held as an absolute, entire, enfranchised township, 
manor and place of itself in this government, as aforesaid, and shall be mled, 
ordered and directed, in all matters as to government, by ye governor and his 
council, and ye general court of assizes, only always provided thai the inhab- 
itants of the said town, or any part of the land granted as aforesaid, ahaU be 
obliged to send forward to ye next town or plantation all public pacqnetta 
and letters, or hue and cryes, commiog to this place or going from it towards 
or to any of his majestie^s colonics ; and I do. further grant onto the said John 
Archer, bis heirs and assignees, that when there shall be a sufficient number 
of inhabitants in the town of Fordham aforementioned, and the other parts of 
ye manor capable of maintaining a minister, and to carry on other public af* 
fairs ; that then the neighboring inhabitants between the two kills of Harlem 
and Bronk*9 be obliged to contribute towards the maintenance of their said 
minister and other necessary public charges that may happen to arise, and 
likewise that they belong to the said town, according to the direction of the 
law, although their said farms and habitations be not included within this pa- 
tent, to have and to hold ye said parcel and tracts of land, with all and singa- 
lar the appurtenances and premises, together with the privileges, immanities, 
franchises and advantages herein given and granted unto the said John Ar- 
cher, his heirs and assignees, unto the proper use and behoof of him, the said 
John Archer, his heirs and assignees forever, fully, truly and clearly, in as 
large and ample manner, and from and with such full and absolute immunities 
and privileges as is before expressed, as if he held the same immediately from 
his majesty, the King of England, and his successors, as of the manor of East 
Greenwich, in the county of Kent, in free and common soccage and by fealty, 
only yealding, rendering and paying yearly and every year unto his royal high- 
ness, the Duke of York and his successors, or to such governor and governors 
as from time to time shall by him be constituted and appointed, as all aoknow- 
ledgment and quit rent, twenty bushels of good peas, upon the first day of 
March, when it shall be demanded. Given under my hand, and sealed with 
the seal of the province at Fort James, in New York, on the island of Man- 
hattan, this thirteenth day of November, in the twenty-tbird year of the roign 
of our sovereign lord, Charles the Seccond, by the grace of God, of England, 
Scotland, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, and Anno Domini, 
1671. Francis Lovblack. 


Sometirao prior to 1672, Daniel Turner purchased forty mor- 
gen of land from the Indian sachems Shahash Panazarah and 
others, bounded west by Harlem River, &c. This sale is pre- 
sumed to have embraced Devoe's Point, called by the aborigines 
Nuasin, On the 15th of June, 1668, Richard Nicoll, governor 
of the province, confirmed to the above grantee all that parcel of 
land " situated upon the maine, lying and being to the north of 
Broncks's land, beginning at the mouth of Maenneppis-kill, (now 
known as Cromwell's Creek,) and goes into the woods the depth 
of fifty rods, containing 80 acres," &c. Sec. 

Upon the restoration of the Dutch in 1673, we find the inhab- 
itants-of Fordham, petitioning at a meeting of the governor-gen- 
eral, through counsellor Cornelius Steenwyck, in the village of 
New Harlem, 4lh of October, 1673, "upon which occasion the 
inhabitants of Fordham appeared and complained, in substance, 
of the bad management of their lord, (land-heer,) John Archer, 
soliciting that they might be permitted to make the nomination 
of their own magistrates, &>c. as is granted to all -the other inhab- 
itants under this government ; on which^ the aforesaid John Ar- 
cher, being summoned, this complaint was communicated to him, 
who voluntarily declared that he abdicated all authority and pa- 
tronage over the villages, reserving only to himself the properly of 
the lands and houses there, and permitting the said inhabitants 
the nomination of their own magistrates, which was confirmed by 
the governor and council. The following act was granted them : 

" The inhabitants of the village of Fordham are, by a majo- 
rity of votes, to choose a number of six persons of the best qualified 
inhabitants, and only those of the Reffrmed Christian religion^ 
as magistrates of aforesaid village, and to present the aforesaid 
nomination, by the first opportunity, to the governor-general, from 
which he shall make the election. They are recommended to take 
care that at least the half of the nominated are of the Dutch na- 
tion. Done in this village of New Harlem, 4th of October, 1673. 

^ From the nomination of the inhabitants of Fordham, there 
are elected, by the governor, as magistrates of said village for the 
ensuing year, 

" Johannes Yerveelen, as schepen and secretary, 

324 ' mSTORY OF THE 

"Michael Bnstyensen, 
*• Valenlya Olaessen.* 
« Done at Fort William Hendricke, on the I8lh Oct., 1673.*^ 
The following year, John Archer, Esq., laid claim to a neck of 
land called Hiimock Island, commonly named Papiriniman^^ 
which he assorted he had by patent. 

Upon the 25th of November, 1676, John Archer mortgaged 
the manor of Pordham to Cornelius Sleinwyck, merchant of New 

This indenture, made the twenty-fuurth day of November, io the IM yesr 
of the reign of onr sovereign lord, Charles the Second, by the grace of God* 
of England, ScotUnd, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, and 
Anno Domini 1676, between John Areher, owner and proprietor of the manor 
of Fordham, upon the main, near Spiting Devil, on the one part, aod^Conie- 
liu8 Steenwick, of the city of New York, merchant, on the other part, wit- 
nesseth, that the said John Archer, for, and in consideration of the smn of 
twepty-four thousand guilders seawant, or the value to him paid, secured to be 
paid at or before the ensealing and delivering of these presents by the laid 
Cornelius Steenwick, whereof and wherewith be, the said John Archer, doth 
acknowledge jand confess himself to be fully satisfied, and thereof doth cletolj 
acquit and discharge the said Cornelius Steenwick, his heirs, ezecntors, and 
administrators, haih allowed, granted, bargained and sold, and by these pre- 
sents doth fully, clearly and absolutely alien, grant, bargain and sell nnto the 
said Cornelius Steenwick, his heirs and assigns forever, all his right, title and 
interest in the town and manor aforesaid, together with all the messuages, te- 
nements, buildings and fences thereupon, and all the land improved or other 
ways now in the tenure or occupation of him, the said John Archer, and others, 
his tenants or assigns, and also all and all manner of rents, duties and profits 
received or may be received, and payable for and in respect of every or any of 
the said barga.ned premises, and also all and singular deeds, patents, eviden- 
ces and writings, touching and concerning the same, and the privileges therein 
contained, to have and to hold the said manor of Fordham, with the messua- 
ges and all and singular other the premises by these presents granted or in- 
tended to be granted, bargained and sold, with their and every of their appur- 
tenances, unt<» the said Cornelius Steenwick, his heirs and assigns, to the only 
proper use and behoof of him, the said Cornelius Steenwick, his heirs and as- 
signs for ever, provided always, nevertheless, and upon the condition that if 
the said John Archer, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, or any of 

• Alb. Rec. vol. xxiii. 26 and 53. k See Yonkers. 


tbem at or in the new dwelling house of the wiid Cornelius Steenwick, situate 
and being in the city of New York, shall pay unto the said Cornelius Steen* 
wick, his heirs, executors, or administrators or assigns, that value of twenty- 
four thousand gnilders,l>r the value, within the time and terms of seven years 
after the date hereof; that is to say, before the twenty-fourth day of Novem- 
ber, which shall be in the year of our Lord, 1663, and also paying a yearly 
interest for the same until the principal be paid, at the rate of six per cent., as 
aUowed by law, and that without fraud, or henceforth this present indenture or 
bargain and sale-shall cease, determine, and be utterly void and of none effect 
to all intents, construction and purpose ; and that then also it shall and may 
be lawful for the said John Archer, his heirs and assigns, to enter into and 
upon the said bargained premises, wholly to re-enter, and the same to have 
again, and to possess as his and their former estates, any thing contained in 
these presents to the contrary notwithstanding : and whereas, the said John 
Archer, at or before the ensealing and delivery of these presents, hath deliv- 
ered to the said Cornelius Steenwick certain deeds, patent evidences in wri- 
ting, whioh he hath concerning the eaid bargained premises, he, the said Cor- 
nelius Steenwick, for himself, his heirs, executors and administrators, doth by 
these' presents covenant and grant to and with the said John Archeri his heirs 
assigns, and every of them ; that if the said John Archer, &c. &c. — ~- 
recorded 25th of November, 1676. 

On the 20th of November, 1684, Cornelius Steenwyck of New 
York, merchant, and Margaretta his wife, made their last will 
and testament in the Dutch language. After the usual preamble 
they express themselves to the following effect, viz. : 

'^ We the said testators do declare that our earnest will and last desire is, 
that the general inheritance of us, the said testators, and between our heirs, 
shall be regulated after the form, manner, custom and practice of the Nether 
Dutch nation, and according to the articles made upon the surrendering of this 
place. And I, the said testator, with the free consent of my wife, by form of 
a legacy have given, granted, and legacied, as I, the said testator, by form of 
legacy, do give and grant by these presents, for and to the proper use and 
behoof of the Nether Dutch Reformed congregation within the city of New 
York, for the support and maintainance of their ministers ordained according 
to the church orders of the Netherlands, now at present here in being, or 
hereafter to he called, ordained, or to come, all the testator's right, property 
title, and heraditaments in and to the manor of Fordham, lying in the county 
of Westchester, together with all the lands, meadows, fields, woods, creeks, 
rivulets, and other waters, as also all the said testator's jurisdiction, right, 
title, action, and property, in and to the said manor of Fordharo, with all the 
patents, deeds, schedules, hypothets, mortgages, and other instruments of 
writing to the said manor of Fordham belonging or in anywise appertaining, in 


as full and am^le as the said mauor of Fordham now already in property is 
belonging, ot hereafter more amply shall be confirmed onto the said tesutor 
by deed, conveyance, transport, hypothet, mortgage, judgement or otherwiae* 
from or by any manner of way or means, of John Archef, deceased, last ownec 
and proprietor of the said manor of Fordham. 

And 1, the said testator, dp further order and declare, as ray last will and 
testament, the said manor of Fordham, together with all the benefits, profits* 
incomes, advantages, rents, and revenues) and all appurtenances thereof, shall 
be conveyed, transported, and made over, in a free, quiet, and fall property 
and enjoyment by the testator*s appointed executvix within the spaee of six 
months after the testator's decease, or upon lawful demand, to the elders and 
overseers of the Nether Dutch congregation, for the proper use and behoof oi 
the minister of the said congregation, as herebefore at large is expressed and 
set forth, to be held in full propriety, possession, and enjoyment, inheritably 
and forever, by the said elders or overseers at the time of the te8tator*s de- 
cease in being, and all others that from time to time shall succeed in their 
places, to the end and use as aforesaid, without any let or hindrance or con- 
tradiction of any person or persons whatsoever. 

Provided always that none of the lands of said manor may be made away 
alienated contrary to the tenor of these presents, or otherwise disposed of, 
but from thenceforth forever be and remain as lands of inheritance towards 
the support and maintenance of the minister of said congregation is 
and recited and not otherwise. And finally, I, the said testator, do hereby 
declare that I have nomioated> appointed, and authorised my aforesaid dear 
and loving wife Margaretta Recmur to be my only and lawful ezecatrix of 
this my last will and testament, giving and granting by these presents onto 
her my said wife as full and ample power and authority as all other executors 
by law have and do enjoy, as in and by an English translated copy thereof 
and the said original Dutch will in the hands and custody of the said minister, 
elders and deacons fully and at large appear,'* &c , &c. 

Soon after the making of this will the said Cornelius Sieen- 
vjyckj died so seized and possessed of the manor as aforesaid. 

Subsequently John Archer, the younger son and heir of John 
Archer, first grantor of the manor of Fordham, by an indenture 
bearing date the 16th of October, 1685, for and in consideration 
therein mentioned, did grant, release, and convey the said manor 
of Fordham, and his estate, right, and title of it and to the same, 
and the equity of redemption thereof, and all the deeds unto the 
aforesaid Margaretta Steenwyck, and make livery seizure there- 
of," &c. Upon the 10th of January, 1694, Dominie Henricus 
Selyns and Margaretta his wife, formerly Margaretta Steenwyck, 


by their certain deed poll, under their hands and seals, did grant 
and convey to Colonel Nicholas Bayard, Captain Isaac Vermil- 
yea, Jacob Bolen Rockloyzun, and John Harpendinck, then 
elders and overseers of the Nether Dutch Church within the 
city of New York, (fee, and their lawful successors and heirs 
and posterity the said manor of Fordham, lying in the county 
of Westchester above mentioned, with all the lands and meadows, 
fields, woods, rivulets, creeks and other rivers, together with all 
the right, title, property, jurisdiction, and interest which either 
the aforesaid Cornelius Steenwyck or in quality as before in any 
other manner of way before that time had in the said manor of 
Fordham, and its appurtenances, whether it be by right from 
the said John Archer or from his son, John Archer, jr., to be 
held and forever enjoyed, used, and possessed, and held in full 
and absolute property, as an hereditary estate, by the said elders 
and overseers of the aforesaid congregation who were then in 
being, with all the profits, incomes, benefits, and revenues, for 
the better support and raaintainauce of the said minister^ called 
pursuant to order of the church of Netherlands then present or 
that should thereafter be called and come. 

Provided, and with the aforesaid condition and stipulant, that 
the manor with all its appurtenances, should, in no wise be 
alienated nor estranged, contrary to the tenor of the afore- 
mentioned will and bequest, but should remain to the use and be- 
hoof aforesaid, and not otherwise, releasing therefor, the said 
deed to property, title and right that this said grantors as well 
for themselves or in quality as above heretofore had to the said 
manor and its appurtenances, could or ought to have in any 
manner of way whatsoever as by the said indenture in the hands 
and custody of the said Nicholas Bayard and the present elders 
of the said Dutch church became seized and possessed of the 
premises aforesaid in trust to the use and purpose a'bresaid. 

In December, 1753, the lieutenant governor of his majesty's 
province of *New York, with the council and assembly, passed 
an act entitled, "An act to enable the minister, elders, and dea- 
cons of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of the city of 
New York to sell and dispose of their lands, tenements, and 
hereditaments in the county of Wes^tchester, commonly called 


and known by the name of the Manor of Fofdham^ &c. " Aad 
be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the moneys 
arising by such sale or sales shall not be disposed of to any secu* 
lar use, but the same shall be expended and used in purchasing 
or improving lands and other real estate, in order to secure a 
better and more large revenue or income towards supporting and 
maintaining of the said Dutch minister, or ministers, of the said 
Dutch churches and congregations, as near as may be agree- 
able to the will and intentions of the said donor, Cornelius 
Steenwyck," &c. On the 25th of February, 176S, the above act 
was confirmed by the king in council.^ 

The principal grantees of the manor under the Dutch Re- 
formed Church were Charles Doughty, who held 230 acres, Joiin 
Yanholst, 138 acres, Daniel Secord, 108 acres, Joseph and Bishop, 
156 acres, the Dyckmans, &c. The residue, consisting of forty 
acres, was sold to the Hon. Lewis Morris and WilUiam Kelly in 
1760. Upon the 2d of May, 1774, Lewis Morris and William 
Kelly conveyed 110 acres to Peter Valentine, in whose descen- 
dants this portion of the manor is still vested. 

Through the liberality of Mrs. Steenwyck, 300 acres are said 
to have been exempted from the sale to the Dutch Church, upon 
which was situated the old manorial residence. Be this as it 
may, however, we find Benjamin Archer, son of Samuel and 
grandson of John Archer, first grantor of the manor of Fordham, 
in 1780 seized in fee of a portion of the manor. Upon the death 
of Benjamin it passed to his children, Benjamin Archer, John 
Archer, Sarah, the wife of Jacob Alord, and Rachel, the wife of 
James Crawford. In 1786 Sarah and Rachel conveyed their 
rights and interest nn to Benjamin Archer, their brother, whose 
sons, the present William and Samuel Archer, are the only pro- 
prietors of the name that own a foot of land in Fordham. The 
family of Archer^ is of English origin, and held for many cen- 

•■ The funds ariBiuj^r from the sale of this property are now vested in Chamber 
St. New York. 

b The surname of this family originated at the time of the crusades, when some 
designation was necessarily affixed to the Christain name of those who enolbarked 
in them, for distioctioD^s sake ; as L*Archer, signifying the archer or bow-man. 


turies large possessions in the county of Warwickshire. The 
representative of the senior branch in 1600 appears to have been 
John Archer of Warwickshire, who married Eleanor Frewin. 
Fulbert L' Archer, the first of whom anything is known, came 
into England with William the Conqueror. At what period 
they emigrated to this country is uncertain, but as early as 1630, 
occurs the name of Samuel Archer, a freeman of Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, and in 1641, Henry Archer, of Ipswich in that province. 
John Archer, first proprietor of the manor of Fordham, probably 
accompanied the early settlers from Fairfield to Westchester, cir. 
1664, fdr in 1657 his name appears as plaintiff in an action of 
debt brought against one Roger Wiles.^ It is said that this in- 
dividual expired in his coach while journeying to New York 
city, November, 1685.i» 

In 1686, appears the following license and certificate con- 
cerning his son's marriage : 

"By his Excellency the governor, whereas, I have received in- 
formation of a mutual intent and agreement between John Archer 
of the one part, and Sarah Odell of the other part, to solemnize 
marriage together, for which they have requested my lycense, 
and there appearing no lawful impediment for the obstructioa 
thereof, these are to authorize and empower you to join the said 
John and Sarah Odell in the bonds of matrimony, and them to 
pronounce man and wife, and to make record thereof, if conve- 
nient to the laws in that behalf provided, for which this shall be 
your warrant. Given under my hand and seal, at Fort Jame?, 
in New York, the seventh day of October, 1686, under the 2nd 
year of his majesties reign. 

Thomas Dongan.'* 
Province of New York, 

These may certify all persons to whom these presents shall 
come, that John Archer, of the manor of Fordham, in the county 
of Westchester, and Sarah Odell of the same place, by virtue of 
his Excellency the governor's license, bearing date the 7th day 
of October, 1686, were both joined together in matrimony the 

• See Tol. ii. 179. ^ Hit remaini were interred on Tetard bill 

ToL. II. 42 

. # 


day of Dec, in the year of our Lord God, 1686, and in the 
Snd year of his majesty's reign. 

Ita Rogatus, Attestator. 
John Palmer, 

Justice of Quorum. 

The children of John Archer, Jr. and Sarah his wife, were 
John, Samuel, Richard and others, who have left numerous de- 
scendants. . 

The small hamlet of Fordham " is situated on the line of the 
Haarlem railroad, where is a depot, twelve and a half miles 
north of the City Hall.*' This place is said to have been the 
site of the ancient Dutch dorpe or village. ^' Here are located a 
Dutch Reformed Church, an academy, three taverns, two stores* 
and thirty or forty dwelling houses. 

^^ St. John^s College^ a Roman Catholic institution, is situated 
near this place, on an eminence called Rose Hill ; enjoying all 
the advantages peculiar to the country, its pure invigorating air, 
its retirement and peaceful quiet, so favorable to the formation 
and growth of studious habits ; while at the same time its prox- 
imity to the city by means of the railroad, is a great convenience. 
This institution, the only one of its kind in the state, was first 
opened for the reception of students on the 24th of June, 1841.'' 
It was incorporated by an act of the legislature passed April lOtb, 
1846. The following is an extract from their rules and regula- 
tions: "The system of government will be mild and paternal, 
yet firm in enforcing the observance of established discipline. 
The utmost attention will be paid not only to the intellectual, 
but also to the moral education of the pupils. As to their do- 
mestic comfort, every thing which parental afiiection can desire 
will be found and supplied in the assiduous attention and skilful 
management of the Sisters of Charity, to whom the charge of 
this important and highly responsible department is mainly con- 
fided." The college, which contains the rooms of the various 
professors, library, &,c., is a large, elegant, and commodious edi- 
fice. The iiall is adorned with some valuable engravings from 
Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican, presented by the late Pope 
Gregory XVI., to the Right Rev. Bishop Hughes. The oil pic- 
tures consist of a Madonna de la pesce, a copy from the original 


by Raphael. This picture is from the collection of the late 
Joseph Bonaparte ; The Entombment of the Saviour, a copy by 
William Franquinet. The head of St. Joseph in this picture is 
finely painted. The wooden building attached to the gardens 
on the south was formerly the residence of Colonel John Watts 
and his wife, the celebrated Lady Mary Alexander, daughter of 
Major General Lord Stirling. The church is a very large and 
handsome structure of stone, in the Gothic style. It is intended 
to embattle the tower and carry up the spire. The windows, 
which are filled with some excellent stained glass, give the in- 
terior a very pleasing appearance. The apostles, St. Peter and 
St. Paul, and the four evangelists are depicted in six windows, 
three on each side. These figures are executed in the best 
style of modern stained glass; they stand on floriated Gothic 
pedestals of gold surmounted by a rich canopy of the same. At 
the foot of the pedestal a gold escutcheon containing the name of 
each apostle and evangelist. The whole were made to order 
expressly for this church at St. Omers in France. 

Adjoining the church on the west is the new divinity school 
of St. Joseph ; the grounds are extensive, and in a state of high 
improvement. The collegiate year commences on the first Mon- 
day of September. Average number of students about 130. 

Rose hill place has been successively the property of the families 
of Corsar, Watts, and Brevoort, from whom it passed to Horatio 
Shephard Moat, who sold it in 1836 to the present proprietor. 

The farm and residence of the late Peter de Lancey, Esq., is 
delightfully situated near the college. 

In the same neighborhood is Belmont, the property of Jacob 
Lorillard, Esq. The house, which occupies an elevated position, 
commands a very extensive view of the Mill brook vale and the 
country adjacent. 

The Dutch Reformed Church stands upon rising ground 
on the north side of the road leading from Fordham to Kings- 
bridge. This edifice was erected in 1801. It is a neat wooden 
structure, but contains nothing worthy of particular notice. 
The old church,^ which has long since been destroyed, stood 

• This building was ttanding in 1724. Mrs. Steenwyck and William Dyckman 
aro said to have bttn libaral banefactora lowardi ita erection* 

332 HISTORY OF T0gk' 

on the farm of Mr. James Yalentiiie. Little is known con^ 
cerning the early history of this church, except that as early 
as 1671, "The inhabitants residing between the two kills ot 
Haarlem and the Broncks were obliged to contribute towards 
the support of its minister." Upon the 11th of May, 1696, it 
appears to have been regularly organized by the Collegiate D* 
R. Church of New York; the Rev. John Montague being at 
that time minister of the latter and Henricus Selyns, William 
Beeckman, Johannis Kerbyle, Johannis de Peyster, Jacobus Kipp^ 
Isaac de Forrest, and Isaac de Reyner, elders and deacons. The 
last minister prior to the Revolution was the Rev. Dom. Tetard. 

The following minutes are extracted from the record of the 
New York Classis : 

<<At a classis held in Flatbush on Tuesday, September 2d, 
1800, &c. The church in the Manor of Fordham, being re- 
duced during the war, and a prospect now opening of their being 
restored, Resolved, that this classis encourage and countenance 
them, by assisting and supplying them. Resolved further, that 
Dr. Livingston visit and preach to them as soon as convenient."* 

*< In 1802 Mr. Livingston reported that he had fulfilled his 
appointment, whereupon it was resolved that Mr. Jackson take 
charge of the congregation and give them all the service in his 

** October 19ih, 1809, the church of Fordham having called 
the Rev. John Jackson he was approved by the classis, who also 
resolved that the Rev. Dr. Gerardus A. Kuypers, as primarius, 
and the Rev. Cornelius C. Yermilyea, as secundus, be a commit- 
tee to install the Rev. John Jackson."^ 

List op Pastors. 

Jnstal. or call. Pastors. Vacated hy 

1779. Rev. Dom. Tetard, resignation. 

1819. Rev. John Jackson, ditto. 

184 . Rev. P. I. van Pelt, D. D. ditto. 

1846. Rev. William Cahoone, present pastor. 

* Rec. of N. Y. Clawls, vol. i. 225. b Ibid. vol. ii. 9. 

•• IhUi. vol. V. 23. 


Church Memoranda. 

1827. Communicants, 32. Baptisms, 15. 

1845. ditto. 48. ditto — . 

Immediately contiguous to the church is the Croton Aqueduct^ 
which, at no great distance, crosses the Haarlem river on a mag- 
nificent bridge of stone, 1450 feet long, with fifteen arches, eight 
of which are eighty feet span, and seven of fifty feet span ; one 
hundred and fourteen feet above tide water at the top. The 
estimated cost of the whole, when finished, will exceed $900,000. 

In the vicinity of the high bridge is situated Mount Fordham, 
the seat of Lewis G. Morris, Esq. This place commands a very 
extensive view of the Haarlem river and surrounding country, 
in which New York island form? a beautiful feature. 

The residence of Mr. Samuel Archer, in this neighborhood, is 
distinguished in the history of the Revolution as the head quar- 
ters of Colonel James de Lancey of the Royal Refugee corps. 
The following incidents show that although situated directly 
under the guns of Fort No. 8, De Lancey 's position was a very 
hazardous one, and required the utmost vigilance to guard 
against a surprise. 

In May, 1780, Captain Cashing of the Massachusetts line, 
with a small detachment under his command, consisting of one 
hundred infantry, made an excursion to this place. The expe- 
dition appears to have been planned by his guide, Michael Dyck- 
man, who had ascertained by close observation that the British 
sentinels were not in the habit of changing their countersign ; 
the next step was the capture of one of the refugees themselves, 
from whom he obtained the countersign. By this means, so 
sudden and complete was the surprisal of the enemy on the oc- 
casion, that over forty of them were either killed or made pris- 
oners. It was the intention to have captured De Lancey, but he 
was absent from his quarters. The cantonment had scarcely 
been turned, when a large party of Yauger horse collected and 
pursued Captain Cashing, but he efl!ected his retreat with so 
much skill and gallantry, though charged repeatedly by the ene- 
my, that no injury was sustained. The enemy were far ad- 
vanced up the Saw Mill valley ere they relinquished the pursuit. 


On this occasion Abraham Dyckman arrested Captain Ogden in 
Colonel Emmerick's quarters, (the house now occupied by Na- 
thaniel P. Bailey, Esq.,) at the moment when a British sentinel 
was pacing the bridge within musket shot. 

"On the 19lh of January, 1781, (says General Heath,) 150 
men from the Connecticut line and 200 from the New Hampshire 
line were to move towards the lines; these, with those who 
marched from Hazen*s tiie day before, were to form a covering 
party to the detachment under Lieutenant Colonel Hull, who 
was to make an attempt on De Lancey's corps."^ The result of 
the enterprise, (which took place upon the 2Sth of January, 1781|) 
is thus related by Thacher. " A detachment, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant Colonel Hull, has returned from a successful 
expedition, having attacked by surprise the Royal Refugee corps 
under the command of the noted Colonel De Lancey, posted at 
Morrisania. Colonel Hull has for several months past sustained 
the command of a detachment of our troops posted in advance of 
our army, a situation requiring the most active vigilance and 
precaution, to guard against surprise and stratagem. In this 
station, as in many others, this officer has evinced his military 
skill and judgment. He has executed an enterprize with such 
address and gallantry as to merit for himself and his detachment 
the highest honor. He bravely forced a narrow passage to the 
enemy, and besides a number being killed, he took upwards of 
fifty prisoners, cut away the bridge,^ burnt their huts and a con- 
siderable quantity of forage, and brought off a number of horses 
and cattle. Colonel Hull possesses in a high degree the confi- 
dence of the commander-in-chief; and for his judicious arrange- 
ments in the plan, and intrepidity and valor in the execution of 
the enterprize, he received the thanks of his Excellency, and after- 
wards of congress. The enemy pursued our troops, and fell in 
with a covering party, under command of Colonel Hazen, and 
in a skirmish which ensued, they suffered an additional loss of 
about thirty-five. Of Colonel Hull's detachment, one ensign, and 
twenty-five rank and file were killed and wounded. This suc- 

* Heath's Mem. 271. h Tlie pontoon bridge acron Haarlem rirer. 


cessful exploit is calculated to raise the spirits of our troops, and 
to divest their minds from the unhappy occurrence, which has 
recently taken pface in camp, and at the same time it may con- 
vince the enemy that the affiiirs of our army are not altogether 

''4th of March, 1782, Captain Hunnewell with a body of vol* 
unteer horse, backed by the infantry under the command of 
Major Woodbridge made an excursion to Morrisania. The horse 
proceeded down between the British fort, No. 8, and the canton- 
ment of De Lancey's corps, and having turned the cantonments 
between day-break and sun-rise, they entered pell mell. The 
enemy were completely surprised, and fled in every direction ; 
some were cut down on the spot, others so badly wounded as 
not to be able to be removed. Some of the enemy availed them- 
selves of positions where the horse could not assail them, from 
whence they b'agan to fire on the house. This occcasioned the 
firing of the alarm guns at No. 8. The horse having nearly 
accomplished their design^ moved off, taking the Eastchester road, 
in which Major Woodbridge had posted the infantry in ambus- 
cade. Captain Hunnewell had brought off one subaltern and 
twenty men prisoners and 20 horses. The enemy in the vicinity 
collected a number of horse, backed by light infantry, and pur- 
sued Captain Hunnewell until he came to Major Woodbridge. 
The enemy were drawn into the ambuscade, who made one or 
two discharges on them, on which they broke and retired, but 
soon returned to the charge ; skirmishing ensued, and continued 
to a considerable distance. Of the Americans, two privates were 
killed, Mr. Abraham Dyckman,^ one of the guides, a brave and 
active man, mortally wounded, and three privates slightly 

'^ On the 26th of March, (says General Heath,) Mr. Dyckman^^ 
one of our guides on the lines, with thirteen volunteer horsemen 

» Thaclier*s Journal, 245. 

b Mr. Dyckman fell at Purdy't corner near Uie interiection of the Eaatcheitcr 
and New York roads. 

• Heath's Mem. 330. 

* Michacli brother of Abraham Djekman. 


made an excursion to Morrisania, took five prisoners of De Lan- 
cey's corps and five horses ; on their return they were pursued 
by a party of the enemy's horse, who coming rather too near, the 
brave volunteers faced about, charged vigorously, took one man 
prisoner with his horse, and put the rest to flight. The enemy 
again appeared," on the Eastchester road near Jonathan Ward's 
house, *' in some force, at a distance, but dared not renew the 

The following is General Heath's account of the burning of 
Colonel Hatfield's quarters, which stood directly opposite Archer^ 
entrance. " About this time (January, 1780,) a detachment from 
Colonel Mead's regiment of levies at Horseneck, and a number of 
volunteers from Greenwich, the former under the command of 
Captain Keeler, the latter under the command of Captain Lock- 
wood, the wlole about eighty, marched to Morrisania; and about 
one o'clock in the morning made an attack on Colonel Hatfield. 
They first attacked the picket, killed three, and drove the rest 
into the colonel's quarters. The colonel and his men took to 
the chambers, and fired out at the windows, and down stairs, at 
those who had entered the house ; it appeared difficult, if possible, 
to dislodge them ; the house was instantly set on fire, by putting 
a straw bed into a closet, which compelled the enemy to jump 
out at the chamber windows, to avoid the flames. Colonel Hat- 
field, one captain, one lieutenant, one quarter- master, and eleven 
privates were taken prisoners and brought ofi*. This was a pretty 
affair, but was a litte tarnished on the return by some of the 
militia, who were fatigued, loitering on the road, where they 
supposed there was no danger ; but a party of horse pursuing, 
overtook, killed and captured several of ihem."^ 

Many other occurrences of the same kind might be related to 
show that this vicinity was constantly harassed by small parties 
of American volunteers, who made every effort to dislodge their 
wary antagonists. 

Upon a lofty eminence to the norlh-wesi of the Archer house, 
stand the remains of Fort No. 8. ** The enemy (observes Heath) 

« llfttiri Mf>m. 339. b Ibid. 228. 


had a redoubt called No. 8 on the east side of Haarlem creek, 
nearly opposite to the fort on Laurel hill, and under the fire of 
its cannon, for the security of their advanced troops on the Mor- 
risania side."*^ When the British made the bold and successful 
attack upon Fort Washington in 1776, the guns of No. 8, which 
lay directly opposite, covered the advance of the Hessians and 
Lord Percy. " On the 20th of October, 1782, the enemy were 
demolishing their works at No. 8, Morrisania.''^ 

Fort Independence^ the ruins of which are still visible on 
Te(ard?s hilly was not dismantled until 1833. Prince Charleses 
redoubt^ and the Negro fort^ both well known fortifications, in 
the annals of the Revolution, lie on the south side of Valentine^s 
hill. From the former, which commands a splendid view of the 
surrounding country, the morning and evening gun of the British 
was fired. 

Williams* Bridge^ in the north-east corner of West Farms, 
is situated on the line of the Haarlem and Westchester railroad, 
where is a depot, thirteen and a half miles north of the City Hall ; 
here are two taverns and a store. 

The Haarlem river (Muscoota,) which forms the western 
boundary of the town, is one of the sweetest streams that ever 
gave a charm to landscape. On the Westchester shore high 
woods cover the sides of undulating hills, while here and there 
rich meadows form a gradual and beautiful descent to the water's 
edge. The opposite banks are abruptly terminated with rocky 
declivities, and present by their greater boldness a fine contrast. 
These waters afford an agreeable haunt to the king fisher, <* the 
most celebrated and besung of all other birds says Aldrovand,'' 
likewise to the heron and fish hawk. 

• Heath's Mem, 223. b HeaUi's Mem. 357. 

Vol. II. 43 


h, While ntloi. 


The tialf-shire towD 
of the county is sJtii' 
ated Iwetiljr-eiirhl miles 
from New York, one 
hundred and thirly-one 
fiouih of A'baiiy, six i 
miles ea?t of the Hud- 
son, and fourteen sonih 
of Bedford, Ihe other 
half-shire town; bound' 
ed northerly by North Castle, eastward! y by Harrison, southerly 
by Scnrsdaie, and west by Greenburgh. The river Bronx roos 
south along the west line, and the Mamaroneck river along the 
cast, forming the boundary towards Harrison township. The 
whole area of (his town may be eight and a half square miles.* 

White Plains originally formed a portion of the town of Rye, 
and derived its name from ihe White Balsam, (Gnaphaliomh 
Polycephalum of Linnfetis,) which still grows in great ebon- 
dance in and around the plains. 

ll was called Quaroppas by the Indians, under whom these 
lands must have fonoed a portion of the ancient domains of Weck- 
quaskeck, as we find Shapham, or Thapliam, one of the sachems 
of that place, conjointly selling lands here to ihe inhabitants of 
the town of Rye in 1683. 

"It is BO long since the Indians quitted these grounds, that 
their monunienis are almost effaced. Once in a while a point of 
au arrow, or a stone axe is found, which bears the mark of In- 

■ Spaflard's GtuUer of N. Y. 
k FtoiD tlie Grtek Gnaphalon, < 

ll agaifyin^ »rt down oi wool. 


dian labor and dexterity; and there is still to be distinguished 
the spot on which they had their wigwams, and the cemetry* 
where they buried their dead." The former is situated on the 
lands of Mr. Gilbert Oakley, the latter on the property of Mr. 
Elisha Crawford. In the vicinity of the H^age is a small exca- 
vation cut out of a granite rock, denominated the Indians^ seat. 
Upon the 22d day of November, 16S3, the inhabitants of Rye 
obtained the following grant from the aboriginal proprietors* 

"To all ChritUaa people to whom these presents shall come, greeting: 
Know ye, that we, Thapham, Cockinseko, Orawapum, Kewetoham, Koawa- 
nohpaatch, Shipharrash, Korehwewous, Panawok, Memishote, Pewekanoh, 
Oromahqah, Pathanck, Hohoreis, Debeoga Wonauahing, Owhorawas, and 
Onoshand, have for a valaable sum of money to as in hand, bargained, cove- 
nanted, alienated and sold unto the inhabitants of the above said town of Rye« 
a certain tract of land lying within the town bounds of 12ye, bounded as fol- 
loweth, on the north-east with Marrineck river, and on the south-east with a 
branch of the said river and marked trees till it comes to Broncks's river, and 
then to ran by Broncks's river till it comes to the head of the White Plaines^ 
so called, and by marked* trees from thence till it comes to the uppermost 
branch of Marrineck river, which tract of land is commonly called by tbe 
English the White Plaines, and called by the Indians Quaroppas, which said 
tract of land wee, the abovesaid Thapham, Cockinseko, Orawapam, Kewe- 
toham, Koawanoh, Moahatice« and the rest of the abovesaid Indians have sold 
as abovesaid unto the inhabitants of the said town of Rye, them, their heirs, 
executors, administrators, or assignees, for ever, and do hereby bind ourselves^ 
our heirs, executors, administrators, and assignees, unto the inhabitants of 
the abovesaid town of Rye, them, their heirs, executors, administrators, or 
assignees, that they may at all times from and afW the date hereof appear^ 
peaceably and quietly possess* occupy, and enjoy the abovesaid tract of land 
free from all former bargains, sales, mortgages, or other incumbrances what- 
soever, and also to warrant and make good the abovesaid sale against any 
person or persons whatsoever that shall or will make or lay any claim or 
olaimes thereunto, and in testimony thereof we have caused this bill of sale 
to be made, and hereunto have sett our hands and seals this two and twentieth 
of November^ one thousand six hundred and eighty-three. Sealed, signed^ 
and delivered in the presence of us. 

• On the 30th of April, 1803, Eliiha Brewster and wife sold to Isaac Valentine 
*' all that land bounded as follows : at a mulberry stump by the road that leads to 
New York, thence runiuag southerly by and with said road to a black stump, ftom 
thence by and with said road to the Indian gravۤ" dte. 


Cornelias Sbapbsm C 

his X marke. Cockioseka Z 

Joshua Knap, Orawapam d 

The w marke of Kewetoham E 

Motepeattehow. Koawanoh '^ 

John Odcll ' Moahpoatch T 

his marke. Pathnnck Ci 

Hohorises P 
Totojnge 1 
Oherowass X 
Oraronptah <-« 
This bin of sale is acknowledged by 
the said grantors to be their act and 
deed, before me in Rye, the day and 
year above written. 

Joseph Horton, Commissioner.^ 

<< 12th of April, 1694, Hachaliab Brown and Thomas MerriCC 
were appointed to go with the Indians and renew the marks of 
the White Plains purchasej agreeing with the Indians as rea- 
sonably as they can."b "The same year Thomas Merrittand 
Joseph Galpin were chosen to lay out the land at the White 
Plains granted to Jonathan Horton by the town."*: The next 
notice of this town occurs on the 9th of February, 1719, when, 
at a public meeting held by the proprietors of the White Plains^ 
it was voted and agreed by the said proprietors that Captaia 
Joseph Budd, John Hoyt, sen., John Horton, Caleb Hiatt, Samuel 
Purdy and George Lane, jr., layers out of the said purchase 
chosen by the said proprietors, for laying out all the above said 
land, as may appear by record bearing date February 11th, 17|f , 
that the said layers out shall have for their trouble and industry 
for laying out the whole purchase and returning the bounds at or 
between the thirteenth day of April, which will be in the year 
one thousand seven hundred and twenty, one hundred and tea 
acres of land lying between the lower end, the ridges and Mama- 
Toneck river. At the above said meeting tis voted and agreed 
that David Ogden and Hachaliah Brown are to survey and lay out 

« Bye Rec. lib. A. b Rje Rec. 



the above said one hundred acres and ten of land as above men-^ 

The following is a list of the proprietors, and the number of 
acres held by them under the survey .^ 

Joseph Horton, 18 Joseph Budd, 26 

Isaac Denham, I Philip Galpin, 9 

Francis Purdy, 2 Richard Lounsberry, 33 

Deliverance Brown, 30 John Galpin, 5 

George Lane, 23 John Horton, 15 

Thomas Brown, 3 Joseph Horton, 17 

John Frost, 20 Henry Disbrow, 8 

Peter Brown, 32 Garrett Travis, 13 

Peter Disbrow, 22 John Stockham, 7 

John Merritt, 39 Jonathan Fowler, 19 

Caleb Hiatt, 11 Richard Walter, 35 

Samuel Hoyt, 42 Andrew Cox, 43 

Timothy Knap, 16 Thomas Jeffrey, 21 

Jacob Pease, 37 Isaac Sherwood, 38 

George Kniffen, 12 Joseph Sherwood, 34 

Joseph Purdy, 25 Francis Brown, 40 

Benjamin Horton, 29 William Odell, 6 

Isaac Odell, 31 Jonas Sherwood, 28 

Joseph Galpin, 10 Thomas Lyon, 14 

John Hoyt, 36 John Brondig, 4 
« Hachaliah Brown, 27 

"In 1721, William Burneti governor of New York, set out ia 
order for patent, to Samuel Hunt, ^' a certain tract or parcel of 
land lying and being in the county of Westchester, being part of 
a large tract commonly known by the name of the White Plains^ 
beginning at three large white oak trees standing near together 
on the west side of Mamaroneck river, and runs thence south 
thirty-nine degrees west, thirty-one chains, &c., &c., containing 
two hundred and sixty acres after five acres deducted for every 
hundred acres for highways."© 

Upon the 13th of March, 1721, his Excellency, William Qurnet 
granted letters patent to Daniel Brundage for that tract of land 
in Whiie PlaUis^ beginning at a small white ash stake standing 

* Rye Rec. lih. A. b Sometime* called the second draught* 

e Alb. Book of Pat. No. viU. 442. 


on the east side of the Long Meadow brook, and runs thenca 
south fifty-three degrees, west forty-three chains, to a heap of 
stones near the street, containing one hundred and ninety-five 
acres, the patentee yielding therefor on the festival of the Annun- 
ciation, the annual rent of twenty shillings and sixpence for 
every hundred acres.* 

King George the Second the same year issued the following 
royal letters patent to Joseph Budd, John Hoit, and others. 


George, by the gr&ce of God of Great Britaio, France, and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith, &c.. To all to whom this present shall come, greeting : 
Whereas oar loving subjects Joseph Budd, John Hoit, Caleb Hoit, Humphrey 
Underhill, Joseph Purdy, George Lane, Daniel Lane, Moses Klnap, John 
Horton, David Horton, Jonathan Lynch, Peter Hatfield, James Travis, Isaac 
Covert, Benjamin Brown, John Turner, David Ogden, and William Teomans, 
by their humble petition presented to our trusty and well beloved William 
Burnet, Esq., captain- general and governor-in-chief of our provioee of New 
York, in council, the twenty- first day of December last, did humbly pray that 
his said Excellency would be favourably pleased to grant to them, their heint, 
and assignees, his true letters patent for their claims and purchase, lying 
within this province, in the county of Westchester, known by the name of the 
White Plains, in such manner and under such quit rent, provisions, and re- 
strictions as is and are directed in our royal commission and instruotions to 
O'jr said governor where petition was then and there received and considered 
of by our council of our said province, untill the first day of this insL, they 
did humbly advise our said governor, and consent that the prayer of the said 
petition be granted. In order to the granting whereof in pursuance of and in 
obedience to our royal instructions to his said Excellency, given at St. James 
the third day of June, one thousand seven hundred and twenty, in the sixth 
year of our reign, our said governor, together with George Clarke, Esq., sec- 
retary, and Cadwallader Colden, Esq., surveyor general of our said province, 
three of the commissioners appointed by our said instructions for setting oot 
all lands to be granted within our said province of New York, did set out for 
the said Joseph Budd, John Hoit, Caleb Hoit, Humphrey Underhill, Joseph 
Purdy, George Lane, Daniel Lane, Moses Knap, John Horton, David Horton, 
Jonathan Lynch, Peter Hatfield, James Travis, Isaac Covert, Benjamin 
Brown, John Turner, David Ogden, and William Yeomaos, that tract or par- 
cel of land situate, lying and being in the county of Westchester, and is com* 

• Alb. Book of Pat No. viii. 442. 


monly known by the name of the While Plains. Beginning at a large white 
oak tree marked with seferal letters, where two brooks fall into the wes^ 
branch of Mamaroneck river, and runs thence by markt trees to Brunxes 
river near the place where a small brook falls into the said river by a bonch of 
elders, some of which are marked, thence up the stream of Brunxes river to 
an ash tree about seventeen chains above Anthony Miller's fulling mill, thenoe 
by marked trees to a white oak tree marked, near Lang Meadow brook, then 
down the stream of the said brook to the lands laid out for Daniel Brundage 
then along his land to the said Long Meadow brook, then down the stream of 
the said brook to the place where it falls into Mamaroneck river, and down 
the stream of the said river to the land granted to Christopher Bridge, then 
along his line and to the lines of the land laid out for Samuel Hunt to Mamar- 
oneck river, then down the stream of the said river to the place where the 
west branch falls into the said river, and then op the stream of the said west 
branch to the place where it begins, containing four thousand five hundred and 
thirty-five acres, with allowance for highways, and in the seting out of the 
said tract of land had regard to the profitable and unprofitable acres, and had 
taken care that the length of the said tract do not extend along the banks of 
any river, conformable to our said royal instructions, as by a certificate under 
their hands bearing date the tenth day of March last, entered of record in our 
secretary's ofiice more fully and at large appears, which tract of land set out 
as aforesaid, according to our said royal instructions, and being willing to 
grant to the said Joseph Budd, John Hoit, Caleb Hoit, Humphrey Underhill, 
Joseph Purdy, George I^ane, Daniel Lane, Moses Knap, John Horton, David 
Horton, Jonathan Lynch, Peter Hatfield, James Travis, Isaac Covert, Ben- 
jamin Brown, John Turner, David Ogden, and William Yeomans, their heirs 
and assignees, according to the prayer of their petition. 

Know ye, that of our especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, 
we have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and do by these presents, for 
us, our heirs and successors, give, grant, ratify and confirm, unto the said Jo» 
seph Bodd, John Hoit, Caleb Hoit, Humphrey Underbill, Joseph Purdy, 
George Lane, Daniel Lane, Moees Knap, John Horton, David Horton, Jona- 
than Lynch, Peter Hatfield, James Travis, Isaac Covert, Benjamin Brown, 
John Turner, David Ogden and W^illiam Yeomans, their heirs and assignees, 
all that, the said certain tract or parcel of land, situate, lying and being in the 
county of Westchester, which is commonly known by the name of the White 
Plains, beginning at a large white oak tree marked with several letters, where 
two brooks fall into the west branch of Mamaroneck river, and runs thenea 
by marked trees to Bronx's river, near the place where a small brook falls in- 
to the said river by a bonch of elders, some of which are marked, thence np 
the stream of Bronx's river to an ash tree, about 17 chains above Anthony 
Miller's fulling mill, thence by marked trees to a white oak tree marked, near 
Long Meadow brook, then down the stream of the said brook to the lands laid 
out for Daniel Brondage, then along his land to the said Long Meadow brook, 


then down the stream of the said brook to the place where it &Ila ibio Urn 
Mamaroneck river, and down the stream of the said rirer to the land fnuited 
to Christopher Bridge, then along his line to the lines of the land laid oot for 
Samuel Hunt, to Mamaroneck river, then down the stream, np the said river 
to the place where the west branch falls into the sai^ river, aad then ttp the 
stream of the said west branch to the place where it begun, containing four thoe- 
sand four hundred and thirty-five acres, with allowance for highways, together 
with all and singular woods, underwoods, trees, timber, feeding, pastaree, 
meadows, marshes, swamps, ponds, pools, waters, water coarsesy rivers, rivii- 
lets, runs and streams of water, fishing, fowling, hunting and hawking, minee* 
minerals, standing, being, growing, lying, or to be had, used and enjoyed 
within the limits and bounds aforesaid, and all other proffits^ benefits, libertiea» 
privileges, hereditaments and appurtenances to the same belonging, or in any 
wise appertaining, and all that oor estate, right, title, interest, benefit, claim 
and demand whatsoever, of, in, or to the same, and the reversion and reTer- 
sions, remainder and remainders and the yearly rents and profits of the same, 
excepting, and always reserving oat of this our present grant, nnto us, oar 
heirs and successors forever, all trees of the diameter of twenty-four inchea 
and upwards at twelve inches from the ground, for masts for oar royal 
navy, and also all such other trees as may be fit to make planks, knees and 
other things necessary fur the use of our said navy, which now are standing, 
growing or being, or which forever hereafter shall be standing, growing or 
being in and upon any of the said land, with free liberty and lycense for any 
person or persons whatsoever, by us, our hejrs and successors, or any of 
them, to be thereunto appointed under our or their sign manuel, with work- 
men, horses, waggons, carts and carriages, and without, to enter and come 
into and upon the said said lands and any part thereof, and there to fell, cut 
down, root up, hew, saw and rive, have, take, cart and carry away the same 
for the uses aforesaid, (excepting also and reserving all the silver and gold 
mines) to have and to hold all and singular the same certain tracts of land 
and premises, with its hereditaments and appurtenances (excepting as before 
is excepted and reserved) unto the said Joseph Budd, John Hoit, Caleb Hoit, 
Humphrey Underhill, Joseph Purdy, George Lane, Daniel Lane, Moeea 
Knap, John Horton, David Horton, Jonathan Lynch, Peter Hatfield, Jamea 
Travis, Isaac Covert, Benjamin Brown, John Turner, David Ogden and Wil. 
Ham Yeomans, their heirs and assignees forever, to be holden of us, oar heirs 
and successors, in free and common soccage, as of our manor of East Green- 
wich, in the county of Kent, within our kingdom of Great Britain, yeilding, 
rendering and paying therefor yearly, and every year, forever, unto us, our 
heirs and successors, at our custom house in the city of New York, unto oar 
or their collector or receiver general, for the time being, on the feast day of 
the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, commonly called lady day, 
the annual rent of two shillings and six pence for every hundred acres thereof 


in Ilea and stead of all other rents, services, dues, dutyes and demands 
whatsoever, for the same four thousand four hundred and thirty-fire acres 
of land so panted as aforesaid, provided, always, and these presents are 
upon this condition, that the said Joseph Budd, John Hoit, Caleb Hoit, 
Humphrey Underhill, Joseph Purdy, George Lane, Daniel Lane, Moses 
Knap, John Horton, David Horton, Jonathan L3 nch, Peter Hatfield, James 
Travis, Isaac Covert, Benjamin Brown, John Turner, David Ogden and 
William Yeomans, their heirs and assignees^ some or one of them shall and 
doe within the term and space of three years now next ensuing the date here* 
of, plant, settle, and effectually cultivate, at least three acres of land for 
every fifly acres of the land granted as aforesaid on default thereof, and if 
the said Joseph Budd, John Hoit, Caleb Hoit, Humphrey Underhill, Joseph 
Purdy, George Lane, Daniel Lane, Moses Knap, John Horton, David Hor- 
ton, Jonathan Lynch, Peter Hatfield, James Travis, Isaac Covert, Benjamin 
Brown, John Turner, David Ogden and William Yeomans, their heirs and 
assignees, or any other person or persons, by their privity consent or pro- 
curement, shall set on fire or burn the woods on the said lands or any part 
thereof, to clear the same so as to destroy, impair or hinder the growth of any 
of the trees that are or may be fit for masts, planks, knees or other timber 
for onif royal navy, hereby reserved unto us, our heirs and successors, that 
■then and in either. of these cases, this our grant, and every article and olansa 
therein or thereof, shall cease, determine and be void, everything therein 
contained to the contrary thereof, in any wise notwithstanding, and we 
do further of our especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, 
consent and agree, that these presents being entered upon record, as is here- 
tofore appointed, shall be good, effectual in law to all intents and purposiM, 
against us, our heirs and successors, notwithstanding the not well reciting or 
our writing of the premises or any part thereof. In testimony whereof, we 
have caused these our letters to be made patent, and the great seal of oor 
said province to be hereunto affixed to the same, to be entered of record in onr 
secretary's office, in one of the books of patents there remaining. Witness 
our trusty and well beloved William Burnet, Esq., captain general and gov- 
ernor-in-chief of our province of New York, of oor province of New Jersey, 
and of all the territories and tracts of land thereon depending, in America, 
and vice-admiral of the same at Fort George, in New York, the thirteenth 
day of March, in the eighth year of our reign, Anno Domini, seventeen 
hundred and twenty-one. 

W. Robin, D. Secr'y. 

The descendants of the ancient proprietors and patentees, (le- 
sident in White Plains) are still very namerbus, viz. : the Hor- 
tons, Purdys, Browns, Merritis, Odells, Sherwoods, d&c. ice 

The village of White Plains is pleasantly situated on a fine 

Vol. XL 44 


plain, Ihree quarters of a mile east of the river Bronx, and eon- 
taJDs about 700 inhabitants, 150 dvelliog houses, a conrt boase^ 
jail, county clerk's atid surrogate's offices, an Episcopal, a Pres- 
byterian, and two Methodist churches, a bank, two boys' semina- 
ries which are in a Nourishing condition, and a femald boarding 
school, four taverns, four stores, and a woollen factory, dec. 
The surface of the surronnding country is broken by a range of 
hills from the south, which diversify with a pleasing variety, 
both the soil and position of land thus distributed into portions 
for meadow, pasture and tillage.' The whole town ia also 
richly wooded and watered by the Bronx, Sheldrake and Mamo- 
roneck rirera. These streams form romantic valleyf , and supply 
nnmerous mill seats. Since the first settlement of this place, 
which commenced soon after its purchase from the Indiaos, ia 
1683, it has continued steadily to progress, and is now hardly lo 
be excelled by any other inland villoge in the county. White 
Plains being a half shire town with Bedford, (which is sixteen 
miles north) the courts are held alternately at both places. The 
court house stands near the centre of the village, and occupies the 
site of the old building erected in 1759, upon the removal of the 
courts from Westohestcr. The first Court of Common Pleas as- 
sembled here, the 27th of May, 1760. 

Omrt Boom, WUu 

* Spafibrd'i Ganttrar of N. Y. 


There are events connected with this spot, which will long 
live in the pages of American history. It was here that the 
Whigs of Westchester county appointed to meet the committees 
of the several towns to elect deputies to the continental congressi 
who were to assemble at Philadelphia, on the first day of Sep- 
tember. 1774. The proceedings of the various meetings held 
here would afford matter for a good sized volume, we shall there- 
fore present our readers *• with a small part only of the impor- 
tant productions of those eventful times." The following reso- 
lutions were adopted by the freeholders and inhabitants of Rye 
and Westchester. 

" On the 10th day of August, 1774, the freeholders and inhabi- 
tants of the township of Rye^ made choice of John Thomas jr. 
Esquire, Robert Bloomer, Zeno Carpenter and Ebenezer Havi- 
land, for a committee to consult and determine with the commit- 
tees of the other towns and districts in the county of Westches- 
ter, upon the expediency of sending one or more delegates to con- 
gress to be held in Philadelphia, on the first day of September, 
next. The committee, after making choice of Ebenezer Havi- 
land as chairman, expressed their sentiments and resolutions in 
the following manner, which were unanimously approved : 

*' This meeting being greatly alarmed at the late proceedings of the British 
Parliament, in order to raise a revenue in America, and considering their lata 
roost cruel, unjust and unwarrantable act for blocking up the port of BostoOt 
having a direct tendency to deprive a free people of their most Taluable rights 
and privileges, an introduction to subjugate the inhabitants of the Englith 
colonies, and render them vassals to the British House of Commons, resolvedi 
1st, that they think it their greatest happiness to live under the illnatrious 
house of Hanover, and that they will stedfastly and uniformly bear true and 
faithful allegiance to his majesty King George the Third, under the enjoy- 
ment of those constitutional rights and privileges, as fellow subjects, with those 
in England. Sndly ; but we conceive it a fundamental part of the British 
constitution, that no man shall be taxed, but *oj his own consent, or that of hit 
Representatives in Parliament. 

And as we are by no means represented, we eonsider all acts of Parliameot 
imposing taxes on the Colonies an undue exertion of power, and subversiTe of 
one of the most valuable privileges of the English constitution. 

3d. That it is the opinion of this meeting, that the act of Parliament for 
shutting up the port of Boston, and divesting some of the inhabitants of pri- 


Tate property, is a most unparalled, rigorona aod unjuat piece of enidlj mud 

4th. That anaaimity and firmness of meaaores in the Coloniea, ve the most 
effectaal means to secure the invaded rights and priTileges of Ameritm, and 
to avoid the impending ruin which now threatens this once happy eoontrj. 
* 5th. That the most effectaal mode of redressing oor grieTances, will be by ft 
General Congress, of delegates from the difi*ereot colonies, and that we are 
willing to abide by sach measures as they in their wisdmn shall oooaider ne« 
oeasary to be adopted on that important occasion. 

By order of the committee, 

Ebenezer Haviland, Chairmftn. 

The committee for the town of Rye will meet the committees of the other 
towns and districts in the co. of Westchester, on Monday the 92d day of thia 
instant, at the court house in the White Plains^ to return an answer to a let- 
ter from Mr. Isaac Low, chairmaio of the committee of eorrespondenoe io 
New York.* 

The Westchester resolutions were as follows : 

" At a meeting of the freeholders and inhabitants of the Borough Town of 
Westchester, in New York, the SOth of August, 1774, James Ferris, Elaq.t 
Col. Lewis Morris, and Capt. Thomas Hunt, were chosen a committee to 
meet a committee of the different towns and precincts within this county, at 
the White Plains, on Monday the 22nd inst., to consult on the expediency of 
appointing one or more delegates to represent this county at the General Con- 
gress, &c., and James Ferris Esq. being unanimously chosen chairman ; 
the committee after considering the very alarming situation of their suffering 
brethren at Boston, occasioned by the late unconstitutional, arbitrary and op- 
pressive act of the British Parliament, for blocking up their port, as well aa 
the several acts imposing taxes on the Colonies in order to raise a revenue in 
America, thought proper to adopt the following resolutions, which were 
unanimously agreed to: '* resolved, l8t.,tbat we do and will bear true alle- 
giance to his majesty George the third, King of Great Britain, and according 
to the British constitution. 

2ndly, that we coincide in opinion with our friends in New York and every 
other Colony, that all acts of the British Parliament imposing taxes on the 
Colonies without their consent or by their representatives, are arbitrary and 
oppressive, and should meet the abhorrence and detestation of all good men, 
that they are replete with the purpose of creating animosities and dissensions 
between the mother country and the colonies, or thereby tend to destroy that 

« American Archives, fourth series, vol. i. 


hannony and matoal agreement which is so much the interest of both to 
cherish and maintain. 

3rd. That we esteem it our duty, and think it incumbent on all the Colonies 
in America, to contribute towards the relief of the poor and distressed people 
of Boston ; and that a person of this Borough be appointed to collect such 
charitable donations, within the same, as may be oflered for their support. 

4th. That as a diriaion in the Colonies would be a sure means to counteract 
the present intention of the Americans in their endeavors to preserye their 
rights and liberties from the invasion that is threatened, we do most heartily 
recommend a steadiness and unanimity in their measures, as they will have 
the happy effects of averting the calamity that the late tyrannical act of the 
British Parliament would otherwise most assuredly involve us in. 

5th. That to obtain a redress of our grievances it has been thought most 
advisable in the Colonies to appoint a General Congress ; we will take shelter 
under the wisdom of those gentlemen who may be chosen to represent us, and 
cheerfully acquiesce in any measures they may judge shall be proper in this 
very alarming and critical occasion.* 

James Ferris, Cfuiirman. 

Upon the 6ih of April, 1775, appeared the following public 
notice, addressed to the freeholders and inhabitants of the county 
of Westchester. 

*' You are earnestly desired to attend a general meeting of the county to be 
held at Whi(e Plains, on Tuesday next, the ilth inst., to give your votes 
upon the questions : — Whether you are inclined to choose deputies to meet at 
the city of New York, in a Provincial Convention t or, whether you are deter- 
mined to abide by the loyal and judicious measures already taken by your own 
worthy Representatives in the General Assembly of this Province, for a redress 
of American grievances 1 The consequences that may arise from neglecting 
to attend at White Plains on Tuesday next, to declare your sentiments rela- 
tive to the appointment of deputies to meet in Provincial Congress, may be 
very fatal to this county. The friends of government and our happy consti- 
tution are therefore earnestly invited in person, to oppose a measure so replete 
with ruin and misery. Remember the extravagant price we are now obliged 
to pay for goods purchased from merchants in consequence of the new impor- 
tation agreement ; and when the new exportation agreement takes place, we 
shall be in the situation of those who are obliged to make bricks without 

White Plains, in the Co. of W. C. April llM, 1775. 
On the 28th of March last, the following gentlemen having received letters 
from the chairman of the committee of the city and county of New York, 

• American Archives, fourth series, voL i. 7:26. 
k American Archives, fourth seriet, vd. ii. 282. 


Utive to the appoiotment of Depaties for this county, met at thb plmee for thm 
purpose of devising roeaos for taking the sense of the county upon the aolilaety 
▼is., Theodosias Bartow, Esq., William Sutton, Esq., Captain Joseph Drake, 
James Willis, Benjamin Drake, Moses Drake, Colonel Lewis Morris, Thomas 
Hunt, Abraham Leggett, James Horton, jr., Esq., Stephen Ward, and Abra- 
ham Goion, Esq., who, having taken the same into consideration, agreed to 
tend the following notification to the principal freeholders in the different 
towns and districts in the county, viz. : 

March S8/^ 1775. 

Sir : — A number of persons from different districts in the County of West- 
chester having this day met at the White Plains to consider of the moat pro- 
per method of taking the sense of the freeholders of the said County apon the 
expediency of choosing deputies to meet the deputies of the other counties for 
the purpose of electing delegates to represent this colony in the Greneral Con- 
gress to be held in Philadelphia, on the 10th day of May next, are of opinion 
that the best way of proceeding for that purpose will be to have a general 
meeting of the freeholders of said county. As this county is Tory extensive 
we take the liberty of recommending the meeting to be held at the Wkiie 
Plainst on Tuesday, the i llh day of April next, at 10 o'clock in the forenoon, 
at the Court House^ and therefore do desire you to give notice of the same 
to all the freeholders in your district, without exception, as those who do not 
appear and vote on that day will be presumed to acquiesce in the sentiments 
of the majority of those who vote. We are, &c., &c. 

The above notice having been generally given and distributed, a Tery nu- 
merous body of freeholders of the county assembled at the Court Hooae, 
White Plains, on the day appointed and chose Colonel Lewis Morris for their 
chairman. An inconsiderable number of persons, (among whom wero many 
tenants not entitled to vole,) with Isaac Wilkins and Colonel Philips at their 
head, then appeared ; and Mr. Wilkins, in their behalf, (as he said,) declared 
that they would not join in the business of the day, or have any thing to do 
with the Deputies or Congresses ; but that they came there for the sole pur- 
pose of protesting against such illegal and unconstitutional proceedings ; afler 
which they departed. The following question was then put to the people by 
the chairman, viz., whether they would appoint Deputies for this County to 
meet the Deputies of the other Counties at the city of New York, on the 30th 
of April inst., for the purpose of electing delegates to represent this Colony in 
the General Congress, to be held at Philadelphia on the lOih day of May next 1 
To whicli question they unanimously answered that they would. They then 
appointed the following eight persons, or a majority of them, to be the Depu- 
ties of this County for the purpose aforesaid, viz.. Colonel Lewis Morris, Ste- 
phen Ward, Daniel Drake, Esq., Colonel James Holmes, John Thomas, jr., 
Esq., Jonathan Piatt, Esq., Robert Graham, and Major Philip van Cortlandt. 
The two following resolves were then unanimously entered into, viz. : Re- 
solved, that the thanks of this body be given to the virtuous minority of the 


General Assembly of this Province^ and particularly to John Thomas and Pierre 
Tan Cortlandt, Esq., two of out Representatives, for their attachment to, and 
zeal on a late occasion, for the preservation of the nnion of the Colonies, and 
rights and liberties of America; and that this resolve be communicated by the 
chairman to every gentleman of whom that minority consisted. 

Resolved, that the thanks of this county are due to the Delegates who com- 
posed the late Congress, for the essential services 'they have rendered to 
America in general ; and that this resolve be forthwith published. 

After the business of the day was thus concluded, the people gave three 
huzzas for our gracious sovereign, and dispersed quietly without the least 

Lewis Morris, Chairman^ 

Protest of the inhabitants and freeholders of Westchester 
county, New York. 

County of Westchester , April 13/ A, 1775. 

Mr. RnriNOTON : — Be pleased to insert the following, and you will oblige a 
number of your friends and subscribers. 

On Thursday the 11th inst., a very respectable number of freeholders and 
inhabitants of the county of Westchester assembled at the White Plains in 
the said county, agreeable to the notice given, that their sentiments might be 
known concerning the choice of a committee to meet other committees in the 
city of New York, for the purpose of choosing delegates to represent this 
Colony in the next Continental Congress. The friends of order and govern- 
ment met at the house of Captain Hatfield ; more who were for a committee 
put up at another public house in the town. About 12 o^clock, word was 
brought to the gentlemen at Captain Hatfield^s that the opposite party had 
already entered upon the business of the day ; upon which they immediately 
walked down to the court house, although not half of their friends, who were 
expected had yet appeared, where they found the other company collected in 
a body. The numbers on each side seemed to be nearly equal, and both to- 
gether might amount to two hundred, or, at most, two hundred and fifty. 
The friends to government then declared, that as they had been unlawfully 
called together, and for an unlawful purpose, they did not intend to contest 
the matter with them by a poll, which would be tacitly acknowledging the 
authority that had summoned them thither ; but that they came only with a 
design to protest against all such disorderly proceedings, and to show their 
detestation of all unlawful Committees and Congresses ; they then declared 
their determination and resolution to continue steadfast in their allegiance to 
their gracious and merciful sovereign, King George the Third, to submit to 
lawful authority, and to abide by and support the only true representatives of 

* American Archives, fourth series, vol il 314. 


the poople of this Colony, the General Aseemhly ; than giving three ]iDnss» 
they returned to Captain Hatfields, tinging^fpi they went, with lofs] eBtho- 
siasm, the good and animating song 6f '* Gd^ save great George oar King," 
" Long lire our noble King,^' &c., &c. At their return, finding that niMiy of 
their friends had arrived during their absence, and that many still kept eoming 
in, they proceeded to draw up and sign the following declaration, whieh they 
seemed to do with as mdch patriotic zeal as ever warmed the hearts of tme 
and faithful subjects, and aAerwards dispersed to their different habitations. 

'* We the subscribers, freeholders and inhabitants of the coanty of Waat- 
Chester, having assembled at the White Plains in consequence of certain ad« 
vertisements, do now declare, that we met here to declare our honest abhor- 
rence of all unlawful Congresses and Committees, and that we are determined 
at the hazard of our lives and properties, to support the king and constitation, 
and that we acknowledge no Representatives but the General Assembly, to 
whose wisdom and integrity we submit the guardianship of our rights aed 

Frederick Philips, 
Isaac Wilkins, 
Samuel Seabury, 
Luke Babcock, 
Isaac Fowler Judge, 
Caleb Fowler Judge, 
J. P. HoTton, Esq., 
William Sutton, Esq., 
Daniel Oakley, Esq., 
Benjamin Fowler, E»q , 
William Davids, Esq., 
Wm. Anderson, Esq., 

Roger Purdy, 
Gilbert Pugsley, 
Abraham Leader, 
Benjamin Brown, 
Isaac Keed, 
Aaron Buis, 
Moses Weyman, 
Urael Underbill, 
John Baisly, 
David Oakley, jr., 
Isaac Smith, 
John Hyatt, 
Hezekiah Cudney, 

Capt. Abra^m Hatfield, 

Nathi Underbill, May'r, Abraham Odell, 

George Cromwell, Esq., Thos. Lawrence, 

Philip Pell, Esq., 
Joshua Pell, 
James Pell, 
Edward Pell, 
John Hunt, 
Gilbert Hortoo, 
Adrian Leforge, 
Joshua Gidney, 
Joseph Bude, 
James Wetmore, 
Moses Williams, 
John Haight, 
Isaac Brown, 

John Seysion, 
Jeremiah Travis, 
Griffen Carey, 
Isaac Foshee, 
Gabriel Requeau, 
Samuel Webb, 
Benjamin Downing, 
Gabriel Archer, 
Elias Secord, 
Thomas Veal, 
James Pierce, 
Edward Higbee, 
David Haight, 

Jonathan Bndd, 
John Wetmore, 
WUliam Underbill, 
Thomas Brown, 
Lieut. Isaac Gidney, 
Nehemiah Tompkins, 
Henry Leforge, 
Robert Brown, 
Benj. Beyea, 
Bartholomew Gidney, 
John Loce, 
Einathan Appleby, 
John Baker, 
Jonathan Underbill, 
James McChain, 
Benj. Seacord, 
Joshua Hunt, 
Betts Chatterdon, 
William Landrine, 
Enoch Hunt, 
Peter Corme, 
Dennis Kennedy, 
James Hains, 
Andrew Bainton, 
Hezekiah Simmons, 
Nathaniel Tompkins, 
Caleb Archer, 
Benj. Bogbee, 



Philip KeUy, 
James Hains, 
Joseph Haines, jr.y 
James Haioesyjr.^ 
Matthew Hains, 
Bartholomew Hains, 
Gilbert Hains, 
John Hains, 
Elijah Hains, 
Lieut. Solomon Fowler, 
Isaac Williams, 
John McCollumt 
Joseph Clark, 
Joseph Oakley, 
Caleb Ferris, 
Capt. Benj. Griffin, 
Capt. Joshua Purdy, 
James Mott^ 
Lieut. Will. Loonsberry, 
Lieut. SamM Purdy, 
John Ruster, 
Nafban Osborn, 
Philemon Halstead, 
Daniel Purdy, 
John Crab, 
Izrahiah Wetmore, 
Capt. Absalom Gidney, 
Da?id Haight, 
John Brown, 
Jasper Stivers, 
Peter McFarthing, 
Joshua Purdy, jr., 
Hachaliah Purdy, jr., 
James Tompkins, 
Michael Ckatteilon, 

Sylvanias Lyon, 
Dtaiel Haight, 
John Williams, 
Joseph Purdy, 
Ezekiel Halsted, 
John Hunt, jr.f 
Isaac Purdy, 
Elijah Purdy, 
Abrkbam Looses, 
Isaac Tompkins, 
William Gray, 
Nathaniel Merrit, 
Joseph Paulding, 
Hendrieus Storm, 
Francis Secord, 
John Parker, 
Gilbert Hatfield, 
Gabriel Purdy, 
Alexander Hains, 
Benj. Ogden, 
Thos. Merritt, 
Gilbert Bates, 
John Gidney, 
Stephen Arnode, 
Israel Secord, 
John Arnode, 
David Purdy, 
David Belcher, 
Jordan Downing, 
Levi Devoe, 
Abraham Acker, 
Cornelius van Tassel, 
Elisha Merritt, 
Jacob Schurman, 
Joseph Appleby, 

Francis Purdy, 
William' Odelli 
Israel Hunt, 
Thos. Tompkins, 
Frederick. Underhiitf 
Peter Post, 
Benj. McCord, 
John Williams, 
John Aekerman, 
Peter Husting, 
Thos. Barker, 
Jeremiah Honter,« 
Abraham Storm, 
Peter Jansing, 
Isaac Merritt, 
Edward Merritt, 
John Gale, 
John Smith, 
Roger Purdy, 
James Hart, jr., 
Jona. Purdy, jr., 
Monmouth Hart, Jr., 
Christopher Purdy, 
Gilbert Purdy, 
Edward Metritt, jr., 
Elijah Miller, 
Henry Disborough, 
Benj. Hunt, 
Elnathan Hunt, 
William van Wart, 
Abraham Slorm, 
Thomas Berry, 
Lancaster Underbill, 
Charles Merritt, 
Benjamin Underbill, 

^** North Castle, May Qtk, 1775. Ma. Rivinoton: — In your paper lately I 
saw ray name to a protest. I never signed it. bat went into Capi. Hatfield's bonsa 
and was asked whether I was a Whig or a Tory ? I made answer^ that I dM not 
understand the meaning of those words, bat was for liberty and peace. Upon which 
I immediately pat down my name. Now, sir, I ^ssirs yoa will print this to show 
the world that I have not deserved to be held up in the light ef a protestor. 

"jBaawaM HmfTtt." 

Vol. IL 45 



ElDathiB Taylor, 
GUbert Tbesl, 
William SexoD, 
Thoroat Champoneers, 
John Charoponeeray 
WUliam Griffin, 
Isaac Gidney, 
John Bates, 
Joseph Ha?iland, 
Eleazer Hart, 
Timothy Wetmore, 
James Hani, 
Joseph Parkirt 
Joshaa Barn, ' 
Joseph Pardy, 
John Park, 
Samue) Pordyr 
Gilbert Purdy, 
James Chatterton, 
John Dewsenhurgb, 
Thomas Cromwell, 
Solomon Horton, 
Peter Bossing,^ 
Thomas Valentine, 
Peter Bussing, jr , 
James Kniflen, 
NathanU Underbill, jr., 
Philip Fowler, 
John McFarthing, 
John Tompkins, 
Joseph Hart, 
Jacob Post, 
Joseph Gidney, 
James Baxter, 
John Hunt, 
Cornelius Loosee, 
Jesse Park, 

John Tompkins, jr., . 
Job Hadden, jr., 
Patrick Carey, 
James Hart, 
Gilbert Ward, 
Joseph Hart, 
Monmouth Hart, 
William Danlap, 
Joshua Ferris, 
Timothy Purdy, 
James Macgaire, 
James Requan, 
Daniel Shadin, 
Samuel Purdy, 
Sylvanus Purdy, 
William Balton, 
David Davids, 
Elijah Purdy, jr. 
Elijah Tompkins, 
Daniel Jerow, 
Charles Lawrence, 
Joseph Purdy, jr., 
James Snifien, jr , 
Gilbert Valentine, 
Andrew Guion, 
Gilbert Hunter, 
Lt. Peter Bennett, 
Samuel Sneeden, 
Peter Fashee, 
Jesse Lawrence, 
William Sneeden, 
Dr. Daniel Knap, 
Solomon Dean, 
Charles Vincent, sen., 
Lieut. Thos. Hyatt, 
James Gidney, 
William Woodward. 

BenjamUi GrflBs, Jr.y 
Jeremiah Cowiak . 

James Angeviiie, 
Jacob Cooiie« 
Jeremiah AoderMio, Jr.f 
Gilbert WiUiams, 
William BulMr, Jn, 
Gideon Ardeb, 
WiUtam Fidd, 
Joseph Pardy» 
George Stom« 
Jacob Vermileftt 
Samuel Heaeted, 
Barthol'aiew VadeiluD, 
Lieut John Warner^ 
Nathi Purdy, 
Isaac BenneC, 
Samuel Baker,^ 
John Cromwell, 
John Storm, ;, 
Andrew FowlMr« 
Joshua Seaeordy 
Abraham Rich, 
George Freneh* 
John Underhill, 
Caleb Gidney, 
William UnderhiU, jr., 
James Hill, 
William WatkiBi, 
John Rustio, 
Richard Baker, 
Will. Aaciwgls, 
Bishop Heostice, 
James Miller, 
Phineas Hunt, 

• That oar names were net subscribed to the protest of Westchester, eitkar by 
ourseWes, or ear orders or pemissioo, directly or indirectly, is certified by «, eash 
for hiroselC May 4, 1775. Paraa BuisiNa. John Bowung. 

b Ma. RiviifOTON : — ^I did sign a protest which was printed in yonr papei^ Imi I 
did so because I was toU that the iatent of sigDiog it was to show that I wae ioc 
the liberties of the country. Sawjel Bakcs. 


The fbnowing persons, not being able to attend at the Plains, requested hy 
their friends that their names might be added to the list of protestors* Tis. : 
John Hant, Esq., Philip Palmer, Esq , John Hitchcooki 

Jeremiah Hitchooek, William Bond, Joseph Bond. 

The foregoing account is strictly trae, as can be proTcn by the testimony 
(or, if necessary, by the affidavits,) of a number of persons of the most un- 
questionable character in this county. What then must we think oCsuch per- 
sons as have propagated a report that the friends of gOTemment were, upon 
this occasion, outnumbered &7e to one, and that many of the persons whose 
names were subscribed to the foregoing declaration were not on that day pre- 
sent at the White Plains 1 They must be conscious to themselves that they 
have spread abroad a falsehood, and they are hereby called upon, if they 
dare, to set their names to those assertions. In what manner those gentlemen 
who chose the committee at the Plains proceeded, we cannot positively say ; 
but this we can declare with truth, that we do not believe they can produce 
to the public the names of a hundred and fifty persons who voted for a commit- 
tee that day, and we are surely persuaded that they did their utmost to make 
their party as numerous as possible. How then can they Justify their choice 
of a committee ? or how can they presume to impose upon the world, and to 
insult the Loyal County of Westchester in so barefaced a manner ? It 4s weH 
known here that two-thirds, at least, of the inhabitants of this eounty are 
friends to order and government, and opposed to committees and all unlawful 
combinations ; and it will be made apparent to the world that they are so, as 
soon as certain resolves, now signing freely by the people, shall be ready for 
publication. And one principal reason why the friends to government did not 
assemble in greater numbers than they did, on Tuesday list, was that many of 
them had already, by signing those resolves, testified their loyalty to the king, 
their attachment to the constitution, their enmity to the committees, and 
their acquiescence in the prudent measures taken by the Assembly in the late 
session, for accommodating the unhappy differences between the mother cona« 
try and the colonies, and consequently thought they had done their duty. 
The committe that was chosen may with some kind of propriety, be said to 
represent those particular persons who chose them ; but how they can be de- 
nominated the Representatives of the County of Westchester, who, in general, 
abhor committees and committee men, and are determined to take no steps 
that may lead them inio rebellion, we cannot conceive ; certainly the friends 
to government who were collected at Captain Hatfield^s had a better right 
from their number to determine that there should be no committee than the op- 
posite party had to appoint one, and might with much greater propriety be said 
to show the sense of the County than the few who acted without authority and 
in direct opposition to government, and to the determinattoos of our worthy * 
Assembly ; and we doubt not but the impartial pnbliek will consider the matter 
in this light, and not esteem the act of a few individnals, unlawfully sssemMed, 


S8 the aet (which most asaaredly is not,) of the veiy respeetabley popiiIdta«» 
and Loyal County of Westchester.* 

In answer to the above protest, occurs the following letter from 
Lewis Morris, addressed " to the publick." , 

Morrisanla, May 7th« 1775. 

" A very extraordinary paper called a protest against the proeeedtngs of 
the freeholders of the County of Westchester, relative to the eleetion of De* 
puties for the late Convention, and said to have been sabecribed bj the aeve* 
ral persons whose names are printed with it, was published in Bfr. RiTiogton 
and Gainers Gazette, a few weeks ago. 

By whom this performance was given to the publick is uncertain ; and, be- 
ing as little distinguished by decency as by truth, there is reason to seapect 
the author's name will remain a secret. The falsities contained in thia repre- 
sentation, are too flagrant to impose upon any person in this coloiiy ; and, 
nothing but the apprehension of its gaining credit in other parts of the wozld 
would have induced me to have made it the subject of animadversion. 

I shall pass over the many little embellishments with which the aathor*s 
fancy has endeavored to decorate his narrative ; nor. is it necessary to call 
in question the reality of that loyal enthusiasm, by wiiich it was said these 
good people were influenced, and I really wish that had been the fact, beoaoae 
when inconsistencies and fooleries result from inebriety or enthusiasm, they 
merit our pity, and escape indignation and resentment. 

Much pains I confess, were on that day taken to make temporary enthoai- 
asts, and with other more exhilirating spirit than the spirit of loyalty. 

To give the appearance of dignity to these curious and very orderly protea- 
ters, the author has heeu very mindful to annex every man^s addition to bis 
name, upon a presumption, perhaps, that it would derive weight from the ti- 
tle of mayor, esquire, captain, lieutenant, Judge, &c. 

But it is not easy to conceive why the publick should be less civil to the 
clergy than to the gentry and commonalty. Samuel Seabury and Luke Bab- 
cock, certainly ought not to have been sent into the world floating on a 
newspaper in that plain way : the one is the ** Reverend Mr. Samuel Sea- 
bury, Rector uf the united Parishes of East and Westchester, and one of the 
missionaries for the propagation of the Gospel (and not politicks) in foreign 
parts,^^ &c. &o., the other is " the Rev. Mr. Luke Babcock, who preaches 
and prays for Mr. Philipse and his tenants at Philipsburgh." 

In this formidable catalogue of 300 and 1*2 sober and loyal protesters, thera 
are not less than one hundred and seventy who after a most diligent inquiry, 
J cannot find have the least pretensions to a vote, and indeed many of them 
are also under age. Their names are as follows ; 

• American Archives, 4tb series, vol. ii. 331. 



Sarooal Seabary, 
Luke Babcoek, 
fienjamin Fowler^ Esq., 
Joshua Pell, 
Edward Pell, 
John Hoot, 
Gilbert Hortoo, 
Adrian Leforge, 
Moses Williams, 
PbOip KeUey, 
James Haines, 
Bartholomew Haines, 
John Haines, 
Elijah Haines, 
Joseph Clark, 
Joseph Oakley, 
James Mott, 
Daniel Pnrdy, 
John Crab, 
Izrahiah Whetmore, 
Absalom Gidney, 
John Brown, 
Jasper Stevens, 
Peter McFarthing, 
Joshoa Purdy, jr., 
Hachaliah Purdy, jr., 
James Tompkins, 
Gilbert Theal, 
William Sexon, 
Thomas Champoneors, 
John Champoneers, 
Eteazer Hart, 
James Hunt, 
Joseph Parker, 
Joshoa Barns, 
John Park, 
Isaac Smith, 
John Hyatt, 
Abraham Odell, 
Thomas Lawrence, 
John Seyson, 
Isaac Forshea, 

Elias Seacord, 
James Pierce, 
Edward Bugbe, 
Daniel Haight, 
John Hont, jr., 
Abraham Losee, 
Isaac Tompkins, 
Joseph Paulding, 
Henricus Storm, 
Francis Seeord, 
John Parker, 
Gilbert Bates, 
David Purdy, 
David Bleeker, 
Jordan Downing, 
Corn, van Tassell, 
Joseph Appleby, 
Patrick Cary, 
GUbert Ward, 
William Dunlap, 
Joshua Ferris, 
Timothy Purdy, 
James McGuire, 
James Requan, 
Samuel Purdy, 
Sylvanus Purdy, 
William Dalton, 
Elijah Tompkins, 
Joshua Hunt, 
Bates Chatterton, 
William Landrin, 
Dennis Kennedy, 
James Haines, 
Andrew Banton, 
Nathaniel Tompkins, 
Caleb Archer, 
Benjamin Bugbe, 
Francis Purdy, 
William Odell, 
Israel Hunt, 
Thomas Tompkins, 
Fred. Underbill, 

John Williams, 
John Ackemar, 
Peter Bussing, 
Jeremiah Hunter, 
Abraham Storm, 
Peter Jenning, 
John Gale, 
John Smith, 
James Hart, jr., 
Jonathan Purdy, jr. 
Monmouth Hart, jr. 
Christopher Purdy, 
Gabriel Purdy, 
Edward Merritt, jr., 
Henry Desborough, 
William van Wart, 
Abraham Storm, 
Thomas Berry, 
Charles Merritt, 
Bejamin Griffin, 
Samuel Purdy, 
Gilbert Purdy, 
James Chatterton, 
Thomas Cromwell, 
Solomon HoUon, 
Nathaniel Ilndorhill, jr. 
Philip Fowler, 
John McFarthing, 
Jacob Post, 
James Baxter, 
John Hart, 
Cornelius Loosee, 
Josse Park, 
Roger Purdy, jr., 
Gilbert Pugsly, 
Abraham Leaden, 
Benjamin Brown, 
Aaron Buis, 
John Bursfey, 
David Oakley, jr., 
Charles Lawrence, 
Joseph Purdy, jr. 



Gabriel Reqneao, 
Gabriel Archer, 
Peter Fashee, 
Isaac Lawrence, 
Will. Snider, 
Solomon Dean, 
Thomas Hyatt, 
William Woodward, 
John Wbitmore, 
Will. Underbill. 
Nehemiah Tompkins, 
Henry le Forge, 
Evert Brown, 
Benj. Beyea, 
Charles Merritt, 

Peter Post, " 
BenJ. McCord, 
John Loce, 
Elnathan Appleby, 
John Baker, 
Jonathan Underhill, 
James MeChain, 

James Aogevine, 

Jeremiah Anderson, jr. James Ilill, 

Will. Barker, jr. WUIiam 

Gideon Arden, jr. 

Joseph Pardy, 

George Storm, 

Jacob Vermiller, 

James Saiflta, jr., 
Peter Bomwlt* 
Samoel Hoeated, 
John Warner, 
John Storm, 
Joshua Seoord, 
John Underhill, 
WUIiam UoderbiU, Jr., 

Richard Baker, 
Bishop Haestica, 
Jeremiah Hitoheoek, 
William Bond, 

Samael Snider, 

or the others who are freeholders, many also hold land at will of CoL 
Philipse, so that the truth really is, that rery few Independent fraeholdecs 
objeded to the appointment of deputies.''* 

Lewis Mouus. 

Upon the 29ih of April, 1775, appeared the following docu- 
ment addressed to the publick. 

** We the sabscribers do hereby make this public declaration, that whereas, 
we and seferal others in Westchester coanty, having signed a certain 
number of resoWes, which at the time of our said signing were deemed eon- 
stitutional, and as having a tendency to promote the interest of our eoaotrj ; 
but, since upon mature deliberation ind more full knowledge of the matter 
find not only injurious to our present caus^, but likewise offensive to oor fel* 
low colonists, we do therefore thus publickly testify oor abhorrence of the 
same, and declare ourselves true friends to the colonies, and ever ready cheer- 
fully to exert ourselves in the defence and preservation of the same.**^ 

Jonathan Fowlbb, Esq. 

George Cromwell, £Isq. 

"At a meeting of freeholders of Westchester county, New 
York, at the White Plains^ on Monday, the 8th day of May, 
1775. Governeur Morris, Lewis Graham, James van Cortlandt, 
Stephen Ward, Joseph Drake, Philip van Corllandt, James 
Holmes, David Dayton, John Holmes, jr., Robert Graham, and 

* American archives, fourth series, vol. ii. 
h Ibid. 446. 


William Paulding, were chosen to be the deputies from this 
County to the Provincial Convention of the Province of Nev 

"On the 30th of June, 1776, the Provincial Congress of this 
State adjourned from the city of New York to the court-house in 
White Plains^ where they met on the 9th of July following, and 
there continued in session until the 29ih of that month."^ 

In Provincial Congress New York, 30th June, 1776. 

Sunday afternoon. 

It was resolvjed, '' that the treasurer and secretary of ihis Con- 
gress be and they hereby are directed forthwith to repair, with 
all and singular the public papers and money now in their cus- 
tody or possession, unto the White Plains^ in the county of 
Westchester, and that this Congress be and it hereby is adjourned 
unto the court-house in the White Plains aforesaid, there Xo 
meet on Tuesday the 2d of July next, and proceed upon busi- 
ness ; and that the next Congress of this county do meet at the 
same place on Monday the 8th day of July aforesaid, unless 
otherwise ordered by the Congress." It was carried in the 

For the question, 20, against ditto, 6. 

And it was further ordered that all the lead, powder and other 
military stores belonging to this State be forthwith removed to 
the White Plains.*'© 

The journey between New York and the Plains was performed 
by the members on horseback, Pierre van Cortland t, the presi- 
dent, riding at their head. As expresses overtook them from 
General Washington the bouse was called to order on horseback^ 
and several resolutions passed. 

" It was at White Plains on the 9th of July, the Provincid 
Congress received the Declaration of Independence ; there it was 
read, in front of the court house,*^*^ and there they solemnly ia 
convention promised at the risk of their lives and fortunes to 

• American ArohiTM, fonrUk teriMi toI. ii. 539. 

b Extract fh>ro addrMi of J. W. Tompkin*. E«h 1845. 

• Joarnal of N. Y. Provineial Congnm$ w6L i. 519. 

4 Th« declaration was read by John Thomaa, Em^, and aacaaded by MUaal 


join with the other colonies in supporting iu The letter of John 
Hancpck, enclosing to then), that d^laralion, after acknowledff- 
ing their dependence for success upon the Rider of the uoiversei 
with almost a prophet's vision announced the important conse- 
quences which would flow from that declaration.'^* The . old 
court house, honored by this fearless step in the cause of inde- 
pendence, " and so intimately associated with the wisdom apd vir- 
tue of such men as Jay, Morris^ Clinton^ WoodhuU^ Hobat% 
Van Corilandij Livingston^ and RutgerSj was burnt on the 
night of the 6th of November^ by a New England major, without 
orders, together with every dwelling at White Plains.''^ 

" About 12 o'clock, this night, (Nov. 6th, 1776, says General 
Healh,) a party of Americans wantonly set fire to the court-house, 
and several other private houses,. which stood between the two 
armies. This gave great disgust to the whole American anny, 
and drew from the commander-in-chief the following paragraph, 
in bis orders of the 6th : ^ It is with the utmost asionishmeut and 
abhorrence, the general is informed, that some base and cowardly 
wretches have, last night, set fire to the court-house and other 
buildings which the enemy left. The army may rely upon it, 
that they shall be brought to justice, and meet with the punish- 
ment they deserve.^c 

Pierre van Cortlundt, vice president of the committee of public 
safety, under date of 28th November, thus feelingly alludes to 
the event. 

" Unhappy am I to add that amidst all our sufferings the army employed for 
the protection of America have not refrained from embittering the calamitiea 
of war, at a time when the utmost resources of this state were laid open to 
their wants, and the members uf Convention personally submitted to the 
labour and fatigue which were necessary on a sudden emergency, and after 
frequent losses of provisions and barracks, to supply two numerous armies, 
augmented by the militia, with every article which they required, the coml- 
house and the remains of the village at the White Plains, which had been 
spared on the retreat of our forces, were, even after the enemy had in their 

Varian and Samuel Crawford, two promineut Wliigs of Scarsdale. The latter met 
a sad and early fate by the hands of British refugees. 

* Extract from address of J. W. Tompkins, Esq. 

• HeatbV Mem. 83. 


tarn retired, wantonly destroyed, without the orders and to the infinite regpret 
of our worthy general, besides in spite of all his Excellency's efforts, wherever 
our troops have marched or been stationed they have done infinite damage to 
the property of the people. 

I am directed, sir, to submit it to the Hon^ble Congress, whether some 
effectual remedy ought not to be provided against such disorderly and dis- 
graceful proceedings. The soldier who plunders the country he is employed 
to protect is no better than a robber, and ought to be treated accordingly, and 
a severe example, in the opinion of the committee, ought to be made of the 
oflicer who, without any necessity, or his general's permission, set fire to the 
court-house and other buildings at the White Plains. He is guilty of the 
crime of arson, and if he cannot be punished by the articles of war, ought to 
be given up to the laws of the land. If so glaring a violation of every senti* 
ment of humanity should be passed over in silence, if the army is not reason- 
ably restrained from such acts of barbarity, the consequence must be fatal to 
the cause of a people whose exalted glory it is to be advocates for the rights 
of mankind, against the tyranny and oppression of lawless power. The reso- 
lutions which the committee of safety have passed upon the subject are here- 
with transmitted. 

'* I have the honor to be, with great respect, sir, your most obedient and 
very humble servant, 

" By order 

" PiiRRC YAK CoRTLANDT, Vice President,'*^ 

" To the Honorable John Hancock, President of the Congress of the United 

At a meeting of the committee of safety held Monday morning, 
2d December, 1776. It was resolved, " that the laws of the 
country are not superseded by the military code in the presence 
of the army,'* " and that a letter be written to General Washing- 
ton, requesting that theoflScer directing the burning of the court- 
house and dwelling houses at the White Plains be delivered to 
this committee or the Convention of the state, in order to his 
being tried by the laws of this state, and, if guilty, punished 

Tiie Episcopal Church is very pleasantly situated, a little east 
of the court-house, and being elevated above the road, commanda 
a fine view of the valley and hills to the north-east. It is built of 

' Joamal of N. Y. Pfot. Congress, toL L 723. 
b Journal of N. Y. Prov. Con. toI I 729. 

Vol. II. 46 


wood, with a handsome tower and vestry room in the rear. 
The former contains a bell weighing 1136 pounds. This parish 
was first organized by the exertions of the Rev. Lewis P. Baynidf 
in 1824, who occasionally performed services here. Upon the 
22d of March, lb24, the church was incorporated by the title of 
** Grace (Protestant Episcopal) Church, White Plains," in re- 
membrance of Grace C hurch, Rye, whose ministers had officiated 
here at intervals from 1762 to 1816,^ Richard Jarvis and Alan 
McDonald, wardens )^ William Purdy, John Horton, Gilbert Hat- 
field, James Dick, Alexander Fowler, Joshua Horton, William 
Bulkley, and James Merritt, vestrymen.'' The present church 
edifice was consecrated on the 26th of June, 1826, by the Right 
Rev. J. H. Hobart. In 1833 Trinity Church, New York, appro- 
priated to this parish the sum of $760. 

Intt. or call, Ineumbentt. Vacated hf 

1824. William C. Mead, Presb. resignation. 

1826. Alexander H. Crosby, A. M., Presb. ditto. 

1829. Rev. John W. Curtis, Presb. ditto. 

1831. Rev. Robert W. Harris, A. M., Presb. pres't incumb. 
Present number of communicants, cir. 50. 
The church-yard contains memorials to the families of Du Bois, 
Thomas, Pojiham, and others. 

Adjoining the church is the residence of Samuel K Lyon, 
Esq., a beautiful specimen of the rural Gothic style ; the grounds 
surrounding it nre in harmonious keeping with the scenery. 

In the immediate vicinity lies the parsonage and glebe, at pre- 
sent occupied by the Rev. R. W. Harris, rector of the parish, who 
has for fourteen years past conducted a select boy's school, for 
English, classical, and religious education ; his chief object being 
to serve the church, by training a few of its youth in the old paths 
of filial obedience, patient industry, and Christian devotion. 

• Ai early as 1760, White Plains constituted one of the precincts of Rye pariah, 
and paid a small sum annually towards the support of the Rector and poor. Her 
connection with Rye was dissolved in 1816. 


The spacious mansion of Minott Mitchell, Esq., occupies a 
commanding position on the west side of the village. This gen- 
tleman is the son of the Rev. Justus Mitchell, who graduated at 
Yale College in 1776, and married Martha Sherman, daughter of 
the Rev. Josiah Sherman^ and Martha Minott. i> 

The residence of J. W. Tompkins, Esq., nephew of the late 
Hon. Daniel D. Tompkins, forms a prominent object on the op- 
posite side of the village. 

In the main street are situated the female seminary of Mrs^ 
Searles, and the White Plains Academy^ of which Mr. J. M. SwiU'^ 
burn is principal 

The Presbyterian Churchy surrounded by locust trees, pre- 
sents a pretty appearance upon entering White Plains from the 
north. It is a plain edifice of wood, with a tower of the same 
material, erected A. D. 1824. 

The first notice of this church occurs in a deed from Moses 
Owen to Caleb Hyatt, John Turner, and Peter Hatfield,^ bearing 
date the I5th of Jnne, 1761 : " For one acre and three roods of 
land, with Presbyterian Church thereon, for the sum of ten 
pounds. The land is the north-east corner of land formerly be- 
longing to Abraham Smith, now in possession of Moses Owen, 
and bounded on the northerly side by the road leading to Bronx 
river,^' ice. The title is in fee simple, and without any conditions^ 
Signed before Jacob Grifien and Caleb Grifien, and acknowledged 
before Samuel Purdy, January 9lh, 1752.<i 

There is also a release (supposed to be much older than the 
preceding,) from the proprietors of an undivided piece of land, to 
be annexed to the burying ground, as follows: 

" The ondersigners, being such as have proprietors^ rights ia the WhU§ 
Plains, in the township of Rye, cj-c. whereas there is a small piece of utidif ided 
land lying on the north side of burying yard near the Presbyterian meeting 

' Mr. Sherman was a graduate of Yale College in 1765, and brother of the disr 
tinguished Roger Sherman. 

b Daughter of the Hon. James Minott by his aecoi^d wife Elizabeth Memckf 
For account of the Minott family see Lemuel Shatmck's Hist, of Concord, 379. 

« These persons appear to have been trustees of the Presbyterian church. 

d From the original in the possession of th^ trustees, communicated by the Rev. 
Elias S. Schenck. 


koustf being willmg that the eaid pieee of andiTided lend, fto., we urm wfBimg 
that the same thoald be feneed in to with the borying yard, to be approj»rMle4 
for the Qse of a burying yard, to be under the entire gOTemment and toMomg^ 
ment of the aaid congregation. 

Fefore Jonathan G. Tompkins, Jonathan Pubot, 

Datid HoBTOHv 

GAiatKL LraoHy - 
Caleb Htatt, 
Samubl Uuxt.** 

From these documents it would appear that there was a Pres- 
byterian church standing here sometime prior to 1761. The 
pastor at this period was the Rev. John S.nith, D.D., whosenred 
the Presbyterian churches of Rye and White Plains^ and died 
in the year 1776, leaving flourishing congregations and cooiino- 
dious houses of worship in both places. His remains repose in 
the burying ground, near those of his wife and daughter, in the 
rear of the church. A plain head-stone marks the spot, and 
bears the following inscription under a rudely carved similitude 
of a cherub. 

Here lie the remains of the Rev. 

John Smith, the first ordained minister* 

of the Presbyterian persuasion in Rye 

and the White Plains, who was born in 

England, May 5, 1702, wore out with 

various labours, and fell asleep in Jesus. 

Deceased Feb'y 26, 1771, aged 68 years, 9 

mouths, and 22 days. 

By faith he lived, in faith he died, and faith 

foresees a rising day when Jesus comes, while 

hope assumes and boasts his joy among the 

tombs. Oh death ! Oh grave ! where is thy victory. 

•* Thanks bo to God that giveth us the 

victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." 

His brother was the Hon. William Smith. Lorenzo Sabine, 

• Mr. Smith*! name appeara in the record of the Synod in 1753 as minister of 


Esq., in his very valuable work on American loyalists, says of 
this individual, *' That he was chief justice and a member oftha 
council of the colony, and considered to be in office in 1782. 
His father, the Honorable William Smith, an eminent lawyer 
and judge of the supreme court, died in 1769. William Smith, 
the subject of this notice, graduated at Yale College in 1745. It 
appears, that he was at a loss as to the side which he should 
espouse in the controversy which preceded the Revolution, and 
that he made no choice until late in the war. It seems, also, 
that a number of other gentlemen of wealth and influence, who 
had wavered like himself, joined the royal cause about the same 
time, in 1778. It is believed that, at first, he opposed the claims 
of the ministry. However this may be, his final decision excited 
the remark of both the Whigs and the Loyalists. The former 
indulging their wit in verse, and calling him the ' weathercock,' 
that < could hardly tell which way to turn;' and the latter no- 
ticing his adhesion in their correspondence. He settled in Can- 
ada, after the war, and was chief justice of that colony. He 
published a history of New York, which was continued by his 
son William."* 
In 1776, the Rev. Ichabod Lewis, twin brother of the venera- 

• *' This eloqaeot man," alluding to Jadgre Smith, ** having been an adherent to 
the royal cauae in the Revolution, left the city of New York in 1783, with the 
Britiah troope, and waa aAerwards rewarded by his sovereign with a high judiciary 
office at Quebec. Judge Smith, although thus removed from the place of his ori- 
gin, always contemplated the politics of his native country with peculiar solicitude. 
One evening, in the year 1789, when Dr. Mitchell was in Quebec, and passing the 
evening at the chief justice's house, the leading subject of conversation was the 
new Federal constitution, then under the consideration of the states, on the recom- 
mendation of the Convention which sat at Philadelphia, in 1787. Mr. Smith, who 
had been somewhat indisposed for several days, retired to his chamber with Mr. 
Grant, one of the members of the legislative council, at an early hour. In a 
short time Mr. Grant invited Dr. Mitchell, in Mr. Smith's name, to walk from 
the parlor into Mr. Smith's study, and sit with them. Mr. Mitchell was con- 
ducted to a sofa, and seated beside the chief justice, before whom on a tabie« 
was a large bundle of papers. Mr. Smith resumed the subject of Amerieaa 
politics, and noticed his papers. After searching among them awhile, he un- 
folded a certain one, which he said was written about the time the colonial com- 
motions grew violent, in 1775, and contained a plan, or system of government, 
sketched out by himself then, and which nearly reaembled the constitution afUr- 


Ue Isaac Liwis, of HDrseneck, was ordaioed pastor of the nnited 
churches of White Plains aod Ne v Rochelle, by the Piesbytviy 
of Datchess county. About 12 o'clock at night, oo the 6th 
of November, 1776, the Presbyterian Church, together with 
a quantity of timber designed for its enlargement, besides a 
number of other buildings, were set on fire by Major Osbomey of 
the Blassachusetts line, (under General Glower,) for the purpose 
of presenting ihem from being used by the British troops, then 
in th's neighb'^rbood, durin^ the ensuing winter. These facts 
are fully proved by affidavits of witnesses now in possession of 
the trustees. After the burning of the church, the congrc^tion 
gradually declined ; for the members, being mostly staunch 
Whigs, were obliged to retire north to avoid the depredations and 
assaults of Briti^ troops from New York. The Rev. Ichabod 
Lewis removed to Bedford, but similar circumstances constrained 
him to leave that place also for Salem, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his days, and lies interred. He left a legacy to the 
church at South Salem of one thousand dollars, the interest of 
which at present assists in supporting the pastor of that church.i^ 
From 1784 to 1821, the congregntion enjoyed the privilege of 
occasional preaching. Upon the 13ih of February, 1788, the 
church was incorporated under the title of the ^'Presbyterian 
Church in the White Plains/' Jonathan G. Tompkins, Richard 
Hatfield, Daniel Horton, Jacob Purdy, Nicholas Fisher and Rob- 
ert Hart, trustees.** 

During the years 1821 and 1822, the church was regularly 
supplied by the Rev. Thomas G. Smith, of the Reformed Dutch 

wardi proposed by the Federal Convention of the United States. He then read 
the contents. The piece was long and elaborate, and written with much beauty 
and spirit. ' This, sir/ added he, after finishing it, ' is a copy of a letter, which I 
sent to a member of Congress in 1775, who was an intimate friend of General 
Washington. You may trace to this source the sentiments in favor of a more ener- 
getic government for your country, contained In the commander-in-chief's circular 
letters, and from this, there can be no doubt, that the citizens of all the states de- 
rive their leading traits for your new form of government.' ** — Lorenzo Sahin€*M 
Biographical Sketcheo of American LoyaliMtM. 

• Communicated to the author by the Rev. S. Schenck, since the completion of 
Liewisborough or South Salem. See vol. i. 268. 

k Co. Rec. Religious Soc. Lib. A. 15. 


congregations of Tanrytown and Unionville, every second or 
third Sunday, for which he received a small pecuniary compen- 
sation. In the spring of 1823, the Rev. Marcusr%iarrison per- 
formed services, for a short period, as a domestic missionary, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Ely, who officiated here and at 
Lower Greenburgh (Dobb's Ferry) about four months, under the 
direction of the Domestic Missionary Society of the city of New 
York. For the successors of Mr. Ely, see the subjoined list of 

On the 25th of April, 1824, the church was re-organized, and 
consisted of six communicants, viz. Isaac Hunt, David Palmer, 
Isaiah P. Palmer, Samuel Dixon, Mary Hart, (wife of Monmouth 
Hart,) and Elizabeth Mead, wife of Cyrus MM|1. Isaac Hunt 
and David Palmer were o/dained ruling elders. 

The present house of worship was dedicated to the worship of 
God in June, 1825, on which occasion the dedication sermon was 
preached by the Rev. Mr. Rowan, of New York. 



Install, or Call. Pastors, Vacated by. 

A. D. 1753, Rev. John Smith, D. D., death. 

" 177t5, •* Ichabod Lewis, resig. 

." 1821, " Thomas G. Smith, supply, do. 

<< 1823, <' Marcus Harrison, do. do. 

** 1823, « Mr. Ely, do. do. 

Oct'r, 1823, " Samuel Robertson, pastor, do. 

A. D. 1825, « Chester Long, do. do. 

'• 1834. " John White, do. do. 

« 1835, Edward Wright, do. ^ do. 

J'ne 9, 1844, Elias S. Schenck, present pastor. 

Church Memoranda. 

1825, Communicants 6 

1836, do. 34 

1847, do. 35 

This church is in connection with the Bedford Presbytery. 

The following inscriptions are taken from monuments in the 

graveyard : " Here lie the remains of Caleb Horton, who died 


Aug. 24, 1770, oged 72 years." " Mary, wife of Michael Chad- 
derion, born June 25, 1706, mar. 1727, and lived in that state 46 
years; ob. 1772." There are also numerous memorials to the 
families of Miller, Fisher, Yarian, Purdy and Tompkins^ and the 
vault of William and Isabella Pirnie. The remains of a Britjrii 
officer, who fell at the battle of White Plains, were interred in 
the southwest corner of this yard. 

The Methodist Episcopal church occupies a beautiful position 
at the north end of the village. This society was first incor- 
porated upon the 12th of August, 1795, — '* Elijah Crawford, 
John Lynch, Nicholas Fisher, Abraham Miller, Azariah Horton 
and Abraham Davids, trustees.''^ 

West Whit^ Plains^ immediately contiguous to the village, is 
situated on the line of the Westchester and Haarlem Railroad. 
It contains a depot, a store, and a few dwellings. 

The Orawapum hotels adjoining the depot, is a handsome 
Elizabethian structure, under the superintendence of Mr. Isaac 
Smith, who has admirable accommodations, and provides excel- 
lent entertainments at fifteen minutes notice. Strangers visiting 
the town may enjoy every comfort here, and fishing parties to 
Rye pond, will find it their most convenient stopping place. 
Gentlemen fond of the amusement of angling, can also wet their 
lines in the Bronx, hard by, where good trout are frequently 
taken. Directly in front of the hotel, rises " Old Chatierton/^ 
the battle field of 1776. 

The following account of themilitary quarters in this town and 
its vicinity, in October, 1776, is from the address of J. W. Tomp- 
kins, Esq., delivered at White Plains on the 28th of Oct., 1846. 

" The county of WeBtchester, at the commencement of the Revolation, 
contained a multitude of hardy yeomen inured to toil, whose ancestry had fled 
from oppression abroad, and in the enjoyment of greater freedom in the colony, 
had imbibed an ardent ]ove of liberty. When the star of Independence arose 
in the east, they were ready to follow its lead ; and when New York, ia 
1776, was threatened with invasion, they flocked with alacrity to its defence. 
When the battle of Long Island turned the tide of war against us, ibey 
still adhered to the American army, contending every inch of ground 

• Co. Rec. Religious 8oe Lib. A. 50. See Lib. B. 23, 25, 26, 53. 


to Harlem, thence to King's bridge, and through the Boothem part of West* 
cheater to White Plains, where Gen. Washington again determined to en- 
trench himseif and make another stand against an overwhelming force of the 
choicest British troops, flushed with victory and confident of success. A 
brief account of the movements of the two armies to this pUce, and of their 
operations here, it is my purpose to give." 

** The city of New York was selected by the English as the centre of their 
military operations, with the view of commanding the North river and acting 
in conjunction with a force from Canada, descending through Lake Cham- 
plain, thus securing the Colonies. Their march into Westchester county waa 
designed to obtain command of the two principal routes leading to New En* 
gland, one through Kye and the other by the way of Bedford, and thereby cut off 
the American army from its supplies, principally derived from the East, and 
obtain the rear of General Washington's army, and furce him to a general 
battle, or to a precipitate retreat. But Washington penetrated their inten- 
tions, and conducted his forces northward from King's bridge with great skill, 
moving in a line parallel with the British, a little in advance of them, facing 
them constantly, with the Bronx iu his front, which was fortified at every 
assailable point. 

On the 12ih of October, ^76, a portion of the British army, consisting of 
the Guard, Light Infantry reserve, and Count Dunop's Corps landed at Throg's 
Neck, and on the night of that day, Col. William Smith (then a Lieutenant) 
with a CorporaPs guard, broke down the bridge connecting the neck with 
Westchester town, and left Sir William Howe upon an Island. On the 16th 
and 17th of October, the English forces at Throg's Neck were augmented by 
the Ist, 2nd and 6ih Brigades crossing from Long Island, and by the 3d Hes- 
sian battalion from New York. On the 18th, the whole British army crossed 
to Pelham Point, and marching northerly, encamped the same night on the 
high ground between Hutchinson's river and New Rochelle village, where it 
remained till the 21st. On the 21st, the British removed and encamped on New 
Rochelle heights, north of the Village, and on both sides of the road leading to 
Scarsdale. This camp was broken up on the 25th, and the Army moved forward 
to a position upon the high grounds in Scarsdale, in the vicinity of the late 
John Bennetrs farm, and there remained till the morning of the 28th of Oc- 

General Washington during that time had not remained inactive — as early 
as the Uth of Ocvober, apart of his army crossed from Harlem heights, 
reached White Plains on the 12th, and commenced erecting fortifications, 
and on the 22d General Washington, leaving his head-quarters at Fort Wash- 
ington, established them at Valentine's hill, whence they were removed to 
White Plains on the 23d. 

" The entrenchments at White Plains were erected under the directions of 
a French engineer, and consisted of a square fort of sods in the main street 
with breastworks on each side running westerly over the south side of Purdy's 

Vol. n. 47 


hill to the Bronx, and easterly across the hills to Horton's pond. When lb* 
En^ilish attacked Chattertun^s hill on the 28th, they were unfinished, but dor- 
ing the riight of the 26th and 2tith of October they were raised and atreBgtlH 
ened, being only intended fur teonporary use until the poaition above Abraham 
Miller^s in Northcastle could be fortified, which was done, and to whieh the 
American army afterwards retired. 

'* General Howe comn)itted a great mistake in not attacking General Waah- 
ington*s fortifications in White Plains on the 28th instead of Chatterton'a hilL 
He gained nothing in taking that hill. After the workaat White Plaina were 
completed, great loss to Howe^s army must have attended their capture, and 
Washington's new position (above Mr. Miller's) appears to have been regarded 
as impregnable. Washinj^tun's policy at this time was, as he expressed it* 
' to enirerich and fight with the spade and mattock.^ The experience at Bun- 
ker's hill had made the English cautious in attacking Americans behind en- 

** During the march of the two armies to White Plains frequent skinniahea 
occurred. On the 18th, the vanguard of the British army were attacked bj 
a detachment under General Sullivan, and the fight which ensued (near the 
road reaching from New Rochelle) has been always repreaented as Tery ere- 
ditablc to the Americans." 

"On the 21st, Colonel Rogers, a celebrated partisan officer in the French 
war, had accepted a command in the English service, and lay at Maroaroneck. 
An attack upon him was planned by Lord Sterling, and executed by a foroe 
under the command of Col. Haslet of the Delaware regiment. Rogers was 
completely surprised ; seventy or eighty of his men were killed or made pris- 
oners, and a considerable quantity of arms, ammunition and clothing taken by 
the Americans. On the 23d of October, a spirited skirmieh took place be- 
tween Hand's Pennsylvania riflemen and a detachment of Hessisn chaaseurs, 
about 240 strong, in which the Hessians were routed. These haraasing en- 
counters of the Americans (attended invariably with success) tended to delay 
the advance of the Britibh and to make them cautious, while it cheered the 
despondmg courage of the American soldiers, and above all, gave General 
Wachington time to remove his stores and entrench himself where no army 
dare assail him. 

** On the morning of the 28th of October, the British army marched from 
their camp in two columns — the right commanded by General Clinton^ the 
lefi by De Heister^ and came in sight of the American forces about 10 o'clock. 

■ *' General George Clinton, in a postscript to a friend, writing from Wasbiog- 
ton's entrenchment on the night of the 20th October, says: *Love to Mrs. Clin- 
ton — tell her I write from an entrenchment. The British forces are in sight, and 
we shall probably have battle to-morrow — tell her to entertain no fears for my 
»bfety.' " — Mr. Totnpkin9*» Addrttt. 


Od the 27th of October, two roiliiia regiments had been sent over to throw np 
entrenchments on Chatterton hill, and on the morning of the 28th, General 
Washington ordered Cul. Haslet to take command of the hill, having under 
hie command his own <the Delaware) Regiment, the Militia, and part of the 
Maryland troops. General McDoagal soon followed him and took the com- 
mand. Col. Haslet says the enemy in the first place moved towards the for- 
tifications in the Tillage-— they then halted — the general officers had a coancil 
of war OD horseback in the wheat-fields, and the result was that their forces 
inclined towards the Bronx. Fideen or twenty pieces of artillery were placed 
upon the high ground opposite the hill, and commenced a farioas caanonade 
upon McDoogars forces, under cover of which fire the British buik a bridge 
over the Bronx and prepared to cross. 

'* Gen. MoDoogal placed two field pieces upon a ledge of tahle-rock, whidi 
did great execution among the British artificers and soldiers. So soon as the 
bridge would admit their croeeiog, they rushed forward and attempted to take 
the two pieces by a charge up the hill — ^these two cannon were in charge of 
the late Alexander Hamilton* (then a captain of artillery,) and never did offi- 
cers or men do belter executioa. When upon the spot in after years, describ- 
ing it to a youthfiJ friend, he was heard to say, ' For three successive dis- 
charges the advancing column of British troops was swept from hill-top to 
river.' The British finding this table rock inaccessible, inclined to the left 
down the river, and joined the troops under General Raid, which had crossed 
about a quarter of a mile below. 

** They now attacked McDougal and attempted to turn his right flank. He 
retreaied, but contested the ground all the way up to the summit of the hill, 
making a stand at every favorable point. At length the British cavalry gainedl 
the crest of the hill, and charging, cut to pieces the militia on McDougaPs 
right. The last stand was made by the Americans behind a fence at the top 
ef the hill, where tfie Delaware regiment and part of McDougal's brigade, 
twice repulsed the British Light Infantry and Cavalry. At length compelled to 
retreat, it was done in good order over the bridge at the foot of the hill under 
cover of some regiments detached by Washington from his main army. The 
mMttia and a few of the regulsrs were dispersed among the hills of Greenburgh, 
but soon returned to Head Quarters. The British forces engaged in that at- 
tack were the flower of the army, consisting of the second brigade of British, 
the 28th, 5th and 49th regiments, RahPs battalion, the Hessian Grenadiers 
under Dunop, and a party of Light Dragoons, all commanded by Geneni 

" That Genera] Washington did make a successful stand ai this place baa 
ever excited the wonder of military men. His troops were greatly inferior ia 
numbers and discipline, and composed in part of militia and raw recruits. 
After the battle the enemy for several days attempted to gain Washington's 
rear, tried to alarm him and induce him to retreat or fight by threatening hia 
flanks. At several times they formed a semi-circle about him« On the night 


of the 3l8t of October, WaBhington eTaeaated his eamp at White Plmint* aad 
establiahed his new posiiion in the hills of Northeastle, about one mile in the 
rear of his focmer encampment, when the British appear to hare relioqoisbed 
an further offensive operations. At the advance of the British army to Wbit* 
Plains the Whig families were seen hurrying unprotected before them with 
thin clothing and a scanty supply of provisions tu seek shelter for the coming 
winter, they knew not where. Desolation and famine marked that fair region 
over which the two armies passed. The English army finding all attempts to 
circumvent General Washington hopeless, broke op their camp at Whitn 
Plains on the 5ih of November and retired to Dobb*s Ferry, and from tbenee 
to King's Bridge, uhere they encamped on the ]3lh of that month." 

**Thus ended in Westchester for the year ^76 the movements of the Britisii 
army ; but soon the inhabitants of the North were overrun by loyalists from 
Morrisania, and for a long time without protection were exposed to OTory 
danger and suffering. In short, till the peace of 1782, Westchester was the 
battle-ground of the disaffected, and the prey of both friend and foe. Scenes of 
cruelty and bloodshed unknown in civilized warfare, marked their partisan en- 
gagements, and in the defence of their homes her valiant sons exhibited frequent 
instances of personal bravery unexcelled in ancient or modern times. Among 
the most daring were the guides — such men as Abraham Dyckman^ Cornelius 
Oakley and John OdelL In the darkness of night they have often surprised 
and carried off captains, officers and men, under the guns of the British forts 
at Morrisania, or in small parties amused themselves by beating op De Lnn* 
cey^s quarters. Frequent alarms had made them watchful of surprise and 
success rendered them reckless of danger, till they became the chosen leaden 
of each dangerous enterprise against the enemy." 

The following additional particulars respecting the engage- 
ment on Chalterton's hill are contained in Getieral Heath's 

27th of October, " In the forenoon, a heavy cannonade was heard towards 
Fort Washington. Thirteen Hessians and two or three British soldiers were 
sent in on this day. From the American camp to the west, south-west, there 
appeared to be a very commanding height, worthy of attention. The Com- 
mander-in-Chief ordered the general officers who were off duty, to attend 
him to reconnoitre this ground, on this morning. When arrived at the ground, 
although very commanding, it did not appear so much so, as other grounds to 

•• At the east end of the village is still to be seen the remains of Washington's 
encampment. Of this nothing is left but a small portion uf the embankment that 
runs partly across the street, on the surface of which rests a mutilated howitaer. 
This relic of the past was disinterred near the spot it occupies. 


the Dorth, and almost parallel with the left of the army, as it was then formed. 

'* Yonder," says Major Gen. Lee, pointing to the grounds just mentioned, " is 

the ground we ought to occupy.*' " Let us then go and Tiew it," replied the 

Commander-in-Chief. When on the way, a light horseman came up on full 

gallop, his horse almost out of breath, and addressed Gen. Washington — 

" The British are in the camp, sir." The General ohserved, " Gentlemen, 

we have now other business than reconnoitring," putting his horse in full 

gallop for the camp, and followed by the other officers. When arrived at 

head-quarters, the Adjutant-General, (Read,) who had remained at camp, 

informed the Commander-in-Chief, that the guards had been all beat in, and 

the whole American army were now at their respective posts, in order of 

battle. The Commander-in-Chief turned round to the officers, and only said, 

** Gentlemen, you will repair to your respective posts, and do the best you 

can." *' Our general," (Heath,) " on arriving at his own division, found them 

all in the lines ; and, from the height of his post, found that the first attack 

was directed against the Americans on Chatterton's hill. The little river 

Bronx, which ran between the American right and this hill, after running 

round its north side, turned and ran down on the east and south-east. The 

British advanced in two columns. At this instant, the cannonade was brisk on 

both sides ; directed by the British across the hollow and Bronx, against the 

Americans on the hill, and by them returned. Almost at the same instant, 

the right column, composed of British troops, preceded by about twenty light 

horse in full gallop, and brandishing their swords, appeared on the road 

leading Ao the court-house, and now directly in the front of our General** 

division. The light-horse leaped the fence of a wheat field, at the foot of the 

hill, on which Col. Malcolm's regiment was posted, of which the light-horse 

were not aware until a shot from Lieut. Fenno's field-piece gave them notice 

by striking in the midst of them, and a horseman pitching from his horse. They 

then wheeled short about, galloped out of the field as fast as they came in, 

rode behind a little hill on the road, and faced about ; the tops of their caps 

only being visible to our General, where he stood. The column came no 

further up the road, but wheeled to the left by platoons, as they came up ; and, 

passing through a bar, or gateway, ilirectcd their head towards the troops on 

Chatterton's hill, now engaged. When the head of the column had got nearly 

across the lot, their front got out of sight ; nor could the extent of their rear 

be now discovered. The sun shone bright, their arms glittered, and perhaps 

troops never were shown to more advantage, than these now appeared. The 

whole now halted ; and for a few minutes, the men all sat down in the same 

order in which they stood, no one appearing to move out of his place. The 

cannonade continued brisk across the Bronx. A part of the left columq, 

composed of British and Hcssisns, forded the river, and marched along under 

the cover of the hill, until they bad gained sufficient ground to the left of the 

Americans ; when, by facing to the left, their column became a line, parralkl 


with the Americans. When they briskly ucended the hill,* the find eolmmi 
'resomed a quick march. As the troops, which wereadvanciog to the attaek« 
ascended the hill, the cannonade on the side of the British ceased ; as their 
own men became exposed to their fire, if continued. The fire of small anna 
was now Tory heavy, and without any distinction of sounds. This led aooM 
American officers, who were looking on, to obserTO that the British were 
worsted, as their cannon had ceased firing ; but a few minates evinced that 
the Americans were giving way. They moved oflf the hill in a great body, 
neither running, nor observing the best order. The British ascended the hill 
Tory slowly, and when arrived at its summit, formed and dressed their lioe, 
without the least attempt to pursue the Americans. The loss on the aide of 
the Americans was inconsiderable. That of the British was not then knowo. 
The British army having got possession of this hill, it gave them a Taat ad- 
vantage of the American lines, almost down to the centre.*'^ 

Botta, ill his history of the American Revolution, says : ''The 
loss of men in this action was great on the one part as well as 
on the other."° 

Among the principal actors in this scene, upon tlie American 
side, may be enumerated, Generals Washington, Clinton, Mc- 
Dougal, Lee, Heath, Sterling, and Read, Colonels Haslet, Small- 
wood, Malcolm and Glover ; Majors Hand, Lee and Lieut. 
Fenno ; and the gallant Hamilton, captain of artillery. Sec, d&c. 
On the British side. Brigadier Generals Leslie, Knypbausen, 
Rahl, De Heister, and Matthews ; Lord Percy, Count Dunop, 
Colonel Ralle, Colonel Rifzema, and Major Rogers, &c., &c. 

The following letter of General George Clinton, dated Camp, 
at the old Place near White Plains, Nov. 2d, 1776, to a friend, is 
copied from the journal of the Provincial Congress : 

My Dear Sir : — Your favoars of the 30th and Slat altimo, were left at 
my tent a few minutes since. Since my last to you, dated the day before 

^ While the British were thus advancing up the hill, a shot struck one of the 
standard bearers dead. Warren de Lancey, (then a boy 15 years of age,) iustanUj 
seized the colors, and rushing forward, was one of the first to gain the summit, 
where he planted ihem in the ground. For this act of bravery he afterwards re- 
ceived a cornet's commission from General Howe. — Auihor* 

b Heath's Mem. 76. 

• The remains of those slain in the conflict, were interred in a hollow on the 
south-west side of Chatterton hill, near a hickory tree. 


yesterday, the centre and right wiog of oor army, having possessed them* 
selves of the heights in their rear, north-east of the road leading to Young*s ; 
yesterday morning evacuated that part of our lines which passed through the 

town, and south-east of N , and fell back on those heights ; firing all the 

barns, hay and corn stacks in front. This induced the enemy to believe we 
had sgain retreated, and determined to take the advantage of our apparent 
flight, their army instantly moved forward into the part of our lines which 
were evacuated. This brought on a pretty brisk cannonade, though at too 
great a distance to do much execution. I lost one roan, and had two wounded. 
I have heard of no other injury done us. We are by the late movements 
now far advanced — in front of course most exposed. The enemy retired to 
their former encampment in the evening, leaving strong advanced pickets, 
and working patties who are busily employed in erecting banks on the heights 
in and near the town. Deserters, (especially from the Queen's light,dragoons,) 
come daily over to us ; and now and then our Rangers send in a straggling 
prisoner. Captain van Wick of my brigade, who, at his earnest desire, wfit 
appointed to a company of rangers, was the day before yesterday unfortu- 
nately killed. lie went out in the morning with about 30 men, and fell in with 
about 100 of the enemy in a house not far distant from their lines — charged 
them with spirit, gave them a brisk fire, but unfortunately, when loading his 
piece the second time, was shot in the head, and fell dead. His lieutenant 
shot down the man who killed his captain. The enemy fled ; our party 
brought off their captain, and yesterday evening I. had him interred with tha 
honors of war. He was a good man, and a valiant officer. Pray communi- 
cate this sad news to his widow, (to whom I would write, had I leisure,) in % 
manner that will least aflfect her. 

I know of no other news worth communicating yon. Though in the campt 
I am not acquainted with the disposition of our army. Some brigades to the 
north-east of us, in my humble opinion, are wliere they can do no good ; 
perhaps I am mistaken : I am not well acquainted with the conntry. I must 
beg an answer to my letter wherein I desired you to ask a favor of the Con- 
vention : 

And am, with the utmost esteem, 

Yours afiectionately, 

George Clinton. 

P. S. I need not askjfon to forward the enclosed. I know you will do it. 
Though I determined never to meddle with the disposition of officers,! cannoi 
help recommending Colonel Duboys and his officers, who served in our army 
to the northward last year, to the Convention. Should they quit the army by 
any neglect, it will be a public loss. They are brave men and good officers, 
at least snch of them as have joined our brigade.'*^ 

« Journal of N Y. Frov. Coagrefs, vol ii. 317. 


The head-quarters of Washington, while stationed here, were at 
a small farm house to the north of the village, situated amid a 
deep solitude of woods, surrounded by hills and wild romantic 
scenery. The following account of a visit paid to this spot, is 
taken from a newspaper printed at New York in 1846. 

** When we entered the little room of Mr. Miller's* farm hoaee, where that 
great and good roan bad resided, and where he resolved to try the haxajrd of a 
battle with a flashed and saccessful foe, we could not repress the enthasisMn, 
which the place and the rooment and the memory inspired. We looked 
around with eagerness at each portion of the room on which his eye mast have 
rested, we gazed through the small window panes through which he mast 
have so often and so anxiously looked towards tho enemy, and at the old- 
fashioned buffets where his table service was deposited for his accommodation. 
But little change has taken place in the building, and its amiable and patriotio 
inmates have shown their respect for the hero by placing on the walls hia 
portrait and several representations of his last moments at Mount Vernoo.** 

In the northeast angle of this town lies^Villett's pond, a lai^ 
and beautiful sheet of water, which falls into the Mamaroneck 
river. Its banks on the north-west side are very steep and the 
views from the summits of the surrounding hills are extremely 
fine. At the outlet of the pond is situated the grist mill and 
clothier works of Mr. Henry Willett. 

The general surface of White Ploins, "is somewhat hilly, but 
mostly arable ; soil, principally loam, well adapted to grass, nod 
much of it highly cultivaled."*» The higher lands abound with 
good timber, which consists chiefly of oak, chestnut and hickory. 
There is perhaps no town in the counly better watered by riYers, 
brooks, and springs. 

* Mr. Elijah Miller (who is since deceased; wsp a eoldier of the Revolution, 
b DitturnellV Gazetteer, N. Y. 



YoR^TowN is situated sixteen miles north of the village of 
White Plains, distant forty-two miles from New York, and one 
hundred and seventeen from Albany, *' bounded north by Put- 
nam county, east by Somers and New Castle, south by New 
Castle, and west by Cortlandt. Its length, north and south, ten 
miles, and it is nearly four miles wide. 

Prior to 1788, Yorktown and Somers constituted the old town- 
ship of HanoveTj within Cortlandt's manor.« A portion of the 
former early acquired the name of Gertrude^ s borough^ in honor 
of Gertrude Beeckman, wife of Colonel Henry Beeckman, and 
one of the daughters and devisees of Stephanus van Cortlandt. 

The Mohegan term Appamaghpogh appears to have been ap- 
plied to the whole Indian territory within the manor, west of 
Cortlandtown. The eastern section of Yorktown still bears the 
name of Amawalk^ probably an abbreviation and conruption of 
the former term, thus Appamaghpogh^ Atnaghpoghi or Ama- 
walk. The lands of Appamaghpogh were originally granted to 
Stephamus van Cortlandt in 1683, by the Indian sachems Pewe- 
mind, Oskewans, and others, as mentioned in our description of 
Somers, ice. 

The principal aboriginal settlement in this part of Appam- 
aghpogh occupied the summit of Indian hill, a vast height, 
which rises to an elevation of nearly six hundred feet above the 
northern margin of Lake Magrigaries^ (Hollow Lake) situated 
in Jefferson valley. On the southern side of the hill lies the 
Indian burying-ground. The remains of several Indians have 
been lately disinterred near the residence of Dr. Fountain, whose 
property borders on the lake. Indian hill is also memorable as 
the last spot inhabited by a band of aborigines in Westchester 

> The pretent townihip was erected 7th March, 1786. Rev. Statoteij 486. 

Vol. 1L 48 


county. On the eastern border of the town is situated the Indian 
cemetery of Amawalk. 

Upon the partition of the manor of Cortlandt among the heirs 
of Stephanas van Cortlandi in the year 1734^ the following al- 
lotments were made in this town. 

North lot No. 2, Andrew Miller; ditto No. 3, Gertrude Beeck- 
man ; ditto No. 4, Cornelia Schuyler and her busband| Col. John 
Schuyler. This gentleman was the father of the illustrious Gen. 
Philip Schuyler. Middle lot No. 2 and 3, Gertrude Yerplanck; 
ditto No. 4, Elizabeth Skinner ; south lot No. 1, bordering the Cro- 
ton river, John Watts; ditto Nos. 4, 6, 6, 7, Philip Yerplank ; 
ditto No. 8, Gertrude Beeckman ; ditto No. 9, Susannah Warren. 
Subsequently the devisees and their heirs made other divisions, 

A. U. 1784, Andrew Miller, sold to John Strang a farm in 
west range of north lot No. 2, consisting of 200 acres which he 
purchased of John Walts. 

Gertrude Beeckman bequeathed lot No. 8, south of the Croton 
to her two nephews Philip and William Ricketts van Ck>rtlandt| 
as tenants in common in fee tail. 

Stephen van Cortlandt with his wife Catalina Staats, in 1791 
gave a release to El van Purdy, with the fee of a certain lot No. 
3, heretofore called Gertrudt^s borough^ being by division 
amongst the heirs of Stephen van Cortlandt, deceased, allotted to 
Gertrude, one of his daughters, late wife of Henry Beeckmani 
containing 15G acres. 

The following receipts for rent prove the Purdys to have been 
tenants in common long prior to the above release. They also 
establish the early names of the town. 

"Rec'd, Hanover^ May yc lOlh, 1760, by ye hand of Abraham 
Purdy, three pound in part for his farm rent and for the use of 
Col. Ilenry Beeckman, Esq., per me. 

£3 "John Bryan." 

" Received at Crompond, 16th Nov'r, 1786, per Mr. Elvan 
Purdy, one pound 13^. in part of rent. 

"Stephen van Cortlandt." 


" Received at Yorktown, Nor. 7ih, 1789, of Mr. Elvan Purdy, 
two pounds 19^. 9d. in full of rent due. 

" Stephen vak CoaTLAKDT." 

Crompond, the principal Tillage in this towuship, is situated 
on the high road leading from Somers to Peekskill ; it contains 
a Presbyterian and a Congregalional church, a post office, a store, 
and several dwellings. The name is undoubtedly derived from 
the large pond that lies north-west of the village, which, from its 
pccnliar shape, is sometimes called the crooked pond, crom de- 
noting in the Dutch language, crooked. This b«iutirul sheet of 
water covers an area of 2O0 acres. 

Pm-TlRlan Ctanrcli, Crompand. 

The Presbyterian Church is handsomely located on the high- 
est ground of the village, commanding a fine view of the sur- 
rounding country ; it was built in 1T99, on the site of au older 
edifice erected cir. 1738, and destroyed by fire in July, 1779. At 
the time of its destruction the old church appears to have been 
used as a store house by the Continental troops; for, during the 
year 1339, a select committee appointed by Congress to iiiveati- 
gate Revolutionary claims, reported "That Congress pay the 
Yorktown congregation the sum ^of three thousand five hun- 
dred dollars out of the first unappropriated funds, the govern- 
ment having occupied the church and parsonage as barracks and 


store hou3e8 during the Re^orutionary war." This appropria- 
tion, however, was never made by Congress. 

The present edifice^ is constructed of wood, presenting in 
front a lofty colonnade, above which rises a neat tower, finished 
with a rich cornice and pinnacles, in which is a large bell weigh- 
ing over 6001bs., inscribed as follows : " Cast by J. H. Thomp- 
son, New York, 1833." 

The Presbyterian church in this town, appears to have been 
first organiz^ under the ministry of the Rev. Samuel Sackett, 
about 1740. Upon the 2nd of January, 1739, we find a deed for 
three acres of land given by Joseph Lane, Henry Beeckoum 
and Gertrude his wife, unto John Hyatt, John Haight and David 
Travis, trustees for the first Presbyterian church, on which land 
the meeting house was erected (said three acres being part of 
two hundred and twenty acres leased to Joseph Lane for three 
lives, 25th March, 1737,) dated 2iid of January, 1739, according 
to the act of 1784 and the act of ISOL^b 

On the 26th of May, 178 1, it was incorporated under the name 
and title of the '' First Presbyterian Society, upon the plan of 
the Church of Scotland." Aaron Furman, Gilbert Travis, Ebe* 
nezer White, Elijah L^, Henry Strang and Gabriel Carman, 
trustees, elected 3d of May, 1784. A re-incorporation of the 
same occurs on the 4tli of March, 1806.^ 


Instal or call. Pastors. Vacated by 

Cir. 1740, Rev. Samuel Sackett, death. 

1785, Rev. Silas Constant, resignation. 

1807, Rev. Alexander Thompson, ditto. 

1814, Rev. Asael Bronson, ditto. 

Rev. Richard Wyncup, ditto. 

Rev. Thomas G. Thompson, ditto. 

> Occemun the celebrated Indian preacher once addressed a crowded andienca 
from the pulpit of this church. 

b Co. Roc. Religious Soc. Lib. A. 83. 

• Co. Rec. Religious Soc. Lib. A. 77, 79, 81, 83, 147. 


Rev. Peter Lockwood, supply. 

Rev. William Marshal), do. 

Rev. John Iieggett, do. 

Rev. D. M. Halliday, do. 

Rev. Robert Thompson, pastor, resig. 

1S47, Rev. Matthew T. Adams, present pastor. 

Church Memoranda. 

1826, Communicants, 54, Baptisms, 19. 

1836, ditto, 33, ditto, 1. 

1816, ditto, 65, ditto, 0. 

This society is in communion with the Bedford Presbytery. 
In the grave yard adjoining the church, are buried the remains 
of the 

Rev. Samuel Sackett, 

who died June 6lh, 1784. 

He was a judicious, faithful, 

laborious and successful minister of Clirist. 

Thrice blest departed spirit thou art free 
From the toils of mortality. 

The monument of his son is inscribed as follows : " Here lyes 
the body of Joseph Sacketf, born April 18th, 1735, and departed 
this life, December, 1757." 

" Behold all ye that now pass by,*' 

As you are now, so once was I, 

As I am now, so you must be, 

Prepare for death and follow me. 
There are also monuments to Captain Samuel Sackett, Deacon 
Knapp and others. In the south-east corner of the yard, lie the 
mortal remains of Colonel Green, the hero of the Red bank^ and 
Major Flagg his brave componion in arms, both of whom fell by 
the hands of cruel treachery, on the morning of the 14th of May, 
1781. But where shall we look for a monument or even a stone 
to mark the spot where these brave patriots lie pillowed in the 
dust ? When will justice be rendered to the memory of the 
brave and illustrious dead who fell in the noble cause of free- 


The parsonage is situated at a short distance from the church 
and stands on the site of the old building which was occupM 
for sorae time, during the Revolution, by the Yorktowo Com- 
mittee of Public Safety. Here that tribunal transacted business, 
disarmed the disaSected,^ and punished the incorrigible. Here 
also a Convention of Congress assembled for the purpose of distri- 
buting commissions to those officers who were empowered to 
raise the militia. 

For the destruction of this obnoxious post, Colonel Robertson 
obtained of the English governor, a special order and the com- 
mand of a regiment. From New York, he appears to have pro- 
ceeded by water to Peekskill, where he landed, swearing he 
would burn up the d — d committee house, and guided by a spy, 
named Caleb Morgan, marched to Crompond, where he burnt 
the p-^rsonage, then used as a store house and arsenal. 

Upon the departure of the British troops, the continental guard 
took possession of the church. 

Episcopal services appear to have been occasionally performed 
in this village, as we find the Rev. Mr. Dibble in company with 
Mr. St. George Talbot, officiating here in 1762. The following 
year Mr. Dibble was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Punderson of 

The Congregational society in this town, was first formed 
during the ministry of the Rev. Silas Constant. The church 
which had before been Presbyterian, gradually assumed the Con- 
gregational form of government. 

In 1787, Dr. Elias Cornelius and Mr. Benjamin Haight, were 
chosen deacons. In 1790, a part of the members withdrew by 
mutual consent, and formed a new church at Red Mills. About 
the year 1806, a division occurred in the church, when more 
than two thirds of her members adhered to Mr. Constant, and 
maintained the Congregational mode of worship, the remainder 
resumed the Presbyterian form. 

• The Loyalists of Cortlandt's manor were disarmed by Zephaoiah Piatt aod oth- 
ers, aided by 600 Connecticut troops, during the winter of 1776. 


In 1816, a number of members harmoniously left this society 
mm formed a church at Peekskill. 

From the time of Mr. Constant's death, to 1832, this church 
received stated supplies from the Rev. Daniel Jones and the late 
Rev.Griffeth H. Griffeth ; subsequently the Rev. William Albert 
Hyde was ordained pastor. The present minister is the Rev. J. B 
Loring. The Congregational church was incorporated by the 
name of " the First Congregational Church and Society at York- 
town." It is at present in connection with the Connecticut as- 
sociation, and numbers 70 communicants. Among other monu- 
ments in the grave yard, is the following : 


memory of 

tlie Rev. 

Silas Constant, 

who departed this life 

March 22, 1826, 

aged 75 years, 2 mo. 

and 7 days. 

The Friends meeting house is situated at a short distance from 
the village of Crompond, and stands on land jointly given by 
John Clapp and Joseph Waters, in 1774. 

The following is a brief abstract of the conveyance : 

" John Clapp of Greenwich, and Joseph Waters of Cortlandt manor, of 
the first part, convey to John Griffin, John Cromwell, John Cornell, Uriah 
Field and Thomas Clapp, of the second part, all that tract of land being ia 
Amawalk, in Cortlandt manor, consisting of 3 acres lying and being in the 
north-east corner of great lot No. 4. Dated 12 day of October, 1774. 

The Methodist Episcopal society of Yorktown, was first in- 
corporated upon the 13th of August, 1792, Timothy Oakley, John 
Oakley, Solomon Fowler, James Haden, Thomas Kirkham and 


Jacob Badeau, trustees.^ A Baptist society was incorporated 
on the 27th of April, 1793, Reuben Garrison, John Tompktts 
and Amos Lane, trustees.^ ^ ^. 

Directly opposite the Presbyterian church atCimnpon^i stands 
the residence of the late Alvan Purdy, Esq^ who, daring Uie 
revolutionary war, held a Lieutenancy in Capt. Heddy's Company 
of Militia, belonging to the regiment of Col. Samuel Drake. 
Alvan Purdy, was the son of Abraham Purdy, Esq., for many 
years a Lieutenant of Militia for the Manor of Cortlandt. This 
individual erected the present mansion, A. D. 1775. The Fur- 
dy's have long been possessed of estates in this town, and are 
lineally descended from the Purdys of Rye and White Plains. 
Of this family was Joseph Purdy, one of the proprietors of 
the White Plains and the Lame Will's purchase in Rye, A. D., 
1678. The surviving sons of the late Lieut. Alvan Purdy, are 
Abraham, of Goshen county, James, po^t master of Yorktown, 
and Alvan, proprietor of the homestead. 

In the vicinity of Crompond and bordering on King street is 
the residence of the Hon. Henry White one of the judges of the 
late Court of Common Pleas in this county. Judge White is 
the son of Ebenezer White, M. D., by his wife Helena Bartow, 
and grandson of the Rev. Ebenezer White of Southampton Long 
Island. Dr. White of Yorktown through the whole course of 
the Revolution sustained the character of a patriot, with that de- 
votion and firmness which characterised the many at that event- 
ful period of our history. It appears that the enemy made seve- 
ral unsuccessful attempts to capture this distinguished individual. 
On one occasion they were desirous of exchanging the doctor for 
a British surgeon then in the hands of the Americans. To eflecl 
his surprisal a large party of Light Horse were despatched to 
Crompond, with strict orders to surround his dwelling and make 
him prisoner. Some kind friend however, gave the doctor time- 
ly warning which enabled him to escape. 

• Co. Rec. ReligiouB Soc. Lib. A. 34. For re-iQCorporation, see pasrew 163» 
175, &c. 
b Ibid. Lib. A. 40. For re-in'^orporation, see i»ttr^ o^. 


Jacob Badeau, trustees.^ A Baptist society was incorporated 
on the 27th of April, 1793, Reuben Garriaoni John Tompkifts 
and Amos Lane, trustees.^ ^. ^. 

Directly opposite the Presbyterian church at Cimnpon^i stands 
the residence of the late Alvan Purdy, Esq^ who, daring the 
revolutionary war, held a Lieutenancy in Capt. Heddy's Company 
of Militia, belonging to the regiment of Col. Samuel Drake. 
Alvan Purdy, was the son of Abraham Purdy, Esq., for many 
years a Lieutenant of Militia for the Manor of Cortlandt. This 
individual erected the present mansion, A. D. 1775. The Fur- 
dy's have long been possessed of estates in this town, and are 
lineally descended from the Purdys of Rye and White Plains. 
Of this family was Joseph Purdy, one of the proprietors of 
the White Plains and the Lame Will's purchase in Rye, A. D., 
1678. The surviving sons of the late Lieut. Alvan Purdy, are 
Abraham, of Goshen county, James, po^t master of Yorktown, 
and Alvan, proprietor of the homestead. 

In the vicinity of Crompond and bordering on King street is 
the residence of the Hon. Henry White one of the judges of the 
late Court of Common Pleas in this county. Judge White is 
the son of Ebenezer White, M. D., by his wife Helena Bartow, 
and grandson of the Rev. Ebenezer White of Southampton Long 
Island. Dr. White of Yorktown through the whole course of 
the Revolution sustained the character of a patriot, with that de- 
votion and firmness which characterised the many at that event- 
ful period of our history. It appears that the enemy made seve- 
ral unsuccessful attempts to capture this distinguished individual. 
On one occasion they were desirous of exchanging the doctor for 
a British surgeon then in the hands of the Americans. To eflecl 
his surprisal a large party of Light Horse were despatched to 
Crompond, with strict orders to surround his dwelling and make 
him prisoner. Some kind friend however, gave the doctor time- 
ly warning which enabled him to escape. 

• Co. Rec. ReligiouB Soc. Lib. A. 34. For re-iQCorporation, see paflre<« 163, 
175, Slc. 
b Ibid. Lib. A. 40. For re -in corporation , see fmtr^ 'i^. 

Toi)ucpiift38S,vol. 11. 



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As a substitute they seized upon Dr. James Brewer, who resid- 
ed in ttiii immediate neighborhood, and were proceeding home 
with their prisoner, when passing through Sloney street they 
were fired upon by a party of Americans, who lay concealed be- 
hind the fences. Dr. Brewer received a mortal wound and ex- 
pired the next morning, Nov. 20, 1780, In the arms of Dr. White 
who had thus narrowly escaped the melancholy fate of his friend. 
It deserves to be mentioned that he was the only one wounded 
of the party. Dr. Brewer who thus perished at the early age of 
thirty-nine, was a native of Massachusetts and left by his wife 
Hannah Brewer four sons and three daughters. His grandson is 
the present Dr. James Brewer of Peekskill. 

Ebenezer White M. D., died 8th day of March, 1825, leaving 
issue beside Henry above mentioned, Bartow, Dr. Ebenezer of 
Somerstown (for many years surrogate of the county, and a mem- 
ber of assembly) Lewis of Peoria, James, Theodosius of SomerSi 
and a daughter Catharine. 

In King street is also situated the residence of Major Thomas 
Strang asoldier of the Revolution. Major Strang is theson of Capt. 
Henry Strang who was the grandson of the worthy Huguenot 
Daniel L'Estrange and Charlotte his wife. From the genealogical 
table in possession of the Strangs of Putnam, it appeals that Dan- 
iel L'Estrange and Charlotte his wife, (daughter of Francis Hur- 
bert,) being protestants, fled from the city of Paris in the year of 
our Lord 16bi5, during the iiersecutions under Louis the XIY., 
and came to the city of London. He obtained a lieutenancy 
in the guards of James the 2d, King of Great Britain, and con- 
tinued there until the year 1688, when with his wife he embark- 
ed for America in company with a number of French Protestants 
and arrived at the city of New York. From thence he went to 
New Rochelle, and subsequently removed to Rye.^ Daniel L'Es- 

• The following tradition hu been banded down in the family, that the aboTe 
Charlotte L'Estrange wishing to accompany her husband in his escape from France 
left her infant as a hostage in Paris, her enemies hoping by this artifice to insure 
her retnm, but taking ship the first opportunity she croawd the channel into Eng • 
land. During the bitter perMCUtion that preceded their flight the fkmWj Bible WM 
concealed beneath the hearth stone. 

ToL. II. 49 



trnnge who was born in the city of Paris A. D. 1656, died at Rye 
in this count/ A. D. 1703. His wiU bears date the satae year. 
The Inie ftlojor Joseph Strang, uncle of the prcspnt proprietor, 
greatly distinguished himself in the batteaux service during the 
old French war. 

In the same street formerly resided Susannah de Lancey,* 
daughter of Eiienne de Ltmcey Esq., and Anne Yan Cortlandc his 
wife. Her house during the Revolution afforded an asylum for 
the persecuted, who found here a safe protection from their ene- 

Near the main road leadrng from Crompond to Somers is situ- 
ated the estate and residence of Robert Lee Esq., for many years 
one of the leading members of the bar in this county. Mr. Lee 
is the youngest son of John Lee of Yorklown, whose grandfather 
William Lee emigrated to this country in 1675, from Nottingham, 

The village of Crompond and its immediate neighborhood ap* 
pears to have been greatly harrassed during the revolutionary trou- 
bles by frequent forays of the enemy. Before the morning of the 
21ih of June, 1779, (says General Heath,) about 200 of the ene- 
my's light horse came up as far as Crompond, surprised two 
militia pickets, killed and took prisoners nearly 30 men. About 
130 light infimtry of the enemy at the same time, came out from 
Verplank's Point, made an excursion round and then returned.^ 
Upon another occasion the Continental troops having stacked 
their arms in the church, then used as an Arsenal, were engaged 
at breakfast when the enemy made a sudden and furious onset, 
capturing and killing some and compelling others to seek safety 
in flight. Among the latter was Bot Lent who fled down King 
street closely pursued by two of ths British light horse. After fol- 
lowing the road some distance Lent took lo the woods, whea 
his enemies gave up the pursuit. They had scarcely, however, 

• The remains of this lady repose in the Presbyterian grave yard, adjoining thos^ 
of Mrs. Deborah Peck. Communicated to the Editor by Major Thomas StraDg. 
k Heath's Mem. 200. 


turned their bncks, than he raised his rifle and fired at the near- 
est. The shot must have taken eflect for his comrade was after- 
wards seen dragging him down the road covered with blood. 
Major Strang, who happened to be miserably mounted, was also 
pursued down the same street and narrowly escaped by jumping 
from his horse. 

It seems from the following letter that timely notice was oc- 
casionally given of the enemy's approach. 

Hanover^ Saturday Morning, one (Pclotk. 

Sir. — Captain Buckhout and Mr. Hunt are sent by Colonel 
Putnam to inform you that the light horse are to be in this place 
about day light. He is at Solomon Hunt's with his detachment ; 
any of the inhabitants who shall join him, will be gratefully re- 

I am yours, 

Joseph Strang. 

N. B. I am desired to let you know that it i« expected you 
will acquaint your neighbors up the street and Mr. Carmans. 

The subjoined account of this place is given by Thacher in 
his Military Journal. 

'* The advanced guard of our army, consisting of about two hundred meR« 
U posted at Crcmpondf about twenty miles beluw West Ptiint, and is relieved 
every two or three weeks. A surgeon constantly attends, and I am now 
ordered to repair to that post, to relieve Dr. Thomas.*^ 

*' Crompond, March^^'* 1781. ** I have taken my quarters at Crompond, ia 
a house with Major Trescott, who commands at this post. This vicinity m 
constantly harassed by small parties of volunteers on our side, and parties of 
royalists and tories on the other, who are making every effort to effect mutual 
destruction ; seeking every opportunity to beat up rach others quarters, and 
to kill or capture all who are found in arms. This is to be considered a very 
hazardous situation ; it requires the utmost vigilance to guard against a sur- 
prise. Major Trescott is an e.xcellent disciplinarian, an active vigilant officer, 
and well acquainted with his duty. A party of vc^unteers collected here oa 
horseback, for a secret expedition, and by their earnest request, Major Trcs^ 
eott marched in the night with a party to cover their retreat, and to take any 
advantage which might offer. Tho party returned the nest day with six 
tory prisoners, three of whom were wounded by the broad sword. One of our 
volunteers, named Hunt, received a dangerous wound through his shoulder 
and lungs ; the air escaped from the wound at every breath. Dr. Eustia 
came to the lines, and dilated the wound in the breast, and as the patient ia 


athletic and had not saetained a Terj copioas loes of blood, he reoommandad 
repeated and liberal blood letting, obserTing that in order to cure a wmmd 
through the longs, you muat bleed your patient to death. He eventaaUy re- 
coTered, which is to be ascribed principally to the free use of the laooet, and 
soAh abstemious living, as to reduce him to the greatest eztremitj. A ooo- 
•iderable number of wounded prisoners receive my daily attention. 

** A gentleman volunteer, by name Requaw, received a dangeroas woand 
and was carried into the British lines ; I was requested by his brother to Tiait 
him, under the sanction of a flag of truce, in company with Dr. Whita, who 
resides in this vicinity. This invitation I cheei fully accepted, and Mr. Re- 
quaw having obtained a flag from the proper authority and procured horses, we 
set off in the morning, arrived at Westchester before evening, and dressed 
the wounded man. We passed the night at Mrs. Bartow*s, mother-in-law of 
Dr. W. She has remained at her farm between the lines during the war, and 
being friendly to our interest, has received much abusive treatment from the 
royalists. We were treated in the most friendly manner, and her daaghter, 
an amiable well educated girl, entertained us in conversation till one o'clock 
in the morning, relating numerous occurrences and incidents of an interesting 
nature, respecting the royal party. The next day we visited our patient 
again, paid the necessary attention and repaired to a tavern, where 1 was gra- 
fied with an interview with the much famed Colonel De Lancey, who com- 
mands the Refugee Corps. He conducted with much civility, and haring a 
public dinner prepared at the tavern, be invited us to dine with him and his 
officers. Adez dinner, Colonel De Lancey furnished us with a permit to re- 
turn with our flag ; we rode ten miles, and took lodgings in a private hoose. 
Here we were informed that six of our men, having taken from the refugees 
thirty head of cattle, were overtaken by forty of De Lancey^s corps and were 
all killed but onci and the cattle retaken. In the morning breakfasted with a 
friendly Quaker family, in whose house was one of our men who had been 
wounded, when four others were killed ; we dressed his wounds, which were 
numerous and dangerous. In another house, we saw four dead bodies, man- 
gled in a most inhuman manner by the refugees, and among them, one groan- 
ing under five wounds on his head, two of them quite through the skull bone 
with a broadsword. This man was capable of giving us an account of the 
murder of his four companions. They surrendered and begged for life, but 
their entreaties were disregarded, and the swords of their cruel foes were 
plunged into their bodies so long as signs of life remained. We found manj 
friends to our cause, who reside on their farms between the lines of the two 
armies, whose situation is truly deplorable, being continually exposed to the 
ravages of the tories, horse thieves, and cow boys, who rob and plunder them 
without mercy, and the personal abuse and punishments which they inflict is 
almost incredible.^'* 

• Thacher's Mil. Journal. 248, 9. 


Shrub Oak is a small village, in the northern part of the 
town, containing a Methodist church, a post-office, and about 
fifteen dwellings. The Methodist society of this place was first 
incorporated upon the 22d of September, 1840; Newman Louns- 
berry, Benjamin Curry, Solomon Requa, Thomas Curry, jr., and 
Jonathan Danow, trustees."* The church, which was erected 
in 1839, is a very neat wooden structure. In the immediate 
neighborhood, lies Lake Magrigaries, (Hollow Lake, already 
alluded to,) which is a beautiful sheet of water, well stocked 
with fish. 

A rich and picturesque vale extends south from Crompond, 
backed by rolling hills. Upon one of the principal heights in 
this vicinity, called French hillj the French forces were en- 
camped in 1781-2, under Comte de Rochambeau. <' The French 
army, at the time the Marquis speaks of, (Nov. 178'<^, says the 
translator of Chastellux,) had been for some time encamped at 
Crompont, near Cortlandt's manor, a few miles from that of 
General Washington's, and between which there was a daily in- 
tercourse. The translator dined, in October, 1782, in General 
Washington's tent, with the Marquis de Laval, the Baron de Yio* 
menil, and several French officers, within hearing of the British 
guns, which were at that period happily become a brutum ful-^ 
meny^ On the north-west side of French hill, are the two 
ponds styled by the Indians Keakatis. The largest of these, 
sometimes known by the name of the Great Pond, covers an 
area of 200 acres, and discharges its redundant waters into the 
smaller one of 100 acres. Both are supplied by numerous springs, 
and have their outlet it Muscoota river. The site of an Indian 
village is still pointed out, on the borders of the Great Pond, 
north of cedar swamp, likewise the remains of a cemetery on 
Cedar Point.^ 

Several roads intersect the town, running principally north 

• Co. Rec. Relijjrious Soc. lib. B. 65. 

b Travels in North America id the years 1780, 81, 89, bj the Marquis Chastel- 
lux. One of the principal Tisitora at the French camp in 1782 was the Baron de 

• Upon Cedar Point an eccentric character known as Nancy Lane the hermit- 
eis, residftd for many years. 


and south, from the Mahopack turnpike to the great post-road, 
formerly called the King's road. These consist of Stoneji 
King's, Gorm6, Amawalk, Tomahawk and Lovett streets. 

Tlie Pine's bridge rond leading south from Crompond, affords 
in')gni&cent views of the rich and fertile country bordering the 
Croton River, together with the village of Yorktown, and the 
Turkey and C/ollabergh mountains. Upon this road are situated 
the farms and residences of General Bernardus Montross,* Mr. 
Seth Whitney, Mr. James Underbill, Mr. Richard M. Underbill 
and George McKeel, &c> Directly opposite the mansion of the 
latter, stands the orthodox Friends meeting house, erected in 18^. 

A road diverging to the south-west, near the meeting house, 
leads to the Turkey mountain^ a vast tract of woodland covering 
800 acres, from the summit of which, the spectator has a noble 
prospect of the surrounding country. At the foot of the moun- 
tain is situated the residence of Mr. Edward Burrough Underbill, 
son of the late Abraham I. Underbill, "a worthy and prominent 
member of the society of Friends, who sustained throughout a 
useful and protracted life, an unsullied reputation." Abraham 
I. Underbill, who died on the 5ih of May, 1841, aged 78 years, 
was the second son of Isaac Underbill, fourth in descent from 
John Underbill of (>ys*er Bay, L. I. In the old family mansioa 
which stands one mile south of this spot, (on the Pine's bridge 
road) is shown the room where Major Andre and Joshua H. 
Smith, breakfasted on the 23J of September, 1780. At this pe- 
riod, the house was occupied by Isaac Underbill and Sarah his 
wife,<: who appears to have been a woman of good resolution and 

* In a back room of this bouse, fell the notorious freebooter, Joseph liueton, by 
the hand of Seth Whitney, (father of the above mentioned gentleman) former pro- 
prietor of the estate. Hucson was a perfect scourge and terror to this part of the 
country dutiug the Uevolution, for he devoted himself to the most cruel pillage and 
robbery among the defenceless inhabitants. Whilst in the act of entering the hoase 
for plunder, Whitney plnnged a bayonet into his body. Upon heariug their leade< 
excUim " the rascal has killed me !" a band of ruffians forced an entrance 
seized Whitney, and inflicted on him the most savage cruelties. 

b Upon the 9th of .N'ov., 1832, George McKeel conveyed te Isaac McKet 
Daniel Smith, Aaron Underbill and Edward Borrough Underbill, 1 acre of Ian 
3 miles north of Pine's bridge." 

• This lady was the daughter of Robert Field, whose nephew John was a r 


conrage, whilst engaged in entertaining Andre and his companion, 
she took pnriicuinr notice of the former, and imagined she rend 
in his confusion, a person embarrassed in some great underta- 
king> A few days previous to this event, Mrs. Underhill had 
visited head-quarters to recover some cattle carried off by a band 
of marauders. 

About a mile below the r^idence of Mr. William Smith, on 
the Pine's bridge road, a narrow lane diverges south-west to 
Davenport's or Panforth's house, the scene of Colonel Green's sur- 
prisal by the British Refugees, upon the 13th of May, 1781. The 
following account of this incursion, is given by General Heath : 


" The next day intelligence wa8 received, that on the 13th, Colonel Green 
of the Rhode Island regiment, who was doing duty on the lines of the Ameri- 
can army, was sarprised by a body of the enemy's horse, supposed to be aboot 
150 dragoons, and that the Colonel, Major Flagg, two subalterns and 27 
men were killed, and several wounded. Col. Green was a brave and intre- 
pid officer, and his loss was much regretted. The colonel had taken post 
above and near to Croton river, at a place where the river was fordable, to 
prevent the enemy passing up by this ford 1 1 ravage the country. He had 
practiced the greatest vigilance in guarding this ford in the night time, taking 
off the guards after sunrise, apprehendmg that the enemy would never presume 
to cross the river in the day time ; but the enemy, having learnt his mode of 
doing duty, on the morning of the 13th effected bis overthrow, by crossing the 
ford soon afler the guards had come off, and surrounding their quarters before 
they had an idea of any enemy being near them. In this situation, the ut- 
most exertion could not then avail them.**b 

A person named Gilbert Totten, is said to have betrayed his 
countrynaen to Colonel de Lancey on this fatal occasion, in re- 
taliation for an act of discipline administered by his commanding 

sideut of Yorktown. The following notice of the death of Moses Field, (son of 
John) occurs in the New York American of Oct S5, 1833 : *< Died at Feekskill» 
on the 18th ioat, Moses Field of this city, aged 53 years. The poor cnold not 
have sustained a greater loss in an individaaL ^o man had more enlarged and 
persevering bei^evolence in feeding the hungry, clothing the naked and providing 
for the sick. His greatest happiness appeared to be, to mitigate the suffering and 
relieve the wants of the virtuous poor.** 

• See vol. i. 210. 

b Heath*8 Mem., 9^8-9. 


officer. De Lancey anxious for an opportunity to return the 
recent attack made upon bis quarters by Captain Gushing,* 
instantly fitted out a force of about 150 dragoons, as described 
by Heath. The route selected by their experienced cooimandei^ 
was the road leading to Wiiite Plains, by which means the party 
escaped through the only opening in the long line of sentinds 
stretched across the country. Near Chappequa, they halted for 
a short time at the house of Daniel Underbill, and then pro- 
ceeded by the west road, which is an intersection of the present 
Sing Sing turnpike, till they arrived at the residence of Mr. 
Lyon ; here they anxiously awaited the withdrawal of the Amm- 
can guard at Oblenus's ford, which is nearly one mile west of 
Pine's bridge. Up to this moment no one of the party, save 
their commander and his guide, knew the object for which they 
had been detailed. According to ^General Heath's account, the 
American officers appear to have had no idea that the enemy 
would dare to cross the ford after sunrise, and therefore had 
taken no precautions to prevent it. By this means, Davenport's 
house was surrounded by the enemy, and all possibility of 
escape cut off before the danger was discovered. De Lancey 
remained on the south side of the river, probably with a view to 
cover the retreat of his party, if it should prove necessary. * 

To General Heath's account of the surprisal, we must be per- 
mitted to add the following extract from Colonel H. Lee's history 
of the Southern war : — 

" In the spring of 1781, when General Washington began to expert the 
promised naval aid from our best friend, the ill-fated Louis XVL, he oecm- 
aionally approached the enemy's lines on the side of York island. In one of 
these movements, Col. Green, with a suitable force, was posted on the Cro- 
ton River, in advance of the army. On the other side of this river lay a corps 
of refugees, (American citizens who had joined the British army,) under the 
command of Col. Delancy. These half citizens, half soldiers, were notorious 
for rapine and murder, and to their vindictive conduct may Justly be ascribed 
most of the cruelties which stained the progress of our war, and which at 
length compelled Washington to order Captain Asgill, of the tb'itish army, to 
be brought to head -quarters, for the purpose of retaliating, by his executiont 

• See page 333. 


lor the murder of CapC. Haddy, of New Jersey, perpetrated by a Capt. Lip- 
L ' piocoart, of the refngees. The commandant of these refugees, (Delancy was 
not present,) haring ascertained the position of Greeners corps, which the 
colonel had cantoned in adjacent farm houses — probably with a view to the 
procurement of subsistence — took the resolution to strike it. This was ac- 
cordingly done, by a nocturnal movement, on the 13th of May. The enemy 
crossed the Croton before daylight, and hastening his advance, reached our 
station with the dawn of day, unperceiTcd. As he approached the farm house 
in which the Lieutenant-Colonel was quartered, the noise of troops marching 
was heard, which was the first intimation of the fatal design. Greene and 
Major Flagg immediately prepared themseUes for defence, but they were too 
late, so expeditious was the progress of the enemy. Flagg discharged his pis * 
tols, and instantly afterwards fell mortally wounded, when the ruffians (unwor- 
thy the appellation of soldiers) burst open the door of Greeners apartment. 
Here the gallant veteran singly received them with his drawn sword. Several 
fell beneath the arm accustomed to conquer, till at length, overpowered by num- 
bers, and faint from the loss of Uood streaming from his wounds, barbarity 
triumphed over valor. * His right arm was almost cut off in two places, the 
left in one, a severe cut on the left shoulder, a sword thrust through the abdo- 
men, a bayonet in the right side, and another through the abdomee, several 
sword cuts on the head, and many in different parts of the body.' 

*' Thus cruelly mangled, fell the generous conqueror of Count Donop, whosa 
wounds, as well as those of his unfortunate associates, had been tenderly 
dressed as soon as the battle terminated, and whose pains and sorrows had 
been as tenderly assuaged. How different was the relentless fury here dis- 
played ! 

*' The commander-in-chief heard with anguish and indignation the tragieal 
fate of his loved, his faithful friend and soldier, in whose feelings the army 
sincerely participated. On the subsequent day, the corpse was brought to 
head-quarters, and his funeral was solemnized with military honors and uni- 
Tcrsal grief. • 

liieutenant Colonel Greene was murdered in the meridian of life, being only 
forty -four years old. He married in 1758, Miss Anne Lippitt, a daughter of 
Mr. J. Lippitt, Esq., of Warwick, whom^he left a widow with three sons and 
four daughters. He was stout and strong in person, about five feet ten in- 
ches high, with a broad round chest ; his aspect manly and demeanor plea- 
sing, enjoying always a high state of health, its bloom irradiated a oonnten- 

• At the close of the Revolutionary war Col. De Lancey politely forwarded to 
General Tbomlb of Harrison the bkK>d stained pocket books of Col. Green and 
Major Flagg. These intereiting relics we regret to say (sines the General's de- 
cease) have been destroyed. 

Vol. IL 50 


Moe whieh signifieantly ezpreated the fortitude and miMneM invariably die* 
played throughoat hie life/'^ 

The following additional particulars concerning this melan- 
choly aflbir, are contained in a letter from the pay-master Thomas 
Hughes to a friend dated 

Rhode Island Vmage.May 14, 1781. 

Dear Sir. — It is with pain I write you on a sabject that is so nearly and 
elosely connected to yoo as a parent ; I most my dear friend iafbnn yon of the 
unhappy fate that befel your son. 

This morning the enemy made an ^tack upon the lines, which was a eom- 
plete sorprise, and he fell a sacrifice to the cmel hand of tyranny in defend- 
ing himself against the strokes struck by the light horsemen. He had his wrist 
almost out off in two places, ■ a severe cut in the left shoulder, a sword 
run through his body, a bayonet into his right side, and another throogh hie 
body, his head but to pieces in sererat places, his back and body ent and 
hacked in such a manner as gives me pain to inform you, he was carried 
about three quarters of a mile from his quarters where they left him to die or 
rather through loss of blood and strength to go forward, finished his days in 
the woods. And as they went by the houses informed the inhabitants should 
there be any enquiry after the Colonel they left him dead in the edge of the 
woods. b This cruel and barbarous treatment was perpetrated by De Lsneey's 
corps, De Lancey himself at the head.* Major Flagg, as he arose from his 
bed received a ball in his head, and when they entered the house they 
stabbed and cut him in a cruel manner, and he expired immediately. A doc- 
tor of the New Hampshire line and a Lieutenant of the Massachusetts line were 
wounded in the house and carried off. Lieut. Macomb being in bed was made 
a prisoner, Ensign Greene who commanded a guard at the bridge, with him- 
self and all his men were taken or killed. 

J went in the lines the evening before, to pay off the troops and retnmed 
with Greene. My horse being hitched at the door and when the alarm was 
given, I saddled him and just made my escape. My flight was so rapid I left 
my receipts behind. The woman of the house was so kind as to hide them in 
the bushes, so I received them again. The loss of my dear friend roost fall 
heavy on the family, but as life is uncertain we roust surrender it when the 
great Jehovah calls. To morrow we shall bestow on each of them the honors 

• See Updike's hiitory of the Narragansett Church, for a full account of himself 
and family. 

b Green expired near the residence of Mr. Sutton, where he was found the fol- 
lowiuf; morning by Major Strang and bia brother. 

« The writer must have been mistaken, for De Laiiccy was act present accord- 
lug to other acconnts. 


that are dae to men, who so nobly suffered the pains of death in thesenrice of 
their country. It is uncertain how many we had killed and taken ; but I be* 
lioTe about 40 taken, killed and wounded. John is wounded, and Prince 
Wolland I fear will die ; please make my respects to Maria and sister, and 
belie?e me to be with esteem. 

Your humble servant, 

Thomas Hughee. 

Mr. Joshua Carpenter,* the present occupant of the house, 
still points out the spot where the bed of Colonel Green stood, 
and the window from which Major Flagg fired his pistols, while 
the old fashioned wainscoting and doors are pierced with nu« 
merous bullet holes. A large addition has been since added to 
the house, on the east. The wonderfully extensive views which 
this elevated spot commands, will amply repay the visitor, besides 
the interest attached to the above associations. 

In the southeast comer of Torktown, is situated the great 
dam of the Croton Acqueduct, one of the most important and ex- 
tensive works ever undertaken in this country. ''The dam 
across the Croton, is placed where the river enters between the 
hills, after having passed for several miles through a more level 
country. The hill on the south side is composed of solid 
rock."^ The dam itself " is not of great length, but is one of 
the most ingenious works of substantial masonry any where to be 
found. The highest point of the stnicture is rather more than 
fifty feet above the natural bed of the Croton. By this elevation, 
the water is thrown back more than six miles, forming a beautiful 
lake of several hundred acres, containing about 100,000,000 
gallons for each foot in depth for the surface. The water is 
drawn into the acqueduct by means of a tunnel cut into the rock, 
which constitutes the hill on the south sideu At distances of 
one mile, a circular hollow tower is erected over the acqueduct, 
for the purpose of ventilation, these being composed of white 
marble, produce a very pretty effect Every three miles is an 

• Mr. Carpenter is a grandson of Richard DaTenport, who held the piopertj hi 
k Dtrtumeirs Gazetteer of N. Y. 


apparatus for drawing off the water in case any internal repairs 
should be necessary/' &c.* 

'' The whole quantify of land which the water commissioDers 
have been compelled to buy on the forty miles of the works, 
amount to nine hundred acres, and the average price has been 
nearly five hundred dollars per acre."*» 

The great bend of the Croton, west of Pine's bridge, was de- 
nominated by the aborigines Keweghlegnack. Croton lake bor- 
dered by meadows and high hills presents a lovely and interest- 
ing scene to the eye of the beholder. The following lines sug- 
gested by a visit to the lake, are from the Hudson River Chroni- 


How mildly beams the moon*8 pale light» 

As o^er thy breast we gaily glide ; 
Her silfery lostre eharms the night, 

As swid we float along the tide. 
Unraffled calm thy bosom lies, 

Save where the oars the stillness break ; 
Nor do the breezes dare to rise, 

To mar thy beauty, Croton Lake. 

The purest joys that friendship yields, 

We here in rich profusion taste, 
While busy thought roams oVr the fields 

Of memory, brightening from the past ; 
Sweet recollections crowd the mind, 

With former scenes of purest bliss ; 
While now, a sweet delight we find 

In musing o^er past happiness. 

Now is the hour of tranquil peace. 

While gliding o'er thy fair expanse ; 
All fierce, tumultuous passions cease, 

And heavenly joys the soul entrance ; 
The hallowed fellowship of friends 

We here with rich delight partake. 
Nor e'er, till this existence ends. 

Shall we its memory dear forsake. 

■ ___^ - III - __ 

• Diilurneire Gazetteer, N. Y. * Ibid. 


But li8t ! the hour souDds to depart, 

And thy bright shores we lea^e with pain ; 
Thoa e^er shalt be near ray heart, 

While life or thought or hope remain ; 
The friends I here ha?e found, shall be 

Dear to my heart till life forsake ; 
And often shall I think of thee, 

Thou mildly beauteous Crotoo Lake. 

" The supplies of the Croton are derived exclusively from the 
elevated region of the Highlands, in Westchester county and 
Putnam, being furnished by the pure springs which so remarka- 
bly characterize the granitic formation of this region. Many 
of the ponds and lakes from which it is maintained, are, 
three or four hundred acres in extent, and as large as 1000 
acres : all these ponds are surrounded by clear upland shores, 
which furnish soft and clear water. Half a gallon of water 
taken from the Croton at Wood's bridge, yielded by evaporation, 
2,333 grains residuum, in the following proiiortions : 

Vegetable matter, 133 

Carbonates of lime and magnesia, . 1,200 - 

Muriate of magnesia, . . . 1,000 

grains,* 2,333 
Prior to the erection of the dam, shad fish annually ascended 
the river some miles above the present lake. The fishing is 
now entirely confined to trout, perch, and other fresh water fish. 
In 1800 it was proposed to render the Croton river navigable, 
from its mouth to Pine's bridge. The following report of the en- 
gineers is entitled : 

** Estimate of expense to make the Croton xiret na?igable for boats of two 

The falls at Croton rirer with a lock, jC350 

The falls below the Old bridge, S50 

Small rapid, 10 

Rapid and stony, 15 

2 small falls, 15 

• See Corporat. Doc. of N. Y., No. x«?i. 409. 


Rocky falls and stony water, £ 60 

Fall both above and below Fowler's mill, 100 

Rapids and rocks, 80 

Long rapid water, 2 stony falls, 950 

do. do. 150 

Fall at Carpenter's mills and lock, 1 10 

A short rapid, 30 
This brings us to Pine's bridge. Here we find 18 obttmctions, 
such as small rapids, fish wares, stony, &c. &c. 

The cost of n hich is estimated at 830 


Pine's Bridge crosses the lake about one mile above the dam. 
On the south side of the Croton is a small settlement bearing 
the name of Crotonville, which contains a Methodist church, a 
Friends' meeting house, two stores, a tavern, a post office, and 
several scattered dwellings. The old bridge was situated west 
of the present structure, and served, during the Revolution, as 
the principal communication between the lines. Here the Ame- 
ricans generally kept a strong guard for the purpose of affording 
timely notice of an enemy's approach. It was also a place of 
rendezvous, as appears from the following orders : 

" Manor of Corilandt, 12th Nov., 1781. 
*< Lieutenant Purdy, you are commanded to march 24 of your 
men, well armed and eqnipt with six days provision, to Pintfs 
Bridge, by to-morrow morning at 8 o'clock, with all the teams 
in your company. 

"Samuel Drake, Ck)lonel.'' 

" DanforiKs^ 8 o'clock in the evening. 
" Sir— I have this moment received intelligence that the ene- 
my are out as far as Young's. I shall be at the Bridge, ready- 
to march, at 2 o'clock, and wish to have all the militia in Crom- 
pond mustered and at the Bridge by that time. 

" I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

"William Hull, Lieut. Colonel. 
" P. S. — I beg you to send to Major Strang's and Captain 

« On the morning of the 26th of June, 1779, the British light 
horse, and about 1000 infantry, were at Pine's Bridge,^^ Gen- 
eral Heath "ordered 200 light infantry, under the command of 

County of westchester. 399 

Lt. Col. Grosvenor,to march to Robinson's stores, near Marpoach 
Pond, to cover that quarter."* 

21st of October, 1780, " intelligence was received that the en- 
emy were meditating an excursion as far up as Crompond and 
its vicinity, to sweep off the cattle." General Heath " immedi- 
ately ordered Colonel Hazen, with a detachment of 600 men, to 
move to Pin€?s Bridge^ and Lieut. Col. Jameson, with the 2d 
light dragoons, to move from Bedford towards Col. Hazen. The 
detachment arrived at Pine^s Bridge about 10 o'clock the same 
evening, and Colonel Jameson with the dragoons at about ,2 
o'clock the next morning. The evening of the 23d, Col. Hazen 
returned with the detachment ; the enemy did not come out."b 
It was in the vicinity of Pine's Bridge that Enoch Crosby, the 
Westchester spy, first commenced his career of secret service. 

By way of a general geographical description of Yorktown, it 
may be observed, " that the north is broken by the hills of the 
southern border of the Highlands, and the general surface is hilly, 
though its hills are of a moderate height in the south.''^: The 
numerous streams supply abundance of mill seats. << The soil 
is generally productive, and well distributed into arable, pasture 
and meadow lands. Much of it is stony ; and previous to the 
late introduction of gypsum as a manure, many farms were nearly 
exhausted by constant tillage."** The timbt^r is very thrifty and 
tall, consisting for the most part of oak, chesnut, hickory and 
walnut, &c. The low grounds yield maple, black birch, ash and 
hemlock, &a. 

The first entry relating to town officers occurs in the manor 
book, entitled, " Record for the manor of Cortlandt and York- 
town." <* At a town meeting held for ye manor of Cortlandt, on 
the first Tuesday, in April, in the year of our Lord, 1760, to choose 
town officers for ye said manor for the ensuing year, and the re- 
spective names and offices of those chosen." 
Pierre van Cortlandt, Supervisor, 
Moses Travis, Clerk, 

• Heath's Mem. 206. d Ibid. 

b Ibid. 260. 

< Spafford*8 Gazetteer of New York. 


Joseph Sherwood, Treasurer, 
' Daniel Strang, ) 
Joseph Tidd, {Assessors. 

Joseph Travis, for the Water Collector at Peekskill, 

John Travis, Pounder, 

Jeremiah Drake, Constable for the west part, 

John Teomans, for ye middle part, 

John Purdy, for ye east part, d&c.* 

» See Rec. of Yorktown. The names of some twenty freebolden ai« •lao 
attached to the Hit 



YoNKERs is situated on the east bank of the Hudson, immedi- 
ately above New York island, seventeen miles north of New 
York, one hundred and thirty south of Albany, and ten south- 
west of White Plains ; bounded north by Greenburgh, east by 
Eastchester and a small angle of Westchester, or by Bronx's 
River ; south by West Farms and New York county, and west 
by the Hudson River. It extends near eight miles along the 
Hudson, and has a medial width of near three miles. 

The name of this town, at different periods written Younkers, 
Younckers, Jonkers and Yonkers, is derived from the Dutch 
** Jonker" or " Jonkheer," meaning in that language the ^^ young 
gentleman,^^ a common appellation for the heir of a Dutch fam- 

Yonkers and the Mile Square constituted a township withia 
the great manor of Philipsburgh, until the year 1779, when the 
manor was confiscated and conveyed to the people of this state. 
A. D. 1788, the present township was independently organi- 

Thirty years after the Dutch discovery of the New Nether- 
lands, A. D. 1639, we find the Dutch West India Company pur- 
chasing lands in this town of the native Indian sachems. 

" Appeared before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary of the 
New Netherlands, Fecquemeck, Rechgawac, Packanniens, own- 
ers of Kekeshickj which they did freely convey, cede, <fcc. &c. 
to the behoof of the General Incorporated West India Company, 
which lies over against the flats of the Island cf Manhates, mostly 
east and west, beginning at the source of the said Kill till over 
against the high hill of the flat lands — to wit, by the great Kill, 
together with all the rights, estate and title to them, the grantees, 

« Benson*! Mem. of N. Y. 

k Act pawed 7th March, 1788. Re?. Stat. vol. iii. 286. 

Vol. II. 51 


&c. &c. Tn testimony of the truth of which, this is subscribed 
by witnesses. Done 3d of August, 1639, at Fort Amsterdam, in 
New Netherlaud-» 

Cornelius van der Hoyken, J ^, witnesses. 

Davidt Piettersen de Tries, i 
Id presence of me Cornells van TienhoveOi Sec^j/* 

How long the Dutch West India Company held the lands of 
Kekeshick, does not appear } but about the year A. D. 1646| we 
find the Indian sachem Taekarew^ granting lands in this town 
to Adriaen van der Donck.^ In this sale the town is called Nep-' 
perhaenif^ an Indian name frequently applied to the village. 
Eighty years Inter we find it varied to NeppercAf^'ihe. proper 
Indian orthography of which is evidently Nap-pe-cha-makf ren- 
dered literally the ^^ rapid water seillementJ^ Thus graphically 
expressing the situation of the Mohegan village, at the mouth of 
the Neperah, or rapid waters.^ In the deep seclusion of the an- 
cient forests that once bordered this beautiful stream, were loca- 
ted other Indian villages, some of the sites of which tradition has 
preserved to us ; one of these occupied the eastern edge of Boar 
Hill. A Mohegan castle ornamented the steep side ot Berriau^s 
Neck, styled in the Indian tongue Nipnichsen. It was carefully 
protected, by a strong stockade, from the attacks of the warlike 
Sank-hi-cnu-ni, (fire workers,) inhabiting the Jersey shores, and 
commanded the romantic scenery of the Spuyten Duyvel Creek 
and Hudson River. Tiie junction of the two streams was calledj 
in the Indian, Shorackappock. The lost settlement of the Nap- 
peckamak Indians remembered in this town stood near the present 
residence of Abraham Fowler, on a rising bank of the Neperah 
(Saw Mill.) The crystal waters of this sweet stream (which runs 
principally north and south) arise from two perennial springs in 

• Alb. Rcc. C. C. 62. 

b Sometimes called the Youngrer Vau Dunkc. Araize Rec. Alb. 47. 

• Alb. Kec. viii. 79, 60 ; IIcl. Doc. vi. 118 ; Book of Pat. i. 5G; O'Calla^han*! 
Hist. N. N. 282. 

d Valentine receipts for rent. 

• Nipi, in the old Algonkin, sif^niftct water; Niep» in the Montauk. Trniu. 
Amer. Antiq Soc. iu 


rti« bosom of the Chappeqiia hills." To this nymph of ihe val- 
ley the Indians (as their custom was) offered sacrifice, the perpe- 
tuity of her motion typyfying to them the eternity of God. 

In the north irest comer of this town, west of the Saw Mill, 
(Neperah) is situated the rock Mcghkeckassia, Amackasain, otr 
the great alone, soineiimes called Meshkeckassin, and Maca- 
kassin, a name probably derived from two Delaware words, 
" Mekhkakhsin" signifying copper^ " akkain," slone.*' This 
word appears to denote not a common stone, but the cwlored 
copper stone bound under some spell of Indian necromancy. 
" To these stones they paid all outward signs of worship and de- 
votion, not as to God, but as they are hieroglyphinks of the per- 
manency and immutability of the Deity; because these, both for 
figure and subslaiice, are, of all sublunary bodies, the least sub- 
ject to decay or change."" This stone lies in an obscure nook 
on the eastern shore of the Hudson, at the foot of a steep bank 
whose sides are shaded with masses of wild cedar and laurel, 
the beautiful take like appearance of the river giving additional 
interest and magical illusion to the scene. At ebb tide the huge 

> TImm hill* ara (ituKted in Ihe town of Niwcaitl*. 
k Trmu. Amer. Auliq. Sue. tol. ii. 336. 
' Biverly'a Hiit. Virgini». 


boulder must have reminded them of a monstrous Neebanawbaijif, 
(or water spirit) afloat on the waves. To the superstitious In- 
dian its peculiar position mast have been a subject of deep inte- 
rest. The name of this stone is sometimes applied to a brook 
that flows in the vicinity. The term Sigghes, which also oc- 
curs in some of the deeds, doubtless belongs to the Indian rock, 
situated still higher up, west of the post road on the land of J. 
O. Dyckman. The two rocks or stones and rivulet here referred 
to, still form a portion of the northern boundary of Yonkers, run- 
ning east to Bronx's river. In this town are also two Indian 
burying grounds. The principal one lies two miles north of 
the village, on Blackwell's hill. Within the recollection of many 
persons still living, the graves were distinctly indicated by rude 
mounds of earth, but, alas ! the plough has long since removed 
these memorials of the ancient dead, and perhaps the mouldering 
relics themselves. 

That remnant of a martial brow, 

Those ribs that held the mighty heart. 
That strong arm — ah ! 'tis strengthless now. — Bryant, 

and well might the poet add. 

Spare them ! each mouldering fragment spare, 

Of God's own image — let them rest, 
Till not a trace shall speak of where 

The awful likeness was impressed !^ 

The second and last place of sepulture used by the Indians in 
this town, is now nearly covered by the barn and out buildings 
of Benjamin Fowler, Esq. The sile was well chosen on rising 
ground at the entrance of the Sprain valley. 

Besides the Tawasenlhas, (or places of many dead,) numerous 
skeletons have been discovered in different parts of the town, 
showing it to have been once numerously populated by the In- 
dian tribes. One of these was recently disinterred in making 
some improvements on the Kingsbridge road nearly opposite the 
Van Corllandt residence j it proved to be on examination the full 

* Ilurper'n Indian Traits, introd. i. 19. 


sized skeleton of an Indian in a sitting posture holding the re- 
mains of a small child between its knees. Others have been 
discovered lying near the surface of the ground on Berrian's 
Neck ; the back part of the skull of one of these was found per- 
forated hy a musket ball, which still remains in the cavity of the 
brain.* Of course this Indian perished by fire arms. It may 
not be inappropriate to mention that Hendrick Hudson had an 
engagement with the Indians, 1609, at the mouth of the Spuyten 
Dyvil creek. 

The descendants of the last named chief, Tackarew jConiinned 
to reside in Yonkers for more than half a century after the sale 
to Van der Donck. A. D. 1646, as wc find Claas do Wilt, Neme- 
rau, and a squaw, Karocapacomont, confirming the Hon. Jacobus 
van Cortland t in possession of the old Younckers, A. D. 1701.^ 
1692, we find an Indian chief at Bedford called Wappowham.* 
The last remnant of his tribe in this place was a noble Indian 
by the name of Shucktaman, who occasionally visited the village, 
but was oftener to be seen in his canoe cruising along the various 
fishing grounds of the Hudson. 

We have shown that the next grantee in Younckers, under the 
Indians, was the renowned Dutch De Heer Adriaen van der 
Donck.<^ <<Tlus illustrious personage was a free citizen of Breda 
in Dutch Brabant, part owner of the famous turf sloop in which a 
party of Dutch troops were clandestinely introduced, in 1590, into 
the castle commanding that city, then in the hands of the Spanish, 
by which stratagem that stronghold fell into the hands of their 
high mightinesses the States General.''^ '' Van der Donck en- 
joys the distinction of having been the first lawyer in the Colony 
of New Netherlands. He received his education at the University 
of Leyden in Holland, where he attained the degree of Juris 
utriusque Doctor; he subsequently obtained permission to prac- 
tice as an advocate in the Supreme Court of Holland. In the 
autumn of 1642 he embarked on board a vessel belonging to the 

■ lu postession of H. S. Gates, M. D., of Yonken rilla^ 

b See Van Cortlandt*8 coofirmation. 

c See Bedford. 

4 Douck if a ▼illaje in Soath HoUaDd, three and a half leagues fVom Gorcnm. 

• 0*Callaghan*s Hitt. N. N. 337. 


Patroon Killian van Rensselaer, for the New Netherlands. On 
his arrival he was created sheriff t)f Rensselaerwyck."* 

After remaining here for two or three years, and finding him- 
self disappointed in his efibrts to plant a colony in that neighbor- 
hood. *' he obtained, in consideration of the assistance he afforded 
in negotiating the treaty between the Director Grencral and the 
Mohawks, and in return for the advances he then made to enable 
the government to purchase presents for the Indians, Ihe tracl of 
land called Nepperh'aem. This valuable property was situated 
on the east side of Hudson's river, about, sixteen miles above 
New Amsterdam. It was bounded on the north by a stream 
which the Indians called Maccakassin and ran south to Neper- 
haem ; thence to the Shorakapkock kill^ and to Papirinimen 
creekj called by the Dutch ' Spuyten duyvel,' whence it stretched 
eastward to the river Bronx. The title of thiscolonie was *Coien 
Donckf^ Donck's colony, and the proprietor thereof was invested 
with all the rights and privileges contained in the charter of 
1629."b If Van der Donck obtained these lands in marriage 
with his wife Mary, as her brother affirmed, he certainly had the 
sanction of the Lords Directors of the Dutch West India Com- 
pany, as Earls of the province of New Holland, as well as a 
charter afterwards, and a deed of confirmation from the ancient 
loi^ds of the soil. The Indian grantors were Tackarew, Claee^ 
and seven others. This fact is proved by the testimony taken 
before his Excellency, Richard Nicolls, the first English Gover- 
nor of New York, A. D. 16G4, when it was distinctly declared, 
<*That the Indian proprietor's name, who was chief of them, was 
TackareWf living at the Navisans, (the highlands of the Nevi- 
sink, N. J.) who acknowledged ye purchase as before described, 
and that he had recived satisfaction for it. Claes ye Indian 
having interest in a part, acknowledged to have sold and re- 
ceived satisfaction of Van der Donck. All the rest of ye Indians, 
being seven or eight, acknowledged to have received full satis- 
faction® likewise. 

The Jonge Heer being now a member of the privileged order 

• N. Y. HtBt. Soc. CoU iu tec. i. 37. » 0*CallaghaQ*t Hiit. N. N. 389. 

« Alb. Rec. Courts of Auize, u 


of PatfooDs,^ enjoyed all the feudal appendages attached thereto, 
such as power to erect achurch or churches ; to administer juris- 
diction, to decide civil suits, to impose fines, to pronounce the first 
sentence, finally to exercise all rights belonging to the jurisdic' 
tion of Colen Donck together with the right of hunting, fowling, 
fishing and trading according to imrouniiies granted in the same. 
Soon after the settlement of our Patroon at Colen Donck, there 
arose a controversy between the government of the Colony of 
New Netherlands and several of the colonists ; among the most 
forward of the latter was Adriaen van der Donck. who with others 
united in a strong remonstrance to the States General of Holland, 
complaining of the power exercised by the Dutch West India 
Co. especially during the administrations of Kieft and Stuy- 
vesant. This remonstrance was afterwards printed at the Hague 
A. D. 1650, and formed a small vol. (quarto) of fifty pages enti- 
tled "Yertoogh^ van Nieuw Nederlaudt, weghens de Ghelegeu- 
hetyd, Vruchtbaerheydt, en soberen Staet desselfs. In s' Graven 
Hage 1650, (An Exposition of the New Netherlands, in respect to 
the situation, fertility, and wretched condition of the country. At 
the Hague, 1650.) This attempt to shake the authority of the 
Dutch West India Company, proved abortive, and only served 
to re-act unfavorably upon the disafiected ; 19 March, 1650, oc- 
curs a contract between the Dutch West India Co., Van der Donck 
and others, for the transportation of 200 persons to New Nether- 
lands.e November 29, 1660, Cornelis Van Tienhoven secretary 
of the New Netherlands, delivered to the States General a short 
statement or answer upon certain points contained in the memo- 
rial of Van der Donck and others to their High Mightinesses.*^ 

Van der Donck, also appears to have been one of the commis* 
sioners who repaired to Holland for a redress of grievances for 
May, 13, 1652, occurs the memorial of Adriaen van der Donck to 

• A title derived from the Latin Patronmi like the French Seignior, 
b Vertoogh tometimeB meaua remonstrance, 
e Holland Doc. xvi. 191. 
d HoU. Doc. No. Ivil 360. 


the commiUec of ilie States General, stating his intended return 
to the New Netherlands.* 

Again, May 30, 1652, a second memorial from Adriaen van 
der Donck to the same body, ^' respecting various matters con- 
nected with his visit to Holland on behalf of Gemeente at New 

During the Patroon's stay in Holland, he had shipped for 
Colen Donck seven persons, four of whom had cruelly deserted 
and betrayed him. Upon this we find him again petitioning the 
Directors of the Dutch We.H India Company's department. Am- 

Remonstrates reverently, Adriaen Van der Donck, residing in New Nether- 
lands that to tbe supplteant was granted by the Director General and Com- 
pany in New Netherlands, the Saw Kill with the adjacent lands to erect there 
saw and grist mills, and clear the land for a plantation and farms as far as his 
property would permit it, which grant was chiefly obtained beeaose tin sop- 
plicant bad contributed a vast deal by bis services as mediator, to negotiate 
and conclude a peace between the director Kief\ from the one side aad the 
Indians from the other side, not without great sacrifice from his aide, aa it 
was the first part of the year when his presence was wanted at hoaie, and all 
this at his own expcnce so that he might assert without boasting that he con- 
tributed at least as much to its consolidation than any other person whatevert 
80 that at length peace was concluded when the supplicant advanced the prin- 
cipal part of the money, as the Director General was at that period not well 
provided witli it to procure seawant,* which was wanted for presents in con- 
firmation of the peace which God be praised, remains yet uninterrupted. After 
I attained this grant in the year 1616, 1 resolved to reside here, erected a saw 
mill and laid out a farm and plantation, and was actually resolved to contiooe 
on this spot, when I further with consent of the Director General, parchaaed 
a part of said land from the Indians the original proprietors, who reclaimed 
it as belonging to them, but the suppliant' observing that near the saw kill 
were valleys used as commons which by enclosure might be properly adapted 
for hay lands, so was he permitted by the Director General to purchase thesa 
valleys from the Indians, on the best possible terms. This induced the sup- 
plicant to follow his plan, having obtained as I already mentioned the consent 
and approbation of the Director General and Council, and included said ral- 

•■ Holl. Doc. xxxii. 130, iv. 
b Holl Doc. xxxvii. 141. 
> ludi&n aam« f'»r nholl money. 


leys in his purchase, as he did not possess other low lands* This valley con- 
tained about 30 or 40 morgen/ with another handsome vale bordering on said, 
on the back part of the Island of Manhattans, and stretching as far as Paprin* 
emin called by our people, in spite of the dyvel, where the supplicant was de« 
termined to fix his residence as soon as he should have finished all his con- 
cerns at the saw kill ; and which yet remains his firm determination as soon 
as he shall have returned in safety to that country, as he made every prepa* 
ration to execute his purpose, by commencing to build on that spot and culti- 
rate the soil ; so because he is delighted with that situation, as because it 
shall enable him to reap all the advantages of the aforesaid valleys, without 
which all his great expenses which he made at the saw kill, would be in vain 
and his prospects in future profits would be obscured, while all his toils and la- 
bors would have been rendered useless with respect at least to himself, and 
whereas the supplicant is informed that some greedy land speculators 
arrived in 1653, to obtain a grant of these lands in a clandestine manner ; so 
it is that the supplicant now addresses himself to your honors, with great re- 
spect that it may please them to resolve that the supplicant shall not be dis- 
possessed of these lands and valleys, by any individual under any pretext what- 
soever, by which doing &c. &c.b 

26 May, 1652, occurs an octroy, granting to Adriaen van der 
Donck, Patroon of the Colony of Colendonck, power to bequeath 
his said &ef of Colendonck. 

'* The states general of the United Netherlands, to all who shall see or 
hear these presents, send health, fie it known, that we, at the humble re- 
quest of Adriaen van der Donck of Breda, Patroon of the colony of Nepper- 
haem, called by him Colendonck, situated in New Netherlands, within the limits 
of the privileged West India company, and having taken into consideration the 
6th article of the freedom granted by the assembly of the nineteen of the aaid 
company, to all those who shall plant in New Netherlands aforesaid, have 
granted, consented and privileged, grant, consent and privilege, out of our 
sovereign will by these our letters, that he may dispose, bequeath and order 
the aforesaid, his fief named Colendonck, either by codicil by form of testa- 
ment, or last will before a notary and witnesses, superintendence within the 
property situated in the same, as or otherwise as it shall please him, to th« 
profit of his children, if he have any, or other, strangers, &o., &e.« 

* A Dutch morgen contained a little over 3 acres English, 7 morgen containing 
15 acres. 

k Alb. Rsc. vol. viii. 79. 

• Holland Doc. No. zxv. 118. 

Vol. II. 52 


About this period, the Patroon commenced the compilation of 
his celebrated book, entitled '* Beschyvinge van Nieuw Neder- 
land," or a description of New NeUierlandj the copyright of 
which bears date, 17th May, 1653.^ 

The work is dedicated " To the DlQetrioas, Most Wise sod Pradent Lords, the 
HoDorable Ruling Bargomasters of the far-famed commercial City of Am- 

Why mourn about Brazil, full of base Portuguese t 
When Van der Donck shows so far much better fiare; 
Where wheat fills golden ears, and grapes abound in trees ; 
Where fruit and kine are good with little care ; 
Men may mourn a loss, when vain would be their Toiee, 
But when their loss brings gain, they also may rejoice. 

Then, reader, if you will, go freely there to liTe, 
We name it Netherlands though this excels it far ; 
If you dislike the Toyage, pray due attention giTO, 
To Van der Donck, his book, which, as a leading star. 
Directs toward the land where many people are. 
Where lowland Love and Laws all may freely share. 

[Evert Nieuwenk&f.^ 

24th of July of the same year, we find him petitioning the Di- 
rectors of the West India company, for permission to search the 
records of the colony, and also for leave to pursue the practice of 
his profession. 

The following appears in answer to it : 

As Mr. Adriaen Tan der Donck has petitioned our college, [stating] first, 
that he has received his degree at law in the university of Leyden, and been 
admitted to practice it before the supreme court of Holland, he may be per- 
mitted to follow his profession as advocate in New Netherlands. Sndly, 
That he may examine all the records and documents in the secretary's 
office to accomplish his history of New Netherlands, which he did undertake 
to write, so is our resolution upon these points, we consent and permit hion, 
that, in conformity with the rules and customs of this country ^he may foUow 
his profession as advocate in New Netherlands, to give his advice to all who 

• HoII. Doc. No. zli. 4, No. ziii. 42, No. ziv. 43, No. zv. p. 44, No. xvi. 45, "So. 
zvii. 47. This book has been recently translated from the original Dutch, by the 
Hon. Jeremiah Johnson. See 1 vol. new series N. Y' His. Soc. 


may desire to obtain it ; but, as regards his pleading before the ooDrts* we 
cannot see that it can be admitted yet, with any adrantage to the Direoter 
and Council in New Netherlands, besides that we are ignorant of there being 
any of that stamp in your city (who nevertheless before they can be admitted, 
must apply to your honor, or directly to our department) who can act and 
plead against Van der Donck, in behalf of the other side. We trust, that in 
this, you will consult the interests of your goreroment and the welfare of 
the inhabitants. 

Si July, 1653.» 

Adriaen van der Donck married Mary, daughter of the Rev. 
Francis Doughty. Patentee of Mespath, Long Island. In con- 
sequence of the absence of all family records, we have no meant 
whereby we can determine the exact date of the Patroon's death, 
but it is reasonable to conclude from the following document, 
that it took place circa, 1654, as in it we find his lands settled 
and divided among his children. This was previous to tba 
general massacre by the Indians, A. D. 1655. 

This letter was despatched by the Director General, Peter 
Stuyvesant and council, to Holland, in a vessel called the FoXf 
coomianded by the skipper^ Jacob Jansen Hayes^ 

Honorable, prudent, wise and right respectful gents. 

AlthoQgh since our last letter* no act of hostility has been eonimitted^ yet 
those of Hartford continue tjieir threatenings, anticipates, and encroachments, 
and purchased from the savages all the land between Westchester and the 
lliTorth ri7er,b including different lots of land, which were as well under the 
administration of the Honorable Got. Kieft as ours, in the usual manner granted 
by letters patent, and in virtue of these possessed by those of our nation, as 
so among others the land of Jonas Bronek, the lands of the old Verdonck 
divided and settled by his children and associates in rarious plantations and 
farms, but who in the massacre* were absconded with many others, all 
which are situated here and bordering on our island, only divided by a small 
creek, which in some places by low water is passable, so as they to us the 

• Alb. Rec. vol. iv. 3. 

k Thos. Pell, proprietor of the manor of Pelham, was authorized by the anembly of 
Conn., to porchtse all the lands from Westchester town to the North river, of the 
Indians, 1664. Trumbuirs Conn., 373, Webster's Letters, 305. 

• The maisacre here alluded to, took place Sept. 1655, during the absence of 
Stuyvesant, when the warriors of the Algonquin tribes, mads a furioos onset upog 
the colony. See Bancroft's His. U. S„ vol. ii, 399. 


MTftges declared and solicited them to parchaae ot!ier lands to tbe emst aai 

west of the North river, dat. 20 Jane, 1064.* 

On the 12th of March, 1664, the Dutch possessions in America 
were patented to his Royal Highness James Duke of York and Al- 
bany, by his brother King Charles 11. This grant was immediately 
followed by a military and naval armament under the command 
of Colonel Richard Nicolls, which reduced the New Netherlands 
to the subjection of the English Crown, 27th August, 1664. 

One of the articles of capitulation drawn up by the commission- 
ers at the surrender, declared that '^all people shall qontinne 
free denizens, and shall enjoy their lands, houses and goodi| 
whersoever they are within this country, and dispose of theni as 
they please.** 

Sept. 21, 1666, Mary Doughty, widow of the late Adriaen 
van der Donck, and wife of Hugh O'Neale,® in right of her former 
husband, claimed "all that land upon the maine not far from 
Westchester, called the Younckers land, and brought forward 
several Indians to prove the purchase."<> 

8th October, 1666, 18th King Charles IT. Governor Nicolls 
granted the following patent to Mr. Hugh O'Neale and Mnry his 


Richard Nicolls, Esq , governor under his Royal Highness, ye Dake of 
York, of all his territoryes in America, to all to whom this present writing 
shall come, sendeth greeting : Whereas there is a certain tract of land within 
this government, upon the main, bounded to the northwards by a rivulet called 
by the Indians, Macakassin, so running southward to Nepperhaem, from thence 
to the kill Shorakkapoch, and then to Paprinimen, which is the southermoet 
bounds, then to go across the country to the eastward by that which is com- 
monly known by the name of Bronck^^s his river and land, which said tract 
hath heretofore been purchased of the Indian proprietors by Adriaen ran der 
Donck, deceased, whose relict, Mary, the wife of Hugh O^Neale, one of the 
patentees is, and due satisfaction was also given for the same, as hath by 

• Alb. Rec. vol. xviii. 257. 

h Smith's Hist, of N. Y., p. 19. 

< Hugh O'Neale, formerly of Newtown, Long Island. Assize Rec. p. 47. 

iL See Confirm, of Van der Donck*H purchasje. 


some of the said Indians been acknowledged before me : now for a further 
oonfirmatioR unto them, the said Hugh O'Neale and Mary his wife, relict of 
the aforesaid Adriaen Tan der Donck, in their possession and enjoyment of the 

Know ye, that by the virtue of this our commission and authority given 
unto me by his Royal Highness the Duke of York, I have thought fit to give, 
ratify, confirm, and grant, and by these presents do givtf, ratify, confirm, and 
grant, unto the said Hugh O^Neale and Mary his wife, their heirs and assigns, 
all the aforementioned tract or parcel of lands called Neperhaero, together 
with all woods, marshes, meadows, pastures, waters, lakes, creeks, rivuletts, 
fishing, hunting, and fowling, and all other profits, commodities and emolu* 
ments to the said tract of land belonging, with their and every of their apurte- 
nances, and of every part and parcel thereof, to have and to hold the said 
tract of land and premises, with all and singular their appurtenances, unto the 
said Hugh O^Neale and Mary his wife, their heirs and assignee, to the proper 
use and behoofe of the said Hugh O'Neale and Mary his wife, their heirs and 
assigns forever, he, she, or they, or any of them, rendering and paying such 
acknowledgment, duties, as are or shall be constituted and ordayned by his 
Royal Highness the Duke of York and his heirs, or such governor or governors 
as shall from time to time be appointed and set over them within this province. 
That, if at any time hereaAer his Royal Highness, his heirs, successors, or as- 
signes, shall think fit to make use of any timber for shipping, or for erecting or 
Impairing of forts within this government, liberty is reserved for such uses 
and purposes to cut any sort of timber upon any unplanted grounds on the 
said tract of land, to make docks, harbours, wharfes, houses, or any other 
conveniences relating thereunto,and also to make use of any rivers or rivuletts 
and inlets of water for the purposes aforesaid, as fully and free as if no such 
patent had been granted. 

Given under my hand and aieal at Fort James, New York, on the island of 

Manhattan, the eighth day of October, in the eighteenth year of the reign of 

our frovereign Lord, Charles the Second, by the grace of God, of England, 

Scotland, France, and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, 4^c., &c., in the 

year of our Lord God, 1606.^ 

Richard "Skowlb. 

I have been unable to trace the Patroon's descendants. That 
he left children has been clearly shown in the letter dispatched 
by the Fox, A. D. 1664. On the 26th August, 1666, Governor 
Stuyvesant grants a piece of land lying on the north side of 
Manhattans called Muscoota,^ to one Cornelis van der Donck 

« Book of Pat Alb. 

b Moscoota, a meadow or plain of natural gnm. The tame worjl is applied to 
the Haarlom riFer. 


This purchase lay directljr opposite to Tonckers.* A. D. 1663^ 
Gysbert van der Donck occurs, a defendant in a sait brought by 
Gulyan Jansen, a carpenter, for the recovery of damages on the 
loss of clothes sustained by plaintiff, <* which through the fault of 
defendant's father, then his master, had been stolen by the In- 
dians."^ 1653, Madame Anna van der Donck occurs as defen- 
dant in a suit, (her son Huybert van der Donck.)® 

Upon the 30th of October, 1666, Ellas Doughty purchased 
lands in this town of Hugh O'Neal and Mary his wife. The 
father of Eiias was the Rev. Franciscus Doughty. ^'This min- 
ister, Franciscus Doughty, (says his son-in-law, Tan der Donck,) 
in the time of the first troubles in England, came over in order 
to escape from them to New England, and found himself (to use 
a homely phrase,) out of the frying-pan in the fire. In order to 
be able to enjoy freedom of conscience accordiug to the Dutch 
reformation, which he certainly missed in New England, he 
betook himself under the protection of the Dutch, and an ab- 
solute patent with privileges for a colony was granted and con- 
ferred on him by the Director General." This patent consisted of 
thirteen thousand three hundred and thirty-two acres of the lands 
called Mispath, (the present Newtown on L. I.) It was.conferred 
upon him and his associates, 28th March, 1642."<i He had re- 
inforced himself now in one year with some families, but in con- 
sequence of the breaking out of the war, they were all driven 
from their lands with loss of some people, and the destruction of 
much cattle, losing for the most part all their houses and what- 
ever they possessed. After they had remained awhile, and con- 
sumed more than they could collect, they came to the Manhat- 
tans, where all the refugees resorted at the time, and Master 
Doughty was minister there.® The Rev. Franciscus Doughty 
was a member of the ancient and honorable family of the 
Doughtys or Douteys of Easher Surrey, and Boston, Lincoln- 

• Alb. Rec. ZZ7. 

b Dutch Rtc. City Clerk's Office, N. Y. 160. 

« Ibid. 279. 

d O'Callaghan*! Hiit N. N. Appendix, 436. 

• Van der Donck'e Vertooghe Tftn N. N. 



shire, England, descended from an English Saxon house of 
Dohteg, before the conquest, A. D. 1066.* 

15th May, 1677, Ellas Doughty, (son of the above) proprietor 
of the land heretofore belonging to the Younckers van der 
Doncky near Eastchester, was invested in the sole ownership by 
Hugh O'Neale and Mary his wife. 

The descendants of Elias Doughty are still numerous in the 
county of Westchester. Of this family was Francis Doughty of 
Rye, in 1766, father of John Doughty, Esq., and grandfather of 
the Hon. John Doughty. The son of the latter is the present 
General George S. Doughty of West Farms. From Elias 
Doughty, the old or lower Yonkers passed to William Bohz or 
Betts, George Tippetts,^ and Joseph Hadley. '<The name of 
the Jonckers, (says the Hon. Egbert Benson,) the proprietor of 
the creek, now Saw Mill creek, van der Eee ; and it is still to be 
collected from the documents, as not being improbable that the 
lauds granted to Tan der Donck and perhaps including the island 
of the Indian name of Papuriminon^ the southern shore at 
Kingsbridge were the neighborhood called the Lower Yonck* 
ERs, as to be distinguished from the other Yonckers, the lands 
of Yan der Kee on the Saw Mill creek.® This distinction be- 
tween (he lower Yonckers and the vpper^ or as it was sometimes 
called the little and the old Yonckers clearly points to two dif- 
ferent proprietors. The first may have been Yan der Kee, as 
Mr. Benson suggests, (although there is nothing in the shape of 
evidence to support it,) and the second Adriaen van der Donck, 
the Jonkheer or '' young gentleman.'^ 

22nd of February, 1670, Joseph Hadley sold fifty acres called 
Georges Point to Matthias Buckhout, who subsequently con- 
veyed the same, 22d January, 1694, to Frederick Philipse. 

'*Upon the 10th of October, in the eleventh year of the reign 

* GaiIIam*8 Display of Heraldry. 

b A. D. 1664, one Georjre Tippett being aeciued and foand guilty of hogg steal- 
i ng, the coart doUi adjudge the delinquent shall pay as a fine to his majeetie's asa 
the sum of j6]4, or receive ye corporal punishment of thirty one stripee, at the 
common whipping post, before ye state hoiiM of this city, upon ye braaking up of 
this court, Slc Assize Rec. Alb. 311. 

• Benson's Mem. of N. Y. 56. 


of our Sovereign Lord, William the Third, by the grace of Qod 
of England, Scotland, Phince and Ireland King, Defender of the 
Faith, d&c, and in the year of our Lord Christ, 1699, occurs the 
following indenture : 

Between Frederick Felipse of the city of New York, merchant, of the 
part, &c., and Jacobus van Cortlandt of the same city, merchant, of the other 
part, witneaseth that the said Frederick Felipae, aa well for and in conajdeim- 
tion of a certain aom of good and lawful money to him in hand paid, beibra 
the ensealing and delivery of these preaents, by the said Jaeobns ran Cort- 
landt, dec, dec, hath given, granted, bargained, and sold. eonToyedi &c., 
unto the said Jacobus van Cortlandt, hia heira and assignees for OTor, all that 
fifty acres of land with the appurtenances lying within the limits and bounds 
of the Yonckers plantation in the county of Westchester, known by the name 
of Georges Point, butted and bounded, &c., &c. Also one acre and a half of 
meadow with the appurtenances, &c, together with tweniy-five aeres more 
of upland, with their appurtenances, and the reversion and reversions and all 
the estate, right, title, claim and demand whatsoever, of him the said Frede- 
rick Felipse, of, in, or into the said premises, to have and to hold the several 
parcels of land and meadow to the said Jacobua van Cortlandt, &o., his heirs 
and assignees forever. In testimony whereof the parties to these presents 
have set their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 

This property is still vested in a descendant of Jacobus van 

13th August, 1701, we find the Indiaqs confirming the Van 
Cortlandts in their purchase. 

'* To all Christian people and others to whom these presents shall comey 
Clause Dewilt, Karacapacomont and her son Nemerau sendeth greeting: 
Know yee, that wee, the said Clause Dewilt, Karacapacomont, and Nemeran, 
native Indians and former proprietors of a certain tract of land lying in the 
county of Westchester in the province of New York in America, commonly 
called and known by the name of the old Younckers, now in possession of 
Jacobus van Cortlandt of the city of New York, merchant, and the heirs of 
the Belts and Tippetts, for and in consideration of two fathom* of doflils and 
one pound two shillings and sixpence current money of New York in hand 
paid unto us by the said Jacobus van Cortlandt, have remised, released, and 
forever quit claimed unto the said Jacobus van Cortlandt, and to the heirs of 
the Belts and Tippets, and to their heirs and aasigns forever, all our right, 
title, and interest, which we ever had, now have, or hereafter may have or 

* A Dutch fathom contained six feet English. 


chiro to the said tract of land called I he old Younckers, and to CTery part 
and parcel thereof, and du hereby acknowledge the above consideration to be 
in full of all dues and demands whatsoever, for the said tract of land and pre- 
mises, lo have and to hold the said tract of land called the old Younckers, to 
the said Jacobus van Cortlandt and the heirs of the Detts and Tippetts, their 
heires and assignees forever, witness our hands and seals the 13th of August, 

Sealed and delivered in the presence Claass Dewilf, 

of Gualter du iiois, Karacapacomont, 

William Sharpes, Nemerau. 

The Liille Yonkers in conlradislinction from the Old, nborc 
mentioned, nppenra to have been included in the sale to Elias 
Doughty of Flushing, 30 October, 1666, who granted it 29lh 
November, 1672, to Thomas Delaval, Frederick Phihpse and 
Thomcis Lewis, mariner. Thomas Del»vai,*> by a codicil of his 
hist will, bearing date June lOih, 1682, did devise unto John, his 
only son, all his interest in a full third part. 

Feb. 19, 16S4-5, Tliomas Dongan, governor of New York, by 
a patent did ratify and confirm unto John Uelavul, Frederick 
Pliilipsc and Geerije Lewis, relict of Thomas Lewis, the afore- 
said tract. 

27 August, 16S5, John Delaval sold his third part in the sam6 
to Frederick Philipse, as also Gcertje, wife of Thomas LewiSy 
Lodowick Lewis, Barent Lewis, Leonard Lewis, Katherine Lewis 
and Tfiomas Lewis, by deed conveyed each their interest ia 
third part to Frederick Philipse, 12th June, 16^6.^ 

On the 17th day of April, 1685, occurs the following agree- 
ment between Frederick Philipse, Dierchant, of New York, and 
John Pell, Esq., of Annhoock-s neck, in the county of Westches- 
ter. << It was mutually agreed and consented unto by us under- 
written, Frederick Philipse, merchant of the city of New York, 
and John Pell, Esq., of Annhoock's neck,^ihat the Bronx's river 
shall be the division between both their lands, and that, if either 
the said Frederick Philippe or the said John Pell, shall at any 

> Van Cortlnndt papers. 

k This individual was for many years alderman, and mmyor of New York city in 
• See Royal Charter of Philipaborocgli. 

YoL. II. 53 


tkae see cause to make any small dam across the said riFer, it 
shall be lawful for either party to fix the end of their dam of 
each other side, without leU or molestation."* 

Frederick Philipse. 

John Pell^ 
Frederick Phil ipse being now vested in the fee simple, the 
whole territory was by royal charter, erected into the lordship 
and manor of Philipsborougb, to be holden of the king, in free and 
common soccnge, its lord yielding, rendering, and paying therefory 
yearly and every year, on the feast day of the Annunciation of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, at the fort in New York, the auDual 
rent of £4 12^. 


William and Mary, by the grace of Gud, &c., king and queen of England* 
Scotland, France and Ireland, defenders of the faith, &c., to all to whom 
these presents shall come, greeting : whereas, the Honorable Riebard XieoDs, 
Esq., late governor of our Province of New York, &c., by a certain deed 
or patent, sealed with the seal of our said Province, bearing date the 8tb daj of 
Oct., in the year of our Lord, 16G6, pursuant to the authority in him residing* 
did giTO and grant unto Hugh O^Neale and Mary his wife, their heirs andaa* 
signs, all that tract of land upon the main, bounded to the north by a rifulet 
called by the Indians, Meccackassin, so running southward to NepperhaUy 
from thence to the kill Shorackkapock and tu Paparinnomo, which ia the 
southermost bounds, then to go across the country, eastward by that which 
is commonly known by the name of Bronx's river, together with all the 
woods, marshes, meadows, pastures, waters, lakes, creeks, rivolets, fishing* 
hunting and fowling, and all other profits, commodities and emoluments to 
said tract of land belonging, with their and every of their appurtenance, to 
have and to hold unto the said Hugh O'Neale and Mary his wife, their heiis 
and assigns forever, as by the said deed or patent, relation being thereonto 
had, may more fully and at large appear, and whereas, the said Hugh O^Neal 
and Mary his wife, by their certain deed or writ, dated 30th day of Oe(., in 
said year of our Lord, 16db, did sell, alien, assign and set over all and sin* 
gular their right and title and interest of in and to the aforenamed tract of 
land and premises, unto Elias Doughty of Flushing, in the Co. of York, on 
Long Island, unto the said Elias Doughty, his heirs and assigns forcTcr, as by 
the said deed or writing, relation being thereunto had, as may more folly and 
at large appear, and whereas, the said Elias Doughty by his certain deed or 

• Co. Rer. Uh. A. 69. 


writingf, bearing date SO day of Nor., in the year of oor Lord 1679, for tlM 
consideration therein expressed and mentioned, did assign and set over, all 
and singalar his right and title and interest, of, in and to the aforementioned 
tract of land and premises unto Thomas DeleTsI, Esq., Frederick Philips 
and Thomas Lewis, mariner, to hold to them, their heirs and assigns forever, 
as by the said deed or writing relation being thereunto had, may more fully 
and at large appear ; and whereas, the said Thomas Deleval, in and by a 
certain codicil annexed unto his last will and testament in writing, bearing 
date the 10 day of June, in the year of our Lord, 1693, amongst other things 
did devise unto John Deleval his only son, all that his interest in the afore- 
mentioned land and premises, his one full, equal and certain third thereof, 
as by the said codicil in writing, relation being thereunto had, may more fully 
and at large appear : and, whereas, the Hon. Col. Thomas Dongan, late gov. 
of our said province &c., and as by a certain deed or patent, sealed with the seal 
of oor said province, &c., and bearing date the 19th of Feb., in the year of 
our Lord, 1684-5, pursuant to the authority in him then residing, for the 
consideration therein expressed, did further grant, ratify and confirm, nnto the 
said Thomas Deleval, Frederick Philips, Geertje Lewis, relict of the said 
Thomas Lewis, due their heirs and assigns, all the aforesaid tract and parcel 
of land beginning at a small rivulet known and called by the Indians, Mak- 
akassin, from thence into the woods due east by a great rock stone and a 
lyne of marked trees, to Bronx's river, and thence by said river, four miles 
and something more, to a marked white oak tree upon the middle of a great 
ledge of rocks, whieh is the north-east corner of the land of Francis French 
& Co., in the mile square formerly sold out of the aforesaid patent, then by 
the said land, west, 85 deg. northerly, 1 mile or 80 chains from thence east 
35 deg. southerly to Bronx's river to a marked tree, which is the south-east 
comer of the mile square, excepted out of the said patent, from thence by 
Bronx's, his river, 89 chains to a marked tree, which is the north-east corner 
of Wm. Betts and George Tippets, and then by a certain lyne of marked trees 
doe west SO chains to the marked tree or south-east corner of the purchase of 
John Heddy, then due N. 34 chains, from thence due west by their purchase, 00 
chains to the north-west corner of the 300 acres, then due south 16 chains to 
the north-west corner of the 30 acres purchased of John Heddy, thence and 
by the said land west 13 chains to the north-west corner, then by the side 
of the kill, south 18 chains to the land of Wm. Betts and George Tippetts, 
from thence by a lyne of marked trees due west 70 chains, to a while oak Irea 
standing on the bank of Hudson's river, to the south of Dog-wood biDok 
10 ehainsand i and then northerly by the Hudson's river to Nepperha, which is 
near the Yonkers mills, and so continue by Hudson's river to the first men- 
tioned small rivulet, Maccakassin, the whole being bounded to the north 
with a lyne of marked trees and a great rock stone, to the east by Bronx's 
river and Che land of Francis French and Co.. to the south by the land of 
Wm. Betu, George Tippets and Thomas Heddy, to the west by Hndson*s 


river, containing in all, 7,703 aerest together with all and aingalar the inefl* 
suaget, tenements, buildings, barns, stables, orchards, gardensv paatoresy 
meadows, mills, inilUdams, runs, streams, ponds, livers, brooks, woods, onder- 
woods, trees, timber, fencing, fishing, fowling, hunting, hawking, liberties, pri* 
Tileges, hereditaments and improvements whatsoever, belonging or in any 
way appertaining, to have and to hold all the aforememioned tract and paicel 
of land, with sll and singular the albrementiuned premises, unto the said John 
Dtfleval, Frederick Philips, Geertje Lewis, their heirs aiid assigns foreTer, ss 
by the said deed or patent registered in our secretary's office of our provines 
of New York aforesaid, relation beinjr thereunto had, may more fully sod at 
large appear ; and, whereas the said Thomas IXeleval, by a certain deed of 
indenture, sealed with the seal, and bearing date the 37ih day of August, ia 
the year of our Lord, 1685, did, for the consideration therein meoiioned, granU 
bargain and sell, all that one full third part of all atid singular the said traet 
of land, afore recited, described and bounded within the limits aforesaid 
unto him the said Frederick Philips one of the parties aforesaid, tugeiher 
with all that one full and equal third part of all and singular the houses 
cut-houses, barns, stables, mills, mill-dams, buildings, fences and edi- 
fices thereon erected and built, and likewise one full third part of sU and 
singulir the waters, water-courses, streams, woods, ^underwuod4, fishing, 
fuwhn?, hawking, hunting, hereditaments and appurtenances to the same be- 
longing, or in any way appertaining, to have and U> hold unto the said Fred- 
erick Philipse, his heirs and assigns forever, as by the said deed or indenture, 
relation being thereunto had, may more fully and at large appear ; and where- 
as, the said Geertje Lewis, executrix of the last will and lestameut of 
Thomas Lewis, late of New York, mariner, her late husband, deceased, 
and Lodivick Lewis, Barrent Levvid, Leonard Lewis, Katharine Lewis and 
Thomas Lewis the children and co-heirs of said Thomas Lewis and 
Geerije his wife, by a certain deed of indenture, sealed with the seal 
bearing date the 12 day of June, in the year of our Lord 1686, did, 
for the consideration therein mentioned, grant, bargain and sell, all that 
the full one- third part of all and singular the said tract of land afure- 
recited, described and bounded with the liiiiiis aforesaid, unto him, the said 
Frederick Philips, one of the parties aforesaid, together with all that one 
full and equal third part of all and singular the houses, out-houses, barns, 
stables, mills, mill-dams, buildings, fences and edifices thereon erected and 
built, and likewise one full third part of all and singular the water, waier-courses, 
streams, woods, underwoods, fishing, fiiwling, hunting, hawking, hereditaments 
and appurtenances to the same belonging or in any wise appertaining, to haTe 
and to hold unto the said Frederick Philips, his heirs and assigns forever, as 
bv the said deed or indenture, relation being thereunto had, may more fully 
and at large appear, and whereas, the Hon. Sir Edmund Andntss, late go- 
vernor of our said province of New York, &c., by a certain writing or pat» 
ent, sealed with the seal of our said province, bearing date the first day of 
April, in the year of our Lord, 1680, pursuant to the authority in him then 


residing, did give and grant unto the eaid Frederick Philips, a certain traet 
or parcel of land, beginning at a creek or river called by the Indians, Pocan- 
teco or Wackaiideco, wiili iiuw«:r thereon to set a mill ur mills, with a due 
portioo of land on each aide, adjoining unto the said river, lying within the 
bounds of the Indians land at Wickers creek, on the east side of ihe Hud- 
son riverr which said Indian land, was by the said Frederick Philips par- 
chased from the said native Indian proprietors thereof, by the licence and ap- 
probation of the said Sir Kdmund Andross and the said Indian proprietors did, 
in the presence of Sir Edmund Andross aforesaid, acknowledge to hive re- 
ceived foil satisfaction of him the said Frederick Philips fur the said land ad- 
joining, to each syde of the creek or river aforesaid, which said land issitnate, 
lying and being on each side of the said creek or river, north and south 1600 
Ireads or steps which at Id ft to the rod, makes 400 rod and runs up into the 
country so far as the said creek or river goeth, with this proviso or restriction 
that if the creek or river called by the Indians, Nippiorha, and by the charters 
Yonkers creek or kill shall come within the space of land of 400 rods on the 
tooth side of the aforenamed creek or riv^r, that shall extend no farther than the 
said creek or river of Nippiroha, but the rest to be so far up into the country 
on each side of the said creek or river called Pocanteco as it runs, being about 
oorth-east, to have and to hold all the aforesaid recited tract or parcel of land 
onto him the said Frederick Philips, his heirs and assigns forever, as by the 
said grant or patent registered in our secretary's office of our province of 
New York, &c., aforesaid, relation being thereunto had may more fully and 
at large appear, and whereas the Honorable Thomas Dongun late gov. of oor 
province of New York, &c., aforesaid, by virtue of the pt>wer in him then 
residing hath, by another grant or patent sealed with the seal of our said pro- 
v*flee of New York, and registered in our secretary's office of our province 
aforesaid, bearing date ;23d of September, m the year of our Lord 1084, given 
granted, ratified, and confirmed, unto said Frederick Philips, his heirs tnd 
assigns, several tracts and parcels of land with the limits nnd bounds hereafter 
mentioned, that were according to the usage, custom, and laws of oor said 
province purchased by the said Frederick Philips from the native Indians and 
proprietors, in manner and form following, (that is to say,) all those certain 
parcels and pieces of land lying about the Wigquaskeek thst was on the 24tb 
day of October, in the year of our Lord, 1680, purchased by the said Freder- 
ick Philips of the Indian Goharins, brother (»f Weskora, sachem of Wigquas- 
keek, for himself and by the full order of Goharios, which certain parcel or 
parcels of land are lying about Wigquaskeek to the north syde and tending 
from the land of the aforesaid Frederick Philips running along the North river 
to the north of the small ereek called by ihe Indians Sepackena creek, as far 
as it goeth into the woods, and ooming to the end of the aforesaid creek, then 
shall the aforesaid pieces or parcels of land havo their lyne north-east, or if 
the creek Pocanteco Wackandeeo upon which at present stands the mills of 
the said Frederick Philips, shall run npon a north-east lyne, then the said 
land shall run along the said ereek Pocanteco, or Weghkandeco, into the 


woods as the said creek or kill shall go, mod there shall be the end or 
bounds of the said certain pieces of ]and, as by the said writing or Indian deed, 
relation being thereunto had may more fully and at large appemr, as likewise 
another tract or parcel of land on the east side of Hudson^s river that was by 
said Frederick Philips purchased of the Indians Gobarius, Gobus, and Tog- 
quanduck, on the 33d day of April, in the year of oor Lord, 1681, which tract 
or parcel of land being situate on the east side of the North or Hudson** rirer, 
beginning at the south side of a creek called Bissigktick, and so ranging along 
the said river northerly to the aforesaid land of the aforesaid Frederick PhiU 
ips, and then alonget the said land north»east and by east nntill it comes to and 
meets with the creek called Nippiorha, if the said creek shall fall within that 
lyne, otherwise to extend no further than the head of the ereek or kill called 
Potanteco, or Puegkanteko, and southerly alongst the said river Neppioriia 
if the same shall fall within the said line as aforesaid, or else in a direct lyne 
from the head of the said creek or kill called Pocanteco Puegkandieo, antOl 
it comes opposite to the said first mentioned creek called Bissightiek, and 
from thence westwardly to the head of the said creek and alongst the same to 
the North or Hudson^s river, being the first station, as by the said vnritiog os 
deed, relation beipg thereunto had, may more fully and at large appear, as 
also another certain tract or parcel of land on the east syde of the said Hod- 
son^s river that was by the said Frederick Philips purchased of the native 
Indians Armaghqueer, Seapham alias Thapham, on the 8th day of April, in 
the year of our Lord 1682, which certain tract or parcel of land is sttnate, 
lying, and being on the east side of the North or Hudson^s river to the snnih 
of the land formerly bought by the said Frederick Philips of the said Indians, 
beginning at the south side of a creek called Bissightiok, and so ranging along 
t\ie said river southerly to a creek or fall called by the Indians Weghqoegeik, 
and by the Christians Lawrences'fl plantation, and from the mouth of the said 
creek or fall upon a due east course to a creek called by the Indians Nippiorha, 
and by the Christians the Yonkers kill, and from thence alongst the west side 
of the said creek or kill as the same runs to the before mentioned land, for- 
merly bought by the said Frederick Philips of the sayd Indians, and so